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A.  ST.  H.  GIBBONS,  F.R.G.S 







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*.    •••■       •       •••,••  »         ...... 



Progress  of  Empire  in  Africa — Want  of  means  twice  spoil  plans— 
Zambezi-Kwando  confluence— Sesheke  flats — Pookoo  shot — Hippo- 
potamus hunt,  two  bagged — Favourable  impression  of  natives — 
A  large  hippopotamus  —  His  measurements  —  Sesheke  reached  — 
M.  and  Mdme.  Goy — Wilson's  party  and  Lobengula's  death — The 
"  Mokwai "  of  Sesheke — Her  friendly  attitude  .        .  Page      i 


An  eight  days'  hunting  excursion — Tsessebe  shot — Wounded  wilde- 
beest escapes— Wildebeest  shot — Unusual  markings — Oribi  shot — 
Avaricious  natives — Black&ced  wildebeest  shot — Oribi  pookoo 
and  jackal  shot — Two  hyaenas  shot — Exciting  chase — Warthog 
missed  —  Zebra  shot  —  Buf&lo  cow  and  bull  shot  —  Two  more 
bnffidoes  bagged — Girafie  and  eland — An  abortive  drive — Pallah 
and  aable  antelope  shot — ^A  disloyal  subject — Large  herd  of  roan 
antelope  and  of  sable — Return  to  Sesheke 13 


Night  watching  for  lions— Journey  continued— Locusts'  depredations — 
Consequent  £Eimine — Buflalo  bagged — A  series  of  rapids — Comical 
native  ceremony — Much  game  and  spoor — Eland  wounded — Long 
chase — Roan  antelope  killed — Native  mendacity — Wounded  eland 
killed  by  lions — In  pursuit — Troop  of  five  lions — Two  bagged — 
Narrow  escape  from  wounded  lioness 36 


Elephants — Unsuccessful  pursuit — ^A  tough  pallah — Futile  rhinoceros 
hunt — Lusu  Rapids — Njoko  confluence — Start  up  Njoko — The 
Tsetse  fly — Remarkable  penetration  of  Mannlicher  bullet — Herds  of 
lechwe — Game  on  the  Njoko — Rampungu  river — Native  hospitality 
— Fine  reedbuck  head — Victims  of  fisimine — Return  to  the  ^mbezi    58 

A  a  V 



Camp  illuminations — Illness  of  Lecharu — River  jomey  reoommenoed 
— Wounded  hippo.— Aggressive  hippopotami— In  teardi  of  meat — 
An  amphibious  pig — Sickness  among  boys  discouraged — ^The  Lumbi 
river — The  Gonye  Rapids — Paddlers'  insubordination — Fight  for 
mastery — Gonye  Falls — Chieft  of  Sioma — Refusal  to  sell  com — 
Mutineers  repentant  and  forgiven Page    74 


Boys'  food  finished— Buf&loes  to  the  rescve — Charged  by  a  woonded 
cow — ^Three  shot — A  disappointed  leopard — "No  com,  no  meat"— 
Borotse  reached — Character  of  Borotse — The  Marotse — A  land  of 
milk — Strange  letter  from  Uwanika — And  reply — Captain  Bertrand 
—The  ''Great"  Mokwai— Her  husbands— Nalolo— Zambezi  fish— 
Mokwai  visited — Previous  outrages  on  missionaries — "  Cheques  will 
do  " — Liwanika's  reprimand 88 


The  Makololo — Their  Chief  Sebitwane — His  conquests — The  Mata- 
bele  worsted — The  Marotse  subdued — Subject  tribes — Sebitwane's 
death — Mamochiiane  succeeds,  but  abdicates — Sekeletu  becomes 
king — Leprosy — Death — Marotse  rebel  successfully — Sepopo  elected 
king — Relentless  cruelty — Deposed  and  slain — Ngwanwina  succeeds 
— Defeated  and  killed  by  Liwanika,  the  present  king — Early 
atrocities — Driven  into  exile — Once  more  in  power — Reformation — 
The  extent  of  his  country 1 1 1 


Liwanika's  subjects — Their  characteristics — Agricultural— Pastoral — 
Canoes — Arms — Fishing — Cuisine — Fire-making — Habitations — 
Method  of  defence— Superstition — Witchcraft — Trial  and  punish- 
ment— Tobacco  —  Ornaments  and  charms  —  Religion  —  Salutes  — 
Clothing — Peculiarities  of  tribes — Marotse — Mabnnda — Makwenga 
— Matutela — Masubia — Matoka — Mankoya — Mashikolumbwe        .  121 


Arrival  at  Lialui  —  Missionary  conference  —  The  royal  residence  — 
Liwanika  and  his  wives — Cordial  reception— Misunderstandings 
cleared  up— A  thief  in  the  night — Ben  the  Matoka— Another  chat 
with  Liwanika — His  anxiety  for  the  future— Unprincipled  white 
men — Good  done  by  missionaries 146 




Liwanika  and  liviq^rtooe — King  Mttcdons  Wf  plans— An  ethno- 
logical oollMtioA— liwanika's  gtogacflhy — ^A  map  of  his  country — 
Farewell  visit — ^A  start — Rising  ground — The  Kande  rivers-Duck 
shooting — The  Loi  river — Source  of  the  Lumbi-  -Game  once  more  163 


Matlakala  sick — The  Luena  system — MatlakaWs  aadaeky — A  Indcy 
shot — Matlakala  gives  trouble — The  Njoko  livec— Serumpunta — 
Ifotive  smithy — Schemes  for  delay — Even  with  Matlakala — Old 
Rtapimgu  camp  —  Seshdte  reached— The  missionary  and  the 
pfinoess — Woman's  status — ^A  husband's  cowardice — Presents  and 
royal  remuneration — Murder  of  missionaries — Start  for  Kazungula 
— Reproductive  powers  of  crocodiles — Kazungula  reached — "Victoria 
Falls — Water  buck  and  plover — ^A  fine  sable — Snake-bitten  boy — 
Poverty  of  ooHto— The  Zambezi  at  Kazungula         ....  178 


Swimming  oxen — Scarcity  of  porters — Down  with  dysentery — Start  for 
Mashikolumbweland — PkasMit  country — Swamps  and  rela{>se — 
The  Umgwezi  swollen — ^\\nidebeest  killed — High  ground  at  last— 
Native  devoured  by  lions^ — Delirious  boy — A  healthy  plateau — Its 
possibilities 305 


Christmas  Eve — Warthog — Hofr  to  cook  him — A  Christmas  koodoo 
— A  stormy  day — On  the  Kafukwe  system — Gluttonoiis  boys — 
Swamps  again — Four  hartebeests  bagged — Making  biltong — New 
Year's  Dl^p  i896~Zebra  and  hartebeest  shot — A  warning  for  the 
boys — Observation  for  latitude — Encouraging  result — The  Nanzela 
in  flood — Native  bridging — Safe,  but  wet — Sezunga — Gruesome 
sight — Sickness  at  the  mission — Reputation  of  Mashikolumbwe — 
The  boys  "jib" — A u  revoir  to  my  hosKs 219 


Sulky  boys — A  tough  warthog — The  boys  give  trouble — Lecharu 
reported  dead — Heartless  comrades — Plain  speaking — ^Waterbuck 
shot — Porters  abscond — Staflf  of  five — Two  zebras  shot — Lecharu 
swoons — Leave  camp  with  three  boys — Inquisitive  game — A  fine 
country — Well  received  by  the  ladies — Not  so  by  the  men — Unpre- 
possessing savages— Variety  of  game — Fat  eland  cow  shot — Natives 
more  friendly — Trifling  worries — Arrival  at  Kaiyngu  .  239 

•  • 





The  Chief  Kaiyngu — Friendly  reception — Scene  in  the  stockade — 
Native  music — Kafukwe  river — Carnivorous  ants — A  lucky  shot — 
A  "royal"  hunt  —  His  Highness  upbraided  —  Kaiyngu's  "little 
game" — Secret  of  African  travel — Bad  news — A  large  warthog — 
Exceptional  pookoo  horns — Kaiyngu's  perversity — The  river  crossed 
— Kowetu — Hospitable  natives — Ma^iificent  scenery — The  Chief 
Kowetu Page  262 


Muliphi  still  absent — Mashikolumbwe  deceit — I  smell  a  rat — Decide 
to  return  to  Musa  camp— Request  for  boys — Kaijrngu  prevaricates 
— But  finally  acquiesces  —  Muliphi  found  —  Hartebeest  shot  — 
Muliphi  waylaid  —  Mashikolumbwe  abscond  —  Camp  reached  — 
Pony's  theft — Leopard  killed  by  Lecharu — Camp  struck — Wilde- 
beest shot — A  godsend — Mankoyas  engaged  as  porters — Trouble  at 
N'kala  —  "Missy''  dead  —  An  audacious  lion  —  Muaanana — Hot 
water  springs — Slave  for  sale — Hartebeest  bagged  ....  288 


"The  Hon  is  in  the  kraal" — Attack  at  night — Unsuccessful — We  over- 
sleep ourselves— We  follow  him  in  morning — The  death  shot — 
The  lion's  measurements — Pony's  perversity — A  large  congregation 
— Start  for  Kazungula — Missionar/s  wife  and  the  flock — One  bullet, 
two  pallah — Thieving  villagers — Strained  relations — Hyde  Park  in 
Afirica — Threatened  attack — Enemy  routed — The  deserters'  tale — 
Pony  fever-stricken — Lags  behind — Brought  into  camp  .        .        .  308 


Guinea  fowls  devoured  by  ants— A  missionary's  experience — Pony 
left  behind — Game  on  the  Umgwezi — Two  deserters — Trophies 
recovered — Accused  of  murder — Value  of  native  report — Value  of 
opinion  of  some  newspaper  editors — Rinderpest  ravages — Bootless 
— Fever  at  the  mission  station — Chat  with  Latia — Deserters  to  be 
punished — An  unruly  ox — Unexpected  bath — South  African  postal 
negligence — News  of  England — Sesheke  again — The  slaves'  re- 
joicing— Liwanika  and  Sekome — Khama  and  Sekome — Return  to 
Kazungula — Messrs.  Bagley  and  Kerr — The  loaded  cart  .        .  327 


Doubtful  prospects — Bid  £Etfewell  to  the  Zambezi — Pendamatenka — In 
the  desert — Boys  scheme  delay — Pony  absent  for  two  days— A 
"  Europe"  morning — A  strange  but  welcome  voice— Simpson  and 

•  •  • 



Walsh — ^A  wild-goose  chase— Simpson's  generosity — Oxen  lost  for 
two  days  and  a  half— The  Chief  Menu — Friend^  warnings  mis- 
construed  —  Pony  caught  red-handed  —  Pony  flogged  —  Simpson's 
retreat — Matabele  in  arms — ^A  lucky  escape  ....  Pagi  353 


Accident  to  cart — Broken  wheel  taken  on  sleigh  to  Monarch  Mines- 
Prepared  for  attack — ^The  manager's  hospitality — Comforts  of  QviU- 
ation — Return  for  cart — All  safe — Pony  deserts — Mr.  Drake — 
Matabele  impi  in  neighbourhood — A  scare— Arrival  at  Tati — A 
poor  creature  and  a  practical  joke — Degenerate  Judah — Disease- 
stricken  koodoo— Pdapye  and  old  friends— Post  cart— Home  by 
Anmiel  OutU'-Taa:^ 369 

Appkndix  I.  The  Country:  Its  Character,  Climate,  and  Prospects  381 
Appendix  II.  Big  Game  and  its  Distribution  .394 
Index 401 





FronHspuc€,    Photograph  of  Author 










170 1 


178  { 

193 1 


273  { 


350  { 






Masubia  Paddlers  landing  Hippopotami 

Giraffe     . 

Large  herd  of  Sable  Antelope 

Buf&Io  head 

On  the  2^ambezi 

Charged  by  Wounded  Lioness 

The  Gonye  Falls 

Charged  by  Wounded  Buf&lo . 

Dug-out  Canoe 

Masubia  Village 

Liwanika,  King  of  the  Marotse,  &c. 


Matutela  Blacksmith 

Victoria  Falls  (i)    . 

(2)  . 

(3)  . 
»»         »t     (4)    • 

Waterbuck  warned  by  Plovers 

Mashikolumbwe  and  Mankoya 

Game  in  Mashikolumbweland 

Two  Views  in  Mashikolumbweland 

Kafukwe  River  at  Kaiyngu 

Native  Huts 

A  Night  Attack 

Lion  carried  by  Natives 

Group  of  Matoka    . 

Matutela  Women  and  Stockade 

Herd  of  Zebra  on  Sesheke  FlaU 

Mission  Station  at  Sesheke     . 

Masubia  Girls  at  Sesheke  Mission  Station 

A  Breakdown  on  the  Road 

Map  of  Part  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  Marotse. 

Stereoscopic  Co. 

Photograph  by  Author. 
By  Charles  Whjrmper. 

From  Sketch  byAuthor. 
Photograph  by  Author. 
By  Charles  Whymper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 
By  Charles  Whymper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 



By  Charles  Whymper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 







By  Charles  Whymper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 
By  Charles  Whymper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 





By  Charles  Whjrmper. 
Photograph  by  Author. 






THE  land  of  the  Marotse  and  the  various 
tribes  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  upper 
Zambezi,  has  for  many  years  been  regarded  with 
interest,  while  its  mysteries  have  excited  not  a 
little  conjecture  in  geographical  circles,  but  more 
especially  among  the  hardy  pioneers  of  Central 
South  Africa.  There,  under  the  direction  of 
Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes,  a  marvel  in  the  practical 
advance  of  the  British  Empire  had  been  accom- 
plished; townships  had  sprung  up;  and  such 
was  the  energy  and  enterprise  of  settlers,  that 
within  three  years  from  the  first  organised 
incursion  into  Mashonaland  in  1890  few  likely 
districts  remained  unappropriated,  and  many 
mining  properties  were  in  full  working  order. 
As  early  as  1893  Marotseland  was  commonly 

B  I 



mentioned  in  South  Africa  as  the  next  country 
for  occupation,  and  many  were  ready  to  be  first 
there  should  opportunity  offer.  But  the  diffi- 
culties in  the  way  of  individual  prospecting 
expeditions  made  the  risk  of  failure  too  great 
to  warrant  the  expense  of  outfit.  As  is  usually 
the  case  with  unexplored  countries,  the  mysteries 
of  Marotseland  were  supplemented  by  exaggera- 
tions in  every  direction  ;  gold  and  game 
abounded,  but  the  people  were  hostile  and  the 
climate  deadly.  Even  the  450  mile  trek  through 
the  Kalahari — trying  as  it  is — had  the  reputation 
of  being  very  much  more  severe  than  is  justified 
by  fact 

At  the  commencement  of  1893,  and  again  in 
;i  1894,  plans  which  I  had  conceived  of  exploring 

the  then  unknown  districts  bordering  on  the 
Upper  Zambezi,  had  been  frustrated  through  want 
of  the  necessary  pecuniary  means.  In  1895  ^^^s 
difficulty  was  surmounted  with  the  result  herein- 
after described.  It  is  my  earnest  endeavour,  in 
relating  these  experiences,  to  convey  an  unem- 
bellished  impression  of  the  countries  and  peoples 
concerned ;  and  I  trust  the  reader  will  not  be 
disappointed  when  he  fails  to  discover  a  "hair- 
breadth escape"  in  each  chapter,  and  will  be 
content  with  a  production  which,  though  having 
no  pretensions  in  the  direction  of  high  literary 
attainment,  at  least  aspires  to  honesty  of  state- 


With  these  few  introductory  remarks,  I  will 
take  the  reader  at  once  to  the  confluence  of 
the  Zambezi  and  Kwando  rivers,  where  three 
"dug  out"  canoes  had  been  placed  at  my  dis- 
posal by  Latia,  eldest  son  of  Liwanika,  para- 
mount chief  of  the  Marotse  and  subject  tribes, 
for  conveyance  of  myself  and  goods  as  far  as 
Sesheke,  where  fresh  boys  and  canoes  were  to 
be  provided  for  my  further  journey  to  Lialui,  in 
Borotse.*  I  felt  thoroughly  content  with  every- 
thing and  everybody,  as  the  canoe  boys  chattered 
and  paddled  with  that  cheerful  energy  usual  in 
natives  at  the  commencement  of  a  journey. 
Everything  breathed  of  peace.  The  intensely 
blue  sky  cast  its  colour  on  the  wide  stretch  of 
clear  water,  which  contrasted  so  pleasantly  with 
the  500  miles  of  sandy  monotony  and  everlasting 
bush  in  which  the  preceding  five  weeks  had  been 
spent  Not  that  there  is  anything  particularly 
striking  in  the  scenery  of  this  part  of  the  Zam- 
bezi. No  tropical  vegetation  lends  additional 
effect  to  the  picture,  nor  do  broken  crags  or 
distant  hills  give  it  contrast  in  colour.  It  is,  in 
fact,  one  of  those  scenes  which  could  be  more 
effectively  dealt  with  by  the  pen  of  the  poet  than 
by  painter's  art.  A  noble  expanse  of  transparent 
water,    studded    here    and    there    with    treeless 

*  The  prefibc  Ma-  denotes  the  people,  Bo-  the  country.  Thus, 
Marotse,  Borotse ;  Matoka,  Botoka  have  their  parallels  with  us  in 
English,  England. 



islands ;  a  fringe  of  tall,  matted  river  reeds,  and 
about  a  mile  of  plain  beyond,  with  a  background 
of  tree-clad  undulations,  make  up  the  view  to 
right  and  left. 

On  the  first  night  of  my  river  journey — that  of 
July  2nd,  1895 — I  camped  immediately  above 
the  Mambova  Rapids,  beyond  which  the  river 
winds  for  some  ninety  miles  through  the 
Sesheke  flats — in  winter  a  plain,  in  summer  an 
extensive  swamp.  It  was  now  winter,  and  the 
Zambezi  was  nearly  at  its  lowest,  so  that  the 
clean-cut  banks  restricted  the  view  to  the  river 
itself.  There  is,  however,  much  of  interest  to 
the  naturalist  here ;  for  countless  flocks  of  water- 
fowl congregate  on  the  numerous  sandbanks 
which  appear  in  the  dry  season.  In  places 
thousands  of  these  birds  are  to  be  seen  in 
every  direction,  some  species  intermingling  one 
with  another  on  equal  terms,  while  others  confine 
themselves  exclusively  to  the  society  of  their 
own  kind.  Among  the  better-known  species  are 
to  be  noticed  the  ibis,  heron,  pelican,  stork, 
plover,  and  crane.  I  also  saw  four  species  of 
goose,  many  varieties  of  duck  and  teal,  though 
these  wild  cousins  of  our  domestic  waterfowl  are 
not  nearly  so  numerous  as  might  have  been 
expected.  I  subsequently  discovered  that  they 
prefer  the  grassy  swamps  of  such  rivers  as  the 
Lui,  Lumbi,  and  other  tributaries  to  the  big 
river  itself 



Leaving  Mambova  early  the  following  morn- 
ing, the  boys  paddled  for  about  three  hours,  and 
then  put  into  the  bank  for  rest.  Hearing  that 
pookoo  lechwe  and  reedbuck  were  plentiful  in 
the  neighbourhood,  I  took  my  rifle  and  set  out 
for  a  short  walk.  The  grass,  however,  was  taller 
than  myself,  and  though  I  occasionally  caught 
a  glimpse  of,  or  heard,  the  game  I  had  some 
difficulty  in  bagging  anything.  I  was  quite 
ashamed  of  the  number  of  rounds  wasted  before 
a  badly-placed  bullet  drove  a  pookoo  to  take  to 
water  and  seek  a  safer  asylum  on  the  opposite 
bank.  In  obedience  to  shouts  from  the  boys 
who  accompanied  me,  three  paddlers  raced  down 
on  the  wounded  antelope,  and  just  succeeded  in 
assegaiing  her  as  she  reached  land. 

Towards  four  o'clock  that  afternoon  the  grunt- 
ing of  hippopotami  a  short  distance  from  the  left 
bank,  and  coming,  as  I  afterwards  found,  from  a 
long  lagoon  which  ran  parallel  with  the  river, 
tempted  me  to  land.  The  lagoon  was  surrounded 
by  a  dense  fringe  of  reeds,  and  had  it  not  been 
for  the  hippo  paths  which  ran  through  them  in 
all  directions,  progress  would  have  been  almost 
impossible.  So  dense  were  these  reeds  that  I 
was  only  able  to  get  a  glimpse  of  the  water  at 
occasional  intervals.  Half  a  mile  of  walking  and 
creeping  through  narrow  winding  paths  and  low 
tunnels  brought  me  to  a  small  open  space  which 
gave  a  view,  about  120   yards  distant,  of  the 



heads  of  some  seven  or  eight  hippos.  An 
unsuccessful  shot  sent  them  all  down  below  for 
a  few  minutes.  Shortly  an  inquisitive  head  rose 
only  twenty-five  yards  away,  offering  an  easy 
shot  The  hippo  sank  immediately,  sending  up 
much  blood.  A  moment  later  another  head 
appeared  120  yards  away,  where  the  animals 
had  originally  shown  themselves.  A  lucky  shot 
sent  the  owner  down,  though  his  reappearance 
about  three  minutes  afterwards  showed  that  he 
was  only  wounded.  From  the  movement  of  the 
water  the  boys  soon  detected  the  plans  of  the 
wounded  **  sea  cow  " — he  was  making  a  final  effort 
to  escape  from  the  narrow  lagoon  into  the  more 
spacious  depths  of  the  big  river.  And  now 
began  an  exciting  chase,  during  which  the  hippo 
at  intervals  raised  himself  head  and  shoulders 
above  the  surface  of  the  water,  opening  his  huge 
mouth  as  he  half  groaned,  half  roared  with  rage 
and  pain.  For  myself  I  ran  along  the  bank  as 
fast  as  I  could,  posting  myself  at  intervals  in 
open  places  in  hopes  of  getting  in  a  shot  as  the 
head  appeared.  A  run  of  about  half  a  mile  only 
yielded  one  shot,  and  that  without  effect.  Thus 
my  quarry  was  only  about  thirty  yards  from  the 
big  river,  which,  had  he  entered  it,  would  have 
very  much  increased  the  odds  in  his  favour, 
when  chance  brought  me  to  an  opening  in  the 
reeds  just  as  the  head  reappeared  a  few  yards 
away.     One  of  a  right  and  left  entered  his  brain 



just  above  the  eye,  sending  him  to  the  bottom — 

This  was  the  signal  for  the  boat  boys  to  dance 
round  me  in  the  very  ecstasy  of  delight,  for  they 
saw  prospect  of  an  abundancy  of  fat  on  the 
morrow,  to  them  the  very  refinement  of  luxury. 

Of  course  it  was  useless  to  do  anything  with 
the  two  dead  hippopotami  that  evening,  as  these 
animals  remain  below  water  for  some  six  hours 
after  death.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  river 
the  banks  were  high  and  therefore  more  suitable 
for  camping,  so  I  decided  to  cross  and  pitch 
the  tent  in  one  of  the  small  clumps  of  bush  which 
only  rarely  occur  in  the  low-lying  Zambezi 

The  experience  of  my  two  previous  visits  to 
Africa  had  been  limited  to  the  South,  principally 
among  the  Bamangwato,  an  inferior,  indolent 
people,  who  cringe  to  the  white  man  so  long  as 
they  see  any  prospect  of  getting  anything  out  of 
him,  but  show  no  gratitude  when  their  purpose 
has  been  realised.  The  cheeriness  and  activity 
of  my  Masubia  paddlers,  and  the  careful  regard 
they  had  hitherto  shown  for  my  personal  comfort, 
had  already  suggested  marked  superiority  over 
their  South  African  cousins,  and  an  incident 
occurred  that  evening  which  strengthened  this 
favourable  impression.  The  canoes  had  been 
tied,  their  contents  had  been  carried  up  the 
bank,  and  I  was  looking  about  for  a  suitable  spot 



for  the  tent,  when  the  head  paddler  approached 
to  within  a  couple  of  paces  of  where  I  stood  and 
respectfully  addressed  me  with  the  words  lumela 
fitate — greetings,  father.  I  acknowledged  his 
salute,  and  he  fell  to  the  rear  to  make  room 
for  the  next  to  do  likewise,  and  so  on  until  all 
eight  had  followed  the  example  of  their  leader. 
My  three  South  Africans  looked  on  with  an 
expression  of  amusement  on  their  ugly  faces  as 
they  squatted  on  the  ground  waiting  to  be  told 
by  me  to  do  what  my  Masubias  always  did  spon- 
taneously, i.e.y  to  light  a  fire  and  pitch  the  tent. 

The  next  morning  after  eating  my  early  meal 
I  recrossed  the  river  and  proceeded  to  the  scene 
of  the  hippo  hunt.  Both  the  bodies  floated 
within  a  short  distance  of  one  another,  the  wind 
having  driven  them  to  the  near  extremity  of  the 
lagoon.  It  did  not  take  long  for  the  boys  to  roll 
the  smaller  animal  on  to  dry  land,  but  their 
combined  efforts  failed  to  move  the  larger  one 
when  once  the  carcase  rested  on  the  ground. 
I  therefore  took  careful  measurements  and  left 
the  boys  to  cut  him  up  in  the  water.  He  proved 
to  be  of  abnormal  size,  and  those  white  and  half- 
caste  hunters  who  subsequently  saw  the  skull, 
in  spite  of  the  reputation  they  have  as  a  class  for 
being  able  to  "  cap  "  everything,  averred  they  had 
never  seen  such  a  head.  The  body  from  snout 
to  root  of  tail  measured  fourteen  feet  and  half  an 

inch,  and  the  circumference  of  the  head,  taken 



midway  betwixt  eye  and  ear  and  under  the  chin, 
showed  nine  feet  exactly,  and  five  feet  six  and 
a  half  inches  taken  midway  between  eyes  and 
snout.  The  skull  and  the  skin  of  the  head  and 
neck  were  saved  for  my  collection. 

The  whole  of  that  day  and  the  next  were  taken 
up  in  preparing  the  flesh  for  drying  into  "  biltong," 
boiling  down  the  fat,  which  in  the  hippopotamus 
excels  in  quantity  and  quality,  and  cutting  the 
skin  into  broad  strips.  The  best  waggon-whips 
are  cut  out  of  ** sea-cow"  skin,  while  the  ''sjam- 
boks "  and  walking-sticks  made  therefrom  are 
much  valued. 

On  the  following  day,  July  7th,  I  reached 
Sesheke,  and  went  at  once  to  see  M.  Goy,  a 
Swiss  Protestant  Missionary,  serving  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Paris  Missionary  Society.  He 
received  me  kindly,  at  once  placed  a  comfortable 
hut  at  my  disposal,  and  insisted  on  my  taking  all 
my  meals  with  him  and  Madame  during  my  stay 
at  Sesheke. 

This  mission  station  at  Sesheke  is  pictur- 
esquely situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Zambezi. 
Not  only  the  quality  of  the  buildings  but  the 
arrangements  and  neatness  of  the  whole  station 
speak  volumes  for  the  ingenuity  and  energy  of 
the  good  missionary. 

An  interesting  conversation  with  M.  and 
Madame,  who  spoke  excellent  English,  helped 
me  much  to  mature  my  plans.     One  fact  men- 



tioned  is  well  worthy  of  repetition.  It  appears 
that  four  days  after  the  lamentable  extermination 
of  Wilson's  party  on  the  Shangani,  M.  Goy  heard 
through  Matoka  sources  that  thirty  white  men 
had  been  killed  in  battle  with  the  Matabele ;  that 
during  the  fight  Lobengula  was  wounded  in  the 
bowels  by  a  stray  bullet,  but  fearing  lest  the  fact 
might  discourage  his  people,  he  told  no  man 
of  his  wound,  and  moved  about  as  usual  (he  was 
not  in  the  habit  of  moving  much  at  any  time)  for 
two  days.  According  to  subsequent  reports  the 
wound  grew  worse,  so  he  sent  for  a  doctor,  who 
told  him  his  time  had  come  to  die.  Thus  he 
died,  and  was  buried  in  a  grave  surrounded  by  a 
palisade.  I  presume  the  latter  part  of  this  infor- 
mation came  by  second  and  later  messengers,  a 
fact  which  seems  to  be  omitted  from  my  diary,  the 
entries  in  which  are  as  terse  and  brief  as  possible. 
The  following  morning,  having  previously  sent 
my  greetings  to  the  **  Mokwai "  or  ruling  princess 
of  the  Sesheke  district,  I  paid  her  a  visit,  accom- 
panied by  M.  Goy,  who  kindly  consented  to  act 
as  interpreter.  A  neat  palisade  of  reeds  bound 
together  and  some  ten  feet  high  surrounds  a 
courtyard,  in  the  centre  of  which  stands  an  oblong 
hut  about  thirty  feet  long  and  half  that  width.  It 
is  neatly  thatched  with  coarse  river  grass,  while 
the  walls  are  constructed  of  cement  made  of  ant- 
heap  earth  and  cow-dung  mixed,  and  supported 
internally  by  upright  stakes. 



We  found  this  young  lady  lounging  on  a  mat 
beneath  a  reed-built  shade.  She  is  about  twenty- 
three  years  of  age,  very  black,  decidedly  present- 
able in  appearance  and  refined  in  feature.  Round 
each  eye  is  a  circular  blue  scar -tattoo  mark. 
The  two  front  teeth  of  a  pearly  white  row  are 
so  filed  as  to  form  a  reversed  V.  The  wool, 
allowed  to  grow  fairly  long,  is  well  combed  out, 
thick  and  fuzzy,  and  in  one  side  of  it  an  ivory- 
carved  dagger  is  thrust.  A  coloured  robe  passing 
over  the  left  and  under  the  right  shoulder  covers 
her  person.  To  this  young  woman,  who  is  niece 
to  Liwanika,  the  ruling  of  the  Masubia  and  a 
section  of  the  Matutela  is  entrusted,  though  her 
cousin  Latia  has  powers  of  direction  in  the  more 
important  matters  of  government.  A  tall,  good- 
looking  young  Masubia  sat  next  to  her.  He 
bears  the  title  of  **  Mokwetunga,"  or  "son-in-law 
of  the  king,"  and  is  at  once  her  husband  and  her 

No  sooner  was  the  usual  exchange  of  com- 
pliments disposed  of  than  she  wanted  to  know 
many  things.  Was  I  an  Englishman  ?  Had  I 
ever  seen  the  Great  White  Queen?  Why  had 
I  come  to  a  country  so  far  from  my  home  ?  How 
long  did  I  propose  staying  .»*  and  what  did  I  in- 
tend doing  .^  Then  came  my  turn.  I  told  her 
what  I  wanted  her  to  do  for  me,  and  asked  for 
canoes  and  boys  to  take  me  to  Liwanika,  her 
uncle.     She   said    I    should   have   everything    I 



Wished  for,  but  that  it  would  be  impossible  to 
provide  me  with  canoes  for  about  eight  days. 
"Then/*  I  said,  *'  I  will  give  you  great  thanks  if 
you  will  detail  a  good  hunter  to  lead  me  to 
where  game  is  plentiful,  so  that  I  may  hunt,  and 
not  be  idle  while  the  canoes  and  boys  are  being 
sent  for."  **  It  shall  be  so,"  she  answered,  *'  to- 
morrow a  hunter  shall  be  sent  to  you." 

And  so  he  was,  for  next  day  my  good  host 
came  to  me  with  the  news  that  the  Mokwai  had 
sent  one  Madzimani,  the  best  hunter  in  the  whole 
district  and  an  excellent  fellow,  to  show  me 
where  I  would  find  much  game. 

Madzimani,  M.  Goy  informed  me,  though 
nominally  a  slave,  had  by  his  prowess  in  the 
hunting-field  and  success  in  battle  made  for 
himself  a  great  name  and  earned  the  respect 
of  his  fellows.  Though  subject  to  a  Marotse 
chief  at  Sesheke,  he  was  himself  chief  of  a  large 
village  a  few  miles  to  the  south  of  the  Zambezi, 
his  subjects  being  his  captives  in  war  and  their 

Note. — The  important  Zambezi  affluent,  which  for  some 
200  miles  from  its  source  is  marked  on  most — if  not  all — 
maps  "Kwando,"  "Kuando,**  or  "Cuando,"  appears  in  its 
lower  reaches  as  "Chobe"  or  "Linyanti,"  the  latter  with 
more  reason  than  the  former,  which  name  was  received  from 
a  passing  Makololo  chief,  whose  village  stood  temporarily  on 
the  south  bank  of  the  river  half  a  century  ago.  "  Kwando," 
throughout  these  pages,  is  applied  to  the  whole  of  this  river 
from  its  source  to  its  junction  with  the  Zambezi. 



ALTHOUGH  it  is  not  my  intention  to 
bore  the  reader  with  detailed  accounts  of 
ordinary  hunting  incident  throughout  this  book, 
a  description  of  a  short  eight  days'  hunting 
under  the  most  favourable  circumstances  is  not 
out  of  place  and  may  be  of  interest  to  some. 

I  was  encamped  in  a  small  clump  of  trees  and 
undergrowth.  The  surrounding  country  was 
open,  though  scattered  here  and  there  were 
clumps  similar  to  that  in  which  I  had  taken  up 
my  quarters,  while  occasional  narrow  strips  of 
forest  subdivided  the  plain  into  sheltered  glades, 
offering  shade  and  covert  to  the  numerous  herds 
of  game  which  but  for  traps  and  pitfalls  knew  no 
danger  at  the  hands  of  man.  Nature  reigned 
supreme  in  this  district ;  its  calm  had  never  been 
outraged  by  the  disquieting  appliances  of  modern 
hunting,  and  the  game  cared  little  for  what  was 
going  on  IOC  yards  away.  In  fact,  centuries  had 
brought  no  altered  conditions ;  even  man  remained 
as  primitive  as  he  must  have  been  2000  years 

A  plain  about  half  a  mile  across  lay  to  the  west 



of  my  camp,  and  on  this  a  small  herd  of  seven 
tsessebe  grazed  unsuspectingly.  The  wind  was 
right,  and  I  had  crawled  to  within  eighty  yards  of 
them  before  they  became  aware  of  my  presence. 
Picking  out  the  best  bull  I  fired,  the  bullet  enter- 
ing his  lungs.  Groaning  loudly  the  wounded 
antelope  attempted  to  follow  the  retreating  herd, 
then  suddenly  fell  to  the  ground  stone  dead. 
The  remainder  subsequently  turned  and  stood. 
Another  shot  wounded  a  second  animal,  but  after 
following  for  some  distance  and  firing  three  times 
I  failed  to  bag  him.  In  the  dead  tsessebe  I 
secured  an  excellent  specimen,  the  horns  measuring 
14^  inches  round  the  curve. 

During  the  evening  a  snake  caused  a  little 
diversion  by  crawling  over  the  legs  of  one  of 
the  boys.  In  a  moment  all  was  excitement  and 
jabber  ;  the  boys  jumped  about,  grunted,  and 
struck  wildly  at  the  wriggling  reptile  with  their 
assegais,  until  finally  he  received  his  coup  de  grace ^ 
and  all  was  soon  quiet  again. 

The  next  day  I  was  on  the  move  early,  but 
had  not  gone  far  from  camp  when  my  presence 
disturbed  a  couple  of  tsessebe  drinking  at  a  small 
pan.  They  were  very  tame,  but  as  neither 
carried  a  remarkable  head — and  my  ambition  as 
a  hunter  has  always  lain  in  the  direction  of 
quality,  not  quantity — they  trotted  ofif  unmolested. 

A  few  hundred  yards  further  the  appearance  of 
a  mixed  herd  of  wildebeest  and  tsessebe  led  to  a 




Stalk  and  a  shoulder  wound  to  a  wildebeest  bull. 
He  and  two  others  left  the  herd.  The  boys 
took  up  the  blood  spoor  and  a  five -mile  chase 
commenced,  which  ended  in  an  excellent  oppor- 
tunity and  an  atrocious  shot.  Away  they  went 
again,  joined  a  herd  of  zebra  and  tsessebe,  and 
disappeared  finally.  Making  a  detour  with  a 
view  to  returning  to  camp  over  fresh  ground, 
I  passed  seven  tsessebe  which  stood  about  sixty 
yards  off,  and  watched  me  pass  without  attempt- 
ing to  decamp.  A  couple  of  miles  further  on  a 
few  wildebeest  and  tsessebe  were  grazing  in  the 
open  plain.  They  had  not  noticed  me,  so  I 
decided  to  bag  one  of  the  wildebeest  if  possible. 
Crawling  along  through  the  scant  grass  covert 
for  about  twenty  minutes,  I  got  to  within  sixty 
yards  of  the  herd.  On  sitting  up  to  fire  the 
game  started  off,  but  I  managed  to  place  a  bullet 
behind  the  ribs  of  a  fine  bull  just  as  he  was  in 
the  act  of  turning.  He  fell  in  his  tracks,  the 
bullet  having  travelled  through  his  heart  to  the 
skin  of  the  chest.  Although  there  are  many 
South  African  wildebeests  (C  taurinTis)  in  these 
latitudes,  there  are  still  more  of  a  variety  be- 
twixt and  between  Jackson's  wildebeest  and 
the  black-faced  species  of  the  South.  A  white 
mane  would  convert  this  intermediate  species 
into  C.  Jacksoni^  or  a  black  face  into  C.  taurinus. 
The  specimen  mentioned  above  had  a  white  band 
about  two  inches  wide  across  the  lower  part  of 



the  forehead.    This,  however,  is  probably  merely 
a  freak  of  nature.     The  horns  were  21^  inches, 
which  places  them  high  in  the  list  of  measure-        '  ' 
ments  among  known  specimens. 

Leaving  Muliphi,  one  of  my  Bamangwato 
boys,  to  keep  the  vultures  from  the  wildebeest 
carcase  until  Madzimani  should  return  with  boys 
to  carry  in  the  meat,  I  set  out  for  camp.  While 
on  the  way  the  alarm  whistle  of  an  oribi  drew 
my  attention  to  three  of  these  graceful  little 
antelope  bounding  forward  from  a  clump  of  grass 
a  short  distance  to  the  left.  When  about  100 
yards  away  all  three  stood  and  looked.  I  fired 
but  missed.  Following  them  up  as  they  again 
retreated,  a  second  halt  gave  another  opportunity, 
and  one  was  bagged.  A  herd  of  wildebeest 
standing  some  300  yards  away  evinced  no  little 
interest  in  the  oribi  hunt,  and  only  moved  off 
when  the  incident  had  terminated. 

At   camp    natives    from    a   village    close    by 

awaited  my  return  with  a  couple  of  quarts  of 

milk.      For  this    I    gave   them   about   half   the 

tsessebe  meat,  and  told  them  that  if  they  helped 

my  boys  to  carry  in  the  wildebeest  they  should 

have  half  of  that  too.     And  yet,  although  meat 

is  one  of  the  two  objects  of  their  existence,  they 

pretended   they   were   underpaid    for   their   two 

quarts   of    milk   and   wanted   calico   also!      On 

being    told    that   if   they  did    not   like   meat    I 

should   move  my  camp  to  some   other  village 



and  make  its  people  fat  instead  of  them,  they 
said  no  more.  The  African  native  is  a  born 
trader,  and  seldom  appears  satisfied  with  a 
"  deal "  until  he  is  convinced  that  its  terms 
are  final. 

The  next  morning  a  lechwe  ewe  offered  a 
tempting  shot  at  about  forty  yards;  however,  her 
sex  saved  her,  as  she  had  nothing  but  meat  to 
give  and  the  larder  was  well  supplied.  Later  a 
fine  old  wildebeest  bull  provided  me  with  an 
hour's  exciting  stalk  and  a  good  pair  of  horns. 
He  was  of  the  South  African  species,  which,  to 
the  west  of  the  Zambezi,  is  much  more  common 
than  the  species  of  which  I  shot  a  specimen 
on  the  previous  day,  which,  however,  predomi- 
nates to  the  east  of  the  river.  Late  in  the 
evening  I  wounded  a  reedbuck  a  few  hundred 
yards  from  camp,  but  he  escaped  in  the  long 
grass ;  nor  was  an  attempt  to  find  him  next 
morning  more  successful.  That  day  I  moved 
camp  to  a  place  about  ten  miles  distant,  where 
Madzimani  had  told  me  I  should  find  giraffe, 
eland,  buffalo,  roan  and  sable  antelope,  and  other 
kinds  of  game.  While  en  route  several  herds  of 
wildebeest  and  tsessebe  were  passed,  a  mixed 
herd  of  which  I  stalked  with  my  camera  ;  getting 
to  within  thirty  yards  I  photographed  them  just 
as  they  turned  to  leave.  Another  oribi  was 
also  added  to  the  bag.  In  the  evening  of  the 
same  day  I  strolled  out  as  usual  in  quest  of 
c  l^ 




something  new.  It  came  in  the  form  of  a  fine 
pookoo  ram  grazing  peacefully,  and  wholly  un- 
suspicious of  danger.  Two  or  three  clumps 
of  bush  and  an  ant-heap  helped  me  to  get 
within  sixty  yards  of  the  ram.  He  bounded  off 
on  receiving  a  bullet  in  the  shoulder,  but  after 
rushing  about  for  short  distances  in  different 
directions  for  several  seconds  dropped  dead. 
The  bullet  had  passed  through  the  middle  of 
the  heart  and  out  through  the  far  shoulder.  It 
is  by  no  means  a  rare  occurrence  for  antelope 
to  run  even  two  or  three  hundred  yards  with  a 
bullet  of  small  calibre  through  the  heart,  but  a 
1 6-bore,  such  as  I  was  using,  makes  a  nasty  hole 
and  seldom  allows  much  show  of  vitality  subse- 
quent to  a  heart  wound.  As  I  proceeded,  the 
bush  became  thicker  and  buffalo  and  other  spoor, 
to  say  nothing  of  the  tsetse  fly,  told  me  I  was  in 
a  neighbourhood  carrying  more  variety  of  game 
than  had  been  seen  during  the  preceding  two 
days.  Just  as  I  had  commenced  my  return,  a 
jackal — also  on  the  hunt — crossed  my  path.  As 
he  turned  his  head  towards  me  I  took  a  snap 
shot  at  him — a  lucky  shot  which  dropped  him 
dead  with  a  shattered  jaw.  A  few  moments 
later  I  fired  at  and  missed  a  small  antelope 
about  the  size  of  a  steinbuck,  but  which 
appeared  to  be  much  darker  in  colour,  in  which 
case  he  was  new  to  me,  as  he  certainly  was  not 
a  duiker. 



As  the  sun  showed  himself  above  the  horizon 
the  next  morning  the  boys  drew  my  attention 
to  a  couple  of  lions  moving  slowly  through  the 
long  g^rass.  Stooping  down,  I  made  a  detour 
under  covert  and  placed  myself  unseen  behind 
a  large  ant-heap  near  which  it  seemed  the 
animals  would  pass.  I  had  been  concealed  thus 
not  more  than  a  few  seconds,  during  which  I  was 
congratulating  myself  on  so  good  a  chance 
occurring  at  the  very  commencement  of  my 
trip,  when  the  two  pseudo  lions  showed  them- 
selves within  a  few  yards.  To  my  disgust,  in 
place  of  the  majesty  of  the  lion  I  saw  only 
a  couple  of  skulking  spotted  hyaenas  returning 
to  covert  after  a  scavenging  expedition.  I  gave 
the  brutes  a  right  and  left,  wounding  them  both, 
but  too  far  back.  Perhaps  it  was  just  as  well 
after  all  that  they  were  no  longer  lions,  for  two 
wounded  lions  seven  yards  off  might  have  placed 
me  in  a  tight  corner;  however,  these  two  hyaenas 
taught  me  one  lesson — not  to  ignore  my  sights 
simply  because  my  game  was  within  a  few  yards. 
One  animal  bolted,  but  in  doing  so  received  an 
ounce  of  lead  in  his  hind  quarters.  The  other 
fell  to  the  ground  apparently  lifeless,  though 
subsequent  events  indicated  that  he  was  more 
frightened  than  hurt.  I  was  looking  in  the 
direction  of  his  retreating  friend  when  up  he 
sprang  and  went  off  at  a  heavy  gallop.  Sending 
the  rest  of   the  boys  to  despatch  the  other,   I 



called  to  Madzimani  and  Muliphi  to  follow  me 
after  the  resurrected  one. 

It  is  hard  to  explain  why  I  should  have  run 
between  six  and  seven  miles  over  heavy  sand 
and  under  a  hot  sun  after  a  member  of  the  most 
loathsome  species  of  the  canine  tribe,  but  the  fact 
remains  that  I  did,  and  enjoyed  myself  too.  My 
quarry  was  in  view  most  of  the  run,  and  the  line 
was  straight  away  for  about  an  hour,  when  a  plain 
of  three-foot  grass  checked  the  pace  for  quitp 
thirty  minutes.  Here  more  boys  came  up  after 
having  settled  the  account  of  the  other  animal, 
and  joined  Madzimani  in  working  out  the  blood- 
spoor  through  the  grass.  At  last  a  chorus  of 
shouts  and  disturbance  of  grass  showed  that  the 
hunted  brute  had  gone  away  again.  He  could 
travel  just  a  degree  quicker  than  Madzimani, 
the  keenest  and  fleetest  hunter  I  have  ever  had, 
but  it  was  evident  from  the  amount  of  blood 
left  behind  that  the  boy  would  soon  be  able 
to  outpace  the  animal.  With  the  rest  of  the 
boys  I  plodded  on  and  on  for  some  distance, 
watching  the  single  figure  getting  smaller  and 
smaller  in  the  distance,  until  it  finally  disappeared 
altogether.  I  followed  the  spoor  till  I  lost  it, 
and  was  compelled  to  wait  for  the  other  boys, 
who  had  managed  to  place  themselves  just  as 
far  behind  as  Madzimani  was  in  front.  The 
rest  was  not  unacceptable,  for  I  was  beginning 
to   feel    that    I    had    had    about    enough   of    it. 



When  the  boys  came  up  they  took  the 
spoor  and  went  away  again,  until  on  entering 
another  grassy  plain  Madzimani  was  observed 
standing  half  a  mile  in  front,  frantically  waving 
his  arms.  On  coming  up  he  led  me  forward 
till  the  hyaena  sprang  up  and  moved  slowly  off, 
taking  with  him  an  assegai  bitten  off  a  few 
inches  from  the  left  flank  and  protruding  beyond 
the  right.  Two  bullets  in  his  hind  quarters 
did  not  stop  him,  but  I  easily  ran  up  alongside 
and  rolled  him  over  with  a  third.  The  game 
brute  had  made  such  a  plucky  bid  for  life  that, 
after  photographing  his  remains,  with  the  four 
boys  who  were  in  at  the  kill,  in  rear,  I  saved 
the  head  to  remind  me  in  years  to  come  of  the 
hard  run  its  owner  had  given  me. 

After  a  short  rest  an  adjournment  was  made, 
with  a  local  native  as  guide,  in  search  of  water, 
which  was  said  to  be  **kokala,"  or  far  away. 
Not  very  encouraging!  for  I  would  have  given 
a  good  deal  for  a  long  and  effervescing  beverage 
at  the  time. 

While  passing  down  a  long,  narrow,  open  vale, 
I  sighted  two  black  spots  about  500  yards  away, 
which,  on  closer  inspection,  proved  to  be  wart- 
hogs.  A  large  ant-heap  favoured  my  approach, 
but  the  wind  was  wrong,  and  on  raising  my 
head  above  covert  the  pigs  with  tails  erect  were 
to  be  seen  in  full  retreat,  nor  did  the  one  I  fired 
at  respond  to  my  invitation  to  stop. 



From  the  valley  the  guide  led  the  way 
through  open  forest  A  mixed  herd  of  zebra 
and  tsessebe  had  sought  out  a  cool  spot  shaded 
from  the  piercing  rays  of  the  midday  sun,  and 
there  rested  and  slept  in  seeming  security.  So 
little  alert  were  they  that  my  approach  to  within 
1 20  yards  of  the  picturesque  group  was  quite 
unnoticed.  A  fine  stallion  offered  a  good 
shoulder  shot  as  he  lazily  plied  his  tail  from 
flank  to  flank,  forbidding  to  the  flies  the  peace 
they  would  fain  deny  to  him. 

My  bullet  struck  low,  shattering  the  forearm 

immediately  below  the  elbow.     Off  bounded  the 

tsessebe   to   the  left,  while   the   zebra  galloped 

heavily  away  towards  an  open  plain  to  the  right 

The  wounded  stallion  for  some  time  kept  with 

the  troop,  while   I  kept  as  near  Madzimani  as 

I   could.      A  mile   thus,  during   which  we  had 

been  able  to  cut  off  two  or  three  corners,  began 

to   tell   on   the   poor  brute,  whose  near  foreleg 

refused  to  do  the  work  of  two.     He  was  several 

lengths  behind  his  fellows  as  they  bore  to  the 

right  at  an  easy  canter.     Seeing  his  opportunity, 

Madzimani   spurted,  taking  a  line  to  the  right 

with  the  evident  intention  of  heading  the  game. 

I  was  soon  left  behind,  and  slackened  my  pace 

as  I  watched  my  gallant  shikari  disappear  from 

view    behind    a    rising    mound,    which    for    the 

moment  hid  the  hunted  troop.     I  saw  no  more 

of  the  chase  until  seven  or  eight  came  galloping 



round  the  bend  of  the  valley  towards  me. 
Seeing  the  wounded  stallion  was  not  with  them, 
I  took  out  the  small  hand  camera  which  hung 
on  my  belt,  and  photographed  the  troop  as  they 
galloped  past  a  hundred  yards  away.  Next 
appeared  the  stallion,  struggling  all  he  knew, 
poor  brute!  against  the  cruel  hand  of  fate.  I 
moved  towards  him  with  reset  camera,  hoping 
to  get  a  photo  of  Madzimani  in  the  act  of 
hurling  his  assegai  in  settlement  of  his  account. 
But  the  hunter  gained  too  rapidly ;  a  sudden 
spurt,  and  he  was  alongside  his  game ;  a 
momentary  check  as  he  threw  back  his  arm 
with  uplifted  assegai,  and  in  a  short  second 
the  blade  was  buried  in  the  prostrate  zebra's 

It  is  not  politic  to  treat  a  native  to  more  than  a 
superficial  acknowledgment  of  merit,  or  he  soon 
attaches  to  his  good  qualities  an  undue  and  ex- 
travagant value,  not  infrequently  culminating  in 
the  idea  that  his  services  are  almost  indispensable 
to  his  master.  I  could  not,  however,  resist  slap- 
ping Madzimani  on  the  back  and  eulogising  him 
in  English,  not  a  word  of  which  he  understood. 
Two  hard  hunts  in  one  day  had  shown  him  to  be 
an  indomitable  hunter  and  a  natural  sportsman, 
so  unlike  most  of  his  fellows,  who,  like  the  hound, 
hunt  better  when  hungry,  and  immediately  lose 
the  spoor  if  they  see  hard  work  in  front.     The 

zebra  had  fortunately  headed  in  the  direction  of 



the  water,  which  we  reached  three-quarters  of  an 
hour  later.  Two  or  three  ** pannikins"  of  tea 
and  a  bathe  were  thoroughly  appreciated,  for 
nine  hours'  continuous  hard  exercise  under  the 
tropical  sun  has  a  very  drying  effect — internally, 
at  all  events.  Next  day  I  did  not  hunt,  and 
in  the  evening  moved  my  camp  five  or  six 
miles  further  west. 

I  had  scarcely  left  camp  on  the  following 
morning  when  seven  buffalo  appeared  about 
1 20  yards  off.  A  bullet  struck  a  bull  in  the 
shoulder,  and  all  seven  lumbered  along  into  the 
thick  bush,  apparently  leaving  the  wounded 
bull  behind,  for  shortly  afterwards  he  was  to 
be  heard  bellowing  loudly  about  200  yards  away. 
Madzimani,  as  I  started  off  in  pursuit,  was 
particularly  anxious  that  I  should  go  round 
instead  of  following  immediately  on  the  spoor; 
but  I  afterwards  suspected  that  his  object  was 
to  miss  the  wounded  animal  on  account  of  the 
danger  of  hunting  him  in  such  thick  covert. 
After  taking  me  further  than  I  thought  necessary 
for  the  purpose,  he  pointed  out  a  herd  of  three 
or  four  hundred  buffalo  moving  slowly  along  an 
open  plain.  Describing  a  semicircle,  I  managed 
to  place  myself  unseen  behind  an  ant-heap  near 
the  edge  of  the  plain,  towards  which  the  herd 
advanced.  As  they  passed  about  eighty  yards 
from  me,  I  fired  at  the  shoulder  of  a  large  bull. 
The  bullet,  I  imagine,  struck  him  too  far  back. 



However,  be  that  as  it  may,  the  only  apparent 
effect  of  my  shot  was  to  suggest  to  his  mind  that 
a  neighbouring  bull  was  directly  responsible,  for 
he  lost  no  time  in  resenting  the  supposed  attack. 
As  he  charged,  his  antagonist  received  him  on  his 
horns,  and  an  interesting  duel  seemed  to  have 
commenced.  Unfortunately  the  herd  took  fright, 
and  galloped  off  in  a  cloud  of  dust  so  dense  as  to 
obscure  everything  but  an  occasional  outline. 
Away  they  thundered  into  the  forest,  myself  and 
boys  following  in  their  wake  as  quickly  as  our 
legs  could  carry  us.  In  about  a  mile  they  had 
settled  down,  and  were  grazing  and  walking  when 
I  managed,  with  the  aid  of  an  ant-heap,  to  get  a 
shot  at  about  1 20  yards.  Off  went  the  herd  once 
more,  leaving  a  cow  standing  unsteadily  with  legs 
outstretched  and  bellowing  loudly.  Suddenly 
she  rolled  over  quite  dead.  The  hardened 
elongated  bullet,  nine  to  the  pound,  had  entered 
the  chest  and  penetrated  through  the  heart.  She 
was  a  large  cow,  and  the  size  of  her  horns,  which 
I  could  only  see  indistinctly  amid  the  mass  of 
black  surrounding  her,  had  led  me  to  suppose 
I  was  firing  at  a  bull. 

It  took  about  an  hour  to  come  up  with  the  herd 
after  this,  and  when  I  did  so  the  covert  was  so 
scant  that  it  would  have  been  impossible  to 
advance  near  enough  without  setting  them  in 
motion.  I  was  compelled,  therefore,  to  follow 
at  a  distance  for  about  a  mile  before  an  oppor- 



tunity  occurred  for  a  closer  approach.  On  the 
way  I  nearly  abandoned  the  buffalo  for  a  herd  of 
sable  antelope,  which  stood  only  sixty  yards  from 
the  line  of  spoor,  offering  a  tempting  opportunity. 
However,  I  stuck  to  the  buffalo,  and  was  re- 
warded with  a  magnificent  bull's  head.  The 
bullet  fortunately  struck  him  in  the  right  place, 
passing  through  the  heart  and  bulging  out  the 
skin  on  the  far  side.  Measured  between  assegais, 
with  the  hoofs  pressed  well  back,  I  made  his 
height  at  the  shoulders  1 5  hands  2^  inches,  though 
bulk,  not  height,  is  the  distinctive  feature  of  the 
African  buffalo.  On  my  return  to  camp  I  was 
told  that  the  bull  first  wounded  had  been  seen 
in  a  dying  condition  by  some  of  my  followers 
from  a  neighbouring  village  at  midday.  I  sent 
out  a  couple  of  boys  to  look  for  him.  They 
came  back  to  say  he  was  not  to  be  found. 
Probably  he  had  already  found  his  way  into  the 
village  cooking  pots. 

Next  morning  one  of  the  boys  who  had  been 
left  behind  to  cut  the  buffalo  meat  into  strips  for 
drying,  reported  that  a  lion  had  been  walking 
round  their  fire  during  the  whole  night.  I 
returned  with  him  and,  on  examination,  found 
lion  spoor  up  to  within  six  feet  of  the  carcase, 
close  to  which  the  boys  slept.  My  first  intention 
was  to  spend  the  next  night  there,  in  the  hopes 
of  a  return  visit,  but  on  finding  that  the  animal 

had  ultimately  gone  away  on  the  spoor  of  the 



herd,  and  as  the  boys  were  so  convinced  that 
he  would  not  come  back  again,  I  abandoned 
the  project. 

Later  in  the  day  a  single  buffalo,  standing  in 
some  long  grass  500  yards  away,"  attracted  my 
attention.  By  the  time  this  distance  was  halved 
he  lay  down,  and  was  hidden  by  the  surrounding 
undergrowth,  which  covered  my  approach  to 
within  thirty  yards.  I  then  noticed  a  second 
buffalo  also  at  rest.  He  failed  to  rise  after 
receiving  a  two -ounce  bullet.  At  the  report 
his  companion,  whose  hind  quarters  had  been 
towards  me,  sprang  to  his  feet,  and  in  turning 
round  gave  an  easy  opportunity  for  a  shoulder 
shot.  Rushing  ponderously  in  different  directions, 
snorting  angrily  and  sniffing  the  air,  he  finally 
stood  about  twenty  yards  from  where  I  stooped, 
waiting  for  a  second  shot,  behind  a  scrubby  bush. 
The  bullet  he  had  received,  however,  had  done 
its  work,  for  before  I  could  fire  again  he  fell 
heavily  to  the  ground  with  scarcely  any  further 
movement.  Neither  pair  of  horns  was  worth 
saving,  a  point  being  broken  off"  the  one  pair, 
while  the  other  belonged  to  a  three-year-old 
bull,  and  was  not  fully  developed.  I  therefore 
left  a  boy  to  protect  the  meat  until  sent  for. 

In  the  evening  I  strolled  out  in  the  vicinity  of 
camp,  saw  a  nice  pallah  ram,  missed  him  twice 
and  returned.  The  day  after,  a  four  miles'  tramp 
took  me  to  fresh  giraffe  spoor.     While  following 



it  up  two  COWS  and  a  bull  went  away  in  some 
thick  covert  within  ten  yards  of  where  I  stood. 
So  thick  was  the  bush  that  all   I  could  see  was 
three  heads  towering  above  an  intervening  thorn- 
bush.     Nor  could  I  get  a  view  of  their  bodies  till 
I  had  run  about  300  yards,  when  I  came  upon 
them  standing  150  yards  off  in  an  open  glade. 
Unfortunately,   I  thought   at   the   time    I    could 
make   more   certain   of  hitting  the   bull,    which 
towered    above    his    companions,    by    crawling 
through  the  grass  for  fifty  yards  or  so,  for  my 
heavy  bullets,  on  account  of  the  modified  rifling 
of  the   barrels,  were   only   accurate   up   to   100 
yards,  and  the  soft  lead  spherical  bullet  which 
I    generally  used  was  hardly  good  enough   for 
giraffe  at  150  yards.     However,  a  watchful  eye 
was    looking    down    from    a    height    of    nearly 
twenty   feet,  and    I   was    defeated.      Away   the 
giraffe  went,  only  to  be  seen  once  again  in  the 
distance.     While  following  on  their  spoor,  four 
elands   trotted  across  eighty  yards   in  front     I 
waited  for  a  standing  shot  but  did  not  get  one,  as 
they  only  stood  once,  and  then  300  yards  away. 
Next  a  sable  antelope  bull  rose  a  few  yards  from 
me  and  galloped  away ;  an  easy  shot  was  pre- 
vented by  one  of  my  boys  getting  between  the 
game  and  the  rifle.     Next  moment  the  sable  was 
safe  in  the  thick  bush. 

I  was  beginning  to  fear  that  in  spite  of  excel- 
lent chances  I  was  going  to  have  a  blank  day. 



I  was,  however,  to  be  spared  this,  for  after  twice 
missing  an  oribi,  and  following  him  up,  he  ulti- 
mately gave  me  a  third  shot  at  loo  yards  and 
a  pretty  head  with  horns  above  the  average. 
Later  on  I  missed  a  pallah  ram,  and  one  of  a 
herd  of  some  fifty  wildebeest ;  and  that  evening, 
as  I  smoked  my  pipe  by  the  camp  fire,  almost 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  time  had  arrived 
to  abandon  hunting  in  favour  of  fishing  with 
ground  bait. 

Next  morning  an  attempt  to  drive  a  swampy 
plain  below  my  camp  for  reedbuck  and  pookoo 
failed.  The  villagers  had  fallen  in  as  beaters, 
but  refused  to  obey  Madzimani's  instructions. 
Accordingly  I  waited  in  vain  at  the  appointed 
place,  finally  going  back  to  camp  in  by  no 
means  the  sweetest  of  moods,  and  to  the  dis- 
comfiture of  the  delinquents,  whom  I  found 
squatting  round  the  fire,  but  who  very  shortly 
left  in  a  hurry. 

In  the  afternoon   I   sent  a  messenger  to  the 

Mokwai,  with  promises  of  meat  and  a  request 

for   canoes,    and   in   the    meantime   resolved   to 

make  a  two  days'  excursion  in  search  of  hitherto 

unsecured  species.    Soon  after  leaving  I  wounded 

a  reedbuck  with  a  bad  shot  in  the  hind-quarters. 

While  following  him  up  I  got  a  shot  at  another 

at  about   lOO  yards,  and  a  better-placed  bullet 

entered  his  heart.     I   sent  the  carcase  back  to 

camp  and  proceeded.     In  the  evening  I  found 



myself  in  a  very  gamey-looking  country,  where 
the  forest  was  intersected  by  numerous  vales 
growing  excellent  pasture.  I  had  passed  two 
herds  of  pallah,  and  had  missed  a  shot  at  a  nice 
ram  when  a  sharp  turn  brought  me  in  sight  of 
some  thirty  more  returning  from  their  evening 
drink  to  the  shelter  of  the  forest  I  got  an  easy 
shot  at  a  ram.  The  bullet  struck  him  in  the 
right  place  and  he  fell  dead. 

Further  on  I  sighted  a  herd  of  sable  antelope 
grazing  on  the  open  plain.  While  in  the  middle 
of  a  stalk  a  native  passing  within  a  few  hundred 
yards  put  them  to  flight.  It  was  improbable 
that  they  would  travel  far,  so  I  made  camp  at 
once  and  set  off  with  Madzimani  and  a  local  boy 
in  pursuit.  After  crossing  a  narrow  belt  of  forest 
a  second  plain  was  reached.  A  hundred  yards 
off  about  forty  wildebeest  enjoyed  their  evening 
feed ;  below  a  single  roan  antelope  bull  moved 
restlessly  about  as  though  suspicious  of  danger, 
while  in  the  centre  the  sable  antelope,  about  a 
dozen  in  number,  had  settled  down  beyond  a  bed 
of  tall  reeds. 

First  I  paid  my  attentions  to  the  roan,  but  he 
had  made  up  his  mind  to  trek  and  walked  slowly 
over  a  bare  patch  towards  the  reed-bed.  So  soon 
as  he  had  entered  the  covert  I  bolted  after  him. 
When  once  more  in  view  he  still  held  on  with  his 
quarters  towards  me,  while  the  sable  to  my  right 
showed  no  signs  of  alarm.     Changing  my  plans 



I  crawled  through  two-foot  grass  until  some  sixty 
yards  only  separated  the  game  from  myself.  I 
fired  into  the  shoulder  of  the  leading  bull.  He 
turned  and  went  away  with  the  herd.  Another 
shot  missed  him  and  I  followed  as  fast  as  my  legs 
could  carry  me.  The  herd  then  wheeled  to  the 
left  about  1 20  yards  off.  A  shot  at  another  bull 
brought  him  down,  but  after  dragging  his  tempo- 
rarily paralysed  hind-quarters  for  a  short  distance 
he  once  more  regained  his  legs  and  made  off  after 
his  companions.  A  quarter  of  an  hour's  run  with 
three  shots  and  as  many  misses  was  the  only 
effort  the  declining  light  allowed  me ;  but  the 
animal  was  hard  hit  and  I  gave  up  the  chase, 
knowing  that  he  would  not  be  far  off  in  the 

In  the  meantime  Madzimani  told  me  that  the 
bull  first  hit  lay  dead  on  the  plain.  It  was  quite 
starlight  as  we  retraced  our  steps.  The  whistling 
of  unseen  reedbucks  in  every  direction  testified 
to  their  numbers.  It  was  with  some  difficulty 
that  the  dead  antelope  was  found.  H  is  head  was 
then  cut  off  and  carried  by  Madzimani  into  camp. 

Contemporaneously  with  the  rising  of  the  sun 
the  bulk  of  the  boys  were  cutting  up  the  sable, 
which  had  escaped  the  notice  of  hyaena  and 
jackal,  while  three  boys  were  with  me  working 
out  the  spoor  of  the  wounded  bull.  Having 
passed  a  very  tame  and  inquisitive  herd  of 
tsessebe,    I    disturbed    the    sables   and    a   chase 



ensued.  The  wounded  animal,  however,  was 
very  stiff  and  was  quickly  left  behind.  A  mile 
run  discovered  him  standing,  but  before  I  could 
get  a  shot  he  was  off  again,  for  no  great  distance 
this  time,  however.  His  hind  limbs  refused  their 
office  and  down  he  came  once  more.  While 
walking  up  to  give  him  his  coup  de  grace  the 
paralysed  sable  tried  all  he  knew  to  get  at  me, 
but  beyond  a  series  of  threatening  snorts  and  the 
ominous  movement  of  his  sharp  pointed  horns,  he 
was  powerless  to  protest  and  died  accordingly. 

At  3.30  I  was  again  on  the  move.  During 
that  afternoon  I  saw  the  largest  herd  of  sable 
antelope — some  300 — I  have  ever  seen,  and 
herds  of  zebra,  tsessebe,  and  wildebeest,  none 
of  which  I  wanted,  so  I  did  not  fire  a  shot ;  also 
spoor  of  giraffe  and  eland,  each  of  which  I  did 
want,  but  failed  to  get  a  shot. 

In  connection  with  these  latter  I  witnessed  a 
scene  between  master  Madzimani  and  a  native, 
who,  with  a  small  boy,  was  surprised  while 
abstracting  honey  from  a  tree. 

** Where  are  the  giraffe  to  be  found?"  asked 

**  There  are  none." 

"  Then  where  are  the  eland  ?  " 

*'  There  are  no  eland  either." 

*'  I  am  Madzimani,"  was  the  rejoinder ;  *'  the 
orders  of  the  Mokwai  are  that  the  white  man 
shall  be  shown  where  the  game  is." 












"  I  am  not  going  to  show  the  white  man  the 
game,"  the  native  replied. 

"  But  it  is  the  Mokwai  s  order." 

"  What  do  I  care  about  the  Mokwai ! "  was 
quickly  followed  by  active  retaliation  by  Madzi- 
mani,  who  seized  his  opponent's  axe  and  threw 
him  to  the  ground.  I  ordered  the  boys  to 
separate  them.  They  rose,  but  Madzimani  held 
the  axe. 

"  Give  me  my  axe ! "  demanded  the  native. 

**  I  will  not,"  Madzimani  answered,  for  he  was 
now  very  angry. 

**  But  it  is  mine,"  persisted  the  other. 

I  thought  it  was  time  to  put  a  stop  to  the 
proceedings.  I  considered  that  Madzimani  was 
justified  in  resenting  the  disrespectful  tone  of  the 
native  towards  his  mistress,  and  his  refusal  to 
obey  her  command,  so  addressed  the  delinquent 

"You  have  refused  to  obey  the  Mokwai's 
order  and  to  show  Madzimani  where  the  giraffe 
and  eland  are  to  be  found ;  you  also  speak  disre- 
spectfully of  the  Mokwai.  Madzimani  shall  take 
the  axe  to  her,  and  you  can  then  go  and  claim  it, 
when  I  have  no  doubt  she  will  decide  between 

This  ended  the  affair,  and  the  native  went  his 

On  my  way  back  I  missed  a  pookoo,  and  later 
broke  a  reedbuck's  foreleg.  The  remaining 
three,  however,  were  good  enough  to  save  him, 

^  33 


and  after  a  long  chase  he  made  good  his  escape. 
On  reaching  camp  I  found  a  letter  from  my 
friend  M.  Goy,  informing  me  that  the  Mokwai 
had  despatched  canoes,  which  the  bearer  told  me 
had  arrived  at  the  base  camp.  So  on  the  follow- 
ing morning  I  returned  thither,  passing  a  herd  of 
upwards  of  lOO  roan  antelope  on  the  way.  In 
the  afternoon  I  was  once  more  on  the  river,  and 
reached  Sesheke  the  midday  following. 

This  terminated  the  only  excursion  made  ex- 
clusively for  purposes  of  sport  during  the  nine 
months  I  spent  in  the  Upper  Zambezi  districts. 
So  far  as  possible  I  have  carefully  recorded  every 
herd  of  game  and  ^single  antelope  seen,  and 
every  shot  fired,  with  its  approximate  range. 
The  nineteen  head  bagged  included  twelve 
distinct  species,  while  it  will  be  noticed  that  a 
better  man  could  have  secured  five  more  species 
in  the  same  time,  which  I  had  hunted  within  easy 
shooting  range,  but  for  one  reason  or  another 
failed  to  bag.  It  is  unfortunately  not  infrequent 
to  bring  forward  the  size  of  a  bag  of  big  game 
as  a  test  of  comparison,  variety  and  quality  of 
specimens  taking  quite  a  secondary  place.  How 
easy  it  is  for  a  very  indifferent  hunter  to  shoot 
down  four  or  five  animals  a  day  and  wound  three 
times  that  number  in  districts  similar  to  the  one 
described  above,  is,  I  venture  to  think,  obvious. 
Thus  a  large  bag  so  easily  secured,  so  far  from 
being  a  credit  to  the  sportsman,  is  in  some  cases 



very  much  the  reverse.  If  all  the  quagga  whose 
meat  was  abandoned  to  the  vultures  and  jackals 
had  been  left  unmolested,  this  species,  so  far  from 
being  extinct  now,  would  still  be  numerous  on 
the  Transvaal  Flats. 


IT  appeared  that  during  my  absence  a  troop  of 
lions  had  nightly  patrolled  the  district,  on 
one  occasion  actually  entering  the  precincts  of 
the  mission  station.  During  the  two  nights  prior 
to  my  return  they  had  unsuccessfully  visited  a 
cattle  kraal  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river. 
Hoping  they  might  devote  yet  another  night 
to  the  same  kraal,  I  crossed  with  two  boys  the 
Mokwai  had  placed  under  my  orders,  and  rigged 
up  a  shelter  of  boughs  against  the  scherm 
surrounding  the  kraal.  Running  at  right  angles 
to  the  schernii  was  a  fence  about  four  feet 
from  the  wall  of  my  hut,  thus  creating  a  blind 
alley,  at  the  far  end  of  which  was  tied  a  kid, 
whose  duty  it  was  to  bleat  at  intervals  during  the 
hours  of  darkness.  At  lo  p.m.  I  retired  to  this 
shelter,  and  made  up  my  mind  to  a  wakeful  night 
To  reach  the  kid  any  marauding  lion  would  of 
necessity  have  to  pass  within  two  feet  of  my 
rifle  s  muzzle,  which  was  pointed  towards  a  small 
opening  in  the  boughs,  through  which  aim  could 
be  readily  taken. 

And  thus    I    sat   on   a    native    stool      Hour 



succeeded  hour,  unbroken  by  even  the  yelp  of 
the  jackal,  let  alone  the  Hon  s  roar.  Mosquitoes 
were  very  thick,  and  their  music  never  ceased. 
Smoking  was  out  of  the  question,  so  I  was  com- 
pelled to  let  them  have  their  way.  And  so 
things  went  on  till  about  three  o'clock,  when  the 
alliance  between  the  mosquitoes  and  myself 
against  the  importunate  demands  of  Morpheus 
collapsed,  and  I  slept  soundly  till  sunrise.  Then 
I  crawled  out,  roused  the  natives,  and  examined 
the  surrounding  veldt.  A  single  lion  had  ap- 
proached to  within  forty  yards  of  the  shelter, 
but  seemingly  suspected  a  trap,  and  decamped. 

Hoping  for  better  luck  on  the  following  even- 
ing, I  repeated  the  performance.  Result  as 
before :  worried  by  mosquitoes,  overcome  by 
sleep,  and  neglected  by  the  lion. 

During  my  stay  at  Sesheke  I  took  five  obser- 
vations for  latitude,  the  mean  of  which  fixes  that 
place  in  17"*  31'  18"  S.  lat.,  some  seven  miles  to 
the  north  of  the  position  hitherto  assigned  to  it 
on  the  maps.* 

In  the  evening  of  July  29th  I  bade  farewell  to  my 
kind  friends  M.  and  Mdme.  Goy,  and  was  once 

*  I  subsequently  discovered  that  Livingstone's  observations 
place  Sesheke  in  17°  31'  38",  about  670  yards  south  of  mine,  but 
as  that  traveller  observed  from  the  south  bank,  while  mine  were 
taken  about  1 50  yards  from  the  north  bank,  there  cannot  be  more 
than  a  few  yards  between  the  two  fixings.  Thus  Livingstone's 
original  map  would  seem  to  have  been  corrected  to  the  work  of 
some  later  traveller — Whence  the  inaccuracy  on  the  maps  referred  to 
in  the  text 



more  being  paddled  up  stream.  Three  canoes 
had  been  lent  me ;  the  one  in  which  I  travelled 
was  four  feet  at  the  beam,  and  was  manned  by 
five  paddlers.  It  was  about  the  largest  **dug 
out "  canoe  I  have  seen,  and  though  comfortable, 
was  very  heavy  and  slow ;  so  much  so  that  two 
boys  in  one  of  the  others  could  go  past  it  as  they 
liked.  The  boys  called  it  **incubu,''  or  hippo- 
potamus, by  reason  of  its  ponderous  proportions. 
My  new  paddlers  did  not  compare  favourably  in 
personal  appearance  with  those  who  had  brought 
me  to  Sesheke,  nor,  with  two  exceptions,  were 
they  so  adept  in  the  use  of  their  paddles.  Camp- 
ing early  on  the  following  evening,  I  went  off  in 
search  of  meat,  and  returned  at  sundown  with  a 

For  two  years  consecutively  clouds  of  locusts 
had  infested  this  country,  cleared  the  harvest,  and 
reduced  the  people  to  a  state  of  famine  in  most 
districts.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Sesheke, 
however,  the  previous  harvest  had  ripened  and 
been  gathered  in  prior  to  the  invasion  of  these 
destructive  little  pests.  I  had  thus  been  able 
to  purchase  a  certain  amount  of  corn,  but  the 
canoes  were  not  capable  of  carrying  sufficient  for 
the  whole  journey  in  addition  to  the  loads. 
Reports  from  the  country  before  me  were  not  at 
all  reassuring,  native  information  serving  to  show 
that  corn  was  absolutely  unprocurable.  There 
was  nothing  for  it,   therefore,   but   to   feed  the 



boys  as  much  as  possible  on  meat,  save  the  corn 
for  use  where  game  was  unprocurable,  and  trust 
to  Providence  and  my  rifle  for  the  rest. 

In  the  early  morning  of  August  ist  I  was 
encamped  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river  near  the 
native  town  of  Katanga.  The  Sesheke  flats  had 
been  left  behind,  and  the  uninteresting,  clean-cut 
river  banks  had  given  place  to  high-rising  ground 
with  a  background  of  forest.  The  sun  was  just 
showing  itself  above  the  horizon,  when  one  of 
the  boys  aroused  me  with  the  news  that  three 
buffalo  were  feeding  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
river.  I  was  soon  ferried  across,  and  went  ofi"  in 
pursuit.  The  animals  had  in  the  meantime 
entered  a  bed  of  reeds  some  eight  feet  high  and 
covering  several  acres,  a  place  by  no  means 
suitable  for  successful  buffalo-hunting. 

I  left  the  boys  at  the  place  where  the  game 
had  entered  the  reeds,  with  instructions  to 
advance  noisily  after  I  had  got  well  ahead.  By 
a  circuitous  route  I  placed  myself  among  the 
reeds  at  the  far  side  of  a  small  open  space,  across 
which  the  buffalo  might  be  expected  to  pass, 
when  they  became  apprised  of  the  advance  on 
their  rear.  And  so  it  was.  After  remaining 
hidden  for  about  five  minutes  a  disturbance  in  the 
reeds  showed  that  I  was  in  the  right  place,  and 
presently  three  bulls  emerged  at  a  slow,  clumsy 
trot  about  thirty  yards  from  me.  A  shot  into 
the  lungs  of  one  of  them,  which  carried  a  massive 



pair  of  horns,  separated  him  from  his  companions. 
While  they  cantered  heavily  towards  the  forest 
the  wounded  animal  made  straight  for  a  second 
reedbed  a  couple  of  hundred  yards  away,  and 
was  shortly  lost  to  view. 

A  wounded  buffalo,  five  times  out  of  six,  will 
charge  his  pursuers  when  he  finds  them  within 
five-and-twenty  yards  of  him.  In  the  open  this 
charge  is  not  very  serious  to  an  active  man 
armed  with  a  good  rifle,  and  the  avowed  pre- 
ference of  sportsmen  for  the  charge  of  a  Hon 
to  that  of  a  buffalo  has  always  been  a  mystery 
to  me.  Still,  in  reeds  where  the  enemy  stands 
motionless  until  he  hears  his  pursuers  within  five 
yards  of  him  he  has  everything  in  his  favour 
when  he  makes  his  charge,  and  I  might  almost 
say  the  hunter  who  places  himself  in  such  a  posi- 
tion merits  the  consequences  of  his  unnecessary 
rashness.  When  I  had  satisfied  myself  that  the 
wounded  bull  had  not  left  the  reeds,  which 
covered  a  space  of  about  three  acres,  I  remained 
to  windward  of  the  patch,  and  sent  the  boys  to 
leeward  with  orders  to  make  as  much  noise  as 
they  were  capable  of  (which  may  be  taken  as 
considerable),  so  as  to  drive  the  game  if  possible 
into  the  trap.  I  had  remained  in  my  position 
for  about  ten  minutes ;  the  bull  had  shown  his 
whereabouts  by  making  a  sudden  short  rush 
through  the  reeds,  and  the  boys  had  lapsed  into 
silence,  when   I   conceived  the  idea  of   visiting 



my  beaters.  I  found  the  group  jabbering  away 
as  usual,  but  not  attempting  to  play  their  part  in 
the  hunt.  While  I  was  rating  them,  however, 
three  or  four  fresh  boys  appeared  from  camp 
headed  by  one  **  Bushman,"  a  repulsive-looking 
nigger,  but  a  good  hunter.  He  at  once  volun- 
teered to  drive  the  buffalo  from  covert,  so  I 
returned  to  my  former  position.  Holding  their 
assegais  in  front  of  them,  they  advanced  in  a  long 
line  towards  the  place  where  I  had  last  heard  the 
wounded  bull.  Pressing  their  assegais  forward 
and  down  at  each  step  of  their  advance,  the  reeds 
were  laid  low  and  the  ground  behind  them  made 
sufficiently  open  to  allow  them  to  retreat  should 
the  buffalo  break  back.  Looking  down  from  a 
slight  rise  I  eagerly  watched  events  as  the  reeds 
fell  in  front  of  the  advancing  line,  and  bos  caffa 
must  soon  decide  on  his  course  of  action.  Pre- 
sently a  sudden  sensation  in  the  reeds,  and  out 
he  came,  about  sixty  yards  away,  but  going  very 
lame  in  front  After  I  had  run  after  him  for  a 
short  distance  he  turned  and  stood.  A  soft  lead 
bullet  on  the  point  of  the  left  shoulder  merely 
sent  a  shock  through  him,  but  down  he  came  to 
the  next,  and  the  hunt  was  over.  He  carried  a 
magnificent  pair  of  horns,  which  I  saved  for  my 
collection.  On  returning  to  camp  I  made  a 
pencil  sketch*  of  the  animal's  head,  with  a  view 
to    showing    the    true   profile  of   bos    caffa,  as 

*  Reproduced  on  page  35. 


naturalists  in  setting  up  heads  invariably  give 
the  buffalo  a  straight  and  even  at  times  a  concave 

On  the  3rd  the  Katimo  Molilo  Rapids  were 
reached.  The  name  signifies  "  Fire  extinguisher." 
They  are  the  first  of  a  series  of  rapids  and  form 
the  first  bar  to  navigation  for  some  ninety  miles 
for  any  craft  larger  than  a  canoe.  Canoes,  how- 
ever, are  not  even  unloaded  in  the  passage  up 
and  down  any  of  the  Zambezi  rapids  between 
Kazungula  and  Lialui.  In  fact,  they  never  leave 
the  water  except  when  passing  the  Gonye  Falls 
and  the  Ngamboe  Cataract. 

As  is  usually  the  case  when  rapids  occur,  the 
beauty  of  the  river  scenery  is  here  greatly  en- 
hanced by  their  presence.  The  banks  are  higher 
and  more  broken,  and  the  small  tree-clad  islands 
lend  *  additional  effect  and  variety.  Two  miles 
beyond  the  Katimo  Molilo  the  canoes  had  to  be 
forced  through  the  Mosila-wa-Ndimba  Rapids. 

This  name  signifies  **the  tail  of  the  cepa.'* 
The  cepa  is  a  small  species  of  wild  cat,  common 
throughout  this  country.  It  is  grey  and  spotted 
with  a  darker  and  reddish  colouring,  and  across 
its  tail  is  a  succession  of  similarly  coloured  bars, 
between  which  and  the  successive  bars  of  rock 
over  which  the  river  rushes  at  this  place  it  is  to 
be  presumed  the  natives  see  some  resemblance. 
The  amount  of  elephant  spoor  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  river  in  the  neighbourhood  of  these  rapids 



indicated  a  favourite  watering-place  for  these 
much  persecuted  monsters. 

While  travelling  the  smooth  reach  above  the 
Mosila-wa-Ndimba  Rapids,  a  fish  which  originally 
would  have  weighed  some  four  pounds  floated 
down  stream  on  the  surface  of  the  water.  An 
occasional  spasmodic  flap  proved  that  life  was 
not  yet  extinct,  so  I  called  to  the  boys  in  a  canoe 
behind  to  secure  what  subsequently  turned  out 
to  be  three  quarters  of  a  fish  only.  About  a 
quarter  of  the  after  part  of  the  body  was  missing, 
and  had  been  cut  off  as  cleanly  as  though  with  a 
sharp  knife,  while  the  concave  nature  of  the 
incision  pointed  to  the  fact  that  a  crocodile  had 
been  just  too  late  for  the  greater  part  of  his  meal. 
It  is  an  ill  wind  that  blows  no  one  any  good,  and 
in  this  case  the  proverbial  tears  would  have  been 
shed  less  bitterly,  I  feel  sure,  had  the  disappointed 
crocodile  realised  what  satisfaction  his  partly 
escaped  prey  was  destined  to  give  a  humble 
English  traveller  on  the  bank  hard  by.  Fried  in 
fat  the  fish  was  excellent. 

Not  more  than  a  couple  of  miles  beyond  the 
Mosila-wa-Ndimba  the  river  surface  is  again 
disturbed  by  the  Manyekanza  Rapids.  Immedi- 
ately above  these  I  decided  to  remain  for  a  few 
days.  It  was  a  lovely  spot  for  a  camp.  The 
river  was  some  800  yards  wide,  clear  and 
tranquil.  To  the  left  the  water  rushed  between 
the  line  of  small  islands  and  over  craggy  rocks  in 



its  inevitable  progress  to  the  sea,  a  thousand  miles 
beyond.  On  the  right  the  broad  blue  expanse 
was  calm  and  undisturbed  save  by  the  occasional 
appearance  of  a  herd  of  hippopotami,  as  they 
watched  and  wondered  at  the  operations  in 
progress  on  the  bank. 

The  map  of  the  Zambezi  between  Kazungula 
and  Manyekanza  as  supplied  to  me  by  the  Royal 
Geographical  Society  had  proved  to  be  far  from 
correct,  according  to  the  observations  I  had  taken 
during  my  journey.  My  fixings  did  not  alter 
the  positions  of  the  two  places  above  mentioned, 
but  between  them  the  actual  course  of  the  river 
is  in  places  as  much  as  seven  miles  north  of  its 
hitherto  supposed  course.  On  discovering  this 
inaccuracy  I  made  a  point  of  travelling  slowly 
and  taking  latitudinal  observations  almost  daily, 
so  as  to  establish  as  far  as  possible  the  soundness 
of  the  correction  in  the  eyes  of  experts  on  my 
return  to  England.  Out  of  the  seventeen  latitu- 
dinal observations  I  took  during  this  ninety  miles, 
all  but  one  at  the  time  of  taking  appeared  satis- 
factory, and  all  worked  in  so  well  with  the  route 
sketch  as  to  leave  no  doubt  in  my  own  mind  as 
to  the  general  accuracy  of  the  correction. 

Shortly  after  landing  I  witnessed  a  most 
amusing  ceremony,  in  which  one  of  my  paddlers 
and  a  strange  boy  participated.  The  stranger 
was  either  a  relation  or  a  great  friend  of  the  boy 
in  question,  from  whom  he  had  doubtless  been 



separated  for  some  time.  Squatting  down  on 
their  haunches  immediately  in  front  of  one 
another,  each  held  the  others  hands — left  in 
right — shook  them,  and  gazed  affectionately  into 
his  friend's  eyes  for  some  seconds.  Then  with 
the  right  hands  the  left  ones  were  drawn,  palm 
downwards,  to  friendly  lips,  which  half  sucked, 
half  kissed  the  dirty  black  surface  thus  presented. 
On  the  completion  of  this  second  stage  they  once 
more  looked  intently  at  one  another,  and  after 
each  had  repeatedly  gone  through  the  form  of 
spitting  into  the  others  face  they  both  rose 
to  their  feet  and  jabbered  away  as  usual, 
apparently  none  the  worse  for  all  they  had 
gone  through. 

Early  the  next  morning  I  went  out  with  my 
rifle.  In  following  the  river  bank  northwards 
for  a  few  miles  I  noticed  a  great  deal  of  spoor — 
elephant,  rhinoceros,  buffalo,  and  many  of  the 
larger  species  of  antelope.  These  animals, 
however,  are  seldom  seen  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  the  river.  During  the  night 
they  come  down  to  water,  but  by  the  time  the 
sun  rises  they  have  already  placed  a  considerable 
distance  between  the  river  and  themselves.  Pallah 
and  pookoo  were  numerous  on  the  banks  (I  was 
going  to  say  **  are,"  but,  if  native  report  be  true, 
the  rinderpest  well  nigh  killed  everything  seven 
months  later),  while  an  occasional  waterbuck 
or   koodoo  alone   represented    the   larger  class 



of   antelope    preferring   the   river   bank   to   the 
forest  beyond. 

On  the  5th  I  shot  a  pallah  in  the  morning 
to  keep  the  pot  boiling  while  I  was  away,  and 
in  the  afternoon  crossed  the  river  with  seven 
or  eight  boys,  my  blanket,  and  a  little  bread 
and  tea.  The  local  natives  had  told  me  that 
giraffe  were  to  be  found  to  the  south-west  of  the 
river,  and  as  they  were  the  only  species  hitherto 
not  procured  which  did  not  exist  to  the  east  I 
was  anxious  to  secure  one. 

The  sun  had  been  down  some  little  time,  and 
I  had  tramped  about  eight  miles  without  the 
encouragement  of  seeing  even  the  spoor  of 
game,  when  I  found  myself  only  about  100  yards 
from  three  elands.  They  were  very  intent  on 
their  evening  meal,  so  did  not  notice  me  till  I  had 
almost  halved  the  distance  and  aimed  as  best 
I  could,  for  it  was  too  dark  to  use  my  sights,  at 
the  biggest  of  the  three.  The  bullet  apparently 
struck  high,  and  he  went  away  after  his  com- 
panions, lame  in  front.  It  was  impossible,  for 
want  of  daylight,  to  follow  for  more  than  a  short 
distance  that  evening.  The  wounded  antelope 
had  already  separated  from  the  other  two  when 
I  halted  and  camped  for  the  night  on  his  spoor. 
It  was  a  beautiful  night  and  the  moon  was  nearly 
full.  There  is  something  soothingly  impressive 
about  these  bright  moonlight  nights  spent  in  the 
open  within  the  African  forest.     The  heat  of  the 



day  has  given  place  to  a  cool  freshness  which 
allows  sleep  with  comfort,  while  the  clear,  dry 
atmosphere  on  the  great  inland  plateau  permits 
the  reflected  light  from  the  moon  to  play  so 
brightly  on  the  earth  that  artificial  light  is  not 
even  a  necessity  in  writing  or  reading. 

By  sunrise  next  morning  we  were  again  on 
the  eland's  spoor,  which  now  led  in  the  direction 
of  the  riven  For  twelve  miles  the  cow  —  for 
such  she  now  appeared  to  be — was  followed. 
Three  times  she  was  viewed,  but  the  bush  in 
each  case  prevented  the  possibility  of  a  second 
shot  being  fired  with  effect.  It  was  then  that 
one  of  my  boys  pointed  out  a  roan  antelope 
standing  broadside  on  barely  lOO  yards  to  the 
left.  A  shot  through  the  lungs  sent  him  away 
very  lame  and  losing  much  blood.  I  had  almost 
come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  eland  had 
enough  life  left  in  her  to  keep  me  going  all 
day,  so  confess  to  being  glad  of  the  excuse  for 
abandoning  her  spoor  for  the  roan's,  which  I 
could  see  clearly  would  not  take  me  more  than 
a  short  distance.  And  so  it  was ;  a  half-  mile 
spurt,  and  a  coup  de  grace  added  to  my  collection 
a  good  pair  of  roan  antelope  horns,  twenty-eight 
inches  from  base  to  tip.  The  eland  cow  had 
described  a  circle  in  her  flight,  so  that  the  body 
of  the  roan  now  lay  within  a  mile  of  my  last 
night  s  camp,  and  not  more  than  six  miles  from 
the  river.      It  was  not  my  intention  to  return 



to  camp  that  day,  so  boys  were  despatched  with 
calabashes  for  water.  In  the  meantime  the 
meat  was  cut  up,  and  the  bulk  of  it  with  the 
horns  sent  off  to  headquarters  on  the  Zambezi. 
When  the  boys  had  returned  with  water,  I 
mentioned  my  intention  of  proceeding  in  a 
direction  to  the  south-west,  having  an  idea  that 
I  should  strike  a  watercourse,  part  of  which  I 
had  explored  on  a  previous  occasion.  The 
African  cannot  conceive  why  he  should  not 
remain  inactive  and  gormandise  as  long  as  there 
is  meat  to  be  consumed ;  and,  like  the  hound, 
he  hunts  best  when  hungry. 

"You  must  go  that  way,  N'tate"  (Father),  "for 
there  is  no  water.  There  is  only  water  in  the 
big  river,"  interposed  one  of  the  boys  in  his 
anxiety  to  return  to  camp. 

"Yes,"  I  answered,  playing  the  game  of 
"bluff";  "there  is  water  there.  I  will  sleep 
by  it  to-night." 

"  Ruri  N'tate "  (truly.  Father),  "  there  is  no 
water  over  there." 

"  You  do  not  speak  the  truth.  There  is  water 
there,"  I  answered,  pointing  in  the  direction 
indicated  as  I  rose. 

In  five  minutes  I  was  on  the  move,  followed 
by  the  five  boys  kept  behind  for  the  purpose. 
After  marching  for  about  an  hour,  I  allowed 
one  of  the  local  boys  who  accompanied  me  to 
take  the  lead ;   and  sure  enough,  as  the  setting 



sun  reddened  the  sky,  he  stopped  at  a  dug-out 
pit  of  milky-looking  water. 

"  Did  I  not  tell  you  there  was  water  here," 
I  said.  **Why  did  you  say  that  which  is  false? 
It  is  not  good  to  lie.*' 

Not  in  the  least  abashed — for  to  lie  is  more 
natural  with  these  gentry  than  to  speak  the  truth 
—  the  boy  merely  agreed  that  I  had  been 
right,  and  forthwith  proceeded  to  fill  the  cala- 
bashes. Half  a  mile  further  on  I  bivouacked 
for  the  night.  It  was  a  gamey-looking  country, 
and  at  sunrise  I  set  off  with  four  of  the  boys 
in  continuance  of  the  line  taken  on  the  previous 
afternoon.  I  had  gone  about  five  miles,  and 
had  already  detoured  to  the  north  in  order 
to  return  to  the  bivouac  over  fresh  ground.  I 
had  seen  nothing  I  wanted  to  shoot ;  herds  of 
wildebeest,  tsessebe,  and  zebra  had  alone  shown 
themselves.  It  was  then  that  three  women 
appeared  on  the  scene,  each  carrying  a  quantity 
of  meat.  On  approach  the  following  character- 
istic conversation  ensued  between  Bushman  and 
the  eldest  lady : 

"  What  have  you  got  there  ?  " 

"Qualater"  (either  roan  or  sable  antelope) 
"  meat." 

"You  lie,  it  is  eland,"  was  the  discourteous 

**No,  truly  it  is  a  'qualater'  which  lions  killed 
in  the  night." 

E  49 


**  It  is  not  'qualater/  it  is  eland"  (which  was 
obvious) ;  "  the  white  man  wounded  it  and 
followed  it  yesterday." 

These  black  Saphiras  then  acknowledged  that 
it  was  eland ;  on  which  Bushman  stepped 
forward  to  claim  the  meat,  for  there  is  an 
unwritten  law  in  this  country  which  gives  the 
meat  of  a  dead  animal  to  the  man  who  first 
wounds  and  hunts  it. 

"No,"  I  interrupted,  **  the  women  must  have 
the  meat" 

"  But  it  is  yours,  N'tate." 

"  That  is  all  right ;  I  will  take  the  head  only, 
but  the  women  must  show  me  where  the  lions 
killed  this  eland." 

It  is  a  remarkable  coincidence  that  the  dead 
animal  proved  to  be  actually  the  eland  I  had 
followed  on  the  previous  day,  and  curiously 
enough  her  spoor  showed  that  she  had  passed 
within  200  yards  of  where  I  slept  the  night 
before,  a  distance  of  six  or  seven  miles  from 
the  point  where  I  shot  the  roan  antelope,  and 
finally,  as  I  thought,  gave  up  the  eland. 

Squatting  down  near  the  remnants  that  re- 
mained was  a  tall,  gaunt  old  native,  who  guarded 
the  meat  till  the  women  should  return  to  carry 
it  away.  Here  the  customs  imposed  by  civiliza- 
tion are  reversed.  The  men  are  the  drones, 
while  the  ladies  do  the  work.  This  enhances 
their  value  to  such  an  extent  that  the  daughter 



of  a  freeman  can  rarely  be  procured  without  the 
extravagant  payment  of  at  least  five  cows.  A 
chiefs  daughter  of  course  is  still  more  expensive. 
In  fact,  whereas  we  write  £  s.  d.,  the  native 
African  will  calculate  his  wealth  under  the 
headings  of  women,  cattle,  goats. 

"  Lions  killed  this  eland  ?  "  I  asked  of  the  tall, 
gaunt  native. 

"Yes,  N'tate." 

** Where  are  the  lions  then?  They  must  be 
sleeping  close  by." 

"Yes,  they  sleep  there,"  and  he  pointed  into 
the  forest. 

It  is  not  an  easy  thing  to  induce  boys  to 
take  up  the  spoor  of  a  troop  of  lions  until  they 
have  learnt  that  their  master  is  equal  to  the 
occasion  at  the  critical  moment.  Very  naturally 
these  unsophisticated  hunters,  who  have  only 
assegais  to  depend  on  for  defence,  look  upon  the 
king  of  cats  with  a  very  extreme  respect.  I 
determined  therefore  to  try  to  bribe  away  this 
natural  caution. 

"  If  you  will  show  me  the  lions,  I  will  give 
you  a  sitziba." 

At  this  prospect  of  wealth  the  squatting  en- 
tanglement of  black  limbs  unwrapped  itself, 
and  in  a  moment  the  boy  sprang  to  his  feet 
with  the  alacrity  of  a  jack-in-the-box.  In  vain 
the  paddler  Bushman  endeavoured  to  dissuade 
him  from  his   purpose.     I    heard   more   than    I 



was  intended  to.  But  what  were  the  lions  to 
him  with  a  whole  sitziba  in  view!  Seven  feet 
of  unbleached  calico,  value  2^cl.  a  yard  in 
England!  No  wonder  he  turned  a  deaf  ear 
to  Bushman  s  whispered  cautions. 

While  tracing  back  the  spoor  from  the  carcase, 
the  events  of  the  last  moments  of  the  wounded 
cow  s  life  were  to  be  read  as  clearly  as  if  in  print. 
A  large  and  small  spoor  showed  how  a  lion  and 
lioness  followed  stealthily  for  some  distance  the 
unsuspecting  eland.  Suddenly  she  became  ap- 
prised of  the  danger  of  her  position,  and 
galloped  off  as  fast  as  her  lamed  shoulder 
would  permit  Instantly  the  lion  made  a  spurt, 
gained  on  his  quarry,  and  with  three  mighty 
bounds  sprang  on  his  helpless  prey,  which  carried 
him  some  thirty  yards  before  she  fell. 

Asking  me  to  remain  where  I  was  with  my 
boys,  the  tall  gaunt  one  disappeared  into  the 
forest  to  reconnoitre.  In  five  minutes  he  was  to 
be  seen  running  back  and  excitedly  waving  his 
arms  as  he  said  in  suppressed  tones : 

'*  The  lions  are  there,  the  lions  are  there ! " 

**  All  right,  lead  me  to  them,  and  you  shall 
have  your  sitziba." 

We  walked  quickly  through  the  forest  for 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile ;  the  native  then  took 
up  the  spoor,  while  I  kept  my  eyes  well  to  the 
front  as  we  advanced. 

The   forest   was   admirably    adapted    for    the 




purpose.  Scarcely  any  undergrowth  obstructed 
the  view.  Thus  I  suddenly  caught  sight  of 
a  single  lion  moving  slowly  away  about  400 
yards  in  front.  Calling  the  boys*  attention 
to  him  I  followed  at  a  good  double,  and  had 
gained  perhaps  100  yards  when  five  lions  ap- 
peared lobbing  along  slowly  towards  a  strip 
of  tall  grass,  about  seventy  yards  long  by  thirty 
broad.  As  I  came  in  view  they  turned  their  heads 
towards  me  for  a  moment,  continuing  their  course 
as  before,  so  that  by  the  time  they  reached  the 
grass  about  150  yards  separated  us.  Whether 
they  meant  to  take  covert,  or  to  continue  their 
dignified  retreat  beyond  the  patch,  remained  to 
be  seen.  Somehow  I  suspected  the  latter  course, 
so  ran  all  I  knew  for  the  rest  of  the  way  in 
the  hopes  of  heading  them.  I  was  just  in  time, 
for  as  I  reached  the  further  extremity  of  the 
g^rass,  the  five  lions  broke  covert  within  ten 
yards  of  me.  Their  bellies  were  distended 
with  eland  meat,  and  they  walked  lazily  on  in 
a  direction  three-quarters  left  about  from  me, 
without  even  deigning  to  turn  their  heads.  I 
was  even  beginning  to  suspect  that  my  presence 
was  unnoticed,  and  waited  quietly  till  thirty 
yards  should  separate  us  before  commencing 
the  attack.  Twenty  paces  from  me,  however, 
the  big  lion  of  the  party  stood,  turned  partly 
round,  and  with  head  erect  and  what  little  mane 
he  possessed  electrified,  as  it  were,  looked  stead- 



fastly  in  my  direction  as  I  knelt  and  aimed  well 
forward  at  the  shoulder.  I  must  acknowledge 
that  a  thrill  of  admiration  passed  through  me. 
The  animal  looked  all  that  dignity  and  bold 
magnificence  which  of  late  years  some  would 
fain  deny  to  his  species.  I  must,  however, 
confess  to  never  having  heard  a  hunter  of 
experience  generalise  in  speaking  of  the  lion 
as  a  cur.  As  I  fired  he  rolled  over,  nor  did 
the  remaining  four  so  much  as  turn  their  heads 
or  quicken  their  pace.  Not  being  quite  dead, 
and  thinking  the  wound  might  not  have  deprived 
him  of  the  power  of  temporary  recovery  and  its 
possible  consequences,  I  finished  him  with  a 
bullet  from  the  left  barrel.  This  time  a  lioness 
turned  suddenly  round,  galloped  back,  and  stood 
immediately  behind  her  sires  now  motionless 
carcase,  looking  in  the  direction  of  his  slaughterer. 
Aiming  at  the  point  of  her  shoulder — her  body 
was  only  turned  half  towards  me — I  fired.  For 
the  next  few  seconds  an  occasional  oudine  of 
the  lioness  was  all  that  could  be  seen  of  her, 
as  she  threw  herself  violently  about  in  the  dust, 
growling  and  tearing  at  her  Bank.  I  glanced 
at  the  remaining  three  as  they  continued  their 
course  with  the  same  lazy  gait  Anxious  that 
they  should  not  get  too  far  away,  I  took  a 
snap  shot  at  the  struggling  lioness,  hoping  to 
kill  her  and  leave  her  for  the  present  The 
bullet,  however,  entered  too  far  back,  and  merely 



had  the  effect  of  resuscitating  her,  for  she 
immediately  rose  and  trotted  away  to  covert. 
It  was  then  that  the  boys  came  up.  They 
showed  more  activity  of  movement  a  few 
moments  later.  Muliphi  took  the  spoor,  but 
in  a  few  yards  he  stopped. 

**  There  is  the  lioness,  Baas." 

I  looked  in  vain.     ''Where?"  I  asked. 

"  There  she  is.  Baas,  close  to.'* 

I  lowered  my  line  of  sight,  having  expected  to 
see  her  retreating  through  the  forest  some  300 
yards  ahead.  What  subsequently  turned  out  to 
be  thirty-four  yards  separated  us  from  a  low, 
scrubby  bush.  Behind  this  bush  the  lioness  stood, 
broadside  on,  eyeing  me  with  lowered  head  and 
fallen  jaw,  and  looking  very  ugly  indeed.  I  was 
in  the  act  of  moving  off  to  the  right,  so  as  to 
get  a  better  shot,  when  crash  she  came  right 
through  the  bush  and  straight  for  me,  giving 
utterance  to  low,  deep  growls.  She  had  halved 
the  distance  when  I  fired  the  right  barrel.  The 
bullet,  as  I  afterwards  found,  missed  the  chest, 
passing  through  the  fleshy  part  of  the  right 
thigh,  clearing  the  bone,  and  not  even  laming 
her.  There  was  nothing  for  it  but  to  make 
a  certainty  with  my  left  barrel,  so  I  determined 
to  hold  fire  until  she  was  sufficiently  near  to 
make  a  miss  all  but  impossible.  She  was  four 
or  five  feet  from  the  muzzle  of  my  rifle  when  I 
pulled  the  trigger.     I  sprang  back  immediately, 



and  it  is  perhaps  fortunate  I  did  so,  for  as  I 
lighted  the  lioness  fell  dead  at  my  feet,  her  right 
paw  passing  within  a  few  inches  of  my  left  knee 
as  she  finished  her  final  bound. 

The  excitement  over,  I  had  leisure  to  take  in 
the  ridiculous  aspect  of  the  scene.  On  looking 
round  for  the  boys  who  a  few  seconds  pre- 
viously were  immediately  behind  me,  six  were 
to  be  seen  thirty  yards  to  the  rear,  leaning 
on  their  assegais  and  looking  for  all  the  world 
as  though  they  had  been  in  the  same  position 
for  the  past  quarter  of  an  hour ;  while  my 
Bamangwato  boy,  Muliphi,  was  in  the  act  of 
crawling  from  underneath  a  small  bush,  with  an 
expression  of  extreme  horror  written  on  his 
ugly  black  face.  Afterwards  I  asked  my  gallant 
followers  what  they  would  have  done  had  I 
missed  the  lioness  and  she  had  got  me  down. 

**  Oh,  we  would  have  assegaied  her,"  was  the 
matter  of  fact  reply. 

**  You  ran  away  so  as  to  be  ready,  I  suppose." 
'*  Oh,  but  we  would  have  come  back  again." 
The  bad  shot  I  had  made  at  the  lioness  in  the 
first  instance  had  unfortunately  caused  sufficient 
delay    to    considerably    increase    the     distance 
between  the  remaining  three  and  myself.     How- 
ever, I  caught  sight  of  one  of  them  some  400 
yards  away,  walking  through  the  forest.     I  ran 
after  him,  calling  on  the  boys  to  follow. 
**  Let  them  alone,  N'tate." 



"  Two  are  enough." 

"They  will  kill  you."  were  at  first  the  only 
responses.  However,  they  came  up  very  shortly 
after  I  reached  the  spot  where  I  had  last  seen 
the  retreating.  Hon. 

Then  leaving  the  spooring  to  the  boys,  I  kept 
my  eyes  well  to  the  front,  as  is  usual.  After 
following  for  about  half  a  mile  I  began  to  wonder 
why  I  had  not  even  caught  a  glimpse  of  the  trio, 
and  it  occurred  to  me  to  look  at  the  spoor.  But 
lo!  to  my  annoyance  there  was  none.  The 
rascals  had  deliberately  led  me  off  the  track. 
When  I  rated  them  for  their  cowardice,  they 
did  not  seem  to  mind.  Their  object  had  been 
attained,  and  the  lions,  before  I  could  again  come 
up  with  them,  had  reached  a  large  plain  of  long 
grass  from  which  it  would  have  been  impossible 
to  evict  them. 

Thus  baffled  I  returned  to  the  dead  lion  and 
lioness,  measured  them  carefully,  and  super- 
intended the  skinning.  They  were  both  good 
specimens  in  coat  and  size,  though  the  lion  was 
all  but  maneless.  His  measurements  were  38^ 
inches  at  the  shoulder,  taken  between  vertically 
placed  assegais,  the  one  at  the  shoulder  and  the 
other  in  contact  with  the  pads  of  both  feet 
pressed  forward  as  in  standing  position.  His 
pegged-out  skin  was  10  ft.  3  in.  The  lioness's 
measurements  were  37f  in.  and  9  ft  respectively. 



A  FEW  days  later,  having  previously  men- 
tioned my  intentions  of  hunting  elephant, 
I  ordered  the  boys  to  fill  the  calabashes  with 
water,  purposing  to  sleep  some  miles  from  the 
river  that  night,  and  if  possible  to  get  among 
the  elephants  in  the  morning. 

They  sullenly  remained  seated.  I  suspect 
that,  although  permission  had  been  given  to 
shoot  elephants,  their  instructions  were  to  keep 
me  away  from  these  animals  if  possible. 

"We  do  not  know  the  country/'  they  pro- 

**  That  matters  little ;  we  take  water  with  us ; 
I  will  go  first,  you  shall  follow." 

Still  showing  no  inclination  to  obey,  I  ordered 
my  three  South  African  boys  to  get  ready  and 
accompany  me.     To  the  others  I  said  : 

**And  as  for  you,  if  you  do  not  follow  me 
I  will  send  you  all  back  to  the  Mokwai,  and  you 
shall  take  a  letter  to  her  from  me.  I  shall  wait 
here  till  other  boys  are  sent  who  shall  take  me 
to  Liwanika." 

This  threat  was  enough :    they  followed,  and 



we  camped  that  evening  about  six  miles  from 
the  river. 

Very  shortly  after  sunrise  the  boys  were 
working  out  the  spoor  of  a  large  bull  elephant, 
and  continued  to  do  so  till  about  an  hour 
before  sundown,  when  they  got  on  to  a  fresh 
bull  by  mistake  at  a  place  where  the  ground  had 
been  trampled  down  in  every  direction  by  a 
herd.  Once  he  was  heard  trumpeting  about 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  off,  but  we  never  came  up 
with  him.  Just  after  sunset  I  fired  at  a  pallah 
ram  with  a  Mannlicher.  The  buck  went  off 
apparently  unhurt,  disappearing  over  the  brow 
of  a  hillock  in  front.  One  of  the  boys  found 
his  carcase  quite  by  chance  as  we  descended  the 
slope.  The  small  Mannlicher  bullet  had  entered 
the  chest,  passed  through  both  heart  and  liver, 
and  out  behind  the  ribs,  yet  with  this  wound 
the  antelope  had  run  quite  200  yards  before 
he  fell. 

The  next  few  days  brought  nothing  of  interest. 
Enough  was  shot  to  provide  the  boys  with 
meat,  and  a  six  hours'  chase  after  a  rhinoceros 
was  unsuccessful.  On  the  14th  August  we  con- 
tinued the  journey  and  reached  the  Ngambwe 
Cataracts.  Here  the  goods  were  unloaded  and 
carried  some  800  yards.  The  empty  canoes 
were  then  forced  up  the  rapids  to  the  foot  of  the 
cataract  and  dragged  over  dry  ground  to  the  still 
water  above. 



At  midday  on  the  15  th  the  canoes  were 
passing  up  the  Lusu  Rapids.  These  rapids 
are  most  delicately  picturesque.  I  have  seen 
nothing  on  the  Zambezi  to  equal  them  in  beauty. 
The  river  is  broken  up  by  innumerable  tree-clad 
islands  into  narrow,  rocky  channels  through 
which  the  water  rushes  and  murmurs  in  its  on- 
ward course.  Above,  the  overhanging  branches 
meet,  and  cast  their  shade  on  the  watery  surface 
beneath  them.  Occasional  open  spaces  allow  the 
bright  tropical  sun  to  cast  his  dazzling  rays  on 
the  dancing  torrent.  The  intensity  of  light  and 
shade  thus  created  can  be  imagined.  There  was 
a  brilliancy  about  the  picture  which  reminded  me 
more  of  my  childhood  s  conception  of  fairyland 
than  of  any  natural  scenery  I  have  ever  seen. 
I  was  quite  sorry  when  the  canoes  at  last 
emerged  from  this  watery  labyrinth  and  entered 
the  calm  reaches  beyond. 

That  evening  camp  was  pitched  at  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Njoko  (monkey)  river  and 

Having  shot  a  pallah  and  two  pookoo  rams 
for  the  boys  that  were  to  be  left  behind  at  the 
main  camp,  I  started  up  the  Njoko  with  the  two 
small  canoes,  intending  to  explore  that  river  for 
forty  or  fifty  miles  before  continuing  the  journey 

On   the  afternoon  of  the    17th   I   started   up 

the  Njoko  on  foot  with  two  boys,  sending  four 



Others  in  the  canoes  with  the  blankets  and 
provisions.  The  river,  though  only  about  twenty 
feet  wide  at  this  time  of  year,  is  deep,  swift,  and 
very  circuitous.  Consequently  it  was  quite  two 
hours  after  sunset  by  the  time  the  food  and 
blankets  were  landed.  Many  of  the  northern 
tributaries  of  the  Zambezi,  unlike  the  dry  sand 
rivers  of  South  Africa,  flow  through  wide  alluvial 
valleys,  occasionally  quite  looo  yards  in  width. 
These  valleys,  though  dry  in  winter,  become 
swampy  in  the  rainy  season.  The  rich  soil 
produces  excellent  cattle  pasture,  capable  of 
sustaining  vast  herds  in  those  districts  which 
are  not  infested  by  the  tsetse  fly.  This  cruel 
little  pest  is  particularly  numerous  on  the  lower 
reaches  of  the  Njoko  river.  The  excessive 
attention  they  paid  to  the  back  of  my  neck 
resulted  in  boil-like  lumps,  which  at  one  time 
threatened  to  give  much  pain  and  inconvenience ; 
but  zinc  ointment  and  a  protecting  handkerchief 
proved  a  rapid  and  efficacious  remedy. 

The  tsetse  is  in  reality  very  little  bigger  ths^n 
the  English  house  fly,  though  his  wings  being 
longer  he  appears  to  be  much  larger.  The  fore 
part  of  the  body  is  so  hard  that  more  than  an 
ordinary  pinch  is  necessary  to  deprive  this  insect 
of  life.  I  have  frequently  thrown  flies  away  for 
dead  after  giving  them  a  vigorous  squeeze,  only 
to  see  them  fly  away  before  reaching  the  ground. 
The  abdominal  part  of  the  body,  which  is  marked 



with  black  and  amber  striae,  almost  invariably  has 
the  appearance  of  being  an  empty  shell,  out  of 
which  all  substance  has  been  squeezed.  Once 
only  I  found  an  exception  to  this  rule.  This  fly, 
though  he  had  evidently  done  himself  right 
royally,  could  not  resist  the  temptation  to  sample 
the  new  dish  my  bare  arm  offered  him.  I  caught 
and  examined  him.  The  abdomen  was  inflated 
with  blood  to  the  size  and  shape  of  a  pea,  and 
the  distended  tissues  underneath  were  rendered 
sufficiently  transparent  to  show  the  colour  of  the 
blood  within.  The  proboscis  of  the  tsetse  pro- 
trudes in  a  horizontal  direction  and  does  not 
point  downwards,  as  is  the  case  with  other  flies. 
It  is  about  one  eighth  of  an  inch  long,  and  pene- 
trates the  skin  through  a  thick  flannel  shirt  with- 
out an  effort  The  fly  is  frequently  to  be  heard 
giving  vent  to  the  high-pitched  buzzing  note 
which  gives  it  a  name,  but  when  advancing  to 
attack  he  noiselessly  makes  straight  for  his  mark 
without  all  the  preparatory  fuss  employed  by 
others  of  his  genus.  His  tread  is  so  light  that 
the  sharp  prick  of  the  proboscis  is  generally  the 
first  indication  of  his  whereabouts.  The  tsetse 
avoids  open  plains  and  is  only  to  be  found  in 
forest  or  bush,  and  even  there  the  limits  of  his 
habitat  are  so  clearly  defined,  and  the  fly  belts  so 
permanently  established,  as  to  give  rise  to  much 
speculation   as   to   the  reason   why  one  of  two 

contiguous  districts  of  a  similar  character  should 



teem  with  "fly,"  while  the  other  is  quite  free 
from  the  pest  Certainly  where  buffalo  is  thick 
the  tsetse  is  numerous — generally,  at  least — but 
this  rule  does  not  necessarily  apply  to  most  game. 
Districts  occur  in  which  game  abounds,  which,  ^ 
though  within  measurable  reach  of  fly  belts,  are 
perfectly  free  of  their  presence.  There  is  much 
mystery  and  consequent  speculation  about  the 
nature  and  peculiarities  of  the  tsetse.  Hard  facts 
are  known  well  enough,  but  the  scientist  has  not 
yet  arrived  on  the  scene  who  can  explain  its 
raisan  d'Hre  and  the  paradoxes  of  its  nature.  It 
is  commonly  supposed  in  South  Africa  that  the 
fly  lays  its  ova  in  the  skin  of  the  wild  buffalo,  but 
this  is  not  so,  as  experiments  by  Mr.  Trimen, 
formerly  curator  of  the  Cape  Town  Museum, 
have  proved;  still,  where  the  wild  buffalo  is  to 
be  found  in  large  numbers  the  tsetse  invariably 
teems,  and  yet  the  domestic  ox  succumbs  more 
readily  to  the  bite  than  any  other  animal,  except 
perhaps  the  horse,  whose  first  cousin  the  zebra 
wanders  through  belts  unhurt.  So,  too,  the  wild 
dog  and  jackal  are  impervious,  but  few  domestic 
dogs  survive  the  bite  many  months.  On  the 
other  hand,  native  dogs  whose  ancestors  have 
been  bred  in  the  fly  country  for  many  generations 
do  not  succumb  to  the  poison.  The  same  rule 
applies  to  goats  reared  under  similar  conditions ; 
though  it  would  seem  it  must  not  be  applied  to 
sheep  or  cattle.     Of  all   domestic   animals   the 



lowly  donkey  alone  makes  a  gckxl  fight  of  it 
X  As  high  a  proportion  as  four  donkeys  out  of  five 
have  spent  a  whole  season  in  the  fly  country 
without  signs  of  the  poison  taking  effect ;  though 
donkeys  will,  it  is  believed,  at  times  die  of  fly 
bites  in  the  second  season  after  being  bitten.  As 
a  rule  animals  bitten  by  flies  in  the  dry  season 
will  live  till  the  first  rains  fall,  when  they  die 
within  a  few  days.  In  the  same  way  a  horse  if 
bitten  will  generally  die  within  twenty-four  hours 
of  being  ridden  through  a  river.  The  symptoms 
are  a  staring  coat,  swellings  under  the  jaw,  loss 
of  appetite,  and  increasing  poverty  of  condition. 
After  death  the  blood  is  found  to  have  lost  its 
liquidity  and  become  gelatinous.  Like  the  **  horse 
sickness"  and  malarial  fever,  this  curse  to  travel 
and  transport  undoubtedly  recedes  before  the 
advance  of  civilization,  so  that  the  far  future  may 
yet  see  the  extinction  of  the  tsetse. 

Oswell  reported  the  existence  of  the  fly  some 
600  miles  south  of  the  Zambezi,  when  he  hunted 
there  fifty  years  ago.  Now  waggons  can  be 
taken  from  Bechuanaland  to  the  Zambezi  without 
any  danger  of  the  oxen  being  "stuck."  Several 
flies  are  necessary  to  produce  a  fatal  effect,  but  in 
passing  through  a  belt  in  the  daytime  several  are 
forthcoming.  At  night  the  danger  is  very  small, 
though  it  is  a  mistake  to  imagine  that  the 
tsetse  keeps  such  early  hours  as  other  flies. 
I  have  at  times  been  worried  by  them  an  hour 



after  the  sun  has  gone  down,  and  have  known 
flies  to  buzz  into  my  tent  as  late  as  9  o'clock  on 
a  dark  night  and  make  a  bold  dash  for  supper 
at  my  expense.  At  that  time  of  night  they  are 
easily  caught,  and  almost  invariably  found  their 
way  into  spirits  of  wine. 

With  all  their  faults  these  destructive  little 
creatures  have  the  merit  of  being  clean  feeders. 
The  natives,  in  taking  an  animal  through  a  fly 
belt,  plaster  it  with  cow-dung,  which  effectively 
keeps  the  fly  at  a  safe  distance.  I  remember 
seeing  it  stated  that  a  certain  French  traveller, 
whose  name  I  cannot  for  the  moment  call  to 
mind,  was  of  opinion  that  the  tsetse  procured  its 
venom  from  putrid  carcases  of  dead  animals. 
I  wish  such  were  the  case,  for  then  the  tsetse 
would  become  as  harmless  as  the  house  fly  for 
want  of  poison.  The  African  veldt  is  practically 
free  from  decomposing  flesh.  If  an  animal  dies 
or  is  killed  and  partly  devoured  by  lions,  the 
skulking  hyaena  and  prowling  jackal,  which  are 
everywhere  at  night,  soon  scent  out  the  re- 
maining flesh.  The  sun  has  not  risen  high  ere 
vultures,  at  first  mere  black  spots,  appear  from 
space  in  the  clear  blue  sky.  Down  they  swoop, 
one  following  another,  until  what  the  denizens  of 
the  night  have  been  unable  to  consume  is  being 
greedily  swallowed  by  some  two  dozen  of  these 
scavengers.  Next,  myriads  of  ants  swarm  over 
the  bared  bones,  and  thus  within  twenty-four 
F  65 


hours  everything  has  been  cleaned  up,  and  by 
the  next  morning  the  skeleton  itself  has  been 
broken  to  pieces  by  the  returning  hyaena.  No, 
if  the  poison  is  extraneous,  as  is  almost  certainly 
the  case,  it  is  more  probable  that  it  is  derived 
from  a  vegetable  source. 

In  the  early  afternoon  of  the  i8th,  while 
skinning  a  fine  specimen  of  pookoo  ram  which  I 
had  shot  that  morning,  one  of  the  boys  pointed 
out  a  moving  black  spot  some  distance  away  on 
the  further  side  of  the  river.  Taking  two 
boys  with  me  I  crossed  to  the  opposite  bank, 
and  making  a  detour  placed  myself  to  windward 
of  what  turned  out  to  be  a  wildebeest  bull.  The 
country  was  open,  but  here  and  there  an  ant- 
heap  or  stunted  bush  made  stalking  less  difficult 
I  had  crawled  to  within  thirty  yards  of  the  wilde- 
beest unnoticed,  when  I  suddenly  caught  sight  of 
a  koodoo  bull,  with  a  good  pair  of  horns,  grazing 
about  300  yards  beyond,  while  seventy  or  eighty 
yards  to  the  left  of  him  a  pallah  ram  was 
similarly  employed. 

This  was  the  first  koodoo  I  had  seen  during 

my  present  trip,  so  I  commenced  at  once  to  crawl 

away  from  the  wildebeest  with  a  view  to  paying 

my  attentions  to  the  more  recent  discovery.    The 

wildebeest,    however,    suddenly    suspected    that 

something  was  wrong.     He  raised  his  head  and 

sniffed  the  air,  while  I  flattened  myself  as  much 

as  possible  against  the  ground  and  remained  still. 



Finally  he  turned  his  head  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion, but  while  taking  this  opportunity  to  get 
away  from  him  unobserved,  lest  he  should  disturb 
the  koodoo,  he  suddenly  turned  his  head  and 
caught  me  in  the  act  of  moving.  Three  loud, 
ominous  snorts,  and  my  little  game  was  spoilt 
The  koodoo  bull  was  put  on  the  alert,  and  with 
the  pallah  and  wildebeest  gazed  in  my  direction. 
This  went  on  for  about  five  minutes,  when 
suddenly  the  exposer  of  my  schemes  gave  a 
vigorous  grunt,  threw  up  his  hind  legs,  lashed 
his  tail  and  galloped  off.  His  example  was 
followed  by  the  others ;  so  changing  my  i6-bore 
for  a  Mannlicher,  as  I  did  not  expect  a  near 
shot,  I  ran  off,  hoping  to  cut  off  the  koodoo, 
which  now  bounded  away  with  two  other  bulls 
and  four  or  five  cows.  In  doing  so  I  disturbed 
a  herd  of  some  sixty  eland,  which  I  followed  and 
eventually  lost  in  the  forest. 

On  returning  to  the  river  valley  I  once  more 
came  across  my  old  enemy  the  wildebeest.  I 
think  he  must  have -been  a  little  deaf,  for  under 
covert  of  a  very  small  and  scant  piece  of  scrub  I 
again  crawled  to  within  thirty  yards  of  him,  bent 
on  avenging  myself  for  the  loss  of  the  koodoo 
head.  He  was  facing  me  when  I  pulled  the 
trigger,  but  immediately  swerved  and  galloped 
away.  The  bullet  struck  some  reeds  200  yards 
beyond  almost  as  I  fired,  and  had  the  country 
not  been  open  I  should  have  given  myself  credit 




for  having  missed  him  altogether.  As  it  was  the 
bull  fell  dead  after  going  about  lOO  yards ; 
then  the  boys  came  up,  and  I  ultimately  found 
that  the  bullet  had  entered  the  chest,  passed 
through  the  heart,  and  travelling  the  whole 
length  of  the  body  had  left  it  just  to  the  right  of 
the  root  of  the  tail.  It  was  my  custom  to  file  the 
nickel  nose  of  the  Mannlicher  bullets  until  the 
lead  core  appeared ;  this  no  doubt  had  enabled 
the  lead  core  to  escape  from  its  nickel  coating, 
for  the  latter  was  left  behind  in  a  twisted  form 
some  nine  inches  from  the  exit  hole.  This 
incident  gives  some  idea  of  the  penetrative  power 
the  new  small-bore  service  rifles  possess. 

The  next  day  I  camped  on  the  rising  ground 
at  the  edge  of  the  valley,  through  which  the  river 
flowed  within  a  hundred  yards,  while  beyond  it 
many  hundred  yards  of  swamp  contained  large 
numbers  of  lechwe  and  spurwing  geese.  While 
waiting  for  the  canoes,  which  travelled  very 
slowly  owing  to  the  rapidity  of  the  current,  I 
waded  through  the  swamps  in  pursuit  of  these 
graceful  water-buck,  bagging  a  ram  with  a  nice 
pair  of  horns,  and  wounding  a  second  in  the 
lungs.  Before  the  boys  came  up  with  him  he 
had  entered  a  huge  entanglement  of  long  river- 
reeds,  and  it  was  not  until  the  following  morning 
that  his  body  was  found. 

I  now  decided  to  proceed  for  a  further  twenty 

miles  or  so  without  the  canoes.     So  after  des- 



patching  one  canoe  laden  with  meat  for  the 
boys  at  the  main  camp  under  charge  of  two 
local  natives,  I  set  off  with  four  boys,  leaving 
the  other  two  to  await  my  return  with  the  second 


On  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  where  I 
camped  that  evening,  mixed  herds  of  wildebeest, 
zebra,  and  Lichenstein's  hartebeest  were  to  be 
seen  grazing  on  the  rich  valley  pasture.  I  wanted 
a  Lichenstein,  but  had  no  more  clothes  with  me 
than  those  I  stood  in,  and  did  not  think  it  wise  to 
wet  them  so  late  in  the  evening  by  swimming  the 
river,  so  had  to  content  myself  by  watching  their 
movements,  an  occupation  both  interesting  and 
instructive  to  anyone  who  can  appreciate  the 
impressive  simplicity  of  things  natural.  • 

I  believe  this  is  the  only  occasion  on  which  / 
I  have  seen  Lichenstein's  hartebeest  mingle  with 
herds  of  other  species.  They  are  essentially 
exclusive  in  their  dealings  with  other  animals,  or 
perhaps  it  would  be  more  correct  to  say  the 
exclusiveness  is  on  the  other  side.  In  this  case 
I  noticed  that  whenever  a  wildebeest  found  a 
hartebeest  grazing  near  him  he  would  lower  his 
head  and  charge.  A  few  bounds,  however,  and 
the  fleeter  antelope  was  well  out  of  harm  s  way. 
On  the  other  hand,  zebra  and  wildebeest  frequently 
associate  on  the  most  friendly  terms  one  with  the 
other.  Perhaps  the  marvellous  and  incongruous 
masses  of  game  one  so  often  sees  illustrated  in 



books  of  travel  may  have  some  foundation  in 
fact,  but  I  confess  that,  although  I  have  frequently 
seen  large  herds  of  game  and  at  times  three  or 
four  herds  of  different  species  within  view  at 
the  same  time,  and  occasionally  to  some  extent 
intermingled,  I  have  never  yet  been  fortunate 
enough  to  see  buffalo,  zebra,  and  some  twelve 
species  of  antelope,  with  rhinoceros  and  a  lion 
or  two  thrown  in,  associating  together  with  true 
farmyard  amiability,  and  extending  in  every 
direction  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach. 

On  the  following  evening  I  reached  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Njoko  and  Rampungu  rivers,  in 
16"*  42'  S.  latitude.  The  Rampungu,  like  the 
river  it  feeds,  flows  through  an  open  valley,  down 
which  it  winds  through  a  bed  some  fifteen  feet 
wide  and  four  to  eight  deep.  Its  water  is  quite 
the  clearest  I  have  ever  seen,  objects  under  six 
feet  of  water  being  perfectly  clear  and  well 
defined.  In  the  northern  angle  formed  by  these 
rivers  there  is  a  native  settlement  situated  on 
the  top  of  a  sandy  rise  in  the  angle  of  the  two 
rivers.  I  made  my  camp  near  one  of  the  villages, 
and  was  most  hospitably  received  by  the  head- 
man, who  sent  me  large  quantities  of  fresh  and 
thick  milk — a  luxury  I  always  appreciated,  but 
seldom  participated  in.  At  noon  the  next  day 
I  commenced  my  return  journey,  accompanied  by 
a  couple  of  boys  from  the  village,  as  I  wished 

to  send  back  a  present  of  meat  if  fortune  brought 



anything  my  way.  After  travelling  about  five 
miles  a  large  herd  of  lechwe  gave  me  a  chance 
which  I  would  not  have  attempted  to  take  in 
ordinary  circumstances.  They  had  noticed  me, 
and  forthwith  moved  away  across  the  swamps 
towards  the  river.  When  standing  about  400 
yards  in  front,  a  lucky  shot  from  the  Mannlicher 
wounded  one  so  severely  that  the  boys  had  no 
difficulty  in  finishing  it  with  their  assegais,  as  the 
wounded  animal  endeavoured  to  effect  its  escape 
towards  the  river.  I  was  glad  to  have  the  oppor- 
tunity of  sending  the  greater  part  of  the  meat 
back  to  the  headman  of  the  village  I  had  just 
left,  for  when  receiving  the  first  milk  he  sent  me 
I  had  told  him  I  regretted  that  I  had  nothing 
with  me  to  remunerate  him  with,  and  yet  he  sent 
more !  As  a  rule,  when  an  African  native  makes 
a  present  he  expects  one  of  greater  value  in 

Next  day  I  secured  a  fine  reedbuck  ram  with 
horns  measuring  15^  inches  from  base  to  tip,  and 
later  in  the  evening  shot  a  wildebeest.  Taking 
two  boys  on  with  me,  I  left  the  rest  to  cut  up  and 
protect  the  meat  till  I  should  send  out  a  suffi- 
cient number  of  boys  to  carry  it  to  the  canoe, 
which  was  only  about  nine  miles  away.  That 
evening  I  camped  about  four  miles  from  home, 
and  immediately  after  continuing  my  journey  on 
the  following  morning  sighted  a  single  roan 
antelope  bull,  which  after  a  long  stalk  I  failed 



to  bag  owing  to  bad  shooting.  I  arrived  at  my 
destination  at  about  eight  o'clock  with  a  stein- 
buck  ram  I  had  shot  on  the  way. 

I  had  not  been  in  camp  more  than  a  short 
time  when  three  natives,  an  old  man,  a  young 
man,  and  a  small  boy,  turned  up  in  an  emaciated 
condition ;  the  poor  creatures  were  little  more 
than  skeletons — victims  of  the  famine.  They 
brought  with  them  a  small  calabash  of  honey, 
for  which  they  begged  me  to  give  them 
meat  I  gave  them  what  I  could,  and  went 
out  to  shoot  a  lechwe,  hoping  to  bestow  on 
them  as  much  as  they  could  carry  away.  Unfor- 
tunately I  was  unsuccessful,  and  returned  empty- 

Having  a  slight  touch  of  fever  on  me  I  re- 
mained where  I  was  until  about  three  oclock 
on  the  following  afternoon,  when  the  return 
journey  was  continued  by  canoe.  The  current 
took  the  boat  down  at  a  considerable  pace,  so 
that  a  hippopotamus,  which  discovered  our  ap- 
proach when  we  were  over  fifty  yards  from  him, 
only  reached  the  water's  edge  as  the  canoe  was 
almost  on  a  level  with  him.  Then  in  he  plunged 
immediately  in  front  In  a  second  he  was  head 
and  shoulders  above  water,  five  yards  distant 
Vainly  I  shouted  to  the  boy  in  the  bows  to 
stoop  down  in  order  that  I  might  fire,  but  he 
was  rendered  immovable  by  fright  or  surprise, 
or   both ;    and   the    hippopotamus,   after  giving 



ample    time    for  a   right   and    left,    disappeared 
below  the  water  s  surface  unmolested. 

Two  days  later  I  reached  the  main  camp  on 
the  Zambezi.  The  boys  succeeded  in  upsetting 
the  canoe  while  shooting  some  small  rapids, 
resulting  in  the  loss  of  one  or  two  trophies 
only;  otherwise  nothing  out  of  the  ordinary 



IT  was  dark  as  the  canoe  neared  camp  on  the 
26th  of  August.  Huge  bonfires  were  raging 
for  several  hundred  yards  round  the  camp,  the 
cause  for  which  puzzled  me  not  a  little.  How- 
ever, on  landing,  I  found  that  the  Bamangwato 
boy  Lecharu,  whom  I  had  left  in  charge  of  my 
goods  and  tent,  was  at  death's  door.  During 
the  ten  days  I  had  been  away  he  was  reduced  to 
something  little  more  than  a  skeleton.  His 
calves  had  almost  entirely  disappeared,  so  that 
the  brass  ornaments  he  had  worn  immediately 
below  the  knee  had  fallen  to  the  ankles,  while 
his  lean  face  wore  that  look  of  hopeless  misery 
universally  adopted  by  all  sick  niggers  suffering 
from  ailments  trivial  or  severe.  There  being  no 
fever,  I  concluded  that  the  liver  had  been  rebelling 
against  the  excessive  work  it  had  been  called 
upon  to  do.  Nothing  else  but  meat  was  pro- 
curable, and  of  that  the  boys  had  always  had 
as  much  as  they  could  eat.  I  should  think  I  am 
not  exaggerating  when  I  say  the  noble 'savage 
will  consume  twelve  to  fifteen  pounds  of  meat 
a  day  when  he  can  get  it.      Even  under  this 



condition  there  is  but  little  sickness,  so  that  it 
is  hard  to  imagine  that  Nature  has  not  provided 
the  African  with  a  gizzard  in  addition  to  the 
usual  digestive  organs  of  mankind  in  general. 
However,  two  days  of  careful  treatment  and 
feeding  on  my  own  meal  so  improved  the  boy 
in  health  that  I  was  once  more  able  to  proceed 
up  the  Zambezi  on  the  28th. 

That  evening  as  my  "dug  out"  skirted  the 
steep  banks  of  a  large  wooded  island,  a  hippo 
plunged  into  the  river  within  a  couple  of  yards 
of  the  after  part  of  the  canoe.  Swinging  round, 
I  fired  a  shot  into  her  lungs.  This  created  a 
panic  among  the  boys,  and  for  the  moment  I 
thought  they  were  going  to  leave  the  boat  for 
the  bank.  The  wounded  animal,  however,  did 
not  attack,  and  from  the  movement  on  the 
surface  of  the  water  it  was  soon  evident  that 
the  hippo,  with  a  calf  which  occasionally  showed 
his  head,  was  making  for  the  reeds  that  lined 
the  bank  opposite.  There  the  boys  came  across 
her  later.  She  was  evidently  severely  wounded, 
but  ultimately  escaped  down  stream ;  and  seeing 
that  she  might  live  for  twelve  hours,  and  not 
float  for  another  six,  there  was  not  sufficient 
certainty  of  finding  her  within  a  few  miles  to 
justify  the  delay  necessary  for  search.  A  cold 
bath,  the  wetting  of  all  and  probable  loss  of 
some  of  the  cargo,  is  by  no  means  uncommon 
on  the  Zambezi.      Hippopotami,  and  especially 



COWS  with  young  calves,  have  a  playful  habit 
when  opportunity  offers  of  rising  under  some 
canoe  and  overturning  it.  Thus  the  natives 
in  their  journeys  up  and  down  the  river  skirt 
the  banks.  In  crossing  from  bank  to  bank  they 
first  make  certain  that  there  is  no  sign  of  a 
herd,  and  then  do  all  they  know  to  get  out  of 
deep  water  as  quickly  as  possible. 

A  friend  of  mine  once  described  to  me  a  most 
exciting  chase  after  a  canoe  by  a  hippopotamus 
opposite  the  town  of  Kazungula.  The  boys 
worked  hard  and  well  together,  forcing  their 
craft  through  the  water  at  a  great  speed.  At 
first  they  appeared  to  gain  slightly  on  their 
pursuer,  which  followed  little  over  a  length 
astern  ;  but  finally  the  hippo  rapidly  drew  near 
the  canoe,  which  got  home  not  a  moment  too 
soon,  the  pace  it  was  travelling  at  as  it  reached 
the  bank  forcing  half  of  it  clear  of  the  water. 
Though,  happily,  so  determined  an  attack  is  of 
rare  occurrence,  accidents  occur  sufficiently  often 
to  compel  native  respect  for  the  "sea  cow,"  and 
induce  caution. 

Of    the    few    English    travellers    who    have 

travelled    the    river    between     Kazungula    and 

Lialui,    two,   at   least,    have   met   with   disaster. 

Mr.  F.  C.  Selous,  eight  years  ago,  witnessed  the 

upsetting  of  one  of  his  canoes,  which,  though 

resulting  in  no  loss  of  life,  lost  him  a  valuable 

tusk  of  ivory.     About  five  years  ago,  too,  Mr. 



Buckenham,  a  missionary,  had  to  swim  ashore 
in  a  hurry.  He  carried  with  him  his  rifle,  but 
lost  several  of  his  effects,  which  had  sunk  in 
deep  water. 

Two  days  later,  being  out  of  meat,  I  gave 
the  paddlers  a  rest  and  went  out  in  search  of 
game.  As  I  wished  to  combine  trophy  hunting 
with  the  more  necessary  object  of  the  chase, 
I  passed  a  herd  of  young  hornless  koodoo 
without  molesting  them.  It  was  some  time 
later  that  three  buffaloes  were  disturbed,  but 
they  would  not  give  me  a  fair  chance,  and  a 
running  shot  from  behind  was  without  satis- 
factory  result.  As  I  went  back  and  reflected 
that  there  was  absolutely  no  food  in  camp  for 
the  boys,  I  wished  earnestly  that  those  koodoo 
yearlings  would  give  me  a  second  opportunity.  I 
had  very  nearly  made  up  my  mind  that  after  all  a 
bird  in  the  hand  is  worth  two  in  the  bush,  when 
a  warthog  suddenly  made  his  appearance,  and  I 
fired  an  ounce  of  lead  into  his  hind-quarters  as 
he  bolted  off  through  the  bush  with  tail  erect 
Piggy  left  behind  him  much  blood  at  every 
step ;  but  he  was  soon  out  of  view,  and  the 
spoor  had  to  be  followed.  After  going  about 
a  mile  he  betook  himself  to  the  river,  and 
hid  in  the  thick  undergrowth  near  the  bank. 
I  placed  myself  a  couple  of  hundred  yards 
up  stream,  from  where  I  caused  the  boys 
to    line    out    and    drive    towards    me.       They 



beat  about  unsuccessfully  for  some  minutes, 
when  their  excited  voices  told  me  that  the  pig 
had  at  last  been  seen.  When  I  reached  them 
they  pointed  to  the  river,  where  the  wounded 
animal  was  making  his  final  bid  for  life  in  his 
effort  to  place  the  river  between  himself  and 
his  pursuers.  He  had  swum  about  seventy 
yards  when  his  strength  failed  and  down  he 
went.  I  at  once  sent  for  a  canoe,  and  ultimately 
the  body  was  found  caught  in  the  branches  of 
an  overhanging  tree,  about  half  a  mile  down 
stream.  Piggy  had  a  good  pair  of  tusks,  which, 
together  with  the  skin  of  the  head  and  neck, 
I  saved  for  my  collection. 

The  morning  afterwards  the  boys  said  that 
they  would  not  be  able  to  start  when  I  gave 
the  order  to  load  the  canoes,  because  one  of 
them  was  sick.  I  went  to  see  the  invalid,  who 
was  apparently  suffering  from  the  effects  of  over- 
eating. He  sat  with  his  elbows  resting  on  his 
knees,  and  supported  his  head  with  both  hands, 
with  the  usual  expression  of  abject  misery  on  his 
black  face.  When  asked  where  he  was  sick,  he 
slowly  touched  his  forehead,  shins,  arms,  and  back 
one  after  the  other,  and  then  looked  piteously 
into  my  face.  This  is  exactly  what  happened 
many  times  during  the  next  nine  months.  Lest 
sickness  should  become  too  fashionable,  I  never 
allowed  delay,  and  administered  powerful  pills. 
Thus  we  travelled  that  day  in  spite  of  every- 



thing,  and   the   boy  was   himself  again  on  the 
following  morning. 

On  the  1st  of  September  I  camped  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  Zambezi,  immediately  opposite 
its  confluence  with  the  Lumbi  river.  This  river 
passes  over  a  series  of  rocky  rapids  and  cataracts 
for  the  last  mile  of  its  course ;  but  above,  the 
stream  is  sluggish  and  very  similar  in  character 
to  the  Njoko.  I  followed  the  course  for  about 
fifteen  miles,  which  led  me  to  broad  swamps  which 
supported  several  herds  of  lechwe.  I  wanted 
meat,  but  was  seemingly  out  of  luck,  or,  in  other 
words,  did  not  place  my  bullets  quite  in  the  right 
place,  for  after  wounding  four — three  severely — I 
returned  without  bagging  one.  However,  I  shot 
two  reedbucks  further  down  the  river,  which 
settled  the  food  question  for  a  couple  of  days. 

The  next  day  the  journey  was  continued.  The 
river  had  now  become  much  narrower,  in  places 
less  than  lOO  yards  in  width,  with  high  and  rocky 

After  about  two  hours*  paddling  the  goods  were 
landed  immediately  below  the  Gonye  Rapids. 
From  this  place  the  canoes  are  dragged  over 
rollers,  and  native  porters  carry  the  loads  for  a 
distance  of  2^  miles,  and  clear  of  the  Gonye 

Everything  was  ashore  by  one  o'clock,  so  I 
ordered  Sangina,  the  head  paddler,  to  send  a 
message  to  the  chief  of  Sioma — the  native  town 



near  the  falls — ^apprising  him  of  my  arrival,  and 
asking  for  boys  to  carry  the  goods  forward  that 

Immediately  afterwards  I  noticed  him  engaged 
in  a  tete-cL'tHe  conversation  with  Bushman,  a  boy 
who  always  would  have  his  say  in  all  questions 
arising  among  his  fellows — a  wiry,  brown-skinned 
rascal  with  a  forbidding  countenance,  who  was 
apparently  a  captive  or  renegade  from  the  tawny- 
skinned  nomads  of  the  Kalahari  desert. 

Sang^na  then  approached 

**I  will  send  to  Sioma  to-morrow,  N'tate,"  he 

**  What  do  you  mean  'i  "  I  asked  "  Did  I  not 
tell  you  that  I  wish  to  camp  at  Sioma  to-day  ?  " 

"  We  have  had  hard  work,  and  wish  for  rest," 
was  the  rejoinder. 

"You  had  two  days  rest  at  the  Lumbi,  and 
you  have  paddled  only  a  short  distance  to-day. 
No,  you  are  not  tired,  but  lazy.  You  must  send 
two  boys  to  Sioma  at  once  with  my  message  to 
the  chief.'* 

**  I  will  send  to-morrow/'  was  the  curt  reply. 

Although  once  or  twice  excuses  had  been  made 

for  delay  on  previous  occasions,  they  had  never 

been  persisted  in  on  my  refusing  to  accept  them. 

A  day's  delay  in  itself  meant  little,   but  here  a 

principle  was  involved  which  no  African  traveller 

would  be  wise  to  ignore.     Give  the  African  native 

an  inch,  and  it  won  t  be  his  fault  if  he  does  not 



take  an  ell.  Once  let  a  horse  or  a  dog  get  the 
better  of  the  trainer,  and  the  battle  will  probably 
have  to  be  fought  over  again  half  a  dozen  times 
before  the  ground  lost  is  reclaimed.  Show  the 
African  savage  that  he  can  dispute  his  masters 
will,  and  heaven  only  knows  when  insubordination 
and  worry  will  cease. 

So  I  made  up  my  mind  to  fight  the  question 
out  to  the  bitter  end.  Bushman  had  approached 
to  join  in  the  protest,  and  I  was  convinced  that  he 
was  the  real  instigator  of  the  trouble. 

"  To-night,"  I  said,  "  I  will  camp  at  Sioma,  or 
else  you  and  Bushman  shall  cease  to  be  my 
boys.  Therefore  send  at  once  to  the  chief  for 

"  To-morrow  they  shall  be  sent  for,"  he  per- 
sistently replied. 

"Leave  me,"  I  answered  angrily,  "and  be- 

After  I  had  taken  a  little  refreshment  and  a 
pannikin  of  tea,  I  again  sent  for  Sangina. 

"  Have  you  sent  to  Sioma  ? " 

"To-morrow  I  will  send." 

"  Go ;  once  more  I  will  send  for  you,  and  if  my 
orders  have  not  been  obeyed  I  will  drive  you 
from  my  camp,  and  you  shall  return  to  the 
Mokwai  with  a  letter  from  me.'* 

I  wrote  a  letter  explaining  how  the  two  boys 
had  refused  to  obey  my  orders,  so  that  they  were 
no  longer  of   any  use  to  me,    and    I    intended 

G  8l 


asking  the  chief  of    Sioma  to  supply  me  with 
paddlers  to  take  their  places. 

I  then  walked  over  to  where  the  boys  squatted 
and  talked. 

"  Have  you  sent  boys  to  Sioma  ?  "  I  asked  of 

*'  We  will  send  to-morrow." 

**  No  you  will  not,  you  shall  leave  my  camp  at 
once ;  you  are  no  longer  my  boys,  as  you  refuse 
to  obey  me.  Here  is  a  letter.  Take  it  to  the 

"  Will  you  give  us  our  blankets  and  sitzibas  ?  " 
he  asked. 

**  No,  certainly  not.  I  undertook  to  pay  you 
each  a  blanket  and  sitziba  if  you  took  me  to 
Liwanika.  You  have  refused  to  do  so.  Your 
blankets  and  sitzibas  will  be  given  to  the  two 
boys  who  take  your  places.  Why  should  I  pay 
double,  once  to  you  and  once  to  the  boys  who 
will  do  what  you  refuse  to  do.^  I  shall  tell 
Liwanika  all  about  you  when  I  see  him,  and  I 
shall  ask  him  if  I  have  not  done  right." 

Turning  to  the  other  boys  I  asked,  **  Which  of 
you  wish  to  return  to  the  Mokwai  with  Sangina 
and  Bushman,  and  which  of  you  would  like  to 
go  on  with  me  to  Liwanika.^" 

They  unanimously  expressed  their  wish  to 
remain  with  me. 

"  Then  send  at  once  to  Sioma." 

In   a   moment  two   boys  got   up  and  volun- 



teered  to  take  the  message,  and  I  saw  that  I 
had  won. 

Sangina  and  Bushman  refused  to  take  the 
letter,  and  said  they  were  going  to  Liwanika. 

"I  shall  be  there  soon,"  I  added,  as  I  motioned 
them  to  leave.  "  Give  the  king  my  greetings, 
and  tell  him  I  have  something  to  say  to  him 
when  I  see  him."  I  knew,  of  course,  that  these 
boys  dare  not  risk  a  visit  to  Liwanika  after  their 

I  remained  encamped  above  the  Gonye  Falls 
for  two  days,  and  was  consequently  able  to  take 
a  few  photographs  and  observations  for  latitude 
and  altitude.  Boiling-point  thermometer  readings 
showed  the  river  above  the  falls  to  be  3300  feet 
above  the  sea  level,  or  about  ninety  feet  higher 
than  Kazungula.  Immediately  above  the  falls 
the  river,  which  is  wide  and  shallow,  flows  west, 
though  its  general  direction  is  nearly  south.  In 
the  wet  season  the  waterfall  is  crescent-shaped; 
but  at  this  time — towards  the  end  of  the  dry 
season  —  only  an  occasional  subsidiary  stream 
escaped  over  the  rocky  precipice  which  forms 
the  right  half  of  the  crescent. 

In  my  approach  from  the  south-east  I  had  to 
pass  over  a  mass  of  huge  detached  boulders, 
through  and  under  which  a  certain  amount  of 
water  found  its  way.  The  whole  crescent 
probably  measures  200  yards,  while  I  estimated 
the  left  half,  over  which  water  flows  throughout 



the  year,  to  be  90  to  100  yards  in  width  and 
about  twenty-five  feet  high.  Immediately  below 
the  torrent  foams  and  rushes  through  a  rock- 
bound  bed  in  a  south-westerly  direction  for  two 
or  three  hundred  yards,  when  it  gradually  curves 
round  to  the  south  in  unnavigable  rapids  for 
some  two  miles.  A  fringe  of  non-deciduous 
bush  certainly  to  some  extent  relieves  the  cold 
grandeur  of  this  rocky  scene,  but  the  absence 
of  tropical  vegetation  or  large  trees  deprives 
the  picture  of  an  attribute  which  would  leave 
nothing  further  to  be  desired. 

Shortly  after  my  return  from  the  falls  I  was 
visited  by  three  chiefs,  who  said  they  shared 
the  chieftainship  of  Sioma. 

•'But  which  of  you,"  I  asked,  "is  the  head 

They  pointed  out  that  they  were  all  head 
chiefs ;  having  in  view,  no  doubt,  three  presents 
instead  of  one. 

It  did  not  take  long,  however,  to  find  out 
which  of  the  three  ranked  first  ;  so,  after 
exchanging  a  few  preliminary  remarks,  I 
addressed  him — "  My  boys  are  hungry  and 
want  com.  I  wish  to  buy  as  much  as  you  care 
to  sell." 

"  There  is  no  com  in  Sioma,"  he  answered. 

I  knew  this  was  not  an  accurate  statement 
of  fact,  so  made  up  my  mind  that  I  would  give 
no  present  until  food  was  forthcoming. 



**  But  I  know  there  is  corn  in  Sioma.  Send 
some  at  least,  and  I  will  pay  you  well." 

But  they  would  not  go  back  on  their  word. 

I  then  made  enquiries  about  the  game  in  the 
neighbourhood,  to  which  they  answered  that 
there  was  little  game  for  a  short  distance  up  the 
river,  but  beyond  there  was  none,  neither  was 
there  any  corn  in  Borotse.  This  was  a  bright 
look-out,  and  the  last  mouthful  of  food  for  the 
boys  would  be  finished  that  day ! 

These  three  gentlemen  chattered  with  great 
volubility  for  nearly  an  hour.  Feeling  I  had 
seen  enough  of  them  I  paid  the  usual  price  for 
the  conveyance  of  the  goods  and  canoes  from 
below  to  above  the  falls,  and  left  them  to  their 
own  devices. 

Shortly  after  they  came  to  bid  farewell,  and 
hoped  that  I  would  be  successful  in  killing  some 
game.  With  this  expression,  the  senior  chief 
pointed  towards  his  opened  mouth  and  then 
patted  his  stomach  gently.  I  could  not  restrain 
my  laughter  at  the  comical  expression  with  which 
the  old  rascal  accompanied  the  gesture. 

**My  boys  are  hungry,"  I  said;  "send  me 
corn  and  I  will  send  you  meat."  However,  no 
corn  arrived 

Sangina  and  Bushman  had  made  two  attempts 
to  rejoin  my  boys,  but  each  time  I  peremptorily 
ordered  them  away.  A  boy  named  Simukwenga 
had  been  appointed  to  succeed  Sangina  as  head- 



man,  and  I  was  quite  ready  to  continue  the 
journey  either  with  or  without  two  new  boys. 
The  two  delinquents  had  evidently  come  to  the 
conclusion  that  all  hope  of  being  taken  back  had 
vanished,  for  Simukwenga  brought  a  message 
saying  they  were  leaving  Sioma,  but  wished  to 
bid  me  farewell  before  they  left. 

They  approached  submissively  and  in  marching 
order — assegai,  calabash,  and  skin  blanket — and 
said  they  were  leaving  for  Sesheke. 

"But  I  thought  you  were  going  by  land  to 
Borotse,"  I  said.  "  I  was  looking  forward  to 
taking  you  with  me  to  the  king's  presence  when 
I  arrived.*' 

"  No,  we  go  to  Sesheke,  and  will  take  your 
letter  to  the  Mokwai.  We  dare  not  go  to 
Liwanika.  He  would  kill  us  when  he  heard 
how  we  have  behaved  to  you.  We  go  to  the 
Mokwai ;  we  are  her  slaves,  and  will  ask  her  to 
forgive  us.'' 

**  But  don't  you  think  you  deserve  to  be  killed 
after  being  so  bad  ?  " 

I  began  to  see  I  should  be  able  to  take  them 
back  into  my  service  without  detriment  to  myself. 
They  had  learnt  their  lesson. 

"We  do  not  want  to  be  killed,  N'tate." 

I  affected  deep  thought  for  some  moments,  and 
then  addressed  them. 

'*You  have  behaved  very  wickedly,  and  you 

have  made  me  very  angry.     Still,  I  do  not  wish 



you  to  be  killed  ;  but  I  mean  that  you  shall  be 
punished.  If  I  take  you  back  as  my  boys  will 
you  ever  refuse  to  do  what  I  tell  you  again  ?  " 

"No,  N'tate;  we  will  do  everything  you  tell 

"  Then  I  will  take  you  back,  but  on  these  con- 
ditions only.  You,  Sangina,  have  shown  that  you 
are  not  fit  to  be  headman,  because  you  have  not 
learnt  how  to  obey  your  master,  so  shall  no  longer 
be  headman.  Simukwenga  has  taken  your  place, 
and  you  must  both  obey  him.  I  will  give  you 
your  pay  when  your  work  is  ended,  but  neither 
you  nor  Bushman  must  expect  the  present  which 
I  may  give  to  those  boys  who  have  obeyed  my 

They  appeared  delighted  with  these  conditions, 
and  readily  accepted  them. 

"  Remember  one  thing,  then,"  I  added ;  **  if 
ever  you  give  me  trouble  again  I  will  have  no 
mercy  on  you." 

These  eleven  paddlers  were  in  my  service  for 
two  further  months,  during  which  time  every  wish 
I  expressed  was  readily  complied  with,  and  I 
never  had  reason  to  regret  having  taken  Sangina 
and  Bushman  back. 



ON  the  morning  of  September  the  7th  no 
corn  had  been  sent  from  Sioma,  and  the 
boys  were  absolutely  without  food.  For  a 
few  miles  up  stream  there  was  game,  but  it  was 
very  scarce,  while  from  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  huge  plain  known  as  Borotse,  com- 
mencing about  a  day  s  journey  from  the  Gonye 
Falls,  corn  was  absolutely  unprocurable,  and, 
with  the  exception  of  hippopotami,  there  was 
no  game  whatsoever.  I  therefore  determined 
to  move  camp  about  half  a  dozen  miles  up  the 
river,  and  from  there  hunt  till  sufficient  meat 
could  be  dried  to  feed  the  boys  for  a  week. 

The  African  native,  despite  his  very  consider- 
able capacity  for  consuming  food  when  procur- 
able, is  gifted  with  a  not  less  marvellous  power 
of  subsisting  on  very  little  if  necessary.  While 
paddling  up  the  river  they  collected  the  stems 
of  the  water-lily  flower,  which  grows  in  profusion 
near  the  banks.  These  were  subsequently  boiled 
down  and  served  to  fill,  if  not  to  nourish,  them. 

Opposite  the  spot  selected  for  camp,  on  the 

left  bank,  a   few   natives  were  to   be  seen,   so 



I  sent  Simukwenga  across  to  make  enquiries 
as  to  the  whereabouts  of  game. 

In  a  quarter  of  an  hour  he  returned  with  the 
encouraging  news  that  a  large  herd  of  buffalo 
had  been  sleeping  through  the  heat  of  the  day 
a  short  distance  only  from  the  river. 

It  was  now  about  three  o'clock,  and  I  lost 
no  time  in  putting  together  a  few  provisions  and 
a  couple  of  blankets,  so  as  to  be  prepared  to 
follow  the  herd  for  three  days  if  necessary. 

Three  or  four  local  natives  awaited  my  arrival, 
and  willingly  consented  to  join  in  the  hunt  in 
view  of  the  probability  of  a  substantial  meat 

By  four  o'clock  I  was  on  the  spoor  of  the 
buffaloes,  which  had  left  about  two  hours  before, 
judging  from  the  condition  of  the  droppings. 
Still,  it  was  likely  that  they  would  delay  a  good 
deal  whenever  they  reached  a  tempting  piece 
of  pasture,  and  thus  give  me  a  chance  of  getting 
among  them  before  the  light  failed.  And  so  it 
was ;  for  after  following  the  spoor  for  a  couple 
of  hours,  my  eyes  seemed  to  detect  a  movement 
in  the  forest  some  500  yards  ahead.  Closer 
scrutiny  discovered  a  large  herd  of  buffalo 
grazing  slowly  up  an  open  glade.  As  there 
was  no  undergrowth  I  instructed  the  boys  to 
remain  where  they  were  until  the  first  shot  was 
fired,  and  forthwith  commenced  a  detour  with 
a  view  to  heading  the  herd  and  getting  more 



directly  to  windward  of  them.  Just  as  the  sun 
was  setting  I  reached  the  edge  of  the  long,  narrow 
valley — almost  devoid  of  covert — unnoticed  by 
the  herd  of  some  200  buffalo  as  they  moved 
slowly  along  the  open  strip.  Finally,  by 
stretching  myself  full  length  on  the  ground 
and  dragging  my  body  very  gradually  back- 
wards by  means  of  my  toes,  I  reached  an  ant-heap 
in  the  plain  near  which  it  seemed  the  herd  must 
pass  unless  disturbed.  In  a  few  minutes  the 
leaders  were  well  within  range.  I  saw  no  bulls 
near,  so  picked  out  a  large  cow,  apparently 
wounding  her  in  the  shoulder.  The  herd  at 
once  faced  about  and  galloped  off  in  a  cloud 
of  dust,  while  I  followed  without  delay.  Getting 
the  wind  of  the  approaching  boys  they  pulled 
up,  evidently  not  quite  certain  of  the  direction 
of  their  enemy.  Four  badly-placed  shots,  as 
they  rushed  backwards  and  forwards,  wounded 
three  more,  but  killed  none.  Then,  noticing  the 
cow  I  had  first  wounded  standing  about  100 
yards  to  my  right  and  looking  away  in  the 
direction  of  the  boys,  I  ran  after  her  and 
ineffectively  emptied  both  barrels  as  she  turned 
and  cantered  off.  After  a  short,  sharp  run  both 
the  beast  and  myself  had  halted  about  twenty-five 
yards  apart,  I  vainly  endeavouring  to  extract 
a  jammed  cartridge  case  from  my  rifle.  It  was 
only  just  removed  as  the  wounded  cow,  sighting 
me,  raised  her  muzzle  and,  with  extended  neck 



and  horns  thrown  back,  charged.  I  stooped 
down  and  waited  till  she  was  a  couple  of  paces 
away,  then,  firing  two  ounces  of  lead  into  her 
chest,  sprang  quickly  aside.  She  passed  by  my 
right,  swerved,  and  fell  dead  ten  yards  beyond. 
By  this  time  the  light  was  failing.  I  had  only 
brought  one  buffalo  to  bag  and  wanted  three ; 
so,  seizing  a  Mannlicher  from  one  of  the  boys 
who  had  just  come  up,  I  followed  up  the  herd, 
which  was  now  standing  about  half  a  mile  down 
the  valley.  A  lucky  long  shot  severed  the  spine 
of  another  cow.  She  bellowed  and  fell.  I  once 
more  gave  chase,  hoping  that  one  at  least  of  the 
three  wounded  animals  would  fall  out,  but  none 
did  so,  and  I  was  compelled  to  return  for  want 
of  light.  It  was  too  late  to  cut  up  the  buffaloes 
that  night,  so  I  left  three  boys  to  sleep  near  the 
carcase  of  one  cow,  while  I  returned  to  the  other 
and  camped  with  the  rest  near  it. 

During  the  night  the  groans  and  bellowing  of 
a  buffalo  no  great  distance  from  camp  told  me 
that  another  would  probably  be  bagged  next  day. 
As  soon  as  it  was  light  I  set  off  in  search  of 
number  three.  After  examining  the  ground  care- 
fully for  some  time  the  boys  struck  the  blood 
spoor  of  a  single  buffalo,  which  was  at  once 
followed.  A  short  distance  further  on  a  leopard 
spoor  joined  and  was  to  be  seen  on  that  of  the 
buffalo  for  several  hundred  yards,  where  the  two 
spoors  separated. 



One  of  the  boys  drew  my  attention  to  this, 
and  said : 

*'  The  leopard  has  gone  down  to  the  river ;  the 
buffalo  is  very  sick  but  is  not  dead." 

It  was  quite  an  hour  after  this,  during  which 
we  had  a  long  check,  that  the  leading  boy 
stopped  and  beckoned  me  forward.  The  bush 
was  very  thick  and  thorny  just  there,  and  we 
were  compelled  to  advance  in  single  file. 

Twenty-five  yards  in  front,  and  lying  down  with 
her  back  towards  me,  was  a  buffalo  cow,  as  yet 
quite  unsuspicious  of  pursuit.  A  buffalo  is  a 
dangerous  animal  in  thick  bush,  which  gives  like 
paper  before  his  ponderous  charge,  but  is  im- 
penetrable to  the  hunter.  Here  was  a  narrow 
path  along  which  the  animal  had  passed,  and 
thick  thorn  walls  on  either  side  ;  thus  no  opening 
for  escape  was  offered  save  by  rapid  retreat  in 
case  my  bullet  did  not  take  effect  and  the  buffalo 
charged,  which  these  animals  almost  invariably 
do  when  brought  to  bay  within  thirty  paces  or  so 
of  their  pursuer.  I  therefore  retraced  my  steps 
and  endeavoured  to  find  a  place  where  the  bush 
was  sufficiently  open  to  allow  me  to  fire  into  her 
shoulder  where  she  lay.  The  bush  proved  to  be 
too  thick,  so  there  was  nothing  for  it  but  to  follow 
her  spoor  and  put  a  bullet  in  the  right  place  as 
she  rose  and  turned.  When  twenty  paces  from 
her  she  first  became  aware  of  my  presence.  In 
a  moment  she  was  on  her  legs,  and  with  extended 



muzzle  commenced  her  charge,  but  had  not  made 
three  paces  when  a  heavy  bullet  brought  her  to 
her  knees  and  she  rolled  over  dead.  She  turned 
out  to  be  a  very  fat  cow.  The  boys  rejoiced 
over  her  more  than  over  anything  I  had  killed 
since  they  had  been  with  me,  for  they  love  fat. 

The  remainder  of  the  day  was  spent  in  carry- 
ing meat  and  cutting  it  into  strips  for  drying. 
There  was  enough  food  now  to  last  the  boys 
a  week,  and  a  great  weight  was  removed  from 
my  mind. 

Just  after  arriving  in  camp  that  evening  a 
canoe  with  two  paddlers  put  into  the  bank.  They 
were  in  front  of  me  in  a  moment  afterwards. 

**The  chief  of  Sioma  has  sent  us  to  ask  the 
white  man  to  give  him  some  of  the  buffalo  meat." 

"  Give  my  greetings  to  the  chief  of  Sioma," 
I  answered,  **and  tell  him  this.  Two  days  ago 
my  boys  were  hungry.  I  knew  he  had  corn  and 
asked  him  to  sell  some.  He  said,  *  There  is  no 
corn.'  Just  as  there  was  no  corn  in  Sioma  two 
days  ago  for  me,  so  there  is  no  meat  here  to-day 
for  the  chief  of  Sioma." 

**  You  have  spoken  wisely,  N'tate,"  said  one  of 
my  paddlers,  feelingly,  as  he  thought  of  his  own 
stomach,  and  the  two  strangers  left. 

On  the  morning  of  the  loth  Borotse  was 
reached  in  16"  15'  south  latitude.  This  is  a  huge, 
alluvial,  open  plain,  in  places  quite  fifty  or  sixty 
miles  wide,  and  extending  a  considerable  distance 



to  the  north  of  Lialui,  which  stands  about  seventy 
miles  as  the  crow  flies  north  of  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  plain.  In  the  winter  Borotse 
yields  an  excellent  cattle  pasture,  and  being  free 
from  the  tsetse  fly  supports  many  thousands  of 
cattle — the  property  of  the  Marotse.  In  the  sum- 
mer or  rainy  season  the  river  overflows  its  banks, 
and  converts  the  plain  into  a  marshy  swamp. 

The  Marotse  build  their  villages  and  make 
their  gardens  on  the  mounds,  which  alone  remain 
high  and  dry  during  this  period  of  inundation. 
These  mounds — many  of  which  cover  acres  of 
ground — are  the  work  of  the  white  ant,  whose 
marvellous  constructive  and  destructive  capabili- 
ties have  so  often  been  instanced  by  others.  The 
river  here  is  not  picturesque,  and  is  similar  in 
character  to  what  has  already  been  described  in 
the  Sesheke  district.  Waterfowl  are  to  be  seen 
everywhere  ;  the  stork  struts  about  with  self-con- 
scious gait  amidst  myriads  of  smaller  fowl.  Apart 
from  other  species  a  row  of  pelicans  here  and 
there  monopolises  a  sandbank  as  they  stolidly 
sun  themselves,  their  huge  beaks  resting  on  their 
breasts,  looking  the  very  picture  of  quaint 
sagacity.  Mixing  on  more  sociable  terms  are  to 
be  seen  the  refined-looking  ibis  and  the  noisy 
plover,  intermingling  with  countless  other  varieties 
•^-birds  black,  white,  and  coloured,  with  big  beaks 
and  small  beaks,  long  legs  and  short  legs.  As 
the  canoes  skirt  the  reed-bound  bank  the  travel- 



ler  s  reveries  are  now  and  again  abruptly  broken 
by  the  fearful  notes  of  some  scared  heron  within 
a  few  feet  of  his  ears.  His  eyes  will  then  observe 
a  movement  on  a  bank  ahead  as  some  suspicious 
crocodile  glides  snake-like  into  the  water;  a 
moment  later  the  brute's  forehead  alone  shows 
above  the  surface  as  he  watches  the  canoes  pass 
in  comparative  safety.  Frequently,  too,  the  far- 
reaching  grunt  of  the  hippopotamus  attracts  notice 
to  a  herd  of  these  monsters  as  their  heads  rise 
and  disappear  one  after  the  other  in  their  anxiety 
to  know  exactly  what  is  going  on.  All  these 
sights  and  sounds  quite  make  up  in  interest  for 
clean-cut  mudbanks,  and  the  entanglement  of 
reeds  which  with  the  water,  and  sandbanks  crop- 
ping up  here  and  there,  unite  to  form  the  never- 
varying  landscape. 

Borotse  is  much  more  thickly  populated  than 
any  other  district  I  have  passed  through  in  Li- 
wanika's  *'  empire."  To  the  Marotse  themselves 
1  took  a  particular  fancy.  They  are  for  the  most 
part  a  tall,  well  set-up  race,  very  black  in  skin. 
In  manner  they  are  courteous,  and  in  bearing 
dignified.  Every  full-blooded  Marotse  is  by  birth- 
right a  chief,  and  takes  his  place  in  the  aristocracy 
of  the  "empire."  The  bare  fact  that  he  is  a 
Marotse  ensures  the  respect  of  the  subservient 
tribes,  and  as  he  grows  to  manhood  a  sense  of 
superiority  implants  in  most  of  them  the  dignity 
of  self-respect. 



I  was  now  once  more  in  a  land  of  milk.  Mixed 
herds  of  cattle  were  to  be  seen  grazing  along  the 
banks  of  the  river,  and  their  condition  even  then, 
towards  the  close  of  the  dry  season,  bore  witness 
to  the  richness  of  the  pasture. 

My  goods  were  packed,  and  I  was  about  to 
start  up  stream  on  the  morning  of  the  1 2th  when 
two  canoes  neared  the  bank.  Out  of  one  a 
venerable  old  chief  stepped,  and  as  he  approached 
bade  me  welcome  to  Borotse.  He  then  called 
to  his  slaves  in  the  other  canoe,  who  advanced 
with  several  bowls  of  fresh  milk.  I  thanked  him, 
and  said  I  would  take  a  small  bowl,  which  I 
would  drink,  adding : 

"  I  am  sorry  you  did  not  come  sooner,  before 
all  my  things  were  tied  up  and  packed  in  the 
canoes,  for  then  I  would  gladly  have  bought  all 
your  milk." 

**  I  have  brought  the  milk  as  a  present  for  the 
white  man,"  he  answered.  I  thanked  the  old 
man,  and  filling  a  bottle  for  my  own  use,  gave  the 
rest  to  the  boys. 

Imagine  a  Bamangwato  or  other  South  African 
native  giving  a  white  man,  much  less  a  stranger 
from  whom  he  had  been  told  he  could  get  no 
return,  the  morning's  milk  from  at  least  six  cows ! 

In  the  afternoon  I  wounded  a  hippo  in  the  head, 
and  followed  him  for  some  time,  but  could  not 
get  a  second  shot,  though  his  head  appeared  for 
a  moment  at  short  intervals  as  he  spurted  from 



his  nostrils  quite  a  fountain  of  blood  and  water. 
Finally  I  lost  him  for  that  afternoon,  but  next 
morning  the  natives  found  his  blood  spoor  on  the 
bank.  He  led  us  through  a  labyrinth  of  paths 
and  tunnels  among  the  high  entangled  reeds,  but 
was  eventually  lost  amid  the  swamps  and 
marshes  in  which  he  had  taken  refuge. 

Although  the  midday  temperature  in  the 
shade  seldom  exceeded  lOo''  Fahr.,  which  would 
be  by  no  means  oppressive  in  the  higher  and 
drier  country  beyond  the  plain — the  heat  on  the 
river  was  intense,  and  made  travelling  during  the 
hotter  hours  somewhat  trying,  unprotected  as 
I  was  by  any  other  cover  than  my  helmet  The 
nights,  however,  though  misty,  were  cool  and 
eminently  conducive  to  sleep.  Comfortable  rest 
at  night  means  to  the  traveller  the  greatest  of 
blessings,  vigour  and  health,  which  spell,  or 
ought  to  spell,  happiness. 

On  the  13th,  shortly  after  making  my  nights 
camp  in  the  early  evening,  a  messenger  arrived 
with  a  letter  from  Liwanika,  translated  and 
written  by  M.  Adolp  J  alia,  an  Italian  missionary 
at  Lialui,  working  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Paris  Missionary  Society. 

This  remarkable  epistle  enquired  by  what 
right  I  hunted  in  the  country  without  the  king's 
permission,  and  especially  on  the  Njoko  river, 
which  was  a  royal  preserve.  It  finished  up  with 
the  request  that  I  should  send  by  the  messenger 
H  97 


the  present  which  he  exacted  of  all  white 
hunters  crossing  the  river,  abruptly  adding,  *'and 
let  it  be  a  valuable  one." 

It  is  needless  to  remark  that  a  note  written 
in  that  tone  did  not  please  me  very  much,  the 
more  especially  as  it  inferred  the  defeat  of  my 
plans,  which  I  was  all  the  more  anxious  to  carry 
through  as  I  had  been  so  often  told  they  were 
impossible  without  a  strong  party. 

I  sat  down  at  once,  and  replied  that  I  regretted 
that  Liwanika  had  thought  fit  to  repudiate  the 
permit  to  hunt  in  his  country  he  had  sent  to 
Kazungula;  still,  had  I  known  the  Njoko  river 
was  his  private  preserve  I  would  not  have  hunted 
there  without  his  special  permission  ;  concluding 
with  the  words,  "  I  shall  see  you  myself  in  four 
or  five  days,  when  I  will  give  you  the  present 
I  have  always  intended  for  you,  and  no  other." 

After  passing  my  friend,  Captain  Bertrand, 
a  kind  and  courteous  Swiss  gentleman,  who  had 
accompanied  me  from  Palapye  to  the  Zambezi, 
and  was  returning  by  river  to  Kazungula  on 
his  way  home,  I  camped  at  Nalolo  on  the 
evening  of  the  1 5th.  Nalolo  is  the  second  town 
in  importance  in  the  Marotse  empire,  and  is 
presided  over  by  the  queen  of  the  country. 

An  interesting  and  unique  custom  places  this 

lady — known  as  the  Mokwai — in  the  position  she 

holds.     By  the  unwritten  constitution  of  Marotse- 

land  the  eldest  sister  of  the  ruling  king  shares 



both  his  prerogatives  and  his  rights.  He  is  not 
at  liberty  to  take  any  important  step  in  the 
government  of  his  country  without  his  sister's 
sanction  and  advice,  though  of  course  he  stands 
in  the  position  of  a  senior  partner,  and  I  imagine 
has  his  own  way  when  he  wants  it.  Within  her 
own  district  the  Mokwai  enjoys  absolute  sway 
over  her  subjects.  Their  lives  and  property  are 
in  her  hands,  and  she  knows  it  She  is  at  liberty 
to  take  unto  herself  a  husband  or  depose  him  at 
will,  and  in  this  respect  the  present  lady  has 
shown  herself  quite  equal  to  the  occasion.  When 
I  visited  her  she  had  got  as  far  as  No.  7,  who  had 
lasted  very  much  longer  than  most  of  his  prede- 
cessors ;  so  it  is  to  be  presumed  his  deposition  or 
sudden  demise  is  at  hand. 

No.  6  had  a  very  tragic  end.  He  was  an 
amiable  man,  and  through  his  extreme  kindliness 
and  irreproachable  life  won  the  universal  esteem 
and  respect  of  the  people.  His  better  half,  being 
of  a  jealous  and  envious  disposition,  resented  his 
popularity,  and  set  about  to  compass  his  death. 
One  night  she  gave  a  beer  party  to  the  select  of 
Nalolo.  As  the  evening  progressed  and  the  oft- 
repeated  libations  stimulated  and  excited  the 
assembled  guests,  their  royal  hostess  drew  some 
of  the  young  men  aside,  provided  them  with 
knives,  and  ordered  the  death  of  her  husband. 
To  their  credit — half-drunken  savages  though 
they   were — they   refused   to   obey   their   ruler's 



behest,  ignoring  alike  her  promise  of  reward  and 
chidings  for  cowardice.  Thus  frustrated  in  her 
efforts  to  father  the  cruel  deed  on  others,  she 
seized  a  knife,  sought  out  her  victim,  and  with 
her  own  hand  plunged  the  blade  deep  into  his 

As  he  fell  she  exclaimed  contemptuously  to  her 
horrified  guests : 

"  Thus  a  thorn  has  been  removed  from  my 

The  town  of  Nalolo,  the  population  of  which 
I  estimated  at  about  1500,  stands  about  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  right  bank  of  the 
river  on  a  large  rising  mound.  I  pitched  my  tent 
on  the  bank,  and  sent  a  message  that  evening  to 
the  Mokwai  notifying  my  arrival,  and  expressing 
my  intention  of  visiting  her  in  the  morning.  The 
messenger  came  back  bidding  me  welcome,  and 
was  accompanied  by  a  small  boy,  who  laid  a  large 
bowl  of  thick  milk  at  my  feet  as  a  present  from 
his  mistress. 

This  thick  or  curded  milk,  if  properly  made 
and  eaten  at  the  right  time,  is  very  excellent  and 
nutritious.  Both  in  taste  and  consistency  it  is 
best  described  as  betwixt  and  between  Devon- 
shire cream  and  cream-cheese. 

Close  to  my  tent,  and  covering  some  four  or 

five  acres  of  ground,  several  huge  fishing  nets 

were  stretched  over  the  ground.     These  nets  are 

beautifully  made  out  of  tan-coloured  bark  twine, 


•   "„ 


•  . 

and  are  at  once  strong  and  durable.  Wh^  in 
use  they  are  stretched  across  the  river — which-'at  / . 
Nalolo  is  about  250  yards — and  dragged  forward  •' ••/;> 
by  men  in  canoes  and  on  the  banks.  There  are  "•*•; 
some  exceptionally  good  eating  fish  in  the  Upper 
Zambezi,  unlike  the  majority  of  species  found  in 
the  Limpopo  and  other  South  African  rivers, 
where  in  most  cases  the  flesh  is  hopelessly  mixed 
up  with  innumerable  disconnected  bones.  The 
only  fish  I  saw  which  is  common  to  South  African 
rivers  and  the  Zambezi  is  the  tough  and  tasteless 
"  barber,"  a  mud  fish  which  abounds.  There  are 
doubtless  other  fish  to  be  found  in  both  districts, 
as  I  do  not  pretend  to  have  seen  even  the 
majority  of  piscal  species  inhabiting  the  Zambezi 
during  my  three  or  four  months'  connection  with 
that  river ;  but  I  was  surprised  to  find  such  a 
marked  contrast  between  the  fish  I  saw  and  ate 
during  the  expedition  of  which  these  pages  are 
a  description,  and  those  which  I  have  seen  and 
tasted  during  my  former  visits  to  the  interior  of 
South  Africa.  However,  I  will  not  waste  any 
more  of  my  reader's  time  on  this  subject,  as  my 
interest  in  fish  has  been  mainly  confined  to  the 
cooking  and  eating  of  them. 

While  it  was  still  cool  on  the  following  morn- 
ing I  walked  into  the  town  to  see  the  fiend  of  a 
woman  of  whom  it  had  been  said,  "  She  has  been 
guilty  of  every  crime  from  murder  with  her  own 
hands  downwards." 


•  *     • 


Sjbe'^welt,  as  is  usual  with  native  potentates, 

^  ..within  a  stockaded  yard  in  the  centre  of  the  town. 

.•;,•;:•  Her  house,  like  that  belonging  to  her  daughter 

at  Sesheke,  and  her  nephew  Latia  at  Kazungula, 

was  spacious  and  oblong,  constructed  similarly  to 

the  mission  houses  on  the  river. 

A  not  unprepossessing  woman  of  somewhat 
portly  dimensions  came  forward  to  greet  me  as  I 
entered  the  yard.  Though  she  does  not  look 
it  she  must  be  over  fifty,  as  she  is  older  than 
Liwanika,  who  is  about  that  age.  She  still 
talks  of  Liwanika  as  her  little  brother,  and 
is  frequently  much  annoyed  at  his  being  treated 
as  a  superior  person  to  herself.  Indeed,  were 
it  not  for  the  fact  that  she  has  an  actual 
interest  in  keeping  him  alive — inasmuch  as  her 
chieftainship  terminates  with  his  life — it  is  very 
much  to  be  doubted  whether  Liwanika  would  be 
the  present  ruler  of  the  Marotse  empire. 

The  Mokwai  of  course  asked  me  the  usual 
questions  :  **  Was  I  an  Englishman  ?  "  **  What 
have  I  come  to  Borotse  for.^'*  **When  was  I 
going  back  to  England  ?''  &c.,  and  received  the 
usual  replies. 

One    passage    in    our    conversation    perhaps 

deserves  mention.      Thinking   to  give  pleasure 

to   the    "mother" — for   I    have   been   told    that 

the    worst    of    women    have    the    instincts    of 

maternal  affection — I  alluded  in  laudatory  terms 

to    the    treatment    I    had    received    from    her 



daughter,  the  fuling  princess  of  Sesheke,  and  the 
Mokwetunga,  her  husband,  during  my  stay  there. 

A  free  translation  of  the  reply  is :  **  Oh,  they 
are  only  small  fry.  I  and  Liwanika  are  the  big- 
wigs in  this  part  of  the  world." 

Next  she  begged  me  to  stay  at  Nalolo  for 
three  days,  so  that  I  might  shoot  a  hippopotamus, 
and  give  her  the  fat.  However,  I  refused  the 
kind  and  pressing  invitation,  on  the  ground  I 
was  in  a  hurry,  as  my  journey  up  the  river 
had  been  slower  than  I  had  intended,  and  I  still 
had  far  to  go  ;  but,  to  appease  her,  I  added  : 

'*  If  I  return  to  Kazungula  by  river  I  will  stay 
with  you  for  three  days  and  will  shoot  a  hippo- 
potamus, and  you  shall  have  the  fat."  And  so  I 
returned  to  my  tent,  and  proceeded  to  complete 
the  skinning  of  a  spurwing  goose  I  had  shot  the 
previous  afternoon.  I  had  scarcely  commenced 
work,  when  the  clapping  of  hands  with  which 
these  people  salute  their  chiefs  caused  me  to  put 
my  head  out  of  the  tent.  There  was  the  lady 
I  had  just  left,  followed  by  a  line  of  chiefs  and 
servants  in  single  file.  I  soon  found  that  she 
was  paying  a  return  call,  so  was  reluctantly 
compelled  to  "do  the  civil"  by  placing  her  on 
an  ammunition  box  and  giving  her  a  cup  of 
coffee.  At  last  she  went,  and  I  left  Nalolo 
without  delay. 

I  cannot  leave  the  Mokwai  without  mention  of 

an  outrage  on  missionaries  which  occurred  some 



five  years  ago,  and  in  which  she  played  a  leading 

She  was  on  a  visit  to  Sesheke,  and  at  the  same 
time  Messrs.  Buckenham  and  Baldwin,  English 
missionaries,  accompanied  by  the  wife  and  child 
of  the  former  and  an  artisan,  were  staying  there. 
The  Mokwai  had  promised  to  supply  a  certain 
**boy*'  for  the  construction  of  a  storehouse  for  the 
English  mission  goods,  but  the  **boy"  had  not 
been  forthcoming.  In  the  evening,  therefore,  the 
artisan  proceeded  to  the  queen  s  compound,  and 
indiscreetly  entered  the  courtyard  unaccompanied 
by  any  of  the  household  slaves,  of  whom  none 
were  to  be  seen.  Finally,  after  having  spoken 
to  a  chief  he  found  inside,  he  returned  to  Mr. 
Baldwin.  It  was  a  bright  moonlight  night,  and 
the  two  strolled  about  outside.  During  conversa- 
tion the  artisan  described  to  Mr.  Baldwin  where 
he  had  met  the  chief,  illustrating  the  description 
with  a  plan  of  the  queen's  compound  traced  on 
the  ground  with  his  foot.  This  tite-ci'tke  and 
the  **  mysterious '*  signs  on  the  ground  were 
noticed  by  some  natives. 

The  Mokwai  at  the  time  was  away  with  many 

of  her  chiefs  and  people  on  a  hunting  expedition 

on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  but  a  messenger 

was  despatched  to  her  at  once  apprising  her  of 

the    mysterious   conduct   of    the   white   man   at 

Sesheke.     The  returning  messenger  ordered  the 

artisan  and  M.  Goy — the  latter  as  interpreter — 



to  proceed  to  her  camp  at  once.  The  other 
being  unwell,  Mr.  Baldwin,  unfortunately  for 
himself,  offered  to  take  his  place  and  explain 
matters  to  the  superstitious  queen.  Each 
missionary  took  with  him  a  stool  on  which  to 
sit  in  the  canoe,  and  if  necessary  afterwards. 

On  reaching  the  queen  s  camp  they  found  her 
surrounded  by  all  her  chiefs,  awaiting  their  arrival, 
and  Mr.  Baldwin  was  at  once  asked  what  he 
meant  by  entering  the  queen's  compound  at 
night  and  afterwards  making  signs  on  the 
ground.  He  gave  his  explanation,  which  was 
quickly  followed  by  a  violent  harangue  from  a 
chief  accusing  him  of  bewitching  the  queen's 
compound.  Then  the  infuriated  black  stepped 
forward,  and  seizing  Mr.  Baldwins  stool  flung 
it  away.  The  outraged  missionary  regained  his 
stool,  but  before  he  could  reseat  himself  a  chorus 
of  voices  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  white 
man  had  bewitched  the  queen,  and  added : 

"  Take  the  thing  away,  take  the  thing  away. 
Put  it  in  the  river.'* 

Mr.  Baldwin  began  to  feel  uncomfortable,  and 
M.  Goy  anxious  for  his  friend's  safety. 

Then  again  voices  broke  out : 

**You  may  sit  on  your  stool,  Meruti  (M. 
Goy) ;  but  as  for  you,  sorcerer,  you  must  sit 
on  the  ground." 

With   this  a  general   rush  was   made  at  the 

unfortunate  Mr.  Baldwin.     Some  seized  him  by 



the  arms  and  some  by  the  legs,  and  his  coat  was 
torn  from  his  back.  Then  M.  Goy  gallantly 
ran  to  his  friend's  assistance  as  the  infuriated 
natives  dragged  him  towards  the  river,  and 
clasping  him  round  the  body  endeavoured  to 
rescue  him ;  but  numbers  were  against  them, 
and  Mr.  Baldwin  was  not  a  fighting  man,  so 
the  two  were  soon  dragged  asunder.  In  a  few 
moments  the  condemned  man  was  only  about 
twenty  yards  from  the  water's  edge. 

At  this  juncture  the  queens  husband  and 
another  chief  shouted  to  their  fellows  to  let  the 
white  man  go,  but  the  excited  mob  took  no  notice, 
and  continued  the  movement  towards  the  river, 
which  would  undoubtedly  have  ended  in  a  cold 
bath  for  Mr.  Baldwin  had  not  the  two  protesting 
chiefs  rushed  forward  and  applied  their  knob- 
kerries  vigorously  to  the  skulls  of  the  would-be 
murderers  until  they  were  compelled  to  relax 
their  hold. 

Sore  and  exhausted,  the  rescued  missionary 
was  again  brought  before  the  queen,  and  com- 
pelled to  sit  on  the  ground  before  her,  while 
the  scorching  sun  played  on  his  unprotected 
head — for  his  hat  had  been  taken  from  him. 

Then  the  woman  addressed  him  : 

**  You  will  not  be  put  in  the  river,  but  slaves 
have  already  gone  out  to  cut  wood.  A  hut 
will  be  built  for  you  in  which  you  will  be  tied 
and  left  to  die." 



Then  turning  to  M.  Goy : 

**You,  Meruti,  may  bring  your  stool  and  sit 
near  me." 

**  I  will  not  do  so,  Mokwai,"  he  answered, 
"unless  my  friend  is  brought  here  also/' 

Mr.  Baldwin  was  forthwith  led  forward,  but 
made  to  stand  bare-headed  in  front  of  the 

Then  M.  Goy  addressed  the  Mokwai  firmly : 

**  Know  this,  Mokwai,  you  have  done  a  bad 
and  foolish  thing  in  making  a  white  man  sit  in 
the  sand.  Be  careful  how  you  behave,  and 
promise  me  one  thing — never  again  to  make  a 
white  man  sit  on  the  ground." 

Finally  the  woman  began  to  recognise  the 
serious  nature  of  her  conduct,  and  promptly 
began  to  "hedge." 

"  I  will  forgive  you  this  time,"  she  said, 
addressing  Mr.  Baldwin,  "and  your  life  shall 
be  saved,  but  you  must  pay  me  a  fine." 

"  I  have  no  money,"  he  replied. 

"You  are  not  speaking  the  truth.  You  must 
have  money,  or  how  do  you  get  all  the  things 
you  have  brought  with  you  ?  " 

"I  do  not  use  money  ;  I  use  cheques." 

"  What  is  a  cheque  ?  "  the  lady  enquired.     Mr. 

Baldwin  then  explained  the  use  and  method  of  a 

cheque,  which  elicited  the  simple  rejoinder  from 

the  queen  of  the  Marotse — 

"Cheques  will  do." 



"  But  my  cheques  are  with  my  things  at 

So  the  two  missionaries  were  led  off  to  a 
bough-built  shelter,  where  they  were  left  for  the 
night,  but  they  could  not  sleep.  The  excited 
discussion  among  their  savage  persecutors  was 
not  understood  by  Mr.  Baldwin,  but  M.  Goy 
heard  everything  that  was  said  with  grave  fear 
for  the  life  of  his  friend. 

The  great  majority  of  the  natives  clamoured 
for  Mr.  Baldwins  blood,  and  were  anxious  to 
carry  out  their  wish  at  once.  Fortunately  the 
few  dissentients  were  influential  chiefs,  and  finally 
one  of  them  approached  M.  Goy  and  told  him 
that  they  might  sleep  in  peace,  and  that  on  the 
morrow  they  would  be  sent  to  Sesheke. 

Shortly  after  sunrise  they  were  told  the  canoes 
were  ready.  But  when  M.  Goy  saw  that  they 
were  to  travel  in  separate  canoes  he  refused  to 
leave  unless  allowed  to  accompany  his  friend,  for 
he  feared  they  designed  leaving  him  on  some 
island  en  route.  Finally  he  gained  his  point, 
and  the  two  missionaries  were  landed  safely  at 

As  might  be  expected,  Mr.  Baldwin  was 
knocked  over  by  a  serious  attack  of  fever  which 
raged  for  three  weeks.  When  recovering,  he 
sent  a  letter  to  Liwanika  complaining  of  the 
treatment  he  had  received  and  the  alleged  cause 
to  justify  it. 


**A  VERY   BAD  WOMAN »» 

The  amusing  feature  about  this  serious  episode 
is  that  on  the  morning  succeeding  the  queen  sent 
special  messengers  to  Liwanika,  apprising  him  of 
a  quarrel  which  had  taken  place  between  Meruti 
Goy  and  one  of  the  new  missionaries,  how  that 
they  had  attacked  one  another  and  fought  so 
furiously  that  one  of  them  would  have  killed 
the  other  had  not  her  people  with  great  difficulty 
succeeded  in  separating  them ! 

This  arrived  several  days  before  Mr.  Baldwin's 
note,  and  caused  M.  Coillard,  who  was  at  Lialui, 
much  grief  and  anxiety ;  for  although  he  did  not 
believe  the  report  in  toto,  he  feared  there  must 
have  been  something  in  it.  However,  his  mind 
was  eventually  set  at  rest  when  letters  reached 
him  and  the  king. 

Liwanika  sent  back  a  very  good  letter  to  Mr. 
Baldwin  saying  how  sorry  he  was  to  hear  of  his 
ill-treatment,  and  telling  him  he  was  by  no  means 
to  pay  any  fine  to  the  Mokwai,  whom  he  stigma- 
tised as  **  a  very  bad  woman."  One  of  his 
biggest  chiefs  was  entrusted  with  the  delivery 
of  this  letter,  and  at  the  same  time  ordered  to 
express  the  king's  anger  and  to  vigorously 
reproach  his  royal  sister  for  her  disgraceful 
treatment  of  the  white  man. 

A  short  time  after  leaving  Nalolo  the  canoes 

left  the  main  river  and  proceeded  up  an  overflow 

stream   which   leaves  the   Zambezi   five   or  six 

miles  north  of  Lialui  and  rejoins  it  at  this  point. 



This  Stream  passes  within  a  couple  of  miles  of 
Lialui,  to  which  town  a  narrow  canal  has  been 
cut  by  the  natives,  which  enables  canoes  to  be 
taken  thither  at  the  driest  time  of  the  year. 

The  next  night  I  camped  at  the  nearest  point 
to  the  mission  station,  not  sorry  at  the  prospect 
of  spending  a  week  or  so  at  a  place  where  white 
men  were  to  be  seen. 



THE  history  of  the  Marotse  is  not  without 
interest,  so  I  will  endeavour  to  supply  a 
sequel  to  Livingstone's  account  of  their  con- 
querors, the  Makololo,  on  whose  ruin  the  present 
Marotse  dynasty  was  founded.  According  to 
Livingstone,  the  Makololo,  who  were  paramount 
in  this  country  when  he  arrived  there  in  1850, 
invaded  the  southern  districts  of  the  present 
"  empire "  between  the  Kwando  and  Zambezi, 
and  known  as  Bosubia,  in  the  early  thirties. 

The  Makololo,  a  tribe  kindred  to  the  Basutos 
occupying  a  district  south  of  Bechuanaland  of 
to-day,  quitted  their  country  early  in  the  present 
century,  and  trekked  northwards  with  all  their 
women,  cattle  and  effects,  settling  at  Ngami, 
where  they  sojourned  for  a  few  years. 

Their  chief,  Sebitwane,  once  more  in  search 

of  fresh  conquests  and  pastures  new,  then  led  his 

tribe  still  further  north,  crossed  the  Kwando  and 

subdued  the  Masubia,  who  in  those  days  were  an 

independent  tribe  occupying  the  country  in  the 

angle  of  the  Kwando  and  Zambezi  rivers  and  a 

small  district  further  north. 



Of  Sebitwane,  Livingstone  speaks  in  high 
terms  of  praise,  as  an  accomplished  warrior  and 
leader  of  men ;  he  was  also  lenient  with  the  tribes 
he  subdued,  and  administered  justice  with  a  fair- 
ness and  consideration  unhappily  so  unusual 
among  native  conquerors. 

Having  made  himself  master  of  the  country 
and  persons  of  the  Masubia,  Sebitwane  crossed 
the  Zambezi  and  led  his  people  to  the  east 
against  the  Matoka,  who  were  in  turn  subdued. 
The  plateau  of  Botoka  being  high  and  healthy 
suited  the  Makololo  better  than  the  swampy 
country  of  Bosubia,  and  in  consequence  became 
the  headquarters  of  the  tribe.  At  length  a 
Matabele  impi  crossed  the  river  and  took  the 
settlers  by  surprise,  decamping  with  their  cattle 
and  women.  Sebitwane  at  once  gathered  all  his 
warriors  together,  followed  the  raiders  and 
defeated  them,  recovering  the  captives. 

Knowing  that  Mosilikatse,  the  Matabele  king, 
would  not  accept  this  reverse  without  a  vigorous 
attempt  at  least  to  avenge  the  defeat  of  his  impi, 
Sebitwane  wisely  elected  to  increase  the  existing 
space  between  his  enemy  and  himself,  and  to 
take  advantage  of  an  opportunity  which  offered 
to  render  conquest  easy  in  the  far  north. 

Malunda,  king  of  the  Marotse,  had  recently 
died,  leaving  three  sons,  but  all  too  young  for  the 
chieftainship.  Rival  claimants  sprang  up  in 
consequence  and  civil  war  broke  out,  with  the 



result  that  one  of  the  would-be  kings  invited 
Sebitwanes  interference,  and  not  in  vain,  for 
shortly  afterwards  the  Makololo  were  established 
in  Borotse  as  masters  of  the  Marotse  and  their 
dependents.  Among  these  were  the  Mabunda, 
who  occupy  country  to  both  east  and  west  of 
Borotse,  whither  they  had  probably  been  driven 
to  right  and  left  when  the  Marotse,  apparently  at 
no  very  remote  period,  settled  on  the  rich  plains 
they  still  inhabit.  They,  however,  voluntarily 
acknowledged  the  suzerainty  of  the  Marotse  king, 
and  thereby  had  privileges  conferred  upon  them 
by  which  they  rank  above  the  conquered  tribes, 
but  are  still  denied  the  rights  of  chieftainship. 

It  is  difficult  to  ascertain  when  the  Marotse 
settled  in  their  present  country,  or  whence  they 
came,  though  tradition  says  they  travelled  up  the 
Zambezi.  They  are  of  quite  a  different  type 
from  any  South  African  tribe,  and  no  doubt 
originally  also  emigrated  from  the  north,  but 
probably  many  years  subsequent  to  the  invasion 
of  South  Africa  by  its  present  inhabitants. 

Besides  the  Mabunda,  the  Marotse  were  also 
masters  of  many  of  the  Matutela,  whose  country 
is  bounded  by  Bosubia  on  the  south,  and 
separated  from  Borotse  by  Bokwenga,  which  is 
situate  in  the  Lui  river  districts,  and  whose 
people  were  also  among  the  subject  tribes.  It 
was  to  these  people,  therefore,  that  Sebitwane 
went  first  by  invitation,  but  finally  subdued  by 
I  113 


force.  Here  his  desires  for  conquest  seem  to 
have  stopped,  and  he  set  to  work  to  consolidate 
the  large  empire  he  had  won  by  war. 

On  Sebitwane's  death,  which  resulted  from  an 
old  wound  in  the  lungs  in  1850,  his  daughter 
Ma-mochisane  inherited  the  chieftainship  in 
accordance  with  her  father's  bequest.  She,  how- 
ever, loved  not  power,  and  longed  to  be  as  other 
women  were.  Thus  she  eventually  insisted  on 
handing  over  her  ruling  rights  to  her  brother, 
Sekeletu,  a  youth  of  eighteen,  whom  Living- 
stone describes  as  **  about  5  ft.  7  in.,  not  so  good- 
looking  nor  able  as  his  father,  but  equally  friendly 
to  the  English." 

His  reign  was  uneventful,  and  during  the  latter 
part  of  it  he  was  a  sufferer  from  leprosy,  to  which 
fell  disease  he  ultimately  succumbed  after  ruling 
for  some  fourteen  years.  His  uncle,  Mbolowa,  a 
brother  of  Sebitwane,  then  claimed  the  chieftain- 
ship, but  held  it  for  three  months  only.  Rival 
factions  had  now  sprung  into  existence,  and  two 
chiefs  contested  their  claims  to  the  supreme 
power  by  force  of  arms.  The  house  divided 
against  itself  became  weakened  and  fell ;  for 
when  the  Makololo  had  spilt  their  own  blood 
freely  and  relentlessly,  and  were  no  longer  the 
united,  compact  body  they  once  were,  the 
Marotse,  seeing  their  opportunity,  seized  it.  In 
a  night  the  conquered  people  rose  as  one  man 
and  murdered  their  masters,  man,  woman,  and 



child,  saving  only  a  few  young  women.  Thus 
in  1865,  approximately,  the  present  rulers  of  the 
country  re-established  their  control  over  their 
former  dominions,  to  which  were  added  the 
Makololo  conquests  in  the  south-east.  A  small 
detachment  of  Makololo  alone  escaped  the 
country  and  made  their  way  to  Ngami,  where 
they  were  ostensibly  received  with  kindness,  but 
subsequently  treacherously  murdered  to  a  man. 

There  is  something  pathetic  about  this  people  s 
history.  A  superior  race  had  established  a  power- 
ful black  empire.  In  due  course  ambitious 
personal  rivalry  crept  in,  gave  birth  to  faction, 
and  resulted  in  annihilation,  so  that  to-day  all 
that  remains  of  the  Makololo  is  their  language 
and  their  empire. 

The  Marotse,  once  more  masters  of  the  situa- 
tion, looked  about  them  for  a  head.  In  the  north, 
Sepopo,  son  of  Malunda,  king  of  Borotse  to 
within  a  few  months  of  the  Makololo  invasion, 
had  lived  in  exile  since  as  a  child  he  fled  before 
Sebitwane  s  warriors.  This  man,  a  well  set  up 
and  dignified  savage,  was  selected  by  the  people 
and  invited  to  assume  the  chieftainship.  He 
subsequently  established  himself  at  Sesheke,  and 
for  a  short  time  ruled  temperately  and  well. 
Gradually,  however,  a  cruel  and  savage  nature 
asserted  itself,  and  he  gave  way  to  wanton  and 
unprovoked  brutality.  One  of  his  favourite 
forms  of  recreation  was  indulged  in  on  the  high 



banks  of  the  Zambezi,  near  the  town  of  Sesheke 
— ^which  he  mainly  used  as  his  headquarters  in 
order  to  be  more  in  touch  with  traders  from  the 
south.  There  he  sat  while  his  creatures  threw 
children  into  the  river  from  canoes,  and  the 
royal  savage  found  amusement  in  watching  the 
helpless  struggles  of  the  unfortunate  litde  crea- 
tures as  they  strove  to  reach  the  bank ;  but  what 
pleased  him  best  were  the  agonized,  hopeless  dis- 
tortions of  face  as  a  child  threw  up  its  arms  the 
moment  a  crocodile  had  seized  its  victim. 

The  crocodiles  of  Sesheke  remember  those 
days  of  repletion  to  the  present  time,  and  make 
the  boldest  attempts  to  secure  human  flesh. 
Scarcely  a  month  passes  during  which  a  woman 
or  a  thild  drawing  water  is  not  seized;  the 
natives  even  find  it  necessary  when  in  their 
canoes  to  keep  them  on  the  move,  lest  a  croco- 
dile's tail  should  sweep  one  of  them  into  the 
water.  One  of  my  favourite  amusements  during 
three  sojourns  at  Sesheke  was  to  sit  on  the 
river  bank  with  a  Mannlicher  and  take  shots  at 
the  foreheads  of  these  sneaking  reptiles  as  they 
appeared  above  the  surface  of  the  water,  and  I 
confess  to  feelings  of  intense  satisfaction  when- 
ever the  bullet  sent  back  that  particular  sound  in 
evidence  of  having  done  its  duty. 

In    1870,   approximately,   the    Marotse   grew 

tired  of  Sepopo's  rule,  and  open  rebellion  broke 

out     The  king  fled  with  a  few  faithful  followers, 



and  would  probably  have  made  good  his  escape 
had  not  the  most  trusted  of  these  faithful  ones 
shot  him  in  the  back.  He,  however,  managed  to 
reach  the  river,  and  entering  a  canoe  endeavoured 
to  save  himself  by  fleeing  the  country.  But  this 
was  not  to  be,  for  before  he  could  reach  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Kwando  river  death  overtook  him 
— his  wound  proving  fatal. 

The  tyrant  Sepopo  was  succeeded  by  his 
nephew  Ngwanwina,  son  of  Mokobeso,  his  elder 
brother,  whose  right  to  succeed  was  in  turn  dis- 
puted by  Liwanika,  son  of  Ditia,  another  brother 
of  Sepopo.  Six  months  after  Ngwanwinas 
accession,  the  rival  cousins,  with  their  respective 
adherents,  met  in  battle  on  the  banks  of  the 
Lumbi  river.  The  king  was  killed,  his  followers 
routed,  and  Liwanika,  the  present  ruler,  reigned 
in  his  stead. 

The  earlier  years  of  Liwanikas  reign  were 
marked  by  harshness  and  cruelty,  and  the  burn- 
ing of  *'  witches  "  was  an  almost  daily  occurrence. 
On  one  occasion  a  cousin  of  his  was  seized,  who 
belonged  to  that  class  of  political  busybody 
which  is  to  be  found  in  countries  of  every  grade 
of  civilization.  A  small  stockade  was  built 
within  a  stone's-throw  of  the  kings  house  at 
Lialui,  and  the  unfortunate  man  encaged  therein 
to  die  a  lingering  death  from  starvation  under 
the  very  eyes  of  friends  and  enemies  alike.  A 
tree  now  marks  the  spot  of  this  gruesome  deed. 



Liwanika  had  reigned  about  fifteen  years  when 
one  fine  day  he  heard  an  uproar  outside  his 
stockade,  which  soon  proved  to  emanate  from  a 
large  concourse  of  excited  subjects  without.  He 
at  once  grasped  the  situation,  seized  a  gun,  and 
made  for  the  entrance  of  the  surrounded  kraal. 
Shooting  one  or  two  of  the  mob  nearest  to  him, 
he  boldly  ordered  the  remainder  to  make  way. 
The  crowd,  completely  taken  by  surprise,  opened 
to  right  and  left,  and  before  they  had  recovered 
themselves  the  fugitive  king  had  made  good  his 
escape.  Latia,  his  eldest  son,  then  a  boy  of 
thirteen  or  fourteen,  managed  to  pass  unnoticed 
through  the  excited  throng,  and  reached  his 
father  unhurt.  He  was  the  sole  survivor  of 
the  king's  children,  all  his  brothers  and  sisters 
having  been  murdered  with  their  mothers. 

Father  and  son  with  three  or  four  followers 
crossed  the  river,  and  fled  to  the  Kwando.  Here 
the  people  received  them  well,  and  he  remained 
among  them  some  months,  by  which  time  he  had 
collected  enough  followers  to  make  it  worth  his 
while  to  have  another  bid  for  power.  Thus,  at 
the  head  of  an  army,  he  invaded  Borotse,  and 
attacked  Lialui  itself  The  battle  raged  long 
and  fiercely,  and  for  some  time  the  issue  seemed 
doubtful.  At  last,  however,  the  royal  faction 
showed  signs  of  giving  way,  and  defeat  appeared 
imminent.  One  ray  of  hope  alone  remained, 
and    the    king   grasped    it.      Some    Portuguese 



Mambari  with  their  followers  were  encamped 
near  the  town,  having  come  on  a  mission  to 
trade  for  ivory  and  slaves.  To  these  men 
Liwanika  sent  a  messenger,  offering  valuable 
presents  of  ivory  if  they  would  but  join  in  the 
fight  and  win  him  the  battle.  The  Mambari 
responded  with  their  guns,  the  rebels  were  dis- 
comfited, and  Liwanika  ruled  once  more.  That 
night  there  was  great  jollification,  feasting,  drink- 
ing, and  no  end  of  fun.  The  Mambari  were 
handsomely  rewarded  for  their  services,  and 
Liwanika  is  still  king  of  the  Marotse  and  sub- 
ject tribes ;  he  is,  however,  quite  a  reformed 
character  now,  and  rules  his  people  with  a 
leniency  often  construed  by  them  into  weakness. 
After  all,  the  harshness  of  his  earlier  years  may 
be  forgiven  him,  for,  to  the  African,  born  and 
bred  as  he  is  in  the  midst  of  atrocities  as  his 
fathers. were  before  him,  no  such  sentiment  exists 
as  feeling  for  others.  My  boys  could  never 
understand  why  I  should  refuse  to  allow  them 
to  roast  a  live  land-turtle  in  the  cinders,  or 
prevent  them  from  levying  mail  on  some  helpless 
woman  returning  to  her  kraal  with  the  result  of 
a  day  s  work.  Sympathy  with  others  cannot 
be  expected  in  individuals  among  a  people  in 
whose  heredity  and  surroundings  such  a  senti- 
ment is  nowhere  to  be  found.  After  eight  or 
ten   generations   of   careful   training   it   may  be 

otherwise,  but  the  lower   instincts   of    mankind 


Exploration  and  hunting  in  central  Africa 

which  for  countless  ages  have  represented  the 
sole  characteristics  of  the  native  African  cannot 
be  replaced  in  a  single  lifetime  by  those  higher 
feelings  and  aspirations  which  it  has  taken 
centuries  of  expanding  enlightenment  to  implant 
and  foster  in  civilized  man. 

The  country  directly  and  indirectly  governed 
by  Liwanika  is  larger  than  the  German  Empire. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Zambezi  and 
Kwando  rivers,  on  the  west  by  the  Kwando  to, 
or  within  a  short  distance  of,  its  source,  from 
which  point  it  is  as  yet  impossible  to  define  a 
boundary,  but  it  is  approximately  represented  by 
a  line  drawn  north  as  far  as  the  Congo- Zambezi 
watershed  which  forms  the  northern  boundary. 
His  eastern  boundary  is,  roughly  speaking,  the 
Kafukwe  river,  though  in  places  tribes  dwelling 
to  the  east  of  that  river  acknowledge  his  suzer- 
ainty. In  the  far  north,  of  course,  of  so  wide  a 
territory  his  authority  is  little  more  than  nominal, 
but  is  acknowledged  in  some  shape  or  form.  In 
Guvale — Kangenge's  country — for  instance,  near 
the  Zambezi  source,  a  very  old  woman  named 
Makatolo  or  Nanakandundu,  living  in  a  town 
called  by  her  latter  name,  has  for  some  years  had 
and  still  retains  the  privilege  of  nominating  the 
chief  of  Guvale  when  a  vacancy  occurs,  but  before 
the  nominee  is  confirmed  in  his  appointment 
Liwanika's  sanction  is  necessary,  and  to  obtain 
this  a  deputation  journeys  to  Lialui  and  waits 
upon  that  important  person. 

1 20 


I  SHALL  now  endeavour  to  describe  the 
eight  tribes  at  the  present  time  occupying 
the  southern  half  of  Liwanika's  empire,  namely, 
the  Marotse,  Mabunda,  RTakwenga,  Matutela, 
Masubia,  Matoka,  Mankoya,  and  Mashikolumbwe. 
On  crossing  the  Zambezi  I  was  much  struck 
by  the  general  dissimilarity  in  appearance,  manner, 
and  custom  of  these  Central  African  tribes  to 
their  cousins  in  the  South.  In  colour  they  are 
intensely  black,  and  allow  their  woolly  hair  to  grow 
much  longer  than  is  customary  among  South 
Africans.  Physically  speaking  they  are  above 
the  average ;  some  magnificent  specimens,  especi- 
ally among  the  Marotse  and  Masubia,  are  to  be 
met  with.  Their  capability  for  work  either  as 
paddlers  or  carriers  is  all  that  can  be  desired,  and 
when  well  fed  and  kept  under  control  they  are 
not  so  unwilling  to  exert  that  capability  as  might 
be  expected.  On  one  occasion  I  took  my  porters 
53^  miles  in  thirty-seven  hours,  and  on  another 
142  miles  in  eight  days,  each  boy  carrying  at 
least  fifty  pounds.     On  one  of  these  days  only 

seven  miles  were  traversed,  so  that  the  average 



daily  rate  of  travel  for  the  remaining  seven  was 
only  a  fraction  under  twenty  miles,  and  that  for 
the  most  part  over  a  sandy  country. 

If  fed  well  and  treated  consistently  I  am 
inclined  to  think  desertions  among  the  porters 
from  these  tribes  need  not  be  feared  so  long  as 
they  are  not  led  beyond  the  borders  of  their 
country.  My  own  experience  tends  to  prove 
this,  though  a  single  case  must  not  be  cited 
in  conclusive  proof  of  a  principle  —  for  until 
entering  the  Mashikolumbwe  country,  when  all 
but  two  of  my  porters  left  me,  I  had  not  a  single 
case  of  desertion ;  and  I  am  not  inclined  to  lay 
much  stress  on  the  case  of  the  boys  who  left 
me  there,  when  taking  into  consideration  the 
extravagant  dread  these  naked  savages,  with  their 
poisoned  arrows  and  murderous  tendencies,  in- 
spired among  their  neighbours. 

All  the  tribes  cultivate  different  kinds  of  cereals, 
cassava,  pumpkins,  and  water-melons.  Some 
districts  are  more  pastoral  than  others,  which  is  to 
be  expected  in  a  country  so  infested  with  tsetse 
fly.  Where  this  little  pest  makes  the  herding  of 
cattle  impossible  the  natives  are  deprived  of 
milk,  which  in  its  curded  form  is  one  of  the 
African's  principal  articles  of  diet ;  thus  a  more 
extensive  cultivation  of  cereals  becomes  a  ne- 

The  cattle  belonging  to  the  Marotse,  and  dis- 
tributed by  them  throughout  the  various  centres 



in  the  Zambezi  basin,  are  of  a  large  breed  when 
in  a  pure  state,  but  those  of  the  Matoka  and 
Mashikolumbwe  are  abnormally  small  —  many 
cows  not  exceeding  thirty-six  inches  in  shoulder 
measurement.  As  a  consequence  of  cattle  raids 
in  the  days  before  these  countries  were  incor- 
porated as  part  of  the  Marotse  kingdom,  the 
introduction  of  this  small  breed  among  the  large 
cattle  of  Borotse  has  in  many  instances  given  the 
herds  a  very  mixed  and  uneven  appearance. 

The  sheep — as  in  South  Africa — grow  hair  in- 
stead of  wool,  but  do  not  attain  to  half  the  weight 
of  the  southern  breed,  though  apart  from  size 
they  are  identical.  The  goat,  too,  is  a  miniature 
counterpart  of  the  South  African  variety. 

Dug-out  canoes  are  used  on  the  Zambezi,  and 
differ  much  in  length  and  width  in  proportion  as 
the  hard,  redwood  trees  out  of  which  they  are 
hewn  vary  in  size.  The  paddles  are  long,  with 
narrow  blades  about  five  inches  wide,  and  are  used 
as  punting- poles  whenever  the  depth  of  water 
will  permit.  The  canoes  used  by  the  Mashiko- 
lumbwe on  the  Kafukwe  river  are  deeper  and 
shorter  in  proportion  to  their  width  ;  while  their 
paddles  are  much  shorter  and  have  twice  the 
width  of  blade,  the  shape  of  which  is  almost 
oval  and  tapering  to  a  point  at  the  end. 

The  arms  used  in  common  by  all  the   tribes 

are  the  assegai  and  a  half-moon  shaped  battle-axe 

of  the  usual  native  manufacture ;  but  in  addition 



comparatively  free  from  attack,  and  partly  because 
it  is  their  invariable  custom,  when  danger  threatens, 
to  take  to  their  canoes  and  hide  away  among 
the  islands,  to  which  they  ferry  their  women  and 
everything  of  value  when  danger  is  apprehended. 
Mosilikatse,  the  Matabele  king,  in  the  forties 
sent  an  impi  after  Sebitwane  to  avenge  a  former 
failure  of  one  of  his  raiding  expeditions  when  the 
Makololo  were  settled  on  the  Matoka  plateau. 
In  this  instance  the  Makololo  took  to  the  river, 
and  were  not  only  free  from  danger,  but  succeeded 
in  leading  many  of  the  Matabele  warriors  into  a 
trap.  The  raiders  had  seized  some  canoes  and 
natives,  which  had,  in  reality,  been  purposely 
allowed  to  fall  into  their  hands  ;  and  after  com- 
pelling their  captives  to  ferry  them  across  in 
batches  to  an  island  on  which  a  few  goats  had 
been  placed  as  a  bait,  they  found  themselves 
abandoned  and  deprived  of  means  to  return  to 
the  mainland. 

When  hunger  had  sufficiently  weakened  them, 
they  fell  an  easy  prey  to  the  battle-axes  of  the 
Makololo.  The  remainder  of  the  impi  were 
compelled  to  retreat,  and  few  returned  to  Bula- 
wayo  to  tell  the  tale  of  disaster.  This  is  the  last 
occasion  on  which  the  Matabele  have  attempted 
to  raid  the  Makololo  or  their  successors,  the 
Marotse ;  though  almost  annually,  of  recent  years, 
they   have   crossed   the   river    further   east   and 

preyed  on  the  Matoka  and  Mashikolumbwe. 



Like  all  other  primitive  and  ignorant  people 
they  are  extremely  superstitious,  and  witchcraft 
is  attributed  to  some  unfortunate  man  or  woman 
as  the  direct  cause  of  disaster  or  death.  The 
prevailing  treatment  meted  out  to  the  person 
condemned  of  exerting  evil  charms  was,  until 
Liwanika  discountenanced  the  practice*,  cruel  in 
the  extreme.  In  the  case  of  anyone  accused  of 
witchcraft  or  suspected  of  any  other  crime,  the 
"  ordeal  of  hot  water  "  was  resorted  to,  by  which 
the  accused  was  compelled  to  submerge  his  hands 
in  boiling  water.  If,  subsequently,  the  skin  peeled 
off,  he  was  guilty,  and  condemned,  if  accused 
of  witchcraft,  to  the  flames.  The  unfortunate 
victim  was  hung  by  the  feet  from  the  branch  of 
a  tree,  under  him  a  large  fire  made,  and  roasted 
to  death.  The  people  stood  round  silently  watch- 
ing the  effect  of  the  fire  until  the  heat  caused 
the  bursting  of  the  entrails.  At  this  point  the 
evil  spirit  was  supposed  to  have  been  burned  out 
and  was  the  signal  for  much  dancing,  shouting, 
and  excitement.  Ka-ke,  "  by  the  bursting  of  the 
entrails,"  is  the  usual  oath  among  the  Marotse 
and  their  subjects  at  the  present  time.  It  is  to 
be  hoped  that  under  the  more  enlightened  rule  of 
Liwanika  and  his  successors  the  painfully  horrible 
ordeal  which  gave  rise  to  this  oath  will  never  be 

A  very  much  more  humane  method  of  murder 

is    undoubtedly    still    resorted    to    occasionally. 



Macumba,  the  late  chief  of  the  Sesheke  district 
— a  drunken  old  scoundrel — died  just  before  I 
reached  the  river.  One  of  his  wives,  who  at  the 
time  was  at  Kazungula,  sixty  miles  away,  was 
accused  of  compassing  her  lord's  death  by  exer- 
cising an  evil  charm  over  him.  A  party  of  men 
went  to  her  hut  one  night  intent  on  "  putting  her 
under  the  river  reeds."  She,  however,  made 
good  her  escape  and  fled  to  the  mission  station, 
where  she  found  an  asylum  until  next  morning, 
when  Latia,  without  whose  knowledge  the  attempt 
to  drown  the  woman  had  been  made,  gave  the 
order  that  she  was  not  to  be  further  molested. 

Perhaps  a  more  brutal  form  of  administering  the 
death  sentence  even  than  roasting  was  that  which 
has  at  times  been  resorted  to  by  these  savages. 
The  condemned  were  occasionally — I  say  were, 
because  I  understand  this  cruel  practice  has  been 
put  an  end  to — besmeared  with  honey,  tied  down 
near  a  nest  of  **serui,"  or  carnivorous  ants,  and 
left  to  be  consumed  by  degrees.  Can  a  more 
awful  death  be  imagined  ?  Surely  man  can  sur- 
pass the  whole  brute  creation  in  the  exercise  of 
brutality  and  cruelty ! 

Tobacco  is  taken  in  the  form  of  snuff  by  all 
but  the  Mashikolumbwe  and  Mankoya,  who 
smoke  it  in  pipes.  Occasionally  individuals  resort 
to  the  smoking  of  dagga,  a  weed  much  used  by 
South  Africans,  inhaling  whose  smoke  produces 
intoxication  ;  it  is,  however,  by  no  means  generally 



used  by  the  Upper  Zambezi  tribes,  and  I  have 
frequently  heard  natives  deprecate  its  use  as  "  not 
good."  The  general  snuff-box  is  made  from  the 
dried  hollow  shell  of  a  small  pear-shaped  fruit, 
but  the  empty  shells  of  solid  drawn  cartridges 
are  in  great  demand  for  this  purpose,  and  conse- 
quently come  in  very  useful  for  the  purchase  of 
the  smaller  necessaries  of  life  or  as  presents  in 
return  for  trifling  services. 

Beads,  strung  into  necklaces  or  anklets,  are  the 
most  popular  ornaments  worn,  though  metal 
bracelets  and  anklets  are  not  uncommon.  The 
most  highly  valued  of  all  ornaments,  however,  is 
the  cupa^  which  is  hung  by  a  cord  round  the  neck. 
The  cupa  is  the  fossilised  base  of  a  conical  shell, 
and  seems  mainly  to  have  been  imported  from 
the  west  coast,  though  I  have  heard  it  is  to  be 
found  in  the  bed  of  the  Kwando  river.  This 
charm  is  as  white  as  ivory  and  circular  in  shape, 
with  spiral  grooves  and  ridges  in  its  surface 
working  from  the  centre,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
firework  known  as  the  ''Catherine  wheel."  The 
owner  of  one  of  these  ornaments,  if  accused  of 
any  crime,  forthwith  lays  it  at  his  chiefs  feet  and 
receives  pardon.  So,  too,  the  miscreant  who 
reaches  and  throws  himself  on  the  king's  drums 
— huge  wooden  cylinders  with  skin  stretched 
over  their  top  end — claims  sanctuary,  so  to  speak, 
and  escapes  punishment. 

It  is  not  customary  for  women  and  men  to  sit 
K  129 


together  in  public.  In  cases,  for  instance,  when 
the  inhabitants  of  a  village,  prompted  by  feelings 
of  curiosity,  turned  up  in  force  to  see  that  rara 
avis  the  white  man,  and  watch  his  idiosyncrasies, 
the  men  would  squat  on  their  haunches  in  one 
row  and  behind  them  the  women  with  their 
infants  would  half  kneel,  half  sit,  in  a  line  three 
or  four  yards  behind. 

These  Upper  Zambezi  natives,  like  the  Masar- 
was  and  many  other  African  tribes,  worship  the 
sun  as  the  visible  sign  of  a  great  unseen  God, 
and  have  been  described  to  me  by  a  missionary 
as  a  very  religious  people.  On  the  eve  of  battle 
they  petition  their  deity ;  prior  to  starting  on  a 
hunting  expedition  they  pray  for  success;  and 
when  they  plant  their  gardens  they  ask  for  the 
blessings  of  Niambe  (God),  though  it  must  be 
confessed  they  seem  to  busy  themselves  much 
more  in  their  endeavours  to  propitiate  the  evil 
spirits  to  whose  malice  they  attribute  all  deaths 
as  well  as  the  troubles  and  misfortunes  of  this 
mortal  life. 

In  obeisance  to  the  sun  they  kneel  on  the 
ground  and  lower  the  body  until  the  forehead 
rests  on  the  earth.  They  have  also  a  purifying 
ceremony,  in  the  performance  of  which  they  stand 
in  shallow  water  and  with  the  palm  of  the  hands 
outwards  throw  water  over  the  face  and  body. 
This  obeisance  and  ceremony  is  also  used  in 
doing  honour  to  their  king,  but  in  this  case  water 


is  not  actually  thrown,  though  the  form  of  doing 
so  is  imitated.  These  more  elaborate  compli- 
ments, however,  are  only  resorted  to  on  special 
occasions,  such  as  the  first  reception  of  subjects 
coming  in  from  a  distance,  or  after  an  event  of 
unusual  importance  reflecting  credit  on  their 
king  or  in  some  degree  calling  for  a  loyal  demon- 
stration. In  these  circumstances  the  men  will 
advance  in  line  till  within  twenty  yards  of  the 
royal  presence,  when  sinking  on  the  knees  the 
head  is  lowered  to  the  ground  (chiefs  only  bend 
half-way).  This  they  do  several  times,  and 
between  each  the  hands  are  clapped  some  half- 
dozen  times,  quickening  up  towards  the  end. 
They  then  rise  together  and,  in  chorus,  go  through 
the  form  of  throwing  water  over  their  bodies,  and 
each  time  the  hands  are  uplifted  shout  **  Yo-ho." 
After  this  they  sit  down  and  the  interview  begins. 
The  king  and  his  deputies  in  the  provinces  are 
always  approached  by  their  subjects  on  hands 
and  knees.  They  clap  their  hands  to  give  notice 
of  approach  before  sinking  to  the  ground,  and 
when  their  destination  is  reached  they  kneel  down, 
the  hind-quarters  resting  on  the  heels,  and  pro- 
ceed to  clap.  This  clapping  of  hands  is  the 
recognised  salute  throughout  the  country.  The 
man  in  clapping  throws  his  finders  back,  the  first 
one  being  free  and  limp,  the  remaining  three  rigid 
and  close  together.  In  the  woman's  clap  all  the 
fingers  are  limp,  the  fingers  and  thumb  of  the 



right  hand  falling  between  the  thumb  and  fore- 
finger of  the  left.  So  far  as  clothes  are  con- 
cerned all  the  tribes  under  discussion  are  similarly 
attired,  with  the  exception  of  the  Mashikolumbwe, 
who  prefer  to  do  without  clothing  in  any  shape  or 
form.  Males  wear  a  belt  usually  made  of  snake 
skin  round  the  waist,  while,  hanging  from  this 
belt,  fore  and  aft,  is  a  "  brayed "  cat,  jackal,  or 
small  antelope  skin.  Females  wrap  an  antelope 
or  ox  skin  round  the  loins,  which  reaches  from  the 
waist  to  the  knees. 

The  skin  is  **  brayed"  or  prepared  by  the 
process  of  rubbing  when  damp,  and  working  with 
the  hands  until  the  fibres  become  ruptured  and 
the  skin  rendered  pliable  in  consequence.  A  well 
brayed  skin  is  as  soft  as  wash-leather. 

Sitzibas,  when  procurable,  are  adopted  by  the 

men  in  place  of  skins.     A  sitziba,  literally  six  feet 

of  calico,  is  passed  through  the  belt  in  front,  then 

between  the  legs,  and  through  the  belt  behind, 

thus  leaving  about  a  couple  of  feet  of  calico  to 

hang  down  in  front,  which  covers  the  body  from 

thigh  to  thigh,  and  behind  in  like  manner.     By  no 

means  the  least  interesting  feature  in  my  travels 

through   this  "empire"  of  Liwanika  lay  in   the 

distinct  tribal  characteristics  and  customs  which 

distinguish  the   different   tribes   amongst   whom 

I    travelled   one   from   another.      Having  given 

a  general  description  of  Liwanika  s  subjects  as  a 

whole,  or  rather  such  as  inhabit  the  country  from 



the  15th  parallel  to  his  southern  boundary  line, 
I  will  now  endeavour  to  enumerate  the  dis- 
tinguishing features  of  each  tribe  as  compiled 
from  missionary  and  native  information  as  well 
as  personal  observation,  which  latter  in  many 
cases  confirmed  and  in  others  augmented  such 
local  ethnographical  knowledge  as  had  been 
acquired  second-hand. 

The  Marotse  are  the  paramount  and  governing 
tribe,  and  in  common  with  the  Masubia,  and 
people  living  in  the  more  central  districts  of  the 
kingdom  speak  Sesuto — the  language  of  their 
former  conquerors  the  Makololo,  from  whom 
they  acquired  it. 

Borotse,  a  flat,  treeless  plain,  extending  from 
16°  18'  S.  Lat.  for  some  150  miles  northwards, 
and  lying  on  both  sides  of  the  Zambezi,  is 
the  England  of  Liwanika's  empire.  Lialui,  the 
king's  headquarters  and  principal  town,  stands  to 
the  east  of  the  river  in  15°  13'  7"  S.  Lat.  and 
25  miles  north  of  Nalolo,  which  is  the  town  of 
the  queen,  his  eldest  sister,  who  shares  in  the 
government  of  the  country. 

The  Marotse  are  above  the  average  height, 
broad  and  well  built,  very  black,  have  good 
features,  and  are  more  heavily  bearded  than 
most  Africans.  In  manner  dignified  and  cour- 
teous, the  Marotse  is  an  adept  in  the  art  of 
deceit  and  singularly  regardless  of  the  virtue 
of  telling  the  truth — a  general  failing  shared  by 



the  subjugated  tribes.  He  will  not  only  lie  to 
deceive,  but  he  will — if  well  disposed — lie  to 
please.  Here  is  an  instance  which  recurred 
more  than  once  in  my  own  experience  of  the 
latter  species  of  untruth. 

To  describe  distance  the  trajectory  principle 
is  resorted  to,  and  the  arm  is  extended  horizon- 
tally to  indicate  a  place  very  close  indeed,  but 
raised  another  45  degrees  when  alluding  to  a 
place  many  miles  away,  intermediate  angles  of 
course  describing  intermediate  distances. 

Tramping  along  in  the  hot  sun,  and  looking 
both  warm  and  thirsty,  a  native  is  encountered 
and  asked  how  far  ahead  the  next  water  is. 
Knowing  perfectly  well  that  the  nearer  the  water 
the  better  pleased  will  the  hot-looking  traveller 
be,  the  black  arm  is  extended  horizontally,  and 
its  owner  remarks  blandly,  '* Manzt  koufe  ka*' 
(water  is  close  to  there),  and  the  thirsty  traveller 
is  happy,  thanks  the  nigger  for  his  good  news, 
and  continues  his  journey ;  but  so  far  from 
camping  round  the  corner,  he  finds  he  has  to 
tramp  probably  five  or  six  miles  further  before 
water  is  reached. 

The  peculiar  industry  of  the  Marotse  is 
wood-carving.  Considering  the  tools  used  their 
work  is  marvellous,  and  the  carving  in  admir- 
able taste.  An  iron  tool,  very  much  like  a 
stone-chisel,  with  a  short  wooden  handle  at- 
tached, is  used  to  hack  the  block  roughly  into 



the  shape  desired,  after  which  it  is  fined  down 
and  carved  with  what  is,  or  may  easily  be 
mistaken  for,  the  head  of  an  assegai.  In  this 
way  stools,  head-rests,  bowls,  dishes,  spoons, 
covered  vessels,  and  knife  -  handles  are  most 
cleverly  turned  out  The  majority,  after  comple- 
tion, are  blackened  and  given  a  dull  polish ;  but 
occasionally — especially  where  redwood  is  used 
—  a  pattern  in  black  and  red  supplies  the 
finishing  touch. 

Liwanika  devotes  himself  to  this  art,  and 
spends  much  of  his  spare  time  at  the  bench. 
It  seems  probable  that  the  Marotse,  who  are  the 
only  tribe  in  the  "  empire  "  who  do  fancy  wood- 
work, learned  the  art  from  their  temporary 
masters,  the  Makololo,  whose  kin  the  Basutos 
are  likewise  very  clever  at  the  craft. 

Many  Marotse  allow  their  teeth  to  remain 
normal,  though  not  a  few  file  the  inside  edges 
of  the  two  front  upper  teeth  in  such  a  way  as 
to  form  a  reversed  V.  Some  of  the  women 
scar-tattoo  circles  in  blue  round  each  eye. 

To  the  east  and  also  to  the  west  of  the 
northern  part  of  Borotse  are  the  Mabunda. 
They  are  inferior  in  type  to  their  lords  and 
masters,  are  shorter  in  stature,  but  thick -set. 
Basket-work  and  mat -making  are  monopolised 
by  these  people,  and  exchanged  for  other  articles 
with  their  neighbours.  Their  work  is  extremely 
good,  and  the  closer -worked  baskets  will   hold 



water.      Brown   and    black   stains   are   used   in 

The  Makwenga,  who  inhabit  the  Lui  districts, 
are  presumably  the  same  tribe  as  has  been 
referred  to  by  previous  travellers  as  Ba-lui — the 
people  of  the  Lui.  It  has  been  said  that  these 
people  are  one  and  the  same  as  the  Marotse; 
but  in  face  of  the  fact  that  they  are  totally 
different  in  physique  and  appearance,  and  of 
a  distinctly  inferior  type,  the  theory  can  scarcely 
claim  attention.  They  narrowly  resemble  the 
Matutela  in  appearance,  were  once  an  important 
tribe,  but  at  the  present  day,  numerically  and 
otherwise,  are  of  less  account  than  any  other 
of  the  eight  tribes. 

Immediately  to  the  east,  and  inhabiting  the 
large  district  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
Motondo  and  Lumbi  watershed,  on  the  south  by 
the  Zambezi,  and  narrowing  to  a  point  as  far  east 
as  the  Matoka  plateau,  the  Matutela  are  to  be 
found.  These  people  are  the  iron-workers,  and 
canoe-builders  of  this  black  **  empire." 

Nearly  all  the  assegais,  knives  and  axes  are 
made  by  them,  and  are  carried  in  trade  to  the 
Marotse  in  the  west  and  the  Mashikolumbwe  in 
the  east  The  Matutela  procure  their  ore  and 
smelt  it  in  a  district  lying  between  the  Njoko 
and  Lumbi  rivers.  In  a  subsequent  chapter 
a  description  is  given  of  a  Matutela  blacksmith 
at  work,  of  whom  I  took  a  sketch  from  which 



Mr.  Charles  Whymper  has  reproduced  a  descrip- 
tive illustration. 

The  large  red  wood  trees  from  which  canoes 
are  hewn  are  mainly  found  in  Botutela,  and  for 
this  reason  they  occupy  an  important  position  in 
the  ** ship-building"  industry.  These  people  dis- 
figure themselves  by  knocking  out  the  two  front 
upper  teeth. 

The  upper  class  Matutela  is  a  good-looking 
savage — tall,  slight,  and  upright  in  figure — more 
narrowly  resembling  the  Sikhs  than  any  other 
African  tribe  I  have  travelled  among.  Especially 
near  their  eastern  boundary  is  this  type  to  be 
seen,  most  of  them  wearing  pointed  beards  and 
allowing  their  woolly  hair  to  grow  somewhat  long. 

The  Masubia  occupy  the  country  in  the  angle 
of  the  Kwando  and  Zambezi,  and  also  the  Sesheke 
and  Kazung^la  districts  on  the  north  of  the  river, 
extending  west  to  where  the  Zambezi  commences 
its  more  easterly  course.  They  have  no  manu- 
facturing industry  except  that  of  pottery,  which 
all  Africans  make  for  their  own  household  pur- 
poses. Fishing,  hunting,  and  paddling  supply 
their  chief,  if  not  sole,  occupation. 

As  paddlers  they  are  particularly  useful,  and 
among  this  class  men  of  the  most  perfect 
physique  are  to  be  met  with — tall,  broad,  and 
deep-chested,  they  are  at  the  same  time  athletic 
and  active.  In  feature  the  better-class  Masubia 
is    refined,    has    comparatively    thin    lips,    and 



frequently  a  nose  almost  of  Grecian  type.  I 
would  call  attention  in  the  photograph  reproduced 
on  page  8  to  a  native  walking  towards  the  water. 
He  is  one  of  the  finest  samples  I  have  seen, 
and  stood  about  6ft.  lin. 

There  were  large  numbers  and  varieties  of 
game  in  Bosubia  before  the  rinderpest  swept 
the  country. 

The  gresLt  hunts  are  undertaken  in  the  summer 
when  the  river  overflows  her  banks,  and  such 
game  as  pookoo,  lechwe,  and  reedbuck  are 
concentrated  and  penned  up  in  large  numbers  on 
patches  of  rising  ground,  which  alone  remain 
high  and  dry  above  the  flood.  Every  available 
canoe  is  manned,  and  the  whole  party  is  landed 
first  on  one  and  then  on  another  of  these 
temporary  islands.  The  game  is  surrounded  and 
butchered  in  hundreds  with  assegais. 

Another  method,  which  is  more  in  vog^e  for 
the  purpose  of  securing  buffalo  and  the  larger 
class  of  antelope,  is  the  pitfall.  A  pit  is  dug 
about  twelve  feet  long  by  four  wide,  narrowing 
down  to  some  eighteen  inches  at  the  bottom,  and 
with  a  depth  of  five  or  six  feet.  The  hole  is 
covered  with  boughs,  on  which  g^rass  and  earth 
are  laid  in  turn.  These  traps  are  usually  laid  at 
the  edge  of  a  game  track,  which  is  blocked  by 
bush  in  order  to  compel  some  unwary  animal  to 
deviate  from  the  narrow  path  and  fall  into 
destruction.     When   once  in   the   pit  the  game 



becomes  wedged  in,  and  nothing  can  save  him. 
Another  and  more  sporting  method  of  hunting 
among  these  people  I  noticed  while  in  their 
country.  Two  long  fences  form  an  angle  of 
90  degrees,  at  the  point  of  which  a  scant  thorn 
fence  conceals  a  number  of  iron -headed  stakes 
fixed  firmly  in  the  ground  at  an  angle  of  45 
degrees,  and,  of  course,  pointing  towards  the 
angle  where  the  fences  converge.  Close  by 
natives  with  assegais  conceal  themselves,  and 
when  an  extended  line  has  driven  the  game 
forward  they  rise  and  scare  the  animals,  as  guided 
by  the  fence  they  bolt,  clear  the  low  fence,  and 
in  many  cases  are  transfixed  by  the  sharp  iron 
blades  placed  to  receive  them.  Then  the  hunters 
rush  in  and  wet  their  assegais  in  the  blood  of 
their  quarry. 

The  Matoka  boundary  may  be  roughly  defined 
by  taking  a  northerly  line  from  the  Zambezi  some 
twenty  miles  east  of  the  Kwando-Zambezi  con- 
fluence to  represent  their  western,  and  the 
Zambezi  itself  from  that  point  to  where  the 
Kafukwe  flows  into  it,  as  the  southern  boundary, 
while  the  Mashikolumbwe,  who  occupy  a  strip  of 
country  along  the  south  side  of  the  Kafukwe 
basin,  are  their  northern  neighbours  from  the 
Nanzela  to  the  Kafukwe-Zambezi  confluence. 

The    Matoka    are    strongly   built,   above    the 

average    height,    almost    beardless,     and    with 

features  of  a  rounder   type  than   their  western 



or  northern  neighbours.  Like  the  Matutela, 
they  disfigure  themselves  by  knocking  out  the 
front  upper  teeth. 

Though  the  southern  Matoka  keep  a  certain 
number  of  cattle,  the  northern  section  of  the 
tribe  is  unable  to  do  so  owing  to  the  prevalence  of 
the  tsetse  fly  ;  in  consequence  they  are  dependent 
on  agriculture  for  maintenance,  and  in  the  rich 
valleys  that  intersect  the  high,  healthy  plateau  on 
which  they  dwell,  cereals,  cassava  and  marrows 
are  extensively  grown. 

In  the  future  white  settlement  their  country 
and  they  themselves  will  be  of  value  to  the 
settlers.  They .  make  excellent  porters,  and 
readily  engage  themselves  to  work ;  in  fact,  the 
"boys,"  who  are  known  sometimes  as  "Zambezi" 
and  sometimes  as  "  Borotse  boys "  in  Rhodesia, 
Kimberley,  and  Johannesburg,  are  almost  entirely 
drawn  from  Botoka.  So  far  as  the  Marotse  are 
concerned  it  is  probable  that  Latia  and  his  staff, 
who  in  1895  visited  Bulawayo  to  interview  the 
Administrator,  are  practically  the  only  members 
of  this  tribe  who  have  travelled  so  far  south. 

At  one  time  the  Matoka  were  one  of  the  most 
powerful  of  the  Upper  Zambezi  tribes,  but  their 
power  was  first  broken  by  the  robber  impis 
of  Mosilikatse,  from  which  time  a  Matabele 
incursion  became  almost  an  annual  occurrence 
until,  in  1893,  one  of  the  most  cruel  scourges 
that  ever  raided,  murdered,  and  devastated  was 



paralyzed  for  ever  by  the  forces  of  the  Char- 
tered Company. 

The  testimony  of  a  Makalaka  boy,  the  son 
of  an  important  chief,  who  accompanied  the 
last  Matabele  impi  raid  into  Botoka  in  the 
early  part  of  1893,  ^s  perhaps  not  out  of  place, 
as  showing  the  method  of  warfare  carried  on 
by  these  bloodthirsty  hordes  within  a  radius  of 
several  hundred  miles  of  their  centre. 

Just  as  grey  dawn  heralded  the  approach 
of  the  rising  sun,  a  cordon  of  these  savages 
surrounded  and  closed  in  on  the  doomed  village. 
When  cover  was  no  longer  available  to  conceal 
the  advance,  these  myrmidons  of  devilry,  at  a 
given  sign,  sprang  to  their  feet  and  with  hellish 
yells  dashed  into  the  village  and  plunged  their 
assegais  into  anything  of  flesh  and  blood  that 
came  within  their  reach.  Some  few  would  make 
a  bolt  for  life,  but  the  remainder,  surprised  and 
cowed  by  incalculable  odds,  would  offer  no  resist- 
ance to  their  cruel  fate.  When  these  raiders 
had  tired  of  slaughter,  the  survivors  were 
ordered  to  stand  in  a  long  line.  Along  this 
line  a  **  noble  "  savage,  battle-axe  in  hand,  would 
walk,  and  while  the  young  women  and  those 
children  who  were  old  enough  to  stand  a  500 
mile  tramp  to  Bulawayo,  yet  not  too  old  to 
be  bred  up  as  warriors  to  prey  in  years  to  come 
on  their  own  flesh  and  blood,  were  ordered  to 

"fall    out,*'    those   whose    sex   or  age   rendered 



them  useless  from  their  conquerors*  point  of  view 
were  struck  to  the  ground.  Is  it  possible  to 
imagine  a  more  cruel  and  horrible  state  of  things? 
Even  the  boy  who  described  this  scene  added, 
"  I  enjoyed  the  fighting,  but  the  killing  after- 
wards made  my  heart  sick." 

And  yet  there  were  not  wanting  in  this 
civilized  country  of  ours  ** humanitarians"  who 
used  every  means  in  their  power  to  raise  a 
crusade  of  undeserved  censure  and  ill-feeling 
against  those  of  their  fellow-countrymen  who 
gallantly  in  1893  ^^^  again  in  1895  lost  or  risked 
their  lives  in  the  struggle  for  existence,  empire, 
and  humanity  with  these  ruthless  savages !  Natu- 
rally this  was  a  small  and  unimportant  section 
of  "philanthropy,"  but  it  made  a  big  noise — 
it  was  the  criticism  by  those  who  sit  and  talk 
and  write  of  men  who  act.  Fair  criticism  does 
no  good  cause  harm ;  but  there  are  critics  who 
care  only  to  believe  the  uncharitable,  and  greedily 
gfulp  down  any  evidence  in  favour  of  this 
tendency,  quite  regardless  of  the  source  from 
which  the  information  is  derived. 

The  country  of  the  Mankoya  is  bounded  on 
the  south  by  Botutela,  and  the  east  by  Boshi- 
kolumbwe,  and  includes  the  country  drained  by 
the  Luena  river. 

They   have   different   ways   of    treating   their 

hair  and   teeth,  according   to   the   district  they 

occupy.     The  general  fashion  in  hairdressing  is  to 



grease  each  curl  of  wool  into  a  straight  streak, 
which  hangs  over  and  around  the  head  like  so 
many  ends  of  greasy  cord.  The  Marunga,  how- 
ever, a  sub-tribe  who  occupy  the  Luena  district, 
allow  the  hair  to  grow  long,  comb  it  out,  and 
trim  it  in  such  a  manner  as  to  give  it  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  thick,  rounded,  woolly  wig,  placed 
busby-like  on  the  head  and  covering  the  ears 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  forehead.  A  cowrie 
or  other  charm  is  fastened  on  in  front.  I  met 
some  of  these  tribesmen  on  the  Upper  Njoko, 
who  had  travelled  thither  with  skins  to  exchange 
with  the  Matutela  for  assegai  heads  and  iron 

The  teeth  of  the  Mankoya,  both  back  and 
front,  are  filed  to  a  point,  and  thus  present  the 
appearance  of  a  couple  of  rows  of  shark's  teeth. 
I  have,  however,  seen  many  Mankoyas  with  all 
their  teeth  intact;  those,  too,  who  dwell  on  the 
borders  of  Boshikolumbwe,  and  are  subject  to 
Mashikolumbwe  chiefs,  are  compelled  to  conform 
to  their  masters'  dental  customs,  but  retain  their 
own  method  of  wearing  the  hair. 

The  Mankoya  are  a  tribe  of  hunters,  and 
devote  all  their  time  and  energies  to  the  pursuit 
of  game.  They  are  the  only  tribe  of  the  eight 
whose  country  I  touched  who  produce  fire  by 
means  of  flint.  Their  tobacco  is  taken  in  the 
form  of  smoke,  and  like  the  Mashikolumbwe,  they 
use  the  bow  and  poisoned  arrow. 



The  Mashikolumbwe,  who  occupy  a  large 
country  extending  along  both  sides  of  the 
Kafukwe  from  a  short  distance  above  its  con- 
fluence with  the  Zambezi  to  beyond  the  fifteenth 
parallel,  are  quite  the  most  hopeless  savages  it 
is  possible  to  conceive.  Their  characteristics 
can  but  be  described  by  a  series  of  adjectives — 
stark-naked,  lazy,  dirty,  treacherous,  lying.  In 
colour  they  are  somewhat  lighter  than  other 
Upper  Zambezi  tribes,  and  their  physique  is 
good.  They  have  no  paramount  chief  among 
their  own  people,  but  many,  for  purposes  of 
policy,  nominally  acknowledge  the  supremacy  of 
Liwanika,  to  whom  the  chiefs  send  an  annual 
tribute,  and  thereby  run  no  risk  of  being  raided 
by  the  powerful  Marotse  chiefs  warriors. 

The  peculiar  head-dress  of  the  Mashikolumbwe 
is  worn  by  no  other  tribe.  The  wool  is  only 
allowed  to  grow  on  a  circular  patch  on  the  upper 
part  of  the  back  of  the  head.  This  is  mixed 
with  gum  and  wool  from  their  women^s  heads, 
which  are  close-cut,  and  moulded  into  a  semi- 
spherical  chignon.  The  four  front  upper  teeth 
and  all  the  back  lower  jaw  teeth  are  knocked 
out.  This  operation  is  peformed  on  the  child 
when  about  eight  or  ten  years  of  age,  in  a  very 
rough  and  ready  manner.  The  pointed  end  of 
an  axe-head  is  placed  against  the  tooth,  and  to 
the  edge  extremity  a  stone  is  applied  until  the 

teeth  break  away ! 



These  people  have  no  industry,  and  live  in 
the  finest  country  I  have  seen  in  Africa.  They 
occasionally  catch  game  in  pitfalls,  similar  to 
but  longer  than  those  of  the  Masubia  already 
described.  If  an  antelope  falls  into  one  of  these 
traps  they  eat  him,  but  they  are  much  too  lazy 
to  undertake  hunting  of  a  more  active  type.  In 
spite  of  the  fact  that  before  the  rinderpest  broke 
out  their  country  teemed  with  game,  they  pre- 
ferred to  live  on  wild  roots  dug  from  the  earth 
by  their  women  to  securing  meat  at  the  expense 
only  of  a  little  exertion. 



EARLY  in  the  morning,  after  everything 
was  packed  and  the  canoes  loaded,  I 
started  off  across  the  plain  for  the  mission  station 
which  was  to  be  seen  crowning  a  mound  some 
two  miles  away.  The  canoes  had  to  be  taken 
quite  five  miles  to  reach  the  same  point,  so  were 
sent  off  independently. 

The  mission  station  was  reached  just  as  the 
missionaries  and  their  wives  were  adjourning  for 

There  were  congregated  my  friends  M.  and 
Mdme.  Goy,  M.  and  Mdme.  Louis  Jalla,  as  well 
as  M.  David,  whom  I  had  met  at  Palapye, 
in  Khama's  country.  These  gentlemen  were 
assembled  in  conference  with  their  brother 
missionaries,  MM.  Coillard  and  Adolph  Jalla,  of 
Lialui,  and  M.   Biguile,  of  Nalolo. 

It  was  quite  refreshing  to  sit  down  once  more 
on  a  chair  in  front  of  a  white  table-cloth  and 
surrounded  by  white  faces. 

Finding  that  each  and  all  of  these  gentlemen 
(three  Italians,  two  Swiss,  and  one  Frenchman) 
spoke  excellent  English,  I  was  spared  the  trouble 



of  supplying  my  very  scant,  rusty  stock  of  French 
words  and  sentences.  My  good  friends  tried 
vainly  from  time  to  time  to  compel  conversation 
in  French,  but  when  understood  got  English  in 
return,  when  otherwise,  a  simple  "Je  ne  com- 
prends  pas";  till  M.  Coillard,  a  highly-cultured 
French  gentleman,  who  spoke  perfect  English — 
his  late  wife  was  a  Scotch  lady — ^good-naturedly 
administered  the  reproach : 

"  You  Englishmen  are  so  proud,  you  expect  all 
other  nations  to  learn  your  language  and  don't 
take  the  trouble  to  learn  theirs." 

I  laughed,  and  explained  that  not  pride  but 
the  want  of  that  facility  for  acquiring  foreign 
languages  which  continental  nations  possess  to 
so  marked  a  degree,  is  mainly  responsible  for  our 
failure  as  linguists,  adding  : 

"What  is  the  good  of  my  murdering  your 
language  when  you  can  all  speak  mine  so 
fluendy  ?  " 

"  Tut,  tut !  it  is  all  pride  and  laziness." 

And  yet  how  many  of  us  in  France,  after  rack- 
ing our  brains  to  express  our  thoughts  in  correct 
French,  have  been  answered  in  English  as  good 
as  our  own !     And  still  we  are  blamed  I 

After  breakfast  M.  Jalla  despatched  a  messenger 
to  Liwanika,  apprising  him  of  my  arrival  and  of 
my  wish  to  greet  him. 

A  reply  was  returned  that  the  king  would  be 
glad  to  see  me  any  time  I  should  call.     Thus  it 



was  arranged  that  M.  Adolph  Jalla,  having  kindly 
consented  to  act  as  interpreter,  should  accompany 
me  in  the  cool  of  the  evening. 

In  the  middle  of  the  town  of  Lialui  a  strong 
circular  palisade  about  ten  feet  high  encloses  the 
private  premises  of  Liwanika.  In  the  centre 
stands  an  oblong  hut  about  forty-five  feet  by 
twenty,  substantially  built  and  well  thatched 
with  coarse  grass.  Here  the  king  himself  lives. 
Opposite  is  a  smaller  oblong  building  open  in 
front ;  native-made  mats  cover  the  floor  and 
decorate  the  back  and  side  walls.  In  this 
shelter  the  king  usually  receives  and  gossips 
with  his  chiefs  on  matters  trivial  and  important 
Immediately  inside  the  palisade  is  a  circle  of  huts 
of  the  usual  round  native  pattern.  Each  of  these 
is  occupied  by  a  royal  wife,  of  whom  there  are 
fourteen,  though  not  very  long  ago  the  ladies  of 
the  harem  numbered  twenty.  Liwanika  is  a 
regular  attendant  at  church,  but  has  not  become 
a  professed  Christian  on  account  of  the  wife 
difficulty.  However,  when  a  wife  dies,  or  for 
any  other  reason  loses  her  position  in  the  royal 
household,  the  king  does  not  replace  her  as  he 
used  to  do. 

I  recollect  M.  Coillard  telling  me  of  a  con- 
versation he  had  with  Liwanika  on  this  subject 
One  of  his  wives  had  embraced  Christianity,  and 
her  lord  very  generously  sent  her  home  to  her 




When  apprising  M.  Coillard  of  this  action  he 
added  with  apparent  self-satisfaction : 

**  And  now  I  have  only  fourteen  left." 

**  But  what  about  the  other  thirteen,  Liwanika?  " 
the  missionary  asked. 

**  I  should  very  much  like  to  have  one  wife,"  he 
answered,  **who  could  look  after  my  house  and 
keep  everything  clean  and  comfortable,  as  the 
white  man's  wife  does,  but  it  is  impossible  for 
me.  So-and-so  is  my  favourite  wife,  but  she  is 
delicate  and  could  not  look  after  things.  And 
then  there's  So-and-so,  she's  too  lazy,  and  So- 
and-so,  she 's  so  dirty " ;  and  thus  he  went 
through  the  list,  but  failed  to  find  one  capable 
of  superintending  his  domestic  affairs. 

M.  Jalla  led  the  way  to  the  king  s  house,  where 
he  disappeared  to  seek  out  his  black  majesty  and 
inform  him  of  my  arrival. 

Shortly  a  tall,  very  black  man  appeared.  He 
wore  a  light  coat,  a  patterned  waistcoat,  and  a 
pair  of  tweed  trousers.  A  low,  broad-brimmed, 
white  felt  hat  protected  his  head,  and  a  well- 
fitting  pair  of  boots  his  feet.  The  upper  lip  and 
cheeks  were  shaven,  and  a  pointed  beard,  curly 
and  crisp,  covered  the  chin.  Altogether  I  was 
struck  by  the  neatness  and  cleanliness  of  the 
person,  but  still  more  so  by  the  courteous,  easy 
manner  in  which  the  hat  was  raised  and  head 
bowed  as  their  owner  advanced  to  meet  me. 
After  shaking  hands  and  exchanging  the  usual 



compliments,  Liwaaika  led  us  to  his  house, 
opened  the  door,  and  with  an  easy  bow  waved 
us  in.  The  receiving  room — which  was  par- 
titioned off  by  walls  eight  feet  high,  above 
which  the  free  action  of  the  air  was  not 
interfered  with  from  one  end  of  the  hut  to  the 
other — was  carpeted  and  decorated  with  native- 
made  mats,  like  the  outside  shelter  alluded  to 
above.  These  mats  are  very  neady  worked  in 
divers  patterns  with  stained  and  natural  grass. 
Round  the  walls  a  few  cheap  coloured  prints  and 
ornaments  were  hung,  including  a  small  clock  of 
the  inexpensive  kind. 

Our  host  next  seated  himself  in  a  large 
straight -backed  arm-chair,  after  he  had  first 
griven  M.  Jalla  a  seat  on  his  left,  and  placed 
me  in  a  rickety  Portuguese  chair  on  his  right 

The  first  sentence  which  M.  Jalla  interpreted 
to  me  was  not  very  reassuring. 

"The  king  says  you  must  sit  quiedy  in  that 
chair,  or  else  it  will  very  probably  collapse." 

Liwanika's  head  was  now  uncovered,  and  a 
neatly -combed  crop  of  wool  fully  exposed  to 
sight.  An  ornament  carved  in  ivory  was  stuck 
in  the  left  side  of  this  fuzzy  coiffurCy  and  looked 
very  white  amid  its  black  surroundings. 

I  determined  at  the  outset  to  clear  up  the  mis- 
understanding which  it  would  appear,  from  the 
letter  sent  me  four  days  earlier,  existed  between 
Liwanika  and  myself,  so  went  straight  to  the 



point.  *'  I  left  Kazungula  with  your  permission 
to  travel  up  the  river,  and  to  hunt  on  the  way. 
Canoes  and  boys  were  given  me  by  your  son 
Latia.  Why,  then,  did  you  send  me  a  letter 
saying  I  was  hunting  without  your  permission? 
There  must  be  a  misunderstanding  somewhere." 

"  Oh,  that  is  all  right,"  said  the  king.  "  Now 
that  you  are  here,  and  have  come  to  see  me,  we 
will  forget  all  about  the  letter.  When  I  sent 
it,  I  was  afraid  you  were  not  coming  to  see  me. 
My  people  told  me  you  had  turned  back  to  hunt 
lions  at  Sesheke.  Besides,  messengers  came 
from  the  Njoko,  which  are  the  king's  preserves, 
saying  you  had  killed  a  great  deal  of  game  there 
and  all  the  way  along  the  river,  and  left  their 
bodies  to  rot  on  the  veldt  This  made  me 

•'  Had  I  known  the  Njoko  was  a  king's  pre- 
serve, I  would  not  have  hunted  there  without 
your  special  permission.  But  no  one  told  me,  so 
how  was  I  to  know  ?  Still  I  killed  very  little 
game  there — only  just  enough  to  feed  my  boys. 
Your  people  lie  when  they  say  the  bodies  of 
game  I  have  killed  were  left  to  rot  on  the  veldt. 
There  is  no  corn  in  the  country,  so  I  had  to  kill 
more  than  I  would  have  done  had  I  been  able 
to  buy  food,  otherwise  my  boys  would  have 
starved.  These  boys,  who  are  your  servants, 
will  tell  you  that  no  meat  has  been  wasted; 
they  will  even  tell  you  that  I  have  often  passed 


game  and  refused   to  kill  it   when  they  asked 
me  to." 

"I  am  glad  to  hear  from  your  lips,"  he 
answered,  "that  these  reports  are  not  true.  It  is 
not  good  to  waste  meat  I  believe  what  you  tell 
me.  My  people  often  tell  me  things  that  are  not 

"  Before  I  leave  you  I  will  bring  my  book  in 
which  I  write  everything,  and  I  will  tell  you  what 
I  have  killed.     You  will  then  know  for  yourself." 

"  I  should  very  much  like  to  hear  about  all  the 
game  you  have  killed.  They  tell  me  you  killed 
two  lions  at  Sesheke,  and  one  of  them  tried  to 
kill  you,  but  you  shot  him  close  to  your  feet ;  tell 
me  about  the  lions.'* 

And  so  I  had  to  kill  the  lion  and  lioness  over 
again  for  the  royal  edification.  Then,  alluding  to 
a  party  of  American  prospectors,  who  in  demand- 
ing to  be  ferried  across  the  river  at  Kazungula 
had,  it  is  to  be  regretted,  made  use  of  unjustifiable 
and  quite  unnecessary  threats  to  Latia,  he  said  : 

"  These  people  treat  men  like  beasts.  I  do  not 
want  such  white  men  as  these  in  my  country." 

"When  I  heard  from  the  meruti  (missionary) 
at  Kazungula,"  I  answered,  "  I  was  angry  that 
they  should  have  behaved  so  badly.  You  must 
not,  however,  think  these  white  men  are  English. 
They  are  no  more  English  than  you  and  your 
people  are  Matabele.  There  are  good  black  men 
and  bad  black  men  ;  so  there  are  good  white  men 



and  bad  white  men.  You  must  learn  to  discrimi- 
nate between  the  two."  And  thus  we  talked, 
finally  lapsing  into  general  topics  of  no  particular 

After  bidding  farewell  I  returned  to  a  spacious 
double-walled  hut,  which  Liwanika  had  ordered 
to  be  placed  at  my  disposal.  A  fence  of  reeds 
eight  feet  high  surrounded  the  scrupulously  clean 
yard,  cemented  in  the  usual  manner  with  a 
mixture  of  the  earth  from  ant-heaps  and  cow- 
dung.  At  the  far  extremity  of  this  yard  was 
another  and  smaller  hut.  In  the  evening  a 
native  arrived  with  a  bowl  of  new  milk.  The 
king  had  set  aside  a  cow  for  my  special  use 
during  my  stay,  and  every  day — night  and 
morning — this  native  arrived  with  the  bowl  of 

That  night  I  was  aroused  from  sleep  by  a 
rattling  noise  in  the  corridor  of  the  hut.  As  I 
rose  a  black  form  bounded  through  the  doorway 
and  disappeared.  The  dog — for  such  it  was — 
had  not  only  upset  my  milk  in  his  attempt  to 
remove  the  lid  of  the  tin  which  contained  it, 
but,  as  my  boy  Pony  informed  me  in  the 
morning,  had  during  this  or  another  and  more 
successful  visit  walked  off  with  a  bag  which 
contained  buffalo  biltong  and  sweet  potatoes ; 
and,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  bag  was  un- 
fastened, neither  sweet  potato  nor  piece  of 
biltong    had    been    shed.      A    truly    marvellous 

I  S3 


dog  indeed,  as  I   thought  when   I   asked  Pony 
if  the  dog  had  four  legs  or  only  two ! 

The  next  three  days  were  almost  entirely 
spent  within  the  cool  double  walls  of  the  hut, 
for  the  heat  of  the  midday  sun  while  passing 
through  the  Marotse  plain,  coupled  with  the 
lack  of  exercise  consequent  on  the  absence  of 
anything  to  hunt,  had  brought  on  an  attack  of 
congestion  of  the  liver. 

Of  course  I  had  plenty  of  visitors  during 
these  few  days.  Nearly  all  the  Marotse  in 
Lialui  deemed  it  their  duty  to  visit  my  court- 
yard, greet  me  with  the  usual  *'  Lumela,  N'tate," 
squat  down  and  look  at  me  for  a  matter  of 
minutes,  then  rise  and  depart. 

One  boy  between  thirty  and  thirty-five  years  of 
age  rather  interested  me.  After  a  brief  conver- 
sation  with  him  in  the  language  of  the  country, 
he  broke  out  in  quite  good  English. 

"  You  speak  English,  then,  do  you  ?  "  I  asked. 

**Yes,  sir,  I  speak  a  little  English." 

"  Where  have  you  been  to  learn  English  ? 
You  did  not  learn  it  in  Borotse." 

And  then  came  his  history.  He  was  a 
Matoka  by  birth,  but  when  quite  a  litde  boy 
the  Matabele  raided  his  village,  killed  his  father, 
mother,  and  all  his  relatives,  carrying  him  away 
with  the  young  women  and  those  children  who 
were  old  enough  to  stand  the  journey  south 
and  yet  not  too  old  to  be  trained  as  warriors^ 



For  a  short  time  he  remained  a  child-slave  of 
Mosilikatse,  the  father  of  Lobengula  and  founder 
of  the  Matabele  power.  He  was  then  given 
as  a  present  by  the  Matabele  king  to  Mr. 
Mackenzie,  a  missionary,  who  sent  him  to  the 
native  school  of  Lovedale  in  the  Cape  Colony 
to  be  educated.  Next  he  made  his  way  to 
Mangwato,  where  he  found  employment  in  the 
service  of  Mr.  Clarke,  a  well-known  storekeeper 
at  Palapye.  His  work  was  principally  among 
oxen,  and  thus  he  acquired  a  certain  knowledge 
in  the  art  of  waggon-driving.  At  Palapye  Ben 
— for  such  was  his  name — took  unto  himself  a 
wife  who  bore  him  children. 

Next  we  find  Master  Ben  employed  by  M. 
Coillard  to  drive  his  waggon  to  the  Zambezi 
and  thence  to  Lialui.  He  had  intended,  after 
spending  a  few  weeks  in  Borotse,  to  return  to 
the  bosom  of  his  family  in  Mangwato.  This, 
however,  was  not  to  be,  for  Liwanika,  in  course 
of  conversation,  asked  him  who  his  people 

"  I  am  a  Matoka,*'  he  answered. 

**The  Matoka  are  my  people,"  was  the  royal 
reply,  **  and  therefore  you  belong  to  me,  and 
must  stay  here  and  look  after  my  oxen." 

And  so  he  did,  and  consequendy  forsook  his 
first  wife  and  commenced  afresh  with  another. 
His  conscience,  if  he  ever  had  such  a  thing,  he 
satisfies  at  Liwanika's  expense,  though  it  is  very 



much  to  be  doubted  whether  his  domestic  perfidy 
IS  as  compulsory  as  the  apostate  Ben  would  have 
It  supposed. 

Ben  subsequently  became  very  useful  to  me 
as  interpreter,  and  on  many  occasions  I  was  able 
to  have  talks  with  Liwanika  when  I  would  not 
have  cared  to  appropriate  the  time  of  my 
missionary  friends,  who  were  very  busy  with 
their  conference. 

This  is  one  which  I  entered  in  my  diary  on 
returning  to  my  hut. 

**  Do  the  English  people  know  of  the  existence 
of  me,  Liwanika  ?  " 
•'  Yes.'^ 

**  Has  the  Queen  ever  heard  of  me.^" 
"Yes,  the  Queen  takes  an  interest  in  all  her 
people,  whether  white  or  black,  and  knows  as 
much  about  them  as  the  English  people  do." 

**  But  how  can  the  Queen  and  English  people 
know  about  me  and  my  people,  who  are  so  far 
away  ? 

"  Englishmen  like  myself,"  I  told  him,  "  travel 
all  over  the  world  in  order  that  we  may  see 
for  ourselves  what  happens  in  places  far  away 
from  England.  When  I  go  back  to  my  home 
I  will  tell  the  people  what  I  have  seen  in  your 
country,  and  the  Queen  too  will  hear  again  of 
you  and  your  people." 

'*What  will  the  Queen  do  with  me?"  he 
enquired  anxiously. 



'*  If  you  behave  well  to  the  English  people, 
the  Queen,  who  is  good  and  kind,  will  see  that  no 
harm  is  done  to  you,  for  the  English  people  do 
not  fight  unless  they  are  compelled  to ;  but  then 
they  are  strong  and  conquer.  Look  at  the 
Matabele.  Lobengula's  impis  did  wrong  many 
times  in  killing  people  and  taking  their  cattle. 
Lobengula  was  told  he  must  give  up  killing 
or  a  white  impi  would  attack  him.  Then  his 
people  actually  went  into  one  of  the  white  men's 
towns  and  killed  their  servants  before  their  eyes, 
so  the  white  men  had  to  punish  them  and  drive 
them  from  their  country. 

**  It  was  a  good  thing  for  the  white  men  to 
fight  the  Matabele,"  he  added.  ''  All  black  people 
are  glad  and  now  have  peace.  The  Matabele 
are  bad  people,  and  killed  a  great  many  men  and 
women  and  children.  As  for  Lobengula,  he  used 
to  talk  of  Khama  and  of  me  as  if  we  were  his 

"And  yet,"  I  said,  "  Liwanika  and  Khama  are 
now  alive  and  are  kings  of  their  people,  but 
Lobengula  is  dead  and  his  people  are  scattered. 

Again  his  suspicions  that  his  time  might  come 
next,  and  that  the  English  had  designs  on  himself 
and  country  became  evident ;  quite  pathetically  he 
remarked,  ''Yes,  Khama  knows  the  Queen  and 
the  Queen  knows  all  about  Khama,  so  Khama  is 
all  right.  But  I  am  so  very  far  away;  it  is 
different  with  me." 



I  felt  quite  sorry  for  the  poor  man.  After  he 
had  spontaneously  asked  that  the  Queen  should 
take  him  and  his  people  under  her  protection, 
his  suspicions  had  been  aroused  mainly  by  the 
conduct  of  two  disreputable  white  men,  to  whom 
allusion  is  made  on  the  ensuing  page,  and  he  was 
in  the  position  of  a  man  who  was  not  quite 
certain  whether  he  had  made  a  false  step  or  not, 
and  felt  powerless  to  avoid  the  consequences 
which  might  ensue.  I  did  my  best  to  reassure 
him,  and  think  I  was  to  some  extent  successful. 

I  was  having  a  regular  field-day  with  my 
swarthy  host,  nor  was  it  finished  yet  He  turned 
to  the  subject  of  the  game  I  had  killed,  and  I  read 
out  my  bag  amid  a  series  of  "ee's"  from  the 
chiefs  who  squatted  round,  commencing  after 
species  No.  5  had  been  disposed  of  and  increas- 
ing in  energy  until  twenty-five  species  with  the 
number  killed  of  each  had  been  recapitulated. 

Next  he  alluded  to  Mr.  F.  C.  Selous,  of  whom 
he  spoke  in  terms  of  friendship. 

"  I  like  Selous  and  Selous  likes  me,"  he  re- 
marked. **  He  always  behaved  well  to  me.  When 
the  Mashikolumbwe  robbed  him  and  killed  some 
of  his  ''  boys,'*  he  did  not  blame  me  because  he 
knew  they  were  not  my  people,  and  that  I  was 
not  to  blame*  Yes,"  he  added,  "if  Selous  were 
a  black  man  I  would  send  for  him  to  come  and 
see  me,  but  he  is  a  white  man,  and  I  cannot  send 
for  white  men." 



And  SO  ended  my  second  interview  with  Li- 
wanika.  His  nervous  anxiety  and  simple  intelli- 
gence impressed  me,  and  I  determined  to  see 
as  much  of  him  as  I  could  during  my  stay  at 
Lialui.  I  thought  I  saw  in  him  a  man  with 
whom  much  could  be  done  by  straightforward 
treatment;  while  what  I  had  heard  when  com- 
pared with  what  I  had  seen  convinced  me  that 
a  false  impression  of  him  and  his  people  was 
all  that  was  known  by  those  with  whom  he  was 
arranging  for  the  concession  of  certain  rights  in 
his  country. 

It  is  an  unfortunate  thing  that  some  traders 
and  others,  in  order  to  satisfy  their  prejudices  or 
advance  their  personal  interests,  should  at  times 
sow  the  seeds  of  trouble  by  wilful  misrepresenta- 
tion. A  certain  trader  had  the  audacity  to  tell 
me  that  he  and  a  friend  purposely  did  all  they 
could  to  cause  dissension  between  Liwanika  and 
the  Chartered  Company,  as  when  once  white  men 
established  themselves  in  the  country,  Borotse 
would  be  ruined  from  their  point  of  view. 
These  two  worthies,  I  subsequently  discovered, 
had  done  all  they  could  to  persuade  Liwanika 
to  give  them  men  to  burn  down  the  mission 
station  at  Sefula,  but  fortunately  learned  that 
they  were  dealing  with  a  man  who,  though  black, 
could  teach  them  a  lesson  in  matters  of  common 
honour  and  principle.  This  atrocious  request 
brought  the  misunderstanding  these  knaves  had 



created  between  Liwanika  and  M.  Coillard  Xo  a 
crisis.  The  king  sent  for  the  missionary  and  his 
accusers,  insisted  on  the  accusation  being  made 
publicly,  and  on  asking  M.  Coillard  to  answer, 
received  such  powerful  proof  in  repudiation  of 
the  charge*  against  him  as  to  completely  turn 
the  tables  in  his  favour.  M.  Coillard's  influence 
was  consequently  re-established  and  strengthened, 
and  has  continued  for  good  ever  since.  His 
enemies  were  dismissed  the  country,  though 
before  they  got  clear  they  successfully  instigated 
the  burning  and  plunder  of  a  storehouse  at 
Sesheke  belonging  to  Messrs.  Buckenham  and 
Baldwin,  English  missionaries. 

The  above  facts  will  no  doubt  account  to  many 
minds  for  the  disparaging  statements  so  often 
disseminated  about  missionaries  and  their  work. 
Don't  let  it  be  understood  that  I  wish  to  charac- 
terize all  missionaries  as  immaculate  or  even 
sincere.  It  is  an  unfortunate  fact  that  there  are 
black  sheep  among  them  ;  that  is  to  be  expected. 
My  personal  experience  shows  that  sincere 
workers  are  the  rule  and  not  the  exception,  as 
some  would  have  it,  especially  among  those  who 
have  turned  their  backs  on  civilization  and 
devoted  their  energies  to  work  in  the  far 

*  M.  Coillard  was  accused  of  surreptitiously  selling  the  king's 
country  to  the  Chartered  Company.  Liwanika  having  applied 
for  the  protection  of  the  Great  White  Queen,  could  not  under- 
stand where  the  Company  came  in. 



About  the  Zambezi  missionaries  I  had  been 
told  :  **  They  try  to  keep  traders  and  hunters 
out  of  the  country  for  their  own  ends."  **  They 
are  nothing  but  a  lot  of  traders,"  &c.,  &c. 

What  did  I  find?  Hospitality  everywhere  and, 
whenever  I  wanted  it,  assistance  and  information. 
The  natives,  once  insolent,  and  often  hostile 
to  white  men,  treated  me  with  respect  and 
confidence.  So  far  from  being  traders,  on  two 
occasions  when  I  was  allowed  to  replenish  my 
necessaries  from  the  mission  stores,  no  profit  was 
asked,  the  bare  expenses  being  alone  charged. 
In  their  dealings  with  the  natives  the  same  rules 
are  religiously  observed.  Killing  for  "witch- 
craft," before  their  advent  of  almost  daily 
occurrence,  is  now  all  but  unknown,  and 
Liwanika  has  quite  put  a  stop  to  the  wholesale 
slaughter  of  men,  women,  and  children  for  the 
trivial  offence  or  imagined  offence  of  a  single 
member  of  a  family. 

Quite  apart  from  the  professed  objects  of  a 
missionary's  life,  great  temporal  achievements 
are  directly  due  to  their  labours,  and  the  con- 
fidence they  inspire  in  the  native  mind. 
Missionary  enterprise  has  played  a  most  im- 
portant part  in  the  extension  of  the  empire  of 
which  we  English  are  so  proud  and  our  rivals 
so  envious.  Undue  credit  has  been  given  me 
by  some  for  having  successfully  travelled  a 
considerable  tract  of  unknown  country  alone  and 
M  i6i 


without  armed  escort.  The  bulk  of  such  credit 
belongs  to  David  Livingstone  for  the  confidence 
his  name  still  inspires  in  the  first  instance,  and 
to  M.  Coillard  and  the  mission  of  which  he  is 
the  head  in  the  second,  who  to  a  great  extent 
have  dissipated  the  prejudices  of  the  king.  For 
the  first  three-quarters  of  my  journey  physical 
endurance  was  all  that  was  required  of  me,  and 
until  I  entered  the  Mashikolumbwe  country  my 
person  and  property  were  at  least  as  safe  as  they 
are  in  London.  Fair  play  is  a  jewel.  We 
English  boast  that  we  love  it.  Why,  then,  deny 
the  missionaries  their  due  ? 



ON  the  morning  of  the  24th  of  September 
a  message  came  from  Liwanika,  saying 
that  he  would  like  to  speak  with  me,  so  I  repaired 
to  the  royal  presence  with  Ben  as  interpreter. 

Again  he  wanted  to  know  why  I  had  come  to 
his  country,  and  insinuated  that  I  was  looking 
for  gold. 

I  assured  him  that  I  had  not  given  gold  a 
thought ;  and  then  deeming  the  time  had  arrived 
to  tell  him  my  real  objects  in  visiting  him,  for  I 
had  made  up  my  mind  that  to  be  straightforward 
with  this  man  could  not  be  wrong,  and  might  be 
wise,  I  said  : 

**  My  chief  reason  for  coming  here  is  to  make 
a  map  of  your  country." 

He  was  silent  for  a  moment,  and  I  feared  that 
he  was  about  to  raise  objections  to  my  **  spying 
out"  the  country,  as  is  the  way  with  most 
Africans.  Not  so,  however,  for  raising  his  head 
slowly,  he  answered  : 

**  It  is  a  good  thing  to  make  a  map  of  my 

country,  for  though  I  am  king,  my  country  is  a 

large  one;  and  there  are  many  rivers  I   know 



nothing  about  When  I  was  a  little  boy,"  and 
he  extended  his  hand  to  show  the  degree  of  his 
smallness,  "  I  well  remember  a  white  man  coming 
here  and  making  a  map  of  the  river." 

"You  mean  Monare,"*  I  said.  ** What  I  want 
you  to  do  is  to  allow  me  to  continue  the  work 
which  Monare  began  when  you  were  a  littie 

He  did  not  attempt  to  conceal  the  satisfaction 
this  interruption  gave  him,  and  from  that  time  all 
his  suspicious  litde  insinuations  vanished,  and  he 
showed  absolute  confidence  in  me. 

"  I  will  give  you  permission  to  go  anywhere  in 
my  country  you  wish,  but  you  must  send  me 
maps  showing  where  you  go  and  what  rivers  you 


**  I  will  not  only  do  that,"  I  answered,  "  but 
when  my  map  of  your  country  is  complete  I  will 
send  you  a  copy  of  it" 

To  this  he  added  quite  a  pretty  litde  compli- 
ment, which  would  put  to  shame  many  of  the 
small  flatteries  of  more  civilized  people : 

''  And  when  I  am  dead,  Latia  and  Latia's  sons 
after  him  will  remember  you  as  the  white  man 
who  made  a  map  of  their  country." 

On  being  asked  what  direction  I  wished  to 
take,  I  told  him  I  should  like  to  go  to  where 
the  Lui,  Lumbi,  and  Njoko  had  their  sources, 
then  travel  down  to  Sesheke  and  up  the  Machili, 

*  Livingstone^s  nadve  name. 


or  some  other  river,  to  the  Kafukwe,  and  back  to 
him  by  a  more  northerly  route. 

He  warned  me  that  this  was  a  very  big  journey 
and  would  take  me  two  years. 

**  I  know  it  is  a  long  way,"  I  replied,  "but  it 
will  not  take  so  long  as  you  say." 

*'  But  you  must  remember  the  rains.  You 
cannot  cross  many  of  the  rivers  in  the  wet 

"Well,  I  will  try  to  be  back  at  Lialui  long 
before  you  say." 

"  And  to  whom  do  all  these  rivers  you  speak 
about  belong  ?'*  he  asked. 

**  To  Liwanika,  king  of  the  Marotse." 

**  That  is  so,  they  belong  to  me";  and  he  looked 
quite  pleased  with  himself  and  with  me. 

He  has  an  idea  that  part  of  his  country  might 
be  taken  from  him  on  the  plea  that  there  is  little 
or  no  outward  and  visible  sign  of  his  authority  in 
some  of  his  more  distant  possessions.  For  this 
reason  he  has  recently  been  distributing  Marotse 
chiefs  among  the  Matoka  as  rulers  of  districts 
and  headmen  of  villages. 

Next  he  travelled  to  personal  matters. 

**  What  do  white  men  think  of  me  ?  Do  they 
think  I  am  a  good  king  or  a  bad  one  ?  " 

"  I  have  never  heard  a  white  man  say  you  were 
not  a  good  king,  but  I  have  heard  it  said  that  you 
sometimes  say  one  thing  one  day,  and  another  the 



Having  administered  this  doubtful  compliment, 
I  resumed : 

**  Since  I  came  into  the  country,  however,  and 
have  seen  with  my  eyes  and  heard  with  my  ears, 
I  can  understand  why  white  men  should  speak 
so,  for  I  have  heard  how  two  bad  white  men 
came  to  Borotse  and  told  the  king  false  things, 
so  that  he  did  not  know  what  to  believe,  and  his 
mind  became  unsettled." 

'*That  is  true,"  he  answered,  '*  that  is  true." 

The  following  day  I  again  paid  the  king  a  visit 
in  company  with  M.  A.  Jalla.  He  told  me  that 
before  leaving  he  wished  me  to  write  him  a  letter 
— he  is  quite  far  enough  advanced  to  know  the 
value  of  black  and  white — acknowledging  that 
he  had  warned  me  of  the  dangers  of  the  proposed 
journey,  and  that  as  at  any  time  I  might  be  killed 
by  a  lion,  elephant,  or  buffalo,  I  quite  understood 
that  I  travelled  at  my  own  risk  and  did  not  hold 
him  responsible  for  my  safety.  In  justification  of 
this  demand  he  shrewdly  remarked : 

"If  you  are  killed  by  a  lion  or  a  buffalo,  since 
you  are  by  yourself  and  there  is  no  white  man  to 
prove  it,  the  English  people  may  say  that  my 
people  killed  you." 

The  letter  was  subsequently  sent,  and  he  gave 
me  permission  to  travel  in  any  part  of  his  country 
I  wished. 

Three  days  later  I  went  by  arrangement  to 
view  a  collection  of  his  people  s  work  in  wood, 



iron,  and  grass,  as  I  had  expressed  a  wish  to  buy 
a  representative  lot,  so  as  to  be  able  to  show 
people  in  England  how  cleverly  the  work  was 
done.  And  very  well  all  these  native- made 
articles  looked ;  in  wood  were  bowls,  basins, 
dishes,  and  spoons,  all  neatly  carved,  some  in 
pattern  and  others  ornamented  with  representa- 
tions of  animals  ;  in  iron,  axes  of  all  kinds,  hoes, 
knives,  fishing-spears,  and  different  kinds  of 
assegais ;  and  in  grass- work  many-shaped  baskets 
and  mats  with  various  patterns.  They  made  a 
goodly  collection  and  I  purchased  the  whole. 

On  the  30th  I  went  round  to  bid  my  black 
host  farewell.  Conversation  turned  on  matters 
geographical.  I  had  mentioned  a  wish  after  my 
proposed  return  to  Lialui  to  visit  the  northern 
Zambezi  watershed,  though  this  was  dependent 
on  fresh  provisions  which  had  been  ordered  of 
my  agents  at  Mafeking  reaching  the  Zambezi  in 
March.  The  king  acquiesced  on  condition  that 
I  would  take  with  me  forty  of  his  warriors,  whom 
he  would  arm  with  rifles  if  I  supplied  the  ammu- 
nition. "Then,"  he  said,  **you  will  be  safe;  for 
the  people  there  are  wild  men,  who  would  kill 
you  in  the  night  if  you  were  by  yourself,  but  they 
dare  not  attack  you  if  forty  of  my  people  are 
with  you." 

Then  he  continued : 

"  Where  does  the  Kabompo  begin  ?  Why  it 
begins  in  a  row  of  hills,  and  from  the  same  hills 



rise  the  Kafukwe  and  Lualaba,  all  close  to  one 

He  then,  after  sending  an  attendant  for  a  piece 
of  chalk,  dropped  on  his  knees  and  traced  on  the 
floor  his  idea  of  the  relative  positions  of  the  prin- 
cipal rivers  in  his  country  one  to  another;  the 
upper  reaches  of  the  Kafukwe  and  Kabompo, 
however,  were  many  miles  apart.  I  drew  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  they  **  began  "  close  together. 
For  a  moment  the  royal  mind  seemed  puzzled ; 
but  not  for  long,  for  a  semicircular  dash  of  the 
chalk  placed  the  sources  of  the  Kafukwe  and 
Kabompo  in  close  proximity,  and  only  at  the 
expense  of  disproportionately  increasing  the  size 
of  the  former.  The  map  completed,  I  told  him 
it  would  be  a  great  help  to  me,  returned  to  my 
hut  and  brought  back  a  note-book,  in  which  I 
copied  the  map  of  Liwanika  s  country  according 
to  himself 

On  the  following  morning — September  30th — 
I  paid  a  farewell  visit  to  Liwanika.  He  was 
very  affable,  and  told  me  a  chief  had  been  told 
off^  to  look  after  the  porters  and  to  order  the 
people  in  his  name  to  do  everything  to  help  me. 
Then  added : 

**  I  wish  you  to  send  me  a  letter  when  you  get 

to  the    Lui,  one  from  the   Lumbi,  and  another 

from  the  Njoko.     Then   I  shall  know  you  are 

safe.     I   will  also  send  letters  to  you,  and  the 

people  will  know  that  you  are  my  friend.     Give 



your  letters  to  Matlakala** — the  chief  who  was  to 
accompany  me — **and  he  will  order  the  headman 
of  any  village  you  may  be  near  to  send  them  on 
to  me." 

I  was  on  the  point  of  wishing  him  farewell, 
but,  instead  of  taking  my  offered  hand,  he  shook 
his  head,  saying : 

**  No,  not  yet.  Come  with  me."  And  he  led 
the  way  to  the  **  kotla,"  where  the  principal  men 
were  already  assembled,  as  well  as  the  porters, 
headed  by  Matlakala,  whose  name,  being  inter- 
preted, signifies  the  **  sweepings  from  the  floor.'* 

My  own  boys  were  also  summoned  and  made 
to  sit  down  in  front  of  the  king,  in  order  that 
they  might  hear  for  themselves  the  instructions 
given  to  Matlakala  and  his  gang. 

A  long  harangue  followed,  in  which  Liwanika 
gave  definite  instructions  to  the  effect  that  every- 
thing was  to  be  done  to  facilitate  the  journey 
and  that  they  would  be  held  responsible  to  him 
for  my  safety,  adding  to  me : 

**When  you  come  back  I  will  give  you  forty 
men  with  rifles,  who  will  go  with  you  to  where 
the  Zambezi  begins.** 

I  thanked  him  in  anticipation.  Then  the  ruling 
native  characteristic  showed  itself  in  the  question  : 

**What  present  will  you  give  me  for  sending 
you  there  ?  ** 

'*  I  cannot  say,"  was  my  answer;  "there  is 
plenty  of  time  to  think  of  that" 



After  bidding  farewell  to  my  black  host,  and 
afterwards  to  the  missionaries,  a  start  was  made 
in  an  easterly  direction  that  afternoon. 

It  is  impossible  to  speak  too  highly  of  the 
hospitable  treatment  I  received  at  the  hands 
of  this  native  king.  As  I  have  said,  two  huts 
and  a  courtyard  were  placed  at  my  disposal,  an 
ox  was  given  me,  a  milch  cow  was  set  aside 
for  my  special  use,  and  every  day  a  present 
of  fish,  honey,  thick  milk,  cassava,  or  food  for 
the  boys  would  arrive,  while  each  morning  a 
chief  would  present  himself  at  the  hut  door 
bearing  the  "  Morena's  "  greetings — a  nice  little 
piece  of  civility  that  pleased  me  much.  That 
evening  camp  was  pitched  at  the  base  of  the 
rising  ground  bordering  on  the  Marotse  plain. 
I  was  glad  to  be  on  the  move  once  more,  and 
particularly  so  as  a  part  of  the  country  hitherto 
absolutely  unexplored  was  at  last  reached  in 
which,  with  Liwanika  at  my  back,  I  felt  there 
would  be  no  great  difficulty  in  doing  useful  work. 

A  steady  ascent  the  next  morning  for  about 
half  a  dozen  miles  up  a  sandy  slope  covered  with 
forest  led  to  the  discovery  of  a  large  oval-shaped 
lake  some  four  miles  long  by  three  wide. 

It  was  at  the  very  end  of  the  dry  season,  so 

that  the  basin  of  this  lake  was  almost  dry,  but 

the  banks  show  that  a  considerable  volume  of 

water   collects    there  during    the    rainy   season. 

There  is  no  visible  outlet,  and  as  evaporation 



cannot  account  for  the  disappearance  of  so  large 
a  body  of  water  during  the  winter  months,  it 
must  drain  subterraneously  through  the  few  miles 
of  sand  which  separate  it  from  the  Marotse 
plain,  some  i6o  feet  below. 

A  sluggish  river,  by  name  Kande,  winding 
through  the  valley,  characteristically  resembling 
most  rivers  in  this  part  of  the  country,  empties 
itself  into  the  basin.  The  path  lay  for  about 
twenty  miles  along  this  valley,  when  a  bend  from 
the  south  led  it  away  from  the  direction  of  my 
route.  At  that  point  the  grassy  valley  was  about 
300  yards  wide,  though  the  river  could  not  have 
its  source  many  miles  further  or  it  would  clash 
with  the  Lui  system. . 

A  flock  of  guinea-fowl  here  afforded  not 
merely  sport,  but  a  welcome  addition  to  the 
larder;  for  what  with  the  depredations  of  native 
dogs  and  the  scarcity  of  big  game  in  this  district, 
meat  had  been  at  a  premium  lately. 

After  a  tramp  of  2 1  i  miles,  camp  was  formed 
that  evening  on  the  Kande,  some  six  miles  west 
of  where  the  path  leaves  the  river. 

The  sandy  nature  of  the  ground  made  it  rather 
heavy  going,  but  the  path  was  shaded  by  tall, 
but  not  massive,  non-deciduous  trees,  on  some 
of  which  edible  fruit  was  to  be  found,  which 
was  much  appreciated  by  the  boys  and  to 
some  extent  by  myself  It  is  remarkable  that 
an  orange-shaped,  hard-shelled  fruit  should  ripen 



here  at  the  end  of  the  winter  season,  while  south 
of  the  Zambezi  the  same  fruit  matures  at  the 
end  of  the  summer.  This  same  tree,  too,  which 
south  of  the  big  river  is  deciduous,  carries  in 
15*  S.  Lat  a  certain  number  of  old  leaves  at 
the  time  the  new  shoots  open  out. 

Though  no  doubt  there  are  other  trees  common 
to  both  districts,  they  are  in  the  main  of  quite 
a  different  character.  I  am  not  aware  of  having 
passed  a  single  thorn-tree  during  the  whole  of  the 
journey  along  this  watershed. 

On  the  2nd  an  uneventful  march  of  igi  miles 
terminated  near  a  small  Makwenga  village  on  the 
Maunga,  a  tributary  of  the  Kande  river.  This 
country  is  absolutely  devoid  of  game,  so  the 
difficulty  of  providing  food  for  the  boys 
rendered  fast  travelling  incumbent  on  me.  Pro- 
bably on  the  principle  of  the  "  new  broom  '*  the 
boys  followed  implicidy,  nor  did  I  so  much 
as  hear  a  grumble  at  the  distances  they  were 
called  upon  to  travel,  though  it  must  be  admitted 
a  fifty-pound  load  for  twenty  miles  mostly  under 
a  hot  sun  is  good  travelling  for  African  porters. 

On  the  3rd  only  twelve  miles  brought  me  to  the 

Lui  river,  where  camp  was  formed  for  the  night, 

as  I  was  anxious  to  take  astronomical  and  other 

observations.     At  about  ten  o'clock  that  morning 

a  lake  basin — Sesheke  Pan — about   1000  yards 

across,  tempted  me  to  halt,  as  in  the  water  which 

covered  the  centre  of  the  basin  large  numbers  of 



teal,  duck,  and  geese  were  to  be  seen ;  so  after 
refreshment  I  sauntered  down  with  the  boy 
Muliphi,  and  spent  a  pleasant,  cool  morning  up 
to  my  waist  in  water  in  search  of  a  day  s  food. 

The  geese  were  too  wary,  so  after  trying  in 
vain  for  some  time  to  get  within  range  they  were 
abandoned  in  favour  of  duck  and  teal,  after  bag- 
ging seven  of  which  I  returned  to  camp. 

The  banks  of  the  Lui,  according  to  my  obser- 
vations, are  3710  feet  above  the  sea-level,  or 
rather  more  than  300  feet  higher  than  Lialui. 

Next  morning  the  river  had  to  be  crossed 
in  canoes.  The  flow  of  water  was  imperceptible, 
but  where  the  crossing  was  effected  the  river  was 
quite  100  yards  wide  and  had  the  appearance 
rather  of  a  marshy  lake  than  a  river.  There 
were  plenty  of  water-fowl  about,  from  which  I 
bagged  a  spurwing  goose  and  a  duck. 

While  following  up  the  valley  of  the  Situta, 
a  small  Lui  affluent,  a  wildebeest  was  sighted 
about  800  yards  away  in  the  open.  This  was  the 
first  head  of  game  I  had  seen  since  shooting  the 
three  buffaloes  at  Sioma  four  weeks  before — with 
the  exception  of  one  or  two  lechwe  which  are 
preserved  by  Liwanika  in  the  neighbourhood  of 

After  an  hour's  stalk  the  animal  was  bagged, 
but  with  no  credit  to  the  shooter,  for  after  having 
missed  four  times  it  required  two  wounds  and  a 
coup  degrdce  to  kill  him.     Thus  seven  miles  only 



were  travelled  that  day,  and  the  boys  revelled 
in  the  first  meat  they  had  tasted  for  a  fortnight. 
The  first  shower  of  rain  fell  that  evening  to  the 
accompaniment  of  a  thunderstorm. 

The  Matingu,  a  tributary  of  the  Lui,  was 
reached  at  about  eleven  o'clock  on  the  5th.  This 
is  a  clear  stream  about  twelve  feet  wide  and  five 
or  six  feet  deep.  There  is  a  good  flow  of  clear 
fresh  water,  in  which  I  indulged  in  and  thoroughly 
enjoyed  a  dip. 

The  path  led  along  this  river  for  a  few  miles, 
but  finally  leaving  it,  I  had  to  take  the  boys 
some  distance  after  dark  before  water  was  again 
reached,  this  time  on  the  edge  of  a  plain  about 
five  miles  across. 

The  twenty-three  miles'  march  of  that  day 
had  a  soothing  effect  on  the  boys ;  they  did  not 
jabber  half  the  night  as  was  their  wont,  so  their 
master  slept  undisturbed,  after  having  taken  a 
successful  observation  for  latitude — an  oppor- 
tunity which  the  gathering  clouds  at  the  end 
of  the  dry  season  seldom  allow. 

On  the  6th  the  sources  of  the  Luwouwa  (wild 
dog)  and  Koshamba  rivers,  tributaries  of  the 
Motondo,  an  important  affluent  of  the  Lui,  were 
traversed,  and  two  days  later  camp  was  formed 
at  the  source  of  the  Lumbi  about  eleven  miles 
east  of  the  Motondo  source,  which  was  passed 
en  route. 

The  plateau   on  which  these  two  rivers  rise 



is  high  and  in  many  places  open.  According  to 
my  observations  its  altitude  is  3980  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea. 

When  within  half  a  mile  of  the  Lumbi  source, 
one  of  the  boys  pointed  out  a  herd  of  about  a 
dozen  eland  grazing  on  the  plain  along  the  border 
of  which  the  caravan  travelled.  After  a  short 
stalk,  not  seeing  a  bull,  I  fired  a  right  and  left  at 
a  nice  cow,  but  both  bullets  went  low.  Then 
for  the  first  time,  as  they  cantered  away,  a  fine  old 
bull  showed  himself.  He  had  been  grazing  with 
others  behind  a  small  clump  of  palm  and  bush 
growing  on  one  of  the  numerous  old  ant-heaps 
that  studded  the  plain. 

Seizing  a  Mannlicher,  I  took  a  shot  as  he 
cantered  across  my  front  250  yards  away.  The 
bullet  struck  home,  but  did  not  stop  him.  After 
following  the  spoor  for  a  short  distance,  during 
which  it  became  obvious  when  the  herd  slowed 
down  to  a  walk  that  the  bull  went  lame  in  the 
right  leg  from  a  shoulder  wound,  I  decided  to 
make  camp,  partake  of  a  little  refreshment,  and 
follow  the  spoor  in  the  afternoon. 

While  doing  so,  a  large  mixed  herd  of  zebra 
and  wildebeest  gave  an  opportunity  for  supplying 
the  larder  of  which  it  would  have  been  unwise 
not  to  take  advantage,  so  leaving  the  eland  spoor 
for  a  short  time,  I  crawled  through  the  forest  to 
where  the  game  were  to  be  seen  grazing  in  the 
open.      It  was  a  pretty   sight  to  see  all  these 



animals  grazing  peacefully  within  lOO  yards ;  each 
cow  seemed  to  have  a  calf  at  foot,  and  each  mare 
a  foal,  which  spent  most  of  their  time  playing  and 
gamboling  about  as  is  the  way  with  animals  only 
a  few  days  old. 

After  bagging  a  wildebeest,  and  leaving  three 
boys  to  cut  up  and  take  the  meat  to  camp,  I 
again  took  the  eland  spoor  with  Muliphi  and 
another.  The  wounded  bull  left  the  herd,  but 
showed  no  signs  of  halting,  and  I  was  at  last 
compelled  to  abandon  the  chase,  and  reached 
camp  about  two  hours  after  darkness  had  set  in. 

On  the  following  day  I  sent  boys  off  on  the 
spoor,  and  myself  spent  the  day  examining  the 
surrounding  country ;  the  boys,  of  course,  did 
not  come  up  with  the  wounded  bull,  and  most 
probably,  in  reality,  spent  a  lazy  day  a  short 
distance  from  camp. 

On  the  morning  of  the  loth,  a  large  herd  of 

wildebeest  came  down  to  the  "vley**  for  water. 

While  following  them  up  from  behind  a  small 

patch  of  bush,  a  hartebeest  took  my  attention 

away   from    the    other   game.     After  a   careful 

stalk   he   sighted   me,  just  as   I   was   preparing 

to  aim.     The  hissing  note  of  alarm  as  he  threw 

his  head  up  and  gazed  in  my  direction  told  me 

there  was   no  time  to  lose,  and  a  too  hurried 

shot    sent    him    away    on    three    legs,    with    a 

shoulder  wound  low  down,  in  spite  of  which  I 

had  a  long  run  of  six  or  seven  miles  before  a 



bullet  from  the  Mannlicher  brought  him  to  bay  as 
he  endeavoured  to  escape  through  the  forest. 

On  the  evening  of  the  same  day  an  eland  came 
down  to  drink  at  the  vley,  and  was  easily  stalked 
and  killed. 

N  177 


THE  reaction  consequent  on  the  change 
from  the  scantiest  and  most  unnutritious 
diet  on  which  the  boys  had  subsisted  since  leav- 
ing Lialui  to  a  state  of  repletion  in  meat,  at 
first  promoted  much  good  humour  and  con- 
viviality among  these  black  gourmands.  They 
literally  gorged  all  day,  from  sunrise  till  about 
II  p.m.,  when  pots  full  of  meat  and  water  would 
be  placed  on  the  fire  to  simmer.  At  about  2  a.m. 
jabbering  and  gorging  would  again  commence, 
and  continue  until  one  after  another  they  had 
once  more  eaten  and  talked  themselves  to  sleep. 

All  this  might  have  been  very  nice  for  them, 
but  it  did  not  quite  suit  me  to  be  roused  up  and 
kept  awake  each  night ;  so  after  finding  from 
experience  that  it  is  an  impossibility  for  the 
African  to  eat  without  talking  and  laughing,  I 
was  compelled  to  put  a  stop  to  this  night  work 
with  a  high  hand. 

When  on  the  nth  I  gave  orders  to  pack  up 
the  loads,  Matlakala,  the  Marotse  chief  whom 
Liwanika  had  given  me  as  headman,  said  he  was 
very  sick.     Looking  as  forlorn  and  miserable  as 



all  niggers  do  when  they  are,  or  imagine  they  are 
ill,  he  laid  his  hand  first  on  his  forehead  and  said 
in  his  own  language,  "Very  sick  there,"  which 
sentence  was  repeated  as  he  in  turn  touched 
nearly  every  joint  he  had  in  his  body. 

I  dosed  him  severely  and  insisted  on  moving 
a  few  miles,  though  he  quite  looked  on  my  doing 
so  as  a  grievance ;  however,  had  I  delayed  for 
the  convenience  of  each  boy  whose  liver  had 
been  deranged  by  gluttony,  very  little  progress 
would  have  been  made,  for  it  was  seldom  that 
at  least  one  boy  did  not  consider  himself  hors 
de  combat. 

Going  down  hill  for  seven  miles  I  reached  a 
sluggish  river — so  sluggish  that  it  was  impossible 
to  tell  which  way  it  flowed,  if  there  was  any  flow 
at  all  at  that  time  of  the  year.  The  usual  grass 
valley  bordered  the  stream  on  either  side,  and 
its  direction  being  S.E.  to  N.W.  led  me  to 
suppose  that  I  had  got  on  to  a  tributary  of  the 
Njoko  river ;  two  days  later,  however,  on  reach- 
ing a  place  where  the  water  visibly  flowed  towards 
the  N.W.,  it  became  obvious  that  this  could 
have  nothing  to  do  with  the  Njoko.  It  turned 
out  to  be  the  Niambe  river,  which  flows  into  the 
Luompa,  an  affluent  of  the  Luena  which  empties 
its  waters  into  a  lake,  as  does  the  Kande  river 
about  twenty  miles  north  of  Lialui.  Matlakala 
here  had  the  audacity  to  tell  me  that  he  and 
the  boys  in  his  charge  were  going  to  return  to 



Borotse,  as  he  was  too  sick  to  go  on.  I  told  him 
he  was  perfectly  at  liberty  to  go  as  far  as  he 
himself  was  concerned,  and  could  take  his  slave 
boy,  a  small  Mashikolumbwe  whom  he  always 
kept  on  the  move  in  attendance  on  his  wants, 
with  him ;  but  as  the  boys  had  not  been  given 
to  him  by  the  king,  but  to  me,  they  would  have 
to  continue.  Fortunately  there  were  seven  loyal 
boys  with  me,  four  of  the  paddlers  who  had  ac- 
companied me  from  Sesheke  and  the  three  South 
Africans.  He  knew,  therefore,  that  no  false 
justification  for  leaving  me  would  go  undisputed 
to  Liwanika,  and  after  an  argument  between 
the  two  sections,  which  I  overheard  from  a  short 
distance,  master  Matlakala  found  himself  alone  in 
his  wish  to  return,  and  when  a  fresh  start  was 
made  did  not  take  advantage  of  my  suggestion 
that  he  should  go  home. 

When  that  evening  I  sent  a  message  to 
Matlakala  to  come  for  physic,  the  answer  was 
returned  that  he  did  not  want  any,  as  he  was  not 
sick  in  the  stomach ;  in  other  words,  he  had  no 
appetite  for  croton  oil ! 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  13th,  a  single  roan 

antelope  bull  was  noticed  several  hundred  yards 

in  front,  trekking  slowly  up  the  valley  in  the  open. 

The  larder  was  empty,  so  I  gave  chase.    Skirting 

the   forest   for  about   three-quarters   of   a   mile 

brought   me   to   within    200  yards  of  the   bull. 

Being  out  of  effective  range  for  the   i6-bore,  I 



beckoned  to  MuHphi  to  bring  me  the  Mannlicher, 

but  as  he  approached  the  antelope  caught  sight 

of  him  and  galloped  off,  standing  when  300  yards 

away.    It  was  obvious  that  a  better  chance  would 

not  be   likely   to   occur  again,    though  at    that 

distance,  with  a  non-expansive  small-bore  bullet, 

the  odds  were  strongly  in  favour  of  the  game  not 

being  bagged.     The  first  bullet  seemed   to  go 

over  him,  and  striking  beyond  evidently  puzzled 

the  animal  as  to  the  direction  from  which  danger 

threatened  him,  for  he  stood  long  enough  to  allow 

me  to  fire  again,  and  with  better  effect  this  time, 

for  down  he  went. 

On  coming  up  it  was  seen  that  the  bullet  had 

severed    the   spine   just   in    front  of   the    hind 

quarters,  and  quite  three  feet  to  the  left  of  my 

aim,  so  I  owed  this  accession  of  meat  and  a  fine 

pair  of  horns  to  good   luck   rather   than  good 

management.     On  nearing  the  wounded  animal 

to  give  him  his  coup  de  grdce^  he  showed  all  the 

spirit  his  species  is  credited  with  when  brought  to 

bay.     His  eye,  so  far  from  assuming   the  sad, 

plaintive  look  of  the  wounded  koodoo,  eland,  or 

steinbuck,  which  has  so  often  conjured  up  feelings 

of  pity  in  the  mind  of  the  sportsman  who  has 

evoked   it,  literally  gleamed  with   fire  and  rage 

as  he  shook  his  sharp  pointed  horns  violently 

and  grunted  with  anger.     But  he  was  paralysed, 

and  a  bullet  through  the  brain  soon  settled  his 




Next  day  some  Mankoya  women  were  en- 
countered, but  it  was  found  impossible  to  elicit 
any  information  from  them,  as  none  of  the 
boys  could  speak  their  language. 

While  travelling  that  afternoon,  the  native  path 
which  the  caravan  had  been  following  parted 
from  the  river  and  turned  south.  I  told 
Matlakala  that  I  intended  following  the  Niambe 
to  its  source,  and  would  sleep  there  that  night 
A  mile  and  a  half  further  up  the  source  was 

After  waiting  about  half  an  hour  and  see- 
ing no  signs  of  the  porters,  I  sent  one  of  the 
three  boys  who  were  with  me  to  hurry  them 
on,  but  he  did  not  return.  Some  time  after 
another  boy  was  sent,  who  came  back  shortly 
after  sunset  to  say  Matlakala  and  his  gang  had 
followed  the  path  in  spite  of  my  orders  to  the 

No  food,  no  pipe,  and  no  blankets  did  not  give 
promise  of  a  very  cheerful  night  Fortunately, 
two  matches  were  found  in  the  bottom  of  the 
cartridge  bag,  a  hut  of  boughs  was  constructed, 
and  a  large  fire  lighted.  So  I  might  have  been 
worse  off. 

At  about   nine   o'clock   the   boy    I    had   sent 

four    hours    earlier    led    the    caravan    in,    and 

Matlakala  was  given  to  understand  that  if  ever 

he  dared  disobey  me  again  he  should  return  at 

once  to  the  king  with  a  letter  explaining  that  he 



was  worse  than  useless,  and  that  I  preferred  to  do 
without  him. 

The  night  was  sufficiently  clear  to  allow  of  my 
taking  a  latitude,  which  showed  the  source  to  be 
in  15**  43'  i"  S.,  while  the  boiling-point  thermo- 
meters indicated  the  altitude  to  be  3860  feet 
above  the  sea-level,  or  120  feet  lower  than  the 
source  of  the  Lumbi. 

Two  days  later  we  reached  the  dry  bed  of  the 
M'pancha  river,  which  joins  with  the  Luyaba — 
also  dry — to  form  the  Njoko.  At  the  junction 
there  is  a  large  pool,  which  in  the  rainy  season 
becomes  quite  a  lake,  and  is  a  favourite  resort  of 

At  this  point  the  traveller  once  more  finds  him- 
self in  the  Matutela  country. 

With  the  intention  of  following  the  Njoko 
down  to  my  old  camp  at  its  confluence  with  the 
Rampungu,  a  start  was  made  down  stream  in  the 
early  afternoon. 

The  African  is  accustomed  to  cringe  to  every- 
one stronger  and  bully  anyone  or  anything 
weaker  than  himself.  In  consequence  of  some 
women  being  seen  carrying  baskets  filled  with 
wild  fruits,  four  of  my  noble  savages  rushed  after 
them,  depleted  them  of  part  of  their  gatherings, 
and  compelled  them  to  return  with  them  evidently 
for  the  purpose  of  further  plunder.  To  their 
disgust,  however,  they  were  compelled  to  return 
the  fruit,  and  the  women  were  allowed  to  leave. 



This  they  did  in  a  stolid,  matter  of  fact  manner, 
nor  did  they  appear  in  any  way  grateful. 

From  the  pool  alluded  to  above  to  the  mouth  of 
the  Njoko  there  is  a  constant  flow  of  water.  The 
valley  through  which  it  flows,  being  wide  and 
fertile,  has  become  an  important  cattle  district  for 
the  herds  of  Marotse  chiefs  whom  Liwanika  has 
placed  there  with  their  families  and  slaves.  Con- 
sequently there  is  a  scarcity  of  game  near  the 
river  in  its  upper  reaches.  A  small  herd  of 
wildebeest,  out  of  which  one  was  bagged,  were 
alone  encountered  during  the  journey  to  the 

On  the  17th  camp  had  been  formed  near  the 
village  of  a  chief  by  name  Serumpunta,  and  the 
next  morning,  hearing  the  natives  had  com,  I 
decided  not  to  make  a  "move  till  3  p.m.  Com 
was  brought,  but  the  prices  asked  were  exorbi- 
tant, so  I  told  the  women  to  take  it  away.  This 
they  did,  but  shortly  after  different  women 
returned  with  the  same  vessels.  Trade  then 
became  brisk,  prices  having  grown  moderate. 

That  morning  a  Matutela  blacksmith  at  work 

interested  me   much.     Sitting   on  a  stone  in  a 

bower  of  branches,  too  dark  to  be  put  on  record 

by  means  of  photography,  was  a  native  hard  at 

work  creating  draught  for  a  charcoal  fire.     One 

end  of  an  iron  cylinder  is  imbedded  in  the  coals, 

and  in  the  other  are  fixed  a  couple  of  bamboos, 

the  further  extremity  of  each  communicating  with 



a  separate  earthenware  vessel.  On  the  top  of 
each  of  these  a  piece  of  skin  brayed  to  the 
softness  of  wash-leather  is  tied,  the  skins  over 
the  neck  of  the  vessels  being  sufficiently  baggy 
to  allow  of  each  being  raised  and  lowered  in  turn 
by  means  of  a  stick  attached  to  the  centre  of 
each.  In  this  way  a  draught  is  created  quite  as 
effective  as  that  from  the  bellows  of  an  English 

The  smith  was  making  an  assegai  head  as, 
seated  in  front,  I  made  a  sketch  of  the  smithy 
and  its  occupants. 

A  hard  stone  served  as  anvil ;  the  hammers 
were  of  two  sizes,  but  similarly  proportioned, 
one  with  a  head  about  twelve  inches  long,  and 
the  other  half  that  size.  The  section  of  one 
end  of  the  head  was  circular,  the  other  elongated 
like  a  blunt  chisel.  A  pair  of  iron  tweezers 
about  thirty  inches  long,  with  which  the  heated 
metal  was  handled,  completed  the  tool-chest  of 
this  primitive  smith.  As  a  rule  a  native  African 
does  everything — except  when  excited  in  the 
chase — in  slow  time ;  it  was  therefore  quite  a 
treat  to  watch  this  boy  actively  shaping  his 
assegai-head  with  both  energy  and  precision. 

I  was  once  more  to  be  annoyed  by  the  wretched 
Matlakala  and  his  monkey  tricks.  When  the 
hour  for  departure  had  arrived,  three  boys  only 
were  present  in  camp.  Assuming  that  Matlakala 
was  in  the  village,  his  Mashikolumbwe  slave-boy 



was  sent  with  instructions  that  he  and  the 
boys  were  to  return  at  once.  Three-quarters 
of  an  hour  passed,  but  still  Matlakala  was  not 
forthcoming ;  so,  in  by  no  means  the  sweetest 
of  tempers,  I  repaired  to  the  village  myself,  for  I 
had  found  that  my  presence  at  times  supplied  an 
excellent  motive  power  to  the  inanimate  nigger. 
This  case  was  no  exception  to  the  rule.  My 
worthless  headman  was  engaged  in  gossip  and 
snuff-taking  with  a  group  of  natives,  and  taking 
life  quite  easily,  utterly  regardless  of  the  order 
he  had  received.  He  was  soon  set  in  motion, 
however,  though  that  day  he  succeeded  in  his 
object,  for  three  boys  were  nowhere  to  be  found, 
and  did  not  turn  up  till  after  dark.  He  looked 
rather  sick  when,  on  returning  a  short  time  later, 
he  was  ordered  to  give  to  the  chief  of  the  village 
a  letter  I  had  written  to  Liwanika,  with  instruc- 
tions to  forward  it  at  once  to  the  king. 

"  In  that  letter,"  I  added,  **  Liwanika  is  told 
of  your  behaviour.  I  tell  him,  too,  that  instead 
of  carrying  out  his  orders  and  being  a  help  to 
me  you  are  worse  than  useless,  and  that  I  am 
sending  you  back  to  him  as  soon  as  Sesheke 
is  reached." 

That  evening  I  shot  four  guinea-fowl,  so  re- 
serving one  for  myself,  called  the  three  boys  who 
had  alone  remained  in  camp,  gave  them  one 
each,  but  insisted  on  their  eating  them  in  my 

presence,  otherwise  their  chief  would  have  had 

1 86 


his  share  of  each  of  them.  This  I  have  found 
is  the  most  effective  way  of  rewarding  the 
faithful,  and  at  the  same  time,  by  deprivation, 
punishing  the  troublesome;  for  the  ** sjambok"  I 
do  not  approve  of,  unless  in  the  case  of  a  most 
persistent  and  incorrigible  scoundrel. 

The  next  morning  an  early  start  was  made, 
and  it  was  my  intention  to  be  even  with 
Matlakala  and  his  accessories  in  the  plot  of  the 
previous  afternoon. 

It  was  one  of  the  hottest  days  of  the  year,  so 
it  can  be  imagined  that  when  a  halt  was  made 
after  one  o'clock  the  boys  had  done  a  good 
day's  work,  as  they  were  kept  at  it  up  to  that 
time  with  only  two  or  three  short  half-hour  rests. 
One  little  episode  tickled  me  much.  Three 
boys  arrived  simply  pouring  with  perspira- 
tion, and  looking  as  if  they  had  had  quite 
enough  of  it.  They  put  down  their  loads  amid 
suppressed  whistles,  with  a  few  maiwe's  (an 
exclamation  of  astonishment)  thrown  in.  Then 
grinning  from  ear  to  ear  one  of  them  said  to 
his  fellows : 

**  This  is  all  because  of  yesterday." 
**  Yes,"  I  added,  '*it  is  all  because  of  yesterday." 
Matlakala,  however,  did  not  enjoy  the  joke ; 
he  quite  appreciated  the  fact  that  he  had  paid 
pretty  severely  for  his  little  prank — for  he  least 
of  all  liked  hard  work — and  consequently  sulked 
as  a  nigger  can. 



The  journey  was  continued  in  the  afternoon, 
and  on  the  following  day  my  old  camp  on  the 
Rampungu  was  reached  after  crossing  the  waggon- 
track  made  by  the  missionaries  in  their  journeys 
to  Borotse,  in  S.  LaL  i6**  31'. 

My  old  friends  of  the  village  near  which  my 
tent  was  pitched  treated  me  as  they  had  done 
two  months  before  with  great  hospitality,  and 
inundated  the  camp  with  milk, 

A  latitude  which  I  was  fortunately  able  to 
take  in  the  evening  agreeably  surprised  and 
encouraged  me,  as  I  found,  latitudinally-speaking, 
no  correction  had  to  be  made  in  my  daily  route 
sketches,  and  only  a  very  slight  correction  longi- 
tudinally. As  it  is  very  much  more  difficult  to 
estimate  both  distance  and  direction  while  follow- 
ing the  bends  of  a  river  in  a  canoe  than  when 
leading  a  caravan  at  one's  own  pace,  the  river 
route  was  corrected  to  the  land  route  instead 
of  taking  the  mean.  By  this  method,  assuming 
Livingstone's  Zambezi- Kwando  confluence  and 
my  own  to  be  similarly  placed,  his  and  my 
longitude  of  Lialui  were  only  about  three  miles 
apart,  his  being  the  more  eastern.  Having 
regard  to  the  difficulty  of  determining  longitudes 
accurately  in  Central  Africa,  through  being  de- 
pendent for  Greenwich  time  on  a  chronometer 
which  has  travelled  many  hundred  miles  under 
most  trying  and  varied  conditions,  I  felt  re- 
warded for  the  constant  care  taken  to  render 
my  work  as  accurate  as  possible. 



On  the  24th  I  left  the  Njoko  and  at  midday 
reached  the  Loanje,  a  sluggish  river  about  sixty 
miles  long,  which  flows  into  the  Zambezi  a  few 
miles  to  the  east  of  Sesheke,  which  place  was 
reached  on  the  28th  with  an  average  of  eighteen 
miles  a  day  from  the  Rampungu  camp. 

There  was  trouble  at  Sesheke  at  that  time. 
The  young  Mokwai,  who  was  always  trying  to 
impress  M.  Goy  with  an  idea  of  her  power  and 
importance,  had  given  the  missionary  extreme 
annoyance  by  sending  for  his  head  boy  with- 
out so  much  as  asking  the  permission  of  his 
master,  and  compelling  him  to  help  in  the 
construction  of  a  house  which  she  was  building 
for  herself;  for  she  had  come  to  the  conclusion 
that  as  her  uncle  Liwanika,  his  son  Latia,  and 
her  mother  the  Mokwai  Nalolo  lived  in  houses 
such  as  white  men  use,  a  round  native  hut  was 
not  good  enough  for  the  Mokwai  of  Sesheke. 
This  put  the  good  man  to  much  inconvenience, 
and  he  determined  that  the  establishment  of 
such  a  precedent  could  not  be  acquiesced  in  with- 
out protest.  In  consequence  he  rated  the  lady 
severely  for  her  conduct,  disputed  her  right  to 
interfere  with  servants  given  to  him  by  the 
king,  and  claimed  that  even  if  such  right  existed 
the  least  she  could  do  would  be  to  send  a 
message  to  him  first.  The  young  woman  tried 
to   ride  the  high  horse,  and  both  she  and  her 

husband  became  abusive  and  left. 



That  night  a  town  crier  was  to  be  heard 
warning  the  villagers  at  the  top  of  his  voice 
that  anyone  who  was  caught  visiting  the  mission 
station  would  be  put  into  the  river.  Thus  were 
things  during  my  second  visit  to  Sesheke,  and 
I  as  a  friend  of  M.  Goy  was  not  treated  to  the 
pleasing  smiles  and  willing  consideration  that 
this  young  lady  was  wont  to  lavish  on  me  during 
my  previous  sojourn  near  her  town. 

At  Sesheke  the  system  of  rule  in  Liwanika's 
empire  is  carried  out  to  the  letter  by  this  exacting 
young  woman.  As  previously  stated,  all  pure- 
blooded  Marotse  are  chiefs — everyone  else  is  a 
slave,  and  as  such  is  compelled  to  work  for  and 
obey  every  wish  of  his  owner  without  remuner- 
ation. Under  this  system  the  Mokwai  not  only 
has  the  right  to  compel  her  own  slaves  to  till  her 
fields  and  do  any  other  work  or  errand  her  sweet 
will  imposes  on  them,  but  as  ruler  can  also  order 
her  chiefs  to  provide  as  much  labour  as  she 
wishes,  which  she  does  to  the  full,  and  even  the 
wives  of  her  chiefs  are  ** fallen  in'*  for  labour  in 
the  fields.  In  fact  she  refused  exemption  even 
to  her  husband's  mother,  though  in  such  countries 
mothers-in-law  have  not  the  power  to  interfere 
and  cause  friction  in  their  sons'  domestic  circles ! 
In  these  circumstances  it  is  not  surprising  that 
the  Mokwai  of  Sesheke  owns  broad  acres  of 
mealies  and  other  corn,  for  all  available  women 
are  compelled  to  break  the  ground  and  sow  the 



com  of  their  chieftainess  first,  and  not  till  that  is 
done  are  they  at  liberty  to  do  likewise  in  the 
family  fields. 

Chiefs  superintend  the  work  as  task-masters, 
and  woe  betide  the  unfortunate  woman  who  is 
considered  to  shirk  her  work  or  idle  her  time 
in  the  eyes  of  her  overseer.  The  principal 
method  of  punishment  is  strangling  in  such 
cases.  The  man  throws  the  unfortunate  woman 
down  and  with  both  thumbs  presses  on  the 
windpipe  until  his  victim  is  all  but  suffocated, 
when  he  relaxes  his  hold  and  she  is  left  to 
recover  as  best  she  can :  occasionally,  as  can  be 
imagined,  the  strangling  is  overdone,  and  the 
woman  succumbs  to  this  rough  treatment.  Such, 
however,  is  not  the  wish  or  object  of  the 
chastiser,  for  women  are  useful  in  Central  Africa 
as  beasts  of  burden  and  labourers  generally; 
besides,  she  is  sometimes  worth  quite  a  lot  of 
cows,  and  can  ill  be  spared  until  she  fades  with 
increasing  years  into  a  shrivelled -up,  wrinkled 
and  useless  old  hag,  worthless  either  as  wife 
or  labourer,  and  by  no  means  ornamental.  Poor 
creatures !  it  cannot  be  said  in  these  dark  places 
of  the  earth  that  "woman  rules  the  world." 

During  the  visit  under  discussion  the  gardens 

of   the    Mokwai    were    being    tilled    for    many 

hundred  yards  round  the  village.     One  morning 

the  shrieks  and  yells  of  a  poor  woman,  a  short 

silence,   and   then   sobs   and   whining  instanced 



what  has  just  been  described.     The  facts  of  this 
case  are  thus. 

A  superintending  chief  gave  out  that  a  certain 
plot  must  be  finished  that  day  before  the  women 
under  his  charge  were  dismissed  from  their  work. 

"  But  this  is  a  large  piece/'  said  one  who  was 
the  wife  of  the  man  himself. 

"  You  dare  to  make  me  an  answer !"  was  the 
angry  rejoinder ;  and  the  noble  fellow  threw  the 
woman  down  and  meted  out  to  her  the  usual 

The  people  in  addition  to  forced  labour  are 
expected  to  employ  part  of  their  leisure  time  in 
preparing  skins,  making  **karosses,"  or  doing 
other  handiwork  to  be  laid  at  the  feet  of  the 
capricious  young  person  who  governs  them.  A 
kaross,  say,  is  completed  and  has  probably  taken 
weeks  to  bray  and  stitch.  Permission  is  craved 
and  of  course  granted  to  present  the  same  to 
her  royal  highness.  The  subject  creeps  into 
the  compound,  where  he  kneels  and  claps  his 

"  You  may  approach,"  says  she ;  and  he  draws 
near  with  bended  knee  and  rounded  back  till 
within  a  couple  of  paces  of  the  chieftainess. 
Down  on  his  knees  once  more  he  claps  his  hands 

The  kaross  is  handed  to  the  lady,  who  examines 

it  closely,  after  the  manner  of  her  fairer  sisters  at 

a  Bond  Street  drapery. 




'*  I  thank  you.  The  work  is  well  done "  (if 
such  is  the  case),  is  the  short  acknowledgment 
which  represents  the  sum  total  of  the  royal 
remuneration.  More  clapping  of  hands,  with 
profuse  thanks  for  the  gracious  acceptation  of  the 
present,  and  the  donor  withdraws  with  the  same 
cringing  mien,  quite  content  with  himself  and  his 

It  is  a  curious  fact  that  the  African  scarcely 
knows  how  to  thank  his  chief  enough  for  a 
favour  or  the  most  trifling  gift,  while,  as  a 
rule,  he  barely  thanks  the  white  man  who 
makes  him  a  present,  and  if  too  lavishly  treated 
looks  upon  his  benefactor  as  a  fool  for  his  pains 
and  expects  more  next  time. 

During  one  of  the  many  interesting  conversa- 
tions I  had  with  my  good  friend,  M.  Goy,  he 
related  the  unhappy  failure  of  two  would-be 
predecessors  in  the  mission  field  of  the  Upper 
Zambezi,  which  occurred  some  years  before  M. 
Coillard  successfully  commenced  his  work  among 
the  Marotse  in  1885. 

Messrs.  Elmore  and  Price,  English  mission- 
aries, had  arrived  with  their  waggons  at  the 
Zambezi,  and  with  them  their  wives  and  families. 
The  inhabitants  of  a  village  on  the  south  bank 
ostensibly  received  them  well,  bringing  in 
presents  of  food.  But  the  treacherous  savages 
had  put  poison  in  it,  after  partaking  of  which  all 
succumbed  but  Mr.  Price,  who  recovered.  The 
o  193 


unfortunate  gentleman  made  his  escape  and 
retraced  his  steps  on  foot.  After  some  days  he 
was  seen  approaching  by  some  fellow  mission- 
aries who  were  trekking  through  the  desert  to  . 
join  their  unfortunate  colleagues  in  front.  At 
first  they  failed  to  recognise  their  friend,  who 
presented  a  sorry  spectacle  —  naked  and  half 
senseless  from  privation  and  want  of  food.  Mr. 
Price  recovered  under  their  care,  and  all  returned 
to  the  colony. 

On  November  8th  I  bade  farewell  to  M.  and 
Mdme.  Goy,  and  left  Sesheke  for  Kazungula. 
Sending  all  my  effects,  save  immediate  neces- 
saries, by  river,  I  elected  to  travel  by  land  myself, 
so  as  to  be  able  to  furnish  a  check  on  my 
previous  river  route. 

Lions  were  to  be  heard  almost  nightly  on  the 
flats  between  the  two  places,  but  during  the  day 
they  sleep  in  the  long  reeds  which  fringe  the 
rivers.  The  entrails  with  part  of  the  meat  of 
a  zebra  were  left  as  a  bait  one  night,  but  failed 
to  attract  any  forager.  While  travelling  much 
game  was  seen,  and  sufficient  shot  for  larder 
purposes.  One  herd  of  lechwe,  which  must  have 
been  quite  300  strong,  allowed  me  to  photograph 
them,  though  the  field  of  the  camera  would  only 
cover  about  a  third  of  their  number. 

On  the  nth  I  was  encamped  a  few  miles 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Kasaia  river.  On  the 
opposite  bank  a   crocodile  was  basking   in   the 



sun,  and  offered  an  easy  shot  at  the  vertebrae  in 
front  of  the  shoulder.  The  bullet  took  effect 
and  killed  the  brute  on  the  spot.  A  boy  was 
sent  up  stream  to  find  a  ford,  cross,  and  remove 
the  belly  skin,  but  before  he  reached  his  destina- 
tion the  slight  muscular  quiver,  which  continues 
in  the  case  of  crocodiles  for  some  time  after  death, 
caused  the  body  to  slip  down  the  steep  bank,  on 
the  very  edge  of  which  it  lay,  and  remain  log- 
like in  about  two  feet  of  water.  However,  the 
boy  discovered  a  nest  where  the  animal  had 
been,  from  which  he  abstracted  no  less  than  fifty- 
eight  eggs.  These  eggs  are  about  the  same 
shape  and  size  as  the  goose  egg,  and  in  the 
present  case  incubation  was  in  progress  in  every 
stage,  many  of  them  containing  live  crocodiles 
fully  formed.  They  were  all  broken  but  four, 
which  were  saved  for  M.  J  alia,  who  had 
previously  expressed  a  wish  to  procure  some 
as  specimens.  Another  nest,  containing  nearly 
forty  eggs,  was  unearthed  a  few  yards  along  the 
bank,  so  that  the  Kasaia  was  deprived  that  after- 
noon of  nearly  loo  of  these  loathsome  reptiles. 
I  do  not  know  whether  it  is  an  established  fact 
that  crocodiles  feed  on  their  own  young,  but 
since  few  can  be  destroyed  by  other  creatures,  it 
is  to  be  presumed  their  marvellous  reproductive 
abilities  are  counterbalanced  by  their  not  too 
discriminating  appetites. 

The    mosquitoes  were   very   troublesome    on 



these  flats,  and  a  few  of  the  number  that  buzzed 
around  my  net  generally  found  their  way  inside 
by  some  means  or  other  before  the  night  was 
over.  On  the  13th  Kazungula  was  reached. 
M.  and  Mdme.  Jalla  very  kindly  put  a  room  at 
my  disposal,  and  I  enjoyed  the  luxury  of  a  bed 
for  a  few  nights. 

It  was  not  till  the  20th  that  I  succeeded  in 
getting  enough  boys  together  willing  to  carry 
my  immediate  necessaries  znd  the  Victoria  Falls 
to  Pendamatenka,  where  my  cart  and  oxen 
remained  in  charge  of  Mr.  Bagley,  trader,  farmer, 
and  field-comet 

A  man,  by  name  Frederick  Hurlestone,  who 
had  arrived  at  the  Zambezi  for  the  purpose 
of  buying  cattle  for  a  Bulawayo  trader,  had 
mentioned  his  intention  of  returning  to  Penda- 
matenka vid  the  falls,  so  we  arranged  to  travel 
thus  far  together.  Hurlestone  had  been  unfor- 
tunate in  his  attempts  to  procure  cattle,  and — 
poor  fellow ! — was  still  more  unfortunate  in  being 
cut  off  and  murdered  by  the  Matabele  a  few 
months  later.  We  travelled  by  the  south  bank 
as  far  as  the  falls,  for  the  most  part  over  stony, 
broken  ground. 

My  companion  used  to  amuse  me  by  dwelling 

on  my  "  marvellous  luck  '*  in  falling  in  with  game 

as    compared    with   his    own    **bad    luck."     In 

reality  he  was  wont  to  saunter  along  with  his  eyes 

on  the  ground,  and  very  naturally  scarce  ever 



saw  game,  much  less  killed  anything ;  but  after  all 
my  *'luck"  was  not  very  abnormal,  as  it  only 
.  brought  me  a  pallah,  a  grysbuck,  a  crocodile, 
and  a  jackal. 

On  the  morning  of  the  22nd  we  reached  the 
falls,  and  in  spite  of  all  others  have  said  about 
this  imposing  sight,  I  was,  if  anything,  more 
impressed  by  the  picturesque  grandeur  of  the 
sight  than  I  had  expected  to  be. 

A  mile  of  river  falls  over  a  perpendicular 
precipice  360  feet  high — just  about  twice  the 
height  of  Niagara.  Immediately  in  front  a 
similar  precipice,  covered  with  rich  vegetation, 
and  only  about  200  feet  from  it,  bars  the  way  and 
forces  the  torrent  along  the  base  of  the  water- 
fall for  about  two-thirds  of  its  front  from  the 
south  bank,  and  for  the  other  third  in  an  opposite 
direction  from  the  north  bank.  Here  a  fissure  in 
the  rock  provides  a  means  of  escape  for  the 
troubled  waters,  which  meet  and  gurgle  over 
a  rocky  bed  in  their  onward  course.  This  cafion 
breaks  off  at  an  angle  of  about  thirty  degrees, 
and  at  different  points  turns  sharply  to  right 
or  left,  finally  opening  out,  the  river  settling 
down  to  a  normal  flow  once  more. 

At  the  time  I  saw  Mosiotunya,  as  the  natives 
call  the  Victoria  Falls,  the  water  was  at  its  lowest, 
and  by  watching  my  opportunity  I  was  able  to 
get  a  series  of  tolerably  good  photographs,  as 
a  favourable   gust  of  wind   would   occasionally 



blow  away   the  spray   from  each   section  as    I 
passed  along  the  precipice  in  front 

Towards  the  end  of  the  rainy  season  a  solid 
volume  of  water  eight  or  nine  feet  deep  must 
be  precipitated  into  the  depths  below.  The  mist 
under  such  conditions  is  of  course  such  as  to 
make  photography  impossible  and  a  view  difficult. 
Livingstone  s  description  and  measurements  of 
the  falls  are  reliable,  complete,  and  by  no  means 
exaggerated,  so  it  is  unnecessary  here  to  give 
more  than  the  above  cursory  account  of  this 
grand  and  unique  piece  of  natural  scenery,  which 
to  be  more  fully  appreciated  must  be  seen. 

On  the  same  evening  a  start  was  made  south- 
wards over  the  stony,  bush-covered  undulations 
which  characterise  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Victoria  Falls. 

On  the  following  evening  an  experience 
occurred  which  was  annoying  to  the  sportsman 
though  interesting  to  the  naturalist 

There  was  no  meat  in  the  larder,  and  game 
was  by  no  means  plentiful  in  the  district  My 
attention  was  drawn  to  a  small  herd  of  water- 
buck  grazing  in  a  narrow  open  valley  about  300 
yards  off.  The  wind  was  right,  and  the  covert 
skirting  the  open  ground  on  either  side  made 
approach  to  within  100  yards  almost  a  certainty 
in  ordinary  circumstances. 

I    was  getting  on  nicely,  and  almost   within 

shooting  distance,  when  a  couple  of  plovers  took 



exception  to  my  movements,  showing  their  dis- 
approbation by  circling  overhead  and  screeching 
loudly.  The  game  looked  up,  and  stared  intently 
in  all  directions  in  their  anxiety  to  locate  the 
approaching  danger.  One  of  the  plovers  con- 
tinued his  noisy  screeches  above  while  the  other 
flew  to  the  game,  and  then  to  and  fro  be- 
tween the  herd  and  his  mate.  This  manoeuvre 
seemed  to  satisfy  them  as  to  the  position  of 
the  hidden  enemy  ;  they  turned,  cantered  another 
300  yards  further  up  the  valley,  and  settled 
down  once  more.  Again  I  advanced,  and  once 
more  when  almost  within  range  these  little  busy- 
bodies  "gave  me  away"  in  the  same  manner. 
This  time  the  herd  seemed  to  come  to  the 
conclusion  that  things  looked  somewhat  sus- 
picious, for  they  again  retired,  settled  down  on 
the  far  side  of  the  valley,  and,  while  the  remain- 
der continued  their  evening  feed,  a  bull  posted 
himself  on  a  rising  mound,  partially  concealed 
by  a  bush,  and  acted  as  sentry  to  his  com- 

Another  attempted  approach  was  noticed  by 
the  antelope  s  quick  eye,  and  away  they  all  went 
— this  time  in  real  earnest 

The  next  day  my  companion  had  another  piece 

of  "bad  luck."     In  his  anxiety  to  get  a  shot  he 

walked   on   about    400    yards   in   advance,    but, 

having  his  eyes  on  the  ground  as  usual,  failed 

to  see   two  sable   antelope  grazing  on   the   far 



edge  of  a  plain  several  hundred  yards  away. 
They  were  within  range  of  sight  for  fully  five 
minutes,  but  fortunately  either  did  not  see 
him  or  considered  him  too  far  away  to  be  of 

Halting  the  boys,  I  crawled  about  500  yards 
on  my  stomach  unnoticed,  thus  reaching  an  ant- 
heap  which  was  the  last  piece  of  covert  between 
the   game   and  myself.      Waiting  till  they  had 
grazed  their  way  among  the  scattered  bush  that- 
fringed  the  plain,  another  crawl  was  commenced. 
At  a  time  when  they  were  out  of  sight,  so  far  as 
I  was  concerned,  they  must  have  caught  a  glimpse 
of  me,  for  suddenly  they  were  to  be  seen  canter- 
ing away  through  the  bush.     A  long  steep  hill 
lay  in  the  background,  and  another  of  gentler 
slope  met  it  at  right  angles  on  the  left.     The 
conclusion  naturally  to  be  arrived   at  was  that 
they  would  veer  round,  skirt  the  steep  hill,  and 
make  for  the  pass  between  the  two.     In  anticipa- 
tion of  this  I  drew  a  "bee-line"  and  ran  as  hard 
as  possible  for  this  point.     When  about  250  yards 
away  a  bull  was  to  be  seen  standing  on  the  alert, 
broadside  on  and  part  way  up  the  slope.     It  was 
the   last   chance,  so   taking  a  Mannlicher  from 
Muliphi  I  fired  well  forward.      So  far  as  could 
be  judged  at  that  distance,  he  seemed  to  go  away 
lame  in  front.    Seizing  the  i6-bore  I  put  my  best 
leg  forward,  got  on  the  spoor  and  followed  him 

up.    After  going  some  little  distance  the  wounded 



animal  rose  in  front  and  recommenced  his  retreat 
A  bullet  in  his  hind-quarters,  high  up,  brought 
him   to   the   ground  paralysed   behind.      Before 
giving   him    his  coup   de  grace  I   took   a   snap- 
shot of  him   six  feet   off,  and  although   unable 
to    rise    he    had    all    the   appearance   of    being 
unwounded.      The     poor    brute,    powerless    to 
rise,  shook   his  long,   sharp  horns  ominously  in 
token  of  what  he  would  like  to  have  done  but 
could   not.      The   horns   turned   out   to   be   ex- 
ceptionally good,  measuring  forty   inches  along 
the  curve  from  base  to   tip.      The    Mannlicher 
bullet  had  passed  through  shoulders  and   lungs. 
On  the  24th  we  had  travelled  far  into  the  night 
for  want  of  water.     All  the  boys  but  two  failed  to 
turn  up  at  the  halting-place,  so  we  had  to  spend 
an  uncomfortable  night  without  blankets,  though, 
fortunately,  not  without  food.     However,  except 
two,  they  came  into  camp  before  sunrise.     With 
the  missing  ones  was  the  tent,  also  a  few  odds 
and   ends.      Boys  sent  back   on    the   spoor  re- 
turned   with    the    news    that    the    absent    ones 
had  got  on  to  the  wrong  track  during  the  night, 
so  it  was  obvious   they   had   not  deserted   and 
would,    in    all    probability,    find    their    way    to 
Pendamatenka.      A  warthog  I  shot  that  morn- 
ing gave  us  enough  meat,  with  what  remained 
of  the   sable   antelope,  for  another   three   days, 
which    was   fortunate,    for   on   reaching    Penda- 
matenka on  the  27th  it  was  found  that  so  bad 



which  of  recent  years  has  sprung  up  among  and 
around  some  half-dozen  of  these  trees  on  the 
north  bank. 

By  the  principle  of  triangulation  I  measured 
the  river  in  the  dry  season,  making  it  458  yards 
in  width  at  the  narrowest  place,  where  the  water 
is  also  a  considerable  depth.  Towards  the  end 
of  the  wet  season  the  banks  are  quite  another 
100  yards  further  apart,  and  the  water-level 
rather  more  than  twenty  feet  higher. 



M  J  ALL  A  having  kindly  consented  to 
•  allow  my  oxen  to  run  with  his,  I  made 
arrangements  with  Latia  to  cross  them  to  the 
north  bank. 

With  the  native  cattle  there  is  little  trouble  in 
taking  a  herd  from  bank  to  bank.  A  canoe  first 
sets  off  and  takes  up  a  position  about  fifty  yards 
from  the  bank.  The  herd  is  then  driven  into  the 
water,  and  so  long  as  one  or  two  oxen  take  the 
lead,  which  is  almost  invariably  the  case,  the 
remainder  are  easily  persuaded  to  follow.  The 
canoe  is  then  paddled  forward,  while  one  or  two 
more  bring  up  the  rear  so  as  to  head  stragglers 
and  keep  the  herd  together. 

With  South  African  cattle  such  as  my  own 
there  is  more  difficulty.  Many  of  them  have 
never  even  seen  a  river  worthy  the  name,  and 
naturally  dread  the  ordeal  of  facing  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  of  deep  water.  In  such  cases  each  ox  is 
secured  with  a  riem  passed  over  the  horns.  A 
boy  sitting  in  the  centre  of  a  canoe  holds  on  to 
the  other  end,  while  the  beast  is  driven,  some- 
times with  much  difficulty,  into  deep  water.     He 

is  then  drawn  to  the  side  of  the  canoe,  and  his 



head  held  and  secured  so  as  to  render  his 
struggles  powerless  to  upset  the  unstable  craft, 
and  in  this  position  he  remains  until  his  feet 
strike  the  shallows  of  the  opposite  bank.  Oc- 
casionally a  crocodile,  more  venturesome  than 
his  fellows,  deems  the  opportunity  too  tempting 
to  be  wasted,  but  in  the  vast  majority  of  cases  no 
mishap  occurs. 

In  this  manner  my  six  oxen  were  landed  on 
the  north  bank,  the  crossing  of  the  last  one  only 
giving  me  any  anxiety ;  for  a  crocodile  followed 
within  a  couple  of  yards  of  the  ox's  heels  for 
quite  a  hundred  yards,  but  did  not  seem  to 
grasp  the  fact  that  he  had  quite  twenty  to  one 
the  best  of  it,  for  it  is  improbable  that  in  the 
struggle  which  would  have  followed  an  attack 
he  would  have  been  compelled  to  show  himself 
above  water,  and  thus  become  vulnerable.  How 
fortunate  it  is  that  animals  and  niggers,  not 
realising  their  power,  so  seldom  attempt  to  exert 
it!  As  the  canoe  approached  the  bank  the 
crocodile  turned  about  and  left  us. 

I  now  set  about  to  make  arrangements  for  an 

expedition    through    the    Matoka    country   into 

Mashikolumbwe-land.     My  wish  was    to   travel 

in  a  direction  slightly  east  of  north  until  I  struck 

the  Kafukwe  river,  to  follow  that  river  to  about 

14°  30''  S.  Lat.,  then  turn  west  and  follow  the 

Luompa  and  Luena  to  the  Zambezi,  thence  to 

Lialui  once  more. 



With  this  object  in  view  I  tried  in  vain  to 
get  the  requisite  number  of  porters  together 
but,  do  what  I  would,  eight  was  the  sum  total 
who  were  professedly  willing  to  accompany  me. 
A  further  week's  delay  did  not  add  one  to  this 
number,  so  I  decided  to  proceed  with  half  my 
loads  to  Botoka,  send  back  for  the  remainder 
of  my  goods,  and  in  the  meantime  endeavour 
to  get  together  my  caravan.  The  loads  were 
arranged  and  allotted,  and  I  gave  the  order  to 
start,  but  not  a  move  could  I  get  out  of  one  of 
the  scheming  rascals  I  had  engaged.  The  fact 
was,  they  never  had  the  smallest  intention  of 
leaving  Kazungula,  but  had  entered  my  service 
with  the  object  of  being  fed  so  long  as  I  found 
it  impossible  to  move !  Needless  to  say,  the 
whole  eight  of  them  very  shortly  left  in  a  hurry. 
My  only  hope  now  was  to  wait  for  Latia,  who 
had  gone  to  Lialui  on  a  visit  to  his  father.  He, 
I  trusted,  would  supply  me  with  the  boys  I 

But  now  another  and  more  serious   obstacle 

rose    unexpectedly.       I    suddenly   found    myself 

knocked   over   with   dysentery,  that   worst   and 

most  pertinacious  of  all  African   diseases.      In 

a  week    I    was   reduced   to   little   more   than  a 

skeleton.     I  looked  miserable  and  felt  miserable, 

for  I   had  only  accomplished  half  of  the  work 

I  had  set  my  mind  on,  and  semi-success  always 

appears  to  me  closely  allied  to  defeat     On  the 



9th  I  took  to  my  bed — a  cork  mattress  on  the 
top  of  bales  and  boxes.  Rice,  porridge,  and 
other  farinaceous  food,  with  what  little  milk 
Mdme.  Jalla  could  spare  me  (meat,  of  course, 
is  fatal),  Dover's  powders,  bismuth,  and  finally 
Warburg's  tincture  checked  the  disease,  so  that 
I  was  able  to  get  up  for  a  few  hours  on  the 
1 2th.  However,  I  was  so  weak  that  I  found  it 
difficult  to  walk  a  hundred  yards  without  resting. 

At  this  stage  boys  once  more  came  in  and 
offered  to  accompany  me,  probably  thinking  I 
would  not  be  able  to  go  far.  This  change  of 
front  seemed  strange  to  me,  so  to  each  boy  I 
put  the  same  question,  and  each  boy  gave  me 
a  similar  answer. 

**Are  you  willing  to  accompany  me  into  the 
Mashikolumbwe  or  any  other  country  I  wish 
to  visit  during  the  next  four  months  ?  " 

"Yes,  N'tate." 

**And  you  quite  understand  that  if  you  come 
with  me  you  will  get  no  pay  unless  you  return 
with  me  to  Kazungula  ? " 

"Yes,  N'tate." 

And  so  by  the  17th  I  had  got  together  the 
requisite  number  of  porters,  and  had  gained 
strength  so  satisfactorily  as  to  feel  that  I  could 
travel  by  easy  stages. 

M.  Coillard  had  arrived  from  Lialui  en  route 

for  Europe.     For  some  months  he  had  suffered 

severely  and  patiently  from  some  internal  com- 



plaint  he  had  been  unable  to  diagnose  or  relieve. 
He  had,  therefore,  wisely  decided  to  accompany 
M.  and  Mdme.  Jalla,  who  were  about  to  enjoy 
European  leave  after  ten  years'  life  on  the 

Kindness  and  sympathy  itself,  M.  Coillard 
tried  to  dissuade  me  from  proceeding  north,  and 
pointed  out  that  my  duty  to  myself  demanded 
my  return  home,  and  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances  I  might  have  taken  his  kind  advice. 
However,  in  spite  of  my  weakness,  I  had  no 
feeling  or  presentiment  of  an  untimely  end,  and 
I  was  particularly  anxious  not  to  forego  what  I 
anticipated  would  be  the  most  interesting  half 
of  my  expedition.  Thus,  as  is  the  way  with 
most  of  us,  my  mind  conjured  up  arguments 
favourable  to  my  wishes. 

**  My  oxen  are  weak,  and  I  doubt  if  they 
could  take  me  through  the  desert. 

**  To  the  north  I  must  strike  high  ground, 
can  travel  slowly  if  necessary,  and  will  have  a 
better  chance  of  picking  up  strength  than  the 
hard  work  of  travelling  through  the  Kalahari 
would  allow." 

And  so  on  the   17th,  the  day  MM.   Coillard 

and  Jalla  trekked  south,   I   went  north,   feeling 

anxious  lest  the  former  should  succumb  to  the 

discomfort  and  hardship  of  the  desert  journey, 

while  they,  as  I  afterwards  found,  feared  I  had 

seen  home  for  the  last  time, 
p  209 


That  day  I  managed  to  march  eleven  miles, 
and  camped  near  a  pool  in  the  bed  of  a  small 
stream,  feeling  quite  pleased  with  myself,  as  I  was 
in  no  way  exhausted. 

The  country  I  had  travelled  through  was 
extremely  pleasant  at  that,  the  spring  season. 
About  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  river  the  first 
of  a  series  of  red  sand  undulations  is  reached. 
The  trees  and  bush  are  clothed  with  those  fresh, 
delicate  tints  of  green  which,  under  a  tropical  sun, 
so  soon  become  sombre  and  dull.  Here  and  there 
a  shrub  still  further  brightens  the  foliage  with  its 
bursting  flower  buds  of  pink  or  white  or  yellow, 
and  among  the  fresh  spring  grass,  too,  occasional 
flowers  lend  additional  effect  to  the  cheerful 
colouring  of  Nature's  art.  How  strikingly 
superior  is  the  power  of  Nature  to  the  effort  of 
man  in  this  blending  of  colour!  How  oft  do 
we  see  two  colours,  with  which  the  atrocious  taste 
of  some  will  endeavour  to  beautify  their  person, 
in  such  harsh  and  cruel  contrast  that  each  makes 
the  other  hideous,  while,  when  handled  by  Nature, 
the  two  live  side  by  side  in  sympathetic  beauty ! 

After  marching  four  miles  on  the  following 
morning  I  reached  mopani  flats,  which,  owing 
to  the  rains,  were  ankle-deep  in  water.  After 
tramping  seven  miles  through  these  swamps  the 
south  bank  of  the  Umgwezi  river  was  struck. 
This  river  is  of  a  different  character  to  such 
rivers  as  the  Njoko,  Lui,  and  Lumbi,  and  narrowly 



resembles  the  great  majority  of  South  African 
streams.  The  high,  clean-cut  banks  and  sandy 
bed,  growing  tall  reeds,  are  at  most  times  water- 
less, except  for  pools  which  occur  at  intervals, 
but  after  heavy  rains  lead  large  volumes  of  water 
from  the  high  plateau  at  the  source  to  the  big 
river  which  it  helps  to  feed. 

When  I  reached  the  Umgwezi  a  strong  stream 
washed  both  banks,  travelling  at  the  rate  of  about 
five  miles  an  hour,  which  I  afterwards  found  to 
be  five  feet  deep  at  the  ford. 

The  tent  was  pitched  on  a  dry  mound  and  I 
rested  all  the  afternoon,  not  considering  it  wise  to 
do  more  than  ten  miles  or  so  a  day  until  my 
strength  had  returned.  Here  two  of  the  boys 
told  me  the  next  morning  that  they  were  too 
sick  to  go  on  that  day.  I  saw  they  had  fever — 
one  of  them,  a  youngster  of  about  sixteen,  badly. 
Rather  a  bad  beginning!  I  thought  it  best  to 
send  them  both  back  to  Kazungula,  and  did  so, 
much  to  the  disappointment  of  the  younger  one, 
who  had  evidently  set  his  mind  on  becoming  the 
possessor  of  a  blanket  and  sitziba.  In  their 
places  I  engaged  two  boys  from  a  small  village 
near  the  river  to  accompany  me  in  the  dual 
capacity  of  guide  and  carrier  to  the  next  district. 
I  always  made  a  point  when  possible  of  having 
one  or  two  local  boys  present,  from  whom  I 
could  get  the  names  of  rivers  and  places  and 
obtain  other  geographical  information. 



After  the  boys  had  tried  to  find  a  ford  for 
some  little  time,  they  discovered  a  place  where  it 
was  just  possible  to  cross  without  the  necessity 
of  swimming,  the  water  in  the  deepest  place 
being  just  up  to  the  chin.  Subsequently  every- 
thing was  landed  on  the  north  bank  without 
mishap,  and  as  soon  as  I  had  dressed,  the  caravan 
once  more  started  forward.  I  had  not  gone  more 
than  a  mile  and  a  half  when  a  wildebeest  bull 
was  disturbed,  and  cantering  off  for  about  300 
yards  stood  still.  Following  under  cover  of 
isolated  bushes  I  got  a  glimpse  of  his  head  and 
neck  between  two  trees,  but  the  bullet  entered 
the  neck  just  in  front  of  the  shoulder  and  he 
went  away,  myself  and  boys  following  on  the 
blood  spoor.  A  few  hundred  yards  and  a  small 
patch  of  bush  was  reached,  from  behind  which 
the  wounded  animal  turned  in  flight.  Just 
as  he  wheeled  round  a  bullet  from  the  right 
struck  him  low  in  the  shoulder,  and  immediately 
after  one  from  the  left  entered  his  quarters — ten 
yards  further  and  down  he  came.  The  boys 
thoroughly  appreciated  a  good  round  meal,  as 
probably  none  of  them  had  eaten  meat  for  some 

After  I  had  given  them  time  to  cut  up  the 
remainder  of  the  carcase,  another  start  was  made, 
still  through  swamps ;  but  after  going  a  further 
three  and  a  half  miles  camp  was  pitched,  as  the 
swamps  or  the  crossing  of  the  river. had  brought 



on  a  relapse  of  my  illness,  and  I  felt  somewhat 
exhausted.  In  the  meantime  the  smaller  boy 
I  had  sent  back  rejoined  the  caravan,  so  I 
allowed  him  to  remain. 

The  next  morning,  though  feeling  weak,  I 
realised  that  the  sooner  I  got  away  from  swamps 
and  wet  feet  the  better  for  my  chances  of  regain- 
ing strength,  so  moved  forward  at  6.30  a.m. 
After  crossing  the  Nangombe,  a  small  tributary 
of  the  Umgwezi,  some  twenty  feet  wide  and  three 
feet  deep,  I  was  glad  to  see  rising  ground  a  few 
miles  to  the  north,  and  continued  the  journey 
more  cheerfully. 

A  serval  sprang  out  from  the  grass  in  a 
small  open  plain  and  commenced  a  retreat,  but 
foolishly  half  turned  round  and  stood  about  sixty 
yards  away.  He  tried  to  escape  with  a  broken 
shoulder,  but  was  easily  overtaken,  skinned,  and 
ultimately  eaten  by  the  boys. 

In  the  evening  camp  was  formed  on  the  banks 
of  the  Sara  river,  a  tributary  of  the  Sejlefula, 
after  having  done  14^  miles  that  day,  and 
curiously  enough  feeling  much  fitter  than  at  the 
commencement  of  the  day  s  march. 

The  tent  was  pitched  under  a  large  tree,  which 
my  guide  afterwards  told  me  had  a  few  weeks 
before  been  the  scene  of  a  Hon  tragedy. 

Two  natives  on  their  way  to  the  Nkala  mission 

station  with  letters  rested  for  the  night   at   this 

very    place.      During    the    night    one    boy   was 



disturbed  by  the  cries  of  his  companion,  whom 
a  lion  had  seized  and  was  at  the  moment 
dragging  away.  The  terrified  boy  at  once 
climbed  into  the  tree,  where  he  remained  till 
daybreak,  and  then  leaving  the  mail  behind 
returned  to  Kazungula  in  post-haste  to  tell  his 
gruesome  story. 

I  saw  a  large  herd  of  warthog  and  a  few 
koodoo  and  pallah  here,  but  failed  to  get  a 

After    travelling    seven    miles   the    following 

morning  through   a  rising  country,    I   halted  to 

allow  the  tail  end  of  the  caravan  to  come   up. 

After  waiting  some  time  there  were  still  three 

boys   missing,   so    I    walked   back   to   see   what 

had  become  of  them.      In  about  three-quarters 

of  a  mile   I   came  across  a  boy  lying  down  in 

the  pathway  near  his  load,  and  to  all  appearances 

asleep.     As  I   roused  him  he   turned  over  and 

gave  me  a  scared,  vacant  look,  then   staggered 

to  his  feet.     The  poor  boy,  after  reeling  about 

like  a   drunken  man,  finally  fell  to  the  ground. 

This  was  the  very  boy  who  had   followed  me 

from  the  Umgwezi,  after  having  received  orders 

to  return  to  Kazungula.     Returning  to  the  main 

body  of  carriers  I  sent  a  couple  of  boys  back 

to  bring  him  in.     Fortunately  there  was  a  village 

close   by,  so   after   summoning  the   headman    I 

arranged    that    he    should    look    after   the    sick 

boy  and  feed  him  till  he  was  able  to  return  to 



his  home,  for  which  he  received  the  price  in 
calico  of  sixty  pounds  of  corn,  and  a  similar 
present  was  given  to  the  boy  to  do  what  he 
liked  with.  When  I  started  he  had  recovered 
hi?  senses,  and  I  have  no  doubt  was  perfectly 
well  a  few  days  later. 

That  evening  I  camped  on  high  and  healthy 
ground  nearly  4,000  feet  above  the  sea-level, 
after  a  tramp  of  thirteen  miles.  I  had  suffered 
no  recurrence  of  dysentery  since  the  day  I  crossed 
the  Umgwezi,  and  was  already  rapidly  regaining 
strength.  A  heavy  thunderstorm  broke  over  the 
district  in  the  afternoon,  but  was  followed  by  a 
clear  night,  which  offered  the  first  opportunity 
since  leaving  Kazungula  to  take  an  astronomical 
observation  for  latitude. 

On  the  22nd  I  travelled  in  an  easterly  direction 
for  eleven  miles  along  the  watershed  of  the  left 
bank  tributaries  of  the  Sejlefula,  where  the 
country  was  charming.  Wooded  undulations 
were  every  mile  separated  by  broad  grassy 
valleys,  down  the  centre  of  which  small  running 
streams  flowed.  I  was  surprised  to  find  that 
this  corner  of  the  great  Matoka  plateau  was 
occupied  by  Matutela,  almost  every  valley  crossed 
supporting  a  village  of  these  people.  Extensive 
mealie  fields  surround  each  village,  capable  of 
producing  a  large  harvest  under  favourable 
circumstances,  but  for  the  last  few  years  huge 
swarms  of  locusts  have  devastated  the  country 



from  north  to  south,  and  left  barely  enough  corn 
for  seed  purposes  for  the  ensuing  season. 

On  the  23rd  I  turned  north  again.  The 
village  near  which  I  camped  on  the  previous 
evening  proved  to  be  the  last  in  the  Matutela 
country,  and  an  hour's  march  brought  me  among 
the  Matoka.  The  characteristic  difference  be- 
tween these  two  peoples  is  very  striking.  Living 
within  three  miles  of  one  another,  speaking  the 
same  language,  and  ruled  alike  by  the  same  chief 
— Liwanika — the  inhabitants  of  the  two  villages 
were  as  typically  Matutela  and  Matoka  respec- 
tively as  any  other  of  their  many  villages  which 
lay  on  my  route.  The  tall,  slight  figure  of  the 
Matutela,  with  his  pointed  beard,  and,  for  an 
African,  refined  features,  contrasted  with  the 
thicker-set  Matoka,  with  his  more  rounded  features 
and  almost  beardless  chin. 

That  afternoon,  after  walking  myself  dry  sub- 
sequent to  a  heavy  thunderstorm,  I  was  induced 
by  the  gathering  clouds  to  pitch  my  tent  and 
avoid  a  second  drenching.  The  camp  was  just 
above  a  deep-cut  valley,  along  which  the  Sejlefula 
rushed  down  a  steep,  rocky  bed.  An  extract  from 
my  diary  written  that  afternoon  will  at  least 
describe  my  impression  of  this  part  of  the 
country,  and  it  is  hoped  convey  an  accurate  idea 
to  the  reader. 

"  The  country  here  is  destined  to  be  a  favourite 
spot  for  white  settlement.     High  and  undulating 



— good  soil  and  grass — semi-open — well-watered. 
Trees  picturesque,  the  predominant  one  bearing 
a  drooping  leaf  something  like  syringa ;  others 
at  a  short  distance  looking  like  chestnut,  beech, 
lime,  and  ash.  There  are  many  ant-heaps  form- 
ing mounds  some  ten  to  fifteen  feet  high,  which 
are  almost  invariably  covered  with  trees.  In  the 
gullies  through  which  the  numerous  streamlets 
flow  huge  blackish  boulders  rise  here  and  there, 
contrasting  with  the  bright  green  grass  of  this 
time  of  the  year." 

The  healthy  nature  of  this  plateau  seems  to 
leave  nothing  to  be  desired.  Convalescent  as  I 
was  at  the  time  from  the  worst  and  most  weaken- 
ing of  African  diseases,  I  rapidly  regained  vigour, 
though — owing  no  doubt  to  hard  work — never 
managed  to  replace  the  28  lbs.  I  had  lost,  until 
after  my  return  to  civilization  and  comfort. 

It  would  be  folly  to  endeavour  to  colonise  this 

plateau    under    existing    circumstances,    in    my 

humble   opinion,   but   a  railway  to  the  Victoria 

Falls  from   Bulawayo  will  bring  Matokaland  in 

the   future   nearer    England   than   Matabeleland 

was  at  the  commencement  of  this  year.     When 

once  our  south  and  north  Zambezi  possessions 

are  connected  by  rail,  the  risk  of  another  such 

famine  in  Rhodesia  as  so  materially  contributed 

to    the   sum    total    of  disaster   in  1896   will    be 

diminished,  for  drought  in  Matabeleland  does  not 

necessarily  mean  drought  in  the  Marotse  empire 



— a  better  watered  country  and  inhabited  by  a 
more  industrious  people.  In  March,  1896,  I  left 
behind  a  gathered  harvest  capable  of  keeping 
Liwanika's  people  for  two  or  three  years.  When 
I  reached  Tati  and  Palapye  what  little  corn  there 
was  in  the  country  had  been  imported  from  other 
continents,  and  I  believe  shortly  after  mealies 
were  selling  in  Bulawayo  at  jCiS  a  bag! 



THE  next  day,  being  Christmas  Eve,  I 
crossed  the  Sejlefula,  and  travelled  about 
seven  miles  to  a  picturesque  spot  3800  feet 
above  the  sea-level,  where  I  decided  to  celebrate 

As  old  vintage  ports,  plum  puddings,  and 
turkeys  were  out  of  the  question,  I  thought  I 
could  not  do  better  than  dedicate  that  particular 
day  to  the  god  of  sport.  I  had  shot  a  zebra 
a  couple  of  miles  from  camp,  and  despatched 
some  boys  to  bring  in  the  meat,  while  the 
remainder  pitched  the  tent,  built  a  "  scherm  "  for 
themselves,  and  collected  wood. 

At  about  four  o'clock,  after  a  cup  of  tea  and  a 
pipe,  I  took  three  boys  out  in  search  of  game; 
for  if  possible  I  wished  to  kill  two  or  three  head 
more  which  could  be  conveniently  cut  into  strips 
and  dried  the  next  day,  and  thus  the  larder  would 
be  supplied  for  four  or  five  days. 

The  first  living  animal  that  came  under  my 

notice  was  a  warthog  boar  carrying  a  large  pair 

of   tusks.      He   was   restlessly   moving   up   and 

down   a   patch  of  bare  ground  at   the  time  in 



search  of  some  root  or  husk.     The  300  yards 
that   intervened   were   open   and   sloping    down 
towards   the   game.      Leaving   the   boys   under 
cover,   I    stretched   myself  on   the   ground   and 
wriggled   towards  the  pig  whenever   he  turned 
his  back  my  way.     The  old  chap  was  evidently 
fully  alive  to  the  necessity  of  keeping  a  look-out, 
as  he  would  frequently  stand  and  look   fixedly 
first  in  one  and  then  in  another  direction.     So 
long  as  he  was  looking  away  I  came  nearer  and 
nearer,  but  at  times  he  compelled  me  to  flatten 
myself  on  the  ground  for  a  time,  until  he  had 
decided  to  his  satisfaction  whether  I  was  animate 
or  inanimate.     As  the  wind  was  right  and  he 
could  get   no   taint  as  evidence  of  the   former 
hypothesis,   he   each   time  gave    the    latter   the 
benefit  of  any  doubt  he  may  have  felt.     In  this 
way  I  got  to  about  150  yards  of  him — as  near 
as    I    thought  wise   to  approach   in   so  open   a 
country.       Then,    taking    the    first    chance    he 
offered,  I  sat  up  and  fired  at  his  shoulder ;  with 
a  grunt   he  rose  from  his   knees,  on  to  which 
the  shock  had  forced  him,  and  went  away  lame 
from  the  left  shoulder. 

In  a  moment  or  two  the  boys  were  on  his 
blood  spoor,  which  was  easily  followed  into  the 
open  forest  that  bordered  the  plain.  Following 
this  for  about  half  a  mile  piggy  was  found  lying 
down  in  grass  covert  at  the  base  of  an  ant- 
heap.    When  disturbed  he  bolted,  but  after  going 



lOO  yards  rounded  on  me  suddenly  and  charged. 
But  poor  piggy  was  not  a  dangerous  enemy. 
The  boys  were  all  round  and  I  did  not  think 
it  safe  to  fire,  so  stepped  quickly  aside.  The 
boar  went  straight  on  and  followed  one  of  the 
boys,  who  likewise  dodged  him.  Then  seeing 
no  one  in  front  he  again  turned  and  came  for 
me  once  more.  This  time  as  I  stepped  aside 
he  received  an  ounce  of  lead  and  died. 

Not  only  did  this  litde  incident  give  me  the 
best  pair  of  tusks  I  had  up  to  then  secured, 
but  the  pig  was  in  excellent  condition  and  was 
the  animal  of  all  others  that  I  would  have 
chosen  to  break  the  long  meat  fast  imposed  on 
me  since  attacked  by  dysentery,  and  which 
I  had  made  up  my  mind  should  be  brought 
to  an  end  on  Christmas  Day,  as  being  the 
only  exceptional  way  available  by  which  the 
animal  side  of  my  nature  could  be  reminded 
that  the  most  festive  day  of  the  most  festive 
season  had  arrived. 

It  may  be  amusing  to  some  to  know  what 
culinary  experience  has  shown  me  is  the  way 
to  make  the  most  of  a  pig  one  has  been 
fortunate  enough  to  secure,  and  instructive  to 
others  as  demonstrating  the  fact  that  it  is  not 
necessary  for  the  African  traveller  to  encumber 
himself  with  all  sorts  of  tinned  abominations 
in  order  to  procure  a  palatable  meal.  With 
this   end   in    view,   I    will   venture   to  give   the 



history  of  piggy  from  the  time  he  is  cut  up 
and  taken  into  camp  to  the  last  stage  in  which 
he  retains  his  identity. 

The  feet,  after  being  cleaned,  scraped,  and 
deprived  of  hoofs,  are  put  into  a  saucepan  with 
water,  pepper,  and  salt,  and  boiled  to  a  jelly. 
The  tongue,  cut  up  into  small  pieces,  can  be 
added  with  advantage.  If  after  five  or  six  hours* 
cooking  this  is  removed  from  the  fire  the  last 
thing  at  night,  the  jelly  is  cold  and  set  in  the 
morning  and  makes  an  excellent  meal,  and  is 
always  available  at  a  moments  notice  until 

The  head,  too,  can  be  turned  to  excellent 
advantage  if  placed  in  a  hole  under  the  camp 
fire  and  allowed  to  remain  there  for  eight  or 
ten  hours.  When  cold,  the  cheeks  especially 
would  please  an  epicure. 

The  liver  and  kidneys,  either  fried  in  a  little 
fat  or  stewed  with  thickened  gravy,  make  a 
better  breakfast  than  is  frequently  served  by 
the  professional  cook. 

Then  chops  or  steaks  can  be  fried,  grilled, 
or  stewed.  A  joint,  too,  can  be  admirably 
roasted  with  no  more  trouble  than  is  entailed 
by  burying  it  in  the  cinders  of  a  wood  fire  and 
leaving  it  there  for  a  length  of  time  regulated 
by  its  size. 

We  will  leave  out  the  question  of  black 
puddings — I  have  never  tried  them. 



On  the  way  to  camp  I  struck  a  quite  fresh 
koodoo  spoor,  and  as  I  had  not  bagged  one  of 
these  most  graceful  of  antelopes  during  my 
present  trip,  left  one  boy  in  charge  of  the  warthog 
meat,  sent  another  into  camp  to  fetch  fresh  boys 
to  carry  it  in,  and  with  the  third  spoored  the 
koodoos.  Twice  I  disturbed  the  herd,  but  failed 
to  get  a  shot ;  a  third  time,  however,  they  were 
sighted  in  the  bush,  and  I  managed  to  get  to 
sixty  or  seventy  yards  of  them.  Picking  out  one 
whose  head  could  not  be  seen  distinctly,  but 
which  appeared  to  have  horns,  I  prepared  to  fire. 
Just  as  my  rifle  was  raised,  the  game  took  alarm 
and  turned  to  leave.  However,  I  managed  to 
place  a  bullet  in  behind  the  animal's  ribs  as  it 
swerved  round.  The  wounded  koodoo  fell,  but 
recovered  itself  in  a  moment  and  made  off  through 
the  bush.  Half  a  mile  of  spooring  revealed  what 
to  my  disappointment  proved  to  be  a  cow  and  not 
a  bull,  as  had  appeared.  I  say  disappointment 
because  I  never,  on  principle,  kill  females  unless 
my  camp  is  quite  out  of  meat 

The  sun  was  now  on  the  horizon,  so  I  returned 
at  once  to  camp  and  sent  a  relay  of  boys  to 
bring  in  the  carcase  that  evening,  as  I  had  no 
wish  to  feed  jackals  and  hyaenas  with  fresh  meat. 

That  early  Christmas  morning  was  fresh,  bright, 
and  exhilarating  as  I  crawled  out  of  the  tent  a 
few  seconds  after  the  sun  commenced  his  daily 
tour  of  duty. 



As  there  were  koodoo  in  the  neighbourhood  I 
determined,  if  possible,  to  get  a  bull  that  morn- 
ing, so  took  out  my  rifle  and  boys  with  the 
intention  of  ignoring  all  other  game,  let  the 
temptation  be  never  so  strong. 

But  my  powers  of  self-restraint  were  not 
to  be  put  to  a  test,  for  I  had  not  walked  more 
than  half  a  mile  when  one  of  the  boys  pointed 
out  a  koodoo  bull  standing  with  his  hind-quarters 
towards  me  between  two  bushes.  Without  much 
trouble  I  crawled  up  to  a  spot  within  sixty  yards  of 
the  game,  from  which  I  placed  a  bullet  obliquely 
behind  the  ribs.  The  bull  bounded  forward  for 
about  ICG  yards,  when  he  suddenly  fell  to  the 
ground.  Great  scars  on  his  shoulder  and  chest 
showed  that  about  three  days  earlier  he  had  had 
a  narrow  escape  from  a  lion.  I  did  not  consider 
the  horns  good  enough  to  save,  but  his  head 
and  neck-skin  was  taken  to  decorate  a  fine  but 
scalpless  head,  whose  owner  was  killed  by  lions 
close  to  my  camp  when  in  the  Mangwato  country 
in  1891. 

There  was  now  as  much  meat  as  could  be 
carried  conveniently,  and  enough  to  feed  the 
caravan  for  the  best  part  of  a  week,  so  leaving 
the  boys  to  cut  up  the  koodoo  I  retraced  my 
steps  with  a  view  to  finishing  my  Christmas 
Day  in  rest.  And  so  I  did,  for  the  remainder  of 
the  day  I  was  compelled  to  remain  within  the  four 
walls  of  the  tent.     A  terrific  thunderstorm  burst 



over  the  camp  a  few  moments  after  my  return, 
and  was  followed  by  a  steady  downpour  which 
lasted  until  evening. 

It  was  impossible  in  such  circumstances  not  to 
ponder  on  the  contrast  between  the  festive  gather- 
ings of  friends  at  home  and  the  solitude  of  my 
own  surroundings.  And  yet  I  was  not  unhappy, 
for  I  felt  that  single-handed  I  was  succeeding  in 
my  humble  effort  to  do  useful  work  in  the  interests 
of  the  empire  of  which  I  am  so  proud  to  be  a 
citizen — and  such  a  feeling,  I  take  it,  has  some- 
thing of  reward  in  it  to  those  who  are  not 
entirely  dependent  on  the  approbation  of  others 
for  recompense  or  encouragement. 

In  the  morning  of  the  following  day  camp  was 
struck,  and  I  travelled  through  a  country  still 
pleasant,  but  not  quite  so  useful-looking  as  that 
through  which  I  had  passed  during  the  preceding 
few  days.  The  tsetse  fly  became  much  more 
numerous,  and  the  native  population  very  sparse. 
In  the  evening,  after  travelling  seventeen  miles 
and  crossing  two  Machili  tributaries,  I  camped  on 
a  third,  the  Nanyate,  at  some  distance  from  its 
source — probably  ten  or  twelve  miles. 

On  the  27th  I  reached  the  Mua,  a  small  tribu- 
tary of  the  Nanzela,  which  feeds  the  Kafukwe 
river,  and  the  following  day  descended  about  300 
feet  into  a  huge  plain  of  mopani  and  swamp, 
sorry  to  leave  the  magnificent  plateau  through  a 
corner  of  which  I  had  travelled  for  the  past  week. 
Q  225 


This  Matoka  plateau  practically  supplies  the 
Umgwezi  with  all,  and  the  Kasaia  and  Machili 
with  most  of  their  water,  whilst  through  the 
Nanzela  and  other  rivers  it  helps  to  swell  the 
current  of  the  more  important  Kafukwe  river. 

On  the  29th  I  find  I  made  the  following  entry 
in  my  diary : 

"  Rained  the  greater  part  of  the  night.  Found 
in  the  morning  that  nearly  all  of  the  meat  was 
consumed.  That  is  to  say :  the  pigs  have  eaten 
somewhere  about  twenty-five  pounds  a  day  apiece 
in  four  days,  i.e.,  meat  which  before  dried  would 
have  weighed  that.  In  spite  of  this  one  comes 
to  me  this  morning  rubbing  his  stomach  and 
saying  he  is  hungry." 

As,  according  to  native  report,  game  was  very 
scarce  for  some  distance,  I  sent  back  to  a  village 
passed  through  on  the  previous  evening  a  request 
that  corn  should  be  brought  for  sale.  A  small 
quantity  only  arrived,  which  I  purchased,  and 
immediately  continued  the  journey  northwards. 

In  the  evening,  however,  a  herd  of  Lichen- 
stein's  hartebeest  was  sighted  peacefully  grazing 
in  a  plain  on  which  patches  of  long  grass  made 
stalking  comparatively  easy,  and  consequently 
I  was  able  to  get  within  fifty  yards  of  the  herd 
without  being  noticed.  In  view  of  the  reported 
scarcity  of  game  ahead,  I  made  up  my  mind  to 
seize  the  opportunity  and  make  hay  while  the  sun 

shone.     I  emptied  both  barrels  at  a  couple  of  the 



antelopes,  and  by  the  time  they  had  pulled  up  in 
their  surprise  after  cantering  about  fifty  yards, 
my  rifle  was  reloaded,  and  I  got  a  second  right 
and  left  home.  Two  lay  dead  with  bullets 
through  the  heart,  a  third  walked  away — poor 
creature !  coughing  up  blood  from  the  lungs,  while 
a   fourth   trotted  off  heavily,  also  with   a   lung 

wound.     Within  a  few  minutes  each  had  received 


his  coup  de  grdce. 

I  confess  on  occasions  when  I  have  been  com- 
pelled to  shoot  animals  with  no  other  object  thaft 
to  feed  my  gluttonous  carriers,  to  have  fairly  hated 
the  sound  of  my  own  rifle.  It  was  impossible 
for  me  to  keep  a  check  on  excessive  consump- 
tion, as  each  boy  had  to  carry  his  share  of 
meat,  and  the  native  African  prefers  carrying  it 
inside  so  far  as  possible.  Thus  on  every  oppor- 
tunity, whether  while  marching  or  not,  eating 
goes  on  until  there  is  nothing  left  to  eat 

Fortunately  these  animals  were  shot  at  the 

base   of  rising  ground,  the  existence  of  which 

probably   accounted    for   their  presence    in    the 

neighbourhood.      It   was  consequently  possible 

to  form  camp  clear  of  the  swamps  I  had  waded 

through  for  the  last  two  days.     The  carcases 

were  all   brought  into  camp  that  evening,  and 

next  day  dried  over  fires.     In  the  dry  season 

no   further  trouble   is    required   in-  the  process 

of  drying  meat  than  cutting  the  flesh  into  strips, 

which  are  hung  up  in  the  shade  if  available.     In 



the  moister  atmosphere  of  the  wet  season  a  four- 
cornered  framework  is  constructed  by  driving 
forked  stakes  into  the  ground,  and  these  support 
short  poles  on  which  a  series  of  similar  poles  are 
laid  parallel  to  one  another  and  about  four  inches 
apart,  and  on  them  the  strips  of  meat  are  placed 
over  a  lighted  fire. 

On  turning  out  next  morning  a  large  herd  of 
wildebeest  was  to  be  seen  standing  about  200 
yards  from  the  tent,  gazing  intendy  at  what  to 
them  must  have  been  quite  phenomenal  At 
times  so  good  an  opportunity  of  procuring  meat 
without  leaving  my  tent  would  have  been  most 
acceptable.  They  stood  with  their  heads  up  for 
two  or  three  minutes,  when  they  turned  and 
went  quiedy  away. 

The  tsetse  here  were  very  troublesome,  and  for 
some  little  time  after  sunset  went  for  me  so  boldly 
that  I  was  able  to  consign  many  of  them  to  my 
collecting  tube. 

On  the  31st  I  was  again  on  the  move.  Six 
miles  of  swamp  and  nine  over  slighdy  rising 
ground  completed  my  work  for  the  year  1895. 

New  Year's  morn  was  bright  and  exhilarating 
for  some  hours  after  sunrise,  but  towards  midday 
heavy  clouds  crept  over  the  deep  expanse  of 
blue,  and  with  them  the  impressive  booms  of  a 
tropical  thunderstorm  grew  nearer  and  louder  as 
the  storm  approached.  Fortunately  I  had  been 
delayed  in  starting  while  waiting  for  two  local 


JANUARY  1ST,  1896. 

boys  whom  I  had  sent  for  to  act  as  guides, 
so  escaped  the  drenching  my  goods  and  self 
would  have  suffered  from  the  downpour  of  rain 
that  followed. 

By  one  o'clock  the  rain  had  ceased,  camp  was 
struck,  and  I  was  once  more  working  my  way 
northwards.  A  four  hours'  march  was  put  an 
end  to  by  the  appearance  of  a  couple  of  zebra 
to  the  right  of  the  track.  After  a  short  stalk 
I  placed  a  bullet  in  the  shoulder  of  one  of 
them,  but  too  far  back,  and  the  animal  went 
away  with  its  mate.  While  following  on  the 
blood  spoor  I  found  myself  within  seventy 
yards  of  a  herd  of  Lichenstein  s  hartebeest,  and 
as  the  sun  was  already  below  the  horizon  I 
fired  in  case  darkness  should  prevent  my 
coming  up  with  the  zebra.  The  antelope  was 
wounded  in  the  lungs  and  went  away.  I 
followed  for  some  little  distance,  but  losing  the 
spoor  returned  to  that  of  the  zebra.  Some 
three  or  four  hundred  yards  further  revealed 
him  standing  with  his  head  down  and  back  to- 
wards me.  Creeping  up  I  put  hun  out  of  his 
misery  before  he  had  noticed  my  presence.  It 
is  a  curious  fact  that  the  hartebeest  was  found 
dead  by  one  of  my  boys  within  a  hundred 
yards  of  the  zebra's  carcase.  He  must  have 
retreated  in  a  semicircle,  as  when  I  lost  him 
he  was  going  away  at  right  angles  to  the  line 

the  latter   had   taken.      There    was  a   mission 



Station  in  front,  so  far  as  I  could  judge  about 
two  days'  journey  to  the  north,  which  had  been 
founded  about  two  years  previously  by  Messrs. 
Buckenham  and  Baldwin.  The  former,  whom 
I  had  met  at  Kazungula  in  July,  1895,  ^^^ 
kindly  asked  me  to  call  in  and  spend  a  few 
days  with  him  in  case  my  work  took  me 
within  measurable  distance  of  his  station.  I 
had  heard  from  M.  J  alia  that  the  famine  was 
so  severe  on  the  borders  of  the  Mashikolumbwe 
country,  where  Mr.  Buckenham  s  station  was, 
that  he  had  been  obliged  to  send  his  boys 
away  to  their  homes  owing  to  the  absolute 
impossibility  of  procuring  food  for  them.  As, 
therefore,  it  was  by  no  means  certain  that  more 
game  would  be  met  with,  I  impressed  on  the 
boys  the  necessity  of  being  careful  with  the  meat, 
telling  them  that  they  must  make  it  last  six 
days  as  I  intended  resting  at  the  Meruti's  for 
Sour  days  and  would  not  hunt ;  so  that  if  they 
ate  all  their  meat  in  three  days  they  would  have 
to  starve  for  three  before  I  attempted  to  kill  any 


That  night    I    succeeded  in  taking  an  astro- 

.  nomical  observation  for  latitude,  only  the  third 
opportunity  since  leaving  Kazungula,  owing  to 
the  continual  obscuration  of  the  stars  by  the 
numerous  white  clouds  that  seldom  cease  to  pass 
iOveri  the  heavens  during  the  wet  season. 

The    result    proved    very    encouraging,    and 



showed  that  constant  practice  had  taught  me 
to  estimate  distances  satisfactorily.  The  dis- 
tance according  to  my  route  map  was  fifty-three 
miles  from  the  last  point  of  observation,  which 
the  sextant  proved  to  be  fifty-four. 

On  the  2nd  I  did  not  strike  camp  till  twelve 
o'clock,  so  as  to  allow  the  meat  of  the  animals 
shot  on  the  previous  evening  to  dry  out  a 

In  the  afternoon  a  serious  obstacle  presented 
itself.  The  Nanzela  river,  across  which  the  path 
lay,  was  in  flood  —  200  yards  wide  and  over- 
head twenty  yards  from  the  bank. 

I  had  an  opportunity  here  of  witnessing  a  piece 
of  native  engineering.  Trees  stood  in  the  water 
to  the  borders  of  the  natural  bed  of  the  river  on 
both  sides.  The  boys  felled  first  one  tree  and 
then  another,  until  a  succession  lay  across  the 
stream  to  shallow  water  on  the  north  bank — 
a  very  crude  bridge  this  was  no  doubt,  but  still 
it  enabled  us  to  get  across  without  disaster. 

It  was  getting  dark  by  the  time  this  bridge 
was  completed,  and  it  must  be  confessed  I 
anxiously  watched  my  goods  as  they  underwent 
the  precarious  ordeal  of  being  carried  through 
the  river.  At  one  time  a  branch  would  lead 
through  four  feet  of  water,  at  another,  a  couple 
of  feet  above  the  surface.  With  a  current  of 
four  miles  an  hour,  and  at  times  only  a  thin, 
bending  bough  to  steady  the  body,  it  required 



a  considerable  amount  of  care  to  retain  a  foot- 
hold, but  somehow  or  other  no  mishap  occurred 
beyond  the  wetting  of  many  of  the  loads.  It 
was  a  quaint  sight  to  watch  the  string  of  black 
bodies  working  their  way  through  that  flooded 
forest,  shouting  and  jabbering  like  a  troop  of 
monkeys ! 

Cold  and  wet  I  pitched  my  tent  on  an  old 
ant-heap,  and  had  a  roaring  fire  made  in  front 
of  the  doorway.  A  good  dose  of  quinine,  some 
supper,  and  after  that  the  blankets,  and  the  day 
was  ended. 

Fortunately  there  was  sun  the  next  morning, 
so  I  was  able  to  dry  my  maps,  papers,  and 
such  of  my  clothes  as  had  been  submerged  on 
the  previous  evening.  I  then  started  off  through 
the  swamps  which  bordered  the  river  for  a  few 
miles,  with  the  intention  of  reaching  Mr.  Bucken- 
ham's  mission  station  that  evening  if  possible, 
as  the  local  natives  told  me  it  was  only  half  a 
day  s  journey  away. 

After  marching  about  eight  miles  I   came  to 

a  cluster  of  villages  known  as  Sezunga.     These 

people,  as  I  afterwards  discovered,  are  a  mixed 

tribe  of  Marotse,  Mankoya,  and  Mashikolumbwe. 

A  Marotse  chief  of  the  name  of  Sezunga,  about 

half  a  century  ago,  had  got  into  hot  water  over 

some  fishing  rights,  and  incurred  the  displeasure 

of  the  paramount  chief.     Information  that  his  life 

was  in  danger  prompted  him  to  gather  his  people 



together  and  leave  Borotse.  He  settled  in  the 
district  which  still  retains  his  name,  on  the 
borders  of  the  Mankoya  and  Mashikolumbwe 
countries,  and  many  fugitives  from  these  tribes 
joined  him.  A  gruesome  sight  met  my  eyes  as 
I  followed  the  path  through  a  mealie  field  border- 
ing on  one  of  these  villages.  In  the  path  the 
body  of  a  boy  of  about  ten  years  of  age  lay; 
a  piece  of  bark  by  which  he  had  been  dragged 
thither  was  fastened  round  the  ankles,  and  a 
wound  on  the  left  side  of  the  head  rather  sug- 
gested death  by  violence.  The  ground,  now 
dry,  was  becoming  higher  and  higher  as  I 
advanced.  The  bulk  of  the  porters  were  far 
behind,  as  I  had  hurried  on  so  as  to  get  my 
"half- day's"  journey  over  as  quickly  as  possible. 
It  was  long  after  dark,  however,  before  I  reached 
the  mission  station  accompanied  by  three  boys, 
and  wet  through,  as  the  Nkala  river,  on  the 
north  bank  of  which  the  station  stands,  was 
swollen  with  the  rains,  and  chin-deep  in  water 
when  I  crossed. 

I  was  extremely  sorry  to  find  sickness  rife  in 
that  isolated  home.  Mr.  Buckenham,  whom  I 
had  seen  six  months  before  looking  as  hard  as 
nails,  and  in  perfect  health,  was  a  complete 
wreck,  and  simply  full  of  fever.  So  weak  was 
he  that  he  could  only  walk  with  difficulty.  His 
wife  was  also  suffering  from  fever,  and  his  little 
daughter,   a    child    of    six,   was    reduced    to    a 



skeleton,  and  the  word  death  was  written  on  the 
poor  child's  face.  Mr.  Baldwin  alone  was  in 
good  health,  which  was  fortunate,  as  there  was 
only  one  boy  on  the  station,  and  he  had  men- 
tioned his  intention  of  returning  to  his  home  at 
Sesheke,  as  the  time  for  which  he  had  engaged 
himself  had  expired. 

Mr.  Baldwin  took  me  to  a  spacious  hut,  which 
he  placed  at  my  disposal  for  as  long  as  I  should 
stay  at  the  station.  After  I  had  clad  myself  in 
dry  change  of  clothes  which  he  lent  me,  I 
returned  to  the  dining-hut,  where  Mrs.  Bucken- 
ham  had  been  kind  enough  to  prepare  a  much- 
appreciated  supper.  The  man  who  has  slept 
on  the  ground  for  months  realises  the  comfort 
of  a  bed,  and  sleep  came  kindly  that  night. 
The  main  body  of  my  carriers  arrived  at  noon 
the  following  day. 

At  about  4.30  p.m.  on  the  5th,  a  steady  down- 
pour of  rain  commenced,  and  did  not  cease  till 
about  4.30  the  following  morning.  Mr.  Bucken- 
hams  rain  gauge  indicated  that  2*53  inches  had 
fallen  during  these  twelve  hours.  I  remained 
four  days  at  the  Nkala  mission  station.  Obser- 
vations for  latitude  placed  the  station  in  15°  53' 
7"  S.  Lat.,  and  for  altitude  at  3290  feet  above 
the  sea-level. 

The  boys  of  course  finished  the  meat  the  day 
after  arrival.  However,  I  reminded  them  of  the 
warning  I  had  administered,  and  told  them  they 



would  have  to  look  for  food  on  the  veldt  At 
that  time  of  year  there  were  wild  fruits  and 
berries  in  abundance.  Rest  I  required,  and  rest 
I  intended  to  have. 

During  my  sojourn  here  I  had  many  interesting 
conversations  with  Mr.  Baldwin,  who  gave  me 
much  information  about  the  country  and  people. 

The  boys  had  at  different  times  impressed 
on  me  their  estimate  or  affected  estimate  of  the 
Mashikolumbwe  character,  and  I  quite  expected 
some  trouble  before  I  succeeded  in  entering  the 
country  these  savages  inhabited.  According  to 
them  they  not  only  killed  men  but  eat  them. 
The  eating  I  was  pretty  sure  was  a  libel,  and  the 
killing  I  did  not  anticipate  where  a  white  man  s 
caravan  was  concerned.  True,  the  only  two 
white  men  who  had  hitherto  attempted  to  pene- 
trate into  their  country  had  met  with  disaster  on 
the  borders,  but  in  each  case  the  attack  could  be 

Mr.  F.  C.  Selous  in  1888,  as  is  known  to  every- 
one who  has  read  that  most  interesting  book. 
Travel  and  Adventure  in  South- Ea^t  Africa^ 
which  also  includes  his  experiences  north  of  the 
Zambezi,  had  a  most  providential  escape  from 
these  people,  and  lost  some  of  his  boys  and  all 
his  effects.  But,  as  he  afterwards  discovered,  the 
outrage  was  instigated  by  the  rebel  Marotse  chief, 
Monze,  who,  having  been  unsuccessful  in  his 
attempt  to  purchase  powder  for  use  in  his  struggle 



with  his  relative  and  sovereign,  Li- 
gated  the  Mashikolumbwe  to  proc 
by  means  of  treachery  and  miirdtr 

Dr.  Holub,  too,  the  Austrian  t 
equally  disastrous  experience  in  i 
was  looted,  his  white  servant  n 
and  his  wife  had    to  retrace  tL 
Mashikolumbwe,  however,  statej 
servant  in  some  way  exasper?J 
their  enmity  was  towards  himi^ 
be  reason  for  supposing  the/ 
their  story,  or  why  did  they  1 
doctor  and  his  wife,  which  t 
done  had  they  been  so  incli 

Having  regard,  therefgd 
in   these  two  cases,    I  - 
should  repeat  itself  in  ^^^^^^^^^^TffliTned 
lo    stick    at    nothing    „..  .    impossibility    in 

my  attempt  to  find  out  something  about  the 
country  on  the  border  of  which  circumstances 
had  placed  me ;  and  my  keenness  was  accentuated 
by  the  sight  of  the  fine  broken  country  1  could 
see  rising  to  the  north  of  me.  My  friends  the 
missionaries  kindly  offered  to  take  care  of  any 
of  my  effects  that  I  wished  to  leave  behind,  so 
my  toads  were  rearranged  with  a  view  to  taking 
only  such  things  as  were  necessary  for  a  two 
months'  trip.  Thus  should  a  looted  camp  and  a 
hasty  retreat  on  the  mission  station  become 
necessary,  I  should  not  have  to  fall  back  on  the 


hospitality  of  my  friends  to  supply  the  means  for 
the  return  journey. 

When  the  boys  saw  that  I  was  making  ready 
for  a  start,  a  deputation  came  to  enquire  what 
direction  I  intended  taking. 

I  asked  : 

*'  Did  you  not  engage  yourself  to  follow  me 
wherever  I  wished  to  lead  you  ?  " 


"And  did  you  not  agree  that  unless  you 
accompanied  me  back  to  Kazungula  you  were 
to  receive  no  pay,  as  your  blankets  and  sitzibas 
would  be  wanted  to  pay  the  boys  who  returned 
with  me  ?  " 


**  Then  it  does  not  matter  to  you  where  I  go. 
I  will  lead  and  you  must  follow." 

They  answered  that  they  would  not  go  into 
the  Mashikolumbwe  country.  I  ordered  them  to 
leave  me,  and  continued  to  make  arrangements 
for  departure. 

I  told  Mr.  Baldwin  of  this  interview,  and  he 
informed  me  that  they  had  been  speaking  to  him 
on  the  same  subject.     He  added  : 

**You  may  take  my  word  for  it  they  won't  go 
among  the  Mashikolumbwe ;  they  are  afraid  of 
them.  They  all  say  they  won't  go  across  the 

Both    Mr.    Baldwin   and    myself   took   it  for 

granted  that  they  referred  to  the  Kafukwe,  or  as 



the  Mashikolumbwe  call  it,  the  Loenge — ^their 
word  for  "  river." 

In  face  of  these  circumstances,  I  decided  to 
modify  my  plans.  By  going  in  a  direction  about 
twenty  degrees  north  of  west  for  seventy  or 
eighty  miles,  I  ought  to  strike  my  old  route  at  the 
source  of  the  Niambe,  and  thus  be  able  to  supply 
an  important  longitudinal  check  by  joining  the 
two  sections  of  my  map.  Then  I  would  travel 
north-east  until  I  could  prevail  upon  some  chief 
to  give  me  a  few  boys,  with  whom  I  would 
make  an  incursion  into  the  heart  of  Boshiko- 

With  these  plans  in  mind  I  bade  au  revoir 
to  my  hospitable  friends,  and  started  away  in  the 
direction  indicated  on  the  evening  of  January 
the  8th. 



ON  the  evening  of  leaving  Nkala,  after  march- 
ing about  four  miles,  just  as  it  commenced 
to  grow  dark,  I  got  a  shot  at  a  wildebeest  and 
wounded  him  in  the  shoulder.  He  went  away 
slowly  and  I  gave  chase,  but  unfortunately  had  to 
return  empty-handed  for  want  of  light.  The 
boys  were  decidedly  sulky  and  inclined  to  give 
trouble.  Their  spontaneous  willingness  to  take 
service  with  me  at  Kazungula  was  receiving  an 
explanation.  They  evidently  expected  to  force 
my  hand  by  refusing  to  go  beyond  Nkala,  and 
thus  compel  my  return  to  Kazungula.  They  had 
failed,  and  now  the  only  way  left  by  which  they 
could  carry  out  their  wishes  was  desertion, 
which  spelt  no  pay  and  a  future  reckoning  with 

On  the  9th  I  came  across  a  herd  of  hartebeest, 
but  failed  to  get  near  them,  and  shortly  after- 
wards missed  a  warthog.  This  was  unfortunate, 
as  the  boys  had  had  very  little  food  during  the 
past  four  days. 

At  midday  I  reached  a  kopjie  which  I 
ascended.      From  the  summit,  after  climbing  a 



tree — for  the  bush  was  thick — I  obtained  a  good 
view  of  the  country  beyond,  and  took  a  few 
compass  bearings  on  the  many  hills  which 
rose  in  all  directions  above  the  forest  This 
was  the  first  piece  of  country  I  had  passed 
through  in  which  it  had  been  possible  to  make 
any  use  of  my  prismatic  compass. 

In  the  afternoon  I  came  to  a  dense,  impene- 
trable forest,  through  which  a  single  man  could  not 
go  far  unless  he  carried  an  axe  to  cut  his  way 
through  the  entanglement  of  creepers  and  under- 
growth that  blocked  the  way.  Such  dense  forest 
is  very  rare  on  the  great  African  plateau  so  far 
south.  In  fact,  this  was  the  first  occasion  on 
which  I  had  come  to  impenetrable  forest 
Fortunately  it  was  possible  to  skirt  its  northern 
confines  without  going  much  out  of  my  direction, 
otherwise  progress  would  have  been  both  tire- 
some and  slow. 

In   the   evening,    while   crossing   one   of    the 

numerous    grass    valleys    that    intersected    the 

forest,  I  had  another  opportunity  of  replenishing 

the  larder,  and  this  time  with  good  result     A 

warthog  rose  about  seventy  yards  in  front,  and 

with  tail  erect  ran  off  in  an  oblique  direction  to 

my  path.     I  fired,  and  although  he  seemed  to 

quiver  as  the  rifle  went  off,  I  was  by  no  means 

sure  that  the  bullet  had  struck  home,  as  I  heard 

no  '*  thut"     Still  I  bolted  after  him  as  fast  as  my 

legs   could   carry   me,    hoping  at   worst   to   get 



another  shot.  He  had  gone  quite  200  yards 
when  he  suddenly  tripped  and  fell.  The  bullet 
had  entered  behind  the  ribs  and,  travelling  for- 
ward, had  carried  away  an  extraordinarily  large 
piece  of  the  lower  part  of  the  animals  heart. 
Such  a  case  shows  the  importance  of  following 
up  game  for  a  short  distance  at  least,  even  when 
the  hunter  is  inclined  to  think  he  has  missed  his 

The  next  day  towards  noon  I  was  stopped  by 
a  river  with  high,  clean-cut  banks,  and  from 
seventy  to  a  hundred  yards  wide.  It  proved  to 
be  the  Musa  river,  an  affluent  of  the  Kafukwe, 
flowing  in  a  direction  slightly  to  the  north  of  east. 
It  belongs  to  the  same  type  as  the  Umgwezi,  and, 
when  I  first  saw  it,  carried  water  from  bank  to 
bank.  From  the  size  of  this  river  and  its  appa- 
rent direction,  it  seemed  that  it  must  have  its 
source  no  great  distance  from  that  of  the  Njoko, 
so  I  conceived  the  idea  of  tracing  it  thither. 

After  waiting  a  long  time  for  the  boys,  who 

had  evidently  made  up  their  minds  to  delay  as 

much  as  possible,  since  they  had  failed  to  turn 

me,  I  followed  the  bank  of  the  river  for  about 

i^  miles,  and  there  stopped  and  set  Muliphi — the 

only  boy  with  me — to  work  to  collect  wood  and 

light  a  fire.     In  the  meantime  I  took  my  rifle  and 

went  in  search  of  game,  but  the  only  thing  I 

saw  was  a  duiker,  which  I  bagged  and  brought 

into  camp. 

R  241 


To  my  annoyance  none  of  the  boys  had  put 
in  an  appearance.  They  started  in  the  early 
morning  from  a  spot  only  7J  miles  distant,  and 
now  it  was  four  p.m.,  and  not  one  had  turned 
up.  Unfortunately  I  had  not  a  single  boy  I 
could  trust,  or  who  was  capable  of  acting  as 
head  boy,  and  it  was  impossible  for  me  both  to 
lead  the  way  and  drive  on  the  stragglers.  Pony, 
a  Natal  Zulu,  was  not  only  useless  and  untrust- 
worthy, but  was  also  a  wreck  from  fever  or  liver, 
or  both.  Lecharu,  a  Bamangwato,  had  never 
quite  recovered  from  his  illness  at  the  Njoko 
camp,  and  he  had  absolutely  no  control  over 
the  porters ;  they  laughed  at  him  when  he 
ordered  them  to  collect  wood  or  bring  water. 
Muliphi,  also  a  Bamang^ato,  was  a  bright  little 
chap,  and  more  trustworthy  than  the  other  two, 
but  he  was  too  young  to  act  as  headman,  and 
also  too  small — the  porters  would  have  none 
of  him  either.  In  these  circumstances  I  had  to 
give  every  order  myself  and  personally  see  to 
everything,  or  else  nothing  would  ever  have  been 
done.  So  now  the  only  thing  for  it  was  to  tramp 
back  on  my  own  footsteps  and  bring  on  the 
boys.  After  walking  about  a  couple  of  miles  I 
met  these  bright  specimens  of  humanity  leisurely 
approaching.  A  good  rating  by  way  of  letting 
off  steam  relieved  me  and  made  them  move  a 
bit  quicker,  but  otherwise  I  do  not  suppose 
troubled  them  much. 



After  being  in  camp  an  hour  or  so  I  noticed 
for  the  first  time  that  the  boy  Lecharu  was 
missing,  and  asked  Pony  what  had  become  of 

**  He  is  dead,  baas." 

"Dead!"  I  exclaimed;  **how  is  he  dead?"  For 
in  the  morning  he  showed  no  signs  of  being 
seriously  ill. 

*'  He  is  not  quite  dead,  but  he  could  not  come 
on.  He  is  very  sick  and  will  be  dead  soon,  so 
we  left  him  behind." 

Such  is  the  nature  of  the  African.  Sooner 
than  take  the  trouble  to  help  this  unfortunate 
boy  forward  he  was  left  to  die. 

I  immediately  ordered  two  boys  to  return  and 
help  the  sick  boy  in.  At  first  they  refused,  but 
only  for  a  moment,  then  they  went  in  a  hurry. 
A  lion  was  to  be  heard  about  a  mile  off,  apparently 
moving  in  a  direction  parallel  to  the  river,  so 
far  as  could  be  judged  by  the  sound  of  his  roar. 
Should  this  be  so  he  would  strike  our  spoor,  and 
probably  follow  it  to  where  Lecharu  lay. 

In  something  over  an  hour  the  two  boys 
returned  and  stated  that  they  could  not  get 
Lecharu  on  to  his  legs,  so  had  to  leave  him.  Being 
by  no  means  certain  that  they  had  been  further 
than  ICO  yards  from  camp,  I  decided  to  take  them 
back  with  Muliphi  and  see  what  could  be  done. 

It  was  dark,  there  being  no  moon,  so  it  was 

no  pleasant  work  finding  the  way  over  the  rough 



ground,  for  there  was  no  path.  However,  in 
about  half  an  hour  I  was  guided  to  the  place 
where  the  sick  boy  lay.  He  was  not  dead, 
but  had  quite  lost  his  senses,  and  finding  he 
could  not  stand  on  his  legs,  I  made  one  boy 
hold  on  to  each  shoulder  and  the  third  carry  his 
legs,  but  he  kicked  and  struggled  so  violently 
that  only  one  way  out  of  the  difficulty  remained. 
A  large  fire  was  lighted,  and  leaving  Muliphi 
with  instructions  to  remain  with  him  through 
the  night,  I  returned  to  the  camp,  prepared  a 
pint  of  soup,  to  which  was  added  about  twenty 
grains  of  quinine,  and  sent  it  back  by  two  boys, 
instructing  them  to  bring  Lecharu  into  camp  in 
the  morning  if  possible. 

I  told  the  remainder  that  evening  that  I  had 
no  intention  of  allowing  them  to  continue  their 
conduct  of  the  last  two  days,  for  they  had  made 
it  impossible  for  me  to  travel  more  than  six  or 
seven  miles  a  day  since  leaving  the  Nkala  station. 
'•  I  have  had  enough  of  this  sort  of  thing,**  I 
said ;  "  you  had  better  return  to  Kazungula  and 
I  will  send  back  to  Musanana"  (a  chief  near 
Nkala)  "for  boys  to  take  your  place.*' 

If  the  African  native  imagines  that  the  traveller 

is  entirely  dependent  upon  him  he  will  behave 

accordingly,    so    to    show    my    independence    I 

affected    to    be    prepared    to    adopt    a    course 

which  in  reality    I    should   have  been   sorry   to 

take,    for    Musanana's  Mashikolumbwe,   I  knew 



from  Mr.  Buckenham,  combined  all  the  vices 
and  none  of  the  virtues  of  the  savage. 

"If  you  will  give  us  our  pay  we  will  go  back 
to  Kazungula,"  they  replied. 

"What  about  Musanana's  boys.**  they  must 
have  your  blankets  and  sitzibas,  for  they  will  do 
your  work." 

One  after  another  they  came  to  the  conclusion 
that  they  would  remain  with  me. 

**  That  depends  on  yourselves,"  I  added  **  If 
you  continue  to  give  me  trouble  I  will  turn  you  all 
out  of  camp,  and  send  for  the  Mashikolumbwe." 

Early  the  next  morning  the  sick  boy  turned 
up  in  camp.  He  had  quite  recovered  his  senses, 
but  was  of  course  very  weak.  As  the  day  was 
very  hot  I  allowed  him  to  rest  till  afternoon,  and 
myself  took  the  opportunity  to  hunt  for  beedes. 
At  about  three  o'clock  I  advanced  up  the  river 
in  easy  stages. 

Koodoo,  zebra,  reedbuck,  pallah,  and  grysbuck 
were  to  be  seen  during  the  march,  but  I  only  got 
a  shot  at  a  pallah,  which  however  went  away 

After  doing  six  and  a  half  miles  I  camped 
shortly  after  five  o  clock,  and  set  off  with  three 
boys  to  look  for  game. 

It  was  getting  dark  while  returning  to  camp, 
when  I  noticed  a  waterbuck  standing  sideways 
on  only  about  sixty  yards  away.  A  bullet  behind 
the  shoulder  sent  him  off,  but  after  following  for 



about  loo  yards  he  was  found  dead  partly  sub- 
merged in  a  pool  of  water. 

Lions  were  to  be  heard  again  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  camp,  but  they  never  seemed 
to  approach  very  near. 

The  boys  did  not  appear  so  happy  over  the 
carcase  of  the  waterbuck  as  they  invariably  had 
been  in  the  presence  of  fresh  meat.  They  sat 
in  groups  and  talked  in  subdued  voice.  These 
two  facts  told  me  there  was  something  in  the 
wind,  and  I  wondered  in  what  direction  their 
perversity  would  lead  them. 

It  is  said  that  the  native  African  porter  com- 
bines the  stupidity  of  the  ox  and  the  ass,  but 
lacks  the  intelligence  of  either. 

After  travelling  a  couple  of  miles  the  next 
morning  I  shot  another  waterbuck,  and  had  to 
wait  over  an  hour  before  the  boys  came  up. 
The  same  old  tale! 

Another  three  miles  and  I  reached  a  place 
where  the  river  was  fordable,  and  made  up  my 
mind  to  cross  to  the  north  bank,  where  I  halted 
for  the  hot  hours.  It  had  taken  five  hours  to  do 
as  many  miles ! 

At  about  three  o  clock  I  was  stooping  down 

over  the  light  refreshment  haversack  with  which 

a   boy  always  accompanied   me   in   case   I    felt 

inclined  for  a  bit  of  bread  and  a  cup  of  tea,  when 

on  raising  my  head  I  noticed  that  all  the  porters 

had  absconded,  and   my  three   South   Africans 



alone  remained.     I  went  a  short  distance  towards 

the  river  bank  in  the  hope  of  catching  a  glimpse 

of  them,  and  returned  to  find  that  two  of  their 

number  were  still  in  camp. 

"  What  are  you  doing  here  ?  "  I  asked  angrily. 

**  Why  don't  you  go  with  the  other  boys  ?  " 

"We  want  to  remain  with  you,  N'tate." 

"  Why  do  you  want  to  remain  with  me  ?  " 

**  We  wish  to  go  back  with  you  to  Kazungula." 

"  But  I  am  not  going  to  Kazungula  yet.      I 

am  going  there   first,"  I  said,  pointing  to   the 


"We  will    go   where  you  go,    N'tate,'*   they 


"If  you  are  women  like  the  other  boys  you 

had  better  follow  them  ;  but  if  you  are  not  afraid 

to  go  with  me  among  the  Mashikolumbwe  you 

may  stay." 

Why  these   boys   did   not   desert   with    their 

fellows    I   never  could  quite  understand,  unless 

it  was  that  they  feared  Liwanika  s  wrath.     That 

loyalty  to  me  was  a  cause  I  do  not  for  a  moment 

believe,  more  especially  as  one  of  them  proved 

to  be   not  only  lazy,  as   he   always   had   been, 

but  an  incorrigible  thief  as  well.     The  other  was 

an  intelligent,  willing  boy,  and  most  amusingly 


It  did  not  take  more  than  a  moment  or  two 

to  decide  on  my  future  action.     I  had  ascertained 

that  a  Mashikolumbwe  chief,  by  name  Kaiyngu, 



of  whom  Liwanika  had  spoken,  lived  apparently 
about  forty  miles  to  the  north-east  I  would  pitch 
my  tent  over  the  bulk  of  the  goods,  leave  the  two 
sick  boys  Pony  and  Lecharu  to  look  after  them, 
and  as  soon  as  I  had  shot  enough  meat  to  feed 
them  for  two  or  three  weeks  set  off  with  the  two 
remaining  porters  and  Muliphi  for  Kaiyngu  and 
try  to  arrange  with  him  to  send  back  boys  for 
my  loads. 

In  the  meantime  I  noticed  one  of  the  deserters 
in  the  bush  about  lOO  yards  off.  They  had 
taken  all  the  meat  and  their  skin  blankets 
with  them,  so  it  was  obvious  to  me  they  did  not 
intend  returning,  and  besides,  they  had  been 
such  a  source  of  annoyance  of  late  that  I  felt 
almost  relieved  at  their  departure,  in  spite  of  the 
predicament  they  had  placed  me  in. 

Now  I  did  not  want  to  shoot  game  for  my 
two  boys  and  return  to  find  that  the  deserters 
had  come  back  for  the  meat  in  order  to  provide 
food  for  their  journey,  and  thus  leaving  my 
boys  to  starve  or  feed  on  my  own  scanty  supply 
of  meal,  so  I  determined  to  give  this  boy 
a  fright  which  I  felt  sure  would  clear  them 
all  out  of  the  neighbourhood  for  good.  As  I 
walked  towards  my  rifle  off  went  the  boy  at  top 
speed ;  then,  taking  care  of  course  that  the  bullet 
should  pass  some  yards  to  his  left,  I  fired  the 
right  barrel.  He  never  turned  to  look  round, 
find  shortly   had  disappeared  from  view  in  the 



bush,  nor  did  I  ever  see  him  or  any  of  his  fellows 

I  then  took  the  three  sound  boys  out  in 
search  of  game,  and  I  was  not  long  in  coming 
across  three  zebras,  a  stallion,  a  mare,  and  a 
six-months-old  colt.  If  I  could  only  manage  to 
bag  the  two  full-grown  animals  I  should  be  able, 
I  thought,  to  make  a  start  first  thing  in  the 
morning,  so  spared  no  pains  in  getting  as  close 
as  possible  to  the  game,  and  secured  the  two  of 
them  with  a  left  and  right. 

Then  the  sadness  of  necessity  showed  itself. 
The  colt  after  cantering  away  returned  to  look 
for  his  missing  dam.  The  poor  little  creature 
came  to  within  a  few  yards  of  me  every  now 
and  then,  trotting  round  and  round  in  a  circle 
and  neighing  piteously.  I  had  never  before 
found  it  necessary  to  fire  at  game  with  calf  or 
foal  at  foot,  and  hope  I  shall  never  have  to  do 
so  again. 

The  meat  was  brought  to  camp  at  once,  cut 
into  strips,  and  hung  to  dry.  In  the  meantime  I 
piled  up  my  loads  inside  the  tent  with  the  tin 
cases  underneath,  and  resting  in  their  turn  on  a 
wooden  foundation  to  afford  protection  as  far  as 
possible  from  the  attacks  of  the  white  ant. 

The  boy  Lecharu  while  tying  up  a  bag  fell 
down  senseless.  With  his  eyes  fixed  and  open 
and  limbs  motionless  I  at  first  thought  he  was 
dead;  however,    on    finding  that   his  heart  was 



Still  in  motion,  cold  water  was  applied  to  his 
temples  and  he  shortly  came  round,  though  he 
did  not  recover  his  senses  till  the  following 
morning.  During  the  whole  evening  he  would 
continually  rise  to  his  feet  and  walk  aimlessly 
about  followed  by  his  brother  tribesman  Muliphi, 
who  would  bring  him  back  to  his  place  and  force 
him  to  the  ground  again. 

Thus  for  the  first  time  I  discovered  that  he 
suffered  from  some  kind  of  fit,  probably  epileptic 
On  enquiring  of  Muliphi  I  was  told  that  they 
had  constantly  recurred  for  the  last  few  years. 

Early  next  morning — the  13th — I  put  up  about 
ten  pounds  of  meal  and  some  tea,  saccharine, 
and  such-like  necessaries  as  provision  for  ten  or 
twelve  days.  Having  already  found  out  that 
master  Pony  preferred  my  food  to  his  own — 
when  he  thought  he  could  acquire  it  unknown 
to  myself — I  carefully  weighed  what  meal  I  had 
left,  which  with  care  was  just  enough  to  last  me 
until  I  once  more  reached  civilization. 

Mr.  Baldwin  had  told  me  that  Kaiyngu  was 
almost  due  north  of  Nkala,  and  as  I  knew  how 
far  I  had  moved  to  the  west  it  was  not  difficult 
to  determine  the  probable  direction  I  ought  to 
take.  The  boys,  of  course,  knew  there  was 
such  a  place  and  such  a  chief  as  Kaiyngu,  but 
had  no  notion  of  the  whereabouts.  I  took  them 
on  to  a  rising  piece  of  ground,  where  hills  were 
to  be  seen  in  the  distance  in  a  direction  some 



twenty  degrees  east  of  north,  told  them  that 
Kaiyng^  lay  just  beyond  those  hills,  and  that 
I  was  going  to  take  them  to  a  hill  which  was 
to  be  seen  about  forty  miles  away.  They  were 
at  a  loss  to  understand  how  I  knew,  as  no  white 
men  had  been  near  that  place  before,  so  I  told 
them  I  knew  by  looking  at  my  compass. 

Taking  a  bee-line  I  left  my  goods  and  chattels 
behind,  wondering  whether  I  should  find  any- 
thing there  on  my  return.  Since  the  day  after 
leaving  Nkala  I  had  not  seen  any  sign  of  human 
beings,  so  had  hopes  that  the  Mashikolumbwe 
would  not  find  the  tent,  which  was  pitched  behind 
a  huge  ant-heap  some  400  yards  from  the  river. 

After  travelling  about  a  mile  and  a  half  I  came 
to  a  tributary  similar  in  character  to  and  scarcely 
smaller  than  the  Musa,  into  which  it  flows,  sub- 
sequently discovering  that  it  bore  a  most  impos- 
ing name — Marundumgoma. 

For   the   rest   of  the   day    I   passed   through 

a   most    pleasing   country — undulations   covered 

with  forest  and  frequently  intersected  by  open 

valleys  and  streams.     After  about  fourteen  miles 

marching  I  camped  on  the  borders  of  one  of  these, 

and,  unaccountable  as  it  may  seem,  felt  thoroughly 

happy  and  content  with  everything.     Whether,  in 

spite  of  the  predicament  in  which  the  absconding 

porters  had  placed  me,  the  disappearance  of  such 

perverse  dependents  was  an  unconscious  relief,  or 

whether  the  "glorious  uncertainty"  of  the  next 



few  days  and  the  interest  attaching  to  research  in 
a  country  which  already  showed  signs  of  being 
full  of  interest  as  it  was  of  mystery,  was  the  cause 
of  this  I  cannot  say,  but  whatever  the  cause  the 
effect  was  perfect  contentment. 

Before  sunrise  the  next  morning  the  boys 
disturbed  my  slumbers  to  show  me  a  herd  of 
hartebeest  standing  less  than  lOO  yards  from 
camp,  which  they  were  watching  intently.  I 
rolled  out  of  the  hammock,  which  was  slung 
between  a  couple  of  trees,  and  seized  my  i6-bore. 
Though  there  was  lots  of  time  to  fire  I  was  little 
more  than  half  awake,  and  before  my  eyes  were 
in  a  condition  to  take  a  good  aim  the  animals 
had  evidently  found  out  all  they  wanted  to  know, 
so  left  in  a  hurry. 

I  was  obliged  to  travel  slowly  that  day,  as  the 
grass  was  long  and  the  boys  with  their  bare 
feet  felt  the  want  of  a  foot-path,  for  even  with 
care  their  toes  were  cut  by  the  sharp,  saw-like 
edges  of  the  grass.  My  own  feet  were,  of  course, 
protected  up  to  now,  but  for  how  much  longer 
they  would  be  it  was  impossible  to  judge,  as 
my  veldt-schoons  were  only  held  together  by  an 
interlacing  of  iron  wire. 

As  I  advanced  the  country  became  higher  and 

higher,  more  broken,  and  in  places  rocky,  until  in 

the  evening  I  camped  near  a  stream  about  a  mile 

from  the  hills  I  had  selected  as  my  objective  two 

days  ago.     During  that  time  no  glimpse  of  them 



had  been  obtainable  on  account  of  the  forest,  and 
I  must  have  passed  within  half  a  mile  of  these 
hills  before  camping.  As  I  afterwards  found, 
they  are  known  as  Namabuba,  and  the  stream 
which  has  its  source  among  them  as  Nama- 

The  country  I  had  travelled  through,  which 
is  similar  in  character  to  what  I  saw  hereafter 
during  my  stay  in  Boshikolumbwe,  I  find 
described  in  my  diary  as  **the  most  pleasant 
I  have  seen,  high  and  dry,  soil  good,  fertile 
valleys,  open  bush."  Up  to  now  no  sign  of 
human  habitation  had  been  seen. 

After  once  more  patching  up  my  shoes  with 
wire — for  they  had  again  broken  asunder  in 
places — I  started  off  for  the  hills,  selecting  for 
ascent  a  large  round  granite  kopjie,  on  which  the 
only  vegetation  grew  from  the  cracks  which  had 
gathered  a  certain  amount  of  soil. 

From  the  summit  I  got  an  excellent  view 
of  the  surrounding  country,  and  took  some  half- 
dozen  compass  bearings  and  a  photograph  look- 
ing northwards. 

On  returning  I  met  two  Mashikolumbwe,  who 
pointed  in  the  direction  I  was  taking  as  being 
that  of  Kaiyngu.  From  scraps  of  conversation 
I  had  heard  fall  from  the  boys,  I  judged  they 
were  by  no  means  confident  that  I  knew  where 
I  was  going.  On  the  previous  day  I  heard  one 
of  them  give  as  his  opinion  that  it  was  an  absurd 



thing  for  the  macore  ho  tsamaia  ka  pele  —  the 
white  man  to  lead  the  way.  Now  that  they 
saw  that  by  means  of  my  compass  I  had  brought 
them  right  in  spite  of  forest  and  cloudy  sky, 
they  did  not  disguise  their  surprise;  and  Muliphi, 
with  the  superstition  of  ignorance,  insisted  that 
my  compass  was  schellem^  which  denotes  anything 
that  is  uncanny,  be  it  evil  spirit,  vicious  man, 
or  noxious  animal. 

Early  in  the  afternoon  I  continued  my  journey, 
reaching  a  Mashikolumbwe  village  in  about  an 
hour.  There  were  no  men  to  be  seen,  and  a 
few  women  only.  These  latter  gave  me  quite 
an  enthusiastic  reception,  especially  one  old  lady, 
who  jabbered  out  her  welcomes  at  a  surprising 
rate,  and  shrieked  to  all  the  other  ladies  in  the 
village  to  come  out  and  see  the  white  man. 

The  name  of  the  village,  or  rather  I  should 
say  cluster  of  villages,  was  Edzumbe.  Imagine 
a  clearing  of  about  300  acres  planted  with 
mealies  from  end  to  end,  and  studded  with 
several  small  clusters  of  round  huts,  with  grass- 
thatched  roofs  extending  almost  to  the  ground, 
and  round  each  of  these  a  strong  stockade  some 
twelve  feet  high  planted  deep  in  the  ground  and 
firmly  bound  together  —  such  is  the  Mashiko- 
lumbwe village  of  Edzumbe,  which  is  typical  of 
the  larger  centres  among  these  peoples. 

While  descending  from  the  high  ground  on 
which    the    village    stands,    I    passed    several 



Mashikolumbwe  warriors,  and  I  must  say  was 
not  favourably  impressed  either  with  their 
manner  or  appearance.  Savages  whose  sole 
article  of  apparel  consisted  in  a  leather  necklet 
constructed  on  the  principle  of  a  bootlace,  on 
which  is  threaded  either  a  large  bead  or  two, 
the  horn  of  a  small  antelope,  or  the  hoof  of  a 
goat,  their  hair  plus  that  of  their  wives — who 
are  clean  shaven — worked  up  with  some  gum- 
like preparation  into  a  semi-spherical  chignon  on 
the  back  of  the  head,  and  armed  cap-d-pied  with 
assegai,  axe,  bow,  and  poisoned  arrows — they 
passed  within  a  few  feet  of  me  without  greetings 
or  remark,  scarcely  a  glance,  and  sometimes  a 
sneer.  Never  having  seen  a  white  man  before, 
the  ignoring  of  my  presence  by  one  and  all  of 
them,  whether  they  passed  by  singly  or  in  small 
groups,  could  only  be  remarkable  if  not  hostile. 

I  was  barely  two  miles  past  the  village  when  one 
of  the  boys  noticed  an  eland  on  the  outskirts 
of  the  forest  which  bordered  the  open  vale  along 
which  I  was  travelling.  Making  a  detour,  a  fire 
was  lighted  in  the  forest,  the  two  porters  left  to 
look  after  the  few  goods  and  chattels  I  had  with 
me,  and  I  set  off  with  Muliphi  in  pursuit  of  the 
game.  In  a  short  time  five  eland  cows  were 
in  sight,  but  they  took  alarm  and  went  away 
without  giving  a  chance  of  a  shot.  While 
following  the  spoor  across  an  open  valley,  a 
herd  of  zebra  were  to  be  seen  just  within  the 



forest  opposite,  and  to  their  right  a  herd  of  ten 
or  a  dozen  Lichenstein's  hartebeest.  Throwing 
myself  on  my  stomach,  I  crawled  to  an  ant-heap 
within  sixty  yards  of  the  hartebeest  Just  as  I 
pulled  the  trigger  the  herd  looked  up — a  click, 
and  off  they  went.  I  had  very  cleverly  stalked 
my  game  with  an  empty  rifle.  On  looking  up 
four  different  herds  were  to  be  seen  all  within 
a  short  distance  of  one  another  in  the  forest — 
eland,  hartebeest,  pallah,  and  zebra. 

The  eland  had  not  seen  me,  but  trotted  slowly 
off,  being  put  on  the  qui  vive  by  the  retreat  of 
the  hartebeest.  I  decided  therefore  to  once  more 
devote  my  energies  to  them,  as  their  flesh  is 
better  eating,  and  their  fat — a  luxury  seldom 
found  in  any  other  African  antelope — is  soft,  and 
does  not  stick  to  the  roof  of  the  mouth, 
Muliphi  spoored,  and  my  eyes  were  well  to  the 
front  until  I  once  more  observed  these  splendid 
animals  grazing  about  300  yards  away,  but  un- 
fortunately the  pallah  which  were  between  them 
and  myself  saw  me  and  bolted ;  thus  for  the 
second  time  the  eland  were  apprised  of  a  hidden 
danger  and  trotted  slowly  away.  Once  more  they 
were  sighted,  and  once  more  I  crawled  slowly 
through  scant  covert  towards  them,  eventually 
finding  myself  behind  a  huge,  bush-covered  ant- 
heap,  within  150  yards  of  them.  They  had  quite 
settled  down  now,  picked  leisurely  at  the  grass  and 

young  leaves,  and  plied  their  tails  from  flank  to 



flank  in  contest  with  the  flies  that  worried  them. 
I  had  been  in  pursuit  for  two  hours,  and  now  had 
to  wait  some  minutes  in  the  hopes  of  getting  a 
shot  at  a  fat  cow  with  exceptional  horns  which 
would  not  show  herself  in  the  open,  though  the 
others  gave  me  an  excellent  chance  one  after  the 
other.  When  they  once  more  trekked  forward, 
I  regretted  I  had  been  so  fastidious  in  ignoring 
all  but  the  best.  Again  I  followed,  and  under 
cover  of  a  stunted  bush  got  to  within  lOO  yards. 
This  time  fortune  favoured,  the  cow  I  coveted 
showed  me  her  shoulder ;  I  fired  and  down  she 
came.  She  proved  to  be  fat,  and  carried  one  of 
the  best  pairs  of  eland  cow-horns  I  have  seen. 

The  game  had  taken  me  in  detour  to  within  a 
mile  of  the  village.  I  at  once  sent  Muliphi  to 
bring  the  two  other  boys  and  their  loads  in,  and 
decided  to  camp  by  the  carcase  for  the  night. 

Either  the  report  of  the  rifle  or  the  smell  of 
fresh  meat  attracted  a  gang  of  Mashikolumbwe, 
headed  by  their  chief,  who  was  dressed  in  the 
same  unostentatious  fashion  as  his  subjects. 
Gold  works  wonders  where  the  consciences  and 
affections  of  civilized  races  are  concerned ;  so,  too, 
meat  with  the  African  native  will  make  a  friend 
of  an  enemy,  and  the  paths  of  him  who  supplies 
it  smooth.  Consequently  these  very  savages 
who  had  scowled  on  me  three  hours  earlier  were 
now  both  affable  and  friendly — in  fact  seemed  to 
think  I  was  not  such  a  bad  sort  of  person  after 
s  257 


alL  Putting  together  my  first  rec^)don  and 
subsequent  experiences  with  the  pec^le  of  their 
tribe,  I  am  not  certain  that  this  eland  cow  did 
not  save  me  consideraUe  inconvenience. 

I  took  the  opportunity  of  finding  out  firom 
diese  people  the  names  of  the  rivers  and  hills 
in  their  neighbourhood,  and,  as  was  my  invariable 
custom,  whedier  die  rarer  and  more  sought  after 
species  of  big  game  were  to  be  found. 

That  evening  I  had  two  experiences  of  the 
petty  worries  and  annoyances  which  the  African 
traveller  is  frequendy  subjected  to,  but  with 
which  I  have  not  made  it  the  rule  to  worry  the 
reader.  The  eland  head  with  the  neck  had  been 
severed  from  the  body,  and  awaited  its  turn  to 
be  skinned  and  cleaned  as  a  specimen.  A  good 
deal  of  chopping  was  of  course  going  on  all 
round,  as  my  own  boys  and  my  Mashikolumbwe 
guests  energetically  (the  African  native  is 
energetic  where  meat  is  concerned)  cut  up  the 
eland.  Wishing  to  prepare  everything  for  an 
immediate  start  in  the  early  morning,  I  told 
Muliphi  to  bring  the  head  to  me  and  skin  it 
under  my  supervision,  a  precaution  I  always 
found  necessary  if  I  wanted  my  orders  carried 
out  correctly.  He  returned  to  tell  me  that 
Macumba — the  less  intelligent  of  my  "loyal** 
porters — had  spoiled  the  skin.  I  went  to  see 
what  had  happened,  and  found  that  the  left  cheek 
had  been  used  as  a  butcher's  block  and  the  skin 



was  hacked  and  cut  about  in   every  direction* 
I  was  not  very  pleased  with  Macumba. 

Eland  marrow  bone  is  a  luxury,  and  once  in  a 
way  I  appreciate  a  grilled  bone.  Muliphi,  by  my 
orders,  had  saved  one  and  put  it  aside  till 
wanted.  But  lo !  when  that  time  came,  the  bone 
was  nowhere  to  be  found,  until,  on  search  being 
made,  it  transpired  that  Letangu — the  more 
intelligent  of  my  "loyal"  porters — ^was  already 
three  parts  through  his  master's  supper.  And 
thus  I  was  robbed  of  my  bone. 

The  chief  of  Edzumbe,  after  impressing  on 
me  that  Kaiyngu  was  quite  an  insignificant 
person  as  compared  with  himself — no  doubt 
with  the  object  of  inducing  me  to  sojourn 
where  I  was  for  a  short .  time  and  supply  him 
and  his  people  with  more  meat — undertook  to 
lend  two  boys  to  accompany  me  as  far  as  the 
chiefs  town,  and  to  carry  a  small  load  of 
meat  each  on  the  condition  that  I  gave  him 
the  rest  of  the  carcase. 

These  boys  were  ready  to  start  in  the  early 
morning,  and,  with  a  view  to  ensuring  the  safe 
conduct  of  the  meat,  I  told  them  that  when 
I  reached  my  destination  I  would  give  each  a 
"bonsela"  of  beads. 

After  4i  miles*  march  I  halted  for  breakfast 
Macumba  and  Letangu  had  not  put  in  an 
appearance  when  I  continued  my  journey,  though 
at  the  time  I  thought  nothing  of  an  occurrence 



by  no  means  uncommon.  As  I  advanced 
my  mind  became  uneasy.  Had  these  boys 
absconded  with  my  things?  or  had  the  Mashi- 
kolumbwe  waylaid  and  robbed  them  ? 

Muliphi  was  sure  they  would  not  desert  here, 
and  certainly  reason  was  in  favour  of  his  view. 
African  natives  think  twice  before  molesting 
a  white  man  or  his  servants,  and  so  long  as 
the  two  missing  boys  belonged  to  me  they 
were  comparatively  speaking  safe,  though  to 
what  extent  was  a  matter  of  doubt  in  this 
particular  country.  Once,  however,  their  con- 
nection with  a  white  man  became  severed,  they 
would  have  small  chance  if  they  fell  in  with 
any  Mashikolumbwe  warriors,  for  it  is  the 
custom  of  the  country  either  to  knock  any 
native  stranger  on  the  head  at  sight,  or,  if  young 
and  presentable,  enslave  and  sell  him  to  the 
half-caste  Portuguese  "ivory"  traders  who 
occasionally  visit  their  country. 

But    the   second    hypothesis    gave    me   some 

anxiety,   as    these    two    boys    carried    most    of 

the  few  necessaries   I  had  brought  with   me — 

a    Mannlicher,    shot-gun    barrels,    and    all    my 

ammunition  save  nine  i6-bore  cartridges  which 

were  in  my  belt,  most  of  my  scanty  supply  of 

groceries  and  the  beads,   etc.      That   afternoon 

I  passed  through  a  picturesque  broken  country, 

falling  away  towards  the  Kafukwe  river,  which 

was  but  a  short  distance  to  my  right     A  cluster 



of  large  kopjies  rose  in  front,  close  to  which 
I  had  been  given  to  understand  Kaiyngus 
head-quarters  were.  Here  I  rested  for  a  short 
time  to  fill  in  the  route  sketch  of  the  last  stage, 
as  was  my  invariable  custom  throughout  when- 
ever a  halt  was  made. 

"  Letangu  lapa,"  Muliphi  suddenly  ejaculated. 

I  looked  up,  and  sure  enough  Letangu  ap- 
proached, closely  followed  by  Macumba.  The 
suspicion  of  disaster  had  caused  me  more 
anxiety  than  its  realisation  would  have  done. 
I  was  so  pleased  to  see  the  pair  of  black  faces, 
each  with  a  broad  grin  stretching  nigh  from 
ear  to  ear,  that  I  omitted  to  upbraid  them 
for  the  anxiety  they  had  caused  me.  It 
transpired  that  they  had  taken  the  wrong  path 
while  passing  through  the  precincts  of  a  deserted 
village,  but  knowing  that  Kaiyngu  lay  behind 
the  hills  in  front  had  eventually  struck  my  spoor 
a  short  distance  back. 

A  few  hundred  yards  further  on  the  stockade 
of  the  village  was  to  be  seen,  so  I  turned  off  to 
the  right  and  followed  the  course  of  a  small 
stream  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  and  here 
selected  a  shady  spot  for  camping. 

When  everything  was  settled  and  a  bivouac 

of  boughs  had  been  constructed  to  protect  me 

from  the  rains  and  dews,  I  left  Macumba  to  look 

after  the  camp  and,  with  Muliphi  and  Letangu, 

went  to  see  what  manner  of  man  Kaiyngu  was. 



OUTSIDE  Kaiyngus  stockade  a  subject 
told  me  the  chief  was  within,  and  led 
the  way  into  the  centre  of  the  compound. 
Around  the  inside  of  the  compound  was  a  circle 
of  round  huts,  and  in  the  centre  a  larger  one, 
in  front  of  which  was  a  good-looking  native 
with  grey  hair  and  beard,  clothed  in  a  blanket, 
and  seated  on  a  wooden  stool. 

He  rose  as  I  entered,  we  shook  hands  and 
exchanged  **  greetings." 

Then  I  conversed  through  Letangu,  who 
understood  the  Mashikolumbwe  language — or, 
more  correctly  speaking,  "dialect";  for  I  am  told 
by  the  missionaries  that  there  is  no  more 
difference  between  the  Mashikolumbwe  language 
and  that  of  the  Marotse  than  there  is  between 
the  English  of  the  Yorkshire  '*  yokel "  and  his 
Devonshire  brother,  though  it  is  so  far  distinct 
that  while  Letangu  could  converse  freely,  neither 
Macumba  nor  Muliphi  could  make  themselves 
understood  without  considerable  difficulty. 

'*  I  am  glad  to  be  here  at  last,  Kaiyngu,"  I  said. 

"  I  have  come  a  long  way  to  see  you." 



"It  is  very  good  of  the  ' Macore '  to  journey 
so  far  to  see  me,"  he  replied.  "  I  bid  him 
welcome  to  Kaiyngu." 

"  The  Morena  (chief),  Liwanika,  told  me  about 
you  when  I  was  at  Lialui.  He  said  you  were 
subject  to  him,  are  a  good  chief,  and  would  give 
me  help  if  I  wanted  it" 

Many  Mashikolumbwe  chiefs  have  acknow- 
ledged Liwanika  as  their  paramount  chief,  and 
send  a  tusk,  a  leopard  skin,  or  food  stuffs  annually 
as  a  tribute  and  acknowledgment  of  suzerainty. 
In  this  way  they  escape  being  raided,  and  are 
practically  as  independent  as  ever  they  were. 

"  Yes,"  he  said,  **  I  know  Liwanika.  I  once 
went  to  see  him  in  Borotse." 

One  thing  struck  me  at  once  in  the  manner  of 
this  chief  Liwanika  speaks  in  a  quick,  some- 
what nervous  manner,  at  times  almost  stammering 
in  his  hurry  to  get  out  his  sentence.  Kaiyngu 
had  struck  off  this  mannerism  to  a  nicety,  and  it 
was  at  times  almost  impossible  to  believe  that  his 
better  was  not  speaking.  "  Imitation  is  the 
sincerest  flattery,"  and  apparently  black  men 
suffer  from  the  same  weakness  as  the  civilized 
race  whose  idiosyncrasies  have  given  birth  to 
this  and  other  proverbs. 

And  so  we  talked  till  there  was  nothing  more 
to  talk  about  In  the  meantime  I  was  much 
interested  by  my  surroundings.  The  sun  was 
just  setting,  and  gilded  everything  with  a  golden 



richness  on  which  his  declining  rays  played  as  he 
bade  adieu  to  shed  his  lustre  in  other  climes. 
Through  the  stockade  these  streaks  of  light  cast 
an  almost  unnatural  brightness  on  the  scene 
within,  so  intense  and  vivid  was  the  contrast 
between  the  golden  light  and  the  dull,  sombre 
shade.  Wandering  about  in  the  clear  space 
between  the  huts  of  the  chief  and  his  people 
were  some  ten  head  of  Mashikolumbwe  cattle. 
These  miniature  animals  belong  to  the  neater 
and  more  graceful  class  of  cattle,  and  more 
nearly  resemble  the  Ayrshire  in  shape  than  any 
other  breed  at  home.  I  have  measured  a  full- 
grown  cow  at  thirty-six  inches  at  the  shoulder. 
Among  the  cattle,  some  of  which  were  being 
milked,  cocks  and  hens  and  little  naked  niggers 
wandered  at  their  own  sweet  will,  while  in  the 
background,  squatting  in  front  of  their  huts,  sat 
the  women,  closely  scrutinising  a  member  of  that 
mysterious  race  of  which  they  had  often  heard, 
but  had  never  till  now  seen  a  specimen. 

The  chief  and  myself  had  said  all  we  wanted, 
and  I  was  about  to  bid  him  adieu,  when  a  tall, 
dreamy-looking  native  appeared  from  behind 
some  huts  carrying  a  huge  native  **  piano,"  four 
or  five  feet  from  end  to  end,  which,  as  I  subse- 
quently found,  produced  by  no  means  unpleasant 
music  through  the  medium  of  a  couple  of  drum- 
sticks and  the  combination  of  iron-work  and  some 
eight  different-sized  calabashes  attached. 



The  musician,  who  was  draped  in  a  long,  flow- 
ing, blue  and  white  plaid  robe,  slowly  advanced  to 
a  hut  immediately  opposite.  There  he  seated 
himself  with  an  air  of  nonchalance,  and  leisurely 
prepared  to  air  his  talent.  Then  in  sonorous  tones 
to  his  own  accompaniment  he  warbled  out  a  song 
in  honour  of  the  white  man  who  had  come  from 
afar  to  see  his  chief. 

This  over,  I  congratulated  Kaiyngu  on  the 
excellence  of  his  band,  and  retired  to  my  bough- 
built  bivouac,  dinner,  and  sleep. 

The  sun  had  not  risen  when  the  soft,  subdued 
tones  of  Kaiyngu's  band  once  more  struck  my 
ears  and  woke  me  abruptly  from  sleep.  Putting 
my  head  round  the  corner,  the  tall,  dreamy-looking 
native  approached  at  the  head  of  a  single  file 
procession,  beating  lustily  at  his  instrument, 
which  was  supported  by  a  cord  passed  round  the 
back  of  his  neck.  Next  came  the  chief  himself, 
and  behind  men  and  boys  of  most  ages  from 
fourteen  to  forty-five. 

The  old  man  was  now  clothed  in  his  Sunday 
best — a  striped  cotton  shirt  with  a  belt  round 
the  waist,  and  a  coloured  handkerchief  placed 
turban-like  on  his  head,  and  over  his  shoulders  a 
white  cotton  blanket  All  his  retainers,  too,  had 
something  on,  though  not  very  much.  It  is  the 
custom  throughout  Liwanika's  empire  to  sling 
from  a  waistbelt  fore  and  aft  a  small  strip  of  skin. 

The  leading  inhabitants  of  Kaiyngu,  being  more 



advanced  than  their  neighbours,  have  not  only 
adopted  this  fashion  but  have  dispensed  with  the 
gum-and-wool  chignon,  worn  almost  universally 
by  the  Mashikolumbwe, 

After  wishing  lunula,  the  old  chief  called  up 
the  small  boys  that  followed  him — bright,  good- 
looking  little  fellows — ^and  presented  them  to  me 
one  by  one  with  the  simple  statement,  **This 
is  Kaiyngu." 

I  discovered  afterwards  that  the  old  gentleman 
is  the  father  of  a  numerous  family  ranging  from 
forty  years  of  age  to  something  very  near  zero. 
Each  and  every  one  of  these  were  always 
addressed  simply  as  **  Kaiyngu,"  and  though 
I  presume  they  must  have  some  distinctive 
auxiliary  name  I  never  heard  one  applied  save 
to  the  father,  to  whom  his  people  occasionally 
referred  as  *'  Morena,"  or  chief. 

In  answer  to  my  request  that  he  should  dis- 
patch a  dozen  boys  to  bring  on  my  things  from 
the  Musa  camp,  Kaiyngu  affected  to  be  only 
too  delighted  to  accede  to  my  wishes  that  very 
day,  and  I  was  led  to  suppose  in  the  evening 
that  the  boys  had  been  sent  under  guidance 
of  my  boy  Macumba.  After  the  chief  and  his 
principal  men  and  sons  had  partaken  of  cold 
eland  meat  he  departed,  and  I  took  my  rifle 
and  strolled  down  to  the  river,  which  was 
about  a  mile  from  the  encampment  The  path 
wound  its  way  through  thick  bush  until  within 



lOO  yards  of  the  Kafukwe.  When  my  eyes 
rested  on  a  picturesque  river  with  high  banks 
and  400  yards  of  deep,  clear  water,  I  confess 
to  having  been  not  a  little  surprised  to  find 
the  Kafukwe  approach  if  it  did  not  equal  the 
Zambezi  in  size  at  the  same  distance — between 
three  and  four  hundred  miles — from  the  conflu- 
ence of  the  two  streams.  As  I  strolled  along 
the  bank  two  or  three  lots  of  pookoo  were  to  be 
seen  grazing  on  the  open  flats  which  bordered  on 
the  river  about  two  miles  up  stream. 

One  of  these  herds,  a  nice  ram  and  five  or  six 
does,  took  alarm,  and  in  their  flight  turned  up 
a  narrow  valley  skirted  by  bush.  I  followed 
them  under  cover  for  about  half  a  mile,  when 
they  were  found  grazing  quietly  a  short  distance 
from  a  large  ant-heap,  by  means  of  which  I 
placed  myself  within  150  yards  of  them. 

A  bullet  from  my  i6-bore  struck  the  ram  in 
the  right  place,  he  staggered  forward  two  or 
three  paces,  then  fell  dead. 

On  returning  to  camp  I  sent  a  hind-quarter 
to  Kaiyngu,  and  after  keeping  what  I  wanted 
for  myself  and  boys,  distributed  the  remainder 
among  the  Mashikolumbwe  who  had  accom- 
panied me.  The  natives  had  been  living  on 
nothing  but  wild  roots  for  many  months,  which 
their  women  spent  the  whole  day  in  search  of. 
Although  there  was    plenty    of   game    in    the 

neighbourhood  it  was  little  or  no  good  to  this 



inferior  tribe,  the  members  of  which  are  too  lazy 
even  to  hunt.  I  frequently  found  that  they  were 
loth  to  spoor  up  a  wounded  antelope,  if  the 
animal  had  strength  to  travel  more  than  two 
or  three  hundred  yards  after  receiving  the 

I  had  an  uncomfortable  experience  that  even- 
ing, while  sitting  just  within  my  shelter  in  front 
of  the  fire.  First  one  nip  and  then  another 
prompted  me  to  look  down  to  see  what  manner 
of  insect  I  was  sitting  on.  The  ground  was 
literally  swarming  with  red  ants,  and  so  were  my 
legs,  but  fortunately,  thanks  to  my  putties,  they 
were  outside  only.  I  was  not  long  in  making 
myself  scarce,  and  spent'  the  remainder  of  the 
night  by  a  fire  which  I  caused  to  be  made  on 
fresh  ground. 

This  red  ant  possesses  the  knack  of  finding  its 

way  through  ground  to  any  spot  on  which  raw 

meat  may  have  been  placed.     They  are  known 

among  hunters  and  traders  as  the  "  red  soldier 

ant,"  and  by  the  Marotse  as  "serula,"  and  are 

carnivorous,  as  the  circumstances  I  mention  would 

imply,  for  within  a  very  short  time  of  the  first 

discovery  of  a  joint  of  meat  its  whole  surface  is 

covered  with  these  vicious  little  insects.     A  black 

soldier  ant,  also  known  as  *'serula,"  I  have  met 

with  in  other  parts.     In  a  subsequent  chapter  I 

relate  a  marvellous  instance  of  the  vicious  energy 

of  these  insects  which  came  under  my  notice. 



On  the  1 8th  Kaiyngu  paid  me  another  early 
visit,  but  this  time  without  the  band. 

Later  I  went  out  in  search  of  game  in  a 
westerly  direction,  but  wandered  far  without 
seeing  anything  save  a  small  herd  of  hartebeest, 
which,  however,  I  failed  to  get  a  shot  at  Having 
been  out  all  day,  I  was  on  my  way  back  when  a 
large  herd  of  wildebeest  were  seen  grazing  down 
an  open  vale.  After  a  careful  stalk  I  got  an 
easy  chance  at  a  bull,  and  made  an  atrocious 
shot  at  him.  Away  they  all  scampered  and  I 
after  them.  At  about  800  yards  they  stood, 
turned,  and,  contrary  to  their  own  interests, 
galloped  back  on  their  own  spoor  towards  a 
small  bush,  behind  which  I  crouched.  Down 
they  came,  passing  my  bush  at  full  speed  at  a 
distance  of  120  yards.  A  bull  brought  up  the 
rear,  and  I  took  a  shot  at  him.  It  was  evident 
he  was  hit,  as  he  swerved  at  once,  and  describing 
a  semicircle  followed  the  herd  into  the  bush.  He 
was  found  200  yards  beyond,  stone-dead  at  the 
base  of  an  ant-heap.  A  lucky  shot  had  passed 
through  the  heart,  and  my  previous  bad  miss  was 
atoned  for  in  the  eyes  of  my  savage  friends,  who 
were  not  long  in  lighting  a  fire  and  getting  their 
teeth  into  the  old  bull's  flesh. 

Next  day  I  remained  in  camp  all  the  morning. 

A  steady  downpour  of  rain  had  wet  everything, 

and  left  me  more  inclined  for  rest  than  hunting. 

My  bough  hut  was  good  enough  to  keep  the 



water  off  throughout  an  ordinary  downpour  of 
rain,  but  twelve  hours  proved  too  much  for  my 
temporary  roof,  and  sleep  on  wet  ground  and  in  a 
wet  blanket  has  not  the  same  refreshing  influence 
as  it  has  under  more  favourable  conditions. 

In  the  afternoon  I  strolled  down  to  the  river 
with  shot-gun  and  camera.  Whilst  wandering 
about  in  search  of  guinea-fowl  or  other  feathered 
game,  the  appearance  of  a  pookoo  ram  and  some 
five  does  suggested  the  idea  of  a  photograph 
at  close  quarters  if  possible.  The  grass  was 
about  two  feet  long,  so  I  managed  to  crawl  un- 
noticed to  within  thirty-five  yards  of  the  little 
group.  Three  times  in  succession  I  photo- 
graphed them,  and  congratulated  myself  on  so 
successful  a  stalk.  But  lo!  when  my  negatives 
six  months  later  came  to  be  developed,  these 
three  were  among  the  fogged  ones. 

Afterwards  I  shot  a  brace  of  guinea-fowl  and 
returned  to  camp. 

On  the  20th  I  decided  to  go  out  in  a  northerly 
direction,  with  as  usual  the  double  object  of 
shooting  and  seeing  as  much  of  the  surrounding 
country  as  possible. 

This  was  one  of  those  occasions,  which  I  sup- 
pose occur  to  most  of  us,  on  which  nearly  every- 
thing I  did  seemed  to  be  the  wrong  thing. 

The  "son  and  heir"  Kaiyngu,  and  a  suitable 
retinue  for  so  important  a  personage,  accompanied 
me  on  this  occasion.     We  had  not  gone  far  when 



a  small  boy  came  running  up  and  told  me  he  had 
seen  a  leopard.  According  to  him  the  animal 
had  retreated  down  the  edge  of  a  valley  across 
which  our  path  led  us.  After  following  for  about 
600  yards  I  sighted  the  leopard  standing  a 
hundred  yards  away  broadside  on,  but  looking 
away  with  his  head  turned  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion. Unfortunately  a  bit  of  scrubby  bush  close 
to  which  he  stood  covered  his  shoulder,  though 
as  likely  as  not  a  spherical  bullet  would  have  found 
its  way  through  without  deflection.  As  he  had 
not  seen  me  I  thought  I  could  improve  the 
position  by  crawling  to  the  far  side  of  a  small 
clump  of  bush  where  I  should  have  been  able  to 
get  a  clear  shot.  But  by  the  time  I  got  there 
the  leopard  was  gone,  and  I  felt  I  had  done 
the  wrong  thing  in  not  firing  on  first  sight. 

Next  I  wounded  a  pookoo  ram  in  the  shoulder, 
but  with  a  bad  shot,  as  my  bullet  struck  too  high. 
His  blood  spoor  was  followed  for  some  distance 
but  without  result;  he  still  went  strong,  so  the 
chase  was  given  up. 

Some  time  afterwards  a  Lichenstein's  hartebeest 
with  a  severe  lung  wound  gave  me  a  long  hunt 
After  viewing  him  several  times  but  never  getting 
near  enough  to  administer  a  coup  de  grdce^  chance 
brought  me  at  last  to  within  ten  yards  of  the 
game,  as  the  wounded  animal  lay  on  the  ground 
behind  a  bush.  I  was  just  on  the  point  of  firing 
when   the  heir  apparent    rushed    forward    and 



hurled  an  assegai  at  a  distance  of  about  five 
paces,  but  missed  by  as  many  feet.  The  antelope 
was  on  his  feet  in  a  moment  and  made  another 
bid  for  life.  In  spite  of  my  bellowing  at  him 
at  the  top  of  my  voice  to  come  back,  Master 
Kaiyngu  once  more  placed  himself  between  the 
muzzle  of  the  rifle  and  my  quarry,  again  hurled 
an  assegai  at  close  quarters,  but  missed  as  hope- 
lessly as  before.  A  volume  of  English  adjectives 
followed,  Kaiyngu  looked  bewildered,  and  my 
fluency  came  as  a  relief  after  the  months  during 
which  my  voice  had  been  accustomed  to  the 
murdering  of  native  languages  only.  All  this 
meant  another  chase,  and  would  have  developed 
into  a  third  had  the  hartebeest  not  taken  us  to 
the  bank  of  the  river. 

Here  Kaiyngu  once  more  played  the  same 
game  with  similar  result,  but  this  time  the  poor 
beast  took  to  water,  and  died  about  fifty  yards 
from  the  bank.  The  body  was  recovered  a  few 
hundred  yards  down  stream,  cut  up,  and  carried 

It  was  dark  when  camp  was  reached  that 
evening,  and  the  meat  did  not  arrive  till  some 
two  hours  later,  when  a  shoulder  was  sent  as 
a  present  to  Kaiyngu.  First  thing  in  the  morn- 
ing the  meat  was  returned  to  me  with  the  curt 
message : 

'*The  chief  does  not  want  this,  he  wants  a 
hind  leg." 



I  told  one  of  my  boys  to  take  the  shoulder 
and  cut  it  into  strips  for  drying. 

Now,  I  have  always  been  convinced  that  more 
is  to  be  gained  than  lost  by  not  only  taking  up  a 
position  of  independence  in  dealing  with  native 
chiefs,  but  by  individual  action  conveying  to  them 
the  idea  that  the  white  man  not  only  thinks 
himself  but  actually  is  superior  to  each  and  all 
of  them  ;  and  this  is  more  essential  in  the  case  of 
the  unprotected  traveller  with  three  boys  than 
where  an  armed  rabble  of  niggers,  for  what  is 
meant  to  be  defensive  purpose,  can  be  employed 
to  menace  or  coerce.  In  my  own  mind  I  feel 
sure  the  keynote  of  successful  travel  among  the 
more  remote  and  least  known  peoples  of  the 
African  continent  is  the  note  that  was  struck 
by  Livingstone  and  Joseph  Thompson,  whose 
force  of  character,  determination,  and  consistency 
opened  paths  which  would  have  been  closed  to  a 
show  of  force,  and,  what  is  still  more  important, 
left  behind  them  a  confidence  and  respect  which 
have  helped  and  not  deterred  those  who  followed 

To   be  dignified  but  not  overbearing,   to   be 

courteous  without  being  either  cold  or  familiar, — 

for  the  one  breeds  apathy,  the  other  contempt, 

— and  to  be  fair  and  just,  suggest  a  line  of  conduct 

which  contributes  towards  the  grand  secret  for 

travelling  far  and  with  the  minimum  of  trouble. 

In  my  humble  and  imperfect  way  I  have  tried  to 
T  273 


practise  what  I  preach,  and  consistency  was  more 
than  ever  necessary  in  my  present  isolated  posi- 
tion. Kaiyngu  and  his  people  had  been  living  on 
wild  roots  for  months  before  my  arrival.  For 
four  consecutive  days  I  had  sent  him  sometimes 
a  quarter  of  an  antelope,  sometimes  more,  and  he 
was  even  now  beginning  to  presume  on  my  good 
offices.  I  had  no  wish  to  quarrel  with  the  old 
man,  but  knew  perfectly  well  that  the  gift  of 
an  inch  would  be  followed  up  next  time  by  the 
demand  for  a  yard,  and  then  heaven  only  knows 
what  the  sequel  would  be  had  he  once  realised 
that  I  was  not  altogether  independent  of  him. 

So  I  sent  the  messenger  back  to  tell  his  master 
that  since  he  did  not  want  the  meat  I  would  keep 
it  for  my  own  boys,  and  that  as  I  wanted  the 
hind-quarters  he  would  have  to  do  without  any 
at  all. 

Towards  evening  Letangu  wished  to  visit  the 
village,  so  I  instructed  him  to  tell  Kaiyngu 
incidentally  that  the  white  man  thought  he  had 
not  behaved  like  a  chief  in  returning  the  present, 
but  as  a  man  of  small  importance. 

His  majesty  did  not  come  near  me  that  day — a 
most  unusual  occurrence. 

On  the  22nd  I  went  out  hunting  in  a  south- 
westerly direction,  and  after  refusing  to  fire  at 
some  zebra,  much  to  the  disgust  of  my  Mashi- 
kolumbwe  followers,  tramped  a  long  way  without 
seeing  anything,  until  when  within  a  couple  of 



miles  from  camp  a  herd  of  pallah  attracted  my 
attentioa.  I  shot  a  couple  of  rams,  one  of  which 
carried  an  exceptionally  fine  pair  of  horns. 

Not  very  long  after  returning,  Kaiyngu,  who 
no  doubt  thought  that  if  he  did  not  come  and  put 
things  right  with  me  he  would  have  to  do  without 
meat  this  night  also,  marched  up,  wished  me 
'' lunula^  and  squatted  down  by  the  fire. 

"  It  was  not  a  good  thing  for  you  to  do, 
Kaiyngu,  to  send  back  a  present  as  you  did 
the  meat  I  gave  yoa" 

He  told  me  he  did  not  wish  to  offend,  but  he 
preferred  the  hind-quarters. 

'*  So  did  I,"  was  the  answer,  and  then  went  on, 
"  If  I  give  you  half  a  pallah  will  you  send  it  back 
with  a  message  you  want  a  whole  one  ?  " 

No,  he  would  not. 

Next  he  told  me  that  he  had  received  word 
that  Macumba  could  not  find  my  camp  on  the 
Musa  river,  and  that  some  of  his  boys  had 

This  was  not  good  news,  the  more  especially 
as  my  small  supply  of  provisions  was  all  but 
finished.  It  was  therefore  arranged  that  Muliphi 
should  act  as  guide  to  another  batch  of  boys 
whom  he  consented  to  lend  me,  so  I  sent  them 
off  that  evening,  giving  Muliphi  instructions  that 
he  must  return  in  five  days.  Thus  I  found 
myself  left  alone  with  the  boy  Letangu  only. 
Next  morning  I  went  out  after  hippo  in  a  canoe. 



The  river  below  Kaiyngu  is  very  picturesque, 
studded  with  islands  and  broken  by  rapids. 

When  paddling  near  these  rapids  an  inquisitive 
hippo  watched  the  movements  of  the  canoe  so 
fearlessly  that  I  was  able  to  land  on  a  large  rock 
only  about  fifty  yards  from  him  and  to  fire  before 
he  showed  any  inclination  to  retreat  below  water. 
The  bullet  unfortunately  struck  high  and  merely 
ricochetted  off  the  animal  s  forehead,  judging  from 
the  sound  it  made,  before  it  subsequently  struck 
the  water  some  distance  beyond.  After  paddling 
three  or  four  miles  down  stream  I  landed  and 
walked  across  the  flats  that  bordered  on  the  river. 
There  I  viewed  a  herd  of  some  seven  warthogs, 
the  upper  part  of  their  bodies  only  showing 
above  the  grass.  From  an  ant-heap  about  lOo 
yards  from  them  they  offered  an  easy  shot  at  one. 
The  herd  scampered  across  my  front,  but  pulled 
up  before  going  more  than  fifty  yards.  A  fine 
old  boar  with  large  tusks  stood  with  his  shoulder 
exposed.  The  bullet  struck  home  and  sent  back  a 
telling  ''thut,"  and  away  they  all  went,  the  big 
boar  tearing  and  crashing  through  the  bush  in 
a  direction  of  his  own. 

On   reaching  the  spot   where  the   herd   had 

been,    I    was    surprised    to    find    a    sow    lying 

apparently  dead,  for  I  had  thought  the  first  shot 

had  missed  its  mark.     The  boar  had  torn  away, 

leaving    much    blood    spoor    behind    him,    and 

200  yards   on   he   was   found   stone-dead   with 



a  heart  wound.  He  was  a  big  brute,  and 
measured  79!  inches  from  snout  to  tip  of  tail, 
and  33  inches  at  shoulder.  The  spoil  was  cut 
up  and  carried  to  the  canoe,  which  was  reached 
shortly  after  sunset.  Fortunately  it  was  a  moon- 
light night,  as  camp  was  not  reached  till  about 
nine  o'clock. 

During  the  small  hours  of  morning  a  lion  was 
to  be  heard  roaming  about  in  the  district  I 
had  been  hunting,  so  thinking  it  probable  that 
he  might  have  struck  the  spoor  of  a  pookoo 
I  wounded  but  failed  to  bag  on  the  previous 
afternoon,  I  walked  down  the  river  until  the 
place  to  which  the  animal  had  been  spoored 
was  reached.  But  unfortunately,  with  Letangu 
as  my  only  boy,  I  was  bound  to  leave  him 
in  camp,  as  there  had  already  been  two  or  three 
cases  of  theft,  and  what  little  I  had  with  me  I 
had  no  wish  to  lose.  In  consequence  I  was 
dependent  on  Mashikolumbwe  for  spooring,  and 
they  were  one  and  all  useless  in  working  out  a 
spoor  that  was  not  as  plain  as  a  pikestaff.  So 
after  wasting  some  time  in  a  fruidess  attempt  an 
adjournment  was  made  in  favour  of  fresh  game. 

Not  long  afterwards  I  came  across  a  herd  of 
seven  pookoos — ^all  rams.  One  carried  a  very 
long  pair  of  horns ;  so  long  were  they  that  when 
I  first  saw  them  three  or  four  hundred  yards 
away  I  was  by  no  means  certain  that  their 
owner  was  not  a  lechwe. 




By  crawling  through  the  grass  I  was  all  but 
near  enough  to  fire  when  some  women  who 
were  wandering  about  in  search  of  edible  roots 
put  them  to  flight  Again  I  followed,  and  came 
once  more  in  sight  after  going  half  a  mile  or  so. 

By  the  time  I  had  crawled  to  within  1 20  yards 

they    became    suspicious    that    something    was 

wrong,    and    looked     restlessly    about     in     all 

directions.      I    saw    that    if    time   were    wasted 

the  work  would  have  to  be  done  over  again ; 

so,  as  the  owner  of  the  coveted  horns  stood  with 

his  shoulder  exposed,  I  raised  myself  gradually 

above   the  grass,   aimed,   and   fired.      The   six 

were  off  in  a  trice,  but  my  beauty  remained 

standing  where  he  was.      This  puzzled  me,  as 

game   invariably  either  falls  or  rushes  forward 

when   wounded,    and    I    began   to   suspect   that 

curiosity    was    delaying    him    from    joining    his 

fellows ;    so    crawling    through   the  grass  to   a 

more  certain   distance   I    rolled   him  over  with 

another  shot.     It  was  then  seen  that  the  first 

bullet  had  passed  through  both  forelegs,  and  I 

conclude   must  have  severed   the  nerve.      The 

horns,  as  I  had  thought,  were  exceptional,  and 

measured    i8|    inches,   which   is  a  good    three 

inches  above  the  average.     The  animal  himself, 

too,  was  quite  the  largest  I  have  seen,  though 

not  standing  as  high  as  some.     From  the  upper 

lip  to  the  root  of  the  tail  he  measured  72  inches, 

and  stood  36^  inches  at  the  shoulder. 



I  had  now  wandered  about  in  all  directions 
to  the  west  of  the  river,  and  was  anxious  to 
cross  to  the  left  bank  and  travel  inland  for  three 
or  four  days,  being  particularly  anxious  to  reach 
a  hill  which  rose  above  its  surroundings,  from 
which  to  take  compass  bearings  on  various 

I  intimated  to  Kaiyngu  my  wishes,  and  he 
told  me  he  would  send  boys  early  next  morn- 
ing who  should  accompany  me. 

About  a  couple  of  hours  after  a  start  ought 
to  have  been  made,  Kaiyngu's  eldest  made  his 
appearance  at  the  head  of  six  of  his  warriors 
all  armed  to  the  teeth.  I  proceeded  to  roll  up 
my  blanket,  which,  in  addition  to  a  little  musty 
tea  which  had  been  wet  in  crossing  the  Nanzela 
river,  and  a  bottle  of  saccharine,  was  the  sum 
total  of  my  available  worldly  comforts ;  but  when 
everything  was  ready.  Master  Kaiyngu  calmly 
informed  me  that  there  were  no  boys  to  ac- 
company me. 

"  What  is  the  meaning  of  this  ? "  I  asked. 
"Why  have  you  come.*^" 

**  We  will  cross  the  river,  but  we  will  not  sleep 
on  the  other  side,"  was  the  answer. 

I  suspected  that  the  scheming  old  scoundrel 

Kaiyngu  was  at  the  bottom  of  all  this.     If  he 

allowed  me  to  go  away  for  three  or  four  days, 

he  would  miss  his  daily  meat.    However,  I  made 

up  my  mind  that  he  at  least  should  not  score, 



SO  ordering  Letangu  to  unroll  the  blanket  I 
seated  myself  in  front  of  my  hut,  and  told 
Kaiyngu  that  he  might  go  home,  as  if  I  crossed 
the  river  I  had  no  intention  of  returning  for  a 
few  days,  and  added :  "  Unless  boys  are  sent 
to  go  with  me  I  shall  rest  for  three  days,  and 
then  go  on  to  Muyanga  "  (a  chief  about  twenty 
miles  to  the  north).  No  more  meat  for  Kai- 
yngu*s  people.  I  will  not  shoot  here  any  more, 
Muyanga  shall  be  made  fat  instead." 

They  then  began  to  hedge,  and  were  willing  to 
this  and  that  and  the  other,  but  I  told  them  I 
would  have  nothing  more  to  do  with  them.  I  had 
done  much  for  them  and  they  would  do  nothing 
for  me  in  return,  so  I  would  leave  them.  One 
by  one  they  left,  and  I  made  up  my  mind  thatt 
as  soon  as  Muliphi  and  Macumba  arrived  with 
provisions,  I  would  go  north  with  or  without 
Kaiyngu's  assistance. 

An  hour  or  so  afterwards,  Shantivi,  a  boy  who 
had  been  in  daily  attendance  on  me,  a  dirty, 
naked,  but  willing  savage,  whose  presence  was 
forcibly,  if  unpleasantly,  indicated  through  another 
sense  than  that  of  sight,  arrived  on  the  scene  to 
tell  me  that  he  and  some  other  boys  would 
cross  the  river  and  stay  for  a  few  days.  Affecting 
at  first  to  be  unwilling  to  go  since  his  people  had 
shown  me  they  did  not  wish  for  meat,  and  pro- 
testing  I   meant  to  rest  and  not  kill  any  more 

game,  I  finally  told  him  that  if  he  brought  boys 



at  once,  I  would  cross  the  river  and  kill  some 
game  for  them. 

Shantivi  soon  returned  with  four  more  of  his 
kind,  so  at  about  one  o'clock  a  start  was  made. 
Just  before  leaving,  Macumba  turned  up  with  two 
native  baskets  containing  meal  but  no  groceries. 
I  made  some  bread  before  leaving,  and  was  not 
sorry  to  have  change  from  meat  other  than  the 
wild  roots  I  had  been  reduced  to  for  the  last  few 
days.  Pony  and  Lecharu,  he  told  me,  were  better, 
but  I  could  not  get  out  of  him  the  reason  why  he 
had  parted  from  Kaiyngu's  boys  or  they  from 
him.  It  was  not  till  four  p.m.  that  everything 
was  landed  on  the  east  bank,  as  it  was  found  that 
a  canoe  had  to  be  brought  from  some  distance  up 
the  river,  and,  of  course,  everything  was  done  at 
the  slowest  possible  rate. 

The  Mashikolumbwe  ** dug-out"  canoes  differ 
from  those  used  by  the  Marotse  and  Upper 
Zambezi  tribes.  They  are  both  shorter  and 
deeper.  They  are  propelled,  too,  in  a  different 
way  and  with  a  different  shaped  paddle.  The 
Zambezi  boys,  with  a  long  paddle  nearly  resem- 
bling the  sea-oar,  with  a  blade  about  two  feet 
long  by  six  inches  broad,  stand  up  to  their  work 
with  one  leg  advanced,  and  use  the  back  as  well 
as  the  arm.  The  Mashikolumbwe  squats  or 
kneels,  and  in  this  position  leisurely  plies  a  short 
paddle   with    broad,   almost    oval-shaped    blade, 

about  two  feet  long  by  ten  inches  wide. 



On  leaving  the  river  the  boys,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  wanted  me  to  go  quite  a  different  way  to 
that  I  had  decided  to  take,  though  they  had  to 
conform  to  my  wish  and  travel  east  Towards 
evening  a  couple  of  Lichenstein's  hartebeests 
gave  me  a  shot  at  about  150  yards.  The  bullet 
struck  low,  breaking  the  left  fore-arm  just  below 
the  shoulder  joint.  Even  the  Mashikolumbwe 
found  no  difficulty  in  tracking  the  wounded 
antelope,  there  was  so  much  blood  spoor.  Half  a 
mile  on  a  piece  of  bone  three  inches  long  was 
picked  up,  but  although  the  poor  brute  occasion- 
ally showed  himself  some  distance  ahead  he 
never  allowed  me  to  get  near  enough  to  give  him 
a  second  shot,  and  want  of  daylight  finally  put 
an  end  to  a  long  and  futile  chase. 

Next  morning,  after  steadily  travelling  up  hill 
till  midday  in  a  north-easterly  direction,  a  large 
clearing  was  reached,  on  which  were  a  number  of 
small  stockaded  villages,  similar  to  what  has 
already  been  described  at  Edzumbe.  This  town 
is  known  by  the  name  of  the  chief  who  rules  it — 

A  headman  met  me  outside  one  of  these  stock- 
ades and  invited  me  inside.  A  stool  was  brought, 
and  I  was  soon  the  centre  of  interest  to  a  group 
of  natives,  who  squatted  down  in  front  while 
their  women  sat  in  a  row  behind.  A  wooden 
bowl  containing  cooked  food  was  offered  me,  but 
it  looked  very  nasty  and  by  no  means  tempting, 



SO  I  thanked  mine  host  and  handed  it  to  my  boys, 
who  seemed  to  appreciate  it  A  dish  of  boiled 
vegetable  marrow  was  next  brought  This 
looked  clean  and  good,  and  I  was  glad  to  be 
able  to  partake,  and  enjoyed  it  too. 

A  shower  of  rain  drove  me  to  take  shelter  in 
the  headman's  hut  He  showed  me  his  battery, 
of  which  he  was  very  proud.  It  consisted  of 
four  great  Portuguese  smooth-bores,  one  of  which 
was  evidently  looked  upon  by  its  owner  as  some- 
thing very  recherchi.  Its  enhanced  value  was 
derived  from  its  ornamentation  by  a  number  of 
brass  studs  that  had  been  driven  in  pattern  into 
the  butt. 

He  told  me  he  bought  them  from  the  "Mam- 
bari " — black  '*  Portuguese  " — who  occasionally 
visited  the  country  to  trade  for  ivory  and  slaves ; 
that  unfortunately  his  powder  was  finished,  and  he 
would  willingly  give  me  some  salt  if  I  would  give 
him  powder!  As  an  amendment  I  suggested 
either  ivory  or  leopard  skins.  The  former  was 
not,  but  the  latter  he  thought  might  be  arranged 
when  Kowetu  put  in  an  appearance,  which  he 
probably  would  do  ere  long. 

In  answer  to  enquiries  about  game,  he  told  me 
that  there  was  a  herd  of  eland  in  the  neighbour- 

"If  then  you  give  me  boys  to  show  me  the 

mpofo   in   the   early  morning,   I  will  sleep  here 

to-night  and  make  you  fat  to-morrow." 



Unlike  all  the  other  tribes  acknowledging  the 
supremacy  of  Liwanika,  who  take  their  tobacco 
in  the  form  of  snuff  only,  the  Mashikolumbwe 
and  Mankoya  are  great  lovers  of  the  pipe. 
Their  pipes  are  usually  clay  bowls  with  a  long 
reed  attached,  but  occasionally  a  more  fanciful 
one  is  used.  In  this  case  one  end  of  a  reed  is 
inserted  into  a  hole  through  the  bottom  of  a  clay 
bowl,  while  the  other  is  similarly  attached  to  the 
lower  extremity  of  an  elongated,  sausage -like 
calabash,  at  an  angle  of  forty -five  degrees. 
Through  a  hole  at  the  top  of  this  the  smoke  is 
drawn.  The  tobacco  these  people  use  is  atrocious, 
in  fact  they  will  smoke  anything  rather  than 
nothing,  one  makeshift  I  frequently  observed 
being  especially  ingenious.  The  reed  having 
been  withdrawn  from  the  bowl,  some  two  inches 
of  the  lower  end  is  cut  off  and  converted  into 
shavings.  These  being  of  course  permeated  with 
nicotine,  are  then  rubbed  up  with  a  little  dry 
grass,  with  which  the  pipe  is  loaded,  smoked, 
and  apparently  enjoyed! 

On  rising  to  depart  the  boys  asked  to  stay  a 
little  while  longer,  and  pointed  to  a  pipe,  which 
meant  that  they  wished  to  fill  and  light  it,  and  then 
suck  it  in  turn  till  all  had  sucked.  Their  request 
was  granted,  the  ceremony  performed,  and  search 
was  made  for  a  shady  spot  near  water,  but  not 
too   near  the   village.     The   people    were   very 

hospitably  inclined,  and  brought  me  presents  of 



marrows,  pumpkins,  and  native  cucumbers,  prob- 
ably in  anticipation  of  meat  on  the  morrow. 

A  bivouac  was  constructed  on  the  edge  of  a 
fertile  valley,  down  the  centre  of  which  a  small 
stream  of  good  clear  water  flowed.  I  then  "  fell 
in  "  three  boys,  and  set  off  in  a  northerly  direction 
to  look  for  game,  and  the  hill  which  had  been 
seen  from  the  western  side  of  the  river. 

The  only  game  I  saw  was  a  single  duiker, 
which  was  bagged ;  and  I  failed  to  find  the  hill  I 
was  in  quest  of. 

Still  a  most  interesting  afternoon  was  spent 
Since  leaving  the  river  the  day  before,  I  had 
gradually  ascended  to  a  high  country,  well  over 
4000  feet  above  the  sea -level  and  pleasing  to 
the  eye. 

Travelling  north  that  afternoon  I  descended 
a  steep  slope  studded  with  huge  rocks  and 
kopjies,  and  which  could  be  seen  leading  quickly 
down  to  a  plain,  extending  to  the  banks  of  the 
Kafukwe.  As  every  pace  down  meant  a  step 
later  on  up  hill,  I  made  a  detour  in  a  north- 
easterly and  then  easterly  direction.  This  led 
me  into  a  fine  broken  country.  Deep  rocky 
kloofs  separated  hills  which  rose  abruptly  on 
either  side  for  two  or  three  hundred  feet  After 
wandering  and  winding  through  these  hills  for 
an  hour  or  thereabouts,  the  sound  of  falling 
water   guided    me    to    a   rivulet   which    rushed 

and  gurgled  down  a  steep  and  stony  bed  in  a 



northerly  direction.  While  tracing  up  its  course 
I  was  much  impressed  by  the  grandeur  and 
beauty  of  the  scenery.  In  general  the  southern 
section,  at  least,  of  the  great  African  plateau  is 
sombre,  monotonous,  and  by  no  means  picturesque, 
but  here  was  one  of  those  occasional  exceptions 
to  the  rule,  which  would  compare  favourably  with 
much  of  the  "  show  **  scenery  of  the  civilised 

The  sun  had  been  down  for  an  hour  by  the 
time  camp  was  reached.  I  had  regaled  myself 
on  duiker  meat  and  vegetable  marrow,  and  was 
enjoying  my  after-dinner  pipe,  when  four  natives, 
among  whom  I  recognised  my  friend  the  head- 
man, approached  the  fire. 

"This  is  Kowetu,"  he  said,  as  he  motioned 
towards  a  middle-sized,  bearded  savage,  with  a 
mild  countenance,  and  an  old  terra-cotta  sombrero 
which  had  no  doubt  once  decorated  the  head  of 
one  of  the  Chartered  Co.'s  police,  and  which  was 
very  much  too  small  for  its  present  owner. 

I  told  him  I  was  pleased  to  see  him,  made  him 
a  sign  to  be  seated  by  the  fire,  and  spent  about 
an  hour  struggling  with  his  language. 

He  left  after  I  had  got  a  certain  amount  of 

information  out  of   him,  and   arranged  to  give 

him  powder  for  two  leopard  skins  if  he  would 

send  a  boy  back  with  me  to  Kaiyngu,  where  the 

powder  was. 

Early  the  next  day — the  27th — a  move  was 



made  in  search  of  game.  Four  miles  from  camp 
eland  spoor  was  crossed,  and  as  it  was  quite 
fresh  I  sat  down  under  a  tree,  sending  a  couple 
of  boys  off  to  ascertain  the  whereabouts  of  the 
herd.  In  half  an  hour  they  returned  with  the 
news  that  they  had  found  them.  I  was  disgusted 
to  find  zebra  instead,  and  knowing  eland  were 
somewhere  close  I  left  the  zebra  alone,  much 
to  the  disgust  of  the  boys,  whom  I  told  that  I 
had  come  to  shoot  an  eland,  and  they  must 
follow  up  the  spoor  with  me.  They  sulked  and 
refused  to  take  the  eland  spoor,  so  I  returned 
to  camp,  rested  for  a  short  time,  and  then  com- 
menced my  return  journey.  Nothing  unusual 
occurred  on  the  way  back.  No  game  was  seen, 
and  the  boys  got  no  meat 



I  FULLY  expected  on  return  to  find  Mu- 
liphi  there  with  all  the  goods  and  chattels, 
but  such  was  not  the  case.  The  next  morning 
Kaiyngu  came  to  see  me,  and  explained  that 
Muliphi  had  failed  to  find  the  Musa  camp. 

Now  the  boy  Muliphi  had  been  born  and  bred 
in  the  Kalahari  Desert,  and  his  life  had  been 
spent  among  game.  I  was  convinced  that  some- 
thing must  be  wrong,  as  he  should  have  been 
back  three  days  before,  and  it  was  impossible 
for  him  to  have  gone  wrong  in  a  journey  of 
only  forty  miles,  with  a  river  like  the  Musa 
cutting  his  path  almost  at  right  angles,  unless 
he  had  been  interfered  with. 

A  boy  who  accompanied  Kaiyngu  explained 
that  he  went  part  way  with  Muliphi,  who  did 
not  leave  the  afternoon  I  despatched  him,  but 
slept  in  the  village.  He  mentioned  places  where 
they  had  slept  on  the  three  following  nights, 
which  showed  that  the  travelling  had  been  ten, 
six,  and  ten  miles  respectively  for  these  three 

Although   Muliphi  was  the   best  boy    I    had, 



and  also  my  favourite,  for  he  was  a  cheery 
little  fellow,  he  was,  nevertheless,  like  most  of 
his  kind,  given  very  much  to  scheming,  if  by 
doing  so  he  could  shirk  his  work.  In  fact,  he 
was  always  complaining  of  a  pain  here  and  a 
pain  there,  and  distributing  over  his  copper- 
coloured  face  a  most  doleful  expression  if  there 
was  any  hard  work  to  be  done ;  but  the  moment 
anything  was  killed,  especially  if  the  animal 
carried  fat,  his  sufferings  would  cease,  and  his 
expression  change,  for  I  never  allowed  sick  boys 
to  eat  meat  if  any  root  or  farinaceous  food  was 

The  tale  this  Mashikolumbwe  brought  was 
so  plausible  and  so  probable  that  I  swallowed 
it,  and  was  much  displeased  with  Muliphi's 
conduct,  for  so  far  as  he  knew  I  had  not  a 
particle  of  food,  for  Macumba  had  not  arrived 
with  the  meal  when  he  left. 

Later  I  went  out  after  pookoo,  taking  with  me 
the  Mashikolumbwe  who  had  accompanied  me 
across  the  river,  for  I  wished  to  give  them  a 
good  lump  of  meat  each  as  they  had  behaved 
quite  respectably — considering  that  they  were 
Mashikolumbwe — during  the  three  days  they  had 
been  with  me. 

Unfortunately  my  shooting  was  bad  that  after- 
noon— it  was  one  of  those  occasions  on  which 
one  can  only  wound.  Two  pookoos  were  hit, 
and  one  at  all  events  ought  to  have  been  brought 
u  289 


to  bag,  but  the  Mashikolumbwe  are  the  poorest 
hunters  I  have  ever  been  among.  Either  the 
animal  hit  must  drop  in  his  tracks  or  leave  behind 
him  such  a  blood  spoor  as  a  blind  pedlar  could 
hardly  fail  to  see,  or  you  will  never  come  up  with 
your  quarry  when  it  depends  on  the  exertions  of 
this  most  depraved  people. 

I  was  beginning  to  realise  the  fact  that  the 
apparent  impossibility  of  getting  my  goods  from 
the  Musa  camp  was  attributable  to  the  old  rascal 
Kaiyngru.  He  knew  perfectly  well  that  when 
once  my  things  arrived  I  would  move  north  to 
Muyanga.  This  was  altogether  contrary  to  his 
interests,  for  the  white  man  would  then  be  no 
longer  available  as  purveyor  of  meat  to  his 

When  his  boys  turned  up  the  next  morning 
to  take  me  out  hunting  they  went  back  with  the 
message  that  the  white  man  was  not  going  to  kill 
any  more  game  until  his  boys  and  loads  had 
arrived.  "How  will  this  act ? "  I  wondered.  I 
had  sent  Kaiyngu  no  meat  since  the  day  before 
starting  for  my  short  trip  to  the  east,  six  days 
before,  and  I  thought  the  old  gentleman  must  be 
getting  an  averagely  keen  meat  appetite  on  him 
once  more.  This  would  grow,  and  when  he 
found  that  his  guest  meant  what  he  said  he 
might  find  it  to  his  advantage  to  accede  to  his 
request  in  a  more  practical  manner  than  by  word 
of  mouth  only.     I  had  been  feverish  for  the  last 



few  days,  so  that  the  rest  incumbent  on  my 
resolve  was  not  uncongenial. 

On  the  30th  it  transpired  that  my  suspicions 
were  not  ill-founded.  The  boys  supposed  to 
have  been  sent  with  Muliphi  had  been  in  the 
village,  I  found,  for  some  days. 

I  at  once  made  up  my  mind  to  leave  that 
very  day.  My  two  boys  could  not  carry  all  the 
things,  for  in  addition  to  ammunition,  blankets, 
meal,  etc.,  I  had  accumulated  a  few  ethnological 
curios  and  several  trophies,  among  which  was  a 
pair  of  warthog  tusks,  pookoo  and  eland  horns  of 
exceptional  quality.  These  I  had  no  wish  to 
leave  behind,  so  a  message  was  sent  to  Kaiyngu 
that  as  he  refused  to  bring  my  camp  to  me  I 
was  going  to  it  that  day,  and  requesting  him  to 
lend  me  two  boys  to  help  carry  my  things. 
One  boy  told  me  he  wished  to  go  to  Kazungula 
with  me,  but  could  not  do  so  without  his  chief's 

Kaiyngu  answered  my  message  in  person. 
The  loads  were  made  up  and  a  second  boy  had 
agreed  to  accompany  me. 

I  told  the  scheming  old  scoundrel  that  I  was 

leaving  at  once,  but  on  giving  the  order  Letangu 

and  Macumba  took  up  their  loads  while  the  two 

Mashikolumbwe  remained  seated.     When  asked 

"why?"  they  looked  towards  their  chief,   who 

blandly  answered  for  them  : 

"  They  cannot  go  to-day,  for  there  is  no  meat 



for  the  road.     If  you  hunt  to-day  they  shall  go 
with  you  to-morrow." 

Of  course  his  anxiety  was  for  his  own  stomach, 
so  he  did  not  quite  see  that  my  reply  was 
satisfactory — "There  is  plenty  of  meat  on  the 
road,"  but  calmly  suggested  that  I  might  go  if 
I  wished  and  he  would  send  his  boys  after  me 
on  the  morrow! 

This  was  too  amusing. 

"  You  have  behaved  badly  to  me,  Kaiyngu,  and 
now  you  want  me  to  shoot  game  that  you  may 
eat  it  I  have  given  you  and  your  people  much 
meat  and  many  presents,  and  how  have  you 
treated  me  in  return  ?  Is  this  how  a  chief  should 
act  ?  " 

"  The  boys  cannot  go  to-day,  they  will  go  to- 
morrow," and  he  pointed  straight  over  his  head, 
indicating  that  the  start  would  be  made  when  the 
sun  was  at  its  meridian. 

"Liwanika  is  your  chief.  I  am  Liwanika's 
friend.  He  told  me  at  Lialui  that  you  would 
help  me  if  I  asked  you.  If  you  still  prevent 
these  boys  coming  with  me  to-day  I  will  write 
a  letter  to  Liwanika  telling  him  how  you  have 
behaved  to  me,  and  you  will  have  to  send  that 
letter,  or  else  when  the  Morena  hears  that  you 
have  not  done  so,  look  out  for  your  cattle." 

As  he  once  more  refused,  and  at  the  same  time 

suggested  that  I  should  g^ve  him  some  powder,  I 

answered  him : 



"  I  will  give  you  nothing  except  a  letter  to 
send  to  Liwanika," 

I  went  into  my  hut  and  commenced  to  write  it. 

Half  a  dozen  lines  were  scarcely  written  when 
Letangu  told  me  that  three  boys  were  ready  to 
start  at  once. 

The  two  boys  who  had  volunteered  to  come 
were  not  among  them.  It  was  an  uncanny- 
looking  trio,  especially  so  far  as  one  of  them 
—  Kaiyngus  son-in-law — was  concerned.  He, 
I  imagine,  was  a  Mankoya,  and  a  very  dirty, 
odiferous  one,  too.  His  wool  was  highly  greased 
into  long  streaks,  and  his  expression  would  have 
done  justice  to  Mephistopheles  himself. 

With  this  disreputable  escort  I  coldly  bade 
Kaiyngu  farewell,  to  which  he  replied : 

"  You  may  leave  my  country,"  and  departed. 

I  travelled  seventeen  miles  that  day,  and  one 
incident  worth  narrating  alone  occurred. 

The  path  I  took  led  me  through  one  of  the 
numerous  small  villages  of  Edzumbe. 

On  approach  I  heard  the  subdued  notes  of  a 
small  native-made  "  piano.'* 

Looking  in  front,  who  should  the  minstrel  prove 

to  be  but  Muliphi,  who  was  squatting  underneath 

a  small  shelter  outside  the  stockade.     His  scared 

look  on  catching  sight  of  me  conveyed  the  idea 

at  the  time  that  he  was  simply  taking  advantage 

of  being  out  of  my  sight   and  having  a  lazy 

time  of  it,  instead  of  returning  to  me  at  once, 



as  he  should  have  done,  nor  did  I  realise 
for  some  days  afterwards  that  he  was  probably 
compulsorily  retained  by  the  Edzumbe  chief,  and 
very  likely  at  the  instigation  of  his  neighbour 

On  his  failing  to  give  a  satisfactory  reply,  I 
spoke  to  him  severely,  and  ordered  him  to  take 
his  share  of  the  loads  and  follow. 

He  then  said  he  had  been  there  three  days, 
and  that  last  night  the  Mashikolumbwe  had 
stolen  his  blanket  and  assegai.  I  did  not  think  it 
wise  to  delay  for  the  sake  of  the  boy*s  assegai 
and  blanket,  more  especially  so  as  voice-signals 
had  been  going  on  all  round  me  for  the  last 
three  miles,  commencing  shortly  after  passing 
some  surly-looking  natives  on  the  path.  Putting 
a  further  seven  miles  between  Edzumbe  and 
myself,  the  last  two  of  which  were  done  after 
sundown  and  not  on  the  beaten  path,  a  camp 
was  selected  behind  a  huge  tree-covered  ant-heap. 
Although  I  did  not  suspect  that  night  that  we 
were  being  followed,  subsequent  events  showed 
that  such  was  the  case.  The  Mashikolumbwe, 
unlike  most  Africans,  attack  at  night,  and  I  am 
not  so  sure  that  in  the  first  place  my  leaving  the 
native  path  in  order  to  return  by  another  route, 
and  in  the  second  being  compelled  to  travel 
after  dark  for  want  of  water,  were  not  fortunate 

The  next  morning  an  early  start  was  made, 



but  the  long  grass  necessarily  made  travelling 
slow.  It  took  the  whole  morning  to  make  6^ 

I  shot  a  hartebeest  en  route,  and  camped  at  the 
first  water  afterwards  to  allow  the  boys  to  have 
a  good  meal. 

At  two  o'clock  the  journey  was  recommenced. 
Progress  was  slow,  to  keep  the  boys  together 
as  much  as  possible — for  unless  the  caravan  has 
a  rear  as  well  as  a  vanguard  this  is  no  easy  task, 
inasmuch  as  there  are  generally  one  or  two 
boys  who  by  special  exertion  will  manage  to 
lag  behind  even  if  the  travelling  rate  is  only 
two  miles  an  hour.  Such  a  boy  was  Muliphi. 
In  consequence  I  was  neither  surprised  nor 
suspicious  of  treachery  when  late  in  the  after- 
noon a  **coo-oo-ee  "  reached  my  ears  from  about 
half  a  mile  in  the  rear.  Concluding  he  had  gone 
off  the  path  and  was  uncertain  of  the  route,  I 
answered  him,  and  went  slowly  on. 

Reaching  water  two  or  three  miles  further  on, 
camp  was  made  for  the  night,  but  in  spite  of 
a  shot  or  two  and  vocal  volleys  from  the  boys 
Muliphi  did  not  turn  up  that  night  The  Musa 
camp  could  not  be  more  than  ten  miles  away 
however,  so  I  quite  expected  he  would  arrive 
there  as  soon  as,  or  sooner,  than  myself. 

On  the  following  day,  being  the  ist  of  Febru- 
ary, the  three  Mashikolumbwe  boys,  either  inten- 
tionally or  otherwise,  made  a  fool  of  me.     We 



Struck  the  Musa  river,  but  neither  myself  nor 
boys  were  at  all  certain  whether  the  camp  stood 
up  or  down  stream,  as  the  previous  journey  had 
been  along  the  south  bank,  whereas  we  were 
then  on  the  north.  The  Mashikolumbwe,  how- 
ever, were  certain  that  the  way  lay  up  stream, 
so  up  stream  we  went  for  some  seven  miles. 
I  then  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  wrong 
direction  had  been  taken,  Letangu  and  Macumba 
agreeing  with  me,  but  the  Mashikolumbwe 
objected  to  going  any  further  one  way  or  the 
other,  and  put  down  their  loads.  They  ignored 
my  order  to  follow  at  first,  but  the  simple  move- 
ment of  bringing  my  rifle  from  the  ^' slope"  to 
the  '*  port "  brought  all  three  on  to  their  legs,  and 
evinced  from  the  son-in-law  of  Kaiyngu  the 
expression — quite  affably  uttered — of  a  wish  to 
follow  me. 

Still  my  eyes  had  to  keep  watch  fore  and  aft, 
as  Kaiyngu  s  beauties  did  their  best  to  let  me 
get  well  in  front,  and  then  once  out  of  sight 
it  was  pretty  certain  neither  they  nor  their  loads 
would  be  seen  again. 

Whilst  sound  asleep  in  the  early  hours  of  the 
2nd  my  mind  was  called  back  to  things  real 
— very  real! — by  the  words  ''Mashikolumbwe 
tsamai'ili^'  whispered  by  Letangu  in  my  ears. 

I  was  up  in  a  moment,  to  find  that  these 
gentlemen  were  apparently  on  their  way  home, 
and   had   taken   all   they   could   lay   hands   on, 



even  down  to  the  small  effects  of  Letangu  and 

It  sometimes  seems  almost  incomprehensible 
that  so  treacherous  a  people  should  never  have 
attempted  to  possess  themselves  of  my  rifles, 
ammunition,  and  other  effects,  by  the  very 
simple  process  of  driving  an  assegai  into  myself 
and  boys  whilst  sleeping,  especially  since — as 
previously  mentioned  —  a  strange  native  has  a 
very  poor  chance  if  caught  within  their  boun- 
daries. I  suppose  that  same  feeling  of  awe 
which  causes  the  beast  to  give  man  a  wide  berth 
is  shared  by  even  such  ill-disposed  savages  as 
these  Mashikolumbwe  natives  in  respect  to  a 
race  so  superior  to  their  own.  Like  the  beasts 
they  don't  know  their  power  or  are  afraid  to  use 
it,  and  in  addition  I  imagine  that  even  if  they 
could  succeed  with  impunity  in  taking  a  white 
man's  life,  their  superstition  impels  them  to 
suspect  that  his  spirit  may  play  havoc  when 
released  and  bewitch  them  and  their  people 
wholesale.  Letangu  and  Macumba  had  to  carry 
heavy  loads  that  day,  but  not  for  a  great  distance 
for  camp  was  reached  in  good  time. 

The  two  boys.  Pony  and  Lecharu,  were  look- 
ing very  much  the  better  for  their  rest,  and, 
as  I  subsequently  discovered,  had  been  doing 
themselves  well  on  my  meal  and  other  provisions. 
They  had  consumed  twenty-five  pounds  of  meal 
and  a  tin  of  dried  apple -rings.     This  was  the 



second  occasion  on  which  master  Pony  had 
mistaken  my  provisions  for  his  own,  so  I  im- 
pressed upon  him  that  next  time  I  would  kick 
him  out  of  camp,  so  that  if  he  was  particularly 
anxious  to  go  home  under  his  own  protection 
he  had  better  help  himself  to  a  little  more 
of  my  meal.  It  is  only  in  keeping  with  the 
character  of  the  African  that  Lecharu  should 
have  robbed  me,  for  had  I  not  saved  his  life 
twice!  This  latter  boy,  with  whom  I  had  left 
a  Mannlicher  and  a  few  rounds  of  ammunition, 
had  killed  a  pallah  and  a  leopard :  the  skin  of 
the  latter  was  rich  in  colour  and  large ;  when 
pegged  out  it  measured  7  ft.  11  in. 

I  was  almost  surprised  to  find  the  camp  un- 
looted.  No  natives  had  visited  it  until  when  two 
days  previously  three  Mankoyas  had  put  in  an 
appearance  and  undertaken  to  return  with  others 
the  day  after  I  happened  to  arrive,  and  take  my 
things  as  far  as  the  Nkala  mission  station. 

Muliphi  had  not  been  heard  of,  and  for  the 
first  time  I  realised  that  the  purport  of  his 
"coo-ee"  had  been  misunderstood  by  me.  At 
the  time  we  were  many  miles  past  Edzumbe, 
and  there  was  no  native  village  between  that 
place  and  the  Musa  camp.  The  Mashikolumbwe 
must  have  followed  at  a  distance  and  waited  for 
such  an  opportunity  as  Muliphi  s  lagging  behind 
had  offered.     He  had  been  robbed  and  almost 

to  a  certainty  killed.     With    him    was   a  little 



powder  and  ammunition,  the  large  eland  horns 
and  the  warthog  tusks.  Up  to  that  very  after- 
noon he  had  also  carried  my  shot-gun  barrels, 
which  I  should  have  been  very  sorry  to  lose 
as  they  are  old  friends.  As  a  matter  of  luck 
these  had  been  transferred  to  Letang^,  the 
horns  of  the  hartebeest  shot  that  morning  having 
been  given  to  the  ill-fated  Muliphi  in  their  place, 
I  still  hoped  against  hope  he  might  put  in  an  ap- 
pearance either  at  camp  or  possibly  at  the  N  kala 
mission  station;  but  such  was  not  to  be.  No 
trace  could  ever  be  found  of  the  missing  boy, 
and  subsequent  enquiries  through  native  sources 
were  equally  fruitless. 

It  is  needless  to  say  such  luxuries  as  rice, 
stewed  apples,  and  oatmeal  porridge,  to  say 
nothing  of  sugar  and  condensed  milk,  were 
thoroughly  appreciated  after  the  unvaried  menu 
of  meat  and  roots  both  morning  and  evening 
since  running  short  of  supplies  a  fortnight 

On  the  4th,  since  the  Mankoyas  were  already 
two  days  over  the  time  they  fixed  for  their  return, 
I  determined  to  move  my  camp  towards  Nkala 
by  short  stages.  The  four  boys  would  be  able 
to  carry  everything  in  three  journeys  backwards 
and  forwards.  During  the  two  days  since  arrival 
I  had  been  unable  to  shoot  anything,  for  game 
was  very  scarce,  consequently  there  was  no  meat 
in  camp. 



Fortunately  a  large  herd  of  wildebeest  was 
encountered  after  the  first  lot  of  loads  had  been 
carried  six  miles.  I  shot  one,  but  very  nearly 
lost  him.  The  animal  lay  apparently  dead  quite 
five  minutes  after  being  rolled  over.  The  boys 
had  come  up,  and  I  was  selecting  a  site  for  the 
tent  when  a  noise  of  movement  caused  me  to 
look  round.  The  wildebeest  was  in  the  act  of 
cantering  away,  and  had  I  not  been  lucky  enough 
to  roll  him  over  with  a  second  bullet  the  larder 
must  have  remained  empty.  The  boys  were 
then  sent  back  to  bring  on  the  next  lot  of  loads. 
Failing  to  strike  water — for  I  was  making  a  **bee 
line"  for  Nkala — six  miles  had  been  travelled 
instead  of  four.  The  last  loads  it  was  probable 
would  therefore  have  to  remain  near  the  Musa 
until  morning,  and  it  would  be  fortunate  I  thought 
if  the  next  relay  arrived  in  four  hours.  It  can 
be  imagined  that  I  was  agreeably  surprised  when 
less  than  an  hour  had  elapsed  to  see  a  dozen  boys 
or  so,  each  carrying  a  load,  approach.  The 
Mankoyas  had  turned  up  just  in  time,  and  the 
difficulties  of  the  past  month  were  at  an  end! 

These  boys  were  quite  a  godsend,  their 
"captain"  being  an  excellent  fellow,  who  with 
three  of  the  others  travelled  with  me  as  far  as 
Kazungula.  Fever  had  been  hanging  about 
me  for  the  last  few  days,  and  that  night  came 
to  a  climax.  My  temperature  was  very  high 
during    the    night,    but    a    couple   of  doses   of 



Warburgs  tincture,  without  which  medicine 
no  one  should  travel  in  Africa,  brought  me  down 
to  99**,  and  I  was  able  to  do  a  good  march  that 
day.  Shortly  after  midday  on  the  6th  the  Nkala 
station  was  reached.  There  sickness  and  bereave- 
ment had  cast  a  gloom  on  the  mission. 

The  headman  of  the  village  hard  by  had  met 
me  half  a  mile  from  the  station,  and  shaking 
his  head  dolefully  informed  me  that  **  Missy," 
as  the  natives  called  Mr.  Buckenham's  little 
daughter,  was  dead.  He  also  told  me  that  a  lion 
had  been  killing  women  and  cattle,  and  that  all 
the  people  were  afraid. 

Both  these  statements  were  unhappily  corro- 
borated when  I  reached  the  house.  Little  Elsie 
Buckenham  had  died  three  days  earlier,  within 
ten  days  of  her  sixth  birthday.  Mrs.  Bucken- 
ham was  broken-hearted  as  might  be  expected, 
and  her  husband,  shattered  by  his  long  attack  of 
fever  and  saddened  by  his  loss,  gave  me  the 
impression  of  even  then  having  one  foot  in  the 

Mr.  Baldwin  gave  me  the  history  of  the 
depredating  lion.  He  had  first  made  his  appear- 
ance on  Jan.  28th,  nine  days  before,  and  had 
undoubtedly  done  himself  uncommonly  well 
during  his  sojourn  in  the  neighbourhood.  The 
manner  in  which  he  varied  his  menu  proved  him 
to  be  quite  an  epicure,  and  the  method  by  which 

he  supplied  it  showed  that  he  was  an  animal  of 



remarkable  sagacity  and  daring.  In  one  case  he 
actually  removed  a  reed  constructed  door  from  a 
native's  hut,  walked  in,  seized  a  woman,  and 
carried  her  off  to  his  lair  in  some  dense  thorn-bush 
a  short  way  from  the  mission  station.  On  a 
previous  occasion  another  woman  was  taken  by 
him  when  only  a  few  yards  from  the  stockade. 
For  the  rest  he  had  paid  special  attention  to  the 
station  cattle  kraal,  which  stood  within  a  few 
yards  of  the  stockade  surrounding  the  mission 

In  his  first  attack  he  was  highly  successful. 
After  wandering  round  the  kraal  to  thoroughly 
work  on  the  fears  of  the  animals  inside,  a  sudden 
feint  at  a  charge  accompanied  with  a  sharp  growl 
would  cause  the  cattle  and  donkeys  to  rush  in  a 
body  to  the  far  side  of  the  kraal.  The  com- 
bined weight  of  the  excited  animals  having 
forced  an  opening  through  the  stockade,  the 
terrified  beasts  dashed  through  and  made  away 
into  the  darkness  of  the  night.  Of  course,  all 
that  was  left  ior  felis  leo  to  do  now  was  to  take 
his  pick  and  eat  it.  So  persistent  was  this 
animal  in  his  resolve  to  have  a  meal  at  the 
missionaries'  expense,  that  either  on  this,  or  one 
of  his  subsequent  attacks,  Mr.  Baldwin  narrated 
how  he  had  fired  a  number  of  shots  through  the 
compound  stockade  in  the  direction  of  the 
marauder,  but  all  to  no   purpose,  for  the  flash 

and   report  of  the  rifle  and  the  sound  of  the 



ricochet  bullets  caused  but  a  momentary  cessation 
of  hostilities,  but  no  retreat.*  He  also  wounded 
a  ram  so  severely  that  it  died 

Nothing  had  been  heard  of  the  "  schellem,"  as 
my  boys  dubbed  him,  for  three  nights,  so  it  was 
quite  to  be  expected  that  he  would  call  shortly. 
This  was  an  opportunity  too  good  to  be  missed. 
The  animal  evidently  did  not  suffer  from  nerves, 
and  would  probably  give  me  a  shot,  so  I  decided 
to  remain  at  the  mission  station  for  a  few  days 
and  see  if  the  brute  could  not  be  brought  to  bag. 
The  next  day  I  walked  to  one  of  two  hills  which 
stood  about  a  mile  to  the  north  of  the  station, 
though  on  account  of  the  impenetrable  nature 
of  the  intervening  bush,  a  three  instead  of  a 
one  mile  walk  was  necessary.  From  the  sum- 
mit an  excellent  view  was  obtained,  and  I  took 
fourteen  compass  observations  on  to  surrounding 

An  intelligent  boy,  whom  Mr.  Baldwin  kindly 
brought  for  the  purpose,  told  the  name  of  each 
hill,  and  gave  me  much  information  which  I  was 
glad  to  get.  I  was  given  to  understand  that 
there  were  hot-water  springs  near  the  Kafukwe, 
about  ten  miles  in  a  north-easterly  direction,  and 
that  the  water  was  sufficiently  hot  to  be  used  for 

*  This  is  a  description,  with  dates,  of  this  lion's  bag  since  his 
arrival — Jan.  28th,  woman ;  29th,  ox ;  30th,  (daytime)  sheep,  lamb 
and  goat;  (night)  woman  from  inside  hut  Feb.  ist,  donkey; 
5th,  donkey ;  9th,  ox  (finale). 



cooking  purposes  by  the  natives  of  a  Mashi- 
kolumbwe  village — by  name  Musanana — which 
stood  about  a  mile  away.  The  women  would 
submerge  baskets  containing  marrows  or  pump- 
kins, and  leave  them  in  this  natural  cauldron 
until  sufficiently  cooked. 

Mr.  Baldwin  kindly  agreed  to  accompany  me 
thither  on  the  8th. 

We  started  at  sunrise  on  that  day  and  arrived 
at  9.20  without  a  halt.  After  breakfast  we  went 
to  examine  the  springs,  which  according  to  my 
thermometer  had  a  temperature  of  182°  Fahr. 

Quite  a  large  mound  had  been  built  up  of  the 
deposit,  which  proved  to  be  calcareous.  The 
water  was  tasteless  and  bubbled  up  into  several 
small  basin-like  pools  overflowing  in  as  many 
streamlets,  which  amalgamated  in  one  clear 
stream  to  be  carried  away  towards  the  river. 

Mr.  Baldwin  wished  to  take  the  opportunity  of 
visiting  Musanana  and  his  people.  We  walked 
along  the  edge  of  the  open  swampy  plain  through 
which  the  Kafukwe  flows  from  a  short  distance 
above  this  point  for  the  greater  part  of  its  course 
towards  the  Zambezi.  On  approaching  the 
village  a  shady  tree  was  selected  as  a  resting- 
place,  and  a  message  was  sent  to  the  chief 
Musanana  to  apprise  him  of  our  visit. 

In  a  short  time  he  arrived — a  stark -naked 
savage,  with  the  usual  Mashikolumbwe  head- 



Two  or  three  of  the  cattle  which  the  lion 
had  scared  from  the  mission  station  had  been 
taken  charge  of  by  Musanana,  who  refused  to 
return  them  until  he  had  received  a  present 
Mr.  Baldwin  pointed  out  that  he  had  not 
behaved  in  a  very  friendly  manner  by  detaining 
his  cattle,  and  ultimately  it  was  arranged  that 
the  chief  should  send  them  to  Nkala  and  should 
receive  a  present  of  an  empty  jam-tin.  These 
empty  tins  are  naturally  very  much  valued  in 
such  parts  of  Africa  as  this,  where  they  are  not 
only  a  novelty  but  can  be  made  useful  as  drinking 
cups.  Musanana  also  tried  to  do  a  deal  with  me, 
and  offered  a  slave  if  I  would  give  him  calico.  I 
merely  told  him  I  was  not  only  a  white  man  but 
an  Englishman,  and  that  Englishmen  did  not  buy 
and  sell  people  like  cattle.  At  about  midday  we 
set  off  for  a  hill  about  four  miles  away,  also  named 
Musanana,  after  the  naked  savage  who  presides 
over  the  district. 

Here  I  had  hoped  to  get  several  counter  com- 
pass bearings  to  check  and  render  more  valuable 
observations  I  had  made  from  Bacubi  Hill  and 
other  points,  but  unfortunately  the  bush  was  so 
dense  on  this  hill  that  I  only  succeeded  in 
taking  three  bearings  altogether. 

During  the  return  journey  an  excellent  oppor- 
tunity for  supplying  the  larder  occurred,  but  was 
not  successfully  taken  advantage  of. 

A  mixed  herd  of  zebra  and  h.irtebeest   had 
X  305 


allowed  me  to  get  within  eighty  yards  of  them. 
Firing  at  a  bull  among  the  latter  but  missing 
the  mark,  apparently  created  so  much  surprise 
that  they  did  not  attempt  to  retreat  and  an 
equally  easy  second  chance  would,  it  is  to  be 
hoped,  have  met  with  a  more  satisfactory 
result.  The  excited  Mankoya,  however,  who 
crouched  behind  me  and  evidently  imagined  that 
a  white  man  had  only  to  fire  a  rifle  to  at  least 
wound  his  game,  rushed  forward  with  his  assegai 
to  finish  the  animal  he  expected  to  see  kicking  on 
the  ground.  The  game  fled,  and  I  addressed 
myself  emphatically  to  the  boy  whose  blunder 
had  lost  me  a  second  shot,  although  it  must  be 
confessed  that  of  the  two  the  master  deserved 
stronger  language  than  the  servant.  Following 
the  hartebeest  up  for  a  few  hundred  yards — the 
zebra  had  separated  from  them — I  saw,  from  a 
tree  I  had  climbed,  a  single  hartebeest  standing 
on  a  small  mound  a  quarter  of  a  mile  away. 
Crawling  to  about  a  hundred  yards  from  him  I 
put  a  bullet  in  his  shoulder,  on  which  he  fell  head 
over  heels  and  for  a  moment  seemed  to  be  dead. 
However,  before  the  boy  had  reached  the  spot 
where  he  lay  he  was  on  his  legs  and  off",  nor  after 
spending  some  time  trying  to  work  out  his  spoor 
did  I  ever  see  him  again,  so  rejoining  Mr. 
Baldwin  we  continued  our  return  journey. 

The  sun  was  already  low  in  the  heavens,  and 
about  eight  miles  remained  to  be   done,   when 



another  hartebeest  (a  cow)  ran  across  our  front 
A  better  shot  dropped  her  in  her  tracks,  and 
made  it  a  certainty  that  we  would  not  reach  the 
station  till  some  time  after  dark. 

The  hartebeest  cow  had  a  good  pair  of  horns, 
and  was  remarkable  by  virtue  of  a  well-defined 
V-shaped  white  blaze  between  the  eyes  similar  to 
that  on  the  koodoo. 

As  soon  as  the  meat  was  cut  up  a  fresh  start 
was  made.  A  dark  night,  and  for  some  part  of 
the  way  no  footpath,  made  travelling  slow  and 
troublesome,  so  we  did  not  arrive  at  our  destina- 
tion till  nearly  nine  o'clock.  Dinner  and  pipe 
over  we  retired  to  rest,  but  not  for  long. 



AT  about  one  o'clock  that  night  I  was  par- 
tially awakened  by  hearing  Mr.  Baldwin 
address  me  by  name,  and  wholly  so  on  hearing 
his  further  remark,  **The  lion  is  in  the  kraal, 
and  has  killed  another  ox." 

To  jump  out  of  bed  and  into  a  pair  of  trousers 
was  the  work  of  a  moment  or  two  only.  I  had 
brought  blue  lights  with  me,  but  hitherto  no 
chance  of  using  them  had  presented  itself. 

It  was  to  be  feared  the  only  chance  of  bagging 
him  was  by  going  for  him  at  once,  for  had  he 
reached  the  thick  thorn  behind  the  station,  which 
he  always  had  done  before  sunrise  on  previous 
occasions,  the  chance  of  killing  him  would  have 
been  remote.  Mr.  Baldwin  immediately  volun- 
teered to  accompany  me  on  being  told  that  my 
intention  was  to  go  to  the  kraal.  There  was 
no  moon,  and  the  night  was  pitch  dark,  for  a 
cloudy  sky  completely  obscured  the  stars.  It 
being  impossible  to  use  a  rifle  and  hold  a  blue 
light  at  the  same  time,  I  asked  the  boys  if  any 
of   them  were  men   enough   to  come  out  with 

me  to  the  kraal.     I  confess  to  being  agreeably 



surprised  when  three  of  them  offered  to  do 
Lecharu,  one  of  the  Mankoya  boys,  and  a  Mashi- 
kolumbwe  lad  of  about  eighteen.  This  latter 
boy's  passive  expression  led  me  to  trust  him 
with  the  holding  of  the  blue  light,  which  it 
was  my  intention  to  strike  when  the  moment 
for  doing  so  arrived.  I  placed  him  immediately 
behind  my  right  shoulder,  and  to  his  right  the 
other  two  armed  with  assegais  advanced  in  line, 
with  Mr.  Baldwin  beyond.  A  shot  into  space — 
probably  accidental — from  Mr.  Baldwin's  rifle 
would,  I  feared,  have  caused  the  lion  s  retreat 
into  the  bush  beyond. 

Not  so,  however,  for  when  within  twenty-five 
yards  of  the  kraal  a  low  growl  told  his  where- 
abouts. The  Mashikolumbwe  boy  had  got 
round  to  the  far  side  of  Mr.  Baldwin,  and  I 
looked  for  the  light  in  vain.  On  calling  him 
he  brought  it,  but  twice  the  fuse  refused  to  ignite. 
Then  came  a  second  growl,  and  then  another, 
and  a  series  in  quick  succession,  each  one  nearer 
than  the  last  as  the  animal  galloped  towards 
us.  Retreat  was  out  of  the  question ;  it  would 
have  been  suicide  for  me,  at  least,  as  I  was 
nearest  the  enemy.  With  rifle  at  the  ready  I 
waited  till  he  should  light  close  in  front,  prepara- 
tory to  making  his  final  spring,  when  I  hoped 
to  pour  both  barrels  into  his  chest 

Mr.  Baldwin  and  the  boys  stood  their 
ground  like  bricks.     The  former   I   had  confi- 



dence  in,  but  natives  so  seldom  keep  their  heads 
when  in  a  tight  corner,  especially  on  a  dark 
night,  that  my  fear  was  that  they  would  bolt, 
in  which  case  the  lion  would  almost  to  a  certainty 
have  attacked  me.  As  it  was  the  growls  stopped 
about  three  paces  away,  though  so  dense  was  the 
darkness  that  nothing  could  be  seen.  Another 
attempt  at  the  fuse  set  the  light  aglow,  and 
everything  was  visible  within  a  radius  of  thirty  or 
forty  yards.  His  lordship  had  taken  covert!  A 
short  wait  and  a  second  light  without  a  further 
glimpse  of  felis  leOy  and  we  returned  to  the 
station  with  the  intention  of  giving  him  time 
to  return  to  his  kill. 

In  half  an  hour  or  so  we  renewed  the  attack. 
This  time,  when  a  few  yards  from  the  place 
where  we  had  been  standing  during  the  first 
attempt,  another  low  growl  caused  me  to  strike 
a  light,  when  the  Mashikolumbwe  whispered 
•*  There  is  the  lion." 

"  Where  .>"  I  asked. 

"There,  close  to  the  ant-heap." 

The  ant-heap  rose  some  three  paces  from 
the  kraal,  and  about  the  same  distance  from  the 
other  side  of  it  the  bush  commenced.  On  either 
side  of  the  ant-heap  was  a  dark  object.  To 
the  right  what  appeared  like  the  head  and 
shoulders  of  a  crouching  lion,  to  the  left  some- 
thing which  I  took  for  bush,  but  which  seemed 

much  too  high  for  a  lion. 



A  careful  aim  at  the  crouching  lion,  and  all  was 
quiet  The  light  had  gone  out  before  the  smoke 
cleared,  but  a  second  one  revealed  the  object 
aimed  at  still  in  the  same  position,  but  the  large 
one  was  there  no  more.  Then  it  was  obvious 
I  had  fired  at  the  wrong  mark.  We  returned 
to  the  house,  and  I  felt  I  had  missed  a  chance 
not  likely  to  recur. 

Some  time  later  a  third  attempt  was  made, 
a  light  was  struck,  and  the  lion  was  to  be  seen 
gliding  away  from  the  kraal  to  the  bush,  so  we 
returned  at  once  to  the  house. 

At  four  o'clock  a  council  of  war  was  held,  and 
we  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  only  chance 
remaining  was  to  postpone  the  hunt  till  grey 
dawn,  when  even  if  the  lion  had  dragged  the 
carcase  away  he  would  probably  not  have 
reached  the  thick  bush.  We  had  done  a  hard 
day's  work,  and  were  inclined  for  rest,  so  each 
retired  to  lie  down  on  his  bed  for  an  hour  and 
a  half.  I  had  no  intention  of  sleeping,  so  with 
the  candles  burning  made  an  effort  to  rest  my 
limbs  only,  but  the  brain  would  have  none  of 
this  arrangement,  and  w^s  soon  fast  asleep. 

The  sun  was  risen  in  the  heavens,  and  must 
have  been  up  an  hour  and  a  half,  when  the 
opening  of  the  hut  door  awakened  me.  Mr. 
Baldwin  looked  amusingly  ashamed  of  himself, 
and  I  was  by  no  means  pleased  to  think  that  our 
good  friend  Morpheus  had  so  treacherously  allied 



himself  with  the  Hon — our  enemy.  Contrary 
to  my  wont  when  ladies  or  ministers  of  relig^ion 
are  present,  it  was  impossible  to  swallow  one 
solitary  "  D — n  "  that  rose  from  my  throat  with 
the  quick  thought  that  the  lion  had  escaped  me. 

The  boys  told  Mr.  Baldwin  that  the  carcase 
of  the  ox  had  been  dragged  away. 

After  a  cup  of  coffee  I  suggested  that  there 
.was  just  an  off  chance  that  the  lion  had  not 
reached  the  impenetrable  part  of  the  bush,  and 
that  at  all  events  no  harm  could  be  done  by 
following  up  the  spoor,  in  which  Mr.  Baldwin 

The  brute,  it  was  found,  had  actually  eaten  his 
way  into  the  kraal  through  stakes  the  thickness 
of  a  man's  arm,  and  thus  effected  an  entrance. 

A  quarter  of  a  mile  brought  us  to  thicker 
bush,  but  there  was  still  standing  room,  and 
without  difficulty  we  advanced  to  within  a  few 
yards  of  where  the  carcase  of  the  ox  was  to  be 
seen,  just  within  the  entrance  of  a  tunnel  of 
dense  thorn  about  four  feet  high.  No  lion  was 
visible,  but  we  knew  he  could  not  be  far  away. 
The  tunnel  turned  off.  to  the  right  about  ten 
jrards  beyond  the  carcase,  so  that  nothing  could 
be  seen  in  front  but  a  wall  of  dense  thorn.  In  a 
few  moments  what  appeared  to  be  but  a  low  growl 
from  behind  this  screen  told  me  all  I  wanted  to 
know.  This  same  growl,  Mr.  Buckenham  after- 
wards told  us,   sounded   loud    to  him  although 



within  doors  600  yards  away,  and  I  have  often 
noticed  this  same  remarkable  peculiarity  in  the 
growl  of  a  lion  at  a  distance. 

Making  a  sign  to  Mr.  Baldwin  to  remain  where 
he  was,  I  commenced  to  skirt  the  bush — it  was 
not  a  large  patch — with  a  view  to  taking  the 
enemy  in  flank. 

I  had  not  gone  more  than  a  few  yards,  and  was 
just  on  a  line  with  the  dead  ox,  when  a  huge  lion 
bounded  down  the  tunnel  and  took  up  his  position 
immediately  behind  the  carcase.  Mr.  Baldwin 
stood  his  ground  but  did  not  fire,  and  although 
the  animal  was  not  six  feet  from  me  I  could  not 
get  my  rifle  through  the  intervening  thorns  before, 
having  noticed  me  apparently  for  the  first  time, 
he  turned  and  trotted  back  to  covert  Once  more 
advancing  and  peering  into  the  bush  in  front,  my 
eyes  rested  on  a  small  patch  of  light  brown 
visible  through  an  opening  only  a  few  inches  in 
diameter.  Not  quite  clear  whether  this  was  not  a 
barkless  tree  or  an  ant-heap,  I  watched  it  intently 
for  some  seconds,  when  my  sight  detected  a  slight 
movement  in  the  position  of  a  dark  patch  on  the 
lighter  colouring.  This  could  only  be  the  nose 
or  the  ear  of  the  lion,  and  it  was  all  that  it  was 
necessary  to  see,  for  according  as  the  animal  was 
facing  or  standing  sideways  a  bullet  striking  one 
or  the  other  must  enter  the  brain. 

The  only  comparatively  clear  view  of  the  mark 
was  too  high  for  a  kneeling,  but  too  low  for  a 



Standing  position.  In  a  necessarily  constrained 
posture  I  felt  by  no  means  confident  of  hitting 
the  animal  in  the  right  spot^  but  fortune  favoured 
— the  report,  a  sudden  movement  in  the  light 
brown  colouring,  and  everything  was  quiet 

The  bullet  had  entered  the  right  nostril,  passed 
through  the  brain  and  then  through  the  atlas 
vertebra,  which  it  shattered,  finally  resting  under 
the  skin  at  the  back  of  the  head.  On  measuring 
the  distance,  it  was  found  that  thirteen  paces  had 
separated  me  from  the  lion. 

Asking  Mr.  Baldwin  to  see  that  the  position  of 
the  dead  animal  was  not  interfered  with,  I  fetched 
my  camera  from  the  station  and  photographed 
him  where  he  lay.  Then  leaving  Lecharu  to 
keep  guard,  for  the  natives  of  this  country  have 
a  way  of  wetting  their  assegais  in  the  blood  of  a 
fallen  lion,  and  also  rather  like  to  hang  his  claws 
round  their  necks  as  charms,  we  returned  for 

Going  back  to  the  carcase  an  hour  or  so  later, 
we  found  a  gathering  of  naked  Mashikolumbwe, 
who  were  now  coming  in  fast  from  every  direction. 
Two  of  the  chiefs  deemed  this  a  fitting  oppor- 
tunity for  airing  their  eloquence,  and  addressed 
me  in  long,  fluent  speeches,  of  which,  however, 
I  understood  but  little. 

A  Mashikolumbwe  strongly  objects  to  being 
photographed,  but  I  could  have  done  anything 
with  them  just  at  that  time,  so  took  advantage  of 



the  existing  good  feeling  to  take  a  photograph  of 
a  group  as  they  stood  watching  the  body  of  the 
animal  that  had  spent  so  merry  though  short  a 
time  among  them. 

It  was  decided  to  bring  the  body  to  the  mission 
station  and  skin  him  there.  A  long  pole  was  cut, 
and  to  it  the  legs  were  tied,  when  seven  boys 
hoisted  him  on  their  shoulders  and  carried  him  in. 
With  the  help  of  Mr.  Baldwin,  and  in  the  presence 
of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Buckenham,  careful  measurements 
were  taken.  Between  two  assegais  placed  per- 
pendicularly in  the  ground,  the  one  at  the  point 
of  the  shoulder,  the  other  against  the  heel  pads 
of  both  feet — toes  pressed  well  back — his  standing 
height  was  shown  to  have  been  forty-three  inches. 
To  the  tips  of  the  toes  taken  in  the  same  way  the 
measurement  was  forty-seven  inches,  which,  it  may 
be  assumed,  is  proof  that  the  feet  were  not  merely 
half  pressed  back.  From  tip  of  nose  to  root  of 
tail  was  six  feet  ten  inches  ;  tail,  three  feet ;  fore- 
arm, nineteen  and  a  half  inches;  circumference 
of  head  above  eyes,  thirty-one  and  three-eighths 
inches ;  girth,  forty -nine  and  one -eighth  inches. 
The  skull  measured,  in  straight  line — width, 
nine  inches  and  three-quarters;  length,  fifteen 
and  a  quarter  inches.  In  order  to  weigh  the 
carcase  a  spring  balance  was  attached  to  the  hind 
legs  and  the  body  hauled  up  to  a  stout  branch. 
The  machine  was  only  capable  of  indicating 
400  pounds,  but  there  was  room  for  some  fifty 



more  to  have  been  marked.  When,  however, 
the  head  still  rested  sideways  on  the  ground, 
the  indicator  was  forced  to  its  extremity,  thus 
showing  approximately  about  450  pounds.  We 
calculated,  therefore,  that  the  lion  must  have 
weighed  nearer  six  than  five  hundred  pounds. 

Anxious  to  get  the  exact  weight  I  proceeded 
to  have  him  skinned,  intending  to  weigh  the 
skin,  hind  legs,  and  trunk  in  separate  pieces. 
The  skin  was  all  but  off  when  a  heavy  downpour 
of  rain  came  on,  so  giving  Pony  most  definite 
instructions  that  the  lion  was  not  to  be  touched 
until  my  return  I  retired  to  shelter.  It  drizzled 
for  some  time  after  the  violence  of  the  storm  had 
passed,  so  I  made  no  haste  to  return.  When  I 
did,  however,  my  annoyance  can  be  imagined 
when  the  picture  that  met  my  eyes  is  described. 
The  lion  was  skinned,  decapitated,  and  dismem- 
bered ;  even  the  kidneys  had  been  removed,  the 
stomach  had  been  opened,  and  the  ox  meat  ex- 
tracted therefrom  was  boiling  on  a  wood  fire  hard 
by.  So  the  weighing  of  the  carcase  was  out  of 
the  question. 

Such  was  the  boy  Pony  who  was  recom- 
mended to  me  by  his  late  employer  at  Mafeking 
as  the  best  boy  he  had  ever  had,  though  he  had 
been  compelled  to  dismiss  him  for  constantly 
hankering  after  his  master's  whiskey  bottle, 
which  craving  he  satisfied  whenever  possible. 

For  myself  I  never  yet  had  a  boy  who   so 



persistently  varied  his  inclination  to  do  nothing 
at  all  with  the  occasional  accomplishment  of  the 
wrong  thing. 

The  carcase  of  the  lion  was  taken  away  and 
eaten  by  the  Mashikolumbwe,  in  spite  of  the  fact 
that  two  ladies  of  their  tribe  had  been  interred 

All  this  happened  on  Sunday,  the  9th  of  Feb- 
ruary. The  surrounding  villagers  assembled  in 
their  numbers,  and  Messrs.  Buckenham  and 
Baldwin  had  the  largest  congregation  that  ever 
assembled  to  listen  to  them ;  in  fact,  with  the 
exception  of  the  two  or  three  who  occasionally 
turned  up,  their  first  Sunday  at  Nkala  two  years 
before  supplied  the  only  other  congregation 
worthy  of  the  name,  for  the  Mashikolumbwe 
have  no  wish  to  be  better  than  the  worst  I  had 
never  been  among  such  an  all-round  bad  lot  till 
entering  their  country.  Mr.  Baldwin  remains 
alone  at  Nkala — for  Mr.  Buckenham  only  sur- 
vived his  little  daughter  by  a  few  months — and  it 
is  to  be  hoped  he  will  be  able  to  do  something  to 
improve  this  hopeless  people,  but  if  too  much  is 
expected  it  is  to  be  feared  disappointment  will 

On  Tuesday,  the  nth,  a  start  was  made  with  a 
mixed  caravan  of  Mashikolumbwe  and  Mankoyas, 
who  had  agreed  to  take  my  loads  to  Kazungula, 
whither  it  was  my  intention  to  return  by  a  more 
easterly  route. 



There  was  very  litde  game  in  the  country  now, 
as  that  cruel  scourge  the  rinderpest  had  swept 
through  it,  killing  about  ninety-five  per  cent,  of 
all  ruminants. 

The  following  evening  I  killed  a  wildebeest, 
but  unfortunately  had  only  two  boys  with  me. 
Between  them  they  carried  a  good  piece  of  meat 
into  camp,  but  at  the  time  of  arrival  it  was  too 
dark  to  send  for  the  rest  that  night 

Early  next  morning  two  hartebeests  passed 
down  the  valley,  on  the  edge  of  which  the  tent 
was  pitched.  A  bullet  brought  one  down  without 
my  having  to  leave  camp. 

Boys  that  had  been  sent  for  the  remainder 
of  the  wildebeest  shot  the  previous  evening  found 
nothing  but  bones.  The  hyaenas  and  jackals  had 
devoured  the  meat  However,  the  hartebeest 
provided  a  good  feast  for  the  porters,  which  was 
fortunate  at  this  early  stage  of  the  journey,  as 
very  little  faith  was  to  be  put  in  these  boys  unless 
their  stomachs  were  kept  well  filled.  Only  about 
four  and  a  half  miles  was  traversed  that  day, 
during  which  I  skirted  the  plain  through  which 
the  Kafukwe  flows. 

On  the  14th  I  was  surprised  to  see  white 
sheets  hanging  up  near  some  huts  a  short  distance 
to  the  left  of  the  path.  This  proved  to  be  a 
mission  station  recently  founded  by  a  Mr.  Picker- 
ing, who  lived  there  with  his  wife,  who  at  that 

time  was  nursing  him  through  a  bad  attack  of 



fever.  Poor  Mrs.  Pickering  had  her  hands  full 
with  one  thing  and  another.  I  just  arrived  in 
time  to  witness  the  ejectment  of  a  tall  Mashiko- 
lumbwe  from  the  station.  He  left  reluctantly  as 
the  good  lady  gave  him  a  severe  scolding.  I 
wondered  what  sin  the  retreating  nigger  had 
committed,  when  Mrs.  Pickering  explained : 

"  I  always  turn  these  people  away  when  they 
come  here  with  absolutely  nothing  on." 

It  is  doubtless  unpleasant  to  a  European  lady 
to  see  stark-naked  men  wandering  about  their 
premises,  but  after  all  the  evicted  savage  wore 
his  national  "get-up/'  than  which  he  and  his 
fathers  before  him  had  known  no  other — 
simply  a  chignon  on  the  back  of  his  head,  and 
a  necklace  round  his  neck — a  most  unassuming 
garb,  and  to  him  not  indecent.  I  wondered 
how  many  natives  would  visit  the  station  if 
the  possession  of  a  loin  cloth  were  a  sine 
qua  non. 

After  spending  a  couple  of  hours  at  the 
station  in  order  to  allow  Mrs.  Pickering  to  write 
letters,  which  I  had  volunteered  to  take  to 
Kazungula,  the  journey  was  recontinued. 

Two  days  later  a  halt  was  made  at  midday 
near  a  village.  The  chief  visited  me  and  asked 
me  to  remain  there  that  day  and  shoot  some 
game  for  his  edification,  or  more  accurately 
speaking,  mastication. 

The   condition   that  if   he  supplied   boys   to 



lead  me  to  the  game  he  should  have  a  present 
of  part  of  the  meat  was  readily  complied  with. 

This  occasion  furnished  another  interesting 
instance  of  the  penetrative  power  of  the  Mann- 
licher  bullet. 

A  herd  of  pallah  was  viewed  about  250  yards 
away,  and  beyond  the  range  of  the  i6-bore. 
Taking  a  Mannlicher,  I  aimed  at  the  shoulder 
of  a  ram  standing  broadside  on.  He  fell  in  his 
tracks.  On  going  to  the  spot  a  doe  also  was 
found  to  be  lying  dead  within  five  paces  of  the 
ram.  The  bullet  had  passed  through  the  heart 
of  the  former  and  out  through  the  off  shoulder, 
then  striking  the  latter  just  in  front  of  the  hind- 
quarters had  passed  through  the  spine,  which 
was  of  course  shattered,  and  out  at  the  other 

The  meat  was  brought  in,  and  nearly  half  was 
given  to  the  chief  and  the  boys  who  had  ac- 
companied me. 

Some  time  afterwards  it  was  discovered  that 
the  villagers  had  purloined  nearly  all  the  meat 
reserved  for  the  boys. 

It  can  be  understood  that  these  monkey-like 
thefts  are  calculated  in  all  circumstances  to 
provoke.  In  this  instance  it  was  especially  the 
case,  for  since  recovering  from  dysentery,  con- 
tinual hard  work  had  prevented  my  putting  on 
flesh  in  place  of  what  I  had  lost,  and  when  two 

and  a  half  stone  below  normal  weight,  it  follows 



that  though  what  is  left  may  be  hard,  there  is 
a  lack  of  extra  substance  to  supply  fuel  for  extra 
exertion.  Hunting  in  a  country  where  so  clean- 
sweeping  a  scourge  as  the  rinderpest  had  so 
materially  decimated  the  game  as  in  this  case, 
generally  means  hard  work  and  consequent 
delay,  for  meat  is  a  necessity  where  other  food 
is  unprocurable.  Delay  as  likely  as  not  would 
deprive  me  of  the  means  of  getting  back  to 
civilization,  for  even  now  the  epidemic  was  well 
in  front,  and  if  it  reached  Kazungula  before  I 
inspanned  for  the  journey  southwards,  to  be 
stranded  without  provisions  or  means  of  crossing 
the  Kalahari  Desert  must  be  the  inevitable 
sequel.  Hoping  to  get  back  part  at  least  of  the 
stolen  meat,  I  turned  to  the  chief  and  addressed 
him : 

"  I  have  given  you  and  your  people  meat,  and 
yet  they  steal  what  I  want  for  myself.  Order 
those  who  have  taken  it  away  to  bring  it  back.*' 

The  boys  were  packing  their  loads,  and  every- 
thing was  nearly  ready  for  a  start,  but  still  no 
meat  had  been  returned.  A  fishing-spear  was 
standing  in  the  ground  near  me,  so  seizing  it  I 
turned  once  more  to  the  chief  and  said : 

"Your  people  have  not  brought  back  the 
meat.  When  it  is  returned  I  will  give  back  this 
spear,  but  not  till  then." 

Twice  more  the  request  was  repeated,  but 
elicited  no  response.  A  sudden  impulse  seized 
Y  321 


me,  to  which  perhaps  it  would  have  been  more 
prudent  not  to  have  yielded,  and  in  a  moment 
the  spear  was  shattered  across  my  knee,  and  the 
broken  shaft  on  the  ground. 

The  natives  lost  no  time  in  responding  to  a 
vigorous  "  Tsamaia  /  "  (go !). 

A  short  time  afterwards  small  groups  of 
niggers  were  to  be  seen  standing  about,  and  in 
each  case  an  orator  harangued  his  audience. 
Most  things  have  their  counterpart  Here  was 
Hyde  Park  on  Sunday  afternoon  being  played 
in  Central  Africa. 

It  looked  like  starting  time ;  so,  instructing 
the  boys  not  to  lag  behind,  but  to  keep  close, 
I  led  the  way,  carrying  a  Mannlicher,  and 
followed  by  Lecharu,  with  my  double  -  barrel 
i6-bore.  I  did  not  anticipate  an  attack,  though 
thought  it  wise  to  be  prepared.  The  path  led 
through  the  village,  and  it  was  most  important 
that  it  should  be  followed,  for  quitting  it  would 
imply  fear,  and  fear  invite  attack. 

When  about  half-way  through  the  village,  an 
opportunity  was  offered  for  making  peace  with 
the  chief  without  loss  of  dignity.  While  passing 
a  low  thorn  **  scherm,"  he  advanced  and  handed 
me  the  piece  of  meat  that  had  been  given  him. 
I  of  course  refused  to  take  it,  adding,  "That 
meat  is  a  present  from  me  to  you.  I  do  not 
want  back  any  presents,  but  am  angry  that  your 
people   should   have  taken   meat   which    I    had 


not  given  them."     He  thanked  me,  and  I  went 
on  feeling  that  he  at  least  was  squared 

Beyond  the  village  there  was  a  large  mealie 
field  through  which  the  path  led.  For  about 
500  yards  the  stalks  were  very  sparse  and 
stunted,  so  that  there  was  no  covert,  but  beyond 
the  corn  was  dense  and  some  eight  feet  high. 
On  leaving  the  village  a  number  of  armed 
natives,  most  of  them  with  assegais,  but  one 
or  two  with  bow  and  poisoned  arrows,  followed 
at  about  sixty  yards  away  on  the  left  flank, 
while  two  or  three  were  to  be  seen  moving 
round  on  the  right  The  oudook  was  threaten- 
ing, and  I  kept  an  eye  on  the  movements  of  a 
poisoned  arrow  gentleman  in  advance  of  his 
companions,  whose  arrow  was  already  on  the 
string,  but  pointing  downwards,  intending  to 
pick  him  off  as  soon  as  he  raised  his  bow — he 
was  only  sixty  yards  away.  Only  twenty  more 
paces  and  the  thick  mealies  would  be  reached, 
where  the  niggers  could  get  to  within  six  feet 
without  being  seen.  Deciding  to  try  the  "  game 
of  bluff,"  I  ordered  the  boys  to  close  up,  and 
then  taking  two  or  three  paces  in  the  direction 
of  the  natives  brought  my  Mannlicher  down  to 
the  "ready,"  and  proceeded  to  raise  it  to  my 
shoulder.  In  a  moment  the  whole  rabble  turned 
about  and  fled  towards  the  village.  They  had 
run  a  hundred  yards  without  turning  by  the 
time  the  thick  mealies  were  entered,  and  even 



had  they  made  another  attempt  to  get  into  them 
they  could  not  have  done  so  before  the  open 
ground  beyond  had  been  reached. 

On  the  1 8th  I  camped  near  a  village  called 
Bisi.  Here  the  first-fruits  of  the  years  harvest 
had  just  been  gathered,  and  corn  was  brought  in 
for  sale  in  large  quantities.  I  also  bought  four 
young  guinea-fowls  in  a  couple  of  ingeniously  con- 
structed basket-work  cages.  These  I  hoped  to 
bring  to  England  with  me,  as  they  belonged  to 
a  species  I  then  believed  to  be  new. 

This  cluster  of  villages  stands  within  three 
miles  of  the  borders  of  the  Matoka  plateau, 
across  which  I  intended  taking  a  course  some 
twenty  or  thirty  miles  to  the  east  of  the  previous 
route.  To  make  the  most  of  my  work  it  was 
essential  that  local  natives  should  accompany 
me  who  knew  the  names  of  the  many  tributary 
rivers  to  be  crossed,  and  to  which  system  each 

No   boys   would   consent   to   come   with   me, 

which  seemed  unaccountable,  as  the  Matokas — 

among  whom  I  was  once  more — had  previously 

shown  exceptional  readiness  to  earn  a  few  feet 

of  calico  and  their  food.     At  last  the  explanation 

came.     Letangu  presented  himself  at  the  door 

of  my   tent,    looking   very   much   amused,   and 

confided  to  me  that  the  absconding  porters  had 

passed  through  Bisi  on  their  way  home,  and  had 

told  the  people  that  I  had  killed  both  Macumba 









and  himself,  for  which  reason  they  had  left  me. 
They  had  not  yet  realised  that  the  two  **  dead  " 
boys  were  still  with  me ;  so  going  out  to  the 
villagers  who  were  squatted  on  the  ground  a 
few  yards  from  the  tent,  I  asked  them : 

*'  Did  those  old  women  who  were  afraid  to 
go  with  me  into  the  Mashikolumbwe  country  tell 
you  I  had  killed  Letangu  and  Macumba  ?  " 

"  Ee." 

"  Look  then  at  the  two  dead  boys ;  this  is 
Letangu  and  this  is  Macumba.  Dead  boys  are 
not  often  so  fat  as  these." 

Letangu  then  proved  his  identity  to  their 
satisfaction,  though  at  first  they  were  reluctant 
to  believe  him.  Afterwards  two  boys  came 
forward  and  offered  to  act  as  guides  to  the 
Umgwezi  river. 

The  next  day  a  start  was  made  at  ten  o'clock. 
Two  heavy  showers  caused  much  delay  and  wet 
everything.  As  a  consequence  it  was  found 
necessary  to  travel  for  a  short  time  after  sunset 
in  order  to  reach  water. 

Pony,  the  hopeless,   was  no  longer  my   head 

boy,  and  Letangu  reigned  in  his  stead,  so  I  saw 

little  of  him,  more  especially  as  the  affection  with 

which  he  regarded  my  small  supply  of  provisions 

made  it  advisable  that  he  should  sleep  with  the 

porters   and   not    near   my   fire,   with    the    two 

boys  told  off  as  personal  servants,  as  had  been 

his  privilege. 



Consequently  it  was  not  till  next  morning  that 
I  learnt  that  he  was  missing,  and  had  not  slept  in 
camp  that  night 

Letangu  was  ordered  to  detail  two  boys  to 
go  back  on  the  spoor  of  yesterday  and  bring 
in  the  missing  boy,  for  he  had  complained  of 
being  sick  on  the  previous  day,  and  I  sus- 
pected that  he  had  made  a  small  camp  of  his 
own  and  there  remained.  Letangu  returned  to 
say  the  boys  would  not  obey  him.  This  was 
only  another  instance  of  the  abject  selfishness 
of  the  African — he  always  considers,  as  is  the 
way  of  wild  animals,  that  his  first  duty  towards 
a  sick  companion  is  to  leave  him ! 

An  order  from  me  of  a  somewhat  peremptory 
nature  persuaded  them  to  change  their  mind,  and 
in  an  hour  s  time  Pony  was  in  camp.  Fever  was 
raging  in  him,  so  I  gave  him  a  day's  rest  and  a 
good  dose  of  quinine.  The  next  day — the  21st 
of  February — I  camped  on  the  highest  point  of 
the  plateau  traversed;  my  observations  made  it 
4 IXC  feet  above  the  sea-level.  The  tsetse  fly 
had  been  very  troublesome  on  this  high  ground, 
which  at  this,  the  wet  season,  is  as  a  rule  teem- 
ing with  game ;  but  so  deadly  had  the  rinderpest 
proved  itself  that  only  once  had  game  been  seen 
since  leaving  Bisi.  Deprived  of  the  blood  of 
beasts,  they  collected  themselves  and  attacked 
the  boys  and  myself  to  some  tune. 



EARLY  next  morning  exclamations  from  the 
boys  awakened  me.  All  I  could  learn  in 
answer  to  the  question,  "  What  is  the  matter  ?" 
was  that  something  had  gone  wrong  with  the 
gfuinea-fowls.  However,  on  getting  up  to  ascer- 
tain for  myself,  very  little  was  to  be  seen  of  the 
poor  birds. 

Their  cages  swarmed  with  "serui,"  the  dark 
brown  soldier -ant,  whose  first  cousin,  the  red 
"semi,"  has  been  alluded  to  in  a  previous 
chapter.  There  were  apparently  four  sizes  of 
the  ant,  varying  from  one-eighth  to  three-eighths 
of  an  inch  in  length.  The  flesh  of  the  inmates 
of  one  cage  was  entirely  consumed — all  that 
remained  were  the  bones  and  feathers.  The 
other  two  birds  were  about  half  eaten. 

This  calls  to  mind  an  experience  a  missionary 
gave  me  in  which  he  was  the  sufferer. 

While  travelling  up  the  Zambezi  in  native 
canoes  he  was  landed  on  an  island  one  evening 
and  camp  was  formed  for  the  night  A  few 
native  huts  stood  some  little  distance  from  the 
river-bank,  and  thither   the  canoe  boys  asked 



and  obtained  permission  to  go,  promising  to 
return  early  next  morning. 

A  sharp  nip,  and  then  another  and  another 
roused  my  friend  during  the  late  hours  of  night 
Striking  a  light  he  found  the  ground  was  literally 
swarming  with  these  soldier  -  ants,  and  some 
hundreds  were  already  crawling  over  his  legs  and 
body.  Tearing  his  shirt  off  he  fled  in  search 
of  some  uninfested  corner,  but  finding  none  on 
dry  ground — for  he  described  the  whole  surface 
of  the  island  as  swarming  with  these  litde 
creatures — he  had  perforce  to  enter  the  water. 
The  boys  had  taken  the  canoes  with  them  to 
the  bank,  so  there  was  only  one  thing  left 
for  the  unhappy  man  to  do,  and  that  he  did. 
Till  morning  he  was  compelled  to  stand  ankle- 
deep  in  water,  naked  and  cold,  for  it  was  winter, 
when  towards  morning  there  is  sometimes  even 
a  degree  or  two  of  frost  in  these  latitudes.  It 
is  fortunate  a  hung^ry  crocodile  did  not  pass 
that  way,  for  in  some  parts  of  the  Zambezi 
these  reptiles  are  very  voracious. 

Another  missionary  related  to  me  how  one 
morning  he  found  a  calf  of  his  that  had  been 
tethered  for  the  night,  stone-dead  and  partially 
consumed  by  "serui." 

That  evening  Pony  did  not  turn  up  with  the 

stragglers,  and  on  enquiry   I   was  told  that  he 

could  not  stand  up,  so  they  had  left  him. 

Here  was  another  instance  of  the  brute  nature 



of   the    African,    which    I    reproduce   from   my 

"  Sent  Letangu  and  another  boy  back  for 
him — some  two  miles.  They  returned  without 
him.  Sent  them  off  again  with  matches  and 
food,  instructing  them  to  bring  him  in  early  in 
the  morning.  They  all  three  arrived  together, 
but  I  found  the  two  boys  had  gone  to  the 
village  a  hundred  yards  away,  slept  there,  and 
gone  for  him  next  morning.  I  do  not  believe 
these  insults  to  human  nature  would  walk  a 
mile  to  save  a  brother  from  death ! " 

The  next  evening — the  23rd — this  performance 
was  repeated.  It  was  impossible  to  delay  in 
order  to  rest  the  boy,  for  the  rinderpest  had  not 
yet  been  overtaken,  and  though  much  to  the 
east  I  was  within  fifty  miles  of  the  latitude  of 
Kazungula.  The  disease  was  travelling  from 
north  to  south. 

Probably  even  if  the  oxen  had  so  far  escaped, 
I  should  not  be  able  to  inspan  till  some  six  days 
after  arrival  at  Kazungula,  so  impressing  on 
Pony  that  if  he  wished  to  return  to  Mafeking 
with  me  he  must  find  his  way  to  Kazungula 
before  a  start  was  made,  I  arranged  with  the 
people  of  a  neighbouring  village  that  he  should 
have  shelter  and  food  until  able  to  follow,  and 
also  left  him  the  means  to  purchase  any  neces- 
saries he  required  on  the  road  to  Kazungula. 

That   day   the  travelling  was  down  hill,  the 



descent  averaging  loo  feet  for  every  3000  yards. 
By  midday  the  Umgwezi  was  reached  and  found 
to  be  very  different  in  character  from  the  lower 
reaches  of  the  river.  The  bed  here  is  steep  and 
rocky,  the  banks  high,  and  the  country  through 
which  it  flows  is  composed  of  steep  undulations 
strewn  with  stones  and  boulders  of  every  size. 

Fortunately  the  heavy  com  harvest  that  the 
Matoka  were  reaping  after  two  years  of  famine 
owing  to  locust  depredations,  had  done  away 
with  the  necessity  of  hunting,  or  food  would  have 
been  scarce  in  camp,  since  the  rinderpest  seemed 
to  have  made  a  clean  sweep  of  almost  all  game. 
A  few  waterbuck  remained  on  the  banks  of  the 
Umgwezi,  and  one  of  these  was  bagged  and 
supplied  meat  for  the  boys  by  way  of  change ; 
with  the  exception  of  these,  which  were  noticed 
two  or  three  times  each  day,  a  few  klip- 
springers — the  only  ones  I  had  seen  during  this 
expedition — appeared  to  represent  the  four-footed 
fauna  of  this  part  of  the  Umgwezi.  Two  days 
later  this  district  of  rocky  undulation  and  rough 
travelling  was  left  behind,  the  country  became 
almost  flat,  and  for  some  distance  from  either 
bank  open.  Here  a  small  herd  of  roan  antelope 
was  seen,  and  the  spoor  of  wildebeest,  eland, 
and  zebra,  and  I  began  to  think  I  was  heading 
the  disease  at  last,  though  at  the  eleventh  hour. 

On  the  27th,  midday  rest  was  taken  near  a 
large  village.     The  boys  evidently  found  them- 



selves  among  congenial  spirits,  and  although  they 
had  been  told  when  I  intended  making  a  start, 
half  a  dozen  of  them  absented  themselves  till  after 
sundown,  expecting,  no  doubt,  that  they  had  put 
a  spoke  in  the  wheel  of  progress  for  that  day 
and  would  be  able  to  return  to  the  village  and 
spend  the  evening  in  frivolous  revelry  with  the 
villagers.  It  was  moonlight,  so  I  determined 
to  make  up  for  lost  time  and  do  some  night 
travelling.  There  was  something  of  a  protest 
when  the  order  to  pack  up  the  loads  was  given, 
but  that  was  not  repeated  when  they  were  given 
to  understand  that  any  boy  who  gave  trouble 
would  be  turned  out  of  camp,  would  not  receive 
his  blanket,  and  a  messenger  would  be  sent  to 
Latia  asking  him  to  send  boys  to  carry  the 
goods  to  Kazungula.  They  saw  the  argument, 
for  Kazungula  was  only  two  days  distant 

After  travelling  for  about  an  hour,  a  young 
Mankoya  boy  was  to  be  heard  shouting  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  to  the  rear.  He  was  answered,  but 
continued  to  call  each  time  I  replied.  It  could 
not  be,  therefore,  that  he  had  lost  his  way ;  either 
he  had  hurt  himself  by  falling  into  some  pit  or 
been  treed  by  a  lion,  so  two  boys  were  sent 
back  to  ascertain  the  meaning  of  his  repeated 
calls.  They  returned  with  the  boy,  who  told 
how  two  Mashikolumbwe  porters  had  deserted 
with  their  loads  and  had  tried  to  persuade  him 
to  abscond  with  them.      It  would  have  been 



impossible  to  follow  their  spoor  successfully  at 
night,  so  I  determined  to  camp  at  the  first  water 
and  follow  them  next  morning,  even  if  I  had  to 
do  so  for  fifty  miles,  and  woe  betide  them  if  they 
did  not  go  quicker  than  I  did,  which  was  hardly 
to  be  expected  considering  their  loads. 

Water  was  found  close  at  hand.  The  deserters 
had  with  them  seventy  yards  of  calico,  all  the 
horns  I  had  saved  during  this  second  expedition 
from  Kazungula,  the  lion's  skull,  about  two  dozen 
jackal,  wild  cat  and  other  skins,  and  a  bag 
containing  odds  and  ends. 

Fever  was  already  on  me,  but  unfortunately 
the  next  morning  my  temperature  was  very  high 
and  I  did  not  feel  up  to  travelling  all  day  in 
the  sun. 

Lecharu  was  a  good  spoorer  and  not  in 
sympathy  with  the  Mashikolumbwe,  so  I  pro- 
mised him  a  present  of  lo^.  if  he  recovered 
the  trophies,  which  I  anticipated  the  miscreants 
would  leave  behind  after  their  first  halt  Four 
boys  accompanied  him,  with  the  understanding 
that  any  who  assisted  in  recovering  the  lost 
things  should  have  a  present  of  a  sitziba.  For 
myself,  Warburgs  tincture  and  the  blankets 
promoted  a  profuse  perspiration,  so  that  by  four 
o'clock  I  felt  almost  well  again.  Shortly  after 
I  was  delighted  to  see  Lecharu  and  the  boy  who 
gave  the  alarm  the  previous  night  arrive  with 
the  trophies — ^the   others   had   gone   in   another 



direction,  probably  that  of  the  village.  A  clean 
white  sitziba  five  minutes  later  decorated  the  loins 
of  the  one  porter  who  had  carried  out  my  instruc- 
tions. It  was  the  first  he  had  ever  worn,  and 
caused  him  to  swagger  about  for  the  next  day  or 
two  with  an  air  of  conscious  self-importance. 

The  following  morning  at  seven  o'clock  a  start 
was  made  in  a  southerly  direction.  By  noon 
fifteen  miles  had  been  marched,  and  the  caravan 
rested  near  a  village.  This  proved  to  be  the 
home  of  the  boy  Macumba,  whose  appearance 
created  considerable  sensation  among  his  fellow- 
villagers  ;  and  well  it  might,  for  this  is  the  tale 
they  had  been  told  and  led  to  accept  as  gospel 
Of  course  the  first  question  the  boys  who 
had  deserted  in  the  Mashikolumbwe  country 
would  invariably  be  asked  was : 

*'Why  have  you  left  the  white  man.*^" 

Answer :  "  The  white  man  shot  Macumba, 
Letangu,  and  the  three  boys  he  brought  with 
him  from  Mangwato  while  they  slept  at  night 
The  noise  of  his  rifle  awakened  us  from  our 
sleep,  and  we  only  just  managed  to  escape  with 
our  lives." 

Question :  "  What  has  become  of  the  white 
man  ?  " 

Answer :  "  Oh,  he  went  by  himself  right  into 
the  Mashikolumbwe  country  and  has  never  been 
heard  of  since." 

Such    was   the   perfected   tale  which  the   in- 



ventive  genius  of  these  boys  had  consistently 
spread  everywhere.  It  had  even,  I  afterwards 
discovered,  reached  the  ears  of  Mr.  Bagley,  a 
trader  at  Pendamatenka,  who  was  preparing  for 
a  journey  to  Lialui.  Liwanika,  of  course,  had 
heard  of  it,  as  had  all  the  missionaries  and 
natives  in  the  land.  Two  chiefs  had  been  sent 
down  to  Kazungula  from  Lialui  to  make  further 
enquiries  for  the  king's  edification.  The  mis- 
sionaries, of  course,  did  not  believe  the  tale 
in  totOy  but  conceived  the  idea  that  I  might  have 
fallen  foul  of  my  boys,  and  myself  been  killed 
after  sending  on  the  five  who  had  not  returned 
in  advance,  to  announce  my  speedy  arrival  in 
another  sphere. 

All  along  the  route  to  Kazungula  the  people 
came  out  to  meet  the  caravan,  for  messengers 
had  of  course  gone  on  from  village  to  village 
with  the  news  of  my  arrival.  I  must  confess  to 
being  immensely  surprised  at  the  enthusiasm  of 
my  reception.  In  many  instances  men  marched 
alongside  for  a  mile  or  so  past  their  villages, 
jabbering  their  congratulations  and  laughing 
cheerily.  I  began  to  realise  the  sensation — 
afterwards  shown  to  exist — that  the  alleged 
bloodthirsty  conduct  attributed  to  me  had  created 
in  these  parts. 

The  deserters  would  not  have  dared  to  spread 
such  a  report  had  they  deemed  the  return  of 
myself  and  boys  likely.     Had  untoward  circum- 



Stances  arisen  in  Mashikolumbweland  to  prevent 
that  return,  this  tale  would  have  been  believed 
by  the  uncharitable,  modified  by  the  more  liberal- 
minded,  and  probably  disbelieved  in  toto  by  the 
few  who  knew  me.  Knowledge  of  this  dispelled 
any  intention  I  may  have  had  not  to  insist  on  the 
severe  punishment  of  the  absconding  boys  at 
the  hands  of  Liwanika  and  Latia,  for  they  were 
genuinely  in  terror  of  the  Mashikolumbwe,  and 
so  far  there  was  excuse  for  their  desertion.  As  it 
was,  not  only  did  the  sleek  appearance  of  the 
two  resurrected  faithful  ones  gfive  the  lie  to  any 
suggested  ill-treatment,  but  they  were  frequently 
to  be  heard  protesting  that  the  ''  white  man  was  a 
good  master,  and  that  they  had  always  had  plenty 
to  eat''  As  a  matter  of  fact,  from  the  first  time  I 
visited  Africa  in  1 890  till  my  arrival  at  Kazungula 
in  March,  1896,  no  native  had  ever  been  chastised 
by  me  or  at  my  instigation. 

In  attempting  to  give  an  unvarnished  account 
of  my  travels  among  these  people,  I  have  en- 
deavoured to  avoid  wasting  the  reader's  time  and 
my  own  by  moralising  and  giving  vent  to  every 
thought  that  circumstances  may  have  suggested 
from  time  to  time,  but  an  exception  has  been 
made  in  this  case  in  order  to  prove  to  impartial 
minds  with  what  a  very  big  g^in  of  salt  the  numer- 
ous uncharitable  tales  reflecting  on  the  humanity 
and  manhood  of  those  who  have  been  losing  and 
risking  their  lives  in  the  interests  of  the  empire 



during  the  recent  Matabele  revolt,  ought  to  be 
taken.  So  many  of  these  "yarns"  have  been 
proved  to  be  slanderous  and  ill-founded,  though 
in  a  small  minority  of  instances  there  may  be 
some  proof  of  excess — generally  under  trying 
circumstances, — that  it  is  impossible  for  anyone 
worthy  the  name  of  an  Englishman  not  to  resent 
these  cruel  libels.  It  would  be  interesting  to 
notice  the  effect  on  the  opinions  of  such  gentle- 
men as  those  alluded  to,  had  they  an  opportunity 
of  seeing  with  their  eyes,  in  place  of  through  the 
vision  of  a  prejudiced  imagination,  the  struggle 
between  the  white  man  and  the  black  in  Rhodesia. 
Had  the  termination  of  my  earthly  existence 
occurred  in  January,  1896,  instead  of  being  provi- 
dentially postponed  to  a  later  period,  it  is  not 
inconceivable  that  when  the  news  of  my  alleged 
and  unrefuted  brutality  reached  England,  as  it 
must  have  done  in  a  few  months,  a  certain 
though  happily  a  small  section  of  the  press  would 
have  held  this  up  as  yet  another  instance  of  the 
barbarity  with  which  white  men  in  Africa  treat 
the  poor  helpless  savage.  It  would  have  mattered 
little  to  the  deceased  "slaughterer  of  unarmed  and 
slumbering  natives,"  but  might  have  caused  pain 
to  his  friends. 

Another  piece  of  news  given  me  by  the  natives 
showed  that  my  return  to  Kazungula  was  not  a 
bit  too  early.  The  rinderpest  had  killed  off"  all 
but  about  a  dozen  of  the  hundreds  of  cattle  in  the 



neighbourhood  of  Sesheke,  which  as  the  crow 
flies  is  within  forty  miles  of  Kazungula.  The 
mission  cattle,  120  odd,  were  all  dead.  It  had 
already  crossed  the  Zambezi  there,  and  was 
travelling  south.  The  game  was  already  dying 
beyond  the  radius  of  a  few  miles  of  Kazungula 
itself,  but  as  yet  the  disease  had  not  shown  itself 
among  the  cattle.  There  was  no  time  to  be  lost, 
and  I  made  up  my  mind  to  travel  hard,  a  resolve 
that  was  favoured  by  an  almost  full  moon.  The 
camp  fire  was  not  lighted  that  night  till  one  a.m., 
after  thirty  miles  had  been  completed.  The  next 
night  at  eight  p.m.  Kazungula  was  reached  after 
marching  a  further  twenty-three  and  a  half  miles, 
so  that  the  boys,  each  of  whom  carried  a  load 
of  not  less  than  forty  pounds,  and  some  over  fifty, 
had  covered  fifty-three  and  a  half  miles  in  thirty- 
seven  hours,  a  performance  which  spoke  volumes 
for  their  endurance  and  amenability  alike. 

Early  this  last  day — March  ist — the  left  of  my 
last  pair  of  shoes  gave  out — the  sole,  which  had 
been  gradually  parting  company  from  the  welt, 
hung  on  to  the  heel  only,  which  was  itself  merely 
attached  on  the  inside.  At  first  the  foot  was  tied 
up  in  a  towel,  but  it  was  not  long  before  the  sharp 
seeds  which  the  grass  was  now  shedding  had 
worked  through  to  the  feet,  and  thus  converted 
the  towel  into  an  instrument  of  torture  such  as 
the  mediaeval  officers  of  the  Inquisition  would 
have  revelled  in.  This  towel  then  shared  the 
z  337 


fate  of  the  boot,  and  the  last  ten  miles  were 
done  with  no  other  covering  to  the  left  foot  than  a 
sock.  It  was  not  very  pleasant  going,  and  my 
foot  was  somewhat  cut  about  by  the  end  of  the 
journey,  but  as  there  was  little  walking  to  be 
done  the  next  few  days  I  soon  went  sound  again. 

After  a  good  night's  rest  I  hobbled  round  to 
the  mission  station.  There  I  was  sorry  to  find 
both  M.  and  Mdme.  Boiteau  down  with  fever; 
the  lady  had  recently  presented  her  husband  with 
a  daughter,  and  for  some  days  had  been  in  a  very 
critical  condition. 

The  news  received  from  the  natives  about  the 
rinderpest  proved  to  be  quite  correct,  with  this 
addition — that  it  had  already  crossed  the  Kwando 
(Chobe),  and  was  travelling  south  through  the 
Kalahari.  This  was  not  encouraging,  for  should 
it  catch  me  in  the  desert  my  only  chance  would 
be  to  abandon  everything  but  my  maps,  diaries, 
photographs,  and  as  much  food  as  could  be 
carried,  and  tramp  through  that  inhospitable 
sandy  waste. 

In  the  afternoon  I  went  to  see  Latia,  when,  of 
course,  the  first  subject  discussed  was  the  boys 
who  had  deserted. 

Latia  is  an  intelligent  native,  and  although  as 
a  rule  there  is  little  or  no  sincerity  of  faith  among 
the  majority  of  Christian  natives,  I  believe  him 
to  be  one  of  the  bright  exceptions,  and  further, 
as  the  king  s  son  and  heir,  one  calculated  to  have 




a  most  beneficial  influence  on  his  people ;  for  his 
life  and  conduct  always  appeared  consistent  with 
his  professions. 

After  hearing  an  account  of  my  journey,  he 
said : 

"  I  have  been  very  anxious,  for  I  was  afraid 
harm  had  come  to  you,  but  I  never  believed  you 
had  killed  the  boys,  for  I  know  my  people 
often  do  not  speak  the  truth.  Still,  there  are 
some  who  did  believe  the  boys'  tale."  To  which 
he  added,  "  Some  people  always  like  to  believe 
what  is  bad  about  others." 

"  Yes,"  I  answered,  "  it  is  the  same  way  with 
some  white  men  as  it  is  with  your  people.  Now, 
I  am  more  angry  with  these  boys  on  account 
of  the  lies  they  have  told  than  because  they  left 
me,  so  I  want  you  to  send  for  those  who  belong 
to  you,  and  try  them  in  the  presence  of  Letang^ 
and  Macumba ;  then,  if  you  find  that  they  have 
lied  and  have  always  been  well  fed  and  well 
treated,  I  wish  you  to  punish  them,  so  that  your 
people  may  see  that  when  a  white  man  behaves 
well  to  them  they  must  treat  him  properly,  and 
not  leave  him  by  himself  on  the  veldt." 

He  agreed  to  do  as  requested,  so  I  added : 

"It  will  be  wise  for  you  to  do  so,  for  you  know 
the  English  people  will  soon  be  coming  into  your 
country.  They  will  want  your  people  to  work  for 
them,  and  will  give  them  calico  and  money.  If 
your   boys  treat  them   as   they  have  done  me, 



and  the  chiefs  do  not  punish  them,  many  white 
men  will  punish  their  boys  themselves,  and  this 
will  give  trouble." 

Next  the  two  Mashikolumbwe  who  had 
absconded  with  their  loads  had  to  be  dealt 
with.  Latia  gave  sundry  exclamations  of  dis- 
approval as  a  list  was  given  him  of  the  articles 

"These  boys  left  at  the  Umgwezi,  close  to 
Kazungula,"  I  continued;  " that  shows  that  they 
deserted  only  for  the  purpose  of  stealing  the 
things  they  carried,  for  their  journey  was  nearly 
finished  and  they  would  have  received  their  pay 
in  three  days.  What  I  want  you  to  do  is  this — 
send  special  messengers  after  them  at  once,  and 
they  may  be  caught  before  they  reach  their  home  ; 
if  not  they  will  easily  be  found,  for  they  live  near 
'Meruti'  Buckenham,  and  I  will  write  a  letter 
describing  them,  for  he  knows  all  the  boys  I 
engaged  there.'' 

*'  I  will  send  after  them,  and  they  shall  be 
punished  a  hula-hula''  (very  much). 

"  Then  I  make  you  a  gift  of  all  the  calico 
and  skins,  out  of  which  you  can  give  your 
messengers  what  presents  you  think  fit.  The 
other  things  I  wish  you  to  hand  over  to  *  Meruti ' 
Boiteaux,  as  there  are  some  letters  among  them 
which  he  will  send  on  to  me." 

And  so  it  was  arranged,  nor  did  I  feel 
sufficiently   charitable    towards    these    two   mis- 



creants  to  wish  them  anything  less  than  the 
severest  punishment. 

Arrangements  having  been  made  for  swimming 
the  oxen  across  the  river  next  day,  after  which 
canoes  would  be  placed  at  my  disposal  for  a 
journey  to  Sesheke  to  bring  away  those  trophies, 
etc.,  which  M.  Goy  had  kindly  consented  to  take 
charge  of,  I  departed. 

The  following  was  an  uneventful  day  as  the 
canoes  did  not  turn  up,  but  the  rest  did  my  feet 
no  harm. 

On  the  morning  of  the  next,  however — the  4th 
of  March — the  tent  was  pitched  on  the  south 
bank,  and  everything  I  had  at  Kazungula,  in- 
cluding the  oxen,  had  been  taken  across. 

An  attempt  to  swim  the  six  oxen  over  at  once 
with  one  canoe  leading  and  a  second  driving 
proved  successful  in  so  far  as  five  of  them  were 
concerned,  but  not  so  with  No.  6 — he  had  not 
the  smallest  intention  of  voluntarily  taking  to 
water.  When  the  remainder  were  safe  across 
an  attempt  was  made  to  secure  this  troublesome 
brute  by  a  riem.  As  soon  as  he  saw  what  the 
idea  was  up  went  his  tail  and  away  he  went  with 
a  couple  of  boys  on  his  track;  he  took  them 
quite  a  mile  across  a  marshy  plain  before  they 
could  head  him.  A  second  attempt ;  once  more 
a  protest  by  the  ox,  and  another  run  for  the 
boys  —  this  time,  however,  for  three  or  four 
hundred   yards  only,  when   he  was  turned  and 



driven  back.  The  riem  was  now  over  his  horns, 
the  canoe  was  putting  away,  and  a  crowd  of 
boys  shouted,  pushed,  and  applied  sticks  to 
his  hind-quarters,  but  nothing  could  be  done, 
for  whenever  he  found  himself  up  to  the  belly 
in  water  he  kicked  and  plunged  so  violendy  that 
his  drovers  scattered  in  all  directions. 

At  last  a  second  riem  was  thrown  over  the  horns 
and  two  canoes  placed  parallel  one  to  the  other 
and  about  four  yards  apart  The  ox  was  driven 
forwards  between  the  two  until  I  was  able  to 
sit  in  the  centre  of  one  holding  the  end  of  a 
riem,  while  the  other  was  entrusted  to  a  boy 
sitting  similarly  in  the  second  canoe.  At  a 
given  signal  the  canoes  were  punted  forward, 
and  the  troublesome  ox  attacked  from  the  rear 
by  some  half-dozen  natives.  It  looked  like  a 
success,  but  unfortunately  before  he  had  quite 
lost  foothold  the  animal  plunged  away  from  me, 
but  finding  the  riem  did  not  give,  turned,  and 
came  towards  me.  Of  course  the  nigger  let  go 
his  riem  as  soon  as  it  became  taut,  with  the  result 
that  in  a  second  one  cloven  hoof  was  firmly 
planted  on  my  stomach  and  another  on  the  side 
of  the  canoe.  The  next  moment  the  unstable 
craft  was  at  the  bottom  of  the  river  in  four  feet 
of  water,  myself  still  sitting  in  it  held  down  by 
the  animal's  foot.  Then  he  rushed  over  me,  but 
without  doing  any  harm.  I  was  soon  above  the 
surface,  and  fully  realised  the  ludicrous  side  of 



the  picture.  What  a  pity  it  should  all  have  been 
wasted  on  a  pack  of  niggers,  who,  so  far  from 
appreciating  the  comic  side  of  the  episode,  looked 
rather  scared!  I  believe  myself  to  have  been 
the  only  person  to  derive  any  amusement  out 
of  the  ducking,  besides  which  it  had  an  agree- 
ably cooling  effect  after  the  heating  fight  with 
my  obstinate  opponent 

The  next  attempt  was  successful,  and  our 
bovine  friend  lost  his  foothold  before  he  had 
time  to  lodge  an  effectual  protest 

That  afternoon  a  waggon  arrived  at  the  right 
bank  from  the  south,  and  I  was  delighted  to 
shake  hands  with  Messrs.  Bagley  and  Kerr, 
both  of  whom  I  had  met  previously.  These 
gentlemen  were  on  their  way  to  Lialui  with 
trading  goods,  and  hoped  to  return  with  ivory 
and  as  many  of  the  more  valuable  class  of  skins 
as  they  could  purchase. 

From  the  time  of  leaving  Palapye  in  May, 
1895,  I  had  not  received  a  single  line  or  news- 
paper from  England,  so  that  for  ten  months  I 
had  been  completely  cut  off  from  my  friends  at 
home.  This  of  course  should  not  have  been 
the  case,  and  can  only  be  attributed  to  the  up- 
country  postal  arrangements,  either  at  Palapye 
or  south  of  that  place.  The  excuse  of  not 
knowing  my  whereabouts  would  not  hold  water, 
for  two  business  letters  from  Mafeking  had 
reached  me  at  Lialui.     My  instructions  to  the 



postmaster  at  Palapye  were  that  letters  should 
be  handed  to  the  Assistant  Commissioner  at 
Palapye,  who  would  forward  them  by  the  runners 
that  carried  the  missionaries*  mails.  That  gentle- 
man, and  also  his  right-hand  man,  the  assistant 
magistrate,  were  personal  friends  of  mine,  and 
any  letters  received  by  them  would  certainly 
have  reached  me. 

In  these  circumstances  it  can  be  imagined  with 
what  greed  the  doings  of  the  new  Government 
(new  to  me)  were  swallowed,  and  with  what 
satisfaction  I  heard  of  the  strong  manner  in 
which  Lord  Salisbury  had  asserted  England's 
intention  to  uphold  her  rights  and  dignity  at  all 
costs.  The  first  news,  too,  of  the  Jameson  raid 
reached  me  that  day,  but  as  these  gentlemen 
heard  of  it  while  en  route  it  was  received  with 
mystified  incredulity,  so  unaccountably  extra- 
ordinary did  the  facts  as  recited  appear,  which 
none  the  less  were  proved  to  be  substantially 
correct  five  weeks  later. 

The  next  day  information  was  brought  across 
the  river  that  the  disease  had  broken  out  among 
Latia  s  cattle,  and  two  of  them  died  that  day. 
They  were,  however,  herded  two  miles  from  the 
mission  oxen  with  which  mine  had  been  running, 
so  that  it  did  not  follow  that  the  germs  of  disease 
were  among  them,  in  which  case,  with  600  yards 
of  river  and  a  steady  up-stream  breeze,  I  might 
yet  escape.     That   noon  a  start  was   made  for 



Sesheke,  which  was  reached  an  hour  and  a  half 
after  dark  the  next  evening. 

It  was  not  a  pleasant  journey,  as  heavy 
showers  fell  at  intervals  each  day.  The  river 
was  in  places  over  the  banks,  and  the  flats  that 
extend  for  a  few  miles  on  either  side  were  con- 
verted into  a  huge  marshy  swamp.  The  canoes 
left  the  river,  and  were  punted  the  greater  part 
of  the  way  through  the  grass,  which  generally 
rose  about  a  couple  of  feet  above  the  water. 
Thus  the  current  was  avoided  and  large  corners 
were  cut  off. 

I  was  glad  to  find  M.  and  Mdme.  Goy  in  good 
health,  as  on  my  previous  visit  they  were  both 
suffering.  They  confessed  to  having  given  me  up 
for  dead  on  hearing  the  tale  the  deserters  had 
disseminated  throughout  the  country,  and  although 
they  did  not  credit  the  story  of  the  boys  in 
its  integrity,  had  concluded  that  I  had  in  some 
way  been  attacked,  and  in  the  skirmish  killed 
some  of  the  niggers.  I  could  not  help  alluding  to 
his  own  experiences  with  Mr.  Baldwin,  when  the 
two  missionaries  were  reported  by  messengers  to 
Lialui  as  having  fought  one  another  so  fiercely, 
that  had  it  not  been  for  the  Mokwai's  people  one 
of  them  would  surely  have  killed  the  other, 
adding,  "  There  is  just  as  much  truth  in  the  one 
story  as  there  is  in  the  other." 

M.  Goy  confirmed  the  sad  story  of  the  decima- 
tion of  game  to  the  south-west  by  the  rinderpest. 



I  have  given  a  description  of  the  many  species 
and  numerous  herds  met  with  in  one  short  eight- 
days'  excursion  only  eight  months  earlier,  in 
hunting  that  district.  Now  according  to  native 
report  everything  was  dead,  and  the  large  herds 
of  buffalo  that  had  given  me  such  good  sport 
were  rotting  on  the  veldt  Catde  can  be  re- 
placed, but  it  is  to  be  feared  wild  game  will 
never  again  be  more  numerous  in  South  Central 
Africa  than  it  is  in  the  hunted-out  districts  of 
Khama  s  country. 

As  has  been  previously  stated,  slavery  and 
aristocracy  complete  the  sole  popular  classification 
of  the  Marotse  kingdom,  and  each  Marotse  chief 
owns  slaves  from  the  subjugated  tribes.  When 
a  chief  kills  an  ox  he  and  his  family  greedily 
consume  meat  and  marrow,  while  the  wretched 
slaves  get  little  more  than  the  skin  of  the  teeth. 
It  is  an  ill  wind  that  blows  no  one  any  good,  and 
so  it  would  seem  the  rinderpest  epidemic  was 
no  exception  to  the  rule.  M.  Goy  told  me  how 
that  the  slaves  of  Sesheke  revelled  for  days 
in  the  foul  meat  of  the  dead  catde.  Any  excep- 
tional event  is  almost  invariably  put  into  song, 
and  this  is  M.  Goy's  translation  of  the  song 
in  which  the  humbler  people  of  Sesheke  ex- 
pressed their  views  and  feelings  on  the  clean 
sweep  of  their  masters*  oxen — 

"God  has  killed  the  oxen, 
Dogs  and  slaves  are  fat." 



It  will  be  noticed  that  with  all  the  humility 
of  modesty  they  give  the  dogs  the  precedence, 
and  so  frequently  do  their  masters.  In  fact,  it  is 
quite  common  for  the  slave  who  covets  a  piece  of 
meat,  to  crawl  up  to  his  master  and  address  him 
thus : 

**  I  am  your  dog,  feed  me  with  meat"  This 
mode  of  address  gives  him  a  much  better  chance 
of  success  than  if  he  calls  himself  a  slave. 

For  the  last  two  or  three  weeks  a  war  scare 
had  filled  the  country  with  excitement,  and  both 
at  Kazungula  and  Sesheke  preparations  were 
in  progress.  Latia  at  the  former  place  was 
specially  energetic,  and  small  groups  of  eight 
or  ten  warriors,  each  carrying  an  assegai,  were 
daily  to  be  seen  moving  about  at  a  quick  pace  in 
single  file  and  headed  by  a  **  captain  "  armed  with 
a  rifle. 

All  this  was  the  outcome  of  an  arrogant 
demand  by  Sekome,  son  of  Moreme,  chief  of 
the  Lake  (Ngami). 

1 1  seems  that  this  young  chief  sent  messengers 
to  Liwanika,  demanding  that  he  should  abandon 
the  suzerainty  of  a  tribe  on  the  Kwando  in  the 
south-west  corner  of  his  kingdom  in  favour  of 
their  master.  This  deputation  was  at  Lialui 
during  my  visit  in  September.  Of  course  the 
answer  was  not  satisfactory  to  the  young  aspirant 
in  the  south,  who  promptly  sent  back  an  ultima- 
tum— **  I  am  no  longer  friendly  to  you,  Liwanika. 



If  you  do  not  give  me  this   tribe    I  will  bring 
an  army  and  take  it." 

This  evoked  from  the  Marotse  chief  the 
contemptuous  reply  which  arrived  at  Sesheke 
en  route  for  Ngami  during  my  visit 

*•  Moreme,  chief  of  Ngami, — You  say  you  are 
no  longer  friendly  to  me.  I  am  your  father.  Do 
not  come  here  to  fight  with  me,  but  go  to  my  son 
Latia  at  Kazungula ;  he  is  big  enough  for  such  as 
you."  The  despatch  concluded  with  the  follow- 
ing description  of  the  origin  of  Sekome,  son  of 
Moreme:  ''Your  father  was  a  man  with  a  fat 
belly,  your  mother  was  a  Masarwa." 

Sekome's  mother,  though  not  actually  a  Ma- 
sarwa  (bushman)  was  a  slave,  which  fact  de- 
prived him  of  the  tight  to  rule.  However,  in  this 
case  "might  was  right,"  for  on  the  death  of 
Moreme  he  usurped  the  chieftainship,  being  at 
the  time  a  lad  of  eighteen  only,  and  has  retained 
it  for  the  last  five  years  or  thereabouts  by  force 
of  character  only. 

Three  or  four  years  ago  a  strong  undercurrent 
ran  through  his  tribe  in  favour  of  the  rightful 
heir.  His  partisans  had  told  him  that  it  was 
frequently  asserted  in  the  tribe  that  *'  Sekome  is 
not  the  chief  of  Ngami." 

He  made  a  pretext  for  summoning  all  the 
chiefs  and  headmen  of  the  people  to  attend 
an  "indaba"  at  the  "kotla." 

When  all  had  assembled,  the  youthful  usurper 



walked  out  of  his  hut  carrying  a  loaded  rifle  and 
thus  confronted  his  people  : 

"There  are  some  of  you  who  say  that  I 
Sekome,  son  of  Moreme,  am  not  chief  of  my 
father's  people.  Where  are  those  men?  Let 
them  stand  up  and  tell  me  to  my  face  what  they 
have  said  behind  my  back." 

No  one  was  going  to  be  the  first  up,  so  all 
remained  seated,  received  a  public  admonition, 
and  were  told  to  go  home.  Once  while  staying 
at  Palapye  I  met  this  youth.  His  copper- 
coloured  face  wore  a  thoughtful  and  somewhat 
** hang-dog"  expression,  and  in  stature  he  was 
well  below  middle  height.  However,  his  estimate 
of  his  own  importance  is  not  measured  by  his 
inches,  as  the  following  incident  tends  to  show. 

Khama,  who  of  course  places  Sekome  in  the 
category  of  small  fry,  attended  service  in  the 
native  church  on  Sunday  afternoon.  Sekome 
also  was  present,  and  by  way  of  compliment  a 
chair  was  placed  for  him  immediately  behind  that 
of  the  ruler  of  the  Bamangwato,  who  occupied  a 
chair  in  front  of  his  people  and  in  a  line  with  no 
one.  This  was  not  good  enough  for  the  son  of 
Moreme,  who  advanced  his  chair  to  a  level  with 
Khama's  and  there  remained.  When  subse- 
quently questioned  as  to  his  reason  for  acting 
as  he  did,  he  tersely  replied  : 

**  I  also  am  chief  in  my  own  country." 

On  the  loth  at  midday  I  bade  farewell  to  M. 



and  Mdme.  Goy,  to  the  former,  I  very  much 
regret  to  say,  for  the  last  time,  for  the  first 
Zambezi  news  to  reach  me  after  arrival  in 
England  told  how  he  had  succumbed  to  fever 
after  three  days*  illness.  Always  hospitality 
itself,  he  placed  a  roof  and  a  bed  at  my  disposal 
during  each  visit  to  Sesheke,  nor  would  he  or  his 
good  wife  hear  of  my  absenting  myself  from  their 
hospitable  board  during  my  stay  there.  His 
energy  and  resource  had  built  up  a  model  station, 
spacious,  neat  and  clean.  With  the  people  of 
Sesheke  he  was  thoroughly  in  touch,  the  only 
thorn  in  his  side  being  the  capricious  young 
chieftainess,  who  with  her  husband  begrudged  his 
popularity  among  her  subjects.  To  M.  Goy  more 
than  all  others  I  owe  much  of  such  knowledge  as 
I  was  able  to  gather  of  the  people  and  their 
customs,  to  gain  an  accurate  conception  of  which 
requires  more  than  a  cursory  passage  through  a 
new  country. 

With  a  strong  current  in  their  favour  the 
paddlers  made  good  progress,  and  I  slept  that 
night  within  three  hours'  journey  of  Kazungula. 
It  was  a  nasty  damp  night,  the  air  filled  with 
mosquitoes  and  a  drizzling  rain,  from  which  a 
blanket  and  rug  only  served  as  a  partial  pro- 
tection. To  add  to  the  general  discomfort 
there  was  only  sufficient  fuel  procurable  to 
cook  a  duck  and  a  "beaker"  of  tea.  The 
boys  had  the  best  of  it  that  night   from  their 




point  of  view,  for  they  retired  to  a  small  native 
village  hard  by.  Personally,  damp  and  mosqui- 
toes were  preferable  to  dryness  and  the  particular 
form  of  animal  life  that  haunts  the  African  s  hut ; 
I  had  been  a  victim  on  a  previous  occasion,  so 
that  "once  bitten  twice  shy"  was  not  an  in- 
appropriate motto  on  this. 

Shortly  after  sunrise  a  fresh  start  was  made, 
and  at  nine  o'clock  my  journeys  in  the  Marotse 
kingdom  were  at  an  end. 

That  day  a  mail  arrived  in  which  were  seven 
letters  for  me — five  from  England  and  two  from 
the  colony. 

Messrs.  Bagley  and  Kerr  were  still  encamped 
on  the  south  bank,  there  being  no  canoes  available  . 
for  their  journey  other  than  those  that  had  brought 
me  from  Sesheke.  I  was  unable  to  inspan  that 
day,  as  the  cart  required  more  packing  than  had 
been  anticipated,  and  some  time  had  to  be  spent 
on  the  other  side  of  the  river  in  paying  farewell 
visits  to  M.  and  Mdme.  Boiteau  and  Latia  before 
I  could  get  to  work. 

There  it  transpired  that  the  epidemic  was  rife 
among  the  cattle  to  the  east  of  the  town,  but 
as  yet  had  not  shown  itself  at  the  mission 
station,  which  was  to  the  west,  so  that  there 
was  every  hope  that  the  germs  were  not  in 
my  oxen. 

By  the  evening  of  the  12th  everything  was 
ready   for  a  start.     The   cart,  from   which   the 



greater  part  of  the  canvas  cover  had  been  cut 
by  thieving  natives,  presented  a  unique  appear- 
ance. Out  of  a  bag  of  ii 3  head  some  sixty  had 
been  selected  as  trophies.  These  entirely  filled 
up  the  space  from  the  baggage  in  the  body  of 
the  cart  to  the  frame  of  the  tent  above,  and 
tied  on  behind  with  riems  was  the  skin  of  a 
hippo  s  head  and  neck,  some  five  feet  long,  which 
rested  on  three  pairs  of  buffalo  horns  fixed  on 
the  back  of  the  cart  Three  Zambezi  boys 
had  engaged  themselves  on  the  condition  that 
they  should  be  allowed  to  accompany  the  cart 
and  be  fed  as  far  as  Palapye — they  affected  a 
wish  to  go  to  Kimberley  to  work  in  the  mines, 
which  proved  to  be  "bunkum,"  for  at  seven  p.m. 
when  the  oxen  were  inspanned  the  trio  was  "  non 
est " ;  in  other  words,  all  they  wished  was  to  eat 
and  do  nothing  at  my  expense  so  long  as  the  cart 
remained  stationary,  but  no  longer.  Thus  it 
happened  that  the  desert  had  to  be  faced  with 
two  worn-out  boys — for  Pony  had  turned  up 
a  couple  of  days  earlier — plenty  of  corn  for  the 
boys,  but  only  a  little  rice,  oatmeal,  tea,  and 
saccharine  for  their  master. 



IT  is  generally  supposed  that  ten  oxen  are 
none  too  many  to  take  a  Scotch  cart  with 
a  load  of  3000  lbs.  through  the  heavy  sand  belts 
of  the  Kalahari  desert,  though  six  can  do  it  at  a 
pinch,  provided  they  are  carefully  driven  and  con- 
siderately treated.  Four,  however,  would  barely 
have  moved  the  empty  cart  up  some  of  the 
severer  inclines,  where  the  wheels  sink  so  deep 
that  sand  falls  from  the  spokes  as  they  move 
round  like  water  from  a  mill-wheel.  The  loss  of 
one  ox,  therefore,  would  have  meant  the  abandon- 
ment of  everything  but  maps,  diaries,  and  as 
much  food  as  could  have  been  carried. 

Added  to  this,  no  meat  and  no  bread  (for 
Pony  s  theft  in  the  Mashikolumbwe  country  had 
deprived  me  of  what  would  have  been  just 
sufficient  meal  to  last)  did  not  promise  fat  fare  or 
variety  for  the  succeeding  four  weeks,  though, 
fortunately,  there  was  just  sufficient  rice,  oatmeal, 
and  tea  left  to  feed  me  a  month — this  sounds 
frugal,  but  is  none  the  less  a  great  deal  better 
than  nothing  at  all.  Yet  in  spite  of  the  only  too 
apparent  odds  against  me,  I  bade  my  friends 
3  A  3S3 


Messrs.  Bagley  and  Kerr  farewell  with  a  light 
heart,  we  each  genuinely  wishing  the  other  success 
and  bon  voyage  ;  and  as  the  oxen  were  set  moving 
I  feh  instinctively — nor  did  the  feeling  ever  leave 
me — that  I  should  reach  my  destination  in  safety, 
that  the  results. of  my  work  would  not  be  wasted, 
nor  would  my  bones — this  time,  at  all  events — 
bleach  unburied  under  the  rays  of  the  African  sun. 

As  far  as  Pendamatenka  the  track  is  fairly 
sound,  the  one  bad  place  being  the  Gazuma  flats, 
which  are  very  swampy  in  the  wet  season,  though 
they  had  already  hardened,  but  were  very  rough 
and  lumpy.  It  took  the  oxen  five  and  a  half 
hours  to  get  over  as  many  miles,  while  three 
months  earlier  MM.  Coillard  and  Jalla  spent 
three  weeks  in  passing  over-— or  more  literally 
speaking  through — the  same  ground.  Two  brace 
of  duck  bagged  in  Gazuma  vley  were  thoroughly 

Three  days  and  one  trek  brought  the  cart  into 
Pendamatenka,  a  distance  of  sixty-five  miles. 
Half  of  the  trekking  had  been  done  by  day  and 
half  by  night  so  far,  but  the  little  team  already 
showed  signs  of  distress,  so  it  was  obvious  that 
in  future  day-trekking  must  be  avoided  or  disaster 
would  be  the  result. 

I  will  spare  the  reader  an  account  of  the  daily 
monotonous  hard  work,  which  was  enhanced  by 
the  groaning  struggles  of  the  poor  oxen  as  they 
gallandy  forced  the  cart  through  the  deep  sand 



which  rose  all  round  them  as  they  disturbed  it 
with  their  hoofs,  half  choking  and  parching  them, 
thus  rendering  the  long  treks  from  water  to  water 
doubly  trying. 

Trekking  went  on  all  night  and  every  night  at 
intervals— three  hours'  trek,  one  hour  grazing — 
from  an  hour  before  sunset  to  an  hour  before 
sunrise,  while  during  the  whole  day  the  oxen 
slept  and  grazed  at  their  own  sweet  will. 

The  boys  had  once  more  gone  entirely  to 
pieces,  and  as  Pony  scarcely  ever  missed  an 
opportunity  of  driving  the  cart  into  a  tree  where 
a  chance  of  doing  so  occurred,  I  had  been  com- 
pelled to  appoint  myself  driver.  When  the  nigger 
is  worked  out  any  pretence  of  pluck  he  may  have 
possessed  disappears.  Here  is  a  case  in  point. 
The  boy  Lecharu,  on  receiving  orders  to  fill 
the  vaatje  (vessel  for  carrying  water)  from  a 
pool  some  distance  from  the  road,  but  the  only 
water  procurable  for  some  miles — so  far  as  I  knew 
at  the  time  about  forty-five — pointed  to  a  small 
scratch  on  one  of  his  toes  which  would  not  have 
brought  tears  to  the  eyes  of  a  two-year-old  infant, 
and  on  the  plea  of  that  scratch  pleaded  exemption 
from  work.  One  boy  or  the  other,  too,  would 
occasionally  fall  behind  and  take  a  few  hours' 
sleep.  It  was  impossible  to  wait  for  them  between 
waters,  as  when  the  oxen  were  compelled  to 
spend  the  day  without  drinking  the  mouths  of  the 
poor  creatures  became  so  parched  and  dry  that 



they  could  not  eat  and  strayed  in  all  directions  in 
search  of  a  pool.  At  first  this  trick  gave  me 
much  anxiety,  as  I  imagined  the  boy  had  disap- 
peared because  he  could  not,  and  not  because  he 
would  not  make  an  effort  to  follow.  On  discover- 
ing that  all  this  was  merely  a  method  for  causing 
delay,  I  gave  them  to  understand  that  in  future 
I  would  stop  for  neither  of  them,  and  kept  my 
word,  with  the  result  that  the  practice  was  dis- 
continued. Then  their  blankets  would  come 
untied  from  the  back  of  the  cart  and  be  missed, 
a  boy  would  go  back  to  look  for  them,  and 
return  in  about  three  hours. 

After  this  had  happened  twice,  they  were  told 
that  if  the  blankets  came  loose  again  they  would 
have  to  remain  where  they  dropped.  They  knew 
it  would  be  so,  consequently  the  blankets  came 
loose  no  more.  In  this  way  Wacha  was  reached 
on  March  25th.  Thus  the  worst  of  the  journey 
was  over,  and  had  been  got  through  very  satis- 
factorily at  an  average  of  fourteen  miles  a  day. 

At  this  vley  the  Bulawayo  and  Palapye  roads 
meet,  and  as  the  former  is  much  sounder,  better 
watered,  and  about  fifty  miles  nearer  civiliza- 
tion, I  decided  to  take  it,  sell  my  cart  and  oxen 
there,  and  travel  on  to  Mafeking  by  post-cart, 
after  packing  my  effects  and  leaving  them  to  be 
forwarded  by  my  agents  to  England.  Thus  with 
only  another  200  miles  in  front  of  me,  I  branched 
off  by  the  eastern  road  that  evening. 



Two  nights  hard  trekking,  without  any  water 
for  the  oxen,  brought  the  cart  safely  to  Tama- 
sanka.  Here  was  plenty  of  water  and  a  good 
"  veldt,"  so  I  decided  to  give  the  oxen  a  well- 
earned  twenty-four  hours'  rest,  and  have  a  night's 
sleep  myself,  a  luxury  only  once  experienced 
since  leaving  Pendamatenka. 

Pony  had  disappeared  the  night  but  one  before, 
taking  with  him  his  blanket,  some  food,  and  the 
waggon  whip.  Lecharu  told  me  he  had  deserted, 
and  intended  travelling  to  Palapye  with  some 
Zambezi  boys  who  had  left  Wacha  by  the  western 
road.  The  news  did  not  turn  my  hair  grey,  as 
the  boy  was  worse  than  useless  at  best 

The  next  day  showed  that  something  had 
caused  him  to  change  his  mind,  for  in  marched 
Master  Pony  with  the  blanket  and  waggon  whip. 
Whether  it  was  that  the  Zambezi  boys  had 
refused  to  accept  the  pleasure  of  his  company, 
as  he  had  only  been  able  to  take  four  days'  food 
with  him,  being  what  I  had  served  out  as  two 
days*  rations  for  Lecharu  and  himself,  or  whether 
on  weighing  the  chances  of  arrest  later  on  for 
desertion  he  had  thought  better  of  the  move,  I 
do  not  know ;  but  one  thing  he  brought  with  him 
through  having  to  travel  two  days  in  the  sun 
without  water  was  a  hot  dose  of  fever.  As  the 
wretched  boy  was  so  ill  he  was  not  punished ; 
in  fact,  every  living  thing  that  moved  with  that 
rickety,   prematurely  old  cart  (which  bore   the 



name  of  a  maker  who  deserves  to  have  his  name 
published  for  making  one  wheel  of  green  wood), 
from  the  oxen  that  drew  it  to  the  master  who 
drove,  had  suffered  enough  punishment  to  atone 
for  six  months'  sins  and  misdemeanours. 

Retiring  early,  I  meant  to  make  the  most  of 
my  night  between  the  blankets.  In  carrying 
out  this  resolve,  and  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  a 
**  Europe"  morning,  towards  eight  o  clock  a  strange 
sound  roused  me  suddenly — it  sounded  like  the 
voice  of  a  white  man.  And  so  it  proved  to  be, 
for  on  rolling  round  I  was  greeted  with  a  "  good 
morning  "  and  a  grin. 

It  is  needless  to  say  an  opportunity  such  as 
this  of  hearing  all  the  news,  and  conversing  once 
more  in  one's  native  tongue,  was  as  pleasing  and 
refreshing  as  it  was  unexpected. 

The  stranger  turned  out  to  be  a  setder  in 
Matabeleland,  by  name  Simpson,  owning  a  farm 
at  Figtree,  who  had  taken  it  into  his  head  to 
break  the  monotony  of  his  pastoral  calling  by 
making  a  trip  to  the  Zambezi,  where  he  told 
me  he  intended  buying  up  large  numbers  of 
goats  from  the  Batonga,  and  returning  with 
them  to  Bulawayo,  where  he  expected  to  realise 
a  high  price,  as  there  were  scarcely  any  left  in 
the  country. 

Since  the  largest  goat  I  had  seen  or  heard  of 
among  the  natives  of  the  Upper  Zambezi  was 
little   larger  than   a  hare,  I    suggested  he   had 



been  misinformed,  and  Teared  he  was  going  on 
a  wild-goose  chase. 

Then  it  transpired  that  his  sole  means  of  trans- 
port was  a  waggon  drawn  by  sixteen  donkeys, 
which  was  a  few  hundred  yards  behind,  and  was 
being  brought  on  by  a  companion  of  his  named 
Walsh.  Now  sixteen  donkeys  will  pull  nearly  as 
much  as  sixteen  oxen  on  a  hard  road,  but  in  sand 
such  as  has  already  been  described  it  is  to  be 
doubted  if  they  could  so  much  as  move  a  waggon 
in  one  or  two  places — this  is  where  the  weight  of 
the  ox  comes  in. 

Being  convinced  that  nothing  but  disaster  and 
loss  could  result  from  Simpson's  plans,  I  ventured 
strongly  to  recommend  his  return  home ;  more 
especially  as  he  would  have  to  trek  through  the 
worst  part  of  the  desert  for  about  eighty  miles 
without  water,  as  owing  to  the  severe  drought 
the  vleys  were  all  but  dry  when  I  passed,  and 
would  be  quite  dry  by  the  time  he  reached 

A  short  time  after,  Walsh,  a  good-looking  old 
Irishman,  with  white  hair  and  long  beard,  came 
in  with  the  donkeys.  Almost  the  first  thing 
he  said  was,  **  Lor*,  what  a  job  I  have  had  to 
get  those  donkeys  through  that  sand.  It  has 
taken  an  hour  to  travel  800  yards." 

**  I  have  not  seen  the  *  belts '  in  front,"  I  said ; 
**but  Bagley,  of  Pendamatenka,  told  me  that 
when  I  reached  here  I  only  had  two  small  *  belts ' 



to  go  through  which  would  give  me  no  trouble, 
so  you  can  imagine  what  you  have  in  front  of 

They  soon  decided  to  abandon  their  plans  and 
return  to  Figtree. 

Thus  it  is  probable  this  timely  meeting  saved 
these  two  a  very  troublesome  experience,  if  not 
worse;  but  to  myself  the  accident  of  falling  in 
with  them  was  even  more  of  a  godsend,  inas- 
much as  it  almost  to  a  certainty  saved  me  from 
a  sudden  and  violent  death. 

As  has  been  mentioned  my  intention  was  to 
trek  straight  to  Bulawayo,  but  news  they  gave 
me  caused  a  change  of  plans. 

The  cattle  disease,  which  had  for  some  months 
been  reported  as  devastating  the  Zambezi  dis- 
tricts, had  shown  itself  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Bulawayo  on  or  about  the  4th  of  March,  just 
before  the  two  settlers  started  on  their  desert 

The  epidemic  could  not  reach  Menu,  where 
the  Tati  road  branches  off  from  that  leading 
to  Bulawayo,  by  the  time  I  arrived  there,  so  I 
might  yet  outflank  it  by  hurrying  on  to  Tati. 
Thus  this  piece  of  information  must  have  saved 
me  from  running  into  the  very  hot-bed  of  the 

On  the  24th  of  March — three  days  earlier — 
the  first  murders  of  white  men  had  been  com- 
mitted,   and    on   that    very   day  men,   women, 



and   children   were    being    ruthlessly    murdered 
and  mutilated. 

Simpson  insisted  on  my  accepting  sufficient 
meal  and  tobacco  to  last  as  far  as  the  Monarch 
Reef  Mines,  which  would  probably  take  ten 
days.  I  was  extremely  grateful  for  this  act 
of  good  fellowship — the  fact  of  such  being  a 
rule  among  British  colonists  speaks  volumes  for 
those  who  are  steadily  and  certainly  building  up 
and  consolidating  Imperial  Britain.  Bread  I  had 
only  been  without  for  a  fortnight,  but  tobacco 
had  given  out  six  months  ago,  and  I  venture 
to  assure  those  who  not  only  do  not  smoke 
themselves  but  disapprove  of  the  habit  among 
their  fellow-men  that  I  felt  none  the  better  for 
the  deprivation,  and  at  times  much  the  worse. 

In  the  evening  we  parted,  and  in  doing  so 
Simpson  generously  volunteered  the  assurance 
that  if  a  message  were  sent  back  to  him  to 
the  effect  that  my  oxen  had  failed  me  he  would 
off-load  his  waggon,  leave  his  goods  in  charge  of 
the  chief  Menu,  and  take  my  things  through 
to  Tati  for  me. 

That   night   the  oxen   did   not  seem   to  feel 

the  weight  of  the  cart  on  the  hard  road  after  the 

two  sand  belts  referred  to   above  were   passed. 

They  went  along  in  fine  style,  covering  eighteen 

miles    in    seven    hours,   more    than    twice    the 

distance  they  could  have  gone  through  the  desert 

in  the  same  time.     During  one  trek  either  one  of 



the  oxen  or  Lecharu,  who  led  them,  had  a  narrow 
escape  from  a  puff-adder.  Just  in  time  to  stop, 
the  boy  noticed  the  snake  lying  in  the  centre 
of  the  track.  On  it  being  pointed  out  I  returned 
to  the  cart  for  the  12-bore,  and  approached 
the  reptile,  which  showed  no  intention  of  retreat- 
ing, but  evidently  realising  that  my  presence 
indicated  no  very  friendly  motive  he  turned  his 
head  towards  me  and  hissed  defiandy  —  next 
moment  the  venomous  brute  was  harmless. 
This  was  the  second  occasion  since  leaving  the 
Zambezi  on  which  a  puff-adder  had  thus  disputed 
my  right  of  way.  This  reluctance  to  move 
makes  the  puff-adder  more  dangerous  than  most 
snakes,  for  there  is  always  a  danger  of  treading 
on  him.  Unlike  most  of  his  kind  he  can  only 
"strike"  backwards,  and  then  only  to  the  distance 
of  half  his  own  length.  It  is  popularly  supposed 
among  hunters  and  others  in  South  Africa  that 
this  snake  reproduces  its  species  in  a  curious  and 
unique  manner.  When  the  young  within  the 
female  snake  are  ready  to  make  their  advent  into 
the  outer  world,  it  is  said  they  eat  their  way 
through  the  flanks  of  their  unhappy  mother,  with 
the  result  that  they  become  orphans  a  few  hours 
later.  This,  scientific  naturalists  at  home  tell  me, 
cannot  be  the  case. 

A  heavy  shower  of  rain  on  the  30th  made  the 
track  on   the   mopani  flats,    through   which  the 

road  passed,   very  muddy  and  dirty.     The  next 



night  while  Pony  was  leading  the  oxen  he  ran 
the  cart  into  a  small  narrow  stream  bed  that 
crossed  the  road,  which  had  an  impossible  bank 
four  feet  high  and  almost  perpendicular,  up 
which  the  oxen  were  powerless  to  move  the  cart, 
especially  since  the  greasy  nature  of  the  ground 
denied  them  a  foothold.  By  the  time  the  bank 
had  been  cut  away  the  oxen  had  "struck,"  and 
absolutely  refused  to  pull,  so  they  were  out- 
spanned  and  Lecharu  was  told  off  to  look  after 
them  and  bring  them  back  in  about  three  hours. 
In  the  meantime  the  cart  was  off-loaded,  as  the 
unsound  wheel  looked  as  if  it  might  succumb  at 
any  moment  to  extra  strain.  The  oxen,  however, 
were  not  forthcoming  when  sent  for,  nor  were 
either  they  or  the  boy  seen  till  two  and  a  half 
days  afterwards,  when  on  looking  round  there 
they  were  among  the  bushes,  and  near  them 
Lecharu  sitting  on  his  haunches  about  sixty 
yards  from  me,  looking  very  unhappy  indeed, 
and  no  doubt  expecting  a  severe  talking  to  or 
a  more  practical  notification  of  his  master  s  dis- 
pleasure. He  must  have  been  disappointed,  for 
the  sudden  dissipation  of  what  might  have  been 
an  awkward  predicament,  as  notified  by  the  re- 
appearance of  the  oxen,  reacted  on  the  anxious 
mood  I  had  been  thrown  into  by  their  absence ; 
besides,  even  if  no  higher  sentiment  than  fear 
to  return  without  them  had  impelled  him  to  dp 
so,  he  had  none  the  less  wandered  about  for  two 



and  a  half  days  without  food,  fire,  or  blanket 
Thus,  after  he  had  confessed  that  he  fell  asleep, 
that  the  oxen  wandered  in  search  of  grass,  and 
that  he  had  followed  them  ever  since,  he  was  sent 
away  to  a  good  round  meal  uncensured.  After- 
wards it  transpired  that  the  delay  of  three  days 
occasioned  by  this  incident  must  have  saved  my 
life,  for  it  just  gave  time  for  a  Matabele  impi 
to  clear  out  of  the  Bulilima  villages  in  front 
before  my  arrival  there,  which  they  did  to  join 
in  the  concentration  round  Bulawayo ;  murdering 
a  trader  before  leaving. 

And  so  on  the  3rd  of  April  the  journey  was 

Early  on  the  morning  of  the  5th  the  native 
town  of  the  chief  Menu  was  reached,  and  there 
the  day  was  spent,  this  being  the  first  village 
between  the  Zambezi  and  Bulawayo.  A  message 
arrived  from  the  chief  asking  me  not  to  inspan 
before  he  had  seen  me. 

Towards  three  o'clock  a  very  old,  almost  blind 
man  greeted  me,  whom  his  people  told  me  was 
Menu.  He  commenced  talking  about  the  Mata- 
bele killing  white  men,  and  said  something  about 
Lobengula  and  his  impis,  but  to  tell  the  truth  I 
took  little  notice  of  what  he  said,  since  my 
acquaintance  with  the  Makalaka  dialect  was  "  nil  " 
and  merely  confined  to  such  words  as  were 
common  to  it  and  Sesuto,  of  which  language 
mine  is  only  a  very  imperfect  knowledge. 



As  a  white  man,  the  people  north  of  the 
Zambezi — especially  the  Matoka — had  so  fre- 
quently expressed  their  gratitude  to  me  as  being 
one  of  the  nation  who  had  ** wiped  out"  the 
Matabele  and  thus  given  them  peace  and  security 
such  as  they  had  never  before  known  —  poor 
creatures ! — that  I  jumped  to  the  conclusion  that 
this  friendly  old  chief  was  alluding  to  the  late 
war  and  recounting  events  connected  with  it. 
And  so  at  four  o'clock  I  ordered  the  boys  to 
inspan,  little  realising  that  old  Menu  had  been 
spending  an  hour  and  all  the  eloquence  of  his 
language  in  an  abortive  attempt  to  save  me  from 
what  seemed  to  him  to  be  certain  death.  The 
extraordinary  thing  is  that  neither  Pony  nor 
Lecharu  attempted  to  emphasise  the  danger  of 
the  situation. 

So  for  two  days  I  trekked  through  a  series 
of  native  villages ;  another  chief  came  out  from 
his  stockade  and  harangued  me  excitedly  and  in 
hurried  tones — ^so  hurriedly  that  only  occasional 
words  such  as  **  Matabele,"  "  Lobengula,"  and 
"killing"  were  all  I  could  catch.  Had  Loben- 
gula's  name  not  been  so  inseparably  mixed  up 
with  the  whole  harangue,  suspicions  of  the  actual 
state  of  affairs  would  no  doubt  have  been  aroused ; 
but  although  twelve  months  before  I  was  by 
no  means  certain  that  Lobengula  had  departed 
this  life,  the  Zambezi  people  had  quite  convinced 
me  that  he  was  no  more ;  and  in  consequence  my 
mind  still  ran  on  the  events  of  the  past. 



With  the  orders  of  the  chief  three  men  pre- 
ceded the  cart  until  well  past  the  next  village,  as 
I  thought  to  show  the  road ;  for  this  I  thanked 
them  and  they  left 

The  track  was  very  faint ;  Lecharu  had  been 
sent  back  to  look  for  a  blanket  which  had  fallen 
from  the  cart,  and  Pony  was  leading  the  oxen — 
and  of  course  he  led  them  off  the  spoor.  Dis- 
covering this  I  left  him  with  the  team,  and 
describing  a  circle  ultimately  discovered  the 
road.  It  so  happened  my  return  to  the  cart 
was  from  the  direction  opposite  to  that  taken 
when  leaving  it. 

On  approach,  the  boy  Pony  was  to  be  seen 
rummaging  in  the  forecase — my  private  provision 
box — in  the  act  of  pillaging  my  scanty  supply. 
His  back  was  towards  me,  and  before  he  sus- 
pected my  presence,  he  was  held  firmly  by  the 
scruff  of  the  neck.  This  was  the  third  time  he 
had  been  caught  thieving ;  once  he  had  been  let 
off  with  a  reprimand,  the  second  time  a  mere 
charge  of  the  value  of  the  meal,  etc.,  stolen  was 
charged  against  his  pay,  and  now  he  was  at  it 
again,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  during  the  whole 
journey  he  had  been  served  out  with  as  much 
corn — the  natives  staple  article  of  food — as  he 
could  eat.  I  had  never  chastised  a  native  in  my 
life,  but  the  boy  evidently  required  something 
more  than  a  mere  verbal  show  of  disapprobation, 
and  he  got  it  in  the  shape  of  some  half  a  dozen 
useful  applications  with  the  **  sjambok." 



The  cart  was  turned  and  just  moving  off  for 
the  road,  when  to  my  surprise  Simpson  and 
Walsh  with  three  natives  carrying  loads  appeared 
on  the  scene. 

They  greeted  me  warmly. 

"  I  am  delighted  to  find  you  all  right,"  Simpson 
said.  **We  never  dreamed  of  seeing  you  alive. 
Old  Menu  told  us  you  could  not  possibly  get 
through  those  villages  alive." 

**  Why,  what  is  the  matter?"  was  the  natural 

**  Have  not  you  heard  ?  Menu  said  he  had 
told  you  all  about  it.  The  Matabele  have  risen, 
they  are  in  arms  all  over  the  country,  and  have 
murdered  white  men  and  their  wives  and  children 

Then,  of  course,  the  true  meaning  of  the 
harangues  I  had  heard  dawned  on  me  for  the 
first  time. 

**That  accounts,  then,  for  the  excitement  I 
noticed  at  times  in  the  villages,  and  for  all  the 
talk  about  Matabeles  which  Menu  and  another 
chief  treated  me  to.  I  quite  thought  they  were 
talking  about  the  1893  war." 

"Well,  by  Jove,"  added  one  of  them,  **you 
are  devilish  lucky  to  have  come  through  those 
villages  with  a  whole  skin.  We  left  our  waggon 
and  oxen  with  Menu,  and  he  gave  us  guides  to 
lead  us  through  the  bush,  nor  would  they  allow  us 
to  travel  by  day  or  light  a  fire." 



Then  Simpson  went  on  to  say : 

**We  could  not  understand  how  you  came  to 
be  so  mad  as  to  go  on,  for  Menu  said  that  he 
told  you  all  about  the  rising,  and  that  you  were 
bound  to  be  killed  if  you  went  on,  but  all  you  did 
was  to  smile  and  tell  the  boys  to  bring  up  the 
oxen  ;  he  said  you  were  the  most  peculiar  white 
man  he  had  ever  seen." 

And  so  I  must  have  appeared ! 

It  then  transpired  that  all  the  Matabele  living 
in  the  Bulilima  villages  had  left  for  Bulawayo  just 
before  I  arrived,  and  that  orders  had  been  given 
to  Menu  and  the  other  chiefs  by  the  Matabele, 
that  if  they  failed  to  kill  any  white  men  who 
came  down  the  road,  both  they  and  all  their  people 
would  be  "  wiped  out." 

Then  came  the  natural  question  : 

**  What  do  you  propose  doing  now  ?  '* 

The  natural  answer  was  : 

**  As  I  have  got  so  far,  I  mean  to  stick  to  the 
cart  and  oxen,  and  trek  hard"  There  was  only 
one  more  village  to  pass,  and  it  was  arranged  we 
should  travel  together  and  keep  our  rifles  handy. 
Walsh  s  rifle  had  been  stolen,  so  he  carried  my 
i6-bore  and  I  a  Mannlicher.  We  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  in  the  event  of  emergencies,  we 
would  not  leave  this  world  without  an  escort. 



ON  the  morning  of  the  following  day,  the 
8th,  after  having  trekked  some  eighteen 
miles,  a  serious,  though  long-expected  accident 

The  near  wheel  of  the  cart,  which  the  maker 
had  thought  fit  to  construct  of  green  wood,  had 
only  been  kept  together  so  far  by  wedging  and 
wetting.  While  passing  over  a  small  stream 
bed  the  whole  weight  of  the  cart  was  suddenly 
thrown  on  to  the  unsound  wheel,  which  with  a 
crunching  noise  was  next  moment  doubled  under 
the  vehicle  with  every  spoke  broken. 

It  is  fortunate  this  accident  had  not  occurred 
earlier,  for,  as  it  was,  the  Monarch  Reef  Mines 
were  only  sixty-three  miles  away,  and  it  was 
decided  the  only  thing  to  do  was  to  take  the 
wheel  there,  have  it  repaired,  and  bring  it  back 
again.  The  cart  was  soon  unloaded,  and  the 
goods  piled  up  in  the  bush  and  covered  with 
the  tent.  Then,  after  considerable  difficulty,  the 
wheel  was  removed,  though  several  of  the 
spokes  had  to  be  hacked  away  first.  A  sleigh 
was  then  cut,  and  what  remained  of  the  broken 
2  B  369 


wheel  lashed  to  it  with  ''riems,"  and  to  this  the 
trek  chain  was  attached. 

Simpson  was  beginning  to  regret  having 
abandoned  his  waggon,  and  mentioned  his  in- 
tention of  returning  and  bringing  it  through. 
Walsh,  on  the  other  hand,  did  not  consider  the 
chances  of  getting  the  waggon  past  the  villages 
worth  the  risk,  and  expressed  his  intention  of 
accompanying  me  to  the  "  Monarch,"  so  it  was 
finally  arranged  that  the  former  should  remain 
with  my  goods  and  Pony  for  about  three  days, 
during  which  time  he  would  learn  from  friendly 
natives  whether  the  rebellion  was  as  serious  as 
the  old  chief.  Menu,  had  said,  or  whether  it  was 
exaggerated  as  we  suspected.  According  to  the 
information  he  should  receive,  he  would  either 
await  my  return  or  go  back  for  his  cart 

So  in  the  afternoon  the  oxen  were  inspanned, 
and  a  start  made  for  the  "  Monarch  "  mines. 

Four  Matabele  warriors — whom  we  afterwards 
learned  to  be  spies — passed  in  a  great  hurry. 
On  being  hailed  they  made  a  short  halt,  and 
from  them  we  elicited  the  discouraging  infor- 
mation that  **all  the  oxen  were  dead  at  the 
•Monarch*  and  sick  at  Mangwato." 

No  time  was  lost,  as  a  single  day  might  mean 
the  loss  of  the  stranded  goods ;  thus  two  days 
sufficed  to  bring  us  to  within  six  miles  of  the 
mines.  There  Lecharu  was  left  with  the  oxen, 
and  Walsh  walked  with  me  into  **camp." 



On  approach  it  was  seen  that  the  place  was 
prepared  for  emergencies ;  sand-bags  were  piled 
up  on  the  gear,  and  a  couple  of  sentries  com- 
manded a  view  of  the  country  for  about  a  mile 

It  was  very  pleasant  to  be  among  one's  fellow- 
countrymen  once  more,  to  hear  all  the  news,  to 
sit  down  to  a  table  for  meals,  and  to  sleep  in 
a  comfortable  bed. 

Mr.  Jones,  the  manager  of  the  mines,  placed 
a  room  at  my  disposal,  and  treated  me  with 
true  hospitality  during  my  short  stay.  After  a 
good  tub  and  an  excellent  dinner  we  discussed 
many  topics  over  a  bottle  of  excellent  **  Beaune," 
which  went  down  as  though  it  were  doing  me 
a  world  of  good. 

The  murder  roll  of  the  whites  was  put  down 
then  at  about  200,  and  from  what  could  be 
gleaned,  Bulawayo  was  invested,  and  the  in- 
habitants had  all  their  work  cut  out  to  keep  the 
rebels  at  arm's  length.  In  these  circumstances 
I  considered  it  my  duty  to  offer  my  services  to 
Mr.  Duncan,  the  acting  administrator,  requesting 
that  an  answer  be  sent  to  Tati,  though  it  must 
be  confessed  that,  wreck  as  I  was,  and  nearly 
two  and  a  half  stone  under  normal  weight,  I 
felt  much  more  inclined  to  hurry  home.  The 
rinderpest  had  been  raging  for  about  three 
weeks,  having  spread  from  Tati,  so  that  when 
my  start  was  made  from  the  Zambezi  this  sweep- 



ing  disease  was  north,  south,  east,  and  west  of 
me,  the  only  untainted  district  being  a  narrow 
strip  400  miles  long,  through  which  the  route 
south  lay.  On  the  following  morning  the  wheel 
was  brought  in  and  handed  over  to  the  Com- 
pany's wheelwright  This  was  the  first  occasion 
on  which  the  oxen  had  been  right  into  the 
infected  area,  where  cattle  were  dead  and  dying 
everywhere.  On  the  14th  the  wheel  was  re- 
paired, and  the  return  journey  commenced. 

My  friends  at  the  mines  were  confident  that 
my  goods  would  not  be  found,  as  the  nearest 
villagers  even  in  peace  times  were  notorious  for 
their  thieving  propensities,  and  it  was  the  people 
of  this  very  village  who  murdered  the  trader 
before  my  arrival.  The  shade  of  odds  in  favour 
of  a  looted  camp  was  put  down  at  a  million  to 
a  '*  monkey."  However,  I  had  brought  in  and 
handed  over  to  the  safe  custody  of  Mr.  Jones 
maps,  diaries,  and  photographs,  so  that  the 
scientific  results  of  the  expedition  would  not  be 
wasted  at  all  events. 

On  the  1 6th  I  was  agreeably  surprised  on 
arrival  to  find  everything  precisely  as  it  had 
been  left.  Pony  told  me  that  Simpson  had  left 
two  days  before,  having  gone  back  to  Menu  to 
get  his  cart.  The  next  day  the  cart  was  again 
loaded  up,  and  by  four  p.m.  was  once  more 
moving  southwards,  and  in  the  early  morning  of 
the  following  day  but  one  was  safe  at  the  mines. 



I  breakfasted  with  my  friends,  and  started 
off  for  Tati  shortly  afterwards.  Two  of  the 
oxen,  I  was  told,  already  showed  signs  of 
disease,  and  might  or  might  not  last  till  Tati 
was  reached! 

The  next  day  Pony  lost  the  oxen  for  the 
second  time  within  three  days.  On  the  previous 
occasion  he  had  deliberately  hidden  himself  in 
the  bush  within  a  hundred  yards  of  camp,  and 
instead  of  herding  the  oxen  had  slept  all  day, 
with  the  result  that  Lecharu  had  to  follow  their 
spoor  for  several  miles  before  they  were  re- 
covered. It  was  of  supreme  importance  that 
such  delays  should  not  recur,  else  there  would 
be  little  chance  of  reaching  Palapye  before  the 
disease  broke  out  in  the  team,  so  I  reminded 
this  most  hopeless  of  boys  that  he  had  had 
one  taste  of  the  "  sjambok  '*  already,  and  diat 
if  he  repeated  his  conduct  he  should  have  a 
second.  It  was  not  till  evening  that  Lecharu 
brought  the  missing  animals  in ;  but  Pony  I 
have  neither  seen  nor  heard  of  from  that  day 
to  this,  so  it  is  to  be  presumed  he  preferred 
deserting  to  running  the  risks  of  his  well-earned 

While  trekking  that  evening  I  met  Mr.  Drake, 
an  old  elephant  hunter,  at  present  in  the  service 
of  the  Tati  Concessions  Company  as  ranger, 
who  at  that  time  was  watching  the  borders  of 
the  Company's  territory  with, the  aid  of  native 



scouts.  His  spies  had  reported  that  a  large 
Matabele  impi  had  camped  on  the  previous 
night  about  twenty -eight  miles  away,  though 
he  did  not  anticipate  that  they  had  designs  on 
Tati,  but  rather  that  they  were  on  the  look- 
out for  outlying  herds  of  cattle. 

At  ten  o'clock  the  same  evening,  when  about 
four  miles  from  Tati,  a  waggon  was  passed — 
outspanned  and  deserted  save  for  the  presence 
of  a  single  dog  tied  to  one  of  the  wheels. 

When  a  few  hundred  yards  beyond,  a  white 
man  hailed  me  as  he  approached  the  cart. 

"  Did  you  hear  the  firing  ?  "  he  asked. 

"  No." 

"Three  or  four  volleys  were  fired  in  the 
direction  of  Tati,"  he  continued,  "  and  were 
followed  by  independent  firing.  The  Matabele 
must  be  attacking  the  place." 

"  But  Matabele  do  not  attack  at  this  time  of 
night.     Surely  there  must  be  some  mistake." 

No,  they  were  perfectly  certain. 

In  the  meantime  four  other  white  men  put  in 
an  appearance ;  and  as  all  were  equally  certain 
that  what  they  had  heard  was  firing,  I  turned 
the  cart  into  the  bush,  and  tied  the  oxen  about 
300  yards  from  the  track,  deciding  that  if  there 
was  no  more  firing  immediately  before  sunrise 
—  the  time  the  Matabele  almost  invariably 
choose  for  attack  —  I  would  inspan  and  trek 
straight  into  TatL 



And  SO  it  was  that  the  sun  rose  next  morning 
unheralded  by  the  din  of  battle,  so  that  in  an 
hour  and  a  half  the  cart  was  outspanned  near 
the  hotel  at  Tati.  There  I  found  old  friends 
and  new  ones,  and  spent  the  whole  day  among 

Though  all  so-called  rinderpest  symptoms  had 
disappeared,  one  of  the  oxen  was  so  done  up 
with  the  trying  work  of  the  past  month  that  he 
certainly  did  not  look  equal  to  trekking  a  further 
1 20  miles  to  Palapye.  Some  empty  waggons, 
however,  were  to  leave  Tati  for  that  town  the 
next  evening,  so  arrangements  were  made  with 
the  owner  that  should  my  cart  come  to  a  stand- 
still the  goods  should  be  taken  on  by  their 

I  soon  learned  the  cause  of  the  previous 
night's  scare. 

It  appeared  that  a  man — ''person,"  perhaps, 
would  be  a  less  inappropriate  term — whose  name 
by  reason  of  his  pitiable  cowardice  and  sub- 
sequent dishonour  will  long  be  a  byword  in 
South  Africa,  was  leaving  Tati  for  the  south  by 
post -cart  A  few  young  men,  anxious  to  take 
a  "rise**  out  of  this  unfortunate  creature,  con- 
spired to  perpetrate  a  practical  joke  on  him, 
which  for  various  reasons  had  much  better  have 
been  left  unplayed. 

The  post-cart  was  waylaid  about  half  a  mile 
outside   Tati,    when   revolvers  were   blazed    off 



right  and   left  for  the   benefit  of  the  unhappy 

The  post-cart  next  before  this  one  had  also, 
though  in  a  different  manner,  been  the  cause  of 
considerable  excitement  before  and  amusement 
after  its  arrival  at  Tati.  A  telegram  had  arrived 
from  Bulawayo,  notifying  the  fact  that  there  were 
no  vacant  seats  for  would-be  travellers  from  Tad, 
as  fifteen  women  and  children  had  left  for  Mafe- 

It  was  with  intense  interest  that  the  men  of 
Tati  awaited  the  arrival  of  this  singular  bevy  of 
beauty,  for  the  fair  sex  is  very  much  out- 
numbered in  these  parts.  Imagine  their  feelings 
of  disappointment  when  the  post-horn,  having 
forewarned  the  inhabitants  of  the  cart's  approach, 
and  caused  them  with  one  accord  to  congregate 
at  the  hotel  for  the  purpose  of  welcoming  the 
fair  women  of  Bulawayo,  instead  of  those,  from 
the  top  and  from  inside,  eleven  Jews,  three 
women,  and  one  child  stepped  to  the  ground! 
Truly  the  fighting  instincts  of  the  tribe  of  Judah 
are  not  what  they  were  in  the  days  of  Canaan ! 

Towards  lo  p.m.  the  oxen  were  once  more 

The  day  but  one  after  leaving  Tati  my  atten- 
tion was  drawn  to  a  koodoo  yearling  standing 
behind  a  scrubby  bush  on  the  very  edge  of  the 
track.  The  oxen  were  pulled  up  alongside  the 
poor  brute,  which  was  soon  seen  to  be  suffering 


from  rinderpest,  nor  did  the  animal  go  away  till 
startled  by  the  crack  of  the  whip  as  the  oxen 
were  once  more  started,  but  had  allowed  me  in 
the  meantime  to  examine  him  from  a  distance  of 
six  feet. 

Nothing  of  interest  occurred  during  that  last 
trek  of  1 20  miles.  It  was  a  most  unpleasant 
journey,  but  was  completed  in  under  five  days, 
when  in  the  early  morning  of  Sunday,  the  26th, 
the  oxen  were  outspanned  at  the  Lotsani  Drift 
All  along  that  road  the  putrefying  carcases  of 
oxen  were  strewn,  and  especially  thickly  round 
the  few  waters.  It  was  indeed  a  pitiful  sight, 
but  the  smell,  which  was  something  more  than 
that  emitted  from  mere  decomposing  flesh,  was 
more  indescribably  and  disgustingly  repulsive 
than  can  be  imagined;  through  night  and  day 
it  was  always  there,  and  only  varied  in  degree. 

It  was  necessary  before  entering  the  town  with 
oxen  to  get  an  order  from  the  Resident  Com- 
missioner, so  I  decided  to  walk  into  Palapye  and 
see  that  gentleman — Mr.  Ashburnham — who 
was  also  a  personal  friend.  With  him  was  Mr. 
Sydney  Vintcent,  the  assistant  magistrate  and 
right-hand  man  to  the  Resident,  who  was  also 
an  old  friend,  and  with  characteristic  kindness 
insisted  on  my  staying  with  him  while  in  Palapye. 
It  is  needless  to  say  how  thoroughly  the  rest, 
comfort,  and  good  fellowship  I  enjoyed  for  some- 
thing over  a  week   was   appreciated.      Full   of 



fever  and  far  below  normal  weight  on  arrival, 
I  left  feeling  quite  fit  and  already  a  few  pounds 

The  next  day,  borrowing  a  horse,  I  rode  down 
to  the  drift  to  bring  on  the  cart  One  ox  had 
at  last  given  out  and  was  unable  to  rise,  poor 
brute!  There  was  no  sign  of  rinderpest  on 
him,  so  there  was  no  reason  why  he  should  not 
recover,  consequently  he  was  handed  over  as  a 
present  to  the  Bechuanaland  Border  Police 
corporal  stationed  at  the  drift  I  was  glad  to 
hear  a  few  days  later  from  him  that  he  was 
doing  well. 

The  loss  of  this  ox  when  within  four  or  five 
miles  of  my  destination  served  to  impress  on 
my  mind  how  impossible  it  would  have  been 
to  bring  the  cart  through  the  desert  sands  had 
the  loss  of  a  single  ox  occurred  earlier  in  the 
journey,  for  the  four  from  the  gallant  little  team 
that  brought  everything  into  Messrs.  Whiteley, 
Walker  &  Co.  s  yard  on  the  27th  of  April  could 
scarcely  move  the  cart  at  the  end  of  even  that 
short  trek,  which  completed  a  journey  of  3700 
miles  since  the  oxen  were  first  inspanned  the 
previous  April — a  daily  average  of  ten  miles 

By  the  time  my  trophies  and  other  effects  were 
packed  into  cases  two  posts  had  arrived  from 
Bulawayo,  but  no  acknowledgment  of  the  letter 
offering    my    services    had    arrived    from    Mr. 



Duncan,  the  Acting  Administrator,  so,  accepting 
the  natural  conclusion,  I  took  a  seat  in  the  down- 
country  post-cart  with  a  view  to  catching  the 
ill-fated  Drummond  Castle,  which  in  ordinary 
circumstances  I  should  have  done ;  fortunately, 
however,  the  Arundel  Castle  had  been  delayed 
two  or  three  days  at  Mauritius,  and  I  secured 
the  last  available  berth  in  that  ship. 

And  so  ended  an  extremely  interesting,  if 
somewhat  hard,  experience,  which  though  not 
overflowing  with  exciting  episodes  and  blood- 
curdling escapes,  at  times  would  seem  to  have 
brought  me  within  measurable  distance  of  a 
final  settlement  which  would  at  least  have  saved 
the  writer  a  few  months*  hard  labour  with  pen  and 
ink,  and  the  reader  the  somewhat  crude  result 
Some  may  credit  me  with  having  had  much 
luck,  others  may  recognise  in  many  instances 
the  guiding  power  of  Providence.  For  myself, 
I  cannot  close  these  lines  without  paying  tribute 
to  that  unseen  Power  which  would  seem  to 
protect  and  guide  even  an  individual  who  strives 
to  do  his  best — however  imperfectly  that  may  be 
— in  the  work  which  circumstances  have  imposed 
on  him. 



tpt.  Bm\.^  Sf/    / 

horn  anc         .  / 

Map,    s«^*^'  / 

TTtTi  A«^o*^<M^, 





IWMtl  Si 

G.Fhxbp  St,Sart,Xonjijan»itLi»9rf^^^ 




THE  foregoing  pages  will,  no  doubt,  serve  to  dis- 
sipate some  of  the  illusions  bearing  on  the 
character  of  Marotseland — or  the  dependencies  of 
Liwanika,  king  of  the  Marotse  and  subject  tribes — 
which  the  reports  of  some  who  have  visited  the  river 
districts  have  conjured  up  in  the  minds  of  many. 

For  my  own  part,  I  may  say,  I  had  formed  quite  a 
wrong  conception  of  the  true  nature  of  the  country, 
prior  to  my  wanderings  in  it  I  had  been  led  to  expect 
an  expanse  of  low-lying  swamps  teeming  with  game 
and  reeking  with  malaria  of  the  most  malignant  type, 
so  unanimous  were  the  traders  and  others  who  had 
visited  the  Upper  Zambezi,  from  whom  I  had  sought 
information,  in  their  condemnation  of  the  climate.  One 
gentleman,  for  instance,  who  had  spent  a  few  weeks  on 
the  flats  lying  between  Kazung^la  and  Sesheke, 
solemnly  assured  me,  on  hearing  my  intention  to  spend 
the  rainy  season  on  the  high  ground  which  I  assumed 
to  exist  in  the  interior,  that,  in  his  opinion,  I  would  find 
no  high  ground,  but  a  flat  and  swampy  country  covered 
in  places  with  acacia  and  mopani  bush.  In  fact,  because 
in  the  limited  district  he  had  visited  he  had  seen 
naught  else,  he  concluded  that  in  a  country  three  or 
four  times  the  size  of  England  nothing  else  existed. 



This  by  no  means  uncommon  tendency  to  judge  the 
whole  by  a  part,  evidently  accounts  for  the  bad 
character  so  universally  given  to  the  Upper  2^ambezi 
district  whenever  this  country  comes  under  discussion, 
either  in  the  Settlements  or  by  the  camp-fires  of  "  up 
country" — South  Africa. 

The  kings  of  the  Marotse,  while  by  no  means  averse 
to  receiving  visits  and  the  accompanying  presents  from 
white  men,  have  always  kept  the  traveller  to  the  river 
route,  nor  have  they  allowed  missionaries  to  establish 
themselves  in  the  interior  until,  quite  recently,  after 
two  years'  delay  and  much  importunity,  the  late  Mr. 
Buckenham  obtained  leave  to  erect  a  station  on  the 
borders  of  the  Mashikolumbwe  country.  In  consequence 
nothing  was  known  of  the  country  beyond  a  very  few 
miles  from  the  banks  of  the  Zambezi,  which  like  all 
other  tropical  rivers  is  at  certain  times  of  the  year 
infested  with  fever. 

At  Lialui  the  mission  station  stands  on  a  "white 
ant"  mound  in  the  midst  of  swamps.  At  Sesheke, 
Kazungula,  and  Nalolo,  a  stone  can  be  thrown  into 
the  river  from  the  missionary's  door.  Is  it  then  to  be 
wondered  at  that  those  who  dwell  therein  for  ten  years 
continuously  are  martyrs  to  malaria ;  that  a  large  per- 
centage of  the  adults  and  nearly  all  the  children 
succumb  to  the  ravages  of  river  fever ;  and  that  others 
carry  south  with  them  the  impress  of  suffering  and 
disease,  thereby  giving  colour  to  the  prevailing  opinion 
of  the  country  from  which  they  hail  ? 

It  is  to  be  hoped  for  the  sake  of  its  workers  that  the 
Paris  Missionary  Society  will  hasten  to  establish  a 
mission  in  some  healthy  district — as  for  instance  on  the 
Matoka  plateau,  where  there  is  not  only  a  field  for  work 
but  where  the  station  could  be  utilized  as  a  sanatorium 



for  the  sick  and  a  harbour  of  refuge  for  the  children.  I 
imagine  Liwanika  would  no  longer  oppose  such  a 
scheme,  and  feel  sure  much  valuable  life  would  thereby 
be  saved. 

In  so  large  a  tract  the  surface  of  the  country  varies 
considerably,  as  might  be  expected. 

The  Matoka  and  Mashikolumbwe  occupy  distinctly 
superior  districts  to  those  inhabited  by  their  western 
fellow  subjects.  High  above  the  swamps  of  the  Lower 
Umgwezi  and  the  Kafukwe  huge  plateaux  rise  to  a 
height  of  4000  feet  and  upwards.  These  are  broken, 
well  watered,  and  picturesque.  In  the  open  valleys  of 
the  numerous  rivulets  which  intersect  the  forest  the 
soil  is  rich  and  productive,  the  air  is  bracing  and  the 
temperature  is  comparatively  low,  seldom  exceeding 
95**  Fahr,  in  summer,  or  85®  in  winter,  while  the  nights 
are  cool  throughout  the  year.  In  places  the  broken, 
rocky  nature  of  the  ground  is  suggestive  of  possible 
mineral  wealth. 

The  Matoka  are  industrious,  and  will  make  useful 
and  willing  servants.  The  Mashikolumbwe  are  lazy, 
and  will  probably  prove  not  only  useless,  but  trouble- 

Some  of  the  main  rivers  in  both  these  countries 
characteristically  resemble  the  typical  South  African 
river — clean-cut  banks,  sandy  beds,  occasional  pools  in 
the  dry  season,  and  torrents  of  water  during  the  rains. 
Others  have  a  continuous  flow  of  water  throughout  the 
year,  and  as  a  rule  wind  through  open  grass-covered 
valleys.  To  the  west  of  a  longitudinal  line  running 
approximately  from  the  Kwando-Zambezi  confluence 
northwards  to  the  southern  Kafukwe  watershed,  and  as 
far  as  the  Zambezi  and  the  A^arotse  Plain  on  the  east, 
the  character  of  the  country  is  quite  different     Undula- 





tions  of  white  sand  roll,  as  it  were,  from  N.W.  to  S.E. ; 
these  are  covered  with  trees — for  the  most  part  non- 
deciduous — growing  to  a  height  of  thirty  or  forty  feet, 
and  offering  welcome  shade  to  the  traveller.  Except  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  Zambezi  the  acada  and 
mopani  are  seldom  met  with  in  this  western  section  of 
the  country.  The  Lui,  Lumbi,  and  Njoko  flowing  in 
an  almost  south-westerly  direction  through  wide,  rich 
valleys  drain  this  district,  and  carry  running  water 
almost  from  their  sources  throughout  the  year.  So  well 
watered  is  this  part  of  Africa,  that  during  my  journey 
along  the  watershed  of  these  rivers  at  the  very  end  of 
the  dry  season  I  never  travelled  twelve  miles  without 
striking  some  pan  or  rivulet  containing  good  water. 

The  valleys  through  which  these  rivers  and  their 
tributaries  flow  are  covered  with  an  excellent  pasture 
retaining  its  succulence  throughout  the  year,  the  surface 
of  the  ground  being  dry  in  the  winter  and  swampy  in 
the  summer  season,  when  they  become  favourite  breed- 
ing grounds  for  large  numbers  of  geese,  duck,  teal,  and 
other  water-fowl. 

Though  no  rice  is  grown  by  the  natives,  these  valleys 
are  admirably  adapted  for  its  cultivation,  and  are  also 
capable  of  supplying  winter  pasture  for  considerable 
herds  of  cattle.  The  difference  between  the  condition 
of  the  Marotse  cattle  at  the  end  of  the  dry  season,  and 
that  of  those  in  South  Africa,  where  the  late  winter 
pasture  is  dr>'  and  unnutritious  to  a  degree,  is  most 

The  Marotse  cattle  are  very  similar,  both  in  size  and 
appearance,  to  those  possessed  by  the  Bechuanas,  and  in 
all  probability  are  descended  from  the  herds  brought 
with  him  by  Sebitwane,  the  Makololo  conqueror,  when  he 
invaded  the  country  early  in  the  century.     The  cattle  of 



the  Matoka  and  Mashikolumbwe  are,  on  the  contrary, 
very  small,  in  some  instances  not  exceeding  thirty-six 
inches  at  the  shoulder.  Prior  to  the  subjection  of  these 
tribes  by  the  Marotse,  the  latter  made  frequent  raids  into 
their  neighbour's  territory,  and  thus  became  possessed 
of  large  numbers  of  these  pigmy  cattle.  The  result  of 
this  introduction  of  the  smaller  breed  has  done  much 
to  spoil  the  size  of  the  larger,  and  has  given  to  many 
herds  a  very  uneven  appearance. 

The  goats  and  sheep  found  throughout  the  country 
are  pigmy  counterparts  of  the  native  breeds  of  South 
Africa,  where  the  sheep  grow  hair  in  the  place  of  wool, 
and  carry  abnormally  large  and  fat  tails,  which  are 
much  valued  by  the  wielder  of  the  frying-pan. 

The  natives  cultivate  patches  of  ground  in  the  vicinity 
of  their  villages,  generally  choosing  the  rich  river  valleys 
alluded  to  above.  Mealies,  sorghum,  and  a  small  seed 
known  in  the  country  as  nibele-bele  are  the  principal 
cereals  cultivated,  while  cassava,  monkey-nuts,  pump- 
kins, water-melons,  marrows,  and  a  species  of  cucumber 
are  also  grown.  So  far  as  soil,  altitude,  and  climate  are 
concerned  the  country  is  capable  of  producing  wheat, 
oats,  cofTee,  india-rubber,  many  kinds  of  fruit,  rice, 
and  other  agricultural  products.  Unfortunately,  the 
marvellous  productive  power  of  the  soil  is  severely 
discounted  by  the  depredations  of  locusts,  which  since 
1890  have  done  considerable  damage  to  native  crops. 
In  fact,  in  1894  and  1895  whole  districts  were  entirely 
deprived  of  their  harvests,  with  the  result  that  the 
people  had  to  depend  for  livelihood  on  fish,  roots,  and 
game.  In  1896,  however,  disease  showed  itself  among 
the  locusts,  and  the  harvest  was  abundant ;  so  that  had 
there  been  railway  communication  between  the  Zambezi 
and  Bulawayo — a  distance  of  only  400  miles — in  the 
2  c  385 


early  months  of  that  year — as  it  is  to  be  hoped  there 
will  be  in  the  near  future — thousands  of  bushels  of  com 
could  have  been  imported  into  Matabeleland,  and  thus 
one  of  the  principal  causes  of  trouble  during  that 
unfortunate  period  would  have  been  removed. 

Drought,  the  curse  of  South  Africa,  would  appear  to 
be  rare  in  these  northern  Zambezi  districts.  In  fact, 
M.  Coillard,  who  has  carefully  observed  the  rainfall  on 
the  river  for  many  years,  informed  me  that  at  has  not 
varied  more  than  a  point  from  thirty-four  inches  in  any 
one  year  during  his  long  residence  of  over  twenty  years 
in  the  country. 

Iron  and  copper  are  worked  by  the  natives,  but 
although,  I  imagine,  gold  will  be  found  in  certain 
districts,  I  refrain  from  asserting  its  existence,  as  I  am 
no  expert  in  the  science  of  mineralogy.  However, 
though  the  finding  of  gold  is  without  doubt  the  most 
powerful  stimulant  for  present  colonial  enterprise,  the 
fact  should  not  be  ignored  that  future  progress  and 
development  are  more  closely  connected  with  the  agfri- 
cultural  than  the  mining  industry.  I  am  assured  that 
every  sovereign's  worth  of  gold  turned  out  on  the  Rand 
costs  about  twenty-two  shillings.  Some  make  fortunes, 
others  do  not. 

The  climatic  influences  north  of  the  Zambezi  are  so 
different  from  those  south,  where  a  drought  frequently 
affects  the  plateau  from  the  river  to  its  southern 
boundary,  that  the  future  South  African  Empire  may 
yet  have  reason  to  be  grateful  that  Marotseland  forms 
part  of  it,  if  only  as  a  food-supplying  country  in  times 
when  famine  or  scarcity  prevails  in  the  south. 

Politically  speaking,  the  prospects  of  the  country  are 
encouraging,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  British  influence  and 
rule  will  be  established  over  Liwanika's  wide  empire,  in 



as  bloodless  a  manner  as  has  been  the  case  in  Khama's 
country,  and  that  it  will  never  be  found  expedient  to 
embark  on  a  native  war,  as  has  unfortunately  been  found 
necessary  so  frequently  during  the  progress  of  coloniza- 
tion in  South  Africa. 

Sometimes,  no  doubt,  maladministration,  but  more 
generally,  I  imagine,  misunderstanding  between  the 
native  population  and  the  local  governing  power,  is 
the  direct  cause  of  friction. 

It  is,  at  least,  dangerous  to  attempt  to  rule  the 
African  during  the  first  stages  of  civilization  on  the 
same  lines  as  Europeans.  On  the  one  side  we  have  a 
civilized  and  cultured  people ;  on  the  other  a  primitive 
people,  in  no  way  capable  as  yet  of  entertaining  the 
higher  sentiments  of  mankind.  To  "  inspan  "  a  team  of 
African  buffaloes,  and  expect  them  to  perform  the  func- 
tions of  the  domestic  ox,  seems  to  me  just  as  reasonable 
as  the  supposition  that  the  African  native  can  take  his 
place  side  by  side  on  equal  terms  with  the  superior  race 
for  at  least  ten  or  twelve  generations.  One  law^  no 
doubt,  is  all  that  is  required,  but  it  is  necessary  at  times 
to  apply  it  differently  to  the  two  races,  in  order  to 
attain  the  object  for  which  it  exists  in  each  case,  />., 
order  and  security  of  person  and  property. 

In  governing  native  tribes,  which  are  new  to  the 
white  man's  yoke,  and  who  at  the  same  time  largely 
outnumber  him,  their  susceptibilities  should  be  taken 
into  account,  and  their  system  of  government  should 
be  utilized — of  course  under  proper  control — and  not 
obliterated.  It  is  because  Great  Britain,  more  than  any 
other  nation,  recognizes  these  principles,  that  she  has 
been  so  much  more  successful  than  others  as  a  coloniz- 
ing power,  and  when  she  or  her  deputies  have  failed  in 
these  considerations,  trouble  has  invariably  ensued,  as 



might  be  expected.  People  whose  travels  have  been 
confined  to  the  civilized  world  are  very  apt  to  assume 
that  all  native  races  in  the  far  interior  are  stark-naked 
savages— or  nearly  so — little  better  than  the  beasts  they 
prey  upon,  devoid  of  intelligence,  sense  of  justice,  or 
self-respect  True,  the  native's  intelligence  does  not 
soar  to  higher  mathematics  or  the  learned  sciences,  but 
he  is  uncommonly  shrewd  in  affairs  of  everyday  life, 
and  is  quite  capable  of  taking  care  of  himself  in  matters 
of  trade;  his  sense  of  justice  too  often  stops  with 
himself,  but  it  is  there  all  the  same.  The  upper  classes 
have  a  great  idea  of  their  own  dignity,  and  in  many 
instances  their  grace  of  movement  and  courteous 
demeanour  could  be  borrowed  with  advantage  to  them- 
selves by  some  white  men,  whose  pretensions  are  not 
the  least  part  of  their  social  acquirements.  Few  tribes 
in  Africa  have  had  less  intercourse  with  white  men  than 
the  inhabitants  of  Marotseland,  and  yet  the  reader  who 
has  had  the  perseverance  to  wade  through  these  pages 
may  have  noticed  that  they  are  not  altogether  uncivilized, 
that  they  possess  an  unwritten  constitution,  a  system  of 
government,  and  a  society  with  its  classes  and  masses — 
a  king,  royal  family,  aristocracy,  and  various  popular 
grades.  When,  therefore,  I  say  that  to  govern  success- 
fully such  a  country  as  this,  native  susceptibilities  should 
be  taken  into  account,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that 
Africans  look  on  their  king  with  a  respect  and  awe 
almost  amounting  to  worship,  therefore  considerable  tact 
should  be  used  in  dealing  with  him  ;  for,  apart  from  the 
fact  that  he  has  real  rights  which  cannot  in  justice  be 
ignored,  his  friendship  means  co-operation — his  hostility 
obstruction  at  least.  Liwanika  is  very  favourably  dis- 
posed towards  Englishmen,  and  his  reverence  for  the 
"Great    White    Queen"  is    the    respect    of  a  native 



potentate  for  a  ruler  whom  he  looks  upon  as  the  greatest 
and  most  powerful  sovereign  in  the  world  It  must, 
however,  be  confessed  that  his  mind  has  become  some- 
what unsettled  of  late  through  two  causes. 

Firstly,  he  was  led  to  suppose — ^not  by  the  manage- 
ment of  the  British  South  Africa  Company,  but  by 
a  gentleman  who  was  sent  to  make  a  treaty  on  their 
behalf— that  he  was  dealing  directly  with  the  Queen, 
whom  he  had  previously  invited  to  assume  a  pro« 
tectorate  over  his  country,  as  he  feared  Portuguese 
encroachments.  A  treaty  was  concluded,  and  two 
handsome  tusks  were  sent  by  him  as  a  present  to  his 
newly-acknowledged  suzerain.  Liwanika  considered  he 
had  been  deceived  when  he  found  he  had  been  dealing 
with  the  Company  and  not  the  Queen,  and  was  angry. 
This  was  the  subject  of  one  of  his  conversations  with 
me.  I  did  my  best — and  think  was  to  some  extent 
successful — to  explain  the  vastness  of  the  Queen's 
dominions,  and  the  impossibility  of  Her  Majesty  being 
able  to  govern  such  an  empire  herself,  therefore  she 
appoints  subjects — chiefs  among  her  people — to  govern 
countries  in  her  name,  and  the  Chartered  Company 
were  deputed  to  look  after  him  and  his  country,  subject 
to  the  control  of  the  Queen's  government 

Secondly,  the  not  very  discreet  entry  into  the  country 
of  a  party  of  prospectors  in  1895,  to  which  previous 
allusion  has  been  made,  had  created  a  very  unfavour- 
able impression  among  all  classes.  One  or  two  such 
cases,  if  repeated,  would  certainly  lead  to  armed  resist- 
ance, though  now  that  the  Company  has  wisely  sent  Mr. 
Coryndon  to  Borotse  with  magisterial  powers  there  is 
little  chance  of  a  recurrence  of  such  deplorable  conduct, 
which  fortunately  at  most  is  very*rare.  When  I  was 
at  Sesheke  a  Marotse  chief,  in  alluding  to  this  case, 



remarked,  "If  when  white  men  come  into  this  country 
one  should  raise  his  arm  to  strike  me,  he  would  die,  even 
though  I  should  die  after  him." 

To  illustrate  the  advantage  of  utilizing  existing 
native  systems  of  government  instead  of  tearing  down 
the  old  structure  before  the  materials  are  ready  to 
build  a  fresh  one  in  its  place,  no  better  instance  could 
be  adopted  than  that  of  the  country  under  discussion. 
Imagine  a  country  as  large  as  the  German  Empire 
with  a  scattered  population  dependent  for  inter-com- 
munication on  nothing  more  rapid  than  their  own 
legs,  or,  where  the  river  passes,  on  canoes.  At  present 
Liwanika,  the  paramount  chief,  rules  the  whole,  and 
under  him  two  princesses — a  sister  and  a  niece — and 
his  son  Latia  govern  large  provinces.  The  provinces 
are  in  their  turn  divided  into  districts  presided  over 
by  chiefs,  to  whom  lesser  chiefs  are  directly  responsible. 
Every  individual  is  either  a  chief  or  a  slave,  and  in 
many  instances  slaves  own  slaves.  My  hunter,  Madzi- 
mani,  for  instance,  was  the  slave  of  a  Sesheke  chief, 
but,  though  a  slave,  he  owned  and  ruled  a  large  village 
which  only  indirectly  belonged  to  his  chief.  A  slave 
is  not  necessarily  interfered  with  by  his  chief,  but  owes 
him  fealty,  nor  can  he  leave  his  district  without  his 
owner's  permission  or  his  orders.  It  is  the  feudal 
system  of  the  Middle  Ages  over  again ;  protection 
and  the  right  to  exist  are  bought  by  personal  service 
or  payment  in  kind  if,  and  when,  required.  Thus  it 
will  be  seen  that  an  order  from  Liwanika,  when  trans- 
mitted through  this  official  channel,  can  be  known  to 
every  one  of  his  subjects  in  an  incredibly  short  space 
of  time,  for  native  runners  travel  quickly.  So,  likewise, 
he  can  lay  his  hand  on  anyone  he  will  by  the  simple 
process  of  intimating  his  wish  to  the  governor  of  a 



province,  who  communicates  with  a  chief,  and  he  with 
a  sub-chief,  and  so  on,  till  the  meanest  slave  can  be 
brought  to  book.  Thus,  in  this  case,  if  the  king  co- 
operates with  the  Company's  administrator  the  native 
population  is  in  absolute  control,  and  no  servant  dare 
rob,  steal,  or  desert  his  master.  Once,  however,  make 
an  enemy  of  the  king  and  break  the  power  of  his 
chiefs,  and  what  is  the  result?  The  whole  system 
crumbles  and  popular  organization  gives  place  to  an 
irresponsible  and  incongruous  mass  of  human  beings, 
who  can  and  will  thieve  or  desert  at  their  own  sweet 
wills,  aided  and  abetted  by  their  fellows. 

Unfortunately,  at  the  present  moment,  the  frontier 
of  Liwanika's  possessions  is  in  dispute,  as  between 
the  Portuguese  and  ourselves.  The  Portuguese  claim 
as  far  as  the  Zambezi  from  the  west,  and  if  successful 
in  their  demands  would  deprive  the  Marotse  ruler  of 
all  the  country  lying  between  the  Kwando  and  the 
main  river,  which  includes  part  of  Borotse  proper, 
and  the  greater  part  of  Bosubia,  which  belonged  to 
this  black  empire  at  the  time  of  Livingstone's  visit, 
and  is  indeed  the  oldest  of  the  Marotse  possessions. 
Naturally,  Liwanika  would  resent  the  alienation  of  this 
slice  of  his  country.  Further  north  his  claims  are  less 
real,  yet  there  is  proof  that  not  many  years  ago  his 
suzerainty  was  acknowledged  as  far  north  as  the 
Congo-Zambezi  watershed,  though  only  by  the  fact 
that  on  the  appointment  of  a  chief  a  deputation  waited 
on  the  Marotse  king  to  obtain  his  sanction.  Lately 
the  Portuguese  have  become  very  active  in  those  parts, 
and  news  arrives  that  a  chief,  over  whose  country 
Liwanika  claims  suzerainty,  refuses  to  acknowledge 
that  claim.  This,  no  doubt,  will  be  a  difficult  point 
for  our  Foreign  Office  to  settle,  for  the  repudiation 



may  be  the  result  of  Portuguese  present  influence. 
Those  who  are  interested  in  the  future  of  this  country 
naturally  look  forward  with  a  certain  amount  of  anxiety 
to  the  settlement  of  the  frontier. 

Liwanika's  feelings  on  the  subject  are  well  expressed 
in  a  recent  utterance  which  was  transmitted  to  Europe 
by  post  a  short  time  back — "  If  the  Queen  gives  any 
of  my  country  to  the  Portuguese,  I  will  fight  the 

While  not  an  advocate  for  depriving  the  Portuguese 
of  any  territory  they  can  rightfully  claim,  having  a 
view  to  their  system  of  colonization  I  should  be  sorry 
to  see  them  in  possession  of  a  single  yard  of  Africa 
over  which  they  cannot  establish  a  right  Let  those 
who  think  otherwise  read  the  latter  part  of  Commander 
Cameron's  Across  Africa^  in  which  that  plucky  traveller 
describes  the  scenes  of  which  he  was  an  unwilling 
witness  when  travelling  along  the  northern  boundary 
of  this  very  country  with  a  "Portuguese"  caravan. 
True,  I  believe  the  white  Portuguese — though  they 
frequently  own  slaves — are  only  indirectly  responsible 
for  the  fiendish  cruelties  perpetrated  by  their  half-caste 
or  black  hirelings  and  proUg^Sy  but  they  know  what 
goes  on  under  their  flag,  nor  do  they  raise  a  finger  to 
prevent  these  barbarities. 

When  I  visited  Lialui  a  Portuguese  trader  of 
European  origin  had  established  a  camp  near  the 
town.  This  gentleman  arrived  on  the  scene  some 
weeks  previously  at  the  head  of  a  large  rabble  of 
servants  and  slaves  from  the  coast 

He  told  Liwanika  he  had  come  to  buy  slaves,  but 
received  the  reply,  "  I  have  none  to  sell  you ;  I  no 
longer  buy  and  sell  people." 

Next  he  asked  for  leave  to  go  among  the  semi- 



dependent  tribes  in  the  north  that  he  might  "trade 
with  them  for  cattle."  But  Liwanika  knew  perfectly 
well  what  this  meant  and  refused  permission.  So  the 
Portuguese  trader  had  perforce  to  enter  into  legitimate 
trade  in  cattle  with  the  king  as  the  only  alternative 
to  returning  whence  he  came  with  his  trading  stuffs 
untouched.  This  incident  shows  that  the  European 
Portuguese  is  not  above  personally  commanding  a 
slave-dealing  expedition — conducted,  no  doubt,  on  more 
humane  principles  than  those  adopted  by  the  spurious 
offspring  of  his  forefathers;  it  also  suggests  the  fact 
that  there  is  no  inclination  to  abolish  this  nefarious 
practice  in  Portuguese  colonies,  even  if  any  evidence 
were  required  in  this  direction. 




IN  the  main  the  same  species  of  big  game  are  to  be 
found  in  the  Marotse  empire  as  those  distributed 
over  the  vast  area  commonly  spoken  of  as  Central 
South  Africa.  There  are,  however,  a  few  notable 
exceptions — certain  South  African  antelopes  are  un- 
known north  of  the  Zambezi,  while  that  river  and 
its  affluent,  the  Kwando,  form  a  boundary  to  the 
habitat  of  a  few  species  of  Central  African  game. 

Why  in  some  instances  a  certain  species  of  big 
g^me  is  to  be  encountered  on  one  side  of  a  landmark, 
offering  no  obstacle  to  migration,  but  never  on  the 
other,  even  when  the  country  on  either  side  is  similar 
in  vegetation,  character,  and  climate,  is  an  interesting 
but  inexplicable  fact ;  but  when  such  a  river  as  the 
Zambezi  cuts  off  communication  with  a  never  ceasing 
flow  of  deep  water  for  hundreds  of  miles,  and  acts 
as  a  natural  boundary  to  districts  in  many  respects 
dissimilar,  a  change  in  the  character  of  the  fauna  is 
to  be  expected. 

In  this  case  the  Kwando,  which  flows  into  the 
Zambezi  from  the  west,  where  the  main  river  com- 
mences its  easterly  course,  and  thus  forms  with  it 
a  latitudinal  barrier,  shares  with  the  parent  stream 
the  right  to  say  to  certain  species,  "So  far  and  no 



Thus  the  ostrich,  gemsbuck  {jOryx  gazella),  bushbuck 
(Tragelaphus  scriptus\  red  hartebeest  {BubcUis  caafna\ 
and — though  I  cannot  speak  with  absolute  certainty 
in  the  case  of  this  latter — the  bushpig  are  not  to  be  met 
with  north  of  the  Kwando-Zambezi  line,  while  north  of 
the  Kwando,  but  not  east  or  north  of  the  Zambezi, 
the  giraffe  and  tsessebe — the  latter  in  large  numbers — 
are  to  be  found.  So,  too,  north  of  the  Kwando-Zambezi 
boundary,  and  on  both  sides  of  the  Upper  Zambezi,  the 
swampy  districts  carry  large  numbers  of  pookoo  and 
lechwe,  which  latter  is  also  to  be  found  at  Lake  N'gami. 
Two  antelopes  which  are  also  found  in  South  Africa, 
but  in  districts  remote  from  the  country  under  dis- 
cussion, must  be  included  among  the  fauna  of  Marotse- 
land — Lichenstein's  hartebeest  {B.  lichensteini),  which 
inhabits  Gungunhama's  country  and  the  Fungwe  district, 
is  very  plentiful  in  the  Matoka  and  Mashikolumbwe 
countries,  and  its  habitat  extends  as  far  as  the  Zambezi 
on  the  west  and  south,  but  not  beyond  that  river.  The 
other,  the  Situtunga,  which  is  also  found  in  the  reeds 
fringing  Lake  N'gami,  has  its  home  in  the  river  reeds 
of  Borotse  and  the  Sesheke  Flats. 

So  far  as  I  can  judge  from  my  own  experience,  and 
from  the  cross-examination  of  natives,  the  following 
is  probably  a  complete  list,  with  the  principal  haunts 
of  each  of  the  big  game  to  be  found  in  Marotseland 
(by  which  is  meant  the  country  governed  by  the  king 
of  the  Marotse)  from  15'  south  lat  to  where  bounded 
on  the  south  by  the  Kwando  and  Zambezi  rivers. 

Elephant  {Elephas  africanus).  Now  becoming  scarce, 
though  herds  still  exist  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Lusu  and  Katima  Molilo  Rapids  on  the  Zambezi  and 
in  the  north-east 

Rhinoceros  {Rhinoceros  bicomis).    Very  scarce. 



GirafTe  {Giraffa  canuloparcUUis).  Found  between  the 
Kwando  and  Zambezi  only,  and  there  not  plentifuL 

Hippopotamus  {Hippopotamus  amphibius\  Very 
plentiful  in  the  Zambezi,  Kwando,  and  Kafukwe,  and 
is  also  to  be  found  in  the  smaller  tributaries,  such  as 
the  Lui,  Lumbi,  Njoko,  and  Machili. 

Crocodile.     All  rivers  infested  by  these  reptiles. 

Buffalo  {Bos  caffd).  Fairly  plentiful  in  most  districts^ 
especially  between  the  Zambezi  and  Kwando  rivers. 

Warthog  {Phacochoerus  africanus\  Common  through- 
out the  country. 

Zebra  {Equus  burchelli  van  chapmant).  Very  com- 
mon in  all  game  districts. 

Lion  {Felis  leo).  Can  be  heard  most  nights  in  game 

Leopard  {Felts  pardus).  Spoor  frequently  encountered. 

Cheetah  {Cyncelurus  jubatus).  Seldom  seen.  Skins 
in  possession  of  natives  not  nearly  so  common  as  those 
of  Felis  pardus. 

Serval  {Felis  serval).  With  the  civet  quite  the  com- 
monest cat  in  the  country,  though  the  lynx  and  other 
species  of  the  smaller  cat  are  to  be  found. 

Black-backed  jackals  are  numerous,  though  I  have 
never  seen  even  the  skin  of  a  silver,  or  any  other  jackal 
in  the  possession  of  natives. 

Hyaena  {Hycena  crocuta).  Very  plentiful,  and  impu- 
dently aggressive. 


Eland  {Oreas  canna  var.  livingstonei).  Nowhere  very 
common,  but  fairly  well  distributed. 

Koodoo  {Strepsiceros  kudu).  Saw  no  signs  of  this 
antelope  west  of  the  Zambezi ;  and,  according  to  native 
report,  does  not  exist  there.     It  is  to  be  seen,  however, 



on  the  broken  left-hand  banks,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  rapids,  but  is  more  plentiful  on  the  Matoka  and 
Mashikolumbwe  plateaux. 

Sable  Antelope  {Hippotragus  ntger).  More  generally 
met  with  between  Kwando  and  Zambezi  rivers,  but  is 
also  found  in  Matoka  and  Mashikolumbwe  countries. 

Roan  Antelope  {Hippotragus  equvtus).  Same  habitat 
as  the  sable. 

Wildebeest  {Connochcetes  taurinus  and  C  Ljohnstont). 
The  commonest  antelope  in  the  district  Many  indivi- 
duals among  these  wildebeest  are  identical  with  the  blue 
wildebeest  of  South  Africa.  The  foreheads  of  others 
vary  from  dark  brown  to  light  fawn,  one  I  shot  had 
in  addition  a  white  blaze  across  the  black,  about  mid- 
way between  horn  and  muzzle;  some  again  show  a 
similar  blaze  of  fawn,  and  others  a  few  light-coloured 
hairs  only  in  the  same  place.  More  lately  a  specimen 
with  the  white  blaze  has  been  brought  to  England  from 
Nyassaland,  been  classified  as  a  new  sub-species,  and 
named  C,  t.  johnstoni.  As  all  the  above  degrees  of 
colouring  are  to  be  seen  in  the  same  herd,  I  am  at 
a  loss  to  know  where  the  new  sub-species  begins  and 
where  C.  t,  typicus  ends. 

Lichenstein's  hartebeest  (Bubalis  lichensteini).  Not 
found  on  the  Zambezi  above  Sesheke,  but  is  common 
in  the  eastern  and  northern  districts. 

Waterbuck  {Cobus  ellipsiprymnus).  Is  very  common 
on  the  high  broken  ground,  through  which  the  Upper 
Umgwezi  flows,  and  other  parts  of  the  Matoka  plateau  ; 
also  plentiful  on  some  of  the  Kafukwe  tributaries. 

Pookoo  {Cobus  vardoni).  Very  plentiful  on  the 
Zambezi  from  Kazungula  to  the  Gronye  Falls,  and 
for  some  few  miles  up  some  of  the  tributary  rivers ; 
also  on  the  Kwando  and  Kafukwe  rivers. 





Lechwe  (Cobus  leche).  Found  in  large  herds  on  the 
Sesheke  Flats  and  the  lower  reaches  of  the  Njoko  and 
Lumbi  rivers.  Were  at  one  time  plentiful  in  Borotse, 
but  have  been  materially  reduced  in  numbers  by  the 
natives.  I  saw  no  signs  of  this  antelope  on  those  parts 
of  the  Kafukwe  I  visited,  but  imagine  they  must  exist 
on  that  river,  which  in  places  is  eminently  suited  to 
their  habits. 

Situtung^  {Tragelaphus  spekei).  Inhabits  the  reed- 
beds  of  Borotse  and  the  Sesheke  Flats  which  this 
antelope  never  quits  until  driven  out  by  the  floods 
towards  the  end  of  the  wet  season.  It  is  fairly  plenti- 
ful in  these  two  districts,  but  is  never  seen  until 
compelled  to  leave  its  natural  covert  by  the  swelling 

Reedbuck  {Cervicapra  arundinum).  Common  on  the 
Zambezi,  Kafukwe,  and  most  rivers  and  swamps. 

Pallah  {^/Epyceros  melampus)  Especially  numerous 
on  the  Zambezi  from  the  Manyekanza  Rapids  to  the 
Lumbi-Zambezi  confluence,  is  also  to  be  found  in  most 
districts  where  the  ground  is  suited  to  its  habits. 

Oribi  {Ourebia  scoparta).    Common  throughout 

Duiker  {Cephalophus  gritntnt).  Evenly  distributed 
throughout,  though  nowhere  so  numerous  as  in  South 

Steinbuck  {Raphicerus  campestris).     Like  the  duiker, 
A       may  be    met  with  in   most  places,  but   is  even  less 
^(         plentiful. 

<V  Grysbuck    {Raphicerus   melanotisy     Fairly   plentiful 


Klipspringer  {Oreotragus  saltator).  Exists,  but  is 
rare.  The  only  two  I  saw  were  on  the  Upper 
Umgwezi.  Though  I  climbed  several  hills  in  the 
Mashikolumbwe  country  I  saw  no  trace  of  this  active 



little  antelope ;  yet,  probably,  they  find  a  home  in  some 
of  the  numerous  hills  in  that  country.  The  greater  part 
of  Marotseland  is  not  suited  to  their  habits. 

The  foregoing  notes  apply  to  g^me  as  it  was  up  to 
the  end  of  1895.  Since  then  the  rinderpest  has  played 
havoc  with  it ;  and,  if  native  report  can  be  relied  on  in 
this  matter,  has  almost  swept  all  ruminants  away  in 
most  districts.  What  I  myself  saw  at  the  beginning 
of  1896,  during  my  return  from  Mashikolumbweland, 
inclines  me  to  the  belief  that  in  this  case  the  natives 
have  not  found  much  room  for  exaggeration.  Buffalo, 
eland,  and  koodoo  were  more  particularly  affected,  but 
all  other  antelopes  down  to  the  little  steinbuck  were 
decimated  to  a  greater  or  lesser  extent.  Sad,  indeed,  it 
is  to  reflect  that  at  best  all  these  grand  animals  can 
never  regain  their  former  numbers,  for  many  natives 
now  carry  firearms,  and  white  men  will  shortly  flock  into 
the  country  as  they  have  done  into  Matabeleland  and 
Mashonaland  As  long  as  I  live  I  shall  never  forget  the 
quantity  and  variety  of  animal  life  among  which  I  have 
had  the  good  fortune  to  live  in  one  or  two  districts — and 
most  of  them  as  tame  and  unsuspicious  as  are  herds  of 
deer  in  the  safe  security  of  an  English  park.  What 
a  glorious  time  a  certain  type  of  "sportsman"  could 
have  had  here ! — he  could  have  killed  and  wasted  six  or 
more  every  day,  and  wounded  thrice  that  number, 
retiring  to  rest  feeling  quite  pleased  with  himself!  But 
so  far  as  Marotseland  is  concerned  this  cruel  disease  has 
taken  a  leaf  out  of  his  book — he  has  delayed  too  long. 




2  Hippopotami. 

8  Buffaloes. 

3  Lions. 

2  Hyaenas. 
7  Zebras. 

6  Warthogs. 

3  Elands. 

2  Koodoos. 

3  Sable  Antelopes. 
2  Roan  Antelopes. 

{Wildebeests  (C.  taurinus). 
„      {C.  t  johnstoni). 

9  Lichenstein's  Hartebeests. 

1  Tsessebe. 

3  Waterbucks. 
9  Pookoos. 

4  Lechwes. 

7  Reedbucks. 
12  Pallahs. 
3  Oribis. 
6  Duikers. 

2  Steinbucks 
I  Grysbuck. 

1  Serval. 

2  Jackals. 

2  Crocodiles.* 

*  A  few  others  not  collected. 




AntSf  Red^  voracity  of,  268 ;  eat  live  Guinea  fowls,  327 ;  a  missiooar/s 
experience  with,  328. 

AskdumAam,  Afr,,  377. 


Bagl^  and  Kerr^  Messrs,  f  meet  them  on  their  way  to  Lialui,  343 ;  adieu 
to,  354. 

Babhtnu  and  BucUnham^  Messrs.  ^  outrage  on  by  Mokwai  of  Marotse, 
105  and  se^, ;  mission  founded  on  Nkala  River,  230 ;  reach  the 
mission  station,  233 ;  illness  of  Buckenham  fiunily,  233 ;  leave  station, 
238 ;  return  to,  301 ;  death  of  Elsie  Buckenham,  301 ;  depredations 
of  a  lion,  301 ;  death  of  Mr.  Buckenham,  317. 

BamangwatOf  characteristics  of,  7. 

••Af*,"  154,  163. 

Birtrtmd^  Captain^  meet  him  returning  to  Kasungula,  98. 

BigmUt  M<ms.t  146. 

Bisi  viilaget  arrive  at,  324. 

Biggame^  the  true  criterion  of  a  bag,  34 ;  how  not  to  find,  196 ;  total  bag 
made  on  trip,  352. 

BoiUau^  Mom.  and  Mdme.^  at  Kazungula,  338 ;  fiurewell  visit  to,  351. 

Borotse  pkan^  reached  in  lat.  16**  15*  S.  93. 

^^Bcyst**  natural  mendacity  of,  49;  disobedience  of^  58;  enormous  appetite 
for  meat,  and  consequences,  74,  78 ;  more  disobedience,  80-2  ;  sub- 
mission of  rebellious,  86;  subsequent  good  conduct  of,  87 ;  difficulties 
with  sick,  211, 214;  gluttony  of,  227;  reluse  to  enter  Boshikolumbwe, 
238 ;  more  troubles  with,  242  and  seq, ;  desert  a  sick  comrade,  243 ; 
find  the  sick  man,  244 ;  more  dawdling,  246 ;  desertions  of,  246 ;  five 
only  remain,  248 ;  frighten  deserters  away,  248 ;  anxiety  concerning 
Mskcumba  and  Letangu,  260 ;  their  reappearance,  261 ;  mischievous 
reports  by  deserters,  325,  333 ;  sick  comrade  deserted,  recovered,  326 
and  stq, ;  Mashikolumbwe  desert  with  trophies,  332 ;  rewards  to 
recoverers  of  property,  333 ;  good  marches  t>y,  337 ;  disappearance 
and  return  of  "  Pony/*  357;  *vPony "  caught  steaOng,  366 ;  "  Pony" 
loses  oxen  and  deserts,  373. 

BMiawayo,  choose  road  thither  from  Wadm,  356;  change  plans  on  hearing 
of  rinderpest  there,  36a 

2D  401 


BufaU^  conduct  of  wounded  bull,  35 ;  bae  a  cow  by  misUke,  35 ;  bag  a 
buU,  26;  probable  fiite  of  wounded  Dull,  26;  kill  anodier,  17 ;  a 
hunt  after  in  reeds,  40 ;  common  error  in  drawing  profile  of  i«f  €tj^ 
40 ;  charged  by  a  cow,  90 ;  following  wounded,  92  and  seq, 

**Buskman^^  offers  drive  wounded  buffido,  41 ;  claims  eland  meat  finxn 
finders,  50;  instigator  of  disobedience,  8i. 

Ctnmony^  elaborate  greeting  between  natives,  45 ;  among  the  Marotae,  131. 

Chii/s,  Native^  the  secret  of  dealing  with  them,  373. 

Christmas  on  the  Matoka  plateau,  219,  225. 

Clcikistgoi  Marotse,  132. 

Caiilardt  Mfms.,  147;  endeavours  dissuade  author  from  Kfashikdumbwe 
journey,  209. 

Com/ass,  natives'  superstitious  respect  for,  254. 

CffTHy  difficulty  of  procuring  at  Sesheke,  38;  none  obtainable  at  Sioma,  85; 
camp  to  collect  meat  in  defiuilt,  88. 

Crocpdile^  pick  up  living  remains  of  fish  seized  by,  43 ;  throwing  diildren 
to,  a  ro^  pastime,  116 ;  shooting  them  at  Seshdce,  116 ;  eggs  oo  the 
Kasaia  River,  195. 

David^  Mom,t  146. 

Dtserticn  of  boys  compels  author  to  leave  bovs  camped  on  Musa  River,  and 
make  expedition  to  Kaiyngu,  250-1 ;  ot  boys,  246 ;  fri^ten  desoters 
away,  248;  of  Masfiikolumbwe  boys  with  trophies,  332;  of 
••Pony,"  373. 

Draki,  Mr,^  meet,  and  receive  more  news  of  Matabele,  374. 

Drummond  CastUy  just  miss  the,  378. 

DyunUry^  attacked  by  when  trying  to  get  boys  for  journey  into  Mashiko- 
himbwe  country,  208 ;  begin  to  regain  strength  on  hig^  ground,  S15. 


Edzumbi^  villages  in  Boshikolumbwe,  254. 

Eimndf  stalk  and  wound  in  twilight,  46 ;  long  diase  after,  47 ;  killed  by 
a  lion,  and  meat  secured  by  native  women,  ^ ;  ^ot  a  cow  with  good 
horns  near  Edzumbe,  257 ;  head-akin  spoilea  b^  porter,  259^ 

Elepktmts^  spoor  near  Mosela-na-Ndimba  Rapids,  42 ;  a  hunt  after,  59. 

EhMTt  and  Prici^  Missrs,^  poisoned  by  Marotse,  193. 

Engimetring^  NoHoi^  bridging  the  flooded  Nantchs  231. 

FamhM^  victims  of,  72. 

Fire^  use  of  flint  to  obtain,  by  Mankoya  tribe,  115. 

Fishing  Nits  of  the  Marotse,  loi. 

Fish-spearing  by  the  Marotse,  123-4. 

Forest  beyond  Nkala  River,  24a 



Gin^$f  a  hunt  after,  38. 

Gmt^v  Rap'ds  and  Fatts^  portage  of  j}  mfles,  79 ;  dtllude  of|  3300  feet 
above  tea  level,  83. 

Gcy^  Mem,  and  Mdtm,^  91  Mons.  Go/s  troitbles  with  Motcwai  of 

Sesheke,  189$  death  of  Mons.,  his  ezoellcDt  work,  35a 
Gninga  Fowl^  specimens  eaten  alive  by  red  ants,  337. 


Hartebcest^  a  long,  stem  chase,  176;  bag  a  cow  with  fnmsiial  fiiee- 
markings,  307. 

Hartebetst^  LuAenstMst  found  mingled  with  herds  of  other  species,  69 ; 

kill  four  out  of  a  herd,  2a7 1  kill  a  bull  with  *'  Blaster  Kaiyngu,"  372. 
Bippepotamtu^  kill  twc^  6|  measurements  of  the  huger.  8;  at  dose 

quarters  with,  7a ;  wgers  to  canoes  from,  76 ;  wound  and  losc^  97. 
Hd  Springs^  visit  to,  near  Musanana  on  Kafukwe  River«  304. 

Hurhsiatu^  Frtdirick^  joined  by,  at  Kaiungnla  for  joumey  to  Peodama- 

tenka,  1961 
ffjfottas^  a  long  chase  after,  ao,  3i. 

JaUa^  Mms.  Adoipk^  146. 

JaUa^  Mem.  and  Mdau,  LmUs^  146 ;  meet  them  on  theif  ymy  home,  ao9. 

Jawmm  Raid^  FfiBt  news  of,  344. 

Jtms^  flight  from  Bulawayo,  376. 

Kafyngu^  desertion  by  portions  compels  leaving  goods  with  sick  boys, 
and  seek  assistance  from,  350-1 ;  Edsumbe  chief  provides  boys  to 
accompany  author  to,  3^9 ;  reception  by,  363 ;  his  nunily,  366 ;  pre- 
ference in  the  matter  of  joints,  373 ;  not  to  be  hidulged,  374 ;  a  visit 
from,  375;  schemes  to  detain  author,  379,  390;  a  trip  northward 
from,  381  and  stq, ;  return  tOj  388 ;  discover  him  in  douUe  dealing, 
and  prepare  to  leave,  390 ;  adieu  to,  393. 

Kafnkwe  Rwer^  at  Kaiyngu,  367. 

Kalahari  Desert^  2 ;  the  journey  bade  with  one  Scotch  cart  and  six  oxen, 
353 ;  on  Gaxuma  flats,  354 ;  a  hard  trek,  3SS  S  collapse  of  boys,  355 ; 
remedies,  356. 

Kande  River ^  camp  on  the,  171. 

Katanga^  camp  near,  39. 

Kaiima  MelHo  Rapids^  reached,  43. 

Kwrnngnla^  arrival  at,  196 ;  scenery  on  the  Zambed  here,  303 ;  reached 
on  return  journey,  337. 

Kkama  and  Sekome,  3491 

Xeedoot  hunt  after  spoiled  by  a  wildebeest,  67 ;  kill  a  cow  by  mistake, 
333 ;  a  bull  mauled  by  a  lion,  334 ;  curious  encounter  with  a  rinder- 
pest-smitten, 377. 

AesJkam^  Rkter^  source  readied,  174. 

Kwando  River^  oonflueooe  with  Zambed,  3;  hitherto  known  as  Cbobe 
River,  3. 



LtngtuigtdL  Marotse,  133. 

LaHa^  soo  of  Liwanikm,  3;  eta^pe  from  Marotse  with  his  fiOher  liwanika, 
118;  visit  to  OD  return  jonmqr,  and  report  boys' mifoondoct,  339;  he 
promises  ponishmcnt,  340 ;  fiuewell  to,  35i« 

Lukmet  loll  two  rams,  68 ;  a  lodcy  shot  at,  71. 

UaluL,  arrival  at,  no;  chief  town  of  Borotae,  133;  visit  the  mission,  146; 
the  king's  kraal,  148;  noctnmal  visit  of  **a  dog,"  153;  native  visitors, 
154 ;  longitude  as  determined  by  Livingstone  and  the  author,  188. 

Uomtt  a  disappointment,  19 ;  nig^t  visit  of  a  lion,  26 ;  visit  the  missioo 
station  at  Sesheke  nightly,  36;  preparations  to  receive,  36;  an 
adventure  with  five,  53-6 ;  measurements  of  lion  and  lioness,  57 ; 
a  tragedy,  213 ;  depredations  at  Nkala  mission  station,  301 ;  his 
method  of  attick,  jai ;  list  of  his  victims,  303 ;  visits  the  station, 
and  kills  an  ox,  308;  an  unsnooessfiil  attempt  to  bag  at  n^fat,  309 
and  i«f.;  succeed  next  day,  314;  measurements,  315 ;  carcase  eaten 
by  Mashikolumbwe,  317. 

Lwingstone^  geognqphical  work  in  Borotse,  164. 

Ltwoftika,  paramount  diief  of  BCarotse,  3 ;  strange  letter  from,  97 ;  reply 
to,  98 ;  his  commendable  attitude  towards  Bfr.  Baldwin,  loj) ;  how  he 
came  to  the  throne,  117 ;  his  cruelties,  117 ;  escape  from  his  subjects, 
118;  re-establishes  his  power  with  Portiu^nese  anl,  119;  return,  and 
reformation  of  character,  119 ;  extent  of  ms  dominion  and  anthority, 
119-ao;  as  a  wood-carver,  135;  as  a  husband,  148;  visit  falm  at 
Lialui,  149 ;  the  palace  furniture,  150 ;  hb  explanation  of  the  letter, 
151 ;  complaint  of  American  prospectors,  15a;  provides  aooommo* 
dation,  153 ;  anxious  to  know  the  Queen's  views  about  bun,  156 ; 
unprindpled  white  traders  dismissed  the  country  by,  160;  approves 
mapping  his  territory,  163 ;  offers  an  escort,  ivj ;  d^ws  an  outline 
map  of  country,  168 ;  fiurewell  to,  170 ;  his  despatch  to  Sekome,  348. 

Loanje  River^  189. 

Locusts^  depredations  of,  in  the  Sesheke  district,  38. 

Lobengula^  his  conduct  when  wounded,  la 

Lotsani  Drifts  outspan  at,  377. 

Lui  River ^  camp  on  the,  172. 

Lumbi  RHfer^  camp  at  confluence  with  Zambesi,  79 ;  reach  source  of^  17 

Lush  Rapids^  beauty  oi^  6a 

Luwcuwa  River f  source  reached,  174. 

Lnyaba  River^  183. 


Mahunda^  conquered  by  the  Makololo,  113 ;  their  industries,  135. 

Madximanif  the  hunter,  12 ;  his  merits,  20,  23 ;  his  method  of  dealing 

with  an  obstinate  native,  33. 

Makololo,  conquest  of  the  Marotse  and  other  tribes  by,  iii ;  expnlsioo  of 
by  Marotse,  115. 

Makwenga^  136. 

Mambova  Rt^ids  on  Zambesi,  arrival  at,  4. 

AfO'fMockisatu^  Sebitwane's  daughter  succeeds  Um  and  abdicates,  114. 

ManAoya,  arms  of,  124;  use  flint  to  get  fire,  125;  country  and  people,  142 
and  se^, 



AfttHHlUkir  RiJUt  effect  of  a  shot,  59 ;  oenetnUion  of  bullet,  68,  320 ; 
author's  method  of  preparing  bullet,  09. 

Afanyekanza  Rapids^  camp  above,  43 ;  tracks  of  game  near,  45, 

Marotse^  land  of  the,  i ;  sites  of  villages  and  gardens,  94 ;  bearing  and 
manners,  95-6;  conquest  by  Makololo,  113;  expel  Makololo,  115; 
physique  o^  120 ;  crops,  120 ;  cattle,  122 ;  canoes  and  paddles,  123 ; 
arms,  124;  modes  of  fishing,  124;  domestic  architecture,  124;  seek 
safety  on  islands,  126;  punishment  of  witchcraft,  127-8;  use  of 
tobacco  and  snuff,  128-9;  ornaments,  129;  ''sanctuary"  for  criminals, 
129;  social  usages,  130;  religious  belief  130;  ceremonial,  131; 
clothing,  132;  language,  133;  character,  133;  wood-carving,  134; 
forced  labour  system,  192 ;  end  of  travel  in  the  country,  351. 

Marundumgoma  River ^  251. 

Mashikolumbwe^  canoes  on  Kafukwe  River,  123 ;  arms  of,  123 ;  country 
and  character  of  people,  head-dress  of  men,  treatment  of  teeth,  144 ; 
preparations  to  explore  country,  206;  Mr.  F.  C.  Selous*  and  Dr. 
Hoiub's  experience  of,  235-6 ;  leave  property  at  Nkala,  236 ;  boys' 
refusal  to  proceed  compels  change  of  plans,  237;  reach  villages  of 
Edxumbe,  2C4 ;  unprepossessing  people,  255 ;  effects  of  prospects  of 
meat  on,  2^8 ;  catUe,  264 ;  musical  performance,  265 ;  laaness  of, 
268;  desertion  by  and  theft  of  boys,  290;  author's  opinion  of  the,  317. 

Masubia^  characteristics  of,  7 ;  subdued  by  Makololo,  11 1 ;  country  and 
people,  137 ;  as  hunters,  138-9. 

Matabele  Risings  accidental  escape  from  hotbed  of  rebellion,  360 ;  loss  of 
oxen  saves  author  from  encountering  impi,  364;  warning  misconstrued 
and  ignored,  365 ;  murders,  360,  371 ;  volunteer  services,  371 ;  more 
news  of,  from  Mr.  Drake,  374 ;  practical  joke  on  a  coward,  376. 

**  Matlakalaf**  the  headman  provided  by  Liwanika,  sick,  179;  anxious  to 
return  home,  180 ;  disobedience  of,  182  ;  more  trouble  with,  186;  get 
even  with,  187. 

Maiutela^  conq^uered  by  the  Makololo,  113;  as  iron  workers,  136;  as 
canoe  builders,  137 ;  physique  and  appearance,  137 ;  a  smithy,  184 ; 
on  the  Matoka  plateau,  215 ;  character  of  country,  217. 

Maioka  Plateau^  reached,  215;  left,  225;  return  to,  325;  camp  on 
highest  point,  326;  rinderpest  on,  326. 

Matoka^  country  and  people,  139;  raid  on  and  butchery  of,  by  Matabele,  141. 

Maiingu  River^  174. 

Mbolcfwa^  brother  of  Sebitwane,  rules  Marotse  three  months,  114. 

Meaty  thefts  at  critical  stage  of  journey,  321. 

MissumarieSy  outrage  on  by  Mokwai  of  Marotse,  105  and  seq, ;  hospitality 
of  and  achievements  uv  Zambezi  missionaries,  161  and  seq, ;  poisoning 
of  Messrs.  Elmore  ana  Price,  193. 

Mokwaiy  of  Marotse,  her  position,  character,  and  crimes,  99;  visit  to,  102; 
her  return  call,  X03 ;  her  outrage  on  Messrs.  Baldwin  ioA  Bnckenham, 
105  and  seq, ;  her  account  of  the  matter,  and  Liwanika's  opinion  of 
her  conduct,  109. 

Mokwai f  of  Sesheke,  viat  to,  10;  her  appearance  and  residence,  11; 
promises  of  aid,  12 ;  her  bad  conduct  towards  Mons.  Goy,  189. 

Monarch  Reef  Mines ,  start  for,  370 ;  preparations  for  attack  at,  371. 



\  174. 

PCKSiodt  Slut  MMi  fof  old  ciwp  si  conoBCBoc  €■  Hjoico 
aad  RiipiiBpi  RtvcOs  iSj. 

ilUSrW,  cntioM  oandwl  <<  S^;  bitten  by  a  mk^  an;  aeM  froM 
kiuynpi  to  fcBeve  Miat  CHsp,  375;  he  Mb  to  ictBm,  989;  de- 
tained bf  Edmnbe  diie<;  994;  kit  a^un  on  Bwdi,  295;  prabibij 

Mmsamama^  bot  springi  near,  yxi ;  a  eiaspine  diie^  30$. 

Musa  Rwtr^  afflacnt  of  Kafidcvc^  141 ;  leafc  cnq>  with  ack  bof^  ss>  S 
Katyngv  reports  his  messengen  cannot  find.  275;  MaBphi  deipaiAr^ 
375 ;  pot  pcesnre  on  KaijngB  to  bring  in  cfleOs  firoas  caa^i  on,  J90S 
desoted  and  robbed  by  boys  on  tbe  naicb  back  tob  996 ; 


iKbiiSs  aUtim^  airive  at«  933;  lainfidl,  334  (see  Bddvia.  ete.)| 
U),  301 ;  leaf<e  fior  Kasongala,  317. 

il^Ui  ^^RfTy  crossed,  333. 

NaMot  arrire  at,  96 ;  leave,  103. 

Namakmmgm  Rwer^  333. 

Namg^mU  Rimr^  313. 

NomfoU  River ^  tribotaiy  of  the  Macfaili,  camp  on,  335. 

Natada  River^  in  flood,  331. 

NgmanunmOf  accession  to  Marotse  throne,  and  defeat  by  Ltwanika,  I17. 

Niambe  River,  179. 

JV/eJh9  River,  csmp  at  junction  with  Zamheii,  60;  an  expeditioo  up  on 
foot,  61 ;  number  of  tsetse  fly  on  banks,  61. 

OriH,  bsgged,  16,  17,  99. 

Omanunis  of  the  Marotse,  129. 

Oxen,  loss  by  starration,  202;  difficulty  of  taldng  across  fiver,  90$,  341-t; 
lose  team  for  two  and  half  days,  363 ;  k)se  again  on  way  to  Tati,  373. 


Palapyet  defective  postal  arrangements  at,  343 ;  start  from  Tati  for,  377. 

Pallah,  bag  one  of  a  herd  o^  30;  killed  for  the  pot,  46;  bag  two 
rams,  375. 

Pettdamattftka,  start  for,  vid  Victoria  Falls,  196;  arrive  to  find  fimune 
pevailing,  302;  leave  for  the  Zamberi,  303;  arrive  at  on  way 
oomt,  354. 

Phaiograpky,  stalk  wildebeest  and  tsessebe  with  the  camera,  17;  take 
poruon  of  herd  of  lecfawe,  194;  '^fogged"  plates,  S7a 



Pkkering^s^  Mr,  and  Mrs,,  mission  station,  3x8;  nude  callert  on- 
welcome,  319. 

PhoiTf  irritating  but  interesting  mancmivres  of,  199. 

Pookoo,  vitality  of,  18;  a  ram  for  the  Mashikolnmbwe,  267;  secure  a 
pair  of  horns  i8t  inches  long. 

I^ff  Adder^  narrow  escape  of  Lecham  or  oxen,  363. 


Rampungu  River,  reach  its  junction  with  the  Njoko,  lat.  z6*  42'  S.,  70 ; 
return  to  this  camp,  i88. 

Radhuck,  kill  a,  29 ;  a  pair  of  15I  inch  horns,  71 ;  kill  two  for  meat,  79. 

Religious  Beliefs  of  Marotse,  13a 

Reports,  Naiivef^  require  the  most  careful  sifting,  335-6. 

Rhodes,  Mr.  Cecil,  i. 

Rhinoceros,  an  unsuccessful  chase,  59. 

Rinderpest,  effects  on  game,  318;  deadly  on  the  Matoka  plateau,  326; 
compels  speedy  travel,  329 ;  loss  of  cattle  in  Sesheke  district,  336 ; 
push  on  to  escape  it,  337 ;  attacks  Latia*s  cattle,  344 ;  slaves  level 
m  unlimited  meat,  346 ;  compels  change  of  plans  at  most  fortunate 
juncture,  360;  area  affected,  372;  terrible  mortality  among  oxen 
along  Tati-Pkdapye  Road,  377. 

Roan  Antelope,  secure  a  good  pair  of  horns,  47 ;  a  lucky  long  shot,  181. 


Sable  Antelope,  kill  one  and  wound  another,  31 ;  recover  the  latter,  32 ; 
a  large  herd  of,  32 ;  bag  a  bull  with  a  fine  head,  201. 

Sangina,  becomes  insubordhutte,  8a ;  removed  from  post  as  headman,  87. 

Sanctuary  for  Criminals,  Marotse  custom,  129. 

5am  River,  camp  on,  213. 

Scavengers  efthe  Veldt,  65. 

Scotch  Cart,  breaks  down,  and  left,  369;  brought  in  with  load  in  safety,  372. 

Sebitwane,  chief  of  the  Makololo,  iii  and  seq» 

Sejlefula  River,  crossed,  2x9. 

Seheletu,  son  of  Sebitwane,  IX4. 

SehomOt  arrogant  demands  from  Liwanika,  347 ;  his  parentage  and  appear- 
tuice,  349 ;  a  meeting  with  Khama,  349. 

Selous,  Mr.  F.  C,  Liwanika's  regard  for,  158. 

Sepopo,  accession  to  Marotse  throne,  115 ;  his  brutalities,  tx6;  flight  and 
assassination,  117. 

Served,  killed  and  eaten  by  the  boys,  2x3. 

Sesheke,  arrival  at,  9 ;  visit  the  "  Mokwai  '*  or  ruling  princess,  10 ;  com- 
mercial instincts  of  natives  of  district,  17 ;  return  to  after  eight  days' 
sport,  34 ;  lions  haunt  the  mission  station,  ^6 ;  fix  latitude  of^  37 ; 
leave  agam,  38  $  return  to  from  M'pancha  Rirer-bed,  189 ;  leave  for 
Kasnngula,  194 ;  visit  again,  345. 

Semnga,  villages  fbonded  by  and  called  after,  832;  a  gntefome  s^t 
outside,  233. 




2  Hippopotami. 

8  Buffaloes. 

3  Lions. 

2  Hyaenas. 
7  Zebras. 

6  Warthogs. 

3  Elands. 

2  Koodoos. 

3  Sable  Antelopes. 
2  Roan  Antelopes. 

{Wildebeests  (C.  taurinus), 
„      {C.  t  johnstoni), 

9  Lichenstein's  Hartebeests. 

1  Tsessebe. 

3  Waterbucks. 
9  Pookoos. 

4  Lechwes. 

7  Reedbucks. 
12  Pallahs. 
3  Oribis. 
6  Duikers. 

2  Steinbucks 
I  Grysbuck. 

1  Serval. 

2  Jackals. 

2  Crocodiles.* 

*  A  few  others  not  collected. 




AntSf  Red,  voracity  of,  268;  eat  live  Guinea  fowls,  327;  a  missionary's 
experience  with,  328. 

AskdumAam,  Afr^t  377. 


Bagl^  and  Kerr^  Messrs.  f  meet  them  on  their  way  to  Lialtti,  343 ;  adieu 
to,  354. 

Babhoiu  and  BucJUnAam,  Messrs,,  outrage  on  by  Mokwai  of  Marotse, 
105  and  sef, ;  mission  founded  on  Nkala  River,  230 ;  reach  the 
mission  station,  233 ;  illness  of  Buckenham  £Eunily,  233 ;  leave  station, 
238 ;  return  to,  301 ;  death  of  Elsie  Buckenham,  301 ;  depredations 
of  a  lion,  301 ;  death  of  Mr.  Buckenham,  317. 

Bamat^gwatOf  characteristics  of,  7. 

••Aff,"  154,  163. 

Bertramd,  Captain,  meet  him  returning  to  Kasungula,  98. 

Beguile,  Mons.t  1461. 

Bisi  viiiage,  arrive  at,  324. 

Biggamif  the  true  criterion  of  a  bag,  34 ;  how  not  to  find,  196 ;  total  bag 
made  on  trip,  352. 

BciUaUt  Mom,  and  Mdme,,  at  Kazungula,  338 ;  fiurewell  visit  to,  351. 

Borotse  plaint  reached  in  lat.  16**  15*  S.  93. 

**Bcyst**  natural  mendacity  of,  49;  disobedience  of^  58;  enormous  appetite 
for  meat,  and  consequences,  74,  78 ;  more  disobedience,  80-2  ;  sub- 
mission of  rebellious,  86;  subsequent  good  conduct  of,  87 ;  difficulties 
with  sick,  211, 214;  gluttony  of,  227;  reluse  to  enter  Boshikolumbwe, 
238 ;  more  troubles  with,  242  and  seq. ;  desert  a  sick  comrade,  243 ; 
find  the  sick  man,  24^ ;  more  dawdling,  246 ;  desertions  of,  246 ;  five 
only  remain,  248 ;  mghten  deserters  away,  248 ;  anxiety  concerning 
Macumba  and  Letan^  260 ;  their  reappoirance,  261 ;  mischievous 
reports  by  deserters,  325,  333 ;  sick  comrade  deserted,  recovered,  326 
and  seq, ;  Mashikolumbwe  desert  with  trophies,  332 ;  rewards  to 
recoveren  of  property,  333 ;  good  marches  t>y,  337 ;  disappearance 
and  return  of  **  Pony,^  357 ;  •'Pony "  cau^t  steaOng,  366 ;  "  Pony " 
loses  oxen  and  deserts,  373. 

Bnkmeg^,  choose  road  thither  from  Wadm,  356;  change  jdans  on  hearing 
of  rinderpest  there,  36a 

2D  401 


BuffaU^  conduct  of  wounded  bull,  35  ;  bae  a  cow  by  misuke»  35 ;  bag  a 
bull,  26;  probable  finte  of  wotmded  Dull,  26;  kill  anoUier,  17;  a 
hunt  after  in  reeds,  40 ;  common  error  in  drawing  profile  of  h^  tmffk^ 
ifi ;  charged  by  a  cow,  90 ;  following  wounded,  92  and  stq, 

^^Bushnum^  offers  drive  wounded  buffalo,  41 ;  claims  eland  meat  from 
finders,  $0;  instigator  of  disobedience,  81. 


Ceretnony^  elaborate  greeting  between  natives,  45 ;  among  the  Marotse,  131. 

Chii/Sj  Native^  the  secret  of  dealing  with  them,  373. 

Christmas  on  the  Matoka  plateau,  219,  225. 

Clothing  oi  Marotse,  132. 

Coiltardt  Moms.^  147;  endeavours  dissuade  author  from  Mashikolumbwe 
journey,  209. 

Omipass^  natives'  superstitious  respect  for,  254. 

Com^  difficulty  of  procuring  at  Sesheke,  38;  none  obtainable  at  Stoma,  85; 
camp  to  collect  meat  in  defimlt,  8& 

CrocodiU,  pick  up  living  remains  of  fish  seized  by,  43 ;  throwing  children 
to,  a  royal  pastime,  1 16 ;  shooting  them  at  Seshdce,  1 16 ;  eggs  on  the 
Kasaia  River,  195. 

David^  Mons.t  146. 

Desertion  of  boys  compels  author  to  leave  boys  camped  on  Musa  River,  and 
make  expedition  to  Kaivngu,  250-1 ;  of  boys,  246 ;  fri^teii  deserters 
away,  248;  of  Mashikolumbwe  boys  with  trophies,  333;  of 
••Pony,"  373. 

Drako,  Mr,y  meet,  and  receive  more  news  of  Matabele,  374. 

Drummond  Castle^  just  miss  the,  378. 

Dysenterv,  attacked  by  when  trying  to  get  boys  for  joumev  into  Mashiko- 
lumbwe country,  208 ;  begin  to  regain  strength  on  hi|^  ground,  S15. 


EdiUfnUf  villages  in  Boshikolumbwe,  3^4. 

E/mnd^  stalk  and  wound  in  twilight,  46 ;  long  chase  after,  47 ;  killed  by 
a  lion,  and  meat  secured  by  native  women,  50 ;  shot  a  cow  with  good 
horns  near  Edsumbe,  357 ;  head-skin  spoiled  by  porter,  359^ 

EUphants^  spoor  near  Mosela-na-Ndimba  Rapids,  42 ;  a  hunt  after,  59. 

Eimore  and  Price^  Messrs,  ^  poisoned  by  Marotse,  193. 

Engimeringt  Native^  bridging  the  flooded  Nansela,  S31. 

Famine,  victims  of,  72. 

Fire^  use  of  flint  to  obtain,  by  Mankoya  tribe«  125. 

Fishing  Nets  of  the  Marotse,  loi. 

Fish'spearittghf  iht  Marotse,  123-4. 

Forest  beyond  Nkala  River,  240. 



Giraffit  a  hunt  after,  38. 

Gm^  Rapids  and  Faits^  portage  of  a)  mfles,  79;  dtllude  of,  3300  feet 
above  tea  level,  83. 

Gcy^  Mom,  and  Mdms.,  9;  Mons.  Gojr's  troubles  with   Mdkwai  of 

Sesheke,  189 ;  death  of  Mons.,  his  excellent  work,  35a 
Guitiga  Fowlf  specimens  eaten  alive  by  red  ants,  327. 


Hartebeest^  a  long,  stem  chase,  176;  bag  a  cow  with  fnmsiial  &ce- 
markings,  307. 

HartebusU  Lkkcmtein^St  found  mingled  with  herds  of  other  species,  69 ; 
kill  four  out  of  a  herd,  2a7 1  kill  a  buU  with  *'  Master  Kaiyngu/'  37a. 

Hippop^amui^  kill  two.  6;  measurements  of  the  larger,  8;  at  dose 
quarters  with,  73 ;  dangers  to  canoes  from,  76 ;  wound  and  losc^  97, 
Sd  Springs^  visit  to,  near  Musanana  on  Kafukwe  Rber,  304. 

Hurlettom^  FruUrkk^  joined  by,  at  Kaaungula  for  journey  to  Peadama- 

tenka,  1961 
i^ttnor,  a  long  chase  after,  ao,  ai. 

JoUa^  Mms.  Adolpk.  146. 

Jaila^  Mom,  and  Mdmi,  Lmus^  146 ;  meet  them  on  theif  ^ny  home,  309. 

Jamoson  Raid^  FfiBt  news  of,  344. 

Joms^  flight  from  Bulawayo,  376. 

KafyngUt  desertion  by  portions  compels  leaving  goods  with  sick  boys, 
and  seek  assistance  from,  350-1 ;  Edsumbe  chief  provides  boys  to 
accompany  author  to,  359 ;  reception  by,  363 ;  his  nmily,  366 ;  pre- 
ference in  the  matter  of  joints,  273 ;  not  to  bie  indulged,  374 ;  a  visit 
from,  375;  schemes  to  detain  author,  379,  390;  a  trip  northward 
from,  381  and  seq, ;  return  to,  388 ;  discover  him  in  double  dealing, 
and  prepare  to  leave,  390 ;  adieu  to,  393. 

Kafukwe  Rvoer^  at  Kaiyngu,  267. 

Kaiahari  Desert^  2 ;  the  journey  back  with  one  Scotch  cart  and  six  oxen, 
353  ;  on  Gazuma  flats,  354 ;  a  hard  trek,  355 ;  collapse  of  boys,  355 ; 
remedies,  356. 

Kande  Rwer^  camp  on  the,  171. 

Katanga^  camp  near,  39. 

Katinia  Molilo  Rapids^  reached,  43. 

KoMungulaf  arrival  at,  196 ;  scenery  on  the  Zambesi  here,  303 ;  reached 
on  return  journey,  337. 

Kkama  and  Sekome,  3491 

Koodoo^  hunt  after  spoiled  by  a  wildebeest,  67 ;  kill  a  cow  by  mistake, 
333 ;  a  bull  mauled  by  a  lion,  334 ;  curious  encounter  with  a  rinder- 
pest-smitten, 377. 

Koikatnjba  Rkter^  source  reached,  174. 

Kwando  Rivor,  confluence  with  Zambesi,  3;  hitherto  known  as  Cbobe 
River,  3. 



iMmgmagt  of  Marotse,  133. 

LBiia^  SOD  of  Liwanika,  3 ;  eieape  from  Marotse  with  his  fiUher  liwtiuka, 
118 ;  visit  to  on  return  journey,  and  report  boys'  misoondoct,  339 ;  he 
promises  punishment,  340;  mrewell  to,  351. 

Lukme^  kill  two  runs,  68 ;  a  lucky  shot  at,  71. 

Lialuif  arrival  at,  no;  chief  town  of  Borotae,  133;  visit  the  mission,  146; 
the  king's  kraal,  148;  nocturnal  visit  of  **a  dog,"  153;  native  visitors, 
154 ;  longitude  as  determined  by  Livingstone  and  the  author,  188. 

Uom,  a  disappointment,  19 ;  night  visit  of  a  lion,  26 ;  visit  the  missioo 
station  at  Sesheke  nightly,  36;  preparations  to  receive,  36;  an 
adventure  with  five,  53-6;  measurements  of  lion  and  lioness,  57 » 
a  tragedy,  213 ;  depredations  at  Nkala  mission  station,  301 ;  his 
method  of  attiick,  J02 ;  list  of  his  victims,  303 ;  visits  Uie  station, 
and  kills  an  ox,  300 ;  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  bag  at  night,  309 
and  seq,%  succeed  next  day,  314;  measurements,  315;  carcase  eaten 
by  Mashikolumbwe,  317. 

Livingstone^  geographical  work  in  Borotse,  164. 

Liwanika,  paramount  chief  of  Idarotse,  3 ;  strange  letter  from»  97 ;  reply 
to,  98 ;  his  commendable  attitude  towards  Mr.  Baldwin,  loj) ;  how  hie 
came  to  the  throne,  117 ;  his  cruelties,  117 ;  escape  from  his  subjects, 
118;  re-establishes  his  power  with  Portuguese  anl,  119;  return,  and 
r^rmation  of  character,  119;  extent  of  his  dominion  and  authority, 
119-ao;  as  a  wood-carver,  135;  as  a  husband,  148;  visit  him  at 
Llalui,  149;  the  palace  furniture,  150;  his  explanation  of  the  letter, 
151 ;  complaint  of  American  prospectors,  15a;  provides  accommo- 
dation, 153;  anxious  to  know  the  Queen's  views  about  him,  156; 
unprincipled  white  traden  dismissed  the  country  by,  160;  approves 
mapping  his  territory,  163 ;  offers  an  escort,  167 ;  ^ws  an  outline 
map  of  country,  168 ;  fiurewell  to,  170 ;  his  despatch  to  Sekome,  348. 

Loanje  River^  189. 

Locusts^  depredations  of,  in  the  Sesheke  district,  38. 

Lcbengnia^  his  conduct  when  wounded,  la 

Lotsani  Drifts  outspan  at,  377. 

Lui  River,  camp  on  the,  172. 

Lumbi  River,  camp  at  confluence  with  Zambesi,  79 ;  reach  source  of,  17 

Lusu  Rapids,  beauty  of,  6a 

Luufouwa  River,  source  reached,  174. 

Luyaba  River,  183. 


Mahunda,  conquered  by  the  Makololo,  113 ;  their  industries,  135. 
Madzimani,  the  hunter,  12 ;  his  merits,  20,  23 ;  his  method  of  dealing 
with  an  obstinate  native,  33. 

Makololo,  conquest  of  the  Marotse  and  other  tribes  by,  in ;  expulsion  of 
by  Marotse,  115. 

Makwenga,  136. 

Mambova  Rapids  on  Zambesi,  arrival  at,  4. 

Ma-mechisane,  Sebitwane's  daughter  succeeds  him  and  abdicates,  114. 

Mankoya,  arms  of,  124;  use  flint  to  get  fire,  125;  country  and  people,  142 
and  seq, 



Mannlickir  RiJU^  effect  of  a  shot,  59 ;  oenetration  of  bullet,  68,  320 ; 
author's  method  of  preparing  bullet,  09. 

Manyekanza  Rapids^  camp  above,  43 ;  tracks  of  game  near,  45. 

Marotse,  land  of  the,  i ;  sites  of  villages  and  gardens,  94 ;  bearing  and 
manners,  95-6;  conquest  by  Makololo,  113;  expel  Makololo,  115; 
physique  o^  120 ;  crops,  120 ;  cattle,  122 ;  canoes  and  paddles,  123 ; 
arms,  124;  modes  of  fishing,  124;  domestic  architecture,  124;  seek 
safety  on  islands,  126;  punishment  of  witchcraft,  127-8;  use  of 
tobacco  and  snuff,  128-9;  ornaments,  129;  ''sanctuary"  for  criminals, 
129;  social  usages,  130;  religious  belief  130;  ceremonial,  131; 
clothing,  132 ;  language,  133 ;  character,  133 ;  wood-carving,  134 ; 
forced  kbour  system,  192 ;  end  of  travel  in  the  country,  351. 

Marundumgonia  River ^  251. 

Mashikolunibwe^  canoes  on  Kafukwe  River,  123;  arms  of,  123;  country 
and  character  of  people,  head-dress  of  men,  treatment  of  teeth,  144 ; 
preparations  to  explore  country,  206;  Mr.  F.  C.  Selous'  and  Dr. 
Holub's  experience  of,  235-6 ;  leave  property  at  Nkala,  236 ;  boys' 
refusal  to  proceed  compels  change  of  plans,  237;  reach  villages  of 
Edzumbe,  2C4 ;  unprepossessing  people,  255 ;  effects  of  prospects  of 
meat  on,  2^8 ;  cattle,  264 ;  musical  performance,  265 ;  laziness  of, 
268;  desertion  by  and  theft  of  boys,  296;  author's  opinion  of  the,  317. 

Afasubia^  characteristics  of,  7 ;  subdued  by  Makololo,  1 1 1 ;  country  and 
people,  137  ;  as  hunters,  138-9. 

Matabek  Risings  accidental  escape  from  hotbed  of  rebellion,  360 ;  loss  of 
oxen  saves  author  from  encountering  impi,  364;  warning  misconstrued 
and  ignored,  365 ;  murders,  360,  371 ;  volunteer  services,  371 ;  more 
news  of,  from  Mr.  Drake,  374 ;  practical  joke  on  a  coward,  376. 

*^  Matlakala^**  the  headman  provided  by  Liwanika,  sick,  179;  anxious  to 
return  home,  x8o ;  disobedience  of,  182  ;  more  trouble  with,  186;  get 
even  with,  187.  /- 

MaitUeta^  conq^uered  by  the  Makololo,  113;  as  iron  workers,  136;  as 
canoe  builders,  137 ;  physique  and  appearance,  137 ;  a  smithy,  184; 
on  the  Matoka  plateau,  215 ;  character  of  country,  217. 

Maioka  Plateau^  reached,  215;  left,  225;  return  to,  325;  camp  on 
highest  point,  326;  rinderpest  on,  326. 

Matokay  country  and  people,  139;  raid  on  and  butchery  of,  by  Matabele,  141. 

Maiingu  River ^  174. 

Mbolcfwa^  brother  of  Sebitwane,  rules  Marotse  three  months,  114. 

Meaty  thefb  at  critical  stage  of  journey,  321. 

MissicnarieSy  outrage  on  by  Mokwai  of  Marotse,  105  and  seq, ;  hospitality 
of  and  achievements  bv  Zambezi  missionaries,  161  and  seq» ;  poisoning 
of  Messrs*  Elmore  ana  Price,  193. 

Mokwaiy  of  Marotse,  her  position,  character,  and  crimes,  99;  visit  to,  IQ2; 
her  return  call,  103 ;  her  outrage  on  Messrs.  Baldwin  uid  Buckenham, 
105  and  seq, ;  her  account  of  the  matter,  and  Liwanika's  opinion  of 
her  conduct,  109. 

Mokwai^  of  Sesheke,  visit  to,  10;  her  appearance  and  residence,  11 ; 
promises  of  aid,  12 ;  her  bad  conduct  towards  Mons.  Goy,  189. 

Monarch  Reef  Mines ,  start  for,  370 ;  preparations  for  attack  at,  371. 



Moamiigki,  briUiancy  ol»  46. 
Moiomia  Rwtf,  174. 

ATpamka  River  reached,  start  from  for  old  camp  at  oonflneDoe  of  Njdko 

and  RampuDgu  RiTen,  183. 
Mtta  Rioer^  3J5. 

Mulhkif  catttiotts  conduct  of,  56;  bitten  by  a  snake,  aoa;  tent  from 
kai3mgu  to  relieve  Muia  camp,  275;  he  fidls  to  return,  289;  de- 
tained bv  Edcumbe  chief,  294 ;  lost  again  on  march,  295 ;  probably 
murderea,  299. 

Musatuma^  hot  springs  near,  303 ;  a  graspbg  chief^  305. 

Musa  Rhfir,  affluent  of  Kafiikwe,  341 ;  leave  camp  with  sick  boys,  2$i  ; 
Kaiyngu  reports  his  messengers  cannot  find,  275 ;  Muliphi  despaldieda 
275 ;  put  pressure  on  Kaiyngu  to  bring  in  eflrn^  from  camp  on,  J90; 
deserted  and  robbed  by  boys  on  the  march  back  to,  296 ;  ccadi  the 
camp,  297. 

Music^  a  Mashikolnmbwe  pianist,  364. 


Mmlm  Mi$sicm^  arrive  at,  233 ;  lainfidl*  234  (see  Baldwin*  etc)  f  ictiini 
to,  301 ;  leave  for  Kamngida,  317. 

Nhala  Ristr^  crossed,  233. 

Nahht  arrive  at,  98 ;  leave,  103. 

Namahuba  HiOs^  253. 

Namakumgu  River,  253. 

Nangwmbe  River,  213. 

Nanyate  River,  tributary  ci  the  Machili,  camp  on,  225. 

Nameela  River,  in  flood,  231. 

Ngwanwitta,  accession  to  Marotse  throne,  and  defeat  by  Liwanika,  117. 

Niambe  River,  179. 

Njeho  River,  camp  at  junction  with  Zambesi,  60;  an  expedition  up  on 
foot,  61 ;  number  of  tsetse  fly  on  banks,  61. 

Oribi,  bagged,  16,  17,  29. 

Ornaments  of  the  Marotse,  129. 

Oxen,  loss  by  starvation,  202;  difiiculty  of  taldng  across  river,  M,  341-2; 
lose  team  for  two  and  half  days,  363 ;  lose  again  on  way  to  fiui,  273. 


Palapye,  defective  postal  arrangements  at,  343 ;  start  from  Tati  for,  377. 

Pallah,  bag  one  of  a  herd  of,  30;  killed  for  the  pot,  46;  bag  two 
rams,  275. 

PendamcUenka,  start  for,  viA  Victoria  Falls,  196;  arrive  to  find  fiunine 
prevailing,  202;  leave  for  the  Zamberi,  203;  arrive  at  on  way 
home,  354. 

Photography,  stalk  wildebeest  and  tsessebe  with  the  camera,  17;  take 
portion  of  herd  of  lecfawe,  194;  "fogged"  plates,  27a 



Pickering* St  Mr,  and  Mr$,y  mission  station,  318;  nude  calleni  un- 
weloome,  319. 

Ple/ver^  irritating  but  interesting  manosvvres  of,  199. 

Pookoot  vitality  of,  18 ;  a  ram  for  the  Mashikolumbwe,  267 ;  secure  a 
pair  of  horns  i8i  inches  long. 

Puff  Adder^  narrow  escape  of  Lecharu  or  oxen,  363. 


RamffungH  Rivtr^  reach  its  junction  with  the  Njoko,  lat.  16**  42'  S.,  70; 
return  to  this  camp,  188. 

Reedlmcky  kill  a,  39 ;  a  pair  of  \^\  inch  horns,  71 ;  kill  two  for  meat,  79. 

Religious  Beliefs  of  Marotse,  130. 

Reports,  Nattvei^  require  the  most  careful  sifting,  335-6. 

Rhodes  y  Mr,  Cecily  i. 

Rhinoceros,  an  unsuccessful  chase,  59. 

Rinderpest,  effects  on  game,  318 ;  deadly  on  the  Matoka  plateau,  326 ; 
compels  speedy  travel,  329 ;  loss  of  cattle  in  Sesheke  district,  336 ; 
push  on  to  escape  it,  337 ;  attacks  Latia*s  cattle,  344 ;  slaves  revel 
m  unlimited  meat,  346 ;  compels  change  of  plans  at  most  fortunate 
juncture,  360;  area  affected,  372;  terrible  mortality  among  oxen 
along  Tati-Palapye  Road,  377. 

Roan  Antelope^  secure  a  good  pair  of  horns,  47 ;  a  lucky  long  shot,  181. 


Sable  Antelote,  kill  one  and  wound  another,  31 ;  recover  the  latter,  32 ; 
a  large  herd  of,  32 ;  bag  a  bull  with  a  fine  head,  201. 

Sangina^  becomes  insubordinate,  88 ;  removed  from  post  as  headman,  87. 

Sanctttary  for  CrimineUs,  Marotse  custom,  139. 

Sara  River,  camp  on,  213. 

Scavengers  of  the  Veldt,  65. 

Scotch  Cart,  breaks  down,  and  left,  369;  brought  in  with  load  in  safety,  372. 

Sebiiwane,  chief  of  the  Makololo,  III  and  seq, 

Sejlefula  River,  crossed,  219. 

Sekeletu,  son  of  Sebitwane,  114. 

Sekome,  arrogant  demands  from  Liwanika,  347 ;  his  parentage  and  appear- 
ance, 349 ;  a  meeting  with  Khama,  349. 

Selons,  Mr,  F,  C,  Liwanska's  regard  for,  158. 

Sepopo,  accession  to  Marotse  throne,  115 ;  his  brutalities,  116;  flight  and 
assassination,  117. 

Seroal,  killed  and  eaten  by  the  boys,  213. 

Sesheke,  arrival  at,  9 ;  vidt  the  "  Mokwai "  or  ruling  princess,  10 ;  com- 
mercial instincts  of  natives  of  district,  17 ;  return  to  after  eight  days' 
sport,  34 ;  lions  haunt  the  mission  station,  ^ ;  fix  latitude  of^  37 ; 
leave  again,  38  (  return  to  from  M'pancha  Rnrer-bed,  189 ;  leave  for 
Kacungttla,  194 ;  visit  again,  345. 

Setimga,  villages  founded  by  and  called  after,  832;  a  gruesome  sight 
ouuide,  333. 



SkoeSt  last  pair  given  out,  337. 

Simpson  ami  fVa/sk,  encountered  on  Kalahari  desert,  bound  for  Upper 
Zambezi,  359 ;  decide  to  return,  360 ;  generosity  of,  361 ;  overtaken 

by.  367. 

Stoma,  visited  by  the  chiefr  of,  84-5 ;  no  com  in  the  district,  85. 
Sacia/  Usage  of  Marotse,  130  and  siq, 

Tamasamka,  arrive  at,  357. 

To/f ,  trek  for  to  try  to  escape  rinderpest,  360 ;  leave  Monarch  Reef  Mines 
for,  373 ;  arrive  at,  375 ;  leave,  376. 

Tobacco,  use  of  by  Marotse,  128;  how  used  by  Mashikolumbwe  and 
Mflunkoya,  284. 

Tiosstbit  bag  a  buU,  14. 

Tsoisi  Fly,  numerous  on  Njoko  River,  61 ;  appearance,  manners,  and 
methods,  62,  65 ;  distnoution  and  effects  of  bite,  63,  64 ;  on  the 
Matoka  plateau,  225,  326;  very  numerous  on  low  ground,  228. 


Umgwen  River,  arrival  on  south  bank,  210;  cross  the  river,  211 ;  different 
aspect  higher  up,  330 ;  game  on  the  banks,  33a 

Victoria  Falls,  magnificence  of  the,  197. 
Vistlcenfs,  Mr,  Sydney,  hospitality  at  Palapye,  377. 

Wacha,  arrive  at,  and  leave  for  Bulawayo,  356. 

^ctrthog,  a  good  pair  of  tusks,  78 ;  charged  by  wounded  boar,  221  ;  his 
merits  from  a  culinary  standpoint,  222 ;  bag  a  boar  and  sow,  277. 

IVar  scare  in  Sesheke  district,  347. 

IVcUer-lily,  stems  of,  used  for  food,  88. 

IVilcUbeesi,  kill  a  bull,  15  ;  difference  between  species  of,  15 ;  curiosity  of, 
16 ;  secure  a  good  pair  of  horns,  17 ;  kill  a  spoil-sport,  68 ;  a  bull  for 
the  Mashikolumbwe,  269. 

IVilsof^s  Party,  massacre  of^  la 

Witchcrafts  trial  by  ordeal  among  Marotse,  and  punishment,  127-8. 

IVomcHf  social  status  and  value  in  Africa,  51 ;  boys  treatment  of,  183 ; 
compelled  to  perform  field-work  for  Mokwai  of  Seshdce,  190; 
brutality  of  superintending  chiefe,  191. 

Wood-carvings  industry  of  Marotse,  134* 


Zambetit  scenery  at  confluence  with  Kwando  River,  3 ;  water-fowl  on,  4 ; 
rapids  between  Kazungula  and  Lialui  do  not  compel  portage  of  canoo, 
42;  Katima  Molilo  and  Mosela-wa-Ndimba  Rapios,  42;  errors  in 
course  on  map,  44 ;  return  to  main  camp  on,  and  proceed  up,  73,  75 ; 
fish  of  the  upper,  loi ;  breadth  at  Kazungula,  204. 

Zebra,  Madzimani  kills  a  wounded  stallion,  23 ;  kill  two  for  meat,  249. 










rOKTXY,  .... 



MUTOKY,    ..... 


BIOGRAPHY,        .... 





PHILOSOPHY,       .... 

THSOLOCY,  .... 

PICTION,  .... 















OCTOBER     1899 

OCTOBXR   1899. 

Messrs.    Methuen's 


■  m  I 

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This  book  contains  a  history  and  complete  description  of  these  islands — their  phjrsical 
features,  fauna,  flora;  the  habits,  and  religious  beliefs  of  the  inhabitants.  It  is 
the  result  of  many  years'  residence  among  the  natives,  and  is  the  only  worthy  woric 
on  the  subject. 

THREE  YEARS  IN  SAVAGE  AFRICA.  By  Lionel  Decle. 
With  100  Illustrations  and  5  Maps.  Cheaper  Edition.  Demy  8tv. 
lox.  6d,  net, 

A  NEW  RIDE  TO  KHIVA.    By  R.  L.  Jefferson.  Illustrated 

Crown  Stw,     6s. 

The  account  of  an  adventurous  ride  on  a  bicycle  through  Russia  and  the  deserts  of 
Asia  to  Khiva. 



BARRACK-ROOM  BALLADS.  By  Rudyard  Kipung. 
58M  Thousand,     Crown  ^vo.    Leather^  gilt  top,  6s,  net, 

THE  SEVEN  SEAS.  By  Rudyard  Kipling.  47M  Thousand, 
Crown  2vo,    Leather^  gilt  top,  6s,  net. 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements       3 

ENGLISH  LYRICS.  Selected  and  arranged  by  W.  E. 
Hbnlby.  Second  and  cheaper  Edition.  Fcp,  %vo^  2s,  6d.  Leather^ 
31.  6d,  net, 

LYRA  FRIVOLA.  Bv  A.  D.  GODLEY,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Mag- 
dalen College,  Oxford.    F0U  %vo,    2s.  6d, 

A  little  Yolume  of  occasional  verse,  chiefly  academic. 

Zhc  WiotlKB  of  Sbafieepeate 

General  Editor,  Edward  Dowden,  Litt.  D. 
Messrs.  Methuen  have  in  preparation  an  Edition  of  Shakespeare  in 
single  Plays.     Each  play  will  be  edited  with  a  full  Introduction,  Textual 
Notes,  and  a  Commentary  at  the  foot  of  the  page. 
The  first  volume  will  be  : 

HAMLET.    Edited  by  Edward  Dowden,    Demy  Zvo.    y,  6d. 

History  and  Biography 

Arranged  and  Edited  with  Notes  by  Sidney  Colvin.  Demy  Stw. 
2  vols,    25J.  ne/. 

These  highly  iinportant  and  interesting  volumes  contain  the  correspondence  of 
Robert  Lonis  Stevenson  from  his  eighteenth  year  to  almost  the  last  day  of  his  life, 
selected  and  edited,  with  notes  and  mtroductions,^  by  Mr.  Sidney  Colvui,  his  most 
intimate  friend.  The  letters  are  very  various  in  subject  and  character,  being 
addressed  pardy  to  his  family  and  private  friends,  and  partly  to  such  well  known 
living  or  lately  deceased  men  of  letters  as  Mr.  Hamerton,  Mr.  J.  A.  Symonds, 
Mr.  Henry  James,  Mr.  Tames  Payn,  Dr.  Conan  Doyle,  Mr.  J.  M.  Barrie,  Mr. 
Eldmund  G<»se,  Mr.  F.  Locker-Lampson,  Mr.  Cosmo  Monkhouse,  Mr.  Andrew 
Lang,  Mr.  W.  E.  Henley^  and  the  Editor  himself.  They  present  a  ^vid  and 
brilliant  autobiographical  picture  of  the  mind  and  character  of  the  distingui^ed 
author.  It  was  originally  intended  that  a  separate  volume  containing  a  full 
narrative  and  criticu  Life  by  the  Editor  should  apprar  simuluneously  with  tfa« 
letters,  and  form  part  of  the  work :  but  the  publication  of  this  has  for  various 
reasons  been  postponed. 

MILLAIS,  President  of  the  Royal  Academy.  By  his  Son,  J.  G. 
MiLLAis.  With  nearly  300  Illustrations,  of  which  9  are  in  photo- 
gravure.    Two  volumes.     Royal  ^vo,     321.  nel. 

An  edition  limited  to  350  copies  will  also  be  printed.  This  will 
contain  22  of  Millais*  great  paintings  reproduced  in  photogravure, 
with  a  case  containing  an  extra  set  of  these  Photogravures  pulled  on 
India  paper.     The  price  of  this  edition  will  be  £^t  41.  net. 

In  these  two  magnificent  volumes  is  contained  the  authoritative  biography  of  the 
most  distinguished  and  popular  painter  of  the  last  half  of  the  century.  They 
contain  the  story  of  his  extraordinary  boyhood,  of  his  early  struggles  and 
triumphs,  of  the  founding  of  the  Pre-Raphaelite  Brotherhood,  now  first  given  to 
the  world  in  authentic  deuil,  of  the  iMiintin^  of  most  of  his  famous  pictures,  of  hu 
friendshii»  with  many  of  the  most  oistinguished  men  of  the  dav  in  art,  letters, 
and  politics,  of  his  nome  life,  and  of  his  sporting  tastes.     There  are  a  large 

4        Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements 

onmber  of  Uttan  to  his  wife  describing  the  circomstances  under  iH^kh  hit 
pictores  were  peinted,  letters  from  Her  Majesty  the  Qneen,  Lord  BrarnnificiM. 
Mr.  Gladstone,  Mr.  Wata,  Sir  William  Harcoort,  Lotd  Rosebery,  Lord 
Let^too,  etc,  etc  Amooff  them  are  several  illustrated  letters  from  T  andicr r. 
Leech,  Do  Manner,  and  Mike  HalUday.  The  last  letter  that  Lofd  Beaoooa* 
field  wrote  before  ms  death  is  reproduced  in  fac>simile.  Mr.  Val  Prinsep  con* 
tributes  his  reminiscences  of  Millais  in  a  long  and  most  interesting  chapter. 
Not  the  least  attractive  and  remarkable  feature  of  this  book  will  be  the  magnifioenoe 
of  its  illustrations.  No  more  complete  represenution  of  the  art  of  any  painter  has 
ever  been  produced  on  the  same  scale.  The  owners  of  Sir  jfohn  Millais* 
most  famous  pictures  and  their  copjrrights  have^  generously  given  their  consent 
to  their  reproduction  in  his  biography,  and,  in  addition  to  those  pictures  with  which 
the  public  is  familiar,  over  two  hundred^  pictures  and  sketches  which  have  never 
been  reproduced  before,  and  which,  in  all  probability,  will  never  be  teen 
again  by  the  general  public,  will  appear  in  these  pages.  The  early  chapters 
contain  sketches  made  by  Millais  at  the  age  of  seven.  There  follow  some 
exquisite  drawings  made  by  him  during  hu  Pre-Raphaelite  period,  a  large 
number  of  sketches  and  studies  made^  for  his  great  pictures,  water  colour 
sketches,  pen-and«ink  sketches^  and  drawings,  humorous  and  serious.  Tliere  are 
ten  portraia  of  Millais  himself,  including  two  by  Mr.  Watu  and  Sir  Edward 
Bume  Jones.  There  is  a  portrait  o^  Dickens,  taken  after  death,  and  a  sketch  of 
D.  G.  Kossetti  Thus  the  book  will  be  not  only  a  biography  of  high  interest  and 
an  important  contribution  to  the  history  of  English  art,  out  in  the  best  sense  of 
the  word,  a  beautiful  jMCture  book. 

THE  EXPANSION  OF  EGYPT.  A  Political  and  Historical 
Survey.  By  A.  Silva  White.  With  four  Special  Maps.  Demy 
8cv.     15X.  fu/. 

This  is  an  account  of  the  political  situation  in  Egypt,  and  an  elaborate  description  of 
the  An^lo-Egvptian  Admin  utratioo.  1 1  is  a  comprehensive  treatment  of  the  whole 
Egyptian  prooiem  by  one  who  has  studied  every  detail  on  the  spot. 

THE  VICAR  OF  MORWENSTOW.  A  Biography.  By 
S.  Baring  Gould,  M.  A.  A  new  and  revised  Edition.  With  Portrait. 
Crown  %oo,     Jr.  6^ 

This  is  a  completely  new  edition  of  the  well  known  biography  of  R.  S.  Hawker. 

ROME.  By  T.  M.  Taylor,  M.A,  Fellow  of  Gonville  and  Gains 
College,  Cambridge,  Senior  Chancellor's  Medallist  for  Classics, 
Porson  University  Scholar,  etc.,  etc     Crown  %vo,    7;.  td. 

An  account  of  the  origin  and  growth  of  the  Roman  Institutions,  and  a  disccnsioo  of 
the  various  politiciJ  movements  in  Rome  from  the  earliest  times  to  the  death  of 


Hackett,  M.A.  With  Maps  and  Illustrations.  Dtmy  8fv.  lax. 
6df.  if#/. 

A  work  which  brings  together  all  that  is  known  on  the  subject  from  the  introduction 
of  Christianity  to  the  commencement  of  the  British  occupation.  A  separate 
division  deals  with  the  local  Latin  Church  during  die  penod  of  the  W&eni 

BISHOP  LATIMER.  By  A.  J.  Carlyle,  M.A.  Crown  Bvo 
3^.  6d,  [Leaders  of  ReHgimt  Series, 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements        5 


christian  mysticism.    The  Bampton  Lectures  for  1899. 

By  W.  R.  Inge,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Hertford  College, 

Oxford.     Demy  fivo.     12s.  6d.  net. 

A  complete  survey  of  the  subject  from  St.  John  and  St.  PanI  to  modern  times,  coTtr- 
ing  the  Christian  Platonists,  Augustine,  the  Devotional  Mystics,  the  Medisval 
Mystics,  and  the  Nature  Mystics  and  Symbolists,  including  Bflhme  and  Words- 

By  W.  H.  Bbnnbtt,  M. A.,  and  W.  F.  Adeney,  M.A.     Crown  8w. 

This  volume  furnishes  students  with  the  latest  results  in  biblical  critidsm,  arranged 
methodically.    Each  book  is  treated  separately  as  to  date,  authorship,  etc 

ST.  PAUL,  THE  MASTER-BUILDER.    By  Walter  Lock, 

D.D.,  Warden  of  Keble  College.     Crown  Svo.     xs.  6d. 
An  attempt  to  popularise  the  recent  additions  to  our  knowledge  of  St.  Paul  as  a 
missionary,  a  statesman  and  an  ethical  teacher. 


Edited  with  Introductions  and  Notes  by  T.  Herbert  Bindlby, 

B.D.,  Merton  College,  Oxford,  Principal  of  Codrington  College  and 

Canon  of  Barbados,  and  sometime  Examining  Chaplain  to  the  Lord 

Bishop.     Crown  Svo,    &s, 



^be  Cbutcbman'0  JSible 

General  Editor,  J.  H.  Burn,  B.D.,  Examining  Chaplain  to  the  Bishop 

of  Aberdeen. 

Messrs.  Methuen  propose  to  issue  a  series  of  expositions  upon  most 
of  the  books  of  the  Bible.  The  volumes  will  be  practical  and  devotional 
rather  than  critical  in  their  purpose,  and  the  text  of  the  authorised  version 
will  be  explained  in  sections  or  paragraphs,  which  will  correspond  as  fir 
as  possible  with  the  divisions  of  the  Church  Lectionary. 

Explained  by  A.  W.  Robinson,  B.D.,  Vicar  of  All  Hallows,  Bark- 
ing.   Fcap,  Svo.     IS.  6d,  net.    Leather ^  2s.  6d.  net. 

ECCLESIASTES.  Explained  by  W. .  A.  Streane,  M.A. 
Fcp.  8tv.     IS.  6d.  net.    Leather,  2s.  6d.  net. 

TCbe  Cbutcbman'0  Xfbran? 

Edited  by  J.  H.  Burn,  B.D. 

THE  ENGLISH  PRAYER  BOOK  :  Its  Literary  Workmanship. 

By  J.  DowDEN,  D.  D. ,  Lord  Bishop  of  Edinburgh.  Crown  8tv.  y.wL 

This   volume,  avoiding  questions  of  controversy,  exhibits  the  liturgical  aims  and 
literary  methods  of  the  authors  of  the  Ihrayer  JBook. 

6         Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements 

Zbc  Xfbtatis  of  Devotion 

PoU  SzHf.     Cloth  2s, ;  leather  2s,  6d.  net 

By  William  Law.  Edited,  with  an  Introduction  by  C.  Bigg,  D.D., 
late  Student  of  Christ  Church. 

This  is  a  reprint,  word  for  word  and  line  for  line,  of  the  Editio  Princess, 

THE  temple.  By  George  Herbert.  Edited,  with  an 
Introduction  and  Notes,  by  E.  C.  S.  Gibson,  D.D.,  Vicar  of  Leeds. 

This  edition  contains  Walton's  Life  of  Herbert,  and  the  text  is  that  of  the  first 


Fellow  of  St  John*s  College,  Cambridge.     Illustrated.     Crown  Stw. 

An  elementary  treatise  on  geomorpholoj^— the  study  of  the  earth's  oatwud  forms. 
It  is  for  the  nse  of  students  of  physioil  geography  and  geology,  and  will  also  be 
highly  interesting  to  the  general  reiader. 

A  HANDBOOK  OF  NURSING.  By  M.  N.  Oxford,  of 
Guy*s  Hospital.     Crown  Svo.     y,  6d. 

This  is  a  complete  guide  to  the  science  and  art  of  nursing,  containing  cofnous 
instruction  both  general  and  particular. 


with  an  Introduction  and  Notes  by  John  Burnet,  M.  A.,  Professor 
of  Greek  at  St.  Andrews.    Demyivo,     15/.  net. 

This  edition  contains  parallel  passages  from  the  Eudemian  Ethics,  printed  under  the 
text,  and  there  is  a  full  commentary,  the  main  object  of  which  is  to  interpret 
difficulties  in  the  light  of  Aristotle's  own  rules. 

THE  CAPTIVI  OF  PLAUTUS.  Edited,  with  an  Introduction, 
Textual  Notes,  and  a  Commentary,  by  W.  M.  Lindsay,  Fellow  of 
Jesus  College,  Oxford.     Demy  %vo,     los.  6d,  net. 

For  thu  edition  all  the  important  mss.  have  been  re-collated.  An  appendix  deals 
with  the  accentual  element  in  early  Latin  verse.    The  Commentary  is  very  fulL 

ZACHARIAH  OF  MITYLENE.  Translated  into  English  by 
F.  J.  Hamilton,  D.D.,  and  E.  W.  Brooks.  Demy  Zvo,  12s.  6d, 
net,  [Bytantine  Texts. 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements 


XLbc  Xfbtans  of  Spott 


Mitchell.    Illustrated  by  G.  £.  Lodge  and  others.    Demy  8cv. 
loj.  6d, 
A  complete  descrii>tion  of  the  Hawks,  Falcons,  and  Eagles  used  in  ancient  and 
modem  times,  with  directions  for  their  trainine  and  treatment.    It  is  not  only  a 
historical  account,  but  a  complete  practical  guioe. 

THOUGHTS  ON  HUNTING.  By  Peter  Beckford.  Edited 
by  J.  Otho  Paget,  and  Illustrated  by  G.  H.  Jalland.  Demy  8tv. 

This  edition  of  one  of  the  most  famous  classics  of  sport  contains  an  introduction  and 
many  footnotes  by  Mr.  Paget,  and  is  thus  brought  up  to  the  standard  of  modem 

General  Literature 

THE  BOOK  OF  THE  WEST.    By  S.  Baring  Gould.  With 

numerous  Illustrations.     Tkva  volumes.    Vol.  I.   Devon.    VoL  II. 

Cornwall.     Crown  Svo,    6s.  each, 

A  description  of  the  counties  of  Devon  and  Cornwall,  in  which  the  scenery,  foQc-loce. 
history,  and  antiquities  of  the  two  counties  are  treated  with  full  knowledge  ana 
high  interest. 

A  HuLMB  Bbaman.    Fcap,  Stfo.    2s. 

A  practical  guide,  with  many  specimen  games,  to  the  new  game  of  Bridge. 

Zbc  Xittle  (3uiDe0 

Pott  Svo,  clot  A  3J.  ;  leather ^  jx.  6d,  net, 

SHAKESPEARE'S  COUNTRY.    By  B.  C.  Windle,  F.R.S., 
M.A.    Illustrated  by  £.  H.  New. 
Uniform  with  Mr.  Wells' '  Oxford '  and  Mr.  Thomson's  '  Cambridge.' 

Methuen's  Standard  Library 

By  Edward  Gibbon.    Edited  by  J.  B.  Bury,  LL.D.,  FeUow  of 
Trinity  College,  Dublin.    In  Seven  Volumes.    Demy  8w,  gilt  top. 
%5,  6d,  each.     Crown  8tv.    dr.  each.     Vol.  VII. 
The  concluding  Volume  of  this  Edition. 

THE  DIARY  OF  THOMAS  ELLWOOD.    Edited  by  G.  C. 

Crump,  M.A      Crown  2eoo.    6s. 

This  edition  is  the  onljr  one  which  contains  the  complete  book  as  originally  pub- 
lished.   It  contains  a  long  introduction  and  many  footnotes. 

8        Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements 

LA    COMMEDIA    DI    DANTE   ALIGHIERI.      Edited   by 
Paget  Toynbbe,  M.A.     Crown  8cv.    6s, 

This  edition  of  the  Italian  text  of  the  Divine  Comedy,  founded  on  Witte'sTminor 
edition,  carefully  revised,  is  issued  in  commemoration  of  the  sixth  centnry  of 
Dante's  jonmey  through  the  three  kingdoms  of  the  other  world. 

Illustrated  and  Gift  Books 

THE   LIVELY  CITY  OF  LIGG.     By  Gellett  Burgess. 

With  many  Illustrations  by  the  Author.     Small  4I0,    31.  6d. 
THE  PHIL  MAY  ALBUM.    4^^.    7s.  6d.  net. 

This  highly  interesting  volume  contains  zoo  drawings  by  Mr.  Phil  May,  and  as 
representative  of  his  earliest  and  finest  work. 

ULYSSES  ;  OR,  DE  ROUGEMONT  OF  TROY.     Described 
and  dq>icted  by  A.  H.  Milne.    Small  quarto.    31.  (td. 

The  adventures  of  Ulysses,  told  in  humorous  verse  and  pictures. 

THE  CROCK  OF  GOLD.    Fairy  Stories  told  by  S.  Baring 
GouLDy  and  Illustrated  by  F.  D.  Bedford.     Crown  8tv.    6x. 

TOMMY    SMITH'S    ANIMALS.       By   Edmund    Selous, 
Illustrated  by  G.  W.  Ord.    Fcp.  Svo.    2s.  6d, 

A  little  hook  designed  to  teach  children  respect  and  reverence  for  animals. 

A   BIRTHDAY    BOOK.    With  a  Photogravure  Frontispiece. 
Demy  %oo,     lOr.  (id. 

This  is  a  birthday-book  of  exceptional  dignityi  and  the  extracts  have  been  cfaoecn 

with  particular  care. 
The  three  passages  for  each  day  bear  a  certain  relation  to  each  otherf  and  form  a 

repertory  of  sententious  wisdom  from  the  best  authors  living  or  dead. 


PRACTICAL  PHYSICS.  By  H.  Stroud,  D.Sc,  M.A.,  Pro- 
fessor  of  Physics  in  the  Durham  College  of  Science,  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne.     Fully  illustrated.     Crown  ^vo.    31.  td. 

[Handbooks  of  Technology, 

D.  Sc,  and  V.  A.  Mundblla.  With  many  Illustrations.  Crown  800. 
3J.  6d.  [MtthuenU  Science  Primers, 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements        9 

THE  METRIC  SYSTEM.    By  Leon  Delbos.   CrownZvo,  2s. 

A  theoretical  and  practical  guide,  for  use  in  elementary  schook  and  by  the  general 

B.A.,  Assistant  Master  at  Worcester  School,  Cape  Colony.  Crown 
Svo.     31.  6d, 

This  book  has  been  specially  written  for  use  in  South  African  schools. 

C.  G.  BOTTING,  M.  A     Crown  Svo.    3s.  not, 

NEW  TESTAMENT  GREEK.  A  Course  for  Beginners.  By 
G.  RoDWELL,  B.A.  With  a  Prefece  by  Walter  Lock,  D.D., 
Warden  of  Keble  College.     Fcap,  %vo,     y.  6d, 


LTait  Wardlaw,   B.A.,   King's  College,  Cambridge.     Crown 
0,     2s.  6d.  [School  Exa9nination  Series, 

A  GREEK  ANTHOLOGY.  Selected  by  E.  C.  Marchant, 
M.A,  Fellow  of  Peterhouse,  Cambridge,  and  Assistant  Master  at 
St.  Paul's  School.     Crown  8zv.     31.  6d, 

CICERO  DE  OFFICIIS.  Translated  by  G.  B.  Gardiner, 
M.A     Crown  Svo,    2s,  6d,  [Ckusical  Translations, 

Zbc  tiovclB  Of  Cbatles  S)icfiend 

Crown  8tv.    £ach  Volume,  cloth  y,  net,  leather  4s.  net, 

Messrs.  Methuen  have  in  preparation  an  edition  of  those  novels  of  Charles 
Dickens  which  have  now  passed  out  of  copyright.  Mr.  George  Gissing, 
whose  critical  study  of  Dickens  is  both  sympathetic  and  acute,  has  written 
an  Introduction  to  each  of  the  books,  and  a  very  attractive  feature  of  this 
edition  will  be  the  illustrations  of  the  old  houses,  inns,  and  buildings,  which 
Dickens  described,  and  which  have  now  in  many  instances  disappeared 
under  the  touch  of  modern  civilisation.  Another  valuable  feature  will  be 
a  series  of  topc^^raphical  and  general  notes  to  each  book  by  Mr.  F.  G.  Kitten. 
The  books  will  be  produced  with  the  greatest  care  as  to  printing,  paper 
and  binding. 

The  first  volumes  will  be  : 

THE  PICKWICK  PAPERS.  With  Illustrations  by  E.  H.  New. 
Tkoo  Volunus, 

NICHOLAS  NICKLEBY.  With  Illustrations  by  R.  J,  Williams. 
Tivo  Volumes, 

BLEAK  HOUSE.  With  Illustrations  by  Beatrice  Alcock.  Two 

OLIVER  TWIST.     With  Illustrations  by  E.  H.  New.     Two  Volumes, 

■  -  ■  -  -^ 

lo       Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements 

tTbe  Xittle  Xibtan^ 

Pott  Svo,     E<uh  Volume^  cloth  is,  6d,  net,  ;  leather  2s,  6d,  net, 

Messrs.  Methuen  intend  to  produce  a  series  of  small  books  under  the 
above  title,  containing  some  of  the  famous  books  in  English  and  other 
literatures,  in  the  domains  of  fiction,  poetry,  and  belles  lettres.  The  series 
will  also  contain  several  volumes  of  selections  in  prose  and  verse. 

The  books  will  be  edited  with  the  most  sympathetic  and  scholarly  care. 
E4u:h  one  will  contain  an  Introduction  which  will  give  ( i )  a  short  biography 
of  the  author,  (2)  a  critical  estimate  of  the  book.  Where  they  are  neces- 
sary, short  notes  will  be  added  at  the  foot  of  the  page. 

The  Little  Library  will  ultimately  contain  complete  sets  of  the  novels 
of  W.  M.  Thackeray,  Jane  Austen,  the  sisters  Bronte,  Mrs.  Gaskell  and 
others.  It  will  also  contain  the  best  work  of  many  other  novelists  whose 
names  are  household  words. 

Each  book  will  have  a  portrait  or  frontispiece  in  photogravure,  and  the 
volumes  will  be  produced  with  great  care  m  a  style  uniform  with  that  of 
*  The  Library  of  Devotion.* 

The  first  volumes  will  be : 


PRIDE  AND  PREJUDICE.     By  Jane  Austen.     With  an 
Introduction  and  Notes  by  E.  V.  Lucas.     Two  Volumes, 

VANITY  FAIR.    By  W.  M.  Thackeray.    With  an  Introduction 
by  S.  GwYNN.     l^hree  Volumes, 

PENDENNIS.    By  W.  M.  Thackeray.    With  an  Introduction 
by  S.  GwYNN.     Three  volumes, 

EOTHEN.    By  A.  W,  Kinglake.     With  an  Introduction  and 

CRANFORD.      By  Mrs.  Gaskell.    With  an  Introduction  and 
Notes  by  E.  V.  Lucas. 

THE  INFERNO  OF  DANTE.     Translated  by  H.  F.  Cary. 

With  an  Introduction  and  Notes  by  Paget  Toynbeb. 

JOHN  HALIFAX,  GENTLEMAN.    By  Mrs.  Craik.    With 
an  Introduction  by  Annie  Matheson.     Two  volumes, 


Edited  by  J.  C.  Collins,  M.  A. 

THE  PRINCESS.    By  Alfred,  Lord  Tennyson.    Edited  by 
Elizabeth  Wordsworth. 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Announcements       ii 

MAUD,  AND  OTHER  POEMS.    By  Alfred,  Lord  Tenny- 
son.   Edited  by  Elizabeth  Wordsworth. 

IN  MEMORIAM.    By  ALFRED,  LORD  TENNYSON.    Edited  by 
H.  C.  Beeching,  M.A. 

A  LITTLE  BOOK  OF  SCOTTISH  LYRICS.    Arranged  and 
Edited  by  T.  F.  Henderson. 


THE  KING'S  MIRROR.    By  Anthony  Hope.  Crown  Svo,  6j. 

THE  CROWN  OF  LIFE.      By  George  Gissing,  Author  of 
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Crane,  Author  of '  The  Red  Badge  of  Courage.  *    Crown  Stv.    6f. 

THE  STRONG  ARM.    By  Robert  Barr.    Crown  Zvo.   dr. 

TO  LONDON  TOWN.    By  Arthur  Morrison,  Author  of 

'  Tales  of  Mean  Streets,' '  A  Child  of  the  Jago,*  etc    Crown  %do,    dr. 

ONE   HOUR  AND  THE    NEXT.      By  The  DUCHESS  OF 
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In  Crown  Svo,  Clofk,  6s.    Lea/Aor,  6s.  net. 


ARDATH  :    THE   STORY   OF   A 





XTbe  Vloi>eli0t 

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follows : — 

I.  DEAD  MEN  TELL  NO  TALES.        E.  W.  Hornung. 




Ernest  Glanville. 


W.  Pett  Ridge. 


S.  Baring  Gould. 






Mrs.  Meade. 



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palpitate  with  emotion.  We  read  them 
wita  laughto*  and  tears ;  the  metres  throb 
in  our  ^  pulses^  the  cunninjgly  ordered 
words  tingle  with  life ;  and  if  this  be  not 
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'  The  Empire  has  found  a  singer ;  it  is  no 
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William  Wilson. 
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same  set  with  "  Agamemnoo,"  with 
"  Lear,"  with  the  literature  that  we  now 
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&  L.  Btertuon.  VAILIMA  LET- 
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*  A  i^t  almost  pricelets.'— kSy^^ulrr. 
'Unique  in  Literature.' — DaUy  CkromcU, 

awyndluun.  THE  POEMS  OF  WIL- 
with  an  Introduction  and  Notes  by 
George  Wyndham,  M.P.  Demy 
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This  edition  contains  the '  Venus/ '  Lucrece/ 
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'One  of  the  most  serious  contributions  to 
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W published  for  some  time.' — Times, 
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masterly  piece  of  criticism,  and  all  who 
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*  Mr.  Wyndham's  notes  are  admiraole,  even 

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Walton.  THE  LIVES  OF  DONNE. 
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ENGLISH  POETS.  By  Samuel 
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BU  RNS.  Edited  by  Andrew  Lang 
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Second  Edition.    Demy  8tw,  gilt  top. 

This  edition  contains  a  carefnlly  collated 

Text,  numerons  Notes,  critical  and  text- 
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tioo,  and  a  Glossary. 
'Among  editions  in  one  volume,  this  will 
take  the  place  of  anthority.'— rtiM«f. 

F.  Langtnridge.  BALLADS  OF  THE 
BRAVE ;  Poems  of  Chivahy,  Enter- 
prise. Courage,  and  Constancy. 
Edited  bv  Rev.  F.  Langbridge. 
Second  Edition.  Cr.  8tw.  3;.  6d. 
School  Edition.     2s.  6d. 

*A  very  happy  conception  happily  carried 
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are  intended  to  soit  the  real  tastes  of 
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majority.'  'Spectator. 

'The  book  is  foil  of  splendid  things.'— 

Illustrated  Books 

John    BoimuL     THE    PILGRIM'S 

PROGRESS.      By  John  Bunyan. 

Edited,  with  an  Introduction,  by  C.  H. 

Firth.  M.A.    With  39  Illustrations 

by  R.  Anning  Bell.   Crown  Svo.  6s. 

This  book  cont^ns  a  long  Introduction  by 

Mr.  Firth,  whose  knowledge  of  the  period 

is  unrivalled;  and  it  is  laviuly  illustrated. 

•  The  best  "  Pilgrim's  Progress."'— 

Educational  Times. 

F.D.  Bedford.  NURSERY  RHYMES. 
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&  Barisff  Ckrald.  A  BOOK  OF 
FAIRY  TALES  retold  by  S.  Baring 
Gould.  With  numerous  Illustra- 
tions and  Initial  Letters  by  Arthur 
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&  Barlnff  Ckrald.  OLD  ENGLISH 
FAIRY  TALES.  Collected  and 
edited  by  S.  Baring  Gould.  With 
Numerous  Illustrations  by  F.  D. 
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8.  Barlnff  Ctould.  A  BOOK  OF 
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Goin.D.  aDd  Illustrated  by  the  Bir- 
mingham Art  School  Buckram,  gilt 
top.     Crown  Svo.    6s. 

H.  0.  Baeohiiiff.  A  BOOK  OF 
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trated by  Walter  Cranb.  Cr.  Svo, 
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An  anthology  which,  from  its  unity  of  aim 
and  high  poetic  excellence,  has  a  better 
right  to  exist  than  most  of  its  fellows.'— 

By  Edward  Gibbon.  A  New  Edi- 
tion, Edited  with  Notes,  Appendices. 


and  Maps,  by  T.  B.  BuRY,  LL.D., 
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Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 

tae».   Vtti.  /.,  //.,  ///..  IV..  v.,  and 

...  .  "lE^hoS 
It  iuoad  in  a  hiindT  forp,  uid  tx  a 
BudrAtB   sncVi  u»   it  is  AdmlrmblT 

'  Tia  Hukdanl  aditigD  of  osr  Real  faiiuncal 

cditioQ  ibe 

rioMvtBtli  calwT   coui 

fifc     A  HISTORY  OF 

BGVPT.Fkau  THE  EarliestTwrs 

TO  THE  Pmssnt  Dav.     EcUlcd  by 

W.  M.  Flinders  Pktiiik,  D.C.L.. 

LL,D.,  Profeuor  of  ^ypiology  at 

Uoiverail)' College.  Fully  lUustraltd. 

Itt  Six  Valtimti.     Cr.  Bw.     61.  tack. 

Vau  I.  PkKHiSTORic  Times  to 

XVIth  Dynasty.    W.  M.   F. 

Pelrit    Fourth  Editim. 

Vol.    II.    Thk    XVIIth    and 

XVlllTH  Dynasties.     W.  M. 

F.  Petrie.     Third  EdiHm. 

Vou   IV.  Tki    Egypt    of   the 

ProLEkiits.    J.  P.  Mahaffy. 
Vou  V.   Rouan  Egypt.    J,  G. 

, iaihcH 

^d  by  Dr. 

inpplT  ■  Tuut  place  io  the  Eoiliih 
lilentur.  of  EsTPtoloBT.'-  Tim,,. 
PtbUUn  Petrla.  REUGION  AND 
EGYPT.  By  W.  M,  Flindbks 
pETHiE.D.C.L.LL.D.  Fully  Illiu- 
traWd.  Crown  Bwi.  at.  6d. 
'  TIh  lectuiei  will  afford  1  (uziil  of  valuable 


-tfamtJuUtr  GmmiiMm. 

nlmlan  Petrla.  SYRIA  AND 
Flinders  Pethie,  D.C.L,,  LL.D. 
CroKH  Bm.     as.  6d 

Uadon  Patrla.  EGYPTIAN  TALB5. 

EftiKd  by  W.  M.  Flinders  PrniK. 
Illuitrsled  by  TkisteAH  Ellis,     /a 
Tav  VoIkwui.    Cr.  Stv.    31.  6dC.  tach. 
MniraluitbU  h  apictHrv  of  life  ia  PeiodiH 
ud  Ecn^'— .C<u!r  Ntmt. 
nlnd«n  PatriA  EGYPTIAN  DECO- 
RATIVE ART.      By  W.  M.  Fun- 
dersPetRie.  WilhiaoIllaitnUaiu. 
Cr  Siw.     3r.  (.d. 
•  la  lh<H  Itctnra  b*  iajAtjt  mn  ikiU  is 
elucidaiiDEthc  dcvriopmeDl  of  dacova- 
tin  lit  in  EfTpt-'— Tiiwi. 

a  V.  Oiun.  A  HISTORY  OF  THE 
ART  OF  WAR.  VoL  II. :  The 
Middle  Ages,  from  the  Fourth  to 

Oxford,  llluslraled.  DtmySvo.  au. 
^  The  book  ii  bued  tbiob|hout  upon  ■ 
tborougb  itody  of  the  onstml  vnrcce, 
■ud  will  be  u  indupnutblc  aid  10  all 
Mndnli  of  medisval  hiBary.'— ilMf. 

'  Tbe  whole  art  of  war  in  iu  hiaonc  cmlu- 
lioQ  bu  oever  been  Deued  on  ancli  aa 
ample  and  compnbcoHte  Kale,  aad  wa 
queition  if  ajiy  receot  contribatioo  to 
the  exact  bjttorr  of  tbe  world  bat  PA. 
teited  more  eodurinc  value.' — Dmitw 

a  Bulns  Oonld.  THE  TRAGEDY 
OF  THE  C^SARSl  With  nume- 
roiu  lUusInilioni  from  Busts.  Gemt, 
Cameos.elc.  ByS.  BAaiNcGotnJX 
Fovrlh  EdiHoit.     Royal  Svo.     151. 

of  DndYinE  iDteiaet.    Tbt  (i 

)ai/r  Chrt^ 

7.  T.  Ukltlud.  CANON  LAW  IN 
ENGLAND.  By  F.  W.  Maitland, 
LL.D..  Downing  Profesiar  of  the 
Laws  or  England  in  the  University 
of  Cambridge.  Sojat  Svo.  js.  Gd. 
'  Prafeuor  Maiilud  bat  put  Uodenti  of 

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H.  da  B.  OlbUziB.  INDUSTRY  IN 
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Litt.D.,  M.A.  With  5  Maps.  *S^- 
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H.  B.  Egerton.  A  HISTORY  OF 
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Alb«rt  SoreL  THE  EASTERN 
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0.  H.  Orinllxifir.  A  HISTORY  OF 
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'  A  book  of  which  Old  Salopians  are  sure 
to  be  proud.' — Glol>e. 

J.  Bargwrant  ANNALS  OF  WEST- 
GEAUNT,  M.A.,  Assistant  Master. 
With  numerous  Illustrations.  Demy 
Bvo.    js.  6d. 

OXFORD :  Their  History  and  their 
Traditions.  By  Members  of  the 
University.  Edited  by  A  Clark, 
M.A,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Lincoln 
College.    Bvo.     12s.  6d. 

'A  work  which  will  be  appealed  to  for 
many  years  as  the  standard  book.' — 

ROME.  By  J.  Wells,  M.A, 
Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Wadham  Coll. , 
Oxford .  Second  and  Revised  Edition. 
With  3  Maps.     Crown  Bvo.    y.  6d, 

This  book  is  intended  for  the  Middle  and 
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Pass  Students  at  the  Universities.  It 
contains  copious  Tables,  etc. 

'An  original  work  written  on  an  original 
plan,  and  with  uncommon  freshness  and 
vigour.  * — speaker. 

0.  Browning.  A  SHORT  HISTORY 
12^0-1530.  By  Oscar  Browning, 
Fellow  and  Tutor  of  King's  College, 
Cambridge.  In  Two  Volumes.  Cr. 
Bvo.  $s.  each. 
Vol.  l  1250- 1409. —Guelphs  and 

Vol.  n.  1409-1530.— The  Age  of 
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LAND.  By  Standish  O'Grady, 
Author  of '  Fmn  and  his  Companions. 
Crown  Bvo.    2s.  6d, 

Byzantine  Texts 

Edited  by  J.  B.  Bury,  M.A. 

EVAGRIUS.  Edited  by  Professor  ,  THE  HISTORY 
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BiDEZ  of  Gand.    Demy  Bvo.    10s.  6d.  i       net. 

Demy  Bvo.      15J. 



Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 


8.  Barisff  Ckmld.    THE   LIFE  OF 
S.  Baring  Gould.    With  over  450 
Illustrations   in    the    Text    and    12 
Photogravure  Plates.     Large  quarto. 
Gilt  top.    ^. 
'The  best  biography  of  Napoleon  in  our 
tongue,  nor  have  the  French  as  good  a 
biographer  of  their  hero.    A  book  very 
nearly  as  good  as  Southey's  "  Life  of 
Nelson." ' — Manchester  Guardian. 
'The  main  feature  of  this  gorgeous  volume 
is  its  great  wealth  of  beautiful  photo* 
gravures     and    finely  •  executed    wood 
engravings,    constituting     a    complete 
pictorial   dironide    of    Napoleon    I.'s 
personal^  history  from  the  oays  of  his 
early^  childhood  at  Ajaocio  to  the  date 
of  his  second  interment.' — Daily  Tele- 

P.  H.  Oolomb.  MEMOIRS  OF  AD- 
By  Admiral  P.  H.  Colomb.  With 
a  Portrait.     Demy  Zvo.     i6j. 

'An  interesting  and  adequate  biography. 
The  whole  book  is  one  of  the  greatest 
interest.' —  Times. 

Morris  FaUer.  THE  LIFE  AND 
ANT,  D.D.  (1571-1641),  Bishop  of 
Salisbuiy.  By  Morris  Fuller, 
B.  D.     Demy  Bvo.     10s.  6d. 

J.  M.  RlCTT.  ST.  ANSELM  OF 
CANTERBURY:  A  Chapter  in 
THE  History  of  Religion.  By 
J.  M.  RiGG.     Demy  Bvo.     7s.  6d, 

P.  W.  Joyce.  THE  LIFE  OF 
LEY.   By  F.  W.  Joyce,  M.  A  7s.  6d. 

*  This  book  has  been  undertaken  in  quite 

the  right  >i»rit,  and  written  with  tym* 
pathy,  insight,  and  considerable  literary 
^^\:— Times. 

W.  a.  OolUngwood.  THE  LIFE  OF 
JOHN  RUSKIN.  By  W.  G. 
COLLINGWOOD,  M.A  With  Por- 
traits, and  13  Drawings  by  Mr. 
Ruskin.  Second  Edition.  2  vols, 
Bvo.    331. 

*  No  more  magnificent  volumes  have  been 

published  for  a  long  time.'— TYmcc 
'  It  is  long  since  we  had  a  biography  with 
such  delights  of  substance  and  of  form. 
Stich  a  book  is  a  pleasure  for  the  day, 
and  a  joy  for  evtx.* —Daily  ChsvtUcle. 

0.  WalditeiiL  JOHN  RUSKIN.  ^ 
Charles  Waldstein,  M.A  With 
a  Photograrure  Portrait,    Post  Zvo, 

'  A  thoughtful  and  well-written  criticism  of 
Ruskm's  teaching.'— />«£>  CkrmncU. 

JL  V.  r.  Daniieirtettr,  THE  LIFE 
Madame  Darmesteter.  Witn 
Portrait.  Second  Edition.  Cr.  Bvo. 

*  A  polished  gem  of  biography,  superior  in 

Its  kind  to  any  attempt  mat  has  been 
made  of  recent  years  in  England. 
Madame  Dairmesteter  has  indeed  written 
for  English  readers  "  The  Life  of  Ernest 
Renan. " ' — A  thenaum. 

W.  H.  Hutton.  THE  LIFE  OF  SIR 
THOMAS  MORE.  By  W.  H. 
Hutton,  M.A.  With  Portraits. 
Cr.  Bvo.    $s. 

*  The  book  lays  good  daim  to  high  rank 

among  our  biographies.  1 1  is  eKcell^itly 
even  lovingly,  written.'— ^Scff/Srimm. 

Travel,  Adventure  and  Topography 

BvenHedin.  THROUGH  ASIA.  By 
SvEN  Hedin,  Gold  Medallist  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society.  With 
300  Illustrations  from  Sketches 
and    Photographs    by    the    Author, 

and  Maps,  ^vols.  Royal  Bvo.  aos.fut. 

'One  of  the  ^eatest  books  of  the  kind 
issued  during  the  century.  It  is  tm« 
l>o5sible  to  give  an  adequate  idea  <^  the 
richness  of  the  contents  of  thb  bo<dc. 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 


nor  of  its  abounding  attractions  as  a  story 
of  travel  unsurpassed  in  Reographical 
and  human  interest.  Much  of  it  is  a 
revelation.  Altogether  the  work  is  one 
which  in  solidity,  novelty,  and  interest 
must  take  a  first  rank  among  publica- 
tions of  its  class.' — Timts. 
*  In  these^  magnificent  volumes  we  have  the 
most  important  contribution  to  Central 
Asian  gec|^raphy  made  for  many  years. 
Intensely  mteresting  as  a  tale  of  traveL' 
— Spectator. 

F.  H.  Skrlne  and  B.  D.  Boss.    THE 

HEART    OF    ASIA.     By   F.    H. 
Skrine  and   £.  D.   Ross.      With 
Maps    and   many    Illustrations    by 
Verkstchagin.     Large  Crown  8w. 
iQf.  td.  net. 
'  This  volume  will  form  a  landmark  in  our 
knowledge  of  Central  Asia. .  .  .  Illumin- 
ating and  convincing.      For   the   first 
time  we  are  enabled  clearly  to  under- 
stand not  only  how  Russia  has^  estab- 
lished her   rule    in    Central  Asia,  but 
what  that  rule  actually  means  to  the 
Central  Asian  peoples.     This  book  is 
not   only  /elix   oifortunitate^  but   of 
enduring  ^ue. ' —  Times. 

THE  GREAT  ICE.  By  R.E.  Peary, 
Gold  Medallist  of  the  Royal  Geogra- 
phical Society.     With  over  800  Illus- 
trations.   2  vols.   Royal  Sw.  32J.  net. 
'The  book  is  full  of  interesting  matter — a 
tale  of  brave  deeds  simi>ly  told ;  abun- 
dantly illustrated  with  prints  and  maps.' 
'  His  book  will  take  its  place  among  the  per- 
manent literature  of  Arctic  exploration.' 

Q.  B,  Robertson.  CHITRAL:  The 
Story  of  a  Minor  Siege.  By  Sir 
G.  S.  Robertson,  K.C.S.I.    With 

numerousIUustrations,Mapand  Plans. 
Second  Edition.    Demy  Svo.    10s,  6d. 

'  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  the  kind  of  person 
who  could  read  this  brilliant  book  without 
emotion.  The  story  remains  immortal — 
a  testimony  imi>erishabl&  We  are  face 
to  face  with  a  great  hook.' —Illustrated 
London  News. 

'  A  book  which  the  Elizabethans  would  have 
thought  wonderful.  More  thrilling,  more 
piquant,  and  more  human  than  any 
novel.' — Newcastle  Chronicle. 

'One  of  the  most  stirring  military  narra- 
tives written  in  our  time.' — Times. 

'  As  fascinating  as  Sir  Walter  Scott's  best 
fiction.'— />M^  Telegraph. 

'  A  noble  story,  nobly  to\d.— Punch. 

H.    H.    Jolmston.    BRITISH  CEN- 
TRAL   AFRICA.    By  Sir  H.   H. 
Johnston,    K.C.B.      With    nearly 
Two  Hundred  Illustrations,  and  Six 
Maps.     Second  Edition.     Crown  4/0. 
z8j.  net. 
'A  fasdnatins  book,  written  with  equal 
skill  and  charm — the  work  at  once  of  a 
literary  artist  and  of  a  man  of  action 
who  is  singularly  wise,  brave,  and  ex- 
perienced.    It  abounds  in   admiicable 
sketches  from   penciL'  —  Westminster 

L.  Dede.  THREE  YEARS  IN 
SAVAGE  AFRICA.  By  Lionel 
Decle.  With  100  Illustrations  and 
5  Maps.  Second  Edition,  Demy  Svo, 
10s.  6d.  net. 

'  A  fine,  fuU  book.'— /'a//  Mall  Gautte. 

'  Its  bright  paees  nve  a  better  general 
survey  of  Africa  from  the  Cape  to  the 
Equator  than  an^  sinele  volume  that 
has  yet  been  publuhed.  — Times. 

A.  Hulme  Beaman.  TWENTY 
By  A.  Hulme  Beaman.  Demy 
Zvo.    With  Portrait,    ioj.  6d. 

'  One  of  the  most  entertaining  books  that  we 
have  had  in  our  hands  for  a  long  time. 
It  is  unconventional  in  a  high  degree;  it 
is  written  with  sagacious  humour  ;  it  is 
full  of  adventures  and  anecdotes. ' — Daily 

Henri  of  Orleans.  FROM  TONKIN 
TO  INDIA.  By  Prince  Henri  of 
Orleans.  Translated  by  Hamley 
Bent,  M.A.  With  100  Illustrations 
and  a  Map.     Cr.  4/0,  gilt  top:    25s. 

B.  S.  8.  Baden-FowelL  THE  DOWN- 
of  Life  in  Ashanti,  1895.  By  Colonel 
Baden-Powell,  with  21  Illustra- 
tions and  a  Map.  Cheaper  Edition, 
Large  Crown  Svo.    6s. 

B.  8.  8.  Baden-FoweU.  THE  MATA- 
BELE  CAMPAIGN,  1896.  By  CoL 
Baden- Powell.  With  nearly  100 
Illustrations.  Cheaper  Edit  ion.  Large 
Crown  Svo.    6j. 

8.  L  mnde.  THE  FALL  OF  THE 
CONGO  ARABS.  By  S.  L.  Hinde. 
With  Plans,  etc.    Demy  Svo,    lai.  td. 

A.  8t  H.  Gibbons.  EXPLORATION 


Messrs.  Mbthuen's  Catalogue 

AFRICA.  By  Major  A.  St.  H. 
Gibbons.  With  full-page  Illustra- 
tions by  C.  Whympbr,  and  Maps. 
Demy  ^vo.     ly. 

'  His  book  is  a  grand  record  of  quiet,  tin- 
assuming,  tactful  resolution.  His  ad- 
ventures were  as  various  as  his  sporting 
exploits  were  exciting.' — Tiwus. 

B.  H.  Aldenon.  WITH  THE 
FORCE,  1896.  By  Lieut. -Colonel 
Alderson.  With  numerous  Illus- 
trations and  Plans.  Demy  Svo, 
10s.  6d. 

*A  clear,  vigorous,  and  soldier-like  narra- 
tive. '-Scctsman. 

ON  A  WHEEL.  By  John  Foster 
Fraser.  With  100  Illustrations. 
Crown  Bvo.    6s, 

*A  very  entertaining   book    of  travel.' — 

'The  story  is  told  with  delightful  gaiety, 

humour,  and  crispness.  There  hait  rarely 

appeared    a    more   interesting    tale    of 

modem  travel. ' — Scotsman. 
'  A  classic  of  cycling,  graphic  and  witty.'— 

Yorkshirt  Post. 

Seymour  Vandelenr.  CAMPAIGN- 
AND  NIGER.  By  Lieut.  Seymour 
Vandeleur.  With  an  Introduction 
by  Sir  G.  Goldie,  K.C.M.G.  With 
4  Mai>s,  Illustrations,  and  Plans. 
Large  Crown  Zvo.     lou.  dd. 

'Upon  the  African  question  there  is  no 
book  procurable  which  contains  so 
much  of  value  as  this  one.'— Guardian. 

Lord  FincasUe.  A  FRONTIER 
CAMPAIGN.  By  Viscount  Fin- 
castle,  V.C,  and  Lieut.  P.  C. 
Elliott-Lockhart.  With  a  Map 
and  16  Illustrations.  Second  Edition. 
Crown  Svo.     6s. 

'An  admirable  book,  and  a  really  valuable 
treatise  on  frontier  yf»T.'—AtAenaum. 

B.  N.  Bennett  THE  DOWNFALL 
OF  THE  DERVISHES :  A  Sketch 
of  the  Sudan  Campaign  of  1898.     By 

E.  N.  Bennett,  Fellow  of  Hertford 
College.  With  Four  Maps  and  a 
Photogravure  Portrait  of  the  Sirdar. 
TAird  Edition.     Crown  Svo,    y  6d, 

J.  K.  Trotter.  THE  NIGER 
SOURCES.  By  Colonel  J.  K. 
Trotter,  R.A.  With  a  Map  and 
Illustrations.     Crown  Svo.     51. 

Michael  DkyHX.  LIFE  AND  PRO- 
Michael  Davitt,  M.P.  500  pp. 
With  2  Maps.     Crown  Svo.    6s. 

W.     Crooke.      THE      NORTH- 


INDIA:   Their  Ethnology  and 

Administration.    By  W.  Crooke. 

With  Maps  and  Illustrations.    Demy 

Svo.     10s.  6d. 

*  A  carefully  and  well*  written  account  of  one 

of  tbe  most  important  provinces  of  the 

Eo&pire.    Mr.  Crooke  deals  with  the  land 

in  its  physical  aspect,  the  province  under 

Hindoo   and    Mussulman    rule,    under 

British  rule,  its  ethnology  and  sociology, 

its  religious  and  social  life,  the  land  and 

its  settlement,  and  the  native  peasant.' 

— Manchester  Guardian. 

A  Bolsragon.  THE  BENIN  MAS- 
SACRE. By  Captain  Boisragon. 
Second  Edition.     Cr,  Svo.     y.  6d. 

'  If  the  story  had  been  written  four  hundred 
years  ago  it  would  be  read  to-day  as  an 
English  cb^c' — Scotsman. 

H.&Oowper.  THE  HILL  OF  THE 
GRACES:  or,  the  Great  Stone 
Temples  of  Tripoli.  By  H.  S. 
CowpER,  F.S.A.  With  Maps,  Plans, 
and  75  Illustrations.  Demy  Svo.  ios.6d. 

W.  Kinnaird  Rose.  WITH  THE 
W.  Kinnaird  Rose.  Renter's  Cor- 
respondent. With  Plans  and  23 
Illustrations.     Crown  Svo.    6s. 

By  W.  B.  WoRSFOLD.  M.A.  IVitA 
a  Map.  Second  Edition.    Cr.  Svo.   6s. 

'  A  monumental  work  compressed  into  a 
very  moderate  compass.' — WmrUL 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 


Naval  and  Military 

O.  W.  Steevens.  NAVAL  POLICY : 
By  G.  W.  Steevens.  Demy  Svo,  6s. 

This  book  is  a  description  of  the  British  and 
other  more  important  navies  of  the  world, 
with  a  sketch  of  the  lines  on  which  our 
naval  policy  might  possibly  be  developed. 

*  An  extremely  able  and  interesting  work.' 

— Daily  Ckrofucle, 

D.  Hairnay.  A  SHORT  HISTORY 
Early  Times  TO  THE  Present  Day. 
By  David  Hannay.  Illustrated. 
2  Vols.  Demy  Svo,  ys.  6d.  each. 
Vol.  I.,  1200-1688. 

*  We  read  it  from  cover  to  cover  at  a  sitting, 

and  those  who  eo  to  it  for  a  lively  and 
brisk  picture  of  the  past,  with  all  its  faults 
and  its  grandeur,  will  not  be  disappointed. 
The  historian  is  endowed  with  literary 
skill  and  style.' — Standard. 

*  We  can  warmly  recommend  Mr.  Hannay's 

volume  to  any  intelligent  student  of 
naval  history.  Great  as  is  the  merit  of 
Mr.^  Hannay's  historical  narrative,  the 
merit  of  his  strategic  exposition  is  even 
greater. '—  Times. 

C.  Cooper  King.  THE  STORY  OF 
THE  BRITISH  ARMY.  By  Colonel 
Cooper  King.  Illustrated.  Demy 
Svo.    7J.  6d. 

'  An  authoritative  and  accurate  story  of 
England's  military  progress. '—/^otiO' 

R.  Bouthey.  ENGLISH  SEAMEN 
(Howard,  Clifford,  Hawkins,  Drake, 
Cavendish).  By  Robert  Southey. 
Edited,  with  an  Introduction,  by 
DAVit)  Hannay.  Second  Edition. 
Crown  Svo.     6s. 

*A  brave,  inspiriting  hook.'—BlacJk  and 

W.  Clark  BuBselL     THE  LIFE  OF 
WOOD.    By  W.  Clark  Russell. 
With  lUxistrations  by  F.  Brangwyn. 
Third  Edition.     Crown  Svo.    6s, 

'  A  book  which  we  should  like  to  see  in  the 
hands  of  every  boy  in  the  country.' — 
St.  Jamt^s  Gasette. 

'  A  really  good  hook.'SatMrday  Review. 

B.  L.  &  Honbnrgh.  THE  CAM- 
E.  L.  S.  HoRSBURGH.  B.A.  With 
Plans.     Crown  Svo.    y. 

'A  brilliant  essay — simple,^  sound,  and 
thorough.' — Daily  Chronicle. 

H.     B.     George.       BATTLES     OF 
ENGLISH   HISTORY.     By  H.  B. 
George.    M.A.,    Fellow    of    New 
College,   Oxford.      With    numerous 
Plans.    Third  Edition.   Cr.  Svo.  6s. 
'  Mr.  George  has  undertaken  a  very  useful 
task — that  of  making  military  anain  in- 
telligible and  instructive  to  non-military 
readers— and    has  executed  it  with  a 
large  measure  of  success.' — Tifnes. 

General  Literature 

&  Barlnff  Gould.  OLD  COUNTRY 
LIFE.  ByS.  Baring  Gould.  With 
Sixty- seven  Illustrations.  Large  Cr. 
Svo.     Fifth  Edition.     6s. 

'  '*  Old  Country  Life/'  as  healthy  wholesome 
reading,  full  of  breezy  life  and  move- 
ment, full  of  quaint  stories  vigorously 
told,  will  not  ht  excelled  by  any  book  to 
be  published  throughout  the  jrear. 
Sound,  hearty,  and  English  to  the  core.' 

S.  Barlnff  GoiUd.  AN  OLD  ENGLISH 
HOME.      By  S.  Baring  Gould. 
With  numerous  Plans  and  Illustra- 
tions.    Crown  Svo.    6s. 
'  The  chapters  are  delightfully  fresh,  very 
informmg,  and  lightened  by  many  a  good 
story.    A  delightful  fireside  companion.' 
—St.  James  s  Gautte. 

S.   Barinff    Ckrald.      HISTORIC 


Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 

EVENTS.    By  S.  Baring  Gould. 
Fourth  Edition,     Crown  %vo.    6j. 

8.  Barisff  Gkmld.  FREAKS  OF 
FANATICISM.  By  S.  Baring 
Gould.   Third  Edition.  Cr.%vo.  6s. 

8.  Barlnff  Oould.  A  GARLAND  OF 
COUNTRY  SONG  :  English  Folk 
Songs  with  their  Traditional  Melodies. 
Collected  and  arranged  by  S.  Baring 
Gould  and  H.  F.  Shkppard. 
Demy  ^o.     6s. 

8.  Baring  Gould.  SONGS  OF  THE 
WEST:  Traditional  Ballads  and 
Songs  of  the  West  of  England,  with 
their  Melodies.  Collected  by  S. 
Baring  Gould,  M.A,  and  H.  F. 
Sheppard.  M.A  In  4  Parts.  Parts 
/.,  //.,  ///.,  3J.  each.  Part  IV,,  5J. 
Jn  one  Vol.,  French  morocco,  15J. 

'  A  rich  collection  of  hamour,  pathos,  grace, 
and  poetic  fancy.' — Smtnrdajf  Review. 

&  Baring  Oould.  YORKSHIRE 
EVENTS.  By  S  Baring  Gould. 
Fourth  Edition.     Crown  Zvo.     6s. 

8.  Baring  Gould.  STRANGE  SUR- 
By  S.  Baring  Gould.  Cr.  Svo. 
Second  Edition.    6s, 

B.  Baring  Gould.  THE  DESERTS 
S.  Baring  Gould.  3  vots.  Demy 
Bvo.    32J. 

Cotton  Minchin.  OLD  HARROW 
DAYS.  By  J.  G.  Cotton  Minchin. 
Cr,  Svo.    Second  Edition.     $s. 

'This  book  is  an  admirable  record.' — 
Daify  Chronicle. 

W.  E.  Gladstone.  THE  SPEECHES 
OF  THE  RT.  HON.  W.  E.  GLAD- 
STONE, M.P.  Edited  by  A.  W. 
HuTTON,  M.A.,  and  H.J.  Cohen 
M.A  With  Portraits,  Demy  Svo, 
Vols.  IX.  and  X.,  12s.  6d,  each. 

B.  V.  Zenker.  ANARCHISM.  By 
E.  V.  Zenker.     Demy  Svo,    js.  6d. 

*  Herr  Zenker  has  succeeded  in  producing  a 
careful  and  critical  history  ot  the  growth 
of  Anarchist  theory. 

H.  O.  HutcbinMn.  THE  GOLFING 
PILGRIM.  By  Horace  G. 
Hutchinson.    Croum  Svo.    6s, 

'  Full  of  useful  information  with  plenty  of 

Wrood  stories'— Truth. 
ithout  this  book  the  golfer's  library  will 
be  'Micomplttc'—PailMal/Cautte. 
'  It  will  charm  all  golfers.'— r/jvMr. 

LIFE  By  Members  of  the  Uni- 
versity. Edited  by  J.  Wblls,  M.A. 
Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Wadham  College. 
Third  Edition.     Cr.  Svo,     3s.  6d. 

*  We  congratulate  Mr.  Wells  00  the  pro- 
duction of  a  readable  and  intelligent 
account  of  Oxford  as  it  is  at  the  present 
time,  written  by  persons  who  are  pos- 
sessed of  a  close  acquaintance  with  the 
system  and  life  of  the  Untrersity.' — 
jt  thetutunt. 

J.  Well*  OXFORD  AND  ITS 
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'  An  admirable  and  accurate  little  treatise, 
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'  Exactly  what  the  intelligent  visitor 
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A.  H.  Thompson.  CAMBRIDGE  AND 
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This  book  is  uniform  with  Mr.  Wells'  veiv 
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'  It  is  brightly  written  and  learned,  and  is 
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C.  a  Eobertson.    VOCES  ACADE- 
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RoBemary  Cotes.  DANTE'S  GAR- 
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W.  Toxke  Fansset  THE  D£ 
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1  KttmpiB.  THE  IMITATION  OF 
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Gere.  Second  Edition.  Fcap.  Bvo, 
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THE  BOOK  OF  JOB.     Edited,  with  Introduction  and  Notes,  by  E.  C.  S. 
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f)an2)boofi0  ot  TO^qIq^q, 

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with  an  Introduction  by  EL  C.  S. 
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orders.  '—Guardian, 

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suggestive.  A  comivehensive  and 
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late  fellow  of  Magdalen  College, 
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*  A  clear  and  remarkably  fulfaocoant  of  the 

main  currents  of  speculation.  Scholarly 
mecision  .  .  .  g|ennine  toleranoe  .  .  . 
mtense  interest  in  his  subject— «re  Mr. 
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to  the  Bishop  of  Lichfield.     I>emy 

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tains  a  mass  of  informarion  which  will 
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Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 

'  A  ttoiT  of  Admtore,  evtry  Mm  of  which 
is  palpitating  with  actioo.  — 5>M>lrr. 

*FfOin  covor  to  corer  "Phroso"  not  only 
cafages  the  attantion,  bat  carries  the 
reader  ia  little  whirls  of  delight  from 
admtare  to  adventure.*— i^M^rmr. 

SIMON  DALE.     lUustrated.     Third 

*  **  Simon  Dale  "  is  one  of  the  best  historical 

romances  that  have  been  wiimn  for  a 
long  while.'— ^^.Ammt'x  duetU, 
*AbnUiantnoveL    The  story  is  rapid  and 
most  excellently  told.    As  for  the  hero^ 
he  is  a   perfect  hero  of   romance  '— 

'There  is  searching  analysu  of  hi 
nature,  with  a  most  ingeniously 
structed  plot.  Mr.  Hope  has  drawn  the 
coDtrasu  of  his  women  with  marveUoas 
subtlety  and  delicacy.'— 7%N«r. 

Gilbert  Parker'B  Novels 

Crown  8tw.    6s.  tack. 

Fiflh  BdiHoH. 

<  Stories  happily  conceited  and  finely  ex* 
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Mr.  Parker's  style.'— /7«iV^  TeUgrm^ 

MRS.  FALCHION.    Fourth  EdiHon. 

*  A  sploidid  study  of  character.'— 

*K  very  striking  and  admirable  novel.' — 
St,  Jmmeit  GmattU, 

THE      TRANSLATION      OF      A 

*The  plot  is  original  and  one  difficult  to 
work  out ;  but  Mr.  Parker  has  done  it 
with  great  skill  and  delicacy.  The 
reader  who  is  not  interested  in  this 
original,  fresh,  and  welUtold  tale  must 
be  a  duU  person  indeed.' — 

Daily  ChrcnicU, 

Illustrated.    Sixth  Edition. 

*  A  rousing  and  dramatic  tale.   A  book  like 

this,  in  which  swords  flash,  |[reat  sur- 
prises are  undertaken,  and  dann^  deeds 
done^  in  which  men  and  women  live  and 
love  m  the  old  passionate  wa^,  is  a  joy 
inexpressible.* — Daily  Chromcu. 

PONTIAC:    The  Story  of  a  Lost 
Napoleon.     Fourth  Edition. 
'Here  we  find  romance — real,  breathing, 
living  romance.    The  character  of  Vu- 
mood  is  drawn  unerringly.    The  book 
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any  one  thoroughly  to  appreciate  Mr. 
Parker's  delicate  touch  and  innate  sym- 
pathy with    humanity.'  —  Pa4l  Mall 

NORTH :  The  Last  Adventures  of 
•  Pretty  Pierre.'    Second  Edition, 

*  The  present  book  is  full  of  fine  and  mov- 

ing stories  of  the  great  North,  and  it 

wUl  add  to  Mr.  Parker's  alraikhr  high 
repuution.'— CAsvvw  HermUL. 

Illustrated.    Ninth  Edition. 

*  The  best  thing  he  has  done ;  one  of  the 

best  things  that  any  one  hssdwie  latdy.* 
—St.  Famt€*'»  GoMttt*. 
'  Mr.  Parker  seems  to  become  stroncer  and 
easier  with  eveiy  serious  novel  that  he 
attempts.  He  snows  the  matured  power 
which  his  former  novels  have  led  ns  to 
expect,  and  has  produced  a  really  fine 
historical  novel' — Ath^m^um, 

*  A  great  book.'— ^Zac*  and  Whit*, 

TES.  Second  Edition,  y.  6d. 
'Living,  breathing  romance,  genuine  and 
unforced  pathos,  and  a  deeper  and  more 
subtle  knowledge  of  human  nature  than 
Mr.  Parker  has  ever  displayed  before. 
It  is,  in  a  word,  the  work  of  a  true  artist.* 
—PaU  Mall  GaMttte. 

a  Romance  of  Two  Kingdoms. 
Illustrated.    Fourth  Edition, 

'  Such  a  qplendid  story,  so  splendidly  told. 
will  be  read  with  avidity,  and  will  add 
new  honour  even  to  Mr.  Parker's  rqrata- 
tioo.' — Si.  Jamtii  GaMeiie.^ 

'  No  one  who  takes  a  pleasure  in  literature 
but  will  read  Mr.  Gilbert  Parker's  latest 
romance  with  keen  ei^oyment.  The  mere 
writing  is  so  good  as  to  be  a  detight  in 
it&elf,  apart  altogether  from  the  interest 
of  the  tale.'— /W/  Mall  GaMttte, 

'  Nothing  more  vigorous  or  more  human  has 
come  from  Mr.  Gilbert  Parker  than  this 
novel.  It  has  all  the  graphic  power  of 
his  last  book,  with  truer  feeling  for  the 
romance,  both  of  human  life  and  wild 
nature.  There  is  no  character  without  its 
uniane  and  picturesque  interest.  Mr. 
Parker's  style^  especially  his  descriptive 
style,  has  in  this  book,  perhaos  even  more 
tKan  elsewhere,  aptness  and  vitality.'— 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 


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Crown  %vOn    6s,  each. 

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tions  of  Nature,  and  a  wealth  of  ingenious  imagenr.' — SPtmktr, 

'  That  whatever  Mr.  Baring  Gould  writes  b  well  worth  reading,  is  a  conclusion  that  may 
be^  verv  generally  accepted.  His  views  of  life  are  fresh  and  vigorous,  his  lanjguage 
pointed  and  characteristic  the  incidents  of  which  he  makes  use  are  striking  and  onginM. 
his  characters  are  life-like,  and  though  somewhat  exceptional  people,  are  drawn  and 
coloured  with  artistic  force.  Add  to  tfis  that  his  descriptions  of  scenes  and  scenerf  are 
painted  with  the  loving  eyes  and  skilled  hands  of  a  master  of  his  art.  that  he  is  always 
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power  of  amusing  and  satisfying  them,  and  that  year  by  year  his  popularity  widens.' — 
C0urt  Circulmr. 

ARMINELL.    Fourth  Edition. 

URITH.    Fifth  Edition, 

IN    THE    ROAR    OF   THE    SEA. 

Sixth  Edition. 

VEN.     Fourth  Edition. 
CHEAP  JACK  ZITA  Fourth  Edition. 

THE  QUEEN  OF  LOVE.     Fourth 


JACQUETTA     Third  Edition. 

KITTY  ALONE.     Fifth  EdiHon, 
NOl^MI.   Illustrated.   Fourth  Edition, 
THE  BROOM-SQUIRE    lUustratcd. 

Fourth  Edition. 

Third  Edition. 
GUAVAS    THE    TINNER.      lUus- 

tiated.     Second  Edition. 
BLADYS.  Illustrated.  Second  Edition, 
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Ctonan  Doyle.     ROUND  THE  RED 

LAMP.     By   A    Conan    Doylk. 

Sixth  Edition,     Crown  Svo.    6s. 

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Stanley  Weyman.  UNDER  THE 
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Lucas  Xalet  THE  WAGES  OF 
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Qeorge  Gissiiig.    THE  TOWN  TRA- 
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8.  R.  Crockett  LOCHINVAR.  By 
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*  Full  of  gallantry  and  pathos,  of  the  clash 

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8.  B.  OroekeU.  THE  STANDARD 
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*  A  delightful  tale  in  his  best  style.*— 


*  Mr.  Crockett  at  his  htal,'— Literature. 

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'   J.    S.    Fletcher.     Author   ol 
I'hen     Charles     i.      was     King.' 
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J.  S.  neteher.     THE  PATHS  OF 
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Sttond  Editi 

CHER.     Croam 




Dorinihia  ii  chir 


vllh  srothimumi.'— /W;«^~Cd 

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adversity.    ByT.  Bloundku-e- 
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J.  B.  Burton.  DENOUNCED. 
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inlr.  ipiriled  piece  of  m 


t.    B.  I 

'dilion.     Cr,  ivo. 

t.  B.  BnrtOIL     ACROSS  THE  SALT 
SEAS.  By].  Bloundbllk-Burton. 
Steond  Edition.     Croon  ive.     6i. 
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BRAKE.  By  R.  MiTRRAV  Gil- 
christ. Crpom  Siw.  6i. 
'It  is  ■  singatuLr  pIcKunp  Uld  emineiitTy 
wholeioDe  Toluoxe,  with  ft  dectdedlf 
cbunuDff   not*    of  |ath«  ml    TBziou* 

r.  C,  tknUr.  THE  WHITE  HECA- 
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itudiDf  of  the  Kaffir  mioi.'—^fiicait 

<r.  0.  Bwilly.  BETWEEN  SUN 
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CORBETT.    Setoitd  BdUion. 

MISS  ERIN.     By  M.  E.  FrakciS. 
ANANIAS.    By  the  Hon.  tAn.  Alan 

CORRAGEEN   in    '98.       By   Mm. 

THE  PLUNDER  PIT.  ByJ.  Keich- 


By  Mrs.  WAtJ>OKD. 

KIRKHAM'S     FIND.       By    Mart 

DEADMAN'S.    By  MARV  GaUnt. 

SONS  OF  ADVERSITY.   By  L.  Core 


THE   KING   OF   ALBERIA.       By 

Laura  DAiNTREy. 

By  Mary  A  Owen. 

By  Ellen  P.  Finsbnt. 
AN   ELECTRIC    SPARK.      By   G. 


UNDER      SHADOW     OF      THE 

MISSION.     By  L  S.  McChesnEV. 

THE   SPECULATORS.     By   J.   F. 

THE    SPIRIT    OF    STORM.      By 
Ronald  Ross. 

Messrs.  Methubn's  Catalogue 

Ilu  tn»  humuitT 

uuBnglr  cITtctin,   and    apdoat  > 

9  hind.    'Hit  book 


umonoi  il» ;  mth. 

Author    <rf    '  Irish    Idflls.' 
Editim.     Cnrum  Bob,     &i. 
'Vivid  and  unEoUHTre 
Xu*  Buimr.     FROM  THE  EAST 
UNTO  THE   WEST.      By   Jam 


KORD,  Author  of  '. 


iUly  lcild.'^r> 
Smlly  LkWlMt.     HURRISH. 

BmU7  L&wlwa.    MAELCHO : 
teenth  Century  Romance.     £ 
Honble.  Emily  Lawu^^s.    1 
EdiHon.     Crown  Svii.     6s. 
"A  nally  jrMl  book.'— JAfM/fr. 


Smll7  LawlAU.  TRAITS  AND 
CONFIDRNCES.  By  the  Honble. 
Ehilv  Lawless.    Crmun  Svo,    (u. 

of   RafllFi  Ihi  raourccfiil.  juid   folio. 

hioi  breutblislj  in  bis  aitti.-~IVi^d. 

JaiU  BmIow.    a  creel  OF  IRISH 

STORIES.       By    Jane    Barlow, 


puriT  ttcommend  tbe  book 


II  ii  cgniia  to  BBki.'— WirU. 
Althnr  HoiTlMiL  A  CHILD  OF  I 
THE  JAGO.  By  Ahthuh  Mohri-  ' 
SON.  Third  Edition.  Cr.  8w.  6i,  ' 
■Tbc  book  ii  >  muiEipiecc. '—/''//  Mall  | 
'  Told  with  tiul  vigour  and  powerful  nm- 

?y  Mrj,  CAfFVN  (lou).  Author  of 
The  Vellow  Alter.'  Stamd  EditiaH. 


]  lo  the  hcmi 
ibe  bu  cst^ 

'  A  luic  coDcnriim  and  ■bftDrhuc^  uC"*^- 

Dorethu  Oarud.  THINGS  THAT 
TKEA  Geraid,  Author  of  -Lady 
BabT.'     CnrwnSw.     6a. 

-  a.  FlndUtar.  THE  GREEN 
Jane  H.  Findlateb,  FmrU 
Editim.  Craan  Sua.  Gj. 
A  powerfaL  and  vivid  uon.' — Tfaia Jai  J 
A  oeaulifiil  ilory,  lad  azkd  itraufc  aa  tmlb 

A  lioEularly  oricinalidt 

tacuitj  una  merva  nnx.'— ^^acWtar. 
'  Ad  uquiaita  idyll,  deli^Ua,  aflcciioi,  asd 

beauliful.  -—Black  tmd  WJtili. 
'.   R    FlBdlater.       A    DAUGHTER 
OF    STRIFE.      By    JANE    HELEN 

RACHEL.      By 

Jane     H.     Findlater.      Stamd 

Editien.     Crnen  ise.     6>. 
*  Powerful    and    lyinpatlidic-'  —  Glmigam 

Graves  of  fijUgoi 

Uxrj     FlBdlatar.       OVER     THE 

HILLS.       By    Mabv    FinDLATKI. 
Second  Edition.     Cr^  Svo.     61. 

Messrs.  Methuen's  Catalogue 


'  A  charming  romance,  and  full  of  incident. 

The  book  is  fresh  and  strong.';— 3'/ra>ter. 
'  A  strong  and  wise  book  of  deep  insight  and 

unflinching  truth.' — Birtmngkam  Post. 

Mary    Flndlater.     BETTY    MUS- 
GRAVE.     By  Mart  Findlater. 
Second  Edition,     Crown  8vo,    6s, 
'  Handled  with  dignity  and  delicacy.  .  .  . 
A  most  touching  story.* —Spectator, 

*  Told  vrith  great  skill,  and  the  pathos  of  it 

rings  true  and  unuirced  throughout' — 
Glusgow  Hemld, 

Alfred  OUivant.    OWD  BOB,  THE 


Alfred  Ollivant.  Second  Edition. 

Cr.  Svo.     6s. 

'Weird,    thrilling,    strikingly    graphic.' — 

'  We  admire  this  book.  .  .  .  It  Ls  one  to  read 
with  admiration  and  to  praise  with  en- 
thusiasm.'— Bookman, 
'  It  is  a  fine,  open-air,  blood-stirring  book, 
to  be  enjoyed  b^  every  man  and  woman 
to  whom  a  dog  is  dear.' — Literature, 

&   M.   Croker.      PEGGY   OF   THE 
BARTONS.      By  B.   M.  Crokes, 
Author     of     '  Diana     Barrington.' 
Fourth  Edition,     Crown  Svo,    6s, 
Mrs.  Croker  excels  in  the  admirably  simple, 
easy,  and  direct  flow  of  her  narrative,  the 
briskness  of  her  dialogue,  and  the  geni- 
ality of  her  portraiture.'— -JSj^/o/^r. 
'  All  the  characters,  indeed,  are  drawn  with 
clearness  and  certainty ;  and  it  would  be 
hard  to  name  any  quality  essential  to 
first-class  work  which  is  lacking  from  this 
book.' — Saturday  Review, 

H.  O.  Wells.  THE  STOLEN  BA- 
CILLUS,  and  other  Stories.  By 
H.  G.  Wells.  Second  Edition, 
Croton  Svo.     6s, 

*  They  are  the  impresfions  of  a  very  striking 

imagination,  which,  it  would  seem,  has 
a  great  deal  within  itSTtaudu'—Saturdaf 

H.    O.    Wells.     THE    PLATTNER 

STORY  AND  Others.    By  H.  G. 

Wells.     Second  Edition,     Cr.  Svo. 


'Weird  and  mysterioos,  they  seem  to  hold 

the  reader  as  by  a  magic  spelL' — Scote- 


Sara  Jeanette  Dnncan.'  A  VOYAGE 
Jeanette  Duncan,  Author  of '  An 
American  Girl  in  London.'  Illus- 
trated.   Third  Edition.   Cr.  Svo,  6s, 

'A  most  delightfully  bright  book.'— 27«/(r 

*  The  dialogue  is  full  of  wit.'— ^^. 
'Laughter   lurks  in   every  page.' — Deufy 


C.  P.  Eeary.  THE  JOURNALIST. 
By  C.  F.  Kbary.     Cr,  Svo,    6s, 

*  It  is  rare  indeed  to  find  such  poetical  sym- 

pathy with  Nature  joined  to  dose  study 
of  character  and  sinffularly  truthful  dia- 
logue :  but  then  *' The  Journalist  **  is 
altogether  ajrare  book.' — Athenaeum. 

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