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■FROM-THE-FUND-BEQUEATHED-BY^ 




EDUCATION, PERSONALITY 
AND CRIME 



i^m^ 



EDUCATION, 
PERSONALITY & CRIME 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE BUILT UP ON 

SCIENTIFIC DETAILS, DEALING 

WITH DIFFICULT SOCIAL 

PROBLEMS 



ALBERT WILSON, M.D., Edin. 

London 




LONDON 

GREENING & CO., LTD 

1908 



j^M/rd^ ^^y 



buti.hr & takner, 

The Selwood printing works, 

frome. and london. 



J.. j{. /^Jb, 



H)eC>tcatet) 

BY PERMISSION TO 

DR. HUGHLINGS JACKSON. 

THE FOUNDER OF THE SCIENCE OF NEUROLOGY, 

PHYSICIAN AND PHILOSOPHER, LEADER OF 

THOUGHT AND RESEARCH, HONOURED 

AND BELOVED BY ALL WHO 

KNOW HIM. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

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http://www.archive.org/details/educationpersonaOOwils 



PREFACE 

Science has till recently been regarded as the fad of a few, 
but, now that its commercial value is being appreciated, it 
is rising to a place of recognition. Biology and Psychology 
are, however, still regarded, especially by the legal profession, 
as essentially mythical. 

There are many burning questions, as education, marriage 
and crime, which are in a chaotic condition, the subjects of 
party strife ; and yet there is only one way in which these 
difficulties can be met. That way is by bending to the laws 
of science, of biology, of physiology, and psychology. 

The questions of life, growth, and heredity concern every 
one, and, with a proper understanding of their merits, we can 
foretell and avoid many individual and social calamities. 

The subjects especially treated in this book are education, 
character formation, marriage, and crime. Personality is a 
large question and many cases of dual personality are recorded. 
They indicate a spHtting up of the Ego or self or consciousness. 
Heredity, including our up-to-date knowledge of fertilization and 
germ plasm, will prove interesting to many ; while Responsi- 
bihty appeals to all, and merits more attention from the lawyer. 
Is there such a thing as Free WiU ? 

Empire building is the theme of the book, not by dislocation 
of industries, nor by aggressive attacks on other nations, but 
by accumulating our intellectual forces so as to be equal to 
any ejBEort or to resist any strain. Individuals must be dealt 
with. It is not the political orator alone who is the builder, 
but also those who, " unhonoured and unsung," toil deep 
down in the dark quagmire of poverty and immorality. There 
are appended to the accounts of those institutions where 
I had the opportunity of visiting, statistics of physique and 
cranial measurements (psychatrie), which wiU interest a few, 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

and require close comparison and examination ; otherwise 
they may be ignored by the general reader. 

The criminal is by no means neglected in this book. He 
is an important and fascinating member of society who has 
his merits, and whom I classify either as a pervert or invert. 

I cannot help making many attacks on that unseen per- 
sonality, the State. 

None of these intricate problems can be explained without 
a clear, even though it be an elementary, knowledge of the 
laws of Hfe and living matter. I therefore propose to deal 
with the subjects in the following order. 

First : A section of biology, deahng with the simple cell, 
its structure, growth, and evolution into higher forms. This 
leads on to fertilization, which prepares the understanding 
for the great problems of heredity, and how we are affected 
by them. Second : The physiology and structure of the 
nervous system and brain. The third section naturally in- 
cludes education, which should be contrasted with the present 
methods, that have proved such a failure. 

Then naturally follows a discussion on the Ego and dual 
personalities, illustrating the composite character of our 
mental machinery. I will also discuss diseased or degenerated 
physical states, which opens the way for understanding mental 
and moral degeneracy as seen in our criminals. This will be 
illustrated with interesting accounts of some of the criminals 
I have known, and at once raises the question of responsi- 
bility. In a closing chapter, which I term Empire building, I 
give a resume of some of the conditions met with in our large 
cities, which if fully understood would soon be remedied. 

The Appendix contains tables of measurements, which 
form a Mttle study on craniology, and psychatrie, including 
several records of criminals. 

ALBERT WILSON, M.D. 
22, Langham Street, 
London, W. 



CONTENTS 



CHAP. 



Preface 



SECTION I 

BIOLOGICAL 

I To THE Thoitghtfttl .... 

II Vegetable and Animal Fobms 

in Fertilization ..... 

IV Development — Influence of Environment 

V Prepotency ...... 

VI Heredity — Views op Grbgor Mendel 



PAGB 

vii 



1 

6 
10 
20 
36 
44 



SECTION II 
PHYSIOLOGICAL 



VII Reflex Action ....... 59 

VIII The Brain 70 

IX The Grey Matter of the Brain . . . .78 

X Automatism and Consciousness .... 86 

XI The Minute Structure of the Brain ... 94 

XII The Functions of the Cortex . . . .102 

XIII The Influence of Environment on the Brain . .108 

XIV The Relation of Physiognomy to Brain Cells . 114 

XV Physical Degeneracy, Seen and Unseen . . 120 

ix 



I CONTENTS 

OHAJP. 

SECTION III 

SOCIOLOGICAL 

XVI Education ...... 

XVII MuiiTiPiiE Pebsonauty and Crime 

XVIII Peksonauty and Sitb-Pebsonality 

XIX The Mobal Invalid and Mental Cbipple 

XX The Cbiminal .... 

XXI Ex-Cbiminals I have Known 

XXII Responsibility .... 

XXni Empibe Building .... 
Appendix and Tables 



134 
148 
170 
181 
189 
207 
228 
237 
261 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Blood Cells 7 

Cell Division in Growth . . . . . . .12 

Section of Ovary . . . . . . ~ . 13 

The Germinal Chain . . . . . . . .13 

Fusion of Ovum and Spermatozoon . . . .15 

Group of Underfed Boys, with Measurements . .24 

Brain Cells 60 

A Purkinje Cell 61 

The Reflex of Salivation 62 

The Spinal Reflex .62 

Nerve Terminals in Skin and Muscle ..... 63 

Motor Cell, Normal 64 

Spinal Ganglion Cell in Fatigue ...... 65 

The Skull 70 

The Brain Areas ......... 70 

The Embryo Brain . . . . . . .72 

A Normal Brain Pattern ....... 72 

Brain Pattern of Ungulates (a Pig) . . .74 

,, ,, „ Carnivora (a Civet) ..... 74 

,, „ ,, a Lower Ape . .■ - . . .75 

„ ,, ,, a Human Foetus . . . . .75 

Photo of the Smallest Human Brain . . . .76 

Photo of an Imbecile Brain ....... 77 

„ „ ,, Ourang's Brain ....... 77 

The Brain Cortex Mapped out . . . . . .79 

A Dement's Brain for Comparison. ..... 79 

Sensory and Psychic Areas in Diagram . . . . .80 

The Mechanism of Thought 83 

Brain Cells in Health and Disease . . . . .95 

Diagram of Nerve Fibrils ....... 96 

Sketch of Cells and Fibres 97 

Dr. Watson's Diagram of Relative Development of the Cortex . 99 
Nerve Fibres ......... 100 

Insulation of Fibres in Fcetus ...... 100 



xu 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Sensory Areas 



Embryo to show Nexiroblasts 

Neuritis ..... 

Flechsig's Association Areas 

Wasted Liinatic Brain for Comparison 

Microscopic Appearance of Visuo -psychic and 

Slummer's Brain 

„ „ Cortex (microscopical) 

The Drxinkard's Brain Cortex, a Drawing 
Large Motor Cells and Fibres 
Neioroblasts in the degenerate 
Versus Pyramidal Cells in the Normal 
Writings of Mary Barnes as B 10 
Drawing „ „ „ B 3 

R Q 
Writing „ „ „ B 2 

R Q 

>> »> 5> »>-'-''-* 

Diagram of Nerve Supply to Arteries 

Diagrams of Arterial Supply to the Brain 
„ „ the Sympathetic Nerve System 

The ex -Laziest Man in London 

The Cortex in the Normal and the Insane 

Normal and Diseased Brain Cells 

A Group of City Lads .... 

The Author and Brigadier with your Unfortunate Brothers 

The ex-King of Burglars ...... 

The Brains of the Insane and the Degenerate (a Murderer) . 

The Brain Layers of the Alcoholic, Insane, and Criminal . 

Sketch of Normal and Degenerate Brain Cells 

The Murderer's Brain . . ..... 

,, ,, ,, Frontal View, Layers and Cells 

„ ,, ,, Occipital View, Layers and Cells 

Drawing of Infant, Normal, and Degenerate Cortex . 

The Murderer's Cortex versus that of a Mangaby 

Normal Brain Cells ....... 

Normal and Imbecile Cortex Compared .... 

Working Lads in Group . . . 

Mr. Wheatley's Lads . . . . . . 



PAGE 

101 
101 
103 
103 
104 
108 
108 
109 
116 
132 
132 
160 
160 
161 
162 
163 
163 
164 
165 
166 
177 
190, 191 
192, 193 
. 199 
. 207 
. 218 
. 219 
. 220 
. 221 
. 222 
. 223 
. 224 
. 226 
. 227 
. 231 
. 231 
. 245 
. 247 



CHAPTER I 
TO THE THOUGHTFUL 

The sum of twenty-five years' busy life — The social canker affects all. 

THE CHANGES OF TIME : Formerly we were plethoric— Now asthenic 
— The key to prosperity — Comparison of extremes SOCIAL PRO- 
BLEMS INVOLVED : Double consciousness — Abnormal humanity — 
We are all potential criminals— THE LAWS OF BIOLOGY RULE US : 
Nature allows no privileged class THE BREAKING POINT : Over- 
strain : the danger zone — The criminal drawn from every class — Society 
lowers the moral code— SIN VERSUS CRIME : The neglect of the 
State — All depends on individual effort — The community — Effect of 
luxury — The neglect of the poor. 

Aftee twenty-five years of very busy life in a varied medical 
practice, it may not be out of place to sum up for the use of 
the thoughtful the pith of my labours. All through a medical 
man's career, if he take life seriously, he meets mental suffering, 
in addition to, and often entwined with, physical disease. 
Nor can a doctor separate himself from the social side of life, 
for he sits daily in the confessional. While it is his delight 
to join in the joys of the few, his sympathies are constantly 
invoked for the mass of humanity groaning in sorrow and 
travail. The social canker does not afflict the poor alone, it 
chooses its victims equally among the rich ; the babe that is 
born to the wealthy or to the good, may bring sorrow instead 
of joy. In some cases this is unavoidable, but usually it 
is preventable. 

It is therefore my earnest object to address myself to all 
mothers and fathers, to all young men and maidens, on whose 
health and integrity the next generation is cast. The mission 
of the physician is not to correct outward disease alone, but 
also to observe brain and nerve defects, which too often are 
the basis of disease and unhappiness, present or yet to come. 

Some say the world seems off its hinges, but the doubt is The 
if it ever were on, for we are in process of evolution. Times ^f j"^e 



1 



B 



2 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

also change very much. Fifty or a hundred years ago we 
were plethoric and sthenic, or, in simple language, fuU- 
blooded and strong. Instead of thinking slowly, we now work 
and live at high pressure ; we fly across England in six or seven 
hours, whereas our forefathers spent two days in coaching, 
or a week in riding. This healthy open-air hfe, with plenty of 
plain food and home-brewed ale, engendered the race which 
built up England's power. But after years of easy travelling, 
telegraph and telephone, cheaper and richer food, and warmer 
clothing, we have become an asthenic people. The full hard 
pulse has become soft and compressible, the type of disease has 
changed, the nervous system once strong is now vulnerable 
at many points ; we have improved intellectually but have 
lost ground physically and in endurance. 

Mens Sana in corpore sano is the key to happiness and pros- 
perity. As it concerns all and must interest many, no further 
apology is required for compiling this treatise. 

In deaHng with such an extensive and complex subject, it 
makes more impression to compare and contrast the extremes 
of intelligence, character, and morality. Thus we have to 
choose sanity and insanity, describing the physical condition 
of the brain in each ; how to retain the one and avoid the other. 

Social Similarly we have to contrast the highest morale with the 

Involved lowest, which we style criminality ; as to material or organic 
basis in each there is much to be said. Nor can we leave out 
heredity, with its subtle influence. FinaUy external mundane 
conditions may oppose Nature's efforts ; this imports many 
social questions, which it is the duty of the physician as a 
citizen to emphasize. 

There is a very curious condition of mental instabihty caUed 
double consciousness, in which the same individual leads two 
lives. It is a mystery not yet solved, and one to which I was 
speciaUy attracted, having had the opportunity of watching 
a case which led ten separate Hves. 

As every composer has a thread round which he weaves 
his effective music, so I am compelled to weave my theme 
around abnormal humanity. The criminal wiU appear so 
often in these leaves that it may look as if he were the subject. 
It is not so ; but he is a tjrpe of what any one may slide down 



TO THE THOUGHTFUL 3 

to, unless bolstered up by favoured surroundings, and guided by- 
healthy mental powers. 

It is necessary for me at once to press home the solemn fact 
that we are all potential criminals, but saved by our heredity, 
education, and environment. Change any one of these factors 
and we are at once on the edge of a precipice. We need not 
therefore be proud of our virtues, but thankful that we are 
permitted to have them. 

We have yet to learn that the laws of Biology,^ which govern The 
lower forms of life, apply to ourselves. Nature has no favourites, Biology 
nor does she allow a privileged class. By comprehending Rule us 
these matters we can deal with the pressing social problems of 
the day, and, where we cannot benefit a class, we can at aU 
events help individuals. We are a motley crowd, one halt, 
another blind, and a third dumb. The blind can carry the 
halt, and the halt may guide the bhnd. In this way only 
we get along, carrying one another's burdens. 

There is a breaking point to every human mind, as there The 
is to sohd objects in the organic world. But this breaking p^^^^ 
point varies in individuals, and seems to rest with the person- 
ahty or ego. A large number of folk hve constantly under 
overstrain, and in proximity to the danger zone. What the 
result of the catastrophe will be, depends on many previous 
conditions. What in one is a nervous breakdown, in another 
is insanity, and in a third is crime. Every rope wiU peld to a 
certain pressure, but the poorer the quahty of rope, the less 
weight is required to break it. Nowadays, with competition, 
stress, and the wrong form of civilization, instruction instead 
of education, class against mass, we are surrounded by sad 
accidents. Lunacy is rapidly increasing ; poverty does not 
lessen ; whUe degeneracy and crime have got entirely beyond 
control. 

If the criminal were drawn from the poor, we who are in a 
better position might selfishly leave him alone ; but the 
criminal, as much as the insane, comes from every class, so 
that no family can afford to neglect this inquiry. 

^ Bios, Life ; Logos, a discourse. 



4 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

In dealing with the higher mental evolution we have to 
regard morality and rectitude as the duty demanded of normal 
man. Society in its evolution has not attained to this ; on 
the plea that might is right, it lowers the code of morality 
and duty to one's neighbour, and substitutes convenience for 
conscience. 

Sin Hence we find that sin and crime run on quite different lines. 

Crime What is a small sin Uke poaching, becomes one of the most 
flagrant of crimes ; whilst he who ruins a girl in the poorer 
ranks sins under the protection of the law, and does not lose 
his place in society .^ When our rusty old law machine finally 
tumbles to pieces, crime and morality should be arranged in 
inverse proportion. Then, and not till then, will Law and 
Justice be co-related. The State is at present unmindful of 
the sufferings of her children ; she performs little in the way 
of sympathy or goodness, leaving all charity and assistance 
for the needy to the efforts of private individuals. 

After a careful study of the human organism, we shall under- 
stand more clearly the various social problems, where the 
defects lie, and how to remedy them. 

It is quite evident that individual effort is necessary for 
national progress. Nations and individuals run on parallel 
lines ; what is right for the one is good for the other. 

A community is made up of personal units, while each of us 
is made up of several communities of complex living cells ; 
each group of cells, with its special duties, is co-operating for 
one object, setting before us a plan of what a normal and per- 
fect nation should be. There are factors which threaten us 
at the present epoch ; luxury and over-indulgence, which ruin 
the human organism, canker and penetrate to the heart of 
the nation, producing lethargy and inefficiency .^ The second 
cause of our national decay is the neglect of the poor and help- 
less, who should be a source of constitutional wealth and 

^ I recall one of the brightest little fellows in the Working Boys' 
Home, who is the son of a domestic servant. The father was a " gen- 
tleman," as his son's face and manners show. The lad barely escaped 
being absorbed into the criminal ranks. If he had been so absorbed, 
how is the matter of responsibility to be divided up amongst the three 
parties concerned, father, mother and State ? 

' Read Arnold White's work on Efficiency and Empire. 



TO THE THOUGHTFUL 5 

growth. The disaster which this brings is not a curse from God, 
but a logical sequence of the infringement of the laws of biology 
and sociology. 

We are very near a precipice, requiring only a " heave over " 
to go to pieces, and our only salvation lies in a return to healthy 
and normal conditions. 



CHAPTER II 
VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FORMS 

RELATION OF ANIMAL TO VEGETABLE LIFE : Some natural laws- 
Man is only an animal — Plus will-power — Man a machine — Represented 
in the lower creation — Animal kingdom built up in progressive series — 
The amoeba and leucocyte — Teach children the truth, or they resent it 
later. EVOLUTION : Lamarck's theory, Adaptation to Environ- 
ment, Wrong ; Darwin, " Survival of the fittest," or " natural selec- 
tion " — Prof. W. Bateson on " Discontinuous variation " — Shirley pop- 
pies — Examples of discontinuous variation — De Vries' experiments with 

Oenothera. THEIR APPLICATION TO MANKIND : Promiscuous 

marriage— Continuous variation, or minor individual differences — Our 
duty toward " the unfit " — Malthus' warning. 

Relation The animal world is very closely interwoven with the veget- 
°* . able kingdom. The same general laws and principles govern 

to both alike, so that no study of the human race would be 

Vegetable successful or complete, without a full understanding of plant 
life. Man is an ordinary animal, with its instincts, feehngs, 
and impulses ; but he has something in addition, a mind, and 
perhaps a soul. He is therefore not subject to his impulses 
and instincts, but is provided with a force or will power to 
direct and control his desires. It has taken many hundred 
miUions of years to build him up ; structure has been added 
to structure, until he is a most elaborate physico-chemical 
machine. When his various parts are taken to pieces, and 
examined, often with the aid of a microscope, sometimes with 
the test tube, we find that they are all represented in what we 
caU the lower creation. We see the crab is made up of twenty- 
four segments, the worm is also divided, so is the butterfly, 
Man likewise is made in spinal and other segments, and 
resembles the lower forms of life in that each segment is 
provided with its own nervous mass and mechanism. 

We observe also nerve masses, or ganglia, in insects and 
snails, that have their counterpart in the human species, 
controlling the organs of digestion and circulation. The 
animal kingdom then has been built up from very simple 







B. 



C. 



Leucocytes, or colourless blood cells. They are round cells with nuclei. 
Nature's policemen. 

Similar cells, scavengers, 2 destroying tubercle bacilli from a human lung ; 
the other full of dust particles from the breath. 

A double nucleated phagocyte, or scavenger cell, from a case of advanced 
neuritis, removing dead particles, which stain black. (Drawn from the 
microscope, oil immersion, by Miss B. Wilson.) 



Facing page 7. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FORMS 7 

forms, by little additions to each progressive series. Perhaps 
the simplest form of animal life is represented in the ponds 
by the amoeba. This is a transparent piece of protoplasm, 
which looks under the microscope like a bit of jelly, having 
the power of movement, and altering its shape so as to include 
smaller particles which it digests as food. The same kind 
of animal exists in our blood as colourless corpuscles, on 
which we depend as scavengers and policemen. If we get a 
fever, local inflammation or poisoned wound they muster in 
thousands and millions, devouring the poisonous germs which 
have attacked us. Though they are a necessary part of our 
system yet they can live outside our bodies, as, for example, 
in a test tube which contains a weak solution of salt. 

Every child ought to be taught the truth, and ought to 
know that man was not suddenly created, but evolved gradu- 
ally from the lower creation. Nothing is to be gained by prac- 
tising deception on the young, and much may be lost, as it 
leads later to a general scepticism and " criticisms." ^ 

There has always been great speculation as to how this Evolu- 
evolution of different species came about. Early investigators °" 
thought that the gaps existing between species were brought 
about very gradually. Lamarck who wrote on this subject 
in 1801 and 1809,^ originated the theory of " adaptation to 
environment " as the cause of variation. Thus the giraffe, 
which has no more bones in its neck than has a rabbit or man, 
was supposed to acquire its long neck during many generations 
of stretching upwards to eat the palmleaves. 

Similarly the flamingo was supposed to have developed 
its long legs and neck through its habit of wading and reaching 
out among bulrushes. Likewise snakes were supposed to 
have lost their legs from their habit of crawling into narrow 
crevices. All this we know to be wrong. 

Darwin in 1859 ^ introduced the theory of the " survival 
of the fittest " and " natural selection." Darwin, the pioneer, 

1 Many " learned " and " higher " criticisms are valueless for want 
of accurate scientific data. These clever men have been brought 
up on dogma and tradition instead of solid fact. 

* Philosophic Zoologique. 

^ The Origin of Species. 



8 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

however, could not in a lifetime complete his work. He attri- 
buted too much importance to minor differences, thinking 
the gaps between species were gradually formed, and handed 
on from one generation to another, until a new type or species 
was formed. We now know that this is not so. Nature can 
and does take jumps. Professor W. Bateson,^ of Cambridge, 
applies the term " discontinuous variation " to this process. 
Thus he points out that a tulip, which normally has three 
petals, may have offspring with four perfect petals which 
is a new and total variation from the parent : not three 
proper petals and one small imperfect petal, for such would be 
considered a malformation, or, more correctly, a " continuous 
variation." 

Then we have the case of the Shirley poppies. The Rev. 
W. Wilks, vicar of Shirley, near Croydon, observed white 
rimmed poppies growing among a mass of wild poppies {Papaver 
rhoea). He kept the seed of this sudden or discontinuous 
variety, and with skilful horticulture started the new species 
called after his parish. 

There are abundant records of several new species, or as 
Bateson terms them, " discontinuous variations." As com- 
mon examples we have the long haired cats and guinea-pigs. 
Pug dogs, and bull dogs, are variations depending on arrested 
growth of the upper jaw. The same happens among carp 
and pike, so that the lower jaw protrudes. A few cases are 
on record of ordinary mice with no fur, naked mice, whose 
offspring also is naked. 

One of the most applicable instances is recorded by the 
Dutch botanist, De Vries.^ He found in a potato field several 
varieties and species of Oenothera Lamarhii growing wild. It is an 
American plant, and he attributed their variations to the differ- 
ence in climate and soil. However, he cultivated from seed and 
seedlings 50,000 plants and observed among them 800 abnormal 
forms, or as they are termed mutations (mutare, to change). 
These 800 mutations showed 15 varieties or new species, 
which, in some cases, would flower and seed true to their 
new types, thus making distinct species, and receiving fresh 
Latin names ; in other cases the new species or seedlings 

^ Materials for the Study of Variation, p. 15. 
a Nature, 1901, vol. Ixiv, p. 208. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL FORMS 9 

were very delicate, and either died before reaching maturity, 
or were only reared with the greatest care. Thus some of the 
varieties formed new and stable species, and some were unstable. 

This instructive experiment applies forcibly to the lower Their 
vegetable and animal forms, and also to our own human and tionTo' 
social organizations. As the result of promiscuous marriage Mankind 
we see a motley group of offspring, some good, some medium, 
others weak and sickly, and a few bad. This leads us on 
further in the inquiry as to the unseen causes and forces at 
work. 

In every human family we observe individual differences 
or peculiarities amongst the children. These are minor 
variations, or individual traits, and are termed " continuous 
variations," because they cannot be perpetuated into new 
forms. If we however can fathom the why and wherefore 
of the more definite and abnormal variations, we will have 
a clearer perception of the continuous examples. It wiU 
carry us on to the question of marriage and inheritance, and 
also of our higher duty towards the unfit. Are we to look 
on unconcerned ? In 1798 ^ Malthus gave a warning to the 
world when he pointed out, that the human population in- 
creases in geometrical ratio, therefore the less gifted must 
suffer in time from the stress of poverty, due to more com- 
petition and less land to occupy. Infant mortality from the 
weakened race must therefore increase. We now realize 
the truth of his prophecy, but what about the future ? 

1 The Principle of Population, 1798. 



CHAPTER III 
FERTILIZATION 

THE SIMPLEST UNIT IN BIOLOGY : Definition of a cell— Protoplasm- 
Nuclei : Illustration — Variety of cells — Mono-cellular structure. 

REPRODUCTION : By simple division — Diagrammatic representation 
of cell division — Condition of each daughter cell. BY TWO PARENT- 
AL ELEMENTS : Studies in lower forms of life — Observations in worms 

and starfish. DEVELOPMENT OF GERMINAL CELLS. Four stages. 

THE OVUM : Its structure — Chemical composition — The storehouse 

— The nucleus — Chromatin — Polar bodies — The fertilized ovum a perfect 

cell — How disease and alcohol affect the ovum — Stunted children. 

THE SPERMATOZOON : Chromosome and centrosome — Fusion of 
sperm and ovum — Function of each. THE SEX QUALITIES : Re- 
versal of sexes — Mental hermaphrodism — The fusion of, or third, sex. 
THE CHANGES IN FERTILIZATION IN THE SEA-URCHIN : En- 
trance of sperm — Sperm divides — Nucleus in ovum divides — The two 
pronuclei fuse and rods of chromatin form — Unequal division of ovum 
suggested where disease misses a generation. TWO KINDS OF GER- 
MINAL CELLS : Reproductive and body cells — Reproductive cells not 
from the parent^Observations to prove that reproductive cells continued 
from germinal cells — Professor Balbiani's observations on the reproductive 
cells of a fly — Beard's observation on the skate — First division of cells, 
asexual, the Phorozoon — Then embryo appears and reproductive cells 
remain — Resemble the runner of a plant. MOST IMPORTANT BEAR- 
ING ON HEREDITY IN THE HUMAN RACE : The old teaching incor- 
rect — Haeckel's view — Darwin and Huxley — No inheritance of acquired 
characters — Weissmann's theory of Germ Plasm — Beard thinks embryo 
owes nothing to parent except shelter — The case of the hen and the egg — 
Mammalian ova — The higher the organization the greater the risk — 
Practical application of our knowledge — Causes of variation, latent 
characters — Delage regards environment as cause of variation. 



The 

Simplest 
Unit in 
Biology 



The cell is the simplest unit in life. Every animal and veget- 
able tissue is composed of masses of cells, which are specialized 
in form and function in the different parts. A living animal 
cell consists of a body of protoplasm,^ usually enclosed in a 
wall or membrane, with a nucleus in the centre. This is a work- 
able definition, considering the hundreds of different sorts of 
cells. Protoplasm is an exceedingly complex and unstable 
compound of an albuminoid character, and forms the physical 
basis of animal life. Its composition varies according to the 
kind of cell in which it occurs. The nucleus is the vital part 
1 It is doubtful if the nerve cell has any membrane. 

10 



FERTILIZATION 11 

of every cell and contains a different complex substance, 
called nuclein. The nucleus is superior in structure and 
function to the other contents of the cell. Thus in the brain 
of the human embryo, the nuclei of the cells are all laid down 
at an early stage ; as growth proceeds each nucleus builds 
up its own cell-body, out of a special neuro-protoplasm. 

In plants we find starch cells ; pith cells ; those of woody 
fibre in which lignin is deposited, giving the characteristic 
hardness ; while green chlorophyll cells in the leaves carry 
nutrition for purposes of growth. In the animal there are 
blood cells of five or six different kinds, each with special 
life-protecting functions (some non-nucleated) ; also muscle 
cells with the power of contractility ; in the skin horny cells 
which protect the body externally ; and bone cells which 
contain lime, in order to give a substantial framework. In 
the electric eel, there are electric cells, a unique and marvellous 
formation, for the purpose of paralyzing by shock the fish 
on which they feed. The highest are the nerve cells, which 
generate different forms of energy, from growth to muscular 
movements and finally to complex thought. 

These are examples of composite cell masses, but there 
are simple cells each with a separate existence, such as 
spores, and the germs of disease, amoebse, yeast cells, and 
various microscopic infusoria, which are so abundant in 
pond life. 

Reproduction, in its simplest form among the unicellular Repro- 
organisms, consists of simple division. Here the cell divides <^"*^**°" 
into two, the daughter cells growing to the size of the mother 
cell, and in their turn each dividing again. This process, 
which continues with great rapidity, furnishes miUions of 
organisms in every few hours. The processes of fermentation 
and putrefaction are results of the cell multiplication of yeast 
cells and bacteria. Somewhat similar conditions occur in 
infectious diseases. 

The diagrams opposite, copied from Boveri,^ explain more 
fully the division of the cell in the higher forms of animal 
life, during growth or as it is termed karyo-kinesis. 

In the resting condition of a cell there is the centrosome 
^ " Zellen Studien," Jena Zeit. f. Nat. xxi, xxii, xxiv. 



12 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

of a radiate appearance, and a nucleus containing wavy 
threads or filaments of chromatin. 

When division or regeneration begins, the chromatin forms 
up into rods, the number varying according to the species, 
and there form also two asters or centrosomes, each of which 
sends threads to the rods of chromatin. In the third stage 
the wall of the nucleus disappears and the chromatin rods 
arrange themselves in opposite halves of the cell. 

The rods and asters having assumed positions in the separate 
halves, division gradually follows. A nuclear wall is again 
formed and encloses the chromatin in the daughters and 
finally takes on the resting stage as at first. 

We are, however, concerned with the higher form of repro- 
duction by means of speciahzed germinal cells, where two 
parental elements are involved, which are represented in 
plant life by the pollen and ovule ; and in the animal world 
by the spermatozoon and ovum. These have been studied 
in the lower forms of life, as the worms and sea urchin, in 
order to get at the foundation of the subject. Observations 
have been made among the ova of fish and frogs, so that con- 
firmation among the vertebrates is assured. It is reasonably 
inferred that similar conditions are observed amongst the 
mammals. 

The development of the germinal cells has been described 
by Boveriji from observations on parasitic worms (e.g. ascaris 
megalocephala) and Echinodermata, as starfish and sea 
urchins ; also among flies and other animals. 

It would appear as if the germinal cells in both male and 
female organs go through the same processes and in the early 
conditions bear a close resemblance, as though male and female 
originally started from the same cells. 

In each sexual organ, male or female, the germinal cells 
lie in tubes, and pass through four stages, before reaching 
final development — (1) Division or multiphcation ; (2) Growth ; 
(3) Reduction ; (4) Maturation. 

The In principle the ovum is the same all through the animal 

Ovum kingdom right up to the human species. 

^ Sitz. Ber. Ges. Morph. Phys., Munchen, II. 





(From Boveri.) 

C. Centrosome. 

N. Nucleus. 

Cr. Chromatin rods. 

A. Asters with threads to chromatin rods 



Facing page 12 



GE 




Section of ovary. 

G E germinal epithelium. 

F follicles in which ova are developing, 

O ripe ova. 



S C 




GO 



(After Delage). 
G C The germinal chain which is continuous, three generations. 
S C The somatic cells, which form the body, or environment of the germinal cells. 



Facing page 13. 



FERTILIZATION 13 

The human ovum is surrounded by a more or less porous 
waU, containing a nucleus suspended in the protoplasmic 
substances. The cell body or cytoplasm is rich in albuminous 
materials, lecithin or animal phosphorus, yolk, neurin, and 
other properties not yet determined. The egg is the storehouse 
for the fuU development of the future embryo in birds, but 
in the case of the mammals it only carries the embryo through 
the first stage till the placenta forms. 

The nucleus is the centre of vitality and sometimes shows 
nucleoli. It always contains threads in coils or short masses. 
As these stain easily with aniline dyes, they are termed chro- 
matin threads, or rods, or chromosomes. They assume 
rod-like shapes during the division which follows fertilization. 
Each species has its own particular number of chromatin 
rods, varying from two to more than one hundred. The 
chromosomes are the very essence of vitality. 

The mammalian ovum develops from a delicate structure 
called the germinal epithehum in an organ termed the ovary. 

As the ovum develops from a specialized structure, ger- 
minal epithehum, which obtains its nourishment from the 
blood and lymph fluids of the maternal body, there is an 
inevitable danger of the diseased or drunken mother poisoning 
her offspring, and arresting the normal evolution and matura- 
tion of the ovum. The ovum stimulates nutrition, while 
the sperm lends capability of construction and growth to the em- 
bryo. These functions stand in great danger where unfavour- 
able influences exist, and explain the stunted appearance 
of the offspring. Reference to my observations on the working 
homes for London boys aptly illustrates the diminutive 
proportions of these poor children, due in many cases to 
their alcoholic parentage. 

The spermatozoon differs from the ovum in size and mobility, The 
being small and very active. It consists of a head and a tail, ^P^"^"^^- 
very much like a tadpole. The nucleus is at the tip of the 
head, being composed of compressed chromatin threads, or 
chromosomes. The rest of the body behind is called the 
centrosome. It is smaU, containing no storehouse of nourish- 
ment Uke the ovum. Its function is to cause division of ceUs, 
and to be a stimulus to increase of size. 



14 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The fusion of these two opposite bodies makes a complete 
and perfect cell, capable of division, multiplication, and growth. 
The sperm cannot nourish, but gives to the ovum the power 
of cell division ; the ovum having remained quiescent and 
conservative until the sperm entered. It, however, supplies 
what the sperm lacks, namely, nourishment for growth. 

The Sex It is interesting here to observe that all through nature 
^" ' ^^ the two sexes depend upon each other to supply the corre- 
sponding deficiencies. The female is always passive, restful 
and conservative, storing up energy ; whilst the male is 
active, restless, expending energy for family life, either to 
produce or protect. 

Something has gone wrong in the last generation, for these 
quahties are changing or fusing amongst the civihzed races. 
There seems occasionally to be a man's soul in a woman's 
body, just as female deer may bear horns. Too often the 
reverse happens. The woman should be mother and help- 
mate, balancing the male and not competing with him. The 
dislocation of Nature's laws is developing a form of mental 
hermaphrodism . 

In true hermaphrodism, the utmost difficulty may occur in 
determining the sex. Mentally the inclinations may be for the 
male, and females then are uninteresting, or vice versa. These 
cases are too technical to introduce in a popular treatise, but 
shed great light on " the fusion of sex " with mixed instincts. 
There may be " mental hermaphrodism " without external 
changes, and it furnishes a key to many social problems 
of serious import. After a full generation of over-strain 
there is much instability of sex in body and mind, and the 
delineation of sex is not so clear as it should be. This is 
due to the fact that the sex gland (Woolfian body) before 
birth represents unity, and it is only shortly before birth 
that duality of sex appears, and there is an element of chance 
about it. Nature sometimes leaves her task unfinished. 

The It is so important to realize the delicate and minute changes 

!?lStf- i^ fertihzation, that it is advisable briefiy to describe this 

lization stage more fully. When the ova and spermatozoa of the 

UrcWn^^^ sea urchin {strongylus) are placed in sea water, there is observed 




N ^'t 



Fi6l 



H^ }p 




Fig. I Ovum with spermatozoon (s) entering. 

V Vitellus or porus wail. 

N Nucleus. C Centrosome. 

SC Sperm centre. MP Male pronucleus. 

OC Ovo centre. FP Female pronucleus. 

Cr Chromatin nuclei or pronuclei. 

A Asters. Fig. 4 (after Boveri). 



Facing page 15. 



FERTILIZATION 15 

an attraction between the two, so that eventually a sperma- 
tozoon comes in contact with the membrane or viteUus of 
the ovum. 

At this point a cone is formed on the vitellus or wall, in 
which the sperm buries itself and is drawn into the ovum 
leaving its tail, for which there is no further use, outside. 
The sperm head makes for the nucleus of the ovum and separ- 
ates into its two parts, the centrosome or sperm-centre, and 
the chromatin nucleus or male pronucleus, which latter now 
shows its chromatin rods. 

The nucleus of the ovum also swells and separates into 
an ovocentre and female pronucleus. 

The two nuclei attack each other, and form one mass, 
though the chromatin rods keep apart. 

Two asters and two pronuclei now appear, the second 
aster being made of the centrosome of the sperm (fig. 2). 

The stage advances as in ordinary cell division, but the 
chromatin rods of the zoon and the ovum keep apart, so that 
in the division each daughter cell has equal portions of sperm 
and ovum, and when the division is complete, each daughter 
cell has the same number of chromatin rods as the parent 
cell. 

It has been argued by Delage,^ that where disease misses 
one generation there has been an unequal division of the 
ovum, and one of the daughter cells from which the embryo 
came has lost these particular qualities. Gout or whatever 
disease may be suggested passes by the other daughter cell 
to form the ovum of the next generation. The theory is so 
ingenious that it is worth considering. 

Boveri, studying the egg of the worm {ascaris megalocephala), Two 
observed two kinds of cells result after the division of the cells^ 
ovum. In one kind of cell the chromatin rods were preserved Germinal 
completely, as in the ovum described ; while a second type somatic 
of cell appeared in which some of the chromatin material 
was pushed out of the cell. These latter formed the embryo 
while the former continued the race as the future ova or 
germinal cells. 

But the discovery of these two kinds of cells is probably 

^ Uheredite. 



16 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

due to S. Jaeger/ in 1878, for he described Phyllogenetic or 
germinal or reproductive cells, and Ontogenetic or somatic or 
body cells. 

Previous observers thought that reproductive cells were 
formed from the body of the parent. 

Jaeger's view is now accepted and has been confirmed by 
many observers. Thus in the case of the fertilized eggs of 
insects, in which during the germinal segmentation, a few 
small cells separate from the main cluster to form the repro- 
ductive cells. In the Daphne, a freshwater crustacean, after 
about thirty divisions of the germinal cells there is a 
separation of the reproductive cells from the embryo. 

2 Professor Balbiani made a very original observation on 
the fly, Chironomus, which clearly demonstrates the isolation 
of germinal matter. At the earliest period of cell division 
of the ovum, two special cells remained distinct from the 
mass. As development proceeded these two cells remained 
unaffected, and were gradually enclosed to form the future 
reproductive organs. The body cells are then distinct, while 
the reproductive cells pass on the " family traditions " from 
generation to generation, independent of their host as long 
as normal conditions obtain. 

Professor John Beard (in America) made important observa- 
tions in the development of the skate, which being a vertebrate, 
strengthens all previous observations, ^ 

He called the early division of the fertilized ovum by the 
term Phorozoon, or asexual cells. The ovum divided nine 
times, producing 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and finally 512 cells. 
At this stage there was a re-arrangement of the cell-mass, 
and the embryo developed from one of the cells, whilst the 
remaining mass continued as germinal or reproductive cells. 

The germinal cells continue the race, while the embryo 
is an incident occurring in an uninterrupted chain. It has 
been compared to the runner of a strawberry plant, which 
continues the life of the parent or species, while the young 
plants or buds appear at intervals, and separate when mature. 
The simile is quite applicable. 

^ Kosmos, ii. ^ Zoolog. Anz., 1881. 

^ Anatom. Anzeiger, Bd. xviii, 1900, Anatom. Anzeiger, Bd. viii, 
1902. 



FERTILIZATION 17 

This idea must then be carefully remembered in studying Most 
heredity, that the germ cells form one uninterrupted Une ^^°^' 
of succession, and the embryo or individual is an offshoot Bearing 
from that Hne. ^ Heredity 

This is the scientific expression of the conception of a family in 
tree, only we are buds rather than branches. Race^ 

The hen and the egg stand before us in quite a new light. 
The hen does not form the egg, as popularly thought, but is 
an offshoot, and only serves to enclose the germinal chain 
of the succeeding generation. The human parent is the 
trustee, rather than the testator of its offspring. 

There is then a complete revolution from the former 
teaching ; which, however, deserves notice. 

Haeckel ^ propounded the theory that reproduction was an 
overgrowth of the individual. 

Darwin formulated the following theory of Pangenesis in 
his work. The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domes- 
tication (vol. ii, chap, xxviii). He considered that every cell 
of the body throws off particles or gemmules, which collect 
in the reproductive cells. He conceived inheritance to be the 
development of the parental gemmules in the offspring ; 
whilst variation is the comminghng of the gemmules of two 
parents, modified either by use or disuse. 

Huxley 2 thought that all the tissues of the parent contributed 
towards the formation of the germinal cells. Huxley said 
the germ was " simply a detached living portion of the sub- 
stance of a pre-existing living body." 

In this way they accounted for the resemblance of offspring 
to parent. Every part of the body was supposed to despatch 
infinitesimal molecules to build up the germ cells. If this 
were so, acquired characters would be transmitted, which 
is abundantly proved not to happen under any circumstances. 
If a man be undeveloped from malnutrition or disease, his 
offspring does not share that deficiency, or if he loses a limb 
or an eye the child is in no way affected. 

Weissmann was the founder of a new theory of the " Con- 
tinuity of the Germ Plasm." ^ He held that the germ cell 

^ Gen. Morph., 1866. Die Perigenesis der Plastidule, 1876. 
2 Huxley, Evolution, p. 296. Enc. Brit., 1878. 
' The Germ Plasm, 1895, pp. 192-193. "The ancestors of these germ 
cells are somatic cells." 



18 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

came directly from the parent, not as Huxley and Darwin con- 
sidered, as an extract from the tissues, but as a transference 
from one generation to the next of a definite molecular sub- 
stance which he called determinants or " germ-plasm." He 
thought that at each formation of an embryo (ontogeny), 
a portion of this " germ plasm " is not used up, but reserved 
for the reproductive cells of the next generation. He said 
that " the germ plasm passes over unchanged into the organism 
which is undergoing development, and that this part represents 
the basis from which future germ cells arise." " It is therefore 
clear that all the cells of the embryo must act as somatic 
cells, and none of them can be reserved as germ cells and 
nothing else." So far Weissmann added an important feature 
to research ; the separation of the germ cells from the body 
cells. He also was the discoverer of the value of the chromatin 
rods in the transmission of parental characters. 

If Weissmann's view were correct, growth, nourishment 
and disease would act not on the embryo alone, but on the 
contained germ-plasm and so affect heredity. In scientific 
parlance, environment of the parent would affect the offspring 
directly. This appears probable to some observers, especially 
to the layman, and as so many are acquainted with Weissmann's 
writings it is important to refute them. Beard ^ goes quite 
to the other extreme, and in my opinion too far, stating that 
the individual or embryo derives nothing from the parent 
except nutrition and shelter. There is, however, distinct 
evidence of inheritance of mental traits and peculiarities. 
This, of course, is applied to mammals or viviparous animals, 
which are necessarily of higher organization than oviparous, 
which, like the common chick, derive all their nutrition before 
birth from the egg. The egg is then built up around the 
germinal matter, the blastoderm or " tread," the white spot 
which floats on the top of the yolk. This " tread " corresponds 
to the ovum in mammals. In it may be seen the germinal 
cell or spot which is the part which subdivides on fertilization. 
The mammalian ova are smaller ^ and unprotected, and rely 
for their development and nutrition on the maternal blood. 

Hence the embryo is exposed to risks and dangers which 

1 John Beard, " The Germ Cells," Zoolog. Jahr., Bd. xvi, 1902. 
^ The hviman ovum is Tao oi an inch in diameter. 



FERTILIZATION 19 

do not occur when it is comfortably encased with its store- 
house of food inside a shell. The higher the organization 
in the scale, the greater its risks and the more unstable it 
becomes. Thus there is actual necessity for the psychologist, 
or even for the philanthropist, to have some general knowledge 
of the laws of life and development. 

The practical application of these scientific details is the 
object of this treatise, and to an ordinary thinker these facts 
apply themselves in various ways. We have studied the fusion 
of the male and female nuclei, the retention of the chromosomes 
of each, and their equal division into two daughter cells and 
then further. 

If then, as Strassburger pointed out in 1884, each sex furnishes 
all his or her nuclear chromatin, all the characters of each 
parent will be represented in the offspring, and if certain 
features are not evident, it is because they are latent. The 
future generation have to contend with external influences 
and changes of nutriment, which may lead to variation or 
degeneracy. Delage does not agree with this view of latent 
characteristics. He says the egg has a complex physico- 
chemical constitution, which confers individual properties 
on the resulting cells. It is not the egg, but something out- 
side it at a later stage of development which conditions the 
future characters. He expresses the general characters which 
develop as " tous ensemble le resultat de I'ensemble de la 
structure." Thus he would undermine our belief in the 
unfathomable molecules and potentialities of the Germ-plasm. 



CHAPTER IV 
DEVELOPMENT— INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 

HERBERT SPENCER ON PREVENTING EXTINCTION: Adaptation and 
genesis — Competition and starvation — Self-preservation inverse to 

reproduction— In the "lower creation." TWO PROCESSES AT 

WORK : Anabolism and Katabolism — State education upsets the 

balance — Bankrupt brains and moral ruin. ARNOLD WHITE'S 

OBSERVATIONS : Nature's cure for the hooligans and Appaches — The 
connexion of Sociology with Biology — Fertilization — The forming of a 
perfect cell — Germinal elements form one continuous chain — The embryo, 
or individual, an offshoot — Pre-natal conditions — Composition of the 
hen's egg which feeds the chick — The mammal feeds the embryo through 
the blood. THE BAD INFLUENCE OF CIVILIZATION : Malnutri- 
tion — Cases among poor boys — Duty of mothers toward offspring — 
Experiments in horse raising — Malnutrition due to tubercle— Or specific 
disease. IMPROPER MARRIAGES : Age — Consanguineous mar- 
riages — ^The island of Uk, in the rZuyder Zee — History of Pitcairn 
islanders^Terrible list collected by Bemiss — Lessons from Nature — 

Experiments by M. Maupas with infusoria. ALCOHOL : Attacks 

every tissue — Science supports temperance — Necessity to teach temper- 
ance to the young — Alcohol starves the child before birth — The alcoholic 
father — Case to illustrate — A woman with two husbands, alcoholic and 
teetotal — Idiocy and alcohol — Cases — Experiments on animals — Alcohol 

on brains of pups — ^Theory applied to criminals. VARIATION : Its 

causes — Continuous, Discontinuous, Adaptation to environment — 
Environment constantly changing. THE HUMAN " PLUM- 
PUDDING " SIMILE : Too salt water causing degeneration in a crus- 
tacean — Parallel to slum life — Effect of nourishment on birds and moths 
— Climate — Darwin's observations on rabbits — Variations only continued 
in same environment — Encouragement to regenerate mankind — Naegeli 
on variation due to climate — Tendency to sterility in variations — Influence 

on vegetation. SIMILE TO OUR STORM-TOSSED CRIMINALS : 

Restore criminal to normal surroundings — Regeneration of offspring by 

dilution in healthy marriage. DR. DELAGE ON REGENERATION : 

Great importance of environment — Haeckel's view — Transmission of 
disease — Haeckel's homochrone law — Some variations persist as a species 

— Examples : Hornless bulls, Thornless acacia. ARE MENTAL 

CHARACTERS TRANSMITTED ? : Transmission of psychological 
characters — Changes in the body influence heredity — Case of inherited 
alcoholic craving — Collateral heredity — Cases — Archibald Reid's views on 
heredity. 

Hebbert Spencer stated that to prevent extinction two 
conditions were necessary : — 

1. Adaptation to surroundings, and 

2. Production of new individuals to replace the old (Genesis). 

20 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 21 

He pointed out how the forces of destruction and preserva- 
tion were in continual antagonism amongst all living forms, 
the perfect balance being difficult to attain. 

When applied to the human race it is evident that too 
great a production produces competition and starvation. If 
from these causes self-preservation or adaptation fall too low, 
the race would die out unless the preserving factor be increased. 

Self-preservation and reproductive power are therefore in 
inverse proportion. 

Thus excessive fertility by causing starvation and com- 
petition leads to self-extinction. 

Something of the same kind we observe among plants and 
animals, but the factors are very complex. For instance, the 
object of manuring a field is to increase the fertility of the 
crops. Again, in the case of sheep on a good pasture, the 
first object is to supply the food necessary for life, but perhaps 
the main object is to give extra nutrition to be expended on 
reproduction. Conversely Spencer pointed out that high- 
feeding and obesity favoured sterility through imperfect 
assimilation, which we know causes degeneracy of tissues and 
blood, thus starving the germinal elements. 

There are two physiological conditions constantly at work Two 

T J. Processes 

m our bodies :— at Work 

Building up and Burning up. 

The first, which is rest, nutrition and growth, enjoys the 
Greek term of 

Anabolism, while Katabolism 

represents the chemical change due to work ; whether the 
muscular energy of the athlete or the functional work of the 
brain in thought, or the reproductive energy. 

For vigour and health these must be evenly balanced. In 
our State methods of education the expenditure or katabolism 
is in excess of the nutrition or anabolism, and so we flood the 
country with bankrupt brains, which speU moral ruin for the 
next generations. 

In normal life the generative organs do not reach full 
activity till these nutritive conditions are perfectly fulfilled in 
adolescence. 



22 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

There should be a vegetative or anaboHc period preceding 
the reproductive or katabolic activities. Too often these 
conditions are interfered with by civiHzation, and then we 
get abnormal offspring as the punishment of offended Nature. 
When the reproductive period is reached the nutrition must 
be limited to avoid obesity in animals or too much vegetation 
in plants, as both of these decrease fertility. Hence we see 
the reason of root-pruning in fruit-trees. 

Arnold Arnold White, in the Problems of a Great City, observes 

Observa- that " The fecundity of starving people is notorious, and has 

tions again and again been exemplified in famine districts in India." 

It is very difficult to explain this " output " when anabolism 

is at a low ebb, unless it is the attempt of expiring Nature 

to hold her own. 

On the other side, we see the object for snipping off flower- 
buds when growth is wished, or for castration in the capon 
and other animals. This would also be the proper remedy 
for the aggression of the hooligan and of the Appaches among 
the French; the uncurbed katabolism would yield to a 
peaceful, vegetative anabolism in a hornless hooligan. 

I have considered it necessary for an intelligent view of 
the situation to go into some detail on the subject of fecun- 
dation. It may be regarded as impossible to connect poten- 
tial or actual criminals with the reproductive processes of the 
worm, the insect, or the fish, but the relationship is closer 
than appears. The same laws, however, apply to mankind 
as to the lower " creation," and if normal conditions were 
observed, there would be few criminals ; whereas diseased 
actions totally alter Nature's plans, and allow of the social 
product which is dealt with in this work. If we can ascer- 
tain the guiding principles of evolution and development, we 
may assist and no longer oppose the great Architect of the 
Universe. Moreover, Sociology must come to Psychology in 
order to unravel its conundrums, and the latter has to build 
on the foundations of Biology and Physiology. 

Resume In the previous chapter there has been a short resume of 
°^ ^j. the mode of development of the germinal units, and the 
tion ^ " formation of the highest type of cell by their conjugation. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 23 

This perfect cell is composed of two bodies, one with the 
power to divide and cause growth, namely, the spermatozoon ; 
while the other, the ovum, has the ability to absorb the 
nourishment necessary for such increase. 

The germinal elements form one continuous, double-linked 
vital chain, which represents the persistence of the race. 
The embryo, even before it develops into the adult form, acts 
as host to these elements. The host or parent passes on the 
guests or germinal elements to the next generation, and now 
we ask him or her to account for their stewardship, as in this 
we find the root of the whole subject. 

Environment is commonly regarded as the important factor 
after birth, but there is a pre-natal environment which is of 
the highest importance and has an indirect bearing on heredity. 
As soon as the embryo gets its start from the primitive cells 
it depends entirely on its environment. In the case of the 
chick its storehouse is well stocked with all it requires. It has 
in the yolk proteids and albumens, nuclein, fats and animal 
phosphorus or lecithin ; grape-sugar ; iron and the same 
salts that occur in the blood corpuscles. In addition, the 
white part of the egg provides albumen, fats, grape-sugar, 
extractives and salts for the blood-serum. We see therefore 
what a perfect food an egg is. In the case of mammals the 
embryo, through the placenta, absorbs aU it requires from the 
maternal blood. 

It is here that the demands and penalties of civilization The Bad 
interfere with nature's programme. On this account many Influence 
unfortunates arrive in this world without a single chance, civiliza- 
and it seems severe to put them in prison when for pity's ^°" 
sake we ought to shelter them as compensation in some quiet 
refuge colony. When these penalties of nature occur amongst 
the rich they are protected, but these masses of unprepared 
ones, either deficient or degenerate, should enlist our deepest 
sympathies. 

The ante-natal causes of these social weaklings may be 
gathered under the few headings of malnutrition, disease, or 
accident. 

Malnutrition necessarily affects the poorer classes, where 
food is difficult to obtain, but it may also visit the homes of 



24 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

the wealthy, where high living occurs, which is stimulat- 
ing rather than nourishing, and ends in degeneration of 
tissue. 

The reader would appreciate more fully the effects of malnu- 
trition if he were to study the cases I have reported (chap, xxiii.) 
in the " Homes for Working Boys in London," which contain 
many instances of alcoholic starvation. 

It is the duty of every pregnant woman to do the best for 
her future child, in the way of nourishment and the avoidance 
of alcohol, stress and over-fatigue. We know only too well 
of the infantile mortality and degeneration where the mothers 
have to work in factories. We have to learn in these matters 
much from the less-neglected lower creation, and in this 
connexion it may be mentioned that in South America the 
breeders of a small race of horses {la camargue) always feed 
the pregnant mares more liberally, and obtain thereby an 
increased height in the offspring. My experience can recall 
many very fine infants from parents who were delicate or 
physically weak, merely by observing rules as to generous 
diet and proper rest during pregnancy. The offspring are 
not benefited merely physically, but mentally, and in later 
life morally. 

Malnutrition may occur indirectly as the result of disease. 
Tubercle is the most formidable enemy, for where its toxin 
exists the blood and the tissues are starved. In spite of com- 
bined philanthropic effort tubercle has come to stay. It is 
a parasite, natural to the " creation," invading weakened 
organisms. We may check it, but we shall never extinguish 
it. 

There is another constitutional taint — syphilis, that attacks 
the race often in most unexpected quarters, especially affecting 
the children. Probably it is the origin of scrofula two or 
three generations previously, and not improbably we shall 
discover it to be the remote ancestor of tubercle. This is 
quite theoretical, but the special structure of tubercle (giant 
cells) also occurs in some syphilitic growths, where it is called 
pseudo-tubercle. 

These two toxins are the enemies of the race, and act directly 
on the germinal units, by depriving them of nourishment and 
injuring the structures which support them. 




Ages 
15 

Facing page H. 



From left to right. 

Heights 
4ft. 7in. ; —7' in. 
5ft. 3in. ; normal 
5ft. ; -yin. 
4ft. yin. ; — iiin. 



Weights 
5st. 41b. ; — 2st. 
yst. 41b. ; + ist. 41b. 
yst. i2lb. ; — 1st. gib. 
6st. lib. ; — 3st. 2lb. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 25 

Amongst accidents we classify improper marriages. Thus Improper 



age has great influence on the ripeness and fertility of germ 
cells. Experiments have been made which support this 
experience, both by Vernon ^ with Echinoderms (sea-urchins) 
and by Cosser Ewart ^ with pigeons and guinea-pigs. 

Age seems of less importance as regards the maternal 
unit, but it is quite otherwise on the paternal side, where 
vigour and activity are essentials. How often do we see 
infractions of this law, and how unstable are the offspring ! 

Consanguineous marriages are in these days of increased 
stress to be discouraged, lest in the ancestry there is some 
taint, such as tubercle, insanity, or neurosis, which ~ might 
thereby be doubled in the offspring. Intermarriage affects 
the higher neurons. 

I once visited an island, about a mile long, lying in the 
Zuyder Zee. It is called Uk, and packed in very small cottages 
are 3,000 inhabitants. There is no crime, no alcoholism, and 
no venereal disease. There is a governor ; one policeman ; 
three churches — Reformed, Staats, and Christian ; and a 
doctor. The doctor told me that nerve diseases are very 
rife through intermarriage ; idiocy, hysteria and neuras- 
thenia are the chief troubles ; there is only one case of tabes, 
as organic disease is rare. 

Some authorities hold the opposite view, that consanguinity 
does not result in sterihty or degeneracy, and give similar 
illustrations of other islands where the inhabitants have inter- 
married for generations. Thus on the island of Batz, half a 
century ago there were 3,000 inhabitants, where intermarriage 
prevailed for generations, and yet there was no crime or 
degeneracy, and the number of births was above the average. 

The history of Pitcairn Island is well known, and is often 
quoted as an example of intermarriage amongst a hmited 
few without degeneracy resulting. But the events have only 
lasted 120 years, and the original start was from such opposite 
races that it cannot be used in support of the healthy results 
of consanguineous marriage. In 1789, nine sailors landed on 
the island from a shipwreck. There were then six male and 

^ Variations in Plants and Animals, 1903, and^ Variations in Plants and 
Animals, Roy. Soc. Proc, 1898. 
2 Nature, September, 1901. 



Marri- 
ages 



26 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

fifteen female Tahitians. As the result of fighting, four 
years later there were only four sailors and ten Tahitian 
women. These multiplied to sixty-six people by the year 
1825, and to 87 in 1830, and have advanced numerically 
since. At the present time they are absorbing fresh blood, 
so it must be banished as a classical test case. 

Bemiss,^ of New York, has collected 833 consanguineous 
marriages with their results, and they are very melancholy : — 

10 were brother and sister, or parent and child. 

12 were uncles and nieces, or aunts and nephews. 
61 were blood relations. 

27 were double first cousins. 
600 were first cousins. 
120 were second cousins. 

13 were third cousins. 

The ntunber of children resulting was 3,942. 
Of these 1,134 were defective, 

145 were deaf and dumb, 

85 were blind, 
308 were idiots, 

38 were insane, 

60 were epileptic, 
300 were scrofulous, 

98 were deformed, 
833 died in infancy. 



3,001 



Thus nearly 75 per cent, were practically murdered in 
utero. 

We get much practical help in all these questions by seeing 
what happens among lower forms of life. Nature makes the 
same laws for us as for them. Consanguinity of marriage, 
in the animal and vegetable world alike, tends toward sterility 
and degeneracy of stock. It does, of course, take several 
generations to produce any marked effect, but conversely we 
always find a race improved by adding fresh blood. In order 
to illustrate how low down in the scale nature's laws apply, 
I will quote the observations of M. Maupas in 1885 and 1886. 
He selected a water animalcule, an infusorian (Stylonicha 
pustulata) which breeds by ordinary division. He watched 
one for five months, and in that time it executed 215 genera- 
tions, when it became sterile and ceased to divide. Previously 

* Bianchi on Psychatrie, p. 111. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 27 

some were removed to another basin, where were also added 
some infusoria from another stock. These conjugated, and 
started again dividing for another five months, and then ceased 
after about 150 generations. How much more must the 
higher forms of life depend on fresh stock or strength for 
successful multiplication ! 

One of the most powerful agencies towards race degeneracy Alcohol 
is alcohol. 

Alcohol, by its very active poisonous properties, has been 
found to arrest the early development of the germinal cells. 
Fere,^ in 1896, found alcohol injected into hens' eggs resulted 
in dwarf chicks. 

Reitz ^ found that if young dogs and rabbits were treated 
with alcohol daily, they lost in weight and size and were less 
resistant to disease. 

Ballet and Faure^ made experiments for four years with 
five couples of dogs. These were treated with alcohol at 
different intervals, and of different strengths. When alcohol 
was freely given the pups died early, and the litters were 
small in numbers. Where moderate drinking was imitated 
the pups appeared normal, but had a high mortality. Even 
after the alcoholism was stopped, the mortality among the 
new pups was still high, with many cases of arrested develop- 
ment. This experience coincides with what we find in the 
human race. 

Carrara * subjected pregnant guinea-pigs to a treatment of 
alcohol, and found degeneration in the brains of the pups. 

This insidious degeneration is known to exist in the criminal, 
but unfortunately we cannot demonstrate it until too late and 
he has passed beyond the period when one might show him 
practical sympathy. The list of drunken ancestors in my 
collection is so long that I need not now quote cases, but it 
is interesting to note that skilled criminals are sober men, 
and some few have been abstainers. 

Alcohol, in addition to its direct toxic effect, acts in diverse 

^ Fere, Journ. de Vanatom, ef de la phys., 1895, t. xxxi, 

2 Neurol, Centralhlatt, 1901, p. 542. 

=> Revue Neurolog., 1902, No. 12, p. 562. 

* Biv. Speriment. di Freniatria, 1902, p. 696. 



28 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

ways, for it attacks every tissue. It destroys the protective 
epithelium of the stomach, and thus removes one of Nature's 
most important barriers against disease. It also permanently 
impairs liver and kidney, and winds up by destroying the brain 
cells. Thus no organ can escape, and its direct action on the 
germinal epithelium must be included, whilst we can see how 
every tissue, including the embryonic, is starved beyond repair, 
owing to the deterioration in the nutritive value of the blood. 

Thus temperance work has a scientific basis, in its object of 
race improvement, and with so much evidence on the post- 
mortem table of alcohoHc degeneracy, it is difficult to explain 
how any medical man can sanction, or justify, the use of 
alcohol as a regular article of diet. 

Every woman in the kingdom should be well informed on 
this subject, and it ought to be included in the education of 
the young. The alcoholic mother may start with a normal 
ovum, but starves and poisons the embryo in utero. How 
hard it is then to attach responsibifity to one with such a 
history ! The medical man is constantly confronted with 
these melancholy cases, but the law at present refuses to 
recognize them. 

Alcoholic environment on the father's side has long been 
considered of less importance, but the subject cannot be 
scientifically considered, except with full knowledge of the 
conditions of fecundation as described in the previous chapter. 
There we see that the ovum is anabolic and supplies the tropho- 
plasm which has nutrient powers, whereas the sperm, which 
is katabolic, contains cinoplasm, whose function is to promote 
active growth and development. 

In my early days of practice I had a striking example illus- 
trating this defective development. The mother, who was 
very delicate and starved, was a teetotaler and the father 
was a very heavy drinker. All the children were affected in 
development. One was blind, two were deaf mutes, three 
were deformed, two were idiots, and two or three had died 
early. Not one of the children was normal. 

Selvatico Estense ^ mentions a healthy woman who was 
married to a drunkard and had five delicate children by him ; 

* Biv. Speriment. di Freniatria, 1902, p. 698. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 29 

aU of these died in infancy. She married later a sober husband, 
and had two perfect, healthy children. 

Idiots are commonly supposed to be associated with alco- 
holism in the parents. 

Bourneville ^ publishes 2,554 cases of idiocy and epilepsy, 
and believes that alcoholism in the father was the most potent 
and frequent cause of these calamities. 

Sabraze and Brengues^ in the case of a family of three 
idiots, found the fathers were drunkards for five generations 
back. The mothers were sober, and the rest of the stock 
was normal. 

In order to form a more perfect picture of the artificial effects Variation 
of civilization upon mankind we must study the causes of varia- 
tion, of sports, mongrels, and hybrids, amongst plants and 
animals. I do not suggest that the two run on the same lines, 
but there is a parallelism between abnormal man and variation 
in the animal and vegetable world. 

There are two kinds of variation : 

Continuous and Discontinuous. 

Continuous variation is the term applied to the small differences 
in individuals which do not become fixed characters for trans- 
mission to the next generation. Thus in any family we see 
how each child varies ; perhaps not one is alike. The differ- 
ences are those of degree. The term continuous variation may 
be applied to improving a breed of animals, such as the race- 
horse, or cattle, rabbits or poultry. It is necessary, then, 
to employ selection and keep up the same environment in 
order that the variations may continue. 

On the other hand, where the differences are in kind or 
specific, the variation is termed discontinuous, and indicates 
a new and distinct species. 

Such frequently are adaptations to environment. As Bateson ^ 
describes it, " Diversity of environment is the ultimate measure 
of diversity of form." Though this law is more evident with 
plants and animals, yet by closer study it sheds much Ught 
on questions of psychology. 

^ Archives de Neurologic, 1901, No. 70, p. 330. 

2 Revue Neurologique, 1898, No. 22. 

^ Materials for the Study of Variation, p. 15. 



30 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Nature is never still. What happens to-day, or under present 
conditions, may never be repeated. We do not realize how 
intimately the human race is interwoven with its surroundings, 
making us to-day a variation upon what our grandparents 
or even our parents were. Our children and grandchildren 
will differ likewise, and the organic world around them will 
be different. If we go further back, each century would 
differ, and yet through all these periods the same old-fashioned 
criminal law has been in force. Nothing more unscientific 
can be imagined. The intellectual or deficient neurotic sports 
of to-day require different treatment from that given to the 
physically fit, rough and ready, criminals of a hundred years 
ago. 

The body of the child has never been the body of the parent. 
It is a new body, built up from different surroundings ; hence 
it is quite clear that as the environment varies so does the 
individual. 

Changes may also occur from ante-natal causes, such as 
unequal division of the sperm and ovum. This may act either 
quantitatively or qualitatively and is of wide application 
psychologically. 

The ^ human being resembles a plum pudding in which the 

" Plum flour and butter are contributed by" one party, the spice and 

Pudding " f r^i^ |3y another. How the pudding turns out depends on a 

variety of conditions ; one ingredient may be in excess and 

another deficient. Throughout the process the pudding is a 

victim and not a free agent. 

We find an exact explanation of the criminal in what takes 
place with a pudding which evolves differently from what we 
expected. The pudding has turned out an anomaly, like a 
cat without a tail, or like a rabbit with one ear lopped, or a 
flower with a double crown. 

The analogy may be extended further, for there is the 
structural or anatomical part of the pudding ; in addition 
there are latent or chemical and, we might say, the functional 
parts also. So the form and character of the pudding is like 
the human offspring, largely a matter of luck and chance. 

Such causes as soil, climate, nutrition, and domestication 
act upon plants and animals, as new conditions through fresh 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 31 

combinations. I will cite a few well-conducted experiments in 
illustration. 

Schmannkewitch ^ thought he had produced a new species 
of the crustacean, Artemia salina. A dam broke at Odessa, 
and some of these animals were washed into a very salt pool ; 
the future generations became diminished in size and in their 
tail appendages. They then resembled a species called 
Artemia Muhlhausenii, which are only met with in very salt 
waters. Bateson showed this to be a variation, and not a 
separate species, for when they are put back into ordinary sea 
water they resume the larger size. Is there not a parallel 
here between free country Kfe and slum life ? 

The effect of nourishment is shown by the custom of certain 
South American natives who feed their green parrots on the fat of 
large Silurian fish, with the result that the plumage changes from 
green to brilliant red and yellow. Those who are accustomed to 
breed caterpillars can cite several cases where diet and climate 
affect the colour of moths. In the case of one of the CJielonia, 
lettuce makes them white ; belladonna leaves, on the other hand 
make the upper wings black or white, whilst the lower become 
blue or yellow. 

Coste observed that if the eggs of salmon trout were devel- 
oped in waters which nourished the ordinary white trout, they 
changed to a paler colour. 

Climate everywhere affects both plants and animals. Dar- 
win records finding rabbits at Porto Santo much smaller than 
the European types. They were supposed to have been carried 
there in 1419 a.d. He brought some to the Zoo, and in four 
years they grew in size and colour like the ordinary grey wild 
rabbit of this country. 

Lamarck and Darwin considered that variations produced by 
conditions of Hfe were passed on to future generations. It is 
not found to be so, unless the same conditions are continued. 

From the facts just quoted we derive practical encourage- 
ment to place degenerated man under regenerating conditions. 

Though Darwin, Huxley and others laid a very secure 
foundation on which to build by further more prolonged 
investigation, we often have had to differ from their inferences. 

^ Bateson's work on Variation, p. 96. 



32 



EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 



Naegeli ^ upset the former opinions as to variation. He 
collected from the mountains, for thirteen years, different 
varieties of Hieracium (2,500 in all), and sowed them in or 
transplanted them to the Botanical Gardens of Munich. The 
forms, which were diminutive owing to their harsh surroundings, 
at once developed, growing into larger plants which showed 
good flowers. 

When variations occur due to surrounding conditions, there 
is a great tendency to sterility, as if nature desired to have 
a clean slate. The higher the organism, the more sensitive 
it is to variation, and the more unstable, hence the more 
likely to get destroyed and thus end the variation. In the 
human race natural sterilization would produce visible effects 
in time, were it not for the persistence of the cause of such 
an endless supply. 

We observe how pines, which are giants in the Swiss valleys, 
gradually decrease in size as we ascend to the 8,000 feet level. 
The same tree, instead of rising 80 to 100 feet, will only rise 
to 5 or 10 feet. Again, far north in Norway, the silver birch, 
such a favourite to artists, grows no larger than a currant 
bush. Reverse the conditions, and you regain the normal 
size, form and beauty. 



Simile to 
our 

Storm- 
Tossed 
Criminals 



It is exactly the same with a large number of our criminals. 
They cannot stand the storms and stress of life, and are there- 
fore stunted morally. Many of those who have fallen would 
be capable of occupying positions of trust, if other conditions 
had been properly adjusted. These conditions are not easy 
to fulfil. The Salvation Army are nothing if they are not 
practical, and they feel that there is great danger of many of 
their converts falling if they communicate with their old 
" pals." Some may use this as an argument against the genuine- 
ness of their conversion, but it only demonstrates the great 
weakness of human nature, from which, unfortunately, not 
one of us is exempt. Therefore it is that when the Salvation 
Army restore a man to his own normal self, they find that in 
this convalescence from crime he must be cared for as much 
as a convalescent from disease, or a storm-beaten shrub. 

Their principle of restoring the criminal by giving him more 
1 Bot. Zeit. 1885. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 33 

normal surroundings is the facsimile of Naegeli's experiments 
just quoted. 

Ordinary conditions of marriage do also help by dilution 
to regenerate the race, efface taints, and correct errors. 

Dr. Yves Delage expresses his views well in the following Dr. 

sentence : " Regeneration does what it can, how it can, and 2^^^^® °" 
. , , . -r . . -, . . Regenera- 

with whatsoever it can. It is neither a repetition nor a tion 

special force in certain elements to meet certain accidental 
wants. It is only the manufacture of the forces of growth of 
an organism, which deploys its energy according to the con- 
ditions which it meets at every point and at each moment." ^ 

It seems as if environment were more important than 
heredity in the life of the individual. 

Haeckel attributes resemblances to heredity, and differences 
to environment. The all-important question is in relation to 
the transmission of characters acquired by the parent. We 
have seen that they continue, if the same conditions endure, 
and that is as far as we can go. 

Mutilations, such as amputations, or blindness, are not 
transmitted, but diseases may be, especially where the nervous 
system is involved. The tendency to certain diseases is also 
transmitted, through some inherent weakness in the germ plasm. 

Haeckel formulated a law which he entitled " homochrone," 
by which certain changes occurred at certain periods during 
life-time, as in the parent. This is a matter of common obser- 
vation in the plumage of birds. Amongst ourselves we see 
certain mental, nerve, or physical diseases, as insanity, paralysis, 
gout, phthisis, apoplexy, or heart disease, occur at the same 
age as in the parents. The wheel of misfortune turns auto- 
matically, and beyond individual control. 

We have, however, much to learn, and observations are 
supplied as abundantly by the laity as by the specialist. We 
cannot explain how some variations persist so as to become 
a species. As an example there is the peculiar crest of the 
Houdan fowl, which appears with certain regularity. So also 
as to many other breeds of animals. In Paraguay there are 
bulls without horns, and Haeckel traced them to a common 
ancestry in 1770, from one sohtary hornless bull whose parent 
^ L'Heredite, p. 110. 

D 



34 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

had horns. This hornless bull was evidently a sport, similar to 
many criminals, genii and others, desirable and undesirable, 
who crop up unexpectedly in families and are also sports. 
Their like may be as unknown in ancestry as the hornless bull 
or the thornless acacia. The latter is also a sport, but unstable, 
as it can only be propagated by grafts. If its seeds be raised 
the plants revert to the thorned acacia {Robinia pseudo-acacia). 
M. Descemet in 1803 found in his garden at St. Denis a 
solitary thornless acacia growing amongst many ordinary 
trees with thorns. Let us fully realize that if such happens 
in every department of nature there is nothing very remarkable 
in the occurrence of these accidents in human families. This 
thornless sport was unstable, forming only a variety. It was 
called Robinia spectabilis, and never made a species, thus differ- 
ing from the hornless buU. Our sports, good and bad, by 
healthy marriage on the same lines ought to have normal 
offspring. This is just what we find, and is our hope with 
criminal sports, if we at the same time can change their sur- 
roundings. They are unstable varieties, and not stable species 
disjointed from their ancestors ; hence our hopes for their 
improvement. 

Are It concerns our subject more to ascertain if mental characters 

Mental ^^ transmitted. We know that nerve diseases appear in 
ters certain families with great precision. 

It is generally admitted, though denied by some, that psy- 
chological characters become hereditary, such as the degree 
of intelligence, artistic aptitudes, and various vices and virtues, 
as if they had their molecular equivalent in the germ plasm. 
It does not follow that a naturally vicious parent, who by 
effort becomes virtuous, will hand on his virtue to his progeny. 
Probably it is otherwise, which explains how often apparently 
good parents have bad children. The converse unfortunately 
does not so often appear, as the natural tendency of man is 
downwards. But we get encouragement towards self -improve- 
ment, if the opinion of my old anatomy teacher. Professor 
Cossar Ewart, is correct. He says that " Changes in the soma 
(body), beneficial as well as injurious, are reflected in the germ 
cells, and thus indirectly produce variations." 

I watched for some years a case of inherited craving for beer. 



Trans- 
mitted ? 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT 35 

The father was a chronic drunkard for thirty years ; the 
mother, a well developed woman, was an abstainer. The 
children, three girls and one boy, were brought up abstainers. 
Two of the girls when in the vicinity of public houses felt the 
strongest desire to taste beer. The other two children escaped 
this inheritance. Fortunately, through the father's desertion 
and the mother's personality, all grew up and led proper and 
regular lives, and continued abstainers. The three girls were 
weU developed like the mother ; but the boy, who was the 
youngest, was stunted, which corresponds with the experiments 
already reported. 

Cases of collateral heredity are very striking, and fall under 
the experience of us aU. Thus I know of a young man, an actor, 
to the grief of his parents, who during his childhood carefully 
guarded him against any such tendencies. I found on inquiry 
that a paternal uncle is an actor, but the youth had never met 
his uncle ; also when very young he used to build and decorate 
a stage and perform with dolls on it. His father is an artist, 
and a paternal uncle and grandfather were likewise artists. We 
can only infer that he had an inherited artistic tendency. 

There are many other cases where genius, tubercle, insanity 
or amorality is hidden in a parent but visible in an uncle or 
great uncle or cousin, possibly not in the grandparent. This 
shows that the taint is somewhere in the blood, or more correctly 
in the germinal matter, and occurs as a pathological accident. 

Archibald Reid says the child is a recapitulation of the parent, 
but may add or subtract. He terms it progressive or regressive 
variation. Progressive is a divergence from the ancestral 
type, while regressive is a reversion towards the ancestral 
type. He is also a supporter of dormant tendencies, which 
both Darwin and Galton have disproved. 

Reid says ancestors are not represented en masse, but in 
orderly succession from first to last. While he does not beheve 
in discrete ancestral units, he considers that dormant tenden- 
cies explain reversion to a remote ancestor. Though Reid is 
opposed in many important matters by recent research, his 
opinions and writings are very interesting on many of these 
obscure subjects. 

Emerson arrived at the same opinion by observation, for he 
said " every man is a quotation from his ancestors." 



CHAPTER V 
PREPOTENCY 

DEFINITION : Increased by inbreeding — The Jews — Their foresight and wisdom 

—The Quakers— The Gipsy race. GALTON'S RESEARCHES : Sports 

or variations — Romanes' theory of physiological selection — Old English 
families — Aristocracy — Classes and masses — Must have classes PRE- 
POTENCY ACCENTUATES DISEASE OR DEGENERACY : The race- 
horse too much inbred — Other examples of inbreeding — The foxhound 
— The hog : Mr. Low's observations — The purer the parent the 
more prepotent — Cossar Ewart's experiments with dogs — Sir E. Mil- 

lais' experiments with dogs — Experiments with ducks. THE MASSES 

MORE BLESSED THAN THE CLASSES : Nature dislikes inbreeding 
and ends it by sterility — Experiments by Vernon with sea-urchins — Cossar 
Ewart's case of a rabbit with young — Nutrition important in human race 
when inbreeding, 

Prepo- Prepotency is the term applied to that increased power of 
Defini- transmitting the pecuharities of the parent to the offspring, 
tion It appKes to either male or female parent, and in the human 

race probably to mental quahties. It is a subject which has at- 
tracted much attention among biologists. Darwin recognized 
its complexity, and we are but httle further enlightened. 
Darwin ^ also noted a prepotency in sex qualities. This seems 
justified by the predominance of sons in one family and 
of daughters in another ; or the special traits and features 
of one parent may be more frequently transmitted. Some 
species of animals are more prepotent than others. Thus the 
ass when mated with the mare passes its characters to its 
offspring, the mule ; the prepotency runs more strongly 
through the male than by the female ass. 

Cossar Ewart ^ and others maintain that inbreeding in- 
creases prepotency, whilst inter-crossing diminishes it. For 
this reason the Jews as a race are more prepotent than the 
Grentiles, The Jews are inbred for some thousands of years, 
whilst the British and Americans are the grossest mongrels 
of any race. What large f amihes the Jews have is conspicuous, 

^ The Origin of Species, ch. ix. 
2 The Penycuik Experiments, 

3S 



PREPOTENCY 37 

and, considering the care and wisdom shown even amongst 
the poor Jews in family matters, it is little wonder that they 
look as if they would re-people the earth. 

Prepotency was a marked feature among the Society of 
Friends, amongst whom there was a great deal of intermarriage 
due to their social isolation, and large families of ten or twelve 
were quite usual. Now that they are mixing with the world, 
they are much less fertile. 

The gipsies afford an interesting example of prepotency ; 
seldom marrying outside their own caste, they seem to retain 
their special characteristics even though scattered all over the 
world, often in small isolated groups. There are more than 
hah a miUion in Europe. They first appeared in West Europe 
in 1418. Mr. Charles Rolleston informs me that he has 
resided in South India, in a district where gipsies mustered in 
large numbers. He held an appointment in the Sundoor terri- 
tory in the Deccan and had the opportunity of studying their 
ways and their dialect. He regards them as representing a 
" degenerate heredity." Born among rocks and thickets, they 
are wanderers, nomadic, without ambition, energy, or even 
moral sense. Nor have they ever produced a statesman, 
artist, soldier, sailor or merchant, although they have had 
the same chances of advancement as the ordinary population 
among whom they hved. Though devoid of all moral obhga- 
tions to those outside their caste, they have very strict rules 
regulating their conduct and dealings with each other. In 
whatever part of the globe we meet them, their pecuharities, due 
to their inbreeding, always persist. This is so conspicuous 
that " gipsy-blood " can always be detected, even amongst the 
weU-to-do classes ; which occasionally occurs where individuals 
abandon their gipsy customs and pursuits, and blend with the 
ordinary population. 

Galton considers that very high prepotency is not normal, Galton's 
" but must rank as a heritable sport or aberrant variation." ^^" i^ 
(See Nature, July 14, 1898.) ^^^'^ ^ 

Some sports or varieties, however, must be prepotent in 
order to survive : otherwise, by intercrossing, they would 
revert to the type from which they had sprung. 

Wild animals especially are liable to inbreeding ; yet those 



38 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

which roam and fight are liable to be broken up into smaller 
companies, and receive fresh blood in consequence. 

Mr. Romanes considered that, in addition to natural selection 
and the survival of the fittest, there must be something in 
the nature of " physiological selection " by which new species 
or variations could isolate themselves from the general mass, 
and resist the effect of inter-crossing which would tend to 
throw them back to the ancestral type. 

A somewhat similar process must occur among the different 
human races in order to build up some of our important 
families, to whom have been allotted the terms " old " or 
" aristocratic." There is then a law of nature, or of physio- 
logy, at the back of the " Classes " ; hence, the " Masses," in 
seeking to destroy the select few, are fighting against nature, 
which is always a losing game. The only method which has 
proved successful has been by massacres or revolutions, and 
there is no country which has benefited by the experiment. 
The result of such operations has been in every case a steady 
national degradation. 

In modern times we have the several Royal trees in Europe, 
some more durable than others, and some degenerating. 

Prepo- While prepotency is necessary for ensuring a pure race 

Accentu- ^^ stock by stamping special characters, it also accentuates 
ates weaknesses and lowers the vitahty. This is very conspicuously 

P'^^ff®^'^ seen in the case of animals, especially the race-horse,^ which 
racy. is a delicate animal and only equal to occasional outbursts 

of energy. It is seen also in dogs, where often the purer the 
race the less is the intelHgence. 

Mr. Low, in his work on the domesticated animals of Great 
Britain, gives many illustrative cases. The Foxhound is an 
example of inbreeding. He has indicated also the evil effects 
of too much inbreeding in the case of hogs. Their bristles 
became hair, the limbs short and feeble, the mothers could 
not raise their young, which were often monstrosities, and 
finally Nature protested by rendering them sterile. 

The purer, or more inbred, the parent, the more prepotent 
that parent will be. ^ Cossar Ewart demonstrated this fact 

1 Sir Walter Gilbey On Breeding Carriage Horses and Race Horses. 

2 Loc. cit. 



PREPOTENCY 39 

by an experiment in crossing a Dalmatian with a pedigree 
collie bitch. Dalmatians are inbred, and the sire cast his 
peculiarities into his offspring, for the three pups had large 
blotches on a white ground, and the colhe was not even 
represented. 

Sir Everett Millais ^ hkewise crossed a bloodhound with a 
tricoloured basset. The offspring were bassets in form, but 
not in colour. Crossing these by male bassets, which resembles 
a first cousin marriage, the offspring returned to pure bassets. 

But another experiment shows how the offspring may 
cast back to the grandparents. A duck, the offspring of a 
black Cayuga drake crossed with a common wild duck, was 
mated to a common wild drake, and had seventeen duckHngs. 
Of these seven were Hke the more prepotent sire, but ten 
were thrown back to resemble the grandfather, who was a 
black drake. We can apply these results practically in study- 
ing any family tree. 

It is seen, alas, in the human race, where insanity, or some 
special disease comes as a bhght in a good stock. In some 
of these prepotent families, especially where cousin marriages 
prevail, we can foretell in the younger members the develop- 
ment of certain diseases, usually nerve troubles. 

It is not all bliss to be an aristocrat, or rich in this world's The 
goods. The masses are more blessed than the classes, but they ^^^^ 
do not know it. Nature, whilst permitting, does not prefer Blessed 
prepotency or inbreeding, and by crossing she brings things 
back to mediocrity. Crossing, or new blood, gives vitality 
and strength to body or mind. This is demonstrated in plant 
and animal life beyond all question, and socially gives the 
masses that strength of which at present they are too conscious. 
But inbreeding has its advantages by way of selection, varia- 
tion, and species. If it be fortunate it perpetuates in the 
human race some of the best families, but where it is carried 
too far and ends in degeneracy, which is too conspicuous in 
much of our aristocracy. Nature tries to curtail the series 
by sterility. No family then, can inbreed beyond a certain 
number of generations, any more than the simple infusorian 
mentioned in Chapter III. Fresh blood must be added 
^ Two Problems of Beprod. Our Dogs. 



than the 
Classes 



40 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

from time to time to give vitality and vigour. This is aptly 
demonstrated in the family tree produced, where cousin 
marriages breed idiots, albinos, and neurotics, while fresh 
blood produces children who rank intellectually with any. 

Both in the animal and vegetable world nutrition is a very 
powerful factor in heredity. Experiments were made with 
Echinoderms, or sea urchins {Strongylus), by Vernon, in 
which two species, A and B, were crossed. At the beginning 
of the season one species, A, was unripe, or, in other words, 
its germ cells had not received their full and complete nourish- 
ment. The hybrids then resembled B, which was ripe. As 
the season advanced, and the germ cells of A ripened, the 
hybrids got more like A. 

The same applies to horticulture, when the seed must be 
fully ripened for successful prepotency. 

Cossar Ewart ^ reports an interesting observation, where he 
found a doe rabbit with twelve foeti. The uterus in the 
rabbit is like a double horn, and four of the young were in 
one horn and eight in the other. The four weighed as much 
as the eight, showing that, as each horn has its own artery 
and arrangement of placenta, the same amount of nourish- 
ment was divided among the eight as among the four. In 
consequence, each of the eight weighed half that of any 
of the four occupants in the next compartment of the 
womb. 

Nutrition is a factor of some importance where inbreeding 
is concerned in the human race. Stress, hardship, poverty 
and the storms of life would very soon wreck the prepotency 
of any good family. 

About 200 years ago there was a union between a lady of 
noble birth, A, and a man of an old family, B. 
The issue consisted of five children — 

A son, who was born an idiot. 

A son, who married into another county family with benefit to the 
nation ; and 

A daughter, who married a first cousin, which resulted in a series 
of disasters. 

Two did not marry. 

^ The Penicuik Experiments. 



PREPOTENCY 41 

Let us note that the idiot was the first mishap in B's family ; 
and as insanity and nerve tremors were very rife on the female 
side, A, there was no question as to its source. 

The son, who married a healthy girl, was ancestor to 121 
average or normal children, without any insanity and very 
few cases of nerve tremor. There were — 

10 children . . . .of whom 7 married. 

33 grandchildren . . .of whom 20 married. 

66 great-grandchildren . . of whom 9 are married, and 

12 great-great-grandchildren. 

We now pass to a black page of human wreckage. Nature's 
toll for infringement of her laws is very heavy, and she shows 
no favouritism. By the consanguineous marriage there was 
a preponderance of the wife's family germ plasm, and there- 
fore of insanity and tremors. There were 10 children. 

Nature's toll was — 

2 insane. 
5 with tremors. 
Only 3 were normal. 
(6 married.) 

Two married consanguineously into other branches of the 
maternal tree, A, with disastrous results. Thus — 

1. Eldest son married a cousin. Prepotency by in-breed- 
ing was exceeded by nature's toll, for there were 14 children, 
but all abnormal. 

4 were insane. 

4 had tremors, 

1 committed suicide. 

All were eccentric, and mostly genii. 

There were 60 grandchildren, and 50 great-grandchildren. 
In all 124 descendants. 

They are all more or less tainted — some very clever and 
good — some very bad. 

2, A son also married into a branch of the family A. 
Here again we meet disaster. The first brood was again con- 
spicuous for numbers, namely, thirteen children. Of these 

Only 3 could be passed as normal. 
All were unstable. 

5 had tremors. 
4 were insane. 



42 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

There were 36 grandchildren. Note the decrease of fertility. 
There were few really normal specimens amongst them. 
Many of them acquired wealth by means that were subtle 
rather than shady. 

There were 22 great-grandchildren. In aU 74 descend- 
ants. 

3. A normal daughter married into a normal and aristocratic 
family. 

All blemishes were expelled. There were 5 children, 
16 grandchildren. Observe the decrease in fertility. 

4. A daughter doubtfully sane marries into a family with 
insanity. Here again we meet disaster — 12 children. 

Nature's toU — 

2 idiots. 

1 imbecile (alas, he married). 

2 had tremors. 

3 very unstable. 

One who was unstable married into a healthy family, and 
had 10 normal children. 

The imbecile married into a branch of the family A, with 
increased ill-luck, including : — 

1 idiot. 
1 dixmb. 

7 unstable. 

There were 16 in all, and not one worth anything. 

5. A son with tremors marries into a neurotic family. 
There were 11 children, with 5 insane; 12 grand- 
children. 

6. A daughter with nerve tremors marries into another 
aristocratic family. There were 12 children. 

1 an idiot. 

3 with tremors. 

Otherwise they were normal. 

There were 28 grandchildren, and about 22 great-grand- 
children. 



PREPOTENCY 43 

To sum up (as far as they can be traced). The original 
first cousin marriage resulted in — 

10 children with a toll of 7 disasters. 

67 grandchildren ,, „ 36 disasters. 

168 great-grandchildren „ „ 6 known disasters. 

94 great-great-grandchildren. 

Total 329 

Note how much more prolific and prepotent the cousin 
marriageship became (329 against 126). It has been impos- 
sible for me to collect all the facts as to grandchildren ; there 
are very many unstable specimens amongst them. 

This is a clear demonstration against the policy or profit 
of inbreeding. 



CHAPTER VI 
HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 

Gregor Mendel, the abbot of Brunn. SPECIAL ADVANTAGE OF THE 

SWEET PEA FOR EXPERIMENTS : Peas selected with opposite charac- 
ters — In first generation, offspring intensify one of the parental characters 
— Dominants and Recessives — Second generation — Third generation of 
self-fertilization — Recessives breed recessives — Dominants breed both. 

PROF. BATESON'S RESEARCHES : Gametes and Zygotes— 

Hybrid of tall and short pea — Experiments with peas with three pairs of 
opposite characters — Further possibilities in hybrid variations — Men- 

delism not universal. REVERSION : Germinal units — Each being is 

a living mosaic — The blue Andalusian fowl a hybrid of black and white 

— Experiments with coloured stocks. SPORTS : Chances for offspring. 

HUMAN MONGRELS : Our ancestral units from ten generations 

— Gametes vary, so the progenitor cannot be accountable for his descend- 
ants — Bateson's illustration as to pedigree. RESULT OF GAMETES 

UNION : (i) Resemblance to parent ; (2) Something intermediate ; 
(3) A new form may appear. As example, the cross between white and 

piebald mice. HUMAN SPORTS : De Vries' experiments with the 

evening primrose — Case of mixed pairing, spaniel and setter — A family 

with malformed fingers — Cases of congenital cataract. ADVANTAGE 

OF HEALTHY MARRIAGE : As shown in cases of disease and immunity 
— The case of yellow rust in wheat — Experiments by Mr. Biffen — Applica- 
tion to sociology — Cause of degeneracy — Criminal often a sport — Compare 

with experiments of the stock. GALTON ON AVERAGES : The 

tendency to mediocrity — Sir J. Paget's analysis supports the law of 
mediocrity — Law of regression — Parental gifts rarely transmitted — In 

stature regressive — Dame Nature throws off defects. STABILITY IN 

NEW VARIETIES OR SPECIES : Sports— Stability of type necessary to 

be transmitted — Value of good stock for breeding purposes. IS ALL 

MANKIND ONE SPECIES, OR SEVERAL ? : Three clear types— Variety 

among white races— Families differ. HYBRIDS AMONG SPECIES — 

Mongrels among races — Reversion in cross breeding — One of the " bloods " 
expelled — A new or disordered variation — Hybrids tend to sterility and 
require replenishing — Example in cross between sheep and goat — Man 
is a mongrel — Fertility increased by crossing — Cross with negro — Atavism 
— The pervert and invert due to atavism — Darwin's observations on 
crossing fowls. 

No essay on heredity would be complete without referring 
to the researches of Gregor Mendel, the abbot of Brunn. He 
was born in the year 1822, the son of Silesian peasants, and 
became a priest at the age of twenty-five. He carried out 
a series of investigations in the gardens of the cloister, and 
read important papers in 1854 and 1855 before the Botanical 
Society of Brunn. These works were brought before the 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 45 

scientific world by Professor WiUiam Bateson of Cambridge, 
and more extensively elaborated.^ 

Mendel experimented cbiefly with sweet peas {Pisum sativum), Special 
finding them less liable than most flowers to contamination tage^of 
with foreign pollen, as the keel of the flower covers in the the Sweet 
anthers, and excludes the entrance of most insects. As the g^ejif 
pollen falls on the pistil, there may be an early self-f ertihzation ments 
before the flower is fuUy opened. 

Mendel selected peas which had opposite characters in 
certain details. Altogether he selected seven such pairs, or, 
as he called them. Allelomorphs, and they were as follows : 

1. Shape of the seed, round or angular. 

2. Colour of the cotyledons, yellow or green. 

3. ColoTor of the seed skins, light grey or dark. 

4. Shape of the seed pod, inflated or constricted. 

5. Coloior of the iinripe pod, yellow or green. 

6. Inflorescence. Flowers terminal or on the axis of the stem. 

7. Length of stem, long about 5 feet, short |^ to 1|^ feet. 

Mendel crossed two varieties of peas which differed in 
respect of one of these pairs of characters. In the first genera- 
tion the offspring always showed the character of one parent 
much intensified. Thus where they were long and short 
varieties, the offspring would be 7 to 8 feet long instead 
of 6 feet. He therefore called the prevaihng character, domin- 
ant, and the absent, non-appearing feature, recessive. He 
next crossed these hybrids, and in the second generation there 
appeared with constant regularity 3 dominants to 1 recessive. 

3 D. + l R. 

He carried on the self-fertilization of the hybrids to a third 
generation, and always got a different but uniform result, 
namely : — 

1. That the offspring of the recessives continued pure 
recessives in all future generations. They had thrown out 
the dominant characters. 

2. The offspring of the dominants are split up into : — 

(i) Pure dominants which only breed dominants, 
(ii) Mixed offspring, though with dominant characters, which breed 
like those of the second generation. 

^ MendeVs Principles of Heredity. 



46 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The third generation yields per cent : — 
■■■ -jY 25 Pure Dominants. 

1R ^rT ^^ Mixed Dominants. 
^ -^ 25 Pure Recessives. 

D 

The mixed — work out again in the same fashion, throwing 
R 

out pure recessives and apparent dominants in the proportion 

of IR to 3D. In other words, in each generation half return 

to the pure parental forms and half are mixed in character. 

Prof. Professor Bateson,^ having regard to our present know- 

Bateson's iQ^gQ of fecundation, expresses the subject diagrammatically 
searches by means of black and white squares to represent dominant 
and recessive quaHties. One can attain the same object by 
the use of Roman capitals. Referring to the Chapter III 
on Embryology it will be seen that when ovum and sperm 
unite, or as Mendel styles them two gametes, they form a 
zygote which divides into two daughter cells. Therefore 

each germinal unit is expressed in pairs, thus — -, in which the 

upper letter represents the apparent character. 

We can represent this fertilization of peas in the following 

picture : — 

D R 
D~^^ 

D D 

1st Generation -^ x -^ 

D D D R, 

2nd Generation pure -jT- + mixed ^ + -^ + pure -^ 

The pure continue to breed pure — 

D D 

The mixed^D" ^ ^ repeat in the 

D . , D D R 

3rd Generation pure -jc- + mixed ^ + -^ + pure -^ 

And so on. 
Pure dominants and pure recessives breed pure. 

1 Address to Neurolog. Soc, Brain, cxiv, 1906. 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 47 

If applied practically and a taU variety is crossed with a 
short sweet pea, then the first generation is all tall, showing 

that tallness is dominant, — -. 

R 

The second self -fertilized generation shows three tails to one 
dwarf. The dwarfs or recessives RR when propagated produce 
no more tails, whilst of the three tails, one is pure produc- 
ing no more shorts ; the other two are mixed,-—, the recessive 

R 

quality R being latent or covered. The same process con- 
tinues ; so that the pure forms return to the parental type. 

Mendel crossed plants having 2, 3, or more pairs of 
opposite characters, but the result is too intricate and long 
to quote. As all this bears directly on the variation of indi- 
viduals and families in the human race I will mention that 
from 24 hybrids raised from peas having 3 pairs of opposite 
characters he got 687 seeds and in the following year 
639 fruited plants. There were among them 27 combina- 
tions, some very complicated. I copy the table from 
Bateson's work, merely to impress the imagination with the 
knowledge of such complex arrangements of characters in 
ourselves, with the suggestion that it has a psychological 
application. The letters Aa, Bb, Cc represent the opposite 
characters or allelomorphs ; for example, Aa long versus short, 
and so on. 



iree characters : 


Four characters : 


Five and Six C 


8 ABC 


22 A B C c 


ters : 


14 ABc 


17 AbCc 


45 A B b C c 


9 AbC 


25 a B C c 


36 aBbCc 


11 Abe 


20 a b C c 


38 AaB Cc 


8 aBC 


15 ABbC 


40 A a b C c 


10 a Be 


18 ABbc 


49 A a b B c 


10 abC 


19 aBbC 


78 Aa Bb Cc 


7 ab c 


24 a B b c 
14 AaBC 
18 AaBc 
20 A a b C 
16 Aabc 





The characters A and B in gametes may blend in a zygote, 
or one of the characters, as A, may in the presence of B split 
up into minor integral characters (hypallelomorphs) A^ A^ 



48 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

A^ A^, so that the compound resultant cannot be foreseen. 
One gamete might be B and the other A^, B A^, or B A* 
A2, or B A 4 or B A^ A^ A^ presenting endless possibiKties. 

This we may safely anticipate occurs pretty frequently in 
the complex mysteries of humanity. 

Mendel's theories are not universal in their application, 
but there are other more recent experiments in support of 
it which are worth quoting. 

C. C. Hurst 1 records the results of breeding black and white 
rabbits. Here black was dominant (D). 

In some of the hybrid families of the second generation 
he obtained the usual number of : 

D D D 

and 1 albino -^5- 

While in other famihes he obtained — 

D 

mixed -^ 9 gray 

(pure) -^ 3 black 

(pure) -^ 4 albinos. 

This works out at 3D+1R 

R , D , D , D 

or — 4- — + — H 

R ^ D R ^ R 

which falls in with Mendel's law. 

But some of the blacks may contain white or recessive germs 

and thus throw off some more albinos. The casual observer 

would be struck by apparently pure individuals throwing off 

impure (white) descendants ; the way in which each reader 

can apply this to human families of his acquaintance must 

afford the very greatest interest. 

Rever- In these cases there appears to be a union of a latent invisi- 

sion \yiQ character from one parent, perhaps from each parent, 

and we may regard these hidden units as ancestral. Or 

reversion may be due, according to Bateson, to meetings of 

complementary pairs of factors, which at some time of their 

^ Journ. Linn. Soc, xxix, p. 283. 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 49 



history have lost their complement. It emphasizes the unit 
formation or division of apparently simple characters or 
properties, and it changes the old ideas of heredity, treating 
an individual as a unit. Naudin put forward the theory 
that each individual is a living mosaic, which gives great 
support to the view that the Ego or Personahty is also 
a mosaic. 

Punnett ^ made some useful investigations concerning the 
blue Andalusian fowl, and proved the blueness to be a heterozy- 
gote of pure black, and white with black splashes. 

The blue Andalusian fowl never breeds true, but their 
offspring yield : — 

J pure black, which breed pure black. 

J splashed white, which breed pure splashed white, and 

f blue. 

The blacks, and splashed whites, are then pure or homozy- 

gotes, and when they are paired they yield the blue Andalusian 

fowl. Thus — 

Black X White (homozygotes) 

I 

Blue Andalusian 
(heterozygotes) 

I 

Blue X Blue 

I 



1 Black 
pure 

I 

Continues 
Black 



Blue X Blue 



Pure 
Black 



2 Blues 
Mixed 
or 
(heterozygotes) 



Pixre 
White 



1 White 
pure 

I 

Continues 

White 



The experiment of Professor Bateson with coloured stocks 
will appeal to every student of sociology. He made a hybrid 
of the two following stocks : — 
a red stock which had — 

(a) Red sap, 

(6) Colourless corpuscles. 

a oream stock which had — 

(c) Colourless sap, 

(d) Yellow corpuscles; 



^ See Punnett on Mendelism. 



E 



50 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The red was proved in the first generation to prevail or 
/ be dominant. 

(• / The second generation by self-fertilization showed : — 

D 

It' (1) -jY °^ Dominant 9 reds — pure a b 

(a) Red sap. 

(b) Colourless corpuscles. 

D 

(2) ^p~3 red cream. 

(a) Reid sap. 

(d) Yellow corpuscles. 

R 

(3) ^5- or Recessive 1 pure cream — pure c d 

(c) Coloiirless sap. 

(d) Yellow corpuscles. 

(4) 3 new variations or whites. 

(6) Colourless corpuscles, 
(c) Colourless sap. 
or 3D to IR as before. 

These white varieties, perhaps due to non-development of 
pigment, might be called " sports," but they may be a rever- 
sion to some ancestor. 

We have already seen in plants and animals, and have no 
reason to exclude man, that heredity may produce offspring 
like one or other parent, or a blend of each, or a new form, or 
a reversion to a former ancestor. 

In this way by a study of parents we may form some idea 
of what the children's prospects are, for they are in one sense 
as helpless as the plants we have been discussing. 

Human Are not the Britishers the greatest mongrels in existence ? 

Mongrels Qgjtg^ Normans, Romans, Saxons, Danes, not to mention 
the foreign invasion now commencing of Germans, Swedes, 
Russians, Italians, French and others. The potentiaKties 
of mixed molecules in the germ plasm exceed the imagination. 
Let us see what may happen to each individual in regard 
to his ancestry. 

The first generation travelling backwards represents our parents. 
The second generation backward represents 4 grandparents. 
The third generation backward represents 8 great-grandparents. 
The fourth generation backward represents 16 ancestors. 
The fifth generation backward represents 32 ancestors. 
The sixth generation backward represents 64 ancestors. 
The seventh generation backward represents 128 ancestors. 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MEKDEL 51 

The eighth generation backward represents 256 ancestors. 
The ninth generation backward represents 512 ancestors. 
The tenth generation backward represents 1,024 ancestors. 

We must apply these facts to our population in order to 
unravel the question of individuality and personahty. Mendel 
says the gametes or germinal units of hybrids are different 
at each successive generation, and therefore the progenitor 
cannot be accountable for his descendants, and appUes this 
to the laws of ancient heredity. 

Bateson compares the formation of new varieties to the 
chemical union of sodium and chlorine making common salt, 
which is a new body in no way resembling its " parents." 

By the union of different gametes (perhaps characters), Resultof 
n .1 1, -uj. • Gametic, 

one oi three results may obtain : — Union 

(1) Something may appear Hke either parent, as in the 
cases where the dominant theory appHes. 

(2) An intermediate form may appear. Thus Mendel found 
that hybrids flower at the intermediate period when their 
parents flower at different times, early and late, 

(3) New forms appear, which are quite different from 
the parent, as in the case of a cross between the magenta 
Chinese primrose and the clear white variety, resulting in 
a " washy " magenta. This last condition specially appeals 
to Anthropology or Criminology. 

Variation may be due to some putative ancestor, and 

thus correspond to Darwin's theory of reversion. As an 

instance, if the tame white (albino) mouse be crossed with 

the piebald Japanese, the result is the grey " wild " form. 

These reversionary greys produce : — 

(a) The parental tame types. 
(6) Reversionary greys. 

(c) New types. 

We can infer then what chances there are of some putative Human 
human ancestor asserting himself in a new combination as a Sports 
sport. This theory is rejected by many as incapable of proof, 
but surely what has once entered " the blood " can only be 
ehminated by dilution, not by extinction, and it is a recognized 
fact that whatever variation has once appeared may appear 
in any future generation. 



52 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

In support of this idea De Vries ^ sowed a wild specimen 
of (Enothera Lamarkiana (evening primrose) in the Botanical 
Gardens at Amsterdam, and obtained no fewer than 9 varia- 
tions, all of which must have been represented in a latent 
form. Some of these varieties were stable and formed new 
species, which Bateson terms " discontinuous variations." 
Others reverted to the parental type and were unstable. A 
few were so sickly and weak that they could with difficulty 
be reared. 

Again in the " International series " there is mention of a 
cross between a setter and a spaniel. A male, which resembled 
the setter, was paired with a pure setter, and the offspring 
were spaniels. This case appeared as a reversion, but with 
Mendel's law it is easily explained. 

Similar occurrences frequently crop up in the human race. 
Farabee ^ quotes a family in Pennsylvania where several 
members had 2 phalanges instead of the normal number (3) in 
the fingers and toes. This malformation was a dominant char- 
acter. Those with normal fingers were recessives and their 
offspring were hkewise normal ; while the dominants alhed 
in marriage to normal individuals produced some recessives 
or normals and some dominants. 

The summing up of the offspring showed : 

36 Dominants or abnormals and 
33 Recessives or normals 
from 14 abnormal parents. 

This shows that marriage so far corrects defects as to give 
equal chances for normal results. 

Mr. Nettleship ^ reported three families affected with con- 
genital cataract, and the offspring of the abnormals yielded : 

26 affected with cataract, 

and 29 not affected with cataract, 

showing again even chances for the future generatioij. 

Advan- The inference is that if physical defects are thus cut out 

Heathy ^^ *^® offspring there is hope for nerve and mental defects. 
Marriages 

^ Die Mutationstheorie, 1901, H. de Vries. 

* Papers Peabody, Mus. Amer. Arch., 1905, p. 69. 

* Bep. Boy. Lond. Ophth. Hosp., xvi, pt. iii, p. 23. 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 53 

perhaps vices also, being reduced in the same ratio by healthy- 
marriage. Probably the ratio will be more favourable if the 
environment be carefully studied, which is a scientific argument 
in favour of suitable emigration 

As regards disease and immunity from disease, we can bring 
forward cases by way of illustration. Consumption enters 
a family, say by the mother, and carries off those children which 
follow the maternal type. The same applies to mental disease, 
and, though we cannot always trace it, perhaps also to moral 
disease. This method of examination is but very seldom 
resorted to. During many years of general practipe I was 
struck with this fact, and while giving comfort and assurance 
to the one type would carefully guard the children built after 
the style of the affected parent. Though I style it as inherited 
disease, it may be more correct to say an inherited tendency 
to disease. Here again we fall back on botany and biology 
for a basis on which to rear the Temple to Hygeia. Thus 
some kinds of wheat are liable to attacks of yellow rust {Puc- 
cinia glumarum), other kinds are almost immune, although 
they may grow side by side. Here we have two Mendehan 
aUelomorphic characters : 

1. Predisposition to rust, and 

2. Immunity therefrom. 

Let us substitute the word tubercle for rust, and see if it does 
apply to the human family, for with this knowledge by careful 
intermarriage we might improve the race against tubercle. 

At present we are in a state of confusion and can only think 
of isolation with a view to extermination of individuals. In 
this matter a State Marriage Bureau would greatly assist. 

The experiments of Mr. Biffen^ at Cambridge have not as 
yet been encouraging. He crossed two wheats, one which 
was quite immune from rust with another which was very 
liable to rust. The first generation were aU rusty, showing 
that rust-weakness was the dominant character. The breeding 
of these hybrids produced in the second generation just what 
one would predict, namely, three rusty plants to one immune. 
Immunity was the recessive quahty and remained pure. These 
experiments are capable of enlargement, and may then enhghten 

* R. H. Biff en. Jour. Agric. Sci., 1905. 



Galton on 
Averages 



54 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

us on the subjects of tubercle and insanity, suggesting artificial 
selection in marriage. 

This is a most useful illustration for sociology and crimino- 
logy of how two unharmonizing units may come together, 
and produce degeneracy, or even lay the seed of the criminal 
or the insane. 

I have so frequently found the criminal to be a " sport "; the 
only one out of a large family group, and no special cause to 
be traced. Supposing we hken a father to the red stock and 
that he be intellectual, but " naturally " lazy : this last quality 
to correspond to the colourless corpuscles. He may by the 
instinct of self-preservation rise to a good social position. 
The mother let us say is vain amidst many fine quahties which 
conceal the defect. The vanity corresponds to the colourless 
sap in the cream stock. Nothing therefore can be even whis- 
pered against the parents, yet a son may be a criminal. The 
Judge would consider he merited more punishment than a simi- 
lar criminal in humbler circumstances. But the psychologist, 
who builds on natural sciences, views the subject from a 
totally different standpoint. Many cases of this character are 
constantly passing before us. 

Sir Francis Galton has written a very interesting book on 
Natural Inheritance. It is full of statistics, tables and mathe- 
matical calculations as to averages, but it is not biological. 
He has made a large number of observations and has formulated 
various laws and general conclusions. He finds there is in 
famihes and groups a tendency to mediocrity. Thus if 
one parent be very taU and the other very short, the offspring 
will not be either very tall or very short, but the majority of 
them will be of average height. 

As an example Sir James Paget investigated the careers 
of 1,000 of his pupils and divided them into five classes, 
thus : 



Distinguished .... 


28 


Considerable attainments . 


80 


Moderate or mediocre 


. 616 


Very limited success . 


. 151 


Failure ..... 


. 125 



Galton formulated a law of Regression, which puts a 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 55 

" succession tax " on offspring, and tells heavily against the 
transmission of any hereditary gift. 

As we often observe, the more bountifully a parent is gifted 
the more rare it is for him to beget a child equal to himself. 

The children of gifted parents may, however, be more gifted 
than those of mediocre parents. Galton says " the ablest of 
all the children of a few gifted pairs is not likely to be as gifted 
as the ablest of all the children of a very great many mediocre 
pairs." 

In matters of stature Galton finds there is a regressive tend- 
ency from parent to child, and the same as to finer qualities. 
But Nature is just, and on the same plan tries to throw out 
defects and badness in the progeny. Cancer, tubercle and 
mental disease, may be taken as types of this, for in families 
so affected the offspring are either badly affected or throw it 
off altogether. 

Galton insisted that stability is the factor in new Stability 

varieties, or as Bateson terms them " discontinuous varia- |" ^.^^ 
' Varieties 

tions," which in reahty are new species and therefore do not of 
apply to the human problem, Bateson invented the term Species 
" continuous variation " to describe the individual differences, 
or characters, observed among the members of one family, 
or if speaking of the lower creation among any particular 
species. 

Where a new variety or species appears, if it be stable it 
wiU not blend easily with other forms. 

" Sports " are found to be unstable, but are " often trans- 
mitted to successive generations with curious persistence," 
due, as Delage says, to the same environment continuing. 

Anything that deviates from the central type, or typical 
centre, is in proportion unstable. Stability of type is an 
important factor in the general theory of heredity. Mediocrity 
is however the commonest condition, and as apphed to 
humanity we see that all children tend to it. 

Galton illustrates the value of good stock to breed from 
in this way. He suggests two couples naturally alike, one 
couple is made of two gifted members of a poor stock, while 
the other is quite ordinary but belongs to a gifted stock. The 
children of the former couple will regress, whereas those of the 



56 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

latter will not regress. Galton thinks that ancestors contri- 
bute very little to the individual. He takes as example the 
descendants of " pedigree wheat." The first generations are 
large, but after a few generations the wheat loses all the 
ancestral quality of largeness, but this has been explained 
by the Mendelian theory already described. 

Is all Many who are interested in this question will inquire whether 

Mankind ]\/[ankind now represents one original species or several species. 
Species or There used to be two schools, those who believed in the former 
Several ? theory, or Monogenism, while the second supposition or Poly- 

genism has still its supporters. 

There certainly seem to be three clear types among the 

human races : 

The black or negroid, 
The yellow, and 
The albinos. 

It is doubtful if external or geographical conditions will change 
a negro to a white, or a white to a yellow man, or vice versa. 
By artificial means the black pigment melanin can be bleached 
in the negro : while if white skin be grafted on a negro it 
turns black and vice versa. 

The Jews, I am told by one of the fraternity, develop a re- 
semblance to the people they settle amongst. Thus there 
are negro Jews, Chinese and Japanese Jews, and European 
Jews and so forth. In Europe they certainly become national- 
ized if they dwell long enough, as we observe in travel. Since 
I received this information I have noticed many Jewish ladies, 
who have ordinary English features and seem to have lost 
the Jewish type. As the Jews have come to stay, it would 
be of great advantage to both parties, but especially to the 
English, if they would blend in marriage. 

The globe is peopled with varieties of these types according 
to the older investigators, but the modern ethnologist is pursu- 
ing research by more subtle and delicate methods. 

If we take a flock of sheep, to us they seem aHke, but 
to a shepherd each is different. If we could look on all 
the white races collectively from a baUoon they would 
appear alike. How different is the reality! What resem- 



HEREDITY— VIEWS OF GREGOR MENDEL 57 

blance is there between the French and the German and 
the Russian, or between either the EngKsh or the Scots ? 
And when we take our own people what difference there is 
between famihes ! What variation also we find in families : 
some become sterile in one or two generations, others can 
raise only sons or only daughters ; and few can show a tree 
of more than 300 to 400 years duration. 

Thirty years ago it was considered that the term hybrid Hybrids 
should be applied to crossing between species, and the term s^des 
mongrel when the cross was between families or races of the 
same species. 

We have seen how the crossing of hybrid plants (peas) tends 
to a partial reversion to the original parents in each gener- 
ation. There appears a complete rupture between the physio- 
logical connection of the two species in some of these descend- 
ants, and one of the two "bloods " is expelled. But some of the 
descendants of the hybrids persist, while others differ from 
the hybrid parents. This was styled by M. Naudin ^ as 
" disordered variation," and the fact may be well applied to 
what occurs in the human race in explaining degenerate stock. 

In animals there is a tendency to sterihty amongst hybrids, 
and this factor is seized by older writers in order to distinguish 
mankind as made up of races and not species. Thus the 
mule is a sterile hybrid, while other experiments show that 
hybrids if replenished from one parental stock keep up fertility. 

In South America, for the sake of procuring a better fleece, 
the goat and sheep are crossed, and the hybrid must be re- 
crossed to keep up the breed (chabins). To be successful 
there must be | paternal and f maternal blood. 

But man is a mongrel split up into races, consequently when 
the races are crossed f ertihty is increased. The British nation 
thereby gets more backbone, and though we may deeply 
regret the present foreign invasion, our descendants may profit 
by it a few generations hence. 

Many observations have been made in America of crosses 
between whites and negroes with a resulting increase of fer- 
tility. If the negro were a different species the hybrids would 
be more or less sterile. There is then in the mongrel a physio- 
1 Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., xix, 4. 



58 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

logical union of all the germinal parts of one species. If there 
is a throw back to an early ancestor we call it " atavism.'* 
It is not a complete reversion, as in the above case, to a perfect 
sheep or perfect goat. There is a general resemblance to the 
one species, but a variation in some special detail. Thus we 
can explain the moral and mental pervert, or invert, as a 
throw back or atavism on our more savage ancestors. 

Darwin observed a case where the crossing of the Malay 
fowl had been pursued for forty years, and yet after that 
long period pure Malays were occasionally thrown out ; so 
it is not much wonder if some of us throw back to what our 
ancestors were five, ten, or even fifty generations ago. 



CHAPTER VII 
REFLEX ACTION 

An element of inaccuracy in all physiological experiments. THE NERVOUS 

SYSTEM, CELLS, AND FIBRES : The cells vary— Microscopic— Grey 
matter — Insulated Nerves — Nerves in all animals — The sea anemone 
— Reflex action defined — In the worms — Sensory cells, motor cells — 

Resemblance to the telephone — The spinal cord. THE SCRATCH 

REFLEX IN A FROG : Cells in spinal cord to connect up sensory and 
motor groups of cells — The antagonism of muscles as in drawing up the 
leg or foot — ^When flexors contract the extensors relax — Tonus — Walking 
movements — In the scratch reflex in a dog while one limb scratches, the 
three other limbs rigidly fix the body — Comparison with telephone sys- 
tem. THE NEURON : At least three neurons in reflex action. A 

neuron includes cell, dendrons, and axon — Grey matter in spinal cord — 
Sensory cells or receptors — Motor cells — Neurons not connected — Ter- 
minals may be in membranes — Terminals may have amoeboid movement 

— Synapses cause a delay — The delay in the grey matter. REPEATED 

SLIGHT STIMULI ACCUMULATE IN INTENSITY : Many stimuli enter, 
but only one exit in any reaction — Therefore more sensory or afferent 
nerves than motor or efferent nerves — Example in writing — Or in skilled 
acts — Inhibition — One reflex may oppose another — As in walking where 
opposing muscles are inhibited — The nervous system is one mechanism — 
Sympathetic pains — Fatigue — Occurs in reflex nerve centre, not in 

the muscle. BOTH WE AND THE LOWER ANIMALS ARE BUILT 

IN SEGMENTS : * Example in the divided bee — The frog and its matri- 
monial choice — Lower consciousness in insects, etc. THE SEAT OF 

THE EMOTIONS : Removal of cerebral hemispheres — Emotions are 
primarily stored in mid-brain or stem — Emotions at first reflex for sudden 
calls of defence — And on a lower neural plane — Must be reinforced from 
the upper brain or cortex — The philosopher's view of emotion confirmed 

— Emotion not visceral — Happiness in the higher cerebral plane. 

THE OBJECT OF A NERVOUS SYSTEM. INSTINCT AND INTELLI- 
GENCE : Four degrees : (i) Innate instinct without experience ; (2) In- 
stinct and slight experience ; (3) Instinct with capacity to learn ; (4) In- 
telligence. 

To make the most complex subject in science intelligible 
to the laity is so difficult, that I must plead for toleration 
from the physiologist and ask to be spared from harsh criticism 
in the free handhng of abstruse technicalities. The physiolo- 
gist must not forget that the accuracy of many of our most 
careful observers has been found wanting in a large number 
of cases. So much is this the case that experiments on animals 



60 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

hardly merit the importance that has been attributed to 
them.^ They carry us only part of the way and no further, for 
there are so many subtle factors which cannot possibly be 
discounted. The personal equation in all physiological experi- 
ments makes or mars the result. If a thousand observers 
add a solution of common salt to one of nitrate of silver, there 
can be but one result, whatever the dilution or environment 
of the substances, whether single or in combination. Far 
different is it where a galvanic instrument is placed on a 
particular convolution of the brain, or if a portion of the 
brain be removed or destroyed. There is much source of 
error from the fact that the convolutional pattern of the 
brain varies even in the same species, while one operator 
may be less skilful and damage parts of the subtle machine 
without being conscious of it. Above all things, I have from 
observation been struck with the difference in descriptive 
powers of those anxious to portray successful results. I 
have, however, selected very carefully from both experiments 
and observations, and am confident that the material collected 
wiU be as good in twenty years as to-day. 

The The nervous system consists primarily of cells and fibres. In 

^Tm^ this it resembles the Telegraph and Telephone systems. 

Cells and The cells vary in shape and size and function. Some are 

Fibres. round like granules, some are pyramidal looking, triangular 

in section, others take on various angular processes. They 

are all quite microscopic, invisible to the naked eye, but when 

collected in masses cause a buff colour, which we call the grey 

matter ! The fibres like the wires of the telegraph conduct 

nerve motion. 

^ It is unfortunately necessary for physiologists and pathologists 
to resort to experiments on living animals. It is, however, qtiite 
unjustifiable to perform experiments for purposes of demonstration 
in girls' colleges, as happens in London ; where operations are per- 
formed anaesthetics must be used, and animals need not thereby suffer. 
The statements by anti-vivisectionists are mostly untrue or contortions of 
what may have occtirred years ago in Continental laboratories. It is 
inconsistent for an anti-vivisectionist to hunt and shoot for sport poor 
innocent animals which have a right to Hve, and this is of frequent 
occurrence. Such is actual cruelty. The physiologist is working for 
humanity, not for personal pleasure. In daily practice we save lives 
by the knowledge so gained. 







tib/ ' 



A Purkinje cell, illustrating the receivers or dendrons branching above, and the 

axon or single fibre of exit below. 

Kindly lent by Dr. Mott. 



Facing page 60. 







} 
^ >. 






^■^B 




/f' t V. 




To illustrate nerve cells and fibres. 
Kindly lent by Dr. Mott. , 



Facing page 61. 



REFLEX ACTION 61 

They are insulated, probably to avoid confusion or leakage 
of nerve motion, but principally because the insulating material 
is rich in phosphorus and keeps the fibre in healthy vitahty. 
The fibres carry impressions to and from the nerve cells ; some 
convey impressions from the outer world, some from other 
cells, others, as a result, carry motor impulses to various 
parts of the body. 

Even the lowest animals are believed to be provided with 
nerves. Wherever muscular movements occur we would logic- 
ally expect to find nerves directing those muscles. Every one 
must know how the sea anemone at the slightest touch with- 
draws its beautiful petal-hke tentacles and closes up. This 
simple act exemphfies aU nerve mechanisms and is the fore- 
runner of the intricate processes of thought in man. We call 
this action reflex. 

In the sea anemone it occurs from an impulse carried by 
a nerve fibre along a feeler or tentacle to a central nerve 
cell, thence to the muscles, which in turn contract the tentacles 
and close up the anemone. This is the meaning of the word 
reflex ; nerve motion which is bent back or reflected within 
the body. The reaction is not quite so simple, as will be 
seen, in higher animals. In the worm, which is covered with a 
thin coating of horny material, there are dehcate nerve fibres 
and " terminals " which carry sensation to sensory ceUs. These 
latter send out impulses to motor cells, which cause the muscles 
to contract. 

Thus at once we begin to specialize between ceUs varying 
in function. 

We depend on reflex mechanisms for our very existence. 
Thus if dust impinge on the sensitive surface of the eye, the 
muscles of the lids are called upon to close tightly and with 
rapidity, squeezing the tears from the lachrymal gland to 
wash away the particle. Again, when food reaches the back 
of the tongue it is beyond control, and the act of swallowing 
is then reflex. 

So is the secretion of sahva. Stimulating impulses of taste 
and smeU travel to the blood-vessels of the gland, causing a flow 
of sahva, which is prepared from the blood by the gland 
cells (see diagram). 



62 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Jhe , Let us as an example consider the scratch reflex. Thus 

ScTci ten 

Reflex in if ^ decapitated frog were tickled on the left flank, it would 
a Frog raise the left hind leg to scratch, but if the irritation were 
continued, it might raise the opposite or right foot, bringing it 
across to scratch. It would even scratch with its forefeet 
if the irritation continued. In this comparatively simple 
process, the tickhng sensation of the flank is carried to sensory- 
cells, at the hincjer part of the spinal cord. Here the nerve 
fibre breaks up into branches and gives stimuli to other " con- 
necting " or " reflex " cells in the cord, which call into play 
certain groups of motor cells. These latter send impulses to 
the muscles which perform the complex act of scratching. 
Thus the thigh must be flexed or drawn up ; the leg, likewise, 
is flexed and rotated, while the muscles to the toes also have 
their duties. But if that foot cannot remove the irritation 
of the skin, the intensity of the stimulus causes an increase 
or overflow of nerve energy to cross to the opposite side of the 
spinal cord, and invoke the motor cells and muscles of the 
opposite leg. The excessive nerve impulse continuing may 
overflow still further and travel up the cord to the forelegs 
or arms. 

This complex muscular action demands further explanation ; 
thus, if the left hind toes of the dog be tickled under certain 
conditions it draws up the leg ; but as there are two important 
systems of muscles, those of flexion or bending and those of ex- 
tension, each opposing the other, one can imagine a constant 
antagonism between the two groups of muscles. Therefore 
before the dog can draw up or flex its leg, which act is performed 
by the hamstring muscles behind the knee, it is essential that 
the extensor muscles which end at the kneecap in front should 
give way. This is exactly what happens. It is such a 
beautiful contrivance that it is worth considering. When 
the tickling message arrives at the spinal cord, the reflex 
operators, or connecting cells, simultaneously inhibit or 
shut off the action of the extensor motor cells, and then they 
call the flexor cells into action. 

These simultaneous but antagonistic movements are con- 
stantly in play, for in man the natural condition requires 
" tonus ", or activity of the extensor muscles, to maintain 
the upright position of the body. 



The reflex mechanism of salivation. 

M 




The taste impulse passes from "taste cells" on the tongue (M) to the nerve 

centre (TC), which sends a message by the secretory nerve (SN) to the gland G, 

and also to the sympathetic nerves on the artery (B) to supply the salivary 

gland cells more freely. 




To illustrate the reflex spinal mechanism. The arrows indicate the direction of 

the nerve current from skin to muscle. Note the reflex or associating nerve 

cell in the centre. This is quite diagramatic. 

Facing page 62. 




Nerve terminals in muscle fibres. (A) from above ; (B) in cross section. 





(C) a touch receiving corpuscle in the skin showing the terminal of a sensory 

nerve. 

(D) motor terminal in muscle fibrils. 



Facing page 63. 



REFLEX ACTION 63 

If then we wish to walk and flex the thigh on the body and 
the leg on the thigh, the opposing extensors must relax at 
the exact moment before flexion. 

It is important to understand neuro-mechanics before we The 
can reahze what complex thought may be reduced to ; there- ^^^°^ 
fore we must further examine the spinal mechanism. 

The reflex action engages at least three neurons, A neuron 
comprises a nerve cell, which at one end has receiving fibres, 
termed " dendrons," because being so numerous they resemble 
the rootlets of a tree ; and at the other end one " axon " 
or fibre for emitting the special nerve motion from the cell. 
In the centre of the spinal cord there is a collection of grey 
matter which in transverse section is not unHke a butterfly ; 
the large, anterior wings correspond to the anterior motor 
horns, and the smaller posterior wings to the posterior sensory 
horns in the cord. This grey matter is surrounded by long 
bundles of insulated fibres which run between the head and 
the foot. The skin contains receiving or sensory cells of 
varying kinds in shape and function. Some cells react to 
touch, some to temperature, some to pain. The stimulus is 
carried by an afferent ^ nerve fibre to the posterior part of 
the spinal cord, when the analysis of the stimulus is under- 
taken by a reflex cell in the grey matter. Messages are then 
sent across to the motor cells which lie at the front part or 
horn of the grey matter. 

These two sets of neurons are not jointed together. They 
are each distinct systems, and there is an infinitesimal gap 
which the nerve current must jump over. Some imagine 
their terminals are inclosed in membranes to prevent leakage 
of nerve force. It is proved by Sherrington 2 and Wundt^ 
that these breaks in the connexion, or as we call them 
" synapses," cause a delay in messages, which we call " inhi- 
bition." This is proved by measuring the rapidity of a stimulus 
along a nerve trunk, and then comparing the speed of the 
reflex arc. 

^ From ad., to ; fero, I bear. 

* Sherrington, The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, ch. iii. 

* Wundt, Untersuch. z. Mecharh. d. Nerven u. Nervencentren, Stuttgart. 
1876, abt. 2. > B ' 



64 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 



Repeated 
Slight 
Stimuli 
Accumu- 
late in 
Intensity 



It is likewise found that continued slight stimuH accumu- 
late in their effect. The tortures of the Spanish Inquisition 
revealed this, where a victim had to suffer the continued 
drop of water on one spot for a long period. One drop falling 
on the skin barely attracts attention, whereas a drop every 
few seconds or haK-minute becomes exquisite torture on 
account of the accumulated stimulus to a touch corpuscle 
or perhaps to a " pain " cell. Experiment shows that 
when a slight stimulus as tickling fails to call forth a motor 
response, if the same stimulus be applied as well in two or 
three places, there is then at last a motor response. The 
former feeble stimulus was unable to jump the synapse to 
the next neuron. 

Professor Sherrington ^ has pointed out that whereas the 
reflex arc receives many sensory stimuli of different kinds, 
there is only one motor exit to the muscles. He therefore 
describes the sensory or afferent nerves to the grey matter 
as private routes or paths, and the motor nerves he likens to 
one common pubhc highway .^ This explains why the affer- 
ent or sensory nerves are three to five times as many as the 
efferent or motor nerves. It is also demonstrated in higher 
complex acts, as in writing. For instance, I am aided now 
by my eyes, by the sense of touch in my right hand, both 
from the paper and the pen, and also by another muscle sense, 
which gives me a consciousness of the position of my hand. 
Thus I have now three primary receptors at work, and all 
these " private " paths converge on one common hand motor 
centre in the brain ; the same efferent or motor route to 
the hand could be stimulated to perform other skilled acts 
from other receptors or stimuli, such as the acts of drawing, 
painting, cutting, striking, and so on. This subject has to 
be borne in mind when discussing the subject of education, 
for the more " private paths ' ■ the better. 

There are other processes to consider in the nervous system, 
namely, antagonistic and refractory or inhibitory processes, 
for it happens in hundreds of ways that a fresh stimulus 
requires some motion to be stopped, and fresh muscles to 
come into play. 



* Loc. cit., p. 115. 



2 Loc. cit., ch. iv. 




A healthy motor cell (Betz) from the cortex of the brain. Note the pattern 

and nucleus. 
Kindly lent by Dr. Mott. 



Facing page 64. 




A sensory nerve cell from a spinal ganglion 
in a state of fatigue after prolonged epilepsy 
— observe that the pattern has disappeared. 

Kindly lent by Dr. Mott. 



Facing page 65. 



REFLEX ACTION 65 

Professor Donaldson ^ pointed out that the whole nervous 
system is continuous throughout, each and every part ulti- 
mately associated and interwoven Hke a network ; we can 
therefore explain what are called " sympathetic " pains felt in 
different parts of the body, distant from the organ affected. 
Liver pains are carried to the right shoulder. Fatigue of 
the eyes may travel to the back of the neck and so on. 

It hardly requires stating that after a stimulus is carried 
on for some time fatigue ensues. I think it fell to the task 
of Professor Sherrington to elucidate this, and he found the 
site to be in the reflex centre ; that is the connecting-up 
neuron in the grey matter of the spinal cord. This was 
arrived at in the following manner. If a dog got tired of 
flexing or bending its leg in response to tickling the toes, its 
muscles were still quite equal to respond vigorously to the 
scratch reflex, excited by tickling the flank. The leg muscles 
were not tired, but the nerve potential in the reflex neuron 
was fatigued, and readily made way for another reflex arc. 
In our daily routine, we know how restful change of work is by 
employing fresh neurons. We now can understand the mystery 
of writer's and other trade cramps, without wasting of muscle. 

By a clear conception of the spinal neuro-system we can Both we 

understand the hves of many of the lower animals, most f"^ ^^^ 

of whom are built in chains or segments ; for instance, Animals 

the worm is in rings and each ring has its own nerve ^5®.,^. • 

. . •Till Duut in 

ganglia. So it is with the lobster, the fly, the beetle, and Segments 

us ourselves. Each joint in the spine contains a nerve seg- 
ment connected with the trunk and limbs, while the face 
and head were built up during the embryonic state in seg- 
ments also ; yet all these segments are united in one complex 
system. The higher we ascend in the animal scale, the 
greater the risk to life. Experience and education become 
necessary to adapt the individual to the environment. Whfle 
the lower forms, as the invertebrates, those without a spine 
or backbone, act Uke automata, the higher forms exhibit a 
consciousness which at first is machine-hke but gradually 
rises to the highest form of intelligence. 

Thus the busy bee is an automaton. Taste or smell guide 
^ Amer. Textbook of Physiol. 



66 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

its choice of food, whilst sight directs its flight, and perhaps 
hearing warns it of danger. Yet you may cut it in two with- 
out at once kiUing it, and if you touch the hinder end, in reflex 
response it stings you. Similarly, if you place food to its 
jaws, it will seize and devour it. All this is due to segments 
of the reflex neuro-mechanism, without inteUigence and 
consciousness in the ordinary sense. 

If we take, as another example, a male decapitated frog, he 
wiU clasp his arms as if in embrace, if the skin of his chest or 
bosom be stimulated ; yet he is unconscious, being without 
his head. It is a reflex movement, similar to that of the 
divided insect. If, however, a gentleman frog with his head 
on be so stimulated, he resents the interference and thrusts 
away any object other than his spouse laid on his bosom. 

This opens up the question of several degrees of consciousness. 

The bee, the ant, and the million creepy things each may 
have a consciousness of their own, having nerve gangha masses 
which resemble minute brains. They are however hardly 
equal to the stem or base of the human brain. 

The Seat Some light may be shed by experiments done by Professor 
Emotions Sherrington,^ Golz, Schafer, Mott, Terrier, Rutherford and 
several other professors abroad on the seat of the emotions. 

These consist in removing the upper part of the brain hemi- 
spheres from the dog or cat, which portion is concerned with 
what intelligence and higher consciousness they possess. 
There remain then the spinal cord and the base of the brain 
or stem. We now have in action the receivers or receptors 
from the skin, as weU as from all other sensory organs. These 
include the eye and ear, also the sense of taste and smeU. 
If anything be done to annoy the animal, as holding its leg, 
or hurting it in any way, it puts on aU the expression of anger, 
snarhng, growhng and spitting. Yet there is no upper con- 
sciousness or sense of pain. (Nothnagel considers the optic 
thalamus as the seat of the muscles of expression or emotion.) 
These experiments are mentioned to show that the emotions 
of anger and passion are reflex, and at the onset have nothing 
to do with the upper consciousness. The angry dart of the 
serpent, the attack of the tarantula, perhaps even the first 
^ Loc. cit., p. 265, ch. vii. 



REFLEX ACTION 67 

snap of the dog and the spit of the cat, are thus on a lower 
physical plane of subconsciousness. 

But this neural plane tires out and does not continue its 
emotion. If the emotion is still further provoked, then the 
upper brain or cortex comes into play, involving the field of 
consciousness and intelligence. 

Darwin, Spencer and others considered the emotions as 
inherited ancestral instincts, and this almost appears confirmed 
by the experiment on the dog. Emotion is on a lower physical 
plane than inteUigence, which may explain why the more 
intellectual folk have less emotion, while our poor degenerates, 
especially if enfeebled by alcohol, give way so easily. 

Sherrington by further investigation proved that emotion 
has nothing to do with visceral or internal sensations, for 
these sensations, in heart, bowels, stomach and other internal 
organs, are the result of emotion and not the cause. He 
says that in this condition neither cat nor dog can be induced 
to show pleasure, as though happiness belonged to a higher 
plane, the cerebral cortex, while these emotions are reflex 
for protection, defence, selection of food, amorous instincts, 
etc. These experiments give us a valuable insight into every- 
day occurrences which are not appreciated by the lawyers 
or the laity. 

We know also how the higher plane of thought can inhibit 
or control the emotions, yet in such conflicts we are conscious 
of effort and the necessity sometimes of strong effort. How 
many crimes and rash acts are committed by the overpowering, 
reflex, but irresponsible machine ! We must treat our difficult 
social problems with all the knowledge that science gives us. 
Quite recently a man was hanged for the murder of a woman 
who threw a pot of beer at him in an alehouse. The total 
scene between the woman's act and the death-blow was ten 
seconds. Considering the probabihty of the man's brain 
being out of action from alcohohsm, it might be described 
as a reflex act, as in the experiment just described. There 
was barely enough time for mentation in such a brain. 

The whole idea of a nervous system is to protect against The Ob- 
enemies as weU as to direct us to food, and finally it exists j^^* °^ ^ 

Nervous 

for purposes of propagation. As we rise in the animal scale System 
there is a continued addition of superstructures. 



68 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The dog perceives danger and uses some intelligence to get 
out of the way. Not so the fish, for its optic nerve is closely 
connected with the long nerves of the spinal cord directing 
rapid flight from danger. Birds are likewise constructed for 
rapidity of action, and excel in their powers of vision also. 
They have a higher type of brain than that of the fish, a brain 
which somewhat corresponds to the base or stem of the human 
brain. 

When we reach the mammals or animals that suck in 
infancy, we get a still higher order of brains than in birds, a 
new superstructure of the same type as in man, but very 
rudimentary, steadily rising in complexity tiU the anthropoids 
or apes are reached. 

Instinct There are then grades of intelligence and instinct, but it is 

telligen'ce almost impossible to say where the one begins and the other 
ends. 

The subject of instinct versus intelligence has engaged 
observers since time immemorial. It now seems elucidated, 
especially through the researches of Romanes, Dr. G. A. 
Watson, and R. Lloyd Morgan. There seems however to be a 
gradual dawning from the lower to the higher. We might 
treat it thus : — 

a. The instinct of the lower animals which requires no 
experience or education, and which is said to be due to 
" inherited habits." It appears to me that the early nerve 
structures are thus reduced to simple mechanisms. We 
see this in the proverbial busy bee and wiseacre ant. Among 
vertebrates the building of nests by sticklebacks and the 
similar interesting ways of birds form abundant illustrations. 
6. Next come the " incomplete instincts" of Lloyd Morgan 
or the mixed instincts of Romanes, which are shown by so 
many animals and have much to do with their practical animal 
behaviour. These have a very large " innate " basis, but 
require some individual experience to set them agoing or to 
perfect them. Such examples may be seen in what we would 
popularly call the inteUigence of birds in their^relation to man ; 
the way in which the rooks follow the ploughman and the 
various tricks they learn ; the " ancestral " fear which fledg- 
lings show towards man. 



REFLEX ACTION 69 

c. The intelligence that individual animals show in being 
able to acquire the capacity for learning new acts is a much 
higher development. In this way animals can react to new 
surroundings. This is daily exemplified by domestic animals, 
especially the dog and cat. It marks an advance in brain 
structure. 

d. Intellect stands at the zenith and belongs more especially 
to the Anthropoids, of whom the apes are lowest, and rise by 
the chimpanzee, ourang, and lastly gorilla, to man. Here 
there is an association of ideas and the capacity of abstract 
thought. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE BRAIN 

GENERAL STRUCTURE : The skull— The membranes— Cerebrum— Cere- 
bellum — The spinal cord below — The medulla or bulb — The function of 

the cerebellum. THE CEREBRUM COVERS THE CEREBELLUM 

IN NORMAL MAN : but not always in idiots — A reversion to animal type. 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN : The central canal— 

Hydrocephalus— Symptoms. BFIAIN WEIGHTS : Normal adult- 
Child's — Let young brains lie fallow — National decay due to education — 
Smallest brain — Brain weights in insanity — American and Negro brains 
— Cause of large brain weight in animals — Whale and elephant — Man 

and gorilla — The association centres. THE BRAIN PATTERN : 

Simple to complex — Herbivora versus Carnivora — Apes and monkeys. 

THE HUMAN PATTERN : The cause — Convolution and grooves — The 

jireas — Simple patterns in the less intelligent. MICROCEPHALIC 

IDIOT : Dr. Watson's unique case — A revert to the felines — The key 
to criminology — A new standard of measurement suggested — Details — 
A "beast" — Second case of Dr. Watson's — A revert to the ape. 

General We can Only demonstrate the brain and nervous system 
Structure \yj reference to a diagram or photograph in the absence 
of actual specimens. 

The brain is protected by a strong bony case, the skull, 
which in the infant is made up of several pairs of bones. These 
bones, which in the embryo have been developed out of mem- 
brane, unite in infancy, but are not firmly welded together 
till early adult life. A dense fibrous membrane, the dura- 
mater, encloses both the brain and the spinal cord or marrow, 
which latter receives protection in its canal from the vertebrae 
or spinal bones. A dehcate membrane made of bloodvessels, 
the pia-mater, closely covers the whole surface, and fulfils 
the purposes of nourishment. 

The higher brain or cerebrum occupies all that portion of 
the skuU above the level of the eyebrows and ears. The 
smaller brain or cerebellum Hes below this level, posteriorly 
just above the neck. 

We have then the big upper mass or cerebrum, which is 
connected below and continuous with the spinal cord. The 
connecting part is of the greatest vital importance. It is 




The skull, with large veins or channels (V), which may be relieved in congestion 

by bursting of the veins in the nose (VN). A, is an airspace in the brow called 

the frontal sinus. The skull has two layers, inner (I) and outer (O). 




Diagram to illustrate the cerebrum, with the cerebellum (Cb) below, 
medulla (M) and the spinal cord (Sp) below. 



The 



Faciiifi piii^e 70- 



THE BRAIN 71 

called the medulla oblongata or bulb. It is a continuation 
of the spinal cord broadened out, and receives all the fibres 
en route to and from the head and the body. It also contains 
the breathing, heart and digestive nerve centres, as weU as 
the roots of other nerves for taste, tongue, face, hearing, etc. 
An injury here is fatal. It is the position in which cattle 
are struck. 

The cerebellum hes behind and above this part. It might 
be well now to dispose of its function. It has never 
been clearly elucidated. Phrenologists thought all sexual 
desires sprung from this region, and therefore gave a bad 
name to any one who was fuUy developed at the back of 
the head. Its true function has been largely elucidated by 
Dr. Mott. It is a large sensory organ for the whole body, 
keeping all the muscles in a condition of healthy tone and 
tension. It also has to do with steering. Thus the inert 
frog and tortoise have hardly any cerebellum, while active 
fish, as the herring and whiting, and birds in proportion to 
their rapidity of flight, have well developed cerebeUa. 

It is the cerebrum that interests us chiefly. The base 
and middle part are occupied by large nerve ganglia or centres, 
which are " way stations " between the upper surface and 
the spinal cord. 

There are in reaHty two brains, right and left. They are 
convex on the outer side and flattened in the middle line, 
where they are joined together by fibres so as to produce 
co-operative action. 

When we speak of the upper brain, as the cerebrum, we The 

include both halves, right and left. In man the cerebrum ^^"^^"f^™ 
' ® covers 

overlaps and hides the cerebellum, being due to the larger the Cere- 
development of the areas which concern intellectual operations ; ^^^^""^t ^" 
whereas in the higher apes, through this want of development, Man 
the cerebellum is slightly uncovered. In aU the lower animals 
the cerebellum is also much uncovered or placed quite behind : 
see figs, (pp.74 and 76). 

It has been observed in some cases of idiocy that there 
is in this respect a reversion towards the lower animals, and 
Dr. Watson's interesting cases, to be described later, show this 
very clearly. 



72 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The The brain develops in the embryo from a hollow tube of 

Develop- ^ervous matter, which becomes constricted into five masses, 

ment oi ' . <> i 

the Brain and passes through an intricate course of enlargement and 
development. Yet in all this there is a resemblance to the 
brains of the lower animals, even of the fish, illustrating 
the evolutionary process in the " creation." Man is then a 
repetition of what has gone before in the lower animals. 

Though the tiny tube becomes a mass weighing at birth 
almost a pound, yet it retains the central canal as the repre- 
sentative of its embryonic state. These form cavities or 
" ventricles " inside the brain, which in the normal state 
contain a small and negligible amount of fluid. But in 
some diseases of a tubercular character, the fluid accumulates, 
dilating these cavities considerably. This condition is termed 
Hydrocephalus, or water on the brain, and may be fatal in 
infancy, while many of those who recover are well represented 
in asylums and among degenerates. The skull is then large, 
broad, flat and the forehead overhangs the brows. I think 
in some cases a little hydrocephalus proves useful by expanding 
the skuU and giving more room or area for the outer surface, 
and it is a fact that many people of extraordinary intellect 
are slightly hydrocephahc. 

The brain may be likened to a telephonic or telegraphic 
system, as in the case of the spinal cord, only infinitely more 
complex. 



Brain 
Weights 



It will be convenient here to consider some brain weights. 

Comparison of the weights of wholehrains is not very scien- 
tific, but as most of the records are in such terms one must 
quote them. 



The adult male brain weighs about 

„ ,, female ,, „ 

The brain at birth „ 

1st year ,, 

2nd „ „ 
5th „ 
10th „ 

15th „ ,, 



Oz. 




Grms. 


50 


or 


1,416 


44 




1,246 


14 




396 


30 




850 


31 




878 


36 




1,018 


45 




1,275 


49 




1,388 



The practical side of this table is that until a chfld is five 
its brain may safely be allowed to lie fallow and gain in weight 
and growth. 



Diagramatic representation of the embryo brain developing. 




I, the forebrain. 2 and 3, the midbrain. Cb, the cerebellum. M, the 
medulla. Sp, the spinal cord. E, the optic nerve and retina budding out. 
N, the nerve of smell .\, becomes the labyrinth or nerve mechanism of 

hearing. 




A normal, well-educated brain, to show the pattern. I am indebted to Dr. 

Mott for this valuable photograph. Most so-called normal brains are either out 

of asylums or hospitals, and therefore on a lower platform of intelligence. 



Facing page 72. 



THE BRAIN 73 

Little can be done before the age of seven or eight ; after 
ten it becomes efficient. One sees here the explanation of 
the national decay through the thousands of dullards whom 
the State creates by enforced education at the age of three, 
four, or even five. 

The brain weights of notable men give striking results 
thus : — 

Oz. Grms. 

Cuvier's brain weighed 58 or 1,643 

Napoleon's ,, ,, 53 ,, 1,501 

Ganxbetta's ,, ,, 41 „ 1,167 

Turgenieff's „ „ 71 „ 2,011 

(A Russian novelist) 

Cromwell's brain weighed 78 ,, 2,210 

Byron's „ „' 79 „ 2,238 

Abercrombie's: brain weighed . . . . . 63 ,, 1,786 

Goodsir's „ „ 57i „ 1,629 

Sir James/ Simpson's brain weighed . . . 54 ,, 1,530 

Dr. Chalmers' ,, ,, ... 53 ,, 1,501 

The lowest brain on record is in the possession of Dr. Watson. 
It belonged to an idiot woman and weighs only 8 oz. or 
227 grammes, and is described at page 76. 

An adult's brain should not faU below 

40 oz. in the case of a man, or 
35 oz. ,, „ woman. 

On the other hand many common labourers have very 
heavy brains, going over 2,000 grammes. Mass without 
quality ! 

Sir James Crichton Browne ^ has recorded several weights 
of the brain among asylum patients. Those of idiots range 
from 40 oz. or 1,150 grammes downwards among males ; 
while in females they vary below 35 oz. or 1,000 grammes. 

Imbecile brains are a little heavier ; 

In males 44 oz. or 1,246 grammes ; and 
In females 41 oz. ,, 1,167 ,, 

The brains of melanchohcs are not under weight, while 
senile brains lose about -^^ of their value. Those suffering 
from delusions or mania show no alteration in weight. 

Mr. Hunt and others ^ have recorded interesting observations 
on American and negro brains. 

^ Brain, 1880. ^ See Quatrefage on Social Evolution, ch. xxx. 



74 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The average weight of 24 American white soldiers was 48 
oz. or 1,360 grammes ; the maximum 64 oz. or 1,814 grammes, 
while the minimum was 44 oz. or 1,247 grammes. 

Compared with the above are 141 negroes, whose average 
brain weight was 47 oz. or 1,331 grammes. 

The maximum was 53 oz. or 1,501 grammes, while the 
minimum was 38 oz. or 1,176 grammes. 

The effect of half-breeds was very striking, for the more 
white blood the heavier the brain. 

Thus out of 240 crosses with negroes where there was : — 

Oz. Grms. 

I white blood, the brain weight was . . . 49 or 1,388 

J ,, ,, ,, ,, ... 45 ,, 1,275 

Te' »» >» »> >} • ' • 44 ,, 1,24b 

One Hottentot brain recorded weighed 50 oz. or 1,430 
grammes. 

In connexion with the brain weights of the lower animals, 
the size or weight of any given animal depends largely on 
the extent of the sensory surface such animal possesses. This 
accounts for the very large brains in the whale and elephant, 
whose large exterior body surfaces require a huge number 
of sensory points and afferent nerves to carry the impressions 
and hkewise an increased sensory area on the brain. But 
when we compare man and the goriUa, which are about the 
same size, we find an exception in man, whose increased 
brain surface is due not to more sensory representation, but 
to the enormous relative development of the areas set apart 
for the grouping and analysing of these sensory impressions. 
These newly evolved areas are called Association Centres. 

The Brain pattern is the term applied to the outer surface 

Pattern ^^ *^^ cerebrum. It is a very apt term, as the pattern is 

quite decided and representative in different classes of mammals. 

This subject has been worked up by Sir Victor Horsley, D. 

J. Cunningham, Elliott Smith, G. A. Watson, and others. 

The general results show that complexity of pattern in- 
creases as we ascend the scale. This is apparent even in 
any one group, as, for example, the Carnivora, where the 
ferret, which is a low class brute, has a much smoother brain 
as compared with a cat or dog who live in a much more Intel- 




Type of Ungulate brain. [Siis salvanius) a pig. 




Type of carnivora brain. (Viverra civetta) a civet. 



Facing page 74. 




Brain of a lower ape. {Cebus lunatus) a capuchin. 




Brain pattern of a riuman being about four montlis before birth. Only the 
chief fissures are represented. The actual brain is much smaller than the 

diagram. 



Facing page 75. 



THE BRAIN 75 

lectual environment. The Carnivora, which require increased 
instincts to survive, have a better pattern than the hoofed 
herbivorous animals, the Ungulata. They have no mental 
domestic strain for their food, it Hes like a carpet in front 
of them. 

When we examine the Primates, or Quadrumana, which 
includes apes and monkeys, there is again a vast difference. 
The smaller or lower class monkeys have poor intelligence 
with a corresponding simple brain pattern, whereas the ourang 
and gorilla very nearly approach man in the complexity 
of their grooves. 

The pattern of the human brain, failing actual specimens, is The 
best understood by photographs, of which there are many in p J?^^" 
the book. It is very complex, and is subject not only to 
gross variations, but also to minute differences which can 
only be detected by the few experts in this subject. 

The cause of the pattern is the infolding of the surface, 
an effort of Nature to secure a larger superficial area in the 
compressed non-expanding skull. We call the raised portions 
convolutions, and the depressions grooves or sulci. The 
surface in man is divided into frontal, behind which is the 
parietal area, at the posterior pole the occipital, and above 
the ears the temporal area. 

The pattern is simpler in the less intelligent human beings 
and races. The convolutions in these are larger, fewer, coarser, 
less wavy, and the grooves may be wider apart. 

Some of the Italian school profess to have seen a simpler 
pattern than normal in the criminal's brain. The laity should 
not rest content until we have a large collection of criminal 
brains with a rehable scientific description so as to compare 
them with the normals. The criminal, I find, is not sane, and 
yet admittedly not insane. He has his own territory, and 
I may prophesy it is one of simple brain pattern (see 
p. 225 for report on murderer's brain, examined by my- 
self). 

I am indebted to Dr. G. A. Watson for the following inter- Micro- 
esting photographs of the smallest adult human brain on idfot^**^ 
record, and the notes thereon. I am sorry that it is not 



76 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

suitable to show the face, as it indeed suppHes the equivalent 
of the " missing link." 

Here is demonstration and proof that the human race 
can revert to the type, not only of the lower apes, but far 
below to the cat, or carnivora, and even lower to the ungulates, 
which include the cloven-hoofed animals, as pig and cow. 

This is no theory or speculation. We have also to remember 
that there are all grades of degeneracy, and the slighter forms 
will explain the types which we call incorrigible, or born 
criminals. 

The point to remember about these microcephalic brains 
is that they are not diminished men, but reverts to the lower 
beasts. Arrested development accounts for many degenerates, 
and these facts open up a new method of dealing with them, 
and present a fresh standard by which to measure them. 

Of the four photographs, two are of the smallest brain, 
one of an imbecile's brain, and the highest developed specimen 
belonged to an ourang.^ 

The female died when 44. 

The weight of her brain was 250 grammes, or 8| oz. 

The circumference of the skull was 15 in. 

Her height was 4 ft. 5 in., the body fairly proportioned. 
The small head and long nose gave her a bird-like appearance. 

Mentally she was an idiot. She never understood any 
verbal communication from the outer world, and never uttered 
any articulate sound, nor made any intelligible sign ; nor 
did she ever know, recognize or remember any one. Sometimes 
she smiled feebly to herself, but she would grin and make 
grimaces, and also express her emotions by hideous sounds. 
If vexed she would spit like a cat. 

She had a big appetite, and when the beU rang for meals, 
clapped her hands and uttered frightfi^ screams, and always 
had to be served first. She had to be fed on mince and soft 
food, or she might have choked, as she bolted her food like 
a dog. She was so greedy that she would grab food off other 
plates. After a meal she would remain lethargic Uke an 
ordinary beast. 

^ Dr. Watson and myself are indebted to the Zoological Society 
for much material, and especially to Mr. Beddard, F.R.S., for his assist- 
ance and courtesy. 



\ 


\ 






Y 


-4 


^.^ 




*^ 



The smallest idiot brain on record, 8 oz. 
Lent by Dr. G. A. Watson. 




The same brain from above — note that the cerebrum does not cover 
the cerebellum. 



facing page 76, 




Brain of an imbecile, aged 40. 
Lent by Dr. Watson. 



* 


^)^ 




1" 






Y 


>- 







The brain of an ourang, for which I am indebted to Mr. Beddard, F.R.S. 



Facing page 77. 



THE BRAIN 77 

The brain resembles the type of lower mammals, in that 
the cerebrum does not overlap the cerebellum. 

Grms. Oz. Normal. 
The cerebellum, pons and medulla 

weighed 56 or If 5 oz. 

The cerebrum weighed . . . . 194 „ 6f 36-38 oz. 

In the normal state the cerebrum is seven times heavier 
than the cerebellum and pons ; here it is about three times. 

The cerebrum is smaller than in a new-born child. 

As will be observed, the pattern of the convolutions is 
much simpler than that of the ourang. Dr. Watson points 
out that it is not simply or solely a case of arrested develop- 
ment. It is not like the brain of the unborn child at any 
period, not even at the 5th month. It is really a very complex 
brain, and the analysis is not yet completed. It partly resembles 
a brain of the lower apes, and in some points resembles the 
FeHdae, or cats, and yet the cat has a much better cortex. 
The student can compare the diagrams, and will find a fathom- 
less mine of interest therein. 

Microscopically, the pyramidal cells were few and badly 
formed, and fibres deficient. 

The second photograph is of the brain of a male imbecile 
who lived to forty, and facially was not unlike the many 
low degenerates we meet in the streets. His brain weighed 
660 grammes, about 23 oz. The circumference of his skull 
was 18 inches. He had very little intelligence : he knew 
people, and had a few articulate words. 

The chief interest is that his brain conforms in some respects 
to the ape type. 

Microscopically, there were more pyramidal cells laid down 
than his intelligence would warrant, but then these cells 
were badly formed. 



CHAPTER IX 
THE STRUCTURE OF THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN 

THE BRAIN CORTEX : The grey matter — Motor areas— The three motor 
planes — The motor area — The five sensory areas — Brain reflex — The 
silent non-responsive areas. ASSOCIATION AREAS : Resume of cor- 
tical areas — Sensation — Mind — Will. " SMELL " : The intellect of the 

lower vertebrates — Technical detail — Their application in psychology. • 

THE SENSE OF SIGHT : Analysed— Must understand the brain to appre- 
ciate thought and character. BOLTON ON THE PYRAMIDAL LAYER : 

The prefrontal varies in normals according to will power and control and 

vice versa. FUNCTIONS OF THE CORTEX : Memory— Example 

of the cortex in action — How an imbecile would compare with normals 
in thought processes — The mentation of the music player — A complex 
reflex act — Automatic by repetition. THE MECHANISM OF PRO- 
CESSES OF THOUGHT : Memory— Processes of mentation— Percep- 
tions — Associations — Motions — The advantage of education. SUB- 
CONSCIOUS MENTATION : Mnemonics— Illustration. 

The The brain has a buff colour outside to the depth of f of an 

Brain inch. This is styled the cortex or the grey matter. It is the 
most important part, not only of the brain, but of the whole 
body. In this thin coating are contained thousands of millions 
of microscopic cells, which are concerned not only with the 
necessities of our present environment, but with our happi- 
ness, and perhaps with our future in the next world. 

It was discovered by Hitzig and Flechzig, and later experi- 
ments by Ferrier, Mott, Schaf er, Sherrington, and many others 
proved, that if a galvanic stimulus were apphed to certain 
portions (precentral convolution) of the frontal lobe that 
certain muscular actions occurred (see diagrams). 

In this way all the muscle groups of the body were accounted 
for, beginning with the foot and leg above, and ending with 
the lips and speech muscles below in the region of the temple. 

We have already studied the motor centres in the anterior 
horns of the spinal cord, and the higher reflex centres in the 
stem or midbrain. We now see a third motor plane, the 
cortex. This is the highest and most perfect, because these 
motor cells may be called into action by thought, from remote 
stimuli, such as the eye or ear or distant touch, taste, or smell. 

78 




^^^ 







/ Visual | 






To illustrate sensory, motor and association areas. The last are clear. 
Lent by Dr. Mott. 



M 



PF 




PO 



The brain of a female dement, aged 53, which shews much wasting, chiefly in 
the prefrontal association area (PF), while the motor sensory areas (MS) stand 
out distinctly. (T) is the temporal association area ; (PO) the parieto occipital 
association area, and (O) the occipital pole. Compare with the diagram above. 

Lent by Dr. Bolton. 

Facing page 79. 



THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN 79 

The broad convolution (post-central or ascending parietal) 
behind the central sulcus or groove is sensory and represents 
the terminal cells of these nerves from below. 

The eye and face muscles are governed by the frontal con- 
volutions, which occupy a position in the region of the forehead. 

The centre of vision is at the posterior pole of the brain 
(the occipital lobe), while the taste and smell centres are in 
the temporal lobes, in front and above the ears. 

The important sense of hearing is also in the temporal lobe. 

The simplest brain mechanism consists in receiving impres- 
sions from the outer world by these sensory centres, and calling 
forth some muscular action from the motor areas. It is a 
reflex, though somewhat complex process. 

There is however a large area in the human brain which 
does not respond to galvanism, and was originally called the 
silent area. To the great Flechzig^ belongs the honour of 
solving this mystery. 

These areas lie between the sensori-motor, sensory visual, The 
and auditory areas. This large surface is called the parieto- tion'Sas 
occipital, and below it is the temporal area, and another 
smaller one (the insula), while just in front of the eye centres 
at the extreme front of the brain, above the eyebrows, is a silent 
area, called the prefrontal. These are the Association Areas 
before spoken of as occurring in man and rudimentary in apes. 
The title expresses the function. These areas associate the differ- 
ent sensory impressions of sight, taste, sound, and so on, in order 
to connect them with the motor areas. They are the seat of 
intellect and intelligence, storing past stimuli or impressions 
as memories. There will be much to say about these associa- 
tion areas all through the book, for they elucidate many of 
our important social problems. 

By way of resume, then, the cortex is mapped out into three 
chief functional areas, which in order of action and develop- 
ment are : — 

(1) Sensory. 

(2) Motor. 

(3) Association. 

1 Neurolog. Centralblatt, 1894, and later. Archives de Neuroloaie, 
1900. 



80 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Or as Bolton puts it : — 

(1) Projection spheres (sensation), where impressions from 
the outer world, such as sights and sounds and sensations, are 
thrown on to the mental screen. Each of these areas of sensory- 
function is surrounded by and connected up with — 

(2) Centres of lower association (content of mind), which 
elaborate the sensorial impressions into simple perceptions. 
These are then passed on to the — 

(3) Centres of higher association (will). Of these the chief 
is the prefrontal, which by attention and selection co-ordinates 
the whole mental process. 

"Smell," Watson and Elliot Smith have described in lower animals 

The 

Intellect ^^^ centre of smell, which is as important to them as sight is 
of the to us. I may be exaggerating when I describe the lower 
Verte- creation as smelling machines. Yet a large portion of the 
brates brains of many are given up to this function. 

There are, then, two parts of the brain given up to 
smell : — 

(1) The Hippocampus or margmal pallium of Elliot Smith. 

(2) The Pyriform lobe or basal paUium of EUiot Smith. 

Dr. G. A. Watson says that these are of very ancient develop- 
ment in time or phylogeny, as compared with the newer 
cortex of mammals (neo paUium). Nevertheless the olfactory 
portion of the brain prevails in the lower mammals, but 
dwindles in the anthropoids, and is quite absent in the whale 
and porpoise, as they cannot smell. 

The hippocampus is made up of only two layers, the granular 
and infragranular, and is therefore purely instinctive. 

The pyriform lobe has superadded a thin supragranular 
layer, the first dawn of intelligence for analysing the object 
smelt (see figures). 

These facts in comparative anatomy are not considered 
by some of the present day psychologists, who wish to place 
hunger and other appetites and sensations in the psychic 
sphere and not in the brain. Thus they give a dog a saucer 
of red paint, and it approaches thinking it is blood to lap. That 
is no different from attracting a person with wax models of 
fruit. The dog applies the test of smell, showing how no single 
sense is to be trusted in matters of judgment. 




To illustrate the sensory and psychic areas and functions of smell and sight. 



Facing page 80. 



THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN 81 

The sense of sight is built up on similar lines. Bolton The Sense 
showed there was (1) an area which received the visual impres- ° *^ 
sions, the calcarine area. This was surrounded by (2) a psychic 
area, the occipital lobe,^ which analysed these and turned 
them into perceptions, ready for use. 

These psychic centres are those described by Bolton as of 
lower association. 

I have considered it essential somewhat fully to describe 
the mechanism of the brain, in order to define it as the physical 
basis of thought and of character. If the brain machinery 
be impaired we get the lunatic, if less impaired the poor 
thinker and the uncontrollable character which we style criminal. 
Bolton writes, that the potential lunatic and the actual low 
grade ament are born not made. In one sense we may be all 
potential lunatics or potential criminals, but I hope to show 
that many of our criminals are born, and not made out of 
normal stuff. 

In such an all-important subject it is necessary to quote 
from Dr. Joseph Shaw Bolton's ^ paper in the April number 
of the Journal of Mental Science for 1906. 

He writes, " This pyramidal layer increases in depth fari Bolton on 
'passu with the development of the psychic powers of the p^ami- 
individual, whereas the other cell layers of the cortex develop dal Layer 
earlier and soon reach their adult depth." 

" Further, in the prefrontal region, in the different tjrpes 
of mental alienation, the pyramidal layer exhibits degrees of 
under-development which vary inversely with the mental 
power of the individual. In this region the pyramidal layer 
is the only layer of the cortex cerebri which varies appreciably 
in depth in normal individuals." 

We must not let the word " normal " slip from the memory, 
for many who are criminals or criminaloid are accounted 
normal, whereas the purport of this book is to prove that 
they are not normal. Nor can any family Hghtly treat this 

^ See " Histological Studies on the Localization of Cerebral Func- 
tion," by A. W. Campbell. 

* " Histological basis of Amentia and Dementia," Archives de Neurol., 
1902. " Histological basis of Amentia and Dementia," Journ. Ment. 
Sci., 1906 and 1908. " Fimctions of frontal lobes," Brain, 1903. 



82 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

subject, for no family is exempt from abnormals, and what 
the end of such may be largely depend on their environment. 
Remember, then, that Bolton after 2500 measurements 
finds the prefrontal arc or cortex to vary in normal individuals, 
and this is the centre of will, self-control, or government, 
attention and the higher processes of the mind. 

The Having gone thus far, let us see how these three centres 

Acti(S *" ^^* ^^ simple processes of thought. Every combined muscular 

Thought movement, including every word we utter, has its origin from 

ism "' *^® brain surface ; and every object around, to which we devote 

attention, is recorded in the brain cortex, which forms the 

physical storehouse for memory. According to our intelligence 

and effort so do we associate the above objects, and also recall 

them when required, which is the active process of memory. 

Let us take the word lemon as an example. If spoken, it 
enters the brain through the auditory centre and sets in 
motion certain association nerve apparatus. The following 
are called into action : (1) past visual impressions or mental 
pictures of a lemon, with a form, and (2) colour ; (3) a revival 
of bitter taste in the gustatory centre ; (4) a sensation of the 
smeU, and (5) one of the feel of a lemon ; and (6) in addition the 
speech centre unconsciously responds to pronounce the word 
without actual or visible movement of lips and tongue. If on 
a hot day we see a lemon at our disposal, the higher prefrontal 
association centre probably suggests using it, and sets the 
various motor centres to work to hunt for a knife and glass, 
and the speech centre to call for some soda water, and finally 
the complex act of carefully handHng the knife, and preparing 
the beverage to quench the thirst, and satisfy the desire or sense. 
This may seem so simple as to be idiotically stupid for any one 
to describe it. Not so ; for if we take an imbecile dying of 
thirst, he may even know the taste, and would greedily suck a 
lemon placed to his mouth, but would not have enough initia- 
tive from his prefrontal cortex or " commandant " to aid himself 
in the manner described. To choose another illustration, those 
who play music receive the motor stimulus to the fingers from 
the organs of sight and sound. The sight of a piano creates 
by past association a desire to move towards the instrument. 
Other stimuli follow from the optic areas, which recognize 




MEUvE Root5 
OF 



SpiNftL Cemtre 

For 

Hand Wkiung 



To illustrate the mechanism of thought. Impressions pass (from eye and ear) 

to sensory centres: thence to motor centres (as the hands or Hps). Arrows 

indicate the direction of the nerve motion (diagramatic). 



Facing page 83 



THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN 83 

the printed music, whilst the auditory centres correct any 
error of harmony. There are then three processes : first — a 
sensory stimulus from outside ; second — association or inter- 
communication of sensory and motor cells ; and third — activity 
of the motor cells. This is a complex reflex act as opposed 
to the simple reflex already described, such as tickling the 
foot. These acts when frequently repeated become automatic, 
sinking somehow into a lower consciousness. The nerve 
channels then become so clear and direct that the higher 
association or consciousness is not appealed to. 

Ordinary processes of thought work very much on the same The 
hnes. Thus if one sees the photograph of Saint Paul's Cathe- ^^^ q^"" 
dral, several trains of thought commence, and continue from Processes 
the mental photograph already stored in the optic centre. Thought 
Or if the name be uttered, a message is switched on from the 
word hearing centre to this optic area. If there be conversa- 
tion, the motor centres for speech, i.e., for the tongue and lip 
muscles and larynx, are also called into activity. Thoughts 
diverge to architecture, old picture memories being thereby 
revived ; geology, history, commerce, and ecclesiastical 
matters are awakened from different cell groups where lie 
hidden past impressions, forming the physical basis of memory. 
To sum up, Mentation, at aU events in some cases, consists 
in the entrance of sensations from without, which call up one 
or more associations connected with the objects or stimuli. 
These in their turn invoke the motor cells, resulting in some 
simple or complex act. 

Many thoughts or acts are therefore in response to some 
sensory stimulus. 

From this we can see the advantage of education in 
furnishing stimuli, or objects for thought, and especially how 
to associate ideas. Suppose a man had never heard of 
St. Paul's, neither the name nor even the picture of it would 
raise the same train of thought. 

If we take the words dynamo, turbine, karyokinesis, they 
convey Uttle to the minds of ordinary people beyond the 
sounds ; whereas the engineer or scientist has his brain well 
supplied with mental pictures of details relating to these 
terms. Central Africa conveys little to the ordinary mind 



84 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

beyond the idea of a map. But if a traveller shows animals 
from these and a series of photographs, the brain is at once 
stored with mental pictures, which are revived at any future 
time by the association of the name. According to the number 
of objects stored in the sensory area, such is the measure 
and proportion of the intelligence of the individual. 

Subcon- Many processes of thought from frequent repetition sink 

!S^°"^ into the regions of subconsciousness, so that at other times 
Menta- =" . , ' , , 

tion related associations call them up again into consciousness 

with the proverbial rapidity of thought. 

Thus if one hears the word "circle " uttered, there occur 
unconsciously and very rapidly several stimuli, first to the 
hearing word centre ; second in a discharge of motor energy 
in the speech centre to represent the pronunciation of the word 
" circle," which motor act never rises to our consciousness ; 
third a circular rotation of the eyeballs, as if one were tracing 
out the form : fourth there may be in the hand centre a stimu- 
lus as if to draw a circle, fifth a mental picture of a circle. 
The height of education and intellectual growth consists in the 
number of imprints or impressions on the brain cortex which 
every surrounding object has produced. One association 
aids the other and leads to the formation of special associations 
or mnemonics to assist bad memories. Thus if I could not 
remember a man whose name was Martin, I would cease to 
tire the brain, but as it were attach it to an old f amihar associ- 
ation, like hanging it on another peg. I might associate him 
with the sand martins or the swaUows. 

Occasionally people find there is a name or word which 
never can be remembered. 

Perhaps I may be allowed to speak of my own case. I never 
can remember the word "macaroon." I fancy its special 
recording brain cell, if such exist, as we believe, has been left 
out of my construction. If I want one I always have to 
describe it accurately to the waitress, but I am unable to 
connect the mental picture with a word or name ; the scene 
is somewhat ludicrous and not always successful. 

One is conscious of effort and strain when memory is defective, 
as if some association cells were "ringing up " some latent 
memory and could get no response. By the use of mnemonics 



THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN 85 

that overstrain is relieved, and the association fibres go by a 
more famihar by-path. 

Edinburgh medical students had an interesting mnemonic, 
which assisted in retaining correctly the position of nerves, 
arteries, and veins, on the inside of the ankle. It is an 
important piece of anatomy in treating deformities of the 
feet. 

The mnemonic ran thus : — 

Turner, for the tendon of the tibiahs (he was our popular 
professor) 

doth, for the tendon digitorum 

vex, for the vein 

all, for the artery 

very, for another vein 

nervous, for the nerve 

pupils, for the tendon of the pollux or toe. 

Probably this mnemonic has saved many a professional 
career at an examination. 

Some words or terms can only be stored up by mnemonics. 



CHAPTER X 

AUTOMATISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS 

AUTOMATIC ACTIONS : Subconsciousness on a lower plane of consciousness 
— Importance of accuracy of detail — Dual brain action — Consciousness 
and subconsciousness — Tracing a thought backwards to its origin, which 
is a sensory stimulus — Worries — Mental visualization— Dreams — Imagi- 
nation. MENTAL PICTURES LIKE PHOTOGRAPHS : UNDER- 
EXPOSED OR PROPERLY EXPOSED : Physical basis of memory and 
of imagination — The barrister — The case of the blind and mental ideation 

—Resume: Thought; Memory. INFANTILE MEMORY ALMOST 

ABSENT IN THE POOR AND UNEDUCATED ; Memory of B7— 

Memory in criminals and starved poor cases — Cause. COMPLEX 

AUTOMATIC ACTS : Consciousness and subconsciousness — Different 

levels of consciousness — Simile to an army — Mind. THEORISTS ON 

SUBJECTIVE MIND : The objective mind — The subjective mind— Sea 

of the memory and emotions — And the soul — And latent memory. 

THE ASSOCIATION CENTRES : The soul— Phenomenal memory and 
prodigies : Case of " Blind Tom " — Brain and mind — Lower brains — 

Education and association centres — Memories. INTUITION : Ancestral 

instincts in animals — Suggestion and the subjective mind — Hypnotism — 
" Under Control " — The preacher^ — The unseen influence — Imitation and 
suggestion. 

Automatic acts, such as playing music, dressing, cutting 
up one's food, walking in a thoroughfare, and so forth, become 
so by constant repetition in consciousness. As soon as the 
nerve channels are so perfected that fixed attention is no 
longer required, these actions seem to pass to the lower plane 
of subconsciousness already alluded to. But if anything 
occur to interrupt the smooth run of this auto-mechanism, 
as a note out of tune, then attention is aroused, and the pre- 
frontal or commandant is invoked to direct procedure. It 
is therefore extremely important in the commonplace details 
of every-day occurrences, to act methodically so as to establish 
accuracy of automatism. The brain continually acts in a 
dual capacity, consciously, and subconsciously or automatic- 
ally. If the automatic action has been trained without due 
care, it makes mistakes, rousing consciousness and absorbing 
the attention often unnecessarily. 



AUTOMATISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS 87 

Thus to take an ordinary illustration, a man may have 
his attention fully engaged in some important discussion or 
thought whilst shaving. If he has been painstaking in 
the latter aU goes well, but if clumsy or careless he is sure to 
cut himself. Suppose we have a serious trouble that is a 
great burden and anxiety absorbing the attention, we go 
through the routine of daily duties in a mechanical or sub- 
conscious fashion. The mind is preoccupied in deep thought. 
Thus whilst dressing the thoughts are fixed on the trouble 
in consciousness, but the process of dressing proceeds auto- 
matically in a state of subconsciousness. 

One is perhaps surprised, after puUing oneself together and 
saying "Begone, duU care," to find that one's garments are 
on and there is no memory of the actual performance. Later, 
when hurrying to business one finds an important letter missing. 
The upper consciousness ordered the lower consciousness 
to bring the letter half an hour ago. The letter is nowhere 
to be found, but arriving at one's office it is found secreted 
in some unusual way, having been specially placed there 
by the lower consciousness to avoid its being left behind 
in the general hurry. Thus the lower consciousness acts 
like a valet or private secretary to the Ego. This tedious 
description may be applied in all sorts of ways, by each indivi- 
dual, to show the varying degrees of subconsciousness. There 
are then, probably, different planes of the brain cortex, each 
of which have their own special associations and perhaps 
lower planes of attention. The lesson to be learnt is, that 
from infancy upwards the attention ought to be focussed 
to do everything carefully and accurately, so that processes 
of subconsciousness may work smoothly and correctly. 

Regarding the mechanism of thought from a different 
standpoint, it is interesting to trace a line of thought backwards 
to its source. One may thus find that it started as an indirect 
stimulus, from some hidden memory, which is but a latent 
sensory impression. Some picture memory, which is mental 
instead of actual, without any external cause being traceable, 
may start off a train of thought. Such a sequence often 
occurs at night when one has worries. The last brain stimulus 
or train of thought has not been shut off properly, and sleep 
cannot be sound if certain areas of the brain are semi-active. 



88 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Mental pictures of distressing circumstances may be connected 
up with vivid reality, and in some cases the association centres 
switch on motor groups, as in the case of sleep walking. It 
may be well asked by the layman, How can any one visualize 
when the room is dark, or even during sleep ? One can 
visualize mentally in the dark, by the revival of past impressions 
already stamped on the visual brain cells. In the case of 
sleep, where the control is lowered, this process is irregular, 
which leads to confusion and to the fantastic forms which 
dreams assume. This is the basis of imagination. The 
unfortunate speculator in the stiUness of the night, and some- 
times in the dreamy condition, pictures to himself the distress 
and ruin which are possible to him. If the mental agony 
is too protracted, physical depression of the heart and stomach 
(vagus nerve) and disturbance in the brain circulation cause 
actual suffering. 

Mental One cannot call up pictures unless the parts of them are 

like already stamped on the brain ceUs. If objects are not exam- 

Photo- ined carefully, they resemble under-exposed photographs, 
Unde/-' ^^^ ^^^ soon forgotten ; but important objects which fix the 
exposed or attention are stamped more or less permanently in the sight 
E^osed ^^^ auditory areas. This is the physical basis of memory 
and imagination which play such an important part in intel- 
lectual processes. 

Thus the prosecuting barrister from the account of his 
case rouses a series of mental pictures of the whole incident. 
During his address he is merely describing a mental vision. 
According to his zeal and ability he fills up the gaps of the 
evidence by associating some of his own memories. In other 
words he may have to appeal to his imagination, using the 
term in a proper and fair sense. The imagination must 
not be treated as if it were a perversion of truth, for it enters 
into every normal complex act of thought, for the mind, 
by rousing stored visual impressions, contributes a good deal 
more than does the eye. 

The architect designing a building resorts to his imagination, 
or visual memories, until his elevation and details are com- 
pleted. He has to imagine the size and position and decoration 
of the rooms, and all the processes arise from the association 



AUTOMATISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS 89 

of fragmentary memories. According to his past education 
so is his visual storehouse full or empty. 

A man blind from birth has of course no direct visual con- 
cepts, so his memories must be in other sensory areas, chiefly 
those of touch and sound. How pathetic and equally scientific 
is the account of the man blind from birth, who, when vision 
was restored, described men as " like trees walking." 

But though the sight may have been absent, yet I have 
found these afflicted ones trjdng to form mental pictures, 
as the result of descriptions from others. 

Resume. Thought then arises from sensory stimuli which 
may be external and actual, or internal and ima.ginary 
from associated memories. Memory is the result of correct 
observation, which implies attention or mental focussing, in 
order that external impressions can be stamped efficiently 
in the brain cortex. 

I have gone to some trouble in examining people of all Infantile 
classes, by way of testing their infantile memories. I can almost^ 
remember much of my life when three years old and one Absent in 
or two incidents when two. The same is common amongst andUn-*^ 
the educated and well noin-ished, and so may be regarded as educated 
normal. In the case of Mary Barnes, to be described later in 
Chapters XVII and XVIII, one subpersonaHty, B7, remem- 
bered events which happened before she was two years old. 
It is important to state that there was no imposture, nor had 
the events she described been mentioned in front of her. 

When we take the poor and uneducated we find them 
remarkably deficient in infantile memories. This is con- 
spicuous among the criminals, juvenile offenders, and homeless 
boys, whom I have examined, and fully reported on later. 
I might here, however, illustrate with two cases I examined 
casuaUy at Shadwell whilst being escorted one night to the 
docks. (1) A slender undeveloped boy with refined gentle 
features, who was fourteen years of age but looked only ten, 
and could remember nothing before he was eight years of age. 
His parents were Welsh, and he earned seven shiUings a week 
at a tinsmith's, working twelve hours a day, which is a little 
more than Id. an hour. His height was 4 ft. 8 in., and his 
weight 4 stone 8 lbs. net, which is 2 stone below the average. 



90 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

(2) The other case was a hoohgan ; a degenerate in every 
sense, extremely ugly and malproportioned, and with a nasty 
temper, but evidently docile if treated kindly. He was 
twenty-six years of age, but looked only seventeen, and 
he could remember nothing before he was the age of ten. 
His height was 5 ft. 2 in., and his net weight 9 stone, 
which is 2 stone below the average. 

Why are these memories so bad ? Is it mahiutrition in 
infancy, and want of good milk ? Or is it the intense monotony 
of their Hves, food one day, starvation the next, alternately ? 
Probably it is a little of each, but chiefly the instabihty of the 
brain cells from malnutrition. It is not so much under expo- 
sure of the mental photograph, as that Nature has been cheated 
in the quaUty and composition of the photo plates, if the 
simile may be extended, to compare the occipital cortex 
to such. It is rather non-development than want of educa- 
tion, although the pressure of State education puts on the 
finishing touches of mental obliteration. Their other finer 
perceptions are also dull. They are not good judges of 
shades of colour, and the natural delicacy of touch and fine 
muscular movements are likewise absent. This has been 
observed also in criminals.^ 

Complex Complex automatic movements are supposed by some 
malic *^ ^® revived memories in the motor areas, rather than revivals 
Acts in the sensory areas of sight, hearing, and even touch ; but 
the latter view is probably correct, as it is the route traversed 
during education, whilst the sensory cells stand as sentinels 
guarding against error, and are roused when special mental 
effort is made. 

Automatic action is interesting because it acts independently 
of attention, and sometimes of consciousness. It therefore 
opens a wide field for discussion on consciousness, subcon- 
sciousness, and even unconsciousness. Thus a skilled musician 
can play the piano and carry on a conversation at the same 
time. The automatic act of playing is subconscious ; and 
the theory is, that brain cells on a lower plane are in action, 
while the upper strata of brain cells are acting consciously 

^ Lombroso, L^homme criminel, 1887, part iii. ch. ii. p. 290. 



AUTOMATISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS 91 

during tlie conversation. Undoubtedly many automatic 
actions appear to be devoid of aU consciousness ; thus one 
may lock a drawer or put away papers or books, and have 
no memory or consciousness of the acts. It would indeed 
seem as if there were different levels and different degrees 
of consciousness from zero to fuU activity, and that when 
any act can be performed without attention or consciousness 
it falls to the lower plane, or there may be a subconsciousness 
which controls daily necessary actions, leaving the higher 
consciousness for emergencies. 

By way of illustration, it resembles an army, the regiments 
of which perform their routine without reference to or- super- 
vision from the general and his staff, who are only referred 
to in cases of emergency. 

So many volumes have been written on mind that Punch 
has felt it necessary to volunteer the opinion : " What is mind ? 
No matter. What is matter ? Never mind." 

The philosophers and theorists who are psychologists Theorists 
but not physiologists write very freely, and somewhat dog- ^^ctive ' 
matically, on the " subjective " mind. Their works would Mind 
be valuable if their premises were correct. They ignore 
the subtle and at present unfathomable actions of the associa- 
tion centres, which is excusable as they were so recently dis- 
covered. With our present knowledge the subjective mind 
requires to be measured by a different standard. 

Physiologists are allowed to hold opinions on the objective 
mind, which is represented on the cortex of the brain in the 
sensori-motor districts. 

The objective mind connects us with the outer world or 
our surroundings by the five senses. According to Hudson ^ 
and others its highest function is reasoning, which is in- 
ductive or analytical, discovering general principles from 
observation of details. 

The subjective mind is enveloped in mystery, for it is said 
to be independent of the brain or any physical basis, perceiving 
by intuition, and only able to act when the objective mind 
is in abeyance. Thus the subjective mind is in evidence during 
hypnosis, clairvoyance, and telepathy. It "is unqualifiedly 
^ The Law of Psychic Phenomena, ch. ii. 



92 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

and constantly amenable to the power of suggestion " (Hud- 
son, he. cit. Chap. II, p. 30). 

It is supposed to be the seat of the emotions and of memory, 
and accepts any statement as true, however absurd. Logically 
it is deductive or syllogistic or synthetic, but has no power 
to examine its premises. 

It is the soul, but if it " usurps complete control the individual 
goes insane." ^ It is also concerned in spiritism, but its know- 
ledge is Hmited by that of the medium through whom it 
communicates. 

It is liable to phenomenal memory, and Sir WiUiam Hamilton 
applied to it the term " latent memory." 

The The unlimited complexity of the association centres and 

tiorT"^" ^^^ limited knowledge of the brain must be accepted pro tern. 
Centres as an excuse for dogmatism on this very interesting subject. 
The soul as the medium between God and man is probably 
something higher than mind, and the limitations placed 
by the medium on the powers of spirits relegate them to a 
so much lower position, as to eliminate them from present 
consideration. Phenomenal memory is seen in some cases 
of double personality, as in B7 of my case Mary Barnes, 
to be described in Chapters XVII and XVIII, whereas 
new light is shed on prodigies by the powers Mary 
Barnes exhibited of drawing when blind, and yet unable 
to draw in her normal condition. Hudson says that " music 
belongs to the realm of the subjective," and thus explains the 
marvels of some prodigies, quoting the instance of the negro 
idiot, " Blind Tom " {loc. cit., Chap. VI), who having no 
objective mind, and no education, could play any musical 
piece, however complex, after hearing it once. 

In studying mind one must remember that the simplest 
processes of objective mentation must involve the action 
of lower groups of association ceUs. 

Intuition The subject of intuition merits present consideration as 
it is usually ascribed to the subjective mind. When a man 
claims to be guided intuitively in certain matters, if his judg- 
ment be carefully analysed, it would be traced to a series of 
^ Loc. cit., Hudson. 



AUTOMATISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS 93 

similar occurrences or experiences in the past. The difficulty- 
is in actually tracing the forgotten past, so that some of the 
past seems to be ancestral or in our parents rather than in 
ourselves. These are often erroneously caUed ancestral 
instincts. Ancestral instincts are, however, seen in lower 
animals, such as the fear of man in wild fledglings, as in the 
wild duck, in contrast to the absence of that fear in domestic 
chickens or ducklings. But much that is termed " ancestral 
instinct " in the lower " creation," I consider to be merely the 
representation of an automatic, machine-like brain. 

In regard to suggestion acting on the subjective mind, as 
is especially evinced in hypnotism, there is little difficulty in 
explanation. In hypnotism, as in the first stage of chloro- 
form or natural sleep, there is paralysis of control, and some 
loss of outward attention. The sensori-motor and lower 
associations are receptive, but the individual being deprived 
of wiU and judgment is necessarily " under control." The 
same semi-hypnotic effect is obtained in some reHgious 
services by monotonous or continuous music. The preacher 
is then in fuU control, and the effect he produces depends 
on the particular condition of the hearer. In emotional people 
like the Welsh, the influence of numbers heightens the effect. 

But between man and man there is always an unseen in- 
fluence, the stronger over the weaker. If the stronger is wicked 
the result is disaster and vice versa. The older writers term 
the two hving but unseen forces Example and Precept ; we 
caU them Imitation and Suggestion. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN 

No apology required for pressing this subject on the layman. The key of 

social problems. MAN IS THE EVOLUTION OF COUNTLESS AGES : 

The lower forms of brain represented in man — The cortex in man and 

lower animals. THE MYSTERY OF THE CORTEX: Microscopic 

appearance — Cells and fibres — Each cell or neuron a unit — Its processes 
or fibres — Dendrons — Axons — Fibrillar network — Shapes — Tigroid bodies. 

THE LAYERS OF THE CORTEX : Bolton's five layers— Watson's 

law of cortical architecture in mammals — The granular layer^The infra- 
granular or polymorph layer. THE MYSTERY OF INSTINCT : The 

supragranular layer — Psychic or mental. RESUME : Bolton's classifica- 
tion — Watson's classification — Comparison of human polymorph layer 
with the same in other mammals — The supragranular layer in man and 

animals. THE PYRAMIDAL LAYER — in aments and dements : The 

best developed cells are the oldest — Undeveloped cells in cortex — The 

brain before birth — The brain at birth — Prefrontal undeveloped. 

THE KEY OF THE SOCIAL PROBLEM : The slummer's brain— The 
criminal's brain — Cause of prison failure — The Salvation Army — Punish- 
ment on wrong basis— Law— Politics. DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN : 

Cell — Embryonic nuclei — Their use to adult — Condition in aments — Insula- 
tion of fibres — Their chemical composition : aids in staining processes. 

FLECHSIG'S DISCOVERIES : Sensory fibres are insulated before motor 
— Association fibres last — A sense of position. 

If any lay reader be interested in the previous chapter he will 
naturally inquire into the more delicate or microscopic structure 
of the brain. It requires no apology for introducing this 
material, for it is essential in order to understand the evolution 
of the child's mind and the mental phenomena of the weak- 
minded and of the criminal. It is just this absense of technical 
detail which prevents the politicians, philanthropists and 
lawyers from joining with the medical faculty in placing crimin- 
ology on its true basis. They talk of liberty, free will, and 
responsibility, as if they had the same value amongst this 
class as amongst others. 

The physical basis, therefore, must be recognized, and it 
is the only firm structure on which we can build a healthy 
social system or commonwealth. 



Two normal pyramidal cells. 




Two diseased cells the result or cause of neuritis. Note that the tigroid pattern has 
become diffuse or powdery ; and one nucleus is being pushed out. 



To face page 95. 



Kindly lent by Dr. John Turner. 



THE MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN 95 

We must realize that man was not a sudden afterthought Man is 
or accident in the creation, but that he became the capping ju^on'^of 
stone, after ages of evolution through lower stages. This is Countless 
exemplified during the foetal condition, where his development ^^* 
in utero reflects at different stages the lower forms of life from 
which he is evolved. We need only concern ourselves with 
the brain, without pursuing the details of primitive types. 
Suffice it to recapitulate that the optic lobes and other ganglia 
in the brains of fish and birds are represented at the base of 
the human brain. In the mammals an improved superstructure 
is added, which has been suggested in birds. This superstruc- 
ture we call the Cortex or grey matter, and it contains' rows 
of cells and fibres which form the basis of thought or mentation. 
This cortex forms a thin layer on the surface of the convolu- 
tions of the brain to a depth of J to f of an inch. In order to 
examine the ceUs carefully, very thin sections are cut at right 
angles to the surface, and after certain staining processes, can 
be examined with the microscope, whereby we can fix a normal 
standard and detect deficiencies, either in quahty or quantity, 
size or shape. There are, at a rough guess, 50 to 80 rows of 
cells, but the number is very variable according to the area 
and development. 

Though the mystery of the cortex remains unravelled, The 
and is a deep impenetrable study to the physiologist, yet it ^^the^ 
is possible to give a clear general idea to the layman. Cortex 

Under the microscope {see Fig. p. 108) one sees rows of cells 
and fibres. It is computed by some that there are 4000 
miUions of cells, a point at any time difficult to estimate. 
Each nerve cell, however, is a unit in itself, which we call 
a neuron. 

There is first a round central nucleus which in early evolution 
builds up the cell body (cytoplasm) around it. Each cell has 
two kinds of processes. At the apex there are so many deHcate 
branches that they look like the root of a tree (Fig. p. 60), 
hence the Greek name, dendrons, is appUed. 

These dendrons are " receptors," or receivers, carrying 
impressions to the cell. 

At the base of the cell is a single outgoing fibre called the 
axon, which carries the special impulse or form of nerve motion 



96 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

of which that particular cell is capable. The various staining 
methods have demonstrated a network of fibrils {see Fig. opp.) 
in the body of the cell, hence it is believed that there is an 
infinitesimal network carrying impressions right through 
the dendrons, and the cell into the axon. 

The cells vary much in shape. Conspicuous are triangular 
cells, some of which loom out largely and are big motor cells 
(Betz). They contain, in their body substance, stainable 
platelets, called tigroid bodies, which give the appearance of a 
leopard's skin (Fig. p. 95). It is not yet clearly understood 
what their use is, but in acute disease they disintegrate and 
disappear. 

As each nervous system has been planted above the last 
during evolution, so the lower earlier structures remain as 
ganglia or "way stations," en route from below to the cortex. 
The whole plan and structure might have suggested our 
modern telephone system. 

The Upon the number of the layers of the cortex the views of 

oMh" many experts differ. Some make out twelve layers, some six, 
Cortex and so on. Light was shed by two pathologists who, working 
separately, and from different points arrived at similar conclu- 
sions. 

Dr. Joseph Shaw Bolton in the Phil. Trans, of the Royal 
Society in 1900 described five layers in the cortex, and this 
view has been adopted by most leading physiologists, including 
Dr. Mott in his classical Bowman lecture on the visual area 
(1905). 

Dr. G. A. Watson, working at the comparative anatomy of 
the brains among mammals, formulated the principles or laws 
of cerebral cortical architecture. 

He showed that the essential part of the lower mammalian 
cortex consisted only of two layers. 

(1) A layer of round cells, called granules, and generally 
termed the sensory layer. It is not, however, strictly a sensory 
layer, being the receptor of sensory impressions from other 
areas. 

(2) The second layer, the infragranular layer, also called the 
polymorph layer, because the cells vary so much in shape, 
lies beneath this ; being ovoid, triangular, and angular, some 




A diagramatic sketch of a nerve cell to illustrate the arrangement of fibrils, 
which arise in the dendrons or branches, and pass to the nucleus, conveying 
different impressions: and thence to the exit or axon at the base. The tigroid 
platelets or Nissl bodies are formed of a chemically unknown substance lying 
between the fibrils. They disappear with fatigue or disease, and are therefore a 

sign of a normal cell in health. 
Facing page 96. 



A diagramatic sketch of cells and fibres in the Cortex. 




The top layer, the tangential (i), contains delicate fibrils of association 

and is the first to decay when mind fails. The 2nd or supra radial 

layer disappears next. The finer fibres decay before the coarser ones. 

This gives an idea of the interlacing of processes and of axons (a) 

descending ; each system forms a neuron. 

Drawn by Miss B. Wilson. 

Facing page 97. 



THE MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN 97 

small and some large. This layer associates many of the sensory 
impressions received. It is, therefore, truly an instinctive 
layer ; in fact when Watson first demonstrated this to me some 
years ago I said he had solved the mystery of instinct versus 
intelligence. 



Moreover Watson found this layer as thick in the lower The 
animals as in man, because they Hve by instinct. Bolton Mystery 
also observed in the decay of the mind, when the instincts instinct 
or desires of nature had disappeared then the instinctive layer 
had likewise disintegrated. It was a great step forward in 
psychology, to be able to locate nature's cells and functions, 
and separate them from the mind proper. 

On top of the external cellular layer, there appeared in 
lower mammals a thin layer of pyramidal cells — the supragranu- 
lar layer. This slowly increases in depth and complexity 
as we rise in the scale. Cats and dogs are fairly well equipped, 
while lower carnivora Hke the ferret are poorly developed. 
That of the ourang and chimpanzee almost equals that of 
the human. 

The function of this layer is mental or psychic. 

We have then three distinct layers superimposed. The Resume 
middle is granular and a receptor layer and serves as a land- 
mark. The deeper or infragranular has the function of in- 
stinct ; while the superior, external, or supragranular is usually 
styled the pyramidal layer, and is concerned in the intelli- 
gence. 

Externally — Bolton's 

First 

(1) The tangential layer, Classifi- 
made of delicate association fibres. ^pt-i^ 

(2) The pyramidal layer, ^J^'^^ 
of cells whose function is psychic or mental. 1900.) 

(3) The granular layer, consisting of 
sensory cells, receptive in function. 

(4) The layer of BaiUarger, a fibre layer called after the French 
physiologist. It contains a few ceUs, especially the large 
motor ceUs of Betz. 

H 



98 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

(5) The polyrnorph layer of ceUs now regarded by Watson and 
myself as purely instinctive and shown by Bolton in the 
human to be concerned in Nature's duties. 
Thus Bolton made out three cell layers and two fibre layers. 
This classification is the most accurate yet described. 

The later classification adopted by Watson is a purely 
ceUular arrangement. 

(1) Supragranular or pyramidal layer, psychic in function. 

(2) Granular or sensory in function, a receptor layer. 

(3) Polymorphic layer, the layer of instincts. 

I shall for simphcity foUow this description, ignoring the 
fibril layers as not essential to my purpose, for I wish to empha- 
size Watson's discovery ^ that the polymorph layer is almost 
as thick in the mole as in the child, in spite of the immense 
difference in the sizes of the two brains. There is indeed very 
little difference in thickness between that of the adult human 
and of the rabbit ; whereas the supragranular or intellectual 
layer is in the rabbit only ^ of the depth attained in the human 
brain. Even before birth the pyramidal layer in the human 
is three times the depth of the same layer in the mole or the 
rabbit. It was also Dr. Watson's opinion that those animals 
which had to five by their wits had the best shaped pyramidal 
cells. 

The Pyra- The pyramidal layer will always be associated with Bolton's 
Layer great work in the way of measuring its depth in dements and 
aments (imbeciles). In these he found a thinning or wasting 
in proportion to the loss of mental power. In the case of 
imbeciles and idiots the thinness of the layer was due to non- 
development. The relationship between intellect or intelligence 
and this pyramidal layer helps us with the problem of the 
criminal. The pyramidal layer has larger and better formed 
cells at the bottom, while more superficially the cells are 
smaller and not so well shaped. The deeper cells are necessarily 
older in time, so their depth is probably due to the evolution 
of Ages. This is confirmed by the presence of round cells or 
nuclei on the outer surface of the layer. In the unborn child 

^ See Archives of Neurology, vol. iii, 1907 for Dr. Watson's discourse 
on the Mammalian cerebral cortex, p. 109, and Proceedings Roy. Soc, 
B., vol. Ixxvii, 1905. 






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Facing page 99. 



THE MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN 99 

these unripened cells are more mimerous ^ than in the adult, 
as if they were nuclei "waiting for orders." This illustrates 
the effect of education. I here use education in its true sense, 
not in any way connected with what is called education 
at Whitehall. 

Dr. Shaw Bolton has also worked out the development of 
the brain before birth. 

The infragranular layer first appears four months before 
birth and is then | of its normal depth. 

About the same time the granular layer appears, only half 
its ultimate depth. A little later the pyramidal layer may 
be seen J of its normal thickness. Here then, we have a brain 
about equal to a rabbit's. 

At birth, this pjrramidal layer is of nearly normal thickness 
in the motor and sensory regions ; less in the psychic or associ- 
ation areas ; while in the prefrontal cortex, the seat of will 
and control, it attains only half its destined development. 

This knowledge gives us the only lever by which we can arrest The Key 
our present rapid national deterioration. Consider the " slum- °* ^^ 
mer's " brain, how it is arrested in infancy by starvation, Problem 
hereditary taint and alcohol. Its sensori-motor part is nearly 
normal, as we find in criminals ; yet not quite, for criminals are 
mostly deficient in sensation and in fine muscular action. Their 
control power, will, and faculty of continued attention which 
reside in the prefrontal have never been trained or developed 
in youth. So in the criminal we have the man with a child's 
undeveloped control and will. We now can understand why 
these cases cannot improve by our present prison methods, 
and why they fall away after apparent reform, unless they 
come under such protecting care as that of the Salvation 
Army or some similar agency. 

We can also appreciate the injustice of punishment in many 
cases. Each criminal should be viewed as a cHnical or psycho- 
logical study. When Law admits a httle knowledge into its 
veins, and purity takes the place of passion in pohtics, then 
the nation will look after the undeveloped prefrontal cortex 
and give it a fair chance of normal development. 

1 See figs. pp. 104, 108. 



100 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

I wiU hark back to this subject in the Chapter on Re- 
sponsibiHty. 

Develop- Every brain cell develops from a small round nucleus in the 

ment of i i • i • -T a. i i ,, t i 

Brain embryo, which is termed neuroblast . In that antenatal 

Cells condition the whole brain is laid down in these important 

structures, and many of these embryonic nuclei or cells remain 

through adult life. Perhaps they form a reserve force, and 

give opportunity for recovery in brain disease, or for further 

development racially or even individually, by opening up 

fresh tracks or communications. 

Apart from brain disease these embryonic nuclei play a 
great part in the animal economy, because they offer chances 
for higher intellectual development. No one attains his or 
her highest possibilities, for we always find some of these 
embryonic nuclei undeveloped on the extreme surface of the 
pyramidal, which is our highest layer of activity. Rows of 
these nuclei are waiting in all our brains, like raw recruits, 
ready to be drilled into active service. I have observed that 
they are very abundant in the dips of the convolutions. In 
imbeciles or weakminded people they are absent, they are 
also destroyed by infantile meningitis, or malnutrition and 
hereditary taints, thus crippling the individual from his first 
start. 

We must now turn our attention to the fibres which carry 
the messages or impulses to and from the cells and groups 
of cells. 

There are two classes of fibres : 

insulated and noninsulated. 

The motor fibres which leave the cells of the cortex to pass 
to the muscles are insulated, as are also the sensory fibres 
running from the skin to the cortex. 

The insulating sheath is complex both in its structure, 
arrangement and chemical composition. In nerve diseases 
or neuritis it disintegrates, resulting in loss of function, pain 
and paralysis. Under certain chemical treatment in the 
laboratory the fibres take on a black stain and by this method 
Flechsig made important researches in the development of 
different areas of the brain before the birth of the indivi- 
dual. 



Sketch of nerve fibres. 






A and B are non-insulated fibres and fibrils as in the sympathetic system. 

C represents an insulated fibre. 

D. The section of a nerve showing healthy and atrophied fibres. 

In C, I marks the insulating or myelin sheath. In neuritis this disintegrates. 
2 is a sheath which encloses the fibre. The dark central line is the ' axis 
cylinder ' or fibre ; the middle sheath keeps the fibre in health. 




Section of an embryo-brain to show the first insulation of fibres. 
The black fibres are the sensory and first to develop. 
Facing page 100. 



The Cortex of a Kitten before birth. 




This shows tlie whole brain cortex laid down in cell nuclei or neuro- 
blasts. No pyramidal cells have yet developed. The dotted lines 
mark the upper border of the layers. 




This shows the condition of advanced neuritis. The broader fibres 

have degenerated and are swollen. The dark round and oval bodies 

are phagocytes scavenging. (See Fig. page 7.) 



Facing page 101 . 



THE MINUTE STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN 101 

Flechsig discovered in 1890 that the brain developed in Flechsig's 
different areas at different times, and he divided the cortex eries°^" 
into three areas : 

sensory, motor and association areas. 

The sensory areas are concerned with the five senses, of 
which the sense of touch evolves first. That is shown by the 
strands of fibres, which Flechsig called " projection systems," 
blackening first. 

The strands of fibres or projection system running from 
the motor cortex to the muscles develop later. While the 
last to evolve are the association fibres, some of the more deli- 
cate of which are thought to be non-insulated. 

One infers from this that as sensation precedes motion 
in development, hkewise muscular movement depends 
primarily on the sensation of touch. This is more applicable 
to the lower forms of life which are not so well developed 
in the other senses. As a simple example take the sea 
anemone; or consider how the muscular system depends 
on touch in the absence of fight and sound to guide, which 
also explains the value of massage and skin rubbing in restor- 
ing weak and flabby muscle. The insulation must be perfect 
to prevent confusion of messages. 

Thus with the eyes closed cases so affected cannot stand 
upright, or walk without stumbling, or if asked to touch 
the nose would touch the mouth, and so on. There is in the 
brain a sense of position or " stereognism," by which one 
knows where one is, and where each hmb is situated. If 
lost, the equihbrium is disturbed and limbs might be moved 
about without the patient knowing exactly where they were. 



CHAPTER XII 

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN CORTEX 

Brain areas — Sensori-motor area. THE MOTOR AREAS : Size of area 

on cortex varies according to skill required — Speech centre — Hand centre 
— Educating hand centre as in writing — Muscle motion in thought — 
In the educated, automatic — In the uneducated motor centres assist 
visibly — Sloyd — The association centres of complex arrangement — Nodal 

points in centre — Their situations. PREFRONTAL AREA : Seat of 

the emotion and personality — Experiments on apes — Tumour in pre- 
frontal — Prefrontal the general — Prefrontal sends its fibres all over the 

brain— Latest to develop. SEAT OF SELF-CONTROL : Intelligence 

varies with its development — Senile dements sent to prison — 111 develop- 
ment amongst the poor — Consciousness. 

To the Sociologist it is of the greatest importance all through 
this study to remember these ; three great functions of the 
brain, that unseen machine, working underneath aU these 
vital problems. They are : — 

(1) Sensory centres which are receptive, 

(2) Motor centres to direct the muscles, and 

(3) Association centres, which as their name implies connect 
the above and are concerned in the processes of thought. 

The great sensori-motor area is shown in several of the 
diagrams. 

The Motor It will be seen that the greater part of the front half of the 
®** cortex is given up to motor functions. These cells originate 
the movements of groups of muscles, on receiving stimuli 
from sensory cells situated behind, or experimentally the 
same effect may be produced by weak galvanism directly 
appHed to the surface of the brain. There is one centre for 
the foot at the posterior part, others for the leg and thigh 
further in front. StiU more to the front are the centres for 
the arm, hand and face. The area of each centre varies accord- 
ing to the amount of skill required. Thus the lower hmbs 
have proportionally smaller areas than the upper limbs, for 
though the muscles are larger yet they are coarser ; whereas 



WoteoTKtiifSpi 



Assowtion CfBlri/ '^ 




"' '«( Tfmp'41 ^' i (He Insuii 



^- Fta«y 

I ^Gicar Mil- 
I- \A$j8C0fa 




S/nis RfCtus 
J- Ceirre of Swll 



f" LEC H3i&'S AS SOOATiON CENTRES 
Kindly lent by Dr. Molt. 

M 




PF 



Brain of a female lunatic, aged 53 ; showing general wasting, especially of the 
prefrontal association area (PF) ; also in the frontal (F) ; moderate wasting in 
the parieto-occipital association areas (P, O) and temporal (T) ; whereas the 
sensori motor areas (S, M) stand out by contrast. She was an advanced dement. 

Kindly lent by Dr. Bolton. 
Facing page 103. 



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN CORTEX 103 

in regard to the upper limb, the hand has a larger group of 
cells to direct it than has the rest of the upper hmb. 

The speech centre is another area, large out of proportion, 
because of the intricate movements of the tongue and Hps. 

The motor centre of the hand requires to be large, for 
manual skiU is one of the distinguishing features of the human 
race, and the hand is capable of being trained to such a variety 
of delicate movements. 

Each act, during the period of education, has to proceed 
slowly until by practice several simple movements are " joined 
up ", or associated. Thus in writing one's name, at first each 
letter was carefully worked out, being as it were photographed 
on the area of sight for future reference, or remembrance. 

In the absence of a printed copy this mental picture would 
through the association centre guide the hand, while in dicta- 
tion the stimulus from the auditory area would have to be 
associated with or " switched on " to this same visual centre 
and thence to the motor centre. 

Practice leads to perfection, so that groups of cells, form- 
erly acting slowly and separately, now work rapidly and 
automatically. One can understand how muscular move- 
ments enter prominently into many other processes of thought, 
and how the processes become rapid and automatic or 
sub-conscious in the educated. 

More attention is being paid to muscle movements in educa- 
tion, and herein Hes the value of the Sloyd and Swedish 
methods. 

About 1894 Flechsig announced the discovery of four, Thought 
perhaps five association centres {see diagram). 

(1) The parietal and 

(2) Occipital which fuse into one. 

(3) The temporal. 

(4) The prefrontal, which is the highest in function and is 
discussed freely in Chap. XXII, in connexion with responsi- 
bility. 

(5) The insular and precuneal which are of simple organi- 
zation and probably wiU be found in the lower animals. 

Fibres from the sensory areas run into these districts, 
their object being, as the name indicates, to switch together 



104 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

different impressions as they are received from the outer 
world and to convey messages to the motor districts. This 
process of association represents thought. 

Flechsig found each association area was not simple but 
complex. He found the centre of each had a " nodal point " 
or position of superior mental activity, and divided them 
into central and peripheral territories, the latter having 
some intermediate function. We have yet more to discover, 
but Flechsig proved that when the " nodal points " were dam- 
aged on both right and left sides of the brain " intelligence 
is affected and especially is the association of ideas interrupted." 
These functions are especially interfered with in affections 
of the posterior (parietal) centres of association." This 
opinion is held by Dr. Mott and other observers. This fact 
is interesting to phrenologists as showing the intellectual 
activity of the hinder part of the brain, whereas they place 
many undesirable qualities at the back of the skull. A glance 
at Fig. p. 79 shows the position of the different association 
areas in the cortex as follows : — 

The parieto-occipital or posterior association area, from 
its situation between the visual and sensori-motor areas, 
links up the sense of sight with all muscular acts. At each 
side above the ears is the temporal association area which 
joins up sight with hearing. 

In the very front of the brain, above the brows (prefrontal), 
there is a smaller association area, absent in the lower mammals 
and very rudimentary if at all in apes, being the highest refine- 
ment in the work of the Great Architect. It confers on mental 
activity the higher control, the power to direct wisely, and 
the force of inhibition or seff-control. When this area is 
diseased as in general paralysis or in mild degrees of alcoholism, 
wisdom and control disappear. 

Some writers place the Ego or personahty in this small 
association centre. They base their opinions on experi- 
ments, and cases of disease. Thus when a monkey has its 
forebrain destroyed it loses normal parental instinct towards 
its young and becomes savage. 

Many years ago I saw a patient with a mahgnant tumour 
in the prefrontal areas on each side. I diagnosed it by several 
symptoms, including the absence of motor or sensory defects. 



The meeting of the visuo-sensory and visuo-psychic centres. 



Pyr. 



IV 
and 




Outer 
Granules. 



Line of 
Gennari. 



Inner 

Granular 

layer. 



IV and 

V. 



White 

Substance 

or 

Medullary 

portion. 



X400. 



It IS clearly recognizable where these two differently functioned areas meet. 
The visuo-psychic on the left has a deep layer of pyramids, and a single row of 
granules. In the centre of the plate the latter splits into two, an outer shallow 
granular layer and an inner deeper layer. Between them is the line of Gennari. 
This is the visuo-sensory area of Bolton. This is from the cortex of a Mangaby 
which died of tubercle of the brain. The tubercle invaded the white substance 
only, whereas the more vascular grey substance resisted the invasion of the 

bacilli. 
I am indebted to Mr. Beddard F.R.S. for facilities in his laboratory and fur the specimen. 

Fanng page 104. 



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN CORTEX 105 

For two years he had shown loss of attention in business, 
causing much inconvenience to his customers. 

There was also a great change in his disposition towards 
his family and friends. His whole intellectual sphere and 
even his personality were damaged, while at the same time 
he showed no care or trouble for the distress his family laboured 
under, nor could he locate himself as the cause. One cir- 
cumstance which especially tried them, was that he could 
not read correctly, nor would he conduct family prayers, 
and while his son performed that office he went on indiffer- 
ently with his breakfast. How often do similar symptoms 
appear, without tumour. It is then probably want of develop- 
ment or of use. We may from many proofs safely declare 
the prefrontal to be the highest brain association centre : 
the leader of the house : the commandant, and director of 
the other association areas. We know anatomically that 
it has fibres going to every part of the brain ; so that it can 
command or originate brain action or thought in any centre. 
We have seen in a previous chapter that it is the last to 
develop or ripen, for at birth it is only half its adult thickness, 
and this corresponds with observation, for wisdom does not 
belong to youth, nor always to adults. It depends on phys- 
ical evolution, aided by the continued efforts of perception 
and attention. 

So we cannot become wise, which includes the higher moral Seat of 
qualities, as seK-control, unless we exercise all our faculties. ^^^^" 
This is one reason why the uneducated poor are at such a 
disadvantage and often become criminals. Who can blame 
them, when they have had no chance of mental improvement ? 
What will happen when we banish all religion from the State 
schools ? 

Dr. Bolton says (in Brain, 1903), that the great anterior 
association centre is undeveloped in all grades of primary men- 
tal deficiency, and undergoes wasting pari passu as dementia 
occurs. Would that these words could be remembered 
thoughtfully by every criminal lawyer and judge. It is 
on this knowledge a great error to send a man to prison for 
horse-stealing at the age of 84, as senile dementia may be in 
progress, while on the other hand a very heavy percentage of 



106 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

our gaol-birds are partial aments with undeveloped cortex, 
and yet the State insists on hunting them down. 

Whenever we are consulted by the poorer classes we must 
feel struck with their helplessness and inability to focus their 
attention, or arrive at wise decisions. It is not right to 
despise or neglect them. On the contrary they require our 
patient sympathy, to assist in putting some of their prefrontal 
neurons into activity. We see fortunately the reverse condi- 
tions where some of the poor are self-educated and very capable, 
and there is no reason why knowledge, intelligence and moral 
control should be the privilege of the rich. 

The prefrontal represents the activity or personality of 
the Ego, which is the highest form of consciousness. From 
this we descend to states of motor and sensory conscious- 
ness, until we reach a plane for automatic actions and 
subconsciousness, which subject has been dealt with in 
Chap. XI. 

The posterior association area, the " silent " parietal lobe, 
non-responsive to galvanism, is one of the finest concepts 
of the Great Architect. It gives width and size to the back 
of the head, and has been observed in great thinkers, as Helm- 
holz, Liebig, DoUinger, Bach, Beethoven, Kant and many 
others. It is the seat of the intellect, and hence belongs to 
man, though it is represented feebly in the apes. It associates 
man's environment with the direction of his actions. It 
switches on his visual cortex behind, to his sensori motor 
cortex in front, including hearing and speech. Dr. Mott in 
his classical Bowman lecture, 1904, on the " The Evolution 
of the Visual Cortex in the Mammalia " points out the relation- 
ship of this area, the parietal lobe, to the area of vision, the 
occipital pole (see Fig. p. 79). In apes the sensory visual 
cortex hes partly on the outer surface of the occipital pole ; 
but in man through the increased development of his parietal 
lobe, this visual cortex is pushed back, round the corner into 
the middle line. But in some human beings, of low intellect, 
and consequently a smaller parietal lobe, this has not happened. 
There is in them a set back or reversion towards the ape. 
Dr. Watson showed me some years ago an imbecile's brain, 
which in this respect resembled an ourang's brain which we 
were then examining. 



THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN CORTEX 107 

Elliot Smith has described a similar condition in some 
Egyptian FeUaheen and Soudanese brains. Dr. Mott has 
also described in his lecture similar conditions in natives of 
China, the Congo, and even in some Europeans and British, 
and in about twenty per cent, of the insane. Clearly then 
man is hable to a set-back in his brain architecture, and i£ it 
be lowered towards the status of a goriUa or ourang, it is in 
one sense a reversion. Surely then we need not be too 
anxious about forcing education on the coloured races. Mr. 
Charles RoUeston, who has travelled much, has observed that 
the negro can be educated only to a certain point, and that 
not very far. Similarly amongst our duUards and defectives, 
we can safely surmise that in some cases there is structural 
defect, and in consequence " education " as now administered 
is hopeless, nay, more, destructive. It also suppHes a key 
to the hves and pecuhar actions of the criminal masses, and 
explains why many drop out of good surroundings into their 
ranks. I wiU aUude again to this subject in the description 
(p. 224,) of a murderer's brain in Chap. XXI. 



CHAPTER XIII 

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE BRAIN 

ENVIRONMENT : A slum infant's brain — Action of disease on cells. 

ALCOHOL : Deeper cell layers older in development — Superficial cell 
layers recent and unstable — Alcoholic poisoning of these, and the results 

morally — Cases of alcoholic dements treated as criminals. ALCOHOL 

A BRAIN POISON : The condition of the slightly damaged brain— Early 

loss of control with unfortunate results. LAW AND MEDICINE 

SHOULD JOIN IN PROTECTING SUCH : Case to illustrate— Senile 
devolution. FAILURE OF MENTAL POWER : Its effect in Parlia- 
ment — In senile decay the reflection of childhood. INCIPIENT MEN- 
TAL DECAY : Symptoms — Improvement of the fair sex through occu- 
pation — Frequency of arrested development in childhood. LOWER 

POTENTIAL IN STARVED CHILDREN : Treatment of weakened brains. 
ANTENATAL CONDITIONS AND PROSPECTS— POSTNATAL EN- 
VIRONMENT AND ITS CONSEQUENCE : Illegitimacy. 

Environ- Few people understand the correct application of the term 
^ environment. It is not limited to our outward surround- 

ings in this world. It actually commences before birth. 
Thus to the chick the contents of the egg form its environ- 
ment ; and so with the human family, a great responsibility 
rests with the mother in paying due regard to the environment 
of her unborn babe. 

No one knows the quality of brain, even in a child, what- 
ever the external appearance is like, therefore it behoves all 
to raise the brain potential to its highest development. 

I examined the brain of a prematurely born infant from 
a Westminster slum, which was so highly developed in all 
areas, and very rich in its embryonic nuclei, that it was 
intended by the Great Architect for a position of eminence 
and usefulness. Yet one could not regret its demise, for 
the slum life and the mill of civilization probably would have 
ground down the normal Ego to a degraded subpersonality. 
I felt constrained to offer a short prayer for the offspring 
of the slum dwellers. I have met them at the Salvation 
Army bureau in the adult form, as social derelicts, yet not 
of their own making ; as we have seen, unwholesome sur- 
roundings cause alterations in the ceUs of the brain. 

108 




A slummer's brain, one month before birth (Westminster) 
A well-patterned cortex. 








o 



Ph 



This is a section of the infant's brain, showing the dip (D), of a sulcus ; at the 
foot of which there are an excess of nuclei and an absence of pyramidal cells. 
Observe the nuclei at the surface (N) ; (P) is a well-packed layer of pyramidal 
cells, normal ; (G) is the granular layer, and (Pol.) the polymorph. Compare 
this cortex with that of the murderer, insane and alcoholic, pp. 220 to 227. 

Facing page 108. 



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DRUNK^RD 



Drawn from the microscope to show the brain cortex in the above 

three conditions. Note the great shrinkage from chronic alcoholism 

in layer II, the pyramidal, or layer of intellect. How then can a 

drunkard be responsible ? 



Facing page J 09. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE BRAIN 109 

Thus in acute alcoholism they are swollen and the nuclei 
pushed aside ; while in old standing cases of alcoholism they 
are shrivelled up beyond repair. Through the courtesy of 
Dr. Mott I examined in his laboratory at Claybury Asylum 
the brain of a patient in whom alcoholism had persisted for 
years." So many of the pyramidal cells were destroyed 
that the cortex was very much diminished in thickness. This 
ceU destruction is quite sufficient to explain the want of will 
power, vacillation and irresponsibility in the drunkard. 

As evolution or development is from within outwards, it 
can be plainly realized that the deeper layers of the pyramidal 
ceUs are more educated, while the more recent superficial 
ceUs are less stable. These less stable external layers are the 
first to disappear in alcoholic decay,and we can safely infer 
are the first to suffer in mild intoxication. Among those not 
well equipped in morals or intelHgence, when the higher control 
which society demands is weakened by alcohol, we get not 
merely silly actions, but crimes of varying degrees of gravity. 
Here is a wide field for discussion with arguments and evidence 
to fill many volumes. The jurist will not absolve the mildly 
intoxicated from responsibility, or make any allowance for 
the temptation he is exposed to. Those who imbibe mildly, 
after a certain period of brain damage lose their power of 
resistance to the drink craving. It thus forms a vicious circle 
from which there is no escape, so long as the drink traffic 
remains in its present condition. Imagine the absurdity, as 
well as the injustice of sending a woman, of 74, to 3 years' 
penal servitude for steahng about 10s. worth of material ; 
for she was an alcoholic dement and the fact that she was 
a petty thief all her life shows that she has been mentally 
deficient, and years ago should have been protected from 
herseK.^ 



1 In The Times of June 20, 1907, a case is reported of an old man 
aged 85 being sent to prison for 18 months with hard labour for 
stealing a horse. It is not the first crime of the kind, and he had 
spent altogether 41 years in prison. Has his mental machinery ever 
been normal ? Is it ignorance, stupidity or culpable neglect on the 
part of the State ? 

" A ciorious-looking woman," aged 74, was recently sent to penal 
servitude for 3 years for stealing a pair of shoes. The detective 



110 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Alcohol Alcohol is the most powerful brain poison we have in use. 

—A Brain j j^ave referred to its influence on the race by heredity, but 
Poison . . . . 

this seems a fitting place to give caution to young people 

who have a healthy desire as to their future prosperity. Many 

young men imbibe not only wine but also spirits, and think 

the smaU quantities they take can do no harm. It is not a 

question of no damage to the brain, but the ratio of injury 

to other cells which are awaiting development. It simply 

means that young people who indulge deprive themselves 

of attaining their fullest mental powers. 

In every walk of hfe the young should aim at success and 
rising to a higher plane, which becomes impossible with a 
weakened or impaired brain, for it is just this slight damage 
which takes off the keen edge of the intellect, and destroys 
the power and finer perceptions. A distinguished physio- 
logical chemist says that, if he has any dehcate work to do, 
his mental machinery is unrehable if he partake even of lager 
beer. 

We must also realize that this damaged condition of the 
brain is often the cause of the dethronement of the Ego. The 
brain being the most delicate part of the human machinery, 
it is necessarily unstable, and the more likely to suffer injury, 
and it is only its great recuperative power which saves us 
from disaster. 

As the more recently evolved or highest brain cells in the 
association areas ^ are the first to suffer, so patients who 
have had long, wearing iUnesses, and have little recuperative 
power or are in the early stages of insanity, or whose neurons 
are unstable through weakened control, occasionally come 
within the grip of the law. When this happens in respectable 

described her as a dangerous West-End thief. To get such a character 
at the age of 74 showed a rather valuable personality hidden somewhere 
but probably distorted by circiimstances, as in 20 years she had been 
convicted 10 times for shoplifting. Though she had £200 in the 
savings bank, the stolen property at home showed 22 gloves, 13 
pairs of stockings, 84 separate ribbons, 7 lace scarves, and endless 
other things. If she had been an American it would have been called 
kleptomania. 

^ Dr. Bolton has shown that the association areas are the first to 
disintegrate microscopically, and Dr. Watson has demonstrated the 
same macroscopically. Both facts were discovered independently, 
which gives great value to the work. 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE BRAIN 111 

families it causes a great shock, and is just a case where 
Medicine and Law should fraternize in order to relabel 
the supposed criminal as a " mental invahd." 

In many of these cases juries wiU not admit mental decay Law and 
because they see no signs of physical decay, as if one could ^^^^ine 
see the delicate workings of a watch through its case. Quite join in 
recently a worthy clergyman was sentenced to five years' Protecting 
penal servitude for an assault on a child, in spite of one of 
our best alienist's statement, that he was suffering from 
incipient general paralysis. Time will prove the diagnosis, 
but nothing will heal the social wound. 

As age approaches devolution follows the reverse course 
of evolution. Some men are old at 45, some at 60 and some 
weather the storms till riper years. The brain loses weight 
soon after 50, and as age advances the trusty brain cells yield 
up their service and fall out of action. 

Memory fails first, the hand becomes shaky, lastly the Failure of 
feet drag and shuffle along, indicating the failure of the func- p^^^ 
tion of association, before that of the sensori-motor areas. 
Likewise as the deeper layers of pyramidal cells are the 
earliest educated, so the more superficial cell layers degenerate 
first, and with them pass away the more recent and complex 
visual memories, leaving the deeper or more ancient memories 
of childhood. These facts are of value in the practical life 
of every social community. 

This solid fact is worthy of national consideration in the 
election of members to Parhament. The very serious and 
anxious duties of governing the Empire falls into the hands 
of inexperienced amateurs. It would be wise at aU events 
to place an age limit, as in the case of the army and of con- 
sulting surgeons to hospitals. If the Empire is to keep pace 
with other nations it must be controlled and guided by younger 
and more active brain cells, and the senile cells must retire 
to their normal and well earned condition of rest. 

Thus senile decay like a mirror reflects youth and infancy. 
Sound training in these early periods is of great importance, 
for if neglected one gets in senility much waywardness and 
many other faults more or less serious, which are not new, 



112 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

nor do they belong to old age, but are the uncovering of the 
long buried past. 



Incipient 

Mental 

Decay 



When the brain deteriorates, the effect is so gradual that 
it easily escapes recognition. The father who has conducted 
a model home gradually loses his parental interest, causing 
his family distress. The thrifty man becomes extravagant, 
while the honourable and moral show unusual frivolity and 
tend to stray. Friends say he is quite altered, and so he is, 
for the machinery, which can only last a certain time according 
to stress, is wearing out. It is time for the doctor, lest there 
be social trouble and disorder. These cases increase in number, 
for there is now greater stress, through more rapid methods 
of business and keener competition. Ease and luxury are 
also in themselves powerful aids to degeneracy. 

We see the converse where young women have in late years 
gone in for sports and also for business and abandoned their 
former inactive methods. Their diseases have in consequence 
visibly decreased, but their type is altering and they become 
slightly masculine. 

It requires no power of imagination to realize the thous- 
ands of children growing up with slightly damaged brains, 
who attract no special notice from the casual observer. It is, 
however, just the little damage, sometimes curable, which 
turns the scale against an individual in the struggle for exist- 
ence. He never reaches the proper level of development that 
God originally equipped him for. If such belong to the poorer 
classes they naturally tend to swell the numbers of the sub- 
merged, or of the criminal masses. 



Lowered 

Potential 

in 

Starved 

Children 



If the brain potential in children be lowered, they cannot 
be forced to intellectual effort, as we see daily demonstrated 
in the State schools, the condition being frequently aggravated 
by starvation. I maintain that these weakly, ill-nourished 
children have no business at school, and would be better with 
no strain from education of that kind. 

Where damage to the brain has occurred much ground 
may be regained by suitable nourishment, and by gently 
stimulating processes of thought, not by constant pressure, 
nor dry-as-dust methods, but by placing a variety of subjects 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE BRAIN 113 

before the child, so as to bring out observation and mentation, 
and probably fix on some hobby or faculty capable of further 
development in a useful direction. 

The antenatal conditions must not be overlooked. Given Ante- 
the prospects of offspring, we must do everything to make ^i^^g "' 
their journey a success. and Pros- 

There are according to Dr. Ford Robertson 3,000,000,000 P^^** 
cells in the brain, all of which are foretold in the embryo in 
the form of small round nuclei or neuro-blasts.^ These nuclei 
absorb nourishment from the blood, and upon this maternal 
environment hangs the future fate of the child. It is a terrible 
responsibihty and one which is so lamentably neglected by many. 
Poor are our chances where the mother's blood may con- 
tain gouty, phthisical, syphiHtic, or alcoholic toxins, or be 
deficient from anaemia, and malnutrition. During develop- 
ment these nuclei absorb leicithin, which is rich in phosphorus 
to buUd up the body of the surrounding nerve cell, and later 
shoot out the nerve fibres, dendrons and axons. 

It is quite evident that many a child is ruined in utero, and 
its miserable fate decided before birth. 

Postnatal precautions may undo some of the unfavourable Post- 
antenatal conditions, and every new-born infant should be vironment 
regarded as a valuable asset to the nation. If we ever do and its 
become truly civiHzed, this will be the first care on the part 
of the State, and the infamy of treating innocent babes of 
obscure origin as offenders against society will be removed. 

It is in infancy that the little life can be specially moulded, 
for good or for evil. No success in mind or morals can be 
expected, unless due regard is paid to physical health and 
nutrition. Our poor boys, degraded unjustly in prison, 
are mostly victims of neglect and heredity from unwholesome 
marriages, while the melancholy histories I have recorded 
show how many of our criminals were ill-fated from infancy 
and some were doomed before birth. 

Can it be wrong to control and forbid marriage in certain 
cases, or are we sinning against God and humanity in per- 
mitting such unwholesome mixtures ? 

1 See fig. pp. 101, 108. 

I 



Conse- 
quences 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE RELATION OF PHYSIOGNOMY TO BRAIN CELLS 

Popular phrenology, or bumpology. PHYSIOGNOMY : A counterpart of 

the brain — The development of the eye — Facial muscles and expression. 

RELATION OF BRAIN CELLS TO MUSCLE FIBRE : Muscular repre- 
sentation on the cortex — Paralysis — Muscle tone, DEVOLUTION : 

General paralysis : its course — Expressionless boys — Climate and charac- 
ter—Brain is the central authority. THE INFLUENCE OF MARRIAGE 

ON CHARACTER : Marriage— A bureau desirable— Misfits— Small 

families desirable. TEMPERAMENTS : The nervous ; The bilious ; 

The sanguine ; The lymphatic ; Marriage. 

It would be of no practical value to discuss seriously the 
subject of " Popular Phrenology," described by Sir WilKam 
Turner " Bumpology," as it has no foundation in fact. True 
phrenology which has a scientific basis, being always con- 
fronted with the quack, has no opportunity of declaring itself 
under that title. Otherwise much could be written under 
that heading in regard to cranial measurements, anatomical 
and racial peculiarities, and other details. 

The surface of the brain is mapped out into areas, as already 
described in previous chapters representing 

Sensation, Motion, and Association. 

The description of the skuU for different " faculties," as music, 
colour, destruction, amativeness, combativeness, and so on, 
is purely imaginary and founded on fanciful and fallacious 
observations. It is, however, only just to observe that many 
phrenologists are earnest philanthropists, not working for 
gain, and many do very useful educational work. 

Physiog- But there is another art, " Physiognomy," which appears 
"^'"y to rest upon a scientific basis. We are all aware that some 
carry their characters in their faces, but it is probable that 
aU do so if we only understood how to interpret the manifesta- 
tions. It is therefore important to examine this direct associa- 

114 



RELATION OF PHYSIOGNOMY TO BRAIN CELLS 115 

tion of the brain with physiognomy. The result suggests 
indeed that they are counterparts. 

In such research one must always go back to the early 
development in the embryonic state. For example, the eye 
is an outgrowth from the forebrain of the embryo (fig. p, 72). 
There is first a stalk, which becomes the optic nerve, and 
then a cup at its termination which develops into the retina. 
The whole is covered over by a horny cap, the cornea. Every 
one knows how the eye expresses the degree of intelligence, 
both active and passive, while we have in the Old Book the 
following scientific declaration, which appeared long before 
mankind was ready for it : " The light of the body is the eye." 
The word " light " implies intelligence. Thus the mental 
relationship of eye to mind, so long known by observation, 
has a true physical basis. 

Examining in a general way, we observe that the facial 
expressions are entirely due to fine muscular movements, 
which show anger, pleasure, pain, sorrow or mirth, correspond- 
ing to the mental associations. 

Most animals are devoid of facial expression ; but many, 
as birds and lower mammals, have powers in this direction 
through the eye and scalp by means of the surrounding muscles. 
When we consider the cat, dog and ape tribe, we find a decided 
advance in facial characteristics. 

The cells of the brain cortex are in communication with Relation 
the skin and aU the muscles of the body. One might almost r^P^f" 
suggest the muscle fibres as the terminals of the motor cells. Muscle 
for when a central group of motor cells is destroyed, paralysis ^^^^^ 
and wasting of the particular muscles occur. In cases of 
infantile paralysis, of an arm or leg, the corresponding motor 
cells are diseased or dead. The muscles consequently never 
develop, and the skin over that part shrivels from want of 
stimulus and nutrition. When a limb is amputated its special 
motor area on the cortex atrophies. Though every muscle and 
group of muscles is represented on the cortex of the motor 
area, yet its quantitative degree varies as stated in Chapter XII. 
Thus the coarse leg muscles require less representation than the 
finer muscles of the hand, which is capable of skilled and 
complex acts, and therefore the hand has more ceUs and a 



116 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

larger area in the cortex than the leg. In the same way 
the motor cells of the muscles of speech occupy a larger area 
on the cortex than those of the hand, as representing the 
crowning skill of the human species. 

The motor functions are chiefly in the frontal region. 
That which represents the facial muscles is entirely in the 
upper part and side of the forehead ; the speech centre residing 
at the left temple.^ When destruction of groups of brain 
cells occurs, as from haemorrhage or tumour, there follows a 
paralysis of the muscles so affected. From other pathological 
conditions we know also that tone and vitality of muscle de- 
pend entirely on the healthy state of the central nerve cells. 

Thus brain cell and muscle are counterparts of one system, 
of which the cell may be likened to master and the muscle to 
servant. 

Devolu- In general paralysis of the insane, which has been alluded 
°" to, one can see the muscles gradually fail as the motor areas 

are invaded by the disease. After the association areas 
degenerate, the speech fails, because it is the last muscular 
function to develop, and therefore the most unstable. Almost 
concurrently, the facial muscles lose tone and become flabby, 
which results in apathy and loss of expression. A placid 
calm, betraying neither interest nor emotion, reigns over 
the faces of these deeply afflicted ones. This expressionless 
face from devolution has unfortunately its counterpart in 
some of our youths from want of evolution, being noticeable 
among the insipid youths who aim at snobbism, but though a 
type of mental enfeeblement, it is in most cases curable. This 
type of young man is supposed to look bored if any intellectual 
subject is brought to his notice, and it would be incorrect to 
be interested in his surroundings. His chief interests are his 
clothes and his complexion. He is, alas, an invert, and is 
found in those walks of life where industry is discouraged and 
honest work despised. These young people are of no value to 
the commonwealth until they have recovered. Many, per- 
haps most, of them are the fault of their parents, while some 
are imitative weaklings, trying to resist their normal mental 

^ In left-handed people the speech centre is supposed to be in the 
right temple. 




Medium Sized PvKf\n!DaL Cell 

Motor ^^ir[ p^cp f\w?sus ^tHCl^eus 



^fJtK l-'.qi^TDf^E OF ViSEELS 



This beautifully stained diagram has been lent to me by Dr. Mott. It 
shows the cell body and dendrons. The axon is faint and comes off the 
hillock at the base. It also demonstrates a neuron. 
Facing page } 76. 



RELATION OF PHYSIOGNOMY TO BRAIN CELLS 117 

development. They are very largely the product of ease, and 
consequently are met with among the wealthy more than 
the aristocratic classes. Their counterparts in the lower ranks 
occur among the poor wastrels and unemployables. Climate 
and general surroundings have much to do with energy and 
character formation, as one may reaUze by comparing the 
hardy Scot and his stern countenance with the soft lined 
ItaHan whose needs are liberally supphed by nature without 
much effort on his own part. 

The brain then is the central authority of the body, govern- 
ing and directing all details. In one sense it would appear 
as if the body was built on the brain or attached to it in order 
to subserve its purposes, while in no part does the brain 
manifest itself more clearly than in the physiognomy. 

It is the object of all to get the best value out of every brain, 
and try to improve all future stock. Here comes in the 
importance of wise and wholesome marriage. 

Selection in marriage would undoubtedly raise the standard 
of individuals. It would not make a new human species 
however, for De Vries, in experimenting with sugar beet, found 
that " selection " gave phenomenal results only for a time. 
The same happened with cereals in producing large and heavy 
grain. After a certain period there was a higher average 
standard. Karl Pearson in biometry arrived at the same 
result. Malthus expressed the same opinion in his Essay on 
Population, ii, p. 11. 

But while perfection is beyond any dream, what a grand 
thing if we could be permanently raised on to a higher platform 
socially, morally and intellectually ! 

The greatest boon to the nation would be a Marriage Bureau, "^^e In- 
scientifically conducted under Government control. Wise Marriage 
supervision is to be desired for the young to prevent foolish ^ 
and thriftless unions, while many valuable members of both 
sexes are yearning, in a state of bitter disappointment, for a 
healthy offspring. 

On the other hand the vast number of misfits in the present 
speculative methods of marriage is the cause of much domestic 
misery and crime ; whereas in our modern civilization, marriage 
is a duty requiring much judgment and very careful selection. 



Character 



118 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Ignorant marriage is largely responsible for the heavy burden 
of disease, lunacy and crime. 

The benediction of the Psalmist on large families does not 
apply in these days of overcrowding and competition. Few 
people can now afford to be generous to the population, as 
long as generosity spells poverty, discontent, and crime to the 
offspring, not to mention the drain of health on the mother. 
We have also very carefully to mate suitable temperaments. 

Tempera- t^q usually recognize four temperaments : — 

1. The Nervous. 

2. The Sanguine. 

3. The Bihous and 

4. The Lymphatic. 

The Nervous Temperaments. — These are active, rapid 
thinkers, intellectually fertile, and adventurous ; but also sensi- 
tive, excitable, irresolute, and secretive. Being very persistent 
they often exceed their power of endurance. Most genii and 
reformers belong to this class. Physically they are fair, and 
of spare form, with finely-cut features. In morals they are 
apt to go to the extreme of what is right or wrong, and 
whilst usually lively, are subject to unreasonable depression 
and despondency. 

The Bilious temperament contains those who are of dark 
eyes and hair, broad and thickset. Mentally they are serious, 
and slower in thought and action, than those of the former 
temperament. They are good in business, not rash in specu- 
lation. They are apt to be spiteful and not very willing to 
forgive. They are very domesticated, good to their families, 
and being inclined to selfishness accumulate wealth. 

The Sanguine folk are ruddy in complexion and hair, florid, 
blue eyed and broad in build. Whatever troubles come they 
are cheerful, impulsive, and never lose hope. They are also 
emotional and energetic, but changeable. They are just as 
happy over trifles as over big things. They are frank and 
outspoken, never spiteful or secretive. They are too super- 
ficial to be great students, and too happy-go-lucky to be 
disagreeable. 

The Lymphatic or Lethargic people are fair, fleshy and 
heavy in build, often with brown eyes. They are mentally slow 



RELATION OF PHYSIOGNOMY TO BRAIN CELLS 119 

and careful, very thoughtful in arriving at conclusions, and 
ready to forgive, being too lazy to be wicked or to cherish un- 
kind feehngs. They are never brilliant or active but plodding, 
and with great power of endurance. They spend httle, and 
are very self indulgent. 

It is dangerous for two of nervous temperament to marry, 
as the offspring may be neurotic in high degree. In any case 
they will probably be unstable, and are therefore liable to 
deviations in any direction, either good or bad. 

A nervous temperament should be alhed preferably to a lym- 
phatic. One then gets stability of character from the latter, 
with the finer perceptions of the former. Nervo-bilious 
alliances are passable, and nervo-sanguine are good, lethargo- 
lethargic combinations are very bad, producing the lazy 
beings who block all progress, and also inverts, who so com- 
monly become criminals. 



CHAPTER XV 

PHYSICAL DEGENERATION AND DEFICIENCY, EXTERNAL 
AND INTERNAL, SEEN AND UNSEEN 

(A) EXTERNAL STIGMATA.— FEW HUMAN BEINGS ARE NORMAL SPECI- 
MENS : The criminal not a type — Lombroso's work — A broad middle line 

necessary — MacAlister on brain — Lunatic skulls. ASYMMETRY OF 

SKULL AND FACE : We are two-sided and unequal — Abnormal skulls 
— Transverse diameter in normal skull — The palate — Thickening of the 
skull bones — Asymmetry of features — Lombroso's statements not quite 
trustworthy. ABNORMALITIES AMONG GREAT MEN. INFLU- 
ENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON DEGENERACY : In Ireland : Juvenile 
adults— City lads CRIMINALS' SKULLS— (5) CRANIAL MEASURE- 
MENTS : A TECHNICAL APPENDIX : Cranial index— Very mislead- 
ing : cases— No guide as to size. DR. SUTHERLAND ON CRIMINAL 

HEADS : Circumference of skull — Two arches : anteroposterior and 

lateral — Family types — Ford Robertson's measurements. ABNORMAL 

CASES : Idiots — Sir J. Crichton Browne's cases — Difference in area of sur- 
face of skull according to rank and education — Head measurements open 

to fallacies. (C) SKULL DEVELOPMENT AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

THE NEGRO SKULL: Our skull quite different from the ape's— The 

missing link — D'Aubenton's and Soemering's observations — Corrected 

by M. Broca— The facial index. INTERNAL CAPACITY OF THE 

SKULL : Skull comparison open to great fallacies. — ARRESTED EVO- 
LUTION IN LOWER RACES : The skull of pre-historic man. DE- 
GENERACY NOT A REVERSION TO PRIMITIVE MAN : Due to unseen 
causes— Changes in germ-plasm. (D) INTERNAL, UNSEEN DE- 
GENERATION : Destruction, or arrested growth of nuclei in brain — 
Infantile type of nose — Precocity among genii — Precocious children must 
not be forced — Observation by Robert Knox, the Edinburgh anatomist. 

" Deficiunt Vires " (Ability is wanting) 

{A) EXTERNAL STIGMATA 

Few Too much importance is attached to external malformations, 

Bdn*^ deficiencies and asymmetries. Few of us could pass as perfect 
are Specimens, whilst many with marked stigmata of degenera- 

^eclmens *^°^ have shown not only superior inteUigence, but also high 
morale. 

On the other hand a number of criminals are manifestly of 
very low type, showing every variation of irregular and mal- 
formed features, and arrested development. In them we find 

120 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 121 

in many cases arrested physical growth, combined with 
feeble intellect, and, as a rule, absence of moral sense. 

The ItaHan Professor Lombroso has written very exten- 
sively and rather dogmatically on this subject, carrying his 
conclusions far beyond legitimate bounds ; nevertheless, his 
works are now classical. They contain a collection of facts 
and evidence, not too comphmentary, concerning every 
world-known character, for even if a man is too tall he is 
labelled by Lombroso as a degenerate. Morel and Fere {La 
famille neuropathique) have written a good deal on the subject 
of degeneration, but they go too far as they include every 
malformation to which the human body is Hable. 

In summing up physical abnormahties, we must make a 
broad middle hne, and only regard as degenerate characters 
those very far removed from the common or average type. 
Too much importance has been attached to the size or shape 
of the head, nose, ears, palate, and even to the irregular colour 
of the eyes. Too large a face in proportion to the cranium is 
usually considered degenerate, but here agaia we often find 
ourselves in error. 

Professor MacAhster pointed out, in 1898, that the " Brain 
shape determines the skull shape," and is the mould on which 
the skull is developed. But for results we have to depend 
on brain contents, and we often observe very large heads in 
idiots, yet they may be very deficient both in quality and 
quantity of nerve cells. The average size of lunatic skuUs is 
below normal merely on account of the number of small- 
headed idiots, otherwise the ordinary lunatic's skull pre- 
sents no variation from the normal type. Any who have 
visited asylums must have been struck by this fact. 

Lombroso finds in asymmetry a profitable field for his Asym- 
theories of degeneracy. He is very unyielding, for we must ^^ °^^ 
remember that we are two-sided beings. We have in our Face 
bodies a strong right side controlled by the left half of the brain 
and a weak left side governed by the right side of the brain, 
therefore some observers maintain that the left half of the 
skull is normally shghtly larger and longer. The difference 
is however so small that we may dismiss it. Bendedikt 
attaches no importance to the greatest asymmetry. Giuf- 



122 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

frida-Ruggeri ^ on the other hand says the normal asymmetry 
merely consists in a little extra prominence on the left side 
of the forehead, and posteriorly of the left occipital bone.^ 

The midway opinion is probably correct, namely, that 
excessive asymmetry of skull is more frequent among the 
criminals and insane, if we include idiots, than amongst normal 
persons, and is evidence of some degree of faulty construction 
and degeneracy.^ On the other hand some of the worst criminals 
are of perfect exterior ; while many individuals who are 
externally degenerate are almost incapable of evil. 

Lombroso describes skulls as abnormal if they are dome- 
shaped, keel-shaped, flat, narrow, broad, high or low, so that 
we all come somewhere within the category. Rather is it 
to be suggested that these variations occur as family types, 
and constantly interbreeding intensifies any variety. 

We know that in the normal skuU the greatest transverse 
diameter is behind the centre. If it occur in the anterior 
third, it is called " the insane type." 

The palate is considered by many as of great importance 
as an indicator of physical degeneracy. It is generally con- 
sidered that if the palate is very high, narrow, irregular or 
deformed, it is a sign of bad or neurotic heredity, while others 
maintain that they find many well-shaped and broad palates 
among idiots. Among intelligent criminals I have usually 
found broad palates, except among the neurotic ones, 
when they are narrow and high. It seems probable that 
people with narrow oval faces and higher skulls, lend their 
cranial architecture to narrow palates, and vice versa. 

Thickening of the skull occurs in about 25-50 per cent, of 
the insane according to different observers ; so that the bosses 
and irregularities, being due to excrescences of bone, have no 
connexion with the brain, but are due to faults in development 
and primary malnutrition. The skull has been known to 
exceed one inch in thickness (Professor D. J. Hamilton). 
There are, however, great variations among the sane ; thus 
a navvy may have a much thicker skull than an artist or 

^ Journal of Mental Science, 1888, and Diet. Psych. Med. 1892. 
' Riv. Sperimentale di Freniatria, 1899. 

' Read Sir George Humphries' notes on skulls in Joum. of Anat. 
and Phys., vol. xxix, 1895. 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 123 

literary man, and a larger, heavier brain also. We can there- 
fore make no law in these matters ; the question is one of tjrpes, 
and perhaps adaptations to surroundings which have taken 
several generations to build up. Thus though a navvy might 
make an artist as a great exception, it would take several 
generations before a sensitive literary man, such as Ruskin, 
or a family of that kind, could produce a navvy. 

Those wishing to follow up this subject cannot choose better 
works than those of Lombroso, ^ and Dr. Barr of America, and 
Dr. Bianchi. How Lombroso's information is gathered is a 
mystery, but it cannot carry much reliability, for how does 
he authoritatively know that Socrates was a cretin, or even 
that Rembrandt and Pope were such ? How did he get 
access to their skuUs ? Carlyle and Darwin are also described 
by him as cretinoid. 

Among the long and interesting list of abnormal men, I Abnoj-- 
have picked out the following. ^ong^ 

Dante had an irregular left parietal skuU bone. Great Men 

Robert Bruce's skull was after the type of prehistoric man. 

Kant's head was too broad. 

Volta's skull was too heavy, and of aboriginal type. 

In Byron and Humboldt the sutures or joints ossified too 
soon. 

Descartes, Guido Reni and Schumann had small heads. 

Milton, Linnaeus, Cuvier and Gibbon had hydrocephalus, 
or water on the brain, and so on. 

With an apology to the friends of a great Nonconformist 
preacher, I must beg the right to make free with public men. 
I never saw any one who could sum up so many stigmata of 
degeneration as in his case. There seemed nothing left out, 
and yet how the hght of his eye and his superior personahty 
came out in expression, so to as draw more men to him than 
any before or since ! The mental and moral qualities were all 
of the finest, but he was quite conscious of the way in which 
nature had neglected him physically and treated it with humour. 

La Roche consoles the great by saying : — 

II n'appartient qu'aux grands hommes d^ avoir de grands defauts. 

" It is only great men who can afford to have great defects." 

^ Uhomme crimind p. 142. 



124 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Influence X)r. Pritchard, an eminent psychologist, in his Physical 

ronment History of Mankind, gives a remarkable illustration of the 

on De- influence of environment on degeneracy. In the seventeenth 

m Ireland century, conflict and oppression drove many finely developed 

Irish peasants into the mountains of Sligo and Mayo. Here 

they were exposed to great privations and starvation, which 

brutalized them, and their progeny degenerated. 

He reported on them as of smaU stature, averaging 
5 feet 2 inches, bow-legged, high cheek bones, depressed noses, 
projecting mouths, prominent teeth and exposed gums. There 
is no reason to doubt the accuracy of the observer, and, if 
true, we ought to endeavour to restore Nature's gifts where 
" hypocritical civilization has interfered." 

Among the "juvenile adults " in prison, many of them only 
16, a great amount of deterioration in physique and form is 
to be seen. Their skull measurements are quite up to the 
average, as compared with lads of the upper class, showing 
that nature has started them fair in many cases. They are 
just at the age when healthy exercise and occupation might 
restore that which nature demands, but what civilization 
has robbed them of. Examining the younger city lads, 
rescued and sheltered in homes, we find great diminution 
of stature and weight. Their intelligence is low, but they are 
without a marked excess of " stigmata " about the face and 
head. They likewise show a fair average in skull measure- 
ments. Malnutrition is their ruin. 

Criminals^ Amongst criminals I find quite average-sized skulls, as may 
be readily seen by referring to the cases described. Com- 
paring these with prosperous and upright city merchants 
there is no difference. 

It is, however, only fair to say that many prison doctors 
do not agree with this statement. Thus, Dr. Wilson, in 1869, 
read a paper at the British Association in which he gave the 
results of 460 head measurements. He said they were cranially 
deficient, especially in the anterior lobes. Often there was 
a real physical deterioration, and 40 per cent, of the convicts 
were invalids. 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 125 
{B) CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS ^ 

A TECECNICAL APPENDIX. 

I have collected a few cases recorded by Ireland and Crichton 
Browne and others, which might suitably be compared here 
with normals. 

In order to increase the interest of the subject, which to 
a few will be fascinating, I will give a sketch of the methods 
of measuring the skull. 

One finds with a pair of cahpers the greatest width and 
length, and from this calculates the 

Cranial Index 

This is a comparative measurement, irrespective of size, 
and therefore appears devoid of scientific merit, as I will 
presently show. 

The Cranial Index is foiuid by multiplying the width of 
the skull by 100, and dividing by the length. 

The figures work out usually between 70 and 85. 

70 to 75 represents longheaded people {dolichocephalic). 

75 to 80 are medium (mesaticephalic). 

80 to 85 are broadheads {brachy cephalic). 

Outside these figures are extremes. 

Intellectually, longheaded people are thought to be more 
impulsive, and carry less ballast than broadheads. This 
view is, however, very misleading, as some examples wiU 
show. Nevertheless both primitive man and the negro 
races are longheaded, whilst the type of the European is 
brachycephahc . 

I selected a merchant prince in the city with an enormous 
head, 8f long by 6| wide (Case 133). His cranial index, 
74J, appears below the average. I compared this with another 
equally intellectual city merchant, and a conspicuously large 
head. The latter measured 8J by 6| with a cranial index of 
82 (Case 135). The two heads are, however, of about equal 
internal capacity. 

Place alongside two young offenders : one that of an intel- 
ligent poor lad, charged with" sleeping out," aged 18, with a 
cranial index of 74|, whose head m easures 7| by 5| ; the other 

* This may be omitted by the lay reader, resuming again at C. 



126 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

youth, with a cranial index of 82| , measures 7 by 5| ; he 
is also 18 and not only a thief, but a middle grade imbecile. 

Selecting from some other cases, I know of a poor murderer 
with an index of 7 4 J, whose skull measures 7| by 5-| and he 
is also mentally deficient. On the other side, out of 26 
active who were ex-criminals of all sorts, I have 9 who 
vary between 80 and 86|, which shows a larger ratio of 
broadheads than is normal. The index 86f belongs, how- 
ever, to a German ex-criminal, and the Teutons are broader 
in the head than their Anglo-Saxon cousins. 

The cranial index is no guide as to size or intelligence, or 
else the young and deficient criminal would equal the capable 
city merchant. 

Dr. Dr. G. H. Sutherland, Commissioner of Lunacy in Scotland, 

Suther- fpQj^^ ^b large number of statistics finds a difference in size of 

land on o 

Criminal skull in different classes of criminals, but the variation in size 

Heads jg small, and from my measurements I cannot formulate any 

similar conclusion. I find a most dangerous man is the possessor 

of the largest skull, 8| by 5| with the lowest index 70f . One 

sees by these many cases or by a glance at the tables, 

that the cranial index or head measurements are absolutely 

of no value in the study of this wide question of 

criminality. The other ex-criminals run chiefly from 7J to 

7| in length, and about 6 in width, which are quite average 

sizes. 

One would expect some definite results from closer measure- 
ments of the skull, and I have made a table of both normals, 
exceptionals, criminals and " embryonic " criminals, if I may 
so term the youngsters whom we are steadily pushing into 
that "class." 

The circumference of the base is taken just above the brows 
and round the occiput. 

There are then two arches : — 

(1) Antero-posterior, from the glabella, or prominence 
above the root of the nose to the occipital point behind : and 

(2) The transverse or lateral, from the upper border of the 
auditory meatus, or orifice on each side. 

Family configuration causes a certain amount of variability, 
so there is always a margin for inaccuracy. 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 127 

Dr. Ford Robertson ^ gives the average measurements of 
a normal male British skull as — 

Mesaticephalic — 78 cranial index. 

Inches. Millimetres. 
Circumference . . . 19J to 21 — 495 to 545 

Length 7f —186 

Width 5| —144 

I have been unable to find observations on the arches, but 
they seem to vary from 12| to 14 inches — 320 to 355 millimetres 
(including boys). It is most interesting to notice in the tables 
that the two arches are very often equal in the same skull. 
These should of course be mesaticephahc, but the indices do 
not always corroborate this. 

With these brain weights and skull measurements we Abnormal 
might now consider some extreme abnormal cases. ^^®^- 

(1) A paralysed idiot of 10. 

The skull— 

Inc?ies. Millimetres. 
Circumference . . . . . 20 . . 510 

Antero-posterior arch .... 12J . . 320 
Transverse arch . . . . . 13 . . 330 

The brain weighed 48 oz. 

(Cerebrum, 42 oz. ; Cerebelliim and medulla, 6 oz.) 

Here then we have an idiot with a smaU but normal skull 
and a brain sHghtly above normal weight. 

(2) An epileptic idiot. 

The Skull- 
Inches. Millimetres. 
Circumference . . . . . 18| . . 480 

Antero-posterior arch . . . . llf . . 300 

Transverse arch . . . . . llf . . 300 

The right half of the brain (cerebrum) weighed 21 oz. 

The left „ „ „ „ „ 16 oz. 

In this case the two should have weight 42 ounces. 

(3) Hydrocephahc idiots. 

Average of several cases of both sexes — 

Skull- 
Inches. Millimetres. 

Circumference .... 20-24 . . 510-630 

Antero-posterior arch . . 15|-16| . . 400-420 

Transverse arch . . . 15|-16 . . 400-410 



Pathology of Mental Diseases. 

See Ireland's work on Mental Affections of Children. 



128 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

These are collected from Dr. Ireland's writings, he being 
one of the greatest authorities on this class of mental 
disease, 

Lombroso furnishes five cases of Microcephalic idiots. 











Arches. 


Case. 


Age. 


Size of Skvdl. 


Circ. 


Ant. Post. Lat. 


1 . 


. . 10 . 


. 5ix4 . 


. 16 


9 8 


2 . 


. 13 . 


. 5 X4 


. 16 


. 10 8 


3 . 


. 21 . 


. 6 x4i . 


. 17 


9J 9 


4 . 


— 


. 51x4 . 


. 15 


— — 


5 . 


. — . 


. 4ix3i . 


• 13J . 


• n 7f 



The fifth case was the celebrated idiot, Antonio Grandoni, 
who was Hke a mischievous brute. His brain weighed only 
289 grammes, or 10^ ounces, and the convex surface was 
11,310 square millimetres, which is about -^q of the aver- 
age. 

Middlemass recorded in the Lancet, June 1895, an idiot's 
brain weighing 65| ozs., or 1850 grammes. This idiot lived 
to 70. On microscopic examination the cortical cells were 
very few, but the non-active supporting tissue was in great 
excess. 

Walsem in Germany published an account of an idiot's 
brain which weighed 2,028 grammes, or about 72 oz. This 
man only hved to the age of 22, and was an epileptic. 
He had a very small complement of active brain cells. 

Sir J. Crichton Browne ^ has made a large collection of 
brain weights in the West Riding Asylum. 

(1) Idiots — averages. 



Males ..... 

Females ..... 

^1- 1 • 1 /R- half 
Cerebrum only m males jj^ j^^j^ 


Oz. 

m ' 

34 . 

18i . 

17i . 


Grms. 

. 1,156 

. 1,019 

518 

490 


. . , fR. half 
m females |j^^ ^^-^^ 


15f . 
14f . 


446 
415 


(2) Imbeciles — averages. 






Males ..... 
Half -cerebrum only |j^ 


45i . 
20 
19i . 


. 1,282 

563 
552 


Females . . • . . 

f R 
Half-cerebrum only -r " * 


42f . 
18 
18i . 


. 1,211 
533 
525 


1 Brain, 1880. 







PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 129 



(3) Melancholies — averages 

Males . 

Half-cerebrum j j ' 
Females 

Half-cerebrum 



49| . 


. 1,410 


22i . 


630 


22i . 


630 


43 


. 1,220 


19J . 


550 


m ' 


540 


46* . 


. 1,320 


m • 


576 


20 


570 


41 


. 1,180 


18 


515 


18 


510 



R. 



(4) Senile decay — dements — averages. 

Males 

J ' 

Females 

Half-cerebrum j j ' 

These researches were reported in Brain in 1880 and show 
an amount of very accurate and valuable research. 

It shows that melancholies are about average weight ; while 
seniles lose about -^^ in brain weight or 7 per cent. 

Epileptics usually have large heavy brains, and thick skulls, 
of rounded shape. It would seem as if the fits represented 
explosions from high tension of accumulated nerve force. 

In general paralysis, as disease advances the brain falls in 
weight, in some cases very rapidly. This is due to wasting of 
the cortical surface, especially in the association areas, as well 
as to the decay of the fibres in the white substance underneath ; 
the space thus produced in the skuU is then filled up with 
clear fluid, almost like water. 

Lombroso^ has observed amongst five persons having the 
same brain weight, that there is a difference in the superficial 
area of the head between the educated and the uneducated. 
He gives four cases to illustrate this : — 



Brain weight. 


Head surface. 


(1) Fuchs, a physician 53 oz. or 1,499 grms. 


221,005 sq. cm 


(2) Gaus, a mathema- 




tician . . 52f „ „ 1,492 „ 


219,588 „ 


(3) A common woman. 




unknown . . „ 1,492 „ 


204,115 „ 


(4) A common workman „ 1,492 „ 


187,672 „ 



This subject requires many more cases, but seems to suggest 
that given equal weights, the intellectual brain is more spread 
out in its cortex, which is the intellectual region. 

It is certainly more correct to measure the surface of the 

^ Uuomo dilinq. 

K 



130 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

head than guess its size and capacity by merely measuring the 
length and width, for the dome varies greatly in height, as my 
measurements show. 



(C) SKULL DEVELOPMENT AT DIFFERENT PERIODS 

In regard to the general outline of the skull at different periods 
of life, it is seen that in the infant the skull is chiefly developed 
behind in the occipital part. During the childhood the tem- 
poral area develops, while as adolescence approaches the 
skull develops frontally. This was pointed out by M. Gratiolet, 
who also observed that in woman the elongation of the head 
was due to development in the temporal region, and so nature 
has placed her midway between the child and adult man. If 
this be so, it gives food for solemn reflection to the modern 
women, who wish to change their place in nature with the 
stronger sex. 

The A negro, being on a lower plane of evolution, is developed 

^^^° in the occipital region rather than frontally, which latter 
marks the white races. The negro, therefore, presents the in- 
fantile type of mind, which explains their servile position, and 
would justify slavery if it could be combined with humanity. 
Some who are keen on evolution suggest that we are descended 
from the apes. But M. Broca and others have shown by 
careful skull measurements, in relation specially to the distance 
of the projecting upper jaw from the foramen magnum, that 
our skull bears no direct relation to that of the ape. It 
certainly may cause anxiety to some, to be deprived of a 
supposed Simian ancestry, but it rather sets at rest the missing 
Mnk which never existed except in the imagination of its 
author. Aboriginal man undoubtedly came from man and 
not from monkey, but there are many other anatomical facts 
and relationships, including the evidence of embryology, which 
indicate evolution. Of special importance is the idiot's brain 
in Chapter V which reverted to the carnivora. That case 
shows there is a Unk. The link is not missing but invisible. 
D' Aubenton ^ said the foramen magnum (which is the opening 
at the back of the skull through which the spinal cord passes 

^ See Quatrefage's Social Evolviion, Chap. XXVI. 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 131 

on to the brain) was further back in animals than in man. 
Soemering also thought that it was placed further back in the 
negro than in the white races, which would look as if the negro 
was more closely related to the ape than we are. The error 
arose from measuring the skull as a whole. The negro's 
upper jaw is prognathous, that is, projects further forward 
than what is normal in white races. Broca corrected this 
by measuring from the anterior margin of the foramen magnum 
to the alveolar or posterior border of the upper jaw, which 
prevented error from the variable prognathism. M. Broca 
compared 60 European with 35 negro skulls. If 1,000 repre- 
sents the total projection, a negro's is 498 and a white man's 
475, only a difference of 23. Therefore, the foramen magnum 
is more forward in negroes than in whites, whereas it is the 
reverse in apes, which cancels any resemblance between the 
ape and the negro. 

In comparing individuals of lower grade, Camper sugges- 
ted the facial index as a measurement. This angle is found 
by taking the length of the face from the tip of the chin, to 
the tip of the nose where it joins the forehead, multiplied by 
100 and divided by the greatest width between the cheek 
(malar) bones. This in white races works out about 80°, in 
yeUow races about 75°, in the negro 70°, and in the higher 
apes 65°. 

But all these measurements are subject to much error. The internal 

Capacity 
most accurate is that of the internal capacity of the skull, of the 

obtained by fiUing it with shot, which of course cannot be ^^"^^ 

practised during the lifetime, so that it is not a present help. 

The European skull varies from 1,200 cubic centimetres to 

1,900 cubic centimetres in its capacity. Broca, however, 

considered that if the cranial capacity of the aboriginal 

AustraUan were 100, that of the African negro is 112, and of the 

fair European 125. 

Careful measurements by Broca place the ItaHan and the 

Maori on the same platform, likewise the Parisian and the 

Malay, the German and the Annamite, the Jew and the native 

of New Guinea. None of the superior races can be grateful 

for the compliments. Such comparisons show that external 

manifestations cannot carry much weight. 



132 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Arrested Broca thought that the lower types in the coloured races 
^ Lowor" "^^^® d^® *o arrest of evolution, and I think we may also safely 
Races look upon the so-caUed physically degenerate as examples 
of arrested development during the infantile or prenatal 
conditions as stated in the previous chapter. Some describe 
such as a reversion to primitive ancestry. We have not 
enough information on this subject, and what little we have 
does not support this view ; for though the Neanderthal 
skuU found in Germany is of low type, yet the Cromagnon 
skull found in France, in the valley of Vezire, in 1858, was of 
superior type. M. Larlet described it as having a large open 
forehead, and an aquiline nose, with a capacity of 97 cubic 
inches, or 1,590 cubic centimetres. The cranial index was 74, 
which is quite respectable and long-headed. These people 
stood about 5 feet 10 inches ; they were, therefore, superior 
to our poor degenerate brothers. 



Degen- External physical degeneracy then is probably not a rever- 

a Rever- sion to primitive man, but due to internal unseen causes, such 

sion to as arrest of development, or of natural evolution. In this 

Man treatise the probable causes are put forward, especially in the 

part given up to heredity, hybrids, and to environment, such 

as poverty and alcoholism. There is an alteration of the 

germ plasm, and while some of the variations are downwards, 

others, as genii, are upward. 

(D) INTERNAL UNSEEN DEGENERATION 

Destruc- Referring to Chapter XIV the lay reader will see that I 

Arrested advance the theory that the nuclei of the brain cells are laid 

Growth of down before birth and are called neuroblasts, and form the 

Nuclei in . 

Brain mam factor m growth and development. It any of these are 

destroyed, loss of function in the part governed at once occurs. 
Conversely, if they are arrested at certain stages of develop- 
ment in childhood or youth, there would be a corresponding 
under development of that part (figs. pp. 101 and 132). 

This explains how many adults retain infantile types such 
as we see more frequently among the poor, who are iU nourished, 
and especially the syphilitic. The infantile type of nose, 
hollowed at the bridge, persists with many adults. 





These instructive and practical photographs show the extreme outer or upper 
surface of the pyramidal layer in (A) a normal man, and in (B) a degenerate. In 
the former, there are well-developed though small pyramidal cells. In the latter, 
a murderer, there are undeveloped cell nuclei or neuroblasts, and below, badly 
shaped imperfect pyramids. This lends support to my theory that the degenerate 
lives in a realm of his own. He is not insane, for he has never been sane or 
normal as in A. Nor is he an ament or imbecile, for their brain cells and 
nuclei are absent ; whereas in B the nuclei are laid down abundantly, but remain 
undeveloped as in infancy. Hence the criminal has the will or control of a child. 



Facing page 132 



PHYSICAL DEGENERATION, SEEN AND UNSEEN 133 

Precocity is considered a form of degeneracy, being a Precocity 
process of over-ripening, with the natural consequence of 
premature deterioration. These are cases in which it is wise 
to hold back the brain until the body matures. Unfortunately 
parents are sometimes so pleased with the extraordinary talent 
of the child that they press him on, adding to the evil. Some 
break down early and occasionally become permanently 
damaged, whilst others are dullards when they reach their 
teens. It is far safer and wiser to restrain children and allow 
their brains to grow with and not before their bodies. 

There are of course exceptions, where great men have been 
precociously intellectual from childhood, but they are in the 
minority. As examples of precocity, Lombroso mentions : — 

Dante at 9 wrote a sonnet to Beatrice. 

Goethe at 10 wrote in seven languages. 

Victor Hugo composed a novel at the age of 15. 

Pope wrote an ode to Solitude at the age of 12. 

Raphael was famous when 14 and Byron was a writer when 
15 years old. 

He supports the view that " a man who is a genius at 5 
is mad at 15." The reason is that precocious children are 
unstable, and with deficient nutrition superadded, they often 
break down about puberty. 

Those who wish to pursue the whole of this subject further 
should read A Manual of Artistic Anatomy, by the great 
anatomist Robert Knox of Edinburgh. 

Speaking of the malformed ear, he says, " the lobe is pecu- 
liarly human, and when wanting in man or woman causes the 
ear to resemble the ear of the ape. When the helix is wanting 
and the ear is spread out it resembles that of the ass or dog." 
Kjiox formulated a new law by stating that aU such varieties, 
or as we now call them, degeneracies, are comprised in " the 
law of unity of the organization," which we call atavism or 
reversion. On the other hand, when beauty and perfection 
of form and development obtain, it is the carrying out of 
*' the law of specialization," or, as Darwin termed it, " natural 
selection." 



CHAPTER XVI 

EDUCATION 

Scotch versus English, — EDUCATION AND CRIME : Decrease of crime due 
to social improvements — Crime changes with the times — Increase of 

lunacy since education. EDUCATION BILLS : Scotch methods — 

The railway porter and Greek Professor — The city sparrow versus public 

boy. ENGLAND UNPREPARED FOR EDUCATION : Philanthropic 

enterprise killed — Compulsion and starvation — Delayed mental develop- 
ment of the poor— Free meals— DIETARY FOR THE POOR. THE 

CARE OF THE JEWS FOR THEIR CHILDREN : The poor healthier 
without shoes. OVERCROWDING OF CLASSES : Practical com- 
ments from a teacher — Tendency for State methods to improve. 

WHAT EDUCATION IS : Parents' duty — Education begins in the cradle 
— Sights, sounds, muscle training, touch — Faculty of speech : the highest 

motor act. STIMULATE AND GRATIFY INQUIRY IN THE YOUNG : 

The storage in the sensori-motor area — For reference by the association 
processes.— NATURE STUDY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOGIC : 

Induction and deduction — Common sense or intuition. CONTRAST 

BETWEEN THE UNEDUCATED AND THE EDUCATED— LANGUAGE : 
In the lower animals and savages — ^Monosyllabic — In infants — ^The dead 

languages — The growth of language — Due to science. DEFICIENT 

CHILDREN : Must make haste slowly — Symptom of deficient children 
— Phenomenal memory in imbeciles — Zerah Colburn, the lightning cal- 
culator. TREATMENT OF DEFICIENT CHILDREN : Results : 

many recover — Cause of anxiety — Become inverts — The higher morals — 

Imitation the key of training children. PARENT IS TRUSTEE : 

Fashionable women and nursing. THE SIN OF THE STATE IN DE- 
STROYING PRIVATE SCHOOLS : A model private school — Science and 

school. THE PERSONALITY, THE SECRET OF A SUCCESSFUL 

SCHOOL. THE STATE METHODS DESTROY INDIVIDUALITY : Early 

memories blotted out by State education — Board school children cannot 
remember before the age of five as a rule — and start life handicapped — They 
have no energy left to learn skilled trades — Not " born tired," but " made 
tired " by the State — Mr. Llewelyn's report to the Government on the 

flourishing condition of the barge children. STATE RELIGION : 

Church schools. RELIGIOUS TRAINING VERY IMPORTANT : No 

dogma — The Bible quite safe — Singing religious and moral songs — 

Children pliable like clay — Encouragement to teachers. THE THREE 

R'S HAVE FILLED MANY A PRISON : Instructed degeneracy danger- 
ous — Bad literature — The prevention of crime by education. MUST 

TRY TO UNDERSTAND THE POOR : Desire conquers will which is 
stunted — Juvenile prisoners. 

"Ignorance is a heavy burden." — Gaelic Proverb. 

The evolutionary process of the brain depends on education ; 
whereas the devolution of the mind is fostered by unwise 



EDUCATION 135 

methods of instruction, an error which the State has steadily- 
pursued since the seventies, when England made the effort 
to become educated as a whole. Before then it seemed as 
if Scotland were a foreign land, for, being accustomed to 
meet hundreds of adults in England who could neither read 
nor write, it was strange to find the poorest children over 
the border fairly well educated. The rivalry, or jealousy, 
of the two lands perhaps prevented England from following 
the example of Scotland : a great pity, for in matters of 
education, law, and whatever requires brains, the Scotch 
always excel. The Scotch children are educated, and now 
after more than thirty years, our own poor remain uneducated. 
They can manage the three R's, and are so far instructed, 
which is an advance, as it opens the portal for those who are 
keen to improve themselves. But instruction is not education. 

Several members of Parliament are fond of stating that Educa- 
education has diminished crime. Whilst admitting that crime 
Board School teaching has improved the morals of the poorer 
children, yet no account is taken of the great strides of Temper- 
ance reform and the many social improvements. Moreover, 
crime is always changing with the times, as are also the indict- 
able offences, and the quantitative and qualitative methods 
of administration. As crime is a more variable quantity 
than insanity, we might at all events see what the ratio of 
insanity is during the stress of education. 

The numbers of lunatics per 10,000 were : — 







England 










and Wales. 


Scotland. 


Ireland, 


I the year 


1871 


. . 30-4 . 


. 34 


. 30-5 


,, ,, 


1881 


. . 32-6 . 


. 38-5 . 


. 35-6 


J» 5> 


1891 


. . 33-6 . 


. 38-4 . 


. 450 


JJ >> 


1901 . 


. . 40-8 . 


. 450 . 


. 56-2 



Crime has its fashion and must be up to date, or it would 
die out. Crime aims at being a science as well as a refined 
art ; the older clumsy and often brutal methods are passing 
away, and this alteration, one freely admits, is due to modern 
education. 

I am not in a position to argue as to the technique and Educa- 
merits of the various Education Bills, but, like many others, *'°" ^^^ 



136 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

feel competent to express an opinion on the results. In Scot- 
land there is every variety of educational institution open 
to any child. Whatever is required to enable the bare-legged 
Scot to become superior to his Southern rival is ready to 
hand in profusion. 

Fancy a railway porter attending University lectures, 
and obtaining a degree in Arts. Of course many will say 
it shows the ease with which such honours can be obtained 
in Scotland, for it would seem to many that a railway porter's 
brains could not equal those of our well groomed 'Varsity 
men. The only answer is, that the railway porter was taken 
on as professor of Greek at one of the Oxford colleges. Such 
things continue because the Northerners have more grit in 
them. 

Observation shows that some of the poor city lads and 
juvenile offenders have as much intelligence, which only 
requires developing, as the average public schoolboy. We 
are killing mentally and physically hundreds and thousands 
of our best national assets. 



England 
was un- 
prepared 
for Educa- 
tion 



England was unprepared for such sudden universal and 
wholesale education, yet things were in a very unsatisfactory 
condition. The event of the seventies was a political earth- 
quake, in which the children have been the sufferers, l^ee 
and charitable schools, worked for the love of the children, 
were exterminated, and many teachers, who fulfilled their 
trust faithfully to the children and the nation, were ruined 
by competition. 

The compulsion to attend school tells very heavily on 
the starving poor, and the injury to the badly nourished and 
defective children speUs ruin for their future careers. Such 
children should not be at school, or working their brains. 
They are far better playing about the streets, so that their 
intelligence may gradually evolve. These children at the 
age of 8 are only equivalent to weU-favoured normal children 
of the age of 4. Hence these " city sparrows " should be 
treated on different Hnes. I attribute the extreme intellectual 
dullness of these waifs to this system, which leads to mental 
confusion and brain exhaustion for life. 

There is a great deal of philanthropic agitation in favour 



EDUCATION 137 

of free meals for starving school children. It is as hopeless 
to expect mentation and brain development from a starving 
child, as to move the Cornish express if there is no fuel under- 
neath the engine boiler. 

On the subject of dietary I might perhaps make a few Dietary 
helpful remarks. The poor, under the instinct of imitation, p^^^ ^ 
think they can only Hve on the same dietary as the rich. 
They therefore aim at a meat dietary. This is expensive 
and not as beneficial as other foods. Milk is expensive, but 
cheese is cheap and one of our best foods. It contains casein, 
albumin, fat, lime, phosphates and leicithin. This last, a 
phosphorus compound, is of great value in building up the 
nervous system, and encouraging physical development. 
Potatoes are very wholesome, containing 20 per cent, of starch, 
beside albumin and salts which improve and purify the blood. 
This fact is weU appreciated on sailing ships in order to prevent 
scurvy. Wheat, maize, oatmeal and rice are aU cheap and 
rich in starch, moderate in albumin and fats. Most valuable 
are peas, beans and lentils, being equal to meat in albumins, 
and twice as nutritious as wheat. Those interested in the 
poor should endeavour to educate them on these lines, and 
devise palatable methods of cooking cheaper foods. 

The Jews set us a good example in domestic life, which is The Care 
the chief reason of their durabihty. They are most careful jg^g for 
of their children in matters of feeding ; it is a common sight their 
to see the Jewish mothers giving them food boluses or tit bits ^^^ren 
during the intervals of school. 

There is a great desire on the part of the county councils 
to see poor children weU shod. It is a mistaken sympathy, 
for children are stronger without either shoes or stockings. 
The money spent on cheap shoes and stockings would be 
better used for food. Bare feet dry quickly, whereas feet 
in wet boots lower the vitality. 

In State schools the overcrowding of classes, in order to Over- 
spend less on salaries, is an effectual block to educational crowding 

, . 01 Classes 

progress. The rules Hmit each class to sixty, but the numbers 

frequently reach three figures. One teacher told me she 



138 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

had 120 in her class. They were under four years of age, 
and had to be taught the alphabet, and to spell words of 
two letters. I have some notes from an intelligent teacher, 
who writes the following about examinations : — • 

" Some years ago, to satisfy the Inspector's requirements, 
cramming had to be resorted to," but now the aim is to examine 
" the nature of the teaching itself. Specific knowledge of the 
children is not so much examined now, as their ability to use 
their own common sense, to find out things for themselves, 
and to lay the foundation for an active mind rather than a 
passive receptacle for dates in history, fists of rivers and towns, 
etc." 

I quote these remarks in fairness to show the recent tendency 
to improve the past injurious methods : but I feel sure that 
a great deal of excessive cramming and examining still con- 
tinues. I find that these excessively large classes of over 
sixty in number still continue, and that the pupfis receive 
little if any personal attention or influence in consequence. 
No class should exceed thirty, and the younger children 
should be limited to groups of ten. Individuals could be 
studied, the clever children sent forward, and the slow or 
deficient ones aUowed to lie fallow. As things are, children 
are often pushed up one standard higher than they should be. 
This is confirmed by Mr. Wheatley, who says few of his lads 
are equal to the standards they are in. A teacher tells me, 
the deficient children are numerous, and are pulled along 
in the crowd comprehending httle of what surrounds them. 

What Having satisfied my conscience a little by unpleasant 

tion*^is" remarks as to the present woful measures in education, 
I will call the parents' attention to what education really 
is. The State instructs, but parents can never shift their 
own responsibilities to other shoulders. Education commences 
in the cradle, at which period the little life must be joy. A 
child is not fractious if in health, and therefore the physical 
cause of a bad-tempered baby must be traced and removed. 
Everything around a child must be bright in colour and 
clean. Physical cleanliness paves the way for mental purity. 
The sensory centre of hearing must be educated to pleasant 
sounds ; the soothing voice during suffering : in health the 



EDUCATION 139 

cheerful lively tones : and above all, much singing of simple 
rhymes and tunes, which should be accompanied by muscular 
movements of the limbs as the basis of harmony, which is 
the secret of contentment and prosperity later in life. 

The centre of touch is the one which appeals to the infant 
first by way of encouragement and self-control, which are 
the two most important functions in forming the basis of 
character. How distressing it is to see short-tempered parents 
handling their children roughly ! How surprised the children 
sometimes look ! The parents however are really to be pitied, 
on account of their depravity. From its cradle the child 
appreciates gentleness, and what soothes the little ~ broken 
heart more than the mother's hand ! 

When the speaking stage commences great attention 
should be paid to the proper pronunciation of words ; or, to 
put it differently, the correct muscular action involved. No 
less important is correct breathing. The old idea of sUence 
in children is as much to be discouraged as sitting in a chair 
all day instead of romping. Children should be brought 
up to express themselves intelligently and without nervosity. 
As vision is the highest sensory function in man, so is speech 
the highest motor act, and therefore merits its full complement 
of attention. 

There is no greater pleasure or privilege than the daily stimulate 

care and education of one's children. Inquiry should be ^^^:f 

stimulated and always gratified. Any object that is being inquiry 

examined should be dealt with to the minutest detail, so as i" *^® 

Young 

to fix as many brain impressions as possible. If we take 
an apple or an orange there are the shape, colour, taste, 
odour and composition to be examined ; the demonstration 
that the real fruit is in the pips, and that we only eat the 
pulp or covering ; the nature of the seeds, the countries the 
fruit comes from, the subject of tree grafting ; the commercial 
values, and other endless details with aUied interests. 

The education of the sensori-motor centres consists in the 
storing up of facts. These facts are not to be left like dusty 
volumes in a library. They are for reference and for 
comparison through the medium of the higher processes of 
association. 



140 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 



Nature 
Study 
and the 
Develop- 
ment of 
Logic 



Study will become pleasant and attractive the more tlie 
child is drawn towards the works of Nature. Perception 
increases, accuracy of observation leads on to comparison 
between objects, classifying resemblances or differences. 
It will not be difficult to develop the powers of reasoning or 
argument, following up first the inductive, and later, the 
deductive methods. It is the former, or method of induction, 
which develops the child's brain. Here it proceeds from the 
mass of individual facts which it observes to find out some 
general law or principle. Induction is a process of analysis. 
Later on, from the more general knowledge, the child will 
argue to particular cases, after the deductive method or 
synthesis. Deduction consists in examining general principles 
to find out a particular truth, sometimes a theory or hypothesis. 

As mentation increases many facts and associations become 
so impressed that they pass more or less from consciousness 
to subconsciousness, forming the basis of what we call common 
sense, or more correctly intuitive perception. Some caU it 
the subjective mind. A poorly educated person thinks slowly 
and with effort, but a brain weU stocked works with rapidity, 
and acts partly subconsciously. 



Contrast 
between 
the Un- 
educated 
and the 
Educated 



There is more expansion, or as it is termed in logic, 
extension in the meaning of words, in the educated mind. 
What does any flower convey to the mind of afti ordinary 
person as compared with a botanist ? 

" A primrose by a river's brim 
A yellew primrose was to him. 
And it was nothing more." 

— Wordsworth. 

Who reaps in one of Turner's paintings so much intellectual 
pleasure as an art critic ? Or what does the word " book " 
imply to an English ploughman as compared with a student ? 



Languages One of the evidences of intellectual growth in the human 
race is the expansion of language. The monkey tribe have 
eight or ten different vocal symbols. The lower animals, 
cat and dog, have only expressions of their emotions, as 
pleasure and anger. The Bushmen and savage races have 
feeble and limited vocal development : and most of the 



EDUCATION 141 

African and some of the Asiatic races depend entirely on 
monosyllables . 

Infants likewise begin by using sounds to express their 
emotions, and later employ monosyllables, which require 
very simple muscular movements. 

The dead languages are very limited and would be no use 
to us now. The Persian vocabulary reached 379 words in 
their cuneiform inscriptions, and the Egyptians only got to 
650 words. To illustrate the growth of language amongst our- 
selves : the Old Testament contains about 5,600 words, while 
Shakespeare has 15,000 different words. Webster's dictionary, 
which at first contained 40,000 words, has now grown to 
70,000. The Germans, who are very proKfic, can count 
94,000 words in Fliigel's dictionary. Though there are only 
about 500 root words, Max Miiller estimates the Enghsh 
language to contain about a quarter of a million words. Science 
is responsible chiefly for this rapid development. 

Children mentally deficient are usually poor in language ; Deficient 
their ideas, being necessarily Hmited, require httle expression. ' ^" 
It rests largely with the parents to help on the mentally weak, 
but where the parents have no time to bestow, then institutions 
are second best. Children not actually deficient, but back- 
ward, are very numerous, and they must make haste slowly. 
The more anxious parents or teachers or county councils are 
to push them forward, the more they stumble and the more 
permanently they are damaged. 

A deficient child, according to the degree of deficiency, 
is slow in its movements ; lacks initiative ; stops too long 
over one subject ; and is dull in perception or recognizing 
persons or objects. Eyes and ears are there as receptacles, 
but there is no analysis of the sensations, and no recall or 
memory of past impressions. Such a child looking at a picture 
fixes its attention on one object, and cannot make a concept 
of the whole. As a rule their memory is very poor, many 
cannot remember anything earHer than 5, 8 or even 10 years 
of age. It wiU appear therefore strange to most of us that 
some imbeciles are gifted with extraordinary memory, being 
able to repeat columns of newspaper after once reading. 
But these imbeciles could not repeat a sentence in the middle 



142 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

without beginning at the commencement. Occasionally 
they are good at figures, sometimes phenomenal, doing difficult 
sums without the aid of paper or pencil. The most remarkable 
lightning calculator that I know of was Zerah Colburn in 
the United States ^ who, at the age of 8 could solve any 
arithmetical problem without visible assistance. Thus, when 
asked how many minutes in 48 years, he answered at once 
25,228,800 ; and seconds, 1,513,728,000. He also raised 8 to its 
sixteenth power, which goes to 15 figures, 281,474,976,710,656. 
He was brought to England on show in 1812, but ended in 
failure, being mentally feebler in his teens. No explanation 
is satisfactory, though the mystics associate it with the sub- 
jective mind, which is not clearly defined by them. These 
precocities are difficult to explain, and rather to be envied. 
The ordinary deficient children lack moral courage and 
are usually timorous, always fearing personal danger. In 
tastes they are dressy, vain and emotional, or else the very 
opposite. 

No progress can be made until the affection and the confidence 
is gained by the person in charge. After much labour some 
of them will come all right, and take their places in the world. 
Others will be weaklings for life, and have to occupy easy billets 
without much strain. Among the weU-to-do they do not 
cause a great deal of anxiety as they are so sheltered, but 
among the poorer middle classes difficulty arises. Having 
no powers of concentration or application they never settle 
for long to one occupation, and their natural tendency is 
to vagrancy, showing strong opposition to being guided. 

What becomes dissipation in the rich becomes crime in 
the poor, for these deficients go to make up the mass of inverts 
in society. The higher moral sentiments, which are aU off- 
shoots from one stem, sympathy or love, though developing 
from within, must nevertheless be cultivated. Some children 
are naturally kind and good, " born saved," others are selfish, 
cunning and cruel, or " born lost." As imitation is the most 
powerful factor in training, the parental example should 
be a constant guiding light from the earliest infancy. 

» See Annual Register for 1812. 



EDUCATION 143 

A study of the chapters on heredity will show that the Parentis 
parent is the trustee of the child, and when people engage '^^ ^^ 
in marriage they must not live to themselves, but discharge 
their trusteeship faithfully. Many fashionable women, chasing 
the worthless vanities of society, actually decHne to nurse 
their children, in order to continue their gay and selfish lives. ^ 
Such women deserve prison, however wealthy they may be, 
as they sin against the commonwealth, for they are guilty 
of a slow moral and mental murder. If a woman cannot be 
bored with her child, she should consult the surgeon in the 
interest of future events. 

State education has occasioned great loss in destroying The Sin 
private schools, which represent the ideal system. In a state ^in 
model private school the number of children should be suffi- Destroy- 
ciently large to establish a healthy community, but not so prfvate 
large as to prevent individual interest and supervision. The Schools 
teachers must attain a high degree of culture and refinement. 
Thirty years ago, classics and mathematics were greatly over- 
done, but more recently science has been introduced. Science 
provokes observation and reasoning, and is the greatest stimulus 
to mentation. The success of a private school depends entirely 
on individual efforts, which in turn stimulate healthy rivalry 
and competition. 

The personality of the staff is of immense importance in The Per- 
the character formation of the scholars. This is difficult t^e^^^*^ 
to obtain by state methods, for the teachers are underpaid Secret of 
and overworked, while the children are all cast in one mould, fu^^'i^'hool 
individuality perishing at its birth. 

In my examination of criminals I was struck by the fact 
that few can remember any event in their Hves previous to 
the age of five. When I found the same among Mr. Wheatley's 
first offenders and again among the poor lads at the " Homes," 
I put it down to malnutrition. But when the sturdy, well nour- 
ished country lads in Cornwall and elsewhere exhibited the 

^ I have before my mind a society lady, who is so busy attending 
parties and giving dinners that she often does not see her seven months 
old infant for ten days at a time. Fortunately the old nurse is capable 
and kind. 



144 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

same deficiency, I saw that lack of food could not be the 
only cause. 

Frequently I have found children who have reached the 
sixth and seventh standards unable to go further back than 
the ages of 6, 8, and even 10. 

The Council schools insist on children of 5, whatever their 
condition, passing into the thought-destroying machine. 
Some go at 3. God help them ! 

At the age of 5 the brain weighs about 32 ounces, which 
is f its full weight, the latter being attained at the age of 10. 
Though the weight and material be prepared, its evolution 
or functional development is a gradual process occupying 
years. If the child be in good health, the state method of 
overpressure is wrong, but if the child be starved, deUcate or 
neurotic, the state inflicts untold mental suffering and injury, 
which may wreck the future career, and even thereby make 
criminals. 

At this stage of haK-way development, the pressure of 
instruction is forced on the young brains, amidst unhealthy 
surroundings. A subtle tissue like the brain is unequal to 
the stress, and past growth or evolution is damaged perma- 
nently ; hence the absolute mental blank of early hfe. Never- 
theless the State continues to drive in its instruction for another 
7 years, and then when the mind should be rapidly evolving, 
the child is cast out on the world with a damaged organ. 
Damaged, nay ruined ! The early evolution up to 5 is de- 
stroyed, and it requires neither persuasion nor argument to 
convince any one of the futihty of success by building on a 
damaged foundation. 

What does the State do ? 

Hundreds and thousands of its young victims are annually 
cast on the world with damaged brains, and therefore inferior 
mentation and lowered morale. There need be no surprise 
that they have no brain energy with which to tackle skilled 
occupations. Their brains are worn out, and they can only 
undertake easy jobs and unskilled labour. They are more 
incUned to loaf or even pass into the shady avenues of crime. 
I was much struck by a sturdy lad of 17, who asked me if 
I knew of a situation, stating conditionally " there must not 
be much work in it." One might blame him for laziness, 



EDUCATION 145 

but one must not be too harsh on these State-crushed innocents. 
It was not that he would not ; he could not apply himself 
to work ; he was not a " born tired " but a " tired " of state 
manufacture. We must not then be surprised if there come 
a gigantic revolution of these damaged brain machines, who 
have nothing to Hve for. They make up the mass of that 
large army of lower socialism which is anxious to wreak 
vengeance by destroying everything that can be called Eng- 
lish. 

The following, copied from The Times in December 1907, 
is very serious and profitable reading to those who think 
that modern education is all in all. 



In the report of Mr. Llewellyn on the canal population no attempt 
is made to estimate the number of persons dwelling on the habitable 
barges, of which about 12,000 have been registered, and half that 
number are believed to be still in use. Each boat appears to have 
been inspected by local authorities on an average about half a dozen 
times in the course of the year, and in 45 cases legal proceedings were 
taken for some breach of the regulations. As regards two of the most 
important matters, however, namely, overcrowding and indecent 
herding together of men, women, and children, we are told that it is 
often impossible to obtain satisfactory evidence, since inspection is 
allowed only by day, and it is of coiirse at night that these particular 
offences would be discoverable. As to the education of the children, 
the Act seems to have done very little ; for Mr. Llewellyn finds that 
they seldom attend school, where indeed it is not easy to deal with 
them, since usually, whatever their size, they are mentally capable of 
instruction only in the infant class. Despite their lack of education, 
the inspector considers that they are superior to land children in 
honesty, manners, and physique, and that they " grow up to be better 
citizens by reason of their training to face hard work and to fight 
life's battles on their own account." Yet, if means could possibly be 
devised for their purpose, perhaps their good qualities would not suffer 
materially if some instruction were given in the R's. 

Any state religious tests would be very unsound in principle. State 
In these days of independent thought and rising intelligence, ^®*'S»on 
any such foolish autocracy could only end in disaster. The 
tendency now is to believe in nothing or to be absolutely sincere 
in devotion, for it is no longer necessary to be religious for the 
sake of respectabiUty. At the same time I have been very 
fortunate in my acquaintance with Church schools. The 
influence of the clergy over the staff and the children has been 
of that character-moulding kind which could only result in 



146 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

raising the morale to a high level. I also find that the children 
of the Church schools have better infantile memories than those 
of Board schools, going back to the age of 3. These infants 
have not been pressed to learn, but had kindergarten and 
games, etc. 

The former Church school methods illustrate another 
principle, namely, the invisible but powerful influence for refine- 
ment of the educated gentleman over those of humbler rank. 
That is often lost in the state school methods, and there is 
nothing to take its place. The school boards or councils are 
seldom composed of gentlefolk, but usually of successful trades- 
men who have somewhat risen. As a class they have neither 
sympathy nor broad intelligence, and therefore their influence 
cannot be elevating. Their sporting instincts find full vent 
in quarrels over rehgion and pohtics, and the sufferers are the 
poor children. Many of the teachers might be improved, 
for too many of the same class qualify for these posts, and too 
few, if any, of the gentry ever engage in this holy occupa- 
tion. 



Religious 
Training 
very Im- 
portant 



I very strongly hold, from years of observation (and every 
doctor occupies a confessional), that children should have a 
sound religious training. I do not advocate sectarian dogmas 
nor men's traditions, described by the psychologist Saint Paul 
as old women's fables ; for I find the nearer the religion 
keeps to the simple Bible truths, the more stable is the result 
in the individual. Another form of useful training is the 
free and constant habit of singing simple hymns, or songs 
with a moral. If the tunes are musical and agreeable, they 
are easily remembered, or stamped on the sensory centres. 
It is an easy and practical method of " rubbing in " good, 
sound, guiding principles. Children are pliable like potters' 
clay, and should be shaped into beautiful forms by those in 
charge. But if those responsible are passive and unsympathetic 
chances are lost which will never again be offered. No teacher 
should feel discouraged by occupying a humble post, for 
no one can render better service to the Empire or to the Great 
Architect. What opportunities teachers have to train the 
young minds ! How to learn and observe ; how to be happy, 
how to be good, and why to be good ! 



EDUCATION 147 

As a critic of state methods, I should say that the three The Three 
El's have filled many a prison. Most of the criminals examined ^^jj^^ ^^^ 
have passed average standards ; some have done well. In many a 
none have I found school influence producing any valuable "^°° 
effect. Had they been in good private schools some would 
probably have been saved, and the others would have been 
better without the three R's. Instructed degeneracy is a 
formidable weapon against peaceful communities. In olden 
days the illiterate used their intelligence or associative powers 
with more useful results, and were far happier ; whereas now 
the same class fiU their minds with penny dreadfuls and 
improper subjects, and suffer from a mental auto-intoxication. 
What will become of us if the religious and moral training 
is expunged from the already imperfect, undeveloped system ? 
Crime is not lessened by teaching that it is wrong to steal. 
It is the effect of reasoning and demonstration which prevents 
crime. We must associate on the mental screen pictures of 
the horrible nature of such actions and of the dangerous 
consequences. When the temptation arises in the sensory 
centres, and desire is followed by choice, the weU stamped moral 
and religious " associations " may dictate a choice which is 
at the same time prudent, wise and righteous. 

If we realize a httle of the brain machinery, it is so easy Must 
to understand how and where the poorer classes go wrong. ^^^ 
They know as facts, or one might say Kke parrots, what is stand the 
right and what is wrong ; yet their higher association fails 
and desire conquers will. Will is to them as a withered plant, 
that might have developed, but has died of starvation soon 
after birth. 

It seems hard that our prisons are full of boys some of whom 
are the pick of the land, but have been placed there by the 
over-weighting pressure of civilization, and failure of courage 
on the part of the state to do what is right and just : 
class against mass : one law for the rich and another for 
the poor. 



Poor 



CHAPTER XVII 
MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

THE PHENOMENA OF DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS, OR ALTERNATING 
PERSONALITY : Somnambulism — Mental confusion, or aberration — 
A case of post-epileptic confusion — Risk of illegal acts occurring during 

this state. CASE OF A MURDERER WHERE ALCOHOL PRODUCED 

A VIOLENT SUB-PERSONALITY : The ego seems to be only present 
during normal consciousness — A sub-ego rules during alcoholic intoxi- 
cation — Certain drugs dislocate the ego : alcohol, Indian hemp, opium. 

NECESSITY TO MAKE EACH CRIMINAL CASE A PSYCHOLOGICAL 

STUDY. CASES ILLUSTRATING DOUBLE PERSONALITY: Case 

of Mary Reynolds — A French seamstress, R. L. — A soldier, F., caused by 
a bullet in the head — A Frenchman ruined by his B personality — Felida, 
watched for many years — An Italian : wicked when normal, A, good in 
character as B — At Naples — At Palermo, abnormal personality superior 

to normal. Tomassi's case at Rome. Case described by Dr. Lewis 

Bruce, Welsh and English States. Dr. Hyslop's cases. Case in the 

United States related to me. CASE OF MISS BEAUCHAMP. MY 

CASE OF MARY BARNES : ten sub-personalities. Her ego may never 

return. Sub-personalities Bi, B2, B3, Bio, like a criminal — Each 

sub-personality has a different handwriting. The way in which M. 

B. changed her personalities : Transition types EXPLANATION OF 

MARY BARNES' CONDITION. THE CIRCULATION OF THE 

BRAIN : The sympathetic nervous system — Cases of vascular spasm — 

Hysterical paralysis — Sick headache. spasm of retinal arteries. 

SPASM OF BRAIN ARTERIES IN ALTERED PERSONALITY : In 
B2, In other conditions — The blindness was physical, not psychical 
— The concentric stratification of the brain cells — Disturbed circu- 
lation in the brain of M. B. DISEASE MAY ALTER THE PER- 
SONALITY : We frequently observe two personalities in the same in- 
dividual — The mystery of eleven separate lives in one body. THE 

MIND IS COMPOSITE : Evidence from this case— Case of Miss Beau- 
champ. THE LEGAL ASPECT OF THESE CASES : Crime during 

hypnosis. INFLUENCE OF SUGGESTION AND IMITATION : Like 

sowing seed — A case of kleptomania cured by suggestion — A born thief — 
A lust to steal. 



The Phe- 
nomena 
of 

Double 
Conscious- 
ness or 
Alterna- 
ting Per- 
sonality 



In order to trace the relation of Psychology to criminal and 
allied abnormal cases, it is necessary that there should be 
taken into consideration the remarkable phenomena of double 
consciousness, or alternating personality. Those who know 
R. L. Stevenson's account of Jekyll and Hyde will understand 
the type I am alluding to, in which the subject exhibits two 
different personalities. These appear alternately, living and 
acting quite unconsciously of each other. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 149 

It is possible that Jack the Ripper was an example. He 
may have been in one personality a good citizen, and without 
any power of control have changed unconsciously into the 
murderer, prowled the streets, perpetrated his dreadful crimes, 
using elaborate precaution against detection, and then have 
passed back into his normal state. Some might call it som- 
nambulism. The true Ego or person seems to be asleep, 
while a subpersonality takes possession for a time. There 
is no stupidity impHed in these conditions, for the mind 
acts with intelligence according to the personality it is serving. 
Jack the Ripper may have been an honest workman, and 
may be alive now, quite unconscious of his somnambulistic 
periods. 

Mental aberration of a similar type occurs in epilepsy, 
and is in some cases termed petit irml to distinguish it from 
the convulsions or grand mal. I have watched for about 
four years a young man so affected. He was cured of the 
grand mal by hypnotism, but the petit mal persisted in a 
curious form. In these attacks, which would occur anywhere, 
his facial expression and manner changed. If thwarted he 
would hit out, and sometimes did personal injury. Once 
on his way home in this condition he was robbed of a parcel 
of new clothes, which he was carrying. He remained at 
home two hours in this state of unconsciousness, or sub- 
personaUty, before he came to himself, and discovered that 
his parcel was gone. The last thing he remembered was 
looking into a shop window in Commercial Road. On another 
occasion, he left chapel during the Sunday evening service. 
Some one who knew his complaint followed him, and, sus- 
pecting one of these fits, interrogated him, but as he answered 
quite rationally and seemed normal, allowed him to leave. 

Two or three hours later he returned to his proper state 
and was surprised to find himself four or five miles from 
home. 

One might give many such stories of this and similar cases 
with an apparently clear understanding, in illustration of 
this alternating personality, which we call post-epileptic 
automatism. There was no connexion with hypnosis, for 
in the hypnotic state my patient had no knowledge or memory 
of his post-epileptic wanderings. We can easily see the awk- 



150 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

wardness of his position, if he had committed a breach of the 
law in the subconscious state. 



Case of a 

Murderer 

where 

Alcohol 

Produced 

a Violent 

Subper- 

sonality 



I have found an illustration in a criminal case where 
a man was addicted to alcohol, and received five years' 
imprisonment for a very serious offence. Some years later 
a sentence of death was passed upon him for an actual 
murder. 

This case is of medico-legal interest, for he was abnormal 
from his youth, being subject to a violent and impulsive tem- 
per. He was in fact homicidal from his boyhood, though 
now a quiet harmless-looking individual. When I examined 
him he wept over his past ; yet, if not under kind but firm 
control, he might easily repeat the offence on but shght pro- 
vocation. As a boy of fourteen he would have kiUed a care- 
taker, who rightly interfered with him, if the man had not 
hastily retreated. He was a country lad and sportive, but 
when annoyed became like a wild beast, and always sought 
for revenge. He used to " drive himself mad " by drinking 
spirits, illustrating the lamentable want of supervision over 
young and unformed men which often obtains under present 
licensing regulations. When in this drunken condition he 
appeared to change to another subpersonahty. His Ego, 
a poor one at best, seemed at such times to vanish, for he 
was quite ignorant of these many serious actions. This 
case lends support to the idea that the Ego is only present 
during normal consciousness. He was arrested in a murder- 
ous assault on his employer in the nick of time, and sole mnl y 
affirms that he is even now quite unconscious of this particular 
act, for which he received five years in prison. Very soon 
after his release he actually killed a man. He had been 
drinking spirits for two or three days, and he was quite 
confused, yet his sub-ego directed him to hide for the first 
three or four days after the crime. This appears contradictory 
to his tale and my theory ; but he always knew after these 
occurrences that he had been in a row. He did not, however, 
know that he had committed murder until charged by the 
police. One would in reaUty expect the alcohoHzed sub-ego, 
B,, to possess some self -protective instincts, as shown by his 
hiding after the murder. At the trial the details of his crime 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 151 

were quite a revelation to him in his normal or A personality. 
About eight months after the event, when in prison, the whole 
picture of the murder gradually unfolded before him. This 
may have been because he heard the story at the trial, or 
there may have been some subtle psychological awakening 
from a long somnambulism caused by alcohoHc poisoning 
of the brain cells. The brain must have taken in the whole 
picture at the time, but the alcohohc poisoning may have 
paralyzed the mental associations which would connect up his 
memory of the event. It seems that under the injurious action 
of alcohol the normal Ego is disjointed, and a fractional 
sub-personality appears to rule under those circumstances. 
Similar toxic effects are observed from the use of Indian hemp, 
where delirium and vivid hallucinations occur : or from opium, 
as is evinced in the writings of De Quincey, R. L. Stevenson, 
and others. 

In this particular case, the murderer was ordered to be hanged Necessity 
for a crime of which he was ignorant, and he feels somewhat gach 
aggrieved that no excuse was allowed for his drunken state. Criminal 
This of course is a one-sided aspect of crime, but the moral pgy^h^ 
is, that every case should be regarded as a psychological logical 
study, in order that both the criminal and the long-suffering ^ 
public may have their claims fairly adjusted. If such a 
process had been observed after the first murderous assault, 
it would have been seen that the killing instinct in this man 
was so pronounced as to be an incurable disease. He would 
have been permanently located, after a term of punishment, 
in a refuge colony, there to be supervised and protected 
for the whole of his natural hfe. 

Double personahty is not a new phenomenon, though it Cases 
may occur more frequently with the strain of advancing ^^^^^^ 
civilization. In searching records the first case that I can Double 
find occurred in the early part of last century. aHty°°' 

The subject of our inquiry was one Mary Reynolds,^ 
born in 1791 in Birmingham, and who emigrated with her 
parents to the far west of America in 1795. She was " uncom- 
monly weU-balanced " though rather low-spirited. When 
^ See The Occult Review, January 1907* 



152 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

about 18 she became subject to hysterical fits, and was 
found one day lying in a field where she had been reading, 
unconscious, and in convulsions. When she rallied she 
was blind and deaf, but recovered in a few weeks. Three 
months later she was found in a profound sleep which lasted 
about twenty-four hours, and when she awoke she had lost 
all recollection of her former life, nor did she know her rela- 
tives. She was precisely like a new-bom infant, except for 
the faculty of pronouncing a few words. She rapidly learnt 
to read and write, and would argue as though her intellect 
were fully developed. One morning five weeks later, she 
awoke in her original state, as if nothing had happened, and 
took up her ordinary life precisely where she left it when she 
became abnormal. She was surprised at certain new arrange- 
ments of things around her, occurring in what she thought 
was one night. 

In a few weeks the deep slumber returned, and on waking she 
took up her second life precisely where she had left it off. These 
alternations continued for about fifteen years. When about 
the age of 35, she settled permanently into her second 
state, and so remained for the last twenty-five years of her 
life. The periods of the normal, or A, condition gradually 
grew shorter, till A disappeared, while the abnormal or B 
state varied in time from a few hours to several months. 
She passed easily from B to A, but only after prolonged 
sleep from A to B. She stated that previous to her transition 
from A to B she had a terrible fear as of death upon her, 
lest she should not return. Each period was unconscious of 
the other, forming corresponding blanks in her memory of 
the ruling period. 



Dr. Dufay de Blois reports the case of a seamstress, R. L., 
who became subject to momentary unconsciousness, and thus 
passed into a second personality. The normal A had defec- 
tive vision, whereas B could see perfectly. The abnormal 
B was more active mentally and talked of herself in the third 
person. The condition lasted two or three hours, the normal 
A knowing nothing of the second personality B, and vice 
versa. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 153 

W. Mesnet reports the case of a soldier, F., wounded in 
the head during the Franco-German war of 1870. He made 
his living in Paris by singing in cafes. He entered a second 
personahty, B, after a transitory unconsciousness, during 
which there is very little change except that he becomes a 
thief and is anaesthetic.^ He knows nothing of this change, 
which occurs every two or three weeks. 



M. Tissie published the case of a man aged 30, who was 
a neurotic, and occasionally had dreams directing him to go 
to certain places in quest of work. He would rise in the morn- 
ing in another personality, B, and obey the dream. In this 
way he lost his proper work, and was reduced to poverty. 
He was often robbed in the B state, and might tear up bank 
notes in mistake for ordinary paper. He was also frequently 
put in prison for tramping. He was specially interesting, 
for though A the normal knew nothing of B the abnormal, 
yet B knew of both states and happened to be the more 
intelligent of the two conditions* 

MacNish reports a case in the year 1812, which is apparently 
the second on record, but not of much interest. 



Professor Azam of Bordeaux watched a case from 1858 
until his death in 1899. A girl Felida, aged 15, and very 
hysterical, would develop neuralgia, and faU into a state of 
unconsciousness for about three minutes. She would awake 
in a very merry mood, singing and joking. In this abnormal 
B state she was more intelligent and active, and the neuralgia 
never affected her. The normal. A, does not know of the 
second personality B, whereas B knows of A. B came 
more frequently and lasted longer, extending her visit for 
three or four months. In 1891 Felida suffered from an ovarian 
tumour, and I hear from Dr. Camille JuHan of Bordeaux 
that she is still alive enjoying a simple old age (1907). 



Camuset in 1880 reported a case in Italy in which the normal 
* Anaesthetic means insensitive to touch. 



154 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

A was wicked, and the abnormal B was good. V. L., the 
son of a drunken prostitute, was a beggar and a thief, in con- 
sequence of which he was sent to a reformatory at St. Urbain. 
Here one day whilst working in the fields he disturbed 
a snake among some faggots, and feU down in convulsions 
from fright. After this he became altered mentally ; paralysis 
of the legs with wasting developed. He was therefore sent 
to the asylum of Bonneval, where he was regarded as a respect- 
able, weU-behaved boy, and was gentle and grateful. On 
account of the paralysis he was employed in the tailor's shop. 
A year later he had a fit of hysteria which lasted sixty hours, 
and when it passed off he got up quite weU, free of all paralysis, 
and wished to join his old companions of the reformatory 
in their field labour as before. He did not recognize the 
doctors or nurses of the asylum, or know anything about the 
tailoring, while his kind, gentle nature was replaced by his 
old ruffianly manners and vicious instincts. The question is, 
whether the abnormal B was what nature intended, and the 
normal or degenerate. A, was the product of an alcoholic 
and depraved parentage ? 

Bianchi ^ reports other cases. 

A Jewish girl in Naples, who, without any external 
manifestation, changed her personahty from A to B. If 
she were conversing, she would stop ; or if doing embroidery, 
she would leave it and go to something else, as house or kitchen 
work. When she returned from B to A, she would be quite 
surprised to find she had left her embroidery, or whatever 
she was engaged in, and quite ignorant of aU that had passed 
in the interval. 



A girl in Palermo every day about four o'clock changed 
from a sad, fastidious, torpid individual to a hvely active state 
(B). In the morning she was normal (A). One evening, as 
B, she was very hvely and pleased to have a visit from her 
brother. In the morning, however, as A, she was surprised 
to see him, and was ignorant of his visit the previous evening. 
Similar occurrences were frequents 

^ Psychatrie. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 155 

Professor Tomassi gives a case not unlike the recent notori- 
ous " Koepenich " case in Germany. A young man in 
Rome called on a policeman to assist him in searching the 
house of an advocate, at the same time representing himself 
as a superior officer. After the visit and search, he dismissed 
the civil guard and mingled with the crowd on the Piazza. 
A legal process followed, when it was found that the accused 
knew nothing of the event, and that he had many gaps in his 
memory or consciousness. 



Dr. Lewis Bruce reported a case of dual brain aotion in 
the year 1897,^ and he attributed the cause to the right and 
left brains alternately exerting a preponderating influence. 
He caUs attention to " spurious duaHty," where a patient 
thinks himself inhabited by another individual, or when 
other similar delusions exist. Such appear to occur where a 
patient carries on a conversation with his supposed internal 
lodger ; a casual listener would fancy two different people 
were conversing. 

The patient described by Dr. Lewis Bruce had an EngHsh 
stage and a Welsh stage. In the English stage he was right- 
handed, and the subject of chronic mania. He spoke EngHsh, 
but understood Welsh. He was restless, destructive and 
thievish. He was in touch with his surroundings, but his 
memory was a blank to the Welsh stage ; he was, however, 
in touch with the previous English periods. He wrote in the 
ordinary way, but could also write backwards, mirror writing. 

In the Welsh stage he was demented, left-handed, and 
spoke Welsh. He could not understand English, either spoken 
or written. He did not know the doctors or attendants, 
and could only write with the left hand, from left to right. 
Once, when he wrote with the right hand, he wrote backwards. 
He was therefore quite out of touch with his surroundings 
as a Welshman, but normal as an EngUshman. 



In 1899 Dr. T. H. Hyslop, Medical Superintendent of Beth- 
lem Hospital, read a paper on this subject at the British 

^ In the Scottish Medical Journal. 



156 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Medical Association. He makes seven different types associ- 
ated with night terrors, somnambulism, loss of memory, 
epilepsy, insanity, hysteria or mediumship. 

The interest of his paper consists in the demonstration of 
the instabihty of character and the moral perversions which 
occur, involving questions of criminal responsibility. 

Thus, Case 1 was a boy of 14, with night terrors and a 
propensity to steal money and stamps from other boys at 
school. When convicted and reproved, he was much distressed, 
but appeared to have no memory of the circumstances. 

Similar events are of daily occurrence in our police courts, 
but no allowance is made for the accused. 

Case 2 was a precocious boy of 14, who had attacks of 
stupidity at school, and was found one night sharpening a 
knife with intent to kiU a schoolfellow. He was with some 
difficulty overpowered. 

Most of the cases were on the border line of insanity, thus 
differing from Mary Barnes, and especially from a very remark- 
able case in America, the account of which was recently 
given to me by her cousin. 



Mrs. W., of M , related to me personally a remark- 
able instance of double consciousness which has lasted over 
thirty years. It is the case of her cousin who resides in the 
United States, and is married and mother of six children. 
No cause can be traced. Every evening about eight she has a 
shght twitching, sometimes a convulsion, or perhaps turns 
her head round and looks strange. She then enters into the 
abnormal state B. B knows everything about A, and has a 
better memory than A : whereas A knows nothing of B. 
B goes to bed and changes during sleep back to A. B is 
very clever and witty, but also very religious, reading and 
expounding the Bible better than A, and writes beautiful 
letters. The state B is always a mental blank to A. B is very 
restless, and gets out of bed in her nightdress, and may walk out 
of doors, and has been known to walk miles along the railway 
track, avoiding express trains. This has been proved by 
information received from tramps and others who are startled 
by her appearance, for in addition her facial expression alters, 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 157 

and her eyes are only half open. Sometimes she may go 
down to the cellar, procm*e the ingredients for a pie or cake, 
and bake them in the dark in the kitchen before morning. 
B can read print, but she cannot recognize photographs or 
people. She is conscious of the presence of any person near, 
but does not recognize the person whom she knew in her 
normal state A until she approaches and grasps the hand 
or touches any other part ; recognizing by touch alone who 
it is. This appKes not only to acquaintances and friends, 
but even to her husband, whom she would not otherwise 
know. As soon as she touches or feels a person, she begins 
a suitable and intelhgent conversation. Sometimes the family 
get B to promise not to go out, and this especially when she 
is at hotels, for she travels a great deal. She seems to have 
a power of thought reading, for they may lock the outside 
doors and hide the keys, but she always goes straight to the 
place where they are concealed whatever precautions may 
be taken. She is now 56 years of age. She has never had 
good health, and her chief anxiety is lest she becomes in- 
sane. 

The following incident occurred in which the normal person- 
ality A was conscious of an act performed by the abnormal 
B. Though the story is gruesome, I must repeat it, for it 
throws Hght on the case of the murderer who was ignorant of 
his crime during the trial, but remembered the details some 
months later. 

Mrs. W. told me that once, when she stayed a night at 
her cousin's house, she slept in a wing extending from the 
main building. She awoke during the night to hear approach- 
ing footsteps. The person slowly entered the room and came 
so close that she could hear the breathing. She was in great 
terror, fearing a robber. Presently the person as slowly 
retired. Nothing was said about it next day, for apparently 
A did not know what B had done. A few months later, 
A in ordinary conversation referred to it. She spoke of 
visiting Mrs. W. in her bedroom, and said that she did 
not speak lest she would frighten her. There is no ques- 
tion she was that night in the B state, and it appears to 
be the only time that A remembered or knew of the acts 
of B. 



158 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Case of The classical case of Miss Beauchamp lias been very fully 
Beau- published by Dr. Morton Prince in America, in his book on 
champ Dissociated Personality. 

Miss Beauchamp was a single consciousness or personality 
until 1893, when a psychical catastrophe occurred in the 
shape of a serious family trouble and illness. 

As a result of disintegration of the personality or conscious- 
ness of Miss Beauchamp, a new sub-personahty Bl arrived. 

Bl was serious and refined. She went to college in 1898 
and then came under Dr. Prince's observation. From exces- 
sive study she became neurasthenic and unstable, although 
to outsiders she would appear quite ordinary. 

Another sub-personality appeared which called itself Sally. 
Dr. Prince called her or it B3. These alternating personaUties 
would change about without apparent rhyme or reason, possibly 
several times a day, 

SaUy was hvely, reckless, saucy and mischievous, teasing 
and playing tricks on Bl. She would write abusive letters 
to Bl and leave them where Bl would find them later. When 
Bl realized the presence of Sally, she became depressed and 
thought she was possessed of an evil spirit. Sally knew 
everything that went on in the life of Bl, but Bl was ignorant 
of SaUy's life. Thus Sally claimed a concomitant existence 
for herseK, with a double mental condition for Bl. Sally 
had her own thoughts, perceptions, and will during the time 
Bl was in existence. At the same time Sally did not partake 
in the higher education of Bl. Thus Bl knew French and 
shorthand, but SaUy knew neither. 

Sally was strong and healthy, and would sometimes walk 
a long way from home, and disappear, leaving Bl, who was 
easily fatigued, to struggle back. 

When Bl was tired or poorly, Sally dominated and led her 
a fearful life, but if Bl were well and strong, it was more 
difficult for Sally to get the upper hand. Once when Bl 
was in exceptionally good health, SaUy expressed herself as 
feeling " squeezed out." This phenomenon sheds very 
great light on our own individual lives. It seems to explain 
, the dominance of the evil sub-ego within us. It often happens 
that a person goes wrong, in some cases to an alarming degree, 
during periods of physical or mental ill-health. One can 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 159 

trace the cause to neurasthenia, or some sudden excesses 
which have exhausted the nervous system. Under suitable 
treatment and often by suggestion the healthy, normal condi- 
tion is regained. There is however always the risk of social 
disaster during these wanderings, and such events may, in 
wrecking a career, postpone or even prevent a return to normal. 
This is demonstrated daily in the instances of good people 
going wrong, as it were running off the tracks which they 
had previously followed in exemplary lives. 

Bl in a measure illustrated this when Sally made her tell 
lies, or act rudely and foolishly to her friends, or do anything 
repulsive to her ordinary ideas. Bl was thereby much dis- 
tressed, but unable to help herseK. 

A third sub-personality B4 appeared on June 7, 1899. 

B4 knew nothing of Bl or B 3, nor did she know Dr. Prince 
or the other friends. Her character was different ; for she 
was combative, and inquisitive as to her new surroundings. 
Though Sally knew all about Bl, she knew nothing of B4, 
except what an outsider could observe. B4 had a hatred for 
Sally, and contempt for Bl. B4 also shared the accomplish- 
ments of Bl, as her knowledge of French. 

Dr. Prince at first thought B4 was the original Miss 
Beauchamp, for B4 knew her whole life previous to the shock 
in 1893 and the appearance of Bl, but knew nothing of 
the six years until 1899, when Bl reigned. Dr. Prince, how- 
ever, found that neither Bl nor B4 was the original Miss 
Beauchamp. He, however, discovered that during the hypnotic 
state Bl and B4 became the same, and he called this state B2. 

B2 was sad, anxious and passive. 

Dr. Prince now endeavoured to synthetize Bl and B4, and 
tried to wake up B2. But for a long time he failed, as B4 
resented it, having a contempt for Bl. There was also a 
strong conflict between Sally and B4 for supremacy. They 
even exchanged letters, abusing each other. SaUy was 
afraid of being extinguished. Finally in 1902 there was a sort 
of compromise between Sally and B4 and Dr. Prince was able 
to wake up B2 and thus he restored the normal Miss Beauchamp. 
It will be remembered that B2 lived up to 1893 and Bl since, 
so that the broken chain was united. 

As an instance of how these sub-personahties quarrelled, 



160 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

on one occasion the mischievous Sally heaped all the movable 
furniture on the bed, and then disappeared, or in other words 
B4 appeared. B4 determined not to gratify Sally, rolled 
herself up in a rug on the floor and went to sleep, but woke 
up as Miss Beauchamp, the latter having all the trouble of 
putting the room straight. 

^y *^^ One of the most remarkable cases of abnormal personality 
Barnes' y^t recorded came under my care in 1895. It occurred in a 
lo Sub- gipi (Mary Barnes), and was induced by influenza when about 
alities ' 12 years of age. She exhibited ten phases of sub-person- 
ality, each of which was a distinct and separate life. No 
one personality knew anything of the others, nor yet of the 
normal life. The normal and the abnormal personalities 
appeared and disappeared in the most remarkable manner 
without any discoverable cause. The sub-personalities might 
last only a few minutes, or for hours, often for days and weeks ; 
indeed, she has now been living in an abnormal state since 
1898. I have no hope of her Ego or original self ever returning. 
I will call the normal Ego A, and the abnormal sub-personalities, 
B, ranging from Bl to BlO. Each sub-personahty showed 
a continuous existence or memory, or in more technical 
language, a continuity of consciousness. Thus if B6 left 
any time and returned in six months, she would interest 
herself in what occurred on the previous date, as if nothing 
had intervened. B6 did actually leave in December 1896, 
returning in June 1897, and could not understand why there 
were flowers in what she believed was still December 1896. 
The six months' interval was a mental blank. This case 
was fully reported in the Journal of Mental Science for October, 
1904, and in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical 
Research, Vol. XLIX. 

These sub-personalities differed completely in character. 
Amongst them, Bl was a condition of mania or excitement ; 
at times of coma, and even trance. Once, in the latter condition, 
she was supposed to be dead, and actually was prepared for 
"laying out." 

As B2 she was quite ignorant, requiring to be completely 
re-educated. She knew the names of things, but could not 
apply them correctly, as if hea: associative memory were 












•h OiJtJL 










Written by Bio, the " wicked " stage, Note tliat each word was written from 

right to left. 
This print is lent by the Med. -Psych. Association. 



Facing page 160. 




Drawn by M.B. when B3 or " Old Nick. 
Lent by the Med. -Psych. Association. 



Facing page 160. 




Drawn entirely by touch by M. B. when bUnd, as Bg. 
Lent by the Society for Psychical Research. 



Facing page 161. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 161 

defective. B2 bore a close resemblance to Mary Rey- 
nolds. 

B3 was a mischievous romping girl. In this condition she 
was taken to the seaside, and though in her normal state she 
knew the sea yet now as B3 she beheld it for the first time. 
When she revisited the same place the next year, in a different 
personality, as B6, it was again to her as a new sight. 

She learned to swim in one personaHty, B3, but later could 
not swim in the B6 condition. 

In another phase, B9, she was blind and developed a new 
faculty, perhaps a legacy from some remote ancestor. This 
was the power to draw ; drawing entirely by touch, even to 
the detecting of colour. B9 was also imbecile. (Study the 
drawings of B9 and compare with that of B3.) This case 
of M. B. is of value to our present subject because one state, 
BIO, was of criminal appearance. As A, or normal, she was 
a girl of the very highest morale, and the simplest wrong-doing 
was an absolute horror to her. Yet as BlO she was a thief, 
and only by chance saved from murder. The theft was a 
very ordinary one, from a shop door. On seeing a pohceman 
she ran back, replaced the article, but justified the theft on 
the same lines of thought as in the criminal's mind. " If you 
want a thing and can't get it, why nick it. No harm if you 
are not found out." 

A very striking feature in this case was the different hand- 
writing in each personality. The most curious part was the 
illiterate scrawl in BlO, the degenerate state ; and the badly 
formed letters in B2, which were written quickly and without 
hesitation from right to left, instead of from left to right. 

The account of Mary Barnes would not be complete The way 
unless I describe the way in which she changed from her normal i^ ^^ic^ 
Ego, and how the sub-personalities shifted about. Barnes 

The first sub-personality Bl, which exhibited mania, coma, ^^^s^^ 
and trance, was supposed to be an acute and severe illness sonalities 
of ordinary brain type, and was not properly recognized at 
the time. In the sixth week of this condition B2 appeared as 
an ignorant child, clipping her words and unable to associate 
the names of things correctly. Thus she did not know what 
her foot was called, or would caU her mouth her eye, and 

M 



162 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

so forth. She also reversed, colours, calling black white, green 
red, and vice versa. It was considered a loss of mind following 
on the acute illness. But one day during an apparent relapse 
of the Bl state she appeared dazed, pushed things away, and 
suddenly turned a somersault on the bed. She at once assumed 
the B2 characters, but later relapsed to Bl. This happened 
again and thus attracted close observation though the facts 
were impossible to explain. In this B2 condition she com- 
menced scrawling with a pencil and it was noticed that she 
wrote correctly each word backwards, that is from right to 
left, beginning at the tail, with as much ease as in the ordinary 
way. It was not mirror writing. Interchanges occurred 
quite irregularly between her normal self A, and B2, from the 
last week of May 1895 until July 24, when a new sub-person- 
ality, B3, appeared. Bl having completely gone for a time, 
B2 was up and dressed, and on July 24, 1895, it was observed 
that her mental attitude was quite different from before. 
The transition was marked by the appearance of mental con- 
fusion with flushing. When she changed to B2 she usually 
fell to the ground, because B2 was paralyzed at the ankles. 
This fact was of great assistance to me in unravelHng the 
cause, as it pointed not only to a paralysis of that motor 
centre in the brain, but also to the particular artery of supply 
(the anterior cerebral). 

The transitions might be extremely rapid, lasting two or 
three minutes, or drawn out for days, leaving us in anxious 
doubt as to what might happen. As an illustration of rapid 
change she was in a comatose condition on Sunday April 4, 1897, 
and seemed to be dying ; suddenly she jumped up with a clear 
mind and called out, " What am I in bed for ? Don't you 
know I am Nick ? " Nick was the name we gave her as B3. 
She had been very ill for three weeks, fed by spoonfuls, and 
now she demanded a good meal. Our predicament can 
easily be imagined. B3 had been absent for six months, 
having left on Sunday, September 20, 1896, at dinner time, 
and now B3 wished to dress and go downstairs, as she supposed, 
to finish her former dinner, it being again a Sunday. It was 
a difficult case to treat, as there was no similar one on record 
to guide us. 




Writing of B2. Each word was written from right to left. 
Lent by the Society for Psychical Research. 



Facing page 162 





OL£jay^ / 





61^ , 



Written by Bg in the blind and imbecile stage. The "dear voice" was the 
name she gave, when Bg, to the author. 



f?,^«XX^ :^}f rouUuTYu 



oi CX/rru XA>M.AAA.rriJi 



%JU)3jo^ h. JtlJliA^ ^W-c^ a^ 





*yw j( ij 



m 



-iUxJx) OU C>U)-*U-0-U^ \JjX'iX)'0 



Written by B6, the nearest substitute to normal. 
I am indebted to the Medico-Psychological Association for these prints. 



Facing page 163. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 163 

Turning from the purely psychical aspect of this interesting The Phy- 
case I wish to offer an explanation based on our knowledge E°p°fna- 
of the manner in which the blood vessels act, and also on the tion of 
anatomical conditions of blood supply to the brain. Pe^son-^ 

It wiU serve a useful purpose towards unravelling some of ality 
those temporary mental aberrations which so constantly 
present themselves, if I apply this technical knowledge to 
the case of M. B. to explain her varying personalities. 

We have not so far considered the mechanism of the blood The Cir- 
supply of the brain. The vast system of blood canals all of^t^e"^ 
over the body have a special nervous system, almost entirely Brain 
given up to them, which is called the Sympathetic nervous 
system. It sends deUcate branches along the vessels, causing 
them to contract, in which case there is a pallor, and a sense 
of chilliness, whilst if the blood vessels dilate there is flushing 
and heat. An example of both conditions is seen in nettlerash, 
where toxin from the stomach, or formic acid from the nettle, 
enters the blood and causes both conditions, namely, a pale 
centre from contraction of the blood vessels, or anaemia ; 
and a red periphery, from dilatation of the blood vessels 
on congestion. 

Chilblains or numb fingers are also examples of spasm 
of the arteries. These arterial contractions may last a few 
hours or days or extend to weeks and months. In Raynaud's 
disease the arterial spasm of the fingers or toes may continue 
until there is ulceration and gangrene. 

Since advancing the theory, some years ago, of arrested 
function being the result of arterial spasm, depriving the area 
affected of its chemical nutrition, certain cases of spasm of 
the retinal artery have been reported, which support this 
doctrine to the point of demonstration. 

W. TyndaU Lister, of London, described to me a case, not yet 
pubhshed, in which a man complained of sudden attacks of 
half blindness or darkness. During one of these attacks Mr. 
Lister was able to show his students a condition of complete 
spasm of certain branches of the retinal artery. After a 
period of perhaps half an hour, these pale contracted arterioles 
r^axed, filling with blood and shortly after vision was com- 
pletely restored. 



164 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Drs. C. E. Beevor and Marcus Gunn describe the case of a 
man,^ aged thirty-four, who had attacks of headache with 
bHndness in the right eye since childhood. One attack con- 
tinued for nine months, on which account he sought special 
advice.^ It was diagnosed as recurrent spasm of the central 
artery of the retina. 

In the same journal, J. B. Story, of Dublin, recited two similar 
cases. 

One case, a man aged thirty-five, was attacked suddenly 
with blindness on December 28, 1898, and the condition 
lasted till the middle of April, 1899. This very much resembles 
the period and character of the blind stage of BlO. 

The second case lasted ten weeks. In both, spasm and 
contraction of the retinal arteries were observed. 

In vol. 26, p. 282, of the above, Lundie publishes another 
case in which he watched the spasm of the retinal artery ; 
and Hartridge of Philadelphia, reports a case in which the 
blindness, lasting a few minutes, was due to contraction of 
the larger vessels outside the skull, namely, the temporal 
and nasal arteries. 

Dr. Arthur H. Benson, of Dublin, also published a case of 
" Temporary visual obscurations from retinal vascular spasm " 
{TraTis. Internat. Opht. Gong. 1894). 

If such disturbance of the circulation occurred in the brain, 
important mental phenomena must result. In what is wrongly 
termed hysterical paralysis and anaesthesia, there is reason 
to believe that the particular brain cells involved are for the 
time deprived of function, and the cause is probably an arterial 
spasm such as this. In the condition termed sick headache, 
or megrim, there is a spasmodic contraction of the carotid 
artery so that it may be felt hard in the neck Certain 
of its branches in the brain are thereby deprived of their normal 
blood supply, and this leads to confusion, sometimes deafness, 
and great irregularities of sight, by throwing particular groups 
of brain cells out of action. 

The brain receives its supply of blood from two large arteries 

1 Ophth. Review, 18, 1899, p. 204. 

2 In this condition there was blindness of the superior half of the 
field of vision with spasm of the lower branches of the central retinal 
artery. He had occasional attacks in the left eye, losing the lower 
half of the field of vision. 




Photograph of arteries and arterioles, with delicate fibres (probably sympathetic 

nerves) running along their walls. These regulate the supply of blood by 

causing the vessels to contract or relax. 

Prepared by a special process and kindly lent by Dr. Ford Robertson, of Edinburgh. 



Facing page 164 



Sketcli of a branch of the middla cerebral artery supplying the motor centres. 
T« Tronk 




Diagramatic sketch of a section of the brain to shew how the cortex gets its 

blood supply, and to demonstrate how spasm of a branch of an artery may 

arrest its function in any part. 




AC 



P c 



A sketch of the arterial supply of the brain. AC— anterior cerebral artery. 

PC — the posterior cerebral, which supplies the visual area. MC — the middle 

cerebral artery supplies the clear part. 

Spasm of AC would account for B2, by shutting off the higher association and 
the motor centre of the foot. 

pacing page 165. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 165 

in front, the right and left carotids, and two smaller arteries 
behind, the vertebrals. These are connected up inside the 
skuU to form a beautiful system of vessels, so as to ensure a 
steady and regular supply. From off this system on each 
side, right and left, arise three arteries, the anterior, middle, 
and posterior cerebral arteries. These inter-communicate 
by their smaller branches to ensure still further a steady flow. 
But if any important branch be shut off permanently, as by 
a clot or a rupture, as in apoplexy, there results a permanent 
paralysis of some part of the body according to the brain area 
attacked. Whereas if an artery be in a state of spasm as 
just described, the particular group of nerve cells supplied 
will for so long be put out of action. I contend that this 
offers a reasonable explanation of these extraordinary psychic 
phenomena. 

In my opinion the spasmodic contraction of certain arteries Spasm of 
in the brain might account for loss of the corresponding fjf*" 
mental functions in the case of Mary Barnes. Thus the B2 in 
condition, in which there was a complete loss of association ^*^^^^ 
between objects and their names, was always associated with ality 
inability to stand, as she lost the use of her ankles ; contraction 
of the anterior cerebral artery would account for both 
phenomena, as it supphes the prefrontal association area, 
which guides the processes of thought, and also the motor 
centre of the foot, which was always paralysed. The 
paralysis of speech, hearing and bHndness are hkewise easily 
accounted for, but the blindness was more comphcated, as it 
was physical, not mental. The physical bhndness was probably 
due to spasm of the branches of the middle cerebral artery, 
which supphes some of the way stations between the retina 
and the cortex (the geniculate bodies). Sir John Tweedy 
testified to the normal state of the eye. 

Psychical vision, or ideation, is situated at the posterior 
pole of the brain, and from this area were evolved, during 
the physical bhndness, a wonderful group of drawings. We 
know that the bhnd are very sensitive to touch, and M. B. 
during her blind condition guided her pencil solely by touch, 
even in the matter of colouring. M. B. had her brain 
stored with mental pictures which she had " gathered " during 



166 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

her lifetime, whereas by contrast those blind from birth or 
infancy have not had the opportunity of collecting visual 
impressions. 
The Con- It will be remembered that the pyramidal or intellectual 
Stratifi- brain cells are in layers and develop into activity from within 
cation of outwards.^ In this way we may say they resemble the concen- 
Cdk ^'" trie layers seen in the section of a tree. Supposing there are 
fifty layers of pyramidal cells, and that ten layers are educated 
by the age of 3, if the circulation of the blood was shut off 
all the upper layers, then the individual would become childish, 
as in the B2 state. Again if the thirty deeper layers were 
educated by the age of 10 and the circulation were shut off 
the upper twenty layers, we could account for the character B3. 
B6 was like a good child of 12 or 13, about as high a level 
as M. B. attained normally. She has continued as B6 with 
some sHght advance, and this might be explained if the embry- 
onic nuclei were permanently damaged. The disturbance 
of the circulation might impair the remaining higher layers 
from their further normal evolution. Such would appear to 
have happened in this case, for though about 23 she is mentally 
on the plane of a girl of 16 to 18 years of age. 

Disease If we apply the lessons of this unique case we see that the 

Ait^ ih degenerate, and perhaps criminal, sub-personaHty BIO, suggests 
Person- the possibility of a similar condition in some of our criminals, 
ality where from disease or accident, probably in chUdhood, the 

original self is disintegrated, and the lower nature takes 
charge of the individual. We must have observed with 
some acquaintances a complete change of character or per- 
sonality after a serious illness. We are apt to say, " So-and-So 
is a changed person, quite different " since some trouble or illness. 
In reality the personality has been attacked at the foundation, 
and the dissolution of the Ego has resulted in a sub-personahty 
assuming control. 

There are also many apparently normal people who show 
two distinct natures or sub-personalities. For example the 
same person may show the mother's sweetness and the father's 
temper, or a peculiarity which does not occur in a parent 
but in an uncle or aunt or even cousin. Here we have a 

1 Fig. p. 108. 



Diagram of the sympathetic nervous system 




Which hes in ganglia or chain masses in front of the spinal column. There are 
3 chief masses: over the heart and lungs (Ca), another plexus for the stomach 
and viscera (So), and third for the reproductive organs (H). They are intimately 
connected with every nerve and blood vessel, and when out of gear produce 

functional diseases. 



Facing page 166. 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 167 

personality from each parent or from some more distant relative. 
In such cases one encourages the good sub-ego while endeavour- 
ing to postpone the visits of the unpleasant sub-personality. 

The case of M. B. showed eleven separate lives in one body, 
and is fuU of unravelled mystery. We cannot call them 
eleven minds, nor yet ten aberrations, but ten fragments of the 
whole or perfect mind. 

I call them ten sub-personalities, and I compare mind to T^e Mind 
a piece of fine architecture which is composed of so many posite " 
structural parts. If an earthquake shake the structure beyond 
the point of stability, there is an internal dislocation, so 
that the whole shape is altered and hidden parts are seen. 
But these are only substructures, however complete in them- 
selves they appear. In B2, who was like an ignorant infant, 
the mental fragment was very small. She had to be taught 
or retaught the apphcation of every name, yet she could 
express herself in writing. BIO was full of wicked thoughts, 
and showed an intelligence much below the average. She 
had no moral sense in this state, for though she knew 
she was doing wrong, she had neither shame nor sorrow. 
This condition is a replica of the criminal mind. Such 
indisputable evidence shows the mental states of the crimi- 
nal as being abnormal to the true Ego. 

The most inexplicable feature was that in every sub-person- 
ality she knew her parents, although she gave them the 
nicknames of " Tom " and " Mary Ann." 

The previous case, Miss Beauchamp, was under the hypnotic 
influence and single control of Dr. Morton Prince, and thus 
differed from my patient, who resisted the strongest attempts 
at hypnotism. Moreover my case was critically examiaed 
by the highest mental experts to ehminate personal error 
on my part. Amongst them were Drs. C. Mercier, Robert 
Jones, T. Hyslop, Outterson Wood, T. SaviU, Sir Thomas 
Barlow, Drs. Milne Bramwell, Lloyd Tuckey and others. 
She was also twice shown in the abnormal states to the CHnical 
Society of London, with Dr. Buzzard presiding. 

The Legal 
It would be a very serious matter if such a case came under Aspect of 
the operations of the law. As Dr. Mercier pointed out, this Cases 



168 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

case showed the possibility of a person committing a crime 
in one sub-personaHty, and being punished in another phase, 
or in the normal state. Such might have happened with BIO 
if a desperate act had been done, and no one could have shielded 
her. From the sudden manner in which she changed her 
personalities it is quite possible that the trial would have 
been of a sub-personaUty other than BlO, and totally ignorant 
of BlO's actions. It is at least possible that such things 
occur, and is a strong argument for modifying the law of 
capital punishment. In this case we had to protect BlO 
against herself. It is right for the public to be protected from 
the criminal classes, but it is equally just to demand of the 
law the institution of machinery for protecting the criminal 
from himself. 

It is just possible that some crimes committed by neurotics 
have been committed in the hypnotic state, and it is worth 
while to try the experiment of regenerating some such criminals 
by wholesome suggestion during hypnosis. 



Influence 
of Sug- 
gestion 
and 
Imitation 



Nearly aU influence resolves itseK into either imitation or 
suggestion, and the power, effect and duration of suggestion 
can never be fathomed or estimated. The evil suggestion 
of a bad companion may be compared to a draught of disguised 
poison. It is Hke the insect's sting in the young oakleaf, 
which ripens into the gallnut when the leaf is mature ; or the 
sowing of seed which may not bear fruit for an indefinite time. 
Yet there they both are, absorbed and buried, for good or 
for evil. Conversely the usefulness of the preacher depends 
on his power of suggestion. The conversions of criminals 
by the Salvation Army is due to the same cause, aided by 
imitation and the hypnosis of music. 

I once cured a girl of kleptomania by suggestion. Her 
condition was undoubtedly criminal and she had been a 
great trouble to her employers. She could not resist pilfering, 
but was sharp enough to take precautions or guard against 
detection, for if there was any chance of being caught she 
controlled her desire. This to many would appear simple 
wickedness, but it was not so. She was a moral cripple, 
and was cured by sympathetic supervision. Nevertheless 
my patient was a born thief, for she told me that if alone in 



MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 169 

my other room and a lady's bag were on the table, she could 
not resist stealing from it. It was not the value of the object, 
but a lust to steal. Many of the criminals have used the same 
expression. As all these abnormal people take precautions 
against detection, the law cannot realize that it is an obsession, 
or possession, and deal with them as if they were normally 
equipped in intelligence and self-control. 

There is indeed nothing externally visible to separate BIO, 
or this other girl, from the common thief ; and this suggests 
a closer relationship between crime and mental dislocation than 
society is at present prepared to admit 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE EGO AND SUB-EGOS OR PERSONALITY AND 
SUB-PERSONALITY 

THE EGO : Spiritist's opinion — No sub-personalities, but many personalities 

— Possession and control — Science refutes spiritism. ONLY ONE EGO 

IN EACH PERSON : A perfect child as example — " Born saved " versus 

" Born lost "—A sub-personality. WHAT THE EGO MUST BE, A 

NORMAL PERSONALITY : Sub-egos in all of us— The ego of M. B. 
gradually disappeared after two years — Now B6 requires care against 

mental fatigue being unstable. M. B. ONLY A PART OF HERSELF 

NOW : Proof that M. B. is only a fragment of her original self. 

CRIMINALITY VERY RARELY DUE TO DOUBLE PERSONALITY: 
Case of No. 3 — The criminal abnormal from childhood — Poorer classes 

more liable to mental instability, and perhaps to sub-personality. 

CASE OF TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF THE EGO : How to treat and 

save these cases. HUMANITY ON AN INCLINED PLANE : Average 

egos subnormal — Causes of sub-personality — Environment — Heredity 

and conditions at birth. CONSTANT CAUSES WORKING AGAINST 

THE EGO : Treatment of brain cases where damage suspected — The 

dethroned ego — Definition of the ego — What is sleep ? SCIENCE 

ADMITS UNSEEN FORCES : The spirit — The subnormal ego and the 
spirit — Influence of religion and ethics — On abnormal types — A converted 

criminal. CONTRAST OF THE LAW AND SALVATION ARMY IN 

IMPROVING THE CRIMINAL : A sub-ego reviving under the S. A. 
influence — ^The case resembles somnambulism. RELIGIOUS CON- 
VERSION EXAMINED SCIENTIFICALLY: The distorted ego— My 
conversion under Lister — Stages of conversion — Brain the physical plane 
of the higher spirit, and mind the psychical plane — Body, brain, mind, 

spirit or ego. ETHICS VERSUS RELIGION : Knowledge always 

interesting. We cannot busy ourselves in tradition — Cannot limit or 

define the horizon of science. THE AGNOSTIC : We only see results, 

not the how or why — Vita, Life — Anima, the soul. MAN LIKE A 

MACHINE : May be bad — May wear out — Duty of the State — Cases. 

The Ego rjig^j, j]gQ jg g^ subject of great discussion, and must be regarded 
as undefinable by psychologists. Spiritists, however, are 
more decided, and say there is not one Ego but many to each 
individual. 

They therefore dismiss the terms sub-ego or sub-personaHty, 
and regard the human frame as a tenement, which may be 
occupied or " possessed " by several personaUties or Egos. 
These invade, one at a time being in control, and direct the 
thoughts and acts of the individual. They claim scriptural 
support in the parable of the man who had seven devils, but 

170 



PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 171 

they do not appreciate that biblical spirits were regenerate 
as well as degenerate, whilst modern spirits never do anything 
that is useful or sensible. My case (M. B.) has been selected 
as the most illustrative of their theories, but unfortunately 
I do not agree that M. B. was possessed by ten different 
personaKties, and explain the phenomena of mental dislocation 
on purely physiological conditions. 

I consider it possible on scientific grounds to refute spiritism, 
whilst charitably ignoring the fraud and humbug which attaches 
to it. The basal theories of spiritism, which are non-proven, are 
put forward as facts ; but if common sense dechnes them, the 
whole fabric falls to the ground. Nevertheless there are many 
phenomena difiicult to explain, which suggest a future state. 

Surely there can only be one personality or Ego as repre- Only One 
sentative of each individual body and brain. To illustrate e^h'" 
this practically, take a handsome well developed child of fine Person 
perception, thought, and control. Such a one represents a 
perfect and normal Ego, which is single and complete, with 
every mental part properly adjusted and balanced. The 
future of that child is assured, or as some might put it he is 
" born saved." Alas ! the converse is too often apparent, and 
the child is ' ' born lost.' ' The former starts better equipped than 
most for the struggle of life. But if that child suffer at any 
period from a severe illness affecting the brain or nervous 
system, it is probable that a change will be observed in his 
demeanour or character. Such a change indicates a damaged 
Ego, or shattered and altered personality. The damage 
might be sHght and with care recoverable, or it might be 
permanent, and even though he or she might mix with the 
world, it would no longer be the original Ego which the child 
possessed at birth. I should regard this as a sub-personality 
of the true Ego : a part only of the whole. Surely the Ego 
is what God made and intended each individual to be ; which 
is a normal personaHty, or a perfect mind. 

One might also define the normal Ego as the most perfect What the 
balancing of aU the mental parts. There must be good and b(f°a""^ 
active inteUigence, with fuU control of aU lower instincts : Normal 
instincts which have remained with us during the countless ahty""" 



172 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

ages of past evolution. We see that the normal Ego or person- 
ality is absent in many people. We cannot believe that God 
intended to place an imperfect mind within the human frame. 
Nor can we raise up an imperfect Ego as a standard for com- 
parison. When abnormaUty of body or personality occurs, 
it is the result of disease, accident, or environment. Are not 
these sub-egos or sub-personalities fragments of the true 
Ego ? We know by our own lives that while there is the 
true Ego in which we find peace and power, we are subject to 
sub-personalities which are less perfect than the normal and 
possibly of overpowering strength and influence. The Ego 
in its normal state has great power of control to expel these 
sub-personalities, which appear to us hke foreign invaders. 
It is only when the Ego is weakened by any physical or moral 
cause that it is possible for sub-personahties to control us. 
In the case of M. B. influenza had so weakened the brain, 
that her normal intervals got fewer and shorter, until after 
three years the true Ego entirely disappeared. For the last 
nine years she has remained in one of her sub-personalities, 
B6, which fortunately is a very healthy sub-mental condition, 
and one in which she is intelligent, industrious, and of high 
morale. She not only supports herself, but is able to do 
something for her family. But when she is fatigued, the 
mind shows threatening symptoms : headache, malaise, loss 
of memory, depression and a weakened will power. I have 
therefore found it necessary two or three times to advise 
change of occupation or complete rest. 

•^ary It is difficult to realize, but nevertheless a fact, that M. B. 

only a is not her original self. She is mentally only a part of her 
part of EgQ . much of the Ego having been shut off. She now only 
now remembers the events of the B6 periods. Thus, she remembers 
Dr. Lloyd Tuckey, for he visited her as B6, but she does not 
remember Dr. SaviU who saw her as B2. 

As at present B6, she is also ignorant of the periods of the 
other sub-personalities, and cannot in any way fiU up the gaps 
or blanks in her chain of memory. In consequence her normal 
life has been forgotten, and she does not remember going to 
school, nor her teachers. She has to be reintroduced to her 
old schoolmates and other friends, for she thinks she has 



PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 173 

never seen them before. It is therefore possible for any one 
to be only a fragment of the normal or perfect Ego, and this 
may account for the many variations in character which we 
meet. 

In searching for sub-personalities amongst criminals, I have Crimin- 
gone carefuUy into their past lives, to see if I could trace any rarely^^'^^ 
gaps of memory. In the case of a man who is undergoing a life due to 
sentence for attempted murder, I found his memory far from per^on- 
a continuous chain. He can hardly give any account of his ality 
childhood, nor can he recall his marriage day. He with 
difficulty remembers the birth of his first child, and cannot 
say whether he or his father went for the doctor. 

Surely amongst the 150,000 criminals in London there 
must be a few illustrative cases. I find the criminal usually 
occupies the position of the sohtary black sheep in the family, 
and differs from the rest of his own folk. His personality 
has probably appeared abnormal even before the wrongdoing 
commenced. He seems to have been labelled from his early 
days. Is it not possible that some sub-personality has been 
at work from childhood, and that he starts ill-balanced ? 
There are more opportunities in the humble walks of life for 
such defective states to occur, as they are especially prone in 
infancy to tubercular diseases, and to brain affections, being 
thus vulnerable at many points through malnutrition. There- 
fore, if nature at birth had equipped them Hke others, there 
would still be aU these and other subtle forces working 
against them : forces which no human being is strong enough 
to withstand. Though we cannot always demonstrate these, 
yet abnormal sub-personaHties may often be in possession 
where least suspected. 

To demonstrate this I will give an instance of total destruc- Case of 

tion of the Ego or Personality. J°^^^ 

° "^ Destruc- 

A boy, bom of very healthy parents in good social position, tion of 
started fair both physically and mentally, until the age of *^® ^^^ 
4, when he had a sunstroke in India. This accident retarded 
mental development, while physically he grew into a fine 
athletic young man. He was backward at school, dull, irritable, 
and suffered from night terrors. In his teens he was pressed 



174 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

in study and consequently broke down under the stress. The 
free use of beer and tobacco hastened the end, which necessi- 
tated placing him under care before he reached the age of 20. 
The Ego is in this instance totally and permanently destroyed, 
for the body exists without the mind. He and many similar 
cases might, if taken early, survive mentally under modified 
conditions, by relieving the stress of competition. Such 
do well in the country, or in situations which do not require 
much responsibility. This case is a sad transition from good 
heredity and sanity to complete dementia, but between these 
extremes there are many stages. Such conditions are more 
easily brought about by poverty, with the increased struggle 
for existence ; or by the opposite, overstimulating diet among 
the rich, not to mention the baneful influence of alcohol, tubercle 
and other serious constitutional diseases. 

Human- With these tremendous opportunities, possibilities, and 
IncUneT chances, we see that humanity rests on an inclined plane. 
Plane At the top in the region of perfection we find sanity, intellect, 
moral control, and wisdom, which represent the normal 
Ego. At the bottom he the hopeless mental and moral 
wrecks, " the submerged tenth." Between the good and 
the bad some are slipping down, while many are struggling 
up. If we realize what this inclined plane means to ourselves 
and to others, it ought to stir us to do our duty. 

The fact that many of us appear normal but are only average 
is no argument against the perfection of the normal Ego, for 
everything human tends to mediocrity, by the law of averages. 
It is our business to trace the cause in what appear to be 
abnormalities of the Ego, or sub-personalities. Environment 
strikes us as the most frequent cause, when we daily witness 
the great disadvantages which attend the poor in slum life : 
or in higher walks, where parents fail, through ignorance or 
sin, in the care and education of their children. How many 
bairns are unnecessarily soured and rendered peevish and 
irritable ! Their tempers are permanently broken, when they 
might have been happy and loveable. It is just the same, 
as we observe, with a horse badly broken in by an untrust- 
worthy groom. 

Other cases seem to be abnormal from birth. The brain 



PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 175 

may be injured at this period by prolonged or difficult labour, 
or by the unskilful use of instruments. Other causes may 
be alcoholism, tubercle, or syphilis, in one or both parents. 
Too rapid childbearing may have exhausted the maternal 
nutrition. In all these cases the physical habitation of the 
Ego is damaged, so that the normal Ego cannot develop. 
We see the counterpart of this, where an arm or leg never comes 
into use because the motor cells thereof are damaged. 

There may be endless causes at work against the develop- Constant 
ment of the Ego, so that the shattered Ego, which we see in ^orHng 
many, is but a part of the original, and this accounts for against 
many of the weaklings and degenerates. It also illustrates ^° 
the compound nature of the Ego, or the division of the person- 
ality into parts. In isolated cases when the brain is attacked, 
we should do our best to restore the health, as there is no part 
of the body more capable of recovery than the brain and nervous 
system. It has a large reserve stock of " embryonic " brain 
nuclei or cells awaiting development. The results of careful 
and necessarily prolonged treatment and supervision are in a 
large measure successful. Many, however, are never the same 
after a serious nerve illness. If recovery be imperfect, the 
result is a changed disposition. Those who were bright and 
cheery may become duU, peevish and irritable.^ Some lose 
their memory, or their application and mental vigour, others 
are affected in their sense of morals. The true balance of 
the Ego has apparently been disturbed and not properly 
readjusted, so that new sub-personalities, previously under 
guidance, lead and direct the individual. The Spiritists, in 
my opinion, wrongly describe it as the personality under 
control of an alien spirit from the outer world. It is I think 
the true Ego, the highest mental concept, dethroned, and a 
sub-Ego in control. But we are confronted with the difficulty 
of finding a limited definition of the Ego, or personality. Some 
speak of the Ego as consciousness, but is the Personality 
destroyed by death, or even absent during sleep or anaes- 
thesia ? No scientist could admit of such an opinion so long 
as the laws of conservation of energy rule the universe. 
Energy, muscular and nervous, are transformed from chemical 
^ Read the cases for actual confirmation. See fig. p. 108. 



176 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

energy ; but the subtle psychical forces which reign in or 
through mind are beyond our powers to measure. Surely they 
cannot be lost, but how they may be transformed will probably 
always remain a mystery. If we move from this position 
and allow that death ends all, we reduce the brain with its 
psychic functions to the position of a gland such as the liver ; 
only instead of secreting a chemical substance, as bile, it 
secretes something we know not how to analyse, namely, 
mind. 

Science There is no scientific objection to an eternal force or power 
admits higher than mind, or above human conception or measure- 
Forces ment. It is the experience of many that such an influence 
actually exists, and is no delusion. It foUows likewise that 
the " Fruit of the Spirit " should blossom and ripen more fully 
in intellectual soil. Such we see in comparing the lives of 
intellectual men " spiritually minded," with those at the oppo- 
site pole, such as our poor " converted " criminals. The Ego 
or personality, even when shattered or poorly developed, is 
receptive of this higher influence. Perhaps the normal Ego 
presents variations, as in the case of man, betwixt giant and 
dwarf forms, with corresponding differences in strength and 
stability. This seems the only way of explaining the different 
effects of religion or ethics in different individuals, apart from 
evidence or suggestion of abnormal or sub-personalities. It 
also furnishes us with an explanation of reformed life in the 
iUiterate, or the criminal, which may be regarded as a dwarf 
form in most cases, and answers the objection as to the genuine- 
ness of their conversions, and the permanency thereof. The 
Salvation Army and similar agencies experience many 
relapses, and consider it necessary to protect and hedge round 
these stunted growths. They might be called subnormal 
Egos, as contrasted with abnormal types and sub-egos, and 
furnish a correct basis for this part of the science of 
criminology. We must, however, on the plea of brotherhood, 
sink aU social distinctions, or else cast religion to the wind, 
for a converted criminal is a valuable asset to society, and 
on practical grounds, apart from humanitarian principles, 
the work of the Salvation Army and other socio-religious 
bodies merits liberal support. 




Assuming his former nightly attitude for sleep. 



Facing page t77. 



Criminal 



PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 177 

As an extreme contrast to the intellectual leaders of Contrast 
social reform, I might mention the case of one of our Law^and 
most dangerous burglars who received 400 lashes with the Salvation 
cat, and 40 years in prison. What the law could not ^^^ '." 
improve or soften the Salvation Army accomplished by the 
reaching his Ego or inner self, though it considered it necessary 
to watch over him till the end of his earthly career. Many 
of these converts, whom I have examined, have been physically 
degenerate, and some mentally weak, but religion appealed 
to the subnormal or stunted Ego which remained. 

The following is a case of a stunted Ego reviving under 
conversion — a male, aged 40, who had been a lazy man aU his 
life. He is a typical invert, passive, not energetic enough to do 
wrong ; also he admits never having done a day's work before 
his conversion. AU he aimed at was enough to pay for a bare 
allowance of food, and if possible a bed. He had, however, so 
often to sleep on a stair, that he lost the habit of assum- 
ing the horizontal position, and after his conversion for 
some time always slept on the bed in a sitting posture, 
leaning against the wall. He is rather a curiosity on this 
account. The Salvation Army were the means of his con- 
version, and his stu,nted Ego when roused exhibited new and 
more normal tendencies. He now works hard aU day and 
feels happier than before. I regard this as a very practical 
conversion, for his work consists in scrubbing, which can 
afford no pleasure. It represents the awakening of a stunted 
uneducated Ego, which had loafed the streets for thirty years, 
in what some may regard as a form of somnambuUsm. Com- 
paring his rehgion and ethical condition with that of the average 
man is like comparing the difference between a tallow candle 
and an electric light. It would take a volume to explain, so 
I can add no more, except that the light of a taUow candle 
is of use in some places. 

Conversion, then, requires no premium of intellect, but Religious 
resolves itself into a choice of two conditions ; ^ and the resulting Conver- 
potentiaUties must depend upon the ability of the individual. Examined 
We are all daily passing through minor conversions, which Scientia- 
consist in comparing mental pictures of past and present 
^ " Therefore choose life and good." — Deut. xxx. 



178 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

circumstances with future prospects and possibilities. A 
conversion from one creed to another may be slow and require 
deliberation, whereas a conversion from evil to good should 
be decisive and rapid. We are aware that such is not always 
the case, when the distorted Ego clings hard to the distorting 
influences on the physical plane. As an example I might 
instance my own conversion to antiseptic surgery, when a fresh 
unbiased student, under the teaching of Professor, now Lord, 
Lister. It was decisive and prompt, whereas some of the 
mature and skilled surgeons resisted conversion for years, 
finding it so difficult to leave their old habits, and open up 
fresh channels in their mental neurons, much to the loss of 
their patients. 

In religious conversion there must be several stages, as 
contrition and sorrow, followed by hope, with new desires 
and ideals. I take it that as brain is the physical basis of 
mind, so mind is the psychical plane in which the higher spirit 
manifests itself ; and as before said, the extent of the spiritual 
manifestation must bear some ratio to the amount of mental 
power and development. The order seems to be body, mind 
and spirit. The body is governed by chemico-vital forces : 
the brain evolves nerve force and mental energy : whilst 
the undefinable personality or Ego is in relation to the 
higher spirit, which we call God, and other races name Allah, 
or Great Spirit. If this view be correct, it is some plea for 
leaving other races to enjoy their own deities a little longer, 
until we get our own house into order. 

Ethics In the disputes between ethics and religion, the latter 

ReUcion ^^^ higher claims, being more expansive, as it allows for the 
existence of an unseen power. Science in every decade unfolds 
knowledge of fresh forces, and we cannot regard poor human 
intelligence as the acme of the ' Creation.' We are only on 
the edge of these great mysteries. To limit the conception 
of God is to place narrower Hmits to human understanding 
than should exist. To deny the influence of this Spirit on 
mind and character is to Hmit science. We know mind by 
its intellectual manifestations, how can we refuse to acknow- 
ledge the manifestations of the Spirit, which exists on a higher 
and non-material plane ? It is only a few years ago since 



PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 179 

we thought that wood was opaque and glass transparent ; 
now we find the reverse is equally true, in relation to X rays. 
Knowledge and discovery are ever on the increase. We 
look on the past generation as behind the times, but I fear we 
shall be regarded in a similar unsympathetic manner by future 
generations. Therefore to suggest a present finaUty to know- 
ledge, or to define the horizon of oiu' mental operations, is a 
presumption which cannot be tolerated in any discussion on 
the subject of unhmited unseen forces or powers. Let me 
ask the physicist to extend and define the etheric vibrations 
beyond the red and violet in the spectrum or rainbow, and 
he shrugs his shoulders in despair. Twenty years ago he 
would have said that nothing existed beyond the red and 
the violet, but now we know quite differently. At the former 
time his intellect and imagination could not conceive the then 
hidden heat and light rays. At the present time he has no 
instrument by which to discover further new vibrations, 
so the attitude assumed is " agnosis." 

The same position is taken up in rehgious matters by the The 
Agnostic, who talks as if one should measure the vital forces As"°stic 
with a perfect standard before he can beheve in them. 

Each science has its own formula for making estimates, 
and the psychical phenomena, bearing on the existence of an 
unseen power, are in one aspect a closed book. We are 
allowed to see the resultant manifestations, but the how or 
wherefore we cannot solve. 

The scientific man cannot define life, except in common- 
place and unhelpful terms. Yet he admits this unseen vital 
force in plants and animals, and in their seeds and germs. In 
like manner, there is no reason why there should not be another 
form of life associated with the mind which we call the soul. 

Though we can measure nerve motion, and the rapidity of sim- 
ple thought, or the delay and disturbance of thought by emotion, 
yet we have no apparatus that can disclose or explain mental 
energy, or its effects and changes in the cells of the brain. 
How then can we hope to acquaint ourselves with the soul ? 

We all know too well the hmitations of power and existence Man 
to the human mind, and so far we may compare man to a ijr^^t^ 



180 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

machine, like, for instance, a watch. There are many watches 
which appear normal, but the machinery oft goes wrong as 
with many of us. Nor is the perfect machinery able to work 
beyond a certain time. Some are old at 50, while others 
last to 70 and 80. 

These facts are not sufficiently considered in dealing with 
human wreckage, or we would make more allowance for bad 
machinery. Certainly we should cease from punishing old 
dotards of 70 or 80, whose "grinders are few." Instead of 
casting them into prison, with its shame and horrors, the State 
should care for them in homes, remembering in many cases 
they were useful and faithful citizens till they passed the 
stage of repair. 



CHAPTER XIX 
THE MORAL INVALID AND THE MENTAL CRIPPLE 

NECESSITY OF BEING ACQUAINTED WITH THE BRAIN MACHINE: 
Criminal types — Object to analyze the criminal physically and mentally. 

MENTAL INVALID OR MORAL CRIPPLE : Education has changed 

the criminal type — My experience at Dartmoor. Deterioration now 

going on among the upper classes. BORDER-LINE CRIMINALS : 

Parental duty — Don't force children or youths. SHIELD THE CHIL- 
DREN FROM THE KNOWLEDGE OF EVIL : The effect of evil sugges- 
tion — Auto-suggestion — Cases. BAD LITERATURE : Need of press 

censor — Duty of Government — No one can take the parents' place. 

DESIRE FOR WEALTH WITHOUT WORK : Cases to illustrate the 
loafer — Bad companions — Laziness and drink — Lazy tramp — Lazy and 
gambler — Sad case of neglect : saved by good influences at pauper school 

— Knowing the difference between right and wrong, CRIMINAL 

RESPONSIBILITY : Dr. Mercier's writings— Criticized. TO THE 

MORAL INVALID THERE IS NO FREE-WILL : Compare with a phy- 
sical cripple — Responsibility clear in complex purposive actions — 

Allowance for impulse — Correct for normal people. THE CRIMINAL 

MIND ABNORMAL : Like an overgrown baby — Requires protection and 
compulsion — Follows the way of least resistance — Instincts of primitive 

man. THE COMMON THIEF A MORAL CRIPPLE : Has never 

learned the principles which must govern Society. SALVATION ARMY 

GIVING THE EDUCATION THE STATE SHOULD HAVE GIVEN : The 

legal profession is now sympathetic. MORAL SPLINTS REQUIRED : 

The medical man required to elucidate these psychological problems — 
Crime like a moral cancer — We must aim at the cure of crime. 

Ruskin said that " Punishment is the last and the worst instrument in the 
hands of the legislator for the prevention of crime." 

A CLEAR understanding of the physical action of the brain 
ought to form part of the education of every criminal lawyer 
and jurist. Some of the mysteries otherwise unappreciated 
by the layman are thereby unravelled and explained. 

Every intelligent parent can appreciate the importance 
of information concerning brain and mind with a view to the 
proper training of the young, for under better auspices many 
actual criminals would never have developed their evil ten- 
dencies. Some of those I have examined expressed a thirst 
for crime, usually theft ; some are attracted by the excitement 
of the life. In the former type we see rudiments of the unscru- 



182 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

pulous acquisitive financial adventurer ; in the latter a per- 
version of the spirit of adventure and sportsmanship of which 
the Briton is justly proud. 

It is the object of this chapter to ascertain the physical 
and mental basis of the criminal. Is the defect in the associa- 
tion areas, so that he never sees life in the true perspective ? 
There might be two causes ; structural underdevelopment 
or decay, in which case he would be more or less insane, either 
ament or dement ; or average structure might exist, but 
want of education would deprive him of the opportunity 
of distinguishing right from wrong, and giving each its proper 
value. 

In these circumstances the criminal becomes a moral invalid, 
or a mental cripple. From whatever standpoint we view 
the criminal, we do not at present see him on his " native 
heath " in situ. We so abhor him as a species of leper that 
we are only too thankful to hand on our responsibilities to 
some one else, not grudging the big bill of costs necessary 
for imposing a barrier between him and us. But the criminal 
demands special treatment, first for the safety of the public, 
and secondly for his own protection against himself. The 
question is too serious to be ignored or pushed aside. Thirty 
years ago our prisons were occupied with much rougher men 
than now. Education has made the lower orders a little 
smoother externally, but more cunning, whilst the pace at 
which we live and the neglect of nature's laws has produced 
more pseudo-criminals or borderline cases among the respect- 
able classes. I was struck, when going over Dartmoor, by 
hearing the chief warder speak of the prisoners as " gentle- 
men." He was describing the facilities of the library, and 
said, " A gentleman can get any book he wishes to read or 
study through the chaplain." 

Our prisons have quite as many gentlemen as rough men. 
As the former are educated there must be some atavism or 
degeneration going on apace among better-class families. 
This is no imaginary picture, as every medical man of experience 
can testify. There is so much luxury, alcohol, and high living, 
plus a tremendous stress on the nervous system, that the marvel 
is there are not more degenerates. 



THE MORAI. INVALID AND MENTAL CRIPPLE 183 

There are, however, many more on the borderline than Border- 
is suspected. They are weaklings, or mental cripples who criminals 
will drift, if neglected, either towards insanity or crime. Their 
relations may not be alive to the danger until a catastrophe 
has happened, but often it is their indifference and lack of 
courage that prevent them from seeking advice in time to 
avoid such an event. If parental duty be observed and each 
child educated with due care, then if a catastrophe occur, 
it is modified. Medical men have occasionally to rescue 
unfortunate youths from the clutch of the law, or to place 
others of the same type and social condition in asylums. On 
the first there necessarily rests a shadow, whilst on the latter 
there is no dishonour to embitter the affliction. The difference 
would probably be due to environment, to the primary parental 
care. In order to avoid these social shadows parents must 
devote their lives, as a rehgious, moral, and social duty, to 
their children. They will in later years possess the filial 
affection, which is worth more than all the flattery of society 
or the fawning of inferiors. 

It is a very great error to ripen the chfldren too soon. Let 
them enjoy chfldish innocence and simplicity, until they are 
quite strong enough to bear the yoke of youth, and aUow 
them to enjoy the vigorous pleasures of youth, manly sports, 
brisk studies, and healthy hobbies, until they are equal to the 
burdens of adolescence. Life will then be a success to them, and 
what is worth more, an honourable happiness and satisfaction. 

While some parents shield their children from aU knowledge Shield 
of evil, others seriously maintain that it is better for children *'^^Clj*^<* 
to know the evil of the world, in order that they may the more Know- 
easily avoid it. But when a child is familiarized with wicked- g'^?® °* 
ness the brain is furnished with a series of evil mental photo- 
graphs. However forcibly the evil may be denounced, the 
poisonous seed has been sown and may, nay wiU, probably 
germinate. On the other hand restrain such knowledge, 
and place life with its nobler aim in the true perspective before 
a child or youth, and all that is wrong or unworthy can only 
be reached by the pathway of a new experience. What is 
injurious or unwholesome is better kept out of the mind,^ 
* Read The Hygiene of Mind, by Dr. Clouston. 



184 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

lest it acts by suggestion as a stimulus to unwholesome acts. 

Many of the criminals I have examined attribute their 
downward course to suggestion from bad companions. But 
they probably saw, even in infancy, a good deal more evil 
than people in higher walks of life. These influences would 
tend to lead them downward by suggestion, acting powerfully 
on their imagination. 

A burglar says he associated with bad boys on the street 
and was a criminal at 15. He paid the heavy penalty of 
thirty years' penal servitude. 

Another says he went wrong before 15, through bad com- 
panions. He had twenty convictions for stealing. 

A third man, a receiver, had every chance in life cut off 
by bad companions leading him to gambling. 

Bad It is too well known how many lads are now suffering the 

terature heartaches of prison, through reading polluted literature, 
in which every vice is suggested with stimulating and literary 
effect. There should be a Press Censor for the protection of 
the unstable, who are unable to choose wisely. A powerful 
Government control is urgently required. Surely it cannot 
be right for a Government to hang or imprison young people 
so long as it views complacently the wicked trash which it 
allows to be placed before them. If Government has the right 
to punish it has hkewise the duty to protect the weaklings ; 
otherwise its inaction degenerates into culpable ignorance, 
for the State has no excuse if it do not keep up with the times. 
Nevertheless we are brought back to the fact that it is 
the parental duty to educate and equip the child mentally 
and morally. No State or institution can absolve parents 
from their responsibility. As things are, in all walks of life, 
parents, rich and poor alike, seem to neglect their duties. 
Those of us who realize this fact ought to lend our aid 
where possible. Grand opportunities arise for those who are 
charitably and devoutly disposed, by giving practical advice 
and keeping an eye on the children, watching and guiding 
them in youth and adolescence. 

Above all things lead them on to industry ; discourage 
idleness and the desire to get money without labour, which 
is a fertile cause of crime among all classes. 



THE MORAL INVALID AND MENTAL CRIPPLE 185 

Take for instance the case of a man who is not a criminal, 
but an idle degenerate. He says he became a loafer at 24, 
but he got among bad companions at 17. Though under the 
care of the Salvation Army he has no desire to improve his 
condition. He is unconverted. 

Another man got among bad companions when 21. He 
never kept a situation because of his laziness and drinking 
habits. He is now converted and his laziness has left him. 

Another case was deserted by his drinking father when 
he was 8 years old. He was brought up by the Guardians. 
He became a lazy, obstinate tramp, but since his conver- 
sion is happy and enjoys working. 

Again a young man was born in good circumstances. As a 
lad he was lazy, which led to a gay, gambUng life. He had 
bitter experiences, and two imprisonments. He is now con- 
verted and hopes to work into a respectable position. And 
so on. 

I had recently such an interesting case illustrating the 
opposite condition that I must quote it. A man 32 years of 
age, with tubercle of the larynx, was anxious for permission 
to marry. By the time he was nearly cured I gave my con- 
ditional consent, because he said he had never known what 
the word " home " meant. His mother died when he was an 
infant, and his drunken father left him in the street at mid- 
night, when he was about 6 years old. He has been in one 
situation for eighteen years, and holds an excellent character. 
To what can this success be attributed ? With such odds to 
fight against, one would have expected him to have joined the 
criminal ranks. He told me it was due to the splendid 
influence duriug the eight years that he was at the pauper 
school at Hanwell. He was there from the age of 6 to 14, 
and the education, though simple, was thorough. The rehgious 
training was good ; they were taught prayers, hymns and 
the Scriptures, everything being carefully explained. Would 
he have received the same good influence in an ordinary 
non-religious State school ? 

I was much struck by D saying, " I knew the dijBfer- 

ence between right and wrong." The same expression is often 
used by the poorer folk, but they mean something more, 
namely, " I have a correct appreciation, or power of choice, 



186 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

of good and evil, through my association centres." Reduced 
to simpler terms the meaning is, "I am a responsible being " 
or " My volitional power is normal, my powers of choice are 
equal to the forces of my desires, and I am capable of responsi- 
bihty." 

Criminal Dr. Mercier, in his classical work on Criminal Responsi- 
Respon- fyiUty^ has cleared the pathway of many of the weeds which 
obscured it, but I wish to pull up some more, which he 
purposely left behind, as his subject is strictly legal. 

I wish to have this subject of free will and responsibility 
valued on a basis of common humanity. 

To the I venture to say that the mental cripple has no more 
Cripple power to go straight than the paralysed child, who can- 
there is not raise a foot or an arm. Nor can the moral invalid be 
Will *^^ upbraided for his degraded position, any more than the patient 
with locomotor ataxia for tumbling down in a crowded 
thoroughfare. Each of these can live under certain condi- 
tions, but neither of them is equipped for the battle of life as 
civilization has made it. 

Dr. Mercier says (on p. 150) : "In proportion as the 
will is engaged in that proportion is responsibility allotted," 
and (on p. 152) : " Responsibility is the more undoubted, 
the more closely, the more deliberately and the more frequently 
the will is concerned in the act." The legal tendency is to 
lessen responsibility, when an act is so sudden and impul- 
sive as to diminish the opportunity of the wiU to intervene, 
and direct a different course of action. Dr. Mercier supports 
this theory, and points out that where a criminal act is per- 
petrated after many successive minor acts, there are so many 
opportunities for the criminal's will power to have called a 
halt. He says later : "At each stage the exercise of wiU is 
necessary to carry him on to the next." Though correct 
with normal individuals, I think it will be generally admitted 
that " obsessed " lunatics (paranoiacs), or what may later 
be called " possessed " persons with fixed delusions of perse- 
cution, wiU effect their purposes, whatever comphcated 
obstacles may be opposed to them. 



THE MORAL INVALID AND MENTAL CRIPPLE 187 

Instability of purpose fortunately disarms most lunatics. The 
But the criminal differs from both, for he is persistent, yet jy^^j 
oftimes quite as irresponsible. The criminal's mind is so Abnormal 
absolutely different from the normal that he should not be 
judged by the same principles. Whatever the cause, he 
lives on a distinctly lower plane. 

The mental association is crippled, perhaps never developed. 
The average criminal is like an overgrown baby, without 
power to use his knowledge to his own advantage. He may 
hate punishment and wish to do right, but like a naughty 
child must not only be protected, but forced to do what is 
proper. To wiU is present with him, but how to do he knows 
not, as St. Paul the psychologist wrote long ago. As there 
is no one to help him, he goes the way of least resistance, 
which is downhill. His instincts are those of primitive man, 
entirely egotistic, or, as we term them, atavistic, hence the 
ethics, and altruism, which are the development of religion and 
civilization, are unknown quantities in him. In pursuit of 
his selfish purposes he focuses his attention on civil law, 
leaving out of focus a blurred picture of the higher social 
and moral duties. Hence I contend, that many of these 
criminals as mental cripples cannot be held responsible, or 
credited with either clear judgment or free will. 

What I have observed in the " up-to-date " criminal does 
not tally with the criminal of fifty years ago. Times change, 
so do environments, and so the law of adaptation alters the 
personality. The great Quaker philanthropist, Wilham Tallack, 
has enrolled some interesting personal experiences. He 
says that in the United States the prison authorities are too 
lax, while in our country there is an inconsiderate severity 
and uncertainty. It is his opinion that the uncertainty and 
one-sidedness of British law are due to exaggerated caste 
and class distinction, and the survival of the military feudalism 
of the Middle Ages. 

My observations among criminals seem to strengthen this J[^® 
view, that many of them are moral invalids and as such they Thief a 
must be treated. Even after their conversion they seem in J|?oraI 
no way anxious to compensate the owners for the property 
stolen. To us that would appear the first step, but in these 



Salvation 
Army 
giving the 
Educa- 
tion the 
State 
should 
have 
given 



Moral 

Splints 

required 



188 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

moral invalids there is a failure to appreciate properly the 
problem and principles of society. In fact, nearly all the 
burglars seem quite satisfied that they have only robbed rich 
houses, and left the poor alone. They also consider that 
their term of imprisonment pays off the debt, and therefore 
restitution is not required of them. 

The Salvation Army and similar religious bodies are now 
giving these poor criminals the education which the State 
should have given them in their childhood. The State denied 
them this armour against crime, and now punishes them. 

We have the sympathy of a large number of the legal pro- 
fession, for they also look upon these social derelicts as moral 
invalids and cripples. But the profession cannot help as 
they would, for the cumbersome State machinery is so rusty 
and old, that no amount of oiUng will make it move straight. 
We must have new State machinery and let the old be 
destroyed. 

These moral cripples require moral splints, as much as do 
physical cripples ; they demand suitable treatment and pro- 
tection. There is great room for practical psychology, and 
in these matters law and medicine should stand shoulder to 
shoulder. The medical man can trace subtle mental degen- 
eracies and aberrations, which require his technical knowledge. 
The doctor has no proper place in a trial as partizan, his 
high calling and technical knowledge should place him as an 
unbiased consultant. Should there be room for diversity 
of opinion, then a medical council should be held. A crime 
is like an abnormal growth, a species of moral cancer. While 
using the most vigorous measures to destroy it, the criminal 
should not be discharged uncured. At present nearly all 
cures are effected by religious bodies. Among many of those 
I have examined, the greater percentage could have been re- 
formed at earUer stages. Meanwhile criminals and wrong- 
doers are very expensive to the country, as they stumble along 
the thorny path ; many of them waiting for years, tiU the 
Salvation Army was permitted to hold out its helping hand. 



CHAPTER XX 
THE CRIMINAL 

Virchow : quotation — Criminal masses rather than classes. UNABLE TO 

DEFINE THE TERM CRIMINAL : Many sins or crimes protected by the law 
— Crime and privilege — Law versus justice. THE CRIMINAL — CLASSI- 
FICATION OF CRIMINALS— I. INSANE : Mentally weak ; the term 

criminal lunatic is contradictory. 2. BORDERLAND CASES : Equally 

among the rich ; Often the result of dissipation in parents ; Treatment ; 
Many are imbeciles. 3. SPORTS : Genii ; Family taints. 4. ACCI- 
DENTS : Y.M.C.A. and the Polytechnic — Perverts active — Inverts pas- 
sive — General Booth's treatment — Compulsory measures required — 

Mugs. THEIR REPLICA AMONG THE RICH : The criminal a 

sportsman — A-social, the enemy of society — His social rights — Recog- 
nizes no private rights— Never grateful. CRIMINAL A SOCIALIST : 

The illicit financier versus burglar. ONLY TWO KINDS OF CRIME : 

Illegitimate gain and illicit lust — Violence usually secondary— If primary 
due to perverted lust — Missionaries of empire. OBJECT OF PUNISH- 
MENT : Revenge and reform — Revenge of society — Reformation from 

prison methods nil. THE INDETERMINATE SENTENCE : Later 

supervision advisable — The prisoner to determine his own sentence by 
his conduct — Probation, not freedom — Some convicts quite incurable — 
The Borstal system — Half of the boys should never be in prison — Punish 

the parents. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT : Navy and Army should 

be open to these lads — Reformatory with indeterminate sentence — Re- 
move the prison label. " JUVENILE ADULTS " DWARFED IN 

PRISON : Better class of warders required for juveniles — Prisoner should 

pay expenses. AN AFTER-CARE ASSOCIATION : Crime a parasite 

on society— Social dross. MAN NOT FALLEN BUT RISEN : Quaker 

doctrine of the soul — Corroborated by Nature — Civilization still low down 

— The desire for wealth without labour. THE LIBERTY OF THE 

SUBJECT IS A POPULAR DELUSION : Cases to demonstrate this fal- 
lacy — Inverts — State should be parent and guardian. FERTILITY 

OF THE UNFIT : National protection — Cases — Sterilization the cure — 

Arnold White the pioneer. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAIN IS 

THE KEY TO THIS GREAT PROBLEM : Defective construction in 
prefrontal area — The moral centre — The surface of the brain mapped 

out— Habit. THE CRIMINAL MIND : " Long timers " quite " broke." 

TREAT THE CRIMINAL SCIENTIFICALLY: Who is he? and 

why is he ? His history before birth — His environment — Case — The 

poor want our personal interest — The criminal summed up. WE ARE 

ALL POTENTIAL CRIMINALS : Fundamental criminals. ADULTER- 
ATION OF HONESTY A FORM OF COMPETITION : Reactive criminals. 

A Biological Peoblem in an Everchanging Environment. 

A TREATISE such as this would be incomplete without a chapter 
on the criminal. Virchow wrote in 1892: " Every deviation 
from the type of the parent animal must have its foundation 



190 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

in a pathological accident." Is not the criminal a psychological 
accident ? As before stated, they do not form a species, a 
race, not even a class, but being drawn from aU ranks should 
be spoken of as the " Criminal Masses." Their masses are 
so numerous that they are often described officially as the 
" criminal population." 

Unable to At the outset I am disturbed by my inability to define the 

Term term " Criminal," because sin and crime do not run on parallel 

Criminal lines. ^ Much of well-recognized wrong-doing does not come 

within the power of the law, as in the wrongs done to young 

girls or children. 

Other sins are protected by law. Thus in the company 
promoting business false and misleading statements, other- 
wise called lies, are permitted by the courts. The court 
allows gullible people to be deceived ; but surely it ought to 
attach responsibility and liability for published statements ; 
it also permits barbaric cruelty and oppression in connexion 
with money-lending and the "hire system." 

Conversely, many crimes are technical and can hardly be 
called sins. Poaching is an example of this. Formerly the 
tenant-farmer had to submit to his landlord's game destroying 
• his crops or food without redress ; and if he destroyed the depre- 
dators, worth a few shiUings, he was liable to penal servitude. 
Crime too often indicates privilege ; wealth, power, and 
class operating against the poor. It almost suggests that 
the law makers have in bygone days built up for themselves 
a heritage of ever-flowing wealth, when they enacted the 
various laws which make up the British Constitution. AU 
we can say is that law and justice pursue divergent paths 
as a rule, but occasionally converge and even meet. 

Law represents the wUl of the strong and too often leads 
to crime. Justice we can barely hope for, as it is a divine 
attribute. If true justice were dispensed by the State amongst 
her children, there would hardly be any place for the criminal. 

Classifi- I suggest the following classification of criminals : — 
ShSIi^l 1. The insane and the mentally weak. 

2. Those on the borderline. 

^ Krimen ; kri, to do. Sanscrit. 



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Note how very shallow the 2nd or pyra- Note that the 2nd layer is only ^ of the 
midal layer is (often found in dangerous normal depth, 

criminals.) 

I am indebted to Dr. Bolton for these photographs. 



Facing page 130. 



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Prefrontal normal cortex. 



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Facing page 191 . 



THE CRIMINAL 191 

3. Sports or variations, due to heredity. 

4. Accidents, due to environment. 

The cause in the first three is internal while in the last it is 
external. 

1. The relationship of insanity to crime is the happy hunting- i- Insane 
ground for specialists. As yet only gross cases of insanity are 
recognized by the law, although in doubtful cases the judges 
and the jury are usually sympathetic. There are, however, 
many cases of incipient insanity, or loss of control, where the 
fate of the accused depends on the judge, and some judges 
are not educated up to psychology and deal with these cases 
on the theory of original sin. 

The hundreds of prisoners, who are certified as mentally 
weak and are turned out on the streets, should for their own 
sakes and ours be collected into asylums or colonies, if they 
have no proper homes and no responsible relatives. Our 
medical officers are very much hampered in this detail. The 
results are very serious. As soon as insanity is diagnosed the 
stigma of crime should be removed, and the contradictory 
term " criminal lunatic " abandoned. 

Insanity frequently is not recognized at the time when a 
crime is committed. Among the more usual " insane " crimes, 
if I may use that expression, are those of sudden impulse, 
often aimless, and also of extreme violence. Epileptics are 
liable to these explosions or nerve storms, but epilepsy may 
not be in evidence. Such might be described as suppressed 
epilepsy, and usually some neurosis or insanity will be found 
to have occurred in a branch of the family. A few years ago 
the Lancet reported eight murders in one year by lunatics 
recently discharged from asylums under an unfit Act of Parlia- 
ment. These cases might however have been criminals before 
their mental diseases had developed. 

One unfortunate man, who murdered his Kttle daughter, and 
was reprieved, a year later in prison developed insanity which 
continued for many years ! 

Other forms of insanity are often passed over in deahng 
with a crime, especially imbecility and delusion. Of the 
latter, delusions of persecution obsess many an unfortunate 
being and end in serious crime. 



192 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

One poor fellow is packed so fuU of delusions and clairvoy- 
ance that I can hardly understand his repeated convictions 
as an expert thief, and his l&fteen years in prison. Now 
he is rescued by the Salvation Army and is a quiet, harmless 
delusional lunatic. He has no stigmata of degeneration, 
being a tall, broad, handsome man. 

Another, a man of 30, should have been marked ofE as a 
lunatic during his fifteen years in prison. He is a middle- 
grade imbecile, but in spite of that, having escaped the destruc- 
tive power of the School Board, can remember his life to the 
age of 4. If the School Board had captured him his memory 
would only have gone back to 10. 

He was trained very thoroughly in a thieves' den and was a 
pickpocket when 7 years old, and was first charged in a poHce 
court when 8 years of age. This educational estabhshment 
is still in existence. 

Saddest of all such cases are those of incipient general 
paralysis, when there is a great tendency to indecency, and 
this happens in the lives of those who normally would abhor 
such actions. 

2. Border- 2. Borderland cases form a difficult class, both for diagnosis 
landCases ^^^^ treatment. They are as abundant among the weU-to-do 
as among the poor, but are kept out of harm's way in the 
former. 

They are not insane enough for asylum treatment, but 
are so unstable and neurotic as to be a continual source of 
anxiety to their friends. Among the rich their misfortune 
is often due to a parent's dissolute life. The same applies 
to the pauper cases, but here the dissipation and alcohohsm 
continue, so that there is no proper home hfe, and they 
become wanderers or criminals. If these cases are sent to 
ordinary prisons they are almost certainly doomed. If 
they have not entered manhood they may be rescued by 
the Borstal method, and they have a stiU better chance if 
placed in such homes as those conducted by Mr. Wheatley of 
the St. Giles Mission. Mr, Wheatley tells me that very few 
of these " first offenders " run away. The reason is, that 
they have good shelter, nutritious food, and above all, 
sympathy ; they reahze that they could not improve their 




Betz or large motor cells, from the normal case. 
Observe the pattern. 




The same motor cells from the idiot. 
I am indebted to Dr. Shaw Bolton for the above 8 photographs. 



Facing page 192. 



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For a more correct idea of the normal cortex as regards the number of cells see 

p. 231, and compare with murderer's cortex, pp. 223 and 224. 







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Pyramidal cells from the prefrontal area of the idiot. 
These two photographs are lent by Dr. Bolton. 



Facing page 193. 



THE CRIMINAL 193 

position ; they do not commit crime for pleasure, but for a 
living. Most of these poor lads are quite willing to earn an 
honest livelihood if they are given the opportunity, although 
some of them are really " feckless " imbecUes. As a result 
of deprivation and want, their intelligence is poor, their 
memory is unreliable and does nor extend far back, their 
tempers are very uncertain, and habits of cleanhness, indus- 
try or perseverance do not exist. 

They are fitted for outdoor work, or where little skill is 
required. If they be put in positions of trust, or are subjected 
to competition or strain, they are very liable to fail and to come 
within the grip of the law. 

It is often difiicult to classify this group, so for temporary 
purposes I would suggest that imbeciles be divided into three 
grades, 

(1) Low grades, practically brainless, which are obviously 
mentally deficient and also very depraved and vicious, with 
less intelligence than the brutes. 

(2) Middle grade imbeciles, who cannot support themselves 
and require to be kept in institutions or under private care. 
Their brain cells are far below the average, and the convolution 
pattern very simple. 

(3) High grade imbeciles, who may learn trades and be 
self-supporting, take their position in family life and society, 
and even rule kingdoms. This large class is the cause of 
much social disorder and they are uncertain on account of their 
instability. They are abundant among the leisured classes, 
being the product of dissipation and idleness. The influence 
of their wealth and position makes them a pecuHar social 
danger, especially if they have power. While we have seen 
some on thrones causing international friction, at the other 
extreme we find our prisons half fuU of them, when they 
are the result of poverty, stress and too often enforced 
idleness. 

3. Sports form the third class, and their origin has been fully 3. Sports 
discussed in Chapters II, III, IV and VI on variations and 
heredity. It would be well carefully to peruse the cases 
illustrating this class. 

Human sports are found either high above the line of medio- 



194 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

crity or else at very low levels. The former are mostly genii. 
Many genii are topheavy or unstable, and no event in their 
lives need occasion surprise. 

There are many sports amongst criminals, and this is sug- 
gested by the fact that there is usually only one criminal in a 
family group. In some cases there is a visible family taint, some 
of the children being insane or eccentric, while another perhaps 
differs in being a criminal. Occasionally the whole family 
appears normal and one cannot trace the cause of the criminal. 
If we could ascertain more about the previous generation, we 
would probably find some evidence of instabiUty. 

4. Acci- Accidents form one cause of many falling into crime. Too 
dents often a child of good heredity is left an orphan and friendless, 
or placed in unwholesome surroundings and drifts into crime. 
Case 6 is a very good illustration. Many young men who are 
obliged to live from home fall into temptation for want of 
interested friends. The Y.M.C.A., the Polytechnic, and similar 
institutions may take credit for having saved thousands of 
young men from ruin. 

The ultimate classification of criminals must be on simple, 
broad lines in the way I have indicated, but those who know 
more of them than I dowiU doubtless improve on my simple 
classification of 

Perverts and Inverts. 

The term pervert is to be applied in its widest sense to aU 
who misuse or misapply their normal faculties. A pervert 
is necessarily anti-social ; the idea of " commonweal " never 
presents itself to him. The ultimate goal of selfishness for 
every wrongful action is a perversion of rectitude. 

The invert is a passive wrong-doer, lacking energy, a sort 
of " born tired," or " can't worker," often " won't worker," and 
deficient in intellect. He is a bud that does not flower, some- 
times cannot, usually will not. 

General Booth sums up the correction and cure, by sug- 
gesting he should have a meal given him to start with, and a 
second one promised when a certain amount of work has been 
performed. If he does not work he must starve, and if he 
does not earn it for dinner let it wait for his supper, and if he 



THE CRIMINAL 195 

does not win it by the evening postpone it tiU breakfast-time 
next morning. 

Mental evolution and physical energy can only be forced 
out of such by compulsory measures. The State should have 
the power to seize all loafers and " ne'er-do- weUs " and force 
them into labour colonies until their reform is completed, and 
effectively restrain them from multiplying. They comprise a 
mass of unskilled criminals who are despised as " mugs " 
by the skilled upper-class of criminal. 

These lazy and criminal inverts have their rephca in the Their 
aristocracy and wealthy classes. Among the pure aristocracy among 
intermarriage, indolence and dissipation have produced a large the Rich 
proportion of degenerates, whilst excesses among the nouveaux 
riches seem to result in rapid deterioration of their progeny. 

The sociahst, of course, objects to see the pauper invert 
" moved on " from the street corner, whilst the wealthy invert 
" swells round " the parks. Though the wealthy invert does 
not annoy society by coming on the rates yet he may be a 
more dangerous criminal, for he often uses the power wealth 
confers for very evil and grossly selfish purposes. 

In whatever manner we classify the criminal, we are always 
brought back to the fact that he is a " sportsman " ; if I might 
be allowed a httle extension I should say " the sporting gentle- 
man." Some have told me that there is a real sport in crime 
and avoiding detection ; that they had a genuine pleasure in 
the excitement. 

If we study the criminal as he is, we not only get to like him, 
but desire to help him. A criminal usually takes a good deal 
of making ; sometimes it is a laborious process. People 
apparently good do not suddenly go wrong ; in their case 
the complaint has usually" been in the blood." If I risked a 
definition of the term " criminal," I should style it as " a person 
deficient in stereoscopic moral vision." The criminal sees life 
as on a flat plane, and his perspective is focussed on self, 
and self alone ; the absence of stereoscopic rehef debars him 
from comprehending the well-being of his neighbour or appre- 
ciating the result of his acts. 

Being anti-social, the enemy of his fellows, the criminal 
considers he has full claims on society generally. If he is 



196 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

caught and punished he boldly says that on his freedom he 
is entitled to make " his own back." These are his social 
rights, for he never realizes that he is a parasite on society ; 
nor does he recognize the claims or rights of ownership, even when 
property is acquired by personal toil. On this account the 
criminal seldom feels gratitude for any kindness shown, nor 
does he consider it disloyal to injure those who help him. 

Crimi- The criminal is a pure socialist, for he regards all earthly 

SociSist possessions as open to competition by fair means or by foul. 
In principle the skilled burglar does not differ from the astute 
and dishonest financier, some of whom are now hoarding up 
wealth in our land under the shadow and protection of the 
law, and moving in polite society. The burglar is superior 
to him, for his boast is that he never robs the poor, whereas 
the illicit financier goes for rich and poor alike, widow and 
orphan. Of the two criminals I prefer the burglar for sturdy 
manliness and a certain sense of honour, having had acquaint- 
ances among both classes. 

What then do we expect to find in a criminal ? Is he to be 
tall or short, of good or poor physique, handsome or ugly, 
attractive or repulsive ? 

The criminal world is full of surprises and you find what 
you least expect. Usually he is below the average in size and 
physique and shows many stigmata of degeneration ; but the 
same may be found among non-criminals, even in the professions. 

Is he repulsive ? I don't think so. In meeting them both 
in and out of prison I see in the criminal eye deep-seated agony, 
despair, cunning, hopelessness and remorse ; as the official 
approaches he takes on the character of a beast, fury controlled 
by fear. How different he looks when the doctor approaches, 
his chief friend in prison ; but what a change over his whole 
expression when he spies the uniform of the Salvation Army ! 
I have seen him cry with joy and the higher Ego, or what 
remains of it, comes into evidence. 

Yes ! poor feUow, he is a degenerate ; often so in body, 
always in mind, and therefore we may safely infer in mental 
construction and brain pattern (see Chap. XXI). The 
criminal is often deficient in the finer perceptions of colour, 
touch, or delicate muscular movements. After all he is by 



THE CRIMINAL 



197 



no means a bad sort, if handled with sympathy and love ; 
but don't expect too much of him or compare him with normal 
standards. It is his very instability which makes him a 
criminal. He is not necessarily insane, and certainly he is 
not sane. He enjoys a territory of his own, midway, in the 
regions of degeneracy. Don't blame him because he won't 
work. He may have tried honesty, but certainly he finds 
" dishonesty the best policy." He has not got it in him to do 
a fuU day's work ; application and industry are wanting. For 
his benefit the State should open self-supporting factories, 
compelling him to work on his release from prison, but giving 
wide latitude to a slow and uncertain rate of work and energy. 
He certainly should not be cast on the world in a mind- 
exhausted neurasthenic condition. 



AU crimes seem to fall under two headings : — 
Illegitimate Gain and Illegitimate Lust. 

If one consults a book on criminal law, the numerous titles 
win adapt themselves under these two headings. Violence 
is frequently only a secondary crime depending on the above, 
and necessary for success. But cruelty and violence may 
occur primarily ; they are then perversions of depraved lust. 
This is a subject which cannot be pursued in a popular treatise, 
as it is too revolting a subject. 

As the empire is made up of individuals good and bad, 
those who devote their time to good works among the latter 
are the true " Missionaries of Empire," a misused term, lately 
introduced for political purposes. 

We have in London 150,000 recognized criminals, which 
works out at nearly 2 per cent, of our metropolitan population. 
The stream flows on. Private charity cannot stem it, and 
the State refuses to aid these disinterested institutions, and 
when individual Home Secretaries do grant financial aid, it 
is done under cover, as if they must not make it public. 

The punishment of the criminal has two objects : — 
Revenge and Reform. 

Many will object to the former as too strong an appellation ; 
however, it is not the revenge of the individual, but the vindi- 



Only 
Two 

Kinds of 
Crime 



Object of 
Punish- 
ment 



198 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

cation of the rights of society. It is the vengeance meted 
out to the offender, in the hope that fear of the same wiU 
be an example to others as well as a future deterrent to himself. 
It is a poor form of revenge, as it accomplishes so little, while 
it fails in permanent improvement, for the reformation of 
criminals through prison disciphne is practically nil. 

The Inde- Prison would be curative if the indeterminate sentence 
Sentence^ were adopted, followed up by wise supervision. All hope of 
success, however, rests in that one word — wise. Most super- 
vision is more or less of a terrorizing character, and in no way 
assists the criminal, but drives him to desperation 

The ex-king of burglars, whose knowledge of criminals 
is very far-reaching, and who has tasted the bitter experience, 
says that when a prisoner is convicted the judge should say 
to him that no Kmited term of imprisonment shall be assigned, 
but he goes to prison to arrange his own term of penance. Thus 
prison would not be so hopeless, for the convicts would work 
out their own salvation, which would give them the impetus 
to reform. He also suggested the importance of the convict 
being liberated on probation, and only being declared a free 
man when he convinced a committee of supervision that he 
was capable of leading an honest life. Some men, he thinks, 
should never regain their liberty, being incurable, although 
from observation, I should regard no case as hopeless until 
the Salvation Army methods have failed. 

Under the Borstal System much improvement occurs among 
the class of juvenile offenders. The Borstal Committee rescue 
or cure about 50 per cent, to 60 per cent, of these young con- 
victs. This makes the work appear in glowing colours, but 
without detracting from their noble efforts, I suggest that at 
least one-haK of these lads should never have seen the inside 
of a convict prison.^ When poor boys allow their exuberant 
spirits to run riot they should have a little of the same for- 

^ Quite recently, 1906, two very decent lads were sent to one of 
our largest prisons in London for playing football on a highway. 

About the years 1890-2 two boys, eleven and twelve years of age, 
were sent as convicts to Dartmoor. They were serving five years for 
incendiarism. The governor, Colonel Plummer, got them removed 
to a more suitable institution. 




From left to right. 





Ages 


Heights 




18^ 


5ft. ; -7in. 




i7i 


5ft. lin. ; -yin 




1 2.1 


4ft. iiin. ; +2in 




22 


5ft. ; -Sin. 




16 


5ft ; -4in. 


Facing page 199. 







Weights 
Sst. ; -ist. i2lb. 
yst. 31b. ; — 2st. 41b. 
6st. ; —normal. 
Sst. 61b. ; -2st. 
6st. ylb. ; — 2st. 



THE CRIMINAL 199 

bearance as is shown to " gentlemen's " sons. It must by 
force of circumstances be differently applied, for in the first 
place parental control must be insisted upon to the extent of 
punishing those parents who fail in their responsibilities. 

The second stage for continued petty boyish offences, or pun^g^^ 
even small crimes, should be corporal punishment, prompt ment 
and sure, without confinement. The navy and army should 
offer special advS-ntages to lads who are forced to the border- 
line of crime, for they improve rapidly and straighten out 
under discipline, and, I am told, make brave soldiers. 

For third convictions an indetermininate sentence to a 
reformatory or farm colony should be resorted to on the 
Borstal system, the label " prison " being removed. Poverty 
is hard enough to bear, and crime embitters the whole life, 
but to stamp out hope and self-respect by convict garb and 
harsh prison rules is the essence of inhumanity in the cases of 
developing youths. 

Let us imagine the mental states of the " juvenile adults " ]^^^^^^ 
as these youthful gaol-birds are called. A lad from sixteen to Dwarfed 
twenty -one is bursting forth into physical and mental energy i" Prison 
in the same way as all nature blossoms out in spring. These 
unfortunate victims are cramped in every direction. Their 
mental ideation, which might be led or directed, has Httle 
chance of running on right Hnes, for the supervision of the 
present class of gaolers is not mentally refreshing or morally 
refining, but unfortunately much the reverse, while the hours 
they sit alone in their dismal cells sometimes only 5 ft. x 10 ft., 
is most pernicious. In order to educate these boys we must 
lead them out of themselves to higher spheres and levels 
of thought and ambition. 

To effect this the care of these lads should be entrusted to 
men of a much higher grade, both intellectually and morally.^ 
Oh ! that an enhghtened government would hand them over 

^ At one of my evening visits to a London Mission I found a boy 
in their charge, who was one of a very dangerous gang of hooligans. 
Dame Nature equipped him for the honest toil he is now pur- 
suing. He is rapidly improving under the treatment of the Mission ; 
whereas his mate, after lying in prison for ten years, will be turned out 
a hopeless derehct, and will then have cost the country about £500. 



200 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

to socio-religious agencies, or to the Salvation Army, which 
has come to stay. 

A far better system than the present is to place the boys 
out on farms singly. There are many farmers who would be 
wilhng to take these boys into their families, and the lads 
could be passed on to our colonies. A small fraction of our 
heavy taxation might be very usefully spent in this direction. 

Juvenile criminals are often mere social dislocations ; when 
matters are properly readjusted, the term criminal no longer 
applies. 

In all prison systems, the prisoner should be detained till 
he has paid for his maintenance, including the proportion 
necessary for administration expenses. William Penn started 
this system in Pennsylvania, and the effect was very deterrent. 
If every man knew this system to be enforced, he would think 
twice before committing crime, as it would be too annoying 
to him to help in the support of even the Governor and his 
family ! 

Care ^^^ ^^^ prisoners, from juveniles to chronics, there ought 

Associa- to be provided an After-Care Association, At present the 
**°" Salvation Army, the St. Giles' Mission, and several other philan- 

thropic bodies fulfil these requirements. It should be worked 
by the State, and every prisoner on his discharge from gaol 
should be compelled to pass through such an institution till 
his character is thoroughly established and he is saved socially. 
Society never faces this parasitic disease of crime. It is ac- 
cepted as a part of our civilization, and the purer (?) or higher (?) 
this becomes, the more dross or scum is to be thrown off. Yet 
all scum carries away with it a certain amount of good material, 
and if we examine our social scum we can pick out much which 
is there by accident. 

Man not "jhe popular view with some is that man has fallen ; whereas 

but Risen he has risen stage by stage from the lower creation, hence his 

fallibility and perversity. This evolution is clearly set forth 

in the first chapter of Genesis, and has since been confirmed 

by Darwin, by Hugh Miller, and many other scientists. 

Nevertheless some theologians see Christ in every fallen 
woman and depraved man, which is improbable for the many 



THE CRIMINAL 201 

reasons given in this paper. Doubtless the Quaker doctrine 
is the more probable : that every man contains the germ 
of spiritual hfe in a dormant or latent condition. The 
natural seed requires warmth and moisture to germinate, and, 
after sprouting, light to favour growth. Plants grown in 
darkness are pale and weak, like our slum children. Does 
not the spiritual germ in the human "heart " require the warmth 
of love and charity, and the Water of Life (Isa. Iv.) and for 
growth the Divine Light ? We cannot cure our poor dear waifs 
and heal the sores our methods have caused in any other 
way. Even the hardest and most dangerous of criminals 
will soften, as in the instance of Case 6, the most dangerous 
criminal of the Victorian era, whose conversion is recorded. If 
law, punishment and treatment were built upon this know- 
ledge, we should at once successfully grapple with crime. 

At present civilization has not reached a level of godliness, 
purity, or altruism. There is a warfare between the classes 
and the masses. 

The desire to grow rich without honest toU is a form of involu- 
tion or inversion, which both encourages and is encouraged 
by the system of speculating and gambling, ruining hundreds 
of thousands every year, and drawing much money from the 
honourable pursuit of commerce. 

The hberty of the subject is a popular delusion, fostered The 
by public opinion. Does a man with smaU-pox enjoy this of the 
liberty, so that he may walk the streets ? No, because he is Subject 
a danger to the public. Why then do the degenerates and popular 
inverts have the same liberty as the thrifty ; their unwholesome Delusion 
lives and acts spreading more ruin and disaster than any 
epidemic of plague ? Why is this liberty extended to the 
" can't worker " and " won't worker ? " They ought to be 
deprived of their liberty, as they are social outcasts. It is 
the duty of the State to collect them as derelicts for special 
care and treatment at the outset of their career. They are 
suffering from disease of intellect and morals, requiring as 
much attention as do wandering lunatics. 

The time has now arrived when IntelHgence should replace 
Sentiment, and the State should act as parent and guardian 
rather than as policeman and gaoler. 



202 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

^f'" Th ^^^ ^® ^^^ wicked and heartless in calmly watching the 

Unfit " prolific increase of unhealthy beings ? Is it right to allow 
the starved and stunted offspring of the drunkard to arrive ? 
Is it not our higher and Christian duty to prevent these lives 
of misery ? If the public knew what it meant, they would 
insist on " National Protection," for the numerical growth of 
inverts and unemployables is a problem which must be faced 
sooner or later. Here are four cases, not specially selected — 

1. A feeble-minded man at the age of thirty-eight was 
father of nineteen defective children. 

2. A father, who was in reality a high-grade imbecile, was 
father of twelve deficient children. 

3. A feeble-minded maternal grandmother, an epileptic 
mother, and a shiftless father, are responsible for seven idiot 
children. 

4. The famous Jukes family in 100 years produced from 
five degenerate sisters no fewer than 1,200 descendants, in 
whom degeneracy and criminality preponderated. 

There are also on record alarming accounts of the large families 
criminals have. There is no question that a number of crimi- 
nals' children might be saved,^ being manufactured by their 
surroundings, and as alcoholism enters so largely into the 
question, the State could quite weU dispense with these famiHes. 
Hence sterilization is the wisest, most economical, and most 
righteous procedure. Certain States in America are making 
it legal and compulsory, subject to a civil and medical advisory 
committee. It should be applied to both sexes, for the opera- 
tions are safe. 

The results in America amongst deficient, quarrelsome, 
lazy and epileptic individuals give encouragement. 

It is the cure for hooliganism, lust, and laziness, without 
impairing energy or mental stability. The effect of castration 
on bulls is known by all ; and in the case of stags, the horns 
do not grow after the operation. We could tolerate the hooli- 
gan without his horns, 

^ Dr. Lojacono, of the hospice of S. Martino in Palermo, has fol- 
lowed for twenty years the careers of 400 children whose parents were 
" criminally insane," brigands (who are but sportsmen), or belonged 
to the worst class of criminals. Almost all of them through healthy 
environment are doing well. — Bianchi on Psychiatrie. 



THE CRIMINAL 203 

It is frequently practised on women for medical reasons, 
and only in a few cases is there any mental impairment. The 
national ability and quality would improve by throwing out 
unwholesome breeders. The country, however, does not 
yet appear ripe for cures. The subject was, however, fully 
discussed in " The Problems of a Great City," by Arnold 
White, in 1886, and he was the first to apply the term " Steri- 
lization of the Unfit." There is little to add to what he has 
already written, except in the way of accumulative evidence. 
What he prophesied twenty years ago we are now realizing 
as painful facts. 

The key of the situation in the case of the ordinary criminal The Know- 
is to be found in the study of the brain. In a previous chapter the^ Brain 
I have given a short account of some of Shaw Bolton's researches is the 
where he has proved beyond aU doubt the deficiency in pyra- this Great 
midal cells in aments or defectives, especially in the pre-frontal Problem 
association area. This is the seat of control or inhibition, 
and therefore what we may caU the moral centre. It is also 
the commander or general directing aU the mental operations. 
We can realize the disorderhness of an army under an incom- 
petent general, and that is exactly what we have going on in 
the brains of the criminal and the degenerate. 

We have already read in earher chapters that the surface, or 
the cortex, is mapped out into districts or areas — 

1. Sensory. 

2. Motor. 

3. Association. 

The sensory stimulate the motor, and the association area 
switch up endless communications between the two. When 
the current of thought runs continually through one set of 
neurons, the route opened up is easier to travel along each 
time. This is the explanation of the power of habit, the ease 
with which it is pursued, and likewise one can imagine the 
difficulty it is to switch off. 

Knowing this, we must not expect too much of the habitual J}^^ . 
criminal, whose whole mind lies in one bent, like the crooked Mind 
tree leaning in the direction of least resistance. It shows also 
the advantage of sheltering the criminal, and hedging him 



204 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

round as the Salvation Army do. It is the only way, for he 
cannot go straight if left to himself. 

The ex-burglar king tells me that men who have been seven 
and ten years in prison are quite " broke." They lack enter- 
prise, intelligence and guiding power, being partly demented 
by prison life. But, he says, they are so used to prison that 
they do not dread it, and many men, after ten years, would 
as soon stay on another ten years as go out and face the 
world. 

What opportunities are lost, and how many souls forced 
on to perdition and destruction, by the thoughtlessness of the 
rulers of the Empire ! 



Treat the 
Criminal 
Scien- 
tifically 



When a criminal is caught, he should not be treated like 
a hunted animal, but Hke a diseased organism, or even as a 
psychological problem. His case should be sifted from before 
the time when he saw daylight. It matters little if a man 
has had fifty convictions or none, or even if he has been in 
prison twenty years. The questions to settle are — 

Who are you ? 

How are you ? 

Why are you ? 

What are you ? 

We have to see where Nature handicapped him before birth ; 
what civilization did to prevent his normal development ; 
how society tried to crush him and tread on him. We cannot 
blame him for being anti-social and a parasite, as it is a matter 
of reciprocity ; but we should assume control in such a way 
that he would no longer annoy society, or injure himself, or 
leave a legacy to the population. Some will willingly go to 
honest toil, some must be forced to it, while many who do not 
like to soil their fingers and hang back, will have to be segre- 
gated. 

I recently got employment for a young man who had been 
in prison for a year for obtaining money by false pretences. 
His employer, who is much interested in social work, found 
him satisfactory at first, but after a time he flagged in interest, 
and required some rousing. He was partly a " born tired " 
and his undeveloped cortex lacked application. This is the 
great difficulty with that class, but there is a physical cause 



THE CRIMINAL 205 

for this incapacity. At first he gave satisfaction ; but,^alas, 
the bad brain machinery could not hold out long, to our bitter 
disappointment. 

We can often act for these people, whether criminal or other- 
wise, in advising them. The poor are conspicuous in their 
lack of judgment, which is due to the want of proper edu- 
cation. It is within the opportunity of all of us to supply 
their need with our better intellect and mentation, and help 
those with whom we may be brought into contact : and very 
frequently we may keep one or another from taking the wrong 
turning. 

To sum up, the criminal has the body and physique of a 
man, the impulse and disregard of consequences which belong 
to the period of youth, whilst their control and intelhgence 
date back to childhood. 

We can from these facts clearly see that the term " Potential We are all 
Criminal" is applicable to each of ourselves, so that we must criminds 
not despise the fallen ones. Sin is universal, but crime is a 
manufactured article, not for the benefit of the masses only, 
but also for the convenience and pleasure of the classes. 
Clearly this should not be so. 

Unrighteous power and class legislation have resulted in 
what might be termed " Fundamental criminals." They are 
all respectable, and their crime is avarice, the undue hoarding 
of wealth, which in a wholesome community would be handed 
round. Vast sums of money and property are acquired by 
skill, and more often by dishonesty. It is against God's law 
that the strong should override the weak or live on the mis- 
fortunes of the poor. Yet such is in strong evidence to-day, 
so that the poorer middle class are jammed tight between 
monopoly above and trade union tyranny below. It aU 
comes back, however, to " the sporting " instinct, which began 
in the Carnivora. 

The noble career of John Bright is marked by only two 
incautious statements, and these were the result of his com- 
mercial education. The one referred to child labour, and the 
other was involved in his statement that " adulteration is a 
legitimate form of competition." His eyes were fixed on his 
carpets, which would be as durable but cheaper, with a Httle 



206 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

more cotton. Neither he nor others could foretell how chemistry 
would open the door for adulteration of food. 

Adultera- Adulteration of honesty is, however, a form of competition 

Honesty a which has been forced upon the poor by the powerful class 

Form of of " Fundamental criminals." " Action and reaction are 

tiotT^^**" 6qual and opposite " is an old law in physics, and it has some 

truth in Sociology. Consequently, at the opposite pole of 

fundamental criminality we have "Reactive criminals"; 

those to whom crime is almost, if not quite, a necessity. 

We are trying to cast out the latter, which is an impossi- 
bility as long as " fundamental crime " persists. 

Democratic Socialism is no assistance, as it levels down, 
confiscates, and encourages lawless idleness, in addition to 
ignoring all religious truths and moral ideals. 

Success can only follow strict Biblical Unes, and that wiU 
never be attained. We must therefore be content to work 
on the fringe of crime, saving and helping a few. 

If we choose to be practical, we must fall back on the sport- 
ing British instinct and look on passively, watching class 
tread on mass, and ocasionally a smart contre-coup from mass 
to class. 

But it is very sad that things should so remain.; God help 
the poor ! 




The Author, Brigadier Playle and their friends who have been sentenced to 96 

years in prison. 



Facing page 207. 



CHAPTER XXI 
EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 

{A) The haunted murderer — (B) Birdie : the little born criminal — (C) Joe 
Smith : the king of burglars : a social accident and a fine personality. 
His conversion in his own words — The murderer's brain. 

I WAS led into the investigation of the criminal mind by 
the remarkable changes of personality shown by Mary Barnes, 
and reported in the Journal of Mental Science, October, 1904, 
and briefly alluded to in Chapter XVII. I anticipated find- 
ing some cases amongst criminals, but was disappointed, after 
examining more than 200. 

I visited the Salvation Army Bureau in Whitechapel, and 
was most courteously received by Commissioner Sturgess, 
who gave me every facility. I was fascinated by the work, 
and saw the criminal to the greatest advantage. The criminal 
is so cunning and so deceptive that those who naturally have 
to do with him, from policeman to judge, can never get at 
his real nature. Far different is it when he tastes the genuine 
sympathy of the philanthropist. 

The Salvation Army supplied me with the best material 
for my purpose, because they take men of any age, and however 
helpless in body, mind or spirit. The Army throw a bridge 
across that fathomless abyss which separates the fallen 
from the fortunate. It is a noble work, which does not 
require a long experience to arouse enthusiasm and a desire 
to assist, however feebly, in helping this class. 

It is very curious that the two extremes of society are 
seldom traversed by the average man. The one is the upper 
ten, and the other is the submerged tenth. Though so much 
apart, they have much in common. They each receive 
notice of their movements from the daily press, ajid feel neg- 



208 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

lected if such do not occur. Both classes are remarkably- 
selfish and self-concentrated, and each are well supplied with 
" inverts," and their intelligence is low. The aristocrat 
speaks of himself as "we," while the criminal speaks of him- 
self as "us." Thus every class in Society has its special 
features, but the submerged tenth is not so depraved as is 
commonly supposed. Poverty and immorality are not always 
companions, and there are some crimes, common in high 
life, which are unknown even among the ordinary criminals. 
The emotional criminal is very good to his pal in trouble, 
even though, as often quoted, there is no honour among thieves. 

It must not be thought that rescue work is easy or even 
hopeful. The disappointments are very great, and until a 
criminal reaches a certain stage or experience, reform appears 
to be out of the question. I daresay it would be quite differ- 
ent if they were treated more sensibly from the commence- 
ment. It seems as if the starting of a criminal, his departure 
from the ranks of Society, only commences when he loses 
sympathy with his environment. It then becomes very 
difficult for him to get into touch again with normal sur- 
roundings. 

The formation of the criminal from the cases to be quoted 
now show four causes. These are, the culpable indifference 
of the State ; the neglect of parents ; the callousness of Society ; 
and the loneliness of city life. 

Though the State is more than indifferent towards her 
children, yet those who are actually in power, from the Home 
Office to the constable in the street, are very considerate to 
the criminals. Whilst improving legislation on this subject, 
the State should show some courage and make the parents 
responsible for their children's conduct. Not only should 
the parents be punished for their children's sins, but if they 
cannot offer better material for the next generation, they 
should be further punished by losmg their voting privileges. 

It is to be hoped that Society will no longer withhold its 
interest from this vital and national question. Let us join 
in a campaign for the cure of crime, and treat this social plague 
as we have already treated epidemics and pests which attack 
large communities. 

^ SJS ^ ^ •!• 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 209 

A 

"Blood, blood, blood." 

" There's no blood, man. What are you talking about ? 
They'U send you to Parkhurst if you go on like that." 

The first speaker was a man of slight build, nervous and 
restless. He was always looking at his fingers, as if he saw 
something that should not be there, and then rubbing them 
hard on his convict garb. Now and again he would repeat 
the above words, and would rub, rub, rub, but stiU the blood 
would not come off. He suffered agony mentally. The 
casual onlooker would pity him ; but how often we pity those 
who are reaping from the whirlwind what they have sown 
to the wind. Looked at in this way the sympathy seems 
misapphed, and ought rather to be replaced by indifference, 
or still better by an effort to prevent the continuance of 
these things. We are all to be pitied at some period, and 
usually for the fruit of our own folly, or error. 

" Give me a large stone. I can do it. It will make me 
forget myself." 

" What do you take on like that for ? " 

Aside in a low whisper, " Did you ever do a murder ? " 

"No, but I was very close to it." 

" I dun un," was the barely audible reply. 
This unique episode happened in the stone-cutting yard 
on Dartmoor, where the material for some of our handsome 
Government buildings in Whitehall was being prepared. 
The actors were convicts. One was in charge of a smaU 
gang, a tall, fine-looking man, born for a general, but his 
social evolution had " missed fire." Still he was a commander 
intellectually, and in some respects morally ; though a social 
dislocation, as much as geologically were the granite tors and 
twisted rocks amongst which he was compelled to dwell. 

The ordinary reader may protest against such a blood- 
curdHng story ; yet much of the popular taste is for novels 
of a worse description, while to this there is a moral, nay, 
several. This terrible man in the seventies had for the purpose 
of robbery, murdered a helpless old lady, and to avoid detec- 
tion, committed a second murder of her daughter, equally 
brutal. The author of this double tragedy was in a convict 
prison to hide from the poUce, and they never traced him. 

p 



210 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

It may seem strange, but nevertheless it is true, that after 
the murder he committed a crime, knowing that with his 
previous record he would get penal servitude. What the 
cause of this inhuman disposition was I could not trace. 
The punishment was severer than human law could mete 
out. His life was ever haunted and hunted, for he never could 
wash those cruel stailis off his fingers. The awful fear pursued 
him relentlessly, lasting for years, to end in insanity ; but 
still the cry for vengeance continued, and the last words as 
the troubled soul tore itself from its " earthy " tenement 
were, " Blood, blood, blood." ^ 

Could hell be worse ? Or could any hell be bad enough 
for such a demon in human form ? Amidst just wrath and 
vengeance we must be fair. If we reflect that this man had 
a drunken father, which is all the history I can obtain, then 
we have a scientific explanation for this painful and shocking 
incident. It is hardly necessary for me to repeat what I 
have written ; but it demonstrates that a new era of treat- 
ment is necessary. We must isolate degenerates as soon as 
they are diagnosed, and not wait for a tragedy. In other 
words, do to them as we do to lunatics who may become 
dangerous. 



B 

Birdie is a bonny bairn, but alas ! she is a born thief. Fancy 
a child of 7 as a criminal ! Such she undoubtedly is, and 
this fact being known, she has been turned away from the 
social work of the Mission on account of others, and has 
to be regularly searched at school. When she grows up, she 
will probably pursue an evil course, and make the acquaint- 
ance of Hollo way prison in her teens. It is a very sad thing, 
and it is difficult to help in any way, for the State gives full 

1 This man committed a double murder, an old lady and her ser- 
vant, in Hyde Road, Hoxton, in the early seventies. No one was ever 
prosecuted for this crime. For years, when not in prison, he used to 
visit the street daily, and stand for hours looking up at the windows 
of the rooms where the awful deeds were perpetrated. He was sen- 
tenced to ten years' penal servitude for burglary, but before the period 
expired he was the most pitiable object Joe Smith ever beheld. 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 211 

liberty, and visits her vengeance after the event. The State 
never inquires as to previous history, or seeks to prevent or 
anticipate these social catastrophes. The State says she must 
not interfere with the sacred liberty of the subject, but it is 
her duty to protect the young, as the hen does her chickens. 

This Httle person is bright and pretty, has refined, dehcate 
features, but a cunning, alert expression. 

The father is supposed to be a good man ; but the mother 
not only has a shady past, but condones the offender. Hence 
a new element is brought in, namely, surrounding influences. 
The sins of the parent are often transmitted in the shape of 
arrested development. A person may be morally bad, but 
if he is physically fit, there is a reasonable chance for the 
offspring. If alcohol and dissipation have sapped the nervous 
system of the parent, then may God have mercy on the 
child. 

Birdie stands 3 feet 2 in., which is 2 in. above the average, 
and her weight is 2 stone 5 lb., which is 1 stone below normal. 

We cannot put her down as degenerate in form, for she can 
see and observe better than most children of her age, but 
when it comes to choice she fails. We have seen in Chapters 
IX and X that one part of the brain serves perception ; another 
part is connected with the desires and lower instincts ; whilst 
a third part analyses or chooses, and compares the present 
with past experiences. The defect lies here. It may be 
rectified by careful education ; gaining the child's confidence 
and affection ; teaching her wisdom ; dragging her gently 
up the hiU out of the mire ; and starving the ideas and thoughts 
which are of a selfish character. Common sense dictates 
that as soon as a school finds a child like this, a thief, she should 
be removed to an industrial home for the sake of the other 
children. If by the age of 15 she is normal, let her take a 
situation under the supervision of a committee. If she is 
not cured at 18, keep her till she is 20. If she is an incurable 
criminal, it is kinder and cheaper to detain her always than 
to have her hunted about the streets, alternately in crime and 
misery, in workhouse or in prison. 

But what committee exists to help ? Ah, reader, we are 
on the eve of a grand social earthquake. The change in 
thought is chiefly due to the personality of the late Queen, 



212 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

her sympathy with suffering, whether moral or physical, for 
when she ascended the throne the criminal was sport to layman 
and lawyer,^ Society is at last ready, and now waiting, for 
Science to elucidate the whole subject, and dictate treatment. 



C 

Case 6 (Joe Smith). " Quite right, doctor, I see your 
point, the public don't like us chaps in their houses at night. 
Crime must be punished. I quite agree. But let me teU 
you, doctor, the public have no sympathy for criminals, and 
it is society what makes us poor fellows." So spoke the 
king of burglars, a fine-looking man, standing erect, six feet, 
with a well developed head, good features, and powerful 
frame. " I was the strongest man that ever went into her 
Majesty's prison. They tested me in the granite quarries 
at Dartmoor, and I did more rock-drilling than any one else 
had ever done." 

Twenty years at one stretch is a big hole in a lifetime, and 
now he is broken down with heart disease, partly due to his 
life of romance, and partly to the hardships of prison. 

He would have gone straight once, he says, after a seven 
years' sentence ; only when he called for help on a well-known 
missionary, he was repulsed and advised to commit another 
crime, and get a longer sentence. This may seem strange, 
but the missionary was probably very despondent through 
his many disappointments during a long record of patient 
and useful service. I quite believe the burglar's story. He 
was so upset that it stirred up the devil in him, and though 
just out of prison that day, he went straight off to commit 
another burglary the same night. 

It so happened that the governor of X Prison was unduly 
severe, and owing him a grudge, the burglar determined to 
wipe off old scores. Purchasing a " barker " (revolver), he 
went off by train at 11 p.m. on his lonely mission. 

The circumstances leading up to the incident are very 
pathetic. Whilst serving his sentence in X Prison, he was occu- 
pied one morning painting in the governor's house. The pretty 

^ Captain Griffiths records the case of a girl aged 9, who was hanged 
in the year 1833 for stealing two pennyworth of paint. 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 213 

flaxen-haired daughter, fourteen years of age, asked him to 
carve her something out of bone. This request was fulfilled, 
and brought a severe rebuke from the governor, her father. 
A Uttle later the sweet child, pitying the prisoner, got cook 
to give him a nice meal. Being discovered, the poor man 
was ordered forty-two days bread and water, which includes 
one dinner every fourth day ; a terribly severe and unjust 
sentence. A third time the little maiden met the prisoner 
and spoke to him. The warder interfered, but who can resist 
an innocent child of angelic purity ? On hearing this cruel 
sentence, she burst into tears and spoke to her father about 
it. This harsh man confined the prisoner to his cell for 
fourteen months, till he was removed to Dartmoor. No 
wonder military men are sometimes unpopular as governors. 
Now the burglar was going to settle matters with his old enemy. 
He arrived outside the house about midnight, and timed the 
sentry's march round the prison. Selecting his opportunity, 
he got in by a small window, and went straight to the daughter's 
bedroom. The gas was sufficiently alight to allow him to 
gaze in reverent worship on the beautiful face of his little 
friend. Her gold watch, chain and jewellery were within 
his grasp, but too sacred to be touched by him. He then pro- 
ceeded to the governor's room, intending to shoot him if he 
made any resistance. Having closed the door behind him, and 
raised the gas, his "barker" ready, there he saw a corpse on 
the bed, and raising the coverlet he recognized his oppressor.^ 

Sentiment accompanies adventure. He gazed on the 
face and thus addressed the corpse, " You treated me most 
brutally when I was in your power, but death covers all 
animosities." Replacing the sheet, he took £14 in money, 
and the governor's gold watch, and made his exit. This 
happened at an unlucky moment, for his foot caught in the 
ivy, and he fell. The guard was opposite and fired, he replied, 
and the fusillade awoke other warders, but he escaped into 
the woods and was never caught ; some years later he met 
the same warder at Portland, and discussed this incident. 

" Never shot but two policemen, sir, and a buckle saved 
one and the other recovered in a few weeks. I am very 

^ See Manchester Umpire, 1906. 



214 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

sorry I hit him, as he was not chasing me." Joe was always 
quite cool, giving good warning, and usually found that 
when the " barker " came out, all opposition disappeared. 
He never was without his loaded revolver, and was regarded 
as one of our most dangerous burglars. Being of a fine appear- 
ance, he improved it by wearing evening dress, as most of 
his burglaries were in the houses of the wealthy. He often 
went in by the roof, and out by the front door. His adven- 
tures would make a romantic novel, and he has published a 
few of them.i 

Our young friend was by no means a " mug," and received 
part of his professional training under the notorious burglar, 
Charlie Peace, who was finally hanged for murder. He was 
cleverer than Peace, more sporty, and at the same time more 
generous towards his fellow-men. 

Listen to one story. 
f. Peace and Joe Smith were to do a " job " together at a 
wealthy nobleman's, 200 miles north of London. The mansion 
was well protected against intruders, yet the two divined a 
novel mode of entry, by climbing a tree and dropping from 
a projecting branch to the roof. The return journey was 
along another tree. They studied the house for weeks before 
effecting their purpose. Having secured a valuable haul, 
they hid in some woods, and Charlie suggested to his younger 
mate to depart for the sake of safety, after showing him a 
spot where the stolen treasure should be buried. Burglars 
never trust each other, and Joe stealthily returned, to ascend 
a tree and watch operations. Not at all surprised, he saw 
Charlie busy at an adjacent pond, and, as may be imagined, de- 
scended when sure that he was alone, and got all the treasure 
out of the water. This in his turn he hid again, and for perhaps 
the only time in his life Peace met his match. Needless to 
relate, some time after Charlie asked Joe to go with him to 
dig up the " oof. " Charlie feigned great surprise that it 
was apparently gone, and so did Joe. But Joe kept his eye 
on Charhe, and a few nights later followed him into the wood, 
and from his tree watched with much merriment how Charlie 
almost dragged the pond without any success. The situation 

1 See The People, 1906. 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 215 

was comical ; Joe let the subject drop, and Charlie dare not 
aUude to it, for the slightest suspicion of treachery meant a 
duel, and for one of them to "go under." 

Joe is a good man now, and does much to help his class. 
His mind is weU balanced, and he has a fine personality. He 
would have made a good Prime Minister, or General, if society 
had given him the opportunity. I asked him how he came 
to be a criminal, and he replied that he began when he was 
thirteen . His history was shortly this . His father, bailiff to Lord 
K. in the Midlands, was killed when he was three months old, 
and his mother died when he was seven. God help the orphans, 
for mankind too often neglects them. How often I have been 
moved at a mother's death-bed, thinking of the future of the 
young children ! Our poor friend was taken charge of by his 
grandparents. The grandmother was good and kind, but 
the grandfather was a brutal drunkard, and this poor fellow's 
Hmbs and wrists are covered with broad white scars where 
his grandfather thrashed him. 

One day his grandfather behaved extra cruelly, and the 
child jumped into bed beside his grandmother, who was 
powerless to assist, having been called to another world. 
He as a child " did not understand death," and one of the 
blows fell on the face of the corpse. This was too much for 
Joe, and he attacked his grandfather, knocking him down and 
breaking his leg. He then belaboured him, leaving him 
apparently dead ; and taking £75 and a gold watch, started 
for Liverpool at the age of thirteen on a long criminal career. He 
received one sentence of seven years and another of twenty 
years, but he was never caught by the police, being always 
" given away " by " pals." 

He has been out of prison seven years, and is converted, 
and the chief loser by his mistaken career has been the British 
nation. 

Listen now to the history of his conversion in his own words. 

" After hearing me speak, a gentleman asked what I meant 
by conversion. The question is best answered by an account 
of my own. 

" Nine months subsequently to my life sentence, I was 
reputed the most dangerous criminal aHve, and sent to Dart- 
moor with especial regulations for my treatment. An at- 



216 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

tempted suicide in Newgate, an endeavour to escape from 
Portsmouth, and many acts of violence towards officials induced 
the Home Office to direct that every opportunity of communi- 
cating with any fellow-prisoners should be guarded against, 
and no warder should enter my cell alone. 

" Deprived of human intercourse, my soul became that of 
an animal, untamable, yet powerless to burst the bars of its 
cage. Often seven or eight times a day I was stripped to 
the shirt and rubbed down by two men. The degradation 
brutalized me. 

" Three years passed. A new deputy governor. Colonel 
Plummer, was appointed. One night, to my amazement, he 
entered my cell unaccompanied. He spoke of religion. I 
retorted that he should practise the gospel of love before 
preaching it. I denounced him as a hypocrite. I poured 
forth a flood of grievances. My outlook was hopeless, an 
unvaried round of misery. Nobody else, even in that 
wretched place, was treated as badly as I was. Why, my 
name had been down for work in the cook-shop for two years, 
but dozens of prisoners had been passed over my head, and 
there was no chance of my getting there. 

" My visitor reminded me that my position was not his 
fault, nor that of the other officers, who must act under the 
Home Secretary's instructions. Despite myself, the gentle- 
ness of his demeanour impressed me. He promised to see 
what he could do about the cook-shop. 

" When he was going out, he could not find his key to unlock 
the door, and I asked mockingly, " What if you should 
lose the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven ? " He replied, 
pleasantly but seriously, " Oh, I cannot do that, however 
clumsy I am, because Jesus keeps them for me." He turned 
and quoted two verses from the Bible, which from that date 
have never left my mind. 

" ' Verily, verily, I say unto you, the hour is coming and 
now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, 
and they that hear shall live.' — (St. John v. 25.) 

" ' Marvel not at this, for the hour is coming in the which 
all that are in their graves shall hear His voice.' — (St. John 
y. 28). 

" I went to work in the cook-shop, but the knives were 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 217 

kept out of my way, and the head cook, not liking the trouble 

of a dangerous prisoner, incited a man caUed D to provoke 

a row with me. One day he suddenly without a word struck 
me a violent blow in the face, and I retaliated by throwing 
him into the steamer, where we had been boiling puddings. 
But, the truth becoming known, I was not removed from 
the cook-shop nor severely punished. 

" In the autumn of next year, my conduct continuing good, 
I was shifted to Portland. There, while cutting stone, God's 
message to me, through Colonel Plummer, frequently recurred. 
But I was as yet far from conversion. Being tempted, I 
joined with others in a plot to escape ; we were detected, and 
I got the credit of being the instigator. Back I went to 
Dartmoor with a worse record than ever. 

" From the isolation and despair which followed this episode 
sprang the greatest blessing of my life. I began to see what 
it all meant — how I was spiritually dead. The better thought, 
which I had entertained but stifled at Portland, returned 
with renewed force. Conversion ensued, and, upon an 
announcement of the approaching visit of the Bishop of 
Exeter, I applied to be confirmed by him. 

" The greater part of my life sentence was yet to run, but 
in retrospect it seems immeasurably shorter than that which 
preceded it. Conversion alters everything. I no longer felt 
rebel at heart. Whether in prison or elsewhere I must work with 
God and not against Him. I had my work to do ; life seemed 
no longer aimless. Many a time I sinned and repented, but 
that did not change the attitude of mind which constitutes 
the converted as opposed to the unconverted state. Allevia- 
tion of the lot of the criminal is good. My own conversion 
was due, under God, to Colonel Plummer's behaving to me 
kindly instead of with the harshness to which I had become 
inured. But whatever the means, conversion is the end. 

" The permanent reform of the criminal can be attained 
only by the death unto sin and the birth unto righteousness, 
which we name conversion." 



218 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 



The Murderer's Brain 

Hark ! What is that troubled sound ? Listen, it is the 
wail of the murderer. What agony and disappointment it 
expresses ! There it is again. It cries for vengeance on 
society, who wronged him by misinterpretation of facts, and 
even killed all hope before he saw the light of day. 

Nevertheless he was a sheer brute. The judge had pity, 
but no compassion. The foreman of the jury said it was the 
most brutal crime he ever heard of. Another juryman longed 
to hang him. There was no disagreement ; if ever a man 
wanted hanging it was this man ; Only one juryman con- 
doled, saying, " Poor devil, the odds were against him." How 
true this was death alone could reveal. Yet the Good Queen, 
who loved her sinners as well as her saints, reprieved him. 

For some years he passed twenty-three out of the twenty- 
four hours in a dark dingy cell 6 feet by 12 feet (some were 
10 by 5 at Dartmoor). No wonder he thought he " was going 
dotty," and after some years the doctor marked his card, 
W.M. (weak-minded). He never complained of those in 
charge. The governor was always jolly, and at times slipped 
" a chew " into his hand ; while the doctor made the most 
of all his ailments, and the warders almost petted him. 
Years slowly roUed on, five, ten, nay twenty before he saw 
the world again as a free man. The old world was, however, 
all changed, and he felt lost, and longed in misery and lone- 
liness to rush back to his dismal cell. But he had not many 
months to wait before death released him. 

Behold now the key to the problem ! Here is his brain. 

To the casual observer he was an ordinary man with average 
shape and size of head. But to those who study these matters 
there were sundry indications during life of an abnormal 
evolution. 

He was a short, broad man, good-looking but with small 
irregular and somewhat asymmetrical features. The ears 




XH 511. Joe Smith. The most notorious and dangerous burglar of the 

Victorian Era, with the brain of a Cabinet Minister. The Nation's loss. 

Now an author and a religious man. Well preserved for 56. 



Facing page 218. 



Right hemisphere. 




The brain of an insane woman, aged 56. There is slight wasting. The con- 
volutional pattern is below the average, but much higher and better than that of 

the murderer. 



The brain of a degenerate. 




Observe the plainness of pattern, the absence of secondary and tertiary grooves, 
and large coarse convolutions. 

For microscopic structure see pages 222 to 227. 
Facing page 219. 



EX-CRIMmALS I HAVE KNOWN 219 

were large, fleshy and spread out. The forehead was square, 
and the skull rose to a peak behind, after the Mongolian type. 
The facial architecture being broad, the palate, so often 
used as a test, was normal. 

His father, and father's father were both heavy drinkers ; 
thus nature was thwarted and deviated from her plans. 

We have here a clinical study which should have been placed 
before a medical council. 

But what revelations from the brain ! The skull is normal, 
but its lining membrane, the dura mater, was adherent by 
old inflammation, dating from childhood, perhaps related 
to a period of cruelty and neglect. 

The brain was large, full weight, 49 oz., but the pattern was 
plain, showing a poor intellect, enough perhaps for lowly 
surroundings, and probably more adapted to country than 
to town. There was, however, one very marked defect, 
enough to bring disaster. The two halves at the posterior 
poles, instead of meeting in the middle line, were separated 
by nearly two inches, exposing the cerebellum below. More- 
over, these occipital lobes mainly devoted to sight, are small 
and shrunken. This condition is described by many as of 
imbecfle pattern.^ We might express it thus in Biblical 
language as, " Seeing he could not perceive." He could not 
mentate or analyse what he saw ; therefore he was at once 
out of joint with his environment. As an example, if you 
or I see any one in distress or trouble, we hurry up to aid or 
rescue. But if a low-grade, such as this man, be simflarly 
placed, it expresses to him an opportunity to attack, rob, 
or slay, just as we see in the brute world. 

Nature then was cheated in her materials and so she could 
not construct this brain, as she had intended. 

His ordinary (sensory) vision was normal, (the calcarine 
fissure) : but his mental vision, or as we cafl it his visuo- 
psychic area, (the surrounding occipital convolutions,) was 
extremely deficient. His parietal association area which 
represents intellect or intelligence was fairly developed ; but 
what service could it render to him ? The man started always 
on wrong premises, through the above structural defect, there- 

* See Ireland on Mental Diseases. 



220 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

fore his conclusions or arguments must always be wrong. 
This is self-evident, and I trust that this brain may be the 
apex of a vast pjrramid of research in criminology. May 
the legal profession, and all who have to do with criminals, 
seriously take this lesson to heart. 

Clearly all our present legal machinery which we have 
accepted from the Persians, through the Romans, ought to 
be swept away. The system evolved by semi-barbarians 
5,000 years ago cannot apply now. 

If this man had been hanged, we should have slain a mental 
cripple. Is that justice, revenge, or sport ? 

Without going further we have enough to account for any 
crime, although in addition his prefrontal cortex, or seat of 
control, was of very lowly structure. But for a more technical, 
scientific description, including my examination of the cell 
layers microscopically, I must refer the interested reader to 
the smaller type. 



' Civilized ' Humanity can be divided into three distinct 
classes, which however shade off into each other. They are : — 

A. Normals. 

B. Insane. 

C. Degenerates. 

A. Under this heading one must make a broad middle 
line to embrace aU those of average intelligence and morale. 
But we must recognize that really normal beings are super- 
average ; whilst there are numbers below the average who 
do not fall into either of the other two classes. 

B. The insane may be most easily summed up under Bolton's 
classification of aments and dements. 

C. The degenerates demand some special description. To 
commence with, this term is applied in a very loose manner 
to all who are cast down in mind or morals. This is wrong. 
A normal may fall into the lowest social ranks from ill luck or 
from his own indiscretions, but he is not therefore a degenerate. 
He is a derelict. If his proper environment were restored, 
he would again demonstrate his normal characters. This is 




Cortex of 
Murderer. 



Cortex of 
Insane. A dement. 



'I 




Compare the pyramidal layers in the three states. Each from the 2nd frontal. 
The degenerate (the central column) is very deficient, as he was built ; 
whereas the dement represents destruction of cortex, as does the alcoholic in 

lesser degree. 



Facing page 220. 



Microscopic representation of the pj'ramidal layer. 



• . ft 






k k' ' 






k 




i^i'h 




The central column is from a normal brain, on each side from the murderer's 
brain. Observe the great deficiency in pyramidal cells ; in the left column 
above are numerous undeveloped nuclei as seen in the new born infant. This 
arrested development and deficiency forms the physical basis of degeneracy. 
Drawn by Miss B. Wilson. Magnified about 300 times. 



Facing page 221 . 



EX-CRIMINALS I HAVE KNOWN 221 

abundantly seen in rescue work, chiefly amongst the young 
but also among the aged. 

External stigmata help us a little, but only a little, in diag- 
nosing a degenerate. Lombroso greatly exaggerates their 
importance. As before said, external stigmata are probably 
due to maternal malnutrition ; though the nose may be 
malformed, yet the ribs may be normal, and so if the skull 
vary from the usual type, still its contents may be good, and 
vice versa. 

The degenerate represents a piece of bad cerebral architec- 
ture ; whereas the insane may have good architecture which 
decays, or a throw back towards the higher apes, or absence of 
parts as in aments. I must, however, acknowledge a difficulty 
in separating the degenerate from the imbecile. At present 
we describe the insane and especially the imbeciles as degen- 
erates. Scientifically, this is wrong ; and this murderer's 
brain, with its massive weight and plain pattern, its large 
convolutions with very shallow grooves, and its shrunken 
visual cortex, supports my statement. 

Herein lies the key to the criminal problem and its treat- 
ment, which must be on a rational and scientific basis, with 
due regard both to the offender and those who have been 
injured. In this particular case, ought we then to swing 
him by the neck, suspended to a beam, into mid-air, or is 
such treatment as barbarous as it is unscientific ? 

Permanent isolation for aU degenerates, as for chronic 
lunatics, is the only correct method. Destruction, as a 
matter of economy and utility, may be considered, but the 
process should not partake of the nature of cruelty, sport, 
or revenge. 

What are you going to do in this pressing and important 
matter ? 



222 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 



Report 
on the 
Murder- 
er's 
Brain 



Though this report might have been placed in a purely scientific 
journal, yet I feel to omit it here is to impoverish this work, 
which I trust may be interesting to many of the medical profes- 
sion. 

The skull measured 7| x 6, cranial index 80, circumference 
of base 22 in., lateral arch 12| ^in., antero-posterior arch 12|. 
Shape, square, Mongohan, rising upwards almost to an angle in 
the parietal region. The skull was of average thickness. The 
dura mater was adherent over the fronto-parietal vertex and 
thickened. The falx cerebri diverged at the occipital pole for 
1| inches. The pia mater was shghtly adherent over the right 
parietal region. The brain weighed 49| oz. 

The following notes were made after a careful examination of 
the brain in the fresh condition ; and later after hardening it 
in 10% formol : — 

The striking feature of this massive brain was the plainness 
of its pattern ; and the left side plainer than the right. The convo- 
lutions were large, broad, coarse, while the sulci or grooves were 
shallow, and in the fresh state gaping and wide. In this early 
condition when the pia mater was stripped, the grooves or sulci 
opened out so wide that I thought the brain would become one 
plain smooth surface. This is clearly represented in the first photo- 
graphs, where I had indeed to prop it with pads of wool to show 
the convolutions. I have observed that in the normal infant's 
brain, the sulci are excessively deep in proportion to the external 
surface of the gyri or convolutions. 

Moreover the sulci contain a shallower layer of pyramidal ceUs, 
but a greater depth and number of nuclei, or neuroblasts. Hence 
we may infer that as growth proceeds these sulci come up to form 
a larger external surface, affording room for the neuroblasts to 
develop into neurons, other conditions being favourable. This 
poor man had shallow sulci, and a deficient reserve of neuroblasts 
when he began hfe, hence he is a degenerate, or a mental cripple. 
He is not a lunatic and he is far remote from the normal standard. 

Dr. Watson, an authority on lunatic brains, says he should not 
have looked upon this man as a lunatic degenerate, for there is no 
cerebral wasting such as one would expect from a lunatic degenerate 
of his age (62). 

On further examination it was at once evident that the occi- 




Tni<: MURDliRER'S BRAIN. 

Resting on the frontal poles ; observe the small shrivelled looking occipital poles, 
which also diverge from the centre. The plain pattern of the convolutions is 

well demonstrated. 




Observe the large coarse convolutions, the shallow grooves and the plain pattern 

with very few secondary or tertiary markings. 
Facing page 222. 



►J 
rt II 






'4-. 



The prefrontal cortex which under the low power appears fairly good ; but the high power (fig. on 
the right) shows a great scarcity of pyramidal cells and many undeveloped nuclei. The layer of 
pyramidal cells, II. (according to Bolton), the seat of control is of good depth. But what is the 
value of control when his first ideas or premises are contorted? see the shallow occipital cortex 
layer II. and the scarcity of cells in the plate to the right (page 224). Dr. Bolton's photographs 
(page 191) are magnified about ^ to | more. 




Facing page 22 



The frontal lobes, observe the plain pattern. 



THE MURDERER'S BRAIN 223 

pital lobes were smaller than normal and out of proportion, so as 
to present a shrunken appearance. The two poles did not lie 
parallel to each other in the middle line, but were separated by a 
gap of nearly two inches, exposing the cerebellum below. The 
cerebrum, however, covered the cerebellum ; there was no want 
of overlapping as in some idiots and in the ape tribe. In spite 
of this the occipital lobes were somewhat complex in pattern, 
although the convolutions were very small. 

Taking another look over the pattern, the frontal lobes seemed 
plainer than the parietal. The latter are almost normal, showing 
that the intellectual faculty of analysis or thought was provided 
for architecturally in this parietal area. The suggestion of a very 
Hmited visuo-psychic region was evident to any expert by the 
shrunken appearance of the occipital cortex. The calcarine fissure 
was normal, so his visuo-sensory faculty was not interfered with. 
He saw but perceived not. 

The Sylvian fissure is short and the angle is acute. Technical 

The fissure of Rolando is also short and bifurcates on the right Details 
side at the lower end. 

The Frontal region. 

Left hemisphere. The precentral sulcus is in three simple 
divisions. The sulcus rectus of the inferior frontal is very simple, 
bifurcating anteriorly, while in front of it the lateral fronto- 
marginal is long and simple. 

The superior frontal sulcus is Hkewise long and simple, in two 
divisions, with but few secondary sulci. The region between this 
and the mesial edge is simple. 

The paramedial sulci are shallow. The mid-frontal sulcus is 
very poorly represented near the anterior pole, by a very shallow 
simple groove or sulcus, which bifurcates anteriorly. 

The fronto-marginal sulcus of Wernicke, which Dr. Bolton regards 
as constant and uses as his guide for prefrontal measurements, 
consists of two shallow sulci. So the criminal at once presents a 
variation from both the normal and the lunatic. 

The Right frontal region shows much the same type as the left, 
but the mid-frontal sulcus is longer and more complex. There are 
rather more secondary and tertiary sulci. 

The Prefrontal is very simple on both sides, but more so on the 
left. 

The Parietal region is more complex than any other part of the 
brain, the right side being the better of the two. The secondary 
and tertiary sulci are more in evidence and deep, but not so deep 
as in normals. 



224 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The rami ascendens, descendens and horizontalis are separate 
and split up on both sides. 

The Occipital regions present striking abnormahties, the key 
to this criminal's mind, one of the reasons why he was a criminal. 

The whole region behind the parieto-occipital fissure is imper- 
fectly developed. There is a shrunken appearance, for the cortex 
Lies below the general level. The pattern is fairly complex, more 
so on the left side, but the gyri are small and the sulci shallow. 

The calcarine fissure, the area of sensory vision, is normal, ending 
within the mesial aspect and not passing on to the dorsal surface, 
as in the higher apes or in some insane. This latter condition is 
fully described by Dr. Mott in the Bowman lecture for 1904 {see 
Archives of Neurology, 1907). On each side there is a sulcus 
lunatus (Elliot Smith). In addition the arrangement of the parieto- 
occipital fissure extends far on to the dorsal surface as described 
by Elliot Smith in aboriginal races low down and Egyptian, Chinese 
and others, and even in 20 per cent, of the insane (Mott and Watson). 
I give Dr. Watson's description of this fissure in his own words : — 

" The region of the parieto-occipital fissure, a late development 
in the primate brain, is of great interest. 

" On the left side its dorsal portion (i.e. the ramus parieto-occi- 
pitahs sulci intra-parietahs) extends for a European brain for 
an extraordinary distance on to the dorsal aspect. 

" On the right side apparently both the dorsal and ventral por- 
tions of this fissure extend over the dorsal surface to a lesser degree. 
Between them there is a large widely exposed arcus occipitalis 
(arcuate gyrus) . The latter in most well developed brains is deeply 
hidden in the lips of the fissure." 

I find the following abnormalities of brain recorded by Lombroso 
{L'homme criminel, 1887). 

In the case of Guiteau, the assassin, there were irregularities 
of the fissure of Sylvius, the transverse occipital and interparietal. 
There was atrophy of the right parietal area, and the paracentral 
lobule was very smaU. The postcentral convolution was shrunk 
to a quarter its size. The island of Reil showed seven grooves on 
the left and five on the right (Mendel, Nevrol. Centralhl. 1882). 

Broca (Bulletin de la Societe d'Anihro'p 1880) found in the assassin 
Prevost, that the first part of the occipito-parietal fissure was deep 
on each side ; that the internal occipital sulcus was continuous 
with the external : also the occipital lobe was more separate, as 
in the apes, in the form of a " calotte," thus somewhat resembling 
my murderer. On the left side, the second temporal and the 
third occipital sulci formed one sulcus without interruption right 
across. 




The Murderer's Brain. The occipital pole. 
It has a shrivelled appearance and the lobes diverge. 



Low Power. 



High Power. 



III. 



IV. 

& 
V. 





Sections from the occipital region. Note the shallowness of layer II. (intellect) and the 
increased depth of layers IV. and V. (instinct). The fig on the right shows the paucity ol lcHs. 



Compare it with the Mangaby's occipital cortex (page 227) 



Faang page 224. 



THE MURDERER'S BRAIN 225 

Huschke found in a ferocious murderer that the left anterior 
parietal convolution was interrupted in the middle by an osteoma. 
Professor ViUigk {Viert. Jahreschr., Prague, 1876) found in a Jew, 
who was robber and murderer, and who " finit pendu," that the 
corpus callosum was shorter than normal ; the first frontal con- 
volution was increased in width in front, narrower behind ; nor 
did it joiQ with the second, as is normal, thus resembling, accord- 
ing to Ecker, the cercopithic monkeys. The calcarine fissure also 
was abnormal. Hanot {Gaz. Med., 1880) found a doubhng of the 
middle frontal convolution in four out of eleven criminals. 

Benedikt {Anat. Stud, an Verhrech. Geh., Wien, 1879) found an 
increased confluence or anastomosis of fissures in criminal brains ; 
four convolutions in the frontal lobe occurred in twenty-seven 
out of eighty-three criminal brains ; six times he found the cere- 
bellum uncovered : once the calcarine fissure was after the ape 
type. 

But Giocomini {Var. d. circonvol. cereb. 1882, p. 133) upsets 
most of these ideas by showing a number of anomahes in those 
who were not criminals. Thus, in 164 brains of honest folk, he 
describes 47 abnormahties of the frontal lobe against 8 in 56 
criminals' brains. 

It is only fair to seek adverse criticisms, but these honest people 
may have been degenerates, though not criminals. A degenerate 
may exist honestly amidst simple surroundings. It is the complex 
of civilization that makes him a criminal. Max Nordau {Degenera- 
tion) describes degenerates among artists, Hterary and other in- 
tellectual men. I imagine he is deahng with what I term sports, 
for degenerates appear to Hve on quite a lower plane intellectually. 

Ferrier {Arch, neurol., 1882) describes the brain of a woman 
who was criminal and " trabadique," who had the right hemi- 
sphere smaller than the left, and doubhng of the left internal 
frontal fissure. The fissure of Rolando was also deformed : other 
abnormahties in fissures were present. 

Benedikt in 1883 describes abnormahties of the left parieto- 
occipital fissure in the assassin Dobrowicki. Clearly again, hke 
my murderer, the architecture of his intellect was at fault. 

Anomahes of the cerebellum are also described by Lombroso 
(p. 192). 



Microscopic examination of the cortex. — I was placed at a disadvan- 
tage, being unable to remove the brain until forty-eight hours 
had elapsed. On this account allowance must be made for absence 
ot Nissl bodies in many of the cells. But it makes no difference to 

Q 



226 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

the number of the cells, which is of the very greatest importance. 

In broad outline I may state that the sensori-motor areas, ascend- 
ing frontal and parietal convolutions were practically normal, 
whilst the other areas were very deficient in the shapes and numbers 
of the cells. 

But the most striking feature was the number of undeveloped 
nuclei at the cortex of which I have made some diagrams and for 
comparison drawn an intermediate column from the second frontal 
convolution of a normal and very intellectual man. What I have 
described is at once apparent. I have added an infant's cortex 
before birth. 

One would expect the prefrontal cortex to be specially affected, 
but here the cells were better shaped and more numerous than in the 
other areas to be described. 

Nevertheless, the depth of the cortex was about f of the normal, 
while conspicuous on the surface was the number of undeveloped 
nuclei, showing an arrest of development at, and possibly before, 
birth. 

It is a scientific corroboration of my dictum that the criminal 
has only the control of a child. It gives a physical basis for the 
establishment of the degenerate as a class, distinct from the insane 
and the normal. 

The first frontal was particularly barren of pyramidal cells. 
In one field, using an | power of lens, there might be only five or 
six pyramidal cells, whereas in the corresponding normal there were 
at least twenty cells. There were many undeveloped nuclei, lying 
chiefiy near the surface. The thickness of the pyramidal layer was 
I- to X that of the normal. Curious to relate the fourth and fifth 
layers (Bolton) polymorph, or layers of instinct, or Watson's infra- 
sensory layer, was much thicker than the average, and its cells 
appeared normal. The man was well provided as regards instincts, 
but his psychic machinery was affected. 

The pattern of the parietal area was the best of the whole brain, 
therefore one would look for an approach to normal. Such was not 
the case. There were more pyramidal cells, and better shaped, but 
again nuclei were too abundant. 

The second occipital, or visuo-psychic area, was the most unde- 
veloped, and likewise f of its normal depth. Even the granular, 
third or sensory layer was thin. The number of pyramidal cells 
in layer II was very much reduced. Nature had left him almost 
untouched on this part of his architecture ; hence he was a de- 
generate, and society made him a criminal. 

To sum up, what is the general inference and how much import- 
ance must we attach to these nulcei ? We recognize them in the 



The Cortex of the Degenerate. 






^1 



4-. ..i" 



Murderer^ Cortex 









IF -'^4 



^ ^ 









izr : ' 









.^ i 



2r -*i^. 















4 J 



I. -: 



Drawn with the camera lucida, J obj., from different parts of the murderer's 
brain, with a normal in the centre and unborn babe on the left. 



K 









IT 






4- -4 



.'3 



.4 * 






A»> 






Facing page 226. 



The Murderer's Cortex, Parietal. 



IV. 
& 
V. 





The parietal might be termed the area of intellect and here it is remarkably poor. 




The occipital cortex of the Mangaby. Compare with the degenerate (murderer) on page 224. 
Facing page 227. 



THE MURDERER'S BRAIN 227 

foetal brain as neuroblasts, the forerunners of the neuron, and we 
meet them later in the infant's brain, chiefly at the surface of the 
pyramidal layer. In this brain, however, we meet them both at 
the surface, as on the day he was born, and also scattered throughout. 
It is a condition of the natural development being arrested before 
birth, and we know that this is caused by the toxin of sjrphilis and 
tubercle, or by malnutrition. The bodies of the cells, or cytoplasm, 
are also deficient in amount, showing that the neuroblasts of the 
foetus were unable to build up the nerve ceUs. 

It is remarkable, however, that the layer of instinct and the sen- Non- 
sory layer, both very ancient in time, are well developed. andlm- 

The storm has blasted the psychic or mental machinery, and portant 
put him on a level far below the average man, or even the insane. Degener- 
He might have been able to hoe potatoes, and it is notorious how ^^^ 
many country labourers are on his level ; but when he comes to 
the city, with its whirl, its drink saloons, the changing of night into 
day, the struggle for the bare necessaries of life, he falls to pieces 
as a mental wreck, frequently becoming what society terms a 
criminal. In any case he is a degenerate, a bad machine from the 
very beginning. He never could have been normal, but he is not 
insane ; he has a psychic territory or position of his own. The 
microscope shows that his cortex has fewer cells than a normal 
unborn babe ; that the cells are less perfect in form ; that the 
nuclei placed in reserve for further evolution have continued in 
that undeveloped condition. Would you caU him an agenerate 
or a degenerate ? He has degenerated from the normal standard, 
but is an agenerate from the individual standpoint. I think we 
had better not load the English language with a new term, and I 
have no vanity to gratify ; but let it be distinctly recognized that 
the degenerate is as separate from the normal as the insane ; and 
we must not speak lightly of individuals as degenerate any more 
than we should of insanity. Unfortunately, if a man be degenerate 
he is hopeless, as there is nothing to work upon, but we must not 
mistake a normal gone wrong for a degenerate. The only righteous 
procedure for a degenerate is a simple environment or, if trouble- 
some, pamless extinction. We are now faced with a new biological 
problem. Is the degeneracy transmissible to the offspring ; or is 
the degenerate a sport, whose germinal units wiU return to medio- 
crity under favourable conditions ? If the former, he is hke a 
permanent variety, and the only correct treatment is sterilization 
or extinction ; if the latter. Society is faihng in its responsibilities 
towards this large and increasing class. 



CHAPTER XXII 

RESPONSIBILITY 

Ruskin's misconception. LIBERTY OF THE SUBJECT AND RESPONSI- 
BILITY : Dr. Mercier's writings — Desire and conduct — One primitive 
craving — Instincts and lower cortical brain centres — Conduct satisfies 
desire — Volition — All connected in the higher association centres — Choice 

determines responsibility. THE OBSTRUCTING "IF." PHYSICAL 

SEAT OF WILL : The prefrontal cortex : Bolton's researches — The last 
to develop — Explains late arrival of wisdom — Refutes the theory of 
" previous existence " — The only layer which varies in ordinary brains — 
Disease and failure to live properly. THE UNDEVELOPED OR UN- 
EDUCATED PREFRONTAL : Case to illustrate. DR. MERCIER ON 

SELF-CONTROL. MORAL INSANITY : The criminal is bad through- 
out. PHYSICAL RELATION BETWEEN MIND AND BRAIN : Desire 

and subsensory cortical layers — Choice and the association centres — 
Volition and inhibition : I will and I won't — Prefrontal and senile decay 
in disease or alcoholism — Slight alcoholism in the young — Deficient brain 
cells or amentia. FREE WILL : NON EST. 

" But he that knew not 

And did commit things worthy of stripes, 
Shall be beaten with few stripes." 

Christus. 

When a leader like Ruskin writes, " The plea of ignorance ^ 
wUl never take away our responsibilities," it becomes necessary 
to correct the inferences and opinions which might arise 
from such gross error, especially when applied to the poorer 
classes. A Spanish proverb which says that " Every one is 
the son of his own works," falls into the same mistake. Un- 
fortunately we are aU, without exception, primarily the sons 
of our ancestors for many generations back, and according 
to their legacies and our later environment after birth, so is 
our capability for undertaking the responsibilities of life. 

The responsibilities of a general could not be undertaken 
by a subaltern, however well instructed in military duties 
the latter might be. And so in the warfare against self and 
sin, mere knowledge gives no responsibihty, nor yet experience 
without the psychic equipment behind it, which has been so 

^ If the term " neglected opportunity " were used instead of " igno- 
rance " I think we might agree. 



RESPONSIBILITY 229 

poetically described by the psychologist, Saint Paul, as " the 
whole armour of God." 

But apart from the spiritual or higher responsibiHties, 
there are those of a somewhat lower grade in our every-day 
social and moral duties. Few attain to the spiritual, though 
unfortunately many profess to do so ; but the lower duties 
are expected of all, and if not acted up to result in the curtaU- 
ment of Hberty. 

The question of the liberty of the subject brings up that of Liberty 
responsibility, which has led to many lengthy volumes, subject 
Responsibility involves self-control, wherein may come a and Re- 
conflict between morality and intellect. bmty^" 

I should Hke to quote from the work of one of our greatest 
writers, Dr. C. Mercier, on Criminal Responsibility ^ in which 
he analyses the subject more scientifically than most. He 
has so fully digested the classical writers who preceded him, 
that it is unnecessary for me to prolong the discussion by 
referring to them. He describes (pp. 104-5) the human mind 
as "an incident in, and a means toward the achievement by 
man of his purposes." Or is mind the man himself, the captain 
of the ship, or the general of the army, dictating the purposes 
to be achieved ? If the mind be associated with purpose, 
then the body is the means of achievement. 

" Man is ever striving," and the fundamental attitude of 
mind is called desire. Desire is the motive of aU conduct. 
" Inherent in human nature are certain deep-rooted desires 
whose derivation may be traced to one primitive and funda- 
mental craving, which lies at the root of aU human, as of aU 
animal dispositions." This is a most important statement, 
so often overlooked, although expressed long ago by Schopen- 
hauer as the will to Hve. It is represented on the physical 
side by the term instincts, in the lower subsensory stratum of 
the cells of the brain cortex, the polymorph layer, as proved 
by the researches of Dr. G. A. Watson, who compared the 
brains of animals with humans. {See diagram and Chap. XI.) 
" Conduct is the means by which we satisfy desire. AU 
conduct is the production, the modification and the preven- 
tion of movement." Mercier describes the interchange of 
movement between the individual and the surrounding 



230 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

world, which consists in receiving sensory impressions, arrang- 
ing them or sorting them by the lower and higher association 
centres, thus distributing and emitting motion, which in 
its finality involves volition or the wiU to act. It is my 
opinion that Dr. Mercier and others do not seem to attach 
sufiicient importance to the power, influence and education 
of the association centres. To my mind it is the pivot round 
which these psychic problems revolve. They consider that 
following on desire comes choice, whether to do or not to do, 
and what to do, and that if the choice is wrong or evil, respon- 
sibility attaches. To this I will make objection later on. 
On page 147, Mercier writes : 

'^ Desire antecedes choice and a fortiori antecedes volition." 
" On this showing there can be no responsibility for desire 
. . , but only with the means for giving effect to it." 

The " If there be responsibility it arises at some stage of choice, 

ing *"lf "' iiitsntion, or act, subsequent to desire. If there be no disorder 
of will or intelligence, then I think responsibility attaches 
as soon as desire obtains the sanction of the will." 

This is a very clear and fair exposition of the case. Where 
delusions, fixed ideas, or obsessions, exist and are distinctly 
evident, propelling to illegal acts, there can be no doubt or 
hesitation in arriving at a fair judgment. But Dr. Mercier 
is dealing with two distinct factors, intelligence and will. 

Intelligence is represented by the associations of the sensori- 
motor mechanism, probably the adjacent centres, parieto- 
occipital and temporal. 

Physical Will stands on a higher plane from the physical aspect. 

•y/^fll ° Experiment, pathology and evolution afford strong evidence 
of its origin in the prefrontal cortex. If this be correct an 
entirely new opinion must be held with regard to ethical 
or moral qualities. 

Dr. Shaw Bolton has added to our knowledge of the 
function of the prefrontal lobes. The research was carried out 
in the laboratory of Clay bury Asylum. Dr. Shaw Bolton 
observed in the early stage of general paralysis wasting of the 
anterior two-thirds of the first and second frontal convolu- 
tions, and the anterior one-third of the third convolution in the 



Normal brain cells. 





^% 


f 


^. -] 


i 


■» 




*» ■ 


%^ 


m 


-V 

\ 


.4 




• 


f 


; . « 



The axon or exit fibre below. 



The axons below. 
I am indebted to Dr. John Turner, of Brentwood, for these beautiful photographs. 




-■^*** '*■ 1*.! 



VW. 






The lower photograph represents the supply of brain cells in a normal cortex, 

while the upper shows the supply in a case of juvenile or inherited general 

paralysis of the insane. 

Kindly lent by Dr. Mott. 

Facing page 231. 



RESPONSIBILITY 231 

same lobe. The actual location in the popular mind of this 
important area is the anterior pole of the brain, or that part 
immediately above and behind the eyebrows. 

It is at this stage of general paralysis that so many good 
people go wrong. They become vain, or quarrelsome, or 
extravagant, and too often immoral. There is a close physical 
relationship of cause and effect which, alas ! has often brought 
ruin instead of sympathy. 

J. Shaw Bolton says — 

" In all cases the depth of the pyramidal layer of nerve 
ceUs in the prefrontal region varies directly with the mental 
powers of the individual." 

" The pyramidal layer of the prefrontal is the last cell layer 
of the cortex to develop during the process of lamination, 
and it is also the first to undergo retrogression in dementia." 

This declaration as to development is the explanation of 
the proverb " Old heads are not placed on young shoulders." 
It explains how and why judgment, control and wisdom come in 
adolescence and not in childhood. It also refutes the doctrine 
of " previous existence." 

Bolton adds concerning this layer — 

"It is the only layer which appreciably varies in depth in 
normal brains." 

The prefrontal association area " is the region concerned 
with attention and the general orderly co-ordination of psychic 
processes." These solid facts are the key to the variability 
of normal persons in their higher mental functions. 

All other layers in the brain have their average thicknesses, 
which are much the same in every one. One object is black 
to aU, another is white, one line is straight and another crooked. 
Every one sees and infers or judges alike. There is no room 
for opinion or doubt. 

But when we come to ethics, we all know how moral strength 
and vision vary in different persons, even of the same family. 
Bolton tells us why. The depth of their pyramidal layers in 
the prefrontal varies, and " the co-ordination of their psychic 
processes " depends upon the thickness and stability of the 
former. 

We now understand the good clergyman assaulting children 
when his prefrontal cortex was decaying from dementia during 



232 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

the early stage of general paralysis. We also understand the 
brutality of the rough and ready degenerate whose prefrontal 
cortex has never developed. The former has lost what he 
once had in abundance, namely, power of will ; while the 
latter never possessed the machinery whose product is moral 
control, I will or I won't. 

In the study of responsibility, these facts must be closely 
applied to every problem ; such knowledge is the true measure 
of morality. 

When the steering gear of the mind is gone, then many sad 
episodes follow. Integrity, probity and virtue slowly disap- 
pear, instinct and desire being unopposed. The pubhc look 
on aghast, the jury follows in ignorance, and the judge often 
reluctantly condemns. 

The Un- But we have another class to deal with. Let us call them 
orUnedi^. ^^ooligans. They are devoid of all moral sense, lustful, cruel 
catedPre- and avaricious. Many of these are partial aments. A few 
frontal ^^ them reach the asylum, and after death the prefrontal area 
is found very deficient in cells and fibres.^ The equipment 
of these people is far below the average, though a few may 
be normal ; but both have been reared under such unfavour- 
able surroundings that their association areas have never 
received even the rudiments of moral education. This 
class is more correctly described as amoral, though the 
results may be immoral. Morality is to them an unknown 
quantity. These people may know right from wrong, and 
the consequences of evil acts by observation and experience 
on the sensori-motor part of the brain, but be quite deficient 
in the higher association areas, and therefore in all ethical 
knowledge, or inhibition, and consequently their choice is 
wrong. 

This lengthy explanation is but an extension of Dr. Mercier's 
" If." 

Thus, when I asked a lad why he stole a bicycle and sold 
it for half-a-crown, his answer was : " Dunno." Asked if 
he knew it was wrong, he said " Yes." His sensori-motor 
and lower association areas were in working order, but the 

1 Vide Bolton's writings on Amentia in Journal of Mental Science. 



RESPONSIBILITY 233 

higher association which should direct his choice was unde- 
veloped, so that he could not appreciate the importance of 
his crime. 



Dr. 
Mer 
on E 
Control 



With this preface Dr. Mercier continues on pp. 194 and ^iQ^ciet 
195: — onSelf- 

" By self-control I mean the power of foregoing immediate 
pleasure for the sake of greater advantage in the future. 
This is not a power of the intellect. It is often possessed in 
large measure by the dull, and may be wanting in the brilKant. 
It is a moral, not an intellectual quality. It is a matter of 
wiU, not of reasoning." 

I think that this statement is misleading, for want of defini- 
tion of the term intellect. We must admit that intellect 
may be a quahty rather than a property. One may own pro- 
perty in the shape of a knife, but unless it has the quahty 
of sharpness it is no knife at aU. The steel may be soft, incap- 
able of sharpening, or it may be structurally deficient in the 
process of manufacture. If we follow on these lines, the brain 
is but a machine which may be perfect, imperfect or de- 
ficient. 

I can only suggest by way of explanation that the dullard 
probably has an all-round poor brain machine of low potential, 
but in proportion has just enough prefrontal to guide him 
straight. He, moreover, may not be persecuted by too 
strong desires, and probably has no ambitions. 

This is corroborated by what we see amongst the educated 
who have good brain machines, at high potential. In some 
cases their desires are so strong as to get out of hand : their 
ambitions are for the present, trusting to their abihties in the 
future if cornered. Behind all there may be a deficiency in 
the small prefrontal cortex. In this way only can I explain 
the erratic progress of many great and noble men, and of the 
few public men who finally fail in their trust ; though with 
some their errors may be due to senile decay. These suggest 
to me the powerful battleship from which much is expected, 
but which in the hour of trial disappoints aU our hopes, simply 
because its steering gear, through one small flaw in construc- 
tion, is unrehable. Like the prefrontal area the steering gear 
is but a fraction of the whole. 



234 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Moral Dr. Mercier describes moral insanity as a degree of vice, 

Insanity p^gj^ed to such an extreme as to become evidence of insanity 
(p. 198). Such exaggerated degrees of amorality or degrada- 
tion would probably reveal a decided amentia or deficiency 
in the higher association centres. One gets support for this 
idea from Dr. Mercier' s earlier chapter, where he ignores the 
theory of partial insanity, which is an epoch-making sugges- 
tion, as it clears the air in appreciating criminality — and it is 
to be hoped that the state will some day wake up to its re- 
sponsibilities, and rely on knowledge and not on tradition. 
He says a delusion is the symptom of insanity of the whole 
individual. 

I must add that the unstable and uncontrolled, or immoral, 
are not partly bad and partly good, like a mental mosaic, but 
bad throughout. Many persons like to regard themselves as 
moral mosaics, casting up the whites against the blacks, and 
thus permit themselves a few sins. The intellect may be very 
good, as with expert criminals, including the kings of illicit 
finance, but the higher associations must be wrong, as they 
show direct evidence of an absence of moral sense. A moral 
insanity is perhaps a diseased or deficient prefrontal. 

The world loses a great deal by clipping the wings of the 
medical profession. We ought to have every criminal brain 
to examine. Fancy what we might find in the hands of 
experts. Some perhaps perfect structure, till we got to the 
prefrontal, and then found a shallow layer of cells and fibres, 
when all is explained ; supra-ability — infra-morality. 

Physical We have, therefore, three mental states with these physical 

between representations in the brain cortex. 

Mind and (1) The lowest is desire or animal craving, which is repre- 
sented in the subsensory or polymorph layer of brain cells. As 
we would expect, it is as well developed in some of the lower 
mammals as ourselves. Its use is self-protection and propa- 
gation of species, while its abuse is selfishness and viciousness 
in various ways. Its existence in the human brain is proof 
of our evolution from below, as is indicated in a previous 
chapter, and a complete refutation of the opinions of some 
that man is potentially divine, and came from above. 

(2) Choice, as Mercier points out, foUows desire. Choice 



Brain 



RESPONSIBILITY 235 

is not a character of the lowest animals, where the immediate 
gratification of desire or impulse is constantly observed ; 
yet in the higher mammals, especially the domestic dog, choice 
does obtain in a large degree. Choice is represented in the 
human cortex at the association areas ; and these are being 
discovered in some mammals. 

It consists in the comparison of experiences or memories. 
The primary object of choice in the human family is chiefly 
for seK, and we see this manifested among the savage races 
and the degenerates, who seem Hke brutes when compared 
with civilized mankind. 

(3) The highest mental conditions are vohtion and inhibition, 
I wiU or I won't ; which in other words is self-control ; and 
here must rest the faculty of responsibility. 

Its physical counterpart is in the highest association centre 
which we may consider as now proved to be the prefrontal. Its 
representation in the higher mammals must be very rudimen- 
tary, if it exists at aU, and its existence is not yet proven. 
According to the physical condition of this prefrontal area, 
so is its energy indicated in the degree of wisdom or folly, self- 
control or responsibility. In the senile condition the brain 
is shrinking, and the cells are slowly dropping out of action. 
Hence the scientific objection against old men being placed 
in control of national affairs. They are useful as critics, and 
valuable for experience, but in a measure irresponsible. This 
partly explains our many blunders. 

Where disease invades this part in younger brains or in 
slight forms of alcoholic poisoning, the more vigorous sensori- 
motor area being uncontrolled, deviates from rectitude ; 
and again justice ignores the cause. It is demonstrated else- 
where (Chap. XIII) that in alcoholism the delicate machinery 
of the prefrontal is the first to be paralysed. When this 
occurs people make mistakes which they regret later. There 
is, however, the other condition of want of development ; 
the brain cells never having had an existence, or their num- 
bers being reduced. We call this Amentia. (Fig. p. 191.) In 
gross cases, where the whole brain suffers, we have speechless 
idiots ; in minor states we have imbecUes, who are often 
criminals and unjustly punished. 



236 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Free Will If these facts be true, and they are supported by observation 
and experiment, there is for some people no such thing as 
responsibihty or free wUl. Normals, who are few, have it, 
as their brain machines are perfect. The deficient are, how- 
ever, more numerous than would appear, and require careful 
examination when in trouble, not by the police, the lawyer, 
or even the judge, but by the expert psychologist, to see exactly 
what amount of workable machinery they possess. Till 
then many wiU be incorrectly credited with free will and 
punished, where wiU paralysis, or absence of will, robs them 
of place of responsibility. 

The terms free-will and responsibility must be considered 
in the light of fresh knowledge. We are but machines, of 
varying potential endurance and capability, and according 
to the quality of the mechanism so we should be judged. 



CHAPTER XXIII 
EMPIRE BUILDING 

Arnold White's dictum on the future — Simile of the Empire to a sick man^ 

The Colonies his children — The Empire's heart. EMPIRE BUILDING • 

What is it ?— Altruism. BRITON A SPORTSMAN: Lower brain 

cortex — In evolution pyramidal cells control — Sport in politics. LAW 

IS AN INTELLECTUAL SPORT. SPORTING INSTINCT ANCESTRAL 

FROM INSULAR BRITONS : Division of labour, hunters and warrors, 
or army and commerce — Each keep to their own speciality. CON- 
SCRIPTION : The nation : its available energy dealt with nlimerically — 
No energy to spare from science and commerce for military purposes — 
Military spirit a lower instinct — Our empire too intellectual to foster the 
lower instinct. THE NATION BLEEDING TO DEATH : The neg- 
lected " Juveniles " — The future results from these 16,000 " juvenile 
adults " — The State as " guardian " : a new role — Surround the juveniles 

with motives, notjwalls — The shameful neglect of the poor. THE TRUE 

VALUE OF THE BIBLE : Charitable works— Salvation Army— A SKETCH 
OF SOCIAL WORK AMONGST YOUNG PEOPLE : Deserted children- 
Good Magistrates — Stratford, E. — The phases of child life — Neglected 

infancy— The value of good milk. ^A TYPICAL SLUM FAMILY : The 

early teens — Overstrain — ^The poor look-out for girls. THE BOYS, 

WHEN HOMELESS, AS SEEN IN INSTITUTIONS : Mental and physical 
condition of these lads — ^Very poor memory as in criminals also — 

School standards. ST. GILES' MISSION : The first offenders— Have 

been driven into crime — ^Alcoholic parentage. THE EFFECT OF STATE 

" EDUCATION " : (A) The uneducated rover develops normally— (B) The 

best educated boy, the more stupid and imimoral. DEFICIENCY IN 

WEIGHT— REPORT OF BOYS IN WESLEYAN HOMES— REPORT ON 
WORKING LADS IN THE VICTORIA CLUB, WHITECHAPEL— THE 
DIFFERENT TABLES OF PSYCHIATRY AND COMPARISON WITH 
NORMALl>— CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS: No difference outwardly 
between merchant prince and criminal — But between the better class 
lads and young criminals, there is physical deficiency in the latter — 
Growth of skull — Cases to illustrate — Is the rising generation inferior ? — 

Skulls in family groups — Effect of deficient physique. SIDELIGHTS 

FROM THESE FACTS ON THE PROBLEM OF EDUCATION : Starved 

body, starved brain — The effect on intelligence. and on morale. 

THE NATURAL TENDENCY IS ALWAYS THE WAY OF LEAST 

RESISTANCE. THE PREDICTIONS OF MALTHUS A CENTURY 

AGO ON OVER-POPULATION : Of Darwin ; of Herbert Spencer- 
Two kinds of check : Natural and artificial selection — The question 
presses us now — John Stuart Mill's dictum — Lord Derby's sayings — 
Positive and preventive checks — Eight children weigh 21 stone instead 

of 31 stone : A social crime. THE CRY OF THE CHILDREN : Against 

parent, society, and State— INFANT MORTALITY, NATURE'S TOLL : 
There is no true love in our hearts, only " sentiment." — THE STERILIZA- 
TION OF THE UNFIT, SUGGESTED BY ARNOLD WHITE, IS THE 
ONLY CURE — Those who require and demand sterilization — No inter- 

237 



238 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

ference with the liberty of the subject until it be forfeited. BERNARD 

SHAW'S OPINION : Social happiness would result, AN IDEAL 

COMMONWEALTH : Males, females, neuters — No more classes against 
masses — Mental disease less — Then Euthanasia — Neuters will decrease 
— Normal family life. 

Arnold TWENTY years ago, Arnold White wrote : "As the rich grow 
White's j.ici]Ler the poor grow poorer. Between Dives and Lazarus 
on the the great gulf fixed becomes deeper, wider and blacker, month 
Future -^^ month and year by year." 

As Empire builder, he wept over the coming decay, which 
was most evident in the large cities. The process steadily 
continues. 

The rich do not feel it, for they can still feast upon the ruins 
with the power and opportunity that wealth confers ; but the 
middle class are now feeling the cruel chill blast which has 
worked wreckage at the base of the Empire. 

It may seem feeble to resort to simile for descriptive purposes, 
yet one can often drive a truth home with more clearness in this 
manner. The Empire is like a prosperous man whose end is 
drawing near. His children, the Colonies, are floated and self- 
supporting. 

Serious indeed is the condition of the heart of the sick Empire. 
The life ^ stream is oozing therefrom, and if it continue must 
hasten the end. The head ^ is clear and the arms ^ are strong, 
and so a false security exists, but the body appears to be 
failing fast. 

Empire Empire building is the main object of every true Briton, 
Buildmg ^^^ ^^^ rising generation must be educated up to it. 

What is Empire building ? 

Is it Conscription ? or Protection, or Education, or Religion, 
or Emigration, or any other " ions " ? 

These are but feeble tonics, of which none cures. 

There is only one way of Empire building, and that is 
altruism ^ toward the masses, instead of the egotism of the 
classes. The increased Empire wrecking is due to egotism, 
and that alone. 

1 The starving poor, the future strength of the nation. 

2 Science. ^ Commerce. 

* Alter, another. The thinking of others ; loving oiir neighbours. 



EMPIRE BUILDING 239 

As already pointed out the Briton is essentially a sports- Briton a 
man, retaining an ancestral instinct, necessary to primeval man ; ^°^' 
perhaps inherited from the carnivora ; and engrained, in 
both, in the lower cortical strata of the brain. It rests with 
the evolution of the higher cortical layers, the pyramidal cells, 
to control and guide this dominant killing instinct. 

Is not this sporting instinct the source of aU political passion 
and strife ? It is the essence of courtship, marriage, com- 
merce, and efficiency. 

I should be very sorry to stir up the wrath of the legal Law is an 
profession at a period when we want their sympathy and tualForm 
assistance, for we are entirely in their power, and absolutely of Sport 
at their mercy. Nevertheless, if I quote one of their noblest 
members. Sir Edward Clarke, I shaU obtain support for the 
course I am taking.^ At a dinner of the Medico-Legal Society 
(1907), he compared the doctor, toiling for love in the slum, with 
the barrister at work in his luxurious chambers ; and further 
enlarged on the disappointment that a sensitive and honourable 
lawyer must feel at the results and character of legal methods. 
It is, however, only an excess of the sporting instinct, perhaps 
unguided by and beyond the control of the true or higher Ego. 

There is constant evidence of this instinct in the desire of 
counsel to win their client's cause, whatever justice demands. 
The same temptation to err from rectitude does not obtain 
among the ordinary pursuits of the doctor, for, as Sir Edward 
Clarke said, he " was always on the right side, working for the 
cause of suffering," The lower hunting instincts of the doctor 
are, however, painfully revealed when he is drawn into legal 
work, and the way in which two doctors will swear to diametri- 
cally opposite opinions is a mystery to the intelligent public. 

The late Lord Brampton, Sir Henry Hawkins, was a keen 
sportsman, and I observe a quotation from his Reminiscences, 
which demonstrates how this ancestral hunting instinct may 
dominate the Ego and subjugate the higher morale. 

" One of the least known stories, but at the same time one 

of the most characteristic, was recounted by him in his 

Reminiscences. Hawkins had made a touching speech, 

and had succeeded in getting a prisoner acquitted on a charge 

^ See Transactions of Medico-Legal Society, vol. iv, p. 107. 



240 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

of murder by exhibiting in court the children of the accused 
dressed in black clothes, and sobbing as though their hearts 
would break. The sequel is thus described — 

" ' You made a touching speech, Mr, Hawkins,' said an old 
inhabitant of the village. 

" ' Well,' I answered, ' it was the best I could do under the 
circumstances." 

" ' Yes,' he said, ' but I don't think you would have painted 
the little home in such glowing colours if you had seen 
what I saw last week, when I was driving past the cottage. 
No, no ; I think you'd have toned it down a bit.' 

" ' What was it ? ' I asked. ' Why,' said the old inhabi- 
tant, ' the little children who sobbed so violently in court this 
morning, and to whom you made such pathetic reference, 
were playing on an ash heap near their cottage, and they had 
a poor cat with a string round its neck, swinging backwards 
and forwards, and as they did so they sang — 

This is the way poor daddy will go ! 
This is the way poor daddy will go ! 

Such, Mr. Hawkins, was their excessive grief.' 

" ' Yes, but it got the verdict.' 

As this is but a type of what occurs in our Courts of Justice, 
one can only deplore the want of relationship between Law 
and true Justice which includes truth, righteousness, and the 
public " weal." 

Considering that the legal profession always includes some 
of the noblest and most intellectual men of the age, it is extra- 
ordinary that such conditions continue. Let us, at aU events, 
hope that the sporting pendulum does not swing too far in 
the opposite direction, to the danger of the innocent. 

Sport thus uncontrolled and unguided, tends towards 
depravity and inefficiency in rich and poor alike.^ 

Sporting It is often asked why the Franks, Latins, Russ, or Teutons, 

Ancestral have nothing equal to the Briton's sporting qualities, 

from The reason is clearly the isolation of our ancestors ; which 

Britons insularity sharpened their propensities for protection and 

^ For fixrther light on this subject read Arnold White's book, The 
Problems of a Great City, which ought to be carefully studied in the 
hope that the next generation will get the Empire on its feet again. 



EMPIRE BUILDING 241 

preservation. Whereas on the vast continents, if food failed 
in one area the tribes could wander to another. They were 
like the less energetic herbivora ; whereas we were obliged 
to be always on the look-out, like the carnivora. 

Such was evidently our type, and being conquered, we 
absorbed the better qualities of our conquerors, but this 
ancient instinct continued to assert itself. 

Ancient Britons would by division of labour necessarily 
form two classes ; the warriors, and the suppliers of food, 
hunters and pastoral workers. We have built our social 
system on the same plan. We have our army and our com- 
merce. Even the scientist is a hunter, seeking for useful 
knowledge and truth. 

In ancient Britain there were many clans, and if the hunters 
went to war famine followed ; or if the warrior left to hunt, 
the internecine enemies invaded their territory. 

Hence each had his office, and so it should remain. The 
hunters of commerce and science build up a complex system, 
which to be prosperous requires all their time and energy. 
The warriors quite justly receive a liberal portion of what the 
hunters acquire in return for peace, protection and opportunity 
for progress, or even for steaUng their weaker neighbours' 
territory. 

But the warrior must not hunt, lest the enemy attack us ; Conscrip- 
nor can the hunter leave his work to do what falls to the lot 
of the warrior. This principle must guide us in national politics, 
and if followed might save us from panics. 

As with the body we have head, arms, legs ; so the nation 
in health relies upon science, commerce and stability, which 
cannot be parted or separated. A human being is capable 
of a certain or limited amount of energy. If, by way of illus- 
tration we represent that energy as 1,000 units, a conscript 
at the "foot " of the Empire will use up 600 units to become 
a reliable soldier. If, on the other hand, we take the same 
number of units from the brain worker, who requires that 
amount for his own purposes, the loss falls on the nation. 
Similarly the nation's hands, as types of her commerce, cannot 
spend two-thirds of their energy on military affairs without 
losing in skilled industry. 



242 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The military spirit, essentially sporting, belongs to the lower 
instincts. Far preferable is the activity of the upper cortex, 
which would quell jealousy, and lead to friendly intercourse 
amongst all peoples. Our Empire is the highest amongst 
nations, and its fighting instincts have in recent years wasted 
in consequence ; we must not now stoop to others, but rather 
draw them up to our level. 

The Where we are gradually bleeding to death is in our neglect 

Bleeding of the poor, especially the children. There pass through our 
to Death prisons every year more than 16,000 bright, intelligent, promis- 
ing young lads. These are the future hope of the nation, 
perverted and perhaps alienated, but yet capable of salvation 
by wise methods. 

It is not their fault. It is your fault and my fault. We 
are the criminals, they are the sufferers. Perhaps it would 
be more correct to lay the chief blame on the State, which 
is paramount to saying that it is the chief offender against 
justice and humanity. 

We cannot ignore the very simple arithmetical facts that the 
boys of fifteen lying in misery in our gaols will be twenty-five in 
ten years. They will then reach maturity and the stage of pro- 
creation. Let us make the modest calculation of three children 
to each grown up man, and we have 50,000 British subjects 
of a soiled and probably soured inheritance from these 16,000 
young convicts. It is clearly an unwise policy to grind the 
poor, and such a policy must bring a reaction. What a differ- 
ent feeling these young convicts would bear towards the State 
if they were sent to reformatories in serious cases, and in minor 
cases to institutions which might be called " National Schools," 
and carry no stigma. The state as guardian would be tied 
by no limited period, and be bound to apprentice them, guard- 
ing them till at the age of twenty-one their intellectual neurons 
were developed. William Tallack, the prison reformer, would 
surround these poor boys " with motives, not walls." 

The nation is undoubtedly on a downward track if it per- 
sists in this shameful neglect, and allows the good Samaritan 
to work unaided ; it now even puts obstacles in his way as 
he endeavours to rescue the perishing. 



EMPIRE BUILDING 243 

To sum up, humanity in ancient days received a chart to The True 
guide a clear course over the troubled ocean of life. Some ^^^^iyg 
say this chart was inspired, as it has stood the test of time 
and criticism, for it is as apphcable to-day, as when it was 
written. Man has not changed. His cortex was the same 
in the days of Moses as now. He was as capable of wisdom 
and altruism then as to-day. 

Let us turn with more hope and cheer to see what the lovers 
of mankind are doing for the Master's sake. 

Conspicuous among all stands the Salvation Army. Some 
don't like their ways ; I am always glad to hear people run 
down the Army, because it is opposition which gives strength, 
and helps to show the enormous work they are doing. These 
operations and methods will stand the closest inspection. 
The more the blast rages, the tighter do the mountain pines 
cling to the rock. 

Among the other numerous agencies and individuals hard 
at rescue work of aU kinds which attracted me, and which I 
shall now describe, were the Homes for homeless lads in 
London ; the St. Giles Mission, which takes juveniles from the 
poHce courts and prisons ; the Wesleyan Homes for orphans ; 
and, finally, the work of the Jews amongst their own juveniles. 

They are all Empire builders, and those of us who love the 
Empire must not forget them. 

Few people have any idea how many children are deserted A Sketch 

by their parents. The cases are very seldom brought to light, ^ Social 

for the children are oft-times absorbed by other famihes of among 

the same class, or at once commence a career of their own in X°"^^ 

i eople 
the tender teens. If thoroughly down on their luck, the 

state thoughtlessly charges them with the crime of poverty, 

or with wandering. Many cases are sent to prison, sometimes 

several times over, and the evil associations inside the gaols 

usually end in an apprenticeship to some hardened criminal. 

Many of these children are rescued by the court missionaries 
and placed in homes, where they settle down contentedly, 
are found situations amongst kindly disposed employers, and 
turn out remarkably well. 

There are many courts where the magistrates have sym- 
pathy with the poor. Conspicuous amongst these is that at 



244 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

Stratford, where the magistracy has been for long years 
inoculated with Quakerism. I am told that for many years 
no boys have been sent to prison at this court ; the magistrates 
deal with them on humane lines, and seek normal shelter and 
healthy influences for them. 

Among the poor, child life passes through many phases ; 
some are brought up on gin, others on beans and bacon. 
When attached to a children's hospital as physician, I found 
the usual answer of mothers as to dietary was, " Baby has 
the same as we have." As a consequence of the deficient 
supply of milk, rickets and tubercle are very common amongst 
them. In Chapter IV development and growth are referred 
to as depending on the healthy nerve nuclei of the brain. 
These nuclei take up soluble phosphates and leicithin ^ from 
the milk, just as the chick absorbs it from the yolk. No 
leicithin, no growth. In America they are now trying to cure 
rickets by the employment of leicithin. The poor, therefore, 
should have the opportunity of getting good milk and plenty 
of it. 



A Typical 

Slum 

Family 



The children of the poor are horribly neglected. How they 
struggle through their first dozen years is a mystery. Take 
one typical family under my own observation, honest, but 
terribly poor. Here is the list of the eight children, who 
with their parents sleep in two small rooms. 

The family consists of three boys and five girls, as follows — 





Sex. 


Age. 


Height. 


Deficient. 


Weight. 


Deficient. 








ft. in. 


ins. 


St. lb. 


St. lb. 


1 


F. 


14 


4 9 


2 


4 10 


2 


2 


F. 


13 


4 7 


2 


4 


2 3 


3 


F. 


11 


4 2 


3 


3 10 


1 2 


4 


F. 


9 


3 9 


3 


3 2 


12 


5 


M. 


6 


3 3 


4 


1 12 


1 4 


6 


M. 


4 


2 n 


4 


1 8 


1 1 


7 


M. 


3 


2 5 


6 


1 4 


1 2 


8 


F. 


6 months 


2 3 




9 


5 




27 11 


2 ft. 


21 1 


10 1 



From these figures it is apparent that there is not enough 
^ Leicithin is a complex neuro-phosphate. 




From left to ricrht. 





Ages 


Heights 


Weights 




^5{^ 


4ft. 7^in. ; - Sin. 


4St. lolb. ; -3st. 81b. 




I4t^2 


5ft. 4in. ; +3m. 


8st. i2lb. ; +ist. i2lb 




^n 


5ft. ; -6in. 


yst. gib. ; -2st. 




15 


4ft. 6in. ; -Sin. 


5st. ; -2&t. 51b. 


Facing page 243. 









EMPIRE BUILDING 245 

food to go round, and only two thirds of the children should 
have been born. Don't let us, then, fight the Almighty on the 
question of infant mortality. 

A second period of helplessness seems to occur in the early 
teens. 3y that time they have almost finished their " educa- 
tion," and with what little intelligence the overstrain has left 
they are cast out to seek their fortunes or misfortunes, which- 
ever may come first. 

In this second period you meet the boys in the many 
" Homes " provided for them by free offerings. There are 
not so many facilities for young girls, who usually go out as 
drudges, or into factories, or make their living on the streets, 
as we in hospitals know too well. 

I will give details of a fair sample from the Homes for The Boys, 
Working Boys in London. Homeless 

There are about seven of these, accommodating sixty to as seen in 
ninety boys in each home. Specially interesting is the home [[Jfj^*'^' 
life in Haddo House, 88, Blackfriars Road, under the anxious 
and loving care of Mr. and Mrs. Harrison. It does one good to 
see the happy faces, however grimy, after they have had supper, 
and are seeking some innocent fun. These poor lads are picked 
off the streets, being usually too microscopic to attract the 
attention of the police, and are of very poor physique, frequently 
of very low morahty. I examined fifty-six boys. Of twenty- 
two boys aged 15 and under ; I found the weight deficiency 
to be 22 per cent. The deficiency among twenty-eight boys 
aged 16 and 17; was 23 per cent; while six boys ranging 
from 18 to 20 ; showed a loss of 20 per cent. Compare these 
with the Jews. Their intelligence is low, and I have been 
specially struck as to their memories. Few can remember any 
event before they were 5, and many can only remember 
to the ages of 8 or 10. This same mental oblivion is very 
conspicuous amongst criminals, and has been fuUy discussed 
in Chapter IX. A few may have had sober parents, but the 
rule is drunkenness in one or both parents. At school very 
few got beyond the fourth standard. {See Tables IV.) 

Another typical institution is St. Giles' Mission, which has St. Giles' 
been conducted by Mr. Wheatley for many years. Few people 



246 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

can estimate by reports the valuable work done here. In 
the department I examined there are about 100 boys, well 
fed, clothed and housed. This is the physical side or attraction 
to the boys, let us call it the practical method of reform. 

The boys, formerly outcasts, appreciate these healthy sur- 
roundings ; therefore, there is no difficulty in detaining this 
body of " juvenile or first offenders," as they are called. 
They have been driven into crime ; some are only charged with 
the crime of poverty or " wandering," the causes of which 
are bad homes, cruel step-parents, fathers, or even mothers. 

Alcoholic parentage figures largely ; and syphilitic in a few. 
The table of twenty-five cases which I have submitted must 
be a study for any thoughtful reader. {See Table III.) 

The Effect Let US here consider State Education, and see how it acts. 
" Educa- CJase — was the least educated, only reaching Standard I, 
tion" which means simply infantile spelling and monosyllables. 
This boy, a rover, freed from the exhausting state method, 
attains normal height and weight. He was driven to thieving by 
starvation, and received a month in prison. He, alas ! never 
knew a father, and his mother had left him. He is described 
as intelligent, that is, though deficient in " education," his 
association, or higher intellect, has evolved by environment. 
Let us go to the other extreme, and take Case — , who rose 
as far as was possible, learning science in the Ex- VII Standard. 
This boy was handicapped by the ante-natal poison of syphilis 
from one or other parent, and presented many stigmata of 
degeneration. He went wrong, having robbed his employer ; 
but Mr. Wheatley saved him from prison through the kind 
intercession of the injured employer. Intellectually he is 
duU and deficient, having evidently poor association centres. 
He is like a sponge, absorbing knowledge quickly, but unable 
to use it, and not necessarily retaining it. 

Deficiency These unfortunate lads show great deficiency in weight ; 
in Weight ^j^g-j. |3odies are unable to nourish their brains. 

The worst specimen. Case 55, at the age of 17 was 4| stones 
too Hght. Nature resents civilization and pays back tit for 
tat, turning him into a degenerate and deficient. 

These juvenile first offenders afford a most interesting 






From left to right. 


Ages 


Heights 


I2f 


4ft. iiin. ; +2in. 


i7is 


4ft. yin. ; -ift 


isi 


5ft. 4in. ; normal 1 


2oi 


5ft. yin. ; average ) 


i6H 


5ft. 2in. ; — 4in. 


Facing page 247. 





Weights 
6st. ; normal 
6st. I lib. ; — 3st. 
8st. 41b. ; normal 
gst. 2lb. ; — ist. 2lb. 
8st. 5in. ; — ist. 



EMPIRE BUILDING 247 

object lesson, for they show that want of nutrition and evil 
nature go together. 

Thus the twelve worst, really bad boys, should weigh 109 
stones, but only weigh 86^ stones ; showing a deficiency of 
21 per cent. 

The thirteen less criminal, some of them " good " boys 
capable of improvement, should weigh 11 7| stones ; but only 
weigh 98| stones ; showing a deficiency of 16 per cent. 

When the twenty-five are put together they show a deficiency 
of 18| per cent. 

The same class of boys among the Jews, due to family care 
and religious training, do not sink into this state of immorality, 
and their weight deficiency is only 8| per cent. 

The Children's Home and Orphanage. 

This institution, whose headquarters are at Bonner Road, A Short 
Victoria Park, shelters and protects 1,850 children in its ten gf ^hg 
branches. The Principal is the Rev. Dr. Gregory. Having Wesleyan 
been consulted professionally many times during the last ^ort 
twenty-five years, I am competent to criticize their methods. 
They are, to my mind, perfect Empire builders, for they take 
in children at any age, and never leave go until they reach 
adolescence and are able to stand alone. 

They are homes in the best sense of the word. The sexes 
are not separated ; the children are clean, well clothed, and 
have close personal supervision. Body, mind, morals and 
rehgion all meet with close attention. No happier children 
can be met with. 

They have many invalids and cripples, but it is home for 
them ; they know they will never be turned out. The sisters 
are refined ladies of various Protestant denominations. 

The rehgious training is strictly evangelical (Wesleyan), 
and the results seem good, for they effect cures among many 
"born" criminals. 

The clever boys are taught trades, according to their abilities. 
Others are emigrated to Canada, and carefully guarded there 
until established. 

I examined thirty-one boys out of 300 children at Bonner 
Road, and asked for the best, the worst, and a fair sample. 



248 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

The girls do well there, up to their teens ; they are stronger, 
healthier, and plumper than the boys. 

The material is extremely valuable as a fair test for board 
school methods. Those so educated show less of infantile 
memory, whereas those taught in private and Church schools, 
on more reasonable, humane, and intelligent Unes, retain 
infantile memory to the ages of 3 and 4. 

Ten of the worst boys ranging in age 

from 9 to 20 weigh collectively . 52 st. 1 lb. 

Instead of. . . . . . 66 „ 11 „ 

Showing a deficiency of . . . 14 „ 10 ,, 

or about ^ (20 per cent,). 

Only one boy was normal weight ; none were above 
normal. 

One boy, aged 14, was 2 st. below normal. The inference 
is that three too many came into the world. 

In regard to intelligence, eight were called dull, but were 
in reality middle grade imbeciles, and if cast on the world 
must become criminals. 

Four were of weak morals, but are recovered or recovering 
under the religious influences, which include sympathy. 

There was no necessity for them to pilfer, as amongst many 
of the poor, hence their pilfering shows an inborn instinct. 
The starving poor have of course a moral right to pilfer the 
necessities of life, as long as superabundant wealth is per- 
mitted. 

Memory : Only one boy can remember to the age of 
4, but he was brought up at a Church school. He is 
the most intelligent of those examined, but also weak 
morally. 

The other nine were all State educated, and the abnormal 
pressure on their weak brains had destroyed their little intelli- 
gence. 

One boy, aged 15, can only remember to 9. 

Another, aged 17, can only remember to 12. 

Their parentage was not so bad as in other homes I visited. 
Many of their parents had been good, but were unfortunate 
in their worldly concerns. 

Eleven of the best boys give us more cheer. Their ages 
range from 14 to 20. They should weigh collectively 98 to 



EMPIRE BUILDING 249 

99 stones, and reach 96 stones, showing only a deficiency of 
2 to 3 per cent. 

None of these are deficient. They will compare with the most 
favoured middle class, either in mind, or physique, and probably 
better in morale owing to their religious training. The two 
boys who are the most underweighted are the illegitimate 
children of a lady by different fathers. 

This group shows the advantage of private schools over 
board schools. 

One, a country lad, remembers to 3, and three others, also 
at private schools, remember clearly to the age of 4. 

Two boys, one a half negro, remember to 4 though at board 
schools. 

The other five go back to 5, and were board school chil- 
dren. 

The ten of fair average range in age from 10 to 19. They 
weigh collectively 71 st. 4 lb., but should weigh 79 st. 4 lb. ; 
hence they are about ^-q too light (10 per cent.). There are 
among these three weak morally, all recovered, and three 
mentally deficient. 

Here again we see the effect of the intelligence-destroying 
Board School machine, for two of the boys, aged 17, having 
been to a private school, can remember to three, while 
at the other extreme one, aged 16, can only remember to 
eight. 

Space prevents more detail being given to this splendid 
work, but a further perusal of the notes will well repay the 
inteUigent philanthropist. 

Barnardo's work is too well appreciated to require special Barnar- 
notice, and while he was perhaps the greatest Empire builder Homes 
of his time, yet the nature of the gigantic work prevents us 
from gathering statistics for psychiatric. 

It, however, emphasizes the fact that environment equals 
heredity either in the making or the saving of the criminal. 

As an evidence of his work, I append a letter, quite fitted \^^^^^^^ 

for a museum, from one of his lads in Canada, a young Empire of a 

builder working hard to rescue his four younger brothers Boy"S^° 

and sisters — Canada 



250 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

August 14, 1907. 
Dear Sir Mr. Albert Wilson, — 

I have resceved A letter from Mr, C. Harrisson, and he tels 
me that he took my brouther Edward to you exsamon to see if 
he was fit for Canada and you said he was OK, and I am pleased 
to here that nou Der Sir there are five of us and we are all 
alone in the world to get a home for our selves nou, our mother 
ran away from us when we were quite young and our father pade 
our way for two years, and then he went to and then I was put 
in Dr. Barnardoes Home and from there I was send to Canada 
and I was 13 years old then I have been out here 3 years last 
april, and I haye pade my sister way out last Oct. 1906 she is 
working at the same place as I am and I have got a good place 
for Edward when he comes out, and I have my outher brouther 
John in the English wafes and strayes and if I can get hem 
out here my Boos would be pleased to get hin for 3 or 4 years 
on reasionerbal terns and my sister liUie is som were else and 
I will get her out to because Canada is the place for a poor 
person I am trying to do the best I can and a little help Meanes 
a lot to me and I thank you very much four whot you have 
don. 

I remain your furind 

E.C., Ont. Canada. 

Social The purport of this chapter would not be complete without 

Y^"^^ a visit to Whitechapel, where destitute Jews are so numerous. 

the Jewish The Jews by their intermarriage are the most prepotent 

race in the human family. Their racial pecuKarities or national 

characteristics are thereby strengthened, otherwise they could 

not have survived such ages of persecution. 

I am indebted to Mr. Stephany, Secretary of the Jewish 
Board of Guardians, for valuable information of the way in 
which they manage their affairs. The Board, which is entirely 
supported by voluntary effort, administers outdoor relief. 
It is very rare that they have a case of poverty due to drink. 
Would that such an experience might be ours ! On the 
opposite side of the street was a long queue of destitute degene- 
rates waiting admission to the Salvation Army Shelter, and 
drink was plainly written on each face. 

The sin of the Jew is gambling, while the sin of the Gentile 



EMPIRE BUILDING 251 

is drink. I might almost say the sin of the Christian, for nearly 
aU are baptized into the Christian Church, and much of crime 
and wrong-doing is due to the apathy of professing Christians. 

The Jew is no lover of alcohol, and they teU me that the 
rich Jew is no judge of good wine. He goes by the label. 
But the Jews are fond of good eating, and blend a lot of fat 
and oil with their food. 

They are very particular about the meat, as a matter of ritual ; 
less so about the mUk, which is just the opposite of our way of 
thinking. The poor also are more particular than the rich as to 
the ritual. In addition to draining the blood, they have their 
own inspectors, who cut out whatever is suspicious, or 
" blemished." In the case of our ordinary butchers, what is 
obviously bad is removed, but that which is merely suspicious is 
too often left. The Jews do not specially partake of porridge 
nor of lentils or peas. 

The Jewish criminals are subtle and cunning, as contrasted 
with the GentUe criminals, who are violent and sporty. The 
Gentile acts as burglar, while the Jew will play the part of 
receiver. There are very few Jews in prison. In 1905 there 
were only about ninety women in Holloway, and 400 men 
in other prisons. This is a small percentage in so vast a 
community. It works out at | per cent., as compared with 
2 per cent, for all London. 

The Guardians regret that there are, as with us, so many 
early and thriftless marriages. Their poor, like ours, are 
also very reckless as to the size of their families. 

While we are strugghng through entanglements of red tape 
to obtain health inspectors, the Jews have for long had paid 
officials for this purpose, visiting the consumptives and others 
and applying up-to-date hygienic methods. 

They endeavour to enforce inter-marriage, as they usually 
suffer nationally by mixed marriages as the children go with 
the majority. From aU I have seen I think we would profit 
by these mixed marriages ; we would gain in temperance 
and in intelligence, which would lead to a higher domestic 
ideal and thus a stronger race. I don't think they would 
suffer, but might gain in^ other ways. The religious and national 
feehng is, however, very strong among the Jewish people, 
who are a law-abiding, peace-loving folk. If their influence 



Club 



252 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

was extended to other nations, it would all make for universal 
peace. 

rhfh^°^^' ^y chief inquiry was in regard to the young, and I am 
indebted to Mr. H. R. Levinsohn and Mr. Ernest Lessor for 
affording me help and supplying me with cases from the 
Victoria Club for working lads. I was much struck with the 
very cheery and frank manners of these lads. There was 
nothing servile or degraded or slouching among them. They 
seemed more manly than the corresponding class amongst 
Gentiles, having all through been brought up better. 

To begin with, the Jewish woman is " lazier " than the 
Gentile. It is very rare that they go out to work. The men, 
on the other hand, are much more industrious than the Chris- 
tians, and have always the desire to better their positions. 
The men are, in addition, very temperate. A Gentile workman 
getting 305. a week will often spend 5s. or 6s. in the public 
house ; nothing of this sort occurs among the Jews. 

As the mothers nurse the children and stay at home, there 
are fewer infantile diseases and a lower mortality. 

Jewish parents, like the Scotch, are very keen on education, 
and encourage the children at school. In addition they feed 
them during the play hours. In every way, then, the Jewish 
child at the Board school stands a better chance than the 
Christian. There are about 20,000 of their children at the 
Board schools, and about 6,000 at their own Free Schools. 

As soon as they leave school, they are carefully looked after. 
Both boys and girls are apprenticed, the Guardians have now 
about 800 lads and 200 girls, for whom they have advanced sums 
of £10, £15, or £20 each as premium. This is repaid by the 
lads or their parents. 

Both boys and girls are attracted to their clubs, of which the 
boys have four or five and the girls three in London. 

This healthy morale results in producing fine sturdy, yes, 
noble young men out of the same class which furnishes the 
hooligans and juvenile offenders among the Christians. 

There are very few degenerate, deficients or dullards among 
the young Jews, in consequence of the careful and practical 
home influences. This was so much of a surprise that I 



EMPIRE BUILDING 253 

several times asked for bad boys, but they could not supply 
them, nor could I find any. 

I carefuUy examined thirty-three lads, varying in age from 
14 to 21. Some were born in England, most abroad. Nearly 
aU were of foreign parentage, but none had drunken parents. 
There were several much under weight One, a dwarf (No. 254), 
but very intelligent, weighed 4 stone 11 lb. too little at the 
age of 17. Many lads were over weight. 

The thirty-three lads should have weighed . 275 st. 

But actually weighed .... 252 ,, 

Showing a deficiency of . . . . 23 ,, 

Or only 8 per cent. 

This compares weU with the lads in the Wesleyan Homes, 
who are exceptionally well cared for. 

The effect of the State " Education " is not so disastrous 
on them as on Gentiles. The Gentiles have also to contend 
with malnutrition and parental alcohohsm. Consequently 
one-third of these children can remember to the age of 3, and 
only one-sixth are so duU as to remember only as far back as 
5, 6 or 7. 

In examining Table XI, one is struck with the comparative 
width of skull ; only one-fifth had a cranial index below 80. 
They average higher than the Gentiles. On the other hand, the 
heads are smaller, only one-fifth exceeding 22 ins. at the base. 
The skuUs recede slightly, after the Eastern type, 

Rehgion plays a very important part in the child's life, and 
shows its effect later, especially in national unity and comity. 
We have a great deal to learn from this powerful people, and we 
are doubtless much indebted to them as Empire builders, for 
the young people are trained to loyalty to the British flag. 

I am providing four sets of tables : — The 

One (Series IV) represents 55 boys taken as a fair sample Tables of 
from different Homes for Working Boys in London. Psychia- 

Another (Series III) consists of boys, some of them in Mr. compari- 
Wheatley's home : aU of these are first offenders technically, son with 
though some not actually criminals. They are a fair sample 
of the city sparrow in his upper teens. 

The third collection of tables (Series V, VI, and VII.) is for 
reference as to middle class averages met in e very-day life. 



Normals 



254 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

As there have been no markedly adverse conditions, height 
and weight are not recorded. 

The fourth set (Tables I) shows delinquents and (Tables II) 
tramps and " drunks " for comparison with average middle 
class (Series V, VI and VII) in relation to cranial measurements. 
Tables VIII refer to the respectable poor. Tables IX show 
measurements under the age of 12. Tables X are taken at 
the Wesleyan orphanage, and Tables XI from Jewish working 
lads. 

Cranial Cranial measurements, like statistics, are of very little value, 

ments"^^' Statistics are like potters' clay, and can be moulded in any 
direction to suit any opinion. Cranial measurements cannot 
be moulded, but they are of some little comparative value. It 
is as if you had two boxes of different sizes, and had to say 
what the value in each was. One might contain gold and 
the other rubbish, but the size would not indicate anything. 
Thus it is that within certain limits size shows nothing. On 
the other hand, if the large box contained the gold and the 
small box the rubbish, the value would be enormous, and such 
may also happen with brains. As the subject is of interest 
to many, I have given a wide selection. 

If we compare these measurements of the merchant princes 
and successful city men with the adult criminals we find no 
difference. 

For further comparison I have placed good intelligent lads 
of the better middle class alongside the unfavoured poor. 
In cranial measurements there is nothing to choose, but the 
difference is very evident when we compare weights and 
heights. These are not recorded in the better class, but it 
is safe to take these as equal to or above the average, which 
is a low one. The poor lack terribly in weight, which shows 
brain starvation. What can we expect from such conditions ? 

There are five cases in one family of healthy boys where I 
measured the skuUs seven years ago and again recently. It 
is interesting to observe the increase. 

It is the opinion of many that this generation and the rising 
one are inferior in limb, bone and skuU to the last two genera- 
tions. The size of the skuU is stated by hatters to be smaller 
now than thirty or forty years ago. The cause of such, if 



EMPIRE BUILDING 255 

it do exist, is easily explained as the degeneracy in physique 
due to the ease of civilization. 

It is, however, interesting to compare a few family skulls, 
and so I have placed those I have collected in a separate table. 

Deficient physique imphes correspondingly less endurance. 
If this pass Uke a wave over the nation, as it must do, what 
is the outlook for our children and grandchildren ? We are 
their trustees. 

The mysteries of the education problem may receive some Side- 
important side-lights and shocks from these and similar P'^^^t. 

collections. - Facts on 

Our elderly criminals present a better physique and cranial !^®,, 
measurements than those growing up to take their places, of Educa- 
This is a general statement with many exceptions, but I have ^°" 
been led to it by seeing criminals in prison and elsewhere. 

Wise education would tend to the decrease of crime ; but 
stupid laws, where creed and party squabbles overrule wisdom 
and honour, regardless of the sacred trust, can only end in 
disaster for the children. See then the result. The poor 
infant under 12 or 13 receives barely enough nourishment 
for the body, as proved by the " short weight " in such a large 
percentage of cases. 

What is the brain to do, which requires the best of subtle 
food compounds ? Body first, then brain. Starved body, 
weakened brain. 

This is perceptible among the children after the State has 
finished with them. 

What does the superintendent of the Boys' Home in Spital 
Square say ? He says that these State-educated poorhngs 
would as soon group round a bed of thistles as a bed of roses, 
and not appreciate the difference. 

How is the morale affected, and how wiU it be affected And on 
when Bible teaching is banished ? Think of a minister of ^^^^^ 
rehgion defending an atheistic father who claims the right 
to train his child to atheism. Give him the right to poison 
his child's mind, might he not equally claim the right to starve 
his child's body ? On the contrary, every chUd belongs to the 
nation, which should be best able to judge when parents 



256 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

deviate too far from mediocrity. Already a very heavy 
percentage of these children pilfer at home, as well as outside. 
In their teens it is a toss up which way they go, right or left. 
It will be in the direction of least resistance, which is downhill, 
or down the stream, unless powerful social and religious agencies 
rescue them. 

The Pre- Malthus, in 1798, said that the increase of population tends 
M^^mT^"* to outrun that of subsistence. Forty years later Darwin 
corroborated the above, and in 1852 Herbert Spencer came 
to the same conclusion. 

Malthus said that the increase was liable to two kinds of 
check, positive and preventative ; while Darwin pointed out 
the struggle for existence which was involved, and propounded 
the doctrines of Natural and Artificial Selection as remedies. 

Malthus saw the dangers then unborn, and wrote in 1806 
that to a rational being the prudential check to the population 
ought to be considered as equally natural with the check on 
poverty and premature mortality. 

The practical object of Malthusian principles includes 
celibacy, late marriages, and self-control ; but experience 
shows that unnatural effort leads most certainly to vice. 

The question is too pressing to be delayed, and its growing 
importance is being recognized by the ordinary lay folk. 

In 1872, John Stuart Mill said that little improvement can 
be expected in morality until the production of large families 
is regarded in the same light as drunkenness, or any other 
physical excess. 

Lord Derby, 1879, suggested that it was better to have 
thirty-five millions of human beings leading useful and intelli- 
gent lives, rather than forty millions struggling painfully for 
a bare subsistence. 

No thoughtful person can disagree with such simple state- 
ments, especially when we are now realizing the effects. 

Positive checks, such as epidemics, are now counterbalanced 
by medical science. Preventative measures are already being 
considered by sober-minded, thrifty people of the middle 
classes with visible effect. 

Look at the list of eight children on p. 244 ; they should 
weigh together 31 stone, but only reach 21 stone. It 



EMPIRE BUILDING 257 

means that the environment, or surroundings, could only 
support five children instead of eight. Consequently it is 
a crime against society, an injustice to the offspring, and sin 
against God, to allow eight children to be born, instead of 
five. 

The supply of food is not equal to the demand. It is not in 
existence, therefore infant mortality must continue, in spite 
of philanthropic effort, which deals with effects rather than 
causes. 

Hear ye now the " Cry of the Children." We clearly recog- The Cry 
nize a rebuke to the parents for their want of thrift, foresight chUdren 
and self-control. There is in that long wail a reproach to 
society, for not interfering earlier to prevent so many dis- 
asters. A stifled protest is raised against the state, which 
grinds the poor, punishes and tortures the weak and helpless, 
without providing facilities for rescue. The horrors of their 
present misery are as nothing to the criminality of their 
origin. 

Nature endeavours to cope with the difficulty by means " Infant 
which bear the label " infant mortality." She does not intend ^^'^"^[g 
every seedling to fruit, nor every living thing to struggle through Nature's 
the storms of existence and arrive at maturity. In our efforts ^°^^ 
to thwart nature we are more actuated by superstition and 
false sentiment than by charity. If love prompted us, we 
would not rest satisfied at the mere prolongation of life, but 
should not cease until Ufe was made worth living. " Infant 
mortality " is Nature's toll on reckless over-production. It 
would be wiser to let it continue, and improve the condition 
of the juveniles who survive the struggle. 

The sterilization of the unfit, which was first advocated by The Steri- 

Mr. Arnold White in the " eighties," is a part of such prevention. !lf^*^?," ?^ 

The pubhc flatly refuse even to consider this subject, as they Suggested 

do not understand either its application or its limits. It J'Z. •^''"?^^ 

White is 
should be employed only under the guidance of a select and the Only 

disinterested committee of medical and lay men. Cure 

To illustrate the types, knowing the effect of alcohol on the 

s 



258 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

offspring (Chapter IV), we would select the hopeless chronic 
alcoholics who loaf around the public houses. We should 
sterilize the hopeless ruffians and hooligans, who are a terror 
and expense to the community. 

Some of the insane, who are granted freedom, partially cured, 
would come under consideration. Chronic irrecoverable 
criminals would also receive sympathetic consideration. 

These finite measures would not apply as a punishment for 
poverty, for many of the poor are physically and mentally the 
finest in the race. But we must remember that among the 
poor the sports, perverts, inverts and all who make up the 
mass of degeneracy, tend to sink to the lower end of the in- 
chned social plane. 

There would be no need to interfere with the liberty of any 
man or woman, rich or poor, until their presence became a 
menace or a burden to their neighbours. When that happens, 
those who now have to submit tamely to the licence of a 
few should have a right to assert their power in the interest 
of the majority. 

Bernard Bernard Shaw, in Man and Superman (Chap. XXIII) says 
Shaw's |.j^g^^ «' being cowards we defeat natural selection under cover 

of philanthropy ; being sluggards, we neglect artificial selection 

under cover of delicacy and morality." 

Society would be happier. The hornless hooligan would 

be lovable, the lazy tramp would now be an industrious 

labourer. Degeneracy would in many cases be succeeded by 

regeneracy. 

Until the wiU of the people is in favour of limiting the output, 

let us deal more justly and sympathetically with those who 

should not have been born. 

An Ideal Behold, a Commonwealth, or an ideal healthy Society, 
weSS°"" should consist of males, women, and neuters. 

The males would be tall, athletic, handsome, with strong 
features and good growth of hair. 

The women would be graceful, fresh, of perfect form and 
feature. 

The neuters would be a very heterogeneous group ; but, 
while docile and unassuming, they would not be cowardly ; 



EMPIRE BUILDING 259 

they would also be free from vice, contented, and industrious. 
The neuters would represent both sexes ; some having been 
thereby cured of disease, others of uncontrolled passion ; 
and some of inertia, ofttimes called indolence, by arresting an 
abnormal drain on their vitality. The neuters would be 
mighty happy ; no care, anxiety, or worry would be written on 
their faces ; they would toU and be thrifty, more healthy and 
vigorous than the present average, and deeply interested 
in social questions, and even in family life. The struggle 
of the classes to tread down the masses would be no more. 
The wealthy aristocratic, neuter, who in the old Empire was 
an invert, selfish and cruel, would be busy and happy in the 
new Commonwealth assisting the pauper neuters. Greed 
and selfishness would be no part of his nature, reason and 
sympathy having replaced them. 

MelanchoHa would decrease, for quietness and confidence 
is the strength of the weak, and mental disease would be of 
rare occurrence. Things would move along smoothly. The 
hand of time would beckon the neuters at a ripe old age, and 
they would depart with a feeling of satisfaction that the battle 
of hfe had been honourably fought. Friends would mourn, 
but also rejoice that the continuity of the chain of life had for 
necessary reasons been interrupted in their case. As genera- 
tions roU on, the population of neuters would rapidly decrease, 
but there would always be some, for nature, in the inter-crossing 
of races and mongrels, throws off some sports, or produces 
inverts or involuted forms, from maternal exhaustion and 
unwholesome amphimixis.^ 

Family life would again be resumed, the normal mother 
nursing her child and looking after aU the Httle creature com- 
forts, so that the young life would have nothing to disturb its 
normal growth and evolution. The clubs would be deserted 
by the fathers, because the wives fulfilled their duties. There 
would be but few waifs, and child murders would not be 
tolerated by the Commonwealth. Alcoholism would become 
an extinct disease. The few would not be allowed to fatten 
on the misfortunes of the many. 

Society would improve in many ways. The numerous 

^ Am/phi, both ; mixis, a mixture. The fusion of the two kinds of 
genxdnai matter. 



260 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME 

deaths from over-eating would also be few, for abnormal 
desires disappear from those who are neutered. The rich 
would no longer be too rich and the poor too poor, as Ruskin 
described society. But, alas, the dream is not yet. 



APPENDIX 

ALCOHOLIC CURES UNDER THE SALVATION ARMY 
(ALL MALES) 

Case 30. 

Good heredity — no stigmata — of noble birth. Began as a 
moderate drinker, became chronic, and brought to lowest depths 
of poverty. Converted through the Salvation Army four years 
ago. No craving after the first few days. 

Case 25. 
Both grandfathers moderate drinkers. Father a drunkard. 
A clever well-educated lad, became a reporter and editor. At 
19 tasted wine at a pohtical banquet, and gradually became a 
drunkard. Reduced to lowest state ; converted through Salvation 
Army ; subject to relapses. 

Case 26. 
Both parents drunkards. Brought up on gin, been a heavy 
drinker, and in prison six times. Recently converted through 
Salvation Army, and lost the craving at once. 

Case 27. 
A country lad, with drunken parents and himself often drunk 
before he was 10 ; very clever at school, but had to leave and lost 
a scholarship through excessive drinking when 14 ; converted 
through Salvation Army, and at once lost the craving. Now an 
officer in God's Army. 

Case 28. 
A grandmother, father, and mother all drunkards. He drank 
as a child and was often dead drunk before he was 10. Prison 
three times for drunkenness. Converted through Salvation Army, 
six years ago. The craving lasted some time, but he conquered. 
" His Father will keep him." 

261 



262 APPENDIX 

Cash 31. 

Good heredity. Began to drink at 20, at 30 a heavy drinker ; wife 
and child had to leave him. When 40 belonged to the submerged 
tenth, but under the Salvation Army was converted. He had three 
or four periods of temptation, but conquered. He heard " Rock of 
Ages " sung at a Salvation Army meeting, and it awoke faded 
mental pictures of childhood, which led to the change. This soKd 
fact might be well considered by those who wish to banish rehgion 
from the State schools. The circumstances which brought him in 
contact with the Salvation Army are very interesting. One day 
when he had spent his last sixpence on food and was walking along 
the Strand, wondering where his next meal was to come from, a 
beggar asked him for a copper. He replied that if he were offered 
a " fiver," he could not produce a halfpenny. The beggar was 
evidently himself not needy, but a professional, for he sympathized 
with our friend, and said that if matters were really so serious he had 
better go to the Salvation Army shelter at Blackfriars. This 
advice was promptly followed, food and shelter being at once given. 
It was a haven of rest, with more to follow. It did not begin with 
preaching, nor condemning, for the Salvation Army never condemn 
any one. Their rehgion is practical, a universal brotherhood of 
love. 

Case 29. 

Both grandfathers, father and mother, all drunkards. His three 
sisters and one brother are steady. He never learned to read or 
write, though he went to school till he was 13. He was a poacher 
and a drinker. He began drinking at 4 and was frequently drunk. 
He had forty convictions from the age of 12 upwards. He was 
recently converted through the Salvation Army. Where was the 
State aU this time ? 



264 



APPENDIX 



TABLE I. Ex-Criminals under the care op the Salvation Army. 





Heredity. 
Ale. = Alcoholic. 


Speciality. 


Cranium. 


No. 








Arches. 




Tub.=Tubercular. 




Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 


Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 


1 


Good. Peasants 


Murderer 


. 7^X6 


80 


22i 


13 


14 


2 


„ ,, 


Murderer 


7fx6i 


79 


22f 


13f 


14J 


3 


» 


Attempted mui 
der 


"- 7|X5J 


74i 


21i 


12-1 


12J 


4 


Very good 


Blackmailer . 


8fx5| 


70 


23i 


15J 


14| 


5 


Tradespeople. 
Good 


Burglar . 


7|X5| 


77 


21f 


m 


134 


6 


Good. Peasants 


„ 


7|x6i 


m 


22 


m 


13J 


7 


Middle class. 
Good 


. . 


7ix6 


84 


21f 


I3i 


13| 


8 


Bad. Father ale. 


9? 


7^x6 


80 


21-1- 


13i 


134 


9 


Grandfather and 

F. ale. 
F. ale. . . . 


Thief . . 


7ix5i 


76f 


22 


IH 


m 


10 


Burglary . 


7^x6 


80 


21| 


12f 


13 


11 


Good middle 
class 


Receiver . 


7|x6-l 


86f 


22| 


14 


I4i 


12 


No parents 
known . 


Skilled pick- 
pocket 


7|x6 


78f 


23i 


12i 


14 


13 


Alcoholic and 
neurotic 


Theft ? ? 


7fx6 


78| 


211 


14 


14 


14 


F. ale. . . . 


Tramp and pettj 
thief 


r 7^X6 


84 


21| 


13J 


14 


15 


M. tub. . . . 


Invert. One thefl 


i 7fx6 


77i 


22^ 


134 


14 


16 


F. ale. . . . 


Petty thief . 


7fx6 


81 


21i 


12| 


134 


17 


F. M. ale. . . 


Stole " materi- 
als " 
Petty thief . . 


7fx6 


m 


22| 


12| 


14 


18 


Good . . . 


7|X6 


78f 


22 


13| 


13| 


19 


F. ale. . . . 


Captain of hooli 
gans 


■ 7ix6 


77i 


22 


13 


13| 


20 


M. tub. 


Common thief 


7|x6i 


79 


22| 


13| 


14 


21 


Good. Presby- 
terians 


Professional thie 


I 7|x6 


75 


22| 


13i 


I4i 


22 


M. and F. ale. . 


Petty thief . . 


7fx5f 


'^^ 


21f 


134 


14 


23 


F. ale. . . . 


" Sleeping out " 


7 x5f 


82 


21 


124 


12f 


24 


Good . . . 


,, ,j 


7ix5f 


77f 


21 


13f 


13 


199 


M. drunken pros- 
titute 


Getting board 
and lodging b 
false pretences 


7|x6| 

V 


751 


22f 


14 


14i 


200 


F. drunkard 


Coiner 


7|x6 


77| 


22 


14J 


14 


281 


Alcoholic 


Murderer 


7^x6 


80 


221 


12| 


124 


308 Good . . . 


Petty thief . . 


7fx5j 


71 


2 


13| 


isf 



APPENDIX 



265 



TABLE II. Some of the Dbunkaeds and Inverts tinder the 
Care of the Salvation Army. Many Cures. 





Heredity. 
Ale. = Alcoholism. 
Tub.=Tubercular. 


Speciality. 


Cranium. 


No. 


Size. 


Index. 


Ciro. 


Arches. 




Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 


25 


Both grand- 
parents and 
F. drank 


AleohoHsm 


7|x6i 


79J 


22i 


14| 


14i 


26 


F. ale. . . 




7|x5| 


74J 


221 


144 


14 


27 


F. and M. ale. 




7|x5f 


73 


21i 


13 


13| 


28 


F. and M. ale. 




7fx5| 


751 


22i 


13i 


13 


29 


Grandparents 
and F. ale. 




8 x6 


78f 


22i 


14 


14 


30 
31 


Very good 
Good . . . 




7Jx6 
6f x5f 


80 
79f 


21f 
20 


131 

124 


14 
12i 


32 


F. and M. ale. 




7|x5| 


75i 


22 


13f 


14i 


33 


Good . . . 




7ix6 


574 


221 


14 


14 


34 


Good . . . 




8 x6 


75 


221 


14f 


14| 


35 


Good . . . 




7fx5f 


76 


22| 


134 


14i 


36 


Good . . . 




7fx6i 


80J 


22^ 


13| 


134 


37 


F. ale. . . 




7ix6i 


81 f 


22i 


13i 


13| 



Inverts. 



39 


F. ale. . . 


Lazy tramp 


7fx6| 


77 


21i 


14i 


m 


40 


Pat. G.M. 
Tub. F. 


Laziness 


7ix5 


77f 


211 


134 


13 


41 


Nil ... 


Once the lazi- 
est man 
in London 


6|x5 


72f 


20i 


m 


124 


42 


F. tub. and ale. 


Tramp. . 


74x5i 


76f 


21| 


13 


13 


43 


Nil ... 


Tramp . 


74x5| 


78* 


21f 


134 


131 


44 


F. ale. M. 
tub. 


Lazy invert 


7fx6i 


79 


224 


14 


m 


45 


M. and F. ale. 


Invert . 


7ix5| 


824 


21 


13 


14 


46 


F. ale. . . 


Lazy invert 


74x6 


80 


22i 


13 


134 


267 


F. ale. . . 


Lazy invert 


7fx6i 


804 


22 


iH 


14 



266 






APPENDIX 
















TABLE III. FiBST 










The first twelve represent a fair sample. 










Cranium. 


— 






Stand- 


Alco- 
iiolic 










No. 


Age. 


ard at 


PfiirGiit- 


Length 












School. 


age. 


and 
Width. 


Index. 


Circ. 




47 


16i 


IV 


F. 


7ix6f 


76 


21i 


48 


16 


IV 


M. 


7fx5| 


78 


21i 




49 


16f 


VI 


F. M. 


7ix5| 


80i 


21 




60 


16| 


VI 


F. 


7ix5i 


76 


20i 




51 


16 


III 


F.M. 


7 x5| 


78J 


20 




52 


17 


IV 


— 


7ix5| 


79* 


m 




53 


17 


V 


F. 


7ix5J 


76 


20i 




54 


17 


III 


. — 


7fx6| 


72 


19| 




56 


17 


VI 


F. 


6|x5| 


79^ 


194 




56 


17 


VI 


— 


7ix5i 


76f 


214 




57 


18 


VI 


F.M. 


7|x5| 


74f 


21i 




58 


19 


IV 


F.M. 


7|x5f 


76J 


21f 


1 










The above were bad boys. 


59 


16 


V 


F. 


6|x6i- 


74i 


m 


1 


60 


16 


I 


— 


7ix5f 


77J 


21 


61 


16 


VI 


F.M. 


7fx5f 


76| 


21 




62 


16 


IV 


— 


7ix6| 


80f 


21| 




63 


17 


VII 


— 


7fx5f 


76i 


214 




64 


17 


V 


F.M. 


7ix5i 


75f 


20| 




66 


17| 


III 


— 


7ix6f 


774 


21 


f 


66 


18 


III 


F.M. 


7 x5i 


82i 


20| 


67 


18 


VII(X) 


— 


7ix5i 


73i 


21f 




68 


18 


III 


F. 


7tx5i 


74i 


214 




69 


19 


III 


F.M. 


7fx5| 


78 


214 




70 


19 


IV 


— 


7|x5| 


75i 


22| 




71 


23 


V 


F.M. 


7|x6 


78 


23 








These boy 


s should w 


^eigh 227 stones, but only weigh 





The 12 worst boys, markedly deficient should weigh 109 st. 6 lb,, 
2 per cent. 

The 13 better lads should weigh 117 st. 7 lb. but only weigh 98 st. 91b., 



APPENDIX 



267 



OrrENDEES. 

The last thirteen represent the superior types. 





Cranium. 


Age 
limit 

of 
Mem- 
ory. 


Height. 


Below 
Nor- 
mal. 


Weight. 






Arches. 


Below 




Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 


Normal. 










ft. 


in. 


in. 


St. lb. 


St. lb. 




13 


13 


3 


6 


14 


2 


6 10 


6 




13i 


13i 


10 


5 





4 


8 5 


— 




12f 


14 


4 


5 


34 


— 


7 11 


1 




12i 


13 


8 


5 





4 


6 


3 




12| 


12f 


8 


5 


1 


4 


5 11 


3 




13 


13| 


7 


5 


14 


5 


7 5 


2 




13i 


12| 


5 


5 





6 


6 


3 5 




13 


12f 


6 


5 


14 


5 


7 5 


2 




Hi 


12 


3 


5 


2 


4 


5 10 


4 7 




14 


144 


8 


5 


6 


— 


9 3 


— 




14 


i3i 


6 


5 


64 


— 


8 11 


1 




m 


12| 


5 


5 





7 


7 7 


2 7 




Those 


below are better boy 


s. 












llf 


12i 


4 


4 


7 


7 


5 


2 4 




13i 


13f 


5 


5 


24 


— 


7 2 


— 




13 


13i 


— 


4 


94 


5 


6 10 


6 




13 


13| 


4 


5 


2 


2 


7 10 


9 




14i 


13i 


5 


5 


74 


— 


7 2 


2 4 




13 


13i 


3 


5 





6 


7 4 


2 2 




12i 


13i 


3 


5 


34 


3 


7 4 


2 2 




12i 


134 


5 


5 


34 


4 


7 10 


2 




13i 


134 


6 


5 


7 


— 


7 9 


2 




12i 


13 


4 


6 


1 


6 


7 


2 10 




13^ 


134 


5 


5 


3 


4 


8 12 


1 




14 


14i 


8 


5 


8 


— 


9 6 


7 




14 


14 


6 


5 


64 


2 


9 11 


10 




185 sto] 


les, showi] 


Qg a defici 


ency 


of 184 


per cent 







but only weigh 86 st. 8 lb., showing a loss of 22 st. 111b. or a ratio of 
showing a deficiency of 18 st. 12 lb., or a ratio of 16 per cent. 



268 






APPENDIX 














TABLE IV 


. Boys from 










Cranial 


No. 


Age. 


Stand- 
ard at 


Alco- 
holic 
Parent 


Length 












School. 


and 


Index. 


Circ. 










age. 


Width. 








72 


13 


VII 





7fx5| 


79f 


20i 


73 


14 


IV 


F. M. 


74x5| 


73f 


201 




74 


14 


VI 


F. 


7fx6 


78f 


21f 




75 


14 


IV 


— 


7ix5| 


76f 


21i 




76 


14 


IV 


F. M. 


7 x6 


85f 


19| 




77 


15 


VII(X) 





7ix5i 


73f 


20i 




78 


15 


VII 


F. M. 


7|x5i 


71 


21f 




79 


15 


— 


M. 


6ix5i 


77f 


19i 




80 


15 


IV 


M. 


6ix5i 


80i 


19 




81 


15 


V 


— 


7|x5f 


7H 


2U 




82 


15 


— 





7 x5i 


75 


20 




83 


15 


VI 


— 


7fx5f 


76i 


2U 




84 


15 


VI 


M. 


7f x6 


81i 


22 




85 


15 


IV 


F. 


6|x5i 


76 


19| 




86 


15 


V 


F. 


6|x5f 


83 


20 




87 


15 


VII 


F. M. 


7ix5| 


81 


21 




88 


15 


IV 


F. 


7 x5j 


78f 


20f 




89 


15 


VI 


F. 


7ix5f 


80f 


20| 




90 


15 


IV 


F. M. 


7^x6 


80 


20J 




91 


15 


IV 


— 


7fx5i 


72i 


21| 




92 


15 


VI 


F. 


7ix5i 


73J 


20| 




93 


16 


IV 


F. 


7ix5f 


76| 


21f 




94 


16 


VII 


M. 


7|x5| 


79| 


20| 




95 


16 


V 


— 


7ix5i 


73f 


19i 




96 


16 


III 


— 


7 x5i 


73i 


i9i 




97 


16 


III 


F. 


7|x6t 


81 


23i 




98 


16 


IV 


M. 


6|x5i 


80 


20 




99 


16 


— 


F. 


7|x5| 


75i 


22 




100 


16 


V 


F. 


7fx5| 


77 


— 




101 


16 


— 


F. 


7 x5| 


84 


20| 




102 


16 


Ill 


F. M. 


7ix6 


80f 


21 




103 


16 


VI 


F. 


6f x6 


91 


194 




104 


16 


vr 


F.M. 


8 x5f 


72 


22i 




105 


16 


III 


— 


7ix5i 


80f 


21 




106 


16 





— 


7ix5i 


76 


20t 





APPENDIX 



269 



DrPFERENT Homes in London. 



Measurements. 


Age 




Below 












limit 










Arches. 


of 
Mem- 


Height. 


Nor- 
mal. 


Weight. 


Below 
Normal. 










Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 


ory. 


















ft. in. 


in. 


St. lb. 


St. lb. 




13i 


m 


7 


4 104 


4 


6 


1 5 




121 


12f 


6 


5 41 


7 


4 8 


.2 




131 


13| 


2 


4 91 


2 


6 1 


7 




13i 


13 


4 


4 9 


2 


5 4 


1 4 




12| 


14i 


4 


4 4 


7 


5 8 


1 




13 


12| 


7 


4 7 


7 


5 6 


2 




14 


13| 


6 


4 9 


5 


5 5 


— 




llf 


llf 


7 


4 14 


134 


4 5 


3 7 




12 


12i 


3 


4 64 


8 


5 


2 4' 




13| 


14i 


3 


4 71 


7 


5 11 


1 5' 




12| 


12i 


3 


4 9 


5 


5 4 


2 ; 




13 


13f 


4 


4 104 


4 


6 1 


1 31 




13| 


l^ 


7 


5 14 


— 


7 7 


3 • 




llf 


12 


3 


4 6 


8 


4 11 


2 9 i 




12 


13 


3 


4 4 


10 


4 8 


2 12 ; 




13| 


13| 


6 


4 3 


11 


5 10 


1 9 ' 




12f 


124 


4 


5 


2 


6 5 


1 ■ 




m 


12f 


5 


5 1 


— 


7 5 


-^^ 




14i 


14i 


7 


4 94 


5 


6 6 


1 ; 




m 


12 


7 


4 8 


6 


5 10 


2 2i 




13 


13 


9 


4 11 


3 


4 6 


3 i 




m 


12f 


5 


5 3 


— 


8 1 


6 1 




12| 


13i 


3 


5 44 


— 


7 6 


1 1 




121 


12f 


8 


4 11 


5 


6 


2 7 1 




121 


13 


4 


4 9 


7 


4 11 


3 10! 




14f 


15i 


6 


5 8 


(+4) 


10 12 


(+2 5) 




134 


15 


4 


4 114 


6 


6 11 


1 10 




141 


13i 


8 


5 14 


4 


7 11 


1 








8 


5 41 


— 


7 4 


1 3 




13 


13f 


6 


5 24 


2 


7 5 


1 2 




m 


13| 


9 


4 5 


11 


5 


3 7 




12 


12f 


5 


4 74 


9 


5 


3 7 




IH 


13| 


7 


4 84 


8 


6 2 


2 5 




13 


13 


11 


4 74 


9 


6 


2 7 




12f 


13 


— 


5 2 


2 


6 8 


2 



270 



APPENDIX 



TABLE IV— 







Stand- 


Alco- 


Cranial 












No. 


Age. 


ard 

at 

School. 


holic 
Parent- 
age. 


Length 

and 
Width. 


Index. 


Giro. 




107 


16 


V 




7|x5i 


72 


21i 




108 


16 


VI 


F. M.? 


7ix5f 


79 


20J 




109 


16 


IV 


M. 


7ix5J 


76 


20| 




110 


16 


VI 


— 


7 X5| 


78i 


19| 




111 


16 


VI 


— 


7fx5J 


71 


21 




112 


17 


VII 


M. 


8^x6 


74 


23i 




113 


17 


IV 


M. F. 


7ix5| 


74 


20 




114 


17 


IV 


M. F. 


7ix5f 


77 


21 




115 


17 


IV 


F. M. 


7ix5| 


76^ 


m 




116 


17 


IV 


F. 


8 x5| 


72 


22i 




117 


17 


IV 


F. M. 


7|x6J 


85i 


22 




118 


17 


VII 


— 


7ix5J 


77 


19f 




119 


17 


IV 


F. M.? 


7fx5| 


77 


22i 




120 


17 


IV 


F. 


7ix5i 


76f 


22i 




121 


17 


VII 


F. 


7fx5i 


75J 


21 




122 


18 


IV 


M. 


7ix5| 


78J 


21| 




123 


18 


VII 


F. 


7ix6i 


83i 


22^ 




124 


19 


VI 


F. 


7ix5| 


81i 


21i 




125 


19 


VII 


— 


7|x6 


81J 


21| 




126 


20 


II 


F. 


7fx5i 


74i 


21i 




127 


20 


VIII 


— 


74x5i 


76f 


21i 




128 


13 


VI 


— 


7tx5| 


79f 


21* 




129 


16 


(VII X) 


F. tub 


6|x5| 


78 


20 



AisTALYSis OF 22 BoYS AGED 15 AND UNDER. — They shoxild weigh 

or nearly 22 per cent. 
RESUMi! OF 28 Boys aged 16 and 17. — ^They should weigh 263 st. 12 lb,, 

a loss of 23 per cent. 
RESUMii OF 6 Boys aged 18 to 20. — ^They should weigh 60 st., but 

of 20 per cent. 



APPENDIX 



271 



{continued) 



1 Measurements. 














Age 

limit 

of 

Mem- 


Height. 


Below 
Nor- 
mal. 


Weight. 




' 


Arches. 


Below 
Normal . 










Ant. 


Lat. 


ory. 












Post. 




















ft. in. 


in. 


St. lb. 


^st. lb. 




13| 


13i 


— 


4 6J 


10 


5 1 


3 6 




12f 


13i 


— 


5 


4 


6 8 


2 




12| 


12f 


7 


4 8i 


7 


5 1 


3 6 




m 


12f 


— 


4 8| 


7 


4 10 


3 11 




m 


13 


9 


4 lOi 


6 


6 1 


2 6 




14f 


13| 


3 


5 9 


(+3) 


6 3 


3 2 




12| 


12i 


5 


6 


6 


6 


3 5 




12| 


13i 


— 


5 


6 


6 5 


3 




13i 


m 


7 


5 


6 


7 


2 5 




m 


14 


5 


5 llj 


(+5) 


10 11 


(xl 6) 




13f 


14J 


7 


5 2i 


4 


7 7 


2 




13 


131 


— 


5 2 


4 


6 4 


3 




14i 


14 


3 


5 


6 


7 


2 6 




13 


14i 


4 


5 2i 


3 


8 4 


1 




m 


13i 


3 


5 H 


5 


7 7 


2 




14i 


14f 


6 


5 4i 


2 


8 2 


1 9 




13f 


14| 


5 


5 7i 


— 


9 11 


— 


... 


13i 


13i 


4 


5 


6 


6 7 


3 6 


■ 


13i 


13| 


4 


5 4 


3 


7 12 


2 4 




13J 


m 


7 


5 41 


3 


8 4 


2 




13i 


m 


4 


5 4i 


3 


8 


2 4 




m 


13f 


4 


4 11 


3 


5 8 


1 9 




m 


13| 


5 


5 31 


2 


6 2 


3 2 


157^ St. 2 1b., but do w 


eigh 123 st. 3 lb., showing a deficiency of 34 st. 9 lb.. 


but actually weigh 201 


St. 9 lb., showing a deficiency of 62 st. 3 lb., or 


acti 


lally weig 


;h 48 St. 8 


lb., showi 


ng a deficit 


3ncy of 


11 St. 6 lb 


., or a loss 



272 



APPENDIX 



TABLE V. Good Middle Class, 
From the age 











Cranium. 












Arches. 


No. 


Age. 


Heredity. 


Occupation. 


Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 




























Ant. 




















Post. 


Lat. 




130 


60 


Good . . 


General 


Six 61 


75f 


23i 


13| 


13| 


131 


60 


yf • • 


Merchant . 


8|x6| 


76 


23f 


14i 


I3i 




132 


50 




>» 


8ix6f 


77i 


23i 


14 


144 




133 


70 


Good . . 


Director . 


Six 64 


74i 


244 


15 


14i 




134 


40 


»> 


»> 


7f x6i 


81 


23i 


134 


14f 




135 


70 


»» • 


)> 


8ix6f 


82 


24| 


14 


15| 




136 


20 


» ' 


Architect . 


7|x6 


774 


22 


13i 


134 




137 


40 


99 • • 


Scientist . 


7ix5f 


75 


21| 


13i 


13i 




138 


26 


Neurotic 


Artist . 


— 





204 


12| 


134 




139 


36 


Good . . 


,, ... 


7f x6 


78| 


224 


134 


134 




140 


35 


jj 


Manufacturer 


7f x6 


78f 


221 


13i 


14 




141 


34 


Half German 
Good 


Banker 


8 x6|- 


764 


23 


141 


14 




142 


36 


Tub. father 
Good 


Stockbroker's 
clerk 


7|x6i 


in 


22f 


13| 


14i 




143 


37 


Northum- 
brian 


— 


Six 6 


73i 


23 


141 


14 




268 


50 


F. clergyman 
Good 


Critic and 
author 


7ix6i 


sif 


22i 


12| 


13| 




269 


50 


Good . . 


S. A. officer . 


7ix5| 


75| 


224 


134 


13| 




276 


50 


Merchant . 


7ix6 


774 


22| 


134 


134 

























APPENDIX 273 



MOSTLY OF Good Average. 

of 25 upwards. C C 



Remarks. 



Exceptionally good position socially and in City, 

Very successful in life and supra-intelligent. See 2 children, 192 and 193. 

Had hydrocephalus as a child. A merchant prince. 

5 ft. 4 in. 9 stone. 3 in. too short and 3 stone too light. Intelligent 

in his profession. Been in asylum. 
An author and artist. 
Remembers to 3. 

5 ft. 10^ in. 10^ stone. (When 17, 5 ft. 8 in, and 10 stone). 

Tubercular disease of brain and cord (tabes). 

6 ft. 11 St. 4 lb. (when 20, 11^ st.). Remembers to 2. 

Supra-intellectual. 

Intelligence above the average. 

Remembers to 3. Father of Nos. 159 and 160. 



274 



APPENDIX 

TABLE VI. Family Gboups from 



No. 



144 



145 



146 



147 



148 



149 
150 



rl51 
ll52 

riss 

il54 

fl55 

156 



(270 

1271 

ri34 

-^192 
4 193 

(132 

1 194 

/277 

1 159 

1 160 



Age. 



50 

18 

25 
16 
23 
15 
21 
/12 
119 

60 
(16 
121 

45 



13 

40 



40 

r 8 



^4 

43 
17 

40 
1 

■ 7 

50 
10 

50 
14 
20 
17 
21 



Heredity. 



Good. Coun- 
try 
M. . . . 



Bad 



Good 



Tuberculous 
Good . . 



Good 



Good 



Good 



Occupation. 



Manufacturer 



Manufacturer 

Solicitor . 

Student of 
Agriculture 

Merchant 
Clerk . . 



Scientific 

instrument 

maker 
Son . . . 

Merchant 
prince 
Son . . . 

Merchant 
Son . . . 



Artist 
Son . . 

Merchant 



Merchant 
Son . . 

Merchant 
Med. stud. 
Merchant 



Cranium. 



Size. 



7|x6f 

7fx5| 

7^x6 

7fx6| 

7|x6f 

7fx6i 

7ix6| 

7ix5f 

7Jx6i 

7^x6 

7ix5| 

7^x6 

7|x6i 



7ix5| 
7|x6 

7ix5| 

7fx6i 
6| X 5i 

7ix5f 

7|x6J 
7|x5| 

7|x6i 
6fx5f 
7 x6i 

8ix6| 
7fx5| 

7fx6 

7Jx6i 

7fx6i 

7ix6 

7Jx6 



Index, 



84i 

75| 

76 

83f 

82i 

801 

82i 

75 

79f 

80 

76f 

80 

SOJ 



76| 
761 

79 

80J 
8li 

79 

80t 

77 

81 

85 
87i 

77i 
73^ 

77i 

81f 

79i 

80 

80 



Giro. 



23 

22f 

22| 

22^ 

22f 

21 

21| 

21f 

23 



21| 
21i 
21| 

22i 



20| 
22i 

20i 

22i 
19| 

20f 

23i 
22 

23i 
19| 
20| 

23i 
21i 

22f 
2l| 
22f 
21| 
21f 



Arches. 



Ant. 
Post. 



15 

14J 

14i 

14i 

14 

15 

14 

14# 



13i 

13 

13 

m 



m 

14i 

12| 

111 

12i 

13| 
13 

13i 
12J 

14 
15 

13 

13f 

14 

13| 

13i 



Note the alteration of cranial indices 



APPENDIX 275 

Good Middle: CiiASs. 



Remarks. 



Father. Intellectual, but a bad memory for prose. All the sons clever. 

Eldest 1 5 ft. 7 in. (normal). 8 st. 12 lb. 

son J „ „ 10 St. 

Second \ 5 ft. 9 J in. (5 in. above average). 10 st, 1 1 lb. (2 st. above average), 
son j 5ft. 11 in. (Sin. „ „ ). list. 41b. (1st. „ - „ ). 

1 5 ft. 5 J in. (4 in. above average). 9 st. (1| st. above normal). 
°^^ l5ft. 9 in. (2 in. above aver age). 11 st. 81b. (IJ st, above average). 

Father. Grandfather committed suicide. Father died in asylum. 
[Son imbecile, high grade ament. 



Mother consumptive before his birth. Starved neurotic, but intelhgent. 

Very intelhgent father. 

Son supra-intelUgent, but not precocious. Married and three children. 

Biillet-shaped forehead. Head well developed. Successful city merchant. 
A middle grade imbecile. Supposed cause, bad midwifery. Forceps. 

Broken leg, etc. Could not walk nor talk till 3. 4 ft. 1 in. (2 in. too 

tall). 3 St. 8 lb. (5 lb. too Httle). 
When 14, 5ft. 2 in. (3 in. too tall). 5 st. 10 lb. (12 lb. too Httle). 

Both supra-intelligent, but physically very inactive. 

Supra-inteihgent. Broad head. 
Well developed. 
Mentally brilUant. 

Shrewd and unintellectual. 
Clever boy. 

Father intellectual. 
Sons clever. 
Ditto. 



between youth and adolescence in the same subjects. 



276 



APPENDIX 



TABLE VII. Fair Specimens from Well-to-do 





Age. 


Heredity. 


Occupation. 


Cranium. 




No. 


Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 


Arches. 






Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 




157 

158 


19 
18 


Cousins. 

Both good 
Good . . 


None . 
Architect . 


7ix6i 
8 x6 


81f 

75 


21f 
23 


14 

14i 


14 

14| 




159 

160 

161 
162 


120 

(17 

121 

20 

21 


>> 
Good. Ger- 


Medical stu- 
dent 
See Father, 375 
Merchant . 
Lloyds 
Electrician 


7ix6i 
7fx6i 

7ix6 
7^x6 
8|x6i- 

7|x5| 


81f 
79J 

80 
80 
73 

74f 


21i 

22f 

21i 

2ii 

221 


131 
14 

13i 
13i 

14i 
14 


13M 
14i 

14 
14i^ 
14 
131 




163 
164 


22 
22 


man 
Good . . 


Accountant . 


7ix6i 
7ix6f 


81f 
93 


22i 
22 


13 
14 


131 
13i 




165 


17 


>» 


— 


7ix5f 


79J 


21 


13 


m 




166 


13 


jj • 


— 


7ix6| 


85 


22 


14i 


15 




278 


15 


>> 


Father barris- 
ter 


7|x6 


81J 


21i 


13i 


13i 





APPENDIX 277 



Middle CiiAss from Ages of 13 to 25. 



Remarks. 



Middle-grade imbecile, and dangerous. Unable to work. 

Good intelligence. Slow to leam. A Htle above average height and 

weight. 
Brothers. Very intelligent. High morale. Medical student remembers 

to 2^. Private school. His skull has grown more than his brother's. 

Is this due to study ? 

Merchant, remembers to 3. 

Supra-intelligent. High morale. Largest head in the family. 
Typical fair North Glerman. Supra intelligent. 

Very intelligent. 

HydrocephaHc. Took 1^ size. Four years later took 8. Middle-grade 

imbecile, too neurotic to continue in business. 
Development arrested physically and mentally at 12. High-grade 

imbecile. 5 ft. 3| in. (deficient 3 in.). 7 st. (deficient 2 st.). In one 

year height 5 ft. 6 J in., which is about normal. 8 st. lb. (1 st. 12 lb. 

deficient). 
Hydrocephalic imbecile. Supposed cause, blow on head when 2 years 

old. Good disposition. Cannot be educated. 3 ft. 11 J in. (9 in. too 

short). 5 st. 12 lb., normal. 
5 ft. 3| ia. (1 in. above normal). 5 st. 8 lb. (1st. 10 lb. below normal. 

Father very thin). Remembers to 2^. 



278 



APPENDIX 

TABLE VIII. Faeb Specimens from 





Age. 


Heredity. 


Occupation. 


Cranium. 




No. 


Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 


Arches. 


























Ant. 
Post. 


Lat. 




167 


13 


Non ale. 


Sliunmer . 


7ix5| 


77i 


21 


13 


13 




168 


16 


— 


/ ^ 


7 x5i 


82 


20| 


12 


m 




169 


16 


— 


Hall boys 


7ix5J 


82i 


20| 


13 


13 




170 


16 


— 


J ^^ 
large 

hotel 


8 x6|^ 


76i 


22| 


14 


13i 




171 


17 


— 




7|x5i 


72 


21i 


13i 


m 




172 


18 


Tub. . . 


Postman . 


8 x5| 


73i 


22i 


m 


m 




173 


20 


Good . . 


Elect, engineer 


8 x6 


75 


22| 


IH 


Hi 




174 


21 


Bad . . 


Sailor in navy 


7ix5f 


75| 


20| 


13i 


13i 




175 


21 


Gk)od . . 


Porter . 


7ix6i 


83 


22i 


15 


13f 




176 


13 


t> 


Shopboy . 


7 x5f 


m 


19f 


13 


13i 




177 


19 


• • 


Clerk . . . 


7|x5f 


72J 


22i 


14 


14i 




178 


25 


No parentage 


Tailor . . . 


7fx5| 


73 


21 


13 


13 




179 


50 


Tub. . . 


S. A. . 


7ix6 


82f 


2H 


13i 


13f 




280 


24 


Half German 


Factory hand 


74x5| 


m 


22J 


13i 


13i 




180 


19 


Good . . 


Zoological Gar- 
dens 


7ix5i 


77i 


2U 


12i 


12J 




181 


20 


— 


») »> 


7|x5| 


79f 


21f 


12| 


14 




182 


26 


— 


t> 5» 


7ix6 


84 


22i 


ISi 


141 




183 


28 


— 


>> J» 


7ix5J 


76| 


2ii 


13 


iH 




184 


40 


Father a 
carman 


Managing clerk 


7ix6i 


81f 


22 


14 


14 




185 


50 


Father art 
printer 


Salvation Army 


7ix6 


82i 


2U 


13i 


13i 




186 


17 


Good . . 


Lab. assistant 


7|x5| 


75 


21| 


14i 


14 




272 


19 


F. tub. and 

ale. M. ale. 

& prostitute 


Groom in Sal- 
vation Army 


7| X 5| 


79f 


21i 


13i 


iH 




274 


30 


F. ale. . . 


Clerk . . . 


7ix6f 


85 


22 


14 


14 




275 


52 


F. ale. . . 


S. A. officer . 


7ix6 


82f 


21 


m 


131 




273 


39 


Country 


Prison warder 


7fx6i 


82 


22J 


13| 


14 




279 


13 


Son of 273 . 




7 x5i 


82 


20i 


13 


I2i 





APPENDIX 279 

Respectable Poorer Class over 12. 



Remarks. 



4 ft. 5 in. (deficient 4 in.). 3 st. 10 lb. (deficient 2 st. 2 lb.). Miserable 

home. Supra-intelligent. A good boy. 
VIII Standard. Remembers to 2^. 4 ft. 7 in. (deficient 9 in. ). 4 st. 2 lb. 

(deficient 4 st. 5 lb.). Intelligent. 

V standard. Remembers to 4. 5 ft. (deficient 4 in.). 5 st. 10 lb. 
(deficient 2 st. 10 lb.). Poor intellect. 

VI standard. Remembers to 3. 5 ft. 3 in. (deficient 1 in.). 7 st. (de- 
ficient 1 St. 7 lb.). Neurotic and stupid. 

VII standard. Remembers to 2. 5 ft. 4 in. (deficient 2 in,). 6 st. 10 lb. 
(deficient 2 st. 9 lb.). Very intelligent. 

Good intelligence. High morale. Slight hydrocephalus. 5 ft. 5 in. (2 in. 

below average). 9 st. (11 lb. below the average). 
Good intelligence. 

Very stupid and deficient and ill-nourished but good morale. 
Not under developed. Dull intellect. Good morale. 
Cretinoid. 4 ft. GJ in. (deficient 3 in.). 5 st. (deficient 12 lb.). 
Height, 5 ft, 7 in. (normal height). Weight, 8 st,, 2 st. 12 lb, too little. 

Very well balanced mind. 
Good morale. Medium intelligence. 



Can remember to 3. Very intelligent. VI standard. 9 st, 6 lb. (de- 
ficient 6 lb,). 5 ft. 7 in. (normal). 
Been a sailor. Intelligence moderate. 



Remembers to 3. 5 ft. 5 in. 9 st. 12 lb, (was 9 st. 8 lb. when 20). He 

died shortly after from a nerve disease from overstrain. 
Medium intelUgence. Memory poor as to childhood. 

Height 5 ft. 5 in. (deficient 1 in.). 8 st. 8 lb. (deficient 11 lb.). Very 

intelligent. 
Remembers only to 6. Very bad heredity, mentally deficient. 5ft. 6 in. 

8 st, (2 St. too little). A degenerate saved by the S. A. 

Remembers to 3. Chixrch school. Risen from lower ranks and unequal 
to the strain. 

Remembers to 4. 

Remembers to 3. Church school. 5 ft, 10 in. 14 st. 

5 st 5 lb. (7 lb. below normal). 4 ft. 11 J in. (2 in. above normal). Re- 
members to 2 (Church school). 



280 



APPENDIX 



TABLE IX. Average 



No. 



187 

188 

189 

190 
191 

192 

193 



194 
195 



196 
197 



198 



Age. 



{it 

{« 

^ 

7 

rons. 

1 



10 

7* 



Heredity. 



Good 



Tuberculous 
Scotch. 
Good 
Good . . 



Tubercular 



Bad 



Occupation. 



Father a 

merchant 

prince 

Daughter of 

140 
Father a clerk 
Working class 

(Father a ^ 
merchant I 
No. 134 I 



Son of 132 . 
Father a mer- 
chant 



(Parents of ^ 
working I 
class J 



Cranium. 



Size. 



7|x6 



7ix5i 
6|x5| 

6fx5i 
5ix4 

6tx5f 

7 x6^ 



7fx5f 
6fx5i 



6|x5i 
7 x5f 

7ix5| 
7ix5i 



Index, 



81J 

80| 
83 

76 

76 

85 
87i 



73 

86^ 



77f 
82 

80f 
801 



Giro. 



20i 
21i 

18i 
20| 
19| 

19 
15^ 

19| 

201 



214 
19i 



19i 

20i 

20| 
204 



Arches 



Ant. 
Post. 



13i 
13i 

12 

12i 

13 

Hi 
9 

12f 

134 

15 
134 

13 
13| 

14 
124 



Lat. 



13 
14 

12 

134 

13i 

12 
9 

13| 



14 
14 



124 
14 

14 
I3i 



APPENDIX 281 



Children under 12. 



Remarks. 



Large hydrocephalic head. Very intelligent. 

4 ft. 5f in. (normal). 4 st. 2 lb. (1 st. too little). Remembers to 2. 

Father large-headed. 
Appears normal. 

3 ft. llj in. (2 in. too little). 4 st. 2 lb. (normal). Remembers to 2. 
Infantile paralysis of left leg, but supra-inteUigent. 

A fine little girl. 

Width of parietal region behind, 4f in. 

Head appears normal. Father No. 134. Tendency to hydro- 

cephaliis. 
Conspicuoiisly large. Slightly hydrocephalic. Supra-intelli- VBrothers 

gent. 3 ft. 9 in., or 7 in. above normal. 3 st. 10 lb., or 

1 st. above normal. 
Both parents large heads and intelligent. 
Markedly hydrocephalic, supra-inteUigent. Transverse parietal diameter, 

5f in., anteroposterior diameter through frontal tuberosities, 6| in., 

J in. more than through brow. 
An idiot. 
Delicate, slight hydrocephalus, dull, neurotic. Brain crises with a 

temperature. 3 ft. 7^ in. (5 in. too tall). 2 st. 15 lb. (5 lb. too heavy). 

4 ft. 2 in. (6 in. too tall). 3 st. 13 lb. (8 lb. above average). 

A slum child. Very intelligent, 3 ft. 11 in. (normal). 3 st. (about 10 lb. 
below average). 



282 



APPENDIX 



TABLE X. Boys from an Orphanaob 





Age. 


Parentage. 


Years 
at the 
Homes 


Cranium. 


No. 


Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 


201 


12 


F. syph. ? . . 


li 


6|X5| 


82 


20 


202 


lU 


Good . . . 


H 


7ix5i 


76 


20J 


203 


12 


None ! ... 


H 


7 x5f 


80i 


21 


204 


9 


F. a drunkard. 
M. died of tu- 
bercle 


4 


7 X5i 


82 


20i 


205 


10 


F. soldier 


4 


7ix5i 


80f 


20i 


306 


m 


F. carman. M. 
washerwoman 


7 


7|x5J 


m 


20i 

1 


207 


15i 


F. died of brain 
disease 


H 


7ix5f 


77i 


20i 1 


208 


17 


F. tubercular 


7 


7fx6 


81J 


21f 


209 


17 


F. ale. and tub. 
M. insane 


4J 


7ix5| 


m 


20J 


210 


15 


F. tub. M. in- 
sane 


10^ 


7ix5i 


m 


21i 


The 


above a 


re the 10 worst boys in 


ihe Hom€ 


). They shoi 


old weigh 


67 stones. 


211 


14 


Good .... 


3^ 


7tx6i 


84f 


22i 


212 


15 




11 


7 X5f 


80i 


20| 


213 


15 


Both dead . 


11 


71x5^ 


76 


22i 


214 


15 


M. and F. tub. . . 


11 


7ix5| 


81 


21J 


215 


iH 


Good .... 


9 


7|x5|- 


79f 


20|- 


216 


m 




8i 


7|X5| 


79| 


21i 


217 


18 


„ .... 


7i 


7ix5| 


79^ 


22 


218 


19 


,, .... 


9* 


7|x5i 


75^ 


20i 



APPENDIX 



283 



Alro Homes for Children. 



Cranium. 



Arches. 



Ant. 
Lost. 



m 

iH 

13f 

12| 

12| 
13 

12 

14 
13 

13| 



Lat. 



m 

13 

12| 

13 

m 
m 

14 
12| 

13| 



School 
Stand- 
ard. 



I 
I 
13 
I 

III 
V 



III 
IV 



Mem- 
ory. 



12 
9 



Weight. 



St. lb. 

4 3 

3 9 

4 1 
4 5 

4 3 

5 12 

7 

8 3 

6 6 

5 12 



Deficient 



St. lb. 
1 4 



1 9 
1 2 



8 
2 

12 

1 2 

4 

1 6 



Height. 



Deficient 



ft. in. 

4 1 

4 

4 H 

4 4i 

4 3 

4 11 

5 1 

5 6 

4 Hi 

4 8 



ft. in. 
6 

6 

5 

2i 
above 
normal 



3 



2 



7 



6 



but actually weigh 53 stones, showing a deficiency of about 20 per cent. 
13 

13 

13f 

m 

12J 

13 

12J 

m 



Chest 
Mea- 
sure- 
ment. 



25 
25 
25 

26| 

25 
29 

29 

34J 
29i 



14 


VII 


6 


8 


6 


-1-1 10 


5 





— 


32J 


13i 


VII 


5 


6 


2 


1 2 


4 


10 


4 


30 


131 


VIIx 


4i 


7 


3 


— 


5 


3 


— 


33 


13 


VIIx 


4 


7 


4 


— 


5 


u 


— 


35 


13 


VIIx 


5 


10 


1 


Xl 3 


5 


H 




35} 


13i 


VII 


4 


9 


4 


8 


5 


H 


4 


34 


14 


VII 


4 


9 


4 


8 


5 


6 


1 


371 


14} 


VIIx 


4 


8 





— 


5 


4 


— 


33 



284 



APPENDIX 















TABI 








Tears 


Cranium. 


r 








No. 


Age. 


Parentage. 


in the 










. 




Home. 


Size. 


Index. 


Circ. 


219 


iH 


F. W. Indian 
negro. 
M. white 


7i 


7|X6 


76^ 


22i 


220 


20 




m 


7ix5i 


74i 


22 


221 


20 


Good 


8 


7^X6 


80 


21f 


The 


3e boys 


should weigh about 96 stones. 


and actually weigh 94 stones, 1 


The 


3e are the best 1 1 boys. Note the deficient weight in the 2 illegitimates, | | 


processes 


, 










222 


11 


F. and M. negroes 


m 


7ix5| 


79i 


20i 


223 


10 


M. drunken pros- 
titute 


6 


7Jx5 


63i 


20f 
20 


224 


14 


M. tub. F. tub. 
and ale. 


5i 


7ix5| 


m 


21i 


225 


14i 


None ! ... 


5 


7ix6i 


86 


21i 


226 


15 


Good . . . 


7| 


7|x5| 


76i 


21 


227 


16 


>j ... 


7 


7|x6 


8H 


22i 


228 


17 


F. tub. . . . 


4 


7fx5| 


76i 


21i 


229 


17 


M. tub. A ser- 
veint 


7* 


7ix5| 


77i 


21 


230 


17 


M. tub. F. tub. 
and ale. Same 
as 324 


6 


7ix5J 


81 


22 


231 


19 


Good . . . 


Hi 


7|X6 


78| 


22J 






These are a fair ave 


rage. Tl 


ley should weigh 77 st( 


jnes, but 














' 



APPENDIX 



285 



X — (continued). 



showing a deficiency of only 2 per cent. 

also observe the improved memories in 221 and others where no Board school 



Cranium. 



Arches. 



Ant. 
Post. 



14 






Lat. 



i3i 



14 
14 



School 
Stand- 
ard. 



VIIx 



VIIx 
VII 



Mem- 
ory, 



Weight. 



St. lb. 
10 5 



8 4 

9 12 



De- 
ficient. 



St. lb. 
XO 5 



2 
6 



Height. 



ft. in. 
6 6 



5 2i 
5 6 



De- 
ficient. 



ft. in. 
1 



5 
2 



Chest 
Mea- 
sure- 
ment. 



36 

33 

38i 



134 
14 

12f 

13 

m 

13 
14 

12i 

13f 

actually weigh 71 stones, a deficiency of 8 per cent. 



m 


IV 


4 


4 


6 


10 


4 1 


4 


12 


IV 


6 


3 


6 


1 6 


4 Oi 


5 


13| 


VI 


7 


7 


7 


xO 13 


5 2i 


3 


14 


IV 


5 


8 


4 


Xl 6 


5 64 


xO 6 


12| 


VIIx 


7 


6 


2 


1 2 


5 14 


— 


13| 


VII 


7 or 8 


8 


6 


— 


5 54 


xO 1 


13| 


VIIx 


3 


9 


3 


— 


5 94 


xO 3 


13f 


VII 




6 


2 


3 2 


5 14 


5 


13 J 


VII 


6 


8 


2 


1 3 


5 4 


2 


14i 


VII 


5 


9 


8 


5 


5 44 


3 



254 

22J 

32 

32 

33 

33i 

33 

314 

324 
36 



286 



APPENDIX 

TABLE XI. Jewish Boys fbom 













School and 




No. 


Age. 


Parentage. 


Born in 
i 


Occupation and 
Remarks. 


Standard. 
B. = Board. 
J.F. = Jewish 

Free. 




232 


12 


F. English. 
M. Pole 


London 


— 


VII B. 




233 


14 


Polish . . . 
Non-Jewish 
features 


Poland 


Errand boy 


VI B. 




234 


14i 


English 


Aldershot . 


Office boy 


VIIx B. 




235 


14f 


F. Russian. 

M. Austrian 


France 


Compositor 


VII B. 


1 


236 


14i 


Austriaji. 
Features non- 
Jewish (Ger- 
man) 


Austria 


Furrier 


VII B. 




237 


15 


Austrian 


Austria 


Woodcarver 


VII B. 




238 


15 


Poland. Fea- 
tures non- 
Jewish 


England . 


Photographer . 


Private & 
VII B. 




239 


15 


Holland . 


London 


Printer's reader 


VIIxB. 




240 


15 


Russian 


Russia 


Errand boy 


VII B. 




241 


15 


Polish . . . 


London 


Furrier 


VII B. 




242 


15 


Polish . . . 


London 




In second- 
ary B. 
school. 
Won a 
scholar- 
ship 




243 


15J 


Polish . . . 


London 


Compositor 
(Came to England wh 
in 4 years though a f oi 
reached VI Stand 


VI B. 

3n 9 and 

ceigner 

ard 




244 


15f 


Hungarian 


London 


Clerk 


VIIx B. 




245 


15| 


Polish. M. tu- 
bercular. No 
Jewish £ea- 
tiores 


London 


Teacher .... 


VIIxB. 




246 


16 


Russian . 


London 


Shipping .... 


VIIx J.F. 




247 


16 


Polish . . . 


Poland 


Tailor 


VII J.F. 




248 


16 


Austrian . 


Austria 


Office boy .... 


VII B. 




249 


16 


German 


England . 


Ladies' tailor . 


VII J.F. 




250 


16 


Russian . 


London 


Office boy .... 


VII B. 




251 


16 


English. Not 
of Jewish 
type 


England . 


Packer 


V B. 





APPENDIX 



287 



Victoria Club in Whitechapei,. 



Mem- 
ory 



4 
3i 



4 
4 
3 
5 

3* 
5 



Cranium. 



Size. 



7ix6i 



7ix5J 
7ix6 

7ix6 



7 x6i 
7ix6i 



7ix6 



7|x5^ 
7Jx6 



7^x6 
7|x6 
7 x6 
'■§■ X 5^ 
7|x6i 
6|x5i 



Index 



81 

871 

801 
82| 

80 



87| 
84i 



6|x5j 76 J 

7f X 6| 83 

7 x5J 821- 

7Jx5| 81 



845 



79f 

821 



82-1 
811 
85^ 
82i 
81f 
721 



Circ. 



20| 
21i 



20J 
21i 

211 



21 
21i 



20i 
22 
201 
2U 



21i 



21| 

20* 



21| 

22 

21f 

21| 

221 

19* 



Arches. 



Ant. 
Post. 



12i 
12| 



13 

12i 

12| 



Hi 

13f 

12 

13 



13 



12 
12 



13 

12| 

12J 

14 

12i 



Lat. 



13i 

14i 



m 

14 
121 



12 13| 

m i3i 



13| 
13 
131 



13i 



13i 
131 



13| 

14 

13f 

12f 

14J 

12 



Height. 



ft. in. 

4 11 

4 7 



4 7 

4 9i 

5 1 



5 4 

5 2 



5 3 
5 2 

4 11 

5 5 



4 9 



1* 
1 



5 2i 
5 31 

4 10 

5 2 
5 4 
4 9 



Variation, 



in. 
+ 4 



-0 4 
-0 3 

+ 1 



+ 2 



+ 1 

-0 3 

+ 3 



6 



-0 2 
-0 2 



-0 2 

-0 6 

-0 2 

-0 7 



Weight. 



St. lb. 
5 8 

5 6 



5 3 

6 6 



7 6 
6 12 



7 4 

8 7 
5 6 
8 11 



7 12 
6 



Variation. 



St. lb. 
+ 2 



-0 4 

-0 8 

-0 7 



+ 2 
-0 6 



+ 13 
-1 12 

+ 1 7 



6 7 -14 



-0 2 
-2 



-0 3 

+ 9 



-1 
-1 
-1 



288 



APPENDIX 



TABLE 













School and 


No. 


Age. 


Parentage. 


Bom in 


Occupation and Kemarks. 


Standard. 

B = Board. 

J .F.= Jewish 

Free.) 


252 


16| 


Polish. Not of 
Jewish fea- 
tures 


Poland 


Compositor. 


V B. 


253 


17 


F. Russian . 
M. EngUsh 


England . 


Tailor's cutter 


Second- 
ary VIIx 


254 


17 


PoUsh . . . 


London . 


Tailor. A dwarf and 
hydrocephalic, but 
very intelligent 


VIIxB. 


255 


17 


F. Roumanian. 
M. Pole. No 
Jewish fea- 
tiires 


London 


Tailor ..... 


VIIxB. 


256 


17 


Russian . 


London 


Photo-case maker 


VII J.F. 

& B. 


257 


18 


Polish . . . 


Poland 


Engineer (16 years in 


VIIx J.F. 
&B. 










England) 


258 


18 


F. Russian . 
M. English 


London 


Piano maker . 


VII J.F. 


259 


18 


M. Jewish 


London 


Won't settle to any 


VII B. 






prostitute 




industry. A degen- 










erate, not deficient. 












The only trouble- 












some lad 




260 


19 


Polish . . . 


Poland 


Tailors' mechanic . 


VI B. 


261 


19 


Russian 


Leeds . 


Cabinet maker 


VII B. 


262 


19 


Polish . . . 


London 


Tailor's machinist 


VIIx B. 


263 


21 


Russian . 


London 


Wood carver . 


VIIx B. 


264 


21 


German . 


London 


Cabinet maker. 
Brother to 249 


VII J.F. 




St. lb. 




Total weight . 


. . . 252 5 




STinnlrl 


be. 


. . . 274 13 















APPENDIX 



289 



XI — (continued). 



Mem. 
ory 



6 



Cranium. 



Size. 



7ix6| 

7ix5| 
7 x5J 



7 x5| 84 



7fx5| 
7fx6i 

'■g X Og- 

71x51 



74x61 
7 x5f 
7fx6f 
7 x6 
71x61 



Index, 



81 

84 



77 
801 
79 
801 



81f 
80J 
83f 

85f 
83 



Circ. 



22 

21| 
21 

201 



Arches 



Ant. 
Post. 



m 

12i 
13 

12i 



21f 


12| 


22f 


14 


21 


13 


20| 


12| 


22J- 


13 


20| 


12* 


22f 


13i 


20| 


11* 


21f 


12| 



Lat. 



14| 

13i 
13* 

13i 

13 
13* 
13 
13i 



Height. 



5 3 

4 4 

5 4 

5 4 

5 1* 

5 5* 

5 3 



14 


5 


5 


12* 


5 


6 


14^ 


5 


8 


12f 


5 


3 


12f 


5 


4* 



Varia- 
tion. 



ft. in. ft. in. 
5 4* — 



-0 3 

-1 2 

-0 2 

-0 2 

-0 6 

-0 1 

-0 4 



-0 3 

-0 2 

-0 5 

-0 4 



Weight. 



St. lb. 

8 6 



7 6 
4 8 

7 12 

7 13 
9 9 

8 8 
7 6 



11 7 

10 

10 5 

8 8 

10 7 



Variation 



St. lb. 
->0 2 



-2 
-4 11 

-1 7 

-1 6 

-0 2 

-1 3 

-2 5 

+ 1 7 

+ 5 
-1 11 
+ 2 



St. lb. 

22 8 net below normal. 

Percentage — 8* below the average. 



U 



GENERAL INDEX 



Abnormalities, amongst great 

men, 123 
After-care Association, 200 
Agnostic, 179 

Alcohol, effects, 27, 109, 140, 150 
Idiocy, experiment on animals, 

27 
Amoeba, 6 
Anabolism, 21 
Ante-natal conditions, 113 
Asymmetry, 121 
Atavism, 68, 133 
Automatism, 86, 90 
Averages, 54 
Axons, 95 



B 

Bamardo's Homes, 247 
Barnes, Mary, case, 160 
Bateson, Researches, 46, 49, 50 

varieties of species, 55 
Beard, on embryo, 18 

on skate, 16 
Bemiss, statistics by, 26 
Bible, true value of, 243 
Biffen, experiment rust in wheat. 

63 
Biology connected with sociology, 

3, 10, 22 
Birds, effect of nourishment on, 31 
Bolton, Dr. Shaw, on pyramidal 
layers, 81, 97, 98 

and prefrontal cortex, 230 
Booth's, General, treatment of 

criminals, 194 
Borstal system, 198 
Boys, homeless, 245 
Bulls, hornless, 34 



Brain, association areas, 74, 79, 9 
circulation of, 163 
cortex, grey matter, 78, 82, 88 
development of, 72, 100, 108 
general structure of, 70 
knowledge of, important to 

sociologists, 203 
microscopic appearance of, 95 
motor areas, 78, 102 
murderer's, 224 
pattern in man and animal, 74 
sensory areas, 79, 80, 81 
weights, 73 

Broca, on skull, 131 



C 

Cell, 10, 11, 108 

Prof. Balbiani's observations 
on, 16 

in fertilized ovum. See O, 16 

germinal and somatic, 16 

reproductive, 16 
Cerebellum, in normal man, 71 
Cerebrimi, 71 
Characters, latent, 19 

transmission of, 34 
Children, cry of, 257 

deficient, 141 

precocious, 133 

stunted, 13, 112, 243 
Choice and association areas, 284 
Chromatin, formation of rods, 15 
Civihzation, bad influence of, 29 
Commonwealth, ideal, 258 
Consciousness, double, and cases 

of, 2, 148 
Conscription, 241 
Cortex of brain, 78, 82, 88, 95 
Cranial index, measurements, 125, 

254 
1 u* 



292 



GENERAL INDEX 



Crime, three kinds of, 197 

and privilege, 190 
Criminals, classification of, 190, 
19- 

I have known, 207-27 

not a type, 3, 120, 151 

potential, 205 

a socialist, 196 
Criminology, key to, 76 
Cripple, moral, no free will, 182, 
186, 187 

D 

D'Aubenton, on skull, 130 

Darby, Lord, sayings, 256 

Darwin, crossing fowls, 31, 58 

Degeneracy, prepotency accen- 
tuates, 38, 132 

Delage, on regeneration, 33 
variations, 19 

Dements, senile and prison, 105, 
109 

Dendrons, 95 

Desire and conduct, 229, 234 

Devolution, 116 

De Vries' experiments, 8, 52 

Dietary for the poor, 137 

Disease, influence on personality, 
166 

Dominants and Recessives, 45, 46 

Dreams, 88 



E 

Education and Crime, 135, 147 

State, 21, 144, 246, 255 

What it is, 138 
Ego, the, 150, 151, 170 

causes working against, 17 

of Mary Barnes, 172 

sub, 172 
Embryo of mammal, 23 
Emotions, seat of, 66 
Empire bmlding, 238 
Environment, 108 

Haeckel on, 33 

influence on degeneracy, 124 

post-natal, 113 
Evolution, arrested in lower races, 
132 

Darwin, 7 

Lamarck, 7 



Ewart, C, experi ments, 38, 40 
Extinction, Herbert Spencer on, 20 



F 

Family, slum, 244 

tree, a, 40 
Fertilization, 14, 22 
Fittest, survival of, 7 
Flechsig's discoveries, 100, 103 
Free meals, 137 
Free will, 186, 236 

G 

Galton's researches, 37, 55 
Gametes, 51 
Germinal elements, 23 
Germ-plasm, changes in, 132 

Weissmann on, 17 
Gipsies' prepotency, 37 

H 

Habit, 203 

Heredity, acquired characters, 18 

craving for alcohol, 35 

Darwin on, 17 

Gregor Mendel, 44 

Haeckel, 17, 33 

Huxley, 17 
Hermaphrodism — omental, 14 

true case of, 14 
Horse raising, 24 
Hybrids, 57 
Hypnotism, 93 



Idiot brain weights and skull 
measurements, 127 
microcephalic, 75 
Illegitimacy, 113 
Instinct and intelligence, 68, 97 
Infant mortality, 257 
Intuition, 92 



Jews, care for children, 137 

prepotency, 36 

social work, 250 
Juvenile adults, 124, 199 242 



GENERAL INDEX 



293 



K 

Knox, Robert, atavism, 133 
Katabolism, 21 



Languages, 140 

Law and lawyers, 111, 177, 188, 

190, 239 
Leucocyte, 6 
Literature, bad, 147-184 
Lombroso on asymmetry, 121 
Low on prepotency, 38 
Luxury, effect of, 4 



M 

MacAlister, on brain, 121 
Malthus, predictions of, 9, 256 
Marriage, 9, 25, 62, 117 

improper, 22 

consanguineous, 25, 26 
Maupas, experiments with infu- 
soria, 26 
Mechanism, reflex, 61 
Medulla, 71 

Memory, physical basis of, 88 
Mendel, Gregor, on heredity and 

experiments, 44, 47 
Mental cripple, 182 
Mental power, failure of. 111 
Mentation, subconscious, 84 
Mercier, on criminal responsi- 
bility, 186, 229, 233 
Mill, J. S., dictvun of, 256 
Mind and brain, 234 

criminal, 187, 203 
Mission, S. Giles, 245 
Mongrels, human, 50 
Monocellular structures, 11 
Moral code, society lowers, 4 

insanity, 234 

invalid, 182 



N 

Naegeli, on variation, 32 
Nation, bleeding to death, 242 
Nature-study, 140 
Neuron, in reflex action, 63 
repeated slight stimuli, 64 
Nucleus, 10, 132 



O 

Overcrowding of school classes, 
137 
strain, 3 
Ovum, 13 

effect of alcohol and disease on, 

13 
fusion of sperm and ovum, 14 



Paget, Sir James, analysis on 

averages, 54 
Paralysis, 116 

Parent as trustee, 143, 183 
Parents, dissipation in, 192 
Personality in criminals, 173 

double, 151, 157 

double, a mm'derer, 150 

multiple, 158, 162 

multiple, Mary Barnes, 158 

multiple. Miss Beauchamp, 168 
Phorozoon, 16 
Phrenology, popular, 114 
Physiognomy, 114 
Poppies, Shirley, 8 
Poor, neglect of, 4 
Prison, experience at Dartmoor, 

182 
Precocity, 133 
Prefrontal cortex, 81, 103, 232, 

235 
Prepotency, 36, 38 
Protoplasm, 10 
Punishment, corporal, 199 

indeterminate sentence, 198 

object of, 197 
Psychiatry, compared with normal, 

253 
Pyramidal layer, 81, 98 



Q 



Quakers, 37, 201 



R 



Recessives and dominants, 45, 46 
Reflex, action, 59, 62 
Regeneration, Delage on, 33 

by marriage, 33 
Reid, Archibald, on heredity, 35 



294 



GENERAL INDEX 



Religion, conversion, 177 
influence of, 176 
state, 145 
Reproduction, by simple division, 
11 
self-preservation inverse to, 21 
Responsibility, choice determines, 
230. 
criminal, 186 

Ruskin's misconception of, 228 
Reversion, 48 

Robertson, Ford, skull measure- 
ment, 127 
Romanes, theory, on selection, 38 

S 

Salvation Army, bureau of, 207 

and education, 188 
Schools, private, 143 
Segments, animals in, 65 
Selection, natural, 7 
Self-control, 105, 233 
Sex, reversal of, 14 
Shaw, Bernard, opinion of, 258 
Sin versus crime, 4 
Skull, 121, 126 

difference of man from ape, 130 

negro, 130 

prehistoric man, 132 
Smith, Joe, King of Biirglars, 218 
Social canker and problems, 1, 2, 

99 
Somnambulism, 149 
Soiil, 92 
Spencer, H., on prevention of 

extinction, 20 
Species, hybrids among, 57 
Spermatozoon, and function of, 

13, 14, 15 
Spirit, the, 176 
Sports, human, 50, 51 
Sporting instincts, 240 
Stability, 55 

Starfish, observations in, 12, 14 
SteriUzation, 202, 257 
Stigmata, external, 120 
Subconsciousness, 84, 87, 90, 106 
Subject, liberty and responsi- 
bility of, 201, 229 
Subjective mind, 91 
Suggestion, influence of, 168 
Sutherland, Dr, on criminal head, 
126 



Sweet-pea, Mendel's experiments 

on, 47 
System, nervous, 60 
object of, 67 



Temperaments, 118 
Temperance, science supports, 2S 
Three R's fill prison, 147 
Thought mechanism, 82 



U 

Unfit, duty toward the, 9 
fertility of, 202 



V 

Variation, as species, 33 

causes of, 19, 29 

continuous and discontinuous, 
8, 29 
Vegetable life, 6 
Vernon, sea urchins, 40 
Victoria Club, Whitechapel, 250 
Virchow, on the criminal, 189 
Visualization, mental, 88 
Vivisection, 60 
Volition and inhibition, 230, 235 



W 

Watson, Dr., comparison of 
brains, 229 

on the cortex, 97 

on idiocy, 75 
Warning, Mai thus', 9 
Wealth without work, 184, 201 
Weight, deficiency in, 246 
Weissmann on germ- plasm, 17 
Wesley an homes, 247 
White, Arnold, observations, 22, 
238 

on sterilization, 203, 257 
Will, physical seat of, 230 
Worms, observations on, 12 
Worry, 87 



Zygotes, 51 



J 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES 



Azam, Prof., 153 

B 

Baillarger, 97 

Balbiani, 16 

Ballet, 27 

Barlow, Sir T., 167 

Barr, Dr., 123 

Bateson, 8, 29, 31, 46, 49, 50, 51, 

62, 53 
Beard, 16, 18 
Bedard, Mr., F.R.S., 76 
Beevor, 164 
Bemiss, 26 
Bendedikt, 121 
Benson, 164 
Bianchi, 123, 154, 202 
Biffen, 52, 53 
Booth, Genl., 194 
Bolton, J. S., 80, 81, 82, 93, 96, 97, 

99, 105, 230, 231 
Boverie, 11, 15 
Brampton, Lord, 239, 240 
Bramwell, 167 
Brengues, 29 
Bright, John, 205 
Broca, 130, 131, 132 
Browne, Sir James Crichton, 73, 

125, 128, 129 
Bruce, Dr. Lewis, 155 

C 

Campbell, 81, 104 
Camper, 131 
Camuset, 153 
Cararra, 27 

Clarke, Sir Edward, 239 
Clouston, T. C, 183 
Cunningham, J., 74 

D 

Darwin, 7, 17, 31, 35, 36, 58, 67, 
133, 200, 256 



D'Aubenton, 130 
Delage, Yves, 19, 33, 55 
Derby, Lord, 256 
Descemet, M., 34 
De Vries, 8, 52, 117 ~ 
Donaldson, Prof., 65 
Dufay, 152 

E 

Emerson, 35 

Estense, Selvatico, 28 

Ewart, Cossar, 25, 34, 36, 38, 40 

F 

Faure, 27 

Fere, 27, 121 

Terrier, 66, 78 

Flechsig, 78, 100, 101, 103, 104 

G 

Galton, Sir Francis, 35, 37, 54, 55, 

56 
Golz, 66 

Gratiolet, M., 130 
Gregory, Dr., 247 
Gruffrida Ruggeri, 122 

H 

Haeckel, 17, 33 

Hamilton, Sir W., 92 

Hamilson, Prof. D. J., 122 

Hartridge, 164 

Harrison, Mr., 245 

Hitzig, 78 

Horsley, Sir Victor, 74 

Hunt, 73 

Huxley, 17, 31 

Hyslop, W. T. H., 155, 167 



Ireland, 128 



296 



296 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES 



Jaeger, 16 

Jones, R., 167 

Julian, Dr. Camille, 153 

K 
Knox, Robert, 133 



Lamarck, 7, 31 

Larlet, 132 

La Roche, 123 

Lessor, Mr. Ernest, 252 

Levinsohn, M. H. K., 252 

Llewellyn, Mr., 145 

Lombroso, Prof., 90, 121, 122, 123, 

128, 129, 133 
Low, 38 

Lister, Lord, 178 
Lister, W. Tyndall, 163 
Lundie, 164 
Lunn, Marcus, 164 

M 
MacAlister, 121 
Macnish, 153 
Malthus, 9, 117, 256 
Maupas, 26 
Max Miiller, 141 
Mendel, Gregor, 49 
Mercier, 186, 229, 230, 232, 233, 

234 
Mesart, W., 153 
Middleman, 128 
Mill, John Stuart, 256 
Millais, Sir Everett, 39 
Miller, Hugh, 200 
Morel, 121 

Morgan, K. Lloyd, 68 
Mott, Dr. F., 66, 71, 78, 96, 104, 

106, 107, 109 

N 
Naegeli, 32, 33 
Nandin, 49, 57 
Nothnagel, 66 

P 

Paget, Sir J., 54 
Paxil, St., 146, 187, 229 
Pearson, Karl, 117 



Penn, W., 200 

Pliimmer, Col., 198, 222, 223, 229 

Prince, Dr., 158, 159, 167 

Pritchard, Dr., 124 

Punnett, 49 

R 

Reid, Archibald, 35 
Reitz, 27 

Robertson, Ford, 113, 127 
Rolleston, Charles, 37, 107 
Romanes, 38, 68 
Ruskin, 181, 228 
Rutherford, 66 

S 
Sabraza, 29 
Savill, T., 167, 172 
Schafer, 66, 78 
Shaw, G. B., 258 
Sherrington, Prof., 63, 64, 65, 78 
Smith, Elliott, 74, 80, 107 
Soemering, 131 
Sojacono, Dr., 202 
Spencer, Herbert, 20, 67, 254 
Stephany, Mr., 250 
Stevenson, R. L., 148, 151 
Strassburger, 19 
Sturgess, Comm., S.A., 207 



Tallack, Wm., 187, 242 
Tissie, 153 
Tomassi, Prof., 155 
Tuckey, Lloyd, 167, 172 
Turner, Sir W., 114 
Tweedy, Sir J., 165 



Vernon, 25, 40 
Virchow, 189 

W 

Watson, Dr., 68, 71, 74, 75, 77, 80, 

96, 97, 229 
Weissmann, 17, 18 
Wheatley, Mr., 138, 143 
White, Arnold, 22, 203, 238, 257 
Wilks, Rev. W., 8 
Wilson, Dr., 128 
Wordsworth, 140 
Wood, Outterson, 167 



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