Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The Dixie cook-book"

See other formats


Google 


This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  Hbrary  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 

to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 

to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 

are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  maiginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 

publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  liave  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 
We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  fivm  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attributionTht  GoogXt  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liabili^  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.   Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at|http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/| 


Schlesinger  Library 
Radcliffe  College 


Purchased  with  funds 

contributed  by  the 

Radcliffe  Culinary  Friends 


f 


THE 


DIXIE  COOK-BOOK 


CABBPCLI.Y  COMPILED 


FROM  THE  TREASURED  FAMILY  COLLECTIONS  OF  MANY  GEN- 
ERATIONS OF  NOTED  HOCSEKEEPERS:    LARGELY  SUPPLE- 
MENTED  BY  TF-'^TED    RECIPES  OF  THE   MORE  MODERN 
SOUTHERN  I  LSHES,  CONTRIBUTED  BY  WELL-KNOWN 
LADIES  OF  THE  SOUTH. 


t    ■ 


*•  The  best  is  none  too  good,*' 


IBYISBS  XDITZOir. 


ATLANTA,   UA.: 

I*  A.  CLARKSON  &  COMPANY. 

1885 


I 


( 


PUBLISHERS'  NOTICE. 


\  In  attemptLag  to  plan  a  thoroughly  practical  work  on  Hoiuekeeplng  and  kindred 

f  ^  BubjectB  that  would  meet  the  real  needs  of  the  Southern  matrons  of  to-day,  the  well* 

known  "Practical  Housekeeping"  (which  in  its  wide  dissemination  East  and  Wesl,  North 
and  South,  has  reached  a  sale  of  190,000  copies)  came  under  our  notice.  Its  contributions 
from  all  States  of  the  Union  hare  made  it  cosmopolitan  In  character,  and,  being  un- 
doubtedly the  best  cook-book  for  general  use  In  print,  it  seemed  a  fitting  basis  for  our 
"  Dixie  Cook-Book ; "  therefore,  with  the  consent  of  its  Publishers,  we  have  made  it  this^ 
combining  with  the  *'  cream  "  of  that  excellent  manual  a  large  collection  of  additional 
recipe»-<!hoice  treasures  from  the  gamers  of  many  a  Boutiiem  household,  handed 
down  from  generation  to  generation,  besides  many  other  recipes,  contributed  by  the 
V  ladies  of  the  South,  for  the  more  modem  Southern  dishes.    Earnestly  trusting  the 

Yolume  will  meet  the  demand  it  is  intended  to  supply  of  a  reliable  and  complete 
manual  for  the  housekeeper,  we  submit  it  to  the  public. 


-. .  ■] 


Oopyzlglit,  1883,  by  A.  O.  WnooXi 


i^^ 


To 

flothn»  Htm,  aad  DanglUxs  of  tlw  'funqy  tott," 

VHD   HAYE  to  BRATELT  FACED   THE    PtfFlOUM'AEB  WHICH    NEW  SOCIAL   CONDXIIOIIE 
HAVE  IMP08BD  ON  THEH  AS  MmTBBMBB  OF  80UTHEBN  HOXE^ 
AND  ON  WHOSE  COVEAGE  AND  FXDELITT  IN 
QOOD  OE  nX  FOBTUNE  THE  FUTUEE  OF  IHBIB  BELOVED  LAND  KT78T  DEPEND^ 

THIS  BOOK  IS  DEDICATED. 


TABLE   OF  CJONTENTa 


xfEBAD-MAKINO 7-68 

Cakb-makino • 6^101 

Creams  and  Cubtabds 102-112 

Confectionery 113-118 

Canning  Fruits. • 119-127 

Catsups  and  Sauces. 128-186 

Drinks 137-144 

BOGA 14&150 

Fish 151-158 

Fruits 159-166 

Game 167-178 

Ices  and  Igb-greax 174-180 

Jellies  and  Jams 181-189 

Meats 190-209 

Pastry  ■•■•■••■•••  210-224 

Puddings  and  Sauces    .1 I      I      I      I      !      .*  225-242 

Preserves 248-258 

Pickles 254-27a 

Poultry 271-286 

Baladh 287-294 

gHELL-nSH 295-308 

Soups •      .      .      .      .  804-819 

Vegetables •••••••.  820-345 

Ornamental  Icing,  Illustrated 846-378 

Bills  op  Fare  for  every  day  in  tbb  TBAB 87^-406 

Fragments • •••  406-m6 

Blanks  for  additional  Recipes •••••  416^17 

CoqK's  Time-Table 417 

Table  of  Weights  and  Measures      .•••••••••       418 

When  Food  is  in  Season       ..••••••••••  419^20 

Comparative  Value  op  Fuel       •••••••••••       421 

housekrepino •••••      •422-444 

Dining-room •••••  415.458 

Kitchen •••••  459  476 

Kitchen  Luxuries,  Illustrated 477-491 

Household  Conveniences,  iLLUsntATH)  .       ..••••••  492-498 

Management  op  Help ••..  499-501 

Marketing  ..'.....'.••••.•••.  502-^10 

Carving,  Illustrated 511-512 

ilow  to  Cut  and  Curb  Meats,  Illdrbath) 5l3-.'ii8 

Hints  on  BinrER-MAKiNQ •      •      .      .  5l9-5i?0 

Laundry 521-5:i5 

Cellar  and  Ice-house .•••••..  536-MO 

Something  a^out  Babies •••.  54l-;)55 

Hints  for  the  Well •••••••.  f>56-5r»i 

Hiv^  for  the  Sick-room •••.•.  5()2->')73 

Thb  Arts  of  the  Toilet ••• 5T4-:m 

accidents  and  Sudden  Sicxkeh 5R2-588 

PiX)RAL '.  689-591 

Chkmiktry  of  Food ••••••.  592-597 

Drbbs-making  at  Home ••••••••  508-(>19 

Coix)RiNO  AND  Bleaching ••••••.  620-6*^8 

Medical ••••••*...  629-660 

Miscellaneous •••••••••.  60i-f>72 

Alphabetical  Index.       .••••••• e7:i-ii87 


PEEFAOE. 


''In  a  multitude  of  counsel''  is  said  to  be  wisdom.  If  this  be 
true  of  any  thing,  it  certainly  is  of  cookery.  The  present  candi- 
date for  favor  has  not  been  made  up  with  the  aid  of  the  paste-pot 
and  scissors,  neither  has  it  been  gathered  at  random  from  doubt- 
ful sources,  but  has  been  culled,  without  stint  of  labor,  time  or 
expense,  from  the  treasure-troves  of  hundreds  of  the  grand  old 
housekeepers  of  our  land  who  have  practically  tested  what  is  now 
given  to  others.  A  recipe  is  only  valuable  firom  being  tried  and 
approved.  Blunders  iii  cookery  cost  money,  and  it  is  a  self-evident 
fact  that  a  few  spoiled  dishes  represent  the  price  of  a  good  cook- 
book,— ^to  say  nothing  of  the  vexation  and  chagrin,  inevitable  to 
the  conscientious  housekeeper,  resulting  from  any  culmary  failure. 

The  "cook-books"  and  "receipt-books"  of  the  past  few  years 
have  numbered  legion;  "of  making  them  there  has  seemed  no 
end ;"  yet  too  often  their  study  and  practice  have  proven  **a  wea- 
riness to  the  flesh,"  for  while  some  of  their  authors  were  good 
book-makers,  they  were  poor  bread-makers;  others,  though  per- 
fectly &imiliar  with  the  subjects  treated  of,  yet  &iled  to  clearly 
and  fully  describe  the  processes  in  detail.  A  few  lines  of  recipes, 
unattended  by  any  practical  instructions  or  suggestions,  may  prove 
of  little  utility  to  the  mass  of  cooks,  since  to  give  a  recipe  that 
can  be  intelligibly  understood  by  all  b  by  no  means  an  easy  task. 

The  lack  of  ordinary  dishes,  or  those  suited  to  the  life  of  the 
great  middle  daas,  has  been  another  realized  want.  Fortunately 
it  is  becoming  fashionable  to  economize,  and  housekeepers  are 
really  finding  a  pleasure  and  satisfaction  in  searching  out  and  seek« 
ing  to  stop  the  numberless  household  leaks,  and  to  exercise  the 
thousand  little  economies  which  thoughtful  and  careful  women  un- 
derstand so  well  and  practice  so  gracefully. 

Some  one  has  assorted  that  a  well-to-do  French  iamily  will  live 
on  what  an  American  household  in  the  same  condition  of  life  throws 
away.     Possibly  this  may  not  be  a  very  great  exaggeration,  and 


▼i  PREFACE, 

we  may  learn  the  fine  art  of  spending  money  wisely,  perhaps,  as 
well  as  that  of  dress,  from  our  neighbors  across  the  water.  It  is 
a  satis&ction  to  those  housekeepers  whose  purses  are  not  over- 
plethoric  to  realize  that  good  cooking  is  not  necessarily  the  most 
costly;  and  surely  she  is  an  artist  in  culinary  skill  who  can  com- 
pound a  good  and  palatable  dish  from  a  limited  larder. 

While  the  present  volume  contains  recipes  suited  to  all  grades 
and  styles  of  living,  its  one  aim  has  been  to  pack  between  its  covers 
the  largest  possible  amount  of  practical  information  of  real  value 
to  all ;  and  it  is  believed  the  recipes  will  be  found  to  be  not  only 
practical,  but  really  excellent,  yet  not  tending  to  extravagance. 

The  instructions  preceding  each  department  have  been  carefully 
given,  and  will  be  foimd  entirely  trustworthy;  the  recipes  are  all 
well  indorsed. 

The  suggestive  chapters  in  the  latter  parf  of  the  book  cover  a 
wide  range  of  household  subjects,  and  will  prove  of  equal  interest 
with  the  cookery  department  to  the  earnest  housekeeper  who  readily 
seizes  upon  all  timely  hints  and  suggestions  that  may  tend  to  simplify 
and  systematize  the  labor  of  housekeeping  and  home-making  or  in 
any  way  help  to  lessen  the  friction  of  the  domestic  machinery. 

There  has  been  no  effort  at  display,  the  only  purpose  being  to 
express  ideas  as  clearly  and  concisely  as  possible,  and  to  make  a 
simple  and  practical  work  to  meet  the  needs  of  earnest  housekeep- 
ers of  all  classes. 

The  arrangement  of  subjects  treated  has  been  made  on  the  sim- 
ple order  of  the  alphabet  so  far  as  practicable,  and  for  more  ready 
reference  a  full  alphabetical  index  has  been  added — a  matter  that 
will  be  appreciated  by  those  whose  time  is  of  value. 

It  is  a  woman's  book,  compiled  and  sold  by  women,  and  in  the 
interest  of  women,  and  will,  it  is  believed,  be  fully  appreciated  by 
all  earnest  women. 

Possibly,  in  the  effort  to  avoid  the  mistakes  of  otners,  greater 
errors  may  have  been  committed ;  but  the  book  is  submitted  just 
as  it  is  to  the  generous  judgment  and  intelligent  consideration  of 
Southern  housekeepers,  with  the  hope  that  it  may  in  some  degree 
lessen  their  perplexities  and  aid  them  in  their  successful  and  happy 
reign  in  "Woman's  Kingdom" — the  Home. 


/ 


BREAD-MAKING. 


The  old  saying,  '*  bread  b  the  staff  of  life/'  has  sound  reason  in 
it  Flour  made  from  wheat,  and  meal  from  oats  and  Indian  corn, 
are  rich  in  the  waste-repairing  elements,  starch  and  albumen,  and 
head  the  list  of  articles  of  food  for  man.  Good  bread  makes  the 
homeliest  meal  acceptable,  and  the  coarsest  fare  appetizing,  while 
the  most  luxurious  table  is  not  even  tolerable  without  it.  Light, 
crisp  rolls  for  breakfast,  spongy,  sweet  bread  for  dinner,  and  flaky 
biscuit  for  supper,  cover  a  multitude  of  culinary  sins ;  and  there  is 
no  one  thing  on  which  the  health  and  comfoi*t  of  a  family  so  much 
depends  as  the  quality  of  its  home-made  loaves. 

Opinions  as  to  what  constitutes  good  bread  differ,  perhaps,  as 
much  as  t&sles  and  opinions  concerning  any  thing  else,  but  all  will 
agree  that  bread,  to  be  go#i,  ought  to  be  light,  sweet — that  is,  free 
from  any  perceptible  acid  or  yeasty  taste— flaky,  granular  or  not 
liable  to  become  a  doughy  mass,  and  as  white  as  the  grade  of  flour 
used  will  allow.  If  members  of  the  family  have  delicate  digestive 
powers,  they  will  not  use  new  bread,  and  therefore  must  have  such 
as  will  keep  with  little  change  of  texture  and  none  of  quality  or 
taste,  for  several  days.  To  obtain  these  qualities  in  bread,  use  the 
be^t  flour,  as  in  families  where  no  bread  is  wasted,  the  best  is  cheap 
est.  The  good  old  Genesee  Valley  white  winter  wheat,  of  Western 
New  York,  makes  a  flour  unsurpassed  in  quality.  The  Michigan, 
Ohio,  Indiana  and  Missouri  white  winter  wheat  grades  are  much 
the  same,  but  the  Minnesota  hard  spring  wheat  '^  new  process** 
flour  is  the  equal  of  the  best,  and  is  so  much  superior  in  strength 
that  one-eighth  less  is  used  in  all  recipes  for  bread  and  ca,ke.  The 
common  or  ** straight"  brands  are  used  by  the  great  majority  of 
families,  and  from  all  of  them  good,  uniform  and  palatable  bread 
may  be  made. 


(7> 


8  BREAD-MAKING. 

HouBekeepers  seldom  select  flour  by  examination.  Tliey  usually 
take  some  tried  brand,  or  select  on  the  recommendation  of  their  fur- 
nisher. No  rule  can  be  given  by  which  an  inexperienced  person  can 
determine  the  grade* of  flour  with  accuracy,  but  a  few  hints  will 
enable  any  one  to  know  what  not  to  buy.  Good  flour  adheres  to 
the  hand,  and,  when  pressed,  shows  the  imprint  of  the  lines  of  the 
skin.  Its  tint  is  cream  white.  Never  buy  that  which  has  a  blue- 
white  tinge.  Poor  flour  is  not  adhesive,  may  be  blown  about  easily, 
and  sometimes  has  a  dingy  look,  as  though  mixed  with  ashes. 

Flour  should  be  bought  in  quantities  corresponding  to  the  num- 
ber in  the  family,  that  it  may  not  become  damaged  by  long  keeping. 
In  a  family  of  five,  a  barrel,  or  even  a  half-barrel  sack  of  flour, 
excellent  when  first  bought,  will  become  much  deteriorated  before 
being  used  up.  A  small  family  should  always  buy  in  twenty-five 
pound,  or  at  largest,  fifty  pound  sacks.  Flour  should  be  kept  dry, 
cool  and  entirely  l)eyond  the  reach  of  marauders,  big  or  little, 
especially  the  latter,  for  the  infinitesimal  meal  moth  is  &r  more  to 
be  dreaded  than  rats  or  mice.  Therefore  every  receptacle  of  flour 
should  be  thoroughly  and  frequently  cleansed,  to  guard  against  ani- 
mal as  well  as  vegetable  parasites.  A  single  speck  of  mold,  coming 
from  old  or  damp  flour  in  an  obscure  cft-ner  of  the  flour-box,  will 
leaven  the  whole  as  rapidly  and  strongly  as  ten  times  its  weight  in 
yeast.     In  no  event  should  flour  be  used  without  being  sifted. 

Bread-making  seems  a  simple  process  enough,  but  it  requires  a 
delicate  care  and  watcafulness,  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  all 
the  contingencies  of  tl  e  process,  dependent  on  the  different  qualities 
of  flour,  and  the  varying  kinds  and  conditions  of  yeast,  and  the 
change  of  seasons ;  the  process  which  raises  bread  successfully  in 
winter  making  it  sour  in  summer.  There  are  many  little  things  in 
bread-making  which  require  accurate  observation,  and,  while  valu- 
able recipes  and  well-defined  methods  in  detail  are.  in  valuable  aids, 
nothing  but  experience  will  secure  the  name  merited  by  so  few, 
though  earnestly  coveted  by  every  practical,  sensible  housekeeper — 
"an  excellent  bread-maker."  Three  things  are  indispensable  to 
success:  good  flour,  good  yeast,  and  watchful  care.  Never  use 
flour  withodt  sifting  ;  and  a  large  tin  or  wooden  pail  with  a  tight- 
fitting  cover,  kept  full  of  sifted  flour,  will  be  found  a  great  conven- 


BREAD-MAKING.  9 

fence.    All  kinds  of  flour  and  meal,  except  buckwheat  and  Graham — 

and  Graham,  too,  when  coarse — ^need  sifting,  and  all,  like  wheat 

flour,  should  be  bought  in  small  quantities,  as  they  become  damp 

and  musty  by  long  standing. 

The  Yeast. 

After  the  flour,  the  yeast  or  leaven  is  the  next  essential  element 

in  bread.     For  regular  fare  most,  especially  women,  prefer  "yeast 

bread,"  but  men  who  can  not  forget  **  how  their  mother  used  to 

cook,"  have  a  liking  for  "salt-rising"  bread,  and  the  latter  deserves 

the  acquaintance  of  the  housekeeper  and  a  :&equent  welcome  on 

the  family  table.     The  dry  hop  yeast,  such  as  Twin  Bros. ,  Stratton's, 

National,  Eagle,  Gillett's,  and  many  others,  are  all  good,  if  iresh, 

and  always  available,  for  they  are  found  in  every  grocery.     Many 

housekeepers  use  baker's  yeast,  and  buy  for  a  penny  or  two  what 

will  serve  each  baking  of  bread.     Potato  yeast  has  two  advantages 

over  other  kinds ;  bread  made  from  it  keeps  moist  longer,  and  there 

is  no  danger  that  an  excess  of  yeast  will  injure  the  flavor  of  the 

bread. 

The  Sponge. 

This  is  made  from  warm  water  or  milk,  yeast  and  flour  (some  add 
mashed  potatoes)  mixed  tqpether  in  the  proportion  of  one  pint  wet- 
ting (water  or  milk)  to  two  pints  of  sifted  flour.  If  milk  is  used 
it  should  be  new,  and  must  be  first  scalded,  and  then  cooled  to  blood 
neat.  The  scaiaing  lenas  lo  prevent  souring,  xii  uvixig  waier  onng 
it  to  blood  heat.  If  the  **  wetting"  is  too  hot,  the  bread  will  be 
coarse.  When  water  is  used  a  tablespoon*  of  lard  or  butter  makes 
the  bread  more  tender.  Bread  made  from  milk  is,  of  course,  more 
tender  and  nutritious,  but  it  has  not  the  sweet  taste  of  the  wheat, 
and  will  not  keep  as  long  as  that  made  from  water.  When  mixed 
with  milk  it  requires  less  flour  and  less  kneading.  In  summer,  care 
must  be  taken  not  to  set  sponge  too  early,  at  least  not  before  eight 
or  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening.  (Sponge  mixed  with  bran  water, 
warm  in  whiter  and  cold  in  summer,  makes  sweeter  bread.  Boil 
bran  in  the  proportion  of  one  pint  to  a  quart  of  water  and  strain.) 
In  very  hot  weather,  sponge  may  be  made  with  cold  water.  Is 
winter,  mix  the  batter  with  water  or  milk,  at  blood  warmth,  testing 

*  Whenever,  in  this  book,  the  words  cupflil,  coffbe-cupftil,  ten-cupfUl,  table-epoonftil,  ete« 
r,  the  termination  **  Ail "  la  dropped,  for  the  sake  of  brevity. 


10  BREAD-MAKINO, 

it  with  the  finger,  and  making  it  as  warm  as  can  be  borne ;  stir  in 
the  flour,  which  will  cool  It  sufficiently  for  the  yeast ;  cover  closely 
and  place  in  a  warm  and  even  temperature.  A  good  plan  is  to  fold 
a  clean  blanket  several  times,  and  cover  with  it,  providing  the 
sponge  is  set  in  a  very  large  crock  or  jar,  so  that  there  is  no  danger 
of  its  running  over.  As  a  general  rule,  one  small  tea-cup  of  yeast 
and  three  pints  of  "wetting"  will  make  sponge  enough  for  four 
ordinary  loaves.  In  all  sponges  add  the  yeast  last,  making  sure  that 
the  sponge  is  not  hot  enough  to  scald  it;  when  placed  to  rise, 
always  cover  closely.  In  cold  weather  the  temperature  runs  down  very 
quickly,  in  many  kitchens,  after  the  fire  is  out,  and  the  bread  should 
be  set  earlier  in  the  evening,  and  in  a  warmer  place;  a  temperature 
of  eighty  or  ninety  degrees  is  right.  When  it  rises  well  for  the  first 
two  hours,  it  will  go  on  rising  unless  the  temperature  falls  below  the 
freezing  point.  It  is  an  improvement  to  beat  the  sponge  thoroughly, 
like  batter  for  a  cake,  for  fifteen  minutes.  Never  set  sponge  in  tin, 
but  always  in  stoneware,  because  a  more  steady  and  uniform  heat 
can  be  maintained  in  a  stone  jar  than  in  tin. 

TO  MAKE  GOOD  BREAD, 

Always  be 

"  Up  in  Uie  morning  early,  just  atThe  peep  of  day," 

in  summer  time,  to  prevent  the  sponge  becoming  sour  by  too  long 
standing,  and  in  winter  to  be  getting  materials  warmed  and  in  readi- 
ness for  use.  A  large,  seamless  tin  dish-pan  with  handles  and  a 
tight-fitting  cover,  kept  for  this  purpose  alone,  is  better  than  a 
wooden  bowl  for  bread.  It  should  be  thoroughly  washed  and 
scalded  every  time  it  is  used.  Measure  and  siit  the  flour.  It  is 
convenient  to  keep  two  quart  cups,  one  for  dry  and  the  other  for 
liquid  measuring.  In  winter  always  warm  the  flour  (by  placing  it  in 
a  pan  in  a  vHirm  oven  for  a  few  minutes  or  by  setting  it  over  night 
where  it  will  be  kept  at  the  same  temperature  as  the  sponge)  and  also 
the  sponge.  Put  the  flour  in  a  bread  pan ,  make  a  large  well  in  the  cen- 
ter, into  which  pour  the  sponge,  adding  two  level  tea-spoons  of  salt  (this 
is  the  quantity  for  four  loaves  of  bread)  ;  mix  well,  being  careful  not 
to  get  the  dough  too  stiff;  turn  out  on  the  bread-board,  rub  the  pan 
clean,  and  add  the  "rubbings"  to  the  bread.  Knead  for  from 
forty-five  minutes  to  one  hour,  or  until  the  dough  ceases  to  stick  to 


BREAD-MAKINQ,  11 

either  the  board  or  hands.  Do  not  stop  kneading  until  done.  Any 
pause  in  the  process  injures  the  bread.  The  process  of  kneading  is 
very  important.  Use  just  as  little  flour  in  kneading  as  will  prevent 
sticking,  and  practice  will  enable  one  to  make  a  little  flour  go  a 
great  way.  Some  good  bread-makers  knead  with  the  palm  of  the 
hands  until  the  dough  is  a  flat  cake,  then  fold  once,  repeating  this 
operation  until  the  dough  is  perfectly  smooth  and  elastic ;  others 
zloae  the  hands}  and  press  hard  and  quickly  into  the  dough  with  the 
fists,  dipping  them  into  the  flour  when  the  dough  sticks;  or,  after 
kneading,  chop  with  the  chopping  knife  and  then  knead  again; 
others  still  knead  with  a  potato-masher,  thinking  it  a  great  saving 
of  strength.  Another  method,  used  by  good  bread-makers,  is  to 
raise  the  whole  mass  and  drop  or  dash  it  with  considerable  force  upon 
the  mixing-board  or  table  for  several  minutes.  No  exact  directions 
can  be  given,  but  experience  and  practice  will  prove  the  best  guides. 
After  the  bread  is  thoroughly  kneaded,  form  into  a  round  mass  or 
large  loaf,  sprinkle  the  bread-pan  well  with  flour,  and,  having 
placed  the  loaf  in  it,  sprinkle  flour  lightly  on  the  top  (some  grease 
the  top  with  salted  lard  or  butter  instead  of  sprinkling  with  flour) ; 
cover  closely,  and  set  to  rise  in  a  warm  temperature ;  let  it  rise  to 
twice  its  original  size  this  time,  say  firom  one  to  two  hours,  difi*ering 
in  time  with  the  season  of  the  year.  Then  knead  down  in  the  pan, 
cut  into  equal  parts,  place  one  at  a  time  on  the  board,  mold  each 
into  a  smootri,  oblong  loaf,  not  too  large,  ana  put  one  arter  anotner 
into  a  well-greased  baking-pan ;  grease  the  tops  of  the  loaves  with 
salted  lard  or  butter,  and  set  to  rise.  Or  the  loaves  may  be  made 
by  buttering  the  hands,  and  taking  enough  from  the  mass  to  form 
a  loaf,  molding  it  into  shape  in  the  hands,  without  using  flour.  This 
insures  a  nice,  brown,  tender  crust  Loaves  made  in  the  French 
style,  long  and  narrow,  are  about  half  crust,  and  more  easily  di- 
gested, the  action  of  heat  antici})atiug  part  of  the  digestive  process. 
In  molding,  do  not  leave  any  lumps  or  loose  flour  adhering  to  the 
outside,  but  mold  until  the  loaves  are  perfectly  Smooth.  No  par- 
ticular directions  can  be  given  in  regard  to  the  time  bread  should 
stand  after  it  is  molded  and  placed  in  the  pans,  because  here  is  uie 
point  where  observation  and  discretion  are  so  indispensable.  In  hot 
weather,  when  the  yeast  is  very  good  and  the  bread  very  light,  it 


12  BREAD-MAKING. 

must  not  stand  over  fifteen  minutes  before  placing  to  bake.  If  it  is 
cold  weather,  and  the  yeast  is  less  active,  or  the  bread  not  perfectly 
raised,  it  may  sometimes  stand  an  hour  in  the  pans  without  injury. 
When  it  is  risen  so  as  to  seam  or  crack,  it  is  ready  for  the  oven ;  if 
it  stands  after  this  it  becomes  sour,  and  even  if  it  does  not  sour  it 
loses  its  freshness  and  sweetness,  and  the  bread  becomes  dry  sooner 
after  baking.  Bread  should  undergo  but  two  fermentations;  the 
saccharine  or  sweet  fermentation,  and  the  vinous,  when  it  smells 
something  like  foaming  beer.  The  housewife  who  would  have  good, 
sweet  bread,  must  never  let  it  pass  this  change,  because  the  third 
or  acetous  fermentation  then  takes  place.  This  last  can  be  remedied 
by  adding  soda  m  the  proportion  of  one  tea-spoon  to  each  quart  of 
wetting ;  or,  which  is  the  same  thing,  a  tea-spoon  to  four  quarts  of 
flour;  but  the  bread  will  be  much  less  nutritious  and  healthful,  and 
some  of  the  best  elements  of  the  flour  will  be  lost.  Always  add 
salt  to  all  bread,  biscuit,  griddle-cakes,  etc.,  but  never  salt  sponge. 
A  small  quantity  of  white  sugar  is  an  improvement  to  all  bread 
dough.  Bread  should  always  be  mixed  as  soft  as  it  can  he  handled^ 
but  in  using  the  "new  process*'  flour,  made  from  spring  wheat,  the 
dough  requires  to  be  much  harder  than  is  necessary  when  using  that 
made  from  winter  wheat 

To  Bake  Bread. 

Here  is  the  important  point,  for  the  bread  may  be  perfect  thus 
far  and  then  be  spoiled  in  baking.  No  definite  rules  can  be  i^ven 
that  apply  equally  well  to  every  stove  and  range ;  but  one  general 
rule  must  be  observed,  which  is,  to  have  a  steady,  moderate  heat, 
such  as  is  more  minutely  described  in  the  directions  for  baking  large 
cakes.  The  oven  must  be  just  hot  enough ;  if  too  hot,  a  firm  crust 
is  formed  before  the  bread  has  expanded  enough,  and  it  will  be 
heavy.  To  test  the  heat,  place  a  teaspoon  of  flour  on  an  old  piece 
of  crockery  (to  secure  an  even  heat),  and  set  in  middle  of  the  oven ; 
if  it  browns  in  one  minute  the  heat  is  right.  An  oven  in  which  the 
bare  hand  and  arm  can  not  be  held  longer  than  to  count  twenty 
moderately,  is  hot  enough.  The  attention  of  stove-makers  seems 
aever  to  have  been  directed  to  the  &ct  that  there  is  no  accurate 
means  of  testing  the  heat  of  ovens,  but  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  in  the 


BREAD-MAKINO.  13 

near  ftiture  some  simple  device  may  be  fbuDd  which  will  render 
mmeoessaiy  such  inaccurate  and  untrustworthy  tests  as  must  now  be 
used,  and  thus  reduce  baking  to  a  science.  To  test  whether  the 
bread  is  done,  break  the  loaves  apart  and  press  gently  with 
the  finger ;  if  elastic  it  is  done,  but  if  clammy,  not  done,  and  must 
be  returned  to  the  oven ;  or,  if  the  loaves  are  single,  test  with  a 
straw  plucked  from  a  broom.  Break  off  the  branches  and  thrust 
the  larger  end  into  the  loaf;  if  it  is  sticky  when  withdrawn,  the 
bread  is  not  done,  but  if  free  from  dough  it  is  ready  to  be  removed 
fi'om  the  oven.  The  little  projections  on  the  straw,  where  the 
branches  have  been  broken  off,  catch  and  bring  out  the  dough, 
when  not  thoroughly  baked. 

The  time  required  for  baking  is  not  less  than  three-quarters  of  an 
hour,  and  bread  baked  a  full  hour  is  more  wholesome  and  is  gen- 
erally considered  more  palatable.  ''The  little  fairy  that  hovers 
over  successful  bread-making  is  heat,  not  too  little  nor  too  much, 
but  uniform." 

When  removed  from  the  oven,  take  the  loaves  out  of  the  pan, 
grease  the  entire  outer  crust  with  melted  butter,  and  tilt  them  on 
edge,  so  as  to  secure  a  free  circulation  of  air.  It  is  better  not  to 
cover  bread  while  warm,  unless  with  a  Ught  cloth  to  keep  off  flies. 
Thoroughly  exposed  to  the  air  thR  auvface  cooh  first,  insuring  a  crisp 
crust  and  the  retention  of  the  moisture  in  the  loaf.  There  are 
those,  however,  who  follow  successftilly  the  plan  of  wrapping  the 
bread,  as  soon  as  it  ia  removed  from  the  oveu.  in  a  coarse  towel  or 
bread-cloth.  Never  put  warm  bread  next  to  wood,  as  the  part  in 
contact  will  have  a  bad  taste.  Spread  a  cloth  over  the  table  before 
placing  the  bread  on  it 

Good  bread-makers  differ  widelv  as  to  the  number  of  times  bread 
should  rise,  some  insisting  that  the  rgle  of  our  good  grandmothers, 
who  only  allowed  it  to  rise  once,  insures  the  sweetest  and  most  nutri- 
ttoos  bread,  and  that  in  all  subsequent  fermentations,  a  decomposi- 
tion takes  places  that  is  damaging  to  the  wholesome  qualities  of  the 
"staff  of  life.'* 

If  by  accident  or  neglect  the  bread  is  baked  too  hard,  rub  the 
baf  over  with  butter,  wet  a  towel  and  wrap  it  in  it,  and  cover  with 
another  dry  toweL    In  winter,  bread  dough  may  be  kept  sweet 


14  BREAD-MAKUIQ. 

wveral  days  by  placing  it  where  it  will  be  eold  without  freezings  or 
by  putting  it  so  deep  into  the  flour  barrel  as  to  exclude  it  entirely 
firom  the  air.  When  wanted  for  use,  make  into  bread,  or,  by  add- 
ing the  proper  ingredients,  into  cake,  rusk,  biscuit,  apple  dump- 
lings, chicken  pie,  etc. 

When  the  bread  u  eold,  place  in  a  stone  jar  or  tin  box,  which 
must  be  thoroughly  washed,  scalded  and  dried  each  baking  day.  A 
still  better  receptacle  for  bread  is  a  tin  wash-boiler  with  a  close 
cover,  kept  for  this  pur|)ose  alone.  When  smaU,  single  loaf  pans 
are  used,  the  bread  nmy  be  removed  to  cool,  the  pans  washed  and 
dried,  and  the  loaves  afterwards  replaced  each  in  its  pan,  and  then 
set  away  in  a  box  or  boiler.  The  pan  helps  to  keep  the  bread 
moist  and  palatable  for  several  days. 

The  best  pan  for  bread  is  made  of  Russia  iron  (which  is  but  little 
more  costly  than  tin  and  will  last  many  times  as  long),  about  four 
by  ten  inches  on  the  bottom,  flaring  to  the  top,  and  about  four  and 
one-half  inches  deep.  The  pan  should  be  greased  very  lightly  for 
bread. 

Attention  to  neatness,  important  in  all  cookery,  is  doubly  im- 
portant in  bread-making.  Be  sure  that  the  hair  is  neatiy  combed 
and  put  up  (which  ought  to  be  done  before  the  dress  is  put  on 
every  morning),  and  that  the  hands,  arms  and  finger-nails  are 
scrupulously  clean.  A  neat  calico  apron  with  bib,  and  sleeves  of 
dress  well-tucked  up  and  lastened  so  that  they  wQl  not  come  down, 
add  much  to  the  comfort  of  this  the  most  important  task  of  the 
kitchen  queen. 

There  are  three  critical  points  in  the  process  of  bread-making : 
the  condition  of  the  yeast,  which  must  never  be  used  if  sour ;  the 
temperature  where  the  bread  b  set  to  rise,  which  must  not  be  so  hot 
as  to  scald ;  and  the  temperature  of  the  oven,  which  must  be  uni- 
form, neither  too  hot  nor  too  cold. 

In  cutting  warm  bread  for  the  table,  heat  the  knife,  and,  whether 
hot  or  cold,  cut  only  as  much  as  will  be  eaten.  It  is  better  to 
replenish  the  bread-plate  once  or  even  twice  during  a  meal  than  to 
have  slices  left  over  to  dry  up  and  waste. 

When  using  coal,  put  into  the  fire-box  enough  to  finish  the  baking; 
adding  more   during   the  process  is  apt  to  render  the  oven-heat 


BREAD-MAKING.  16 

irregalar.  When  wood  is  used,  make  a  good  hoi  fire,  see  that  the 
stove  has  a  good,  free  draft,  and  let  it  cool  to  an  even,  steady  heat 
before  putting  the  bread  in  the  oven.  The  finest  bread  may  be  com- 
pletely spoiled  in  baking,  and  a  freshly-made  fire  can  not  be  easily 
l^ulated. 

The  patent  iron  shelves,  made  to  be  attached  to  the  pipes  of 
stoves  and  ranges,  are  very  convenient  places  for  placing  bread  to 
lise.  They  give  the  necessary  warmth,  and  the  height  is  conven- 
ient for  watching. 

The  proportion  of  gluten  in  wheat,  and  consequently  in  flour, 
varies  greatly  in  different  varieties.  Flour  in  which  gluten  is 
abundant  will  absorb  much  more  liquid  than  that  which  contains  a 
greater  proportion  of  starch,  and  consequently  is  stronger ;  that  is, 
will  make  more  bread  to  a  given  quantity.  Gluten  is  a  flesh-former, 
and  starch  a  heat-giver,  in  the  nutritive  processes  of  the  body. 
Flour  containing  a  good  proportion  of  gluten  remains  a  compact 
mass  when  compressed  in  the  hand,  while  starchy  flour  crumbles 
and  lacks  adhesive  properties.  Neither  gluten  or  starch  dissolve 
m  cold  water.  The  gluten  is  a  grayish,  tough,  elastic  substance. 
In  yeast-bread,  the  yeast,  in  fermenting,  combines  with  the  sugar  in 
the  flour  and  the  sugar  which  has  been  added  to  the  flour,  and  car- 
bonic acid  gas  and  alcohol  are  produced.  The  gas  tries  to  escape, 
but  is  confined  by  the  elastic,  strong  gluten  which  forms  the  walls 
of  the  cells  in  which  it  is  held,  its  expansion  changing  the  solid 
dough  into  a  light,  spongy  mass.  The  kneading  process  distributes 
die  yeast  thoroughly  through  the  bread,  making  the  grain  even. 
The  water  used  in  mixing  the  bread  softens  the  gluten,  and  cements 
all  the  particles  of  flour  together,  ready  for  the  action  of  the  car- 
bonic acid  gas.  In  baking,  the  loaf  grows  larger  as  the  heat  ex- 
pands the  carbonic  acid  gas,  and  converts  the  water  into  steam  and 
the  alcohol  into  vapor,  but  it,  meantime,  loses  one-sixth  of  its  weight 
by  the  escape  of  these  through  the  pores  of  the  bread.  Some  of  the 
starch  changes  into  gum,  the  cells  of  the  rest  are  broken  by  the 
heat,  the  gluten  is  softened  and  made  tender,  and  the  bread  is  in 
the  condition  most  easily  acted  upon  by  the  digestive  fluids. 

There  is  a  great  difierence  of  opinion  as  to  the  comparative  mer- 
its of  bread  made  from  fine  flour,  and  Graham,  or  whole  wheat 


16  BREAD-MAKII^Q. 

flour.  The  latter  is  undoubtedly  best  for  persons  who  lead  seden- 
tary lives,  as  the  coarse  particles  stimulate  the  digestive  organs, 
causing  the  fluids  to  flow  more  freely ;  while  for  those  who  follow 
active,  out-of-door  pursuits,  the  fine  flour  bread  is  probably  best,  as 
being  more  nutritious  and  economical,  because  wholly  digested. 

Th;ere  is  an  old  and  true  saying,  that  '*  she  who  has  baked  a  good 
batch  of  bread  has  done  a  good  days  work."  Bread-making  should 
stand  at  the  head  of  domestic  accomplishments,  since  the  health 
and  happiness  of  the  family  depends  immeasurably  upon  good 
bread ;  and  there  is  certain  to  come  a  time  in  the  experience  of 
every  true,  thoughtful  woman  when  she  is  glad  and  proud  of  her 
ability  to  make  nice,  sweet  loaves,  firee  from  soda,  alum,  and  other 
injurious  ingredients,  or  bitter  regret  that  she  neglected  to  learn, 
or  was  so  unfortunate  as  not  to  have  been  taught,  at  least  the  first 
requisites  of  good  bread-making. 

Graham  and  Cobn  Bread. 

It  is  very  desirable  that  every  &mily  should  have  a  constant 
supply  of  bread  made  of  unbolted  flour,  or  rye  and  Indian  com. 
Most  persons  find  it  palatable,  and  it  promotes  health.  For  these 
coarse  breads,  always  add  a  little  brown  sugar  or  molasses,  and  the 
amount  given  in  the  recipes  may  be  increased  according  to  taste. 
They  rise  quicker  and  in  a  less  warm  atmosphere  than  without 
sweetening.  A  little  lard  or  butter  improves  bread  or  ca&es  made 
of  Graham  or  Indian  meal,  rendering  them  light  and  tender. 
Graham  rises  rather  more  quickly  than  fine  flour  (as  the  whole 
wheat  flour  contains  a  larger  proportion  of  gluten,  and  fermentation 
is  more  rapid),  and  should  not  be  allowed  to  rise  quite  as  light. 
The  pans  should  be  greased  more  thoroughly  for  Graham  and  com 
bread  than  for  that  made  from  fine  flour.  The  fire  should  be  steady 
and  sufficient  to  complete  the  baking,  and  the  oven  hot  when  the 
bread  is  put  in.  A  fresh  blaze  wiU  bum  the  crust,  while  a  steady 
fire  will  sweeten  it.  Graham  bread  bakes  more  slowly  than  fine- 
flour  bread,  and  com  bread  requires  mo(e  time  and  a  hotter  oven 
than  either.  Use  either  yellow  or  white  corn,  ground  coarse,  for 
mush,  and  white,  ground  fine,  for  bread,  etc.  In  cutting  the  latter 
while  warm,  heat  the  knife,  and  hold  it  perpendicularly.     Rye  is 


BBEAD'MAKINQ.  17 

said   to  absorb  more  moisture  from  the  air  than  any  other  grain; 

henoe,  all  bread  from  this  meal  needs  a  longer  application  of  heat, 

and   keeps  moister  after  being  baked  than  that  made  from  other 

grain. 

Sponge  for  Winter  Use. 

Peel  and  boil  four  or  five  medium-sized  potatoes  in  two  quarts  of 
water  (which  wiU  boil  down  to  one  quart  by  thet  ime  the  potatoes 
are  cooked) :  when  done,  take  out  and  press  through  a  colander,  or 
mash  very  fine  in  the  crock  in  which  the  sponge  is  to  be  made; 
make  a  well  in  the  center,  into  which  put  one  cup  of  flour,  and  pour 
over  tt  the  boiling  water  from  the  potatoes;  stir  thoroughly,  and 
when  cool  add  a  pint  of  tepid  water,  flour  enough  to  make  a  Mn 
batter,  and  a  cup  of  yeast    This  sponge  makes  very  moist  bread. 

Bread  Sponge. 

Six  potatoes  boiled  and  mashed  while  hot,  two  table-spoons  of 
white  sugar,  two  of  butter,  one  quart  tepid  water;  into  this  stir 
three  cups  flour;  beat  to  a  smooth  batter,  add  six  table-spoons 
yeast ;  set  over  night,  and,  in  the  morning,  knead  in  sufficient  flour 
to  make  a  stifi*,  spongy  dough ;  knead  vigorously  for  fifteen  min- 
utes, set  away  to  rise,  and,  when  light,  knead  for  ten  minutes;  mold 
out  into  moderate^ized  loaves,  and  let  rise  until  they  are  like  deli- 
cate or  light  sponge-cake. — Mrs.  Oeorge  H.  Ruet 

Bread  Sponge  and  Bread. 

Five  pints  warm  water,  five  quarts  sifted  flour,  one  cofleC'Cup 
yeast ;  mix  in  a  two-gallon  stone  jar,  cover  closely,  and  set  in  a  large 
tin  pan,  so  that  if  the  sponge  rises  over  the  top  of  the  jar,  the 
drippings  may  fall  into  the  pan.  Set  to  rise  the  evening  before 
baking.  In  winter  be  careful  to  set  in  a  warm  place.  In  the  morn* 
ing  sift  six  quarts  flour  into  a  pail,  pour  the  sponge  into  a  bread« 
pen  or  bowl,  add  two  table-spoons  of  salt,  then  the  flour  gradually ; 
mix  and  knead  well,  using  up  nearly  all  the  flour.  This  first 
kneading  is  the  most  important,  and  should  occupy  at  least  twenty 
minutes.  Make  the  bread  in  one  large  loaf,  set  away  in  a  warm 
place,  and  cover  with  a  cloth.  It  ought  to  rise  in  half  an  hour, 
when  it  should  be  kneaded  thoroughly  again  for  ten  minutes.  Then 


Ai 


18  BREAD-MAKINQ. 

take  enough  dough  for  three  good-sized  loaves  (a  quart  bowl  of  dough 
to  each),  give  five  minutes  kneading  to  eiich  loaf,  and  place  to  rise 
in  a  dripping-pan  well  greased  with  lard.  The  loaves  will  be  light 
in  five  or  ten  minutes,  and  wUl  bake  in  a  properly  heated  oven  in 
half  an  hour.  Make  a  well  in  the  center  of  the  remaining  dough, 
and  into  it  put  a  half  tea-cup  of  white  sugar,  one  tea-cup  of  lard, 
and  two  eggs,  which  mix  thoroughly  with  the  dough,  knead  into 
one  large  loaf,  set  in  a  warm  place  about  fifteen  minutes  to  rise,  and, 
when  light,  knead  five  minutes  and  let  rise  again  for  about  ten 
minutes,  when  it  should  be  light.  Take  out  of  pan,  and  knead  on 
bread-board,  roll  about  an  inch  in  thickness,  cut  out  with  a  biscuit* 
cutter,  and  place  in  dripping-pan ;  let  rise  five  minutes  and  bake 
twenty  minutes.  In  winter  more  time  must  be  allowed  for  rising. 
This  makes  three  loaves  and  ninety  biscuit. 

Bread  with  Buttermilk. 

The  evening  before  baking,  bring  to  the  boiling  point  two  quarts 
of  buttermilk  (or  boil  sour  milk  and  take  the  same  quantity  of  the 
whey),  and  pour  into  a  crock  in  which  a  scant  tea-cup  of  sifted  flour 
has  been  placed.  Let  stand  till  sufficiently  cool,  then  add  half  a 
cup  of  yeast,  and  flour  to  make  a  thick  batter ;  the  better  and 
longer  the  sponge  is  stirred  the  whiter  will  be  the  bread.  In  the 
morning  siffc  the  flour  into  the  bread-pan,  pour  the  sponge  in  the 
center,  stir  in  some  of  the  flour,  and  let  stand  until  after  break- 
fast ;  then  mix,  kneading  for  about  half  an  hour,  the  longer  the 
better ;  when  light,  mold  into  loaves,  this  time  kneading  as  little  as 
possible.  The  secret  of  good  bread  is  having  good  yeasl^  and  not 
baking  too  hard.  This  makes  four  loaves  and  forty  biscuit. — Mn. 
M,  G.  MooTCy 

Good  Bread. 

For  four  small  loaves  boil  four  large  potatoes ;  when  done,  pour 
off  the  water,  and  when  it  cools  add  to  it  a  yeast  cake ;  mash  the 
potato  very  fine,  put  through  a  sieve,  pour  boiling  milk  on  as  much 
flour  as  i&  needed,  let  stand  until  cool,  add  the  potato  and  yeast,  a 
large  tearspoon  of  salt  and  one  table-spoon  of  sugar ;  stir  very  stiff, 
adding  flour  as  is  needed.     Let  stand  in  a  warm  place  until  light, 


BREAD-MAKING,  19 

dissolve  one  tea-spoon  of  soda  in' a  little  hot  water,  mix  well  through 
with  the  hands,  mold  into  loaves,  and  let  rise  again.  When  suffi- 
ciently raised  place  in  a  moderately  hot  oven,  keeping  up  a  steady 
fire. — Mrs.  Ctcvemor  Hardin,  Missouri. 

Hop- Yeast  Bread. 

One  tea-cup  yeast,  three  pints  warm  water;  make  a  thin  sponge 
at  tea  time,  cover  and  let  it  remain  two  hours  or  until  very  light. 
By  adding  the  water  to  the  dour  iirst  and  having  the  sponge  quite 
warm,  it  is  never  necessary  to  put  the  sponge  over  hot  water  or  in 
an  oveu  to  make  it  rise.  Knead  into  a  loaf  before  going  to  bed ;  in 
the  morning  mold  into  three  loaves,  spreading  a  little  lard  between 
as  they  are  put  in  the  pan.  When  light,  bake  one  hour,  having 
oven  quite  hot  when  the  bread  is  put  in,  and  very  moderate  when 
it  is  done.  (Bread  made  in  this  way  is  never  sour  or  heavy.)  To 
have  fine,  light  biscuit,  add  shortening  at  night,  and  in  the  morning 
make  into  biscuit  and  bake  for  breakfast.  By  this  recipe  bread  is 
baked  befoi'e  the  stove  is  cold  from  breakfast,  and  out  of  the  way 
for  other  baking. 

To  cool  bread  there  should  be  a  board  for  the  purpose.  An  oaken 
board,  covered  with  heavy  white  flannel,  is  the  best ;  over  this  spread 
a  fresh  linen  bread-cloth,  and  lay  the  bread  on  it  right  side  up,  with 
Bothing  over  it  except  a  very  thin  cover  to  keep  off  the  flies.  It 
should  be  placed  immediately  in  the  firesh  air  or  wind  to  cool ;  when 
cool,  place  immediately  in  a  tin  box  or  stone  jar,  and  cover  closely. 
Br^d  cooled  in  this  way  will  have  a  soft  crust,  and  be  filled  with 
pure  air. — Mrs  J.  T,  Liggett,  Detroit, 

Bread  with  Potato  Sponge. 

■ 

Pare  and  boil  four  or  five  potatoes,  mash  fine,  and  add  one  pint 
of  flour;  pour  on  the  mixture  first  boiling  water  enough  to  moisten 
well,  then  about  one  quart  of  cold  water,  after  which  add  flour 
enough  to  make  a  stiff  batter.  When  cooled  to  **  scarcely  milk 
warm,"  put  in  one-half  pint  (or  more  will  do  no  harm)  of  yeast, 
and  let  it  stand  in  a  warm  place  over  night ;  in  the  morning  add  to 
this  sponge  one  cup  of  lard,  stir  in  flour,  and  knead  well.  The 
more  kneading  the  finer  and  whiter  the  bread  will  be ;  pounding 
also  with  a  potato-masher  improves  the  bread  greatly,  and  is  rather 


20  BREAD-MAKINQ, 

easier  than  so  much  kneading.  When  quite  stiff  and  well  worked 
and  pounded,  let  it  rise  again,  and  when  light,  nmke  into  loaves  or 
biscuit,  adding  no  more  flour  except  to  flour  the  hands  and  board — 
merely  enough  to  prevent  the  bread  from  sticking.  Let  it  rise 
again,  then  bake;  and  immediately  after  taking  from  the  oven, 
wrap  in  a  wet  towel  until  partly  cold,  in  order  to  soften  the  crust. 
If  yeast  and ^Zour  are  good  (esserUiala  in  all  cases),  the  above  process 
will  make  good  bread. — Mrs.  Clara  Morey 

Poor-Man's  Bread. 

One  pint  of  buttermilk  or  sour  milk,  one  level  tea-spoon  soda,  a 

pinch  of  salt,  and  flour  enough  to  make  as  stiff  as  soda-biscuit  dough ; 

cut  into  three  pieces,  handle  as  little  as  possible,  roll  an  inch  thick, 

place  in  dripping-pan,  bake  twenty  or  thirty  minutes  in  a  hot  oven, 

and,  when  done,  wrap  in  a  bread  cloth.     Eat  while  warm,  breaking 

open  like  a  biscuit.     Each  cake  will  be  about  the  size  of  a  pie. — 

Mn,  D.  B. 

Bread  wriH  Potatoes. 

To  one  quart  of  blood-warm  water  or  milk  (if  milk  is  used,  it 
must  first  be  scalded  and  then  cooled  to  blood  heat),  take  two  quarts 
sifted  flour  and  one  teacup  fresh  potato  yeast.  Put  the  milk  or 
water  into  a  one-gallon  stone  crock  and  stir  the  flour  gradually  into 
it,  then  add  the  yeast,  beating  it  vigorously  for  fift;een  minutes ;  set 
to  rise  in  a  warm  place,  putting  the  crock  in  a  pan  (to  catch  the 
drippings  if  it  should  run  over).  If  in  winter,  mix  it  as  early  as 
SIX  or  seven  o'clocK  in  tne  evenmg.  Cover  very  closely  wfth  a 
clean  white  cloth,  with  a  blanket  over  it,  kept  purposely  for  this 
(the  cloths  used  for  bread  should  not  be  taken  for  any  thing  else). 
In  the  morning,  sift  three  quarts  of  flour  into  the  bread-pan,  setting 
it  in  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes  to  bring  it  to  the  same  temperature 
as  the  sponge.  Pare  six  medium-sized  potatoes,  and  boil  them  in 
three  pints  of  water ;  when  thoroughly  cooked,  remove  the  potatoes 
and  pour  the  boiling  hot  water  (which  will  now  be  about  one  quart) 
over  the  flour,  stirring  it  with  a  spoon.  Mash  the  potatoes  very 
fine,  and  beat  them  as  if  for  the  table;  mix  them  in  the  flour,  and 
when  cooled  to  blood  heat,  pour  in  the  sponge,  and  mix  well.  Add 
more  wetting  or  flour  if  needed,  rub  off  all  that  adheres  to  the  sides 


BREAD-MAKINQ.  21 

of  the  pan,  and  mix  with  the  dough,  kneading  it  from  forty-five 
minutes  to  one  hour ;  then  place  the  pan  to  rise,  cover  closely  with 
the  cloth  and  blanket,  setting  it  where  there  is  no  draft  (this  is  im* 
perative).  When  it  has  risen  to  twice  its  size,  knead  down  in  the 
pan,  take  one  quart  of  dough  for  each  loaf,  knead  each  five  min- 
utes with  quick,  elastic  movements,  grease  tlie  sides  of  the  loaves 
with  sweet,  melted  butter  if  two  or  more  are  placed  in  the  same 
pan ;  or  the  loaves  may  be  greased  all  over  lightly  before  placing  in 
the  pan,  a  process  which  adds  much  to  the  sweetness  of  the  crust. 
The  pan  should  be  thoroughly  but  lightly  greased.  Let  rise  until 
as  large  again  as  when  molded,  then  bake.  Have  your  oven  mod- 
erately heated  at  first,  with  a  fire  in  the  stove  that  will  keep  it  of  a 
uniform  temperature.  (For  manner  of  testing  oven,  see  general 
instructions  for  bread-making.)  Bake  from  three-quarters  of  an 
hour  to  one  hour  and  a  quarter,  according  to  the  size  of  the  loaves, 
during  which  time  the  bread  should  be  carefully  watched  to  see  that 
the  proper  degree  of  heat  is  steadily  kept  up.  Before  browning 
they  will  have  risen  to  double  their  size  when  placed  in  the  oven. 
The  heat  of  the  oven  is  all  important,  for  if  too  hot  the  loaves  will 
not  rise  sufficiently;  if  too  cold  they  will  rise  too  much,  and  the 
bread  will  be  coarse  and  porous.  When  done,  place  on  side,  and 
oool  without  covering.  Never  use  flour  without  sifting,  as  sifting 
enlivens  and  serates  the  flour,  and  makes  both  mixing  and  rising 
easier  and  quicker.  Quick  rising  makes  whiter  bread,  and  it  is  veiy 
necessary  that  in  all  its  diflerent  risings,  bread  should  be  mixed  M 
soon  as  ready. — Auldafi,  Siieboygan,  Me. 

Bread  Raised  Once. 

No  other  yeast  is  made  with  so  little  trouble  as  potato  yeast 
Bread  made  fr^m  it  keeps  moist  longer,  and  there  is  no  danger  of 
injuring  the  flavor  of  the  bread  by  using  too  much.  When  plen- 
tifully used,  a  beautiful,  light,  sweet,  fine-grained  bread  is  produced 
by  only  one  rising,  thus  saving  not  only  time  and  trouble,  but  also, 
what  is  more  important,  the  sweet  flavor  and  nutritious  qualities 
which  greatly  sufler  by  the  second  fermentation,  almost  universally 
practiced.  When  this  fact  is  thoroughly  understood,  every  one  will 
appreciate  the  importance  of  checking  excessive  fermentationy  dur- 


22  BREAD-MAKINQ. 

ing  which  decomposition  actually  takes  place,  and  the  delicate^ 
foamy  loaves,  *'  yeasted  to  death/'  which  so  many  families  now  use 
and  call  the  '*  staff  of  life/'  will  give  place  to  the  sweet,  substantial 
home-made  loaves,  such  as  our  good  mothers  and  grandmothers 
kneaded  with  their  own  skilled  hands. 

Take  care  that  the  yeast  is  good  and  **  lively,"  for,  without  this, 
failure  is  certain.  To  make  three  loaves  of  bread,  warm  and  lightly 
grease  the  baking-pans,  sift  three  quarts  or  more  of  dour  into  the 
bread-pan,  press  down  the  middle,  and  into  it  put  two  small  table- 
spoons of  fine  salt ;  pour  in  slowly  one  quart  of  milk-warm  water, 
constantly  stirring  with  one  hand  in  the  flour,  until  a  thin  batter  is 
formed;  add  a  pint  or  more  of  potato  yeast  or  one  tea-cup  of  hop 
yeast.  (If  compressed  yeast  is  used,  a  yeast  cake,  dissolved  in 
warm  water,  or  a  piece  of  compressed  yeast  as  large  as  a  walnut, 
dissolved  in  the  same  manner,  is  sufRciont.)  Mix  thoroughly,  add- 
ing more  and  more  flour,  until  a  stiff  dough  is  formed;  place  on 
the  bread-board,  knead  vigorously  for  twenty  minutes  or  more, 
flouring  the  board  frequently  to  prevent  the  dough  from  sticking  to 
it,  divide  into  loaves  of  a  size  to  suit  pans,  mold  into  a  comely 
shape,  place  in  pans,  rub  over  the  top  a  light  coating  of  sweet, 
drawn  butter,  set  in  a  warm,  not  too  hot  place  to  rise,  cover  lightly 
to  keep  off  dust  and  air,  watch  and  oc^casionally  turn  the  pans 
around  when  necessary  to  make  the  loaves  rise  evenly ;  when  risen 
to  about  double  the  original  size,  draw  across  the  top  of  each  length- 
wise with  a  sharp  knife,  making  a  slit  half  an  inch  deep,  place 
them  in  a  moderately  heated  oven,  and  bake  one  hour,  watching 
carefully  from  time  to  time  to  make  certain  that  a  proper  degree  of 
heat  is  kept  up.  Before  browning  they  will  rise  to  double  the  size 
of  loaf  which  was  placed  in  the  oven,  and  pans  must'  be  provided 
deep  enough  to  retain  them  in  shape.  Bake  until  well  done  and 
nicely  browned.  Nothing  adds  morf  to  the  sweetness  and  digesti' 
bility  of  wheaten  bread  than  thorough  baking.  When  done,  re^ 
move  from  pans  immediately,  to  prevent  the  sweating  and  softening 
of  the  crust — Mn,  L.  B,  Lyman,  Antioch,  CaL 


BBEAD-MAKINQ.  23 

Brkad  Raised  Twice. 

Measure  oat  four  quarts  of  sifted  flour,  take  out  a  pint  in  a  cup, 
and  place  remainder  in  a  bread-pan.  Make  a  well  in  the  middle, 
into  which  turn  one  table-spoon  sugar,  one  of  salt,  and  one  cup  of 
jeast;  then  mix  in  one  pint  of  miJk  which  has  been  made  blood- 
warm  by  adding  one  pint  of  boiling  water ;  beat  well  with  a  strong 
spoon,  add  one  table-spoon  lard,  knead  for  twenty  to  thirty  minute?, 
and  let  rise  over  night;  in  the  morning  knead  again,  make  into 
loaves,  let  them  rise  one  hour,  and  bake  fifty  minutes.  Water  may 
be  used  instead  of  the  pint  of  milk,  in  which  case  use  twice  as  much 
lard. 

Bread  Raised  Three  Times. 

Begin  about  5  p.  m.,  plan  for  six  loaves,  somewhat  larger  than 
bakers'  loaves ;  take  two  little  cakes  of  yeast,  put  them  into  a  pint 
of  tepid  water,  and,  when  soft,  beat  in  thoroughly  enough  flour  to 
make  a  thick  batter,  and  put  in  a  warm  place.  If  the  excellent 
"Farmer's  Yeast,"  the  recipe  for  which  is  given  hereafter,  is  used, 
take  half  a  tea-cup  and  stir  into  the  batter.  A  good  dish  for  this 
purpose  is  a  large  bowl,  a  broad  open  pitcher,  or  a  bright  three- 
quart  tin  pail,  and  it  should  be  clean  in  the  strictest  sense.  This 
should  rise  in  about  two  hours;  and  when  nearly  light,  take  six  or 
eight  medium-sized  potatoes,  pare  neatly,  rinse  clean,  and  boil  in 
three  pints  of  water  till  well  done,  mash  very  fine  in  the  water 
while  hot.  Have  ready  a  bread-pan  of  sifted  flour,  into  which  put 
a  tea-spoon  of  salt,  half  a  cup  of  white  sugar,  and  a  bit  of  lard  as 
large  as  an  egg ;  then  riddle  the  potato  mash,  hot  as  it  is,  'through 
a  sieve  or  fine  colander  into  the  flour,  and  stir  with  a  kitchen  spoon 
into  a  stifl*  dough.  This  scalds  about  half  the  flour  used  in  the 
batch  of  bread.  This  mass  must  cool  till  it  wiU  not  scald  ihe  yeast, 
which  may  now  be  mixed  in  md  put  in  a  warm,  not  hot,  place  for 
second  rising,  which  will  be  accomplished  by  morning,  when  the 
kneading  may  be  done.  Kneading  is  the  flnest  point  of  bread-mak- 
ing, and  contains  more  of  the  art  than  any  other;  it  requires  skiU, 
time,  patience,  and  hard  work.  Work  in  flour  no  faster  than  is  re- 
quired to  allow  thorough  kneading,  which  can  not  be  done  in  less 
tban  forty-five  minutes,  but  should  not  be  worked  much  over  an 


24  BREAD-MAKINO, 

hour;  one  hour  is  a  good  uniform  rule.  The  mechanical  bakers 
use  sets  of  rollers  driven  by  steam  power,  between  which  the  dough 
is  passed,  coming  out  a  sheet  an  inch  thick;  it  is  folded  together 
several  times  and  rolled  again  and  again.  This  process  should  be 
imitated  somewhat  by  the  hands  in  the  family  kitchen.  The  work- 
ing of  the  dough  gives  grain  and  flakiness  to  tlie  bread.  The  dough 
when  kueaded  should  be  soft,  but  not  sticky — stiff  enough  to  retain 
its  roundness  on  the  board.  Put  back  into  the  pan  for  the  third 
rising,  which  will  require  but  little  time,  and  when  light,  cut  off 
enough  for  each  loaf  by  itself.  Knead  but  little,  and  put  into  the 
baking-pans.  If  the  first  kneading  has  been  well  done,  no  more 
flour  will  be  needed  in  molding  into  loaves.  These  must  remain  in 
the  baking-pans  till  nearly  as  large  as  the  loaves  ought  to  be,  when 
they  may  be  put  into  a  well-heated  oven.  If  the  oven  is  a  trifle 
too  hot,  or  if  it  tends  to  bake  hard  on  the  top,  a  piece  of  brown 
paper  may  be  put  over  the  loaves  (save  some  clean  grocer's  paper 
for  this  purpose),  and  from  forty  to  sixty  minutes  will  cook  it  thor- 
oughly. After  the  loaves  are  put  into  the  baking-pans,  avoid  jar- 
ring them,  as  it  will  make  portions  of  them  heavy. 

If  the  yeast  is  '* set"  at  5  p.  M.,  the  bi^ad  will  be  ready  for 
dinner  next  day ;  if  in  the  morning,  the  baking  will  be  done  early 
in  the  evening,  or  twelve  hours  after,  with  fair  temperature  and 
good  yeast.  Bread  made  lu  this  way  will  be  good  for  a  week,*  and, 
with  fair  weather  and  careful  keeping,  even  two  weeks.  When 
dry,  a  slice  toasted  will  be  as  crisp,  sweet,  and  granular  as  Yan- 
kee ginger-bread. — Mrs,  H.  Young, 
» 

Bread,  in  Summer  or  Wintep. 

In  summer  take  three  pints  of  cold  or  tepid  water,  four  table^ 
spoons  of  yeast,  one  tea-spoon  of  salt ;  stir  in  flour  enough  to  make 
a  thick  sponge  (rather  thicker  than  griddle-cakes).  Let  stand  until 
morning,  then  add  more  flour,  m\if  stiff,  and  knead  ten  minutes; 
place  in  a  pan,  let  rise  until  light,  knead  for  another  ten  minutes; 
mold  into  four  loaves,  and  set  to  rise,  but  do  not  let  it  get  too  light; 
bake  in  a  moderate  oven  one  hour.  If  bread  is  mixed  at  six  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  the  baking  ought  to  be  done  by  ten  o'clock. 

In  winter  take  one  pint  of  buttermilk  or  clabbered  milk ;   let  it 


BREAD-MAKINQ.  25 

ecald  (not  boil) ;  make  a  well  in  the  center  of  the  flour,  into  it  turn 
the  hot  milk,  add  one  tea-spoon  of  salt,  enough  flour  and  water  to 
make  sufficient  sponge,  and  one  tea-cup  of  yeast;  let  stand  until 
morning,  and  then  prepare  the  bread  as  in  summer.  This  is  more 
convenient  to  make  in  winter,  since  a  hot  fire  is  needed  to  heat  the 
milk. — Mrs.  £>.  Bvxton, 

Salt-Rising  Bread. 

The  leaven  for  this  bread  is  prepared  thus :  Take  a  pint  of  warm 
water — about  90° — (if  a  little  too  hot  defeat  is  certain)  in  a  per- 
fectly clean  bowl  and  stir  up  a  thick  batter,  adding  only  a  tea-spoon 
of  salt;  a  thorough  beating  of  the  batter  is  important.  Set  in  a 
pan  of  warm  water  to  secure  uniformity  of  temperature,  and  in 
two  to  four  hours  it  will  begin  to  rise.  The  rising  is  much  more 
sure  if  coarse  flour  or  '*  shorts"  is  used  instead  of  fine  flour. 

When  your  '*  rising"  is  nearly  light  enough,  take  a  pint  of  milk 
and  a  pint  of  boiling  water,  (a  table-spoon  of  lime  water  added  is 
good,  and  often  prevents  souring),  mix  the  sponge  in  the  bread-pan, 
and  when  cooled  to  about  milk-warm,  stir  in  the  rising.  The 
sponge  thus  made  will  be  light  in  two  to  four  hours,  with  good 
warmth.  The  dough  requires  less  kneading  than  yeast-raised  dough. 
The  bread  is  simpler,  but  not  so  certain  of  rising,  and  you  leave 
out  all  the  ingredients  save  the  flour,  water  (milk  is  not  essential), 
and  a  pinch  of  salt.  It  should  be  made  more  frequently  as  it  dries 
&ster  than  bread  containing  potatoes.  Some  object  to  it  because  of 
the  odor  in  rising,  which  is  the  result  of  acetous  fermentation,  but 
the  more  of  that  the  more  sure  you  are  of  having  sweet  bread  when 
baked. — Mrs.  H,  Youngs 

•Another  Salt-Risino  Bread. 
In  summer  take  at  night  one  (scant)  pint  of  new  milk,  half  as 
much  hot  water,  a  teanspoon  salt,  one  of  sugar,  and  a  very  little  soda. 
Mix  all  in  a  nice,  sweet  piich^r  (it  must  be  perfectly  clean  and 
sweet),  stir  in  one  table-spoon  of  corn  meal,  and  add  flour  enough 
to  make  a  medium  batter;  stir  well,  place  the  pitcher  in  an  iron 
kettle  with  quite  warm  water,  using  so  much  water  that  the  pitcher 
will  barely  rest  on  the  bottom  of  the  kettle ;  cover  closely  and  leave 
all  night  (on  the  stove  if  the  fire  is  nearly  out)  where  it  will  be 


26  BBEAD-MAKINQ, 

kept  warm,  not  hot,  for  an  hour  or  two.  If  the  pitcher  is  not  too 
large,  it  will  probably  be  full  in  the  morning;  if  not,  add  a  spoon 
of  flour,  stir  well,  warm  the  water  in  the  kettle,  replace  the 
pitcher,  cover,  and  keep  it  vxirm  until  light  Have  ready  two 
quarts  of  sifted  flour  in  a  pan,  make  a  hole  in  the  center,  put  in  an 
even  tea-spoon  of  salt,  a  tea-cup  of  nearly  boiling  water ;  add  one 
pint  of  new  milk,  and  stir  a  batter  there  in  the  center  of  the  flour, 
/iddthe  "emptyings"  from  the  pitcher,  and  stir  well  (there  will  be  a 
good  deal  of  flour  all  round  the  batter ;  this  is  right) ;  cover  with 
another  pan,  keep  warm  until  light — ^it  will  rise  in  an  hour  or  even 
less — when  it  is  ready  to  be  weO,  kneaded,  and  made  directly  into 
loaves,  which  place  in  the  baking-pans,  keep  well  covered  and  vxirm 
until  light,  when  it  is  ready  to  bake.  The  secret  of  success  is  to 
keep  it  warm  but  not  at  all  liot.  This  bread  is  good  if  no  milk  is 
used ;  indeed,  some  prefer  it  made  with  water  alone  instead  of  milk 
and  water.  In  cold  weather,  if  kitchen  is  cold  at  night,  do  not  set 
.  "emptyings**  over  night,  but  make  early  in  the  morning. — JBavillah^ 
FarinoLy 

Boston  Brown  Bread. 
One  heaping  coffee-cup  each  of  corn,  rye  and  Graham  meal. 
The  rye  meal  should  be  as  fine  as  the  Graham,  or  rye  flour  may  be 
used.  Sift  the  three  kinds  together  as  closely  as  possible,  and  beat 
together  thoroughly  with  two  cups  New  Orleans  or  Porto  Kico  mo- 
lasses, two  cups  sweet  milk,  one  cup  sour  milk,  one  dessert-spoon 
soda,  one  tea-spoon  salt;  pour  into  a  tin  form,  place  in  a  kettle  of 
cM  water,  put  on  and  boil  four  hours.  Put  on  to  cook  as  soon  as 
mixed.  It  may  appear  to  be  too  thin,  but?  it  is  not,  as  this  recipe 
has  never  been  known  to  fail.  Serve  warm,  with  baked  beans  or 
Thanksgiving  turkey.  The  bread  should  not  quite  fill  the  form 
(or  a  tin  pail  with  cover  will  answer),  as  it  must  have  room  to  swell. 
See  that  the  water  does  not  boil  up  to  the  top  of  the  form;  also 
take  care  it  does  not  boil  entirely  away  or  stop  boiling.  To  serve 
it,  remove  the  lid  and  set  it  a  few  moments  into  the  open  oven  to 
dry  the  top,  and  it  will  then  turn  out  in  perfect  shape.  This  bread 
can  be  used  as  a  pudding,  and  served  with  a  sauce  made  of  thick 
nour  cream,  well  sweetened  and  seasoned  with  nutmeg;  or  it  is  good 
toasted  the  next  day. — Mn.  H.  S.  Stevem,  Minneapolis,  Minn. 


BBEADMAXma.  27 

MiBsouBi  Bbown  Bkead. 

One  pint  each  of  rye  or  Graham  and  Indian  meal,  one  cup  mo- 
lasses, three-fburths  cup  sour  milk,  one  and  one-half  tea-spoons  soda, 
one  and  one-half  pints  cold  water.  Put  on  stove  over  cold  water 
(all  brown  breads  are  better  when  put  on  to  steam  over  cold  water, 
which  is  afterwards  brought  to  the  boiling  point  and  kept  con- 
stantly boiling  until  bread  is  done) ;  steam  four  hours,  and  brown 
over  in  the  oven. — B.  &•/".,  St,  Joe,  Mo. 

Brown  Bread. 

Two  and  one-half  cups  sour  milk,  and  one-half  cup  molasses ;  into 
these  put  one  heaping  tea-spoon  soda,  two  cups  corn-meal,  one  cup 
Graham  flour  and  one  tea-spoon  salt.  Use  cofiee-cups.  Steam 
three  hours,  and  afterwards  brown  in  oven. — Mrs.  M.  Irvine,  De 
KaU>,  Mo. 

Bread  with  Bice. 

Three  tea-cups  rice-flour,  one  of  wheat-flour,  one  heaping  tear 
spoon  cream  of  tartar  rubbed  in  flour,  two  well-beaten  eggs,  a  table- 
spoon butter,  one-half  teanspoon  soda,  and  sweet  milk,  to  consistency 
of  pound-cake.     Salt  to  taste. — Mre.  HtK,  Va. 

Bread  with  Mush. 

Four  two  quarts  hot  corn-meal  mush,  made  as  for  eating,  over 
two  quarts  flour  (wheat  or  Graham) ;  when  cool,  add  one  quart 
sponge,  one  coflfee-cup  molasses,  one  tearspoon  salt,  half  tearspoon 
soda;  mix  well  together;  add  more  flour  if  needed,  and  knead 
thoroughly;  mold  into  small  loaves;  let  rise  and  bake  in  small 
dripping  pans  (a  loaf  in  a  pan),  or  pie-tins,  in  a  moderate  oven; 
when  done,  rub  over  with  butter,  place  on  the  side,  wrap  in  a  cloth, 
and  when  cold  put  in  a  jar  or  box.  This  recipe  makes  three  good- 
sized  loaves  and  keeps  moist  longer  than  all  Graham  bread. — Mn. 
W.  W.  Woodk. 

Clabber  Bread. 

Beat  four  eggs  separately;  take  two  cups  of  clabber,  one  table- 
spoon butter  (slightly  heaped,  and  place  where  it  will  soften),  a  tea- 
spoon each  soda  and  salt;  mix  with  flour  to  a  stiff  batter;  grease 
pan,  pour  in  batter,  and  let  rise  an  hour  before  baking.    Excellent. 


28  BRMAD-MAKINO. 

Mrs.  B.'s  Cokn  Bread. 

One  quart  sour  milk,  three  eggs,  two  table-spoons  lard  or  butter 
(or  half  and  half)*  one  table-spoon  sugar,  a  pinch  of  salt,  handful 
of  wheat  flour,  and  enough  corn  meal  (sifted)  to  make  a  good  bat- 
ter ;  add  one  heaping  tea-spoon  soda,  stir  thoroughly,  and  bake  in 

long  dripping  pan. 

Boiled  Corn  Bread. 

One  and  one-fourth  pints  each  of  sweet  milk  and  buttermOk  or 
sour  cream,  hall  a  pint  molasses,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  three  tea- 
spoons cream  tartar,  one  even  table-spoon  salt,  one  and  a  fourth 
pints  each  of  corn  meal  and  flour;  sift  the  soda  and  cream  tartar  in 
the  flour ;  mix  all  the  ingredients  thoroughly  together  and  put  in  a 
buttered  tin  pail ;  cover  closely,  place  in  a  kettle  two-thirds  full  of 
boiling  water ;  cover,  and  boil  steadily  for  three  hours,  replenish* 
ing  when  needful  with  boiling  water.  To  be  eaten  hot  with  butter. 
—Mrs.  I.  K  BurrUt  in  ''In  ike  KUchen." 

Corn  Bread.  - 

One  pint  corn  meal  sifted,  one  pint  flour,  one  pint  sour  milk, 

two  eggs  beaten  light,  one-half  cup  sugar,  piece  of  butter  size  of  an 

egg ;  add,  the  last  thuig,  one  tea-spoon  soda  in  a  little  milk ;  add  to 

the  beaten  egg  the  milk  and  meal  alternately,  then  the   butter  and 

sugar.     If  sweet  milk  is  used,  add  one  tea-spoon  cream  tartar ;  bake 

twenty  minutes  in  a  hot  oven.  —Mrs.  H.  B.  Sherman,  Mihoavkeet 

Wisconsin, 

Corn  Bread. 

Take  one  quart  buttermilk,  and  one  heaping  pint  corn  meal,  one 
tea-spoon  soda,  one  of  salt,  one  table-spoon  sugar  and  three  eggs ; 
have  the  stove  very  hot,  and  do  not  bake  in  too  deep  a  pan.  The 
batter  seems  too  thin,  but  bakes  very  nicely. — 3frs.  J.  H.  Shearer, 
Marysmlle^  Ohio, 

The  Bread  of  our  Forefathers. 
Put  in  a  pan  two  quarts  of  meal,  a  half-pint  of  flour,  stir  up  well ; 
pour  in  the  center  a  pint  of  boiling  water,  stir  up  enough  of  the 
meal  to  make  a  thin  batter;  when  cool,  put  in  a  cup  of  yeast,  a 
tea-spoon  of  salt  and  enough  warm  water  to  make  a  thick  batter  ; 
let  rise,  then  place  in  a  deep,  well-greased  pan,  cover  with  another 


BREAD-MAKINQ.  29 

pan,  and  place  in  a  moderate  oven.    When  nearly  done,  remove  the 

cover,  and  bake  slowly  until  done.     Excellent  when  cold. 

All  baking-pans  for  bread  should  be  made  with  covers,  made  of 

the  same  material,  and  high  enough  to  permit  the  bread  to  rise  to 

its  Aill  size.     If  pan  is  deep  enough  to  permit  the   bread  to  rise 

without  touching  it,  a  flat  piece  of  tin  or  sheet-iron  will  answer  for 

the  cover,  or  a  cover  may  be  made  of  paper,  or  another  pan  may 

be  inverted  over  the  bread.     The  office  of  the  cover  is  to  prevent 

the  crust  from  browning  hard  before  the  expansion  of  the  gases  has 

made  the  bread  light  and  porous. — Mrs.  C.   V.  OoUier,  Liidifiddj 

Minnesota. 

Plain  Corn  Bread. 

One  well-heaped  pint  com  meal,  one  pint  sour  or  buttermilk,  one 
e^,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  one  of  salt ;  bake  in  dripping  or  gem  pans. 
If  preferred,  one  heaping  table-spoon  of  sugar  may  be  added. 

Steamed  Corn  Bread. 
Two  cups  each  corn  meal,  Graham  flour  and  sour  milk,  two- 
thirds  cup  molasses,  one  tea-spoon  soda;    steam  two  hours  and  a 
half  — Mrs.  Jennie  Guthrie  Cherry,  Newark. 

Graham  Bread. 
Take  a  little  over  a  quart  of  warm  water,  one-half  cup  brown 
sugar  or  molasses,  one-fourth  cup  hop  yeast,  and  one  and  one-half 
tea-spoons  salt ;  thicken  the  water  with  unbolted  flour  lo  a  thin  bat- 
ter ;  add  sugar,  salt  and  yeast,  and  stir  in  more  flour  until  quite 
sdfil  In  the  morning  add  a  small  tea-spoon  soda,  and  flour  enough 
to  make  the  batter  stiff*  as  can  be  stirred  with  a  spoon ;  put  it  into 
pans  and  let  rise  again;  then  bake  in  even  oven,  not  too  hot  at 
first ;  keep  warm  whUe  rising ;  smooth  over  the  loaves  with  a  spoon 
<»r  knife  dipped Jn  water. — Mrs.  H.  B.  Sherman,  PUxnkiivUm  House, 

MHwaukee,  Wi^condn. 

Graham  Bread. 

Mix  three  quarts  Graham  flour,  one  quart  warm  water,  half  pint 

yeast,  a  quarter- pint  molasses,  and  one  table-spoon  salt,  thoroughly; 

put  in  well-buttered  pans,  and  leave  in  a  warm  place  to  rise,  or  let 

it  rise  over  night  at  60^.   If  left  to  rise  slowly,  let  it  remain  in  the 

bowl  in  which  it  was  mixed,  and  unless   very  light  when  put  in 


30  BREAD-MAKING. 

pans,  let   it  stand  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  before  patting  in 

the  oven. 

Graham  Bread. 

To  one  and  a  half  pints  of  tepid  water  add  one  heaping  tea-spoon 
of  salt  and  one-half  cup  of  sugar ;  stir  in  one-half  pint  or  more  of 
the  sponge  made  of  white  flour,  as  in  recipe  for  "  Bread  with  Potato 
Yeast;"  add  Graham  flour  until  aliuost  too  fiiff  to  8^r;  put  in  the 
baking-pan  and  let  rise  well,  which  will  take  about  two  hours,  bake 
in  a  moderate  oven,  and  when  done,  wrap  in  a  wet  towel  until  cool. 
— Mn.  Qara  Woods  Morey. 

Quick  Graham  Bread. 

One  and  a  half  pints  sour  milk,  half  cup  New  Orleans  molasses, 
a  little  salt,  two  tearspoons  soda  dissolved  in  a  little  hot  water,  and 
as  much  Graham  flour  as  can  be  stirred  in  with  a  spoon ;  pour  in 
well-greased  pan,  put  in  oven  as  soon  as  mixed,  and  bake  two 
hours. — Mrs.  E.  J.  W. 

Bte  and  Indian  Bread. 

One  quart  of  rye  meal  or  rje  flour,  two  quarts  of  Indian  meal, 
scalded  (by  placing  in  a  pan  and  pouring  just  enough  boUing  water 
over  it,  stirring  constantly  with  a  spoon,  to  merely  wet  it,  but  not 
enough  to  make  it  into  a  batter),  one-half  tea-cup  molasses,  two  tea- 
spoons salt,  one  of  soda,  one  tearcup  yeast ;  make  as  stiff  as  can  be 
stirred  with  a  spoon,  mixing  with  warm  water,  and  let  rise  all 
night;  then  put  in  a  large  pan,  smooth  the  top  with  the  hand 
dipped  in  cold  water,  let  it  stand  a  short  time,  and  bake  five  or  six 
hours.  If  put  in  the  oven  late  in  the  day,  let  it  remain  all  night 
Graham  may  be  used  instead  of  rye,  and  baked  as  above.  In  tha 
olden  time  it  was  placed  in  kettle,  allowed  to  rise,  then  placed  ov 
the  hearth  before  the  fire,  with  coals  on  top  of  lid,  and  baked.^« 
Mm.  Charles  FuttingUm,  ilarymUe^  Ohio. 

Rte  Bread. 

Make  a  sponge  of  one  quart  warm  water,  one  tea  cup  yeast, 
thickened  with  rye  flour;  put  in  warm  place  to  rise  over  night; 
scald  one  pint  com  meal ;  when  coul  add  it  to  sponge,  and  add  rye 
flour  till  thick  enough  to  knead,  ht^wl  hvt  liitk,  let  rise,  mcU  into 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES.  31 

loaves,  place  in  deep  pie-tiiis  or  small  pudding-pans,  let  rise  and 
bake ;  or,  thicken  tlie  sponge  with  rye  flour,  and  proceed  as  above. 
Wheat  sponge  may  be  used  instead  of  rye. — Mn,  Eliza  T.  Carson, 
Deiawarey  Ohio, 

Rte  Bread. 

Make  sponge  as  for  wheat  bread,  let  rise  over  night,  then  mix  it 
up  with  the  rye  flour  (not  so  stiff  as  wheat  bread),  and  bake. 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 


To  make  biscuit,  take  a  part  of  the  dough  left  from  bread-making 
when  it  is  ready  to  mold  into  loaves,  work  in  the  lard  and  any  other 
ingredients  desired,  such  as  butter,  eggs,  sugar,  spice,  etc.,  also 
using  a  little  more  flour ;  let  rise  once,  then  mix  down  and  let  rise 
again,  turn  out  on  "iie  bread-board,  knead  a  few  minutes,  roll,  and 
cut  out  with  a  biscuit-cutter  or  mold  with  the  hand.  Place  in  a 
well-greased  dripping-pan,  and  when  light  bake  in  a  quick  oven 
from  fifteen  to  twenty  minutes.  To  make  them  a  nice  color,  wet 
the  top  with  warm  water  just  before  placing  in  the  oven.  To  glaze, 
brush  lightly  with  milk  and  sugar,  or  the  well-beaten  yolk  of  an  egg 
sweetened,  and  a  little  milk  added. 

Biscuit  may  be  baked  in  eight  minutes  by  making  the  oven  as 
hot  as  can  be  without  burning,  and  allowing  it  to  cool  off  gradually 
as  they  bake ;  this  makes  them  very  light,  but  one  has  to  watch 
closely  to  keep  them  from  being  scorched.  Any  kind  of  bread  or 
pastry  mixed  with  water  requires  a  hotter  fire  than  that  mixed  \rith 
milk. 

Biscuit  and  rolls  should  be  allowed  to  rise  one-half  longer  than 
bread  loaves,  because  the  loaves  of  the  former,  being  smaller,  are 
penetrated  sooner  by  the  heat,  and,  of  course,  the  fermentation  is 
stopped  sooner,  and  the  rolls  do  not  rise  so  much  in  the  oven.  ^ 

Biscuit  for  tea  at  six  must  be  molded  two  hours  before,  which 
will  give  ample  time  for  rising  and  baking.  Parker  House  rolls  for 
break&st  at  eight  must  be  made  ready  at  five.     Many  think  it 


82  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

UDDecessarj  to  knead  dowu  either  bread  or  biscuit  as  often  as  hero 
directed ;  but  if  attention  is  given  to  the  dough  at  the  right  time, 
and  it  is  not  suffered  to  become  too  lights  it  will  be  much  nicer, 
whiter,  and  of  a  finer  texture  if  these  directions  are  followed. 

The  almost  universal  custom  is  to  set  the  sponge  at  night,  but 
many  excellent  bread-makers  differ  widely  from  this  in  practice,  and 
their  objections  deserve  candid  consideration  in  this  nineteenth  cen- 
tury, when  so  much  is  written  of  dyspepsia  and  its  causes.  Some 
medical  authorities  assert  that  cancer  in  the  stomach  has  its  origin 
in  dyspepsia,  which,  in  the  beginning,  is  caused  by  the  use  of  indi- 
gestible yeast  bread,  in  which  the  process  of  fermentation  has  been 
allowed  to  go  so  far  that  a  certain  amount  of  actual  decomposition 
has  taken  place.  This  is  not  the  fault  of  such  recipes  as  are  giveu 
in  this  volume,  but  from  &ilure  to  mix  the  bread  at  each  suc- 
cessive rising  at  ihe  proper  time.  The  objection  to  setting  sponge 
at  night  is,  that  it  stands  too  long.  Bread,  to  be  white,  sweet,  and  . 
digestible,  must  be  mixed  immediately  after  the  sponge  has  risen  to 
the  proper  point,  which  may  be  known  by  Us  puffy  appearance,  usvuiUy 
rising  higJier  in  the  middle  titan  at  Hie  sides  of  ihe  crock ;  if  it  sinks  in 
the  center,  it  has  stood  too  long. 

The  process  of  bread-making  discovered  by  Prof.  Horsford,  of 
Harvard  College,  deserves  the  attention  of  all  housekeepers.  It  is 
claimed,  and  with  good  reason,  that  the  Horsford  process  prevents 
all  decomposition,  saves  all  the  nutritious  properties  of  the  bread, 
and,  by  the  addition  of  acid  phosphate,  renders  it  more  easy  of 
digestion.  Besides  this,  the  use  of  Horsford's  Bread  Preparation 
saves  times,  simplifies  the  whole  process  of  bread-making,  saves 
labor,  and  reduces  the  chances  of  failure  to  the  minimum.  These 
are  considerations  of  great  moment,  especially  to  inexperienced 
housekeepers,  leaving  entirely  out  of  consideration  the  fact  that  this 
bread  may  be  eaten  with  impunity  by  persons  whose  delicate  di- 
gestive organs  are  impaired  by  the  use  of  ordinary  yeast  bread.  It 
is  certain  that  for  rolls,  biscuits,  griddle-cakes,  and  the  whole  list 
of  "Break&st  and  Tea  Cakes,"  the  ** Bread  Preparation"  is  supe. 
nor  to  yeast  or  soda,  or  any  of  the  baking-powders  in  common  use. 

Soda  biscuit  must  be  handled  as  little  and  made  as  rapidly  as 
possible ;  mix  soda  and  cream  tartar  or  baking-powder  in  the  flour 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES.  »8 

(with  sweet  milk  use  baking-powder  or  soda  and  cream  tartar,  with 
iour  milk  soda  alone),  so  that  the  effervescence  takes  place  in  the 
mixture.  One  tea-spoon  soda  and  two  of  cream  tartar,  or  three 
tea-spoons  baking-powder,  to  every  two  pints  of  flour,  is  about  the 
right  proportion.  Bake  in  a  quick  oven  as  soon  as  made,  and  they 
rise  more  quickly  if  put  into  hot  pans.  Gems  of  all  kinds  require 
a  hot  oven,  bi)t  the  fire  should  be  built  some  time  before  they  ar» 
put  into  the  oven,  and  allowed  to  go  down  by  the  time  they  are 
light,  as  the  heat  necessary  to  raise  them  will  bum  them  in  baking 
if  kept  up. 

All  biscuit  and  bread,  except  brown  and  Graham  bread,  should 
be  pricked  with  a  fork  before  putting  them>  in  the  oven. 

Soda  and  raised  biscuit  and  bread  or  cake,  when  stale,  can  be 
made  almost  as  nice  as  fresh  by  plunging  for  an  instant  into  cold 
water,  and  then  placing  in  a  pan  in  the  oven  ten  or  fifteen  minutes; 
thus  treated  they  should  be  used  immediately. 

Waffle-irons  should  be  heated,  then  buttered  or  greased  with 
lard,  and  one  side  filled  with  batter,  closed  and  laid  on  the  fire  or 
placed  on  the  stove,  and  after  a  few  minutes  turned'  on  the  other 
side.  They  take  about  twice  as  long  to  bake  as  griddle-o^es,  and 
are  delicious  with  a  dressing  of  ground  cinnamon.  Midfins  are 
baked  in  muffin-rings.  In  eating  them,  do  not  cut  but  break  them 
open. 

The  success  of  these  recipes,  and  all  others  in  this  book  in  which 
soda  and  cream  tartar  are  used,  will  depend  on  the  purity  of  these 
ingredients.  Always  buy  the  jmre  English  bicarbonate  of  soda,  and 
the  pare  cream  tartar.  They  are  higher-priced,  but  cheaper  in  the 
end,  and  are  free  from  injurious  substances.  When  not  found  at 
the  grooer^s,  they  may  generally  be  had  at  the  druggist's. 


Bakino  Powder. 

Sixteen  ounces  corn  starch,  eight  of  bicarbonate  of  soda,  five  of 
tartaric  acid ;  mix  thoroughly. — Mn.  Dr.  Alien,  Oberlin,  Ohio. 

Eight  ounces  flour,  eight  of  English  bicarbonate  of  soda,  seveD 

of  tartaric  acid ;  mix  thoroughly  by  passing  several  times  throuj^ 

a  sieve. — Mrs.  Trimble,  Mt.  QUead,  Ohio. 
3 


84  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

Bbeakfa8t  Cake. 

Two  table-spoons  sugar,  two  of  butter,  two  eggs,  one  cup  milk, 

one  (scanty)  quart  flour,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  two  of  cream  tartar; 

bake  twenty  minutes  in  a  quick  oven. — Mn,  Emily  L.  Bwrnham^ 

South  Norwalkf  Gonn. 

Cinnamon  Cake. 

When  yeast  bread  is  ready  to  knead  from  the  sponge,  knead  and 
r  )ll  out  three-fourths  of  an  inch  tliick,  put  thin  slices  of  butter  on 
the  top,  sprinkle  with  cinnamon,  and  then  with  sugar;  let  rise  well 
and  bake. — Muc  M.  E,  Wilcox,  Sdma,  Alabama. 

BUNB. 

Break  one  egg  Into  a  cup  and  fill  with  sweet  milk ;  mix  with  it 
half  cup  yeast,  half  cup  butter,  one  cup  sugar,  enough  flour  to 
make  a  soft  dough ;  flavor  with  nutmeg.  Let  rise  till  very  lights 
then  mold  into  biscuit  with  a  few  currants.  Let  rise  a  second  time 
in  pan;  bake,  and,  when  nearly  done,  glaze  with  a  little  molasses 
and  milk.  Use  the  same  cup,  no  matter  about  the  size,  for  each 
measure. — Mrs.  W.  A.  James. 

Buttered  Toast. 

Although  toast  is  commonly  used,  few  know  how  to  prepare  it 
nicely.  Take  bread  not  too  fresh,  cut  thin  and  evenly,  trim  off  the 
crust-edges  for  the  crumb-jar;  first  warm  each  side  of  the  bread, 
then  present  the  first  side  again  to  the  fire  until  it  takes  on  a  rich, 
even,  brown  color ;  treat  the  other  side  in  the  same  way ;  butter 
send  serve  immediately.  The  coals  should  be  bright  and  hot.  Toast 
properly  made  id  very  digestible,  because  all  the  moisture  is  ex- 
tracted, and  the  bread  has  become  pure  farina  of  wheat;  but  when 
it  is  exposed  to  a  hot  fire  and  the  outside  charred,  the  inside  remains 
as  moist  as  ever,  and  butter  applied  to  it  while  warm  does  not  pene- 
trate, but  floats  on  the  surface  in  the  form  of  rancid  oil.  Or,  beat 
one  cup  of  butter  and  three  table-spoons  flour  to  a  cream,  pour  over 
this  one  and  a  half  pints  bailing  water  ;  place  over  a  kettle  of  boil' 
ing  water  for  ten  minutes,  dip  into  it  the  toast,  and  serve  hot. 

Or,  dip  each  slice  of  toast  in  boiling  hot  water  (slightly  salted)^ 
spread  with  butter,  cover  and  keep  hot 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES.  85 

Excellent  Toast. 
Cat  slioes  of  a  uniform  thicknees,  of  half  an  inch ;  move  aromid 
over  a  brisk  fire,  to  have  all  parts  toasted  alike;  keep  only  so  near 
fhe  coals  that  the  pieces  will  be  heated  through  when  both  sides  are 
well  browned.  If  the  slightest  point  is  blackened  or  charred,  scrape 
it  off,  or  it  will  spoil  the  flavor  of  the  whole.  If  covered  with  an 
earthen  bowl,  i(  will  keep  both  warm  and  moist.  A  clean  towel  or 
napkin  will  answer  if  it  is  to  go  at  once  to  the  table.  Stale  bread 
may  be  used  for  milk-toast ;  sour  bread  may  be  improved  by  toast- 
ing it  through,  but  sweet,  light  bread,  only  a  day  old  or  less,  makes 

ihe  best  toast. 

Breakfast  Toast. 

Add  to  one-half  pint  of  sweet  milk  two  tal)le-dpoons  sugar,  a 
Btde  salt  and  a  well-beaten  egg ;  dip  in  this  slices  of  bread  (if  dry, 
let  it  soak'  a  minute),  and  fry  on  a  buttered  griddle  until  it  is  a 
light  brown  on  each  side.  This  is  a  good  way  to  use  dry  bread. — 
Mn.  Dr.  Morey, 

Mennonpte  Toast. 

Beat  up  three  eggs  well,  add  a  pint  of  sweet  milk  and  a  pinch  of 
salt;  cut  slices  an  inch  thick  from  a  loaf  of  baker^s  bread,  remove 
cmst,  dip  slices  into  the  eggs  and  milk,  fry  like  doughnuts  in  verg 
hot  hfrd  or  drippings,  till  a  delfcate  brown,  butter  and  sprinkle  with 
powdered  sugar,  and  serve  hot. — Mrs,  J.  P.  Rea, 

Bread  Puffs. 
If  the  wheat  bread  is  light  enough  for  the  oven  at  breakfast  time» 
have  ready  some  hot  lard  in  a  deep  kettle ;  with  the  thumb  and  two 
fingers  pull  up  some  of  the  dough  quite  thin,  and  cut  it  some  two 
or  three  inches  in  length ;  as  these  pieces  are  cut,  drop  them  in  the 
lard  and  fry  like  doughnuts.  At  table  they  are  eaten  like  bigcuitf 
they  may  also  be  served  in  a  vegetable  dish  with  a  dressiug  of  hot 
cream,  seasoned  with  pepper  and. salt. — In  the  IStchen. 

Lucy's  Pop-overs. 
Two  tea-cups  sweet  milk,  two  tea-cups  sifted  flour,  heaped  alitde»- 
batter  size  of  a  walnut,  two  eggs,  and^one  table-spoon  sugar,  a  little 
salt;  bake  in  hot  gem-pans,  filled  half  full,  for  twenty  minutes,  and 
serve  immediately.  —Mn.  W.  A.  James,  MankaU, 


86  BBEAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

Pocket-Books. 

Warm  one  quart  new  milk»  add  one  cup  butter  or  lard,  four  table* 
apooiu  sugar,  and  two  weU-beaten  eggs ;  stir  in  flour  enough  to  make 
a  moderately  stiff  sponge,  add  a  small  cup  of  yeast,  and  set  in  a 
warm  place  to  rise,  wiiich  will  take  three  or  four  hours;  then  mix 
in  flour  enough  to  make  a  soft  dough  and  let  rise  again.  When  weU 
risen,  dissolve  a  lump  of  soda  size  of  a  bean  in  a. spoon  of  milk, 
work  it  into  the  dough  and  roll  into  sheets  one-half  inch  in  thick- 
ness;  spread  with  thin  layer  of  butter,  cut  into  squares,  and  fold 
over,  pocket-book  shape;  put  on  tins  or  in  pans  to  rise  for  a  jUttle 
while,  when  they  will  be  fit  for  the  oven.  In  summer  the  sponge 
can  be  made  up  in  the  morning,  and  rise  in  time  to  make  for  tea» 
In  cool  weather  it  is  best  to  set  it  over  night — Mn.  J.  H.  Shearer, 

Busk. 

Two  tea-cups  raised  dough,  one  tearcup  sugar^  laif  cup  butter, 

two  well-beaten  eggs,  flour  enough  to  make  a  stiff  dough;  set  to  rise, 

and  when  light,  mold  into  high  biscuit,  and  let  rise  again ;  sift  sugar 

and  cinnamon  over  the  top,  and  place  in  oven. — Mn.  Mary  Lee  Oere, 

Champaign^ 

Busk. 

One  pint  milk,  three  eggs,  one  tea-cup  each  d(  butter  and  sugar, 
and  one  coffee-cup  potato  yeast;  thicken  with  fiour,  and  sponge  over 
night ;  in  the  morning  stir  down,  let  rise,  and  stir  down  again ;  when 
it  rises  make  into  a  loaf,  and  let  rise  again ;  then  roll  out  like  soda 
biscuit,  cut  and  put  in  pans,  and,  when  light,  bake  carefully.  Or 
when  baking  take  four  cups  dough,  one-half  cup  butter,  one  cup 
sugar,  three  eggs;  mix  thoroughly,  adding  enough  flour  to  mold 
easily ;  let  rise,  make  into  rather  high  and  narrow  biscuit^  let  rise 
again,  rub  the  tops  with  a  little  sugar  and  water,  then  sprinkle  over 
them  dry  sugar.     Bake  twenty  minutes. 

Lebanon  Busk. 
One  cup  mashed  potatoes,  one  of  sugar,  one  of  home-made  yeast, 
three  eggs  ;  mix  together;  when  raised  light,  add  half  cup  butter  or 
lard,  and  flour  to  make  a  soft  dough,  and,  when  quitQ  light,  mold 
into  small  cakes,  and  let  them  rise  again  betbre  baking.  If  wanted 
for  tea,  set  about  nine  a.  m. — Mrs,  J.  S.  Stahr, 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKE&  87 

BiBCurr. 

IKssoIve  one  rounded  table-spoon  of  butter  in  a  pint  of  hot  milk ; 
when  lukewarm  Btir  in  one  quart  of  flour,  add  one  beaten  egg,  a 
little  salt,  and  a  tea-cup  of  yeast ;  work  into  dough  untQ  smooth. 
If  winter,  set  in  a  warm  place ;  if  summer,  in  a  cool  one  to  rise.  In 
tike  morning  work  softlj  and  roll  out  one-half  inch  and  cut  into 
biscuit  and  set  to  rise  for  thirty  minutes,  when  they  will  be  ready 
to  bake.    These  are  delicious. 

BiBCurr. 

Take  one  quart  sifted  flour  (loosely  put  in),  one  measure  each  of 
the  acid  and  soda  (or  two  heaping  teaspoons  acid  and  one  moder- 
ately heaping  teaspoon  soda)  of  Horsford's  Bread  Preparation,  one 
teaspoon  salt,  three  gills  of  water ;  shape  with  a  spoon  and  the 

floured  hand. 

Hard  Tea  Biscuit. 

Two  pounds  of  flour,  one-fourth  pound  but(er,  one  salt-spoon  salt, 
three  gills  milk ;  cut  up  the  butter  and  rub  it  in  the  flour,  add  the 
salt  and  milk,  knead  dough  for  half  an  hour,  cut  cakes  about  as 
large  as  a  small  tea-cup,  and  half  an  inch  thick,  prick  with  a  fork, 
and  bake  in  a  moderate  oven  until  they  are  a  delicate  brown. — Mn, 
Dmmeady  ColuTobus, 

High  Biscuit.     ' 

On  baking  da3rs,  reserve  one  small  loaf  and  mix  a  rounded  table- 
spoon butter,  a  level  table-spoon  bugar  and  one  egg  into  it  by  pull- 
ing it  to  peces  with  the  hands;  knead  into  a  loaf,  let  it  rise,  then, 
by  rolling  between  the  hands,  make  into  balls  the  size  of  a  small 
hen's  egg,  place  in  rows  in  very  well  greased  dripping-pan ;  when 
half  full  raise  the  end  that  is  empty  almost  perpendicular,  and  shake 
gently  until  the  balls  slide  compactly  together,  then  add  more,  and 
continue  doing  so  until  the  pan  isfuU;  rub  over  the  top  with  melted 
butter,  let  rise  until  very  light,  and  bake. — Mildred. 

Maple  Biscuit. 

To  the  weU-beaten  yolks  of  twelve  eggs,  add  half  pound  of  powdered 
or  granulated  sugar  and  half  a  cup  of  sweet  milk ;  mix  one  tea-epoon 
baking-powder  in  a  (scant)  half  pound  of  sifted  flour,  then  sift  the 


38  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

flour  gentlj  into  the  batter  and  add  flavoring,  bake  in  biscuit  pana, 
spreading  the  hatter  one  and  a  half  to  two  inches  thick  in  the  pan. 
If  rightly  made  it  will  be  very  light.  Do  not  bake  too  &st,  and 
have  the  oven  about  as  for  sponge  cake.  When  cold,  cut  into 
slices  three  inches  long  and  one  inch  wide.  Ice  the  sides,  ends  and 
top  with  white,  pink  and  chocolate  icing.  Dry  in  oven,  and  then, 
if  desired,  the  bottom  may  be  iced.  Build  in  square  blocks  and 
place  on  table.  Serve  a  plate  of  the  white,  one  of  the  pink,  and 
one  of  the  brown,  or  they  may  be  mixed  in  building. — Mrs,  J.  & 
Sperry,  Nashville^  Tenn, 

South  Cabolina  Biscuit. 

One  quart  sweet  cream  or  milk,  one  and  a  half  cups  butter  or 
fresh  lard,  two  table-spoons  white  sugar,  one  good  tea-spoon  salt ; 
add  flour  sufficient  to  make  a  stifi*  dough,  knead  wdl  and  mold 
into  neat,  small  biscuit  with  the  hands,  as  our  grandmothers  used 
to  do ;  add  one  good  t6a-spoon  cream  tartar  if  preferred ;  bake  well, 
and  you  have  good  sweet  biscuit  that  will  keep  for  weeks  in  a  dry 
place,  and  are  very  nice  for  traveling  lunch.  They  are  such  as  we 
used  to  send  to  the  army,  and  the  "  boys  "  relished  them  "  hugely." — 
Mrs,  Colonel  Moore, 

Soda  Biscuit. 

Put  one  quart  of  flour,  before  sifting,  into  sieve,  with  one  tea- 
spoon soda  and  two  of  cream  tartar  (or  three  of  baking  powder) , 
bne  of  salt,  and  one  table-spoon  white  sugar;  mix  all  thoroughly 
with  the  flour,  run  through  sieve,  rub  in  one  level  table^poqp  of 
Jard  or  butter  (or  half  and  half),  wet  with  half  pint  sweet  milk, 
roll  on  board  about  an  inch  thick,  cut  with  biscuit  cutter,  and 
hake  in  a  quick  oven  fifteen  minutes.  If  you  have  not  milk,  use 
a  little  more  butter,  and  wet  with  water.  Handle  as  little  and 
make  as  rapidly  as  possible. — M.  Parha. 

Spoon-Biscuit. 

One  quart  sour  milk  or  buttermilk,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  a  little 
salt,  two  table-spoons  melted  lard,  and  flour  enough  for  a  stifi*  bat- 
ter ;  drop  in  a  hot  gem-pan  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven. — Mrs,  A.  B. 
Morey, 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES,  39 

Sally  Lunn. 

Sift  into  a  pan  a  pound  and  a  half  of  flour,  put  in  two  ounces  of 
butter  wanned  in  a  pint  of  new  milk,  one  salt-spoon  salt,  three  eggs 
well  beaten,  and  two  table-spoons  of  good  yeast.  Mix  well  to- 
gether, and  put  the  whole  into  a  tin  pan  well  greased,  and  set  to  rise 
all  night.  Bake  a  little  brown  in  a  quick  oven.  Warm  the  milk 
and  batter  over  water  until  the  butter  is  melted ;  beat  the  eggi^  in 
a  two-quart  tin-pail,  and  if  the  milk  is  not  hoi  pour  it  over  them. 
Stir  in  half  the  flour,  then  add  the  yeast,  stirring  thoroughly  with 
the  rest  of  the  flour.  Let  rise  over  night.  Some  add  two  table- 
spoons sugar  and  use  a  tea-spoon  soda  and  two  of  cream  tartar 
instead  of  the  yeast. — Rhoda,  BaUsviUe,  Va. 

Tea  Cake. 

One  quart  flour,  one  cup  sour  milk,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  one-half 
pound  lard,  one-half  pound  chopped  raisins  or  currants ;  roll  two 
inches  thick  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven;  split  open,  butter,  and  eat 
while  hot. — Mrs.  Canby 

Breakfast  Rolls. 

Mix  the  dough  in  the  evening,  according  to  directions  in  the  recipe 
for  "  Bread  Raised  Once ;"  add  a  table-spoon  of  butter,  and  set  where 
it  will  be  a  little  warm  until  morning ;  cut  ofl*  pieces,  and  carefully 
shape  them  into  rolls  of  the  desired  size  by  rolling  them  between  the 
hands,  but  do  not  knead  them ;  dip  the  sides  of  each  into  drawn 
butter  when  they  are  shaped,  and  place  them  in  the  baking-pan 
(the  butter  prevents  their  sticking  together  when  baked,  and  they 
will  be  smooth  and  perfect  when  separated).  Rub  them  over  the 
top  with  drawn  butter,  and  dust  a  litUe  fine  salt  over  the  top ;  set 
b  a  warm  place,  and  they  will  quickly  rise  ready  for  baking.  These 
are  delicious.  ^ 

Long  Breakfast  Rolls. 

Three  and  one-half  cups  sweet  milk,  one  cup  butter  and  lard 
mixed  in  equal  proportions,  one  cup  potato  yeast,  flour  enough  to 
make  into  dough.  Let  rise  over  night;  in  the  morning  add  one 
beaten  egg.  Enead  thoroughly,  and  let  rise  again.  With  the 
hands,  make  into  balls    as  large  as  a  small  hen's  egg ;   then  roll 


4D  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

between  the  hands  to  make  long  rolls  (about  three  inches),  place 

dose  together  in  even  rows  in  the  pans.    Let  rise  until  light,  and 

bake  delicately. 

Coffee  Rolls. 

Work  into  a  quart  of  bread  dough  a  rounded  table-spoon  of  but- 
ter, and  a  half  tea-cup  of  white  sugar;  add  some  dried  currants 
(well  washed  and  dried  in  the  oven),  sift  some  flour  and  sugar  over 
them,  work  into  the  other  ingredients,  make  into  small  rolls,  dip 
into  melted  butter,  place  in  tins,  let  rise  a  short  time,  and  bake. 

DiNKEB  OB  French  Rolls. 

Make  dough  as  directed  in  recipe  for  ''Long  Break&st  Rolls," 
make  into  balls  as  large  as  a  medium-sized  hen's  egg,  place  on  a 
well-floured  board,  flour  a  small  rolling-pin  (three^juarters  of  an 
inch  in  diameter),  press  down  so  as  nearly  to  divide  each  ball  of 
dough  in  the  center,  place  in  baking-pans  so  as  not  to  touch  each 
other,  grease  the  space  made  by  the  rolling  pin  with  melted  butter, 
let  rise  until  light,  and  bake.  These  rolls  are  so  small  and  bake  so 
quickly,  that  they  have  the  delicious  sweet  taste  of  the  wheat. 
Some  grease  the  hands  with  butter  while  making  the  rolls.  Bread 
dough,  by  adding  the  other  ingredients,  may  be  used  for  these  rolls. 

EoG  Rolls. 

Two  tea^sups  sweet  milk,  two  eggs,  a  little  salt,  three  and  a  half 

scant  cups  of  sifted  flour.    Bake  in  hot  gem-pans. — Mrs.  L.  S.  IF., 

Jamettowiij  N.  Y, 

Every-Day  Rolus. 

Take  a  piece  of  bread  dough  ou  baking  day,  when  molded  out 
the  last  time,  about  enough  for  a  small  loaf,  spread  out  a  little,  add 
0!ie  eggy  two  table-spoons  of  sugar,  and  three-fourths  cup  of  lard ; 
add  a  little  flour  and  a  smaM  tea-spoon  soda  if  the  least  bit  sour ; 
mix  well,  let  rise,  mold  into  rolls  or  biscuits,  set  to  rise  again,  and 
they  will  be  ready  for  the  oven  in  twenty  or  thirty  minutes. 

French  Rolls. 

Peel  six  medium-sized  mealy  potatoes,  boil  in  two  quarts  of 
water,  press  and  drain  both  potatoes  and  water  through  a  colander; 
when  cool   enough  so  as  not  to  scald,  add  flour  to  make  a  thick 


BBEAKFA8T  AND  TEA  CAKES.  41 

batter,  beat  well,  and  when  lukewarm,  add  one-half  cup  potato 
yeast  Make  this  sponge  early  in  the  morning,  and  when  light  turn 
into  a  bread  pan,  add  a  tea-spoon  salt,  half  cup  lard,  and  flour 
enough  for  a  sofk  dough ;  mix  up,  and  set  in  a  warm,  even  tempera- 
ture; when  risen,  knead  down  and  place  again  to  rise,  repeating 
this  process  five  or  six  times ;  cut  in  small  pieces  and  mold  on  the 
bread-board  in  rolls  about  one  inch  thick  by  five  long;  roll  in 
melted  butter  or  sweet  lard,  and  place  in  well-greased  baking  paiis 
(nine  inches  long  by  five  wide  and  two  and  a  half  in  depfli,  makes  a 
convenien1>sized  pan,  which  holds  fifteen  of  these  rolb;  or,  if  twice 
the  width,  put  in  two  rows);  press  the  rolls  closely  together,  so  that 
they  will  only  be  about  half  an  inch  in  width.  Let  rise  a  short 
tune  and  bake  twenty  minutes  in  a  hot  oven ;  if  the  top  browns  too 
rapidly,  cover  with  paper.  These  rolls,  if  properly  made,  are  very 
white,  light  and  tender. 

Or,  make  rolls  larger,  and  just  before  putting  them  in  the  oven, 
cut  deeply  across  each  one  with  a  sharp  knife.  This  will  make  the 
cleft  roll,  so  famous  among  French  cooks. 

Italian  Roll& 
A  pound  of  bread  dough,  quarter-oound  softened  butter:  work 
the  butter  well  into  the  dough,  and  roll  out  about  half  an  inch 
thick;  cut  into  strips  nearly  an  inch  wide  and  seven  or  eight 
Incnes  long ;  sin;  over  tnem  nne  com  meai,  piace  xnem  apars  on  a 
buttered  pan,  and  when  light  bake  in  a  quick  oveiL — In  ihe  KUdiaiL 

Marylaio)  Bolls. 
Bub  one-half  table-spoon  of  lard  into  one  quart  of  flour,  make  a 
well  in  the  middle,  put  in  one-half  cup  baker's  yeast — or  one  cup 
of  home-made — two  tea-spoons  sugar,  one-half  pint  cold  boiled  milk  ; 
do  not  stir,  but  kt  stand  over  night ;  iu  the  morning  knead  well, 
after  dinner  knead  again,  cut  out,  put  in  pans,  and  let  rise  until  tea 
time.     Bake  in  a  quick  oven. — Mrs.  Judge  Wi 

Pakker  House  Bolls. 
Bub  one-half  table-spoon  of  butter,  and  one-half  tablespoon  of 
lard  into  two  quarts  of  sifted  flour;  into  a  well  in  the  middle  pour 
one  pmt  of  cold  boiled  milk,  and  add  one-half  cup  of  yeast,  one-half 


42  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

cup  of  sugar,  and  a  little  salt.  If  wanted  for  tea,  rub  the  flour  and 
butter,  and  boil  the  milk,  and  cool  it  the  night  before ;  add  sugar, 
yeast  and  salt,  and  turn  all  into  the  flour,  but  do  not  stir.  Let 
stand  over  night;  in  the  morning  stir  up,  knead,  and  let  rise  till 
near  tea-time;  mold  and  let  rise  again,  and  bake  quickly.  To 
mold,  cut  with  cake-cutter ;  put  a  little  melted  butter  on  one-half 
and  lap  nearly  over  on  the  other  half.  Place  them  in  the  pan 
about  three-quarters  of  an  inch  apart. — Mrs.  V,  G.  Hu^,  Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Wedding  Sandwich  Rolls. 

Late  in  the  evening  make  a  rather  stifl*  potato  sponge  (see  direc- 
tions under  ^*  Bread-Making"),  and  in  the  morning  mix  in  as  much 
flour  as  will  make  a  soft  dough,  knead  well,  and  place  to  rise; 
when  sufficiently  light,  knead  down  again,  repeating  the  operation 
two  or  three  times,  remembering  not  to  let  the  dough  become  sour 
by  rising  too  light ;  mold  into  common-sized  loaves,  place  in  your 
dripping-pan  to  rise,  and  bake  very  carefully,  so  as  to  secure  the 
veiy  slightest  brown  crust  possible.  On  taking  out  of  the  oven,  roll 
■  in  a  cloth  tightly  wrung  out  of  water,  with  a  large  bread-blanket 
folded  and  wrapped  around  all.  Let  cool  three  or  four  hours,  cut 
lengthwise  of  the  loaf  (not  using  the  outside  piece),  first  spreading 
lightly  with  good  sweet  butter,  then  cutting  in  slices  not  more  than 
a  quarter  of  an  inch,  or  jast  as  thin  as  possible,  using  for  this  pur- 
pose a  very  thin,  sharp  knife ;  lay  on  cold  boiled  ham  cut  in  very 
thin  shavings  (no  matter  if  in  small  pieces),  roll  up  very  slowly  and 
carefully,  and  place  where  it  will  not  unroll.  Treat  each  sandwich 
in  the  same  manner,  always  spreading  the  bread  with  butter  before 
cutting.  If  by  chance  the  bread  is  baked  with  too  hard  a  crust,  cut 
off^a  thin  shaving  of  the  brownest  part  very  smoothly  before  making 
into  sandwiches.  These  sandwiches  are  truly  delicious  if  properly 
made,  but  they  require  great  care,  experience,  and  good  judgment 
Served  on  an  oblong  platter,  piled  in  pyramid  style,  row  upon  row, 
they  will  resemble  nicely  rolled  dinner  napkins.  They  must  be 
made  and  served  the  same  day. — Mrs,  James  W.  Robinson. 

Winter  RoLifi. 
Put  three  quarts  of  flour  into  a  large  crock  or  jar,  scald  one  quart 
of  buttermilk,  add  one  cup  of  lard,  and  pour  all  over  the  flour. 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES.  43 

beatiog  it  up  well ;  then  add  one  quart  of  cold  water,  stir  and  add 

one-balf  cup  of  potato  yeast,  or  one  cup  of  brewer's ;  beat  in  well 

and  set  in  a  warm  place  to  rise  over  night.     In  the  morning  add 

salt  and  flour  enough  to  make  a  moderately  stiff  dough ;  set  in  a 

warm  place  to  rise,  and,  when  risen,  knead  down  and  set  to  rise 

again.    This  time  knead  down  and  place  in  a  large  stone  crock  or 

bowl,  covered  tightly  with  a  tin  pan  to  prevent  the  surface  from 

drying,  and  set  away  in  a  cool  place.     When  needed,  turn  out  on  a 

bread-board,  cut  off  a  piece  as  large  as  you  wish  to  use,  roll  out  to 

the  thickness  of  ordinary  soda  biscuit,  cut,  and  put  in  the  oven  to  bake 

immediately.     Set  away  the  rest  of  the  dough  as  before,  and  it  will 

keep  a  week  in  winter,  and  is  very  convenient  for  hot  break&st-rolls. — 

Mrs,  D.  Buxton, 

Vienna  Rolls. 

Have  ready  in  a  bowl  a  table-spoon  of  butter  or  lard,  made  soft 

by  warming  a  little,  and  stirring  with  a  spoon.     Add  to  one  quart 

of  unsifted  flour  two  heaping  tea-spoons  baking  powder ;  mix  and 

sift  thoroughly  together,  and  place  in  a  bowl  with  butter.     Take 

more  or  less  sweet  milk  as  may  be  necessary  to  form  a  dough  of 

usual  sdflhess,  according  to  the  flour  (about  three-fourths  of  a  pint), 

put  into  the  milk  half  a  tea-spoon  of  salt,  and  then  stir  it  into  the 

flour,  etc.,  with  a  spoon,  forming  the  dough,  which  turn  out  on  a 

board  and  knead  sufficiently  to  make  smooth.     Boll  out  half  an  inch 

tnfck,  and  cut  witn  a  large  rouna  cutter ;  loia  eacn  one  over  to  lorm 

a  half  round,  wetting  a  little  between  the  folds  to  make  them  stick 

together ;  place  on  buttered  pans,  so  as  not  to  touch,  wash  over  on 

top  with  milk  to  give  them  a  gloss,  and  bake  immediately  in  a  hot 

oven  about  twenty  minutes.     It  will  do  them  no  harm  to  stand  half 

an  hour  before  baking,  if  it  is  desired. 

Cracknelus. 
To  one  pint  of  rich  milk  put  two  ounces  butter  and  spoon  of 
yeast.     Make  it  warm,  and  mix  enough  fine  flour  to  make  a  light 
dough ;  roll  thin  and  cut  in  long  pieces,  two  inches  broad.     Prick 
well,  and  bake  in  slow  oven. — Effie  A,  Adams,  Qyincy,  Ills. 

Engush  CnuMPETa 
One  quart  warm  milk,  one  teaspoon  salt,  half  cup. yeast,  flour 
enough  for  a  not  very  stiff  batter.     When  light  add  half  a  cup 


44  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES, 

melted  butter,  kt  stand  twenty  minutes,  and  bake  in  muffin  ringi 
or  cupi. — Mn.  O.  W.  M. 

Wheaten  Gemb. 

Mix  one  tea-spoon  baking-powder  and  a  little  salt  into  one  pint 
flour ;  add  to  the  beaten  yolks  of  two  eggs  one  tea-cup  sweet  milk 
or  cream,  a  piece  of  butter  (melted)  half  the  size  of  an  egg,  the 
flour  with  baking-powder  and  salt  mixed,  and  the  well-beaten  whites 
of  the  two  eggs.  Beat  well,  bake  immediately  in  gem-pans  in  a  hot 
oren,  and  take  out  and  send  to  the  table  immediately. — ilfrs.  Oik 

Wheat  Muffiks. 

Mix  one  pint  milk,  two  eggs,  three  table-spoons  yeast,  and  salt- 
spoon  of  salt,  with  flour  enough  to  make  a  stiff  batter ;  let  rise  four 
or  five  hours  and  bake  in  muffin-nngs  in  a  hot  oven,  for  about  ten 
minutes.  This  recipe  may  be  made  with  Graham  flour,  by  adding 
two  table-spoons  of  molasses,  and  is  excellent. — Mn,  O,  W,  MarehanL 

Waffles. 

Take  one  quart  of  flour,  a  tea-spoon  of  salt,  a  table-spoon  of 
melted  butter,  and  milk  enough  to  make  a  thick  batter.  Mix  thor- 
oughly. Add  two  well-beaten  eggs,  and  one  measure  each  of  acid 
and  soda  (or  two  heaping  tea-spoons  acid  and  one  moderately  heap- 
ing tea-spoon  soda)  of  Horsford's  Bread  Preparation ;  stir  well,  and 
bake  at  once  in  waffle-irons. 

r  Quick  Waffles. 

Two  pints  sweet  milk,  one  cup  butter  (melted),  sifted  flour  to 
make  a  soft  batter ;  add  the  well-beaten  yolks  of  six  eggs,  then  the 
beaten  whites,  and  lastly  (just  before  baking)  four  tea-spoons  baking- 
powder,  beating  very  hard  and  &st  for  a  few  minutes.  These  are 
very  good  with  four  or  five  eggs,  but  much  better  with  more. — Mn, 

a  W.  Morey. 

Raised  Waffles. 

One  quart  flour,  one  pint  sweet,  luke-warm  milk,  two  eggs,  a 
able-spoon  melted  butter,  tea-spoon  salt,  half  tea-cup  good  yeasL  — 
Mrs.  L.  S.  WUlidon,  Heiddburg,  Oermany, 


\ 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES.  45 

Bics  Wawlds. 

Boil  half  a  pint  of  rioe  and  let  it  get  cold,  mix  with  it  one-fourth 
pound  butter  and  a  little  ealt  Sift  in  it  one  and  a  half  pints  flour, 
beat  five  eggs  separatelj,  stir  the  jolks  together  with  one  quart 
Kiilk,  add  whites  beaten  to  a  stiff  frothy  beat  hard,  and  bake  at  onoe 
in  waffle-iron. — ^Jfrs.  &  (X  Lu^  Balimoret  Md. 

Sweet  Wafers. 

One  pint  flour,  one  tea-cup  sugar,  three  eggs,  one  table-spoon 
butter,  flavor  with  lemon,  mix  into  a  batter  same  as  for  cake,  and 
bake  in  wafer-irons. 

*  French  Crackers. 

One  and  a  half  pounds  each  of  flour  and  sugar,  three-fourths 
pound  butter,  whites  of  five  eggs ;  before  cooking  wash  over  with 
egg  and  dip  in  sugar. 

Egg  Crackers. 

Six  eggs,  twelve  table-spoons  sweet  milk,  six  table-spoons  butter, 
half  tea-spoon  soda;  mold  with  flour  half  an  hour,  and  roll  thin. — 
Ifri.  X  8.  Robimaru 

Corn  Dodgers. 

To  one  quart  com  meal  add  a  little  salt  and  a  small  table-spoon 
lard ;  scald  with  boiling  water  and  beat  hard  for  a  few  minutes ; 
drop  a  large  spoonful  in  a  well-greased  pan.  The  batter  should  be 
thick  enough  to  just  flatten  on  the  bottom,  leaving  them  quite  high 
in  the  center.     Bake  in  a  hot  oven. 

Corn  Muffins. 

One  quart  sifted  Indian  meal,  a  heaping  tea-spoon  butter,  one 
quart  milk,  a  salt-spoon  salt,  a  third  cup  yeast,  a  table-spoon  of 
molasses;  let  it  rise  four  or  five  hours,  and  bake  in  muffin-rings. — 
Jfr«.  G.  W.  Marduxni,  Buffalo,  K  F. 

Corn  Roli^s. 

One  pint  of  com  meal,  two  table-spoons  sugar,  one  tea-spoon 
salt,  one  pint  boiling  milk ;  stir  all  together  and  let  stand  till  cool. 
Add  three  eggs  well  beaten,  and  bake  in  gem-pans. — Mrs.  Capt.  J.  P. 
Bea,  AfinnecBpolis,  Minn. 


46  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  OAKESL 

COBV  MXTBH. 

Put  four  quarts  fresh  water  in  a  kettle  to  boil,  salt  to  suit  the 
taste ;  when  it  begins  to  boil  stir  in  one  and  one-half  quarts  meal, 
letting  it  sift  through  the'  lingers  slowly  to  prevent  lumps,  adding 
it  a  little  &ster  at  the  last,  until  as  thick  as  can  be  oonvenientlj 
stirred  with  one  hand ;  set  in  the  oven  in  the  kettle  (or  take  out  into 
a  pan),  bake  an  hour,  and  it  will  be  thoroughly  cooked.  It  takes 
corn-meal  so  long  to  cook  thoroughly  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  boil 
it  until  done  without  burning.  Excellent  for  frying  when  cold. 
Use  a  hard  wood  paddle,  two  feet  long,  with  a  blade  two  inches 
wide  and  seven  inches  long,  to  stir  with.  The  thorough  cooking  and 
baking  in  oven  afterwards,  takes  away  all  the  raw  taste  that  mush 
18  apt  to  have,  and  adds  much  to  its  sweetness  and  delicious  flavor. — 
Mm  a.  W.  8.,  NoAviUcy  Tenn. 

Alabama  ^'Boe  Cake." 

One  pint  corn-meal,  one-half  tablenspoonful  salt,  and  cold  water 
to  make  a  stiff  batter;  beat  well;  sprinkle  a  hot  griddle  with  meal, 
let  brown;  then  spread  *'hoe  cake"  half  an  inch  thick,  let  brown 
on  both  sides.     Oood  for  dyspeptics. — Mrs.  Sperry,  NashviUe^  Tenn. 

Alabama  Johnny  Cake. 

Cook  a  pint  of  rice  till  tender,  add  a  table-spoon  butter;  when 
oold  add  two  beaten  eggs  and  one  pint  meal,  and  when  mixed  spread 
on  an  oaken  board  and  bake  by  tipping  the  board  up  before  the  fire- 
place. Whenr  done  on  one  side  turn  over.  The  dough  should  be 
q>read  half  an  inch  thick. — Mrs.  Young,  Ala. 

Aunt  Jennie's  Johnny  Cake. 
One  cup  each  sweet  milk  and  buttermilk,  one  tea-spoon  each  salt 
and  soda,  one  table-spoon  melted  butter.  Mix  with  enough  meal 
to  roll  into  a  sheet  half  an  inch  thick.  Spread  on  a  clean,  sweet 
board,  set  before  fire  at  an  angle  that  will  prevent  cake  slipping  off, 
until  it  hardens,  then  stand  upright.     Baste  often  with  butter  until 

nicely  crisped. 

Good  Graham  Gems. 

Three  cups  sour  milk,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  one  of  salt,  one  table- 
spoon brown  sugar,  one  of  melted  lard,  one  beaten  egg;  to  the  egg 


BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES,  47 

ttdd  the  milky  then  the  sugar  and  salt,  then  the  Graham  flour  (with 
the  Boda  mixed  in),  together  with  the  lard;  make  a  stiiT  batter,  so 
that  it  will  drop,  not  pour,  from  the  spoon.  Have  gem -pans  very 
hot,  grease,  fill,  and  bake  fifteen  minutes  in  a  hot  oven. — Mm.  J,  H.  S. 

Mrs.  Buxton's  Gbaham  Gems. 
Take  one  egg  and  beat  well,  add  pinch  of  salt,  one  quart  butter- 
milk or  sour  milk,  and  Graham  flour  enough  to  make  a  stifi*  batter : 
add  one  heaping  tea-spoon  soda  and  stir  thoroughly  with  a  spoon  ; 
heat  and  grease  gem-irons,  and  after  dipping  the  spoon  in  cold 
water,  drop  a  spoonful  of  batter  in  each  pan,  repeating  until  all 
are  filled ;  bake  in  a  quick  oven  half  an  hour.     This  measure  will 

make  a  dozen. 

SwEET-MiLK  Gems. 

Beat  one  egg  well,  add  a  pint  new  milk,  a  little  salt,  and  Graham 
flour  until  it  will  drop  ofi*  the  spoon  nicely ;  heat  and  butter  the 
gem-pans  before  dropping  in  the  dough ;  bake  in  a  hot  oven  twentj 
minutes. — Mn.  R.  L.  Partridge. 

Graham  Muffins. 
Two  cups  of  sour  milk,  two  table-spoons  brown  sugar,  a  little  salt, 
cue  tea-spoon  soda,  sufficient  Graham  flour  to  make  moderately  stiff. 
If  not  convenient  to  use  sour  milk,  use  sweet,  adding  cream  of 
tartar. — Mn,  H.  B.  Sierman. 

Graham  Mush. 
Sift  meal  slowly  into  boiling  salted  water,  stirring  briskly  until 
it  is  as  thick  as  can  be  stirred  with  one  hand ;  serve  with  milk  or 
cream  and  sugar,  or  butter  and  syrup.  It  is  much  improved  by 
removing  from  the  kettle  to  a  pan  as  soon  as  thoroughly  mixed, 
and  steaming  for  three  or  four  hours.  It  may  also  be  eaten  cold. 
or  sliced  and  firied  like  com  mush. 

Oat-Meal  Mush. 
To  two  quarts  boiling  water,  well  salted,  add  one  and  a  half  cups 
best  oat  meal  (Irish,  Scotch,  Canadian  or  Akron  are  best) ;  stir  in 
meal  by  degrees,  and  after  stirring  up  a  few  times  to  prevent  its 
Bettling  down  in  a  mass  at  the  bottom,  leave  it  to  cook  three  hours 
vrithout  stirring.    While  stirring  in  meal  put  inner  kettle  directly  on 


46  BREAKFAST  AlfD  TEA  (JAKES. 

•love.  (Cook  in  a  custard-kettle  with  water  in  outer  kettle).  To 
oook  for  break&st  it  may  be  put  on  over  night,  allowing  it  tu  boil 
an  hour  or  two  in  the  evening,  but  it  is  better  when  ireshly  cooked. 
Serve  with  cream  and  sugar.  This  is  unsurpassed  as  a  break&st- 
dishy  especially  for  growing  children,  who  need  bone  and  muscle- 
producing  food.  To  be  wholesome  it  must  be  weU  cooked^  and  not 
the  pasty,  half-cooked  mass  usually  served  at  boarding-houses. 
There  are  a  fow  persons  with  very  delicate  digestive  powers,  who 
should  eat  oat-meal  o\\\y  when  thoroughly  pearled,  as  the  outer 
husks  of  the  grain  irritate  the  coatings  of  the  stomach.  In  lieu 
of  a  custard-kettle  the  mush  may  be  made  in  a  pan  or  small  tin 
bucket,  and  then  placed  in  a  steamer  and  steamed  two  hours. 

Steamed  Oat-Meal. 

To  one  tea-cup  oat-meal  add  one  quart  cold  water,  teaspoon  salt, 
put  in  steamer  over  a  kettle  of  cold  water,  and  steam  one  hour  and 
a  half  after  meal  begins  to  cook. 

Cracked  Wheat. 

Two  quarts  salted  water  to  two  cups  best  white  winter  wheat; 
boil  two  or  three  hours  in  a  custard-kettle:  Or,  soak  overnight  and 
boil  at  least  three-fourths  of  an  hour:  Or,  put  boiling  water  in  a  pan 
or  small  tin  bucket,  set  on  stove,  stir  in  wheat,  set  in  steamer  and 
steam  four  hours :  Or,  make  a  strong  sack  of  thick  muslin  or  drilling, 
moisten  wneat  with  cold  water,  add  a  little  salt,  place  in  sack,  leav- 
ing half  the  space  for  wheat  to  swell  in.  Fit  a -round  sheet  of  tin, 
perforated  with  holes  half  an  inch  in  diameter,  to  the  inside  of 
ordinary  kettle,  so  that  it  will  rest  two  or  three  inches  from  th^ 
bottom;  lay  sack  on  the  tin,  put  in  water  enough  to  reach  tin,  and 
boil  from  three  to  four  hours,  supplying  water  as  it  evaporates. 
Serve  with  butter  and  syrup,  or  cream  and  sugar.  When  cold,  slice 
and  fry ;  or  warm  with  a  little  milk  and  salt  in  a  pan  greased  with 
a  little  butter;  or  make  in  griddle-cakes  with  a  batter  of  eggs,  milk, 
and  a  little  flour,  and  pinch  of  salt. 

Fine  White  Homint'^r  Grits. 

Take  two  cups  to  two  quarts  salted  water,  soak  over  night,  and 
boil  three  quarters  of  an  hour  in  a  custard  kettle;  serve  with  milk 
and  sugar,  or  when  cold  slice  and  fry. 


FRITTERS.  49 


FEITTERS. 


Make  frittera  quickly  and  beat  thoroughly.  A  good  rale  for 
them  18  two  eggs,  one  half-pint  milk,  one  tea-spoon  salt,  and  two 
eups  flour;  have  the  lard  in  which  to  cook  them  nice  and  sweet  and 
hot.  Clarified  &t  boils  at  about  five  hundred  degrees — more  than 
double  the  heat  of  boiling  water — and  fat  actually  boiling  will  burn 
to  a  cinder  any  thing  that  is  dropped  into  it.  The  proper  cooking 
heat  is  three  hundred  and  seventy-five  degrees,  and  is  indicated  by 
a  Uue  smoke  arising  from  the  surface  of  the  fat.  When  this  point 
is  reached,  the  fat  may  be  held  at  that  degree  of  heat,  and  pre- 
vented from  burning  by  dropping  into  it  a  peeled  potato  or  a  piece 
of  hard  bread,  which  furnishes  something  for  the  &,t  to  act  on. 
The  heat  may  also  be  tested  by  dropping  in  a  teanspoon  of  the  bat- 
ter ;  if  the  temperature  is  right  it  will  quickly  rise  in  a  light  ball 
with  a  splutter,  and  soon  brown ;  take  up  carefully  the  moment  they 
are  done,  with  a  wire  spoon ;  drain  in  a  hot  colander,  and  sift  pow- 
dered sugar  over  them;  serve  hot.  Pork  fritters  are  made  by 
dipping  thin  bits  of  breakfast-bacon  or  fat  pork  in  the  batter:  fruit 
firitters  by  chopping  any  kind  of  fresh  or  canned  fruit  fine  and  mix- 
ing it  with  batter,  or  by  dipping  quarters  or  halves  in  batter.  The 
fruit  may  be  improved  in  flavor  by  sprinkling  sugar  and  grated 
-lemon  peel  over  it,  and  allowing  it  to  remain  two  or  three  hours, 
after  which  drain  and  dip  as  above.  Batters  for  fritters  should  be 
made  an  hour  before  using,  as  the  grains  of  flour  swell  by  standing 
after  being  moistened,  and  thus  become  lighter.  Add  the  whites 
of  eggs  just  before  frying.  It  is  better  not  to  use  sugar  in  batter, 
as  it  tends  to  make  it  heavy.     Sprinkle  over  them  in  the  dish  when 

just  ready  to  serve. 

At.at^ama  Rice  Fbittebs. 

Four  eggs  beaten  very  light,  one  pint  milk,  one  cup  boiled  rice, 
three  tea-spoons  baking-powder  in  one  quart  flour;  make  into  a 
batter;  drop  by  spoonfuls  into  boiling  lard.  Sauce:  One  pound 
of  sugar,  one  and  a  half  cups  water,  stick  of  cinnamon ;  boil  until 
clear. — **Riiik  Royal"  AUaiita,  Ga. 


50  FRITTERS. 

Apfle  Fritters. 

Make  a  batter  in  proportion  of  one  cup  sweet  milk  to  two  cupe 
flour,  a  heaping  tea-spoon  baking  powder,  two  eggs  beaten  sep- 
arately, one  tablespoon  sugar,  and  salt-spoon  salt ;  heat  the  milk 
a  little  more  than  milk- warm,  add  slowly  to  the  beaten  yolks  and 
sugar,  then  add  flour  and  whites  of  eggs;  stir  all  together,  and 
throw  in  thin  slices  of  good  sour  apples,  dipping  the  batter  up 
over  them;  drop  in  boiling  lard  in  large  spoonfuls  with  piece  of 
apple  in  each,  and  fry  to  a  light  brown.  Serve  with  maple  syrup 
or  a  nice  syrup  made  of  sugar. — Mrs.  James  Henderson, 

Clam  Fritters. 
Take  raw  clams,  chopped  fine,  and  make  a  batter  with  juice,  an 
equal  quantity  of  sweet  milk,  four  eggs  to  each  pint  of  liquid,  and 
flour  sufficient  to  stiflen ;  fry  like  other  fritters. — Mrs.  H.  B.  S, 

Corn  Oysters. 
To  one  quart  grated  com  add  three  eggs  and  three  or  four  grated 
crackers,  beat  well  and  season  with  pepper  and  salt;  have  ready  in 
skillet  butter  and  lard  or  beef-drippings  in  equal  proportions,  liot 
but  not  scorching;  drop  in  little  cakes  about  the  size  of  an  oyster 
(for  this  purpose  using  a  tea-spoon);  when  brown  turn  and  fry 
on  the  other  side,  watx;hing  constantly  for  fear  of  burning.  If  the 
flit  is  just  the  right  heat,  the  oysters  will  be  light  and  delicious, 
but  if  not,  heavy  and  **  soggy."  Serve  hot  and  keep  dish  well  cov- 
ered. It  is  better  to  beat  whites  of  eggs  to  a  stifl"  froth  and  add 
just  before  frying. — Mrs.  V.  G.  Husky  Afirmeapolis,  Minn. 

Cream  Fritters. 
One  and  a  half  pmts  flour,  one  pint  milk,  six  well-beaten  eggs, 
one-half  nutmeg,'  two  tea-spoons   salt,   one  pint   cream ;   stir  the 
whole  enough  to  mix  the  cream ;  fry  in  small  cakes. — Mrs.  M.  K.  P. 

Lemon  Fritters. 
One-fourth  pound  of  eggs,  one-half  pound  flour,  one-fourth 
pound  sugar  (pulverized) ;  beat  the  yolks  well,  add  the  flour  and 
enough  fresh  mOk  to  make  a  stifl*  batter  (about  a  gill  of  milk) ; 
beat  the  whites  stiff*  with  the  sugar,  the  juice  of  a  lemon  and  some 
of  the  yellow  peel  grated  off,  or  a  spoon  of  extract  of  lemon. 


OBIDDLE-CAKES,  51 

When  ready  to  cook  beat  the  whites  well  into  the  batter  and  pro- 
ceed to  cook.  Have  plenty  of  good  lard,  heated  slowly ;  just  as  it 
ieffins  to  rnnoke,  after  bubbling,  drop  in  by  spoonfuls  enough  fritters 
to  fill  the  vessel  without  crowding.  The  cold  batter  will  lower  the 
temperature  of  the  &X  sufficiently  to  keep  it  at  proper  cooking 
heat.  The  fritters  will  begin  to  brown  very  quickly,  and  should  be 
tamed  with  a  wire  spoon.  If  they  begin  to  color  dark  brown 
check  the  heat  immediately.  If  these  directions  are  followed  ai  - 
cnrately,  they  may  be  lifted  from  the  fat  and  laid  upon  a  napkin  or 
folded  paper  comparatively  free  from  grease.  Dust  the  fritters 
well  with  sugar  and  nutmeg,  if  agreeable.  For  supper  eat  them  so, 
but  for  dinner  some  nice  sauce  should  be  served.  Some  persons 
substitute  honey  or  maple  syrup  for  sauce.  Fritters  bear  a  bad 
reputation,  but  when  properly  made,  and  eaten  occasionally  for  a 
change,  are  quite  as  wholesome  as  many  of  the  messes  recommended 

as  food  for  dyspeptics. 

Vanities. 

Beat  two  eggs,  stir  in  a  pinch  of  salt  and  a  half  tea-spoon 
rose-water,  add  sifted  flour  till  just  thick  enough  to  roll  out,  cut 
with  a  cake-cutter,  and  fry  quickly  in  hot  lard.  Sift  powdered 
sugar  on  them  while  hot,  and  when  cool  put  a  tea-spoon  of  jelly  in 
the  center  of  each  one.  Nice  for  tea  or  dessert. — Mrs,  D.  C.  Hat- 
TUkgUnif 


GRIDDLE-CAKES. 


Griddle-cakes  should  be  well  beaten  when  first  made,  and  are 
much  lighter  when  the  eggs  are  separated,  whipfMng  the  yolks  to 
a  thick  cream,  and  adding  the  whites  beaten  to  a  stifiT  froth  just 
before  baking.  Some  never  stir  buckwheat  cakes  after  they  have 
risen,  but  take  them  out  carefully  with  a  large  spoon,  placing 
the  spoon  when  emptied  in  a  saucer,  and  not  back  again  into  the 
batter.  In  baking  griddle-cakes  have  the  griddle  clean,  and,  if  the 
cakes  stick,  sprinkle  on  salt  and  rub  with  a  coarse  cloth  before 
greasing.     Some  prefer  griddles  made  of  soap-stone,  which  need  no 


62  QBIDDLE-CAKBS. 

greasing,  lliej  need  to  be  very  hot,  but  greasing  spoils  theot. 
Thej  are  more  ooetly  and  more  easily  broken  than  iron.  Iron 
griddles,  if  properly  cared  for,  need  washing  but  seldom.  Imme- 
diately after  use  they  should  be  carefully  wiped  and  put  away  out 
of  the  dust,  never  to  be  used  for  any  other  purpose.  Never  turn 
griddle-cakes  the  second  time  while  baking,  as  it  makes  then 
heavy,  and  serve  the  same  side  up  as  when  taken  from  griddles. 


Buckwheat  Cakes. 

Buckwheat  flour,  when  properly  ground,  is  perfectly  free  from 
grits.  The  grain  should  be  run  through  the  smutter  with  a  strong 
blast  before  grinding,  and  the  greatest  care  taken  through  the 
whole  process.  Adulteration  with  rye  or  corn  cheapens  the  flour, 
but  injures  the  quality.  The  pure  buckwheat  is  best,  and  is  un- 
surpassed for  griddle-cakes.  To  make  batter,  warm  one  pint  sweet 
milk  and  one  pint  water  (one  may  be  cold  and  the  other  boiling) ; 
put  lialf  this  mixture  in  a  stone  crock,  add  five  tea-cups  buckwheat 
flour,  beat  well  until  smooth,  add  the  rest  of  the  milk  and  water, 
and  last  a  tearcup  of  yeast.  Or,  the  same  ingredients  and  propor- 
tions may  be  used  except  adding  two  table-spoons  of  molasses  or 
sugar,  and  using  one  quart  of  water  instead  of  one  pint  each  of 
milk  and  water. — Miss  S.  A,  Melehing. 

HoBSFOBJD  Buckwheat  Cakes. 
ilGx  "  over  night,"  with  warm  water,  a  little  salt,  and  a  table- 
spoon molasses,  one  pint  buckwheat  flour,  to  the  usual  consistency 
of  griddle-cakes.  When  ready  to  bake  for  breakfast,  add  one  mieas* 
ure  each  of  acid  and  soda  (or  two  heaping  tea-spoons  acid  and  one 
moderately  heaping  tea-spoon  soda)  of  Horsford's  Bread  Prepara- 
tion— thinning  the  batter  if  necessary — and  bake  immediately  on  a 

hot  griddle. 

French  Pancakes. 

Beat  together  till  smooth  six  eggs  and  half  a  pound  of  flour,  melt 
four  ounces  butter  and  add  to  the  batter,  with  one  ounce  of  sugar 
and'half  a  pint  of  milk,  and  beat  until  smooth.  Put  a  table-spoon 
at  a  time  into  a  hot  frying-pan  slightly  greased,  spreading  the  batter 
evenly  over  the  sur&ce  of  the  pan  by  tipping  it  about,  fiy  to  a  light 


ORIPDLE^CAKES,  68 

brown,  spread  with  jelly,  roll  it  up^  dust  it  with  powdered  sugar, 
and  serve  hot. — Mrt.  C.»  MurfreaborOj  TemL 

Beaur£Oabd  Batter  Gaebb. 
Make  a  batter  of  one  quart  each  of  flour  and  sour  milk,  three 
eggs  beaten  separatdj,  a  table-spoon  of  butter,  and  two  level  tea^ 
spoons  soda.  Pulverize  the  soda  very  fine  before  measuring,  then 
thoroughly  mix  with  the  flour.  Add  whites  of  eggs  just  before 
baking  on  the  griddle.  Sweet  milk  may  be  used  (with  the  other 
ingredients  in  same  quantity)  with  Horsford's  Bread  Preparation, 
one  measure  each  of  soda  and  acid,  which  must  be  thoroughly 
mixed  with  the  flour.     These  may  also  be  made  without  ^gs. 

Cabouka  Flapjacks. 

One  quart  boiling  milk,  two  cups  white  Indian  meal,  one  small 
cup  flour,  one  table-spooii  each  butter  and  brown  sugar,  one  tea- 
spoon soda  dissolved  in  hot  milk,  one  teanspoon  salt,  two  eggs ;  scald 
meal  with  the  hot  milk,  cool  a  little,  and  add  butter  and  sugar,  and 
let  stand  until  morning,  covered  closely;  then  add  yolks  of  eggs, 
salt  and  flour.  If  batter  is  too  thick,  thin  with  cold  milk  before 
adding  soda,  and,  last,  lightly  stir  in  the  well-beaten  whites. — Jfrs. 
David  Anderwn,  OuirlegUm,  8.  0. 

Crumb  Griddle  Cakes. 

The  night  before  using  put  some  bread  crumbs  to  soak  in  one 
quart  of  sour  milk;  in  the  morning  rub  through  a  sieve,  and  add 
four  well-beaten  eggs,  two  tea-spoons  soda  dissolved  in  a  little  water, 
one  table-spoon  melted  butter,  and  enough  corn-meal  to  make  them 
the  consistency  of  ordinary  griddle-cakes.  It  is  better  to  beat  yolks 
and  whites  separately,  stirring  the  whites  lightly  in  just  before 
baking. — Mrs,  H.  SeoviUey  New  Orleans, 

Flannel  Cakes. 

Make  hot  a  pint  of  sweet  milk,  and  into  it  put  two  heaping  table- 
spoons butter,  let  melt,  then  add  a  pint  of  cold  milk,  the  well- 
beaten  yolks  of  four  eggs — ^placing  the  whites  in  a  cold  place — ^a 
tea-spoon  of  salt,  four  table-spoons  potato  yeast,  and  sufiicient  flour 
to  make  a  stiff  batter;  set  in  a  warm  place  to  rise,  let  stand  three 


54  YEAST. , 

hours  or  over  night ;  before  baking  add  the  beaten  whites ;  fry  like 

anj  other  griddle-cakes.     Be  sure  to  make  batter  just  stiff  enough, 

for  flour  must  not  be  added  in  the  morning  unless  it  is  allowed  to 

rise  again. 

Graham  Oriddle-Cakes. 

One  quart  Graham  flour,  one  tea-spoon  baking  powder,  three 
eggs,  '^ud  milk  or  water  enough  to  make  thin  batter. 

Indian  Pancakes.    . 

One  pint  Indian  meal,  one  tea-spoon  salt,  small  tea-spoon  soda; 
pour  on  boiling  water  until  a  little  thinner  than  mush;  let  stand 
until  cool,  add  the  yolks  of  four  eggs,  half  a  cup  of  flour  in  which 
is  mixed  two  teanspoons  cream  tartar ;  stir  in  as  much  sweet  milk  or 
water  as  will  make  the  batter  suitable  to  bake;  beat  the  whites 
well,  and  add  just  before  baking. — Mrs,  W.  W.  Woodi. 

Rice  Gbiddle-Cakes. 

Boil  half  a  cup  rice ;  when  cold  mix  one  quart  sweet  milk,  the 
yolks  of  four  eggs,  and  flour  suflicient  to  make  a  stiff  batter ;  beat 
the  whites  to  a  froth,  stir  in  one  tea-spoon  soda,  and  two  of  cream 
tartar ;  add  a  little  salt,  anvi  lastly  the  whites  of  eggs;  bake  on  a 
griddle.  A  nice  way  to  serve  is  to  spread  them  while  hot  with  but- 
ter, and  almost  any  kind  of  preserves  or  jelly ;  roll  them  up  neatly, 
cut  off  the  ends,  sprinkle  them  with  ?ugar,  and  serve  immediately. 
— JIfrs.  WaJtter  AStcheU^  OaUipalis. ' 


W0»* 


TEAST. 


The  best  is  potato  yeast,  because  bread  made  witk  it  is  moister^ 
and  there  is  no  danger  of  injuring  the  flavor  of  the  bread  by  ap 
excess  of  yeast.  Dry  yeast  should  be  made  in  May  or  June  for 
summer  use,  and  in  October  for  winter  use.  In  hot  and  damp 
weather,  dry  yeast  sometimes  loses  its  vitality ;  however,  many  use 
it  on  account  of  its  convenience,  since  there  is  no  danger  of  it9 
aouring  in  summer  or  freezing  in  winter.    Soft  hop  or  potato  yeast 


YEAST.  56 

will  keep  in  a  cool  place  one  or  two  weeks  in  warm  weather,  and  in 
cold  weather  five  or  six  weeks,  care  being  taken  that  it  does  not 
freeise.  Never  add  soda  to  yeast;  if  it  becomes  sour  it  will  do  to 
start  fresh  yeast,  but  will  never  make  good  bread.  Make  yeast  in 
a  bright  tin  pan,  kept  for  this  purpose  alone.  When  it  is  risen 
sufficiently,  a  thick  white  scum  rises  to  the  top.  Keep  in  a  stone 
jar  with  a  close-fitting  cover,  or  in  a  jug,  on  the  cellar  bottom,  or 
in  ice-chest,  or  in  some  other  cool  place.  Always  shake  the  jug 
before  taking  out  yeast  for  use.  Leave  cork  loose  for  first  twelve 
hours.  Extreme  heat  or  freezing  kills  the  plant;  which  grows  while 
fermentation  goes  on.  The  jar  or  jug,  when  emptied,  should  be 
washed  first  in  cold  water,  then  in  soap  and  water,  and  aflerward 
in  hot  water,  which  may  be  allowed  to  stand  a  half  hour,  when 
pour  out  Let  jar  cool,  and  it  is  ready  for  use.  The  cork  or  cover 
needs  the  same  careful  attention.  Many  times  the  yeast  is  spoiled 
by  want  of  care  and  neatness  in  washing  the  yeast  jar.  Keep  hops 
in  a  paper  sack  in  a  dry,  cool  place.  One  pint  of  potato  yeast, 
one  tea-cup  of  hop  yeast,  a  piece  of  compressed  yeast  size  of  a 
walnut,  and  one  yeast  cake,  or  two-thirds  of  a  tea-cup  of  yeast 
crumbs,  are  equal  in  strength. 

« 

Dry  Yeast. 

Boil  two  large  potafees  and  a  handful  of  hops  (the  latter  in  a 
bag)  in  three  pints  water ;  when  done,  take  out  potatoes,  mash  well, 
add  one  pint  flour,  and  pour  boiling  hot  water  over  all;  beat  well 
together,  adding  one  table-spoon  salt,  one  of  ginger,  and  one-half 
cup  sugar ;  when  luke-warm  add  one  cup  good  yeast  and  let  stand 
two  days  (or  only  one  day,  if  very  warm  weather),  stirring  down 
frequently ;  add  good  white  corn  meal  until  thick  enough  to  make 
into  cakes  about  half  an  inch  in  thickness;  place  to  dry  in  the 
shade  (never  expose  to  the  sun  or  to  stove  heat)  where  the  air  will 
pass  freely,  so  as  to  dry  them  as  soon  as  possible,  as  the  fermentation 
goes  on  as  long  as  there  is  any  moisture ;  turn  the  cakes  frequently, 
breaking  them  up  somewhat,  or  even  crumbling,  so  they  will  dry 
out  evenly  and  quickly ;  when  thoroughly  dried  put  in  a  paper  sack, 
and  keep  in  a  dry  place.  A  small  cake  will  make  a  sponge  suffi- 
cient  to  bake  five  or  six  ordinary  loaves. — Mrs^  E.  T.  Canon. 


56  YEAST. 

Farmkrb'  Yeabt. 

A  jeast  which  is  especially  good  for  the  use  of  fiurmers,  and 
others  who  use  a  great  deal  of  bread  and  bake  frequently,  is  made 
as  follows:  Take  a  handful  of  unpressed  or  two  ounces  of  pressed 
hops  (those  showing  the  pollen  dust  are  best),  put  them  in  one  quart 
of  water,  with  four  ordinary  potatoes,  and  boil  till  the  potatoes  are 
well  cooked ;  mash  all  together,  and  strain  through  a  linen  strainer, 
add  flour  enough  to  make  a  thick  batter ;  a  tea-spoon  salt,  a  table- 
spoon pulverized  ginger  and  half  a  cup  sugar ;  set  it  back  on  the 
fire  and  let  it  come  to  a  boil,  stirring  constantly,  and  set  by  to  cool ; 
when  only  milk  warm  add  a  cup  of  old  yeast,  or  two  cakes  grocers' 
dry  hop  yeast,  or  half  a  cup  bakers'.  This  will  be  light  in  two  or 
three  hours.  The  yeast  may  be  made  perpetual,  by  saving  a  cup 
when  started,  but  it  must  be  kept  from  freezing  in  winter  and  in  a 
cool  place  in  summer.  This  is  a  good  mode,  and  acceptable  to  all 
who  prefer  yeast  bread. — ifr«.  H.  Young, 

Hop  Yeast. 

Place  a  handful  of  hops  in  two  quarts  of  cold  water,  boil  slowly 
for  a  half-  hour,  strain  boiling  hot  on  one  pint  flour  and  one  table- 
spoon salt  (gradually  at  first  in  order  to  mix  smoothly) ;  when  luke- 
warm add  a  half  pint  of  yeast,  and  set  in  a  warm  place  to  rise. 
When  light,  cover  and  keep  in  a  cool  plac^ — Mn.  M.  J.  TFoocfa. 

Potato  Yeast  without  Hops. 

Four  good-sized  potatoes  peeled,  boiled  and  mashed,  four  table- 
spoons white  sugar,  one  of  ginger,  one  of  salt,  two  cups  flour;  pour 
over  this  a  pint  of  boiling  water,  and  beat  till  all  the  lumps  disap- 
pear. After  it  has  cooled,  add  to  it  one  cup  good  yeast,  and  set 
away  to  rise ;  when  risen  put  in  glass  or  stone  jar,  cover  and  set 
away  in  a  cool  place. — Mrs,  Oeorge  H.  Rugt, 

Potato  Yeast. 
Boil  one  cup  hops  in  a  sack  in  two  quarts  water  for  fifteen  minutes; 
remove  sack  with  hops,  add  immediately  after  grating  (to  prevent 
their  darkening)  five  good-sized  Irish  potatoes,  peeled  and  grated 
raw,  one  cup  white  sugar,  one  table-spoon  salt,  and  one  of  ginger ; 
stir  occasionally  and  cook  from  five  to  ten  minutes,  and  it  will  boil 


TEaST.  57 

op  thick  like  starch ;  turn  into  a  jar,  and  when  just  tepid  in  sum- 
mer, or  quite  warm  in  winter,  add  one-half  pint  good  yeast  (always 
save  some  to  start  with) ;  set  jar  in  a  large  tin  pan,  and  as  often  as 
it  rises  stir  down  until  fermentation  ceases,  when  it  will  be  quite 
thin.  Cover  closely,  and  set  away  in  a  cool  place,  and  it  will  keep 
two  weeks.  When  yeast  smells  sour  but  does  not  taste  sour  it  is 
still  good ;  if  it  has  no  smell  it  is  dead.  One  cup  will  make  six 
good-sized  loaves. — Mrs.  D.  BuxUm. 

Potato  Yeabt. 

Take  as  many  hops  as  can  be  grasped  in  the  hand  twice,  put  one- 
half  gallon  water  over  them  in  a  new  coffee-pot  kept  for  that  pur- 
pose, boil  slowly  for  one  hour.  Do  not  tie  them  in  a  cloth  to  boil, 
as  that  keeps  the  pollen  (an  important  rising  property)  out  of  the 
yeast  Pare  and  grate  half  a  dozen  large  potatoes  into  a  two  gallon 
stone  crock,  add  a  half  cup  sugar,  table-spoon  each  of  salt  and 
ginger,  pour  over  this  a  half  gallon  of  the  boiling  hop- water,  stir- 
ring all  the  time.  When  milk-warm,  add  one  cup  of  good  lively 
yeast,  set  in  a  warm  place  until  it  rises,  and  remove  to  the  cellar  or 
some  other  cool  place.  The  boiling  hop-water  must  be  added  to  po- 
tatoes imTnediately  or  they  will  darken,  and  darken  the  yeast.  A 
good  way  to  prevent  the  potatoes  from  darkening  is  to  grate  them 
into  a  pan  half  filled  witn  cold  water.  As  grated  the  potatoes  sink 
to  the  bottom ;  when  done  grating,  pour  off  the  water  ai^d  add  'the 
boiling  hop-water.  This  is  an  excellent  recipe,  and  the  method 
given  for  boiling  hops  is  especially  recommended. 

•  Yeast. 

Pare  and  boil  four  ordinary-sized  potatoes,  boiling  at  the  same 
time  in  a  separate  vessel  a  good  handful  of  hops.  When  the  pota- 
toes are  done,  mash  fine  and  add,  after  straining,  the  water  in  which 
the  hops  were  boiled ;  put  into  this  one  cup  white  sugar  and  one- 
half  cup  salt,  and  add  sufficient  water  to  make  one  gallon ;  when 
cold  add  one  cup  of  good  yeast,  let  stand  in  a  warm  place  for  a  few 
hours  until  it  will ''  sing"  on  being  stirred,  when  it  is  ready  for  use. 
Keep  covered  in  a  cellar  or  cool  place. — Mrs.  C.  M. 


58  YEAST. 

Yeast  without  Yeabt. 

This  requires  no  yeast  to  raise  it,  and  has  been  called  the  ''best 
yeast  in  the  world/'  Monday  morning,  boil  one  pint  hops  in  two 
gallons  water  for  half  an  hour,  strain  into  a  crock  and  let  the  liquid 
become  lukewarm,  add  two  even  tea-spoons  salt  and  half  a  pint 
best  brown  sugar ;  mix  half  a  pint  flour  smooth  with  some  of  the 
liquor,  and  stir  all  well  together.  On  Wednesday,  add  three  pounds 
potiitoes  boiled  and  mashed,  stir  well  and  let  stand  till  Thursday, 
then  straiu  and  put  in  stone-jugs,  but  for  the  first  day  or  two  leave 
the  corks  quite  loose.  Stir  the  yeast  occasionally  while  making, 
and  keep  near  the  fire.  It  should  be  made  two  weeks  before  using, 
aud  will  keep  any  length  of  time,  improving  with  age.  Keep  it  in 
a  cool  place,  and  shake  the  jug  before  pouring  from  it,  but  with 
the  cork  out,  holding  the  palm  of  the  hand  over  the  mouth  to  pre- 
vent the  escape  of  the  yeast. 

Yahoo  Yeast. 

Take  a  table-spoonful  and  a  half  of  New  Orleans  molasses,  and 
add  to  it  the  same  quantity  of  warm  water.  Stir  in  enough  flour 
to  make  a  thin  batter;  set  it  in  a  warm  place — ^not  hot — ^and  it  will 
soon  begin  to  throw  up  bubbles  on  the  top,  and  in  a  short  time  fer- 
ment. Meanwhile,  have  all  ready  to  make  the  yeast  as  soon  as  the 
batter  begins  to  work.  Put  a  tea-cup  of  hops  into  a  clean  porce- 
lain kettle,  and  add  two  quarts  of  boiling  water.  Set  over  the  fire, 
and  boil  steadily  twenty  minutes.  Strain  it,  after  boiling,  into  a 
clean  dish.  Stir  in  a  pint  of  flour  and  a  table-spoonful  of  salt.  Be 
sure  and  stir  it  free  from  lumps.  Set  again  over  the  fire,  stirring 
constantly,  until  it  boils  up  and  thickens.  If  to«  thick  after  it 
boils  up,  pour  in  boiling  water  till  it  is  about  the  consistency  of 
good  starch.  Then  pour  back  into  the  bowl,  cover  over  till  milk- 
warm,  then  stir  in  the  ''  risings"  made  of  molasses,  flour  and  water. 
Set  where  it  will  be  kept  warm  until  it  has  risen  and  is  quite  light* 
Then  put  into  a  jug,  cork,  and  set  in  a  cool  place  for  use. — Mrs. 
Oarkson,  Bath  Co.,  Ky, 


CAKE-MAKING. 


"  Let  all  things  be  done  decently  and  in  order/'  and  the  first  to 
pat  in  order  when  you  ace  going  to  bake  is  yourself.  Secure  the 
hair  in  a  net  or  other  covering,  to  prevent  any  from  falling,  and 
brush  the  shoulders  and  back  to  be  sure  none  are  lodged  there  that 
might  blow  off;  make  the  hands  and  finger  nails  clean,  roll  the 
sleeves  up  above  the  elbows,  and  put  on  a  large,  clean  apron.  Clean 
the  kitchen  table  of  utensils  and  every  thing  not  needed,  and  pro- 
vide  every  thing  that  will  be  needed  until  the  cake  is  baked,  not 
forgetting  even  the  broom-splints  previously  picked  ofi*  the  new 
broom  and  laid  away  carefully  in  a  little  box.  (A  kifitting-needle 
may  be  kept  for  testing  cake  instead  of  splints.)  If  it  is  warm- 
weather,  place  the  eggs  in  cold  water,  and  let  stand  a  few  minutes, 
as  they  will  then  make  finer  froth ;  and  be  sure  they  are  fresh,  as 
they  will  not  make  a  stiff*  froth  from  any  amount  of  beating  if  old. 
The  cake-tin»  should  be  prepared  -before  the  qake^  when  baking 
powder  is  used,  as  it  effervesces  but  once,  and  there  should  be  no 
delay  in  baking,  as  the  mixture  should  be  made  firm  by  the  heat, 
while  the  efervescing  process  is  going  on.  Grease  the  pans  with 
ftesh  lard,  which  is  much  better  than  butter ;  line  the  bottom  with 
paper,  using  six  or  eight  thicknesses  if  the  cake  is  large,  and  greas- 
ing the  top  one  well.  (In  some  ovens,  however,  fewer  thicknesses 
of  paper  would  be  needed  on  the  bottom,  and  in  some  the  sides 
ak>  should  be  lined  with  one  or  two  thicknesses.)  Sift  flour  and  sugar 
(if  not  pulverized),  and  measure  or  weigh.     Firkin  or  very  salt  but* 

IS©) 


60  OAKE-MAKINQ. 

tat  should  be  cut  in  bits  and  washed  to  freshen  a  little;  if  verj 
hard,  warm  carefully,  but  in  no  case  allow  any  of  it  to  melt.  Good 
butter  must  be  used,  as  the  heat  develops  any  latent  bad  qualities. 
Use  pulverized  sugar  for  all  delicate  cakes;  for  rich  cakes  coffee- 
crushed,  powdered  and  sifted;  for  dark  cakes,  the  best  brown 
sugars  are  best;  for  jelly-cakes,  light  fruitK^akes,  etc.,  granulated 
and  coffee  ''A"  are  best  and  most  economical.  Beat  the  yolks  of 
eggs  thoroughly,  and  strain ;  set  the  whites  away  in  a  cool  place 
'Until  the  cake  is  ready  for  them,  then  beat  them  vigorously  iu  a  cool 
room,  till  they  will  remain  ki  the  dish  when  turned  upside  down. 
Sift  a  part  of  the  measured  flour  with  the  baking-powder  or  soda 
and  cream  tartar  through  a  hand-sieve  (which  should  be  among  the 
utensils  of  every  housekeeper),  and  mix  thoroughly  with  the  rest  of 
the  flour.  In  using  new  flour  for  either  bread  or  cake-making,  it 
can  be  * 'ripened"  for  use  by  placing  the  quantity  intended  for  bak- 
ing in  the  hot  sun  for  a  few  hours,  or  before  the  kitchen  fire.  In 
using  milk,  note  this:  that  sour  milk  makes  a  spongy,  light  cake ; 
sweet  milk,  one  that  cuts  like  pound  cake ;  remembering  that  with 
sour  milk  soda  alone  is  used,  while  with  sweet  milk  baking  powder 
or  soda  and  cream  tartar  are  to  be  added. 

Having  thus  gathered  the  material,  cut  butter  (in  cold  weather) 
into  small  pieces,  and  warm,  not  melt;  beat  the  butter  and  sugar  to 
a  cream,  add  the  milk  in  smal]  quantities  (never  use  fresh  and  stale 
milk  in  same  cake),  next  the  yolks  of  eggs,  then  a  part  of  the  flour, 
then  a  part  of  the  whites,  and  so  on  until  the  whole  is  used ;  lastly, 
add  the  flavoring.  Many  good  cake-makers  first  stir  the  milk  and 
flavoring  into  the  creiimed  butter  and  sugar,  then  the  yolks,  next 
the  whites,  and  lastly  the  flour,  first  taking  about  two-thirds  of  it 
and  thoroughly  niixia*^  the  baking  powder  through  it;  the  re> 
raainder  of  the  flour  is  then  left  to  be  used  at  discretion.  A  little 
more  or  less  flour  may  be  needed,  according  to  the  climate,  or  to 
the  kind  of  flour  used,  as  the  "  New  Process"  flour  requires  one* 
eighth  less  than  other  brands.  There  is  great  "  knack"  in  beating 
cake;  don't  stir,  but  beat  thoroughly,  bringing  the  batter  up  from  the 
bottom  of  the  dish  at  every  stroke ;  in  this  way  the  air  is  driven  into 
the  cells  of  the  batter,  instead  of  out  of  them — but  the  cells  will  be 
finer  if  beaten  more  slowly  at  the  last,  remembering  that  the  motion 


CAKE-MAKJNO.  61 

liioiild  alivays  be  upwarcL     In  winter  it  is  easier  to  beat  with  the 
hand,  but  in  summer  a  wooden  spoon  is  better.      An  iron  spoon 
turns  the  mixture  dark.     Never  beat  a  cake  in  tin,  but  use  earthen 
or  stoneware.     Unskillful  mixing,  too  rapid  or  unequal  baking,  or  a 
sudden  decrease  in  heat  before  it  is  quite  done,  will  cause  streaks  in 
the  cake.     Always  bake  a  small  cake  first,  fill  a  patty  pan,  or  cover 
to  a  baking-powder  can,  one-third  full,  and  bake ;  then  add  more 
or  leas  flour  as  required.'    If  the  cake  is  hard  and  solid,  it  needs  a 
few  tea-spoons  of  milk;  if  more  flour  is  Deeded  it  will  &11  in  the 
middle  and  be  spongy  and  crumbly..     Powdered  sugar  may   be 
sifted  on  the  top  of  any  cake  while  it  is  a  little  warm;   if  it  dis- 
solves add  more,  when  it  is  cold,  keep  some  for  that  purpose  in  a 
since  box  with  a  perforated  top.     The  white  portion  of  orange  or 
lemon-peel  should  never  be  used ;  grate  only  the  yellow.    When 
recipes  call  for  soda  and  cream  of  tartar,  baking  powder  may  be 
used  by  taking  the  same  quantity  as  required  of  both,  or  Horsford's 
Bread  Preparation  will  be  found  excellent     *'Milk"  always  means 
noeet  milk.     ''A  cup"  always  means  a  tea  cup,  not  a  cofiee  cup. 
Sour  milk  may  always  be  used  instead  of  sweet,  by  using  soda  only. 
The  proportions  of  rising-powder  to  one  quart  of  flour  are  three  tea- 
spoons baking-powder,  or  one  teanspoon  soda  and  two  tea-spoons 
cream  tartar,  or  one  measure  each  of  Horsford's  Bread  Preparation, 
or  one  pint  sour  milk  and  one  level  tea-spoon  soda. 

Fruit  Cake. 
Most  ladies  think  fruit  cake  quite  incomplete  without  wine  or 
brandy,  but  it  can  be  made  equally  good  on  strictly  temperance 
principles,  by  substituting  one-third  of  a  cup  of  molasses  for  a  wine- 
glass of  brandy.  The  objection  to  the  use  of  liquor  in  sauces  does 
not,  however,  hold  good  against  that  used  in  cake-making,  as  the 
alcohol  is  converted  to  vapor  by  the  heat  and  passes  off  with  the 
other  gases.  There  are  many,  however,  who  object  to  the  use  of 
.  liquors  in  any  way,  and  to  keeping  them  in  the  house,  and  such 
will  find  the  above  an  excellent  and  cheap  substitute. 

Baisins  should  never  be  washed,  as  it  is  difi^cult  to  dry  out  the 
moisture  absorbed  by  them,  and  every  particle  of  moisture  retained 
tends  to  make  the  cake  heavy.  To  remove  the  stems  and  ex« 
traneous  matter,  place  the  raisins  in  a  coarse  towel  and  rub  them  in 


62  CAKE-MAKING. 

this  untQ  as  dean  as  rubbing  will  make  them ;  then  pick  over  care- 
fully, remove  any  stems  or  other  defects  which  may  be  left.  The 
raisins  should  be  prepared  before  the  cake,  and  added  the  last  thing 
before  putting  in  the  oven,  as,  being  heavy,  they  sink  to  the  bottom 
if  allowed  to  stand.  To  seed,  clip  with  the  scissors,  or  cut  with  a 
sharp  knife.  Do  not  chop  too  fine ;  if  for  light  fruit  cake,  seeding 
is  all  that  is  necessary.  Slice  the  citron  thin,  and  do  not  have  the 
pieces  too  large,  or  they  will  cause  the  cake  to  break  apart  in  cut- 
ting. Currants  should  be  kept  prepared  for  use  as  follows :  Wash 
in  warm  water,  rubbing  well,  pour  off  water,  and  repeat  until  the 
water  is  clear;  drain  them  in  a  sieve,  spread  on  a  cloth  and  rub 
dry;  pick  out  bad  ones,  dry  carefully  in  a  cool  oven  or  in  the 
''heater"  (or  in  the  sun  and  wind,  with  a  thin  gauze  over  them  to 
keep  off  flies,  insects  and  dust),  and  set  away  for  use.  When  the 
fruit  is  all  mixed,  cream  the  butter  and  sugar — this  is  very  im- 
portant in  all  cakes — ^add  the  spices,  molasses,  or  liquors,  then  the 
milk  (if  any  used),  next  the  eggs  well  beaten,  adding  whites  with 
the  flour,  as  previously  directed.  Always  beat  whites  and  yolks 
separately  if  many  eggs  are  used,  but  if  only  a  few,  it  is  just  as  well 
to  beat  both  together.  Next  add  the  flour  (which  in  making  black 
fruit  cake  may  be  browned),  prepared  with  baking  powder  or  soda 
and  cream  tartar,  then  the  flavoring  (lemon  and  vanilla,  in  equal 
parts,  make  the  best  flavoring),  and  lastly  the  fruit  dredged  with  a 
very  little  flour.  Some  prefer  to  mix  the  fruit  with  all  the  flour. 
When  but  little  fruit  is  used  it  may  be  dropped  into  the  dough  after 
it  is  in  the  pan,  and  pushed  just  beneath  the  surface,  which  pre- 
vents it  from  settling  to  the  bottom.  The  batter  for  fruit  cake 
should  be  quite  stiff. 

In  making  very  large  cakes  that  require  three  or  four  hours  to 
Imke,  an  excellent  way  for  lining  the  pan  is  the  following:  Fit  three 
pa|)ers  carefully,  grease  thoroughly,  make  a  paste  of  equal  parts 
Graham  and  fine  flour,  wet  with  water  just  stiff  enough  to  spread 
easily  with  a  spoon,  place  the  first  paper  in  the  pan  with  the  greased 
side  down,  and  spread  the  paste  evenly  over  the  paper  about  as 
thick  as  pie-crust.  In  covering  the  sides  of  the  pan,  use  a  little 
paste  to  stick  a  portion  of  the  paper  to  the  top  of  the  jmn  to  keep  it 
from  slipping  out  of  place,  press  the  second  paper  carefully  into  ^ts 


CAKE-MAKIXO.  63 

place,  with  the  greased  side  up,  and  next  put  in  the  third  paper  as 
jou  would  into  any  baking-pan,  and  pour  in  the  cake.  Earthen 
pans  are  used  by  some,  as  they  do  not  heat  so  quickly  and  are  less 
liable  to  bum  the  cake. 

When  using  a  milk -pan  or  pans,  without  stems,  a  glass  bottle  filled 
with  shot  to  give  it  weight,  and  greased,  may  be  placed  in  the  center 
of  the  pan,  or  a  stem  may  be  made  of  paste-board,  rolled  up,  but 
the  latter  is  more  troublesome  to  keep  in  place.  The  cake  is  apt  to 
bum  around  the  edges  before  it  is  done  unless  there  is  a  tube  in  the 
center. 

All  exoept  layer  cakes  should  be  covered  with  a  paper  cap,  (or  a 
sheet  of  brown  paper,  which  the  careful  housewife  will  save  from 
ber  grocers'  packages),  when  first  put  into  the  oven.  Take  a  square 
of  brown  paper  large  enough  to  cover  well  the  cake  pan,  cut  off  the 
comers,  and  lay  a  plait  on  four  sides,  fastening  each  with  a  pin  so 
as  to  fit  nicely  over  the  pan.  This  will  throw  it  up  in  the  center, 
80  that  the  cover  will  not  touch  the  cake.  Save  the  cap,  as  it  can  be 
used  several  times. 

Before  commencing,  clean  out  the  stove,  take  off  the  lids  and  brush 
inside,  rake  it  out  underneath^  get  all  the  ashes  out  of  the  comers, 
have  the  best  of  fuel  at  hand.  Don't  build  a  baking  fire  before  it 
is  needed,  have  it  only  moderate,  and  add  the  extra  fuel  in  time  to 
get  it  nicely  burning. 

THE  OVEN. 

Too  much  care  can  not  be  given  to  the  preparation  of  the  oven, 
which  is  oftener  too  hot  than  too  cool ;  however,  an  oven  too  cold 
At  first  will  ruin  any  cake.  Cake  should  rise  and  begin  to  bake 
before  browning  much,  large  cakes  requiring  a  good,  steady,  solid 
heat,  about  such  as  for  baking  bread ;  layer  cakes,  a  brisk  hot  fire, 
M  they  must  be  baked  quickly.  A  good  plan  is  to  fill  the  stove 
with  hard  wood  (ash  is  the  best  for  baking),  let  it  burn  until  thei'O 
18  a  good  body  of  heat,  and  then  turn  damper  so  as  to  throw  the 
beat  to  the  bottom  of  oven  for  fully  ten  minutes  before  the  cake  is 
put  in.  In  this  way  a  steady  heat  to  start  with  is  secured.  Gener- 
^J  it  is  better  to  close  the  hearth  when  the  cake  is  put  in,  as  this 
stops  the  draft  and  makes  a  more  regular  heat.  Keep  adding  wood 
in  amall  quantities,  for  if  the  heat  becomes  slack  the  cake  will  be 


64  CAKE-MAKINQ. 

heavy.  Great  care  must  be  taken,  for  some  stoves  need  to  have  the 
dampers  changed  every  now  and  then,  but  as  a  rule  more  heat  ia 
needed  at  the  bottom  of  the  oven  than  at  the  top.  Many  test  their 
ovens  in  this  way :  if  the  hand  can  be  held  in  from  twenty  to  thirty- 
five  seconds  (or  while  counting  twenty  or  thirty-five),  it  is  a  '*  quick  * 
oven,  from  thirty-five  to  forty-five  seconds  is  '*  moderate,"  and  from 
forty-five  to  sixty  seconds  is  "  slow."  Sixty  seconds  is  a  good  oven 
to  begin  with  for  large  fruit  cakes.  All  systematic  housekeepers 
will  hail  the  day  when  some  enterprising,  practical  ''Dixie"  girl 
shall  invent  a  stove  or  range  with  a  thermometer  attached  to  the 
oven,  BO  that  the  heat  may  be  regulated  accurately  and  intelligently. 
If  necessary  to  move  the  cake  while  baking,  do  it  very  gently.  Do 
not  open  the  oven  door  until  the  cake  has  had  time  to  form,  and 
do  not  open  it  oftener  than  necessary,  then  be  careful  to  close  it 
quickly  and  gently,  so  as  not  to  jar  the  cake.  Be  sure  the  outside 
door  of  the  kitchen  is  closed  so  that  no  cold  air  may  strike  it.  If 
the  oven  bakes  too  hard  on  the  bottom,  place  the  grate  under  the 
pan ;  if  too  hot  on  top,  set  a  pie-pan  of  water  on  the  top  grate.  If 
one  side  bakes  fester  than  the  other,  turn  wfry  gently.  Be  careful 
not  to  remove  from  the  oven  until  done ;  test  thorfmghly  before  re- 
moving, for  if  the  cooler  air  strikes  it  before  it  is  done,  it  is  certain 
to  fall.  Allow  about  thirty  minutes  for  each  inch  of  thickness  in 
a  quick  oven,  and  more  time  in  a  slow  one.  Test  with  a  broom- 
.  splint  or  knitting-needle,  and  if  the  dough  does  not  adhere,  it  is 
done.  Settling  away  from  the  pan  a  little,  and  stopping  its  "  sing- 
ing/' are  other  indications  that  the  cake  is  ready  to  leave  the  oven. 
When  removed,  set  the  cake,  while  in  the  pan,  on  an  inverted  sieve 
to  cool ;  this  secures  a  free  circulation  of  air  all  round  it,  and  cools 
it  evenly.  It  should  remain  in  the  pan  at  least  fifiieen  minutes  after 
taking  from  the  oven,  and  it  is  better  to  leave  the  '*cap"  on  until 
the  cake  is  carefully  removed  from  the  pan  and  set  away,  alioa/tfg 
right  side  up.  A  tin  chest  or  stone  jar  is  best  to  keep  it  in.  Cofiee 
cake  should  be  put  away  before  it  is  cold,  and  so  closely  wrapped 
in  a  large  napkin  that  the  aroma  will  not  be  lost. 

Sponge  aSd  White  Gak£3. 
The  good  quality  of  all  delicate  cake,  and  especially  of  spongi^ 
cake,  depends  very  much  upon  its  being  made  with  fresh  eggs.  It  caiL 


CAKE-MAKINO.  65 

aerer  be  perfect  unless  pulverized  sugar  is  used.    It  must  be  quickly 

put  together^  beaten  with  rapidity,  and  baked  in  a  rather  quick 

OYen.    It  is  made  ''sticky"  and  less  light  by  being  stirred  long. 

There  is  no  other  cake  so  dependent  upon  care  and  good  judgment 

in  baking  as  sponge-cake.     In  making  white  cake,  if  not  convenient 

to  096  the  yolks  that  are  left,  they  will  keep  for  several  days  if 

Aorcvghly  beaten  and  set  in  a  cool  place.     The  whites  of  eggs,  when 

not  used,  must  not  be  beaten,  but  will  keep  for  several  days  if  set  iu 

a  oool  place.     The  white  or  yolk  of  a  medium-sized  egg  weighs  one 

ounce,  a  fact  that  it  is  convenient  to  know,  as  sometimes  the  white 

or  yolk  of  one  or  more  eggs  is  wanted  from  several  that  have  been 

put  away  together.     Whenever  it  is  necessary  to  cut  a  cake  while 

warm,  do  it  with  a  toarm  knife.     To  prepare  cocoa-nut,  cut  a  hole 

through  the  meat  at  one  of  the  holes  in  the  end,  draw  off  the  milk, 

pound  the  nut  well  on  all  sides  to  loosen  the  meat,  crack,  take  out 

meat,  and  set  the  pieces  in  the  heater  or  in  a  cool,  open  oven  over 

night,  or  for  a  few  hours,  to  dry,  then  grate ;  if  all  is  not  used, 

sprinkle  with  sugar  (after  grating)  and  spread  out  in  a  cool,  dry 

place,  and  it  will  keep  for  weeks. 

Angel's  Food. 
Use  the  whites  of  eleven  eggs,  one  and  a  half  tumbler  of  sifted 

granulated  sugar,  one  tumbler  sifted  flour,  one  tea-spoon  of  vanilla, 

one  tea-spoon  of  cream  tartar;  sift  the  flour  four  times,  then  add 

the  cream  tartar  and  sift  again — but  measure  it  before  putting  in  the 

cream  of  tartar — sift  the  sugar  and  measure  it ;  beat  the  eggs  to  a  . 

stiff  froth  on  a  large  platter ;  on  the  same  platter  add  the  sugar 

lightly,  then  the  flour  very  gently,  then  the  vanilla;  do  not  stop 

beating  until  you  put  it  in  the  pan  to  bake.     Bake  forty  minutes 

in  a  moderate  oven,  try  with  a  straw  and  if  too  soft  let  it  remain  a 

few  minutes  longer.     Do  not  open  the  oven  until  the  cake  has  been 

in  fifteen  minutes.    Turn  the  pan  upside  down  to  oool,  and  when 

cold,  take  out  by  loosening  around  the  sides  with  a  knife,  and  then 

ice ;  nse  a  pan  that  has  never  been  greased.     The  tumbler  for  meas* 

unng  must  hold  two  and  one-fourth  gills.     The  pans  have  feet 

IciNo. — Whites  of  two  eggs,  twd  tea-cups  granulated  sugar; 

boil  the  su^r  until  clear  with  just  enough  water  to  moisten  iL 

Baring  beaten  the  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth,  pour  boiling  syrup  veij 
5 


66  CAKE-MAKING. 

dowlj  over  them.  Dissolve  one-half  tea-spoon  of  citric  acid  in  a 
small  table-spoon  of  water,  and  put  enough  in  to  make  a  pleasant 
tart — add  a  little  essence  of  lemon. 

BuFOBD  Cake. 
One  cap  butter,  two  of  white  sugar,  four  of  sifted  flour,  five  eggs 
beaten  separately,  one  cup  sour  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  pound  seeded 
raisins  chopped  a  little ;  beat  the  butter  and  sugar  to  a  cream,  add 
^be  yolks  and  milk,  and  stir  in  the  flour  with  soda  well  mixed 
1;hrough  it ;  then  add  the  white  of  the  eggs  beaten  to  a  stifl*  froth, 
and  lastly  the  raisins  dredged  with  a  little  flour ;  bake  one  and  one- 
half  hours.  Use  coflee-cups  to  measure.  This  makes  a  cake  for  a 
six  quart  pan. — 

Almond,  Hickory-nut  or  Cocoa-nxtt  Cake. 
One  pound  flour,  half  tea-spoon  salt,  fourth  pound  butter,  pound 
of  sugar,  tea-cup  sour  cream,  four  eggs,  lemon  flavor  to  taste,  and 
a  tea-spoon  soda  dissolved  in  two  tea-spoons  hot  water;  mix  all 
thoroughly,  grate  in  the  white  part  of  a  cocoa-nut,  or  stir  in  a  pint 
of  chopped  hickory-nuts,  or  a  pint  of  blanched  almonds  pounded. 
— Mrs.  J.  W.  Ghrujbbs,  Richmond. 

Black  Cake. 
One  pound  powdered  white  sugar,  three-quarters  pound  butter, 
pound  sifted  flour  (brown  or  not  as  preferred),  twelve  eggs  beaten 
separately,  two  pounds  raisins  stoned  and  part  of  them  chopped, 
two  of  currants  carefully  cleaned,  half  pound  citron  cut  in  strips, 
quarter  ounce  each  of  cinnamon,  nutmeg  and  cloves  mixed,  wine- 
glass wine  and  one  of  brandy ;  rub  butter  and  sugar  together,  add 
yolks  of  eggs,  part  of  flour,  the  spice,  and  whites  of  eggs  wel] 
beat«n ;  then  add  remainder  of  flour,  and  wine  and  brandy ;  mix 
all  thoroughly  together;  cover  bottom  and  sides  of  a  four-quart 
milk-pau  with  buttered  white  paper,  put  in  a  layer  of  the  mixture, 
then  a  layer  of  the  fruit  (first  dredging  the  fruit  with  flour),  until 
pan  is  filled  up  three  or  four  inches.  A  small  cup  of  Orleans  mO' 
lasses  makes  the  cake  blacker  and  more  moist,  but  for  this  it  is  not 
necessary  to  add  more  flour.  Bake  three  aifd  one-half  or  four 
hours  in  a  slow  oven.  This  is  excellent. — Mrs.  M.  M.  Munsell,  DeU 
a/ware. 


CAKE-MAKINQ.  67 

Black  Cake. 

One  pound  flour,  one  of  currants,  one  of  raisins,  one  of  sugar, 
half  pound  citron,  half  pound  chopped  figs,  three-fourths  pound 
butter,  ten  eggs,  leaving  out  two  ^vhites,  tea-cup  molasses,  one  of 
sour  cream  and  soda,  one  gill  brandy  or  good  whisky,  half  cup  cin- 
namon, two  table-spoons  allspice  and  doves,  four  table-spoons  jam. 
— Fnun  an  old  Virginia  housekeeper. 

Black.  Cake. 

Two  cups  brown  sugar,  one  and  one-half  cups  of  butter,  six  eggs, 
beaten  separately,  three  cups  flour  (brown  the  flour),  two  table- 
spoons molasses,  one  of  cinnamon,  one  tea-spoon  mace,  one  of  cloves, 
two  cups  sweet  milk,  two  pounds  raisins,  two  of  currants,  a  half 
pound  citron,  one  tea-spoon  soda,  two  of  cream  tartar.  Bake  three 
houis. — Mrs.  OurtUf  St.  LouiSy  Mo. 

Blue-grass  Cake. 

Two  cups  each  of  butter  and  corn^starch,  three  of  sugar,  one  of 
sweet  milk,  six  of  flour,  whites  of  fourteen  eggs,  one  tea-spoon  soda, 
two  tea-spoons  cream  of  tartar.  Cream  the  bufjler  and  sugar  well, 
add  the  milk,  then  the  corn-starch,  sift  the  cream  of  tartar  in  the 
flour  (stirring  it  well  together),  add  the  flour  and  well-beaten  whites 
alternately,  bake  in  a  loaf.  When  it  is  done  and  cold,  with  a  long 
knife  cut  it  through  the  middle,  make  an  icing  of  one-half  cup  of 
sugar  and  just  enough  water  to  dissolve  sugar,  boil  until  it  will 
spin  a  thread  in  dropping  from  a  spoon,  then  stir  in  the  well-beaten 
whites  of  four  eggs,  flavor  to  taste ;  take  one  pound  of  fresh  figs, 
one  pound  of  raisins,  and  one  pound  of  almonds  or  hickory-nuts, 
chop  the  fruit  very  fine,  blanch  the  almonds  or  prepare  the  hick- 
ory-nut meats,  chop  slightly,  and  stir  all  in  the  icing ;  put  a  layer 
between  the  cake,  and  on  top  and  all  over  the  side.  This  is  a  de- 
licious cake 

Bride's  Cake. 

Whites  of  twelve  eggs,  three  cups  sugar,  small  cup  butter,  a  cup 
sweet  milk,  four  small  cups  flour,  half  cup  corn-starch,  two  tea. 
spoons  baking-powder,  lemon  to  taste.     Adding  a  cup  citron  sliced 


68  CAKE-MAKING. 

fcUn  and  dusted  with  flour,  makes  a  beautiful  citron  cake. — Mn» 
Harvey  Clarke  Piqua. 

Whipped-Cream  Cake. 

One  cup  sugar,  two  eggs,  two  tbble-spoons  softened  butter  and 
four  of  milk ;  beat  all  well  together ;  add  a  cup  of  flour  in  which 
has  beep  mixed  tea-spoon  cream  tartar  and  half  tea-spoon  soda. 
Bake  in  rather  small  square  dripping-pan.  When  cake  is  cool  have 
ready  a  half  pint  sweet  cream  whipped  to  a  stifle  froth,  sweeten  and 
flavor  to  taste,  spread  over  cake  and  ser^  while  fresh.  The  cream 
will  froth  easier  to  be  made  cold  by  setting  on  ice  before  whipping. 
— Mn.  Wm,  Brown, 

Corn-Starch  Cake. 

Two  coffee-cups  pulverized  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  cup 
corn  starch  dissolved  in  a  cup  of  sweet  milk,  two  cups  flour,  whites 
of  seven  eggs,  two  tea-spoons  cream  tartar,  tea-spoon  soda  mixed 
thoroughly  with  the  flour ;  cream  butter  and  sugar,  add  starch  and 
milk,  then  add  the  whites  and  flour  gradually  until  all  is  used. 
Flavor  with  lemon  or  rose. — Mrs.  W.  P.  Andencn, 

Coffee  Cake. 

Two  cups  brown  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  molasses,  one  of 
strong  coffee  as  prepared  for  the  table,  four  eggs,  one  tea-spoon 
saleratus,  two  of  cinnamon,  two  of  cloves,  one  of  grated  nutmeg, 
pound  raisins,  one  of  currants,  four  cups  flour.' — Mrs,  Wm,  Shinner^ 
Battle  Oreek, 

Coffee  Cake. 

One  cup  brown  sugar,  cup  molasses,  half  cup  butter,  cup  strong 
coffee,  one  egg  or  yolks  of  two,  four  even  cups  flour,  heaping  tea- 
spoon soda  in  the  flour,  table-spoon  cinnamon,  teaspoon  cloves,  two 
pounds  raisins,  fourth  pound  citron.  Soften  the  butter,  beat  with 
the  sugar,  add  the  egg,  spices,  molasses,  and  coflee,  then  the  flour, 
and  lastly  the  fruit  dredged  with  a  little  flour.  Bake  one  hour  in 
moderate  oven,  or  make  in  two  small  loaves  which  will  bake  in  a 
short  time.     This  may  be  made  without  the  egg. — Mrs.  D.  Buaixnu 


CAKE-MAKING,  69 

Cocoa-nut  Cake. 

One  cup  batter,  three  of  sugar,  one  of  sweet  milk,  four  and  a 
half  of  £our,  four  eggs  with  whites  be&ten  to  a  stiff  froth,  a  tea- 
spoon soda,  two  of  cream  tartar,  one  grated  cocoa-nut. — Mn,  J. 
HoBand, 

Caramel  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  a  scant  cup  milk,  one  and  a  half 
cups  flour,  cup  com  starch,  whites  of  seven  eggs,  three  tea-spoons 
baking  po)¥der  in  the  flour ;  bake  in  a  long  pan.  T  Ke  half  pound 
brown  sugar,  scant  quarter  pound  chocolate,  half '  .up  milk,  butter 
fiize  of  an  egg,  two  tea-spoons  vanilla ;  mix  thoroughly  and  cook  as 
syrup  until  stiff  enough  to  spread ;  spread  on  cake  and  set  in  the 
oven  to  dry. — Mrs.  George  Bever. 

CiNciKNATi  Cake. 

Pour  over  one  pound  fat  salt  pork,  chopped  fine  and  free  from 
lean  and  rind,  one  puit  boiling  water,  let  stand  untU  nearly  cold ; 
add  two  cups  brown  sugar,  one  of  molasses,  one  table-spoon  each 
of  cloves  and  nutmeg,  and  two  of  cinnamon,  two  pounds  raisins, 
fourth  pound  citron,  half  glass  brandy,  three  tea-spoons  of  baking 
powder,  and  seven  cups  of  sifted  flour.  Bake  slowly  two  and  a 
half  hours.  This  is  excellent,  and  requires  neither  butter  or  eggs. 
—Mrs.  O.  E.  Kinney. 

Chocolate  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  three  of  brown  sugar,  one  of  sweet  milk,  four  of 
flour,  yolks  of  seven  eggs,  nine  table-spoons  grated  Baker^s  choco- 
late, three  tea-spoons  baking  powder.  This  may  be  baked  as  a 
layer  cake,  making  a  white  cake  of  the  whites  of  the  eggs,  baking 
in  layers,  and  putting  them  together  with  frosting,  alternating  the 
layers. — Mrs.  Frank  Woods  Robinson,  Kenton. 

Delicate  Cake. 

Three  cups  flour,  two  of  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  sweet  milk, 
whites  of  six  eggs,  half  cup  butter,  tea-spoon  cream  tartar,  half 
tea-spoon  of  soda.  Flavor  with  lemon.  Good  and  easily  made. — 
Miss  Mary  E.  Miller. 


70  CAKE-MAKINQ, 

EVEBLASTINO  CaKE. 

Beat  together  the  yolks  of  six  eggs  and  three-fourths  of  a  pint 
white  sugar,  add  one  and  a  half  pint^  blanched  and  shelled  almonds, 
half  pound  sliced  citron  well  floured,  and  the  whipped  whites  with 
one  and  a  half  pints  sifted  flour ;  pour  one  and  a  half  inches  thick 
in  well-greased  dripping  pans,  bake  in  a  quick  oven,  and,  when  done, 
cut  slices  one  inch  thick  across  the  cake,  turn  each  slice  over  on  its 
side,  return  to  oven  and  bake  a  short  time.  When  cold  place  in  a 
tin  box.  These  will  keep  a  year  and  a  half  or  more,  and  are  nice 
to  have  in  bto.e. — Mrs,  J.  S.  WUlrnnu,  Brooklyn, 

Egoless  Cake. 
One  and  a  half  tea-cups  sugar,  one  of  sour  milk,  three  (level)  of 
siited  flour,  half  cup  butter,  tea-spoon  soda,  half  tea-spoon  cinna- 
mon, half  tea-spoon  grated  nutmeg,  tea-cup  raisins  chopped  and 
well  floured. — Miss  Louise  Skinner. 

Old  Hartford  Election  Cake. 
Five  pounds  sifted  flour,  two  of  butter,  two  of  sugar,  thre  gills 
distillery  yeast  or  twice  the  quantity  of  home  brewed,  four  eggs,  gill 
of  wine,  gill  of  brandy,  one  quart  sweet  milk,  half  an  ounce  of  nut- 
meg, two  pounds  raisins,  one  of  citron ;  rub  the  butter  and  flour 
together  very  fine,  add  half  the  sugar,  then  the  yeast  and  half  the 
milk  (hot  in  winter,  blood-warm  in  summer),  then  add  the  eggs^, 
then  remainder  of  the  milk,  and  the  wine ;  beat  well  and  let  rise  in 
a  warm  place  all  night;  in  the  morning  beat  a  longtime,  adding 
brandy,  sugar,  spice,  and  fruit  well  floured,  and  allow  to  rise  again 
very  light,  after  which  put  in  cake  pans  and  let  ris?e  ten  or  fifteen 
minutes ;  have  the  oven  about  as  hot  as  for  bread.  This  cake  will 
keep  any  length  of  time.  For  raised  cakes  use  potato  yeast  if  fresh 
iiiude ;  it  is  always  a  i>erfect  success.  This  recipe  is  over  one  hun- 
ilred  years  old. — Mrs.  Eliza  BurrOiam^  Milford  Center. 

Apple  Fruit  Cake. 
One  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  one-  of  milk,  two  eggs,  tea-spoon 
soda,  three  and  a  half  cups  flour,  two  of  raisins,  three  of  dried 
apples  soaked  over  night  and  then  chopped  fine  and  stewed  two 
hours  in  two  ctips  molasses ;  beat  butter  and  sugar  to  a  cream,  add 
milk,  in  which  dissolve  soda,  then  the  beaten  eggs  and  flour,  and 


CAKE-MAKINQ.  71 

lastly  the  raifflns  and  apples  well  stirred  in ;  pour  in  pan  and  bake 
an  hour  and  a  half. — Mrs.  C.  Jf.  Ingman, 

Fruit  Cake.  • 

One  cup  butter,  one  of  brown  sugar,  half  pint  molasses,  two  eggs, 
cup  sour  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  pound  of  flour,  one  of  currants,  one 
and  a  half  pounds  raisins.  Flavor  to  taste.  This  has  been  thor- 
oughly tested,  and  is  a  great  favorite. — Mn,  M,  E.  Niedy. 

Fruit  Cake. 

Twelve  eggs,  one  and  a  half  pounds  each  of  butter,  sugar  and 

flour,  two  pounds  each  of  raisins  and  currants,  one  pound  citron, 

one  half-pint  molasses,  one  ounce  each  of  nutmeg,  mace  and  cloves, 

one  and  a  half  glasses  of  jelly  (grape  is  best),  one-fourth  pint  each 

of  wine  and  brandy,   more  flour  if  needed.     Put  dough  in  pans, 

set  in  steamer,  taking  care  that  the  cover  is  made  to  fit  very  tight ; 

if  necessary  put  cloth  under  the  lid  and  shut  it  down  on  it,  taking 

care  that  it  does  not  touch  the  cake,  or  lay  several  thicknesses  of 

cloth  over  the  lid.     Steam  two  hours  and   bake  one  hour. — Qiaa, 

Cjiphers,  Minneapolis,  Mxnn, 

Fruit  Loaf  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  two  of  brown  sugar,  one  of  New  Orleans  molas- 
ses, one  of  sweet  milk,  three  eggs,  five  cups  sifted  flour,  two  tea- 
spoons cream  tartar  in  the  flour,  tea-spoon  soda  in  the  milk,  table- 
spoon cinnamon,  one  nutmeg?,  one  pound  raisins,  one  of  currants, 
quarter  pound  citron  (citron  may  be  omitted,  and  half  the  quantity 
of  raisins  and  currauts  will  do).  Put  flour  in  a  large  crock,  mix 
well  with  cream  tartar,  make  a  well  in  the  center,  put  in  other  ingre- 
dients, having  warmed  the  butter  and  molasses  a  little ;  mix  well 
together  with  the  hands,  putting  in  the  fruit  last  after  it  has  been 
floured ;  bake  two  hours  in  a  moderate  oven.  This  will  make  two 
common-sized  loaves. — Mrs.  N.  8.  Long. 

Fruit  Cake. 

Three  pounds  butter,  three  of  brown  sugar,  beaten  to  a  cream, 
three  of  flour,  six  of  currants,  six  of  raisins,  after  seeds  are  removed, 
one  of  citron  sliced  thin,  three  glasses  brandy,  twenty-eight  eggs, 
one  ounce  cinnamon,  one  of  grated  nutmeg,  three-quarters  ounce 
cloves,  half  ounce  mace ;  roll  the  raisins,  currants  and  citron  m 
part  of  the  flour. — Miss  H.  D.  M 


7^  CAKE-MAKING. 

Fruit  Cake. 
One  pound  brown  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  eggs,  one  of  floor, 
two  of  raisinSy  two  of  currants,  half  pound  citron,  a  nutmeg,  table- 
spoon cloves,  one  of  allspice,  half  pint  brandj,  and  two  tea-spoons 
baking-powder.  After  baking,  while  yet  warm,  pour  over  cake  a 
half  pint  wine.   This  makes  the  cake  delicious. — Mm  Angis  Skinner^ 

SoTnerset, 

Excellent  Fruit  Cake. 

One  and  a  half  pounds  raisins,  one  and  a  fourth  pounds  currants, 
three-fourths  pound  citron,  pound  butter,  pound  sugar,  one  and  a 
fourth  pounds  flour,  ten  eggs,  two  table-spoons  lemon,  two  tea-spoons 
yeast  powder ;  mix  a  fourth  pound  of  the  flour  in  the  fruit. — Mrs. 
J.  TT.  OruhbB, 

Poor  Man's  Fruit  Cake. 
One  and  a  half  cups  brown  sugar,  two  of  flour,  one  each  of  but- 
ter and  chopped  raisins,  three  eggs,  three  table-spoons  sour  milk, 
half  tea-spoon  soda,  half  cup  blackberry  jam.     This  is  excellent  as 
well  as  economical. — Mrs,  J.  8.  Robinson, 

Scotch  Fruit  Cake. 
A  cup  butter,  two  of  white  sugar,  four  of  sifted  flour,  three- 
fourths  cup  sour  milk,  half  tea-spoon  soda,  nine  eggs  beaten  separ- 
ately, one  pound  raisins,  half  pound  currants,  a  fourth  pound  citron; 
cream  the  butter  and  sugar,  add  milk  gradually,  then  beaten  yolks 
of  eggs,  and  lastly,  while  stirring  in  flour,  the  whites  well  whipped. 
Flavor  with  one  tea-spoon  lemon,  and  one  of  vanilla  extract,  and 
have  raisins  chopped  a  little,  or,  better  still,  seeded,  and  citron 
sliced  thin.  Wash  and  dry  currants  before  using,  and  flour  all  fruit 
slightly.  In  putting  cake  in  pan,  place  first  a  thin  layer  of  cake, 
tlien  sprinkle  in  some  of  the  three  kinds  of  fruit,  then  a  layer  of 
cake,  and  so  on,  always  finishing  ofl*  with  a  thin  layer  of  cake.  Bake 
in  a  moderate  oven  for  two  hours.  Tested  by  many  and  has  never 
failed. —Jfrs.  J,  H.  Shearer. 

Thanksgiving  Fruit  Cake. 
Six  pounds  flour,  three  of  butter,  three  and  a  half  of  sugar,  an 
ounce  mace,  two  glasses   wine,  two  glasses  brandy,  four  pounds 
raisins,  half  pound  citron,  six  eggs,  one  pint  yeast,  small  tea-spoon 


CAKE-MAKING,  73 

aoda  put  in  at  last  moment.  After  tea,  take  all  the  flour  (except 
one  plate  for  dredging  raisins),  a  small  piece  butter,  and  a  quart  or 
more  of  milk,  and  mix  like  biscuit ;  then  mix  butter  and  sugar,  and 
at  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening,  if  sufficiently  light,  put  one-third  of 
butter  and  sugar  into  dough ;  at  twelve  add  another  third,  and  very 
early  in  the  morning  the  remainder  ;  about  eleven  o'cJock,  if  light 
enough,  begin  kneading,  and  continue  for  an  hour,  adding  mean- 
while all  the  other  ingredients.  This  will  make  seven  loaves.-  • 
Mrs.  Woodworihf  Springfidd, 

Choice  Fig  Cake. 
A  large  cup  butter,  two  and  a  half  of  sugar,  one  of  sweet  milk, 
three  pints  flour  with  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder,  whites  of  six- 
teen ^gs,  a  pound  and  a  quarter  of  figs  well  floured  and  cut  in 
strips  like  citron ;  no  flavoring. — Mrs.  A,  B.  Morey. 

Groom's  Cake. 
Ten  eggs  beaten  separately,  one  pound  butter,  one  of  white  sugar, 
one  of  flour,  two  of  almonds  blanched  and  chopped  fine,  one  of 
seeded  raisins,  half  pound   citron,  shaved  fine;   beat  butter  to  a 

I 

cream,  add  sugar  gradually,  then  the  well-beaten  yolks ;  stir  all  tiU 
very  light,  and  add  the  chopped  almonds ;  beat  the  whites  stifiT  and 
add  gently  with  the  flour ;  take  a  little  more  flour  and  sprinkle  over 
the  raisins  and  citron,  then  put  in  the  cake-pan,  first  a  layer  of  cake 
batter,  then  a  layer*  xn  raisins  and  dtrob,  thefi  isake,  and  00  on  tSII 
ail  is  used,  finishing  ofl*  with  a  layer  of  cake.  Bake  in  a  moderate 
oven  two  hours. — Mary  Wilcox,  DaUon. 

Hard-Money  Cake. 

Gold  Part, — Yolks  of  eight  eggs,  scant  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar, 
four  of  flour,  one  of  sour  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  table-spoon  com 
starch ;  flavor  with  lemon  and  vanilla. 

Silver  Part. — Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  four  (scant)  of  flour, 
one  of  sour  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  table-spoon  corn  starch,  whites  of 
eight  eggs ;  flavor  with  almond  or  peach.  Put  in  pan,  alternately, 
one  spoonful  of  gold  and  one  of  silver. — Miss  Emma  Fisher. 

Old  Hickory  Cake. 

One  cup  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  three  eggs  beaten  well  together, 
level  tea-spoon  soda  stirred  in  half  cup  sour  milk,  two  small  cups 


74  CAKE-MAKINQ. 

flour;  flavor  with  lemon,  pour  in  small  dripping-pan,  bake  half  an 
hour,  and  cut  in  squares.  This  cake  is  always  elected  for  a  ''  second 
term." — Mx8»  Flora  Ziegler,  Columbus, 

BEicKORY-NUT  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  milk,  two-thirds  cup  butter,  three  of  flour, 
three  eggs,  two  tea-spoons  baking-powder,  a  cup  nut-kernels  cut 
fine.     Tried,  and  not  found  wanting. — Mm.  Judge  Wed,  BeO^ontaine. 

Hickory-nut  Cake. 

A  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  three  of  flour,  one  of  sweet  milk, 

whites  of  seven  and  yolks  of  two  eggs,  a  tea-spoon  soda,  two  of 

cream  tartar,  one  pint  hickory-nut  meats  rolled  and  sprinkled  with 

flour ;  beat  the  whites  to  a  stifle  froth.     Rich  and  excellent. — Mn. 

A.  B,  Morey. 

Imperial  Cake. 

One  pound  butter  and  one  of  sugar  beaten  to  a  cream,  one  pound 

flour,  the  grated  rind  and  juice  of  a  lemon,  nine  eggs,  one  and  a 

quarter  pounds  almonds  before  they  are  cracked,  half  pound  citron, 

half  pound  raisins ;  beat  the  yolks  light,  add  sugar  and  butter,  then 

the  whites  beaten  to  a  stifle  froth,  and  the  flour,  reserving  a  part  for 

the  fruit,  and,  lastly,  the  nuts  blanched,  cut  fine  and  mixed  with 

fruit  and  the  rest  of  the  flour.     This  is  very  delicious,  and  will  keep 

for  months. — Mn.  E,  R.  May,  MvrmeapoliSy  Minn. 

Lady's  Cake. 

One-half  cup  butter,  one  and  a  half  of  sugar,  two  of  flour,  nearly 

one  of  sweet  milk,  half  tea-spoon  soda,  one  of  cream  tartar,  whites 

of  four  eggs  well  beaten ;  flavor  with  peach  or  almond. — Mias  M. 

E,  W.y  Madison, 

Yellow  Lady's  Cake. 

One  and  a  half  cups  flour,  one  of  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  half 

cup  sweet  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  two  tea-spoons  cream  tartar,  yolks 

of  four  eggs,  tearspoon  vanilla. — Olivia  S.  Hinman^  BatUe  Greek, 

Midi. 

Lemon  Cake. 

One  pound  flour,  one  of  sugar,  three-fourths  pound  butter,  seven 
eggs,  juice  of  one  and  rind  of  two  lemons.  The  sugar,  butter  and 
yolks  of  eggs  must  be  beaten  a  long  time,  adding,  by  d^rees,  the 


CAKErMAKINQ.  75 

dour,  and  the  whites  of  eggs  last.     A  tumbler  and  a  half  of  sliced 
dtron  many  be  added.     This  keeps  well. — Mi^s  M,  B,  FuUingtan. 

Aunt  Hettie's  Loaf  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar  aud  one  of  butter  beaten  to  a  cream,  three  eggs, 
the  whites  beaten  separately,  three  cups  flour  with  one  tea-spoon 
cream  tartar  stirred  in,  yolks  of  the  eggs  stirred  well  with  the  sugar 
and  butter;  now  add  two  cups  more  flour  with  one  tea-spoon 
cream  tartar,  one  cup  sweet  milk  and  the  whites  of  the  eggs,  and 
then  stir  again;  add  one  nutmeg,  one  pound  raisins  or  currants 
dredged  with  flour,  one  tea-spoon  soda  dissolved  in  four  table-spoons 
of  water.     This  makes  two  nice  loaves,  and  is  excellent. 

French  Loaf  Cake. 
Five  cups  sugar,  three  of  butter,  two  of  milk,  ten  of  flour,  six 
eggs,  three  nutmegs,  pound  seeded  raisins,  a  grated  lemon,  small 
tea-spoon  soda,  wine-glass  wine,  one  of  brandy,  or,  two-thirds  of  a 
cup  of  Orleans  molasses. — Mrs,  A.  S.  Chapman. 

Old-fashioned  Loaf  Cake. 
Three  pounds  (three  quarts  sifted  and  well  heaped)  flour,  one  and 
a  fourth  pounds  (a  rounded  pint  of  soft)  butter,  one  and  three- 
fourths  pounds  (one  quart)  sugar,  five  gills  new  milk,  half  pint 
yeast,  three  eggs,  two  pounds  raisins,  tea-spoon  soda,  gill  of  brandy 
or  wine,  or  a  fourth  pint  of  molasses,  two  tea-spoons  cinnamon  and 
two  ox  nutmeg,  ocaid  ine  milk,  cooi  w  biuuu  wiu-m,  oau  tneyeitev, 
then  the  flour,  to  which  all  the  butter  and  half  the  sugar  have  been 
added ;  then  mix  together,  and  let  rise  until  light  It  is  better  to 
set  this  sponge  over  night,  and  in  the  morning  add  the  other  ingre- 
dients (flouring  raisins),  and  let  rise  again.  When  light,  fill  baking- 
pans  and  let  rise  again.  Bake  in  a  moderate  oven.  This  recipe 
makes  three  large  loaves,  and  is  a  standard,  economical  loaf-eake. — 
Mrs,  Ex-Oov,  Mm  J.  Bagky,  Mich. 

Marble  Cake. 

WkUe  Part. — Whites  of  seven  eggs,  three  cups  white  sugar,  one 
of  butter,  one  of  sour  milk,  four  of  flour,  sifted  and  heaping,  one 
tearspoon  soda ;  flavor  to  taste. 

Dark  Part. — Yolks  of  seven  eggs,  three  cups  brown  sugar,  one  of 
butter,  one  of  sour  milk,  four  of  flour,  sift;ed  and  heaping,  one 


76  CAKB-MAKINQ. 

table-fipoon  each  of  cinnamon,  allspice  and  cloves,  one  tea-spoon 
soda ;  put  iu  pans  a  spoonful  of  white  part  and  then  a  spoonful  of 
dark,  and  so  on.  Bake  an  hour  and  a  quarter.  Use  coffee-cups  to 
measure.  This  will  make  one  large  and  one  medium  cake.  The 
white  and  dark  parts  are  alternated,  either  by  putting  in  a  spoonful 
of  white,  then  of  dark,  or  a  layer  of  white  and  then  of  dark  part, 
being  careful  that  the  cake  may  be  nicely  '*  marbleized." — Mn.  AL 
E.  Smith,  (Xevekmd. 

Marbled  Chocolate  Cake. 

Make  a  batter  as  for  white  cake,  take  out  one  tea-cup,  add  to  it 

five  table-spoons  of  grated  chocolate,  moisten  with  milk,  and  flavor 

with  vanilla ;  pour  a  layer  of  the  white  batter  into  the  baking-pan^ 

then  drop  the  chocolate  batter  with  a  spoon  in  spots,  and  spread  the 

remainder  of  the  white  batter  over  it. — Mrs.  Sarah  PhdpBy  Spring* 

fidiy  Ohio. 

One-Ego  Cake. 

One  half  cup  butter,  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  three  of  flour, 

one  of  sweet  milk,  one  egg,  tea-spoon  soda,  two  tea-spoons 
cream  tartar  in  the  flour,  cup  raisins  chopped  fine. — Mrs.  A.  S.  C. 

Orange  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar,  four  eggs,  leaving  out  the  whites  of  two,  half 
cup  butter,  one  of  water,  two  tea-spoona  baking-powder,  three  cups 
flour,  juice,  grated  rind,  and  pulp  of  one  orange;  use  the  remain- 
ing  whites  for  frosting  the  top. — Mr%,  D.  B 

Citron  Pound  Cake. 

One.  pound  ^ugar,  one  of  flour,  three-fourths  pound  butter,  eight 

large  or  ten  small  eggs,  one  and  a   fourth  pound  citron  finely 

shredded;  cream  butter  and  sugar,  add  the  yolks,  the  nthe  flour 

and  well- whipped  whites;   put  layer  of  batter  in  cake-pan   and 

sprinkle  thickly  with  citron,  then  another  layer  of  batter,  etc.,  till 

pan  is  filled.     Bake  slowly  one  and  a  half  to  two  hours. — Mn,  J. 

M.  Southard. 

Pyramid  Pound  Cake. 

One  pound  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  flour,  ten  eggs;  bake  in 
a  dripping-pan  one  inch  in  thickness;  cut  when  cold  into  pieces 
three  and  a  half  inches  long  by  two  wide,  and  frost  top  and  sides; 


CAKE-MAKINQ.  77 

fbrm  on  the  cake  stand  in  pyramid  before  the  icmg  is  quite  dry  by 
lajingi  first  in  a  circle,  five  pieces  with  some  space  between  them; 
over  the  spaces  between  these  lay  five  other  pieces,  gradually  draw- 
ing in  the  column  and  crowning  the  top  with  a  bouquet  of  flowers. 

— Mn.Dr.  Thontpson. 

White  Pound  Cake. 

One  pound  sugar,  one  of  flour,  half  pound  butter,  whites  of  six- 
teen ^gs,  tea-spoon  baking-powder  sifted  thoroughly  with  the  flour; 
put  in  cool  oven  with  gradual  increase  of  heat.  For  boDed  icing 
for  the  cake,  take  three  cups  sugar  boiled  in  one  of  water  until 
clear;  beat  whites  of  three  eggs  to  very  stiff  firoth,  and  pour  over 
them  the  boiling  liquid,  beating  all  the  time  for  ten  minute;  frost 
while  both  cake  and  icing  are  warm. — Mrs.  Ada  EsteUe  Bever,  Cedar 

RapidSy  Iowa, 

Rice  Cake. 

One  pound  sugar,  a  pound  of  ground  rice,  half  pound  butter, 

nine  eggs,  rose-water  to  taste;  add  a  little  salt,  beat  butter  and 

sugar  together,  add  rose-water,  salt  and  eggs,  lastly  the  rice ;  bake 

in  shallow  pans. — Oovemor  Rice,  Mass. 

Sponge  Cake. 

Three  eggs,  one  and  a  half  cups  powdered  sugar,  two  of  sifted 
flour,  two  tea-spoons  cream  tartar,  half  cup  cold  water,  tea-spoon 
soda,  grated  rind  and  half  the  juice  of  one  lemon ;  bake  in  dripping* 
pan. — Mrs,  ELvsa  J.  Starr. 

Sponge  Cake. 

Twelve  eggs,  pint  pulverized  sugar,  one  of  flour,  measured  before 
dfting,  small  tea-spoon  salt,  heaping  tea-spoon  baking  powder,  es- 
sence of  lemon  for  flavor;  beat  the  whites  to  a  very  stiff  froth,  and 
add  sugar ;  beat  the  yolks,  strain  and  add  them  to  the  whites  and 
sogar,  and  beat  the  whole  thoroughly;  mix  baking-powder  and  salt 
b  the  flour  and  add  last,  stirring  in  small  quantities  at  a  time ;  bake 
one  hour  in  a  six-quart  pan  in  a  moderate  oven.  This  makes  one 
very  large  cake.  By  weight  use  one  pound  pulverized  sugar  and 
ihiee-fourths  pound  flour. — Miss  8.  Alice  Mdcking. 

Sponge  Cake. 
One  pound  sugar,  one  of  flour,  ten  eggs;  stir  yolks  of  eggs  and 
sugar  till  perfectly  light;  beat  whites  of  eggs  and  add  them  with 


78  CAKE-MAKINO. 

the  flour  after  beating  together  lightly;  flavor  with  lemoD.  Three 
tea-spoons  baking-powder  in  the  flour  will  add  to  its  lightness,  but 
it  never  fails  without.  Bake  in  a  moderate  oven. — Mrs.  Clara 
H.^  KTioxviUe. 

Mrs.  Jennison'h  Sponge  Cake. 

One  lemon,  three  gOIs  flour,  one  pint  sugar,  eight  eggs ;  beat  the 
yolks  of  the  eggs  thoroughly,  add  the  sugar  little  by  little,  and  the 
grated  rind  of  the  lemon ;  l)eat  the  whites  of  the  eggs  to  a  stiflT 
froth,  and  add  them  alternately  with  the  flour,  beating  very  gently 
and  barely  long  enough  to  mix  well ;  when  part  of  the  flour  is  in, 
add  the  lemon-juice.     Bake  twenty  minutes,  in  small  loaves. 

Southern-rights  Cake. 

Three  eggs,  one  tea-cup  sugar,  one  of  butter,  two  of  flour,  scant 
half  cup  New  Orleans  molasses,  half  a  tablespoon  each  of  cinna- 
mon, sifted  ginger  and  allspice,  half  a  tea-spoon  soda,  half  a  wine- 
glass brandy,  cream,  sugar  and  butter;  beat  spices  and  yolks  of  eggs 
together,  dissolve  soda  in  molasses,  whip  whites  to  a  froth,  and  add 
last,  a  little  at  a  time,  alternating  with  the  flour.  (Best  baked  in 
small  pans  and  frosted.) — Mrs,  8.  P.  HiU,  Cht. 

Spice  Cake. 

Three  pounds  seedless  raisins,  one  and  a  half  pounds  citron,  one 
pound  butter,  two  and  a  half  coflee-cups  sugar,  two  of  sweet  milk, 
four  of  flour,  six  eggs,  two  large  tea-spoons  baking-powder,  three 
tea-spoons  cinnamon,  two  of  mace. — Mrs.  Oov,  Potts,  MorUana. 

Southern  Seed  Cake. 

Cream,  one  cup  sugar,  and  one-third  cup  butter;  add  yolks  of 
two  eggs,  one-half  cup  sweet  milk,  two  tea-spoons  baking-powder 
sifted  in  two  cups  flour,  one  table-spoon  caraway  seed,  one  grated 
nutmeg  and  well-beaten  whites.  This  has  been  tried  and  approved 
in  our  family  for  years. — Mrs.  Ed.  Skidds^  Ala. 

Snow  Cake. 

Whites  of  ten  eggs  beaten  to  a  stifi*  froth,  sift  lightly  on  this  one 
and  a  half  cups  fine  white  or  pulverized  sugar,  stir  well,  and  add  cup 
flour  mixed  with  tea-spoon  cream  tartar;  flavor  with  lemon  or 
vanilla. — Mrs.  Porter,  Biekmond,  Va. 


CAKE-MAKINO,  79 

Ten-bonute  Cake. 

^e-fourth  pound  butter,  a  little  leas  than  a  pound  flour,  the 
«aine  of  sugar,  six  eggs  beaten  separately ;  flavor  with  mace  and 
we  in  mufl^-rings.  —Mrs.  8.  C  Lee,  Baltimore ,  Mi. 

TiLDEN  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  two  of  pulverized  sugar,  one  of  sweet  milk,  three 
^  flour,  half  cup  corn-starch,  four  eggs,  two  teanspoons  baking- 
powder,  two  of  lemon  extract.  This  is  so  excellent  that  a  **bar- 
'd"  would  not  be  too  much  of  it. — Mrs.  J,  L.  PelerSf  Mempkis,  Tenn. 

Tennessee  Cake. 

One  pint  sifted  meal,  half  a  pint  flour,  eight  eggs,  half  a  pound 
^&ch  butter  and  sugar ;  nutmeg  and  cinnamon  to  taste.  Beat  butter 
^d  sugar  together,  add  eggs,  then  meal  and  flour  gradually.  Beat 
^  well,  and  bake  an  hout  and  a  half.  To  be  eaten  soon  after  hak- 
ing.— 'Mwn*  Katie,"  McMinrmUe. 

Water-melon  Cake. 

WhUe  Part. — Two  cups  white  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  sweet 
inilk,  three  and  a  half  of  flour,  whites  of  eight  eggs,  two  tea-spoons 
cream  tartar,  one  of  soda  dissolved  in  a  little  warm  water. 

Bed  Part. — ^One  cup  red  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  third  cup  sweet 
sulk,  two  cups  flour,  whites  of  four  eggs,  tea-spoon  cream  tartar, 
hlf  tea-spoon  soda,  tea-cup  raisins ;  be  careAil  to  keep  the  red  part 
around  the  tube  of  the  pan  and  the  white  around  the  edge.  It 
requires  two  persons  to  fill  the  pan.  This  is  a  very  attractive  and 
ornamental  cake. — Mr$.  B.  F.,  Tuscumbia,  Ala. 

Wedding  Cake. 

Fifty  ^gs,  five  pounds  sugar,  five  of  flour,  five  of  butter,  fifteen 
ot  raisins,  three  of  citron,  ten  of  currants,  pint  brandy,  fourth 
ooDoe  cloves,  ounce  cinuf^mon,  four  of  mace,  four  of  nutmeg. 
This  makes  forty-three  and  a  half  pounds,  and  keeps  twenty  years. 
This  cake  is  unequaled. — Mrs.  C  H.  £>.,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

Whortleberry  Cake. 

Beat  two  eggs  with  one  cup  sugar ;  add  half  cup  butter,  one  of 
milk,  one  tea-spoon  soda  sifted  in  four  cups  flour,  pinch  salt, 
and  one  pint  fresh  whortleberries.    Bake,  and  eat  warm.    Delicious. 


80  LAYEBrCAKES. 

Whttb    Perfection  Cake. 

Three  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  milk,  three  of  flour,  one 
of  com  starch,  whites  of  twelve  'eggs  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth,  two 
tea-spoons  cream  tartar  in  the  flour,  and  one  of  soda  in  half  the 
milk ;  dissolve  the  com  starch  in  the  rest  of  the  milk,  and  add  it  to 
the  sugar  and  butter  well  beaten  together,  then  the  milk  and  soda, 
and  the  flour  and  whites  of  eggs.  This  cake  is  rightly  named 
**  Perfection."— Jfrg.  C.  Jones,  Bradford,  Vt 


LAYER-CAKES. 


In  bakmg  layer-cakes  it  is  important  to  thoroughly  grease  the 
tins — to  make  it  emphatic,  we  will  say  thoroughly  grease  and  then 
grease  again — and  after  using  rub  ofi*  with  a  coarse  tomel,  taking 
care  that  they  are  perfectly  free  from  all  small  particles  of  cake, 
grease  and  All  again,  thus  obviating  the  necessity  of  washing  every 
time  they  are  filled.  If  jelly  is  used  to  spread  between  the  layers, 
it  is  a  good  plan  to  beat  it  smoothly  and  spread  it  before  the  cakes 
are  quite  cool.  In  **  building,"  an  inverted  jelly-tin  furnishes  a 
perfectly  level  surface  on  which  to  lay  and  spread  the  cake,  and  it 
may  be  allowed  to  remain  on  it  until  perfectly  cold,  when  it  should 
be  set  away  in  a  tin  cake-box,  in  a  cool  place.  In  cutting,  it  is 
better  to  first  make  a  round  hole  in  the  center,  with  a  knife,  or  a 
tin  tube,  about  an  inch  and  a  quarter  in  diameter.  This  prevents 
the  edge  of  the  cake  from  crumbling  in  cutting.  In  making  the 
custard  or  "filluig"  for  layer-cake,  place  in  a  custard-kettle  or  in 
a  tin  pail.  Set  in  boiling  water  to  cook,  to  avoid  all  danger  of 
.burning. 

To  blanch  almonds,  pour  boiling  water  over  them,  let  stand  a 
moment,  drain  and  throw  them  into  cold  water,  slip  ofi*  the  skins, 
and  pound. 

AiM&SD  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  one  of  sweet  milk,  two 
of  flour,  and  one  of  com  starch  well  mixed,  whites  of  six  eggs,  two 


LAYEB-CAKES,  81 

tearepoons  cream  tartar  in  the  flour,  one  tea-spoon  soda  in  the  milk ; 
cream  the  butter  and  sugar,  add  milk  gradually,  then  the  whites  of 
^gs  together  with  the  flour,  and  bake  in  jelly-tins.  To  put  between 
layers,  take  two  pounds  almonds,  blanch  and  pound  fine  in  a  mor- 
tar (or  a  cloth  will  do),  beat  whites  and  yolks  of  two  e^s  together 
lightly,  add  a  cup  and  a  half  sugar,  then  the  almonds,  with  one 
table-spoon  vanilla. — Mn,  Harvey  Wood, 

Almond  Cream  Cake. 

On  beaten  whites  of  ten  eggs,  sift  one  and  a  half  goblets  pulver- 
ized sugar,  and  a  goblet  flour  through  which  has  been  stirred  a 
heaping  tea-spoon  cream  tartar ;  stir  very  gently  and  do  not  heat  it ; 
hake  in  jelly-pans.  For  cream,  take  a  half  pint  sweet  cream,  yolks 
of  three  eggs,  table-spoon  pulverized  sugar,  tea-spoon  corn  starch ; 
dissolve  slarch  smoothly  with  a  little  milk,  beat  yolks  and  sugar 
together  with  this,  boil  the  cream,  and  stir  these  ingredients  in  as 
for  any  cream-cake  filling,  only  make  a  little  thicker ;  blanch  and 
chop  fine  a  half  pound  almonds  and  stir  into  the  cream.  Put  to- 
gether like  jelly  cake  while  icing  is  soft,  and  stick  in  a  half  pound 
of  almonds  split  in  two. — Mrs.  Paris  Gibson,  Minneapolis,  Minn. 

Boston  Cream  Puffb. 

Pot  half  pint  hot  water  and  two-thirds  cup  butter  over  the  fire; 
when  boiling,  stir  in  one  and  a  half  cups  flour,  and  continue  stirring 
until  smooth  and  the  mixture  leaves  the  sides  of  the  sauce-pan ; 
remove  from  fire,  cool,  and  beat  thoroughly  into  it  five  well-beaten 
eggs.  Drop  on  warm  greased  tins  (or  a  dripping-pan),  a  table- 
spoon in  a  place,  leaving  space  between  to  prevent  touching,  brush 
over  with  the  white  of  an  egg,  and  bake  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  in  a 
quick  oven.  When  cakes  are  done,  they  will  be  hollow.  When 
cold,  slice  off*  the  top,  fill  space  with  the  cream,  and  replace  top. 

Oream  far  Inside. — ^Take  one  pint  milk,  place  one-half  in  a  tin 
pail  and  set  in  boiling  water ;  reserve  from  the  other  half  two  table- 
spoons to  mix  with  eggs,  and  into  the  rest,  while  cold,  mix  one  cup 
of  flour  until  smooth ;  when  the  milk  is  hot,  pour  in  the  flour,  and 
stir  until  thicker  than  boiled,  custard  ;  then  beat  well  together  the 
two  table-spoons  milk,  two  eggs,  one  cup  granulated  sugar,  a  level 

6 


s 


82  LAYEB.CAKES, 

table-spoon  butter,  and  a  tea-spoon  vanilla  or  lemon ;  add  graduany, 
and  continue  stirring  briskly  until  so  thick  that  when  cold  it  will 
drop,  not  pour,  from  the  spoon.  The  puffs  may  be  kept  on  hand. 
Make  the  creaLi  fresh,  let  it  cool,  and  fill  as  many  as  are  wanted. 
— Mn.  Ex-Oovemor  NoyeSy  (Krunnnati,  Ohio. 

Dixie  Cream  Puffs. 
Five  eggs,  whites  and  yolks  beaten  separately,  one  and  a  half 
cups  each  of  white  sugar  and  sifted  flour,  two  tea-spoons  baking 
powder  in  the  flour ;  bake  in  tea-cups,  filling  about  half  full.  The 
cream  is  prepared  by  placing  a  small  tin  pail  containing  a*  pint  sweet 
milk  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water ;  beat  the  whites  and  yolks  of  two 
eggs  separately ;  stir  in  the  milk  while  boiling,  a  half  tea-cup 
sugar,  a  large  table-spoon  corn  starch  dissolved  in  a  little  sweet 
milk,  then  the  beaten  yolks  and  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  a  large 
walnut ;  flavor  with  lemon  or  vanilla.  When  done,  cut  the  cakes 
open,  put  in  a  spoonful  of  the  cream,  place  together  again,  roll  in 
the  whites,  and    then  in   coarse   granulated  sugar. — 

French  Cream  Cake. 

Three  eggs,  one  cup  granulated  sugar,  one  and  a  half  cups  flour, 
two  table-spoons  cold  water,  tea-spoon  baking  powder.  This  is 
enough  for  two  cakes  baked  in  pie-pans,  to  be  split  while  warm, 
spreading  the  hot  custard  between  them,  or  for  four  cakes  baked  in 
jelly-pans,  with  the  hot  custard  spread  between  them,  the  latter 
being  the  preferable  plan.  For  custard,  boil  nearly  one  pint  sweet 
milk ;  mix  two  table-spoons  com  starch  with  a  half  tea-cup  sweet 
milk,  add  two  well-beaten  eggs :  when  milk  has  boiled  add  nearly  a 
cup  sugar,  and  add  gradually  the  com  starch  and  eggs,  stirring 
briskly;  add  a  half  cup  butter,  stirring  until  dissolved,  flavor  with 
one  tearspoon  vanilla,  and  spread  between  cakes  while  hot.  This 
cake  can  be  used  as  a  pudding  by  pouring  over  each  piece  a  spoonAil 
of  the  custard  that  is  left. — Mrs.  Charles  Morey. 

Golden  Cream  Cake. 
Cream  one  cup  sugar  and  one-fourth  cup  butter,  add  half  cup 
sweet  milk,  the  well  beaten  whites  of  three  eggs,  one  and  a  half 
cups  flour,  with  half  a  tea-spoon  soda,  and  a  teaspoon  cream  tartar 


LAYER-CAKES,  83 

stfted  with  it ;  bake  in  three  deep  jelly-tins ;  beat  very  h'ght  the 

yolks  of  two  e^8,  one  cup  sugar,  and  two  t&ble-spoons  rich  sweet 

cream,  flavor  with  vanilla,  and  spread  on  cakes ;  or  to  yolks  add 

one  and  a  half  table-spoons  corn  starch,  three-quarters  cup  sweet 

niiik  and  small  lump  butter ;  sweeten  and  flavor  to  taste,  cook  in  a 

custard-kettle  till  thick,  let  cool,  and  then  spread. — Mrs.  J.  M. 

Sovtihard. 

Ice-Cream  Cake. 

Make  good  sponge-cake,  bake  half  an  ijteh  thick  in  jelly-pans, 
and  let  them  get  perfectly  cold ;  take  a  pint  thickest  sweet  cream, 
beat  uutil  it  looks  like  ice-cream,  make  very  sweet,  and  flavor  with 
vanilla;  blanch  and  chop  a  pound  almonds,  stir  into  cream,  and 
put  very  thick  between  each  layer.  This  is  the  queen  of  all  cakes. 
— Mia  MattU  FuUingUm. 

Ice-Cbeam  Cake. 

One-fourth  pound  each  butter  and  powdered  sugar,  half  pint 
milk,  half  pound  flour,  six  eggs,  one  glfuss  wine,  one  nutmeg;  bake 
quickly  in  iron  gem-pans.  They  raise  light  with  hollow  center. 
When  cold,  cut  a  round  hole  in  top  (as  you  would  "  plug"  a  oielon), 
fill  with  ice-cream  just  before  serving,  so  that  it  will  not  have  timt 
to  melt — Mn.  A.  C.  GUmer 

Cocoa-nut  Cake. 
To  the  well-beaten  yolks  of  six  eggs,  add  two  cure  powdered 
white  sugar,  three-fourths  cups  butter,  one  of  sweet  milk,  three  and 
a  half  of  flour,  one  level  tea-spoon  soda  and  two  of  cream  tartar, 
whites  of  four  eggs  well  beaten;  bake  in  jelly-cake  pans.  For 
icing,  grate  one  cocoa-nut,  beat  whites  of  two  eggs,  and  add  one 
tea-cup  powdered  sugar ;  mix  thorotighly  with  the  grated  cocoa-nut, 
and  spread  evenly  on  the  layers  of  cake  when  they  are  cold, — 
Ifiss  Nettie  Miller ,  Columbus. 

Caramel  Cake. 
One  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  half  cup 
milk,  two  and  a  fourth  cups  flour,  three  eggs,  one  and  a  half  heap- 
ing tea-spoons  baking-powder,  or  a  small  tea-spoon  soda,  and  two 
tea-spoons  cream  tartar;  bake  in  jelly-tins.  Make  caramel  as  fol- 
lows: Butter  size  of  an  egg,  pint  brown  sugar,  half  cup  milk  or 


84  LAYEE-GAKES. 

water,  half  cake  chocolate;  boil  twenty  minutes  (or  until  thick 
enough),  and  pour  over  cakes  while  warm,  piling  the  layers  one  upon 
the  oth^er.  For  frosting  for  top  of  cake,  take  whites  of  two  eggs, 
one  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  tea-spoou  vanilla,  three  heaping  tea- 
spoons grated  chocolate. — Mrs.  Ella  Snider,  Mvnneapoliat  3fvnn, 

Delicious  Chocolate  Cake. 
The  whites  of  eight  eggs,  two  cups  sugar,  one  ©f  butter,  three  full 
cups  flour,  one-of  sweet  milk,  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder ;  beat 
the  butter  to  a  oream;  stir  in  the  sugar,  and  beat  until  light ;  add 
the  milk,  then  the  flour  and  beaten  whites.  When  well  beaten, 
divide  into  equal  parts,  and  into  half  grate  a  cake  of  sweet  choco- 
late.  Bake  in  layers,  spread  with  custard,  and  alternate  the  whit^ 
and  dark  cakes.  For  custard  for  the  cake,  add  a  table-spoon  of 
butter  to  one  pint  of  milk,  and  let  it  come  to  a  boil ;  stir  in  two 
egps  beaten  with  one  cup  of  sugar,  add  two  teaspoons  of  corn  starch 
disfcolved  in  a  little  milk. — Mrs,  J.  M.  Biddle,  BeU^ontaine, 

Chocolate  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  one  of  milk,  five  eggs,  leaving  out 

the  whites  of  three,  four  cups  sifted  flour,  two  tea-spoons  baking* 

*powder,  or  one  small  tea-spoon  soda  and  two  of  cream  tartar  in  the 

flour ;  bake  in  three  layers  in  deep  jelly-tins.    For  icing,  take  whites 

of  three  eggs,  beaten  stifl*,  one  and  a  half  cups  powdered  sugar, 

six  tablenspoons  grated  chocolate,  two  tearspoons  vanilla. — Mrs.  J. 

H,  Shearer. 

Cup  Ca^. 

Three  cups  sugar,  one  of  bulil^  six  of  flour,  two-thirds  pint  ^ur 
cream,  seven  eggs  (leaving  out  the  whites  of  two  for  icing),  one 
even  tea-spoon  soda  in  the  creiyp,  tei^poon  soda  in  the  flour,  one  of 
cream  tartar,  and  one  of  lemon  or  vanilla.  Bake  in  pans  one  inch 
deep,  and  when  done  spread  one  wth  icing,  and  lay  the  other  on 
top  of  it,  allowing  two  layers  for  each  cake. — Mrs.  Dr.  Thompwn. 

Domin6es. 

'Make  "Mrs.  Jennison^s  spongecake,"  bake  in  long  pie^tins  (two 
such  tins  will  make  twelve  dominoes,  and  if  no  mpre  are  required, 
the  rest  of  the  batter  may  be  baked  in  a  loaf).  The  batter  in  the 
pie-tins  should  not  be  more  than  one-third  of  an  inch  deep ;  spread 
it  evenly,  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven.    Have  a  brown  paper  nearly 


A 


LAYEBrCAKES,  85 

twice  the  size  of  the  cake  on  the  table,  and  the  moment  one  of  the 
cakes  comes  from  the  oven  turn  it  upside  down  in  the  center  of  the 
paper,  spread  it  with  a  thin  layer  of  currant  jelly,  and  lay  the^  other 
cake  on  it  upside  down,  cut  it  with  a  hot,  sharp  knife  lengthwise, 
directly  through  the  center,  then  divide  it  across  in  six  equal  parts, 
posh  them  with  the  knife  about  un  inch  apart,  and  ice  them  with 
ordinary  white  icing,  putting  a  large  dessertrspooufiil  on  every  piece; 
the  heat  of  the  cake  will  soften  it,  and  with  a  little  help  the  edgt  s 
and  sides  will  be  smoothly  covered.  All  of  the  icing  that  runs  over 
on  the  paper  may  be  carefully  taken  up  and  used  again.  It  must 
then  dry,  which  it'  will  do  very  quickly.  Make  a  horn  of  stiff  white 
paper  about  five  inches  long,  one  and  a  half  inches  across  the  top, 
and  one-eighth  of  an  inch  at  the  other  end ;  put  in  it  a  dessertrspoon 
of  dark  chocolate  icing,  close  the  horn  at  the  top,  and  pressing  oiit 
the  icing  from  the  small  opening,  draw  a  line  of  it  acioes  the  center 
•of  every  cake,  and  then  make  spots  like  those  on^^^vory- dominoes; 
keep  the  horn  supplied  with  icing. — In  Ihe  Kttmbn. 

Fig  Cake.  . 

Silver  Part. — ^Two  cups  sugar,  two-thirds  cup  butter,-  not  quite 
two-thirds  cup  sweet  milk,  whites  of  eight  eggs,  three  heaping  tea- 
spoons baking-powder  thoroughly  sifted,  with  three  cups  flour ;  stir 
sugar  and  butter  to  a  cream,  add  milk  and  flour,  and  last  white 
of  eggs. 

Oold  Part. — One  cup  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  half  cup 
sweet  milk,  one  and  a  half  tea-spoons  firing-powder  siHed  in  a  little 
more  than  one  and  a  half  cups  flour,  yolks  o^  seven  eggs  thoroughly* 
beaten,  and  one  whole  egg,  one  tea-spoon  allspice,  and  cinnamon 
until  you  can  taste  it ;  bake  the  white  in  two  long  pie-tins.  Put 
half  the  gold  in  a  pie-tin,  and  lay  on  one  pound  halved  figs  (previ 
ously  sifted  over  with  flour),  so  that  they  will  just  touch  each  other; 
pat  on  the  reS  of  the  gold,  and  bake.  Put  the  cakes  together  with 
frosting  while  warm,  the  gold  between  the  white  ones,  and  cover 
with  frosting. — Misa  I^na  Lay, 

Hard-Times  Cake. 
Half  a  cup  of  butter,  two  of  sugar,  one  of  sour  cream,  three  of 
flour,  three  eggs,  half  tea-spoon  of  soda ;  bake  in  layers  and  spread 
With  jelly. — Mrs,  R.  M,  Senderaon. 


kc 


♦  ^ 


86  LAYER'CAKES. 

Hickory-nut  Custard  Cak£. 
Cream  one  pound  sugar  and  half  pound  butter ;  add  five  eggs 
beaten  separately,  one  cup  sweet  milk,  one  pound  flour,  three  tea- 
spoons baking  powder,  flavor  with  lemon,  and  bake  in  jelly-pans. 
For  custard,  place  one  pint  milk  in  a  tin  pail  and  set  in  boiling 
water ;  add  a  table-spoon  of  corn  starch  dissolved  in  a  little  milk, 
two  eggs,  one-half  cup  sugar,  two  cups  chopped  hickory-nut  meats, 
well  mixed  together  to  the  boiling  milk  ;  stir,  and  put  between  the 
layers  of  the  cake,  while  both  cake  and  custard  are  warm.     This  is 

excellent. 

Rolled  Jelly  Cake. 

Beat  twelve  eggs  and  one  pound  pulverized  sugar  together  very 
lightly,  then  stir  in  three-fourths  pound  of  flour,  making  batter  as 
light  as  for  sponge-cake,  and  thin  enough  to  spread  nicely  when 
poured;  make  up  as  quickly  as  possible.  Have  shallow  tin-pans 
prepared  (about  twelve  by  eighteen  inches  and  an  inch  deep)  by^ 
lining  with  thin  brown  paper,  using  no  grease  on  pan  or  paper ; 
pour  in  batter,  spread  out  \vith  a  knife  as  thin  as  possible  (about 
half  an  inch  thick),  and  bake  in  solid  oven.  When  done,  remove 
from  oven,  let  cool  a  few  minutes,  and  while  still  warm,  but  not 
hot,  turn  out  of  pan  upside  down.  With  a  brush  or  soft  cloth  wet 
in  cold  water,  brush  over  the  paper  and  pull  it  off*;  spread  cake 
thin  with  jelly  and  roll  it  up,  being  careful  to  place  the  outer  edge 
of  roll  against  something  so  tliat  it  will  not  unroll  until  cold. 
Sprinkle  with  powdered  sugar  and  serve.  If  baked  in  pans  such 
as  are  described  above,  the  recipe  will  make  two  rolls,  each  twelve 
inches  long,  which  should  be  cut  in  two,  making  four  rolls.  Use 
no  b&king-powder,  as  it  makes  the  cake  too  brittle.  Many  use 
none  in'  sponge-cake.  The  paper  lining  should  be  larger  than  pan, 
to  lift  out  the  cake  by  taking  hold  of  the  projecting  edges.  This 
jiever  fails. — C.  W.  Cyphers,  Minneapolis. 

Kelly  Island  Cake 

Oije  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  three  of  flour,  four  eggs,  half  cup 
milk,  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder;  bake  in  jelly-tins.  For 
fillmg,  stir  together  a  grated  lemon,  a.  large  grated  tart  apple,  an 
egg,  and  a  cup  sugar,  and  boil  four  minutes.  A  very  excellent 
cake. — Mm  Oredey  Orvbbs, 


LATER-CAKES.  87 

Lemon  Cake. 

One  and  one-iialf  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  two  and  one-half  of 
flour,  five  eggs  beaten 'separately,  four  tea-spoons  sweet  milk,  tea- 
spoon cream  tartar,  half  tea-s{)oon  soda. 

For  JeUy, — ^Take  coffee-cup  sugar,  two  table-spoons  butter,  two 
^gs,  and  the  juice  of  two  lemons:  beat  all  together  and  boil  until 
the  coDsistencv  of  jelly.  For  orange  cake  use  oranges  instead  of 
lemons. — Miss  Minnie  Brown. 

Lady's  Fingers. 
One  and  one-eighth  pound  of  flour,  one  of  powdered  sugar,  ten 
^ ;  beat  eggs  and  sugar  as  light  as  for  sponge-cake  ;  sifl  in  with 
flour  one  tea-spoon  baking-powder  and  stir  slowly.  Make  a  funnel- 
shaped  bag  of  heavy  ticking  or  strong  brown  paper ;  through  the 
hole  in  the  small  end  push  a  Amnel-shaped  tin  tube,  one-third  inch 
in  diameter  at  small  end  and  provided  with  a  flange  at  the  other  to 
prevent  it  from  slipping  quite  through ;  tie  the  small  end  of  bag 
firmly  around  the  tube,  and  you  have  a  funnel-shaped  sack  with  a 
firm  nozzle  projecting  slightly  from  the  small  end.  Into  this  bag 
pour  the  batter,  over  which  gather  up  the  bag  tightly  so  that  none 
will  run  out,  press  and  run  the  dough  out  quickly  through  the 
tabe  into  a  pan  lined  with  light  brown  paper  (not  buttered),  mak- 
ing each  about  a  finger  long,  and  about  as  thick  as  a  lead-pencil, 
being  careful  not  to  get  them  too  wide.  Sprinkle  with  granulated 
Bugar,  bake  in  a  quick  oven,  and,  when  cool,  wet  the  under  side 
of  the  paper  with  a  brush,  remove  and  stick  the  Angers  together 
hack  to  back.  The  bag,  when  made  of  ticking,  will  be  useful  in 
making  macaroons  and  other  small  cakes.  Unsurpassed. — Charles 
V.  Oj/pkers, 

Minnehaha  Cake. 
One  and  a  half  cups  granulated  sugar,  half  cup  butter  stirred  to 
^  cream,  whites  of  six  eggs,  or  three  whole  eggs,  two  tea-spoons 
<^D)  tartar  stirred  in  two  heaping  cups  sifted  flour,  one  tea-spoon 
^in  half  cup  sweet  milk ;  bake  in  three  layers.  For  filling,  take 
&  teaKinp  sugar  and  a  little  water  boiled  together  until  it  is  brittle 
^hen  dropped  in  cold  water,  remove  from  stove  and  stir  quickly 
^to  the  well'beaten  white  of  an  egg ;  add  to  this  a  cup  of  stoned 


88  LAYEBrCAKES. 

raisiDS  chopped  fine,  or  a  cup  of  chopped  hickory-nut  meats,  and 
place  between  layers  and  over  the  top.  A  universal  fevorite. — 
ifra.  E,  W.  Herridcy 

Metropolitan  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  milk,  nearly  four  cups 
flour,  whites  of  eight  eggs,  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder,  flavor 
with  lemon.  Take  a  little  more  than  three-fifths  of  this  mixture 
in  three  jelly-tins,  add  to  the  remaining  batter  one  table-spoon 
ground  allspice,  one  and  a  half  table-spoons  cinnamon,  tea-spoon 
cloves,  fourth  pound  each  of  sliced  citron  and  chopped  rai- 
sins ;  bake  in  two  jelly-tins  and  put  together  with  frosting,  alter- 
nating dark  and  light. — Mrs.  Dr.  D.  H,  Moore,   Wedeyan  College^ 

OindnmdL 

Neapolitan  Cake. 

Black  Part,  — One  cup  brown  sugar,  two  eggs,  half  cup  butter, 
half  cup  molasses,  half  cup  strong  coffee,  two  and  a  half  cups  flour, 
one  of  raisins,  one  of  currants,  a  tea-spoon  each  of  soda,  cinnamon 
and  cloves,  and  half  tea-spoon  mace. 

While   Part, — ^Two  cups  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  one  of  milk, 

two  and  a  quarter  of  flour,  one   of  com   starch,  whites  of  four 

eggs,   small    tea-spoon    eream  tartar ;    make  frosting  of  whites  of 

two  eggs  to  put  between  the  layers. — Mrs,  Calista  Hawks  Gortner, 

Qosheuy 

Orange  Cake. 

One  cup  butter,  one  of  water,  two  of  sugar,  four  of  flour,  three 

eggs,  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder;  bake  in  layers.     Take  the 

juice  of  two  large  or  three   small  oranges,  coflee-cup  pulverized 

sugar,  one  eg^\  mix  yolk  of  q^^,  sugar,  and  juice  together;  beat 

whites  to  a  stiff*  froth,  stir  in  and  spread  between  the  layers. — Mrs. 

W,  B.  Browriy  Washington  D,  C, 

Orange  Cake. 
Two  cups  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  three  and  a  half  cups  sifted 
flour^  half  cup  sweet  milk,  three  «3ggs  beaten  separately,  three  tea- 
spoons baking-powder  mixed  in  flour;  bake  in  jelly  pans.  For 
jelly  take  the  juice  and  grated  rind  of  two  oranges,  two  table-spoons 
cold  water,  two  cups  sugar ;  set  in  a  pot  of  boiling  water,  and, 
when  scalding  hot,  stir  in  the  yolks  of  two  well-beaten  eggs,  and 


^ 


LA  TEBrCAKES.  89 

jost  before  taking  from  the  fire  stir  in   the  white  of  one  egg 

sligbtij  beaten,   and  when   cold  put  between  the  layers  of  cake. 

Fro6t  the  top  with  the   other   egg. — Miss  Mardie  Dolhear,  Cape 

Girardsau,  Mo, 

Oranqe  Cake. 

Two-thirds  cup  butter,  two  small  cups  sugar,  one  cup  milk,  three 

tea-spoons  baking-powder,  the  yolks  of  five  eggs,  three  small  cups 

flour;  bake  in  jelly-tins.     Whites  of  three  eggs  beaten  to  a  stiff 

froth,  juice  and  grated  peel  of  one  orange,  sugar  to  consistency; 

put  this  between  the  layers  with  white  frosting  on  the  top. — Mrs. 

Gov.  PilUbury,  Minnesota. 

Peach  Cake. 

Bake  three  sheets  of  sponge-cake  as  for  jelly  cake ;  cut  peaches 

in  thin  slices,  prepare  cream  by  whipping,  sweetening  and  adding 

flavor  of  vanilla  if  desired,  put  layers  of  peaches  between  the  sheets 

of  cake,  pour  cream  over  each  layer  and  over  the  top.    This  may  also 

.    be  made  with  ripe  strawberries.— ifra.  Woodworth,  Springfield, 

Ribbon  Cake. 
Two  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  sweet  milk, 
tea-spoon  cream  tartar,  half  tea-spoon  soda,  four  cups  flour,  four 
eggs;  reserve  a  third  of  this  mixture,  and  bake  the  rest  in  two 
loaves  of  the  same  size.  Add  to  third  reserved,  one  cup  raisins, 
fourth  pound  citron,  a  cup  of  currants,  two  table-spoons  molasses, 
tea-spoon  each  of  all  kinds  of  spice ;  bake  in  a  tin  the  same  size  as 
other  loaves ;  put  the  three  loaves  together  with  a  little  icing  or 
currant  jelly,  placing  the  fruit  loaf  in  the  middle ;  frost  the  top 
and  sides. — Miss  Alice  Trimble,  ML  Gilead. 

Favorite  Snow-Cake. 

Beat  one  cup  butter  to  a  cream,  add  one  and  a  half  cups  flour 
and  stir  very  thoroughly  together ;  then  add  one  cup  corn  starch, 
and  one  cup  sweet  milk  in  which  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder 
Have  been  dissolved ;  last,  add  whites  of  eight  eggs  and  two  cups 
sugar  well  beaten  together ;  flavor  to  taste,  bake  in  sheets,  and  put 
t(^ther  with  icing. — Walter  Moore,  Hamilton. 

Thanksgiving  Cake. 

Make  batter  as  for  cocoa-nut  cake  (Miss  Nettie  Miller's).  Bake 
five  layers  in  jelly-tins ;  make  frosting  of  whites  of  three  eggs,  three 


90  LAYER-CAKES. 

tea-Bpoons  baking  powder,  and  three-fourths  poimd  of  pulverized 

sugar ;  with  frosting  for  first  layer  mix  rolled  hickorj-nut  meats, 

with   that  for  second   layer  mix   fine-sliced  figs,  for  third  with 

hickory-nut  meats,  fi)r  fourth  with   figs,  and  on   the  top   spread 

the  plain  frosting,  and  grate  cocoa-nut  over  thickly. — Mr»,  Jl  S. 

RdbinMn, 

Velvet  Sponge  Cake. 

Two  cups  sugar,  six  eggs  leaving  out  the  whites  of  three,  one  cup 
boiling  hot  water,  two  and  one  half  cups  flour,  one  table-spoon 
baking-powder  in  the  flour ;  beat  the  yolks  a  little,  add  the  sugar 
and  beat  fifteen  minutes ;  add  the  three  beaten  whites,  and  the  cup 
of  boiling  water  just  before  the  flour;  flavor  with  a  tea-spoon  lemon 
extract  and  bake  in  three  layers,  putting  between  them  icing  made 
by  adding  to  the  three  whites  of  eggs  beaten  to  a  stifiT  froth,  six 
dessert-spoons  of  pulverized  sugar  to  each  egg,  and  lemon  to  flavor. 
■^Mrs.  Wm.  Brown,  MaasiUon. 

Vanity  Cake. 

One  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  half  cup  sweet  milk, 
one  and  a  half  cups  flour,  half  cup  com  starch,  tearspoon  baking- 
powder,  whites  of  six  eggs ;  bake  in  two  cakes,  putting  frosting  be- 
tween and  on  top. — Olivia  8.  JSinman,  BatUe  Oreeky 

White  Mountain  Cake. 

Two  cups  pulverized  sugar,  half  cup  butter  beaten  to  a  cream ; 
add  half  cup  sweet  milk,  two  and  a  half  cups  flour,  two  and  a  half 
tea-spoons  baking-powder  in  the  flour,  whites  of  eight  eggs ;  bake  in 
jelly-tins  and  put  together  with  icing  made  by  boiling  a  half  tea- 
cup of  water  and  three  tea-cups  sugar  till  thick ;  pour  it  slowly  over 
.the  well-beaten  whites  of  thre^  eggs,  and  beat  all  together  till  cooL 
Beat  before  putting  on  each  layer. 

Sprinkle  each  layer  thickly  with  grated  cocoa-nut,  and  a  hand 
some  cocoa-nut  cake  will  result. — Mrs.  Dr.  StaU,  Union  C%,  JnA 


DIRECTIONS  FOR  FROSTING.  91 


DIRECTIONS  FOR  FROSTING. 


Beat  whites  of  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth,  add  powdered  sugar  grad-' 
oallj,  beating  well  all  i1\e  lime.  (There  are  various  opinions  about  the 
length  of  time  frosting  should  be  beaten,  some  giving  half  an  hour, 
others  a  much  shorter  time).  Or,  break  the  whites  into  a  broad  plat- 
ter, and  ai  once  begin  adding  powdered  and  sifted  sugar,  keep  add- 
ing gradually,  beating  well  all  the  while  until  the  icing  is  perfectly 
smooth  (thirty  minutes  beating  ought  to  be  sufficient) ;  lastly,  add 
flavoring  (n>8e,  pineapple  or  almond  for  white  or  delicate  cake,  and 
lemon  or  vanilla  for  dark  or  fruit  cake).  Have  the  frosting  ready 
when  the  cake  is  baked ;  beat  the  white  of  one  egg  to  a  stiff  froth, 
then  stir  in  ten  heaping  tea-spoons  pulverized  sugar  (well  heaped, 
hut  not  all  that  you  can  lift  on  the  spoon)  and  one  of  corn  starch ; 
he  sure  that  it  is  thoroughly  beaten  before  taking  the  cake  from  the 
oven.  If  possible,  have  some  one  beating  while  you  take  out  the 
cake.  Now  invert  a  common  tin  milk-pan,  placing  it  on  a  clean 
paper,  so  if  any  falls  off  it  can  be  used  again,  then  place  the  cake 
on  the  pan  and  apply  frosting  ;  it  will  run  over  the  cake,  becoming 
as  smooth  aa  glass,  and  adhere  firmly  to  it.  If  but  ono  person  is 
engaged  in  preparing  cake  and  frosting,  and  must  necessarily  stop 
beating  while  getting  the  cake  in  readiness,  it  will  be  best  to  beat 
the  frosting  a  few  minutes  again  before  placing  on  cake.  As  eggs 
vary  in  sire,  some  common  sense  must  be  used  in  the  quantity  of 
the  sugar.  Practice  only  will  teach  how  stiff  icing  ought  to  be.  In 
preparing  for  a  large  party,  when  it  is  inconvenient  to  frost  each 
cake  as  it  is  taken  from  the  oven,  and  a  number  have  become  cold, 
place  them  in  Hie  oven  U)  heat  before  frosting.  If  the  cake  is  rough 
or  hrown  when  baked,  dust  with  a  little  flour,  rub  off  all  loose  par- 
ticles with  a  cloth,  put  on  frosting,  pouring  it  around  the  center  of 
the  cake,  and  smooth  off  as  quickly  as  pos.sible  with  a  knife.  If  the 
frosting  is  lather  stiff',  dip  the  knife  in  cold  water.  If  the  flavor  is 
leraon  juice,  allow  more  sugar  for  the  additional  liquid.  It  is  nice, 
vhen  the  frosting  is  almost  oold,  to  take  a  knife  and  mark  the  cake 
^  slices.    Any  ornaments,  such  as  gum  drope,  candies,  orange  flowers 


1 


92  DmEC±IONS  FOB  FR08TINQ. 

or  ribbons  should  be  put  on  while  the  icing  is  moist.    When  diy 

ornament  with  piping,  which  is  a  stiff  icing  squeezed  through  a 

paper  funnel,  and  may  be  tinted  with  colored  sugars.     If  the  above 

directions  are  followed,  the  icing  will  not  crumble.     The  recipe  for 

"  Centennial  Drops''  (see  index)  is  excellent  for  icing.     In  frosting 

sponge-cake  it  is  an  improvement  to  grate  orange  peel  over  the  cake 

before  frosting. 

Almond  FROsriNa. 

Blanch  half  pint  sweet  almonds  by  putting  them  in  boiling 

water,   stripping  off  the  skins,  and  spreading  upon  a    dry  cloth 

until  cold;  pound  a  few  of  them  at  a  time  in  a  mortar  till  well 

pulverized;  mix  carefully  whites  of  three  eggs  and  threeK][uarter8 

pint  powdered  sugar,  add  almonds,  fiavor  with  a  tea-spoon  vanilla 

or  lemon,  and  dry  in  a  cool  oven  or  in  the  open  air  when  weather 

is  pleasant. 

Boiled  Frosting. 

Whites  of  three  eggs  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth,  one  large  cup 
granulated  sugar  moistened  with  four  table-spoons  hot  water ;  boil 
sugar  briskly  for  five  minutes  or  until  it  "jingles"  on  the  bottom  of 
the  cup  when  dropped  into  cold  water,  or  "  ropes"  or  threads  when 
dropped  from  the  end  of  the  spoon.  Then,  with  lefl  hand,  pour  the 
boiling  syrup  upon  the  beaten  eggs  in  a  small  stream,  while  beat- 
ing hard  with  right  hand.  This  is  an  excellent  frosting.  If  pre- 
ferred, add  half  pound  sweet  almonds  blanched  and  pounded  to  a 
paste,  or  a  cup  of  hickory-nut  meats,  chopped  fine,  and  it  will  be 
perfectly  delicious.  This  amount  will  frx)st  the  top  of  two  large 
cakes. — Mrs.  A.  S,  C. 

Chocolate  Frosting. 

Six  rounded  table-spoons  grated  chocolate,  one  and  a  half  cups 
powdered  sugar,  whites  of  three  eggs;  beat  the  whites  but  very 
little  (they  must  not  become  white),  add  the  chocolate,  stir  it  in; 
then  pour  in  the  sugar  gradually,  beating  to  mix  it  well. — In  the 
KUchen. 

Frosting. 

Beat  whites  of  two  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth,  add  gradually  half 
pound  best  pulverized  sugar,  beat  well  for  at  least  half  an  hour, 
flavor  with  lemon  juice  (and  some   add   tartaric   acid,   as    both 


f 


DIRECTIONS  FOR  FROSTING.  93 

whiten  the  icing).  To  color  a  delicate  pink,  use  strawberry , 
currant  or  cranberry;  or  the  grated  peeling  of  an  orange  or  lemon 
moistened  with  the  juice  and  squeezed  through  a  thin  doth,  will 
color  a  handsome  yellow.  This  amount  will  frost  one  large  cake. 
— ArTB.    rr.  rr.  W. 

Frosting  with  Gelatine. 

Dissolve  large  pinch  gelatine  in  six  table-spoons  boiling  water; 
strain  and  thicken  with  sugar  and  flavor  with  lemon.  This  is 
enough  to  frost  two  cakes. — Mrs,  W.  A,  J". 

Frosting  without  Eggs. 
To  one  heaping  tea-spoon  Poland  starch  and  just  enough  cold 
water  to  dissolve  it,  add  a  little  hot  water  and  cook  in  a  basin  set  in 
hot  water  till  very  thick  (or  cook  in  a  crock;  either  will  prevent  its 
burning  or  becoming  lumpy).  Should  the  sugar  be  lumpy  roll  it 
thoroughly,  and  stir  in  two  and  two-thirds  cups  while  the  starch  is 
hot;  flavor  to  taste,  and  spread  on  while  the  cake  is  a  little  warm. 
This  should  be  made  the  day  before  using,  as  it  takes  longer  «to 
harden  than  when  made  with  eggs,  but  it  will  never  crumble  in 
cutting.     This  is  excellent. — Mrs,  Ola  Kellogg  Wilcox. 

Minnesota  Frosting. 

Beat  whites  of  three  eggs  until  frothy,  not  white,  add  one  and  a 

third  pints   powdered   sugar  gradually    with    one  hand,    beating 

briskly  with  the  other.     Flavor  with  a  tea-spoon  of  vanilla.     It  is 

better  not  to  beat  the  whites  of  the  eggs  until  stiff  before  adding 

sugar,  as  it  makes  the  icing  very  hard  to  dry. — Mrs,  C.  J,,  Winona, 

Mmn, 

Ornamental  Frosting. 

Draw  a  small  syringe  full  of  the  icing  and  work  it  in  any  design 

you  fency ;   wheels,  Grecian  borders,  flowers,  or  borders  of  bead- 

mg  look  well. — Mrs,  M.  J.  W. 

Yellow  Frosting. 

The  yolk  of  one  egg  to  nine  heaping  tea-8poons4^1verized  sugar, 

and  flavor  with  vanilla.     Use  the   same  day  it  is  made. — Mrs. 

J.  &  W. 

Rose  Coloring. 

Mix  together  one-fourth  ounce  each  of  powdered  alum  and  cream 

tartar,  one  ounce  powdered  cochineal,  four  ounces  loaf-sugar,  and 


94  CRULLERS  AND  DOUOHNUT& 

a  salt-spoon  soda.  Boil  b&a  minutes  in  a  pint  pure  soft  water* 
when  cool  bottle  and  cork  i^r  use.  This  is  used  for  jellies,  cake» 
ice-cream,  etc. — Mrs    W.  E.  H.,  Minneapolu. 


CRULLERS  AND   DOUGHNUTS. 


To  cook  these  properly  the  fat  should  be  of  the  right  heat^ 
When  hot  enough  it  will  cease  to  bubble  and  be  perfectly  still; 
try  with  a  bit  of  the  batter,  and  if  the  heat  is  right  the  dough 
will  rise  in«a  few  seconds  to  the  top  and  occasion  a  bubbling  in  the 
fat,  the  cake  will  swell,  and  the  under  side  quickly  become  brown. 
Clarified  drippings  of  roast  meat  are  more  wholesome  to  fry  them 
in  than  lard.  A  good  suet  may  be  prepared  as  follows  for  those 
who  are  sensible  enough  not  to  like  greasy  doughnuts  or  who  He- 
braically  oppose  lard.  Use  only  beef  suet,  which  is  quite  as  cheap, 
cleanly,  and  healthy.  Buy  from  the  meat  markets,  speaking  before 
hand,  and  securing  nice,  whole,  clean  leaves,  which  cut  up  in  small 
pieces,  put  into  a  dinner-pot,  which  will  hold  well  about  ten  pounds. 
Put  in  a  pint  of  water,  and  after  the  first  hour  stir  frequently ;  it 
takes  about  three  hours  with  a  good  heat  to  render  it.  Drain 
through  a  coarse  towel,  and  if  the  suet  is  good  it  will  require  but 
little  squeezing,  and  leave  but  little  scrap  or  cracklings.  Put  to 
cool  in  pans  or  jars,  and  you  have  an  element  into  which,  when  well 
heated,  you  can  drop  the  twisted  goodies,  with  the  assurance  that 
they  will  not  only  be  "  done  brown,'*  but  that  they  will  emerge  with 
a  flavor  and  grain  that  will  commend  them  to  the  fiivor  of  an  epi- 
cure. Doughnuts  thus  cooked  are  more  digestible  and  of  better 
flavor  than  if  co^ed  in  lard,  and  the  most  fastidious  will  not  need 
to  peel  them  b^ve  eating.  Make  the  dough  as  soft  as  it  can  be 
hujidled;  if  cut  about  half  an  inch  thick,  five  to  eight  minutes  will 
be  time  enough  to  cook,  but  it  is  better  to  break  one  open  as  a  test. 
When  done,  drain  well  in  a  skimmer,  and  place  in  a  colander.  The 
use  of  eggs  prevents  the  doygh  from  absorbing  the  fat.  Doughnuts 
should  be  watched  closely  while  frying,  and  the  fire  must  be  regU' 


CRULLERS  AND  BOUOHNTJT&  95 

'%ted  very  carefully.  When  you  hav^'finished  frying,  cut  a  potato 
in  slicee  and  put  in  the  fitt  to  clarify  .k,  place  the  kettle  away  until 
the  &t  "  settles/'  strain  into  an  earthen  pot  kept  for  this  purpose, 
and  set  in  a  cool  place.  The  sediment  remaining  in  the  bottom  of 
the  kettle  may  be  used  for  soap-grease.  Fry  in  an  iron  kettle,  the 
common  skillet  being  too  shallow  for  the  purpose.  Do  not  eat 
doughnuts  between  April  and  November.  Crullers  are  better  the 
day  after  they  are  made. '  If  lard  is  not  fresh  and  sweet,  slice  a  raw 
potato,  and  fry  before  putting  in  the  cakes. 


Crullers. 

Two  co£fee-cup6  sugar,  one  of  sweet  milk,  three  eggs,  a  heaping 

table-spoon  butter,  three  tea-spoons  baking-powder  mixed  with  six 

cups  flour,  half  a  nutmeg,  and  a  level  tea-spoon  cinnamon.     Beat 

^gs,  sugar  and  butter  together,  add  milk,  spices  and  flour;  put 

another  cup  flour  on  molding-board,  turn  the  dough  out  on  it,  and 

knead  until  stifl"  enough  to  roll  out  to  a  quarter  inch  thick ;   cut 

in  squares,  make  three  or  four  long  incisions  in  each  square,  lift 

by  taking  alternate  strips   between   the  finger  and  tnumb,  drop 

into  hot  lard,  and  cook  like  doughnuts. — Mrs.  A.  F.  Zieglety  Oh 

Iwnbmy 

Fried  Cakes. 

One  coflee-cup  of  not  too  thick  sour  cream,  or   one   of   soiS?*   ^ 
milk  and  one  table-spoon  of  butter,  two  eggs,    a  little   nutmeg 
and  salt,  one  tea-cup  sugar,  one* small  tea-spoon  soda  dissolved; 
mix  soft. — Mrs,  S.  Watson, 

Corn  Meal  Doughnuts. 

A  tea-cup  and  a  half  boiling  milk  poured  over  two  tea-cups  meal ; 

when  cool  add  two  cups  flour,  one  of  butter,  one  and  one-half  of 

sugar,  three  eggs;   flavor  with  nutmeg  or  cinnunon;  let  rise  till 

very  light ;  roll  about  half  an  inch  thick,  cut  iSliamond  shape, 

and  boU  in  hot  lard. 

Cream  Doughnuts. 

Beat  one  cup  each  of  sour  cream  and  sugar  and  two  eggs  to- 
gether, add  level  tea-spoon  soda,  a  little  salt,  and  flour  enough  to 
roll.— Ifrs.  MaUie  Meade, 


96  CB  ULLEBS  AND  DO  UQHN  UTS. 

Doughnuts. 
One  egg,  a  cup  rich  milk,  a  cup  sugar,  three  pints  flour,  three 
tea-spoons  baking  powder,  (or  one  and  a  half  measures  Horsford's 
Bread  Preparation).     These  are  made  richer  by  adding  one  egg, 
and  one  tea-spoon  butter. — Mrs.  JenkSj 

North  Star  Doughnuts. 
One  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  one  of  sour  milk,  half  cup  butter, 
three  eggs,  a  level  tea-spoon  soda,  spice  to  taste,  and  flour  to  roll. — « 
Mrs.  A.  J.  Palmes, 

Raised  Doughnuts. 

Peel  and  boil  four  good  sized  potatoes ;  mash  fine,  and  pour  boil- 
ing water  over  them  until  of  the  consistency  of  gruel;  let  cool,  add 
a  yeast  cake,  and  a  little  flour;  let  rise  till  light,  then  add  one  pint 
sweet  milk,  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  one-fourth  cup  (large  meas- 
ure) lard,  a  salt-spoon  salt,  a  little  nutmeg  and  cinnamon ;  stir  in 
flour  until  stifi*,  let  rise  again,  then  add  a  half  tea-spoon  soda  dis- 
solved in  a  little  milk,  pour  out  on  molding  board,  mix  stifi"  enough 
to  cut  out,  and  roll  to  half  an  inch  thickness ;  cut  in  long  strips  two 
inches  wide  and  divide  diagonally  into  pieces  three  inches  long,  set 
where  it  is  warm,  let  rise  on  the  board  until  light,  and  then  fry. 
These  do  not  cook  through  as  easily  as  others,  and  it  is  safer  to  drop 
in  one,  and,  by  breaking  it  open,  learn  the  time  required  for  them 
to  fry.  A  very  nice  variation  of  this  recipe  may  be  made  as  follows: 
Boll  part  of  the  dough  about  half  an  inch  thick,  cut  into  small 
biscuit,  let  rise,  and  when  light,  roll  down  a  little,  lay  a  few  raisins 
rolled  in  cinnamon  in  the  center,  wet  the  edges  by  dipping  the  finger 
in  cold  water  and  passing  it  over  them ;  draw  them  together  and 
press  fimdy,  and  dirop  them  in  the  hot  fat.  A  tea-spoon  of  apple- 
butter  or  any  kind  of  jam  may  be  used  instead  of  the  raisins. 
When  made  with  the  raisins,  they  are  the  real  German  "Oily 
Koeks,"— M«.  Jl  L.  H., 

Berlin  Pancakes. 

Roll  out  dough  sligkUy  sweetened  and  shortened,  as  if  for  very 
plain  doughnuts ;  cut  in  circles  like  biscuit,  put  a  tea-spoon  currant 
jam  or  jelly  on  the  center  of  one,  lay  another  upon  it,  press  the 
edges  tightly  together  with  the  fingers,  and  fry  quickly  in  boiling 


COOKIES  AND  JUMBLES.  97 

6t    They  will  be  perfect  globes  when  done,  a  little  smaller  than 
an  orange. — Jfra.  L.  8,  TFtKiston,  Meiddberg^  Cfermany. 

Tbifles. 
A  quart  flour,  a  cup  sugar,  two  table-spoons  melted  butter,  a 
little  salt,  two  tea-spoons  baking  powder,  one  egg,  and  sweet  milk 
sufficient  to  make  rather  stiff;  roll  out  in  thin  sheets,  cut  in  pieces 
about  two  by  four  inches ;  make  as  many  cuts  across  the  short  way 
as  possible^  inserting  the  knife  near  one  edge  and  ending  the  cut 
just  before  reaching  the  other.  Pass  two  knitting-needles  under 
every  other  strip,  spread  the  needles  as  &r  apart  as  possible,  and 
with  them  hold  the  trifles  in  the  fat  until  a  light  brown.  Only  one 
can  be  fried  at  a  time. — JUiss  EUie  Dalbey,  Harrisburg. 


COOKIES  AND  JUMBLES. 


These  require  a  quick  oven.  A  nice  *' finishing  touch*'  can  he 
giyen  by  sprinkling  them  with  granulated  sugar  and  rolling  over 
lightly  with  the  rolling  pin,  then  cutting  out  and  pressing  a  whole 
raisin  in  the  center  of  each ;  or  when  done  a  very  light  brown,  brush 
oyer  while  still  hot  with  a  soft  bit  of  rag  dipped  in  a  thick  syrup 
of  sugar  and  water,  sprinkle  with  currants  and  return  to  the  oven 
a  moment. 


Ada's  Sugar  Cakes. 
Three  cups  sugar,  two  of  butter,  three  eggs  well  beaten,  one  tea- 
spoon soda,  flour  sufficient  to  roll  out. 

Cookies. 
One  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  one  of  cold  water,  half  tea-spoon 
«oda,  two  eggs  and  just  flour  enough  to  roll. — Mrs.  Mary  F.  Orr. 

Egoless  Cookies. 
Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  milk,  one  of  butter,  half  tea-spoon  nut* 
10%,  half  tea-spoon  soda,  flour  to  make  thick  enough  to  roll. 


98  COOKIES  AND  JUMBLES. 

Enoubh  Gookieb. 

One  ounce  of  ammonia  dissolved  in  a  pint  of  milk  overnight, 

four  eggs,  four  cups  of  sugar,  two  of  butter,  one  table-spoon  of  salt, 

currants  and  candied  orange-peel  to  taste ;  mix  soft     Unrivaled. — 

Mn,  HiekSy  Macon. 

OooD  Cookies. 

Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  one  of  sour  cream  or  milk,  three 
eggs,  one  tearspoon  soda ;  mix  soft,  roll  thin,  sift  granulated  sugar 
over  them,  and  gently  roll  it  in. — Mrs.  Judge  West,  BeU^ardaine. 

NXTTMEG  COOKIEB. 

Two  cups  white  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  two-thirds  cup 
sour  milk,  nutmeg  or  caraway  seed  for  flavor,  two  eggs,  half  tea- 
spoon soda,  and  six  cups  of  flour,  or  enough  to  roll.  Boll  thin,  and 
bake  in  a  quick  oven. 

Confederate  Jumbles. 

One  and  a  half  cups  white  sugar,  three-fourths  cup  butter,  three 
eggs,  three  tablespoons  sweet  milk,  half  tea-spoon  soda  and  one  of 
cream  tartar;  mix  with  sufficient  flour  to  roll;  roll  and  sprinkle 
with  sugar;  cutout  and  bake. — Mrs.  MoUie  PUcher^  JacHaon. 

Nashville  Pepper-nuts. 

One  pound  sugar,  five  eggs,  half  pound  butter,  half  tea-cup 

milk,  two    tea-spoons  baking-powder,  flour  enough  to  roll. — Mrs. 
Emma  O.  Rea. 

Lemon  Snaps. 

A  large  cup  sugar,  two-thirds  cup  butter,  half  tea-spoon  soda 
dissolved  in  two  tea-spoons  hot  water,  flour  enough  to  roll  thin; 
flavor  with  lemon. — Mrs.  E.  L.  C,  Springfield. 

Sand  Tarts. 

Two  cups  sugar,  one  of  butter,  three  of  flour,  two  eggs,  leaving 
out  the  white  of  one ;  roll  out  thin  and  cut  in  square  cakes  with  a 
knife;  spread  the  white  of  egg  on  top,  sprinkle  with  cinnamon  and 
sugar,  and  press  a  blanched  almond  or  raisin  in  the  center. — Miss 
Qara  O.  PhellU. 


QINGER'BREAD,  99 


GINGER-BEEAD. 


'  If  in  making  ginger-bread  the  dough  becomes  too  stiff  before  it  is 
rolled  out,  set  it  before  the  fire.  Snaps  will  not  be  crisp  if  made  on 
a  rainy  day.  Ginger-bread  and  cakes  require  a  moderate  oven, 
soaps  a  quick  one.  If  cookies  or  snaps  become  moist  in  keeping, 
put  them  in  the  oven  and  heat  them  for  a  few  moments.  Always 
use  New  Orleans  or  Porto  Rico  molasses,  and  never  syrups.  Soda 
is  used  to  act  on  the  '*  spirit"  of  the  molasses.  In  making  the  old* 
&sliioned,  soft,  square  cakes  of  ginger-bread,  put  a  portion  of  the 
dough  on  a  well-floured  tin  sheet,  roll  evenly  to  each  side,  trim  off 
evenlj  around  the  edges,  and  mark  off  in  squares  with  a  floured 
knife  or  wheel  cutter.  In  this  way  the  dough  may  be  softer  than 
where  it  is  necessary  to  pick  up  to  remove  from  board  after  rolling 
and  cutting.  Always  have  the  board  well  covered  with  flour  before 
roUicg  all  kinds  of  soft  ginger-breads,  as  they  are  liable  to  stick,  and 
should  always  be  mixed  as  soft  as  they  can  be  handled. 

Ginger  Cake  with  Spice. 

Three  eggs,  one  cup  butter,  two  of  Jour,  one  of  sugar,  scant  half 
cup  molasses,  with  half  a  tea-spoon  soda  stirred  in  it  until  it  foams, 
half  a  wine-glass  of  brandy,  half  a  table-spoon  of  ginger,  a  half  of 
cinnamon,  and  a  half  of  cloves  and  allspice  mixed.  Mix  ingredi- 
ents, leaving  whites  of  eggs  until  last;  next  to  last,  molasses.  Fruit 
may  be  added. 

Training  Day  Ginger-bread. 

One  gallon  molasses  or  strained  honey,  one  and  a  quarter  pounds 
butter,  quarter  pound  soda  stirred  in  a  half  tea-cup  sweet  milk,  tea- 
8p(X)n  alum  dissolved  in  just  enough  water  to  cover  it,  flour  to  make 
it  stiff  enough  to  roll  out;  put  the  molasses  in  a  very  large  dish, 
add  the  soda  and  butter  melted,  then  all  the  other  ingredients;  mix 
in  the  evening  and  set  in  a  warm  place  to  rise  over  night ;  in  the 
morning  kn^ad  it  a  long  time  like  bread,  roll  into  squares  half  an 
mch  thick,  and  bake  in  bread-pans  in  an  oven  heated  about  right 
for  bread.     To  make  it  glossy,  rub  over  the  top  just  before  putting 


100  QINQEBrBREAD. 

it  into  the  oven  the  following:  One  well-beaten  e^^  the  same  amount 
or  a  little  more  sweet  cream,  stirring  cream  and  egg  well  together. 
This  ginger-bread  will  keep  an  unlimited  time.  The  recipe  is  com- 
plete without  ginger,  but  two  table-spoons  may  be  used  if  preferred* 
— Over  fifty  years  old,  and  formerly  vxedjorr  general  muster  days. 

Excellent  Soft  Ginoer-br^l^d. 
One  and  a  half  cups  Orleans  molasses,  half  cup  brown  sugar, 
half  cup  butter,  half  cup  sweet  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  tea-spoon  all- 
spice, half  tea-spoon  ginger ;  mix  all  together  thoroughly,  add  three 
cups  sifted  flour  and  bake  in  shallow  pans. — Mrs.  S.  W 

Sfonoe  Ginger-bkead. 
One  cup  sour  milk,  one  of  Orleans  molasses,  a  half  cup  butter, 
two  eggs,  one  tearspoon  soda,  one  table-spoon  ginger,  flour  to  make 
as  thick  as  pound  cake;  put  butter,  molasses  and  ginger  together, 
make  them  quite  warm,  add  the  milk,  flour,  eggs  and  soda,  and 
bake  as  soon  as  possible. — Mrs,  M,  M,  M 

Ginger  Cookies. 
Two  cups  molasses,  one  of  lard,  one  of  sugar,  two-thirds  cup  sour 
milk,  table-spoon  ginger,  three  tea-spoons  soda  stirred  in  the  flour 
and  one  in  the  milk,  two  ^gs.  — Mm  Tina  Lay^ 

Ginger  Cookies. 
One  egg,  one  cup  sugar,  one  cup  mplasses,  one  table-spoon  soda^ 
one  of  vinegar,  one  of  ginger ;  roll  thin  and  bake  quickly. 

Ginger  Cakes. 
One  quart  Orleans  molasses,  pint  lard  or  butter,  pint  buttermilk, 
two  table-spoons  soda,  two  table-spoons  ginger,  flour  enough  to  make 
a  stifle  batter ;  pour  the  molasses  and  milk  boiling  hot  into  a  large 
tin  bread-pan  in  which  have  been  placed  the  ginger  and  soda  (the 
pan  must  be  large  enough  to  prevent  running  over)  ;  stir  in  all  the 
flour  possible,  after  which  stir  in  the  lard  or  butter ;  when  cold, 
mold  with  flour  and  cut  in  cakes.  Care  must  be  taken  to  follow 
these  directions  implicitly  or  the  cakes  will  not  be  good;  remember 
to  add  the  lard  or  bvUer  last,  and  buttermilk,  not  sour  milk,  must  be 
used;  boil  the  molasses  in  a  skillet,  and  after  pouring  it  into  the 
pan,  put  the  buttermilk  in  the  same  skillet,  boil  and  pour  it  over 


I 


QINQEBrBREAD,  101 

the  molasses,  ginger  and  soda.  This  exceUent  recipe  was  kept  as  a 
secret  for  a  long  time^by  a  professional  baker. — Mrs.  R.  M.  Hear 
denon. 

Ginger  Drop-Cakes. 

Take  three  eggs,  one  cup  lard,  one  of  baking  molasses,  one  of 
brown  sugar,  one  large  table-spoon  ginger,  one  table-spoon  soda 
dissolved  in  a  cup  of  boiliug  water,  five  cups  unsifted  flour;  drop 
table-spoons  of  this  mixture  into  a  slightly  greased  dripping-pnn 
about  three  inches  apart. — Mrs.  X.  McAUieter. 

Best  Ginger-drops. 
Half  cup  sugar,  a  cup  molasses,  half  cup  butter^  one  tea-spoon 
each  cinnamon,  ginger  and  cloves,  two  tea-spoons  soda  in  a  cup 
boiling  water,  two  and  a  half  cups  flour ;  add  two  well-beaten  eggs 
the  last  thing  before  baking.'  Baked  in  gem-tins  or  as  a  common, 
gmger-bread,  and  eaten  **'arm  with  a  sauce,  they  make  a  nicer  des- 
sert— Mrs.  C.  HawkSy 

Ginger-snaps. 
Two  cups  molasses,  one  of  lard,  one  table-spoon  soda,  one  of 
gbger,  flour  to  roll  stifi! — Miss  Mary  Gallagher, 

Ginger-snaps. 

One  pound  and  six  ounces  flour,  four  of  sugar,  eight  of  butter, 

six  of  preserved  orange  peel,  half  pint  of  molasses,  one  tea-spoon 

soda  dissolved  in  two  tablenspooiis  boiling  water,  one  tea-spoon  cloves, 

two  of  ginger.     Soften  the  butter  and  mix  it  with  the  sugar  and 

molasses,  add  the  spices,  orange  pt^^el  and  soda,  beat  well  and  stir  in 

the  flour,  flour  the  board  and  roll  the  paste  as  thin  as  possible,  cut 

in  circles  and  bake  in  a  very  quick  oven.     This  quantity  makes 

one  hundred  and  twenty-nine  snaps,  about  three  inches  across.— Jr* 

ik  KUdien. 

Hotel  Ginger-snaps. 

One  gallon  molasses,  two  pounds  brown  sugar,  one  quart  melted 

batter,  half  cup  each  ground  cloves,  mace,  cinnamon  and  ginger, 

one  cup  soda. — Mrs.  Hattie  Clemmons. 

Molasses  Cake. 
One  cap  each  of  butter,  sugar,  sour  milk  and  molasses,  five  cups 
flour,  two  eggs,  one  tablewspoon  soda,  one  of  ginger. — Mrs,  A.  J. 
Palmes. 


CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS. 


For  creams  and  custards  eggs  should  never  be  beaten  in  tin,  btu 
always  in  stone  or  eai*then  ware,  as  there  is  some  chemical  influence 
about  tin  which  prevents  their  attaining  that  creamy  lightness  so 
desirable.  Beat  quickly  and  sharply  right  through  the  eggs,  beat- 
ing whites  and  yolks  separately.  When  gelatine  is  used  for  creams, 
it  is  better  to  soak  it  for  an  hour  in  a  little  cold  water  c»r  milk,  set 
in  a  warm  place ;  (it  is  convenient  to  place  in  a  bowl  set  in  the 
top  of  the  boiling  tea-kettle  to  dissolve;)  when  dissolved,  pour  into 
the  hot  custard  just  after  removing  from  the  stove.  For  custards 
the  common  rule  is  four  eggs,  one  cup  sugar,  and  one  small  half 
tea-spoon  salt  to  each  quart  of  milk.  Bake  in  a  b&king-dish  until 
firm  in  the  center,  taking  care  that  the  heat  is  moderate  or  tlie 
custard  will  turn  in  part  to  whey.  The  delicacy  of  the  custtird 
depends  on  its  being  baked  slowly.  It  is  much  nicer  to  strain  the 
yolks,  after  they  are  beaten,  through  a  tmall  wire  strainer  kept  for 
this  purpose  by  every  good  housekeeper.  For  boiled  custards  or 
floats  the  yolks  alone  may  be  used,  or  for  economy's  sake  the  entire 
(^jrgs.  Always  place  the  milk  to  boil  in  a  custard-kettle  (made  of 
iron  with  another  iron  kettle  inside,  the  latter  lined  with  tin),  or, 
in  a  pan  or  pail  set  within  a  kettle  of  bailing  water;  when  the  milk 
reaches  the  boiling  point,  which  is  shown  by  a  slight  foam  rising 
on  top,  add  the  sugar,  which  cools  it  so  that  the  eggs  will  not  curdle 
when  added.  Or,  another  convenient  way  is  to  mix  the  beaten 
and  strained  yolks  with  the  sugar  in  a  bowl,  then  add  gradually 
several  spoons  of  the  boiling  milk,  until  the  eggs  and  sugar  are 

(102) 


CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS.  103 

heated  through,  when  they  may  be  slowly  stirred  into  the  boiling 
milk.  Let  remain  a  few  moments,  stirring  constantly  until  it 
thickens  a  little,  but  not  long  enough  to  curdle,  then  either  set  the 
pail  immediately  in  cold  water  or  turn  out  into  a  cold  dish,  as  it 
curdles  if  allowed  to  remain  in  a  hot  basin  ;  add  flavoring  extracts 
after  removing  from  the  stove.  Peach  leaves  or  vanilla  beans  give 
a  fine  flavor,  but  must  be  boiled  in  the  milk  and  then  taken  out 
before  the  other  ingredients  are  added.  Boiled  custards  are  very 
difficult  to  make,  and  must  have  the  closest  attention  until  they 
are  finished.  The  custards  may  be  prepared  as  above,  mixing  the 
milk,  eggs  and  sugar,  and  then  placing  in  pan  to  steam  instead  of 
boiling. 

In  making  ckarloUe-rus&e  it  is  not  necessary  to  add  gelatine. 
The  filling  may  be  made  of  well- whipped  cream,  flavored  and 
sweetened,  using  a  **  whip-chum  "  or  the  "  Dover  Egg-beater  "  to 
do  the  whipping.  Fill  the  mold  (which  should  be  first  wet  with 
cold  water  for  c?iarlotte-ni8se  and  blane  mange^  and  all  creams) 
and  set  on  ice  to  harden.  If  preferred,  it  may  be  made  up  in 
several  small  molds,  one  for  each  person.  In  the  use  of  spices  it 
IB  well  to  remember  that  allspice  and  cloves  are  used  with  meats, 
and  nutmegs  and  cinnamon  in  combination  with  sugar.  The  white 
part  of  lemon  rind  is  exceedingly  bitter,  and  the  outer  peel  only 
should  be  used  for  grating.  A  better  way  is  to  rub  the  rind  off 
with  hard  lumps  of  sugar.  The  sugar  thus  saturated  with  the  oil 
of  the  lemon  is  called  '^  zest,"  and  is  used,  pounded  fine,  for  creams, 

etc.  

Bohemian  Creams. 

One  quart  cream,  two  table-spoons  sugar,  one  ounce  gelatine 
soaked  in  water  until  dissolved ;  whip  half  the  cream  (rich  milk 
may  be  substituted  for  cream)  to  a  stiff  froth  ;  boil  the  other  half 
with  the  sugar  and  a  vanilla  bean  until  a  flavor  is  extracted  (or 
vanilla  extract  may  be  added  just  after  it  is  removed  from  the  fire), 
take  ofi*  the  fire,  add  the  gelatine,  and  when  cooled  a  little  stir  in 
the  weU-beaten  yolks  of  the  four  eggs.  As  soon  as  it  begins  to 
thicken,  stir  steadily  until  smooth,  when  add  the  whipped  cream, 
beating  it  in  lightly.     Mold  and  set  on  ice  until  ready  to  serve. 

To  flavor  with  strawberries,  strain  two  pounds  berries  through  a 


104  CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS. 

colander,  sweeten  to  taste,  add  to  the  dissolved  gelatine,  set  on  ioe, 
and  when  it  thickens  stir  until  smooth,  add  the  whipped  cream  ajs 
above,  and  mold. 

To  flavor  with  peach,  boil  a  dozen  and  a  half  choice  fruit,  sweeten 
and  strain  through  a  colander ;  add  the  dissolved  gelatine  and  a  tea- 
cup of  cream,  set  on  ice,  and  when  it  thickens  stir  until  smooth, 
add  the  whipped  cream,  and  mold. 

To  flavor  with  pine-apple,  cut  fine,  boil  with  half  a  pound  pul% 
verized  sugar,  strain  through  a  colander,  add  the  dissolved  gela-> 
tine,  set  on  ice,  and  when  it  thickens  stir  until  smooth,  add  the 
whipped  cream,  and  mold.  Canned  pine-apples  may  be  used  in- 
stead of  fresh.  In  all  these  never  add  whipped  cream  until  the 
mass  is  cool  and  begins  to  thicken. — Mrs.  W.  B.  Jones,  PUUburghy  Pa. 

Charlottk-Russe. 
Cut  stale  s]X)nge-cake  into  slices  about  half  an  inch  thick  and 
line  three  molds  with  them,  leaving  a  space  of  half  an  inch  be- 
tween each  slice ;  set  the  molds  where  they  will  not  be  disturbed 
until  the  filling  is  ready ;  take  a  deep  tin  pan  and  fill  about  one- 
third  full  of  either  snow  or  pounded  ice,  and  into  this  set  another 
pan  that  will  hold  at  least  four  quarts.  Into  a  deep  bowl  or  jmil 
(a  whip-churn  is  better)  put  one  and  a  half  pints  of  cream  (if  the 
cream  is  thick  tiike  one  pint  of  cream  and  a  half  pint  of  milk), 
whip  to  a  froth,  and  when  the  bowl  is  full,  skim  the  froth  into  the 
pan  which  is  standing  on  the  ice,  and  repeat  this  until  the  cream  is 
all  froth  ;  then  with  the  spoon  draw  the  froth  to  one  side,  and  you 
will  find  that  some  of  the  cream  has  gone  back  to  milk ;  turn 
this  into  the  bowl  again,  and  whip  as  before ;  when  the  cream  is 
all  whipi^ed,  stir  into  it  two-thirds  cup  powdered  sugar,  one  tea- 
spoon vanilla,  and  half  a  box  gelatine,  which  has  been  soaked  in 
cold  water  enough  to  cover  it  for  one  hour  and  then  dissolved  in 
boiling  water  enough  to  dissolve  it  (about  half  a  cup),  stir  from  the 
bottom  of  the  pan  until  it  begins  to  grow  stiff;  fill  the  molds  and 
set  them  on  the  ice  in  the  pan  for  one  hour,  or  until  ihey  are  sent 
to  the  table.  When  ready  to  dish  them,  loosen  lightly  at  the  sides 
and  turn  out  (Jn  a  flat  dish  ;  have  the  cream  ice-cold  when  you  be- 
gin to  whip  it,  and  it  is  a  good  plan  to  put  a  lump  of  ice  into  the 
cream  while  whipping  it. — M.  Parloa. 


CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS,  105 

Charlottb-Russe. 
Split  two  dozen  lady-fingers  (slices  of  sponge  or  other  cake  may 
be  used),  lay  them  in  a  mold,  put  one-third  of  a  box  of  gelatine 
into  half  pint  of  milk,  place  it  where  it  will  be  warm  enough  to 
diaaolve.  Whip  three  pints  of  cream  to  a  froth,  and  keep  it  cool, 
beat  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  and  mix  with  half  pound  powdered 
sugar,  then  beat  the  whites  very  stiff,  and  add  to  it,  strain  the  gela- 
tine up)n  these,  stirring  quickly ;  then  add  the  cream,  flavor  w^th 
vanilla  or  lemon,  pour  over  the  cake,  let  stand  upon  ice  two  hours. 
Serve  with  whipped  cream.  Some  add  a  layer  of  jelly  at  bottom 
of  mold. — Mr%,  Ida  M,  DoTuiUhon,  Springdale,  Col, 

Charlotte-Russe. 
One  ounce  gelatine  dissolved  in  two  gills  of  boiling  milk,  whites 
of  foar  eggs  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth,  one  and  a  half  cups  white  pow- 
dered sugar,  one  pint  thick  cream  whipped  to  a  froth,  and  rose-water 
or  vanilla  for  flavoring ;  line  a  large  mold  with  thick  slices  of  sponge- 
cake, mix  the  gelatine,  sugar,  cream  and  flavoring  together,  add 
lightly  the  frothed  whites  of  the  eggs,  pour  into  mold,  set  away  on 
ice  till  required  for  use.  This  is  an  easy  and  excellent  mode  of 
making  this  most  delicate  dessert. — Mrs,  F.  O.  Hush 

Hamburg  Cream. 

Stir  together  the  rind  and  jnioe  of  two  large  lemons,  and  oneenp 
sugar,  add  the  well-beaten  yolks  of  eight  eggs ;  put  all  in  a  tin  pai], 
set  in  a  pot  of  boiling  water,  stir  for  three  minutes,  take  from  the 
fire,  add  the  well-beaten  whites  of  the  eggs,  and  sefve,  when  cold, 
b  custard-glasses. — Mrs.  C.  FuUington, 

Italian  Cream. 
Soak  one-third  box  gelatine  half  an  hour  in  cold  milk,  put  a  quart 
milk  on  to  boil,  and  when  boiling  stir  in  yolks  of  eight  eggs  well 
beaten,  add  one  cup  and  a  half  of  sugar  and  the  gelatine;  when  the 
custard  begins  to  thicken,  take  it  ofl*  and  pour  into  a  deep  dish  in 
which  the  eight  whites  have  been  beaten  to  a  stifi*  froth ;  mix  well 
together  and  flavor  to  taste;  put  in  molds,  and  allow  four  hours  to 
cool.  This  cream  is  much  more  easily  made  in  winter  than  in  sum- 
mer.—Jfr«.  N.  p.  WU£s 


106  CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS, 

a 

Bock  Cream. 
Boil  one  cup  rice  in  a  custard-kettle  in  sweet  milk  until  soft,  add 
two  table-spoons  loaf-sugar,  a  salt-spoon  salt ;  pour  into  a  dish  and 
place  on  it  lumps  of  jelly ;  beat  the  whites  of  five  eggs  and  three 
table-spoons  pulverized  sugar  to  a  stiff  iroth,  flavor  to  taste,  add  one 
table-spoon  rich  cream,  and  drop  the  mixture  on  the  rice. — Miss 
lAbbie  S.  WilcoXy  Madison. 

Raspberry  Cream. 
One  quart  good  cream,  one  pint  fresh  raspberries ;  mash  and  inib 
the  fruit  through  a  fine  sieve  or  strainer,  to  extract  the  seeds,  bring 
the  cream  to  a  boil  (having  reserved  one  pint  for  froth),  and  add  it 
to  the  berries  while  it  remains  hot,  sweeten  with  powdered  sugar  to 
taste,  let  it  become  cold.  Now  raise  cream  which  has  been  reserved 
to  a  froth  with  a  beater,  take  off  the  froth  and  lay  it  on  a  sieve  to 
drain ;  fill  dish  or  glasses  with  the  cream  and  place  froth  on  top. 
Very  nice.  Any  kind  of  berries,  jam  or  jelly  is  good,  and  can  be 
used  without  straining. 

Spanish  Cream. 

One  box  Coxe's  gelatine  dissolved  in  a  pint  of  cold  milk ;  into  two 

quarts  boiling  milk  stir  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar  and  the  yolks 

of  eight  eggs ;  pour  all  upon  the  dissolved  gelatine,  stirring  welL 

When  cool  add  half  a  pint  wine,  or  flavor  with  lemon  or  vanilla, 

place  in  dishes  and  cover  with  a  meringue  made  of  the  beaten 

whites,  the  juice  of  one  lemon,  and  one  cup  sugar ;  brown  in  oven 

two  minutes  and  eat  ice-cold. — Susan  S.  Howard,  BrooMyn,  New 

York. 

Tapioca  Cream. 

Soak  over  night  two  table-spoons  tapioca  in  one-half  tearcup  milk 

(or  enough  to  cover);  bring  one  quart  milk  to  boiling  point;  beat 

well  together  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  half  tea-cup  sugar,  and  one 

tea-spoon  lemon  or  vanilla  for  flavoring,  add  the  tapioca,  and  stir 

the  whole  into  the  boiling  milk,  let  boil  once,  turn  into  the  dish, 

and  immediately  spread  on  the  whites.    Serve  when  eold, — Mrs.  R 

M.  Henderson. 

Whipped  Cream. 

Place  cream  over  ice  until  thoroughly  chilled,  and  whip  with  an 

egg-beater  or  whip-chum  until  it  froths.     While  whipping  place 


CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS.  107 

froth  on  a  sieve,  and  return  to  bowl  to  be  re-whipped  all  that  passes 
through.  When  cream  is  difficult  to  whip,  add  to  it  and  beat  with 
it  the  white  of  an  egg.  Sweetened  and  flavored  this  is  a  choice 
dessert  alone,  but  it  may  be  served  in  various  ways.  Baked  apples, 
and  fresh  or  preserved  berries  are  delicious  with  it.  Jelly-glasses, 
one-third  full  of  jelly  and  filled  up  with  cream,  make  a  very  whole- 
some and  delicious  dessert. 

Whipped  Cream. 

One  and  one-half  pints  good  rich  cream  sweetened  and  flavored 

to  taste,  three  tea-spoons  vanilla ;  whip  to  a  stiff*  froth.     Dissolve 

three-fourths  ounce  best  gelatine  in  a  small  tea-cup  hot  water,  and 

when  cool  pour  into  the  cream ;  stir  thoroughly,  pour  in  molds  and 

set  on  ice,  or  in  very  cool   place. — Mn.    Emma  Craig,    Wdsking- 

Urn,  D.  a 

Apple  Custard. 

One  pint  of  mashed  stewed  apples,  one  pint  sweet  milk,  four  eggs, 
one  cup  sugar  and  a  little  nutmeg;  bake  slowly. — Mrs.  O,  W. 
Hensd,  QuarryviUe  Pa, 

Apple  8now. 

Pare,  core  and  bring  to  boil  in  as  little  water  as  possible  six  tart 
apple  oool,  strain,  boat  well,  and  add  the  well-whipped  whiter 
of  three  Qggf^,  sweeten  to  taste,  beat  well  until  a  dish  of  snow 
is  the  result,  flavor  with  lemon  or  manilla,  or  add  the  grated 
rind  of  a  lemon ;  serve  with  sweetened  cream.  Or,  make  custard  of 
folks,  sugar,  and  a  pint  milk,  place  in  a  dish,  and  drop  the  froth 
OD  it  in  large  flakes. — Mrs.  T.  J,  BuxUm,  Minneapolis,  3finn. 

Blanc-Mange. 
Dissolve  three  heaping  table-spoons  com  starch  and  three  of  sugar 
in  one  pint  of  milk ;  add  to  this  three  eggs  well  beaten,  and  pour 
the  mixture  into  one  pint  of  boiling  milk,  stirring  constantly  until 
it  boils  again ;  just  before  taking  from  the  stove  flavor  to  suit  the 
taste  and  pour  into  cups  or  small  molds ;  when  cool  take  out  and 
place  on  a  glass  dish  with  a  mold  of  jelly  in  the  center.  Serve  a 
spoon  of  jelly  and  a  sauce  of  sweetened  cream  with  each  mold.  Or, 
put  one  quart  milk  (reserving  three  table-spoons  with  which  mix 
three  heaping  table-spoons  corn-starch)  with  a  pinch  of  salt  and  five 


108  CREAMS  AND  CUSTABDS. 

table-spoons  sugar.  When  milk  is  hot,  pour  in  the  mixed  corn- 
starch, and  stir  until  it  is  a  thick  batter ;  pour  this  on  the  well- 
beaten  whites  of  four  eggs,  add  two  tea-spoons  vanilla,  pour  into 
molds  wet  in  cold  water,  and  set  on  ice ;  when  cold,  turn  from  the 
mold,  and  serve  in  a  custard  made  as  follows :  Put  one  pint  milk  in 
a  basin  over  boiling  water,  mix  in  a  tea-cup  two  even  tea-spoons 
corn-starch  in  two  of  cold  milk,  beat  in  the  four  yolks  of  eggs  and 
two  and  a  half  table-spoons  of  sugar.  When  the  milk  is  hot  pour 
part  of  it  into  the  cup  and  stir  well,  pour  it  back  into  the  basin  and 
stir  until  as  thick  as  desired ;  put  on  ice  until  chilled  thoroughly. 
Blanc-mange  may  be  colored  green  with  spinage  juice,  or  pink  with 
the  juice  of  strawberry,  currant  or  cranberry,  or  a  handsome  yellow 
with  the  grated  peel  of  an  orange  or  lemon,  moistened  with  the 
juice  and  strained  through  a  cloth.  Very  pretty  half-pint  molds 
may  be  made  as  follows :  Tilt  the  mold  in  a  pan  of  snow  or  pounded 
ice,  color  one-fourth  the  blanc-mange  pink,  another  fourth  green ; 
wet  the  molds  and  pour  into  them  a  little  of  the  colored  blanc- 
mange, putting  only  one  color  into  each  mold  and  filling  it  so  that 
when  tilted  the  blanc-mange  reaches  nearly  to  the  top  and  covers 
about  two-thirds  of  the  bottom ;  when  cold  set  mold  level,  and  fill 
with  the  white  blanc-mange,  which  has,  meantime,  been  kept  in  so 
warm  a  place  as  not  to  harden.  K  .the  molds  are  made  to  imitate 
roses  or  fruit,  the  fruit  may  be  green,  and  roses  pink ;  if  com,  yel- 
low ;  and  various  ways  of  combining  colors  and  forms  will  suggest 
themselves  to  the  ingenious  housewife. 

Chocolate  Blai^c-Manoe. 

Half  box  gelatine,  soaked  till  dissolved  in  as  much  cold  water  as 
will  cover  it,  four  ounces  sweet  chocolate  grated,  one  quart  sweet 
milk,  one  cup  sugar ;  boil  milk,  sugar  and  chocolate  five  minutes, 
add  gelatine,  and  boil  five  minutes  more,  stirring  constantly ;  flavor 
with  vanilla,  put  in  molds  to  cool  and  eat  with  cream.  If  wanted 
for  tea,  make  in  the  morning ;  if  for  dinner,  the  night  before.  For 
a  plain  blanc-mange  omit  the  chocolate. — Mrs.  Dr.  HougtoUy  Urbann. 

Raspberry  Blano-Mange. 

Stew  nice  fiesh  raspberries,  strain  off  the  juice  and  sweeten  it  to 
taste,  place  over  the  fire,  and  when  it  boils  stir  in  com  starch  wet 


CREahIS  and  CUSTARDii.  109 

in  cold  water,  allowing  two  table-spoons  of  com  starch  for  each  pint 

of  juice ;  continue  stirring  until  sufficiently  cooked,  pour  into  molds 

wet  in  cold  water  and  set  away  to  cool ;  eat  with  cream  and  sugar. 

Other  fruit  can  be  used  instead  of  raspberries. — Mrs.  J.   P,  Rea, 

MinneapoliB,  Minn. 

Boiled  Custard. 

One  quart  milk,  two  table-spoons  corn  starch,  two  eggs,  one-fourth 
tea-spoon  salt,  butter  size  of  a  hickory-nut ;  wet  the  starch  in  a  litt!") 
of  the  milk,  heat  the  remainder  to  near  boiling,  in  a  tin  pail  set  in 
a  pot  of  boiling  water.  The  proper  heat  will  be  indicated  by  a  froth 
or  film  rising  to  the  top ;  add  the  starch  till  it  thickens,  stirring  con- 
stantly, then  add  the  eggs  well-beaten  with  four  table-spoons  of 
sugar,  let  it  cook,  stirring  briskly,  take  off  and  beat  well;  flavor; 
served  with  grated  cocoa-nut  it  is  elegant. 

Chocolate  Custakd. 
Break  two  sections  chocolate  in  a  half-dozen  pieces,  put  it  in  a 
pan  over  boiling  water,  with  milk  enough  t<>  barely  cover  it ;  mash 
and  stir  perfectly  smooth,  then  add  the  rest  of  the  milk  (one  quart 
in  all,  reserving  three  table-spoons  in  which  to  dissolve  the  corn 
starch,)  one  cup  sugar,  yolks  of  six  eggs,  a  heaping  table-spoon  corn 
starch ;  beat  the  yolks,  add  the  sugar  and  corn  starch  (dissolved  in 
milk),  stir  all  slowly  in  the  boiling  milk,  in  which  the  chocolate  is 
dissolved,  add  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  let  cook  a  few  minutes,  stirring 
constantly ;  eat  cold  with  white  cake. — Miss  Bumie  Johnson. 

Floating  Island. 
Make  a  custard  of  the  yolks  of  six  eggs,  one  quart  milk,  a  small 
pinch  of  salt,  sugar  to  taste ;  beat  and  strain  yolks  before  adding  to 
the  milk ;  place  custard  in  a  large  tin  pan,  and  set  in  stove,  stirring 
emwtanily  until  it  boils,  then  remove,  flavor  with  lemon  or  rose,  and 
pour  into  a  dish  (a  shallow,  wide  one  is  best),  spread  smoothly  over 
the  boiling  hot  custard  the  well-beaten  whites,  grating  some  loaf- 
sugar  (some  add  grated  cocoa-nut)  on  the  top.  Set  the  dish  in  a 
pan  of  ice- water  and  serve  cold.  Some  prepare  the  whites  by  placing 
a  table-epoon  at  a  time  on  boiling  water,  liiling  them  out  carefully, 
when  cooked,  with  a  skimmer  and  laying  them  gently  on  the  float 
This  is  the  "  old  reliable  recipe."— Jlfr».  W.  W.  W. 


110  CREAMS  AND  CUSTARL& 

Good  Baked  Custard. 
Eight  well-beaten  eggs,  leaving  two  whites  for  the  top,  three  pints 
milk ;  sweeten  and  flavor  to  taste ;  bake  for  two  hours  in  a  slow  oven. 
Beat  the  reserved  whites  to  stiff  froth  with  two  table-spoons  sugar> 
spread  over  the  top  and  return  to  oven  to  brown. 

Gelatine  Custard. 
To  one-third  package  Coxc'-j  gelatine,  add  a  little  less  than  one 
pint  boiling  water ;  stir  until  gelatine  is  dissolved,  add  the  juice  of 
one  lemon,  and  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar;  strain  through  a  jelly- 
strainer  into  dish  for  th(»  table,  and  set  in  a  cool  place.  For  custard, 
to  one  and  a  half  pints  milk  add  the  yolks  of  four  eggs  (reserving 
the  whites),  and  four  table-spoons  sugar;  cook  and  flavor  when  cool. 
When  required  for  the  table,  cut  gelatine  into  small  squares,  and 
over  them  pour  the  custard.  Add  four  table-spoons  powdered  sugar 
to  the  whites  of  four  eggs  well  beaten,  and  when  ready  for  the 
table  place  over  the  custard  with  a  spoon. — Afr«.  W.  A,  James, 

Lemon  Custard. 
Beat  the  yolks  of  eight  eggs  till  they  are  white,  add  pint  boiling 
water,  the  rinds  of  two  lemons  grated,  and  the  juice  sweetened  to 
taste ;  stir  this  on  the  Are  till  it  thickens,  then  add  a  large  glass  of 
rich  wine,  and  one-half  glass  brandy ;  give  the  whole  a  good  boil, 
and  put  in  glasses.  To  be  eaten  cold.  Or,  put  the  thin  yellow 
rind  of  two  lemons,  with  the  juice  of  three,  and  sugar  to  taste,  into 
one  pint  of  warm  water.  As  lemons  vary  in  size  and  juiciness,  the 
exact  quantity  of  sugar  can  not  be  given.  Ordinary  lemons  re- 
quires three  gills.  It  will  be  safe  to  begin  with  that  quantity,  more 
may  be  added  if  required.  Beat  the  whites  to  a  stiff  froth,  then 
the  yolks;  then  beat  both  together,  pour  in  gradually  while  beat- 
ing the  other  ingredients;  put  all  in  a  pail,  set  in  a  pot  of  boiling 
water,  and  stir  until  thick  as  boiled  custard ;  strain  it  in  a  deep 
dish ;  when  cool  place  on  ice.     Serve  in  glasses. — Mr%.  Belle  J2. 

Liggetty  DetraUy  MUh. 

Snow  Custard. 

Half  a  package  of  Coxe's  gelatine,  three  eggs,  two  cups  of  sugar, 

juice  of  one  lemon ;  soak  the  gelatine  one  hour  in  a  tea-cup  of  cold 

water,  add  one  pint  boiling  water,  stir  until  thoroughly  dissolved. 


€BEA3£S  AND  CVSTARDS.  Ill 

add  two-thirds  of  the  sugar  and  the  lemon  juice ;  beat  the  whites  of 
the  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth,  and  when  the  gelatine  ia  quite  cold,  whip 
it  into  the  whites,  a  spoonful  at  a  time,  from  half  an  .hour  to  an 
hour.  Whip  steadily  and  evenly,  and  when  all  is  stiff,  pour  in  a 
mold,  or  in  a  dozen  egg-glasses  previously  wet  with  cold  water,  and 
set  in  a  cold  place.  In  four  or  five  hours  turn  into  a  glass  dish. 
Make  a  custard  of  one  and  one-half  pints  milk,  yolks  of  eggs,  and 
remainder  of  the  sugar,  ilavor  with  vanilla,  and  when  the  meringue 
or  snow-balls  are  turned  out  of  the  mold,  pour  this  around  the 
base. — Mn  Chv.  Thayer,  Wyoming  TerriJUyry. 

Moonshine. 
This  dessert  combines  a  pretty  appearance  with  palatable  flavor, 
and  is  a  convenient  substitute  for  ice-cream.  Beat  the  whites  of  six 
eggs  in  a  broad  plate  to  a  very  stiff  froth,  then  add  gradually  six 
table-spoons  powdered  sugar  (to  make  it  thicker  use  more  sugar  up 
to  a  pint),  beating  for  not  less  than  thirty  minutes,  and  then  beat 
in  about  one  heaping  tablespoon  of  preserved  peaches  cut  in  tiny 
bits  (or  some  use  one  cup  jelly),  and  set  on  ice  until  thoroughly 
chilled.  In  serving,  pour  in  each  saucer  some  rich  cream  sweetened 
and  flavored  with  vanilla,  and  on  the  cream  place  a  liberal  portion 
of  the  moonshine.  This  quantity  is  enough  for  seven  or  eight  per- 
son^.— Mn,  H.  C  Meredith, 

Orange  Float. 

One  quart  water,  the  juice  and  pulp  of  two  lemons,  one  cofiee- 

cap  sugar;  when  boiling,  add  four  table-spoons  com  starch,  let  boil 

fifteen  minutes,  stirring  all  the  time ;  when  cold  pour  it  over  four 

or  five  peeled  and  sliced  oranges,  and  over  the  top  spread  the  beaten 

whites  of  three  eggs ;  sweeten  and  add  a  few  drops  of  vanilla. — 

Mn,  Wm,  Skinner. 

Hidden  Mountain. 

Six  eggs,  a  few  slices  citron,  sugar  to  taste,  three-quarters  of  a 

pint  of  cream,  a  layer  of  any  kind  of  jam ;  beat  the  whites  and 

yolks  of  the  eggs  separately,  then  mix  and  beat  again,  adding  the 

dtron,  the  cream  and  sugar;  when  well  beaten  put  in  a  buttered 

pan  and  fry,  cover  with  the  jam  and  garnish  with  slices  of  citron ; 

to  be  eaten  cold. — Mr9,  J,  C,  OotUd, 


112  CREAMS  AND  CUSTARDS, 

Orange  Souffle. 
Peel  and  sliee  six  oranges,  put  in  a  glass  dish  a  layer  of  oranges, 
then  one  of  sugar,  and  so  on  until  all  the  orange  is  used,  and  let  stand 
two  hours ;  make  a  soft  boiled  custard  of  yolks  of  three  eggs,  pint 
of  milk,  sugar  to  taste,  with  grating  of  orange  peel  for  flavor,  and 
pour  over  the  oranges  when  cool  enough  not  to  break  dish ;  beat 
whites  of  the  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth,  stir  in  sugar,  and  put  over  the 
pudding.     Praised  by  all. — Mrs.  Mary  A.  lAvermjore^  Melrose,  Mas8, 

Prune  Whip. 

Sweeten  to  taste  and  stew  three-quarters  of  a  pound  of  prunes; 
when  perfectly  cdd,  add  the  whites  of  four  eggs  beaten  stiff;  stir  all 
of  this  together  till  light,  put  in  a  dish,  and  bake  twenty  minutes ; 
when  cold,  serve  in  a  larger  dish,  and  cover  well  with  good  cream. 

Virginia  Caramel  Custard. 

To  make  a  baked  custard,  separate  the  whites  and  yolks  of  five 
eggs,  beat  the  yolks  well  with  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  sugar,  add 
the  well-beaten  whites  and  mix  well  with  a  quart  of  milk.  Flavor 
and  then  pour  into  a  buttered  mold.  Set  immediately  into  a  pan 
of  boiling  hot  water,  in  a  moderately  hot  oven.  About  half  an 
hour  will  be  required  to  set  it  firmly.  When  nicely  browned  and 
pufied  up,  touch  the  middle  with  a  knife  blade ;  if  it  cuts  as  smooth 
as  around  the  sides  it  is  done ;  take  care  not  to  overdo.  Let  cus- 
tard  stand  imtil  perfectly  cold,  turn  out  gently  on  a  plate  and  dust 
thickly  with  sugar,  place  in  upper  part  of  a  hot  oven ;  the  sugar 
Boon  melts  and  browns.  Another  way  is  to  butter  the  mold  care^ 
fully,  sprinkle  sugar  over  bottom  and  set  on  stove  to  brown  (great 
care  is  necessary  to  prevent  sticking),  pour  in  custard  and  bake ; 
when  turned  out  the  caramel  will  be  on  top. 

A  thinner  custard  may  be  made  with  a  less  number  of  eggs,  but 
it  can  not  be  carameled  unless  baked  in  individual  cups.  Less 
eggs  may  also  be  used  by  substituting  a  portion  of  corn  starch, 
boiled  rice,  gelatine  or  something  else  to  give  firmness,  but  the 
quality  of  custard  will  be  impaired.  And  if  more  than  one  or  two 
additional  eggs  are  used  the  custard  is  spoiled.  Baking  too  rap- 
idly,  or  too  long,  injures  custard,  hence  do  not  scald  milk  and  eggs 
before  setting  in  oven,  as  many  recommend.  By  baking  in  boiling 
water  the  temperature  is  regular,  and  scorching  prevented. 


CONFECTIONERY. 


There  are  very  few  modem  kitchens  in  which  some  cooking  uten- 
sil may  not  be  found  convenient  for  making  candy.  A  sauce-pan 
of  tinned  iron,  with  a  handle  and  flaring  sides,  and  a  lip  to  facilitate 
the  pouring  of  the  contents,  will  be  found  best  adapted  to  such  use ; 
or  a  small  iron  or  brass  kettle  will  do  if  kept  quite  dean. 

Dissolve  four  pounds  white  sugar  in  one  quart  water  ;  place  this 
in  a  porcelain  kettle  over  a  slow  fire  for  half  an  hour,  pour  into  it 
a  small  quantity  of  gelatine  and  gum-arabic  dissolved  together ;  all 
the  impurities  which  rise  to  the  surface  skim  off  at  once.  Instead 
of  gelatine  and  gum-arabic,  the  white  of  an  egg  may  be  used  as  a 
substitute  with  good  results.  To  make  the  clarifying  process  still 
more  perfect,  strain  through  a  flannel  bag.  To  make  rock  candy, 
boil  this  syrup  a  few  moments,  allow  to  cool,  and  crystallization 
takes  place  on  the  sides  of  the  vessel.  To  make  other  candies, 
bring  the  syrup  very  carefully  to  such  a  degree  of  heat  that  the 
"threads,"  which  drop  from  the  spoon  when  raised  into  the  colder 
air,  will  snap  like  glass.  When  this  stage  is  reached,  add  a  tea- 
spoon of  vinegar  or  cream  tartar  to  prevent  "graining,"  and  pour 
into  pans  as  directed  in  the  recipes  which  follow.  To  make  round 
stick  candies,  pull,  and  roll  into  shape  with  well-floured  hands  as 
soon  as  cool  enough  to  be  handled.  In  pulling  candy,  some  grease 
the  hands,  others  flour  them  slightly.  Colored  candies  are  often 
injurious,  and  sometimes  even  poisonous,  and  should  be  avoided. 

Id  baking  macaroons  and  kisses,  use  washed  butter  for  greasing 
the  tins,  as  lard  or  salt  butter  gives  an  unpleasant  taste.     Bake  in 

3  113) 


\ 


114  CONFECTIONERY. 

a  moderate  oven,  or  let  dry  in  a  cool  oven  for  two  hours.  After 
buttering,  sprinkling  lightly  with  flour  and  then  shaking  it  off,  is 
an  exoellent  way  to  prepare  the  pan.  When  powdered  almonds 
are  to  be  used,  they  should  be  thoroughly  dried  in  an  open  oven, 
after  blanching,  and  they  will  pulverize  more  easily.  In  niAking 
macaroons  or  drops,  or  pulling  butter-scotch  or  taffy,  grease  hands 
lightly  with  butter  to  prevent  sticking.  Flouring  the  hands  is  apt 
to  give  an  unpleasant  taste  to  candy. 


Almond  Macaroons. 
Pour  boiling  water  on  half  a  pound  almonds,  take  skins  off  and 
throw  into  cold  water  for  a  few  moments,  then  take  out  and  pound 
(adding  a  table-spoon  essence  lemon)  to  a  smooth  paste,  add  one 
pound  of  pulverized  sugar  and  whites  of  three  eggs,  and  work  the 
paste  well  together  with  back  of  spoon ;  dip  the  hands  in  water  and 
roll  mixture  into  balls  the  size  of  a  nutmeg,  and  lay  on  buttered 
paper  an  inch  apart ;  when  done,  dip  the  hands  in  water  and  pass 
gently  over  the  macaroons,  making  the  sur&ce  smooth  and  shining; 
set  in  a  cool  oven  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  If  this  recipe  is 
strictly  followed,  the  macaroons  will  be  found  equal  to  any  made 
by  professional  confectioners. — Mrs.  L.  8.  W. 

BUTTER-SCOTOH. 

Three  pounds  ''cofiee  A"  sugar,  fourth  pound  butter,  half  tear 
spoon  cream  tartar,  eight  drops  extract  of  lemon ;  add  as  much 
cold  water  as  will  dissolve  the  sugar ;  boil  without  stirring  till  it 
will  easily  break  when  dropped  in  cold  water,  and  when  done,  add 
the  lemon;  have  a  dripping-pan  well  buttered  and  pour  in  one- 
fourth  inch  thick,  and  when  partly  cold,  mark  off  in  squares.  If 
pulled,  when  partly  cold,  till  very  white,  it  will  be  like  ice-cream 
candy. — Mrs.  J.  8.  R. 

Baltimore  Kisses. 

Beat  the  whites  of  four  small  eggs  to  a  high,  firm  froth,  stir  into 
it  half  a  pound  pulverized  sugar,  flavor  with  essence  lemon  or  rose, 
continue  to  beat  until  very  light ;  then  drop  half  the  size  of  an  egg» 
and  a  little  more  thdn  an  inch  apart,  on  well-buttered  letter-paper; 
lay  the  paper  on  a  half-inch  board  and  place  in  a  moderate  oven; 
watch,  and  as  soon  as  they  begin  to  look  yellowish  take  them  out; 


\ 


CONFECTIONARY.  116 

or,  beat  to  a  stiff  froth  the  whites  of  two  eggs,  stirring  into  them 
Tery  gradually  two  tea-cups  powdered  sugar  and  two  table-spoons 
com  starch;  bake  on  buttered  tins  fifteen  minutes  in  a  warm  oven, 
or  until  slightly  brown.  Chocolate  puffs  are  made  by  adding  two 
ounces  grated  chocolate  mixed  with  the  corn  starch. — Mrs.  W.  W.  W. 

Candy  of  any  Flavor. 
Three  and  a  half  pounds  refined  sugar,  one  and  a  half  pints 
water,  one  tea-spoon  cream  tartar ;  mix  in  a  vessel  large  enough  to 
hold  the  candy  when  expanded  by  the  heat ;  boil  over  a  brisk  fire, 
taking  care  that  it  does  not  bum.  The  heat  should  be  applied  at 
bottom  and  not  at  the  sides.  After  boiling  fifteen  minutes,  remove 
a  small  portion  of  the  melted  sugar  with  a  spoon,  and  cool  by 
placing  in  a  saucer  set  in  cold  water.  When  cool  enough,  take  a 
portion  between  thumb  and  finger,  and  if  it  forms  a  "string"  or 
"thread"  as  they  are  separated,  the  process  is  nearly  done,  and 
great  care  must  be  used  to  control  the  heat  scf  that  the  boiling  may 
be  kept  up  without  burning.  Teat  frequently  by  dropping  a  bit  into 
cold  water  placed  near;  if  it  becomes  hard  and  brittle,  snapping 
apart  when  bent,  it  is  done  and  must  be  removed  at  once,  and  the 
flavoring  stirred  in.  Then  pour  into  shallow  earthen  dishes,  thor- 
oughly but  lightly  greased,  and  cooled  until  it  can  be  handled ; 
pull,  roll  into  sticks  or  make  into  any  desired  shape. 

Centennial  Drops. 
White  of  one  egg  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth,  quarter  pound  pulver- 
iaed  sugar,  half  tea-spoon  baking-powder ;  flavor  with  lemon ;  butter 
tins  and  drop  with  tea-spoon  about  three  inches  apart ;  bake  in  a 
slow  oven  and  serve  with  ice-cream.  This  is  also  a  very  nice  recipe 
for  icing. — Mins  Alice  Trimble,  Mt.  Gilead 

Chocolate  Caramels. 
One  cup  of  chocolate  shaved  fine,  one  cup  molasses,  half  cup 
milk,  one  cup  sugar;  when  nearly  done  add  a  piece  of  butter  size 
of  a  wahiut  Stir  until  perfectly  dissolved,  but  not  after  it  begins 
to  boil,  as  that  will  make  it  grain.  It  is  done  when  it  hardens  and 
becomes  brittle  wlien  dropped  in  cold  water,  but  do  not  make  too 
bard.  Grease  plates  with  butter,  pour  it  on  about  half  an  inch 
tbick,  when  nearly  cool  cut  with  a  greased  knife  into  small  squares. 


116  CONFECTIONERY, 

Chocolate  Caramels. 

One  and  a  half  cups  grated  chocolate,  four  of  brown  sugar,  one 
and  a  half  of  cold  water,  piece  of  butter  size  of  an  e^^,  table-spoon 
of  very  sharp  vinegar ;  flavor  with  two  table-spoons  vanilla  just 
before  removing  from  fire.  Do  not  stir,  but  shake  the  vessel  gently 
while  cooking.  Boil  on  the  top  of  stove  over  a  brisk  fire  until  it 
becomes  brittle  when  tried  in  water ;  pour  into  a  well  buttered  and 
floured  dripping-pan,  and  check  off"  in  squares  while  soft. — ^^s» 
Emma  Collins, 

Chocolate  Drops. 

Two  and  a  half  cups  pulverized  or  granulated  sugar  (or  maple 
sugar  may  be  used),  one-half  cup  cold  water;  boil  four  minutes, 
place  the  sauce-pan  in  cold  water,  and  beat  till  cold  enough  to  make 
into  little  balls;  take  half  a  cake  of  Baker's  chocolate,  shave  ofi* 
fine  and  set  it  in  a  bowl  set  in  top  of  boiling  tea-kettle  to  melt,  and 
when  balls  are  cool  enough,  roll  in  the  chocolate  with  a  fork.  This 
makes  eighty.  Or  while  making  into  balls,  mold  an  almond-meat 
into  the  center  of  each  ball,  roll  in  coarse  sugar,  and  you  have  deli- 
cious **  cream  almonds."  Or,  mold  the  unbroken  halves  of  walnut- 
meats  into  the  soft  sugar,  and  when  cold,  roll  in  the  chocolate. 
When  finished,  take  out  and  lay  on  buttered  paper  until  cold. — 

Mm,  0.  M,  ScoU.  • 

Cocoa-nut  Caramels. 

One  pint  milk,  butter  size  of  an  egg,  one  cocoa-nut  grated  fine 
(or  dessicated  cocoa-nut  may  be  used),  three  pounds  white  sugar, 
two  tea-spoons  lemon,  boil  slowly  until  stiff*  (some  then  beat  to  a 
cream),  pour  into  shallow  pans,  and  when  partly  cold  cut  in  squares. 
Miss  Nettie  Brewster  y  Madison. 

Cocoa-nut  Drops. 

One  pound  cocoa-nut,  half  pound  powdered  sugar,  and  the  white 
of  an  egg;  work  all  together  and  roll  into  little  balls  in  the  hand; 
bake  on  buttered  tins. — C  W.  Cyphers, 

Everton  Ice-cream  Candy. 

Squeeze  the  juice  of  one  large  lemon  into  a  cup.     Boil  one  and 

one-half  pounds  moist  white  sugar,  two  ounces  butter,  one  yid  a 

half  tea-cups  water,  together  with  half  the  rind  of  the  lemoi][,  and 

when  done  (which  may  be  known  by  its  becoming  quite  crisp  when 


CONFECTIONERY.  117 

dropped  into  cold  water)  set  aside  till  the  boiling  has  ceased,  and 
then  stir  in  the  juice  of  the  lemon,  butter  a  dish  and  pour  in  about 
an  inch  thick.  When  cool  take  out  peel  (which  may  be  dried), 
pull  until  white,  draw  out  into  sticks  and  check  about  four  inches 
long  with  a  knife.  If  you  have  no  lemons,  take  two  table-spoons 
vinegar  and  two  tea-spoons  lemon  extract.  The  fire  must  be  quick 
and  the  candy  stirred  all  the  time. — J/rs.  J.  S.  R, 

Hickory- NUT  Macaroons. 
Take  meats  of  hickory-nuts,  pound  fine  and  add  mixed  ground 
fipice  and  nutmeg ;  make  frosting  as  for  cakes,  stir  meats  and  spices 
in,  puttiug  in  enough  to  make  it  convenient  to  handle ;  flour  the 
hands  and  make  the  mixture  into  balls  the  size  of  nutmegs,  lay  them 
on  buttered  tins,  giving  room  to  spread,  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven. 
These  are  delicious. — Mtb.   WaUer  ^litehdl, 

Hickory-nut  Cakes. 
•  One  egg,  half  cup  flour,  a  cup  sugar,  a  cup  nuts  sliced  fine ;  drop 
on  buttered  tins  one  tea-spoonful  in  a  place,  two  inches  apart.     Or, 
loU  and  bake  like  sand  tarts. — Mrs.  Lamb,  BeUefentaine, 

Horehound  Candy. 
Boil  two  ounces  of  dried  horehound  in  a  pint  and  a  half  water  for 
about  half  an  hour ;  strain  and  add  three  and  a  half  pounds  bix^wn 
sugar.  Boil  over  a  hot  fire  until  it  is  sufficiently  hard,  pour  out  in 
flat,  well-greased  tin  trays,  and  mark  into  sticks  or  small  squares 
with  a  knife,  as  soon  as  it  is  cool  enough  to  retain  its  shape. 

Lemon  Candy. 
Take  a  pound  loafsugar  and  a  large  cup  water,  and  after  cooking 
over  a  slow  fire  half  an  hour,  clear  with  a  little  hot  vinegar,  take 
off  the  scum  as  it  rises,  testing  by  raising  with  a  spoon,  and  when 
the  ''  threads"  will  snap  like  glass  pour  into  a  tin  pan,  and  when 
nearly  cold  mark  in  narrow  strips  with  a  knife.  Before  pouring  into 
the  pans,  chopped  cocoa-nut,  almonds,  hickory-nuts,  or  Brazil-nuts 
cut  in  slices,  may  be  stirred  into  it. — Mrs,  F.  K,  W. 

Meringues. 
Qge  pound  granulated  sugar,  whites  of  nine  eggs.     Whip  eggs 
until  dish  can  be  inverted  without  their  fsilling  ofi*,  and  then  simply 
add  the  sugar,  incorporating  it  thoroughly,  but  stirring  as  little  as 


118  CONFECTIONER  Y. 

possible.  Prepare  boards  three-fourths  of  an  inch  tliick,  to  fit  oven, 
and  cover  them  with  strips  of  heavy  brown  paper  about  two  and 
a  half  inches  wide;  on  these  drop  the  mixture  from  the  end  of  a 
dessert-spoon  (or  use  the  meringue-bag  described  in  recipe  for  lady's 
fingers),  giving  the  meringue  the  form  of  an  eggy  and  dropping  them 
about  two  inches  apaH  on  the  p:iper,  and  bake  till  a  light  brown. 
Take  up  each  strip  of  paper  by  the  two  ends,  turn  it  gently  on  the 
table,  and  with  a  small  spoon  take  out  the  soil  part  of  each  me- 
•ringue,  strew  over  them  some  sifted  sugar,  and  return  to  oven  bot- 
tom side  up  to  brown.  These  shells  may  be  kept  for  weeks.  When 
wanted  for  table,  fill  with  whipped  cream,  place  two  of  them  together 
80  as  to  inclose  the  cream,  and  serve.  To  vary  their  appearance, 
finely-chopped  almonds  or  currants  may  be  strewn  over  them  before 
the  sugar  is  sprinkled  over,  and  they  may  be  garnished  with  any 
bright-colored  preserve.  Great  expedition  is  necessary  in  making 
them,  as,  if  the  meringues  are  not  put  into  the  oven  as  soon  as  the 
sugar  and  eggs  are  mixed,  the  former  melts,  and  the  mixture  runs 
on  the  paper  instead  of  keeping  egg-shape.  The  sweeter  the  me- 
ringues are  made  the  crisper  will  they  be ;  but  if  there  is  not  sufiS- 
cient  sugar  added  they  will  be  tough.— 3/wd  Sarah  OiUy  Columbus^ 

Molasses  Candy. 

Take  equal  quantities  brown  sugar  and  Orleans  molasses  (or  all 
molasses  may  be  used),  and  one  table-spoon  sharp  vinegar,  and  when 
it  begins  to  boil  skim  well  and  strain,  return  to  the  kettle  and  con- 
tinue boiling  until  it  becomes  brittle  if  dipped  in  cold  water,  then 
pour  on  a  greased  platter.  When  cool  enough,  begin  to  throw  up 
the  edges  and  work,  by  pulling  until  bright  and  glistening  like 
gold ;  flour  the  hands  occasionally,  draw  into  stick  size,  rolling  to 
keep  round,  until  pulled  out  and  cold.  With  a  greased  knife  press 
nearly  through  them  at  proper  lengths,  and  they  will  easily  snap  ; 
flavor  just  before  pouring  out  to  cool. — Sterling  Bolnnson. 

Aunt  Top's  Nut-Taffy. 

Two  pints  maple  sugar,  half  pint  water,  or  just  enough  to  difr* 
solve  sugar;  boil  until  it  becomes  brittle  by  dropping  in  cold  water; 
just  before  pouring  out  add  a  tablespoon  vinegar  ;  having  prepared 
the  hickory-nut  meats,  in  halves,  butter  w  ell  the  pans,  line  with  the 
meats,  and  pour  the  taffy  over  them. — EsteUe  and  Hattie  JSusk, 


CANNING  FRUITS. 


deanse  the  cans  thoroughly  and  test  to  see  if  any  ]eak  or  are 
cracked.  If  tin  cans  leak,  send  them  to  the  tinner ;  if  disoolored 
inside  they  may  be  lined  with  writing-paper  just  before  using.  In 
buying  stoneware  for  canning  purposes,  be  sure  that  it  is  weU  glazed, 
as  fruits  canned  in  jars  or  jugs  imperfectly  glazed  sometimes  become 
poisonous.  Never  use  defective  glass  cans,  but  keep  them  for  storing 
things  m  the  pantry ;  and  in  buying  them,  take  care  that  they  are 
free  from  flaws  and  blisters,  else  the  glass  will  crumble  off  in  small 
particles  when  subjected  to  heat.  Self-sealers  are  very  convenient, 
bat  the  heat  hardens  the  rubber  rings,  which  are  difficult  to  re- 
place, so  that  in  a  year  or  two  they  are  unfit  for  vuse.  For  this 
reason  many  prefer  those  with  a  groove  around  the  top  for  sealing 
with  wax  or  putty.  The  latter  is  very  convenient,  as  jars  sealed 
with  it  can  be  opened  readily  with  a  strong  fork  or  knife,  and  are 
much  more  easily  cleaned  than  when  wax-sealed.  Putty  may  be 
bought  ready  for  use,  and  is  soon  made  soil  by  molding  in  the 
hand.  In  using  it  should  be  worked  out  into  a  small  roll,  and 
pressed  firmly  into  the  groove  with  a  knife,  care  being  taken  to 
keep  it  well  pressed  down  as  the  can  cools.  In  canning,  provide 
a  wide-mouthed  ftinnel  (made  to  set  into  the  can),  and  pour  the 
fruit  into  a  funnel  from  a  bright  tin  dipper  (if  old  or  rusty  it  will 
discolor  the  fruit)  or  a  small  pitcher,  heated  before^putting  in  the 
hot  firuit  to  prevent  breaking.  Pour  fi^it  as  quickly  as  possible, 
and  screw  down  top  immediately. 

Fruit  should  be  selected  carefully,  and  all  that  is  imperfect  re- 
jected.    Large  fruits,  such  as  peaches,  pears,  etc.,  are  in  the  best 


120  CANNING  FRUITS. 

condition  to  can  when  not  quite  fully  ripe,  and  should  be  put  up 
as  soon  as  possible  after  picking ;  s<mall  fruits,  such  as  berries, 
should  never  stand  over  night  if  it  is  possible  to  avoid  it.  The 
highest-flavored  and  longest-keeping  fruits  are  best  put  up  without 
paring,  after  having  carefully  removed  the  down  with  a  fine  but 
stiff  brush.  Use  only  the  best  sugtir  in  the  proportion  of  half  a 
pound  of  sugar  to  a  pound  of  good  fruit,  varying  tlie  rule,  of  course, 
with  the  sweetness  of  the  fruit.  Or,  in  canning  for  pies  omit  sugar, 
as  the  natural  flavor  is  better  preserved  without  it,  and  some  prefer 
this  method  for  all  purposes.  It  is  economical,  and  well  worthy  of 
experiment.  Cans  put  up  in  this  way  should  have  a  special  mark  so 
as  to  distinguish  them  from  the  rest.  When  ready  to  can,  first  place 
the  jars  (glass)  in  a  large  pan  of  warm  water  on  the  back  of  the  stove, 
make  ready  the  syrup  in  a  nice  clean  porcelain  kettle,  add  the  fruit 
— it  is  better  to  prepare  only  enough  fruit  or  syrup  for  two  or  three 
cans  at  a  time — and  by  the  time  it  is  done,  the  water  in  the  pan 
will  be  hot  and  the  cans  ready  for  use.  Take  them  out  of  the 
water  and  set  them  on  a  hot  plattex^which  answers  the  double  pur- 
pose of  preventing  their  contact  with  any  cold  sur&ce  like  the  table, 
and  saving  any  fruit  that  may  be  spoiled.  Fill  as  full  as  possible, 
and  set  aside  where  no  current  of  air  will  strike  them ;  or,  better, 
wring  out  a  towel  wet  in  hot  water  and  set  them  on  it ;  let  stand  a 
moment  or  two  or  until  wiped  ofl*,  when  the  fruit  will  have  shrunk 
away  a  little;  fill  up  again  with  hot  syrup,  or  if  you  have  none, 
boiling  water  from  the  tea-kettle  will  do,  and  then  seal.  In  can- 
ning peaches,  the  flavor  is  improved  by  adding  two  or  three  whole 
peaches,  or  dropping  in  the  ceTiter  of  the  can  a  few  of  the  stones. 
For  peaches,  pears  and  berries,  some  sweeten  as  for  eating,  let 
stand  until  sugar  is  dissolved  (using  no  water),  place  on  stove  in 
porcelain  kettle  and  keep  at  Inciting  point  long  enough  to  heat  the 
fruit,  and  then  can  in  glass  jai-s  as  directed. 

There  are  several  other  ways  of  preparing  glass  cans  for  fruit, 
among  them  the  following :  Wring  a  towel  from  cold  water,  double 
and  wrap  closely  about  and  under  the  can  so  as  to  exclude  the  air, 
and  put  a  cold  silver  spoon  inside  and  fill ;  or,  put  a  towel  in  a 
steamer,  set  in  the  cans,  and  place  over  a  kettle  of  cM  water,  boil 
the  water,  and  when  ready  to  fill,  remove  the  cans  and  wrap  in  a 


CANNING  FRUITS.  121 

towel  wrong  from  warm  water,  put  a  table-spoon  rinsed  in  hot 
water  inside,  and  fill ;  or,  wash  the  cans  in  tepid  water,  place  an 
iron  rod  ins^ide,  and  at  once  pour  in  the  boiling  fruit,  but  not  too 
fiist  In  using  gla«s  cans  with  tops  which  screw  on,  be  sure  that 
the  rubbers  are  firm  and  close-fitting,  and  throw  away  all  that  are 
imperfect.  When  the  can  is  filled  to  overflowing,  put  on  the  top 
at  once  and  screw  down  tightly,  and  &s  the  fruit  and  cans  cool, 
causing  contraction  of  the  glass,  turn  down  again  and  again  until 
perfectly  air-tight.  Wrap  as  soon  as  cold  with  brown  wrapping- 
paper,  unless  the  fruit-cloi^et  is  very  dark.  Light  injures  all 
fruit,  but  especially  tomatoes,  in  which  it  causes  the  formation  of 
citric  acid,  which  no  amount  of  sugar  will  sweeten.  The  place 
where  canned  fruits  are  kept  should  also  be  dry  and  cod,  for  if 
too  warm  the  fruit  will  spoil.  In  canning,  use  a  porcelain-lined 
kettle,  silver  fork  or  broom  splint  and  wire  spoon  or  dipper; 
a  steel  fork  discolors  the  fruit. 

Cans  should  be  examined  two  or  three  days  after  filling,  and  if 
syrup  leaks  out  from  the  rim,  they  should  Ije  unsealed,  the  fruit 
thoroughly  cooked  and  kept  for  jam  or  jelly,  as  it  will  have  lost 
the  delicacy  of  color  and  flavor  so  desirable  in  canned  fruits.  Pint 
cans  are  better  for  berries  than  quart.  Strawberries  keep  their 
color  best  in  stone  jars;  if  glass  cans  are  used  for  them,  they  should 
be  buried  in  sand.  If  syrup  is  left  after  canning  berries,  it  may, 
ffhile  thin,  be  flavored  with  vinegar,  boiled  a  moment,  and  then 
bottled  and  corked  for  a  drink  mixe<l  with  ice- water. 

In  using  self-sealing  cans  the  rubber  ring  must  show  an  even 
edge  all  round,  for  if  it  slips  back  out  of  sight  at  any  point,  air 
will  be  admitted.  On  opening  tin  cans,  remember  to  ix)ur  aU  the 
fruit  out  into  an  earthen  or  glass  dish.  If  any  part  is  not  used  at* 
the  time,  re-cook,  and  return  to  dish,  and  it  will  keep  for  a  day  or 
two,  many  of  the  loss  perishable  fruits  longer.  Wines,  cider,  shrubs, 
etc.,  must  be  bottled,  well  corked,  sealed,  and  the  bottles  placed  on 
their  sides  in  a  box  of  sand  or  sawdust.  To  can  maple  syrup,  pour 
hot  into  cans  or  jugs,  and  seal  well. 

The  fine  du^play  of  canned  fruits  at  the  Centennial  Exhibition 
was  prepared  as  follows :  The  fruits  were  selected  with  great  care, 
of  uniform  size  and  shape,  and  all  perfect.     They  were  carefully 


122 


CANNINO  FRUITS, 


peeled  with  a  thin,  sharp,  silver  fruit-knife,  which  did  not  dbcdor 
them,  and  immediately  plunged  into  cold  water  in  an  earthen  or 
wooden  vessel  to  prevent  the  air  from  darkening  them.  As  soon 
as  enough  for  one  can  was  prepared,  it  was  put  up  bj  laying  the 
fruit  piece  by  piece  in  the  can,  and  pouring  syrup,  clear  as  crystal, 
over  it,  and  tjien,  after  subjecting  the  whole  to  the  usual  heat, 
sealing  up. 

The  following  table  gives  the  time  required  for  cooking  and  the 
quantity  of  sugar  to  the  quart  for  the  various  kinds  of  fruit 


Time  for    Quant, 
boiling       ftugar 
fruit.  to  qt. 

Cherries 5min.    6oz. 

BaspberrieB 6  "       4  " 

Blackberries... 6  " 

Strawberries 8  '' 

Plums 10  " 

Whortleberries 5  " 

Pie  Plant,  sliced 10  " 

Bmall  sour  pears,  whole  30  ^* 
Bartlett  pears,  halved...  20 

Peaches 8 


11 
if 


6  " 
8" 
10" 
8  " 
8" 
4" 
6" 
4  " 


Peaches,  whole 15inin. 

Pine  apples,  sliced 15 

Siberian  crab-apples....  25 
Sour  apples,  quartered...  10 

Ripe  currants 6 

Wild  grapes 10 

Tomatoes 20 

Gooseberries 8 

Quinces,  sliced 15 


Timp  for     Qniini. 
boiling        sugar 
fruit  to  qt. 

4oz. 
6" 
8" 
5" 

.8" 
8" 

none* 
8" 

10" 


tt 
It 

it 
ti 
II 
<{ 
u 


Canned  Berries. 

Select  those  the  skins  of  which  have  not  been  broken,  or  the 

juice  will  darken  the  S3rrup;  fill  cans  compactly,  set  in  a  kettle  of 

oold  water,  with  a  cloth  beneath  them,  over  an  even  heat;  when 

sufficiently  heated,  pour  over  the  berries  a  syrup  of  white  sugar 

dissolved  in  boiling  water  (the  richer  the  better  for  keeping,  though 

not  for  preserving  the  flavor  of  the  fruit),  cover  the  cans  closely  to 

retain  heat  on  the  top  berries.     To  insure  full  cans  when  cold,  have 

extra  berries  heated  in  like  manner  to  supply  the  shrinkage.      If 

the  fruit   swims,  pour  off  surplus  syrup,  fill  with   hot  fruit,  and 

itcal  up  as  soon  as  the  fruit  at  the  top  is  thoroughly  scalded. — Iffisft 

L.  Southwick. 

Plain  Canned  Berrebs.  ^ 

Pick  out  stems  or  hulls  if  any — ^if  gathered  carefully  the  berriea 

will  not  need  washing,  put  in  porcelain  kettle  on  the  stove,  adding 

a  small  tea-cup  water  to  prevent  burning  at  first.      When  they 

come  to  a  boil,  skim  well,  add  sugar  to  taste  (for  pies  it  may  be 

omitted),  let  boil  five  minutes,  fill  in  glass,  stone,  or  tin  cans,  and 

seal  with  putty  unless  self-sealers  are  used.      This  rule  applies  to 


CANIONQ  FRUITS,  123 

raspberries,  blackberries,   currants,   gooseberries,  or  any  of  the 

small  berries. 

Canned  Cukrants. 

Look  over  carefully,  stem  and  weigh,  allowing  a  pound  of  sugar 
to  every  one  of  fruit;  put  in  a  kettle,  cover,  and  leave  to  heat  slowly 
and  stew  gently  for  twenty  or  thirty  minutes ;  then  add  the  sugar, 
and  shake  kettle  occasionally  to  make  it  mix  with  iruit ;  do  not 
allow  to  boil,  but  keep  as  hot  as  possible  until  sugar  is  dissolved, 
then  pour  in  cans  and  secure  covers  at  once.  White  currants  are 
beautiful  preserved  in  this  way. — Maryland  mdhod. 

GSEEN  GOOSEBEKEOES. 

Cook  the  berries  in  water  until  white,  but  not  enough  to  break 
them ;  put  into  cans  with  as  little  water  as  possible,  fill  up  the  can 
^ith  boiling  water  and  seal ;  when  opened  pour  off  water  and  cook 
like  fresh  berrias. — Mrs,  0.  M.  8, 

Canned  Grapes. 

Squeeze  pulp  from  grapes,  boil  skins  and  pulp  in  water  until  each 
seem  tender ;  then  pass  pulp  through  a  sieve,  add  skins  and  the  water  in 
^hich  they  are  cooked  (only  a  little  water  should  be  used  in  cook- 
ing them) ;  add  a  large  coffee-cup  of  white  sugar  to  a  quart  of 
grapes,  boil  until  quite  thick,  and  can  in  glass  according  to  general 
directions. — Mrs.  A.  C,  B.,  Jacksonville, 

Canned  Quinces  and  Apples. 

Quarter  them,  and  if  large,  eighth  them;  cook  separately  in 
water  to  cover  till  they  can  be  pierced  with  a  (silver)  fork ;  to  a 
quart  of  the  mixed  juice  take  one  pint  sugar,  and  when  boiling  add 
quinces  and  apples,  half  and  half ,  or  whatever  proportion  you  vish; 
cook  until  of  a  clear  red  look,  then  place  in  jars;  fill  with  juice,  run 
a  silver  spoon  down  the  sides  of  the  can  to  let  all  air  escape ;  add 
more  juice  to  overflowing,  and  seal  at  once. 

Canned  Peaches  Steamed. 

To  peel,  place  in  a  wire  basket,  to  the  handle  of  which  a  cord 
has  been  tied,  let  down  into  boiling  water  for  a  moment,  then  into 


124  CANNING  FR  UITS, 

cold  water,  and  strip  off  the  skin  (this  saves  both  fruit  and  labor). 
The  fruit  must  be  at  a  certain  stage  to  be  prepared  in  this  way,  for 
if  too  green  it  will  not  peel,  and  if  too  ripe  it  will  be  too  much 
softened  by  the  hot  water.  Afler  peeling,  seed  and  place  in  a 
steamer  over  a  kettle  of  boiling  water,  first  laying  a  cloth  in  bottom 
of  steamer ;  fill  about  half  full  of  fruit,  cover  tightly,  make  a  syrup 
in  a  porcelain  kettle  for  fruit  alone,  let  the  fruit  steam  until  it  can 
be  easily  pierced  with  a  silver  fork,  drop  gently  for  a  moment  into 
the  hot  syrup,  place  in  the  cans,  fill,  cover,  and  seal.  The  above 
recipe  is  for  canning  a  few  at  a  time.  This  recipe,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  mode  of  peeling,  applies  equally  well  to  pears. 

Canned  Peaches. 
Pare,  halve  and  seed ;  make  a  syrup  of  a  pint  granulated  sugar 

to  a  quart  water,  place  on  stove  in  a  porcelain  kettle  (enough  for 

two  quart  cans).     When  syrup  boils,  drop  in  enough  fruit  for  one 

can ;  watch  closely,  testing  with  a  silver  fork,  so  that  the  moment 

they  are  done  they  may  be  removed.     When  the  peaches  are  tender, 

lift  very  gently  with  a  wire  spoon,  and  place  in  the  can  previously 

heated,  according  to  instructions  for  preparing  glass  cans.     When 

full  of  peaches  pour  in  the  hot  syrup,  place  the  cover  on  and  seal 

at  once ;  then  add  more  peaches  to  the  hot  syrup  tor  next  can,  and 

repeat  the  o|)eration.     If  there  are  more  peaches  than  will  fill  the 

can,  place  them  in  another  can  and  keep  hot  until  more  are  ready, 

and  so  on  until  all  are  canned.     Skim  the  syrup  before  adding 

peaches,  making  only  enough  syrup  at  one  time  for  two  cans. — • 

Mrs.  W.  W.  W. 

Canned  Pears. 

Prepare  and  can  precisely  like  peaches  in  preceding  recipe,  except 
that  they  require  longer  cooking.  When  done  they  are  easily  pierced 
with  a  silver  fork. 

Canned  Pie  Plant. 

Cut  the  pie  plant  in  pieces,  two  inches  long,  put  over  a  slow  fire 
with  its  weight  in  sugar ;  when  sugar  is  dissolved  let  it  boil  slowly 
until  clear,  but  do  not  let  it  cook  long  enough  to  become  dark  col- 
ored.    Put  up  in  air-tight  cans. 

Canned  Pine- Apple. 
Peel  and  slice,  make  syrup  in  proportion  of  two  and  a  half  pounds 


CANNING  FRUITS.  126 

beet  white  granulated  sugar  to  nearly  three  pints  of  water ;  boil  five 
minates ;  skim  or  strain ;  add  fruit  and  let  it  boil ;  have  cans  hot ; 
fill  and  seal  up  as  soon  as  possible. 

Canned  Plums. 
Wash  and  put  whole  into  a  syrup  made  in  the  proportion  of  a 
pnt  of  water  and  a  pound  of  sugar  to  every  two  pounds  of  fruit ; 
boil  for  eight  minutes,  can,  and  seal  immediately.  If  pricked  with 
a  fork  before  placing  in  syrup,  they  will  be  less  liable  to  burst. 
Cherries  are  canned  in  the  same  way. 

Raspberries  with  Currant  Juice. 
Ten  pounds  of  red  or  black  raspberries,  twelve  pounds  of  granu* 
lated  sugar,  one  quart  currant  juice.     Make  syrup  of  the  sugar  and 
juice;  when  boiling  add  the  fruit,  and  continue  for  ten  minutes. 
Put  in  glass  cans  and  &sten  immediately. 

Canned  Strawberries. 
Fill  glass  jars  with  fresh  whole  strawberries,  sprinkled  with  sugar 
in  the  proportion  of  half  pound  sugar  to  a  pound  of  berries,  lay 
covers  on  lightly,  stand  them  in  a  wash  boiler  filled  with  water  to 
^thin  an  inch  of  tops  of  cans  (the  water  must  not  be  more  than 
milk-warm  when  the  cans  are  placed  in  it).  When  it  has  boiled 
fer  fifteen  minutes,  dpiw  to  back  of  stove,  let  steam  pass  ofi*,  roll 
the  hand  in  a  towel,  lift  out  cans,  and  place  on  a  table.  If  the 
berries  are  well  covered  with  their  own  juice,  take  a  table-spoon  and 
fill  up  the  first  can  to  the  very  top  of  the  rim  from  the  second,  wipe 
the^neck,  rub  dry,  and  screw  the  top  down  firmly,  observing  care- 
fully the  general  directions  for  canning  berries.  Fill  another  from 
the  second  can,  and  so  on  until  all  are  finished.  Great  care  must  be 
taken  to  keep  the  berries  whole  and  round ;  as  the  cans  cool  invert 
them  occasionally,  to  prevent  the  fruit  from  forming  in  a  mass  at 

one  end. 

Canned  Strawberries. 

For  every  quart  of  fresh  strawberries,  take  one  coffee-cup  of  white 

sugar;  add  a  table-spoon  or  two  of  water  to  the  fruit  if  there  is  no  * 

juice  in  the  bottom,  to  prevent  burning  before  the  heat  brings  out 

the  juice.     As  soon  aa  the  fruit  boils,  add  the  sugar,    and   stir 

gently  for  a  few  minutes  until  it  boils  up  again,  and  can  immedi- 


126  CANNING  FRUITS, 

ately.  It  is  better  not  to  cook  any  more  fruit  than  can  he  put 
into  one  glass  fruit-jar.  Usually  a  few  spoonfuls  of  the  syrup  will 
be  left  with  which  to  begin  the  next  can.  Strawberries  are  consid- 
ered difficult  to  keep,  but  there  need  be  no  trouUe  if  the  fruit  is 
fresh  and  the  can  is  closed  air-tight  in  glass,  and  kept  as  directed 
in  geueral  directions  for  canning  fruits. — Mrs,  H.  8.  Huntington, 

Galeeburg,  111, 

Canned  Corn. 

Dissolve  an  ounce  tartaric  acid  in  half  tea-cup  water,  and  take 
one  tablespoon  to  two  quarts  of  sweet  corn ;  cook,  and  while  boil- 
ing hot,  fill  the  cans,  which  should  be  tin.  When  used  turn  into  a 
colander,  rinse  with  cold  water,  add  a  little  soda  and  sugar  while 
cooking,  and  season  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt — Miss  lAda  Cart- 

mell. 

Canned  Corn  and  Tomatoes. 

Scald,  peel,  and  slice  tomatoes  (not  too  ripe^  in  the  proportion 

of  one-third  corn  to  two-thirds  tomatoes ;  put  on  in  a  porcelain 

kettle,  let  boil  fifteen  minutes,  and  can  immediately  in  tin  or  glass 

(if  glass  keep  in  the  dark).     Some  take  equal  parts  of  com  and 

tomatoes,  preparing  them  as  above.     Others,  after  cutting  the  com 

from  the  cob,  cook  it  twenty  minutes,  adding  a  little  water  and 

stirring  often,  then  prepare  the  tomatoes  as  above,  cooking  in  a 

separate  kettle  five  minutes,  and  then  adding  them  to  the  com  in 

the  proportion  of  one-third  corn  to  two-thirds  tomatoes,  mixing  well 

until  they  boil  up  once,  and  then  canning  immediately. — Mrs,  D. 

Buxton, 

String-Beans. 

String  fresh  string-beans,  break  in  several  pieces,  cook  in  boiling 

water  ten  minutes,  and  can  like  tomatoes. — Mrs,  L,  W.  C,  Oin- 

c'umati. 

Canned  Tomatoes. 

The  tomatoes  must  be  entirely  fresh  and  not  overripe ;  pour  over 
them  boiling  water,  let  stand  a  few  minutes,  drain  ofi^,  remove  the 
skins,  and  slice  crosswise  into  a  stone  jar,  cutting  out  all  the  hard 
or  defective  portions ;  cook  for  a  few  minutes  in  their  own  juice, 
skimming  off  the  scum  which  rises,  and  ^stirring  with  a  wooden 
spoon  or  paddle ;  have  the  cans  on  the  hearth  fille<i  with  hot  water; 


CANNINO  FRUITS.  127 

empty,  and  fill  with  hot  tomatoes;  ^vipe  moisture  from  tope  with 
soft  cloth,  put  on  and  secure  covers.  If  tin  cans  are  used,  press 
down  covers,  and  pour  hot  sealing  wax  into  grooves.  If  put  up 
in  glass,  set  away  in  a  dark  place.  Either  tin,  glass  or  stone  cans 
may  be  used,  and  all  may  he  sealed  with  putty  instead  of  wax,  it 
being  more  convenient.     (See  general  instructions  for  canning  fruit) 

Canned  Watermelon. 

Cut  rind  of  ripe  melons  (first  cutting  off  all  green  parts)  into 
flmaU  pieces  two  or  three  inches  long,  and  boil  until  tender  enough 
to  pierce  with  fork ;  have  a  syrup  made  of  white  sugar,  allowing 
half  pound  sugar  to  a  pound  fruit ;  skim  out  melon  and  place  in 
syrup  together  with  a  few  pieces  of  race  ginger,  let  cook  a  few 
minutes,  put  in  cans  and  seal  hot. 

Warranted  Canned  Strawberries. 

Pat  fi>ur  pounds  white  sugar  in  a  kettle,  add  a  teacup  cold 
water,  let  boil  till  perfectly  clear,  then  add  four  quarts  nice  ber- 
ries. Boil  ten  minutes,  keeping  them  covered  with  syrup,  but 
avoid  stirring  in  order  to  preserve  their  good  appearance.  Take 
out  berries  with  a  small  strainer  or  skimmer,  place  in  a  crock  and 
let  the  syrup  boil  ten  minutes  longer,  then  pour  it  over  berries, 
aad,  when  cool,  fill  the  cans,  putting  a  tablespoon  of  good  brandy 
on  top  of  each  can,  screw  on  lid  tightly,  and  put  in  a  dry  dark 
place.  This  method  is  the  only  means  of  preserving  the  peculiar 
flavor  of  the  strawberries.  To  prevent  the  second  handling,  put 
the  hot  berries  in  the  cans  (instead  of  the  crock)  till  about  three 
quarters  frill.  When  syrup  has  boiled,  fill  each  can  with  it,  let  stand 
till  cool,  then  cover  with  the  tablespoon  of  brandy  (take  out  a  little 
juice  if  necessary)  and  screw  on  the  lid. 

If  after  two  or  three  weeks  the  least  fermentation  appears,  put 
the  cans  in  a  boiler  (on  a  small  board  to  prevent  contact  with 
bottom),  fill  with  cold  water  nearly  to  top  of  cans,  loosen  the  lids, 
but  do  not  take  them  off,  let  water  boil  for  a  little  while,  then  take 
oot  cans,  HglUen  the  covers  and  the  berries  will  keep  over  a  year. 
Folly  ripe  currants  and  acid  cherries  canned  in  same  manner,  one 
pound  of  sugar  to  one  of  dressed  fruit,  are  delicious.  They  never 
need  a  second  boiling  if  carefully  prepared. 


CATSUPS  AND  SAUCES. 


Always  select  perfect  fruit;  cook  in  porcelain,  never  in  metal. 
In  making  catsup,  instead  of  boiling,  some  sprinkle  the  tomatoes 
with  salt  and  let  them  stand  over  night,  then  strain  and  add  spioee, 
etc.,  and  a  little  sugar.  Bottle  in  glass  or  stone,  and  never  use  tin 
cans ;  keep  in  a  cool,  dry,  dark  place.  If,  on  opening,  there  is  a 
leathery  mold  on  top,  carefully  remove  every  particle  of  it,  and  the 
catsup  will  not  be  injured.  To  prevent  this  molding,  some  do  not 
fill  the  bottles  quite  to  the  top  with  catsup,  but  fill  up  with  hot 
vinegar.  If  there  are  white  specks  of  mold  all  through  the  catsup 
it  is  spoiled.  If,  on  opening  and  using  a  part,  there  is  danger  that 
the  rest  may  sour,  scald,  and,  if  too  thick,  add  vinegar.  Sauces 
should  always  be  made  with  great  care  in  a  pan  set  in  hot  water, 
having  the  sauce  pan  dean  if  a  delicate  flavor  is  desired,  especially 
if  the  sauce  is  drawn  butter.  Butter  and  those  sauces  containing 
eggs  should  never  boil.  Wooden  spoons  must  be  used  for  stirring. 
An  excellent  thickening  for  soups,  sauces  and  gravies  is  prepared 
as  follows :  Bring  butter  just  to  the  boiling  point  in  a  small  stew- 
pan,  dredge  in  flour,  stirring  together  until  well  cooked.  This, 
when  not  cooked  brown,  is  **  White  Eoux,"  and  when  browned, 
*'  Brown  Roux."  Thin  this  with  a  part  of  the  soup,  sauce  or  gravy, 
and  add  it  to  the  whole,  stirring  thoroughly.  The  flour  may  be 
browned  before  using  if  intended  for  brown  gravies  or  sauces. 
Melted  butter  may  be  used  in  place  of  oil  in  all  recipes  where  the 
latter  is  named. 

Mint,  when  used  in  recipes,  usually  means  "spearmint"  of 
*^  green  mint,**  though  pennyroyal  and  peppermint  are  of  the  same 

(128) 


CATSUPS  AND  SAUCES  129 

fisonily.    The  young  leaves  of  from  one  to  six  inches  in  length  are 
the  parts  used.     It  grows  on  any  good  garden  soil,  but  comes  for- 
ward earlier  in  a  warm,  sunny  spot.     It  is  propagated  by  cuttings 
or  dividing  the  roots  of  old  plants  in  the  spring,  is  very  prolific, 
and  ought  to  find  a  place  in  eVery  garden.    Those  who  have  con- 
aervatories  should  keep  a  root  in  pots,  to  use  with  spring  lamb  be^ 
fore  the  leaves  would  appear  in  the  open  air.      Mint   leaves  for 
drying  should  be  cut  irom  the  stalks  just  before  the  plant  blossoms, 
and  spread  out  thinly  in  some  dry,  shady  place,  where  they  can 
dry  slowly.     When  dry,  put  up  in  paper  bags  and  keep  in  a  dry 
place  until  wanted. 

Cucumber  Catsup. 

Three  dozen  cucumbers  and  eighteen  onions  peeled  and  chopped 
very  fine ;  sprinkle  over  them  three-fourths  pint  table-salt,  put  the 
whole  in  a  sieve,  and  let  drain  well  over  night;  add  a  tea-cup  mus- 
tard seed,  half  tea-cup  ground  black  pepper ;  mix  well,  and  cover 
with  good  cider  vinegar. — Mrs.  Hattie  CleinjnoiiSy  AsheviUe,  N.  C 

Currant  Catsup. 
Four  pounds  nice  fully-ripe  currants,  one  and  a  half  pounds 
sngar,    table-spoon  ground   cinnamon,  a  tea-spoon   each    of  salt, 
ground  cloves  and  pepper,  pint  vinegar ;  stew  currants  and  sugar 
antil  quite  thick,  add  other  ingredients,  and  bottle  for  use. 

Gooseberry  Catsup. 
Nine  pounds  gooseberries,  h\e  pounds  sugar,  one  quart  vinegar, 
three  table-spoons  cinnamon,  one  and  a  half  each  allspice  and  cloves. 
The  gooseberries  should  he  nearly  or  quite  rii)e.  Take  ofi^blossomsy 
wash  and  put  them  into  a  porcelain  kettle,  mash  thoroughly,  scald 
and  put  through  the  colander,  add  sugar  and  spices,  boil  fifteen 
mmutes,  and  add  the  vinegar  cold ;  bottle  immediately  before  it 
cools.  Ripe  grapes  prepared  by  same  rule,  make  an  excellent  cat- 
sup.— Mrs.  Col.  W.  P.  Reid,  Delaware^  Ohio. 

Tomato  Catsup. 

Half  bushel  tomatoes,  four  ounces  salt,  three  ounces  ground  black 

pepper,  one  ounce  cinnamon,  half  ounce  ground  cloves,  one  drachm 
9 


180  CAT8X7F8  AND  SAUCES. 

cayenne  pepper,  one  gallon  vinegar;  slioe  the  tomatoes  and  stew  In 
iheir  own  liquor  untQ  soft,  and  rub  through  a  sieve  fine  enough  to 
retain  the  seeds ;  IkhI  the  pulp  and  juice  down  to  the  oonsistencj 
of  apple-butter  (very  thick),  stirring  steadily  all  the  time  to  prevent 
burning;  then  add  the  vin^ar  with  which  a  small  tea-cup  sugar  and 
Che  spices  have  been  mixed,  boil  up  twice,  remove  from  fire,  let 
cool  and  bottle.  Those  who  like  the  flavor  of  onions  may  add  about 
half  a  dozen  medium-sized  ones,  peeled  and  sliced,  fifteen  minutes 
before  the  vinegar  and  spices  are  put  in.  —Mrs.  M.  M.  Mtm8eU» 
DdoMJcaret 

ToBiATO  Catsup. 

Take  one  bushel  of  firm  ripe  tomatoes — ^the  Feejee  Island,  known 
by  their  pink  or  purple  color,  and  the  ''Trophy,"  are  the  best  and 
richest  varieties  for  catsup  and  canning.  Wipe  them  ofi*  nicely  with 
a  damp  cloth,  cut  out  the  cores,  and  put  them  in  a  porcelain-lined 
iron  kettle  or  a  genuine  bell-metal  one.  Place  over  the  fire,  and 
pour  over  them  about  three  pints  of  water,  throw  in  two  large 
handfiils  of  peach  leaves,  with  ten  or  twelve  onions  or  shallots  cut  fine. 
Boil  until  the  tomatoes  are  done,  which  will  take  about  two  hours: 
then  strain  through  a  coarse-mesh  sieve,  pour  the  liquid  back  again 
into  the  boiling  kettle  and  add  half  a  gallon  of  good  strong  cider 
vinegar;  have  ready  two  ounces  ground  spice,  two  ounces  ground 
black  pepper,  two  ounces  mustard  (either  ground  or  in  the  seed,  as 
you  prefer),  one  ounce  ground  cloves,  two  grated  nutm^,  two 
pounds  light  brown  sugar,  and  one  pint  of  salt ;  mix  these  ingre- 
dients well  together  before  putting  in  the  boiler ;  then  boil  two 
hours,  stirring  continually  to  prevent  buniing.  If  you  like  the 
jcatsup  "hot,"  add  cayenne  pepper  to  your  taste.  When  cool,  fill 
bottles  (reeded  bottles  are  the  nicest,  they  can  be  procured  at  the 
house  furnisher's,  and  a  set  will  last  some  time ;  they  look  better 
than  ones  of  all  sizes  and  styles).  Cork  and  seal  with  bottle-wax 
so  as  to  exclude  the  air.  Keep  in  a  cool,  dry  place  for  future  use. 
This  recipe  is  preferred  to  all  others — it  has  been  used  for  years. 
It  keeps  well,  and  has  been  pronounced  by  competent  judges  supe* 
lior  to  all  others. — G.  D.,  BaHimore,  Mi. 


CATSUPS  AND  SA  UCES.  131 

Bread  Sauce. 
Place  a  diced  onion  and  six  pepper-corns  in  half  a  pint  of  milk 
over  l)oiling  water,  until  onion  is  perfectly  soft ;  pour  it  on  half  a 
pint  of  bread  crumbs  without  cinist,  and  leave  it  covered  for  an 
hour ;  beat  it  smooth,  add  pinch  of  salt,  and  two  table-spoons 
butter  rubbed  in  a  little  flour;  add  enough  sweet  cream  or  milk 
to  make  it  the  proper  consistency,  and  boil  a  few  minutes.  It, 
must  be  thin  enough  to  pour. — Mrs.  J.  L.  T.,  Denver,  CoL 

Bread  Sauce. 

Half  pint  grated  bread  crumbs,  one  pint  sweet  milk,  and  one 
onion;  boil  until  the  sauce  is  smooth,  take  out  onion  and  stir  in 
two  spoons  butter  with  salt  and  pepper;  boil  once  and  serve  with 
roast  duck  or  any  kind  of  game. — Mrs.  H.  C.  E. 

Cranberry  Sauce. 

After  removing  all  soft  berries,  wash  thoroughly,  place  for  about 
two  minutes  in  scalding  water,  remove,  and  to  every  pound  fruit 
add  three-quarters  of  a  pound  granulated  sugar  and  a  half  pint 
water;  stew  together  over  a  moderate  but  steady  fire.  Be  careful 
to  cover  and  not  to  gtir  the  fruit,  but  occasionally  shake  the  vessel,  or 
apply  a  gentler  heat  if  in  danger  of  sticking  or  burning.  If  atten- 
tion to  these  particulars  be  given,  th^  berries  will  retain  their  shape 
to  a  considerable  extent,  which  adds  greatly  to  their  appearance  on 
the  table.  Boil  from  five  to  seven  minutes,  remove  from  fire,  turn 
into  a  deep  dish,  and  set  aside  to  cool.  If  to  be  kept,  they  can  be  put 
up  at  once  in  air-tight  j^rs.  Or,  for  strained  sauce,  one  and  a  half 
pounds  of  fruit  should  be  stewed  in  one  pint  of  water  for  ten  or 
twelve  minutes,  or  until  quite  soft,  then  strained  through  a  colander 
or  fine  wire  sieve,  and  three-quarters  of  a  pound  of  sugar  thoroughly 
stiired  into  the  pulp  thus  obtained;  after  cooling  it  is  ready  for  use. 
Serve  with  roast  turkey  or  game.  When  to  be  kept  for  a  long  time, 
without  sealing,  more  sugar  may  be  added,  but  its  too  free  use 
impaurs  the  peculiar  cranberry  flavor.  For  dinner-sauce  half  a 
pound  is  more  economical,  and  really  preferable  to  three-quarters, 
as  given  above.  It  is  better,  though  not  necessary,  to  use  a  por- 
celain kettle.  Some  prefer  not  to  add  the  sugar  till  the  fruit  is 
almost  done,  thinking  this  plan  makes  it  more  tender,  and  preserves 
the  color  better.— 0.  O.  &  E.  W.  Orane,  CMweU,  N.  J. 


132  CATSUPS  AND  SA  UOES. 

Celery  Sauce. 
Scrape  the  outside  stalka  of  celery  and  cut  in  pieces  an  inch  long, 
let  stand  in  cold  water  half  hour,  then  put  in  boiling  water  enough 
to  cover,  and  cook  until  tender ;  drain  off  water  and  dress  with 
butter,  salt,  and  milk  or  cream,  thickened  with  a  little  flour :  Or» 
make  a  dressing  by  adding  to  half  pint  milk  or  cream,  the  weU- 
beaten  yolks  of  two  eggs,  a  bit  of  butter,  and  a  little  salt  and 
pepper  or  grated  nutmeg;  bring  just  to  boiling  point,  pour  over 
6tewed  celery,  and  serve  with  roast  duck. — Mrs.  A.  WiUon. 

Cream  Sauce. 

Heat  one  table-spoon  butter  in  a  skillet,  add  a  tea-spoon  flour, 

and  stir  until  perfectly  smooth,  then  add  gradually  one  cup  of  cold 

milk,  let  boil  up  once,  season  to  taste  with  salt  and  pepper,  and 

serve.     This  is  very  nice  for  v^etables,  omelets,  fish,  or  sweet 

breads. 

Curry  Powder. 

An  ounce  of  ginger,  one  of  mustard,  one  of  pepper,  three  of  cori- 
ander seed,  three  of  turmeric,  one-half  ounce  cardamom,  quarter  ounce 
cayenne  pepper,  quarter  ounce  cumin  seed ;  pound  all  fine,  sift  and 
cork  tight.  One  tea-spoon  of  powder  is  sufficient  to  season  any  thing. 
This  is  nice  for  boiled  meats  and  stews. — Mrs.  C.  FvUington. 

Cmu  Sauce. 

Twelve  large  ripe  tomatoes,  four  ripe  or  three  green  peppers,  two 

onions,  two  table-spoons  salt,  two  of  sugar,,  one  of  cinnamon,  three 

cups  vinegar ;  peel  tomatoes  and  onions,  chop  (separately)  very  fine, 

add  the  peppers  (chopped)  with  the  other  ingredients,  and  boil  one 

and  a  half  hours.     Bottle  and  it  will  keep  a  long  time.    Stone  juga 

are  better  than  glass  cans.     One  quart  of  canned  tomatoes  may  be 

used  instead  of  the  ripe  ones.     This  Chili  sauce  is  excellent  and 

much  better  and  more  healthful  than  catsups. — Mrs.  E.   W.  Het' 

rickj 

Caper  Sauce. 

To  a  pint  of  drawn  butter,  add  three  table-spoons  of  capers* 
Serve  with  boiled  or  roast  mutton.  Another  method  is  the  follow- 
ing: Fifteen  minutes  before  the  mutton  is  done,  melt  two  table- 
spoons butter  in  a  sauce-pan,  stir  into'it  one  table-spoon  flour  ;  whes 
thoroughly  mixed  add  half  a  pint  of  the  liquor  in  which  the  mui 


CATSUPS  AND  8A  UCES.  188 

ton  is  boiling,  and  half  a  pint  of  milk,  season  with  pepper  and  salt, 
cook  a  few  minutes  (to  swell  the  grains  of  the  flour),  and  just  be- 
fore serving  (in  order  that  their  color  may  not  be  lost  by  standing) 
add  two  heaped  table-spoons  capers. 

Caper  Butter. 
Chop  one  table-spoon  of  capers  very  fine,  rub  through  a  sieve 
with  a  wooden  spoon,    and  mix  them  with  a  salt-spoon  of  salt, 
quarter  of  a  salt-spoon  of  peppor,  and  one  ounce  of  cold  butter. 
Put  a  layer  of  this  butter  on  a  dish,  and  serve  fish  on  it. 

Drawn  Butter. 
Rub  a  small  cup  of  butter  into  half  a  table-spoon  flour,  beating  it 
to  a  cream,  adding,  if  needed,  a  little  salt;  pour  on  it  half  a  pint 
boiling  water,  stirring  it  fast,  and  taking  care  not  to  let  it  quite  boil, 
as  boiling  makes  it  oUy  and  unfit  for  use.  The  boiling  may  be  pre- 
vented by  placing  the  sauce-pan  containing  it  in  a  larger  one  of  boil- 
ing water,  covering  and  shaking  frequently  until  it  reaches  the 
boiling  point.  A  great  variety  of  sauces  which  are  excellent  to  eat 
with  fish,  poultry,  or  boiled  meats,  can  be  made  by  adding  different 
herbs,  such  as  parsley,  mint,  or  sweet  marjoram,  to  drawn  butter. 
First  throw  them  into  boiling  water,  cut  fine,  and  they  are  ready  to 
be  added,  when  serve  immediately,  with  two  hard-boiled  eggs, 
chopped  fine.  This  makes  a  nice  sauce  to  serve  with  baked  fish. 
The  chopped  inside  of  a  lemon  with  the  seeds  out,  to  which  the 
chicken  liver  has  been  added,  makes  a  good  sauce  for  boiled  chicken. 
For  anchovy  sauce,  add  two  tea-spoons  of  anchovy  extract  or  paste 
(kept  by  all  grocers)  to  a  half  pint  of  drawn  butter  sauce,  and 
8tir  well.  For  lobster  sauce,  chop  the  meat  of  the  tail  and  claws 
of  a  good-sized  lobster  into  pieces  (not  too  small).  Half  an  hour 
before  dinner,  make  half  a  pint  of  drawn-butter,  add  the  chopped 
lobster,  a  pinch  of  coral,  another  of  cayenne,  and  a  little  salt. 
When  done  it  should  not  be  a  solid  mass,  but  the  pieces  of  lobster 
should  appear  distinctly  in  the  thin  cream. 

Greek  Tomato  Sauce. 
Cut  up  two  gallons  of  green  tomatoes;    take  three  gills  black 
mustard  seed,  three  table-spoons  dry  mustard,  two  and  a  half  of 
Uack  pepper,  one  and  a  half  allspice,  four  of  salt,  two  of  celery 


134  CATSUPS  AND  SA  UCES. 

seed,  one  quart  each  of  chopped  onions  and  sugar,  and  two  and 
a  half  quarts  good  vinegar,  a  little  red  pepper  to  taste.  Beat  the 
»pices  and  boil  all  together  until  well  done. 

HOLLANDAISE  SaUCE. 

Beat  half  a  tea-cup  butter  in  a  bowl  to  a  cream,  add  yolkp  of  two 
eggs,  one  bj  one,  then  juice  of  half  a  lemon,  a  pinch  of  cayenne 
pepper,  half  a  tea-spoon  salt;  place  this  in  a  sauce-pan  of  boiling 
water,  beat  with  an  egg  l>eater,  fbr  a  minute  or  two,  until  it  begins 
to  thicken,  then  add  one-half  cup  of  boiling  water,  beating  all  the 
time.  When  like  soft  custard  it  is  done.  It  will  take  five  minutes 
to  cook  if  the  bowl  is  thin  and  the  water  boils  all  the  time. 

Lemon  Sauce. 

Cut  three  slices  of  lemon  into  very  small  dice,  and  put  them  into 
drawn  butter,  let  it  come  just  to  boiling  point,  and  pour  over  boiled 
fowls. 

Mayonnaise  Sauce. 

Mix  in  a  two-quart  bowl  one  even  tea-spoon  ground  mustard,  one 
of  salt,  and  one  and  a  half  of  vinegar ;  beat  in  the  yolk  of  a  raw 
egg,  then  add  very  gi'adually  half  a  pint  pure  olive-oil  (or  melted 
butter),  beating  briskly  all  the  time.  The  mixture  will  become  a 
very  thick  batter.  Flavor  with  vinegar  or  fresh  lemon-juice. 
Closely  covered  it  will  keep  for  weeks  in  a  cold  place,  and  is 
delicious. 

Mint  Sauce. 

Take  fresh,  young  mint,  strip  leaves  from  stems,  wash,  drain  on 
a  sieve,  or  dry  them  on  a  cloth ;  chop  very  fine,  put  in  a  sauce- 
tureen,  and  to  three  heaped  table-spoons  mint  add  two  of  pounded 
sugar;  let  remain  a  few  minutes  well  mixed  together,  and  pour  over 
it  gradually  six  table-spoons  of  good  vinegar.  If  members  of  the 
family  like  the  flavor,  but  not  the  substance  of  the  mint,  the  sauce 
may  be  strained  after  it  has  stood  for  two  or  three  hours,  pressing 
it  well  to  extract  all  the  flavor.  It  is  better  to  make  the  sauce  an 
hour  or  two  before  dinner,  so  that  the  vinegar  may  be  impregnated 
with  the  mint.  The  addition  of  three  or  four  table-spoons  of  the 
liquor  from  the  boiling  lamb  is  an  improvement. 


CA  T8UP8,  AND  8A  UCES.  136 

Oyster  Sauce. 
Set  a  basin  on  the  fire  with  half  pint  oysters,  from  which  all  bits 
of  shell  have  been  picked,  and  one  pint  boiling  water ;  let  boil  three 
minutes,  skim  well,  and  then  stir  in  half  a  cup  butter  beaten  to  a 
cream,  with  two  table-spoons  flour ;  let  this  come  to  a  boil,  and  serve 
with  boiled  turkey.  Or,  make  drawn  butter,  add  a  few  drops  lemon- 
juice,  a  tablespoon  of  capers,  or  a  few  drops  vinegar,  add  oysters* 
drained  of  the  liquor,  and  let  come  to  boiling  point.  The  sauce 
is  richer  if  cream  instead  of  water  is  used  in  making  the  drawn 
butter,  but  in  this  case  do  not  add  the  lemon-juice  or  vinegar. — 

Onioh  Sauce. 
Boil  three  or  four  white  onions  till  tender,  mince  fine ;  boil  half 
pint  milk,  add  butter  half  size  of  an  eggy  salt  and  pepper  to  taste, 
and  stir  in  minced  onion  and  a  table-spoon  of  flour  which  has  been 
moistened  with  milk. — E,  H.  W. 

Roman  Sauce. 
Put  one  tea-cup  water  and  one  tea-cup  milk  on  fire  to  scald,  and 
when  hot  stir  in  a  table-spoon  flour,  previously  mixed  smooth  with  a 
very  little  cold  water,  add  three  eggs  well  beaten  and  stramed, 
season  with  salt  and  pepper,  two  table-spoons  butter  and  a  little 
vinegar ;  boil  four  eggs  hard,  slice  and  lay  over  the  dish  ;  pour  over 
sauce,  and  serve  with  boiled  fish. — Mrs.  E.  T.  E. 

Tartare  Sauce. 

Yolks  of  two  eggs,  gill  of  salad-oil  (or  melted  butter),  salt-spoon 

salt,  half  a  salt-spoon  pepper,  a  table-spoon  good  cider  vinegar,  half 

tea-spoon  mustard,  a  table-spoon  of  gherkins.     Beat  together  in  a 

amall  bowl  lightly  the  vinegar  and  yolks,  add  to  these,  drop  by  drop, 

the  salad-oil  or  melted  butter,  taking  care  to  stir  the  same  way  all  - 

the  time;  when  this  is  done,  season  the  mixture  with  pepper,  salt 

and  mustard ;  add  also  the  gherkins  finely  chopped  (or  capers  may 

be  substituted),  and  serve  in  a  gravy  boat  with  boiled  salmon  or 

cold  meats. 

Tomato  Sauce. 

Stew  ten  tomatoes  with  three  cloves,  and  pepper  and  salt,  for  fif- 
teen minutes  (some  add  a  sliced  onion  and  sprig  of  parsley),  strain 
through  a  sieve,  put  on  the  stove  in  a  saucepan  in  which  a  lump  of 


136  OA  TSUFS  AND  SA  UCES. 

butter  the  size  of  an  egg  and  level  table-spoon  flour  Have  been  well 
mixed  and  cooked  ;  stir  all  until  smooth  and  serve.  Canned  toma- 
toes may  be  used  as  a  substitute. 

Prepared  Mustard. 

Take  three  tea-ppoons  ground  mustard,  one  of  flour  (two  if  the 
mustard  seems  very  strong),  half  tea-spoon  of  sugar;  pour  boiling 
water  on  these  and  mix  into  a  smooth,  thick  paste ;  when  cold  add 
vinegar  enough  to  make  ready  for  use,  and  serve  with  salt  This 
resembles  the  French  mustard. —ifrs.  Mary  Herbert  Huntington. 

To  Prepare  Horse-radish  for  Winter. 

In  the  fall,  mix  the  quantity  wanted  in  the  following  proportions: 
A  coffee-cup  of  grated  horse-radish,  two  table-spoons  white  sugar, 
half  tea-spoon  salt,  and  a  pint  and  a  half  cold  vinegar ;  bottle  and 
seal.  To  make  horse-radish  sauce,  take  two  table-spoons  of  the 
above,  add  one  dessert-spoon  olive  oil  (or  melted  butter  or  cream), 
and  one  of  prepared  mustard. — From  a  Sovihem  hotLsekeeper. 

Shrimp  Sauce. 

Skin  a  (umbler  of  shrimps,  boil  skins  in  a  tumbler  of  water ; 
strain  this  water  in  two-thirds  tumbler  butter  previously  rubbed 
into  a  heaped  table-spoon  flour,  simmer  a  few  minutes,  add 
shrimps  finely  chopped,  let  stew  until  done.  Little  cooking  is  need- 
ed ;  salt,  pepper  and  catsup  to  taste.     A  good  fish  sauce. 

Walnut  Catsup. 

Take  forty  black  walnuts  that  you  can  stick  a  pin  through,  mash 
and  put  them  in  a  gallon  of  vinegar,  boil  it  down  to  three  quarts 
and  strain ;  add  a  few  cloves  of  garlic  or  onions,  with  any  spice 
liked,  and  salt.     When  cool,  bottle.    Have  good  corks. — Mrs.  A.  C. 

Pepper  Vinegar. 

• 

Fill  a  quart  bottle  with  small  peppers,  green  or  ripe,  put  in  two 
table-spoons  of  sugar,  and  fill  with  good  cider  vinegar.  Good  to 
eat  with  fish  or  meat,  and  invaluable  in  seasoning  sauces. — Mr»,  8,  T. 


DRINKS. 


To  avoid  adulteration,  buy  coffee  in  the  grain,  either  raw  or  in 
nnall  quantities  freshly  roasted.  The  best  kinds  are  the  Mocha  and 
Java,  and  some  prefer  to  mix  the  two,  having  roasted  them  separ 
rately  in  the  proportion  of  one-third  of  the  former  to  two-thirds  of 
the  latter.  West  India  coffee,  though  of  a  different  flavor,  is  often 
very  good. 

Roast  coffee  with  the  greatest  care — for  here  lies  the  secret  of 
success  in  coffee-making— and  in  small  quantities,  for  there  is  a 
peculiar  freshness  of  flavor  when  newly  roasted.  Pick  over  care- 
fully, wash  and  <lry  in  :i  niodenite  oven,  increase  the  heat  and  roast 
quickly,  either  in  the  oven, or  on  top  of  the  stove  or  range;  in  the 
latter  case, stir  constantly ,  and  i  n  t  he  oven  stir  ofteny  with  a  wooden 
spoon  or  ladle  kept  for  that  pu r  pose.  The  coffee  must  be  thoroughly 
and  evenly  roasted  to  a  dark  rich  brown  (not  black)  throughout,  and 
must  be  free  from  any  burnt  grains,  a  few  of  which  will  ruin  the 
flavor  of  a  large  quantity.  It  must  be  tender  and  brittle,  to  test 
which  take  a  grain,  place  it  on  the  table,  press  with  the  thumb,  and 
if  it  can  be  crushed,  it  is  done.  Stir  in  a  lump  of  butter  while  the 
ix>ffee  is  hot,  or  wait  until  about  half  cold  and  then  stir  in  a  well- 
beaten  egg.  The  latter  plan  is  very  economical,  as  cof!^  so  pre- 
pared needs  no  further  clarifying.  Keep  in  a  closely-covered  tin  or 
earthen  vessel.  Never  attempt  other  work  while  roasting  coffee, 
but  give  it  the  entire  attention.  Do  not  grind  too  fine,  and  only  in 
quantities  as  needed,  for  the  flavor  is  dissipated  if  it  is  long  unused 
after  grinding,  even  when  under  cover.  If  properly  roasted,  coffee 
will  grind  into  distinct,  hard,  and  gritty  particles,  and  not  into  a 
powder. 

087) 


188  DRINKS. 

Physicians  say  that  cofBde  without  cream  is  more  wholesome,  paiv 
ticularly  for  persons  of  weak  digestion.  There  seems  to  be  some 
element  in  the  cofiee  which,  combining  with  the  milk,  forms  a 
leathery  coating  on  the  stomach,  and  impairs  digestion. 

If  soft  water  is  used  for  making  tea,  tea  should  be  added  as  soon 
as  it  boils,  as  boiling  expels  all  the  gases  from  the  water,  but  if  soft 
water  can  not  be  had,  and  hard  water  is  used,  boil  it  from  twenty  to 
thirty  minutes  before  using.  The  boiling  drives  off  the  gases  in 
this  case,  but  it  also  causes  the  lime  and  mineral  matters,  which 
render  the  water  hard,  to  settle,  thus  softening  it. 


Making  Coffee. 

''One  for  the  pot"  and  a  heaping  table-spoon  of  ground  cofiee 
for  each  person,  is  the  usual  allowance.  Mix  well,  either  with  a 
part  or  the  whole  of  an  egg  (or  codfish  skin,  washed,  dried,  and 
cut  in  inch  pieces,  may  be  used  instead  of  egg)y  and  enough  cold 
water  to  thoroughly  moisten  it,  place  in  a  well-scalded  coffee-boiler^ 
pour  in  half  the  quantity  of  boiling  water  needed,  allowing  one 
pint  less  of  water  than  there  are  table-spoons  of  cofiee.  Boll  a  cloth 
tightly  and  stop  up  the  nose  or  spout,  thus  keeping  in  all  the  coffee 
flavor.  Boil  rather  fast  five  minutes,  stirrbg  down  from  the  top 
and  sides  as  it  boils  up,  and  place  on  back  part  of  stove  or  range 
where  it  will  only  simmer  for  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  longer.  When 
ready  to  serve  add  the  remainder  of  the  boiling  water.  Or,  another 
method  of  making  coffee  without  clearing,  is  to  stir  the  cofiee 
directly  into  the  boiling  water,  boil  and  simmer  as  above,  then 
pour  out  a  large  cupftil,  and,  holding  it  high  over  the  pot,  pour  it 
in  again ;  repeat  this,  and  set  it  on  stove  where  it  will  keep  hot, 
without  simmering.  The  coffee  will  be  clear,  if  instructions  are 
carefully  followed.  Coffee  boiled  a  long  time  is  strong,  but  not  so 
well  flavored  or  agreeable  as  when  prepared  as  above. 

To  keep  the  coffee-pot  or  tea-pot  thoroughly  pure,  boil  a  little 
borax  in  them,  in  water  enough  to  touch  the  whole  inside  surface, 
once  or  twice  a  week,  for  about  fifteen  minutes.  No  dish-water 
should  ever  touch  the  inside  of  either.  It  is  sufiicient  to  rinse  them 
in  two  or  three  waters;  this  should  be  done  as  soon  after  they  are 
used  as  possible ;  drun  dry,  and  when  ready  to  use  scald  out  in 


DRINKS.  139 

two  waters.  These  precautions  will  aid  in  preserving  the  flavor  of 
the  tea  and  coffee.  In  selecting  coffee,  choose  that  which  is  dry 
and  light ;  if  it  feels  dense  and  heavy  it  is  green. 

Filtered  Coffee. 

The  French  coffee  biggin  furnishes  the  easiest  means  for  filtering 
coffee.  It  consists  of  two  cylindrical  tin  vessels,  one  fitting  into  the 
other ;  the  bottom  of  the  upper  one  is  a  fine  strainer,  another  coarser 
strainer  is  placed  on  this  with  a  rod  running  upwards  from  its 
center;  the  finely  ground  coffee  is  put  in,  and  then  another  strainer 
is  slipped  on  the  rod,  over  the  coffee,  the  boiling  water  is  poured 
on  the  upper  sieve  and  falls  in  a  shower  upon  the  coffee,  filtering 
through  it  to  the  coarse  strainer  at  the  bottom,  which  prevents  the 
coffee  from  filling  up  the  holes  of  the  finer  strainer  below  it  The 
coffee  thus  made  is  clear  and  pure. 

The  National  Cofl^pot  is  so  widely  known  as  not  to  need  des- 
cription here,  but  the  "  gude  wife "  can  improvise  one  equally  as 
desirable  and  much  simpler.  Make  a  sack  of  fine  flannel,  or, 
canton  flannel,  as  long  as  the  coffee-pot  is  deep,  and  a  little  larger 
than  the  top ;  stich  up  the  side  seam  to  within  an  inch  and  a  half 
of  the  top,  bend  a  piece  of  small  but  rather  stiff  wire  in  a  circle  and 
dip  it  through  a.  hem  made  around  the  top  of  the  sack,  bringing 
the  ends  together  at  the  opening  left  at  the  top  of  the  side  seam. 
Having  put  the  coffee  in  the  sack,  lower  it  mto  tne  conee-poi  witn 
the  ends  of  the  wire  next  the  handle,  spread  the  ends  of  the  wire 
apart  slightly,  and  push  it  down  over  the  top  of  the  pot.  The  top 
of  the  sack  will  then  he  turned  down  a  little  over  the  outside  of  the 
pot,  a  part  of  it  covering  the  "  nose,"  and  keeping  in  all  the  aroma, 
the  elasticity  of  the  wire  causing  it  to  close  tight  around  the  pot, 
holding  the  sack  close  to  its  sides.  Instead  of  a  wire  (which  must 
be  removed  to  wash  the  sack  after  using),  a  tape  may  be  used  by 
tying  the  ends  after  turning  the  top  of  sack  down.  When  the  sack, 
with  the  coffee  in  it  is  in  its  place,  pour  the  boiling  water  over  the 
coffee,  close  the  lid  tightly,  and  let  simmer  (not  boil)  fifteen  min- 
utes to  half  an  hour.  In  pouring  for  the  table  raise  the  sack  off 
the  nose  but  not  out  of  the  pot.  This  makes  good  coffee  without 
eggg  or  any  thing  else  to  settle  it 


140  DRINKS. 

MAKiya  Tea. 

"  Polly,  put  the  kettle  on,  and  we  II  all  Uke  Tea." 

Of  all  ''cups  that  cheer/'  there  is  nothing  like  the  smoking-hot 
cup  of  tea,  made  with  boUing  water,  in  a  tkoroiighiy  scalded  tea-pot. 
Put  into  the  pot  the  required  amount  of  tea,  pour  over  it  boiling 
water,  cover  the  tea-pot  so  that  no  steam  may  escape,  and  allow  the 
tea  to  stand  and  in^se  for  seven  minutes,  when  it  should  be  poured 
at  once  into  the  cups.  If  allowed  to  infuse  longer  than  this  time, 
which  is  sufficient  to  draw  out  the  strength  of  the  leaf,  the  tannin 
is  developed,  which  gives  an  acrid,  bitter  taste,  and  being  a  power- 
ful astringent,  is  destructive  to  the  coating  of  the  stomach.  To 
insure  "keeping  hot"  while  serving,  in  a  different  tea-pot  from 
that  in  which  the  tea  is  made,  the  simple  contrivance  known  as  the 
'' bonnet '*  is  warranted  a  sure  preventive  against  that  most  in- 
sipid of  all  drinks — a  warmish  cup  of  tea.  It  is  merely  a  sack, 
with  a  loose  gathering-tape  in  the  bottom,  large  enough  to  cover 
« and  encircle  the  tea-pot,  with  a  small  opening  to  fit  the  spout,  and 
a  slit  through  which  the  handle  will  be  exposed.  IVfake  it  with  odd 
pieces  of  silk,  satin  or  cashmere,  lined,  quilted  or  embroidered ; 
draw  this  over  the  tea-pot  as  soon  as  the  tea  is  poured  into  it ;  draw 
up  the  gathering-string  tightly  at  the  bottom,  and  the  tea  will 
remain  piping  hot  for  half  an  hour.  One  tea-spoon  of  tea  and  one 
tea-cup  of  hot  water  is  the  usual  allowance  for  each  person.  FteMy 
boiled  soft  water  is  the  best  for  either  tea  or  coffee.  Always  have 
a  water-pot  of  hot  water  on  the  waiter  with  which  to  weaken  each 
cup  if  desired.  Tea  should  never  boil.  The  most  elegant  mode  of 
serving  tea  is  from  the  tea-urn,  various  forms  and  designs  of  which 
are  made  in  silver  -and  plated  ware.  The  best  tea-pot  is  that  which 
retains  heat  longest,  and  this  is  a  hrigid  metal  one,  as  it  radiates  the 
least  heat,  but  the  metal  must  be  kept  bright  and  polished.  Serve 
both  tea  and  coffee  with  the  best  and  richest  cream,  but  in  the 
absence  of  this  luxury,  a  tolerable  substitute  is  prepared  as  follows : 
Take  fresh,  new  milk,  set  in  a  pan  or  pail  in  boiling  water  where  it 
will  slowly  simmer,  but  not  boil  or  reach  the  boiling  point,  stir  fre- 
quently to  keep  the  cream  from  separating  and  rising  to  the  top, 
and  aUow  to  simmer  until  it  is  rich,  thick  and  creamy.     In  absence 


" 


I 


DRINKS.  141 

of  both  cream  and  milk,  the  white  of  an  egg  beaten  to  a  froth,  with 
a  small  bit  of  butter  well  mixed  with  it,  may  be  used.  In  pouring 
oofiee,  it  must  be  turned  on  gradually  so  as  not  to  curdle  it. 


Army  Coffee. 

Cofiee  or  tea  may  be  made  quickly  by  placing  the  required  quan- 
tity of  cold  water  in  the  pot,  and  adding  the  coffee,  tied  up  in  a^ 
Back  of  fine  gauze,  or  piece  of  muslin ;  bring  to  boiling  point,  boil' 
five  minutes  and  serve.  Make  tea  in  the  same  way,  except  that 
the  tea  is  put  loose  in  the  water,  and  simply  allowed  to  boil  up  once. 

Coffee  with  Whipped  Cream. 

For  six  cups  of  coffee  of  fair  size,  take  one  cup  sweet  cream 
whipped  light  with  a  little  sugar ;  put  into  each  cup  the  desired 
amount  of  sugar  and  about  a  table-spoon  boiling  milk ;  pour  the 
coffee  over  these  and  lay  upon  the  surface  of  the  hot  liquid  a  large 
spoonful  of  the  frothed  cream,  giving  a  gentle  stir  to  each  cup  be- 
fore serving.  This  is  known  to  some  as  meringued  coffee,  and  is  an 
elegant  IVench  preparation  of  the  popular  drink.  Chocolate  served 
m  this  wav  is  delicious. — Marion  Harland, 

Coffee  for  One  Hundred. 
Take  five  pounds  roasted  coffee,  grind  and  mix  with  six  eggs ; 

make  small  muslin  sacks,  and  in  each  place  a  pint  of  coffee,  leaving 

room  for  it  to  swell ;  put  five  gallons  boiling  water  in  a  large  cofiee 

urn  or  boiler  having  a  faucet  at  the  bottom ;  put  in  part  of  the  sacks 

and  boil  two  hours ;  five  or  ten  minutes  before  serving  raise  the  lid 

and  add  one  or  two  more  sacks,  and  if  you  continue  serving  several 

times  add  fresh  sacks  at  regular  intervals,  taking  out  from  time  to 

time  those  first  put  in  and  filling  up  with  boiling  water  as  needed. 

In  this  way  the  full  strength  of  the  coffee  is  secured  and  the  fresh 

supplies  impart  that  delicious  flavor  consequent  on  a  few  momenta 

boiling. 

To  make  coffee  for  twenty  persons,  us6  one  and  a  half  pints 
ground  cofiee  and  one  gallon  of  water. — Mrs.  C.  8.  Ogden. 

Steamed  Coffee.  , 

Put  coffee  into  the  pot,  pour  the  boiling  water  on  it ;  place  tliis 
pot  (which  is  made  to  fit)  into  the  top  of  the  tea-kettle,  and  let 
cook  from  ten  to  twenty  minutes,  while  water  in  kettle  is  kept 


142  DRINKSL 

boiling  all  the  time.  This  makes  a  clear,  delicious  coffee.  Some 
persons  hold  that  by  first  wetting  the  coffee  with  cold  water,  bring- 
ing  it  to  boiling  point,  and  then  pouring  in  water,  more  of  the  strength 
is  extracted. 

Vienna  Coffee. 

Filter  instead  of  boibng  the  cofilee,  allowing  one  table-spoon  ground 
coffee  to  each  person  and  ''  one  for  the  pot;'*  put  a  quart  of  cream 
into  a  custard-kettle  or  pail  set  in  boiling  water,  and  put  it  where  it 
will  keep  boiling ;  beat  the  white  of  an  egg  to  a  froth,  and  mix 
well  with  three  table-spoons  cold  milk.  As  soon  as  the  cream  is 
hot,  remove  from  fire,  add  the  mixed  egg  and  milk,  stir  together 
briskly  for  a  minute,  and  then  serve. 

Another  method  is  U)  pour  boiling  water  over  the  coffee,  cover 
closely,  boil  one  minute,  remove  tc  the  side  of  the  stove  a  few  min* 
utes  to  settle,  and  serve.  Allow  two  heaping  table-spoons  coflee  to 
a  pint  of  water.  The  less  time  the  coffee  is  cooked  the  more  coffee 
18  required,  but  the  finer  the  flavor.  The  late  Professor  Blot  pro- 
tested against  boiling  the  coffee  at  all,  as  in  his  opinion  the  aroma 
was  evaporated,  and  only  the  bitter  flavor  left. 

Chocolate. 

Take  six  table-spoons  scraped  chocolate,  or  three  of  chocolate  and 
three  of  cocoa,  dissolve  in  a  quart  of  boiling  water,  boil  hard  fifteen 
minutes,  add  one  quart  of  rich  milk,  let  scald  and  serve  hot ;  this 
IS  enough  for  six  persons.  Cocoa  can  also  be  made  after  this  recipe. 
Some  boil  either  cocoa  or  chocolate  only  one  minute  and  then  serve, 
while  others  make  it  the  day  before  using,  boiling  it  for  one  hour, 
and  when  cool  skimming  off  the  oil,  and  when  wanted  for  use,  heat 
it  to  the  boiling  point  and  add  the  milk.  In  this  way  it  is  equally 
good  and  much  more  wholesome.  Cocoa  is  firom  the  seed  of  the 
fruit  of  a  small  tropical  tree.  There  are  several  forms  in  which  it 
is  sold,  the  most  nutritious  and  convenient  being  chocolate,  the 
next  cocoa,  then  cocoa  nibs,  and  last  cocoa  shells.  The  ground 
bean  is  simply  cocoa;  ground  fine  and  mixed  with  sugar  it  is  choco- 
]ate ;  the  beans  broken  into  bits  are  "  nibs."  The  shells  are  the 
shells  of  the  bean,  usually  removed  before  grinding.  The  beans 
are  roasted  like  coffee,  and  ground  between  hot  rollers. 


DEINKS.  143 

Vienna  Chocolate. 

Put  into  a  co£fee-pot  set  in  boiling  water,  one  quart  of  new  milk 

{or  a  pint  each  of  cream  and  milk),  stir  into  it  three  heaping  table- 

Bpoons  grated  chocolate  mixed  to  a  paste  with  cold  milk,  let  it  boil 

two  or  three  minutes,  and  serve  at  once.    To  make  good  chocolate, 

good  materials  are  required. 

Cider. 

Cider  should  be  made  from  ripe  apples  only,  and  for  this  reason, 
and  to  prevent  fermentation,  it  is  better  to  make  it  late  in  the 
season.  Use  only  the  be^t-flavored  grafted  fruit,  rejecting  all  that 
are  decayed  or  wormy.  The  best  mills  crush,  not  grind,  the  apples. 
The  utmost  neatness  is  necessary  throughout  the  process.  Press  and 
strain  juice  as  it  comes  from  the  press  through  a  woollen  cloth  into 
a  perfectly  clean  barrel;  let  stand  two  or  three  days  if  cool,  if 
warm  not  more  than  a  day;  rack  once  a  week  for  four  weeks,  put 
in  bottles  and  cork  tightly.  This  will  make  perfect  unfermented 
cider.  Do  not  put  any  thing  in  it  to  preserve  it,  as  all  so-called 
preservatives  are  humbugs.  Lay  the  bottles  away  on  their  sides  in 
sawdust. — C.  T.  Canon,  Ml,  Pleasant  Farm, 

Bottled  Cider. 

Take  good  sweet  cider  (if  a  tart  flavor  is  wished,  let  it  just  be- 
g^  to  ferment),  put  on  stove,  sldm  tfumyughly  (as  the  great  secret  is 
to  remove  all  pumice  from  the  cider),  heat  to  boiling  point,  but  do 
not  allow  it  to  boil,  and  then  pour  in  bottles  or  jugs  and  seal  while 
hot  Some  put  two  or  three  raisins  in  each  bottle  or  jug.  This 
keeps  all  winter.  It  certainly  makes  a  richer  drink  than  when 
fresh,  and  as  cider  is  pronounced  a  great  remedy  for  colds,  aU 
should  know  this  simple  way  of  keeping  it.  ^ 

Orandmotheb^s  Harvest  Drink. 

One  quart  of  water,  table-spoon  sifted  gingCTi  three  heaping 
table-spoons  sugar,  half  pint  vinegar. 

Egonoo. 

Stir  half  a  cup  of  sugar  (white),  yolks  of  six  eggs  well  beaten, 
bto  one  quart  of  rich  cream;  add  half  a  pint  of  brandy,  flavor  with 
nutmeg,  and  lastly  add  whites  of  the  eggs  well  whipped. — M,  H. 


144  DRINKS, 

Raspberry  Shrub. 
Place  red  raspberries  in  a  stone  jar,  cover  them  with  good  elder 
vinegar,  let  stand  over  night ;  next  morning  strain,  and  to  one  pint 
of  juice  add  one  pint  of  sugar,  boil  ten  minutes,  and  bottle  while 

hot. — Mrs.  Judge  Wed. 

Syllabub. 

Place  half  a  pint  of  port  and  six  heaping  table-spoons  of  white 

sugar  in  a  bowl ;  in  another  vessel  put  one  quart  of  sweet  milk  or 

cream,  lukewarm ;  when  sugar  dissolves,  pour  in  milk,  holding  it 

high,  grate  nutmeg  over  it.— Mrs.  M.  E.' Porter,  Prince  Oeorge 

Court  House,  Va. 

Soda  Beer. 
Two  pounds  white  sugar,  whites  of  two  eggs,  two  ounces  tartaric 

acid,  two  table-spoons  flour,  two  quarts  water  and  juice  of  one 

lemon;   boil  two  or  three  minutes,  and  flavor  to  taste.     When 

wanted  for  use,  take  a  half  tea-spoon  soda,  dissolve  in  half  a  glass 

of  water,  pour  into  it  about  two  table-spoons  of  the  acid,  and  it  will 

foam  to  the  top  of  the  glass. — Mrs.  Geo.  W.  Sampson. 

Lemon  Syrup. 
Take  the  juice  of  twelve  lemons,  grate  the  rind  of  six  in  it,  let  it 

stand  over  night,  then  take  six  pounds  of  white  sugar,  and  make  a 

thick  syrup.     When  it  is  quite  cool,  strain  the  juice  into  it,  and 

SQueeze  as  much  oil  from  the  grated  rind  as  will  suit  the  taste.     A 

table-spoonful  in  a  goblet  of  water  will  make  a  delicious  drink  on  a 

hot  day,  fiir  superior  to  that  prepared  from  the  stuff  commonly 

sold  as  lemon  syrup. — Miss  Abbie  O.  Backus. 

Iced  Tea. 
Prepare  tea  in  the  morning,  making  it  stronger  and  sweeter  than 

usual;  strain  and  pour  into  a  clean  stone  jug  or  glass  bottle,  and 
set  aside  in  the  ice-chest  until  ready  to  use.  Drink  from  goblets 
without  cream.  Serve  ice  broken  in  small  pieces  on  a  platter  nicely 
garnished  with  well-washed  grape-leaves.  Iced  tea  may  be  pre- 
pared from  either  green  or  black  alone,  but  it  is  considered  an  im- 
provement to  mix  the  two.  Tea  made  like  that  for  iced  tea  (or  that 
left  in  the  tea-pot  after  a  meal),  with  sugar  to  taste,  a  slice  or  two 
of  lemon,  a  little  of  the  juice,  and  some  pieces  of  cracked  ice, 
makes  a  delightful  drink.     Serve  in  {i^lasses. 


EGGS. 


The  fresher  they  are  the  better  and  more  wholesome,  though 
new-laid  eggs  require  to  be  cooked  longer  thaa  others.  Eggs  over" 
a  week  old  will  do  to  fry,  but  not  to  boil.  In  boiling,  they  are  less 
likely  to  crack  if  dropped  in  water  not  quite  to  the  boiling  point. 
Eggs  will  cook  soil  in  three  minutes,  hard  in  five,  very  hard  (to 
serve  with  salads,  or  to  slice  thin — seasoned  well  with  pepper  and 
salt— and  put  between  thin  slices  of  bread  and  butter)  in  ten  to 
fifteen  minutes.  There  is  an  objection  to  the  ordinary  way  of  boil- 
ing eggs  not  generally  understood.  The  white,  under  three  min- 
utes rapid  cooking,  is  toughened  and  becomes  indigestible,  and  yet 
the  yolk  is  left  uncooked.  To  be  wholesome,  eggs  should  be  cooked 
evenly  to  the  center,  and  this  result  is  best  reached  by  putting  the 
eggs  into  a  dish  having  a  tight  cover  (a  tin  pail  will  do),  and 
pouring  boiling  water  over  them  in  the  proportion  of  two  quarts  to 
a  dozen  eggs ;  cover,  and  set  away  from  the  stove ;  after  cooking 
about  seven  minutes  remove  cover,  turn  the  eggs,  replace  cover, 
and  in  six  or  seven  minutes  they  will  be  done  if  only  two  or  three 
eggs ;  if  more,  in  about  ten  minutes.  The  heat  of  the  water  cooks 
the  eggs  slowly  to  a  jelly-like  consistency,  and  leaves  the  yolk  harder 
than  the  white.  The  egg  thus  cooked  is  very  nice  and  rich.  To 
fiy  eggs,  after  fiying  ham,  drop  one  by  one  in  the  hot  fat  and  dip 
it  over  them,  until  the  white  is  set ;  dust  with  pepper  and  salt,  and 
serve  hot ;  cook  from  three  to  five  minutes,  according  to  taste. 

Put  eggs  in  water  in  a  vessel  with  a  smooth  level  bottom,  to  tell 
good  from  bad ;  those  which  lie  on  the  side  are  good,  but  reject 

10  (146) 


146  EQQ& 

those  which  stand  on  end  as  bad ;  or,  look  through  each  egg  separ 
^  ratelj  toward  the  son,  or  toward  a  lamp  in  a  darkened  room ;  if  the 
*  white  looks  dear,  and  the  yolk  can  be  easily  distinguished,  the  egg 
b  good ;  if  a  dark  spot  appears  in  either  white  or  yolk,  it  is  stale ; 
if  they  appear  heavy  and  dark,  or  if  they  gurgle  when  shaken 
gently,  they  are  '*  totally  depraved."  The  best  and  safest  plan  is 
to  break  each  egg  in  a  saucer  before  using.  For  preserving  eggs 
for  winter  use,  always  secure  fresh  ones ;  after  packing,  cover  closely 
and  keep  in  a  cool  place. 

TO  MAKE  OMELETS. 

To  make  an  omelet,  beat  the  yolks  lightly  (twelve  beats  is  said 
to  be  the  magic  number),  as  too  much  beating  makes  them  thin 
and  destroys  the  appearance  of  the  omelet,  then  add  the  milk,  the 
salt,  pepper,  and  flour  if  any  is  used,  and  lastly  the  whites  beaten 
to  a  stiff  froth.  Have  the  skillet  as  hot  as  it  can  be  without 
scorching  the  butter ;  put  in  a  table-spoon  of  butter  and  pour  in 
the  omelet,  which  should  at  once  begin  to  bubble  and  rise  in  flakes. 
Slip  under  it  a  thin,  broad-bladed  knife,  and  every  now  and  then 
raise  it  up  to  prevent  burning.  As  soon  as  the  under  side  is  hard 
enough  to  hold  together,  and  the  eggs  begin  to  ''set,"  fold  over, 
shake  the  skillet  so  as  to  entirely  free  the  omelet,  carefully  slide  it 
on  a  hot  platter,  and  serve  at  once.  It  should  be  cooked  in  fit>m 
three  to  five  minutes.  To  bake  an  omelet,  place  in  the  frying-pan 
on  top  of  stove  until  it  begins  to  *'  set"  in  the  middle,  then  place  in 
a  rather  hot  oven ;  when  slightly  browned,  fold  if  you  like,  or  turn 
a  hot  dish  on  top  of  the  pan,  upset  the  latter  with  a  quick  motion, 
and  so  dish  the  omelet  with  the  under  side  uppermost.  It  should 
be  baked  in  from  five  to  ten  minutes.  Where  a  large  quantity  of 
eggs  are  used,  instead  of  making  into  one  large  omelet,  divide  and 
make  several,  sending  each  to  the  table  as  soon  as  done.  Three 
eggs  make  a  good-sized  omelet.  Ham,  chicken,  and  all  kinds  of 
meat  omelets,  are  made  by  chopping  the  meat  fine  and  placing 
between  the  folds  before  dishing.  In  making  vegetable  (asparagus, 
tomatoes,  cauliflower,  etc.)  omelets,  cook  the  vegetables  as  if  for  the 
table;  place  them  in  the  center  of  the  omelet  just  before  folding. 

For  a  plain,  easily-made  omelet,  take  three  tsble-spoons  milk  and 


£:aas.  147 

a  pioch  of  salt  for  eacli  egg;  beat  the  eggs  lightly  for  three  or  four 
minutes,  pour  them  into  a  hot  pan  in  which  a  piece  of  butter  the 
aze  of  a  walnut  has  just  been  melted,  cook  three  or  four  minutes, 
fold  over  and  serve  at  once.  Some  scald  a  little  parsley,  pour  off 
the  water,  chop  it,  and  mix  with  the  omelet  just  before  pouring 
into  the  pan.  Old  cheese,  grated  and  added  to  a  plain  omelet,  is  a 
&yorite  dish.  To  make  a  bread  omelet,  remove  all  crust  from  a 
large  slice  of  light,  white  bread,  moisten  with  sweet  milk,  rub 
through  a  sieve,  add  to  the  yolks,  beat  very  thoroughly,  and  season 
with  salt  and  pepper  to  taste,  adding  beaten  whites  last. 


Boiled  Eggs. 

Put  them  on  in  cold  water,  and  when  it  has  boiled,  the  eggs  will 

be  done,  the  whites  being  soft  and  digestible,  as  they  are  not  when 

put  on  in  boiling  water. 

Baked  Eggs. 

Break  eight  eggs  into  a  well-buttered  dish,  put  in  pepper  and 
Bah,  bits  of  butter,  and  three  table-spoons  cream ;  set  in  oven  and 
bake  about  twenty  minutes ;  serve  very  hot. 

Birds'  Nest. 

Boil  eggs  hard,  remove  shells,  surround  with  force-meat ;  fry  or 

bake  them  till  nicely  browned,  cut  in  halves,  and  place  in  the  dish 

with  gravy. 

Curried  Eggs. 

Slice  two  onions  and  fry  in  butter,  add  a  table-spoon  curry-powder 
and  one  pint  good  broth  or  stock,  stew  till  onions  are  quite  tender, 
add  a  cup  of  cream  thickened  with  arrowroot  or  rice  flour,  simmer 
a  few  moments,  then  add  eight  or  ten  hard-boiled  eggs,  cut  in  slices, 
and  beat  them  well,  but  do  not  boil. — Mrs.  E.  L.  Fay^  Washington 

ESCALOPED  EgG3. 

Moisten  bread-crumbs  with  milk  or  meat  broth;  place  a  layer  ot 
this  in  a  well-buttered  dish ;  slice  some  hard-boiled  eggs,  and  dip 
each  slice  in  a  thick-drawn  butter  sauce  to  which  a  well-beaten  egg 
bas  been  added ;  put  a  layer  of  them  upon  the  crumbs,  then  a 
slight  layer  of  minced  ham,  veal  or  chicken,  then  bread,  etc.,  fin- 


148  EQQ& 

ishing  with  dry,  sifted  bread-crumbs ;  bake  until  M^ell  heated ;  or, 
mix  equal  parts  minced  ham  and  fine  bread-crumbs,  season  with 
salt,  pepper  and  melted .  butter,  adding  milk  to  moisten  till  quite 
soft ;  half  fill  buttered  gem-pans  or  small  patty-pans  with  this  mix- 
ture, and  break  an  egg  carefully  upon  the  top  of  each,  dust  with 
salt  and  pepper,  sprinkle  finely  powdered  crackers  over  all,  set  in 
the  oven  and  bake  eight  minutes ;  serve  immediately. 

Frizzled  Ham  and  Egos. 

Take  bits  of  either  boiled  or  iried  ham,  chop  fine,  and  place  in 

skillet  prepared  with  butter  or  beef  drippings ;  take  four  to  six  well* 

beaten  eggs,  pour  over  han),  and  when  heated  through,  season  well 

with  pepper  and  salt ;  stir  together,  cook  until  done  brown,  and  turn 

over  without  stirring. 

Puff  Omelet. 

Stir  into  the  yolks  of  six  eggs,  and  the  whites  of  three  beaten  very 
light,  one  table-spoon  of  flour  mixed  into  a  tea-cup  of  cream  or  milk, 
with  salt  and  pepper  to  taste ;  melt  a  table-spoon  butter  in  a  pan, 
pour  in  the  mixture  and  set  the  pan  into  a  hot  oven;  when  it 
thickens,  pour  over  it  the  remaining  whites  of  eggs  weU  beaten, 
return  it  to  the  oven  and  let  it  bake  a  delicate  brown.  Slip  off  on 
large  plate,  and  eat  as  soon  as  done. — Mrs.  W.  D.  HaUf  Hawtey^ 
Minn. 

Poached  Eggs. 

Break  and  drop  them  one  at  a  time  in  salted  water,  to  which 
some  add  a  small  lump  of  butter;  some  say  drop  in  when  simmer- 
ing, others  when  boiling,  not  letting  it  boil  again  aftier  patting  in 
the  eggs;  others  have  water  boiling,  salt,  then  place  it  where  it 
will  stop  boiling,  drop  in  eggs,  and  let  simmer  gently  till  done.  Al- 
ways take  great  care  in  keeping  the  yolk  whole.  To  preserve  the 
egg  round,  muffin  rings  may  be  placed  in  the  water,  or  stir  with  a 
spoon  and  drop  in  the  eddy  thus  made,  stirring  till  egg  is  cooked. 
To  serve  them,  toast  squares  of  bread  three-quarters  of  an  inch 
thick,  put  a  very  little  melted  butter  upon  each  slice,  place  on  a 
heated  platter,  lay  an  egg  on  each  square,  and  sprinkle  with  pepper 
and  salt.  Some  put  a  bit  of  butter  on  each  egg.  Serve  with  Wor* 
eester  sauce  if  desired.    Some  poach  eggs  in  milk,  serving  them  in 


EQGS.  149 

eauoe  dishes  with  some  of  the  milk,  and  seasoiuDg  with  pepper  and 
salt 

Pickled  Egos. 

Pint  strong  vinegar,  half  pint  cold  water,  tea-spoon  each  of  cinna^ 
mon,  allspice,  and  mace ;  boil  the  eggs  till  very  hard  and  take  off 
the  shell ;  put  on  the  spices  tied  in  a  white  muslin  bag,  in  the  cold 
water,  boil,  and  if  the  water  wastes  away,  add  enough  so  as  to  leave 
a  half  pint  when  done;  add  tlie  vinegar,  and  pour  over  the  egg^^ 
put  in  as  many  eggs  as  the  mixture  will  cover,  and  when  they  are 
used,  the  same  will  do  for  another  lot.  Or,  after  boiling  (hard)  and 
removing  shell,  place  in  jar  of  beet  pickles,  and  the  white  will  be- 
come red ;  cut  in  two  in  serving. 

Scrambled  Egos. 
Li  a  deep  earthen  pie-plate,  warm  sweet  milk,  allowing  two  table- 
spoons to  each  egg  (or  less,  with  a  large  number  of  eggs),  add  a  bit  of 
butter  size  of  a  walnut,  and  a  little  salt  and  pepper.  When  nearly 
to  boiling  point  drop  in  the  eggs,  broken  one  at  a  time  in  a  saucer ; 
with  a  spoon  or  thin-bladed  knife  gently  cut  the  ^;g8,  and  scrape 
the  mixture  up  from  the  bottom  of  the  plate  as  it  cooks.  If  it  begins 
to  cook  dry  and  fast  at  the  bottom,  move  the  dish  back  instantly,  for 
success  depends  wholly  on  cooking  gently  and  evenly,  proportions 
beiog  of  secondary  importance.  Take  from  stove  before  it  has  quite 
all  thickened,  and  continue  turning  it  up  from  bottom  of  dish  a 
moment  longer.  If  served  in  another  dish  (it  keeps  warmer  served  in 
same)  have  it  well  heated.  The  mixture  should  jbe  in  large  flakes 
of  mingled  white  and  yellow,  and  as  delicate  as  baked  custard. 
Some  prefer  them  scrambled  without  the  milk. — Mrs,  L.  S.  WUlia* 
ton,  Jamegtown,  N.  Y, 

Stuffed  Eggs. 

Cut  in  two,  hard-boiled  eggs,  remove  yolks,  chop,  and  mix  with 
them  chopped  cold  chicken,  lamb,  or  veal  (some  add  a  little  minced 
onion  or  parsley  and  a  few  soaked  bread-crumbs),  season,  and  add 
gravy  or  the  uncooked  yolk  of  an  e^,  form,  fill  in  the  cavities, 
level,  gut  the  two  halves  together,  roll  in  beaten  egg  and  bread- 
emmbe,  put  in  wire  egg-basket,  and  dip  in  boiling  lard;  when 
slightly  brown,  serve  with  celery  or  tomato  sauce- 


150  EGGS. 

To  Keej*  Egob. 

Put  a  two  inch  layer  of  salt  In  bottom  of  stone  jar,  then  a  layev 
of  fresh  eggs,  small  end  down;  then  salt,  then  eggs,  and  so  on  till 
jar  is  full,  with  a  layer  of  salt  at  top;  cover  and  put  in  a  cool  place, 
but  not  where  they  will  freeze.  This  is  a  simple,  easy,  and  inex- 
pensive way,  and  has  been  tested  for  years.  Or,  dip  the  eggs  in 
melted  wax,  or  a  weak  solution  of  gum,  or  in  flax-seed  oil,  or  rub 
over  simply  with  lard,  each  of  which  renders  the  shell  impervious 
to  air,  and  pack  away  in  oats  or  bran.  For  one's  own  use  the  latter 
is  a  good  method,  keeping  the  eggs  perfectly,  but  it  discolors  tho 
shells,  and  renders  them  unfit  for  market 

There  has  always  existed  a  great  diflerence  of  opinion  as  to  which 
end  down  eggs  shoidd  be  placed  in  packing  for  winter  use.  W.  H. 
Todd,  the  well  known  Ohio  breeder  of  poultry,  gives  what  seems 
to  be  a  sound  reason  for  packmg  them  larger  end  down.  He  says: 
**  The  air-chamber  is  in  the  larger  end,  and  if  that  is  placed  down 
the  yolk  will  not  break  through  and  touch  the  sheU,  and  thereby 
spoil.  Another  thing,  if  the  air-chamber  is  down,  the  egg  is  not  as 
liable  to  shrink  away.  These  are  two  important  reasons  deducted 
from  experiments,  and  they  materially  aflect  the  keeping  of  eggs." 

Washington  Omelet. 
Let  one  tea-cup  milk  come  to  a  boil,  pour  it  over  one  tea-cup 
bread-crumbs  and  let  stand  a  few  minutes.  Break  six  eggs  into  a 
bowl ;  stir  (not  beat)  till  well  mixed  ;  then  add  the  milk  and  bread  ; 
mix ;  season  with  salt  and  pepper  and  pour  into  a  hot  skillet,  in 
which  a  large  tablespoon  of  butter  had  been  melted;  fry  slowly, 
cut  in  squares,  turn,  fry  to  ajdelicate  brown,  and  serve  at  once. — 
Mrs,  D.  Buxton, 

To  Preserve  Eggs. 

Make  a  solution  of  lime  in  rain-water,  and  allow  the  eggs  to  re- 
main in  it  for  several  days.  The  lime  will  form  a  coating  over  the 
shells  and  in  the  pores.  Pack  the  eggs  thus  prepared  in  sawdust 
or  chopped  straw. 


FISH. 


Hah  is  easier  of  digestion  but  less  nutritious  than  meats,  if  sal- 
mon is  excepted,  which  is  extremely  hearty  food,  and  should  be 
eaten  sparingly  by  children  and  those  whose  digestion  is  not  strong. 
Fish  must  be  fresh,  the  fr^her  the  better— those  being  most  perfect 
which  go  straight  from  their  native  element  into  the  hands  of  the 
cook.  The  white  kinds  are  least  nutritious;  and  the  oily,  such  as 
flalmon,  eels,  herrings,  etc.,  most  difficult  of  digestion.  When  fish 
are  in  season,  the  muscles  are  firm  and  they  boil  white  and  curdy; 
when  transparent  and  bluish,  though  sufficiently  bofled,  it  is  a 
sign  that  they  are  not  in  season  or  not  fresh. 

As  soon  as  possible  after  fish  are  caught,  remove  all  scales  (these 
may  be  loosened  by  pouring  on  hot  water),  and  scrape  out  entrails 
aDd  every  particle  of  blood  and  the  white  skin  that  lies  along  the 
backbone,  being  careful  not  to  crush  the  fish  more  than  is  abeo- 
lately  necessary  in  cleaning.  Binse  thoroughly  in  cold  water,  using 
Qoly  what  is  necessary  for  perfect  cleanliness,  drain,  wipe  dry,  and 
place  on  ice  until  ready  to  cook.  To  remove  the  earthy  taste  from 
fresh-water  fish,  sprinkle  with  salt,  and  let  stand  over  night,  or  at 
least  a  few  hours,  before  cooking;  rinse  off,  wipe  dry,  and  to  con> 
pletely  absorb  all  the  moisture,  place  in  a  folded  napkin  a  short 
time.  Fresh-water  fish  should  never  be  soaked  in  water  except 
when  frozen,  when  they  may  be  placed  in  ice-cold  water  to  thaw, 
and  then  cooked  immediately.  Salt  fish  may  be  soaked  over  night 
in  cold  water,  changing  water  once  or  twice  if  very  salt  To 
freshen  fish,  always  place  it  skin-side  up,  so  that  the  salt  may 
have  free  course  to  the  bottom  of  pan,  where  it  naturally  setties. 


152  FJSK 

Fish  should  always  be  well  cooked,  being  both  unpalatable  and 
unwholesome  when  underdone.  For  boiling,  a  fish-kettle  is  almost 
indispensable,  as  it  is  very  difficult  to  remove  a  large  fish  without 
breaking  from  an  ordinary  kettle.  The  fish-kettle  is  an  oblong 
boiler,  in  which  is  suspended  a  perforated  tin  plate,  with  a  handle  at 
each  end,  on  which  the  fish  rests  while  boiling,  and  with  which  it  is 
lifted  out  when  done.  From  this  tin  it  is  eiisily  slipped  off  to  the 
platter  on  which  it  goes  to  the  table.  When  no  fish-kettle  is  at 
hand,  wrap  in  a  cloth,  lay  in  a  circle  on  a  plate,  and  set  in  the 
kettle.  When  done  the  fish  may  be  lifted  out  gently  by  the  cloth 
and  thus  removed  to  the  platter. 

In  fi-ying  by  dipping  into  hot  fat  or  drippings  (or  olive  oil  is  still 
better),  a  wire  basket  in  which  the  fish  is  placed  and  lowered  into 
the  fat,  is  a  great  convenience. 

One  of  the  most  essential  things  in  serving  fish,  is  to  have  every 
thing  hot,  and  quickly  dished,  so  that  all  may  go  to  the  table  at 
once.  Serve  fresh  fish  with  squash  and  green  pease,  salt  fish  with 
beets  and  carrots,  salt  pork  and  potatoes  and  parsnips  with  either. 

In  the  East  there  is  a  great  variety  of  fish  in  winter.  The 
blue  fi{<h  is  excellent  boiled  or  baked  with  a  stuffing  of  bread, 
butter  and  onions.  3ea-bass  are  boiled  with  egg-sauce,  and  gaj> 
nished  with  parsley.  Salmon  are  baked  or  boiled,  and  smelts  are 
cooked  by  dropping  into  boiling  fat.  The  sheap's-head,  which  re- 
quires most  cooking  of  all  fish,  is  always  stuffed  and  baked. 

Nearly  all  the  larger  fresh  fish  are  boiled,  the  medium-sized  are 
baked  or  broiled  and  the  small  are  fried.  The  verj'  large  ones  are 
cut  up  and  sold  in  pieces  of  convenient  size.  The  method  of  cook- 
ing Avhich  retains  most  nourishment  is  broiling,  baking  is  next  best, 
and  boiling  poorest  of  all.  Steaming  is  better  than  boiling.  Li 
baking  or  boiling  place  a  fish  as  nearly  as  possible  in  the  same 
position  it  occupies  in  the  water.  To  retain  it  there,  shape  like  the 
letter  "S,"  pass  a  long  skewer  through  the  head,  body,  and  tail, 
or  tie  a  cord  around  tail,  pass  it  through  body,  and  tie  around  the 
head. 

In  cooking  fish,  care  must  be  taken  Tiot  to  use  the  same  knives  or 
Bpoons  in  the  preparation  of  it  and  other  food,  or  the  latter  will  be 
tainted  with  the  fishy  flavor. 


FISH.  153 

In  boiling  fish,  allow  five  to  ten  minutes  to  the  pound,  according 
to  thickness,  after  putting  into  the  boiling  water.  To  test,  pass  a 
kuiie  along  a  bone,  and  if  done  liie  fish  will  separate  easily.  Be- 
move  the  moment  it  is  done,'  or  it  will  become  '*  woolly"  and  in- 
apid.  The  addition  of  salt  and  vinegar  to  water  in  which  fish  is 
boiled,  seasons  the  fish,  and  at  the  same  time  hardens  the  water, 
%o  that  it  extracts  less  of  the  nutritious  part  of  the  fish.  In  boil- 
iDg  fish  always  plunge  it  into  boiling  water,  and  then  set  where  it 
will  simmer  gently  until  done.  In  case  of  salmon,  put  into  tepid 
water  instead  of  hot,  to  preserve  the  rich  color.  Garnishes  for  fish 
are  parsley,  sliced  l)eeU«,  fried  smelts  (for  turbot),  lobster  coral  (for 
boiled  fish).     For  hints  on  buying  fij^h,  see  **  Marketing." 

Baked  Fish. 
Clean,  rinse,  and  wipe  dry  a  white  fish,  or  any  fish  weighing  three 
or  four  pounds*  rub  the  fish  inside  and  out  with  salt  and  pepper,  fill 
with  a  stuflSng  made  like  that  for  poultry,  but  drier ;  sew  it  up 
and  put  in  a  hot  pan,  with  some  drij)pings  and  a  lump  of  butter, 
dredge  with  flour,  and  lay  over  the  fis^h  a  few  thin  slices  of  salt 
pork  or  bits  of  butter,  and  bake  an  hour  and  a  half,  basting  occa- 
abnally. — Jfr«.  A.   Wilson^  Bye,  Neiv  York. 

Baked  Shad. 
Open  and  clean  the  fish,  cut  off  head  (or  not  as  preferred)  cut 
out  the  backl)one  from  the  head  to  within  two  inches  of  the  tail, 
and  fill  with  the  following  mixture:  Soak  stale  bread  in  water, 
squeeze  dry ;  cut  a  large  onion  in  pieces,  fry  in  butter,  chop  fine,  * 
add  the  bread,  two  ounces  of  butter,  salt,  pepper,  and  a  little  pars- 
lev  or  sage;  heat  thoroughly,  and  when  taken  from  the  fire, add  two 
yolks  of  well-l)eaten  eggs;  stuff,  and,  when  full,  wjn^  the  fish  sev- 
eral times  with  tape,  place  in  baking-pan,  baste  slightly  with  butter, 
and  cover  the  bottom  of  pan  with  water;  serve  with  the  following 
eauee:  Reduce  the  yolks  of  two  hard-boiled  eggs  to  a  smooth  paste, 
add  two  table-spoons  olive-oil,  half  tea-spoon  mustard,  and  pepper 
and  vinegar  to  taste. — Miss  H.  D.  M. 

Baked  Salmox,  Trout  ok  Pickerei.. 
Clean  thoroughly,  wipe  carefully,  and  lay  in  a  dripping-pan  with 
bot  water  enough  to  prevent  scorching  (a  perforated  tin  sheet  or 


154  FISH. 

rack  fitting  loosely  in  the  pan,  or  several  muffin-rings  may  be  used 
to  keep  the  fish  from  the  bottom  of  the  pan,  and  the  fish  may  be 
made  to  form  a  circle  by  tying  head  and  tail  together);  bake  slowly, 
basting  often  with  butter  and  water.  When  done  have  ready  a  cup 
of  sweet  cream  into  which  a  few  spoons  of  hot  water  have  been 
poured,  stir  in  two  table-spoons  melted  butter  and  a  little  chopped 
parsley,  and  heat  in  a  vessel  of  boiling  water ;  add  the  gravy  firom 
the  dish  and  boil  up  once.  Place  the  fish  in  a  hot  dish,  and  pour 
over  the  sauce. — Mrs.  Uieo.  Brcnvn,  Cape  Oirardeau,  Mo, 

GoDFiBH  A  -La  Mode. 

TeaKSup  codfish  picked  up  fine,  two  cups  mashed  potatoes,  one 
pint  cream  or  milk,  two  eggs  well  beaten,  half  tea-cup  butter,  salt 
and  pepper  ;  mix  well,  bake  in  baking-dish  from  twenty  to  twenty- 
five  minutes. — Mrs.  E.  L.  Fay^  New  York  (Xty. 

Boiled  Fish. 

To  boll  a  fish,  fill  with  a  rich  dressing  of  rolled  crackers  seasoned 
with  butter,  pepper,  salt  and  sage,  wrap  it  in  a  well-floured  cloth, 
tie  closely  with  twine  or  sew,  and  place  in  well-salted  boiling  water. 
Place  where  it  will  simmer  from  eight  to  ten  minutes  to  the  pound, 
according  to  size  and  thickness  of  fish. — Mrs.  Henry  C.  Farrar, 
Cleveland^  Tenn. 

BoDLED  Codfish. 

Soak  over  night,  put  in  a  pan  of  cold  water,  and  simmer  two  or 
three  hours.  Serve  with  drawn  butter,  with  hard-boiled  eggs  sliced 
on  it  Codfish  is  also  exceUent  broiled.  After  soaking  sufficiently, 
grease  the  bars  of  the  gridiron,  broil,  and  serve  with  bits  of  butter 
dropped  over  i^  This  is  a  nice  relish  for  tea. — Mrs.  Lewis  Brown. 

Boiled  Fresh  Cod. 

Put  the  fish  in  fish-kettle  (or  tie  up  in  cloth)  in  boiling  water  with 
some  salt  and  scraped  horse-radish,  let  simmer  till  done,  place  a 
folded  napkin  on  a  dish,  turn  fish  upon  it,  and  serve  with  drawii 
butter,  oyster  or  egg-sauce.  When  cold,  chop  fine,  pour  over  it 
drawn  butter  or  egg-sauce,  and  add  pepper  to  taste,  warm  thor- 
oughly, stirring  to  prevent  burning,  make  up  m  rolls  or  any  other 
form,  and  brown  before  the  fire. 


FISK  165 

m 

Boiled  Salt  Mackerel. 
After  freshening  wrap  in  a  cloth  and  simmer  for  fifteen  minutes : 
tt  will  be  almost  done  as  soon  as  the  water  reaches  the  boiling  point; 
remove,  lay  on  it  two  hard-boiled  eggs  sliced,  pour  over  it  drawn 
butter,  and  trim  witb  parsley  leaves.    Boiling  salt-fish  hardens  it. 

xX)iL£D  White  Fish. 

Dress  the  fish  nicely,  and  cover  in  fish-kettle  with  boiling  water 
seasoned  well  with  salt;  remove  the  scum  as  it  rises,  and  simi^er, 
allowing  frt>m  eight  to  ten  minutes  time  to  every  pound;  when  abput 
half  done,  add  a  little  vinegar  or  lemon  juice,  take  out,  drain,  a^ 
dish  carefully,  pouring  over  it  drawn  butter ;  or  garnish  with  spri 
af  parsley,  and  serve  with  egg-sauce. — Mr».  M.  SmUhy  PUtdmrgh, 

Broiled  White  Fish. 

Clean,  split  down  the  back,  and  let  stand  in  salted  water  for 
leveral  hours ;  wipe  dry,  and  place  on  a  well-greased  gridiron  over 
hot  coals,  sprinkling  with  salt  and  pepper.  Put  flesh  side  down  at 
first,  and  when  nicely  browned,  turn  carefully  on  the  other.  Cook 
for  twenty  or  thirty  minutes,  or  until  nicely  browned  on  both  sides. 
*-ifr«.  H.  Cokoell,  Oiicago,  lU. 

Brook  Trout. 

Wash  and  drain  in  a  colander  a  few  minutes,  split  nearly  to  the 

tail,  flour  nicely,  salt,  and  put  in  pan,  which  should  be  hot  but  not 

burning ;  throw  in  a  little  salt  to  prevent  sticking,  and  do  not  turn 

until  brown  enough  for  the  table.     Trout  are  nice  fried  with  slices 

of  salt  pork. 

Codfish  Balls. 

Soak  codfish  cut  in  pieces  about  an  hour  in  lukewarm  water, 
remove  skin  and  bones,  pick  to  small  pieces,  and  return  to  stove*  in 
cold  water.  As  soon  as  it  begins  to  boil,  change  ^e  water,  and 
bring  to  a  boil  again.  Have  ready  potatoes  boiled  tender,  well 
mashed,  and  seasoned  with  butter.  Mix  thoroughly  with  the  pota- 
toes half  the  quantity  of  codfish  while  both  are  still  hot,  form  into 
flat,  thick  cakes  or  round  balls,  fry  in  hot  lard  or  drippings,  or  dip 
in  hot  fat,  like  doughnuts.  The  addition  of  a  beaten  eg'g  before 
niaking  into  balls  renders  them  lighter.  Cold  potatoes  may  be  used, 
by  reheating,  adding  a  little  cream  and  butter,  and  mixing  while 
hot— Jfrj.  /.  H,  Shearer, 


156  FISH. 

CAimED  Salmon. 
The  California  canned  salmon  is  nice  served  cold  with  any  of  the 
fishnsauoes.     For  a  breakftuit  dish,  it  may  be  heated,  seasoneii  with 
salt  and  pepper,  and  served  on  slices  of  toast,  with  milk  thickened 
with  flour  and  butter  poured  over  it. 

Fish  Chowder. 
The  best  fish  for  chowder  are  haddock  and  striped  bass,  although 
any  kind  of  fresh  fish  may  be  used.  Cut  in  pieces  over  an  inch 
thick  and  two  inches  square ;  place  eight  good-sized  slices  of  salt  pork 
in  the  bottom  of  an  iron  pot  and  fry  till  crisp ;  remove  the  pork, 
leaving  the  fat,  chop  fine,  put  in  the  pot  a  layer  of  fish,  a  layer  of 
split  crackers,  and  some  of  the  chopped  pork  with  black  and  red 
pepper  and  chopped  onions,  then  another  layer  of  fish,  another  of 
crackers  and  seasoning,  and  so  on.  Cover  with  water,  and  stew 
slowly  till  the  fish  is  perfectly  done ;  remove  from  the  pot,  put  in 
dish  in  which  you  serve  it  and  keep  hot,  thicken  the  gravy  with 
rolled  cracker  or  flour,  boil  it  up  once  and  pour  over  the  chowder. 
Some  add  a  little  catsup,  port  wine  and  lemon  juice  to  the  gravy 
/  just  before  taking  up,  but  I  think  it  nicer  without  them. — Mrs, 

Woodworthy  Springfield, 

Fried  Fish. 
Clean  thoroughly,  cut  off*  the  head,  and,  if  large,  cut  out  the 
backbone,  and  slice  the  body  crosswise  into  five  or  six  pieces ;  dip 
in  Indian  meal  or  wheat  flour,  or  in  a  beaten  egg,  and  then  in  bread 
crumbs  (trout  and  perch  should  never  be  dipped  in  meal),  put  into 
a  thick-bottomed  skillet,  skin  side  uppermost,  with  hot  lard  or  drip- 
pings (never  in  butter,  as  it  tiikes  out  the  sweetness  and  gives  a  bad 
color),  fry  slowly,  and  turn  when  a  light  brown.  The  roe  and  the 
backbone,  if  previously  removed,  may  be  cut  up  and  fried  with  the 
other  pieces.  A  better  way  is  to  dredge  the  pieces  in  the  flour, 
brush  with  beaten  egg,  roll  in  bread-crumbs,  and  fry  in  hot  lard 
or  drippings  enough  to  completely  cover  them.  If  the  fat  is  very  hot^ 
the  fish  will  not  absorb  it,  and  will  be  delicately  cooked.  When 
brown  on  one  side,  turn  over  in  the  fat  and  brown  the  other,  and 
when  done  let  them  drain.  Slices  of  large  fish  may  be  cooked  ua 
the  same  way.     Serve  with  toinatoe  sauce  or  slices  of  lemon. 


fish:  157 

B^ATY^s  Codfish. 
Soak  pieces  of  codfish  several  hours  in  cold  water,  or  wash  thor- 
oaghly,  heat  in  oven  and  pick  fine,  aad  place  in  skillet  with  cold 
water ;  boil  a  few  minutes,  pour  off  water  and  add  firesh,  boil  again 
Qf  not  very  salt  the  second  boiling  is  not  necessary),  and  drain  ofiP 
as  before;  then  add  plenty  of  sweet  milk,  a  good-sized  piece  of  but- 
ter, and  a  thickening  made  of  a  little  flour  (or  corn  starch)  mixed 
with  oold  milk  until  smooth  like  cream.  Stir  well,  and  just  before 
taking  from  the  fire  drop  in  an  egg,  stir  very  briskly,  and  serve, — 
Mn.  Siden  M,  Stevenson, 

Baked  Herrino. 
8oak  salt  herring  over  night,  roll  in  floul*  and  butter,  and  place 
in  a  dripping-pan  with  a  very  little  water  over  them ;  season  with 
pepper. — Mrs.  E.  J,  Starr. 

Potted  Fresh  Fish. 
Let  the  fish  lie  in  salt  water  for  several  hours ;  then  for  five  pounds 
fish  take  three  ounces  salt,  two  of  ground  black  pepper,  two  of  cin- 
namon, one  of  allspice,  and  a  half  ounce  cloves ;  cut  fish  in  slices, 
and  place  in  the  jar  in  which  it  is  to  be  cooked,  first  a  layer  offish, 
then  the  spices,  flour  and  bits  of  butter  sprinkled  on,  repeating  till 
done.  Fill  the  jar  with  equal  parts  vinegar  and  water,  cover  closely 
with  a  cloth  well  floured  on  top  so  that  no  steam  can  escape,  and 
bake  six  hours.  Let  it  remain  in  jar  until  cold,  cut  in  slices,  and 
flerve  for  tea. — Mrs.  L.  Brown. 

Pan-Fish. 

Place  in  pan  with  heads  together,  and  fill  spaces  with  smaller  fish ; 

when  ready  to  turn,  put  a  plate  over,  drain  off  fat,  invert  pan,  and 

the  fish  will  be  left  unbroken  on  the  plate.     Put  the  lard  back  in 

the  pan,  and  when  hotj  slip  back  the  fish,  and  when  the  other  side  is 

brown,  drain,  turn  on  plate  as  before,  and  slide  them  on  the  platter 

to  go  to  the  table.    This  improves  the  appearance,  if  not  the  flavor. 

The  heads  should  be  left  on,  and  the  shape  preserved  as  ftilly  as 

possible. 

Steamed  Fish. 

Place  tail  of  fish  in  its  mouth  and  secure  it,  lay  on  a  plate,  pour 

over  it  a  half  pint  of  vinegar,  seasoned  with  pepper  and  salt;  let 


158  FISH. 

m 

stand  an  hour  in  the  refrigerator,  pour  off  the  vinegar,  and  put  ia 
a  steamer  ovier  boiling  water ;  steam  twenty  minutes,  or  longer  i£ 
the  fish  Is  very  large  (when  done  the  meat  easily  parts  from  the 
bone) ;  drain  well,  and  serve  on  a  napkin  garnished  with  curled 
parsley.     Serve  drawn  butter  in  a  boat. — Mrs.  E.  8.  Miller- 

Stewed  Fish. 

Cut  a  fish  across  in  slices  an  inch  and  a  half  thick,  and  sprinkle 
with  salt;  boil  two  sliced  onions  until  done,  pour  off  water,  seasoa 
with  pepper,  add  two  tea-cups  hot  water  and  a  little  parsley,  and  in 
this  simmer  the  fish  until  thoroughly  done.  Serve  hot  Good 
method  for  any  iresh-water  fish. 

TURBOT. 

Take  a  white  fish,  steam  till  tender,  take  out  bones,  and  sprinkle 
with  pepper  and  salt.  For  dressing,  heat  a  pint  of  milk,  and  thicken 
with  a  quarter  pound  of  flour ;  when  cool,  add  two  eggs  and  a  quarter 
pound  of  butter,  and  season  with  onion  and  parsley  (very  little  of 
each) ;  put  in  the  baking-dish  a  layer  of  fish,  then  a  layer  of  saude, 
till  full,  cover  the  top  with  bread-crumbs,  and  bake  half  an  hour.— 
Mn,  Robert  A.  lAggett^  Detroit^ 

To  Fry  Eels. 

Skin  them,  wash  well,  iseason  with  pepper  and  salt,  roll  each 

piece  in  fine  Indian  meal,  fry  in  boUing  lard ;  or  egg  them,  and  roll 

in  cracker-crumbs  and  fry.    For  sauce,  use  melted  butter  sharpeced 

with  lemon-juice. 

To  Pickle  Book. 

Cook  a  rock-fish  (cut  in  pieces)  in  water  enough  to  cover.  Put 
in  a  handful  of  salt,  a  litUe  white  pepper,  one  table-spoon  of  all- 
spice, a  few  cloves  and  mace.  When  fish  is  near  done,  add  a  quart 
of  vinegar.     In  putting  away,  cover  with  liquor. — Mrs,  J".  8.  W. 

Tickled  Salmon. 

Soak  salmon  twenty-four  hours,  changing  water  several  times. 
Put  it  in  boiling  water  with  a  little  vinegar ;  when  done  and  cold, 
boil  your  vinegar  with  spice  and  pour  over  fish.-  -Mrs.  A,  P.,  Vvr- 
ginia. 


FRUITS. 


The  arrangement  of  fresh  fruits  for  the  table  affords  play  for  the 
most  cultivated  taste  and  not  a  little  real  inventive  genius.  Melons, 
oranges,  and  indeed  all  kind  of  fruits,  are  appropriate  breakfast 
dishes;  and  a  raised  oenter-piece  of  mixed  fruits  furnishes  a  delicious 
dessert,  and  is  an  indispensable  ornament  to  an  elegant  dinner-table. 
Mek>cs  should  be  kept  on  ice,  so  as  to  be  thoroughly  chilled  when 
served.  Clip  the  ends  of  water-melons,  cut  them  across  in  halves, 
set  up  on  the  clipped  ends  on  a  platter,  and  serve  the  pulp  only, 
removing  it  with  a  spoon ;  or,  cut  across  in  slices,  and  serve  with 
rind.  Nutmeg  melons  should  be  set  on  the  blossom  end,  and  cut  in 
KvenJ  equal  pieces  from  the  stem  downward,  leaving  each  alternate 
pieoe  still  attached ;  the  others  may  then  be  loosened,  and  the  seeds 
removed,  when  the  melon  is  ready  to  servo-  Fruit  should  be  cai^- 
Ailly  selected.  Havana  and  Florida  oranges  are  the  best,  but  do  not 
l^eep  well,  and  on  the  whole,  the  Messina  are  preferable.  A  rough 
yeflow  skin  covers  the  sweetest  oranges,  the  smooth  being  more  juicy 
Hnd  acid ;  a  greenish  tinge  indicates  that  they  were  picked  unripe. 
The  Messina  lemons,  **  November  cut,"  are  the  best,  and  come  into 
market  in  the  spring.  Freestone  peaches  with  yellow  meat  are  the 
bmdsomest,  but  not  always  the  sweetest.  California  pears  take  the 
lead  for  flavor,  the  Bartlett  being  the  best.  The  best  winter  pear 
is  the  "  Winter  Nellis."  The  "  Pound  "  pear  is  the  largest,  but  is 
good  only  for  cooking.  Fine-grained  pears  are  best  for  eating.  A 
PTramid  of  grapes  made  up  of  Malagas,  Dela wares,  and  Concords, 
makes  a  showy  center-piece  and  a  delicious  dessert.  The  Malaga 
leads  all  foreign  grapes,  and  comes  packed  in  cork-dust,  which  is  a 
Aon-oonductor  of  heat  and  absorbent  of  moisture,  and  so  is  always  in 

(169) 


160    ,  FRUITS. 

good  condition.  Of  native  grapes,  the  Delaware  keeps  longest.  la 
pine-apples  the  "Strawberry"  is  best,  while  the  "Sugar-Loaf 
ranks  next,  but  tliey  are  so  perishable  that  to  keep  even  for  a  few 
days  they  must  be  cooked.  When  served  fresh  they  should  be  cut 
in  small  squares  and  sprinkled  with  sugar.  Buy  cocoa-nuts  cautiously 
in  summer,  heat  being  likely  to  sour  th^  milk.  In  almonds,  the 
Princess  is  the  best  variety  to  buy  in  the  shell ;  of  the  shelled,  the 
"  Jordan  "  is  the  finest,  though  the  "  Sicily  "  is  good.  For  cake  or 
CDnfecti(mery ,  the  shelled  are  most  economical.  In  raisins,  the  *  *  Seed- 
less "rank  first  for  puddings  and  fine  cakes,  but  the  "Valencia* 
are  cheaper,  and  more  commonly  used;  for  table  use,  loose  "Mus- 
catels" and  layer  raisins  (of  which  the  "London  Layer"  is  the 
choicest  brand)  take  the  preference.  In  melons,  every  section  has 
its  favorite  varieties,  any  of  which  make  a  wholesome  and  luscious 
dessert  dish.  Sliced  fruits  or  berries  are  more  attractive  and  pala- 
table sprinkled  with  sugar  about  an  hour  before  serving,  and  then 
with  pounded  ice  just  before  sending  to  the  table.  An  apple-corer, 
a  cheap  tin  tube,  made  by  any  tinner,  is  indispensable  in  preparing 
apples  for  cooking.  They  are  made  in  two  sizes,  one  for  crab-apples 
and  the  other  for  larger  varieties. 

If  the  market  is  depended  upon  select  the  freshest  berries;  and 
sometimes  it  will  be  found  that  the  largest  are  not  the  sweetest.  If 
clean,  and  not  gritty,  do  not  wash  them,  but  pick  over  carefully, 
place  first  a  layer  of  berries  then  sprinkle  sugar,  and  so  on;  set 
away  in  a  cool  place,  and  just  before  serving  sprinkle  with  pounded 
ice.  If  they  must  be  washed,  take  a  dish  of  cold,  soft  water,  pom 
a  few  in,  and  with  the  hand  press  them  down  a  few  times,  until 
they  look  clean,  then  hull  them.  Repeat  the  process  till  all  are 
hulled,  sugar  and  prepare  as  above.  Never  drain  in  a  colander.  The 
French  serve  large  fine  strawberries  without  being  hulled.  Pulver- 
ized sugar  is  passed,  the  strawberry  is  taken  by  the  hull  with  the 
thumb  and  finger,  dipped  into  the  sugar,  and  eaten.  When  berries 
are  left,  scald  for  a  few  minutes ;  too  much  cookmg  spoils  the  flavor. 
Some  think  many  of  the  sour  berries  are  improved  by  digkUy  cook- 
ing them  with  a  little  sugar  before  serving.  If  a  part  of  the  berries 
are  badly  bruised,  gritty,  etc.  (but  not  sour  or  bitter),  scald,  and 
drain  them  through  a  fine  sieve  without  pressing  them.     Sweeten 


FRUITS,  161 

tihe  Jnioe  and  serve  as  a  dressbg  for  puddings,  short-cakes,  etc.,  oi 
can  for  winter  use. 


Ambbobia,  or  Fruit  Salad. 

Six  sweet  oranges  peeled  and  sliced  (seeds  and  as  much  of  the 
core  as  poesible  taken  out),  one  pine-apple  peeled  and  sliced  (the 
canned  is  equally  good),  and  one  large  cocoaruut  grated;  alter> 
nate  the  layers  of  orange  and  pine-apple  with  grated  cocoa-nut,  and 
sprinkle  pulverized  sugar  over  each  layer.  Or,  use  six  oranges,  six 
lemons,  ajod  two  cocoa-nuts,  or  only  oranges  and  cocoa-nuts,  pre- 
pared as  above.     Other  fruit  salads  can  be  similarly  made. 

Apple  Compote. 
Pare  the  apples,  cut  the  core  out,  leaving  them  whole.  Make  a 
syrup,  allowing  three-fourths  pound  of  sugar  to  a  pound  of  fruit; 
when  it  comes  to  a  boil  put  in  the  firuit  and  let  cook  until  clear  but 
remains  whole.  Remove  the  fruit  to  a  glass  bowl,  and  dissolve  one- 
third  of  a  box  of  gelatine  in  a  half  tea-cup  of  hot  water,  and  stir 
briskly  into  the  syrup,  first  taking  off  the  fire.  Then  strain  it  over 
the  apples,  and  set  in  a  cool  place  to  cool.  When  cold  heap  whipped 
cream  over  it.  Some  add  sliced  lemons  to  the  syrup,  and  serve 
with  a  slice  of  the  lemon  on  each  apple. — Mrs,  A.  H,  Bhea,  NoA' 

vWSf  Tenn. 

Apple  Sauce. 

Pare,  core  and  cut  in  quarters  apples  that  do  not  cut  to  pieces 

easily,  and  put  on  to  stew  in  cold  water  with  plenty  of  sugar. 

Cover  close  and  stew  an  hour  or  more.     The  addition  of  the  sugar 

at  first  preserves  the  pieces  whole.     If  they  are  preferred  finely 

mashed,  add  sugar  after  they  are  done. 

Baked  Apples. 

Cut  out  the  blossoms  and  stems  of  tart  appies,  in  the  stem  end 

fxit  some  sugar ;  bake  till  soft ;  serve  either  warm  or  cold.     Sweet 

apples  require  a  longer  time  for  baking  than  sour,  and  are  better 

for  adding  a  little  water  in  pan  when  placed  to  bake.    They  require 

several  hours,  and  when  done  are  of  a  rich,  dark  brown  color.     If 

taken  out  too  soon  they  are  insipid.     For  an  extra  nice  dish,  pare 

and  core  tart  apples,  place  in  pan,  put  butter  and  sugar  in  cavity, 
11 


162  FRUITS. 

and  sprinkle  cinnamon  over  them,  and  serve  warm  with  cream  or 
milk.  Or,  pare  and  quarter  tart  apples,  put  a  layer  in  earthen  bak- 
ing-dish, add  lumps  of  butter,  and  sprinkle  with  cinnamon,  then  a 
layer  of  apples,  etc.,  till  dish  is  full;  bake  till  soft.  Or,  quarter 
and  core  sour  apples  without  paring,  put  in  baking-dish,  sprinkle 
with  sugar  and  bits  of  butter,  add  a  little  water,  and  bake  until 
tender.  The  proportion  of  sugar  is  a  gill,  and  butter  half-size  of 
i^n  egg,  to  three  pints  of  apples,  and  a  gill  and  a  half  of  water. 

Ig£d  Apples. 
Pare  and  core  one  dozen  large  apples,  fill  with  sugar  and  a  little 
butter  and  nutmeg;  bake  until  nearly  done,  let  cool,  and  remove  to 
another  plate,  if  it  can  be  done  without  breaking  them  (if  not,  pouf 
ofT  the  juice).  Ice  tops  and  sides  with  caking-ice,  and  brown  ligkUy; 
serve  with  cream. — Mrs.  R.  C.  Canon,  Harrisburg. 

Fried  Apples. 
Quarter  and  core  apples  without  paring;  prepare  firying-pan  by 
heating  it  and  putting  in  beef-drippings,  lay  the  apples  in  the  pan, 
skin  side  down,  sprinkle  with  a  little  brown  sugar,  and  when  nearly 
done,  turn  and  brown  thoroughly.  Or,  cut  in  slices  across  the  core, 
and  fry  like  pancakes,  turnmg  when  brown;  serve  with  granulated 
sugar  sprinkled  over  them. 

Black  Caps. 
Pare  and  core  tart  apples  with  apple-corer,  fill  the  center  with 
sugar,  stick  four  cloves  in  the  top  of  each,  and  bake  in  deep  pie- 
plates,  with  a  littie  water. 

Fried  Bananas. 
Peel  and  slice  lengthwise,  fry  in  butter,  sprinkle  with  sugar,  and 
aerve.     Thus  prepared  they  make  a  nice  dessert    The  bananas 

must  be  ripe. 

Iced  Currants. 

Wash  and  drain  dry,  large  bunches  of  ripe  currants,  dip  into 
beaten  whites  of  eggs,  put  on  sieve  so  they  will  not  touch  each 
other,  sift  powdered  sugar  thickly  over  them,  and  put  in  a  warm 
place  till  dry.     Cherries  and  grapes  may  be  prepared  in  the  same  way. 

Gooseberry  Fool. 

Stew  gooseberries  until  soft,  add  sugar,  and  press  through  a  co- 
lander (earthen  is  best),  then  make  a  boiled  custard,  or  sweeteD 


FRUITS  168 

enough  rich  cream  (about  one  gill  to  each  quart)^  and  stir  carefidly 
into  the  gooeeberries  just  before  sending  to  table. — Mrs.  L.  8.  W. 

Ohanqes  in  Jelly. 
Boil  the  smallestrsized  oranges  in  water  until  a  straw  will  easily 
penetrate  them,  clarify  half  a  pound  of  sugar  for  each  pound  of 
fiiiit,  cut  in  halves  or  quarters,  and  put  them  to  the  syrup,  set  over 
a  slow  fire  until  the  fruit  is  clear;  then  stir  into  it  an  ounce  or  more 
of  dissolved  isinglass,  and  let  it  boil  for  a  short  time  longer.  Be- 
Fore  taking  it  up  try  the  jelly,  and  if  it  is  not  thick  enough  add 
more  isinglass,  first  taking  out  the  oranges  into  a  deep  glass  dish, 
and  then  straining  the  jelly  over  them.     Lemons  may  be  prepared 

m  the  same  manner. 

Orange  Pyramid. 

Gut  the  peel  in  six  or  eight  equal  pieces,  making  the  incisions 
from  the  stem  downward ;  peel  each  piece  down  about  half  way, 
and  bend  it  sharply  to  the  right,  leaving  the  peeled  orange  appar- 
ently in  a  cup,  from  which  it  is  removed  without  much  difficulty. 
Pile  the  oranges  so  prepared  in  a  pyramid  on  a  high  fruitrdish,  and 
you  have  an  elegant  center-piece. 

Baked  Pears. 
Bake  washed,  unpeeled  pears  in  pan  with  only  a  tea-spoon  or 
two  of  water ;  sprinkle  with  the  sugar,  and  serve  with  their  own 

syrup. 

Baked  Pie-plant. 

Cut  in  pieces  about  an  inch  long,  put  in  baking-dish  in  layers 

with  an  equal  weight  of  sugar,  cover  closely  and  bake. 

Baked  Peaches. 
Wash  peaches  which  are  nearly  or  quite  ripe,  place  in  a  deep 
dish,  sprinkle  with  sugar,  cover  and  bake  until  tender. 

Stewed  Pie-plant. 
Make  a  rich  syrup  by  adding  sugar  to  water  in  which  long  strips 
of  orange  peel  have  been  boiled  until  tender,  lay  into  it  a  single 
layer  of  pieces  of  pie-plant  three  inches  long,  and  stew  gently  until 
clear.  When  done  remove  and  cook  another  layer.  This  makes  a 
handsome  dessert-dish,  ornamented  with  puff-paste  cut  in  fimcifu) 
•hapra.     Use  one  orange  to  two  and  a  half  pounds  pie-plant 


164  FRUITS, 

Peach  Pyramid. 

Cut  a  dozen  peaches  in  halves,  peel  and  take  out  stones,  crack 
half  the  seeds,  and  blanch  the  kernels ;  make  a  clear  boiling  syrup 
of  one  pound  of  white  sugar,  and  into  it  put  the  peaches  and  ker- 
nels ;  boil  very  gently  for  ten  minutes,  take  out  half  the  peaches, 
boil  the  rest  for  ten  minutes  longer,  and  take  out  all  the  peaches 
and  kernels ;  mix  with  the  syrup  left  in  the  kettle  the  strained  juice 
of  three  lemons,  and  an  oimce  of  isinglass  dissolved  in  a  little  water 
and  strained ;  boil  up  once,  fill  a  mold  half  full  of  this  syrup  or 
jelly,  let  stand  until  ''set/'  add  part  of  the  peaches  and  a  little 
more  jelly,  and  when  this  is  ''  set,"  add  the  rest  of  the  peaches,  and 
fill  up  the  mold  with  jelly.  This  makes  an  elegant  ornament. — 
ifi88  E.  Orissa  DcHheaTy  OincinnaU. 

Frozen  Peaches. 
Pare  and  divide  large,  fresh,  ripe  and  juicy  peaches,  sprinkle 
over  them  granulated  sugar,  freeze  them  like  ice-cream  for  an  hour; 
remove  them  just  before  serving,  and  sprinkle  with  a  little  more 
sugar.  Canned  peaches  and  all  kinds  of  berries  may  be  prepared 
in  the  same  way. — Mrs.  A.  O.  Wilcox, 

To  Keep  Pine-apples. 
Pare  and  cut  out  the  eyes  of  a  ripe  pine-apple,  strip  all  the  pulp 
from  the  core  with  a  silver  fork ;  to  a  pint  of  this  add  a  pound  of 
granulated  sugar,  stir  occasionally  until  sugar  is  dissolved,  put  in 
glass  fruit-cans,  and  turn  down  the  covers  as  closely  as  possible. 
This  will  keep  a  long  time. 

Baked  Quinces. 
Wash  and  core  ripe  quinces,  fill  with  sugar,  and  bake  in  bakings 
dish  with  a  little  water. 

Compote  op  Pears. 

Pare  and  quarter  eight  nice  pears,  and  put  in  a  porcelain  sauo^ 
pan  with  water  enough  to  cook ;  put  on  lid,  and  cook  fruit  until 
tender,  then  remove  to  a  platter ;  make  a  syrup  of  a  pound  of 
sugar  and  a  pint  of  pear-water ;  add  juice  of  two  lemons  and  the 
grated  rind  of  one,  and  put  in  the  pears ;  cook  them  for  a  few  min- 
utes in  this  syrup,  then  remove  to  the  dish  in  which  they  are  to  bft 


FRUITS.  166 

molded.  Soak  an  ounce  of  gelatine  for  an  hour  or  two  in  enough 
Mrater  to  cover  it,  and  stir  it  into  the  hot  syrup ;  let  boil  up  once 
and  turn  it  over  fruit  through  a  strainer.  The  mold  should  be 
dipped  in  cold  water  before  putting  in  firuit.  When  cold,  turn 
jelly  into  a  dish  and  serve  with  whipped  cream  around  the  base^  or 
pour  sweet  cream  over  it  in  saucers. 

Mock  Strawberries. 
Cut  ripe  peaches  and  choice  well-flavored  apples,  in  proportion 
of  three  peaches  to  one  apple,  into  quarters  about  the  size  of  a 
strawberry,  place  in  alternate  layers,  sprinkle  the  top  thickly  with 
sugar,  and  add  pounded  ice;  let  stand  about  two  hours,  mix 
peaches  and  apples  thoroughly,  let  stand  an  hour  longer,  and  serve. 
— 1&S&  C.  B,,  Newburyportf  Mass. 

Oranged  Strawberries. 
Place  a  layer  of  strawberries  in  a  deep  dish ;  cover  the  same 
thickly  with  pulverized  sugar ;  then  a  layer  of  berries,  and  so  on, 
until  all  are  used.  Pour  over  them  orange  juice,  in  the  proportion 
of  three  oranges  to  a  quart  of  berries.  Let  stand  for  an  hour,  and 
just  before  serving  sprinkle  with  pounded  ice.  Some  use  claret, 
grape  or  currant  wine  instead  of  orange  juice. 

Strawberries  with  Whipped  Cream. 
Prepare  in  layers  as  above,  cover  with  one  pint  of  cream,  whitee 
of  three  eggs  and  a  tea-cup  of  powdered  sugar,  whipped  together 
and  flavored  with  strawberry  juice. 

Snow  Flakes. 
Grate  a  large  cocoa-nut  into  a  glass  dish,  and  serve  with  cream, 
preserves,  jeUies  or  jams. 

Peach  Meringue. 
Put  on  to  boil  a  quart  of  milk,  omitting  half  a  cup  with  which 
to  moisten  two  table-spoons  of  com  starch ;  when  the  milk  boils, 
add  the  moistened  com  starch ;  stir  constantly  till  thick,  then  re- 
move from  the  fire ;  add  one  table-spoon  butter,  and  allow  the  mix- 
ture to  cool ;  then  beat  in  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  till  the  mixture 
seems  light  and  creamy ;  add  half  a  cup  of  powdered  sugar.  Cover 
the  bottom  of  a  well-buttered  baking-dish  with  two  or  three  layers 


166  FRUITS.  * 

of  rich,  juicy  peaches,  pared,  halved  and  stoned;  sprinkle  over 
three  table-spoons  powdered  sugar;  pour  over  them  the  custard 
carefully,  and  bake  twenty  minutes,  then  spread  with  the  light- 
beaten  whites,  well  sweetened,  and  return  to  the  oven  till  a  light 
brcwn.  To  l)e  eaten  warm  with  a  rich  sauce,  or  cold  with  sweet- 
ened rream. 

Peach  Custard. 

Equal  parts  rich  sliced  peaches,  green  com  pulp  and  water. 
Sweeten  to  <he  taste,  and  bake  twenty  minutes. 

Raspberry  Float. 

Crush  a  pint  of  very  ripe  red  raspberries  with  a  gill  of  sugar; 
beat  the  whites  of  four  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth  and  add  gradually  a  gill 
of  powdered  sugar ;  press  the  raspberries  through  a  fine  strainer  to 
avoid  the  seeds,  and  by  degrees  beat  in  the  juice  with  the  egg  and 
sugar  until  so  stiif  fhat  it  stands  in  peaks. 

Flortoa  Grape  Fruit. 

The  fruit  stores  display  a  new  clear-skinned  lemon-colored  firuity 
about  three  times  as  large  as  an  orange,  and  bearing  a  general 
resemblance  to  that  fruit  Its  flavor  is  sub-acid,  but  its  juicy  pulp 
is  inclosed  in  a  tough  white  membrane  of  intensely  bitter  taste ; 
when  this  membrane  is  removed,  the  fruit  is  delicious.  To  prepare 
it  for  the  table,  cut  the  skin  in  sections  and  peel  it  off;  separate  the 
sections  as  you  would  those  of  an  orange,  and  holding  each  one  by 
the  ends,  break  it  open  from  the  center,  disclosing  the  pulp;  tear 
this  out  of  the  bitter  white  membrane,  which  covers  the  sections^ 
carefnlly  removing  every  part  of  it;  k^ep  the  pulp  as  unbroken  as 
possible,  and  put  it  into  a  deep  dish  with  a  plentiful  sprinkling 
of  fine  sugar.  Let  it  stand  three  or  four  hours,  or  over  night,  and 
tiieu  use  the  fruit.  It  is  refreshing  and  wholesome^  especially  for 
a  bilious  temperament. 

Fig  Sauce. 

Figs  are  very  fine  for  dessert,  stewed  slowly  until  soft.  Season  with 
two  ounces  loaf-sugar  to  a  pound  of  fruit;  cook  two  hours;  add  a 
gla"53  port  or  other  wine,  also  lemon-juice  if  liked.  Can  be  seasoned 
witli  a  few  bitter  almonds  or  orange-peel. — A  Georgia  hovsekeeper. 


GAME. 


Of  game  birds  the  woodcock  outranks  all  in  delicate  tendemeat 
«nd  sweet  flavor.  The  thigh  is  especially  deemed  a  choice  tidbit. 
The  leg  is  the  finest  part  of  the  ^  snipe,  but  generally  the  breast  is 
the  most  juicy  and  nutritious  part  of  birds. 

White-meated  game  should  be  cooked  to  well-done ;  dark-meated 
game  rare.  The  flesh  of  wild  animals  is  harder  and  more  solid, 
and  has  a  less  proportion  of  fat  and  juices  to  the  lean,  and  is  there- 
fore less  easy  of  mastication  when  eaten  within  a  day,  and  more 
nntritiouB,  and  the  flavor  more  concentrated.  Their  decided  flavor 
recommends  them  to  invalids  or  others  who  are  satiated  with  ordi- 
oary  food.  Keeping  game  renders  it  more  tender,  and  brings  out 
its  flavor.  When  birds  have  become  tainted,  pick  clean  as  soon  as 
pOBBible  and  immerse  in  new  milk  for  twenty-four  hours,  when  they 
will  be  quite  sweet  and  fit  for  cooking. 

Birds  should  be  carefully  dry-picked  (removing  all  feathers  that 
oome  off  easily),  plunged  in  n  pan  of  boiling  water  and  skinned, 
drawn,  wiped  clean,  and  all  shot  removed,  Grame  should  not  be 
washed,  unless  absolutelv  necessarv  for  cleanliness.  With  care  in 
dressing,  wiping  will  render  them  perfectly  clean.  If  necessary  to 
wash,  do  it  quickly  and  use  as  little  water  as  possible.  The  more 
plainly  all  kinds  of  game  are  cooked,  the  better  they  retain  their 
fine  flavor.  They  require  a  brisker  fire  than  poultry,  but  take  less 
time  to  cook.  Their  color,  when  done,  should  be  a  fine  yellowish 
brown.     Serve  on  toast. 

Broiling  is  a  favorite  method  of  cooking  game,  and  all  birds  are 
exceedingly  nice  roasted.     To  broil,  split  down  the  back,  open  and 

(IffT) 


168  .  OAMR 

flatten  the  breast  by  oovering  with  a  doth  and  pounding,  ^euson 
with  pepper,  and  lay  the  inside  first  upon  the  gridiron ;  turn  as 
soon  as  browned,  and  when  almost  done  take  off,  place  on  a  pla^ 
ter,  sprinkle  with  salt,  and  return  to  the  gridiron..  When  done, 
place  in  a  hot  dish,  butter  both  sides  well,  and  serve  at  once.  The 
time  required  is  usually  about  twenty  minutes. 

To  roast,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  place  a  lump  of  butter 
inside,  truss,  skewer,  and  place  in  oven.  The  flavor  is  best  pre* 
served  without  stuffing,  but  a  plain  bread-dressing,  with  a  piece  of 
salt  pork  or  ham  skewered  on  the  breast,  is  very  nice.  A  delicate 
way  of  dressing  is  to  place  an  oyster  dipped  in  the  well-beaten  yolk 
of  an  egg  or  in  melted  butter,  and  then  rolled  in  bread  crumbs,  in- 
side each  bird.  Allow  thirty  minutes  to  roast  or  longer  if  stufl^ 
Wild  ducks,  pheasants  and  grouse  are  always  best  roasted. 

To  lard  game,  cut  fat  salt  pork  into  thin,  narrow  strips,  thread  a 
larding-needle  with  one  of  the  strips,  run  the  needle  under  the  skin 
and  a  little  of  the  flesh  of  the  bird,  and  draw  the  pork  half  way 
through,  so  that  the  ends  of  the  strips  exposed  will  be  of  equal 
length.  The  strips  should  be  about  one  inch  apart  The  larding 
interferes  with  the  natural  flavor  of  the  bird,  hut  renders  it  more 
juicy.     Many  prefer  tying  a  piece  of  bacon  on  the  breast  instead. 

Pigeons  should  be  cooked  a  long  time,  as  they  are  usually  quite 
lean  and  tough,  and  they  are  better  to  lie  in  salt  water  half  an  hour, 
or  to  be  parboiled  in  it  for  a  few  minutes.  They  are  nice  roasted 
or  made  into  a  pie. 

If  the  "  wild  flavor"  of  the  larger  birds,  such  as  pheasants,  prairie 
chickens,  etc.,  is  disliked,  they  may  be  soaked  over  night  in  salt 
water,  or  two  or  three  hours  in  soda  and  water,  or  parboiled  with 
an  onion  or  two  in  the  water,  and  then  cooked  as  desired.  The 
:;c)arser  kinds  of  game,  such  as  geese,  ducks,  etc.,  may  lie  in  salt 
water  for  several  hours,  or  be  parboiled  in  it  with  an  onion  inside 
each  to  absorb  the  rank  flavor,  and  afterwards  thoroughly  rinsed 
in  clear  water,  stuffed  and  roasted ;  or  pare  a  fresh  lemon  without 
breaking  the  thin,  white,  inside  skin,  put  inside  the  game  for  a  day 
or  two,  renewing  the  lemon  every  twelve  hours.  This  will  absorb 
unpleasant  flavors  from  almost  all  meat  and  game.  Some  lay  slices 
of  onion  over  game  while  cooking,  and  remove  before  serving.     In 


GAME.  169 

p»!paring  txh  wild  ducks  for  invalids,  it  is  a  good  plau  to  remove 
the  skioy  and  keep  a  day  or  two  before  cooking.  Squirrels  should 
be  carefully  bkinned  and  laid  in  salt  water  a  short  time  before  cook* 
mg;  if  old,  parboil.  They  are  delicious  broiled,  and  are  excellent 
cooked  in  any  way  with  thin  slices  of  bacon.  Venison,  as  in  the 
days  of  good  old  Isaac,  is  still  justly  considered  a  "  savoury  dish.* 
The  haunch,  neck,  shoulder  and  saddle  should  be  roasted ;  roast  or 
broil  the  breast,  and  fry  or  broil  the  steaks  with  slices  of  salt  pork. 
Venison  requires  more  time  for  cooking  than  beefsteak.  The  hams 
are  excellent  pickled,  smoked  and  dried,  but  they  will  not  keep  so 
k>ng  as  other  smoked  meats. 

The  garnishes  for  game  are  fresh  or  preserved  barberries,  currant 
jelly,  sliced  oranges,  and  apple  sauce. 


Broiled  Pheasant  or  Prairie  Chicken. 
Scald  and  skin,  cut  oif  the  breast  and  cut  the  re»t  up  in  joints, 
being  careful  to  remove  all  shot ;  put  in  hot  water  all  except  the 
breast  (which  will  be  tender  enough  without  parboiling),  and  boil 
UQtil  it  can  be  pierced  with  fork,  take  out,  rub  over  salt,  pepper, 
and  butter,  and  broil  with  breast  over  brisk  fire ;  place  a  lump  of 
batter  on  each  piece,  and  set  ail  in  the  oven  a  few  minutes.   For 

breakfast,  serve  on  fried  mush ;  for  dinner  on  toast  with  a  bit 
of  current  jelly  over  each  piece.  It  may  be  served  with  toast 
cat  in  pieces  about  two  niches  square,  over  which  pour  gravy  made 
by  thickening  the  liquor  in  which  the  birds  were  boiled,  with  a 
litde  butter  and  flour  rubbed  together  and  stirred  in  while  boiling. 
Squirrels  may  be  prepared  the  same  way. — Mrs.  W,   W.  Woods. 

Broiled  Quail. 
Split  through  the  back  and  broil  over  a  hot  fire,  basting  fre- 
quently with  butter.  When  done  place  a  bit  of  butter  on  each  piece, 
and  set  in  oven  a  ffew  moments  to  brown.  Serve  on  pieces  of  toast 
with  currant  jelly.  Plovers  are  cooked  in  the  same  way.  Pigeons 
thould  be  first  parboiled  and  then  broiled. 

Jugged  Hare. 
Skin,  wipe  with  a  towel  dipped  in  boiling  water,  to  remove  the 
loose  hairs,  dry  thoroughly  and  cut  in  pieces,  strew  with  pepper  and 


170  QAMK 

gait)  fry  brown,  seafion  with  two  anchovies,  a  sprig  of  thyme,  a 
little  chopped  parsley,  nutmeg,  mace,  cloves,  and  grated  lemon-peel. 
Put  a  layer  of  the  p^'eces  with  the  seasoning  into  a  wide-mouthed 
jug  or  a  jar,  then  a  layer  of  bacon  sliced  very  thin,  and  so  on  till 
all  is  used ;  add  a  scant  half  pint  of  water,  cover  the  jug  close  and 
put  in  cold  water,  let  boil  three  or  four  hours,  according  to  the  age 
of  the  hare;  take  the  jug  out  of  kettle,  pick  out  the  unmelted 
bacon  and  make  a  gravy  of  a  little  butter  and  flour  with  a  little 
catsup.  A  tea-spoon  of  lemon-peel  will  heighten  the  flavor. — Mrs. 
Louise  M.  Lincoln. 

Quail  on  Toast. 

Dry-pick  them,  singe  them  with  paper,  cut  off  heads,  and  legs  at 
first  joint,  draw,  split  down  the  back,  soak  in  salt  and  water  for 
five  or  ten  minutes,  drain  and  dry  with  a  doth,  lard  them  with 
bacon  or  butter,  and  rub  salt  over  them,  place  on  broiler  and  turn 
often,  dipping  two  or  three  times  into  melted  butter ;  broil  about 
twenty  minutes.  Have  ready  as  many  slices  of  buttered  toast  as 
there  are  birds,  and  serve  a  bird,  breast  upward,  on  each  slice. 
Cook  squabs  or  any  small,  tender  bird  by  this  recipe. 

Pabtridoe  Pie. 

Parboil  six  partridges;  line  a  deep  dish  or  baking-pan  with  a 
rich  biscuit  crust,  put  in  partridges,  one  dozen  oysters,  one  table- 
spoon of  butter,  salt,  pepper  and  nutmeg  to  taste,  fill  up  with 
water  in  which  birds  were  parboiled,  cover  with  paste,  and  bake 
half  an  hour. — Mrs.  Hal  Johnson,  JacksonviUe,  Fla, 

Boasted  Pabtbidges. 

Clean  and  truss  birds,  put  on  spit  or  in  oven  to  roast;  baste  with 
a  little  butter  and  hot  water  until  a  gravy  is  made,  then  baste  with 
this ;  use  one  tearspoon  of  butter  to  each  bird.  They  must  not  be 
stuffed,  as  that  destroys  flavor.  Boast  thirty  minutes. '  There  is  a 
good  deal  of  conAision  regarding  the  name  of  these  delicious  game 
birds,  the  quail  being  called  a  partridge  in  many  localities.  The  part- 
ridge (ru£^  grouse)  is  a  much  larger  bird  than  the  quail,  much 
shyer,  and  not  often  found  in  large  coveys.  Both  are  very  delicious 
and  always  bring  high  prices  in  the  markets. — Mrs,  Mogor  Maaon^ 
AvyvuAa^  Go. 


GAME,  171 

BoABT  Haunch  op  Venison. 

Wash  in  warm  water  and  dry  well  with  a  cloth,  butter  a  sheet  of 
white  paper  and  put  over  the  fat,  lay  in  a  deep  baking-dish  with 
a  very  little  boiling  water,  cover  with  a  close-fitting  lid  or  with  a 
coarse  paste  one-half  inch  thick.  If  the  latter  is  used,  a  thickness  or 
two  of  coarse  paper  should  be  laid  over  the  paste.  Cook  in  a  mod- 
erately hot  oven  for  from  three  to  four  hours,  according  to  the  size 
of  the  haunch,  and  about  twenty  minutes  before  nt  is  done  quicken 
the  fire,  remove  the  paste  and  paper  or  dish-cover,  dredge  the  joint 
with  flour  and  baste  well  with  butter  until  it  is  nicely  fi*othed  and  of 
a  dolicate  brown  color ;  garnish  the  knuckle-bone  with  a  frill  of  white 
paper,  and  serve  with  a  gravy  made  from  its  own  dripping,  having 
first  removed  the  h.t  Have  the  dishes  on  which  the  venison  is 
served  and  the  plates  very  hot     Always  serve  with  currant  jelly. 

Roast  Goose. 

The  goose  should  not  be  more  than  eight  months  old,  and  the 
&tter  the  more  tender  and  juicy  the  meat.  A  '*  green"  goose  (four 
months  old)  is  the  choicest.  Kill  at  least  twenty-four  hours  before 
eooking ;  cut  the  neck  close  to  the  back,  beat  the  breast-bone  flat 
with  a  rolling-pin,  tie  the  wings  and  legs  securely,  and  stuff*  with  the 
following  mixture :  three  pints  bread  crumbs,  six  ounces  butter  or 
part  butter  and  part  salt  pork,  two  choppea  onions,  one  tea-spoon 
each  of  sage,  black  pepper  and  salt.  Do  not  stuff  very  full,  and 
stitch  openings  firmly  together  to  keep  flavor  in  and  fat  out  If  the 
goose  is  not  fat,  lard  it  with  salt  pork,  or  tie  a  slice  on  the  breast 
Place  in  a  baking-pan  with  a  little  water,  and  baste  frequently  with 
salt  and  water  (some  add  onion  and  some  vinegar),  turning  often  so 
that  the  sides  and  back  may  all  be  nicely  browned.  When  nearly 
done  baste  with  butter  and  a  little  flour.  Bake  two  hours,  or  more 
if  old ;  when  done  take  from  the  pan,  pour  off  the  fet,  and  to  the 
brown  gravy  left  add  the  chopped  giblets  which  have  previously 
been  stewed  till  tender,  together  with  the  water  they  were  boiled  in ; 
thicken  with  a  little  flour  and  butter  rubbed  together,  bring  to  a 
boil,  and  serve  with  currant  jelly.  Apple  sauce  and  onion  sauce 
are  prope?  accompaniments  to  roast  goose. — Mrs,  J.  jET.  Shearer. 


172  QAMK 

Roast  Duck. 

Ducks  are  dressed  and  stuffed  in  the  same  manner  as  above. 
Young  ducks  should  roast  ftom  twenty-five  to  thirty  minutes ;  ftdl- 
grown  for  an  hour  or  more  with  frequent  basting.  Some  prefer 
tiiem  underdone,  served  very  hot,  but  thorough  cookmg  will  prove 
more  generally  palatable.  Serve  with  currant  jelly,  apple  sauce, 
and  green  pease.     If  old,  parboil  before  roasting. 

Place  the  remains  of  a  cold  roast  duck  in  a  stew-pan  with  a  pint 
of  gravy  and  a  little  sage,  cover  closely,  and  let  it  simmer  for  half 
an  hour ;  add  a  pint  of  boiled  green  pease,  stew  a  few  minutes, 
remove  to  a  dish,  and  pour  over  it  the  gravy  and  pease. 

Boiled  Duck. 
Dress  and  rub  well  inside  with  salt  and  pepper,  truss  and  tie  in 
shape,  drawing  the  legs  in  to  the  body,  in  which  put  one  or  two  sage 
leaves,  a  little  finely-chopped  onion,  and  a  little  jellied  stock  or 
gravy;  rub  over  with  salt  and  pepper;  make  a  paste  in  the  propor- 
tion of  one-half  pound  butter  to  one  pound  flour,  in  which  inclose 
the  duck,  tie  a  cloth  around  all,  and  boil  two  hours  or  until  quite 
tender,  keeping  it  well  covered  with  boiling  water.  Serve  by  pour- 
ing round  it  brown  gravy  made  as  follows :  Put  a  lump  of  butter 
of  the  si2^  of  an  egg  in  a  sauce-pan  with  a  little  minced  onion;  cook 
until  slightly  brown,  then  adding  a  small  table-spoon  of  flour,  stir 
well,  and  when  quite  brown  add  a  half  pint  stock  or  water ;  let 
cook  a  few  minutes,  strain,  and  add  to  the  chopped  giblets,  previ- 
ously stewed  till  tender. — Mn,  L,  S.  WUUston. 

Reed  Bibds. 

Boasting  by  suspending  on  the  little  wire  which  accompanies  the 
roaster,  is  the  best  method ;  turn  and  baste  firequently,  or  wash  and 
peel  with  as  thin  a  paring  as  possible  large  potatoes  of  equal  size, 
cut  a  deep  slice  off  one  end  of  each,  and  scoop  out  a  part  of  the  po- 
tato ;  drop  a  piece  of  butter  into  each  bird,  pepper  and  salt,  and  put 
it  in  the  hollows  made  in  the  potatoes;  put  on  as  covers  the  pieces 
cut  off,  and  clip  the  other  end  for  them  to  stand  on.  Set  in  a  bak- 
ing pan  upright,  with  a  Utile  water  to  prevent  burning,  bake  slowly, 
and  serve  in  the  dish  in  which  they  were  baked. 

Or,  boil  in  a  crust  like  dumplings. 


GAMK  173 

Rabbits. 
Rabbits,  which  are  in  the  beet  condition  in  midwinter,  may  be 
fricaaseed  like  chicken  in  white  or  brown  sauce.  To  make  a  pie,  first 
stew  till  tender,  and  make  like  chicken-pie.  To  roast,  stuff  with  a 
dressing  made  of  bread-crumbs,  chopped  salt  pork,  thyme,  onion, 
and  pepper  and  salt,  sew  up,  rub  over  with  a  little  butter,  or  pin  on 
it  a  few  slices  of  salt  pork,  add  a  little  water  in  the  pan,  and  baste 
often.     Serve  with  mashed  potatoes  and  currant  jelly. 

Snipe. 
Snipe  are  best  roasted  with  a  piece  of  pork  tied  to  the  breast,  or 

they  may  be  stuffed  and  baked. — Mrs,  if.  R. 

SAiiMi  OF  Duck. 
Save  remnants  of  cold  duck  or  other  game,  trim  meat  off  neatly, 

set  aside;  place  all  the  remains  (bones,  gravy,  etc.)  in  a  sauce-pan 

and.  cover  with  cold-water;   bring  gently  to  a  boil ;  skim,  add  an 

onion  that  has  been  cut  up  and  fried  brown  (nU  burned) ;  simmer 

gently  for  about  an  hour,  then  set  the  sauce-pan  in  a  cool  place 

long  enough  to  allow  the  fat  to  rise  and  "settle  on  top;"  skim  this 

off  carefldly — it  will  be  nice  to  fry  potatoes  with.     Now  return  the 

aauce-pan  to  the  fire,  and  when  about  to  boil  strain  off  the  liquid ; 

set  on  again,  add  salt  and  skim.      If  the  liquid  looks  cloudy,  let  it 

boil  up,  throw  in  a  little  cold  water,  and  the  scum  will  rise.     Now 

put  in  the  pepper  and  such  spice  as  may  be  desired,  also  a  bunch 

of  herbs  tied  up  in  a  piece  of  muslin,  or  very  finely  powdered. 

Take  a  large  spoon  of  flour  that  h&s  been  baked  in  the  oven  and 

kept  for  gravy,  mix  it  well  with  a  lump  of  butter  same  size,  put 

this  and  the  meat  all  in  together  and  stir  well  until  it  is  just  ready 

to  boil  again,  but  see  that  it  does  not  boil;  cover  closely  and  set  back 

where  it  may  keep  very  hot  without  cooking.     The  safest  plan  is  to 

put  the  sauce-pan  in  a  vessel  of  hot  water  for  ten  or  fifteen  minutes. 

Fried  Woodcock. 
Dress,  wipe  clean,  tie  the  legs,  skin  the  head  and  neck,  turn  the 

beak  under  the  wing  and  tie  it ;  tie  a  piece  of  bacon  over  it,  and  im- 
merse m  hot  &t  for  two  or  three  minutes.     Serve  on  toast. 

Another  fiivorite  way  is  to  split  them  through  the  back  and 
broil,  basting  with  butter,  and  serving  on  toast.  They  may  also  be 
roasted  whole  before  the  fire  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes. 


ICES  AND  ICE-CREAM. 


Perfectly  fresh  sweet  cream  makes  the  most  delicious  ice-cream« 
A  substitute  is  a  preparation  of  boiled  new  milk,  etc.,  made  late  in 
the  evening  if  for  dinner,  in  the  morning  if  for  tea,  and  placed  on  ice. 
One  mixture  is  a  custard  made  as  follows :  Take  two  quarts  new  milk, 
put  on  three  pints  to  boil  in  a  custard-kettle,  or  a  pail  set  within  a 
kettle  of  boiling  water,  beat  yolks  and  whites  of  eight  eggs  sepa- 
rately, mix  the  yolks  with  the  remaining  pint  and  stir  dofujiy  into  the 
boiling  milk,  boil  two  minutes,  remove  from  the  stove,  immodiaidg 
add  one  and  a  half  pounds  sugar,  let  it  dissolve,  strain  while  hd 
through  a  crash  towel,  cool,  add  one  quart  rich  cream  and  two  table* 
spoons  vanilla  (or  season  to  taste,  remembering  that  the  strength  of 
the  flavoring  and  also  the  sweetness  is  very  much  diminished  by 
the  freezing).  Set  the  custard  and  also  the  whites  (not  beaten)  in  a 
30ol  place  until  needed,  and  about  three  hours  before  serving  begin 
the  preparations  for  freezing.  Put  the  ice  in  a  coarse  coflee-sack, 
pound  with  an  ax  or  mallet  until  the  lumps  are  no  larger  than  a 
small  hickory-nut ;  see  that  the  freezer  is  properly  set  in  the  tub, 
the  beater  in  and  the  cover  secure ;  place  around  it  a  layer  of  ice 
about  three  inches  thick,  then  a  layer  of  coarse  salt — rock  salt  is 
best — then  ice  again,  then  salt,  and  so  on  until  packed  full,  with  a 
layer  of  ice  last.  The  proportion  should  be  about  three-fourths  ice 
and  one-fourth  salt.  Pack  very  solid,  pounding  with  a  broom-handle 
or  stick,  then  remove  the  cover  and  pour  the  custard  to  which  you 
have  just  added  the  well-whipped  whites  into  the  freezer,  filling  two- 
thirds  full  to  give  room  for  expansion ;  replace  the  cover  and  begin 
turning  the  freezer;  after  ten  minutes  pack  the  ice  down  again, 
drain  off  most  of  the  water,  add  more  ice  and  turn  again,  repeat* 

(174. 


ICES  AND  ICE-CREAM.  176 

fng  this  operation  several  times  until  the  cream  is  well  frozen,  and 
you  can  no  longer  turn  the  beater.  (The  above  quantity  ought  to 
freeze  in  half  an  hour,' but  the  more  pure  cream  used  the  longer  it 
takes  to  freeze.)  Brush  the  ice  and  salt  from  and  remove  the 
cover,  take  out  the  beater,  scrape  the  cream  down  from  the- sides 
of  freezer,  beat  well  several  minutes  with  a  wooden  paddle,  replace 
the  cover,  fill  the  hole  with  a  cork,  pour  off  all  the  water,  pack 
again  with  ice  (using  salt  at  the  bottom,  but  none  at  the  top  of  tub), 
heap  the  ice  on  the  cover,  spread  over  it  a  piece  of  carpet  or  a  thick 
woolen  blanket,  and  set  away  in  a  cool  place  untO  needed ;  or,  if 
molds  are  used,  fill  them  when  you  remove  the  beater,  packing  the 
cream  in  very  tightly,  and  place  in  ice  and  salt  for  two  hours.  To 
remove  the  cream,  dip  the  molds  for  an  instant  in  warm  water. 
When  cream  is  used  in  making  ice-cream,  it  is  better  to  whip  a  part 
of  it,  and  add  just  as  the  cream  is  beginning  to  set. 

Coffee  ice-cream  should  be  thickened  with  arrowroot;  the  flavor- 
ing for  almond  cream  should  be  prepared  by  pounding  the  kernels 
to  a  paste  with  rose-water,  using  arrowroot  for  thickening.  For 
cocoa-nut  cream,  grate  cocoarnut  and  add  to  the  cream  and  sugar 
just  before  freezing.  The  milk  should  never  be  heated  for  pine- 
apple, strawberry,  or  raspberry  cream.  Berry  flavors  are  made  best 
by  allowing  whole  berries  to  stand  for  awhile  well  sprinkled  with 
sugar,  mashing,  straining  the  juice,  adding  sugar  to  it,  and  stirring 
it  into  the  cream.  For  a  quart  of  cream,  allow  a  quart  of  fruit  and 
a  pound  of  sugar.  In  addition  to  this,  add  whipped  cream  and 
sweetened  whole  berries,  just  as  the  cream  is  beginning  to  set,  in 
the  proportion  of  a  cup  of  berries  and  a  pint  of  whipped  cream  to 
three  pints  of  the  frozen  mixture.  Canned  berries  may  be  used  in 
the  same  way.  A  pint  of  berries  or  peaches,  cut  fine,  added  to  a 
quart  of  ordinary  ice^^ream,  while  in  process  of  freezing,  makes  a 
delicious  fruit  ice-cream. 

Freeze  ice-cream  in  a  warm  place  (the  more  rapid  the  melting  of 
the  ice  the  quicker  the  cream  freezes),  always  being  careful  that  no 
salt  or  water  gets  within  the  freezer.  K  cream  begins  to  melt 
while  serving,  beat  up  well  from  the  bottom  ^Ith  a  long  wooden 
paddle.  Water-ices  are  made  from  the  juices  of  fruits,  mixed  with 
water,  sweetened,  and  frx)zen  like  cream.    In  making  them,  if  they 


176  ICES  AND  ICE-CREAM. 

are  not  well  mixed  before  freezing,  the  sugar  will  sink  to  the  bot* 
torn,  and  the  mixture  will  have  a  sharp,  unpleasant  taste.  It  is  a 
better  plan  to  make  a  syrup  of  the  sugar  and  water,  by  boiling 
and  skimming  when  necessary,  and,  when  cold,  add  the  juice  of  the 
fruit.' 

The  following  directions  for  making  "  self-freeziug  ice  cream**  are 
from  **  Common  Sense  in  the  Household."  After  preparing  the 
freezer  as  above,  but  leaving  out  the  beater,  remove  the  lid  care- 
fully, and  with  a  long  wooden  ladle  or  flat  stick  beat  the  custard  as 
you  would  batter  steadily  lor  five  or  six  minutes.  Replace  the  lid, 
pack  two  inches  of  pounded  ice  over  it ;  spread  above  all  several 
folds  of  blanket  or  carpet,  and  leave  it  untouched  for  an  hour ;  at 
the  end  of  that  time  remove  the  ice  from  above  the  freezer-lid,  wipe 
off  carefully  and  o|)en  the  freezer.  Its  sides  will  be  lined  with  a 
thick  layer  of  frozen  cream.  Displace  this  with  the  ladle  or  a  long 
knife,  working  every  part  of  it  loose ;  beat  up  the  custard  again 
firmly  and  vigorously  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  until  it  is  all 
smooth,  half-congealed  paste.  The  perfection  of  the  ice-cream  de- 
pends upon  the  thoroughness  of  the  beating  at  this  point.  Put  on 
the  cover  again,  pack  in  more  ice  and  salt,  turn  off  the  brine,  cover 
the  freezer  entirely  with  the  ice,  and  spread  over  all  the  carpet. 
At  the  end  of  two  or  three  hours  more,  again  turn  off  the  brine  and 
add  fresh  ice  and  salt,  but  do  not  open  the  freezer  for  two  hours 
more.  At  thai;  time  take  the  freezer  from  the  ice,  open  it,  wrap  a 
towel  wet  in  hot  water  about  the  lower  part,  and  turn  out  a  solid 
column  of  ice-cream,  close  grained,  firm,  delicious.  Any  of  the 
recipes  for  custard  ice-cream  may  be  frozen  in  this  way. 

Ice-creams  may  be  formed  into  fanciful  shapes  by  the  use  of 
molds.  After  the  cream  is  frozen,  place  in  mold,  and  set  in 
pounded  ice  and  salt  until  ready  to  serve.  Cream  may  be  frozen 
without  a  patent  freezer,  by  simply  placing  it  in  a  covered  tin  pail, 
and  setting  the  latter  in  an  ordinary  wooden  bucket,  and  proceed 
exactly  as  directed  for  self-freezing  ice-cream,,  packing  into  the  space 
between  them,  very  firmly,  a  mixture  of  one  part  salt  to  two  parts 
of  snow  or  pounded  ice.  When  the  space  is  full  to  within  an  inch 
of  the  top,  remove  cover. 


IQES  AND  ICE-CREAM,  177 

Chocolate  Ice-Creah. 

Scald  one  pint  new  milk,  add  by  degrees  three-quarters  of  a 
pound  sugar,  two  eggs,  and  five  table-spoons  chocolate,  rub  smooth 
in  a  little  milk.  Beat  well  for  a  moment  or  two,  place  over  the 
fire  and  heat  until  it  thickens  well,  stirring  constantly,  set  off,  add 
ft  tablespoon  of  thin,  dissolved  gelatine,  and  when  cold,  place  in 
freezer ;  when  it  begins  to  set,  add  a  quart  of  rich  cream,  half  of  it 
well  whipped. 

To  make  a  mold  of  chocolate  and  vanilla,  freeze  in  separate 
freezei*s,  divide  a  mold  through  the  center  with  card-board,  fill  each 
division  with  a  difierent  cream,  and  set  mold  in  ice  and  salt  for  an 
hour  or  moi'c. 

To  make  chocolate  fruit  ice-cream,  when  almost  frozen,  add  a 

coffee-cup  of  preserved  peaches,  or  any  other  preserves,  cut  in  fine 

XHeces. 

Egoless  Ice-cream. 

A  scant  tea-cup  flour  to  two  quarts  new  milk  ;  put  three  pints  on 
to  boil  (in  tin  pail  set  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water),  mix  the  flour 
with  the  other  pint  tiU  smooth,  then  stir  it  in  the  boiling  milk ;  let 
it  boil  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  and,  just  before  taking  it  from  the  fire, 
stir  in  one  and  a  half  pounds  pulverized  sugar  (any  good  white 
sugar  will  do).  Care  must  be  taken  to  stir  all  the  time  after  put- 
ting in  the  sugar,  only  letting  it  remain  a  moment,  or  just  long 
enough  to  dissolve  it ;  take  from  stove,  and  strain  at  once  through 
a  crash  toweL  When  cold,  add  one  quart  cream.  Flavor  with 
vanilla,  in  the  proportion  of  one  and  a  fourth  table-spoons  to  a  gallon. 

^-Mrs.  lAbbie  DoUbear. 

Fruit  Frapees. 

Line  a  mold  with  vanilla  ice-weani,  fill  the  center  with  fresh 
berries,  or  fruit  cut  in  slices,  cover  with  ice  cream,  cover  closely, 
and  set  in  freezer  for  half  an  hour,  with  salt  and  ice  well  packed 
around  it.  The  fruit'  must  be  chilled,  but  not  frozen.  Strawber- 
ries and  ripe  peaches  are  delicious  thus  prepared. — Mn.  J.  C.  P., 

StoMridgey 

Ice-cream. 

Three  pints  sweet  cream,  quart  new  milk,  pint  powdered  sugar, 

the  whites  of  two  eggs  beaten  light,  table-spoon  vanilla ;  put  in 
12 


178  ICES  AND  ICE-CHEAM. 

freezer  till  thoroughly  chilled  through,  and  then  freeze.     This  is 
very  easily  made. — Mrs.  OogsweU, 

Ice-cream. 
One  quart  new  milk,  two  eggs,  two  table-spoons  com  starch; 
heat  the  milk  in  a  dish  set  in  hot  water,  then  stir  in  the  com  starch 
mixed  smooth  in  a  little  of  the  milk ;  let  it  boil  for  one  or  two 
minutes,  then  remove  from  stove  and  cool,  and  stir  in  the  egg  and 
a  half  pound  sugar.  If  to  be  extra  nice,  add  a  pint  of  rich  cream, 
and  one-fourth  pound  sugar,  strain  the  mixture,  and  when  cool  add 
the  flavoring,  and  freeze  as  follows:  Prepare  freezer  in  the  usual 
manner,  turn  the  crank  one  hundred  times,  then  pour  upon  the 
ice  and  salt  a  quart  boiling  water  from  the  tea-kettle.  Fill  up 
again  with  ice  and  salt,  tum  the  crank  fifty  times  one  way  and 
twenty-five  the  other  (which  serves  to  scrape  the  cream  from  sides 
of  freezer)  ;  by  this  time  it  will  turn  very  hard,  indicating  that  the 
cream  is  frozen  sufficiently. — Mrs.  Win,  Herricky 

Lemon  ics- cream. 
Squeeze  a  dozen  lemons,  make  the  juice  quite  thick  with  white 
sugar,  stir  into  it  very  slowly,  three  quarts  of  creanii,  and  freeze. 
Orange  ice-cream  is  prepared  in  the  same  way,  using  less  sugar. 

Pike-apple  Ice-cream. 
Three  pints  cream,  two  large  ripe  pine-apples,  two  pounds  pow- 
dered sugar ;  slice  the  pine-apples  thin,  scatter  the  sugar  between 
the  slices,  cover  and  let  the  fruit  stand  three  hours,  cut  or  chop  it 
up  in  the  syrup;  and  strain  through  a  hair-sieve  or  double  bag  of 
coarse  lace;  beat  gradually  into  the  cream,  and  freeze  as  rapidly  as 
possible ;  reserve  a  few  pieces  of  pine-apple  unsugared,  cut  into 
square  bits,  and  stir  through  cream  when  half  frozen,  first  a  pint  of 
well-whipped  cream,  and  then  the  fruit.  Peach  ice-cream  may  be 
made  in  the  same  way. — Mr^,  L.  M.  T., 

Strawberry  Ice-cream. 

Sprinkle  strawberries  with  sugar,  wash  well  and  rub  through  a 

sieve ;  to  a  pint  of  the  juice  add  half  a  pint  of  good  cream,  make 

it  very  sweet;  freeze,  and  when  beginning  to  set,  stir  in  lightly  one 

pint  of  cream  whipped,  and  lastly  a  handflil  of  whole  strawberries 


ICES  AND  ICE-CREAM.  179 

sweetened.  It  may  then  be  put  in  a  mold  and  imbedded  in  ice,  or 
kept  in  tbe  freezer ;  or  masb  with  a  potato-pounder  m  an  earthen 
bowl  one  quart  of  strawberries  with  one  pound  of  sugar ;  rub  it 
through  a  colander,  add  one  quart  of  sweet  cream  and  freeze.  Or, 
if  not  in  the  strawberry  season,  use  the  French  bottled  strawberries 
(or  any  canned  ones),  mix  juice  with  half  a  pint  of  cream,  sweeten 
and  freeze ;  when  partially  set  add  whipped  cream  and  strawberries. 

Kentucky  Cream. 
Make  a  half  gallon  rich  boiled  custard,  sweeten  to  taste,  add  two 
table-spoons  gelatine  dissolved  in  a  half  cup  cold  milk;  let  thb  cus- 
tard cool,  put  it  in  freezer,  and  as  soon  as  it  begins  to  freeze,  add 
(me  pound  raisins,  one  pint  strawberry  preserves,  one  quart  whipped 
cream;  stir  and  beat  well  like  ice-cream.  Blanched  almonds  or 
grated  cocoa-nut  are  additions.  Some  prefer  currants  to  raisins, 
and  some  also  add  citron  chopped  fine.— Jifi^.  Ocv.  J.  B.  McOreary^ 

Ksntiicky. 

Apple  Ice. 

Grate,  sweeten  and  freeze  well-flavored  apples,  pears,  peaches  or 

quinces.     Canned  fruit  may  be  mashed  and  prepared  in  the  same 

way. 

Currant  Ice. 

Boil  down  three  pints  of  W£^  i^d  a  pound  and  a  half  sugar  to 
one  quart,  skim,  add  two  cups  of  currant  iuice.  and  when  partly 
frozen,  add  the  whites  of  five  eggs. 

Lemon  Ice. 

To  one  pint  of  lemon  juice,  add  one  quart  of  sugar,  and  ono 
quart  of  water,  in  which  the  thin  rind  of  three  lemons  has  been 
allowed  to  stand  until  highly  flavored.  When  partly  frozen  add 
the  whites  of  four  eggs,  beaten  to  a  stifl"  froth. 

Orange  Ice.  ^ 

Boil  three-quarters  of  a  pound  of  sugar  in  one  quart  of  water ; 

when  cool  add  the  juice  of  six  oranges  ;  steep  the  rinds  in  a  little 

water,  strain,  and  flavor  to  taste  with  it.     The  juice  and  rind  of 

one  or  two  lemons  added  to  the  orange  is  a  great  improvement. 

Freeze  like  ice-cream. 

Strawberry  Ice.      • 

Maah  two  quarts  of  strawberries  with  two  poun(*3  of  sugar;  let 


180  ICES  AND  ICE-CBEAM. 

stand  an  hour  or  more,  squeeze  in  a  straining  cloth,  pressing  out 
all  the  juice;  add  an  equal  measure  of  water ;  and  when  half  frozen, 
add  the  beaten  whites  of  eggs  in  the  proportion  of  three  eggs  to 
a  quart. — R,  L.  C. ,  Baltimore,  Md. 

Tba.  Ice-cream. 

Pour  over  four  table-spoons  of  Old  Hyson  tea,  a  pint  of  cream, 
scald  in  a  custard-kettle,  or  by  placing  the  dish  containing  it  in  a 
kettle  of  boiling  water,  remove  from  the  fire,  and  let  stand  five 
minutes ;  strain  it  into  a  pint  of  cold  cream,  put  on  to  scald  again, 
and  when  hot  mix  with  it  four  eggs  and  three-fourths  pound  sugar, 
well  beaten  together;  let  cool  and  freeze. — Mm  A,  C.  i/.,  Ptii^ldi, 

Washington  Fruit  Ice-cream. 

Take  two  dozen  sweet  and  half  a  dozen  bitter  almonds;  blanch 
in  scalding  water,  throw  into  a  bowl  of  cold  water;  pound  one  at 
a  time  in  a  mortar,  till  they  become  a  smooth  paste  firee  from  the 
smallest  lumps;  add  frequently  a  few  drops  of  rose-water  or  lemon- 
juice  to  make  them  light  and  prevent  ''oiling."  Seed  and  cut  a 
quarter  pound  of  the  best  bloom  raisins ;  mix  with  them  a  quarter 
pound  of  Zante  currants,  picked,  washed  and  dried,  and  three 
ounces  of  chopped  citron ;  dredge  well  with  flour.  Take  a  half 
pint  of  very  rich  milk,  split  a  vanilla  bean,  cut  it  into  pieces  two 
or  three  inches  long,  and  boildl'  iji  the  milk  till  the  flavor  of  the 
vanilla  is  well  extracted,  then  ^ain  it  out  and  mix  the  vanilla 
milk  with  a  pint  of  rich  cream,  and  stir  in  gradually  a  half  pound 
of  powdered  loaf-sugar  and  a  nutmeg  grated.  Then  add  the 
pounded  almonds,  and  a  large  wine-glass  of  either  marasquino, 
noyau,  curacoa  or  the  very  best  brandy.  Beat  in  a  shallow  pan 
the  yolks  of  eight  eggs  till  very  light,  thick  and  smooth,  and  stir 
them  gradually  into  the  mixture.  Simmer  over  the  flre  (stirring  all 
the  time),  but  take  ofi*  just  before  it  boils,  otherwise  it  vrill  curdle. 
At  once  stir  in  the  fruit,  set  to  cool,  and  then  add  a  large  tea-cup 
preserved  strawberries  or  raspberries,  half  a  dozen  preserved  apricots 
or  peaches,  half  a  dozen  preserved  green  limes,  and  any  other  very 
nice  and  delicate  sweetmeats;  add  a  pint  whipped  cream  lightly  to 
the  mixture;  put  the  whole  into  a  large  melon-mold  that  opens  in 
the  middle,  and  freeze  four  hours  in  the  usual  way.  Turn  out  when 
wanted  and  serve  on  a  glass  dish. — Mn.  Chv.  Oravery  Oregon. 


JELLIES  AND  JAMS. 


Jellies  were  formerly  reputed  nourishing,  digestible,  and  fit  food 
for  sick  and  delicate  persons,  but  modern  investigation  places  them 
second  to  the  lean  part  of  animals  and  birds.  When  made  of  gela- 
tine, they  have  no  nutrition,  and  are  simply  used  to  carry  a  pala- 
table flavor. 

Always  make  jellies  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  if  possible,  but  brass 
may  be  used  if  scoured  very  bright  and  the  fruit  is  removed  imme- 
diately on  taking  from  the  fire.  Use  the  best  refined  or  granulated 
sugar,  and  do  not  have  the  fruit,  especially  currants  and  grapes, 
overripe. 

To  extract  the  juice,  place  fruit  in  kettle  with  just  enough  water 
to  keep  from  burning,  stir  often,  and  let  remain  on  the  fire  until 
thoroughly  scalded ;  or  a  better  but  rather  slower  method  is  to  place 
it  in  a  stone  jar  set  within  a  kettle  of  tepid  water,  boil  until  the 
fiiut  is  well  softened,  stirring  frequently,  and  then  strain  a  small 
quantity  at  a  time  through  a  strong  coarse  flannel  or  cotton  bag 
wrung  out  of  hot  water,  after  which  let  it  drain,  and  squeeze  it  with 
the  hands  as  it  cools,  emptying  the  bag  and  rinsing  it  off*  each  time 
it  is  used.  The  larger  fruits,  such  as  apples  and  quinces,  should  be 
cut  in  pieces,  cores  removed  if  at  all  defective,  water  added  to  just 
cover  them,  boiled  gently  until  tender,  turned  into  bag  and  placed 
to  drain  for  three  or  four  hours,  or  over  night.  Make  not  over  two 
or  three  pints  of  jelly  at  a  time,  as  larger  quantities  require  longer 
boiling.  As  a  general  rule  allow  equal  measures  juice  and  sugar. 
Boil  juice*  rapidly  ten  minutes  from  the  first  moment  of  boiling, 
skim,  add  sugar,  and  boil  ten  minutes  longer;  or  spread  the  sugar 

(181) 


182  JELLIES  AND  JAMS. 

in  a  large  dripping-pan,  set  in  the  oven,  stir  often  to  prevent  burn- 
ing, boil  the  juice  just  twenty  minutes,  add  the  hot  sugar,  let  boil 
up  once,  and  pour  into  the  jelly-glasses  immediately,  as  a  thin  skin 
forms  over  the  surface  which  keeps  out  the  air ;  cover  with  brandied 
tissue  paper,  cut  to  fit  glass  closely,  cool  quickly  and  set  in  a  dry, 
cool,  dark  place.  Jelly  should  be  examined  toward  the  end  of  sum- 
mer, and  if  there  are  any  signs  of  fermentation,  reboiL  Jelly  needs 
more  attention  in  damp,  rainy  seasons  than  in  others.  To  test  jelly, 
drop  a  little  in  a  glass  of  very  cold  water,  and  if  it  immediately' 
falls  to  the  bottom  it  is  done ;  or  drop  in  a  saucer,  and  set  on  ice  or 
in  a  cool  place;  if  it  does  not  spread,  but  remains  rounded,  it  is 
finished.  Some  strain  through  the  bag  into  the  glasses,  but  this 
involves  waste,  and  if  skimming  is  carefully  done  is  not  necessary. 
A  little  butter  or  lard,  rubbed  with  a  cloth  on  the  outside  of  glasses 
or  cans,  will  enable  one  to  pour  in  the  boiling  fruit  or  liquid,  the 
first  spoon  or  two  slowly,  without  breaking  the  glass.  If  jelly  is 
not  very  firm,  let  it  stand  in  the  sun  covered  with  bits  of  window^ 
glass  or  pieces  of  mosquito  netting,  for  a  few  days.  Never  attempt 
to  make  jelly  in  damp  or  cloudy  weather  if  firmness  and  clearness 
are  desired.  Use  a  wooden  or  silver  spoon  to  stir,  dip  with  earthen 
cup,  and  cook  in  porcelain -lined  kettles.  Currants  and  berries 
should  1)6  made  up  as  soon  as  picked ;  never  let  them  stand  over 
night.  When  ready  to  put  away,  cover  with  pieces  of  tissue  or 
writing-paper  cut  to  fit  and  pressed  closely  upon  the  jelly,  and  put 
on  the  lid  or  cover  with  thick  paper,  brushed  over  on  the  inside 
with  the  white  of  an  egg  and  turned  down  on  the  outside  of  glass. 


Apple  or  Blackberry  Jelly. 
Prepare  nice,  tart,  juicy  apples  as  in  general  directions,  using  three 
quarters  of  a  pint  of  sugar  to  a  pint  of  juice.     Prepare  blackberry 
jelly  according  to  general  directions  for  berries. 

Calf's- FOOT  Jelly. 
Cut  across  the  first  joint,  and  through  the  hoof,  place  in  a  large 
sauce-pan,  cover  with  cold  water,  and  bring  quickly  to  the  boiling 
point;  when  water  boils,  remove  them,  and  Avash  thoroughly  in 
cold  water.  When  perfectly  clean  put  into  a  porcelain-lined  sauce- 
pan, add  cold  water  in  the  proportion  of  three  pints  to  two  calfs 


JELLIES  AND  JAMS.  183 

leet>  |mt  Muc^-pan  over  fire,  and  when  water  boils,  set  aside  to  a 

cooler  place,  where  it  will  simmer  very  slowly  for  five  hours ;  strain 

the  liquor  through  a  fine  sieve,  or  a  coarse  towel,  let  it  stand  over 

night  to  set,  remove  the  fat  that  has  risen  to  the  top,  dip  a  towel  in 

boiling  water,  and  wash  the  surface,  which  wiU  be  quite  firm.  Now 

place  in  a  porcelain-lined  sauce-pan,  and  melt,  add  juice  of  two 

lemons,  rinds  of  three  cut  into  strips,  one-fourth  pound  of  cut  loa^ 

sugar,  ten  cloves,  and  one  inch  of  cinnamon  stick.     Put  the  whites 

of  three  eggs,  together  with  the  shells  (which  must  first  be  blanched 

in  boiling  water),  into  a  bowl,  beat  them  slightly,  and  pour  them 

into  the  sauce-pan,  continuing  to  use  the  egg-beater  until  the  whole 

boils,   when  the  pan  should  be  drawn  aside  where  it  will  simmer 

gently  for  ten  minutes,  skimming  ofi*  all  scum  as  it  rises.      While 

simmering,  prepare  a  piece  of  flannel  by  pouring  through  it  a  little 

warm  water;  and  when  the  jelly  has  simmered  ten  minutes,  pour 

it  through  this  bag  into  a  bowl,  and  repeat  the  process  of  straining 

until  it  is  perfectly  clear,  when  add  a  half  gill  of  sherry  (or  brandy, 

or  brandy  and  sherry  mixed  in  equal  proportions)i  stir  well,  pour 

into  molds,  and  place  upon  ice  or  in  a  cool  place  until  jelly  sets  and 

becomes  firm  enough  to  turn  out  and  serve. 

Currant  Jelly. 
Do  not  pick  from  the  stem,  but  carefully  remove  all  leaves  and 
imperfect  fruit,  place  in  a  stone  jar,  and  follow  general  directions; 
or  place  one  pint  currants,  picked  off  the  stem,  and  one  pint  sugar, 
in  the  kettle  on  the  stove,  scald  well,  skim  out  currants,  and  dry 
on  plates;  or  make  into  jam  with  one-third  currants  and  two-thirds 
raspberries,  straining  juice  after  sweetening,  and  cooking  until  it 
"jellies.'*'  After  currants  are  dried  put  them  in  stone  jars  and 
cover  closely. — Mn.  A,  B.  M,  \ 

Crakberry  Jelly. 
Prepare  juice  as  in  general  directions,  add  one  pound  sugar  to 
every  pint,  boil  and  skim,  test  by  dropping  a  little  into  cold  water 
(when  it  does  not  mingle  with  the  water  it  is  done),  rinse  glasses 
in  cold  water  before  pouring  in  the  jelly  to  prevent  sticking.  The 
pulp  may  be  sweetened  and  used  for  sauce. — C  O.  &  E.  W. 
Onme,  OddweU,  K  J. 


184  JELLIES  AND  JAMS. 

Crab  Apple  Jelly. 

Wash  and  quarter  large  Siberian  crabs,  but  do  not  core,  ooyer 
to  the  depth  of  an  inch  or  two  witli  cold  water,  and  cook  to  a 
mush ;  pour  into  a  coarse  cotton  bag  or  strainer,  and  when  cool 
enough,  press  or  squeeze  hard,  to  extract  all  the  juice.  Take  a 
piece  of  fine  Swito  muslin  or  crinoline,  wring  out  of  water,  spread 
over  a  colander  placed  over  a  crock,  and  with  a  cup  dip  the  juice 
slowly  in,  allowing  plenty  of  time  to  run  through ;  repeat  this  pro- 
cess twice,  rinsing  out  the  musliu  frequently.  Allow  the  strained 
juice  of  four  lemons  to  a  peck  of  apples,  and  three  quarters  of  a 
pound  of  sugar  to  each  pint  of  juice.  Boil  the  juice  from  ten  to 
twenty  minutes;  while  boiling  sift  in  the  sugar  slowly,  stirring  con- 
stantly, and  boil  five  minutes  longer.  This  is  generally  sufficient, 
but  it  is  always  safer  to  '*  try  it,"  and  ascertain  whether  it  will 
"jelly. "     This  makes  a   very  clear,  sparkling  jelly. — Mrs,    Oarol 

OcofteSy  Bivemde^  ML 

Coffee  Jelly. 

Half  box  Coxe's  gelatine  soaked  half  an  hour  in  a  half  tea-cup 

cold  water  (as  little  water   as  possible),  one  quart  strong  coffee, 

made  as  if  for  the  table  and  sweetened  to  taste ;  add  the  dissolved 

^latine  to  the  hot  coffee,  stir  well,  strain  into  a  mold  rinsed  with 

cold  water  just  before  using,  set  on  ice  or  in  a  very  cool  place,  and 

serve  with  whipped  cream.     Thb  jelly  is  very  pretty,  formed  in  a 

circular  mold  with  tube  in  center ;  when  turned  out  fill  the  space 

in  center  with  whipped  cream  heaped  up  a  little. — Mrs.  A.  Wtlson^ 

Bye/N.  Y. 

Easter  Jelly. 

Color  calf  s-foot  jelly  a  bright  yellow  by  steeping  a  small  quantity 
of  dried  saffron  leaves  in  the  water.  Pare  lemons  in  long  strips 
about  the  width  of  a  straw,  boil  in  water  until  tender,  throw  them 
into  a  rich  syrup,  and  boil  until  clear.  Make  a  blanc-mange  of 
cream,  color  one-third  pink  with  poke-berry  syrup,  one-third  green 
with  spinach,  and  leave  the  other  white.  Pour  out  egg?,  from  a  hole 
a  half  inch  in  diameter  in  the  large  end,  wash  and  drain  the  shells 
carefully,  set  them  in  a  basin  of  salt  to  fill,  and  pour  in  the  blanc- 
mange slowly  through  a  funnel,  and  place  the  dish  in  a  refrigerator 
for  several  hours.      When  ready  to  serve,  select  a  round,  shallow 


JELLIES  AND  JAMS.  185 

dish  about  as  large  as  a  hen's  nest,  form  the  jelly  in  it  as  a  lining, 
scatter  the  strips  of  lemon  peel  over  the  edge  like  straws,  remove 
the  egg<6hells  carefully  from  the  blanc-mange,  and  fill  the  nest  with 
them. — Mrs.  C.  M,  Coates,  PfiUadelphia. 

Four-Fruit  Jelly. 

Take  equal  quantities  of  ripe  strawberries,  raspberries,  currants, 

and  reil  cherries,  all  should  be  fully  ripe,  and  the  cherries  must  be 

stoned,  taking  care  to  preserve  the  juice  that  escapes  in  stoning,  and 

add   it  to  the  rest.      Mix  the  fruit  together,  put  it  into  a  linen 

bag,  and  squeeze  it  thoroughly ;  when  it  has  ceased  to  drip,  measure 

the  juice,  and  to  every  pint  allow  a  pound  and  two  ounces  of  the 

best  loaf-sugar,  in  large  lumps.     Mix  the  juice  and  sugar  together; 

put  them  in  a  porcelain-lined  preserving  kettle,  and  boil  for  half  an 

hour,  skimming  frequently.     Try  the  jelly  by  dipping  out  a  spoon^' 

fid,  and  holding  it  in  the  open  air ;  if  it  congeals  readily  it  is  suffi* 

dently  done.     ThisjeUy  u  very  fine, — Mr».  E,  S,  MiUer. 

Grape  Jelly. 
Prepare  fruit  and  rub  through  a  sieve;  to  every  pound  of  pulp 
add  a  pound  of  sugar,  stir  well  together,  boil  slowly  twenty  minutes, 
then  follow  general  directions;  or,  prepare  the  juice,  boil  twenty 
minutes,  and  add  one  pound  of  sugar  to  one  pound  of  juice  after  it 
is  reduced  by  boiling ;  then  boil  ten  or  fifteen  minutes.  Or  put  on 
grapes  just  beginning  to  turn,  l)oil,  place  in  jelly-bag  and  let  drain; 
to  one  pint  juice  add  one  pint  sugar,  boil  twenty  minutes,  and  just 
before  it  is  done  add  one  tearspoon  dissolyed  gum-arabic. — Mrs.  W.  M. 

Lemon  Jelly. 
Juice  of  six  lemons,  grated  peel  of  two,  two  targe  cups  sugar,  one 
package  Coxe's  gelatine  soaked  in  two  cups  cold  water,  two  glasses 
pale  sherry  or  white  wine,  one  pint  boiling  water ;  stir  lemon-juice, 
peel,  sugacand  soaked  gelatine  together,  and  cover  for  an  hour;  pour 
the  boiling  water  over  them ;  stir  until  all  is  dissolved  perfectly,  add 
wine,  strain  through  flannel,  and  pour  in  mold.  If  fruit  jdelds  less  than 
a  large  co£fee-cup  juice,  add  more  water,  so  the  jelly  may  not  be  tough. 

Orange  Jelly. 
Two  quarts  water,  four  ounces  gelatine,  nine  oranges  and  three 
lemons,  a  pound  sugar,  whites  of  three  eggs;  soak  gelatine  in  a  pint 


186  •  JELLIES  AND  JAMS. 

of  water,  boil  the  three  pints  water  and  sugar  together,  skim  well, 
add  dissolved  gelatine,  orange  and  lemon  juice,  and  beaten  whites; 
let  oome  to  a  boil,  skim  off  carefully  all  scum,  boil  until  it  jeUies^ 
and  pour  jelly  into  mold.     Strain,  scum  and  add  to  mold* 

Peach  Jellt. 

Crack  one-third  of  the  kernels  and  put  them  in  the  jar  with  the 
peaches,  which  should  be  pared,  stoned  and  sliced.  Heat  in  a  pot 
of  boiling  water,  stirring  occasionally  until  the  fruit  is  well  broken. 
Strain,  and  to  every  pint  of  peach  juice  add  the  juice  of  a  lemon.- 
Measure  again,  and  to  every  pint  of  peach  juice  add  a  pound  of 
sugar.  Heat  the  sugar  very  hot,  and  add  when  the  juice  has  boiled 
twenty  minutes.  Let  it  come  to  a  boil  and  take  instantly  from  the 
fire.    This  is  very  fine  for  jelly  cake. 

Quince  Jellt. 

Rub  the  quinces  with  a  cloth  until  perfectly  smooth,  cut  in  small 
pieces,  pack  tight  in  a  kettle,  pour  on  cold  water  until  level  with  the 
fruit,  boil  until  very  soft ;  make  a  three-cornered  flannel  bag,  pour 
in  fruit  and  hang  up  to  drain,  occasionally  pressing  on  the  top  and 
sides  to  make  the  juice  run  more  freely,  taking  care  not  to  press  hard 
enough  to  expel  the  pulp.  There  is  not  much  need  of  pressing  a 
bag  made  in  this  shape,  as  the  weight  of  the  fruit  in  the  larger  part 
causes  the  juice  to  flow  freely  at  the  point.  To  a  pint  of  juice  add 
Sk  pint  of  sugar  and  boil  fifteen  minutes,  or  until  it  is  jelly;  pour 
into  tumblers,  or  bowls,  and  finish  according  to  general  directions. 
If  quinces  are  scarce,  the  parings  and  cores  of  quinces  with  good 
tart  apples,  boiled  and  strained  as  above,  make  exceUent  jelly,  and 
the  quinces  are  saved  for  preserves. — Mrs.  M.  J.  W. 

Transcendent  Crab-apple  Jelly. 

Transcendents  or  any  variety  of  crab-apples,  may  be  prepared  as 
cultivated  wild  plums,  adding  flavoring  of  almond,  lemon,  peachy 
pine-apple  or  vanilla  to  the  jelly  in  the  proportion  of  one  tea-spoon 
to  two  pinUi,  or  more  if  it  is  wished  stronger,  just  before  it  is  donOr 

Plum  Jelly. 

If  plums  are  wild  (not  cultivated)  put  in  pan  and  sprinkle  with 
soda  and  pour  hot  water  over  them,  let  stand  a  few  moments  and 
stir  through  them  ;  take  out  and  put  on  with  water  just  to  cover,  or 
less  if  plums  are  very  juicy ;  boil  till  soft,  dip  out  juice  with  a  china 


JELLIES  AND  JAMS.  187 

• 
cap ;  then  Btrain  the  rest  through  small  salt-bags  (by  the  way,  keep 

them  for  jelly-bags  as  they  are  just  the  thing),  do  not  squeeze  them. 
Take  pound  for  pound  of  juice  and  sugar,  or  pint  for  pint,  and  boil 
for  eight  or  ten  minutes.  Jelly  will  be  nicer  if  only  one  measure  or 
a  measure  and  a  half  is  made  at  one  time ;  if  more,  boil  longer ; 
some  boil  juice  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  then  add  sugar  and  boil  five 
minutes  longer.  It  can  be  tested  by  dropping  in  a  saucer  and 
placing  on  ice  or  in  a  cool  place ;  if  it  does  not  spread  but  remains 
rounded  it  is  finished.  If  the  plums  are  the  cultivated  wild 
plum,  make  as  above  without  using  the  soda.  Take  the  plums 
that  are  left  and  press  through  a  sieve,  then  take  pint  for  pint  of 
sugar  and  pulp,  boiling  the  latter  half  an  hour  and  then  adding 
sugar,  boiling  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  more.  Half  a  pint  sugar  to  a 
pint,  makes  a  rich  marmalade,  and  one-third  pint  to  pint,  boiling  it 
longer,  is  nice  canned,  and  used  for  pies,  adding  milk,  eggs  and 
sugar  as  for  squash  pies. 

Plum-apple  jelly  may  be  made  by  preparing  the  juice  of  apples 
and  plums  as  above  (a  nice  proportion  is  one  part  plums  to  two 
parts  apples ;  for  instance,  one  peck  of  plums  to  two  pecks  apples) ; 
then  mixing  the  juice  and  finish  without  flavoring.  The  marma- 
lade is  made  in  the  same  way  as  above.  Some  add  a  little  ginger 
root  to  it.  One  bushel  of  apples  and  one  peck  of  plums  make  forty 
pints  of  jelly,  part  crab-apple  and  part  mixed,  and  sixteen  quart 
glass  cans  of  mixed  marmalade.  In  making  either  kind  of  jelly  the 
fruit  may  be  squeezed  and  the  juice  strained  twice  through  swiss 
or  crinoline  and  made  into  jelly.  The  pulp  can  not  then  be  used 
for  marmalade. 

Pie-plant  Jelly. 
Wash  the  stalks  well,  cut  into  pieces  an  inch  long,  put  them  into 
a  preserving-kettle  with  enough  water  to  cover  them,  and  boil  to  a 
soft  pulp;  strain  through  a  jelly-bag.  To  each  pint  of  this  juice 
add  a  poand  of  loaf-sugar;  boil  again,  skimming  often,  and  when 
it  jellies  on  the  skimmer  remove  it  from  the  fire  and  put  into  jars. 


188  JELLIES  AND  JAMS. 


JAMS. 


In  making  jams,  the  fruit  should  be  carefully  cleaned  and  thar- 
(mghly  bruised,  as  mashing  it  before  cooking  prevents  it  fix>m  becom- 
ing hard.  Boil  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  before  adding  the  sugar, 
lis  the  flavor  of  the  fruit  is  thus  better  preserved  (usually  allowing 
three-quarters  of  a  pound  of  sugar  to  a  pound  of  fruit),  and  then 
boil  half  an  hour  longer.  Jams  require  almost  constant  stirring, 
and  every  house-keeper  should  be  provided  with  a  small  paddle  with 
handle  at  right  angles  with  the  blade  (similar  to  an  apple-butter 
**  stirrer,"  only  smaller),  to  be  used  in  making  jams  and  marmalades. 
Jams  are  made  from  the  more  juicy  berries,  such  as  blackberries, 
currants,  raspberries,  strawberries,  etc.;  m^irmalades  from  the  firmei 
fruits,  such  as  pine-apples,  peaches  and  apricots.  Both  require  th% 
closest  attention,  as  the  slightest  degree  of  burning  ruins  the  flavor. 
They  must  be  boiled  sufficiently,  and  have  plenty  of  sugar  to  keep 
well. 

To  tell  when  any  jam  or  marmalade  is  sufficiently  cooked,  take 
out  some  of  it  on  a  plate  and  let  it  cool.  If  no  juice  or  moisture 
gathers  about  it,  and  it  looks  dry  and  glistening,  it  is  done  thor- 
oughly. Put  up  in  glass  or  small  stone  jars,  and  seal  or  secure  like 
canned  fruits  or  jellies.  Keep  jellies  and  jams  in  a  cool,  dry,  and 
dark  place. 

Currant  Jam. 

Pick  from  stems  and  wash  thoroughly  with  the  hands,  put  into  a 
preserving  kettle  and  boil  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  stirring  often, 
and  skimming  ofi*  any  scum  that  may  arise ;  then  add  sugar  in  the 
proportion  of  three-fourths  pound  sugar  to  one  pound  fruit,  or,  by 
measure,  one  coflfee-cup  of  sugar  to  one  pint  mashed  fruit ;  boil  thirty 
minutes  longer,  stirring  almost  constantly.  When  done,  pour  in 
small  jars  or  glasses,  and  either  seal  or  secure  like  jelly,  by  first 
pressing  paper,  cut  to  fit  the  glasses,  down  close  on  the  fruit,  and 
then  larger  papers,  brushed  on  the  inside  with  white  of  eggs,  with 
the  edges  turned  down  over  the  outside  of  the  glass. 


JELLIES  AND  JAMS.  189 

Gooseberry  Jam. 

Stew  the  berries  in  a  little  water,  press  through  a  coarse  sieve, 
retnm  to  the  kettle,  add  three-fourths  pound  sugar  to  each  pound 
of  the  pulped  gooseberry ;  boil  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  stirring 
constantly ;  pour  in  jars  or  bowls,  and  cover  as  directed  for  cur- 
rant jams. — Mrs.  C.  Meade,  Tenn. 

Grape  or  Plum  Jam. 

Stew  in  a  little  water,  and  press  the  fruit  through  a  colander  or 
coarse  sieve,  adding  a  little  water  to  plums  to  get  all  the  pulp 
through ;  add  sugar,  and  finish  as  in  other  jams. 

Raspberry  Jam. 

Make  by  itself,  or,  better,  combined  with  currants  in  the  propor- 
tion of  one-third  currants  to  two-thirds  raspberries ;  mash  the  fruit 
well,  and  proceed  as  in  currant  jam. 

Make  blackberry  jam  like  raspberry,  except  that  it  should  not  be 
mixed  with  currants. 

Strawberry  jam  is  made  exactly  like  blackberry. 

French  Jam. 

The  addition  of  one  pound  of  raisins  to  each  gallon  of  currant 
jam  converts  this  into  very  fine  French  jam. — Mrs.  8.  C. ,  Parity  Ky. 

Fruit  Jelly. 

Take  one  box  of  gelatine,  soak  it  one  hour  in  a  pint  of  cold  water ; 
when  well  soaked  pour  on  a  pint  of  boiling  water ;  then  put  in  a 
quart  of  any  kind  of  fruit,  strawberries,  raspberries  or  cherries  be- 
ing nice;  add  half  cup  sugar,  one  spoonful  of  extract  of  lemon; 
pour  into  a  mold,  find  when  cold  eat  with  cream  and  sugar  or 
whipped  cream.    It  is  delicious. — Ms8  L.  A.  C,  Ky. 

Wine  Jelly. 

One  ounce  Coxe's  gelatine,  one  pound  loaf  sugar ;  dissolve  gela- 
tine in  a  pint  boiling  water,  add  sugar  and  a  quart  of  white  wine ; 
stir  mixture  very  hard  and  pour  in  mold ;  when  congealed,  wrap 
mold  in  a  cloth  dipped  in  warm  water,  turn  out  jelly  and  eat  with 
cream. — Mn,  8.  P.  H,^  On, 


MEATS. 


InatteDtion  to  the  temperature  of  the  water  and  too  early  ap- 
plication of  salt  cause  great  waste  in  boiling  meats.  To  make  fresh 
meat  rich  and  nutritious  it  should  be  placed  in  a  kettle  of  bailing 
water  (pure  soft  water  is  best),  skimmed  well  as  soon  as  it  begins  to 
boil  again,  and  placed  where  it  will  slowly  but  constantly  boil.  The 
meat  should  be  occasionally  turned  and  kept  well  under  the  water, 
and  iresh  hot  water  supplied  as  it  evaporates  in  boiling.  Plunging 
in  hot  water  hardens  the  fibrine  on  the  outside,  encasing  and  re- 
taining the  rich  juices — and  the  whole  theory  of  correct  cooking,  in 
a  nut-shell,  is  to  retain  as  much  as  possible  of  the  nutriment  of  food. 
No  salt  should  be  added  until  the  meat  is  nearly  done,  as  it  extracts 
the  juices  of  the  meat  if  added  too  soon.  Boil  gently,  as  rapid 
boiling  hardens  the  fibrine  and  renders  the  meat  hard,  tasteless, 
and  scarcely  more  nutritious  than  leather,  without  really  hafitening 
the  process  of  cooking,  every  degree  of  heat  beyond  the  boiling 
point  being  worse  than  wasted.  There  is  a  pithy  saying:  "The 
pot  should  only  smile,  not  laugh."  The  bubbles  should  appear  in 
one  part  of  the  surface  of  the  water  only,  not  all  over  it  Thife 
differs  from  "simmering,"  as  in  the  latter  there  is  merely  a  sizzling 
on  the  side  of  the  pan.  Salt  meat  should  be  put  on  in  cold  water 
80  that  it  may  freshen  in  cooking.  Allow  twenty  minutes  to  the 
pound  for  fresh,  and  thirty-five  for  salt  meats,  the  time  to  be  modi- 
fied, of  course,  by  the  quality  of  the  meat.  A  pod  of  red  pepper 
in  the  water  will  prevent  the  unpleasant  odor  of  boiling  from  filliixg 

the  house. 
a90) 


MEATS.  191 

proper  is  almost  unknown  in  these  days  of  stoves  and 
ranges — baking,  a  much  inferior  process,  having  taken  its  place.  In 
roasting  the  joint  is  placed  close  to  a  brisk  fire,  turned  so  as  to  ex- 
pose ereiy  part  to  the  heat,  and  then  moved  back  to  finish  in  a 
more  moderate  heat  The  roast  should  be  basted  frequently  with 
the  drippings,  and,  when  half  cooked,  with  salt  and  water. 

To  roast  in  oven,  the  preparations  are  very  simple.  The  fire 
must  be  bright  and  the  oven  hot.  The  roast  will  need  no  washing 
if  it  comes  from  a  cleanly  butcher ;  wiping  with  a  towel  dampened 
in  cold,  water  is  all  that  is  needed ;  if  washing  is  necessary,  dash 
over  quickly  with  cold  water  and  wipe  dry.  If  meat  has  been  kept 
a  little  too  long,  wash  in  vinegar,  wipe  dry,  and  dust  with  a  very 
Utde  floor  to  absorb  the  moisture.  Place  in  pan,  on  a  tripod,  or  two 
or  three  clean  bits  of  wood  laid  cross- wise  of  pan,  to  keep  it  out  of 
the  &t  If  meat  is  very  lean,  add  a  table-spoon  or  two  of  water ; 
if  fat,  the  juices  of  the  meat  will  be  sufiScient,  and  the  addition  of 
the  water  renders  it  juiceless  and  tasteless.  While  the  meat  is  in 
the  oven,  keep  the  fire  hot  and  bright,  baste  several  times,  and  when 
about  half  done  turn  it,  always  keeping  the  thick  part  of  the  meat 
in  the  hottest,  part  of  the  oven.  Take  care  that  every  part  of  the 
roast,  including  the  fat  of  the  tenderloin,  is  cooked  so  that  the  text- 
ure is  chang^. 

If  the  fire  has  been  properly  made,  and  the  roast  is  not  large,  it 
should  not  require  replenishing,  but,  if  necessary,  add  a  little  ^ei 
at  a  time,  so  as  not  to  check  the  fire,  instead  of  waiting  until  a 
great  deal  must  be  added  to  keep  up  the  bright  heat.  Most 
persons  like  roast  beef  and  mutton  underdone,  and  less  time  is  re- 
quired to  cook  them  than  for  pork  and  veal  or  lamb,  which  must  be 
very  well  done.  Fifteen  minutes  to  the  pound  and  fifteen  minutes 
longer  is  the  rule  for  beef  and  mutton,  and  twenty  minutes  to 
the  pound  and  twenty  minutes  longer  for  pork,  veal  and  lamb. 
The  directions  for  beef  apply  equally  well  to  pork,  veal,  mutton 
and  lamb.  Underdone  meat  is  cooked  throughout,,  so  that  the 
bright  red  juices  follow  the  knife  of  the  carver ;  if  it  is  a  livid 
purple  it  is  raw,  and  unfit  for  food.  When  done,  the  roast  should 
be  a  rich  brown,  and  the  bottom  of  the  pan  covered  with  a  thick 
ghize.     Bemove  the  joint,  sift  evenly  over  with  fine  salt,iand  it  is 


192  MEATS. 

ready  to  serve.  Never  salt  before  or  while  cooking,  as  it  draws 
out  the  juices.  To  prepare  the  gravy,  pour  off  the  fat  gently, 
holding  the  pan  steadily  so  as  not  to  lose  the  gravy  which  underlies 
it;  put  pan  on  the  stove,  pour  into  it  half  a  cup  of  boiling  water 
(vary  the  quantity  with  the  size  of  the  roast ;  soup  of  any  kind  b 
better  than  water  if  at  hand),  add  a  little  salt,  stir  with  a  spoon 
until  the  particles  adhering  to  the  sides  of  the  pan  are  removed  and 
dissolved,  making  a  rich,  brown  gravy  (some  mix  flour  and  water, 
and  add  as  thickening). 

In  roasting  all  meats,  success  depends  upon  basting  frequently 
(by  dipping  the  gravy  from  the  pan,  over  the  meat  with  'a  large 
spoon),  turning  often  so  as  to  prevent  burning,  and  carefully  regu- 
lating the  heat  of  the  oven.  Allow  fifteen  to  twenty-five  minutes 
to  the  pound  in  roasting,  according  as  it  is  to  be  rare  or  well  done, 
taking  into  consideration  the  quality  of  the  meat.  Eoasts  prepared 
with  dressing  require  more  time.  In  roasting  meats  many  think  it 
better  not  to  add  any  water  until  the  meat  has  been  in  the  oven 
about  half  an  hour,  or  until  it  begins  to  brown. 

Broiling  is  the  most  wholesome  method  of  cooking  meats,  and  is 
most  acceptable  to  invalids.  Tough  steak  is  made  more  tender  by 
pounding  or  hacking  with  a  dull  knife,  but  some  of  -the  juices  are 
lost  by  the  operation  ;  cutting  it  across  in  small  squares  with  a  Aarp 
knife  on  both  sides  is  better  than  either.  Tough  meats  are  also 
improved  by  laying  for  two  hours  on  a  dish  containing  three  or 
four  table-spoons  each  of  vinegar  and  salad  oil  (or  butter),  a  little 
pepper,  but  no  salt ;  turn  every  twenty  minutes.  The  action  of  the 
oil  and  vinegar  softens  the  fibers  without  extracting  their  juices. 
Trim  off  all  superfluous  fat,  but  never  wash  a  freshly-cut  steak. 
Never  salt  or  pepper  steak  or  chops  before  or  while  cooking,  but  if 
very  lean,  dip  in  melted  butter.  Place  the  steak  on  a  hot,  well- 
greased  gridiron,  turn  often  so  that  the  outside  maybe  seared  at 
once ;  when  done,  which  will  require  from  five  to  ten  minutes,  dish 
on  a  hot  platter,  season  with  salt  and  pepper  and  bits  of  butter, 
cover  with,  a  hot  platter  and  serve  at  once.  A  small  pair  of  tonga 
are  best  U  turn  steaks,  as  piercing  with  a  fork  fi^ees  the  juices.  If 
lat  drips  on  the  coals  below,  the  blaze  may  be  extinguished  by 
sprinkling  with  salt,  always  withdrawing  the  gridiron  to  prevent  the 


MEATS.  193 

Bteak  firom  acquiring  a  smoky  flavor.  Always  have  a  brisk  fire, 
whether  you  cook  in  a  patent  broiler  directly  over  ilie  fire,  or  on  a 
gridiron  over  a  bed  of  live  coals.  Broiling  steak  is  the  very  last 
thing  to  be  done  in  getting  breakfast  or  dinner ;  every  other  dish 
should  be  ready  for  the  table,  so  that  this  may  have  the  cook's  un- 
divided attention.  A  bteel  gridiron  with  slender  bars  is  best,  as  the 
common  broad,  flat  iron  bars  fry  and  scorch  the  meat,  imparting  & 
disagreeable  flavor.  In  using  the  patent  broilers,  such  as  the 
*'  American"  and  the  later  and  better  '*  Dover,''  care  must  be  used 
to  keep  all  doors  and  lids  of  stove  or  range  closed  during  the  pro- 
cess. The  dampers  which  shut  off  the  draft  to  the  chimney  should 
be  thrown  open  before  beginning,  to  take  the  flames  in  that  direc- 
tion. Never  take  the  li J  from  broiler  without  first  removing  it  from 
over  the  fire,  as  the  smoke  and  flames  rush  out  past  the  meat  and 
smoke  it 

Frying  is  properly  cooking  in  fat  enough  to  cover  the  article,  and 
when  the  fat  is  hot,  and  properly  managed,  the  food  is  crisped  at 
the  surface,  and  does  not  absorb  the  fat.  The  process  of  cooking  in 
just  enough  fat  to  prevent  sticking  has  not  yet  been  named  in  Eng- 
lish, and  is  eatdemg^  but  is  popularly  known  as  frying,  and  ought 
to  be  banished  from  all  civilized  kitchens.  The  secret  of  success  in 
fiying  is  what  the  French  call  the  **  surprise."  The  fire  must  be 
hot  enough  to  sear  the  surface  and  make  it  impervious  to  the  fat, 
and  at  the  same  time  seal  up  the  rich  juices.  As  soon  as  the  meat 
is  browned  by  this  sudden  application  of  heat,  the  pan  may  be 
moved  to  a  cooler  place  on  the  stove,  that  the  process  may  be  fin- 
ished more  slowly.  For  instructions  as  to  heating  the  fat,  see  what 
is  said  under  head  of  **  Fritters."  When  improperly  done,  frying 
results  in  an  unwholesome  and  greasy  mess,  unfit  for  food,  but  with 
care,  plenty  of  fat  (which  may  be  used  again  and  again),  and  the 
right  degree  of  heat,  nothing  is  easier  than  to  produce  a  crisp,  de- 
licious, and  healthful  dish. 

To  thaw  frozen  meat,  place  in  a  warm  room  over  night,  or  lay  it 
for  a  few  hours  in  cold  water — the  latter  plan  being  the  best.  The 
ice  which  forms  on  the  surfisu;e  as  it  thaws  is  easily  removed.  If 
cooked  before  it  is  entirely  thawed,  it  will  be  tough.     Meat  once 

frozen  should  not  be  allowed  to  thaw  until  just  before  cooking. 
13 


194  MEATS. 

The  moBt  economical  way  to  cut  a  ham  is  to  slice,  for  the  same 
meal,  from  the  large  end  as  well  as  from  the  thickest  part ;  in  this 
way  a  part  of  best  and  a  part  of  the  less  desirable  is  brought  on, 
and  the  waste  of  the  meal  is  from  the  poorest,  as  the  best  is  eaten 
first.  After  cutting  a  ham,  if  not  to  be  cut  from  again  soon,  rub 
the  cut  side  with  corn  meal ;  this  prevents  the  ham  from  becoming 
rancid,  and  rubs  off  easily  when  the  ham  is  needed  again. 

Beef  in  boiling  loses  rather  more  than  one-quarter ;  in  roasting  it 
loses  one-third ;  legs  of  mutton  lose  one-fifth  in  boiling,  and  one- 
third  in  roasting,  and  a  loin  of  mutton  in  roasting  loses  rather  mors 
than  a  third. 

Beef  suet  may  be  kept  a  long  time  in  a  cool  place  without  freez- 
ing, or  by  burying  it  deep  in  the  fiour  barrel  so  as  to  entirely  ex- 
clude the  air. 

The  garnishes  for  meats  are  parsley,  slices  of  lemon,  sliced  carrot, 
sliced  beets,  and  currant  jelly. 

For  hints  on  buying  meats,  see  '*  Marketing." 

Broiled  Beefsteak. 
Lay  a  thick  tender  steak  upon  a  gridiron  well  greased  with  butter 
or  beef  Muet,  over  hot  coals;  when  done  on  one  side  have  ready  the 
warmed  platter  with  a  little  butter  on  it,  lay  the  steak,  without 
pressing  it,  upon  the  platter  with  the  cooked  side  down  so  that  the 
juices  which  have  gathered  may  run  on  the  platter,  quickly  place  it 
again  on  gridiron,  and  cook  the  other  side.  When  done  to  liking, 
put  on  platter  again,  spread  lightly  with  butter,  season  with  salt 
and  pepper,  and  place  where  it  will  keep  warm  (over  boiling  steam 
is  best)  for  a  few  moments,  but  do  not  let  butter  become  oily. 
Serve  on  hot  plates.  Many  prefer  to  sear  on  one  side,  turn  imme« 
diately  and  sear  the  other,  and  finish  cooking,  turning  often ;  gar- 
nish with  fried  sliced  potatoes,  or  with  browned  potato  balls  the  size 
of  a  marble,  piled  at  each  end  of  platter. — Mrs,  W,  TT.  Tf. 

Fried  Beefsteak. 

When  the  means  to  broil  are  not  at  hand,  the  next  best  method 

is  to  heat  the  frying  pan  very  hot,  put  in  steak  previously  hacked, 

let  remain  a  few  moments,  loosen  with  a  knife  and  turn  quickly 

several  times ;  repeat  thb,  and  when  done  transfer  to  a  hot  platter. 


MEATS,  196 

• 

■alt,  pepper,  and  put  over  it  bits  of  butter;  pile  the  steaks  one  on 

top  of  another,  and  cover  with  a  hot  platter.     This  way  of  frying 

18  both  healthful  and  delicate.     Or,  heat  the  skillet,  trim  off  the  fat 

fix>m   the  steak,  cut  in  small  bits  and  set  on  to  frv;  meanwhile 

pound  steak,  then  draw  the  bits  of  suet  to  one  side  and  put  in  the 

steak,  turn  quickly  over  several  times  so  as  to  sear  the  outside,  take 

out  on  a  hot  platter  previously  prepared  with  salt  and   pepper, 

dredge  well,  return  to  skillet,  repeating  the  operation  until  the 

Bteak  is  done;  dish  on  a  hot  platter,  covering  with  another  platter, 

and  place  where  it  ?dll  keep  hot  while  making  the  gravy.     Place  a 

table-spoon  dry  flour  in  the  skillet,  being  sure  to  have  the  fat  boiling 

hot,  stir  until  brown  and  free  from  lumps  (the  bits  of  suet  may  be 

left  in,  drawing  them  tvi  one  side  until  the  flour  is  browned),  pour 

in  about  half  a  pint  boilhig  water  (milk  or  cream  is  better),  stir 

well,  season  with  pepper  and  suit,  and  serve  in  a  gravy  tureen. 

Spread  bits  of  butter  over  steak  and  send  to  table  at  once.     This  is 

more  economical,  but  not  so  wholesome  as  broiling. 

Beefsteak  Smothered  in  Onions. 

Slice  the  onions  thin  and  drop  in  cold  water:  put  steak  in  pan 
with  a  little  suet.  Skim  out  onions  and  add  to  steak,  season  with 
pepper  and  salt,  cover  tightly,  and  put  over  the  fire.  When  the 
juice  of  the  onions  has  dried  up,  and  the  meat  has  browned  on  one 
side,  remove  onions,  turn  steak,  replace  onions,  and  fry  till  done* 
being  careful  not  to  bum. 

Boiled  Corned  Beef. 

Soak  over  night  if  very  salt,  but  if  beef  is  young  and  properly 
corned  this  is  not  necessary;  pour  over  it  cold  water  enough  to 
cover  it  well,  after  washing  off*  the  salt.  The  rule  for  boiling  meats 
fo  twenty-five  minutes  to  a  pound,  but  corned  beef  should  be  placed 
on  a  part  of  the  stove  or  range  where  it  will  simmer,  not  boil,  un- 
interruptedly from  four  to  six  hours,  according  to  the  size  of  the 
piece.  If  to  be  served  cold,  some  let  the  meat  remain  in  the  liquor 
until  cold,  and  some  let  tough  beef  remain  in  the  liquor  until  the 
next  day,  and  bring  it  to  the  boiling  point  just  before  serving.  Sim- 
mer a  brisket  or  plate-piece  until  the  bones  are  easily  removed,  fold 
over,  forming  a  square  or  oblong  piece,  place  sufficient. weight  on 


196  MEAT& 

• 

top  to  press  the  parts  closely  together^  and  set  where  it  will  become 
cold.  This  gives  a  firm,  solid  piece  to  cut  in  slices,  and  is  a  delight- 
ful relish.  Boil  liquor  down,  remove  the  fat,  season  with  pepper 
or  sweet  herbs,  and  save  it  to  pour  over  finely  minced  scraps  and 
pieces  of  beef;  press  the  meat  firmly  into  a  mold,  pour  over  it  the 
liquor,  and  place  over  it  a  close  cover  with  a  weight  upon  it.  When 
turned  iroin  the  mold,  garnish  with  sprigs  of  parsley  or  celery,  and 
serve  with  &ncy  pickles  or  French  mustard. — Mrs,  S,  H.  J. 

Beef  a  La  Mode. 
In  a  piece  of  the  rump,  cut  deep  openings  with  a  sharp  knife ; 
put  in  pieces  of  pork  cut  into  dice,  previously  rolled  in  pepper,  salt, 
cloves  and  nutmeg.  Into  an  iron  stew-pan  lay  pieces  of  pork, 
sliced  onions,  slices  of  lemon,  one  or  two  carrots  and  a  bay-leaf; 
lay  the  meat  on  and  put  over  it  a  piece  of  bread-crust  as  large  as 
the  hand,  a  half-pint  wine  and  a  little  vinegar,  and  afterwards  an 
equal  quantity  of  water  or  broth,  till  the  meat  is  half  covered; 
cover  the  dish  close  and  cook  till  tender.  Then  take  it  out,  rub  the 
gravy  thoroughly  through  a  sieve,  skim  ofi*  the  fiit,  add  some  sour 
cream,  return  to  the  stew-pan  and  cook  ten  minutes.  Instead  of 
the  cream,  capers  or  sliced  cucumber  pickles  can  be  added  to  the 
gravy  if  preferred,  or  a  handful  of  grated  ginger-bread  or  rye 
bread.  The  meat  can  also  be  laid  for  some  days  before  in  a  spiced 
vinegar  or  wine  pickle. — Mrs,  L.  S.  WUlistoriy  Heidelberg,  Oermany, 

Boiled  Beef  Tongue. 
Wash  clean,  put  in  the  pot  with  water  to  cover  it,  a  pint  of  salt, 
and  a  small  pod  of  red  pepper ;  if  the  water  boils  away,  add  more 
so  as  to  keep  the  tongue  nearly  covered  until  done ;  boil  until  it 
can  be  pierced  easily  with  a  fork,  take  out,  and  if  needed  for  pres- 
ent use,  take  off  the  skin  and  set  away  to  cool ;  if  to  be  kept  some 
days,  do  not  peel  until  wanted  for  table.  The  same  amount  of  salt 
will  do  for  three  tongues  if  the  pot  is  large  enough  to  hold  them, 
always  remembering  to  keep  sufficient  water  in  the  kettle  to  cover 
all  while  boiling.  Soak  salt  tongue  over  night,  and  cook  in  same 
way,  omitting  the  salt.  Or,  after  peeling,  place  the  tongue  in  sauce* 
pan  with  one  cup  water,  one-half  cup  vinegar,  four  table-spoop« 
sugar,  and  cook  till  liquor  is  evaporated. — M.  J.  W. 


MEATS.  197 

Baoout  of  Beef. 

For  BIX  pounds  of  the  round,  take  half  dozen  ripe  tomatoes,  cut 
op  with  two  or  three  onions  in  a  vessel  with  a  tight  cover,  add  half 
a  dozen  cloves,  a  stick  of  cinnamon,  and  a  little  whole  black  pepper; 
cut  gashes  iu  the  meat,  and  stuff  them  with  half  pound  of  &t  salt 
pork,  cut  into  square  bits ;  place  the  meat  on  the  other  ingredients, 
and  pour  over  them  half  a  cup  of  vinegar  aud  a  cup  of  water; 
cover  tightly,  and  bake  in  a  moderate  oven  ;  cook  slowly  four  or  five 
hours,  and,  when  about  half  done,  salt  to  taste.  When  done,  take 
oat  the  meat,  strain  the  gravy  through  a  colander  and  thicken  with 
flour. — Mrs,  D.   W.  R,,   WaahingUm  City. 

Roast  Beef  with  Pudding. 
Bake  exactly  as  directed  for  ordinary  roast  for  the  table ;  then 
make  a  Yorkshire  pudding,  to  eat  like  vegetables  with  the  roost,  as 
foUows:  For  every  pint  of  milk  take  three  eggs,  three  cups  of  flour, 
and  a  pinch  of  salt ;  stir  to  a  smooth  batter,  and  pour  into  the  drip- 
ping-pan under  the  meat,  half  an  hour  before  it  is  done. — Mrs,  C 

T,  Carson. 

Roast  Beef. 

Take  a  rib-piece  or  loin-roast  of  seven  to  eight  pounds.  Beat  it 
thoroughly  all  over,  lay  it  in  the  roasting  dish  and  baste  it  with 
melted  butter.  Put  it  inside  the  well-heated"  oven,  and  baste  fre- 
quently with  its  own  fiit,  which  will  make  it  brown  and  tender.  If, 
when  it  is  cooking  fast,  the  gravy  is  growing  too  brown,  turn  a 
glass  of  Grerman  cooking  wine  into  the  bottom  of  the  pan,  and 
repeat  this  as  often  as  the  gravy  cooks  away.  The  roast  needs 
about  two  hours  time  to  be  done,  and  must  be  brown  outside  but 
inside  still  a  little  red.  Season  with  salt  and  pepper.  Squeeze  a 
little  lemon  juice  over  it,  and  also  turn  the  gravy  upon  it,  after 
skimming  ofi^  all  fat. — Mrs.  L.  S.   Willis^,  Heidelberg ,  Germany. 

A  Brown  Stew. 
Put  on  stove  a  rather  thick  piece  of  beef  with  little  bone  and 
some  fet;  four  hours  before  needed,  pour  on  just  boUing  water 
enough  to  cover,  cover  with  a  close-fitting  lid,  boil  gently,  and  as 
the  water  boils  away  add  only  just  enough  from  time  to  time  to 
keep  from  burning,  so  that  when  the  meat  is  tender,  the  water  may 


198  MEATS. 

all  be  boiled  away,  as  the  fat  will  allow  the  meat  to  brown  without 
burning ;  turn  occasionally,  brown  evenly  over  a  slow  fire,  and  make 
a  gravy,  by  stirring  flour  and  water  together  and  adding  to  the 
drippings ;  season  with  salt  an  hour  before  it  is  done. — Mrs.  Geba 
Hull 

Stewed  Beef. 

Take  a  piece  of  the  rump,  pound  it  till  tender,  lay  in  an  iron 
ver^sel  previously  lined  with  slices  of  pork  and  onions,  with  a  few 
pepper-corns,  dredge  it  with  salt,  and  baste  with  melted  butter. 
Cover  close,  over  a  good  heat,  and  when  it  has  fried  a  nice  brown, 
add  one  pint  German  cooking  wine  and  as  much  more  good  soup 
stock,  and  stew  it  till  soft.  Before  serving,  take  out  the  meat,  skim 
off  the  fat,  add  a  table-8i)Oon  of  flour  mixed  smooth  with  broth,  add 
gradually  still  more  broth,  strain  it  through  a  sieve  and  turn  over  the 
previously  dished  meat.  The  meat  can  be  laid  for  some  days  before 
in  vinegar,  or  in  a  spiced  pickle,  or  be  basted  with  either  occasionally 
instead  of  lying  in  it. 

Spiced  Beef  Tongue. 

Rub  into  the  tongue  a  mixture  of  half  a  pint  of  sugar,  a  piece 
of  saltpeter  the  size  of  a  pea,  and  a  table-spcjon  of  ground  cloves ; 
immerse  it  in  a  brine  made  of  three-fourths  pound  salt  to  two  quarts 
water,  taking  care  that  it  is  kept  covered ;  let  lie  two  weeks,  take 
out,  wash  well,  and  dry  with  a  cloth ;  roll  out  a  thin  paste  made  of 
flour  and  water,  wrap  the  tongue  in  it,  and  put  it  in  pan  to  bake ; 
bake  slowly,  basting  well  with  lard  and  water ;  when  done,  remove 
paste  and  skin,  and  serve. 

Fried  Liver. 

Cut  in  thin  slices  and  place  on  a  platter,  pour  on  boiling  water 
and  immediately  pour  it  off  (this  seals  the  outside,  takes  away  the 
unpleasant  flavor,  and  makes  it  much  more  palatable) ;  have  ready 
in  skillet  on  the  stove,  some  hot  lard  or  beef  drippings,  or  both 
together,  dredge  the  liver  with  rolled  crackers  or  dried  bread- 
crumbs  rolled  fine  and  nicely  seasoned  with  pepper  and  salt,  put 
in  skillet,  placing  the  tin  cover  on,  fry  slowly  until  both  sides  are 
dark-brown,  when  the  liver  will  be  thoroughly  cooked.  The  tim6 
required  is  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour. 


MEATS.  199 

Larded  Livek. 

Lard  a  calf's  liver  with  bacon  or  ham,  season  with  salt  and  pep- 
per, tie  a  cord  around  the  liver  to  keep  in  shape,  put  in  a  kettle 
with  one  quart  of  cold  water,  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  bacon,  one 
onion  chopped  fine,  and  one  teaspoon  sweet  marjoram ;  let  simmer 
slowly  for  two  hours,  pour  off  gravy  into  gravy -dish,  and  brown  liver 
in  kettle.  Serve  with  the  ^ravy. — Mrs.  E,  L.  Fay,  Washington 
Heights,  New  York  OUy. 

Fried  Tripe. 

Dredge  with  flour,  or  dip  in  egg  and  cracker  crumbs,  fry  in  hot 
butter,  or  other  fat,  until  a  delicate  brown  on  both  sides,  ]ay  it  on  a 
dish,  add  vinegar  to  the  gravy,  and  pour  over  the  tripe  (or  the 
vinegar  may  be  omitted,  and  the  gravy  added,  or  the  tripe  may  be 
served  without  vinegar  or  gravy).  Or  make  a  batter  by  mixing 
gradually  one  cup  of  flour  with  one  of  sweet  milk,  then  add  an  egg 
well  beaten  and  a  little  salt ;  drain  the  iripe,  dip  in  Imtter,  and  fry 
in  hot  drippings  or  lard.  Salt  pork  and  pig's-feet  may  be  cooked 
by  the  same  rule.     In  buying  tripe  get  the  **  honey-combed." 

To  fricassee  tripe,  cut  it  in  narrow  strips,  add  water  or  milk  to  it, 

and  a  good  bit  of  butter  rolled  in  flour,  season  with  pepper  and  a 

little  salt,  let  simmer  slowly  for  some  time,  and  serve  hot  garnished 

with  parsley. 

Soused  'I'^ipe. 

After  preparing  it  according  to  directions  in  **  How  to  cut  and 
cure  meats,"  place  in  a  stone  jar  in  layers,  seasoning  every  layer 
with  pepper  and  salt,  and  pour  over  boiling  vinegar,  in  which,  if 
desired,  a  few  whole  cloves,  a  sprinkle  of  mace,  and  a  stick  of 
cinnamon  have  been  boiled ;  or  cover  with  the  jelly  or  liquor  in 
which  the  tripe  was  boiled.  When  wanted  for  table,  take  out  of 
jar,  scrape  off  the  liquid,  and  either  broil,  fricassee,  fry  in  butter, 
or  flpy  plain. — Mrs.  ELiza  T.  Carson^  Mt.  Pleasant  Farm. 

TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE. 

Mix  one  pint  flour  and  one  egg  with  milk  enough  to  make  a  bat* 
ter  (like  that  for  batter-cakes),  and  a  little  salt;  grease  dish  well 
with  butter,  put  in  lamb  chops,  add  a  little  water  with  pepper  and 
lalt,  pour  batter  over  it,  and  bake  for  one  hour. 


200  MEATS. 

Boiled  Mutton  with  Caper  Sauce. 

Have  ready  a  pot  of  boiling  water,  and  throw  in  a  handful  of 
salt ;  wash  a  leg  of  mutton  and  rub  salt  through  it.  If  it  is  to  be 
rare,  cook  about  two  hours;  if  well  done,  three  hours  or  longer, 
according  to  size.  Boil  a  pint  of  milk,  thicken  with  flour  well 
blended,  add  butter,  salt,  pepper  and  two  table-spoons  of  capers,  or 
mint  sauce  if  preferred. — 3/r«.  E.  L.  F, 

Lamb  Stewed  with  Pease. 

Cut  the  neck  or  breast  in  pieces,  put  it  in  a  stew-pan  with  some 

salt  pork  sliced  thin,  and  enough  water  to  cover  it;  cover  close  and 

•let  stew  until  the  meat  is  tender,  then  skim  free  from  scum,  add  a 

quart  of  green  pease  shelled,  and  more  hot  water,  if  necessary ; 

cover  till  the  pease  are  done  tender,  then  add  a  bit  of  butter  rolled 

in  flour,  and  pepper  to  taste ;  let  simmer  for  a  few  minutes  and 

serve. 

Mutton  Chops. 

Season  with  salt  and  pepper,  put  in  skillet,  cover  closely,  and  fiy 
^Vii  minutes,  turning  over  once ;  dip  each  chop  in  beaten  egg,  then 
in  cracker  or  bread-crumbs,  and  fry  till  tender  or  nicely  browned  on 
each  side;  or  put  in  oven  in  a  dripping-pan,  with  a  little  water, 
salt  and  pepper;  baste  frequently  and  bake  until  brown.  To  broil 
lamb  chop:?,  trim  neatly,  broil  over  a  clear  fire,  season  with  pepper 
and  salt,  and  serve  with  green  pease. 

Leg  of  Mutton  a  la  Venison. 
Remove  all  rough  fat  from  a  leg  of  mutton,  lay  in  a  deep 
earthen  dish,  and  rub  into  the  meat  very  thoroughly  the  following 
mixture:  One  table-sp(X)n  salt,  one  each  of  celery,  salt,  brown 
sugar,  black  pepper,  made  mustard,  allspice,  and  sweet  herbs  mixed 
and  powdered.  After  these  have  been  rubl)ed  into  all  parts  of 
meat,  pour  over  it  slowly  a  tea-cup  good  vinegar,  cover  tightly  and 
set  in  a  cool  place  for  four  or  ^wq  days,  turning  ham,  and  basting 
it  with  liquid  three  or  four  times  a  day.  To  cook,  leave  in  a  clean 
kettle  a  quart  boiling  water,  have  in  kettle  an  inverted  tin-pan  or 
rack  made  for  the  purpose ;  on  it  lay  ham  just  as  taken  out  of 
pickle ;  cover  kettle  tightly,  and  stew  for  four  hours.  Do  not  allow 
water  to  touch  the  meat.    Add  a  tea-cup  of  hot  water  to  the  pickle* 


MEATS.  201 

and  baste  the  ham  mth  it.  When  ready  to  serve,  thicken  the 
liquid  in  the  kettle  with  flour,  strain  through  a  fine  strainer,  and 
serve  the  meat  with  it  and  a  relish  of  currant  jelly. 

Frogs. 

Frogs  may  be  broiled,    or  made  into  a  fricassee  seasoned  with 

tomato  catsup.      The  hind  legs  alone  are  eaten,  and  are  a  great 

delicacy. 

Fricatelu. 

Chop  raw  fresh  pork  very  fine,  add  a  little  salt,  plenty  of  pepper, 

and  two  small  onions  chopped  fine,  half  as  much  bread  as  there  is 

meat,  soaked  until  soft,  two  eggs ;  mix  well  together,  make  into 

oblong  patties,  and  fry  like  oysters.      These  are  nice  for  breakfast; 

if  used  for  supper,  serve  with  sliced  lemon. — Mrs.  W,  F.  WUcox. 

Boned  Ham. 

Having  soaked  a  well-cured  ham  in  tepid  water  over  night,  boil 

it  till  perfectly  tender,  putting  it  on  in  warm  water ;  take  up  in  a 

wooden  tray,  let  cool,  remove  bone  carefully,  press  the  ham  again 

into  shape,  return  to  boiling  liquor,  remove  pot  from  fire,  and  let 

the  ham  remain  in  it  till  cold.     Cut  across  and  serve  cold. — Miss 

L.  L,  Richmond. 

Boiled  Ham. 

Pour  boiling  water  over  it  and  let  stand  until  cool  enough  to  wash, 

scrape  clean  (some  have  a  coarse  hair-brush  on  purpose  for  cleaning 

hams),  put  in  a  thoroughly  cleansed  boiler  with  cold  water  enougn 

to  cover;  bring  to  the  boiling  point  and  then  place  on  back  part  of 

stove  to  simmer  steadily  for  six  or  seven  hours  or  till  tender  when 

pierced  with  a  fork  (if  the  ham  weighs  twelve  pounds) ;  be  care- 

ful  to  keep  water  at  boiling  point,  and  not  to  allow  it  to  go  much 

above  it     Turn  the  ham  once  or  twice  in  the  water ;  when  done 

take  up  and  put  into  a  baking-pan  to  skin ;  dip  the  hands  in  cold 

water,  take  the  skin  between  the  fingers  and  peel  as  you  would  an 

orange;   set  in   a  moderate  oven,  placing  the  leab  side  of  the  ham 

downward,  and  if  you  like,  sift  over  pounded  or  rolled  crackers ; 

bake  one  hour.      The  baking  brings  out  a  great  quantity  of  fat, 

leaving  the  meat  much  more  delicate,  and  in  warm  weather  it  will 

keep  in  a  dry,  cool  place  a  long  time ;  if  there  is  a  tendency  to  mold, 

set  it  a  little  while  into  the  oven  again.    Or,  after  the  ham  is  boiled 


20S  MEATS, 

and  peeled,  eover  with  the  white  of  a  raw  egg,  and  sprinkle  sugar 
or  fine  bread-crumrbs  over  it ;  or  eover  with  a  regular  cake-icing, 
plaee  in  the  oven  and  brown ;  or,  quarter  two  onions,  stick  whole 
allspioe  and  black  pepper  in  the  quarters,  with  a  knife  make  slits 
in  the  outside  of  the  ham  in  which  put  the  onions,  place  in  dripping- 
pan,  lay  parsley  around,  and  bake  till  nicely  browned.  Or,  after 
boiling  and  peeling,  dust  with  sugar,  and  pass  a  hot  knife  over  it 
until  it  forms  a  caramel  glaze,  and  serve  without  baking.  A  still  ' 
nicer  way  is  to  glaze  with  strong  meat  jelly  or  any  savory  jelly  at 
hand,  boiled  down  rapidly  (taking  great  care  to  prevent  burning) 
until  it  is  like  glue.  Brush  this  jelly  over  the  ham  when  cool,  and 
it  makes  it  an  elegant  dish.  The  nicest  portion  of  a  boiled  ham 
may  be  served  in  slices,  and  the  ragged  parts  and  odds  and  ends 
chopped  fine  for  sandwiches,  or  by  adding  three  eggs  to  one  pint 
of  chopped  ham  a  delicious  omelet  may  be  made.  If  the  ham  is 
very  salt,  it  should  lie  in  water  over  night 

Broiled  Ham. 
Cut  the  ham  in  slices  of  medium  thickness,  place  on  a  hot  grid- 
iron, and  broil  until  the  hX  readily  flows  out  and  the  meat  is  slightly 
browned,  take  from  the  gridiron  with  a  knife  and  fork,  drop  into  a 
pan  of  cold  water,  then  return  again  to  the  gridiron,  repeat  several 
times,  and  the  ham  is  done ;  place  in  a  hot  platter,  add  a  few  lumps 
of  butter,  and  serve  at  once.  If  too  fiit,  trim  ofi*  a  part ;  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  broil  the  fat  part  without  burning,  but  this  does  not 
impair  the  taste.  Pickled  pork  and  breakilEist  bacon  may  be  broiled 
in  the  same  way. — Mrs.  A.  E.  Brand, 

Delicious  Pried  Ham. 
Place  the  slices  in  boiling  water  and  cook  till  tender;  put  in  fry- 
ing-pan and  brown,  and  dish  on  a  platter;  fry  some  eggs  by  dripping 
gravy  over  them  until  done,  instead  of  turning ;  take  up  careAiUy  and 
lay  them  on  the  slices  of  ham. — Mn.  J.  F.  W 

Baked  Piq. 
Take  a  pig  about  six  weeks  old,  nicely  prepared,  score  in  squares, 
and  rub  lard  all  over  it;  make  a  dressing  of  two  quarts  of  com 
meal  salted  as  if  for  bread,  and  mix  to  a  stiff  bread  with  boiling 
water;  make  into  pans  and  bake.  After  this  is  baked  brown,  break 
it  up,  and  add  to  it  one-fourth  pound  of  butter,  pepper  to  taste. 


MEATS.  208 

and  thyme.     Fill  the  pig  till  plump,  sew  it  up,  and  place  it  on  its 

knees  in  the   pan,  which  fill  with  as  much  water  as  will  cook  it. 

Baste  it  very  frequently  with  the  gravy,  also  two  red  pepper  pods. 

Turn  while  baking  same  as  turkey,  and  continue  to  baste  till  done. 

8ome  use  turkey-dressing  instead  of  above. — Mn.  M,  L.  Blanton, 

NcuhviUe^  Tenn. 

Spar£>-rib  Pot-pie. 

Cut  the  spare-ribs  once  across  and  then  in  strips  three  or  four 
uiches  wide,  put  on  in  kettle  with  hot  water  enough  to  cover,  stew 
until  tender,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  turn  out  of  kettle ; 
replace  a  layer  of  spare-ribs  in  the  bottom,  add  a  layer  of  peeled 
potatoes  (quartered  if  large),  some  bits  of  butter,  some  small  squares 
of  baking-powder  dough  rolled  quite  thin,  season  again,  then  another 
layer  of  spare-ribs,  and  so  on  until  the  kettle  is  two-thirds  full, 
leaving  the  squares  of  crust  for  the  last  layer ;  then  add  the  liquor 
in  which  the  spare-ribs  were  boiled,  and  hot  water  if  needed,  cover, 
boil  half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  being  careful  to  add  hot  water 
BO  as  not  to  let  it  boil  dry.     The  crust  can  be  made  of  light  biscuit 
dough,  without  egg  or  sugar,  as  follows:  Boll  thin,  cut  out,  let  rise, 
and  use  for  pie,  remembering  to  have  plenty  of  water  in  the  kettle, 
80  that  when  the  pie  is  made  and  the  cover  on,  it  need  not  be  re- 
moved  until  dished.     If,  after  taking  up,  there  is  not  sufficient 
gravy,  add  hot  water  and  flour  and  butter  rubbed  together ;  season 
to  taste,  and  serve.     To  warm  over  pot-pie,  sec  u  in  a  dnppmg-pan 
in  the  oven,  add  lumps  of  butter  with  gravy  or  hot  water ;  more 
squares  of  dough  may  be  laid  on  the  top. — Mn,  W.  W.  W. 

PiGS*-PEET  Souse. 
Cut  off  the  homy  parts  of  feet  and  toes,  scrape,  clean,  and  wash 
thoroughly,  singe  off  the  stray  hairs,  place  in  a  kettle  with  plenty 
of  water,  boil,  skim,  pour  off  water  and  add  fresh,  and  boil  until  the 
bones  will  pull  out  easily ;  do  not  bone,  but  pack  in  a  stone  jar  with 
pepper  and  salt  sprinkled  between  each  layer;  cover  with  good 
cider  vinegar.  When  wanted  for  the  table,  take  out  a  sufficient 
quantity,  put  in  a  hot  skillet,  add  more  vinegar,  salt,  and  pepper 
tf  needed,  boil  until  thoroughly  heated,  stir  in  a  smooth  thicken- 
ing of  flour  and  water,  and  boil  until  flour  is  cooked ;  serve  hot  as 
a  nice  breakfast  dish.     Or,  when  the  feet  have  boiled  until  perfectly 


204  MEATS. 

tender,  remove  the  bones  and  pack  in  stone  jar  as  above ;  slice 
down  cold  when  wanted  for  use.  Let  the  liquor  in  which  the  feet  are 
boiled  stand  over  night ;  in  the  morning  remove  the  fat  and  pre- 
pare and  preserve  for  use  as  directed  in  the  Medical  Department 

Pia's-HEAD  Cheese. 
Having  thoroughly  cleaned  a  hog's  or  pig's  head,  split  it  in  two, 
take  out  the  eyes  and  the  brain;  clean  the  ears,  throw  scalding 
water  over  the  head  and  ears,  then  scrape  them  well ;  when  very 
clean,  put  in  a  kettle  with  water  to  cover  it,  and  set  it  over  a  rathei 
quick  fire ;  skim  it  as  any  scum  rises ;  when  boiled  so  that  the  flesh 
leaves  the  bones,  take  it  from  the  water  with  a  skimmer  into  a  larg6 
wooden  bowl  or  tray ;  then  take  out  every  particle  of  bone,  chop  the 
meat  fine,  season  to  taste  with  salt  and  pepper  (a  little  pounded 
sage  may  be  added),  spread  a  cloth  over  the  colander,  put  the  meat 
in,  fold  cloth  closely  over  it,  lay  a  weight  on  it  so  that  it  may  press 
the  whole  surface  equally  (if  it  be  lean  use  a  heavy  weight,  if  &t, 
a  lighter  one)  ;  when  cold  take  off  weight,  remove  from  colander, 
and  place  in  crock.  Some  add  vinegar  in  proportion  of  one  pint  to 
a  gallon  crock.  Clarify  the  &.t  from  the  cloth,  colander,  and  liquor 
of  the  pot,  and  use  for  frying. 

Fried  Porkbteaks. 
Fry  like  beefiteaks,  with  pepper  and  salt ;  or  sprinkle  with  dry 
powdered  sage  if  the  sausage  flavor  is  liked. — Mr%.  B.  A.  Fay. 

Fried  Salx*  Pork. 
Cut  in  rather  thin  slices,  and  freshen  by  lettbg  lie  an  hour  or  two 
in  cold  water  or  milk  and  water,  roll  in  flour  and  fry  till  crisp  (}f 
in  a  hurry,  pour  boiling  water  on  the  slices,  let  stand  a  few  minutes, 
drian,  roll  in  flour  and  fry  as  before)  ;  drain  off  most  of  the  grease 
from  frying-pan,  sdr  in  while  hot  one  or  two  table-spoons  of  flour, 
about  half  a  pint  new  milk,  a  little  pepper,  and  salt  if  not  salt 
enough  already  from  the  meat ;  let  boil  and  pour  into  gravy  dish. 
This  makes  a  nice  white  gravy  when  properly  made. 

BoABT  Pork. 
A  small  loin  of  pork,  three  table-spoons  bread-crumbs,  one  onion, 
half  a  tea-spoob  chopped  sage,  half  tea-spoon  salt,  half  tea-spoon 
pepper,  one  ounce  chopped  suety  one  table-spoon  drippings.     Sepa- 


MEATS.  206 

rate  each  joint  of  the  loin  with  the  chopper,  and  then  make  an  in- 
<usion  with  a  knife  into  the  thick  part  of  the  pork  in  which  to  put 
the  stuffing.  Prepare  the  stuffing  by  mixing  the  bread-crumbs 
together  with  the  onion,  which  must  have  previously  been  finely 
chopped.  Add  to  this  the  sage,  pepper,  salt  and  suet,  and  when  all 
is  thoroughly  mixed,  press  the  mixture  snugly  into  the  incision 
already  made  in  the  pork,  and  sew  together  the  edges  of  the  meat 
with  needle  and  thread,  to  confine  the  stuffing.  Grease  well  a  shet  t 
of  kitchen  paper,  with  drippings,  place  the  loin  into  this,  securing 
it  with  a  wrapping  of  twine.  Put  to  bake  in  a  dry  baking-pan,  in 
a  brisk  oven,  basting  immediately  and  constantly  as  the  grease  draws 
out,  and  roast  a  length  of  time,  allowing  twenty  minutes  to  the 
pound  and  twenty  minutes  longer.  Serve  with  apple>sauce  or  apple- 
fritters. — Miss  M.  L,  Dods. 

Roast  8par£-rib. 
Trim  off  the  rough  ends  neatly,  crack  the  ribs  across  the  middle, 
rub  with  salt  and  sprinkle  with  pepper,  fold  over,  stuff  with  turkey- 
dressing,  sew  up  tightly,  place  in  dripping-pan  with  pint  of  water, 
baste  frequently,  turning  over  once  so  as  to  bake  both  sides  equaUy 
antil  a  rich  brown. 

Yankee  Pork  and  Beans. 
Pick  over  carefully  a  quart  of  beans  and  let  them  soak  over 
night ;  in  the  morning  wash  and  drain  in  another  water,  put  on  to 
boil  in  cold  water  with  half  a  teaspoon  of  soda ;  boil  about  thirty 
minutes  (when  done  the  skin  of  a  bean  will  crack  if  taken  out  and 
blown  upon),  drain,  and  put  in  an  earthen^pot  first  a  slice  of  pork 
and  then  the  beans,  with  two  or  three  tablenspoons  of  molasses. 
When  the  beans  are  ip  the  pot,  put  in  the  center  half  or  three, 
fi>urths  of  a  pound  of  well-washed  salt  pork  with  the  rind  scored  in 
slices  or  squares,  and  uppermost,  season  with  pepper  and  salt  if 
needed ;  cover  all  with  hot  water,  and  bake  six  hours  or  longer  in 
a  moderate  oven,  adding  hot  water  as  needed ;  they  can  not  be 
baked  too  long.  Keep  covered  so  that  they  will  not  bum  on  the 
top,  but  remove  cover  an  hour  or  two  before  serving,  to  brown  the 
top  and  crisp  the  pork.  This  is  the  Yankee  dish  for  Sunday  breakiast 
It  is  often  baked  the  day  before,  allowed  to  remain  in  the  oven  all 


^  MEATS, 

night,  and  browned  in  the  morning.     Serve  in  the  dish  in  which 

they  are  cooked,  and  always  have  enough  left  to  know  the  luxury 

of  cold  beans,  or  baked  beans  warmed  over.     If  salt  pork  is  too 

robust  for  the  appetites  to  be  served,  season  delicately  with  salt, 

pepper,  and  a  little  butter,  and  roast  a  fresh  spare-rib  to  serve  with 

them. 

Fried  Veal  Cutlets. 

Make  a  batter  of  half  pint  of  milk,  a  well-beaten  egg,  and  flour; 
fry  the  veal  brown  in  sweet  lard  or  beef-drippings,  dip  it  in  the 
batter  and  fry  again  till  brown ;  drop  some  spoonfuls  of  batter  in 
the  hot  lard  after  the  veal  is  taken  up,  and  serve  them  on  top  of 
the  meat ;  put  a  little  flour  paste  in  the  gravy  with  salt  and  pepper^ 
let  it  come  to  a  boil  and  pour  it  over  the  whole.    The  veal  should 
be  cut  thin,  pounded,  and  cooked  nearly  an  hour.     Cracker  crumbs 
and  egg  may  be  used  instead  of  batter,  but  the  skillet  should  then 
be  kept  covered,  and  the  veal  cooked  slowly  for  half  lUi  hour  over 
a  moderate  fire.     If  a  gravy  is  wanted  sprinkle  a  little  flour  in  the 
pan,  add  salt  and  pepper  and  a  little  water,  let  come  to  a  boil,  and 
pour  over  the  cutlets ;  or,  pound  well,  squeeze  juice  of  lemon  over 
the  slices,  let  stand  an  hour  or  two,  dip  in  beaten  egg  and  then  in 
fine  bread-crumbs  (if  no  stale  bread  is  at  hand  dry  slices  in  a  cool 
oven),  plunge  at  once  into  hot  fat  enough  to  cover.     The  slices  wiU 
brown  before  they  are  thoroughly  cooked,  and  the  pan  should   be 
drawn  aside  to  a  cooler  place  to  '*  finish"  more  slowly. 

Fish  may  be  fried  in  the  same  way;  when  done  the  meat  will  sep- 
arate readily  from  the  bone  when  a  knife  is  inserted.  They  may  be 
dipped  in  milk  and  tlsn  in  flour,  instead  of  in  egg  and  bread- 
crumbs ;  sift  salt  evenly  over  the  meat  or  fish  just  before  serving. 
The  bread-crumbs  should  be  fine;  if  coarse,  they  crumble  ofi"  with 

the  egg  in  cooking. 

Veal  Loaf. 

Chop  fine  three  pounds  of  leg  or  loin  of  veal  and  three-fourths 
pound  salt  pork,  chopped  finely  together;  roll  one  dozen  crackers, 
put  half  of  them  in  the  veal  with  two  eggs,  season  with  pepper  and 
a  little  salt  if  needed;  mix  all  together  and  make  into  a  solid  fi^rm; 
then  take  the  crackers  that  are  left  and  spread  smoothly  over  the 
outside ;  bake  one  hour,  and  eat  cold. — Oov.  Tilden,  N,  Y. 


MEATS.  207 

Boast  Loin  op  Veal. 

Wash  and  rub  thoroughly  with  salt  and  pepper,  leaving  m  the 
iddnej,  around  which  put  plenty  of  salt;  roll  up,  let  stand  two 
hours ;  in  the  meantime  make  dressing  of  bread-crumbs,  salt,  pep- 
per, and  chopped  parsley  or   thyme  moistened   with  a  little  hot 
water  and  butter — some  prefer  chopped  salt  pork — also  add  an  egg. 
Unroll  the  veal,  put  the  dressing  well  around  the  kidney,  fold,  and 
secure  well  with  several  yards  white  cotton  twine,  covering  the 
meat  in  all  directions;    place  in  the  dripping-pan  with  the  thick 
aide   down,  put  to  bake  in  a  rather   hot  oven,  graduating  it  to 
moderate  heat  afterward ;  in  half  an  hour  add  a  little  hot  water  to 
the  pan,  baste  often ;  in  another  half  hour  turn  over  the  roast,  and 
when  nearly  done,  dredge  lightly  with  flour,  and  baste  with  melted 
batter.     Before  serving,  carefully  remove  the  twine.     A  four-pound 
roast  thus  prepared  will  bake  thoroughly  tender  in  about  two  hours. 
To  make  the  gravy,  skim  off  fat  if  there  is  too  much  in  the  drippings, 
dredge  some  flour  in  the  pan,  stir  until  it  browns,  add  some  hot 
water  if  necessary,  boil  a  few  moments  and  serve  in  gravy-boat. 
This  roast  is  very  nice  to  slice  down  cold   for  Sunday  dinners. 
Serve  with  green  pease  and  lemon  jelly. 

Stewed  Kidney. 

Boil  kidneys  the  night  before  till  very  tender,  turn  meat  and 
gravy  into  a  dish  and  cover  over.  In  the  morning,  boil  for  a  few 
moments,  thicken  with  flour  and  water,  add  part  of  an  onion  chopped 
very  fine,  pepper,  salt,  and  a  lump  of  butte^and  pour  over  toasted 
broad  well  buttered. — Mrs.  E.  L.  F. 

Veal  Stew. 

Boil  two  and  a  half  pounds  of  the  breast  of  veal  one  hour  in 
water  enough  to  cover,  add  a  dozen  potatoes,  and  cook  half  an  hour ; 
before  taking  off  the  stove,  add  one  pint  of  milk  and  flour  enough 
to  thicken ;  season  to  taste.  If  preferred,  make  a  crust  as  for 
chicken-pie,  bake  in  two  pie-pans,  place  one  of  the  crusts  on  tlie 
platter,  pour  over  the  stew,  and  place  the  other  on  top. — KaJte  Thomp- 
Wij  JliIiBerAurg,  Ky. 


208  MEATS. 

Sweet-Bbeadb. 

These  are  great  delicacies.  There  are  two  in  a  calf,  one  from 
neck  called  *'  throat  sweet-bread,"  the  other  firom  near  the  heart 
called  ''heart  sweet-bread."  The  latter  is  most  delicate.  Select 
the  largest  The  color  should  be  clear  and  a  shade  darker  than  the 
&t  Before  cooking  let  the  sweet- breads  lie  for  half  an  hour  in 
lukewarm  water,  then  throw  into  boiliiig  water  to  blanch  and 
harden,  and  then  into  cold  water  to  cool ;  after  which  draw  off  the 
outer  casing,  remove  the  little  pipes,  and  cut  into  thin  slices.  Sweet- 
breads do  not  keep  well,  and  should  be  fresh,  and  must  be  kept  in 
a  cold,  dry  place.  They  should  be  thoroughly  cooked.  In  lard- 
ing sweet-bread,  take  deep,  long  stitches,  or  they  will  break  out. 

To  broil,  prepare  as  above,  spread  plenty  of  butter  over  them» 
and  broil  on  a  gridiron  over  hot  coals,  turning  often. 

To  fricassee,  cut  up  the  remnant  of  a  cooked  sweet-bread  in  small 
pieces,  prepare  a  gravy  by  melting  two  table-spoons  butter  and 
stirring  in  a  table-spoon  flour,  and  adding  a  tea-cup  of  soup  stock 
or  water;  lay  pieces  of  sweet-bread  in  pan  with  gravy,  season  with 
pepper  and  salt,  and  boil  up  once.  Garnish  with  sliced  lemon  or 
pieces  of  fried  bread.  If  sweet-breads  are  fresh,  cut  into  thin  slices, 
let  simmer  slowly  in  the  gravy  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  and 
add  a  well-beaten  egg,  two  table-spoons  cream,  and  a  spoonful 
chopped  parsley ;  stir  all  together  for  a  few  minutes,  and  serve  im- 
mediately. 

To  fry,  parboil  five  minutes,  wipe  dry,  lard  with  narrow  stripe  of 
salt  fat  pork  with  a  larding-needle,  put  a  very  little  butter  or  lard 
into  a  frying-pan,  lay  m  the  sweet-breads  when  it  is  hot,  and  fry  to 
a  crisp  brown,  turning  often.  Or,  slice  thin,  sprinkle  over  grated 
nutmeg  and  chopped  parsley,  dip  into  a  batter  made  of  one  cup 
milk,  one  egg,  one  cup  of  flour,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  a  half  tea- 
spoon baking-powder,  and  fry  like  fritters. 

To  roast,  parboil  large  ones,  and,  when  cold,  lard  yrith  salt  pork 
as  above.  Boast  brown  in  a  moderate  oven,  basting  often  with 
butter  and  water.  Serve  with  white  sauce  or  tomato  sauce  poured 
over  them.  For  sweet-breads  with  green  pease,  lard  five  sweet-breads 
with  strips  of  salt  pork  (project  evenly  about  half  an  inch  on  the 
upper  side),  put  on  the  fire  with  a  half  pint  water,  and  let  stew 


MEA!n8.  209 

alowly  for  half  an  hour,  take  out  and  put  in  a  small  dripping-pan 
with  a  little  butter  and  a  sprinkle  of  flour ;  brown  slightly,  add  half 
a  gill  of  mingled  milk  and  water,  and  sea^n  with  pepper ;  heat  a 
half  pint  of  cream,  and  stir  it  in  the  gravy  in  the  pan.  Have  pease 
ready  boiled  and  seasoned,  place  the  sweet-breads  in  the  center  of 
the  disb,  pour  the  gravy  over  them,  and  put  pease  around  them. 

Veal  with  Oysters. 

Fry  two  pounds  tender  veal  cut  in  thin  bits,  and  dredged  witli 

flour,  in  sufficient  hot  lard  to  prevent  sticking ;  when  nearly  done 

add  one  and  a  half  pints  of  fine  oysters,  thicken  with  flour,  season 

with  salt  and  pepper,  and  cook  until  done.    Serve  hot  in  covered  dish. 

Stuffed  Heart. 

Take  a  beeFs  or  sheep's  or  veal's  heart,  wash  deeply  and  thoroughly 
80  as  to  remove  all  blood,  make  the  two  cells  into  one  by  cutting 
through  the  partition  with  a  long,  sharp  knife,  being  careful  not  to 
cut  through  to  the  outside ;  make  a  stufling  of  bread  crumbs  same 
as  for  roast  turkey,  fill  the  cavity,  cover  with  greased  paper  or  cloth 
to  secure  stuffing,  and  bake  in  a  deep  pan  with  plenty  of  water,  for 
two  hours  or  longer,  basting  and  turning  often,  as  the  upper  part 
particularly  is  apt  to  get  dry.  While  heart  is  roasting,  put  the  valves 
or  ^*  deaf  ears,"  which  must  be  cut  ofl*  after  washing,  into  a  sauce- 
pan, with  pint  of  cold  water  and  a  sliced  onion.  Let  simmer  slowly 
one  hour ;  melt  in  saucepan  tablespoon  of  butter,  add  a  tablespoon 
flour,  then  the  strained  liquor  from  valves,  and  serve  as  gravy. 

Veal  or  Chicken  pot-pie. 

Put  two  or  three  pounds  veal  (a  piece  widi  ribs  is  .good),  cut  in  a 
dozen  pieces,  in  a  quart  of  cold  water ;  make  a  quart  of  soda-bis- 
cuit dough,  take  two-thirds  of  dongh,  roll  to  a  fourth  of  an  inch 
thick,  cut  in  strips  one  inch  wide  by  three  long ;  pare  and  slice  six 
potatoes ;  boil  veal  till  tender,  take  out  all  but  three  or  four  pieces, 
put  in  two  handfuls  of  potatoes  and  several  strips  of  dough,  then 
add  pieces  of  veal  and  dough,  seasoning  with  salt,  pepper,  and  a 
little  butter,  until  all  the  veal  is  in  pot ;  add  boiling  water  enough 
to  cover,  take  rest  of  dough,  roll  out  to  size  of  ])ot,  cut  several  holes 
to  let  steam  escape,  and  place  over  the  whole.  Put  on  a  tight  lid 
and  boil  (gently)  twenty  or  thirty  minutes  mthovt  uncovering. 

14 


PASTRY. 


Butter  or  lard  for  pastry  should  be  sweet,  fresh  and  solid. 
When  freshly-made  butter  can  not  be  had,  wash  well,  kneading 
while  under  cold  water,  changing  the  water  t\vo  or  three  times,  and 
then  wiping  dry  with  a  napkin.  The  board  on  which  the  butter  is 
rolled  should  be  hard  and  smooth,  and  never  used  for  any  other 
purpose. 

A  very  nice  paste  for  family  use  may  be  made  by  reducing  the 
quantity  of  shortening  to  even  so  little  as  a  half  pound  to  a  quart 
of  flour,  especially  when  children  or  dyspeptics  are  to  be  considered. 
With  the  exception  of  mince-pies,  which  are  warmed  over  before 
serving,  all  pies  should  be  eaten  the  day  they  are  baked.  In  warm 
weather,  when  not  ready  to  bake  immediately  after  making  up 
paste,  keep  it  in  the  ice-chest  till  wanted,  several  days  if  necessary, 
and,  in  any  event,  it  is  better  to  let  it  thus  remain  for  one  or  two 
hours.     Roll  always  with  a  weU-jUmred  rolling-pin. 

To  prevent  the  juicf  of  pies  from  soaking  into  the  under  crust, 
beat  an  egg  well,  and  with  a  bit  of  cloth  dipped  into  the  egg,  rub 
over  the  crust  before  filling  the  pies. 

For  a  more  wholesome  pie-crust  shortening,  boil  beans  or  potatoes 
until  soft,  make  into  a  broth,  work  through  a  colander,  mix  as  much 
into  the  flour  as  can  be  done  and  preserve  suflicient  tenacity  in  the 
dough.  Knead  moderately  stifl*,  and  roll  a  little  thicker  than  crust 
shortened  with  lard.  It  is  a  good  plan  to  make  a  puif-paste  for  the 
top  crust,  and  for  the  under  crust  use  less  shortening. 

When  using  green  currants,  pie-plant,  gooseberries,  or  other  fruitd" 
which  require  the  juice  to  be  thickened,  fill  the  lower  crust,  sprinkle 


PAJSTRY.  211 

com  starch  evenly  over,  and  put  on  the  upper  crust.    This  pre- 
vents the  juice  from  running  over,  and,  when  cold,  forms  a  nice 
jelly.     Do  not  sprinkle  with  sugar  uutil  the  fruit  is  placed  in  the 
crust,  as  the  sugar  sets  the  juice  free.     In  all  pies  with  top  crust, 
make  air-holes,  or  the  crust  will  burst.     These  may  be  arranged  in 
any  fanciful  shape,  and  are  best  made  by  the  point  of  the  bowl  of 
an  inverted  teanspoon  pressed  through  the  crust  while  on  the  board, 
and  gently  drawn  apart  when  taken  up  to  put  over  the  fire.     Mer- 
ingue, for  pies  or  puddings,  is  made  in  the  proportion  of  one  table- 
spoon sugar  to  white  of  one  egg,  with  flavoring  added.     Never  fill 
pies  until  just  before  putting  tliem  iu  the  oven.     Always  use  tin 
pie-pans,  since,  in  earthen  pans,  the  under  crust  is  not  likely  to  be 
well  baked.     Just  before  putting  on  the  upper  crust,  wet  the  rim 
of  the  lower  with  the  finger  dipped  in  water,  or  with  a  thick  paste 
of  flour  and  water,  or  egg  and  flour,  and  press  the  two  crusts  firmly 
together;  this  will  prevent  that  bane  of  all  pastry  cooks — a  burst 
pie.    Bake  fruit  pies  in  a  moderate  oven,  having  a  better  heat  at 
the  bottom  than  at  the  top  of  the  oven,  or  the  lower  crust  will  be 
clammy  and  raw.     When  done,  the  crust  will  separate  from  the 
pan,  so  that  the  pie  may  be  easily  removed.     Remove  at  once  frx)m 
the  tins,  or  the  crust  will  become  **  soggy.** 

The  secret  of  success  in  making  pufl'-paste  is  to  secure  the  great- 
est possible  number  of  layers  of  butter  and  dough  (alternately)  as 
the  result  of  folding  and  rolling.  This  is  best  accomplished,  as  will 
readily  be  perceived,  by  increasing  the  quantity  of  butter;  the  more 
you  use,  the  greater  the  number  of  layers  before  the  butter  is  ex- 
hausted by  absorption  into  the  dough.  Ob  the  other  hand,  too 
much  butter  produces  equally  bad  results;  a  quantity  of  butter 
equal  to  the  flour  is  the  most,  and  three-fourths  pound  of  butter 
to  a  pound  of  flour  the  least,  that  can  be  used  in  pufl'-paste  with 
good  results.  For  pastry  for  the  family  table  the  proportion  of 
butter  may  be  reduced  to  one-fourth  as  much  butter  as  flour,  and 
lard  or  suet  may  be  substituted  for  butter. 

In  making  pufl-paste,  it  is  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  lessening  the 
quantity  of  butter  is  economical.  For  instance,  tartlets  cut  one- 
fourth  of  an  inch  thick  from  paste  made  with  half  a  pound  of  but- 
ter to  a  pound  of  flour,  will  not  be  any  thicker  or  higher  when 


212  PASTRY, 

baked  than  thoee  cut  from  paste  half  as  thick  made  with 
three-fourths  pound  butter  to  a  pound  of  flour.  Thus,  bj  using  one- 
fourth  more  butter  double  the  bulk  results,  besides  the  satisfaction 
of  having  good  light  pastry.  In  washing  or  egging  pastry,  be  care- 
ful not  to  allow  the  egg  or  milk,  or  whatever  \a  used,  to  run  down 
over  the  edges,  or,  as  it  sets  by  the  heat  of  the  oven,  it  will  bind 
the  edges  and  prevent  them  from  opening  fully.  lu  rolling,  use 
the  rolling-pin  as  lightly  as  possible,  and  take  care  that  the  pressure 
is  even.  The  layers  will  be  even  or  uneven  just  in  proportion  as 
the  pressure  is  even  or  uneven.  Be  careful  not  to  break  the  dough, 
or  the  butter  will  be  forced  through,  and  thus  destroy  the  evenness 
of  the  layers.  K  the  dough  breaks,  cover  it  with  a  piece  of ''  plain 
dough,"  dust  it  well  with  flour,  and  continue  rolling.  (It  is  well 
to  keep  a  piece  of  plain  dough  in  reserve  for  this  purpose.) 

Aunty  Phelps'  Pie  Crust. 
To  one  pint  of  sifted  flour,  add  one  even  tea-spoon  baking  powder, 
and  sweet  cream  enough  to  wet  the  flour,  leaving  crust  a  little  stiff 
This  is  enough  for  two  pies. 

Good  Common  Paste. 
One  cofiee-cup  lard,  three  of  sifted  flour,  and  a  little  salt.  In 
winter  soften  the  lard  a  little  (but  not  in  summer),  cut  it  well  into 
the  flour  with  a  knife,  then  mix'  with  cold  water  quickly  into  a 
moderately  stiff  dough,  handling  as  little  as  possible.  This  makes 
four  common-sized  covered  pies.  Take  a  new  slice  of  paste  each 
time  for  top  crust  Aft»r  rolling  spread  with  a  tea-spoon,  butter, 
fold  and  roll  again,  using  the  trimmings,  etc.,  for  under  crust— 
Jlfi88  KaJty  Rupp, 

Graham  Paste. 

Mix  lightly  half  a  pound  Graham  flour,  half  a  pint  sweet  cream, 
half  a  teaspoon  salt,  roll,  and  bake  like  other  pastry. 

Puff  Paste. 
Take  three-fourths  pound  of  butter  (be  sure  that  it  is  of  the  best 
quality),  free  it  from  salt  (by  working  it  in  water),  form  it  in  a 
square  lump,  and  place  it  in  flour  for  half  an  hour  to  harden ;  place 
one  pound  of  flour  in  a  bowl,  take  two  ounces  of  butter  and  rub  it 
''fine"  into  the  flour,  wet  the  flour  into  dough  with  cold  water. 


PASTRY.  213 

tnaking  it  a&  neai  at>  po68ible  the  same  consistency  as  the  butter 
(so  that  ihkj  two  will  roll  out  evenly  together) ;  now  place  the  dough 
on  the  pastry  board,  dust  it  under  and  over  with  flour,  and  rdll  it 
out  in  a  piece  3ay  twelve  inches  long  and  six  wide ;  now  flour  butter 
well,  and  roll  that  out  in  a  sheet  about  eight  inches  long  and  five 
wide,  (this  will  cover  about  three-fourths  of  the  dough,  leaving  one- 
fourth  of  the  dough,  and  about  half  an  inch  around  the  sides  and 
top  edge,  without  butter).     Place  the  sheet  of  butter  on  the  dough 
as  described ;  take  half  a  ^ea-spoon  cream  tartar,  mix  it  with  twice 
its  bulk  of  flour,  and  sprinkle  it  evenly  over  the  butter ;  now  fold 
the  one-fourth  not  covered  with  butter,  over  on  the  butter,  then 
fold  the  other  part  with  the  butter  on  it  over  on  that,  and  you  will 
then  have  three  layers  of  dough  and  two  of  butter.     Boll  out  to  its 
original  size,  dust  with  flour,  fold  it  as  before,  roll  out  again,  dust 
with  flour,  and  fold  again ;  repeat  twice  more,  giving  it  four  rollings 
and.  foldings ;  when  rolled  out  for  the  last  time,  cut  it  through  in 
two  even  pieces,  and  place  one  on  the  other,  and  the  paste  is  ready 
to  roll  in  any  shape  desired. 

In  warm  weather  it  is  necessary  to  place  it  in  a  cool  place  after 
every  second  rolling ;  in  very  warm  weather  after  each  rolling,  and 
sometimes  on  ice.  A  good,  firm,  tough  butter  is  best  for  the  pur- 
pose. Take  care  not  to  use  carbonate  of  soda  or  saleratus  instead 
of  cream  tartar ;  use  a  sharp  cutter  to  cut  out  tartlets ;  give  a  rapid 
downward  cut  so  that  it  will  cut,  not  drag  through,  so  that  the 
layera  may  not  be  pressed  together,  so  as  to  prevent  their  opening 
leadily  when  baking,  thus  preventing  the  tartlets  from  raising  fully. 
Afker  they  are  cut,  place  them  on  the  pans  or  in  the  patty-pans 
upside  down,  because  the  cutter  in  dividing  the  paste  presses  down- 
ward toward  the  board,  closing  the  layers,  and  if  placed  in  oven 
right  side  up,  the  edges  pressed  somewhat  closely  together  can  not 
open  fully,  consequently  do  not  rise  well,  but,  if  inverted,  the  layers 
open  more  evenly  at  the  edges. — C.  H,  King,  Orange,  N.  J, 

PuFP  Paste. 

One  heaping  pound  superfine  sifted  flour,  one  of  butter,  which 
has  first  been  folded  in  a  napkin  and  gently  pressed  to  remove  all 


214  PASTRY. 

moisture;  place  the  flour  on  board  (or  marble  slab  is  better),  make 
a  well  in  center,  squeeze  in  juice  of  half  a  lemon,  and  add  yolk  of 
one  egg,  beaten  with  a  little  ice- water;  stir  with  one  hand  and  drop 
in  ice-water  with  the  other,  until  the  paste  is  as  hard  as  the  butter ; 
roll  paste  out  in  a  smooth  square  an  inch  thick,  smooth  sides  with 
a  rolling-pin,  spread  the  butter  over  half  the  paste;  lay  the  other 
half  over  like  an  old-fashioned  turn -over,  leave  it  for  fifteen  min< 
utes  in  a  cold  place,  then  roll  out  in  a  long  strip,  keeping  the  edges 
smooth,  and  double  it  in  three  parts,  as  follows:  Fold  one-third  over 
on  the  middle  third,  roll  it  down,  then  fold  over  the  other  outside 
third,  roll  out  in  a  long  strip  and  repeat  the  folding  process — ^rolling 
across  this  time  so  that  the  butter  may  not  run  ''in  streaks"  by 
being  always  rolled  the  same  way ;  let  it  lie  for  fifteen  minutes,  and 
repeat  this  six  times,  allowing  fifteen  minutes  between  each  rolling 
to  cooj,  otherwise  the  butter  will  "  oil,"  and  the  paste  is  ready  for 
use.  Handle  as  little  as  possible  through  the  whole  process.  All 
the  flour  used  must  be  of  the  very  best  quality,  and  thoroughly 
sifted.  The  quantity  of  water  depends  on  the  capacity  of  the  flour 
toabserb  it,  which  is  quite- variable.  Too  little  makes  the  paste 
toug\,  and  too  much  makes  it  thin,  and  prevents  the  flakiness  so 
desirable.  Rich  paste  requires  a  quick  oven.  This  may  be  made 
in  one-fourth  the  quantity  given  above,  and  is  then  much  more 
easily  handled. — Jlrs.  Fl  Cr.  Hmliy  MiiuieapoliSy  Minn, 

Paste  with  Suet. 
Roll  a  half-pound  of  the  best  suet,  with  very  little  membrane 
running  through  it,  on  a  board  for  several  minutes,  removing  all 
the  skin  and  fibers  that  appear  when  rolling ;  the  suet  will  be  a 
pure  and  sweet  shortening,  looking  like  butter;  or  the  suet  may 
be  chop})ed  fine  and  the  fibers  removed.  Rub  the  suet  into  a 
pouHrd  of  flour,  add  a  tea-spoon  salt,-  and  mix  it  with  a  half 
pint  of  ice-water ;  roll  out  for  the  plates,  and  put  on  a  little  butter 
in  flakes,  rolling  it  in  as  usual.  Some  add  a  tea-spoon  baking- 
powder. 

Apple  Meringue  Pie. 

Pare,  slice,  stew  and  sweeten  ripe,  tart  and  juicy  apples,  mash 
and  season  with  nutmeg,  (or  stew  lemon  peel  with  them  for  flavor), 
fill  crust  and  bake  till  done ;  spread  over  the  apple  a  thick  meringue 


i 


PASTRY.  215 

made  bj  whipping  to  froth  whites  of  three  eggs  for  each  pie,  sweet- 
ening with  three  table-spoons  powdered  sugar ;  flavor  with  vanilla, 
beat  until  it  will  stand  alone,  and  cover  pie  three-quarters  of  an 
inch  thick.  Set  back  in  a  quick  oven  till  well  ''  set/'  and  eat  cold. 
In  their  season  substitute  peaches  for  apples. 

Apple  Custard  Pie. 
Peel  sour  apples  and  stew  until  soft,  and  not  much  water  is  left 
in  them,  and  rub  through  a  colander.     Beat  three  eggs  for  each 
pie.    Put  in  in  proportion  of  one  cup  butter,  and  one  of  sugar  for 
three  pies.     Season  with  nutmeg. — Mrs,  D.  G,  Oroas, 

Dried  Apple  Pie. 

Very  good  pies  may  be  made  of  the  **  Alden  "  dried  apples,  by 

stewing  in  a  very  little  water ;  sweeten   and  make  like  any  other. 

The  home  dried  apples  are  best  when  stewed  very  soft,  and  mashed 

through  a  colander.     When  stewing  put  in  two  or  three  small  pieces 

of  lemon  or  orange  peel  (previously  dried  and  saved  for  cooking 

purposes);  flavor  with  a  very  little  spice  of  any  kind.     Sweeten  and 

season  before  putting  into  the  pie-pan.     A  beaten  egg  may  be  stirred 

m.    Bake  with  two  crusts,  rolled  thin,  and  warm  slightly  before 

eating. 

Sliced- APPLE  Pie. 

Line  pie-pan  with  crust,  sprinkle  with  sugar,  fill  with  tart  apples 
sliced  very  thin,  sprinkle  sugar  and  a  very  little  cinnamon  over 
them,  and  add  a  few  small  bits  of  butter,  and  a  table-spoon 
water;  dredge  in  flour,  .cover  with  the  top  crust,  and  bake 
half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour ;  allow  four  or  five  table-spoons 
sugar  to  one  pie.  Or,  line  pans  with  crurt,  fill  with  sliced  apples, 
put  on  top  crust  and  bake ;  take  ofl*  top  crust,  put  in  sugar,  bits  of 
butter  and  seasoning,  replace  crust  and  serve  warm.  It  is  delicious 
with  sweetened  cream.  Crab-apple  pie,  if  made  of  ''  Transcend- 
ents," will  fully  equal  those  made  of  larger  varieties  of  the  apple. — 

ifrg.  D.  Buxton. 

Banana  Pie. 

Slice  raw  bananas,  add  butter,  sugar,  allspice  and  vinegar,  or 

boiled  cider,  or  diluted  jelly;  bake  with  two  crusts.     Cold  boiled 

sweet  potatoes  may  be  used  instead  of  bananas,  and  are  very  nice. 


216  PASTRY. 

Corn  Starch  Pies. 
One  quart  milk,  yolks  of  two  eggs,  two  table-spoons  com  starch, 
two  cups  sugar;  mix  starch  in  a  little  milk,  boil  the  rest  of  the 
milk  to  a  thick  cream,  beat  the  yolks  and  add  starch,  put  in  the 
boiled  milk  and  add  sugar ;  bake  with  an  under  crust,  beat  whites 
with  two  table-spoons  sugar,  and  put  on  top  of  pies,  and,  when 
done,  return  to  oven  and  brown. — Mrs.  J.  W.  Grubba,  Riclvnwnd^ 

Cream  Pie. 

Beat  thoroughly  together  the  white  of  one  egg,  half  tea-cup  sugar, 

and  table-spoon  of  flour;  then  add  tea-cup  rich  milk  (some  use  part 

cream),  bake  with  a  bottom  crust,  and  grate  nutmeg  on  top. — Mn. 

Luiher  Liggett. 

Cream  Pie. 

Pour  a  pint  cream  upon  a  cup  and  a  half  powdered  sugar;  let 

stand  until  the  whites  of  three  eggs  have  been  beaten  to  a  stiff 

froth ;  add  this  to  the  cream,  and  beat  up  thoroughly,  grate  a  little 

nutmeg  over  the  mixture,  and  bake  in  two  pies  without  upper 

crusts. — Mrs.  Henry  C.  Meredith. 

Whipped  Cream  Pie. 
Bweeten  with  white  sugar  one  tea-cup  very  thick  sweet  cream, 
made  as  cold  as  possible  without  freezing,  and  flavor  with  lemon 
or  vanilla  to  taste;  beat  until  as  light  as  eggs  for  frosting,  and  keep 
cool  until  the  crust  is  ready ;  make  crust  moderately  rich,  prick  well 
with  a  fork  to  prevent  blistering,  bake,  spread  on  the  cream,  and 
to  add  finish  put  bits  of  jelly  over  the  top.  The  above  will  make 
two  pies. — Mrs,  A.  M.  Alexander y  HarrUburg. 

Crumb  Pie. 

Soak  in  a  little  warm  water  one  tea-cup  bread-crumbs  half  an 
hour,  add  three  table-spoons  sugar,  half  a  table-spoon  butter,  half  a 
cup  of  cold  water,  a  little  vinegar,  and  nutmeg  to  suit  the  taste ; 
bake  with  two  crusts,  made  the  same  as  for  other  pies. — Miss  Syl- 
via J.  Courier. 

Cocoa-nut  Pie. 

One  pint  milk,  a  cocoa-nut,  tea-cup  sugar,  three  eggs ;  grate  cocoa- 
nut,  mix  with  the  yolks  of  the  eggs  and  sugar,  stir  in  the  milk, 
filling  the  pan  even  full,  and  bake.      Beat  whites  of  eggs  to  frothy 


PASTRY,  217 

BtirriDg  in  three  table-spoons  pulverized  sugar,  pour  over  pie  and 
hake  to  a  light  brown.  If  prepared  coooarnut  is  used,  one  heaping 
tea-cup  is  required. — ^Rs8  N.  B.  jBroim,  WashingUm  City. 

Custard  Pie. 

Heat  one  quart  good  rich  milk  in  n  tin-pan  set  in  a  skillet  of  hot 

water;  take  five  eggs," four  large  table-spoons  sugar,  and  a  little 

salt,  beat  sugar  and  eggs  a  little,  and  pour  in  the  milk  ;    flavor  to 

Bnit  the  taste  and  have  oven  hot  when  put  in  to  bake.     Then  cook 

bIowIj  so  as  not  to  boil,  as  that  spoils  it ;  test  with  a  knife,  when 

done  it  will   not  stick  to  blade.     Without  the  crust,  this  makes  a 

delicious  baked  custard.    Bake  in  a  deep  tin — Mrs,  C.  B,  Boody, 

JCiMoveny 

Custard  Pie. 

For  a  large  pie,  take  three  eggs,  one  pint  of  milk,  half  cup  sugar, 

and  flavor.     The  crust  for  custard  pies  may  be  baked  (not  too  hard) 

before  putting  in  the  custard ;  prick  it  before  putting  it  in  oven  to 

prevent  blistering.     This  prevents  it  from  becoming  soggy, — Mrs, 

N.  S.  Long. 

Chess  Pie. 

Three  ^gs,  two-thirds  cup  sugar,  half  cup  butter  (half  cup  milk 

may  be  added  if  not  wanted  so  rich) ;  beat  butter  to  a  cream,  then 

add  yolks  and  si|gar  beaten  to  a  froth  with  the  flavoring ;  stir  all 

together  rapidly,  and   bake  in  a  nice  crust.     When  done,  spread 

with  the  beaten  whites,  and  three  table-spoons  sugar  and  a  little 

flavoring.     Return  to  oven,  and  brown  slightly.      This  makes  one 

pie,  which  should  be  served  immediately. — Mrs.  J.  Canon,  Olendale. 

Green  Currant  Pie. 
Line  an  inch  pie-dish  with  good  pie-crust,  sprinkle  over  the  bot- 
tom two  heaping  table-spoons  sugar  and  two  of  flour  (or  one  of  corn 
starch)  mixed ;  then  pour  in  one  pint  green  currants  washed  clean, 
and  two  table-spoons  currant  jelly;  sprinkle  with  four  heaping 
table-spoons  sugar,  and  add  two  table-spoons  cold  water ;  cover  and 
bake  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes. — Mm  S.  Alice  Mdching. 

Ripe  Currant  Pie. 
One  cup  mashed  ripe  currants,  one  of  sugar,  two  table-spoons 
Water,  one  of  flour  beaten  with  the  yolks  of  two  eggs ;  bake,  frost 


318  PASTRY. 

the  top  with  the  beaten  whites  of  the  eggs  and  two  tabl^^-spoons 
powdered  sugar,  and  brown  in  oven.— Jfr«.  W.  E,  JI, 

Cherry  Pie. 
Line  a  pie-tin  with  rich  crust ;  nearly  fill  with  the  carefuUj 
seeded  finiit,  sweeten  to  taste,  and  sprinkle  evenly  with  a  tea-spoon 
corn-starch  or  a  table-spoon  flour,  add  a  table-spoon  of  butter  cut 
into  small  bits  and  scattered  over  the  top ;  wet  edge  of  crust,  put  on 
upper  crust,  and  press  the  edges  closely  together,  taking  care  to  pro- 
vide holes  in  the  center  for  the  escape  of  the  air.  Pies  from  black* 
berries,  raspberries,  etc.,  are  all  made  in  the  same  way,  regulating 
the  quantity  of  the  sugar  by  the  tartness  of  the  fruit. 

Lemon  Pie. 
One  lemon  grated,  one  cup  sugar,  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  small 
pieces  butter,  three  table-spoons  milk,  two  tea-spoons  com  starch ; 
beat  all  together  and  bake  in  a  rich  crust;  beat  the  whites  with 
three  table-spoons  sugar,  place  on  the  pie  when  done,  and  then 
brown  in  the  oven. — Mrs.  W.  E.  Scobey, 

Lemon  Pie. 
Four  eggs,  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  two-thirds  cups  water,  two 
table-spoons  flour,  one  lemon.  Beat  the  yolks  of  eggs  until  very 
smooth  (beat  the  yolks  a  long  time  and  whip  the  whites  well),  add 
the  grated  peel  of  lemon  and  the  sugar,  beat  well,  stir  in  the  flour, 
and  add  the  lemon  juice  (if  lemons  are  small  two  may  be  necessary), 
and  lastly  the  water;  stir  well,  and  pour  in  pie-pans  lined  with 
paste.  When  baked,  take  from  oven,  and  spread  over  them  the 
whites  of  the  eggs  beaten  dry  and  smooth  with  four  table-spoons 
pulverized  sugar ;  return  to  oven  and  brown  slightly.  The  above 
recipe  is  for  two  pies. — Mrs.  Virginia  C.  Meredith. 

Appleless  Mince-Meat. 
Chop  fine  eight  pounds  green  tomatoes,  add  six  pounds  sugar,  one 
ounce  each  of  cloves,  cinnamon  and  allspice,  simmer  slowly  till 
tomatoes  are  clear,  then  put  away  in  a  covered  jar.  For  pies  in 
winter,  take  in  the  proportion  of  two-thirds  tomatoes  and  one-third 
meat,  and  season  with  butter,  boiled  cider,  sugar  if  needed,  etc..  ai 
regular  mince  pies  would  be  seasoned. 


PASTRY.  219 

Mince-Meat. 

Take  five  or  six  pounds  scraggy  beef — a  neck  piece  will  do — and 
put  to  boil  in  water  enough  to  cover  it;  take  off  the  scum  that 
rises  when  it  reaches  the  boUing  point,  add  hot  water  irom  time  to 
time  until  it  is  tender,  then  remove  the  lid  from  the  pot,  salt,  let 
boil  till  almost  dry,  turning  the  meat  over  occasionally  in  the  liquor, 
take  from  the  fire,  and  let  stand  over  night  to  get  thoroughly  cold ; 
pick  bones,  gristle,  or  stringy  bits  from  the  meat,  chop  very  fine, 
mincing  at  the  same  time  three  pounds  of  nice  beef  suet ;  seed  and 
cut  four  pounds  raisins,  wash  and  dry  four  pounds  currants,  slice 
thin  a  pound  of  citron,  chop  fine  four  quarts  good-cooking  tart  ap- 
ples; put  into  a  large  pan  together,  add  two  ounces  cinnamon,  one 
of  cloves,  one  of  giiiger,  four  nutmegs,  the  juice  and  grated  rhids 
of  two  lemons,  one  table-spoon  salt,  oue  tea-spoon  pepper,  and  two 
pounds  sugar.  Put  in  a  porcelain  kettle  one  quart  boiled  cider,  or, 
better  still,  one  quart  currant  or  gmpe  juice  (canned  when  grapes 
are  turning  from  green  to  purple),  one  quart  nice  molasses  or  syrup, 
and,  if  you  have  any  syrup  left  from  sweet  pickles,  add  some  of 
that,  also  a  good  lump  of  butter ;  let  it  come  to  boiling  point,  and 
pour  over  the  ingredients  in  the  pan  after  having  first  mixed  them 
well,  then  mix  again  thoroughly.  Pack  in  jars  and  put  in  a  cool 
place,  and,  when  cold,  pour  molasses  over  the  top  an  eighth  of  an 
inch  in  thickness,  and  cover  tightly.  This  will  keep  two  months. 
For  baking,  take  some  out  of  a  jar,  if  not  moist  enough  add  a  little 
hot  water,  and  strew  a  few  whole  raisins  over  each  pie.  Instead  of 
boiled  beef,  a  beef  Vheart  or  roast  meat  may  be  used ;  and  a  good 
proportion  for  a  few  pies  is  one-third  chopped  meat  and  two-thirds 
apples,  with  a  little  suet,  raisins,  spices,  butter,  and  salt. 

The  above  is  a  good  formula  to  use,  but,  of  course,  may  be  varied 
to  suit  diflTerent  tastes  or  the  material  at  hand.  If  too  rich,  add 
more  chopped  apples ;  in  lieu  of  cider,  vinegar  and  water  in  equal 
proportions  may  be  used ;  good  preserves,  marmalades,  spiced 
pickles,  currant  or  grape  jelly,  canned  fruit,  dried  cherries,  etc., 
may  take  the  place  of  raisins,  currants  and  citrons.  Wine  or 
brandy  is  considered  by  many  a  great  improvement,  but  if  "  it 
causeth  thy  brother  to  offend  "  do  not  use  it.  Lemon  and  vanilla 
extracts  are  often  used,  also  preserved  lemon  or  orange  peel.     The 


220  PASTRY. 

minoe-meat  is  better  to  stand  over  night,  or  several  days,  before 
baking  into  pies,  as  the  materials  will  be  more  thoroughly  incorpo- 
rated.   Many  prefer  to  freeze  their  pies  after  baking,  heating  them  as 

needed. 

Mince-Meat. 

Two  bowls  chopped  apples,  one  of  chopped  meat,  with  one-fourth 
pound  suet,  grated  rind  and  juice  of  one  lemon,  two  tea-cups  mo* 
lasses,  one  large  tea-spoon  each  of  cinnamon  and  cloves,  one  nut- 
meg, one  poimd  raisins,  half  pound  currants,  one-fourth  pound 
citron  cut  fine,  one  quart  cider,  and  sugar  and  salt  to  taste. — Mrs.  J. 
R,  WUooXy  New  Haven^ 

Mock  Mince-Pie. 
Twelve  crackers  rolled  fine,  one  cup  hot  water,  half  cup  vinegar, 
one  cup  molasses,  one  of  sugar,  one  of  curiunts,  one  of  raisins,  spice 
to  taste ;  measure  with  a  tea-cup.  Some  use  one  cup  dried  bread- 
crumbs, and  also  add  a  small  cup  butter.  This  is  for  four  pies. — 
Mrs.  Annie  E,  Gillespie, 

Orange  Pie. 
Grated  rind  and  juice  of  two  oranges,  four  eggs,  four  table-spoons 
sugar,  and  one  of  butter;  cream  the  butter  and  sugar,  add  the 
beaten  eggs,  then  the  rind  and  juice  of  the  oranges,  and,  lastly,  the 
whites  beaten  to  a  froth,  and  mixed  in  lightly.  Bake  with  an  under 
crust. — Oov.  Steams,  Florida, 

Pie-plant  Pie. 

Mix  half  tea-cup  white  sugar  and  one  heaping  tea-spoon  flour 

together,  sprinkle  over  the  bottom  crust,  then  add  the  pie-plant  cut 

up  fine ;  sprinkle  over  this  another  half  tea-cup  sugar  and  heaping 

tea-spoon  flour ;  bake  fully  three-quarters  of  an  hour  in  a  slow  oven. 

Or,  stew  the  pie-plant,  sweeten,  add  grated  rind  and  juice  of  a 

lemon  and  yolks  of  two  eggs,  and  bake  and  frost  like  lemon  pie. — 

Mrs,  D.  Buxton, 

Peach  Pie. 

Bake  in  two  separate  tins  an  under  and  upper  crust  in  a  quick  oven 

fifteen  minutes ;  when  done  place  in  the  lower  crust  one  quart  peaches 

prepared  by  slicing,  and  adding  three  table-spoons  each  of  sugar  and 

cream,  cover  with  the  top  crust,  and  place  in  oven  for  five  minutea. 


PASTRY,  221 

Treat  Btrawberries,  raBpberries,  etc.,  in  the  same  way. — Mn.  F.  L. 

T.,  New  Orleans. 

Peach  Pie. 

Liine  a  pie-tin  with  puff-paste,  fill  with  pared  peaches  in  halves 

or  quarters,  well  covered  with  sugar ;  put  on  upper  crust  and  bake ; 

or  noake  as  above  without  upper  crust,  bake  until  done,  remove 

from  the  oven,  and  cover  with  a  meringue  made  of  the  whites  of 

two  ^gs,  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth  with  two  table-spoons  powdered 

sugar;  return  to  oven  and  brown  slightly.     Canned  peaches  may 

be  used  instead  of  fresh,  in  the  same  way. 

Dried-feach  Pie. 
Stew  peaches  until  perfectly  soil,  mash  fine,  and  add,  for  two 
pies,  half  tea-cup  sweet  cream,  and  one  tea-cup  sugar;  bake  with 
two  crusts.     Or,  omit  cream,  and  add  half  tearcup  boiling  water, 
and  butter  size  of  a  hickory-nut. 

Potato  Pie. 

A  common-sized  tea-cup  of  grated  raw  potato,  a  quart  sweet  milk ; 
let  milk  boil  and  stir  in  grated  potato ;  when  cool  add  two  or  three 
^gs  well  beaten,  sugar  and  nutmeg  to  taste ;  bake  without  upper 
crust;  eat  the  day  it  is  baked.  This  recipe  is  for  two  pies. — Mm 
Sarah  Thomson^  Delaware. 

Potato  Pie. 

Boil  either  Irish  or  sweet  potatoes  until  well  done,  mash  and  rub 
through  a  sieve ;  to  a  pint  of  pulp,  add  three  pints  sweet  milk, 
table-spoon  melted  butter,  tea-cup  sugar,  three  eggs,  pinch  of  salt, 
and  nutm^  or  lemon  to  flavor.  Use  rich  paste  for  under  crust — 
Mn.  R.  C.  Carwn,  Harridmrg, 

Pumpkin  Pie. 
Stew  pumpkin,  cut  into  small  pieces,  in  a  half  pint  water ;  and, 
when  soft,  mash  with  potato-masher  very  fine,  let  the  water  dry 
away,  watching  closely  to  prevent  burning  or  scorching ;  for  each 
pie  take  one  well-beaten  egg,  half  cup  sugar,  two  table-spoons  pumpi 
km,  half  pint  rich  milk  (a  little  cream  will  improve  it),  a  little 
salt;  stir  well  together,  and  season  with  cinnamon  or  nutmeg;  bake 
with  under  crust  in  a  hot  oven.  Some  steam  pumpkin  instead  of 
fltewipg  it. — Mrs.  A.  B.  Merey. 


J 


222  PjlSTBr. 

Pine-apple  Pie. 
A  cup  of  sugar,  a  half  cup  butter,  one  of  sweet  cream,  five  eggs, 
one  pine-apple  grated ;  beat  butter  and  sugar  to  a  cream,  add  beaten 
yolks  of  eggs,  then  the  pine-apple  and  cream,  and,  laatly,  the  beaten 
whites  whipped  in  lightly.  Bake  with  under  crust  only, — Mrs.  Wm, 
Smith,  JacksonvUle,  Florida. 

Preserve  Puffs. 

Boll  out  puff-paste  very  thin,  cut  into  round  pieces,  and  lay  jam 
on  each,  fold  over  the  paste,  wet  edges  with  white  of  an  egg,  and 
close  them ;  lay  them  on  a  baking  sheet,  ice  them,  and  bake  about 
fifteen  minutes. — Mrs.  H.  A.  E. 

Plum  Cobbler. 

Take  one  quart  of  flour,  four  table-spoons  melted  lard,  half  tea- 
spoon salt,  two  tea-spoons  baking-powder;  mix  a£  for  biscuit,  with 
either  sweet  milk  or  water,  roll  thin,  and  line  a  pudding-dish  or 
dripping-pan,  nine  by  eighteen  inches ;  mix  three  table-spoons  flour 
and  two  of  sugar  together,  and  sprinkle  over  the  crust;  then  poiur 
in  three  pints  canned  damson  plums,  and  sprinkle  over  them  one 
coffee-cup  sugar  ;  wet  the  edges  with  a  little  flour  and  water  mixed, 
put  on  upper  crust,  press  the  edges  together,  make  two  openings  by 
cutting  two  incisions  at  right  angles  an  inch  in  length,  and  bake  in 
a  quick  oven  half  an  hour.  Peaches,  apples,  or  any  kind  of  fresh 
or  canned  fruit,  can  be  made  in  the  same  wav. — Miss  8.  Alice 
Mdcldng. 

Southern  Tomato  Pie. 

For  one  pie,  peel  and  slice  green  tomatoes,  add  four  tablenspoons 
vinegar,  one  of  butter,  three  of  sugar ;  flavor  with  nutmeg  or 
cinnamon ;  bake  with  two  crusts  slowly.  This  tastes  very  much 
like  a  green  apple  pie. — Mrs.  Ceba  Hull. 

Vixeqar  Pie. 

One  Qgg,  one  heaping  table-spoon  flour,  one  tea-cup  sugar;  beat 
all  well  together,  and  add  one  table-spoon  sharp  vin^ar,  and  one 
tea-cup  cold  water ;  flavor  with  nutmeg  and  bake  with  two  crusta. 
— Mrs.  B.  A.  Fay. 


PASTRY.  223 

Bina's  Strawberry  Shortcake. 
Two  heaping  tea-spoons  baking  powder  sifted  into  one  quart  flour, 
Bcant  half  tea-cup  butter,  two  table-spoons  sugar,  a  little  salt, 
oiough  sweet  milk  (or  water)  to  make  a  sofl  dough ;  roll  out  almost 
88  thin  as  pie-crust,  place  one  layer  in  a  baking-pan,  and  spread 
with  a  very  little  butter,  upon  which  sprinkle  some  flour,  then  add 
another  layer  of  crust  and  spread  as  before,  and  so  on  until  crust  is 
all  used.  This  makes  four  layei*s  in  a  pan  fourteen  inches  by  seven. 
Bake  about  fifteen  minutes  in  a  quick  oven,  turn  out  upside  down, 
take  ofi*  the  top  layer  (the  bottom  when  baking),  place  on  a  dish, 
spiesid  plentifully  with  strawberries  (not  mashed)  previously  sweet- 
ened with  pulverized  sugar,  place  layer  upon  layer,  treating  each 
one  in  the  same  way ;  and  when  done  you  will  have  a  handsome 
cake,  to  be  served  warm  with  sugar  and  cream.  The  secret  of 
having  light  dough  is  to  handle  it  as  little  and  mix  it  as  quickly  as 
possible.  Shortcake  is  delicious  served  with  charlotte-russe  or 
whipped  cream.     Easpberry  and  peach  shortcakes  may  be  made  in 

the  same  way. 

Orange  Shortcake. 

One  quart  flour,  two  table-spoons  butter,  two  tea-spoons  baking 
powder  thoroughly  mixed  with  the  flour ;  mix  (not  very  stifi*)  with 
cold  water,  work  as  little  as  possible,  bake,  split  open,  and  lay 
sliced  oranges  between ;  cut  in  squares  and  serve  with  pudding 
sauce.  Berries  may  be  used  instead  of  oranges. — Mr8.  Canby,  BeUe- 
fontaine. 

Apple  Tarts. 

Pare,  quarter,  core,  and  boil  in  a  half  tea-cup  of  water  until  very 
soft,  ten  large  tart  apples ;  beat  till  very  smooth,  then  add  the  yolks 
of  six  eggs  or  three  whole  eggs,  juice  and  grated  rind  of  two  lemons, 
half  cup  butter,  one  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  or  more  if  not  sweet 
enough;  beat  all  thoroughly,  line  little  tart-tins  with  puff*-paste, 
and  fill  with  the  mixture,  bake  five  minutes  in  a  hot  oven.  If 
wanted  very  nice,  take  the  whites  of  the  six  eggs  (when  the  yolks 
of  six  are  used),  mix  with  six  table-spoons  pulverized  sugar,  spread 
on  the  top  of  the  tarts,  return  to  oven  and  brown  slightly. 

For  almond  tarts,  beat  to  a  cream  the  yolks  of  three  eggs  and  a 
quarter  of  a  pound  of  sugar,  add  half  a  pound  of  shelled  almonds 


•i24  PAjSTEY. 

pounded  slightly,  put  in  tart-tins  lined  with  puff-paste;  bake  eight 
minutes. 

For  cocoa-nuts,  dissolve  half  pound  sugar  in  quarter  of  a  pint 
water,  add  half  a  grated  cocoa-nut,  let  this  boil  slowly  for  a  few 
minutes,  and  when  cold,  add  the  well-beaten  yolks  of  three  eggs 
and  the  white  of  one ;  beat  all  well  together,  and  pour  into  pattj* 
pans  lined  with  a  rich  crust ;  bake  a  few  minutes. 

When  removed  from  oven,  cover  the  tarts  with  a  meringue  made 
01  the  whites  of  the  three  eggs,  mixed  with  three  table-spoons  sugar ; 
return  to  oven,  and  brown  delicately.  ' 

Tart  Shells. 

Roll  out  thin  a  nice  puff-paste,  cut  out  with  a  glass  or  biscuit 
cutter,  with  a  wine-glass  or  smaller  cup  cut  out  the  center  of  two 
out  of  three  of  these,  lay  the  rings  thus  made  on  the  third,  and 
bake  immediately ;  or  shells  may  be  made  by  lining  patty-pans  with 
paste.  If  the  paste  is  light,  the  shells  will  be  fine,  and  may  be 
used  for  tarts  or  oyster  patties.  Filled  with  jelly  and  covered  with 
meringue  (table-spoon  sugar  to  white  of  one  egg),  and  browned  in 
oven,  they  are  very  nice  to  serve  for  tea. 

A  Kentucky  Girl's  Pumpkin  Pie. 

Gut  pumpkin  in  halves,  remove  seeds,  bake  in  a  dripping-pan 
(skin  side  of  pumpkin  downward),  with  a  aUno  fire,  until  pulp  can 
readily  be  scraped  from  skin ;  mash  fine,  and  while  hot  add  to  each 
quart  pumpkin  two  table-spoons  butter;  when  cold,  sweeten  to 
taste ;  add  one  pint  cream  or  new  milk,  yolks  of  three  eggs,  well 
beaten  and  strained^  cinnamon  and  allspice  to  taste  (ginger,  if  pre- 
ferred), one  wine-glass  of  brandy;  stir  weU,  and  just  at  the  last 
add  whites  of  eggs,  well  whipped.  The  brandy  can  be  omitted 
and  not  injure  recipe.  Many  like  a  table-spoon  of  lemon  extract 
and  less  spice.  If  lemon  is  used,  omit  brandy.  Bake  in  deep  pie- 
plates  in  a  quick  oven. — L.  A*  B.  (X,  LexmgUm,  Ky. 


PUDDINGS  AND   SAUCES. 


No  ingredient  of  doubtful  quality  should  enter  into  the  composi- 
tion of  puddings.  Suet  must  be  'perfecdy  Sfweet^  and  milk  should  be 
firesh  and  without  the  least  unpleasant  flavor.  Suet  when  over  kept 
and  milk  soured  or  curdled  in  the  slightest  degree,  ruins  a  pudding 
which  would  otherwise  be  most  delicious.  Dried  currants,  such  as 
are  sold  in  the  market,  need  very  careful  and  thorough  washing 
(after  which  they  must  be  dried  in  a  napkin),  and  raisins  should  be 
rubbed  in  a  coarse  towel  to  remove  stems  and  all  dirt  from  the  out- 
aide,  and  afterward  carefully  seeded.  Almonds  and  spices  must  be 
very  finely  pounded,  and  the  rinds  of  oranges  or  lemons  rasped  or 
grated  lighUy  off  (the  white  part  of  the  peel  has  no  flavor  and  is  an 
mjury). 

In  making  puddings,  always  beat  the  eggs  separately,  straining 
the  yolks  and  adding  the  whites  the  last  thing.  If  boiled  milk  is 
used,  let  it  cool  somewhat  before  adding  the  eggs;  when  fruit  is 
added,  stir  it  in  at  the  last.  Puddings  are  either  baked,  boiled  or 
steamed;  rice,  bread,  custard,  and  fruit  puddings  require  a  mod- 
erate heat;  batter  and  com  starch,  a  rather  quick  oven.  Always 
bake  them  as  soon  as  mixed.  Add  a  pinch  of  salt  to  any  pud- 
dmg. 

Boiled  puddings  are  lighter  when  boiled  in  a  cloth  and  allowed 
full  room  to  swell,  but  many  use  either  a  tin  mold  or  bowl  with 
cloth  tied  over  it ;  grease  the  former  well  on  the  inside  with  lard  or 
butter,  and  in  boiling  do  not  let  the  water  reach  quite  to  the  top. 
The  pudding-bag  should  be  made  of  firm  drilling,  tapering  from 
top  to  bottom,  and  rounded  on  the  comers;  stitch  and  fell  the 

15  (226) 


226  PUDDINGS  AND  8A  UCES. 

Beams,  which  should  be  outside  when  in  use,  and  sew  a  tape  to  flie 
seam,  about  three  inches  ^m  top.  Wring  the  bag  out  of  hot 
water,  flour  the  inside  well,  pour  in  the  pudding  (which  should  be 
well  beaten  the  instant  before  pouring),  tie  securely,  leaving  room 
to  swell  (especially  when  made  of  Indian  meal,  bread,  rice,  or 
crackers),  and  place  in  a  kettle  with  a  saucer  at  the  bottom  to  pre* 
vent  burning;  immediately  pour  in  enough  boiling  water  to  entireljr 
cover  the  bag,  which  must  be  turned  several  times,  keeping  it  boiling 
constantly,  filling  up  from  the  tea-kettle  when  needed.  If  the  pud* 
ding  is  boiled  in  a  bowl,  grease,  fill,  and  cover  with  a  square  of 
drilling  wrung  out  of  hot  water,  floured  and  tied  on.  To  use  a  pan, 
tie  a  cloth  tightly  over  the  rim,  bringing  the  ends  back  together, 
and  pinning  them  over  the  top  of  the  pan ;  the  puddipg  may  then 
be  lifted  out  easily  by  a  strong  fork  put  through  the  ends  or  cor- 
ners of  the  cloth.  Open  bag  a  little  to  I6t  steam  escape,  and  serve 
immediately,  as  delay  ruins  all  boiled  pudding.  For  plum  pud- 
dings, invert  the  pan  when  put  in  the  kettle,  and  the  pudding  will 
not  become  water-soaked.  When  the  pudding  is  done,  give  what- 
ever it  is  boiled  in  a  quick  plunge  into  cold  water,  and  turn  out  at 
once,  serving  immediately.  As  a  general  rule,  boiled  puddings  re- 
quire double  the  time  required  for  baked.  Steaming  is  safer  than 
either  boiling  or  baking,  as  the  pudding  is  sure  to  be  light  and 
wholesome.  Put  on  over  cold  water  and  do  not  remove  cover  while 
steaming.  In  making  sauces,  do  not  boil  after  the  butter  is  added. 
Use  brown  or  powdered  sugar  for  sauces.  In  place  of  wine  or 
brandy,  flavor  with  juice  of  the  grape,  or  any  other  fruit  prepared 
for  this  purpose  in  its  season  by  boiling  and  bottling  and  sealing 
while  hot.  Pudding  cloths,  however  coarse,  should  never  be 
washed  with  soap,  but  in  clear,  clean  water,  dried  as  quickly  as 
j>  >ssible,  and  kept  dry  and  out  of  dust  in  a  drawer  or  cupboard 
free  from  smell.  Dates  are  an  excellent  substitute  for  sugar  in 
Graham  or  any  other  pudding.  Fruit  for  preserving  should 
always  be  gathered  in  perfectly  dry  weather  and  be  free  from  dust 
and  the  morning  and  evening  dew.  Never  use  tin,  iron  or  pevrter 
spoons  or  skimmers  for  preserves. 


PUDDINGS  AND  8A  UCE&  227 

Apple  Roley  Foley. 
Peely  quarter  and  core  sour  apples,  make  rich  soda-biscuit  dough, 
(or  raised-biscuit  dough  may  be  used  if  rolled  thinner),  roll  to  half 
an  inch  thick,  slice  the  quarters,  and  lay  on  the  prepared  paste  or 
crust,  roll  up,  tuck  ends  in,  prick  deeply  with  a  fork,  lay  in  a 
steamer  and  place  over  a  kettle  of  boiling  water,  cook  an  hour  and 
three-quarters.  Or,  wrap  in  a  cloth,  tie  up  the  ends  and  baste  up 
sides,  put  in  kettle  of  boiling  water,  and  boil  an  hour  and  a  half 
or  more,  keeping  the  water  boiling  constantly.  Cut  across,  and  eat 
with  sweetened  cream  or  butter  and  sugar.  Cherries,  dried  fruit, 
any  kind  of  berries,  jelly,  or  apple-butter  (with  the  two  last  raisins 
may  be  added),  can  be  used. — Mrs.  T.  B,  J. 

Orange  Roley  Foley. 
Make  a  light  pastry  as  for  apple  dumplings,  roll  in  oblong  sheets 
and  lay  oranges  peeled,  sliced,  and  seeded,  thickly  all  over  it ;  sprin- 
kle with  white  sugar ;  scatter  over  all  a  tea-spoon  or  two  of  grated 
orange-peel,  and  roll  up,  folding  down  the  edges  closely  to  keep  the 
syrup  from  running  out;  boil  in  a  cloth  one  and  one-half  hours. 
Eat  with  lemon-sauce  prepared  as  follows:  Six  eggs,  leaving  out 
the  whites  of  two,  half  pound  butter,  one  jwund  sugar,  juice  of 
two  lemons  and  rind  of  both  grated  ;  place  over  a  slow  fire,  stir  till 
k  thickens  like  honey.     Very  nice. — Mrs.  A.  E.    WcUshj  NashviUe, 

Tmn. 

Boiled  Apple  Dumplings. 

Add  to  two  cups  sour  milk  one  tea-spoon  soda,  and  one  of  salt, 
half  cup  of  butter,  lard,  flour  enough  to  make  dough  a  little  stiffer 
than  for  biscuit;  or  make  a  good  baking-powder  crust;  peel  and 
tore  apples,  roll  out  crust,  place  apples  on  dough,  fill  cavity  of  each 
with  sugar,  encase  each  apple  in  coating  of  the  crust,  press  edges 
light  together,  (it  is  nice  to  tie  a  cloth  around  each  one),  put  into 
kettle  of  boiling  water  slightly  salted,  boil  half  an  hour,  taking  care 
that  the  water  covers  the  dumplings.  They  are  also  very  nice  steamed. 
To  bake,  make  in  same  way,  using  a  soft  dough,  place  in  a  shallow 
pan,  bake  in  a  hot  oven,  and  serve  with  cream  and  sugar,  or  place 
in  a  pan  which  is  four  or  five  inches  deep  (do  not  have  the  dump- 
lings touch  each  other);  then  pour  in  hot  water,  just  leaving  top  of 
dumplings  uncovered.      To  a  pan  of  four  or  five  dumplings,  add 


228  BUDDINOS  AND  SA  VCE& 

one  tea-cup  sugar  and  half  a  tea-cup  butter;  bake  from  balf  to 
three-quarters  of  an  hour.  If  water  cooks  away  too  much,  add  more. 
Serve  dumplings  on  platter  and  the  liquid  in  sauoe^boat  for  dress- 
ing.   Fresh  or  canned  peaches  may  be  made  in  the  same  way. 

Rolled  Apple  Dumplinqb. 
Peel  and  chop  fine  tart  apples,  make  a  crust  of  one  cup  rich  but- 
termilk, one  tea-spoon  soda,  and  flour  enough  to  roll;  roll  half  an 
inch  thick,  spread  with  the  apple,  sprinkle  well  with  sugar  and  cin* 
namon,  cut  in  strips  two  inches  wide,  roll  up  like  jelly-cake,  set  up 
the  rolls  in  a  dripping-pan,  putting  a  tea-spoon  butter  on  each,  put 
in  a  moderate  oven,  and  baste  them  often  with  the  juice. 

Bird's-nest  Puddikg. 

Pare  and  core  without  quartering  enough   quick-cooking  tart 

apples  to  fill  a  pudding-pan  ;  make  a  custard  of  one  quart  milk  and 

the  yolks  of  six  eggs ;  sweeten,  spice,  pour  over  apples,  and  bake ; 

when  done,  use  the  whites  of  eggs  beaten  stifiT  with  six  tablespoons 

white  sugar;  spread  on  the  custard,  brown  lightly,  and  serve  either 

hot  or  cold.     If  necessary,  apples  may  be  baked  a  short  time  before 

adding  custard. 

Brown  Betty. 

Put  a  layer  of  sweetened  apple  sauce  in  a  buttered  dish,  add  a 
few  lumps  butter,  then  a  layer  of  cracker  crumbs  sprinkled  with  a 
little  cinnamon,  then  layer  of  sauce,  etc.,  making  the  last  layer  of 
crumbs ;  bake  in  oven,  and  eat  hot  with  cold,  sweetened  cream.-^ 
Mrs.  T,  J,  Buxton^ 

Rice  Apples. 

Boil  half  a  pound  rice  in  a  custard-kettle  till  tender  m  one  quart 
milk,  sweetened  with  half  tea-cup  sugar;  pare  and  core  with  apple* 
corer  seven  or  eight  good-cooking  apples,  place  in  slightly  buttered 
baking-dish,  put  a  tea-spoon  of  jam  or  jelly  into  each  cavity,  and 
fill  with  rich  cream  ;  put  the  rice  in  around  apples,  leaving  top  un- 
covered ;  bake  thirty  minutes,  then  cover  with  the  whites  of  two 
Qgg8»  sifti  on  sugar,  and  return  to  the  oven  for  ten  minutes.  Serve 
with  sweetened  cream. — Mrs,  S.  M.  Ouy,  Meehanicsburg, 

Bread  Pudding. 

One  quart  sweet  milk,  quart  bread-crumbs,  four  eggs,  four  table- 
spoons  sugar ;  soak  bread  in  half  the  milk  until  soft ;  m»4i  fine» 


PUDDINGS  AND  SA  UCES.  229 

add  the  rest  of  milk,  the  well-beaten  eggs  and  sugar,  and  a  tea- 
cup raisins ;  bake  one  hour,  serve  warm  with  warm  sauce  or  maple 
sugar  hard  sauce;  or,  slice,  butter,  and  spread  bread  with  preserves 
or  jellj,  place  nicely  in  a  baking-dish.  Make  a  custard  of  one  pint 
of  sweet  milk,  three  eggs,  and  sugar  to  taste,  and  while  boiling 
poor  it  over  bread.     Place  in  oven  and  bake  till  brown,  eat  with  or 

ivithout  sauce. 

Blackberry  Mush. 

To  two  quarts  ripe  berries  add  one  and  a  half  pints  boiling  water, 
and  one  pound  sugar ;  cook  a  few  moments,  then  stir  in  a  pint  of 
wheat  flour,  boil  a  few  moments  longer,  put  in  greased  mold  to 
cool,  and  serve  with  cream  or  hard  sauce. — AKsa  JET.  D.  Martin, 
Hew  York  OUy. 

CORN-BTARCH    PUDDING. 

One  pint  sweet  milk,  whites  of  three  eggs,  two  table-spoons  com* 
starch,  three  of  sugar,  and  a  little  salt.  Put  the  milk  in  a  pan  or 
small  bucket,  set  in  a  kettle  of  hot  water  on  the  stove,  and  when 
it  reaches  the  boiling  point  add  the  sugar,  then  the  starch  dissolved 
in  a  little  cold  milk,  and  lastly  the  whites  of  eggs  whipped  to  a 
rtiff  froth ;  beat  it,  and  let  cook  a  few  minutes,  then  pour  into  tea- 
cups, filling  about  half  full,  and  set  in  cool  place.  For  sauce,  make 
a  boiled  custard  as  follows:  Bring  to  boiling  point  one  pint  of  milk, 
add  three  table-spoons  sugar,  then  the  beaten  yolks  thinned  by  add- 
ing one  table-spoon  milk,  stirring  all  the  time  till  it  thickens;  flavor 
with  two  tea-spoons  lemon  or  two  of  vanilla,  and  set  to  cool.  In 
serving,  put  one  of  the  molds  in  a  sauce^ish  for  each  person,  and 
pour  over  it  some  of  the  boiled  custard.  Or  the  pudding  may  be 
Baade  in  one  large  mold. 

To  make  a  chocolate  pudding,  flavor  the  above  pudding  with 
vanilla,  remove  two-thirds  of  it,  and  add  half  a  cake  of  chocolate 
wftened,  mashed,  and  dissolved  in  a  little  milk.  Put  a  layer  of 
^  the  white  pudding  into  the  mold,  then  the  chocolate,  then  the 
^t  of  the  white ;  or  two  layers  of  chocolate  may  be  used  with  a 
white  between ;  or  the  center  may  be  cocoa  (made  by  adding  half 
a  cocoa-nut  grated  fine),  and  the  outside  chocolate;  or  pine-apple 
chopped  fine  (if  first  cooked  in  a  little  water,  the  latter  makes  a 
JMce  dressing),  or  strawberries  may  be  used. — Mrs.  D.  Buxton, 


I 

230  PUDDINGS  AND  SA  UCE8. 


Cream  Pudding. 

Stir  together  one  pint  cream,  three  ounces  sugar,  the  yolks  of 

three  eggs,  and  a  little  grated  nutmeg;  add  the  well-beaten  whites, 

stirring  lightly,  and  pour  into  a  buttered  pie-plate  on  which  has 

been  sprinkled  the  crumbs  of  stale  bread  to  about  the  thickness  of 

an  ordinary  crust;  sprinkle  over  the  top  a  layer  of  bread-crumbs 

and  bake. 

Cottage  Pudding. 

One  cup  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  one  egg,  cup  sweet  milk,  tea. 
spoon  soda  dissolved  in  milk,  two  tea-spoons  cream  tartar  in  the 
flour,  three  cups  flour,  half  tea-spoon  extract  of  lemon.  Sprinkle 
a  little  sugar  over  the  top  just  before  putting  in  the  oven,  bake  in 
a  small  bread-pan,  and  when  done  cut  in  squares,  and  serve  with 
sauce  made  of  two  table-spoons  butter,  cup  sugar,  table-spoon  flour 
wet  with  a  Utile  cold  water  and  stirred  until  like  cream;  add  a  pint 
boiling  water,  let  boil  two  or  three  minutes,  stirrings  all  the  time. 
After  tiiking  from  the  fire,  add  half  tea-spoon  extract  of  lemon. 
Nutmeg  may  be  used  in  place  of  lemon.  What  is  left  of  the  pud- 
ding and  sauce  may  be  served  cold  for  tea. — Mtb.  Howard  Voebwrym 

Chocolate  Pudding. 

One  quart  sweet  milk,  three  ounces  grated  chocolate,  one  cup 
sugar,  yolks  of  five  eggs ;  scald  milk  and  chocolate  together,  and, 
when  cool,  add  sugar  and  es;gi^y  and  bake.  When  done,  put  beaten 
whites  and  iive  table-spoons  sugar  on  top,  and  .set  in  oven  to  brown. 
Or,  boil  one  })int  milk,  add  half  cup  butter,  one  of  sugar,  and  three 
ounces  grated  chocolate ;  pour  this  over  two  slices  of  bread  soaked 
in  water ;  when  cool,  add  the  weU-beaten  yolks  of  four  eggs,  bake, 
and  when  done,  sprejid  over  the  whites  beaten  with  sugar,  and 
brown  in  oven.   Serve  hot  or  cold. — Mis8  Greeley  Chnibbs,  Biehrmmd, 

Cocoa-nut  Pudding. 

Grate  one  cocoa-nut,  saving  the  milk  if  perfectly  sweet,  boil  a 
quart  of  milk,  and  pour  upon  it,  abiding  five  eggs  beaten  with  one 
cup  of  sugar  and  one  table-spoon  butter,  add  a  little  salt,  two  tea* 
spoons  vanilla  extract,  and  milk  from  nut,  and  bake  in  a  pudding* 
dish  lined  with  rich  paste.     This  is  excellent  baked  like  pie  with 


PUDDINGS  AND  SA  UCE8.  231 

under  cnist  only.  A  plainer  yet  good  pudding  is  made  by  pouring 
one  and  one-balf  pints  boiling  milk  over  one  pint  bread-crumbs 
and  one  cup  dessicated  cocoa-nut  mixed  ;  add  two  table-spoons  sugar 
and  nutmeg  to  flavor;  bake. — Mrs.  T,  B.  John&OTiy  Lagrange,  Term. 

Enouwh  Carrot  Pudding. 
Odc  pound  grated  carrots,  three-fourths  pound  chopped  suet,  half 

pound  each  raisins  and  currants,    four  table-spoons  sugar,   eight 

table-spoons  flour,  and  spices  to  suit  the  taste.     Boil  four  bom's, 

place  in  the  oven  for  twenty  minutes,  and  serve  with  wine  sauce. — 

Mn,  E.  A.  W.,  Washington  f  D,  G, 

Delmonico  Pudding. 
A  quart  milk,  three  table-spoons  corn-starch  dissolved  in  cold 

milk,  the  yolks  of  five  eggs  beaten  well,  six  table-spoons  sugar. 

Boil  three  or  four  minutes,  pour  into  a  pudding-dish  and  bake  about 

half  an  hour;  beat  whites  of  eggs  with  six  tablenspoons  sugar,  put 

over  top,  and  return  pudding  to  oven  until  it  is  a  delicate  brown. — 

Mn.  J.  HoUandy 

EsTELLE  Pudding. 
Three  eggs  well  beaten,  two  and  a  half  table-spoons  sugar^  two 

of  hutter,  three-fourths  cup  sweet  milk,  one  of  raisins  chopped  fine, 
one  table-spoon  baking  powder,  flour  to  make  it  the  consistency  of 
cake  batter ;  or,  one-half  measure  each  of  Hor«ford's  Bread  Prepar- 
ation and  one  coffee-cup  flour;  steam  thirty-five  minutes,  and  serve 
with  cold  cream  sauce. — Mrs.  Andrew  Wilson 

Simple  Fruit  Puddings. 
Stew  currants,  or  any  small  fruits,  fresh  or  dried,  with  sugar  to 

taste,  and  pour  hot  over  thin  slices  of.  baker's  bread  with  crust  cut 

off,  making  alternate  layers  of  fruit  and  bread,  and  leaving  a  thick 

layer  of  fruit  for  the  last     Put  a  plate  on  top,  and  when  cool  set 

on  ice ;  serve  with  sifted  sugar,  or  cream  and  sugar. 

This  pudding  is  delicious  made  with  Boston  or  milk  crackers, 

split  open,  and  stewed  apricots  or  peaches,  with  plenty  of  juice,  ar- 

longed  as  above.     Or  another  way  is  to  toast  and  butter  slices  of 

bread,  pour  over  it  hot  stewed  fruit  in  alternate  layers,  and  serve 

wann  witn  rich  hot  sauce. — Mrs,  L.  8.  TF. 

Fig  Pudding. 
Half  pound  figs,  quarter  pound  grated  bread,  two  and  a  half 


232  FVDDINOS  AND  SAl  fCE& 

ounces  powdered  BUgar,  three  ounces  butter,  two  eggs,  one  tea-cap 
milk;  chop  figs  fine  and  mix  with  butter,  and  by  degrees  add  the 
other  ingredients;  butter  and  sprinkle  a  mold  with  bread-crumbe, 
pour  in  pudding,  cover  closely,  and  boil  for  three  hours;  serve  with 
lemon  sauce. — Florence  Woods  Hunk. 

Half-hour  Pudding. 
Beat  four  table-spoons  butter  to  a  cream  with  half  a  pmt  pow- 
dered sugar ;  add  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  beating  them  in  thor- 
oughly, then  a  rounded  half  pint  of  corn  meal,  and  the  whiles  of 
the  eggs  beaten  to  a  stiff  froth.  Mix  well,  and  bake  in  a  pudding 
dish,  well  buttered.     Serve  hot  with  sauce. 

Boiled  Indian  Pudding. 
Warm  a  pint  of  uwlasses  and  pint  of  milk,  stir  well  together, 
beat  four  egg^iy  and  stir  gradually  into  molasses  and  milk ;  .add  a 
pound  of  beef  suet  chopped  fine,  and  Indian  raeal  sufficient  to  make 
a  thick  batter ;  add  a  tea-spoon  pulverized  cinnamon,  nutmeg  and 
a  little  grated  lemon-peel,  and  stir  all  together  thoroughly ;  dip 
cloth  into  boiling  water,  shake,  flour  a  little,  turn  in  the  mixture, 
tie  up,  leaving  room  for  tiie  pudding  to  swell,  and  boil  three  hours ; 
serve  hot  with  sauce  made  of  drawn  butter,  wine,  and  nutmeg. — 
Mrs.  A.  E.  Brand, 

Baked  Indian  Pudding. 
A  quart  sweet  milk,  an  ounce  butter,  four  well-beaten  eggs,  tea- 
cup corn  meal,  half  pound  raisins,  fourth  pound  sugar ;  scald  milk 
and  stir  in  meal  while  boiling ;  let  stand  until  blood  warm,  stir  all 
well  together ;  bake  one  and  a  half  hours,  and  serve  with  sauce. — 
Mrs,   Carrier. 

Ki!5s  Pudding. 

Boil  one  quart  sweet  milk  in  custard-fcectie,  stir  into  it  four  heap- 
ing table-spoons  sugar  and  four  table-ftpoons  com  starch,  dissolved 
in  a  little  cold  water  or  milk,  and  added  to  the  well-beaten  and 
strained  yolks  of  four  ep:gs.  Have  the  whites  of  eggs  beaten  to  a 
stiff  froth  with  tea-cup  pulverized  sugar  and  one  tea-spoon  essence 
of  vanilla,  spread  on  top  of  purldinjr,  set  in  a  quick  oven,  and  brown; 
take  out,  sprinkle  with  grated  cocoa-nut,  set  dish  away  in  a  oool 


PUDDINGS  AND  SA  UCES.  233 

phoe;  serve  cold  after  three  or  four  hours.     The  sweet  liquor  which 
aetdes  to  the  bottom  in  cooling,  serves  as  a  sauce.  — Mrs.  W  E,  Baxter. 

Lemox  Pudding. 
Stir  into  yolks  of  six  eggs  one  cup  sugar,  half  a  cup  water,  and 
the  grated  yellow  rind  and  juice  of  two  lemons ;  soften  in  warm 
water  six  crackers  or  some  slices  of  cake,  lay  in  bottom  of  a  baking- 
dish,  pour  custard  over  them,  bake  till  firm ;  beat  whites  of  eggs  to 
a  froth,  add  six  table-spoons  sugar,  and  beat  well ;  when  custard  is 
done,  pour  frosting  over  it,  return  to  the  oven  and  brown.  Eat 
either  warm  or  cold. — Mrs,  Walter  Mitchell,  Gallipolis. 

Delicious  Lemon  Pudding.  . 
The  juice  and  grated  rind  of  one  lemon,  cup  sugar,  yolks  of  two 
eggs,  three  well  rounded  table-spoons  fiour,  a  pinch  of  salt,  one  pint 
rich  milk  ;  mix  the  flour  and  part  of  the  milk  to  a  smooth  paste, 
add  the  juice  and  rind  of  lemon,  the  cup  of  sugar,  yolks  well-beaten, 
the  rest  of  the  milk  (after  having  rinsed  out  the  egg  with  it),  line 
plate  with  puff-paste  one-fourth  inch  thick,  pour  in  custard,  bake 
m  a  quick  oven  until  done.  Beat  whites  to  a  stiff  froth,  add  two 
table-spoons  sugar,  spread  over  the  top,  return  to  oven  and  brown. 
Serve  with  very  cold  cream ;  or,  for  a  very  nice  dish,  add  whipped 
eream.  This  is  a  rich  and  not  an  expensive  pudding.  The  recipe 
makes  sufficient  for  six.-rMrs.  Col.  Woods,  Oreensburg^  Pa. 

Mabch  Pudding. 
One  cup  dried  apples,  cup  molasses,  one  and  one-fourths  cup  flour, 
fcorth  cup  butter,  one  egg,  one  tearspoon  each  of  soda  and  cinna- 
mon, half  tea-spoon, cloves;  wash  and  soak  apples  over  night,  cut 
fine  and  mix  with  water  in  which  they  were  soaked,  add  molasses 
and  spice ;  mix  egg,  butter  and  flour  together ;  stir  soda  with  apples 
and  molasses;  add  and  bake  immediately;  serve  hot  with  sauce  made 
of  half  cup  butter  and  one  cup  sugar,  beaten  smooth  and  flavored 
with  nutmeg,  lemon  or  vanilla.— Mm  lAzzis  March,. 

Minute  Pudding. 
Take  sweet  milk,  or  half  water  and  milk,  a  pinch  of  salt,  let  boil,, 
■tir  m  wheat  flour,  as  in  making  corn-meal  mush,  until  same  thick- 
l^ttB  as  mush :  remove  from  fire,  and  serve  at  once  with  sweetened 


234  PUDDINGS  AND  SA  UCES. 

cream  flavored  with  nutmeg.  Some  think  it  improved  by  adding 
blackberries,  raspberries  or  cherries,  either  canned  or  fresh,  just 
before  taking  from  stove. ^* 

MoLAJBSEs  Pudding. 
Three  cups  of  flour,  one  each  of  molasses,  melted  butter  and  hot 
water ;  one  teanspoon  soda ;  steam  three  hours ;  serve  with  a  sauoe 
of  butter  and  sugar  worked  to  a  cream,  with  hot  water  added  to 
make  it  the  proper  consistency,  and  flavored'  with  vanilla.  Some 
add  a  tea-cup  raisins. — Mrs.  Jenks,  Bellrfantaine, 

One-two-three-four  Pudding. 
One  cup  butter,  two  of  sugar,  three  of  flour,  four  eggs  (beaten 
separately),  one  cup  sweet  milk,  and  two  tea-spoons  baking-powder; 
flavor  with  nutmeg,  and  bake  in  pudding  or  cake  mold ;  leave  in 
mold  till  next  day,  when  steam  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour  over  a 
kettle  of  boiling  water  and  serve  with  hot  sauce. — Mrs,  C,  A.  Malin, 

Orange  Pudding. 
Two  large  oranges  pared  and  cut  in  pieces  one  inch  square,  put 
in  bottom  of  pudding  dish,  2x>ur  over  them  one  cup  white  sugar, 
then  make  a  plain  com  starch  pudding  without  sugar,  and  pour  it 
over  the  orange  and  sugar.     Let  stand  and  cool. 

Peach  Roll^. 
Stew  dried  fruit,  sweeten,  and  flavor  to  taste;  make  a  good 
baking-powder  crust,  roll  very  thin,  spread  fruit  on,  putting  thin 
slices  of  butter  on  the  fruit,  roll  crust  up,  place  in  a  pan  four  or 
five  inches  deep,  to  three  or  four  rolls  add  one  cup  sugar,  and  a 
half  cup  butter ;  pour  in  hot  water  enough  to  cover  them.  Bak^ 
half  an  hour. — Mrs,  J.  D,  Simmons,  Povdoioc,  Miss. 

Christmas  Plum  Pudding. 
One  quart  seeded  raisins,  pint  currants,  half  pint  citron  cut  up, 
quart  of  apples  peeled  and  chopped,  a  quart  of  fr^sh  and  nicely 
chopped  beef-suet,  a  quart  of  sweet  milk,  a  heaping  quart  of  stale 
bread-crumbs,  eight  eggs  beaten  separately,  pint  sugar,  grated  nut- 
•meg,  tea-spoon  salt ;  flour  fruit  thoroughly  from  a  quart  of  flour, 
then  mix  remainder  as  follows:  In  a  large  bowl  or  tray  put  the 
eggs  with  sugar,  nutmeg  and  milk,  stir  in  the  fruit,  bread-crumbs 


PUDDINGS  AND  SAUCES,  235 

and  suet,  oue  after  the  other  until  all  are  used,  adding  enough  flour 
to  make  the  fruit  stick  together,  which  will  take  about  all  the  quart ; 
dip  pudding-cloth  in  boiling-water,  dredge  on  inside  a  thick  coating 
of  flour,  put  in  pudding  and  tie  tightly,  allowing  room  to  swell,  and 
boil  from  two  to  three  hours  in  a  good-sized  pot  with  plenty  of  hot 
water,  replenishing  as  needed  from  tea-kettle.  When  done,  turn  in 
a  large  flat  dish  and  send  to  table  with  a  sprig  of  holly,  or  an^  bit 
of  evergreen  with  bright  berries,  stuck  in  the  top.  Serve  with  any 
pudding-sauce.  This  recipe  furnishes  enough  for  twenty  people, 
but  if  the  family  is  small,  one-half  the  quantity  may  be  prepared, 
or  it  is  equally  good  warmed  over  by  steaming.  For  sauce,  cream  a 
half  pound  sweet  butter,  stir  in  three-quarters  pound  brown  sugar, 
and  the  beaten  yolk  of  an  egg ;  simmer  for  a  few  moments  over  a 
filow  fire,  stirring  almost  constantly ;  when  near  boiling  add  a  half 
pint  bottled  grape-juice,  and  serve  a^r  grating  a  little  nutmeg  on 
the  surface. — Mrs.  Ex>-Crov,  CokCy  Texas, 

ENGLteH  Plum  Pudding. 
Beat  six  yolks  and  four  whites  of  eggs  very  light,  and  add  to  them 

a  tumbler  of  sweet  milk ;  stir  in  gradually  one-fourth  pound  grated 

or  chopped  stale  bread,  a  pound  flour,  three-quarters  pound  sugar, 

and  a  pound  each  of  beef-suet  chopped  very  fine,  currants  nicely 

washed  and  dried,  and  stoned  raisins,  well  floured ;  stir  well,  then 

add  two  nutmegs,  a  table-spoon  mace,  one  of  cinnamon  or  cloves,  a 

wine-glass  brandy,  a  tea-spoon  salt,  and  finally  another  tumbler  of 

milk.     Boil  in  bowls  or  molds  five  hours,  and  serve  with  sauce 

made  of  drawn  butter,  wine,  sugar,  and  nutmeg.     These  will  keep 

for  months;  when  wanted,  boil  one  hour  before  using.     A  pound  of 

eitron  or  blanched  sweet  almonds  adds  to  the  richness  of  the  pud- 

liing,  but  may  be  omitted. — Mrs.  Collier 

Egoless  Plum  Pudding. 
Heaping  cup  bread-crumbs,  two  cups  flour,  one  of  suet  chopped 

fine,  one  of  raisins,  one  of  molasses,  one  of  sweet  milk,  table-spoon 

soda,  tea-spoon  salt,  one  of  cloves,  and  one  of  cinnamon ;  boil  two 

and  a  half  hours  in  a  two-quart  pail,  set  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water 

or  steam  for  the  same  time.     For  sauce  take  one  cup  white  sugaj^ 

batter  size  of  an  egg,  grated  rind  of  one  lemon,  and  white  of  an 

egg.—Mr^  Mary  Lee  Gere. 


236  P  UDDINQS  AND  SA  UOESL 

Prairie  Plum  Pudding. 

Stew  together  a  tea-cup  raisius  and  half  tea-cup  citron ;  prepare 
dish  with  butter,  put  in  layer  of  sponge-cake  (any  kind  of  cake 
will  do,  or  Boston  crackers,  sliced  and  buttered  may  be  used,  or 
even  stale  Graham  bread-crumbs),  then  a  layer  of  fruit,  and  so  on, 
with  cake  or  bread  for  last  layer ;  pour  over  it  custard  made  of  a 
quait  of  milk  and  yolks  of  four  eggs,  sweetened  to  taste ;  bake  until 
on  inserting  a  knife  the  milk  has  become  water.     Make  a  frosting 
of  the  whites  of  four  eggs  and  four  table-spoons  pulverized  sugar, 
spread  on  pudding,  brown  in  oven,  and  serve  with  sauce  made  of 
one  tea-cup  white  sugar,  two-thirds  pint  water,  one  table-spoon  but- 
ter,  one  tea-spoon  corn-starch  mixed  smoothly  with  a  little  cold  milk; 
let  sugar  and  water  boU,  add  the  rest,  and  allow  to  boil  a  few  mo- 
ments,  then  add  the  white  of  one  well-beaten  egg  with  one  tea-spoon 
vanilla  essence. — Mn.  M.  E.  Oodard. 

Plum  Pudding. 

Beat  together  half  cup  sugar,  two  eggs  and  one  tea-spoon  butter, 
add  three  pints  sweet  milk,  a  little  salt,  six  crackers  rolled  fine,  one 
cup  raisins,  and  a  half  sheet  gelatine  dissolved  in  a  little  water; 
season  with  nutmeg  or  cinnamon.  Bake  in  a  pudding-dish. — Mrs^ 
Dr.  Stall, 

Poor  Man's  Pudding. 

A  quart  of  milk,  half  tea-cup  rice,  salt  to  taste,  and  one  tea-cup 
sugar  (some  add  table-spoon  butter) ;  place  in  oven  while  cold,  stir- 
ring occasionally  while  the  rice  is  swelling.  Bake  quite  slowly  two 
hours  or  more.  It  should  be  cream-like  when  done,  and  must  be 
taken  immediately  from  oven.  A  good  test  is  to  tip  dish ;  if  rice 
and  milk  move  together  it  is  done ;  if  not  sufficiently  cooked  the 
milk  runs ;  if  neither  move  it  b  done  too  much.  To  vary  this,  a 
small  cup  raisins  and  a  teaspoon  lemon  or  vanUIa  may  be  added. 
This  is  a  delicious  pudding  when  properly  baked,  and  may  be  eaten 
warm  or  cold  with  sugar  or  cream. — Mn.  I/ndse  lAnocIn^  New  Rtd" 

land,  lU. 

PiNE-AFPLB  Pudding. 

Butter  a  pudding-dish,  and  line  the  bottom  and  sides  with  slices 
of  stale  cake  (sponge-cake  is  best),  pare  and  slice  thin  a  large  pine- 
apple, place  in  the  dish  first  a  layer  of  pine-apple,  then  strew  witli 


PULDINOS  AND  SAUCES.  237 

'y  then  more  pine-apple,  and  so  on  until  all  is  used,  pour  over 
a  small  tea-cup  water,  and  cover  with  slices  of  cake  which  have  been 
dipped  in  cold  water ;  cover  the  whole  with  a  buttered  plate,  and 
bake  slowly  for  two  houi-s.— ifrs.  Wm.  Smith,  Jackaonville,  JPTo. 

Culpepper  Pudding. 

Stew  six  large  pippin  apples  (pared,  cored,  and  quartei^d)  until 
tender ;  drain  and  mash  smooth  witli  two  table-spoons  butter.  Crumb 
quarter  pound  s])onge  cake ;  put  layer  of  cake  and  apple  alternately, 
using  as  seasoning  ibr  both  six  table-spoons  sugar,  juice  and  grated 
lind  of  one  lemon,  and  a  little  nutmeg.  Beat  well  six  eggs,  and  stir  in 
gradually ;  mix  well,  put  in  a  dish,  and  bake  three  quarters  of  an  hour. 

Prune  Pudding. 
Scald  one  pound  French  prunes,  let  them  swell  in  the  hot  water 
till  sofl,  drain  and  extract  the  stones,  spread  on  a  dish  and  dredge 
with  flour;  take  a  gill  milk  from  a  quart,  stir  into  it  gradually 
eight  table-spoons  sifted  flour ;  beat  six  eggs  very  light  and  stir  by 
degrees  into  the  remainder  of  quart  of  milk,  alternating  with  the 
batter;  add  prunes,  one  at  a. time,  stir  the  whole  very  hard,  boil 
two  hours,  and  serve  with  wine-sauce  or  cream. — Mrs.  Emma  L.  Fay. 

Quick  Puff  Pudding. 
Stir  one  pint  flour,  two  tea-spoons  baking-powder,  and  a  little  salt 
into  milk  until  very  soft;  place  in  steamer  well-greased  cups,  put  in 
each  a  spoonful  of  batter,  then  one  of  berries,  steamed  apples,  or 
any  sauce  convenient,  cover  with  another  spoonful  of  batter  and 
steam  twenty  minutes.  This  pudding  is  delicious  made  with  fresh 
strawberries,  and  eaten  with  a  sauce  made  of  two  eggs,  half  cup 
butter  and  cup  of  sugar,  beaten  thoroughly  with  a  cup  boiling  milk; 
and  one  of  strawberries. — Mrs.  B.  T.  Skinner,  BatUe  Greek,  Mich. 

Queen  of  Puddings. 
One  pint  fine  sifted  bread-crumbs,  one  quart  milk,  one  cup  sugar, 
yolks  of  four  eggs,  a  piece  of  butter  the  size  of  an  egg  (some  add 
grated  rind  of  lemon) ;  bake  until  done — ^but  do  not  allow  to  become 
watery — and  spread  "with  a  layer  of  jelly.  Whip  whites  of  eggs  to 
a  stifi^  froth  with  five  table-spoons  sugar,  and  juice  of  one  lemon, 
Bpread  on  the  top  and  brown.    Oood  with  or  without  sauce,  and 


238  PUDDINGS  AND  SAUOESi 

very  good  cold.     Make  a  hard  sauce  for  it  as  follows :  One  cup 

very  light  brown  sugar,  half  cup  butter,  half  grated  rind  and  the 

juice  of  one  lemon ;  beat  until  very  light.     Vanilla  may  be  used 

instead  of  the  lemon. 

Or,  for  cocoa-nut  pudding,  soak  half  cup  dessicated  cocoa-nut  in 

boiling  hot  milk  for  half  an  hour  or  more,  and  add  to  the  pudding, 

baking  and  finishing  as  above ;  or  for  orange  pudding  add  a  half 

dozen  grated  oranges. — Mrs,  Prof,  R.  P.  Kidder ^  Cape  Oirardeau, 

MissourL 

KiCE  Pudding. 

To  a  cup  of  rice  boiled  in  a  custard-kettle  in  a  pint  of  water  (sea* 
soned  well  with  salt)  until  dry,  add  a  pint  of  milk  in  which  a  little 
com  starch  has  been  dissolved,  and  boil  again;  add  the  yolks  of  two 
eggs  beaten  witii  half  a  cup  of  sugar,  stir  well  together,  and  lastly 
add  the  juice  and  grated  rind  of  one  lemon.  Place  in  a  dish,  and 
bake  slowly  in  the  oven ;  when  done,  spread  over  the  top  the  whites 
beaten  with  two  table-spoons  sugar,  and  brown  in  oven.  A  cup  of 
raisins  may  be  added  just  before  baking.  Or,  after  boiling  the  rice 
with  the  milk,  eggs,  and  sugar,  add  a  lump  of  butter  and  place  a 
layer  of  the  rice,  about  an  inch  thick,  in  a  buttered  dish  sprinkled 
with  bread-crumbs,  then  a  layer  of  pe^hes  (either  fresh  or  canned), 
repeating  until  dish  is  full,  leaving  rice  for  the  last  layer ;  bake 
slowly  for  half  an  hour,  and  when  done,  cover  with  the  beaten  whites, 
as  aoove.  Or,  after  prepanng  the  rice  as  above,  add  pine-apple, 
chopped  fine,  or  oranges,  or  dried  cherries ;  mix  thoroughly,  and 
bake  and  finish  as  above. — Mrs.  J.  R,  IT., 

Rice  Snow  Baij^. 

Boil  one  pint  rice  until  soft  in  two  quarts  water  with  a  tea-spoon 
salt;  put  in  small  cups,  and  when  perfectly  cold  place  in  a  dish. 
Make  a  boiled  custard  of  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  one  pint  sweet 
milk,  and  one  tea-spoon  corn-starch;  flavor  with  lemon.  When 
cold,  pour  over  the  rice-balls  half  an  hour  before  serving.  This  is 
a  very  simple  but  nice  dessert. — Miss  Louise  Skinner. 

Sago  and  Apple  Pudding. 
Pare  six  apples  and  punch  out  the  cores,  fill  holes  with  cinnamon 
and  sugar,  using  two  tesrspoons  cinnamon  to  a  cup  of  sugar ;  take 


PUDDINGS  AND  8A  UCES,  239 

one  t:ible-spoon  sago  to  each  apple,  vash  it  thoroughly  and  let  Boak 
an  hour  in  water  enough  to  cover  the  apples,  pour  water  and  sago 
over  the  apples,  and  bake  an  hour  and  a  half. 

Suet  Pudding. 
One  cup  molasses,  one  of  sweet  milk,  one  of  suet  chopped  fine, 
or  half  a  cup  melted  butter,  one  of  raisins,  half  cup  currants,  two 
and  a  half  cups  flour,  half  tea-spoon  soda;  mix  well,  salt  and  spice 
to  taste,  and  steam  two  hours. — Mrs.  S.  W.  Case. 

Apple  Tapioca  Pudding. 

To  half  tea-cup  of  tapioca,  add  one  and  one-half  pints  cold  water, 
kt  it  stand  on  the  fire  till  cooked  dear,  stirring  to  prevent  burning, 
remove,  sweeten  and  flavor  with  wine  and  nutmeg;  pour  the  tapi- 
oca into  a  deep  dish  in  which  have  been  placed  six  or  eight  pared 
and  cored  apples,  bake  until  apples  are  done,  and  serve  cold  with 
cream. — Mrs,  S.  C.  Lee, 

Whobtleberry  Pudding. 

One  quart  berries,  pint  molasses,  cup  milk,  tea-spoon  soda,  one 
pound  and  two  ounces  flour,  on^  tea-spoon  cloves,  one  of  cinnamon, 
and  one  nutmeg ;  boil  two  and  a  half  hours. — Mrs.  Emma  Fay. 

Sweet  Potato  Pudding. 

Wash  and   simmer  gentlj  half  a  pound  sweet  potatoes;  when 

half  done  take  out,  peel,  and  when   cold  grate  them.     Stir  to  a 

eream  a  scant  cup  butter  and  six  table-spoons  sugar  (white),  add 

a  grated  nutmeg,  a  tea-spoon  beaten  mace,  juice  and  grated  peel  of 

a  lemon,  a  wine-glass  wine,  one  of  brandy.     Stir  these  ingredients 

together.     Beat  four  eggs  and  add  to  mixture,  alternating  with  the 

potato,  a  little  at  a  time.     At  the  last,  stir  all  very  hard,  pour  in  a 

buttered  dish  and  bake  three  quarters  of  an  hour.     To  be  eaten 

cold. — From  Temn. 

Quince  Pudding. 

Pare  and  grate  six  large  ripe  quinces,  mix  well  with  half  a  pint 

cream  and  one  cup  sugar,  beat  yolks  of  seven  eggs  and  whites  of 

two,  adding  two  wine-glasses  of  rose-water;  when  all  is  well  mixed 

bake  three  quarters  of  an  hour  in  a  buttered  dish.     Beat  whites  of 

five  eggs  with  three  table-spoons  powdered  sugar,  put  on  top  of 

puddingy  and  brown  a  few  minutes. — Mm  Tyson. 


240  8AUGE& 


SAUCES. 


Brandt  Sauce. 
Cream  together  four  heaping  table-spoons  of  sugar  (white)  and 
four  table-spoons,  well-rounded,  of  soft  butter;  with  this  mix  a 
gill  of  lemon  brandy,  or  half  the  quantity  of  brandy,  juice  of  one 
lemon  and  half  a  grated  nutmeg;  stir  slowly  into  half  a  cup  boiling 
water,  let  simmer  a  moment,  pour  into  a  warm  tureen. — May 
Corbiriy  Covington,  Ky. 

BUTTEKLESS  SauCE. 

Place  one-half  a  gill  of  milk  in  a  pan  in  boiling  water;  when 

scalding  put  in  half  a  pint  of  powdered  sugar  mixed  with  the  yolka 

of  two  eggs,  stir  until  thick  as  boiled  custard,  take  off;  when  cool 

add   flavoring.     Just  before  serving   mix  the  well-beaten  whites 

lightly  with  the  sauce. 

Cider  Sauce. 

Mix  two  table-spoons  butter  with  an  even  table-spoon  of  flour ; 

stir  in  half  a  pint  of  brown  sugar,  iind  half  a  gill  of  boiled  cider ; 

add  a  gill  of  boiling  water,  mix  well,  let  it  simmer  a  few  moments ; 

serve  hot. 

Cocoa-nut  Sauce. 

Two  table-spoons  butter,  cup  of  sugar,  table-spoon  of  flour,  milk 
of  one  cocoa-nut,  with  a  small  piece  grated. 

Cream  Sauoe. 
One  tea-cup  powdered  white  sugar,  scant  half  tearcup  butter,  half 
tea-cup  rich  cream;  beat  butter  and  sugar  thoroughly,  add  cream, 
stir  the  whole  into  half  tearCup  boiling  water,  place  on  stove  for  a 
fow  moments,  stirring  it  constantly,  take  off  and  add  flavoring. 

Fine  French  Sauce. 
Cream  a  small  cup  of  sugar,  and  one  (scant)  of  butter ;  add  beaten 
yolk,  or  white  if  preferred,  and  a  gill  of  wine ;  simmer  a  few  mo- 
ments, grate  nutmeg  over  it  when  taken  from  fire. — Mrs,  Harrison, 

Plain  Cream  Sauce. 
One  pint  cream,  three  table-spoons  brown  sugar,  and  half  a  small 
nutmeg  grated. 


SAUCES.  241 

EvERY-DAY  Sauce. 
To  one  pint  boiling  water,  add  heaping  tea-cup  augar,  tablenspoon^ 
batter  (see  General  Directions),  pinch  of  salt,  and  table-spoon  com 
starch  dissolved  in  cold  water ;  season  with  nutmeg  or  vanilla,  boil 
IiaJf  an  hour,  and  if  good  and  well  cooked  it  will  be  very  dear. 
Or,  to  a  table-spoon  of  currant  jelly,  add  a  table-spoon  of  hot 
water ;  beat  well  and  add  to  the  above  just  before  serving,  omitting 
all  other  flavoring.     Or,  add  a  tearspoou  of  raspberry  syrup. 

Foaming  SAute. 

Beat  whites  of  three  eggs  to  a  stiff  froth ;  vmlt  tea-cup  of  sugar 

m  a  little  water,  let  it  boil,  stir  in  one  glass  wine,  and  then  the 

whites  of  the  three  eggs;  serve  at  once. — Mrs.  Carrie  Olader^  Chir 

tago,  HI. 

Jelly  Sauce. 

Melt  one  ounce  of  sugar  and  two  table-spoons  grape  jelly  over  the 

fire  in  a  half  pint  of  boiling  water,  and  stir  into  it  half  a  tea-spoon 

com  starch  dissolved  in  a  half  cup  cold  water,  let  come  to  a  boU, 

and  it  will  be  ready  for  use.     Any  other  fruit  jelly  may  be  used 

instead  of  grape. 

Lemon  Sauce. 

Two  cups  sugar,  two  eggs,  juice  and  rind  of  two  lemons;  beat  all 
together,  and  just  before  serving  add  pint  boiling  water ;  set  on 
stove,  and  when  at  boiling  point,  serve.  Never  boil  sauce  afttr 
adding  lemon,  a^  it  makes  it  bitter.  Some  add  one-third  cup  but- 
ter and  table-spoon  com  starch. 

Maple  Sugar  Sauce. 
Melt  over  a  slow  fire,  in  a  small  tea-cup  of  water,  half  a  pint 
^ple  sugar;  let  it  simmer,  removing  all  scum;  add  four  table- 
^ns  butter  mixed  with  a  level  tea-spoon  flour,  and  one  of  grated 
DQtnieg;  boil  for  a  few  moments,  and  serve  with  boiled  puddings. 
^»  make  a  **  hard  sauce  *'  of  one  table-spoon  butter  to  two  of  sugar. 

Mm^EHAHA  Sauce. 

^t,  in  a  two  quart  bowl,  four   table-spoons  butter  and   two 

"^irds  pint  brown  sugar,  to  a  cream,  with   a  wooden  spoon ;  then 

^dfour  table-spoons  sweet  cream,  then  the  jui«e  and  gratl^d  rind 
16 


242  SAUCES. 

of  a  large  lemon ;  place  the  bowl  on  top  of  the  tea-kettle  half  full 
of  boiling  water;  when  melted  to  a  thick  creamj  froth,  serve. 

Orange  Hard  Sauce. 
Select  a  thin  orange,  cut  the  skin  into  six  equal  parts,  by  cutting 
through  the  skin  at  the  stem  end  and  passing  the  knife  around  the 
orange  to  nearly  the  blossom  end ;  loosen  and  turn  each  piece  down 
and  remove  the  orange.  Extract  juice  and  mix  it  with  yellow  sugar 
(prepared  by  dropping  a  drop  or  two  of  "  gold  coloring  "  on  white 
sugar  while  stirring  it)  till  a  ball  can  be  formed,  which  place  inside 
the  orange-peel  and  serve.  The  ''gold  coloring"  may  be  omitted. 
Lemon  sauce  may  be  made  in  the  same  way. 

Pine-apple  Sauce. 
Mix  two  table-spoons  butter  and  four  heaping  table-spoons  sugar 
(some  add  white  of  an  egg),  flavor  with  pine-apple  (or  any  other 
flavoring),  form  a  pyramid,  and  with  a  tea-spoon  shape  it  like 
a  pine-apple.  \  Or,  to  a  grated  pine-apple  add  a  very  little  water, 
simmer  until  quite  tender,  mix  with  it,  by  degrees,  half  its  weight 
in  sugar,  boil  gently  for  five  minutes,  and  serve. 

Strawberry  Sauce. 
Half  tea-cup  of  butter^  one  and  a  half  tea-cups  of  sugar,  and  one 
pint  of  strawberries  mashed  till  juicy.     (Canned  berries  may  be 
substituted  for  fresh  ones).     Beat  the  butter  and  sugar  to  a  cream; 
then  stir  in  the  berries  and  the  beaten  white  of  an  egg. 

Vinegar  Sauce. 
One  and  a  half  cups  sugar,  one  and  a  half  table-spoons  flour  in  a 
little  water,  two  table-spoons  vinegar,  quarter  of  a  grated  nutmeg, 
and  a  pinch  of  salt;  pour  over  this  one  and  a  half  pints  boiling 
water,  and  boil  ten  minutes ;  just  before  taking  from  stove  add  one 
dessertspoon  of  butter. — Mrs.  G.  W.  Collins,  Urbana.  ^ 

WfflPPED  Cream  Sauce. 
Whip  a  pint  of  thick  sweet  cream,  add  the  beaten  whites  of 
two  eggs,  sweeten  to  taste;  place  pudding  in  center  of  dish,  and 
surround  with  the  sauce ;  or  pile  up  in  center  and  surroand  with 
molded  blanc-mange,  or  fruit  puddings. — Mrs.  Cfeo.  Sever,  Cedar 
Rapids,  la. 


PRESERVES. 


Preserves,  to  be  perfect,  must  be  made  with  the  greatest  care. 
Economy  of  time  and  trouble  is  a  waste  of  fruit  and  sugar.  The 
best  are  made  by  putting  only  a  small  amount  of  fruit  at  a  time 
in  the  syrup,  after  the  latter  has  been  carefully  prepared  and  clar- 
ified, and  the  fruit  neatly  pared.  Peel  peaches,  pears,  quinces  and 
apples,  and  throw  into  cold  water  as  you  peel  them  to  prevent  their 
turning  dark.  It  is  difficult  to  watch  a  large  quantity  so  as  to 
insure  its  being  done  to  a  turn. 

The  old  rule  is  **  a  pouud  of  sugar  to  pound  of  fruit; "  but  since 
the  introduction  of  cans,  three-quarters  of  a  pouud  of  sugar  to  a 
pound  of  fruit  is  sufficient,  and  even  less  is  sometimes  used,  the 
necessity  for  an  excess  of  sugar  having  passed  away,  as  preserves 
may  be  less  sweet,  with  no  risk  of  fermentation,  if  sealed.  Either 
tin  or  glass  cans  may  be  used,  care  being  taken  to  make  the  sealing 
perfect. 

Quinces,  pears,  citrons,  watermelon-rinds,  and  many  of  the  smaller 
fi^ts,  such  as  cherries,  currants,  etc.,  harden  when  put,  at  first, 
wto  a  syrup  made  of  their  weight  of  sugar.  To  prevent  this  they 
should  be  cooked  till  tender  in  water,  or  in  a  weak  syrup  made 
from  a  portion  only  of  the  sugar,  adding  the  remainder  afterward. 
In  preserving  fruits,  such  as  apples,  peaches,  tomatoes,  plums  and 
strawberries,  and  other  fruits,  which  are  likely  to  become  too  soft  in 
cooking,  it  is  a  good  plan  to  pour  the  hot  syrup  over  the  fruit,  or  to 
^^^  over  it  a  part  or  all  the  sugar,  and  aUow  it  to  stand  a  few 
bouTB;  by  either  method  the  juice  is  extracted,  and  the  fruit  hard« 


244  PRESERVES. 

ened.  Another  approved  method  of  hardening  fruit  is  to  skim  it 
out  of  syrup  after  cooking  a  few  minutes,  and  lay  it  in  the  hot  sun 
two  or  three  hours,  and  then  pour  over  it  the  boiling  syrup.  Long 
protracted  boiling  destroys  the  pleasant  natural  flavor  of  the  ^rulty 
and  darkens  it 

Preserves  should  boil  gently  to  avoid  the  danger  of  burning,  and 
in  order  that  the  sugar  may  thoroughly  penetrate  the  fruit  A  good 
syrup  is  made  iu  the  proportion  of  half  pint  water  to  a  pound  of 
sugar.  Use  loaf  or  granulated  sugar.  Put  the  sugar  and  water 
over  the  fire  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  and,  just  before  it  boils,  stir  in 
the  white  of  an  egg  beaten  lightly  with  two  table-spoons  water ;  and, 
as  it  begins  to  boil,  remove  the  scum  with  great  care ;  boil  until  no 
more  scum  arises,  and  then  add  fruit  Or  the  white  of  the  egg 
may  be  mixed  thoroughly  with  the  dry  sugar  in  the  kettle,  and  the 
boiling  water  poured  over,  when  all  impurities  will  immediately  rise 
to  the  surface  with  the  egg,  then  boil  slowly,  or  rather  simmer,  until 
the  preserves  are  clear.  Take  out  each  piece  with  a  skimmer  and 
lay  on  a  flat  dish  to  cool,  or  else  put  in  the  jars  at  once.  Stew  the 
syrup,  skimming  ofl*  the  scum  which  rises,  until  it  *'  ropes'*  from  the 
spoon.  If  the  preserves  are  already  in  the  jar  pour  the  syrup  over 
them  and  seal ;  if  on  dishes,  return  them  to  the  syrup  and  boil  up 
once  before  putting  up.  This  is  merely  a  matter  of  choice,  and  we 
have  never  found  any  difl*erence  in  the  results  of  the  two  methods. 
Preserves  may  be  made  from  canned  fruit  (and  some  prefer  to  do 
this  rather  than*  make  in  the  hot  season),  using  less  sugar  than  the 
rule.  When  preserving  canned  peaches  or  apples,  it  is  an  improve- 
ment to  add  a  few  sliced  oranges  or  lemons.  When  berries  or  small 
fruits  are  done,  take  up  with  a  little  strainer,  and  place  in  cans; 
if  a  cup  is  used,  it  is  impossible  to  free  them  from  the  syrup. 

Marmalades,  or  the  diflerent  butters,  will  be  smoother  and  bettei 
flavored,  and  will  require  less  boiling,  if  the  fruit  (peaches,  quinces, 
oranges  and  apples  make  the  best)  li  well  cooked  and  mashed  before 
adding  either  sugar  or  cider.  I£  Is  important  to  stir  constantly  with 
an  apple-butter  stirrer. 

In  making  either  preserves  or  marwlades,  follow  the  directions 
as  regards  kettle,  sugar,  and  putting  uj^,  already  g^ven  for  jellies 
and  jamsy  covering  at  once,  but  not  putting  away  tiU  cold.     When 


PRESER  VES,  245 

preeerves  are  candied,  set  jar  in  kettle  of  cold  water,  and  let 
boil  for  an  hour ;  or  pat  them  in  a  crock  kept  for  that  purpose, 
set  in  oven  and  boil  a  few  minutes,  watching  carefully  to  pre- 
vent burning.  When  specks  of  mold  appear,  take  them  off 
carefully,  and  scald  preserves  as  above  directed. 

Dried  iruits  are  much  better  and  require  less  boiling,  if  clean  soft 
water  is  poured  over  them  and  allowed  to  stand  over  night.  In  the 
morning  boil  until  tender  in  the  water,  sweetening  five  minutes 
before  removing  from  the  stove. 

To  dry  corn  or  fruits  nicely,  spread  in  shallow  boxes  or  box  cov- 
ers, and  cover  with  mosquito  netting  to  prevent  flies  reaching  them. 
When  dry,  put  up  in  jura  and  cover  closely,  or  in  paper  sacks. 
Dried  peaches  are  better  when  halved  and  the  cavities  sprinkled 
with"  sugar  in  drying.     The  fruit  must  be  good,  however,  as  poor 
firuit  can  not  be  redeemed  by  any  process.     Another  excellent  way 
is  to  dry  them  in  the  oven,  and,  when  about  half  done,  place  in  a 
crock  a  layer  of  peaches  alternately  with  a  layer  of  sugar.     Cherries 
and  currants  are  excellent  dried  ds  follows:  Put  in  jars  first  a  layer 
of  fruit,  then  a  layer  of  sugar,  in  the  proportion  of  half  a  pound 
sugar  to  pound  of  fruit,  let  stand  over  night,  place  them  to  boil, 
skimming  off  aU  scum,  let  boil  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  skim  out  and 
spread  on  dishes  to  dry  in  the  sun,  or  by  the  fire,  turning  frequently 
nntil  dry ;  then  place  on  pans  in  oven,  stirring  with  the  hand  often 
until  the  heat  is  too  great  to  bear.     They  may  then  be  packed  in 
jars  with  sugar,  or  put  away  in  paper  sacks,  or  stone  crocks  with  a 
cloth  tied  dose  over  the  top,  and  are  an  excellent  substitute  for 
raisins  in  puddings  or  mince-pies. 

The  secret  of  keeping  dried  fruit  is  to  exdvde  the  light,  and  to  keep 
in  a  dry  and  cool  place.  Paper  sacks,  or  a  barrel  or  box  lined  with 
paper,  are  secure  against  moths.  Eeheating  fruit  makes  it  dark  in 
color,  and  impairs  its  flavor.  Always  fill  a  fruit-can,  and  keep  for 
present  use,  to  avoid  opening  the  large  jars  often. 


ApfLE  Preserves. 

Take  threeHjuarters  of^  pound  sugar  to  each  pound  apples;  mftke 
A  syrup  of  the  sugar  and  water  in  which  root  ginger  (bruised  and 


246  PEESERVES. 

tied  ID  a  bag)  has  been  boiled  until  the  strength  is  well  extracted, 
add  a  little  lemon-juice  or  sliced  lemon,  ski  in  off  all  scum,  and  boil 
in  the  syrup  a  few  apples  at  a  time,  until  they  are  transparent,  and 
place  in  jar.  When  all  are  done,  boil  the  syrup  until  thick,  pour, 
boiling  hot,  over  the  apples,  and  cover  closely.  Well-flavored  fruit, 
not  easily  broken  in  cooking,  should  be  used.  The  ginger  may  be 
omitted  if  disliked. 

Carrot  Sweetmeats. 

Boil  small  fine-grained  carrots  in  water  till  tender ;  peel  and  grate, 
add  sugar,  slips  of  citron,  spices  if  preferred,  and  wine ;  simmer 
slowly  together  and  put  away  in  jars.  Very  wholesome  for  chil- 
dren and  very  much  liked.  The  juice  from  any  canned  fruit  sold 
would  take  the  place  of  the  simple  wine  used  here — the  alcoholic 
mixtures  sold  in  America  being  utterly  unfit  for  household  con- 
sumption.— Mrs.  S.  Willifston,  Heidelberg,  Germany. 

CHERRY  Preserves. 
Choose  sour  ones — the  early  Richmond  is  good — seed  all  very 
carefully,  allow  an  amount  of  sugar  equal  to  the  fruit;  take  half 
the  sugar,  sprinkle  over  the  fruit,  let  stand  about  an  hour,  pour  into 
a  preserving-kettle,  boil  slowly  ten  minutes,  skim  out  the  cherries, 
add  rest  of  sugar  to  the  syrup,  boil,  skim  and  pour  over  the  cher- 
ries ;  the  next  day  drain  ofi*  the  syrup,  boil,  skim  if  necessary,  add 
the  cherria«(,  boil  twenty  minutes,  and  seal  up  in  small  jars. — Mrs. 

J.  M,  Southard. 

Citron  Preserves. 

Pare  off  rind,  seed,  cut  in  thin  slices  two  inches  long,  weigh,  and 

put  in  preserving  kettle  with  water  enough  to  cover ;  boil  one  hour, 

take  out  the  melon,  and  to  the  water  in  kettle  add  as  much  sugar 

as  there  is  melon  by  weight,  boil  until  quite  thick,  replace  melon, 

add  two  sliced  lemons  to  each  pound  of  fruit,  boil  twenty  minutes, 

take  out,  boil  syrup  until  it  is  very  thick  molasses,  and  pour  it  over 

the  fruit. — Mrs,  J.  H:  Rcbvnson, 

Fig  Preserves. 
Gather  fruit  when  fully  ripe,  but  not  cracked  open ;  place  in  a 
prorated  tin  bucket  or  wire  basket,  and  dip  for  a  moment  into  a 
deep  kettle  of  hot  and  moderately  strong  lye  (some  prefer  letting 


PRESERVES.  247 

them  lie  an  hour  in  lime-water  and  afterwards  drain) ;  make  a  syrup 
in  proportion  of  one  pound  sugar  to  one  of  fruit,  and  when  the  figs 
are  well  drained,  put  them  in  syrup  and  boil  until  well  cooked ; 
remove,  boil  syrup  down  until  there  is  just  enough  to  cover  firuit ; 
put  firuit  back  in  syrup,  let  all  boil,  and  seal  up  while  hot  in  glass 
or  porcelain  jars. — Ed-Oov.  Steams^  Florida. 

Grape  Preserves. 
Pick  grapes  from  the  stems,  pop  pulps  from  the  skins,  doing  U\  * 
at  a  time,  one  in  each  hand  between  the  thumb  and  forefinger.  Put 
pulp  in  a  porcelain  kettle  and  stew  gently  untU  the  seeds  are  loosen- 
ed; then  strain  and  rub  it  through  a  sieve,  weigh  it  with  the  skins, 
and  to  every  pound  of  this  allow  one  pound  of  granulated  sugar. 
Put  skins  and  juice  in  kettle,  cover  closely,  and  cook  slowly  until 
the  skins  are  tender ;  while  still  boiling  add  the  sugar,  and  move  the 
kettie  back,  as  it  must  not  boil  again ;  keep  very  hot  for  fifteen 
minutes,  then,  seeing  that  the  sugar  is  thoroughly  dissolved,  pour 
the  fruit  in  cans,  and  screw  down  the  covers  as  soon  as  possible. 

Pear  Preserves. 
Pare,  cut  in  halves,  core  and  weigh  (if  hard,  boil  in  water  until 
tender,  and  use  the  water  for  the  syrup),  allow  three-quarters 
pound  sugar  for  each  pound  fruit,  boU  a  few  moments,  skim,  and 
cool ;  when  luke-warm  add  pears,  and  boil  gently  until  syrup  has 
penetrated  them  and  they  look  clear ;  some  of  the  pieces  will  cook 
before  the  rest,  and  must  be  removed ;  when  done,  take  out,  boil 
down  syrup  a  little  and  pour  over  them  ;  a  few  cloves  stuck  here 
and  there  in  the  pears  add  a  pleasant  flavor.  Put  in  small  jars 
with  glass  or  tin  tops,  and  seal  with  putty. — Mm  Florence  WiUiams. 

Peach  Preserves. 
Take  any  fine  peaches  that  do  not  mash  readily  in  cooking,  pare 
carefiilly  and  remove  pits;  take  sugar  equal  in  weight  to  fruit, 
(or  if  to  be  sealed,  three-quarters  pound  sugar  to  the  pound  of  fruit), 
and  water  in  proportion  of  a  half  pint  to  each  pound  of  sugar. 
Boil  pits  in  the  water,  adding  more  as  it  evaporates,  to  keep  the 
proportion  good,  remove  pits,  add  the  sugar,  clarify,  and  when  the 
scum  ceases  to  rise,  add  the  fruit,  a  small  quantity  at  a  time ;  Qpok 
slowly  about  ten  minutes,  skim  out  into  a  jar,  add  more,  and  so  on 


248  PRESERVES. 

until  all  are  done,  and  then  pour  the  boiling  syrup  over  all.  The 
next  day  drain  off  and  boil  syrup  a  few  minutes  only,  and  pour  back, 
repeating  daily  until  the  fruit  looks  clear.  Two  or  three  times  ia 
generally  sufficient  The  last  time  put  up  the  preserves  in  small  jars, 
and  secure  with  paper  as  directed  for  jellies.  K  to  be  sealed  in  cans, 
the  first  boiling  is  sufficient,  af\er  which  put  into  cans  and  seal  im- 
mediately. The  latter  plan  is  preferable,  as  it  takes  less  trouble 
and  less  sugar,  while  the  natural  flavor  of  the  fruit  is  better  re* 
tained.  Many  think  peach  preserves  much  nicer  if  made  with 
maple  sugar.  Clingstone  peaches  are  preserved  in  the  same  way 
whole,  except  that  they  must  be  put  on  in  clear  water  and  boiled 
until  so  tender  that  they  may  be  pierced  with  a  silver  fork  before 

adding  the  sugar. 

Plum  Preserves. 

Allow  equal  weights  sugar  and   plums ;  add  sufficient  water  to 

the  sugar  to  make  a  thick  syrup,  boil,  skim,  and  pour  over  the 

plums  (previously  washed,  pricked  and  placed  in  a  stone  jar),  and 

cover  with  a  plate.     The  next  day  drain  off  syrup,  boil,  skim,  and 

pour  in  over  plums ;  repeat  this  for  three  or  four  days,  place  pluma 

and  syrup  in  the  preserving-kettle,  and  boil  very  slowly  for  half  an 

hour.     Put  up  in  stone  jars,  c>over  with  papers  like  jellies,  or  seal 

in  cans. — Mn,  J,  JET.  Shearer, 

Plum  Sweetmeats. 

When  Damson  plums  are  perfectly  ripe,  peel  and  divide  them, 
taking  out  the  stones ;  put  them  over  a  gentle  heat  to  cook  in  their 
own  juice ;  when  soft  rub  them  through  a  sieve,  and  return  to 
the  stove,  adding  just  enough  sugar  to  sweeten,  a  little  cinnamon, 
and,  when  nearly  done,  wine  in  quantity  to  suit  the  taste.  This  is 
done  more  to  keep  the  sweetmeats  than  for  the  flavor,  as  self-sealing 
cans  are  not  used  here,  and  all  preserves  are  pasted  up  with  the 
white  of  eggs.  The  common  wine  of  the  country  is  thin  and  sour 
and  is  much  used  in  cookery. — Mrs,  L.  S,  WiUiston,  Heiddberg^ 
Oermany. 

Quince  and  Apple  Preserves. 

Take  equal  weights  of  quinces  and  sugar,  pare,  core,  leave  whole 
or<;ut  up,  as  preferred,  boil  till  tender  in  water  enough  to  cover, 
carefully  take  out  and  put  on  a  platter,  add  sugar  to  the  water, 


PRESERVES.  249 

replace  finiit  and  boQ  slowly  till  clear,  place  in  jars  and  pour  syrup 
over  them.  To  increase  the  quantity  without  adding  sugar,  take 
half  or  two-ihirds  in  weight  as  many  fair  sweet  apples  as  there  are 
quinces,  pore,  quarter,  and  core ;  after  removing  quinces,  put  apples 
into  the  syrup,  and  boil  until  they  begin  to  look  red  and  clear,  and 
are  tender;  place  quinces  and  apples  in  jar  in  alternate  layers,  and 
cover  with  syrup.  For  the  use  of  parings  and  cores,  see  "  Quince 
Jelly."    Apples  alone  may  be  preserved  in  the  same  way. 

Strawbekry  Preserves. 
Put  two  pounds  of  sugar  in  a  bright  tin-pan  over  a  kettle  of 
boiling  water,  and  pour  into  it  half  a  pint  of  boiling  water;  when 
the  sugar  is  dissolved  and  hot,  put  in  fruit,  and  then  place  the  pan 
directly  on  the  stove  or  range  ;  let  boil  ten  minutes  or  longer  if  the 
fruit  is  not  clear,  gently  (or  the  berries  will  be  broken)  take  up  with 
a  small  strainer,  and  keep  hot  while  the  syrup  is  boiled  down  until 
thick  and  rich;  drain  off  the  thin  syrup  from  the  cans,  and  pour 
the  rich  syrup  over  the  berries  to  fill,  and  screw  down  the  tops  im« 
mediately.  The  thin  syrup  poured  off  may  be  brought  to  boiling, 
and  then  bottled  and  sealed,  to  be  used  for  sauces  and  drinks. 

Tomato  Preserves. 
Scald  and  peel  carefully  small  perfectly-formed  tomatoes,  not 
too  ripe  (yellow  pear-shaped  are  best),  prick  with  a  needle  to  pre- 
vent bursting,  add  an  equal  amount  of  sugar  by  weight,  let  lie  over 
night,  then  pour  off  all  juice  into  a  preserving-kettle,  and  boil  until 
it  is  a  thick  syrup,  clarifying  with  white  of  an  egg ;  add  tomatoes 
and  boil  carefnlly  until  they  look  transparent.  A  piece  or  two  of 
root-gingev,  or  one  lemon  to  a  pound  of  fruit  sliced  thin  and  cooked 
with  the  fruit,  may  be  added. 

Watermelon  Preserves. 
Pare  off  outside  green  rind,  cut  in  pieces  two  inches  long,  weigh, 
throw  into  cold  water,  skim  out,  add  a  heaping  tea-spoon  each  of 
salt  and  pulverized  aluin  to  two  gallons  of  rinds,  let  stand  until  salt 
and  alum  dissolve,  fill  the  kettle  with  cold  water,  and  place  on  top 
of  stove  where  it  will  slowly  come  to  boiling  point,  covering  with  a 
l&rge  plate  so  as  to  keep  rinds  under ;  boil  until  they  can  be  easily 
pierced  with  a  fork,  drain  them  from  the  water,  and  put  into  a  syrup 


250  PRESERVES, 

previoualy  prepared  as  follows :  Bruise  and  tie  in  a  muslin  bag  feur 
ounces  of  ginger-root,  and  boil  in  two  or  three  pints  of  water  until 
it  is  strongly  flavored.  At  the  same  time  boil  in  a  little  water 
until  tender,  in  another  pan,  three  or  four  sliced  lemons ;  make  a 
syrup  of  the  sugar  and  the  water  in  which  the  lemons  and  the  gin- 
ger-root were  boiled,  add  the  rinds  and  slices  of  lemon  to  this  and 
boil  slowly  half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  Citrons  may  be  pre- 
ixired  in  the  same  way,  by  paring,  coring  and  slicing,  or  cutting 
into  fanciful  shapes  with  tin  cuttera  made  for  the  purpose. 

Apple  Butter. 
Boil  one  barrel  of  new  cider  down  half,  peel  and  core  three 
bushels  of  good  cooking  apples ;  when  the  cider  has  boiled  to  half 
the  quantity,  add  the  apples,  and  when  soft,  stir  constantly  for 
from  eight  to  ten  hours.  If  done  it  will  adhere  to  an  inverted 
plate.  Put  away  in  stone  jars  (not  earthen  ware),  covering  first 
with  writing-paper  cut  to  fit  the  jar,  and  press  down  closely  upon 
the  apple  butter ;  cover  the  whole  with  thick  brown  paper  snugly 
tied  down. — Mm  SaraJi  Tlumison,  Delaware, 

Egg  Butter. 
Boil  a  pint  of  molasses  slowly  about  fifleen  or  twenty  minutes, 
stirring  to  prevent  burning,  add  three  eggs  well  beaten,  stirring 
them  in  as  fast  as  possible,  boil  a  few  minutes  longer,  partially  cool, 
and  flavor  to  taste  with  lemon. — Mrs.  Colbert,  Broadway. 

Lemon  Butter. 
Tea-cup  white  sugar,  three  eggs,  butter  the  size  of  half  an  egg, 
beat  well  together;  add  juice  and  grated  rind  of  one  large  lemon, 
place  in  a  pan  set  in  a  kettle  of  hot  water,  stir  well  until  thick. 
This  may  be  made  up  in  quantity,  kept  for  a  long  time  in  bottles 
or  jars,  and  used  as  needed  for  filling  tarts,  etc. 

PuMPkm  Butter. 
Take  tlie  seeds  out  of  one  pumpkin,  cut  in  small  pieces  and  boil 
eofl ;  take  three  other  pumpkins,  cut  them  in  pieces  and  boil  them 
soft,  put  them  in  a  coarse  bag  and  press  out  juice;  add  juice  to 
first  pumpkin,  and  let  boil  ten  hours  or  more,  to  become  of  the 
thickness  of  butter ;  stir  often.  If  the  pumpkms  are  frozen,  the 
juice  will  come  out  much  easier. 


PRESERVES.     '  251 

Pie-plant  Butter. 
Allow  one  pound  of  sugar  to  each  pound  of  peeled  and  cut  up 
rhubarb ;  let  the  rhubarb  and  sugar  simmer  gently  for  an  hour,  or 
more  if  the  rhubarb  is  old  and  tough.     This  is  a  nice  preserve,  and 
children  should  be  encouraged  to  eat  it  during  the  winter. 

Obange  Mabmalade. 
Twelve  pounds  sour  oranges,  twelve  pounds  crushed  sugar ;  wash 
the  oranges  and  pare  them  as  you  would  apples ;  put  the  peel  in  a 
porcelain-lined  kettle  with  twice  its  bulk  or  more  of  cold  water; 
keep  it  covered,  and  boil  until  perfectly  tender;  if  the  water  boila 
away,  add  more;  the  peel  is  generally  very  hard,  and  requires 
several  hours  boiling ;  cut  the  oranges  in  two  crosswise,  and  squeeze 
out  tlie  juice  and  the  soft  pulp,  have  a  pitcher  with  a  strainer  in  the 
top,  place  in  a  two-quart  bowl-,  squeeze  the  thin  juice  and  seeds  in 
the  strainer  and  th^  rest  with  the  pulp  in  the  bowl,  drawing  the 
skin  as  you  squeeze  it  over  the  edge  of  the  tin  strainer,  to  scrape  off 
the  pulp,  then  pour  all  the  juice  and  pulp  on  the  sugar ;  the  white 
Bkins  must  be  covered  with  three  quarts  of  cold  water,  and  boiled 
half  an  hour,  drain  the  water  on  the  sugar,  put  the  white  skins  in 
the  colander,  four  or  five  together,  and  pound  off  the  soft  part,  of 
which  there  must  be  in  all  two  pounds  and  four  ounces,  put  this  with 
the  sugar  and  juice ;  when  the  peel  is  tender  drain  it  from  the  water, 
ftiid  choose  either  of  these  three  modes :  Pound  it  in  a  mortar,  chop 
it  in  a  bowl,  or  cut  it  in  delicate  shreds  with  a  pair  of  scissors.    There 
is  still  another  way,  which  saves  the  necessity  of  handling  the  peel 
after  it  is  boiled ;  it  is  to  grate  the  yellow  rind  from  the  orange,  then 
tie  it  ill  a  muslin  bag,  and  boil  until  soft,  which  you  can  tell  by 
rubbing  a  little  of  it  between  the  thumb  and  finger ;  it  is  then  ready 
for  the  other  ingredients ;  put  the  whole  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  or  in 
a  bright  tin  preserving-pan,  and  boil  about  an  hour;  when  it  begins 
to  thicken  it  must  l)e  tried  occasionally,  by  letting  a  little  cool  in  a 
spoon  laid  on  ice.     To  prevent  its  burning,  pass  the  spoon  often  over 
the  bottom  of  the  kettle ;  when  it  is  thick  as  desired  put  it  in  tum- 
blers and  cover  with  paper. — Mrs,  Elizaheih  S.  MUler  in  "In  the 

Peach  Marmalade. 
Choose  ripe,  well-flavored  fruit,  and  it  is  well  to  make  with  pre- 


252  •  PRESERVES. 

serves,  reserving  for  marmalade  those  that  are  too  soft.  The  flavor 
is  improved  by  first  boiling  the  pits  in  the  water  with  which  the 
syrup  is  to  be  made.  Quarter  the  peaches  and  boil  thirty  minutes 
before  adding  sugar,  stirring  almost  constantly  from  the  time  the 
peaches  begin  to  be  tender;  add  sugar  in  the  proportion  of  three- 
fourths  pound  sugar  to  one  pound  fruit,  continue  to  boil  and  stir 
for  an  hour  longer,  and  put  up  in  jars,  pressing  paper  over  them  as 

directed  for  jellies. 

Quince  Mabmalade. 

Pare,  quarter  and  core  quinces,  cut  in  little  squares,  measure 
and  allow  an  equal  amount  of  sugar ;  place  the  fruit  in  a  porcelain 
kettle  with  just  water  enough  to  cover,  boil  till  tender,  and  skim 
out  carefully ;  make  a  syrup  of  the  sugar  and  the  water  in  which 
the  quinces  were  boiled,  let  come  te  boiling  point,  skim  well,  and 
drop  the  quinces  gently  in ;  boil  fifteen  minutes  and  dip  out  care- 
fully into  jelly-bowls  or  molds.  The  syrup  forms  a  jelly  around 
the  fruit  so  that  it  can  be  turned  out  on  a  dish,  and  is  very  palat- 
able as  well  as  ornamental.  In  this  way  quinces  too  defective  for 
preserves  may  be  used. — Mrs,  Mary  A,  Cooper, 

Dried  Apple  Sauce. 
Look  over,  wash  thoroughly  and  soak  fifteen  minutes  in  clean 

warm  water ;  drain,  cover  with  cold  soft  water,  place  on  the  stove, 
let  boil  slowly  two  to  four  hours,  mash  fine,  sweeten,  and  season 
with  cinnamon  very  highly.  Never  add  sugar  until  about  five  min- 
utes before  removing  from  the  stove,  otherwise  the  fruit  will  be  tough- 
ened and  hardened.  Follow  the  same  directions  in  preparing  dried 
peaches,  only  do  not  mash  or  season  so  highly.  Cook  in  porcelain, 
without  stirring.     A  few  raisins  added  improve  the  apple  sauce. 

Boiled  Cider  Apple  Sauce. 
Pare,  quarter  and  core  applas  sufiicient  to  fill  a  gallon  porcelain 

kettle,  put  in  it  a  half  gallon  boiled  cider,  let  it  boil.     Wash  the 

apples  and  put  in  kettle,  place  a  plate  over  them,  and  boil  steadily 

but  not  rapidly  until  they  are  thoroughly  cooked,  testing  by  taking 

one  from  under  the  edge  of  the  plate  with  a  fork.     Do  not  remove 

the  plate  until  done,  or  the  apples  will  sink  to  the  bottom  and 

burn.     Apples  may  be  cooked  in  sweet  cider  in  the  same  way.— 

Mrs.  W.  W.  W. 


PRESERVES.  253 

Preserved  Citron. 

Boil  the  citron  in  water  until  it  is  clear  and  soft  enough  to  be 
easily  pierced  with  a  fork ;  take  out,  put  into  a  nice  syrup  of  sugar 
and  water,  and  boil  until  the  sugar  has  penetrated  it.  Take  out 
and  spread  on  dishes  to  dry  slowly,  sprinkling  several  times  with 
powdered  sugar,  and  turning  until  it  is  dried  enough.  Pack  in 
jars  or  boxes  with  sugar  between  the  layers. — Mrs,  I.  N.  Beem, 
Bourion  0>.,  Ky. 

Tomato  Figs. 

Scald  and  skin  pear-shaped  (or  any  small-sized)  tomatoes,  and  to 
eight  pounds  of  them  add  three  pounds  brown  sugar ;  cook  without 
water  until  the  sugar  penetrates  and  they  have  a  clear  appearance, 
take  out,  spread  on  dishes,  and  dry  in  the  sun,  sprinkling  on  a  little 
syrup  while  drying ;  pack  in  jars  or  boxes,  in  layers  with  powdered 
sugar  between.  Thus  put  up  they  will  keep  for  any  length  of  time, 
and  are  nearly  equal  to  figs.  Peaches  may  be  preserved  in  the 
same  way. — Mrs.  John  Samuels,  Covington,  Ky. 

Dried  Currants  (or  Conserve). 

One  pint  sugar  to  a  pint  of  stemmed  ripe  currants ;  put  them 
together  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  a  layer  of  currants  at  the  bottom; 
^\iea  the  sugar  is  dissolved,  let  them  boil  one  or  two  minutes,  skim 
from  the  syrup,  and  spread  on  plates  to  dry  in  a  partly  cooled  oven. 
Boil  the  syrup  until  thickened,  pour  it  over  the  currants,  and  dry 
it  with  them.  Pack  in  jars  and  cover  closely.  Blackberries  may 
he  dried  in  the  same  manner.  An  economical  way  of  making  jelly 
is  to  boil  liquid,  skimming  well,  after  currants  are  taken  out,  until 
it  becomes  jelly,  and  then  put  away  in  jelly  glasses. — Mrs.  H.  A.,  Va. 

Pine-apple  Preserves. 

Wash  fruit,  and  boil  without  paring  until  tender;  take  out,  pare 
•nd  dice  lengthwise,  leaving  out  the  hard  center.  Pour  a  syrup 
(using  a  pound  of  sugar  to  one  of  fruit),  boiling  hot,  over  pine- 
apples, and  let  stand  until  the  next  morning.  Pour  off  syrup^ 
^il  until  nearly  thick  enough,  then  add  fruit,  and  boil  fifteen  or 
^wienty  minutes. 


PICKLES. 


In  making  pickles  use  none  but  the  best  cider  vinegar,  and  boil 
in  a  porcelain  kettle — ^never  in  metal.  A  lump  of  alum  size  of  a 
small  nutmeg,  to  a  gallon  of  cucumbers,  dissolved  and  added  to  the 
vinegar  when  scalding  the  pickles  the  first  time,  renders  them  crisp 
and  tender,  but  too  much  is  injurious.  Keep  in  a  dry,  cool  cellar, 
in  glass  or  stoneware ;  look  at  them  frequently  and  remove  all  soft 
ones ;  if  white  specks  appear  in  the  vinegar,  drain  off  and  scald, 
adding  a  liberal  handful  of  sugar  to  each  gallon,  and  pour  again 
over  the  pickles ;  bits  of  horee-radish  and  a  few  cloves  assist  in  pre* 
serving  the  life  of  the  vinegar.  If  put  away  in  large  stone  jars, 
invert  a  saucer  over  the  top  of  the  pickles,  so  as  to  keep  them  well 
under  the  vinegar.  The  nicest  way  to  put  up  pickles  is  bottling, 
sealing  while  hot,  and  keeping  in  a  cool,  dark  place.  Many 
think  that  mustard-seed  improves  pickles,  especially  chopped, 
bottled,  and  mangoes,  but  use  it,  as  well  as  horse-radish  and 
cloves,  sparingly.  Never  put  up  pickles  in  any  thing  that 
has  held  any  kind  of  grease,  and  never  let  them  freeze.  Use 
an  oaken  tub  or  cask  for  pickles  in  brine,  keep  them  well  under,  and 
have  more  salt  than  will  dissolve,  so  that  there  will  always  be  plenty 
at  the  bottom  of  the  cask.  The  brine  for  pickles  should  be  strong 
enough  to  bear  an  egg ;  make  it  in  the  proportion  of  a  heaping  pint 
of  coarse  salt  to  a  gallon  of  water.  Use  coarse  salt,  and  test  pickles 
by  tasting  before  putting  on  vinegar  (they  should  be  of  a  pleasant 
saltness) ;  if  not  salt  enough,  add  salt  to  brine  and  allow  them  to 
stand  until  they  have  acquired  the  proper  flavor ;  if  too  salt,  cover 
with  weak  vinegar,  and  let  stand  for  two  or  three  days,  drain,  add- 
ing strong  vinegar,  cither  hot  or  cold  according  to  recipes,  and  finish 
as  directed.  In  the  case  of  kegs  of  cucumbers  kept  in  brine  for 
a  long  time,  to  be  used  when  needed,  it  is  better  to  err  in  using  too 
much  salt,  as  this  may  be  corrected  by  adding  the  weak  vinegar, 
but  if  not  sufficiently  salted  the  pickles  will  be  insipid.     In  scalding 

(254) 


*■  • 


PICKLES,  255 

eacmnber  pickles  to  green  them,  some  use  cabbage  leaves,  covering 
bottom,  sides,  and  top  of  kettle.     A  medium  spicing  for  a  quart  of 
pickles  is  a  level  tea-spoon  of  peppercorns  (whole  black  peppers), 
the  same  of  allspice,  a  table-spoon  of  broken  stick  cinnamon,  half  a 
tearspoon  of  cloves,  mustard  seed,  or  horse-radish  chopped  fine,  and 
one  piece  of  ginger  root,  an  inch  long.     If  ground  cayenne  pepper 
is  used  instead  of  whole  peppers,  an  eighth  of  a  tea-spoon  is  enough. 
A  better  substitute  for  peppercorns  is  garden-peppers  cut  in  rings, 
in  proportion  of  two  rings  of  green  and  one  of  red  wfthout  seeds,  or 
a  level  tea-spoon,  when  finely  chopped,  to  a  quart  of  pickles.     These 
proportions  may  be  increased  or  decreased  to  suit  the  taste,  taking 
care  not  to  put  in  so  much  of  any  one  as  to  make  its  flavor  pre- 
dominate.    Ginger  is  the  most  wholesome  of  the  spices.     Cloves  are 
the  strongest,  mace  next,  then  allspice  and  cinnamon,  and,  of  course, 
less  of  the  stronger  should   be  used.     Pickles  are  not  famous  for 
wholesome  qualities,  even  when  made  with  the  greatest  care,  but  if 
they  must  be  eaten,  it  is  best  to  make  them  at  home.     Those  sold 
in  market  are  often  colored  a  beautiful  green  with  sulphate  of  cop- 
per, which  is  a  deadly  poison,  or  are  cooked  ih  brass  or  copper  ves- 
sels, which  produces  the  same  result  in  an  hidirect  w^ay.     Scalding 
or  parboiling  articles  to  be  pickled  makes  them  absorb  the  vinegar 
more  easily,  but  does  not  add  to  their  crij*pness.     Before  putting 
ihem  in  vinegar,  after  parboiling,  they  should  be  cold  and  'perfectly 
Jry.    Always  use  strong  vinegar,  or  the  pickles  will  be  insipid,  and 
it  should  be  scalding  hot  when  poured  on,  as  raw  vinegar  becomes 
ropy  and  does  not  keep  well.     As  heating  weakens  it,  vinegar  for 
pickles  should  be  very  strong^  and  should  only  be  brought  to  boiling 
^mt,  and  immediately  poured  on  pickles.     Keep  pickles  from  the 
&ir,  and  see  that  the  vinegar  is  at  least  two  inches  over  the  top  of 
pickles  in  the  jar.     A  dry  wooden  spoon  or  ladle  should  be  used  in 
lumdling  pickles,  and  is  the  only  one  that  should  touch  pickles  in  the 
jars.    If  the  vinegar  loses  its  strength  it  should  be  replaced  by  good, 
poured  over  scalding  hot.        

Pickled  Artichokes. 
Rub  off  outer  skin  with  a  coarse  towel,  and  lav  in  salt  water  for 
A  clay,  drain  and  pour  over  them  cold  spiced  vinegar,  adding  a  tea- 
spoonful  of  horw-radish  to  each  jar. 


256  PICKLES. 

Bean  Pickles. 

Pick  green  beaus  of  the  best  variety,  wlien  young  and  tender, 
string,  and  place  in  a  kettle  to  boil,  with  salt  to  taste,  until  they 
can  be  pierced  with  a  fork,  drain  well  through  a  colander,  put  in  a 
stone  jar,  sprinkle  with  cayenne  pepper,  and  cover  with  strong  cider 
vinegar;  sugar  may  be  added  if  desired. 

Bottled  Pickles. 

'  Wash  and  wipe  a  half  bushel  of  medium-sized  cucumbers,  suit- 
able for  pickling,  pack  close  in  a  stone  jar,  sprinkle  over  the  top  one 
pint  of  salt,  pour  over  a  sufficient  quantity  of  boiling  water  to  cover 
them,  place  a  cloth  over  the  jar,  and  let  stand  until  cold  (if  pre- 
pared in  the  evening,  let  stand  all  night),  drain  off  the  water,  and 
place  the  pickles  on  stove  in  cold  vinegar,  let  them  come  to  a  boil, 
take  out,  place  in  a  stone  jar,  and  cover  with  either  cold  or  hot 
vinegar.  They  will  be  ready  for  use  in  a  few  days,  and  are  excel- 
lent It  is  an  improvement  to  add  a  few  spices  and  a  small  quan- 
tity of  sugar. 

To  bottle  th6m,  prepare  with  salt  and  boiling  water  as  above, 
drain  (when  cold),  and  .place  a  gallon  at  a  time  on  a  stove  in  enough 
cold  vmegar  to  cover  level  (need  not  be  very  strong),  to  which  a 
lump  of  alum  about  the  size  of  a  small  hickory-nut  (too  much  is 
injurious)  has  been  added.  Have  on  stove,  in  another  kettle,  a 
gallon  of  the  very  best  cider  vinegar,  to  which  add  half*  a  pint  of 
brown  sugar ;  have  bottles  cleansed  and  placed  to  heat  on  stove  in 
a  large  tin-pan  of  cold  water;  also  have  a  tin  cup  or  small  pan 
of  sealing-wax  heated ;  on  table,  have  spices  prepared  in  separate 
dishes,  as  follows:  Green  and  red  peppers  sliced  in  rings;  horse- 
radish roots  washed,  scraped,  and  cut  in  small  pieces,  black  and 
yellow  mustard  seed  (or  this  may  be  left  out),  each  prepared  by 
sprinkling  with  salt  and  pouring  on  some  boiling  water,  which  let 
stand  fifteen  minutes  and  then  draw  off;  stick  cinnamon  washed  free 
from  dust,  and  broken  in  pieces,  and  a  few  cloves.  When  pickles 
come  to  boiling  point,  take  out  and  pack  in  bottles,  mixing  with  them 
the  spices  (use  the  cloves,  horse-radish  and  mustard  seed,  sparingly); 
put  in  a  layer  of  pickles,  then  a  layer  of  spices,  shaking  the  bot- 
tles occasionally  so  as  to  pack  tightly ;  when  Aill  cover  with  the 


PICKLES.  257 

boQing  hot  yinegar  from  the  other  kettle  (using  a  bright  ftmnel  and 
bright  tin  cup),  going  over  them  a  second  time  and  filling  up,  in 
order  to  supply  shrinkage,  for  the  pickles  must  be  entirely  cov- 
ered with  the  vinegar.  Put  in  the  corks,  which  should  fit  very 
^ugly^  li^  ^^^^  bottle  (wrap  a  towel  around  it  to  prevent  burn- 
ing the  hands),  and  dip  the  corked  end  into  the  hot  sealing-wax; 
proceed  in  this  manner  with  each  bottle,  dipping  each  a  second 
time  into  the  wax  so  that  they  may  be  perfectly  secure.  If  corks 
seem  too  small,  throw  them  in  boiling  water ;  if  too  large,  pound 
the  sides  with  a  hammer.  The  tighter  they  fit  in  the  bottles  the 
better  for  the  pickles.  Glass  cans,  the  tops  or  covers  of  which  have 
become  defective,  can  be  used  by  supplying  them  with  corks. 
Pickles  thus  bottled  are  far  more  wholesome  than,  and  are  really 
superior  to,  the  best  brand  of  imported  pickles,  and,-  by  having 
materials  in  readiness,  prepared  as  directed,  the  process  is  neither 
difficult  nor  tedious.  It  requires  two  persons  to  successfully  bot- 
tle pickles. — Mrs.  Florence  W.  Hush,  Minneapolis. 

Chow  Chow  Pickles. 
Let  two  hundred  small  cucumbers  stand  in  salt  and  water  closely 
covered  for  three  days.  Boil  for  fifteen  minutes  in  half  a  gallon 
best  cider  vinegar,  one  ounce  white  mustard  seed,  one  of  black 
mustard  seed,  one  of  juniper  berries,  one  of  celery  seed  (tying  each 
ounce  separately  in  swiss  bags),  one  handful  small  green  peppers, 
two  pounds  sugar,  a  few  small  onions,  and  a  piece  alum  half  the 
size  of  a  nutmeg ;  pour  the  vinegar  while  hot  over  the  cucumbers, 
let  stand  a  day,  repeating  the  operation  three  or  four  mornings. 
Mix  one-fourth  pound  mustard  with  the  vinegar,  pour  over  cucum- 
bers, and  seal  up  in  bottles. — 3{rs.  Ada  Estelle  Bever. 

Chow  Chow. 

One  peck  of  green  tomatoes,  half  peck  string  beans,  quarter  peck 

small  white  onion?,  quarter  pint  green  and  red  peppers  mixed,  two 

large  heads  cabbage,  four  table-spoons  white  mustard  seed,  two  of 

white  or  black  cloves,  two  of  celery  seed,  two  of  allspice,  one  small 

box  yellow  mustard,  pound  brown  sugar,  one  ounce  of  turmeric;  slice 

the  tomatoes  and  let  stand  over  night  in  brine  that  will  bear  an 

%;  then  squeeze  out  brine,  chop  cabbage,  onions  and  beans,  chop 
1? 


268  PICKLES. 

tomatoes  separately,  mix  with  the  spices,  put  all  in  porcelain  ktsttle 
cover  with  vinegar,  and  boil  three  hours. 

CaUUPLOWER  rtCKLES. 

Choose  such  as  are  fine  and  of  full  size,  cut  away  all  th«  leaves, 
and  pull  away  the  flowers  by  bunches;  soak  ix,  brine  that  will  float 
an  egg  for  two  days,  drain,  put  in  bottles  with  whole  black  pepper, 
allspice,  and  stick  cinnamon ;  boil  vinega*-,  and  with  it  mix  mustard 
smoothly,  a  little  at  a  time  and  just  tiiick  enough  to  run  into  the 
jars,  pour  over  the  cold  cauliflow^  and  seal  while  hot.  An  equal 
quantity  or  less  of  small  white  cuions,  prepared,  as  directed  in  recipe 
for  onion  pickles,  may  be  ad<Ied  before  the  vinegar  is  poured  over. 

C^hERY  Pickles. 

Put  together  in  a  powselain-lined  kettle  two  quarts  chopped  white 
cabbage,  two  quarts  chopped  celery,  three  quarts  vinegar,  half  ounce 
each  of  crushed  waite  ginger  root  and  turmeriCj  fourth  pound  white 
mustard  seed,  two  table-spoons  salt,  five  of  sugar;  cook  slowly  sev- 
eral hours  UKiil  cabbage  and  celery  are  tender. 

Cucumber  Pickles. 
Cover  /\iP.  bottom  of  cask  with  common  salt ;  gather  the  cucum- 
bers everr  other  day,  early  in  the  morning  or  late  in  the  evenings 
as  i^  does  not  injure  the  vines  so  much  then  as  in  the  heat  of  the 
day ;  cut  the  cucumbers  with  a  short  piece  of  the  stem  on,  carefully 
'laying  them  in  a  basket  or  pail  so  as  not  to  bruise ;  pour  cold  water 
over  and  rinse,  beuig  careful  not  to  rub  off*  the  little  black  briers,  or 
in  any  way  to  bruise  them,  as  that  is  the  secret  of  keeping  them 
perfectly  sound  and  good  for  any  length  of  time.  Lay  them  in  a 
^jask  three  or  four  inches  deep,  cover  with  salt,  and  repeat  the 
operation  until  all  are  in  ;  pour  in  some  water  with  the  first  layer— 
ifter  this  the  salt  will  make  sufficient  brine.  Now  spread  a  doth 
over  them,  then  a  board  with  a  stone  on.it  When  a  new  supply 
of  cucumbers  is  to  be  added,  remove  stone,  board  and  cloth,  wash 
them  very  clean,  and  wipe  every  particle  of  scum  from  the  top  of 
the  pickles  and  the  sides  of  the  cask;  throw  away  any  sofl  ones, 
as  they  will  spoil  the  rest;  now  put  in  the  fresh  cucumbers,  layer 
by  layer,  with  salt  to  cover  each  layer.  Wh^  cask  is  nearly  full, 
cover  with  salt,  tuck  cloth  closely  around  the  edges,  placing  the 
boai'd  and  weight  on  top;  cover  cask  closely,  and  the  pickles  will  be 


P1CKLE&  259 

perfect  for  two  or  three  years.  Cucumbers  must  always  be  put  in 
the  salt  as  soon  as  picked  from  the  vines,  for  if  they  lie  a  day  or 
two  they  will  not  keep.  Do  not  be  alarmed  at  the  heavy  scum 
that  rises  on  them,  but  be  careful  to  wash  all  off  the  board  and 
cloth.  When  wanted  for  pickling,  take  off  weight  and  board,  care- 
iiilly  lift  cloth  with  scum  on  it,  wash  stone,  board  and  cloth  clean, 
and  wipe  all  scum  off  the  cucumbers  and  sides  of  cask,  take  out 
as  many  as  are  wanted,  return  the  cloth,  board  and  weight,  nnd 
cover  closely.  Place  the  cucumbers  in  a  vessel  large  enough  to 
hold  two  or  three  times  as  much  water  as  there  are  pickles,  cover 
with  cold  water  (some  use  hot),  change  the  water  each  day  for  three 
days,  place  the  porcelain  kettle  on  the  fire,  fiU  half  full  of  vine- 
gar (if  vinegar  is  very  strong  add  half  water),  fill  nearly  full  of 
cucumbers,  the  largest  first  and  then  the  smaller  ones,  put  in  a 
lump  of  alum  the  size  of  a  nutmeg,  let  come  to  a  boil,  stirring  with 
a  wire  or  wooden  spoon  so  as  not  to  cut  the  cucumbers ;  after  boil- 
ing one  minute,  take  out,  place  in  a  stone  jar,  and  continue  until 
all  are  scalded,  then  pour  over  them  cold  vinegar.  In  two  or  three 
days,  if  the  pickles  are  too  salt,  turn  off  the  vinegar  and  put  on 
fresh,  add  a  pint  of  brown  sugar  to  each  two  gallons  pickles,  a  pod 
or  two  of  red  pepper,  a  very  few  cloves,  and  some  pieces  of  horse- 
ladish.     The  horse-radish  prevents  a  white  scum  from  rising. 

Choppkd  Pickles. 

Take  a  peck  green  ton^atoes,  wash  clean,  cut  away  a  small  piece 
from  each  end,  slice  inul  place  in  a  large  wooden  bowl,  chop  fine, 
place  in  a  crock  and  mix  salt  with  them  (half  pint  to  a  peck),  let 
stand  twenty -four  hours,  and  drain  thoroughly ;  take  twice  or  three 
times  ao  much  cabbage  as  there  is  chopped  tomatoes,  chop  fine,  mix 
salt  in  same  proportions,  add  enough  water  to  make  moist,  and  let 
stand  same  time  as  tomat>pes;  drain,  place  again  in  separate  jars, 
cover  each  with  cold  weak  vinegar;  after  twenty-four  hours  drain  cab- 
bage well,  pressing  hard  to  extract  all  the  juice;  place  tomatoes  and 
the  vinegar  in  a  porcelain  kettle  and  let  them  boil  for  three  minutes, 
stirring  all  the  time,  pour  out,  and  when  cold,  place  in  a  towal 
and  wring  and  press  until  perfectly  dry;  now  mix  tomatoes  and 
cabbage  together,  take  a  double  handful  at  a  time,  squeeze  as  tightly 
as  pussible,  and  place  in  a  dry  crock ;  take  the  stone  jar  in  which 


260  PICKLES. 

thej  are  to  be  pickled,  place  in  it  a  layer  of  tomatoes  and  cab> 
bage,  scatter  over  with  chopped  peppers,  whole  mustard  seed,  and 
horse-radish,  then  another  layer  of  tx^matoes  and  cabbage,  next  spice, 
and  so  on  until  jar  is  almost  full,  occasionally  sprinkling  with  cay- 
enne pepper;  cover  with  strong  cider  vinegar,  to  each  gallon  of 
which  a  tea-cup  of  sugar  has  been  added.  Place  a  saucer  or  pieces 
of  broken  china  on  the  pickles  to  keep  them  under  the  vinegar.  If 
;i  white  scum  rises,  drain  off  vinegar,  boil,  skim,  and  pour  hot  over 
the  pickles.  Prepare  mustard,  peppers,  and  horse-radish,  as  follows  f 
Take  three  green  or  ripe  garden  peppers  (four  table-spoons  when 
chopped),  cut  in  two,  place  in  salt  water  over  night,  the  next  morn- 
ing drain  and  chop  quite  fine ;  to  two  table-spoons  mustard-seed  add 
salt-spoon  salt,  pour  in  boiling  water,  let  stand  fifteen  minutes  and 
drain ;  two  table-spoons  horse-radish  chopped  fine.  Tomatoes  and 
onions  are  excellent  prepared  in  the  same  way.  For  sliced  pickles, 
take  cucumbers  and  onions,  or  tomatoes  and  onions,  and  slice  and 
prepare  as  above. — Mrs.  W.  W.  W. 

Manoobs. 
Select  green  or  half  grown  muskmelons;  remove  a  piece  the 
length  of  the  melon,  an  inch  and  a  half  wide  in  the  middle  and 
tapering  to  a  point  at  each  end ;  take  out  seeds  with  a  tea-spoon, 
secure  one  end  of  each  piece  to  its  own  melon  by  a  stitch  made  with 
a  needle  and  white  thread.  Make  a  brine  of  salt  and  cold  water 
strong  enough  to  float  an  eg^,  pour  it  over  them,  and  after  twenty- 
four  hours  take  them  out.  For  filling,  use  chopped  tomatoes  and 
chopped  cabbage  prepared  as  in  "Chopped  Pickles,"  small  cucum- 
bers, small  white  onions,  and  nasturtium  pods,  each  prepared  by 
remaining  in  salt  water  in  separate  jars  twenty-four  hours;  add  also 
reeii  beans  boiled  in  salt  water  until  tender.  For  spice,  use  cin- 
namon-bark, whole  cloves,  chopped  horse-radish,  cayenne  pepper, 
mustard  seed,  the  latter  prepared  as  directed  in  "  Chopped  Pickles.* 
Prepare  three  or  four  times  as  much  cabbage  and  tomatoes  as  of 
other  articles,  as  any  part  left  over  may  be  placed  in  jar  with  vin- 
^|;ar  poured  over,  and  is  ready  for  the  table.  Use  one,  or,  if  small, 
two  cucumbers,  two  or  three  onions,  and  the  same  quantity  of  bean 
and  nasturtium  pods,  placing  them  in  mango  first,  with  two  or  three 


PICKLES.  261 

doves,  three  or  foui:  sticks  of  cinuamou  an  inch  long,  and  half  a 
tea-spoon  horse-radish,  and  filling  up  afterward  with  the  chopped 
cabbage  or  tomatoes  (mixing,  or  using  them  separately  in  alternate 
melons)  pressing  down  very  firmly,  so  that  the  mango  is  filled  tight, 
sprinkling  on  the  cayenne  pepper  last.  Sew  in  the  piece  all  around 
in  its  proper  place  with  strong  white  thread;  when  all  are  thus 
prepared,  place  in  a  stone  crock,  cover  with  weak  cider-vinegar,  let 
remain  over  night;  in  the  morning  place  the  mangoes,  and  the 
vinegar  in  which  they  were  soaked,  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  boil  half 
an  hour,  place  in  a  jar,  cover  with  good  strong  cider  vinegar,  let 
stand  all  night ;  in  the  morning  drain  ofi*  vinegar  and  boil  it,  add- 
ing one  pint  of  sugar  to  each  gallon,  and  pour  boiling  hot  over  the 
mangoes ;  drain  off  and  boil  the  vinegar  three  or  four  times,  and 
they  are  done.  This  is  not  the  usual  way  of  preparing  mangoes, 
but  it  is  much  the  best.  To  pickle  nasturtiums,  soak  as  collected  in 
salt  and  water  for  twenty-four  hours,  drain,  and  put  into  cold  viii* 
egar ;  when  all  the  seed  is  thus  prepared,  drain,  and  cover  with 
fresh  boiling-hot  vinegar. 

Peach  Mangoes. 

Take  un pared,  fine,  large  peaches  (free-stones);  with  a  knife 
extract  the  stone  from  the  side,  place  in  jar,  pour  over  them  boiling 
water  salted  to  taste,  let  sttmd  twenty-four  hours ;  drop  into  fresh 
cold  water  and  allow  to  remain  ten  or  fifteen  minutes ;  wipe  very 
dry,  fill  each  cavity  with  grated  horse-radish  and  white  mustard- 
seed  (prepared  aS' directed  in  recipe  for  **  Chopped  Pickles),  a  small 
piece  of  ginger-root,  and  one  or  two  cloves;  sew  up,  and  place 
in  a  stone  jar  as  close  together  as  possible.  Make  a  syrup  in  pro- 
portion of  one  pint  sugar  to  three  pints  vinegar;  pour,  boiling  hot, 
over  them.     They  will  be  ready  for  use  in  a  week,  and  are  verv 

fine.  /-Jf^ 

French  Pickles.  V 

One  peck  green  tomatoes  sliced,  six  large  onions  sliced;  mix 

these  and  throw  over  them  one  tea-cup  of  salt,  and  let  them  stai  I 

over  night ;  next  day  drain  thoroughly  and  boil  in  one  quart  vij^*  * 

gar  mixed  with  two  quarts  of  water,  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes. 

Then  take  four  quarts   vinegar,    two  pounds    brown  sugar,   half 

pound  white  mustard-seed,  two  table-spoons  ground  allspice,  and  the 


262  .  PICKLES. 

same  of  cinnamon,  doves,  ginger,  and  ground  mustard ;  tlirow  all  to- 
gether and  boU  fifteen  minutes. — Mrs.  Wm.  Mappirif  Mason  Co.,  Ky. 

Pickled  Onions. 
Select  small  silver-skinned  onions,  remove  with  a  knife  all  the 
outer-skins,  so  that  each  onion  will  be  perfectly  white  and  clean. 
Put  them  into  brine  that  will  float  an  egg  for  three  days,  drain, 
[)lace  in  jar,  first  a  layer  of  onions  three  inches  deep,  then  a  sprink- 
ling of  horse-radish,  cinnamon  bark,  cloves,  and  a  UiJUe  cayenne 
pepper;  repeat  until  jar  is  filled,  in  proportion  of  half  a  tea-epoon 
cayenne  pepper,  two  tea-spoons  each  chopped  horse-radish  and  cloves, 
and  four  table-spoons  cinnamon  bark,  to  a  gallon  of  pickles;  bring 
vinegar  to  boiling  point;  add  brown  sugar  in  the  proportion  of  a 
quart  to  a  gallon,  and  pour  hot  over  the  onions. — EsAelk  Woods 

Wilcox. 

Piccalilli. 

One  large  white  cabbage,  fif^y  small  cucumbers,  five  quarts  smal> 
string-beans,  eight  small  carrots,  one  dozen  sticks  celery,  five  red 
peppers,  three  green  peppers,  two  heads  cauliflower;  chop  fine, 
soak  over  night  in  salt  and  water,  wash  well,  drain  thoroughly,  and 
pour  over  them  hot  vinegar  spiced  with  mace,  cinnamon  and  all- 
spice; turn  ofl*  vinegar  and  scald  until  safe  to  leave  like  common 
pickles;  or  seal  in  can  while  hot. — Mrs.  W.  L. 

Pyfer  Pickles. 
Salt  pickles  down  dry  for  ten  days,  soak  in  fresh  water  one  day ; 
pour  off"  watei",  place  in  porcelain  kettle,  cover  with  water  and  vin% 
egar,  and  ad(^l  a  tea-spoon  pulverized  alum  (to  each  gallon) ;  set 
over  night  on  a  stove  which  had  fire  in  during  the  day;  wash  and 
put  in  a  jar  with  cloves,  allspice,  pepper,  horse-radish  and  onions  or 
jxarlic  ;  boil  fresh  vinegar  and  pour  over  all ;  in  two  weeks  they  will 
*-M)e  ready  for  u?«e.  These  pickles  are  always  fresh  and  crisp,  and  are 
made  with  much  less  trouble  than  in  the  old-fashioned  way  by 
keeping  in  hrm^.— Mrs.  E.  M.  R. 

Pickled  Peppers. 
*I'ake  large  green  ones  (the  best  variety  is  the  sweet  pepper)^ 
make  a  small  incision  at  the  side,  take  out  all  the  seeds,  being  care* 
ful  not  to  mangle  the  peppers;  soak^in  brine  that  will  float  an  egg 


fli 


PICKLES,  263 

for  two  days,  changing  water  twice ;  stuff  with  chopped  cabbage,  or 

tomatoes  seasoned  with  spice  as  for  mangoes  (omitting  the  cayenne 

pepper),  or  a  mixture  of  nasturtiums,  chopped  onions,  red  cabbage, 

grapes,  and  cucumbers,  seasoned  with   mustard-seed  and  a  little 

mace.      Sew  up  incision,  place  in  jar,  and  cover  with  cold-spiced 

vinegar. 

Spanish  Pickles. 

One  dozen  cucumbers,  four  heads  of  cabbage,  one  peck  green 
tomatoes,  one  dozen  ouions,  three  ounces  white  mustard-seed,  one 
ounce  celery  seed,  one  ounce  turmeric,  one  box  Coleman's  mustard, 
two  and  a  half  pounds  brown  sugar.  Let  the  cucumbers  stand  in 
brine  that  will  float  an  eg'g  three  days ;  slice  the  onions,  and  chop 
cabbage  and  tomatoes,  the  day  before  making,  and  spruikle  with 
salt  in  the  proportion  of  half  pint  to  a  peck.  When  ready  to  make, 
squeeze  brine  out  of  cucumbers,  wipe  them  off,  peel  and  cut  them  in 
slices,  let  all  simmer  slowly  in  a  kettle  together  for  half  an  hour, 
and  then  bottle.— 

BiPE  Tomato  Pickles. 
Pare  ripe,  sound  tomatoes  (do  not  scald),  put  in  a  jar;  scald 
spices  (tied  in  a  bag)  in  vinegar,  and  pour  while  hot  over  them. 
This  recipe  is  best  for  persons  who  prefer  raw  tomatoes. 

Variety  Pickles. 
One  peck  each  of  green  tomatoes  and  cucumbers,  and  one  quart 
onions ;  pare,  slice  and  salt  (using  a  rounded  half  pint  for  all)  each 
in  separate  jars,  letting  them  stand  in  the  salt  twenty-four  hours, 
and  drain  well,  wringing  and  pressing  in  a  cloth ;  sprinkle  fresh 
green  radish-pods  and  nasturtium  seeds  with  salt,  and  let  stand  for 
the  same  length  of  time ;  boil  in  water  salted  to  taste  two  quarts  of 
half-grown,  very  tender  bean  pods,  until  they  can  be  pierced  with  a 
silver  fork,  take  out  and  drain.  Now  place  each  in  a  separate  jar, 
cover  with  cold,  weak  vinegar  for  twenty-four  hours,  drain  well, 
pressing  hard  to  get  out  all  the  juice,  cook  tomatoes  as  in  "Chopped 
Pickles,"  and  then  mix  all  well  together.  In  a  stone  jar  place 
first  a  layer  of  the  mixture,  sprinkle  with  mustard  seed  (prepared 
as  directed  in  recipe  for  "Chopped  Pickles),"  horse-radish  chopped 
fine,  cinnamon  bark,  rings  of  garden  peppers,  and  a  few  cloves,  then 


264  PICKLES. 

another  layer  of  the  mixture,  then  the  spice  with  a  light  sprink* 
ling  of  cayenne  pepper.  The  spices  used  for  this  amount  are 
nine  table-spoons  stick  cinnamon,  four  and  a  half  tea-spoons  each 
of  mustard-seed,  cloves,  and  horse-radish,  and  twenty-seven  rings 
of  garden  peppers.  Cover  with  good  cider  vinegar,  let  stand 
over  night,  drain  off  vinegar,  and  boil  in  a  porcelain  kettle,  add* 
iHg  brown  sugar  in  the  proportion  of  one  pint  to  a  gallon  of  vin- 
egar ;  skim  well,  pour  hot  over  the  pickles,  continue  to  drain  off 
and  boil  for  several  days.  If  not  sweet  enough,  add  more  sugar^ 
although  these  are  not  intended  for  sweet  pickles.  The  proportion 
of  cucumbers  may  be  double  or  even  three  times  the  quantity  of 
tomatoes  if  desired. — Mrs.  W,  W,  Wood^. 

Virginia  Mixed  Pickle. 
One-half  peck  green  tomatoes,  twenty-five  medium-sized  cucum- 
bers, fifteen  large  white  onions,  one-half  peck  sraafl  onions,  four 
heads  cabbages,  one  pint  grated  horse-radish,  one-half  pound  white 
mustard-seed,  one-fourth  pound  ground  mustard,  one-half  tea-cup 
ground  black  pepper,  one-half  pint  salad  oil,  one  ounce  celery  seed, 
one-half  ounce  ground  cinnamon,  two  ounces  turmeric.  Slice  the 
tomatoes  and  large  onions,  cut  cabbage  as  for  slaw,  quarter  cucum- 
bers 'engthwise,  cut  in  pieces  two  inches  long,  leaving  the  peel  on, 
and  add  the  small  onions  whole.  Mix  with  salt  thoroughly,  let 
stand  twenty-four  hours;  drain  off  the  juice,  and  pour  vinegar  and 
water  over  pickles.  Let  stand  a  day  or  two,  strain  again  as  dry  as 
p<\ssible;  mix  the  spices  well  except  the  ground  mustard,  then  boil 
one  and  one-half  gallons  fresh  apple  vinegar  and  pour  boiling  hot 
over  the  pickles;  do  this  three  mornings  in  succession,  using  the 
same  vinegar  each  time.  The  third  time  add  one  pound  of  sugar  to 
the  vinegar  and  boil,  pouring  over  as  above ;  also  mix  the  oil  and 
ground  mustard  together  with  a  small  portion  of  the  vinegar,  and 
add  when  cold.     Oil  can  be  omitted  if  not  relished.  —Mn.  M.  B. 

Sperry,  NaakirUley  Tenn. 

Pickled  Walnuts. 

Grather  walnuts  (or  butternuts)  when  soft  enough  to  be  pierced 

by  a   needle  (July),  prick  each  with  a  large  needle  well  through, 

holding  in  a  cloth  to  avoid  staining  the  hands,  cover  with  strong 

salt  water  (a  pint  and  a  half  salt  to  a  gallon  of  water),  let  stand  two 


SWEET  PICKLES.  265 

or  three  days,  changing  the  brine  every  day ;  then  pour  over  them 
a  brine  made  by  dissolving  salt  in  boiling  water  (let  it  get  cold  be- 
fore using),  let  stand  three  days,  renew  the  brine  and  let  it  stand 
for  three  days  more.  Now  drain  and  expose  to  the  sun  for  two  or 
three  days  or  until  they  become  black,  or  put  in  cold  water  for  half 
a  day,  and  pack  in  jars  not  quite  full.  The  proportions  are  a  hun- 
dred walnuts  to  each  gallon  of  vinegar.  Boil  vinegar  eight  min- 
utes, with  a  tea-cup  sugar,  three  dozen  each  whole  cloves  and  allspice, 
'a  dozen  and  a  half  pepper-corns,  and  a  dozen  blades  of  mace.  Pour 
the  vinegar  over  the  walnuts  scalding  hot.  In  three  days  draw 
off  the  vinegar,  boil  and  pour  over  the  walnuts  again  iifhile  hot,  and 
at  end  of  three  days  repeat  the  process.  They  will  be  fit  to  eat  in 
a  month,  and  will  keep  for  years. — Mrs.  C.  T.  Carson. 


SWEET  PICKLES. 


Sweet  pickles  maybe  made  of  any  fruit  that  can  be  preserved^ 
including  the  rinds  of  ripe  melons  and  cucumbers.  The  proportion 
of  sugar  to  vinegar  for  syrup  is  three  pints  to  a  quart.  Sweet  pick- 
les may  be  made  of  any  preserve  by  boiling  over  the  syrup  and 
adding  spices  and  vinegar.  Examine  frequently,  and  re-scald  the 
syrup  if  there  are  signs  of  fermentation.  Fiums  and  other  smootb- 
skinned  fruits  should  be  well  pricked  before  cooking.  The  principal 
spices  for  sweet  pickles  are  cinnamon  and  cloves.  Use  *'  coffee  C,** 
best  brown,  or  good  stirred  maple  sugar. 


Sweet  Pickled  Beets, 
Boil  them  in  a  porcelain  kettle  till  they  can  be  pierced  with  a 
silver  fork ;  when  cool  cut  lengthwise  to  size  of  a  medium  cucum- 
ber; boil  equal  parts  vinegar  and  sugar  with  half  a  table-spoon 
ground  cloves  tied  in  a  cloth  to  each  gallon  ;  pour  boiling  hot  over 
the  beets. — Mh.  Samuel  Woods 

Pickled  Cucumbeks. 
Prepare  and  quarter  ripe  cucumbers,  take  out  seeds,  clean,  lay 
in  brine  that  will  float  an  egg  nine  days,  stirring  eveiy  day,  take 


266  SWEET  PICKLES, 

out  and  put  in  clear  water  one  day,  lay  in  alum-water  (a  lump  of 
alum  size  of  a  medium  hulled  hickory-nut  to  a  gallon  of  water) 
over  night,  make  syrup  of  a  pint  good  cider  vinegar,  pound  brown 
sugar^  two  table-spoons  each  broken  cinnamon  bark,  mace,  and 
pepper  grains;  make  sjrrup  (three  pints  of  sugar  to  a  quart  of  vin- 
egar) enough  to  cover  the  slices,  lay  them  in,  and  cook  till  tender. 

— Mrs,  M,  L,  France. 

Currant  Pickles. 

Scald  seven  pounds  ^ipe  currants  in  three  pounds  sugar  and  one 

quart  vinegar,  remove  currants  to  jar,  boil  for  a  few  moments  and 

pour  over  the  fruit.     Some  add  three  pounds  of  raisins  and  spices. 

If  not  sweet  enough,  use  only  one  pint  vinegar. 

Pickled  Grapes. 
Fill  a  jar  with  alternate  layers  of  sugar  and  bunches  of  nice 
grapes  just  ripe  and  freshly  gathered ;  fill    one-third  full  of  good 
cold  vinegar,  and  cover  tightly. — Mrs,  C.  T  Car&m. 

Spiced  Grapes. 
Five  pounds  grapes,  three  of  sugar,  two  tea-spoons  cinnamon  and 
allspice,  half  tea-spoon  cloves ;  pulp  grapes,  boil  skins  until  tender, 
cook  pulps  and  strain  through  a  sieve,  add  it  to  the  skins,  put  in 
sugar,  spices  and  vinegar  to  taste ;  boil  thoroughly  and  cool.— ;M» 
Mae  Stokes,  Milord  Center, 

Spiced  Gooseberries. 
Leave  the  stem  and  blossom  on  ripe  gooseberries,  wash  dean; 
make  a  syrup  of  three  pints  sugar  to  one  of  vinegar,  skim,  if  neces- 
sary, add  berries  and  boil  down  till  thick,  adding  more  sugar  if 
needed ;  when  almost  done,  spice  with  cinnamon  and  cloves ;  boil 
as  thick  as  apple  butter. 

Spiced  Nutmeg  Melon. 
Select  melons  not  quite  ripe,  open,  scrape  out  the  pulp,  peel,  and 
slice;  put  the  fruit  in  a  stone  jar,  and,  for  five  pounds  fruit,  take  a 
quart  vinegar,  and  two  and  a  half  pounds  sugar ;  scald  vinegar  and 
sugar  together,  and  pour  over  the  fruit ;  sci^  the  syrup  and  pour 
over  the  fruit  each  day  for  eight  successive  days.  On  the  ninth, 
add  one  ounce  stick-cinnamoni  one  of  whole  doves,  and  one  of  all- 


1 


SWEET  PICKLES,  267 

spice.  Scald  fruit,  vinegar  and  spices  together,  and  seal  up  in  jars. 
This  pickle  should  stand  two  or  three  months  before  using.  Blue 
plums  are  delicious  prepared  in  this  way. — Mrs,  Oen.  Nayes, 

Peach  Pickles. 
Pare  freeetone  peaches,  place  in  a  stone  jar,  and  pour  over  them 
boiling-hot  syrup  made  in  the  proportion  of  one  quart  best  cider 
vinegar  to  three  pints  sugar;  boil  and  skim,  and  pour  over  the 
fruit  boiling  hot,  repeating  each  day  until  the  fruit  is  the  same 
color  to  the  center,  and  the  syrup  like  thin  molasses.  A  few  days 
before  they  are  finished,  place  the  fruit,  after  draining,  in  the  jar  to 
the  depth  of  three  or  four  inches,  then  sprinkle  over  bits  of  cinna- 
mon b»rk  and  a  few  cloves,  add  another  layer  of  fruit,  then  spice, 
and  so  on  until  the  jar  is  full;  scald  the  syrup  each  morning  for 
three  jr  four  days  after  putting  in  the  spice,  and  pour  syrup  boiling 
hot  over  fruit,  and,  if  it  is  not  sufficiently  cooked,  scald  fruit  with 
the  syrup  the  last  time.  The  proportion  of  spices  to  a  gallon  of 
fruit  is,  two  tea-spoons  whole  cloves,  four  table-spoons  cinnamon. 
To  pickle  clingstones,  prepare  syrup  as  for  freestones ;  pare  fruit, 
put  in  the  syrup,  boil  until  they  can  be  pierced  through  with  a 
silver  fork ;  skim  out,  place  in  jar,  pour  the  boiling  sjrrup  over 
them,  and  proceed  and  finish  as  above.  As  clings  are  apt  to  be« 
come  hard  when  stewed  in  sweet  syrup,  it  may  often  be  necessary 
Id  add  a  pint  of  water  the  first  time  they  are  cooked,  watching 
carefully  until  they  are  tender,  or  to  use  only  part  of  the  sugar  at 
first,  adding  the  rest  in  a  day  or  two.  Use  the  large  White  Heath 
lilingstones  if  they  are  to  be  had.  All  that  is  necessary  to  keep 
iweet  pickles  is  to  have  syrup  enough  to  cover,  and  to  keep  the 
fruit  well  under.  Scald  with  boiling  syrup  until  fruit  is  of  same 
K)lor  throughout,  and  syrup  like  thin  molasses ;  watch  every  week, 
particularly  if  weather  is  warm,  and  if  scum  rises  and  syrup  assumes 
%  whitish  appearance,  boil,  skim,  and  pour  over  the  fruit.  If  at 
any  time  syrup  is  lacking,  prepare  more  as  at  first. — Mn.  M.  J,  TFoods. 

Pear  Pickles. 
Prepare  syrup  as  for  peaches,  pare  and  cut  fruit  in  halves,  or 
quarters  if  very  large^i^nd  if  small  leave  whole,  put  syrup  in  porce- 
lain kettle,  and  when  it  boils  put  in  fruit,  cook  until  a  silver  fork 


268  SWEET  PICKLES. 

will  easily  pierce  them ;   skim  out  fruit  first  apd  place  in  jar,  and 

last  pour  over  syrup  boiling  hot;  spice  like  peach  pickles,  draining 

them  each  day,  boiling  and  skimming  the  syrup,  and  pouring  it 

boiling  hot  over   the  fruit  until  fully  done.     By  cooking  pears  so 

much  longer  at  first  they  do  not  need  to  be  boiled  so  frequently, 

but  they  must  be  watched  carefully  until  finished,  and  if  perfectly 

done,  will  keep  two  or  more  years.     Apple  pickles  may  be  made  in 

the  same  way,  taking  care  to  select  such  as  will  not  lose  shape  in 

boiling. 

EucHERED  Plumb. 

Nine  pounds  blue  plums,  six  pounds  sugar,  two  quarts  vinegar, 

one  ounce  cinnamon;  boil  vinegar,  sugar  and  spice  together,  pour 

over  plums,  draw  off  next  morning  and  boil,  pour  back  on  plums, 

repeat  the  boiling  five  mornings,  the  last  time  boiling  the  fruit 

about  twenty  minutes. — Mrs.  Capt  W.  B.  Brown,  Washington  Cfty. 

PiO£LED  Raisins. 
Leave  two  pounds  raisins  on  stem,  add  one  pint  vinegar  and 
half  pound  sugar ;  simmer  over  a  slow  fire  half  an  hour. — Mrs, 
Ji.  \j,  Jd., 

Strawberry  Pickles. 

Place  strawberries  in  bottom  of  jar,  add  a  layer  of  cinnamon  and 
cloves,  then  berries,  and  so  on ;  pour  over  it  a  syrup  made  of  two 
coffee-cups  cider  vinegar,  and  three  pints  sugar,  boiled  about  five 
minutes ;  let  stand  twenty-four  hours,  pour  off  syrup,  boil,  pour 
over  berries,  and  let  stand  as  before,  then  boil  berries  and  syrup 
slowly  for  twenty-five  minutes ;  put  in  jars  and  cover.  The  above 
is  for  six  quarts  of  berries.  Rne  apples  can  be  made  in  same  way, 
allowing  six  and  a  half  pounds  of  fruit  to  above  proportions. — Mrs. 
T,\  W.  Jones,  Charleston,  8.  C, 

Oreen  Tomato  Pickle. 
Take  eight  pounds  of  green  tomatoes  and  chop  fine,  add  four 
pounds  brown  sugar  and  boil  down  three  hours,  add  a  quart  of 
vinegar,  a  teaspoon  each  of  mace,  cinnamon  and  cloves,  and  boil 
about  fifteen  minutes ;  let  cool  and  put  into  jars  or  other  vessels. 
Try  this  recipe  once  and  you  will  try  it  again. — Mrs,  W.  A,  Orojffvt, 
New  York  OUy. 


SWEET  PIOKUESL  269 

"Ripfi  ToBiATO  Pickle. 

Pan?  And  ^eigh  i-ipe  tomatoes  and  put  into  jars  and  just  cover 
vith  vinegar;  after  standing  three  days  pour  off  the  vinegar  and 
add  five  pounds  coffee  sugar  to  every  seven  of  fruit ;  spice  to  taste 
and  pour  over  tomatoes  and  cook  slowly  all  day  on  the  back  of  the 
stove.  Use  cinnamon,  mace  and  a  little  dovea^  or  not  any,  as  pre- 
ferred. 

Watermeix)n  Pickle. 

Pare  off  very  carefully  the  green  part  of  the  rind  of  a  good,  ripe 
watermelon,  trim  off  the  red  core,  cut  in  pieces  one  or  two  inches 
in  length,  place  in  a  porcelain-lined  kettle,  in  the  proportion  of  one 
gallon  rinds  to  two  heaping  tea-spoons  common  salt  and  water  to 
nearly  cover,  boil  until  tender  enough  to  pierce  with  a  silver  fork, 
pour  into  a  colander  to  drain,  and  dry  by  taking  a  few  pieces  at  a 
time  in  the  hand,  and  pressing  gently  with  a  crash  towel.  Make 
fiyrup,  and  treat  rinds  exactly  as  directed  for  pickled  peaches.  Con- 
tinue adding  rinds,  as  melons  are  used  at  table,  preparing  them 
first  by  cooking  in  salt  water  as  above ;  when  as  many  are  prepared 
as  are  wanted,  and  they  are  nearly  pickled,  drain  and  finish  as 
directed  in  peach  pickles,  except  when  the  syrup  is  boiled  the  last 
time,  put  in  melons  and  boil  fifteen  minutes ;  set  jar  near  stove, 
skim  out  melons  and  put  in  jar  a  few  at  a  time,  heating  gradually 
so  as  not  to  break  it,  then  pour  in  syrup  boiling  hot.  A  rind  nearly 
an  inch  thick,  crisp  and  tender,  is  best,  although  any  may  be  used. 
If  scum  rises,  and  the  syrup  assumes  a  whitish  appearance,  drain, 
boil  and  skim  syrup,  add  melons,  and  boil  until  syrup  is  like  thin 
molasses. 

Clover  Vikeoar. 

Put  a  large  bowl  of  molasses  in  a  crock,  and  pour  over  it  nine 
bowk  of  boiling  rain-water ;  let  stand  until  milk- warm,  put  in  two 
quarts  of  clover  blossoms,  and  two  cups  of  baker^s  yeafit;  let  this 
stand  two  weeks,  and  strain  through  a  towel.  Nothing  will  mold 
bit. — Mn.  McAlistery  Ghshetiy. 

Mint  Vinegar. 
Put  into  a  wide-mouthed  bottle  enough  fresh,  clean  pepperminti 
spearmint,  or  garden  parsley  leaves  to  fill  it  loosely ;  fill  up  with 


- « 


270  S  WEET  PICKLES, 

good  vinegar,  stop  closely,  leave  on  for  two  or  three  weeks,  pour 
off  into  another  bottle,  and  keep  well  corked  for  use.  This  is  ex- 
cellent for  cold  meats,  soups  and  bread-dressings  for  roasts ;  when 
mints  can  not  be  obtained,  celery  seed  is  used  in  the  same  way. — 
lfr«f  J5.  A.  Fay. 

Spiced  Vinegar. 

Put  three  pounds  sugar  in  a  three  gallon  jar  with  a  small  mouth; 
mix  two  ounces  each  of  mace,  cloves,  pepper,  allspice,  turmeric, 
celery  seed,  white  ginger  in  small  bits,  and  ground  mustard ;  put  in 
six  small  bags  madi'  of  thin  but  strong  muslin,  lay  in  jar,  fill  with 
best  cider  vinegar,  and  use  it  in  making  pickles  and  sauces. 

Tarragon  Vinegar. 

Gather  the  tarragon  just  before  it  blossoms,  strip  it  from  the 
larger  stalks  and  put  it  into  small  stone  jars  or  wide-necked  bottle ; 
and  in  doing  this  twist  the  branches,  bruising  the  leaves.  Pour 
over  it  vinegar  enough  to  cover;  let  it  stand  two  months  or 
longer,  pour  off,  strain,  and  put  into  small  dry  bottles,  cork  weU 
and  use  as  sauce  for  meats. 

Cauliflower  Pickles. 

To  twelve  heads  of  cauliflower,  five  quarts  of  vinegar,  five  cups 
brown  sugar,  six  eggs,  one  bottle  French  mustard,  two  tablespoon- 
ftiU  ginger^  a  few  gs-rliCf  two  green  peppers*  one-half  teaspoonfiil 
cayenne,  butter  size  of  an  eigg^  one  ounce  pulverized  turmeric  Beat 
well  together  the  eggs,  sugar,  mustard,  ginger,  and  turmeric,  then 
boil  ui  vinegar,  with  garlic  and  peppers,  ten  minutes.  Boil  cauli- 
flower in  salt  water  until  tender,  then  place  carefully  in  jar,  pour 
over  the  boiling  hot  mixture. — Mn,  W.  W.  Eagtmatiy  Mmneapdu. 

Ripe  Cucumber  Pickles. 

Take  twenty-four  large  cucumbers,  ripe  and  sound,  six  white 
unions,  four  large  red  peppers ;  pare  and  remove  the  seeds  from 
the  cucumbers,  chop  well,  not  too  fine ;  then  chop  fine  onions  and 
peppers,  mix  thoroughly  with  one  cup  salt,  one  ounce  white  mustard ; 
place  in  a  muslin  bag ;  drain  twenty-four  hours,  remove  to  glass 
jars,  cover  with  cold  vinegar  and  seal.  They  will  keep  a  long 
time  and  are  excellent. — Mrs,  A.  F,  Oonkey, 


*9 


POULTRY. 


Do  not  feed  poultry  for  twenty-four  hours  before  killing ;  catch 
them  without  frightening  or  bruising,  tie  the  feet  together,  hang  up ' 
on  a  horizontal  pole,  tie  the  wings  together  over  the  back  with  a 
strip  of  soil  cotton  cloth ;  let  them  hang  five  minutes,  then  cut  the 
throat  or  cut  off  the  head  with  a  very  sharp  knife,  and  allow  them 
to  hang  until  the  blood  has  ceased  to  drip.  The  thorough  bleeding 
renders  the  meat  more  white  and  wholesome.  Scald  well  by  dip- 
ping in  and  out  of  a  pail  or  tub  of  boiling  water,  being  careful 
not  to  scald  so  much  as  to  set  the  feathers  and  make  them  more 
difficult  to  pluck ;  place  the  fowl  on  a  board  with  head  towards  you, 
poll  the  feathers  away  from  you,  which  will  be  in  the  direction 
they  naturally  lie  (if  pulled  in  a  contrary  direction  the  skin  is 
likely  to  be  torn),  be  careful  to  remove  all  the  pin-feathers  with  a 
knife  or  pair  of  tweezers ;  singe,  but  not  smoke,  over  blazing  paper, 
place  on  a  meat-board,  and  with  a  sharp  knife  cut  off  the  legs  a 
litde  below  the  knee,  to  prevent  the  muscles  from  shrinking  away 
from  the  joint,  and  remove  the  oil-bag  above  the  tail ;  take  out  the 
crop,  either  by  making  a  slit  at  the  back  of  the  neck  or  in  front  (the 
last  is  better),  taking  care  that  every  thing  pertaining  to  the  crop 
or  windpipe  is  removed,  cut  the  neck-bone  off  close  to  the  body, 
leaving  the  skin  a  good  length  if  to  be  stuffed ;  cut  around  the  vent, 
cat  a  slit  three  inches  long  from  the  tail  upwards,  being  careful  to 
cat  only  through  the  skin,  put  in  the  finger  at  the  breast  and  detach 
aD  the  intestines,  taking  care  not  to  burst  the  gall-bag  (situated 
near  the  upper  part  of  the  breast-bone,  and  attached  to  the  liver; 
if  broken,  no  washing  can  remove  the  bitter  taint  left  on  every 
spot  it  touches);  put  in  the  hand  at  the  incision  near  the  taO 

(?71) 


/ 


272  POULTRY. 

and  draw  out  careftilly  all  intestines ;  trim  off  the  &t  from  the 
•  breast  and  at  the  lower  incision ;  split  the  gizzard  and  take 
out  the  inside  and  inner  lining  (throw  liver,  heart,  and  gizzard 
into  water,  wash  well,  and  lay  aside  to  be  cooked  and  used 
for  the  gravy) ;  wash  the  fowl  thoroughly  in  cold  water  twice^ 
(some  wipe  carefully  with  a  wet  cloth,  and  afterwards  with  a  dry- 
doth  to  make  perfectly  clean,  instead  of  washing),  hangup  to  drain, 
and  it  is  ready  to  be  stuffetl,  skewered,  and  placed  to  roast.  To 
make  it  look  plump,  before  stuffiug,  flatten  the  breast-bone  by 
placing  several  thicknesses  of  cloth  over  it  and  pounding  it,  being 
careful  not  to  break  the  skin,  and  rub  the  inside  well  with  salt  and 
pepper.  Stuff  the  breast  first,  but  not  too  full  or  it  will  burst  in 
cooking ;  stuff  the  body  rather  fuller  than  the  breast,  sew  up  both 
openings  with  strong  thread,  and  sew  the  skin  of  the  neck  over 
upon  the  back  or  down  upon  the  breast  (these  threads  must  be  care- 
fully removed  before  sending  to  the  table).  Lay  the  points*  of  the 
wings  under  the  back,  and  fasten  in  that  position  with  a  skewer  run 
through  both  wings  and  held  in  place  with  a  twine ;  press  the  legs 
as  closely  towards  the  breast  and  side-bones  as  possible,  and  fasten 
with  a  skewer  run  through  the  body  and  both  thighs,  push  a  short 
skewer  through  above  the  tail,  and  tie  the  ends  of  legs  down  with  a 
twine  close  upon  the  skewer  (or,  if  skewers  are  not  used,  tie  well 
in  shape  with  twine);  rub  over  thoroughly  with  salt  and  pepper, 
men  lara,  m  Dne  loliowmg  manner:  Hold  the  breast  over  a  clear 
fire  for  a  minute  or  dip  it  in  boiling  water.  To  make  the  flesh  firm, 
cut  strips  of  firm  &t  bacon,  two  inches  long,  and  an  eighth  of  an 
inch  wide,  and  make  four  parallel  marks  on  the  breast,  put  one  of 
these  strips  of  bacon-fat  (called  lardoons)  securely  into  the  split  end 
of  small  larding-needle,  and  insert  it  at  the  first  mark,  bringing  it 
out  at  the  second,  leaving  an  equal  length  of  fat  protruding  at  each 
end ;  continue  inserting  these  strips,  at  intervals  of  half  an  inch 
down  these  two  lines,  and  then  do  the  same  with  the  two  others.  For 
poultry  use  a  small  larding-needle ;  the  large  ones  are  used  foi 
larding  beef  or  veal.  The  process  is  very  simple,  and  any  one  who 
likes  to  bring  out  dainty  dishes,  will  be  more  than  repaid  for  the 
little  trouble  in  learning  how.  All  white-fleshed  birds  are  improved 
by  larding  (as  well  as  veal  and  sweet-bread).     Small  birds,  such  as 


POULTRY,  273 

quails,  may  be  more  conveniently  ''barded"  by  placing  a  ''barde," 
a  slice  of  &t  bacon,  over  tbe  breast,  and  the  same  plan  may  be 
adopted  in  all  cases  where  larding  is  inconvenient ;  or  fat  from  the 
fewl  itself  may  be  used  instead  of  bacon.  When  the  flavor  of  bacon 
is  disliked,  put  a  tablespoon  of  butter  in  bits  over  the  breast ;  never 
dredge  with  flour  in  the  beginning.  Now  place  to  roast  in  an 
oven  rather  hot  at  first,  and  then  graduate  the  heat  to  moderate 
until  done,  to  test  which  insert  a  fork  between  the  thigh  and  body; 
if  the  juice  is  watery  and  not  bloody  it  is  done.  If  not  served  at 
once,  the  fowl  may  be  kept  hot  without  drying  up,  by  placing  over 
a  skillet  full  of  boiling  water  (set  on  top  of  stove  or  range)  and 
inverting  a  dripping-pan  over  it.  Many  persons  roast  fowls  upon  a 
wire  rack  or  trivet  placed  inside  the  dripping-pan,  or  patty  pans 
or  muflin-rings  may  be  used  as  rests.  The  pan  should  be  three  or 
even  four  inches  deep,  and  measure  at  the  bottom  about  sixteen  by 
twenty  inches,  with  sides  somewhat  flaring.  Some  put  to  roast  in 
a  dry  pan,  the  larding  or  butter  making  sufficient  drippings  for 
basting;  others  add  a  very  little  water.  In  roasting  a  turkey, 
allow  twenty  minutes  time  for  every  pound,  and  twenty  minutes 
longer.  Some  steam  turkey  before  roasting,  and  a  turkey-steamer 
may  be  easily  improvised  by  placing  the  dripping-pan  containing 
the  turkey  on  top  of  two  or  three  pieces  of  wood  (hickory  or  maple 
is  the  best)  laid  in  the  bottom  of  a  wash-boiler,  with  just  enough 
water  to  cover  the  wood ;  put  on  the  lid,  which  should  fit  tightly 
on  the  boiler,  and  as  the  water  boils  away  add  more.  Add  the 
liquor  in  the  dripping-pan  to  the  turkey  when  placed  in  the  oven 
to  roast  (do  not  use  the  water  from  the  boiler).  In  boiling  fowl, 
put  into  hot  water  (unless  soup  is  wanted,  when  place  in  cold); 
skim  when  it  boils  up  first,  and  keep  it  just  above  the  boiling  point, 
but  it  must  boil  gently,  not  violently.  A  little  vinegar  added  to  the 
water  in  which  they  are  boiled  makes  fowls  more  tender.  For  fuller 
directions  see  *'  Meats."  Boil  the  giblets  until  tender  in  a  sepa- 
rate dish,  and  add  them,  well  chopped,  together  with  water  in 
which  they  were  cooked,  to  the  gravy. 

TO  CUT  UP  A  CHICKEN. 

Pick,  singe,  and  draw ;  lay  the  chicken  on  a  board  kept  for  the 

purpose,  cut  off*  the  feet  at  first  joint ;  cut  a  slit  in  the  neck,  take 
18 


274  POULTRY. 

out  the  windpipe  and  crop,  cut  off  the  wings  and  legs  at  the  joint 
which  unites  them  to  the  body,  separate  the  first  joint  of  the  1^ 
from  the  second,  cut  off  the  oil-bag,  make  a  slit  horizontally  under 
the  tail,  cut  the  end  of  the  entrails  hoae,  extend  the  slit  on  each 
side  of  the  joint  where  the  legs  were  cut  off;  then,  with  the  left 
hand,  hold  the  breast  of  the  chicken,  and,  with  the  right,  bend 
back  the  rump  until  the  joint  in  back  separates,  cut  it  clear  and  place 
in  water.  Take  out  the  entrails,  using  a  sharp  knife  to  separate  the 
eggs  (if  any),  and  all  other  particles  to  be  removed,  from  the  back, 
being  careful  in  removmg  the  heart  and  liver  not  to  break  the  gall- 
bag  (a  small  sack  of  a  blue-green  color  about  an  inch  long  attached 
to  the  liver);  separate  the  back  and  breast ;  commence  at  the  high 
point  of  the  breast  and  cut  downwards  tow^ard  the  head,  taking 
off  part  of  the  breast  with  the  wish-bone ;  cut  the  neck  from  that 
part  of  the  back  to  which  the  ribs  are  attached,  turn  the  skin  off 
the  neck,  and  take  out  all  lumps  and  stringy  substances ;  very  care- 
fully remove  the  gall-bag  from  the  liver,  and  clean  the  gizzard  by 
making  an  incision  through  the  thick  part  and  first  lining,  peeling 
off  the  fleshy  part,  leaving  the  inside  whole  and  ball-shaped ;  if  the 
lining  breaks,  open  the  gizzards,  pour  out  contents,  peel  off  inner 
lining,  and  wash  thoroughly.  After  washing  in  second  water,  the 
chicken  is  ready  to  be  cooked.  When  young  chickens  are  to  be 
baked,  with  a  sharp  knife  cut  open  the  back  at  the  side  of  the 
back-bone,  press  apart,  and  dean  as  above  directed,  and  place  in 
dripping-pan,  skin  side  up. 

Chickens  are  stuffed  and  roasted  in  the  same  way  as  turkeys, 
and  are  much  better  for  being  first  steamed,  especially  if  over  a  year 
old.  Boast  for  twenty  or  thirty  minutes,  or  till  nicely  browned. 
Some  prefer  to  broil  or  fry  old  chickens  after  first  steaming  until 
tender,  but  stewing  or  boiling  is  better.  In  broiling  chickens  the 
danger  of  under-cooking  on  the  one  hand,  or  burning  on  the  other, 
is  avoided  by  breaking  the  bones  slightly  with  a  rolling-pin  so  that 
the  pieces  are  flattened.  Covering  with  a  sauce-pan  will  also  con- 
centrate the  heat,  and  help  cook  them  thoroughly  without  burning. 

Some,  in  making  chicken  or  meat  pies,  line  the  bottom  of  the 
dish  with  crust,  and  place  in  the  oven  until  well  **  set,**  then  line 
the  sides,  fill,  cover,  and  bake;  it  is  always  difficult  to  bake  the 


POULTRY.  275 

crust  on  the  bottom  of  dish  unless  this  plan  is  adopted.  A  still 
better  plan  is  to  use  no  bottom  crust,  only  lining  the  sides  of  the 
pan. 

The  gariyshes  for  turkey  and  chicken  are  parsley,  fried  oysters, 
thin  slices  of  ham,  slices  of  lemon,  fried  sausages  or  forced-meat 
balls.  

Baked  Chickens. 
Dress  the  chickens  and  cut  them  in  two,  soak  for  half  an  hour  in 
cold  water,  wipe  perfectly  diy  and  put  in  a  dripping-pan,  bone  side 
down,  without  any  water  ;  have  a  hot  oven,  and,  if  the  chickens  are 
young,  half  an  hour's  cooking  will  be  sufficient.  Take  out,  and  sea- 
son with  butter,  salt  and  pepper ;  pack  one  above  another  as  closely 
as  possible,  and  place  in  pan  over,  boiling  water^  covering  them 
closely — ^this  keeps  them  moist  until  served — boil  the  giblets  in  a 
little  water,  and,  after  the  chickens  are  taken  from  the  dripping-pan, 
pat  into  it  the  water  in  which  giblets  were  boiled,  thicken  it,  and  add 
the  chopped  giblets.  This  manner  of  baking  chickens  is  fully  equal 
to  broiling  them. — Mr9.  E,  W.  Herrick 

Baked  Spring  Chickens. 
Cut  each  of  four  chickens  into  seven  or  nine  pieces,  wash  thor- 
oughly and  quickly,  and  put  in  a  colander  to  drain ;  put  a  half 
table-spoon  each  of  lard  and  butter  into  a  dripping-pan,  lay  in  the 
pieces,  and  add  half  a  pint  hot  water ;  place  in  oven  and  bake  half 
an  hour,  turn,  taking  care  that  they  get  only  to  a  light  brown,  and, 
just  before  taking  up,  add  salt  and  pepper  to  taste ;  when  done 
take  out  in  a  dish  and  keep  hot.  To  make  the  gravy,  add  a  half 
pint  or  more  of  water,  set  the  dripping-pan  on  the  stove,  and  add 
one  table-spoon  flour  mixed  with  half  cup  of  cream  or  milk,  stirring 
dowly,  adding  a  little  of  'the  mixture  at  a  time.  Let  cook  thor- 
oughly, stirring  constantly  to  prevent  burning,  and  to  make  the 
gravy  nice  and  smooth ;  season  more  if  necessar}'. — Mrs.  L,  Hvsh. 

Baked  Chicken  with  Parsnips. 
Wash,  scrape,  and  quarter  parsnips,  and  parboil  for  twenty  min- 
utes; prepare  a  young  chicken  by  splitting  open  at  back,  place 
in  a  dripping-pan,  skin  side  up,  lay  parsnips  i^Tound  the  chicken, 
q>riDkle  ¥riih  salt  and  pepper,  and  add  a  lump  of  butter  the  size 


276  POULTRY. 

of  an  egg,  or  two  or  three  slices  of  good  pickled  pork  ;  put  enough 

water  in  pan  to   prevent  burDing,  place  in  oven  and  bake  untU 

chicken  and  parsnips  are  done  to  a  delicate  brown ;  serve  chicken 

separately  on  a  platter,  pouring  the  gravy  in  the  pan  over  the  pars* 

nips. 

Chicken  Croquettes. 

Boil  two  fowls  weighing  five  pounds  each  till  very  tender,  mino« 
fine,  add  one  pint  cream,  half  pound  butter,  salt  and  pepper  tc 
taste ;  shape  oval  in  a  jelly  glass  or  mold.  Fry  in  lard  like  dough- 
nuts until  brown. — Mrs.  E.  L.  Fay^  New  York  (Xty. 

Bbeaded  Chicken. 
Gut  a  tender  chicken  into  seven  pieces  as  if  for  frying,  roll  in 
beaten  yolks  of  two  eggs,  then  in  finely  grated  bread  crumbs  seasoned 
with  chopped  parsley,  pepper  and  salt ;  place  in  dripping-pan,  dot 
the  pieces  with  bits  of  butter  (one  table-spoon  in  all),  add  a  little 
water,  bake  slowly,  basting  often.  When  done,  take  out  chicken 
and  make  gravy  in  the  pan  by  adding  a  mixture  of  fiour  and  butter, 
make  smooth  by  stirring.  Add  either  cream  or  milk  to  make  suffi- 
cient gravy,  which  season  to  taste. 

Broiled  Chickens  or  Quails. 
Cut  chicken  open  on  the  back,  lay  on  the  meat-board  and  pound 
until  it  will  lie  flat,  lay  on  gridiron,  place  over  a  bed  of  coals,  broil 
until  a  nice  brown,  but  do  not  burn.  It  will  take  twenty  or  thirty 
minutes  to  cook  thoroughly,  and  it  will  cook  much  better  to  cover 
with  a  pie-tin  held  down  with  a  weight  so  that  all  parts  of  the 
chicken  may  lie  close  to  the  gridiron.  While  the  chicken  is  broil- 
ing, put  the  liver,  gizzard  and  heart  in  a  stew-pan  and  boil  in  a 
pint  of  water  until  tender,  chop  fine  and  add  flour,  butter,  pepper, 
salt,  and  stir  a  cup  of  sweet  cream  to  tRe  water  in  which  they  were 
boiled ;  when  the  chicken  is  done,  dip  it  in  this  gravy  while  hot, 
lay  it  back  on  the  gridiron  a  minute,  put  it  in  the  gravy  and  let 
boil  for  a  half  minute,  and  send  to  the  table  hot.  Cook  quails  in 
the  same  way. — Mrs.  ,A,  8.  Chapman. 

Chili  Colorad. 
Take  two  chickens;  cut  up  as  if  to  stew ;  when  pretty  well  done, 
add  a  little  green  parsley  and  a  few  onions.    Take  half  pound  large 


roLLTRY.  277 

pepptjr  pods,  remove  seeds,  and  pour  on  boiling  water;  steam  ten 
or  fifteen  minutes ;  pour  off  water,  and  rub  them  in  a  sieve  until 
all  the  juice  is  f>ut ;  add  the  juice  to  the  chicken ;  let  it  cook  for 
half  an  hour ;  add  a  little  butter,  flour  and  salt.  Place  a  border 
of  rice  around  the  dish  before  setting  on  table.  This  dish  may  also 
be  made  of  beef,  pork  or  mutton ;  it  is  to  be  eaten  in  cold  weather, 
and  is  a  favorite  dish'  with  all  people  on  the  Pacific  coast. — Mrs. 
Gov.  Bradley^  Nevada. 

Chickens  for  Lunch. 
Split  a  young  chicken  down  the  back,  wash  and  wipe  dry,  s*  ason 
with  salt  and  pepper.  Put  in  a  dripping-pan,  and  place  in  a  mod- 
erate oven ;  bake  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  This  is  much  better 
for  traveling  lunch  than  when  seasoned  with  butter. — Jfrs.  W.  B. 
Broymy  Wcukingiony  D.  C. 

Chicken  Pot-pie. 
Cut  up  a  chicken  and  put  on  in  hot  water  enough  to  cover,  and 
take  care  that  it  does  not  cook  dry ;  while  boiling  cut  off  a  slice 
from  bread  dough,  add  a  small  lump  of  lard,  and  mix  up  like  light 
biscuit,  roll,  cut  out  with  cake-cutter  and  set  by  stove  to  rise ;  wash 
and  pare  potatoes  of  moderate  size,  and  add  them  when  chicken  is 
almost  done;  when  potatoes  begin  to  boil,  season  with  salt  and  pep- 
per, add  dumplings  and  season  again.  See  that  there  is  water 
enough  to  keep  from  burning,  cover  very  tightly,  and  do  not  take 
cover  off  until  dumplings  are  done.  They  will  cook  in  half  an 
hour,  and  may  be  tested  by  lifting  one  edge  of  the  lid,  taking  out 
a  dumpling  and  breaking  it  open.  Or,  the  dumplings  may  be  placed 
in  steamer  over  cold  water,  taking  care  to  leave  some  of  the  holes 
in  steamer  open,  as  if  all  are  covered  by  the  dumplings,  the  steam 
will  not  be  admitted,  and  they  will  not  cook  well.  If  there  arc 
too  many  dumplings  to  lie  on  bottom  without  covering  all  holes, 
attach  them  to  the  side  and  upper  edge  of  steamer  by  wetting 
dough  and  pressing  it  to  the  edge.  When  done  remove  to  vegetable 
dish  and  pour  hot  gravy  over  them.  Dish  potatoes  by  themselves, 
and  chickens  and  dumplings  together.  Make- gravy  by  mixing  two 
level  table-spoons  flour  and  a  little  butter  together,  and  stir  into  the 
hroth  remaining  in  pot  slowly,  add  more  boiling  water  if  needed  and 
season  with  salt  and  pepper.    Or,  make  dumplings  with  one  pint 


278  POULTRY, 

gour  milky  two  well-beaten  eggs,  half  tea-spoon  soda  (mixed  in  part 

of  the  flour),  and  flour  enough  to  make  as  stiff  as  can  be  stirred 

with  a  spoon ;  or  baking-powder  and  sweet  milk  may  be  used.     Drop 

in  by  spoonfuls,  cover  tightly,  and  boil  as  above.     A  pot-pie  may 

be  made  from  a  good  boiling  piece  of  beef;   if  too  much  grease 

arises  skim  off. 

Chicken  Pie. 

Cut  up  two  young  chickens,  place  in  hot  water  enough  to  cover, 
(as  it  boils  away  add  more  so  as  to  have  enough  for  the  pie  and  for 
gravy  to  serve  with  it),  boil  until  tender;  line  the  sides  of  a  four  or 
six  quart  pan  with  a  rich  baking-powder  or  soda-biscuit  dough  quarter 
of  an  inch  thick,  put  in  part  of  the  chicken,  season  -with  salt,  pepper 
and  butter,  lay  in  a  few  thin  strips  or  squares  of  dough,  add  the  lest 
of  chicken  and  season  as  before;  some  add  five  or  six  fresh  eggs  or  a 
few  new  potatoes  in  their  season,  season  liquor  in  which  the  chickeii9 
were  boiled,  with  butter,  salt  and  pepper,  add  a  part  of  it  to  the  pie, 
cover  with  crust  a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick,  with  a  hole  in  the 
center  the  size  of  a  tea-cup.  Keep  adding  the  chicken-liquor  as 
needed,  since  the  tault  of  most  chicken  pies  is  that  they  are  too  dry. 
There  can  scarcely  be  too  much  gravy.  Bake  one  hour  in  a  mod- 
erate  oven. 

Veal  pias  are  similarly  made,  omitting  eggs,  and  using  two  or 
three  pounds  veal  to  a  quart  of  dough.  Add  to  liquor  loft  in  pot 
a  table-spoon  of  butter  mixed  with  flour  to  a  paste,  season  with  pep- 
per and  salt,  for  gravy,  adding  water  if  needed. — L,  A,  C. 

CmcKfa?  Pie  with  Oysters. 
Boil  the  chicken — a  year  old  is  best— until  tender,  drain  ofl* 
liquor  from  a  quart  of  03'ster8,  boil,  skim,  line  the  sides  of  a  dish 
with  a  rich  crust,  put  in  a  layer  of  chicken,  then  a  layer  of  raw 
oysters,  and  repeat  until  dish  is  filled,  seasoning  each  layer  with 
pepper,  salt,  and  bits  of  butter,  and  adding  the  oyster  liquor  and 
a  part  of  the  chicken  liquor  until  the  liquid  is  even  with  the  top 
layer ;  now  cover  loosely  with  a  crust  having  an  opening  in  the 
center  to  allow  steam  to  escape.  If  the  liquor  cooks  away,  add 
chicken  gravy  or  hot  water.  Bake  forty  minutes  in  a  moderate 
oven.  Make  gravy  hy  adding  to  chicken  liquor  left  in  pot  (one 
quart  or  more)   two  tablespoons  flour,  rubbed  smooth  with  two 


POULTRY,  279 

tablespoons  butter,  and  seasoned  highly  with  pepper;  let  cook  until 
there  is  no  raw  taste  of  flour  and  salt  to  taste  and  serve. 

Chicken  Pudding. 
Dress  and  cut  one  chicken  into  small  pieces,  put  it  into  a  sauce- 
2MUQ  or  kettle  with  a  little  water,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  let 
boil  until  it  begins  to  grow  tender,  then  take  out  and  put  into  i; 
three-quart  pudding  dish  ;  have  ready  one  quart  green  corn  giated 
or  cut  fine,  to  which  add  three  egg^i  l>eaten  light  and  one  pint  swei  > 
milk ;  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  .pour  this  mixture  over  the 
chicken,  dredge  thickly  witli  flour,  lay  on  bits  of  butter  and  bake 
until  done. — Mrs.  A.  Wikon,  Rye,  N.  Y. 

Dressing  for  Chicken  or  Beef. 
Boil  potatoes,  mash  as  if  for  the  table,  except  that  they  should  be 
less  moist,  stuff*  the  chicken  or  roast  with  this,  and  bake  as  ordi- 
narily ;  for  ducks  add  onions  chopped  fine ;  if  the  bread-dressing  is 
wanted  too,  it  may  be  laid  in  the  corner  of  the  pan. — Mn,  Carrie 

Bed. 

Fricasseed  Chicken. 

Gut  up  and  put  on  to  boil,  skin  side  down,  in  a  small  quantity  of 
water,  season  with  salt,  pepper,  and  slices  of  an  onion  if  liked; 
stew  gently  until  tender,  remove  chicken,  add  a  half  pint  cream  or 
milk  to  gravy,  and  thicken  with  butter  and  flour  rubbed  smoothly 
together  (adding  a  little  of  the  gravy  to  soften  and  help  mix  them)» 
let  boil  two  or  three  minutes,  add  a  little  chopped  parsley  and  serve. 
Or,  first  fiy  the  chicken  brown  in  a  little  hot  lard,  take  out  chicken, 
add  a  table-spoon  flour,  and  let  cook  a  minute,  stirring  constantly; 
add  a  pint  water  (or  stock  if  at  hand),  a  little  vinegar  or  Worces- 
tershire sauce,  season  with  salt  and  pepper;  when  it  has  boiled, 
remove  from  fire,  strain,  add  the  beaten  yolk  of  an  egg,  pour  over 
the  chicken  and  serve.  Or,  put  chicken  in  sauce-pan  with  barely 
enough  water  to  cover,  stew  gently  until  tender ;  have  a  frying-pan 
prepared  with  a  few  slices  of  salt  pork,  drain  chicken  and  fry  with 
pork  until  it  is  a  fine,  rich  brown ;  take  chicken  and  bits  of  pork 
bom  the  pan,  pour  in  the  broth,  thicken  with  brown  flour,  mixed 
smooth  with  a  little  water,  and  season  with  pepper ;  now  put  chicken 
and  pork  back  into  gravy,  let  simmer  a  few  minutes,  and  serve 
?ery  hot. — Mrs.  J.  H.  S. 


280  POULTRY. 

Fried  Spring  Chicken. 

Put  skillet  on  the  stove  with  about  half  table-spoon  each  of  lard  and 
butter;  when  hot  lay  in  chicken,  sprinkle  over  Avith  flour,  salt  and 
pepper,  place  lid  on  skillet,  and  cook  over  a  moderate  fire;  when 
a  light  brown,  turn  the  chicken  and  sprinkle  flour,  salt  and  pepper 
over  the  top  as  at  first,  if  necessary  add  more  lard  and  butter,  and 
cook  slowly  until  done ;  make  gravy  just  the  same  as  for  baked 
chicken.     As  a  general  rule  half  an  hour  is  long  enough  to  fry 
spring  chicken.     To  make  rich  and  nice  gravy  without  cream,  take 
the  yolk  of  an  egg^  beat  up  light,  strain  and  stir  slowly  into  the 
gravy  after  the  flour  and  milk  have  been  stirred  in  and  thoroughly 
oooked;  as  soon  as  it  boils  up  the  gravy  is  done,  and  should   be 
removed  from  the  stove.     All  gravies  need  to  be  stirred  well  and 
thoroughly  oooked  over  a  moderate  fire. — Mn.  L.  H. 

Fried  Gumbo. 

Cut  up  two  young  chickens,  and  fry  in  skillet^  when  brown  but 
not  scorched,  put  in  a  pot  with  one  quart  finely  chopped  okra,  four  . 
large  tomatoes,  and  two  onions  chop{)ed  fine;  cover  with  boiling 
water,  boil  very  slowly,  and  keep  the  kettle  tightly  closed;  add 
boiling  water  as  it  wastes,  and  simmer  slowly  three  hours ;  season 
with  salt,  pepper,  and  a  little  butter  and  flour  rubbed  together; 
serve  with  boiled  rice. — Mrs.  J.  H.  S. 

Jelued  Chicken. 

Cook  six  chickens  in  a  small  quantity  of  water,  until  the  meat 
will  part  from  the  bone  easily  ;  season  to  taste  with  salt  and  pepper; 
just  as  soon  as  cold  enough  to  handle,  remove  bones  and  skin ; 
place  meat  in  a  deep  pan  or  mold,  just  as  it  comes  from  the  bone, 
using  gizzard,  liver  and  heart,  until  the  mold  is  nearly  full  To 
the  water  left  in  the  kettle,  add  three-fourths  of  a  box  of  Cox's 
gelatine  (some  add  juice  of  lemon),  dissolved  in  a  little  warm  water» 
and  boil  until  it  is  reduced  to  a  little  less  than  a  quart,  pour  over 
the  chicken  in  the  mold,  leave  to  cool,  cut  with  a  very  sharp  knifii 
and  serve.  The  slices  will  not  easily  break  up  if  directiona 
followed. — Jfm  Prof.  Bobeiis,  Cape  QirardeaUf  Mx 


POULTBT.  281 

PiCKL£D  Chicken. 

dl  four  chickens  till  tender  enough  for  meat  to  fill  from  bones; 
pat  meat  in  a  stone  jar,  and  pour  over  it  three  pints  of  cold  vine- 
gar,  and  a  pint  and  half  of  the  water  in  which  the  chickens  were 
boiled;  add  spices  if  preferred,  and  it  will  be  ready  for  use  in  two 
days. — Emma  Chuli  Rea, 

Pressed  Chickek. 
Take  one  or  two  chickens,  boil  in  a  small  quantity  of  water  with 
a  little  salt,  and  when  thoroughly  done,  take  all  the  meat  from  the 
bones,  removing  the  skin,  and  keeping  the  light  meat  separate  irom 
the  dark ;  chop  and  season  to  taste  with  salt  and  pepper.  If  a  meat 
preaser  is  at  hand  take  it,  or  any  other  mold  such  as  a  crock  or 
pan  will  do ;  put  in  a  layer  of  light  and  a  layer  of  dark  meat  till 
all  is  used,  add  the  liquor  it  was  boiled  in,  which  should  be  about 
one  tea-cupful,  and  put  on  a  heavy  weight ;  when  cold  cut  in  slices. 
Many  chop  all  the  meat  together,  add  one  pounded  cracker  to  the 
liquor  it  was  boiled  in,  and  mix  all  thoroughly  before  putting  in  the 
mold ;  either  way  is  nice.  Boned  turkey  can  be  prepared  in  the 
same  way,  sUcing  instead  of  chopping.' 

Steamed  Chicken. 
Bub  the  chicken  on  the  inside  with  pepper  and  half  tea-spoon  of 
Bcdt,  place  in  steamer  in  a  kettle  that  will  keep  it  as  near  the  water 
as  possible,  cover,  and  steam  an  hour  and  a  half;  when  done  keep 
hot  while  dressing  is  prepared,  then  cut  them  up,  arrange  on  the 
platter,  and  serve  with  the  dressing  over  them.  The  dressmg  is 
made  as  follows :  Boil  one  pint  of  gravy  from  the  kettle  without  the 
&t,  add  cayenne  pepper  and  half  a  tea-spoon  salt;  stir  six  table- 
spoons of  flour  into  a  quarter  pint  of  cream  until  smooth,  and  add 
to  the  gravy.  Com  starch  may  be  used  instead  of  the  flour,  and 
some  add  nutm^  or  celery  salt. 

Boned  Turkey. 

With  a  sharp  knife  slit  the  skin  down  the  back,  and  raising  one 
ride  at  a  time  with  the  fingers,  separate  the  flesh  from  the  bones 
with  knife,  until  the  wings  and  legs  are  reached.  These  unjoint 
from  the  body,  and  cutting  through  to  the  bone,  turn  back  the 
flesh  and  remove  the  bones.    When  bones  are  removed,  the  fleah 


282  POULTRY. 

may  be  re-ehaped  by  stuffing.  Some  leave  tbc  bones  in  the  legs  and 
wings,  as  they  are  most  difficult  to  remove.  Stuff  with  force-meat, 
made  of  cold  lamb  or  veal  and  a  little  pork,  chopped  iine  and  sea- 
soned with  salt,  pepper,  sage  or  savory,  and  the  juice  of  one  lemon  ; 
sew  into  shape,  turn  end?  of  wings  under  and  press  the  legs  close  to 
the  back,  and  tie  all  firmly  so  that  the  upper  surface  may  be  plump 
and  smooth  for  the  carver.  Lard  with  two  or  three  rows  on  the 
top,  and  bake  until  thoroughly  done,  basting  oflen  with  salt  and 
water,  and  a  little  butter.  This  is  a  difficult  dish  to  attempt. 
Carve  across*in  slices  and  serve  with  tomato-sauce. — Mr%,  X  Flem" 

mingy  PhUaddphiaf  Pa. 

Boned  Turkey. 

Bone  and  stuff  as  in  preceding  recipe,  roll  tight  in  a  strong,  clean 
doth,  tie  with  tape  in  center  and  near  the  ends,  and  &sten  ends 
firmly  with  strong  twine,  taking  care  to  make  the  roll  compact  and 
perfectly  secure;  place  in  a  rich  stock,  prepared  by  putting  the 
bones  in  cold  water  with  herbs,  an  onion  peeled  and  stuck  with  ten 
cloves,  and  a  sliced  carrot  and  turnip,  bringing  to  a  boil,  and  skim- 
ming it  until  clear  (if  not  enough  to  cover,  add  more  boiling  water), 
and  boil  four  or  five  hours,  take  up,  remove  cloth,  wash  it  in  cold 
water,  and  replace  turkey  in  it  as  before,  place  it  between  two 
platters  under  a  heavy  weight,  and  let  stand  over  night  to  cool; 
strain  the  stock  in  which  it  was  boiled,  in  the  morning  remove  all 
fat,  and  put  stock  over  the  fire ;  add  to  it  two  ounces  gelatine  dis- 
solved in  a  pint  of  cold  water,  and  clarify  as  in  general  directions  for 
"Soups."  Stmiii  through  flannel  until  perfectly  clear,  pour  it  into 
two  shallow  molds,  color  one  dark  brown  with  caramel,  and  cool 
until  the  jelly  is  firm ;  place  turkey  on  a  dish  and  garnish  with  the 
jelly  cut  in  fanciful  shapes ;  or  first  place  the  turkey  on  a  dish,  and 

pour  the  jelly  over  it. 

Boiled  Turkey. 

Wash  the  turkey  thoroughly  and  rub  salt  through  it :  fill  it  with 

a  dressing  of  bread  and  butter,  moistened  with  milk  and  seasoned 

with  sage,  salt  and  pepper,  and  mixed  with  a  pint  of  raw  oysters ; 

tie  the  legs  and  wings  close  to  the  body,  place  in  salted  boiling 

water  with  the  breast  downward,  skim  often,  boil  about  two  houTS, 

but  not  till  the  skin  breaks ;  serve  with  oyster-sauce. — Mrs.  E,  L, 

F.,  New  York  Oity. 


POULTRY.  283 

Roast  Turkey. 

After  picking  and  singeing  the  turkey,  plump  it  by  plunging 
qoickly  three  times  into  boiling  water  and  then  three  times  into 
coldy  holding  it  by  the  legs ;  place  to  drain  and  dress  as  in  general 
directions;    prepare  stuffing  by  taking  pieces  of  dry  bread   and 
crust  (not  too  brown)  cut  off  a  loaf  of  bread  fully  three  or  four 
days  old  (but  not   moldy);  place  crust  and  pieces  in  a  pan  and 
pour  on  a  very  little  boiling  water,  cover  tightly  with  a  cloth,  let 
stand  until  soft,  add  a  large  lump  of  butter,  pepper,  salt,  one  or 
two  fresh  eggs,  and  the  bread  from  which  the  crust  was  cut,  so  as 
not  to  have  it  too  moist.     Mix  well  with  the  hands  and  season  to 
suit  taste ;  rub  inside  of  turkey  with   pepper  and  salt,  stuff  it  as 
already  directed  on  page  272,  and  sew  up  each  slit  with  a  strong 
thread ;  tie  the  legs  down  firmly,  and  press  the  wings  closely  to  the 
«de8,  securing  them  with  a  cord  tied  around  the  body  (or  use 
skewers  if  at  hand),  steam  (page  273)  from  one  to  three  hours  (or 
ontil  easOy  pierced  with  a  fork),  according  to  the  size,  then  place 
turkey  in  pan  with  water  from  dripping-pan  in  which  the  turkey 
was  steamed ;  lard  the  turkey,  or  place  on  the  breast  the  pieces  of 
&t  taken  from  it  before  it  was  stuffed,  sprinkle  with  salt  and  pep- 
per, dredge  well  with  fiour;  if  not  sufficient  water  in  the  pan,  keep 
adding   boUing  water  and  baste  often,   as  the  excellence  of  the 
turkey  depends  much  on  this.     Cook  until  a  nice  brown  and  per- 
fectly tender ;  remove  to  a  hot  platter  and  serve  with  cranberry 
sauce  and  giblet  gravy.     To  make  the  gravy,  after  the  turkey  is 
dished  place  the  dripping-pan  on  the  top  of  range  or  stove,  skim 
off  most  of  the  fat,  and  add  water  if  necessary ;  chop  the  heart, 
gizzard  and  liver  (previously  boiled  for  two  hours  in  two  quarts  of 
water),  and  add  to  the  gravy  with  the  water  in  which  they  were 
boiled,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  add  a  smooth  thickening  of 
flour  and  water,  stir  constantly  until  thoroughly  mixed  with  the 
gravy,  and  boil  until  the  flour  is  well  cooked.     Some,  in  making 
stuffing,  try  out  the  fat  of  the  turkey  at  a  low  temperature,  and  use 
instead  of  butter;  others  use  the  fat  of  sweet-pickled  pork  chopped 
fine  (not  tried  out),  and  a  small  quantity  of  butter,  or  none  at  alL 
-lfr8.  Judge  J.  L.  Porter. 


284  POULTRY. 

ROABT  TUKKEY. 

Prepare  and  stuff  as  in  preceding  recipe,  and  lard  as  described 
in  general  directions;  place  in  oven  not  quite  as  hot  as  for  roast- 
ing meats  (if  the  fire  is  very  hot,  lay  a  piece  of  brown  paper,  well 
greased,  over  the  fowl,  to  prevent  scorching)  ;  put  a  table-spoon  of 
butter  in  bits  on  the  breast ;  it  will  melt  and  run  into  the  dripping- 
pan,  and  is  used  to  baste  the  fowl  as  roasting  progresses;    ba«te 
often  (oiice  in  ten  minutes),  watching  the  turkey  as  it  begins  to 
brown,  very  carefully,  and  turning  it  occasionally  to  expose  all  parts 
alike  to  the  heat ;  it  should  be  moist  and  tender,  not  in  the  least 
scorched,  blistered  or  shriveled,  till  it  is  a  golden  brown  all  over. 
For  the  first  two-thirds  of  the  time  required  for  cooking  (the  rule 
is  twenty  minutes  to  the  pound  and  twenty  minutes  longer)  the 
basting  should  keep  the  surface  moistened  so  that  it  will  not  crisp 
at  all ;  meantime  the  oven  should  be  kept  as  close  as  possible.     In 
basting  use  the  door  that  opens  to  the  lefl,  so  that  the  right  hand 
may  be  used  conveniently  through  a  small  opening;   and   a    long 
gauntlet  glove  is  a  good  thing  to  protect  the  hand  and  arm  during 
the  operation.     In  turning  the  pan,  do  it  as  quickly  as  possible ; 
season  with  two  tea-spoons  salt  when  half  done.     In  the  last  third 
of  the  time  allowed  for  cooking,  withdraw  the  pan  partly  from  the 
oven  (resting  the  end  on  a  block  of  wood  or  a  plain  stool  of  the 
proper  height  kept  for  the  purpose),  and  dredge  the  breast,  upper 
portion  and  sides  thoroughly,  by  sifting  flour  over  the  fowl  from  a 
fine  sifter,  return  pan  to  oven,  and  let  remain  until  the  flour  is  well 
browned,  then  baste  freely  with  drippings  from  the  pan,  and  flour 
again,  repeating  the  flouring  and  browning,  and  allowing  the  crust 
to  grow  crisixjr  each  time ;  there  will  probably  be  time  to  repeat 
the  process  three  or  four  times  before  finishing.     Take  care  not  to 
wash  off  the  flour  by  basting ;  give  it  time  to  brown  on  thoroughly, 
and  do  not  take  out  of  oven  until  all  the  flour  of  last  dredging 
is  thoroughly  browned.     If  it  is  necessary  to  turn  the  turkey  in  the 
pan,  use  a  towel,  and  never  stick  it  with  a  fork,  to  allow  the  juice 
to  escape.     In  roasting  a  large  turkey,  a  liberal  allowance  of  but- 
ter  for   cooking,   including  gravy  for   serving  in  two   successive 
days,  is  one  tea-cupful,  but  lass  may  be  used,    according  to  taste 
or  necessity  for  economy.     When  done  the  entire  surface  will  be  a 


POULTRY.  285 

rich,  filthy,  brown  crust,  which  breaks  off  in  Bhelb  in  carving, 
and  makes  the  most  savory  of  morsels.     Dish  the  turkey. 

To  make  the  gravy,  boil  the  heart,  liver,  gizzard  and  neck  in  two 
quarts  of  water  for  two  hours,  then  take  them  up,  chop  gizzard, 
heart  and  liver,  put  them  back  again,  thicken  with  one  table-spoon 
of  flour  wet  with  cold  water;  season  with  salt  and  pepper ;  after  the 
turkey  has  been  taken  up,  pour  into  dripping-pan,  set  on  the  top  of 
the  stove,  and  boil  five  minutes,  stirring  constantly,  scraping  the 
rides  of  the  pan  until  free  from  the  rich,  savory  particles  that  ad- 
here.    Serve  in  a  gravy-boat. 

RoABT  Turkey  with  Oyster  Dressing. 

Dress  and  rub  turkey  thoroughly  inside  and  out  with  salt  and 
pepper,  steam  two  hours  or  until  it  begins  to  grow  tender,  lifting 
the  cover  occasionally  and  sprinkling  lightly  with  salt.  Then  take 
out,  loosen  the  legs,  and  rub  the  inside  again  with  salt  and  pepper, 
and  stuff  with  a  dressing  prepared  as  follows :  Take  a  loaf  of  stale 
bread,  cut  off  crust  and  soflen  by  placing  in  a  pan,  pouring  on 
boiling  water,  draining  off  immediately  and  covering  closely; 
crumble  the  bread  fine,  add  half  a  pound  melted  butter,  or  more 
if  to  be  very  rich,  and  a  tea-spoon  each  of  salt  and  pepper,  or 
enough  to  season  rather  highly;  drain  off  liquor  from  a  quart 
of  oysters,  bring  to  a  boil,  skim  and  pour  over  the  bread -crumbs, 
adding  the  soaked  crusts  and  one  or  two  eggs ;  mix  all  thoroughly 
with  the  hands,  and  if  rather  dry,  moisten  with  a  little  sweet  milk; 
lastly,  add  the  oysters,  being  careful  not  to  break  them ;  or  first  put 
in  a  spoonful  of  stufiing,  and  then  three  or  four  oysters,  and  so  on 
until  the  turkey  is  filled ;  stuff  the  breast  first.  Flour  a  cloth  and 
place  over  the  openings,  tying  it  down  with  a  twine ;  spread  the 
turkey  over  with  butter,  salt  and  pepper,  place  in  a  dripping-pan 
in  a  well-heated  oven,  add  half  a  pint  hot  water,  and  roast  two 
hours,  basting  often  with  a  little  water,  butter,  salt  and  pepper, 
kept  in  a  tin  fi)r  this  purpose  and  placed  on  the  back  of  the 
stove.  A  swab  made  of  a  stick  with  a  cloth  tied  on  the  end,  is 
better  than  a  spoon  to  baste  with.  Turn  until  nicely  browned  on 
all  sides,  and  about  half  an  hour  before  it  is  done,  baste  with  butter 
and  dredge  with  a  little  flour—this  will  give  it  a  frothy  appearance. 


286  POULTRY. 

When  you  dish  the  turkey  if  there  is  much  fat  in  the  pan,  pour  off 
most  of  it,  and  add  the  chopped  giblets  previously  cooked  until 
tender,  and  the  water  in  which  they  were  cooked,  now  stewed  down 
to  about  one  pint ;  place  one  or  two  heaping  table-spoons  flour  (it  is 
better  to  have  half  of  it  browned)  in  a  pint  bowl,  mix  smooth  with 
a  little  cream,  flU  up  bowl  with  cream  or  rich  milk  and  add  to  the 
gravy  in  the  pan;  boil  several  minutes,  stirring  constantly,  and 
pour  into  the  gravy  tureen ;  serve  with  currant  or  apple  jelly.  A 
turkey  steamed  in  this  way  does  not  look  so  well  on  the  table,  but 
is  very  tender  ^nd  palatable.  It  is  an  .excellent  way  to  cook  a 
large  turkey. 

English  Boast  Turkey. 

Kill  several  days  before  cooking,  prepare  in  the  usual  manner, 
stufl*  with  bread-crumbs  (not  using  the  crusts)  rubbed  fine,  moistened 
with  butter  and  two  eggs,  seasoned  with  salt,  pepper,  parsley,  sage, 
thyme  or  sweet  marjoram ;  sew  up,  skewer,  and  place  to  roast  in  a 
rack  within  a  dripping-pan ;  spread  with  bits  of  butter,  turn 
and  baste  frequently  with  butter,  pepper,  salt  and  water;  a  few 
minutes  before  it  is  done  glaze  with  the  white  of  an  egg ;  dish 
the  turkey,  pour  off  most  of  the  fat,  add  the  chopped  giblets  and 
the  water  in  which  they  were  boiled,  thicken  with  flour  and  butter 
rubbed  together,  stir  in  the  dripping-pan,  let  boil  thoroughly  and 
serve  in  a  gravy-boat.  Grarnish  with  fried  oysters,  and  serve  with 
celery-sauce  and  stewed  gooseberries.  Choose  a  turkey  weighing 
from  eight  to  ten  pounds.  If  it  becomes  too  brown,  cover  with 
buttered  paper. — Mrs,  C,  T,  Carson, 

Meat  Jellt  for  Boned  Turkey. 

Take  oil  from  the  water  (when  cold)  in  which  turkey  was  boiled, 
strain  into  a  porcelain  kettle,  add  two  ounces  gelatine,  three  eggs, 
with  shells,  a  wine-glass  sherry  or  madeira;  stir  well.  Add  one 
quart  strained  liquor,  beat  rapidly  with  an  egg-beater,  put  on  fire, 
and  stir  till  boils ;  simmer  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  sprinkle  with  a 
pinch  of  turmeric,  and  strain  as  other  jelly;  when  cold,  break  up 
and  place  over  and  around  turkey.  Cut  in  thick  slices  and  fancifrd 
shapes  with  paste-cutter. — Mrs,  8.  T.  A^^Va. 


SALADS. 


Vegetables  used  for  salads  are:  boiled  asparagus,  cabbage,  red 
and  white;  lettuce,  chicory,  boiled  cauliflower,  celery,  dandelion, 
purslane,  water-cress,  etc.  Prepare  carefully  by  freshening  in  cool 
water,  cleaning  thoroughly  of  all  foreign  matters,  drying  carefully 
in  a  towel  (avoiding  as  much  as  possible  crushing  the  leaves,  as  it 
causes  them  to  wilt),  and  then  shredding  with  the  fingers  instead  of 
cutting  or  chopping  with  a  knife.  Lettuce  is  oflen  served  with  the 
leaves  entire,  reserving  the  tender  inner  leaves  of  lettuce  for  garnish- 
mg;  cover  with  a  "dressing,"  which  consists  chiefly  of  oil,  vinegar, 
salt,  pepper,  and  mustard,  mixed  in  various  proportions.  All  the 
ingredients  of  the  dressing  should  be  the  very  best. 

In  preparing  the  dressing,  powder  the  hard  boiled  eggs,  either  in 
a  mortar  or  by  mashing  with  the  Imck  of  a  silver  spoon  (if  raw 
eg^  are  used  I)eat  well  and  strain),  add  the  seasoning,  then  the  oil, 
a  few  drops  at  a  time,  and,  lastly  and  gradually,  the  vinegar.  Al- 
ways use  the  freshest  olive  salad  oil,  not  the  common  sweet  oil;  if  it 
can  not  be  obtained,  cream  or  melted  butter  is  a  good  substitute  and 
by  some  considered  even  more  palatable,  but  when  used  it  should  be 
added  last  of  all.  In  making  chicken  salad  use  the  oil  off  the 
water  in  which  the  chickens  were  boiled.  It  is  much  nicer  to  pick 
the  meat  or  cut  it  with  a  knife  instead  of  chopping,  always  removing 
hits  of  gristle,  fat  and  skin.  The  same  is  true  of  celery  (in  place 
of  which  celery  seed  may  be  used  with  white  cabbage  or  nice  head- 
lettuce,  well  chopped).  To  crisp  celery,  lettuce,  cabbage,  and  all 
vegetables  used  for  salads,  put  in  ice-water  for  two  hours  before  serv- 

(2»7) 


288  SALADS. 

ing.  Pour  the  dressing  over  the  chicken  and  celery,  mixed  and 
slightly  salted ;  toss  up  lightly  with  a  silver  fork,  turn  on  a  platter, 
form  into  an  oval  mound,  garnish  the  top  with  slices  of  cold  boiled 
eggs,  and  around  the  bottom  with  sprigs  of  celery,  and  set  away  in 
a  cold  place  until  needed.  Salads  should  be  served  the  day  they  are 
prep«ared.  Vegetable  salads  should  be  stirred  as  little  as  possible, 
in  order  that  their  freshness  may  be  preserved  until  they  are  served. 
To  fringe  celery  stalks  for  use  as  a  garnish  for  salads,  meats,  chicken, 
etc.,  cut  the  stalks  into  two-inch  pieces ;  stick  several  coarse  needles 
into  the  top  of  a  cork ;  draw  half  of  the  stalk  of  each  piece  of  celery 
through  the  needles  several  times.  When  all  the  fibrous  parts  are 
separated,  lay  the  celery  in  some  cold  place  to  curl  and  crisp.  Stir 
salads  with  a  wooden  fork  or  spoon.  Many  think  turkey  makes  a 
nicer  salad  than  chicken.  Always  make  soup  of  the  liquor  in  whioh 
turkey  or  chicken  was  boiled. 


Sidney  Smith's  Winter  Salad. 

Two  large  potatoes,  passed  through  kitchen  sieve. 

Unwonted  softness  to  the  salad  give ; 

Of  mordant  mustard  add  a  single  spoon — 

Distrust  the  condiment  which  bites  too  soon ; 

But  deem  it  not,  though  made  of  herbs,  a'  fault 

To  add  a  double  quantity  of  salt; 

Three  times  the  spoon  with  oil  of  Lucca  crown, 

And  once  witli  vinegar  procured  from  town. 

True  flavor  needs  it,  and  your  poet  begs 

The  pounded  yellow  of  two  well-boiled  eggs. 

Let  onion  atoms  lurk  within  the  bowl, 

And,  half-suspected,  animate  the  whole  ; 

And  lastly,  on  the  favored  compound  toss 

A  magic  tea-spoon  of  anchovy  sauce. 

Tlien,  though  green  turtle  fail,  though  venison 's  tough. 

Though  ham  and  turkey  are  not  boiled  enough, 

Serenely  full,  the  epicure  shall  say, 

"  Fate  can  not  harm  me — I  have  dined  to  day." 

Asparagus  Salad. 

After  having  scraped  and  washed  asparagus,  boil  soft  in  salt 
water,  drain  off  water,  add  pepper,  salt  and  strong  cider  vinegar, 
and  then  cool.  Before  serving,  arrange  asparagus  so  that  heads 
will  all  lie  in  center'  of  dish ;  mix  the  vinegar  in  which  it  was  put 


SALADS.  289 

after  removing  from  the  fire  with  good  olive  oil  or  melted  batter,  and 
pour  over  the  asparagus. — Mn.  L&ims  Brawn. 

Bean  Sajlad. 
String  young  beans,  break  into  half-inch  pieces  (or  leave  whole), 
wash  and  cook  soft  in  salt  water ;  drain  well,  add  finely-chopped 
onions,  pepper,  salt  and  vinegar;  when  cool  add  olive-oil  or  melted 
batter.     The  onions  may  be  omitted. 

Cabbage  Salad. 
Two  quarts  finely-chopped  cabbage,  two  level  table-spoons  salt, 
two  of  white  sugar,  one  of  black  pepper,  and  a  heaping  one  of 
ground  mustard ;  rub  yolks  of  four  hard-boiled  eggs  until  smooth, 
add  half  cup  butter,  slightly  warmed ;  mix  thoroughly  with  the  cab* 
bage,  iEmd  add  tea-cup  good  vinegar;  serve  with  whites  of  the  eggs 
sliced  and  placed  on  the  salad. — Mrs,  Col.  Hawkins, 

Cabbage  Salad. 
Put  the  milk  and  vinegar  on  to  heat  in  separate  sauce-pans;  when 
the  vinegar  boils,  add  butter,  sugar,  salt  foxd  pepper,  and  stir  in  the 
chopped  cabbage ;  cover,  and  let  scald  and  steam — ^not  boil — ^for  a 
moment,  meanwhile,  remove  hot  milk  from  stove,  cool  a  little,  and 
stir  in  the  well-beaten  and  strained  yolks ;  return  to  stove,  and  boil 
a  moment.  Dish  cabbage  and  pour  custard  over  it,  stir  rapidly  with 
a  silver  spoon  until  well  mixed,  and  set  immediately  in  a  cold  place. 

Creah  Slaw. 
Odc  gallon  cabbage  cut  very  fine,  pint  vinegar,  pint  sour  cream, 
half  cup  sugar,  tea-8poon  flour,  two  eggs,  and  a  piece  of  butter  the 
fflze  of  a  walnut;  put  vinegar,  sugar  and  butter  in  a  sauce-pan  anci 
let  boil;  stir  eggs,  cream  and  flour,  previously  well  mixed,  into  the 
vinegar,  boil  thoroughly  and  throw  over  the  cabbage  previously 
sprinkled  with  one  table-spoon  salt,  one  of  black  pepper  and  one  of 
mustard. — Mn,  Dr.  Skiniiery  Somerset, 

Plain  Cold  Slaw. 

Slice  cabbage  very  fine,  season  with  salt,  pepper,  and  a  little 

rogar;  pour  ever  vinegar  and  mix  thoroughly.     It  is  nice  served  in 

the  center  of  a  platter  with  fried  oysters  around  it. 
19 


290  SALADS. 

Chicken  Salad. 

Chop  fine  one  chicken  cooked  tender,  one  head  cabbage,  and  five 

cold  hard-boiled  eggs;   season  with  salt,  pepper   and  mustard  to 

tajste ;  warm  one  pint  vinegar,  add  half  a  tea-cup  butter,  stir  until 

melted,  pour  hot  over  the  mixture,  stir  thoroughly,  and  set  away  to 

cool. 

Chicken  Balad. 

Boil  three  chickens  until  tender,  salting  to  taste ;  when  cold  cut 
iQ  small  pieces  and  add  twice  the  quantity  of  celery  cut  up  with  a 
knife  but  not  chopped,  and  four  cold-boiled  eggs  sliced  and  thor- 
oughly mizQ^  through  the  other  ingredients.  For  dressing,  put  on 
fitove  a  sauce-pan  with  one  pint  vinegar  and  butter  size  of  an  egg; 
beat  two  or  three  eggs  with  two  table-spoons  mustard,  one  of  black 
pepper,  two  of  sugar,  and  a  tea-spoon  salt,  and  when  thoroughly 
beaten  together  pour  slowly  into  the  vinegar  until  it  thickens.  Be 
careful  not  to  cook  too  long  or  the  egg  will  curdle.  Remove,  and 
when  cold  pour  over  salad.  This  may  be  prepared  the  day  before, 
adding  the  dressing  just  before  using.  Add  lemon  juice  to  improve 
the  flavor,  and  garnish  the  top  with  slices  of  lemon. — Mrs.  C.  E, 
Shirmer,  Battle  Creek,  Mich. 

Chicken  Salad. 
Boil  one  chicken  tender;    chop  moderately  fine  the  whites  of 

twelve  hard-boiled  eggs  and  the  chicken ;  add  equal  quantities  of 
chopped  celery  and  cabbage ;  mash  the  yolks  fine,  add  two  table- 
spoons butter,  two  of  sugar,  one  tea-spoon  mustard ;  pepper  and 
salt  to  taste;  and  lastly,  one  half-cup  good  cider  vinegar;  pour 
over  the  salad,  and  mix  thoroughly.  If  no  celery  is  at  hand,  use 
fhopped  pickled  cucumbers  or  lettuce  and  celery  seed.  This  may 
be  mixed  two  or  three  days  before  using. — Mrs,  Judge  Lawrence^ 

BeUefontaine, 

Chicken  Salad. 

Four  chickens ;  two  bunches  of  celery  to  each  chicken  ;  one  pint 
vinegar,  two  eggs,  two  table-spoons  salad  oil,  two  of  liquid  mustard^ 
one  of  sugar,  one  of  salt,  one  salt-spoon  red  pepper ;  make  a  cus^ 
tard  of  eggs  and  vinegar ;  beat  oil,  mustard,  and  red  pepper  to- 
gether ;  stir  into  custard  ;  add  celery  just  before  using.  The  above 
18  sufiicient  for  twenty  persons. — Mrs.  J.    W.  0.,  Ricknumd, 


SALADS.  291 

Cucumber  Salad. 
Peel  and  slice  cucumbers ;  mix  with  salt,  and  let  stand  half  an 
hour ;  mix  two  tablespoons  3weetK)il  or  ham  gravy  with  as  much 
yinegar,  and  a  tea-spoon  sugar ;  add  the  cucumbers,  which  should 
be  drained  a  httle ;  add  a  tea-spoon  pepper,  and  stir  well.  Sliced 
onioDsarean  addition,  if  their  flavor  is  liked. — Mrs.  H.  G.  Mahncke, 

Ham  Salad. 
Cut  up  small  bits  of  boiled  ham,  place  in  salad-bowl  with  the 
hearts  and  inside  leaves  of  a  head  of  lettuce.  Make  dressing  as  fol- 
lows :  Mix  in  a  sauce-pan  one  pint  sour  cream,  as  free  from  milk  as 
possible,  aud  half  pint  good  vinegar,  pepper,  salt,  a  small  piece  of 
butter,  sugar,  and  a  small  table-spoon  of  mustard  mixed  smooth ; 
boil,  add  the  well-beaten  yolks  of  two  eggs,  stirring  carefully  as  for 
float,  until  it  thickens  to  the  consistency  of  starch,  then  set  in  a  cool 
place  or  on  ice,  and  when  cold  pour  over  salad  and  mix  well. — Mrs. 
&  Watson^  Upper  Sandtuky^  Ohio. 

Herring  Salad. 
Soak  over  night  three  Holland  herrings  cut  in  very  small  pieces; 
cook  and  peel  eight  medium  potatoes,  and  when  cold  chop  with  two 
small  cooked  red  beets,  two  onions,  a  few  sour  apples,  some  roasted 
veal,  and  three  hard  boiled  eggs ;  mix  with  a  sauce  of  'sweet>oil, 
vinegar,  stock,  pepper,  and  mustard  to  taste.  A  table-spoon  of 
thick  sour  cream  improves  the  sauce,  which  should  stand  over  night 
in  an  earthen  dish. — Mrs.  H.  C.  Mahndke. 

Lettuce  Salad. 
Take  the  yolks  of  three  hard-boiled  eggs,  add  salt  and  mustard 

to  taste;   mash  it  fine;  make  a  paste   by  adding  a  dessertspoon 

of  olive^il  or  melted  butter  (use  butter  always  when  it  is  difficuR 

to  ^t  fresh,  oil)  ;  mix  thoroughly,  and  then  dilute  by  adding  gradr 

woffy  a  tea-cup  of  vinegar,  and  pour  over  the  lettuce.     Garnish  by 

ditsin/g  another  tg^  and  laying  over  the  lettuce.     This  is  sufficient 

for  a  moderate-sized  dish  of  lettuce.— 3/r«.  CW.  Reidy  Delaware,  Ohu>. 

Lobster  Salad. 
Put  a  large  lobster  over  the  fire  in  boiling  water  slightly  salted; 
boil  rapidly  for  about  twenty  minutes ;  when  done  it  will  be  of  a 
bright  red  color,  and  should  be  removed,  as  if  boiled  too  long  it  will 


292  SALADS. 

be  tough  \  when  cold,  crack  the  daws,  after  first  diqointbg,  twist 
off  the  head  (which  is  used  in  garnishing),  split  the  body  in  two 
lengthwise,  pick  out  the  meat  in  bits  not  too  fine,  saving  the  cond 
separate ;  cut  up  a  large  head  of  lettuce  slightly,  and  place  on  a 
dish  over  which  lay  the  lobster,  putting  the  coral  around  the  out- 
side. For  dressing,  take  the  yolks  of  three  eggs,  beat  well,  add 
four  table-spoons  salad-oil,  dropping  it  in  very  slowly,  beating  aU 
t  he  time ;  then  add  a  little  salt,  cayenne  pepper,  half  tea-spoon 
mixed  mustard,  and  two  table-spoons  vinegar.  Pour  this  over  the 
lobster,  just  before  sending  to  table. — Mn,  A,  Wilson,  Rife,  N.  T. 

Potato  Salad. 
Boil  four  large  Irish  potatoes,  peel  and  mash  smooth ;  mince  two 
onions,  and  add  to  the  potato,  make  a  dressing  of  the  yolks  of  three 
hard'boiled  eggs,  one  small  tea-cup  of  vinegar,  one  tearspoon  black 
pepper,  one  dessert-spoon  each  of  celery  seeds  and  salt,  one  table- 
spoon each  of  prepared  mustard  and  melted  butter ;  mix  well  with 
potato,  and  garnish  with  slices  of  egg  and  celery  or  lettuce.  Or, 
chop  cold  boiled  potatoes  fine  with  enough  raw  onions  to  season 
•  nicely;  make  a  dressing  as  for  lettuce  salad,  and  pour  over  it. — 
Mn.  James  A,  JenrUngs,  Nashville,  Tennessee. 

Salmon  Salad. 
Set  a  can  of  salmon  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water,  let  boil  twenty 
minutes,  take  out  of  the  can  and  put  in  a  deep  dish,  pour  off  the 
juice  or  oil,  put  a  few  cloves  in  and  around  it,  sprinkle  salt  and 
pepper  over,  cover  with  cold  vinegar,  and  let  it  stand  a  day,  take 
it  from  the  vinegar  and  lay  it  on  a  platter.  Prepare  a  dressing  as 
fellows :  Beat  the  yolks  of  two  itiw  eggs  with  the  yolks  of  two  eggs 
lx)iled  hard  and  mashed  fine  as  possible;  add  gradually  a  table- 
spoon mustard,  three  of  melted  butter,  or  the  best  of  salad-oil,  a 
little  salt  and  pepper  (either  black  or  cayenne),  and  vinegar  to  taste. 
Beat  the  mixture  a  long  time  (some  persons  like  the  addition  of 
lemon  juice  and  a  little  brown  sugar) ;  cover  the  salmon  thickly 
I  with  a  part  of  the  dressing,  tear  up  very  small  the  crisp  inside 

leaves  of  lettuce,  put  in  the  remainder  of  the  mixture,  and  pour 
over  with  two  or  three  larger  pieces  placed  around  the  salmon,  and 
serve* 


SALADS.  293 

Tomato  Salad. 
Take  the  skin,  juice,  and  seeds  from  nice,  fresh  tomatoes,  chop 
what  remains  with  celery,  and  add  a  good  salad-dressing. 

Salad  Dressing. 
Yolks  of  two  hard-boiled  eggs  rubbed  very  fine  and  smooth,  one 

tearspoon  English  mustard,  oue  of  salt,  the  yolks  of  two  raw  eggs 

beaten  into  the  other,  dessertrgpoon  of  fine  sugar.     Add  very  fresh 

Bweet-oil  poured  in  by  very  small  quantities,  and  beaten  as  long  as 

the  mixture  continues  to  thicken,  then  add  vinegar  till  as  thin  as 

desired.      If  not  hot  enough  with   mustard,  add  a   little  cayenne 

pepper.— 3fr«.  Gov.  Cheney 

Salad  Dressing. 
The  yolks  of  two  eggs  beaten  thoroughly,  one  level  tea-spoon  salt, 
one  of  pepper,  two  of  white  sugar,  two  tea-spoons  prepared  mustard, 
one  table-spoon  butter;  stir  in  the  mixture  four  table-spoons  best 
vmegar,  put  dressing  into  a  bowl,  set  it  in  a  kettle  of  hot  water,  and 
stir  constantly  till  it  thickens ;  set  away,  and  when  cool  it  is  ready 
for  use.  This  is  sufiScieut  for  one  quart  finely-chopped  cabbage,  and 
should  be  poured  over  while  hot,  and  thoroughly  mixed  with  the 
cabbage,  which  may  then  be  placed  upon  a  platter,  formed  into  an 
oyal  mound,  and  served  cold. 

Bottled  Salad  Dressing. 
Beat  yolks  of  eight  eggs,  add  to  them  a  cup  of  sugar,  one  table- 
spoon each  of  salt,  mustard,  and  black  pepper,  a  little  cayenne,  and 
half  a  cup  of  cream ;  mix  thoroughly ;  bring  to  a  boil  a  pint  and  a 
Wf  vinegar,  add  one  cup  butter,  let  come  to  a  boil,  pour  upon  the 
mixture,  stir  well,  and  when  cold  put  into  bottles,  and  set  in  a  cool 
place.  It  will  keep  for  weeks  in  the  hottest  weather,  and  is  excel- 
lent for  cabbage  or  lettuce. 

Cream  Dressing  for  Cold  Slaw. 
Two  tablespoons  whipped  sweet  cream,  two  of  sugar,  and  four 
of  vinegar ;  beat  well  and  pour  over  cabbage,  previously  cut  very 
fine  and  seasoned  with  salt. — MisB  Laura  Sfiarp^  Klngeton. 

Mayonnaise  Dressing. 
^t  a  raw  egg  (some  use  the  yolks  only)  with  a  salt-spoon  of  salt 
(usmg  a  wooden-spoon)  until  it  is  thoroughly  smooth,  add  a  tea-spoon 


294  SALADS. 

mixed  mustard  made  rather  thicker  than  usual ;  when  quite  smooth 
add  by  degrees  (a  few  drops  only  at  a  time)  a  half-pint  of  olive-oil, 
taking  care  to  blend  each  portion  of  it  with  the  egg  before  adding 
more.  This  ought  to  be  as  smooth  as  honey,  and  thick  enough  so 
that  a  spoon  will  stand  up  in  it ;  dilute  with  vinegar  until  it  assumes 
the  consistency  of  thick  cream.  A  little  anchovy  may  be  added  if 
desired.  Lemon  juice  may  be  used  instead  of  vinegar,  or  a  few 
drops  may  be  added  with  the  vinegar.  This  is  the  smoothest  and 
richest  of  salad  dressings.  The  oily  flavor  is  entirely  lost  in  com- 
bination with  the  raw  egg.  When  you  begin  to  add  the  oil,  drop  a 
very  little  at  first  as  it  may  curdle  the  egg.  This  sauce  keeps  well, 
if  bottled  and  corked  with  a  glass  stopper,  and  it  may  be  made  at 
any  time  in  advance,  if  only  yolks  are  used,  when  yolks  are  lefk 
over  from  baking.  In  summer,  place  oil  and  eggs  in  a  cold  place, 
half  an  hour  before  making. 

Salad-Dressino  with  Potato. 

Peel  one  large  potato,  boil,  mash  until  all  lumps  are  out,  and  add 
the  yolk  of  a  raw  egg,  stir  all  well  t<jgether  and  season  with  a  tea- 
spoon of  mustard  and  a  little  salt ;  add  about  half  a  gill  of  olive- 
oil  and  vinegar,  putting  in  only  a  drop  or  two  at  a  time,  and  stir- 
ring constantly,  as  the  succass  of  the  dressing  depends  on  its  smooth« 
ness.  This  dressing  is  very  nice  with  celery  or  cabbage  chopped 
fine,  and  seasoned  with  a  little  salt  and  vinegar. — Mrs.  E,  L,  Fay. 

Otsteb  Salab. 

Half  gallon  each  fresh  oysters  and  celery  cut  into  dice,  yolks  of 
four  hard-boiled  eggs,  a  raw  egg  whipped,  two  large  spoons  melted 
butter,  two  tea-spoons  each  of  salt,  black  pepper  and  made  mustard, 
one  tea-cup  vinegar,  two  pickled  cucumbers  cut  fine.  Drain  liquor 
from  oysters,  throw  in  hot  vinegar  on  the  fire,  let  them  stay  until 
plump,  not  cooked.  Put  at  once  in  cold  water,  drain  off,  and  set  in 
cool  place ;  prepare  dressing.  Bub  salt,  pepper  and  mustard  with 
the  yolks  finely  mashed ;  add  butter,  a  few  drops  at  a  time.  When 
smooth,  add  beaten  egg,  then  vinegar  by  the  spoonful ;  set  aside.  Mix 
oysters,  celery  and  pickle,  tossing  up  well  with  a  silver  fork;  salt  to 
taste.     Pour  dressing  over  all. — Mn,  OoL  O,  8.  Park,  Parkville,  Mo. 


SHELL-FISH. 


There  is  not  a  lover  of  oysters  in  existence  who  does  not  heartily 
sympathize  with  the  boy  who  wanted  to  spell  August  "  O-r-g-u-s-t," 
in  order  to  bring  it  into  the  list  of  the  months  which  contain  an  **r,* 
in  all  of  which  oysters  are  in  season.  The  delicious  bivalves  furnish 
an  important,  and,  in  most  localities,  a  not  expensive  article  of  food ; 
and  the  ease  with  which  they  are  prepared  for  the  table,  and  the 
great  variety  of  ways  in  which  they  may  be  cooked  and  served, 
make  them  a  great  favorite  with  housekeepers. 

Oysters  in  the  shell  must  be  kept  in  a  cool  cellar,  and  occasionally 
sprinkled  with  salt  water.  When  fresh,  the  shell  is  firmly  closed; 
if  open,  the  oyster  is  dead  and  unfit  for  use.  The  small-shelled 
oysters  have  the  finest  flavor.  For  the  freshness  of  canned  oysters 
it  is  necessary  to  tni^t  to  the  dealer,  but  never  buy  cans  the  sides 
of  which  are  swollen.  .  In  preparing  them  for  cooking  or  for  the 
table,  carefully  remove  all  bits  of  shell.  Never  salt  oysters  for 
soups  or  stews  till  just  before  removing  them  from  the  fire,  or  they 
will  shrivel  up  and  be  hard,  and  do  not  add  butter.  In  frying,  a 
Uttk  bahing-jxywder  added  to  the  cracker-dust  or  corn-meal  in  which 
they  are  rolled  will  greatly  improve  them.  Boasting  in  the  shell 
preserves  the  natural  flavor.  Always  serve  immediately  after'  cooking^ 
no  matter  what  method  is  used. 

As  to  nutritive  qualities,  oysters  rank  much  below  butcher's  meats, 
and  it  is  even  questioned  whether  they  contain  the  phosphorus,  or 
brain  food,  which  has  been  credited  to  them  in  company  with  the 
finny  tribe  in  general.  But,  when  properly  cooked,  they  are  easy 
of  digestion,  and  very  proper  food  for  persons  whose  occupation  is 

-296) 


296 


SHELL-FISH, 


sedentary,  and  whose  duties  do  not  call  for  heavy  muscular  exertion. 
Even  for  invalids,  they  are  nutritious  and  wholesome,  when  deli- 
cately prepared. 

Clam  Chowder. 
Chop  fifty  clan)/B,  peel  and  slice  ten  raw  potatoes,  cut  into  dice  six 
oiiions  and  a  half  pound  fat  salt  pork,  slice  six  tomatoes  (if  canned 
use  a  coffee-cup  inll),  add  a  pound  i)ilot  crackers;  first  put  pork  in 
l»ottom  of  pot  and  try  out,  partially  cook  onions  in  pork-fat,  remove 
ihe  mass  from  pot,  and  put  on  a  plate  bottom  side  up ;  make  layers 
of  the  ingredients,  season  with  pepper  and  salt,  cover  with  water 
and  boil  an  hour  and  a  half,  adding  chopped  parsley  to  taste. 

Clam  Pie. 
Take  three  pints  of  either  hard  or  soft-shell  clams  (if  large,  chop 
slightly),  put  in  a  sauce-pan  and  bring  to  a  boil  in  their  own  liquor^ 
or  add  a  little  water  if  needed ;  have  ready  four  medium-sized  po* 
tatoes,  boiled  till  done  and  cut  into  small  squares ;  make  a  nice  pie< 
paste  with  which  line  a  medium-sized  pudding-dish  half  way  down 
the  sides ;  turn  a  small  tea-cnp  bottom  up  in  middle  of  dish  to  keep 
up  the  top  crust ;  put  in  first  a  layer  of  clams,  and  then  a  few  po- 
tatoes, season  with  bits  of  butter  and  a  little  salt  and  pepper,  and 
dredge  with  fiour;  add  another  layer  of  clams,  and  m  on  till  dish 
is  filled,  adding  juice  of  clams,  and  a  little  water  if  necessary  (there 
should  be  about  as  much  liquid  as  for  chicken-pic).  Cover  with 
top-crust,  cutting  several  slits  for  steam  to  escape,  and  bake  thre» 
quarters  of  an  hour.  — Mrs.  A.  Tf%on,  Rye;  N.  Y, 

Clam  Stew. 

Take  half  peck  hard-shell  clams,  wash  shells  clean,  and  put  in  a 
kettle  with  about  one  tea-cup  water ;  let  steam  until  the  shells  open, 
when  take  out  of  shell,  strain  juice,  and  return  it  with  clams  to  th<^ 
fire ;  after  they  come  to  a  boil,  add  one  pint  milk,  a  piece  of  butter 
size  of  an  e^g,  three  crackers  rolled  fine,  pepper,  and  salt  if  any  is 
needed. — Mrs,  A.  W. 

Fried  Clams. 

Bemove  from  shell  large  soft-shell  clams;  beat  an  egg  well  and 
add  two  table-spoons  water ;  have  the  clam?  dried  in  a  towel,  and 
dip  them  first  in  the  egg,  then  in  finely-n  iled  cracker  or  bread* 


SHELL-FISH.  297 

crombsy  and  fry  (longer  than  oysters)  in  sweet  lard  or  butter.     Oys* 
ters  may  be  prepared  for  cooking  in  same  way. — Mrs,  A.  W, 

Deviled  Crabs. 
Pick  the  meat  irom  a  boiled  crab  and  cut  in  fine  bits,  add  one* 
third  as  much  bread-crumbs,  two  or  three  chopped  hard-boiled  eggs, 
and  lemon  juice;  season  with  pepper,  salt,  and  butter  or  cream. 
Clean  tho  shells  nicely  and  ^11  with  the  mixture,  sprinkle  oyer  with 
bread-crumbs  and  small  bits  of  butter,  and  brown  in  oven.  Lob- 
sters may  be  prepared  in  same  way,  and  served  in  silver  scallop- 
shells.  Or,  boil  one  pint  milk,  and  thicken  with  one  table-spoon 
com  starch  mixed  in  a  little  cold  milk,  season  with  pepper  (cayenne 
may  be  used)  and  salt,  and  pour  over  the  picked-up  lobster ;  put  in 
baking-dish,  and  cover  with  bread-crumbs  and  a  few  pieces  of  but- 
ter, and  brown  in  oven. — Mrs,  Cd.  S.,  Norfolk,  Va, 

Boiled  Oysters. 

Wash  shell-oysters  perfectly  clean,  place  in  a  small  willow  basket, 
drop  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water,  and  when  shells  open,  lift  basket, 
and  serve  oysters  on  the  half  shell. 

Broiled  Oysters. 

Dry  large,  selected  oystei-s  in  a  napkin,  pepper  and  salt,  and 
broil  on  a  fine  folding  wire-broiler,  turning  frequently  to  keep  the 
juice  from  wasting.  Serve  immediately  in  a  hot  dish  with  little 
pieces  of  butter  on  them.  Or,  pepper  a  cup  of  dry  bread-crumbfe, 
dry  one  quart  of  oysters  in  a  napkin,  dip  each  in  butter  previously 
peppered,  roll  well  in  the  crumbs,  and  broil  over  a  good  fire  for 
five  to  seven  minutes.  Serve  immediately  in  a  hot  dish  with  but- 
ter, pepper  and  salt. 

Broiled  Oysters  with  Pork. 

String  a  hair-pin  shaped  wire,  first  with  an  oyster,  then  with  a 
thin  slice  of  pork;  and  so  on  until  the  wire  is  filled  ;  fasten  ends  of 
wire  into  a  long  wooden  handle,  and  broil  before  the  fire.  Serve, 
with  the  pork,  if  you  like,  seasoning  slightly  with  pepper. 

Oyster  Croquettes. 
Scald  and  chop  fine  hard  part  of  the  oysters  (after  taking  the 
other  part  and  liquor  for  a  soup),  add  an  equal  weight  of  mashed 
potato ;  to  one  pound  of  this  add  lump  of  butter  the  size  of  an  egg. 


298 


SHELL-FISH. 


tea-spoon  salt,  half  tearspoon  of  pepper,  and  quarter  of  a  tea-cup 
cream.  Make  in  small  cakes,  dip  in  egg  and  then  in  btead-crumbs, 
and  fry  like  doughnuts. 

Broiled  Oysters  on  the  Half-shell. 
Select  large  shells,  clean  with  a  brush,  open,  saving  juice ;  put 
oysters  in  boiling  water  for  a  few  minutes,  remove  and  place  each 
oyster  in  a  half-shell|  with  juice ;  place  on  a  gridiron  over  a  brisk 
fire,  and  when  they  b^in  to  boil,  season  with  butter,  salt  and 
pepper  (some  add  a  drop  of  lemon  juice.)     Serve  on  the  half-ehelL 

Curried  Oysters. 

Put  the  liquor  drained  from  a  quart  of  oysters  into  a  sauce-pan, 

add  a  half-cup  of  butter,  two  table-spoons  flour,  and  one  of  curry 

powder,  well  mixed ;  let  boil,  add  oysters,  and  a  little  salt;  boil  up 

once  and  serve. 

Deviled  Oysters. 

Wipe  the  oysters  dry  and  lay  in  a  flat  dish,  cover  with  a  mixture 

of  melted  butter,  cayenne  pepper  (or  pepper  sauce),   and  lemon 

juice.  Let  them  lie  in  this  fi>r  ten  minutes,  turning  them  frequently ; 

take  out,   roll  in  cracker  crumbs,   then   in   beaten  egg,  then  in 

crumbs,  and  fry  in  hot  lard  and  butter,  half  and  half 

EscALOPED  Oysters. 
Take  crushed  crackers,  not  too  fine ;  drain  liquor  from  a  quart 
of  oysters  and  carefully  remove  all  bits  of  shell,  butter  a  deep 
dish  or  pan,  cover  the  bottom  with  crackers,  put  in  a  layer  of  oys- 
ters seasoned  with  salt  and  pepper  and  bits  of  butter  in  plenty, 
then  a  layer  of  crackers,  then  oysters,  and  so  on  until  dish  is  full^ 
finishing  with  the  crackers  covered  with  bits  of  butter ;  pour  over 
the  whole  the  oyster-liquor  added  to  one  pint  of  boiling  water 
(boiled  and  skimmed),  place  in  a  hot  oven,  bake  half  an  hour,  add 
another  pint  of  hot  water,  or  half  pint  water  and  half  pint  of  milk, 
in  which  a  small  lump  of  butter  has  been  melted ;  bake  another 
half  hour,  and,  to  prevent  browning  too  much,  cover  with  a  tin  or 
sheet-iron  lid.  All  bread-crumbs,  or  a  mixture  of  crackers  and 
bread-crumbs  may  be  used  when  more  convenient.  As  the  amount 
of  liquor  in  oysters  varies,  and  the  proportion  of  crackers  or  bread- 
crumbs to  the  oysters  also  varies,  the  quantity  of  water  must  be 


SHELL-FISH.  299 

increased  or  diminished  according  to  judgment  and  taste.  Some 
prefer  to  cook  half  the  time  given  above.  Boiled  macaroni  may  be 
used  in  place  of  cracker-cmmbs. 

Terrapin. 

Cut  off  head,  put  on  to  boil  with  shell  on ;  when  done  enough, 
remove  under  shell,  and  pick  terrapin  in  pieces.  Clean  top  shell 
well;  add  a  few  crackers,  onions,  parsley,  allspice,  salt,  pepper, 
butter,  and  wine;  return  to  shell,  garnish  with  sliced  lemon,  and 
bake.  Add  Cayenne  pepper,  if  liked,  in  seasoning.  Terrapin  or 
turtle'  steaks  are  fine  smothered  in  an  egg  batter  before  frying. — 
Mrs,  J.  C.  Oioena,  Oiarleston,  South  Carolina. 

Fried  Oysters. 

Drain  carefnUy,  remove  all  bits  of  shell,  and  sprinkle  with  pepper 
£:nd  :^lt,  and  set  in  a  cool  place  for  ten  or  fifteen  minutes.  Then, 
T  oysters  are  small,  pour  them  into  a  pan  of  crackers  rolled  fine, 
add  the  liquor,  mix  well,  and  let  stand  five  minutes,  add  a  little  salt 
and  pepper,  mold  into  small  cakes  with  two  or  three  oysters  in 
each,  roll  in  dry  crackers  until  well  encrusted,  and  fry  in  hot  lard 
and  butter,  or  beef-drippings.     Serve  hot  in  a  covered  dish. 

Or,  dip  the  oysters  in  the  yolk  of  eggs,  well  seasoned  and  beaten, 
then  in  corn  meal  with  a  little  baking  powder  mixed  with  it,  and 
fry  in  hot  lard  like  doughnuts ;  or  if  you  have  frying  basket,  place 
them  on  that  and  drop  it  in  the  hot  lard.  Test  the  heat  as  for 
doughnuts. 

Or,  drain  thoroughly,  put  in  a  hot  frying-pan,  turn  so  as  to 
brown  on  both  sides.  They  cook  in  this  way  in  a  few  moments, 
and  the  peculiar  flavor  of  the  oysters  is  well  preserved.  Serve  on 
a  hot  covered  dish,  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  or  add  a  little 
cream  just  before  serving,  and  sei-ve  on  toast ;  or  take  two  parts 
rolled  crackers  and  one  part  com  meal,  mix  well,  roll  the  oysters  in 
it,  and  fry  in  equal  parts  butter  and  lard.  Season  with  salt  and 
pepper.— ifr».  W,   W,  Wood». 

Fried  Oysters. 
To  fry  oysters,  take  two  dozen  large  oysters  (they  are  sold  under 
different  names  and  brands  in  different  markets),  drain  off  liquor; 


300 


SHELL-FISH. 


have  prepared  cracker  dust  (bought  of  any  grocer,  or  made  by 
crushmg  with  rolling  pin),  mix  well  one  tea-spoon  salt,  take  one  oys- 
ter at  a  time,  roll  in  cracker  dust,  and  lay  on  a  meat  board  or  plat- 
ter by  itself  until  all  are  so  encased,  and  laid  in  rows ;  let  remain 
fifteen  minutes,  now  take  the  oyster  first  rolled  in  cracker  dust  and 
dip  in  beaten  eggs  (yolk  and  white  beaten  together),  then  the  second 
oyster,  and  so  on  until  all  are  dipped,  then  roll  in  cracker  dust, 
following  same  order  as  before.  Let  them  remain  from  half  to 
three-quarters  of  an  hour.  It  is  important  to  follow  the  same  cnrder 
in  each  operation,  to  give  the  liquor  of  the  oyster  time  to  drain 
out  and  be  absorbed  by  the  cracker  dust ;  now  heat  in  a  frying-pan 
one  pound  of  clarified  fat  or  lard ;  when  the  blue  smoke  arises 
(which  indicates  a  heat  of  376°,  the  proper  cooking  point),  drop 
into  it  a  peeled  potato  or  piece  of  hard  bread,  which  has  the  effect 
of  preventing  the  fat  growing  hotter,  drop  in  the  oysters  very  lightly, 
and  when  a  light  brown  turn  to  brown  the  other  side ;  and  then 
remove  to  a  colander  to  drain  a  moment,  or  lay  upon  a  piece  of 
brown  paper,  which  will  absorb  the  superfluous  grease.  The  time 
for  cooking  is  about  three  minutes.  Serve  while  Jwt  on  a  hot  platter. 
Fried  oysters,  to  be  at  their  best,  must  be  eaten  as  soon  as  cooked; 
and  when  a  second  supply  is  likely  to  be  needed,  it  should  be  cooked 
while  the  first  is  being  served  and  eaten.  It  is  better  not  to  touch 
the  oysters  with  the  hand,  as  it  tends  to  make  them  tough ;  all  the 
rolling  and  dipping  may  be  done  with  a  fork,  without  mangling  the 
oyster. 

Fricasseed  Oystebs. 

Take  a  slice  of  raw  ham  (corned  and  not  smoked),  soak  in 
boiling  water  for  half  an  hour,  cut  in  very  small  sUces  and  put 
in  a  sauce-pan  with  two-thirds  pint  of  veal  or  chicken  broth  well 
strained,  the  liquor  from  one  quart  oysters,  one  small  onion  minced 
very  fine,  a  little  chopped  parsley,  sweet  marjoram  and  pepper. 
Let  these  simmer  twenty  minutes,  boiling  rapidly  for  two  or  three 
minutes.  Then  skim  well  and  add  one  scant  table-spoon  of  com 
starch  mixed  smoothly  in  one-third  cup  of  milk,  stir  constantly, 
and  when  it  boUs  add  the  oysters  and  one  ounce  of  butter ;  just  let 
it  come  to  a  boil,  remove  oysters  to  a  deeper  dish,  then  beat  one 
egg  and  add  to  it  gradually  some  of  the  hot  broth,  and  when  cooked 


8HELL-FISE.  301 

etir  it  into  the  pan  ;  season  with  salt  and  pour  all  over  the  oysters. 

When  placed  upon  the  table  some  squeeze  the  juice  of  a  lemon 

over  it. 

Oyster  Fritters. 

Drain  off  liquor,  boil,  skim,  and  to  a  cupful  add  a  cup  of  milk, 

two  or  three  ^gs,  salt  and  pepper,  and  fiour  enough  to  make  a 

rather  thick  batter.     Have  hot  lard  or  beef  drippings  ready  in  a 

kettle,  drop  the  batter  into  it  with  a  large  spoon,  taking  up  one 

oyster  for  each  spoonful.     The  oyster  must  be  large  and  plump. 

Oyster  Omelet. 
Add  to  a  half  cup  of  cream  six  eggs  beaten  very  light,  season 
with  pepper  and  salt,  and  pour  into  a  frying-pan  with  a  table-spoon 
of  butter ;  drop  in  a  dozen  large  oysters  cut  in  halves,  or  chopped 
fine  with  parsley,  and  fry  until  a  light  brown.  Double  it  over,  and 
serve  immediately. — Mn,  T.  B.  Johnson,  Thiscvmbia. 

Panned  Oysters. 
Cut  stale  bread  in  thin  slices,  then  round  them,  removing  alt 
crust.  Make  them  to  fit  patty-pans;  toast  them,  butter,  and 
place  in  pans.  Moisten  with  three  or  four  tea-spoons  of  oyster 
liquor;  then  place  on  the  toast  a  layer  of  oysters,  sprinkle  with 
pepper,  and  put  on  top  a  small  piece  of  butter;  place  pans  in  a 
baking  pan  and  put  in  oven,  covering  with  a  tin  lid,  or  if  not  large 
enough,  another  pan  to  keep  in  the  steam  and  flavor ;  have  a  quick 
oven,  and  when  cooked  seven  or  eight  minutes,  until  **ruflied," 
remove  cover  and  sprinkle  with  salt ;  replace  cover  and  cook  one 
minute  longer.     Serve  in  the  patty-pans.     This  is  delicious. 

Oyster  Pie. 

Line  a  deep  pie-dish  with  puff-paste;  dredge  with  flour,  pour  in 
one  pint  oysters,  season  well  with  bits  of  butter,  salt  and  pepper, 
and  sprinkle  flour  over;  pour  on  some  of  the  oyster-liquor,  and 
cover  with  a  crust  having  an  opening  in  the  center  to  allow  the 
steam  to  escape. 

Or,  line  the  pie-dish  half  way  up  with  good  pie-crust,  fill  the  dish 
with  pieces  of  stale  bread,  place  a  cover  of  paste  over  this,  and 
bake  about  twenty  minutes  in  a  brisk  oven.  Take  off  crust,  have 
teady  some  oysters  prepared  as  for  patties,  fill  the  pie  with  them. 


302 


SHELL-FISH. 


and  replace  the  crust  and  serve  at  once*;  or  line  dish  with  a  good 

puff-paste,  place  an  extra  layer  around  the  edge,  and  bake  in  a  brisk 

oven ;  fill  with  oysters,  season  with  pepper,  salt,  and  one  table-spoon 

butter,  sprinkle  slightly  with  flour,  and  cover  with  a  thin  crust  of 

paste ;  bake   quickly ;  when  the  top  crust  is  done,  the  pie  will  be 

ready  to  take  up.     Serve  promptly,  as  the  crust  quickly  absorbs  the 

gravy.     Some  like  this  cold  for  picnics  or  traveling. — Mrs,  Carrie 

Heck 

Oyster  Pickles. 

To  every  quart  of  liquor  add  a  teii-spoon  of  black  pepper,  a  pod 

of  red  pepper  broken  in  bits,  two  blades  of  mace,  a  tea-spoon  salt, 

two  dozen  cloves,  and  half  a  pint  of  best  vinegar,  add  the  oysters 

and  simmer  gently  for  a  few  minutes,  take  out  and  put  in  small 

jars;  then  boil  the  pickle,  skim  it,  and  pour  over  them.     Keep 

them  in  a  dark,  cool  place,  and  when  a  jar  is  opened,  use  up  its 

contents  as  quickly  as  possible.     Oysters  pickled  thus  will  keep 

good  four  or  five  weeks. 

Oyster  Roll. 

Cut  a  round  piece,  say  six  inches  across,  from  the  top  of  a  well- 
baked  round  loaf  of  bread,  remove  the  inside  from  the  loaf,  leaving 
crust  half  an  inch  thick;  make  a  rich  oyster  stew,  and  put  in  the 
loaf  first  a  layer  of  it,  then  of  bread-crumbs,  then  oysters,  and  so 
on ;  place  cover  over  the  top,  glaze  the  loaf  with  the  beaten  yolk 
fif  sua  ftgg,  and  place  in  oven  for  a  few  moments.     Serve  very  hot. 

Raw  Oysters. 

Wash  the  shells,  open,  detaching  the  flat  shell,  loosen  from  the 
deep  shell,  but  leave  them  in  it,  and  serve  half  dozen  on  a  plate, 
with  a  quarter  of  lemon  in  center.  Eat  with  salt,  pepper  and  lemon 
juice  or  vinegar. 

In  serving  them  without  the  shells  the  most  attractive  way  is  in 
H  dish  of  ice,  made  by  freezing  water  in  a  tin  form  shaped  like  a 
salad  bowl,  or  in  a  block  of  ice  from  which  a  cavity  has  been 
melted  with  a  hot  flat-iron.  They  should  first  be  drained  well  in  a 
colander,  sprinkled  with  plenty  of  pepper  and  salt,  and  placed  on 
the  ice  and  let  remain  in  a  cool  place  for  half  an  hour  or  imtil  time 
of  serving. 

A  simpler  and  equally  delicious  way  is  to  drain  well,  sprinkle 
with  salt  and  pepper,  and  place  the  dish  on  ice  or  in  a  dish  of  cold 


SHELL-FISH.  303 

ivater  for  half  an  hour  before  serving,  adding  bits  of  ice.     Serve 
with  horse'radish,  Chili  sauce,  slices  of  lemon,  or  simply  vinegar. 

Oysters  in  the  Shell. 
Open  the  shells,  keeping  the  deepest  ones  for  use.  Melt  some 
butter,  season  with  minced  parsley  and  pepper.  When  slightly 
cooled,  roll  each  oyster  in  it;  using  care  that  it  drips  but  little,  and 
lay  in  the  shells.  Add  to  each  shell  a  little  lemon  juice,  cover  with 
grated  bread-crumbs,  place  in  a  baking-pan  and  bake  in  a  quick 
oven ;  just  before  they  are  done,  add  a  little  salt.     Serve  in  tiie 

Oyster  Spew. 
Put  the  liquor  from  the  oysters  on  the  stove,  let  boil,  skim,  and 

season  with  butter  and  pepper,  add  oysters,  let  come  to  a  hoU  only, 

eeason  with  salt  and  serve.     This  is  pronounced  a  **  royal  stew.** 

Steamed  Oysters. 
Lay  some  oysters  in  the  shell  in  some  air-tight  vessel,  placing  the 
tipper  shell  downward  so  the  liquor  will  not  run  out  when  they 
open.  Set  them  over  a  pot  of  boiling  water  (where  they  will  get 
the  steam),  and  boil  hard  for  twenty  minutes;  if  the  oysters  are 
open  they  are  done ;  if  not,  steam  till  they  do  open.  Serve  at  once 
and  eat  hot,  with  salt  and  a  bit  of  butter.  Or,  wash  and  drain  one 
quart  select  oysters,  put  in  pan  and  place  in  steamer  over  boiling 
water,  cover  and  steam  till  oysters  are  plump  with  edges  ruffled; 
place  in  heated  dish  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  and  serve. 

Walled  Oysters. 
Make  a  wall  one  and  one-half  inches  high  and  three-quarters  wide 
of  one  quart  nicely  mashed  and  seasoned  potatoes,  just  inside  raised 
edge  of  platter,  glaze  it  by  covering  with  beaten  egg  and  placing  in 
oven  for  a  few  minutes.  Place  the  liquor  from  one  quart  oysters  in 
porcelain  kettle,  let  boil,  skim  well,  then^dd  oysters  seasoned  with 
salt,  boil  up  once,  skim  out  oysters  (milk  or  water  can  be  added  to 
the  liquor,  then  seasoned  with  butter  and  pepper,  and  served  as 
soup),  and  add  them  to  a  cream  dressing  made  by  putting  a  tea-cup 
rich  cream,  butter  size  of  half  an  egg,  and  a  little  pepper  and  tea- 
spoon salt  in  a  pan  placed  within  a  vessel  of  boiling  water ;  when 
hot  add  two  ounces  of  flour  mixed  smooth  in  some  cream  or  milk, 
and  let  cook  till  thickened,  then  place  oysters  and  dressing  within 
the  potato  and  serve  immediately. 


SOUPS. 


To  make  Dutritious,  healthful  and  palatable  soup,  with  flavors 
properly  commingled,  is  an  art  which  requires  study  and  practice, 
but  it  is  surprising  from  what  a  scant  allotment  of  material  a  deli- 
cate and  appetizing  dish  may  be  produced.  The  best  base  for  soup 
is  lean  uncooked  meat,  a  pound  of  meat  to  a  quart  of  water,  to 
which  may  be  added  chicken,  turkey,  beef,  or  mutton  bones  well 
broken  up;  a  mixture  of  beef,  mutton  and  veal,  with  a  bit  of  ham 
bone,  all  cut  fine,  makes  a  higher  flavored  soup  than  any  single 
meat ;  the  legs  of  all  meats  are  rich  in  gelatine,  an  important  con- 
stituent of  soup.     For  white  stock  use  veal  or  fowls  instead  of  beef. 

Soups,  which  make  the  principal  part  of  a  meal,  should  be  richer 
than  those  which  simply  precede  a  heavier  course  of  meats,  etc. 

When  remnants  of  cooked  meats  are  used,  chop  fine,  crush  the 
bones,  add  a  ham  bone  or  bit  of  bam  or  salt  pork  (two  or  three 
cubic  inches)  and  all  ends  of  roasts  and  fatty  parts,  and  the  brown 
&t  of  the  roast ;  make  the  day  previous  to  use ;  strain,  set  away 
over  night,  skim  off*  the  fat  (which  clarify  and  save  for  drippings), 
and  it  is  ready  to  heat  and  serve. 

When  soup  is  desired  for  a  first  course,  daily,  a  soup-kettle  should 
be  especially  provided,  with  a  faucet  to  draw  off*  the  clear  soup  to 
be  seasoned  for  each  day ;  and  all  the  bones  and  bits  of  meat  left 
after  dinner  can  be  thrown  into  the  kettle,  also  bits  of  vegetables 
and  bread,  and  the  gravies  that  are  left  from  roast  meats  and  cut- 
lets. In  this  way  there  will  be  nothing  lost,  and  the  soups  can  be 
varied  by  seasonings  and  thickenings  of  different  kinds.  Every 
two  or  three  days,  however,  the  contents  of  the  kettle  should  be 
turned  out,  after  all  the  liquid  hai«  been  drawn  off,  and  the  kettle 


SOUPS.  306 

irafihed  dean  and  scalded,  for  if  this  is  not  attended  to,  the  fsoups 
will  soon  lose  their  piquant  flavor  and  become  stale. 

In  using  fresh  meat  throw  the  pieces  as  cut  into  the  required 
quantity  of  cold  water  and  let  stand  until  the  juices  of  the  meat 
begin  to  color  it,  then  put  on  to  boil ;  in  this  way  the  juices  of  the 
meat  are  more  readily  drawn  out.  The  soup  is  done  when  the  meat 
is  juiceless. 

The  best  herbs  are  sage,  thyme,  sweet  marjoram,  tarragon,  mint, 
sweet  basil,  parsley,  bay-leaves,  cloves,  mace,  celery-seed  and  onions. 
Plant  the  seed  of  any  of  the  seven  flrst-mentioned  in  little  boxes 
OD  the  window  sill,  or  in  a  sunny  spot  in  the  yard.  Grather  and 
dry  them  as  follows:  parsley  and  tarragon  should  be  dried  in  June 
and  July,  just  before  flowering;  mint  in  June  and  July;  thyme, 
marjoram  and  savory  in  July  and  August ;  basil  and  sage  in  August 
and  September ;  all  herbs  should  be  gathered  in  the  sunshine,  and 
dried  by  artificial  heat ;  their  flavor  is  best  preserved  by  keeping 
them  in  air-tight  tin  cans,  or  in  tightly-corked  glass  bottles. 

Seasonings  for  soups  may  be  varied  to  suit  tastes.  The  simplest 
may  have  only  pepper  and  salt,  while  the  richest  may  have  a  little 
of  every  savor,  so  delicately  blended  that  no  one  is  conspicuous. 
The  best  seasoning  is  that  which  is  made  up  of  the  smallest  quan' 
tity  from  each  of  many  spices.  No  measure  can  be  given,  because 
the  good  soup-maker  must  be  a  skillful  taster.  There  must  be  a 
flavor  of  salt;  that  is,  the  water  must  not  be  insipid  (less  is  needed 
if  bits  of  salt  meat  are  used),  there  must  be  a  warm  tone  from  the 
pepper,  but  not  the  taste  of  pepper;  in  short,  the  spicing  should  be 
delicate  rather  than  profuse.  Those  who  like  rank  flavors  may  add 
them  to  suit  their  coarse  and  uneducated  palates.  For  brown  soups 
the  dark  spices  may  be  used  ;  for  white,  mace,  aromatic  seeds,  cream 
and  curry.  Many  herbs,  either  fresh  or  dried,  are  used  as  seasoning, 
and  all  the  choice  catsups  and  sauces. 

Rice,  sago,  pearled  barley,  vermicelli,  macaroni,  etc.,  are  desir- 
able additions  to  meat  soups.     The  flrst  three  are  used  in  the  pro-  I 
portion  of  half  a  tea-cup  to  three  quarts  of  soup ;  wash  and  soak.  ^ 
Rice  requires  half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  boiling  in  the  soup; 
sago  cooks  in  fifteen  minutes ;  barley  should  be  soaked  over  night, 

or  for  several  hours;  boil  by  itself  in  a  little  water  till  tender;  add 

20  I 


806 


SOUPS, 


to  the  soup  just  before  serving.  Vermicelli  and  macaroni  should 
be  broken  up  small,  and  washed  thoroughly  ;  boil  in  the  soup  half 
an  hour. 

'  If  a  soup  is  wanted  without  any  addition  of  vegetables,  but  thick- 
ened, arrow-root  or  corn  starch  is  used  in  the  proportion  of  two 
round  tea-spoons  of  the  latter  and  two  scant  tea-spoons  of  the  former 
to  a  quart  of  soup.  Mix  with  a  little  water  until  smooth,  and  add 
when  the  soup  is  nearly  done.  Wheat  flour  is  also  used  for  thick- 
ening, but  it  requires  three  round  table-spoons  to  the  quart.  If  not 
thick  enough  to  suit  the  taste  more  may  be  added.  Browned  flour 
does  not  thicken,  the  starchy  property  having  been  removed  in  the 
browning  process. 

Thickened  soups  require  more  seasoning  than  thin  soups ;  if  wanted 
very  clear  and  delicate,  strain  through  a  hair  sieve. 

Always  use  cold  water  in  making  all  soups ;  skim  well,  especially 
during  the  first  hour.  There  is  great  necessity  for  thorough  skim- 
ming, and  to  help  the  scum  rise,  pour  in  a  little  cold  water  now  and 
then,  and  as  the  soup  reaches  the  boiling  point,  skim  it  off  Use 
salt  at  first  sparingly,  and  season  with  salt  and  pepper ;  allow  one 
quart  soup  to  three  or  four  persons. 

For  a  quick  soup,  crush  the  bone  and  cut  the  meat  rather  fine ; 
when  done,  strain  and  serve.  Every  kitchen  should  be  provided 
with  a  soup-kettle  (which  has  a  double  bottom),  or  a  large  iron  pot 
with  a  tight-fitting  tin  cover  with  a  hole  size  of  a  large  darning- 
needle  in  it  i^t  one  side  of  the  handle.  Keep  kettle  covered  closely, 
eo  that  the  flavor  may  not  be  lost,  and  simmer  slowly,  so  that  the 
quantity  may  not  be  much  reduced  by  evaporation,  but  if  it  has 
boiled  away  (which  may  be  the  case  when  the  meat  is  to  be  uaed 
for  the  table),  pour  in  as  much  hot  water  as  is  needed,  and  add 
vegetables,  noodles,  or  any  thickening  desired.  Vegetables  should 
be  added  just  long  enough  before  soup  is  done  to  allow  them  to  he 
thoroughly  cooked.  An  excellent  soup  for  a  small  fiimily  may  he 
made  from  the  bones  and  trimmings  cut  from  a  steak  before  broil- 
ing. The  bones  from  a  rib  roast,  which  are  generally  cut  out  and 
thrown  away  by  the  butcher,  after  weighing,  should  always  he 
ordered  sent  with  roast  and  used  for  soup. 

For  coloring  and  flavoring  soups,  use  caramel,  browned  flour. 


SOUPS.  307 

onions  fried  brown,  meat  with  cloves  in  it,  or  browned  with  butter. 
Poached  eggs  are  an  excellent  addition  to  some  soups.  They  should 
be  added  just  before  serving,  one  for  each  person.  They  may  be 
poached  in  water  or  dropped  into  the  boiling  soup,  or  two  or  three 
eggs,  well-beaten  and  added  just  before  pouring  in  tureen,  make  a 
nice  thickening.  Cayenne  pepper  or  a  bit  of  red  pepper  pod,  Wor- 
cestershire, Halford,  or  Chili  sauce,  and  catsups,  are  considered  by 
many  an  improvement  to  soup,  but  must  be  cautiously  used.  Force- 
meat balls,  made  of  the  meat  boiled  for  the  soup,  are  also  used. 

SOUP   STOCK. 

To  four  pounds  of  lean  beef  (the  inferior  parts  are  quite  as  good 
for  this  purpose)  put  four  quarts  of  cold  water  (soft  is  best),  wash 
the  meat  and  put  it  in  the  water  without  salt ;  let  it  come  slowly  to 
boiling  point,  skim  well  before  the  agitation  of  the  water  has  broken 
the  scum,  add  a  little  salt,  and  a  dash  of  cold  water,  to  assist  the 
scum  to  rise,  skim  again,  set  back  and  let  it  boil  gently  on  one  side 
or  in  one  place,  and  not  all  over  ("  the  pot  should  smile,  not  laugh  "), 
for  six  or  eight  hours,  until  the  meat  is  in  rags  (rapid  boiling 
hardens  the  fiber  of  the  meat  and  the  savory  flavor  escapes  with  the 
steam),  add  a  little  pepper,  strain  into  a  stone  jar,  let  it  cool,  and  re- 
move all  the  grease.     This  stock  will  keep  for  many  days  in  cold 
weather,  and  from  it  can  be  made  all  the  various  kinds  of  soups  b; 
adding   onion,   macaroni,   celery,  asparagus,  green   pease,   carrot, 
tomato,  okra,  parsley,  thyme,  summer  savory,  sage,  and  slices  of 
lemon;  many  of  the  herbs  may  be  first  dried,  then  pulverized  and 
put  in  cans  or  jiu*s  for  winter  use.     Celery  and  carrot  seed  may  be 
used  in  place  of  the   fresh  vegetables.     Macaroni  should  be  first 
boiled  in  slightly  salted  water,  cut  in  pieces  one  or  two  inches  long, 
and  added  a  short  time  before  serving.     To  prepare  soup  for  dinner, 
cut  off  a  slice  of  the  jelly,  add  water,  heat  and  serve.     Whatever  is 
added  to  this,  such  as  rice,  tapioca,  vegetables,  etc.,  may  first  be 
cooked  before  being  added,  as  murh  boiling  injures  the  flavor  of  the 
stock. 

A  rich  stock  can  also  be  made  from  a  shank  or  shin  of  beef 
(knuckle  of  veal  is  next  best) ;  cut  in  several  pieces,  crack  the 
bones,  add  four  quarts  water,  boil  up  quickly,  skim,  add  salt,  skim, 
and  let  boil  gently  until  the  liquor  is  reduced  one-half;  strain,  cool 


/ 


308 


S0UF8. 


and  skim,  and  if  boiled  praperlj  and  long  enough,  an  exoeUent  jelly 
will  result.     Too  violet  boiling  makes  the  stock  cloudy  and' dark. 
To  clarify  stock  that  has  been  darkened  by  careless  skimming  and 
improper  boiling,   mix  one  egg  and  shell  in  a  gill  of  cold  water,  add 
a  gill  of  the  boiling  soup,  then  stir  into  the  soup  until  it  boils  up;  re- 
move to  back  of  stove,  and  let  stand  until  the  white  and  shell  of  the 
egg  have  collected  the  particles  that  color  the  soup,  and  strain  once  or 
twice  until  it  looks  clear.     Stock  should  never  be  allowed  to  stand 
and  cool  in  the  pot  in  which  it  is  cooked ;  pour  into  an  earthen  dish, 
let  stand  to  cool  uncovered,  when  all  the  &t  should  be  removed  and 
saved  to  clarify  for  drippings ;  the  stock  is  then  ready  for  use  as 
wanted  for  soups  or  gravies.     The  flavor  of  stock  may  be  varied  by 
using  in  it  a  little  ham,  anchovy,  sausage,  sugar,  or  a  calf's  foot. 
Sprigs  of  herbs,  and  whole  spices  may  be  used  in  seasoning,  and 
afterward  strained  out.    Delicate  flavors  should  be  added  just  before 
serving,  as  boiling  evaporates  them.    Stock  made  from  meat  without 
bone  or  gristle  will  not  jelly,  but  will  taste  very  like  good  beef- 
tea.      Never  boil  vegetables  with  stock,  as  they  will  cause  it  to 
become  sour. 

An  economical  soup-stock  may  be  made  of  steak  or  roast-beef 
bones,  after  cooking,  adding  a  little  piece  of  fresh  meat,  or  none  at 
all,  and  allowing  it  to  simmer  at  least  five  hours;  strain,  remove  all 
&t  the  next  day,  and  it  will  be  ready  for  use. 

SOUP   FROM  STOCK. 

To  make  soup  from  any  stock,  put  on  as  much  stock  as  needed 
(if  in  jelly,  scrape  the  sediment  from  off*  the  bottom),  add  seasoning, 
water  and  vegetables.  The  potatoes  should  be  peeled,  sliced,  and 
laid  in  salt  and  water  for  half  an  hour,  the  cabbage  parboiled  and 
drained,  and  all  others  either  sliced  or  cut  fine,  before  adding  them 
to  the  soup;  boil  until  thoroughly  dissolved,  strain  through  a 
colander  and  serve  at  once. 

ANOTHER  WAY. 

When  stock  is  drawn  ofi*,  season  with  celery  salt.  A  little  vermicelli 
boiled  in  it  for  fifteen  minutes  will  give  it  more  body — or  some  of 
the  fancy  letters,  stars,  triangles,  etc.,  that  are  made  particularly 
for  soups  can  be  used,  or  egg-balls  can  be  made  by  mixing  raw  egg 
with  just  enough  wheat  flour  or  corn  starch  to  make  it  into  round 


SOUPS,  309 

balls,  then  drop  them  into  the  soup  and  boil  for  ten  minutes.  A 
little  milk,  a  tea-spoon  to  one  egg,  is  an  improvement ;  also  a 
sprinkle  of  salt.  These  balls  are  sometimes  called  '*  noodles/'  If  a 
richer  soup  is  needed,  take  slices  of  mw  veal  and  a  little  salt  pork, 
and  chop  very  fine  with  a  slice  of  wheat  bread.  Season  highly  with 
pepper,  salt,  tomato  catsup,  and  chopped  lemon  peel,  moisten  with 
two  well-beateu  eggs,  and  roll  into  balls  as  large  as  a  walnut,  with 
floured  hands.  Fry  the  balls  in  butter  to  a  dark  brown,  and  h ". 
them  cool;  turn  into  the  soup  and  boil  about  ten  minutes.  Cut  a 
lemon  into  very  thin  bits,  slice  two  hard-boiled  eggs,  put  them  into 
the  tuieen ;  add  a  glass  of  claret  or  port  wine  to  them  and  turn  in 
aoup;  it  is  a  very  **  dainty  dish." 

Clam  Soup.* 

First  catch  yotir  clams — along  the  ebhing  edges 

Of  saline  coves  you*  11  find  the  precious  wedges, 

With  backs  up,  lurking  In  th..  sandy  bottom  ; 

Pull  in  your  iron  rake,  and  lo !  you  've  got  'em  1 

Take  thirty  large  ones,  put  a  basin  under, 

And  cleave,  with  knife,  their  stony  jaws  asunder; 

Add  water  (three  quarts)  to  the  native  liquor. 

Bring  to  a  boil,  (and,  by  the  way,  the  quicker 

It  boils  the  better,  if  you'd  do  it  cutely.) 

Kow  add  the  clams,  chopped  up  and  minced  minutely. 

Allow  a  longer  boil  of  just  three  minutes, 

And  while  it  bubbles,  quickly  stir  within  its 

Tumultuous  depths  where  still  the  mollusks  mutter, 

Four  tablespoons  of  flour  and  four  of  butter, 

A  pint  of  milk,  some  {>epper  to  your  notion, 

And  clams  need  salting,  although  born  of  ocean. 

Remove  from  fire ;  (if  much  boiled  they  will  sufifer— 

You'll  find  that  India-rubber  is  n't  tougher.) 

After  'tis  off,  add  three  fresh  eggs,  well-beaten, 

Stir  once  more,  and  it's  ready  to  be  eaten. 

Fruit  of  the  wave !  O,  dainty  and  delicious ! 

Food  for  the  gods !  Ambrosia  for  Apicius ! 

Worthy  to  thrill  the  soul  of  sea-born  Venus, 

Or  titillate  the  palate  of  Silenus  ! 

An  Economical  Soup. 
Take  a  soup  bone  (any  piece  of  beef  not  too  fat  wiU  do),  wash 
well,  plaoe  in  kettle  with  sufficient  cold  water  for  soup ;  let  it  boil, 

'Written  egpedally  ft>r  this  book,  by  W.  A.  CBOFFirr,  editor  of  **  Amerioan  Qaeen,* 
Ktv  York. 


310 


SOUPS, 


skim  thoroughly  and  continue  to  boil  slowly  from  three  to  six  hours, 
accofding  to  size  and  quality  of  meat ;  one  hour  before  dinner,  put 
in  cabbage  cut  in  quarters,  sprinkling  it  with  salt;  quarter  of  an 
hour  after  add  turnips  halved  or  quartered  according  to  size;  quarter 
of  an  hour  after  turnips,  add  potatoes  whole,  or  cut  in  two  if  lai^ge 
(turnips  and  potatoes  should  be  pared  aud  laid  in  cold  water  half 
an  hour  before  using).     When  done  take  out  vegetables  and  meat, 
place  in  heater,  or  if  you  have  no  heater,  place  plates  over  a  pot  or 
skillet  of  boiling  water.     If  there  is  not  enough  soup,  add  boilings 
water,  stir  in  a  little  thickening  of  flour  and  water,  let  it  boil  thor- 
oughly ;  season  to  the  taste  with  salt  anjl  pepper  and  serve  at  once. 
The  soup  will  be  excellent  and  the  vegetables  very  fine. 

Asparagus  Soup. 
Cut  the  tops  from  about  thirty  heads  of  asparagus,  about  half  an 
inch  long,  and  boil  the  rest ;  cut  off  all  the  tender  portions  and  rub 
through  a  sieve,  adding  a  little  salt;  warm  three  pints  soup  stock, 
add  a  small  lump  of  butter  and  a  tea-spoon  of  flour  previously 
cooked  by  heating  the  butter  and  slowly  stirring  in  the  flour ;  then 
add  the  asparagus  pulp.  Boil  slowly  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  stirring 
in  two  or  three  table-spoons  cream ;  color  the  soup  with  a  tea-spoon 
of  prepared  spinach,  made  by  pounding  the  spinach  well,  adding  a 
few  drops  of  water,  squeezing  the  juice  through  a  cloth  and  putting 
it  over  a  good  fire.  As  soon  as  it  looks  curdy,  take  it  off*,  and  strain 
the  liquor  through  a  sieve.  What  remains  on  the  sieve  is  to  be  used 
for  coloring  the  soup.  Just  before  serving  soup,  add  the  asparagus 
tops  which  have  been  separately  boiled. 

Beef  Soup. 
Take  the  cracked  joints  of  beef,  and  after  putting  the  meat  in  the 
pot  and  covering  it  well  with  water,  let  it  come  to  a  boil,  when  it 
should  be  well  skimmed.  Set  the  pot  where  the  meat  will  simmer 
slowly  until  it  is  thoroughly  done,  keeping  it  closely  covered  all  the 
time.  The  next  day,  or  when  cold,  remove  the  fat  which  hardens 
on  the  top  of  the  doup.  Peel,  wash  and  slice  three  good-sized 
pytatoes  and  put  them  into  the  soup  ;  cut  up  half  a  head  of  white 
cabbage  in  shreds,  and  add  to  this  a  pint  of  Shaker  com  that  has 
been  soaked  over  night,  two  onions,  one  head  of  celery,  and  tomatoes 


SOUPS.  311 

if  desired.     When  these  are  done,  and  they  should  simmer  slowly, 
care  being  taken  that  they  do  not  bum,  strain  (or  not  as  preferred) 
the  soup  and  serve.     The  different  varieties  of  beef  soup  are  formed 
by  this  method  of  seasoning  and  the  different  vegetables   used  in 
preparing  it,  after  the  joints  have  been  well  boiled.     Besides  onions, 
celery,    cabbages,  tomatoes  and  potatoes,  many  use  a  few  carrots, 
turnips,  beets,  and  force-meat  balls  seasoned  with  spice;  rice  or  bar- 
ley will  give  the  soup  consistency,  and  are  to  be  preferred  to  flour 
for  the  purpose.     Parsley,  thyme  and  sage  are  the  favorite  herbs 
for  seasoning,  but  should  be  used  sparingly.     To  make  force-meat 
balls,  add  to  one  pound  chopped  beef  one  egg,  a  small  lump  butter, 
a  cup  or  less  of  bread-crumbs ;  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and 
moisten  with  the  water  from  stewed  meat ;  make  in  balls  and  fry 
brown,  or  make  egg- balls  by  boiling  eggs,  mashing  the  yolks  with 
a  silver  spoon,  and  mixing  with  one  raw  yolk  and  one  tea-spoon 
flour ;  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  make  into  balls,  drop  in  soup 
just  before  serving. — Mrs.  H.  B.  Sherman, 

Beef  Soup  with  Okra. 
Fry  one  pound  **  round"  steak  cut  in  bits,  two  table-spoons 
butter,  and  one  sliced  onion,  till  very  brown ;  add  to  three  or  four 
quarts  cold  water  in  soup-kettle,  and  boil  slowly  one  hour ;  then  add 
pint  sliced  okra,  and  simmer  three  hours  or  more ;  season  with  salt 
and  pepper,  strain  and  serve. — Mrs.  T.  B.  J.,  Tuscumbia,  Ala. 

Beef  Soup. 
Take  bones  and  trimmings  from  a  sirloin  steak,  put  over  fire  after 
breakfast  in  three  quarts  water,  boil  steadily  until  about  an  hour 
before  dinner,  when  add  two  onions,  one  carrot,  three  common-sized 
potatoes,  all  sliced,  some  parsley  cut  fine,  a  red  pepper,  and  salt  to 
taste.  This  makes  a  delicious  soup,  sufficient  for  three  persons. 
All  soups  are  more  palatable  seasoned  with  onions  and  red  pepper, 
using  the  seeds  of  the  latter  with  care,  as  they  are  very  strong. 

Bean  Soup. 

Boil  a  small  soup-bone  in  about  two  quarts  water  until  the  meat 

can  be  separated  from  the  bone,  remove  bone,  add  a  coffee-cup  white 

beans  soaked  for  two  hours,  boil  for  an  hour  and  a  half,  add  three 

potatoes,  half  a  turnip  and  a  parsnip,  all  sliced  fine,  boil  half  an 


312 


SOUP& 


hour  longer,  and  jus^  before  serving  sprinkle  in  a  few  diy  bread* 
crumbs;  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  serve  with  raw  onions 
sliced  very  fine  for  those  who  like  them. — Mrs.  A.  B,  Morey. 

Turtle  Bean  Soup. 
Soak  one  pint  black  beans  over  night,  then  put  them  into  three 
quarts  water  with  beef  bones  or  a  smalFpiece  of  lean  saltpork,  boil 
three  or  four  hours,  strain,  season  with  salt,  pepper,  cloves  and 
lemon  juice.  Put  in  a  few  slices  of  lemon,  and  if  wLshed  add  slices 
of  hard-boiled  eggs.  Serve  with  toasted  bread  cut  into  dice  and 
placed  in  the  tureen. — Mrs.  H.  C.  Qark, 

Saturday  Bean  Soup. 
Baked  beans  and  brown  bread  form  a  Sunday  break&st  for  so 
many  that  the  following  will  be  a  useful  and  economical  soup  for 
Saturday  dinner.  Put  on  the  pot  with  more  beans  t!i.;n  enough  for 
Sunday's  breakfast,  with  water,  and  slice  of  salt  pork ;  parboil  till 
beans  are  ready  to  be  put  in  oven.  Take  out'  pork  and  part  of 
beans,  leaving  enough  for  a  bean  soup ;  place  the  pot  on  back  of 
stove  and  keep  hot.  Three-quarters  of  an  hour  before  dinner  heat 
soup,  add  more  water  and  vegetables  as  in  "  Bean  Soup." 

Meatless  Bean  Soup. 
Parboil  one  pint  beans,  drain  off  the  water,  add  firesh,  let  boil 
until  perfectly  tender,  season  with  pepper  and  salt,  add  a  piece  of 
butter  the  size  of  a  walnut,  or  more  if  preferred ;  when  done  skim 
out  half  the  boans,  leaving  the  broth  with  the  remaining  h^lf  in 
the  kettle,  now  add  a  tea-cup  sweet  cream  or  good  milk,  a  dozen  or 
more  crackers  broken  up;  let  it  boil  up,  and  serve. 

Carrot  Soup. 

Put  in  soup-kettle  a  knuckle  of  veal,  three  or  four  quarts  cold 
water,  a  quart  finely-sliced  carrots,  one  head  celery ;  boil  two  and  a 
half  hours,  add  a  handful  rice,  and  boil  an  hour  longer;  season 
with  pepper  (or  a  bit  of  red  pepper  pod)  and  salt,  and  serve. 

Celery  Cream  Soup. 

Boil  a  small  cup  rice  in  three  pints  milk,  until  it  will  pass  through 
a  sieve.  Grate  the  white  |jart  of  two  heads  of  celery  (three  if 
small)  on  n  brend-gi-ater ;  add  this  to  the  rice  milk  after  it  has  been 


S0UF8.  I  313 

.;  put  to  it  a  quart  of  strong  white  stock;  let  boil  until  cel- 
ery is  perfectly  tender;  season  with  salt  and  cayenne,  and  serve.  If 
cream  is  obtainable,  substitute  one  pint  for  the  same  quantity  of 
milk. 

Chicken  Soup. 

In  boiling  chickens  for  salads,  etc.,  the  broth  (water  in  which 
they  are  boiled)  may  be  used  for  soup.  When  the  chickens  are  to 
be  served  whole,  stuff  and  tie  in  a  cloth.  To  the  broth  add  a  dozen 
tomatoes  (or  a  quart  can),  and  one  thinly-sliced  onion ;  boil  twenty 
minutes,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  add  two  well-beaten  eggs,  and 
serve. -< 

Clam  Soup. 
Wash  clams,  and  place  in  just  sufficient  water  for  the  soup,  let 
boil,  and  as  soon  as  they  clear  from  shells,  take  out  and  place  clams 
in  a  jar  for  pickling ;  throw  into  the  broth  a  pint  each  of  sweet 
milk  and  rolled  crackers,  add  a  little  salt,  boil  five  Minutes,  and 
just  before  taking  from  the  fire,  add  one  ounce  butter  beaten  with 
two  eggs.     Serve,  and  let  each  person  season  to  taste. 

Green  Corn  Soup. 

One  large  fowl,  or  four  pounds  veal  (the  knuckle  or  neck  will  do), 
put  over  fire  in  one  gallon  cold  water  without  salt,  cover  tightly 
and  simmer  slowly  till  meat  slips  from  the  bones,  not  allowing  it  to 
boil  to  rags,  as  the  meat  will  make  a  nice  dish  for  breakfast  or 
Innch,  or  even  for  dinner.  Set  aside  with  the  meat  a  cup  of  the 
liquor  ;  strain  the  soup  to  remove  all  bones  and  rags  of  meat ;  grate 
one  dozen  ears  of  green  corn,  scraping  cobs  to  remove  the  heart  of 
the  kernel,  add  com  to  soup,  with  salt,  pepper,  and  a  little  parsley, 
and  simmer  slowly  half  an  hour.  Just  before  serving  add  a  table- 
spoon flour  beaten  very  thoroughly  with  a  table-spoon  butter.  Serve 
hot.  To  serve  chicken  or  veal,  put  broth  (which  was  reserved)  in 
a  clean  sauce-pan,  beat  one  egg,  a  table-spoon  butter  and  a  tea- 
spoon flour  together  very  thoroughly,  and  add  to  the  broth  with 
salt,  pepper,  and  a  little  chopped  parsley.  Arrange  meat  on  dish, 
pour  over  dressing,  boiling  hot,  and  serve  at  once. 

Gumbo. 

Slice  a  large  onion  and  put  it  with  a  slice  of  bacon  or  &t  ham 


814 


SOUPS. 


into  a  skillet  and  brown  it ;  skiu  and  cut  up  two  quarts  tomatoes, 
cut  thin  one  quart  okra,  put  all  together  with  a  little  parsley  into  a 
stew-kettle,  adding  about  three  quarts  water,  and  cook  slowly  two 
or  three  hours,  adding  salt  and  pepper  to  taste. — Mrs.  E.  A,   Wi 

Mock  Turtle  or  Calf's-head  Soup. 
Lay  one  large  calfs  head  well  cleaned  and  washed,  and  four  pig^s 
feet,  in  bottom  of  a  large  pot,  and  cover  with  a  gallon  of  water ; 
boil  three  hours,  or  until  flesh  will  slip  from  bones ;  take  out  head, 
leaving  the  feet  to  be  boiled  steadily  while  the  meat  is  cut  from  the 
head ;  select  with  care  enough  of  the  £eitty  portions  in  the  top  of  the 
head  and  the  cheeks  to  fill  a  tea-cup,  and  set  aside  to  cool ;  remove 
brains  to  a  saucer,  and  also  set  aside ;  chop  the  rest  of  the  meat 
with  the  tongue  very  fine,  season  with  salt,  pepper,  powdered  mar- 
joram and  thyme,  a  teaspoon  of  cloves,  one  of  mace,  half  as  much 
allspice  and  a  grated  nutmeg.     When  the  flesh  falls  from  the  bones 
of  the   feet,  take  out  bones,  leaving  the  gelatinous  meat ;  boil  all 
together  slowly,  without  removing  the  cover,  for  two  hours  more ; 
take  the  soup  from  the  fire  and  set  it  away  until  the  next  day.    An 
hour  before  dinner  set  the  stock  over  the  fire,  and  when  it  boils 
strain  carefully  and  drop  in  the  meat  reserved,  which  should  have 
been  cut,  when  cold,  into  small  squares.     Have  these  all  ready  as 
well  as  the  force-meat  balls,  to  prepare  which  rub  the  yolks  of  five 
hard-boiled  eggs  to  a  paste  in  a  wedgewood  mortar,  or  in  a  bowl 
with  the  back   of  a  silver  spoon,  adding  gradually  the  brains  to 
moisten  them,  also  a  little  butter  and  salt.     Mix  with  these,  two 
eggs  beaten  very  light,  flour  the  hands  and  make  this  paste  into 
balls  about  the   size  of  a  pigeon's  egg :  throw  them  into  the  soup 
five  minutes  before  taking  it  from  the  fire ;  stir  in   a  large  table- 
s|X)on  browned  flour  rubbed  smooth  in  a  little  cold  water,  and  finish 
•  he  seasoning  by  the  addition  of  a  glass  and  a  half  of  sherry  or 
Aiaderia  wine,  and  the  juice  of  a  lemon.     It  should  not  boil  more 
than  half  an  hour  on  the  second  day.     Serve  with  sliced  lemons. 

Mutton  Soup. 
Boil  a  nice  leg  of  mutton,  and  take  the  water  for  the  soup,  add 

two  onions  chopped  fine,  potato,  half  a  cup  of  barley,  and  two  large 

tomatoes ;  season  with  pepper  and  salt,  boil  one  hour,  stir  often  (as 

Nurlev  is  apt  to  burn),  and,  before  taking  from  the  fire,  add  one 


SOUPS.  3W 

taUe-Bpoon  flour  wet  with  cold  water. — Mrs.  E.  R.  Fay,  New  York 

Noodle  Soup. 
Add  noodles  to  beef  or  any  other  soup  after  straining ;  they  will 
cock  in  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  and  are  prepared  in  the  follow- 
ing manner :  To  one  egg  add  as  much  sifted  flour  as  it  will  absorb, 
with  a  little  salt ;  roll  out  as  thin  as  a  wafer^  dredge  very  lightly 
with  flour,  mil  over  and  over  into  a  large  roll,  slice  from  the  ends, 
•hake  out  the  strips  loosely  and  drop  into  the  soup. 

Okra  Soup. 
Take  a  nice  joint  of  beef  flUed  with  marrow,  one  gallon  water, 
one  onion  cut  fine,  two  sprigs  parsley,  half  a  peck  of  okra,  one 
quart  tomatoes;  boil  the  meat  six  hours,  add  vegetables  and  boil 
two  hours  more. — Mrs.  E.  L.  F. 

Oyster  Soup  with  Milk. 
Pour  one  quart  cold  water  over  one  quart  oysters  if  solid ;  if  not 
solid,  use  one  pint  of  water,  drain  through  a  colander  into  the  soup- 
kettle,  and  when  it  boils  skim ;  add  pepper,  then  the  oysters ;  season 
with  butter  and  salt,  then  add  one  quart  rich  new  milk  brought  to 
boiling  point  in  a  tin  pail  set  in  a  pot  of  boiling  water,  let  boil  up 
and  serve  at  once.  Or,  instead  of  adding  the  milk,  place  it,  boiling 
hot,  in  tureen,  pour  the  soup  over  it  and  then  serve. 

Plain  Oyster  Soup. 

Pour  a  quart  oysters  in  colander,  rinse  by  pouring  over  them 

pint  cold  water,  put  this  in  porcelain   kettle,  add  a  pint  boiling 

vrater,  let  boil,  skim  thoroughly,  season  with  pepper  and  piece  of 

butter  size  of  large  egg;  then  add  oysters,  having  removed  all  shells 

let  boil  up  once,  season  with  salt  and  serve. — Mrs.  Lizzie  C.  Rob- 

inion. 

Pot  au  Feu. 

Take  a  good-sized  beef-bone  with  plenty  of  meat  on  it,  extract 
the  marrow  and  place  in  a  pot  on  the  back  of  the  range,  covering 
the  beef  with  three  or  more  quarts  of  cold  water;  cover  tightly, 
and  allow  to  simmer  slowly  all  day  long.  The  next  day,  before  heat- 
ing, remove  the  cake  of  grease  from  the  top,  and  add  a  large  onion 
(previously  stuck  full  of  whole  cloves,  and  then  roasted   in  the 


316 


SOUPS. 


oven  till  of  a  rich-brown  color),  adding  tomatoes  or  anj  other 
vegetables  which  one  may  fancy.  A  leek  or  a  section  of  garlic 
adds  much  to  the  flavor.  Rice  mav  be  added,  or  vermicelli  for  a 
change.  Just  before  serving,  burn  a  little  brown  sugar  and  stir 
through  it.  This  gives  a  peculiar  flavor  and  rich  color  to  the  soup. — 
Mrs.  Col.  (Jifford  ThompBon,  New  York  OUy. 

Green  Pea  Soup. 

Boil  three  pints  shelled  pease  in  three  quarts  of  water ;  when  quite 
soft,  mash  through  a  colander,  adding  a  little  water  to  free  the  pulp 
from  the  skins ;  return  pulp  to  the  water  in  which  it  was  boiled,  add 
a  head  of  lettuce  chopped,  and  half  a  pint  young  pease ;  boil  half 
an  hour,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  thicken  with  two  table- 
spoons butter  rubbed  into  a  little  flour.  Serve  with  bits  of  toasted 
bread.  The  soup,  when  done,  should  be  as  thick  as  cream.  Some 
omit  the  lettuce. 

Potato  Soup. 

To  one  gallon  of  water  add  six  large  potatoes  chopped  fine,  one 
tea-cup  rice,  a  lump  of  butter  size  of  an  egg,  one  table-spoon  flour. 
Work  butter  and  flour  together,  and  add  one  tea-cup  sweet  cream 
just  before  taking  from  the  fire.     Boil  one  hour. — ARss  Lida  Omby. 

Swiss  Soup. 

Five  gallons  water,  six  potatoes  and  three  turnips  sliced ;  boil  five 
hours  until  perfectly  dissolved  and  the  consistency  of  pea  soup,  fill* 
ing  up  as  it  boils  away ;  add  butter  size  of  an  egg,  season  with  salt 
and  pepper,  and  serve.  A  small  piece  salt  pork,  a  bone  or  bit  of 
veal  or  lamb,  and  an  onion,  may  be  added  to  vary  this  soup. 

Tomato  Soup. 

Skim  and  strain  one  gallon  of  stock  made  from  nice  fresh  beef; 
take  three  quarts  tomatoes,  remove  skin  and  cut  out  hard  center, 
put  through  a  fine  sieve,  and  add  to  the  stock ;  make  a  paste  of 
butter  and  flour,  and,  when  the  stock  begins  to  boil,  stir  in  half  a 
tearcup,  taking  care  not  to  have  it  lumpy;  boU  twenty  minutes, 
seasoning  with  salt  and  pepper  to  taste.  Two  quarts  canned 
tomatoes  will  answer. — Mrs.  CoL  Reid,  Delaware.  * 


SOUPS.  317 

Meatless  Tomato  Soup. 

One  quart  tomatoes,  one  of  water;  stew  till  soft;  add  tea-spoon 
soda,  allow  to  effervesce,  and  add  quart  of  boiling  milk,  salt,  butter, 
and  pepper  to  taste,  with  a  little  rolled  cracker ;  boil  a  few  minutes 
and  serve. — Mrs,  D.  C,  Corikeyj 

Turkey-Bone  Soup. 

After  a  roasted  turkey  has  been  served  a  portion  of  the  meat  still 
adheres  to  the  bones,  especiallj  about  the  neck;  *  drumsticks"  are 
left,  or  parts  of  the  wings,  and  pieces  rarely  called  for  at  table.    If 
there  is  three-fourths  of  a  cupful  or  more  left  cut  off  carefully  and 
reserve  for  force-meat  balls.     Break  the  bones  apart  and  with  stuffing 
still  adhering  to  them,  put  into  a  soup-kettle  with  two  quarts  water, 
a  table-spoon  salt,  a  pod  of  red  pepper  broken  into  pieces,  three  or 
fi)ur  blades  of  celery  cut  into  half  inch  pieces,  three  medium-sized 
potatoes,  and  two  onions  all  sliced.     If  the  dinner  hour  is  one  o'clock 
the  kettle  should  be  over  fire  before  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning;  or 
If  the  dinner  is  at  six  in  the  evening,  it  should  be  on  by  twelve 
o'clock.     Let  it  boil  slowly  but  constantly  until  about  half  an  hour 
before  dinner ;  lift  out  bones,  skim  6ff  fat,  strain  through  colander, 
return  to  soup-kettle.     There  will  now  be  but  little  more  than  a  quart 
of  the  soup.     If  more  than  this  is  desired,  add  a  pint  of  hot  milk 
or  milk  and  cream  together;  but  it  will  be  very  nice  without  this  ad- 
dition even  though  a  little  more  water  be  added.     Prepare  the  force- 
meat balls  by  chopping  tlie  scraps  of  turkey  very  fine ;  take  half  a 
teaspoon  cracker-crumbs,  smoothly  rolled,  a  small  salt-spoon  of  cay- 
enne pepper,  about  double  the  quantity  of  salt,  a  little  grated  lemon 
peel  and  half  a  teaspoon  powdered  summer-savory  or  thyme ;  mix 
these  together  and  add  a  raw  beaten  egg  to  bind  them.     Roll  mix- 
ture into  balls  about  the  size  of  a  hickory-nut,  and  drop  into  the  soup 
ten  minutes  before  serving.     Have  ready  in  tureen  a  large  table- 
spoon of  parsley,  cut  very  fine.     Pour  in  soup,  and  send  to  table 
hot.    If  force-meat  balls  ai'e  not  liked,  boil  two  eggs  for  half  an  hour, 
cut  in  slices,  put  them  in  tureen  with  the  parsley,  and  pour  the  soup 
over  them ;  or  slices  of  bread  (not  too  thick)  can  be  toasted,  but- 
^tt«d  on  both  sides,  cut  into  inch  squares,  and  substituted  for  the 
weed  eggs. — Mrs,  JR.  K  Hcaardy  Kxrhwoodj  Mo, 


318 


SOUPS. 


Vegetable  Soup. 
After  boiling  a  soup  bone  or  piece  of  beef  until  done,  add  to  the 
broth  boiling  water  to  make  the  amount  of  soup  wanted,  and  'when 
boiling  again  add  a  large  handful  of  cabbage  cut  fine  as  for  slaw, 
a  half  pint  of  tomatoes,  canned  or  fresh ;  peel  and  slice  and  add 
three  large  or  four  small  onions,  and  two  or  three  potatoes  (some 
use  a  half  tea-cup  of  dried  or  half  pint  of  green  com ;  if  dried  com 
is  used,  it  should  be  soaked).     Let  boil  from  half  to  three-quarters 
of  an  hour ;  if  you  like  a  little  thickening,  stir  an  egg  or  yolk  with 
a  large  spoonful  of  milk  and  a  tea-spoon  of  flour,  put  in  five  or  ten 
minutes   before  taking  off;   this  makes  it  very  rich.     Serve  with 
crackers. — Mrs.  H.  C  Voslniry. 

Vegetable  Soup. 

Three  onions,  three  carrots,  three  turnips,  one  small  cabbage,  one 
pint  tomatoes;  chop  all  the  vegetables  except  the  tomatoes  verj 
fine,  have  ready  in  a  porcelain  kettle  three  quarts  boiling  water, 
put  in  all  except  cabbage  and  tomatoes  and  simmer  for  half  an  hour, 
then  add  the  chopped  cabbage  and  tomatoes  (the  tomatoes  pre- 
viously stewed),  also  a  bunch  of  sweet  herbs.  Let  soup  boil  for 
twenty  minutes,  strain  through  sieve,  rubbing  all  the  vegetables 
through.  Take  two  table-spoons  of  best  butter  and  one  of  flour 
and  beat  to  a  cream.  Now  pepper  and  salt  soup  to  taste,  and 
add  a  tea-spoon  of  white  sugar,  a  half  cup  of  sweet  cream  if  you 
have  it,  and  last  stir  in  the  butter  and  flour ;  let  it  boil  up  and  it 
is  ready  for  the  table.  Serve  with  fried  bread-chips,  or  poached 
eggs  one  in  each  dish. — Mrs.  U.  H.  Herbert,  Benson, 


Veal  Soup. 

To  about  three  pounds  of  a  well-broken  joint  of  veal,  add  foxn 
quarts  water,  and  set  it  over  to  boil;  prepare  one-fourth  pound 
macaroni  by  boiling  it  in  a  dish  by  itself  with  enough  water  to  cover 
it ;  add  a  little  butter  when  the  macaroni  is  tender,  strain  the  soup 
and  season  to  taste  with  salt  and  pepper,  then  add  the  macaroni 
with  the  water  in  which  it  was  boiled;  onions  or  celery  may  be 
added  for  flavoring. — Mrs.  R.  M.  Nixon,  New  CasUe, 


SOUPS.  319 

Bread-dice  for  Soups. 

Take  slices  of  stale  bread,  cut  in  small  squares,  throw  in  hot  lard 
and  fry  till  brown,  skim  out,  drain,  and  put  in  the  soup-tureen 
before  serving  the  soup.  Crackers  crisped  in  the  oven  are  nice  to 
serve  with  oyster  soup. — Mrs,  V.  G.  H. 

Caramel  for  Soups. 

For  caramel,  put  one  tea-cup  sugar  and  two  teanspoons  water  in 
a  sauce-pan  over  the  fire,  stir  constantly  till  it  is  a  dark  color,  then 
add  a  half  tea-cup  water  and  a  pinch  of  salt,  let  boil  for  a  few 
moments,  take  off,  and  when  cold  bottle. 

To  brown  flour,  put  one  pint  in  a  sauce-pan  on  the  stove,  and 
when  it  begins  to  color,  stir  constantly  till  it  is  a  dark  brown,  being 
careful  that  it  does  not  burn.  When  cold  put  away  in  a  tin  can 
or  jar  covered  closely,  and  keep  in  a  dry  place  where  it  is  always 
ready  for  soups  or  gravies.  As  it  requires  more  of  this  for  thick- 
ening than  of  unbrowned  flour,  it  may  be  well  sometimes  to  take 
half  of  each. 

A  few  cloves  may  be  stuck  in  the  meat  for  soup ;  or  it  may  first 
be  fried  in  a  sauce-pan  with  a  little  butter,  turning  tOl  brown  on 
%11  sides ;  or  sliced  onions  may  be  iried  brown  and  added  to  soup. 

TuBTiiE  Soup. 

Boil  a  turtle  very  tender  in  five  quarts  of  water,  remove  bones, 
<mt  meat  into  small  pieces ;  season  with  a  table-spoon  each  of  mar- 
joram, sweet  basil,  thyme  and  parsley,  salt  and  pepper  to  taste, 
one  nutmeg  beaten  fine,  a  dozen  cloves,  same  of  allspice.  Tie  these 
in  muslin^  remove  before  sending  soup  to  table.  Stir  a  large  table- 
spoon of  browned  flour  into  a  quarter  pound  of  fresh  butter,  add  to 
soup.  Should  be  three  quarts  of  soup.  Fifteen  minutes  before 
serving  add  the  green  fiit,  then  add  half  a  pint  of  wine,  a  sliced 
lemon,  seeds  removed,  also  force-meat  balls ;  simmer  five  minutes, 
take  out  lemon-peel,  and  serve*  This  is  for  a  small  turtle.  Add 
a  dioe  of  good  ham  if  turtle  is  not  fiit. 


L 


VEGETABLES. 


All  vegetables  are  better  cooked  in  soft  water,  provided  it  is 
dean  and  pure;  if  hard  water  is  used,  put  in  a  small  pinch  of  soda. 
The  water  should  be  freshly  drawn,  and  should  only  be  put  over 
fire  in  time  to  reach  the  boiling  point  before  the  hour  for  putting 
in  vegetables,  as  standing  and  long  boiling  frees  the  gases  and  ren- 
ders the  water  insipid.  The  fresher  all  vegetables  are,  the  mpre 
wholesome.  After  being  washed  thoroughly,  they  should  be  dropped 
in  cold  water  half  an  hour  before  using.  Peel  old  potatoes  and  let 
them  stand  in  cold  water  over  night,  or  for  several  iiours,  putting 
them  in  immediately  after  being  peeled,  as  exposure  to  the  air 
darkens  them.  Before  putting  on  to  boil,  take  out  and  wipe  each 
dry  with  a  towel.  New  potatoes  are  best  baked.  Full-grown,  fair, 
ripe  potatoes  may  be  either  boiled  or  baked.  Medium-sized  and 
smooth  potatoes  are  best ;  the  kind  varies  with  the  season.  Green 
corn  and  pease  should  be  prepared  and  cooked  at  once.  Put  all 
vegetables  into  plenty  of  salted  water,  boiling  hot  (excepting  egg 
plant  and  old  potatoes,  which  some  put  on  in  salted  cold  water),  and 
boil  rapidly,  without  cover,  skimming  carefully  until  ^oroughly 
done,  draining  well  those  that  require  it.  Onions  should  be  soaked 
in  warm  salt  water,  to  remove  the  rank  flavor  for  one  hour  before 
cooking.  Never  split  onions,  tuniips  and  carrots,  but  slice  them  in 
rings  cut  across  the  fiber,  as  they  thus  cook  tender  much  quicker. 
If  the  home  garden  fiimishes  the  supply  of  pease,  spinach,  green 
beans,  asparagus,  etc.,  pick  them  in  the  morning  early,  when  th« 
dew  is  on,  and  let  stand  in  cold  water  till  ready  for  use.  Some  put 
salt  in  the  water,  but  in  that  case  only  let  them  remain  ten  or  fif« 

(830) 


VEGETABLES,  321 

teen  minutes,  unless  doubts  are  entertained  as  to  their  freshness  (if 
from  the  market),  in  which  case  they  can  remain  longer,  afterward 
draining  them  in  a  colander.  Do  not  allow  vegetables  to  remain 
in  the  water  after  they  are  done,  but  drain  them  in  a  colander  and 
dress  as  directed  in  the  various  recipes.  In  preparing  greens,  let- 
tuce, etc.,  first  wash  them  leaf  by  leaf  in  warm  >vater,  rather  more 
than  tepid,  having  a  dish  of  cold  water  to  place  them  in  imme- 
diately. The  warm  water  more  certainly  cleans  the  leaf  and  does 
not  destroy  the  crispness  if  they  are  placed  at  once  in  cold  water. 
But  whether  washed  in  warm  or  cold  water,  take  them  leaf  by  leaf, 
breaking  the  heads  off,  not  cutting  them.  Horse-radish  tops  are 
considered  choice  for  greens.  Pease  should  not  be  shelled  until  just 
befoi-e  the  time  of  cooking. 

The  proportion  of  salt  in  cooking  vegetables  is  a  heaping  table- 
spoon of  salt  to  every  gallon  of  water.  When  water  boils,  put  in 
your  vegetables,  and  press  them  down  with  a  wooden  spoon.  Take 
out  when  tender,  as  vegetables  are  spoilt  by  being  either  under  or 
overdone. 

Always  add  both  salt  and  a  little  soda  to  the  water  in  which 
greens  are  cooked,  as  soda  preserves  color ;  for  the  same  purpose 
French  cookery  books  recommend  a  small  pinch  of  carbonate  of 
ammonia.  A  little  sugar  added  to  turnips,  beets,  pease,  corn, 
squash  and  pumpkin  is  an  improvement,  especially  when  the  vege- 
tables are  poor  in  quality.  Sweet  potatoes  require  a  longer  time  to 
cook  than  the  common  variety.  In  gathering  asparagus,  never  cut 
it  off,  but  snap  or  break  it ;  in  this  way  you  do  not  s:et  the  white» 
woody  part,  which  no  boiling  can  make  tender.  Do  the  same  with 
rhubarb,  except  being  careful  that  it  does  not  split,  and  take  it  very 
close  to  the  ground.  Put  rice  on  to  cook  in  boiling  salted  water, 
having  first  soaked  for  about  an  hour  and  dried  off  the  surplus 
moisture  on  a  large  towel;  or  steam,  or  cook  in  custard-kettle. 

A  piece  of  red  pepper  the  size  of  finger-nail,  dropped  into  meat 
of  vegetables  when  first  beginning  to  cook,  will  aid  greatly  in  killing 
the  unpleasant  odor.  Remember  this  for  boiled  cabbage,  green 
beans,  onions,  mutton  and  chicken.  All  vegetables  should  be  thor- 
oughly cooked,  and   require   a   longer  time  late   in   their  season. 

Potatoes,  when  old,  are    improved  by  removing  the  skin  before 
21 


322 


VEGETABLES, 


baking,  and  either  Irish  or  sweet  potatoes,  if  frozen,  must  be  puf 
in  to  bake  without  thawing.  Cabbage,  potatoes,  carrots,  turnips, 
parsnips,  onions  and  beets  are  injured  by  being  boiled  with  fresh 
meat,  and  they  also  injure  the  flavor  of  the  meat.  When  vege- 
tables are  to  be  served  with  salt  meat,  the  meat  should  be  cooked 
first  and  then  removed,  and  tlie  vegetables  cooked  in  the  liquor. 

Small-sized  white  turnips  contain  more  nutrition  than  large  ones, 
hut  in  ruta-bagas  the  largest  are  best.  Potatoes  vary  greatly  in 
quality ;  varieties  which  are  excellent  early  in  the  season  lose  their 
good  qualities,  and  others,  which  are  worthless  in  the  fall,  are 
excellent  late  in  the  spring.  Those  raised  on  gravelly  or  sandy  soil, 
not  over  rich,  are  best. 

Old  potatoes,  may  be  greatly  improved  by  being  soaked  in  cold 
water  several  hours  after  peeling,  or  all  night,  being  particular  to 
change  the  water  once  or  twice.  Peel  very  thinly,  as  the  best  part 
of  the  potato  is  nearest  the  skin.  Cut  large  potatoes,  if  to  be  steamed, 
or  boiled,  in  four,  and  small  ones  in  two  pieces,  and  remove  the  core 
if  defective.  If  to  be  boiled  (steaming  is  much  preferable)  put 
them  on  in  clear  fresh  boiling  water.  Keep  closely  covered  and  at 
a  steady  boil  for  at  least  twenty  minutes,  five  or  ten  minutes  more 
may  be  requisite,  according  to  the  quality  of  the  potato.  Watch 
carefully,  and  the  very  instant  they  present  a  mealy  and  broken 
surface  remove  them  from  the  stove,  raise  the  cover  just  enough  to 
admit  the  draining  off"  of  the  water.  This  may  be  accomplished 
successfully  and  quickly,  after  a  little  practice,  and  is  fiur  better 
than  turning  them  into  a  colander,  thus  suddenly  chilling  them  and 
arresting  the  further  development  of  the  starch,  which,  after  all,  is 
the  main  point  to  be  accomplished.  Drain  the  water  off  thoroughly 
and  quickly,  sprinkle  in  sufficient  salt  for  seasoning,  cover  the  vesel 
closely,  give  it  a  shake  and  set  back  on  the  stove,  being  careful  not 
to  have  it  too  hot.  In  a  minute  or  so  give  it  another  shake  to  stir 
up  the  potatoes,  throw  in  a  little  hot  cream  or  rich  milk  with  a 
lump  of  butter  and  a  sprinkle  of  pepper,  cover  immediately  and 
leave  on  the  stove  for  another  minute.  This  last  process  adds 
greatly  to  the  good  cooking  of  potatoes.  They  are  ready  now  to 
be  dished  whole  or  mashed.  Some  skill  is  required  to  mash  them 
properly,  simple  as  the  operation  may  appear.      The  old  fashioned 


VEGETABLES. 

wood^i  masher  possesses  advantages  over  the  new  perforated  iron 
plate  with  handle  so  nearly  representing  the  old  time  churn  dasher. 
Mashed  ^potatoes  should  be  dipped  out  lightly  into  a  hot  covered 
dish  and  literally  coaxed  into  a  delicate  mealy  heap,  instead  of  being 
stirred  and  patted  and  packed  and  cheesed  into  a  shapely  mass. 

If  potatoes  are  very  watery  and  they  must  be  used  for  food,  a 
small  lump  of  lime  added  to  the  water  while  boiling  will  improv^ 
them.  More  so  than  any  other  vegetable  does  this  one  diifer  in 
quality,  according  to  variety  and  manner  of  culture.  However  the 
main  crop  may  be  raised,  every  farmer^s  wife  should  secure  for  late 
ipring  use  a  supply  of  a  choice  variety  cultivated  entirely  in  rotten 
wood  soil,  or  in  soil  where  wood  ashes  and  gypsum  are  used  as  fer- 
tilizers. 

The  great  point  in  cooking  potatoes  is,  to  take  them  up  as  soon 
as  they  are  done.  Of  course  it  is  important  to  begin  to  cook  them 
at  the  proper  time.  When  boiled,  baked,  fried  or  steamed,  they 
are  rendered  watery  by  continuing  to  cook  them  after  they  reach  the 
proper  point.  For  this  reason,  potatoes,  to  bake  or  boil,  should 
he  selected  so  as  to  have  them  nearly  the  same  size.  Begin  with 
the  largest  first,  and  continue  to  select  ^he  largest  till  all  are  gone. 
Be  careful  that  the  water  does  not  stop  boiling,  as  thus  the  pota- 
toes will  be  watery.  Never  boil  them  very  hard,  as  it  breaks  them. 
Medium-sized  potatoes,  when  young,  will  cook  in  from  twenty  to 
thirty  minutes;  when  old,  it  requires  double  the  time.  When 
peeled,  they  boil  fifteen  minutes  quicker.  In  baking  old  potatoes 
with  meat,  now,  it  is  better  also  to  halve  them.  L^»ve  them  in 
the  water  until  the  meat  is  within  half  an  hour  of  being  done.  See 
that  the  pan  contains  plenty  of  drippings,  and  with  proper  heat 
the  potatoes  will  be  brown  and  crisp  without  and  white  and  mealy 
within.  They  may  be  fried  in  the  meat  gravy,  or  warmed  up  in 
butter  for  breakfast.  The  secret  of  having  potatoes  mealy  and 
palatable  is  to  cook  them  rapidly.  Steam  until  the  skin  cracks, 
and  a  fork  easily  penetrates  the  center.  If  not  to  be  served  at 
once,  continue  steaming,  as  they  become  solid  sooner  than  when 
boiled. 

New  potatoes  should  always  be  boiled  in  two  waters,  and  old 
ones  are  better  for  it.      Put  on  two  kettles  of  water,  set  potatoes 


324 


VEGETABLES. 


in  one,  when  hot,  in  a  wire  basket,  and  when  abont  half  done 
transfer  to  the  other. 


Asparagus. 

Wash  clean ;  cat  off  the  white  part  except  a  mere  end,  pat 
into  slightly  salted  boiling  water,  boil  five  minntes,  ponr  off  water, 
add  more  boiling  hot;  boil  ten  to  fifteen  minates,  then  pnt  in  a 
hmp  of  bntter,  salt  and  pepper  (some  stir  in  a  thickening  made 
of  one  tea-spoon  flour  mixed  np  with  cold  water);  cat  and  toast 
two  or  three  thin  slices  of  bread,  spread  with  batter  and  pat  in  a 
dish,  and  over  them  tarn  asparagus  and  gravy.  The  water  must 
be  boiled  down  until  just  enough  for  the  gravy,  which  is  made  as 
above.  Or,  cut  the  asparagus,  when  boiled,  into  little  bits, 
leaving  out  white  end,  make  gravy  as  above,  put  the  cut  aspar- 
agus into  a  hot  dish  and  turn  the  gravy  over  it  and  serve. 

A  simple  manner  of  boiling  asparagus  is  to  tie  in  a  bundle,  or 
Brst  wrap  in  cotton  cloth  and  then  tie,  and  set  upright  in  a  sauce- 
pan containing  boiling  water  enough  to  reach  nearly  to  the  tender 
tips ;  boil  rapidly  till  tender ;  lay  a  napkin  on  a  hot  platter,  take 
out  asparagus,  drain  for  a  moment,  place  on  napkin,  unwrap,  and 
ftld  over  the  asparagus  the  corners  of  the  napkin,  and  serve  in  this 
Ihcm,  with  white  sauce  in  a  gravy-boat. 

Or,  boiled  asparagus  may  be  made  cold  in  ice-box,  and  served 
with  a  sauce  made  of  vinegar,  pepper,  and  salt. 

Ambushed  Asparagus. 
Cut  off  the  tender  tops  of  fifty  heads  of  asparagus ;  boil  and 
drain  them.  Have  ready  as  many  stale  biscuits  or  rolls  as  there 
are  persons  to  be  served,  from  which  you  have  cut  a  neat  top  slice 
and  scooped  out  the  inside.  Set  them  in  the  oven  to  crisp,  laying 
the  tops  beside  them,  that  all  may  dry  together.  Meanwhile  put 
into  a  sauce-pan  a  sugarless  custard  made  as  follows:  A  pint  or  less 
of  milk,  and  four  well-whipped  eggs ;  boil  the  milk  first,  then  beat 
in  the  eggs;  set  over  the  fire  and  stir  till  it  thickens,  when  add  a 
table-spoon  of  butter,  and  season  with  salt  and  pepper.  Into  this 
custard  put  the  asparagus,  minced  fine.  Do  not  let  it  boil,  but 
remove  from  the  fire  as  soon  as  the  asparagus  is  fairly  in.     Fill  the 


VEGETABLES.  325 

rolls  with  the  mixture,  put  on  the  tops,  fitting  them  carefully ;  set 

in  the  oven  three  miiiytes,  &^r  which  arrange  on  a  dish.     To  be 

eaten  hot. 

Eggs  and  Asparagus. 

Cut  tender  asparagus  into  pieces  half  an  inch  long,  and  boil 
twenty  minutes,  then  drain  till  dry,  and  put  into  a  sauce-pan  con- 
taining a  cup  of  rich  drawn  butter ;  heat  together  to  a  boil,  season 
livdth  pepper  and  salt,  and  pour  into  a  buttered  dish.  Break  half  a 
dozen  ?^gs  over  the  surface,  put  a  bit  of  butter  upon  each,  sprinkle 
with  salt  :;nd  pepper,  and  put  in  the  oven  until  the  eggs  are  set. 

Fried  Asparagus. 
Blanch  the  asparagus  a  couple  of  minutes,  and  then  drain  it;  dip 
each  piece  in  batter  and  fry  it  in  hot  fat.     When  done,  sprinkle, 
with  salt  and  serve  hot.     This  is  nice  and  easy  to  prepare. 

Boiled  Dinner. 
Put  meat  on,  after  washing  well,  in  enough  boiling  water  to  just 
cover  the  meat;  as  soo.'x  as  it  boils,  set  kettle  on  the  stove  where  it 
will  simmer  or  boil  very  slowly ;  boil  until  almost  tender,  put  in 
v^etables  in  the  following  order :  Cabbage  cut  in  quarters,  turnips 
of  medium  size  cut  in  halves,  and  jx)tatoes  whole,  or  if  large  cut  m 
two ;  peel  potatoes  and  turnips,  and  allow  to  lie  in  cold  water  for 
half  an  hour  before  using.  The  meat  should  be  well  skimmed 
before  adding  vegetables;  l)oil  together  until  thoroughly  done 
(adding  a  little  salt  before  taking  out  of  kettle),  when  there  should 
be  left  only  just  enough  water  to  prevent  burning ;  take  up  vege- 
tables in  separate  dishes,  and  lastly  the  meat ;  if  there  is  any  juice 
in  kettle,  pour  it  over  cabbage.  Boil  cabbage  an  hour,  white  tur- 
nips and  potatoes  half  an  hour,  ruta-baga.s  an  hour  and  a  half  to 
two  ^ours.  A  soup  plate  or  saucer  turned  upside  down,  or  a  few 
iron  table-spoons  are  u.««eful  to  place  in  bottom  of  kettle  to  keep 
meat  fi'om  burning.  Parsnips  may  be  substituted  in  place  of  cab- 
bage and  tuniips,  cooking  them  three-quarters  of  an  hour. 

BEFfS. 

Remove  leaves,  wash  clean,  being  careftil  not  to  break  off  the 
little  fibers  and  rootlets,  a*?  the  juices  would  thereby  escape  and  they 
would  lose  their  color ;  boil  in  plenty  of  water,  if  young,  two  hours, 


326  VEGETABLES. 

if  old,  four  or  five  hours,  trying  with  a  fork  to  see  when  tender ; 
take  out,  drop  in  a  pan  of  cold  water,  and  slip  off  the  skin  with  the 
hands;  slice  those  needed  for  immediate  use,  place  in  a  dish,  add 
salt,  pepper,  hutter,  and  if  not  very  sweet  a  tea-spoon  sugar,   set 
over  boiling  water  to  heat  thoroughly,  and  serve  hot  with  or  with- 
out vinegar;  put  those  which  remain  into  a  stone  jar  whole,  cover 
with  vinegar,  keep  in  a  cool  place,  take  out  as  wanted,  slice  and 
serve.     A  few  pieces  of  horse-radish  put  into  the  jar  will  prevent 
a  white  scum  on  the  vinegar.   .Or,  roast  in  hot  ashes,  or  bake  in 
oven,  (turning  often  in  the  pan  with  a  knife,  as  a  fork  causes  the 
juice  to  flow),  and  when  tender,  peel,  slice,  and  dress  with  salt, 
pepper,  butter  and  vinegar.  Or,  after  beets  are  boiled  and  skinned, 
mash  together  with  boiled  potatoes,  and  season  to  the  taste  with 
salt ;  add  a  large  lump  of  butter  (do  not  use  any  milk) ;  place  in 
a  dish,   make  a  hole  in  center  in  which  put  ni  a  generous  lump 
of  butter;  sprinkle  with  pepper  and  serve  at  once.     This  is  a  New 
England  dish,  and  very  delicious  for  harvest  time,  when  beets  are 
young  and  sweet. 

Beet  Greens. 

*  Wash  young  beets  very  clean,  cut  off  tips  of  leaves,  looking  over 
carefully  to  see  that  no  bugs  or  worms  remain,  but  do  not  separate 
roots  from  leaves ;  fill  dinner-pot  half  full  of  salted  boiling  water, 
add  beets,  boil  from  half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour ;  take  out 
and  drain  in  colander,  pressing  down  with  a  large  spoon,  so  as  to 
get  out  all  the  water.  Dish  and  dress  with  butter,  pepper,  and  salt 
if  needed.     Serve  hot  with  vinegar. 

Butter  Beans. 

With  a  knife  cut  off  the  ends  of  pods  and  strings  from  both  sides, 
being  very  careful  to  remove  every  shred  ;  out  every  bean  length- 
wise, in  two  or  thi-ee  strips,  and  leave  them  for  half  an  hour  in 
cold  water.  Much  more  than  cover  them  with  boiling  water;  boil 
till  perfectly  tender.  It  is  well  to  allow  three  hours  for  boiling. 
Drain  well,  return  to  kettle,  and  add  a  dressing  of  half  a  gill  cream, 
one  and  a  half  ounces  butter,  one  even  tea-spoon  salt,  and  half  a 
tea-spoon  pepper.     This  is  sufficient  for  a  quart  of  cooked  beans. 


VEGETABLES.  327 

Dry  Lima  Beans. 
Wash  one  quart  of  dry  lima  beans  in  two  warm  waters,  soak 
three  hours,  drain,  and  put  on  to  cook  in  enough  boiling  water  to 
cover  them;  cover  pot  with  tin  lid,  addiug  more  hot  water  as  it 
boils  away,  boiling  nipicJly  for  one  and  a  half  hours,  when  there 
should  be  only  water  enough  to  come  up  to  top  of  the  beans— just 
sufficient  to  make  a  nice  dressing.  Five  minutes  before  taking  up, 
season  with  salt  and  pepper,  and  stir  in  a  dressing  made  of  one  table- 
spoon each  of  flour  and  butter,  rubbed  together  until  smooth.  This 
is  a  delicious  dish. 

String  Beans. 

String,  snap  and  wash  two  quarts  beans,  boil  in  plenty  of  water 
about  fifteen  minutes,  drain  off  and  put  on  again  in  about  two 
quarts  boiling  water;  boil  an  hour  and  a  half,  and  add  salt  and 
pepper  just  before  taking  up,  stirring  in  one  and  a  half  table-spoons 
butter  rubbed  into  two  table-spoons  flour  and  half  pint  sweet  cream. 
Or,  boil  a  piece  of  salted  pork  one  hour,  then  add  beans  and  boil 
an  hour  and  a  half.  For  shelled  beans  boil  half  an  hour  in  water 
enough  to  cover,  and  dress  as  above. 

Stp:wed  Carrots. 

Take  any  quantity  desired,  divide  the  carrots  lengthwise,  and  boil 
until  perfectly  tender,  which  will  require  from  one  to  two  hours. 
When  done,  have  ready  a  sauco-j)an  with  one  or  two  table-spoons 
butter,  and  small  cup  cream ;  slice  the  carrot,s  very  thin,  and  put  in 
the  sauce-pan  ;•  add  salt  and  peppei-,  and  let  stew  ten  or  fifteer 
minutes,  stirring  gently  once  or  twice,  and  serve  in  a  vegetable 
dish.  Some  add  more  milk  or  cream ;  when  done,  skim  out  car- 
rots, and  to  the  cream  add  a  little  flour  thickening,  or  the  beaten 
yolks  of  one  or  two  eggs.  When  it  boils,  pour  over  the  carrots  and 
serve.  Carrots  may  also  be  boiled  with  meat  like  turnips  or  pars* 
nips,  but  they  take  longer  to  cook  than  either.— ifr«.  C  T,  C. 

Boiled  Corn. 

Put  the  well-cleaned  ears  in  salted  boiling  water,  boil  an  hour,  or 
boil  in  the  husk  for  the  same  time,  remove  husks  and  serve  imme- 
diately.    Com  thoroughly  cooked  is  a  wholesome  dish. 


828  VEGETABLES, 

Stowed  Corn. 
Cut  with  a  sharp  knife  through  the  center  of  every  row  of 
grains,  and  cut  off  the  outer  edge ;  then  with  the  back  of  the  blade 
push  out  the  yellow  eye,  with  the  rich,  creamy  center  of  the  grain, 
leaving  the  hull  on  the  cob.  To  one  quart  of  this  add  half  a  pint 
rich  milk,  and  stew  until  cooked  in  a  covered  tin  pail,  in  a  kettle 
one-third  full  of  boiling  water ;  then  add  salt,  white  pepper,  and  two 
or  three  ounces  butter ;  allow  two  hours  for  cooking;  it  seems  a  long 
time,  but  there  is  no  danger  of  burning,  and  it  requires  no  more  at- 
tention than  to  stir  it  occasionally  and  to  keep  good  the  supply  of 
water.  If  drier  than  Jiked,  add  more  milk  or  cream.  Or,  after 
cutting  com  from  the  cob,  boil  the  cobs  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  and 
take  out  and  put  corn  in  same  water ;  when  tender,  add  a  dressing 
of  milk,  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  and  just  before  serving,  stir  in 
beaten  eggs,  allowing  three  eggs  to  a  dozen  ears  of  corn. 

Bina's  Stewed  Corn. 
Shave  corn  off  the  ear,  being  careful  not  to  cut  into  the  cob;  to 
three  pints  corn  add  three  table-spoons  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  and 
just  enough  water  to  cover  j  place  in  a  skillet,  cover  and  cook 
Father  slowly  with  not  too  hot  a  fire,  from  half  to  three-quarters 
of  an  hour,  stir  with  a  spoon  often,  and  if  necessary  add  more 
water,  for  the  corn  must  not  brown;  if  desired,  a  few  moments 
before  it  is  done,  add  half  cup  sweet  cream  thickened  with  tea- 
spoon flour;  boil  well  and  serve  with  roast  beef,  escaloped  toma- 
toes and  mashed  potatoes.  Some  stew  tomatoes,  and  just  before 
serving  mix  tiiem  with  the  corn. 

Dried  Corn. 
For  a  family  of  eii^ht,  wash  a  pint  of  corn  through  one  water, 
•\'aA  put  to  soak  over  night  in  clenn  cold  water  (if  impossible  to 
soak  so  long,  place  over  a  kettle  of  hot  water  for  two  or  three 
hours) ;  when  softened,  cook  fiwo^  to  ten  minutes  in  water  in  which 
it  was  soaked,  adding  as  soon  as  boiling,  two  tablo-s|X)ons  butter, 
one  of  flour,  and  a  little  salt  and  pepper.  Another  good  way  to 
finish  is  the  following:  Take  the  yolk  of  one  egg,  one  table-spoon 
milk,  pinch  of  salt,  thicken  with  flour  quite  stiff  so  as  to  take  out 
with  a  tea-spoon,  and  drop  in  little  dumplings  not  hirgor  than  au 


VEGETABLES.  .329 

acorn;  cover  tightly  and  cook  five  or  ten  minutes;  have  enough 
water  in  kettle  before  adding  dumplings,  as  cover  should  not  be  re- 
moved until  dumplings  are  done. 

Hominy. 

Soak  one  quart  of  ground  hominy  over  night,  put  over  the  fire 

in  a  tin  pail,  set  in  boiling  water  with  water  enough  to  cover,  boil 

gently  for  five  hours,  as  it  can  not  be  hurried.     After  the  grains 

begin  to  soften  on  no  account   stir  it.     The  water  put  in  at  fir.-t 

ought  to  be  enough  to  finish  it,  but  if  it  proves  too  little,  add  more 

careftilly,  as  too  much  makes  it  sloppy.      Salt  just  before  taking 

from  the  stove,  as  too  early  salting  makes    it  dark.     If  properly 

done,  the  grains  will  stand  out  snowy  and  well  done,  but  round  and 

separate. 

Preserved  Corn. 

Scald  corn  just  enough  to  set  the  milk,  cut  from  cob,  to  every 
four  pints  of  corn  add  one  pint  salt,  mix  thoroughly,  pack  in  jars, 
with  a  cloth  and  weight  over  corn ;  when  wanted  for  use  put  in  a 
stew-pan  or  kettle,  cover  with  cold  water;  as  soon  as  it  comes  to  a 
boil  pour  ofi*  and  put  on  cold  again,  and  repeat  until  it  is  fresh 
enough  for  taste,  then  add  a  very  little  sugar,  sweet  cream,  or  but- 
ter, etc.,  to  suit  taste. — Mrs,  S,  M.  Guy. 

Green  Corn  Pudding. 
Draw  a  sharp  knife  through  each  row  of  corn  lengthwise,  thea 
scrape  out  the  pulp;  to  one  pint  of  the  corn  add  one  quart  of  milk, 
three  eggs,  a  little  suet,  sugar  to  taste,  and  a  few  lumps  of  butter ; 
stir  it  occasionally  until  thick,  and  bake  about  two  hours. 

Boiled  Cauliflower. 
To  each  half  gallon  water  allow  heaped  table-spoon  salt ;  choose 
dose  and  white  cauliflower,  trim  oflT  decayed  outside  leaves,  and  cut 
stock  off  flat  at  bottom  ;  open  flower  a  little  in  places  to  remove 
insects  which  generally  are  found  about  the  stalk,  and  let  cauli- 
flowers lie  with  heads  downward  in  salt  and  water  for  two  hours 
previous  to  dressing  them,  which  will  effectually  draw  out  all  ver- 
min. Then  put  into  boiling  water,  adding  salt  in  above  propor- 
tion, and  boil  briskly  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes  over  a  good  fire, 
keeping    the   sauce-pan    uncovered.     The  water   should   be  well 


330  VEGETABLES. 

skimmod.  When  cauliflowers  are  tender,  take  up,  drain,  and  if 
large  enough,  place  upright  in  dish ;  serve  with  plain  melted  bijtter, 
a  little  of  which  may  be  poured  over  the  flowers,  or  a  white  sauce 
may  be  used  made  as  follows : 

Put  butter  size  of  an  e^g  into  the  sauce-pan,  and  when  it  bubbles 
stir  in  a  scant  half  tea-cup  of  flour ;  stir  well  with  an  egg-whisk 
until  cooked ;  then  add  two  tea-cups  of  thin  cream,  some  pepper 
and  salt.  Stir  it  over  the  fire  until  perfectly  smooth.  Pour  the 
sauce  over  the  cauliflower  and  serve.  Many  let  the  cauliflower 
simmer  in  the  sauce  a  few  moments  before  serving.  Cauliflower  is 
delicious  served  as  a  garnish  around  spring  chicken^  or  with  fried 
sweet-breads,  when  the  white  sauce  should  be  poured  over  both. 
In  this  case  it  should  be  made  by  adding  the  cream,  flour,  and  sea- 
soning to  the  little  grease  (half  a  tea-spoon)  tliat  is  left  after  fiy- 
ing  the  chickens  or  sweet-breads. — Mn,  W.  P.  Andemm. 

ESCALOPED   ("AULIFLOWER. 

Boil  till  very  tender,  drain  well  and  cut  in  small  pieces; 
put  it  in  layers  with  fine  chopped  egg  and  this  dressing:  half 
pint  of  milk  thickened  over  boiling  water,  with  two  table-spoons 
of  flour  and  seasoned  with  two  tea-spoons  of  salt;  one  of  white 
pepper  and  two  ounces  of  butter;  put  grated  bread  over  the 
top,  dot  it  with  small  bits  of  butter,  and  place  it  in  the  oven  to 
beat  thoroughly  and  brown.  Serve  in  same  dish  in  which  it  was 
baked.  This  is  a  good  way  to  use  common  heads.  A  nicer  way  is 
to  boil  them,  then  place  them  whole  in  a  buttered  dish  with  stems 
down.  Make  a  sauce  with  a  cup  of  bread-crumbs  beaten  to  froth 
with  two  table-spoons  of  melted  butter  and  three  of  cream  or  milk, 
one  well-beaten  egg  and  salt  and  pepper  to  taste.  Pour  this  over 
the  cauliflower,  cover  the  dish  tightly  and  bake  six  minutes  in  a 
quick  oven,  browning  them  nicely.    Serve  as  above. 

HEmELBERG  CaBBAGE. 

Select  two  small,  solid  heads  of  hard  red  cabbage ;  divide  them 
in  halves  from  crown  to  stem ;  lay  the  split  side  down,  and  cut 
downwards  in  thin  slices.  The  cabbage  will  then  be  in  narrow  strips 
or  shreds.  Put  into  a  sauoe-pan  a  table-spoon  of  clean  drippings, 
batter  or  any  nice  &t ;  when  fat  is  hot,  put  in  cabbage  a  tea-spoon 
of  adti  three  tablespoons  vin^^ar  (if  the  latter  is  very  strong,  use 


VEGETABLES.  331 

but  two),  and  one  onion ,  in  which  three  or  four  cloves  have  been 
stuck,  buried  in  the  middle ;  boil  two  hours  and  a  haff ;  if  it 
becomes  too  dry  and  is  in  danger  of  scorching,  add  a  very  little 
water.  This  is  very  nice, — Mrs.  L,  S.  WUlisixyn,  Heidelberg^  Germany. 

Cr£am£d  Cabbage. 
Slice  as  for  cold  slaw  and  stew  in  a  covered  sauce-pan  till  ten- 
der ;  drain  it,  return  to  sauce-pan,  add  a  gill  or  more  of  rich  cream, 
one  ounce  of  butter,  pepper  and  salt  to  taste ;  let  simmer  two  or 
three  minutes,  then  serve.  Milk  may  be  used  by  adding  a  little 
more  butter  ;  or  have^a  deep  spider  hot,  put  in  sliced  cabbage,  pour 
quickly  over  it  a  pint  of  boiling  water,  cover  close  and  cook  for  ten 
minutes,  then  pour  off  water  and  add  half  pint  of  rich  milk.  When 
the  milk  boils,  stir  in  a  tea-spoon  of  flour  moistened  with  a  little 
milk,  season,  cook  a  moment,  serve. 

Delicate  Cabbage. 
Remove  all   defective    leaves,   quarter  and   cut   as  for  coarse 

slaw,  cover  well  with  cold  water,   and  let  remain   several    hours 

before  cooking,  then  drain  and  put  into  pot  with  enough  boiling 

water  to  cover ;  boil  until  thoroughly  cooked  (which  will  generally 

require  about  forty-five  minutes),  add  salt  ten  or  fifteen  minutes 

before  removing  from  fire,  and  when  done,  take  up  into  a  colander, 

press  out  the  water  well,  and  season  with  butter  and  j>epper.     This 

is  a  good  dish  to  serve  with  corned  meats,  but  should  not  be  cooked 

with  'them;  if  preferred,    however,  it  may  be  seasoned  by  adding 

some  of  the  liquor  and  fat  from  the  boiling  meat  to  the  cabbage 

while  cooking.    Or,  cut  the  cabbage  in  two,  remove  the  hard  stock, 

let  stand  in  cold  water  two  hours,  tie  in  thin  netting  or  piece  of 

muslin,  and  boil  in  salted  water  for  a  longer  time  than  when  it  is 

cut  finely.     Drain,  remove,  and  serve  in  a  dish  with  drawn  butter 

or  a  cream  dres«siug  poured  over  it. — Mrs.  E,  T.  Carson. 

Fried  Cabbage. 
Cut  the  cabbage  very  fine,  on  a  slaw  cutter,  if  possible ;  salt  and 
pepper,  stir  well,  and  let  stand  fiwe  minutes.  Have  an  iron  kettle 
smoking  hot,  drop  one  table-spoon  lard  into  it,  then  the  cabbage, 
stirring  briskly  until  quite  tender;  send  to  table  immediately. 
One  half  cup  sweet  cream,  and  three  table-spoons  vinegar— the 
vinegar  added  after  the  cream  has  been  well  stirred,  and  after  taken 


332  VEGETABLES, 

from  the  stove,  is  an  agreeable  change.  When  properly  done  an 
invalid  can  eat  it  without  injury,  and  there  is  no  offensive  odor 
from  cooking. — Mrs.  J,  T,  Liggett,  Detroit,  Mkh. 

Southern  Cabbage. 
Chop  or  slice  one  medium-sized  cabbage  fine,  put  it  in  a  stew' 
pan  with  boiling  water  to  well  cover  it,  and  boil  fifleen  minutes ; 
drain  off  all  water,  and  add  a  dressing  made  as  follows:  Half  tea- 
cup wine-vinegar,  two-thirds  as  much  sugar,  salt,  pepper,  half  tea- 
spoon mustard,  and  two  tea-spoons  salad  oil;  when  this  is  boiling 
hot,  add  one  tea-cup  cream,  and  one  egg  stirred  together ;  mix 
thoroughly  and  immediately  with  the  cabbage,  and  cook  a  moment. 
Serve  hot. — Mrs.  P.  T.  Morey,  Charleston,  S.  G. 

Stuffed  Cabbage. 
Take  a  large,  fresh  cabbage  anl  cut  out  heart ;  fill  vacancy  with 
stuffing  made  of  cooked  chicken  or  veal,  chopped  very  fine  and 
highly  seasoned  and  rolled  into  balls  with  yolk  of  egg.  Then  tie 
cabbage  firmly  together  (some  tie  a  cloth  around  it),  and  boil  in  a 
covered  kettle  two  hours.  This  is  a  delicious  dish  and  is  useM  in 
using  up  cold  meats. — Mrs.  W.  A.  Croffut,  New  York  Oity, 

Dandelions. 
They  are  fit  for  use  until  they  blossom.  Cut  off  the  leaves,  pick 
over  carefully,  wash  in  several  waters,  put  into  boiling  water,  boil 
one  hour,  drain  well,  add  salted  boiling  water,  and  boil  two  hours ; 
when  done,  turn  into  a  colander  and  drain,  season  with  butter,  and 
more  sajt  if  needed,  and  cut  with  a  knife ;  or  boil  with  a  piece  of 
salt  pork,  omitting  the  butter  in  the  dressing. 

Egg  Plant. 
Peel  and  cut  in-  slices  the  purple  kind,  sprinkle  with  salt  and 
pepper,  and  let  drain  on  a  tipped  plate  for  three-quarters  of  an 
hour ;  make  a  light  batter  with  one  egg,  fiour  and  a  little  water, 
dip  the  slices  into  it  and  fry  in  butter  or  lard.  Eggs  and  cracker 
may  be  used  instead  of  the  batter.  Or,  peel  the  egg-plant,  boil  till 
done,  then  pour  off  the  water,  mash  fine,  and  pepper,  butter  and 
salt  to  taste,  put  in  a  shallow  pudding-pan,  and  over  the  top  place 
a  thick  layer  of  crushed  cracker.  Bake  half  an  hour  in  a  moder- 
ate oven. 


VEGETABLES.  333 

Egg  Plant. 
Peel  and  slice  one  or  two  medium-sized  egg-p]ants,  put  on  in  cold 
water,  boil  till  tender,  drain,  mash  fine,  season  with  salt  and  pepper, 
and  add  a  beaten  egg  and  a  table-spoon  of  flour ;  fry  in  little  cakes 
in. butter  or  butter  and  lard  in  equal  parts;  or  cut  in  slices,  lay  in 
cold  well-salted  water  for  an  hour  or  two,  roll  in  egg  and  cracker 
crumbs,  and  fry  with  a  little  butter.  Parsnips  and  salsify  or  oyster- 
plant  may  be  cooked  in  the  same  way,  but  the  oyster-plant  is  made 
in  smaller  cakes  to  imitate  oysters. 

Wilted  Lettuce. 
Place  in  a  vegetable  dish  lettuce  that  has  been  very  carefully 
picked  and  washed  each  leaf  by  itself,  to  remove  all  insects.  Cut 
across  the  dish  four  or  five  times,  nnd  sprinkle  with  salt.  Fry  a 
small  piece  of  fat  ham  until  brown,  cut  it  in  small  pieces;  when 
very  hot  add  cup  of  good  vinegar,  and  pour  it  boiling  hot  over  the 
lettuce;  mix  it  well  with  a  fork,  and  garnish  with  slices  of  hard* 
boiled  eggs.  Be  certain  to  have  the  fat  so  hot  that  when  vinegars  is 
poured  in,  it  will  boil  immediately.  Add  half  a  cup  or  a  cup  of 
vinegar  according  to  strength  of  vinegar  and  quantity  of  lettuce. 

Baked  Macaroni. 

Take  about  three  ounces  macaroni  and  boil  till  tender  in  a  stew* 

pan  with  a  little  water ;  take  a  pudding  dish  or  pan,  warm  a  little 

butter  in  it,  and  put  in  a  layer  of  macaroni,  then  a  layer  of  cheese 

grated  or  cut  in  small  bits,  and  sprinkle  over  with  salt,  pepper 

and  small  pieces  of  butter,  then  add    another  layer  of  macaroni, 

and  so  on,  finishing  off  with  cheese;  pour  on  rich  milk  or  cream 

enough  to  just  come  to  the  top  of  the  ingredients,  and  bake  from 

one-half  to  three  quarters  of  an  hour.     Rice  may  be  used  instead 

of  macaroni  by  first  cooking  as  follows :  Pick  and  wash  a  cup  of  rice, 

put  in  a  stew-kettle  with  three  cups  boiling  water,  and  set  over  the 

fire^the  boiling  water  makes  the  kernels  retain  their  shape  better 

than  when  cold  water  is  used.     When  done  put  a  layer  of  rice, 

cheese,  etc.,  alternately  as  you  would  macaroni,  and  bake  in  the 

same  way. 

Boiled  Macaroni. 

Pour  one  pint  boiling  water  over  five  ounces  macaroni,  let  stand 

half  an  hour,  drain  and  put  in  a  custard-ketde  with  boiling  milk  or 


334  VEGETABLES. 

milk  and  water  to  cover,  cook  till  tender,  drain,  add  a  table-spoon 
butter,  and  a  tea-cup  cream,  and  season  with  salt  and  pepper ;  grate 
cheese  over  the  top  and  serve. — Mrs.  S.  B.  T. 

Macaroni  with  Tomatoes. 
Take  three  pints  of  beef  soup,  clear,  and  put  one  pound  of  maca- 
roni in  it,  boil  fifteen  minutes,  with  a  little  salt ;  then  take  up  the 
macaroni — which  should  have  absorbed  nearly  all  the  liquid — and 
put  it  on  a  flat  plate,  and  sprinkle  grated  cheese  over  it  thickly, 
and  pour  over  all  pleiuifully  a  sauce  made  of  tomatoes,  well  boiled, 
strained,  and  seasoned  with  salt  and  pepper. 

Itauan  Macaroni. 
Place  two  pounds  of  beef,  well  larded  with  strips  of  salt  pork, 
and  one  or  two  chopped  onions,  in  a  covered  kettle  on  the  back  of 
the  stove,  until  it  throws  out  its  juice  and  is  a  rich  brown ;  add  a 
quart  of  tomatoes  seasoned  with  pepper  and  salt,  and  allow  the 
mixture  to  simmer  for  two  or  three  hours.  Take  the  quantity  of 
macaroni  desired  and  boil  in  water  for  twenty  minutes,  after  which 
put  one  layer  of  the  boiled  macaroni  in  the  bottom  of  a  pudding 
dish,  cover  with  some  of  the  above  mixture,  then  a  layer  of  grated 
cheese,  and  so  on  in  layers  till  the  dish  is  filled,  having  a  layer  of 
cheese  on  the  top ;  place  in  the  oven  an  hour,  or  until  it  is  a  rich 
browiL     Commence  early  in  the  morning  to  prepare  this  dish. 

Boiled  Okra. 
Put  the  young  and  tender  pods  of  long,  white  okra  in  salted  boil 
ing  water  in  a  porcelain  or  tin-lined  sauce-pan  (as  iron  discolors  it), 
boil  fifteen  minutes,  take  off  stems,  and  serve  with  butter,  pepper, 
mlt,  and  vinegar  if  preferred ;  or,  after  boiling,  slice  in  rings,  sea- 
son with  butter,  dip  in  batter  and  fry ;  season  and  serve,  or  stew  an 
equal  quantity  of  tomatoes,  and  tender  sliced  okra,  and  one  or  two 
sliced  groen  peppers;  stew  in  porcelain  kettle  fifteen  or  twenty 
minutes,  season  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  and  serve. — Miss  M, 
E.  W.,  Selvfuiy  Ala. 

Baked  Onions. 

The  large  Spanish  or  Bermuda  onions  are  best  for  this  purpose. 
Wash  the  outside  clean,  put  into  a  sauce-pan  with  slightly  salted 


VEGETABLES,  335 

water,  and  boil  an  hour,  replenishing  the  water  with  more  (boiling 
fact  J  as  it  boils  away.  Then  turn  off  watc^r ;  take  out  onions  and 
lay  upon  a  cloth  that  all  moisture  may  be  absorl^ed ;  roll  each  in  a 
piece  of  buttered  tissue-paper,  twisting  it  at  the  top  to  keep  it 
closed,  and  bake  in  a  slow  oven  nearly  an  hour,  or  until  tender  all 
through.  Peel,  put  in  a  deep  dish,  and  brown  slightly,  basting 
freely  with  butter ;  this  will  take  fifteen  minutes  more.  Season  with 
pepper  and  salt,  and  pour  melted  butter  over  the  top. 

BoiLKD  OR  Fried  Onions. 
Wash  and  peel,  boil  ten  minutes,  pour  off  this  water,  again  add 
boiling  water,  boil  a  few  minutes  and  drain  a  second  time;  pour  on 
boiling  water,  add  salt  and  boil  for  one  hour;  place  in  a  colander,  turn 
a  saucer  over  them,  and  press  firmly  to  drive  off  all  the  water;  place 
in  a  dish  and  add  butter  and  pepper.  Or,  about  half  an  hour  before 
they  are  done,  turn  a  pint  of  milk  into  the  water  in  which  they  are 
boiling,  and,  when  tender,  season  as  above.  Old  onions  require  two 
hours  to  boil.  To  fry  onions,  slice  and  boil  ten  minutes  each  time 
in  three  waters,  drain,  fry  in  butter  or  beef  drippings,  stir  often, 
season,  and  serve  hot. 

Potatoes  Boiled  or  Baked  in  Jackets. 
Wash  clean  (a  brush  is  the  best  implement  for  cleaning  potatoes), 
cut  off  the  ends,  let  stand  in  cold  water  a  few  hours,  put  into  boil- 
ing water,  the  larger  ones  first,  and  then  in  a  short  time  adding  the 
rest,  cover,  and  keep  boiling  constantly ;  after  fifteen  minutes  throw 
in  another  handful  of  salt  and  boil  another  fifteen  minutes;  try  with 
a  fork,  and  if  it  does  not  quite  run  through  the  potato,  they  are 
done  (this  is  called  **  leaving  a  bone  in  them").  Drain,  take  to 
door  or  window  and  shake  in  open  air  to  make  them  mealy;  re- 
turn to  stove  and  allow  to  stand  uncovered  for  a  moment.  Or, 
when  washed,  bake  in  a  moderate  oven  fifty  minutes;  or,  place  in 
a  steamer  half  an  hour  over  water  kept  constantly  boiling,  serve 
inmediately ;  or,  wash  and  peel  medium -sized  ones,  and  bake  in 
pan  with  roast  meat,  basting  oftien  with  the  drippings. 

Breakfast  Potatoes. 
Peel,  cut  in  very  thin  slices  into  a  very  little  boiling  water» 


836  VEGETABLES, 

BO  little  that  it  will  be  evaporated  when  they  are  cooked,  add  salt 
to  taste,  some  cream,  or  a  very  lUUe  milk  and  a  bit  of  butter.  A 
little  practice  will  make  this  a  favorite  dish  in  any  family.  The 
art  is,  to  cook  the  potatoes  with  a  very  little  water,  so  that  it  will 
be  evaporated  at  the  time  the  potatoes  are  done.  They  must  be 
stirred  occasionally  while  cooking. 

POTATOICS  AND  OnIONS. 

Boil  potatoes  in  skins,  peel  while  hot  and  slice ;  about  an  hour 
before  wanted,  slice  onions,  and  let  stand  in  salt  and  water;  while 
peeling  potatoes,  put.  onions  in  skillet  with  a  little  ham  gravy  or 
butter  and  a  little  water,  and  cook  slightly ;  take  out,  put  in  vege- 
table dish  a  layer  of  onions,  then  potatoes,  then  onions,  etc.,  with 
potatoes  last ;  add  a  cup  of  vinegar  to  skillet  (with  ham  gravy  or 
butter),  warm  and  .pour  over. 

Fried  Raw  Potatoes. 
Wash,  peel,  and  slice  in  cold  water,  drain  in  a  colander,  and  drop 
in  a  skillet  prepared  with  two  table-spoons  melted  butter  or  beef- 
drippings,  or  one-half  of  each ;  keep  closely  covered  for  ten  minutes, 
only  removing  to  stir  with  a  knife  from  the  bottom  to  prevent 
burning ;  cook  another  ten  minutes,  stirring  frequently  until  done 
and  lightly  browned.  Sweet  potatoes  are  nice  prepared  in  the  same 
manner. — Mrs.  M.  E.  Soidhard, 

Fried  Whole  Potatoes. 

Peel  and  boil  in  salted  water,  remove  from  the  fire  as  soon  as 

done  so  that  they  may  remain  whole ;  have  ready  one  beaten  egg, 

and  some  rolled  crackers  or  bread-crumbs ;  first  roll  the  potatoes  in 

the  eggf    and  then   in  the  crackers,  and  fry  in  butter  till  a  light 

brown,  or  drop  in  boiling  lard.     This  is  a  nice  way  to  cook  old 

potatoes. 

Mashed  Potatoes. 

Pare  and  boil  till  done,  drain,  and  mash  in  the  kettle  until  per- 
fectly smooth;  add  milk  or  cream,  and  butter  and  salt;  beat  like 
cake  with  a  large  spoon,  and  the  more  they  are  beaten  the  nicer 
they  become.  Put  in  a  dish,  smooth,  place  a  lump  of  butter  in  the 
center,  sprinkle  with  pepper ;  or  add  one  or  two  eggs  well-beaten, 
pepper,  mix  thoroughly,  put  in  baking  dish,  dip  a  knife  in  sweet 


v» 


VEGETABLES.  337 

milk,  smooth  over,  wetting  every  part  with  milk,  and  place  in  a  hot 
oveu  twenty  minutes.  To  warm  over  mashed  potatoes,  season  with 
salt  and  butter,  and  a  little  cream  or  milk,  place  in  a  buttered  pie- 
pan,  smoothing  and  shaping  the  top  handsomely,  and  making  checks 
with  a  knife ;  brown  in  a  stove  or  range  oven ;  place  tin  on  a  second 
dish  and  serve  on  it.  Or,  add  a  little  cream  or  milk  to  cold  mashed 
potatoes,  press  evenly  in  a  basin,  set  away,  and  in  the  morning  slice 
and  fiy. 

New  Potatoes. 

Wash,  scrape,  boil  ten  muiutes,  turn  off  water,  and  add  enough 
m6Te,  boiling  hot,  to  cover,  also  add  a  little  salt;  cook  a  few 
moments,  drain,  and  set  again  on  stove,  add  butter,  salt,  and  pepper 
and  a  little  thickening  made  of  two  table-spoons  flour  in  about  a 
pint  of  milk  (a  few  small  ones  may  be  left  in  the  kettle,  and 
broken,  not  mashed  with  the  potato-masher),  put  on  the  cover,  and, 
when  the  milk  has  boiled,  pour  over  potatoes  and  serve.  Or,  when 
cooked  and  drained,  put  in  a  skillet  with  hot  drippings,  cover,  and 
shake  till  a  nice  brown. 

Potatoes  in  Jackets. 

Bake  as  many  potatoes  as  are  needed ;  when  done,  take  off  a 
little  piece  from  one  end  to  permit  them  to  stand,  from  the  other 
end  cut  a  large  piece,  remove  careinlly  the  inside,  and  rub  through 
a  fine  sieve,  or  mash  thoroughly ;  put  on  the  fire  with  half  an  ounce 
of  butter  and  one  ounce  of  grated  cheese  to  every  four  fair-sized 
potatoes;  and  add  boiling  milk  and  pepper  and  salt  as  for  mashed 
potatoes;  fill  the  potato  shells,  and  sprinkle  over  mixed  bread-crumbs 
and  grated  cheese;  and  put  in  hot  oven  and  brown.  Many  prefer 
to  omit  cheese  and  bread-crumbs,  filling  the  shells  heaping  full  and 
then  browning. 

Potatoes  in  Kentucky  Style. 

Slice  thin  as  for  fiying,  let  remain  in  cold  water  half  an  hour ; 

put  into  pudding-dish  or  dripping-pan,  with  salt,  pepper,  and  some 

milk — about  half  a  pint  to  an  ordinary  dish ;  put  into  oven  and 

hake  for  an  hour ;  take  out  and  add  a  lump  of  butter  half  the  size 

of  an  eggf  cut  into  small  bits  and  scattered  over  the  top.     Blicing 

iUowB  the  interior  of  each  potato  to  be  examined,  hence  its  value 
22 


338  VEGETABLES. 

where  potatoes  are  (doubtful,  though  poor  ones  are  not  of  necesflily 
required.  Soaking  in  cold  water  hardens  the  slices,  so  that  they 
will  hold  their  shape.  The  milk  serves  to  cook  them  through,  and 
to  make  a  nice  brown  on  the  top;  the  quantity  can  only  b& learned 
by  experience ;  if  just  a  little  is  left  as  a  rich  gravy,  moistening  all 
the  slices,  then  it  is  right.  In  a  year  of  small  and  poor  potatoes, 
this  method  of  serving  them  will  be  very  welcome  to  many  a  house- 
keeper.— Mrs,  G,  M.  NicIwlSj  Springfidil. 

Potatoes  a  la  Parisienne. 
Wash  and  rub  new  potatoes  with  a  coarse  cloth  (avoid  scraping 
if  possible),  drop  into  boiling  water,  boil  briskly  until  done,  taking 
care  not  to  over  do  (if  doubtful  on  this  point. press  one  of  the  potatoes 
with  a  fork  against  the  side  of  the  sauce-pan,  if  done  it  will  yield 
to  a  gentle  pressure).  Have  ready,  in  a  sauce-pan,  some  cream  and 
butter  hot,  but  not  boiling,  a  little  green  parsley,  pepper  and  salt ; 
pour  off  the  water  from  the  potatoes  and  add  the  cream  and  butter, 
let  stand  a  minute  or  two  over  hot  water,  and  serve. 

Potato  Souffle 

Boil  four  good-sized  mealy  potatoes,  pass  them  through  a  sieve ; 
scald  in  a  clean  sauce-pan  half  tea-cup  of  sweet  milk  and  table- 
spoon of  good  butter,  add  to  the  potato  with' a  little  salt  and  pepper, 
and  beat  to  a  cream  ;  add  one  at  a  time,  the  yolks  of  four  eggs, 
beating  thoroughly,  drop  a  small  pinch  of  salt  into  the  whites  and 
beat  them  to  a  stiff  froth,  add  them  to  the  mixture,  beating  as  little 
as  possible;  have  ready  a  well-buttered  baking-dish,  large  enough 
to  permit  the  souffle  to  rise  without  running  over;  bake  twenty 
minutes  in  a  brisk  oven,  serve  at  once,  and  in  the  same  dish  in 
which  it  was  baked.  It  should  be  eaten  with  meats  that  have 
gravies. 

Potatoes  in  Seven  Ways. 

Sunday,  peel,  steam,  mash,  add  milk,  butter  and  salt,  and  then 
beat  like  cake-batter,  ihe  longer  the  better,  till  they  are  luce  and  light 
This  steaming  and  beating  will  be  found  a  great  improvement. 

Monday,  baked  potatoes  in  their  jackets ;  if  any  are  left  they 
may  be  warmed  over,  peeling  when  cold,  and  then  slicing. 
,  Tuesday,  peel  and  bake  with  roast  of  beef. 


VEGETABLES,  339 

Wednesday,  prepare  in  Kentucky  style. 

Thursday,  peel,  steam,  and  serve  whole. 

Friday,  ''potatoes  a  la  pancake;*^  peel,  cut  in  thin  slices  length- 
wise, sprinkle  with  pepper  and  salt,  and  fry  in  butter  or  beef  drip- 
Ipiugs,  turning  like  griddle-cakes. 

Saturday,  potatoes  boiled  in  their  jackets. 

Ringed  Potatoes. 
Peel  large  potatoes,  cut  them  round  and  round  in  shavings,  as 
you  pare  an  apple.     Fry  with  clean,  sweet  lard  in  a  frying-pan  till 
brown,  stirring  so  as  to  brown  all  alike,  drain  on  a  sieve,  sprinkle  fine 
Bait  over  them,  and  serve. 

Potato  Rissoles. 
Mash  potatoes,  salt  and  pepper  to  taste,  if  desired  add  a  little 
parsley.  Roll  the  potatoes  into  small  balls,  cover  them  with 'an  egg 
and  bread-crumbs,  and  fry  in  hqt  lard .  for  about  two  minutes. 
Finely  minced  tongue  or  ham  may  be  added  with  good  effect,  or 
even  chopped  onions  when  liked. 

Texas  Baked  Irish  Potatoes. 

Boil  some  good  Irish  potatoes ;  when  done,  mash,  season  with  salt, 

pepper  and  butter;  mince  a  large  onion  fine,  mix  well  through  the 

potatoes,  put  in  oven  and  brown  nicely. — Mrs.   C.  E,  &,  Galve^ 

ton,  Texas, 

Saratoga  Potatoes. 

Pare  and  cut  into  thin  slices  on  a  slaw-cutter  four  large  potatoes 

(new  are  best),  let  stand  in  ice-cold  salt  water  ^vhile  breakfast  is 

cooking;  take  a  handful  of  the  potatoes,  squeeze  the  water  from 

them  and  dry  in  a  napkin;  separate  the  slices  and  drop  a  handful 

at  a  time  into  a  skillet  of  Ixnlinjj^  lard,  takin<r  care  that  they  do  not 

strike  together,  stir  with  a  fork  till  th(\v  are  a  light  brown  color, 

take  out  with  a  wire  spoon,  (Iraiu  well  and  serve  in  an  open  dish. 

They  are  very  nice  served  cold. — Mrs.  Jcu^per  Soger, 

Sweet  Potatoes. 
Wash  clean  and  bake  in  a  hot  oven  one  hour ;  or  place  in  steamer 
over  a  kettle  of  boiling  water  from  half  to  three-quarters  of  an  hour , 
or  when  almost  done,  take  off,  scrape  or  peel  them,  place  in  a  drip- 
ping-pan, and  bake  half  an  hour;  or  cut  in  slices  and  fry  in  butter 


340 


VEGETABLES. 


or  lard ;  or  peel  and  slice  when  raw,  and  fry,  a  layer  at  a  time,  on 
griddle,  or  in  a  frying-pan,  with  a  little  melted  lard,  being  careful 
not  to  cook  too  long,  or  they  will  become  too  hard ;  or  drop  in  boil- 
ing lard  in  frying-pan,  turning  till  a  nice  brown  on  both  %ides;  or 
halve  or  quarter,  and  bake  in  pan  with  roast  beef,  basting  them 
often  with  the  drippings. 

Baked  Parsnips. 
Put  four  thin  slices  salt  pork  in  a  kettle  with  two  quarts  cold 
water,  wash  and  scrape  parsnips,  and  if  large  halve  or  quarter,  and 
as  soon  as  water  boils  place  in  kettle,  boil  about  half  an  hour,  re- 
move meat,  parsnips,  and  gravy  to  a  dripping-pan,  sprinkle  with  a 
little  white  sugar,  and  bake  in  oven  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  or  until 
they  are  a  light  brown,  and  the  water  is  all  fried  out  Add  a  few 
potatoes  if  liked.  Those  left  over,  fried  in  a  hot  skillet,  with  but- 
ter, ham  &t  or  beef  drippings,  make  a  nice  breakfast  dish.  It  is 
better  to  dip  each  slice  in  a  beaten  egg  before  frying.  Parsnips  are 
good  in  March  or  April,  and  make  an  excellent  seasoning  for  soups. 

Stewed  Parsnips. 
Wash,  scrape,  and  slice  about  half,  an  inch  thick;  have  a  skiUet 
prepared  with  a  half  pint  hot  water  and  a  table-spoon  butter,  add 
the  parsnips,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  cover  closely,  and  stew 
until  the  water  is  cooked  away,  stirring  occasionally  to  prevent  burn- 
ing.    When  done,  the  parsnips  will  be  of  a  creamy,  light  brown 

color. — Mre,  D.  B. 

Green  Pease. 

Wash  lightly  two  quarts  shelled  pease,  put  into  boiling  water 

enough  to  cover,  boil  twenty  minutes,  add  pepper,  salt,  and  more 

hot  water  if  needed  to  prevent  burning,  and  two  table-spoons  butter 

rubbed  into  two  of 'flour;  stir  well,  and  boil  five  minutes.     If  podjE 

are  clean  and  fresh,  boil  first  in  water  to  give  flavor,  skim  out  and 

put  in  pease.     Canned  pease  should  be  rinsed  before  cooking. 

Pease  Stewed  in  Cream. 

Put  two  or  three  pints  of  young  green  pease  into  a  sauce-pan  oi 

boiling  water;  when  nearly  done  and  tender,  drain  in  a  colander, 

quite  dry;  melt  two  ounces  of  butter  in  a  clean  stew-pan,  thicken 

evenly  with  a  little  flour,  shake  it  over  the  fire,  but  do  not  let  it 


/ 


VEGETABLES,  341 

brown,  mxsc  smoothly  with  a  gill  of  cream,  add  half  a  tea-spoon  of 
white  sugar,  bring  to  a  boil,  pour  in  the  pease,  keep  moving  for  two 
minutes  until  well  heated,  and  serve  hot.  The  sweet  pods  of  young 
pease  are  made  by  the  Germans  into  a  palatable  dbh  by  simply 
Btewiug  with  a  little  butter  and  savory  herbs. — Mn.  W,  A.  Oroffut. 

How  TO  Boil  Rice. 
Bice   should  be  carefully  picked   over,  washed   in  warm  water, 

rubbed  between  the  hands,  and  then  rinsed  several  times  in  cold 

water  till  white.     Put  one  tea-cupful  in  a  tin  pan  or  porcelain  kettle, 

add  one  quart  boiling  water;  boil  fifteen  minutes,  not  stirring,  but 

taking  care  that  it  does  not  burn ;  add  one  tea-spoon  salt,  pour  into 

a  dish  and  send  to  table,  placing  a  lump  of  butter  in  the   center. 

Cooked  thus  the  kernels  remain  whole. 

To  boil  rice  in  milk,  put  a  pint  rice  into  nearly  two  quarts  of  cold 
milk  an  hour  before  dinner,  add  two  tea-spoons  salt,  boil  very  slowly 
and  stir  often ;  cook  on  back  part  of  stove  or  range  so  as  to  avoid 
burning,  and  take  it  up  into  a  mold  or  bowl  wet  in  cold  water  a  short 
time  before  serving. 

Or,  after  cooking,  drain  carefully,  stir  in  two  well-beaten  eggs,  one 

table-spoon  grated  cheese;  half  a  table-spoon  butter,  half  a  tea-spoon 

salt ;  bake  a  few  minutes  in  shallow  pans.     Some  soak  rice  an  hour 

or  two  before  cooking. 

Southern  Rice. 

After  thoroughly  washing  and  rubbing  the  rice,  put  it  in  salted 
water  enough  to  cover  it  twice  over,  in  a  custard-kettle,  or  tin  pail 
set  in  a  kettle  of  boiling  water ;  cover  the  whole  closely  for  fifteen 
or  twenty  minutes,  until  the  grains  of  rice  are  full  and  plump  but 
not  ** mushy;"  drain  off  all  the  water  possible,  and  replace  rice  in 
the  kettle,  allowing  it  to  cook  for  half  an  hour  longer,  when  it  is 
ready  to  serve.  The  grains  should  be  full  and  soft,  and  each  one 
retain  its  form  perfectly.  During  the  last  half  hour  it  should  be 
occasionally  stirred  lightly  with  a  fork,  and  it  is  improved  by  stand- 
ing on  the  back  of  the  stove  a  few  minutes  before  serving. — Mrs,  P. 
T.  Horey,  Charleston,  S.  C, 

Salsify  or  Vegetable  Oysters, 
Wash  thoroughly,  scrape  off  skin  with  a  knife,  cut  across  in 
rather  thin  slices,  stew  until  tender  in  water  enough  to  cover  them« 


342 


VEGETABLES, 


with  a  piece  of  salt  codfish  for  seasoning.  Before  sending  to  table, 
remove  codfish,  thicken  with  flour  and  butter  rubbed  together,  toast 
slices  of  bread,  put  in  dish,  and  then  add  the  vegetable  oyster. 
This  method  gives  the  flavor  of  oysters  to  the  vegetable,  and  adds 
much  to  its  delicacy.  Or,  after  stewing  until  tender  in  clear  water, 
mash,  season  with  pepper  and  saH,  and  serve. — Mrs,  Gov.  J,  J. 
Bagleyj  Michigan, 

^  Salsify  or  Vegetable  Oysters. 

Parboil  after  scraping  ofl*  the  outside,  cut  in  slices,  dip  it  into  a 
beaten  egg  and  fine  bread-crumbs,  and  fry  in  lard.  Or,  slice  cross- 
wise five  or  six  good-sized  plants,  cook  till  tender  in  water  enough 
to  cover,  then  add  a  pint  or  more  of  rich  milk  mixed  with  one 
table-spoon  flour,  season  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt,  let  boil  up 
and  pour  over  slices  of  toasted  brea<l ;  or  aild  three  pints  milk,  or 
half  milk  and  water,  season  and  serve  with  crackers  like  oyster 
soup. 

Cym LINGS  OR  Summer  Squash. 

These  are  better  when  young  and  tender,  which  may  be  known 
by  pressing  the  nail  through  the  skin ;  do  not  peel  or  take  out 
seeds,  but  boil  whole,  or  cut  across  in  thick  slices ;  boil  in  as  little 
water  as  possible  for  one-half  or  three-quarters  of  an  hour,  drain 
well,  mash  and  set  on  back  part  of  stove  or  range  to  dry  out  for 
ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  stirring  occasionally  ;  then  season  with  butter 
pepper,  salt  and  a  little  cream.  If  old,  peel,  cut  up,  take  out  seeds, 
boil  and  season  as  above. 

Winter  Squash. 

Cut  up,  fake  out  inside,  pare  the  pieces  and  stew  in  as  little 
water  as  ]x)s>ible,  cook  an  hour,  mash  in  kettle,  and  if  watery,  let 
stand  on  the  fire  a  few  moments,  stirring  until  dry;  season  with 
butter,  cream,  salt  and  pepper;  he  careful  that  it  does  not  burn. 
Winter  squashes  are  also  cooked  by  cutting  in  pieces  witiiout  paring, 
baking,  and  serving  like  potatoes;  or  they  may  be  cooked  in  a 
steamer,  and  served  either  in  the  shell,  or  scraped  out,  put  in  pan, 
mashed,  and  seasoned  with  butter,  cream,  salt  and  pepper,  and  then 
made  hot  and  served. 


VEGETABLES,  343 

Succotash. 

Take  pint  of  shelled  lima  beans  (green),  wash,  cover  with  hot  water, 
let  stand  five  minutes,  pour  ofF,  place  over  fire  in  hot  water,  and  boil 
fifteen  minutes;  have  ready  ecru  from  six  good-sized  ears,  and  add 
to  beans ;  boil  half  an  hour,  add  salt,  pepper  and  two  table-spoops 
butter.  Be  careful  in  cutting  down  corn  not  to  cut  too  deep; 
better  not  cut  deep  enough  and  then  scrape ;  after  corn  is  added, 
watch  carefully  to  keep  from  scorching.  Or,  to  cook  with  meat, 
boil  one  pound  salt  pork  two  hours,  add  beans,  cook  fifteen  minutes, 
then  add  corn,  omitting  butter.  Or,  string  beans  may  be  used, 
cooking  one  hour  before  adding  corn. 

Winter  Succotash. 
Wash  one  pint  lima  beans  (dried  when  green)  and  one  and  a  half 
pints  dried  corn ;  put  beans  in  kettle  and  cover  with  cold  water ; 
cover  com  with  cold  water  in  a  tin  pan,  set  on  top  of  kettle  of  beans 
80  that  while  the  latter  are  boiling  the  com  may  be  heating  and 
swelling;  boil  beans  fifteen  minutes,  drain  off*,  cover  with  boiling 
water,  and  when  tender  (half  an  hour)  add  com,  cooking  both 
together  for  fifteen  minutes ;  five  minutes  before  serving,  add  salt, 
pepper  and  a  dressing  of  butter  and  flour  rubbed  together,  or  one- 
half  tea-cup  cream  or  milk  thickened  with  one  table-spoon  flour. 

Spinach. 
Look  over  the  spinach,  wash  in  four  waters  and  take  off'  stalks, 
boil  in  a  sauce-pan  without  water  for  thirty  minutes,  covering 
closely,  drain  in  a  colander  and  cut  with  a  knife  while  draining ; 
season  with  pepper,  salt  and  a  little  butter,  boil  two  eggs  hard  and 
slice  over  the  top;  serve  hot.  Or  it  may,  when  boiled  soft,  be 
rubbed  through  the  colander,  then  put  in  frying-pan,  with  a  lump 
of  butter,  seasoned  with  pepper  and  salt.  When  hot,  l)eat  in  two 
or  three  table-spoons  rich  cream.  Put  thin  slices*  of  buttered  toast 
(one  for  each  person)  on  dish  and  on  each  piece  put  a  cupfiil  of 
spinach  neatly  smoothed  in  shape,  with  the  half  of  a  hard-boiled  egg 
on  the  top,  cut  part  uppermost. 

Baked  Tomatoes. 
Cut  a  thin  slice  from  blossom  side  of  twelve  solid,  smooth,  ripe 
tomatoes,  with  a  tea-spoon  remove  pulp  without  breaking  shell; 


344 


VEGETABLES. 


take  a  small,  solid  head  of  cabbage  and  one  onion,  chop  fine,  add 
bread  crumbs  rubbed  fine,  and  pulp  of  tomatoes,  season  with  pep- 
per, salt  and  sugar,  add  a  tea-cup  good  sweet  cream,  mix  well 
together,  fill  tomatoes,  put  the  slice  back  in  its  place,  lay  them  stem 
end  down  in  a  buttered  baking-dish  with  just  eyiaugh  water  (some 
cook  without  water),  with  a  small  lump  of  butter  on  each,  to  keep 
from  burning,  and  bake  half  an  hour,  or  until  tJiarou^Idy  done; 
place  a  bit  of  butter  on  each  and  serve  in  baking-dish.  They  make 
a  handsome  dish  for  a  dinner-table. — Mrs.  S,  Waiion,  Upper  San- 

dmhy.  k 

EscALOPED  Tomatoes. 

Put  in  a  buttered  baking-dish  a  layer  of  bread  or  cracker-crumbs 
seasoned  with  bits  of  butter,  then  a  layer  of  sliced  tomatoes  sea- 
soned with  pepper,  salt,  and  sugar  if  desired,  then  a  layer  of  crumbs, 
and  so  on  till  dish  is  full,  finishing  with  tlie  crumbs.  Bake  from 
three-quarters  of  an  hour  to  an  hour.  Onions,  prepared  by  soaking 
over  night  in  hot  water,  dried  well,  sliced  in  nearly  hiUf-inch  slices, 
and  browned  on  both  sides  in  a  frying-pan  with  butter,  may  be 
added,  a  layer  on  each  layer  of  tomatoes. 

Fried  Tomatoes. 

Peel  tomatoes  and  cut  crosswise  in  large  slices,  salt  and  pepper, 

dip  each  slice  into  wheat  flour,  tlien  into  beaten  eg^^  and  fry  at 

once  in  hot  lard;  serve  hot.     A  cup  of  milk  is  sometimes  thickened 

with  a  little  flour  and  butter,  boiled  and  poured  over  them. — Eetdls 

Woods  Wilcox, 

Mother's  Sliced  Tomatoes. 

Prepare  half  an   hour  l)efore  dinner,  scald  a  few  at  a  time  in 

boiling  water,  peel,  slice,  and  sprinkle   with  salt  and  pepper,  set 

away  in  a  cool  place,  or  lay  a  piece  of  ice  on   them.     Serve  as  a 

relish  for  dinner  in  their  own  liquor.     Those  who  desire  may  add 

vinegar  and  sugar. 

Stewed  Tomatoes. 

Scald  by  pouring  water  over  them,  peel,  slice  and  cut  out  all 

defective  parts;,  place  a  lump  of  butter  in  a  hot  skillet,  put  in 

tomatoes,  season  with  salt  and  pepper,  keep  up  a  brisk  fire,  and 

cook  as  rapidly  a.s  possible,  stirring  with  a  spoon  or  chopping  up 

with  a  knife  (in  the  latter  case  wipe  the  knife  as  oflen  as  used  ox 


VEGETABLES.  345 

It  will  blackect  the  tomatoes).  Cook  half  an  hour.  Serve  at  once 
in  a  deep  dish  lined  with  toast.  When  iron  is  used,  tomatoes  must 
cook  rapidly  and  have  constant  attention.  If  prepared  in  tin  or 
porcelain,  they  do  not  require  the  same  care. — Mrs.  Judge  Cole. 

Tomato  Toast. 

Run  a  quart  of  stewed  ripe  tomatoes  through  a  colander,  place 
in  a  porcelain  stew-pan,  season  with  butter,  pepper  and  salt  aud 
sugar  to  taste;  cut  slices  of  bread  thin,  brown  on  both  sides,  butter 
and  lay  on  a  platter,  and  just  as  the  bell  rings  for  tea  add  a  pint 
of  good  sweet  cream  to  the  stewed  tomatoes,  and  pour  them  over 
toast. — Mn.  S.  Watson. 

Turnips. 

Wash,  peel,  cut  in  thin  slices  across  th§  grain,  and  place  in  kettle 
in  as  little  water  as  possible;  boil  from  half  to  three-quarters  of  an 
hour  or  until  you  can  easily  pierce  them  with  a  fork ;  drain  well, 
season  with  salt,  pepper  and  butter,  mash  fine  and  place  on  stove, 
stirring  frequently  until  water  is  all  dried  out.  Do  not  boil  too 
long,  as  they  are  much  sweeter  when  cooked  quickly.  Turnips 
may'  be  steamed  and  finished  as  above,  and  are  better  than  when 
boiled.     They  may  also  be  sliced  and  baked. 

Diced  Turnips. 

Pare,  slice,  cut  in  dice  an  inch  square,  boil  till  nearly  done,  in  as 
little  water  as  possible ;  to  one  quart  of  turnips,  add  one  table-spoon 
sugar,  salt  to  make  it  palatable ;  when  they  are  boiled  as  dry  as 
possible,  add  two  or  three  spoons  of  creiim  and  a  beaten  egg,  and 
serve.     Excellent. 

Tip-top  Pudding,  or  Vegetable  Pudding. 

Boil  a  firm,  white  cabbage  fifteen  minutes,  changing  water  then 
for  more  from  the  boiling  tea-kettle;  when  tender,  drain  and  set 
aside  till  perfectly  cold ;  chop  fine,  add  two  beaten  eggs,  a  table- 
spoon of  butter,  three  of  very  rich  milk  or  cream,  pepper  and  salt. 
Stir  all  well  together,  and  bake  in  a  buttered  pudding-dish  until 
brown ;  serve  hot.  This  dish  is  digestible  and  palatable,  much  re- 
*«mbling  cauliflowers,— "JLtin*  Dinah." 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING. 


BY   PROF.   C.   H.   KING. 

Ornamental  icing  consists  in  working  two  or  more  colors  of  icing 
on  one  surface, — such,  for  instance,  as  pink  and  white,  or  choco- 
late and  white,  sometimes  with,  sometimes  without,  the  addition  of 
crystallizing.  To  ic^  a  cake  white  and  pipe  or  ornament  it  with 
pink  piperj,  or  ice  it  with  pink  or  chocolate  icing  and  pipe  it  with 
white  icing,  would  constitute  ornamental  icing.  But  there  is 
another  method  called  "  inlaid,"  which  consists  of  having  different 
colored  icing  on  the  same  surface,  not  simply  a  different  colored 
piping  on  the  icing.  The  best  illustration  I  can  give  of  this  wiU,  I 
think,  be  a  chess-board.  To  do  it  take  a  cone,  cut  a  fine  point  off^ 
fill  it  as  instructed  in  **  artistic  piping,"  draw  fine  lines  first 
straight  down  one  inch  apart,  then  across  at  the  same  distance  at 
right  angles ;  you  have  then  formed  squares  one  inch  across.  Now 
fill  these  in  alternately  with  either  white  or  pink  and  white,  and 
then  chocolate  icing  or  pink  and  chocolate.  You  then  have  the 
squares  in  two  colors,  the  same  as  they  would  appear  on  a  chess  or 
checker-board.  The  only  point  to  be  here  observed  is  to  have  your 
icing  soft  enough  to  just  run  smooth ;  the  lines  will  prevent  it  from 
running  together.  You  can  work  any  pattern  you  choose  in  this 
manner  by  simply  running  a  line  of  piping  to  form  the  design,  then 
tilling  in  as  before  described.  You  can  also  further  vary  this  by 
marking  out  any  design,  and  with  a  small  paint-brush  washing  it 
over  with  white  of  egg  or  gum-water,  then  covering  it  with  granu- 
lated sugar  either  plain  white  or  colored ;  or  you  can  cover  it  with 
powdered  chocolate  or  rolled  rock  candy,  either  pink  or  white;  shake 
off  what  will  not  stick,  and  you  will  find  the  design  covered  with 
the  sugar;  now  pipe  round  the  edge  of  the  design  with  a  fine  cone 
of  icing  sugar,  and  it  is  complete. 

(346) 


ORNAMENTAL  ICLNQ.  347 

Crystallization. 

CrystaUization  consists  in  simply  covering  the  cake  while  the 
icing  is  wet  with  granulated  sugar,  plain  or  pink.  (For  coloring 
sugar  pink  see  **  meringue  icing  ").  Or  you  can  use  pink  or  white 
sugar  or  rock  candy  crushed.  If  you  wish  to  crystallize  only  a 
portion  of  the  icing,  and  that  in  any  particular  design,  first  allow 
the  icing  to  dry,  then  wash  the  part  you  wish  crystallized  with  white 
of  egg  or  gum- water,  and  cover  it  with  the  sugar;  then  shake  off 
what  will  not  remain  on. 

Artistic  Piping,  with  Diagrams. 

For  the  benefit  of  those  who  wish  to  excel  in  the  art  of  orna- 
menting bride  or  other  cakes  with  icing  (technically  called  '*pip- 
ing,'')  I  give  a  sheet  of  diagrams,  which  will  almost  explain  them- 
selves, and  will  require  but  little  study  by  those  having  a  taste  for 
artistic  work  (which  most  ladies  have)  to  master  it;  and  I  promise 
you  that  if  you  will  master  this  sheet  of  diagrams  before  attempting 
any  thing  more  elaborate  (on  the  same  principle  as  you  first  perfect 
yourself  in  the  scales  for  music  before  attempting  the  playing  of  a 
piece),  that  you  will  succeed  beyond  your  expectations,  and  will 
soon  be  able  to  ornament  a  cake  equal  to  an  expert.  I  would 
here  remark  that  this  applies  to  all  kinds  of  ornamenting,  as  it  is 
all  done  in  the  same  manner,  no  matter  whether  the  material  used 
be  butter,  lard,  or  savory  jelly  for  the  decoration  of  tongues,  roast 
chicken,  hams,  etc. ,  or  sweet  jelly,  chocolate  or  sugar  for  the  oma- 
tnentation  of  all  kinds  of  cakes.  Learn  one,  and  you  have  learned 
all. 

For  example,  if  you  wish'  to  decorate  a  tongue,  ham,  or  roast 
chicken,  use  either  butter,  lard,  or  savory  jelly,  instead  of  sugar, 
and  in  precisely  the  same  manner  as  you  would  icing.  This  orna- 
mentation, with  the  addition  of  a  little  parsley,  and  a  cut  root 
flower  or  so,  completes  the  operation  of  decorating  the  above-named 
articles.  They  are  sometimes  further,  or  even  altogether  decorated 
or  gamishe<l  with  '^tippets,"  cut  diamond  or  triangular  form,  and 
consisting  of  toasted  bread,  ** aspic"  jelly,  etc.;  but  this  style  of 
garnishing  is  usually  adopted  only  by  those  who  are  not  competent 


348 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINO. 


to  decorate  or  giimish  with  butter,  lard,  or  savory  jelly,  and  who 
are  not  able  to  cut  their  own  root  flowers.  Root  flowers  are  usually 
cut  ill  the  form  of  roses,  tulips,  dahlias,  et<.\,  from  white  and  yellow 
turnips,  beets,  and  carrots,  and  the  edges  of  the  leaves  are  usually 
tipped  with  pink  color,  such  as  liquid  **  cochineal." 

To  use  jelly  for  decorating  or  piping  cakes,  set  it  in  a  place 
where  it  will  get  just  warm  enough  to  pass  through  the  cone  with 
'lit;?  aid  of  a  gentle  pressure;  in  cold  weather  it  is  well  to  beat  it 
with  a  t^poon,  in  addition  to  warming  it.  Thi^  makes  it  one  uniform 
consistency.  When  ready  for  use  fill  the  cone  with  it,  then  pro- 
ceed as  directed  for  piping,  using  the  cone  in  the  same  manner  as 
if  it  contained  icing. 

To  use  butter  or  lard  treat  it  in  the  same  manner  as  jelly,  so  as 
to  get  it  just  soft  enough  to  pass  through  the  cone.  Be  very  careful 
not  to  get  it  too  soft  or  it  will  not  stand.  In  warm  weather  you  can 
add  a  little  flour  to  stiflen  it,  but  not  too  much,  or  it  will  not  pass 
through  the  cone;  when  ready  fill  cone  with  it,  same  as  for  icing, 
and  use  the  cone  in  the  same  manner. 

To  cut  root  flowers,  wash  the  roots,  and  for  say  a  rose,  take  a  good 
shaped  turnip,  pare  it,  cut  it  the  proper  shape,  then  with  a  sharp 
pocket  knife  (French  root  flower  cutters  may  be  had  of  dealers 
in  confectioner's  supplies,)  go  all  round  the  bottom  edge,  so  ^^z-n/-^  ; 
then  repeat  this  op)eration,  so  .-oOs,  bringing  the  second  cuts  be- 
tween the  first,  and  holding  the  back  of  the  knife  blade  from  you 
and  the  edge  towards  you.  This  causes  the  cuts  to  meet  at  the 
bottom,  and  then  by  holding  the  knife  point  down,  and  running  it 
all  round  inside  the  cut  the  piece  falls  out,  leaving  the  leaves 
separate  and  distinct.  Continue  this  until  you  reach  the  center, 
eo  ^-<><>Ck.  A  little  practice  will  assist  you  in  this  particular,  and 
>'ou  will  soon  be  able  to  make  other  flowers,  as  the  principle  is  the 
same;  when  the  flowers  are  cut  tip  the  edges  with  a  little -cochineal. 

To  ornament  a  cake  with  icing,  use  prepared  icing  in  the  manner 
I  shall  hereafter  describe.  The  icing  may  be  harmlessly  colored, 
as  follows:  for  pink,  use  ** cochineal;"  for  blue,  use  indigo;  for  yel- 
low, use  saflron ;  for  green,  use  blue  and  yellow,  until  you  attain 
the  required  shade  of  color. 

Although  I  have  given  the  different  colors,  should  you  wish  to 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING.       •  349 

use  them,  I  would  not  recommend  them  except  in  cases  where  their 
use  is  required  to  produce  effect,  and  not  to  be  eaten.  Too  much 
color,  or  too  great  a  number  of  colors,  are  objectionable  and 
not  in  good  taste.  I  suggest  keeping  as  much  as  possible  to  plain 
white,  light  pink,  light  ci*eam  color,  chocolate  color,  produced  by  the 
use  of  chocolate  or  cocoa,  and  the  natural  colors  produced  by  the 
use  of  the  various  sweet  jellies.  By  a  judicious  and  artistic  arrange- 
ment of  the  colors  the  above  articles  will  give,  it  is  possible  to 
produce  an  unlimited  variety,  and  not  place  any  thing  before 
guests  objectionable  in  point  of  color. 

The  sugar  used  for  decorating  cakes  is  prepared  in  the  same  man- 
ner as  that  for  icing  cake  (see  icing  for  cakes.)     To  use  it,  have 
ready  prepared  some  paper  cones,  made  by  folding  or  rolling  up  a 
piece  of  paper  in  the  form  of  a  cornet,  and  securing  the  joint  with  a 
little  mucilage  or  white  of  eggs  (see  No.  1,  in  page  of  diagrams). 
Now  with  a  sharp  knife  cut  off  the  point  of  cone  so  as  to  leave  hole 
any  size  needed,  from  a  pin's  size  to  half  an  inch  in  diameter  (see 
No.  2,  for  plain  round  work).     If  you  wish  a  star  (No.  3),  cut  off 
the  point  of  the  cone  to  form  an  aperture  equal  to  the  center  of 
the  star  you  require,  then  cut  out  the  points,  as  shown  in  No.  22. 
If  for  a  leaf,  cut  as  shown  in  No.  24.     Now  fill  these  cones  three- 
fourths  full  with  the  prepared  icing,  fold  down  the  top  securely,  so 
that  the  sugar  will  not  force  back,  and  all  is  ready  to  commence  the 
omamentatioi^.     (I  would  here  say  that  it  will  save  the  trouble  of 
cutting  the  cones  to  use  little  brass  tubes,  made  for  the  purpose,  al 
a  cost  of  from  ten  to  fifteen  cents  each.     In  using  these  you  have 
only  to  cut  off  the  point  of  the  paper  cone  large  enough  to  allow  the 
tube  to  come  through  half  its  length.     These  tubes  will  last  a  life- 
time, and  can  be  procured  from  almost  any  confectioner's  supply 
store.) 

The  cones  being  filled  with  the  sugar,  and  the  cake  ready  iced, 
mark  out  (as  lightly  as  possible)  with  a  lead-pencil  the  design  on  the 
cake;  then  go  over  the  design  with  the  cones  of  sugar,  in  the  man* 
ner  hereafter  described,  until  the  design  is  complete.  (I  say  this^ 
presuming  you  have  mastered  the  diagrams.)  I  will  now  explain 
the  diagrams,  and  in  so  doing  hope  I  shall  succeed  in  making  yoa 
fully  understand  the  use  and  purposes  of  the  cones,  and  the  varioot 


850 


ORNAMENTAL  lOINO. 


yet  simple  **  means  to  the  end,"  that  you  may  be  able  to  so 

the  various  diagrams  as  to  form  a  harmonious  whole,  and  surprise 

yourself  by  producing  a  design  beyond  your  expectations. 

To  practice  this,  I  would  recommend  that  you  procure  a  walnut 
board,  about  twelve  inches  square,  perfectly  smooth.  This  being 
dark  and  the  sugar  white  you  can  easily  see  the  work;  and  if  every 
thing  is  clean  the  sugar  need  not  be  wasted,  as  it  can  be  scraped  off 
and  used  for  some  purpose  or  other. 

The  board  being  ready  and  a  cone  filled  with  sugar,  take  the  cone 
in  the  left  hand,  and  place  the  thumb  of  the  right  hand  on  the  folded 
part  or  top ;  use  the  thumb  to  press  on  the  cone  to  force  out  the 
sugar  at  the  point,  in  just  the  same  manner  you  would  use  a  syringe. 
Now  force  out  the  sugar  with  a  regular  and  even  pressure,  and 
draw  a  number  of  fine  lines,  as  even  and  straight  as  possible,  by 
dropping  the  point  of  the  cone  in  the  left  hand  corner  of  the  board, 
and  with  an  onward  motion,  in  accordance  with  the  flow  of  sugar 
(which  will  be  little  or  much,  in  proportion  to  the  pressure  you  give 
the  tube);  run  it  straight 'on  to  the  right  hand  corner  (see  No.  4). 
Notice  that  you  can  make  this  line  larger  by  pressing  harder  on  the 
cdne.     Next  repeat  this,  giving  the  cone  a  zigzag  motion  (No.  5) ; 
then  commence  light,  gradually  increasing  the  pressure,  so  as  to 
produce  a  line  small  at  one  end  and  large  at  the  other  (No.  6) ; 
then  reverse  it  by  beginning  heavy  and  finishing  light  (No.   7). 
When  you  wish  to  disconnect  the  cone  from  the  sugar,  do  so  by 
taking  off  the  pressure  from  the  cone,  and  giving  a  quick,  sudden, 
upward  jerk.     Now  do  some  cross  stringing  (No.  8),  then  No.  9  to 
17;  then  with  the  same  cone,  held  perpendicular  (and  the  sugar 
pushed  out  until  the  drop  is  the  required  size,  then  suddenly  de- 
tached in  the  same  manner  as  above  mentioned),  drop  different 
sized  drops  or  dots  (No.  18  to  20) ;  then  with  the  same  cone,  by 
commencing  at  the  large  end  first  and  gradually  drawing  it  to  a  fine 
thread  do  No.   21.      Now  take  the  star  cut  cone  (No.  22),  and 
drop  some  star  dots,  the  same  as  in  Nos.  18,  19,  and  20;  then  with 
a  circular  or  rotary  motion,  make  roses  (No.  23)  ;  then  repeat  with 
this  star  cone  all  that  you  have  done  with  the  plain  round  cone.   ^ 
Next  take  the  leaf  cone  (No.  24),  and  by  beginning  at  the  large 
end  of  the  leaf  first,  and  gradually  drawing  it  to  a  point,  make  the 


'OoSo.  1$  

OOOOoboo.    oOOOO^OOOoa  oOOOOOOq" 


G> 


a^ 


.( 


352 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINO. 


leaf  as  long  as  desired  (No.  25) ;  by  giving  the  cone  a  wavy  motion 
you  form  the  veins  in  the  leaf.  Then  put  two  together  (No.  26), 
and  with  the  star  cone  add  a  rose  (No.  27);  then  three  leaves  and 
a  rose  (No.  28);  then  four,  as  in  No.  29;  then  five,  with  a  sinnple 
plain  dot  in  the  center  (No.  30;.  Now,  with  the  plain  round  cone, 
make  No.  31,  adding  to  it,  for  top  finish,  No.  21;  next,  with  the 
same  cone,  make  the  stems  of  Nos.  32  and  33,  and  with  the  leaf 
cone  add  the  leaves.  Do  the  same  in  No.  34,  adding  a  ring  of  dots, 
also  a  ros?,  with  the  star  cone;  next,  with  the  same  plain  round 
cone,  do  No.  35f  by  giving  the  cone  a  wavy  motion;  also  No.  36, 
by  giving  the  cone  a  sudden  jerk,  first  to  the  left,  then  to  the  right, 
then  straight  down  the  middle,  as  shown  in  No.  37. 

This  appears  a  good  deal  on  paper,  but  is  really  nothing  when 
you  come  to  do  it,  as  it  can  all  be  done  on  the  board  at  one  lesson, 
and  two  or  three  lessons  should  sufiBce  to  give  you  a  good  insight, 
and  each  one  you  do  will  be  better  than  its  predecessor,  and  you 
will  surprise  yourself  at  the  ease  with  which  you  can  produce  and 
execute  a  design,  if  you  only  master  these  diagrams  first. 

Having  gone  this  far,  you  may  now  form  a  design  for  yourself 
by  making  whatever  combination  fancy  dictates,  from  the  scrolls, 
lines,  curves,  etc.,  shown  in   the  diagrams;   it  may  be  somewhat 
crude  at  first,  but  practice   will  perfect.     As  an  example,   which 
will  explain  the  whole,  I  will  instruct  you  how  to  make  a  simple 
combination,  and  thereby  produce  a  bunch  of  grapes.     First,  with 
the  leaf  cone  make  four  leaves  (No.  38),  and  with  the  plain  round 
cone  add  the  stem ;  also,  with  the  same  kind  of  cone,  only  cut  a  little 
larger,  to  make  a  larger  drop,  add  grapes  by  making  a  succession 
of  dots,  gradually  making  them  higher  in  the  middle  (No.  39)  ;  then 
n<  i\  finish,  with  the  plain  small  cone,  add  the  scroll  as  shown  run- 
ning over  the  grapes.     I  will  also  give  one  other  illustration.     To 
m  ike  a  large  leaf,  "in  imiUition  of  those  used  on  bride's  cake,  first 
mark  the  outline  of  the  leaf  (No.  40),  then  with  the  plain  round 
cone  run  the  cross  lines,  as  shown  in  No.  8,  also  in  No.  41 ;  then 
\vith  the  plain  round  cone  add  the  edge  in  dots,  as  shown  in  Nos.  20 
and  42.     To  illustrate  this  farther,  I  furnish  a  full  sketch  for  the 
top  of  a  wedding  or  other  cake  (page  353)  made  up  of  the  grapes  and 
leaves  I  have  described.     I  must  now  leave  you  to  the  study  and 


854 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINQ, 


practice  of  the  diagrams,  assuring  you  that  you  will  find  it  much 
more  simple  than  it  here  appears,  and  that  the  results  attained  at  eacb 
trial  will  be  such  as  to  stimulate  you  to  further  efforts  and  succesa. 
I  will  here  remark  that  you  can  do  heavy  and  light  work  with  the 
same  cone  by  adding  pressure ;  for  instance,  if  you  are  using  a  cone 
with  a  fine  point,  by  drawing  that  with  a  regular  motion  and  even 
pressure,  you  produce  a  line  of  sugar  the  same  size  as  the  hole 
through  which  it  comes;  but  if  you  draw  the  cone  along  slower  than 
the  sugar  comes  out,  you  will  readily  see  that  you  produce  a  heavier 
line ;  also,  if  you  wish  to  make  a  very  fine  line  with  the  same  cone» 
use  the  even  pressure,  but  draw  the  cone  along  very  fast;  you  have 
only  to  bear  in  mind  that  there  \a  a  limit  to  the  size,  and  when  you 
reach  that  to  press  harder  simply  means  to  burst  the  cone ;  when  the 
limit  is  reached,  if  you  want  a  larger  flow,  you  must  have  another 
cone  with  a  larger  opening  at  the  point     This  applies  to  all  shapes, 
whether  round,  star,  or  leaf.     The  cone  may  be  used  in  the  same 
manner  you  would  a  pen,  pressing  heavy  and  light ;  for  example, 
if  you  are  making  a  scroll,  like  No.  11,  with  a  fine  round  cone, 
when  you  come  to  the  bend  of  the  scroll,  by  giving  the  cone  a  little 
more  pressure  you  cause  more  sugar  to  flow,  thus  producing  the 
fullness  in  the  curve  (see  No.  11) ;  when  you  have  done  that  with* 
draw  the  pressure  and  continue  as  before. 

lERINOUE  ICINO 

Beat  the  whites  of  six  eggs  to  a  very  stifi*  firoth  (you  can  not  beat 
them  too  stifi*;  emd  if  they  are  not  stifl*  the  meringue  will  not  be 
good.)  While  beating,  add  a  saltspoonful  of  salt,  also  a  teaspoon- 
ful  of  sugar ;  when  well  beaten  up  add  half  a  pound  of  sugar,  and 
stir  it  very  lightly  in,  yet  be  careful  to  see  it  is  toM  stirred  in. 
This  being  ready,  take  the  pie  after  baking  (usually  a  lemon  pie), 
and  with  a  knife  spread  a  thin  coating  of  the  meringue  all  over  it; 
then  with  a  cone  (the  same  as  used  in  other  icing),  filled  with  the 
meringue  icing,  proceed  to  work  out  some  design.  When  finished  re* 
turn  it  to  the  oven  to  take  a  light  brown  color.  You  can  work  anj 
design  in  this  as  well  as  in  icing-sugar,  but  the  patterns  for  this  are 
larger,  consequently  are  done  with  a  cone  with  a  larger  portion  cut 
oS  the  point.  For  centers  of  meringue  pies  you  can  use  such  designi 


/ 


356 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINO. 


as  an  ear  of  corn,  an  anchor,  a  **  true  lover's  knot,"  a  Maltese 
a  bunch  of  grapes,  or  whatever  the  fancy  dictates;  you  can  further 
decorate  it  with  fruit  jelly  in  addition  to  the  meringue  piping,  put- 
ting on  the  jelly  with  a  cone,  and  in  the  same  manner  as  for  piping. 
Chocolate  is  not  used  on  meringue  work,  neither  is  the  meringue 
ever  colored  except  in  some  cases  when  it  is  colored  a  light  cream 
color  ;  pink  colored  sugar  is  sometimes  sprinkled  over  it.     To  color 
this  sugar,  simply  drop  a  little  cochineal  color  on  some  granulated 
ftugar,  and  rub  it   together  until   colored,  then  dry  it,  then  rub  it 
apart  and  keep  it  in  a  bottle  ready  for  use.    It  will  keep  its  color  for 
years.     I  give  one  design  (page  355)  for  the  top  of  a  meringue 
pie  just  as  a  guide. 

TO   MAKE  WATER  ICING. 

Take  any  quantity  of  powdered  sugar  you  require,  add  cold 
water  enough  to  it  to  form  a  thick  paste  (remember,  it  will  not  take 
much) ;  beat  well,  and  if  too  thin  so  that  it  runs  too  much,  add  a 
little  more  sugar.  To  every  pound  of  sugar,  add  as  much  cream 
of  tartar  as  will  lie  on  a  twenty-five  cent  piece  (a  level  teaspoon- 
ful) ;  when  this  icing  is  prepared,  spread  it  with  a  knife  over  the 
cake,  and  allow  it  to  dry ;  you  can  then  ornament  or  decorate  it 
with  icing  sugar  in  the  same  manner  as  for  a  bride's  cake,  or  use  a 
sweet  jelly,  such  as  **red  currant"  or  "quince." 

This  water  icing  may  also  be  colored  a  light  shade  of  pink  with 
"  cochmeal,"  or  a  light  cream  color  with  saffron.  For  a  mauve 
oolor,  add  a  drop  of  indigo  blue  to  the  pink  color ;  but  remember 
none  of  these  colors  must  be  heavy,  as  they  are  objectionable  and  m 
bad  taste.  Water  icing  is  used  for  tops  of  pound,  sponge,  and 
other  cakes,  also  for  tops  of  jeUy  cakes.  (See  design  for  jelly  cake, 
page  353.) 

CHOCOLATE  ICING. 

Ask  any  confectioner  for  a  piece  of  **  Baker's  eagle  cocoa;  "  and 
if  you  can  not  procure  that,  ask  any  grocer  for  pure  cocoa  in  block, 
or  what  is  called  **  Baker's  premium  cocoa."  Place  what  you  need  of 
it  in  a  basin,  and  stand  the  basin  in  boiling  water  until  the  cocoa 
b  dissolved,  then  add  powdered  sugar  to  taste,  and  beat  it 
well  in;  add  also  the  whites  of  two  eggs  (whisked  up  a  little)  to 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING.  357 

every  pound  of  cocoa  used  (this  gives  a  gloss);  beat  the  sugar 
in  well  and  the  whites  of  eggs ;  now  with  a  knife  spread  the  cocoa 
(or  rather  the  chocolate  now  that  it  has  the  sugar  in  it,  for  choco- 
late issinaply  cocoa  sweetened)  evenly  on  the  cake;  be  as  quick  as 
possible  with  it,  for  as  soon  as  it  cools  it  gets  hard*  If  you  wish 
simple  cocoa  icing,  use  the  cocoa  and  whites  of  egg  only ;  but  if 
you  wish  sweet  or  chocolate  icing,  add  the  sugar.  To  help  you  a 
little  in  the  first  attempt,  add  one  tablespoonful  of  hot  water  to  a 
pound  of  cocoa ;  this  will  keep  it  moist  and  liquid  a  little  longer, 
but  it  will  take  a  little  longer  to  harden. 

CREAM  CHOCOLATE  ICING. 

What  is  known  as  cream  chocolate  icing  is  done  in  the  same  man- 
ner, using  half  cocoa  and  half  pure  cream,  and  sweetening  it  to 
taste.  In  this  case  use  no  whites  of  eggs,  but  simply  dissolve  the 
cocoa  as  before  described,  then  add  the  sugar,  and  afterwards  grad- 
ually add  and  well  stir  in  the  cream.  It  is  then  ready  for  use. 
Chocolate  icing  is  also  used  to  ice  jelly  cakes  and  other  small  cakes, 
also  chocolate -de-clares ;  it  may  also  be  used  as  an  icing  for  any 
thing,  and  can  be  piped,  ornamented,  or  decorated  with  icing  sugar 
in  the  same  manner  as  a  bride's  cake. 

Cocoa  may  also  be  mixed  with  sugar  icing ;  add  little  or  much 
cocoa  as  desired,  and  either  ice  a  cake  with  this  chocolate  icing  or 
use  it  for  piping  or  ornamenting  in  the  same  manner  as  icing  sugar 
}s  used. 

TO  ICE  OR  FROST  A  WEDDING  OR  ANY  FLAT  TOP  CAKE. 

When  the  cake  is  baked  and  cold,  cut  off  all  the  rough  parts  and 
brush  ofifall  crumbs ;  then  prepare  an  icing  *in  the  manner  described, 
but  in  this  case  for  first  icing  use  ordinary  *' powdered  sugar;"  give 
the  cake  a  thin  covering  with  this  icing,  simply  to  fill  up  the 
hollows,  so  that  the  second  coat  of  icing,  made  from  finer  sugar,  may 
rest  smoother  on  it.  If  in  a  hurry,  and  you  do  not  care  so  much 
about  the  appearance,  then  give  one  coat  of  icing  only.  In  that 
case  the  sugar  must  be  the  kind  I  have  mentioned  (the  finest).  When 
a  first  coat  is  used,  place  it  in  the  oven  or  in  some  warm  place  to 
dry,  before  adding  the  second  coat. 

^* Please  note  where  the  word  icing  or  ice  is  \Laed  it  means  frosting. 


358 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINQ. 


To  add  the  second  coat,  prepare  some  icing  in  the  manner  de- 
scribed, and  make  it  just  soil  enough  to  run  smoothly,  and  yet  not 
run  off  the  cake ;   better  to  be  a  little  too  stiff  than  too  thin.     To 
ice,  place  the  sugar  in  a  lump  in  the  center  of  the  cake,  And  let  it 
run  level  of  its  own  accord;  or  if  a  little  stiff,  spread  it  out  with  a 
knife,  taking  care  not  to  spread  it  quite  to  the  edge  of  the  cake 
(within  a  quarter  of  an  inch),  as  it  will  run  to  the  edge  of  itself:  if  it 
is  not  fully  smooth,  place  a  knife  under  the  cake  and  shake  it  a 
little,  that  will  cause  all  the  rough  parts  to  become  smooth.     Next, 
if  you  desire  to  ice  the  sides  of  the  cake,  add  a  little  more  sugar  to 
the  icing,  and  beat  it  well  in ;  then  with  your  knife  place  it  on  the 
sides  of  the  cake  until  it  is  fully  covered ;  then  by  holding  the  kni& 
perpendicular,  with  the  edge  to  the  icing,  and  the  back  leaning  a 
little  towards  the  icing,  draw  it  all  round  the  side  of  the  cake ; 
when  it  comes  round  to  where  you  started  from,  suddenly  give  the 
knife  a  twist,  and  turn  the  back  from  the  icing,  and  at  the  same 
time  and  by  the  same  motion,  remove  the  edge  from  contact  with 
the  icing.     If  you  do  this  neatly  and  quickly  you  will  hardly  be  able . 
to  find  the  place  where  you  left  off.     You  may  not  succeed  either  in 
icing  the  cake  or  putting  on  a  smooth  side  the  first  time,  but  prac- 
tice will  perfect ;  and  if  you  note  wherein  you  &iled  at  first,  and 
avoid  it  the  next  time,  you  will  soon  succeed.     The  cake  now  needa 
only  to  be  dried,  and  it  is  ready  for  ornamenting. 

To  ornament  or  decorate  it,  prepare  some  icing  in  the  manner 
described,  but  make  it  stiff  enough  to  retain  its  shape,  or  at  least  aa 
that  it  will  not  run  smooth  like  the  icing  on  the  cake.  This  is  to 
be  done  by  the  addition  of  a  little  more  sugar  (a  teaspoonful  per- 
haps), also  a  little  extra  beating;  when  the  icing  is  ready  lightly 
mark  out  the  design  on  the  cake ;  then  fold  up  a  piece  of  paper  in 
t  lie  form  of  a  cone,  and  secure  the  joint  with  white  of  egg  or  mucil- 
age, and  cut  off  the  point  to  form  just  what  size  hole  you  choose. 
Now  fill  the  cone  three-fourths  full  with  icing,  and  fold  down  the 
end ;  place  cone  in  left  hand  to  guide  it,  and  with  the  thumb  of  the 
right  hand  placed  on  the  folded  part  of  the  cone,  force  out  the  sugar 
in  lines  or  dots  to  follow  out  the  design  on  the  cake. 

Those  wishing  further  instructions  in  ornamenting  «r^  '^^opectfully 
referred  to  article  on  Artistic  Piping  (with  dii>gnrin/»). 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING.  359 

TO  PREPARE  ICING  FOR   BRIDE   OR   OTHER  CAKES. 

Procure  a  clean  china  bowl  with  a  round  (not  square)  bottom  in- 
side ;   break  into  it  the  whites  of  three   eggs,  add   about  half  a 
pound  of  the  finest  powdered  sugar  obtainable  (ask  a  confectioner 
for  icing  sugar,  if  that  is  not  obtainable  procure  **  lozenge  sugar; ") 
now  with  a  wooden  spatula,  (which  is  made  of  a  piece  of  wood  about 
ten  inches  long  and  one  and  one-half  inches  wide  at  the  thick  end, 
and  gradually  tapering  off  to  fit  the  hand,  and  not  more  than  half  an 
inch  thick  at  the  thick  end.     See  diagram  No.  40.     I  recommend 
wood  because  it  is  really  better  in  every  respect  than  any  metal  in- 
stniment  for  the  purpose,  and  once    made  will  last   a  life  time) 
beat  the  sugar  and  whites  vigorously  until  it   begins  to  thicken, 
then  add  as  much  cream  of  tartar  as  will  lay  on  a  ten-cent  piece, 
and  one  (not  more  than  two)  drop  of  indigo  blue ;  now  add  about  a 
quarter  of  a  pound  more  sugar,  and  continue  beating;  continue 
beating  and  adding  sugar,  a  teaspoonful  at  a  time,  until  the  icing 
is  as  thick  as  you  wish  it,  and  it  is  ready  for  use.     Be  careful  m>t  to 
get  any  of  the  yolk  of  the  eggs  in,  or  you  can  not  beat  the  icing  up. 
Be  careful  that  the  bowl,   spatula,  and  all  the  implements  used 
are  perfectly  free  from  grease.     Remember  to  beat  well,  and  not 
attempt  to  get  the  icing  thick  by  the  addition  of  sugar  alone,  or 
it  will  run.     Good  icing  depends    up<m  good  beating  as  well  as 
sugar ;  three  whites  and  one  pound  of  sugar  is  about  the  propor- 
tion. 

EXPLANATION   OP  DESIGNS   FOR  BRIDE   OR  OTHER  CAKES. 

A  reference  to  the  design  for  bride  cake  top  No.  1  (page  369) 
will  show  that  it  is  a  combination  of  the  scrolls,  etc.,  given  in  the 
diagrams  for  artistic  piping,  and  is  not  given  as  a  design  or  a  work 
of  art,  but  is  simply  arranged  (as  I  direct  in  my  explanation  of 
diagrams)  to  show  how  those  scrolls,  etc.,  can  be  connected  and 
arranged  so  as  to  form  a  design.  After  you  have  made  this  one, 
you  will  be  surprised  how  easy  a  task  it  will  be  to  do  a  second. 
Please  note  that  this  design  is  made  up  of  Nos.  36,  20,  13,  18,  6, 
8,  and  21  of  the  diagrams ;  also  note  that  I  have  given  two  leaves 
of  one  pattern  and  two  of  another.  When  you  pipe  cake  make  all 
four  leaves  of  the  same  pattern,  choosing  which  you  prefer.    I  have 


360 


ORNAMENTAL  ICINO, 


given  two  simply  to  illustrate  the  diagrams,  or  I  would  have 
sketched  them  all  alike.  I  also  give  a  sketch  for  the  side  of  the 
cake  if  you  wish  to  pipe  the  side.  This  you  will  note  is  No.  17 
in  the  diagrams,  and  the  bott<jm  is  finished  off  with  simple,  plain 
round  dots  (No.  2  in  diagrams^,  but  all  of  one  size. 

My  sketch  for  bride's  cake  top  No.  2  (page  361)  is  more  correct  as 
a  design,  and  is  to  l)e  done  after  you  have  practiced  on  No.  1  de- 
sign.   I  will  not  refer  you  to  the  diagrams  for  this  design,  but  ask  you 
to  pick  out  what  numliers  of  the  diagrams  are  used  in  making  up 
this  dasign,  as  by  so  doing  it  will  fix  it  in  your  memory.     These  de- 
signs will  answer  for  the  top  of  any  cake  as  well  as  for  bride's  cake; 
if  you  use  them  for  bride's  cake,  use  nothing  but  w^hite  icing,  also 
white  piping,  and  in  the  center  where  I  have  marked  (**for  vase  ") 
insert  a  vase,  or  bouquet,  or  spray  of  flowers,  as  you  see  fit.     The 
addition  of  a  few  sugar  ro^^es  and  silver  leaves  (procurable  at  all 
confectioners)  will  add  to  the  eftect.     It  is  also  necessary  to  place 
the  cake  on  a  lace  paper,  particularly  if  a  bride's  or  wedding  cake; 
and  if  on  a  silver  or  plated  salver,  so  much  the  better. 

It  is  not  imperative  that  you  a«e  orange  blossouLs  in  the  decora- 
tion of  bride's  cake,  still  it  is  usually  done.  It  is  also  admissible  to 
use  (very  sparingly)  pink  roses  or  other  flowers,  or  even  yellow 
to  match  with  the  orange  blossoms  or  in  place  of  them  ;  but  rather 
than  use  too  much  or  too  many,  use  none.  If  you  do  not  wish  to 
pipe  the  side  of  a  bride's  cake,  place  a  silver  band  round  it.  You 
can  procure  the  band  of  any  respectable  confectioner  or  caterer. 


DESSERT   CAKE. 

A  dessert  cake  (proper)  consists  of  either  a  pound  or  sponge  cake 
mixture  baked  in  a  high  mold  ;  if  you  have  no  other  use,  an  ice 
cream  mold  as  represented  in  the  sketch.  Well  clean  and  fully 
dry  your  mold,  then  w^arm  it  and  butter  it  with  butter  by  the  aid 
of  a  brush  (by  warming  it  the  butter  goes  in  all  parts);  when 
buttered  turn  it  ])ottom  up  to  drain  out  all  excess  of  butter;  when 
drained  dust  it  out  with  sifted  flour,  give  it  a  knock  to  remove  any 
excess  of  flour;  it  is  now  ready;  now  place  it,  small  end  down,  in  a 
tin  or  something  which  will  prevent  its  tailing  over;  now  flll  it  three- 
fourths  full  with  the  cake  mixture  and  bake  in  a  steady  heat;  when 


^ 


362 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING. 


baked  remove  it  from  the  mold.  When  cold,  if  to  be  ornamented, 
have  ready  prepared  some  icing  (see  **  icing")  thin  enough  to  just  run 
smooth  but  not  to  run  off.  Place  the  cake  on  a  plate,  and  with  a 
spoon  place  the  icing  on  the  top  of  the  cake,  and  allow  it  to  run 
down  the  sides ;  continue  this  until  all  parts  are  covered ;  let  it  drain 
down  a  minute  or  so,  then  place  a  knife  under  the  bottom  of  the 
cake,  remove  *it  to  another  plate,  and  set  it  in  a  warm  place  to 
dry.  This  method  of  icing  shows  up  the  pattern  of  the  cake,  and 
the  prettier  the  mold  the  prettier  pattern  of  cake  you  will  have. 
To  ornament  this  cake,  simply  pipe  it  (as  before  described),  allow- 
ing the  pattern  of  the  cake  to  be  the  guide ;  if  you  come  to  any 
part  where  there  is  no  pattern,  then  ornament  it  as  you  fancy,  but 
usually  the  pattern  of  the  cake  will  furnish  the  design.  In  an  ice- 
cream mold  there  is  not  much  pattern  further  than  fluting.  I  give  a 
sketch  of  one  baked  in  a  pyramid  ice-cream  mold,  (page  353,)  to- 
gether with  some  idea  as  to  how  you  are  to  ornament  it.  Where  the 
dots  appear,  you  can  substitute  red  and  yellow  gum  drops  if  you  so 
desire.  When  you  have  piped  this  cake  set  it  on  a  plate  or  sal- 
ver on  lace  paper,  place  a  bouquet  or  spray  of  flowers  on  top  (see 
sketch),  add  a  few  silver  leaves  where  you  see  fit,  and  it  is  complete. 
This  cake  looks  very  pretty  iced  a  light  pink  and  piped  in  white; 
you  can  not  well  use  chocolate  ice  for  this  cake  (as  the  chocolate  sets 
too  soon),  unless  you  are  pretty  well  accustomed  to  chocolate  icing. 

DESSERT  RUSSE. 

This  may  be  made  of  either  sponge  or  pound-cake  mixture,  and 
baked  in  a  ^cy  mold,  If  the  prescribed  mold  is  not  available,  an 
ordinary  two  quart  ice-cream  mold  would  answer  the  purpose  pretty 
well.  After  being  baked  and  allowed  to  completely  cool,  the  cake 
should  be  iced  with  thin  icing,  either  pink  or  white,  and  piped  in 
contrasting  colors.  Thus,  if  iced  white,  it  should  be  piped  pink, 
and  mce  vefna.  Further  ornamentation  can  be  made  by  a  proper  dis- 
tribution of  pastilles,  crystallized  fruits,  etc.,  and  the  whole  sur- 
mounted by  a  small  spray  or  bouquet  of  flowers. 

Another  way  of  making  it  is  by  use  of  stale  cake.  If  you  have 
stale  sponge  or  pound-cake,  first  cut  from  it  the  base  with  a  sharp 
knife  (see  figure  1,  page  355) ;  then  the  piece  as  per  figure  2,  then 
the  piece  as  per  figure  3.  Place  the  three,  one  above  the  other, 
then  ice  and  ornament  it. 


Chantilly  Custard. 


364 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING. 


Either  of  the  foregoing  cakes  are  left  as  they  come  from  the 
mold,  or  in  the  shape  they  are  cut  with  the  knife.  The  pieces, 
numbered  4,  5,  6,  7,  and  8,  added,  being  only  for  the  russe. 

For  the  russe,  produce  the  cake  by  either  of  the  alx)ve  methods, 
remembering  to  have  as  large  a  hole  in  it  as  circumstances  will 
allow,   (see  dotted  line  in  Nos.  1,  2,  and  3,)  this,  of  course,  is  filled 
with  cream ;  then  piece  No.  3  is  added  and  secured.     Next  take  a 
thin  piece  of  cake,  not  more  than  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in  thickness, 
and  cut  out  the  pieces  as  per  Nos.  4,  5,  6,  7,  and  8,  and  set  them 
aside  for  future  use.    Next,  take  a  pallet-knife,  and  cover  the  whole 
russe  with  red  or  some  other  colored  jelly.    This  done,  place  on  the 
pieces  Nos.  4,  5,  6,  7,  and  8,  in  their  respective  places  (the  jellj 
will  hold  them).     Leave  the  cut  part  outside,  so  that  none  of  the 
baked   parts  will  show,  and  the  desired  effect  is  produced.     The 
pieces  being  in  their  places,  you  next  pipe  and  otherwise  ornament ; 
finish  the  whole  by  the  addition  of  a  spray  or  bouquet  of  flowers  on 
the  top,  or  with  a  bouquet  of  leaves,  piped  on  with  a  leaf  tube. 
Another  way  to  make  it,  is  to  cut  the  base  out  of  a  solid  piece  of 
cake  ;  make  the  hole  and  fill  it  with  cream  ;  lay  on  that  a  thin  piece 
of  cake.     Then  with  a  cone  and  tube  pile  up  the  cream  in  pyra- 
mid shape.     Have  ready  six  strips  cut  the  proper  shape,  i,  e.,  the 
same  width  at  the  bottom  as  one  of  the  six  sections  of  the  base, 
and  gradually  tapering  to  the  top.    Place  these  pieces  in  their  proper 
position,  fasten  them  with  a  little  icing,  cover  the  whole  with  jelly, 
as  in  the  other  case,  or  leave  plain,  as  you  choose.     In  either  case 
pipe  and  otherwise  ornament  it.     If  preferable,  you  can  place  the 
strips  to  form  piece  No.  3,  securing  them  'i^ith  icing ;  then  force 
cream  through  the  opening  on  the  top.     By  this  means  you  get  that 
part  better  filled  with  cream  than  by  any  other  means. 


THE  CHANTILLY  CUSTARD. 

The  plates  from  1  to  4,  inclusive,  show  the  manner  of  making 
the  Gatian  for  the  custard,  which  is  thus  described :  First,  procure 
a  mold  for  sponge-cake  or  jelly,  about  one  quart  or  three  pints  size, 
with  a  fancy  fi^it  or  flower  top  (see  plate  No.  1).  Bake  in  thb  a 
cake  or  sponge  mixture  (or  plain  pound  mixture,  if  you  prefer  it), 
and  when  bi^ed  and  cold — ^it  is  all  the  better  if  kept  for  a  day  or 


ORNAMENTAL  ICING.  365 

two — cut  off  the  top  (see  figures  2  and  3),  and  ice  it  with  thin, 
white  icing.  When  thoroughly  dry,  lightly  color  the  different  fruits 
or  flowers  with  their  natural  colors.  Do  not  lay  on  the  colors  too 
heavily,  or  they  will  spoil  the  eflect 

Next  cut  out  the  center  of  the  cake  (see  figure  4),  and  fill  the 
cavity  thus  made  with  a  boiled  custard,  adding  chopped  almonds  to 
the  custard  according  to  taste.  When  the  custard  is  set  and  cold 
replace  the  top  (as  in  figure  3),  and  pipe  the  outside  of  the  cake  in 
any  way  you  may  choose,  following  the  design  here  given,  or  se- 
lecting from  the  design  ibr  dessert  cake,  or  from  page  of  diagrams. 

The  light  and  dark  balls  at  the  bottom  of  the  present  design  are 
intended  to  represent  pink  and  yellow  pastilles  placed  alternately 
(see  figure  6).  But  a  much  easier,  cheaper,  handier,  and  more  effect- 
ive mode  of  adding  these  balls,  which  is  simply  to  stick  on  gum- 
■drops  of  Ihe  alternate  colors.  If  you  can  procure  a  good,  clear 
white  gumdrop,  then  use  the  three  colors  alternately — red,  yellow, 
white — and  the  effect  is  capital. 

The  beauty  of  such  a  piece  of  work,  amply  repays  any  lady 
who  has  the  time  and  taste,  for  the  trouble  of  mastering  the  ac- 
<x>mplishment,  and  for  the  small  cost  of  material.  The  cost  of  the 
latter,  when  compared  with  the  prices  which  would  be  charged  by 
a  professional  caterer  for  a  similar  piece  of  work,  is  very  small. 

RAISED   PIE. 

We  here  present  an  original  design,  composed  of  five  distinct 
plates,  arranged  and  numbered  for  practical  use.  The  illustration 
(page  367)  represents  a  raised  pie.  It  may  be  filled  to  suit  the 
taste  with  either  meats  or  game. 

Figure  1  shows  the  pie  complete,  with  top  of  savory  or  aspic 
jelly,  surmounted  by  a  butter  lamb  on  a  chopped  parsley  bed,  and 
piped  in  butter.  Cornucopias  on  each  corner  are  filled  with  roi>t 
flowers,  making  a  horn  of  plenty. 

The  directions  are  as  follows :  Prepare  the  dough  as  usual  for 
raised  pie,  and  then  determine  the  size.  Next  cut  the  base — not 
less  than  one-half  inch  in  thickness — as  per  figure  2.  Dock  with  a 
Ibrk  to  prevent   blistering,  and  lay  aside  on   the  pan  ready  for 


866  ORNAMENTAL  IdNQ. 

baking.  Then  prepare  the  oval  bottom,  as  per  figure  3,  wash 
over  with  egg,  and  place  evenly  on  center  of  the  base.  Now  roU 
out  dough,  half  an  inch  thick,  in  a  narrow  strip,  long  enough  to  go 
all  round  the  oval  bottom  (measure  outside  of  oval  by  passing  a 
string  around  it);  cut  it  straight  and  even,  one  inch  wide.  Wet 
the  ends,  which  should  be  cut  slantiug  to  make  them  fit  closely,  and 
the  lower  edge,  and  wrap  this  around  the  oval  piece  which  lies  on 
the  base,  joining  ends  and  bottom  edge  securely.  The  edge  of  the 
strip  will  rest  on  the  base,  with  the  oval  piece  inside.  Now  fill 
this  case  to  within  half  an  inch  of  the  top  with  bran,  place  over  it 
a  thin  cover  of  dough  (with  a  small  hole  in  the  center) ;  wash  the 
outside  (except  the  top,  which  only  serves  to  keep  the  side  in  place, 
and  is  not  used)  with  egg,  and  bake  in  a  moderate  oven  until  it 
takes  on  a  fine  chestnut  brown.  While  cold,  cut  out  top,  turn  out 
bran,  and  the  shell  is  ready  for  filling.  It  is  better  to  make  the 
shell  the  day  before  using,  so  as  to  fill  it  at  leisure.  To  make 
the  cornucopias,  fold  up  the  dough  the  same  as  you  would  in 
making  a  paper  cone,  and  also  fill  with  bran.  Bake  them  sepa 
lately  from  the  pie.  Now  fill  shell  with  meat  or  game,  and  next 
place  the  savory  jelly  (which  should  be  ready  cut  in  pieces 
one-half  inch  square)  on  the  top,  as  per  figure  6.  Now  mold 
a  butter  lamb  and  place  on  top  of  jeUy,  as  per  figure  7.  Add 
the  chopped  parsley,  as  per  figure  8;  also  place  the  cornucopia 
in  position.  Place  the  cut  roots  (see  figure  4)  one  in  each  cor- 
nucopia (see  figure  9);  place  a  rim  of  sliced  lemon  on  the  top 
edge,  as  shown  in  figure  1,  and  add  the  small  cut  root  flowers 
at  base  of  the  cornucopias,  securing  them  with  butter.  Pipe  the 
pie  any  design  you  choose,  or,  as  in  the  design,  using  butter  instead 
of  sugar.  A  little  parsley  under  each  cut  root  flower  on  the  com* 
ucopias  adds  to  the  effect.  Soften  the  butter  by  working  it  with  a 
knife,  not  warming,  adding  a  little  yolk  of  egg  to  bring  it  to  the 
required  softness,  and  a  little  flour  to  toughen  it.  Figure  5  shows 
one  of  the  cornucopias  before  it  is  placed  on  the  shell.  Serve  cold, 
with  a  salad,  on  a  large  napkin,  with  a  little  parsley  around  it, 
The  meat  used  for  filling  should  always  be  cold.  It  is  a  summer 
dish,  and  looks  well  on  the  table. 

The  special  directions  for  making  the  crust  for  raised  pie  are  as 


368  ORNAMENTAL  ICING, 

follows :  Take  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  lard  for  every  pound  of  flour, 
Bdd  half  a  pint  of  water,  also  a  pinch  of  salt;  to  make  it,  add   the 
]ard  to  the  water,  bring  it  to  a  boil,  then  add  it  to  the  flour  and 
mix  as  quickly  as  possible;  when  mixed  wrap  it  up  in  a  cloth  to 
keep  warm.     Make  into  the  shape  or  shapes  selected  as  quickly  as 
possible,  as  when  it  gets  cold  it  hardens;  when  cold  it  will  i-etain 
any  shape  given  it  while  warm.     You  can  use  pie-molds,  in  which 
case  simply  line  the  mold  with  tlie  paste,  when  the  pie  is  made  it 
is  well  to  allow  it  to  stand  all  night  if  possible,  to  get  fully  flxed 
before  baking.     Before  adding  any  leaves  or  other  paste  decora- 
tions wash  it  with  yolk  of  eggs,  then  add  the  paste  leaves,  and  do 
not  wash    them.      The  pie  will    then   bake  a  rich   brown,    while 
the  leaves  remain  a  pale  color,  giving  a  pretty  efiect. 

A  very  nice  meat  for  filling  is  made  as  follows :  Bone  two  calves' 
feet;  chop  fine  boiled  chitterlings;  cut  up  and  stew  over  a  gentle 
fire  for  an  hour  two  chickens,  and  two  sweet  breads,  in  a  quart  of 
veal  gravy;  season  with  cayenne  pepper  and  salt;  then  add  six  or 
eight  force-meat  balls   (that  have  been  boiled);  four  boiled  eggs 
quartered;  and,  when  stewed  enough,  let  stand  until  nearly  cold, 
and  place  it  in  pie,  cover  with  aspic  jelly,  and  ornament  as  above 
directed.     In  case  you  do  not  wish   to  use  the  butter-lamb  and 
aspic  jelly,  afber  filling  in  meat,  place  four  quarters  of  a  hard- 
boiled  egg  at  equal  distances  apart  on  the  top  of  the  meat,  and 
strew  a  few  cold  green  peas  or  asparagus  tops  on  it.     This  gives  a 
pretty  effect,  and  saves  the  trouble  of  making  the  aspic  jelly.     The 
shell  may  be  filled  with  any  cooked  cold  meat.     Rabbits  make  a 
nice  filling,  stewed  with  a  nice  cut  or  two  of  ham  or  salt  pork. 
Make  a  force-meat  out  of  the  livers  beaten  in  a  mortar  until  fine, 
adding  freelyof  pepper  and- salt,  a  little  nutmeg,  and  a  few  sweet 
herbs.      Partridges,  or  any  game  birds,  may  be  used,  bearing  in 
mmd  that  the  pie  is  always  to  be  served  cold. 

TO   ORNAMENT   A   JELLY   CAKE. 

Trim  off  the  edge  of  the  jelly  cake,  then  give  it  a  thin  coating  of 
water  icing  (see  water  icing) ;  next  have  a  cone  of  white  icing  ready. 
To  the  more  fully  illustrate  this,  I  will  request  you  to  follow  out 
the  pattern  in  my  design  (Page  353).     After  you  have  made  that 


PASTRY,  369 

one,  you  can  do  any  other  you  choose,  as  that  one  explains  the 
whole.      Now  with  the  cone  of  white  (or  pink  sugar,  if  you  prefer 
it),  pipe  on  the  white  lines  in  the  sketch  (see  sketch) ;  now  fill  in 
between  these  lines  with  fruit  jelly  (use  a  cone  filled  with  jelly  for 
this  purpose) ;  next,  with  the  leaf  cone,  pipe  on  the  leaves  for  the 
grapes  (as  described  in  diagrams  for  Artistic  Piping,  No.  38) ;  then 
with  a  plain  round  cone  pipe  on  the  grapes,  as  described  in  No.  39, 
in  diagrams.     (See  diagrams.     The  edge  is  simple  plain  dots  of 
white  sugiir.     See  diagram  No.  2.)     I  would  here  remark,  if  you 
so  wish  it  you  can  pipe  on  the  bunch  of  grajies  with  fruit  jelly  in- 
stead of  sugar.     You  can  also  use  chocolate  ice  instead  of  water 
ice  for  the  top.     Then  pipe  it  in  sugar  and  jelly  as  before,  or  ice  it 
with  jelly  instead  of  either  chocolate  or  water  icing.     In  that  case, 
where  before  you  used  jelly  between  the  white  lines  of  sugar,  now 
use  chocolate  or  pink  icing.     Or  if  you  wish,  you  can  dispense  with 
the  top  icing  of  either  jelly,  chocolate,  or  water  icing,  and  simply 
work  out  the  design  as  shown  in  the  white  piping  and  jelly.     But 
the  foregoing  is  the  most  artistic;  and  I  would  here  remark  that 
what  I  give  here  is  given  simply  for  the  instruction  of  those  who 
w^ish  to  do  artistic  work ;  to  others  the  instructions  will  be  valueless. 
But  my  experience  teaches  me  that  most  ladias  have  a  taste  for  the 
ornamental,  and  wish  to  show  it  in  this  particular,  as  well  as  in 
others.     And  what  would  apix?ar  difficult  to  others  will  be  easy  to 
them ;  and  I  promise  them  they  will  be  rewarded  for  their  pams 
when  they  see  how  successful  they  are. 

Pastry. 

Under  the  head  of  pastry  is  embraced  crusts  or  covering?  for  meat 
pies.  Pastry  made  from  butter,  and-  in  the  same  manner  as  for 
fruit  pies,  patties,  etc.,  is  too  li<2:ht,  brittle  and  gross  for  meat  pics; 
also  too  expensive.  Paste  made  for  domestic  use,  of  lard,  is  also 
open  to  many  objections,  among  which  may  be  mentioned  its  ten- 
dency to  grow  soft  and  flabby :  also  its  cold,  sodden  nature,  which 
renders  it  extremely  unpleavsant  to  the  teeth,  also  unpleasant  to  the 
palate ;  it  also  has  a  tendency  to  lie  heavily  and  cold  on  the  stom- 
ach, and  is  altogether  undesirable  as  an   ingredient  in  the  man« 

u&cture  of  pastry.     Neither  is  it  any  cheaper  than  suet,  and  much 
24 


870  PASTRY. 

more  difficult  to  manu&cture  into  good  looking  pastry,  and  impossi' 
ble  to  make  into  good  eating  pastry.  For  as  pastry  for  meat  pies, 
patties,  mince  pies,  etc.,  nothiug  better  than  suet  can  possibly  be 
found.  It  is  a  little  troublesome  to  those  who  have  not  been  accus- 
tomed to  its  use,  but  if  you  follow  my  instructions  faithfully  you 
will  succeed  better  than  you  expect,  and  will,  I  think,  be  reim* 
bui-sed  for  your  trouble,  and  have  a  pastry  which  will  give  satisfac- 
tion and  credit  to  you  as  the  maker. 

TO   USE  SUET. 

Allow  three  quarters  of  a  pound  of  beef  suet  for  every  pound  of 
flour;  in  this  case  adding  a  little  salt  to  the  water  you  mix  the 
flour  with.     First  take  the  suet,  divest  it  of  all  loose  skin  and 
blood  spots,  then  with  a  sharp  knife  shred  it  in  as  fine  slices  as 
possible,  then  place  it  in  some  place  where  it  will  just  feel  the  heat, 
nothiug  more  (it  must  not  be  any  thing  like  melted).     While  this 
is  softening  mix  the  dough;  when  mixed  roll  out  in  a  sheet,  the 
same  as  for  best  pastry,  then  lay  on  the  suet  to  cover  the  dough, 
then  fold  and  roll  the  same  as  for  best  pastry.     (See  instructions 
for  puff  pastry.)     This  paste  will  require  a  few  more  foldings  and 
rollings  than  as  if  made  with  butter.     When  it  is  rolled  enough, 
proceed   to  cover  the  pie  dish  as  you  woiild  with  other  pastry; 
also  for  patties,  mince  pies,  etc.,  use  and  work  it  off  precisely  as 
you  would  for  puff  pastry.     If  you  were  (after  shredding  the  suet) 
to  beat  it  soft  with  the  rolling-pin  on  the  board,  you  could  roll  out 
the  paste  with  more  ease,  and  it  would  not  take  more  than  five 
minutes. 

A  very  fine  butter,  called  "  French  butter,"  for  making  an  extra 
short  yet  flaky  pastry,  is  made  as  follows :  Take  three  quarters  of  a 
pound  of  beet  suet,  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  good  butter,  and  the 
yolk  of  two  eggs,  and  a  half  teaspoon  of  salt;  remove  the  skin  and 
blood  spots  ftt^m  the  suet,  place  it  in  a  mortar,  pound  it  soft,  then 
add  the  butter  and  salt,  pound  that  well  in,  then  add  the  eggs,  work 
the  whole  into  a  smooth  mass,  then  use  it  in  the  same  quantity  luid 
in  the  same  manner  as  for  puff  pastry. 

This  suet  crust  rolled  half  an  inch  thick,  and  then  into  cakes  with 
a  cutter,  say  two  inches  in  diameter,  then  washed  with  eggs  and  a 


PASTRY.  371 

few  cuts  given  across  the  top  with  a  sharp  knife,  and  baked  a  nice 
rich  brown  in  a  middling  hot  even,  makes  a  delicious  article  for  the 
tea-table.     It  is  not  as  gross  as  pufT  paste. 

I  give  here  the  best  method  of  making  a  few  of  the  hundred  and 
one  articles  to  be  produced  with  puff  and  short  pastry,  etc.  The 
Allowing  is  the  most  simple  and  best  method  of  making  short  paste. 

SHORT  PASTE. 

Take  one  pound  sifted  flour,  place  it  in  a  bowl,  add  to  it  half  a 
pound  good  butter.  Break  the  butter  up  very  fine  in  the  flour, 
adding  a  little  salt  (according  to  the  saltness  of  the  butter) ;  now 
add  half  a  pint  of  cold  water  with  half  a  teaspoonful  of  cream'  of 
tartar  dissolved  in  it  (this  is  to  toughen  it),  then  mix  it  into  an 
easy  dough,  adding  more  water,  if  required.  When  mixed,  work 
well  together,  and  place  it  near  by  ready  for  use.  Keep  it  covered 
with  a  damp  cloth,  or  between  two  plates,  and  in  a  cool  place. 
Short  paste  is  very  useful  from  the  fact  that  it  b  easy  to  make, 
and  can  be  kept  in  better  shape,  where  the  shape  of  the  article  you 
wish  to  make  is  an  object  It  is  also  better  adapted  for  lining  the 
bottom  of  paste  pans,  dishes,  etc.,  as  it  is  firmer  than  puff  paste. 
Consequently  it  holds  together,  and  when  you  wish  to  make  a  great 
deal  of  pastry,  it  is  well  to  make  a  little  short  paste  for  that  pur- 
pose, using  the  short  paste  for  all  lining  or  bottom  work,  and  the 
puff  paste  for  all  top  work.  In  using  puff  paste,  when  you  have 
not  made  any  short  paste,  cut  out  all  of  the  tops  first,  then  take 
the  scraps  and  roll  them,  using  them  for  lining  and  bottoms. 

Now  suppose  we  wish  to  make  a  few  open  tarts. 

OPEN  TARTS. 

Take  the  puff  paste,  after  it  has  received  its  last  rolling,  roll  out 
evenly  in  a  sheet  one-fourth  of  an  inch  in  thickness  (you  need  not 
roll  out  the  whole  of  the  paste,  but  cut  off  a  piece  sufficient  to  make 
the  number  of  tarts  you  wish,  and  roll  them  out).  The  sheet  being 
ready,  cut  the  number  you  require  with  a  scalloped  round  cutter, 
about  two  and  a  half  inches  in  diameter.  Place  them  on  the 
baking  pans,  having  turned  them  over,  bringing  the  bottom  on  the 
top.     N^t  wash  them  with  ^g,  or  egg  and  water,  then  with  a 


372  '  PASTRY. 

flmall,  plain  rouiid  cutter,  one  inch  in  diameter,  make  a  mark  in 
the  center  of  each,  pressing  the  cutter  half  through.      Then  just 
**  dock "  each  in  the  center  with  the  point  of  a  knife  or  a  fork  (this 
is  to  prevent  their  blistering),  now  bake  them.     You  will  then  find 
that  the  part  marked  with   the  small,  round  cutter  has  detached 
itself  from  the  other  part ;  this  you  remove  with  a  penknife  or  a 
fork,  and  a  hole  will  be  left,  into  which  pour  what  jam  or  jelly 
you  intend  using.     This  plan  is  far  preferable  for  making  the  hole 
to  receive  the  jelly  than  to  place,  as  some  recommend,  sliced  potatoes 
or  small  yieces  of  wood  in  the  center,  removing  them  when  baked. 
These  certainly  form  the  hole,  but  their  weight  keeps  down   the 
pastry,  and  consequently  it  is  not  so  light.      By  the  plan  I  have 
given  you  obtain  a  good  hole  for  the  jelly  without  injuring  the 
lightness  of  the  pastry.     Some  add  their  jelly  before  baking,  but 
that  is  wrong,  as  in  baking  the  heat  causes  the  jelly  to  boil,  and 
it  spreads  itself  over  the  tart  and  spoils  its  appearance. 

OYSTER  PATE    (A   LA   PYRAMID). 

Take  a  piece  of  short  paste,  or  scraps  of  puff  paste,  roll  it  out 
one-fourth  of  an  inch  thick,  and  cut  out  the  number  of  pieces  you 
require  with  the  same  cutter  as  for  open  tarts,  place  them  in  baking 
pan  and  "dock"  them  with  a  fork.  Now  cut  a  like  number  with 
the  same  cutter,  and  of  the  same  thickness,  but  from  the  best  puff 
paste,  wash  those  cut  from  the  scraps,  or  short  paste,  and  place 
those  cut  from  the  puff  paste  on  them,  wash  with  egg,  and  "  dock  " 
them  in  the  middle.  Next  cut  a  like  number,  same  thickness,  with 
the  same  cutter,  and  from  puff  paste,  cut  the  middle  right  out  of 
these  with  a  plain  round  cutter,  one  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter, 
place  these  rings  on  the  other  parts.  These  are  now  ready  to 
bake.  While  they  are  baking  take  the  piece  that  comes  from  the 
middle  of  the  ring  piece  and  roll  it  out  a  little  larger,  then  cut 
three  other  pieces  with  a  scalloped  round  cutter,  each  a  size  smaller 
than  the  others ;  place  them  on  baking  pans,  **  dock"  them,  wash 
with  eggy  and  bake  them.  When  these  parts  are  all  baked,  if 
the  hole  is  not  deep  enough  for  the  purpose,  you  can,  with  a 
knife,  remove  some  of  the  pastry  inside  the  ring.  To  serve  these 
you  fill  the  case,  or  part  with  the  hole,  with  chopped  oysters,  pre- 


PASTRY.  373 

pared  in  white  butter  sauce,  and  then  add  the  other  pieces,  beginning 
with  the  largest  and  finishing  with  the  smallest.  You  will  then 
have  a  pyniinid  about  six  inches  high.  Place  small  sprigs  of 
parsley  between  the  part  containing  the  oysters  and  the  others, 
also  a  piece  of  parsley  on  each,  then  dish  them  and  serve.  These 
cases  will  serve  for  oysters,  lobsters,  or  chicken.  I  would  here  re- 
mark that  oyster  and  other  pate^  can  be  made  more  simply  than  th(» 

above,  but  my  idea  is  not  to  attempt  to  teach  what  I  presume  \  - 
already  known,  but  to  furnish  you  with  some  ideas  which  you  may 

use  with  advantage  w^hen  you  wish  to  place  something  more  elal)- 

rate  before  your  special  guests  than  ordinarily.     A  vol  au  vent  is 

made  in  precisely  the  same  manner  as  the  above  oyster  pedes,  but 

from  eight  to  twelve  times  larger,  and  generally  oval  in  shape.     It 

is  usually  filled  with  cold  fricassee  of  fowl  or  chicken.     The  fripassee 

for  a  vol  au  vent  must  be  good  and  well-jellied.     Before  serving  a 

vol  au  vent,  place  it  on  an  oval  dish  and  garnish  it  tastefully  with 

aspic  jelly,  parsley,  and  cut  root  flowers.      An  ordinary  size  for  a 

veil  au  vent  would  be  a  case  large  enough  to  hold  a  fricassee  of  one 

large  fowl  or  two  chickens. 

KASFBERKY   PUFF. 

Proceed  precisely  the  same  as  for  open  tarts.  When  you  have 
cut  the  desired  number,  roll  them  out  thin,  about  six  inches  in 
diameter,  Now  place  a  teaspoonful  of  raspberry  preserves  on  it,  a 
little  from  the  center,  spread  it  a  little,  and  then  bring  the  back 
part  over  on  the  preserve,  keeping  it  back  a  little  from  the  front 
edge,  for  if  it  laps  over  the  bottom  edge  is  prevented  from  rising. 
It  is  best  to  allow  the  top  edge  to  lie  back  from  the  the  front  edge 
at  least  one-fourth  of  an  inch.  This  folding  forms  a  half  circle." 
This  .being  done,  wash  them  with  water,  or  egg  and  water,  and 
dust  them  with  powdered  sugar.  Also  cut  a  few  deep  but  shorj 
cuts  across  the  top — over  where  the  preserve  lays — when  baked, 
the  preserve  shows  through. 

COVENTRY  PUFF. 

For  these  take  scraps  of  puff  paste  and  roll  out  into  a  sheet 
one-fourth  of  an  inch  in  thickness.  Cut  the  number  of  pieces  you 
require  with  a  plain  round  cutter  three  inches  in  diameter.     Roll 


374  PASTRY. 

these  out  same  as  for  raspberry  puffi;  add  some  iancy  preserves, 
theu  fold  or  lap  the  paste  over  in  three  folds,  so  that  wheu  it  is 
folded  it  will  form  a  triangle.  Then  turn  the  folded  part  down  on 
the  baking  pans,  wash  these  with  water,  or  e^g  and  water;  dust 
with  powdered  sugar,  and  bake.     You  do  not  cut  these  on  the  top. 

DEEP  FRUIT  PIEa 

Fruit  pies  in  deep  dishes,  such  as  made  by  the  English  and 
French,  are  preferable  to  ordinary  fruit  pie,  because  you  obtain 

more  juice  and  fruit.  The  best  method  of  making  these  is  as  fol- 
lows: Take  a  deep,  oval  pie  dish  (china,  not  tin),  line  the  edge  with 
paste,  also  about  half  its  depth  inside.  Now  invert  a  small  cup  in 
center  (an  egg  cup  is  best),  and  one  that  will  stand  a  little  above  the 
edge  of  the  dish  ;  next  fill  the  dish  with  fruit,  then  add  a  little  water 
if  the  fruit  has  not  much  juice.  Some  fruits,  such  as  currants 
and  raspberries,  have  enough  juice.  Also  add  sugar  to  taste ;  now 
cover  this  with  a  crust  of  short  paste,  wash  it  with  water,  or  white 
of  an  egg,  and  dust  with  powdered  sugar.  Make  a  few  fancy  cuts 
on  it  before  baking,  and  after  it  is  washed  and  sugared  do  not  cut 
too  deep.  These  cuts  give  a  rich  looking  appearance.  The  cup  in 
the  center  collects  the  juice,  and  if  the  whole  of  the  pie  is  not  eaten 
at  one  meal,  what  is  left  can  be  supplied  with  juice  by  simply  lift- 
ing up  the  cup  and  allowing  the  juice  to  escape.  The  edge  of  this 
pie,  to  be  artistic,  should  be  pinched  with  the  finger  and  thumb, 
then  notched  with  a  knife.  If  you  use  fruit  which  gives  too  much 
juice,  you  can  prevent  the  boiling  over  by  mixing  a  little  flour  with 
the  sugar,  about  one  teaspoonful  of  flour  to  twelve  of  sugar. 

ECCLES  CAKES  OR  TARTS. 

Take  one  cupful  of  clean,  well-picked  currants,  add  to  them  one 
cupful  of  granulated  sugar  and  one  finely  chopped  lemon  peel ;  add 
to  this  a  nice  flavoring  of  ground  ginger  and  cinnamon  and  mix  the 
whole  well  together.  Now  take  what  short  crust  paste  or  cuttings 
of  puff  paste  you  require  and  roll  it  out  in  a  short  one-fourth  of  an 
inch  thick,  then  cut  it  up  in  square  pieces  two  inches  square  and 
put  a  teaspoonfnl  of  the  above  preparation  of  currants,  etc. ,  in  the 
center  of  each  piece  of  pastry ;  then  pull  over  the  edges  allowing 


PASTRY.  375 

them  to  lap  a  little  in  the  center ;  then  flatten  them  with  the  hand 
and  turn  them  over  (folded  part  down).  Next,  with  rolling  pin, 
roll  them  out  until  the  currants,  peel,  etc.,  breaks  through.  Then 
place  them  on  the  baking  pans,  give  them  a  few  cuts  across  the  top 
with  a  knife,  wash  them  with  milk  or  milk  and  egg,  dust  them  with 
sugar  and  bake  them  a  nice  brown  in  a  hot  oven.  This  is  a  nice 
eating  pastry. 

REAL  ENGLISH  BANBURY  CAKE. 

Take  an   equal  quantity  of  clean,  well-picked  currants,  granu- 
lated sugar  and  finely  chopped  lemon  peel  and  mix  it  all  together 
and  .then  add  a  nice  flavoring  of  ginger' and  cinnamon;  now  add 
good  fresh  butter,  enough  to  form  the  whole  into  a  nice  paste.    Take 
the   best  puff*  paste,  roll  it  out  in    a  sheet  one-fourth  of  an  inch 
thick ;  cut  this  in  pieces  two  inches  square  and  place  a  piece  of  the 
prepared  butter,  currants,  etc.,  in  the  center  of  each ;  now  take  the 
two  corners,  the  one  nearest  to  you  and  the  one  opposite  you,  bring 
them  up,  press  them  together,  and  then  with  the  palm  of  the  hand 
press  them  down  flat.     This  makes  the  pieces  oval  in  shape  and 
leaves  two  ends  which  are  folded  together  at  liberty  to  rise ;  now 
wash  the  part  that  is  not  folded  with  water  and  add  as  much  pow- 
dered sugar  as  you  can  get  to  remain  on.     Bake  these  in  a  slow 
heat.     These  are  a  little  expensive,  but  are  very  fine  and  are  the 
real  English  Banbury. 

FANCY  OR  BOOK  SAUSAGE  ROLL. 

Take  a  piece  of  best  puff  paste,  roll  it  out  to  an  eighth  of  an  inch 
in  thickness ;  then  cut  it  up  in  squares  four  inches  square,  lay  them 

out  on  board ;  then  have  the  sausage  meat  ready,  break  it  off*  in 

pieces  the  size  of  a  small  egg ;  roll  them  out  three  inches  long  and 

place  one  piece  in  the  middle  of  each  square  of  pastry,     Now  wet 

the  edge  of  the  pastry  with  water,  then  bring  the  part  furthest  from 

you  over  on  to  the  part  nearest  to  you,  taking  care  to  let  it  be  back 

from  the  front  at  least  one-fourth  of  an  inch  ;  now  wash  these  with 

egg,  taking  care  not  to  allow  the  egg  to  run  down  over  the  sides 

of  the  pastry.     Next  give  a  few  shallow  cuts  with  a  sharp  knife ; 

then  cut  a  leaf  of  pastry,  place  it  in  the  center  (do  not  wash  it), 

and  bake  them  a  nice  brown.     If  these  are  made  well  the  edges 

will  rise  up  and  the  roll  will  look  like  a  book. 


876  PASTRY, 

RASPBERRY  SANDWICHES. 

Take  a  piece  of  puff  paste,  after  it  is  fully  rolled  and  folded,  then 
roll  it  out,  one-fourth  inch  in  thickness  and  fold  ifover  evenly  (like 
a  sheet  of  paper).     Now  roll  this  out  to  an  eighth  of  an  inch  in 
thickness  and  about  twelve  inches  in  width ;  now  roll  this  up  in  a 
roll  the  same  as  you  would  a  sheet  of  paper ;  this  sheet  of   paste 
should  be  so  arranged  in  size  as  to  form  a  roll  (when  rolled  up)  of 
two  inches  or  two  and  a  half  inches  in  diameter  ;  when  this  is  rolled 
up  wet  the  edge  so  that  it  may  not  unfold  again  ;  next  press  it  flat 
until  you  reduce  it  to  about  three-fonrths  of  an  inch  in  thickness; 
now  take  a  sharp  knife  and  cut  it  off  in  slices  one-fourth  of  inch  in 
thickness,  lay  these  on  the  pan,  cut  part  down,  give  them  room  and 
they  will  then  flow  considerably.     Now  bake  them.     When  baked 
dust  them  well  with  powdered  sugar  and  return  them  to  the  oven, 
which  must,  in  the  mean  time,  be  made  very  hot  so  as  to  melt  the 
sugar,  this  giving  them  a  fine  glaze.     If  you  have  a  salamander  to 
hold  over  them  it  will  glaze  tliem  quicker  than  the  oven,  but  if  you 
have  no  siilamander,  and  can  not  get  the  oven  hot  enough,  then 
wash  them  with  the  white  of  an  egg,  dust  them  with  sugar  and  re- 
turn tliem  to  the  oven  for  a  few  minutes.     When  all  this  is  done 
spread  ra<pl)erry  jam  or  jelly  on  them  and  stick  two  together.    You 
can  dish  them  up  artistically  as  fancy  directs.     They  make  a  pretty 
dish  and  are  all  that  can  he  desired  in  point  of  eating,  and  are  a 
fiivorite  on  all  French  tables. 

GUTTKR    TARTS. 

Take  small  patty  pans,  line  them  out  with  short  crust  and  then 
fill  them  with  red  currants,  black  currants,  raspberries  or  what  fruit 
you  choose ;  heap  them  up  high  in  the  center,  add  a  little  powdered 
sugar  to  each,  wet  the  edge  of  the  paste  with  water,  then  lay  on  a 
top  covering  about  an  eighth  of  inch  thick,  press  the  two  edges  of 
pastry  together  and  then  with  a  sharp  knife  pare  off  the  excess  of 
pastry  from  the  edges  of  the  patty  pans,  holding  the  knife  in  a  slant- 
ing position  toward  the  center  (^f  the  tart  or  patty ;  now  with  the 
thumb  press  the  paste  around  the  base  of  the  fruit,  about  half  an 
inch  from  the  edge  of  the  i)atty  pan ;  press  it  hard  enough  to  all 
but  break  the  paste  and  so  as  to  push  the  fruit  up  in  a  cone  in  the 


PASTRY.  377 

• 

center ;  now  wash  them  with  water  and  bake  them.  The  object 
of  pressing  the  paste  so  thin  around  the  base  of  the  fruit,  is  that 
the  juice  of  the  fruit  may  break  through  the  paste  in  baking  and 
run  around  the  groove  or  gutter  formed  by  the  pressing  of  the 
paste,  and  when  baked  it  has  a  rich  and  pretty  effect.  They  take 
their  name  from  the  peculiar  appearance  given  to  them  by  the  fruit 
juice  so  running  in  this  groove,  and  are  consequently  called  gutter 
tarts.     They  look  very  pretty  and  give  a  fine  effect. 

CREAPRECIES. 

L#ine  out  shallow  patty  pans  with  scraps  of  best  paste  rolled  in  a 
sheet,  place  a  piece  of  bread  in  each  and  bake  them  in  a  cool  oven ; 
when  baked  remove  the  bread  and  place  in  a  teaspoonful  of  red 
currant  or  some  other  jellies  or  jam ;  next  cover  this  with  some 
cheese  cake  preparation  or  with  a  custard  that  will  set.  Next 
have  ready  a  little  meringue,  made  in  the  usual  manner  from  the 
whites  of  eggs  and  sugar,  place  a  tablespoonful  on  each,  bringing  it 
up  cone  form ;  sprinkle  a  little  pink  sugar  on  this  and  return  them 
to  the  oven,  just  to  color  them  a  light  brown? 

FONCHONETTS. 

Proceed  as  for  "  creaprecies."  WJien  baked  place  an  almond 
macaroon  (procurable  at  any  bakers  or  grocers  if  you'  have  none  in 
store)  in  each,  cover  the  macaroon  with  half  quince  and  half  red 
currant  jelly.  Next  have  paper  cone,  same  as  used  for  ornament- 
ing a  cake  with  frosting,  fill  this  cone  with  meringue,  same  as  used 
for  the  ** creaprecies;"  next  drop  a  spoonful  of  meringue  in  the 
center  on  the  jelly,  then  with  the  meringue  in  the  paper  cone  drop 
a  small  cone  shaped  pile  on  the  center,  on  what  is  already  on 
the  jelly;  then  drop  five  or  six  around  it.  This  will  give  you 
a  circle  of  cones  with  one  in  the  center ;  the  cones  must  not  be  too 
small,  as  they  will  not  look  well ;  they  should  be  as  large  as  a 
twenty-five  cent  piece  and  at  least  one  inch  in  height ;  now  return 
them  to  the  oven  just  to  color  them.  When  cold  drop  just  a  little 
red  currant  jelly  on  the  point  of  each  cone.  This  makes  one  of 
the  prettiest  of  fancy  pastry  dishes,  and  sets  off  a  table  wonder- 
fully well. 

I  will  give  my  method  of  making  a  beefijteak  pie. 


878  PASTRY. 

BEEF  STEAK   PIE. 

First  prepare  seasoniDg  of  three  parts  salt  and  one  part  black 
pepper,  with  just  a  dash  of  grouud  nutm^;  uext  tJike  teuder  steak, 
enough  to  fill  the  disli,  cut  this  up  iato  thin  slices,  uow  take  each 
slice,  spriukle  it  with  just  enough  of  the  above  seasoning  to  season 
it  (not  too  high),  then  sprinkle  It  with  chopped  parsley;  next  roll 
it  up  and  pass  a  small  wuodeu  skewer  through  it,  to  hold  it,  or  you 
can  dispeuse  with  the  skewer  if  you  place  the  fold  downward,  to 
prevent  its  unfolding;  continue  this  until  the  dish  is  full,  then  add 
water  sufficient  to  make  a  good  gravy,  now  lay  on  the  top  of  this  a 
few  hard  boiled  e^s  sliced,  then  put  on  the  crust,  previoui-Iy  having 
lined  the  inside  edge  of  the  dish  with  paste ;  now  wash  the  top  witb 
eggs  and  bake  it  in  a  moderate  heat;  as  soon  as  it  boils,  and  haa 
boiled  about  ten  minutes,  the  whole  should  be  cooked.  By  adopting 
this  plan  the  meat  will  be  tender  and  the  gravy  much  richer  than 
by  the  plan  of  par-boiling  the  meat  prior  to  baking ;  the  point  to  ob- 
serve being  not  to  bake  it  too  quick.  For  a  simple  beefsteak  pie, 
cut  the  Bleak  into  strips  about  half  an  inch  m  thickness,  season 
them,  lay  them  in  the  dish,  add  water  for  gravy,  cover  with  crust 
and  bake. 

The  ECUF8B  Ornahenthl— Thoie  nho  wfah  lo  pnutlae  the  ut  iBoght  In  RoE. 

Klnc'e  lesoaa,  t*il!  Sud  the  inveutlon,  lepreseoted  Id  tbe  accompanrliig  cat,  a  gieat 

cotiTenieni^e  and  saring  of  time,  trouble  uid  iu(Br.    It  Beenu  lo  do  away  with  all  th« 

.aaaoyaaccs  which  are  Incident  to  the  UMot  the  paper  conea,  eiUier  withotwlUiontth* 

tubei  mentioned  in  the  leasons.     Theae  require  a  cone  lor  ererr  patiern  ol  tubi 

tequlredfoTthe  work,  or,  If  tubes  are  dispensed  with  altogether,  many  paper  conea  an 

required.  In  order  to  produce  good  work,  owing  to  the  end  ot  the  cone— no  matter  how 

correctly  It  may  have  been  ml— gettli«  eott.  aa  all  paper  will,  to  say 

nothing  of  the  BaDoyaDcei  liom  bDisllne.  etc,  etc..  orthe  ton  ol 

fc  sugar  in  each  cone. 

'  No.  4  represents  the  bag,  which  may  be  paper  or  rubber.  No.  ■ 
the  cap  which  fits  In  the  bag.  and  to  which  No.  2.  which  coDtalm 
(he  tube  No.  1.  la  screwed.  The  dotted  lines  between  flgurea  Not 
i  and  3  represent  where  the  cup  containing  the  tube  screws  on. 

To  use  It  unscrew  the  part  o[  the  dotted  lines  between  Noa-lind 

3:  drop  the  Inbe  Into  the  cup  No.  2,  then  sr.rew  It  on  locupNo.  3; 

II  Is  then  ready  for  use.    I(  you  wish  to  change  the  tube,  you  haw 

only  to  unscrew  at  the  dotted  lines  u  staled  before,  and  Insert 

}  what  tube  yon  require  to  continue  work.    The  cut  at  Che  sida 

shows  the  tube  In  the  cup.  ready  lobe  screwed  on  the  cap  No. 3. 

The  price  of  theomamenlorls^liO,  and  It  may  be  hadbycoim- 

pDOdence  witii  Prof.  C.  H.  King,  OninBe.  New  JerasJ.    By  a  special  arrangemenl  onif 

iHdy  who  la  ihe  owner  of  "  IMilfi  Cook-book"   will  be  supplied  at  twenty  per  cent,  id'- 


POPULAR  DIXIE  DISHES. 


We  give  in  the  following  pages  a  number  of  carefully  selected  and 
thoroughly  tested  recipes,  furnished  us  by  accomplished  mistresses  of 
8oathem  mansions,  in  nearly  every  State  in  Dixie,  always  famous  for  its 
sumptuous  tables  and  generous  hospitality. 

These,  in  addition  to  the  very  excellent  recipes,  distinctively  Southern, 
scattered  through  previous  pages,  will  meet,  we  hope,  every  want,  in  the 
way  of  cookery  rules  which  is  likely  to  be  felt  by  the  Southern  Matron. 

BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

Bakiko  Powder  Biscuit. — ^Two  pounds  or  quarts  of  flour,  four  ounces 
of  melted  lard  or  butter,  four  teaspoonfuls  of  powder,  one  tea.spoonful  of 
salt,  one  and  one-half  pints  of  tepid  water  or  milk ;  mix  the  powder  in  the 
floor  dry,  place  the  melted  lard  in  a  hollow  in  the  middle,  the  salt  and 
water  or  milk  with  that,  and  stir  around,  drawing  the  flour  in  gradually  so 
as  to  make  a  smooth,  soft  dough,  turn  out  on  the  floured  table,  press  the 
dough  out  flat  with  the  hands,  fold  it  over  again  and  again  and  press  out 
till  it  is  compact,  even  and  smooth,  let  stand  five  minutes,  roll  ofit  and  cut 
Into  biscuits,  bake  immediately.  Biscuit  dough  sljould  be  made  up  soft, 
the  shortening  should  be  melted  and  added  to  tlie  fluid  milk-warm,  to 
insure  thorough  incorporation.  The  common  way  of  kneading  the  dough 
up  into  dumpling  shape,  perpetually  breaking  the  layers  and  making  the 
parted  edges  take  up  too  much  flour,  is  the  way  that  ruins  biscuit — Mrs.  S. 
A.  Kitchen. 

Beatek  Biscnr. — One  quart  of  flour,  lard  the  size  of  a  hen's  e^f^,  and 
one  teaspoonful  of  salt;  mixed  with  enough  sweet  milk  to  make  a  moder- 
avoly  stiff  batter.  Beat  for  half  an  hour ;  mould  witli  the  hand  or  cut  with 
biscuit  cutter ;  prick  with  a  fork,  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven,  not  hot  enough 
to  blister. — Mr».  8.  T.y  in  U^usekeeping  in  Old  Virginia. 

Virginia  Beaten  Biscuit. — There  has  to  be  a  maul,  or  Indian  club 
over  two  feet  long,  and  a  stout  table,  for  the  beating;  the  biscuit  will  not  be 
light  unless  you  have  the  maul  made  of  hard  maple,  squaro-Hhaped  at  the 
heavy  end,  but  waving,  so  as  to  make  uneven  hollows  in  the  dough  and  a 
hole  in  the  handle  for  a  string  to  hang  it  up  by.  Three  pounds  of  flour, 
one  large  teaspoonful  sidt,  four  ounces  of  butter  or  lard,  three  cups  milk  or 
water.  Have  the  milk  tepid,  mix  the  melted  butter  and  salt  with  it,  and 
wet  up  the  flour — ^nearly  all — into  soft  dough,  knead  it  to  smoothnesH  on 
the  table,  and  then  beat  It  out  to  a  sheet  with  the  maul,  fold  it  over  on  itself  * 
and  beat  out  again.  There  is  no  established  limit  to  the  times  tlie  dough 
may  be  beaten  out,  but  after  a  few  times  it  l)egins  to  break  instead  of 
spread.    This  injures  it,  and  an  interval  should  be  allowed  for  the  dough 

(1) 


2  BREAKFAST  AND  TEA  CAKES. 

to  lose  its  toughness ;  the  air  in  the  hollows  beaten  into  the  dough  makes  It 
very  light,  and  white  and  flaky.  Modem  innovators  on  the  preceding 
practice  add  a  teaspoonf ul  of  soda  sifted  into  the  flour  and  mix  up  witli 
buttermilk,  beating  besides  in  the  regular  mminer.  There  are  few  thing* 
more  generally  acceptable  in  some  localities  than  beaten  biscuit  rolled  out 
very  thin  and  fried. — J/r«.  E,  T.  />.,  liidnnond^  Va. 

Thin  Bis<tit  or  Ckackeks.-  One  (juart  of  flour,  one  tablespoon  of 
lard  and  butter  mixed,  and  one  teas]>o<)n  of  snlt  made  into  a  stiff  paste 
with  cold  water  \  beat  dough  until  it  blisters  roll  thin,  prick  with  a  fork 
and  bake  (juickly. 

BnTKH  CiiACKKRs.— One  quart  of  flour,  one  teaspoon  of  soda,  one  of 
salt,  one  tables])<>on  of  butter  mixed  into  a  stiff  paste  witli  sweet  milk; 
beat  half  an  Iiour,  roll  tliin,  i)rick  and  bake  in  a  quick  oven. 

CuEAM  Crisps.— Put  two  and  a  half  cups  good  rich  cream,  either  sweet 
or  sour,  in  a  crock  and  add  gradually  four  cups  unsifted  best  Graham  flour 
and  half  a  cup  sugar ;  then  take  out  on  board  and  knead  well,  with  one 
more  cup  Graham ;  the  dough  wants  to  be  very  stiff  and  kneaded  thorough- 
ly Roll  out  as  tliin  as  for  thin  cookies,  cut  with  biscuit^jutter,  prick  well 
and  place  in  pans  sliglitly  buttered  tlie  first  time,  not  greasing  afterwards, 
in  a  rather  hot  oven,  and  bake  immediately,  putting  them  in  bottom  of 
oven  first,  and  then  in  the  upi)er  oven  to  brown.  If  wanted  "extra  nice," 
sift  the  flour  (using  al)out  one-eighth  more  flour).  The  quantity  of  sugar 
can  l)e  increased  or  diminislied,  but  for  health's  sake  this  is  sufficient,  or 
even  less.    Carefully  made,  they  will  be  crisp  and  delicious. 

CuuKANT  Buns.-  Ilot  for  supper,  no  eggs  required,  favorite  sort  and 
quickly  made.  This  makes  forty-five ;  four  pounds  of  light  bread  dough, 
eight  ounces  each  currants,  softened  butter  and  sugar.  It  is  soon  enough 
to  begin  these  two  hours  before  supper.  Take  the  dough  from  the  rolls  at, 
say  four  o'clock,  spread  it  out,  strew  the  currants  over  and  knead  them  in, 
roll  out  the  dough  to  one-fiuarter  inch  sheet,  spread  the  butter  evenly  over 
it  and  the  sugar  on  top  of  that.,  cut  in  bauds  about  as  wide  as  your  hand, 
roll  them  out  like  roly-i)oly  puddings,  bru.sh  these  rolls  all  over  slightly 
with  a  little  melted  lard  so  that  the  buns  will  not  stick  together  in  the  pans, 
then  cut  off  in  pieces  about  an  inch  thick,  place  flat  in  a  buttered  pan, 
touching  but  not  crowded,  rise  nearly  an  hour,  bake  fifteen  minutes,  brush 
over  with  sugar  and  water,  dredge  sugar  and  cinnamon  over. 

Hot  Cross  Buns.-  Place  two  and  a  half  quarts  of  flour  to  warm 
thoroughly,  (do  not  scorcli).  When  well  wiuined,  mix  with  it  one  tea 
cup  of  sugar,  a  scant  teacup  of  butter  melted  in  a  pint  of  milk,  half  a  tea- 
spoon  etw'h  of  powdered  cinnamon  and  coriantler  seed ;  mix  all  well  togeth- 
er, and  add  ♦wo  tablespoons  of  yeast ;  set  to  rise,  and  when  light,  form  the 
dough  into  buns,  handling  as  little  as  possible;  on  each  bun  cut  a  cross 
with  back  of  knife.    Serve  while  hot.    Made  for  "Good  Friday." 

Kick  Muffins.  -  -Stir  into  one  pint  of  cooked  rice  while  hot,  one  table- 
spoon of  butter ;  let  cool  and  add  three  well  beaten  eggs,  two  pints  of  milk, 
one  and  a  half  pints  of  flour,  half  a  teaspoon  of  salt  and  two  tablespoons 
of  veast ;  beat  all  well  together  and  set  to  rise.    Bake  in  muflin  rings. 

!N  UNS  Puffs. — Melt  one  scant  teacup  of  butter  in  one  pint  of  hot  milk ; 
*  stir  in  this  one  quart  of  flour  until  mixture  does  not  stick  to  sides  of  dish; 
let  cool,  separate  four  eggs,  add  yolks  well  beaten  and  strained  first,  lastly 
whites  beaten  until  very  light;  fill  buttered  tins  or  cups  half  full  and  bake 
in  a  quick  oven;  remove  and  sprinkle  with  powdered  sugar  while  hot; 
Nice  for  breakfast  or  tea. 


POPULAR  DIXIE  DISHES.  a 

, French  Rolls. — Pare  and  slice  one  or  two  potatoes,  add  half  a  pint  of 
cold  water,  boil  until  tender,  then  rub  through  a  colander  with  the  water ; 
add  tablespoon  and  a  half  of  lard,  one  teaspoon  each  sugar  and  salt,  and 
half  teacup  liquid  yeast  and  tablespoon  of  liour ;  let  rise  and  when  liglit 
beat  in  an  egg  and  add  a  quarter  of  a  pint  warm  milk  and  one  quart  of 
flour,  first  having  dried  it;  let  rise  and  when  liglit  make  into  oblong  rolls, 
and  place  into  buttered  plates,  let  rise  again,  pric  k  and  bake.  An  easy  way 
to  make  the  rolls  of  unifonn  size  if  you  have  no  cutter,  is  to  roll  out  the 
dough  half  an  inch  thick,  and  cut  with  a  round  cutter;  press  the  opposite 
sides  together  and  mould  into  rolls. 

Twist  Rolls. — From  the  douffh  of  loaf  bread  or  French  rolls,  reserve 
enough  to  make  two  long  strips  alx)ut  fifteen  inches  in  length,  and  one  in 
diameter;  rub  the  hands  well  with  lard  or  butter  before  shaping  these 
strips;  (they  can  be  rolled  and  cut^  if  preferred  to  moulding  with  hands, 
into  proper  shape;)  pinch  the  two  ends  together  so  they  will  stick;  twist 
them.,  pressing  tlie  other  ends  together  to  prevent  untwisting;  bake,  or 
thev  can  be  fried  like  doughnuts. — Mrs,  S,  C-  Fleming,  Ky. 

llrNGS. — Boil  one  pint  of  milk  and  let  cool  to  blood  heat,  then  pour  ir 
over  two  tablespoons  butter  and  half  teaspoon  salt ;  wiien  nearly  cool  add 
one  well-beaten  ^^'^  and  one  pint  flour  and  half  a  yeast  cake  soaked  in  a 
tablespoon  of  tepid  water,  or  a  half  teacup  liquid  yeast,  leave  in  a  w  arm 
place  to  rise.  AVhen  light  knead  in  three-quarters  of  a  quart  of  flour-  and 
add  a  tablespoon  of  sugar ;  let  rise  and  with  the  hands  make  into  rings ; 
roll  on  the  board  a  piece  of  dough  to  the  len.sjrth  of  eight  inches  and  as 
large  around  as  the  little  finger,  and  pinch  the  ends  together,  put  in  but- 
tered pans  and  when  light,  prick  and  bake. 

Rick  Crcqt  eties. — One  cup  cold  boiled  rice,  a  teaspoon  each  sugar 
and  melted  butter,  half  teaspoon  salt,  one  egg  beaten  liglit,  eight  crackers 
rolled  fine,  and  a  little  sweet  milk;  mix  all  well  together,  mtike  into  oval 
cakes  and  fry  in  butter  till  a  nice  yellow  brown,  serve  hot.  A  royal  break- 
fast dish. — Mm.  Col,  Licjfjeit. 

Butter  Rusks. — One  pound  of  good,  lively,  roll  dough,  six  ounces  of 
butter,  two  ounces  of  sugar,  half  cup  of  milk  or  cream,  ten  yolks  of  eggs^ 
little  salt,  one  and  one-quaiter  pounds  of  flour.  They  require  five  hours 
time  to  make,  ruise  and  bake.  Wann  the  butter,  supir  and  cream,  with 
the  dough,  together  in  a  pan,  and  then  mix  thoroughly,  beat  in  tlie  yolks, 
two  at  a  time,  and  most  of  the  flour,  gradually  Lrirging  the  mixture  to  a 
smooth  3'ellow  dough,  then  knead  it  thoroughly  and  after  that  set  it  a