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Cocama language 


Cocama (Kokama) is a language spoken by thousands of people in 
western South America. It is spoken along the banks of the 
Northeastern lower Ucayali, lower Maranon, and Huallaga rivers 
and in neighboring areas of Brazil and an isolated area in Colombia. 
There are three dialects. The robust dialect is known as Cocama, 
Kokama, Kukama-Kukamiria, Ucayali, Xibitaoan, Huallaga, 
Pampadeque, and Pandequebo. By 1999, Cocamilla (Kokamiya) was 
moribund, being only spoken by people over 40. 

Out of a projected ethnic population of 15,000, the majority of 
Cocama speakers, 2,000, live in Peru. Remaining speakers live in 
Amazonas state in Brazil, where 50 out of 411 ethnic Chayahuitas 
speak it and it is known as Kokama or Kokamilla. Most speakers are 
trilingual and can also speak Portuguese and Spanish. Very few are 
monolingual. There are 20 ethnic groups in Colombia's Lower 
Putumayo area with an unknown number of Cocama-Cocamilla 
speakers. Most expected speakers would also be trilingual, but the 
language may be extinct in the region. 

Cocama speakers have a 3% literacy rate, compared with 50% for 
Spanish. Grammar rules have been developed and the language is 
written using the Latin script. Parts of the Bible have been translated 
into the language. 

Cocama is closely related to Omagua, a nearly extinct language 
spoken in Peru and Brazil. 


Contents 

Phonology 

Consonants 

Vowels 

Phonetic realisations 

Revitalization efforts 

References 

Notes 

Sources 

External links 


Cocama 


Kokama 

Native to 

Peru, Brazil, 

Colombia, 

Venezuela 

Ethnicity 

16,000 

Cambeba et al. 

(2007)W, 

Kokama 

Native speakers 

250 in 

Peru (2007)W 
few in other 

countries 

Language 

family 

Tupian 

■ Tupi-Guarani 

■ Tupi 

■ Cocama- 
Omagual 2 ] 

■ Cocama 

Language codes 

ISO 639-3 

cod 

Glottolog 

cocal259 (htt 

p://glottolog.o 

rg/resource/lan 

guoid/id/cocal2 
59) I 3 1 


Phonology 


Consonants 





















Labial 

Alveolar 

Palatal 

Velar 

Plosive 

P 

t 


k 

Fricative 




X 

Affricate 


ts 

tl 


Nasal 

m 

n 



Tap/Flap 


r 



Approximant 

w 


j 



Plosive sounds may also be realized as voiced/ 4 ^ 


Vowels 



Front 

Central 

Back 

Close 

i 

i 

u 

Mid 

e 



Open 


a 



Phonetic realisations 


Phoneme 

Allophones 

Ipl 

[Pi, [b] 

M 

[t], [d] 

M 

[k], [g], [k h ] 

/ts/ 

[ts], [s], [tj] 

/tj/ 

[tj], [J] 

Ini 

[n], [p], M 

Irl 

[r], [1] 

/w/ 

[w], [P] 

/j/ 

[j], W 

l\l 

[i], [i]. [e] 

lei 

[e], [a], [i] 

li / 

[i], [i] 

lul 

[u], [o], [o] 


Revitalization efforts 


In 2013, residents of Nauta, Loreto Province, Peru created a children's rap video in the Kukama-Kukamiria 
dialect, in collaboration with Radio Ucamara. The local radio station has been involved in conserving the 
language for "a few years," and "started managing a school called Ikuar, with the goal of teaching the 









language through songs and traditional story telling. 


"[5] 


References 


Notes 

1. Cocama (https://www.ethnologue.com/18/language/cod/) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) 

2. Cabral (2012) argues that Kokama/Omagua is a mixed language and so not directly 
classifiable, though most of its basic vocabulary is Tupi-Guarani. 

3. Hammarstrom, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cocama-Coc amilla" 
(http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/cocal259). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck 
Institute for the Science of Human History. 

4. Vallejos Yopan (2010) 

5. Ortiz, Diego M. (2013-08-09). "Children's rap video gives new life to Peruvian indigenous 
language" (http://latinalista.com/2013/08/childrens-rap-video-gives-new-life-to-peruvian-indigen 
ous-language) Latina Lista. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 


Sources 

■ Vallejos Yopan, Rosa (2010). A grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla (PhD thesis). University of 
Oregon. hdl:1794/11051 (https://hdl.handle.net/1794%2F11051). 


External links 


■ "Language: Cocama-Cocamilla" (http://www-01.sil.org/americas/peru/show_lang_entry.asp7id 
=cod&Lang=eng). Summer Institute of Linguistics Peru: Investigating the Languages and 
Cultures of Peru. 2009. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 

■ "Cocama" (http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_coc). World Atlas of Language Structures 
Online. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 

■ OLAC resources in and about the Cocama-Cocamilla language (http://www.language-archives, 
org/language/cod) 

■ OLAC resources in and about the Omagua language (http://www.language-archives.org/langu 
a g e/omg) 

■ ELAR archive of The Kukama-Kukamiria Documentation Project (http://elar.soas.ac.uk/deposit/ 
0254) 


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This page was last edited on 24 July 2020, at 23:58 (UTC). 

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