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Wikipedia 


Terengganu Malay 


Terengganu language ( Malay : Bahasa Melayu Terengganu, 
Terengganu Malay: Base Tranung/Ganu) is a Malayan language 
spoken in the Malaysian state of Terengganu all the way southward 
to coastal Pahang and northeast Johor. It is historically spoken in 
the Anambas and Natuna islands of Rian Islands , Indonesia but its 
speakers (mostly elderly) are lastly diminishing and replaced by 
the local Malay dialects on the islands as well as the national and 
official standard of Indonesian . It is the state's most dominant 
Malay variety and also acts as the main lingua franca for various 
ethnic groups within Terengganu (the Highly localised Peranakan 
Chinese minority in Terengganu, known as "Mek Awang" mainly 
use Terengganu Malay besides their native Hokkien). Although 
usually considered to be a variety of Malay, Terengganu Malay is 
one of the most aberrant from all the Malay varieties in the 
Peninsular along with Kelantan-Pattani Malay and developed a 
distinct phonetic , syntactic and lexical distinctions which makes it 
mutually unintelligible for speakers from outside the east coast of 
Peninsular Malaysia However, Terengganu Malay shares close 
linguistic relations with Kelantan-Pattani and Pahang varieties in 
which it forms the same Malay group of East Coast Peninsular 
Malayan languages.These similarities often confused many 
people outside the region, which usually interchanged Terengganu 
Malay with those of Kelantan Malay even though there are major 
phonological and vocabulary differences between the two. 

Despite being the majority language of the state, Terengganu 
Malay also coexists with two distinct but closely related Malay 
varieties as well. In the districts of Besut and northern part of 
Setiu, the majority of the population speak Kelantan-Pattani Malay 
which is closely related but distinct from Terengganu Malay 
although in recent years many people from southern Terengganu 
started to migrate into these districts and both variants coexists 
with each other In Hulu Terengganu , the variety of Malay 
spoken there is often regarded as a sub-dialect of Terengganu 
Malay but have distinct phonology and some parts of the 
vocabulary than those spoken in other parts of Terengganu which 
sometimes unintelligible to coastal speakers. Even within different 
villages in Hulu Terengganu, the variety exhibit some differences 
as well mostly in terms of phonology. The rest of Terengganu 
however uses the Coastal sub-dialect of Terengganu Malay but 
there also exists some minor differences in terms of vocabulary 
between each districts but still largely mutually intelligible. The 
sub-dialect spoken in the districts of Kuala Terengganu -Kuala 
Nerus is considered the standard dialect for inter-ethnic and inter¬ 
district communications. 


Terengganu Malay 

Base Tranung 

Bahasa Melayu Terengganu 

Native to 

Malaysia, 

Indonesia 

Region 

Terengganu, 

Mersing and 
Tanjung Sedili 
(Johor), Kuantan 
(Pahang) and few 
villages in Natuna- 
Anambas 
(Indonesia) 

Ethnicity 

Terengganurian 

Native speakers 

1.1 million (2010) 

Language 

family 

Austronesian 

■ Malayo- 
Polynesian 


■ (disputed) 


■ Malayic 


■ Terengganu 
Malay 

Dialects 

Coastal 

Terengganu 

Inland Terengganu 

Writing system 

Latin script, Arabic 
Script (Jawi) 

Language codes 

ISO 639-3 

None (mis) 

Linguist List 

zlm-coa (http://m 

ultitree.org/code 

s/zlm-coa) 

(coastal) 

zlm-inl (http://in 

ultitree.org/code 

s/zlm-inl) 

(inland) 

Glottolog 

None 


























Terengganu Malay is considered to be the most recognisable identity of the state. This can be seen in many 
local television dramas, movies as well as in both modern and traditional songs and poems which 
emphasizes the usage of Terengganu Malay. Radio stations such as Terengganu FM and Hot FM 
Terengganu mainly used Terengganu Malay in its broadcast along with standard Malaysian. Recent years 
show an increase of awareness of the uniqueness of Terengganu Malay, such as the increasing use of 
Terengganu Malay in shop signs and recently the publication of Hulu Terengganu Malay dictionary 


Contents 

Names 

Origin 

Distribution 

Dialects 

Comparison between Coastal and Inland dialects 

Literature 

Phonology 

Vocabulary 

Intensifier 

Numerals 

Animals 

Some notable Terengganuan phrases 
Sample Text 
References 
External links 


Names 


The people of Terengganu usually referred to their language as Base/Bahse Tranung/Tghanung (/bahse 
tyanup/) which means 'the language of Terengganu' or Cakak Tranung (/tjaka? tyanup/) which means 
'Speaking Terengganuan'. In Standard Malay it is known as Bahasa Terengganu or Bahasa Melayu 
Terengganu (Dialek/Loghat Terengganu which means 'Terengganu dialect' is also widely used). The people 
of outside Terengganu often misunderstood that Terengganuans usually called themselves and their language 
as Ganu, the word Gann is actually how the Kelantanese and the people of Besut in northern Terengganu 
pronounce Terengganu and is rarely used by southern Terengganuans (Southern Setiu to Kemaman) 
themselves. Besides Tranung and Ganu, the people of Terengganu sometimes use Ganung, Teganu and 
Teganung as well. 

Origin 

There are several theories on the origin of the name 'Terengganu'. One theory attributes the name's origin to 
terang ganu, Malay for 'bright rainbow'. Another story, said to have been originally narrated by the ninth 
Sultan of Terengganu, Baginda Omar, tells of a party of hunters from Pahang roving and hunting in the area 
of what is now southern Terengganu. One of the hunters spotted a big animal fang lying on the ground. A 
fellow party member asked to which animal did the fang belong. The hunter, not knowing which animal, 
simply answered taring anu (Malay: 'fang of something'). The party later returned to Pahang with a rich 





hoard of game, fur and sandalwood, which impressed their neighbours. They asked the hunters where did 
they source their riches, to which they replied, from the land of taring anu, which later evolved into 
Terengganu. Terengganu was called Trangkanu (Thai: Cisomu) by the Siamese when it was under their 
influence. 

Distribution 


Terengganu Malay is natively spoken in most parts of Terengganu (exclude Besut and northern part of 
Setiu). Besides Terengganu, it is also spoken in coastal Pahang, from Cherating near the border with 
Kemaman district to as far south as Mersing district in the state of Johor. A variety spoken in the village of 
Tanjung Sedili in the district of Kota Tinggi is said to be a mixture of Terengganuan, Johorean and several 
other Malay varieties, reflecting the historical demographic of the area, which once received migration from 
the Malays of Terengganu. 

Dialects 


Terengganu Malay has two major dialects that is Coastal (zlm-coa) and Inland (zlm-inl). A dialect spoken in 
Kuala Terengganu district are the de facto standard dialect of Terengganu Malay.However, the most 
distinct of all dialects is Inland Terengganu Malay, spoken in Hulu Terengganu district, the Inland dialect 
have a distinct phonology compared to Coastal dialect, the most prominent is the pronunciation of the end 
letter "e". Coastal Terengganu speakers tend to pronounce it as a schwa while Inland Terengganu speakers 
tend to pronounce it with strong "e" (as in red) similar to Perak Tengah dialect. People in Setiu especially in 
the northern part of this district mostly speak a mixed Kelantanese-Terengganuan Malay due to its border 
between Besut which predominantly use Kelantan-Pattani Malay'^^^'^^^ but Terengganu Malay in the southern 
part of Setiu and Kuala Terengganu which use the more prestige form of Terengganu Malay. People in 
Dungun, Marang and Kemaman usually speak similar to those in Kuala Terengganu but with influences 
from Standard Malay and Pahang Malay as well (especially Kemaman). The people of coastal Pahang and 
the district of Mersing in Johor also use a Coastal variety of Terengganu Malay but with influences from 
Johor Malay. 


Comparison between Coastal and Inland dialects 


Inland Terengganu 

Coastal Terengganu 

English 

Ughaong/Ughang 

Oghang 

People 

Kubo 

Kuba 

Buffalo 

Balaik 

Balek 

Leave 

Tubaik 

Tubek 

Out 

Dime 

Deme 

You 

Mume 

Mung 

You 

Bayak 

Kabo 

Tell 


Literature 


Although essentially a spoken language with no standard orthography, Terengganu Malay is widely used in 
folk songs, poems, and also in mainstream and local media (such as local radio stations, dramas and 
movies). Ibrahim Taib, a famous Terengganu poet who was known for his usage of Inland Terengganu 







dialect in his poems such as "Mok, Aku Nok Tubaik" (Mom, I want to get out) and " Jadilah Awang" (enough 
Awang) can be considered a fine example of Terengganu Malay literature. The song Blues Tranung/Ganu 
Kite by a famous Malaysian band Iklim was a major hit song at that time and is sung wholly in Terengganu 
Malay. In 1999 song recorded by traditional singers Noraniza Idris and Siti Nurhaliza called Dondang 
Dendang composed by Suhaimi Mohd Zain, the bridge part of the song contains old-trengganuan malay 
poem. The song is influenced by rodat sound (Terengganu style of Malay zapin). Another band called 
Spring also recorded a song sung in Terengganuan called "Hati Mahu Baik". 

Phonology 


Terengganu Malay has a distinct phonology and grammar compared to Standard Malay. The grammatical 
order and pronunciation is similar but also distinct to those of the neighbouring Pahang and Kelantanese 
Malay, 


Pratiunciation /a/ followed by a nasal consonant changes to /q/ ayam ('chicken') becomes ayang; makan 
(y I (to eat) becomes makang 

/a/ at the end of syllables changes to /d?/ minta 1?^ ('to ask') becomes mitok 
/ah/ changes /Dh/ rumah ('house') becomes rumoh 

/a/ changes to / 0 / saya (T) becomes saye 

«* 

III changes to /iq/ sini ('here') becomes sining 

«* 

/ua/ changes to /D/ buaya Uy ('crocodile') becomes boye 

/aj/ becomes /a: / sungai ('river') becomes sunga 

«* 

/aw/ becomes /a/ pisau f ('knife') changes to pisa 

/ia/ before a nasal vowel changes to = /ijaq/ Siam ('Siam') becomes siyang 
/ia/ changes to /£/ biasa U'U.('once') becomes bese 

/s/ and /f/ at the end of syllables changes to /h/ malas I ('lazy') changes to malah 
/m/ and /n/ at the end of syllables changes to /q/ hakim ^ Qudge) changes to hakeng 
III changes to /R/ orang ('person') becomes oghang 

/ 

final consonants are often only pronounced as a glottal stop, bukit ('hill') becomes buke’ (buki?) 

words are distinguished between lengthened initial consonant 

final /!/ are silent, example: tinggal ('left') becomes tingga, tebal ('thick') becomes teba usually /!/ as in /lah/ 
are removed and became /ah/, example: Banyaklah ('so many') becomes banyok ah. 

bulang ('moon') vs. b: ulang ('many months'); katok ('to strike') vs. k: atok ('frog'); siku ('elbow') vs. s: iku 
('hand tool') 


Vocabulary 


Several comparisons between Standard Malay and Terengganu Malay with English translations: 





standard Malay 

Terengganu Malay 

English 

Saya 

Ambe/aku/saye/kite/oghang 

I/me 

Anda/Kamu 

Mung/Deme/Awok 

You 

Siapa 

Piye 

Who 

Suka 

Brehi/BrahiAA/ahi 

Like/interest 

Ketawa 

Suke/Gelekek 

Laugh 

Juga 

Ghetek/Jugok (often shorten it to just 'gok') 

Also 

Kandang 

Gok 

Cage 

Yang 

Hok 

That 

Beritahu 

Kabo/Royak 

To tell 

Tak nak 

Tak Mboh 

Do not want 

Tidur 

Tido/Jeretoh 

Sleep 

Apa 

Nape/Mende 

What 

Degil 

Babey/Gong/Kerah Keng 

Stubborn 

Selalu 

Sokmo 

Always 

DuitAA/ang 

Pitih/Yya/Ghiya 

Money 

Kenapa 

Bakpe 

Why 

Tidak 

Dok 

No 

Ya 

Ho/Ye 

Yes 

Jambatan 

Ghetok 

Bridge 

Garang 

Bekeng 

Pugnacious 

Apa Khabar 

Ape Kabo/Guane Gamok 

How are you? 

Tangkap 

Tagak/lgak 

Catch 

Ejek 

Nyenyeh/Nganjing 

Insulting 

Naik angin 

Mmusang 

Angry 

Dia 

Ye/Nye 

They 

Leka 

Ghalik 

Preoccupied 

Letih 

Dok ghok 

Tired 

Beg Plastik 

Supik/Jabir 

Plastic Bag 

Kawan 

Saing 

Friend 

Sempat 

Dang 

Make it 

Be rani 

Nellang/Tebeng 

Brave 

Kerap 

Keghek 

Many times 

Azan 

Bang 

Adhan (Islamic call to prayer) 

Jangan 

Doksoh/Soh Beng 

Do not 

Kedekut 

Kupik 

Stingy 

Biar 

Lok 

Let 

Cuba 

Ce/Tra 

Try 



Sekarang 

Lening 

Today 

Keluar 

Tubek 

Out 

Ais 

Ping 

Ice (refers to ice cubes in water) 

Tolong 

Tulong 

Help 

Letak 

Letok/Skung 

Put 

Buang 

Tohok 

Throw away 

Panjat 

Khabak/Kabak 

Climb 

Lempar 

Lepo/Plekong/Petong 

Throw 

Sampai 

Sapa 

Arrive 

Nanti 

Kekgi 

Later 

Berjalan-jalan, Bersiar-siar 

Derak, Doktong, Liwo-liwo 

Stroll, Trip, Travel 


Intensifier 


Standard Malay 

Terengganu Malay 

English 

Sangat Putih 

Puteh Lepuk/Sepuk 

Very White 

Sangat Hitam 

Itang Beletung/Belegang 

Very Dark 

Sangat Merab 

Meroh Nyale/Merang 

Very Red 

Sangat Kuning 

Kuning Sio 

Very Yellow 

Sangat Busuk 

Busuk Kohong/Bango/Hapok 

Very Smelly 

Sangat Hancing 

Hacing Paring 

Very Stenchy 

Sangat Hanyir 

Hanyir Mekok 

Very Fishy 

Sangat Wangi 

Wangi Mekok 

Very Frag ant 

Sangat Tengik 

Tengik Bango 

Very Rancid 

Sangat Masin 

Masing Pekok/Rebing 

Very Salty 

Sangat Manis 

Manih Letting 

Very Sweet 

Sangat Tawar 

Tawo Hebe 

Very Tasteless 

Sangat Pahit 

Pahik Lepang 

Very Bitter 

Sangat Masam 

Masang Rebang 

Very Sour 


Numerals 

Numerals in Terengganu Malay is closely related to those of neighbouring Kelantanese Malay, however it 
differs in terms of pronunciation especially the end letter. 




Standard Malay 

Terengganu Malay 

English 

Satu 

Se 

One 

Dua 

Duwe 

Two 

Tiga 

Tige 

Three 

Em pat 

Pak 

Four 

Lima 

Lime 

Five 

Enam 

Nang 

Six 

Tujuh 

Tujoh 

Seven 

Lapan 

Lapang 

Eight 

Sembilan 

Smilang/Mmilang 

Nine 

Sepuluh 

Spuloh/Ppuloh 

Ten 

Seratus 

Sratoh 

One Hundred 

Seribu 

Sribu 

One Thousand 

Sejuta 

Sjuta 

One Million 


Animals 

Most words for animals agree with standard Malay, the difference only being in pronunciation. 




Standard 

Malay 

Terengganu Malay 

English 

Ayam 

Ayang 

Chicken 

Buaya 

Boye 

Crocodile 

Ikan Tongkol 

Ikang Aye 

Euthynnus 

affinis 

Ikan Cencaru 

Ikang Kerah Ekor 

Torpedo scad 

Ikan Pelaga 

Ikang Sekila/Skila 

Fighting Fish 

Labah-labah 

Llabe 

Spider 

Lintah 

Litoh 

Slug 

Ketam 

Ketang 

Crab 

Kerbau 

Kuba/Kubo (in Inland Terengganu) 

Buffalo 

Kumbang 

Kkabo 

Beetle 

Semut Merab 

Semuk Gata 

Fire Ant 

Ular 

Ulo 

Snake 

Harimau 

Rima 

Tiger 

Singa 

Singe 

Lion 

Lipas 

Lipah 

Cockroach 

Gajah 

Ghajoh 

Elephant 

Burung Helang 

Burong Lang 

Eagle 

Biawak 

Bewok 

Monitor Lizard 

Tupai 

Tupa 

Squirrel 

Katak 

Katok(not to mistaken with another same Terengganuan word, which means 
'to strike) 

Frog 

Kelekatu 

Katu 

Termite Alates 

Anai-Anai 

Ana-Ana 

Termite 

Sotong 

Sutong 

Squid 

Kura-kura 

Kure 

Tortoise/Turtle 


Some notable Terengganuan phrases 


"starang baroh" means "really"... a popular phrase used when you want to show or express something that is 
really serious or true. 

Example: 

Amhe dok tau starang baroh 

As opposed to Standard Malay or West coast Malay dialects 
Saya memang tak tabu langsung 

Another famous Terengganuan Malay phrases that have been used by Terengganu people is "Senyung 
sokmo" which mean "Senyum selalu" in standard Malay and "Smile always" in English. It is widely used by 
Terengganu people to wish other people well and to brighten their days. 





Sample Text 


Terengganu Malay: 

Budok-budok lening koho dok kena makanang tradisi, sohbeng kate kuey, nasik pong ttuko bimbo lagi, nok 
wak guane makanang lening modeng Make, oghang made tak mboh belajo duk ngarak ke oghang tue 
sokmo. 

Malaysian: 

Budak-budak sekarang semakin tak kenal makanan tradisi, jangan kata kuih, nasi pun masih tertukar lagi, 
nak buat macam mana makanan sekarang semua moden, orang muda tak nak belajar selalu mengharap ke 
orang-orang tua. 

English 

Kids today don't know about traditional foods, it's not just traditional cakes, even the rice as well, what can 
we do all foods these days are modern, younger generations don't want to learn always rely on their 
elderlies. 


References 


1. Slideshare.net https://www.ethnologue.com/language/zlm (https://www.ethnologue.com/langua 
ge/zim). Missing or empty | titles (help) 

2. Slideshare.net (PDF) http://www.sabrizain.org/malaya/library/dialectresearch.pdf (http://www.s 
abrizain.org/malaya/library/dialectresearch.pdf). Missing or empty | titles (help) 

3. Slideshare.net http://padredeumares.blogspot.my/2013/07/besut-bumi-pertautan-dua- 
budaya.html (http://padredeumares.blogspot.my/2013/07/besut-bumi-pertautan-dua-budaya.ht 
ml). Missing or empty | titles (help) 

4. "Kajian dialek TRENGGANU" (http://www.slideshare.net/nazarinanawawi/kajian-dialek-trengga 
nu). Slideshare.net. 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2016-02-10. 

5. http://www .teganukita.net/2017/07/glosari-dialek-hulu-terengganu-dibukukan.html (http://www.t 
eganukita .net/2017/07/glosari-dialek-hulu-terengganu-dibukukan.html). Missing or empty 

I titles (help) 

6. Rencana (2013-07-14). "Orang Besut: Anak Terengganu, Kelantan Pelihara? - Mohd Izzuddin 
Raml i" (https://web.archive.Org/web/20160303220648/http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/ren 
cana/article/orang-besut-anak-terengganu-kelantan-pelihara-mohd-izzuddin-ramli). The 
Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original (http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/rencana/arti 
cle/orang-besut-anak-terengganu-kelantan-pelihara-mohd-izzuddin-ramli) on 2016-03-03. 
Retrieved 2016-02-10. 

7. "Profil Daerah : JPS Daerah Besut"Jhttp://apps.water.gov.my/jpskomuniti/dokumen/BESUT_P 
ROFIL_JUN_2012.pdf) (PDF). Apps.water.gov.my. Retrieved 2016-02-10. 


External links 


■ Ensiklopedia Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Melayu, DBP Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 

■ Loghat Terengganu | Terengganu (http://www.visit-terengganu.net%2Floghat-terengganu%2F& 
ei=2NRaTYyrNoLtrQfi7_WuDA&usg=AFQjCNEImz5sXL2sL7g48dcRb_kANX6haQ) 

■ Bahasa Malaysia Simple Fun - Terengganu Malay Language (https://web.archive.org/web/201 
10309024729/http://www.bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com/terengganu.html) 






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