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SIR ISAAC NEWTON S DANIEL AND 
THE APOCALYPSE 



SIR ISAAC NEWTON S 

DANIEL AND 
THE APOCALYPSE 

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY STUDY 

OF THE NATURE AND THE CAUSE 

OF UNBELIEF, OF MIRACLES AND 

PROPHECY 



BY SIR WILLIAM WHITLA 

M.P., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D. 

EMERITUS PROFESSOR QUEEN S UNIVERSITY, BELFAST 
HON. M.A., M.D., LL.D., AND D.SC. 



LONDON 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 

1922 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN* 



TO 

WILLIAM BRAMWELL BOOTH 

GENERAL OF THE SALVATION ARMY 

WHO WITH HIS ILLUSTRIOUS FATHER 

HAS ACCOMPLISHED SO MUCH 

AMONG THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD 

TOWARDS THE HASTENING OF THE 

COMING OF THE KINGDOM 
PREDICTED IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY AND REVERENTLY 
DEDICATED 



FOREWORD 

" AMONG these are certainly some rather dry and unattractive 
questions, in respect of which we must arm ourselves with pa 
tience ; but they are all of the greatest practical importance. 
You meet a thousand times in life with those who, in dealing 
with any religious question, make at once their appeal to 
reason, and insist on forthwith rejecting aught that lies beyond 
its sphere, without however, being able to render any clear 
account of the nature and proper limits of the knowledge thus 
derived, or of the relation in which such knowledge stands to 
the religious needs of man. 

" I would invite you, therefore, to inquire seriously whether 
such persons are not really bowing down before an idol of the 
mind, which, while itself of very questionable worth, demands 
as much implicit faith from its worshippers as divine revelation 
itself." 

THEODORE CHIUSTLIEB, D.D. 



Vll 



PREFACE 

IT had been the intention of the author of the following 
lectures to issue a reprint of the forgotten classic of 
the great astronomer and philosopher, Sir Isaac Newton, 
entitled Observations upon the Prophecies oj Daniel and the 
Apocalypse of St. John, published in 1733. 

The great astronomer died in 1727, having left the work 
in manuscript. It was printed in London as a small 
quarto. (It was included in Horsley s Collection 1779). 

A very considerable amount of its letterpress was in 
Latin, consisting of the quotations from the Edicts of the 
Emperors, and the Bulls of the Popes, as well as extracts 
from the early Fathers of the Christian Church, historians 
and Church Councils. 

Though it was very desirable that the reprint should be 
presented as an exact facsimile of the original volume, 
upon serious consideration it appeared necessary to have 
the Latin text translated into English, otherwise these 
portions of the book would have been intelligible only to 
scholars. It is needless to say that this decision was arrived 
at with regret, and only after balancing the arguments 
in favour of an exact facsimile which would be more 
acceptable to scholars and book-lovers with the advantages 
which ranged themselves on the side of practical usefulness. 
Accordingly, the translation of the Latin portions has been 
entrusted to Mr. W. H. Semple, B.A., assistant to the 
Professor of Greek at Queen s University, Belfast. 

Otherwise the reprint is an exact reproduction save for 
the substitution of modern type and the omission of the 
old Ps. The frequent use of italics throughout the pages 
is in accordance with the MSS. of Sir Isaac Newton. 

ix 



x PREFACE 

In these days of highly expensive printing, another 
difficulty was encountered ; if the book was to reach any 
considerable number of readers, its price must be made as 
moderate as possible. This obstacle is met by the issue 
of the present volume at a price not above the cost of 
publication. 

A word of explanation is necessary regarding the origin 
of the introductory portion of the book. A few months 
ago the writer was earnestly requested to deliver an address 
on the book of Daniel to the members of the church to 
which he belongs by their minister. After considerable 
hesitation he assented, but on sitting down to think over 
such an address, its execution became an evident impossi 
bility ; to say anything intelligible or helpful to an audience 
of laymen within the compass of a single communication 
or speech about the prophecies in the book was not possible 
without an attempt to clear away the doubts and mists of 
unbelief with which the Higher Critics had succeeded 
in enveloping this sacred record. The solitary address 
gradually lengthened itself into a series of five lectures, 
and still left the undertaking far from completion. 

The lectures are printed verbatim, as they were delivered ; 
they are not to be taken in any sense as an attempted com 
mentary or series of explanatory notes on the work of the 
illustrious philosopher. Such a presumption never once 
entered into their author s mind, and he hopes it will 
not seem an absurdity or folly that his more or less crude 
reflections should be placed inside the same cover in 
proximity with the august and scholarly researches in 
this two-hundred-year-old gem of Biblical literature. 

His only excuse or apology might be stated to lie in 
the fact that, when this antique volume was written, the 
destructive German critic had not appeared above the 
horizon. If a devout student of the present time should 
succeed in arriving at a clear understanding of the truths 
entombed in the book of Daniel he would soon meet some 
confident mentor who would be certain to assure him that 
all his labour was folly, as the scholars had proved the book 



PREFACE xi 

to be a forgery, and the higher critics had long since entirely 
demolished its authenticity. 

These lectures are an attempt to make clear the unreality 
of the modern criticism, and to leave open the study 
of the book of Daniel as it was when Newton in strong 
and childlike faith lent his mighty intellect to the study 
of this fascinating record. 

Should the introductory portion of this volume prove 
an entire failure, there is left to the author the solid conso 
lation that he has been highly privileged in his Master s 
service by being permitted to restore to the Biblical student 
Sir Isaac Newton s valuable contribution to the study of the 
Babylonian prophet. 

WILLIAM WHITLA. 

LENNOXVALE, BELFAST. 
March 1922. 



CONTENTS 

PART I 

INTRODUCTION TO SIR ISAAC NEWTON S 
DANIEL AND THE APOCALYPSE 

CHAPTER I 

SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

Spiritualism, Rationalism The Supernatural, natural laws, miracles 
Views of scientific men Dallinger on the harmony of miracle and science 
Vegetable life a miracle Christianity rests on a miracle Evolution 
Theory and the Genesis record Einstein Theory Ether and God 

pp. 3-17 

CHAPTER II 

THE HIGHER CRITICISM IN RELATION TO UNBELIEF 

Two types of Higher Criticism : the English and German Textual criti 
cism most valuable A warning The Shakespearean theories The Higher 
German Criticism The result not the cause of unbelief Cheyne and 
Driver and Farrar Failure of the Higher Criticism, and Emil Reich s 
verdict . . . . . . . . . pp. 18-25 

CHAPTER III 

THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

Unbelief very often unconsciously assumed Study of the commonest 
type of infidel or rationalist The five special senses: abnormalities of 
these; colour-blindness and music-deafness Theologians views of faith 
Belief, or faith, a sixth special sense Analogies with the other composite 
senses Atheist as a God-blind or God-deaf person with imperfectly 
developed brain-centre for belief faculty Responsibility Inspiration, 
Prophecy, miracle, prayer (wireless telegraphy) considered from this 
point of view ........ pp. 26-44 

xiii 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV 

PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

Nature and function of prophecy, not mere foretelling Classification : 
Fulfilled and unfulfilled predictions Vital importance of a knowledge 
of the former group Prophecy-mongering Higher Criticism views 
Date of the older books Lost book of the Law a forgery Debt to the 
Hebrew race . . . * . . . . pp. 46-66 

CHAPTER V 

THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

Modernist views Symbolic Prophecy Messianic prophecies to be studied 
as a complete picture and not piecemeal Necessity for cryptic language 
List beginning in Paradise Events from birth of Christ till the Ascension 
foretold Genealogy of Matthew and Luke contrasted Passion, Cruci 
fixion, Burial predictions Psalm xxii. analysed Summary of fulfilment 

pp. 57-69 

CHAPTER VI 

THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 

Sketch of period Gap between Old and New Testament history Antio- 
chus Epiphanes Testimony of Ezekiel Pseudepigrapha Testimony of 
Christ on the authenticity of the book .... pp. 70-77 

CHAPTER VII 

DANIEL AND THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 

Testimony of Josephus and of the writer of Esdras The Great Synagogue 
The Hagiographa Evidences of date from Maccabees, Baruch, Sirach 
and other Apocryphal books Josephus and Alexander the Great Evolu 
tionary theory of the Modernists ..... pp. 7886 

CHAPTER VIII 

ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

German critics and the authorship and date of Daniel Surrender of 
Jehoiakim Identity of Balshazzar proven by monumental evidence 
Darius the Mede and the tablet of Cyrus Ezra, chap. v. Objections 
based on philology disproven Doctrine of Angels . . pp. 86-94 



CONTENTS xv 

CHAPTER IX 

THE PROPHECIES IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

Nebuchadnezzar s dream The Kingdom of Christ The vision of the 
four beasts The little horn of the fourth (Roman) beast Identification 
of this with the Papacy Kingdom of Christ again foretold Time and 
times and half a time Revelation xiii. The prophetic " year" Vision 
of ram and he-goat The little horn of the Greek goat The prophetic 
time in the last verses of the book Vision of the tenth chapter Alex 
ander s generals Other prophecies in this chapter . . pp. 95-116 

CHAPTER X 

THE PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

Daniel s prayer and the period of the Desolations This prophecy the 
Keystone of Christianity Isaac Newton s view of the starting-point 
The Second Advent The 62 weeks of verse 26 The four decrees of 
the Persian Emperors Sixty-nine weeks fulfilled to the day in the pro 
clamation of the Messiah The different messiahs of the German critics : 
Cyrus, Zerubbabel, Onias and Seleucus Philopater The Seventieth Week 
still unfulfilled pp. 117-128 



PART II 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE PROPHECIES OF 
DANIEL AND THE APOCALYPSE OF SAINT 
JOHN 

PART I 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE PROPHECIES OF 

DANIEL 

CHAPTER I 

Introduction concerning the Compilers of the Books of the Old Testa 
ment . . . . . . . . .pp. 139-148 

CHAPTER II 

Of the Prophetic Language . 4 . . pp 149-153 



xvi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER III 

Of the vision of the Image composed of four Metals . pp. 164-156 

CHAPTER IV 

Of the vision of the four Beasts . . . . pp. 157-169 

CHAPTER V 

Of the Kingdoms represented by the feet of the Image composed of iron 
and clay pp. 160-169 

CHAPTER VI 

Of the ten Kingdoms represented by the ten horns of the fourth Beast 

pp. 170-187 

CHAPTER VII 

Of the eleventh horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast . . pp. 188-197 

CHAPTER VIII 

Of the power of the eleventh horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast, to change 
times and laws .... . . pp. 198-216 

CHAPTER IX 

Of the Kingdoms represented in DANIEL by the Ram and He-Goat 

pp. 217-224 

CHAPTER X 

Of the Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks .... pp. 225-234 

CHAPTER XI 

Of the Times of the Birth and Passion of Christ . . pp. 235-250 

CHAPTER XII 

Of the Prophecy of the Scripture of Truth . . . pp. 251-266 



CONTENTS xvii 



CHAPTER XIII 

Of the King who did according to his will, and magnified himself above 
every God, and honoured MAHUZZIMS, and regarded not the desire of 
women pp. 267-272 



CHAPTER XIV 

Of the MAHUZZIMS, honoured by the King who doth according to his will 

pp. 273-291 



PART II 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE APOCALYPSE 
OF ST. JOHN 



CHAPTER I 

Introduction, concerning the time when the APOCALYPSE was written 

pp. 295-307 

CHAPTER II 

Of the relation which the APOCALYPSE of JOHN hath to the Book of the 
Laws of MOSES, and to the worship of God in the Temple . pp, 308-321 



CHAPTER III 

Of the relation which the Prophecy of JOHN hath to those of DANIEL ; 
and of the Subject of the Prophecy . . . .pp. 322-342 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The last pages of these observations having been differently drawn up 
by the author in another copy of his work ; they are here inserted as they 
follow in that copy, after the 37th line of the 312th page foregoing. 

pp. 343-351 

INDEX pp. 353-356 

2 



PART I 

INTRODUCTION TO SIR ISAAC NEWTON S 

DANIEL AND THE APOCALYPSE 

BY SIR WILLIAM WHITLA 



CHAPTER I 

SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

AT no period in the history of Christianity since Pentecostal 
days has there been such a widespread spirit of unbelief 
as exists at the present time. In passing, let me remind 
you that this has been foretold as an unmistakable sign 
of the " latter days " which are to terminate the present 
dispensation. Alongside of this unbelief there has arisen, 
because of the late war and its aftermath of unrest and 
sorrow, an earnest desire upon the part of many thoughtful 
people to look more deeply into the problems of life and 
of the hereafter. It is perhaps true to say that at no period 
in the history of the human race has there been manifested 
a more intense longing to pierce the veil which divides us 
from the spirit-land, and to catch a glimpse if happily 
we may find it into the future destiny of the world on which 
we live. 

We see these longing desires manifested in the remarkable 
activity in thought and in research directed to the domains 
of Spiritualism and Prophecy. In the present stage of our 
knowledge, or rather of our ignorance, both of these are 
commonly regarded as belonging to the sphere of the super 
natural. Though it is with the domain of Prophecy 
that the following pages have to deal, a brief word may be 
permitted in passing on the present position of the so- 
called science of Spiritualism. The current literature of 
the day is teeming with reports some of which are emanating 
from men eminent in science and literature about researches 
and investigations in the realm of the spirit world. A 
much larger proportion of these however owe their origin 

3 



4 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

to untrained and unscientific minds which are bringing 
the entire subject into ridicule and even obloquy, just as 
the past and present prophecy-mongers have brought 
derision upon those devout scholars who have attempted to 
illuminate the field of unfulfilled prophecy. 

Upon the whole the results of experimental research 
in the spirit sphere must be regarded at the present stage 
of investigation as disappointing, a careful sifting out of 
the facts already discovered when separated from the mass 
of theories and assumptions regarding thought-reading, 
thought-transference, telepathy, suggestion and other 
functions of the subconscious mind should compel the 
searcher after truth to adopt the attitude of "an open 
mind " till conclusive proof of communication with the 
spirits who have passed over has been demonstrated. 
This cannot be said to have been proven by the results 
so far achieved. 

If we can ever hope to arrive at the final haven of truth 
it can only be by steering straight between the whirlpools 
of credulity and scepticism ; it is difficult to estimate 
which is the more formidable peril a gross state of super 
stition which greedily accepts every marvel or a self- 
satisfied rationalism which scornfully rejects every fact 
and problem not susceptible of solution by the unaided 
reason. We shall deal at length with these mental pecu 
liarities or configurations later on. Our present purpose 
is to deal with that form of unbelief which tends towards 
the rejection of Divine inspiration as revealed in the Scrip 
tures of the Old and New Testaments. 

The most disquieting fact however lies not in the mere 
increase in the number of unbelievers. The position of 
to-day as contrasted with that of a quarter or half a 
century ago consists in the fact that the moral leprosy 
has eaten into the very heart of the Church itself. As we 
shall see, the spread of unbelief amongst the multitude 
who seldom attend the service of any church is more 
apparent than real. We constantly hear the anointed 
ambassadors of Christ unblushingly deny the inspiration 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 5 

of the Bible, the possibility of prophecy and miracle, and 
the divinity of our crucified and risen Saviour. 

There is however one gleam of comfort to my auditors, 
in the deep gloom surrounding the political situation in 
our beloved island when we deplore such falling off. 
I am convinced that the Protestant Churches in Ireland 
are still cherishing, and as they never cherished before, 
their strong faith in God and in His revealed will. Doubt 
less our advanced brethren in England pity us as being 
quite behind the times in this respect. God grant that we 
ever shall remain so, without any haze of Modernism or 
cloud of Rationalism to weaken our vision of His radiant 
presence. 

Time does not permit me to enter into an elaborate 
analysis of the degrees or varieties of unbelief scepti 
cism, atheism, pantheism, deism, agnosticism, materialism, 
rationalism, etc. The parent of all these is rationalism, 
and it may in a general sense be made to stand for them 
all. As commonly defined : 

Rationalism is a system which makes reason supreme 
in all matters oj religion. Rejecting revelation, it attempts to 
derive all truth jrom mere human reason. 

To make our subject as simple as possible, it will suffice 
to confine our attention to a still shorter definition : 

Rationalism or Unbeliej denies the possibility oj the Super 
natural. 

This brief sentence brings the conception of the nature 
of unbelief within the compass of a nut-shell. Put out of 
your thoughts the numerous confusing and conflicting 
" isms " and grasp the simple truth that the absence of 
faith, or unbelief, for all practical purposes simply means 
inability or incapacity to accept the supernatural, and in 
its most advanced form means inability to accept the 
existence of a personal God and of His Son, Jesus Christ, 
made manifest in the flesh. 

We must next consider what is meant by the word 
" supernatural." H is something which is beyond or above 
the established course or laws oj nature. 



6 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

Perhaps no scientific man of the present day would 
venture to affirm that he thoroughly understands or knows 
all that may ultimately be expected to be known about 
any single law of nature. Some event, appearance, or 
phenomenon which our reasoning powers fail to explain 
as being the result of the operation of any known natural 
law is regarded as supernatural. Science discovers the 
unknown and mysterious law to-morrow and the " marvel " 
is relegated properly to the domain of the natural, and can 
be reproduced and repeated at the will of the discoverer. 
This is observed in the development of the new popular 
science wrongly called " Spiritualism." Many of the 
phenomena about whose reality there cannot be a shadow 
of doubt are obviously the result of the operation of some 
natural law or laws of which we at present know absolutely 
nothing. For example, a chair, table, or other piece of 
furniture is seen suspended in mid -air, without any visi 
ble aid, in opposition to the law of gravitation. In this 
position it is photographed by an honest photographer. 
The votaries of spiritualism affirm that the material object 
is raised and supported in space by the aid of departed 
spirits. Just as reasonably might they maintain that the 
suspension or so-called levitation was due to the pattern 
of the wall-paper of the room in which the experiment 
was conducted. 

You tell the pedantic rationalist of this marvel ; he denies 
it ; he confidently affirms no such thing ever happened, or 
ever can happen. You show him the photograph ; he 
scornfully glances at it and replies with a sneer that it is 
" faked," the story is a lie, a fraud, or a mere delusion, like 
the appearance of the angelic host at Mons or the presence 
of the Angel at Euston Railway Station as reported a few 
months ago. I wish you to notice that this is the exact 
attitude of the rationalistic unbeliever with regard to 
miracles. He denies the possibility of such a phenomenon, 
simply because his reason fails to explain how it was brought 
about, and he almost feels himself to be worthy of being 
regarded as a man of science by denying it. Before viewing 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 7 

the subject of miracles, in the searching light of true and 
most advanced science, permit me to quote the powerful 
pronouncement of an able and scholarly divine, the Rev. 
A. H. T. Clarke, in The Nineteenth Century, January 1921 : 
" The miraculous means the impinging of what we call 
the Supernatural order upon the so-called Natural order. 
In theory we may say that in the Supernatural order God 
acts directly, in the Natural indirectly. But what after 
all is the so-called Natural order ? It is no more than the 
few sequences of phenomena we are able with our local 
instruments to observe and classify. A miracle according 
to Hume s ingenious sneer is contrary to human experience. 
And if it were not, it would cease to be a miracle. If so, 
then before the microscope was invented we must have 
disbelieved in the animalculae that inhabit our bodies, or 
before Newton was born we must have denied gravitation, 
or, before Huxley had grown old, the fact of radium ! 
And there are still some who deny such modern discoveries 
of psychic research as the fact of levitation. With 
St. John, miracles are no isolated wonder. They are 
natural radiations from the personal magnetism of the 
eternal Son, displaying not casual proof of superhuman 
power, but visible flashes of that really abiding deathless 
world which was His home. And how could such a person 
come into our world as the universal Church bears witness 
that He did and display the perfect freedom of His own 
perfect will without (to us miraculously) disturbing the 
orderly sequence of His own creation ? If miracles did 
not happen, then He never dwelt amongst us and His 
Church is built either upon a pleasant dream or a deliberate 
lie when it proclaimed Him, in the words of Anselm, Aut 
Deus aut non bonus. On this ground of the miraculous 
so confidently denied by some modernist Bishops, and 
some modernist Deans, as true representatives of the 
modern logic-ridden mind the Church of the Future 
must be prepared to give battle, or go down to the dust- 
heaps of a benighted superstition." 
Let us now look at the subject of miracles from the 



8 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

standpoint of the scientist who still retains his belief 
in a personal God, for we must not lose our sense of pro 
portion ; because hostile critics glibly quote scientific 
statements which often they do not understand, this is 
no reason why one should think that revealed religion and 
science are antagonistic, or opposed to each other. On 
the contrary, many of the greatest men of science that the 
world has ever known were men with the strongest faith 
in God and the most devout believers in the inspiration of 
the Bible. It is generally, indeed, nearly always, the man 
with a superficial acquaintance with the laws and facts 
of science who holds forth loudly against belief. In no 
other sphere or domain of knowledge is the truism so appli 
cable 

A little learning is a dangerous thing; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring; 
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
And drinking largely sobers us again. 

Bacon, who is often called the Father of Science, said the 
same thing and applied it to the influence of a knowledge 
of science upon the conception of God : " A little philosophy 
inclineth a man s mind to atheism, but depth in philosophy 
bringeth men s minds about to religion." One hundred 
years later we find the greatest human intellect, possibly, 
with the exception of that of Shakespeare Sir Isaac 
Newton devoutly unfolding the secrets of Daniel s mys 
terious prophecies and visions with a simple childlike faith 
that has never been excelled. I shall have the privilege 
at a subsequent lecture of surprising you with some of his 
discoveries in the domain of interpretation as handed 
down to us in the forgotten English classic written by 
our greatest astronomer and scientist. 

It was a joy in my own life to have possessed the sacred 
friendship of one of the most original of our medical 
scientific pioneers. In the earlier years of our intercourse 
I can recall his attempts in solemn or serious conversation 
to explain the miracles by the application of the ordinarily 
accepted methods of obtaining results by man s ingenuity 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 9 

in employing natural laws. For example, he Sir Lauder 
Brunton was quite convinced that Joshua, the son of 
Nun, was an expert sapper and miner who mined the foun 
dations of the walls of Jericho before submitting them to 
the powerful trumpet-blasts and the loud rhythmic shouts 
of the myriads of fighting men. As my friend grew older 
and his scientific researches led him more deeply into the 
secrets of nature and nearer to the heart of the great 
Creator he found complete rest by accepting the divine 
record without reservation. It was my great privilege 
to be with him towards the end of his saintly and pure life, 
and I almost felt that it would not have been an incon 
ceivable thing for a chariot of flame to have carried him 
home in triumph. Some of us are old enough to remember 
the tempest of indignation which was aroused in our Belfast 
religious world by the Presidential Address of Professor 
Tyndall when the British Association visited our city in 
the early seventies of last century. It was banned as 
subversive of all faith in God and the author was held up 
as infidelity and atheism incarnate in most of our churches, 
and we still occasionally hear his name paraded by rational 
ists as one of the champions of unbelief. Many years 
afterwards when he revisited Belfast he was suffering from 
an incurable form of insomnia or sleeplessness. I was 
introduced to him by his kind host as a physician who 
might be able to afford him some relief. He was profoundly 
depressed, and shaking his head despairingly he replied 
by stating his malady was beyond the range of art ; but 
suddenly looking up intently he exclaimed : " Yes, you 
can do me some good ; if you are a religious man you can 
pray for me." In after-years, as I got to know him more 
intimately, I am convinced that he spoke from deep con 
viction. A friend of his early days has related to me that 
on one occasion, after many conversations with Professor 
Tyndall on the subject of religion, he said to him seriously, 
" Ah, my friend, you have got something which I don t 
possess." There was a deep meaning in this expression, 
if you recall it to memory after our next lecture. I 



10 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

mention these incidents which may seem trivial because 
public utterances of the man of science should not be 
accepted without a study of their context, when they refer 
to matters of faith ; often they are but a protest against 
some ignorant credulity or superstition, which is itself 
always an injury to true belief. We may well wish that 
many of our religious teachers were as true in their belief 
as was the greatest popular exponent of science of the last 
century. 

I should weary you by the mere enumeration of men of 
science who were at the same time men of strong religious 
faith. We are sitting almost within sight of the statue 
erected to the memory of the illustrious Lord Kelvin, who 
was a devout believer and student of the sacred oracles, 
and anyone who had heard his opening prayer at the com 
mencement of his daily lecture in the University of Glasgow 
could never doubt his sincerity. I was recently struck 
by a remarkable utterance of Herbert Spencer made in his 
later years. We hear his views quoted like those of Tyndall 
in support of unbelief. He says : " Thus I have come more 
and more to look calmly on forms of religious belief to 
which I had in earlier years a pronounced aversion." 
Professor Arthur Thomson, one of our greatest authorities 
in Natural Science and an exponent of Darwinism and 
Evolution, stated recently: "Nor can it be said that science 
engenders an irreverent spirit ; the biographies of all the 
greatest scientific investigators show the reverse. The 
irreverent and the unwondering are to be found amongst 
those who know least, not among those who know most." 
When we realize the high position of this authority in the 
world of science, we are justified in stating that this is 
the most convincing pronouncement ever made on behalf 
of science harmonizing with belief and religion. The 
unbeliever of the type mentioned, i.e. one of " those who 
know least," boasts that he cannot understand and there 
fore does not believe his Bible. He exclaims, " I reject it : 
I worship what I can and do understand. My God is 
Science." Let such a one listen to what Lord Kelvin said 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 11 

in his advanced age : " One word characterizes the most 
strenuous of the efforts for the advancement of science 
that I have made perseveringly during fifty-five years ; 
that word is * failure. I know no more of electric and mag 
netic force or of the relation between ether, electricity, and 
ponderable matter than I knew when I tried to teach my 
students fifty years ago, in my first session as Professor." 

As far as I can remember in recent years, the Methodist 
X^hurch could boast of only one distinguished man of science. 
He was however unique inasmuch as, whilst a minister 
of the Gospel, he occupied the high position of President 
of the London Microscopic Society. Dr. Dallinger was the 
first exponent of science to place in its proper light the 
relationship of the miracles recorded in the Bible with the 
principles of the laws of advanced science. 

It is with the miracles of the Bible that the man who 
has got a smattering of science has the bitterest quarrel. 

The common definition of a miracle is that it is something 
caused by a suspension, alteration, or reversal of the laws 
of nature. Such a definition could never be accepted by the 
scientific mind. The laws of nature can never change. 
It was Dallinger who altered this old conception of a 
miracle and smoothed away all difficulties and obstacles 
which had hitherto stood in the way of a recognition of 
the possibility of the fact of a miracle being accepted 
by science. The true scientist now looks at this matter in 
a totally different light. He is daily investigating and 
experimenting with these laws of nature, testing and weigh 
ing them. He has learned that they were first called into 
being by some almighty Power for a beneficent object. 
What so natural to realize, what so obviously true, as that 
the great Creator of these laws can in a moment at His 
will control or so direct their operation as to produce any 
result which He requires ? 

Thus in Dallinger s view no miracle was ever performed 
by any change, suspension, or reversal of a natural law. 
Its accomplishment was always effected in full accordance 
with the operation of nature s laws divinely guided by 



12 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

their Author and Creator for some special purpose or 
emergency. 

One might safely go further and reverently affirm that 
should any scientist discover, understand, and make him 
self master of these laws he would be able to reproduce 
many of the miracles chronicled in the sacred record. 
It is impossible however to conceive that he could ever 
hope in his wildest dreams to attempt to perform the com 
monest of all miracles prophecy. 

There is therefore nothing whatever to be said by science 
antagonistic to the possibility of miracles as the word 
is now understood. Nay, more, I believe that it is probable, 
if a miracle had never been performed on earth, and if the 
speculative question had been raised in an assembly of 
scientific men, " Is such a thing possible ? " the men of 
science would have answered in the affirmative. 

To the unbeliever well might we exclaim, Oh, foolish 
man, what is bewitching you ? You reject the Divine 
record of every miracle which cannot be explained by 
your own limited reasoning powers whilst every day before 
your eyes the little grain of wheat on being cast into the 
ground springs up into a plant bearing a hundredfold ; 
or the acorn drops upon the sod and there arises the stately 
oak of the forest. Truly you strain at the gnat and you 
swallow the camel. 

Do you look for the solution of the mystery in some 
generating influence in the seasons, or in some chemical 
action in the soil ? You can get your answer to the first 
question from the poet Thomson, who addresses the 
Seasons thus : 

These, as they change, Almighty Father, these 
Are but the varied God. The rolling year 
Is full of Thee. Forth in the pleasing spring 
Thy beauty walks, Thy tenderness and love. 
Wide flush the fields ; the softening air is balm. 
Then comes Thy glory in the summer months 
With light and heat effulgent. Then Thy sun 
Shoots full perfection through the swelling year. 
Thy bounty shines in autumn unconfined, 
And spreads a common feast for all that lives. 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 13 

Does the theory of some chemical action between the 
constituents of the soil and the germ in the seed satisfy 
you ? Pause and think ; into the same patch of brown 
mother-earth the gardener scatters a handful of mixed 
seeds, and there arise bells of beaten gold, chalices of burn 
ished silver, blushing roses, and stately lilies decked with 
greater beauty than the rarest gems of earth, wafting 
odours of heavenly fragrance and shining with a lustre that 
vies with the loveliness of the stars " when only one is in 
the sky " ; fruits and flowers more gorgeous in their fresh 
ness than all the panoply of the gaudy Court of Solomon. 
Then pause again and think if the Son of the great Creator 
during His brief sojourn on earth had thought it necessary 
to stretch forth His almighty hand in Palestine and com 
mand a single petal to change its shape or colour the poor 
infidel of to-day would arise and blatantly protest that 
such a thing was impossible of belief. 

IHs necessary to emphasize the folly of denying the truth 
of the recorded miracles, because very often if not always 
this is inseparable from the state of mind which rejects the 
very existence of a personal God. Moreover the founda 
tions of Christianity rest on a miracle the keystone of the 
arch of our religion is a miracle the resurrection of our 
blessed Redeemer the stone which the builders rejected. 
It is one of the best-attested facts in history. Upon the 
truth of it rests our hope of immortal life. For if Christ 
be not risen then is our preaching vain and your Jaith is 
also vain. It was only the other day that I was struck 
during my study of the Gospels by what was to me a new 
aspect of this miracle. The " raisings " from the dead 
recorded in the New Testament occur in persons who had 
died from disease and not from injury. This gives some ex 
cuse to the sceptical mind for believing that the individuals 
were not really dead, but in a state of coma or trance, from 
which a natural recovery was possible. Even the case of 
the youth who fell from the upper story whilst Paul was 
preaching at Troas was not a case of raising, for the Apostle 
assured his auditors that " his life was in him." 



14 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

In the example of Christ on the cross, the soldiers were 
satisfied that His injuries were already mortal, but in 
order that no possible doubt should ever arise, we have the 
witness of the beloved disciple John who tells us that he 
himself had witnessed the spear-thrust of the Roman soldier 
and the blood followed by water which flowed from the 
wound after the withdrawal of the weapon. The spear 
had certainly, from either the right or left side of the chest 
pierced the Saviour s heart, after entering the membranous 
sac or envelope which loosely surrounds the heart. Thus 
all conceivable doubts about the reality of absolute death 
are annihilated. 

It would be presumptuous of me to appear before you 
as a scientist in the sense in which I have used this term, 
but pardon this reference to myself when I explain that 
for more than half a century it has been my lot to be 
engaged as a student, practitioner, writer and professor of 
the science of medicine the one science which utilizes 
the results and discoveries of every other department of 
scientific activity. Almost, I may say hourly, it has been 
my duty to sift and weigh the value of evidence in the work 
ing of the laws of nature in the human organism, in health 
and disease. 

Keeping always before my mind the subject on which I 
am now speaking, I have lately read the Bible through 
from Genesis to Revelation three times, and I have failed 
to find a single statement which is not reconcilable with 
the most recent advances in scientific discovery. Once 
only had I any difficulty when I came upon the passage 
" Thou sun, stand still on Gibeon," till I realized that this 
was merely a quotation from the lost book of poetical 
rhapsodies by Jasher. I find nothing in the Bible at vari 
ance with the evidence marshalled in favour of the Theory 
of Evolution, the age of man on our planet, or with the 
history of the earth as told by the oldest and newest geo 
logical formations. 

There is nothing in the history of controversy since its 
beginning about which so much so-called " scientific " 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 15 

nonsense has been written as about the first chapter of 
Genesis. 

Science tells us uncontrovertibly that millions of years 
elapsed during the formation of the rocks before man 
appeared. The unbelievers rejoiced that each geological 
discovery demolished more and more completely the 
Biblical narrative, leaving not a fragment to survive. 

They forgot or overlooked the trifling point of punctua 
tion. The sacred record begins thus : "In the beginning 
God created the heaven and the earth." And we have a 
full stop after the word "earth," and there follows a new 
sentence, " And the earth was waste and void." There is 
no denial here of any necessary millions of years during the 
creation, and who is to limit the millions of years between 
the full stop and the next sentence ? Then again between 
the second and third verses there is another full stop or 
period indicating a further gap of possibly millions of 
years between the brooding over the face of the water and 
the creation of light. The word " moved " is translated 
properly in the margin as " was brooding upon " and im 
plies continuous action. Here no reconcilement between 
religion and science is necessary. From the first line in the 
sacred oracle there is complete harmony. 

Then the Darwinian Theory of Evolution was sprung 
upon the Christian world on the top of innumerable 
discoveries of the remains of primitive man in the shape 
of beautifully chipped arrow-heads and cave decorations, 
which are believed by scientists to date back probably 
hundreds of thousands of years. "Here," they say, "we 
have the Bible proved at last to be a fable, and we need 
not wait to produce the 4 missing link. " 

Let us accept every item in the whole evolution doctrine, 
and agree that life first began in a little shapeless mass of 
unorganised protoplasm, and from its lowliest form in 
this, up the highest developments in the apes and gorillas, 
reached its fullest development in man, capable of endow 
ment with such faculties as enabled him to chip flints for 
his arrows. These he learned the necessity for, in order to 



16 SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 

kill his prey, fight his enemies, protect his mate and defend 
his offspring. 

Science has been unable to give us any sugggestion or 
evidence that his higher moral faculties his sense of real 
right and wrong, his consciousness or sense of a higher 
invisible Power with whom he could hold communion, and 
whose will he was bound to obey that these Divine attri 
butes could evolve, like his courage, instinct of self-preserva 
tion, from the necessities of his environment. Even when 
we accept the evolution theory in its most advanced form, 
we are driven to acknowledge that at some developmental 
stage after the ape form a special miracle was necessary 
to introduce into primitive man s brute nature the Divine 
element or attributes. Genesis gives us the account of 
this missing link in his nature the soul added to the beast : 

God said, Let us make man in our own image. . . . 
And He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. 
And man became a living soul. 

A hurricane has swept over the whole fields of science 
which marks 1921 as a most memorable year in the 
annals of philosophy. Einstein has launched his theory 
of space-time, fourth dimension, or relativity. This 
promises to shake many a scientific theory. I am not 
going to discuss it, for the simple reason that I am not yet 
able to grasp its vast possibilities for influencing human 
thought and reasoning processes. It will however interest 
you to know how it is likely to influence our conceptions of 
God and what effect it may probably have upon our faith 
and our interpretation of God s will as set forth in the 
inspired volume. 

Doctor Weldon Carr, Professor of Philosophy in the 
University of London, who has already been expounding 
the Einstein Theory in a volume published soon after the 
theory was launched, has within the past month been 
interviewed and reported in the Press as saying that : 
" it is going to produce a revolution in religious thought. 
Whilst drawing from the idea of a separate or transcendent 



SCIENCE AND UNBELIEF 17 

God, it interprets and throws light upon the idea of an 
immanent God and can only be interpreted in terms of an 
immanent God a reality which in its very nature is life 
and consciousness. This leaves Materialism, as a world- 
view, in the air." 

This view of the Professor of Philosophy tempts me 
to accompany him in his aerial flight, and give utterance 
to a conception which has occupied my mind before 
relativity was sprung upon the scientific world, though I 
am sure it would excite a smile from the most speculative 
disciple of the doctrine of the fourth dimension. It is 
that the mysterious something which we call ether and 
which pervades the entire universe beyond the range of the 
fixed farthest star, which is at once as dense as steel and 
lighter than the faintest shadow of a cloud may yet be 
proved by science to be God Himself Omnipresent, 
Omniscient and Omnipotent or, if you choose to think of 
God residing in His heaven with Christ by His right hand, 
you may think of the ether as that Divine Spirit which 
pervades all space, all time and eternity, all dimensions, 
and capable of conveying to the throne of the Eternal 
every prayerful vibration of the believer s heart. 

Such a view (unlike that of Professor Carr s above 
mentioned) is not necessarily a pantheistic conception ; it 
is quite compatible with the belief in the existence of a 
transcendent personal God in opposition to the philosophy 
of Spinoza or of Hegel. 



CHAPTER II 

THE HIGHER CRITICISM IN RELATION TO UNBELIEF 

IN seeking an explanation of the spreading growth of 
unbelief, it is therefore, as we have seen, not to be found 
in any antagonism between faith and the rapid advance of 
scientific discovery ; we must look in another direction. 
It unquestionably will be found in the teaching of the 
Higher Criticism. 

Here at the start there must be no room left for mis 
understanding. There are two distinct kinds of Higher 
Criticism. The Bible, especially the Old Testament, has 
been much illuminated by severe and searching criticism 
in the light of the increased knowledge of the day, especially 
in the researches made in the domains of ancient history, 
philology, monumental discovery, and the unearthing of 
the sites of past civilizations. It would be a poor guide 
to erring man if the sacred book failed to respond to the 
ordeal of the most exacting scrutiny upon the same princi 
ples of strict and severe criticism as are to-day being ap 
plied to writings of a merely secular character. The grand 
old book comes out of this test as gold refined in the furnace. 
As far as one has been able to judge, not a single inscription 
unearthed from the ruins of the cities of Babylonia, Assyria, 
Egypt or Palestine has contradicted any statement in 
the Divine record. On the contrary, the monumental 
evidences hidden for thousands of years under the ruins 
of the cities of the East are now testifying to the accuracy 
of, or casting fresh light upon, the inspired chronicles. It 
is true we may have had to alter our views about the dates, 
arrangements or structure and even in a few cases of the 
authorship of one or two of the books in the Old Testament, 

18 



THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 19 

as for example there is a very considerable agreement 
amongst scholars that the book of Isaiah was not all written 
by the son of Amoz, and that a section of it was written at 
a later date than that of the prophet s lifetime. 

This change of view should however excite no fear or 
uneasiness in the mind of any Christian. It may afford 
some comfort to those who are not familiar with this kind 
of criticism if I say that after a careful survey of the results 
of this minute examination of the Bible, line by line, I 
find my own faith strengthened and not weakened; More 
over, I am absolutely convinced that the results of this 
severe, but fair scrutiny of the sacred volume has never made 
one believer into an infidel or atheist. Therefore I am 
compelled to say that we must still look in another direction 
for the cause of the spread of unbelief in these days. 

I cannot however leave the subject of this kind of criti 
cism which starts with the sole object of testing and illumi 
nating the truth without urging a caution. It may sound 
absurd and presumptuous in a layman to attempt a criti 
cism of those scholarly men who have devoted their whole 
lifetime to the study of the Bible, and of the ancient 
languages interwoven in its fabric. It chanced to happen 
that before I commenced to look into the subject of the 
Higher Criticism I had been deeply interested in the endless 
controversy about the authorship of the works of Shake 
speare, the dates and composite nature of some of the 
plays. I would not intrude this subject upon you were it 
not that it bears most closely upon any consideration of 
the question of judging the accuracy of the Bible from its 
own internal evidence. 

The early books of the Bible are given to us as the work 
of Moses, who lived 3,500 years ago, and they are written 
in a partially lost tongue. Shakespeare s works were 
printed only 300 years ago, and in our own language. 
Nearly every literary scholar in England for the last half- 
century has been studying the plays and poems. When 
these experts find some play which they think is due to the 
joint work of Shakespeare and some other dramatist of 



20 THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 

his time, they proceed to examine it, line by line, so as to 
apportion the work to each. And what do we get as the 
result ? The parts which one weighty authority picks 
out as unquestionably Shakespearean are often the very 
lines selected by another great authority to demonstrate 
the fact that Shakespeare never saw the play. The 
Baconian theory is now discarded utterly. In 1914 we had 
an attempt made to prove that Sir Walter Raleigh was the 
real author. In 1919 a very able volume was published 
by Professor Abel Lefranc of Paris powerfully supporting 
the claims of William Stanley, sixth Earl of Derby, under 
the title of Sous le Masque de Shakespeare. To prove still 
further the difficulties and uncertainties surrounding this 
comparatively simple problem, in 1920 a masterly volume 
appears from the pen of Looney, most plausibly and to 
many rather convincingly urging upon internal evidence 
that the entire plays and poems were the sole product of 
the genius of the Earl of Oxford of that day. Almost 
precisely the same results are seen in the attempts of those 
good men who have been led in the confidence of their 
great scholarship to piece out certain books, nay even to 
piece out certain chapters or verses of the Bible which 
they believe to be the sayings of different men living at 
different times. One Biblical scholar maintains confidently 
that this psalm was written by David, another of equal 
weight affirms from some slight peculiarity of style or 
structure that it was written after the Exile 500 or 600 
years later. 

When one considers the difficulties of analysing a modern 
work like Shakespeare written in our own tongue and con 
trasts them with the insuperable problem of dealing with 
writings in a partially lost language of 3,500 years ago we 
may well refuse to let our faith be disturbed by any Biblical 
alterations founded on points of philology or peculiarities 
of language. 

Many of these so-called alterations, though accepted as 
orthodox by scholars, are at their best but guesses. Their 
authors have been sometimes, apparently, merely casting 



THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 21 

lots for pieces of the one seamless garment of eternal truth 
which refuses to be made by man into a patchwork. 

We now come to the consideration of another kind of 
criticism which we must unhesitatingly affirm to be the 
main cause of the unbelief of the present age. It is the 
source of all the poison which has paralysed the faith of 
hundreds of thousands. 

It is as different from the system about which I have been 
speaking as darkness is from light. For all practical pur 
poses we may term it the German Higher Criticism, re 
membering that there are still a very few eminent scholars 
in that land of " Kultur " who reject it just as there are, 
alas, very many in England who greedily accept its teach 
ing and some who even outvie in credulity their most 
advanced continental leaders. 

Let us make no mistake the difference between the 
two systems of criticism is not one of degree ; it is a radical 
one. This is not merely a matter of opinion, but one 
capable of proof to a demonstration. I was about to say 
that at every point you could divide these two systems 
with a knife-edge, but I would rather put it that they are as 
widely divided as the Eastern and Western Hemispheres 
are separated by the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

The one system which, for convenience, I shall term the 
Old English Higher Criticism approaches the examination 
of the sacred oracles with the object of arriving at the 
truth and abiding by the results of the investigation. The 
other starts in sheer case-hardened unbelief, consciously 
or unconsciously denying absolutely the possibility of 
the supernatural. It may strike you as paradoxical 
that I should ask you to believe that these men are honest 
and actuated by a high motive. I believe that they are, 
or the majority of them are ; we can arrive at this conviction 
from a study of their psychological or mental state later 
on. 

Starting with a calm and firm belief that there cannot 
possibly be such a thing as divine revelation or inspiration, 
miracle or prophecy, they are convinced that the Bible 



22 THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 

has been wrongly interpreted by the poor credulous 
people who swallow such impossibilities. Beginning with 
what is a pure assumption and having human reason for 
their sole deity, everything in the Old Testament which 
clashes with this foregone conclusion or assumption must be 
ruthlessly denied, destroyed, or explained away. It seems 
incredible to conceive the maze of absurdities in which they 
lose themselves ; at almost every turn they find themselves 
brought up suddenly by a granite rock of truth in some 
verse. This they lightly dispose of by some such stereo 
typed phrase as, " Oh, this is obviously an interpolation, 
or addition, or gloss, by some later scribe, about which all 
scholars are agreed." 

The cardinal fact to be remembered is that never was 
one of these so-called German scholars turned from a 
believer into an atheist, infidel, sceptic or deist by the results 
of his investigations. Unbelief was the origin and cause of 
his criticism from the start. It cannot be too strongly 
reiterated that the German Higher Criticism is the fruit 
of unbelief. It was not their tearing of the Bible to pieces 
which made them unbelievers, but it was because they were 
infidels that they tried to tear it into fragments. Professor 
Pusey has pointed out that " this is simply an historical 
fact ; a matter of chronology. German unbelief was 
older than the modern German criticism. German 
rationalists were forced on their criticisms by the necessity 
of their position." Their confident assertions are most 
unfortunately accepted by those who regard these German 
atheists as scholars or men of learning without examining 
their methods minutely or plumbing their shallowness. 
So the poison is poured out from many an English pulpit, 
and on being swallowed by a man whose conscience tells him 
hourly that he is living at enmity with God it sears his 
conscience as does a red-hot iron his body and leaves him 
deaf to the still small voice within. This is not the occasion 
to criticize these critics ; perhaps in a future lecture I may 
take you over the ground covered by what is known as the 
Vatke-Graf-Kuenen-Wellhausen-Stade rationalistic doctrine 



THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 23 

of the Pentateuch. I must content myself at present with 
only a few sentences summarizing my own experience of a 
searching study of this theory, which however I must say 
is not regarded in the light of a theory, but a series of 
established facts. Hearing from time to time quotations 
and scraps of this type of criticism which disquieted me not 
a little, I shrank from an investigation of it. About three 
years ago I become convinced that my attitude of mind was 
a cowardly one. If the orthodox Biblical view was fallacious 
it seemed better after all to know this than to live in a fool s 
paradise. I made the plunge and decided to abide by 
the consequences. I devoutly thank God that I did so. 
The light which I feared turned out to be not merely a 
will-o -the wisp, but a mirage of the most silly speculations 
and groundless assertions, such as I had never before 
encountered in the study of any other subject. I found that 
the German Higher Criticism had nothing better to give 
me than the baseless assertion, unsustained by a single 
fact or sane argument, that no such personages as Abraham, 
Joseph, Joshua, Moses, or even David had ever existed. 
They were really astral myths, like Jupiter, Mars and Her 
cules. 

Our own Canon Cheyne, who had written the lives of some 
forty of these expositors, out-Herods them all in some of 
their most advanced assertions ; and mark the deadly 
nature of his poisonous stuff. He states that " one of my 
chief grounds for advocating such a criticism is that it 
appears to me to be becoming more and more necessary 
for the maintenance of true evangelical religion." Evan 
gelical religion ? If Abraham be a myth where is our hope 
to rest ? Destroy Abraham, and what becomes of our hope 
as Gentiles " In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth 
be blessed " ? Do away with Abraham and Moses and you 
do away with Jesus Christ. Later on, when we approach 
the study of Daniel, we shall have to deal with others of our 
Anglo-German Higher Critics like Archdeacon Farrar, who 
calmly assures us that part of the book of Daniel is only 
a religious romance after the manner of one of Shakespeare s 



24 THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 

plays, whilst Professor Driver on the same book stultifies 
himself in his feeble attempts to reconcile the views of 
the unbelievers with those of the true Christian. Pushed 
to their logical end, there is no escape whatever from the 
conclusion that according to the German Higher Criticism 
the whole of the Old Testament is a forgery. Lest some 
of you should think that my language is unwarrantably 
severe, let me conclude with a few remarks from Doctor 
Emil Reich, who has written several works on history and 
who candidly states that in his earlier years he fully believed 
in the " scientific character " of the Higher Criticism, 
but having learned more about Life and Reality, he has 
" come to the conclusion that it is bankrupt as a method 
of research and pernicious as a teaching of religious truth, 
a perversion of history and a desecration of religion, a 
method long abandoned and despised by all real students of 
history. It is as antiquated and obsolete as it is unsound 
and perverse, and stands condemned by history fully as 
much as by true religion." He says : " It must be made 
clear to the millions of honest people who want to use their 
Bibles as their strongest and most comforting consolation 
for life and after-life, that all the arguments of the Higher 
Critics have so far not been able to move a stone from the 
edifice inside which over a hundred generations have sought 
and found their spiritual bliss." 

To myself the view presented by the critics reconstructed 
Bible appears exactly comparable with the descriptions 
of an harmonious landscape given by a man who has been 
blind from his birth, and I pledge myself to fairly demon 
strate the truth of this simile later on. You will ask your 
selves, how is it possible to apply such unqualified censure 
to the laborious researches of a host of men, many of them 
entitled to be called scholars ? After all, some of you may 
say these questions are matters of opinion and one side 
may be as well qualified to arrive at the truth as the other. 
Is there any possible explanation which can convince us 
that this type of criticism is out of court ? Is there any 
solution of the riddle that can convince a doubter that 



THE HIGHER CRITICISM AND UNBELIEF 25 

these men are unworthy of serious attention and credence ? 
Remember there can be no compromise or reconcilement 
of the Higher Criticism of German origin with Christian 
belief ; there is no half-way house. I can confidently answer 
this question in the affirmative ; in the next lecture by the 
use of scientific methods I hope to explain the nature and 
cause of unbelief. 



CHAPTER III 

THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

WE come now to a study of the real nature, origin, and 
meaning of unbelief, keeping in mind our definition that 
Unbelief is the incapacity of the sceptical mind to accept 
or understand any phenomena belonging to what is usually 
understood as the Supernatural Sphere, in which are 
included our conception of a personal God, inspiration or 
revelation, miracles, prophecy, and prayer. 

A close observation and study of human character and 
mentality convinces us of two prevailing errors the ideal 
or typical infidel and the real genuine hypocrite are sup 
posed to be common types of men this is not so ; both 
are comparatively rare. They are not to be met with at 
every street corner. It is a cheering reflection that we meet 
with very few Uriah Heeps and with comparatively few 
religious hypocrites men who steal the livery of heaven 
in order that they may wear it in the service of the devil 
the majority of those whom the world regards as hypo 
crites are specimens of weak Christians, often with high 
ideals up to the standard of which they are unable to live, 
and their frequent falls are accepted as proof of their utter 
insincerity and hypocrisy, whilst we should consider them 
as objects of pity demanding help instead of scorn. We 
shall see presently how similar considerations apply to the 
type of a good man commonly regarded as an infidel. 

If unbelief then be a comparatively rare thing, why 
all this hubbub about its rapid spread inside and outside 
the Church ? Real Unbelief cannot be propagated like 
a mushroom or fungus. There must be no confusion here : 
the German Higher Criticism is the product of unadulterated 

26 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 27 

infidelity, as explained in the former address. Men living 
at variance with the will and laws of God seize gladly 
upon its crude theories and baseless assertions, greedily 
swallowing them in order to set conscience asleep, just as 
the opium-eater dopes himself with laudanum to indulge 
in a few hours of lethe. The clear thinker will presently 
see that the narcotic laudanum corresponds in the simile, 
not with real infidelity or atheism, for it is something very 
different. If we change the simile to a metaphor, still 
using medical phraseology, we may call this something 
" conscience salve. " 

Everyone meets with men who delight in aggressively 
and often offensively airing their opinions on the absurdity 
of accepting any of the before-mentioned varieties of super 
natural phenomena included in our definition of Unbelief. 
We leave out of consideration the honest doubter. He is in 
another category, and moreover, he is, as a rule, ominously 
silent about his religious or spiritual perplexities. It is 
the privilege of the observant physician to see deeper into 
true character than most men, even including clergymen. 
How often do we find the boastful or blatant unbeliever 
change his note on the advent of some suddenly prostrating 
illness, and notice how he blanches in terror when " the 
dark messenger, cloaked from head to foot," is waiting for 
him in the antechamber to lead him to the Judgment- 
seat of his Creator ! (The totally God-blind sceptic or 
rationalist has no bands in his death.) 

As a general rule you may take the following to be an 
explanation of the condition of heart and mind of the type 
of man commonly regarded as an infidel, or rationalist, or 
as he delights sometimes to call himself, a free-thinker. 
He is a man with a conscience which tells him daily and 
hourly that he is living in open or secret sin in violation 
of God s laws. 

He has always a fair and often a good knowledge of 
these laws ; probably, in his better days, he has struggled 
hard against his moral weakness, but he has long since 
given up the struggle as hopeless. As he feels the worm 



28 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

gnawing at his heart, his only relief is to borrow and wrap 
himself in the mantle of unbelief. It is his great comfort 
to hold forth loudly on the doctrine of the non-existence 
of a God, so as to silence the still small voice that will 
make itself heard. As he talks and declaims he gets ease. 
If you happen to have such a friend watch him closely ; 
the more vocal his infidelity becomes the more certain 
you may feel that your friend has a skeleton in his cup 
board ; and the more hopeful you may become that the 
worm is biting deeper and the brighter grows the prospect 
of his being enabled to snap his bonds asunder. 

Though few things give him such joy as to gloat 
over the fall of some prominent Christian or the moral 
wreck of some professing friend s life, don t be tempted to 
give up such a man as hopeless he is not altogether bad. 
Always remember that it is the germ of beliej within him 
which makes him repulsive to you ; be sure he is closely 
watching every action of your own life and perhaps without 
a word spoken by you, your consistent conduct may save 
an immortal soul. But I am preaching, and must return 
to the consideration of real unbelief from a scientific 
standpoint. 

Though the view I shall strive to put before you is 
derived from my own professional experience, I do not 
venture to expound it without having given it years of 
serious reflection ; and do not fear to criticise it closely. 
Though I may have to speak to you of facts in anatomy, 
histology and physiology, I shall avoid if possible using 
medical terms and strive to keep the subject within the grasp 
of anyone who knows nothing of these ologies or sciences. 

You all know that we keep up our relationships with the 
outer world through our five special senses sight, hearing, 
smelling, tasting and touching. Probably some of the 
inferior animals, such as the dog, are endowed with additional 
senses which we humans cannot yet comprehend or under 
stand. I propose to draw your attention to some abnor 
malities, deficiencies, or partial failures in these senses, 
especially in those of sight and hearing ; but be it remem- 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 29 

bered that corresponding irregularities are common to all 
the senses, only the train of thought and argument will be 
more easily understood and followed if we confine our 
remarks to the senses of sight and hearing. 

The senses are not the simple attributes which many 
people think. They are composite gifts ; all of them have 
two or more functions or offices to fulfil. They are each 
beautifully elaborated or developed in accordance with 
the beneficent design of an all-wise Creator, so that His 
creatures may be enabled to enjoy the wonderful glory 
of beauty and harmony with which He has so bountifully 
clothed the earth. Thus in the case of sight it is not merely 
a sense of light or its negative, darkness, but the power 
of appreciating all the beauties of every shade of colour 
and infinite perspective. The ear is not merely a register 
ing organ for noise or silence ; such qualities of sounds as 
rhythm, harmony, pitch and timbre or quality are capable 
of being differentiated and appreciated by this organ 
when in a state of perfect development. Apparently the 
simplest sense is that of touch ; but here again it is not only 
a matter of registering whether an object is rough or smooth, 
hard or soft, but also we are able to appreciate its temper 
ature and other physical qualities. Similarly the tongue is 
required not only to tell us whether a substance is bitter 
or sweet, but also in conjunction with the palate, it gives 
us accurate knowledge of a long range of flavours. The 
same laws hold good for the function of smelling, which to 
some fortunate individuals opens up a world of gratifying 
odours from which many less favoured individuals are more 
or less shut out. 

Let us first look at the interesting defect in vision known 
as colour-blindness. You have all heard something about 
it, or possibly have known some friend who tells you that 
the scarlet berries of the holly are, to him, of the same 
colour as the bright green leaves surrounding them. 
Few people outside the ranks of the specialist or physician 
can be aware of the various varieties of this visual deficiency, 
nor would it be profitable for you to listen to a lecture on 



30 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

the scientific divisions or classifications of colour-blindness 
based upon an analysis of the colours in the rainbow; 
fortunately this is not necessary for our purpose. 

Note the first point which constitutes an important link 
in our chain of argument or evidence. The defect is con 
genital that means that the individual is born with the 
deficiency. It is seldom hereditary, which means that it 
is not often handed down from parent to offspring. It 
has no connection with disease and no relation whatever 
with the jaundiced eye, which is supposed to see every 
thing as yellow or green a mere poetic fallacy. It is a 
fairly common condition in its minor forms, and may exist 
in a person who is unaware of his defect till he be called 
upon to undergo the eye test necessary for all who wish 
to enter the naval or railway services. Instead of giving 
you a lecture on colour-blindness I shall simplify the whole 
matter by selecting, out of many, one marked instance 
occurring in a highly intellectual Christian gentleman whom 
I have very intimately known for many years. 

In his early days in the Royal Navy he won the prize 
for his ship for rapidity and accuracy in reading the colour- 
signals. This seems a marvellous and almost incredible 
achievement for a colour-blind youth. I mention it to 
emphasize the almost abnormal acuteness of his vision, 
and in some respects it will help you to realize the good 
qualities of his mental equipment, which enabled him to 
allow quickly for his own conscious deficiency in being 
able to recognize the colours of the various flags. I felt 
that possibly he exaggerated his own defects unconsciously. 
One bright autumn day we were standing in the porch of 
his house on a pavement of richly coloured encaustic 
tiles, when it occurred to me to try a very simple experi 
ment by way of a test. There was a glorious blue tile 
at his feet, and plucking a single leaf of the small-leaved 
Virginia creeper of the brightest vermilion red, I placed it 
in the centre of the blue tile and asked him what he had to 
say about their colours. He laughed heartily and ex 
claimed, " Doctor, you have made a mistake this time ; you 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 81 

thought to catch me, but this is a leaf and therefore I 
know it must be green." " But what about the colour of 
the tile ? " "It is the same," he said, "as the leaf, only 
one is a little darker or lighter than the other ; now when 
I look closely at them I think they are of the same colour 
which my wife called grey when she was showing me some 
ribbons lately." (The recognition of the mere name of a 
colour affords no test.) 

Scientists know that the seat of this defect is situated 
in the delicate screen or thin layer at the back of the eyeball 
the retina, or possibly in the nerve of sight, somewhere 
between the eyeball and the brain. Some minute cells 
or fibres or an infinitesimally small amount of a chemical 
substance is absent which should be present in the perfectly 
developed visual organ and which the microscope up to the 
present fails to locate. 

Let us next examine the hearing sense. The instances 
here of a very special defect are as numerous as black 
berries and the degrees in the extent of the deficiency 
are also very varied. Everyone is familiar with individuals 
who possess an indifferent, poor or bad ear for music ; but 
few who have not specially studied the subject can realize 
the extent to which this deficiency may be present without 
the individual being conscious of his deprivation. We call 
the defect in its advanced form music-deafness. It is in no 
way associated with ordinary deafness, or dulness of hear 
ing, or with intellectual obtuseness in distinguishing sounds 
which are non-musical. It is a very simple thing ; it 
means inability to distinguish differences in pitch, which is 
quite a different matter from failure to recognize delicate 
shades of differences in tone, timbre or quality in two given 
sounds. 

As in colour-blindness the individual is born into the 
world with this defect ; probably it is more frequently 
hereditary or handed down from parent to offspring than 
is the visual incapacity to recognize colours. We see many 
cases however crop up in the families of highly musical 
parents where one child is found to be totally music-deaf, 
4 



32 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

and that one is often the smartest in the group, with the 
keenest hearing power, and he may even be dreaded by the 
elders as " the smallest pitcher with the largest ears." 

We may briefly study music-deafness by looking at a 
rather exaggerated instance of it, in an individual known 
intimately by me during almost the entire length of my 
own life. Therefore I can go into details with confidence. 

He was brought up from infancy in a highly musical 
family, taking part in a domestic concert of sacred music 
nearly every sabbath, where there were usually three or 
four different musical instruments sounding. He was for 
between two and three years the head-boy in a large public 
school, where music was also taught. I know however 
that he often shirked the routine music lesson as only a 
head-boy could. One day the class was practising a song 
whose words appealed to his fancy or imagination, and he 
was singing loudly and with zest, when the teacher severely 
rebuked him for mocking, and serious trouble resulted. 
The court-martial which followed revealed to the lad s 
amazement that to sing up the musical scale was not to 
begin almost inaudibly and sing louder and louder, ending 
with a kind of war-whoop or loud shout. His attempt to 
reproduce the note of a tuning fork was ludicrous, and he 
was puzzled and hurt to see all the boys in the school 
laughing at him. He has never been able to distinguish 
any single tune from another. Once I saw him in presence 
of Majesty at a garden festival wearing his hat while the 
band was playing the National Anthem and he only dis 
covered his mistake by seeing the others unbonnet. 

The further details of this youth s hearing powers must 
be mentioned ; they are not trivialities, but bear upon our 
line of argument. His school was on a hill, and on the plain 
below and far out of sight a weekly fair or market was held, 
at which usually two fiddlers, one a man and the other 
a woman, performed. He could easily distinguish and 
differentiate the tone of one fiddle from the other, having 
once watched the players at close quarters. Visiting the 
Crystal Palace he accidentally wandered into a large con- 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 88 

cert-hall, where some hundreds of singers were joining in a 
sacred chorus, when without a programme he recognized 
amidst the babel of voices that of Foley or of Santly, whom 
he had once heard before, and he was able to locate the 
singer and hear his voice as it were separately from all 
others in the orchestra. He could probably have earned 
a living by judging the tones of old violins, though he 
could not recognize a single note. His master informed me 
that he was not only the best reader of poetry he had ever 
known, but he had utilized his marvellously accurate ear 
in awarding the reading prizes to other boys. 

How then can we account for his defect ? Science tells 
us that it is due to the arrested development of a small 
group of minute nerve-cells, not in the hearing machine 
within his ear, but in the brain itself. This we call the 
hearing or auditory centre. The absence of these cells as 
far as I know has not been demonstrated in any music-deaf 
subject nor do I know that the investigation has ever been 
pursued, but what equally helps us in working out such a 
problem is the fact that this hearing centre in the brain 
is found to be withered up or wasted in people born deaf. 
It is interesting to notice that it is not far removed in situa 
tion from the centre which enables us to exercise the faculty 
of speech. 

This boy had been born minus a portion of this 
minute group of nerve-cells, probably not larger than a 
big pin s head, and consequently he has not been able to 
identify a single musical note ; he has during his life been 
shut out from the whole world of harmony and song. If 
you know such a one do not judge him hardly by the strict 
dogma laid down by the author of The Merchant of Venice ; 
rather pity him. Though he hath no music in himself 
he has the power of being moved with concord of sweet 
sounds. 

How can a study of these abnormalities of the special 
senses help us in getting a knowledge of the nature of Un 
belief or understanding the fallacies of the German Higher 
Criticism ? 



34 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

Some philosophers attribute the power of believing in 
a God to what they call an innate idea, or conscience or 
instinct, others think the conception may be arrived at 
through the operation of the reasoning powers. 

Instead of using such terms as "innate ideas," "con 
science," and "instinct" let us boldly regard the faculty 
by which we are enabled to believe in God as man s sixth 
sense, and see where this lands us. If the analogy of belief 
with the other five senses is correct, we must be able to 
prove its universal distribution. I think you may safely 
accept the fact that no people or race of savages has been 
discovered where minute investigation has not proved that 
there existed an individual conception of a God amongst 
them as soon as the explorer has been able to overcome 
the language difficulty of communicating freely with them. 
I remember reading about half a century ago how a tribe 
was found in the centre of a continent in which no sense 
of a divine being could be made out amongst them. But 
a traveller rediscovered them soon after and found that 
the leaders of the tribe had buried their gods or idols on the 
approach of the first traveller. 

I arrived at the idea that the power of accepting the 
supernatural should be regarded as an extra one of the 
five special senses from an anatomical or physiological 
standpoint ; but I was unconscious of the fact that the 
theologians had arrived at a somewhat similar goal by 
travelling on a different road. Thus a few weeks ago I 
was surprised to find Ian Maclaren had a chapter in The 
Mind oj the Master entitled, " Faith, the Sixth Sense." He 
defines faith as the instinct of the spiritual world ; the 
sixth sense the sense of the unseen ; one of the senses of 
the soul : " it is the religious faculty." This encourages 
me in the belief that I am not straining a point by insisting 
on the strict analogy. Though I do not forget that whilst 
each of our five special senses possesses a receiving ap 
paratus at the periphery, and a registering machine in its 
brain-centre, my hypothetical brain-centre which registers 
our belief in God is not in communication with any peri- 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 35 

pheral machinery simply because, as for the functions of 
all the higher brain-centres, no peripheral apparatus is 
required. If the scientific man rejects the strictness of 
the analogy between this sense and the five special ones 
he can reject the term " special " as applied to it. 

We have instances of people being born blind and deaf, 
some incapable of distinguishing odours or flavours, and 
some even with remarkable obtuseness of the sense of 
touch amounting in rare varieties to almost absolute 
absence of sense of touch or temperature. Still more 
striking is the analogy with those instances of only partial 
defect of the special sense of seeing and hearing, for we meet 
with similar partial defects in the unbelieving individual. 
If we elaborated the different forms of scepticism, as we 
have considered the different phases of imperfection of 
sight and hearing, we get a flood of light upon such medleys 
as atheism, deism, rationalism, etc. The real atheist 
or total unbeliever is a man born God-blind or God-deaf. 
He is no more able to accept the supernatural than the 
music-deaf man is able to comprehend the meaning of a 
symphony of Beethoven or the colour-blind man to criticize 
a canvas of Raphael or Rubens. He stands before a page 
of Isaiah or Daniel, exactly in the same difficulty as my 
friend was in when he stood in the porch of his residence, 
and he is equally insensible of his loss, save that the latter 
has learned that there is some defect in his vision which 
he cannot entirely comprehend, whilst the former is quite 
satisfied that the accumulated testimony of countless 
millions of Christians in all ages is the result of a delusion 
produced by credulous expounders of a fraudulent Bible ; 
firm in his one religious belief that he alone with his few 
spiritually blind brethren is the only true interpreter of the 
Divine Will as revealed to His chosen people in the sacred 
oracles of God. 

There is probably not a single German Higher Critic 
of the Bible belonging to the type or class under considera 
tion who does not give incontestable proof on almost every 
page of his writing that he is totally God-blind or nearly 



36 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

so. As I have stated before, he starts his work in absolute 
unbelief, and builds up a cardboard palace that has no 
more foundation than the baseless fabric of a vision, 
with the result that, though he does not in the least 
believe in miracles himself, he nevertheless is the author 
of the greatest miracle of the twentieth century, for I can 
conceive of no greater miracle than to expect that any 
ordinary being is able to subscribe to such a tissue of puerile 
assumptions as goes to the making up of this so-called 
" criticism." 

I am speaking of those totally God-blind critics who go 
the entire length of denying the existence of a personal 
God and Saviour. There are others (like the colour-blind 
individual, who is able to recognize some primary colours, 
or like the partially music-deaf man who can imperfectly 
learn a few tunes) who have some belief in an all-wise Deity, 
but who are incapable of believing in the inspiration of the 
Bible. Others there are again whose faith may be equal 
to accepting the reality of God and inspiration or prophecy, 
but are wholly incapable of conceiving of the possibility of 
miracle, and so on through the entire gamut of infidelity 
from atheism to deism, agnosticism, rationalism, materialism, 
free-thought, and the minor or more diluted and fanciful 
varieties of Unbelief as the fashionable clerical type mask 
ing under the name of Modernism. 

The God-blind man is probably an honest man, and I 
am convinced he is generally acting according to his light 
and with the aim which he thinks is the spread of what 
he calls " truth." But what are we to say of the trimmers 
at home who, desiring to be considered broad scholarly men 
of German culture, swallow this trash without examining 
or digesting it and sow the seeds of doubt in the hearts of 
their simple-minded hearers this part of the Pentateuch 
is probably true, that is false, this book is possibly inspired, 
that is certainly a forgery without the support of a single 
argument save that which gives away the possibility of 
inspiration or revelation altogether ? I am conscious that 
these are sweeping accusations, but when we come to con- 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 37 

sider the manner in which the critics attempt to disprove 
the date and authenticity of anyBiblical book which clashes 
with their crude unbelief, you will be satisfied that we are 
more than justified. 

I know some of you are thinking hard things of me, 
and feel that it is a terrible doctrine which implies that 
our Heavenly Father will allow beings to be brought 
into the world so malformed as to be incapable of believing 
in Him and in His beloved Son. It will scarcely satisfy 
you if I point out that in violation of the developmental 
laws which He laid down at the creation, the lame, the 
halt and the deaf, the blind, and the dumb children with 
out legs or arms, and with other hideous deformities appear 
on the earth through some variation or interference with 
the operation of these beneficent laws. It is not an answer 
to our difficulty to ask, like the foolish disciples, "Did 
this man sin, or his parents, that he was born blind ? 
We see similar developmental deformities in tame and 
undomesticated animals, in birds, in flowering plants, and 
in insects. 

There is, my friends, a much weightier question here. It 
is that of personal responsibility. Is the man born without 
his sixth sense responsible for his own unbelief? Is he 
doomed from his cradle to eternal death, or can we help 
him? 

Speaking with all reverence, I feel confident that there is 
a satisfactory answer to this solemn question, if we face the 
problem boldly and in all its bearings. From what we have 
learned about colour-blindness and music-deafness in the 
fullest degrees, you should be prepared to accept the state 
ment that the most persevering training, teaching, or prac 
tice can never be expected to make a colour-blind man 
paint a picture or a music-deaf boy sing in tune. The 
machinery by which these faculties are exercised or en 
joyed is totally absent in these cases, and by nothing short 
of a real miracle can the sense be created or replaced. 

It is however different with minor cases of deficiency 
in these senses : here the mechanism is present in a rudi- 



38 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

mentary form or undeveloped condition, and by careful 
and persevering training the faculties may be cultivated 
to a fair extent. 

Every good gift which God has entrusted to man is left 
in our own hands, either that we may bury it in a napkin 
and let it decay by disuse or augment it to perfection by 
continuous exercise. This was the idea embodied in the 
teaching about the spiritual gifts enumerated by Paul in 
the twelfth and subsequent chapter of the First Epistle to 
the Corinthians, as it was also in the mind of our blessed 
Redeemer when in the parable of the talents He said : 
" Unto every one that hath shall be given, but from him 
that hath not even that which he hath shall be taken away." 
Let us return to the consideration of the God-blind un 
believer and see if there is room for hoping for his salvation 
and wherein we may be able to help him. Hard and irre 
verent it may seem to be, that one should feel it more likely 
that a totally God-blind man can be more easily convinced 
of his deficiency than it is for the partially defective sceptic ; 
just as it is easier to convince the completely music-deaf 
or completely colour-blind person of his developmental 
imperfection than it is to enlighten his only partially 
affected brother who is able to appreciate in some dim way 
variations in pitch or marked differences of colour. 

Let us pause and consider how we may utilize this con 
ception of a sixth sense in any attempt to help an honest 
unbeliever. If you approach a typical sceptic by the 
ordinary methods of argument and reasoning and strive 
to convince him that everything in the world around him 
and in the heavens above him proclaims the reality and 
the existence of a personal God, he only laughs at you or 
pities your credulity and ignorance. He tells you, as he tells 
himself, that he sees all these things and that his own reason 
ing powers are quite as good as your own (indeed, he is 
almost certain to feel that his are better since he has prob 
ably accepted reason as his sole deity) and he will tell you 
that, having examined every theological argument, he has 
thoroughly convinced himself irrevocably by his reason 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 39 

that there is no proof of such a doctrine. Against the 
weapons of the Christian s reasoning and experience he is 
clad in triple mail. 

Confront him with the sword of the Spirit and show him, 
by reasonable analogy, that faith, or belief the power of 
accepting or understanding the supernatural may after 
all be due to the presence of a sixth special sense of which 
he happens to be born deficient like the colour-blind or 
music-deaf man. That, this being so, he might as reasonably 
be expected to understand or to see God as to hear a pic 
ture, see a harmony or taste an odour. If he be open- 
minded he should be staggered, if a reasonable and honest 
man desiring to find truth. But holding fast to his own 
god of reason he will probably affirm that his logic does 
not teach him such nonsense ; your blow has rung upon 
his shield and the next one should cleave his helm or pierce 
his breast-plate. Now comes in the grave question of his 
responsibility. His confidence arises very much from 
his conviction that he cannot in any case be held responsible 
by any higher being, if there be such, so long as he honestly 
submits himself to the strict guidance of his reason exer 
cised along logical lines. Oh, yes, my friend, you are logical, 
and reasonable just to the same extent as a colour-blind 
man, guided by his reason, might enter our National 
Gallery and start to destroy the glorious masterpieces there, 
exclaiming, "I have as good or better sight than any of 
you, and there is no such thing as colour these paintings are 
fabulous." Yes, just as logical and delightfully reasonable 
as the music-deaf coxcomb who would endeavour to break 
up the performance of an oratorio on the ground that his own 
hearing powers were perfect and therefore there cannot be 
such a thing as musical harmony within the limits of his 
narrow logic-ridden mind. 

God has endowed mankind with reasoning powers which 
are able to demonstrate to every fair-minded, sane indi 
vidual his deficiency of any special sense if such an im 
perfection has been inflicted upon him by some inter 
ference with developmental law. Should he ignore lightly 



40 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

the accumulated testimony of the many millions of believers 
down the centuries who have died affirming that they have 
known God and held close communion with Him, that 
they had constantly approached Him in prayer and suppli 
cation, and that in innumerable instances these prayers had 
been answered, then most certainly the gravest responsi 
bility rests upon him for seeking out every explanation 
of his being unable to find out God for himself. This is 
the attitude of the truly scientific mind of the great thinker, 
who when these experiences were unfolded to him by a 
pious friend found expression in the confession : " You 
have got something which I have not got." 

Upon these grounds, therefore, there is humanly speaking 
every hope for the atheist as soon as his intellect and reason 
accept the solemn reality of his deprivation, just as the 
colour-blind and music-deaf individuals must do, unless 
they be imbeciles or fools. 

He may say, " If I accept the fact of the existence of a 
God I cannot accept the Bible, because there are miracles 
recorded throughout its pages, and these phenomena are 
antagonistic to all the laws of nature." You explain that 
science teaches us that there can be no real change, sus 
pension or reversion of these laws, for, as we saw in our 
previous address, every miracle must have been performed 
through the operation of these very laws, guided by the 
unerring hand of Him who first called them into being 
before the dawn of creation. 

If he accept this, he may next ask, "Do you expect any 
intelligent creature to believe that if there be a Creator 
in some distant planet, where He has His heaven, He 
can communicate with man and hear his feeble voice ? 
Therefore, as this is scientifically impossible, I cannot believe 
in either Inspiration or Prayer." Ah, my friend, only 
yesterday look at the teaching of your idol, Science 
you were informed that two men had talked across two 
continents with an ocean rolling between, by means of 
wireless telegraphy, and scientists say that in the ether there 
is no obstruction ; a million miles are as one furlong, and 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 41 

we are trying to get a message back from Mars. It requires 
an instrument at each end properly attuned; but alas, 
poor unbeliever, your receiver is imperfect or broken. 

He shifts his position again and exclaims, "Do you expect 
me to swallow such a heresy as Prophecy? " Yes, my friend, 
few things are easier if you only accept the Bible as you 
accept many other far less authenticated histories, and reject 
any record in it which is of doubtful date, so that you 
can be certain that the event did not occur before the 
prophecy was uttered. You will find there things fore 
told from 500 to 1,000 years before they were fulfilled to 
the letter and to the very day. 

To summarize, even at the risk of wearying you by repe 
tition, I have attempted to give you a theory or working 
hypothesis that belief in God and in revelation is a special 
sixth sense breathed into man at that stage of evolution 
where the Genesis narrative comes in, when he was trans 
formed from a member of the brute creation and became 
a living soul. 

We have looked into the composite nature of the two 
most important senses sight and hearing. The aberra 
tions or anomalies which we met with in the cases of colour 
blindness and music-deafness I have tried to show you are 
analogous to what we meet with in individuals who have 
been born without a perfect development of this sixth or 
God-sense which, like the other senses, is a more or less 
composite one. 

It may have struck you that it would have simplified 
matters merely to compare God-blindness, say, with the case 
of those individuals born totally blind or deaf. I did not 
do so because, in the first place, the comparison would 
not be likely to convince the unbeliever who never dreams 
that he has any defect whatever in his senses ; just as 
every colour-blind and music-deaf person has to wait for 
years before he discovers his deficiency, and many of them 
go to the grave without suspecting their deprivations. 
In the second place, you will remember that at the start 
I warned you that I considered it a rarity to find a man 



42 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

born totally God -blind. Such an individual is a sort of 
" freak " ; possibly no man is born absolutely God-blind. 
Every degree of imperfection exists, and by reasoning from 
strict analogy we can in this way explain every variety 
or shade of unbelief. 

Since the eighteenth century Germany has occupied the 
unenviable position of standing at the head of the list 
of nations in which unbelief had reached its highest develop 
ment. It is an interesting fact that Germany stands at 
the head of all other countries to-day in the enormous 
number of her inhabitants who are myopic, or short-sighted. 
We have lately witnessed, for the first time in history, vast 
armies of be-spectacled men. Some of you may like to 
ask me, "Is there any relationship between their deficiency 
in the seeing sense and of the special sense about which we 
have been speaking ? " I would not like to push the analogy. 
Whether we regard this as a coincidence or as what a 
philosopher would classify as a correlation of growth, of 
one thing we can feel certain their incapacity of accepting 
God, because of their unbelief, turned the entire nation on 
the path of the discovery of a new deity. Him they found, 
him they enthroned, and him they worshipped as the god 
of Might. 

This moral myopia or short-sightedness was permitted 
by the far-seeing Ruler of the Universe to lead them a 
certain distance, but no further, towards world-empire. 
We cannot but believe that the poisonous effect of the 
Higher Criticism had sapped the moral fibre of the people 
of Germany, and was the main cause of its ruin. It can 
safely be predicted that this ruin shall characterize the 
Republic till it returns to the acceptance of the true God 
and obeys His laws. We might as safely predict that the 
entire fabric of German criticism awaits a similar fate; 
probably, in a comparatively short time, few, if any, 
entitled to call themselves scholars will be found to support 
its assumptions. 

Before we dismiss Rationalism, which is the parent or 
starting-point or excuse for all the varieties of Unbelief, 



THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 43 

and which has led its votaries far beyond the bounds of 
reason and sane sense into a soul-destroying quagmire, 
let us not forget that there is a higher Rationalism that 
of the true Christian believer who accepts the Divine Reve 
lation. This is forcibly and truthfully put by Sir Robert 
Anderson when he says : " The position of the Christian 
is an intelligible one. Though he believes in the Unseen 
and unprovable, his faith is strictly rational ; for, assuming 
a Divine Revelation, belief is the highest act of reason. 
The Christian maintains such a claim and that, if it be 
assented to, his position is unassailable. But if God speaks, 
then scepticism gives place to Jaith. Nor is this a mere 
begging of the question. The proof that the voice is really 
Divine must be absolute and conclusive. In such circum 
stances scepticism betokens mental or moral degradation, 
and faith is not the abnegation of reason, but the highest 
act of reason." 

One word in conclusion the possession of this sixth 
special sense we may rightly regard as a gift from our 
Heavenly Father, co-equal with the gift of His Only- 
begotten Son. Indeed with all reverence we might say 
it is a greater boon bestowed upon mankind than the cross 
and the empty sepulchre ; because had He not endowed 
us with this divine faculty or sense which enables us to 
believe, the Atonement would have been a failure man 
would have been utterly unable to accept for himself 
the fact of the redeeming sacrifice. We should regard it as 
the Holy Spirit within us which alone can bring us to Christ 
" No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the 
Holy Ghost " ; so our conception of Belief is certainly not 
at variance with Paul s teaching. As we realize the value 
of this sense our hearts should continually go out in 
grateful thanks to the Giver of every good thing. 

But I must utter a word of warning lest anyone should 
mistake my meaning. If my w r ords have been helpful to 
any honest doubter, if they have given confidence to any 
auditor who has felt that his faith was weak, something 
more remains for me to say. The sense, power or capacity 



44 THE SCIENCE OF UNBELIEF 

of accepting the fact of a living personal God and His 
revealed word never yet has saved a soul from death or 
added a single star to the Saviour s glittering crown. It is 
only by fully exercising this gift or sense once and for all, 
coming confidently to Jesus as a little child and taking His 
yoke upon you that you can become sons of God and joint 
heirs of eternal life with Him. 

We must ever keep in mind that this sixth special sense 
has been given to us so tkat we may be able to believe 
in the truth of the revelation of Himself which He has de 
livered to His chosen people. Our possession of it in no 
way lessens the importance of, or necessity for, revelation, 
but without it revelation would be valueless. 

I have spoken of the responsibility of a God-blind or a 
God-deaf man, but reflect how awful is our responsibility 
if we be already in possession of this gift of faith-sense. 
During this feeble appeal of mine He has been knocking at 
the door of some sinner s heart and stretching out the 
everlasting arms of love to receive him. I appeal to any 
doubter or hesitator reached by my words to exercise his 
faith and accept Him now and for ever. Step across the 
threshold of this world s slavery and sadness, and enter 
into a new and glorious Kingdom of liberty and joy to 
reign with Him through all eternity. 



CHAPTER IV 

PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

THE following brief study of the nature and functions 
of Prophecy is necessarily more or less incomplete, as the 
main object before us is to clear the way for the better 
understanding of the predictions contained in the book 
of Daniel. 

The common view, not only the view of the man in the 
street, but often that also of the man in the pew, is that 
Prophecy is mainly a matter of the foretelling of events. 
If you take this narrow view you are liable to find yourself 
confusing Prophecy with soothsaying, divination, and 
fortune-telling and the various methods of prying into the 
future which are forbidden by the law of Moses, and which 
history proves were practised by the heathen peoples from 
the earliest times. The Bible tells us also that these 
practices were resorted to by the Israelites themselves. 

We need not pause to speculate about the possibility 
of a faculty being possessed by some aberrantly-developed 
individuals, or mediums, by means of which they can fore 
tell future events. If such a power exists and it is more 
than doubtful it is something very different, being con 
demned by that very law which was the governing principle 
in the conduct and life of every true prophet in the Old 
Testament record, save perhaps Balaam. 

" There shall not be found among you any one that 
useth divination " ; and then follows the denunciation of 
six other special methods of spying into the unknown future. 

Primarily the prophet s function was to instruct the 
people by revealing God s law to them, to unfold the 
meaning of His Kingdom, and His dealings with them, and 

45 



46 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

especially to warn them of the results of disobedience 
and idolatry. The mere prediction or foretelling of events 
still in the future, and of stating when these events would 
occur, must be regarded as of great, but yet of less, import 
ance than the revelation of Himself and of His Kingdom. 

The first cardinal point in the study of Prophecy is to 
grasp that the prophetic office was confined or limited to 
the Hebrews. These were a chosen race, an elect people, 
a pure Theocracy a state or nation with God Himself 
as their ruler or head. There is no instance in the Bible 
of a prophet being sent to the heathen world with a 
message save in the case of Jonah. Many predictions occur 
about the fate of heathen nations, but these always had 
close relationship with the destinies of Israel, and they 
never were propagated as a gospel to those nations. 
Daniel had his visions and wrote his prophecies in Babylon, 
the then home of the Jews. 

We may regard the entire machinery of Prophecy con 
tained in the Oracles of God as a mighty organ with the 
pipes as the long succession of men from Enoch to Malachi, 
and onwards to John of Patmos. God stretches forth His 
hand, from time to time, and touches the keyboard 
when the mighty diapason rolls out with the thunder 
of Sinai, unfolding the Law, or the plaintive notes of 
Jeremiah bewail the sins and desolations of His people. 
Anon come pealing forth stern notes of anger, or trumpet 
tones of warning ; but ever in the interludes He plays 
on those keys which breathe sweet symphonies of hope and 
comfort predicting the coming of a Messiah and swelling 
into the triumphant promises of a return of His chosen 
people to the cherished land that He had sworn to be 
the heritage of their ancestors and their descendants for 
ever. 

I employ this figure not as a mere poetic flourish, but 
because my study of Prophecy has convinced me that the 
prophets were the mere mouthpieces of God s revelation 
and that in many cases, especially in their remote prophe 
cies, they had little or possibly no understanding of the 



PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 47 

real meaning of the message delivered through them, as we 
observe in some of Daniel s visions. They spake as the 
Holy Spirit breathed upon them in sleep, in dreams, or 
visions of the night, or, as in the wakeful hours He played 
upon His chosen instrument. The communication was, 
however, always accompanied by an unmistakable sensa 
tion which convinced the prophet that God had spoken 
to him directly and given him the command immediately 
to arise and proclaim the message which he had received. 

The nature of our brief survey compels me to confine 
myself to that part of Prophecy which is entirely concerned 
with prediction, or the foretelling of events. 

Looking at the subject from this narrower standpoint, 
we can easily divide these prophecies into two groups : 
Those which are as yet unfulfilled, and 
Those which have already come to pass. 

The unfulfilled predictions apply to the latter days to 
the time of the end ; this is a department of theology usually 
termed Eschatology and Apocalyptic. As it does not im 
mediately concern us directly, a few brief remarks will 
enable us to put it aside till we arrive at Daniel s predictions. 
There are four chief unfulfilled prophecies in the Bible : 

(1) That foretelling the return of the Children of Israel 
to the land of promise not to Palestine, but to that larger 
tract of country extending from the river Euphrates to 
the Mediterranean Sea, at present occupied by British troops 
and capable of supporting, several times over, the numbers 
of Jews scattered throughout the world at present. 

This is a prophecy repeated and re-repeated over and 
over again, and running through many of the books in 
the Bible from Genesis to Revelation. It is one of the 
most definite and unmistakable predictions in the sacred 
record. 

(2) The fall of Antichrist the first little horn of Daniel 
believed by the majority of Biblical students, since the 
Reformation, to refer to Papal Rome ; but this view is 
stoutly opposed by many profound scholars. 

(3) The fall of Daniel s second little horn arising in 
5 



48 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

the north-west. This is regarded by many as applying 
to the Mohammedan Power. 

(4) The Second Coming of Jesus Christ : " Ye men of 
Galilee, why stand ye looking into heaven ? This Jesus, 
which was received up from you into heaven, shall so come 
in like manner as ye beheld Him going into heaven." 

I think it is certain that all these four predictions will 
be fulfilled about the same time at the termination of the 
Gentile period. To-morrow morning we may see Him 
come in the clouds, or it may be that this glorious sight is 
reserved for our descendants a thousand years hence. I 
have my own deep convictions on the subject, which are 
interwoven with every fibre of my being. But I know that 
millions of devout Christians during the last nineteen 
centuries have had similar convictions as they pondered 
over the closing words in the sacred volume : " Yea ; I 
come quickly. Amen ; come, Lord Jesus." 

The fulfilled prophecies stand upon an entirely different 
plane. They are so numerous that it is difficult to count 
them. When I sat down yesterday to think over this ad 
dress I foolishly thought of enumerating them, with a brief 
remark on the most important ones ; but time will only 
permit a few words to be said of their general character. 

If I voiced a feeling which has been growing stronger 
in my breast of late years it must be in words which would 
sound as an indictment of the teachers of all our Christian 
Churches. If I accuse them of a grave dereliction of duty 
I shall state the reasons of my charge, and, if I be doing 
them an injustice, may God forgive my presumption and 
erroneous judgment. 

I regard these fulfilled prophecies of the Bible as only 
third in value to the gift of Jesus and to our sixth special 
sense of faith in God ; indeed, I am tempted at times to 
appraise them equally, but I think this is probably going 
too far. I cannot remember ever hearing a single sermon 
preached in any church on the value or general importance 
of the testimony of these fulfilled purposes of God. We 
hear incidental references to a few of them, and of course 



PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 49 

powerful discourses upon one or two of the Messianic 
prophecies ; but, for the most part, my personal experiences 
lead me to believe that their value as a whole is taken for 
granted. 

The honest doubter who approaches the study of this 
subject with a perfectly open mind will find not only 
enough to give him faith, but as he profoundly studies all 
these fulfilled predictions, even his newly acquired faith 
will develop into a certainty, and he will lift his hands in 
grateful adoration, crying out, " Oh my God, Thou hast 
planted my feet upon a rock which never can be moved. 
I know now that everything which can happen to me and 
to the whole human race since the dawn of creation has 
been beneficently planned by Thee from the beginning. 
Not a sparrow can fall without Thy knowledge and con 
sent." 

How comes it, then, that so little is made of these price 
less treasures ? Two reasons for this neglect are forth 
coming. One is that the entire subject of unfulfilled pro 
phecy has become a matter of ridicule and jest, because of 
the writings of the prophecy - mongers who constitute 
themselves, not interpreters, but prophets who fix with 
confidence and certainty the exact date to the day and hour 
when these predictions shall see their accomplishment. 

There has perhaps been no year since the days of Gregory 
the Great (who was the predecessor of the first Pope), 
which has not been singled out by these fanatics and con 
fidently prophesied as the terminal year of this planet s 
existence ; nay, even the very day being fixed with cer 
tainty. 

For the greater part of my own life I was under the 
influence or spell of this well -merited ridicule and prevented 
from making any serious study of Prophecy. 

I shall give you one of several personal experiences 
with these modern prophets. Some years ago, on my visiting 
a professional friend and devout Christian gentleman who 
had seen a good deal of the world and come into contact 
with several of the religions of the East, he solemnly 



50 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

informed me that the end of the world was to be exactly 
six or eight weeks from that day and at the hour of noon. 
I had no other reason to doubt his sanity, but in order to 
test his sincerity I reminded him that a week previously 
he had told me that he was negotiating for a lease for his 
residence. His reply was that he was compelled to do this 
to satisfy his wife, who had not mastered the science of 
Prophecy as he had. About ten days afterwards he drove 
up very hurriedly to my door and, bursting into my study, 
he proclaimed that he had news for me from London. 
That morning he had got a circular letter from the secretary 
of his school of prophets, which showed that a serious mis 
take had been made in their calculations. They had for 
gotten to allow for the loss of the day when the sun stood 
still on Gibeon and the moon in the valley of Ajalon. 
Therefore the final catastrophe would be deferred for 
twenty-four hours more, and he was anxious that I should 
not suffer disappointment on the particular Wednesday 
which he had previously named. I recalled to memory 
a book which I had read in my boyhood, the title of which 
was, I think, Louis Napoleon the Destined Monarch of the 
World, and another by Piazzi Smyth, F.R.S., on the pre 
dictions enshrined in the great pyramid, and I thereupon 
vowed that if any of these modern prophets came before 
me, as a physician, I would not hesitate to sign a committal 
for admission to a mental hospital. Quite a large crop of 
them has sprung up during and since the war. 

If by any flight of imagination I could conceive myself 
in the exalted position of a minister of the Gospel, I think 
I could not muster up enough moral courage to preach on 
these apocalyptic or eschatological predictions, forecasting 
the time oj the end in the face of the discredit and ridicule at 
present existing. I might feel constrained to speak about 
the end oj tine times, which is quite another matter. 

The subject is one which should only be approached by 
what I would call level-headed people, and we are distinctly 
told that the wise shall understand them in the latter days 
though the language is purposely couched in words of 



PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 51 

mystery so that we may not know the exact time or the 
particular manner in which the fulfilment is to be accom 
plished. When the accomplishment is effected, every wise 
man and fool will be convinced that these final happenings 
were planned and predicted by the great Architect of the 
Universe many thousands of years before. 

Some of the fulfilled prophecies were clothed in the same 
mysterious language, as we shall see later on, and for similar 
reasons. 

The second cause of the neglect of the study and teaching 
of the fulfilled prophecies is a very interesting and important 
one, and requires to be considered at greater length. Here 
we are brought up directly face to face with the German 
Higher Criticism and its methods, and have to confront 
the host of Deists who, though they acknowledge the exist 
ence of a God, deny the possibility of all inspiration and 
hence of Prophecy. 

According to this system, if any event the subject of a 
prophecy comes to pass, its fulfilment must be a pure co 
incidence, or the prediction must have been such as any 
wise human seer might have made from his knowledge of 
the trend of events occurring around him, or it was a fraudu 
lent record of an event which had already happened before 
the prediction was made. This latter is the favourite 
method employed by the Higher Critics and by which they 
have erected their baseless fabric which is to replace our 
Bible. 

With an ingenuity which one would say was truly 
Satanic or diabolical only we must give Satan his due ; 
whatever we may think of his Majesty, he is not a German 
critic with this cunning these philosophers have altered 
the chronology of nearly every book in the Old Testament, 
including the Pentateuch, which must have been written, 
they say, after the return from the Babylonian Exile, 
about 500 years B.C. ; that is more than a thousand years 
after the time of Moses and Moses, you will remember, 
with these critics, was never a personality, only an astral 
myth. 



52 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

At first this theory about the date of the earlier books 
was built upon what they called the " fact " that there was 
no possibility of such a thing as writing in the time of Moses, 
much less in the age of the patriarchs. But the explorer 
brought to light a long document written on stone by 
Amraphel, one of the kings mentioned in the Genesis 
account of Abraham s great battle. Nothing daunted 
by this incontrovertible evidence, they proceeded to prove 
beyond the shadow of a doubt that all the older books 
were written at least 1,000 years after Moses. The former 
theory having been thus exploded, a new one had to be 
discovered ; this was entirely speculative, and absolutely 
visionary. I must digress for a moment as the mention of 
this futile argument has a distinct bearing on our subject. 
These unbelieving critics denying revelation maintain that 
the religion of the Hebrews gradually grew, evolved or 
developed entirely by human aid, out of the ancient myths 
of the old heathen nations surrounding them a kind of 
adaptation of the Darwinian theory applied to the growth 
of religion. Therefore it was utterly impossible that the 
advanced ideas of a personal God recorded in the first 
five books of the Bible could have been known or current 
before the period of the Exile. Therefore these books were 
most certainly written after the return, and in this sweeping 
assumption is included even the book of the Psalms. 

Our next silencing fact which these critics had to face 
is a Biblical record so exact and minute that one is almost 
forced to believe that it was inserted by the finger of 
God Himself, who had foreseen the appearance on the earth 
during the later days of this type of Antichrist. 

Israel had lapsed into the grossest forms of idola 
try during the centuries between the death of Solomon 
and the Exile. The temple worship and the edifice itself 
were falling into ruin when, about 50 years before the Cap 
tivity, the good king Josiah ascended the throne of David 
in Jerusalem and started to repair the dilapidations in 
Solomon s Temple. In a partially ruined portion of the 
sacred building Hilkiah the priest discovered the long-lost 



PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 53 

book of the Law, Deuteronomy. He brought it to the king ; 
Huldah the prophetess, the scribes, elders, priests and the 
entire congregation of Jews were summoned to hear the 
lost Lawunfolded daily to them, and a great religious revival 
sprung up. How do the critics meet this succinct narrative ? 
They unblushingly affirm, in order to support their dogma 
about the date of the Law, that the book was a Jorgery, 
a fraud of the priests, in order to impose on the people 
better terms for their own material or worldly prosperity. 
That a palpable fraud of this kind could have succeeded 
is beyond the belief of any fair-minded man ; moreover, 
the position of the priests suffered rather than gained by 
the discovery of the lost book. Not one scintilla of evi 
dence or even of probability has ever been produced of the 
fraudulent nature of this incident ; nevertheless, with even 
greater unanimity than is visible in their other fictions, the 
forgery is not put forward as a theory or hypothesis, but 
as an unquestionable fact. It is one of the foundation- 
stones of their creed and they constantly reiterate " that 
it is a fact now accepted by all scholars ("all scholars" 
may be accepted as meaning all unbelievers who scribble 
on only purely rationalist lines). I believe that I have duly 
examined every argument of these men, and I have not 
found a single statement regarding the date and authenticity 
of the first six books of the Bible which rests upon any 
firmer basis than this subterfuge of regarding the lost book 
of the Law being a palpable forgery. We shall now exa 
mine their next argument or assumption. 

The Higher Critics, having established to their satisfaction 
that the Hebrews had no law for the guidance of their 
Theocracy till the book of Deuteronomy, forged by the 
High-priest Hilkiah, was given to them in the reign of 
Josiah (640 B.C.), next proceed to wipe out every inspired 
or prophetic element in the remaining books, including the 
laws for the priestly offerings of the Temple as laid down 
in Leviticus. 

This they achieve by a similarly convenient theory of 
forgery by assuming that this book, with the chief parts 



54 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

of Exodus and Numbers, was written by Ezra (about 460 
B.C.), and imposed upon the Jews on his return to Jerusalem 
as the genuine Law of Moses. A recent writer Rev. J. 
Politeyan, 1 refutes this assumption by archaeological 
evidence of an indisputable nature. A colony of Jews 
existed in Elephantine, in Southern Egypt, in the Pathros 
district. They are mentioned as early as the time of 
Hosea, who prophesied before the reign of Uzziah, and 
more specifically they are named in the first verse of Jere 
miah xliv., and also in Isaiah. The colony therefore existed 
some centuries before the time of Ezra. A few years ago 
some papyrus letters were found in the ruins of Elephantine 
showing that they possessed a temple like that of Jeru 
salem, dedicated to Jehovah " in the times of the Kings of 
Egypt " certainly before Persian rule. These letters 
show that they had also the three principal Jewish sacri 
fices named in words identical with those described in the 
book of Leviticus Meal Offerings, Incense, and Burnt 
Offerings. These sacrifices were conducted, as in Leviticus, 
by the priests. Another letter states that they kept the 
Feast of the Passover. Thus Mr. Politeyan states that 
" All this shows us that Elephantine Jews had their temple 
in the time of the Egyptian Pharaohs, and observed the 
Mosaic Law as regards sacrifices and priests a long time 
before Ezra lived. Neither were these novel practices, for 
the people were deeply affected at their inability to keep 
the old Mosaic Law. So the Law of Moses must have 
existed a long time before Ezra lived ; therefore the assump 
tion of the Higher Critics has no foundation in fact ! " 

Thus, one by one, the assumptions of the destructive 
critics are being proved to be baseless, by monumental 
or archaeological evidences brought to light by the spade 
and pickaxe of the explorer. When we come to examine 
their so-called " evidence " of the forgery of the book 
of Daniel, four hundred years after his time, we shall see 
how every shred of their arguments is met by the stern 

i Biblical Discoveries in Egypt, Palestine and Mesopotamia, 2nd Edition, 
1921. 



PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 55 

truths written on stone during the lifetime of the Jewish 
exile and prophet. 

This method of destroying our Bible has at least the 
merit of simplicity, as most ingenious devices turn out 
ultimately simple when analysed. 

Make the date of the books as written one thousand 
years after they were in reality composed by their inspired 
authors, and you enable the destructive critic to affirm 
that the fulfilled prophecies which are contained in them 
were obviously not predictions at all, but fraudulent nar 
ratives written after the facts or events had happened. 
Not all the predictions however, for we have for example 
the Messianic prophecies, which we shall examine carefully 
in detail. These they attempt to discredit by an even 
bolder method : they deny that they have any reference 
to Christ at all, being figurative references to various condi 
tions of the Jewish nation or individuals, wrapped up 
in the extravagant imagery of the ancient Hebrew seers. 
When a specific utterance is met with which cannot be 
explained away by these ordinary assumptions there is 
usually little hesitation in condemning it as a later gloss 
or interpolation, or minimizing its importance by some 
generalization as that employed by Canon Cheyne when 
he says that " Jewish literature is mostly borrowed mytho- 

logy." 

I fear that many of our religious teachers feel that if they 
employ as a text any of these early prophecies, such as the 
dying predictions of Jacob or that of the 430 years in 
Egypt, they are likely to be reminded of the opinion of a 
great Biblical scholar like Stade that there is no evidence 
that the Israelites were ever in Egypt at all. A similar 
objection may be made about expounding the prophecies 
regarding Canaan, Shem, Ham, Japhet, Esau, Ishmael, 
and other patriarchs. It would seem that the present-day 
attitude is to regard any teacher who would attempt to 
draw a lesson from the fulfilment of these prophecies 
in Genesis as a man behind the times and ignorant of 
the advances made by modern rationalistic scholars and 



56 PROPHECY AND UNBELIEF 

accepted authorities. Shift the dice-box as they may for 
it is a pure game of guess with these critics and there 
stares them in the face such an utterance as : 

The sceptre shall not depart from J udah 

Nor a lawgiver from between his feet 

Until Shiloh come ; 

And unto him shall the obedience of the people be. 

But for what we have received through the promise 
made to Abraham " in thee shall all the peoples of the 
earth be blessed " we, to-day, would know probably as 
much about God as Stanley s little men of the forest did or 
the American Indians when discovered by Columbus. Let 
us cease to despise the poor Jew. Let us remember that 
of the sixty-six books of our Bible, every one was written 
by a descendant of Abraham, except the Gospel of Luke 
and the Acts (Job s author was almost certainly a 
Hebrew). Let us not forget that the early Christian 
Church was almost entirely composed of Jews. 

We are too apt to forget that the religion of the Hebrews, 
as laid down in the Old Testament and perfected and 
consummated in the New, is now the religion of all the 
civilized nations of the earth. 



CHAPTER V 

THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

THE central pivot on which the whole scheme of Divine 
Revelation rests or revolves is to be found by a study 
of the prophecies which foretold the advent of Jesus 
Christ. 

Professor Flint, in his St. Giles Lecture, condenses the 
whole subject into a few pregnant sentences : " All the 
parts of the Old Testament system contribute each in its 
place to raise, sustain, and guide faith in the coming of 
a mysterious and mighty Saviour a perfect Prophet, 
perfect Priest, and perfect King, such as Christ alone of all 
men can be supposed to have been. This broad general 
fact, this vast and strange correlation of correspondence 
cannot be in the least affected by questions of the Higher 
Criticism as to the authorship, time of origination, and 
mode of composition of the various books of the Old 
Testament. . . . Answer all these questions in the way 
which the boldest and most rationalistic criticism of Ger 
many or Holland ventures to suggest ; accept in every 
properly critical question the conclusions of the most 
advanced critical schools, and what will follow ? Merely 
this, that those who do so will have, in various respects, 
to alter their views as to the manner and method in which 
the ideal of the Messiah s Person, work and Kingdom was, 
point by point, line by line, evolved and elaborated. There 
will not, however, be a single Messianic word or sentence, 
not a single line or feature the fewer in the Old Testament." 

As I said once before, as regards fundamentals, in contrast 
to these alterations of dates, textual corrections, etc., there 
can be no compromise with the German Higher Criticism. 

57 



58 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

Either the Book of God, as we call it, is an inspired record 
or it is a fraud like the lost book of the Law found in the 
dilapidated Temple or the imposition of the other books 
of Moses on the Jewish people by Ezra. 

If you wish a demonstration of where the compromising 
spirit will lead you, read some of the papers, delivered 
recently at the Conference of Churchmen at Girton 
College, Cambridge. The pure, undiluted doctrine of 
advanced Unitarianism is unblushingly unfolded, running 
through some of the addresses I have read every one of 
them in the official report. There is advanced the compro 
mise " Jesus was the Son of God," but every Christian is 
also a Son of God in the same sense, and so on, and so on. 
Pages of hair-splitting metaphysical speculation about the 
extent of His much manhood and little Godhead. How 
His knowledge of the demoniacal possessions which He con 
quered was no better than that of the men around Him, 
and His knowledge of the future was limited and imperfect. 
But, incredible as it may seem, though there are sceptical 
references to the Virgin Birth which cannot be proved, 
there is scarcely a word about His own prediction of His 
death and rising again in three days, or of the unquestion 
able fact of His resurrection and ascension witnessed by so 
many. We cannot but hang down our heads in shame 
when we think that the repudiation of such heresy was 
left to the prelates of the Roman Church. 

We can distinguish a distinct difference between the 
aims or objects of the old prophecies. Whilst all of them 
differed widely from the heathen soothsaying, in being 
never employed with the intention of satisfying an idle 
curiosity, but for the revelation of divine truth and for 
the furtherance of the Kingdom of God, nevertheless we 
constantly find short-timed predictions which have no 
relationship to that one divine event to which the whole 
creation moves. Such are the prophecy of Sennacherib s 
catastrophe, the speedy death of the false prophet in 
lj Kings xiii., the fate of Jezebel, and scores of others in 
Isaiah, Jeremiah and Chronicles. 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 59 

These predictions were made obviously to establish the 
authenticity of the divine message by the prophet, and their 
speedy fulfilment was a guarantee of the weightier mes 
sages, delivered by the same herald, being directly from 
God Himself. 

The same object was clearly visible in some of the long- 
timed predictions. Thus Daniel foretold the fate of the 
Babylonian, Median, Persian, and Greek Empires. It was 
probably the divine intention that, as these predictions 
were fulfilled to the very letter during the succeeding 
centuries, the faith in a coming Messiah would grow 
stronger and stronger up till the Roman period. 

Much has been written about the style of the language 
used in Biblical Prophecy. As a rule, it may be said, when 
the predicted event is close at hand the language is so 
clear and unmistakable that the event, when it happens, 
is immediately recognized as the subject of the prediction. 
It is usually otherwise when the events foretold are very 
remote : here the prophet is face to face with the difficulty 
of expounding a message or vision which has no resemblance 
to the things around him in words which would be intelli 
gible to his auditors or cotemporaries. As in the vision 
of St. Paul, the revelation was in unspeakable words which 
it was not lawful for man to utter. Hence the introduction 
of symbols, and it is the use of symbolic language which 
has made the book of the Revelation of St. John almost a 
sealed oracle. 

No one can treat the subject of Prophecy without having 
ever in his mind the Messianic predictions. We may 
perhaps best get a view of their importance to mankind 
by striving to conceive what would be left to us if they 
were removed from the Old Testament. Truly a mighty 
maze without a plan a world without sun, moon or stars. 
And yet the very existence of these prophecies has been 
disputed and has proved a difficulty, a stumbling-block 
and a rock of offence to many thousands of earnest and 
honest doubters, who have grieved in bitter anguish, as 
they found it impossible to believe that any single one 



60 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

of them bore an unmistakable message from God about 
a future Redeemer of sinful men. The unbeliever acclaims 
that if God meant that these special predictions should be 
applied to the coming of His Son, Jesus Christ, the lan 
guage in which they were couched must have been clear, 
definite, and unmistakable. Many a believer, moreover, 
has grave doubts about some few of them which have been 
insisted upon by divines as tests of orthodoxy. 

I shall meet these difficulties at once by accepting the 
argument about the vagueness of many of the prophecies 
affirmed by various commentators as belonging to the 
Messianic group. Nay, I shall go further, and shock some 
of my auditors by condemning the attitude of any Christian 
who holds to each single Messianic prediction as if his 
eternal salvation depended upon the acceptance of it. 

It was an absolute necessity that there must have been 
a free-will choice given to every Jew to accept or reject 
the Messiah. If Daniel, Isaiah, or any other great prophet 
had proclaimed in clear and unmistakable language the 
year, the day, the hour, and the exact spot on the earth 
where Christ s birth was to take place, His mission would 
have been a failure an impossible thing. The Jewish 
hierarchy would have immediately accepted Him, and the 
entire Jewish race would have followed their lead like a 
flock of sheep through a gap and there would have been no 
scope for the exercise of a personal faith. 

Exactly the same thing would have taken place as that 
which caused the greatest catastrophe which the Christian 
world has ever witnessed. When the Roman Emperor 
issued his decree that paganism was to be rejected and 
every citizen was to become a Christian, the Church almost 
perished. If you look at any ancient map you will see that 
the entire Mediterranean littoral was thickly studded with 
virile church centres, which extended eastwards into the 
hinterland of Syria and Asia, southwards into Africa, 
and northwards into Europe. There was no room left 
for the growth of individual faith, which almost immediately 
began to wither and gradually moral death set in to pre- 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 61 

pare the way for the false faith of Mohammed and his king 
dom. 

The Messianic prophecies were obviously therefore for a 
wise purpose clothed in obscure language. If we attempt 
to put ourselves mentally in the position of a devout Jew 
of, say, 3,000 years ago, we certainly would have got a firm 
hold of the cardinal belief that a deliverer or Messiah was to 
come some time in the near or distant future. But under 
what conditions His Kingdom was to be established, what 
His personality was to be like and with what attributes He 
would be endowed, these indeed were almost inscrutable 
mysteries. It seems impossible that the Jewish mind 
could have conceived the idea that their deliverer was to 
suffer the ignominy of a criminal s death, notwithstanding 
the warnings in the Psalms and in the book of Isaiah. 

Yet every one of these obscure or mysterious predictions, 
with His advent, became as luminous as the sun. They 
fulfilled to the letter the divine purpose and effected their 
object to put the seal of incontrovertible testimony 
on His personality and mission, once He had appeared. 

Taken together, they form the most marvellously com 
plete demonstration of the fulfilment of any scheme or 
plan, either human or divine, which has ever been witnessed 
in the world s chequered history. You are all familiar 
with the toy maps made in detached pieces of wood to 
teach children something of the geography of the earth s 
surface. If you had only one of these pieces in your hand 
you could make little, or nothing of it, but all pieced to 
gether, give you a perfect picture of each continent, ocean, 
sea and island. So God intends that we should view these 
different predictions which have been revealed to His 
children and thus get a complete view of the oneness of 
the Old and New Testaments, which is the rock on which 
Christianity is built. 

Let us glance briefly at the complete picture, dealing 
only with the most striking pieces of the divine mosaic. 
Beginning with the primeval promise made to Adam before 
his expulsion from the garden that his seed should bruise 



62 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

the serpent s head, we trace it through Noah, Abraham 
and Isaac. In Jacob we get the definite promise that the 
Deliverer was to arise from amongst the tribe of Judah. 
Moses tells the chosen people that the Lord God would 
raise them up a Prophet like unto himself, and there 
was not a prophet who ever resembled Moses till Jesus 
came. 

Next God speaks through the heathen Balaam, and tells 
Balak that " Behold, a star shall come forth out of Jacob, 
and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel." 

It was the frequent references to the sure covenant which 
the Lord had made with David, whose throne was to last for 
ever and ever, which we get in Samuel and the Psalms 
and in Isaiah, which led the devout Jews to look for the 
coming Messiah as springing from the lineage of David. 
Here I would like to touch upon a matter which has proved 
a sore trouble and difficulty to many a sincere believer. I 
refer to the two genealogies of Jesus Christ : one given 
by Matthew and contradicted in several important links 
by Luke s family tree. Out of this both Jews and infidels 
have attempted to make great capital. It is a very difficult 
subject to investigate, and I have gone into each link in 
both the chains and I feel certain that it can be thoroughly 
established that Matthew s genealogy is that of Joseph, 
and Luke s is that of Mary. Here again we can get perfect 
harmony in a matter of vital importance to the funda 
mentals of Christianity. 

Let us return to the Old Testament prophecies regarding 
the more personal or individualist details. Isaiah (vii. 14) 
foretells, " The Lord Himself shall give you a sign. Be 
hold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call 
liis name Immanuel." His home was to be in Galilee, 
" where the people who walked in darkness " were " to see 
a great light." He was however to be born in Bethlehem, 
as prophesied by Micah, about 700 years before His birth, in 
the remarkably specific statement : " And thou Bethlehem 
Ephratah, which are little to be amongst the thousands 
of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto me that is 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 63 

to be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth are from of old, 
from everlasting." 

Between the time of His birth and that of His ministry 
he was to be " called out of Egypt." 

He was to " preach good tidings unto the poor, to bind 
up the broken-hearted, proclaim liberty to the captives, and 
the acceptable year of the Lord." Zechariah prophesies, 
" Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, shout, O daughter of 
Jerusalem ; behold thy King cometh unto thee ; He is just 
and having salvation, lowly and riding upon an ass, even 
upon a colt, the foal of an ass. He shall speak peace unto 
the nations, and His dominion shall be from sea to sea, from 
the river to the ends of the earth." Isaiah foretells that 
He was to be despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows 
and acquainted with grief, and as one from whom men 
would hide their faces. He was to be wounded for our 
transgressions, a lamb led to the slaughter and dumb 
before his shearers. He was to be scourged, and by His 
stripes we are to be healed. 

He was sold, as prophesied in Zechariah xi. 12 for thirty 
pieces of silver, which were to be cast to the potter. In 
Matthew this prophecy (xxvii. 9) of the betrayal is quoted 
as from Jeremiah (as sometimes the Jews loosely referred 
to the division of the Bible containing the works of the 
prophets as the book of Jeremiah, because the writing of this 
prophet stood first on their list). We have the remarkable 
prediction detailing His death with the wicked and His 
burial in the sepulchre of the rich Arimathean in Isaiah 
liii. 9. 

The Psalmist tells us that His soul was not to be left in 
Sheol ; moreover, He was to arise again, for His body was 
not to suffer corruption (Psalm xvi. 10). In the first verse 
of Psalm ex. there is a prophecy which is of much importance 
and of the greatest value : He was to sit on the right hand 
of the Lord in heaven till His enemies became His footstool. 
That this verse in its peculiar wording is to be regarded as 
a prophecy, not only of His ascension, but of His Divinity, 
is proven by the Redeemer s own quotation of it when, 
6 



64 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

arguing with the unbelieving Pharisees, He put the ques 
tion to them, " What think ye of Christ ? Whose Son is 
He ? " as narrated in Matthew xxii. 45. The writer to 
the Hebrews uses this same verse as proof of the divine 
nature of Christ in the first chapter of his Epistle. 

In addition to these specific prophecies we have many 
others which were regarded as fulfilled at the Crucifixion ; 
as, for example, the figurative directions given about the 
paschal lamb for the Passover feast in Exodus xii. 46 : 
" Not a bone of Him shall be broken " (see John xix. 36), 
and again in Zechariah xii. 10, " They shall look upon Him 
whom they have pierced." 

I have left one prophecy to the last. It is for me the 
most interesting in the Old Testament, for reasons which 
I shall mention presently. It is the twenty-second Psalm. 
Here we get a startling and thrilling picture of the Cruci 
fixion, as if it were painted by an eye-witness, though 
written more than 1,000 years before the event. Let us 
note, before we read it, that in all human probability 
death by the method of crucifixion had never been wit 
nessed by a Jew in the time of David ; as you know, their 
death sentence was carried out by stoning, though they 
did not hesitate to hang their captive enemies. I can 
find no evidence in Josephus or any other ancient historian 
which could lead one to suspect that the Israelites were 
practically acquainted with this mode of punishment ; 
the ferocious Assyrians probably practised it occasionally, 
as the " cultured " Germans are said to have revived it in 
the early stages of the late war. 

If we are correct in this assumption it will greatly en 
hance the value and force of the prophecy. Let us solemnly 
strive to visualize the crucifixion scene, though it cannot 
be done without harassing our feelings. We see Jesus 
for hours nailed to the cross by hands and feet, tortured with 
pain ; suffering parching thirst ; naked under a burning 
Eastern sun. Below a jeering rabble bitterly mocking 
Him with taunts to come down and save Himself ; vinegar 
and gall are thrust up to His scorched lips. A small group 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 65 

of mercenary wretches are struggling to secure possession 
of the few articles of clothing which had been removed 
from His body before the nailing process and the elevation 
of the cross into the hole in the ground. Think of the 
agony caused by the penetration of the coarse and strong 
nails or bolts as they are driven in through flesh and bones, 
and the awful jar to every nerve, joint, bone and muscle, 
as the heavy cross of wood, with its victim attached, is 
lifted up and suddenly dropped down into the deep hole 
or socket in the ground. 

More than a thousand years before, God had placed His 
fingers on the keyboard of His great organ of prophecy 
and there pealed forth in notes of human anguish and woe 
words which we have no difficulty in realizing as if we were 
hearing our blessed Redeemer Himself cry out from the 
cross. Let us reverently and with awe listen to Him : 

But I am a worm, and no man ; 

A reproach of men, and despised of the people. 

All they that see me laugh me to scorn ; 

They shoot the lip, they shake the head, saying, 

Commit, thyself unto the Lord ; let Him deliver him ; 

Seeing He delighteth in him. 

They gape upon me with their mouth, 

As a ravening and a roaring lion. 

I am poured out like water, 

Arid all my bones are out of joint ; 

My heart is like wax ; 

It is melted in the midst of my bowels. 

My strength is dried up like a potsherd ; 

And my tongue cleave th to my jaws ; 

And Thou hast brought me into the dust of death. 

For dogs have compassed me ; 

The assembly of evil-doers have inclosed me ; 

They pierced my hands and my feet. 

I may tell all my bones ; 

They look and stare upon me. 

They part my garments among them, 

And upon my vesture do they cast lots. . . . 

They shall come and shall declare His righteousness 

Unto a people that shall be born, that He hath done it. 

In the sixty-ninth Psalm we find the only missing 
detail : 



66 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

Reproach hath broken my heart ; 

And I am full of heaviness ; 

I looked for some to take pity, 

But there was none ; 

And for comforters, but I found none. 

They gave me also gall for my meat ; 

And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. 

Heaven forbid that I should raise a doubt in the mind 
of any believer ; if what I am now going to say should do 
so, I shall lay the doubt at once. There was only one verse 
in the Bible which made my faith waver. It was the dying 
cry from the cross as recorded by Matthew and Mark : 
" My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me." I 
believed in the Divine nature of Jesus Christ, I believed 
that He was the Son of God, but how was it possible, being 
so, that He should accuse His Father of Jorsaking Him ? 
though we who believe in His Divinity have no difficulty 
in realizing the reality of His bodily suffering because of 
His human incarnation. The only refuge seemed to lie in 
the hope that these words were never uttered or were in 
accurately reported a method of interpretation which 
we condemn in the Higher Critics. Some theological con 
troversialists attempt to explain this dying exclamation 
by pointing out that Christ s death, being an offering for 
sin and, as representing sin itself, must have produced a 
temporary alienation for the moment from God. Such 
an assumption or theory, to most simple minds, can bring 
little comfort or light, and to me appeared both unnatural 
and irreverent. 

Here was this twenty-second Psalm of minute and de 
tailed prophecy of the Saviour s death ; how often must 
He have read it and pondered over it during His sojourn 
on earth ! Does it throw any light upon His mysterious 
death cry ? I shall never forget the time and the place 
when this light burst upon myself on an afternoon in London 
when reading over the late Primate Alexander s Lectures 
on the Psalms. This psalm opens with these exact words 
from the cross: "My, God, My God, why hast Thou 
forsaken Me," and I had not noticed the fact till then. 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 67 

With this light we can feel that we are eye-witnesses 
of the scene so minutely detailed and can fancy that we 
hear Jesus after uttering this cry, just before He expires, 
exclaim : " Read the twenty-second Psalm and you must 
now believe at last that it has all been foretold there ; 
and I am He of whom your prophet spoke." We need have 
no difficulty in realizing that this opening verse of the 
psalm was merely David s own personal note of sorrow 
expressed in the figurative language of the Hebrew pro 
phets, directing attention to the divinely inspired message 
which he had received, probably without his having any 
clear conception of the depth of the marvellous revelation 
vouchsafed to him. 

We thus see that a careful study of the picture-map 
of the world s Redeemer as constructed by the Old Testa 
ment prophets gives us minute details, many hundreds 
of years before His advent, of His 

Birth. 

Divinity. 

Ministry. 

Betrayal. 

Passion. 

Crucifixion. 

Death. 

Burial. 

Resurrection and 

Ascension. 

Is there anything missing in this wondrous series of 
predictions which we have but too briefly summarized ? 
Is there anything wanting to convince the most hardened 
unbeliever or the most unreasonable doubter ? If there 
is, it can only be that a definite notification of the exact 
date of the Messiah s expected arrival on our planet is not 
included in the series of prophecies. 

This was left to the prophet Daniel to foretell. Not to 
the year, month or week, but to the very day and hour 
was the Divine Sacrifice predicted in the great central 



68 THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 

prophecy of the seventy weeks made by the Babylonian 
captive. 

This, we shall see and minutely examine in a future 
study of the book of Daniel, but you must expect to find 
it veiled in language so mysterious that the believing Jew 
and the Gentile could only be certain of the truth of the 
tremendously important utterance after its actual occur 
rence. 

I have classified Prophecy as divisible into the two Bibli 
cal groups those which have been already clearly and 
unmistakably fulfilled, and those still awaiting their fulfil 
ment. There is a small group which belongs to either or 
both these groups. Let me conclude this lecture on Pro 
phecy with an example. I leave it with you, as a message 
from the lips of Messiah Himself. Without it the unity 
of the Old and New Testaments could hardly be said to be 
complete. It is contained in a text with which every one 
of you is familiar since childhood, but perhaps few have 
ever realized or recognized it as a prophecy or prediction. 
I never fully identified it as such till one never-to-be-for 
gotten spring afternoon in Palestine, though it is the most 
typical prophetic utterance handed down to the sons of 
men through our Bible. Strive to visualize the back 
ground which enabled it to start forward before me as a 
prophecy. 

I had walked over a part of the road travelled by His 
blessed feet from Nazareth village to the shore of the Sea 
of Galilee, when the sacred associations of the spot enabled 
me to call up a picture which was at first almost repellent, 
of Him who was the despised and rejected of men a 
fugitive and according to the respectable people of that 
time a vagabond who had not where to lay His head, 
who wandered about accompanied by a small rabble 
of peasant fishermen. I see Him lift up His hands and hear 
Him utter a cry which must have sounded to those about 
Him as the ravings of a distracted mind. It has already 
been fulfilled, and is to-day being fulfilled, and shall be 
continued to be fulfilled down the ages till we see Him 



THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES 69 

coming back again in the clouds. Think of it as a prophecy, 
as you walk home let each of us ask himself, " Has it been 
fulfilled in me ? " 

" Come unto Me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, 
and / will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn 
of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart, and ye shall find 
rest unto your souls. For My yoke is easy, and My labour 
is light." Don t be tempted to hesitate or procrastinate 
by the erroneous conception of the yoke don t confuse 
it with the idea of the " cross." It is but that kindest of all 
contrivances which makes the burden to be scarcely felt. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 

LET us glance for a brief moment at that portion of the 
history of the Jews which relates to the personality of 
Daniel and the date and authenticity of his book. I 
shall trouble you as little as possible with dates and 
will use only round numbers. Nebuchadnezzar invested 
Jerusalem about 600 B.C. in the third year of the reign of 
Jehoiakim, and then commenced the period known as the 
" Servitude." He allowed the conquered king to remain in 
Jerusalem and only carried away Daniel and a few other 
royal youths of the Jewish Court to Babylon. Eight years 
afterwards, the Jews having proved rebellious, there was 
a second siege, and most of the inhabitants of Jerusalem 
were carried with their king to Babylon. This commences 
the period known as the " Captivity." Nebuchadnezzar 
placed the wicked and treacherous King Zedekiah on the 
Jewish throne to rule over the remaining worthless rem 
nant, who sank into base idolatry. A third siege fol 
lowed, and the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem, its 
inhabitants, its Temple, by sword and fire ; they left the 
whole land of Judea a barren wilderness. From this dates 
the period of the " Desolations " (587 B.C.), which lasted 
seventy years, as prophesied by Jeremiah, and the ful 
filment was to the very day. 

The Jews began to return after the decree of Cyrus, 
who had conquered Babylon, and finally the walls of Jeru 
salem were rebuilt by Nehemiah (445 B.C.). From this 
period onwards we have practically no Bible history of the 
Jews. There is thus a chasm of silence from Malachi till 
the advent of Christ. It was not only a dumb period of 

70 



THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 71 

four to five hundred years in Jewish history, but it was a 
time of silence with God : He ceased to speak to His people 
through any prophet. Our own countryman, Archdeacon 
Charles of Westminster Abbey, has shown by his elaborate 
researches into the Apocryphal books that this so-called 
silent period was a time of intense religious activity 
and expectation, especially in the regions about Galilee, 
which contained numerous schools of seers. 

The Jewish people remained after the time of the return 
from the Captivity under the rule of the kings of Persia 
till the rise of the Greek Empire as foretold by Daniel. 
Alexander the Great, from about 330 B.C., and his generals 
and their descendants became the masters or rulers of 
the earth, including of course the Jews. Under the various 
Greek kings of Syria and Egypt the Jews enjoyed great 
favour and free liberty to worship and carry out the various 
ceremonial ordinances of their religion till the advent of the 
descendant of one of them Antiochus Epiphanes (176- 
164 B.C.). When this monster of wickedness and cruelty 
ascended the Syrian throne and reversed the policy of 
all his predecessors, he persecuted the Jews with great 
severity, forbade the rite of circumcision to be performed, 
compelled them to eat swines flesh, and when they resisted 
he besieged Jerusalem, defiled the Temple, and set up a 
statue of Jupiter on the Altar there. His oppressions led 
to the rising of the Jews and the Maccabean wars, when 
the Jewish people under Judas Maccabeus retook the 
city of Jerusalem and cleansed the Sanctuary (165 B.C.). 
Soon after this the Jews may be considered as a free nation 
more or less, and were ruled over by the descendants 
of the Maccabeans, either as High-priests or Kings, for 
100 years till Pompey captured Jerusalem for the Romans. 
About a quarter of a century afterwards finds Herod King 
of Judea, which brings the history down to the advent of 
Jesus Christ. A great deal of interest surrounds the per 
sonality of the wicked Antiochus Epiphanes in connection 
with the book of Daniel, as the Higher Critics contend that 
it was in the time of his reign that the book was really 



72 THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 

written. The eleventh chapter of Daniel deals with the 
various wars between the predecessors of Antiochus, 
and the prophecies are so marvellously precise that some 
of the more moderate critics find great difficulty in believing 
that they were issued before the events. In this connection 
we have the edifying spectacle of one set of the critics 
complaining that Daniel s prophecies are so vague as to be 
unintelligible, whilst another set maintain that they are 
so specific and precise as to be utterly incredible. 

From what we have seen of the methods of the German 
critics and of those English Biblical scholars who blindly 
follow their lead, it becomes obvious why the book of 
Daniel is singled out for attack by every rationalistic writer 
who refuses to acknowledge the supernatural. This book 
contains a minute narrative of some of the most striking 
miracles recorded in the Bible, and a whole series of pro 
phecies so marvellously precise in the date of their fulfil 
ment that, if its genuineness can be proven, the whole 
case for the German Higher Criticism falls to pieces. 

If its authenticity can be clearly established the book 
becomes the most valuable of all the oracles of God, and 
any denial of its divine inspiration and revelation becomes 
a sheer absurdity. 

This is the clear issue before any student who attempts 
a serious study of this short book of only twelve chapters. 
Cyrus returned from his Eastern campaign to reign in 
Babylon in the year 536 B.C., and soon after Daniel finished 
his book. The German critics affirm that they have satis 
fied themselves the book was written by the pseudo 
(or false) Daniel about the year 165 B.C., in the reign of the 
tyrant Antiochus Epiphanes, and about the time of his 
death. 

You will observe by selecting this later date, which is 
nearly 400 years after the time of the real Daniel, they hope 
at one stroke to prove that, the prophecies at that time 
having been fulfilled, the predictions were fraudulent 
having been made after the event. You will now under 
stand that the term " avowed fiction," applied to the book 



THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 73 

of Daniel by Canon Farrar, is a kind of apology for the 
forger, and here let me remind you of what I laid down in 
a previous address that there can be no compromise 
whatever between the rationalistic doctrine and the Chris 
tian belief : we are dealing with either the truth or a lie. 
It is this spirit of compromise which all through Professor 
Driver s book on Daniel makes it such very sad reading. 
Common honesty compels you to take one side or the other ; 
there can be no such thing as reconcilement between the 
rationalist who rejects inspiration and the Christian 
whose faith is based on revelation. However, I hope to 
show you, later on, that we can meet the sceptic on his 
own selected ground of battle, and prove that even his 
own chosen late date of the book leaves predictions un 
touched which came to their true fulfilment a century and 
a half after. 

I have been studying the book of Daniel for only the 
short period of three years, but I have been closely reading 
a great deal of the literature and criticism of scholars who 
have spent ten times this period in researches concerning 
its contents and their historical background. I have 
seldom missed an opportunity of asking help from any 
religious teacher with whom I came in close contact, and 
I have been amazed at the almost invariable result. All 
have accepted it as a fact that " the scholars " had firmly 
established the date of the book as long after the events 
prophesied in it had been fulfilled, and that it was written 
by some other person than the Babylonian statesman ; that 
it was full of historical inaccuracies, and contradictions ; 
some confessed candidly that they had ceased seriously 
to read it many years ago, and had never preached a 
sermon from it. 

At this stage of our study I wish to say that my own 
modest attempt to get into the heart of Daniel, after care 
fully weighing all the evidence and assumptions put 
forth to disprove its genuineness, has firmly convinced me 
that at the present time every argument and assumption 
has been fairly and unanswerably met. I arrived at 



74 THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 

this conclusion before I had seen the two small volumes 
by Sir Robert Anderson, whose official position in the 
Secret Service of England, had for many years educated 
and trained him in the grave science of sifting out and 
weighing the value of evidence, as few men have ever 
been trained. He has so covered the broad field of contro 
versy in his book entitled Daniel in the Critic s Den and 
in The Coming Prince 1 that I should not have thought 
of addressing any audience on the subject of Daniel 
unless I attempted to deal with several aspects of the 
question which he has not touched, and I might say in 
passing that I find it impossible to agree with some of his 
views about the unfulfilled or apocalyptical prophecies 
in the book. Grattan Guinness is here a truer interpreter 
on some points. But with this subject we have nothing 
to do at present. 

I was moreover encouraged to come before you, after 
seeing a paragraph in one of the books just mentioned : 
" True prophetic study is an inquiry into these unsearch 
able counsels, these deep riches of Divine wisdom and 
knowledge. Beneath the light it gives the Scriptures are 
no longer a heterogeneous compilation of religious books, 
but one harmonious whole from which no part could be 
omitted without destroying the completeness of the 
revelation. And yet the study is disparaged in the Churches 
as being of no practical importance. If the Churches are 
leavened with scepticism at this moment, their neglect 
of prophetic study in this its true and broader aspect has 
done more than all the rationalism of Germany to promote 
the evil. Sceptics may boast of learned Professors and 
Doctors of Divinity among their ranks, but we may chal 
lenge them to name a single one of the number who has 
given proof that he knows anything whatever of these 
deeper mysteries of revelation." 

To review all the arguments, serious and frivolous, 
which the German Higher Criticism has brought forth 
against the authenticity of Daniel would occupy at least 

1 Published by Pickering and Inglis, 75, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 



THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 75 

half a dozen of such addresses as our time permits of during 
these pleasant evenings. Any student who wishes to see 
the entire question thoroughly and exhaustively examined 
should read the classic work of Doctor Pusey, Professor 
of Hebrew at Oxford. I can only attempt to deal with 
the more serious arguments and assumptions put forth 
by the rationalist critics. 

First, let us look at the personality of Daniel himself, 
though Canon Farrar is doubtful if such a person ever 
existed, and many of the German Higher Critics hold the 
same view. As he tells us in his own story, he was an exile 
living in Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar, and into the 
reigns of the first Persian monarchs. The prophets Jeremiah 
and Ezekiel were his cotemporary patriots, living through 
the exile period along with the great inspired scribe, Ezra. 

The date and genuineness of the book of Ezekiel has 
not been seriously disputed. He mentions Daniel in chap 
ter xiv. 14 and following verses, where he is bracketed 
between two other great Biblical worthies Noah, Daniel 
and Job singled out for their righteousness. And again, 
in chapter xxviii. 3, when censuring the vanity and pre 
sumption of the Prince of Tyre, he ironically says, " Behold, 
thou art wiser than Daniel ; there is no secret that they 
can hide from thee." Note that Daniel is here singled out 
for his wisdom and his faculty of revealing secrets. It 
strikes me that had the prophet only wanted a representa 
tive of wisdom he would have chosen Solomon ; but no other 
personality in Biblical history so fitly represents the double 
qualification of deep knowledge and the power of finding 
out the most profound or mysterious truths as does Daniel. 

Thus then we have absolutely incontestable testimony 
that there existed before or during the lifetime of Ezekiel 
somewhere in Israel a man endowed with these two gifts 
which are so strikingly manifested in the book whose 
veracity is challenged, and the name of this person was 
Daniel. The date of the book of Ezekiel is between 500 
and 600 B.C. 

From the time of the heathen writer Porphyry, who 



76 THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 

died about A.D. 300, after years of virulent abuse of Chris 
tianity, till quite modern times, the above testimony of the 
prophet Ezekiel was accepted as sufficient identification of 
the author of the book of Daniel. 

Mark the ingenuity of the German critic : he cannot deny 
or explain away Ezekiel, but he affirms that because of this 
mention of the name of Daniel by him, some writer 400 
years afterwards signs a book under the name of EzekiePs 
hero. 

Archdeacon Charles is brought to the aid of these critics 
with the very ingenious theory that after the line of the 
true prophets had died out, anyone who dared to speak 
as a prophet would have been regarded as an impostor 
and stoned, and hence pseudepigrapha, or writings under 
assumed names, came into being. It has apparently not 
occurred to the critical mind that this argument is a two- 
edged weapon and can be used with greater force on the 
other side. If in the second century before Christ, pseu 
donymous or fictitious names were recognized as the rule 
amongst the men who wrote about the remote future, 
most certainly their works could never have got included 
in the inspired Scriptures of the Old Testament. 

Our next argument cannot fail to appeal as conclusive 
to every true Christian believer. We must reject the 
" avowed fiction " or " religious romance " assumption 
as well as the more subtle pseudonymity theory (as far as 
the latter applies to Daniel), and face the question as Pro 
fessor Pusey does : " The writer, were he not Daniel, must 
have lied on a most frightful scale, ascribing to God pro 
phecies which were never uttered and miracles which are 
assumed never to have been wrought. In a word, the 
whole book would be one lie in the name of God." 

Now let us turn to our New Testament and read the 
words in Matthew xxiv. 15 : " When therefore you see the 
abomination of desolation which was spoken of by the 
prophet Daniel. . . ." These are the words of Jesus Christ 
the Son of God ; can any follower of His permit himself 
to believe that Christ would have set His seal on a lie 



THE BOOK OF DANIEL AND UNBELIEF 77 

or a forgery ? Note that this is not even an ordinary 
quotation, as if He had repeated a line of the Psalms, nor 
is it a passing quotation from a prophecy ; He stamps 
Daniel as an authority " When therefore ye see " ; and 
observe He calls him a prophet this writer under a 
fictitious name who wrote 400 years after the prophets 
had ceased. 

The teaching of Daniel is so interwoven into the entire 
fabric of the New Testament, both through the Gospels 
and in the utterances of Paul and Peter, and more especially 
in the book of Revelation, that to reject Daniel would 
shatter belief in it. 

Thus the main question amongst the critics regarding 
the genuineness of the book of Daniel is its date. This we 
must carefully consider as time will permit. All the Ger 
man Higher Critics, and alas most of our own Biblical 
teachers, following blindly their lead, place the book in 
the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, and at about the 
years 168-164 B.C. 



CHAPTER VII 

DANIEL AND THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 

THE crucial point in the controversy is the determination 
of the date when the Old Testament Canon was finally 
closed. If this should be proved to have occurred during 
the lives of the latest prophets the Ezra-Nehemiah 
period the question is settled for all time. I shall have 
to use this word " Canon " often. It simply means, as 
ordinarily used, the list of the books of the Old Testament 
which were judged to be inspired and were regarded as 
the divine standard for the regulation of the life and faith 
of the Jewish people. There was probably always a Canon 
or list from the time of Moses, notwithstanding the dogma 
of some extreme critics who are foolish enough to assume 
that all the earlier books so called were really written after 
the Exile. But this question of the exact date at which all 
the Old Testament books were examined and pronounced 
to be the product of Divine inspiration and incorporated 
as we now find them in our Bibles has become a huge 
subject in the hands of the Higher Critics. 

From a study of the very extensive literature of the 
controversy I believe that the old traditional or accepted 
date would never have been seriously questioned but for 
the presence of Daniel s book in the Canon. This book had 
to be discredited and brought into line with the late Apo 
cryphal books by those who rejected it as a true narrative 
and inspired revelation. In order to establish its claim 
as " a religious romance " the date of the closing of the 
list of books (or the Canon) had to be ruthlessly shifted 
300 years nearer to the Christian era. 

Josephus, the Jewish historian, writing during the life- 

78 



THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 79 

time of St. John of Patmos, emphatically states that the 
Canon was finally closed in the reign of Artaxerxes, in the 
time of Ezra, Nehemiah and Malachi. He not only 
makes the statement on his own account but affirms that 
this was an implanted belief of all the Jews, for which they 
would gladly die. 

There are some undoubted inaccuracies in Josephus s 
History and any statement of his which stands in the way 
of the assumptions of the Higher Critics they never hesitate 
to reject. 

Professor Alexander points to stronger evidence still in 
the steadfast tradition of the Jews, which ascribes the 
closure of the Old Testament Canon to Ezra, who after the 
rebuilding of the Temple associated with himself for this 
purpose a number of learned and devout Jews. After 
examining the grounds for this fixed tradition he thinks 
that to call it in question would be to exhibit a degree of 
scepticism such as, in all other questions of a similar kind, 
would be thought unreasonable and absurd. The Fourth 
Book of Esdras, written at the end of the first century B.C., 
testifies to the existence of this tradition, and the scholars 
associated with Ezra were known as the Men of the Great 
Synagogue. 

Moreover, Josephus emphatically states that during 
the four and a half centuries which had elapsed from Ezra s 
time till the date at which he wrote no one had dared either 
to add to or to take from or to alter anything in the sacred 
books. 

When we consider that amongst the Jews no writing was 
accepted as divinely inspired unless written by an accredited 
prophet, and since the Hebrews, in their later writings, 
testify to the fact that there was no prophet after Malachi, 
the evidence is overwhelming that the book of Daniel 
was in existence at least 400 years before Christ. There 
is strong testimony to be derived from the Apocryphal 
books which proves that the Canon was closed before the 
date assigned by the critics to Daniel s writings. 
Thus the Wisdom of the Son of Sirach, written in the 
7 



80 THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 

second century B.C. and translated by his grandson, proves 
incontestably that the Canon was then closed. Professor 
Pusey and Sir Robert Anderson affirm that this book settles 
the date of Daniel. 

The Jews group the Old Testament books into three 
divisions : the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. The 
last group only need be mentioned here. It was usually 
known as the Hagiographa, or Sacred Writings. It is in this 
division that Daniel s book is placed. The Higher Critic 
tries to make much of this. He affirms that its exclusion 
from the group of the Prophets proves that Daniel was not 
regarded as a prophet. Certainly in the sense in which 
these groups were defined he was not. The Sanhedrim, or 
the Men of the Great Synagogue, only regarded a man as an 
inspired prophet who devoted himself to the office of teaching 
and expounding to the people the messages he had received. 
Daniel was a great statesman, and in no sense an official 
prophet living amongst and ministering to the people. 
King David is likewise excluded from the before-mentioned 
group of the Prophets, and his writings are included, like 
the book of Daniel, in the Hagiographa. Let us examine 
a statement made by the greatest scholar in the Church 
of England. Archdeacon Charles says, speaking of this 
group : " To this third division of the Canon books were 
admitted down to A.D. 100, and the last were Canticles, 
Ecclesiastes and Esther." Mark closely what follows : 
" Daniel was admitted to this third Canon at some period 
in the second century B.C. in the beliej that it was written 
by the ancient worthy of that name, but not amongst the 
Prophets ; for the prophetic Canon was closed." 

I quote this authority because, as far as I can find, it is 
the most recent statement on this question, being issued in 
1914, and we must fairly weigh it. The quotation is from 
his book entitled, Religious Development between the Old 
and the New Testaments, page 43. In the same volume on 
page 27 he gives the date of the book of Daniel as about 
168-165 B.C. This date defines the " some period in the 
second century bejore Christ " to be at the utmost sixty -five 



THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 81 

years from the writing of the book till its acceptance 
by the jealous custodians of the Canon who he tells us 
believed it to have been written nearly 400 years bejore. 

In the first place, if we take this statement as accurate, 
it stamps the book as a forgery ; it is even possible that 
the man who wrote it a devout Jew, if he were a young 
writer was actually alive when the fraud of its inclusion 
in the Canon was perpetrated. A fraud it certainly was, 
especially if anyone then living knew of its authorship. 

But is it possible for anyone to conceive of the possi 
bility of such an imposture ? The Archdeacon has laboured 
to prove that it was the general custom of the apocalyptic 
writers to put an assumed name to their works, and 
here is one brought before the learned scribes and members 
of the Sanhedrim, who are supposed to be aware of such a 
custom, and it is accepted apparently without question. 
What a startling and priceless discovery such an ancient 
manuscript must have appeared to be to those devout 
Jews of that period, described as one of the most progressive 
and studious in their religious history, and always intensely 
jealous of the custody of their sacred Scriptures. 

It is with extreme reluctance that I call your attention 
to the writing of this illustrious prelate, for whom I have 
the deepest respect. But it is painfully necessary for me, 
to give you the very last word from the criticism of those 
who believe that they are advancing the cause of truth 
by the production of " evidence " of this kind. 

You will remember how the keystone of the arch of the 
German Higher Criticism which puts forwards the date of 
the Pentateuch a thousand years consists of exactly the 
same kind of material. The lost book of the Law dis 
covered in the dilapidated Temple by Hilkiah during the 
reign of the good King Josiah was in the opinion of all 
these critics decidedly a forgery executed by the fraudulent 
priests, whose material interests were injured by it ; 
not however that I wish to mention our great English 
divine in company with such sceptics. 

Before I leave the consideration of the position of the 



82 THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 

book of Daniel on the list of the Hagiographa, if the ex 
planation which I have given of why he was not included 
under the Prophets leaves any doubt on your mind, I 
may tell you that Professor Alexander brings forward very 
cogent reasons for believing that in the early years the 
book was placed amongst those of the Prophets; but though 
the Jews guarded the Canon with the most jealous care, 
they more than once after the advent of Christianity 
changed the grouping of the books. 

I pass over a number of proofs to be found by a close 
examination of other Apocryphal books that show how the 
Canon must have been closed long before the critics date 
of 165 B.C. e.g. the mention of the book of Daniel by 
Mattathias in 1 Maccabees. The third Sibylline book 
and the book of Baruch contain many of the phrases of 
Daniel ; but the Higher Critics try to nullify this evidence 
by stating that Daniel copied from Baruch. 

The prayers of Nehemiah are believed by Professor Pusey 
and others to establish the fact that he was familiar with 
that wonderful prayer in chapter ix. of Daniel s book, whilst 
they give good reasons why Daniel did not copy Nehemiah. 
The critics attach the greatest weight to the fact that 
the book of Sirach, known also as Ecclesiasticus, is silent 
about Daniel. It is believed to date about 200 B.C., 
and they affirm that, when mentioning the other great 
worthies, he omits Daniel; therefore the book was unknown 
200 B.C. The argument of " silence " is undoubtedly the 
weakest of all evidence, and the value of the omission is 
entirely nullified by the fact that he also omits all mention 
of Daniel s cotemporary, Ezra one of the most famous 
of all the Biblical chroniclers after Moses. 

In reading the works of Josephus I came on a passage 
which surprised me. I see it barely mentioned in the 
controversy, but I feel that the testimony would be un 
questioned if it were produced as evidence on any point 
of history in which the Bible was not concerned ; for the 
general attitude of the sceptical mind is to reject, not only 
everything hi the oracles of God involving acceptance of the 



THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 8 

supernatural, but every historical statement in the Bible 
which cannot be corroborated by cotemporary historians. 
Sometimes when they meet with such corroboration they 
reject it, solely because it supports the Divine record which 
they say must be wrong. 

In the Antiquities of Josephus, written about the close 
of the first century A.D., in Book XI, chapter viii, page 5, he 
relates that Alexander the Great, after his siege and capture 
of the city of Tyre, marched southwards with his invincible 
army on Jerusalem. The Jews, seeing resistance to be 
impossible, decided to surrender, and at once accepted 
his sovereignty. He was met on the road to the city by 
the High-priest, Levites and principal men of Jerusalem, 
and Josephus states, in the following words : 

" He [Alexander] went up to the Temple and offered 
sacrifices to God. And when the book of Daniel was showed 
to himwherein;Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should 
destroy the empire of the Persians he supposed that him 
self was the person intended, and he was then glad and 
he dismissed the multitude." This was about 330 B.C., 
and 165 years before the Higher Critics state that the book 
of Daniel was written. 

We ask ourselves is this a wicked invention of the Jewish 
historian, or a true narrative of a tradition carefully 
and piously handed down from one devout Jew to another 
for several successive generations ? When we come to 
examine the prophecies contained in the book of Daniel 
we shall find that he accurately foretold 200 years before 
that a great Greek king was to arise and conquer the world, 
and that one of his successors (not his lineal descendant) 
would mercilessly oppress the chosen people. 

It would be decidedly unjust to brand every critic who 
denies the true date of the book of Daniel as an unbeliever 
in the ordinarily accepted meaning of that term. 

There is a large and increasing number of pious and godly 
men (I believe many of them call themselves Modernists) 
whose devout study of the Bible has led them to arrive at 
very remarkable and interesting conclusions. 



84 THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 

They say, and no doubt very plausibly, that the sacred 
books should be restudied in the light of the increased 
knowledge of modern days. Mark the source of this 
increased knowledge, or new light. 

They apply a sort of evolutionary or Darwinian hypo 
thesis to Prophecy and Inspiration, and believe that the 
Holy Spirit, indwelling in every true believer, confers upon 
him the power of developing a more and more perfect 
knowledge of God and of His laws than was possible to those 
living in former days, and that this accumulated experience 
amounts in the long run to a degree of inspiration or some 
thing which they mistake for it. This is the only explana 
tion that I can give you for the enormous importance which 
some of these philosophers attach to the Apocryphal 
books. 

Not however confining this doctrine to the operation 
of such an evolutionary process affecting the minds of men 
since the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost, they apply 
the theory to the old prophets, who were the direct instru 
ments or mouthpieces of God. They believe that the later 
prophets improved in this way upon the older ones, and 
reinterpreted the unfulfilled prophecies of their prede 
cessors to make them fit in with later conditions. 

This doctrine is different, but only in degree, from the wild 
theory of the gradual development of the Jewish religion 
from pagan ideals held by the German Higher Criticism 
which denied the possibility of Divine revelation and re 
jected the idea of God having ever spoken directly to the 
patriarchs Abraham, Jacob and his descendants. This 
led to their rejection of the personalities of these worthies, 
and even of Joshua, Moses and David, whom they trans 
formed into astral myths. 

It is not difficult to see how this latter theory, on being 
pushed too far in the case of the prophets, makes it difficult 
for them to accept the advanced and precise prophecies 
of Daniel delivered so early as in the reign of Nebuchad 
nezzar, or the first Persian kings. The difficulty is got over 
in two ways first by making the date 400 years later, and 



THE CLOSING OF THE CANON 85 

secondly by denying that it contains any true prophecies 
whatever. 

Without our rejecting the doctrine that even amongst 
the individuals of the line of true prophets there was a 
gradual or progressive development in their personal faith 
and godliness, and that there was an increasing clearness 
and precision in their predictive utterances, it should be 
enough for us to believe that these holy men spoke as God 
dictated to them at the time, and that usually the message 
was tempered according to the spiritual condition of the 
chosen people at the age in which it was delivered, unless 
in those unmistakable instances where the Divine Ruler 
veiled His message in language which was intentionally 
mysterious, so that after the prophecy had been fulfilled 
His chosen people would be convinced that the event was 
specially planned for their instruction, their deliverance 
or punishment. 



CHAPTER VIII 

ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

WE come next to investigate some grave charges which 
have been made and widely accepted against the authenti 
city of the book of Daniel. Higher Critics, both German 
and English, have proclaimed that the historical state 
ments therein made are false, and that these inaccuracies 
or misstatements render it impossible for any scholar to 
believe that the book could have been written at the period 
claimed, and by the great statesman who held such an 
important and responsible position in the mighty Baby 
lonian Empire. 

Let us fancy a book written by our present gifted Prime 
Minister or by the late Sir Robert Peel ; it only comes to 
see the light about A.D. 2500, and it is found on examina 
tion that the assumed writer was ignorant of the names 
of the sovereigns under whose reigns he had been actively 
administering the affairs of the United Kingdom. Would 
any sane man be found to accept the dubious volume as 
the work of either of these great statesmen ? This is no 
exaggerated parallel of the charges made by the critics. 
I shall be able to prove to your satisfaction that each of 
these allegations has been refuted, and that in a way which 
demonstrates unpardonable ignorance on the part of the 
critic. 

Before we look into the charges we should remember 
that the book of Daniel makes no pretence to be regarded as 
a history in any sense of the term. Part of it is written 
in Hebrew, and part in the Chaldean or Aramaic language. 
In the narrative certain historical personages are mentioned. 

The critics commence their attack on the book at the 

86 



ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 87 

very first verse, where the author states that in the third 
year of the reign of Jehoiakim, King of Judah, Nebu 
chadnezzar, King of Babylon, besieged Jerusalem ; the 
subsequent verses tell us that he carried off Daniel and a 
few other royal youths. 

It is affirmed that there was no siege or capture of 
Jerusalem in this particular year. By Jeremiah xxv. 1, 
we find the first year of Nebuchadnezzar corresponds with 
the fourth year of Jehoiakim, for the Babylonian Prince- 
Royal and general only became king after the taking 
of Jerusalem : this fact is established by the historian 
Berosus and by Clinton. 

By a study of Jeremiah xxv. 1, Jeremiah xxxv., 2 Kings 
xxiv. 1, 2 Chronicles xxxvi. 6, taken along with the state 
ment from Josephus derived from the lost history of Berosus 
(a Babylonian priest who lived 300 B.C.), Sir Robert 
Anderson has proved to a demonstration that this first 
verse of Daniel, when submitted to the severe test of 
chronology, is absolutely accurate, and that all statements 
in the above-mentioned Biblical books are in complete 
harmony with it. 

We come next to a more serious charge, which if estab 
lished, as the critics maintained, would damage the relia 
bility of Daniel s accuracy. Recall the narrative of the 
capture of Babylon and the dramatic incident of the finger 
writing on the wall and the death of Belshazzar the same 
night. The critics have said for many years that this 
account of the death of the last King of Babylon proved 
conclusively that the book was a fraud ; because the last 
King of Babylon was undoubtedly Nabonidus, as confirmed 
by secular history, and that consequently Belshazzar was a 
fiction. There is no doubt that Nabonidus was the last 
real king, and therefore there was no room for such a 
personage as Belshazzar. Daniel makes the queen speak 
oj this mythical personage as the son of Nebuchad 
nezzar a still worse blunder. God certainly moves in 
a mysterious way. In the old ruins of the Babylonian 
Empire Sir Henry Rawlinson has discovered cylinders of 



88 ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 

clay in which this last king gives the name of his son as 
Belshazzar. Nabonidus calls him his eldest son and the 
offspring of his heart. 

Next we find the wonderfully interesting discovery of 
what is known as the Annalistic Tablet of Cyrus, who 
conquered the Babylonian Empire. It is imperfect, but 
the portion remaining to us tells us that when the general 
of Cyrus entered Babylon the king s son died (Professor 
Driver, a hostile critic, interprets the inscription as saying 
that Gobryas made an assault and slew the king s son). 
This recently discovered tablet of Cyrus clears up the whole 
matter. It tells us that Cyrus himself, with the great 
Persian army, was pursuing Nabonidus, who had evidently 
taken the field with the Babylonian army, leaving his 
eldest son, Belshazzar, to defend the city of Babylon. 
He was almost certainly associated in the government with 
his father. This is the inference derivable from Daniel s 
statement that he himself was proclaimed the same night 
by Belshazzar as " third ruler " or " one of three rulers," 
it matters not which form of words, Nabonidus the King 
being first, his son with the courtesy title of " King Bel 
shazzar " being second, and Daniel third. 

As regards the queen addressing Belshazzar as the 
" son of Nebuchadnezzar " there need not be the slightest 
difficulty. Nabonidus had (as was a constant custom 
amongst the Eastern monarchs) married a daughter of 
Nebuchadnezzar to strengthen his dynasty, in which case, 
the recognized Hebrew habit of addressing the grandson 
as son would be an obvious explanation. Rawlinson, in 
his History, makes no difficulty about accepting the above 
explanations when he writes : " Nabonidus had associated 
with him in the government his son Belshazzar or 
Bel-shar-uzur, the grandson of the great Nebuchadnezzar, 
and in his father s absence Belshazzar took the direction 
of affairs within the city." A most interesting research 
of Professor Wilson of Princetown should be here referred 
to. He shows, as stated by Professor Orr in his Problem 
of the Old Testament, that the Aramaic word for king 



ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 89 

is the equivalent for the Assyrio-Babylonian words 
sarru, malku, pahatu, bel pahate and hazannu. Each of the 
bearers of these titles would also be a " ruler," and the 
last three would be called " magnates of the king " 
(Daniel v. 1). Any of these Assyrian words might be 
rendered into Hebrew also as " king." He shows that this 
will explain the title " king " in the case of both Belshazzar 
and of Darius the Mede. 

A third very serious charge is made against this mys 
terious person who had written the book of Daniel. From 
the vehemence with which this argument is pressed home 
by the German School, after being routed from every 
other position, it is evident that they consider this their 
last line of trenches. 

Briefly stated, the objection is the following. Cyrus 
conquered the Babylonian kingdom, and his general, 
Gobryas, entered the city of Babylon on the night when 
Belshazzar was slain. Cyrus was therefore the first king, 
but Daniel immediately after the passage narrating the 
death of Belshazzar states in the last verse of the fifth 
chapter : " And Darius the Mede received the kingdom, 
being about three score and two years old." According 
to Daniel Darius the Mede was the first king, and the first 
verse of the sixth chapter proceeds to tell how he set the 
aged prophet and statesman at the head of the 120 satraps 
in company with two other presidents. 

There is no mention made in history or in any list of the 
Medo-Persian monarchs of this so-called "Darius the Mede." 
(We must not confound him with later rulers to whom the 
title of Darius was given.) The critics say this is a funda 
mental objection, and conclusive evidence that whoever 
wrote the book under the name of Daniel was in profound 
ignorance of the most rudimentary knowledge of the time 
of which he professed to write. The historical integrity 
of Daniel is thus filed down to the answer of the query, 
Who was Darius the Mede ? 

Let us note that the word Darius was a throne-name, 
something like Kaiser, Czar, or Pharaoh. When Cyrus 



00 ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 

conquered Babylon he marched northward and eastward 
to subdue Asia. Though his wars are treated in a fabulous 
manner by the old historians, and many of their reports 
are myths, we know that he conquered and reigned over 
what is now known as Afghanistan. For the period of 
his absence it was necessary that he should appoint a 
temporary ruler or viceroy to administer the affairs of 
Babylon; whom did he appoint? His own monumental 
tablet answers the question : " Peace to the city Cyrus did 
establish. Gobryas his Governor proclaimed peace to all 
the province of Babylon. He [Gobryas] appointed Gover 
nors in Babylon." In a previous sentence of the inscription 
Cyrus tells us who Gobryas was. He was the Governor 
of Kurdistan, and hence a Median Prince, who reigned 
as viceroy over Media and had resided in the capital of 
that country in the city of Ecbatana. Can anything 
appear to be more natural than that, on the return of Cyrus 
from his first Eastern campaign, Gobryas should drop his 
temporary title and return to his own province and city 
of Ecbatana, or Achmetha, to resume his sovereignty or 
former rule ? 

Now I wish to show you that this assumption is rendered 
almost a certainty by one of the most striking links in 
the chain of evidence, as if God had taken precaution 
to silence every doubt. If you turn to the fifth chapter 
of Ezra you read how Cyrus, after the Babylonians had 
been defeated, had issued a decree permitting the Jews 
to return to Jerusalem and build the Temple. They 
returned and were for years prevented by the wicked 
inhabitants of the surrounding country, when an appeal 
was made to a new King of Babylon and a fruitless search 
was made amongst the archives of the city for the old 
decree of Cyrus which was forgotten and lost. The first 
verse of the sixth chapter relates how the roll was finally 
discovered in the palace of the viceroy at Ecbatana 
the home of Gobryas, who had naturally carried back to 
his own city the records of his brief reign as Darius the 
Mede in Babylon. 



ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 91 

You will thus observe that every single objection made 
by the critics against the accuracy of the historical state 
ments in the book of Daniel has been fairly and con 
clusively met. Their objections have been demonstrated 
to be founded on ignorance of secular history and a lack of 
sound investigation of those passages of the contemporary 
sacred writers which bear upon the years of the reign of 
Jehoiakim. It is true that the finding of the lost decree 
of Cyrus, in the city of Ecbatana, cannot fairly be considered 
as a demonstration that Darius the Mede was Gobryas; 
but we must remember that the Cyrus tablet distinctly 
states that Gobryas appointed the Governors of Babylon, 
and Daniel just as distinctly affirms that these subordinate 
rulers were appointed by Darius the Mede. It seems that 
the only reasonable conclusion to arrive at is that Gobryas 
and Darius were one and the same person. In this har 
monizing conclusion we can confidently rest till the pick 
axe and spade of the explorer restore further monumental 
proofs which must drive the unbelieving German critics 
from their last line of trenches. 

We next shall glance at objections against the date of 
Daniel, and consequently against the authenticity of his 
book, derived from internal evidence arising from a con 
sideration of various points of philology, or a study of 
words. 

This need not delay us, nor put any serious tax on your 
attention. Formerly the literature of this part of the 
controversy was most voluminous, but it has now dwindled 
into nothing, as the critics have in despair abandoned one 
position after another. 

You will remember that a portion of the book was written 
in Aramaic or Babylonian or Chaldean, and another 
part in Hebrew. The most intensely hostile critics of 
Daniel were Dean Farrar and Canon Cheyne ; these sur 
passed the wildest German opponents of the genuineness 
of the book. Dean Farrar was forced to admit that per 
haps nothing certain can be inferred from a philological 
examination either of the Hebrew or Chaldee portions of the 



92 ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 

book. "The character of the language proves nothing." 
Canon Cheyne was also compelled to make a similar ad 
mission. These admissions might be regarded as settling 
the question ; but Professor Driver, in his unfortunate 
desire for compromise, holds that the Hebrew of Daniel 
supports the theory of a later date ; while Professor Pusey, 
also a professor of Hebrew, entirely neutralizes the value 
of this opinion by telling us that the Hebrew of Daniel 
corresponds to the time of about 550 B.C., when the book 
was really written. 

Many years ago the German Higher Critics trumpeted 
forth a blast of victory Daniel was once and for all finally 
discredited. A great discovery had been made. They 
found in the book a number of Greek words. As Greek 
was not spoken in the East till after the time of Alexander 
this was conclusive evidence that the book must have been 
written after his time 330 B.C. These words, said to be 
pure Greek words, have been submitted to the most 
minute examination by scholars hostile and friendly alike, 
and there is now a consensus of opinion that the long list 
must be cut down to two Greek nouns, which are the names 
of two musical instruments. And a no less distinguished 
scholar than Professor Pusey seems to doubt the Greek 
origin of these two words. Still the critics, like drowning 
men, cling tenaciously to these two substantives. It 
must seem to you almost unbelievable that scholarly 
men should attempt to shatter the belief of 2,500 years 
by such cobweb arguments, and it must tax your credulity 
to believe that I am not consciously or unconsciously 
withholding something which would exonerate these men 
from such puerilities. 

Leaning on the broken reed of these two words, names 
of two musical instruments, Professor Driver hobbles 
along through his textbook on Daniel on this crutch. 
The subject is not one for ridicule when we reflect that 
his treatise is, I believe, accepted as the standard in 
most of the Protestant Colleges of Theology in England. 
He declares that the presence of these Greek words " de- 



ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 93 

maud " a date for the book of Daniel after the conquest 
of Palestine by Alexander the Great. 

I wish to point out to you that this is not a question 
for scholars at all, but one to be decided by common sense, 
as insisted upon by Sir Robert Anderson. Let us assume 
that the names of all the musical instruments mentioned 
in the third chapter of Daniel trumpet, flute, harp, 
sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer were Greek words. We 
must take this as proof that the instruments were of Greek 
origin or manufacture, and their names would travel from 
Greece to Babylon along with the instrument. From 
the time of Solomon at least the coast and sea and over 
land trade was most intimate and extensive. His fleets 
swept the Mediterranean Sea, in its eastern end. Professor 
Sayce tells us that there were Greek colonies in Palestine 
as early as the reign of Hezekiah. The commerce between 
Babylon and Greece was very active, even before the time 
of Solomon, and it would appear obvious that any musical 
instrument in use in Greece would very soon find its way 
to Babylon and carry its Greek name along with it, cen 
turies before the time of Alexander. 

Persian words are found in Daniel ; these are few, how 
ever, and as the great statesman of the Babylonians must 
have had constantly to communicate with the surrounding 
nations and as he lived and administered under the first 
Persian kings, it is little short of absurdity to suppose 
that he was entirely ignorant of the Persian language. 
Professor Pusey, after a critical examination of every word 
and idiom in Daniel, states " the language, then, is one mark 
of the genuineness set by God on the book. Rationalism 
must rebel, as it has rebelled, but it dare not now with any 
moderate honesty abuse philology to cover its rebellion." 

The critics have attempted to show that the frequent 
mention of angels in Daniel is indicative of a late date, 
since this implies that the writer had borrowed his views 
from the religion of the Persians. When all this is in 
vestigated, we arrive at the fact that Daniel is the first 
to give names to two of these ministering spirits Michael 



94 ALLEGED HISTORICAL INACCURACIES 

and Gabriel, both mentioned afterwards in the New Testa 
ment ; and he tells us that God so far cared for the heathen 
nations, Persia and Greece, that they had each an angel 
watching over their welfare. The assumption that the 
doctrine of the book, which implies that there are gradations 
in the ranks of these ministering spirits, is especially a 
doctrine of Daniel is quite frivolous. There is nothing in 
the book about angels which is not in complete harmony 
with the innumerable narratives of these celestial messengers 
all through the Old Testament and the New. Michael 
appears to be almost certainly the personality designated 
in the earlier writings by the title " The Angel of the Lord." 



CHAPTER IX 

THE PROPHECIES IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

HAVING now given you a sufficient summary of all the 
assumptions and arguments of the unbelieving critics, and 
of the so-called " Modernist School " of reinterpreters of 
Divine Revelation, we may begin the study of the prophe 
cies in the book of Daniel with our minds undimmed by a 
single doubt about its date and genuineness. 

We leave that part of the controversy behind us, and we 
leave to the Higher Critic and the Modernist his right to 
say, " I do not believe in Daniel or in his book," but we 
cannot refrain from replying to him : "If you continue 
to affirm this in order to weaken the faith of others we 
demand that you must advance new arguments and dis 
cover to us some/act* to support your assumption, for every 
single statement which you have hitherto made has been 
fairly and squarely met." 

When I say we leave the controversy behind us, we shall 
ever have before our minds, as we proceed, the momentous 
conviction that the study of each prophecy affords in itself 
incontestable proof of the Divine origin of the work. The 
late Grattan Guinness, who with his talented wife had made 
a life-long study of Daniel, in the preface to his book 
entitled Light Jor the Last Days, states what we may fairly 
accept as an introduction to our own study of the subject : 

" The prophecies of Daniel stand pre-eminent amongst 
all others in their evidential value. It is an astounding 
fact that not only does his brief book give a fore-view of 
twenty-five centuries of Jewish and Gentile history, includ 
ing the first and second advents of Christ, but that it also 
8 95 



96 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

fixes the chronology of various episodes of the then un 
known future with a simple certainty which would be 
audacious if it were not Divine. 

" Would any man dare to foretell not only a long succes 
sion of events lying far in the remote future, but, in addition, 
the periods they would occupy ? This Daniel has done, 
and the predictions have come to pass." 

The first chapter in the sacred book gives a narrative of 
what befell Daniel and his three companions at the Court 
of Babylon, of their education and training there. The 
second opens with the wonderful story of the forgotten 
dream of King Nebuchadnezzar which Daniel reproduces, 
and interprets with the solemn assurance that the revela 
tion came to him directly from God Himself. 

" Thou, O king, sawest and behold a great image. This 
image, which was mighty, and whose brightness was ex 
cellent, stood before thee ; and the aspect thereof was terri 
ble. As for this image his head was of fine gold, his breast 
and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass, 
his legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. 
Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, 
which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and 
clay, and brake them in pieces. 

"Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and 
the gold broken in pieces together, and became like the 
chaff of the summer threshing-floors ; and the wind carried 
them away, that no place was found for them : and the 
stone that smote the image became a great mountain and 
filled the whole earth. 

" This is the dream ; and we will tell the interpretation 
thereof before the king. Thou, O king, art king of 
kings, unto whom the God of heaven hath given the 
kingdom, the power, and the strength, and the glory ; 
and wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts 
of the field, and the fowls of the heaven hath He given into 
thine hand, and hath made thee to rule over them all : 
thou art the head of gold. 

" And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 9T 

thee ; and another third kingdom of brass, which shall 
bear rule over all the earth. And the fourth kingdom 
shall be strong as iron ; forasmuch as iron breaketh 
in pieces and subdueth all things ; and as iron that crush- 
eth all these, shall it break in pieces and crush. And 
whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potter s 
clay, and part of iron, it shall be a divided kingdom ; 
but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch 
as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. 

" And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part 
of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly 
brittle. 

" And whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay, 
they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men ; but 
they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron doth 
not mingle with clay. 

" And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven 
set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed, nor shall 
the sovereignty thereof be left to another people ; but 
it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, 
and it shall stand for ever. 

" Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out 
of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces 
the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold : 
The great God hath made known to the king what shall 
come to pass hereafter ; and the dream is certain and the 
interpretation thereof is sure." 

This dream of the king with Daniel s interpretation of it 
is the key to all the other prophetic visions in the book. 
Its meaning is as clear as the noonday sun when no cloud 
is in the sky. It is only the miasma of unbelief which can 
veil its brilliance. 

The head of gold is the Babylonian Empire, as at that 
time, represented by Nebuchadnezzar himself. His king 
dom is to perish, and to be succeeded by that of the Medes 
and Persians. This is represented by the breast and arms 
of silver of the image. The Persian Empire in its turn was 
to fall before the might of Greece, led by its young King 



98 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

Alexander the Great, represented by the belly and thighs 
of brass. 

A fourth mighty kingdom the greatest the world has 
ever seen, was to arise and crush all other nations, king 
doms and peoples. This was unquestionably the Roman 
Empire, which first split into two as represented by 
the legs, and finally into ten separate kingdoms figured 
by the ten toes of the image of iron and clay. Many inter 
preters who interpret Daniel s interpretation of the dream 
insist that these ten nations or kingdoms into which the 
great Roman Empire divided, constituting a common 
wealth of kingdoms, paying a voluntary submission to Rome, 
have maintained themselves for the last thirteen centuries 
as ten kingdoms sometimes one more or less, but at an 
average of ten during all the varying changes of power 
and of dynasties in Europe. Other scholars of the Bible 
believe that this latter part of the prophecy refers to events 
still to come, to those days which shall immediately pre 
cede the termination of the Gentile period, when there shall 
be a revival of the ancient Roman Empire, divided into 
ten new kingdoms with a fierce King or Kaiser controlling 
their united might. This is the personage which Sir 
Robert Anderson regards as the " Coming Prince " 
and Antichrist, who shall reign for the brief period of 
three and a half years, before the second coming of 
Christ. 

In the dream these kingdoms are to remain till the end ; 
they certainly in any case correspond, or are identical with, 
the ten horns of the great beast to be met with in a later 
vision. Now comes the stone, which, cut out of the moun 
tain, is to break up and utterly consume all these kingdoms ; 
and note that this new Kingdom set up by God is to last 
for ever and ever. No Christian doubts that this new power 
is the Kingdom of Jesus Christ ; though there are differences 
of opinion amongst Biblical scholars as to whether the 
Kingdom as now established and recognized is the stage 
of its existence referred to in the text. Sir Robert Ander 
son points out that the final crash which is to overwhelm 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 99 

the ten kingdoms is to come at a time when the brittle 
empire had already become divided, and hence he thinks 
it does not apply to the first advent of Christ, but to a 
time still future. 

We need not pause to consider the arguments in favour 
of accepting the words literally that this new Kingdom is 
to be one which shall break and crush these other kingdoms 
in a physical sense or to be a spiritual Kingdom ruling in the 
hearts of men over all the earth. Probably both results 
are implied. 

For us it is enough to be convinced that without a shadow 
of doubt the prediction specifically refers to Christ, and 
Professor Pusey s remarks are worth quoting here. He 
says that, " strange enough, no one has been found to 
doubt that it is the Kingdom of Christ. It is owned by 
those who set these prophecies at the very latest that, 
nearly two centuries before our Lord s ministry began, it 
was foreshown that the Kingdom of God should be estab 
lished without human aid, to replace all other kingdoms, 
and to be replaced by none ; to stand for ever and to fill 
the earth. Nineteen centuries have verified the prediction 
of the permanency of that Kingdom, founded as it was by 
no human means, endowed with inextinguishable life, 
ever conquering and to conquer in the four quarters of the 
world ; a Kingdom one and alone since the world has been ; 
embracing all times and climes, and still expanding ; un 
worn by that destroyer of all things human, time ; strong 
amid the decay of empires ; the freshness and elasticity 
of youth written on the brow which has outlived eighteen 
centuries. This truth, so gigantic, so inconceivable 
beforehand, so inexplicable now except by the grace of 
God was (it is granted), foreseen, foreknown. Nay, more," 
remarks the same authority, " it is granted that the prophet 
believed that He, the King of this new Kingdom, was to be 
more than man." 

Well may we say that did the whole book of Daniel 
contain nothing else but this single prophecy of the King 
dom made without hands, we should regard it as one of the 



100 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

most priceless of all the utterances of the inspired Hebrew 
prophets. 

It seems almost inconceivable that the destructive critics 
cannot give credit to Daniel as foreknowing anything about 
the rise of the Roman Empire, which was in his day still 
in the womb of futurity. Though they dare not deny 
the truth of the prediction of Christ s coming Kingdom, 
they most unreasonably, and it would appear absurdly, 
maintain that this fourth empire must therefore be the 
Grecian and not the Roman power. We shall meet this 
objection again ; the succeeding visions prove, to an 
absolute demonstration, that this fourth composite king 
dom can be no other than the Roman power. 

We come next to the examination of what is known as 
Daniel s First Vision, given in the seventh chapter of his 
book as occurring in the first year of Belshazzar. 

" I saw in my vision by night, and behold, the four winds 
of the heaven brake forth upon the great sea. And four 
great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. 
The first was like a lion, and had eagle s wings ; I beheld 
till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up 
from the earth and made to stand upon two feet, as a man, 
and a man s heart was given to it. And behold another 
beast, a second like to a bear, and it was raised up on 
one side, and three ribs were in his mouth between his 
teeth : and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much 
flesh. After this I beheld, and lo another like a leopard, 
which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl ; the 
beast had also four heads ; and dominion was given 
to it. 

" After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth 
beast, terrible and powerful, and strong exceedingly ; 
and it had great iron teeth : it devoured and brake in 
pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet ; and it was 
diverse from all the beasts that were before it ; and it 
had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold, there 
came up among them another horn, a little one, before 
which three of the first horns were plucked up by the 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 101 

roots ; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of 
a man, and a mouth speaking great things. 

" I beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was 
ancient of days did sit ; his raiment was white as snow, and 
the hair of his head like pure wool ; his throne was fiery 
flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire. A fiery 
stream issued and came forth from before him ; thousand 
thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times 
ten thousand stood before him ; the judgment was set, 
and the books were opened. I beheld at that time because 
of the voice of the great words which the horn spake ; 
I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, 
and he was given to be burned with fire. And as for the 
rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away ; yet 
their lives were prolonged for a season and a time. 

"I saw in the night visions, and behold there came with 
the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man, and he 
came even to the Ancient of Days, and they brought him 
near before him. And there was given him dominion and 
glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and 
languages should serve him ; his dominion is an ever 
lasting dominion, which shall not pass away and his king 
dom that which shall not be destroyed." 

It is perfectly clear and certain that this vision is a 
repetition of King Nebuchadnezzar s dream, and the four 
beasts here take the place of the four different parts of the 
metallic image. 

Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome are all again 
portrayed. Daniel inquired particularly about the fourth 
kingdom, and he was told almost in the same words as in 
the dream of the king that it was to be different from all 
other kingdoms, and was to devour the whole earth, to 
tread it down, and to break it in pieces. As for the horns 
these certainly correspond accurately to the ten kingdoms 
represented by the ten toes of the image. Daniel is told 
that they represent ten kings (kingdoms) which shall 
yet arise. 

He is informed that the " little horn " shall arise after 



102 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

them, and shall be diverse from them and shall put down 
three kings. We ask ourselves what is this little horn ? 
Ever since the Reformation it has been held by nearly 
all Protestant interpreters of the Scripture to correspond 
to the New Testament Antichrist, and to be Papal Rome. 

We shall minutely look into the marked characteristics 
of this little horn as drawn for us in the seventh chapter 
of Daniel, and you can test them or contrast them with the 
history and character of the Papal power as you know it, 
and I shall leave you to judge for yourselves. Sir Robert 
Anderson strongly, and I may say vehemently, opposes the 
view which identified these two powers, whilst Grattan 
Guinness is equally positive on the other side. In the 
eighth verse we are told it came up amongst the ten other 
kingdoms (of the Roman Empire), and that it plucked up 
three of these. Sir Isaac Newton, two hundred years ago, 
tells us that early in the eighth century the Pope of Rome 
rooted up and subdued the three kingdoms : (1) the 
Exarchate of Ravenna ; (2) the Kingdom of the Lombards ; 
and (3) the Dukedom of Rome ; acquired Peter s Patri 
mony out of these dominions, and thereby rose up as a 
temporal prince, king, or horn of the fourth beast. These 
victories were achieved and secured through the military 
aid of Pepin and Charles the Great, kings of France : from 
this time forwards the Popes, being temporal Princes, 
ceased in their Bulls to note the years of the Greek Emperors 
as they had hitherto done. This same eighth verse tells us 
that this small horn had eyes like the eyes of a man and 
a mouth speaking great things ; in the twentieth verse 
these characters are repeated, with the addition that his 
look was more stout than his fellows. 

In the next verse he is stated to have made war with 
the saints, and prevailed against them till the Ancient of 
Days came ; there is no necessity to dwell further on this 
identification mark, and quote statistics of the millions 
of martyred Christians who suffered under the various 
Papal persecutions. In the twenty-fifth verse he shall 
speak words against the Most High and shall wear out His 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 103 

saints ; and he shall think to change the law and they 
shall be given into his hand until a time, limes and half a 
lime. But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take 
away his dominion to consume and to destroy it unto 
the end. Libraries have been written by the devotees 
of the Vatican to prove that this little horn of Daniel 
cannot by any means possibly represent their infallible 
Vicar of Christ. 

It has just been mentioned that his identification with 
the little horn of the fourth beast in the vision has received 
very general acceptance since the Reformation. Doctor 
Newton, Bishop of Bristol, writing soon after Sir Isaac, 
tells us that a treatise was published as early as A.D. 1120, 
that is not long after the Norman Conquest, in which was 
advanced the view that Antichrist had already long ago 
arrived ; he was not however represented by a single person 
age, but by the men then constituting the Church, " that 
man of sin and son of perdition who is exalted above every 
God, so that he sitteth in the temple of God, that is the 
Church, showing himself that he is God : who is now come 
with all kinds of seduction and lies in those who perish." 

But I find in history a much earlier record of this inter 
pretation of Antichrist, or Daniel s little horn, and that 
from a source less to be expected than any other under 
heaven. For we get the earliest and perhaps the truest 
decision on this debatable subject from Rome herself. 
Were it not such a grave and solemn subject we might 
be tempted in the light of these later days to regard it as 
a comedy. We must go back to the sixth century, to 
the time of a great and good man, Gregory the Great, 
who died in the year A.D. 604. He was the last Bishop 
of Rome ; he it was who took such a deep interest in the 
evangelization of Britain. 

The history of the Popedom is a long and highly 
contentious one. The Vatican claims an unbroken suc 
cession of Popes, beginning with St. Peter, whom they 
allege reigned as Pope from A.D. 41 till 66, though the 
great majority of Protestant scholars maintain that 



104 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

there is no proof that St. Peter was ever in Rome at any 
time. When the site of Empire was shifted from Rome to 
Constantinople there was a Bishop (or Patriarch) in the city 
on the Bosphorus. There was also a Bishop at Rome, 
and between these two worthy ecclesiastical authorities 
there were some not very edifying struggles for supremacy. 
These culminated towards the close of Gregory s last years 
of the Roman Bishopric, when the Bishop of Constanti 
nople (known as John the Faster) attempted to assume the 
title and office of Universal Bishop over all Christendom. 
Gregory the Bishop of Rome considered it to be his duty 
to fulminate against this outrage on the Church ; he 
boldly affirmed that whoever took the title of Universal 
Bishop "doth forerun Antichrist." Writing of his rival, 
John the Faster, he says : " By this pride of his, what thing 
else is signified but that the time of Antichrist is now at 
hand ? The King of pride (that is Antichrist) approacheth 
and that is wicked to be spoken, an army of priests is 
prepared." 

This was the first attempt to set up a Pope, that is a 
Universal Bishop (call his predecessors what you will), 
and it appears to have failed. Three years after Bishop 
Gregory s death, the Emperor Phocas, being upon the im 
perial throne after murdering every one of the seed and 
remote kinship of the late Emperor, proclaimed Bishop 
Boniface III of Rome Universal Bishop, with jurisdiction 
over all Christendom. He was thus the first real Pope, 
and around the years of his office centre many interesting 
points concerning the date of the final fulfilment of Daniel s 
prophecy. He ascended the newly established Papal 
throne in A.D. 607. 

Whether we are to take this year or the subsequent date 
when the Papacy became first established as a temporal 
power, after conquering the three Italian kingdoms in 
the eighth century, has long been a debatable point. But 
we must not overlook the fact that these various horns 
signify, not personal potentates, but kingdoms. 

To return to an examination of the characters of the 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 105 

four beasts mentioned in this first vision, history gives us 
remarkable and startling corroboration of the identity of 
each. The first, Babylon, is symbolized as a lion the 
king of beasts represented in the dream of the king 
as interpreted by Daniel, who addresses him as the king 
of kings. Note that at the time of this vision, in the 
reign of the last ruler of Babylon, the empire was already 
tottering to its fall. The wings of the lion were already 
plucked, and its great lion heart was replaced by a weak 
human one. 

We can hardly forget that our own British Empire has for 
its national symbol the lion ; just as certainly shall our own 
Lion of the Sea get its wings plucked when in unbelief 
he turns his back upon the Almighty Being who has for 
His great ends placed him at the head of all the great 
powers of the earth. So shall a weak man s heart be 
given to him when that day comes that he ceases to sway 
his sceptre in accordance with the demands of impartial 
justice and righteousness, but lowers it to the pressure of 
unbelieving factions that recognize no God but the god of 
might and worship to no sound but to that of the mad 
mob s million feet. 

Persia in the vision is represented by the slowly moving 
bear ; history corroborates this figure, by her descrip 
tion of the tardy advance of her armies, sometimes 
consisting of millions of men, slowly and steadily marching 
to their doom. In her mouth, between her jaws, as if " not 
belonging to -her own proper body" she is portrayed as 
carrying the three nations which she had subdued but had 
never been able to assimilate Lydia, Babylonia and 
Egypt. 

Mark how truly Daniel represents Greece as the swift 
and ferocious leopard, ever on the spring, as the young 
Alexander pounces upon his prey, almost before his enemies 
have got information of his presence or advance. Note 
how this kingdom has four heads and four wings, which 
accurately signifies how, after the brief reign of Alexander, 
the empire was to be, almost immediately, divided into 



106 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

four kingdoms, by his four great generals each ascending 
his own self-appropriated throne. This is more specifically 
stated in subsequent visions, and is of great value as show 
ing that Greece is not the fourth kingdom. 

The fourth beast Pagan Rome is again described, as 
in the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, as terrible, powerful and 
strong, breaking the nations to pieces with its great iron 
teeth, devouring them, and stamping the residue to 
powder with its feet. The description reminds one of 
that ugly modern composite machine with its huge teeth 
of iron employed to tear up our roadways before they are 
submitted to the crushing of the powerful steam-roller 
following in its track. 

Let us return to the consideration of the specific time 
allotted to the reign and duration of the little horn of the 
fourth, Roman beast. In the twenty-fifth verse Daniel 
is told that the times and the law which he shall think 
to change shall be given into his hands until 

" A TIME, AND TIMES, AND HALF A TIME." 

What does this mysterious form of expression mean ? 
It is obvious that it represents some definite period of 
time, purposely veiled by God so that it should not be under 
stood or measured by the people living on the earth at 
the period when the vision was vouchsafed to Daniel. 
We may even speculate upon the improbability of the 
prophet himself having any conception of its meaning, 
though he is told in the same words again by the angel 
in the last chapter of his book. To the Jews it must have 
been inscrutable for at least 600 years after it was written. 
It is the most interesting and important pronouncement 
of any epoch in the Bible except the " seventy weeks " 
mentioned in Daniel s Messianic prophecy. Its concealed 
meaning is revealed by St. John in the book of Revelation. 
In the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse, the woman, after 
the birth of her man-child, fled into the wilderness from 
the great dragon, and she is nourished there for 1,260 days 
(which are of course to be interpreted, in the words of sym- 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 107 

bolie prophecy, as 1,260 years). In a subsequent verse 
of the chapter this same identical period of sojourn in 
the wilderness is given in Daniel s words exactly : " time, 
and times, and half a time." We have here the key which 
opens the lock that had remained closed for nearly six 
centuries. 

The word " time " is to be taken as signifying a period of 
one year, times as signifying two years, and half a time as 
half a year ; added together, we get three and a half years. 
That these three and a half years are years of days is proven 
by the first measure of the period given as 1,260 days, which 
is the exact number of days contained in three and a half 
luni-solar or prophetic years. But for this remarkably 
specific prophecy of John we probably never might have 
guessed correctly the period of time allotted by God for the 
lifetime of this little horn, but the same date mentioned 
in the two apparently different and contradictory terms 
gives us the clue to Daniel s mysterious unit of time. Do 
not attempt to confuse the question of the identity of this 
dragon with Daniel s little horn belonging to the fourth or 
Roman beast ; our present purpose is to get certainty 
about this vague-looking period really meaning 1,260 
years. 

Let us note a still more remarkable corroboration of this 
identity. In the thirteenth chapter of Revelation we have 
Daniel s little horn evidently identical with a head of 
the beast there described in the opening verse. It has also 
ten horns, and has seven heads ; one of his heads is seen 
as though it had been smitten to death, and there was 
given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blas 
phemies, and he made war with the saints and overcame 
them, and there was given to him authority to continue 
forty and two months. You may well wonder at the mar 
vellous minuteness and care exercised by God in giving 
His children glimpses into the remote future thousands 
of years in advance. Now this period of forty- two months 
is three and a half years, or 1,260 days, or times, and times, 
and half a time. There can here be no possibility of a 



108 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

mistake ; no reasonable mind can call this remarkable 
juxtaposition of symbols a coincidence. 

The only thing left for us to consider in connection with 
this prophecy is the length of these years. The Jewish 
year consisted of only 360 days, and the Babylonian year 
was the same. There are good reasons for believing 
that all the ancient peoples of the East divided their year 
into this even number of days. The Jews have a tradition 
that Abraham reckoned his year in like manner. 

If there had been any room for a doubt on this subject 
it has been set aside by the accuracy and thoroughness of 
Sir Robert Anderson ; he found, when investigating for 
himself the prophecy of Jeremiah which allotted 70 years 
as the period during which the Jews were to suffer the 
desolations, that not only were the starting-point and the 
fulfilment date clearly defined so that the accuracy of the 
prediction could be easily tested, but the 70 years which 
came true to the very day are years of 360 days each. 
This then is the luni-solar year, the old Jewish, Abrahamic, 
Chaldean, as well as the prophetic year. 

Grattan Guinness, by working out the terminal periods 
of all Daniel s specifically timed predictions in these luni- 
solar years and also both in lunar years and calendar years, 
obtains an almost bewildering array of dates which some 
times produces most startling results, and often leaves 
the mind of the Biblical student in doubt whether " he 
has not proved too much." 

We need not pause long to satisfy ourselves about the 
meaning of the word " day " in these prophecies. By 
common consent all Biblical scholars agree that, in sym 
bolic prophecy, the day is to be accepted as a year of 
360 days. You need not be puzzled or confused by an 
apparent contradiction here. We have just spoken of 
Jeremiah s prophecy of 70 years of the desolations of Judah. 
It was this very prediction which caused Daniel to approach 
God in supplication for the restoration of his people, and 
he evidently had no doubt of these years being literal years, 
and not " years of days," because Jeremiah s prediction 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 109 

was in no sense a symbolic prophecy. In the symbolic 
foretellings of Daniel and John a day is always a year of 
360 days, and a week means 7 years, and consequently 
70 weeks signify 490 years. 

Now you will naturally expect that I am going 
to tell you (since we have settled that the 1,260 years 
allotted to the lifetime of the power of this little horn 
of Daniel s fourth beast is thus confidently settled), the 
exact date of the extinction of Papal Rome, if Papal Rome 
is signified by the prophecy. I am not going to attempt 
what would really be a prophecy. 

If we knew the exact date for a starting-point we have 
only to count forwards 1,260 luni-solar years and so arrive 
at the day or year of his doom. But the precise date is 
concealed from us, evidently for good reasons. We 
do not know exactly when the power of Popedom can be 
considered as fully established ; should we start with the 
year of the edict of Phocas or with that period about two 
centuries later when temporal power was conferred upon 
it ? We started out mainly with the intention of sur 
veying the marvellous mine of wealth which God, in His 
love for us, has bequeathed in His revealed Word ; and 
which, in my humble judgment as a layman, is not being 
studied, explored or worked as He intended it should be. 
It is in the prophecies which have been already fulfilled 
that we can realize the inestimable value of His gift. They 
are the rock under our feet on which we can firmly stand, 
supported in strong faith in these terrible days of world 
upheaval and unrest and under the dark clouds which 
threaten our own beloved island. Yea ; they are the ever 
lasting rock on which the true believer may rest unmoved 
by the Higher Criticism and every other phase of unbelief 
as he anticipates the approaching wreck of matter and the 
crash of worlds. 

Therefore I hesitate to obscure my aim by dwelling upon 
speculations about the exact dates when these unfulfilled 
eschatological predictions shall see their full accomplish 
ment. Not one jot or tittle can fail ; and that these pro- 



HO THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

phecies referring to the latter days shall be fulfilled is more 
certain than the rising and setting of to-morrow s sun. 
I would not be speaking candidly however if I refrained 
from saying that my own study of prophecy has convinced 
me beyond all doubt that we are near, possibly on the eve, 
of the most momentous happenings that have ever taken 
place on our planet. 

In the meantime we shall glance at the next vision of 
Daniel. This occurred during the third year of Belshazzar 
as recorded in the eighth chapter of the book. In it the 
Medo-Persian Kingdom is represented as a ram with two 
unequal horns ; the greater horn coming up last represented 
Persia, which was soon to supersede the dual kingdom. 
The he-goat with one large horn between his eyes repre 
sents the new empire of Alexander the Great, before which 
was to fall in humiliation the Persian ram. Four horns 
arise from the forehead of the Greek goat after the first 
solitary one had been broken. There cannot be any doubt 
that these four horns represent four new Greek kingdoms 
appropriated by Alexander s generals soon after his early 
death. We are told in the twenty-second verse that 
" four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but 
not with his power." 

It is therefore obvious that this second vision is a repe 
tition and an amplification of the second and third king 
doms (Medo-Persian and Greek), previously depicted in 
the dream of Nebuchadnezzar and sketched in outline 
in the first vision. But a new nation or kingdom is de 
scribed in the eighth verse : " Out of these notable four 
horns came forth a little horn which waxed exceedingly 
great toward the South, and toward the East, and toward 
the glorious land [Palestine]." 

This power is usually referred to as " Daniel s second 
little horn," and must not be confounded with the little 
hornrwhich arose out of or amidst the ten horns in the fourth 
beast (Pagan Rome) in the previous vision. This is 
an offshoot of the third or Grecian kingdom and arises in 
some part of the earth at that time ruled over by one of the 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL HI 

successors of the great Alexander s four generals. Its 
origin must have been in the north-west. In the twenty- 
third verse of this chapter viii. he it is who is believed to 
be signified in the following words : " And in the latter 
time of their kingdom [Greece], when the transgressors 
are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance and under 
standing dark sentences shall stand up. And his power 
shall be mighty, but not by his own power ; and he shall 
destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper and do his pleasure ; 
and he shall destroy the mighty ones, and the holy people. 
And through his policy he shall cause craft to prosper 
in his hand ; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, 
and in their security shall he destroy many ; he shall 
also stand up against the Prince of princes ; but he shall 
be broken without hand." In the previous verses Daniel 
was told that he would take away the continual burnt 
offering, throw down the sanctuary, and tread the host 
underfoot unto 2,300 days, when the sanctuary was to be 
cleansed. This was the transgression that maketh deso 
late. 

There are serious difficulties in identifying this little horn 
of the Grecian beast. Professor Pusey glosses over all 
difficulties and simply refers to it as Antiochus Epiphanes. 
Josephus, the Jewish historian, and St. Jerome accepted 
the same interpretation and are followed by many other 
scholars of prophecy in modern times. Some students 
get over all difficulties by regarding the little horn as a 
type of Antichrist. The more closely we examine the 
history of Antiochus by the Maccabean writers and by 
secular historians the more certain we become that, what 
ever power is signified by this little horn, it does not stand 
for Antiochus Epiphanes. The arguments in favour 
of this view appear to be all based upon superficial ana 
logies or weak similitudes. The horns of Daniel never 
represent personages, but always signify kingdoms. The 
kingdom of Antiochus was one of those already represented 
by one of the horns. He did not throw down the sanc 
tuary, or destroy it ; he certainly defiled it, but his defile- 
9 



112 THE PROPHECIES ( OF DANIEL 

ment, instead of lasting for 2,300 years, was permitted to 
remain only about three years, till the purification by the 
Maccabeans. All the power he exercised was his own. The 
only single characteristic which fits Antiochus is his perse 
cution of God s people, and this mark he shares with a 
large number of other kings and powers. Bishop Newton, 
quoting the words, " Four kingdoms shall stand up out 
of the nation," argues that this implies that the fifth (the 
little horn) kingdom was not of the nation. He brings 
very cogent reasoning to show that this new kingdom was 
the Roman power, in its infancy commencing in the heart 
of the Grecian Empire, and he remarks that " Sir Isaac 
Newton, with that sagacity which was peculiar to him, 
and with which he penetrated into Scripture as well as 
into nature, perceived plainly that this little horn could 
not be drawn for Antiochus Epiphanes, but must be 
designed for some other subject." When we turn to the 
examination of Sir Isaac s book we find that he regards 
it as the kingdom of Macedonia, from the time that it 
became subject to the Romans, because this kingdom ceased 
to be one of the four horns when the Romans conquered 
its king, Perseus. Hence this little horn became a king 
dom of a new sort, a horn of the goat, which grew mighty, 
but not by his own power, a horn which rose up and grew 
potent under a foreign power, the power of the Romans ; 
and following its development in ancient history, he finds 
that it answers all the characteristics in the prophet s 
utterances. 

Henceforward, he states, the last horn of the goat 
continued mighty under the Romans, till the reign of 
Constantine the Great and his sons ; and then, by the 
division of the Roman Empire between the Greek and Latin 
Emperors, it separated from the Latins, and became the 
Greek Empire alone, but yet under the dominion of a Roman 
family ; and " at present it is mighty under the Turk." 
Now if we could feel justified in accepting the Moham 
medan power as the modern or present-day representa 
tive of this little horn much of the difficulty which has 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 113 

surrounded the interpretation of this vision would disap 
pear, because when you turn to a survey of the condition 
of events in the Eastern world you will find that it has been 
foretold. 

To permit ourselves to be swayed by present appearances 
in weighing the meaning of any cryptic prophetic utter 
ance is likely to tempt us to interpret wrongly. It is the 
rock upon which many an adventurous prophecy-monger s 
bark has been wrecked. To study minutely the past 
history or present condition of some world-power or king 
dom and then to ransack the Scriptures for some prophecy 
which may be twisted or made to fit in with the history 
is never a safe proceeding. It is obviously more reasonable 
first to scrutinize minutely and ponder over the Biblical 
text till we arrive, if we can, at its Divine meaning, and 
then to look around at past or present conditions and see 
if these defeat or support our conclusions. 

Our own human, and therefore weak, speculation about 
what is likely to occur in the near future, reasoning from 
present conditions or appearances, is almost certain to 
lead us into a blind alley. To do so, indeed, is to make 
ourselves not into interpreters, but to become prophets. 
The problem immediately before us is one which may well 
make us pause and inquire Is it conceivable that a Baby 
lonian prophet, writing 500 years before Christ, could have 
foretold anything about the rise or fall of the Mohammedan 
power, which was not to come upon the stage for more than 
1,000 years later ? The answer is very easy he foretold 
in a similar manner the rise of the Roman kingdom cen 
turies before it became a power. When we once accept 
inspiration or prophecy, it is childish to attempt to limit 
its range of prevision. 

Is there anything to be found elsewhere in the book 
of Daniel which can convince a reasonable inquirer that 
his scope of prophecy touches the Turkish Kingdom ? 
Were we able to find such, then we could affirm that it 
required no stretching of our belief to conclude that this 
second little horn arising somewhere within the kingdom 



114 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

of the Greek goat may, or verily does, signify the power of 
Turkey at the present stage of the world s history. 

I find an extraordinary event and a still more extra 
ordinary coincidence of dates which no writer on prophecy 
had ever dreamed of before, and which bear very directly 
upon this subject. Let us turn to the last two or three 
verses with which Daniel concludes his volume of prophecy, 
and we read : 

" But the wicked shall do wickedly ; and none of the 
wicked shall understand ; but they that be wise shall 
understand. And from the time that the continual burnt 
offering shall be taken away, and the abomination that 
maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two 
hundred and ninety days. Blessed is he that waiteth, 
and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and 
thirty days. But go thou thy way till the end be; for 
thou shalt rest, and shalt stand in thy lot at the end of 
the days." 

It was generally accepted that these verses referred 
to dates which were to start with the Saracen or Turkish 
invasion of Jerusalem, A.D. 637, and the erection of the 
Mosque of Omar on the Temple plateau. But the 
significance of the last date a date of four figures, 1,335 
was an impenetrable mystery. We have quite recently 
learned that, when in the later stage of our world-wide 
war, General Allenby signed his order or proclamation 
to advance and capture Jerusalem, the hand on the dial 
of the clock of doom stood at the year 1335, according to 
the Turkish calendar, which measures its time from the 
flight of the False Prophet. 

We ask ourselves, Is the marvellous falling together of 
these two dates a mere coincidence or another signal 
proof of the accuracy of Divine inspiration ? Let each of 
you answer it according to his own degree of faith. I 
think we may regard it as a demonstration of the correct 
ness of the theory that this second little horn of Daniel s 
Greek goat is the kingdom of Turkey, fast hastening to its 
final dissolution. 



THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 115 

Daniel s next vision is recorded in the tenth chapter. 
It begins with some further details about the same two 
powers symbolized by the ram and the goat, viz. Persia 
and Greece, and the further identification of this latter 
power is strengthened by the statement in chapter xi. 4. 
Here Alexander s kingdom is to be broken and divided 
towards the four winds of heaven, " but not to his posterity, 
nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled." His 
son died and his generals divided his kingdom between 
them. 

This long chapter contains in its forty-five verses a 
wonderful series of prophecies ; these for the most part 
are so specifically detailed that they have been regarded 
by the Higher Critics as strong evidence against the 
genuineness of the whole book ; they affirm that where they 
are to be accepted as meaning anything, the predictions 
must have been made after the events had actually oc 
curred. They referred to the wars and conquests made 
by the successors and descendants of the four generals 
of Alexander. The history of the doings of these Greek 
kings of Syria and Egypt and of their theatres of war is 
more full and complete in the book of Daniel than in 
secular history either Jewish, Roman, Greek or Chris 
tian. To study each prophecy and to trace out its actual 
fulfilment as corroborated by historical research would 
necessitate a separate series of lectures. The student 
who wishes to pursue the subject will find each prediction 
carefully verified in its fulfilment to the minutest detail in 
the work of Sir Isaac Newton, who apparently had devoted 
years of laborious research in exploring and examining 
every corner of the historical records dealing with this 
part of the world from the time of the death of Alexander 
the Great till the rise of the Roman Empire. 

This eleventh chapter deals largely with the doings of 
Antiochus till the thirtieth verse is concluded. After this 
we are told " Arms shall stand on his part, and they shall 
profane the sanctuary and take away the continual burnt 
offering and set up the abomination that maketh desolate. 



116 THE PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 

And they that be wise among the people shall instruct 
many ; yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, 
by captivity, and by spoil many days. Now when they 
fall they shall be holpen with a little help : but many 
shall join themselves unto them with flatteries." There 
is a general agreement amongst scholars that " Arms " 
signifies the Roman Kingdom, and these desolations, with 
their persecutions and sanctuary desecrations, foretell 
the sufferings of the Jews and of the early Christians 
under the emperors of Pagan Rome till the advent of 
Constantine, when they were to be holpen with a little 
help. The king in verse 36 is believed to signify a type 
of Antichrist ; if this king or kingdom also stands for the 
Mohammedan power, one might suggest that the last 
two verses had their initial fulfilment in a crucial phase 
of the late war : " But tidings out of the East and out of 
the North shall trouble him ; and he shall go forth with 
great fury to destroy and utterly to make away many. 
And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the sea 
and the glorious holyTmountain ; yet he shall come to 
his end, and none shall help him." 



CHAPTER X 

PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

You will note that Daniel did not record his prophecies 
or visions in chronological order, as they were vouchsafed 
to him. I have left to the last the most important of them 
all. It is what is known as the " Prophecy of the Seventy 
Weeks," recorded in the ninth chapter. Perhaps no 
prophetic utterance in the Bible has attracted such atten 
tion and minute scrutiny. Since the time of the pagan 
Porphyry, believers and infidels innumerable have waged 
war around this ninth chapter of the book of Daniel. 

Let us glance for a moment at the background of the 
picture. The aged statesman is recalled to his high office 
after a long period of rest and comparative obscurity, 
just as Cyrus had conquered Babylon. He must have 
arrived at the age of almost ninety years, as he had been 
an exile during all the years usually regarded as the allotted 
span of life. The periods of the Servitude and of the Cap 
tivity had now come to their termination. Why should he 
prostrate himself in an agony of prayer with fasting, sack 
cloth and ashes ? His prayer is one of the most sublime 
and at the same time most pathetic that ever fell from 
human lips, but its entire purpose or spirit is nearly always 
lost sight of by the commentators who overlook the deep 
meaning of the second verse of the chapter : " I, Daniel, 
understood by the books, the number of the years, whereof 
the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, for the 
accomplishing of the desolations of Jerusalem, even seventy 
years" (the constant confusion of the periods of the Servi 
tude, Captivity and Desolations is most regrettable). The 
Captivity term had already come to its end. He knew that 

117 



118 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

the period of the Desolations had many weary years to run 
out before Jeremiah s prophecy would be fulfilled. Daniel 
had probably been dead fifteen years when the term 
specified in the prediction had expired during which 
Jerusalem was to remain like a ploughed field and the 
whole land of Judea a howling wilderness. 

Hence his grief when he appeals to God, exclaiming : 
" For under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath 
been done upon Jerusalem." Whilst acknowledging the 
gross sins of the Jewish people, and the righteousness 
of their punishment, he throws himself upon the Divine 
mercy and cries out, " O Lord, hear ; O Lord, forgive ; 
O Lord, hearken and do ; defer not ; for Thine own sake, 
O my God, because Thy city and Thy people are called by 
Thy name." And whilst he was speaking and beseeching, 
the prayer was answered by Gabriel being sent from heaven 
to touch him. 

The answer was certainly not such as could have been 
expected even by the mighty faith of the great prophet. 
It was, as Professor Pusey says, a prediction single and alone 
in time, reaching on through eternity. From eternity 
to eternity there hath not been nor shall be its like. Such 
is the vision or prophecy of the seventy weeks a promise 
of absolute forgiveness of transgression and sin. The 
following is the text of the Authorized Version, chapter 
ix. : 

Verse 24. "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy 
people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, 
and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for 
iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to 
seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most 
Holy. 

" 25. Know therefore and understand, that from the going 
forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jeru 
salem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, 
and threescore and two weeks ; the street shall be built 
again, and the wall, even in troublous times. 

"26. And after threescore and two weeks [note the Re- 



PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 119 

vised Version translates the text " after the threescore "] 
shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself [R.V. " shall 
have nothing "] ; and the people of the prince that shall 
come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary ; and the 
end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the 
war desolations are determined. 

" 27. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for 
one week : and in the midst of the week he shall cause 
the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the over 
spreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even 
until the consummation, and that determined shall be 
poured upon the desolate [R.V. " and upon the wing of 
abominations shall come one that maketh desolate ; 
and even unto the consummation, and that determined, 
shall wrath be poured out upon the desolater "]." 

Many volumes have been written on these four verses 
and their interpretation. We shall glance first at the 
central element in the prophecy the prediction of a 
Messiah who was to come, and to be cut off after sixty-nine 
weeks or, according to another rendering of the text, after 
sixty-two weeks. 

No true believer doubts that the Messiah here mentioned 
is Jesus Christ, and that consequently these verses contain 
a prophecy which has been fulfilled. But he should be 
able to show a good reason for the faith that is within 
him. Mark the importance of this decision : if it can be 
proved that the fulfilment of the prophecy occurred at the 
time predicted by Daniel, it matters not whether the 
prediction was made 560 years or 160 years or even 160 
days before the event. This is meeting the unbelieving 
critic on his own selected ground, for in any case the 
event was foretold long before the Christian era. This 
will stamp the book of Daniel as Divine in accordance 
with the seal set upon it by Christ Himself as recorded 
in the Gospel of St. Matthew. Moreover, the issue is more 
important still, for another reason : it may be regarded as 
the keystone of the edifice of the Christian religion. If 
centuries previously a Redeemer of the human race was 



120 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

predicted to come upon the earth, and if He came at the 
period foretold and offered up His life at the precise date 
foretold, then are His identification and His Divine mission 
hallowed by a certainty which belongs to no other incident 
in the long history of the world, and our faith can rest 
upon this rock of ages. 

Let us not forget for the moment that every important 
epoch in our Saviour s life from His birth till His ascension 
had been foretold by the Hebrew prophets. Their pre 
dictions, placed side by side, give us the marvellously 
complete picture which we studied a few weeks ago. One 
detail only was lacking which the most unreasonable 
sceptic could demand a prediction of the exact time of 
His advent ; and Daniel gives us this. 

By the common consent of all scholars of the Bible, 
believers and unbelievers alike, the seventy weeks or 
490 days are accepted as days of years. Hence the period 
under scrutiny is a period of 490 years of 360 days each, 
according to the unquestionable practice of the Jews and 
Chaldeans, in the calculation of the length of their year. 
We cannot do better, in commencing our study, than 
to quote from the earliest of the modern school of inter 
preters, Sir Isaac Newton, in the lost classic on Daniel 
and the Revelation : " Seventy weeks are cut upon thy people 
and upon thy holy city to finish transgression, etc. Here, 
by putting a week for seven years, were reckoned 490 
years from the time that the dispersed Jews should be 
reincorporated into a people and a holy city, and until the 
death and resurrection of Christ ; whereby transgression 
should be finished and sins ended, iniquity be expiated, and 
everlasting righteousness brought in and the vision be accom 
plished and the Prophet consummated, that Prophet whom 
the Jews expected ; and whereby the most Holy should 
be anointed, he who is therefore in the next words called 
the Anointed, that is, the Messiah or the Christ. For 
by joining the accomplishment of the vision with the 
expiation of sins the 490 years ended with the death of 
Christ. 



PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 121 

" Now the dispersed Jews became a people and city when 
they first returned into a body politick ; and this was in 
the seventh years of Artaxerxes Longimanus, when Ezra 
returned with a body of Jews from captivity and revived 
the Jewish worship, and by the king s commission created 
magistrates in all the land to judge and govern the people 
according to the laws of God and the king (Ezra vii, 25). 
There were but two returns from captivity, ZerubbabePs 
and Ezra s ; in Zerubbabel s they had only commission to 
build the Temple, in Ezra s they first became a polity or 
city by a government of their own. Now the years of 
this Artaxerxes began about two or three months after 
the summer solstice and his seventh year fell in with the 
third year of the eighteenth Olympiad ; and the latter part 
thereof wherein Ezra went up to Jerusalem was in the 
Julian period 4257. Count the time from thence to the 
death of Christ and you will find it just 490 years. 

" If you count in Judaic years, commencing in autumn 
and date the reckoning from the first autumn after Ezra s 
coming to Jerusalem when he put the king s decree in 
execution, the death of Christ will fall on the year A.D. 34. 
But if you had rather place the death of Christ in the year 
before, as is commonly done, you may take the year of 
Ezra s journey into the reckoning." 

" Look next at verse 25 : Know therefore and understand, 
that from the going forth of the commandment to cause to 
return and to build Jerusalem unto the anointed the Prince 
shall be seven weeks." 

After the word " weeks " Sir Isaac places a full stop. In 
the Revised Version there is a semicolon ; in the Authorized 
Version there is a comma ; in the Vulgate or Douay Bible 
there is no stop of any kind between the word " weeks " and 
what follows (a fact I have not seen noticed by critics). 
The Catholic Bible translated from the Latin Vulgate, 
revised and annotated by authority under Leo XIII in 
1893, reads thus : " From the going forth of the word to 
build up Jerusalem again, unto Christ the Prince there 
shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks," 



122 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

Sir Isaac interprets the words " seven weeks " with 
a full stop after them as a period belonging to the Second 
Coming of Christ as the Prince ; the former part of the 
prophecy refers to His first advent as a Prophet, for Daniel s 
prophecies he tells us reach to the end of the world, and 
there is scarce a prophecy in the Old Testament concerning 
Christ which doth not in something or other relate to His 
Second Coming. 

This interpretation, worked out by the great astronomer, 
two hundred years ago, has a deep interest for us, for to-day 
when we realize the after-effects of the great world war, 
and it has been entirely lost sight of by all recent controver 
sialists. This view you will notice is based on the meaning 
of the words " to return and to build Jerusalem," which 
Sir Isaac believed referred to the latter days. It is to precede 
the Second Advent seven weeks, or forty-nine years. Such 
a final rebuilding had been predicted by Micah, Amos, 
Ezekiel, Isaiah, and by Tobit who wrote at least two 
hundred years after Nehemiah s rebuilding. 

Let us keep in our minds the mandate accepted by Great 
Britain over Palestine and listen to a sentence written 
200 years ago by Sir Isaac, which sounds more like a pro 
phecy than an interpretation : 

" Since the Commandment [Mandate] to return and to 
build Jerusalem precedes the Messiah the Prince forty-nine 
years, it may perhaps come forth, not from the Jews them 
selves, but from some other kingdom friendly to them, and 
precede their return from captivity and give occasion to 
it." 

It requires a mental effort to realize that there are 
two rebuildings of Jerusalem included in the prophecy ; 
note that one is distinguished from the other by the speci 
fication that it (Nehemiah s) was to be built in troublous 
times. 

A difficulty confronts the ordinary reader when he 
comes to verse 26 : " And after the threescore and two 
weeks shall the anointed one be cut off " (Revised Version). 
In the previous verse it reads, " seven weeks, threescore 



PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 123 

and two weeks," sixty-nine in all till the Messiah, as is 
accepted by most modern Biblical scholars. In this verse 
at first sight it would appear that He should be expected 
to be cut off at the end of sixty-two weeks. 

The most recent as well as the most painstaking and 
accurate of all modern investigators of these four verses 
is Sir Robert Anderson, and if we accept his rendering of 
these words all difficulty vanishes. I feel confident his 
is the only correct interpretation of the text. He affirms 
without any doubt or hesitation that the sixty-two weeks 
here obviously mean sixty-nine, the seven mentioned in 
the preceding verse are clearly meant to be included, 
making sixty-nine. I shall quote his own words : " Not 
after sixty -two weeks which might mean sixty -two weeks 
reckoned from the beginning of the era but after the sixty- 
two weeks which follow the seven, i.e. at the close of the 
sixty-ninth week of the era." After pondering over the 
words of this prophecy for the past three or four years, 
and weighing most of the writing devoted to it in Biblical 
literature, I cannot feel that this rendering is straining 
a point, especially when one realizes that there were the 
grave reasons, mentioned in a former lecture, for veiling 
it in language which would leave doubts about its meaning 
till the prophecy was eventually fulfilled. Notwithstanding 
such veiling, there were, as we know from the Gospels, 
devout Jews who expected the advent of the Messiah about 
the time predicted. 

Let us now look at the starting-point for these sixty- 
nine weeks and see where the figures will land us. Of the 
four decrees of the Persian monarchs, conferring privi 
leges upon the emancipated Jewish exiles, the first was that 
of Cyrus, who after conquering the kingdom and city of 
Babylon, promptly issued an edict permitting the rebuilding 
of the Temple at Jerusalem, as prophesied by Isaiah, 
who not only foretold this, but who predicted the advent 
of Cyrus himself. This is recorded in chapter xliv. 28 
(believed to be the writing of Isaiah II). 

You will remember how, in a former address, we noticed 



124 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

that this decree was lost and forgotten, but was eventually 
discovered in the palace of Darius the Mede in his own city 
of Ecbatana. It was then confirmed by Darius Hystaspis, 
a king who had succeeded Cyrus, and this confirmation or 
second decree was also limited to the rebuilding of the 
Temple. A third decree issued by Artaxerxes Longimanus 
in his seventh year merely gave permission and aid for 
decorating the Temple and the carrying out of some 
ceremonial rites. 

The fourth decree or commandment was made by this 
same king, at the request of Nehemiah, during the twentieth 
year of his reign. This was the only decree which permitted 
the returned Jews to rebuild the streets, walls, moat or 
ramparts of the city of Jerusalem. Therefore, in strict 
adherence to the text of Daniel, this must be taken as the 
starting-point for the sixty-nine weeks as laid down in 
verse 25. " From the going forth of the commandment to 
restore and build Jerusalem " shall be sixty-nine weeks, 
unto the Messiah, and it shall be built again, with street 
and moat, in troublous times, and after these sixty-nine 
weeks the Messiah was to be cut off. 

We have the exact date of this decree given in the 
first chapter of the book of Nehemiah ; this corresponds to 
our date of March 14, 445 B.C. This therefore beyond any 
doubt is the point from which we are to count sixty-nine 
weeks, or 483 years. How are we to fix the terminus of this 
period ? As forcibly pointed out by Sir Robert Anderson, 
there is only one day in the lifetime or ministry of our Lord 
when He permitted Himself to be proclaimed as the Messiah. 
Prior to this day He had repeatedly commanded the disciples 
not to speak of His identity or reveal Him. This was the 
day on which He was greeted by the hosannas of the multi 
tude on his entry into the city of Jerusalem, riding on the 
colt of an ass, as foretold by Zechariah (chapter ix. 9) : 

" Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion ; shout, O daughter 
of Jerusalem ; behold thy King cometh to thee : He is 
just, and having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an ass, 
even upon a colt, the foal of an ass, , , . . And He shall 



PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 125 

speak peace unto the nations, and His dominion shall be 
from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the 
earth." (It is a most noteworthy fact that in the centre of 
this prophecy Zechariah foretells that Jerusalem herself 
was to be cut off.) 

Luke minutely relates how Christ fully acquiesced 
in the proclamation and wept over the coming Desolation 
of the city, because of its rejection of Himself. The date 
of this public entry and proclamation is fixed by exact 
chronological research ; it corresponds in our calendar 
with April 6, A.D. 32. Now note the fact that I am going 
to mention, for herein is revealed the very heart of all 
Daniel s prophecy, and the most important proof given 
to us that the inspiration of the book came from God 
Himself. From the date of the decree till the proclama 
tion of His Messiahship was exactly as worked out by 
Anderson, 173,880 days or seven times sixty-nine prophetic 
years (483 years) of 360 days each. The entry was on 
Sunday, tenth Nisan, and the crucifixion was on the fifteenth. 
There is here no juggling with figures, as is so constantly 
observed with the prophecy-mongers, or the Higher Critics, 
who first select some historical date and twist every other 
date or period so as to make it fit in with their own often 
vain and fanciful interpretation. Sir Isaac Newton s 
interpretation does not in reality clash with this ; he arrives 
at the same goal but by a slightly different route. Whilst 
the mighty fact of the exact fulfilment of the " seventy 
weeks " prophecy is clearly proven, I would venture the 
suggestion that these three verses are so saturated with 
the Divine light of inspiration that they may ultimately 
yield us further knowledge. For example, a painstaking 
calculation of the exact time when Nehemiah had finished 
the rebuilding of the city and its walls and returned to 
Babylon gives us a date from which, if we count forwards, 
sixty-two weeks of years brings us to the year of the Re 
deemer s birth. It is thus quite conceivable that we may 
find in this fact an explanation of why the sixty -nine weeks 
period is split up into seven and sixty-two. 



126 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

It is interesting to turn aside and glance at what the 
unbelieving German critics give us for light upon these 
three verses. The result of their interpretations is more 
than surprising ; it is to the Christian student of Daniel, 
incredible. Only upon one point are they in agreement 
with each other Jesus Christ must, by every conceivable 
means, be excluded from the prophecy. It was a super 
natural phenomenon that Daniel could have had any 
knowledge of a coming Messiah ; therefore the conception 
of these verses containing a prophecy is impossible. 

Professor Pusey has tabulated the different interpre 
tations of about twenty of these Higher Critics. Seldom 
do we find two of them agree about how the specified time 
is to be twisted and tortured so that the sixty-nine or 
seventy weeks should end with the death of the tyrant 
King Antiochus, and he says that " the failure in account 
ing for the periods of time mentioned in the prophecy is the 
least portion of their failure. The heterogeneousness of 
the events which they bring together, the unmeaningness 
of the whole, the impossibility of bringing the parts into 
any one connection, or so as to bear at all on the situation 
of Daniel or the people, evince yet more that the un 
meaningness which they have brought into the prophecy 
cannot be its meaning. Look steadily at the emptiness, 
irrelevancy, inharmoniousness of those things which men 
have fastened not meanings but unmeaningnesses on 
the book of Daniel, and then look how that book lights 
up with its true meaning, reflecting beforehand Him who 
had not yet risen ; and you cannot hesitate to choose 
between darkness and light." 

Up to this stage of our study of the date, authenticity 
and meaning of the book, I have endeavoured to put 
fairly before you the arguments and assumptions of the 
German critics, and then to place alongside them the 
historical facts culled from the writings of secular and sacred 
writers which confute them. So I would like to give you 
their individual interpretations of these three verses, but 
it would require at least half a dozen addresses in order 



PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 127 

to dissect and lay naked before you the puerilities and 
absurdities in the attempts of these men endeavouring 
to prove that this prophecy has no reference to Christ. 

Only a brief outline of their methods need detain us. 

They say that the twenty-fifth verse refers to one messiah, 
and the great majority of them declare that he is Cyrus, 
though others of them claim Nebuchadnezzar, Zerubbabel, 
Onias, Joshua, and even the weak and traitorous creature 
King Zedekiah ; each has his favourite messiah. More 
ludicrous still, in the next step, they affirm that the messiah 
mentioned in the twenty-sixth verse is a different messiah 
from the one in the twenty-fifth. Here they are more 
evenly divided in their choice of this saviour of the Jewish 
nation. Eight select Onias, a deposed High-priest, mur 
dered by a Syrian governor about 171 B.C. ; nearly as many 
(six) choose Seleucus Philopator, who happened to be 
poisoned (cut off) by his treasurer four years before. He 
was a weak, insignificant king who immediately preceded 
Antiochus Epiphanes, who is of course the prince that 
is to come. Others of these critics select Alexander, 
and various members of the priesthood after Jason, as 
their second messiah. To detain you with these childish 
speculations I feel would be a waste of time. 

We must next glance at the remainder of the prophecy 
in verse twenty-six. After the Messiah is to be cut off, 
Gabriel tells Daniel that " the people of the prince that 
shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary ; 
and the end thereof shall be with a flood ; and even to the 
end shall be war ; desolations shall be determined. (27) 
And he shall make a firm covenant with many for one 
week ; and for the half of the week he shall cause the 
sacrifice and the oblation to cease ; and upon the wing of 
abominations shall come one that maketh desolate ; and 
even unto the consummation, and that determined, shall 
wrath be poured out upon the desolater " (or desolate). 

There are three methods of interpretation applied to 
this latter prophecy : (1) That of the Higher Critics who 
affirm that the prince who was to come and to destroy the 
10 



128 PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

sanctuary and the city and to cause the sacrifice and obla 
tion to cease is AntiochusEpiphanes, who denied the Temple 
and set up an idol on the altar. He died 165 B.C. (He defiled 
the sanctuary for three years, but did not destroy it or the 
city.) (2) The old orthodox school who believed that Titus 
and the Roman invasion is here predicted, when in A.D. 70 
the Temple was destroyed by fire and more than one mil 
lion Jews were massacred. (3) The modern scholars who 
interpret these predictions as yet to be fulfilled in the latter 
days at the end of the Gentile period, when there shall be 
yet another siege of Jerusalem about the time of Christ s 
Second Coming. 

This latter view harmonizes with the interpretation 
of Sir Isaac Newton, and with that of Sir Robert Anderson, 
who affirms confidently after a close study of Daniel s 
prophecies that there can be no doubt that after Christ s 
crucifixion at the end of the sixty-ninth week there is 
left a long blank period. This gap includes all the world s 
history since then (A.D. 32), and after this break or gap 
shall commence the beginning of the literal fulfilment 
of the last or seventieth week. 

This is a period of seven years, during which there shall 
be a restoration or new formation of the remnants of the 
old Roman world into ten new kingdoms, with a powerful 
King, Kaiser, Emperor, or Czar, who shall enter into a cove 
nant with the Jewish people at Jerusalem, and that after 
three and a half years he shall betray them, but shall 
be himself finally destroyed by the miraculous intervention 
of Jehovah on behalf of His chosen people. 

I make no comment on these unfulfilled prophecies. They 
appear to apply to the end of the present dispensation, 
and only the future can reveal their deep meaning. Their 
interpretation in no way hangs upon that of the sixty-ninth 
week. I trust I have convinced you that it is a fulfilled 
prophecy a prediction fulfilled to the letter and to the 
very day in the coming and death of the world s Redeemer. 
This was the object I had before me when we commenced 
these lectures, and now my pleasant task is ended. 



OBSERVATIONS 

UPON THE 

PROPH ECIES 

OF 

T>A N I EL, 

AND THE 

APOCALYPSE 

OF 

St. JO H N. 



OBSERVATIONS 

UPON THE 

PROPHECIES 

OF 

T> 4 N I E L, 

AND THE 

APOCALYPSE 

OF 

St. J H N. 

In Two PARTS. 
By Sir ISAAC NEWTON. 



London 

Printed by J. Darby and T. Browne in Bartholomew-Close. 
And sold by J. Roberts in Warwick-Lane, J. Thonson in 
the Strand, W. Innys and R. Manby at the West End of St. 
Paul s Churchyard, J. Osborn and T. Longman in Pater- 
Noster-~Rovi, J. Noon near Mercers Chapel in Cheapside, T. 
Hatchett at the Royal Exchange, S. Harding in St. 
Martins-lane, J. Stagg in Westminster -Hall, J. Parker in 
Pall-mall, and J. Brindley in New Bond-street. 

MDCCXXXIII. 



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

PETER LORD KING, 

BARON OF OCKHAM, LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR OF 
GREAT-BRITAIN. 

My Lord, 

I shall make no Apology for addressing the following Sheets to 
Your Lordship, who lived in a long Intercourse of Friendship with the 
Author ; and, like him, amidst occupations of a different nature, made 
Religion your voluntary Study ; and in all your Enquiries and Actions, 
have shewn the same inflexible Adherence to Truth and Virtue. 

I shall always reckon it one of the Advantages of my Relation to Sir 
Isaac Newton, that it affords me an opportunity of making this publick 
acknowledgment of the unfeigned Respect of, 
My Lord, 

Your Lordship s 

most obedient, and 

most humble Servant, 

BENJ. SMITH. 



133 



CONTENTS 

PART I 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE PROPHECIES 
OF DANIEL 

CHAPTER I 

Introduction concerning the Compilers of the Books of the Old 
Testament pp. 139-148 

CHAPTER II 

Of the Prophetic Language ..... pp. 149-153 

CHAPTER III 

Of the vision of the Image composed of four Metals . pp. 154-156 

CHAPTER IV 

Of the vision of the four Beasts ..... pp. 157-159 

CHAPTER V 

Of the Kingdoms represented by the feet of the Image composed of iron 
and clay ......... pp. 160-169 

CHAPTER VI 

Of the ten Kingdoms represented by the ten horns of the fourth Beast 

pp. 170-187 

CHAPTER VII 

Of the eleventh horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast . . pp. 188-197 

CHAPTER VIII 

Of the power of the eleventh horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast, to change 

times and laws PP 198-216 

135 



136 CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IX 

Of the Kingdoms represented in DANIEL by the Ram and He-Goat 

pp. 217-224 

CHAPTER X 

Of the Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks . . .pp. 225-234 

CHAPTER XI 

Of the Times of the Birth and Passion of Christ . . pp. 235-250 

CHAPTER XII 

Of the Prophecy of the Scripture of Truth . . .pp. 251-266 

CHAPTER XIII 

Of the King who did according to his will, and magnified himself above 
every God, and honoured MAHUZZIMS, and regarded not the desire of 
women pp. 267-272 

CHAPTER XIV 

Of the MAHUZZIMS, honoured by the King who doth according to his will 

pp. 273-291 

PART II 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE APOCALYPSE 
OF ST. JOHN 

CHAPTER I 

Introduction, concerning the time when the APOCALYPSE was written 

pp. 295-307 

CHAPTER II 

Of the relation which the APOCALYPSE of JOHN hath to the Book of the 
Law of MOSES, and to the worship of God in the Temple . pp. 308-321 

CHAPTER III 

Of the relation which the Prophecy of JOHN hath to those of DANIEL ; 
and of the Subject of the Prophecy .... pp. 322-351 



PART I 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE 
PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION CONCERNING THE COMPILERS OF THE BOOKS 
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

WHEN MANASSES set up a carved image in the house 1 of 
the Lord, and built altars in the two courts of the house, 
to all the host of Heaven, and us d inchantments and 
witchcraft, and familiar spirits, and for his great wickedness 
was invaded by the army of ASSERHADON King of ASSYRIA, 
and carried captive to BABYLON ; the book of the Law 
was lost till the eighteenth year of his grandson JOSIAH. 
Then HILKIAH * the High Priest, upon repairing the 
Temple, found it there : and the King lamented that their 
fathers had not done after the words of the book, and 
commanded that it should be read to the people, and 
caused the people to renew the holy covenant with God. 
This is the book of the Law now extant. 

When SHISHAK came out of EGYPT and spoil d the temple, 1 
and brought JUDAH into subjection to the monarchy of 
EGYPT, (which was in the fifth year of REHOBOAM) the 
JEWS continued under great troubles for about twenty 
years ; being without the true God, and without a teaching 
Priest, and without Law : and in those times there was no 
peace to him that went out, nor to him that came in, but great 
vexations were upon all the inhabitants oj the countries, and 
nation was destroyed oj nation, and city oj city, Jor God did 
vex them with all adversity. But when SHISHAK was dead, 
and EGYPT fell into troubles, JUDAH had quiet ten years 4 ; 
and in that time ASA built fenced cities in JUDAH, and got 
up an army of 580,000 men, with which, in the 15th year 

1 2 Chron. xxxiii. 5, 6, 7. 

* 2 Chron. xxxiv. 

2 Chron. xii. 2, 3, 4, 8, 9. and xv. 3, 5, 6. 
4 2 Chron. xiv. 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12. 

139 



140 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

of his reign, he met and overcame ZERAH the ETHIOPIAN, 
who had conquered EGYPT and LYBIA, and TROGLODYTICA, 
and came out with an army of 1,000,000 LYBIANS and 
ETHIOPIANS, to recover the countries conquered by SESAC. 
And after this victory l ASA dethroned his mother for 
idolatry, and he renewed the Altar, and brought new 
vessels of gold and silver into the Temple ; and he and the 
people entered into a new covenant to seek the Lord God 
of their fathers, upon pain of death to those who worshipped 
other Gods ; and his son JEHOSAPHAT took away the high 
places, and in the third year of his reign sent some of his 
Princes, and of the Priests and Levites, to teach in the 
cities of JUDAH : and they had the book of the Law with 
them, and went about throughout all the cities of JUDAH, 
and taught the people. This is that book of the Law 
which was afterwards lost in the reign of MANASSES, and 
found again in the reign of JOSIAH, and therefore it was 
written before the third year of JEHOSAPHAT. 

The same book of the Law was preserved and handed 
down to posterity by the SAMARITANS, and therefore was 
received by the ten Tribes before their captivity. For 
when the ten Tribes were captivated, a Priest of the 
captivity was sent back to BETHEL, 2 by order of the King 
of ASSYRIA, to instruct the new inhabitants of SAMARIA, 
in the manner of the God oj the land ; and the SAMARITANS 
had the PENTATEUCH from this Priest, as containing the 
law or manner oj the God of the land, which he was to teach 
them. For they persevered in the religion which he taught 
them, joining with it the worship of their own Gods 5 ; 
and by persevering in what they had been taught, they 
preserved this book of their Law in the original character 
of the HEBREWS, while the two Tribes, after their return 
from BABYLON, changed the character to that of the 
CHALDEES, which they had learned at BABYLON. 

And since the PENTATEUCH was received as the book of 

2 Chron. xv. 3, 12, 13, 16, 18. 
2 2 Kings xvii. 27, 28, 32, 33. 
8 2 Kings xvii. 34, 41. 



CHAP, i] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 141 

the Law, both by the two Tribes and by the ten Tribes, 
it follows that they received it before they became divided 
into two Kingdoms. For after the division, they received 
not laws from one another, but continued at variance. 
JUDAH could not reclaim ISRAEL from the sin of JEROBOAM, 
and ISRAEL could not bring JUDAH to it. The PENTATEUCH 
therefore was the book of the Law in the days of DAVID 
and SOLOMON. The affairs of the Tabernacle and Temple 
were ordered by DAVID and SOLOMON, according to the 
Law of this book ; and DAVID in the 78th Psalm, admonish 
ing the people to give ear to the Law of God, means the 
Law of this book. For in describing how their forefathers 
kept it not, he quotes many historical things out of the 
books of EXODUS and NUMBERS. 

The race of the Kings of EDOM, before there reigned 
any King over ISRAEL, is set down in the book of GENESIS, 
xxxvi. 31. and therefore that book was not written entirely 
in the form now extant, before the reign of SAUL. The 
writer set down the race of those Kings till his own time, 
and therefore wrote before DAVID conquered EDOM. The 
PENTATEUCH is composed of the Law and the history of 
God s people together ; and the history hath been collected 
from several books, such as were the history of the Creation 
composed by MOSES, GEN. ii. 4. the book of the generations 
of ADAM, GEN. v. 1. and the book of the wars of the Lord, 
NUM. xxi. 14. This book of wars contained what was done 
at the Red-sea, and in the journeying of ISRAEL thro the 
Wilderness, and therefore was begun by MOSES. And 
JOSHUA might carry it on to the conquest of CANAAN. For 
JOSHUA wrote some things in the book of the Law of God, 
JOSH. xxiv. 26. and therefore might write his own wars in 
the book of wars, those being the principal wars of God. 
These were publick books, and therefore not written 
without the authority of MOSES and JOSHUA. And 
SAMUEL had leisure in the reign of SAUL, to put them into 
the form of the books of MOSES and JOSHUA now extant, 
inserting into the book of GENESIS, the race of the Kings 
of EDOM, until there reigned a King in ISRAEL. 



142 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

The book of the JUDGES is a continued history of the 
JUDGES down to the death of SAMPSON, and therefore was 
compiled after his death, out of the Acts of the JUDGES. 
Several things in this book are said to be done when there 
was no King in Israel, JUDG. xvii. 6. xviii. 1. xix. 1. xxi. 25. 
and therefore this book was written after the beginning of 
the reign of SAUL. When it was written, the JEBUSITES 
dwelt in JERUSALEM, JUD. i. 21. and therefore it was 
written before the eighth year of DAVID, 2 SAM. v. 8. and 
1 CHRON. xi. 6. The books of MOSES, JOSHUA, and JUDGES, 
contain one continued history, down from the Creation to 
the death of SAMPSON. Where the PENTATEUCH ends, 
the book of JOSHUA begins ; and where the book of JOSHUA 
ends, the book of JUDGES begins. Therefore all these 
books have been composed out of the writings of MOSES, 
JOSHUA, and other records, by one and the same hand, 
after the beginning of the reign of SAUL, and before the 
eighth year of DAVID. And SAMUEL was a sacred writer, 

1 SAM. x. 25. acquainted with the history of MOSES and 
the JUDGES, 1 SAM. xii. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. and had leisure 
in the reign of SAUL, and sufficient authority to compose 
these books. He was a Prophet, and judged ISRAEL all 
the days of his life, and was in the greatest esteem with 
the people ; and the Law by which he was to judge the 
people was not to be published by less authority than his 
own, the Law-maker being not inferior to the judge. 
And the book of JASHER, which is quoted in the book of 
JOSHUA, JOSH. x. 13. was in being at the death of SAUL, 

2 SAM. i. 18. 

At the dedication of the Temple of SOLOMON, when the 
Ark was brought into the most holy place, there was 
nothing in it but the two tables, 1 KINGS viii. 9. and there 
fore when the PHILISTINES took the Ark, they took out 
of it the book of the Law, and the golden pot of Manna, 
and AARON S Rod. And this and other losses in the 
desolation of ISRAEL, by the conquering PHILISTINES, 
might give occasion to SAMUEL, after some respite from 
those enemies, to recollect the scattered writings of MOSES 



CHAP, i] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 143 

and JOSHUA, and the records of the Patriarchs and Judges, 
and compose them in the form now extant. 

The book of RUTH is a history of things done in the days 
of the JUDGES, and may be looked upon as an addition 
to the book of the JUDGES, written by the same author, 
and at the same time. For it was written after the birth 
of DAVID, RUTH iv. 17, 22. and not long after, because 
the history of BOAZ and RUTH, the great grandfather 
and great grandmother of DAVID, and that of their con 
temporaries, could not well be remembered above two or 
three generations. And since this book derives the 
genealogy of DAVID from BOAZ and RUTH, and omits 
DAVID S elder brothers and his sons ; it was written in 
honour of DAVID, after he was anointed King by SAMUEL, 
and before he had children in HEBRON, and by consequence 
in the reign of SAUL. It proceeds not to the history of 
DAVID, and therefore seems to have been written presently 
after he was anointed. They judge well therefore who 
ascribe to SAMUEL the books of JOSHUA, JUDGES, and 
RUTH. 

SAMUEL is also reputed the author of the first book of 
SAMUEL, till the time of his death. The two books of 
SAMUEL cite no authors, and therefore seem to be originals. 
They begin with his genealogy, birth and education, and 
might be written partly in his life-time by himself, or his 
disciples the Prophets at NAIOTH in RAMAH, 1 SAM. xix. 
18, 19, 20. and partly after his death by the same disciples. 

The books of the KINGS cite other authors, as the book 
of the Acts of SOLOMON, the book of the CHRONICLES of 
the Kings of ISRAEL, and the book of the CHRONICLES of 
the Kings of JUDAH. The books of the CHRONICLES cite 
the book of SAMUEL the Seer, the book of NATHAN the 
Prophet, and the book of GAD the Seer, for the Acts of 
DAVID ; the book of NATHAN the Prophet, the Prophecy 
of AHIJAH the SHILONITE, and the visions of IDDO the Seer, 
for the Acts of SOLOMON ; the book of SHEMAJAH the 
Prophet, and the book of IDDO the Seer concerning genea 
logies, for the Acts of REHOBOAM and ABIJAH ; the book 
11 



144 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PAR* 1 

of the Kings of JUDAH and ISRAEL for the Acts of ASA, 
JOASH, AMAZIAH, JOTHAM, AHAZ, HEZEKIAH, MANASSEH, 
and JOSIAH ; the book of HANANI the Seer, for the Acts 
of JEHOSAPHAT ; and the visions of ISAIAH for the Acts 
of UZZIAH and HEZEKIAH. These books were therefore 
collected out of the historical writings of the ancient 
Seers and Prophets. And because the books of the KINGS 
and CHRONICLES quote one another, they were written 
at one and the same time. And this time was after the 
return from the BABYLONIAN captivity, because they bring 
down the history of JUDAH, and the genealogies of the 
Kings of JUDAH, and of the High Priests, to that captivity. 
The book of EZRA was originally a part of the book of the 
CHRONICLES, and has been divided from it. For it begins 
with the two last verses of the books of CHRONICLES, 
and the first book of ESDRAS begins with the two last 
chapters thereof. EZRA was therefore the compiler of the 
books of KINGS and CHRONICLES, and brought down the 
history to his own time. He was a ready Scribe in the 
Law of God ; and for assisting him in this work NEHEMIAS 
founded a library, and gathered together the Acts of the 
Kings and the Prophets, and oj David, and the Epistles oj 
the Kings concerning the holy gifts, 2 MACCAB. ii. 13. By 
the Acts of DAVID I understand here the two books of 
SAMUEL, or at least the second book. Out of the Acts of 
the KINGS, written from time to time by the Prophets, 
he compos d the books of the Kings of JUDAH and ISRAEL, 
the CHRONICLES of the Kings of JUDAH, and the CHRONICLES 
of the Kings of ISRAEL. And in doing this he joined those 
Acts together, in due order of time, copying the very words 
of the authors, as is manifest from hence, that the books 
of the KINGS and CHRONICLES frequently agree with one 
another in the words for many sentences together. Where 
they agree in sense, there they agree in words also. 

So the Prophecies of ISAIAH, written at several times, 
he has collected into one body. And the like he did for 
those of JEREMIAH, and the rest of the Prophets, down to 
the days of the second Temple. The book of JONAH is 



CHAP, i] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 145 

the history of JONAH written by another hand. The book 
of DANIEL is a collection of papers written at several times. 
The six last chapters contain Prophecies written at several 
times by DANIEL himself ; the six first are a collection of 
historical papers written by others. The fourth chapter 
is a Decree of NEBUCHADNEZZAR. The first chapter was 
written after DANIEL S death : for the Author saith, that 
DANIEL continued to the first year of CYRUS ; that is, to 
his first year over the PERSIANS and MEDES, and third 
year over BABYLON. And, for the same reason, the fifth 
and sixth chapters were also written after his death. For 
they end with these words : So this Daniel prospered in 
the reign oj Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian. 
Yet these words might be added by the collector of the 
papers, whom I take to be EZRA. 

The Psalms composed by MOSES, DAVID, and others, 
seem to have been also collected by EZRA into one volume. 
I reckon him the collector, because in this collection I 
meet with Psalms as late as the BABYLONIAN captivity, 
but with none later. 

After these things ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES spoiled the 
Temple, commanded the JEWS to forsake the Law upon 
pain of death, and caused the sacred books to be burnt 
wherever they could be found : and in these troubles 
the book of the CHRONICLES of the Kings of ISRAEL was 
entirely lost. But upon recovering from this oppression 
JUDAS MACCABEUS gathered together all those writings 
that were to be met with, 2 MACCAB. ii. 14. and in reducing 
them into order, part of the Prophecies of ISAIAH, or some 
other Prophet, have been added to the end of the Prophecies 
of ZECHARIAH ; and the book of EZRA has been separated 
from the book of CHRONICLES, and set together in two 
different orders ; in one order in the book of EZRA, 
received into the Canon, and in another order in the first 
book of ESDRAS. 

After the ROMAN captivity, the JEWS for preserving their 
traditions, put them in writing in their TALMUD ; and for 
preserving their scriptures, agreed upon an Edition, and 



146 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

pointed it, and counted the letters of every sort in every 
book : and by preserving only this Edition, the antienter 
various lections, except what can be discovered by means 
of the SEPTUAGINT Version, are now lost ; and such 
marginal notes, or other corruptions, as by the errors of 
the transcribers, before this Edition was made, had crept 
into the text, are now scarce to be corrected. 

The JEWS before the ROMAN captivity, distinguished the 
sacred books into the Law, the Prophets, and the HAGIO- 
GRAPHA, or holy writings ; and read only the Law and the 
Prophets in their Synagogues. And Christ and his Apostles 
laid the stress of religion upon the Law and the Prophets, 
MATT. vii. 12. xxii. 40. LUKE xvi. 16, 29, 31. xxiv. 44. 
ACTS xxiv. 14. xxvi. 22. ROM. iii. 21. By the HAGIO- 
GRAPHA they meant the historical books called JOSHUA, 
JUDGES, RUTH, SAMUEL, KINGS, CHRONICLES, EZRA, 
NEHEMIAH, and ESTHER, the book of JOB, the PSALMS, the 
books of SOLOMON, and the LAMENTATIONS. The SAMARI 
TANS read only the PENTATEUCH : and when JEHOSAPHAT 
sent men to teach in the cities, they had with them only 
the book of the Law ; for the Prophecies now extant were 
not then written. And upon the return from the BABY 
LONIAN captivity, EZRA read only the book of the Law to 
the people, from morning to noon, on the first day of the 
seventh month ; and from day to day in the feast of 
Tabernacles : for he had not yet collected the writings 
of the Prophets into the volume now extant ; but insti 
tuted the reading of them after the collection was made. 
By reading the Law and the Prophets in the Synagogues, 
those books have been kept freer from corruption than 
the HAGIOGRAPHA. 

In the infancy of the nation of ISRAEL, when God had 
given them a Law, and made a covenant with them to be 
their God if they would keep his commandments, he sent 
Prophets to reclaim them, as often as they revolted to the 
worship of other Gods : and upon their returning to him, 
they sometimes renewed the covenant which they had 
broken. These Prophets he continued to send till the days 



CHAP, i] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 147 

of EZRA : but after their Prophecies were read in the 
Synagogues, those Prophecies were thought sufficient. 
For if the people would not hear MOSES and the old 
Prophets, they would hear no new ones, no not tho they 
should rise from the dead. At length when a new truth 
was to be preached to the GENTILES, namely, that Jesus 
was the Christ, God sent new Prophets and Teachers : 
but after their writings were also received and read in 
the Synagogues of the Christians, Prophecy ceased a 
second time. We have MOSES, the Prophets, and Apostles, 
and the words of Christ himself; and if we will not 
hear them, we shall be more inexcusable than the 
JEWS. For the Prophets and Apostles have foretold, 
that as ISRAEL often revolted and brake the covenant, 
and upon repentance renewed it ; so there should be a 
falling away among the Christians, soon after the days 
of the Apostles ; and that in the latter days God would 
destroy the impenitent revolters, and make a new covenant 
with his people. And the giving ear to the Prophets is a 
fundamental character of the true Church. For God has 
so ordered the Prophecies, that in the latter days the wise 
may understand, but the wicked shall do wickedly, and none 
of the wicked shall understand, DAN. xii. 9, 10. The 
authority of Emperors, Kings, and Princes, is human. 
The authority of Councils, Synods, Bishops, and Presbyters, 
is human. The authority of the Prophets is divine, and 
comprehends the sum of religion, reckoning MOSES and 
the Apostles among the Prophets ; and if an Angel from 
Heaven preach any other gospel, than what they have 
delivered, let him be accursed. Their writings contain 
the covenant between God and his people, with instruc 
tions for keeping this Covenant ; instances of God s 
judgments upon them that break it : and predictions of 
things to come. While the people of God keep the 
covenant, they continue to be his people : when they 
break it they cease to be his people or church, and become 
the Synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews, and are not. 
And no power on earth is authorized to alter this covenant. 



148 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PART I 

The predictions of things to come relate to the state of 
the Church in all ages : and amongst the old Prophets, 
DANIEL is most distinct in order of time, and easiest to 
be understood : and therefore in those things which 
relate to the last times, he must be made the key to the 
rest. 



CHAPTER II 

OF THE PROPHETIC LANGUAGE 

FOR understanding the Prophecies, we are, in the first 
place, to acquaint ourselves with the figurative language 
of the Prophets. This language is taken from the analogy 
between the world natural, and an empire or kingdom 
considered as a world politic. 

Accordingly, the whole world natural consisting of 
heaven and earth, signifies the whole world politic, con 
sisting of thrones and people, or so much of it as is con 
sidered in the Prophecy : and the things in that world 
signify the analogous things in this. For the heavens, 
and the things therein, signify thrones and dignities, and 
those who enjoy them ; and the earth, with the things 
thereon, the inferior people ; and the lowest parts of the 
earth, called HADES or Hell, the lowest or most miserable 
part of them. Whence ascending towards heaven, and 
descending to the earth, are put for rising and falling in 
power and honour : rising out of the earth, or waters, 
and falling into them, for the rising up to any dignity 
or dominion, out of the inferior state of the people, 
or falling down from the same into that inferior state ; 
descending into the lower parts of the earth, for descending 
to a very low and unhappy estate ; speaking with a faint 
voice out of the dust, for being in a weak and low con 
dition ; moving from one place to another, for translation 
from one office, dignity, or dominion, to another ; great 
earthquakes, and the shaking of heaven and earth, for 
the shaking of kingdoms, so as to distract or overthrow 
them ; the creating a new heaven and earth, and the 



150 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

passing away of an old one, or the beginning and end of 
the world, for the rise and ruin of the body politic signified 
thereby. 

In the heavens, the Sun and Moon are, by interpreters 
of dreams, put for the persons of Kings and Queens ; but 
in sacred Prophecy, which regards not single persons, 
the Sun is put for the whole species and race of Kings, 
in the kingdom or kingdoms of the world politic, shining 
with regal power and glory ; the Moon for the body of 
the common people, considered as the King s wife ; the 
Stars for subordinate Princes and great men, or for Bishops 
and Rulers of the people of God, when the Sun is Christ ; 
light for the glory, truth, and knowledge, wherewith great 
and good men shine and illuminate others ; darkness for 
obscurity of condition, and for error, blindness and 
ignorance ; darkning, smiting, or setting of the Sun, 
Moon, and Stars, for the ceasing of a kingdom, or for the 
desolation thereof, proportional to the darkness ; darkning 
the Sun, turning the Moon into blood, and falling of the 
Stars, for the same ; new Moons, for the return of a 
dispersed people into a body politic or ecclesiastic. 

Fire and meteors refer to both heaven and earth, and 
signify as follows ; burning any thing with fire, is put for 
the consuming thereof by war ; a conflagration of the 
earth, or turning a country into a lake of fire, for the 
consumption of a kingdom by war ; the being in a furnace, 
for the being in slavery under another nation ; the 
ascending up of the smoke of any burning thing for ever 
and ever, for the continuation of a conquered people 
under the misery of perpetual subjection and slavery ; 
the scorching heat of the sun, for vexatious wars, persecu 
tions and troubles inflicted by the King ; riding on the 
clouds, for reigning over much people ; covering the sun 
with a cloud, or with smoke, for oppression of the King 
by the armies of an enemy ; tempestuous winds, or the 
motion of clouds, for wars ; thunder, or the voice of a 
cloud, for the voice of a multitude ; a storm of thunder, 
lightning, hail, and overflowing rain, for a tempest of 



CHAP, n] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 151 

war descending from the heavens and clouds politic, on 
the heads of their enemies ; rain, if not immoderate, and 
dew, and living water, for the graces and doctrines of the 
Spirit ; and the defect of rain, for spiritual barrenness. 

In the earth, the dry land and congregated waters, as 
a sea, a river, a flood, are put for the people of several 
regions, nations, and dominions : embittering of waters, 
for great affliction of the people by war and persecution ; 
turning things into blood, for the mystical death of bodies 
politic, that is, for their dissolution ; the overflowing of 
a sea or river, for the invasion of the earth politic, by the 
people of the waters ; drying up of waters, for the conquest 
of their regions by the earth ; fountains of waters for 
cities, the permanent heads of rivers politic ; mountains 
and islands, for the cities of the earth and sea politic, 
with the territories and dominions belonging to those 
cities ; dens and rocks of mountains, for the temples of 
cities ; the hiding of men in those dens and rocks, for 
the shutting up of Idols in their temples ; houses and 
ships, for families, assemblies, and towns, in the earth 
and sea politic ; and a navy of ships of war, for an army 
of that kingdom that is signified by the sea. 

Animals also and vegetables are put for the people of 
several regions and conditions ; and particularly, trees, 
herbs, and land animals, for the people of the earth politic ; 
flags, reeds, and fishes, for those of the waters politic ; 
birds and insects, for those of the politic heaven and 
earth ; a forest for a kingdom ; and a wilderness for a 
desolate and thin people. 

If the world politic, considered in prophecy, consists 
of many kingdoms, they are represented by as many parts 
of the world natural ; as the noblest by the celestial frame, 
and then the Moon and Clouds are put for the common 
people ; the less noble, by the earth, sea, and rivers, and 
by the animals or vegetables, or buildings therein ; and 
then the greater and more powerful animals and taller 
trees, are put for Kings, Princes, and Nobles. And 
because the whole kingdom is the body politic of the 



152 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

King, therefore the Sun, or a Tree, or a Beast, or Bird, 
or a Man, whereby the King is represented, is put in a 
large signification for the whole kingdom ; and several 
animals, as a Lion, a Bear, a Leopard, a Goat, according 
to their qualities, are put for several kingdoms and bodies 
politic ; and sacrificing of beasts, for slaughtering and 
conquering of kingdoms ; and friendship between beasts, 
for peace between kingdoms. Yet sometimes vegetables 
and animals are, by certain epithets or circumstances, 
extended to other significations ; as a Tree when called 
the tree of life or of knowledge ; and a Beast, when called 
the old serpent, or worshipped. 

When a Beast or Man is put for a kingdom, his parts 
and qualities are put for the analogous parts and qualities 
of the kingdom ; as the head of a Beast, for the great 
men who precede and govern ; the tail for the inferior 
people, who follow and are governed ; the heads, if more 
than one, for the number of capital parts, or dynasties, 
or dominions in the kingdom, whether collateral or succes 
sive, with respect to the civil government ; the horns on 
any head, for the number of kingdoms in that head, with 
respect to military power ; seeing for understanding, and 
the eyes for men of understanding and policy, and in 
matters of religion for ETTLO-KOTTO^ Bishops ; speaking, 
for making laws ; the mouth, for a law-giver, whether 
civil or sacred ; the loudness of the voice, for might and 
power ; the faintness thereof, for weakness ; eating and 
drinking, for acquiring what is signified by the things 
eaten and drank ; the hairs of a beast, or man, and the 
feathers of a bird, for people ; the wings, for the number 
of kingdoms represented by the beast ; the arm of a man, 
for his power, or for any people wherein his strength and 
power consists ; his feet, for the lowest of the people, 
or for the latter end of the kingdom ; the feet, nails, and 
teeth of beasts of prey, for armies and squadrons of 
armies ; the bones, for strength, and for fortified places ; 
the flesh, for riches and possessions ; and the days of their 
acting, for years ; and when a tree is put for a kingdom, 



CHAP, n] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 153 

its branches, leaves, and fr uit, signify as do the wings, 
feathers, and food of a bird or beast. 

When a man is taken in a mystical sense, his qualities 
are often signified by his actions, and by the circumstances 
of things about him. So a Ruler is signified by his riding 
on a beast ; a Warrior and Conqueror, by his having 
a sword and bow ; a potent man by his gigantic stature ; 
a Judge, by weights and measures ; a sentence of absolu 
tion, or condemnation, by a white or a black stone ; a 
new dignity, by a new name ; moral or civil qualifications, 
by garments ; honour and glory, by splendid apparel ; 
royal dignity, by purple or scarlet, or by a crown ; right 
eousness, by white and clean robes ; wickedness, by spotted 
and filthy garments ; affliction, mourning, and humiliation, 
by clothing in sackcloth ; dishonour, shame, and want of 
good works, by nakedness ; error and misery, by drinking 
a cup of his or her wine that causeth it ; propagating any 
religion for gain, by exercising traffic and merchandise 
with that people whose religion it is ; worshipping or 
serving the false gods of any nation, by committing adultery 
with their princes, or by worshipping them ; a Council of 
a kingdom, by its image ; idolatry, by blasphemy ; over 
throw in war, by a wound of man or beast ; a durable 
plague of war, by a sore and pain ; the affliction or persecu 
tion which a people suffers in labouring to bring forth a 
new kingdom, by the pain of a woman in labour to bring 
forth a man-child ; the dissolution of a body politic or 
ecclesiastic, by the death of a man or beast ; and the 
revival of a dissolved dominion, by the resurrection of 
the dead. 



CHAPTER III 

OF THE VISION OF THE IMAGE COMPOSED OF FOUR METALS 

THE Prophecies of DANIEL are all of them related to one 
another, as if they were but several parts of one general 
Prophecy, given at several times. The first is the easiest 
to be understood, and every following Prophecy adds 
something new to the former. The first was given in a 
dream to NEBUCHADNEZZAR, King of BABYLON, in the 
second year of his reign ; but the King forgetting his 
dream, it was given again to DANIEL in a dream, and by 
him revealed to the King. And thereby, DANIEL presently 
became famous for wisdom, and revealing of secrets : 
insomuch that EZEKIEL his contemporary, in the nine 
teenth year of NEBUCHADNEZZAR, spake thus of him to 
the king of TYRE : Behold, saith he, thou art wiser than 
Daniel, there is no secret that they can hide from thee, Ezek. 
xxviii. 3. And the same EZEKIEL, in another place, joins 
DANIEL with NOAH and JOB, as most high in the favour 
of God, EZEK. xiv. 14, 16, 18, 20. And in the last year of 
BELSHAZZAR, the Queen-mother said of him to the King : 
Behold there is a man in thy kingdom, in whom is the spirit 
of the holy gods ; and in the days of thy father, light and 
understanding and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, was 
found in him ; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, 
the king, I say, thy father made master of the magicians, 
astrologers, Chaldeans and soothsayers : forasmuch as an 
excellent spirit, and knowledge, and understanding, inter 
preting of dreams, and shewing of hard sentences, and dis 
solving of doubts, were found in the same Daniel, whom the 
king named Belteshazzar, Dan. v. 11, 12. DANIEL was in 
the greatest credit amongst the Jews, till the reign of the 

154 



CHAP, in] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 155 

Roman Emperor Hadrian : and to reject his Prophecies, 
is to reject the Christian religion. For this religion is 
founded upon his Prophecy concerning the MESSIAH. 

Now in this vision of the Image composed of four Metals, 
the foundation of all DANIEL S Prophecies is laid. It 
represents a body of four great nations, which should 
reign over the earth successively, viz. the people of BABY 
LONIA, the PERSIANS, the GREEKS, and the ROMANS. And 
by a stone cut out without hands, which fell upon the feet 
of the Image, and brake all the four Metals to pieces, and 
became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth ; it 
further represents that a new kingdom should arise, after 
the four, and conquer all those nations, and grow very 
great, and last to the end of all ages. 

The head of the Image was of gold, and signifies the 
nations of BABYLONIA, who reigned first, as DANIEL 
himself interprets. Thou art this head of gold, saith he to 
NEBUCHADNEZZAR. These nations reigned till CYRUS con 
quered BABYLON, and within a few months after that 
conquest revolted to the PERSIANS, and set them up above 
the MEDES. The breast and arms of the Image were of 
silver, and represent the PERSIANS who reigned next. 
The belly and thighs of the Image were of brass, and repre 
sent the GREEKS, who under the dominion of ALEXANDER 
the great, conquered the PERSIANS, and reigned next 
after them. The legs were of iron, and represent the 
ROMANS who reigned next after the GREEKS, and began 
to conquer them in the eighth year of ANTIOCHUS EPI- 
PHANES. For in that year they conquered PERSEUS King 
of MACEDON, the fundamental kingdom of the GREEKS ; 
and from thence forward grew into a mighty empire, and 
reigned with great power till the days of THEODOSIUS the 
great. Then by the incursion of many northern nations, 
they brake into many smaller kingdoms, which are repre 
sented by the feet and toes of the Image, composed part 
of iron, and part of clay. For then, saith DANIEL, the 
kingdom shall be divided, and there shall be in it of the 
strength of iron, but they shall not cleave one to another. 



156 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PARTI 

And in the days of these Kings, saith Daniel, shall the 
God of heaven set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed : 
and the kingdom shall not be left to other people ; but it shall 
break in pieces, and consume all these kingdoms, and it 
shall stand for ever. Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone 
was cut out of the mountains without hands, and that it brake 
in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver and the gold. 



CHAPTER IV 

OF THE VISION OF THE FOUR BEASTS 

IN the next vision, which is of the four beasts, the Pro 
phecy of the four Empires is repeated, with several new 
additions ; such as are the two wings of the Lion, the three 
ribs in the mouth of the Bear, the four wings and four 
heads of the Leopard, the eleven horns of the fourth Beast, 
and the son of man coming in the clouds of Heaven, to 
the Ancient of Days sitting in judgment. 

The first Beast was like a lion, and had eagle s wings, to 
denote the kingdoms of BABYLONIA and MEDIA, which over 
threw the ASSYRIAN Empire, and divided it between them, 
and thereby became considerable, and grew into great 
Empires. In the former Prophecy, the Empire of BABY 
LONIA was represented by the head of gold ; in this both 
Empires are represented together by the two wings of the 
lion. And I beheld, saith DANIEL, chap. vii. 4. till the 
wings thereof were pluckt, and it was lifted up from the 
earth, and made to stand upon the feet as a man, and a man s 
heart was given to it ; that is, till it was humbled and 
subdued, and made to know its human state. 

The second Beast was like a bear, and represents the 
Empire which reigned next after the BABYLONIANS, that 
is, the Empire of the PERSIANS. Thy kingdom is divided, 
or broken, saith DANIEL to the last King of BABYLON, 
and given to the Medes and Persians, DAN. v. 28. This 
Beast raised itself up on one side ; the PERSIANS being under 
the MEDES at the fall of BABYLON, but presently rising 
up above them. And it had three ribs in the mouth of it, 
between the teeth of it, chap. vii. 5. to signify the kingdoms 
of SARDES, BABYLON, and EGYPT, which were conquered 

157 



158 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

by it, but did not belong to its proper body. And it 
devoured much flesh, the riches of those three kingdoms. 

The third Beast was the kingdom which succeeded 
the PERSIAN ; and this was the empire of the Greeks, DAN. 
vii. 6, 7 ; viii. 21. It was like a Leopard, to signify its 
fierceness ; and had four heads and four wings, to signify 
that it should become divided into four kingdoms, DAN. 
viii. 22. for it continued in a monarchical form during 
the reign of ALEXANDER the great, and his brother ARID^EUS 
and young sons ALEXANDER and HERCULES ; and then 
brake into four kingdoms, by the governors of provinces 
putting crowns on their own heads, and by mutual consent 
reigning over their provinces. CASSANDER reigned over 
MACEDON, GREECE, and EPIRUS ; LYSIMACHUS over 
THRACE and BITHYNIA ; PTOLEMY over EGYPT, LYBIA, 
ARABIA, CCELOSYRIA, and PALESTINE ; and SELEUCUS over 
SYRIA. 

The fourth Beast was the empire which succeeded that 
of the GREEKS, and this was the ROMAN. This beast was 
exceeding dreadful and terrible, and had great iron teeth, 
and devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue 
with its feet ; and such was the ROMAN empire. It was 
larger, stronger, and more formidable and lasting than any 
of the former. It conquered the kingdom of MACEDON, 
with ILLYRICUM and EPIRUS, in the eighth year of ANTIO- 
CHUS EPIPHANES, Anno NABONASS. 580; and inherited 
that of PERGAMUS, Anno NABONASS. 615 ; and conquered 
that of SYRIA, Anno NABONASS. 679, and that of EGYPT, 
Anno NABONASS. 718. And by these and other conquests 
it became greater and more terrible than any of the three 
former Beasts. This Empire continued in its greatness 
till the reign of THEODOSIUS the great ; and then brake into 
ten kingdoms, represented by the ten horns of this Beast ; 
and continued in a broken form, till the Antient of days 
sat in a throne like fiery flame, chap. vii. 13. and the 
judgment was set, and the books were opened, and the Beast 
was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning 
flames ; and one like the son of man came with the clouds 



CHAP, iv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 159 

of heaven, and came to the Antient of days, and received 
dominion over all nations, and judgment was given to the 
saints of the most high, and the time came that they 
possessed the kingdom. 

/ beheld, saith DANIEL, chap. vii. 11, 12. till the Beast 
was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning 
flames. As concerning the rest of the Beasts, they had 
their dominion taken away : yet their lives were prolonged 
for a season and a time. And therefore all the four Beasts 
are still alive, tho the dominion of the three first be taken 
away. The nations of CHALDEA and ASSYRIA are still 
the first Beast. Those of MEDIA and PERSIA are still the 
second Beast. Those of MACEDON, GREECE and THRACE, 
ASIA minor, SYRIA and EGYPT, are still the third. And 
those of EUROPE, on this side GREECE, are still the fourth. 
Seeing therefore the body of the third Beast is confined 
to the nations on this side the river EUPHRATES, and the 
body of the fourth Beast is confined to the nations on this 
side GREECE ; we are to look for all the four heads of the 
third Beast, among the nations on this side of the river 
EUPHRATES ; and for all the eleven horns of the fourth 
Beast, among the nations on this side of GREECE. And 
therefore, at the breaking of the GREEK empire into four 
kingdoms of the GREEKS, we include no part of the CHAL 
DEANS, MEDES and PERSIANS in those kingdoms, because 
they belonged to the bodies of the two first Beasts. Nor 
do we reckon the GREEK empire seated at CONSTANTINOPLE, 
among the horns of the fourth Beast, because it belonged 
to the body of the third. 



12 



CHAPTER V 

OF THE KINGDOMS REPRESENTED BY THE FEET OF THE 
IMAGE COMPOSED OF IRON AND CLAY 

DACIA was a large country bounded on the south by the 
DANUBE, on the east by the EUXINE sea, on the north 
by the river NEISTER and the mountain CRAPAC, and on 
the west by the river TIBESIS, or TEYS, which runs south 
ward into the DANUBE a little above BELGRADE. It 
comprehended the countries now called TRANSYLVANIA, 
MOLDAVIA, and WALLACHIA, and the eastern part of the 
upper HUNGARY. Its antient inhabitants were called 
GET.E by the GREEKS, DACI by the LATINS, and GOTHS 
by themselves. ALEXANDER the great attacked them, 
and TRAJAN conquered them, and reduced their country 
into a Province of the ROMAN Empire : and thereby the 
propagation of the Gospel among them was much pro 
moted. They were composed of several GOTHIC nations, 
called OSTROGOTHS, VISIGOTHS, VANDALS, GEPIDES, LOM 
BARDS, BURGUNDIANS, ALANS, &c. who all agreed in their 
manners, and spake the same language, as PROCOPIUS 
represents. While they lived under the ROMANS, the 
GOTHS or OSTROGOTHS were seated in the eastern parts of 
DACIA, the VANDALS in the western part upon the river 
TEYS, where the rivers MARESH and KERESH run into it. 
The VISIGOTHS were between them. The GEPIDES, 
according to JORNANDES, were upon the VISTULA. The 
BURGUNDIANS, a VANDALIC nation, were between the 
VISTULA and the southern fountain of the BORISTHENES, 
at some distance from the mountain CRAPAC northwards, 
where PTOLEMY places them, by the names of PHRU- 

160 



CHAP.V] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 161 

GUNDIONES and BURGIONES. The ALANS, another GOTHIC 
nation, were between the northern fountain of the 
BORISTHENES and the mouth of the river TANAIS, where 
PTOLEMY placeth the mountain ALANUS, and western side 
of the PALUS M^EOTIS (PROCOP. lib. 1. de Bello Vandalico). 

These nations continued under the dominion of the 
ROMANS till the second year of the Emperor PHILIP, and 
then for want of their military pay began to revolt ; 
the OSTROGOTHS setting up a kingdom, which, under their 
Kings OSTROGOTHA, CNIVA, ARARIC, GEPERIC, and HER- 
MANARIC, increased till the year of Christ 376 ; and then 
by an incursion of the HUNNS from beyond the TANAIS, 
and the death of HERMANARIC, brake into several smaller 
kingdoms. HUNNIMUND, the son of HERMANARIC, became 
King over the OSTROGOTHS ; FRIDIGERN over the VISI 
GOTHS ; WINITHAR, or VINITHAR, over a part of the 
GOTHS called GRUTHUNGI by AMMIAN, GOTHUNNI by 
CLAUDIAN, and SARMAT^E and SCYTHIANS by others : 
ATHANARIC reign d over another part of the GOTHS in 
DACIA, called THERVINGI ; Box over the ANTES in SAR- 
MATIA ; and the GEPIDES had also their King. The 
VANDALS fled over the DANUBE from GEBERIC in the latter 
end of the reign of CONSTANTINE the great, and had seats 
granted them in PANNONIA by that Emperor, where they 
lived quietly forty years, viz. till the year 377, when 
several GOTHIC nations flying from the HUNNS came over 
the DANUBE, and had seats granted them in M-assiA and 
THRACE by the GREEK Emperor VALENS. But the next 
year they revolted, called in some GOTHS, ALANS and 
HUNNS, from beyond the DANUBE, and routed the ROMAN 
army, slew the Emperor VALENS, and spread themselves 
into GREECE and PANNONIA as far as the ALPS. In the 
years 379 and 380 they were checked by the arms of the 
Emperors GRATIAN and THEODOSIUS, and made a submis 
sive peace ; the VISIGOTHS and THERVINGI returned to 
their seats in M^ESIA and THRACE, the HUNNS retired over 
the DANUBE, and the ALANS and GRUTHINGI obtained 
seats in PANNONIA. 



162 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

About the year 373, or 374, the BURGUNDIANS rose from 
their seats upon the VISTULA, with an army of eighty 
thousand men to invade GALLIA ; and being opposed, 
seated themselves upon the northern side of the RHINE 
over against MENTZ. In the year 358, a body of the 
SALIAN FRANKS, with their King, coming from the river 
SALA, were received into the Empire by the Emperor 
JULIAN, and seated in GALLIA between BRABANT and the 
RHINE : and their King MELLOBAUDES was made Comp 
troller of the Household by the Emperor GRATIAN. 
RICHOMER, another noble SALIAN FRANK, was made 
Comptroller of the Household, and Count of the Horse 
and Foot, by THEODOSIUS ; and A. C. 384, was Consul 
with CLEARCHUS. He was a great favourite of THEODO 
SIUS, and accompanied him in his wars against EUGENIUS, 
but died in the expedition, and left a son called THEUDOMIR, 
who afterwards became King of the SALIAN FRANKS in 
BRABANT. In the time of this war some FRANKS from 
beyond the RHINE invaded GALLIA under the conduct of 
GENOBALD, MARCOMIR and SUNO, but were repulsed by 
STILICO ; and MARCOMIR being slain, was succeeded in 
GERMANY by his son PHARAMOND. 

While these nations remained quiet within the Empire, 
subject to the ROMANS, many others continued so beyond 
the DANUBE till the death of the Emperor THEODOSIUS, 
and then rose up in arms. For PAULUS DIACONUS in his 
Historia Miscell. lib. xiv. speaking of the times next after 
the death of this Emperor, tells us : " At that time there 
were GOTHS and other powerful tribes dwelling beyond the 
DANUBE ; but of these the more important are four, viz. 
the GOTHS, HUISOGOTHS, the GEPIDES, and the VANDALS. 
The sole difference between them being one of name and 
nothing else. In the days of ARCADIUS and HONORIUS they 
crossed the DANUBE and settled in Roman territory, and 
the GEPIDES from whom afterwards the LONGOBARDS and 
AVARES sprang as distinct peoples, inhabited the country 
districts surrounding SINGIDO and SERMIUM" : and PROCO- 
PIUS in the beginning of his Historia Vandalica writes to 



CHAP, v] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 163 

the same purpose. Hitherto the WESTERN EMPIRE 
continued entire, but now brake into many kingdoms. 

THEODOSIUS died A. C. 395 ; and then the VISIGOTHS, 
under the conduct of ALARIC the successor of FRIDIGERN, 
rose from their seats in THRACE, and wasted MACEDON, 
THESSALY, ACHAIA, PELOPONNESUS, and EPIRUS, with fire 
and sword for five years together ; when turning westward, 
they invaded DALMATIA, ILLYRICUM and PANNONIA ; and 
from thence went into ITALY A. C. 402 ; and the next 
year were so beaten at POLLENTIA and VERONA, by STILICO 
the commander of the forces of the WESTERN EMPIRE, 
that CLAUDIAN calls the remainder of the forces of ALARIC, 
the scanty remnants of a mighty nation ; Prudentius calls 
them an annihilated nation. Thereupon ALARIC made 
peace with the Emperor, being so far humbled, that OROSIUS 
saith, he did, " humbly and sincerely entreat him for the 
blessings of peace, and whatsoever dwelling places seemed 
to him good." This peace was ratified by mutual 
hostages ; ^ETIUS was sent hostage to ALARIC ; and ALARIC 
continued a free Prince in the seats now granted to him. 

When ALARIC took up arms, the nations beyond the 
DANUBE began to be in motion ; and the next winter, 
between A. C. 395 and 396, a great body of HUNNS, 
ALANS, OSTROGOTHS, GEPIDES, and other northern nations, 
came over the frozen DANUBE, being invited by RUFINUS : 
when their brethren, who had obtained seats within the 
Empire, took up arms also. JEROME calls this great 
multitude, HUNNS, ALANS, VANDALS, GOTHS, SARMATIANS, 
QUADES, and MARCOMANS ; and saith, that they invaded 
all places between CONSTANTINOPLE and the JULIAN ALPS, 
wasting SCYTHIA, THRACE, MACEDON, DARDANIA, DACIA, 
THESSALY, ACHAIA, EPIRUS, DALMATIA, and all PANNONIA. 
The SUEVIANS also invaded RH^ETIA : for when ALARIC 
ravaged PANNONIA, the ROMANS were defending RH^ETIA ; 
which gave ALARIC an opportunity of invading ITALY, as 
CLAUDIAN thus mentions : 

" By treachery alone, did the GETJE gain the opportunity 
for invasion and burst in upon us, while our forces were 



164 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

held fast in RH^TIA, and our cohorts were struggling in a 
distant field." 

And when ALARIC went from those parts into ITALY, 
some other barbarous nations invaded NORICUM and 
VINDELICIA, as the same Poet CLAUDIAN thus writes : 

" Already the tribes had discarded their pact ; 

and the LATIANS fierce at the noise of that misfortune were 
defending the passes of VINDELICIA and the fields of 
NORICUM." 

This was in the years 402 and 403. And among these 
nations I reckon the SUEVIANS, QUADES, and MARCOMANS ; 
for they were all in arms at this time. The QUADES and 
MARCOMANS were SUEVIAN nations ; and they and the 
SUEVIANS came originally from BOHEMIA, and the river 
SUEVUS or SPRAKE in LUSATIA ; and were now united 
under one common King called ERMERIC, who soon after 
led them into GALLIA. The VANDALS and ALANS might 
also about this time extend themselves into NORICUM. 
ULDIN also with a great body of HUNNS passed the 
DANUBE about the time of CHRYSOSTOM S banishment, 
that is, A. C. 404, and wasted THRACE and M^ESIA. RADA- 
GAISUS, King of the GRUTHUNNI and successor of WINI- 
THAR, inviting over more barbarians from beyond the 
DANUBE, invaded ITALY with an army of above two 
hundred thousand GOTHS ; and within a year or two, 
A. C. 405 or 406, was overcome by STILICO, and perished 
with his army. In this war STILICO was assisted with a 
great body of HUNNS and OSTROGOTHS, under the conduct 
of ULDIN and SARUS, who were hired by the EMPEROR 
HONORIUS. In all this confusion it was necessary for the 
LOMBARDS in PANNONIA to arm themselves in their own 
defence, and assert their liberty, the ROMANS being no 
longer able to protect them. 

And now STILICO purposing to make himself Emperor, 
procured a military prefecture for ALARIC, and sent him 
into the EAST in the service of HONORIUS the WESTERN 
Emperor, committing some ROMAN troops to his conduct 



CHAP, v] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 165 

to strengthen his army of GOTHS, and promising to follow 
soon after with his own army. His pretence was to recover 
some regions of ILLYRICUM, which the EASTERN Emperor 
was accused to detain injuriously from the WESTERN ; 
but his secret design was to make himself Emperor, by 
the assistance of the VANDALS and their allies : for he 
himself was a VANDAL. For facilitating this design, he 
invited a great body of the barbarous nations to invade 
the WESTERN EMPIRE, while he and ALARIC invaded the 
EASTERN. And these nations under their several Kings, 
the VANDALS under GODEGESILUS, the ALANS in two bodies, 
the one under GOAR, the other under RESPLENDIAL, and 
the SUEVIANS, QUADES, and MARCOMANS, under ERMERIC, 
marched thro 5 RH.ETIA to the side of the RHINE, leaving 
their seats in PANNONIA to the HUNNS and OSTROGOTHS, 
and joined the BURGUNDIANS under GUNDICAR, and ruffled 
the FRANKS in their further march. On the last of 
DECEMBER A. C. 406, they passed the RHINE at MENTZ, 
and spread themselves into GERMANIA PRIMA and the 
adjacent regions ; and amongst other actions the VANDALS 
took TRIERS. Then they advanced into BELGIUM, and 
began to waste that country. Whereupon the SALIAN 
FRANKS in BRABANT took up arms, and under the conduct 
of THEUDOMIR, the son of RICIMER, or RICHOMER, above- 
mentioned, made so stout a resistance, that they slew 
almost twenty thousand of the VANDALS, with their King 
GODEGESILUS, in battle ; the rest escaping only by a 
party of RESPLENDIAL s ALANS which came timely to their 
assistance. 

Then the BRITISH soldiers, alarm d by the rumour of 
these things, revolted, and set up Tyrants there ; first 
MARCUS, whom they slew presently ; then GRATIAN, 
whom they slew within four months ; and lastly CON- 
STANTINE, under whom they invaded GALLIA A. C. 408, 
being favoured by GOAR and GUNDICAR. And CON- 
STANTINE having possessed a good part of GALLIA, created 
his son CONSTANS CAESAR, and sent him into SPAIN to 
order his affairs there, A. C. 409. 



166 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

In the mean time RESPLENDIAL, seeing the aforesaid 
disaster of the VANDALS, and that GOAR was gone over 
to the ROMANS, led his army from the RHINE ; and, 
together with the SUEVIANS and residue of the VANDALS, 
went towards SPAIN ; the FRANKS in the meantime 
prosecuting their victory so far as to retake TRIERS, 
which after they had plundered they left to the ROMANS. 
The BARBARIANS were at first stopt by the PYRENEAN 
mountains, which made them spread themselves into 
AQUITAIN : but the next year they had the passage 
betrayed by some soldiers of CONSTANS ; and entring 
SPAIN 4 Kal. OCTOB. A. C. 409, they conquered every one 
what he could ; and at length, A. C. 411, divided their 
conquests by lot ; the VANDALS obtained BCETICA, and 
part of GALL^ECIA ; the SUEVIANS the rest of GALL^CIA ; 
and the ALANS LUSITANIA and the CARTHAGINIAN Province : 
the Emperor for the sake of peace confirming them in 
those seats by grant A. C. 413. 

The ROMAN FRANKS abovementioned, having made 
THEUDOMIR their King, began strait after their conquest 
of the VANDALS to invade their neighbours also. The 
first they set upon were the GAULS of BRABANT 1 : but 
meeting with notable resistance, they desired their alli 
ance : and so those GAULS fell off from the ROMANS, and 
made an intimate league with the FRANKS to be as one 
people, marrying with one another, and conforming to 
one another s manners, till they became one without 
distinction. Thus by the access of these GAULS, and of the 
foreign FRANKS also, who afterwards came over the RHINE, 
the SALIAN kingdom soon grew very great and powerful. 

STILICO S expedition against the GREEK Emperor was 
stopt by the order of HONORIUS ; and then ALARIC came 
out of EPIRUS into NORICUM and requested a sum of money 
for his service. The Senate were inclined to deny him, but 
by STILICO S mediation granted it. But after some time 
STILICO being accused of a traiterous conspiracy with 

1 GALLI AKBORICI : whence the region was named AEBOBICBANT, and by 
contraction BRABANT. 



CHAP, v] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 167 

ALARIC, and slain 10 Kal. SEPT. A. C. 408 ; ALARIC was 
thereby disappointed of his money, and reputed an enemy 
to the Empire ; he then broke strait into ITALY with the 
army he brought out of EPIRUS, and sent to his brother 
ADOLPHUS to follow him with what forces he had in 
PANNONIA, which were not great, but yet not to be despised. 
Thereupon HONORIUS fearing to be shut up in ROME, 
retired to RAVENNA in OCTOBER A. C. 408. And from 
that time RAVENNA continued to be the seat of the WESTERN 
Emperors. In those days the HUNNS also invaded PAN 
NONIA ; and seizing the deserted seats of the VANDALS, 
ALANS, and GOTHS, founded a new kingdom there. ALARIC 
advancing to ROME besieged it, and 9 Kal. SEPT. A. C. 
410 took it : and afterwards attempting to pass into 
AFRICA, was shipwrecked. After which HONORIUS made 
peace with him and got up an army to send against the 
Tyrant CONSTANTINE. 

At the same time GERONTIUS, one of CONSTANTINE s 
captains, revolted from him, and set up MAXIMUS Emperor 
in SPAIN. Whereupon CONSTANTINE sent EDOBEC, another 
of his captains, to draw to his assistance, the BARBARIANS 
under GOAR and GUNDICAR in GALLIA, and supplies 
of FRANKS and ALEMANS from beyond the RHINE ; and 
committed the custody of VIENNE in GALLIA NARBONENSIS 
to his son CONSTANS. GERONTIUS advancing, first slew 
CONSTANS at VIENNE, and then began to besiege CON 
STANTINE at ARLES. But HONORIUS at the same time 
sending CONSTANTIUS with an army on the same errand, 
GERONTIUS fled, and CONSTANTIUS continued the siege, 
strengthened by the access of the greatest part of the 
soldiers of GERONTIUS. After four months siege, EDOBEC 
having procured succours, the BARBARIAN Kings at MENTZ, 
GOAR and GUNDICAR, constitute JOVINUS Emperor, and 
together with him set forward to relieve ARLES. At their 
approach CONSTANTIUS retired. They pursued, and he 
beat them by surprize ; but not prosecuting his victory, 
the BARBARIANS soon recovered themselves ; yet not so 
as to hinder the fall of the tyrants CONSTANTINE, 



168 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

JOVINUS and MAXIMUS. BRITAIN could not be recovered 
to the Empire, but remained ever after a distinct kingdom. 

The next year, A. C. 412, the VISIGOTHS being beaten 
in ITALY, had AQUITAIN granted them to retire into : and 
they invaded it with much violence, causing the ALANS and 
BURGUNDIANS to retreat, who were then depopulating 
of it. At the same time the BURGUNDIANS were brought 
to peace ; and the Emperor granted them for inheritance 
a region upon the RHINE which they had invaded : and 
the same, I presume, he did with the ALANS. But the 
FRANKS not long after retaking and burning TRIERS, 
CASTINUS, A. C. 415, was sent against them with an army, 
who routed them and slew THEUDOMIR their King. This 
was the second taking of TRIERS by the FRANKS. It 
was therefore taken four times, once by the VANDALS 
and thrice by the FRANKS. THEUDOMIR was succeeded 
by PHARAMOND, the Prince or King of the SALIAN FRANKS 
in Germany. From thence he brought new forces, reigned 
over the whole, and had seats granted to his people within 
the Empire near the RHINE. 

And now the BARBARIANS were all quieted, and settled 
in several kingdoms within the Empire, not only by 
conquest, but also by the grants of the Emperor HONORIUS. 
For RUTILIUS in his Itinerary, written in Autumn, 
Anno Urbis 1169, that is, according to VARRO S com 
putation then in use, A. C. 416, thus laments the wasted 
fields : 

"Lo, yonder fields, all too deformed with war s long stay." 

And then adds, 

" Now tis time, after war s long conflagrations, upon 
the devastated farms to build huts for shepherds." 

And a little after, 

" May the dweller by the Rhine, ne er again leave his 
ploughing." 

And OROSIUS in the end of his history, which was 
finished A. C. 417, represents now a general pacification 



CHAP, v] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 169 

of the barbarous nations by the words " suppress, drive 
to bay, subdue tribes of the utmost barbarity " ; terming 
them " subdued to the Empire," because they had obtained 
seats in the Empire by league and compact ; and driven 
to bay, because they did no longer invade all regions at 
pleasure, but by the same compact remained quiet in the 
seats then granted them. And these are the kingdoms, 
of which the feet of the Image were henceforward composed, 
and which are represented by iron and clay intermixed, 
which did not stick one to another, and were of different 
strength. 



CHAPTER VI 

OF THE TEN KINGDOMS REPRESENTED BY THE TEN HORNS 
OF THE FOURTH BEAST 

Now by the wars above described the WESTERN Empire 
of the ROMANS, about the time that ROME was besieged 
and taken by the GOTHS, became broken into the following 
ten kingdoms. 

1. The kingdom of the VANDALS and ALANS in SPAIN 
and AFRICA. 

2. The kingdom of the SUEVIANS in SPAIN. 

3. The kingdom of the VISIGOTHS. 

4. The kingdom of the ALANS in GALLIA. 

5. The kingdom of the BURGUNDIANS. 

6. The kingdom of the FRANKS. 

7. The kingdom of the BRITAINS. 

8. The kingdom of the HUNNS. 

9. The kingdom of the LOMBARDS. 
10. The kingdom of RAVENNA. 

Seven of these kingdoms are thus mentioned by SIGO- 
NIUS : " In the reign of HONORIUS, the HUNNS were granted 
a fixed place of abode and admitted unto PANNONIA ; the 
VANDALS, the ALANS, the SUEVI, and the GOTHS into SPAIN ; 
and the ALANS, BURGUNDIANS, and GOTHS into GAUL." 
Add the FRANKS, BRITAINS, and LOMBARDS, and you 
have the ten : for these arose about the same time with 
the seven. But let us view them severally. 

1. The Kings of the VANDALS were, A. C. 407 GODEGE- 
SILUS, 407 GUNDERIC, 426 GEISERIC, 477 HUNNERIC, 484 

GUNDEMUND, 496 TfiRASAMUND, 523 GEISERIC, 530 

GELIMER, GODEGESILUS led them into GALLIA A. C. 406, 

170 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 171 

GUNDERIC into SPAIN A. C. 409, GEISERIC into AFRICA 
A. C. 427 ; and GELIMER was conquered by BELISARIUS 
A. C. 533. Their kingdom lasted in GALLIA, SPAIN and 
AFRICA together 126 years ; and in AFRICA they were very 
potent. The ALANS had only two Kings of their own in 
SPAIN, RESPLENDIAL, and ATACES, UTACUS or OTHACAR. 
Under RESPLENDIAL they went into FRANCE A. C. 407, 
and into SPAIN A. C. 409. ATACES was slain with almost all 
his army by VALLIA King of the VISIGOTHS A. C. 419. And 
then the remainder of these ALANS subjected themselves 
to GUNDERIC King of the VANDALS in BCETICA, and went 
afterwards with them into AFRICA, as I learn out of PRO- 
COPIUS. Whence the Kings of the VANDALS styled 
themselves Kings of the VANDALS and ALANS ; as may be 
seen in the Edict of HUNNERIC recited by VICTOR in his 
VANDALIC persecution. In conjunction with the CHATTI, 
these ALANS gave the name of CATHALAUNIA, or CATTH- 
ALANIA, to the Province which is still so called. These 
ALANS had also GEPIDES among them ; and therefore the 
GEPIDES came into PANNONIA before the ALANS left it. 
There they became subject to the HUNNS till the death of 
ATTILA A. C. 454, and at length were conquered by the 
OSTROGOTHS. 

2. The Kings of the SUEVIANS were, A. C. 407 ERMERIC, 
438 RECHILA, 448 RECHIARIUS, 458 MALDRA, 460 FRU- 
MARIUS, 463 REGISMUND. And after some other Kings 
who are unknown, reigned A. C. 558 THEUDOMIR, 568 
MIRO, 582 EUBORICUS, and 583 ANDECA. This kingdom, 
after it had been once seated in SPAIN, remained always 
in GALL^ECIA and LUSITANIA. ERMERIC after the fall of 
the ALAN kingdom, enlarged it into all GALL^ECIA, forcing 
the VANDALS to retire into BCETICA and the CARTHAGINIAN 
Province. This kingdom lasted 177 years according to 
ISIDORUS, and then was subdued by LEOVIGILDUS King 
of the VISIGOTHS, and made a Province of his kingdom 
A. C. 585. 

3. The Kings of the VISIGOTHS were, A. C. 400 ALARIC, 410 
ATHAULPHUS, 415 SERGERIC and VALLIA, 419 THEODORIC, 



172 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

451 THORISMUND, 452 THEODERIC, 465 EURIC, 482 ALARIC, 
505 GENSALARIC, 526 AMALARIC, 531 THEUDIUS, 548 
THEUDISCLUS, &c. I date this kingdom from the time that 
ALARIC left THRACE and GREECE to invade the WESTERN 
EMPIRE. In the end of the reign of ATHAULPHUS the 
GOTHS were humbled by the ROMANS and attempted to 
pass out of FRANCE into SPAIN. SERGERIC reigned but a 
few days. In the beginning of Vallia s reign they assaulted 
the ROMANS afresh, but were again repulsed, and then 
made peace on this condition, that they should on the 
behalf of the Empire invade the BARBARIAN kingdoms in 
SPAIN : and this they did, together with the ROMANS, in 
the years 417 and 418, overthrowing the ALANS and part 
of the VANDALS. Then they received AQUITAIN of the 
Emperor by a full donation, leaving their conquests in 
SPAIN to the Emperor : and thereby the seats of the con 
quered ALANS came into the hands of the ROMANS. In the 
year 455, THEODERIC, assisted by the BURGUNDIANS, 
invaded SPAIN, which was then almost all subject to the 
SUEVIANS, and took a part of it from them. A. C. 506, 
the GOTHS were driven out of GALLIA by the FRANKS. 
A. C. 585, they conquered the SUEVIAN kingdom, and 
became Lords of all SPAIN. A. C. 713, the SARACENS 
invaded them, but in time they recovered their dominions, 
and have reigned in SPAIN ever since. 

4. The Kings of the ALANS in GALLIA were GOAR, 
SAMBIDA, EOCHARIC, SANGIBANUS, BEURGUS, &c. Under 
GOAR they invaded GALLIA A. C. 407, and had seats given 
them near the RHINE, A. C. 412. Under SAMBIDA, whom 
BUCHER makes the successor, if not the son of GOAR, they 
had the territories of VALENCE given them by ^ETIUS 
the Emperor s General, A. C. 440. Under EOCHARIC they 
conquered a region of the rebelling GALLI ARBORICI, given 
them also by ^ETIUS. This region was from them named 
ALENCONIUM, quasi ALANORUM conventus. Under SAN 
GIBANUS they were invaded, and their regal city ORLEANS 
was besieged by ATTILA King of the HUNNS, with a vast 
army of 500,000 men. JStius and the BARBARIAN Kings of 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 173 

GALLIA came to raise the siege, and beat the HUNNS in 
a very memorable battle, A. C. 451, in campis CATALAU- 
NICIS, so called from these ALANS mixt with the CHATTI. 
The region is now called CAMPANIA or CHAMPAGNE. In 
that battle were slain on both sides 162,000 men. A year 
or two after, ATTILA returned with an immense army 
to conquer this kingdom, but was again beaten by them 
and the VISIGOTHS together in a battle of three days 
continuance, with a slaughter almost as great as the former. 
Under BEURGUS, or BIORGOR, they infested GALLIA round 
about, till the reign of MAXIMUS the Emperor ; and then 
they passed the ALPS in winter, and came into LIGURIA, 
but were there beaten, and BEURGUS slain, by RICIMER 
commander of the Emperor s forces, A. C. 464. Afterwards 
they were again beaten, by the joint force ofODOACER 
King of ITALY and CHILDERIC King of the FRANKS, about 
the year 480, and again by THEUDOBERT King of the 
AUSTRIAN FRANKS about the year 511. 

5. The Kings of the BURGUNDIANS were, A. C. 407 
GUNDICAR, 436 GUNDIOC, 467 BILIMER, 473 GUNDOBALDUS 
with his brothers, 510 SIGISMUND, 517 GODOMARUS. Under 
GUNDICAR they invaded GALLIA A. C. 407, and had seats 
given them by the Emperor near the RHINE in GALLIA 
BELGICA, A. C. 412. They had SAXONS among them, and 
were now so potent, that OROSIUS A. C. 417 wrote of 
them : " The exceptional strength of the BURGUNDIANS is 
to-day witnessed by the provinces of GAUL, possession of 
which they seized, and in which they are now established." 
About the year 435 they received great overthrows by 
^ETIUS, and soon after by the HUNNS : but five years after 
had SAVOY granted them to be shared with the inhabitants ; 
and from that time became again a potent kingdom, being 
bounded by the river RHODANUS, but afterwards extending 
much further into the heart of GALLIA. GUNDOBALD 
conquered the regions about the rivers ARARIS and RHO 
DANUS, with the territories of MARSEILLES ; and invading 
ITALY in the time of the Emperor GLYCERIUS, conquered 
all his brethren. GODOMARUS made ORLEANS his royal 



174 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

seat : whence the kingdom was called REGNUM AURELIAN- 
ORUM. He was conquered by CLOTHARIUS and CHILDE- 
BERT, Kings of the FRANKS, A. C. 526. From thence 
forward this kingdom was sometimes united to the king 
dom of the FRANKS, and sometimes divided from it, till 
the reign of CHARLES the great, who made his son CARO- 
LOTTUS King of BURGUNDY. From that time, for about 
300 years together, it enjoyed its proper Kings ; and 
was then broken into the Dukedom of BURGUNDY, County 
of BURGUNDY, and County of SAVOY; and afterwards 
those were broken into other lesser Counties. 

6. The Kings of the FRANKS were, A. C. 407 THEUDOMIR, 
417 PHARAMOND, 428 CLODIO, 448 MEROV^US, 456 CHILD- 
ERIC, 482 CLODOV^EUS, &c. WINDELINE and BUCHER, 
two of the most diligent searchers into the originals of this 
kingdom, make it begin the same year with the BARBARIAN 
invasions of GALLIA, that is, A. C. 407. Of the first 
Kings there is in LABBE S Bibliotheca MS. this record : 

" Certain historical extracts from the ancient genea 
logical stem of the kings of FRANCE. 

"GENOBALDUS, MARCOMERUS, SUNO, THEODEMERIS. 

These were petty kings at different periods in the early 
history of the nation of the FRANKS. But historical 
writers leave it doubtful in what order or by what title 
they succeeded one to the other. 

44 PHARAMUNDUS. Under him (their first King) the 
FRANKS submitted to those laws previously enacted by 
their chieftains, WISOGASTUS, ATROGASTUS, SALEGASTUS. 

44 CHLOCHILO. This King crossed the RHINE and de 
cisively defeated the ROMANS in the CARBONARIAN forest. 
He captured and held CAMARACUM. He reigned for 20 
years. In his reign the FRANKS advanced as far as the 
SOMME. 

44 MEROVECHUS. In this reign the FRANKS destroyed 
TREVES, burned METZ and penetrated to ORLEANS." 

Now for GENOBALDUS, MARCOMER and SUNO, they were 
captains of the TRANSRHENANE FRANKS in the reign of 
THEODOSIUS and concern us not. We are to begin with 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 175 

THEUDOMIR the first King of the rebelling SALII, called 
DIDIO by Ivo CARNOTENSIS, and THIEDO and THEUDE- 
MERUS by RHENANUS. His face is extant in a coin of 
gold found with this inscription, THEUDEMIR REX, 
published by PETAVIUS, and still or lately extant, as 
WINDELINE testifies : which shews that he was a King, 
and that in GALLIA ; seeing that rude GERMANY understood 
not then the coining of money, nor used either LATIN words 
or letters. He was the son of RICIMER or RICHOMER, the 
favourite of the Emperor THEODOSIUS ; and so being a 
ROMAN FRANK, and of the SALIAN royal blood, they 
therefore upon the rebellion made him King. The whole 
time of his reign you have stated in Excerpta Gregoril 
Turonensis e Fredigarlo, cap. 5, 6, 7, 8. where the making 
him King, the tyranny of JOVINUS, the slaughter of the 
associates of JOVINUS, the second taking of TRIERS by the 
FRANKS, and their war with CASTINUS, in which this King 
was slain, are as a series of successive things thus set down 
in order : 

" After the extinction of the Dukes among the FRANKS 
Kings were again elected from the same stock as in former 
times. At that same time JOVINUS assumed for himself 
the position and honour of monarch. CONSTANTINE directed 
his flight towards ITALY ; but was beheaded at the river 
MENTIUS by assassins in the service of JOVINUS. Many of 
the nobility were on the orders of JOVINUS captured at 
AVERNI and cruelly murdered by the Dukes of HONORIUS. 
The city of TREVES, by the connivance of one of the 
SENATORS, called Lucius, was captured and burned by the 
FRANKS. CASTINUS, a 4 Comptroller of the Household, 
undertook an expedition against the FRANKS, &c." 

Then, returning to speak of THEUDOMIR, he adds : " The 
FRANKS on making diligent search for a King elected from 
their own number and according to the ancient custom, 
with long hair, chose as their King from the family of 
PRIAMUS, FRIGIUS and FRANCIO, THEUDEMER, the son of 
RICHEMER; this THEUDEMER was killed by the ROMANS 
in the battle mentioned above" ; that is, in the battle 
13 



176 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

with CASTINUS S army. Of his death GREGORY TURONEN- 
sis makes this further mention : "In the consular records 
we read that THEUDEMER King of the FRANKS and son 
of RICHEMER was with his mother ASCILA killed with 
the sword." 

Upon this victory of the ROMANS, the FRANKS and 
rebelling GAULS, who in the time of THEUDOMIR were at 
war with one another, united to strengthen themselves, as 
ORDERICUS VITALIS thus mentions : " When the GAULS 
had taken the first steps to rebel against the ROMANS the 
FRANKS united with them, and as a united people elected 
as their King FERRAMUNDUS, the son of Duke SUNO " (Apud 
Bucherum, 1. 14. c. 9. n. 8). Prosper sets down the time : 
" In the 25th year of HONORIUS, PHARAMUNDUS became 
King of FRANCE." This, BUCHER well observes, refers to 
the end of the year 416, or the beginning of the next year, 
dating the years of HONORIUS from the death of VALEN- 
TINIAN ; and argues well, that at this time PHARAMOND 
was not only King by the constitution of the FRANKS, 
but crowned also by the consent of HONORIUS, and had 
part of GALLIA assigned him by covenant. And this 
might be the cause that ROMAN writers reckoned him the 
first King : which some not understanding, have reputed 
him the founder of this kingdom by an army of the 
TRANSRHENANE FRANKS. He might come with such an 
army, but he succeeded THEUDOMIR by right of blood and 
consent of the people. For the above cited passage of 
FREDIGARIUS, " After the extinction of Dukes among the 
FRANKS, Kings were again elected from the same stock as 
in former times," implies that the kingdom continued to 
this new elected family during the reign of more kings 
than one. If you date the years of HONORIUS from the 
death of his father, the reign of PHARAMOND might begin 
two years later than is assigned by BUCHER. The SALIQUE 
laws made in his reign, which are yet extant, shew by their 
name that it was the kingdom of the SALII over which 
he reigned ; and, by the pecuniary mulcts in them, that 
the place where he reigned abounded much with money, 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 1T7 

and consequently was within the Empire ; rude GERMANY 
knowing not the use of money, till they mixed with the 
ROMANS. In the Preface also to the SALIQUE laws, written 
and prefixed to them soon after the conversion of the 
FRANKS to the Christian religion, that is, in the end of 
the reign of MEROVJEUS, or soon after, the original of this 
kingdom is thus described : " This nation, which while 
it was strong and vigorous in its might struck from its 
neck the oppressive ROMAN yoke in war, &c." This 
kingdom therefore was erected, not by invasion but by 
rebellion, as was described above. PROSPER in registering 
their Kings in order, tells us, PHARAMUNDUS reigned in 
FRANCE ; CLODIO reigned in FRANCE ; MEROV^EUS reigned 
in FRANCE : and who can imagine but that in all these 
places he meant one and the same FRANCIA ? And yet 
tis certain that the FRANCIA of MEROV^EUS was in GALLIA. 
Yet the father of PHARAMOND, being king of a body of 
FRANKS in GERMANY in the reign of the Emperor THEODO 
sius, as above, PHARAMOND might reign over the same 
FRANKS in GERMANY before he succeeded THEUDOMIR in 
the kingdom of the SALIANS within the Empire, and even 
before THEUDOMIR began his reign ; suppose in the first 
year of HONORIUS, or when those FRANKS being repulsed 
by STILICO, lost their Kings MARCOMIR and SUNO, one of 
which was the father of PHARAMOND : and the ROMAN 
FRANKS, after the death of THEUDOMIR, might invite 
PHARAMOND with his people from beyond the RHINE. 
But we are not to regard the reign of PHARAMOND in 
GERMANY : we are to date this kingdom from its rise 
within the Empire, and to look upon it as strengthened 
by the access of other FRANKS coming from beyond the 
RHINE, whether in the reign of this King or in that of 
his successor CLODIO. For in the last year of PHARA 
MOND s reign, ^Exius took from him a part of his possession 
in GALLIA : but his successor CLODIO, whom FREDIGARIUS 
represents as the son of THEUDOMIR, and some call CLOGIO, 
CLOIO, and CLAUDIUS, inviting from beyond the RHINE 
a great body of FRANKS, recovered all, and carried on 



178 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

their conquests as far as the river SOAME. Then those 
FRANKS dividing conquests with him, erected certain new 
kingdoms at COLOGN and CAMBRAY, and some other 
cities : all which were afterwards conquered by CLODO- 
VJEUS, who also drove the GOTHS out of GALLIA, and fix d 
his seat at PARIS, where it has continued ever since. And 
this was the original of the present kingdom of FRANCE. 

7. The kings of BRITAIN were, A. C. 407 or 408, MARCUS, 
GRATIAN, and CONSTANTINE successively ; A. C. 425 

VORTIGERN, 466 AURELIUS AMBROSIUS, 498 UTHER PEN- 
DRACO, 508 ARTHUR, 542 CONSTANTINUS, 545 AURELIUS 
CUNANUS, 578 VORTIPOREUS, 581 MALGO, 586 CARETICUS, 
613 CADWAN, 635 CADWALIN, 676 CADWALLADER. The 
three first were ROMAN Tyrants, who revolted from the 
Empire. OROSIUS, PROSPER and ZOSIMUS connect their 
revolt with the irruptions of the BARBARIANS into GALLIA, 
as consequent thereunto. PROSPER, with whom ZOSIMUS 
agrees, puts it in the year which began the day after that 
irruption. The just time I thus collect : MARCUS reigned 
not many days, GRATIAN four months, and CONSTANTINE 
three years. He was slain the year after the taking of 
ROME, that is A. C. 411, 14 Kal. OCTOB. Whence the 
revolt was in Spring A. C. 408. SOZOMEN joins CON 
STANTINE s expedition into GALLIA with ARCADIUS S 
death, or the times a little after ; and ARCADIUS died 
A. C. 408 MAY the 1st. Now tho the reign of these 
Tyrants was but short, yet they gave a beginning to the 
kingdom of BRITAIN, and so may be reckoned the three 
first Kings, especially since the posterity of CONSTANTINE, 
viz. his sons AURELIUS AMBROSIUS, and UTHER PENDRACO, 
and his grandson ARTHUR, reigned afterwards. For from 
the time of the revolt of these Tyrants BRITAIN continued 
a distinct kingdom absolved from subjection to the Empire, 
the Emperor not being able to spare soldiers to be sent 
thither to receive and keep the Island, and therefore 
neglecting it ; as we learn by unquestionable records. 
For PROSPER tells us : "A. C. 410, in the consulship of 
VARIANUS. At this time owing to the weakness of the 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 179 

ROMANS, the military forces in BRITAIN were reduced to 
a minimum." And SIGEBERT, conjoining this with the 
siege of ROME, saith : " The military forces among the 
BRITONS were reduced : and the BRITONS freed themselves 
from the ROMAN Suzerainty." And ZOSIMUS, lib. 6 : The 
TRANSRHENANE BARBARIANS invading all places, reduced the 
inhabitants of the island of BRITAIN, and also certain CELTIC 
nations to that pass, that they fell off from the ROMAN 
EMPIRE ; and being no longer obedient to the ROMAN laws, 
KaO eavrov ftiorevew, they lived in separate bodies after 
their own pleasure. The BRITONS therefore taking up arms, 
and hazarding themselves for their own safety freed their 
cities from the imminent BARBARIANS. In like manner all 
BRABANT and some other Provinces of the GAULS, imitating 
the BRITONS, freed themselves also, ejecting the ROMAN 
Presidents, and forming themselves into a sort of common 
wealth according to their own pleasure. This rebellion of 
BRITAIN and the CELTIC nations happened zofon CONSTANTINE 
usurped the kingdom. So also PROCOPIUS, lib. 1. Vandal. 
speaking of the same CONSTANTINE, saith : CONSTAN- 
TINE being overcome in battle, was slain with his children : 
BperavvLav ILZVTQI Pay^aioi avacrcocraardat ov/ceri, ea")(pv aXX 
ova-a VTTO rvpdvvois air* avrov e^ei^e. Yet the ROMANS 
could not recover BRITAIN any more, but from that time it 
remained under Tyrants. And BED A, 1. 1. c. 11 : " The 
power of ROME was broken by the GOTHS in the year 
1164 A. U. C. and from that date the ROMANS ceased to 
rule in BRITAIN." And ETHELWALDUS : " From the 
storming of ROME by the GOTHS, the rule of the ROMANS 
ended in the island of BRITAIN, and in many other countries 
which they had been holding in servile bondage." And 
THEODORET, serm. 9. de cur and. Grcec. affect, about 
the year 424, reckons the BRITONS among the nations 
which were not then in subjection to the ROMAN Empire. 
Thus SIGONIUS : " About the year 411 ROMAN rule after 
the withdrawal of CONSTANTINE ceased to exist in BRITAIN." 
Between the death of CONSTANTINE and the reign of 
VORTIGERN was an interregnum of about 14 years, in 



180 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

which the BRITONS had wars with the PICTS and SCOTS, 
and twice obtained the assistance of a ROMAN Legion, 
who drove out the enemy, but told them positively at 
their departure that they would come no more. Of 
VORTIGERN S beginning to reign there is this record in an 
old Chronicle in NENNIUS, quoted by CAMDEN and others : 
" GUORTIGERNUS gained control in BRITAIN in the Consul 
ship of THEODOSIUS and VALENTINIANUS (viz. A. C. 425) and 
in the fourth year of his reign the SAXONS invaded BRITAIN 
in the consulship of FELIX and TAURUS (viz. A. C. 428)." 
This coming of the SAXONS, SIGEBERT refers to the 
4th year of VALENTINIAN, which falls in with the year 
428 assigned by this Chronicle : and two years after, 
the SAXONS together with the PICTS were beaten by 
the BRITONS. Afterwards in the reign of MARTIAN the 
Emperor, that is, between the years 450 and 456, the 
SAXONS under HENGIST were called in by the BRITONS, but 
six years after revolted from them, made war upon them 
with various success, and by degrees succeeded them. 
Yet the BRITONS continued a flourishing kingdom till the 
reign of CARETICUS ; and the war between the two nations 
continued till the pontificate of SERGIUS A. C. 688 (RoLE- 
VINC S Antiqua Saxon. 1. 1. c. 6.). 

8. The Kings of the HUNNS were, A. C. 406 OCTAR and 
RUGILA, 433 BLEDA and ATTILA. OCTAR and RUGILA 
were brothers of MUNZUC King of the HUNNS in GOTHIA 
beyond the DANUBE ; and BLEDA and ATTILA were his 
sons, and MUNZUC was the son of BALAMIR. The two 
first, as JORNANDES tell us, were Kings of the HUNNS, 
but not of them all ; and had the two last for their succes 
sors. I date the reign of the HUNNS in PANNONIA from 
the time that the VANDALS and ALANS relinquished 
PANNONIA to them, A. C. 407. SIGONIUS from the time that 
the VISIGOTHS relinquished PANNONIA A. C. 408 writes : "It 
is agreed," saith he, "when the GOTHS quitted ILLYRICUM, 
the HUNNS took their place and first of all secured PAN 
NONIA. For HONORIUS was so surrounded by difficulties that 
he was without forces to meet them, and so was unable to 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 181 

check them directly : but adopting a better plan he 
devoted his attention to a peaceable settlement and con 
cluded an agreement with them, upon the mutual inter 
change of hostages. One of the hostages given ^ETIUS 
who had also been a hostage to ALARIC, is especially worthy 
of note." How ^TIUS was hostage to the GOTHS and 
HUNNS is related by FRIGERIDUS, who when he had men 
tioned that THEODOSIUS Emperor of the EAST had sent 
grievous commands to JOHN, who after the death of 
HONORIUS had usurped the crown of the WESTERN EMPIRE, 
he subjoins : " Disturbed by these commands JOHN sent 
^ETIUS (who at that time was in charge of the palace) 
across to the HUNNS with a huge amount of gold, they being 
acquainted with him from the time when he was a hostage 
among them, and being bound to him by intimate ties 
of friendship." And a little after : " ^ETIUS was three 
years a hostage with ALARIC ; next a hostage with the 
HUNNS ; and subsequently son-in-law of CARPILIO, after 
holding the offices of Comptroller of the Household and 
Governor of the Palace for JOHN." Now BUCHER shews 
that ^ETIUS was hostage to ALARIC till the year 410, when 
ALARIC died, and to the HUNNS between the years 411 
and 415, and son-in-law to CARPILIO about the year 417 
or 418, and CUROPALATES to JOHN about the end of the 
year 423. Whence tis probable that he became hostage 
to the HUNNS about the year 412 or 413, when HONORIUS 
made leagues with almost all the barbarous nations, and 
granted them seats : but I had rather say with SIGONIUS, 
that ^ETIUS became hostage to ALARIC A. C. 403. It is 
further manifest out of PROSPER, that the HUNNS were in 
quiet possession of PANNONIA in the year 432. For in the 
first book of EUSEBIUS S Chronicle PROSPER writes : 
41 Ten years after the death of HONORIUS, ^TIUS after his 
fight with BONIFACE withdrew to the tribe of the HUNNS 
then governed by RUGILA, and on gaining the help he 
sought, returned to ROMAN soil." And in the second book : 
41 In the consulship of J^TIUS and VALERIUS MTIUS resigning 
his office, came as an exile to the HUNNS in PANNONIA, and 



182 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

by using their friendly assistance, he obtained the emperor s 
pardon for his relinquishment of office." Hereby it 
appears that at this time RUGILA, or as MAXIMUS calls 
him, RECHILLA, reigned over the HUNNS in PANNONIA ; 
and that PANNONIA was not now so much as accounted 
within the soil of the Empire, being formerly granted 
away to the HUNNS ; and that these were the very same 
body of HUNNS with which ^Etius had, in the time of his 
being an hostage, contracted friendship : by virtue of 
which, as he sollicited them before to the aid of JOHN the 
Tyrant A. C. 424, so now he procured their intercession 
for himself with the Emperor. OCTAR died A. C. 430 ; 
for SOCRATES tell us, that about that time the BURGUNDIANS 
having been newly vext by the HUNNS, upon intelligence 
of OCTAR s death, seeing them without a leader, set upon 
them suddenly with so much vigour, that 3000 BURGUN 
DIANS slew 10000 HUNNS. Of RUGILA s being now King 
in PANNONIA you have heard already. He died A. C. 433, 
and was succeeded by BLEDA, as PROSPER and MAXIMUS 
inform us. This BLEDA with his brother ATTILA were 
before this time Kings of the HUNNS beyond the DANUBE, 
their father MUNZUC S kingdom being divided between 
them ; and now they united the kingdom of PANNONIA 
to their own. Whence PAULUS DIACONUS saith, they did 
* 4 bear sway within the borders of PANNONIA and DACIA." 
In the year 441, they began to invade the Empire afresh, 
adding to the PANNONIAN forces new and great armies 
from SCYTHIA. But this war was presently composed, and 
then ATTILA, seeing BLEDA inclined to peace, slew him, 
A. C. 444, inherited his dominions, and invaded the Empire 
again. At length, after various great wars with the 
ROMANS, ATTILA perished A. C. 454; and his sons quarrelling 
about his dominions, gave occasion to the GEPIDES, 
OSTROGOTHS and other nations who were their subjects, 
to rebel and make war upon them. The same year the 
OSTROGOTHS had seats granted them in PANNONIA by the 
Emperors MARCIAN and VALENTINIAN ; and with the 
ROMANS ejected the HUNNS out of PANNONIA, soon after 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 183 

the death of ATTILA, as all historians agree. This ejection 
was in the reign of AVITUS, as is mentioned in the Chroni- 
cum Boiorum, and in SIDONIUS, Carm. 7 in Avitum, 
which speaks thus of that Emperor : 

" Tis easy to conceive what will be the exploits, 

in actual combat, of the man whose mere approach 
recovered the province of PANNONIA lost to us for many 
generations." 

The Poet means, that by the coming of AVITUS the HUNNS 
yielded more easily to the GOTHS. This was written by 
SIDONIUS in the beginning of the reign of AVITUS : and 
his reign began in the end of the year 455, and lasted not 
one full year. 

JORN ANDES tells us : "In the twelfth year of the reign of 
VALIA, the HUNNS almost 50 years after their invasion of 
PANNONIA were expelled by the ROMANS and GOTHS." And 
MARCELLINUS : in the consulship of HIERIUS and ARDA- 
BURIUS " the provinces of PANNONIA which for 50 years 
had been in the possession of the HUNNS, were recovered 
by the ROMANS," whence it should seem that the HUNNS 
invaded and held PANNONIA from the year 378 or 379 to 
the year 427, and then were driven out of it. But this is 
a plain mistake : for it is certain that the Emperor THEO- 
DOSIUS left the Empire entire ; and we have shewed out 
of PROSPER, that the HUNNS were in quiet possession of 
PANNONIA in the year 432. The VISIGOTHS in those days 
had nothing to do with PANNONIA, and the OSTROGOTHS 
continued subject to the HUNNS till the death of ATTILA, 
A. C. 454 ; and VALIA King of the VISIGOTHS did not 
reign twelve years. He began his reign in the end of the 
year 415, reigned three years, and was slain A. C. 419, as 
IDACIUS, ISIDORUS, and the SPANISH manuscript Chronicles 
seen by GROTIUS testify. And OLYMPIODORUS, who carries 
his history only to the year 425, sets down therein the 
death of VALIA King of the VISIGOTHS, and conjoins it 
with that of CONSTANTIUS which happened A. C. 420. 
Wherefore the VALIA of JORNANDES, who reigned at the 



184 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

least twelve years, is some other King. And I suspect 
that this name hath been put by mistake for VALAMIR 
King of the OSTROGOTHS : for the action recorded was of 
the ROMANS and OSTROGOTHS driving the HUNNS out of 
PANNONIA after the death of ATTILA ; and it is not likely 
that the historian would refer the history of the OSTRO 
GOTHS to the years of the VISIGOTHIC Kings. This action 
happened in the end of the year 455, which I take to be 
the twelfth year of VALAMIR in PANNONIA, and which 
was almost fifty years after the year 406, in which the 
HUNNS succeeded the VANDALS and ALANS in PANNONIA. 
Upon the ceasing of the line of HUNNIMUND the son of 
HERMANERIC, the OSTROGOTHS lived without Kings of 
their own nation about forty years together, being subject 
to the HUNNS. And when ALARIC began to make war 
upon the ROMANS, which was in the year 444, he made 
VALAMIR, with his brothers THEODOMIR and VIDEMIR the 
grandsons of VINETHAR, captains or kings of these OSTRO 
GOTHS under him. In the twelfth year of VALAMIR S 
reign dated from thence, the HUNNS were driven out of 
PANNONIA. 

Yet the HUNNS were not so ejected, but that they had 
further contests with the ROMANS, till the head of DENSIX 
the son of ATTILA, was carried to CONSTANTINOPLE, 
A. C. 469, in the Consulship of ZENO and MARCIAN, as 
MARCELLINUS relates. Nor were they yet totally ejected 
the Empire : for besides their reliques in PANNONIA, 
SIGONIUS tells us, that when the Emperors MARCIAN and 
VALENTINIAN granted PANNONIA to the GOTHS, which was 
in the year 454, they granted part of ILLYRICUM to some 
of the HUNNS and SARMATIANS. And in the year 526, 
when the LOMBARDS removing into PANNONIA made war 
there with the GEPIDES, the AVARES, a part of the HUNNS, 
who had taken the name of AVARES from one of their 
Kings, assisted the LOMBARDS in that war ; and the 
LOMBARDS afterwards, when they went into ITALY, left 
their seats in PANNONIA to the AVARES in recompence of 
their friendship. From that time the HUNNS grew again 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 185 

very powerful ; their Kings, whom they called CHAGAN, 
troubling the Empire much in the reigns of the Emperors 
MAURITIUS, PHOCAS, and HERACLIUS : and this is the 
original of the present kingdom of HUNGARY, which from 
these AVARES and other HUNNS mixed together, took the 
name of HUN-AVARIA, and by contraction HUNGARY. 

9. The LOMBARDS, before they came over the DANUBE, 
were commanded by two captains, IBOR and AYON : after 
whose death they had Kings, AGILMUND, LAMISSO, LECHU, 

HlLDEHOC, GUDEHOC, CLAFFO, TATO, WACHO, WALTER, 

AUDOIN, ALBOIN, CLEOPHIS, &c. AGILMUND was the son 
of AYON, who became their King, according to PROSPER, 
in the Consulship of HONORIUS and THEODOSIUS A. C. 389, 
reigned thirty-three years, according to PAULUS WARNE- 
FRIDUS, and was slain in battle by the BULGARIANS. 
PROSPER places his death in the Consulship of MARINIANUS 
and ASCLEPIODORUS, A. C. 423. LAMISSO routed the 
BULGARIANS, and reigned three years, and LECHU almost 
forty. GUDEHOC was contemporary to ODOACER King of 
the HERULI in ITALY, and led his people from PANNONIA 
into RUGIA, a country on the north side of NORICUM next 
beyond the DANUBE ; from whence ODOACER then carried 
his people into ITALY. TATO overthrew the kingdom of 
the HERULI beyond the DANUBE. WACHO conquered the 
SUEVIANS, a kingdom then bounded on the east by 
BAVARIA, on the west by FRANCE, and on the south by 
the BURGUNDIANS. AUDOIN returned into PANNONIA 
A. C. 526, and there overcame the GEPIDES. ALBOIN 
A. C. 551 overthrew the kingdom of the GEPIDES, and 
slew their King CHUNNIMUND : A. C. 563 he assisted the 
GREEK Emperor against TOTILA King of the OSTROGOTHS 
in ITALY ; and A. C. 568 led his people out of PANNONIA 
into LOMBARD Y, where they reigned till the year 774. 

According to PAULUS DIACONUS, the LOMBARDS with 
many other GOTHIC nations came into the Empire from 
beyond the DANUBE in the reign of ARCADIUS and HONO 
RIUS, that is, between the years 395 and 408. But they 
might come in a little earlier : for we are told that the 



186 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

LOMBARDS, under their captains IBOR and AVON, beat the 
VANDALS in battle ; and PROSPER placeth this victory in 
the Consulship of AUSONIUS and OLYBRIUS, that is, 
A. C. 379. Before this war the VANDALS had remained 
quiet forty years in the seats granted them in PANNONIA 
by CONSTANTINE the great. And therefore if these were 
the same VANDALS, this war must have been in PANNONIA ; 
and might be occasioned by the coming of the LOMBARDS 
over the DANUBE into PANNONIA, a year or two before the 
battle ; and so have put an end to that quiet which had 
lasted forty years. After GRATIAN and THEODOSIUS had 
quieted the BARBARIANS, they might either retire over the 
DANUBE, or continue quiet under the ROMANS till the 
death of THEODOSIUS ; and then either invade the Empire 
anew, or throw off all subjection to it. By their wars, 
first with the VANDALS, and then with the BULGARIANS, a 
SCYTHIAN nation so called from the river VOLGA whence 
they came ; it appears that even in those days they were 
a kingdom not contemptible. 

10. These nine kingdoms being rent away, we are next 
to consider the residue of the WESTERN EMPIRE. While 
this Empire continued entire, it was the Beast itself : but 
the residue thereof is only a part of it. Now if this part 
be considered as a horn, the reign of this horn may be 
dated from the translation of the imperial seat from ROME 
to RAVENNA, which was in OCTOBER A. C. 408. For then 
the Emperor HONORIUS, fearing that ALARIC would besiege 
him in ROME, if he staid there, retired to MILLAIN, and 
thence to RAVENNA : and the ensuing siege and sacking 
of ROME confirmed his residence there, so that he and his 
successors ever after made it their home. Accordingly 
MACCHIAVEL in his FLORENTINE history writes, that 
VALENTINIAN having left ROME, translated the seat of 
the Empire to RAVENNA. 

RH^ETIA belonged to the WESTERN Emperors, so long 
as that Empire stood ; and then it descended, with ITALY 
and the ROMAN Senate, to ODOACER King of the HERULI 
in ITALY, and after him to THEODERIC King of the 



CHAP, vi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 187 

OSTROGOTHS and his successors, by the grant of the GREEK 
Emperors. Upon the death of VALENTINIAN the second, 
the ALEMANS and SUEVIANS invaded RH^ETIA A. C. 455. 
But I do not find they erected any settled kingdom there : 
for in the year 457, while they were yet depopulating 
RH^ETIA, they were attacked and beaten by BURTO Master 
of the horse to the Emperor MAJORANUS ; and I hear 
nothing more of their invading RH^ETIA. CLODOV^EUS 
King of FRANCE, in or about the year 496, conquered a 
kingdom of the ALEMANS, and slew their last King ERMERIC. 
But this kingdom was seated in GERMANY, and only 
bordered upon RH^ETIA : for its people fled from CLODO- 
V^EUS into the neighbouring kingdom of the OSTROGOTHS 
under THEODERIC, who received them as friends, and 
wrote a friendly letter to CLODOV^EUS in their behalf : and 
by this means they became inhabitants of RH^ETIA, as 
subjects under the dominion of the OSTROGOTHS. 

When the GREEK Emperor conquered the OSTROGOTHS, 
he succeeded them in the kingdom of RAVENNA, not only 
by right of conquest but also by right of inheritance, the 
ROMAN Senate still going along with this kingdom. There 
fore we may reckon that this kingdom continued in the 
Exarchate of RAVENNA and Senate of ROME : for the 
remainder of the WESTERN EMPIRE went along with the 
Senate of ROME, by reason of the right which this Senate 
still retained, and at length exerted, of chusing a new 
WESTERN Emperor. 

I have now enumerated the ten kingdoms, into which 
the WESTERN EMPIRE became divided at its first breaking, 
that is, at the time of ROME S being besieged and taken 
by the GOTHS. Some of these kingdoms at length fell, 
and new ones arose : but whatever was their number 
afterwards, they are still called the TEN KINGS from their 
first number. 



CHAPTER VII 

OF THE ELEVENTH HORN OF DANIEL S FOURTH BEAST 

Now (chap. vii. 8.) Daniel, considered the horns, and 
behold there came up among them another horn, before whom 
there were three of the first horns pluckt up by the roots ; and 
behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a 

mouth speaking great things, and (ver. 20, 21.) his 

look was more stout than his fellows, and the same 

horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them : 
and one who stood by, and made DANIEL know the inter 
pretation of these things, told him (ver. 24.), that the ten 
horns were ten kings that should arise, and another should 
arise after them, and be diverse from the first, and he should 
subdue three kings (ver. 25.), and speak great words against 
the most High, and wear out the saints, and think to change 
times and laws : and that they should be given into his hands 
until a time and times and half a time. Kings are put for 
kingdoms, as above ; and therefore the little horn is a 
little kingdom. It was a horn of the fourth Beast, and 
rooted up three of his first horns ; and therefore we are 
to look for it among the nations of the LATIN Empire, 
after the rise of the ten horns. But it was a kingdom 
of a different kind from the other ten kingdoms, having a 
life or soul peculiar to itself, with eyes and a mouth. By 
its eyes it was a Seer ; and by its mouth speaking great 
things and changing times and laws, it was a Prophet as 
well as a King. And such a Seer, a Prophet and a King, 
is the Church of ROME. 

A Seer, ETrio-Koiros, is a Bishop in the literal sense of 
the word ; and this Church claims the universal Bishoprick. 

With his mouth he gives laws to kings and nations as 

188 



CHAP, vn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 189 

an Oracle ; and pretends to Infallibility, and that his 
dictates are binding to the whole world ; which is to be a 
Prophet in the highest degree. 

In the eighth century, by rooting up and subduing the 
Exarchate of RAVENNA, the kingdom of the LOMBARDS, 
and the Senate and Dukedom of ROME, he acquired 
PETER S Patrimony out of their dominions ; and thereby 
rose up as a temporal Prince or King, or horn of the 
fourth Beast. 

In a small book printed at PARIS, A. C. 1689, entitled, 
An historical dissertation upon some coins of Charles the 
great, Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius, and their successors 
stamped at Rome, it is recorded, that in the days of Pope 
LEO X, there was remaining in the VATICAN, and till 
those days exposed to public view, an inscription in honour 
of PIPIN the father of CHARLES the great, in these words : 
Pipinum pium primum fuisse qui amplificandce Ecclesice 
Romance viam aperuerit, Exarchatu Ravennate, & plurimis 
aliis oblatis ; " That PIPIN the pious was the first who 
opened a way to the grandeur of the Church of ROME, 
conferring upon her the Exarchate of RAVENNA and many 
other oblations." In and before the reign of the Emperors 
GRATIAN and THEODOSIUS, the Bishop of ROME lived 
splendidly ; but this was by the oblations of the ROMAN 
Ladies, as AMMIANUS describes. After those reigns ITALY 
was invaded by foreign nations, and did not get rid of her 
troubles before the fall of the kingdom of LOMBARDY. It 
was certainly by the victory of the see of ROME over the 
GREEK Emperor, the King of LOMBARDY, and the Senate 
of ROME, that she acquired PETER S Patrimony, and rose 
up to her greatness. The donation of CONSTANTINE the 
Great is a fiction, and so is the donation of the ALPES 
COTTI^E to the Pope by ARIPERT King of the LOMBARDS : 
for the ALPES COTTI.E were a part of the Exarchate, and 
in the days of ARIPERT belonged to the GREEK Emperor. 

The invocation of the dead, and veneration of their 
images, being gradually introduced in the 4th, 5th, 6th, 
and 7th centuries, the GREEK Emperor PHILIPPICUS 



190 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

declared against the latter, A. C. 711 or 712. And the 
Emperor LEO ISAURUS, to put a stop to it, called a meeting 
of Counsellors and Bishops in his Palace, A. C. 726 ; 
(SiGONius, de Regno Italic?, ad Ann. 726.) and by their 
advice put out an Edict against that worship, and wrote 
to Pope GREGORY II. that a general Council might be called. 
But the Pope thereupon called a Council at ROME, con 
firmed the worship of Images, excommunicated the GREEK 
Emperor, absolved the people from their allegiance, and 
forbad them to pay tribute, or otherwise be obedient to 
him. Then the people of ROME, CAMPANIA, RAVENNA and 
PENTAPOLIS, with the cities under them, revolted and laid 
violent hands upon their magistrates, killing the Exarch 
PAUL at RAVENNA, and laying aside PETER Duke of ROME 
who was become blind : and when EXHILERATUS Duke of 
CAMPANIA incited the people against the Pope, the ROMANS 
invaded CAMPANIA, and slew him with his son HADRIAN. 
Then a new Exarch, EUTYCHIUS, coming to NAPLES, sent 
some secretly to take away the lives of the Pope and 
the Nobles of ROME : but the plot being discovered, the 
ROMANS revolted absolutely from the GREEK Emperor, and 
took an oath to preserve the life of the Pope, to defend his 
state, and be obedient to his authority in all things. Thus 
ROME with its Duchy, including part of TUSCANY and part 
of CAMPANIA, revolted in the year 726, and became a free 
state under the government of the Senate of this city. 
The authority of the Senate in civil affairs was hence 
forward absolute, the authority of the Pope extending 
hitherto no farther than to the affairs of the Church only. 

1 At that time the LOMBARDS also being zealous for the 
worship of images, and pretending to favour the cause of 
the Pope, invaded the cities of the Exarchate : and at 
length, viz. A. C. 752, took RAVENNA, and put an end to 
the Exarchate. And this was the first of the three king 
doms which fell before the little horn. 

8 In the year 751 Pope ZECHARY deposed CHILDERIC, 
a slothful and useless King of FRANCE and the last of the 

1 SIGONIUS, ib., ad Ann* 726, 762. SIQON., ib., Ann. 750. 



CHAP, vn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 191 

race of MEROVJEUS ; and absolving his subjects from their 
oath of allegiance, gave the kingdom to PIPIN the major of 
the Palace ; and thereby made a new and potent friend. 
1 His successor Pope STEPHEN III, knowing better how to 
deal with the GREEK Emperor than with the LOMBARDS, 
went the next year to the King of the LOMBARDS, to per 
suade him to return the Exarchate to the Emperor. But 
this not succeeding, he went into FRANCE, and persuaded 
PIPIN to take the Exarchate and PENTAPOLIS from the 
LOMBARDS, and give it to St. PETER. Accordingly PIPIN 
A. C. 754 came with an army into ITALY, and made 
AISTULPHUS King of the LOMBARDS promise the surrender : 
but the next year AISTULPHUS on the contrary, to revenge 
himself on the Pope, besieged the city of ROME. Where 
upon the Pope sent letters to PIPIN, wherein he told him 
that if he came not speedily against the LOMBARDS, " he 
should be banned from the Kingdom of God, and eternal 
life : that is he should be excommunicated." PIPIN 
therefore, fearing a revolt of his subjects, and being 
indebted to the Church of ROME, came speedily with an 
army into ITALY, raised the siege, besieged the LOMBARDS 
in PAVIA, and forced them to surrender the Exarchate and 
region of PENTAPOLIS to the Pope for a perpetual possession. 
Thus the Pope became Lord of RAVENNA, and the Exar 
chate, some few cities excepted ; and the keys were sent 
to ROME, and laid upon the confession of St. PETER, that 
is, upon his tomb at the high Altar " for a token of lawful 
and perpetual lordship, and by the King s freely-rendered 
devotion," as the inscription of a coin of PIPIN hath it. 
This was in the year of Christ 755. And henceforward 
the Popes being temporal Princes, left off in their Epistles 
and Bulls to note the years of the GREEK Emperors, as 
they had hitherto done. 

J After this the LOMBARDS invading the Pope s countries, 
Pope ADRIAN sent to CHARLES the great, the son and 
successor of PIPIN, to come to his assistance. Accordingly 
CHARLES entered ITALY with an army, invaded the LOM- 

1 SIQON., ib., Ann. 753, 754, 755. 2 SIOON., ib., Ann. 773. 

14 



192 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

BARDS, overthrew their kingdom, became master of their 
countries, and restored to the Pope, not only what they had 
taken from him, but also the rest of the Exarchate which 
they had promised PIPIN to surrender to him, but had 
hitherto detained ; and also gave him some cities of the 
LOMBARDS, and was in return himself made PATRICIUS 
by the ROMANS, and had the authority of confirming 
the elections of the Popes conferred upon him. These 
things were done in the years 773 and 774. This kingdom 
of the LOMBARDS was the second kingdom which fell before 
the little horn. But ROME, which was to be the seat of 
his kingdom, was not yet his own. 

1 In the year 796, LEO III being made Pope, notified 
his election to CHARLES the great by his Legates, sending 
to him for a present, the golden keys of the Confession of 
PETER, and the Banner of the city of ROME : the first as 
an acknowledgment of the Pope s holding the cities of the 
Exarchate and LOMBARDY by the grant of CHARLES ; the 
other as a signification that CHARLES should come and 
subdue the Senate and people of ROME, as he had done 
the Exarchate and the kingdom of the LOMBARDS. For 
the Pope at the same time desired CHARLES to send some 
of his Princes to ROME, who might subject the ROMAN 
people to him, and bind them by oath in fide & subjec- 
tione, in fealty and subjection, as his words are recited by 
SIGONIUS. An anonymous Poet, publish d by BOECLERUS 
at STRASBURG expresseth it thus : 

" And he admonished him with pious entreaties to send 
certain of his princes and subdue the ROMAN people to 
himself, and, by enforcing a treaty inviolate, to ensure 
such a measure of fealty on the guarantee of solemn oaths. 

Hence arose a misunderstanding between the Pope and 
the city : and the ROMANS about two or three years after, 
by assistance of some of the Clergy, raised such tumults 
against him, as gave occasion to a new state of things in 
all the WEST. For two of the Clergy accused him of crimes, 

1 SIQON., de Beffno Ital. ad Ann. 796. 



CHAP, vn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 198 

and the ROMANS with an armed force, seized him, stript 
him of his sacerdotal habit, and imprisoned him in a 
monastery. But by assistance of his friends he made his 
escape, and fled into GERMANY to CHARLES the great, to 
whom he complained of the ROMANS for acting against 
him out of a design to throw off all authority of the Church, 
and to recover their ancient freedom. In his absence his 
accusers with their forces ravaged the possessions of 
the Church, and sent the accusations to CHARLES ; who 
before the end of the year sent the Pope back to ROME 
with a large retinue. The Nobles and Bishops of FRANCE 
who accompanied him, examined the chief of his accusers 
at ROME, and sent them into FRANCE in custody. This 
was in the year 799. The next year CHARLES himself 
went to ROME, and upon a day appointed presided in a 
Council of ITALIAN and FRENCH Bishops to hear both 
parties. But when the Pope s adversaries expected to 
be heard (vide ANASTASIUM) the Council declared that he 
who was the supreme judge of all men, was above being 
judged by any other than himself : whereupon he made a 
solemn declaration of his innocence before all the people, 
and by doing so was looked upon as acquitted. 

Soon after, upon CnRiSTMAS-day, the people of ROME, 
who had hitherto elected their Bishop and reckoned that 
they and their Senate inherited the rights of the ancient 
Senate and people of ROME, voted CHARLES their Emperor, 
and subjected themselves to him in such manner as the 
old ROMAN Empire and their Senate were subjected to 
the old ROMAN Emperors. The Pope crowned him, and 
anointed him with holy oil, and worshipped him on his 
knees after the manner of adoring the old ROMAN Em 
perors ; as the aforesaid Poet thus relates : 

4 Wherefore when the King s praises had been spoken, 
he was worshipped e en by that exalted prelate, as was the 
manner due of yore to ancient Emperors." 

The Emperor, on the other hand, took the following 
oath to the Pope : "In the name of Christ, I, CHARLES, 



194 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

Emperor, before God, and the Apostle PETER, vow and pro 
mise that I shall protect and guard this HOLYROMAN CHURCH 
in all times of need, to the best of my knowledge and ability, 
in as far as I be upheld by Divine Help." The Emperor 
was also made Consul of ROME, and his son PIPIN crowned 
King of ITALY : and henceforward the Emperor stiled 
himself : " Most serene CHARLES, AUGUSTUS, the crowned 
of God, the Mighty, the Peacemaker, Governor of the 
Empire of ROME or Emperor of the Romans," and 
was prayed for in the Churches of ROME. His image was 
henceforward put upon the coins of ROME : while the 
enemies of the Pope, to the number of three hundred 
ROMANS and two or three of the Clergy, were sentenced 
to death. The three hundred ROMANS were beheaded in 
one day in the LATERAN fields : but the Clergymen at 
the intercession of the Pope were pardoned, and banished 
into FRANCE. And thus the title of ROMAN Emperor, 
which had hitherto been in the GREEK Emperors, was by 
this act transferred in the WEST to the Kings of FRANCE. 

After these things CHARLES gave the City and Duchy 
of ROME to the Pope, subordinately to himself as Emperor 
of the ROMANS (SiGON., de Regno Ital.) ; spent the winter 
in ordering the affairs of ROME, and those of the Apostolic 
see, and of all ITALY, both civil and ecclesiastical, and in 
making new laws for them ; and returned the next summer 
into FRANCE : leaving the city under its Senate, and both 
under the Pope and himself. But hearing that his new 
laws were not observed by the judges in dictating the law, 
nor by the people in hearing it : and that the great men 
took servants from free men, and from the Churches and 
Monasteries, to labour in their vineyards, fields, pastures, 
and houses, and continued to exact cattle and wine of them, 
and to oppress those that served the Churches : he wrote 
to his son PIPIN to remedy these abuses, to take care of 
the Church, and see his laws executed. 

Now the Senate and people and principality of ROME 
I take to be the third King the little horn overcame, and 



CHAP, vn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 195 

even the chief of the three. For this people elected the 
Pope and the Emperor ; and now, by electing the Emperor 
and making him Consul, was acknowledged to retain the 
authority of the old ROMAN Senate and people. This city 
was the Metropolis of the old ROMAN Empire represented 
in DANIEL by the fourth Beast ; and by subduing the 
Senate and people and Duchy, it became the Metropolis 
of the little horn of that Beast, and completed PETER S 
Patrimony, which was the kingdom of that horn. Besides, 
this victory was attended with greater consequences than 
those over the other two Kings. For it set up the WESTERN 
EMPIRE, which continues to this day. It set up the Pope 
above the judicature of the ROMAN Senate, and above 
that of a Council of ITALIAN and FRENCH Bishops, and 
even above all human judicature ; and gave him the 
supremacy over the WESTERN Churches and their Councils 
in a high degree. It gave him a look more stout than his 
fellows ; so that when this new religion began to be estab 
lished in the minds of men, he grappled not only with 
Kings, but even with the WESTERN Emperor himself. It 
is observable also, that the custom of kissing the Pope s 
feet, an honour superior to that of Kings and Emperors, 
began about this time. There are some instances of it in 
the ninth century : PLATINA tells us, that the feet of 
Pope LEO IV were kissed, according to ancient custom, 
by all who came to him : and some say that LEO III began 
this custom, pretending that his hand was infected by the 
kiss of a woman. The Popes began also about this time 
to canonize saints, and to grant indulgences and pardons : 
and some represent that LEO III was the first author of 
all these things. It is further observable, that CHARLES 
the great, between the years 775 and 796, conquered all 
GERMANY from the RHINE and DANUBE northward to the 
BALTIC sea, and eastward to the river TEIS ; extending his 
conquests also into SPAIN as far as the river EBRO : and 
by these conquests he laid the foundation of the new 
Empire ; and at the same time propagated the ROMAN 
Catholic religion into all his conquests, obliging the SAXONS 



196 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

and HUNNS who were heathens, to receive the ROMAN 
faith, and distributing his northern conquests into 
Bishopricks, granting tithes to the Clergy and PETER- 
PENCE to the Pope : by all which the Church of ROME 
was highly enlarged, enriched, exalted, and established. 

In the forementioned dissertation upon some coins of 
Charles the great, Ludovicus Pius, Lotharius, and their 
successors, stamped at Rome, there is a draught of a piece 
of MOSAIC work which Pope LEO III. caused to be made 
in his Palace near the Church of JOHN LATERAN, in memory 
of his sending the standard or banner of the city of ROME 
curiously wrought, to CHARLES the great ; and which still 
remained there at the publishing of the said book. In the 
MOSAIC work there appeared PETER with three keys in his 
lap, reaching the PALLIUM to the Pope with his right 
hand, and the banner of the city to CHARLES the great with 
his left. By the Pope was this inscription, " OUR MOST 
HOLY LORD POPE LEO " ; by the King this, " TO 
OUR LORD KING CHARLES " ; and under the feet of 
PETER this, "BLESSED PETER, GRANT LIFE TO 
POPE LEO, AND VICTORY TO KING CHARLES." 
This Monument gives the title of King to CHARLES, and 
therefore was erected before he was Emperor. It was 
erected when PETER was reaching the PALLIUM to the 
Pope, and the Pope was sending the banner of the city to 
CHARLES, that is, A. C. 796. The words above, " our most 
Holy Lord Pope LEO to our Lord King CHARLES," relate 
to the message ; and the words below, " Blessed PETER, 
grant life to Pope LEO, and victory to King CHARLES," 
are a prayer that in this undertaking God would preserve 
the life of the Pope, and give victory to the King over 
the ROMANS. The three keys in the lap of PETER signify 
the keys of the three parts of his Patrimony, that of ROME 
with its Duchy, which the Pope claimed and was con 
quering, those of RAVENNA with the Exarchate, and of 
the territories taken from the LOMBARDS ; both which he 
had newly conquered. These were the three dominions, 
whose keys were in the lap of St. PETER, and whose Crowns 



CHAP, vn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 197 

are now worn by the Pope, and by the conquest of which 
he became the little horn of the fourth Beast. By PETER S 
giving the PALLIUM to the Pope with his right hand, and 
the banner of the city to the King with his left, and by 
naming the Pope before the King in the inscription, may 
be understood that the Pope was then reckoned superior 
in dignity to the Kings of the earth. 

After the death of CHARLES the great, his son and 
successor LUDOVICUS Pius, at the request of the Pope, 
confirmed the donations of his grandfather and father 
to the see of ROME. And in the confirmation he names 
first ROME with its Duchy extending into TUSCANY 
and CAMPANIA ; then the Exarchate of RAVENNA, with 
PENTAPOLIS ; and in the third place, the territories taken 
from the LOMBARDS (Confirmationen recital Sigonius. lib. 
4. de Regno Italic?, ad An. 817.). These are his three 
conquests, and he was to hold them of the Emperor for 
the use of the Church sub integritate, entirely, without 
the Emperor s medling therewith, or with the jurisdiction 
or power of the Pope therein, unless called thereto in 
certain cases. This ratification the Emperor LUDOVICUS 
made under an oath : and as the King of the OSTROGOTHS, 
for acknowledging that he held his kingdom of ITALY of 
the GREEK Emperor, stamped the effigies of the Emperor 
on one side of his coins and his own on the reverse ; so the 
Pope made the like acknowledgment to the WESTERN 
Emperor. For the Pope began now to coin money, and 
the coins of ROME are henceforward found with the heads 
of the Emperors, CHARLES, LUDOVICUS Pius, LOTHARIUS, 
and their successors, on the one side, and the Pope s 
inscription on the reverse, for many years. 



CHAPTER VIII 

OF THE POWER OF THE ELEVENTH HORN OF DANIEL S 
FOURTH BEAST, TO CHANGE TIMES AND LAWS 

IN the reign of the GREEK Emperor JUSTINIAN, and again 
in the reign of PHOCAS, the Bishop of ROME obtained 
some dominion over the GREEK Churches, but of no long 
continuance. His standing dominion was only over the 
nations of the WESTERN EMPIRE, represented by DANIEL S 
fourth Beast. And this jurisdiction was set up by the 
following Edict of the Emperors GRATIAN and VALEN- 
TINIAN (see the Annals of BARONIUS, Anno 381. sect. 6.) : 

" If any one has been condemned by the Court of 

DAMASUS, which he held with a Council of five or seven 
Bishops, or by a Court or Council consisting of Catholics ; 
and if such an one duly wish to cleave to the Church on 
the ground that he did not absent himself from the 
Ecclesiastical Court out of contempt for it : it is our will, 
that he be remitted to the Episcopal Court by an exercise 
of authority on the part of the Prefects of the PR^TORIUM 
of GAUL and ITALY (or by the Legates thereof or their 
deputies) to the end that he may come to the City of 
ROME under escort. Or if in districts more remote, an 
act of such recklessness be committed by anyone, let a 
full statement of his case be submitted to the examination 
of the Metropolitan Bishop. Or if he be a Metropolitan 
himself, let him without fail make all speed to come to 
ROME, or to whatever Judges the Bishop of ROME shall 
direct. But if the impartiality of the Metropolitan Bishop, 
or of any priest whatever, be questioned, or corruption 
suspected, let him have right of appeal to the Bishop of 
ROME, or to a duly convened Council of fifteen neighbouring 

198 



CHAP, vm] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 199 

Bishops : only after the holding of the inquiry let not a 
matter which has been settled be again opened." This 
Edict wanting the name of both VALENS and THEODOSIUS 
in the Title, was made in the time between their reigns, 
that is, in the end of the year 378, or the beginning of 
379. It was directed to the PREFECTS of the PR^TORIUM of 
ITALY and GAUL, and therefore was general. For the PRE 
FECT of the PR^TORIUM of ITALY governed ITALY, ILLYRI- 
CUM OCCIDENTALE and AFRICA ; and the PREFECT of the 
PR^TORIUM of GAUL governed GAUL, SPAIN, and BRITAIN. 
The granting of this jurisdiction to the Pope gave 
several Bishops occasion to write to him for his resolutions 
upon doubtful cases, whereupon he answered by decretal 
Epistles ; and henceforward he gave laws to the WESTERN 
Churches by such Epistles. HIMERIUS Bishop of TARRACO, 
the head city of a province in SPAIN, writing to Pope 
DAMASUS for his direction about certain Ecclesiastical 
matters, and the Letter not arriving at ROME till after the 
death of DAMASUS, A. C. 384 ; his successor SIRICIUS 
answered the same with a legislative authority, telling 
him of one thing : " Since the General Decrees sent to the 
provinces by my predecessor LIBERIUS of revered memory 
forbid this thing to be done." Of another : " Let them 
take note that by the authority of the Apostolic See, 
they are deposed from their ecclesiastical position, of 
which they have made improper use." Of another : 
" The chief Prelates of each province will hereafter bear 
in mind, that if it is further proposed to admit to holy 
orders any man of such a class, a suitable pronouncement 
must be issued by the Apostolic See, not only with regard 
to the status of such a one, but also, as to the status of 
those others whom they have already advanced contrary 
to Canonical Law and our interdictory decrees." And the 
Epistle he concludes thus : " Dearest Brother, I have, as 
I think, explained those general matters which formed the 
body of your grievance ; and with regard to those particular 
questions which you referred to the ROMAN Church, as 
to the head of your body, the answers I have returned 



200 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

will, as far as I can see, prove sufficient. Now we do 
earnestly and yet more earnestly exhort you, and your 
brethren, to keep the Canons and to hold fast by our 
decretal findings ; moreover cause that these directions, 
which form our reply to your questions, be conveyed to the 
knowledge of all your fellow-bishops : and not only to the 
knowledge of those who are stationed in your own diocese ; 
but also to all those of CARTHAGE, BCETICA, LUSITANIA and 
GAUL, that is to your neighbours, in the provinces on 
either side of you, let these arrangements, ordained by us 
for your welfare, be sent under cover of your letters, and 
although it be not permissible for any priest of God to be 
ignorant of the Statutes of the Holy See and the venerable 
enactments of the Canons, yet, perchance it will not be 
without advantage and (in virtue of your long service to the 
Church be it said) highly complimentary to your loving 
zeal towards ourselves, if those general replies, sent 
specifically to yourself, should be brought to the notice of 
our brethren at large by your earnest sympathy with our 
objects. Wherefore let those decisions which we have 
determined upon, not rashly but with forethought, and 
much caution and deliberation for the welfare of all, 
remain inviolate, and for the future let all possibility of 
claims for exemption be debarred, such being a plea which 
henceforth will not be accepted by us. Given on the 
llth of February in the Consulship of the distinguished 
ARCADIUS and BAUTO, A. C. 385." Pope LIBERIUS in the 
reign of JOVIAN or VALENTINIAN I. sent general Decrees 
to the Provinces, ordering that the ARIANS should not be 
rebaptized : and this he did in favour of the Council of 
ALEXANDRIA, that nothing more should be required of 
them than to renounce their opinions. Pope DAMASUS 
is said to have decreed in a ROMAN Council, that TITHES 
and TENTHS should be paid upon pain of an ANATHEMA ; 
and that GLORY BE TO THE FATHER, &c. should be said or 
sung at the end of the PSALMS. But the first decretal 
Epistle now extant is this of SIRICIUS to HIMERIUS ; by 
which the Pope made HIMERIUS his Vicar over all SPAIN 



CHAP, viii] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 201 

for promulging his Decrees, and seeing them observed. 
The Bishop of SEVILL was also the Pope s Vicar sometimes, 
for SIMPLICIUS wrote thus to ZENO Bishop of that place : 
" Rejoicing therefore in such evidences, we have thought 
it fitting that you should be supported by the vicarious 
authority of our See ; protected by the strength whereof 
suffer not the decrees ordained by the Apostolic See or 
the limits fixed by the Holy Fathers to be overstepped 
in the least particular." And Pope HORMISDA made the 
Bishop of SEVILL his Vicar over BCETICA and LUSITANIA, 
and the Bishop of TARRACO his Vicar over all the rest of 
Spain, as appears by his Epistles to them (HORMISD. 
Epist. 24. 26.). 

Pope INNOCENT the first, in his decretal Epistle to 
VICTRICIUS Bishop of ROUEN in FRANCE, A. C. 404, in 
pursuance of the Edict of GRATIAN, made this Decree : 
" If there shall arise any suits or differences between 
clerics, whether of high or low rank, let the matter in 
dispute be settled before the Bishops of that Province in 
Council assembled according to the directions of the 
NICENE Synod : and be it not permitted to any without 
the authority of the ROMAN Church (reverence for which 
must in all cases be safeguarded) to leave these priests, 
who in that Province, are with Divine assent the Governors 
of the Church, and seek shelter in other Provinces. But if 
perchance, he have so presumed, let him be regarded as 
deposed from his clerical office and as guilty of outrage. 
But if cases of larger import be the subject of examina 
tion, subsequent to trial by the Bishops, let them be 
referred to the Apostolic See in accordance with the 
decrees of the Synod and the exigencies of a hallowed 
custom." By these Letters it seems to me that GALLIA 
was now subject to the Pope, and had been so for some 
time, and that the Bishop of ROUEN was then his Vicar 
or one of them : for the Pope directs him to refer the 
greater causes to the See of ROME, according to custom. 
But the Bishop of ARLES soon after became the Pope s 
Vicar over all GALLIA : for Pope ZOSIMUS, A. C. 417, 



202 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

ordaining that none should have access to him without 
the credentials of his Vicars, conferred upon PATROCLUS 
the Bishop of ARLES this authority over all GALLIA, by 
the following Decree : 

" Zosimus to all the Bishops established throughout the 
Province of Gaul, and the Seven Provinces. 

" The Apostolic See hath resolved that, if anyone from 
any quarter of GAUL whatsoever, or of any ecclesiastical 
rank so ever be minded to come to us in ROME, or purposeth 
to go to any other place on earth, he may not set forth 
except he have received credentials from his Metropolitan 
Bishop, whereby he may notify what is his priestly office 
or the ecclesiastical position that he holdeth, the Bishop s 
writing affirming these facts. 

" This decree have we graciously ordained for that many 
masquerading as bishops, or presbyters, or ecclesiastics, 
do now steal into an honourable title, and win unmerited 
respect, because no documentary credentials are in exis 
tence by which they might be exposed. If anyone there 
fore, dearly beloved brethen, be he bishop, presbyter, 
deacon, or of humbler position, come to us without the 
herein said credentials, be it known to him, that he can 
by no means obtain recognition. This command we have 
sent everywhere, manifestly to the end, that all districts 
may know that our decree is in anywise to be kept. But 
if anyone of his own accord essay to violate these decrees, 
enacted for the common welfare, let him know that he 
is banned from communion with us. This privilege of 
granting credentials, we have conferred upon our Holy 
Brother and Fellow-Bishop PATROCLUS, in special recog 
nition of his services." 

And that the Bishop of ARLES was sometimes the 
Pope s Vicar over all FRANCE, is affirmed also by all the 
Bishops of the Diocese of ARLES in their Letter to Pope 
LEO I. A Bishop, say they, " upon whom this further 
degree of honour and prestige has been conferred not 



CHAP. VITI] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 203 

only to govern these provinces in virtue of his own 
authority but also to keep in subjection to every eccle 
siastical rule all the Province of GAUL entrusted to h*s 
tutelage as Vicar of the Apostolic See." And Pope 
PELAGIUS I. A. C. 556, in his Epistle to SAPAUDUS Bishop 
of ARLES : " By the efficacy of the Mercy of God, we desire 
to tread in the footsteps of our predecessors, and under 
Divine scrutiny to imitate their actions in all matters. 
Wherefore do we entrust to you as our Vicar, the authority 
of the Apostolic See (over which by the Grace of God we 
preside) in so far as it doth apply to the whole of GAUL." 
By the influence of the same imperial Edict, not only 
SPAIN and GALLIA, but also ILLYRICUM became subject 
to the Pope. DAMASUS made ASCHOLIUS, or ACHOLIUS, 
Bishop of THESSALONICA the Metropolis of ORIENTAL 
ILLYRICUM, his Vicar for hearing of causes ; and in the 
year 382, ACHOLIUS being summoned by Pope DAMASUS, 
came to a Council at ROME. Pope SIRICIUS the successor 
of DAMASUS, decreed that no Bishop should be ordained 
in ILLYRICUM without the consent of ANYSIUS the successor 
of ACHOLIUS. And the following Popes gave RUFUS the 
successor of ANYSIUS, a power of calling Provincial 
Councils : for in the Collections of HOLSTENIUS there is 
an account of a Council of ROME convened under Pope 
BONIFACE II. in which were produced Letters of DAMASUS, 
SIRICIUS, INNOCENT I. BONIFACE I. and CJSLESTINE 
Bishops of ROME, to ASCHOLIUS, ANYSIUS and RUFUS, 
Bishops of THESSALONICA : in which Letters they com 
mend to them the hearing of causes in ILLYRICUM, 
granted by the Lord and the holy Canons to the Apostolic 
See thro out that Province. And Pope SIRICIUS saith in 
his Epistle to ANYSIUS : " Tis long, my dearly beloved 
brother, since we sent a letter by Bishop CANDIDIANUS 
(who has gone before us to the presence of God) to the 
effect that no licence should be granted for the ordination 
of Bishops in ILLYRICUM without your consent being 
previously obtained. I have never been able to learn, 
however, if this letter ever reached you or not. For 



204 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

many of the actions of the Bishop in the matter of the 
filling of offices show a lack of harmony a fact which 
you my dear brother know better than I." 

And a little later : " You must never relax your diligence 
(the Holy Spirit working fervently within you) in suppres 
sing all this outrageous conduct. Wherefore, you yourself, 
if possible (and otherwise, those Bishops whom you regard 
as suitable) must in writing direct with your full consent 
who is to be invested with powers to ordain, in the stead of 
him who has died or has been deposed from office, a 
Catholic Bishop, a man of tried life and morals, a priest 
who has well served the Clergy, in accordance with the 
Statutes of the NICENE Synod and of the ROMAN Church." 

And Pope INNOCENT I. saith in his Epistle to ANYSIUS : 
" My immediate predecessors in the Bishoprick, men whose 
pre-eminence and qualities are well known, DAMASUS, of 
sainted memory, SIRICIUS and he whom I mentioned 
above, wrote you to the effect that they consigned the 
supervision of all that was done in those parts, to your 
Holiness and your abundant sense of justice." 

And in his Epistle to RUFUS, the successor of ANYSIUS : 
" So let it be taken to heart, that the interest of Churches 
separated from me by long distances must be consulted. 
Wherefore it is my resolve (the Lord Christ approving 
thereof) that you, a man of prudence and steadiness, should 
be entrusted with the care of any suits that may arise 
throughout the sphere comprised by the Churches of 
ACELEA, THESSALY, old and new EPIRUS, CRETE, CENTRAL 
DACIA, DACIA on the DANUBE, MCESIA, DARDANIA and 
PR^VALUM. We say with the approval of the Lord 
Christ : for of a truth, it is upon His most sacred in 
junctions that we lay the charge upon your Holiness s 
most excellent prudence and virtue : nor is this decision 
of ours an innovation : we do but act on the precedent 
of your Apostolic predecessors, who decreed that a 
similar charge should be laid upon the sainted ACHOLIUS 
and ANYSIUS in reward of their services." And 
BONIFACE I. in his decretal Epistle to RUFUS and the 



CHAP, vni] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 205 

rest of the Bishops in ILLYRICUM : " Let no one, as we 
have often said before, take upon himself to celebrate 
the ordination of any cleric without the knowledge of 
the Bishop of THESSALONICA, to whom as previously 
said we entrust all our powers as our Vicar." And 
Pope C^LESTINE, in his decretal Epistle to the Bishops 
thro out ILLYRICUM, saith : " You will know that our 
powers have been entrusted to RUFUS as our Vicar ; and 
so my dearly beloved brethen, if there be any differences 
among you, let them be referred to his judgment. Without 
his cognizance let no one be admitted to clerical office. 
Let no one without his knowledge presume to appropriate 
these his peculiar duties or dare to convene a Council 
except by his consent." And in the cause of PERIGENES, in 
the title of his Epistle, he thus enumerates the Provinces 
under the Bishop : "To RUFUS and the other Bishops 
established throughout MACEDONIA, ACH^EA, THESSALY, 
Old and New EPIRUS, PR.EVALUM, and DACIA." And Pope 
XISTUS in a decretal Epistle to the same Bishops : " In 
accordance with the precedents set by our predecessors 
and with our own action in the past, all the Churches of 
ILLYRICUM do hereby come under the supervision of the 
Bishop of THESSALONICA, that by his earnest attention he 
may discriminate and give judgment in any disputes that 
arise, as arise they will, among the brethren and let 
any suit promoted by an individual priest be referred to 
his decision. Let a Council be held as often as disputes 
arise, and as often as he shall so decree, in view of the exi 
gencies of the situation." And Pope LEO I. in his decretal 
Epistle to ANASTASIUS Bishop of THESSALONICA : " In the 
same way as individual Metropolitan Bishops are vested 
with the power of ordination in their own provinces, so we 
decree that these Metropolitan Bishops be in turn ordained 
by you ; only let your choice be on mature and considered 
judgment." 

OCCIDENTAL ILLYRICUM comprehended PANNONIA PRIMA 
and SECUNDA, SAVIA, DALMATIA, NORICUM MEDITER- 
RANEUM, and NORICUM RIPENSE ; and its Metropolis was 



206 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

SIRMIUM, till ATTILA destroyed this city. Afterwards 
LAUREACUM became the Metropolis of NORICUM and both 
PANNONIAS, and SALONA the Metropolis of DALMATIA 
(vide CAROLI A S. PAULO, Geographiam sacram, pp. 72, 73.). 
Now the Bishops of LAUREACUM and SALONA received the 
PALLIUM from the Pope : and ZOSIMUS, in his decretal 
Epistle to HESYCHIUS Bishop of SALONA, directed him to 
denounce the Apostolic decrees as well to the Bishops of 
his own, as to those of the neighbouring Provinces. The 
subjection of these Provinces to the See of ROME seems 
to have begun in ANEMIUS, who was ordained Bishop of 
SIRMIUM by AMBROSE Bishop of MILLAIN, and who in the 
Council of AQUILEIA under Pope DAM ASUS, A. C. 381, de 
clared his sentence in these words : " Capital of ILLYRICUM 
there is none, but the city of SIRMIUM. Therefore I am 
the Bishop of ILLYRICUM. Whosoever doth not confess 
the Son of God, as eternal and co-eternal with the 
Father (who is from everlasting to everlasting), let him 
be accursed." The next year ANEMIUS and AMBROSE, 
with VALERIAN Bishop of AQUILEIA, ACHOLIUS Bishop 
of THESSALONICA, and many others, went to the Council 
of ROME, which met for overruling the GREEK Church 
by majority of votes, and exalting the authority of the 
Apostolic See, as was attempted before in the Council 
of SARDICA. 

AQUILEIA was the second city of the WESTERN EMPIRE, 
and by some called the second ROME. It was the Metro 
polis of ISTRIA, FORUM JULIUM and VENETIA ; and its 
subjection to the See of ROME is manifest by the decretal 
Epistle of LEO I. directed to NICETAS Bishop of this 
city ; for the Pope begins his Epistle thus : "My son 
ADEODATUS, the Deacon of our See, upon his return to us 
reported your request to be vested with the authority of 
the Holy See to deal with matters which appear to present 
great difficulty in decision." Then he sets down an answer 
to the questions proposed by NICETAS, and concludes 
thus : " Now as to this letter of ours which we have sent, 
in answer to your brotherly inquiries, you will see that 



CHAP, vin] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 207 

it reach all the brethen and the Bishops of your Province, 
so that by the universal observance thereof, the authority 
granted you may be of advantage. Given under our 
hand on the 21st March in the Consulship of MAJORANUS 
AUGUSTUS A. C. 458." GREGORY the great (Greg. M., lib. 1. 
Indie. 9. Epist. 16.) A. C. 591, cited SEVERUS Bishop of 
AQUILEIA to appear before him in judgment in a Council 
at ROME. 

The Bishops of AQUILEIA and MILLAIN created one 
another, and therefore were of equal authority, and alike 
subject to the See of ROME. Pope PELAGIUS about the 
year 557, testified this in the following words : " It was 
the ancient custom," said he " that it being burdensome, in 
view of the length and difficulty of the journey to ROME 
for these Bishops to be ordained by the Apostolic See, 
they themselves should in turn, ordain each other to the 
Bishoprick of AQUILEIA or MILLAIN " (Apud Gratianum de 
MEDIOLANENSI & AQUILEIENSI Episcopis). These words 
imply that the ordination of these two Bishops belonged 
to the See of ROME. When LAURENTIUS Bishop of MILLAIN 
had excommunicated MAGNUS, one of his Presbyters, and 
was dead, GREGORY the great absolved MAGNUS (Greg. 
M., lib. 3. Epist. 26. & lib. 4. Epist. 1. Greg., lib. 5. Epist. 4.) 
and sent the PALLIUM to the new elected Bishop CONSTAN- 
TIUS ; whom the next year he reprehended of partiality 
in judging FORTUNATUS, and commanded him to send 
FORTUNATUS to ROME to be judged there : four years 
after he appointed the Bishops of MILLAIN and RAVENNA 
to hear the cause of one MAXIMUS (Greg., lib. 9. Epist. 
10. & 67.) and two years after, viz. A. C. 601, when CON- 
STANTIUS was dead, and the people of MILLAIN had elected 
DEUSDEDIT his successor, and the LOMBARDS had elected 
another, GREGORY wrote to the Notary, Clergy, and People 
of MILLAIN, that by the authority of his Letters DEUSDEDIT 
should be ordained, and that he whom the LOMBARDS 
had ordained was an unworthy successor of AMBROSE : 
whence I gather, that the Church of MILLAIN had continued 
in this state of subordination to the See of ROME ever since 
15 



208 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART l 

the days of AMBROSE ; for AMBROSE himself acknowledged 
the authority of that See. " The Church of ROME," saith 
he, " has not this custom and its example and model do we 
in all matters observe " (AMBROS., 1. 3. de sacramentis, 
c. 1.) And a little after : " In all things tis my desire to 
copy the Church of ROME." And in his Commentary 
upon 1 TIM. iii. : " Though the whole world be the Lord s 
yet is the Church called His house, whereof the present 
ruler is DAM ASUS." In his Oration on the death of his 
brother SATYRUS, he relates how his brother coming to a 
certain city of SARDINIA " summoned the Bishop of the 
place and inquired of him whether he agreed with the 
Catholic Bishop, or in other words, with the Church of 
ROME ? " And in conjunction with the Synod of AQUILEIA 
A. C. 381, in a synodical Epistle to the Emperor GRATIAN, 
he saith : " Claim had to be made upon your clemency, 
not to permit the ROMAN Church, as head of the whole 
ROMAN world, or the sacred Apostolic faith to be disturbed. 
For tis from your clemency, that justice is vouchsafed 
to all of the Holy Communion." The Churches therefore 
of AQUILEIA and MILLAIN were subject to the See of ROME 
from the days of the Emperor GRATTAN. AUXENTIUS the 
predecessor of AMBROSE was not subject to the see of ROME. 
and consequently the subjection of the Church of MILLAIN 
began in AMBROSE. This Diocese of MILLAIN contained 
LIGURIA with INSUBRIA, the ALPES COTTI.E and RH^TIA ; 
and was divided from the Diocese of AQUILEIA by the river 
ADDUA. In the year 844, the Bishop of MILLAIN broke 
off from the See of ROME, and continued in this separation 
about 200 years, as is thus related by SIGONIUS : "In the 
same year ANGILBERTUS, Archbishop of MILLAIN, seceded 
from the See of Rome, for some reason not sufficiently 
authenticated ; and such a precedent did he set his succes 
sors, that not till 200 years did the See of MILLAIN return 
to the obedience and authority of the See of ROME " 
(SIGONIUS, de Regno Italice, lib. 5.) 

The Bishop of RAVENNA, the Metropolis of FLAMINIA 
and ^EMILIA, was also subject to the Pope : for ZOSIMUS, 



CHAP, vin] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 209 

A. C. 417, excommunicated some of the Presbyters of that 
Church, and wrote a commonitory Epistle about them 
to the Clergy of that Church as a branch of the ROMAN 
Church : " In their own Church," saith he, " and by that is 
meant in our ROMAN Church." When those of RAVENNA, 
having elected a new Bishop, gave notice thereof to Pope 
SIXTUS, the Pope set him aside, and ordained PETER 
CHRYSOLOGUS in his room (see BARONIUS, Anno 433, 
sect. 24.) CHRYSOLOGUS in his Epistle to EUTYCHES, 
extant in the Acts of the Council of CHALCEDON, wrote 
thus : "In view of our zeal for peace and for the faith, we 
cannot hear cases on matters of faith, without the consent 
of the Bishop of the ROMAN State." Pope LEO I. being 
consulted by LEO Bishop of RAVENNA about some questions, 
answered him by a decretal Epistle A. C. 451. And 
Pope GREGORY the great, reprehending JOHN Bishop of 
RAVENNA about the use of the PALLIUM, tells him of a 
Precept of one of his Predecessors, Pope JOHN, command 
ing that all the Privileges formerly granted to the Bishop 
and Church of RAVENNA should be kept : to this JOHN 
returned a submissive answer : and after his death Pope 
GREGORY ordered a visitation of the Church of RAVENNA, 
confirmed the privileges heretofore granted them, and sent 
his PALLIUM, as of ancient custom, to their new Bishop 
MARINIAN. Yet this Church revolted sometimes from the 
Church of ROME, but returned again to its obedience 
(Greg. M., lib. 3. Epist. 56, 57. & lib. 5. Epist. 25, 26, 56.). 

The rest of ITALY, with the Islands adjacent, containing 
the suburbicarian regions, or ten Provinces under the 

1 2 

temporal Vicar of ROME, viz. CAMPANIA, TUSCIA and 

3 45 

UMBRIA, PICENUM SUBURBICARIUM, SICILY, APULIA and 

6 78 

CALABRIA, BRUTII and LUCANIA, SAMNIUM, SARDINIA, 

9 10 

CORSICA and VALERIA, constituted the proper Province of 
the Bishop of ROME. For the Council of NICE in their 
fifth Canon ordained that Councils should be held every 
spring and autumn in every Province ; and according to 



210 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

this Canon, the Bishops of this Province met at ROME 
every half year. In this sense Pope LEO I. applied this 
Canon to ROME, in a decretal Epistle to the Bishops of 
SICILY, written in the Consulship of ALIPPIUS and ARDABUR, 
A. C. 447 : "It having been most wisely decreed by the 
Holy Fathers, that two Councils of the Bishops must be 
held every year, let three of your number always come to 
ROME for the 29th of September as associates with the 
permanent Council. And let this custom be preserved by 
you without subterfuge, since (the Lord graciously assisting 
us) it would be the more easily effected that no scandals 
or heresies should arise in the Church ; for (in the presence 
of the Apostle PETER be it said) it hath ever been the 
purpose of our coming together that all the Canonical 
Decrees should remain inviolate with all the priests of 
God." The Province of ROME therefore comprehended 
SICILY, with so much of ITALY and the neighbouring 
Islands as sent Bishops to the annual Councils of Rome ; 
but extended not into the Provinces of RAVENNA, AQUILEIA, 
MILLAIN, ARLES, &c., those Provinces having Councils of 
their own. The Bishops in every Province of the ROMAN 
EMPIRE were convened in Council by the Metropolitan or 
Bishop of the head city of the Province, and this Bishop 
presided in that Council : but the Bishop of ROME did 
not only preside in his own Council of the Bishops of the 
suburbicarian regions, but also gave Orders to the Metro 
politans of all the other Provinces in the WESTERN EMPIRE, 
as their universal governor ; as may be further perceived 
by the following instances. 

Pope ZOSIMUS A. C. 417, cited PROCULUS Bishop of 
MARSEILLES to appear before a Council at ROME for 
illegitimate Ordinations ; and condemned him, as he 
mentions in several of his Epistles. Pope BONIFACE 
I. A. C. 419, upon a complaint of the Clergy of VALENTIA 
against MAXIMUS a Bishop, summoned the Bishops of 
all GALLIA and the seven Provinces to convene in a Council 
against him ; and saith in his Epistle, that his Predecessors 
had done the like. Pope LEO I. called a general Council 



CHAP, vm] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 211 

of all the Provinces of SPAIN to meet in GALL^ECIA against 
the MANICHEES and PRISCILLIANISTS, as he says in his 
decretal Epistle to TURRIBIUS a SPANISH Bishop. And in 
one of his decretal Epistles to NICETAS Bishop of AQUILEIA, 
he commands him to call a Council of the Bishops of that 
Province against the PELAGIANS, which might ratify all 
the Synodal Decrees which had been already ratified by 
the See of ROME against this heresy. And in his decretal 
Epistle to ANASTASIUS Bishop of THESSALONICA, he 
ordained that Bishop should hold two Provincial Councils 
every year, and refer the harder causes to the See of ROME : 
and if upon any extraordinary occasion it should be 
necessary to call a Council, he should not be troublesome 
to the Bishops under him, but content himself with two 
Bishops out of every Province, and not detain them above 
fifteen days. In the same Epistle he describes the form 
of Church Government then set up, to consist in a subordi 
nation of all the Churches to the See of ROME : " As a 
result of this form of Church government," saith he, " there 
has arisen a distinction (in rank and authority) between 
the Bishops ; and by a broad arrangement, provision has 
been made against the connection of interests, it being 
decreed, that in the various provinces there should be 
individual Bishops whose opinion should have precedence 
among their brethren ; and further, that a still larger 
responsibility should devolve on certain Bishops established 
in the larger cities, and that through them the government 
of the Church at large should ultimately centre in the See 
of PETER alone, to the end that no member of the Body 
Ecclesiastic should be at variance with its Head. 

"Whosoever therefore is set in authority over others, 
must not be indignant if another be set in authority over 
him ; but should render in his turn the obedience he 
demands from others ; and as he himself has no inclination 
to bear a heavy burden, let him not dare to lay on others 
a weight they cannot support." 

These words sufficiently shew the monarchical form of 
government then set up in the Churches of the WESTERN 



212 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

EMPIRE under the Bishop of ROME, by means of the 
imperial Decree of GRATIAN, and the appeals and decretal 
Epistles grounded thereupon. 

The same Pope LEO, having in a Council at ROME 
passed sentence upon HILARY Bishop of ARLES, for what 
he had done by a Provincial Council in GALLIA, took 
occasion from thence to procure the following Edict from 
the WESTERN Emperor VALENTINIAN III. for the more 
absolute establishing the authority of his See over all the 
Churches of the WESTERN EMPIRE : 

" The Emperors THEODOSIUS and VALENTINIANUS to the 
renowned JETius, Count, Master of Horse and Foot, 
and Patrician. 

" Of a surety the sole defence of our selves and of our 
Empire rests in the favour of Almighty God, favour the 
meriting of which is especially promoted by the hallowed 
Christian faith and religion. Since therefore the pre 
eminence of the Holy See (as the tribute due to St. PETER, 
who is chief of the Episcopal Body and the glory of the 
ROMAN State) has received additional confirmation from 
the authority of the Sacred Synod let not anyone in 
presumption attempt to make any arrangement in any 
matter wherein he hath no powers without the authority 
of that See. 

"For peace will be secured throughout all the churches 
only when the Church as a whole acknowledges its 
Governor. Though these rights have so far been guarded 
from violation, HILARY of ARLES, as we understand from the 
faithful report of the Venerable LEO Pope of Rome, hath 
insolently and outrageously essayed to usurp certain offices, 
whereto he hath no right ; and for this cause the TRANS 
ALPINE Churches have been visited by an accursed tumult 
whereof a late example is the best witness. 

" For HILARY styling himself the Bishop of ARLES, with 
out consulting the Pontiff of the Church at ROME, assailed 
the prerogative of the ordination of Bishops, usurping on 
his own authority an office to which he had no claim. 



CHAP, vm] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 213 

Some he deposed on insufficient grounds ; others with 
unseemly force he ordained against the will and in face 
of the opposition of the laity. And when an electorate 
which had no part in the election, refused to receive 
those Bishops, he gathered together an armed band, and 
like an enemy laid siege to their defences or stoned and 
forced them ; and so by acts of war installed in his See 
a man who was to preach a gospel of peace. These and 
such like actions perpetrated against the Majesty of the 
EMPIRE and in disrespect to the Apostolic See, have been 
reviewed and examined by the Court of the Pope of ROME 
and a definite decision has been adopted against him, with 
regard to those Bishops whom he wrongly ordained. This 
decision would undoubtedly have been valid throughout the 
length and breadth of the GALLIC Provinces even without 
our Imperial Sanction. For what that the Pontiff approves 
could be condemned ? But our additional authority hath 
been given for the following purpose Be it henceforth 
illegal either for HILARY (who remains in possession of his 
title of Bishop, only by the kindly and considerate permis 
sion of the Holy Father) or for any other whatsoever to 
settle ecclesiastical matters by military force or to oppose 
the precepts of the ROMAN PONTIFF. For by such pre 
sumption, the fealty and reverence due to our EMPIRE 
are violated. Nor is this the only abuse (and it indeed is 
most criminal) that we order to cease : but further lest 
any trivial quarrel rise amongst the churches or the 
religious discipline in any case be seen to relax, we do 
thus resolve with permanent sanction ; that no one, be 
he a Bishop of GAUL or of the other provinces, attempt 
aught contrary to the established customs, without the 
authority of the reverend Pope of the Eternal City : but 
let all that the authority of the Apostolic See has sanc 
tioned or will sanction, be as law both to them and to 
all and sundry. 

" Wherefore if any of the Bishops being summoned to the 
Court of the ROMAN PONTIFF, neglect to come, he must be 
compelled to present himself by the Governor of that 



214 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 



same Province : and in all we charge thee ^ETIUS, dearly 
beloved father of AUGUSTUS, that the rights which our 
sainted predecessors conceded to the See of ROME be 
maintained and protected. To assist your Highness in 
effecting by means of the authority of our present Law 
and Edict, the observation of the above statutes, a fine 
of ten pounds in gold will be imposed on every Judge 
who permits the violation of our Decrees. And may 
Heaven preserve you for many years, dear Father J^TIUS. 
"Given on the 6th June at Rome, in the Consulship of 
VALENTINIANUS AUGUSTUS A. C. 445." 

By this Edict the Emperor VALENTINIAN enjoined an 
absolute obedience to the will of the Bishop of ROME 
thro out all the Churches of his Empire ; and declares, 
that for the Bishops to attempt any thing without the 
Pope s authority is contrary to ancient custom, and that 
the Bishops summoned to appear before his judicature 
must be carried thither by the Governor of the Province ; 
and he ascribes these privileges of the See of ROME to the 
concessions of his dead Ancestors, that is, to the Edict 
of GRATIAN and VALENTINIAN II. as above : by which 
reckoning this dominion of the Church of ROME was now 
of 66 years standing : and if in all this time it had not 
been sufficiently established, this new Edict was enough to 
settle it beyond all question thro out the WESTERN EMPIRE. 

Hence all the Bishops of the Province of ARLES in their 
Letter to Pope LEO, A. C. 450, petitioning for a restitution 
of the privileges of their Metropolitan, say : " Through 
Blessed PETER, the Prince of Apostles, the Holy ROMAN 
Church used to hold the primacy over all the churches of 
the whole world." And CERATIUS, SALONIUS and VERA- 
NUS, three Bishops of GALLIA, say, in their Epistle to the 
same Pope : " We your servants cannot contain ourselves, 
with great and inexpressible thanksgiving that the letter 
of private guidance which you gave us, is in the Councils 
of all the churches acclaimed so heartily that judgment 
thereon is unanimous in its declaration that the Primacy 



CHAP, vm] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 215 

of the Holy See has been deservedly established in ROME, 
whence it will be possible for the revelations of the apostolic 
spirit to be conveyed as far as here " (Epist. 25. apud 
HOLSTENIUM). 

And LEO himself in his Epistle to the Metropolitan 
Bishops, throughout ILLYRICUM says : " Because our 
supremacy has now extended over all the churches, as is 
required of us by our Lord, who entrusted to the Blessed 
Apostle PETER, as the reward of his faith, the pre-eminence 
in Apostolic rank, he being the secure foundation upon 
which the whole Church is built." 

While this Ecclesiastical Dominion was rising up, the 
northern barbarous nations invaded the WESTERN EMPIRE, 
and founded several kingdoms therein, of different religions 
from the Church of ROME. But these kingdoms by 
degrees embraced the ROMAN faith, and at the same time 
submitted to the Pope s authority. The FRANKS in GAUL 
submitted in the end of the fifth Century, the GOTHS in 
SPAIN in the end of the sixth ; and the LOMBARDS in ITALY 
were conquered by CHARLES the great A. C. 774. Between 
the years 775 and 794, the same CHARLES extended the 
Pope s authority over all GERMANY and HUNGARY as far 
as the river THEYSSE and the BALTIC sea ; he then set 
him above all human judicature, and at the same time 
assisted him in subduing the City and Duchy of ROME. 
By the conversion of the ten kingdoms to the ROMAN 
religion, the Pope only enlarged his spiritual dominion, 
but did not yet rise up as a horn of the Beast. It was his 
temporal dominion which made him one of the horns : and 
this dominion he acquired in the latter half of the eighth 
century, by subduing three of the former horns as above. 
And now being arrived at a temporal dominion, and a 
power above all human judicature, he reigned (DAN. vii. 
20. ver. 25.) with a look more stout than his fellows, and times 
and laws were henceforward given into his hands, for a time, 
times and half a time, or three times and an half ; that is, 
for 1260 solar years, reckoning a time for a Calendar year 
of 360 days, and a day for a solar year. After which 



216 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PARTI 

(ver. 26.) the judgment is to sit, and they shall take away his 
dominion, not at once but by degrees, to consume, and to 
destroy it unto the end. And the kingdom and dominion, 
and greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall, 
by degrees, be given unto the people of the saints of the most 
High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all 
dominions shall serve and obey him. 



CHAPTER IX 

OF THE KINGDOMS REPRESENTED IN DANIEL BY 
THE RAM AND HE-GOAT 

THE second and third Empires, represented by the Bear 
and Leopard, are again represented by the Ram and 
He- Goat ; but with this difference, that the Ram repre 
sents the kingdoms of the MEDES and PERSIANS from the 
beginning of the four Empires, and the Goat represents 
the kingdom of the GREEKS to the end of them. By this 
means, under the type of the Ram and He-Goat, the times 
of all the four Empires are again described (chap. viii. 3.) : 
/ lifted up mine eyes, saith DANIEL, and saw, and behold 
there stood before the river [Ulai] a Ram which had two horns, 
and the two horns were high, but one was higher than the 
other, and the higher came up last. And the Ram 
having two horns, are the kings of Media and Persia : not 
two persons but two kingdoms, the kingdoms of MEDIA 
and PERSIA ; and the kingdom of PERSIA was the higher 
horn and came up last. The kingdom of PERSIA rose up, 
when CYRUS having newly conquered BABYLON, revolted 
from DARIUS King of the MEDES, and beat him at PASAR- 
GAD^:, and set up the PERSIANS above the MEDES. This 
was the horn which came up last. And the horn which 
came up first was the kingdom of the MEDES, from the 
time that CYAXARES and NEBUCHADNEZZAR overthrew 
NINEVEH, and shared the Empire of the ASSYRIANS 
between them. The Empires of MEDIA and BABYLON 
were contemporary, and rose up together by the fall of 
the ASSYRIAN Empire ; and the Prophecy of the four 
Beasts begins with one of them, and that of the Ram and 
He-Goat with the other. As the Ram represents the 

217 



218 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

kingdom of MEDIA and PERSIA from the beginning of 
the four Empires ; so the He-goat represents the Empire 
of the GREEKS to the end of those Monarchies. In the 
reign of his great horn, and of the four horns which 
succeeded it, he represents this Empire during the reign 
of the Leopard : and in the reign of his little horn, which 
stood up in the latter time of the kingdom of the four, and 
after their fall became mighty but not by his own power, 
he represents it during the reign of the fourth Beast. 

The rough Goat, saith DANIEL, is the King of Grecia, that 
is, the kingdom ; and the great horn between his eyes is 
the first King : not the first Monarch, but the first kingdom, 
that which lasted during the reign of ALEXANDER the great, 
and his brother ARID^US and two young sons, ALEXANDER 
and HERCULES. Now that [horn] being broken ojff (ver. 22.) 
whereas four [horns] stood up for it, four kingdoms shall 
stand up out of the nation [of the GREEKS], but not in his 
[the first horn s] power. The four horns are therefore four 
kingdoms ; and by consequence, the first great horn which 
they succeeded is thejfirst great kingdom of the GREEKS, 
that which was founded by ALEXANDER the great, An. 
NABONASS. 414, and lasted till the death of his son HERCULES 
An. NABONASS. 441. And the four are those of CASSANDER, 
LYSIMACHUS, ANTIGONUS, and PTOLEMY, as above. 

And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the trans 
gressors are come to the full, a King [or new kingdom] of 
fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall 
stand up : and his power shall be mighty, but not by his own 
power (ver. 23.). This King was the last horn of the Goat, 
the little horn which came up out of one of the four horns, 
and waxed exceeding great. The latter time of their 
kingdom was when the ROMANS began to conquer them, 
that is, when they conquered PERSEUS King of MACE 
DONIA, the fundamental kingdom of the GREEKS. And 
at that time the transgressors came to the full : for then 
the High-priesthood was exposed to sale, the Vessels of 
the Temple were sold to pay for the purchase ; and the 
High- priest, with some of the JEWS, procured a licence 



CHAP, ix] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 219 

from ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES to do after the ordinances 
of the heathen, and set up a school at JERUSALEM for 
teaching those ordinances. Then ANTIOCHUS took JERU 
SALEM with an armed force, slew 4000 JEWS, took as many 
prisoners and sold them, spoiled the Temple, interdicted 
the worship, commanded the Law of MOSES to be burnt, 
and set up the worship of the heathen Gods in all JUDEA. 
In the very same year An. NABONASS. 580, the ROMANS 
conquered MACEDONIA, the chief of the four horns. 
Hitherto the Goat was mighty by its own power, but hence 
forward began to be under the ROMANS. DANIEL dis 
tinguishes the times, by describing very particularly the 
actions of the Kings of the north and south, those two of 
the four horns which bordered upon JUDEA, until the 
ROMANS conquered MACEDONIA ; and thenceforward only 
touching upon the main revolutions which happened within 
the compass of the nations represented by the Goat. In 
this latter period of time the little horn was to stand 
up and grow mighty, but not by his own power. 

The three first of DANIEL S Beasts had their dominions 
taken away, each of them at the rise of the next Beast ; 
but their lives were prolonged, and they are all of them still 
alive. The third Beast, or Leopard, reigned in his four 
heads, till the rise of the fourth Beast, or Empire of the 
LATINS ; and his life was prolonged under their power. 
This Leopard reigning in his four heads, signifies the same 
thing with the He- Goat reigning in his four horns : and 
therefore the He-Goat reigned in his four horns till the rise 
of DANIEL S fourth Beast, or Empire of the LATINS : then 
its dominion was taken away by the LATINS, but its life 
was prolonged under their power. The LATINS are not 
comprehended among the nations represented by the 
He-Goat in this Prophecy : their power over the GREEKS 
is only named in it, to distinguish the times in which the 
He-Goat was mighty by his own power, from the times in 
which he was mighty but not by his own power. He 
was mighty by his own power till his dominion was taken 
away by the LATINS ; after that, his life was prolonged under 



220 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

their dominion, and this prolonging of his life was in the 
days of his last horn : for in the days of this horn the Goat 
became mighty, but not by his own power. 

Now because this horn was a horn of the Goat, we are 
to look for it among the nations which composed the body 
of the Goat. Among those nations he was to rise up and 
grow mighty. Chap. viii. 9. he grew mighty towards the 
south, and towards the east, and towards the pleasant land ; 
and therefore he was to rise up in the north-west parts of 
those nations, and extend his dominion towards EGYPT, 
SYRIA and JUDEA. In the latter time of the kingdom of 
the four horns, it was to rise up out of one of them and 
subdue the rest, but not by its own power. It was to be 
assisted by a foreign power, a power superior to itself, the 
power which took away the dominion of the third Beast, 
the power of the fourth Beast. And such a little horn was 
the kingdom of MACEDONIA, from the time that it became 
subject to the ROMANS. This kingdom, by the victory of 
the ROMANS over PERSEUS King of MACEDONIA, Anno 
NABONASS. 580, ceased to be one of the four horns of the 
Goat, and became a dominion of a new sort : not a horn of 
the fourth Beast, for MACEDONIA belonged to the body of 
the third ; but a horn of the third Beast of a new sort, a 
horn of the Goat which grew mighty but not by his own 
power, a horn which rose up and grew potent under a 
foreign power, the power of the ROMANS. 

The ROMANS, by the legacy of ATTALUS the last 
King of PERGAMUS, An. NABONASS. 615, inherited that 
kingdom, including all ASIA MINOR on this side mount 
TAURUS. An. NABONASS. 684 and 685 they conquered 
ARMENIA, SYRIA and JUDEA ; An. NABONASS. 718, they 
subdued EGYPT. And by these conquests the little horn 
waxed exceeding great towards the south, and towards the 
east, and towards the pleasant land. And it waxed great even 
to the host of heaven ; and cast down some of the host and of 
the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them (chap. viii. 
9, 10.), that is, upon the people and great men of the JEWS. 
Yea, he magnified himself even to the Prince of the Host, 



CHAP, ix] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 221 

the MESSIAH, the Prince of the JEWS, whom he put to death 
(ver. 11.), An. NABONASS. 780. And by him the daily sacri 
fice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast 
down, viz. in the wars which the armies of the EASTERN 
nations under the conduct of the ROMANS made against 
JUDEA, when NERO and VESPASIAN were Emperors, 
An. NABONASS. 815, 817, 818. And an host was given 
him against the daily sacrifice by reason of transgression, and 
it cast down the truth to the ground, and it practised and 
prospered (ver. 12.). This transgression is in the next words 
called the transgression of desolation ; and in DAN. xi. 31. 
the abomination which maketh desolate ; and in MATTH. 
xxiv. 15. the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel 
the prophet, standing in the holy place. It may relate chiefly 
to the worship of JUPITER OLYMPIUS in his Temple built 
by the Emperor HADRIAN, in the place of the Temple of 
the JEWS, and to the revolt of the JEWS under BARCHOCHAB 
occasioned thereby, and to the desolation of JUDEA which 
followed thereupon ; all the JEWS being thenceforward 
banished JUDEA upon pain of death. Then I heard (viii. 
13, 14.), saith DANIEL, one saint speaking, and another saint 
said unto that certain Saint which spake, How long shall be 
the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression 
of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be 
trodden underfoot ? And he said unto me, Unto two thousand 
and three hundred days ; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed. 
DANIEL S days are years ; and these years may perhaps 
be reckoned either from the destruction of the Temple by 
the ROMANS in the reign of VESPASIAN, or from the pollution 
of the Sanctuary by the worship of JUPITER OLYMPIUS, 
or from the desolation of JUDEA made in the end of the 
JEWISH war by the banishment of all the JEWS out of their 
own country, or from some other period which time will dis 
cover. Henceforward the last horn of the Goat continued 
mighty under the ROMANS, till the reign of CONSTAN- 
TINE the great and his sons : and then by the division of 
the ROMAN Empire between the GREEK and LATIN Em 
perors, it separated from the LATINS, and became the 



222 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

GREEK Empire alone, but yet under the dominion of a 
ROMAN family ; and at present it is mighty under the 
dominion of the TURKS. 

This last horn is by some taken for ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, 

but not very judiciously. A horn of a Beast is never taken 

for a single person : it always signifies a new kingdom, and 

the kingdom of ANTIOCHUS was an old one. ANTIOCHUS 

reigned over one of the four horns, and the little horn was a 

fifth under its proper kings. This horn was at first a little 

one, and waxed exceeding great, but so did not ANTIOCHUS. 

It is described great above all the former horns, and so was 

not ANTIOCHUS. His kingdom on the contrary was weak, 

and tributary to the ROMANS, and he did not enlarge it. 

The horn was a King of fierce countenance, and destroyed 

wonderfully, and prospered and practised ; that is, he 

prospered in his practises against the holy people : but 

ANTIOCHUS was frighted out of EGYPT by a mere message 

of the ROMANS, and afterwards routed and baffled by the 

JEWS. The horn was mighty by another s power, ANTIO : 

CHUS acted by his own. The horn stood up against the 

Prince of the Host of heaven, the Prince of Princes ; and 

this is the character not of ANTIOCHUS but of ANTICHRIST. 

The horn cast down the Sanctuary to the ground, and so 

did not ANTIOCHUS ; he left it standing. The Sanctuary 

and Host were trampled under foot 2300 days ; and in 

DANIEL S Prophecies days are put for years : but the 

profanation of the Temple in the reign of ANTIOCHUS 

did not last for so many natural days. These were to last 

till the time of the end, till the last end of the indignation 

against the JEWS ; and this indignation is not yet at 

an end. They were to last till the Sanctuary which had 

been cast down should be cleansed, and the Sanctuary is 

not yet cleansed. 

This Prophecy of the Ram and He-Goat is repeated in 
the last Prophecy of DANIEL. There the Angel tells 
DANIEL (DAN. xi. 1, 2.) that he stood up to strengthen Darius 
the Mede, and that there should stand up yet three kings in 
Persia, [CYRUS, CAMBYSES, and DARIUS HYSTASPIS] and 



CHAP, ix] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 223 

the fourth [XERXES] should be far richer than they all ; and 
by his wealth thro his riches he should stir up all against 
the realm of Grecia. This relates to the Ram, whose two 
horns were the kingdoms of MEDIA and PERSIA. Then he 
goes on to describe the horns of the Goat (ver. 3.) by the 
standing up of a mighty king, which should rule with great 
dominion, and do according to his will ; and by the break 
ing of his kingdom into four smaller kingdoms, and not 
descending to his own posterity. Then he describes the 
actions of two of those kingdoms which bordered on JUDEA, 
viz. EGYPT and SYRIA, calling them the Kings of the SOUTH 
and NORTH, that is, in respect of JUDEA ; and he carries 
on the description till the latter end of the kingdoms of 
the four, and till the reign of ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, when 
transgressors were come to the full. In the eighth year of 
ANTIOCHUS, the year in which he profaned the Temple and 
set up the heathen Gods in all JUDEA, and the ROMANS 
conquered the kingdom of MACEDON ; the prophetic Angel 
leaves off describing the affairs of the kings of the SOUTH 
and NORTH, and begins to describe those of the GREEKS 
under the dominion of the ROMANS, in these words : And 
after him Arms [the ROMANS] shall stand up, and they shall 
pollute the sanctuary of strength (DAN. xi. 31.) As -^DD 
signifies after the king, DAN. xi. 8 ; so here UOD may signify 
after him : and so nnK.TTD may signify after one of them, 
DAN. viii. 9. Arms are every where in these Prophecies 
of DANIEL put for the military power of a kingdom, and 
they stand up when they conquer and grow powerful. The 
ROMANS conquered ILLYRICUM, EPIRUS and MACEDONIA, 
in the year of NABONASSAR 580 ; and thirty five years 
after, by the last will and testament of ATTALUS the last 
King of PERGAMUS, they inherited that rich and nourishing 
kingdom, that is, all ASIA on this side mount TAURUS : 
and sixty nine years after, they conquered the kingdom of 
SYRIA, and reduced it into a Province : and thirty four years 
after they did the like to EGYPT. By all these steps the 
ROMAN arms stood up over the GREEKS. And after 95 
years more, by making war upon the JEWS, they polluted 
16 



224 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PART i 

the sanctuary of strength, and took away the daily sacrifice, 
and, in its room soon after, placed the abomination which 
made the Land desolate : for this abomination was placed 
after the days of Christ, MATTH. xxiv. 15. In the 16th year 
of the Emperor HADRIAN, A. C. 132, they placed this 
abomination by building a Temple to JUPITER CAPITO 
LINUS, where the Temple of God in JERUSALEM had stood. 
Thereupon the JEWS under the conduct of BARCHOCHAB 
rose up in arms against the ROMANS, and in that war 
had 50 cities demolished, 985 of their best towns destroyed, 
and 580000 men slain by the sword : and in the end of the 
war, A. C. 136, they were all banished JUDEA upon pain 
of death ; and that time the land hath remained desolate 
of its old inhabitants. 

Now that the prophetic Angel passes in this manner 
from the four kingdoms of the GREEKS to the ROMANS 
reigning over the GREEKS, is confirmed from hence, that 
in the next place he describes the affairs of the CHRISTIANS 
unto the time of the end, in these words (chap. xi. 33, &c.) : 
And they that understand among the people shall instruct 
many, yet they shall jail by the sword and by flame, by captivity 
and by spoil many days. Now when they shall jail they shall 
be holpen with a little help, viz. in the reign of CONSTANTINE 
the great ; but many shall cleave to them with dissimulation. 
And some of them of understanding there shall jail to try 
them, and to purge them from the dissemblers ; and to 
make them white even to the time of the end. And a little 
after, the time of the end is said to be a time, times, and 
half a time : which is the duration of the reign of the last 
horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast, and of the WOMAN and 
her BEAST in the APOCALYPS. 



CHAPTER X 

OF THE PROPHECY OF THE SEVENTY WEEKS 

THE Vision of the Image composed of four Metals was 
given first to NEBUCHADNEZZAR, and then to DANIEL in 
a dream : and DANIEL began then to be celebrated for 
revealing of secrets, EZEK. xxviii. 3. The Vision of the 
four Beasts, and of the Son of man coming in the clouds 
of heaven, was also given to DANIEL in a dream. That 
of the Ram and the He-Goat appeared to him in the day 
time, when he was by the bank of the river ULAY ; and 
was explained to him by the prophetic Angel GABRIEL. 
It concerns the Prince of the host, and the Prince of 
Princes : and now in the first year of DARIUS the MEDE 
over BABYLON, the same prophetic Angel appears to DANIEL 
again, and explains to him what is meant by the Son 
of man, by the Prince of the host, and the Prince of 
Princes. The Prophecy of the Son of man coming in the 
clouds of heaven relates to the second coming of CHRIST; 
that of the Prince of the host relates to his first coming : 
and this Prophecy of the MESSIAH, in explaining them, 
relates to both comings, and assigns the times thereof. 

This Prophecy, like all the rest of DANIEL S, consists of 
two parts, an introductory prophecy and an explanation 
thereof ; the whole I thus translate and interpret. 

Seventy weeks are l cut out upon thy people, and upon 
4 thy holy city, to finish transgression, and 2 to make an end 

1 Cut upon. A phrase in HEBREW, taken from the practice of numbring 
by cutting notches. 

2 Heb. to seal, i. e. to finish or consummate : a metaphor taken from 
sealing what is finished. So the JEWS compute, ad obsignatum MISNA, ad 
obsignatum TALMUD, that is, ad absolutum. 

225 



226 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

4 of sins, to expiate iniquity, and to bring in everlasting 
4 righteousness, to consummate the Vision and 1 the Prophet, 
4 and to anoint the most Holy (chap. ix. 24, 25, 26, 27.). 

4 Know also and understand, that from the going forth of 
4 the commandment to cause to return and to build Jerusalem, 
unto 2 the Anointed the Prince, shall be seven weeks. 

4 Yet threescore and two weeks shall 3 it return, and the 
4 street be built and the wall ; but in troublesome times : and 
4 after the threescore and two weeks, the Anointed shall be 
4 cut off, and 3 it shall not be his ; but the people of a Prince 
4 to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary : and the 
4 end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war, 
4 desolations are determined. 

4 Yet shall he confirm the covenant with many for one week : 
4 and in half a week he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation 
4 to cease : and upon a wing of abominations he shall make 
4 it desolate, even until the consummation, and that which is 
4 determined be poured upon the desolate. 9 

Seventy weeks are cut out upon thy people, and upon thy 
holy city, to finish transgression, &c. Here, by putting a 
week for seven years, are reckoned 490 years from the 
time that the dispersed JEWS should be reincorporated 
into 4 a people and a holy city, until the death and resurrec 
tion of CHRIST ; whereby transgression should be finished, 
and sins ended, iniquity be expiated, and everlasting righteous 
ness brought in, and this Vision be accomplished, and the 
Prophet consummated, that Prophet whom the JEWS 
expected ; and whereby the most Holy should be 
anointed, he who is therefore in the next words called the 
Anointed, that is, the MESSIAH, or the CHRIST. For by 
joining the accomplishment of the vision with the expiation 
of sins, the 490 years are ended with the death of CHRIST. 
Now the dispersed JEWS became a people and city when 
they first returned into a polity or body politick ; and 

1 Heb. the Prophet, not the Prophecy. 

a Heb. the Messiah, that is, in GREEK, the Christ ; in ENGLISH, the 
Anointed. I use the ENGLISH word, that the relation of this clause to 
the former may appear. 

3 JEBUSALEM. * See ISAIAH xxiii. 13. 



CHAP, x] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 227 

this was in the seventh year of ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUS, 
when EZRA returned with a body of JEWS from captivity, 
and revived the JEWISH worship ; and by the King s 
commission created Magistrates in all the land, to judge 
and govern the people according to the laws of God and 
the King, EZRA vii. 25. There were but two returns from 
captivity, ZERUBBABEL S and EZRA S ; in ZERUBB ABEL S 
they had only commission to build the Temple, in EZRA S 
they first became a polity or city by a government of their 
own. Now the years of this ARTAXERXES began about 
two or three months after the summer solstice, and his 
seventh year fell in with the third year of the eightieth 
OLYMPIAD ; and the latter part thereof, wherein EZRA 
went up to JERUSALEM, was in the year of the JULIAN 
PERIOD 4257. Count the time from thence to the death 
of CHRIST, and you will find it just 490 years. If you 
count in JUDAIC years commencing in autumn, and date 
the reckoning from the first autumn after EZRA S coming 
to JERUSALEM, when he put the King s decree in execution ; 
the death of CHRIST will fall on the year of the JULIAN 
PERIOD 4747, Anno Domini 34 ; and the weeks will be 
JUDAIC weeks, ending with sabbatical years ; and this I 
take to be the truth : but if you had rather place the 
death of CHRIST in the year before, as is commonly done, 
you may take the year of EZRA S journey into the 
reckoning. 

Know also and understand, that from the going forth of 
the commandment to cause to return and to build Jerusalem, 
unto the Anointed the Prince, shall be seven weeks. The 
former part of the Prophecy related to the first coming of 
CHRIST, being dated to his coming as a Prophet ; this 
being dated to his coming to be Prince or King, seems to 
relate to his second coming. There, the Prophet, was con 
summate, and the most holy anointed : here, he that was 
anointed comes to be Prince and to reign. For DANIEL S 
Prophecies reach to the end of the world ; and there is 
scarce a Prophecy in the Old Testament concerning 
CHRIST, which doth not in something or other relate to 



228 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

his second coming. If divers of the antients, as l IREN.EUS, 
2 JULIUS AFRICANUS, HIPPOLYTUS the martyr, and APOL- 
LINARIS Bishop of LAODICEA, applied the half week to 
the times of ANTICHRIST ; why may not we, by the same 
liberty of interpretation, apply the seven weeks to the 
time when ANTICHRIST shall be destroyed by the brightness 
of CHRIST S coming ? 

The ISRAELITES in the days of the antient Prophets, 
when the ten Tribes were led into captivity, expected a 
double return ; and that at the first the JEWS should 
build a new Temple inferior to SOLOMON S, until the time 
of that age should be fulfilled ; and afterwards they 
should return from all places of their captivity, and build 
JERUSALEM and the Temple gloriously, TOBIT xiv. 4, 5, 6. : 
and to express the glory and excellence of this city, it is 
figuratively said to be built of precious stones, TOBIT xiii. 
16, 17, 18. ISA. liv. 11, 12. REV. xi. and called the New 
Jerusalem, the Heavenly Jerusalem, the Holy City, 
the Lamb s Wife, the City of the Great King, the City 
into which the Kings of the earth do bring their glory and 
honour. Now while such a return from captivity was 
the expectation of ISRAEL, even before the times of 
DANIEL, I know not why DANIEL should omit it in his 
Prophecy. This part of the Prophecy being therefore not 
yet fulfilled, I shall not attempt a particular interpre 
tation of it, but content myself with observing, that as 
the seventy and the sixty two weeks were JEWISH 
weeks, ending with sabbatical years ; so the seven weeks 
are the compass of a JUBILEE, and begin and end with 
actions proper for a JUBILEE, and of the highest nature 
for which a JUBILEE can be kept : and that since the 
commandment to return and to build Jerusalem, precedes 
the Messiah the Prince 49 years ; it may perhaps come 
forth not from the JEWS themselves, but from some 
other kingdom friendly to them, and precede their return 
from captivity, and give occasion to it ; and lastly, that 
this rebuilding of JERUSALEM and the waste places of 
1 IBEN. Hcer. 1. 5. c. 25. 2 Apud HIERON. in h.L 



CHAP, x] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 229 

JUDAH is predicted in MICAH vii. 11. AMOS ix. 11, 14. 
EZEK. xxxvi. 33, 35, 36, 38. ISA. liv. 3, 11, 12. Iv. 12. 
Ixi. 4. Ixv. 18, 21, 22. and TOBIT xiv. 5. and that the return 
from captivity and coming of the MESSIAH and his kingdom 
are described in DANIEL vii. REV. xix. ACTS i. MATT. 
xxiv. JOEL. iii. EZEK. xxxvi. xxxvii. ISA. Ix. Ixii. Ixiii. Ixv. 
and Ixvi. and many other places of scripture. The manner 
I know not. Let time be the Interpreter. 

Yet threescore and two weeks shall it return, and the street 
be built and the wall, but in troublesome times : and after the 
threescore and two weeks the Messiah shall be cut off, and it 
shall not be his ; but the people of a Prince to come shall 
destroy the city and the sanctuary, &c. Having foretold 
both comings of CHRIST, and dated the last from their 
returning and building JERUSALEM ; to prevent the 
applying that to the building JERUSALEM by NEHEMIAH, 
he distinguishes this from that, by saying that from this 
period to the Anointed shall be, not seven weeks, but 
threescore and two weeks, and this not in prosperous but 
in troublesome times ; and at the end of these weeks the 
Messiah shall not be the Prince of the JEWS, but be cut 
off ; and JERUSALEM not be his, but the city and sanctuary 
be destroyed. Now NEHEMIAH came to JERUSALEM in 
the 20th year of this same ARTAXERXES, while EZRA still 
continued there, NEHEM. xii. 36, and found the city lying 
waste, and the houses and wall unbuilt, NEHEM. ii. 17, 
vii. 4. and finished the wall the 25th day of the month 
ELUL, NEHEM. vi. 15. in the 28th year of the King, that 
is, in SEPTEMBER in the year of the JULIAN PERIOD 4278. 
Count now from this year threescore and two weeks of 
years, that is 434 years, and the reckoning will end in 
SEPTEMBER in the year of the JULIAN PERIOD 4712 
which is the year in which CHRIST was born, according to 
CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS,!REN^EUS,EUSEBIUS,EPIPHANIUS, 
JEROME, OROSIUS, CASSIODORUS, and other antients ; and 
this was the general opinion, till DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS 
invented the vulgar account, in which CHRIST S birth is 
placed two years later. If with some you reckon that 



230 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

CHRIST was born three or tour years before the vulgar 
account, yet his birth will fall in the latter part of the last 
week, which is enough. How after these weeks CHRIST 
was cut off, and the city and sanctuary destroyed by the 
ROMANS, is well known. 

Yet shall he confirm the covenant with many for one week. 
He kept it, notwithstanding his death, till the rejection of 
the JEWS, and calling of CORNELIUS and the GENTILES in 
the seventh year after his passion. 

And in half a week he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation 
to cease ; that is, by the war of the ROMANS upon the 
JEWS : which war, after some commotions, began in the 
13th year of NERO, A. D. 67, in the spring, when VESPASIAN 
with an army invaded them ; and ended in the second 
year of VESPASIAN, A. D. 70, in autumn, SEPT. 7, when 
TITUS took the city, having burnt the Temple 27 days 
before so that it lasted three years and an half. 

And upon a wing of abominations he shall cause desolation, 
even until the consummation, and that which is determined 
be poured upon the desolate. The Prophets, in representing 
kingdoms by Beasts and Birds, put their wings stretcht 
out over any country for their armies sent out to invade 
and rule over that country. Hence a wing of abominations 
is an army of false Gods : for an abomination is often put 
in scripture for a false God ; as where CHEMOSH is called 
the abomination of MOAB, and MOLECH the abomination 
of AMMON (1. KINGS xi. 7.). The meaning therefore is, 
that the people of a Prince to come shall destroy the 
sanctuary, and abolish the daily worship of the true God, 
and overspread the land with an army of false gods ; and 
by fetting up their dominion and worship, cause desolation 
to the JEWS, until the times of the GENTILES be fulfilled. 
For CHRIST tells us, that the abomination of desolation 
spoken of by DANIEL was to be set up in the times of 
the ROMAN EMPIRE, MATTH. xxiv. 15. 

Thus have we in this short Prophecy, a prediction of all 
the main periods relating to the coming of the MESSIAH ; 
the time of his birth, that of his death, that of the rejection 



CHAP, x] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 231 

of the JEWS, the duration of the JEWISH war whereby 
he caused the city and sanctuary to be destroyed, and the 
time of his second coming : and so the interpretation here 
given is more full and complete and adequate to the design, 
than if we should restrain it to his first coming only, as 
Interpreters usually do. We avoid also the doing violence 
to the language of DANIEL, by taking the seven weeks and 
sixty two weeks for one number. Had that been DANIEL S 
meaning, he would have said sixty and nine weeks, and 
not seven weeks and sixty two weeks, a way of numbring 
used by no nation. In our way the years are JEWISH 
LUNI-SOLAR YEARS, 1 as they ought to be ; and the seventy 

1 The antient solar years of the eastern nations consisted of 12 months, 
and every month of 30 days : and hence came the division of a circle into 
360 degrees. This year seems to be used by MOSES in his history of the 
Flood, and by JOHN in the APOCALYPSE, where a time, times and half a 
time, 42 months and 1260 days, are put equipollent. But in reckoning by 
many of these years together, an account is to be kept of the odd days 
which were added to the end of these years. For the EGYPTIANS added 
five days to the end of this year ; and so did the CHALDEANS long before 
the times of DANIEL, as appears by the MRA of NABONASSAB : and the 
PERSIAN Magi used the same year of 365 days, till the Empire of the 
ARABIANS. The antient GREEKS also used the same solar year of 12 equal 
months, or 360 days ; but every other year added an intercalary month, 
consisting of 10 and 11 days alternately. 

The year of the JEWS, even from their coming out of EGYPT, was Luni- 
solar. It was solar, for the harvest always followed the Passover, and 
the fruits of the land were always gathered before the feast of Tabernacles, 
LEVIT. xxiii. But the months were lunar, for the people were commanded 
by MOSES in the beginning of every month to blow with trumpets, and to 
offer burnt offerings with their drink offerings, NUM. x. 10. xxviii. 11, 14. 
and this solemnity was kept on the new moons, PSAL. Ixxxi. 3, 4, 5. 
1 CHRON. xxiii. 31. These months were called by MOSES the first, second, 
third, fourth month, &c. and the first month was also called ABIB, the 
second Zir, the seventh ETHANIM, the eighth BULL, EXOD. xiii. 4. 1 KINGS 
vi. 37, 38. viii. 2. But in the BABYLONIAN captivity the JEWS used the 
names of the CHALDEAN months, and by those names understood the 
months of their own year ; so that the JEWISH months then lost their 
old names, and are now called by those of the CHALDEANS. 

The JEWS began their civil year from the autumnal Equinox, and their 
sacred year from the vernal : and the first day of the first month was on 
the visible new moon, which was nearest the Equinox. 

Whether DANIEL used the CHALDAICK or JEWISH year, is not very 
material, the difference being but six hours in a year, and 4 months in 
480 years. But I take his months to be JEWISH : first, because DANIEL 
was a JEW, and the JEWS even by the names of the CHALDEAN months 



232 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART I 

weeks of years are Jewish weeks ending with sabbatical years, 
which is very remarkable. For they end either with the 
year of the birth of CHRIST, two years before the vulgar 
account, or with the year of his death, or with the seventh 
year after it : all which are sabbatical years. Others either 
count by Lunar years, or by weeks not JUDAIC : and, 
which is worst, they ground their interpretations on erro 
neous Chronology, excepting the opinion of FUNCCIUS about 
the seventy weeks, which is the same with ours. For they 
place EZRA and NEHEMIAH in the reign of ARTAXERXES 
MNEMON, and the building of the Temple in the reign of 
DARIUS NOTHUS, and date the weeks of DANIEL from those 
two reigns. 

The grounds of the Chronology here followed, I will 
now set down as briefly as I can. 

The PELOPONNESIAN war began in spring, An. 1. OLYMP. 
87, as DIODORUS, EUSEBIUS, and all other authors agree. 
It began two months before PYTHODORUS ceased to be 
ARCHON, THUCYD. 1. 2. that is, in APRIL, two months before 
the end of the OLYMPIC year. Now the years of this war 
are most certainly determined by the 50 years distance 
of its first year from the transit of XERXES inclusively, 
THUCYD. 1. 2. or 48 years exclusively, ERATOSTH. apud CLEM. 
ALEX, by the 69 years distance of its end, or 27th year, from 
the beginning of ALEXANDER S reign in GREECE ; by the 
acting of the OLYMPIC games in its 4th and 12th years, 
THUCYD. 1. 5 ; and by three eclipses of the sun, and one 
of the moon, mentioned by THUCYDIDES and XENOPHON. 
Now THUCYDIDES, an unquestionable witness, tells us, 
that the news of the death of ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUS 
was brought to EPHESUS, and from thence by some ATHE- 

understood the months of their own year : secondly, because this Prophecy 
is grounded on JEREMIAH S concerning the 70 years captivity, and there 
fore must be understood of the same sort of years with the seventy ; 
and those are JEWISH, since that Prophecy was given in JTJDEA before the 
captivity : and lastly, because DANIEL reckons by weeks of years, which 
is a way of reckoning peculiar to the JEWISH years. For as their days 
ran by sevens, and the last day of every seven was a sabbath ; so their 
years ran by sevens, and the last year of every seven was a sabbatical yeaj, 
and seven such weeks of years made a JUBILEE. 



CHAP, x] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 233 

NIANS to ATHENS, in the 7th year of this PELOPONNESIAN 
war, when the winter half year was running ; and therefore 
he died An. 4 OLYMP. 88, in the end of An. J. P. 4289, 
suppose a month or two before mid-winter ; for so long the 
news would be in coming. Now ARTAXERXES LONGIMANUS 
reigned 40 years, by the consent of DIODORUS, EUSEBIUS, 
JEROME, SULPITIUS ; or 41 according to PTOL. in can. 
CLEM. ALEXAND. 1. 1. Strom. Chron. Alexandr. 
ABULPHARAGIUS, NICEPHORUS, including therein the reign 
of his successors XERXES and SOGDIAN, as ABULPHARAGIUS 
informs us. After ARTAXERXES reigned his son XERXES 
two months, and SOGDIAN seven months ; but their reign 
is not reckoned apart in summing up the years of the 
Kings, but is included in the 40 or 41 years reign of 
ARTAXERXES : omit these nine months, and the precise 
reign of ARTAXERXES will be thirty nine years and three 
months. And therefore since his reign ended in the 
beginning of winter An. J. P. 4289, it began between 
midsummer and autumn, An. J. P. 4250. 

The same thing I gather also thus. CAMBYSES began 
his reign in spring, An. J. P. 4185, and reigned eight years, 
including the five months of SMERDES ; and then DARIUS 
HYSTASPIS began in spring An. J. P. 4193, and reigned 
thirty six years, by the unanimous consent of all Chrono- 
logers. The reigns of these two Kings are determined by 
three eclipses of the moon observed at BABYLON, and 
recorded by PTOLEMY ; so that it cannot be disputed. 
One was in the seventh year of CAMBYSES, An. J. P. 4191, 
JUL. 16, at 11 at night ; another in the 20th year of DARIUS, 
An. J. P. 4212, Nov. 19, at ll h 45 at night ; a third in 
the 31st year of DARIUS, An. J. P. 4223, APR. 25, at ll h 30 
at night. By these eclipses, and the Prophecies of HAGGAI 
and ZECHARY compared together, it is manifest that his 
years began after the 24th day of the llth JEWISH month, 
and before the 25th day of APRIL, and by consequence about 
MARCH. XERXES therefore began in spring An. J. P. 
4229 : for DARIUS died in the fifth year after the battle at 
MARATHON, as HERODOTUS, lib. 7, and PLUTARCH mention ; 



234 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PART i 

and that battle was in OCTOBER An. J. P. 4224, ten years 
before the battle at SALAMIS. XERXES therefore began 
within less than a year after OCTOBER An. J. P. 4228, 
suppose in the spring following : for he spent his first five 
years, and something more, in preparations for his expedi 
tion against the GREEKS ; and this expedition was in the 
time of the OLYMPIC games, An. 1. OLYMP. 75, CALLIADE 
ATHENIS ARCHONTE, 28 years after the REGIFUGE, and 
Consulship of the first Consul JUNIUS BRUTUS, Anno 
Urbis conditce 273, FABIO & FURIO Coss. The passage 
of XERXES s army over the HELLESPONT began in the end 
of the fourth year of the 74th OLYMPIAD, that is, in JUNE 
An. J. P. 4234, and took up one month : and in autumn, 
three months after, on the full moon, the 16th day of the 
month MUNYCHION, was the battle at SALAMIS, and a little 
after that an eclipse of the sun, which by the calculation 
fell on OCTOB. 2. His sixth year therefore began a little 
before JUNE, suppose in spring An. J. P. 4234, and his first 
year consequently in spring An. J. P. 4229, as above. Now 
he reigned almost twenty one years, by the consent of all 
writers. Add the 7 months of ARTABANUS, and the sum 
will be 21 years and about four or five months, which end 
between midsummer and autumn An. J. P. 4250. At this 
time therefore began the reign of his successor ARTAXERXES, 
as was to be proved. 

The same thing is also confirmed by JULIUS AFRICANUS, 
who informs us out of former writers, that the 20th year 
of this ARTAXERXES was the 115th year from the beginning 
of the reign of CYRUS in PERSIA, and fell in with An. 4 
OLYMP. 83. It began therefore with the OLYMPIC year, 
soon after the summer Solstice, An. J. P. 4269. Subduct 
nineteen years, and his first year will begin at the same time 
of the year An. J. P. 4250, as above. 

His 7th year therefore began after midsummer An. J. P. 
4256 : and the Journey of EZRA to JERUSALEM in the 
spring following fell on the beginning of An. J. P. 4257, 
as above. 



CHAPTER XI 

OF THE TIMES OF THE BIRTH AND PASSION OF CHRIST 

THE times of the Birth and Passion of CHRIST, with such 
like niceties, being not material to religion, were little 
regarded by the CHRISTIANS of the first age. They who 
began first to celebrate them, placed them in the cardinal 
periods of the year ; as the annunciation of the Virgin 
MARY, on the 25th of MARCH, which when JULIUS CJESAR 
corrected the Calendar was the vernal Equinox ; the feast 
of JOHN Baptist on the 24th of JUNE, which was the 
summer Solstice ; the feast of St. MICHAEL on SEPT. 29, 
which was the autumnal Equinox, and the birth of CHRIST 
on the winter Solstice, DECEMB. 25, with the feasts of St. 
STEPHEN, St. JOHN and the INNOCENTS, as near it as they 
could place them. And because the Solstice in time re 
moved from the 25th of DECEMBER to the 24th, the 23d, 
the 22d, and so on backwards, hence some in the following 
centuries placed the birth of CHRIST on DECEMB. 23, and 
at length on DECEMB. 20 : and for the same reason they 
seem to have set the feast of St. THOMAS on DECEMB. 21, 
and that of St. MATTHEW on SEPT. 21. So also at the 
entrance of the Sun into all the signs in the JULIAN Calendar, 
they placed the days of other Saints ; as the conversion 
of PAUL on JAN. 25, when the Sun entred AQUARIUS ; St. 
MATHIAS on FEB. 25, when he entred PISCES ; St. MARK 
on APR. 25, when he entred TAURUS ; CORPUS CHRISTI 
on May 26, when he entred GEMINI ; St. JAMES on 
JULY 25, when he entred CANCER ; St. BARTHOLOMEW 
on AUG. 24, when he entred VIRGO ; SIMON and JUDE 
on OCTOB. 28, when he entred SCORPIO : and if there 

235 



236 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

were any other remarkable days in the JULIAN Calendar, 
they placed the Saints upon them, as St. BARNABAS 
on JUNE 11, where OVID seems to place the feast of 
VESTA and FORTUNA, and the goddess MATUTA ; and St. 
PHILIP and JAMES on the first of MAY, a day dedicated 
both to the BONA DEA, or MAGNA MATER, and to the 
goddess FLORA, and still celebrated with her rites. All 
which shews that these days were fixed in the first CHRIS 
TIAN Calendars by Mathematicians at pleasure, without 
any ground in tradition ; and that the CHRISTIANS after 
wards took up with what they found in the Calendars. 

Neither was there any certain tradition about the years 
of CHRIST. For the CHRISTIANS who first began to inquire 
into these things, as CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, ORIGEN, 
TERTULLIAN, JULIUS AFRICANUS, LACTANTIUS, JEROME, 
St. AUSTIN, SULPICIUS SEVERUS, PROSPER, and as many 
as place the death of CHRIST in the 15th or 16th year of 
TIBERIUS, make CHRIST to have preached but one year, 
or at most but two. At length EUSEBIUS discovered four 
successive Passovers in the Gospel of JOHN, and thereupon 
set on foot an opinion that he preacht three years and an 
half ; and so died in the 19th year of TIBERIUS. Others 
afterwards, finding the opinion that he died in the Equinox 
MAR. 25, more consonant to the times of the JEWISH 
Passover, in the 17th and 20th years, have placed his 
death in one of those two years. Neither is there any 
greater certainty in the opinions about the time of his birth. 
The first CHRISTIANS placed his baptism near the beginning 
of the 15th year of TIBERIUS ; and thence reckoning 
thirty years backwards, placed his birth in the 43d JULIAN 
year, the 42d of AUGUSTUS and 28th of the ACTIAC victory. 
This was the opinion which obtained in the first ages till 
DIONYSIUS EXIGUUS, placing the baptism of CHRIST in the 
16th year of TIBERIUS, and misinterpreting the text of 
LUKE iii. 23. as if JESUS was only beginning to be 30 years 
old when he was baptized, invented the vulgar account, 
in which his birth is placed two years later than before. 
As therefore relating to these things there is no tradition 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 237 

worth considering ; let us lay aside all and examine what 
prejudices can be gathered from records of good account. 

The fifteenth year of TIBERIUS began AUG. 28, An. J. P. 
4727. So soon as the winter was over, and the weather 
became warm enough, we may reckon that JOHN began 
to baptize ; and that before next winter his fame went 
abroad, and all the people came to his baptism, and JESUS 
among the rest. Whence the first Passover after his 
baptism mentioned JOHN ii. 13. was in the 16th year of 
TIBERIUS. After this feast JESUS came into the land of 
JUDEA, and staid there baptizing, whilst JOHN was 
baptizing in J^NON, JOHN iii. 22, 23. But when he heard 
that JOHN was cast into prison, he departed into GALILEE, 
MAT. iii. 12. being afraid because the Pharisees had heard 
that he baptized more disciples than JOHN, JOHN iv. 1. 
and in his Journey he passed thro SAMARIA four months 
before the harvest, JOHN iv. 35. that is, about the time of 
the winter Solstice. For their harvest was between EASTER 
and WHITSUNDAY, and began about a month after the 
vernal Equinox. Say not ye, saith he, there are yet four 
months, and then cometh harvest ? Behold I say unto you, 
lift up your eyes, and look on the fields, for they are white 
already to harvest ; meaning, that the people in the fields 
were ready for the Gospel, as his next words shew. 1 JOHN 

1 I observe, that CHRIST and his forerunner JOHN in their parabolical 
discourses were wont to allude to things present. The old Prophets, when 
they would describe things emphatically, did not only draw parables from 
things which offered themselves, as from the rent of a garment, 1 SAM. xv. 
from the sabbatic year, ISA. xxxvii. from the vessels of a Potter, JER. 
xviii. &c. but also when such fit objects were wanting, they supplied 
them by their own actions, as by rending a garment, 1 KINGS xi. by shoot 
ing, 2 KINGS xiii. by making bare their body, ISA. xx. by imposing significant 
names to their sons, ISA. viii. Hos. i. by hiding a girdle in the bank of 
EUPHRATES, JER. xiii. by breaking a potter s vessel, JER. xix. by putting 
on fetters and yokes, JER. xxvii. by binding a book to a stone, and casting 
them both into EUPHRATES, JER. li. by besieging a painted city, EZEK. iv. 
by dividing hair into three parts, EZEK. v. by making a chain, EZEK. vii. 
by carrying out houshold stuff like a captive and trembling, EZEK. xii. &c. 
By such kind of types the Prophets loved to speak. And CHRIST being 
endued with a nobler prophetic spirit than the rest, excelled also in this 
kind of speaking, yet so as not to speak by his own actions, that was less 
grave and decent, but to turn into parables such things as offered them- 



238 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PAKT i 

therefore was imprisoned about NOVEMBER, in the 17th 
year of TIBERIUS ; and CHRIST thereupon went from 
JUDEA to CANA of GALILEE in DECEMBER, and was received 
there of the GALILEANS, who had seen all he did at 
JERUSALEM at the Passover : and when a Nobleman of 
CAPERNAUM heard he was returned into GALILEE, and went 
to him and desired him to come and cure his son, he went 
not thither yet, but only said, Go thy way, thy son liveth ; 
and the Nobleman returned and found it so, and believed, he 
and his house, JOHN iv. This is the beginning of his 
miracles in GALILEE ; and thus far JOHN is full and distinct 
in relating the actions of his first year, omitted by the 
other Evangelists. The rest of his history is from this 
time related more fully by the other Evangelists than by 
JOHN ; for what they relate he omits. 

selves. On occasion of the harvest approaching, he admonishes his dis 
ciples once and again of the spiritual harvest, JOHN iv. 35. MATTH. ix. 37. 
Seeing the lilies of the field, he admonishes his disciples about gay clothing, 
MATTH. vi. 28. In allusion to the present season of fruits, he admonishes 
his disciples about knowing men by their fruits, MATTH. vii. 16. In the 
time of the Passover, when trees put forth leaves, he bids his disciples 
learn a parable from the Jig-tree : when its branch is yet tender and putteth 
forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh, &c. MATTH. xxiv. 32, LUKE xxi. 
29. The same day, alluding both to the season of the year and to his 
passion, which was to be two days after, he formed a parable of the time 
of fruits approaching, and the murdering of the heir, MATTH. xxi. 33. 
Alluding at the same time, both to the money-changers whom he had 
newly driven out of the Temple, and to his passion at hand ; he made a 
parable of a Noble-man going into a far country to receive a kingdom and 
return, and delivering his goods to his servants, and at his return con 
demning the slothful servant because he put not his money to the ex 
changers, MATTH. xxv. 14. LTJKE xix. 12. Being near the Temple where 
sheep were kept in folds to be sold for the sacrifices, he spake many things 
parabolically of sheep, of the shepherd, and of the door of the sheepfold ; 
and discovers that he alluded to the sheepfolds which were to be hired 
in the market place, by speaking of such folds as a thief could not enter 
by the door, nor the shepherd himself open, but a porter opened to the 
shepherd, JOHN x. 1. 3. Being in the mount of OLIVES, MATTH. xxxvi. 30. 
JOHN xiv. 31. a place so fertile that it could not want vines, he spake 
many things mystically of the Husbandman, and of the vine and its 
branches, JOHN xv. Meeting a blind man, he admonished of spiritual 
blindness, JOHN. ix. 39. At the sight of little children, he described once 
and again the innocence of the elect, MATTH. xviii. 2. xix. 13. Knowing 
that LAZARUS was dead and should be raised again, he discoursed of the 
resurrection and life eternal, JOHN xi. 25, 26. Hearing of the slaughter of 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 239 

From this time therefore JESUS taught in the Synagogues 
of GALILEE on the sabbath-days, being glorified of all : 
and coming to his own city NAZARETH, and preaching in 
their Synagogue, they were offended, and thrust him out 
of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill on which 
the city was built to cast him headlong ; but he passing 
thro the midst of them, went his way, and came and 
dwelt at CAPERNAUM, LUKE iv. And by this time we 
may reckon the second Passover was either past or at 
hand. 

All this time MATTHEW passeth over in few words, and 
here begins to relate the preaching and miracles of CHRIST. 
When Jesus, saith he, had heard that John was cast into 
prison, he departed into Galilee ; and leaving Nazareth, he 
came and dwelt at Capernaum, and from that time began to 

some whom PILATE had slain, he admonished of eternal death, LUKE xiii. 1 
To his fishermen he spake of fishers of men, MATTH. iv. 10. and composed 
another Parable about fishes, MATTH. xiii. 47. Being by the Temple, he 
spake of the Temple of his body, JOHN ii. 19. At supper he spake a 
parable about the mystical supper to come in the kingdom of heaven, 
LTTKE xiv. On occasion of temporal food, he admonished his disciples of 
spiritual food, and of eating his flesh and drinking his blood mystically, 
JOHN vi. 27, 53. When his disciples wanted bread, he bade them beware 
of the leaven of the Pharisees, MATTH. xvi. 6. Being desired to eat, he 
answered that he had other meat, JOHN iv. 31. In the great day of the 
feast of Tabernacles, when the JEWS, as their custom was, brought a 
great quantity of waters from the river SHILOAH into the Temple, CHRIST 
stood and cried, saying, // any man thirst let him come unto me and drink. 
He that believeth in me, out of his belly shall jiow rivers of living water, 
JOHN vii. 37. The next day, in allusion to the servants who by reason 
of the sabbatical year were newly set free, he said, // ye continue in my 
word, the truth shall make you free. Which the JEWS understanding literally 
with respect to the present manumission of servants, answered, We be 
Abraham s seed, and were never in bondage to any man : how sayest thou, 
ye shall be made free ? JOHN viii. They assert their freedom by a double 
argument : first, because they were the seed of ABRAHAM, and therefore 
newly made free, had they been ever in bondage ; and then, because 
they never were in bondage. In the last Passover, when HEROD led hia 
army through JUDEA against ARETAS King of ARABIA, because ARETAS 
was aggressor and the stronger in military forces, as appeared by the 
event ; CHRIST alluding to that state of things, composed the parables of 
a weaker King leading his army against a stronger who made war upon 
him, LTJKE xiv. 31 And I doubt not but divers other parables were 
formed upon other occasions, the history of which we have not. 
17 



240 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

preach and say, Repent for the kingdom of heaven is at hand, 
MATTH. iv. 12. Afterwards he called his disciples PETER, 
ANDREW, JAMES and JOHN ; and then went about all 

Galilee, teaching in the Synagogues, and healing all 

manner of sickness : and his fame went thro out all 

Syria ; and they brought unto him all sick people, and there 
followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and 
from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and 
from beyond Jordan, MATTH. iv. 18, 25. All this was done 
before the sermon in the mount : and therefore we may 
certainly reckon that the second Passover was past before 
the preaching of that sermon. The multitudes that 
followed him from JERUSALEM and JUDEA, shew that he 
had lately been there at the feast. The sermon in the 
mount was made when great multitudes came to him from 
all places, and followed him in the open fields ; which 
is an argument of the summer-season : and in this sermon 
he pointed at the lilies of the field then in the flower before 
the eyes of his auditors. Consider, saith he, the lilies of 
the field, how they grow ; they toil not, neither do they spin ; 
and yet Solomon in all his glory was not arayed like one of 
these. Wherefore if God so clothe the grass of the field, 
which to day is and to morrow is cast into the oven, &c. 
MATTH. vi. 28. So therefore the grass of the field was 
now in the flower, and by consequence the month of 
MARCH with the Passover was past. 

Let us see therefore how the rest of the feasts follow in 
order in MATTHEW S Gospel : for he was an eye-witness of 
what he relates, and so tells all things in due order of time, 
which MARK and LUKE do not. 

Some time after the sermon in the mount, when the 
time came that he should be received, that is, when the 
time of a feast came that he should be received by the 
JEWS, he set his face to go to JERUSALEM : and as he went 
with his disciples in the way, when the SAMARITANS in 
his passage thro SAMARIA had denied him lodgings, and 
a certain Scribe said unto him, Master I will follow thee 
whithersoever thou goest, Jesus said unto him, The foxes 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 241 

have holes and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of 
man hath not where to lay his head, MATTH. viii. 19. LUKE ix. 
51, 57. The Scribe told CHRIST he would bear him com 
pany in his journey, and CHRIST replied that he wanted a 
lodging. Now this feast I take to be the feast of Taber 
nacles, because soon after I find CHRIST and his Apostles 
on the sea of TIBERIAS in a storm so great, that the ship 
was covered with water and in danger of sinking, till 
CHRIST rebuked the winds and the sea, MATTH. viii. 23. For 
this storm shews that winter was now come on. 

After this CHRIST did many miracles, and went about all 
the cities and villages of Galilee, teaching in their Synagogues, 
and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every 
sickness, and every disease among the people, MATTH. ix. he 
then sent forth the twelve to do the like, MATTH. x. and 
at length when he had received a message from JOHN, and 
answered it, he said to the multitudes, From the days of 
John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth 
violence ; and upbraided the cities, CHORAZIN, BETHSAIDA, 
and CAPERNAUM, wherein most of his mighty works were 
done, because they repented not, MATTH. xi. Which 
several passages shew, that from the imprisonment of 
JOHN till now there had been a considerable length of 
time : the winter was now past, and the next Passover 
was at hand ; for immediately after this, MATTHEW, in 
chap. xii. subjoins, that Jesus went on the sabbath-day 
through the corn, and his disciples were an hungred, and 

began to pluck the ears of corn and to eat, rubbing 

them, saith LUKE, in their hands : the corn therefore 
was not only in the ear, but ripe ; and consequently the 
Passover, in which the first-fruits were always offered 
before the harvest, was now come or past. LUKE calls this 
sabbath ^evrepoirpwrov, the second prime sabbath, that is, 
the second of the two great feasts of the Passover. As we 
call EASTER day high EASTER, and its OCTAVE low EASTER 
or LOWSUNDAY : so LUKE calls the feast on the seventh 
day of the unleavened bread, the second of the two prime 
sabbaths. 



242 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

In one of the sabbaths following he went into a Syna 
gogue, and healed a man with a withered hand, M ATTH. xii. 
9. LUKE vi. 6. And when the Pharisees took counsel to 
destroy him, he withdrew himself from thence, and great 
multitudes followed him ; and he healed them all, and 
charged them that they should not make him known, MATTH. 
xii. 14. Afterwards being in a ship, and the multitude 
standing on the shore, he spake to them three parables 
together, taken from the seedsmen sowing the fields, 
MATTH. xiii. by which we may know that it was now 
seed-time, and by consequence that the feast of Tabernacles 
was past. After this he went into his own country, and 
taught them in their Synagogue, but did not many mighty 
works there because of their unbelief. Then the twelve 
having been abroad a year, returned, and told JESUS all 
that they had done : and at the same time HEROD 
beheaded JOHN in prison, and his disciples came and told 
JESUS ; and when JESUS heard it, he took the twelve and 
departed thence privately by ship into a desert place 
belonging to BETHSAIDA : and the people when they 
knew it, followed him on foot out of the cities, the winter 
being now past ; and he healed their sick, and in the desert 
fed them to the number of five thousand men, besides 
women and children, with only five loaves and two fishes, 
MATTH. xiv. LUKE ix. at the doing of which miracle the 
Passover of the JEWS was nigh, JOHN vi. 4. But JESUS 
went not up to this feast ; but after these things walked in 
Galilee, because the Jews at the Passover before had taken 
counsel to destroy him, and still sought to kill him, JOHN vii. 
1. Henceforward therefore he is found first in the coast 
of TYRE and SIDON, then by the sea of GALILEE, afterwards 
in the coast of CJESAREA PHILIPPI ; and lastly at CAPER 
NAUM, MATTH. xv. 21, 29. xvi. 13. xvii. 34. 

Afterwards when the feast of Tabernacles was at hand, 
his brethren upbraided him for walking secretly, and 
urged him to go up to the feast. But he went not till 
they were gone, and then went up privately, JOHN vii. 2. 
and when the JEWS sought to stone him, he escaped, 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 243 

JOHN viii. 59. After this he was at the feast of the Dedica 
tion in winter, JOHN x. 22. and when they sought again 
to take him, he fled beyond JORDAN, JOHN x. 39, 40. 
MATTH. xix. 1. where he stayed till the death of LAZARUS, 
and then came to BETHANY near JERUSALEM, and raised 
him, JOHN xi. 7, 18. whereupon the JEWS took counsel 
from that time to kill him : and therefore he walked no 
more openly among the Jews, but went thence into a country 
near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim ; and there 
continued with his disciples till the last Passover, in which 
the JEWS put him to death, JOHN xi. 53, 54. 

Thus have we, in the Gospels of MATTHEW and JOHN 
compared together, the history of CHRIST S actions in 
continual order during five Passovers. JOHN is more 
distinct in the beginning and end ; MATTHEW in the 
middle : what either omits, the other supplies. The first 
Passover was between the baptism of CHRIST and the 
imprisonment of JOHN, JOHN ii. 13. the second within 
four months after the imprisonment of JOHN, and CHRIST S 
beginning to preach in GALILEE, JOHN iv. 35. and there 
fore it was either that feast to which JESUS went up, when 
the Scribe desired to follow him, MATTH. viii. 19. LUKE ix. 
51, 57. or the feast before it. The third was the next 
feast after it, when the corn was eared and ripe, MATTH. 
xii. 1. LUKE vi. 1. The fourth was that which was nigh 
at hand when CHRIST wrought the miracle of the five 
loaves, MATTH. xiv. 15. JOHN vi. 4, 5. and the fifth was 
that in which CHRIST suffered, MATTH. xx. 17. JOHN xii. 1. 

Between the first and second Passover JOHN and CHRIST 
baptized together, till the imprisonment of JOHN, which 
was four months before the second. Then CHRIST began 
to preach, and call his disciples ; and after he had instructed 
them a year, sent them to preach in the cities of the 
JEWS : at the same time JOHN hearing of the fame of 
CHRIST, sent to him to know who he was. At the third, 
the chief Priests began to consult about the death of CHRIST. 
A little before the fourth, the twelve after they had preached 
a year in all the cities, returned to CHRIST ; and at the 



244 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

same time HEROD beheaded JOHN in prison, after he had 
been in prison two years and a quarter : and thereupon 
CHRIST fled into the desert for fear of HEROD. The fourth 
CHRIST went not up to JERUSALEM for fear of the JEWS, 
who at the Passover before had consulted his death, and 
because his time was not yet come. Thenceforward there 
fore till the feast of Tabernacles he walked in GALILEE, 
and that secretly for fear of HEROD : and after the feast 
of Tabernacles he returned no more into GALILEE, but 
sometimes was at JERUSALEM, and sometimes retired 
beyond JORDAN, or to the city EPHRAIM by the wilderness, 
till the Passover in which he was betrayed, apprehended, 
and crucified. 

JOHN therefore baptized two summers, and CHRIST 
preached three. The first summer JOHN preached to 
make himself known, in order to give testimony to CHRIST. 
Then, after CHRIST came to his baptism and was made 
known to him, he baptized another summer, to make 
CHRIST known by his testimony ; and CHRIST also baptized 
the same summer, to make himself the more known : and 
by reason of JOHN S testimony there came more to CHRIST S 
baptism than to JOHN S. The winter following JOHN was 
imprisoned ; and now his course being at an end, CHRIST 
entred upon his proper office of preaching in the cities. In 
the beginning of his preaching he completed the number 
of the twelve Apostles, and instructed them all the first 
year in order to send them abroad. Before the end of 
this year, his fame by his preaching and miracles was so 
far spread abroad, that the JEWS at the Passover following 
consulted how to kill him. In the second year of his 
preaching, it being no longer safe for him to converse 
openly in JUDEA, he sent the twelve to preach in all their 
cities : and in the end of the year they returned to him, 
and told him all they had done. All the last year the twelve 
continued with him to be instructed more perfectly, in 
order to their preaching to all nations after his death. 
And upon the news of JOHN S death, being afraid of HEROD 
as well as of the JEWS, he walked this year more secretly 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 245 

than before ; frequenting deserts, and spending the last 
half of the year in JUDEA, without the dominions of 
HEROD. 

Thus have we in the Gospels of MATTHEW and JOHN 
all things told in due order, from the beginning of JOHN S 
preaching to the death of CHRIST, and the years distin 
guished from one another, by such essential characters 
that they cannot be mistaken. The second Passover is 
distinguished from the first, by the interposition of JOHN S 
imprisonment. The third is distinguished from the second, 
by a double character : first, by the interposition of the 
feast to which CHRIST went up, MATTH. viii. 19. LUKE ix. 57. 
and secondly, by the distance of time from the beginning 
of CHRIST S preaching : for the second was in the beginning 
of his preaching, and the third so long after, that before 
it came CHRIST said, from the days of John the Baptist 
until now, &c. and upbraided the cities of GALILEE for 
their not repenting at his preaching, and mighty works 
done in all that time. The fourth is distinguished from 
the third, by the mission of the twelve from CHRIST to 
preach in the cities of JUDEA in all the interval. The 
fifth is distinguished from all the former by the twelve s 
being returned from preaching, and continuing with CHRIST 
during all the interval, between the fourth and fifth, and 
by the passion and other infallible characters. 

Now since the first summer of JOHN S baptizing fell in 
the fifteenth year of the Emperor TIBERIUS, and by con 
sequence the first of these five Passovers in his sixteenth 
year ; the last of them, in which JESUS suffered, will fall 
on the twentieth year of the same Emperor ; and by con 
sequence in the Consulship of FABIUS and VITELLIUS, in 
the 79th JULIAN year, and year of CHRIST 34, which was 
the sabbatical year of the JEWS. And that it did so, I 
further confirm by these arguments. 

I take it for granted that the passion was on friday the 
14th day of the month NISAN, the great feast of the Pass 
over on Saturday the 15th day of NISAN, and the resurrec 
tion on the day following. Now the 14th day of NISAN 



246 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

always fell on the full moon next after the vernal Equinox ; 
and the month began at the new moon before, not at the 
true conjunction, but at the first appearance of the new 
moon : for the JEWS referred all the time of the silent 
moon, as they phrased it, that is, of the moon s disappear 
ing, to the old moon ; and because the first appearance 
might usually be about 18 hours after the true conjunction, 
they therefore began their month from the sixth hour at 
evening, that is, at sun set, next after the eighteenth hour 
from the conjunction. And this rule they called rv JAH, 
designing by the letters > and n the number 18. 

I know that EPIPHANIUS tells us, if some interpret his 
words rightly, that the JEWS used a vicious cycle, and 
thereby anticipated the legal new moons by two days. 
But this surely he spake not as a witness, for he neither 
understood ASTRONOMY nor RABBINICAL learning, but as 
arguing from his erroneous hypothesis about the time of 
the passion. For the JEWS did not anticipate, but post 
pone their months : they thought it lawful to begin their 
months a day later than the first appearance of the new 
moon, because the new moon continued for more days 
than one ; but not a day sooner, lest they should celebrate 
the new moon before there was any. And the JEWS still 
keep a tradition in their books, that the SANHEDRIM used 
diligently to define the new moons by sight : sending 
witnesses into mountainous places, and examining them 
about the moon s appearing, and translating the new 
moon from the day they had agreed on to the day before, 
as often as witnesses came from distant regions, who had 
seen it a day sooner than it was seen at JERUSALEM. 
Accordingly JOSEPHUS, one of the JEWISH Priests who had 
ministered in the temple, tells us that the Passover was 
kept on the 14>th day of Nisan, Kara o-e\rfvrjv, according to 
the moon, when the sun was in Aries. This is confirmed also 
by two instances, recorded by him, which totally overthrow 
the hypothesis of the JEWS using a vicious cycle. For 
that year in which JERUSALEM was taken and destroyed, 
he saith, the Passover was on the 14th day of the month 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 247 

XANTICUS, which according to JOSEPHUS is our APRIL ; and 
that five years before, it fell on the 8th day of the same 
month. Which two instances agree with the course of 
the moon. 

Computing therefore the new moons of the first month 
according to the course of the moon and the rule JAH, and 
thence counting 14 days, I find that the 14th day of this 
month in the year of CHRIST 31, fell on tuesday MARCH 27 ; 
in the year 32, on Sunday APR. 13 ; in the year 33, on 
friday APR. 3 ; in the year 34, on Wednesday MARCH 24, 
or rather, for avoiding the Equinox which fell on the same 
day, and for having a fitter time for harvest, on thursday 
APR. 22. also in the year 35, on tuesday APR 12. and in 
the year 36, on Saturday MARCH 31. 

But because the 15th and 21st days of NISAN, and a day 
or two of PENTECOST, and the 10th, 15th, and 22d of 
TISRI, were always sabbatical days or days of rest, and it 
was inconvenient on two sabbaths together to be prohibited 
burying their dead and making ready fresh meat, for in 
that hot region their meat would be apt in two days to 
corrupt : to avoid these and such like inconveniences, the 
JEWS postponed their months a day, as often as the first 
day of the month TISRI, or, which is all one, the third of 
the month NISAN, was Sunday, Wednesday or friday : and 
this rule they called n ADU, by the letters N,-J,I, sig 
nifying the numbers 1, 4, 6 ; that is, the 1st, 4th, and 
6th days of the week ; which days we call Sunday, Wednes 
day and friday. Postponing therefore by this rule the 
months found above : the 14th day of the month NISAN 
will fall in the year of CHRIST 31, on Wednesday MARCH 28 ; 
in the year 32, on monday APR. 14 ; in the year 33, on 
friday APR. 3 ; in the year 34, on friday APR. 23 ; in the 
year 35, on Wednesday APR. 13 ; and in the year 36, on 
Saturday MARCH 31. 

By this computation therefore the year 32 is absolutely 
excluded, because the Passion cannot fall on friday without 
making it five days after the full moon, or two days before 
it ; whereas it ought to be upon the day of the full moon, 



248 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

or the next day. For the same reason the years 31 and 
35 are excluded, because in them the Passion cannot fall 
on friday, without making it three days after the full 
moon, or four days before it : errors so enormous, that 
they would be very conspicuous in the heavens to every 
vulgar eye. The year 36 is contended for by few or none, 
and both this and the year 35 may be thus excluded. 

TIBERIUS in the beginning of his reign made VALERIUS 
GRATUS President of JUDEA ; and after 11 years, substi 
tuted PONTIUS PILATE, who governed 10 years. Then 
VITELLIUS, newly made President of SYRIA, deprived him 
of his honour, substituting MARCELLUS, and at length sent 
him to ROME : but, by reason of delays, TIBERIUS died 
before PILATE got thither. In the mean time VITELLIUS, 
after he had deposed PILATE, came to JERUSALEM in the 
time of the Passover, to visit that Province as well as 
others in the beginning of his office ; and in the place of 
CAIAPHAS, then High Priest, created JONATHAS the son of 
ANANUS, or ANNAS as he is called in scripture. Afterwards, 
when VITELLIUS was returned to ANTIOCH, he received 
letters from TIBERIUS, to make peace with ARTABANUS 
king of the PARTHIANS. At the same time the ALANS, by 
the sollicitation of TIBERIUS, invaded the kingdom of 
ARTABANUS ; and his subjects also, by the procurement 
of VITELLIUS, soon after rebelled : for TIBERIUS thought 
that ARTABANUS, thus pressed with difficulties, would 
more readily accept the conditions of peace. ARTABANUS 
therefore straightway gathering a greater army, opprest 
the rebels ; and then meeting VITELLIUS at EUPHRATES, 
made a league with the ROMANS. After this TIBERIUS 
commanded VITELLIUS to make war upon ARETAS King 
of ARABIA. He therefore leading his army against ARETAS, 
went together with HEROD to JERUSALEM, to sacrifice at 
the publick feast which was then to be celebrated. Where 
being received honourably, he stayed three days, and in 
the mean while translated the high Priesthood from 
JONATHAS to his brother THEOPHILUS : and the fourth 
day, receiving letters of the death of TIBERIUS, made the 



CHAP, xi] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 219 

people swear allegiance to CAIUS the new Emperor ; and 
recalling his army, sent them into quarters. All this is 
related by JOSEPHUS Antiq. lib. 18. c. 6, 7. Now 
TIBERIUS reigned 22 years and 7 months, and died MARCH 
16, in the beginning of the year of CHRIST 37 ; and the 
feast of the Passover fell on APRIL 20 following, that is, 
35 days after the death of TIBERIUS : so that there were 
about 36 or 38 days, for the news of his death to come 
from ROME to VITELLIUS at JERUSALEM ; which being a 
convenient time for that message, confirms that the feast 
which VITELLIUS and HEROD now went up to was the 
Passover. For had it been the Pentecost, as is usually 
supposed, VITELLIUS would have continued three months 
ignorant of the Emperor s death : which is not to be 
supposed. However, the things done between this feast 
and the Passover which VITELLIUS was at before, namely, 
the stirring up a sedition in PARTHIA, the quieting that sedi 
tion, the making a league after that with the PARTHIANS, 
the sending news of that league to ROME, the receiving 
new orders from thence to go against the ARABIANS, and 
the putting those orders in execution ; required much 
more time than the fifty days between the Passover and 
Pentecost of the same year : and therefore the Passover 
which VITELLIUS first went up to, was in the year before. 
Therefore PILATE was deposed before the Passover A. C. 36, 
and by consequence the passion of CHRIST was before that 
Passover : for he suffered not under VITELLIUS, nor under 
VITELLIUS and PILATE together, but under PILATE alone. 

Now it is observable that the high Priesthood was at 
this time become an annual office, and the Passover was 
the time of making a new high Priest. For GRATUS the 
predecessor of PILATE, saith JOSEPHUS, made ISMAEL high 
Priest after ANANUS ; and a while after, suppose a year, 
deposed him, and substituted ELEAZAR, and a year after 
SIMON, and after another year CAIAPHAS ; and then gave 
way to PILATE. So VITELLIUS at one Passover made 
JONATHAS successor to CAIAPHAS, and at the next THEO- 
PHILUS to JONATHAS. Hence LUKE tells us, that in the 



250 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PARTI 

15th year of TIBERIUS, ANNAS and CAIAPHAS were high 
Priests, that is, ANNAS till the Passover, and CAIAPHAS 
afterwards. Accordingly JOHN speaks of the high Priest 
hood as an annual office : for he tells us again and again, 
in the last year of CHRIST S preaching, that CAIAPHAS was 
high Priest for that year, JOHN xi. 49, 51 xviii. 13. And 
the next year LUKE tells you, that ANNAS was high Priest, 
ACTS iv. 6. THEOPHILUS was therefore made high Priest 
in the first year of CAIUS, JONATHAS in the 22d year of 
TIBERIUS, and CAIAPHAS in the 21st year of the same 
Emperor : and therefore, allotting a year to each, the 
Passion, when ANNAS succeeded CAIAPHAS, could not be 
later than the 20th year of TIBERIUS, A. C. 34. 

Thus there remain only the years 33 and 34 to be con 
sidered ; and the year 33 I exclude by this argument. In 
the Passover two years before the Passion, when CHRIST 
went thro the corn, and his disciples pluckt the ears, and 
rubbed them with their hands to eat ; this ripeness of the 
corn shews that the Passover then fell late : and so did 
the Passover A. C. 32, APRIL 14. but the Passover A C. 31, 
MARCH 28th, fell very early. It was not therefore two years 
after the year 31, but two years after 32 that CHRIST 
suffered. 

Thus all the characters of the Passion agree to the year 
84 ; and that is the only year to which they all agree. 



CHAPTER XII 

OF THE PROPHECY OF THE SCRIPTURE OF TRUTH 

THE kingdoms represented by the second and third Beasts, 
or the Bear and Leopard, are again described by DANIEL 
in his last Prophecy written in the third year of CYRUS 
over BABYLON, the year in which he conquered PERSIA. 
For this Prophecy is a commentary upon the Vision of 
the Ram and He-Goat. 

Behold (chap. xi. 2, 3, 4.) saith he, there shall stand up yet 
three kings in Persia [CYRUS, CAMBYSES, and DARIUS 
HYSTASPES] and the fourth [XERXES] shall be far richer than 
they all : and by his strength thro* his riches he shall stir up 
all against the realm of Grecia. And a mighty king [ALEX 
ANDER the great] shall stand up, that shall rule with great 
dominion, and do according to his will. And when he shall 
stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided 
towards the four winds of heaven ; and not to his posterity 
[but after their death], nor according to his dominion which 
he ruled : for his kingdom shall be pluckt up, even for others 
besides those. ALEXANDER the great having conquered all 
the PERSIAN Empire, and some part of INDIA, died at 
BABYLON a month before the summer Solstice, in the year 
of NABONASSAR 425 : and his captains gave the monarchy 
to his bastard brother PHILIP ARID^US, a man disturbed 
in his understanding ; and made PERDICCAS administrator 
of the kingdom. PERDICCAS with their consent made 
MELEAGER commander of the army, SELEUCUS master of 
the horse, CRATERUS treasurer of the kingdom, ANTIPATER 
governor of MACEDON and GREECE, PTOLEMY governor 
of EGYPT ; ANTIGONUS governor of PAMPHYLIA, LYCIA, 
LYCAONIA, and PHRYGIA MAJOR ; LYSIMACHUS governor of 

251 



252 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

THRACE, and other captains governors of other Provinces ; 
as many as had been so before in the days of ALEXANDER 
the great. The BABYLONIANS began now to count by a 
new J^ERA, which they called the ^ERA of PHILIP, using 
the years of NABONASSAR, and reckoning the 425th year 
of NABONASSAR to be the first year of PHILIP. ROXANA 
the wife of ALEXANDER being left big with child, and 
about three or four months after brought to bed of a son, 
they called him ALEXANDER, saluted him King, and joined 
him with PHILIP, whom they had before placed in the 
throne. PHILIP reigned three years under the administra 
torship of PERDICCAS, two years more under the adminis 
tratorship of ANTIPATER, and above a year more under 
that of POLYPERCHON ; in all six years and four months ; 
and then was slain with his Queen EURYDICE in SEPTEMBER 
by the command of OLYMPIAS, the mother of ALEXANDER 
the great. The GREEKS being disgusted at the Cruelties 
of OLYMPIAS revolted to CASSANDER the son and successor 
of ANTIPATER. CASSANDER affecting the dominion of 
GREECE, slew OLYMPIAS ; and soon after shut up the young 
king ALEXANDER, with his mother ROXANA, in the castle 
of AMPHIPOLIS, under the charge of GLAUCIAS, An. 
NABONASS. 432. The next year PTOLEMY, CASSANDER 
and LYSIMACHUS, by means of SELEUCUS, formed a league 
against ANTIGONUS ; and after certain wars made peace 
with him, An. NABONASS. 438, upon these conditions : 
that CASSANDER should command the forces of EUROPE 
till ALEXANDER the son of ROXANA came to age ; and that 
LYSIMACHUS should govern THRACE, PTOLEMY, EGYPT and 
LYBIA, and ANTIGONUS all ASIA. SELEUCUS had possest 
himself of MESOPOTAMIA, BABYLONIA, SUSIANA and MEDIA 
the year before. About three years after ALEXANDER S 
death he was made governor of BABYLON by ANTIPATER ; 
then was expelled by ANTIGONUS ; but now he recovered 
and enlarged his government over a great part of the 
EAST : which gave occasion to a new ^ERA, called ^RA 
SELEUCIDARUM. Not long after the peace made with 
ANTIGONUS, DIODORUS, saith the same OLYMPIC year ; 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 253 

CASSANDER, seeing that ALEXANDER the son of ROXANA 
grew up, and that it was discoursed thro out MACEDONIA 
that it was fit he should be set at liberty, and take upon 
him the government of his father s kingdom, commanded 
GLAUCIAS the governor of the castle to kill ROXANA and 
the young king ALEXANDER her son, and conceal their 
deaths. Then POLYPERCHON set up HERCULES, the son 
of ALEXANDER the great by BARSINE, to be king ; and soon 
after, at the solicitation of CASSANDER, caused him to be 
slain. Soon after that, upon a great victory at sea got 
by DEMETRIUS the son of ANTIGONUS over PTOLEMY, 
ANTIGONUS took upon himself the title of king, and gave 
the same title to his son. This was An. NABONASS. 441. 
After his example, SELEUCUS, CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, 
and PTOLEMY, took upon themselves the title and dignity 
of kings, having abstained from this honour while there 
remained any of ALEXANDER S race to inherit the crown. 
Thus the monarchy of the GREEKS for want of an heir 
was broken into several kingdoms ; four of which, seated 
to the four winds of heaven, were very eminent. For 
PTOLEMY reigned over EGYPT, LYBIA and ETHIOPIA ; 
ANTIGONUS over SYRIA and the lesser ASIA ; LYSIMACHUS 
over THRACE ; and CASSANDER over MACEDON, GREECE 
and EPIRUS, as above. 

SELEUCUS at this time reigned over the nations which were 
beyond EUPHRATES, and belonged to the bodies of the two 
first Beasts : but after six years he conquered ANTIGONUS 
and thereby became possest of one of the four kingdoms. 
For CASSANDER being afraid of the power of ANTIGONUS, 
combined with LYSIMACHUS, PTOLEMY and SELEUCUS, 
against him : and while LYSIMACHUS invaded the parts of 
ASIA next the HELLESPONT, PTOLEMY subdued PHOENICIA 
and CCELOSYRIA, with the sea-coasts of ASIA. 

SELEUCUS came down with a powerful army into CAP- 
PADOCIA, and joining the confederate forces, fought 
ANTIGONUS in PHRYGIA and slew him, and seized his king 
dom, An. NABONASS. 447. After which SELEUCUS built 
ANTIOCH, SELEUCIA, LAODICEA, APAMEA, BEHRITJEA, 



254 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

EDESSA, and other cities in SYRIA and ASIA ; and in them 
granted the JEWS equal privileges with the GREEKS. 

DEMETRIUS the son of ANTIGONUS retained but a small 
part of his father s dominions, and at length lost CYPRUS 
to PTOLEMY ; but afterwards killing ALEXANDER, the son 
and successor of CASSANDER king of MACEDON, he seized 
his kingdom, An. NABONASS. 454. Sometime after, pre 
paring a very great army to recover his father s dominions 
in ASIA ; SELEUCUS, PTOLEMY, LYSIMACHUS and PYRRHUS 
king of EPIRUS, combined against him ; and PYRRHUS 
invading MACEDON, corrupted the army of DEMETRIUS, 
put him to flight, seized his kingdom, and shared it with 
LYSIMACHUS. After seven months, LYSIMACHUS beating 
PYRRHUS, took MACEDON from him, and held it five years 
and a half , uniting the kingdoms of MACEDON and THRACE. 
LYSIMACHUS in his wars with ANTIGONUS and DEMETRIUS 
had taken from them CARIA, LYDIA, and PHRYGIA ; and 
had a treasury in PERGAMUS, a Castle on the top of a 
conical hill in PHRYGIA, by the river CAICUS, the custody 
of which he had committed to one PHILET^RUS, who was at 
first faithful to him, but in the last year of his reign re 
volted. For LYSIMACHUS, having at the instigation of 
his Wife ARSINOE, slain first his own son AGATHOCLES, and 
then several that lamented him ; the wife of AGATHOCLES 
fled with her children and brothers, and some others of 
their friends, and sollicited SELEUCUS to make war upon 
LYSIMACHUS ; whereupon PHILETJERUS also, who grieved 
at the death of AGATHOCLES, and was accused thereof 
by ARSINOE, took up arms, and sided with SELEUCUS. On 
this occasion SELEUCUS and LYSIMACHUS met and fought 
in PHRYGIA ; and LYSIMACHUS being slain in the battel, 
lost his kingdom to SELEUCUS, An. NABONASS. 465. Thus 
the Empire of the GREEKS, which at first brake into four 
kingdoms, became now reduced into two notable ones, 
henceforward called by DANIEL the kings of the SOUTH 
and NORTH. For PTOLEMY now reigned over EGYPT, 
LYBIA, ETHIOPIA, ARABIA, PHOENICIA, CCELOSYRIA, and 
CYPRUS ; and SELEUCUS, having united three of the four 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 255 

kingdoms, had a dominion scarce inferior to that of the 
PERSIAN Empire, conquered by ALEXANDER the great. All 
which is thus represented by DANIEL : And the king of the 
South [PTOLEMY] shall be strong, and one of his princes 
[SELEUCUS, one of ALEXANDER S Princes] shall be strong 
above him, and have dominion ; his dominion shall be 
a great dominion (chap. xi. 5.). 

After SELEUCUS had reigned seven months over MACK- 
DON, GREECE, THRACE, ASIA, SYRIA, BABYLONIA, MEDIA, 
and all the EAST as far as INDIA ; PTOLEMY CERAUNUS, 
the younger brother of PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS king of 
EGYPT, slew him treacherously, and seized his dominions 
in EUROPE : while ANTIOCHUS SOTER, the son of SELEUCUS, 
succeeded his father in ASIA, SYRIA, and most of the East ; 
and after nineteen or twenty years was succeeded by his 
son ANTIOCHUS THEOS ; who having a lasting war with 
PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS, at length composed the same by 
marrying BERENICE the daughter of PHILADELPHUS : but 
after a reign of fifteen years, his first wife LAODICE poisoned 
him, and set her son SELEUCUS CALLINICUS upon the 
throne. CALLINICUS in the beginning of his reign, by the 
impulse of his mother LAODICE, besieged BERENICE in 
DAPHNE near ANTIOCH, and slew her with her young son 
and many of her women. Whereupon PTOLEMY EUER- 
GETES, the son and successor of PHILADELPHUS, made war 
upon CALLINICUS ; took from him PHOENICIA, SYRIA, 
CILICIA, MESOPOTAMIA, BABYLONIA, SUSIANA, and some 
other regions ; and carried back into EGYPT 40000 talents 
of silver, and 2500 images of the Gods, amongst which were 
the Gods of EGYPT carried away by CAMBYSES. AN 
TIOCHUS HIERAX at first assisted his brother CALLINICUS, 
but afterwards contended with him for ASIA. In the mean 
time EUMENES governor of PERGAMUS beat ANTIOCHUS, 
and took from them both all ASIA westward of mount 
TAURUS. This was in the fifth year of CALLINICUS, who 
after an inglorious reign of 20 years was succeeded by his 
son SELEUCUS CERAUNUS ; and EUERGETES after four 
years more, An. NABONASS. 527, was succeeded by his son 
18 



256 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PARTI 

PTOLEMY PHILOPATOR. All which is thus signified by 
DANIEL (chap. xi. 6, 7, 8.) : And in the end of years they 
[the kings of the SOUTH and NORTH] shall join themselves 
together: for the king s daughter of the South [BERENICE] shall 
come to the king of the North to make an agreement, but she 
shall not retain the power of the arm ; neither shall she 
stand, nor her seed, but she shall be delivered up, and he 
[CALLINICUS] that brought her, and he whom she brought 
forth, and they that strengthened her in [those] times, [or 
defended her in the siege of DAPHNE.] But out of a branch of 
her roots shall one stand up in his seat [her brother EUERGETES] 
who shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress 
[or fenced cities] of the King of the North, and shall act 
against them and prevail : and shall carry captives into 
Egypt, their Gods with their Princes and precious vessels 
of silver and gold ; and he shall continue some Years after 
the king of the North. 

SELEUCUS CERAUNUS, inheriting the remains of his 
father s kingdom, and thinking to recover the rest, raised 
a great army against the governor of PERGAMUS, now 
King thereof, but died in the third Year of his reign. His 
brother and successor, ANTIOCHUS MAGNUS, carrying on 
the war, took from the King of PERGAMUS almost all the 
lesser ASIA, recovering also the Provinces of MEDIA, 
PERSIA and BABYLONIA, from the governors who had 
revolted : and in the fifth year of his reign invading 
CCELOSYRIA, he with little opposition possest himself of a 
good part thereof ; and the next year returning to invade 
the rest of CCELOSYRIA and PHOENICIA, beat the army of 
PTOLEMY PHILOPATOR near BERYTUS ; he then invaded 
PALESTINE and the neighbouring parts of ARABIA, and the 
third Year returned with an army of 78,000 : but PTOLEMY 
coming out of EGYPT with an army of 75,000 fought and 
routed him at RAPHIA near GAZA, between PALESTINE 
and EGYPT ; and recovered all PHOENICIA and CCELOSYRIA, 
Ann. NABONASS. 532. Being puffed up with this victory, 
and living in all manner of luxury, the EGYPTIANS revolted, 
and had wars with him, but were overcome ; and in the 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 257 

broils sixty thousand EGYPTIAN JEWS were slain. All 
which is thus describ d by DANIEL (chap. xi. 10, &c.) : 
But his sons [SELEUCUS CERAUNUS, and ANTIOCHUS MAGNUS, 
the sons of CALLINICUS] shall be stirred up, and shall gather 
a great Army ; and he [ANTIOCHUS MAGNUS] shall come 
effectually and overflow, and pass thro and return, and 
[again the next year] be stirred up, [marching even] to his 
fortress, [the frontier towns of EGYPT ;] and the King of the 
South shall be moved with choler, and come forth [the third 
year] and fight with him, even with the King of the North ; 
and he [the King of the NORTH] shall lead forth a great 
multitude, but the multitude shall be given into his hand. 
And the multitude being taken away, his Heart shall be lifted 
up, and he shall cast down many ten thousands ; but he shall 
not be strengthened by it : for the King of the North shall 
return, &c. 

About twelve years after the battle between PHILOPATOR 
and ANTIOCHUS, PHILOPATOR died ; and left his kingdom 
to his young Son PTOLEMY EPIPHANES, a child of five 
years old. Thereupon ANTIOCHUS MAGNUS confederated 
with PHILIP king of MACEDON, that they should each 
invade the Dominions of EPIPHANES which lay next to 
them. Hence arose a various War between ANTIOCHUS 
and EPIPHANES, each of them seizing PHOENICIA and 
CCELOSYRIA by turns ; whereby those countries were much 
afflicted by both Parties. First ANTIOCHUS seized them ; 
then one SCOPAS being sent with the army of EGYPT, 
recovered them from ANTIOCHUS : the next year, An. 
NABONASS. 550, ANTIOCHUS fought and routed SCOPAS 
near the fountains of JORDAN, besieged him in SIDON, took 
the city and recovered SYRIA and PHOENICIA from EGYPT, 
the JEWS coming over to him voluntarily. But about 
three years after, preparing for a war against the ROMANS, 
he came to RAPHIA on the borders of EGYPT ; made peace 
with EPIPHANES, and gave him his daughter CLEOPATRA : 
next autumn he passed the HELLESPONT to invade the 
cities of GREECE under the ROMAN protection, and took 
some of them ; but was beaten by the ROMANS the summer 



258 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

following, and forced to return back with his army into 
ASIA. Before the end of the year the fleet of ANTIOCHUS 
was beaten by the fleet of the ROMANS near PHOC.EA : 
and at the same time EPIPHANES and CLEOPATRA sent an 
embassy to ROME to congratulate the ROMANS on their 
success against their father ANTIOCHUS, and to exhort 
them to prosecute the war against him into ASIA. The 
ROMANS beat ANTIOCHUS again at sea near EPHESUS, past 
their Army over the HELLESPONT, and obtain d a great 
victory over him by land, took from him all ASIA westward 
of mount TAURUS, gave it to the King of PERGAMUS who 
assisted them in the war ; and imposed a large tribute 
upon ANTIOCHUS. Thus the King of PERGAMUS, by the 
power of the ROMANS, recovered what ANTIOCHUS had 
taken from him ; and ANTIOCHUS retiring into the 
remainder of his kingdom was slain two years after by 
the PERSIANS, as he was robbing the Temple of JUPITER 
BELUS in ELYMAIS, to raise Money for the ROMANS. All 
which is thus describ d by DANIEL (chap. xi. 13-19) : 
For the King of the North [ANTIOCHUS] shall return, and 
shall set forth a multitude greater than the former ; and shall 
certainly come after certain years, with a great Army and 
with much riches. And in those times there shall many 
stand up against the King of the South, [particularly the 
MACEDONIANS ;] also the robbers of thy People [the SAMARI 
TANS, &c.] shall exalt themselves to establish the vision, but 
they shall fall. So the King of the North shall come, and 
cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities ; and the 
arms of the South shall not withstand, neither his chosen 
people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. But 
he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, 
and none shall stand before him : and he shall stand in the 
glorious land, which shall fail in his hand. He shall also set 
his face to go with the strength [or army] of all his kingdom, 
and make an agreement with him [at RAPHIA ;] and he 
shall give him the daughter of women corrupting her ; but 
she shall not stand his side, neither be for him. After this 
he shall turn his Face unto the Isles, and shall take many : 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 259 

but a Prince for his own behalf [the ROMANS] shall cause the 
reproach offered by him to cease ; without his own reproach 
he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his 
Face towards the fort of his own land : but he shall stumble 
and fall, and not be found. 

SELEUCUS PHILOPATOR succeeded his father ANTIOCHUS, 
Anno NABONASS. 561, and reigned twelve years, but did 
nothing memorable, being sluggish, and intent upon 
raising money for the ROMANS to whom he was tributary. 
He was slain by HELIODORUS, whom he had sent to rob 
the temple of JERUSALEM. DANIEL thus describes his 
reign (chap. xi. 20) : Then shall stand up in his estate a 
raiser of Taxes in the glory of the Kingdom, but within few 
days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle. 

A little before the death of PHILOPATOR, his son DEME 
TRIUS was sent hostage to ROME, in the place of ANTIOCHUS 
EPIPHANES, the brother of PHILOPATOR ; and ANTIOCHUS 
was at ATHENS in his way home from ROME, when PHILO 
PATOR died : whereupon HELIODORUS the treasurer of the 
kingdom, stept into the throne. But ANTIOCHUS so 
managed his affairs, that the ROMANS kept DEMETRIUS at 
ROME ; and their ally the king of PERGAMUS expelled 
HELIODORUS, and placed ANTIOCHUS in the throne, while 
DEMETRIUS the right heir remained an hostage at ROME. 
ANTIOCHUS being thus made King by the friendship of the 
King of PERGAMUS reigned powerfully over SYRIA and 
the neighbouring nations : but carried himself much 
below his dignity, stealing privately out of his palace, 
rambling up and down the city in disguise with one or 
two of his companions, conversing and drinking with 
people of the lowest rank, foreigners and strangers ; fre 
quenting the meetings of dissolute persons to feast and 
revel ; clothing himself like the ROMAN candidates and 
officers, acting their parts like a mimick, and in publick 
festivals jesting and dancing with servants and light people, 
exposing himself by all manner of ridiculous gestures. 
This conduct made some take him for a madman, and call 
him ANTIOCHUS ETTL^V^. In the first year of his reign 



260 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

he deposed ONIAS the high-priest, and sold the high- 
priesthood to JASON the younger brother of ONIAS : for 
JASON had promised to give him 440 talents of silver for 
that office, and 150 more for a licence to erect a place of 
exercise for the training up of youth in the fashions of the 
heathen ; which licence was granted by the king, and put 
in execution by JASON. Then the king sending one 
APOLLONIUS into EGYPT to the coronation of PTOLEMY 
PHILOMETOR, the young son of PHILOMETOR and CLEO 
PATRA, and knowing PHILOMETOR not to be well affected 
to his affairs in PHOENICIA, provided for his own safety in 
those parts ; and for that end came to JOPPA and JERUSA 
LEM, where he was honourably received ; from thence he 
went in like manner with his little army to the cities of 
PHOENICIA, to establish himself against EGYPT, by courting 
the people, and distributing extraordinary favours amongst 
them. All which is thus represented by DANIEL (chap. xi. 
21, &c.) : And in his [PHILOMETOR s] estate shall stand 
up a vile person, to whom they [the SYRIANS who set 
up HELIODORUS] shall not give the honour of the kingdom. 
Yet he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by 
flatteries [made principally to the king of PERGAMUS ;] 
and the arms [which in favour of HELIODORUS oppose him] 
shall be overflowed with a flood from before him, and be 
broken ; yea also [ONIAS the high-priest] the Prince of the 
covenant. And after the league made with him [the king of 
EGYPT, by sending APOLLONIUS to his coronation] he shall 
work deceitfully [against the king of EGYPT,] for he shall 
come up and shall become strong [in PHOENICIA] with a small 
people. And he shall enter into the quiet and plentiful cities 
of the Province [of PHOENICIA ;] and [to ingratiate himself 
with the JEWS of PHOENICIA and EGYPT, and with their 
friends] he shall do that which his -fathers have not done, nor 
his fathers fathers : he shall scatter among them the prey 
and the spoil, and the riches [exacted from other places ;] 
and shall forecast his devices against the strong holds [of 
EGYPT] even for a time. 
These things were done in the first year of his reign, 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 261 

An. NABONASS. 573. And thenceforward he forecast his 
devices against the strong holds of EGYPT, until the sixth 
year. For three years after, that is in the fourth year of 
his reign, MENELAUS bought the high-priesthood from 
JASON, but not paying the price was sent for by the King ; 
and the King, before he could hear the cause, went into 
CILICIA to appease a sedition there, and left ANDRONICUS 
his deputy at ANTIOCH ; in the mean time the brother of 
MENELAUS, to make up the money, conveyed several 
vessels out of the Temple, selling some of them at TYRE, 
and sending others to ANDRONICUS. When MENELAUS 
was reproved for this by ONIAS, he caused ONIAS to be 
slain by ANDRONICUS : for which fact the King at his 
return from CILICIA caused ANDRONICUS to be put to 
death. Then ANTIOCHUS prepared his second expedition 
against EGYPT, which he performed in the sixth year of 
his reign, An. NABONASS. 578 : for upon the death of 
CLEOPATRA, the governors of her son the young king of 
EGYPT claimed PHOENICIA and CCELOSYRIA from him as 
her dowry ; and to recover those countries raised a great 
army (2 MACCAB. iii. 5, 8. and iv. 4.). ANTIOCHUS con 
sidering that his father had not quitted the possession of 
those countries, denied they were her dowry ; and with 
another great army met and fought the EGYPTIANS on the 
borders of EGYPT, between PELUSIUM and the mountain 
CASIUS. He there beat them, and might have destroyed 
their whole army, but that he rode up and down, command 
ing his soldiers not to kill them, but to take them alive : 
by which humanity he gained PELUSIUM, and soon after 
all EGYPT : entering it with a vast multitude of foot and 
chariots, elephants and horsemen, and a great navy. 
Then seizing the cities of EGYPT as a friend, he marched 
to MEMPHIS, laid the whole blame of the War upon EULEUS 
the Kings governor, entred into outward friendship with 
the young King, and took upon him to order the affairs 
of the kingdom. While ANTIOCHUS was thus employ d, 
a report being spread in PHOENICIA that he was dead, 
JASON to recover the high-priesthood assaulted JERUSALEM 



262 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

with above a thousand men, and took the city : hereupon 
the King thinking JUDEA had revolted, came out of EGYPT 
in a furious manner, re-took the city, slew forty thousand 
of the people, made as many prisoners, and sold them to 
raise money ; went into the Temple, spoiled it of its 
treasures, ornaments, utensils, and vessels of gold and 
silver, amounting to 1800 talents ; and carried all away 
to ANTIOCH. This was done in the year of NABONASSAR 
578, and is thus described by DANIEL (chap. xi. 25, &c.) : 
And he shall stir up his power, and his courage against the 
King of the South with a great army ; and the King of the 
South shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty 
army ; but he shall not stand : for they, even ANTIOCHUS 
and his friends, shall forecast devices against him, as is 
represented above ; yea, they that feed of the portion of his 
meat, shall betray and destroy him, and his army shall be 
overthrown, and many shall jail down slain. And both these 
Kings hearts shall be to do mischief ; and they, being now 
made friends, shall speak lyes at one table, against the JEWS 
and against the holy covenant ; but it shall not prosper : 
for yet the end, in which the setting up of the abomination 
of desolation is to prosper, shall be at the time appointed. 
Then shall he return into his land with great riches, and his 
heart shall be against the holy covenant ; and he shall act, 
against it by spoiling the Temple, and return into his own 
land. 

The EGYPTIANS of ALEXANDRIA seeing PHILOMETOR 
first educated in luxury by the Eunuch EULEUS, and now 
in the hands of ANTIOCHUS, gave the kingdom to EUER- 
GETES, the younger brother of PHILOMETOR. Whereupon 
ANTIOCHUS pretending to restore PHILOMETOR, made War 
upon EUERGETES ; beat him at sea, and besieged him and 
his sister CLEOPATRA in ALEXANDRIA : while the besieged 
Princes sent to ROME to implore the assistance of the Senate 
ANTIOCHUS finding himself unable to take the city that 
year, returned into SYRIA, leaving PHILOMETOR at MEMPHIS 
to govern EGYPT in his absence. But PHILOMETOR made 
friendship with his brother that winter ; and ANTIOCHUS, 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 268 

returning the next spring An. NABONASS. 580, to besiege 
both the brothers in ALEXANDRIA, was met in the way by 
the ROMAN Ambassadors, POPILIUS L^ENA, C. DECIMIUS, 
and C. HOSTILIUS : he offered them his hand to kiss, but 
POPILIUS delivering to him the tables wherein the message 
of the Senate was written, bad him read those first. When 
he had read them, he replied he would consider with his 
friends what was fit to be done ; but POPILIUS drawing a 
circle about him, bad him answer before he went out of 
it : ANTIOCHUS, astonished at this blunt and unusual 
imperiousness, made answer he would do what the ROMANS 
demanded ; and then POPILIUS gave the King his hand 
to kiss, and he returned out of EGYPT. The same year An. 
NABONASS. 580, his captains by his order spoiled and 
slaughtered the JEWS, profaned the Temple, set up the 
worship of the heathen Gods in all JUDEA, and began 
to persecute and make war upon those who would not 
worship them : which actions are thus described by DANIEL 
(chap. xi. 29, 30.) : At the time appointed he shall come again 
towards the South, but the latter shall not be as the former. 
For the ships of Chittim shall come, with an embassy from 
Rome., against him. Therefore he shall be grieved, and return, 
and have indignation against the holy covenant. So shall he 
do ; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them 
that forsake the holy covenant. 

In the same year that ANTIOCHUS by the command of 
the ROMANS retired out of EGYPT, and set up the worship 
of the GREEKS in JUDEA ; the ROMANS conquered the king 
dom of MACEDON, the fundamental kingdom of the Empire 
of the GREEKS, and reduced it into a ROMAN Province ; 
and thereby began to put an end to the reign of DANIEL S 
third Beast. This is thus exprest by DANIEL: And after 
him Arms, that is, the ROMANS, shall stand up. As -j^no 
signifies after the King, DAN. xi. 8 ; so IJED may signify 
after him. Arms are everywhere in this Prophecy of 
DANIEL put for the military power of a kingdom : and they 
stand up when they conquer and grow powerful. Hitherto 
DANIEL described the actions of the Kings of the NORTH 



264 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

and SOUTH ; but upon the conquest of MACEDON by the 
ROMANS, he left off describing the actions of the GREEKS, 
and began to describe those of the ROMANS in GREECE. 
They conquered MACEDON, ILLYRICUM and EPIRUS in 
the year of NABONASSAR 580. 35 years after, by the 
last will and testament of ATTALUS the last King of PER- 
GAMUS, they inherited that rich and flourishing kingdom, 
that is, all ASIA westward of mount TAURUS ; 69 years 
after they conquered the kingdom of SYRIA, and reduced 
it into a Province, and 34 years after they did the like to 
EGYPT. By all these steps the ROMAN Arms stood up over 
the GREEKS : and after 95 years more, by making war upon 
the JEWS, they polluted the sanctuary of strength, and took 
away the daily sacrifice, and then placed the abomination of 
desolation. For this abomination was placed after the days 
of CHRIST, MATH. xxiv. 15. In the 16th year of the Emperor 
ADRIAN, A. C. 132, they placed this abomination by building 
a Temple to JUPITER CAPITOLINUS, where the Temple of 
God in JERUSALEM had stood. Thereupon the JEWS under 
the conduct of BARCHOCHAB rose up in arms against the 
ROMANS, and in the war had 50 cities demolished, 985 of 
their best towns destroyed, and 580000 men slain by the 
sword ; and in the end of the war, A. C. 136, were banished 
JUDEA upon pain of death, and thenceforward the land 
remained desolate of its old inhabitants. 

In the beginning of the JEWISH war in NERO S reign, the 
Apostles fled out of JUDEA with their flocks ; some beyond 
JORDAN to PELLA and other places, some into EGYPT, 
SYRIA, MESOPOTAMIA, ASIA MINOR, and elsewhere. PETER 
and JOHN came into ASIA, and PETER went thence by 
CORINTH to ROME ; but JOHN staying in ASIA, was banished 
by the ROMANS into PATMOS, as the head of a party of the 
JEWS, whose nation was in war with the ROMANS. By this 
dispersion of the CHRISTIAN JEWS, the CHRISTIAN religion, 
which was already propagated westward as far as ROME, 
spread fast into all the ROMAN Empire, and suffered 
many persecutions under it till the days of CONSTANTINE 
the great and his sons : all which is thus described by 



CHAP, xn] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 265 

DANIEL: And such as do wickedly against the covenant, 
shall he, who places the abomination, cause to dissemble, 
and worship the Heathen Gods ; but the people among them 
who do know their God, shall be strong and act. And they 
that understand among the people, shall instruct many : 
yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, and by captivity, 
and by spoil many days. Now when they shall fall, they shall 
be holpen with a little help, viz. in the reign of CONSTANTINE 
the great ; and at that time by reason of their prosperity, 
many shall come over to them from among the heathen, and 
cleave to them with dissimulation. But of those of under 
standing there shall still fall to try God s people by them, 
and to purge them from the dissemblers, and to make them 
white even to the time of the end : because it is yet for a time 
appointed. 

Hitherto the ROMAN Empire continued entire ; and under 
this dominion, the little horn of the He-Goat continued 
mighty, but not by his own power. But now, by the building 
of CONSTANTINOPLE, and endowing it with a Senate and 
other like privileges with ROME ; and by the division of 
the ROMAN Empire into the two Empires of the GREEKS 
and LATINS, headed by those two cities (chap. xi. 36, 
&c.) a new scene of things commences, in which a KING 
the Empire of the GREEKS, doth according to his will, and, 
by setting his own laws above the laws of God, exalts and 
magnifies himself above every God, and speaks marvellous 
things against the God of Gods, and shall prosper till the 

indignation be accomplished. Neither shall he regard the 

God of his Fathers, nor the lawful desire of women in matri 
mony, nor any God, but shall magnify himself above all. 
And in his seat he shall honour Mahuzzims, that is, strong 
guardians, the souls of the dead ; even with a God whom his 
Fathers knew not shall he honour them, in their Temples, 
with gold and silver, and with precious stones and valuable 
things. All which relates to the overspreading of the 
GREEK Empire with Monks and Nuns, who placed holiness 
in abstinence from marriage ; and to the invocation of saints 
and veneration for their reliques, and such like supersti- 



266 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PART i 

tions, which these men introduced in the fourth and fifth 
centuries. And at the time of the end the King of the South, 
or the Empire of the Saracens, shall push at him (chap, 
xi. 40, &c.) and the King of the North, or Empire of the 
Turks, shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots 
and with horsemen, and with many ships ; and he shall enter 
into the countries of the GREEKS, and shall overflow and pass 
over. He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many 
countries shall be overthrown ; but these shall escape out 
of his hand, even Edom and Moab, and the chief of the 
children of Ammon : that is, those to whom his Caravans 
pay tribute. He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the 
countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape ; but he 
shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over 
all the precious things of Egypt ; and the Lybians and Ethio 
pians shall be at his steps. All these nations compose the 
Empire of the TURKS, and therefore this Empire is here to 
be understood by the King of the NORTH. They compose 
also the body of the He-Goat ; and therefore the Goat 
still reigns in his last horn, but not by his own power. 



CHAPTER XIII 

OF THE KING WHO DID ACCORDING TO HIS WILL, AND 

MAGNIFIED HIMSELF ABOVE EVERY GOD, AND 

HONOURED MAHUZZIMS, AND REGARDED NOT THE 
DESIRE OF WOMEN 

IN the first ages of the Christian religion the Christians of 
every city were governed by a Council of Presbyters, and 
the President of the Council was the Bishop of the city. 
The Bishop and Presbyters of one city meddled not with 
the affairs of another city, except by admonitory letters 
or messages. Nor did the Bishops of several cities meet 
together in Council before the time of the Emperor COM- 
MODUS : for they could not meet together without the leave 
of the ROMAN governors of the Provinces. But in the days 
of that Emperor they began to meet in Provincial Councils, 
by the leave of the governors ; first in ASIA, in opposition 
to the CATAPHRYGIAN Heresy, and soon after in other places 
and upon other occasions. The Bishop of the chief city, 
or Metropolis of the ROMAN Province, was usually made 
President of the Council ; and hence came the authority 
of Metropolitan Bishops above that of other Bishops within 
the same Province. Hence also it was that the Bishop 
of ROME in CYPRIAN S days called himself the Bishop of 
Bishops. As soon as the Empire became Christian, the 
ROMAN Emperors began to call general Councils out of 
all the Provinces of the Empire ; and by prescribing to 
them what points they should consider, and influencing 
them by their interest and power, they set up what party 
they pleased. Hereby the GREEK Empire, upon the 
division of the ROMAN Empire into the GREEK and LATIN 

267 



268 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

Empires, became the King who, in matters of religion, did 
according to his will ; and, in legislature, exalted and magni 
fied himself above every God : and at length, by the seventh 
general Council, established the worship of the images and 
souls of dead men, here called MAHUZZIMS. 

The same King placed holiness in abstinence from 
marriage. EUSEBIUS in his Ecclesiastical history tells 
us (lib. 4. c. 28, 29.) that MUSANUS wrote a tract against 
those who fell away to the heresy of the ENCRATITES, 
which was then newly risen, and had introduced perni 
cious errors ; and that TATTAN, the disciple of JUSTIN, 
was the author thereof; and that IREN^EUS in his first 
book against heresies teaches this, writing of TATIAN and 
his heresy, in these words : "A certain branch of the 
school of SATURNINUS and MARCIO who call themselves 
* Continentes made it a point of doctrine that matrimony 
should be avoided, plainly by their teaching rejecting the 
ancient work of God, and by innuendo finding fault with 
God who created male and female for the procreation of 
the human race. They also introduced abstinence from 
the flesh of those creatures they term animals, displaying 
their ingratitude toward God, who is the creator of all 
things. They also deny the salvation of the first man. 

" This impious assertion has only recently been evolved 
among them, the one chiefly responsible for it being a 
certain TATIAN, a disciple of JUSTIN ; though as long as 
he associated with his master he propounded nothing so 
erroneous. But after the martyrdom of JUSTIN he broke 
away from the Church ; and being elated and puffed up 
with his professional importance, assuming his superiority 
to all others, he trumped up a new scheme of Doctrine, 
inventing invisible aeons exactly like VALENTINUS. He also 
asserted with SATURNINUS and MARCIO that marriage was 
mere lechery and lust ; and invented original and novel 
arguments to overthrow the doctrine of ADAM S salvation. 
Such is the statement of IREN^US on the heresy of Encra- 
tites which was then is vogue." Thus far EUSEBIUS. But 
altho the followers of TATIAN were at first condemned as 



CHAP, xin] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 269 

hereticks by the name of ENCRATITES, or CONTINENTES ; 
their principles could not be yet quite exploded : for 
MONTANUS refined upon them, and made only second 
marriages unlawful ; he also introduced frequent fastings, 
and annual fasting days, the keeping of LENT, and feeding 
upon dried meats. The APOSTOLICI, about the middle of 
the third century, condemned marriage, and were a branch 
of the disciples of TATIAN. The HIEROCITJS in EGYPT, in 
the latter end of the third century, also condemned mar 
riage. PAUL the EREMITE fled into the wilderness from 
the persecution of DECIUS, and lived there a solitary 
life till the reign of CONSTANTINE the great, but made no 
disciples. ANTONY did the like in the persecution of 
DIOCLESIAN, or a little before, and made disciples ; and 
many others soon followed his example. 

Hitherto the principles of the ENCRATITES had been 
rejected by the Churches; but now being refined by the 
Monks, and imposed not upon all men, but only upon those 
who would voluntarily undertake a monastic life, they 
began to be admired, and to overflow first the GREEK 
Church, and then the LATIN also, like a torrent. EUSEBIUS 
tells us, that CONSTANTINE the great had those men in 
the highest veneration, who dedicated themselves wholly 
to the divine philosophy ; and that he almost venerated 
the most holy company of Virgins perpetually devoted 
to God ; being certain that the God to whom he had 
consecrated himself did dwell in their minds. In his time 
and that of his sons, this profession of a single life was 
propagated in EGYPT by ANTONY, and in SYRIA by HILA- 
RION ; and spread so fast, that soon after the time of 
JULIAN the Apostate a third part of the EGYPTIANS were 
got into the deserts of EGYPT. They lived first singly in 
cells, then associated into CGENOBIA or convents ; and at 
length came into towns and filled the Churches with Bishops 
Presbyters and Deacons. ATHANASIUS in his younger days 
poured water upon the hands of his master ANTONY ; and 
finding the Monks faithful to him, made many of them 
Bishops and Presbyters in EGYPT : and these Bishops 



270 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

erected new Monasteries, out of which they chose Presbyters 
of their own cities, and sent Bishops to others. The like 
was done in SYRIA, the superstition being quickly pro 
pagated thither out of EGYPT by HILARION a disciple 
of ANTONY. SPIRIDION and EPIPHANIUS of CYPRUS, 
JAMES of NISIBIS, CYRIL of JERUSALEM, EUSTATHIUS of 
SEBASTIA in ARMENIA,EUSEBIUS of EMISA,TITUS of BOSTRA, 
BASILIUS of ANCYRA, ACACIUS of C^ESAREA in PALESTINE, 
ELPIDIUS of LAODICEA, MELITIUS and FLAVIAN of ANTIOCH, 
THEODORUS of TYRE, PROTOGENES of CARRH^E, ACACIUS 
of BERRH^A, THEODOTUS of HIERAPOLIS, EUSEBIUS of 
CHALCEDON, AMPHILOCHIUS of ICONIUM, GREGORY NAZIAN- 
ZEN, GREGORY NYSSEN, and JOHN CHRYSOSTOM of CONSTAN 
TINOPLE, were both Bishops and Monks in the fourth 
century. EUSTATHIUS, GREGORY NAZIANZEN, GREGORY 
NYSSEN, BASIL, &c. had Monasteries of Clergymen in their 
cities, out of which Bishops were sent to other cities ; who 
in like manner erected Monasteries there, till the Churches 
were supplyed with Bishops out of these Monasteries. 
Hence JEROME, in a Letter written about the year 385, 
saith of the Clergy : " As if they themselves were anything 
but Monks and as if anything said against the Monks did 
not rebound against the Clergy who are the fathers of the 
Monks. Injury to the flock is an insult to the Shepherd. * 
(EpisT. x.) And in his book against VIGILANTIUS : 
" What are the Eastern Churches for doing ? They 
either accept celebate Clergy, or Continentes ; or if they 
are married they cease to be husbands." Not long after 
even the Emperors commanded the Churches to chuse 
Clergymen out of the Monasteries by this Law. 

The Emperors ARCADIUS and HONORIUS to C^ESARIUS : 
44 If the Bishops think that they require priests, it will 
be the better plan to ordain them from the ranki of the 
Monks. Let them not from public or private reasons keep 
weaklings (though their action be unpopular) but let them 
have men who are tried " (de Episcopis 1. 82.). Dat. vii. 
KAL. AUG. HONORIO A. iv. & EUTYCHIANIO Coss. A. C. 898. 



CHAP, xni] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 271 

The GREEK Empire being now in the hands of these 
ENCRATITES, and having them in great admiration, DANIEL 
makes it a characteristick of the King who doth according 
to his will, that he should not regard the desire of women. 

Thus the Sect of the ENCKATITES, set on foot by the 
GNOSTICKS, and propagated by TATIAN and MONTANUS 
near the end of the second century ; which was condemned 
by the Churches of that and the third century, and refined 
upon by their followers ; overspread the EASTERN Churches 
in the fourth century, and before the end of it began to 
overspread the WESTERN. Henceforward the Christian 
Churches having a form of godliness, but denying the 
power thereof, came into the hands of the ENCRATITES : 
and the Heathens, who in the fourth century came over 
in great numbers to the Christians embraced more readily 
this sort of Christianity as having a greater affinity with 
their old superstitions, than that of the sincere Chris 
tians ; who by the lamps of the seven Churches of ASIA, 
and not by the lamps of the Monasteries, had illuminated 
the Church Catholic during the three first centuries. 

The CATAPHRYGIANS brought in also several other 
superstitions : such as were the doctrine of Ghosts, and of 
their punishment in Purgatory with prayers and oblations 
for mitigating that punishment, as TERTULLIAN teaches 
in his books De Anima and De Monogamia. They used 
also the sign of the cross as a charm. So TERTULLIAN 
in his book A Soldier s Crown : "At every advancement 
or promotion, at every going out and coming in, at our 
clothes, at our shoes, at the baths, at the tables, at the 
lights, at the rooms, at the furniture, in a word at whatever 
our daily life brings us into contact with, we imprint 
on our forehead the sign of the cross." All these super 
stitions the Apostle refers to, where he saith : Now the 
Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall 
depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and 
doctrines of devils, the DAEMONS and Ghosts worshipped 
by the heathens, speaking lies in hypocrisy, about their 
apparitions, the miracles done by them, their reliques, and 
19 



272 PROPHECIES OF DANIEL [PART i 

the sign of the cross, having consciences seared with a hot 
iron ; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from 
meats, &c. 1 TIM. iv. 1, 2, 3. From the CATAPHRYGIANS 
these principles and practices were propagated down to 
posterity. For the mystery of iniquity did already work in 
the APOSTLES days in the GNOSTICKS, continued to work 
very strongly in their offspring the TATIANISTS and 
CATAPHRYGIANS, and was to work till that man of sin should 
be revealed ; whose coming is after the working of Satan, 
with all power and signs, and lying wonders, and all deceiv- 
ableness of unrighteousness ; coloured over with a form of 
CHRISTIAN godliness, but without the power thereof, 2 
THESS. ii. 7-10. 

For tho some stop was put to the CATAPHRYGIAN Chris 
tianity, by Provincial Councils, till the fourth century ; 
yet the ROMAN Emperors then turning CHRISTIANS, and 
great multitudes of heathens coming over in outward 
profession, these found the CATAPHRYGIAN Christianity 
more suitable to their old principles, of placing religion in 
outward forms and ceremonies, holy-days, and doctrines 
of Ghosts, than the religion of the sincere CHRISTIANS : 
wherefore they readily sided with the CATAPHRYGIAN 
CHRISTIANS, and established that Christianity before the 
end of the fourth century. By this means those of under 
standing, after they had been persecuted by the heathen 
Emperors in the three first centuries, and were holpen with 
a little help, by the conversion of CONSTANTINE the great 
and his sons to the CHRISTIAN religion, fell under new 
persecutions, to purge them from the dissemblers, and to 
make them white, even to the time of the end. 



CHAPTER XIV 

OF THE MAHUZZIMS, HONOURED BY THE KING WHO 
DOTH ACCORDING TO HIS WILL 

IN scripture we are told of some trusting in God and others 
trusting in idols, and that God is our refuge, our strength, 
our defence. In this sense God is the rock of his People, 
and false Gods are called the rock of those that trust in them, 
DEUT. xxxii. 4, 15, 18, 30, 31, 37. In the same sense the 
Gods of the King who shall do according to his will are called 
MAHUZZIMS, munitions, fortresses, protectors, guardians, or 
defenders (chap. xi. 38, 39.). In his estate, saith DANIEL, 
shall he honour Mahuzzims ; even with a God whom his fathers 
knew not, shall he honour them with gold and silver, and with 
precious stones, and things of value. Thus shall he do in 
the most strong holds or temples ; and he shall cause them 
to rule over many, and divide the land among them for a 
possession. Now this came to pass by degrees in the 
following manner. 

GREGORY NYSSEN tells us (Oral, de vita Greg. Thauma- 
turg, t. 3. p. 574.) that after the persecution of the Emperor 
DECIUS, GREGORY Bishop of NEOC^SAREA in PONTUS, 
instituted among all people, as an addition or corollary of 
devotion towards God, that festival days and assemblies should 
be celebrated to them who had contended for the faith, that is, 
to the Martyrs. And he adds this reason for the institu 
tion : When he observed, saith NYSSEN, that the simple and 
unskilful multitude, by reason of corporeal delights, remained 
in the error of idols ; that the principal thing might be cor 
rected among them, namely, that instead of their vain worship 
they might turn their eyes upon God ; he permitted that at 
the memories of the holy martyrs they might make merry and 

273 



274 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

delight themselves, and be dissolved into joy. The heathens 
were delighted with the festivals of their Gods, and un 
willing to part with those delights ; and therefore GREGORY, 
to facilitate their conversion instituted annual festivals 
to the SAINTS and MARTYRS. Hence it came to pass, that 
for exploding the festivals of the heathens, the principal 
festivals of the CHRISTIANS succeeded in their room : as the 
keeping of CHRISTMAS with ivy and feasting, and playing 
and sports, in the room of the BACCHANALIA and SATUR 
NALIA ; the celebrating of MAY-DAY with flowers, in the 
room of the FLORALIA ; and the keeping of festivals to the 
Virgin MARY, JOHN the Baptist, and divers of the Apostles, 
in the room of the solemnities at the entrance of the 
Sun into the signs of the ZODIAC in the old JULIAN Calen 
dar. In the same persecution of DECIUS, CYPRIAN ordered 
the passions of the Martyrs in AFRICA to be registered 
in order to celebrate their memories annually with oblations 
and sacrifices : and FELIX Bishop of ROME, a little after, 
as PLATINA relates, Martyrum glorioe consulens, constituit 
ut quotanis sacrificia eorum nomine celebrarentur : " con 
sulting the glory of the Martyrs, ordained that sacrifices 
should be celebrated annually in their name." By the 
pleasures of these festivals the CHRISTIANS increased much 
in number, and decreased as much in virtue, until they were 
purged and made white by the persecution of DIOCLESIAN. 
This was the first step made in the CHRISTIAN religion 
towards the veneration of the Martyrs : and tho it did 
not yet amount to an unlawful worship ; yet it disposed 
the CHRISTIANS towards such a further veneration of the 
dead, as in a short time ended in the invocation of Saints. 
The next step was the affecting to pray at the sepulchres 
of the Martyrs : which practice began in DIOCLESIAN s 
persecution. The Council of ELIBERIS in SPAIN, celebrated 
in the third or fourth year of DIOCLESIAN S persecution, 
A. C. 305, hath these Canons. Can. 34. Resolved : " That 
wax tapers be not burned by day in the cemetery ; for the 
spirits of the saints must not be disturbed. Whoever 
disobeys this command will be excommunicated." Can. 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 275 

35. Resolved : " That women be prohibited from night- 
watching in the cemetery : because often under the 
pretence of prayer they secretly commit sin." Presently 
after that persecution, suppose about the year 314, the 
Council of LAODICEA in PHRYGIA, which then met for 
restoring the lapsed discipline of the Church, has the 
following Canons. Can. 9 : Those of the Church are not 
allowed to go into the Ccemeteries or Martyries, as they are 
called, of hereticks, for the sake of prayer or recovery of health : 
but such as go, if they be of the faithful, shall be excommuni 
cated for a time. Can. 34 : A Christian must not leave the 
Martyrs of Christ, and go to fake Martyrs, that is, to the 
Martyrs of the hereticks ; for these are alien from God : and 
therefore let those be anathema who go to them. Can. 51 : 
The birth-days of the Martyrs shall not be celebrated in Lent, 
but their commemoration shall be made on the Sabbath-days 
and Lords days. The Council of PAPHLAGONIA, celebrated 
in the year 324, made this Canon : // any man being 
arrogant, abominates the congregations of the Martyrs, or 
the Liturgies performed therein, or the memories of the 
Martyrs, let him be anathema. By all which it is manifest 
that the CHRISTIANS in the time of DIOCLESIAN S persecu 
tion used to pray in the CCEMETARIES or burying-places of 
the dead ; for avoiding the danger of the persecution, and 
for want of Churches, which were all thrown down : and 
after the persecution was over, continued that practice 
in honour of the Martyrs, till new Churches could be built : 
and by use affected it as advantageous to devotion, and 
for recovering the health of those that were sick. It 
also appears that in these burying-places they commem 
orated the Martyrs yearly upon days dedicated to them, 
and accounted all these practices pious and religious, and 
anathematized those men as arrogant who opposed them, 
or prayed in the MARTYRIES of the hereticks. They also 
lighted torches to the Martyrs in the daytime, as the 
heathens did to their Gods ; which custom, before the end 
of the fourth century, prevailed much in the WEST. They 
sprinkled the worshippers of the Martyrs with holy- 



276 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

water, as the heathens did the worshippers of their Gods ; 
and went in pilgrimage to see JERUSALEM and other holy 
places, as if those places conferred sanctity on the visiters. 
From the custom of praying in the CCEMETERIES and 
MARTYRIES, came the custom of translating the bodies of 
the Saints and Martyrs into such Churches as were new 
built : the Emperor CONSTANTIUS began this practice 
about the year 359, causing the bodies of ANDREW the 
Apostle, LUKE and TIMOTHY, to be translated into a new 
Church at CONSTANTINOPLE : and before this act of 
CONSTANTIUS, the EGYPTIANS kept the bodies of their 
Martyrs and Saints unburied upon beds in their private 
houses, and told stories of their souls appearing after death, 
and ascending up to heaven, as ATHANASIUS relates in 
the life of ANTONY. All w T hich gave occasion to the 
Emperor JULIAN, as CYRIL relates, to accuse the CHRIS 
TIANS in this manner : Your adding to that ancient dead man, 
Jesus, many new dead men, who can sufficiently abominate ? 
You have filled all places with sepulchres and monuments 
altho you are no where bidden to prostrate yourselves to 
sepulchres, and to respect them officiously. And a little 
after : Since Jesus said that sepulchres are full of filthiness, 
how do you invoke God upon them ? and in another place he 
saith, that if CHRISTIANS had adhered to the precepts of 
the HEBREWS, they would have worshiped one God instead 
of many, and not a man, or rather not many unhappy men : 
And that they adored the wood of the cross, making its images 
on their foreheads, and before their houses. 

After the sepulchres of Saints and Martyrs were thus 
converted into places of worship like the heathen temples, 
and the Churches into sepulchres, and a certain sort of 
sanctity attributed to the dead bodies of the Saints and 
Martyrs buried in them, and annual festivals were kept to 
them, with sacrifices offered to God in their name ; the 
next step towards the invocation of Saints, was the 
attributing to their dead bodies, bones and other reliques, 
a power of working miracles, by means of the separate 
souls, who were supposed to know what we do or say, 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 277 

and to be able to do us good or hurt, and to work those 
miracles. This was the very notion the heathens had 
of the separate souls of their antient Kings and Heroes, 
whom they worshiped under the names of SATURN, RHEA, 
JUPITER, JUNO, MARS, VENUS, BACCHUS, CERES, OSIRIS, 
Isis, APOLLO, DIANA, and the rest of their Gods. For 
these Gods being male and female, husband and wife, son 
and daughter, brother and sister, are thereby discovered 
to be antient men and women. Now as the first step 
towards the invocation of Saints was set on foot by the 
persecution of DECIUS, and the second by the persecution 
of DIOCLESIAN ; so this third seems to have been owing 
to the proceedings of CONSTANTIUS and JULIAN the Apos 
tate. When JULIAN began to restore the worship of the 
heathen Gods, and to vilify the Saints and Martyrs ; the 
CHRISTIANS of SYRIA and EGYPT seem to have made a 
great noise about the miracles done by the reliques of the 
CHRISTIAN Saints and Martyrs, in opposition to the 
powers attributed by JULIAN and the heathens to their 
Idols. For SOZOMEN and RUFFINUS tell us, that when 
he opened the heathen Temples, and consulted the Oracle 
of APOLLO DAPHN^SUS in the suburbs of ANTIOCH, and 
pressed by many sacrifices for an answer ; the Oracle at 
length told him that the bones of the Martyr BABYLAS 
which were buried there hinder d him from speaking. By 
which answer we may understand, that some CHRISTIAN 
was got into the place where the heathen Priests used to 
speak thro a pipe in delivering their Oracles : and before 
this, HILARY in his book against CONSTANTIUS, written in 
the last year of that Emperor, makes the following mention 
of what was then doing in the EAST where he was. " You 
intend to persecute without martyrdom ? We owe a 
deeper debt to the cruelty of NERO, DECIUS, and MAXIMI- 
ANUS. For by them we overcame the DEVIL. The sacred 
blood of the blessed martyrs has been everywhere received, 
while demons cry out because of them, diseases are banished 
and miraculous works are beheld bodies float in the air 
without support ; female figures are seen hanging by the 



278 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

feet, and their garments do not flow down over their 
faces : spirits burn without fire and make confession 
without increasing the belief of the catechizer." 

And GREGORY NAZIANZEN, in his first Oration against the 
Emperor Julian, then reigning, writes thus : " You have 
paid no respect to the martyrs, to whom illustrious honours 
and festivals have been decreed, by whom demons are 
cast out and diseases cured, and whose wraiths can be seen 
and teachings heard. Their mere bodies are as efficacious 
as their blessed souls, whether the one be touched or the 
other worshipped ; a few drops of their blood and some 
scanty tokens of their suffering can do as much as their 
whole bodies. And these it is that, refusing to esteem, you 
contemn and despise." 

These things made the heathens in the reign of the same 
Emperor demolish the sepulchre of JOHN the Baptist in 
PHOENICIA, and burn his bones ; when several CHRISTIANS 
mixing themselves with the heathens, gathered up some 
of his remains, which were sent to ATHANASIUS, who hid 
them in the wall of a Church ; foreseeing by a prophetic 
spirit, as RUFFINUS tells us, that they might be profitable 
to future generations. 

The cry of these miracles being once set on foot, con 
tinued for many years, and encreased and grew more 
general. CHRYSOSTOM, in his second Oration on ST. 
BABYLAS, twenty years after the silencing of the Oracle 
of APOLLO DAPHNJEUS as above, viz. A. C. 382, saith of 
the miracles done by the Saints and their reliques : 
" There is no district or race, or city in this world of ours 
where these strange and unexpected miracles are not 
retailed ; and indeed had they been mere inventions, they 
would hardly have attained such universal admiration." 
And a little after he saith : " My words have ample 
support in those miracles, which our martyrs are daily 
working : whereto no small throng of people is constantly 
crowding " (vide Horn. 47 in S. Julian). And in his 
66th Homily, describing how the Devils were tormented 
and cast out by the bones of the martyrs he adds : "A 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 2T9 

considerable number of Kings came from foreign parts to 
enjoy this sight, for the reason that the temples of the holy 
martyrs display tokens and signs of coming judgment, 
the demons doubtless being tormented with scourges, and 
men, though agonizing, finding release. Behold the power 
inherent in the life of the holy Dead." And JEROM in his 
epitaph on PAULA (Epist. 27 ad Eustochium) thus mentions 
the same things : " PAULA saw SAMARIA, where the prophets 
ELISHA and OBADIAH and JOHN the Baptist are buried, and 
there she fell into fear and consternation at the many 
miracles. For she saw demons bellowing under various 
torments and howling before the sepulchres of the saints : 
she saw men in the likeness of wolves barking with the 
voice of dogs, roaring like lions, hissing like serpents and 
bellowing like bulls ; others made their heads rotate, or 
bend backwards till their heads touched the ground ; 
female figures, too were hung up by their feet and yet 
their garments did not flow down over their face." 

This was about the year 384 ; and CHRYSOSTOM in his 
Oration on the EGYPTIAN Martyrs seems to make EGYPT 
the ringleader in these matters saying : " Blessed be God 
that martyrs are appearing in EGYPT : EGYPT, I say, that 
fought with the Lord and raged most wildly : EGYPT 
whence come impious lips and tongues that blaspheme ; 
in this EGYPT martyrs are honoured, and not only there or 
in the neighbouring regions, but everywhere on earth. 
And to take a simile from the wealth of the grain supply 
as when the inhabitants of the cities have seen that 
their harvest exceeds the possible home demand, they 
export it to foreign countries, first to show their courtesy 
and liberality, and secondly, to employ this surplus in 
order easily to secure in return necessities which they lack : 
so it is in this spirit that the EGYPTIANS have acted as 
regards the champions of religion. For when they saw 
that by the goodness of God they had a great host of 
Martyrs in their land, far from confining this great gift 
of God to their own State, they poured out the wealth of 
their treasures unto all parts of the earth : and with a two- 



280 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

fold purpose firstly, to manifest their love to the brethren, 
and then to honour the common Lord of all, and to win 
glory in the eyes of all for their State which they thereby 
would declare to be the Metropolis of the whole round 

earth. For the bodies of those martyred saints protect 

a city for us more securely than any wall, however adaman 
tine and impregnable, and like towering bulwarks, standing 
four-square they ward off not merely those enemies which 
sense can grasp and eye can see ; but also, the unseen 
snares of demons, and all the deceits of Satan are by them 
overthrown and destroyed. But in truth it is not merely 
against the treachery of men or the deceit of demons that 
the possession of them is valuable to us ; but if our common 
Lord be wroth with us for the multitude of our transgres 
sions, by the mediation of these bodies we will immediately 
be enabled to regain His favour for our State " (Edit. 
Frontonis Ducaei, torn. 1.). This Oration was written at 
ANTIOCH, while ALEXANDRIA was yet the Metropolis of the 
EAST, that is, before the year 381, in which CONSTANTINOPLE 
became the Metropolis : and it was a work of some years 
for the EGYPTIANS to have distributed the miracle-working 
reliques of their Martyrs over all the world, as they had 
done before that year. EGYPT abounded most with the 
reliques of Saints and Martyrs, the EGYPTIANS keeping 
them embalmed upon beds even in their private houses ; 
and ALEXANDRIA was eminent above all other cities for 
dispersing them, so as on that account to acquire glory with 
all men, and manifest herself to be the METROPOLIS of the 
world. ANTIOCH followed the example of EGYPT, in dis 
persing the reliques of the forty Martyrs : and the examples 
of EGYPT and SYRIA were soon followed by the rest of the 
world. 

The reliques of the forty Martyrs at ANTIOCH were dis 
tributed among the Churches before the year 373 ; for 
ATHANASIUS who died in that year, wrote an Oration upon 
them. This Oration is not yet published, but GERARD 
Vossius saw it in MS. in the Library of Cardinal ASCANIUS 
in ITALY, as he says in his commentary upon the Oration 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 281 

of EPHR^EM SYRUS on the same forty Martyrs. Now 
since the Monks of ALEXANDRIA sent the reliques of the 
Martyrs of EGYPT into all parts of the earth, and thereby 
acquired glory to their city, and declared her in these 
matters the Metropolis of the whole world, as we have 
observed out of CHRYSOSTOM ; it may be concluded, that 
before ALEXANDRIA received the forty Martyrs from 
ANTIOCH, she began to send out the reliques of her own 
Martyrs into all parts, setting the first example to other 
cities. This practice therefore began in EGYPT some years 
before the death of ATHANASIUS. It began when the 
miracle-working bones of JOHN the baptist were carried 
into EGYPT, and hid in the wall of a Church, that they 
might be profitable to future generations. It was restrained 
in the reign of JULIAN the Apostate : and then it spred 
from EGYPT into all the Empire, ALEXANDRIA being the 
Metropolis of the whole world, according to CHRYSOSTOM, 
for propagating this sort of devotion, and ANTIOCH and 
other cities soon following her example. 

In propagating these superstitions, the ring-leaders were 
the Monks, and ANTONY was at the head of them : for in 
the end of the life of ANTONY, ATHANASIUS relates that 
these were his dying words to his disciples who then 
attended him. Do you take care, said ANTONY, to adhere 
to Christ in the first place, and then to the Saints, that after 
death they may receive you as friends and acquaintance into 
the everlasting Tabernacles. Think upon these things, per- 
ceive these things ; and if you have any regard to me, remember 
me as a father. This being delivered in charge to the 
Monks by ANTONY at his death, A. C. 356, could not but 
inflame their whole body with devotion towards the 
Saints, as the ready way to be received by them into the 
eternal Tabernacles after death. Hence came that noise 
about the miracles done by the reliques of the Saints in 
the time of CONSTANTIUS : hence came the dispersion of 
the miracle-working reliques into all the Empire ; ALEX 
ANDRIA setting the example, and being renowned for it 
above all other cities. Hence it came to pass in the days 



282 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

of JULIAN, A. C. 362, that ATHANASIUS by a prophetic 
spirit, as RUFFINUS tell us, hid the bones of JOHN the 
Baptist from the Heathens, not in the ground to be for 
gotten, but in the hollow wall of a Church before proper 
witnesses, that they might be profitable to future genera 
tions. Hence also came the invocation of the Saints for 
doing such miracles, and for assisting men in their devo 
tions, and mediating with God. For ATHANASIUS, even 
from his youth, looked upon the dead Saints and Martyrs 
as mediators of our prayers : in his Epistle to MARCEL- 
LINUS, written in the days of CONSTANTINE the great, he 
saith, that the words of the PSALMS are not to be transposed 
or any wise changed, but to be recited and sung without 
any artifice, as they are written, that the holy men who 
delivered them, knowing them to be their own words, may 
pray with us ; or rather, that the Holy Ghost who spake in 
the holy men, seeing his own words with which he inspired 
them, may join with them in assisting us. 

Whilst EGYPT abounded with Monks above any other 
country, the veneration of the Saints began sooner, and 
spred faster there than in other places. PALLADIUS going 
into EGYPT in the year 388 to visit the Monasteries, and 
the sepulchres of APOLLO NIUS and other Martyrs of 
THEBAIS who had suffered under MAXIMINUS, saith of 
them : " For all these martyrs the Christians have built 
a single temple, in which many deeds of healing are now 
performed. So great was the influence of APOLLONIUS that 
his petition on any matter was immediately answered, 
this being the way in which his Saviour honoured him. 
We too after prayer, beheld him in his shrine in company 
with those who were his fellows in martyrdom ; and 
giving God the glory we saluted their bodies." EUNAPIUS 
also, a heathen, yet a competent witness of what was done 
in his own times, relating how the soldiers delivered the 
temples of EGYPT into the hands of the Monks, which was 
done in the year 389, rails thus in an impious manner at 
the Martyrs, as succeeding in the room of the old Gods 
of EGYPT. " These very soldiers stationed Monks at 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 283 

CANOPUS also, in order that, instead of worshipping what 
is visible to the mind alone, they might pay Divine honours 
to mere slaves and criminals, the minds of all men being 
addicted to ceremonial worship of some kind. They dis 
played as Gods, the cured and salted heads of men who had 
suffered the extreme penalty of the law for the number 
of their crimes : to these they bowed the knee : these 
they received into the number of the Gods, degrading 
themselves before their sepulchres with sack-cloth and 
ashes. Eventually they were called Martyrs or Mediators 
or Ambassadors and Censors of Prayer at the Court of 
HEAVEN ; when in reality they were faithless slaves, often 
flogged for their wickedness, who bore about on their 
bodies, the scars of their crimes and the marks of their 
profligacy ; yet such are the Gods that the land puts up 
with." By these instances, we may understand the 
invocation of Saints was now of some standing in EGYPT 
and that it was already generally received and practised 
there by the common people. 

Thus BASIL a Monk, who was made Bishop of CJESAREA 
in the year 369, and diedjin the year 378, in his Oration on 
the Martyr MAMAS, saith : Be ye mindful of the Martyr ; 
as many of you as have enjoyed him in your dreams, as many 
as in this place have been assisted by him in prayer, as many 
of you as upon invoking him by name have had him present 
in your works, as many as he has reduced into the way from 
wandering, as many as he has restored to health, as many as 
have had their dead children restored by him to life, as many 
as have had their lives prolonged by him : and a little after, 
he thus expresses the universality of this superstition in 
the regions of CAPPADOCIA and BITHYNIA : At the memory 
of the Martyr, saith he, the whole region is moved ; at his 
festival the whole city is transported with joy. Nor do the 
kindred of the rich turn aside to the sepulchres of their an 
cestors, but all go to the place of devotion. Again in the end 
of the Homily he prays, that God would preserve the Church, 
thus fortified with the great towers of the Martyrs : and in 
his Oration on the forty Martyrs ; These are they, saith he, 



284 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

who obtaining our country, like certain towers afford us 
safety against our enemies. Neither are they shut up in 
one place only, but being distributed are sent into many 
regions, and adorn many countries. You have often en 
deavoured, you have often laboured to find one who might pray 
for you : here are forty, emitting one voice of prayer. He 
that is in affliction flies to these, he that rejoices has recourse 
to these : the first, that he may be freed from evil, the last that 
he may continue in happiness. Here a woman praying for 
her children is heard ; she obtains a safe return for her hus 
band from abroad, and health for him in his sickness. ye 
common keepers of mankind, the best companions of our 
cares, suffragans and coadjutors of our prayers, most powerful 
embassadors to God, &c. By all which it is manifest, that 
before the year 378, the Orations and Sermons upon the 
Saints went much beyond the bounds of mere oratorical 
flourishes, and that the common people in the EAST were 
already generally corrupted by the Monks with Saint- 
worship. 

GREGORY NAZI ANZEN a Monk, in his sixth Oration written 
A. C. 373, when he was newly made Bishop of SASIMA, 
saith : Let us purify ourselves to the Martyrs, or rather to the 
God of the Martyrs : and a little after he calls the Martyrs 
mediators of obtaining an ascension or divinity. The same 
year, in the end of his Oration upon ATHANASIUS then 
newly dead, he thus invokes him : Do thou look down upon 
us propitiously, and govern this people, as perfect adorers of 
the perfect Trinity, which in the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost, is contemplated and worshipped : if there shall be peace 9 
preserve me, and feed my flock with me ; but if war, bring me 
home, place me by thyself, and by those that are like thee ; 
however great my request. And in the end of the funeral 
Oration upon BASIL, written A. C. 378, he thus addresses 
him : But thou, divine and sacred Head, look down upon 
us from heaven ; and by thy prayers either take away that 
thorn of the flesh which is given us by God for exercise, or 
obtain that we may bear it with courage, and direct all our 
life to that which is most fitting for us. When we depart this 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 285 

life receive us there in your Tabernacles, that living together 
and beholding the holy and blessed Trinity more purely and 
perfectly, whereof we have now but an imperfect view, we may 
there come to the end of our desires, and receive this reward 
of the wars which we have waged or suffered : and in his 
Oration upon CYPRIAN, not the Bishop of CARTHAGE, 
but a GREEK, he invokes him after the same manner ; and 
tells us also how a pious Virgin named JUSTINA, was pro 
tected by invoking the Virgin MARY, and how miracles 
were done by the ashes of CYPRIAN. 

GREGORY NYSSEN, another eminent Monk and Bishop, 
in the life of EPHR.EM SYRUS, tells how a certain man re 
turning from a far country, was in great danger, by reason 
all the ways were intercepted by the armies of barbarous 
nations ; but upon invoking EPHR^EM by name, and saying, 
HOLY Ephraem assist me, he escaped the danger, neglected 
the fear of death, and beyond his hope got safe home. In 
the end of this Oration GREGORY calls upon EPHR.EM after 
the following manner : But thou, O EPHRAEM, assisting now 
at the divine altar, and sacrificing to the Prince of life, and 
to the most holy Trinity, together with the Angels ; remember 
us all, and obtain for us pardon of our sins, that we may 
enjoy the eternal happiness of the kingdom of heaven. The 
same GREGORY, in his Oration on the Martyr THEODORUS 
written A.C. 381, thus describes the power of that Martyr, 
and the practice of the people. This Martyr, saith he, the 
last year quieted the barbarous tempest, and put a stop to the 
horrid war of the fierce and cruel SCYTHIANS. // any one is 
permitted to carry away the dust with which the tomb is covered, 
wherein the body of the martyr rests ; the dust is accepted as 
a gift, and gathered to be laid up as a thing of great price. 
For to touch the reliques themselves, if any such prosperous 
fortune shall at any time happen ; how great a favour that is, 
and not to be obtained without the most earnest prayers, they 
know well who have obtained it. For as a living and florid 
body, they who behold it embrace it, applying to it the eyes t 
mouth, ears, and all the organs of sense ; and then with 
affection pouring tears upon the Martyr, as if he was whole 

\ 



286 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

and appeared to them : they offer prayers with supplication, 
that he would intercede for them as an advocate, praying to 
him as an Officer attending upon God, and invoking him 
as receiving gifts whenever he will. At length GREGORY 
concludes the Oration with this prayer : THEODORUS, we 
want many blessings ; intercede and beseech for thy country 
before the common King and Lord : for the country of the 
Martyr is the place of his passion, and they are his citizens, 
brethren and kindred, who have him, defend, adorn and honour 
him. We fear afflictions, we expect dangers : the wicked 
SCYTHIANS are not far off, ready to make war against us. As a 
soldier fight for us, as a Martyr use liberty of speech for thy fel 
low-servants. Pray for peace, that these publick meetings may 
not cease, that the furious and wicked barbarian may not 
rage against the temples and altars, that the profane and im 
pious may not trample upon the holy things. We acknowledge 
it a benefit received from thee, that we are preserved safe and 
entire, we pray for freedom from danger in time to come : 
and if there shall be need of greater intercession and depreca 
tion, call together the choir of thy brethren the Martyrs, and in 
conjunction with them all intercede for us. Let the prayers 
of many just ones attonefor the sins of the multitudes and the 
people ; exhort PETER, excite PAUL, and also JOHN the divine 
and beloved disciple,that they may be sollicitousforthe Churches 
which they have erected, for which they have been in chains, 
for which they have undergone dangers and deaths ; that the 
worship of idols may not lift up its head against us, that 
heresies may not spring up like thorns in the vineyard, that 
tares grown up may not choak the wheat, that no rock void 
of the fatness of true dew may be against us, and render the 
fruitful power of the word void of a root ; but by the power 
of the prayers of thyself and thy companions, O admirable 
man and eminent among the Martyrs, the commonwealth of 
Christians may become a field of corn. The same GREGORY 
NYSSEN in his sermon upon the death of MELETIUS Bishop 
of ANTIOCH, preached at CONSTANTINOPLE the same year, 
A. C. 381, before the Bishops of all the EAST assembled in 
the second general Council, spake thus of MELETIUS : The 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 287 

Bridegroom, saith he, is not taken from us : he stands in 
the midst of us, tho we do not see him : he is a Priest in 
the most inward places, and face to face intercedes before 
God for us and the sins of the people. This was no ora 
torical flourish, but GREGORY S real opinion, as may be 
understood by what we have cited out of him concerning 
EPHR^EM and THEODORUS : and as GREGORY preached this 
before the Council of CONSTANTINOPLE, you may thence 
know, saith BARONIUS, that he professed what the whole 
Council, and therewith the whole Church of those parts 
believed, namely, that the Saints in heaven offer prayers 
for us before God. (Ad. an. 381, sect. 41.) 

EPHR^M SYRUS, another eminent Monk, who was 

contemporary with BASIL, and died the same year ; in the 

end of his Encomium or Oration upon BASIL then newly 

dead, invokes him after this manner : Intercede for me, a 

very miserable man ; and recal me by thy intercessions, O 

father ; thou who art strong, pray for me who am weak ; 

thou who art diligent, for me who am negligent ; thou who 

art chearful, for me who am heavy ; thou who art wise, for 

me who am foolish. Thou who hast treasured up a treasure 

of all virtues, be a guide to me who am empty of every good 

work. In the beginning of his Encomium upon the forty 

Martyrs, written at the same time, he thus invokes them : 

Help me therefore, O ye Saints, with your intercession ; and 

ye beloved, with your holy prayers ; that Christ by his 

grace may direct my tongue to speak, &c. and afterwards 

mentioning the mother of one of these forty Martyrs, 

he concludes the Oration with this prayer : / entreat thee, 

O holy, faithful, and blessed woman, pray for me to the 

Saints, saying ; Intercede ye that triumph in CHRIST, for 

the most little and miserable EPHRJEM, that he may find mercy, 

and by the grace O/CHRIST may be saved. Again, in his second 

Sermon or Oration on the praises of the holy Martyrs of 

CHRIST, he thus addresses them : We entreat you most 

holy Martyrs, to intercede with the Lord for us miserable 

sinners, beset with the filthiness of negligence, that he would 

infuse his divine grace into us : and afterwards, near the 

20 



288 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

end of the same discourse : Now ye most holy men and 
glorious Martyrs of God, help me a miserable sinner with 
your prayers that in that dreadful hour I may obtain mercy, 
when the secrets of all hearts shall be made manifest. I am 
to day become to you, most holy Martyrs of CHRIST, as it were 
an unprofitable and unskilful cup-bearer : for I have delivered 
to the sons and brothers of your faith, a cup of the excellent 
wine of your warfare, with the excellent table of your victory, 
replenished with all sorts of dainties. I have endeavoured, 
with the whole affection and desire of my mind, to recreate 
your fathers and brothers, kindred and relations, who daily 
frequent the table. For behold they sing, and with exultation 
and jubilee glorify God, who has crowrfd your virtues, by 
setting on your most sacred heads incorruptible and celestial 
crowns ; they with excessive joy stand about the sacred reliques 
of your martyrdoms, wishing for a blessing, and desiring to 
bear away holy medicines both for the body and the mind. 
As good disciples and faithful ministers of our benign Lord and 
Saviour, bestow therefore a blessing on them all : and on me 
also, tho* weak and feeble, who having received strength by 
your merits and intercessions, have with the whole devotion 
of my mind, sung a hymn to your praise and glory before 
your holy reliques. Wherefore I beseech you stand before 
the throne of the divine Majesty for me EPHR^EM, a vile 
and miserable sinner, that by your prayers I may deserve 
to obtain salvation, and with you enjoy eternal felicity by 
the grace and benignity and mercy of our Lord and Saviour 
JESUS CHRIST, to whom with the Father and Holy Ghost be 
praise, honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

By what has been cited out of BASIL, the two GREGORIES 
and EPHR^M, we may understand that Saint-worship was 
established among the Monks and their admirers in EGYPT, 
PHOENICIA, SYRIA and CAPPADOCIA, before the year 378, 
this being the year in which BASIL and EPHRJEM died. 
CHRYSOSTOM was not much later ; he preached at ANTIOCH 
almost all the time of THEODOSIUS the great, and in his 
Sermons are many exhortations to this sort of superstition, 
as may be seen in the end of his Orations on S. JULIA, on 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 289 

St. PELAGIA on the Martyr IGNATIUS, on the EGYPTIAN 
Martyrs, on Fate and Providence, on the Martyrs in general, 
on St. BERENICE and St. PROSDOCE, on JUVENTINUS and 
MAXIMUS, on the name of CCEMETERY, &c. Thus in his 
Sermon on BERENICE and PROSDOCE : Perhaps, saith he, 
you are inflamed with no small love towards these Martyrs ; 
therefore with this ardour let us fall down before their reliques, 
let us embrace their coffins. For the coffins of the Martyrs 
have great virtue, even as the bones of the Martyrs have great 
power. Nor let us only on the day of this festival, but also 
on other days apply to them, invoke them, and beseech them 
to be our patrons : for they have great power and efficacy, not 
only whilst alive, but also after death ; and much more after 
death than before. For now they bear the marks or brands of 
CHRIST ; and when they shew these marks, they can obtain all 
things of the King. Seeing therefore they abound with such 
efficacy, and have so much friendship with him ; we also, 
when by continual attendance and perpetual visitation of 
them we have insinuated ourselves into their familiarity, may 
by their assistance obtain the mercy of God. 

CONSTANTINOPLE was free from these superstitions till 
GREGORY NAZIANZEN came thither A. C. 379 ; but in a 
few years it was also inflamed with it (Hist. Eccl. 1. 2. c. 23.). 
RUFFINUS tells us, that when the Emperor THEODOSIUS 
was setting out against the tyrant EUGENIUS, which was 
in the year 394, he went about with the Priests and people 
to all the places of prayer ; lay prostrate in haircloth 
before the shrines of the Martyrs and Apostles, and pray d 
for assistance by the intercession of the Saints (1. 4. c. 24.). 
SOZOMEN adds, that when the Emperor was marched 
seven miles from CONSTANTINOPLE against EUGENIUS, he 
went into a Church which he had built to JOHN the 
Baptist, and invoked the Baptist for his assistance. CHRY- 
SOSTOM says : He that is clothed in purple, approaches to 
embrace these sepulchres ; and laying aside his dignity, stands 
supplicating the Saints to intercede for him with God : and 
he who goes crowned with a diadem, offers his prayers to the 
tent-maker and the fisher -man as his Protectors (Horn. 66. 



290 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART i 

ad populum, circa finem. and Horn. 8, 27. in Matth. Horn. 
42, 43. in Gen. Horn. 1. in 1 Thess. Exposit. in Psal. 114. 
sub finem.). And in another place : The cities run together 
to the sepulchres of the Martyrs, and the people are inflamed 
with the love of them. 

This practice of sending reliques from place to place 
for working miracles, and thereby inflaming the devotion 
of the nations towards the dead Saints and their reliques, 
and setting up the religion of invoking their souls, lasted 
only till the middle of the reign of the Emperor THEODO- 
sius the great ; for he then prohibited it by the following 
Edict: " Once a corpse is buried, let no one transfer it 
to another place : let no one retail a martyr or sell him for 
merchandise. Let power be granted however, if in any 
place there is aMartyr entombed, to raise there any building 
desired, for the purpose of doing him honour, the building 
to be called a Martyr s Shrine " (Dat . iv. KAL. MART. 
CONSTANTINOPOLI, HoNORio nob. puero & EUODIO Coss. 
A. C. 386). After this they filled the fields and high-ways 
with altars erected to Martyrs, which they pretended to 
discover by dreams and revelations : and this occasioned 
the making the fourteenth Canon of the fifth Council of 
CARTHAGE, A. C. 398. " Also resolved : that the altars 
erected in the fields and high-ways as memorials to the 
martyrs, when no body or relics can be proved to repose 
therein, be demolished, if possible by the Bishops of those 
parts. But if this be not permitted by reason of popular 
tumult, yet let the people be warned against frequenting 
such spots, so that men of good understanding may not 
there be held in the bonds of superstition. And let no 
memorial whatsoever of the martyrs be accepted as 
credible unless either the body or some genuine relics 
repose there, or unless tradition assert on incontrovertible 
grounds that a martyr lived there or held property there 
or there suffered. For these altars, which are being set 
up everywhere on the admonition of dreams and futile 
revelations should be utterly disavowed." These altars 
were for invoking the Saints or Martyrs buried or pretended 



CHAP, xiv] PROPHECIES OF DANIEL 291 

to be buried under them. First they filled the Churches 
in all places with the reliques or pretended reliques of the 
Martyrs, for invoking them in the Churches ; and then they 
filled the fields and high-ways with altars, for invoking 
them every where : and this new religion was set up by 
the Monks in all the GREEK Empire before the expedition 
of the Emperor THEODOSIUS against EUGENIUS, and I 
think before his above mentioned Edict, A. C. 386. 

The same religion of worshipping MAHUZZIMS quickly 
spred into the WESTERN EMPIRE also : but DANIEL in 
this Prophecy describes chiefly the things done among the 
nations comprehended in the body of his third Beast. 



THE END OF THE FIRST PART 



PART II 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE APOCALYPSE 
OF ST. JOHN 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTION, CONCERNING THE TIME WHEN THE 
APOCALYPSE WAS WRITTEN 

IRENJEUS introduced an opinion that the APOCALYPSE 
was written in the time of DOMITIAN ; but then he also 
postponed the writing of some others of the sacred books, 
and was to place the APOCALYPSE after them : he might 
perhaps have heard from his master POLYCARP that he had 
received this book from JOHN about the time of DOMITIAN S 
death ; or indeed JOHN might himself at that time have 
made a new publication of it, from whence IREN.EUS 
might imagine it was then but newly written. EUSEBIUS 
in his Chronicle and Ecclesiastical History follows 
IREN^US ; but afterwards (Dem. Evang. 1. 3.) in his 
Evangelical Demonstrations, he conjoins the banishment 
of JOHN into PATHOS, with the deaths of PETER and 
PAUL : and so do TERTULLIAN and PsEUDO-PRocnoRUS, 1 
as well as the first author, whoever he was, of that very 
antient fable, that JOHN was put by NERO into a vessel of 
hot oil, and coming out unhurt, was banished by him 
into PATMOS. Tho this story be no more than a fiction, 
yet it was founded on a tradition of the first Churches, 
that JOHN was banished into PATMOS in the days of NERO. 
EPIPHANIUS represents the GOSPEL OF JOHN as written in 
the time of DOMITIAN, and the APOCALYPSE even before 
that of NERO. ARETHAS in the beginning of his Com 
mentary quotes the opinion of IREN^US from EUSEBIUS, 
but follows it not : for he afterwards affirms the APO 
CALYPSE was written before the destruction of JERUSALEM, 

1 Vid. PAMELIUM in notis ad TEETULL. de Prcescriptionibus, n. 215. & 
HIEBON. contra JOVINJANUM, 1. 1. c. 14. Edit. ERASMI. 

295 



296 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

and that former commentators had expounded the sixth 
seal of that destruction (ARETH. c. 18, 19.). 

With the opinion of the first Commentators agrees the 
tradition of the Churches of SYRIA, preserved to this day 
in the title of the SYRIAC Version of the APOCALYPSE, 
which title is this : The Revelation which was made to 
John the Evangelist by God in the Island Patmos, into 
which he was banished by Nero the Caesar. The same is 
confirmed by a story told by EUSEBIUS out of CLEMENS 
ALEXANDRINUS (Hist. Eccl. 1. 3. c. 23.), and other antient 
authors, concerning a youth, whom JOHN some time after 
his return from PATMOS committed to the care of the 
Bishop of a certain city. The Bishop educated, instructed, 
and at length baptized him ; but then remitting of his 
care, the young man thereupon got into ill company, and 
began by degrees first to revel and grow vitious, then to 
abuse and spoil those he met in the night ; and at last 
grew so desperate, that his companions turning a band 
of highway men, made him their Captain : and, saith 
CHRYSOSTOM, he continued their Captain a long time 
(CHRYSOST. ad Theodorum lapsum). At length JOHN 
returning to that city, and hearing what was done, rode 
to the thief; and when he out of reverence to his old 
master fled, JOHN rode after him, recalled him, and 
restored him to the Church. This is a story of many 
years, and requires that JOHN should have returned from 
PATMOS rather at the death of NERO than at that of 
DOMITIAN ; because between the death of DOMITIAN and 
that of JOHN there were but two years and an half ; and 
JOHN in his old age was (HIERON. in Epist. ad Gal. 1. 3. c. 6.) 
so infirm as to be carried to Church, dying above 90 years 
old, and therefore could not be then suppos d able to ride 
after the thief. 

This opinion is further supported by the allusions in 
the APOCALYPSE to the Temple and Altar, and holy City, 
as then standing ; and to the GENTILES, who were soon 
after to tread under foot the holy City and outward Court. 
Tis confirmed also by the style of the APOCALYPSE itself. 



CHAP, i] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 297 

which is fuller of HEBRAISMS than his Gospel. For thence 
it may be gathered, that it was written when JOHN was 
newly come out of JUDEA, where he had been used to the 
SYRIAC tongue ; and that he did not write his Gospel, till 
by long converse with the ASIATICK Greeks he had left 
off most of the HEBRAISMS. It is confirmed also by the 
many false APOCALYPSES, as those of PETER, PAUL, 
THOMAS, STEPHEN, ELIAS and CERINTHUS, written in 
imitation of the true one. For as the many false Gospels, 
false Acts, and false Epistles were occasioned by true 
ones ; and the writing many false APOCALYPSES, and 
ascribing them to Apostles and Prophets, argues that 
there was a true Apostolic one in great request with the 
first CHRISTIANS : so this true one may well be suppos d to 
have been written early, that there may be room in the 
Apostolic age for the writing of so many false ones after 
wards, and fathering them upon PETER, PAUL, THOMAS, 
and others, who were dead before JOHN. CAIUS, who was 
contemporary with TERTULLIAN (Apud EUSEB. Eccl. Hist. 
1. 3. c. 28. Edit. VALESII), tells us that CERINTHUS wrote his 
Revelations as a great Apostle, and pretended the visions 
were shewn him by Angels, asserting a millennium of carnal 
pleasures at JERUSALEM after the resurrection ; so that 
his APOCALYPSE was plainly written in imitation of JOHN S : 
and yet he lived so early, that (EPIPHAN. H ceres. 28.) he 
resisted the Apostles at JERUSALEM in or before the first 
year of CLAUDIUS, that is, 26 years before the death of 
NERO, and died before JOHN (HIERON. adv. Lucif.). 

These reasons may suffice for determining the time ; 
and yet there is one more, which to considering men may 
seem a good reason, to others not. I ll propound it, and 
leave it to every man s judgment. The APOCALYPSE 
seems to be alluded to in the Epistles of PETER and that 
to the HEBREWS, and therefore to have been written before 
them. Such allusion in the Epistle to the HEBREWS, I 
take to be the discourses concerning the High Priest in 
the heavenly Tabernacle, who is both Priest and King, 
as was MELCHISEDEC ; and those concerning the word of 



298 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE f PART n 



God, with the sharp two edged sword, the o-aGparicrpbs, or 
millennial rest, the earth whose end is to be burned, suppose 
by the lake of fire, the judgment and fiery indignation which 
shall devour the adversaries, the heavenly City which hath 
foundations, whose builder and maker is God, the cloud of 
witnesses, mount Sion, heavenly Jerusalem, general assembly, 
spirits of just men made perfect, viz. by the resurrection, 
and the shaking of heaven and earth, and removing them, 
that the new heaven, new earth and new kingdom which 
cannot be shaken, may remain. In the first of PETER 
occur these 1 : THE REVELATION OF JESUS CHRIST, twice 
or thrice repeated 8 ; the blood of Christ as of a Lamb fore 
ordained before the foundation of the world 5 ; the spiritual 
building in heaven, 1 PET. ii. 5. an inheritance incorruptible 
and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven 
for us, who are kept unto the salvation, ready to be revealed 
in the last time, 1 PET. i. 4, 5. 4 the royal Priesthood,* the 
holy Priesthood, 6 the judgment beginning at the house of 
God, and the Church at Babylon. 7 These are indeed 
obscurer allusions ; but the second Epistle, from the 19th 
verse of the first chapter to the end, seems to be a con 
tinued Commentary upon the APOCALYPSE. There, in 
writing to the Churches in Asia, to whom JOHN was 
commanded to send this Prophecy, he tells them, they 
have a more sure word of Prophecy, to be heeded by them, 
as a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, 
and the day star arise in their hearts, that is, until they begin 
to understand it : for no Prophecy, saith he, of the scripture 
is of any private interpretation ; the Prophecy came not in 
old time by the will of man, but holy men of God spake, as 
they were moved by the Holy Ghost. DANIEL himself pro 
fesses that he understood not his own PROPHECIES (DAN. 
viii. 15, 16, 27, & xii. 8. 9.) ; and therefore the Churches 
were not to expect the interpretation from their Prophet 
JOHN, but to study the Prophecies themselves. This is 

1 1 Pet. 1. 7, 13. iv. 13. and v. 1. 3 Apoc. xiii. 8. 

* Apoc. xxi. * Apoc. i. 6. and v. 10. * Apoc. xx. 6. 

Apoc. xx. 4, 12. 7 Apoc. xvii. 



CHAP. I] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 299 

the substance of what PETER says in the first chapter ; 
and then in the second he proceeds to describe, out of this 
sure word of Prophecy, how there should arise in the 
ChuTchfalse Prophets, or false teachers, expressed collectively 
in the APOCALYPSE by the name of the false Prophet ; 
who should bring in damnable heresies, even denying the 
Lord that bought them, which is the character of ANTI 
CHRIST : And many, saith he, shall follow their lusts l ; 
they that dwell on the earth a shall be deceived by the 
false Prophet, and be made drunk with the wine of the 
Whore s fornication, by reason of whom the way of truth 
shall be blasphemed ; for s the Beast is full of blasphemy : 
and thro* covetousness shall they with feigned words make 
merchandize of you ; for these are the Merchants of the 
Earth, who trade with the great Whore, and their mer 
chandize * is all things of price, with the bodies and souls 
of men : whose judgment lingreth not, and their damna 
tion 5 slumbreth not, but shall surely come upon them at 
the last day suddenly, as the flood upon the old world, and 
fire and brimstone upon SODOM and GOMORRHA, when the 
just shall be delivered 6 like LOT ; for the Lord knoweth 
how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the 
unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished, in the lake of 
fire ; but chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of 
uncleanness, 1 being made drunk with the wine of the 
Whore s fornication ; who despise dominion, and are not 
afraid to blaspheme glories ; for the beast opened his mouth 
against God 8 to blaspheme his name and his tabernacle, 
and them that dwell in heaven. These, as natural brute 
beasts, the ten-horned beast and two-horned beast, or false 
Prophet, made to be taken and destroyed, in the lake of fire, 

blaspheme the things they understand not : they count 

it pleasure to riot in the day-time sporting them 
selves with their own deceivings, while they feast 9 with 

1 d<Tc\yflcu, in many of the best MSS. 2 Apoc. xiii. 7, 12. 

3 Apoc. xiii. 1, 5, 6. * Apoc. xviii. 12, 13. 5 Apoc. xix. 20. 

Apoc. xxi. 3, 4. Apoc. ix. 21. and xvii. 2. 

8 Apoc. xiii. 6. 9 Apoc. xviii. 3, 7, 9. 



300 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

you, having eyes full of an l Adulteress : for the kingdoms 
of the beast live deliciously with the great Whore, and the 
nations are made drunk with the wine of her fornication. 
They are gone astray, following the way of Balaam, the son 
of Beor, who loved the wages of unrighteousness, the false 
Prophet 2 who taught BALAK to cast a stumbling block 
before the children of ISRAEL. These are, not fountains 
of living water, but wells without water ; not such clouds 
of Saints as the two witnesses ascend in, but clouds that 
are carried with a tempest, &c. Thus does the author of 
this Epistle spend all the second Chapter in describing 
the qualities of the APOCALYPTIC Beasts and false Prophet : 
and then in the third he goes on to describe their destruc 
tion more fully, and the future kingdom. He saith, that 
because the coming of CHRIST should be long deferred, 
they should scoff, saying where is the promise of his coming ? 
Then he describes the sudden coming of the day of the 
Lord upon them, as a thief in the night, which is the 
APOCALYPTIC phrase ; and the millennium, or thousand 
years, which are with God but as a day ; the passing away 
of the old heavens and earth, by a conflagration in the lake 
of fire, and our looking for new heavens and a new earth, 
wherein dwelleth righteousness. 

Seeing therefore PETER and JOHN were Apostles of the 
circumcision, it seems to me that they staid with their 
Churches in JUDEA and SYRIA till the ROMANS made war 
upon their nation, that is, till the twelfth year of NERO ; 
that they then followed the main body of their flying 
Churches into ASIA, and that PETER w r ent thence by 
CORINTH to ROME ; that the ROMAN Empire looked upon 
those Churches as enemies, because JEWS by birth ; and 
therefore to prevent insurrections, secured their leaders, 
and banished JOHN into PATMOS. It seems also probable 
to me that the APOCALYPSE was there composed, and that 
soon after the Epistle to the HEBREWS and those of PETER 
were written to these Churches, with reference to this 
Prophecy as what they were particularly concerned in. 

2 Apoc. ii. 14. 



CHAP, i] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 801 

For it appears by these Epistles, that they were written 
in times of general affliction and tribulation under the 
heathens, and by consequence when the Empire made war 
upon the JEWS ; for till then the heathens were at peace 
with the CHRISTIAN JEWS, as well as with the rest. The 
Epistle to the HEBREWS, since it mentions TIMOTHY as 
related to those HEBREWS, must be written to them after 
their flight into ASIA, where TIMOTHY was Bishop ; and 
by consequence after the war began, the HEBREWS in 
JUDEA being strangers to TIMOTHY. PETER seems also to 
call ROME BABYLON, as well with respect to the war made 
upon JUDEA, and the approaching captivity, like that 
under old BABYLON, as with respect to that name in the 
APOCALYPSE : and in writing to the strangers scattered 
thro out Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, 
he seems to intimate that they were the strangers newly 
scattered by the ROMAN wars ; for those were the only 
strangers there belonging to his care. 

This account of things agrees best with history when 
duly rectified. For l JUSTIN and 8 IRENJSUS say, that 
SIMON MAGUS came to ROME in the reign of CLAUDIUS, 
and exercised juggling tricks there. PSEUDO-CLEMENS 
adds, that he endeavoured there to fly, but broke his neck 
thro the prayers of PETER. Whence 8 EUSEBIUS, or rather 
his interpolator JEROM, has recorded, that PETER came 
to ROME in the second year of CLAUDIUS : but CYRIL 
Bishop of JERUSALEM, PHILASTRIUS, SULPITIUS, PROSPER, 
MAXIMUS TAURINENSIS, and HEGESIPPUS JUNIOR, place 
this victory of PETER in the time of NERO. Indeed the 
antienter tradition was, that PETER came to ROME in 
the days of this Emperor, as may be seen in * LANCTANTIUS. 
CHRYSOSTOM fl tells us, that the Apostles continued long in 

1 Apol. ad Antonin. Pium. 

3 Hceres. 1. 1. c. 20. Vide etiam TERTULLIANUM, Apol. c. 13. 

3 EUSEB. Chron. 

* CYRIL, Catech. 6. PHILASTR. de hceres. cap. 30. SULP. Hist. 1. 2. PROSPER 
de promiss. dimid. tempt, cap. 13. MAXIMUS serm. 5. in Natal. Apost. 
HEQESIP. 1. 2. c. 2. 

6 LACTANT. de mortib. Perfec. c. 2 Horn. 70 in Matt. c. 22. 



802 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

JUDEA, and that then being driven out by the JEWS they 
went to the GENTILES. This dispersion was in the first 
year of the JEWISH war, when the JEWS, as JOSEPHUS 
tells us, began to be tumultuous and violent in all places. 
For all agree that the Apostles were dispersed into several 
regions at once ; and ORIGEN has set down the time, 1 
telling us that in the beginning of the JUDAIC war, the 
Apostles and disciples of our Lord were scattered into all 
nations ; THOMAS into PARTHIA, ANDREW into SCYTHIA, 
JOHN into ASIA, and PETER first into ASIA, where he 
preacht to the dispersion, and thence into ITALY. DIONY- 
sius CORINTHIUS saith (EusEB. Hist. 1. 2. c. 25.), that 
PETER went from ASIA by CORINTH to ROME, and all 
antiquity agrees that PETER and PAUL were martyred 
there in the end of NERO S reign. MARK went with 
TIMOTHY to ROME, 2 TIM. iv. 11. COLOS. iv. 10. SYLVANUS 
was PAUL S assistant ; and by the companions of PETER, 
mentioned in his first Epistle, we may know that he wrote 
from ROME ; and the Antients generally agree, that in 
this Epistle he understood ROME by BABYLON. His 
second Epistle was writ to the same dispersed strangers 
with the first, 2 PET. iii. 1. and therein he saith, that PAUL 
had writ of the same things to them, and also in his other 
Epistles, ver. 15, 16. Now as there is no Epistle of PAUL 
to these strangers besides that to the HEBREWS, so in this 
Epistle, chap. x. 11, 12. we find at large all those things 
which PETER had been speaking of, and here refers to ; 
particularly the passing away of the old heavens and earth, 
and establishing an inheritance immoveable, with an exhorta 
tion to grace, because GOD, to the wicked, is a consuming 
fire, HEB. xii. 25, 26, 28, 29. 

Having determined the time of writing the APOCALYPSE, 
I need not say much about the truth of it, since it was in 
such request with the first ages, that many endeavoured 
to imitate it, by feigning APOCALYPSES under the Apostles 
names ; and the Apostles themselves, as I have just now 
shewed, studied it, and used its phrases ; by which means 
1 Apud EUSEB. Eccl. Hist. 1. 2. c. 25. 



CHAP, i] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 303 

the style of the Epistle to the HEBREWS became more 
mystical than that of PAUL S other Epistles, and the style 
of JOHN S Gospel more figurative and majestical than that 
of the other Gospels. I do not apprehend that CHRIST 
was called the word of God in any book of the New Testa 
ment written before the APOCALYPSE ; and therefore am 
of opinion, the language was taken from this Prophecy, as 
were also many other phrases in this Gospel, such as those 
of CHRIST S being the light which enlightens the world, the 
lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world, the 
bridegroom, he that testifieth, he that came down from heaven, 
the Son of God, &c. JUSTIN MARTYR, who within thirty 
years after JOHN S death became a CHRISTIAN, writes 
expressly that a certain man among the Christians whose 
name was John, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ, in 
the Revelation which was shewed him, prophesied that those 
who believed in Christ should live a thousand years at 
Jerusalem. And a few lines before he saith : But I, and 
as many as are Christians, in all things right in their opinions, 
believe both that there shall be a resurrection of the flesh, and 
a thousand years life at Jerusalem built, adorned and 
enlarged. Which is as much as to say, that all true 
CHRISTIANS in that early age received this Prophecy : for 
in all ages, as many as believed the thousand years, 
received the APOCALYPSE as the foundation of their 
opinion : and I do not know one instance to the contrary. 
PAPIAS Bishop of HIERAPOLIS, a man of the Apostolic 
age, and one of JOHN S own disciples, did not only teach 
the doctrine of the thousand years, but also l asserted the 
APOCALYPSE as written by divine inspiration. MELITO 
who flourished next after JUSTIN, 2 wrote a commentary 
upon this Prophecy ; and he, being Bishop of SARDIS one 
of the seven Churches, could neither be ignorant of their 
tradition about it, nor impose upon them. IREN^US, who 
was contemporary with MELITO, wrote much upon it, 
and said, that the number 666 was in all the antient and 

1 ABETHAS in Procem. comment, in Apoc. 

2 EUSEB. Hist. 1. 4. cap. 26. HIEBON. 
21 



304 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE |>AKT n 

approved copies ; and that he had it also confirmed to him 
by those who had seen John face to face, meaning no doubt 
his master POLYCARP for one. At the same time 1 THEO- 
PHILUS Bishop of ANTIOCH asserted it, and so did TERTUL- 
LIAN, CLEMENS ALEXANDRINUS, and ORIGEN soon after ; 
and their contemporary HIPPOLYTUS the Martyr, Metro 
politan of the ARABIANS (HIERON.), wrote a commentary 
upon it. All these were antient men, flourishing within a 
hundred and twenty years after JOHN S death, and of 
greatest note in the Churches of those times. Soon after 
did VICTORINUS PICTAVIENSIS write another commentary 
upon it ; and he lived in the time of DIOCLESIAN. This 
may surely suffice to shew how the APOCALYPSE was 
received and studied in the first ages : and I do not indeed 
find any other book of the New Testament so strongly 
attested, or commented upon so early as this. The 
Prophecy said : Blessed is he that readeth, and they that 
hear the words of this Prophecy, and keep the things which 
are written therein. This animated the first CHRISTIANS to 
study it so much, till the difficulty made them remit, and 
comment more upon the other books of the New Testa 
ment. This was the state of the APOCALYPSE, till the 
thousand years being misunderstood, brought a prejudice 
against it : and DIONYSIUS of ALEXANDRIA, noting how 
it abounded with barbarisms, that is with HEBRAISMS, 
promoted that prejudice so far, as to cause many 
GREEKS in the fourth century to doubt of the book. 
But whilst the LATINS, and a great part of the 
GREEKS, always retained the APOCALYPSE, and the rest 
doubted only out of prejudice, it makes nothing against 
its authority. 

This Prophecy is called the Revelation, with respect to 
the scripture of truth, which DANIEL was commanded to 
shut up and seal, till the time of the end (DAN. x. 21. xii. 4, 9.). 
DANIEL sealed it until the time of the end ; and until that 
time comes, the Lamb is opening the seals : and afterwards 
the two Witnesses prophesy out of it a long time in sack- 

1 EUSEB. Hist. 1. 4. c. 24. 



CHAP, i] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 305 

cloth, before they ascend up to heaven in a cloud. All which 
is as much as to say, that these Prophecies of DANIEL 
and JOHN should not be understood till the time of the 
end : but then some should prophesy out of them in an 
afflicted and mournful state for a long time, and that 
but darkly, so as to convert but few. But in the very 
end, the Prophecy should be so far interpreted as to con 
vince many. Then, saith DANIEL, many shall run to and 
fro, and knowledge shall be encreased. For the Gospel must 
be preached in all the nations before the great tribulation, 
and end of the world. The palm-bearing multitude, which 
come out of this great tribulation, cannot be innumerable 
out of all nations, unless they be made so by the preaching 
of the Gospel before it comes. There must be a stone cut 
out of a mountain without hands, before it can fall upon 
the toes of the Image, and become a great mountain and 
fill the earth. An Angel must fly thro the midst of heaven 
with the everlasting Gospel to preach to all nations, before 
BABYLON falls, and the Son of man reaps his harvest. 
The two Prophets must ascend up to heaven in a cloud, 
before the kingdoms of this world become the kingdoms of 
CHRIST. Tis therefore a part of this Prophecy, that it 
should not be understood before the last age of the world ; 
and therefore it makes for the credit of the Prophecy, 
that it is not yet understood. But if the last age, the age 
of opening these things, be now approaching, as by the 
great successes of late Interpreters it seems to be, we have 
more encouragement than ever to look into these things. 
If the general preaching of the Gospel be approaching, 
it is to us and our posterity that those words mainly 
belong : In the time of the end the wise shall understand, 
but none of the wicked shall understand (DAN. xii. 4. 10.). 
Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of 
this Prophecy, and keep those things which are written 
therein (Apoc. i. 3.). 

The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretel times and 
things by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them 
Prophets. By this rashness they have not only exposed 



306 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

themselves, but brought the Prophecy also into contempt. 
The design of God was much otherwise. He gave this and 
the Prophecies of the Old Testament, not to gratify men s 
curiosities by enabling them to foreknow things, but that 
after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the 
event, and his own Providence, not the Interpreters, be 
then manifested thereby to the world. For the event of 
things predicted many ages before, will then be a convincing 
argument that the world is governed by providence. For 
as the few and obscure Prophecies concerning CHRIST S 
first coming were for setting up the CHRISTIAN religion, 
which all nations have since corrupted ; so the many and 
clear Prophecies concerning the things to be done at 
CHRIST S second coming, are not only for predicting but 
also for effecting a recovery and re-establishment of the 
long-lost truth, and setting up a kingdom wherein dwells 
righteousness. The event will prove the APOCALYPSE ; 
and this Prophecy, thus proved and understood, will 
open the old Prophets, and all together will make known 
the true religion, and establish it. For he that will 
understand the old Prophets, must begin with this ; but 
the time is not yet come for understanding them perfectly, 
because the main revolution predicted in them is not yet 
come to pass. In the days of the voice of the seventh Angel, 
when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God shall be 
finished, as he hath declared to his servants the Prophets : 
and then the kingdoms of this world shall become the kingdoms 
of our Lord and his Christ, and he shall reign for ever, APOC. 
x. 7. xi. 15. There is already so much of the Prophecy 
fulfilled, that as many as will take pains in this study, may 
see sufficient instances of God s providence : but then 
the signal revolutions predicted by all the holy Prophets, 
will at once both turn men s eyes upon considering the 
predictions, and plainly interpret them. Till then we must 
content ourselves with interpreting what hath been already 
fulfilled. 

Amongst the Interpreters of the last age there is 
scarce one of note who hath not made some discovery 



CHAP, i] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 307 

worth knowing; and thence I seem to gather that God 
is about opening these mysteries. The success of others 
put me upon considering it ; and if I have done any 
thing which may be useful to following writers, I have 
my design. 



CHAPTER II 

OF THE RELATION WHICH THE APOCALYPSE OF JOHN HATH 
TO THE BOOK OF THE LAW OF MOSES, AND TO THE 
WORSHIP OF GOD IN THE TEMPLE 

THE APOCALYPSE of JOHN is written in the same style and 
language with the Prophecies of DANIEL, and hath the 
same relation to them which they have to one another, 
so that all of them together make but one complete Pro 
phecy ; and in like manner it consists of two parts, an 
introductory Prophecy, and an Interpretation thereof. 

The Prophecy is distinguish d into seven successive 
parts, by the opening of the seven seals of the book which 
DANIEL was commanded to seal up : and hence it is called 
the APOCALYPSE or REVELATION of JESUS CHRIST. The 
time of the seventh seal is sub-divided into eight successive 
parts by the silence in heaven for half an hour, and the 
sounding of seven trumpets successively : and the seventh 
trumpet sounds to the battle of the great day of God 
Almighty, whereby the kingdoms of this world become the 
kingdoms of the Lord and his Christ, and those are destroyed 
that destroyed the earth. 

The Interpretation begins with the words, And the temple 
of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple 
the Ark of his Testament : and it continues to the end of 
the Prophecy. The Temple is the scene of the visions, 
and the visions in the Temple relate to the feast of the 
seventh month, for the feasts of the JEWS were typical of 
things to come. The Passover related to the first coming 
of CHRIST, and the feasts of the seventh month to his second 
coming : his first coming being therefore over before this 

308 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 809 

Prophecy was given, the feasts of the seventh month are 
here only alluded unto. 

On the first day of that month, in the morning, the 
High-Priest dressed the lamps : and in allusion hereunto, 
this Prophecy begins with a vision of one like the Son of 
man in the High-Priest s habit, appearing as it were in the 
midst of the seven golden candlesticks, or over against 
the midst of them, dressing the lamps, which appeared 
like a rod of seven stars in his right hand : and this dressing 
was performed by the sending seven Epistles to the Angels 
or Bishops of the seven Churches of ASIA, which in the 
primitive times illuminated the Temple or Church Catho- 
lick. These Epistles contain admonitions against the ap 
proaching Apostacy, and therefore relate to the times 
when the Apostacy began to work strongly, and before it 
prevailed. It began to work in the Apostles days, and 
was to continue working till the man of sin should be 
revealed. It began to work in the disciples of SIMON, 
MENANDER, CARPOCRATES, CERINTHUS, and such sorts of 
men as had imbibed the metaphysical philosophy of the 
GENTILES and CABALISTICAL JEWS and were thence called 
GNOSTICKS. JOHN calls them ANTICHRISTS, saying that 
in his days there were many ANTICHRISTS. But these 
being condemned by the Apostles, and their immediate 
disciples, put the Churches in no danger during the opening 
of the first four seals. The visions at the opening of 
these seals relate only to the civil affairs of the heathen 
ROMAN Empire. So long the Apostolic traditions pre 
vailed, and preserved the Church in its purity : and 
therefore the affairs of the Church do not begin to be 
considered in this Prophecy before the opening of the 
fifth seal. She began then to decline, and to want admoni 
tions ; and therefore is admonished by these Epistles, till 
the Apostacy prevailed and took place, which was at 
the opening of the seventh seal. The admonitions therefore 
in these seven Epistles relate to the state of the Church 
in the times of the fifth and sixth seals. At the opening 
of the fifth seal, the Church is purged from hypocrites by 



810 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

a great persecution. At the opening of the sixth, that 
which letted is taken out of the way, namely the heathen 
ROMAN Empire. At the opening of the seventh, the man 
of sin is revealed. And to these times the seven Epistles 
relate. 

The seven Angels, to whom these Epistles were written, 
answer to the seven AMARCHOLIM, who were Priests and 
chief Officers of the Temple, and had jointly the keys of 
the gates of the Temple, with those of the Treasuries, and 
the direction, appointment and oversight of all things in 
the Temple. 

After the lamps were dressed, JOHN saw the door of the 
Temple opened ; and by the voice as it were of a trumpet, 
was called up to the eastern gate of the great court, to see 
the visions : and behold a throne was set, viz. the mercy-seat 
upon the Ark of the Testament, which the JEWS respected 
as the throne of God between the Cherubims, EXOD. xxv. 2. 
PSAL. xcix. 1. And he that sat on it was to look upon like 
Jasper and Sardine stone, that is, of an olive colour, the 
people of JUDEA being of that colour. And, the Sun being 
then in the EAST, a rainbow was about the throne, the emblem 
of glory. And, round about the throne were four and twenty 
seats ; answering to the chambers of the four and twenty 
Princes of the Priests, twelve on the south side, and 
twelve on the north side of the Priests Court. And upon 
the seats were jour and twenty Elders sitting, clothed in white 
rayment, with crowns on their heads ; representing the 
Princes of the four and twenty courses of the Priests clothed 
in linen. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and 
thunderings, and voices, viz. the flashes of the fire upon the 
Altar at the morning-sacrifice, and the thundering voices 
of those that sounded the trumpets, and sung at the 
Eastern gate of the Priests Court ; for these being between 
JOHN and the throne appeared to him as proceeding from 
the throne. And there were seven lamps of fire burning, 
in the Temple, before the throne, which are the seven spirits 
of God, or Angels of the seven Churches, represented in the 
beginning of this Prophecy by seven stars. And before the 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 311 

throne was a sea of glass clear as chrystal ; the brazen sea 
between the porch of the Temple and the Altar, filled with 
clear water. And in the midst of the throne, and round 
about the throne, were jour Beasts full of eyes before and behind: 
that is, one Beast before the throne and one behind it, 
appeared to JOHN as in the midst of the throne, and one 
on either side in the circle about it, to represent by the 
multitude of their eyes the people standing in the four 
sides of the peoples court. And the first Beast was like 
a lion, and the second was like a calf, and the third had the 
face of a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. The 
people of ISRAEL in the wilderness encamped round 
about the tabernacle, and on the east side were three 
tribes under the standard of JUDAH, on the west were 
three tribes under the standard of EPHRAIM, on the south 
were three tribes under the standard of REUBEN, and on the 
north were three tribes under the standard of DAN. NUMB. 
ii. And the standard of JUDAH was a Lion, that of 
EPHRAIM an Ox, that of REUBEN a Man, and that of DAN 
an Eagle, as the JEWS affirm. Whence were framed the 
hieroglyphicks, of CHERUBIMS and SERAPHIMS, to represent 
the people of ISRAEL. A CHERUBIM had one body with 
four faces, the faces of a Lion, an Ox, a Man, and an 
Eagle, looking to the four winds of heaven, without turning 
about, as in EZEKIEL S vision, chap. i. And four SERA 
PHIMS had the same four faces with four bodies, one face 
to every body. The four Beasts are therefore four SERA 
PHIMS standing in the four sides of the peoples court ; the 
first in the eastern side with the head of a Lion, the second 
in the western side with the head of an Ox, the third in 
the southern side with the head of a Man, the fourth in the 
northern side with the head of an Eagle : and all four sig 
nify together the twelve tribes of ISRAEL, out of whom the 
hundred forty and four thousand were sealed. APOC. vii. 4. 
And the four Beasts had each of them six wings, two to a 
tribe, in all twenty and four wings, answering to the twenty 
and four stations of the people. And they were full of 
eyes within, or under their wings. And they rest not day 



312 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

and night 9 or at the morning and evening- sacrifices, saying, 
holy, holy, holy Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and 
is to come. These animals are therefore the Seraphims, 
which appeared to ISAIAH in a vision like this of the 
APOCALYPSE (!SA. vi.). For there also the Lord sat upon a 
throne in the temple ; and the Seraphims each with six wings 
cried, Holy, holy, holy Lord God of hosts. And when those 
animals give glory and honour and thanks to him that sitteth 
upon the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, the jour and 
twenty Elders go into the Temple, and there fall down before 
him that sitteth on the throne, and worship him that liveth 
for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, 
saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour 
and power : for thou hast created all things, and for thy 
pleasure they are and were created. At the morning and 
evening-sacrifice, so soon as the sacrifice was laid upon 
the Altar, and the drink-offering began to be poured out, 
the trumpets sounded, and the LEVITES sang by course 
three times ; and every time when the trumpets sounded, 
the people fell down and worshipped. Three times therefore 
did the people worship : to express which number, the 
Beasts cry Holy, holy, holy ; and the song being ended, the 
people prayed standing, till the solemnity was finished. 
In the mean time the Priests went into the Temple, and there 
fell down before him that sat upon the throne, and wor 
shipped. 

And JOHN saw, in the right hand of him that sat upon the 
throne, a book written within and on the backside, sealed with 
seven seals, viz. the book which DANIEL was commanded 
to seal up, and which is here represented by the pro 
phetic book of the Law laid up on the right side of the 
Ark, as it were in the right hand of him that sat on the 
throne : for the festivals and ceremonies of the Law 
prescribed to the people in this book, adumbrated those 
things which were predicted in the book of DANIEL ; and 
the writing within and on the backside of this book, relates 
to the synchronal Prophecies. And none was found worthy 
to open the book but the Lamb of God (Apoc. v.). And Zo, 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 813 

in the midst of the throne and of the four Beasts, and in the 
midst of the Elders, that is, at the foot of the Altar, stood a 
lamb as it had been slain, the morning sacrifice; having seven 
horns, which are the seven Churches and seven eyes, which 
are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth. And 
he came, and took the book out of the right hand of him that 
sat upon the throne. And when he had taken the book, the 
four Beasts and four and twenty Elders fell down before the 
Lamb, having every one of them harps, and golden vials full 
of odours, which are the prayers of saints. And they sung 
a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to 
open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed 
us to God by thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and 
people, and nation ; and hast made us, unto our God, Kings 
and Priests, and we shall reign on the earth. The Beasts 
and Elders therefore represent the primitive CHRISTIANS of 
all nations ; and the worship of these CHRISTIANS in their 
Churches is here represented under the form of worshipping 
God and the Lamb in the Temple : God for his benefaction 
in creating all Things, and the Lamb for his benefaction in 
redeeming us with his blood : God as sitting upon the 
throne and living for ever, and the Lamb as exalted above 
all by the merits of his death. And I heard, saith JOHN, 
the voice of many Angels round about the throne, and the 
Beasts and the Elders : and the number of them was ten 
thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands ; 
saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain 
to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and 
honour, and glory, and blessing. And every creature which 
is in heaven,\and on the earth, and under the earth, and such 
as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I, saying, 
Blessing, honour, glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth 
upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. And 
the four Beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty 
Elders fell down and worshipped him that livethfor ever and 
ever. This was the worship of the primitive CHRISTIANS. 
It was the custom for the High- Priest, seven days before 
the fast of the seventh month, to continue constantly 



314 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

in the Temple, and study the book of the Law, that he 
might be perfect in it against the day of expiation ; where 
in the service, which was various and intricate, was wholly 
to be performed by himself ; part of which service was 
reading the Law to the people : and to promote his studying 
it, there were certain Priests appointed by the SANHEDRIM 
to be with him those seven days in one of his chambers in 
the Temple, and there to discourse with him about the 
Law, and read it to him and put him in mind of reading 
and studying it himself. This his opening and reading 
the Law those seven days, is alluded unto in the Lamb s 
opening the seals. We are to conceive that those seven 
days begin in the evening before each day ; for the JEWS 
began their day in the evening, and that the solemnity 
of the fast begins in the morning of the seventh day. 

The seventh seal was therefore opened on the day of 
expiation, and then there was silence in heaven for half 
an hour. And an Angel, the High-Priest, stood at the Altar, 
having a golden Censer ; and there was given him much 
incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all Saints, 
upon the golden Altar which was before the throne. The 
custom was on other days, for one of the Priests to take 
fire from the great Altar in a silver Censer ; but on this day, 
for the High- Priest to take fire from the great Altar in a 
golden Censer ; and when he was come down from the great 
Altar, he took incense from one of the Priests who brought 
it to him, and went with it to the golden Altar : and 
while he offered the incense, the people prayed without in 
silence, which is the silence in heaven for half an hour. 
When the High-Priest had laid the incense on the Altar, 
he carried a Censer of it burning in his hand, into the most 
holy place before the Ark. And the smoke of the incense, 
with the prayers of the Saints, ascended up before God out 
of the Angel s hand. On other days there was a certain 
measure of incense for the golden Altar : on this day there 
was a greater quantity for both the Altar and the most holy 
Place, and therefore it is called much incense. After this 
the Angel took the Censer, and filled it with fire from the great 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 815 

Altar, and cast it into the earth ; that is, by the hands of 
the Priests who belong to his mystical body, he cast it 
to the earth without the Temple for burning the Goat 
which was the Lord s lot. And at this and other con 
comitant sacrifices, until the evening-sacrifice was ended, 
there were voices, and thundrings, and lightnings, and an 
earthquake ; that is, the voice of the High- Priest reading the 
Law to the people, and other voices and thundrings from 
the trumpets and temple-musick at the sacrifices, and 
lightnings from the fire of the Altar. 

The solemnity of the day of expiation being finished, 
the seven Angels sound their trumpets at the great jsacri- 
fices of the seven days of the feast of tabernacles ; and at 
the same sacrifices, the seven thunders utter their voices 
which are the musick of the Temple, and singing of the 
Levites, intermixed with the soundings of the trumpets : 
and the seven Angels pour out their vials of wrath, which 
are the drink-offerings of those sacrifices. 

When six of the seals were opened, JOHN said (Aroc. 
vii.) : And after these things, that is, after the visions of the 
sixth seal, I saw four Angels standing on the four corners of 
the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind 
should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree. 
And I saw another Angel ascending from the East, having 
the seal of the living God : and he cried with a loud voice to 
the four Angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and 
the sea, saying, Hurt not the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, 
till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads. 
This sealing alludes to a tradition of the JEWS, that upon 
the day of expiation all the people of ISRAEL are sealed up 
in the books of life and death (BUXTORF, in Synagoga 
Judaica, c. 18, 21.). For the JEWS in their Talmud tell us, 
that in the beginning of every new year, or first day of the 
month, TISRI, the seventh month of the sacred year, three 
books are opened in judgment ; the book of life, in which 
the names of those are written who are perfectly just ; the 
book of death, in which the names of those are written 
who are Atheists or very wicked ; and a third book, of 



316 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

those whose judgment is suspended till the day of expiation, 
and whose names are not written in the book of life or 
death before that day. The first ten days of this month 
they call the penitential days ; and all these days they fast 
and pray very much, and are very devout, that on the 
tenth day their sins may be remitted, and their names 
may be written in the book of life ; which day is therefore 
called the day of expiation. And upon this tenth day, in 
returning home from the Synagogues, they say to one 
another, God the creator seal you to a good year. For they 
conceive that the books are now sealed up, and that the 
sentence of God remains unchanged henceforward to the 
end of the year. The same thing is signified by the two 
Goats, upon whose foreheads the High-Priest yearly, on 
the day of expiation, lays the two lots inscribed, For God 
and For Azazel ; God s lot signifying the people who are 
sealed with the name of God in their foreheads ; and 
the lot AZAZEL, which was sent into the wilderness, repre 
senting those who receive the mark and name of the 
Beast, and go into the wilderness with the great Whore. 

The servants of God being therefore sealed in the day of 
expiation, we may conceive that this sealing is synchronal 
to the visions which appear upon opening the seventh 
seal ; and that when the Lamb had opened six of the seals 
and seen the visions relating to the inside of the sixth, he 
looked on the backside of the seventh leaf, and then saw 
the four Angels holding the four winds of heaven, and another 
Angel ascending from the East with the seal of God. Con 
ceive also, that the Angels which held the four winds were 
the first four of the seven Angels, who upon opening the 
seventh seal were seen standing before God ; and that upon 
their holding the winds, there was silence in heaven for half 
an hour ; and that while the servants of God were sealing, 
the Angel with the golden Censer offered their prayers 
with incense upon the golden Altar, and read the Law : 
and that so soon as they were sealed, the winds hurt the 
earth at the sounding of the first trumpet, and the sea 
at the sounding of the second ; these winds signifying 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 817 

the wars, to which the first four trumpets sounded. For as 
the first four seals are distinguished from the three last by 
the appearance of four horsemen towards the four winds 
of heaven ; so the wars of the first four trumpets are 
distinguished from those of the three last, by representing 
these by four winds, and the others by three great woes. 

In one of EZEKIEL S visions (chap, ix.) when the BABY 
LONIAN captivity was at hand, six men appeared with slaugh 
ter-weapons ; and a seventh, who appeared among them clothed 
in white linen and a writer s ink-horn by his side, is com 
manded to go thro the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark 
upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and cry for all the 
abominations done in the midst thereof: and then the six 
men, like the Angels of the first six trumpets, are com 
manded to slay those men who are not marked. Conceive 
therefore that the hundred forty and four thousand are 
sealed, to preserve them from the plagues of the first six 
trumpets ; and that at length by the preaching of the 
everlasting gospel, they grow into a great multitude, which 
no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people 
and tongues : and at the sounding of the seventh trumpet 
come out of the great tribulation with Palms in their hands : 
the kingdoms of this world, by the war to which that trumpet 
sounds, becoming the kingdoms of God and his Christ. 
For the solemnity of the great HOSANNAH was kept by the 
JEWS upon the seventh or last day of the feast of taber 
nacles ; the JEWS upon that day carrying Palms in their 
hands, and crying HOSANNAH. 

After six of the Angels, answering to the six men with 
slaughter- weapons, had sounded their trumpets, the Lamb 
in the form of a mighty Angel came down from heaven 
clothed with a cloud, and a rainbow was upon his head, and 
his face was as it were the Sun, and his feet as pillars of fire, 
the shape in which CHRIST appeared in the beginning 
of this Prophecy ; and he had in his hand a little book open, 
the book which he had newly opened ; for he received but 
one book from him that sitteth upon the throne, and he 
alone was worthy to open and look on this book. And 



318 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left foot on the earth, 
and cried with a loud voice, as when a lion roareth. It 
was the custom for the High- Priest on the day of expiation, 
to stand in an elevated place in the peoples court, at the 
Eastern gate of the Priests court, and read the Law to 
the people, while the Heifer and the Goat which was the 
Lord s lot, were burning without the Temple. We may 
therefore suppose him standing in such a manner that his 
right foot might appear to JOHN as it were standing on 
the sea of glass, and his left foot on the ground of the 
house ; and that he cried with a loud voice, in reading 
the Law on the day of expiation. And when he had cried, 
seven thunders uttered their voices. Thunders are the voice 
of a cloud, and a cloud signifies a multitude, and this 
multitude may be the LEVITES, who sang with thundering 
voices, and played with musical instruments at the great 
sacrifices, on the seven days of the feast of Tabernacles : 
at which times the trumpets also sounded. For the 
trumpets sounded, and the LEVITES sang alternately, 
three times at every sacrifice. The Prophecy therefore of 
the seven thunders is nothing else than a repetition of the 
Prophecy of the seven trumpets in another form. And 
the Angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth, 
lifted up his hand to heaven, and sware by him that liveth 
for ever and ever, that after the seven thunders there should be 
time no longer ; but in the days of the voice of the seventh 
Angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should 
be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the Prophets. 
The voices of the thunders therefore last to the end of 
this world, and so do those of the trumpets. 

And the voice which I heard from heaven, saith JOHN, 
spake unto me again and said, Go and take the little book, &c. 
And I took the little book out of the Angel s hand, and ate it 
up ; and it was in my mouth sweet as honey, and as soon as 
I had eaten it, my belly was bitter. And he said unto me, 
Thou must prophesy again before many peoples, and nations, 
and tongues, and kings. This is an introduction to a new 
Prophecy, to a repetition of the Prophecy of the whole 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 319 

book; and alludes to EZEKIEL S eating a roll or book 
spread open before him, and written within and without, 
full of lamentations and mourning and woe, but sweet in 
his mouth. Eating and drinking signify acquiring and 
possessing ; and eating the book is becoming inspired with 
the Prophecy contained in it. It implies being inspired 
in a vigorous and extraordinary manner with the Prophecy 
of the whole book, and therefore signifies a lively repetition 
of the whole Prophecy by way of interpretation, and begins 
not till the first Prophecy, that of the seals and trumpets, 
is ended. It was sweet in JOHN S mouth, and therefore 
begins not with the bitter Prophecy of the BABYLONIAN 
captivity, and the GENTILES being in the outward court of 
the Temple, and treading the holy city under foot ; and 
the prophesying of the TWO WITNESSES in sackcloth, and 
their smiting the earth with all plagues, and being killed 
by the Beast : but so soon as the Prophecy of the trumpets 
is ended, it begins with the sweet Prophecy of the glorious 
WOMAN IN HEAVEN, and the victory of MICHAEL over the 
Dragon ; and after that, it is bitter in JOHN S belly, by a 
large description of the times of the great Apostacy. 

And the Angel stood, upon the earth and sea, saying, 
Rise and measure the Temple of God and the Altar, and 
them that worship therein, that is, their courts with the 
buildings thereon, viz. the square court of the Temple 
called the separate place, and the square court of the Altar 
called the Priests court, and the court of them that worship 
in the Temple called the new court : but the great court 
which is without the Temple, leave out, and measure it not, 
for it is given to the Gentiles, and the holy city shall they tread 
under foot forty and two months. This measuring hath 
reference to EZEKIEL S measuring the Temple of SOLOMON : 
there the whole Temple, including the outward court, was 
measured, to signify that it should be rebuilt in the latter 
days. Here the courts of the Temple and Altar, and they 
who worship therein, are only measured, to signify the 
building of a second Temple, for those that are sealed out 
of all the twelve tribes of ISRAEL, and worship in the 
22 



320 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

inward court of sincerity and truth : but JOHN is com 
manded to leave out the outward court, or outward form 
of religion and Church-government, because it is given to 
the BABYLONIAN GENTILES. For the glorious woman in 
heaven, the remnant of whose seed kept the command 
ments of God, and had the testimony of JESUS, continued 
the same woman in outward form after her flight into the 
wilderness, whereby she quitted her former sincerity and 
piety, and became the great Whore. She lost her chastity, 
but kept her outward form and shape. And while the 
GENTILES tread the holy city underfoot, and worship in 
the outward court, the two witnesses, represented perhaps 
by the two feet of the Angel standing on the sea and earth, 
prophesied against them, and had power, like ELIJAH and 
MOSES, to consume their enemies with fire proceeding out of 
their mouth, and to shut heaven that it rain not in the days of 
their Prophecy, and to turn the waters into blood, and to 
smite the earth with all plagues as often as they will, that is, 
with the plagues of the trumpets and vials of wrath ; and 
at length they are slain, rise again from the dead, and 
ascend up to heaven in a cloud ; and then the seventh 
trumpet sounds to the day of judgment. 

The Prophecy being finished, JOHN is inspired anew by 
the eaten book, and begins the Interpretation thereof with 
these words, And the Temple of God was opened in heaven, 
and there was seen in his Temple the Ark of the Testament. 
By the Ark, we may know that this was the first Temple ; 
for the second Temple had no Ark. And there were light 
nings, and voices, and thundrings, and an earthquake, and 
great hail. These answer to the wars in the ROMAN 
Empire, during the reign of the four horsemen, who appeared 
upon opening the first four seals. And there appeared a 
great wonder in heaven, a woman clothed with the Sun. In 
the Prophecy, the affairs of the Church begin to be con 
sidered at the opening of the fifth seal ; and in the Interpre 
tation, they begin at the same time with the vision of the 
Church in the form of a woman in heaven : there she is 
persecuted, and here she is pained in travail. The Inter- 



CHAP, n] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 321 

pretation proceeds down first to the sealing of the servants 
of God, and marking the rest with the mark of the Beast ; 
and then to the day of judgment, represented by a harvest 
and vintage. Then it returns back to the times of opening 
the seventh seal, and interprets the Prophecy of the seven 
trumpets by the pouring out of seven vials of wrath. The 
Angels who pour them out, come out of the TEMPLE OF 
THE TABERNACLE ; that is, out of the second Temple, for 
the Tabernacle had no outward court. Then it returns 
back again to the times of measuring the Temple and 
Altar, and of the GENTILES worshipping in the outward 
court, and of the Beast killing the witnesses in the streets 
of the great city ; and interprets these things by the 
vision of a woman sitting on the Beast, drunken with the blood 
of the Saints ; and proceeds in the Interpretation down 
wards to the fall of the great city and the day of judgment. 
The whole Prophecy of the book, represented by the 
book of the Law, is therefore repeated, and interpreted 
in the visions which follow those of sounding the seventh 
trumpet, and begin with that of the Temple of God opened 
in heaven. Only the things, which the seven thunders 
uttered, were not written down, and therefore not inter 
preted. 



CHAPTER III 

OF THE RELATION WHICH THE PROPHECY OF JOHN HATH 
TO THOSE OF DANIEL ; AND OF THE SUBJECT OF THE 
PROPHECY 

THE whole scene of sacred Prophecy is composed of three 
principal parts : the regions beyond EUPHRATES, repre 
sented by the two first Beasts of DANIEL ; the Empire of 
the GREEKS on this side of EUPHRATES, represented by the 
Leopard and by the He-Goat ; and the Empire of the 
LATINS on this side of GREECE, represented by the Beast 
with ten horns. And to these three parts, the phrases of 
the third part of the earth, sea, rivers, trees, ships, stars, sun, 
and moon, relate. I place the body of the fourth Beast on 
this side of GREECE, because the three first of the four 
Beasts had their lives prolonged after their dominion was 
taken away, and therefore belong not to the body of the 
fourth. He only stamped them with his feet. 

By the earth, the JEWS understood the great continent 
of all ASIA and AFRICA, to which they had access by land : 
and by the Isles of the sea, they understood the places to 
which they sailed by sea, particularly all EUROPE : and 
hence in this Prophecy, the earth and sea are put for the 
nations of the GREEK and LATIN Empires. 

The third and fourth Beasts of DANIEL are the same 
with the Dragon and ten-horned Beast of JOHN, but with 
this difference : JOHN puts the Dragon for the whole 
ROMAN Empire while it continued entire, because it was 
entire when that Prophecy was given ; and the Beast he 
considers not till the Empire became divided : and then 
he puts the Dragon for the Empire of the GREEKS, and 

322 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 323 

the Beast for the Empire of the LATINS. Hence it is that 
the Dragon and Beast have common heads and common 
horns : but the Dragon hath crowns only upon his heads, 
and the Beast only upon his horns ; because the Beast 
and his horns reigned not before they were divided from 
the Dragon : and when the Dragon gave the Beast his 
throne, the ten horns received power as Kings, the same 
hour with the Beast. The heads are seven successive 
Kings. Four of them were the four horsemen which 
appeared at the opening of the first four seals. In the 
latter end of the sixth head, or seal, considered as present 
in the visions, it is said five of the seven Kings are fallen, 
and one is, and another is not yet come ; and the Beast 
that was and is not, being wounded to death with a sword, 
he is the eighth, and of the seven : he was therefore a collateral 
part of the seventh. The horns are the same with those 
of DANIEL S fourth Beast, described above. 

The four horsemen which appear at the opening of the 
first four seals, have been well explained by Mr. MEDE ; 
excepting that I had rather continue the third to the end 
of the reign of the three GORDIANS and PHILIP the ARABIAN, 
those being Kings from the SOUTH, and begin the fourth 
with the reign of DECIUS, and continue it till the reign of 
DIOCLESIAN. For the fourth horseman sat upon a pale 
horse, and his name was Death ; and hell followed with him ; 
and power was given them to kill unto the fourth part of the 
earth, with the sword, and with famine, and with the plague, 
and with the Beasts of the earth, or armies of invaders and 
rebels : and as such were the times during all this interval. 
Hitherto the ROMAN Empire continued in an undivided 
monarchical form, except rebellions ; and such it is repre 
sented by the four horsemen. But DIOCLESIAN divided it 
between himself and MAXIMIANUS, A. C. 285 ; and it con 
tinued in that divided state, till the victory of CONSTANTINE 
the great over LICINIUS, A. C. 323, which put an end to 
the heathen persecutions set on foot by DIOCLESIAN and 
MAXIMIANUS, and described at the opening of the fifth 
seal. But this division of the Empire was imperfect, the 



324 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

whole being still under one and the same Senate. The 
same victory of CONSTANTINE over LICINIUS a heathen 
persecutor, began the fall of the heathen Empire, described 
at the opening of the sixth seal : and the visions of this 
seal continue till after the reign of JULIAN the Apostate, 
he being a heathen Emperor, and reigning over the whole 
ROMAN Empire. 

The affairs of the Church begin to be considered at the 
opening of the fifth seal, as was said above. Then she is 
represented by a woman in the Temple of heaven, clothed 
with the sun of righteousness, and the moon of JEWISH 
ceremonies under her feet, and upon her head a crown of 
twelve stars relating to the twelve Apostles and to the 
twelve tribes of ISRAEL. When she fled from the Temple 
into the wilderness, she left in the Temple a remnant of her 
seed, who kept the commandments of God, and had the 
testimony of Jesus Christ ; and therefore before her flight 
she represented the true primitive Church of God, tho 
afterwards she degenerated like AHOLAH and AHOLIBAH. 
In DIOCLESIAN S persecution she cried, travelling in birth, 
and pained to be delivered. And in the end of that persecu 
tion, by the victory of CONSTANTINE over MAXENTIUS, 
A. C. 312, she brought forth a man-child, such a child as was 
to rule all nations with a rod of iron, a CHRISTIAN Empire. 
And her child, by the victory of CONSTANTINE over 
LICINIUS, A. C. 323, was caught up unto God and to his 
throne. And the woman, by the division of the ROMAN 
Empire into the GREEK and LATIN Empires, fled from the 
first Temple into the wilderness, or spiritually barren Empire 
of the LATINS, where she is found afterwards sitting upon 
the Beast and upon the seven mountains ; and is called 
the great city which reigneth over the Kings of the earth, that 
is, over the ten Kings who give their kingdom to her Beast. 

But before her flight there was war in heaven between 
MICHAEL and the Dragon, the CHRISTIAN and the heathen 
religions ; and the Dragon, that old serpent, called the Devil, 
and Satan, who deceiveth the whole world, was cast out to the 
earth } and his Angels were cast out with him. And JOHN 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 825 

heard a voice in heaven, saying, Now is come salvation and 
strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his 
Christ : for the accuser of our brethren is cast down. And 
they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word 
of their testimony. And they loved not their lives unto the 
death. Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in 
them. Woe be to the inhabiters of the earth and sea, or people 
of the GREEK and LATIN Empires, for the devil is come 
down amongst you, having great wrath, because he knoweth 
that he hath but a short time. 

And when the Dragon saw that he was cast down from the 
ROMAN throne, and the man-child caught up thither, he 
persecuted the woman which brought forth the man-child ; 
and to her, by the division of the ROMAN Empire between 
the cities of ROME and CONSTANTINOPLE, A. C. 330, were 
given two wings of a great eagle, the symbol of the ROMAN 
Empire, that she might flee from the first Temple into the 
wilderness of ARABIA, to her place at BABYLON mystically 
so called. And the serpent, by the division of the same 
Empire between the sons of CONSTANTINE the great, 
A. C. 337, cast out of his mouth water as a flood, the WESTERN 
Empire, after the woman ; that he might cause her to be carried 
away by the flood. And the earth, or GREEK Empire, helped 
the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed 
up the flood, by the victory of CONSTANTIUS over MAG- 
NENTIUS, A. C. 353, and thus the Beast was wounded to 
death with a sword. And the Dragon was wroth with the 
woman, in the reign of JULIAN the Apostate, A. C. 361, and, 
by a new division of the Empire between VALENTINIAN 
and VALENS, A. C. 364, went from her into the EASTERN 
Empire to make war with the remnant of her seed, which she 
left behind her when she fled ; and thus the Beast revived. 
By the next division of the Empire, which was between 
GRATIAN and THEODOSIUS, A. C. 379, the Beast with 
ten horns rose out of the sea, and the Beast with two horns 
out of the earth : and by the last division thereof, which was 
between the sons of THEODOSIUS, A. C. 395, the Dragon 
gave the Beast his power and throne, and great authority. 



326 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

And the ten horns received power as Kings, the same hour 
with the Beast. 

At length the woman arrived at her place of temporal 
as well as spiritual dominion upon the back of the Beast, 
where she is nourished a time, and times and half a time, 
from the face of the serpent ; not in his kingdom, but at a 
distance from him. She is nourished by the merchants of 
the earth, three times or years and an half, or 42 months, 
or 1260 days : and in these Prophecies days are put for 
years. During all this time the Beast acted, and she sat 
upon him, that is, reigned over him, and over the ten 
Kings who gave their power and strength, that is, their 
kingdom to the Beast ; and she was drunken with the blood 
of the Saints. By all these circumstances she is the eleventh 
horn of DANIEL S fourth Beast, who reigned with a look 
more stout than his fellows, and was of a different kind from 
the rest, and had eyes and a mouth like the woman ; and 
made war with the saints, and prevailed against them, and 
wore them out, and thought to change times and laws, and had 
them given into his hand, until a time, and times, and half 
a time. These characters of the woman, and little horn of 
the Beast, agree perfectly : in respect of her temporal 
dominion, she was a horn of the Beast ; in respect of her 
spiritual dominion, she rode upon him in the form of a 
woman, and was his Church, and committed fornication 
with the ten Kings. 

The second Beast, which rose up out of the earth, was the 
Church of the GREEK Empire : for it had two horns like 
those of the Lamb, and therefore was a Church ; and it 
spake as the Dragon, and therefore was of his religion ; and 
it came up out of the earth, and by consequence in his 
kingdom. It is called also the false Prophet who wrought 
miracles before the first Beast, by which he deceived them 
that received his mark, and worshipped his image. When 
the Dragon went from the woman to make war with the 
remnant of her seed, this Beast arising out of the earth 
assisted in that war, and caused the earth and them which 
dwell therein to worship the authority of the first Beast, whose 



CHAP, m] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 327 

mortal wound was healed, and to make an Image to him, that 
is, to assemble a body of men like him in point of religion. 
He had also power to give life and authority to the Image, 
so that it could both speak, and by dictating cause that all 
religious bodies of men, who would not worship the authority 
of the Image, should be mystically killed. And he causeth 
all men to receive a mark in their right hand or in their fore 
head, and that no man might buy or sell save he that had the 
mark, or the name of the Beast, or the number of his name ; 
all the rest being excommunicated by the Beast with two 
horns. His mark is ^ ^ ^ and his name AATEINO2, 
and the number of his name 666. 

Thus the Beast, after he was wounded to death with a 
sword and revived, was deified, as the heathens used to 
deify their Kings after death, and had an Image erected 
to him ; and his worshippers were initiated in this new 
religion, by receiving the mark or name of this new 
God, or the number of his name. By killing all that will 
not worship him and his Image, the first Temple, illuminated 
by the lamps of the seven Churches, is demolished, and a 
new Temple built for them who will not worship him ; and 
the outward court of this new Temple, or outward form 
of a Church, is given to the GENTILES, who worship the 
Beast and his Image : while they who will not worship him, 
are sealed with the name of God in their foreheads, and 
retire into the inward court of this new Temple. These 
are the 144000 sealed out of all the twelve tribes of ISRAEL, 
and called the two Witnesses, as being derived from the 
two wings of the woman while she was flying into the 
wilderness, andrepresentedby two of the seven candlesticks. 
These appear to JOHN in the inward court of the second 
Temple, standing on mount SIGN with the Lamb, and as it 
were on the sea of glass. These are the Saints of the most 
High, and the host of heaven, and the holy people spoken of 
by DANIEL, as worn out and trampled under foot, and 
destroyed in the latter times by the little horns of his 
fourth Beast and He-Goat. 

While the GENTILES tread the holy city under foot, God 



328 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

gives power to his two Witnesses, and they prophesy a thousand 
two hundred and threescore days clothed in sackcloth. They 
are called the two Olive-trees, with relation to the two Olive- 
trees, which in ZECHARY S vision, chap. iv. stand on either 
side of the golden candlestick to supply the lamps with oil : 
and Olive-trees, according to the Apostle PAUL, represent 
Churches, ROM. xi. They supply the lamps with oil, by 
maintaining teachers. They are also called the two candle 
sticks ; which in this Prophecy signify Churches, the seven 
Churches of ASIA being represented by seven candlesticks. 
Five of these Churches were found faulty, and threatned 
if they did not repent ; the other two were without fault, 
and so their candlesticks were fit to be placed in the second 
Temple. These were the Churches in SMYRNA and PHILA 
DELPHIA. They were in a state of tribulation and persecu 
tion, and the only two of the seven in such a state ; and 
so their candlesticks were fit to represent the Churches in 
affliction in the times of the second Temple, and the only 
two of the seven that were fit. The two Witnesses are not 
new Churches : they are the posterity of the primitive 
Church, the posterity of the two wings of the woman, and 
so are fitly represented by two of the primitive candlesticks. 
We may conceive therefore, that when the first Temple was 
destroyed, and a new one built for them who worship 
in the inward court, two of the seven candlesticks were 
placed in this new Temple. 

The Affairs of the Church are not considered during the 
opening of the first four seals. They begin to be consider d 
at the opening of the fifth seal, as was said above ; and are 
further considered at the opening of the sixth seal ; and 
the seventh seal contains the times of the great Apostacy. 
And therefore I refer the Epistles to the seven Churches 
unto the times of the fifth and sixth seals : for they relate 
to the Church when she began to decline, and contain 
admonitions against the great Apostacy then approaching. 

When EUSEBIUS had brought down his Ecclesiastical 
History to the reign of DIOCLESIAN, he thus describes the 
state of the Church : " Truly we could never adequately 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 329 

describe the nature and extent of the glory and liberty, 
which the doctrine of true piety towards the God of 
Heaven (a doctrine first proclaimed to all by CHRIST) 
secured for itself everywhere, both among GREEKS and 
BARBARIANS, prior to the persecution which began within 
my own recollection. But we might point to the kindness 
of the Emperors towards our brethren : they even entrusted 
to them the government of whole provinces and freed them 
from all fear of having to sacrifice to idols, such was the 
remarkable good-will displayed by them towards our 
religion." And a little after he says : " But further who 
could ever give a detailed account of the innumerable 
hosts of men who daily found refuge in belief on CHRIST, 
of the number of Churches in every city, or the distinguished 
congregations that gathered in the sacred edifices. The 
result of this enthusiasm was that, becoming dissatisfied 
with the ancient buildings, in every city theyreared churches 
on a grandiose scale from the very foundations. In the 
process of time these buildings were enlarged and every 
day grew to something greater and better : nor could 
they be harmed by envy, nor bewitched by the spite 
of the Evil One, nor hindered in their progress by the 
unbelief of men, so long as the right arm of God Almighty 
shielded and guarded His people, and while His people 
merited such protection. But in time our absolute free 
dom led us into negligence and sloth : men began to envy 
and abuse their neighbours : we used to wage amongst 
ourselves a kind of civil war wounding each other, blow 
for blow, with words instead of arms and spears ; priests 
against priests, peoples against peoples, stirred up feuds 
and tumults ; in short deceit and hypocrisy reached the 
highest pitch of wickedness. Then at last divine ven 
geance, gradually and gently began to stir against us 
at first with light stroke as is its wont : the status of the 
Church still remained unimpaired : the masses of the 
faithful were still at liberty to assemble ; and the persecu 
tion first began against the militant party. But in our 
folly we gave not a thought to appeasing the Majesty of 



330 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

God, but rather imagining like infidels that Providence 
controls not the affairs of men, day by day we added fresh 
sin to that of the past : our Pastors spurning the ordinances 
of religion, strove and quarreled the one with the other ; 
setting themselves to nothing else than to widen the dis 
putes, to increase their threats and to intensify the rivalry, 
passions and enmity they bore to one another ; and with 
the utmost vehemence claiming for themselves the Primacy 
as though it were by a kind of tyranny. Then it was that 
in the words of JEREMIAH, The Lord covered the daughter 
of ZION with a cloud in His anger and cast down from 
heaven unto the earth the beauty of ISRAEL, that is by the 
overthrow of the Churches." This was the state of the 
Church just before the subversion of the Churches in the 
beginning of DIOCLESIAN S persecution : and to this state 
of the Church agrees the first of the seven Epistles to 
the Angel of the seven Churches, that to the Church in 
EPHESUS (Apoc. ii. 4. &c.): I have something against thee, 
saith CHRIST to the Angel of that Church, because thou hast 
left thy first love. Remember therefore from whence thou art 
fallen, and repent, and do the first works ; or else I will come 
unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of its 
place, except thou repent. But this thou hast, that thou hatest 
the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. The 
NICOLAITANS are the CONTINENTES above described, who 
placed religion in abstinence from marriage, abandoning 
their wives if they had any. They are here called NICO 
LAITANS, from NICOLAS one of the seven deacons of the pri 
mitive Church of JERUSALEM ; who having a beautiful 
wife, and being taxed with uxoriousness, abandoned her, 
and permitted her to marry whom she pleased, saying 
that we must disuse the flesh ; and thenceforward lived 
a single life in continency, as his children also. The 
CONTINENTES afterwards embraced the doctrine of JSoNS 
and Ghosts male and female, and were avoided by the 
Churches till the fourth century ; and the Church of 
EPHESUS is here commended for hating their deeds. 
The persecution of DIOCLESIAN began in the year of 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 331 

CHRIST 302, and lasted ten years in the EASTERN Empire 
and two years in the WESTERN. To this state of the Church 
the second Epistle, to the Church of SMYRNA, agrees. / 
know, saith CHRIST, thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, 
but thou art rich ; and I know the blasphemy of them, which 
say they are Jews and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. 
Fear none of these things which thou shall suffer : Behold, the 
Devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried 
and ye shall have tribulation ten days. Be thou faithful 
unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. The tribula 
tion of ten days can agree to no other persecution than that 
of DIOCLESIAN, it being the only persecution which lasted 
ten years. By the blasphemy of them which say they are 
Jews and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan, I understand 
the Idolatry of the NICOLAITANS, who falsly said they were 
CHRISTIANS. 

The NICOLAITANS are complained of also in the third 
Epistle (ver. 14.), as men that held the doctrine of Balaam, 
who taught Balac to cast a stumbling-block before the children 
of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to Idols, and to commit 
spiritual fornication (NUMB. xxv. 1, 2, 18. & xxxi. 16.). 
For BALAAM taught the MOABITES and MIDIANITES to 
tempt and invite ISRAEL by their women to commit forni 
cation, and to feast with them at the sacrifices of their 
Gods. The Dragon therefore began now to come down 
among the inhabitants of the earth and sea. 

The NICOLAITANS are also complained of in the fourth 
Epistle, under the name of the woman Jezabel, who calleth 
herself a Prophetess, to teach and to seduce the servants of 
Christ to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed to 
Idols. The woman therefore began now to fly into the 
wilderness. 

The reign of CONSTANTINE the great from the time of his 
conquering LICINIUS, was monarchical over the whole 
ROMAN Empire. Then the Empire became divided between 
the sons of CONSTANTINE : and afterwards it was again 
united under CONSTANTIUS, by his victory over MAGNEN- 
TIUS. To the affairs of the Church in these three successive 



332 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

periods of time, the third, fourth, and fifth Epistles, that 
is, those to the Angels of the Churches in PERGAMUS, 
THYATIRA, and SARDIS, seem to relate. The next Emperor 
was JULIAN the Apostate. 

In the sixth Epistle, to the Angel of the Church in 
PHILADELPHIA (Apoc. iii. 10, 12.) CHRIST saith : Because in 
the reign of the heathen Emperor JULIAN, thou hast kept 
the word of my patience, I also will keep theefrom the hour of 
temptation, which by the woman s flying into the wilderness, 
and the Dragon s making war with the remnant of her seed, 
and the killing of all who will not worship the Image of the 
Beast, shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell 
upon the earth, and to distinguish them by sealing the one 
with the name of God in their foreheads, and marking 
the other with the mark of the Beast. Him that overcometh, 
I will make a pillar in the Temple of my God ; and he shall 
go no more out of it. And I will write upon him the name of 
my God in his forehead. So the CHRISTIANS of the Church 
of PHILADELPHIA, as many of them as overcome, are sealed 
with the seal of God, and placed in the second Temple, 
and go no more out. The same is to be understood of 
the Church in SMYRNA, which also kept the word of God s 
patience, and was without fault. These two Churches, 
with their posterity, are therefore the two Pillars, and the 
two candlesticks, and the two Witnesses in the second Temple. 

After the reign of the Emperor JULIAN, and his successor 
JOVIAN, who reigned but five months, the Empire became 
again divided between VALENTINIAN and VALENS. Then 
the Church Catholick, in the Epistle to the Angel of the 
Church of LAODICEA, is reprehended as lukewarm (Apoc. 
iii. 16, 17.) and threatned to be spewed out O/CHRIST S mouth. 
She said, that she was rich and increased with goods, and 
had need of nothing, being in outward prosperity ; and knew 
not that she was inwardly wretched, and miserable, and poor, 
and blind, and naked. She is therefore spewed out O/CHRIST S 
mouth at the opening of the seventh seal : and this puts an 
end to the times of the first Temple. 

About one half of the ROMAN Empire turned CHRISTIANS 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 

in the time of CONSTANTINE the great and his sons. After 
JULIAN had opened the Temples, and restored the worship 
of the heathens, the Emperors VALENTINIAN and VALENS 
tolerated it all their reign ; and therefore the Prophecy of 
the sixth seal was not fully accomplished before the reign 
of their successor GRATIAN. It was the custom of the 
heathen Priests, in the beginnning of the reign of every 
sovereign Emperor, to offer him the dignity and habit of 
the PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. This dignity all Emperors had 
hitherto accepted : but GRATIAN rejected it, threw down 
the idols, interdicted the sacrifices, and took away their 
revenues with the salaries and authority of the Priests. 
THEODOSIUS the great followed his example ; and heathen 
ism afterwards recovered itself no more, but decreased so 
fast, that PRUDENTIUS, about ten years after the death of 
THEODOSIUS, called the heathens "merely a few intellectuals 
and a minute fraction of mankind." Whence the affairs 
of the sixth seal ended with the reign of VALENS, or rather 
with the beginning of the reign of THEODOSIUS when he, 
like his predecessor GRATIAN, rejected the dignity of 
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS. For the ROMANS were very much 
infested by the invasions of foreign nations in the reign 
of VALENTINIAN and VALENS : "At this time," saith 
AMMIANUS, "you might have thought that through the whole 
ROMAN world, trumpets were blowing for war ; and that, 
excited by the sound, the fiercest tribes were leaping across 
the frontiers that lay nearest to them. The GALLIC and 
RH^ETIAN Provinces were simultaneously ravaged by the 
ALEMANNI ; the Provinces of PANNONIA by the SARMAT^E 
and the QUADI : while the BRITONS were being constantly 
harassed and raided by the PICTS, SAXONS, SCOTS, and 
ATTACOTTI. The AUSTORIANS and the other MOORISH tribes 
made deeper incursions than usual into the Province of 
AFRICA. The THRACIAN Provinces were plundered by 
marauding bands of GOTHS : and the King of PERSIA was 
always sending his forces against the ARMENIANS." And 
whilst the Emperors were busy in repelling these enemies, 
the HUNNS and ALANS and GOTHS came over the DANUBE 



334 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

in two bodies, overcame and slew VALENS, and made so 
great a slaughter of the ROMAN army, that AMMIANUS 
saith : " No action in history, with the exception of CANNAE, 
was ever carried to a bloodier termination than this." 
These wars were not fully stopt on all sides till the beginning 
of the reign of THEODOSIUS, A. C. 379 & 380 : but thence 
forward the Empire remained quiet from foreign armies, 
till his death, A. C. 395. So long the four winds were 
held : and so long there was silence in heaven. And the 
seventh seal was opened when this silence began. 

Mr. MEDE hath explained the Prophecy of the first six 
trumpets not much amiss : but if he had observed, that the 
Prophecy of pouring out the vials of wrath is synchronal 
to that of sounding the trumpets, his explanation would 
have been yet more complete. 

The name of WOES is given to the wars to which the three 
last trumpets sound, to distinguish them from the wars of 
the four first. The sacrifices on the first four days of the 
feast of Tabernacles, at which the first four trumpets 
sound, and the first four vials of wrath are poured out, are 
slaughters in four great wars ; and these wars are repre 
sented by four winds from the four corners of the earth. 
The first was an east wind, the second a west wind, the third 
a south wind, and the fourth a north wind, with respect 
to the city of ROME, the metropolis of the old ROMAN 
Empire. These four plagues fell upon the third part of the 
Earth, Sea, Rivers, Sun, Moon, and Stars ; that is, upon the 
Earth, Sea, Rivers, Sun, Moon and Stars of the third part 
of the whole scene of these Prophecies of DANIEL and JOHN. 

The plague of the eastern wind at the sounding of the 
first trumpet, was to fall upon the EARTH, that is, upon the 
nations of the GREEK Empire. Accordingly, after the death 
of THEODOSIUS the great, the GOTHS, SARMATIANS, HUNNS, 
ISAURIANS and AUSTORIAN Moors invaded and miserably 
wasted GREECE, THRACE, ASIA MINOR, ARMENIA, SYRIA, 
EGYPT, LYBIA, and ILLYRICUM, for ten or twelve years 
together. 

The plague of the western wind at the sounding of the 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 335 

second trumpet, was to fall upon the SEA, or WESTERN 
Empire, by means of a great mountain burning with fire cast 
into it, and turning it to blood. Accordingly in the year 
407, that Empire began to be invaded by the VISIGOTHS, 
VANDALS, ALANS, SUEVES, BURGUNDIANS, OSTROGOTHS, 
HERULI, QUADI, GEPIDES ; and by these wars it was broken 
into ten kingdoms, and miserably wasted : and ROME 
itself, the burning mountain, was besieged and taken by the 
OSTROGOTHS, in the beginning of these miseries. 

The plague of the southern wind at the sounding of the 
third trumpet, was to cause a great star, burning as it were 
a lamp, to fall from heaven upon the rivers and fountains of 
waters, the WESTERN Empire, now divided into many 
kingdoms, and to turn them to wormwood and blood, and 
make them bitter. Accordingly GENSERIC, the King of 
the VANDALS and ALANS in SPAIN, A. C. 427, enter d 
AFRICA with an army of eighty thousand men ; where 
he invaded the MOORS, and made war upon the ROMANS, 
both there and on the sea-coasts of EUROPE, for fifty years 
together, almost without intermission, taking HIPPO A. C. 
431, and CARTHAGE, the capital of AFRICA A. C. 439. In 
A. C. 455, with a numerous fleet and an Army of three 
hundred thousand VANDALS and MOORS, he invaded 
ITALY, took and plundered ROME, NAPLES, CAPUA, and 
many other cities ; carrying thence their wealth with the 
flower of the people into AFRICA : and the next year,, 
A. C. 456, he rent all AFRICA from the Empire, totally 
expelling the ROMANS. Then the VANDALS invaded and 
took the Islands of the MEDITERRANEAN, SICILY, SAR 
DINIA, CORSICA, EBUSUS, MAJORCA, MINORCA, &c. and 
RICIMER besieged the Emperor ANTHEMIUS in ROME, 
took the city, and gave his soldiers the plunder, A. C. 472. 
The VISIGOTHS about the same time drove the ROMANS 
out of SPAIN : and now the WESTERN Emperor, the 
great star which fell from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, 
having by all these wars gradually lost almost all his 
dominions, was invaded, and conquered in one year by 
ODOACER King of the HERULI, A. C. 476. After this the 
23 



336 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

MOORS revolted A. C. 477, and weakned the VANDALS 
by several wars, and took MAURITANIA from them. These 
wars continued till the VANDALS were conquered by BELI- 
SARIUS, A. C. 534, and by all these wars AFRICA was almost 
depopulated, according to PROCOPIUS, who reckons that 
above five millions of men perished in them. When the 
VANDALS first invaded AFRICA, that country was very 
populous, consisting of about 700 bishopricks, more than 
wece in all France, SPAIN and ITALY together : but by 
the wars between the VANDALS, ROMANS and MOORS, it 
was depopulated to that degree, that PROCOPIUS tells us, 
it was next to a miracle for a traveller to see a man. 
In pouring out the third vial it is said (Apoc. xvi. 5, 6.) : 

Thou art righteous, Lord, because thou hast judged 

thus : for they have shed the blood of thy Saints and Prophets, 
and thou hast given them blood to drink, for they are worthy. 
How they shed the blood of Saints, may be understood by 
the following Edict of the Emperor HONORIUS, procured by 
four Bishops sent to him by a Council of AFRICAN Bishops, 
who met at CARTHAGE 14 JUNE, A. C. 410. 

" The Emperors HONORIUS and THEODOSIUS to HERA- 
CLIANUS Governor of AFRICA. 

" Now that the shrine, whither they stole to practise their 
Tites of heretical superstition, has been utterly demolished 
let all enemies of the Holy Law take notice that they will 
suffer the punishment both of outlawry and of blood, if 
henceforth in their accursed and criminal insolence they 
.attempt to assemble in public. Given on the 25th August, 
in the Consulship of VERANUS, A. C. 410." 

Which Edict was five years after fortified by the fol 
lowing : 

" The Emperors HONORIUS and THEODOSIUS, to HERACLI- 
ANUS, Governor of AFRICA." 

" Let all enemies of the Holy Law, who in heretical 
superstition, have crept to the performance of their ntes, 



CHAP, m] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 337 

take notice that they must suffer the punishment both of 
outlawry and of blood ; if henceforth they essay to assemble 
in public impudently to practise this abomination. This 
we command lest anywhere reverence for the true God 
should by contagion with them be defiled. Given on the 
25th AUGUST, in the Consulship of HONORIUS and THEO- 
DOSIUS, A. C. 415." 

These Edicts being directed to the governor of AFRICA, 
extended only to the AFRICANS. Before these there were 
many severe ones against the DONATISTS, but they did 
not extend to blood. These two were the first which made 
their meetings, and the meetings of all dissenters, capital : 
for by hereticks in these Edicts are meant all dissenters, as 
is manifest by the following against EURESIUS a LUCIFERAN 
Bishop. 

" The Emperors ARCADIUS and HONORIUS to AURELIANUS, 
Procurator of AFRICA. 

" All who have even on trivial evidence been found to 
dissent from the judgment of the Catholic Church and to 
deviate from its course, are within the meaning of the 
word heretic and must come under the laws enacted 
against them. 

" Dat. iii. NON. SEPT. CONSTANTINOP. OLYBRIO & 
PROBING Coss. A. C. 395." 

The GREEK Emperor ZENO adopted THEODERIC King 
of the OSTROGOTHS to be his son, made him Master of the 
horse and PATRICIUS, and Consul of CONSTANTINOPLE ; and 
recommending to him the ROMAN people and Senate, gave 
him the WESTERN Empire, and sent him into ITALY against 
ODOACER King of the HERULI. THEODERIC thereupon led 
his nation into ITALY, conquered ODOACER, and reigned 
over ITALY, SICILY, RH^ETTA, NORICUM, DALMATIA, Li- 
BURNIA, ISTRI A, and part of SUEVIA, PANNONIA and GALLIA. 
Whence ENNODIUS said, in a Panegyric to THEODERIC : 
that " he had restored the ROMAN EMPIRE to its ancient 



338 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

frontiers." THEODERIC reigned with great prudence, 
moderation and felicity ; treated the ROMANS with singu 
lar benevolence, governed them by their own laws, and 
restored their government under their Senate and Consuls 
he himself supplying the place of Emperor, without 
assuming the title. " So far did he excel his predecessors," 
saith PROCOPIUS, " that in truth he lacked no glory meet for 
an Emperor. He had a great love of Justice and was 
constant in the protection he afforded to the law. He 
preserved his territory intact from the neighbouring 
barbarians," &c. Whence I do not reckon the reign of 
this King, amongst the plagues of the four winds. 

The plague of the northern wind, at the sounding of the 
fourth trumpet, was to cause the Sun, Moon and Stars, 
that is, the King, kingdom and Princes of the WESTERN 
Empire, to be darkned, and to continue some time in 
darkness. Accordingly BELISARIUS, having conquered the 
VANDALS, invaded ITALY A. C. 535, and made war upon the 
OSTROGOTHS in DALMATIA, LIBURNIA,VENETIA,LOMBARDY, 
TUSCANY, and other regions northward from ROME, twenty 
years together. In this war many cities were taken and 
retaken. In retaking MILLAIN from the ROMANS, the OSTRO 
GOTHS slew all the males young and old, amounting, as 
PROCOPIUS reckons, to three hundred thousand, and sent 
the women captives to their allies the BURGUNDIANS. 
ROME itself was taken and retaken several times, and there 
by the people were thinned ; the old government by a 
Senate ceased, the nobles were ruined, and all the glory 
of the city was extinguish d : and A. C. 552, after a war 
of seventeen years, the kingdom of the OSTROGOTHS fell ; 
yet the remainder of the OSTROGOTHS, and an army of 
GERMANS called in to their assistance, continued the war 
three or four years longer. Then ensued the war of the 
HERULI, who, as ANASTASIUS tells us, perimebant cunctam 
Italiam, slew all ITALY. This was followed by the war 
of the LOMBARDS, the fiercest of all the BARBARIANS, which 
began A. C. 568, and lasted for thirty-eight years together ; 
** with slaughter," saith ANASTASIUS, " such as cannot be 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 339 

recalled in the past " ; ending at the last in the Papacy of 
SABINIAN, A. C. 605, by a peace then made with the 
LOMBARDS. Three years before this war ended, GREGORY 
the great, then Bishop of ROME, thus speaks of it : " In 
no words of description can we fully tell how for a period 
now of 35 years, we have been harassed with daily fighting 
and numerous incursions of the LONGOBARDI " : and in one 
of his Sermons to the people, he thus expresses the great 
consumption of the ROMANS by these wars : " Your own 
eyes behold how few of you remain out of a once countless 
people, and even yet, day after day, one scourge and another 
harries us ; sudden misfortunes overwhelm us ; new and 
unforeseen disasters crush us." In another Sermon he 
thus describes the desolations : " Our cities are destroyed : 
our armaments overthrown : our fields laid waste : our land 
made a wilderness. None now lives in the country, and 
there is hardly a single dweller left in the cities. And yet 
these small remnants of the human race, endlessly, day by 
day, are still under the lash, and the scourging of wrath 
divine knows no end. And ROME that once was thought 
the mistress of the world, our eyes see all this that is left 
of her, wasted in countless ways by countless sorrows, by 
the desolations of her citizens, the violence of the foe, and 

the recurrence of disasters. Lo, all the powerful men of 

this generation have been swept away from her. See, the 
peoples are in revolt. Where is the Senate ? Where the 
people ? Their bones have wasted away and their flesh 
has smouldered. For the whole order of lay dignitaries 
is extinct. And yet we few who survive, ever day by day we 
are threatened by the sword and by countless tribulations. 

A tenantless ROME is in her agony. But whyspeak such 

words of men only, when we see the very houses tumbling 
down as disasters multiply ? Even the walls fall when men 
forsake them. See now ! ROME is desolated ! See, she is 
broken ; See ! she is overwhelmned with sorrow," &c. All 
this was spoken by GREGORY to the people of ROME, who 
were witnesses of the truth of it. Thus by the plagues of 
the four winds, the Empire of the GREEKS was shaken, and 



340 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

the Empire of the LATINS fell ; and ROME remained nothing 
more than the capital of a poor dukedom, subordinate to 
RAVENNA, the seat of the Exarchs. 

The fifth trumpet sounded to the wars, which the King 
of the South, as he is called by DANIEL, made in the time of 
the end, in pushing at the King who did according to his will. 
This plague began with the opening of the bottomless pit, 
which denotes the letting out of a false religion : the smoke 
which came out of the pit, signifying the multitude which 
embraced that religion ; and the locusts which came out of 
the smoke, the armies which came out of that multitude. 
This pit was opened, to let out smoke and locusts into the 
regions of the four monarchies, or some of them. The 
King of these locusts was the Angel of the bottomless pit, being 
chief governor as well in religious as civil affairs, such as 
was the Caliph of the SARACENS. Swarms of locusts often 
arise in ARABIA F^LIX, and from thence infest the neigh 
bouring nations : and so are a very fit type of the numerous 
armies of ARABIANS invading the ROMANS. They began 
to invade them A. C. 634, and to reign at DAMASCUS, 
A. C. 637. They built BAGDAD A. C. 766, and reigned 
over PERSIA, SYRIA, ARABIA, EGYPT, AFRICA and SPAIN. 
They afterwards lost AFRICA to MAHADES, A. C. 910 ; 
MEDIA, HIRCANIA, CHORASAN, and all PERSIA, to the 
DAILAMITES, between the years 927 and 935 ; MESOPO 
TAMIA and MIAFAREKIN to NASIRUDDAULAS, A. C. 930 ; 
SYRIA and EGYPT to ACHSJID, A. C. 935, and now being 
in great distress, the Caliph of BAGDAD, A. C. 936, surren- 
dred all the rest of his temporal power to MAHOMET the 
son of RAJICI, King of WASIT in CHALDEA, and made 
him Emperor of Emperors. But MAHOMET within two 
years lost BAGDAD to the TURKS ; and thenceforward 
BAGDAD was sometimes in the hands of the TURKS, and 
sometimes in the hands of the SARACENS, till TOGRUL- 
BEIG, called also TOGRA, DOGRISSA, TANGROLIPIX, and 
SADOC, conquered CHORASAN and PERSIA ; and A. C. 1055, 
added BAGDAD to his Empire, making it the seat thereof. 
His successors OLUB-ARSLAN and MELECHSCHAH, conquered 



CHAP, m] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 841 

the regions upon EUPHRATES ; and these conquests, after 
the death of MELECHSCHAH, brake into the kingdoms of 
ARMENIA, MESOPOTAMIA, SYRIA, and CAPPADOCIA. The 
whole time that the Caliphs of the SARACENS reigned with 
a temporal dominion at DAMASCUS and BAGDAD together, 
was 300 years, viz. from the year 637 to the year 936 inclu 
sive. Now locusts live but five months ; and therefore, 
for the decorum of the type, these locusts are said to hurt 
men five months and five months, as if they had lived about 
five months at DAMASCUS, and again about five months at 
BAGDAD ; in all ten months, or 300 prophetic days, which 
are years. 

The sixth trumpet sounded to the wars, which DANIEL S 
King of the NORTH made against the King above-mentioned 
who did according to his will. In these wars the King of 
the NORTH, according to DANIEL, conquered the Empire of 
the GREEKS, and also JUDEA, EGYPT, LYBiA,and ETHIOPIA: 
and by these conquests the Empire of the TURKS was set 
up, as may be known by the extent thereof. These wars 
commenced A. C. 1258, when the four kingdoms of the 
TURKS seated upon EUPHRATES, that of ARMENIA MAJOR 
seated at MIYAPHAREKIN, MEGARKIN or MARTYROPOLIS, 
that of MESOPOTAMIA seated at MOSUL, that of all SYRIA 
seated at ALEPPO, and that of CAPPADOCIA seated at 
ICONIUM, were invaded by the TARTARS under HULACU, 
and driven into the western parts of ASIA MINOR, where 
they made war upon the GREEKS, and began to erect the 
present Empire of the TURKS. Upon the sounding of the 
sixth trumpet (Apoc. ix. 13, &c.) John heard a voice from 
the four horns of the golden Altar which is before God, saying 
to the sixth Angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four Angels 
which are bound at the great river Euphrates. And the 
four Angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour and 
a day, and a month and a year, for to slay the third part of men. 
By the four horns of the golden Altar, is signified the situa 
tion of the head cities of the said four kingdoms. MIYA 
PHAREKIN, MOSUL, ALEPPO, and ICONIUM, which were 
in a quadrangle. They slew the third part of men, when 



342 APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN [PART n 

they conquered the GREEK Empire, and took CONSTAN 
TINOPLE, A. C. 1453, and they began to be prepared for 
this purpose, when OLUB-ARSLAN began to conquer the 
nations upon EUPHRATES, A. C. 1063. The interval is 
called an hour and a day, and a month and a year, or 391 
prophetic days, which are years. In the first thirty years, 
OLUB-ARSLAN and MELECHSCHAH conquered the nations 
upon EUPHRATES, and reigned over the whole. MELECH 
SCHAH died A. C. 1092, and was succeeded by a little 
child ; and then this kingdom broke into the four kingdoms 
above-mentioned. 



THE END 



ADVERTISEMENT 

THE LAST PAGES OF THESE OBSERVATIONS HAVING BEEN 
DIFFERENTLY DRAWN UP BY THE AUTHOR IN ANOTHER 
COPY OF HIS WORK ; THEY ARE HERE INSERTED AS 
THEY FOLLOW IN THAT COPY, AFTER THE 37TH LINE 
OF THE 312TH PAGE FOREGOING. 

And none was found worthy to open the book till the Lamb 
of God appeared ; the great High- Priest represented by a 
lamb slain at the foot of the Altar in the morning-sacrifice. 
And he came, and took the book out of the hand of him that sat 
upon the throne. For the High-Priest, in the feast of the 
seventh month, went into the most holy place, and took the 
book of the law out of the right side of the Ark, to read it 
to the People : and in order to read it well, he studied it 
seven days, that is, upon the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, 
eighth, ninth and tenth days, being attended by some of 
the priests to hear him perform. These seven days are 
alluded to, by the Lamb s opening the seven seals suc 
cessively. 

Upon the tenth day of the month, a young bullock was 
offered for a sin-offering for the High-Priest, and a goat for 
a sin-offering for the people : and lots were cast upon two 
goats to determine which of them should be God s lot for 
the sin-offering ; and the other goat was called AZAZEL, the 
scape-goat. The High-Priest in his linen garments, took 
a censer full of burning coals of fire from the Altar, his hand 
being full of sweet incense beaten small ; and went into the 
most holy place within the veil, and put the incense upon 
the fire, and sprinkled the blood of the bullock with his 
finger upon the mercy-seat and before the mercy-seat seven 
times : and then he killed the goat which fell to God s lot, 

343 



344 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

for a sin-offering for the people, and brought his blood 
within the veil, and sprinkled it also seven times upon the 
mercy-seat and before the mercy-seat. Then he went out 
to the Altar, and sprinkled it also seven times with the 
blood of the bullock, and as often with the blood of the 
goat. After this he laid both his hands upon the head of the 
live goat ; and confessed over him all the iniquities of the 
children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, 
putting them upon the head of the goat ; and sent him away 
into the wilderness by the hands of a fit man : and the goat 
bore upon him all their iniquities into a land not inhabited, 
LEVIT. chap. iv. & chap. xvi. While the High- Priest was 
doing these things in the most holy place and at the Altar, 
the people continued at their devotion quietly and in 
silence. Then the High-Priest went into the holy place, 
put off his linen garments, and put on other garments ; 
then came out, and sent the bullock and the goat of the 
sin-offering to be burnt without the camp, with fire taken 
in a censer from the Altar : and as the people returned home 
from the Temple, they said to one another, God seal you 
to a good new year. 

In allusion to all this, when he had opened the seventh seal, 
there was silence in heaven about the space of half an hour. 
And an Angel stood at the Altar having a golden Censer, and 
there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer 
it with the prayers of all Saints, upon the golden Altar which 
was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense with 
the prayers of the Saints ascended up before God out of the 
Angel s hand. And the Angel took the Censer, and filled 
it with fire of the Altar, and cast it to the earth, suppose 
without the camp, for sacrificing the goat which fell to 
God s lot. For the High-Priest being CHRIST himself, the 
bullock is omitted. At this sacrifice there were voices and 
thundrings, of the musick of the Temple, and lightnings of 
the sacred fire, and an earthquake : and synchronal to these 
things was the sealing of the 144000 out of all the twelve 
tribes of the children of Israel with the seal of God in their 
foreheads, while the rest of the twelve tribes received the 



CHAP, m] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 345 

mark of the Beast, and the Woman fled from the Temple 
into the wilderness to her place upon this Beast. For this 
sealing and marking was represented by casting lots upon 
the two goats, sacrificing God s lot on mount SIGN, and 
sending the scape-goat into the wilderness loaden with 
the sins of the people. 

Upon the fifteenth day of the month, and the six 
following days, there were very great sacrifices. And in 
allusion to the sounding of trumpets, and singing with 
thundring voices, and pouring out drink-offerings at those 
sacrifices, seven trumpets are sounded, and seven thunders 
utter their voices, and seven vials of wrath are poured out. 
Wherefore the sounding of the seven trumpets, the voices 
of the seven thunders, and the pouring out of the seven 
vials of wrath, are synchronal, and relate to one and the 
same division of the time of the seventh seal following the 
silence, into seven successive parts. The seven days of 
this feast were called the feast of Tabernacles ; and during 
these seven days the children of ISRAEL dwelt in booths, 
and rejoiced with palm-branches in their hands. To this 
alludes the multitude with palms in their hands, which 
appeared after the sealing of the 144000, and came out of 
the great tribulation with triumph at the battle of the great 
day, to which the seventh trumpet sounds. The visions 
therefore of the 144000, and of the palm-bearing multitude, 
extend to the sounding of the seventh trumpet, and there 
fore are synchronal to the times of the seventh seal. 

When the 144000 are sealed out of all the twelve tribes of 
Israel, and the rest receive the mark of the Beast, and there 
by the first temple is destroyed ; JOHN is bidden to measure 
the temple and altar, that is, their courts, and them that wor 
ship therein, that is, the 144000 standing on mount SIGN 
and on the sea of glass : but the court that is without the temple 
that is, the peoples court, to leave out and measure it not, 
because it is given to the Gentiles, those who receive the mark 
of the Beast ; and the holy city they shall tread under foot 
forty and two months, that is, all the time that the Beast acts 
under the woman BABYLON : and the two witnesses prophesy 



346 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

1260 days, that is, all the same time, clothed in sackcloth. 
These have power, like ELIJAH, to shut heaven that it rain not, 
at the sounding of the first trumpet ; and, like MOSES, to 
turn the waters into bloood at the sounding of the second ; 
and to smite the earth with all plagues those of the trumpets, 
as often as they will. These prophesy at the building of the 
second temple, like HAGGAI and ZECHARY. These are 
the two Olive-trees, or Churches, which supplied the lamps 
with oil, ZECH. iv. These are the two candlesticks, or 
Churches, standing before the God of the earth. Five of the 
seven Churches of ASIA, those in prosperity, are found 
fault with, and exhorted to repent, and threatned to be 
removed out of their places, or spewed out of CHRIST S mouth, 
or punished with the sword of CHRIST S mouth, except they 
repent : the other two, the Churches of SMYRNA and PHILA 
DELPHIA, which were under persecution, remain in a state 
of persecution, to illuminate the second temple. When the 
primitive Church catholick, represented by the woman in 
heaven, apostatized, and became divided into two corrupt 
Churches, represented by the whore of Babylon and the 
two-horned Beast, the 144000 who were sealed out of all 
the twelve tribes, became the two Witnesses, in opposition to 
those two false Churches : and the name of two Witnesses 
once imposed, remains to the true Church of God in all 
times and places to the end of the Prophecy. 

In the interpretation of this Prophecy, the woman in 
heaven clothed with the sun, before she flies into the wilder 
ness, represents the primitive Church catholick, illuminated 
with the seven lamps in the seven golden candlesticks, which 
are the seven Churches of ASIA. The Dragon signifies the 
same Empire with DANIEL S He-goat in the ; reign of his 
last horn, that is, the whole ROMAN Empire, until it became 
divided into the GREEK and LATIN Empires ; and all the 
time of that division it signifies the GREEK Empire alone : 
and the Beast is DANIEL S fourth Beast, that is, the Empire 
of the LATINS. Before the division of the ROMAN Empire 
into the GREEK and LATIN Empires, the Beast is included 
in the body of the Dragon ; and from the time of that 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 347 

division, the Beast is the LATIN Empire only. Hence the 
Dragon and Beast have the same heads and horns ; but 
the heads are crowned upon the Dragon, and the horns 
upon the Beast. The horns are ten kingdoms, into which 
the Beast becomes divided presently after his separation 
from the Dragon, as hath been described above. The heads 
are seven successive dynasties, or parts, into which the 
ROMAN Empire becomes divided by the opening of the 
seven seals. Before the woman fled into the wilderness, 
she being with Child of a Christian Empire, cried travelling, 
viz. in the ten years persecution of DIOCLESIAN, and pained 
to be delivered : and the Dragon, the heathen ROMAN Empire, 
stood before her, to devour her child as soon as it was born. 
And she brought forth a man child, who at length was to rule 
all nations with a rod of iron. And her child was caught up 
unto God, and to his throne in the Temple, by the victory of 
CONSTANTINE the great over MAXENTIUS : and the woman 
fled from the Temple into the wilderness of ARABIA to BABY 
LON, where she hath a place of riches and honour and 
dominion, upon the back of the Beast, prepared of God, that 
they should feed her there 1260 days. And there was war in 
heaven, between the heathens under MAXIMINUS and the 
new Christian Empire ; and the great Dragon was cast out, 
that old serpent, which deceiveth the whole world, the spirit 
of heathen idolatry ; he was cast out of the throne into the 
earth. And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and 
by the word of their testimony ; and they loved not their lives 
unto the death. 

And when the Dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, 
he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child, 
stirring up a new persecution against her in the reign of 
LICINIUS. And to the woman, by the building of CONSTAN 
TINOPLE and equalling it to ROME, were given two wings of 
a great eagle, that she might flee into the wilderness into 
her place upon the back of her Beast, where she is nourished 
for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the 
serpent. And the serpent, upon the death of CONSTANTINE 
the great, cast out of his mouth water as a flood, viz. the 



348 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

WESTERN Empire under CONSTANTINE JUNIOR and CON- 
STANS, after the woman : that he might cause her to be carried 
away of the flood. And the earth, the nations of ASIA now 
under CONSTANTINOPLE, helped the woman ; and by con 
quering the WESTERN Empire, now under MAGNENTIUS, 
swallowed up the flood which the Dragon cast out of his mouth. 
And the Dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to 
make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the com 
mandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ, 
which in that war were sealed out of all the twelve tribes of 
Israel, and remained upon mount SIGN with the Lamb, being 
in number 144000, and having their father s name written 
in their foreheads. 

When the earth had swallowed up the flood, and the 
Dragon was gone to make war with the remnant of the 
woman s seed, John stood upon the sand of the Sea, and saw 
a Beast rise out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns. 
And the Beast was like unto a Leopard, and his feet were as 
the feet of a Bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a Lion. 
JOHN here names DANIEL S four Beasts in order, putting 
his Beast in the room of DANIEL S fourth Beast, to shew 
that they are the same. And the Dragon gave this Beast 
his power and his seat and great authority, by relinquishing 
the WESTERN Empire to him. And one of his heads, the 
sixth, was as it were wounded to death, viz. by the sword of 
the earth, which swallowed up the waters cast out of the 
mouth of the Dragon ; and his deadly wound was healed, 
by a new division of the Empire between VALENTINIAN 
and VALENS, An. 364. JOHN saw the Beast rise out of 
the sea, at the division thereof between GRATIAN and 
THEODOSIUS, An. 379. The Dragon gave the Beast his 
power, and his seat and great authority, at the death of 
THEODOSIUS, when THEODOSIUS gave the WESTERN 
Empire to his son HONORIUS. After which the two Empires 
were no more united : but the WESTERN Empire became 
presently divided into ten kingdoms, as above ; and these 
kingdoms at length united in religion under the woman, and 
reign with her forty and two months. 



CHAP, m] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 349 

And I beheld, saith JOHN, another Beast coming up out of 
the earth. When the woman fled from the Dragon into 
the kingdom of the Beast, and became his Church, this 
other Beast rose up out of the earth, to represent the 
Church of the Dragon. For he had two horns like the Lamb, 
such as were the bishopricks of ALEXANDRIA and ANTIOCH : 
and he spake as the Dragon in matters of religion : and he 
causeth the earth, or nations of the Dragon s kingdom, to 
worship the first Beast, whose deadly wound was healed, that 
is, to be of his religion. And he doth great wonders, so that 
he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the 
sight of men ; that is, he excommunicate th those who 
differ from him in point of religion : for in pronouncing 
their excommunications, they used to swing down a lighted 
torch from above. And he said to them that dwell on the 
earth, that they should make an image to the Beast, which had 
the wound by a sword, and did live ; that is, that they should 
call a Council of men of the religion of this Beast. And he 
had power to give life unto the image of the Beast, that the image 
of the Beast should both speak, and cause that as many as 
would not worship the image of the Beast should be killed, viz. 
mystically, by dissolving their Churches. And he causeth 
all both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to 
receive a mark in their right hand or in their foreheads, and 
that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or 
the name of the Beast, or the number of his name ; that is, 
the mark >J, or the name AATEINO2, or the number 
thereof ^fer, 666. All others were excommunicated. 

When the seven Angels had poured out the seven vials 
of wrath, and JOHN had described them all in the present 
time, he is called up from the time of the seventh vial to 
the time of the sixth seal, to take a view of the woman and 
her Beast, who were to reign in the times of the seventh 
seal. In respect of the latter part of time of the sixth 
seal, then considered as present, the Angel tells JOHN : 
The Beast that thou sawest, was and is not, and shall ascend 
out of the abyss, and go into perdition ; that is, he was in the 
reign of CONSTANS and MAGNENTIUS, until CONSTANTIUS 



350 OBSERVATIONS UPON THE [PART n 

conquered MAGNENTIUS, and re-united the WESTERN 
Empire to the EASTERN. He is not during the re-union 
and he shall ascend out of the abyss or sea at a following 
division of the Empire. The Angel tells him further: 
Here is the mind which hath wisdom : the seven heads are seven 
mountains, on which the woman sitteth : ROME being built 
upon seven hills, and thence called the seven-hilled city. 
Also there are seven Kings : five are fallen, and one is, and 
the other is not yet come ; and when he cometh, he must 
continue a short space : and the Beast that was and is not, 
even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into per 
dition. Five are fallen, the times of the five first seals 
being past ; and one is, the time of the sixth seal being 
considered as present ; and another is not yet come, and 
when he cometh, which will be at the opening of the 
seventh seal, he must continue a short space : and the 
Beast that was and is not, even he is the eighth, by means, 
of the division of the ROMAN Empire into two collateral 
Empires ; and is of the seven, being one half of the seventh, 
and shall go into perdition. The words, five are fallen, and 
one is, and the other is not yet come, are usually referred by 
interpreters to the time of JOHN the Apostle, when the 
Prophecy was given : but it is to be considered, that in 
this Prophecy many things are spoken of as present, which 
were not present when the Prophecy was given, but which 
would be present with respect to some future time, con 
sidered as present in the visions. Thus where it is said upon 
pouring out the seventh vial of wrath, that great Babylon 
came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of 
the wine of the fierceness of his wrath ; this relates not to the 
time of JOHN the Apostle, but to the time of pouring out 
the seventh vial of wrath. So where it is said, BABYLON is 
fallen, is fallen ; and thrust in the sickle and reap, for the time 
is come for thee to reap ; and the time of the dead is come, 
that they should be judged ; and again, / saw the dead small 
and great stand before God : these sayings relate not to 
the days of JOHN the Apostle, but to the latter times con 
sidered as present in the visions. In like manner the words, 



CHAP, in] APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN 351 

five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come, and 
the Beast that was and is not, he is the eighth, are not to be 
referred to the age of JOHN the Apostle, but relate to the 
time when the Beast was to be wounded to death with a 
sword, and shew that this wound was to be given him in 
his sixth head : and without this reference we are not told 
in what head the Beast was wounded. And the ten horns 
which thou sawest, are ten Kings, which have received no 
kingdom as yet, but receive power as Kings one hour with the 
Beast. They have one mind, being all of the whore s 
religion, and shall give their power and strength unto the 
Beast. These shall make war with the Lamb, at the sounding 
of the seventh trumpet ; and the Lamb shall overcome them : 
for he is Lord of Lords and King of Kings ; and they that 
are with him are called and chosen and faithful. And he saith 
unto me, the waters which thou sawest where the whore sitteth, 
are peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues, com 
posing her Beast. And the ten horns which thou sawest 
upon the Beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her 
desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her 
with fire, at the end of the 1260 days. For God hath put 
in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their 
kingdom unto the Beast, until the words of God shall be 
fulfilled. And the woman which thou sawest, is that great 
city which reigneth over the Kings of the earth, or the great 
city of the LATINS, which reigneth over the ten Kings till 
the end of those days. 



FINIS 



INDEX 



Advent, Second, 48, 128, 303 

Alans, Kingdom of, 172 

Alexander the Great, 71, 83, 115, 

251 
Allenby s conquest of Jerusalem, 

114 

Amos, Prophecy of, 122 
Amraphel s Code, 52 
Anderson, Sir B., Works of, 74, 125 
Angels, Doctrine of, 93 
Antichrist of Daniel, 102, 326 
Antiochus Epiphanes, 71, 115, 128, 

145, 222 
Apocalypse of St. John, 295-351 

Relation to Daniel, 308, 322 

Apocryphal books, 76, 79 
Apostasy, the Great, 309, 319 
Apostles, Dispersion of, 302 
Ark in book of Revelation, 320 
Artaxerxes, Chronology of, 232 
Astral myths, 23 

Babylon, Kingdom of, 87, 89, 100, 

156, 157 
Downfall predicted, 97, 105, 

155, 157 

Balaam s prophecy, 62 
Baruch, Book of, 82 
Bear, Medo-Persian, 105 
Beast, Mark of (666), 327 
Beasts, The four great, 159 

two, 110 

Belief, the sixth sense, 34 

Anderson s view of, 43 
Belshazzar, identified, 87 
Berosus, History by, 87 
Boniface, the first Pope, 104 
Book of the Law, 53, 139 
Books of O.T., Dates of, 51, 140 
Britain, Revolt of, 165, 179 

one of the Ten, 170 
Brunton on Miracles, 8 
Building, Decrees for, 123 
Burgundian Kingdom, 173 



Canon, Closure of, 78 
Alexander s view, 79 



Canon, Sir R. Anderson on, 80 

Apocryphal books, 80 

Archdeacon Charles views of, 80 

Josephus on, 79 

Dr. Pusey s view, 80 
Captivity, Period of, 70 
Cataphrygian Heresy, 272 
Chaldean language in Daniel, 91 
Charlemagne and the Pi pins, 191 
Cheyne, Canon, on Criticism, 23 
Christ, Date of birth, 235 

of death, 14, 125, 250 

Prophecies concerning, 57-69 
Christ s genealogy, 62 
Christ s greatest prophecy, 68 
Chronicles, Books of, 143 
Chronology of Persian Babylon, 232 
Clarke, Rev. A. H. T., on Miracle, 7 
Colour-blindness, 30 

Coming Prince, 98, 128 
Constantino s Reformation, 60, 332 
Continentes and monks, 268 
Creation, Story of, 15 
Criticism, Higher English, 18, 126 

German, 21, 127 

Reich s views, 24 

Pentateuch, 51-57, 81 
Crucifixion, death from, foretold in 

Ps. xxii., 65 

unknown to Jews, 64 
Cyrus, 70, 71, 123 

Annalistic, Tablet of, 88 

Coming of predicted, 123 

Decree of, 90, 123 

Dacia, Kingdom of, 160 
Dallinger on Miracle, 11 
Daniel, Book of, 70-128, 145 
Daniel, Book, Authenticity of, 70, 

74, 76, 79-95, 145 

Date of, 80-85 

Forgery of, 80 

Greek words, in 93 

Historical inaccuracies in, 

86-94 

Internal evidence, 91, 145 

Language of, 91 



353 



354 



INDEX 



Daniel, Book, Persian words in, 93 

Philological views of, 92 

Relation to Revelation, 312, 

322, 345 
Views on, of Sir R. Anderson, 

93 

of Archdeacon Charles, 80 

of Canon Cheyne, 91 

of Dr. Driver, 24, 92 

of Dean Farrar, 91 

of Grattan Guinness, 95 

of Dr. Pusey, 92 

Vision of Image, 95, 154 

of Four Beasts, 100, 157 

of Two Beasts, 110, 220 

of Seventy weeks, 117, 224. 

of Little Horns, 101, 110 

of Ram and Goat, 110, 220 

Daniel, Personality of, 75, 154 

Darius the Mede identified, 89, 90 

Darwinian Theory, 15, 84 

Day in prophecy, 108 

Decrees of Persian rulers, 123, 227 

Desolations, Period of, 70, 118, 221 

Deuteronomy, Date of, 53, 139 

Dioclesian s Persecution, 324 

Divination, 45 

Divinity of Christ, 63 

Dragon in Apocalypse, 322, 325 

Dream of Nebuchadnezzar, 96, 154 

Driver, Dr., on Daniel, 24, 92 

Eastern Empire, 265 
Ecbatana and Darius, 90 
Ecclesiasticus, Book of, 82 
Einstein Theory, 16 
Elephantine Papyri, 54 
Encratite Heresy, 268 
Epistles to Seven Churches, 310 
Ether and God, 17 
Evolution Theory, 15, 84 
Expiation, Day of, 314 
Ezekiel, and Daniel, 75 
Vision of, 315, 319 
Ezra, Books of, 144 
Ezra omitted by Sirach, 82 

Faith, a Special Sense, 34, 43 

Farrar on Daniel, 23 

Flint, Prof., on Prophecies of Christ, 

67 

Foretelling and Prophecy, 45 
Franks, Kingdom of, 174 
Free-thinker, Type of, 27 

Gabriel, 94 

Gabriel, Prophecy of, 118 
Genealogy of Christ, 62 
Gentile Period, end of, 109 



Gentiles, Promise to, 23, 56 
Geology and Genesis, 15 
German Criticism, 21 

Myopia, 42 
Girton Conference, 58 

Goat, Greek He-, 110, 217, 225 
Gobryas identified, 90 
God-blindness, 35 
God-deafness, 35 
Goths, Kingdoms of, 163, 180 
Greek colonies in Palestine, 93 
Greek Empire, 97, 101, 105, 110, 

158 
in Revelation, 322, 326 

Kings of Syria, 71 
Greek words in Daniel, 93 
Gregory the Great, 103 
Guinness, Dr. Grattan, on Daniel, 

95 

Hagiographa, 80, 146 

Hebrew of Daniel, 92 

He-goat, Vision of, 110, 223, 226 

Historical errors in Daniel, 86-94 

Horn, Little, of fourth Beast, 47, 

101, 107, 188, 198 
Horn, Little, of third Beast, 47, 110, 

266 

Horns always kingdoms, 111 
Hume on Miracles, 7 
Hunns and Goths, 163, 180 
Hypocrite, type of, 26 

Image worship, 190 
Incarnation, 66 
Infidel, Common type of, 27 
Inscription of Cyrus, 90 
Inspiration of the prophets, 46, 

84 
Isaiah, Book of, 145 

The Second, 19 

Messianic prophecies of, 62 

On rebuilding of Jerusalem, 122 

Jehoiakim s third year, 87 
Jeremiah s prophecy of seventy 

years, 108 
Jerusalem, Captures of, 70, 71, 114, 

122, 125, 128, 230 

Christ s Entry into, 125 

Rebuilding of, 122, 124 
Jewish months, 231 
Jewish years, 108, 231 
Jews and Bible, 66 
Jews, Return of, 47 
John the Faster, 104 
Josephus on Daniel, 83 
Joshua, Book of, 141 
Josiah s reign, 52 



INDEX 



855 



Judah, Sovereignty of, 56 
Judges, Book of , 142 

Kelvin, Lord, 10, 11 
Kingdom of Christ foretold, 98 
Kingdoms, The four, 97 

of the ten toes, 160-170 

as horns, 111, 188 
Kings, Books of, 143 

Kings of the South and North, 253- 
264 

the Ten Kingdoms, 170-186 

Language of prophecy, 149-153 
Latins, Empire of, 219 
Law, Books of, 140, 146 

Lost Book of, 53 
Leopard, Greek, 100, 105, 158 
Levitation, Phenomena, of, 6, 7 
Lion of Babylon, 105 

of England, 105 

of Judah, 311 

Lombards, Kingdom of, 102, 185 
Looney, Mr. J. T. on, identity of 
Shakespeare, 20 

Maccabean Books, 82 
Maccabees, Period of, 71 
Mahuzzims, Doctrine of, 268, 273 
Mandate for Palestine, 122 
Man s age on the earth, 15, 16 
Martyrs, Veneration of, 273-291 
Medo-Persian Empire, 97, 100, 105, 

155, 157 
Messianic prophecies, 56-69, 99, 

119-126, 225-234 
Micah, Prophecy of, 62, 122 
Michael, The Angel, 93 
Millennium, 48, 128, 303 
Miracles, 7, 11,40 
Modernism, 36, 83 
Mohammedan Power, 48, 112, 114, 

222, 341 

Monks and Tatian, 268 
Moon, stand still, 14 
Music- deaf ness, 31 
Musical names in Daniel, 93 
Myopia, Moral, 42 
Myths, Biblical, 23, 55 

Nabonidus, the last King, 88 
Nativity, Date of, 232, 235 
Nebuchadnezzar, Reign of, 87 

Sieges of Jerusalem, 70 

Vision of, 96, 154 
Nehemiah, Prayer of, 82 

Rebuilding Decree, 124 

Return to Jerusalem, 125 



Newton, Bishop, on Antichrist, 103 
Nicolaitans and Continentes, 330 

One thousand and 335 days, 114 
Onias as critics messiah, 127 
Orr, Professor, on Darius, 88 

Passion, Date of, 125 
Pentateuch, Date, 51, 140 
Persian Empire, 97 

Words in Daniel, 93 
Peter and the Popedom, 104 
Phocas and the Popedom, 104, 198 
Popedom, History of, 103, 191 
Popes and Bishops, 198-215 
Porphyry, 75 

Prayer scientifically possible, 17, 40 
Prince, The Coming, 122, 128, 229 
Prophecy, functions of, 46, 68 

and German critics, 51 

of Jacob, 55, 56 

Antichrist, 47, 102, 309 

Seventy weeks, 117-128, 225- 

234 

the 1335 days, 114 

Prophecy-mongering, 49, 305, 306 
Prophecies, classification of, 47 

Fulfilled, 48 

Messianic, 56-69 

Unfulfilled, 47, 48 
Prophet, The False, 299 
Prophetic language, 51, 69, 149 
Psalm xxii, 65 

Psalms, Book of, 145 

Date of, 20, 145 

in Hagiographa, 80 

Pseudepigrapha, 76 
Punctuation of Daniel, 121 

first verse in Bible, 15 

Pusey, Dr., on Daniel s prayer, 82 

Daniel s Hebrew, 92 

Greek words, 92 

the messiahs of the critics, 126 

Raisings from the Dead, 13 
Ram as Persia, 110, 217 
Rationalism, 5 

Ravenna, Kingdom of, 102, 190 
Rawlinson on Belshazzar, 88 
Responsibility of the atheist, 39 
Resurrection of Christ, 14 
Reich, Emil, on Higher Criticism, 

24 

Revelation, Book of, 295-351 
Date of, 297 

quoted by Peter and Paul, 298 

in relation with Daniel, 308 
Rome, Dukedom of, 102 

Empire of foretold, 98, 101, 158 



856 



INDEX 



Rome in Revelation, 323 
Papal, 102, 188-216 
Ruth, Book of, 143 

Samaritan Pentateuch, 140 
Samuel, Book of, 143 
Sanhedrim, The Great, 79, 80 
Saracens, Empireof, 48, 113, 266,341 
Sceptic as rationalist, 38 
Seals, Opening of, 314 
Second Advent, 48, 128, 303 
Senses, Special, 29 
Servitude, Period of, 70 
Seventy weeks of Daniel, 117, 225 
Shakespearean criticism, 20 
Sibylline Book, 82, 
Signs of the Latter Days, 305 
Silence between Old and New Testa 
ments, 71 
Sirach, Book of, 79 
Sixth special sense, 34 
Soothsaying and prophecy, 45 
Spencer, Herbert, and Belief, 10 
Spiritualism, 3, 6 
Stone from the Mountain, 99 
Suevian Kingdom, 171 
Supernatural, the, 5 
Sun, stand still, 14 
Synagogue, Men of the Great, 79 

Tablet, Annalistic, of Cyrus, 90 
Talmud Edition, 145 
Ten Kingdoms, The, 98, 101, 128, 
160 



Thomson, Prof. A., 10 
Thunders, the seven, 318 
Time, Times, and half a Time, 106 
Trumpets the seven, 318, 334 
Turkish Empire, 48, 113, 266, 341 

Invasion of Jerusalem, 114 

Kingdom in Apocalypse, 341 

Unbelief defined, 5 
Unbelief, Science, of, 34 

Vandals, Kingdom of, 170 
Vatke-Graf - Keunen - Wellhausen- 

Stade theory, 22, 23 
Visigoths, Kingdom of, 171 
Vulgate Bible, 121 

Weeks, The seventy, prophecy of, 

117-128, 225-234 
Western Empire, 187, 265 
Wilson on Aramaic titles, 88 
Wireless telegraphy and prayer, 40 
Witnesses, the two, 328 
Woes, Prophecies of, 334 
Woman and Beast, 224, 326 
Writing, Early date of, 52 

Year, Jewish, 108 
Year in Prophecy, 108 

Luni-solar, 231 

Sabbatical, 232 
Yoke, meaning of, 69 

Zechariah s prophecy, 63 



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