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THE FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



THE 

FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



BY 

TADHG 6 CIANAIN ^ 



EDITED FROM THE AUTHOR'S MANUSCRH'T, 
WITH TRANSLATION AND NOTES 

BY 

RE\\ PAUL WALSH, M.A. 



RECORD SOCIETY 

ST. PATRICK'S COLLEGE, MAYNOOTH 

M. H. GILL & SON, Ltd., DUBLIN 

1916 



BOSTON COLLEGE LIBRARY 
CHESTNUT HILL MASS. 






CORRIGENDA 



Page 4, line 3, for gcomhairchiss read (jcomhairrchiss ; p. 10, 1. 31, ac 
is covered by a blot of ink, wliich was on the manuscript when I first 
saw it ; p. 14, 1. 23, for bhat I'ead bed ; p. 22, 1. 22, for letreadha read 
letreacha ; pp. 34, 66, 130, 136, 146, lassam (with mark of abbreviation) ; 
Jdsamhain occurs written out on p. 240, and lusamno on pp. 186, 234 ; 
p. 34, 1. 5 from end. for ffiadh)iiussi read ffiadhnnissi ; p. 44, 1. 8. for si 
read si)i ; j). 52, 1. 21, the manuscript has lochrainn ; p. 54, I. 15, read 
letreachoibh ; p. 56, 1. 1, for o I'ead a ; 1. 17, the r of raingce is written on 
d ; p. 58, 1. 8, the manuscript puts the stop after sodain ; p. 62, 1. 17, the 
words ar na mharach belong to the preceding sentence ; p. 66, I. 16, ospitail 
occurs written out on pp. 182, 246 ; p. 70, 1. 18, for dithoghluide read 
dithoghlaide ; p. 86, 1. 9, the comma should be a full stop ; p. 94, 1. 7, 
opposite mharta, on the right margin, the manuscript has 1608 ; 1. 12, 
for ierla read iarla ; pp. 96, 98, the manuscript has stops after bliadhna 
and bas ; p. 100, 1. 16, see corrigendum of p. 66 ; p. 110, 1. 23, read 
hAdhomh-chloi)me; p. 113. note, read -\ archaingil ; p. 116, 1. 6, read 
at[ch]aiss ; p. 118, 1. 3 from end, read bliadhnoihh ; p. 122, 1. 25, read 
furaiss -j deuosioin ; p. 124, 1. 4, for inichien read imchein ; 1. 9 from end, 
for i n- read for ; p. 136, 1. 26, read glomhaiss ; the stop should be after 
sodain ; p. 148, 1. 4 from end, omit the brackets ; p. 152, 1. 24, read 
thairmcheimniugadh ; p. 170, 1. 29, for diardaoin read dia dardaoin ; p. 176, 
1. 4, for ttri read tri ; p. 192, 1. 4, for tturuis read tturus ; p. 196, 1. 20, read 
primhecluis ; p. 208, 1. 2, the manvxscript has only Romhan ; p. 212, 
1. 12, for chomdach of the manuscript read conidach ; p. 220, 1. 8, read 
talmain ; p. 232, 1. 11, read ag inotacht •] ag aittrebhadh ; p. 240, 1. 5 from 
end, for sin read si ; p. 248, 1. 22, for Francisco read Fransisco ; p. 250, 
1. 15, for delp read dealp ; p. 252, 1. 23, la horsnaithe in the manuscript, 
with a dot over the n, la h having been altered (as also on p. 256, 1. 10) 
from d. 

Page 9, hne 21, for " driver " read " driven " ; p. 37, 1. 7, after " twenty- 
first " add " [recte twenty -second] " ; 1. 24 for " [and] " read " or " 
(inaid = no as on p. 130, 1. 26) ; p. 41, 1. 13 for " Monday [recte Sunday] 
the twenty-eighth " read " Monday the twenty-eighth [recte twenty- 
ninth] " ; 1. 4 from end, after " thirtieth " read " [recte thirty-first] " ; 
p. 45, 1. 10, for " a sergeant-major " read " the sergeant-major of the 
town " ; p. 59, n. 3 for " Ruaidhri " read "' Rugliraighe " ; p. 63, 1. 17, 
omit " on the next day " ; 1. 23, for '' midnight " read " midday " ; 
p. 71, last line, read " Brussels " ; p. 83, 1. 18. for " namep " read " named " 
p. 84, nn. 1 and 2, Niderharga is Niderhergheim (compare Oberhergheim, 
about ten miles sovith of Cohnar), 'O Cianain reverses the order of this 
name and Otmers (= Ottmarsheim) ; p. 99, 1. 23, omit " city " ; p. 107, 
1. 28, for " Wednesday the seventeenth [recte sixteenth] " read " Thursday 
the seventeenth " ; p. 241, 1. 9, for " eighteenth " read " eighth." 



1549 



PREFACE 

THE Flight of the Earls deserves to rank as one of the 
most important events in Irish history. Its more 
immediate effect was the clearing of the way for the 
agrarian settlement known as the Plantation of Ulster, 
while it exerted a profound influence years afterwards in 
the affairs connected with the rebellions of 1641 and 1689. 
It marked the beginning of a new era, and w^as the most 
significant evidence of the passing away of the old. With 
the Flight of the Earls the Gaelic organisation of Ireland, 
which had made a vigorous resistance during three quarters 
of a century, surrendered the last stronghold, and the new 
order entered into that complete mastery which it has since 
maintained. 

In this all-important proceeding the principal personages 
involved were Aodh O Neill, Rughraighe O Domhnaill, and 
Cuchonnacht Maguidhir, princes respectively of Tir Eoghain, 
Tir Chonaill, and Fir Manach in Ulster. Aodh, son of Fear- 
dorcha, son of Conn Bacach O Neill, was reared by the 
English, was taught the habit of his masters, and was styled 
Earl of Tyrone, a title which his grandfather was the first 
to bear. He was the pet of English governors in Ireland, 
and even wielded the sword in the Queen's right. In the 
end, however, he broke with her Majesty's servants, and 
for years carried on rebellion in defence of, as he frequently 
protested, Catholicism and the hereditary rights of O Neill 
of Ulster. He defeated in his most successful battles the 
best generals and armies that Elizabeth could send against 
him. At length he concluded peace, on practically his own 
terms, at the commencement of the new reign. The liberties 
and guarantees granted him bv Mount] oy, were not, however, 



viii FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

respected by Chichester, a later Lord Deputy. The dis- 
contents of the under-tenants of O Neill were encouraged by 
the King's Government. He was involved in a tedious 
lawsuit with O Cathain, his most important subject, and in 
other annoyances. He became apprehensive of his personal 
safety, and determined to seek the means of redress in a 
foreign land. A messenger was dispatched to the Continent. 
A vessel arrived on the coast of Donegal in September, 
1607, and O Neill, gathering his friends and his belongings, 
set sail on the feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, never 
again, as it proved, to lay eyes on Ireland. 

Rughraighe O Domhnaill, who had been invested with 
the title of Earl of Tyrconnell after the conclusion of the 
peace, was a brother-in-law of O Neill. He was a younger 
brother of Aodh Ruadh, who, kidnapped and imprisoned 
by Lord Deputy Perrot, became a fierce opponent of the 
English, and was so great a danger to the English power 
that Sir George Carew, the President of Munster, had him 
poisoned in Spain. Rughraighe had taken part in the 
rebellion, and had been selected by Aodh Ruadh to govern 
his people in his absence from Ireland after the fatal dav 
of Kinsale. Niall Garbh O Domhnaill, who was his cousin, 
and was married to his sister, was maintained by the English 
to check his power. He was not yet forty when the Flight 
took place. His wife, whom he left behind him, was a laciy 
of an Anglo-Irish family, Brigid Fitzgerald, daughter of the 
Earl of Kildare, and their only son, an infant, accompanied 
his father, and grew to manhood on the Continent. 

Ciichonnacht Maguidhir was a younger brother of Aodh 
Maguidhir, prince of Fir Manach, one of O Neill's staunchest 
supporters during the war. That he was a dangerous man 
from the point of view of the Government we can gather 
from two facts : first, Conchubhar Maguidhir, a kinsman, 
who was styled gallda, " the anglificd," was strongly sup- 
ported in opposition to him, and had half the county of 
Fermanagh allotted to him ; second, Aodh Ruadh O Domh- 



PREFACE ix 

naill, who would have no deahngs with a wcakHng, had 
Cuchonnacht proclaimed Maguidhir when his brother Aodh 
was slain in 1600. After the war we learn little of him 
until the year of the Flight. He left Ireland in the spring 
or early summer, engaged the ship in which the chiefs 
embarked for Spain, and arrived with the vessel in Lough 
Swilly in September. He died while still young on August 12, 
1608, at Genoa, and the Four Masters relate of him that he 
had " wisdom, a fine appearance, and every goodness." 

The work which is edited and translated in the present 
volume describes the doings of these princes from the time 
that they left Ireland. The author was Tadhg O Cianain, 
whose family had for generations served as chroniclers to 
that of Maguidhir, He was one of the party that accom- 
panied the chiefs, and he was an eye-witness of all he 
describes. His narrative is the only work of its kind in 
Irish literature, and it is a pity that, if he continued it down 
to a later period, the conclusion is not forthcoming. The 
manuscript from which the text is derived, penned in his 
own neat and graceful hand, is preserved in the convent 
of the Franciscans, Merchants' Quay, Dublin, whither it 
was conveyed from Rome in 1872. The writing occupies 
one hundred and thirty-five pages, and the narrative breaks 
off abruptly at the end of November, 1608. Page 96 was 
written on September 23rd, 1609 (see note, page 192), 
and it is unlikely that the story was not carried down to 
that date, or a later one. Of this latter portion nothing is 
known — whether it exists at all, and if it exists, where it 
may be. 

O Cianain never refers by name to himself in the body 
of his work. There are, however, several entries like 
Tadhg Cicnain do scribh isan Roimh, 1609, made for the 
purpose of completing the last line of a page ; while the 
fact that he was the author, and not a mere transcriber, 
appears from a passage on page 40 : " as the roads 
from Douai to Tournai were dirty, and the highways narrow 



X FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

and uneven, the writer and narrator of this could not easily 
note or observe the country or the land along the route." 

The work contains no enumeration of the members of 
the retinue which accompanied the princes. We learn, 
however, that as the ship entered the mouth of the Seine 
she carried in all ninety-nine persons. Of this number 
fifty-six have been identified in the course of this book. A 
list preserved among the Borghese Papers in Rome gives the 
names of some others. They are as follows : 

57. The wife of Art 6g O Neill, son of Cormac Mhac an 

Bhariiin, and nephew of O Neill. 

58. Brian O Neill, another nephew of the chief. 

59. The wife of Sean na bpunta O h'Again. 

60. The wife of Eamonn gruamdha Mac Daibhid. 

61. The Franciscan friar Muiris Ultach. 

62. Colman, the Earl's priest. 

63. Donnchadh Mac Suibhne, the son of Mac Suibhne 

Baghaineach. 

64. Gearoid, son of Gearoid O Conchubhair. 

65. "Cayer Mac Tamalin." 

66. " David Craffort." 

We thus know the names of over sixty persons in all, and 
these embrace every one of rank and importance who shared 
in the perils of the voyage. 

A noteworthy feature in the narrative is the silence 
regarding the various agencies which placed difficulties in 
O Neill's way at the courts of France, Spain, and Flanders. 
With the single exception of a rather mild account of the . 
scheming of the English ambassador at Paris, there is no 
reference to those who thwarted his plans at almost every 
turn. O Neill had intended to land in Spain, but stress of 
weather compelled him to put into a French harbour. 
Wishing to proceed direct overland, he was prevented by 
the French King on various pretexts. Sir George Carew 



PREFACE xi 

so far scored a success, though he could not prevail on the 
King to deny a free passage to Flanders. In the month of 
November O Neill proposed going to Spain by way of Italy, 
hoping at the same time to pay a short visit to the Pope. 
He had already set out when the Spanish Ambassador, 
acting under directions from the King of Spain, had him 
detained in Flanders by order of the Archduke. His object 
in endeavouring to reach Spain was to procure assistance 
for an attack on Ireland, but the King's demand that he 
would express his purposes and wants by letter, was merely 
a way of putting him off altogether. O Neill next turned 
to the Pope, but the Papal ambassador told him that he 
must expect no help in that quarter. Meanwhile Sir Francis 
Edmonds, the representative of the court of England, con- 
tinued to press the Archduke to send him out of Flanders, 
and, finally, definite orders were given in February, 1 608, 
that he should quit the country.* On these various moves 
on the part of the enemies of the Irish, O Cianain has 
nothing to say, and we can only conclude that he was not 
one of those who helped to arrange their plans, or shared 
all their confidences. 

The story of the events of the Flight commences abruptly ; 
there is no exordium or preface save three words : i n-ainm 
De, " in God's name." A modern writer would surely 
have discussed the causes that led to it, but to O Cianain 
the causes were, no doubt, too obvious to need explanation. 
The Government, when the Flight was accomplished, pre- 
tended to believe a story of an alleged plot, and it served 
admirably the purpose of those who were about to inaugurate 
the policy of the Plantation of Ulster. The charge of con- 
spiracy was first secretly made by Sir Christopher St. 
Lawrence, Baron of Howth, a gentleman of English extrac- 



* See the Borghese Papers, Archivium Hibernicuni, Vol. IV, pp. 
215-310. 



xii FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

tlon. St. Lawrence had served as an officer with the Queen's 
forces in Ireland in the course of the war, and despairing of 
a suitable recompense from the Lord Deputy, had gone into 
England in August, 1606, " expecting," as he himself ac- 
knowledges, " to obtain some employment or pension from 
the King's Majesty." He subsequently passed into Flanders, 
and in the course of the next year, returned to London and 
commenced to make his disclosures to Salisbury. Salisbury 
appears to have treated them lightly, for he seems not to 
have made any note of them. The general drift of them 
must, however, have been conveyed to Chichester, for the 
latter, in forwarding the letter placed at the door of the 
council-chamber on May 18 28, says he transmits it because 
it " concurs in many parts with the discovery made unto 
your Lordship." Howth arrived in Ireland about June 
26/ July 6, and forthwith set about repeating his informa- 
tions to the Lord Deputy. His story was that there was a 
plot of a general insurrection afoot, and that he himself. 
Lord Delvin, the Earl of Tyrconnell, and others, were im- 
plicated. He added, at the same time, that, howsoever he 
had hearkened to the conspirators, " he meant not to 
partake with them in the business." He involved Lord 
Delvin particularly, with the result that that nobleman was 
arrested in November. 

These revelations, made by a man of the character of 
Howth, did not seriously perturb the Government. " I like 
not his look and gesture when he talks with me of this 
business," says the Lord Deputy ; and the Privy Council 
in England were of opinion that " he rather prepared the 
propositions he speaks of than that the persons he names did 
originally propound them to him." The Flight, however, 
lent colour to his accusations, and Chichester was deter- 
mined to investigate the matter further. Delvin was 
arrested, and the burden of his information was that he had 
discussed with the Earl of Tyrconnell the project of seizing 
Dublin Castle with the aid of certain Spanish forces. 



PREFACE xiii 

Even if we believe Delvin's story, there is no evidence of 
conspiracy on the part of O Neill or Maguidhir. O Domh- 
naill may possibly have discussed his grievances and hopes 
of redress too freely, and he may have learned that he 
was looked upon with suspicion bv the authorities as a re- 
sult of Howth's informations. But it is extremely unlikely 
that he entertained fear of discovery as early as May, 1607, 
for Howth was in Flanders up to that period. Yet, at that 
time " the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell had sent one 
John Bath into Spain to pray the King of Spain's favour and 
assistance, they being fearful to be taken or sent for into 
England." A month before the Flight word came from 
Flanders that O Neill, who had been summoned to England, 
would never return to Ireland again, and that the Earl of 
Tyrconnell would be committed in Ireland, and they were 
ordered to be in readiness to attend the coming of a ship 
which would be sent for them soon after, 

O Domhnaill's unwise conversations with Delvin, even if 
it were certain that the informers spoke the truth, and that 
the Government believed them, do not, therefore, account 
satisfactorily for the Flight. They did not involve O Neill 
or Maguidhir, and the story of a great conspiracy, in which 
all the chief men in Ulster and in the Pale were concerned, 
was worked up during the latter months of 1607, when it 
was necessary to sustain a charge so " that their countries 
be made the King's by this accident." 

In preparing this cditio princcps of the narrative of 
Tadhg O Cianain I have made constant use of the Rev. C. P. 
Meehan's " Fate and Fortunes of Tyrone and Tyrconnell," 
a brilliant work issued over a generation ago. The many 
references to it in my notes are to the third enlarged edition, 
which appeared in 1886. I have also extensively quoted 
the official Calendar of the State Papers of the reign of 
James I, but I regret that the extracts from the Borghese 
Papers printed in Archivium Hibcrnicum^ Vol. IV., referred 
to above, were not available when the notes were commenced. 



xiv FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

To Professor Osborn J. Bergin, of University College, 
Dublin, who read a proof of the work, I am particularly 
indebted for help and criticism. His accurate scholarship 
saved me from many an error. The Rev. Michael Sheehan, 
St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, read portion of my transla- 
tion, and contributed largely to its improvement. Even with 
the help of these scholars it would be too much to hope 
for absolute accuracy, and I desire to accept responsibility 
for whatever errors the book contains. The reader will 
understand that the division into chapters was made for 
the purpose of facilitating reference, and that the text 
represents the orthography of the scribe and author. 

Finally, I wish to express my deep gratitude to the Rev.. 
T. A. O'Reilly, O.S.F., Librarian of the Franciscan Convent, 
Merchants' Quay, Dublin, to the manuscripts in whose care 
I have had free access at all times. 

PAUL WALSH. 
Ld Sani/ina, 
1915. 



SUMMARY OF DATES AND EVENTS 

Days and dates arrived at by calculation are enclosed in brackets. 

1607 
September - page 

Thursday 7 [rede 6]. 'O Neill at Baile Shlaine. He learns by 
letter that Cuchonnacht ]Maguidhir and others have come 
with a ship to take himself and his friends from Ireland . 3 

Saturday [S]. He goes to Sir Garret Moore's house at Mellifont . 5 

[Sunday 9]. He goes to Sradbhaile Diina Dealgan . . .5 

Monday [10]. He pvishes on by way of Ard Macha and Dun Geanainn 

to Craobh ....... 7 

Tuesday [11]. He stays at Craobh. . . . .7 

Wednesday [12]. He goes to Muinntir Luinigh . . .7 

[Thursday 13]. He reaches Bun Diannaide at midday. At night- 
fall he crosses Loch Feabhail, and takes with him Cathbharr 
'O Domhnaill from Droichead Adhamlintun . . .7 

Friday [14]. At daybreak they reach Eaith ]Mealltain, where they 

find the Earl of Tyrconnell putting stores into the ship . 9 

The nobles and their followers embark at midday and 
hoist sail. They endeavour to put in at Ara for food and 
drink, but are driven off by a storm . . .9 

[Saturday 15]. Storm. They steer for Spain opposite Cruach 

Padraig, and experience bad weather for thirteen days . 11 
Sunday 30. They propose putting into harbtiur at Le Croisic near 

the mouth of the Loire in France . . . .11 

October 

Tuesday [2]. They sight three vessels which inform them that they 
are in the Flemish Sea. A storm at night obliges them to 
pull in sail . . . . , . .11 

[Wednesday 3]. At dawn they find themselves off the Channel 
Islands. They hoist sail and sight France. They engage 
a pilot, but the wind subsides. Later a pilot from Rouen 
directs them during the night . . . .13 

Thursday 4. They land at midday at Quilleboeuf at the mouth of 

the Seine, having been twenty days at sea . . .15 

[Friday 5]. The Governor of the town dines with 'O Neill. The 
ladies and children leave for Rouen by boat. Seventeen of 
the gentlemen ride to La Bouille . . . .19 

[Saturday 6]. They are arrested. Some of them set out to see 

the ^Marshal of Normandy at Lisieux . . .21 

The ladies stay that night at St. Georges . .21 



xvi FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

PAGE 

Sunday [7]. The ladies reach Rouen . . . .21 

Monday [8]. Three of the gentlemen come by boat to Rouen . 23 
[Tuesday 9]. They are informed that the Governor of Rouen has 

written to the King of France for directions regarding them . 23 
In the course of the week Matha 6g 'O Maeltuile, after a 

fruitless journey to Paris, learns that the party mvist betake 

themselves to Flanders, and sets out before them to prepare 

the way . . . . . . .25 

Meanwhile the English ambassador at Paris sends a 

messenger to London . . . , .25 

Saturday [13]. The Governor of Rouen orders the ladies to leave 

the city by the following Monday . . . .27 

Sunday [14]. All the gentlemen arrive in Rouen . . .27 

[Monday] 15. They leave Rouen . . . . .27 

They reach La Boissiere. JMaigbhethadh 'O Neill loses 

the i^arty . . . . . . .29 

[Tuesday 16]. They pass through Neufchatel and Aumale to Poix . 20 
[Wednesday 17]. They reach Amiens, and stop for the night at 

Contay . . . . . . .31 

[Thursday] 18. They meet Maigbhethadh 'O Neill again at Arras. 

They stop there for a few days and Doctor Eoghan ^lag 

Mathghamhna comes from Douai to meet them . . 33 

Monday 21 [recte 22*]. They proceed to Douai. They visit the 

Irish College, and meet Father Flaithri 'O Maelchonaire and 

Doctor Robert Mac Artuir . . . . .37 

Friday 26. They reach a village near Tournai . . .35) 

[Saturday 27]. They are received in the city . . .39 

Monday 28 [rede 29t]. They go to Ath . . . .41 

[Tuesday 30]. They pass through Enghien to Hal . . .41 

Wednesday 30 [rede 31J]. 'O N^ill's son, Enri, Colonel of the Irish 

Regiment in Flanders, comes to meet them . . 41 

November 
Saturday [3]. They are visited by Spinola, the Spanish Commander- 
in-Chief in Flanders. The Archduke invites them to his 
country residence near Binche . . . .43 

Sunday 4. They reach Nyvel . . . . .45 

[Monday 5]. They visit the Archduke, and return to Nyvel. . 45 

[Tuesday 6]. They return to Hal . . . . .47 

[Wednesday 7]. They dine with Spinola in Brussels, and return to 

Hal . . . . . . . .49 

Friday 9. They proceed to Lou vain . . . .53 

Sunday 25. The party leaves the ladies in Louvain, and sets out 

for Spain. They remain at Perwez that night . . 55 

[Monday 26]. They reach Namur, and are ordered by a post from 

the Archduke to return to Louvain . . . .55 

* This correction should have been made in the text at p. 37. 
t The date, not the day, should have l)een corrected at p. 41. 
t This correction should have been made in the text at p. 41. 



SUMMARY OF DATES AND EVENTS xvii 

PAGE 

[Wednesday 28]. They travel back to Wavre . . .57 

Thursday 29. They reach Louvam, where they spend the Christmas 

season . . . . . , .57 

Between Christmas and the feast of the Epiphany they 
hear that Cormac, brother of 'O Neill, Lord Howth, and 
Lord Delvin have been arrested in Ireland, and that Brian, 
'O Neill's nephew, has been executed . . .59 

1608 
February 

[Monday] 18. They visit Mechlin, where they are interested in the 
tonilj of St. Romoldus, an Irislmian and the patron of 
Flanders . . . . . . .65 

[Tuesday 19]. They visit Antwerp . . . . .67 

[Wednesday 20]. They visit the Irish College there. They proceed 

to Willebroeck . . . . . .69 

[Thursday 21]= They return by way of Yilvorde to Lou vain . 71 

Thursday 28. They set out for Italy. They reach Wavre . . 73 

[Friday 29]. They are escorted by cavalry to Xamur, where Colonel 

Enri 'O Neill takes leave of them . . . ,73 

March 
[Saturday 1]. They reach Marche . . . . .75 

Sunday 2. They reach Bastogne . . . . .75 

[Monday 3]. They reach Arlon . . . . .75 

Tuesday [4]. They enter Lorraine, and stay the night at Fillieres . 75 
[Wednesday 5]. They proceed through ]Mars-la-Tour* to Conflans . 77 
[Thursday 6]. They reach Pont-a-Mousson, where they stay two 

nights . . . . . . .77 

[Saturday 8]. They reach Nancy . . . . .77 

[Sunday 9]. They are entertained by the Duke of Lorraine. . 79 

[Monday 10]. They proceed through St. Nicholas to Lun^ville . 81 
Tuesday 11. They reach St. Die . . . . .81 

[Wednesday 12]. They pass through Bonhomme and Kaysersberg 

to Colmar . . . . . . .83 

[Thursday 13]. They reach Niederhergheim . . .83 

[Friday 14]. They proceed through Ottmarsheim to Bale and Liesthal 85 
[Saturday 15]. They reach Sursee . . . . .85 

Sunday 16. They advance throvigh Sempach, Lucerne, and the Lake 

to Fluelen . . . . . . .97 

[Monday] 17. St. Patrick's Day. They pass throvigh Silenen and 
Devil's Bridge to Piedenionte. A horse of 'O Neill's, carry- 
ing £120, falls over a clitf . . . . .87 

[Tuesday 18]. 'O Neill stops to search for the money . . 89 

[Wednesday 19]. He sets out again after a vain effort to recover it. 
He crosses the Alps by way of the St. Gotthard Pass to 
Airolo, the Gate of Hell, and Faido . . . .89 



* This is the town referred to on p. 76, n. 2. 



xviii FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

PAGE 

[Thiarsday 20]. They reach BelUnzona . . . .91 

[Friday 21]. They pass by Monte Ceneri to Lugano . . . 91 

[Saturday 22]. They sail Lake Lugano, land at Capo Lago, and 

proceed to Conio . . . . .93 

Sunday 23. They reach Milan . . . . .95 

Wednesday [26]. They are received by Count de Fuentes, the 

Spanish Governor of Lombardy . . . .95 

April 
Friday [4]. Good Friday. They visit the cathedral of Santa Maria 

del Duomo . . . . . . .99 

[Saturday] 12. They leave Milan, having spent three weeks there, 

and proceed to Lodi ..... 101 

[Sunday 13]. They reach Piacenza ..... 103 
[Monday 14]. They proceed to Parma and Eeggio . . . 103 

Tuesday 15. They pass by Modena and Castelfranca to Bologna . 105 
[Wednesday 16]. They visit Cardinal Palaeoti, and proceed by way 

of St. Nicholas and Cast el San Pietro to Imola . .107 

Thursday* 17. Travelling through Castel Bolognese, Faenza, and 

Forligrande. they reach Cesena .... 107 

[Friday 18]. They proceed through Savignano and Rimini to 

CattoUca \ . . . . • .109 

Sunday 20. They pass on to Pesaro, Fano, and Senigallia . . 109 

[Monday 21]. They reach Ancona, and push on to Loreto . .111 

[Tuesday 22]. They make a pilgrimage at Loreto . . .111 

Wednesday 23. They set out for Rome, and pass by way of Recanati 

and Macerata to Tolentino . . . . .161 

[Thursday 24] . They proceed through Valcimara, Camerino, Muccia, 

Serravalle and Casenove to Foligno . . . .163 

[Friday 25]. The Earl, Magviidhir, the Baron of Diin Geanainn, and 

Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill visit the shrine of St. Francis at 

Assisi, while 'O N^ill goes on to Montefalco and Spoleto . 163 
[Saturday 26]. The party moves on to Strettura, Terni, Narni, and 

OtricoU . . . . . . .167 

Sunday 28 [rede 27]. They cross the Tiber, and proceed to Borghetto, 

Civita Castellana, Rignano, and Castel Nuovo . .167 

[Monday 28]. They go on to Prima Porta . . . ,169 

[Tuesday 29]. Peter Lombard, Archbishop of Armagh, meets them 

at the Milvian Bridge. They enter Rome in state • 169 

May 

Sunday 4. They are received by Pope Paul V at the Quirinal 171 

Thursday 8. They are received by Cardinal Colonna . . 173 

Thursday 15. Ascension Thursday. They visit Cardinal Ascoli, 

and are present at the Papal benediction given to the crowd. 173 



* Mistranslated " Wednesday," p. 107. There is no error in the 
text. 



SUMMARY OF DATES AND EVENTS xix 

PAGE 

Saturday 18 [rede 17] . The Earl and some of the gentlemen com- 
mence a pilgrimage of the seven pilgrim churches of Rome . 175 

Saturday [24]. On the eve of Pentecost they attend Vespers in the 

Pauline chapel . . . . . .175 

Sunday [25]. Pentecost. They attend Mass and Vespers in the 

church of Santo Spirito . i . . . .177 

Thursday 29. On the invitation of Cardinal Borghese, they are 
present at the canonisation of Saint Francesca in Saint 
Peter's . . . . . . .183 

June 
Sunday [1]. The ladies are received by the Pope . . .187 

Thursday [5]. Corpus Christi. Eight of the Irish carry the canopy 

over the Blessed Sacrament in the procession from Saint 

Peter's to Saint James' in Borgo Vecchio . . . 189 

Saturday [7]. Maguidhir leaves Rome for Naples, taking with him 

Semus, son of Eimhear Mag Mathghamhna . .191 

Thursday 10 [recte 12]. 'O Neill and the Earl, and those with them, 

make a pilgrimage of the seven pilgrim churches . . 191 

July 
Friday 18. The Earl falls sick of a fever, contracted during a visit 
made to Ostia in the company of young Aodh 'O N^ill and 
Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill . . . . .239 

Satiirday [19]. Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill falls sick . . . 239 

Monday [21] Aodh 'O N^ill, the Baron, falls sick . . .239 

Monday [28]. The Earl dies after eleven days' sickness . . 239 

Tuesday 28 [recte 29]. He is buried in the monastery of San Pietro 

Montorio . . . . . . .241 

August 
[Friday] 1. 'O Neill visits the church of Saint Peter ad Vincula . 243 
[Sunday] 3. Muiris, the Earl's page, dies .... 241 
[Friday] 8*. Doctor Domhnall 'O Cearbhaill dies . . .241 

[Tuesday] 12. Maguidhir and Semus ^lag Mathghamhna die within 

six hours of each other at Genoa ... 241 

[Friday] 15. 'O Neill visits the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere 245 
[Sunday] 24. 'O N^ill visits the Franciscan monastery on the Isola 

Tiberina . . . . . .247 

September 
Wednesday 3. 'O Neill takes part in a procession . . . 249 

[Monday] 15. Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill dies in a palace on Monte 

Citorio . . . . . . .243 

He is buried beside his brother Rughraighe in the church 
of San Pietro in Montorio ..... 243 

[Monday] 29. 'O Neill visits the church of Saint Michael in the 

Borgo Vecchio ...... 247 



* Mistranslated " eighteenth " p. 241. 



XX FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

October pagr 

[Saturday] 4. 'O Neill visits the church of San Francesco a Ripa . 249^ 

November 
[Saturday] 1. 'O N^ill visits the church of Santa Maria Rotunda . 251 
[Thursday] 13. 'O Neill visits the Church of Saint Andrew the 

Apostle . . . . . . .251 

[Thursday] 20. An Ambassador Extraordinary from the King of 

France makes a state entry into Rome . . . 253^ 

Thursday [27], He presents himself before Pope Paul V . . 259- 

1609 
September 
[Friday] 24. Aodh 6g O Neill, " the heir of the Earl 'O N^ill, the 
last hope of Cenel Eoghain, who would have taken the place 
of his father if he had survived him, died and was buried 
with his mother's brothers, the Earl 'O Domhnaill and 
Cathbharr" . . . . * .193 



THE ENCYCl )PEDIA PRESS, Inc. 

23 EAST 4187 STREET, NEW YORK 

FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

PREFATORY NOTE. 

Tadhg O Cianain, chronicler to the family of Maguidhir in Ulster, fled 
from Ireland with the last of the Irish chieftains in the year 1607. Abovit 
two years later he wrote an account of their voyage, travels, and doings 
from the time they left Ireland. A manuscript paper volume of about 
one hundred and fifty pages, now preserved in the library of the 
Franciscan Convent, Merchants' Quay, Dublin, contains the commence- 
ment of the narrative, written very neatly and correctly by the hand of 
the author himself. The remaining portion is not yet forthcoming. If 
it has not perished, it will probably be found in some of the Continental 
libraries, perhaps at Rome. It is intended to publish the text of the 
Dublin manuscriijt, with translation and notes, as a supplement to 
Archivimn Hihemicum. The following pages contain a first instalment. 
An introduction will accompany the last. Here it is only necessary to 
remark that every care has been taken to secure an accurate reproduction 
of the text. As no doubt could arise as to the correct expansion of most 
of the contractions, the indication of them all by italics was not necessary. 
The line-and-dot compendivmi, which stands for various combinations 
of letters, has been expanded -a in duna, p. 4, and several times in the 
word badein (cf. uodein written in full) ; slige, pp. 28, 32, might also be 
written sllgidh.. A peculiar y-shaped character, which is used for ui, and 
occasionally for u, in the manuscript, has not been reproduced. For 
II and V, whifh are written promiscuously, ti has been printed. The 
word-, sentence-, and other divisions are due to the editor, also the 
capitals, the punctuation, and the numbers at the head of each chapter. 

PAUL WALSH. 



VOL. II. a 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

I. A n-ainm Dhe. Ag so pairt do sceloib 7 d' imthechtoib 
Ui Neill on uair forfhagoip se Eire. Ar tus bui O Neill a ff och- 
air luistis na Heirenn, Sir Artuir Sitsestar, a mBaili Shlaine. 
Do ghlac se leitir o Sheon Bat dia dardaoin, in seachtmadli la 
Septembris, a aois in Tigerna in tan sin mile 7 se chett 7 seacht 



^ Sir Arthur Chichester \^as appointed Deputy in succession to Sir 
George Carey, and had the sword delivered to him on the 2'l:th February, 
1605. He became Lord Lieutenant on Mount joy's death in April, 1606, 
and held that post until his dismissal on the 27th November, 1615. His 
term of oflfice was characterised by a series of forgeries and robberies, 
which have been described admirably by Mr. T. M. Healy, M.P., in his 
book, Stolen Waters. 

^ Bails Shlaine. Slane on the Boyne, midway between Drogheda 
and Navan. The place had been in the hands of the Fleming family 
from the Norman Invasion. William Fleming was owner of the castle 
in 1607. The property was sold by the Commissioners of Forfeited 
Estates to Henry Conyngham in 1703. 

* John Bath, emissary from Tyrone to James VI. in 1598 (Cal. St. 
Pa. 1598-9, 461), was a Drogheda merchant, who five or six months 
prior to the flight was sent into Spain to pray the King's favour and 
assistance (Cal. St. Pa. James I., vol. 2, 298). He provided the ship, 
which was a Frenchman, for Mag Uidhir, and acted himself as master 
and captain {ibid. 267, 299). He had already been in Spain after the 
battle of Kinsale (D'Alton, King James' Army List ii, 214). Fr. Meehan 
says : " Bath, the captain of the vessel purchased by CuconnaughtMaguire, 
made Ms appearance in Slane, and there found Tyrone " (p. 75), but 
our narrative makes it clear that he merely sent a missive. Upon their 
first coming to Lough Swilly, Donnchadh 'O Briain, referred to later, 
landed by night and went to the Earl of Tyrconnell to acquaint him of 
the arrival of the ship, whereupon Tyrconnell sent notice thereof to 
Tyrone by Owen Magrath, Superior of the Franciscans. The latter was 
the bearer of a similar message to O'Donnell's Countess at Maynooth. 
In a letter received on the 1st (11th) of October, she writes to Chichester 
that on the 16th (26th) of September, as far as she can remember, Owen 
Groome Maccra niet her at Moyglare garden, brought her gold as a token 
from her lord, and said that if he had known sooner of his going he woiild 
have taken her with him (Cal. St. P. 296). Bath lived at Rome with 
'O N^ill for four years, and was employed in 1612 to negociate with the 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



Translation. 

L In the name of God. Here are some of the adventures 
and proceedings of ^O Neill from the time that he left Ireland. 
First, 'O Neill was with the Lord Justice of Ireland, Sir Arthur 
Chichester'^, at Baile Shlaine.- He received a letter from, John 
Bath^ on Thursday,^ the seventh \recte sixth] of September, 
the year of the Lord at that time being one thousand six 
hundred and seven. It was stated in the aforesaid letter that 
Maguidhir (Cuchonnacht Maguidhir)^, Donnchadh ^O 



English representative at Brussels for an agreement with the Earl. 
Anxious to enrich himself, he betrayed trust and turned informer 
<Meehan 245 ff.). A John Bath assassinated 'O Suillebhain B^ara in 
the streets of Madrid on the 16th July, 1618 (Hist. Cath. Hib. (1850), 
337). 

* Thursday the sixth of September. The year 1607 began on Monday ; 
therefore Sept. 6 was Thursday. The following Friday week, the day 
of embarkation at Raith Maolain, is rightly given as the 14th. Sept. 6 
was August 27 Old Style. 

^ Ctichonnacht Mag Uidhir. He was half-brother and successor to Aodh 
Mag Uidhir who + 13th March, 1599/1600, from wounds received in 
a. skirmish near Cork (Life of Aodh Ruadh 226), and son of Cuchonnacht 
'og +1589 and Margaret O'Neill (ZfcPh. ii. 328, 359, 360, O'Grady Cata- 
logue 454). O'Grady remarks that the " Four Masters are silent as to 
the manner of his succession," but the Life of Aodh Ruadh gives a very 
graphic account of how that chief, in opposition to the wishes of 'O 
N^ill, gave him the title of Maguidhir at a banquet in 'O NMl's house, 
though Conchubhar Ruadh Maguidhir, his opponent, sat at the side of 
the host. See Father Denis Murphy's edition, pp. 228-232. Under 
Sir George Carey, Fermanagh was divided between him and his rival 
(Cal. St. Pa. James I. ii. 23). In the summer of 1607 he left Ireland, 
came to Brussels about Whitsuntide, and received a sum of money 
from the Archduke for the purchase of a ship. Sir Thomas Edmonds, 
writing to Salisbury, 21st (31st) October, says " the fact stated in his 
last letters is true, that M'Guire passed into Britain [Brittany], and 
there disguising himself as a merchant, bovight some wines and salt, and 
hired a ship at Nantes wherein he laid his merchandise, together with 
a provision of fishing nets to give colour to his going to fish upon the 
coast of Ireland, and so brought that company away from thence " 
(Cal. St. Pa. 628). From Dunkirk they sailed for Ireland, having on 
board sixteen pieces of ordnance and three score soldiers {ibid. 301). 
On the subsequent movements of Cuchonnacht see the narrative. He 
died at Genoa on the 12th of August 1608. 



4 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

mbliadhna. Bui ar in litir remhraite go ttainic Maguidir 
(Ciichonnacht Maguidir), Donnchadh O Briain, Matha og 
O Maeltuile, Seon Rat, go loing fFrangcaigh a gcomhairchiss 
Ui Ne[i]ll 7 lerla Thire Conaill go cuan Suiligi Moire as ur- 
chomair Ratha Maolain a fFanait. Gapuis O Ne[i]ll a ched ag 
in lustis in sathorn 'n-a deghaidh sin. Teid an oidhche sin gus 
in Mainistir Moir, ait a mbuT Sir Geroid Modhar. Ar n-a 
mharach do go Sradbaili Duna Dealgan. Gluaissis dia luain 



^ Donnchadh 'O Briain. The Four Masters give him a fuller title, 
Donnchadh mac Mathgamhna mic anEspuicc Ui Bhriain (vi. 2352). He 
set sail for Spain in June, 1602, after the battle of Kinsale (Pac. Hib. 
Bk. ii. ch. 22). O'Grady styles hina " a gentleman of Clare attached to 
O'Donnell," and says " he had broken prison at Athlone and fled abroad 
to escape the bribes and threats wherewith Lord Deputy [Chichester] 
sought to have him inculpate the Earl of treasonable practices " (Cata- 
logue 398 ; cf. Cal. St. Pa. 372). His father was killed at Cluain Dxibhain 
(Clonoan), 22nd March, 1586, and his grandfather Toirrdealbach was 
bishop of Killaloe and + 1569 (FM. v. 1884, 1630). In the Bill of 
Attainder (1613) Donogh M'Mahon O'Brian is said to be " late of Eath- 
mullen " (Meehan 264). 

2 Matha 'og 'O Maeltuile was with Aedh Ruadh in Spain before his 
death, and had a pension of 25 crowns a month from the King. Accord- 
ing to the Information of James Bath, brother to John Bath above, " he 
was driven to run away out of England in great danger from the Earl of 
Salisbury," and went into Spain about Christmas, 1605. The same 
informant says he, Father Florence, and Rory Albanach were instru- 
ments of the plot of the Earls' going out of Ireland. So, too, Domhnall 
'O Cearbhaill, who + 8th of August, 1608, writing from Rome, 10th 
Nov., 1607, begs to be commended to Matthew Tixllie " unto whom all 
our cotmtry is bound for ever for this his attempt." He acted as sec- 
retary to Tyrconnell (Cal. St. P. James I., vol. 2, 301, 325, 366). 

3 John Rath. Sir Thos. Edmonds, the ambassador at Brussels, 
writes to Salisbury, Nov. 4th (14th), that " order has been taken for 
erecting a new company for the common persons who came out of Ire- 
land with Tyrone, and the commandment thereof at his recommenda- 
tion is committed to John Raythe who served for pilot to bring him out 
of Ireland" (iUd. 632). 

* Earl of Tyrconnell. Rudhraighe 'O Domhnaill, younger brother 
of Aodh Ruadh, was left by the latter to govern his people on his de- 
parture for Spain after the battle of Kinsale, 3 January, 1602 [Thurs- 
day, 24 December, 1601, Old Style] (FM. vi. 2327). He submitted a few 
months after his brother's " removal ". and, having superseded Niall 
Garbh in the king's favour, was created Earl of Tyrconnell in 1603. He 
died at Rome, 28 Julv, 1608. In the flight he took with him his son 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 5 

Briain/ Matha 'Og 'O Maoltuile,2 and John Rath-^ came 
with a French ship for O Neill and the Earl of Tyrconnell* 
to Cuan Suilighe moire, ^ opposite Rath Maolain^ in Fanaid " 
'O Neill took his leave of the Lord Justice on the following 
Saturday. He went that night^ to the Mainistir Mor,^ where 
Sir Garret Moore^° was. On the following day he went to 
Sradbhaile Diina Dealgan.^^ He proceeded on Monday from 
Sradbhaile by the high road of the Fiodh,^" to Beal Atha an 



Aodh, who was less than a year old, but left behind his wife, Brigid, 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Kildare, and a daughter unborn. 

^ Cuan Suilighe moire. " The Harbour of the Great Swilly," now 
Lough Swilly, into which a river of the same name discharges itself 
near Letterkenny, Co. Donegal. 

* Edith Maoldin. Rathmullen, on the west side of Lough Swilly, 
in the barony of Kilmacrenan, Co. Donegal. At the castle of Mac 
Suibhne Fanad in that place the capture of young Aodh Ruadh was 
effected by Sir John Perrott in 1587 (Life 11 ff.). 

' Fanaid (d. sg.). Fannat peninsula lies between Lough Swilly 
and Mulroy Bay. 

® That night. It was Saturday, September 8th. Father Meehan, 
Fate and Fortunes of Tyrone and Tyrconnell (3rd ed.) 75, says that 
Tyi'one took leave of the Deputy on the eighth and proceeded " two 
days afterwards " to Mellifont, which is incorrect. The error is repeated 
by Healy, op. cit. 92. 

* In Mhainisiir Mhor. " The great monastery " of Mellifont, about 
five miles from Slane, in Co. Louth. " He ['O N^ill] went from Meli- 
phant on the Sunday in the afternoon," Chichester to SalLsburj^ April 
7th, 1608. 

^" Sir Garret Moore. This nobleman resided at Mellifont, a grant of 
which his father received. In 1566 the fine for the lease was fixed at 
£45 (Morrin, Patent Rolls i. 539). Sir Garret befriended Aodh Ruadh 
after his escape from Dublin Castle in 1592. To him 'O N^ill entrusted 
one of his younger sons, Sean, " who was brought up in Sir Garret's 
house " (Cal. St. Pa. 463). Notice that 'O Cianain does not write 'O 
Mordha, Sir Garret being of English extraction ; but O' Grady, Cata- 
logue 453, Gaelicizes his name Ceroid 'O Mordha. 

11 Sradbhaile Duna Dealgan. " The to\^-n of Dundalk." 

12 1)1 Fiodh. The high road from Dundalk to Armagh passed through 
the district of the Fews barony, in the south of Co. Ai>magh. 'O Neill's 
stepfather, Enri 'O N(^ill, resided there imtil his death about the time of 
James'accession. His son, Toirrdhelbhach, half brother to the Earl of 
Tyrone, died in 1640 (FM. vi. 2402). O'Donovan, FM. vi. 1922, and 
Father Murphy, Life of Aodh Ruadh 30, n. 2, confound this Toirrdhelbh- 
ach with his grandson, Toirrdhelbhach, son of Enri, who married the 
daughter of Ruaidhri 'O Mordha, the famous leader of 1641. 



6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ass in Sradbaili tria bhealach mor in Fhedha go Bel Atha in 
Airgit, tar Sliap Fuait go Hard Macha, tar Abainn Moir, go 
Dun • Genainn, gus in gCraoip .i. baile oilem dia bailtibh. 
Dogni se comnaidhe 7 oirisemh ar in Chraoibh dia mairt. 
Gluaisidh a n-ainm De dia cedaoin on Chraoibh tar SHap 
Sioss. Bui an oidhque sin a Muinntir Luinigh ar comhgar 
Locha Beigfhine. Ar n-a mharach do go Bun Diennoide. 
Bui i n-a chomhnaidhe o aimsir mhedhoin laoi go comthuitim 
na hoidche. lar sin leigis tar Fersait Moir ar Loch Feabail e 
gach ndlreach go Droichet Adhamnain. Bui mac Ui Dom- 
naill (Cathbarr mac Aoda meic Magnusa) ar a gcionn annsin. 
Gapsat go Raith Mealltain, an la ag soillsiugadh orra in tan 

^ Bel dtha an airgit, " the mouth of the Silvery Ford," now Silver- 
bridge, in Co. Armagh, about ten miles from Dundalk. It lies on the 
main road between that town and Newtown Hamiltown, on the border 
of the Baronies of Upper Fews and Upper Orior. 

^ Sliabh Fuait. O' Donovan remarks that in his time this name was 
still preserved and applied to the highest mountain in the Fews (which 
name, be it observed, has nothing to do with Fuaid in Sliabh Fviaid), 
and Father Edmund Hogan, Onomasticon 608, gives it as his opinion 
that Sliabh Fuaid is the mountain, the western summit of which is 
Carrigatuke, and the eastern the Deadman's Hill, between which the 
road from Dundalk to Armagh passes. 

^ Ard Macha, the ancient city of Armagh. Quite close to it lies the 
scene of 'O N^ill's victory on the 10th August, 1598, over the English 
at B^l an 'Atha bhuidhe, " the Yellow Ford." 

* Ahlia Mhor. " The great River," now the Blackwater, flows 
for portion of its course between the counties of Tyrone and Armagh. 
It was known by the name of Dabhall in ancient tiuies. The road from 
Armagh to Dungannon crossed it close to the fort of Charlemont, which 
had been built by Mountjoy, and was then commanded by Sir Toby 
Caulfield. 'O N^ill left Caulfield with the Deputy, who, on Monday, 
10th of September, despatched him down into Tyrone to see what the 
Earl's hurried movements meant (Cal. St. P. 463). 

^ Dun Genainn, ' Dungannon.' " This Countie -[Tyrone] hath not 
Townes, but divers ruined Castles, as Dungannon, the Earles principal 
Hous, which himself cast down to the middest after he had well builded 
it and covered it with lead, when Sir William Russell, late Lord Deputie, 
approached with the Armie thereto " (Ireland in 1598, p. 27). 

® An Craobh ' Creeve.' This is a small lake in the parish of Aghaloo 
and barony of Lower Dungannon, Co. Tyrone. It gave its name to the 
townland of Creevelough, which lies adjacent to it on the north side. 
" Island fastnesses in inland lakes formed the universal system of de- 
fence in the north " (Ireland in 1598, p. 22, note «.). 

' Sliabh Sios. O'Donovan in a note to FM., 1607, translates this 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 7 

Airgid/ across Sliabh Fuaid,- to Ard Macha,^ over the Abha 
Alor* to Dun Geanainn,^ to the Craobh,^ one of his island 
habitations. He made, a stop and a rest at Craobh on Tues- 
day. He proceeded in the name of God from Craobh on 
Wednesday over Shabh Sios.' He was that night in Muinn- 
tear Luinigh,^ in the vicinity of Loch Beigfhine.^ On the 
following day he reached Bun Diannoide.^" He rested from 
mid-day till nightfall. After that he passed over Fearsaid 
Mor" on Loch Feabhail, straight forward to Droichead 
Adhamhnain.i" The son of ^O Dom^hnaill^^ (Cathbharr, son 

as a common name, but there was a particular district and niountain 
range so called. See Cal. St. Pa. (1607) 151, i376. In a Relation 
of the proceedings of the Lord Deputy and others, July-September, 
1609, we read: "the 24th [August] they marched towards Coleraine 
[i.e., the county] ; the mountains of Slewshishe and Slewgannon not 
being passable with carriages, they were constrained to pass by Deserte 
Linn and Glanconkane, near to Kilulter." They are now known as the 
Sperrin Mountains 

^ Muinntear Luinigh. The Ui Luinigh ' O'Looneys ' were originally 
^seated in the barony of Raphoe, Co. Donegal, but being driven over the 
Foyle by the Cen^l Conaill, settled in the barony of Strabane in the north 
of Co. Tyrone (FM. ii. 939). Here Toirrdhelbhach Luineach 'O Nc^ill, 
who was inaugurated on the death of Seaan an diomais in 15B7, was 
fostered. 

^ Loch Beigfhinc, a lake in Tyrone, the exact position of which is 
unknown to me. 

^^ Bun Diennoide. ' The mouth of the Dianaid or Swift little River,' 
now known as Burn Dennet. This riyer flows throiigh the parish of 
Donaghedy, and barony of Strabane, and enters the Foyle about six 
miles below Lifford. 

^^ Fersaid moir (ac. sg.), ' the great shallow,' on the river Foyle (Loch 
Febhatl), below Lifford. 

1^ Droichead Adhamhndin, ' Adamnan's bridge.' In the indictment 
of Tyrone, Tyrconnell and the rest of the fugitives presented by Sir 
.John Davys to juries at Lifford and Strabane about Christmas, 1607, 
we And the name of " Caffer O'Donnell late of Droghedownan " (Cal. 
St. Pa. (1608), pp. 389, 555). The place is now called Ballindrait, and 
lies in the parish of Clonleigh, and barony of Raphoe, Co. Donegal. 

^' The son of 'O Domhnaill. A younger brother of Aodh Ruadh was 
Cathbharr, son of Aodh dubh (Black Sir Hugh) and Inghean dubh, 
daughter of Mac Domhnaill, Lord of the Isles. He married Rois, 
daughter of Seaan 6g 'O Docharta,igh and sister of Cathaoir (Sir Cahir), 
by whom he had issue two sons, and who after his death in 1608 married 
Eoghan Ruadh 'O Neill. Cathbharr + the 15th September, 1608, and 
was buried in the habit of St. Francis in the Church of St. Pietro Montorio. 



8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

sin. Eirgit go Raith Maolain ait a mbul in long adupramar 
ar angcairip. Fuaratar Rugraighi O Domnaill, lerla Thire 
Conoill, gus na daoinibh uaisle remraite maille re moran 
d'oireacht 7 do lucht lenamhna in lerlae ag cor storuiss bidh 7 
dighe asteach 'san loing. 

n. [p. 2] Tiaghaid asteach ar bord loinge timchiol mhe- 
dhoin laei dia haoine do shonnradh. Togbhaid a seolta ainn- 
sein. Leigit ar comhghar in chuain iad. Cuirit lucht da 
bhat do thoghdil uisque 7 d'ierroidh connaidh. Beiris mac 
Mheic Suipne Fanat 7 drong do dhaoinibh in tire a ttoraigh- 
eacht orra. Troidit re aroile. Is ar e'lgen tugatar foirionn na 
mbad uisque 7 connadh led. Timchiol mheadhoin na hoidhche 
cetna sin tdgbhait a seolta an athuair. Leigit amach go comh- 
fhairsing sa ffairrgi iad. Ba taitnemhach feith-chiuin an 
oidhche go ngaoith anier-ndesss. Mesait annsin dol asteach 
go hAroinn a riachtanus a less bidh 7 dighe do thabairt chuca. 
Eirgiss ainfine imarcach agus doinionn dermhair maille re ceo 
7 fleachadh doip as gur hinnarbadh o chomhghar in tire iad. 
Gabhait in fhairrgi go comhfairsing. Ba marthanach in 
stoirm 7 in michiunus sin go medhon oidhche bul ar a gcionn. 
As a haithle dirgit a gcursa clelaimh re Tir Conaill tar chuan 
Sligigh gach ndlreach go rapat^r as urchomhair Chruaiche 

1 Rdlth Mealltain. Rathmelton, situated on Lough Swilly, where 
the river Leanann enters its waters, about five mUes to the north of 
Letterkenny. 

2 On Sept. 12/22 Davys reported the events of the flight to Salisbury, 
and his account is in substantial agreement with our narrative. See 
Cal. St. Pa. 270 and Meehan op. cit. 97. 

' At anchor, ar angctiirip niisrendered by O'Donovan " in this 
vessel " (FM. vi. 2354). 

* Friday. The Four Masters under the year 1607 state that this 
day was the festival of the Holy Cross, i.e., September 14th. " Under- 
stand for certain that the Earl of Tyrone, &c., did ship themselves in 
a French ship, about the burden of three score tons, and on Friday 
morning, being the 14th hereof, set sail for Spain " (The Lord Dep. and 
Council to the Privy Council, Cal. St. Pa. ii. 267). Aodh 6g 'O N<^ill, 
son of the Earl by Siobhan, sister of Aodh Ruadh 'O Domhnaill, and 
styled Baron of Dungannon, having gone to Derry to buy bread and 
other necessaries, rejoined the company at Lough Swilly {ihicl. 260). 
Davys says " they took some beeves from one Francis Whyte an English- 
man and killed them for their provision" (Cal. St. Pa. 270). 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 9 

of Aodh, son of Maghnus) was there awaiting them. They 
went to Raith Mealltain,^ the daylight shining upon them at 
that time. They proceeded to Raith TVlaolain," where the 
ship we have mentioned was at anchor.^ They found Rugh- 
raighe 'O Domhnaill, Earl of Tyrconnell, with the aforesaid 
gentlemen, together with many of the tribe and followers of 
the Earl, putting stores of food and drink into the ship. 

H. They went in on board ship about mid-day on Friday.* 
Then they hoisted their sails. They moved close to the harbour- 
side. They sent two boats' crews to get water and to search 
for firewood. The son of Mac Suibhne^ of Fanaid, and a 
party of the people of the district came upon them in pursuit. 
They fought with one another. With difficulty the party 
from the boats brought water and firewood with them. About 
the middle of the same night they hoisted their sails a second 
time. They went out a great distance in the sea. The night 
was bright, quiet, and calm, with a breeze from the south- 
west. Then they proposed putting into Ara*^ through need 
of getting food and drink. An exceeding great storm and 
very bad weather arose against them, together with fog 
and rain, so that they were driver from proximity to land. 
They traversed the sea far and wide. That storm and un- 
settled weather lasted till the m.iddle of the following night. 
Afterwards, leaving Tir Conaill on the left, they direct their 
course past the harbour of Sligeach,'' straight ahead until they 
were opposite Cruach Padraig^ in Connacht. Then they 
feared that the King's fleet, which was in the harbour of 
Gaillibh,^ would meet with them. They proceeded out into 

5 One of the jurymen who swore to the indictment of the Earls at 
Lifford and Strabane (v. supra p. 7, n. 12) was " Donel M'Swyne Fanet." 
He appears in the confession of Ingean dubh which led to the arrest of 
Isiall garbh 'O Domhnaill in 1608. 

® Ara, the island of Arranmore, off the west coast of Donegal. 

' Sligech, a river which gives its name to Sligo and Sligo Bay. 

« Cruach Pddraig. This is the well-known mountain in the south 
of Co. Mayo, anciently called Cruach Aigle, now Croaghpatrick. 

» Gaillibh. The river Gaillibh gave its name to the city and bay 
of Galwav; 



lo FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Patraic a gConnachtoip. Imeglaigit ainnsein loingess in righ. 
bul a gcuan na Gaillbhe do thegmhail riu. Leicit amach sa 
ffairrge iat do denomh ar in Spainn gach ndirech da mad eidir 
leo. Bator ier sin tri la deg for fairrge maille re hainfine 
imarcaigh 7 re droich-shin chonntabartaigh. Tug comhfhor- 
tacht adpol ddip mar do chmrctair saffairrgi a ffoiienmham na 
loinge cros oir bui ag O Neill i n-a roipe rann-chuid don chroicji 
chesta go n-imat religiass oile.' A fforcionn na haim.sire sin 
tegmhaidh do chuiss ingantuis doibh a gceirt-mhedhon na 
fairrge da sheapac bhega .i. merilliuin do thoirling forsan luing. 
Ro gapadh na seabaic. Do bethaigedh as a haithle. 

HL Dia domhnaigh in dechmadh la fichet Septembriss. 
tainic in gaoth go coimhdhireach a gcertaghoidh na loinge, 
Gapsat na marnelaigh do laimh, 5 nach roibhe ar comas d5ip 
dol don Spainn, go mbeittis a gcuan Croissic issin m,Britainn 
fo chionn da lo go n-oidhche. Comhairlighit na tigernaidhe 
[p. 3] bator san loing, do bithin teirce a mbidh 7 a ndighe go 
hairighthe, f5s do brigh a ffuaratar gusin tan sin do docomal 
7 m,eirten na fairrge, gur uo himairgidhe doip a leigen gach 
ndlreach gusin fFrainc. A gcetoir dirgit a gcursa gusin 
fFrainc. Da la 7 da oidche d5ip ar siobal fo Ian se5iL Ni 
rangator tir ar dom.an in comhfhad sin. F5s ni m,aith rofhit- 
irset cia in costa airigthe ba himfhoixe dhoip. 

IV. Timchiol mheadhdin laei dia m,airt adchid trI longa 
adhbalmora ag ascnamh on aird uo dhess mar do thicfaitis on 
Spainn. Ge gur imeglaigset in loinges sin gur mesatar gur 
d'arm.ail rig Saxan ar ttoigheacht 'n-a n-iermhoirecht iad,, 
brethnaigit aca fein gur uo ferr doip denomh orra do chor a 
gconaich a gconntabairt, mad naimde iad, no madh catoilce, 
d'ierroidh seel 7 eoluis orra, inas bheith san guasacht dermhair 
a mbator a tt^p se[ac]hrain 7 aineoluis 7 teirce dighe. Riccit 
fein 7 in loinges ar comhghar a cheile deoigh laoi. Eirgis 
ainfine adpol in tan sin as nach rangator fein 7 in loinges go 



^ Le Croisic, a town on the west coast of France, sitvaated near the 
mouth of the Loh-e, and in the department of Loire Inf^rieure. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS ii 

the sea, to make for Spain straight forward if they could. After 
that they were on the sea for thirteen days with excessive storm 
and dangerous bad .weather. A cross of gold which 'O Neill 
had, and which contained a portion of the Cross of the Cruci- 
fixion and many other relics, being put by them in the sea 
trailing after the ship, gave them great relief. At the end of 
that time, much to their surprise, they met in the middle of 
the sea two small hawks, merlins, which alighted on the ship. 
The hawks were caught and were fed afterwards. 

HL On Sunday, the thirtieth of September, the wind 
came right straight against the ship. The sailors, since they 
could not go to Spain, undertook to reach the harbour of 
Croisic^ in Brittany at the end of two days and nights. The 
lords who were in the ship, in consequence of the smallness 
of their food-supply, and especially of their drink, and also 
because of all the hardship and sickness of the sea they had 
received up to that, gave it as their advice that it was right 
for them to make straight ahead towards France. Forthwith 
they directed their course to France. They went on for two 
days and two nights under full sail. They reached no land 
at all in that time. Not even did they know well what par- 
ticular coast was nearest to them. 

IV. About midday on Tuesday they saw three very large 
ships approaching from the south as if coming from Spain. 
Although they feared that squadron, and though they thought 
they belonged to the King of England's armament and were 
in pursuit of them, they considered that it was better for 
themselves to make for them and imperil their success if they 
were enemies, or, if they were Catholics, make inquiries and 
seek direction, than to be in the great danger in which they 
were in regard to going astray and mistaking the direction 
and scarcity of drink. They and the squadron came near one 
another at the end of day. A terrible storm arose at that time 
so that they and the squadron could not for a time come within 
speaking distance of one another. Afterwards, however, 
they spoke with the crews of the ships. They made enquiries 



12 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

cenn aimsire toigeacht a gcoir chomhraidh re aroile. As a 
haithle tra laprait re lucht na loingsi. lerroit scela orra. 
Innissit gur do chrlchoibh Lochlann a mbunadhwj-, go rapsat 
ag ternodh tar aiss on Spainn go a n-atharrdha badein. Ad- 
bertsat gur sa ffairrge fFleminnaig batar-san d'airigthe. Mar 
do bui in cuan sin ar comghar chosta na Saxan nl mor gurab 
ann ba romhaith lesna maithib sin tegmhail a n-aois na huaire 
sin. Fos ni roipe pil5it fessach no eolach sa chuan sin aca. 
Gapsat ag foilenmhain na loingsi remraite gur ben comdhorcha 
na hoidhche a radharc dip. 

V. Adbert Frangcach airigthi bui san loing : Na biodh 
dibergdit no imsniomh oraip, a mhaithi, ol se ; treoraighfet-sa 
ria n-eirgi greine amarach a ttlr sa Normainnti [p. 4], prouensi 
oirrderc gabhus le rig na Fraingce, sibh. An Chruinne, 
primhchathoir oireghdha gapus le righ na Spainne, chom ar 
thriallsat o thus. Do mhet na scissi 7 in docomail ro ihuilngGtair 
nl mdr nach roibhe a urdail do deigh-inntinn 7 do shupailchip 
aca fo dol a ttir sa Normainnti 7 mar do ragdaoiss sa gcsLthvaigh 
sin. Dirgit a gcursa gusin gcuan sin. Timchiol medhoin 
oidche eirghiss in fhairrgi i n-a tonnoibh tul-borba tinnesnacha 
tren-tuinnsemhacha doip. Trocaire na Trinoite ru-s-tesairc 
gan in long co n-a m,bui innte do bhathadh. Drong do na 
daoinibh uaisle batar uas taiste, ni mor nach rapsat a gconn- 
tabairt a mbreth am,ach a gcertmjcdon na fairrgi 6 laid/re na 
gaoithe agus o llnmaire na ttonn. Ba heicen doip a seolta do 
legad la tolgan 7 trethan na ttonn, an long do leigen do 
,reir thoile De ar a haradhain fein seachnoin na fairrge. 

VL Bator da oilen gabhus le rIgh Saxan, dar comhanmanna 
Gorgi 7 Garsii, a n-imfhoixe doib. Muna bheith legadh na 
seoltae bator a gconntabairt dermhair a gcomhmbualadh fo 
nechtar don da oilen sin. No dia raghdaois a ttir o n-a ttoil 
uodein, nir uo ssiigidh deghc[h]arat a gcein doip gnuissi na 

^ Lochlainn. This is a wide term, being applied to various northern 
peoples, Norwegians, Danes, Swedes, Finns, &c. Here it probably 
refers to the Danes. 

2 Corunna, a seaport in the north-west of Spain. It was the common 
pomt of embarkation for Ireland. There Aodh Ruadh landed in Janu- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 13 

of them. They told them that they were natives of Loch- 
lainn/ and that they were returning from Spain to their own 
country. They said that it was in the Flemish sea in par- 
ticular they were. As that sea was near the coast of England, 
these princes would scarcely have liked to fall there by chance 
at that moment. Besides, they had no pilot who knew the 
way or had experience of that sea. They went after the 
squadron aforementioned until the darkness of the night took 
it out of their sight. 

V. A certain Frenchman who was in the ship said : " Be 
not troubled nor concerned, princes," said he ; " before sun- 
rise tomorrow I will direct you to land in Normandy, a famous 
province belonging to the King of France." To Corunna," a 
great city belonging to the King of Spain, they had originally 
intended to go ; in consequence of the amount of weariness 
and hardship they had endured, they were almost as well 
pleased and as glad to land in Normandy as to reach that city. 
They directed their course to that harbour. About mid- 
night the sea rose in violent, quick, strong-sounding waves 
against them. It was the mercy of the Trinity that saved 
them and kept the ship and all that was in it from being 
drowned. A party of the gentlemen who were above the 
hatch w^ere almost in danger of being carried out into the 
middle of the sea by the strength of the wind and the number 
of the waves. They were obliged to take down their sails by 
reason of the strength and power of the waves, and to leave 
the ship to itself to drift over the sea as God should will. 

VI. There were two islands belonging to the King of 
England called Jersey and Guernsey^ near them. Were it not 
for the taking down of the sails they were in great danger of 
striking on either of these tw^o islands. Even if they landed 
of their own free will, the faces of the inimical merciless 

ary, 1602, shortly after the battle of Kinsale. In English writings of 
the period it is commonly referred to as " the Groyne." 

* 'O Cianain's attempts to reproduce foreign names in Irish spelling 
are, as a rule, very crude. 



14 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

n-eritchedh naimhdidhi n-ettrocar batar ar a -ccionn isna 
hoilenoip. A moch-shoillsi na maitne adchid go follus na 
hoilein ar a gcomhghar. Du-s-rat ir> Frangcach remraite 
aithne forra. Adbert gur uo Saxanaigh batar dia n-inotacht 
7 dia n-aittreabadh. 

Vn. Togbhait a seolta ainnsein. Leicit ar siob<2/ iat. 
lar ffagbhail radhairc na n-oilen adconnarcatar go comhfhair- 
sing talara na Fraingce. Ar ttoigheacht ar comhghar in chuain 
d5ip gapuis crith-egla 7 imfhaitchess in Frangcach. Adbert 
go roibi aimsir imchian o ro bul sa chuan ria sunn, go mbul a 
n-ainffioss [p. 5] 7 a gconntabairt dermhair um eolus dingmalta 
do dhenomh asteach sa chuan. Gar ier sin adchid batt beg 
Frangcach ag ascnamh chuca. Fochtait scela dia fhoirinn. 
Adbertsat tra gurap o Ruadhan doip, primh-chathair oirrderc 
gapus le rig Franc. Tairgit gne chomhadh doip ar eolus do 
denomh astech sa chuan. Geallait a denomh. Bator rompa 
7 na ndeaghaidh car m chaomh-laithe. In tan ro-Isshgh 
in.ghaoth deoigh laoi i nach roipe ar comus donloingdol asteach 
sa gcuan, gapsat tra muinnter na beg-loingi a gcead aca- 
san. Atbertsat nach roipe maith aca re a denomh doip, 
nach ierrfaitiss loighigheacht na mathessa nach dernsat. Dlr- 
git fein a gcursi go Ro.an. Gidheadh chena ro sheolatar 
chuca-san gan mhoille aroile bhat i n-a mbuipiloit Rodhain. 
Tic tra in pileot ar bord loinge chuca a gcomdhorcha na 
hoidhque. Togbait a seolta. Bator ar siobal seachn5in na 
hoidhche. Ar maidin ar n-a mharach treoraigidh in piloit 
cetna iad a ruib<?V Rodhain ar in tsp bhodeass don chuan nua 
dar comainm Harboure de Grace. Timchiol meadhoin laoi 
dia dardaoin, la S. Pronseiss do shonnradh, in cethramadh la 
Octobriss 7 in t-aenmad la lichet doip ar fairrge, tiagait a ttir 
a mbaili beg ar bru in ruib^Vr chetna dar comhainm Cilbuf. 
Dognit gne chiunais 7 chomnaidhe ann in meide bui rompa 
don 16 gus in oidhche ar a gcionn. Persa d'uiresbaidh ar chet 

^ Havre {Harbour) de Grace, now Le Havre, prior to 1516 was a place 
of no importance. Francis I., 1494-1547, began the construction of the 
harbour, and named from the Church of Notre Dame de Grace in the 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 15 

lieretics who were before them on the islands would not be as 
at a meeting of good friends in a foreign land. At the dawn 
of day they saw clearly the islands near them. The above- 
mentioned Frenchman recognised them. He said that 
Englishmen were occupying and inhabiting them. 

VH. Then they raised their sails. They proceeded on 
their way. After leaving the view of the islands they saw 
widely extended the land of France. When they came near 
the harbour fear and trembling came upon the Frenchman. 
He said it was a long time since he had been there before, and 
that he was in ignorance and great doubt, and could not give 
suitable guidance into the harbour. Shortly after that they 
saw a little French boat making for them. They made en- 
quiries of its crew. They said they were from Rouen, a famous 
city belonging to the King of France. They offered them 
some gifts for piloting them into the harbour. They agreed to 
do so. Tliey were before tfiem and behind them throughout 
the day. When the wind subsided in the evening and the ship 
could not enter the harbour, the crew of the small ship 
took leave of them. They said that they could do them no 
•service, and that they would not ask reward for a service they 
had not rendered. They themselves direct their course to 
Rouen. However, they sent to them without delay a certain 
boat in which there was the Rouen pilot. The pilot came on 
board to them in the darkness of the night. They raised 
their sails. They were proceeding throughout the night. In 
the morning on the next day the pilot directed them into the 
river of Rouen, south of the new harbour called Harboure de 
Grace.i About midday on Thursday, St. Francis' Day, the 
fourth day of October, and their twenty-lirst at sea, they 
landed at a little town on the bank of the same river called 
Quilleboeuf.2 They had some rest and repose there for the 
remainder of the day until the following night. There were 

neighbouring vUlage. Oxir author speaks of the Seine as "the river of 
Rouen" ; see also "the river of Antwerp" ch- xlv. infra. 

* Quilleboeuf. This is a small town situated at the movith of the Seine, 
on the south, side, in the department of I'Eure. 



i6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

isseidh bator sa loing. Ni roibi do shupstaint digi aca ag 
fagbail na loingi acht coic galuin beora 7 nl hadh lugha no 
enbairille amhain uisce. 

^ Ninely-nine. More than half of the ninety-nine may be accounted 
for as follows : — 

(1) Aodh 'O X^Ul, 2nd Efirl of Tyrone, son of Feardorcha, son of Conn 

Bacach, 1st Earl (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 435, 555). 

(2) Countess Catariona, his third wife, daughter of Aodh Mag Aon- 

ghusa (Sir Hugh) + 1595, and sister of Art (Sir Arthur), -wlxo 
married Tyrone's daughter, Sorcha (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 436), 

(3) Aodh, Baron of Dungannon, son of the Earl by his first wife. 

Siobhan + 1590, sister of Aodh Ruadh 'O Domhnaill. He died 
at Rome, 23rd September, 1609, aged twenty-four ; see his 
epitaph, Meehan op. cit. 342. The Four Masters record his 
death at 1608 (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 435, 555). 

(4) Sean, son of the Earl by the Lady Catariona, under seven years 

at the flight (Cal. St. Pa. 260). He became a major-general iu 
the Spanish army, and was killed in 1640 

(5) Brian, Tyrone's second son by the Lady Catariona, murdered at 

Brussels, 16th August, 1617 ; see Mooney, translated by Meolian, 
Irish Franciscan Monasteries, Dublin, 1872, p. 17 (FM. 1607, 
Cal. St. Pa. 260). 

(6) Art 6g 'O Neill, son of Cormac, the Earl's brother (FM. 1607, CaL 

St. Pa. 435, 555). Cormac was imprisoned immediately after 
the flight. 

(7) Feardorcha, grandson of the Earl. His father. Conn, was 

" Tyrone's base son," Pacata Hibernia Bk. i. ch. 4 (FM. 1607). 
See his pedigree, FM. 1599. 

(8) Aodh 6g, son of Brian mac Airt 'O N^-ill and grand-nephew to 

Tyrone. Brian mac Airt was seized in 1607, and put on his 
trial for the manslaughter of a kinsman at the house of Toirr- 
dhealbhach mac Enri of the Fews. " He is besides so gracious 
and popular that after the decease of the Earl it is credibly 
thought he will attempt to restore the name of O'Neile again,"' 
Chichester to the Council, 4th August. " The hand of justice- 
has cut him off, which is a notable example to all the kingdom 
and a great security to that province," Davys to Salisbury, 
11th December. At Louvain the Earl heard of his execution ; 
see infra, ch. xlvii. (FM. 1607). 

(9) Henry Hovendon, Tyrone's secretary. " Henry Ovington has 

protested that he had no manner of knowledge of this resolu- 
tion of the Earls till the night before his departure, being sur- 
prised by that short warning and preci]ntated into the journey, 
whereof he now repents, and that he would be glad to return if 
he hoped he might recover his means and the favour of the- 
State," Sir Thomas Edmonds to Salisbury, 4th Jsovember 
(Cal. St. Pa. 555). 

(10) Enri 'O h'Again (Cal. St. Pa. 555). " In Tulach 6g 'O Neill 

was inaugurated and 'O Cathain and 'O h'Again inaugurated 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 17 

ninety-nine^ persons in the ship. As they left it all the 
drink they had was five gallons of beer and less than one barrel 
of water. 

him," C^itinn, Forvis Feasa Bk. ii. sect. 1. After the victory 
of the B^l an 'Atha buidhe (August 10th, 1598) Enri was sent 
to Scotland to tender James VI. the crown of Ireland, later, in 
1605/6, he was at the English court, visited Mount joy, then 
Earl of Devonshire, and passed to the continent on 'O N^Ul's 
errands . 

(11) Sean na bpunta 'O h'Again, O'Neill's rent-gatherer (Cal. St. Pa. 

436, 555). Contemporary English writers mostly transform 
the forename into " John O'Punty." Similarly Mac Suibhne 
na dtuath becomes M'Swyne O'Doe, Brian na samthach, that 
is, Brian of the battleaxes, Bryan O'Saw, »&c. In November, 
1609, Chichester is to acquaint the Lord Treasurer that O'Quynej 
chief of his name, whom the Earl of Tyrone carried with him„ 
has sent over a boy to his brother, Owen Roe O'Quyne, and to 
his wife to procure him licence to return hither. The like is 
demanded by Shane O'Pounty, who was here the Earl's purse- 
bearer. ' 

(12) Richard Weston, a Dundalk merchant (Cal. St. Pa. 435, 555). 

In January, 1599, Sir Geoffrey Fenton sends extracts of a letter 
from Richard Weston, whoua he had long employed about Tyrone 
for intelligences, and whom he had often found to do the best 
services (Cal. St. Pa. 1598-9). 

(13) John Bath; see p. 2, n. 3. (Cal. St. Pa. 555). 

(14) Christopher Plunkett, 'O N^ill's master of horse (Cal. St. Pa. 

436, 555). 

(15) Muircheartach 'O Coinne. He is described by Sir John Davys as 

'O NeUl's marshal. (Cal. St. Pa. 389, 555). 
(16, 17) " Ever M'Connell's two sons " (Cal. St. Pa. 435). There is 
reference here to children of 'Eimhear mac Conuladh Mag 
Mathghamhna, lord of Firmanach, who was a competitor for 
the headship of the name in 1589, and is frequently mentioned 
in the State Papers as Ever Mac Cooly or Collo. One of them, 
S^mus mac 'Eimhir mac Conuladh, took fever at Ostia and died 
six hours before Cuchonnacht Maguidhir at Genoa, 12th August, 
1608. Dr. Eoghan Mag Mathghamhna, ch. xxii. infra, was 
another son of 'Eimhear. 

(18) The Earl of Tyrconnell, Rudhraighe 'O Domhnaill, son of Aodh 

Dubh + 1600, son of Maghnus + 1563 ; see p. 4, n. 4. supra. 

(19) Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill, younger brother to the last mentioned 

(FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 435, 555) ; see p. 7, n. 13 supra. 

(20) Nuala, sister of Aodh Ruadh, Rudhraighe and Cathbharr 'O 

Domhnaill, and daughter of Aodh Dubh by his second wife, 
Inghean Dubh. She married Niall Garbh 'O Domhnaill, whose 
father. Conn, was her first cousin. She deserted her husband 
in 1600 when he went over to the English : Asper eam occa- 
sionem opportunam ratus ad Anglos se confert, ob id a Nolla 

VOL. II h 



1 8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

VHL Ar n-a mharach tra bul guibern5ir in baile a ffochair 
Ui Neill ar a medhon laoi. Bronnaiss do na seabaic edala 
ingantacha sin ro gabadh for in ffairrgi. Tar eiss mhedoin laoi 
glacait hadaidhi. Cuirit in chuntaois 7 ingen L^i Domnaill, 
na leinimh batar mailli riu, pairt da ndaoinibh uaisle 7 da 

coniuge sua O'Donelli sorore desertus (Historia Catholica 171). 
To her was addressed the poem of Eoghan Ruadh Mac an 
Bhaird, A bhean fuair faill ar an bhfeart. 

(21) Aodh 'O Donihnaill, son of the Earl by his wife Brigid Fitzgerald, 

daughter of Henry, Earl of Kildare (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 267). 
At the time of the flight he was under a year old. He died in 
1642 (Report on the Franciscan MSS. 195). 

(22) Rois, wife of Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 

436) ; see p. 7, n. 13 supra. 

(23) Aodh 'O Domhnaill, son of Cathbharr and Rois, then aged two 

years and three months (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 267). The boy 
was at fosterage when the ship arrived at Rathmullen. " There 
the Earl of Tyrconnel sent for the foster-father of his brother 
Caffar O'Donel's son, willing him to bring the child with him. 
He presently repaired with the child towards the place where 
the Earls lodged, but being met by the way by the Baron of 
Dungannon and Caffar O'Donel himself, they took the infant 
violently from hini, which terrified the foster-father, so that he 
escaped by the swiftness of his horse, their horses being tired 
with travelling. Of this child they have a blind and supersti- 
tious prophecy, because he was born with six toes upon one 
foot ; for they affirm that one of their saints of Tyrconnel hath 
prophesied that when such a one, being of the sept of O'Donel, 
shall be born, we shall drive all the Englishmen out of Ireland," 
Davys to Salisbury, September 12th, 1607. His body lies with 
that of his mother in the Franciscan convent of Louvain, where 
the latter died in 1660. 

(24) Domhnall 6g, son of Domhnall, half-brother to the Earl, who 

on the imprisonment of Aodh Ruadh sought to deprive his 
father of the chieftainship and was slain at Doire leathan 
(Derrylahan), near Teilionn, 14th September, 1590 (FM. 1607, 
Cal. St. Pa. 555). 

(25) Nechtain 'O Domhnaill, second cousin of the Earl (FM. 1607). 

(26) Sean Cron mac Daibhid, referred to as " Shane Groome, his 

[Tyrconnel's] steward," Cal. St. Pa. 435, and as " John Crone 
M'David," ibid. 555. He was in attendance on 'O N^iU as late 
as 1615. 

(27) " Edmond Grome M'David," Cal. St. Pa. 555. 

(28) " John Rath, merchant," Cal. St. Pa. 555. See p. 4 n. 3, supra 

and p. 54, n. 1 infra. 

(29) " Hugo M'Donnel O'Gallacher," Cal. St. Pa. 555, that is, Aodh 

mac Domhnaill 'O Gallchobhair. 

(30) Tirlagh Carragh O'Gallacher, Cal. St. Pa. 555, that is, Toirr- 

dhealbhach Carrach 'O GaUchobhair. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 19 

VHL On the next day the governor of the town was with 
'O Neill at dinner. He gave him those valuable strange hawks 
which had been caught at sea. After dinner they hired boats. 
They sent the Countess, and the daughter of 'O Domhnaill, 
and the children which were with them, and some of the 
gentlefolk and their attendants with their luggage by the 

(31) " Captain John Connor," Cal. St. Pa. 435. 

(32) " Edmund Brannaugh," 'Eamonn Breatnach, anglicised 'Walsh,' 

Cal. St. Pa. 435. 

(33) " Henry O'Kelly," Cal. St. Pa. 435. 

(34) " George Cashell, gentleman," Cal. St. Pa. 555. 

(36) Tadhg 'O Cianain, writer of our narrative (Cal. St. Pa. 555). An 

allowance of £22 6s. 8d. was made to his wife, a relative of the 
Earl of Thomond, as the latter " alleged that the said Teig sent 
hini intelligence from beyond the seas," Cal. St. Pa. 543. 

(37) Cuchonnacht Maguidhir (FM. 1607, Cal. St. Pa. 435) ; see p. 3. 

n. 5 supra. 

(38) Donnchadh mac Mathghamhna mac an easpuig 'O Briain (FM. 

1607, Cal. St. Pa. 435, 555) ; see p. 4 n. 1 supra. 

(39) Matha 6g 'O Maeltuile (Cal. St. Pa. 555) ; see p. 4, n. 2, supra. 

At Cal. St. Pa. 435 he is referred to as " his [Tyrconnel'sl 
secretary," without further qualification. 
(40-42) A page and two lackies of 'O N^iU (Cal. St. Pa. 436). 
(43-50) Four serving men, a page, and three lackies of 'O Domhnaill 
(Cal. St. Pa. 436). The page's name was Muiris, and he died 
f of fever, 3rd August, 1608. 

' (51-53) Three waiting women (Cal. St. Pa. 436). 

(54) Maigbheathadh 'O N^ill , who parted from the company at 

Rouen and joined them again at Arras. See infra, chapters 
xvii and xxii. 

(55) " James Bath," Cal. St. Pa. 436, but this may be a mistake for 

John, no. 13, above. However, as John did not return to 
Ireland before Febrviary, 1608, the following shows there was 
another Bath in the ship. " There has arrived here, from 
among the fugitive traitors in the Low Countries, one Bath, 
son of the widow of Sir William Warren, dwelling near this 
place," Sir Oliver St. John, master of tte ordnance and ad 
viser to Chichester, to Salisbury, February 18th, 1608. Sir 
William Warren lived at Drumcondra, and in his house 'O N^ill 
was married to Mabel Bagenal. His wife was Elinor Preston 
of Gormanstown, whose first husband was John Bath + 18th 
July, 1586. Meehan erroneously states op. cit. 349 that Cap- 
tain John Bath was her son, but John Bath, son of John and 
Elinor, lived at Balgriffin, Co. Dublin, in 1611 (Inq. Jac. I., 
nos. 19, 60). 

(56) " A Spaniard that lived with Tyrone since the year 1588, and 

fled with him," Cal. St. Pa. (1610) 537. 



20 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

lucht [p. 6] coimhideachta co n-a ttrongcaib san athghairid 
triasan ruib^r go Rodhan. Gabhuiss O Neill 7 in t-ierla, na 
tigernaidhG 7 na daoine uaissle batar maille riu, seacht ffir deg 
doibh, ar eachraidh gusin mbaile ar in luiher chetna dar 
comhainm, Laboill, seacht leige o Chilbuf, 7 6 Chilbuf sios 
gusin gcuan nua deich leige. Ar n-a mharach tra re hucht in 
baili d'fagbail ddibh adchid guibernoir Chilbuf chuca. Cuiris 
gne riastala orrae. Adubairt go gcaithfediss dol do lathair ard- 
mharuscail na Normainnti. Ro umhlaigset chuige sin. Gabh- 
sat aitherrach eachraidhe. Gluaissit began buidhne gusin 
mbaili dar comhainm Liegeuuaie, airm a mbui in maruscal, 
seacht leige deg ar comgar na Britainne. Gabuis in maruscal 
chuige go ro-on5rach degh-aigtheach iad. 

IX. Imthuss na mban uassal, gluaissit as Cilbuf a mbadoibh. 
Bator seolta togaibthe sealat aca, sealat oile ag imramh. Mar 
sin doibh go comhdhorcha na hoidhche. Impaidhiss in Ian 
mara i n-a n-aghaidh maille re nert 7 laidire in Tuiheir as gur 
cuiredh tar a n-ais aimser imchian iad. Ba difhaisneissi re a 
innissin mar do thigedh tuile 7 aithbhe in ruibw sin. Ni 
roibhe tra cuiss imthnuith aca re guasacht no ainfine dier 
fhuilngetair ar fairrge a n-athfhegmhuis a ffuaratar do dho- 
comhal 7 do c[h]onntabairt a mbaiss in tan sin, acht am.hain 
bui fion 7 uisce ar comus doibh a n-inbaidh a ttarta. Ticit 
drong do lucht aittreaptha in tire go mbadoibh maithe dia 
gcomhfhorta<:/6/. Eirgit an oidhche sin go baile beg bui ar 
bru in luiheir. Ar n-a mharach fuarator aims/r romhaith. 
Ceimnigit seachnoin in ruiheir go rangator baile eguilsi dar 
com,hainm Mainistir Sanct Seoirsi ar in taep hathuaidh don 
ruib^V. Oirissit ann an oidhche sin. Cuirit teachtaire go 
Rodhan do thredrugadh gach riachtanuis coistighi 7 bhaigi- 
nidhQ rangatar a les. Teigit co n-a n-uile chuideachta go 
Rodhan timchiol mhedhoin laoi dia domhnaigh. 

X. [p. 7]. Seachnoin na haimsire si bui A-laguidzV 7 na 

^ La Bouille, in the department of Seine Inf^rieure, east of QuUle- 
boeuf and south-west of Rouen. 

2 New Harbour. It has been referred to above, chapter vii. Havre 
de Grace, or Le Havre, is the modern name. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 21 

short route on the river to Rouen. 'O Neill and the Earl 
and the lords and the gentry who were with them went with 
seventeen men on horses to the town on the same river called 
La Bouille/ seven leagues from. Qailleboeuf, and from Quille- 
boeuf down to the new harbour^ was a distance of ten leagues. 
On the next day, as they were about to leave the town, they 
saw the governor of Quilleboeuf approaching them. He put 
them under a kind of arrest. He said they would have to go 
before the Chief Marshal of Norm,andy. They agreed to that. 
They procured a change of horses, and proceeded with a small 
company to the town called Lisieux,^ a place seventeen leagues 
away, near Brittany, where the Marshal was. The Marshal 
received them with honour and kindness. 

IX. As for the women, they proceeded from Quilleboeuf 
in boats. They had sails up for a while, for another while 
they had to row, and thus they were until the darkness of the 
night. The tide turned against them, together with the 
strength and force of the river, so that they were brought back 
a long distance. It would be difficult to describe how the 
ebb and flow of that river used to come. They had no cause 
of complaint with any danger and storm they endured on 
sea in comparison with all the trouble and danger of death 
they experienced then, except that they had wine and water 
within reach when they were thirsty. A party of the inhabi- 
tants of the country cam,e with good boats to assist them. 
They went that night to a little town on the bank of the river. 
On the next day they got very good weather. They advanced 
along the river until they reached a church town called the 
Abbey of St. Georges, on the north side of the river. They 
stayed there that night. They sent a messenger to Rouen to 
direct to them everything in the shape of coaches and waggons 
which they needed. They went with all their company to 
Roaen about midday on Sunday. 

X. During this time Maguidhir and the gentry who were 

^ Lisieux, in the department of Calvados in Normandy, derives its 
name from the ancient Lexouii. The governor of Normandy was Henry, 
Duke of Montpensier. 



22 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

daoine uaisle bator a gcoimhiteacht na ttigernadh so fo riasta 
a Laboil. Messait go rapatar na mna uaisle co n-a gcuideachta 
a mbraighdenus mar nach ffuaratar en-fhocal da sceloibh. 
Aithrister d5ib deoigh laoi dia domnaigh a ndol tairrsibh go 
Rodhan. Gabhait triar do na daoinibh uaisle bat. Imrait 
seachnoin na hoidhche. Rangatar Rodhan a mocha laoi dia 
luain. Innissit seek na ttigernadh mar do eirigh doip a ttaep 
a riastala 7 iad i n-a persanoibh baden do dol do lathair in 
ard-mharuscail go Liegeciuaie. Ba himeglach imomhnach iad 
san ier gcloss na seel sin. Rugator scela ar n-a mharach orra 
gur scrip in guibernoir le posta go ngh Frangc dia fhoillsiugadh 
go ttangatar san a ttir mar adupramar, 7 dia fhioss cred badh 
indenta riu, 7 go gcaithfediss foighite do bheith aca fo bheith 
i n-a gcomnaidhe go rochtain direxioin in rig dia saigidh. 

XL Eirgiss Matha O Mseltuile a posta go Pairis. Ba 
luaithe posta in guibernora do lathair rig Franc no Matha. 
Fuair freagra. Filliss tar a aiss. Bui in '■i ag filleadh o fhiadh- 
ach. Teid Matha i n-a lathoir. Labruis aghoidh a n- 
aghaidh friss. Adfed d5 uile imthuss na ttigernadh, mar do 
cuiredh in gne thoirmeisc sin orra fo righacht na Fraingce 
do shiopal go breith augdarrais in rig orra. Adbert in ri go 
hondrach degh-aigtheach gur glac letreadha ar chuiss na 
ndaoine uassal roimhe sin, gur scrip gus in nguibernoir dia 
ttaop. Teid Matha do lathair secretair in righ. Adubairt 
in fer sin nach tticfadh urchdid ar bith do na maithibh as 
chuiss in braigdenuis 7 go madh taosga deigh-fhreagra on 
rIgh ag breith orra no Matha do thernodh tar a aiss. 

Xn. [p. 8] Dorala ambasadoir righ Saxan sa gcathraigh 

^ Monday. October 8th. 

^ Ambassador. Sir George Carew belonged to a Cornish family, and 
sat in Parliament between 1584 and 1601. He was knighted after the 
accession of James I. in July, 1603, and served as ambassador at the 
Court of France, 1605-9. He afterwards became Master of the Court 
of Wards on Salisbury's death, and died a few months afterwards, 13th 
Noveniber, 1612. He is to be distinguished from the famous Sir George 
Carew, Earl of Totnes, who was President of Munster under Mount] oy. 
Salisbury writes to Sir Thomas Edmonds, the ambassador at Brussels, 
on the llth/24th October, as follows : " More certain information has been 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 23 

with these lords were under arrest in La Bouille. They 
thought the ladies with their company were in prison, as they 
got no account of them. It was told to them on Sunday 
evening that they had gone past them to Rouen. Three of 
the gentlemen took a boat. They rowed throughout the 
night. They reached Rouen at break of day on Monday.^ 
They gave an account of the lords, how it happened they were 
arrested, and how they went in their own person before the 
chief Marshal to Lisieux. The ladies were in fear and dread 
when they heard that. They got inform.ation the next day 
that the governor had written by post to the King of France to 
make known that they landed as we have said, and to learn 
what was to be done with them, and that they must have 
patience in regard to being detained until direction from the 
King reached him. 

XI. Matha 'O Maeltuile went post-haste to Paris. The 
governor's messenger reached the King of France sooner than 
Matha and got a reply. He returned. The King was re- 
turning from hunting when Matha went into his presence. 
He spoke face to face with him. He told him all the adven- 
tures of the lords, how they were prohibited to traverse the 
kingdom of France until they should have the King's authority. 
The King said respectfully and kindly that he had received 
letters concerning the gentlemen before that, and that he had 
written to the governor about them. Matha went to the 
King's secretary. He said that no harm at all would come to 
the princes because of their detention, and that a friendly 
answer from the King would reach them sooner than Matha 
would have returned. 

XII. The ambassador^ of the King of England was in the 

received that they, being weatherbeaten at sea, are put in at Kilboeuf 
in Normandy, and at their landing obtained leave of the Duke of Mont- 
pensier for their safe passage towards Brussels, with all their retinue. 
Whereof Sir George Carew being advertised, addressed himself to the 
French King, and provisionally desired him to make a stay of them so 
long there till he might receive further order out of England in that be- 
half ; which request he the rather grounded vipon the French King's 
speeches proceeding from his own mouth at his last audience, which was 



24 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

in tan sin. Bui ag denomh a lan-dlthill aidhmillte 7 urchoide 
do na maithip dia madh eidir leiss. Teid sin a ndimhaoiness 
7 a ml-tharbha, 5ir ni thug in ri audiens no eisteacht go fedh 
tri la d5, acht ag dol d'fiadhach gacha laithe. As a haithle sin 
mar do bui a dheimin aige na tigernaidhe do bhe[i]th a n-ait 
hadh hinnill leo, adubairt go ndeachatar n-a chomachtoibh, 
7 dia ttegmhadh nach raghdaoiss, nach dingnadh fein urchoid 
ar bith do dhaoinibh uaisle ar a gcuirfidhe d'fiachaibh a n- 
atharrda bhunaidh d'fagbail ar son a gcreidimh agus a n- 
egcomhthroim, fos go roibhe ar comus do na huilip chatoilcip 
gabail gan buaidbirt ar bith tre righarht na Fraingce. Leigiss 
in t-ombasadoir duine uassal do threibh na hAlban a posta 
go Lundain dia faisneis do rlgh Saxan go ttangatar na daoine 
uaissle si a ttir sa fFraingc 7 nar chuir in ri toirmesc orra fo 
gabail triasan fFrainc. Bui in duine uassal sin a Rodhan sa 
tigh osta a mbatar na mna uaisle in oidhche sol tangatar na 
tigernaidhe. 

XHL Ar ttoigheacht do Mhatha og go Rodhan, mar 
fuair deimin seel gurab e ordugadh 7 direxion fuaratar san 
gabail go Flonndrus thuss, 7 gan gabail gach ndirghe don 
Spainn go mbeitiss a fFlonndrus, gluaisis fein a posta go 
Flonndrus dia innissin do mac Ui Neill, corenel na nEirinnach 
a fFlonndrus fo chomachtoip rig na Spainne, go ttangatar 
na tigernaidhe si as Eirinn, gur eirigh buaidhirt 7 aineolus 
fairrgi doibh, a tteacht a ttir a righacht na Fraingce, gne 
thoirmeisc do chor annsin orra as nar leigedh doip comhghar 
na sligedh gus in Spainn do gabail, do bithin gur uo heiccen 
doip denamh ar a gcert-agaidh go Flonndrus go rabhatar ag 
a iarraidh ar in chorenel teacht i n-a gcomdhail go coicrich 
na Fraingce, fos paspart 7 barantus in arsdiuc [p. 9] d'fagail 



but a few days before, when tbe French King thought they had been 
landed in Spaia that the King of Spain did wrong to His Majesty to 
receive them. Notwithstanding, he now made a quite contrary answer, 
that France was a free country for passengers, and that the Duke of 
Montpensier, having aheady given his word for their safety, the King 
could not revoke it" (Cal. St. Pa. (1607)). Again, to Shrewsbury the 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 25 

city at that time. He was doing his full best to injure and 
harm the princes if he could. His efforts were idle and of no 
avail, for the King gave him no audience or hearing for the 
space of three days, but went to hunt every day. After that, 
as he was assured that the lords were in a place which would 
be secure for them, he said they had gone from his power, 
and if it chanced that they had not, he would not do any 
injury to noblemen who would be obhged to leave their 
paternal inheritance because of their faith and the injustice 
done to them, and also that all Catholics were free to go 
without any interference through the kingdom of France. 
The ambassador sent a gentleman of the Scottish race post- 
haste to London to announce to the King of England that 
these nobles landed in France, and that the King did not 
hinder them to go through France. That gentleman was in 
Rouen in the hostel in which the ladies were the night before 
the lords arrived. 

XHL When Matha 6g came to Rouen, and when he 
learned that the order and direction they received was to go 
to Flanders first, and not to go to Spain direct until they 
should be in Flanders, he himself went post-haste to Flanders 
to tell 'O Neill's son, the Colonel of the Irish in Flanders ^ 
under the power of the King of Spain, that these lords came 
from Ireland, that they had trouble and lost their way on 
sea, that they came to land in the kingdom, of France, that 
they were there hindered so that they were not allowed to 
take the short journey to Spain, that they were obliged to 
make straight for Flanders, that they were asking the colonel 
to come to meet them to the border of France, and also to 
procure for them a passport and warrant from the Archduke 



12th-22nd October: " The English ambassador, wishing Henry [IV.] to 
stay theni, had for answer, ' France is free.' " 

^ 'O Neill's son, Enri, was sent by his father to the Spanish court in 
1600, being then aged about fifteen. He studied at Salamanca under 
Mac Cathmhail, afterwards Archbishop of Armagh, and having become 
colonel in the Archduke's service, died unmarried. 



26 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

chuca coimhinann 7 bul barantus rig Franc go comrac a 
rigachta badein. 

XIV. Dia sathairn do shonnradh tig guibernoir chath- 
rach Rodhain gusin du a mbatar na mna uaisle. Ro fhogair 
doibh in gcathraigh d'fagbail gan mhoille in la cetna sin, n5 
ternodh tar a n-aiss gusin loing oa ttangatar. Gabhait sen 
sin 'n-a imsniomh 7 'n-a dhupachus chuca, oir do messatar gur 
do bithin michinnemhna d'eirghi do na tigernaigibh fuaratar 
fein in fhogra thul-obann sin. Tre chuis impide 7 onorachuis 
ro aontaigh in guibernoir doip as a haithle furnaidhe isia 
gcathraigh gusin luan bul ar a gcionn. Um t[h]rath esparta 
dia domnaig tigit na tigernaidhi maille re paspart 7 barantus 
righ Franc go Rodhan. 

XV. Bator sa gcathraigh an oidhche sin. Ar n-a mharach 
tra, in coicedh la deg Octobriss, gluaissit as Rodhan en- 
marcach deg ar fhichid ar eachraidh, cupla c5iste, tri uaigin^ 
timchiol da fhichid dia gcoiss. Dodheachaidh guibernoir 
Chilbuf 7 moran do dhaoinibh uaissle in baile dia ttiodhlacadh 
sealat on gcathraigh. Gapsat a gced ag in nguibernoir. 
Glacait barantus rig Franc uaidh. Tucsat do mar loc a 
sligedh, ge gur thaissealbh a aingidheacht 7 a dhroich- 
inntinn roimhe sin d5ip, timchiol da fhichid eiccin tunna 
saloinn bui sa loing ar a ttangatar. 

XVI. Ba haoibhinn examail faircsin chathrach Rodhain 
don iforadh-chnoc ard oiregdha i n-a ndernsat na m.aithe si 
ceilibhradh dieroile. Ba hadpal a mett 7 fairsinge na cath- 
rach 'si ro-dhaingen ro-laidir go n-ilimat daoine, go loingesss * 
linmhair, go gceidhe bo lor feabhus, go ruib^T ro-mhaith 
cheimniges sechnoin in tire go roich Pairis. Llnmaireacht 
mhor d'oilenoip ro-aoibhne ar in ruib^V go n-imat flnemna 7 
do chrannoip torthacha. An talamh is comthroime [p. 10] 
7 ba ferr aittrebugadh 7 ba torthaighi dier thadhaill na 
hEirinnaig sin go meinic gusin tan sin timchuairt in ruiheir. 

XVII. Bui in creidemh catoilce 7 comachta na heguilsi 
naoimhe go ro-oirrderc ro-laidir a Rodhan. Bator tri tem- 

* Read loingis. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 27 

the same as the warrant of the King of France to the border 
of his own kingdom. 

XIV. On Saturday^ the governor of the city of Rouen 
came to the place where t^e ladies were. He ordered them 
to leave the city without delay that same day, or else to return 
to the ship from which they came. They received that order 
with concern and grief, because they thought it was by reason 
of misfortune happening to the lords that they themselves 
got this sudden command. Because of their request and to 
honour them, the governor consented afterwards that they 
might remain in the city until the following Monday. At 
the time of vespers on Sunday the lords came to Rouen with 
the passport and warrant of the King of France. 

XV. They remained in the city that night. On the next 
day, the fifteenth of October, they left Rouen with thirty-one 
on horseback, two coaches, three waggons, and about forty on 
foot. The governor of Quilleboeuf and many of the gentry 
of the town came to conduct them a distance from the city. 
They took their leave of the governor. They received the 
warrant of the King of France from him. To pay their way 
they gave him about forty tons of salt which was in the 
ship in which they came, although he had shown his 
unkindliness and his ill-feeling before that to them. 

XVI. Beautiful and varied was the view of the city of 
Rouen from the high commanding eminence where these 
nobles bade farewell to one another. Great was the size and 
extent of the city, fortified and strong, having very many 
people, with extensive shipping, an excellent quay, and a very 
good river which extends across the country to Paris. There 
were m,any very beautiful islands in the river having much 
vines and fruitful trees. Around the river there was the 
levellest, the best inhabited, and most fruitful land that these 
Irish had ever traversed till then. 

XVII. The Catholic Faith and power of the Church was 
conspicuous and strong in Rouen. There were thirty-three 

^ Saturday. October 13th. 



28 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

paill deg ar fhichit do themploib porraiste sa gcathraigh 7 
coimhthinoil cheithre mainistrech ndeg d'ordoip riaghalta 
gusin status is on5raighe chostusaigi a fformhor na cristaigh- 
echtae. 

XVHL lar ngabail laimhe ar imtheacht do na maithib si 
bator tra seacht leige o Rodhan an oidhche sin a uillage beg 
dar comhainm Labourshuire. Ag fagbail Rodhain doibh 
tarla gne sheachrain 7 aineoluis eidir Aodh 6g O Neill, mac 
Briain mheic Airt, 7 in chuideachta. Fillis Neill (Maig- 
bhethadh) go Rodhan a n-iermhoracht mheic Briain. Tarla 
mac Briain don chuidechta. ler tternodh do Maigbhethadh 
Rodhan lenuiss slicht-lorcc marcshlaighi oile ro fhagoib 
Rodhan. Ni tharla dia muinntir badein e go rangatar Arass. 

XIX. Ba nemhonorach in t-6sta fuaratar na maithe sin 
isin mbaile mbeg ndeire5il adupramar, ge tharla gur u6 
sgiemhach torthach aoibinn in talomh ro thaistilset otha 
Rodhan gusin du sin. An baile beg a nglionn ro-aoibhinn ar 
abhainn roi-dheiss. A moch-shoillsi na maitne ar n-a mharach 
as sin doip tri leige go baile dar comhainm Nueuochattel. 
Oirissit ann gor eistset aiffrenn * onorach canntaireachta 7 
organ go ndernsat a medhon laoi. Gluaisit in la cetna gusin 
m,baili dier comhainm Oumalle, coig leige. An diuc dier uo 
selb in baile sin, bui in tan sin ar innarbadh 7 deoraidheacht 
o righ Frangc a fFlonndrus a ffochair an arsdiuc. Ro bui a 
uile chlos 7 tighernus dia thdgbail chuige go Flonndrwj-. Leigit 
as sin iad an oidhche sin gusin mbaili dar comhainm Poeise, 
coic leige. Ge go rangatar deoigh [p. ill 7 ier n5in laoi in 
baile sin, fuaratar betha imqubaidh 7 ait chumhsanta ba 
cosmail. Ata caisslen daingen go mbardaibh laidire 6 rig Franc 
sa mbaili chetna sin. Nir uo imxhien in shg^ in la sin, acht 
ba cnocaighi ghairbhe riasganta nemhthorthaighe i oldait na 
sligthe oile. 



* MS. ai^rinn. 

1 La Boissiere is situated about 25 kilometres in a nortli- westerly 
direction from Rouen in the department of Seine Inferieure. 

* Neufchatel lies in the department of Seine Inferieure, about 40 
miles north-west of Rouen. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 29 

parish churches in the city, and communities of fourteen 
monasteries of religious orders, with the m,ost splendid and 
costly town hall in the greater part of Christendom. 

XVHL These nobles, having set about departing, were 
seven leagues from Rouen that night, in a sm,all village called 
La Boissiere.^ As they were leaving Rouen, Aodh 6g 'O 
Neill, the son of Brian, son of Art, separated from the com- 
pany and lost his way. Maigbhethadh 'O Neill returned to 
Rouen to search for him. Brian's son came in with the com- 
pany. When Alaigbhethadh returned from_ Rouen he fol- 
lowed the track of another mounted party which had left 
Rouen. He did not meet his own party till they reached Arras. 
XIX. It was an humble hostel these princes got in the 
poor little town we have mentioned, although it happened 
that the land they had traversed from Rouen to that place was 
fair, fruitful, and delightful. The little town was in a very 
beautiful glen on a pretty river. Early in the morning on 
the following day they proceeded three leagues from there to 
a town called Neufchatel.^ They remained there until they 
heard High Mass with singing and music, and until they 
partook of dinner. They advanced the same day five leagues 
to the town called Aumale.^ The Duke who owned that town 
was then in exile, and banished by the King of France to 
Flanders, and was with the Archduke. All his rent and 
claims were being taken to him in Flanders. They pro- 
ceeded five leagues from there that night to the town called 
Poix.^ Though they reached that town late in the evening, 
they got suitable accommodation and a convenient place to 
rest. The King of France has a firm castle with strong de- 
fences in that same town. The journey was not long on that 
day, but it was more hilly, rougher, m,ore m,arshy than on the 
other days, and the country more barren 



' Ai^male is to the east of Neufchatel, lying in the department of 
Seine Infc^rieure and close to the border of that of Somme. 

* Poix, a town in the department of Somme, about twenty miles 
south-west of Amiens 



30 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

XX. Ar n-a mharach d5ib go piimh-chathraigh oiregdha 
oirrdirc sa fFrainc dai comhiinm Amiaunce .i. aird-gepta 
cosnamha na FraiDgce, se leige bhega. Do congbhadh sealat 
a ndorus na cathrach iad go rochtain direxioin o guibernoir 
in baile chuca. Eirgit asteach as a haithle. ler ndenomh a 
medhdin laei dochotor go tempol ro-breghdha ro-dheal- 
raigtheach dar comainm tempall Muire. Taisselbthor tra 
doib cenn Eoin Baptaist. E a ngloine cristail soilleir 
sofhaircsena do na huilip do bhiadh dia lathoir go n-ilimat 
fert 7 mirbal. Cruinn-chathoir dhess dhaingen in baili sin 
chom a ttic ruib^V on fhairrge ar a ttathaigit baid gusin nabaili 
re socomhal 7 comfhorta^:/?^ na fairrge. Ata in luiher cetna 
sin ier n-a chomhtharraing 7 ier na chomhroinn a ndibh 
rannoip deg seachnoin na cathrach, go riachtanus a les droichet 
ar gach bengan fo leith dip. Ier tternodh tar aiss o thempuU 
Muire doib gabhait a post-eachraidh nar uo hole. Leiccit 
go gepta Flonndruiss iad. Ar in taep astigh do ballaigip na 
cathrach adchid port ro-dhaingen ba lor laidire ag lucht na 
cathrach dia thogbail go n-iliomat lochta saothair 7 oibre. 
Ar in taobh amoig do na ballaigip taispentar doib na treinn- 
sighe talman 7 na daingnidhe dichra doronadh la rig Franc 
in tan bui siege no forbaissi aige ar Amens, a n-aimsir a beith 
a seilb rig na Spainne, ier n-a gabail go glic uass(2z7-inntlech- 
tach roimhe sin re tri cuidechtoib Eirenncha. 

XXI. As sin doib coic leige go bilaiste beg dar comhainm 
Pountau. Ba nemhshasta batar an oidhche sin. Mar dorala 
a n-imfhoixe chonuaic na Fraingce 7 Flonndruiss iad, ni mor 
nach roibhe [p. 12] gne imfhaitchis ar dhroing aca. Tugsat 
ar fhormh5r a ndaoine beith suas i n-a n-armaibh ag forchoimet 
doib an oidhche sin, 7 ge tharla go rapatar go lor a dhaingne 
as focal 7 as ondir righ Frangc, ni lughaide-sa-chach ro- 
imeglaighset mar do chonnarcatar drem da ndaoinibh ro gap 
aitherrach sligedh ag toigeacht go hAmens, trup mor marc- 



^ The Somme. 

2 Amiens was captured by the Spanish in 1597, and retaken after a 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 31 

XX. They went the next day to an important famous 
city in France named Amiens, the gate of defence of France, 
3. distance of six short leagues. They were detained for a 
time at the gate of the city till they got directions from the 
governor of the place. They entered afterwards. After 
dinner they went to a beautiful gorgeous church called the 
Church of Mary. The head of John the Baptist was shown 
to them. It was in a glass of crystal, evident and visible to 
whomsoever would be present, with many wonders and 
miracles. A pretty, strong, round city was that town ; to 
it a river -^ comes from the sea, on which boats travel to the 
town with ease and the help of the tide. That same 
river is brought and divided in twelve divisions throughout 
the city, with the necessary bridges over each branch of them. 
When they came back from the Church of Mary, they took 
their good post-horses. They proceeded to the Flanders 
gate. Inside the walls of the city they saw a very strong fort 
of great strength being built by the people of the city, with 
many labourers and workmen. Outside the walls there were 
pointed out to them the trenches and the strong fortresses 
which were made by the King of France when Amiens was 
besieged^ by him at the time it was in possession of the King 
of Spain, being taken previously with skill and ability by three 
Irish companies. 

XXL They proceeded from thence five leagues to a small 
village called Contay.^ They were uncomfortable that night. 
As they approached the frontier of France and Flanders some 
of them were somewhat afraid. They obliged the most of their 
people to remain up in arms watching for them that night, and 
although the pledges by word and honour of the King of 
France were sufficient, nevertheless they were afraid when thev 
saw some of their own party who took a different road coming 

protracted siege by Henry IV., King of France, on the 25th of September 
in the same year. 

^ Contay is situated to the north-west of Amiens, on the road be- 
tween that city and Arras. The initial in the Irish form is an error. 



32 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

shlaighi go n-eachraidh ro-mhaith go n-eidigip plata go 
pistaloibh. 

XXn. A moch-dheghoil na maitne ar n-a mharach eirgit 
a n-ordug^<^h a gcossanta da leige as sin go coicrich Flonn- 
druiss 7 na Fraingci. Comhnaigh.it ann began aimsire. As 
a haithle leigit go hAras iad seacht leige. Ni mor nach roibhe 
gne d'imegla * na sligedh orra uidhe in laithe sin d'airigthe. 
Ar ndol asteach sa prlm-chathroigh sin doip timchiol mhedoin 
laoi in t-ochtmadh la deg Octobris dognit oirissemh 7 com- 
naidhe gusin luan bui ar a gcionn. Magbethadh ro sgar riu 
ag fagbail Rodhain iuaratar rompa sa gcathraigh sin e, ge gur 
mhessatar go m5r go madh baoglach in slig^ do. An guiber- 
noir bui o righ na Spainne sa mbaili, glacuiss fein 7 maithe 
na cathrach na tigernaidhe si chuca go subhailceach onorach- 
Ticit ar cuairt dia saigidh go mbangced maith 7 go fflntoibh. 
Cuirit athair onorach maille re coistigip taitnemhacha dia 
ttreofugadh gusna primh-eguilsib oirrderca batar sa gcath- 
raigh. Taispentar ilimat do religiassoibh ro-naomhtha mor- 
loigigheachta doibh ar a mbui rann-chuid mhor don chroich 
chesta, cenn S. San Sem, cuid d'folt Muire Madalen, cupa 
as ar ibh in Slanaigtheoir fein deoch in tan bui a gcolainn 
daonna ar in saogal, go n-imat dl-airmhe oile. Ticis Eogan 
Mag Mhathgamhna, in doctuir, i n-a gcomhairrchiss o Doua 
gus in du sin. 

XXHL Primh-chathoir oirrderc oireghdha in chathair si 
SI ro-dhaingen laidir daoineachoir degh-fhoirgenta ni is moo 
dheissi no Amens, acht gan ruiber ar a comghar [p. 13]. 
Statuss onorach a gcert-mhedhon na cathrach ar a mblonn 
garda laidir do gnath-muinntir in baile fein go sirraidhe. 
Garda oile do shaighdiuirip in righ ag geptaigip in baile 



* d and orra added later in different ink. 

1 Arras now lies in French, territory in the department of Pas de 
Calais. It was the scene of a memorable defence by Eoghan Ruadh. 
'O N^illin 1640. 

2 'Eighteenth. The day of the week was Thursday. 

* See ch. xviii. supra. 

* Eoghan Mag Mathghamhna. " Owen M'lvor M'Mahon, one of 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 33 

to Amiens, a large troop on horseback with good horses, coats 
of armour, and pistols. 

XXn. Early on the morning of the next day they went, 
arranged ready for defence, two leagues from there to the 
boundary of Flanders and France. They rested there for a 
short time. Afterwards they proceeded seven leagues to 
Arras. ^ They were somewhat afraid of the road, especially 
of the journey of that day. Having entered that chief city 
about midday on the eighteenth ^ of October, they remained 
and rested until the next Monday. They found INIaig- 
bheathadh, who separated from them leaving Rouen,^ in that 
city, though they strongly believed that the road would be 
dangerous for him. The governor himself, whom the King 
of Spain had appointed in the town, and the chief men of the 
city received these lords with kindliness and respect. They 
came to visit them, and held a splendid banquet with wines. 
They sent a reverend father with beautiful coaches to direct 
them to the famous churches which were in the city. Many 
holy precious relics were shown to them, including a large 
portion of the Cross of the Crucifixion, the head of St. James, 
portion of the hair of Mary Magdalen, a cup out of which 
the Saviour Himself took a drink when He was in human flesh 
in the world, and numerous other things. Doctor Eoghan 
Mag Mathgamhna"* came to meet them from Douai to that 
place. 

XXHL A famous important city this was, strongly forti- 
fied, firm, extensive, well-built, greater arid more beautiful 
than Amiens, but with no river near it. There was a splendid 
town hall in the middle of the city having a strong guard of 
the people of the town continually. There was another 

the sons of Ivor M'Collo, who is farmer to my lord of Essex in the Ferny, 
is designed bishop of Cloglier, but is now in Germany," Davys to Salis- 
bury, November 12th, 1606. He was transferred to Dublin on the death 
of Matthew de Oviedo, on the 2nd of May, 1611. He died on the con- 
tinent in 1623. He is sometimes called Eugene Matthews, or Eugenius 
Matthaeus. Meehan, op. cit. 83, inadvertently states that he met the 
travellers at Douai. 

VOL. II. C 



34 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

d'oidche 7 do 16. Cuirt ro-mhor 7 tempol Muire. Cathair 
ard-easpoig na prouensi gusin reilic is ferr 7 is onoraighe a 
iformhdr na crlstaigheachtae ar in taep amoigh do ballaigibh 
na cathrach. Isin egluiss Muire sin ro thuit do nemh primh- 
lochrann lassamail ciera. Do ratsat lucht aittreptha na 
cathrach fodera sepel onorach do thogbail ar in taop astigh 
do na ballaighip fo chomhair in lochrainn naemtha sin 
d'imfhaitchess namat dia rochtain. Da ched bhadain imlan 
ar adhnadh 7 ar comhlasadh don lochrann d'oidhche 7 do 
15, ni ro caithedh tra en-lethordlach amhain de frissin re sin. 
Feacht n-aon ticc aroile banscal airigthe do dhenomh urnaigthe 
gusin altoir ar a mbui in lochrann. Ro ingantaig go mor mett 
mirbal 7 grassa in lochrainn. Ro fholair in rahi-cheinneamain 
fuirre ar go ffessadh cred in mital dairigthe dia mbui in loch- 
rann. Amhoil fuair in seipel go huaigneach 7 lucht coimhetta 
an lochrainn seachnoin na cathrach teid ar amus in lochrainn, 
glacuiss dia lamhoip e, benuis screapall beg don chiaraigh de. 
Gabuis tra in lochrann ag comhlassadh 7 in cheir ag tionadh 7 
ag legadh. Bidgaiss in ben ier n-a fhaixin sin. Ba haithmhe- 
lach imnair le a ndoroine. Ar ndol amach assin reccless 
teacmhait lucht coimhetta in lochrainn di. Ba machtnadh 
dermhair leo mir fuarator in l5chrann dia chomhchaithemh. 
Oirrdercaigther in seel fon gcathraigh. Comhchruinnigit 
clier 7 meic eguilsi in baile 'mun aird-easpog. Cuirit a gceist 
7 a n-ingantus dermhair mar do eirigh don lochrann. Innissit 
lucht a choimhetta gur fhagoibset i n-a aignedh badein e ag 
dol fon gcathraigh doib, gan duine saegalta i n-a fhochair acht 
in banscal remraite, ar ttegmhail na mna doip ar a ttoigeacht 
astegh san egluiss, go ffuaratar in lochrann [p. 14] ag tinadh 7 
ag leghadh 7 ar n-athrugadh a staide. Du-s-radadh in 
macaomh mna do lathoir. Doronadh tra examen 7 scrudadh 
ger uirre. Ro adoimh a ffiadhnidssi De 7 na heguilsi naoimhe 
gur ben screapal beg don lochrann. Du-s-rad a coibhsena as 
a haithle. Comhairligit an chlier ieromh an lochrann do 
mhuchadh 7 a chomhdach go sirraidhe a fforaithmhet a mor- 
mhirbhal. Adhantor 7 soillsigther a primh-fhestoibh uaisle e 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 35 

guard of the King's soldiers at the gates of the town by night 
and by day. There was a great court there and a church 
dedicated to Mary. There was, besides, the seat of the arch- 
bishop of the province, with the best and most splendid 
cemetery in the greater part of Christendom outside the 
walls of the city. In that church of the Blessed Virgin a 
bright waxen torch fell from heaven. The inhabitants of 
the city caused a splendid chapel to be built inside the walls 
for that holy torch lest enemies should reach it. The torch 
was lighted and shining for two hundred full years by night 
and day, but not even one half-inch of it was wasted during 
that time. Once a certain woman came to pray to the altar 
on which the torch was. She marvelled much at the great- 
ness of the miracles and the graces of it. Misfortune drove 
her to find out what particular substance it was made of. 
When she found the chapel bereft of people, and the guardians 
of the torch gone throughout the city, she went to the torch, 
touched it with her hands, and broke off a little piece of the 
wax of it. The torch commenced to flame, and the wax to 
waste and to melt. The woman got frightened seeing that. 
She regretted and was ashamed of what she had done. The 
guardians of the torch met her when she left the sanctuary. 
They were very much surprised when they found the torch 
wasting away. The news of the event was spread through 
the city. The clergy and ecclesiastics of the town gathered 
with the archbishop, and they were very much troubled and 
surprised concerning what happened to the torch. The 
guardians said they had left it in its usual state when they 
were going to the city, with no one near it except the afore- 
said woman, and that, after meeting the woman as they en- 
tered the church they found the torch wasting and melting 
and in a different state. The woman was brought before 
them, and a scrutiny and strict examination of her took place. 
She admitted in presence of God and the Holy Church that 
she broke a small piece off the torch. She made her confession 
afterwards. The clergy advised that the torch should be 



36 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Mairidh foss ag denomh fert 7 mirbal, na milte do dhaoinibh 
ag toigheacht chuicce 7 uaidh dia n-oilithre d'adhradh 7 
d'ettorguide naemhMuire oighe n-a fiadhnuissi. Fuaratar 
na maithe si a thaispenadh. 

XXIV. Dia luain in t-aonmadh la fichet don mhi chettna 
ceilibrait do lucht na cathrach. Eirghit coic leicce oile go 
cathraigh oirrdirc dar comhainm Doua. Gapsat muinnter 
na cathrach go ro-onorach chuca iad. Toirhngit ag colaiste 
Eirennach bui ar costus righ na Spainne sa mbaile. Doghnit 
fein oirissemh sa gcolaiste. Leicit forgla a lochta coimhiteachtae 
fon gcathraigh. Bator i n-a gcomnaidhe gusin aoine bui ar 
a gcionn. Beiriss orra as Flonndrus an t-athair onorach FlaithrT 
O Maelconaire, prouincial uird minuir S; Pronseiss a nEirinn 
7 in doctuir Roibert Mac Artuir. Rissin re aimsire si gabsat 
ag siobal ar cholaistibh na cathrach. Glacait coimhthinoil 
na gcolaistidhe chuca go ro-onorach subhailcech iad mailli 
re uersaidhip 7 oraidip laitne gregissi 7 berla do denam 
doip. Ro chomhairimh aon don chuideachta a gcolaiste 
na iesuuit began d'uiresbaidh ar da chett deg a n-en- 
cholaiste amhain. 

XXV. Primh-chathoir chomhfhairsing neimhsciamhach 
teghdhuisidhi inaid foirgenta Doua acht amhain na colaistidhe. 
Ruiber ar a tticcit bait on ffairrge ar n-a chomhroinn ar do 

^ Douai is now in French territory, and lies in the department of 
the Nord. 

2 The Irish College was founded in 1594 by Father Christopher 
Cusacke, S.J., a native of the County Meath (Hogan, Distinguished 
Irishmen of 16th Century, 4). 

3 Flaithri 'O Maelconaire, the ' Father Florence ' of the State Papers, 
was born in 1560, and belonged to the learned family of 'O Maelconaire 
so well known to students of Irish. He stvidied at Lovivain and Spain. 
He returned to Ireland in 1584, became a Franciscan, and left again for 
Spain. He sailed with the Armada, and is supposed to have been 
wrecked on the coast of Scotland. Subsequently he joined Del AguHa's 
expedition in 1601, and accompanied Aod Eiaadh from Ireland a few 
days after the rout at Kinsale. He attended that prince in his last 
hours. Later he came to Flanders and, joining the fugitives, proceeded 
to Rome, where he was consecrated Archbishop of Tuam in 1609 (30th 
March). 'O Maelconaire founded the Franciscan house at Louvain, to 
which Ireland owes so much. He never revisited Ireland, but his in- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 37 

quenched and covered for ever to commemorate its miracles. 
It is lighted and shines on great principal feasts. It still con- 
tinues to work wonders and miracles, thousands of people 
coming to it and from it in pilgrimage to venerate and im- 
plore the Holy Virgin Mary in its presence. It was shown 
to these nobles. 

XXIV. On Monday, the twenty-first of the same month, 
they bade farewell to the people of the city. They proceeded 
five more leagues to a famous city called Douai,^ The people 
there received them with great respect. They alighted at 
the Irish College- which was supported by the King of Spain 
in the town. They themselves stayed in the College, and 
they sent the better part of those with them through the city. 
They remained there until the following Friday. The 
reverend father, Flaithri O Maolconaire,^ Irish Provincial of 
the Friars Minor, and Doctor Robert Mac Arthur"* met them 
here, having come from Flanders. During this time they 
went walking through the colleges of the city. Assemblies 
of the colleges received them kindly and with respect, delivering 
in their honour verses and speeches in Latin, Greek, and 
English. One of the company counted in the Jesuit College, 
a little less than twelve hundred belonging to a single college 
XXV. Douai is an extensive city with unsightly houses 
[and] buildings, except for the colleges.^ There is a river ^ 



dustry and care for religion in his native country never abated. He died 
on the 16th November, 1629, and his remains after twenty-five years 
were transferred from Madrid to Louvain. 

* " One Robert M' Arthur, a Jesuit, is now in England in the habife of 
a captain, and doth from thence advertise the Earls of all occurrences. 
This man was some five years since sent into Spain from the Earl of 
Tyrone, and now carries some other name." Information of Sir Neale 
O'Donnell, 7th August, 1606. 

* In connection with the University of Douai, fovmded in 1562, an 
English College was opened in 1568, and in the same year another was 
founded by two monks of Anchin and handed over to the Jesuits. See 
Catholic Encyclopedia, art. Douai. 

^ River. The Scarpe, on which Douai is situated, joias the Scheldt 
above Tournai. 



38 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

thrithe. Ge tharla gur do na seacht ttlribh deg prouens 
Artoes 7 prouens Flonndruiss an ruiber sin amhain eidir- 
dealaiges etorra. Ba torthach aoibhinn go n-imat m.essa 7 
cruithnechta 7 deghthoradh [p. 15] go gcoilltib roi-dhessa in 
prouensi sin Artoes. 

XXVL Dia haoine in seissedh la fichet don mi so gluaissit 
na maithe si go cathraigh oirrdirc oile dar comhainm Turnuie 
secht leige o Dhoua. Fuirighit do bithin deighenaigh laoi 
do beith aca a ndorp ar in sligidh. tri leige 6 Thurnae. BuT ar 
in sligidh rompa fert 7 adhnacal naoimh Eirennaigh, Sanct 
Linard a ainm, Dogni Dia imat mirbal trid. Ar n-a 
mharach gusin gcathraigh doip. AdchTd a ndoras na cath- 
rach tor comhdhaingen cloch conrotacht la luil Sessair in tan 
bui sige n5 forbhaissi aige fon gcathraigh a n-inbaidh chocaidh 
chatharrdha na Romhanach. Annas o a bharr teighther 
asteach air, oir ni fhuil doras ar doman air. Ro cosnadh tra 
la lucht a hinotachta an gcathraig * go seitreach sonairt a 
gcert-agaidh luil Sesair 7 an tsenaidh Romhanaigh an tan sin. 
Ata a gcroinicil 7 a fforaithmhet ag lucht a haittreptha nar 
gabadh 7 nar togladh riem go haimhdeonach i. 

XXVn. Glacuit lucht na cathrach na maithe si chuca go 
ro-onorach airmhitneach. Cuirit c5istidhe dia saighidh as 
go gceimnigdiss sechnoin na cathrach d'faixin a heguilsi 7 a 
daingnig co n-a hingantus go huilidhe. Tieghait as a haithle 
ar cuairt go haird-easpog na cathrach. Ru-s-taispein e fein 
go supailceach ilghairdeach doib. Oirissit tra gussin luan bui 
ar a gcinn annsin. 

XXVHL Ruiber ro-aoibhinn ar n-a chomhroinn^ a ttrip 

* The ace. case for the nom. in archaic style. 

^ Artois, an ancient province of tlae Netherlands, now forming part 
of France and included in. the department of Pas de Calais. It derived 
its name from the ancient tribe of the Atrebates. 

- The seventeen provinces of the Netherlands, as organised by 
Charles V., father of Philip II., were the duchies of Brabant, Gelderland, 
Limbourg and Luxemburg, the counties of Flanders, Artois, Hainault, 
Holland, Zeeland, Namur, and Zutphen, the margraviate of Antwerp, and 
the Ave lordships of Triesland, Mechlin, Utrecht, Overyssel and Groningen. 

3 Father Meehan remarks that this is a mistake," for the saint was 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 39 

divided in two through it, on which boats come from the sea. 
Although Artois^ and Flanders were am.ong the seventeen 
provinces,^ nothing except the river divides them. This 
province of Artois is rich and beautiful with much mast and 
wheat and good fruits, and very pretty woods. 

XXVL On Friday, the twenty-sixth of this month, these 
princes went on towards another great city called Tournai, 
seven leagues from Douai. They stopped because it was 
late in the day at a village on the road three leagues from 
Tournai. On the road before them was the tomb and burial 
place of an Irish saint, ^ Saint Linard was his name. God 
performs many miracles through him. And the next day 
they went to the city. They saw at the gate of the city a 
strong stone tower which was built by Julius Caesar when the 
city was besieged by him in the time of the Roman civil war.* 
It is entered from the top, for it has no door at all. The 
city was defended by the inhabitants with strength and 
power against Julius Caesar and the Roman Senate at that 
time. It is chronicled and commemorated by its inhabitants 
that it was never taken or stormed by violence. 

XXVII. The people of the city received these nobles with 
honour and respect. They sent coaches to them so that they 
might go through the city to see its church and its fortress 
and all its wonders. They went afterwards on a visit to the 
archbishop of the city. He showed himself kindly and well-dis- 
posed towards them. They remained there till the next Monday. 

XXVIII. There is a very beautiful river^ divided in three 
parts through the city, with three well-made bridges in posi- 
tion, and the city itself is remarkable and ancient with nice 



not Irish, but a Frank of the Court of Clovis I. The hamlet in which 
he reposes is called Rache, anciently frequented by pilgrims. Martin, 
Histoire des Saints de la province de Lille," op. cit. 84. 

* Civil war. The Roman civU war did not take place until after 
Caesar's campaigns in Gaul, 58-50, nor was Northern Gaul the scene of 
any of Caesar's exploits in the war with Pompey or his party, 49-46 B.C. 
Tournai lies in the territory of the ancient Nervii, and we have here 
probably a reminiscence of their vigorous resistance in 57 and 54 B.C. 

^ Eiver. Tournai is built on the Scheldt, the ancient Scaldis. 



40 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

rannoibh go ttri ndroichetoibh deig-dhenmhacha ar n-a 
gcomhshuidhiugadh triasan gcathraigh, si fein i n-a prlmh- 
chathraigh oirrdirc arsanta go sen-teghdhuisip dessa degh- 
fhoirgenta, go n-imat slius chomhfhostus 7 imtheilges in 
t-uisce mar is lainn 7 mar is toltanach re lucht na cathrach. 
Caisslen laidir lan-daingen ag a ffuil cennus 7 uachtaranacht 
ar in gcathraigh uile ag righ na Spainne sa mbaili gusin ruiber 
ar n-a chomhtharraing 'n-a mhoirthimchioll * [p. 16]. Mile 
saighdiuir, go siorraidhe co n-a n-uile riachtanus aiess ordanaiss 
mhoir 7 munisioin ar doman, ag bardacht 7 ag forchoimhett 
in chaisslein. Reigless onorach astigh aca ar imfhaitchess go 
mbiadh comhthathaighi etorra amne 7 lucht na cathrach. 
Mar do batar tra sligthe salchae 7 ard-bhothair imchomhga 
aimhreidhe 5 Doua go Turnse, ni hinnill rug fer a scrlptha 7 
a fhaisneissi so mess n5 brethnughadh ar in region 7 ar in 
talmhain moir-thimchiol in prmh-roitt. 

XXIX. Dia luain an t-ochtmadh la fichet don mi chetna 
ceimnigit assin gcathraigh sin. Bator tra a mbaili bheag dhess 
dhaingen, Aat a ainm,t seacht leige 5n gcathraigh remhraite. 
Tig guibern5ir in baili tar ballaighip am^ach i n-a gcomdhail 
7 dia nglacadh chuicce go honorach airmhitneach. Do- 
dheachaidh badein a persain dia ttreorugudh go a ttighthibh 
osta. Comhscaoilter uile ordanass in baile mar onorachus 7 
mar shupailcibh a ttoigeachtae. Tig fein go maithip an 
bhaile dia n-aithreoss as a haithle. Taissealbhuiss a shupailche 
CO n-a dheig-inntinn doip. San mbaili sin tra dorala Caip- 
tln Seon Blint a ngairessun. Bui go hailghen cennsa for- 
ffaoilidh rompa san. 

XXX. Ar n-a mharach dhoip seacht leige Aat go Noutre 



* Here we have a scribal entry : Tadhg O Cienain do scribh isan 
Roinih 1609, TixcUig O Cianain wrote [this] in Eonie, 1609. 

t MS. Aat ainni. 

^ Ath, like Toixrnai, lies in the modern province of Hainaiilt. 

- Touriiai. Literally " from the aforesaid city." 

^ Halle lies in the province of Sovith Brabant, near the field of 
Waterloo. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 41 

well-built old houses, and with many sluices which stop and 
direct the water wherever the people of the city please or 
desire. The King of Spain has a strong, fully-defended castle 
in the town, commanding and having power over the whole 
city, and the river is drawn around it. There are a thousand 
soldiers always guarding and watching the castle with every- 
thing they require of great ordnance and ammunition. They 
have a splendid church inside that there may be no communi- 
cation between them and the people of the city. As the roads 
from Douai to Tournai were dirty, and the highways narrow 
and uneven, the writer and narrator of this could not easily 
note or observe the country or the land along the route. 

XXIX. On Monday [recU Sunday], the twenty-eighth of 
the same month, they left that city. They came to a small 
town, pretty and fortified, which was called Ath,-"" seven leagues 
from Tournai.2 The governor of the town came outside the 
walls to meet them and to receive them with respect and 
honour. He himself in person came to direct them to their 
hostels. All the ordnance of the place was fired at once to 
do honour and show pleasure at their coming. The governor 
himself and the principal men came afterwards to visit them, 
and he showed them kindness and sympathy. Captain John 
Blint happened to be in garrison in that town, and he was 
gentle, kind, and pleased at meeting them. 

XXX. Next day they went seven leagues from Ath to 
Notre Dame de Hal.^ On their way they passed through 
a pretty town which had been formerly in the time of the 
war ^ in the possession of the King of France. As the rent 
of it was of no use to the King he accepted fifty thousand 
pounds from the Duke of Hal for the ownership of the 
town. It was called Enghien.^ They went that night to 
Notre Dame. It rained heavily on them throughout the 
journey. 

XXXI. The next day, the thirtieth of October, 'O Neill's 

* The war between Henry IV. of France and Philip II. of Spain 
lasted from January, 1595, until the peace of Vervins, 2nd of May, 1598. 
^ Enghien lies nearly midway between Ath and Halle. 



42 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Dam de Hauer. Ar in sligidh rompa gapait tria baile dhess bui 
ria sunn a seilp rlgh. Franc a n-inbaidh in chocaidh do bheith 
ann. Mar nach deachaidh cioss an bhaile a ttorbha don righ, 
gabuis deich mile ar da fichit mile ponnta o dhiuc de Haura 
ar bith-dilseacht an bhaile. Inginn a ainm. Tiaghait tra an 
oidche sin go Noutre Dam,. Fleachadh 7 ferthain dermhair 
aca seachnoin na sligedh. 

XXXL Ar n-a mharachtra. 30. Octobriss ticc m.ac Ul Neill, 
coreneil na nEirinnach, chuca go mbuidhin ndermhaii ndeigh- 
innill [p. 17] do chaiptinibh, do dhaoinibh uaissle do Spain- 
neachaibh agas d'Eirinnchaibh 7 do gach nasion archena dia 
m.bator. Dia sathairn bui ar a gcinn tainic marcues Spinnala, 
ard-general arm.ala righ na Spainne a fFlonndrus, go n-im.at 
do dhaoinibh ro-onoracha chuca Bruxel. Dogni forffailte 
friu. Glacuiss chuicce go honorach iad. Do-rad cuiredh 
doip chom a medhoin laoi ar n-a mharach a mBruxel. Ro 
aontaighset chuigi sin. Teid tra in marceiss do shlechtaine 
go hegluiss Muire bui ar comhghar doip. Gar ier sin adchid 
secretair in arsadiuc chuca da iarraidh orra bheith a ffochair 
in arsadiuc in luan bui ar a gcionn a Marim,ount, foraoiss 
fiadaigh bui ag in arsadiuc naoi leige on mbaili sin. Ar n-a 
chlos sin don m.arcess gabuis a ched. Leigiss tar a aiss go 
Bruxeil e. Cuiriss chuca san ar m.aidin dia domhnaigh a 
riachtanus a less coistidhe 7 eachraidhe as go raghdaoiss go 
hinnill onorach do lathoir in arsadiuc. 

XXXn. Ier n-eisteacht aiffrinn dia dom,naigh in ceth- 
ramadh la Nouem,briss gluaissit na tigernaidhi a gcdistighip 

^ " He ['O N^ill] is shortly expected here, but it is said that he takes 
the way to pass by Bruges, where his son is remaining, having his regi- 
ment lodged in these parts," Sir Thomas Edmonds to Salisbury, 14th 
(24th) October. Our text shows that if 'O N(^ill ever intended passing 
through Bruges, he must have altered his plans. The information of 
James Roche, alias Loach, printed by Meehan op. cit. 156 and Cal. St. 
Pa. (1607) 358, is inaccurate in stating that Colonel Enri met his father 
at Douai, as well as in several other particulars. 

2 Ambrogio, Marquis Spinola, was an Italian nobleman who entered 
Spanish service in 1602 and distinguished himself at the taking of Ostend 
(1604) and the relief of Ghent (1605). He was a prominent figure in the 
military history of the Catholic Netherlands until his death in 1629. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 43 

son, the -Colonel of the Irish [regiment], came to them^ with 
a large well-equipped company of captains and of noblemen? 
Spanish and Irish and of every other nation. On the fol- 
lowing Saturday the Marquis Spinola,^ the commander-in- 
chief of the King of Spain's army in Flanders, came to them 
from Brussels with a large number of important people and 
welcomed them. He received them with honour and gave them 
an invitation to dinner on the next day in Brussels. They 
consented. The Marquis went to pray to the church of 
Mary which was near them, and shortly afterwards they saw 
the Archduke's secretary coming towards them to ask them 
to be with the Archduke on the following Monday in Mari- 
mont,^ a hunting forest which he had nine leagues away from 
that town. When the Marqais heard that, he took his leave 
and went back to Brussels. On Sunday morning he sent them 
all the coaches and horses they needed, that they might be 
well and suitably provided going before the Archduke.* 

XXXII. On Sunday, the fourth of Novem^ber, after having 
heard Mass, the lords set out in coaches, their nobles and 



* Maritnont, the Archduke's sumnier palace, was near Binche, in the 
province of Hainault. 

* On September 30th ( = October 10th) Salisbury despatched a 
missive to Sir Thomas Edmonds informing him of the flight of the Earls 
about the 3rd/13th September, and praying him, " when he speaks of 
these matters, to observe carefully how they are apprehended there [in 
Brussels], and especially amongst the Irish that are there in service, 
and to report with the first despatch what he may find of it." Accord- 
ingly, from the first moment the exiles laid foot on foreign soil their 
movements were all duly reported to James's ministers. Observe the 
accuracy and detail of the following : " He [the Archduke's minister, 
President Richardot] confessed that the Marquis Spinola intended to 
invite Tyrone to dinner at his coming to this town, only, as he said, in 
respect of his being a stranger. Tyrone and his whole company remain 
at Notre Dame de Hal, four leagues hence, where the Marquis Spinola 
saw him a few days since, going thither to speak with the secretary [of 
the Archduke], Manciscider, who came from the Court to confer there 
with the Marquis. Since, the Marquis sent his coach unto Tyrone to 
take him to the Court at Beins," Edmonds to Salisbury, 28th Oct. /7th 
Nov. 



44 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

a ndaoine uaissle[7] a lucht coimhideachta ar eachroidh. Ran- 
gatar in la sin go Neeuel coic leige uaidhip, baile dess daingen 
i n-a nibul gairessun on righ. Guibernoir Spainneach ba 
huachtaran sa mbaili. Tig co n-a shaigdiuirip * i n-a 
gcomhdhail. Forffailtighis friu. ler ttoirling ddibh du-s- 
rad eochracha in baile go hUa Ne[i]ll. Diultaiss O Neill na 
heochracha. Dorad in guibernoir cuireth doip chom a 
suipeir an oidche sin. Ni ro aontaighset tra in cuiredh si. 
Bui in guibernoir a ffochair UiNe[i]ll an oidhche sin. Du-ss- 
rad lucht ciuil 7 muissice 7 raingce i n-a choimhitecht. A 
n-inbhaidh chodalta doip cuiriss sarsen m,aiorin baile d'ierroidh 
focail na faire ar O Ne[i]ll. Tug O Neill buideachus do san. 
Do ierr air fein an focal do thabairt uaidh mar dobeiredh gach 
n-oidhche. 

XXXHL Gluaissit ar n-a mharach, an guibern5ir dia 
gcoimhitecht tar torainn in baili. Tiaghait go Bench coic 
leige uaidibh, airm a mbul in t-arsadiuc. Tic diuc de Suna, 
in secretari, Don Rodrico, maior dommo [p. 18] in arsadiuc, 
go gcoistigip maithe 7 go ndaoinibh uaisle onorachae i n-a 
gcomhairrchiss. Failtighit a n-ainm in arsadiuc friu. Teid 
in diuc badein issin choiste a mbator. Ar ndol doip don 
mbaili toirlingit ag palass in maior domm.o. Batar ann sealat 
mar do bui in la go ffleachadh ndermhair roim,he sin. Ro 
cuiredh tra a lucht coimhitechta 7 a n-eachradh a n-aitibh 
comhnaidhe. Tiaghait as a haithle d'fechain seipeil in 
arsadiuc. 



* MS. shaigdinip. 

'- Nyvel or Nivelles is situated in the province of South Brabant, 19 
miles south of Brussels. A little further south, on the road to Binche^ 
is Seneffe, where William of Orange was defeated by Conde, 11th August, 
1674. 

- Philip III., King of Spain. 

^ Regarding the particulars of the visit of 'O N^ill and his party to 
the Archduke, and other matters also, the examination of James Loach, 
Cal. St. Pa. 358, Meehan 157, is most unreliable. Compare, for instance, 
the text with this : " He saith that the Archduke, receiving news from 
Tyrone of his arrival; and coming towards him at Notre Dame, three 
leagues from Brussels, where they accordingly met, after many compli- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 45 

retinue attending them on horseback. They came that day 
to Nyvcl/ a distance of five leagues. It was a nice town, 
well fortified with a garrison of the King.^ The governor was 
a Spaniard. He came with his soldiers to meet them and 
welcomed them. When they dism.ounted he offered to give 
ap the keys of the city to 'O Neill, but he refused to accept 
them. The governor invited them, to supper that night, but 
they did not consent to go. The governor stayed with 
O Neill that evening, and brought musicians and dancers 
with him. As they were about to retire he sent a sergeant- 
major to 'O Neill to ask him to give the watch-word. 'O Neill 
thanked him., but requested him.self to give it as he was accus- 
tomed to do every other night. 

XXXIII. On the next day they started, and were accom- 
panied by the governor until they had left the town. They 
went five leagues to Binche, where the Archduke was.^ The 
Duke of Ossuna, the Secretary,^ and Don Rodrigo,^ the major- 
domo of the Archduke, came with good coaches and great 
noblemen to m.eet them, and welcom.ed them, in the Arch- 
duke's name. The Duke him,self went in the coach in which 
they drove. When they reached the town, they alighted at 
the major-domo's palace. They remained there for a time, 
as the day had previously been very wet. Their attendants 
and horses were put up, and they went next to see the 
Archduke's chapel. 



merits the Marquis, attended with many gallants, brought him to Brussels, 
and he entertained him that night." Edmonds to Salisbury, 28th Oct./ 
7th Nov., gives the true account. See the passage cited above, p. 43, n.4. 

* He is several times referred to by name as Manciscider in the con- 
temporary pr.pers. His full title was Don Juan de Manciscider. About 
1615 there was a report of a proposed marriage of his daughter to Henri 
'O Xeill, colonel of the Irish Eegiment, regarding which Turnbul, the 
English minister at Brussels, wrote that it was high time " some under- 
hand means were used to prevent the match," Meehan 326. 

5 Don Rodrigo de Laiso, a Spanish nobleman who joined the Armada, 
and, being wrecked off the coast of Belgium, became later the Archduke's 
chief chamberlain. 



46 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

XXXIV. As sin doip gusin palass. Tigiss Infanta ingen 
righ na Spainne 7 in t-arsadiuc go dorus in palaiss i n-a 
gcomhdhail. Glacuit chuca go ro-onorach airmitnech for- 
ffailteach degh-aightheach, raaille re cuirtissighip nndra iad. 
Beirit leo dia gcodal-tigh iad. Batar sealat ag comradh * 7 
ag coimhfhierfaighe sgeul dieroile, Gabhait a gced. Eirgit 
fein 7 diuc de Sana 7 diuc de Oumal 7 moran do dhaoinibh 
uaissle oirrderca oile do denomh a medhoin laoi. Gluaissit 
as a haithle, coistidhe 7 aitherrach eachraidhe 5' n-alteiss leo, 
go mbatar tar a n-ais an oidhche sin a Neeuel. Ni nem- 
onoraighi-sa-chach fuaratar an oidhche sin oldass an ched- 
oidhque. 

XXXV. Ar n-a mharach tra doibh go Noutre Dam. 
Oirissit ann an oidhche sin. A rnoch-dheghoil na raaitne 
leigit go Bruxel iat tri leige. Ticc corenel Francisco go 
linrnhairecht do chaiptmip Spainneacha agus Eadailleacha, 
Eirennacha 7 Flonndrusacha, i n-a gcomdhail am,ach assin 
gcathraigh. Gluaissit uile tria shraidip oireghdha in baile go 
rangatar dorass palaiss in marceiss. Tainic in marceiss fein 
7 nunsiuss in papa 7 ambasadoir rlgh na Spainni 7 diuc de 
Suna dia nglacadh as a gcoistighip. ler fforffailtiugadh re 
aroile go linrahar doip tiaghait assa haithle ar halla in marceiss. 
Bator sealat ag briathar-chomradh re aroile. Eirghit 'n-a 
dheaghaidh gusin tteghduis i n-a ngnathaigedh in marceiss a 
chuid do chaitheamh. An marceiss badein ba he ro shuidigh 
each. Cuiriss O Neill [p. 19] i n-a shuidhe i n-a ionadh fein 
a gcert-edan in buird, nunsius in papa dia laimh dheiss, ierla 
Tire Conaill dia laimh chli, clann Ul Neill 7 Maguidir sioss 
on ierla^ ambasadoir righ na Spainne 7 diuc de Umaar ar in 
taop oile sToss on nunsius. Coimhlin in buird do dhaoinip 
uaissle oirmhitnecha onoracha cenmotha sin, an marceiss 
badein 7 diuc de Suna ag fir-chionn in buird as comhair Ul 
Neill. Ba lor a onoraighi 7 a ro-chostusaighi ar bith, dia madh 

* MS. had. choynraidh at first, but the correction was niade later in 
different ink. 

^ alteis, from the French altesse. 

2 Guido Bentivoglio (1579-1644), Cardinal and, Archbishop of Rhodes 
and Palestrina, was appointed Papal Nuncio to Flanders on June 1st 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 47 

XXXIV. They went next to the Palace. The Infanta, 
the King of Spain's daughter, and the Archduke came to the 
door of the Palace to meet them. They received them with 
honour and respect, with welcome and kindliness, and showed 
them great courtesy. They brought them to their own pri- 
vate apartments. They spent a while in conversation and ques- 
tioning one another. Afterwards they took their leave. They 
[the Irish] and the Duke of Ossuna, the Duke of Aumale, and 
m,any other illustrious noblemen went to dinner. They set out 
afterwards, taking coaches and a change of horses from their 
Highne'^s ^ with them, and returned that night to Nyvel. 
They were treated with as much honour that night as the 
first night [they spent there]. 

XXXV. The next day they proceeded to Notre Dame de 
Hal, and stopped there that night. Early the next morning 
they went to Brussels, three leagues' journey. Colonel Fran- 
cisco, with many Spanish, Italian, Irish, and Flemish captains, 
came out of the city to meet them. They advanced through 
the principal streets of the town to the door ot the Marquis's 
palace. The Marquis himself, the Papal Nuncio,- the Spanish 
Ambassador, and the Duke of Ossuna came to take them from 
their coaches. When greetings had been exchanged in abun- 
dance, they entered the hall of the Marquis and spent some 
time in conversation. Afterwards they entered the apart- 
ment where the Marquis was accustomed to take food. He 
himself arranged each one in his place, seating 'O Neill in his 
own place at the head of the table, the Papal Nuncio to his 
right, the Earl of Tyrconnell to his left, O Neill's children and 
Maguidhir next the Earl, and the Spanish ambassador and the 
Duke of Aumale on the other side, below the Nuncio. The 
rest of the illustrious, respected nobles at table, the Marquis 
himself, and the Duke of Ossuna, were at the end of the table 
opposite 'O Neill. The excellent dinner which they partook 



1607. He was the author of a number of valuable works, including a 
history of the wars in Flanders. 



48 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ri no-biadh ann, lain-fheabhus in medhoin laoi doronsat. 
Nir uo messa-sa-chach in bangced. Do taispenadh plata oir 
7 airgit astighnar uo himnair do righ no prinnsa sa crlstaighecht 
do bheith aige. Bator sealat ag conuersait 7 ag aines bhriathar. 
Gabhait a gcet maille re buidhechus do thabairt dia cheile. 
Leigit tar aiss an oidhche sin go Noutre Dam iad. 

XXXVL Baile beg edaingen edluith in baile sin, acht 
chena nir toghladh 7 nir gapadh go haimhdeonach, riamh re 
naimhdib e. Ni do nert lamh n5 do Hnmhairecht sochraide 
n5 do daingne ballaidhi dorala sin, acht fiodhair 7 pictuir 7 
dealbh Muire nalrbhailighi at a a n-egluiss Muire sa mbaili 
doghni ilimat fert 7 mirbal chom a ttigit ilmjlte do na regi5n- 
oibh comhfhoixe dia n-oilithre d'adhradh 7 d'edorguidhe 
naemh-Muire oighe. Feacht n-aon ro chuir Grarauiriss 7 
scristoiridhe na heguilsi catoilce leiger ar in mpaile sin. Na 
canoin riaghalta gusin ordanass mor ro sgaoiltidhe friss. Is 
amhloidh t5gaibhthe do na naimhdip bean uassal go n-edaigip 
gle-glana, naipicin gleigeal in-a dess-laimh si n-a sessomh ar 
in rnballa i n-a ffrithchetfaidh. Ro-ss-gap issin naipicin ina 
huile peileir ru-s-caithedli frissin rnbaili gan curahsgugadh 
cloch gan brissedh balla gan marbadh duine. Ro leigedh. 
sloss go cennuiss ailghen ar in t^p astigh don bhalla na peileir 
ar in talmhain assin naipicin. Mairit f5ss go marthanach, 
issin reiccless a fforaithmhet na mor-mirbal [p. 20]. Ni mar 
neach nemh-laidir tra do mesfaidhe in fer do thoigebadh en- 
peler amhain 5 thalmhain dibh. Togbhait na naimhde on 
mbaili mar doconnarcatar na m,oir-flierta. Gach lln- 
m.haireacht aimsire riemh ro shuidhset naimJide i n-a thimchiol 
tainic a chosnam go mjrbhaileach do grassoibh De 7 naomh- 
Muire oighe. On pictuir 7 on im^haidh sin amhain sloinnter 
7 ainm,nigther an baile 7 is bladh bheg sin d'ingantus a m,oir- 
mjrbal. 



^ Again Edmonds describes accurately the movements of the Irish 
party in a letter to Salisbury, November 4/14th : " After the Earl of 
Tyrone had been at the Court of Beins [Binche], where it is said he was 
very favourably used by the Archduke, and was allowed the grace of 
personages of the greatest rank to speak with the Archduke covered, he 
came one day hither from Notre Dame de Hal, accompanied by the 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 49 

of was grand and costly enough for a king, and nothing inferior 
was the banquet. Gold and silver plate was displayed, inside 
that no king or prince in Christendom, might be asharned to 
have. They spent some time in conversation and chatting^ 
and then took leave and returned thanks to . one another. 
They returned that night to Notre Dame de Hal.i 

XXXVL It is a small badly-fortified and incompact town, 
yet it was never stormed or taken by force by enemies. It 
was not by reason of strength of hands or greatness. of numbers 
or firmness of walls that that was so, but a figure and picture 
and statue of Mary the Wonder-worker, in the church of 
Mary in the town, that causes many miracles and wonders 
and very many thousands of people from the neighbouring 
districts come on pilgrimage there to venerate and implore 
the Holy Virgin. At one time Gramoures and the de- 
stroyers of the Catholic Church laid siege to that town. 
Regular cannon and large ordnance were discharged against 
it. There appeared to the enemy a lady with bright gar- 
ments, and a white napkin in her right hand, standing on the 
wall opposite them. She caught in the napkin all the bullets 
that were thrown against the wall, so that no stone was moved, 
no wall was broken, and no person was killed. Inside the wall 
she laid down quietly and gently on the ground the bullets out 
of the napkin. They remain still in the church to com- 
memorate the great miracles, and he who would hft one of 
them from the ground would be considered a strong man. 
The enemy raised the siege of the town when they saw the 
great miracles. Every time since that enemies came about 
it, it was defended miraculously by the grace of God and the 
Holy Virgin Mary. From the picture and image alone the 
town gets its name and designation, and that is but a sm.all 
portion of its wonderful miracles. 

Earl of Tyrconnell and M'Guire, and the principal persons of their com- 
pany, and was feasted by the Marquis Spinola, there being also present 
the Nuncio, and sundry others of the best quality here. He made no 
onger stay in this town, but only to come to receive that entertainment 
and after dinner he returned back to Hal, from whence he is since re- 
moved to Louvain [on the 9th ; see chapter xli. hifra]," Cal. St. Pa. 361. 

VOL. II. d 



50 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

XXXVn. A n-aimsir an leigir adupramar do bheith ag 
Graurnoreiss ar in mbaili adbeart aroile caiptin diomsach 
dia muinntir tre bhogassaigh nrlapra 7 tre dhanacht gloir 
fhochuidmidh 7 fhanam,hait go raghadh fein asteach san 
egluiss 7 go mbenfadh a lam,h don inahaidh, os da mirbailibh 
bui an baile dia imchosnamh. Gar ier sin eirghis deabaidh 7 
dechetfaid eidir shloghaip in bhaile 7- in namhait. Eirgiss 
in caiptin remhraite go mbrigh 7 go mborrfadh n-adhbal- 
mor a gcoma chaich ar in troid. Bentar a dhi laimh de. Ro 
gabadh e badein. Admhaiss chena a ffiadhnuissi na himh- 
aidhe 7 in popail gur chan in meide sin d'uabhar-bhriath- 
raibh ml-tharbhacha. At ait in di laimh re a ttaispenadh 
go follus issin recles. 

XXXVHL Gar ier sin issedh ro taisspenadh do Grau- 
muiriss ar folairemh aingil na clelaimhe cainneal ba l5r mett 
sa doman do chor da himdenomh, a Ian pudair do bheith a 
n-inmhedhon na coinnle, imdenomh ciera ar in taep amoigh. 
Cuiriss tre chuiss cheilcce teachtaireacht go huachtaran na 
na heguilsi. Adbeart gur gaip aithmhele 7 aithreachus der- 
mhair e 'm.un iarroidh sin do thabairt ar in recles onorach i n-a 
mbui. an imhaidh mhor-mhirbailech, gur chuir lochrann 
ciera a gcornartha aithreachuiss 7 leap^xf-gnimha dia saighidh. 
Ro larr a n-irnpidhe 7 a n-athchuingidh an l5chrann do bheith 
ar comhlassadh do lo 7 d'oidche a ffiadhnuissi na himhaidhe 
go forcionn a thochaithrnhe, ier sin tra go gcuirfedh lochrann 
oile. i n-a ionadh [p. 21]. Deimhin leis sen tra madh dia 
loisgthe in lochrann go roich^^i/' in pudar, ier gcomhlassadh 
don pudar, go mbrissfidhe 7 go loiscfide in egluis co n-a mbiadh 
innte, go tticfadh losgadh 7 milledh in baile dessidhe. 
Gapuiss in t-uachtaran 7 in chliar an teachtaireacht go mes- 
sarrdha iomqubaidh chuca. Adhnait 7 comhlassait in loch- 
rann a ffrithchedfaidh 7 a ffiadhnuissi na hirnhaidhe.* 

XXXIX. Ar nabeith aimsir airigthe mar sin go ttainic a 
gcomhihoccus 7 a n-imfhoixe don ait i n-a mbui in pudar, 

* in lochrainn wag written first, but puncta delentia were added, and 
the correct reading follows immediately. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 51 

XXXVH. At the time of the siege of the town by Gra- 
moures, which we have mentioned, a certain haughty captain, 
one of his officers, in boasting speech and vamglorious mockery 
and insult said that he himself would enter the church and 
would strike the image with his hand, since the town was 
being defended by its miracles. Shortly afterwards conflict 
and battle commenced between the defenders of the town 
and the enemy. The above-mentioned captain advanced 
with great strength and vigour into the fight like every one 
else. His two hands were cut off, and he himself was cap- 
tured. He then confessed before the image and the people 
that he had spoken so much idle, vain words. Hi two hands 
are yet plainly to be seen in the church. 

XXXVHL Shortly afterwards it was suggested to Gra- 
moures by the devil to get a very large candle made, and to 
fill the interior of the candle with powder, leaving a coating 
of wax on the outside. In treachery he sent a message to the 
Superior of the church, saying that he had much regret and 
repentance for attackmg the venerable church where the 
miraculous image was, and that he was sending a wax candle 
to it in token of his repentance and penance. He asked as a 
request that the candle should be lighted by day and night 
before the im,age until it was wasted, and that then he would 
send another candle in its place. He was certain that if the 
candle burned until the powder would be reached, it would 
catch fire, and the church and all that was in it would be 
blown asunder and burned, and that the burning and de- 
struction of the town would be the result. The superior and 
clergy of the church accepted the gift fittingly and appropri- 
ately. They hghted the candle in presence of the image. 

XXXIX. After a certain time then it had burned so that 
it was near the place where the powder was, and on a certain 
night, when all the doors of the church had been closed, about 
midnight the bells and chimes of the church of themselves 
rang miraculously, and were heard all over the town. The 
clergy and the people of the town arose at once, and pro- 



52 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

aroile oidhche, ier n-iadhadh 7 ier gcornhdhunadh uile dhorass 
na heguilsi, timchiol mhedhoin oidhche do shonnradh, benait 
cluig 7 cedlain na heguilsi go mirbaileach uaidhip fein go gclos 
fon mbaile uile lad. La sodhain tra eirghit in chlier 7 muinnter 
an baile a gcetoir. Ar ndol d5ip go dorass in reclessae dogeibh- 
it na doirrsi foriadhta ar a gcionn. Ticc in t-aistreoir 
gussna heochrachaibh. Tiaghait astech assa haithle. Fuara- 
tar in lochrann ar lassadh a ffiadhnuissi na himhaidhe 7 na 
cluig ag comhnibuain. Ba machtnadh 7 ba hingantus der- 
mhair leo. 

XL. Smuainit 7 tuigit ier sin gur go mirbhaileach for- 
caomhnagair in chuiss 7 in chaingen. Leicit ar a ngluinip 
iatt. Gapsat ag aithrighi 7 ag urnaighthe 7 ag etorghuidhe 
naenah-Muire oige a ffrithchetfaidh na himaidhe. Ar mbeith 
treimhsi 7 selat fon samhla sin doibh, a n-inbaidh in lochrainn 
do chonahloscad gusin pudar, raar na ro thuigset in pop^/ 
rundiemhoir na m5i-mhlrb^/, siniss a laimh gusin lochrann. 
Odchonnairc uachtaran na heguilsi sin du-s-rad aithne gur 
do bithin adhgaill 7 urch5ide do beith sa lochrann ro sinedh in 
lamh 7 ro bensat na cluicc. La sodain tra lermuchaidh in 
lochrann. Sochtait na cluig a gcetoir. Comhthairrngit in 
chlier rann-chuid beg don maiste ro bui a gcert-lar in loch- 
rainn. Airighit boltanugadh an pudair. Sgaoilit began don 
lochrann. Ba hamhloidh forcaomnagoir nach roipe leth- 
ordlach amhain gan chaithemh [p. 22] 7 gan chomloscadh de 
gusin ait i n-a rapatar suim airigthe do bairillighip pudair ar- 
n-a gcomhshuidhiugadh sa lochrann. Ata immorro in loch- 
rann cetna gusin pudar gcealgach re a thaispenadh aniu go 
follus a fforaithmet na moT-mhiTh al 

XLI Dia haoine, in nomadh la Nouembriss, gluaissis 
O Neill 7 in t-ierla gussna maithip batar maille riu as Noetor 
Daam. Bator an oidhche sin a primh-chathraigh, oirrdirc 
oireghdha, Louaine a hainm, secht leige. Bui O Neill a ttigh 
ostae dar comhainm tegh an impire, an t-ierla a ttigh oile. 
Oirisit tra fon innus sin go cionn deich la. Ier sin tic Sir 
Uuilliem Stanlui, senridire saigdiuirthe Saxanach bui a' 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



53 



ceeding to the door of the church, they found the doors 
closed against them. Then the doorkeeper came with the 
keys and they entered. They found the candle burning 
before the image and the bells ringing, and they wondered 
and were very much surprised. 

XL. After a time they surmised that it was miraculously 
the affair happened. They went on their knees and com- 
menced repenting and praying and invoking the Holy Virgin 
Mary in presence of the im,age. When they were a while 
thus, and the candle was burning to the powder, as the people 
did not understand the mystery of the miracle, the image 
pointed its hand to the candle. When the superior of the 
church saw that, he knew that it was because of harm and 
evil being in the candle that the hand was pointed and the 
bells had rung. Thereupon he put out the candle, and the 
bells became silent at once. The clergy drew out a piece of 
the match which was in the centre of the candle, and they 
found the smell of the powder. They then broke off a piece 
of it. There was hardly half an inch of it left unburned to 
the place where there were a number of barrels of powder 
placed in it. The sam,e candle and treacherous powder is 
today plainly to be seen to commemorate the miracle. 

XLL On Friday, the nmth of November, 'O Neill and 
the Earl and the nobles with them left Notre Dame de Hal. 
They were that night in a great city called Louvain, seven 
leagues distant. ^O Neill stayed in a hostel called " The 
Emperor's House," ^ the Earl in another house. They re- 
mained thus for ten days. Then Sir William Stanley,^ an 

^ Charles V. (1500-1558), Roman Emperor, and, as Charles I., King 
of Spain, spent his young days in the old Castle in Louvain, a few 
fragments of which still exist on Mont Cesar 

2 Sir William Stanley (1548-1630) was born a Catholic, and served 
in the Netherlands in 1567 under Alva, the vSpanish general. He came 
to Ireland in 1570, shared in the defeat of Lord Grey of WUton by Fiacha 
mac Aodha 'O Broin, was passed over in the division of Desmond's 
estates, and returned to England shortly after the rebellion. He com- 
manded an Irish section in the Spanish wars under Leicester (158o)j 
and subsequently entered the service of Spain. He died at Ghent in 
1630. 



54 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

seirbhiss rlgh na Spainne, go moran do dhaoinibh uaisle dia 
ffechain 7 ar cuairt chuca, Roglacsat assa halthle cupla palass 
onorach issin gcathroigh ar gne chiossae a fforcionn gacha 
miossa. 

XLH. Dia domhnaigh do shonnradh in coicedh la fichet 
Nouembris tochomhlaid na maithe si, deichnenxhor ar fichit 
marcach doip. Ba hail leo dol don Spainn. Ro fhagoipset 
a mna uaissle 7 drong oile dia lucht coimhitechta a Louain. 
Fuaratar traar a gcionn a Sidona trup marcshlaighi an arsa- 
diuc dia ro herbadh dol dia ttidhlacadh. Batar an oidhche 
sin a ndorp bheg, Puruue a ainm, se leige do droich-shligidh 
granna. 

XLHL Ar n-a mharach doip a fflichshneachta dhermhair 
go Namures tri leige. Ar ndol asteach issin gcathraigh doibh 
beiriss post o Bruxel go letr(?<2^^oibh on arsadiuc orra dia 
fhogra doip gan ascnamh nl badh sia go breith aitherraigh 
direxioin orra 7 ternddh tar aiss ariss go Louaine. Leicit sen 
in dara post gusin arsadiuc ar go ifesdiss fath a ttoirmeisc. 
Bahe ordugadh fuaratar fiUedh go Louain. Do-gnit amhloidh. 
A ffritheing na conaire doip se leige go baile beg dar comhainm 
Uafer. Nl m5r immorro nach roibhe gne imfhaitchis [p. 23] 7 
choimhegla orra an oidhche sin do bithin edaingne an baile 7 
in namhait, armail Graumores, a n-imfhoixe 7 a gcomhghar 
doip. Ar n-a mharach tra in nomadh la fichet Nouembriss, 
dia dardaoin ar aoi laithe sechtmaine, go Louain doibh se 



V By this time Salisbury's spies had insinuated, themselves into the 
exiles' company. His principal agents were James Rath (not John 
Rath, the pilot who brought them out of Ireland, as the editors of the 
State Papers affirm, 1608-10, p. xl.) and one Tra vers, a Munsterman. 
James Rath was a brother to John Rath, and made use of the latter's 
intimacy with the Earls to collect information for his employer. Finding 
another on the same errand, he became jealous, and secured his dismissal, 
alleging that " Munstermen are as false as the devil," Edmonds to Salis- 
bury, 2nd/12th Dec. " Delivered to Travers his Lordship's message 
that he would not use his service, who departed much discontented. 
Of the other's [Rath's] employment this man knows nothing, and he 
[Edmonds] hopes his Lordship will receive good satisfaction in his ser- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 55 

English veteran warrior in the service of. the King of Spain, 
came with many nobles to see them and pay them a visit- 
Afterwards they took two beautiful palaces in the city at a 
certain rent, payable at the end of each month. ^ 

XLH. On Sunday, the twenty-fifth of November, the 
princes set out with their-retinue, thirty horsemen in all. Their 
intention '^ was , to go to Spain. They left their ladies and 
another portion of their retinue in Louvain. They found 
before them in lodoigne ^ a troop of the Archduke's cavalry, 
to whom it was entrusted to escort them. They remained 
that night in a little -village called Perwez,^ having journeyed 
six leagues on an ugly road. 

XLHL On the next day they went in great sleet three 
leagues to Namur.-^ When they entered the city a post from 
Brussels with letters from the Archduke overtook them, 
ordering them not to proceed any further until they should 



vice, but he says that the persons with whom he lives are very secret 
and wary in the carriage of their business. He repeats that Travers 
told Tyrone that he and sonie others were employed by his Lordship to 
poison the said Earls, which is the cause that Tyrone has taken a straight 
Order that there shall be no access to his kitchen," Cal. St. Pa. 641. 
Rath was a most unprincipled scoundrel and traitor. In September, 
1608, Ednionds " understands that James Rath, upon whom his Lord- 
ship bestowed so much money, went not to Rome with Tyrone, but 
remained ever since amongst the Irish at Herentabes [Herenthals, east 
of Antwerp], and that, for bragging there of the correspondence which 
he had held with his Lordship, he was of late put out of the town by the 
governor," ibid. 669. 

2 Salisbury was informed of Tyrone's purpose to leave by a letter of 
Edmonds dated llth-21st November : " Tyrone was again in this town 
two days since, and lay a night at his son's lodging here [Brussels]. He , 
went to visit the Marqiiis Spinola, and afterwards repaired to the Nvmcio, 
with whom he had a long private conference. The Marquis has now 
furnished him with money for his journey, so that he is to depart witliin 
a day or two at the farthest ; and he is said to take with him to the 
number of 40 persons, that by the show of greatness he may make him- 
self the better respected in the places where he goes," ibid. 635. 

' lodoigne, a town about ten miles nearly due south of Louvain. 

*Perioez lies a few mUes west of " Ramillies bloody field " on the 
southern frontier of the province of South Brabant. 

* Natnur is the capital of a province of the same name, and is situated 
at the junction of the Sambre and the Meuse. 



56 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

leige. Airissit 7 comhnaighit o Louain gusin ochtmadh*la fichet 
Februarii bui ar a gcionn. 

XLIV. Ro bui immorro sneachta adpal-m,or 7 oighreadh 
frissin re sin ann as go nim[th]e5chdiss eachradh 7 coistidhe 7 
uaiglnide uile locha, aibhne 7 ruibeir in tire. Do grassoip 
De ro roichedh la hordaibh riagalta na heguilsi a gcursa 
aiffrenn, trath 7 senmor 7 ernaigthe do denomh isna heguilsip- 
Aroile athair Eirennach d'ord Sanct Pronseiss, Diermait O 
Conchubair, o Chiennacht Ghlinne geimin, ro inniss a ffiadh- 
nuissi.Ul Neill gur fhulaing an urdail sin d'fuacht in comhfhad 
bui ag celibhradh in aiffrinn moir issin mainistir gur shilset 
pairt dia mheoraibh, frassa fola. 

XLV. Baoi leac oigridh adpal ar ruiber Anuerp.f Ba 
gnath re Incht na cathrach dol gacha laithe do chaithemh 
aimsire 7 d'finnfhuaradh a n-aigenta ar in leic. Laithe n-aon 
dia ndeachatar go linmhar dronga aca ag caithemh bidh 7 
dighe, ag reapradh 7 ag raingce, teighiss in leac o aidhbhle 7 
o linnahaire na ndaoine 7 ro-ss-leic beiceadh. adpol-mhor os 

* MS. ocUcUmad. 
+ MS. Anuepp. 

1 The defeating of 'O N^ill's purpose to go direct to Spain was Edmonds' 
work. He writes to Salisbury on 18th /28th November : " The Spanish 
Ambassador here professes an extraordinary desire to maintain amity 
between His Majesty [King James] and the King, his master ; and after 
he [Edmonds] had speech with him of this matter of Tyrone, he coun- 
selled him to speak plainly to the Archduke to make him sensible of 
that which passed amissed therein [viz., by the entertaining and honour- 
ing of the exiles], saying that he [the ambassador] would have opposed 
himself against that which was done if he had been before informed of 
these particulars which had been related to him since his return from 
Binche. He [Edmonds] prayed him to transfer the performance of 
these good offices to the King, his master, to whom they will be no less 
needful, which he promised to do. It seems that these speeches have 
made them better bethink themselves for the taking of a new resolution 
in some things, as two days since [26th November, as in our text] there 
was a post sent after Tyrone, who was advanced but a day's journey on 
his way, to call back Father Florence, the Friar, with whom after con- 
ference here had, he was immediately despatched to Tyrone." A week 
later he writes again : " When he wrote to his Lordship last week he 
unrlerstood nothing of the order which was then newly come from Spain 
to the Ambassador here for the staying of Tyrone, that he should not 
pass into Spain, to avoid giving discontentment to His Majesty," Cal. 
St. Pa. 038, 639. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 57 

get instructions again, and to return toLouvain again. ^ They 
sent a second post to the Archduke to know why they were 
detained. The order they received was to return to Louvain. 
They did so. They travelled on their backward journey 
six leagues to a small town named Wavre.^ They were som.e- 
what afraid that night because of the insecurity of the town, 
and the enemy, Gram,oures' arm.y, lay in proximity to them.. 
Next day, the twenty-ninth of November, Thursday by the 
day of the week, they went six leagues to Louvain. They 
rested and remained in Louvain until the twenty-eighth of 
February following. 

XLIV. There was a very great snow and frost during that 
time, so that horses and coaches and waggons might travel 
on all the lakes and rivers of the country. Only by God's 
grace could the Regular Orders of the Church perform their 
course of Masses, offices, serm.ons, and prayers in the churches. 
An L"ish father of the Order of Saint Francis, Diarmaid ^O 
Conchubhair^ from. Ciannacht Ghlinne geimhin,'* stated in 
the presence of 'O Neill that he endured such cold while 
celebrating High Mass in the monastery that portion of his 
fingers shed large quantities of blood. 

XLV. There was a great sheet of ice on the river at 
Antwerp, and the inhabitants of the city were accustom^ed 
to go out on the ice every day for amusem.ent and to cool 
themselves. One day, when large num,bers went to eat and 
drink, to sport and dance, the ice warmed because of the 
crowds and num.bers of people, and gave a very great roar 



^ Wavre is situated nearly midway between Brussels and Naniur. 

^ Early in 1615 there was a report that O Neill intended to come to 
reland, and Turnbull writes from Belgium to the King that he had sent 
*' Crone [Sean Cron MacDaibhid no, 26 p. 18. supra] and Conor with 
orders to stir up factions and seditions in that Kingdom," Meehan 304. 
*' Conor was a priest, and Tyrone's Irish confessor. He grew sick at 
Rome and came into this Kingdom [Ireland] for his health. He landed 
about Tredagh, and died about Armagh in his travels towards Colerain, 
where he was born," Cal. St. Pa. (1615) 70. 

* Cianacht Gtinne geimhin is now known as Keenaght, a barony in 
the north-west of Co, Derry. 



58 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

aird. La sodhain tra tic gne imdheghla 7 eidirdealoighthe 
eidir ?i 7 in tlr. Mar fuair in ruiber ro-laidir an com,ht[h]uitini 
sin san leic, 7 i ar scaradh frissin tlr, gluaississ leiss 1 co n-a roibhe 
ag marcaighecht uirre. An lucht ro bui ag fastaeim, ag ainess 7 
ag aoipness roimhe sin, ni mor nar uo toltanaighe leo beith astigh. 
go conihnaigtheach a gcert-mhedhon na cathrach in ass beith 
ar in seoltoracht sin, bidh nach beittiss a n-aighthe ar in 
sen-fhairrgi ar a gcomhghar. EigLit 7 gairit. La sodain in 
Jucht batar ar tlr, cuirit meid [p. 24] airighthe do chordoibh 
cnaipe 7 do refedhoibh 7 do picidhip chuca. - Ba toil la Dia 
go rangatar anacal 7 tairrtheachtain acht coic persana amhain- 

XLVL Bator na maithe si tra a Louain a n-aimsir na 
notlac bular a gcionn maille re menmain maith 7 re degh- 
c[h]aithemh aimsire, mar is onoraighe chostusaighi ba heittir 
leo. Ticdiss tra maithe na cathrach d'ilghairdiugadh 
inntinne d5ip go n-ilimat d'innstrumeinntibh ciuil 7 muissice, 
do lucht raingce 7 clessaigheachta, Daoine liaisle Spain- 
neacha batar sa gcathraig, ba gnath leo beith ag imthath- 
aigidh orra. 

XLVn. Rucatar scela as Bruxel orra gur cuiredh Corbmac 
m.hac an baruin, derbrathair Ui Neill, go Saxoip, a chor a 
mbraighdeanus a ttur Lonndan, tigerna Beinne hEttoir 7 
barun Dealpna a laimh a gcaislen m righ a m,Baili Atha Cliath, 
fos gar marpadh Mag Mathgamhna a nEirinn le guibernoir 

^ " Sir Cormac M'Baron O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone's brother, 
brought the first news of their [the Earls'] departure, and reported that 
the Earl his brother sent one O'Hagan unto him, who persuaded him 
to accompany his brother into Spain, but he would not be moved by 
his persuasion, but presently made his repair to the State to acquaint 
the Lord Deputy with this accident ; howbeit it was noted that Sir Cor- 
mac had his private end in this, for withal he was an earnest suitor to 
liaA^e the custodiam of his brother's country, which perhaps might be 
to his brother's use by agreement betwixt them : and therefore for this 
and other causes of suspicion the constable of the Castle of Diiblin has 
the custodiam of him," Davys to Salisbury, 12/22 September (Cal. St, 
Pa. 273). An abstract of his voluntary confession and offers made 
shortly afterwards shows his character : " He offers his service for dis- 
covery from time to time, and presiames he may get good intelligence of 
his brother's intentions and drifts as well as any other, which he promises 
faithfully to impart imto the state, if he may be licensed ... If he 
may have leave to write to the fugitive Earls, he will write in Irish and 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 59 

aloud. Then there came a cleft and separation between it 
and the banks. When the strong river got the ice naoving and 
separated from the banks, it carried it and all that were on it 
with it. The crowd which had been sporting and playing 
and merrymaking before would almost have preferred to be at 
rest inside in the centre of the city than to be drifting thus, 
even though their eyes would not be on the sea, which was near 
to them. They shouted and screamed. Then those who were 
on the banks threw in cords and ropes and poles to them, and 
it was God's will that all except five persons reached safety 
and protection. 

XLVL The prince: remained in Louvain during the 
Christmas time following, in pleasure and enjoyment, with 
as much display and costliness as they could. The nobles of 
the city used to come to make amusement for them with 
musical instruments, dancers, and performers. Spanish 
noblemen who were in the city were accustomed to visit them- 

XLVH. IntelHgence from Brussels reached them that 
Cormac, mac an Bharuin,^ 'O Neill's brother, had been sent 
to England and put in the Tower of London, that Lord 
Howth ^ and the Baron of Delvin ^ were confined in the 

acquaint the Lord Deputy and State with his letters and answers from 
time to time," ibid. 314-5. On 11/21 December he was despatched to 
London in the company of Lord Howth. In September, 1611, he peti- 
tioned the Lords of the Privy Council for an allowance for his wife and 
children, who had been turned out during the Plantation of Ulster. 

' Lord Hotvth. For this nobleman's earlier career see Introduction. 
He was arrested early in November, 1607, but was set at liberty the fol- 
lowing March, carrying with him Salisbury's special commendations. 
A few months later he secured by royal letter the command of a company 
of 150 foot. 

' Richard Nuoent, eldest son of Christopher Nugent, Baron of Delvin, 
succeeded to his father's estates in 1602, and was knighted at the creation 
of Ruaidhri 'O Domhnaill Earl of Tyrconnell the following year. For 
some account of his share in the events which led to the flight see Intro- 
duction. He was arrested along with Howth, and confessed before 
Chichester on November 6/1 6th. A fortnight later he broke prison 
and remained at large until May, 1608, when Chichester reports that he 
has come in and humbly submitted without word or promise of pro- 
tection or pardon. He secured the king's favour, and was created Earl 
of Westmeath in 1621. He resided at Clonyn, Co. Westmeath, and died 
in 1611, after harsh treatment by the rebels. 



6o FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Saxanach bui a Muineachan in uair sin, baile longpuirt Meg 
Mhathghamhna badein. Go gar assa haithle rug orra gor 
cuiredh Brian O Neill, mhac Airt mheic in bharuin, chom 
baiss le Sar Artuir Sitsetsar, giustiss na hEirenn. Bith nar no 
ro-mhaith fuair in giustiss in basugadh sin re a denomh, araoi 
sin tra ba neimh-ingnadh ainchridhe 7 aingidecht inntinne 
do beith aige don Brian sin, oir is meinic ro dhlsligh fein co 
n-a shloghaibh na slinnein do in airet batar araon a .gcomh- 
chomharsnacht cocaidh a tTrian Congail Chlaireinigh niic 
Rughraidhe, 7 do bhen a chrecha 7 a airccthe de go lan- 
marbadh a dhaoine. Ro chuirsetar tra ina huile droch-scela 
sa gne doimennaan ar na maithib si, acht chena tucsat altugadh 
buideachuiss don trinoit nemhdha um gach ein-chinnemhain 
no theigemadh dhoip. Gar ier sin fuaratar scela ba maith 
leo ,i. Mag Mathgamna do mharthain. 

XLVHL La na hEpefane i n-a deghaidh a n-inbaidh 7 a 
n-aimsir mheddin laoi ier n-eistecht aiffrinn isna heguilsibh 
eirghit [p. 25] lucht aittreptha na cathrach dia ttighthibh 7 
dia tteghduissip. Tarla do beirt saighdiuir d'airighthe go 
ndechator astech i n-aroile egluis naem-Muire oige. For- 
caomhnagoir tra delb 7 imhaidh Muire go ffiodhair a meic 
i n-a hucht forsan altdir, coroin rn5r-loig derscnaigthe deal- 



^ Brian {mac Aodha Oig + 1577) Marj Mathghamhna was Mag Math- 
ghamhila in 1595. The author of Pacata Hlbernia writes thus of him : 
" Tuesday, the two-and-twentieth of December [1601], Brian mac 
Hugh Oge MacMaghon, a principal commander in the Irish army, whose 
eldest son, Brian, had many years before been a page in FJngland with 
the Lord President, sent a boy to Captain William Taffe praying him to 
speak to the Lord President to bestow upon him a bottle of aqua vitce, 
which the President for old acquaintance sent to him. The next night, 
being the three-and-twentieth, by the same niessenger he sent him a 
letter preying him to recommend his love to the President, thanks for 
his aqua vita;, and to wish him the next night following to stand well 
upon his guard, for himself was at the council wherein it was resolved 
that on the night aforesaid towards the break of day the Lord Deputy's 
camp would be assaulted both by Tyrone's army, which lay at their 
backs, and by the Spaniards from the town [Kinsale], who upon the 
first alarm would be in readiness to sally," Bk. ii, ch. 21. This horrible 
act of treachery is all the more disgusting and unpardonable, as Mag 
Mathghamhna was married to Mary, 'O Neill's daughter. In the end of 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 6i 

Castle of Dublin, and also that Mag Mathghamhnai had been 
killed in Ireland by an English Governor- who was then in 
Muinechan, Mag Mathghamhna's stronghold. Shortly after- 
wards they were informed that Brian, son of Art, son of the 
Baron, 'O Neill was put to death^^ by Sir Arthur Chichester, 
the Lord Justice^ of Ireland. Althoiigh he did not find that 
execution a. good thing to do, still it was natural that he should 
hate and detest that Brian, for he [Chichester] and his army 
had often turned their backs on him while they were neighbours 
at war in Trian Congail Chlaireinigh ^ mic Rughraighe,^ and 
[Brian] had often plundered and robbed him and slain his people. 
All this ill news dispirited the princes, yet they rendered 
thanks to the heavenly Trinity for every event that befel] 
them. Shortly afterwards they received good news that 
Mag Mathghamhna was living. 

XLVIII. On the day of the Epiphany following, having 
heard Mass in the churches, the inhabitants of the city went 
at midday to their houses and homes. A certain pair of 
soldiers chanced to go into a certain church of the Holy Virgin 
Mary. A statue and image of Mary with the figure of her 
Son in her bosom happened to be on the altar, with a precious, 
beautiful, bright, conspicuous crown of red gold on the image 



December, 1607, the Privy Council are instructed that " some others of 
this country begin to be upon their keeping and, refuse to come to the 
King's officers, of which kind are Sir Bryan M'Mahowne and Sir Donagh 
O'Cane," Cal". St. Pa. 362. He came in in a month or so, but was dis- 
charged, Chichester detaining his eldest son, Brian 6g, as a check upon 
him. It was falsely reported to the Earls that he was put to death, but 
the true account reached them later. Brian m.ac Aodha oig was father 
of Aodh, " grandson to the traitor Tyrone," who was concerned in the 
attack on Dublin on October 23rd, 1641. 

^ The governor of Monaghan at this time was Sir Edward Blaney. 

* He was executed on a charge of manslaughter about November, 
1607. His grandfather, the Baron, was Ferdorcha, father to the Earl 
and son of Conn Bacach. 

* i.e. Lord Lieutenant. ' 

* The 'O N^ill's country of Clannaboy in Down and Antrim. Chi- 
chester was governor of Carrickfergus during the closing years of the 
rebellion and afterwards, until his appointment to the Deputy ship. 

^ Bughraighe is ancestor of the Llidian heroes in the old Irish tales 
and genealogical tracts. 



62 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

raighthech deiligt[h]e derg-5ir forsan deilp Muire, aroile for 
de[i]lb in meic. Ba headh, immorro ro. chomairligh in diapal 
doib sen dealb Muire 7 a naeic do chomsharugadh 7 do derach 
'mun dl choroin 7 a leiccen gussin fFrainc assa haithle. Ar 
ccinneadh na droch-c[h]omairle eirghiss in dara fer suass 
forsan altoir. Ro-ss-ben go ml-throcairech mi-chinnemnach 
a coroin do deilb Muire. Du-s-rat a laim in dala n-ae. Siniss 
a laimh gusin lenom, oir ba hail laiss a choroin do buain de, 
Cuiris tra in lenb a laimh badein a gcert-agaidh a laimhe sen 
d'imchosnamh a chordine. Bidgaiss 7 crithnaigiss in droch- 
duine. Gabuis gne aithmele ge nar uo haithrechus firinnech. 
Leigit assin egluiss iad. Eirgit go tigh osta airigt[h]i issin 
gcathraigh. ler ndenom a medhoin laoi nochtait pairt don 
seel do beirt ban bui issin tigh. Assin gcathraigh doib assa 
haithle. Ascnait ierom for sligidh na Fraingce. O aimsir 
medhoin laoi go comhthuitim na hoidche doibh ag comhaister 
7 ag sir-shiopal 7 otha sin go moch-shoillsi na maitne. Ar n-a 
mharach gapsat fordal 7. merugad sechnoin na hoidche. 

XLIX. Ar ttoigheacht immorro don c[h]leir gusin egluiss 
deoigh laoi ba hesbadhach aithmelach imnair led mar rangatar 
in delbh Muire gan chor5in eidir. Ni fhitirset tra cred 
dod-endiss. In dis ^in ro.goid in choroin do sonnradh, ier 
mbeith ar comhaister d5ip o medhon laoi go maidin, is 
amhloidh fuaratar iad araon astigh a n-egluiss Muire ag 
soillsiugadh don lo [p. 26]. Ar toigheacht do diss do mhac- 
cleirchip airigthe isin recles a moch-dheghoil na m,aitne ro-s- 
fuaratar in beirt saighdiuir remraiti astig go gcoroin Muire 
fo oxail in dala n-ae. Dobheredh ierraidh meinic ar a him- 
fholach fo n-a brat. Ni roibi tra sin ar com,us do. La 
sodain timairgit 7 comchruinnigit clier na heguilsi go gcom- 
arsnach^zT'Z' comfoixe na cathrach. Rainic a coroin gusin 
deilb Muire. Ergapthor in diss amne. Oirrdercaigther in 
seel mirbaileach sechn5in na cathrach. Ro-s-adaimhset 
immorro in di"? sin a m5ir-fhiadhnuissi chille 7 tuaithe na 
cathrach amoil tarla doib o thuss go deiredh. Ni thucsat 
claonadh no clethramh. ar bith don seel acht m,ar ata i n-ar 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 63 

of Mary, and another on that of her Son. The suggestion 
which the devil made to them was to commit an outrage on 
the image of Mary and her Son and to strip them of the two 
crowns, and to go into France afterwards. When they de- 
cided upon this, one of the men ascended the altar, and with- 
out feeling or scruple, took the crown oif the image of Mary. 
He put it into the other's hand. He then stretched towards 
the Child, desiring to remove His crown. The Child put up 
His own hand against his to protect His crown. The wicked 
man became startled, and trembled and conceived a sorrow 
which was not true repentance. They then went out of the 
church and entered a certain hostel in the city. When they 
had taken their dinner they made known part of, the affair 
to two women who were in the house. Afterwards they left 
the city and hied them on the road for France. From 
midday until nightfall and from that to the dawn of day they 
kept continually journeying and walking. On the next day 
they took a wromg road, and went astray during the whole night. 
XL IX. When the clergy came to the church in the evening 
they missed the crown, and were sad and ashamed w^hen they 
found that the image of Mary was without it. They did not 
know what to do. But the two men who stole the crown, 
having travelled from midnight, till morning, found them- 
selves inside the church at the dawn of day. When a certain 
pair of young clerics entered the church early in the morning 
they found the two soldiers inside, and the crown of Mary under 
the arm of one of them. He often endeavoured to conceal 
it under his coat, but could not succeed. Then the clergy of 
the church and all the neighbouring people of the citv 
gathered and came together. The crown was taken to the 
image, and the two men taken prisoners. The miraculous 
•event was made known all through the city. The two men 
confessed before the clergy and laity of the city how every- 
thing from beginning to end happened. They did not 
distort or conceal anything of the affair, but told it as above, 
saying also that the women knew something of it. No penance 



64 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ndiaigh, foss go roipe gne do sc^/oib in sceoil ag na mnaib 
remraitte. Nlr cuiredh tra pennait no docomal ar doman 
orra in airet batar ag denomh na hadmhala so acht uile- 
innissin in sceoil o n-a ttoil badein. Teit fioss na moir- 
mlvhal go Bruxel 7 go primh-chathrachaibh oirrderca na 
righachta. lar sin tra ticc ordugad on arsadiuc go guibernoii 
na cathrach fon dis sin do chrochadh. Doronad samhloidh. 
Ro nochtadh na mna as a haithle 7 nir gapadh comha ro 
cennach dar thairccset gan a ngeir-sgiursadh go himnair 
aithmelach seachnoin na sraide 7 moir-thimchell in mhar- 
gaidh moir. 

L. An t-ochtmadh la Februarii 1608 ticc gne fhleachaidh 
7 fherthana issin ainasir. Gluaissis meide eiccin tuile isna 
mionaib ge nar brissetair leaca oigridh na primhabhann. An 
ruiber gabus go Liuaine bui bengan beg ar n-a chomh- 
tharraing ar in taep amoigh do na ballaighibh, 7 a n-irnfhoixe 
don di palas -5 mbator na tigemaidhe. Bui glaissin beg- 
shrotha ba lor laighet ar doman ag del gusin rnbengan 
remhraiti, e ag ceimniugadh ota gairdin [p. 27] ro bui eidir 
in da palass. Aroile fer do muinntir in ierla bui ag dol re 
.toisc eiccin gusin palas i n-a roibhe O Neill, adchi bradan 
ro-m.h5r a poll beg tabhuill bai forsan nglaissin. Tairrngidh 
arm a gcetoir. Marpuiss in bradan. Rug leiss do lathoir 
in ierla. Tic assin do lathuir Ul Neill. Tangator tra in 
meide ba himjlioixe doip do mhaithip na cathrach d'fechain 
in bradain. Ingantach leo a roi-mhed 7 a fagbail mar a 
ffrith. Adupratar nach ffacatar fein in gcein bator i n-a 
mbethaidh 7 nach gcualator o a seinnseroip rompa go ffrith. 
bradan ar ruiber Louain no ar in mbengan sin t^'^irigthi 
roimhe sin riemh. 

LL Bator tra na m.aithe si a Louain gussin ochtmhadh 
la deg don m,i chetna. Eirgit ier sin go Maiclln, prlmh- 
chathoir oirrderc do prouensi Flonndruis. Ier ndenomh 
a m,eadhoin laoi a ffochair Sar Uuilliam Stanlui leigit tar 
abhainn moir teid Bruxel go Hanuorp iad. Oirisit an 
oidche ^in a mbaili beag ro-baoi a gcomhf[h]ochraibh na 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 65 

or hardship was put on them while making this confession, 
but the whole admission was made of their own will. Intelli- 
gence of the miracle went to Brussels and the great cities of 
the kingdom. Afterwards an order came to the governor of 
the city from the Archduke to hang the two men, and that 
was done. The women were stripped then, and no oifer or 
condition that they made was accepted, but they were 
scourged disgracefully and mercilessly round the city and 
through the great market-place. 

L. On the eighth of February, 1608, the weather becam.e 
-somewhat damp and wet. A certain amount of thaw set in 
in the small rivers, though the ice of the large ones did not 
break. On the river which comes to Louvain there was a 
small branch going round the outside of the walls near the 
two palaces where the lords v/ere. There was an exceedingly 
small streamlet entering this branch and flowing from a garden 
between the two palaces. A certain man of the Earl's people, 
who was going with some message to the palace where 'O 
Neill was, saw a very large salmon in a small hole in a plank 
on the stream. He drew a weapon at once and killed the 
salmon. He brought it to the Earl, and cam,e then to 'O 
Neill's presence. All the nobles of the city who were near 
them came to see the salmon. They were surprised at his 
size, and that he was got where he was found. They said they 
never saw during their lives, and nev^er heard from those who 
lived before them, that a salmon was ever before got on the 
river of Louvain, or on that particular branch of it. 

LI. The princes were in Louvain until the eighteenth of 
the same month. They then went to Mechlin,^ a fam.ous city 
in the province of Flanders. Having dined with Sir William 
Stanley, they crossed the great river ^ which goes from 
Brussels to Antwerp. They stayed that night in a little town 

^ Or M alines. 

2 A small river which passes near Brussels, joins the Dyle below 
Mechlin. The Dyle is a tributary of the Scheldt, on which Antwerp is 
built. 

e 



66 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

habhann. Maiclin dona cathpir oirrderc is lor mett ar n-a 
comhshuidiugadh a nglionn ro-aoibhinn. Roi-dhes a tighthi 
7 a tegduisidhi deg-denmacha. Raiber is l5r mett 7 feabhus 
triasan gcathroigh, e ar n-a chomhroinn 7 ar n-a tharraing 
tre uile ehraidibh in baili, go n-imat droichet, go mbadoib 
Imnihara. Prim-thempall ro-mhor a gcert-meadh5n na 
cathrach 's e ar n-a imdenomh 7 ar n-a oibriugadh go ro- 
shaothrach deig-feruistighi, go n-altoiribh peinntelta deal- 
raigthecha degh-imhaidheacha gusin gclocass is aidbhle 7 is 
airde a fformhor na cristaigheachta. Fert 7 adhnacal naoimh 
Eirennaigh isin eglujs sin. Do-rinne Dia ilimat fert 7 mirbal 
tritt. Ba mac do rl[gh] Eirenn e. Ro-mhor airmhitnigit 7 
adhamraighit lucht na cathrach tomba 7 iidhair in naoimh 
sin do bithin oirrderca na mirbal do-rinni Dia trid. Loch- 
rainn lasamla rhiera 5s a chenn d'oidchi 7 do lo go seruis De 
go slorraidhe [p. 28]. Ata ospitel ar mhaithip in domain 
isin chathraig i n-a ngapthor gach en-duine galraighthe don 
uile nasion ar c[h.]ostus righ na Spainni. 

LH. Ar n-a mharach doib go Hanuerp. Ar in sligidh 
rompa gabait tar ruiber ro-mor tic o Gant. Leac oigridh 
adbal-mhor ar in ruiper. Beirit a n-eachroidh ar aradhnoibh 
leo go methon in tsrotha ar in leic. Cuirit ainnsein a mbatoib 
iad do cheidhe oighridh, 'n-a,m,hac samhla a ttir don taobh 
araill. Rangator fort ata as urchomhair chathrach Anuerp, 
Cenn Floiindniiss a chom.hainm. Fagaibset ann a n-each- 
roidh. Dodeachator b^dein a mbattoibh gusin gcathraigh. 
ler ngabail tighi osta eirgit d'f[h]aixin chaislein Antieirp. 
Mesait 7 brethnaigit each go ffuil in caislen sin i n-a meide 
fern ar oibieachoip lan-daingne na crlstaigeachta. An raiber 
ar n-a chomhtharraing i n-a moir-thimchioll. Mile Spain- 
neach go sirraidhe d'oidche 7 do lo ag a bhardacht go ro-imat 
canon riaghalta 7 ordanaiss moir gasin uile chomghar 7 
riachtanas ricit a les. Eagluis roi-des? aca astigh. Da gunna 

^ Saint Rumoldus, whose feast is celebrated on July 1st. See 
O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, Vol. VII. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS G-] 

close to the river. Mechlin is a famous city of great extent, 
situated in a very pretty valley. Its houses and well-con- 
structed buildings are very beautiful. There is a good, large 
river through the city, divided through all the streets of the 
town, with many bridges and boats. There is a very large 
cathedral in the centre of the city, built and ornamented with 
much labour and artistic work, having bright painted altars 
with beautiful statues, and a belfry, one of the largest and 
highest in Christendom. There is the tomb of an Irish 
saint 1 in that church. God performed many wonders and 
miracles through him. He was the son of the King of Ireland. 
The people of the city venerate and reverence very much the 
tomb and image of that saint because of the greatness of the 
miracles God did through him. There are lighted waxen 
torches over the tomb both night and day, with divine ser- 
vice continually. There is one of the finest hospitals in the 
world in the city, where every class of sick person of all nations 
is admitted at the cost of the King of Spain. 

LII. The next day they went to Antwerp. As they pro- 
ceeded they crossed a very large river ^ which comes from 
Ghent. It was covered with an enormous sheet of ice. 
They led their horses by the reins over the ice to the middle 
of the river. They then put them in boats from a quay of 
ice, and landed them on a similar one on the other side. 
They reached a fort in front of the city of Antwerp called 
*' The Head of Flanders." They left their horses there, and 
came themselves in boats to the city. When they had taken 
a hostel, they went to view the castle of Antwerp. All admit 
that that castle is one of the greatest fortresses in Christendom. 
The river surrounds it, and there are a thousand Spaniards 
continually guarding it by night and by day, with much 
regular cannon and large ordnance provided with every con- 
venience and necessity that is required. They have a very 
pretty church inside. There are two large guns of brass in a 

2 The Scheldt, the ancient Scaldis, a branch of which encircles the 
city. On the main arm of the river the Museum of Antiquities, on the 
Quai Van Dyck, was established in the remains of the ancient stronghold 
of Antwerp. It dates from the tenth century, but was restored in 1889 



68 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

m5ra praiss 's iat ar n-a saidiugadh go hartt, se troigthe deg 
ir fichit in gach gunna. Ni mor nach gcuirit tri leige d'ath- 
chor a peler, mar aithrisit in uarda. Ni leicit nasion ar bith 
oile d'f[h]echain n5 do brethnugadh na hoibre acht Spain- 
neach no Eirennach amhain. 

LHL Ceimnigit ier sin timchuairt bhallaidhi in baile. 
Ge nach set sanahla tra re daingne in chaislein in balla, ar aoi 
sin at a a gcosrnhailes, oir at ait coic troighthi iichet a ttighi 
a mhuir 7 a thairimtheachta gan an caislen ochta do chomhairem 
go ro-imat do sconsaigip is lor lan-daingne 'sa doraan, iad fein 
ag coimhett dia cheile. Dlog moir-lethan timchell in balla. 
O aidple na leice oigridh ni fhettamar a doimhne. Ge tharla 
gur fhobair go tteigemadh sgiursad urchoidech do lucht na 
cathrach ar in leic oigridh go gar roimhe sin, amhoil [p. 29] 
ata i n-ar ndiaigh, bator tra timchiol fich^ niile persa in tan. 
sin ag reabradh [7] ag raingce a n-einfheacht uirre. Go 
haimsir esparta do na maithip si ag dexain na cathrach. As 
a haithle tiaghait dia loistinibh. 

LIV. Ar maitin ar n-a mharach eirghit ar cuairt gusin 
gcolaiste Eirennach bul issin gcathraigh. Ba roi-dhes tegh- 
duis-linmhar go scolairip. imdha in colaiste sin tra. Eistid 
aiffrenn onorach canntairechta go n-organoib comhrabinne 
ceolmhara go n-imat d'innstrumainntib muisice 7 gach 
oirfitidh archena. Petarca, duine uassal onorach do threip na 
Spainne, bui os cionn in cholaiste. Nir gap uaidip gan bangced 
onorach do chaithemh maille fris. Rue leiss iad as a haithle 
d'f[h]aixin a thighi hadem. Du-s-rad d'Ua Neill 7 don ierla 
da imhaidh Muire oighe neoch do-ronadh don chrann oirrderc 
i n-a ffrith in dealp Muire mhirbhaileach dar comhainm 
Noutre Daam do Buaiss ru-s-frith * go gar roimhe sin 7 
shlanaighes go linmhar laithemail, do m5r-grasoib De 7 
Naerah-Muire, lucht treabhlaite galoir 7 esslainte. Eirghit 
d'f[h]echain tighi 7 gardin in bourgomaigistir, ard-oifficz^^^ 
in baile. Ba roi-dhess aoibinn in taispenadh sin co n-imrit 

* Added in paler ink. 

1 It was founded in 1600 by Father Sedgrave. A well informed 
agent reports in July, 1607, that " the president of all the Irish Colleges. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 69 

high position, each gun thirty-six feet long. They carry 
alrnost three leagues in shooting their bullets, as the garrison 
say. They allow no nation at all to see or examine the work, 
except Spaniards or Irishmen. 

LIII. Next they went round the walls of the town. 
Though the wall is not to be compared with the castle as 
regards strength, still it is in keeping with it, for the rampart 
and circuit is twenty-five feet thick without counting the 
breastworks and sconces, as strong as any in the world, and 
well protecting one another. There is a great wide ditch 
around the wall. We could not learn the depth of it because 
of the great sheet of ice. Although there had nearly been a 
disaster to the inhabitants of the city a short time before that, 
as stated above, still there were about twenty thousand per- 
sons then sporting and dancing at one time on the ice. The 
princes rem.ained till evening viewing the city, and then went 
to their lodgings. 

LIV. The next morning they went on a visit to the Irish 
college in the city. ^ That college was very beautiful, with 
numerous apartments and many students. They heard High 
Mass that was sung, with sweet, m,elodious organs and instru- 
ments of music of all kinds. Petarcha, a Spaniard of noble 
birth, was in charge of the college. He insisted on their being 
present at a banquet with him. Afterwards he brought them 
to see his own house. He gave to ^O Neill and the Earl two 
images of the Virgin Mary that were made of the famous tree 
in which had been discovered shortly before that the miracu- 
lous statue of Mary called Notre Dame de Buais, which heals 
daily and in large numbers the diseased and the infirm by the 
grace of God and Holy Mary. They then went to see the 
house and gardens of the Burgomaster, the chief officer of 
the town. Very pretty and beautiful was that sight, with 
m,any statues and pictures of apostles, saints, and holy people, 

in Brabant and Flanders is one called Father Cusacke ; the Irish Colleges 
are five, at Douay, Tournay, Lisle, Antwerpe, and one other at Lou- 
vayne," Cal. St. Pa. 230. No doubt Petarcha was his subordinate in 
Antwerp. 



70 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

do delbhoip 7 pictuiribh, apsal naemh 7 firen ier n-a 
n-imdenomh do marmar gle-glan. Assidhe gussin du i n-a 
ndingentaidhe na gloinidhe. Examail ingantach inntlech- 
tach innus 7 cruth mar do-ronadh 7 mar do hullmaigedh 
thfis in teine a ndentar iad. BaT ar comhlassadh go sirraidhe 
d'oidche 7 do 16 fri re en-bliad«^ deg roimhe sin. Madh 
dia ndeachadh scur no cose ar a hadhnadh 7 ar a comh- 
lassadh en-uair amhain, nl lugha-sa-chach no cuic 
ced pon do caithfidhi re n-a cor suas an athhiiair 
iol ticfadh en-ghloine amhain ullamh este [p. 30]. As sin 
doib go statuss ro-onorach bui a gcert-mhedhon na cathrach. 
Ba roi-dhess daingen dess deig-denmach in tegh sin, acht do 
bithin in chocaidh bui ann in tan sin, ni roibhe tathaighe air. 
Eirghit go tegh. oile ro-oirrderc dar com.hainm gestus. At ait 
tra seomraidhe codalta go tteghduissip tom.haltuiss ag gach 
traibhleraidhe d'uile naision sa chrTstaigecht urdhalta san tigh 
sin. Cathair Anuuoirp immorro i n-a meide b^dein ar 
chathrachoip saidpre dessa daingne di-thoghluide degh- 
fhoirgenta na cristaigheachta, go ruiber ro-aoibhinn, go 
gcomhghar mara agass tire i n-a himfhoixe. 

LV. Ascnait assin gcathraigh tar eiss mhedhoin laoi trT 
leige. Riccit ruiber Gant. Eirgit go baile beg ar bru in 
ruibeir i n-a ff'ail caislen daingen ag in righ. Ced saigdiuir 
go sirraidhe dia bhardacht. Milbruc a ainm. Ar n-a m,harach 
doib go Filfort, baile ro-dhaingen i n-a ffuil caislen laidir ag 
in arsdiuc. Gach aon d'uaisslip an tire atruilles dia mi- 
ghnimharthaibh hadem bass d'f[h]aghail do-geip mar chuiss 
impidhe 7 onorachuisss gan bass liadhnach no foUus a ffiadh- 
nuisi caich d'f[h]aghail, tochuirter iatt gusin gcaislen gcetna 
sin. Faoi Dia acht in guibernoir ni himda persa ar talm.ain 
is fessach cred an oigedh no in bass geipit, arht ni thernoighit 
tar aiss amach go brath. 

LVL Eirgit in la sin b^dein go Louaine gussin prlm.h- 
chathraigh n-oirrdirc n-arsanta. Comhfhairsing a ttim- 
chuairt a ballaidhi. Rannchuid di ban ga[n] aittreabadh no 
inotacht, si des degh-fhoirgenta, go ro-imat tempall 7 mainis- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 71 

made of pure white marble. They went from there to the 
place where the glasses were made. Strange and wonderful 
and skilful was the method and manner in which they made 
and prepared from the beginning the fire in which they are 
made. It had been continually lighted by day and night for 
eleven years before that time. If once a cessation or quenching 
should come on its flames, not less than five hundred pounds 
would be spent in kindling it again before one glass could 
come out of it completed. They went from that place to a 
very imposing town hall in the centre of the city. That ho use 
was very beautiful, strong, and well-built, but because of the 
war that had been there at that time, it was not open to visitors. 
They went to another remarkable house called a " guest- 
house." There are in that house sleeping-rooms and dining- 
rooms prepared for every traveller of every nation in Christen- 
dom. The city of Antwerp ranks am,ong the richest, most 
beautiful, strongest, most impregnable, and best built cities 
in the world, with a very beautiful river, and both sea and 
land in proximity to it. 

LV, They hastened out of that city after midday, and 
went three leagues till they reached the river [which flows 
through] Ghent. They went to a small town on the bank of 
the river where the King has a strong castle, with a hundred 
soldiers always guarding it. Willebroeck ^ is its name The 
next day they went to Vilvorde,^ a very strong town where 
the Archduke has a strong castle. Every nobleman of the 
country meriting death by his own misdeeds, who obtains as 
an act of grace and concession that he shall not suffer death 
m public before the people, is brought to that same castle. 
Under God, not many persons in the world except the gover- 
nor know what death and end they meet, but they never come 
oat again. 

LVI. That day also they went to Louvain, the famous 

^ It lies between Antwerp and, Brussels, but not on the river Scheldt, 
which flows from Ghent to the former city. It is, however, not far from 
the Dyle, its tributary. 

^ Situated a few miles north of Bru 



72 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

trech, go llnmhaireacht ord 7 degh-sheruissi De. Tempall 
Petair a gcert-lar in baili ar n-a denomh 7 ar n-a oibriugadh go 
ro-mhaith go ndeilbh ndeiligthe ndealraigthigh Muire oige do- 
gn! go follus laithemail imat fert 7 mirbal, go leith-ched altoir 
ondrach go pictuirip peinntelta [p. 31], seiruiss De go slrraidhe 
for gach n-alt5ir diop. Mile beg on gcathraigh cuirt roi-dhess 
ag diuc de Ascot, si ar n-a himdenomh 7 ar n-a hoibriugadh 
go ro-shaothrach ni.5r-chosfuiss, go ruiber ro-m.haith. ag a 
timchioUadh, go ngairdinip deigh-denmhacha inntleachtacha 
uisgemhla. Sepel ro-onorach ar dheissi in domain ar n-a 
chorndach lesin diuc b^dein as urchomhair na cuirte i n-a 
ffuil pictuir, stair 7 tomba in diuc, go starthachaibh 7 go 
pictuirip a sheinnser roimhe o Adhamh anuass. Ar ruibher na 
cuirte cetna sin muilionn ro-inntleachtach do-ghni a n-ein- 
fheacht bleith in arbha 7 sgoltadh in adhmaid gan lamh- 
chongnamh ar doman acht a oifficech dia dirgadh i n-a -lignedh 
coir. 

LVH. Dia dardaoin do shonnradh in t-ochtmadh la 
fiched Februarii 1608 triallait na maithe si gus in Edaill, da 
fher deg ar f[h]ichit doip ar eachraidh. Cdiste ag a mnaip 
uaissle. Fagbhaitt diss mac Ui Neill, Sean 7 Brian, an barun 
mac in ierla, 7 Aodh mac Cathbharr, O Coinne 7 Seaan O 
Hagain [7] drong oile da ndaoinibh uaissle 7 dia lucht lenam,hna 
a fFlonndrus a ffochair in choreneil. 

LVHL Bator an oidhche sin tra a m,baile dier comhainm. 
Uuafer ceithre leige o Louain, trup marcshlaighi in arsadiuc 

1 The Cathedral of Louvain was commenced in 1423. Several 
remarkable paintings are still preserved there. 

2 The year 1608 began on Tuesday, therefore the data here are 
accurate. But Edmonds writing to Salisbury 18/28th February, says : 
" The Earl of Tyrone departed yesterday from Louvayne," in which 
particular he is wrong, as our narrative indicates. 

^ Defeated in his purpose to go to Spain, as has been described in 
eh. xliii and note, 'O Nc^ill determined to proceed to the Eternal City by 
way of Lorraine, Switzerland and Italy. Edmonds learned this towards 
the end of January, and at once indicated to the Duke of Lorraine that 
his service to His Majesty King James I. required that no favourable 
entertainment should be afforded to the fugitives. See his letter and 
enclosure to Salisbury, Cal. St. Pa. 644-5. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 73 

ancient city. The circuit of its walls is extensive. Portion 
of it is unoccupied by house or habitation. It is -beautiful 
and well-built, having many churches and monasteries, with 
a large number of clergy and m.uch divine service. The 
Church of Saint Peter ^ is in the centre of the city, well-built 
and decorated, with an excellent white statue of the Vi-^gin 
Mary, which daily performs visibly many miracles and wonders ; 
also fifty splendid altars with painted pictures, and divine ser- 
vice- continually at each altar. A short mile from the city the 
Duke of Ascot has a very pretty court, built and decorated 
with m,uch labour and expense, with a good river surrounding 
it, and well-made, artistic, well-watered gardens. There is 
a beautiful church, one of the prettiest in the world, built by 
the Duke himself, in front of the court, in which there is 
a picture, history, and tomb of the Duke, and histories and 
representations of his ancestors before him., from. Adam down 
On the river of that same court there is a cleverly con- 
structed mjll, which at one time grinds corn and splits timber, 
without any assistance except that of a driver directing it in 
its proper function. 

LVII. On Thursday, the twenty-eighth of February,^ 
1608, the princes, with their retinue, set out for Italy,'^ in all 
thirty-two riding on horseback. Their ladies had a coach. They 
left two of 'O Neill's sons, Sean^ and Brian,^ the Baron,*^ the 
Earl [of Tyrconnell's] son, Aodh,' the son of Cathbharr, 
'O Coinne,^ Sean 'O Hagain,^ and others of their nobles and 
followers in Flanders with the Colonel. 

LVIII. They came that night to a town called Wavre,^" 
four league's from Louvain, with a troop of the Archduke's 

* See p. 16 (4) supra. 

^ See p. 16 (5) supra. ^ 

* See p. 18 (21) supra. 
' See p. 18 (23) supra. 

* See "p. 17 (11) and (15) supra. 

* See p. 17 (11) supra. 

1" This town lies 14 miles south-east of Brussels in the province of 
South Brabant. Grouchy defeated the Prussians there on the day of 
Waterloo. The scene of the main action is a short distance to the west. 



74 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



dia gcoimhiteacht 7 dia ttiodhlacadh. Ar n-a mharach. 
ddibh se leige do dhroichshligidh granna go Namures. 
Oirissit ann an oidhche sin. Tainic tra guibernoir na cath- 
rach llnmaireacht do dhaoinibh maithe d'f[h]orffailtiugadh 
friu 7 dia nglacadh chuca go hiomchubaidh, onorach. Cuiriss 
cuideachta go leith saighdiuir dia ttiodhlacadh ar n-a mharach 
d'inaegla namat dia rochtain. Fo bhithin aimhreidhe 
uiscemhla na shgheadh rompa fagbhait a gcoiste sa gcath- 
raigh sin. Cuirit a gcailleacha ar eachroidh [p. 32]. Gabh- 
uiss in corenel co n-a lucht coimhideachta a gced friu annsin. 

LIX. Cruinn-chathoir dhess dhaingen dheghfhoirgenta in 
baile sin go tteghduissip ro-maithi deig-denta ar n-a suidh- 
iugadh a nghonn ro-aoibhinn. Ruibher ro-mhaith ar n-a 
chomhtharroing 7 ar n-a chomroinn go linmhar thrithe, go 
n-imat droichet, go mbadoip linmhara. Caisslen ro-laidir 
ag righ na Spainne ar foradh-chnoc ard aoipinn uas an gcath- 
raigh ag a ffuil commanndar, cennus 7 uachtaranacht ar in 
mbaili uile, go marcshlaigh moir go saigdiuirip linmhara gc^ 
sirraidhe. 

LX. As sin doibh go Mars ocht leige. Tigit saigdiuiridhc 
in baili i n-a gcomhairrchiss leige 5n mbaili. Bator ann an 
oidhche sin. Baile beag daingen i n-a ffuil fort ag an righ go 
sochraide laidir in baile sin tra. 

LXL Ar n-a mharach dia domhnaigh .2. Martii se leige 
doip go baile dar comhainm Bastoinn. Ni rangatar a less 
tiodhlacadh in la sin. As sin doip se leige go Harlon, baile 
gapus lessin righ. 

LXn. Ar n-a mharach dia m.airt go baile le diuc de 
Lorene ceithri leige. Bator conuaidh leo gonuigi sin. Ann- 
sin chom,raicess 7 etorscaruss ferann in rig 7 duthaigh diuc 
de Loreine re aroile. Fort ro-dhaingen ar n-a imdenamh 
lessin diuc sa mbaili sin go mbardoip laidire linm,hara d'im,- 



^ See I). 55 n. 5 supra. The old citadel referred to in the next 
chapter is situated at the junction of the Sambre and the Meuse. 
A town of Belgium, about 28 miles south-east of Namur. 
^ Bastogne lies to the south-east of Marche. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 75 

cavalry attending and escorting them. The next day they 
went six leagues of an ugly, bad road to Namur. ^ They re- 
mained there that night. The governor of the city came 
with a large number of noblemen to welcome and receive them 
with propriety and honour. He sent a company and a half of 
soldiers to escort them, the next day, for fear the enemy might 
m.eet them.. Because of the unevenness and wetness of the 
road ahead of them., they left their coach in that city. They 
put their women on horses. The Colonel and those who 
accompanied him, took leave of them, there. 

LIX. This is a compact, line, strong, well-built city, with 
good, well-m^ade houses, situated in a very beautiful glen. 
There is a good river directed and divided in many parts 
through it, with a large numbe" of bridges and a great supply 
of boats. On a beautiful high hill over the city the King of 
Spain has a very strong castle, which has command, headship, 
and m^astery over the whole town, [m,anned] with a large body 
of cavalry and numerous soldiers always. 

LX. From there they went eight leagues to Marche. "^ 
The soldiers of the town came out one league to meet them 
They stayed in it that night. That town is sm.al] and fortified, 
and the King [of Spain] has a fort in it with a strong garrison. 

LXI. The next day, Sunday the second of March, they 
went six leagues to a town called Bastogne.^ They required 
no escort that day. From there they went six leagues to 
Arlon,^ a town belonging to the King [of Spain]. 

LXn. The next day, Tuesday, they went to a town ^ 
belonging to the Duke of Lorraine, four leagues distant. 
They had a convoy with them, as far as that. It is there the 
King [of Spain's] country and that of the Duke of Lorraine 
meet and separate from each other. There is a very strong 
fort, built by the Duke, in that town, with many strong 



* Arlon lies south of Bastogne, near the modern French frontier. 

^ Though 'O Cianain does not give the name, it can hardly be any 
other but Longwy {lougus I'icus), situated just inside the French frontier 
in the department of Meurthe and Moselle. 



j6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

dheghoil 7 d'imchosnamh toronna a thire ar chomharsnach- 
aibh. Nl mor immorro leigther d'f[h]echain no do breth- 
nugadh in daingin sin amhain. Ba ro-olc aimhreidh uisgemoil 
na slighthe Namures gussin du sin, go gcoilltip inadha, go 
tteirce n-dSxtx^hadh. Eirgit in la cetna sin da leigi go baile 
dar comhainm Feilirs. 

LXHL Ar n-a mharach doip secht leige go baile posta 
dar comhainm Malatur. Gabhait in [p. 33] la cetna sin tria 
baile roi-dhess Countflaune. Bui ruiber ro-docom.hlach go 
ttuile ro-laidir ar a roibhi droichet trid. Fuair an t-athair 
Tomass Strong 7 Magbethadh contabhairt baitte ar in ruiber 
sin, oir ro trascradh a each fo gach aon aca. Ba heiccen doip 
gan a snam,h do dhermat. 

LXIV. As sin doip coic leige go Pontem,ountson, baile 
laidir dess le diuc Loren i n-a ffuil palass ro-m.haith ag in 
diuc. Oirissit ann da oidche. Leicit daoine rom.pa gussin 
diuc dia fhoillsiugadh go roipe a ttriall chuigi. Ruiber ro- 
oirrderc triassan m.baili go ndroichet is l5r feabhas, caislen 
ro-daingen go mbardoip llnm.hara ar c[h]noc ard uassa, 7 is 
uaidh ainninigt[h]er in, baile. 

LXV. Ceim.nigit as sin ar in taop chle don ruiber tri leige, 
a mbattoip ier sin tar in ruiber. Eirgit go Nancside da leige, 
prIm,h-chathoir in diuc b^dein. Ba ro-aoibhinn examail in 



^ This town is still in French territory, slightly to the north-west of 
Audun-le-Ronian, and close to the German frontier. 

* It was evidently situated to the north of Conflans, in the depart- 
ment of Meurthe and Moselle, but I find no trace of it on the maps. 

' Conflans in the department o f Meurthe and Moselle, and lies west 
of Metz, close to the German frontier. 

* T7ie Orne, on which Conflans is situated, joins the Moselle below 
Metz. 

5 A Waterford friar who, according to informations given to Parsons, 
Clerk of the Crown and Peace in Munster, returned to Ireland from Spain 
in 1608 on political business. He is described as " of low stature and 
thick, about 40 years of age ; the colour of his hair is dark brown inclining 
to black ; is of a yellow complexion ; he has an infirmity in his eyes, 
which causes him to open and shut them, and to twinkle with them," 
Cal. St. Pa. 540. On October 17th, 1624, the Earl of Cork writes to the 
Deputy : " Friar Strong arrived at Waterford in the beginning of May 
last, being employed from beyond seas to ]irepare the chieftains' handS) 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS ']^ 

guards to protect and defend the frontier of his country 
against neighbours. Not many are permitted to view or 
examine that one fortress. The roads from Namur to that 
place were very bad, rough and wet, and there were many 
woods and few houses. They went that same day two leagues 
[further] to a town called Fillieres.^ 

LXHL The next day they went on seven leagues to a 
post-town nam.ed Malatur.^ They proceeded that same day 
through a very pretty town, Conflans.^ A difficult river,* 
with a very strong current, over which there was a bridge 
flowed through it. Father Tomas Strong ^ and Magbhethadh 
['O Neill] were in danger of being drowned in it, for the horse 
fell under each of them. They were obliged to resort to 
swimming.*^ 

LXIV. They advanced from there five leagues to Pont-a- 
Mousson,' a strong and pretty town belonging to the Duke of 
Lorraine, in which he has a very good palace. They remained 
there two nights. They sent people before them, to the 
Duke to announce that they were comjng to him. There is a 
fam.ous river running through the town, on which there is a 
fine bridge, with a very strong castle with numerous guards 
on a high hill over it, and from this bridge the town gets its 
name. 

LXV, They proceeded from there three leagues on the 
left side of the river. They then crossed it in boats. They 
went to Nancy,^ the Duke's chief city, a distance of two 



and consents to join with the Pope and tlie King of Spain's army, that 
are to be shipped in the Low Countries and to arrive in Ireland about 
December next." The Earl notes that the friar has been disguised as 
a merchant, and that his agents have laid a plot for his apprehension. 
Cal. St. Pa. (1624) 535. 

* Lit. " not to forget their swimming." 

' Pont-a-Mousson is in the department of Meurthe and Moselle, 17 
miles north-north-west of Nancy, and near the present German frontier. 
It is built on the Moselle, which divides the town into two parts, and is 
spanned by a bridge of the late sixteenth century ; hence the name. 

* Nancy is the capital of the department of Meurthe and Moselle. 
It lies due east from Paris. 



78 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

talomh tria ar gapsat in la sin go llnmhairecht ffmemhna 7 
cruithneachta, go gcoilltip mes-torthacha, go n-imat n-ait- 
treabadh. Timchiol da leige on gcathraigh ar foradh-chnoc 
ard aoipinn caislen ro-dhaingen go mbardoip llnnihara. Ann 
bid clann in diuc ag a ttegusc 7 ag a ttapairt suass a n-inbaidh 
a n-aoide. Cuiriss tra in diuc coistide 7 daoine uaisle i n-a 
gcornhdhail sealat 5n chuirt. ler ttoirling doip tic stibhard 
in diuc dia ttochuiredh. gusin palass mor. Gapait a leith-scel 
do bithin a n-aisstir an oidhche sin. ler n-eistecht aiffrinn 
ar n-a mharach tic in fer cetna go gcdistigib maithi i n-a 
gcomhairrchis. Eirgit ier sin don palass. Bator ag sibal 7 
ag spaisteoracht a ngalari ba lor mett 7 feabhus 7 deissi sa 
doman in comhfhat buT in diuc issin eagluiss ag eistecht 
aiffrinn. Ticis in diuc on egluiss as a haithle. E fein a 
n-edach imchubhaidh [p. 34]. Drong dia dhaoinip uaisle ag 
comhradh friss. A dhiss mac i n-a deghoidh. Garda roi- 
dhess. Paitside llnmara ar gach taop de. Ar ndol da halla 
cuiriss tigernaidhi mora i n-a gcoinne sen. Teighit dia lathoir. 
Glacuis chuicce go honorach forffailidh iat, a chlann mar an 
acetna. Bator sealat ag imagallam,h 7 ag aines bhriathar re 
aroile. As a haithle suidit ar a medhon laoi. Seiser doib, 
an diuc CO n-a diss mac, O Neill, in t-iarla 7 in barun. Imat 
do daoinib uaisle ro-onoracha ag feithemh orra. Beiris leis 
dia sheomra codalta i n-a deghaidh iad. Batar ann sealat 
Gabuit a gced. Eirgit dia loistlnibh. lerla ba hard-stiuartt 
don diuc i n-a gcoimhitecht. Fograis a pein moir gan or no 
airget do glacadh uaidip in airett no-beittiss issin chathraigh, 
acht a n-uile chosstus frisin re sin do beith ar in diuc. 

LXVL Primh-chathair oirrderc oireghdha ar dhaingne 
laidire daoineachaire na region gcomhfhocus in chathair-si. 
Diog ro-domain m5ir-t[h]imchell a balla. Tri gepta ar druim 
a cheile go ngarda llnmhar. Ceithri slata deg a ttighi in balla 
gan in caisslen ochta do chomhairiomh. Ar in taob * uo dess 
don chathraigh cuirt derscnaighthech degh-oibrigthi ag a cor 
suass lesin diuc, go nda palass ro-onoracha ar n-a suidiugadh 
go hinntleachtach. Baile mor ar n-a thogbail moirthimchell 

* Corrected from taob-. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 79 

leagues. Very beautiful and varied was the country through 
which they journeyed that day, with plenty of vines and 
wheat, fruitful forests, and many houses. About two leagues 
from the city, on a beautiful high hill, there is a very strong 
■castle with a large number of guards. It is there the Duke's 
children are instructed and brought up in their youth. The 
Duke sent coaches and noblemen a distance from the Court 
to meet them. When they alighted the Duke'-^ steward cam,e 
to invite them to the great palace, but they excused them- 
selves for that night because of their journey. After they 
•had heard Mass on the next day the same man came to meet 
them with good coaches. They then went to the palace. 
They remained walking and passing the time in an extensive, 
excellent, beautiful gallery while the Duke was in the church 
hearing Mass. He came from the church afterwards. He 
himself was in becoming dress, with some of his noblemen 
discoursing with him, and his two sons after him. He had a 
very beautiful guard, and many pages on either side of him. 
When he cime to his hall he sent great lords for them [the 
Irish]. They went into hi'^ presence. He received them with 
joy and honour, and his children did likewise. They remiained 
for a time discoursing and conversing with one another. 
Afterwards they sat down to dinner. They were six in number, 
the Duke and his two sons, 'O Neiil, the Earl, and the Baron 
[of Dungannon]. There were many honourable noblemen 
waiting on them. He brought them afterwards to his private 
apartment. There they remained for a time. They then 
took their leave and retired to their lodgings. There was an 
Earl, who was head-steward of the Duke, accom.panying them. 
He proclaimed under severe penalty, thit no one should accept 
gold or silver of them while they should be in the city, but 
that all their expenses during that time should be borne by 
the Duke. 

LXVI. This Is a famou" and distinguished capital city, 
one of the strongest, best defended, and most spacious in the 
countries near it. There js a very deep trench around its 



8o FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

na nua-chuirte sin comchengailte risin sen-chathraigh. Da 
thempall roi-dhessa, colaiste costusach, mainistir ro-mhaith 
go gcoimhthinol capiisin^<rZ) ar n-a gcor suas lesin diuc a 
n-imfhoixe na nua-chathrach. Sa sen-chathraig b^dein imat 
do reclesoip roi-dhesa, ten^pall dip i n-a ffuil in ceathramadK 
rann do chorp Sanct Sedirsi ier n-a chonadach go ro-onorach 
airmitneach a gcomhraid airgit go n-imat gcloch lonnradh- 
ach [p. 35]- Sen-palass ro-mh5r roi-dhess ag in diuc uodhein 
isin gcathraigh go ngaleri * is lor feabhus go tteghdhuissip 
llnmhara loghmhara naor-dhaoineachoire. Teinis-cuirt ro- 
mhaith i n-a nxbltt clann in diuc go ndaoinibh uaisle ar comhgar 
seorara codalta in diuc i n-a nabi faircsin 7 radharc reabhraidh 
7 cluithide na ndaoine uassal aige. Stapla lan-fhota go n-imat 
gcruinn-each roi-dess nar uo mor isin chuirt as urchom.hair in 
palaiss. Plass i n-a mbit msivcshlach 7 daoine uaisle ag 
giustail 7 ag m.arcaigheacht, ag com,hmbrissedh lannsaidhe ar 
bruinnib 7 ochtaip aroile 7 a cheile. 

LXVn. Ar n-a m,h.arach immorro eirgit na m.aithe si go 
gcoistigip on diuc go hegluiss Sanct Niclas da leigi on chath- 
raio-h remraite. Taisselbhthor doip aroile do lamhoip S- 
Niclas. Gluaissit asside go baile beg ar bru in ruibeir remh- 
epertm,ar, Luueaniell a ainm. Dia mairt in t-aonmadh la deg 
do mi mharta ceimmighit as sin ocht leige gusin mbaile dar 
com.hainm Saungdi. Ba ro-mhaith in aimser 7 na shgthe 
frissin re sin. Ar n-a m.hararh doip tar eliap Sanct Martin 
tria shlight[h]ibh doirpe docom^hlacha go n-imat sneachta 7 
oigrid. Comhnaigit sealat a mbaili bheg, du a n-im.chomraic 
7 a n-etorscar duthaigh in diuc 7 in Alm.ainn re aroile. Feranti 
in diuc ro fhagoibhset t i n-a ndeghaidh go n-imat ffinemna 

* Corrected from daleri. 
t -set added later. 

1 The city at present consists of two portions, the Ville Vieille and 
the Ville Neiive. 

2 St. Nicholas is to the south east of Nancy, and in the same depart- 
ment. 

3 Luneville lies east of St. Nicholas, the last-mentioned town, and in 
the same department. 

* St. Die is in the department of Vosges and near the present Germati 
frontier. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 8i 

wall. There are three gates one behind the other with a 
large guard. The wall is fourteen yards in thickness without 
counting the breastworks. On the south side of the city 
there is a splendid, well-built court in process of erection by 
the Duke, with two grand palaces artisticallv situated. 
There is a great town built around that new court, 
and joined to the old city. ^ There are two very beautiful 
churches, a wealth}- college, and a good monastery, with 
a communitv of Capuchins, built by the Duke in 
proximity to the new city. In the old citv itself there are 
many fine churches, in one of which there is a fourth part 
of the bodv of Saint George, splendidly and reverently 
enclosed in a shrine of silver with manv bright precious 
stones. The Duke himself has a great beautiful old palace 
in the city, having an excellent gallery and many splendid 
spacious apartments. There is a good tennis-court, where 
the Duke's children and nobles play, near his private 
room, where he can view and see their sport and games. 
There is a long stable, with many beautiful, well-shaped 
horses, which are not large, in the court opposite the palace. 
There is a place where horsemen and noblemen joust and ride, 
breaking lances on one another's breasts. 

LXVII. The next day the princes set out on coaches 
which the Duke gave them to the church of Saint Nicholas, ^ 
two leagues' journey from the aforesaid city. One of the 
hands of Saint Nicholas was shown to them. They ad- 
vanced from there to a little town called Luneville, ^ on the 
bank of the river we have already mentioned. On Tuesday, 
the eleventh of March, they proceeded from there eight 
leagues to the town named St. Die. * The weather and the 
roads were very good throughout that period. On the next 
day they crossed the mountain of Saint Martin, over hard, 
difficult roads covered with ice and snow. They stopped 
for a short time in a small town where the Duke's country 
and Germany meet and separate from each other. They 
left behind them the Duke's territory, with its abundance of 

/ 



82 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

7 cruithneachta 7 gach degh-thoraidh archena, go ruiberoibh 
ro-aoipne, go maighnesoip mor-fhairsingi sroth-imdha uis- 
cemhla, go gcoilltip comharda cnuas-torthacha ar ruiber 
Nancsfi dar comhainm Marsee. Secht tteghdhuissidhi ag in 
diuc i n-a ndingentor 7 i. n-a n-ullmhaighther salann. Mellion 
amhain teit a ttorbha don diuc gacha bliadhna do bithin 
chlssa na secht ttegduisidhi s'n * [p. 36]. Cathoir beg oile 
sa tir as a ffagann in diuc en ched deg tucsaoit fhina mar 
chioss gacha bHadhna. Or 7 airget dia bhualadh do do 
gnath. Ni he gach en ri coront^ sa cristaigecht sharaigess 
a gciss 7 a ttorbha a tigernuis gacha bhadhna e. Comfhat 
a duthaighi coic leigi deg ar fichit si mar gardin a gcert- 
medhon na cristaighechta gan umhla no urraim do righ no 
prinnsa fon uile doman, sesmhach sirraide laidir nem-chlaon 
a gcreidemh eguilsi De. 

LXVHL As sin doip go Bounhom en leigi amhain, an 
ced-baih ba himfhoixe doip don Almainn. Tar in shab 
doib da leige go baile dar comhainm CeizerspelL Gabait 
tria ghonn ro-a[o]ibhinn i n-a roipe ruiber ro-mhaith, go 
n-imat ffinemhna 7 degh-thoraidh, go mbeg-bailtip desa 
linmhara. An oidhche sin doip tri leige go cathraigh 
n-oirrdirc dar comhainm Columbier si ro-daingen laidir 
daoinechair. An mag is aille fhairsingi chomthruime degh- 
thorthaighe a fformhor na cristaighechta ar a comhghar. 
Eiritchide immorro atait dia hinotacht 7 dia haittreabadh. 
Bator ann an oidhche sin. Ar n-a mharach doip gusin 
ruiber dar comhainm Campser eidirdealaiges eitir in rann 
sin don Almainni 7 pairt don mBorgondii, duthaigh gabhus 
lessin arsadiuc, tria prim-choill dhairghennaig droipeoil 



* Here the scribe asks a prayer of the reader : Tabair hennacht for 
anmain in scribhndra. Give a blessing for the soul of the writer. 

^ Six miles below Nancy it joins the jNIoselle, which enters the Rhine 
at Coblenz. 

^ Literally ' ' who excels him in rent and in profit from his lordship 
each year." 

' Bonhcmme is situated in Alsace, very near the modern French 
frontier. At one time it belonged to the French department of Haut Rhin. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 85 

vines and wheat and every good fruit, its beautiful rivers, 
its wide, many-rivered, w^atery plains, and its tall, fruit- 
laden woods on the river of Nancy, which is called Meurthe. ^ 
The Duke has seven mines where salt is manufactured and 
prepared. He makes one million profit each vear bv the 
rent of the seven mines. There is another small city in 
the country out of which he gets eleven hundred hogsheads 
of wine for rent everv vear. Gold and silver are being 
•continually coined for him. It is not everv crowned king 
in Christendom whose rent and profit out of his dominions 
€ach year exceeds his. - His country is thirty-five leagues 
in length, and it is as a garden in the very centre of Christen- 
dom, giving neither obedience nor submission to anv king 
or prince in the world, but ever steadfast, strong, and un- 
bending in the faith of God's Church. 

LXVIIL From that place they went one league to Bon- 
homme,^ the German town that was nearest to them. They 
travelled two leagues across the mountain to a town namep 
Kaysersberg. ^ They passed through a very beautiful valley 
in which there was a very good river, much vines and good 
■crops, and numerous pretty villages. That night they went 
three leagues to a remarkable citv which is called Colmar, -^ 
and is very strong, powerful, and extensive. Near to it is 
the most beautiful, wide, level, and fruitful plain in the 
greater part of Christendom. Heretics, however, occupy 
and inhabit it. They remained there that night. The 
following day they went through a great, trackless, difficult, 
unfrequented wood to the river which is named Campser/ 
and separates that portion of Germany and part of Burgundy, 
a country which belongs to the Archduke. The length of 
the wood was about two leagues. That night they reached 



* Kaysersbfirg lies eastwards from the last-mentioned town in Alsace. 

' Colmar is the chief town in Upper Alsace and was once capital of 
the French department of Haut Rhin. 

* This river I cannot identify. 



84 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

diamair. Samhalta tra fri da leige a fod. An oidhche 
sin go baile beag dar comhainm Hotmers, coic leige 
uile. 

LXIX. Gapait ar n-a mharach triasan mbaili dar 
comhainm Niderharga leige, gusin ruiber ro-oirrderc .i. in 
Reen. Ascnait go Basalea, cathair des daingen * arsanta 
oiregdha ata ar n-a comhshuidhiugadh ar in ruiber sin. 
Droichet ro-maith a gcert-medhon na cathrach tar in ruiber,. 
go mbattoib linmhara beires comgar chuici 7 uaithi otha 
Flonndrus 7 mor-t[h]imchell in ruibeir [p. 37]. Eritchide 
thra lucht a hinotachta 7 a haittreptha. Tempall ro-mor 
a gcert-mhedhon na cathrach i n-a ffuilit dealpa 7 pictuiridhe 
Luter 7 Caluuin 7 mhorain do droch-ughdaroip diabhlaidhi 
oile. An chathoir sin amne stat fo leith le fein gan umhla 
no cennus ag ri[g] fon domhan uirre. Is 1 amhain iss primh- 
gepta do duthaigh na Susser dar comhainm Eliuesia. 
D'imfhaitchess chomhaonta na n-eiritchedh fagbhait in 
chathoir ass a haithle. Eirgit da leige cle-lamh risin ruiber 
go baile beg daingen, Leistel a ainm. Catoilce lucht a 
aittreptha. Is gnath a mBasalea gne chustaim do bhuain 
as eachroidh na nde5radh 7 na ttraibleir thairmcheimnigit 
triasan tir. Ba comchomthrom aoibhinn an sligt' ag com- 
cheimniugadh rissin ruiber a nglionn lan-fhada go n-imat 
ndegh-thoraidh. Dl shliap arda go n-imat finemhna 7 
degh-thoraidh i n-a thimchuairt. 

LXX. Ar n-a mharach doip coic leige gusin mbaile 
dar comhainm Sursei. Sliap ard aoibhinn go n-imat crann 
giuaiss [7] d'fiodhbhaidh oile dia ttair[rng]ther pic ar in 
sligidh rompa. Ascnait in la sin tre da baile dar comh- 
anmanna Oula 7 Ophinga siad go mballaigibh ro-daingne 



* The words cathair des daingen are written over the Une. 

1 This seems to be Ottmarsheim on the Rhine, but according to the 
next chapter the Ehine was not reached until the next day. 

^ I do not know what place is referred to here. 

' Susser " a native of Switzerland " is derived from the native term 
Schwyzer or Schweizer, properly " a native of Schwyz." 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 85 

a small town called Hotmers,^ having travelled five leagues 
in all. 

LXIX. On the following day they travelled a league, 
through the town called Niderharga,^ to the very famous 
river Rhine. They moved on to Bale, a fine, strong, old, 
remarkable city which is built on it. There is a very good 
bridge in the centre of the city over the river, and numerous 
boats afford a means of leaving it and getting to it from 
Flanders and the country around the river. Those who 
occupy and inhabit it are heretics. There is a very large 
church in the middle of the city in w-hich there are images 
and pictures of Luther and Calvin and many other wicked 
evil writers. That city is an independent state in itself, and 
no king in the world claims submission or authority in it. 
It alone is the main entrance to the land of the Swiss ^ called 
Helvetia. Afterwards, through fear of conspiracy by the 
heretics, they left the city. They proceeded tw^o leagues 
up* the river to a small strong town named Liesthal.^ 
Its inhabitants were Catholic. It is usual to demand custom 
in Bale for the horses of strangers and travellers who 
cross through the country. The road was even and beauti- 
ful, advancing beside the river in a long rich valley. There 
were two high mountains, with much vines and good crops, 
on either side of it. 

LXX. The following day they went five leagues to the 
town named Sursee.** On the road before them there was a 
beautiful high mountain with many fir and other trees from 
which pitch is extracted. They passed that day through 
two towns with very strong walls, Olten and Zoffingen,'' on 



* Literally " their left hand to the river." 

5 Liesthal lies sovith-west of Bale. 

•^ Sursee is close to the northern end of the lake of Senipach. 

'Both these towns are situated between Liesthal and vSursee, but 
neither is on the Rhine. Olten is on the Aare, a tributary of the Rhine, 
and Zoffingen lies on a small river which joins the Aare. Compare 
p. 71, n. 1, tupra. 



86 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ar bm na Reene. Bentor custam as a n-eachroidh in gach 
baile dip. 

LXXL Tar ruiber na Reene doibh ar n-a mharach, dia 
domnaig in seissedh la deg do mhi Mharta, ar droichet lan- 
fhata go gcomhdach ro-maith os a chionn go huilide. Fag- 
buit gne chustaim ag doirseoiribh in droichit. Gabhait tria 
baili roi-dhess dar comainm Desampach. Asside tra go 
primh-chathraigh oirrdirc, Luserna, da leige lanfhota.. 
Catoilce tra lucht a hinotachta, Nunsius in papa sa chath- 
raigh si ar n-a suidhiugadh ar in Reen go mballaigibh ro- 
dhaingne go tteghdhuissip deghfhoirgenta [p. 38] dessa 
Immhara go n-ilimat bad 7 ethor. Tri droichit tar in ruiber. 
As sin doip tria loch chomhfhairsing a mbattoip co n-a 
n-eachraidh. Naoi leige a chomfhat, leige amhain i n-a 
leithet. Ampse a ainm. Sliap Alpa i n-a mhoirthimchelL 
Ar imramh doip triasan loch go rangator baile beg, Fliella 
Pourlacu, a n-aimsir mhedhoin oidhche. Comhnaighit ann 
an oidhche sin. 

LXXn. Ar n-a mharach tra, la fheile Patraig do shonn- 
radh, in sechtmadh la deg do mhi Marta, gapait go baile 
beg oile, Flelan a ainm. As sin doib tre shliap Alpa. Bui 
immorro an sliap linta Ian do shneachta 7 d'oighredh, do 
shligthib 7 do chassrachoip* caol-chumhga corracha. Ran- 
gatar droichet comhartt bui i nglionn ro-domain, Droichet 
in Diabail a chomhainm. Aroile d'eachroidh Ui Neill ar a 
roibhi pairt da airgetf dia imachor, timc[h]eal se fichzY 
eigin ponta, tuitiss sioss re beinn an ailt imaird oighreta 



* The nom. is cassair, usually cossair, " a litter, something spread out." 
t da airget is written over the line. 

^ This is an error, as the Rhine is not near Sursee. Possibly the river 
which emerges from Lake Sempach and joins the Aare is meant. Compare 
the preceding note. 

^ Sempach at the south-east extremity of a lake of the same name, a 
place of note in Swiss history. 

* The name, which in early times was Luciaria, is probably connected 
with that of the patron saint (Leudegar or Lutgar) of the Benedictine 
monastery founded there about 750. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 87 

the bank of the Rhine. In each of them custom was taken 
from them for their horses. 

LXXL The next day, Sunday the sixteenth of March, 
they crossed the river Rhine ^ by a very long bridge which 
had a good roof over the whole length of it. They payed 
custom to the keepers of the bridge. They advanced 
through a very pretty town named Sempach, ^ and from 
there to a remarkable city. Lucerne, ^ a distance of two long 
leagues. The population is Catholic. There is a papal 
Nuncio* in the city, and it is situated on the Rhine,^ and 
has strong walls, numerous, beautiful, well-built houses, and 
many boats and vessels. There are three bridges over the 
river.® From there they and their horses went in boats 
across a great lake called Alpnacher-See,' which is nine 
leagues in length and one in breadth. The Alps are all 
around it. They rowed through the lake till they reached 
a small town, Fliielen Pourlacu^ at midnight. They re- 
mained there that night, 

LXXn. The next day, Saint Patrick's day precisely, 
the seventeenth of March, they went to another small town 
named Silenen.^ From that they advanced through the 
Alps. Now the mountains were laden and filled with snow 
and ice, and the roads and paths were narrow and rugged. 
They reached a high bridge in a very deep glen called the 



* The residence was established in 1601, and remained until 1873. 

^ Lucerne is built on the Reuss, which, of course, ultimately enters 
the Rhine. See note on chapter Ixx supra. 

* The Capellbriicke, the Hofbriicke, and the Muhlenbriicke. 

' This is really the name of only one arm of the lake, the whole being 
called Vierwaldstatter-See. 

* There seems no doubt that the modern Fliielen, the natural point 
of egress from the lake on the sovith, is meant, but I do not know what 
the appendage " Povirlacu " means. 

' Silenen is less than ten miles south of Fliielen on the present Lucerne- 
Saint- Gothard-Milan route. It is about 17 miles from Hospenthal, at 
the foot of the Saint Gothard pass ; this would agree with the fact men- 
tioned later that the next day's journey was six leagues. The Irish name 
shows contamination with the preceding. 



88 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

shneachtaigi bui as urchomhair in droichit. Frith saothar 
dermhair ag tabairt an eich amain * anioss. Cinniss 7 
comhairligiss in t-airget anmhain ag imchoimhet in tsrotha 
aggairp imdomain ainiarmartaigh gabhus faoi in droichet 
tria cert-lar in ghlenna. Bator tra an oidhche sin a mbaili 
beg dar comhainm Pede Montain. Se leige a n-aister in 
la sin, 

LXXHL Ar n-a marach leiciss in t-icrla tar sliap Alpa e. 
Airississ O Neill sa mbaili adupramar. Leiciss drong dia 
daoinibh d'athiarraidh in airgit. Ge gur fhulaingset gne 
shaot[h]air, acht chena ba dimhaoin doip. Fo bithin 
snechtamhia chorraighi oigreta in tsleipe rompa, ni mor go 
mbui ar comus doip ar n-a mharach bheith ag marcaighecht 
acht mar is gnath tar sliap Alpa. Bator doimh [p. 39] ro- 
laidire go slemhnanoibh i n-a ffoilenmhain ag treorughadh 
gacha meide nar no hinaistir dhibh tar in imdhoraidh. 
Sepel onorach a ffir-mhullach in tsleibhe ar n-a imdhenamh 
7 ar n-a chomhdach a n-onoir S. Gotardo. Uaidhe ro-s-gap 
in rann sin don sliap ainmniugadh. Tegh osta imchubaidh 
i n-a ffaghait deoraidh 7 lucht gabala na sligedh comhfhort- 
acht bethadh re a chennach a n-imfhoixe do. Nir uo rig- 
roit rigdha 7 nIr uo sligthe comthroma coimhlenga ar each- 
roidh egcennaiss uaiprigh aimhriadhta na sligthe i n-ar 
gapsat on sepel sin a gcetoir, acht ag toirnemh don sliap 
sligthe oigreta clochacha caol-chumhga corracha go rangator 
go baile dar comhainm Airola. Tri leige amhain anacair 7 



* MS amain amain, with deletion marks under the second word. 
an eich is over the Une. 

1 The old Devil's Bridge, or Teufelsbriicke, still remains over the Reuss 
some miles north of the Saint Gotthard. 

^ This seems a descriptive name for Hospenthal or Andermatt, close 
to which villages the immediate ascent of the Saint Gotthard road 
commences. 

^ Saint Gotthard was bishop of Hildesheim in Hanover, and died in 
1038. It is not known what was his connexion with the church on the 
summit of the Alps. 

* It is mentioned as early as 1331. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 89 

Devil's Bridge. ^ One of O Neill's horses, which was carrying 
some of his money, about one hundred and twenty pounds, 
fell down the face of the high, frozen, snowy cliff which was 
in front of the bridge. Great labour was experienced in 
bringing up the horse alone, but the money decided to re- 
main blocking the violent, deep, destructive torrent which 
flows under the bridge through the middle of the glen. 
They stayed that night in a little town named Piedimonte.- 
Their journey that day was six leagues. 

LXXHL The next day the Earl proceeded over the 
Alps. O Neill remained in the town we have mentioned. 
He sent some of his people to search again for the money. 
Though they endured much labour, their efforts were in 
vain. Because of the snow and ruggedness and ice of the 
mountain in front of them, they were scarcely able to ride 
the next day except in the way that is usual when crossing 
the Alps. There were strong oxen with sleighs yoked to 
them bringing all of them that could not travel over the 
hard road. There is a splendid chapel on the very summit 
of the mountain erected and built in honour of Saint 
Gotthard.^ From it that portion of the mountain has taken 
its name. Near it there is a convenient hostel * in which 
strangers and those who pass the way get supplies to buy. 
The roads over which they travelled immediately after 
having departed from that chapel were neither excellent nor 
such as would be level enough for riding on wild, spirited, 
untamed horses, but as they descended from the mountain 
they were icy, stony, narrow and rugged until they reached 
a town called Airolo.^ The worst and hardest portion ^ of 
the mountain is only three leagues long. After that they 
went through a very beautiful valley until they reached the 



^ Airolo is situated on the Ticino close to'the exit of the Saint Gotthard 
tunnel. 

* It is to be noted that this portion of the pass is now practically 
luifrequented, as the great tunnel opened in 1882 penetrates the mountain 
far below the highest point of the road traversed by the Irish chiefs. 



90 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

docomal in tslelbhi. Gabhult assa haithle tre ghllonn ro- 
aoipinn go rangatar gusin ngepta dar comhainm Gepta 
Iffrinn. BuT scriptha uassa a ttengaidh Edaillisi, fo pein 
baiss, gan duine ar doman do dol faoi no thairiss acht le 
custam do dhiol. Nir dhermait tra in doirseoir gan in 
custam d'iarraidh 7 d'fagail. Slighe garp chorrach chumh- 
ang aimhreidh go n-abhainn ndocomhlaigh ndoirp rompa 
go rangator Faido. An t-ierla ag furnaidhe friii annsin a 
ttigh ierla don tir bhioss go forfailidh onorach re gach 
ndeoradh 7 re gach aos n-anaithnidh cheimniges triassan 
sligidh. Dobeir proinn 7 tomhaltus go hullamh degh- 
thapaidh doibh. Ni mo no leth-choroin amhain dhiluss 
gach aon aca sa chionn cunntuis re maigistir in stapla ar 
son na heachraidhi, gan in seomairlin inaid oifficigh in tighi 
do dermat os a chenn sin. Oirissit ann an oidhche sin tra. 
Se leige a n-aister. 

LXXIV. Ar n-a mharach doip tria ghonn ro-aoibhinn, 
e go n-imat finemhna [p. 40] 7 cruithnechta 7 degh-thoraidh 
7 gacha messa archena, go maighnessoip mor-fhairsinge, go 
ruiber roi-dhess, go min-srothoip fir-uisce. Eirgit go baile 
dess daingen dar comhainm Belunsona, ocht leige. Tri 
caisslein laidire ag a ffuil cennus 7 uachtaranacht ar in 
mbaiK 7 ar imfhoixe na shgedh ann, go mbardoibh laidiri 
linmhara, 

LXXV. Ar n-a mharach doip ag ceimniugadh triasan 
nghonn chetna. Riccit pairt oile do shhab Alpa dar comh- 
ainm Mons Senerum. Coillte linmhara ar gach taep don 
sligidh si aimhreidh clochach corrach docomhlach diaistir, 
bith nach roipe sneachta uirre. Bui ilimat finemhna 
ar bennoip 7 ar taepoibh in tsleibhi timchuairt na sligedh. 
Rangator glenn ro-aoibhinn oile, Lucana a ainm. An 



^ Evidently in the Ticino valley, but the exact position of the place 
is unknown to nie. 

* Faido is a well-known village, the capital of the Leventina, or 
Ticino valley district. 

^ The road from Airolo to Faido crosses the Ticino several times. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 91 

gate called the Gate of Hell.^ Over it was written in Italian 
that no one, under pain of death, should go under it or 
past it without paying custom. The keeper did not neglect 
demanding and receiving it. The road was rough, rugged, 
narrow, and uneven until they reached Faido," and [was 
crossed by] a hard difficult river. ^ The Earl was there 
waiting for them in the house of an earl of that country who 
does kindness and honour to every foreigner and every class 
of strangers who pass the way. He quickly and readily 
gave them dinner and provisions. Each of them paid no 
more than one half-crown at the settlement of their account 
with the master of the stable for the horses, the chamberlain 
and servants of the house being not forgotten besides. 
They remained there that night. Their journey was six 
leagues. 

LXXIV. On the following day they went through a very 
beautiful valley which had much vines, wheat, crops, pro- 
duce of every kind, with great wide plains, a very beautiful 
river, and small streams of spring water. They advanced 
eight leagues to a line fortified town called Bellinzona.* 
There are three strong castles with many powerful guards 
in it, which maintain supremacy and command over the 
town and all the country in the neighbourhood of the road. 

LXXV, The next day they continued to advance through 
the same valley. They reached another portion of the Alps 
named Monte Ceneri.^ There are numerous woods on either 
side of the road, which was uneven, stony, rough, difficult 
and hard to travel, although there was no snow on it. There 
were plenty of vines on the summits and sides of the 
mountain-range near the road. They came to another 
very beautiful valley called Lugano. That night they 



* Like Faido and Airolo, Bellinzona is in the Ticino valley. The three 
castles, which still remain, are the Castello Grande, the Castello di Mezzo, 
and the Castello Corbario. 

* Monte Ceneri with its fine woods is still admired by travellers. 



92 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

oidhc[h]e sin doib go baile ro-mhor dar comhainm Caput dc 
Lacu, se leige. 

LXXVL Assidhe doib co n-a n-eachroidh a mbattoip 
tria loch Lucana eidirdealaighess in Edaill 7 Eliuesia, 
duthaigh na Susers, re aroile. Tri leigi amain tarsna 7 
leithet an locha. Se leige is da fichit issedh ro cheimnighsed 
do duthaigh na Susers si laidir ro-dhaingen aimhreidh 
sleptemail daoineachoir drozV/^-shligtheach, gan cennus umhla 
no uachtaranacht ag righ no ag prinnsa for talmain orra. 
Stat examail ingantach airigthe iad badhden. Toghait tra 
a rogha deissi do guibernoracht in tire gacha bliadhna. A 
cethair deg immorro do primh-chathrachaibh oirrdherca 
aca. A leith i n-a gcatoilcip, araill i n-a n-eiritchibh siad 
o choinghioll 7 6 mhinnoip mora coimhchengailte re aroile 
chom a n-imdhitin 7 a n-imdheghla badhdein ar in uile 
chomharsain fon doman do thriallfadh fuachtain no frith- 
chetfaidh friu [p. 41] an tarbha puiplidhi do chongbail suass 
go messarrda imqubaidh. Anmanna na gcathrach remhraite 
immorro Luserna, Basillea, Ualis, Soluturum, Tug, Sesnort,* 
Buriegh, Uernu, Urii, Ueredinasdea, Claris, Friburg, Sia- 
fusial, Appensel. Ata immorro do thuaruscbail ar lucht 
an tire si gurab iad is firinnighi dhirghe neimhfhealltaighi 
nemhchoillemhnaighe ar a ffocloibh fon doman. Ni leicit 
tra slad no duine-mharbhadh do denomh i n-a ttir gan 
dighailt a gcetoir. Ass foirfeacht a ffirinne issiad amhain 
iss gardae do righoip 7 prinnsaighibh catoilce na cristaigh- 
eachta. 

LXXVn. Eirgit na maithe si a ttir a mbaili bheag dar 
comhainm Codelacu. Assidhe go cathraigh ro-mhoir ro- 



* The word might also be read Sesnoat. 

1 This is the town of Lxigano, situated at the head of the lake which 
bears the same name. There is contamination here with the name of 
the next-mentioned place, Capolago. Compare the note on Silenen p. 87 
supra, 

2 The Italians call it Lago Ceresio. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 93 

reached a very large town named Capo di Lago, ^ having 
travelled six leagues, 

LXXVL From there they and their horses went in boats 
across Lake Lugano,''^ which separates Italy and Helvetia, 
the country of the Swiss, from each other. The lake is 
only three leagues in width. They had traversed forty-six 
leagues of the country of the Swiss, and it was strong, well 
fortified, uneven, mountainous, extensive, having bad roads, 
and no supremacy, rule or claim to submission by any king 
or prince in the world over the inhabitants. In themselves 
they form a strange, remarkable, peculiar state. They 
make their selection of a system for the government of the 
country each year. They have fourteen important cities.^ 
Half of them are Catholics and the other half are heretics, 
and by agreement and great oaths they are bound to one 
another for their defence and protection against any neighbour 
in the world who should endeavour to injure them or oppose 
them in upholding the public good with moderation and 
appropriateness. The names of the aforesaid cities are 
Lucerne, Bale, Valais, Soluthurn, Zug, Schwyz, Zurich, 
Bern, Uri, Stanz,^ Glarus, Fribourg, Schaffhausen, and 
Appenzell. It is said of the people of this country that 
they are the most just, honest, and untreacherous in the 
world, and the most faithful to their promises. They allow 
no robbery or murder to be done in their country without 
punishing it at once. Because of their perfect honour they 
alone are guards to the Catholic kings and princes of Christen- 
dom. 

LXXVII. The nobles landed at a small town called 



^ The states or cantons of the Swiss Confederation are somewhat 
inaccurately described as " cities." Schwyz, Uri, and Obwalden formed 
the nucleus, and the alliances with the other cantons were made at different 
times in the middle ages. 

* The peculiar name Ueredinasden must represent in some way the 
canton of Unterwalden (Obwalden and Nidwalden). Most of the in- 
accuracies in 'O Cianain's proper names occur in the first syllable ; possibly, 
therefore, Uere- is an error for Uese-. Stanz is a town in Nidwalden. 



94 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

oirrdirc don Eadailli, a comhainm Comma, ar n-a suidh- 
iughadh ar bru locha lan-fhairsing, loch Comma a ainm. 
Teid immorro ceithre fichit leige seachnoin na hAlmainne. 
Tar in loch sin amne ticc riachtanus a less fina d'formhor 
gacha meide is imfhoixe do don Edaill. 

LXXVHL Dia domhnaigh do shonnradh in tress la 
fichet do mhi Mharta, ier n-aifFrenn d'eisteacht doibh, 
eirgit gusin primh-chathraigh n-oirrdirc n-adhamhra .i. 
Milan, ocht leige. Slighthe ro-mhaithe rompa, an la go 
ffleachadh 7 go ndoininn ndermhair. Comhnaighit ag 
leiccen a scissi a haithle a n-aistir gusin gcetaoin bui ar a 
gcionn. lerla ro-mhor ro-onorach, ar lain-fheabhus sen- 
saigdiiiir in domain i n-a chomhaimsir foss, mar do dhearp 
a bhuaidh 7 a chonach catha 7 a deigh-c[h]innemain go 
follus fiadhnach don christaigheacht, count de Fonte a 
chomhainm, bui i n-a ard-guibernoir 7 i n-a liachtaran o 
righ na Spainne uassan gcathraig sin tra 7 uassan Lumbardi 
go huilidhi. Cuiriss ambasadoir in righ tarla [p. 42] issin 
gcathraighin tan sin .i. ambasadoir Luserna d'forffailtiugadh 
friu san 7 dia nglacadh go honorach. Eirgit na maithe si i n-a 
persanoip badhdein do lathoir an ierla dia cedaoin. Gapuiss 
chuicce go honorach airmhitneach iad. Bator tra imat do 
daoinibh uaisle go ngarda ro-mhor ar gach ta^p de. Oirissit 
tri sechtmhaine imlana sa gcathraigh. Fri re na haimsire 
sin onorachus dermhair ag in ierla i n-a ttimcheall. 

LXXIX. An chathoir sin tra acht Pairiss sa fFrainc 7 
Lisboarn a righacht na Portengal ar primh-chathrachaibh 



^ Capolago is situated at the south-east extremity of Lake Lugano. 
^ Como was called Comum by the Romans, and the lake Larius ; the 
latter siirvives in modern ItaUan // Lario. 

* This is an eri'or, as the lake is only 30 miles long. The Adda connects 
it with the Tyrol. 

* Milan was a dependency of the Spanish crown from 1535 to 1714. 
Fuentes was, as O Cianain says, a famous soldier. The English ambassador 
at Venice reported the arrival of the Irish as follows : " The Earl of 
Tyrone, with his wife and about 40 men of their crew, arrived by th way 
of Switzerland this last week in Milan, on horseback, well armed with 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 95 

Capolago. ^ From there they went to a great remarkable 
Italian city, Como by name, situated on the side of a great 
lake named Lake Como.'-^ It goes a distance of eighty 
leagues ^ through Germany. Over that lake, therefore, all 
the wine that is required comes to the greater part of the 
portion of Italy which borders it. 

LXXVIII. On Sunday the twenty-third of March, after 
having heard Mass, they proceeded to the great remarkable 
famous cit\' Milan, a distance of eight leagues over good 
roads, the dav being wet and verv stormy. After their 
journey they remained resting until the following Wednes- 
day. A great respected earl, one of the most excellent 
soldiers in the world in his time also, as his victory and 
fortune in battle and good luck showed clearly and evidently 
to Christendom, Count de Fuentes by name, was chief- 
governor and representative of the king of Spain over that 
citv* and over all Lombardy. He sent the King's ambassa- 
dor at Lucerne, who happened to be in the city, to welcome 
them and to receive them with honour. On Wednesday the 
nobles went in person into the presence of the earl. He 
received them with honour and respect. There were many 
noblemen and a very great guard on either side of him. 
They remained three full weeks in the cit}'. During that 
time the earl had great honour shown them.*^ 

LXXIX. Omitting Paris in France and Lisbon in the 
kingdom of Portugal, this city is one of the greatest cities in 

arqviebuses and pistols, to the no small wondei' of the beholders ; the 
governor there having formerly denied entrance into the city with arms 
of that quality, even to the ambassadors of great princes. The governor 
also, besides this favour, sent to them, immediately upon their arrival, 
his cameriere niaggiore, with banqueting stuff, and such other refreshments, 
and with words of much affection." Sii' Henry Wotton to the King, 
April 4, Cal. St. Pa. 651. On the same day he writes, partly in cipher, 
that he " has sent one to jNIilan who shall accompany Tirone and his 
gang over all Italy," ibid. 

' Both Wotton at Venice and Cornwall's at Madrid protested strongly 
against the welcome extended to the Irish at Milan. See their letters 
Cal. St. Pa. 652 and Meehan op. cit. 166. 



96 ' FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

mora na crTstaigechta. Gne chompraiti 7 chommortuiss 
eidir si 7 in Roimh agass in Naples. Ata ar n-a suidhiughadh 
go comhfhairsing dluith daoineachoir deigh-innill ar ferann 
chomthrom choimreidh go palassoibh 7 go ttegduissibh 
deigh-denta degh-fhoirgenta. Ruiber ro-maith cheimnighess 
o loch Couma ar n-a chomroinn go linmhar trithe go n-imat 
ndroichet. Ticc moran do shochar na cathrach 7 an tire 
ar in ruiber sin o C[h]ouma 7 on Almainn. Caisslen laidir 
ar daingne in domhain, mile saighdiuir Spainneach go 
sTrraidhe ag a bhardacht d'oidhche 7 do 16 co n-a n-uile 
chomhgar 7 riachtanus a leith-imiol na cathrach ag a ffuil 
a cennus 7 a huachtaranacht. Coic ced gunna mor ar n-a 
gcomhshuidhiugadh ar in gcaislen. Guibernoir ar leith fo 
laimh in ierla uassa. Ni linmhar a leicther ann acht Spainnig 
[7] Eirennaigh amhain. Palass is lor feabus ag in ierla 
badhdein a gcertmedon na cathrach. Cuidechta shaigdiuir 
do gnath i n-a n-armoibh mar garda i n-a thimchill d'oidche 
7 do 16. Primh-eglus na cathrach, Sancta Maria del Duomo, 
a n-imfhoixe in palaiss. Ata immorro i n-a hegluiss ro- 
mhoir roi-dheis go gcoic srethoip do cholomhnoip marmair 
go ttairimtheacht marmair. Sepel onorach ar n-a chomhdach 
fo alt6ir [p. 43] mh6ir in tempaill, airm a ffuilit imat do 
thaisibh naom 7 firen. In mhacroidh oirrdherc ro bas- 
saigedh la hlvjitith mac Antepatcr ag ierroidh Christ, fer is 
deichnemor dlop sa sepel sin. La na macraidhi gacha 
bliadhna taisselbthor a gcuirp 7 a gcolna do na huilip. As 
urchomair na prim-altora moire adhnacol 7 tomba chardenal 
Borromeo ba hardespoc sa gcathraigh naoi mbliadhna 



* There is no immediate river connexion between Lake Como and 
Milan. The reference here is to the canal of the Martesana, constrvicted 
under Francesco Sforza (1450-1466), which connects the city with the 
Adda and the lake mentioned. Milan is situated on the Olana which 
rises near Lake jMaggiore and ultimately joins the Po. 

- This is the Castello Sforzesco which dates from 1450 and stands in 
the Parco Nuovo. It was restored in the last decade of the last century 
and now contains an archaeological museum and the municipal art- 
coUections. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 97 

Christendom. There is some Hkeness and rivalry between 
it and Rome and Naples. It is situated on level, even ground, 
wide, firm, extensive, and well-equipped, having palaces 
and well-made, well-built houses. There is a good river, 
which flows from Lake Como,^ divided into many portions 
through it, and having many bridges. Much of the supplies 
of the city and the country come by that river from Como 
and from Germany. There is a strong castle, ^ one of the 
best fortified in the world, having a thousand Spanish 
soldiers equipped with all conveniences and requisites 
always guarding it by night and day, at the side of the 
city, which it controls and commands. There are five 
hundred great guns planted on the castle. A special governor 
subordinate to the earl is in command. Not many people, 
Spaniards and Irish alone excepted, are allowed into it. 
The earl himself has a splendid palace ^ in the very centre 
of the city. A company of soldiers always armed act as 
guard about it both night and day. The city cathedral of 
Santa Maria del Duomo is close to the palace. It is a very 
great and beautiful church with five rows of marble columns 
and a marble architrave. There is a splendid chapel built 
beneath the great altar of the church where there are many 
relics ^ of saints and holy people. Of the famous Innocents 
that were slain by Herod, son of Antipater, when searching 
for Christ, there are eleven in that chapel. On the feast ot 
the Innocents each year their bodies are shown to all. In 
front of the great high-altar is the body and tomb of Cardinal 
Borromeo, who was archbishop in the city nine years ^ before 



^ This was the Palazzo di Corte, the raansion of the lords of Milan, 
the Visconti and the Sforza. Its site is now occupied by the Palazzo 
Reale erected in 1772. 

* These are said to include the bones of Saint Ambrose. 

^ There is an error here, as Charles Borromeo died on the third of 
jS'ovember, 1584. Possibly the manuscript does not give exactly what 
the writer intended. See the note on the text on the next page. 
The body of the Cardinal is now kept in a crypt under the choir. 



98 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

roimlie sin.* O fuair bas messait each a bheith naomhtha 
[7 ata] canosasion chom a dhenta go hobonn sa Roimh air. 

LXXX. Ticcit tra na maithe si ar cuairt gusin egluiss 
remraite deiredh laoi aine in chesta. Adchitt ilimat do 
chedoip fer a prosession onorach go ttoirsigibh comhlasta 
ciera i n-a n-uirthimchell, a ngnuissi 7 a n-aighthe ar n-a 
n-imfholach as nach aitheontaidhi iad. Batar ag ger- 
sciursadh, ag coimletrad 7 ag comthuarcain a gcorp 7 a 
gcolann gur u6 t crodherc na sraide 7 na heguilsi a sibhlaitis 
dia ffuil 7 dia ffulradh. Ba mor immorro in grad 7 in t 
scrudadh croide a gcoimdecsain. 

LXXXL Eidir themploibh 7 mhainistrechoip co n-a 
n-uile choimthinol ord 7 sacart tri tem-paill is da fichit is 
da ched sa chathraigh, gan rim na airemh ar imat sepel do 
togbadh le daoinibh uaissle chom a ndeuosion do choimh- 
linadh. Altoir ro-maith ar n-a comhdach in gach plass 
margaidh seachnoin na cathrach a mbitt aiffrinn gacha 
laithe. Tri tem-paill porraiste isin chaisslen. Stasion 7 
luaigigeacht a ttemploib 7 a reclesoibh na cathrach deich 
la is ceithri fichit sa mbhadain. Ni gnath fir 7 mna a n-ein- 
fhecht ag stasion dib, acht roinnit in aimsir timchell in 
medhoin laoi. Secht primh-eguilsi ag a fifuilit uile loighi- 
ghecht secht prim-eglus gcatharrdha na Romha issin 
chathroigh. Ba he in tres Grigoir deg in papa do shonnradh 
dorad na grassa sin don chardenal [p. 44] Serlus Boremeus 
ba hairdespog a Milan in tan sin. Anmanna na n-egluss 
tra, an prim-eglus mor Sancta Maria del Duomo, S. Simplisi- 
ano, S. Uictor al corpo, S. Ambrosio maiore, S. Nastaro 
maiore, S. Laurentio maiore, S. Steffano Parimente maiore. 
Ilimat reliciass do thaissib naomh 7 firen isna temploibh 
sin tra. Gach la patruin ticit lucht ceirde na cathrach a 
prosesion onorach morthimchell na recles remraite go mbrat- 

* After sin the words naoi nib are written. Deletion marks are^ 
added under them. 

t u6 was inserted later in different ink. 

X gd (with siglum) and 7 in added over the line in different ink. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



99 



that time. Since he died everyone thinks he is a saint, and 
he will soon be canonised ^ in Rome. 

LXXX. The princes came on a visit to this church on 
the evening of Good Friday. They saw many hundreds 
of men in a splendid procession, with lighted waxen torches 
about them, and their faces covered so that they might not 
be recognised. They were scourging, smiting and whipping 
their bodies until the streets and the churches in which 
they walked were red with blood and gore. To behold 
them moved one much to charity and self-examination. 

LXXXL Including the churches and monasteries of 
communities of religious and priests, there are two hundred 
and forty-three churches in the city, not counting many 
chapels that were erected by noblemen for the practice of 
their devotion. There is a good altar erected in everv 
market-place in the city, where Masses are celebrated each 
day. There are three parish churches in the castle. On 
ninety days in the year there is a station and indulgence in 
the churches of the city. It is the custom that men and 
women be not together at any station, but they divide the 
time about the middle of the day. There are seven chief 
churches in the city which are privileged with all the in- 
dulgences of the seven great city churches of Rome. It 
was Pope Gregory XIII who granted these privileges to 
Cardinal Charles Borromeo, who was archbishop of Milan 
at the time. The names of the churches are, the great 
cathedral of Santa Maria del Duomo, San Simpliciano, San 
Vittore al Corpo, Sant' Ambrogio Maggiore, San Nazaro 
Maggiore, San Lorenzo Maggiore, and San Stefano Pari- 
mente Maggiore. There are many relics of saints and holy 
people in these churches. Every patron day the tradesmen 
of the city come in splendid procession to them with banners 
and standards, and distribute alms and charity at the 
cathedral. There are six special days each year for the 

^ He was canonised on the first of November, 1610. 



100 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

achoib 7 stannardoip. Dobhelrit imat almsan 7 derce 
uaidibh ag primh-egluiss na cathrach. Se laithe sonnradh- 
acha chom deirce gacha bliadhna, la airigthe ag gach gepta 
sa chathraigh go fiu se ngepta, chom in tempaill moir do 
chor suass. D'fiachaibh ar lucht inotachta na cathrach 
badhdein almsa 7 offrail do denomh ag na geptaigibh is 
comhgaraighi 7 is imfhoixe doibh. Acht amain bennugadh 
7 coissreacadh na sacramente naomtha, neimhionann ser- 
moniass 7 ord ceihbartha don chathraigh si 7 don chuirt 
Romhanaigh, oir ro lensatar stair 7 sermoniass in naoimh 
oirrdirc S. Ambross. An cethramadh bhadain deg ar tribh 
iichtip ar tribh cedoip d'aois in Tigerna issedh ro gairmedh 
airdespog a Milan don naem sin .i. S. Ambros. Ba he amain 
faoi Dia du-s-ratt in Edaill go huilidhi fo chuing chreidmhe 
7 crabaidh. Conrotacht leiss badhdein se reiclesa ro-mhaithe 
7 ospitel sa gcathraigh. A chorp 7 a adhnacal a ttempall 
dip i n-a ffuil samhad 7 coimt[h]inol manach. Comhainm 
in laithe dodeachaidh a seilbh na hespogdide taisselbthor a 
chorp 7 a cholann go bliadhnamail. Onorachus 7 supailce 
mor go linmhairecht almsan 7 deirce ag a denamh sa gcath- 
raigh 7 seachnoin na diosis uile in la sin. La na hEpifane 
do shonnradh, eagluss [p. 45] Eustorgioss i n-a ttaisselbthor 
aire na ttri righ dodeachator * d'aithreoss Crist a n-aimsir 
a lenbachta, go pissa don or doratsat do, dobheirit uachtarain 
na heguilsi in la sin ar son De crodh do nonmhar ogbhan. 
Imat deirce immorro 7 do deigh-ghnimarthoibh bennaigthi 
ag a ndenomh sa gcathraig sin, acht is eimilt iad * re a 
n-uile-f haisneis . 

LXXXn. Gapait tra na tigernaidhe si a gcead ag count 
de Founte in dara la deg Aprilis.f Degh-aightheach for- 
ifailidh e rompa ag toigeacht, tuirseach i n-a ndeghaidh. 
Doratt doibh mar chomartha cuimhnigthe buiden do raperoip 
7 do daigeroib ro-dessa, go mbeirtibh cloch uaissle cum- 



* deachator and iad above the line. 
\ 1608 is added on the right margia. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS loi 

giving of alms, a day for each gate of the six gates of the 
city, for the building of the great church. Those who live 
in the city itself are obliged to give their alms and offerings 
at the gate nearest to them. Except for Benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament, the ceremonies and liturgy of this city 
are different from those of the Roman Court, for it con- 
tinued the practice and ceremonies of the great Saint Am- 
brose. That saint was declared bishop of Milan in the year 
of Our Lord three hundred and seventy-four. Under God 
he alone brought all Italy to Christianity and piety. Six 
good churches and a hospital were built by him in the city. 
His body and tomb is in one of these churches, where there 
is a congregation and community of monks. On the anni- 
versary of the day on which he took possession of the bishopric 
his body is exhibited each year. Works of devotion and 
great piety, as well as the distribution of much alms, are 
performed that day in the city and throughout the diocese. 
On the day of the Epiphany the superiors of the church of 
Sant' Eustorgio, where the sarcophagus of the three kings 
who came to visit Christ in His Infancy, and a piece of the 
gold they gave Him, are exhibited, bestow for God's sake a 
dowry on nine maidens. Much charity and good holy 
deeds are performed in that city, but it would be tedious 
to enumerate them all. 

LXXXIL The lords took their leave of Count de Fuentes 
on the twelfth of April. He had been kindly and friendly 
to them at their coming, and he was sad when they left. 
He gave them as a token of remembrance a collection of 
rapiers and fine daggers, with hilts of ornamented precious 
stones, all gilt, and belts and expensive hangers. That 
night they were in a town seven leagues away named 
Lodi,i a fine, strong, compact place where the King of 
Spain has a garrison. They had very good roads through 



^ Lodi is south-east of Milan, on the Adda. 



102 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

daigh, ar n-a gcomhoradh go huilidhi, go gcressoip 7 hainger- 
soip comdaora. Bator an oidche sin seacht leige a mbaili 
dar comhainm Lodi, cruinn-baili dess daingen i n-a ffuil 
gairessun ag righ na Spainne. Slight[h]e ro-mhaithe tria 
thalmain torthaigh aca in la sin, an oidhche doinennta 
uiscemail toirneach teinntighe. * 

LXXXHL Tochomhlait ar n-a marach seacht leige go 
sen-chathraigh sonnradaigh dar comhainm Pesense. Ruiber 
ro-oirrderc a n-imfhoixe na cathrach. ^E ro-mor ro-lethan. 
Ingantach re lucht a nemthathaighi mar teigit daoine 7 
eachroidh thairiss a mbadoip, oir is baid oile go gcordoibh 
cnaibe bhioss ag a n-imluadh go hinntlechtach gan seolta 
gan imramh. Ainm in ruibeir El Po. Sen-chaislen daingen 
go mbardoip llnmara laidire go ffaith[c]he gcoimhreidh is 
lor feabhus 7 imfhairsingi isin gcathraigh. Da beg-loing 
dessa go tteghduisip lonnradhacha ag diuc de Parma ar in 
ruiber i n-a mbi fein ag aines 7 ag caithem aimsire sechnoin 
in ruibeir an tan ba toil leis. An sruth sin amne etorscarus 
7 eidirdealaighes duthaigh diuc de Parma 7 in Lombardii 
re aroile. 

LXXXIV. [p. 46] Ar n-a mharach doip go Parma, da 
leige deg. Ruiber ro-aoipinn rompa forsan sligidh go 
ndroichet lan-fhata ba lor dien-fheabhus, go n-imat do 
ruiberoibh oile. ler ttoirling doip ag cathraigh Parma tig 
ierla onorach'don tir d'forffailtiughadh friu 7 dia nglacadh 
go honorach a n-ainm diuc de Parma. Tainic ar n-a mharach 
immorro go gcoistighip ro-mhaithe i n-a gcomhdhail dia 
ttreorugadh gusin airm a mbui in diuc. Gabuis tra in diuc 
chuicce go honorach airmhitneach iatt. Bator sealat ag 
imagallamh 7 ag ainess briathor re aroile. Gapait a gcead 
as a haithle. A n-imfhoixe gairdin in diuic taisselbthor 



^ Piacenza is less than lialf-a-mile from the south bank of the Po. 

^ The Duchy of Parma dated from 1545, when Pope Paul III presented 
it to his son Pierluigi Parnese, the first of eight dukes of the family. At 
the time to which our narrative refers the ruler was Eannucio I (1592- 
1622). 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 103 

a fruitful country that day, but there was storm, rain, 
thunder and Hghtning in the night. 

LXXXHL The next day they travelled seven leagues 
to an ancient remarkable city named Piacenza. There is 
a very remarkable river ^ close to the city. It is very great 
and very wide. Those who have not seen it before admire 
the manner in which people and horses cross it in boats, 
for it is other boats with hempen ropes that move them 
skilfully without sails or rowing. The name of the river is 
the Po. There is a strong old castle, with many strong 
guards and a level, excellent, wide green, in the city. The 
Duke of Parma - has two small pretty boats with white 
houses, in which he himself delights and amuses himself 
up and down the river whenever he wishes. That river divides 
and separates the Duke of Parma's country from Lombardy. 

LXXXIV. The following day they went to Parma, 
twelve leagues' journey. On their way there was one very 
beautiful river, with a long and firm bridge, ^ and many other 
rivers besides. When they dismounted at the city of Parma 
a noble earl of the country came to welcome them and re- 
ceive them in the name of the Duke of Parma. The next 
day he came with good coaches to them to conduct them to 
where the Duke was. He received them with honour and 
respect. They remained speaking and conversing with one 
another for some time. Then they took their leave. Near 
the Duke's garden * they were shown a leopard and two 
lions. They went to see a strongly fortified castle ^ which 
the Duke has at a distance from the city. It has a plan and 
structure and position similar to those of the castle of Ant- 
werp in Flanders and the castle of Milan in Italy. There is 
an army of twenty thousand men, horse and foot, with 



^ This is probably Ponte Taro, on the river Taro, six miles from Parma. 
It and all the others referred to flow into the Po. 
* This is now the Giardino Pubblico. 
^ The modern Cittadella is close to the city. 



io| FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

doip llpartt 7 da leoman. Eirgit d'faixin chaisslein ro- 
dhaingin ata ag in diuc sealat on prlmh-chathraigh. Cos- 
mailes innill 7 imdenumh * 7 suidhiughadh do 7 do chaisslen 
Anuoeirp a fFlonndrus 7 do chaisslen Milan san Eadaill. 
Armail fichet mile fer eidir marcshlaigh 7 troigtheach, go 
linmhaireacht munisioin 7 in uile riachtanuiss, go mbarttoib 
laidire linmhara, ar in gcaisslen sin. Obair thalmaidhe ar 
n-a togbail go hinntleachtach a fferann chomthrom choimh- 
reidh a gcert-medhon chmiiigh imdomain uisgemail an 
caisslen sin tra. An t-ierla onorach adupramar i n-a gcoimh- 
iteacht frissin re sin. Beiriss leiss chom a palaiss badhdein 
iad. lar ndenomh a medhoin laoi taispentar doip cupla 
camhall. Ba hingantach a ffaircsin. Eirgit go teghduiss 
stuid(fzV in ierla. Orgain ingantacha adhmait ier n-a n-oib- 
riugadh dia lamhoip badhdhein, go n-ilimat leapar canntair- 
eachta 7 stavthach sa stuiti sin. Celiprait don ierla. Tiagait 
di[a] ttigip ossta. Ascnait assin gcathraigh as a haithle 
coic leige gusin mbaile mbeg dar comainm Region, airm a 
ffuil pictuir 7 dealp naemh-Muire oighi dogni imat fert 7 
mirbal do ghnath [p. 47]. Cathoir Parma thra si ro-dhaingen 
laidir dess daoineachair go ttigthip 7 go tteghdhuissip deigh- 
denta degh-fhoirgenta. Ruiber ro-mhaith is lor feabhus ag 
ceimniughadh triasan gcathraigh. Droichet ro-mhaith go 
mbadaibh imdha ar in ruiber. 

LXXXV. Dia mairt in c5icedh la deg Aprilis f tochomh- 
laid na maithe si da lege deg gusin mbaili dar comhainm 
Bologna. Ascnait in la sin tria fort ro-dhaingen gabhus le 
diuc de Parma. Assa haithle tra tar ruiber ro-aoibhinn 
eidirdealaighes 7 etorscarus duthaigh [diuc] de Parma 7 
duthaigh diuc de Modona re aroile. Gabhait immorro tre 
primh-chathroigh Modona. Triall 7 ullmhugadh mor ag a 
denomh sa chathraigh sin tra d'oirchill leahiaidh 7 giustala 
in laoi ar n-a mharach. An la sin do shonnradh bui mac in 



* -umh is written over -ta. 

t 1608 is added on the right margin. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 105 

abundance of stores and every requisite, and numerous 
strong defences in that castle. It consists of earthworks 
raised with skill in a level flat plain in the middle of a watery^ 
deep marsh. The noble earl we have mentioned was in 
their company during that time. He brought them to his 
ow^n palace. After they had taken their dinner they were 
shown two camels. The sight of them was strange. They 
then went to the earl's study. In it there were wonderful 
wooden organs which he had made with his ow^n hands, as 
well as numbers of books on singing and history. They 
bade farewell to the earl and went to their hostels. After- 
wards they hastened from the city for five leagues to the 
small town named Reggio,^ where there is a picture of the 
holy Virgin Mary which is continually working miracles 
and wonders. The city of Parma is well-fortified, strong,, 
beautiful and extensive, with well-made well-constructed 
houses and buildings. There is an excellent river going 
through the city, having a good bridge and frequented by 
many boats. 

LXXXV. On Tuesday, the fifteenth of April, the princes 
advanced twelve leagues to the town named Bologna. 
They passed that day through a strong fort belonging to 
the Duke of Parma. Afterwards they crossed a beautiful 
river ^ which divides the country of the Duke of Parma 
from that of the Duke of Modena.^ They went through 
the city of Modena. There were great preparations being 
made there for the amusements and jousting of the next 
day. On that particular day the Duke's son was bringing 
home the daughter of the Duke of Savoy. ^ In boats they 

^ Reggio. This town is south-east of Parma. 

^ It is called the Secchia and is a tributary of the Po. 

3 In 1598 the duchy of Modena fell to Cesare d'Este, who lived till 
1628. He was the lineal ancestcfr of Mary of Modena, wife of James II.. 
of England. 

*Alfonse III. d'Este, who became duke of Modena and Reggio in 
1628, married in 1608 Isabella, daughter of Charles Emmanuel I., duke^ 
of Savoy. In 1629 he abdicated and became a Capuchin. 



io6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

diuc ag tabairt ingine dhiuc de Sauoi dia thigh. Gabhait a 
mbadoip tar ruiber Pannara etorscaruss in diuiceacht sin 7 
ferann buird in papa. Caisslen ard ar n-a imdenomh a 
gcert-mhedhon in ruibeir doghni comhfhortacht mor a 
n-aimsir tuile 7 ainfine d'eathroibh 7 do bhadoip a thairimt[h]- 
eachta. Eirgit go baile beg dess daingen lessin papa, Castel 
Franco a ainm. Go Bolonia assa haithle. Cardenal ro- 
onorach sa gcathraigh cuiriss drong dia dhaoinibh uaissle 
d'forffailtiugadh friu 7 dia nglacadh go honorach airmitneach 
i n-a ainm dia ttochuiredh chuige ar a suiper. Gapait tra 
a leithscel fo bhithin a n-aistir an oidche sin. 

LXXXVL Ar n-a mharach immorro teid O Neill do 
lathair in chardenail. Gabuiss chuige go ro-onorach air- 
mitnech forffaihdh e. Bolonia immorro primh-chathoir ro- 
mhor ro-dhaingen dhaoineachoir dheigh-denta degh-fhoir- 
genta go linmhairecht recles 7 mainistrech. Corp an erlaimh 
uassail adhamra oirrdirc [p. 48] Sanct Domnic a ttempall 
onorach sa gcathraigh, Sanct Sem a chomhainm. Palass 
ro-mhor is lor lain-fhebhus ag in chairdenal badhdein a 
gcert-medhon na cathrach. Tipra fhlr-uisce ar n-a suidh- 
iugadh go hinntlechtach assa ffuilit imat srepan ag coimh- 
eirghe suas a ffir-airde as urchomhair in palaiss. Ascnait 
na maithe si assin gcathroigh. Eirgit go baile dar comhainm 
Sanct Niclas. Assidhe go fort ro-dhaingen lessin papa dar 
comhainm Fattio Sancti Petri. Ceimnigit tra an oidhche 
sin go cruinn-baili dess daingen, Lnola a ainm, seacht legi. 

LXXXVH. Dia dardaoin in seachtmadh la deg don mi 
chetna ascnait tria fort ro-dhaingen gabhus lessin papa, 
Castel Burneis a chomhainm. Tria chathroigh ro-mhoir 
oile doip, Faensa a hainm, go baile mor, Farlingrando a 
chomhainm. An oidhche sin doibh go baili mor oile dar 



^ Like the Secchia, the boundary of the dvichy of Modena to the west, 
the Panaro enters the Po. 

2 This small town is but a short distance from the river Panaro just 
mentioned. It is supposed to be the Forum Gallorum of Roman history. 
It was fortified in 1628 by Urban VIII. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 107 

crossed the river Panaro^ which divided that duchy from 
the mensal land of the Pope. There is a high castle built 
in the middle of the river which gives great help in times of 
flood and storm to vessels and boats that are crossing, 
Thev went to a pretty little fortified town named Castel- 
franco ^ belonging to the Pope. Next they went to Bologna. 
A noble cardinal ^ in the city sent some of his household to 
welcome them and receive them with honour and respect 
in his name, and to invite them to come to supper to him. 
They excused themselves that night because of their 
journey. 

LXXXVL The following day 'O Neill w^ent before the 
cardinal. He received him with great honour, respect and 
welcome, Bologna is an important city, very large, very 
strong, extensive, well-built and well-constructed, with 
numerous churches and monasteries. The body of the 
great famous noble patron, Saint Dominic, is in a splendid 
church in the city named Saint James'. ^ The cardinal 
himself has an excellent large palace in the centre of the 
■city. In front of the palace there is a fountain of spring 
water skilfully arranged, and from it many streams of 
water shoot up on high. The princes left the city and went 
to a town named Saint Nicholas. From there they pro- 
ceeded to a very strong fort belonging to the Pope named 
Castel San Pietro.^ That night they went from there to 
a fine, strong, compact town named Imola, a distance of 
seven leagues.^ 

LXXXVII. On Wednesday, the seventeenth [rccte six- 
teenth] of the same month, they passed through a strong 



* Alfonso Palaeoti was cardinal of Bologna from August IS, 1597, to 
October 18, 1610. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica, III. 151. 

* Why O Cianain names the church St. James' is not clear. The 
body of St. Dominic, who died in 1221, is preserved in the church of San 
Domenico. 

^ It is fifteen miles from Bologna. 

® Imola is just 21 J miles from Bologna. 



io8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

comhainm Sensena. Deich leige ro alsstrighset in la sin. 
Caisslen ro-laidir go mbardoibh linmhara laidire ag in papa 
sa mbaili sin tra. 

LXXXVHL Ar n-a mharach doip tri leige go fort 
daingen lessin papa, Salignano a ainm,* go primh-chathraigh 
n-oirrdirc n-oireghdha dar comhainm Rimini. Annsin ran- 
gatar radharc 7 faircsin forsan ffairrgi dar comhainm Adri- 
catia. Uirre amhain conrotacht an primh-chathair oirrderc 
adhamra,t Ueniss a hainm. Fiche leige on gcathraigh 
remraite go cathraigh Ueniss. An oidhche sin doip cle- 
lamh re fairrgi gussin mbaili mbeg Catolica. Deich leige a 
n-aister in la sin. Ba ro-mhaith na slighthe aca.J [p. 49] 
Talomh torthach aoibhinn go n-imat finemhna 7 cruith- 
neachta 7 gach degh-thoraidh archena moirthimchell na 
sligedh amne. lomat do thoraip dessa daingne ar bru na 
fairrge ag in papa d'imfhaitchess na tTurcach do thecht 
do § denamh urchoide na hEdaille. 

LXXXIX. Dia domhnaigh ier n-eisteacht aiffrinn an 
fichetmadh la don mi chetna ascnait go primh-chathroigh 
n-oirrdirc gabhass le diuc de Borti, Pensaro a comhainm. 
Assin doibh go cathroigh ndeiss ndaingin oile .i. Feno, go 
prImh-chathraigh oirrdirc oireghdha oile gapus lessin diuc 
chetna, Sinigaglia a comhainm, si ar n-a suidhiugadh go 
hinntlechtach ar ruiber ro-aoipinn go linmhaireacht sochraide 
dia himchosnam. Ni mor do daoinip dhomain leiccit 
d'faixin in chaislein ier n-inmhedhon. Tegh osta ba lor 
feabhus 7 deissi sechtair na cathrach. Ruiber roi-dhess 
go ffaith[ch]i noininigh sgoth-shemraigh chomthroim chomh- 



* The MS. is liere slightly injured by a splash of ink. 

t After this word oirrdc. is written again. 

j Here there is an entry by the ^Titer : Tabair hennacM for anmain 
in Taidg fuair gne dia shaothar so 7 cetera, Give a blessing for the soul of 
the Tadhg who had somewhat of the labour of this, et cetera. 

§ MS. de. 

^ It is but 4 1 miles from Imola. 

^ Faenza is the Farentia of early Roman History. 

^ This is the place now known as Forli. It is south east of Faenza. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 109 

fort belonging to the Pope, Castel Bolognese ^ Is its name. 
Then they went through a great city named Faenza ^ to a 
large town called Forligrande. ^ That night they advanced 
to another large town named Cesena.* Ten leagues they 
travelled that day. The Pope has a very strong castle with 
many strong defences in that town. 

LXXXVHL The following day they went three leagues 
to a strong fort belonging to the Pope named Savignano,^ 
and then to a great and famous city called Rimini.** It 
was there they came in sight of the Adriatic Sea. On it is 
built the famous and remarkable city of Venice. It is 
twenty leagues from Rimini ' to Venice. That night they 
advanced with the sea on their left to the small town Catto- 
lica.^ Their journey that day was ten leagues. The roads 
were very good, and as they went along there was fair 
fruitful land, with much vines, wheat, and abundance of 
every crop on either side of the road. The Pope has many 
fine strong towers on the sea-coast through fear of the Turks 
coming to harm Italy. 

LXXXIX. On Sunday, the twentieth of the same month, 
having heard Mass, they passed through a great city belong- 
ing to the Duke of Urbino named Pesaro.^ From there 
they went to another beautiful strong city, Fano,^" and to 
another remarkable famous one, belonging to the same 
Duke, named Senigallia," picturesquely situated on a very 
beautiful river, and having large numbers to defend it. They 
do not allow many people into the interior of that castle to 
see it. There is an excellent and pretty hostel outside the 
city. There is a very fine river and a daisy-covered, clover- 

* Cesena lies still further to the south-east. 

"* Savignano is midway between Cesena and Rimini. 

® Rimini, on the Adriatic coast, is the ancient Ariminuni. 

' Literally " from the aforesaid city." 

* It is on the Adriatic. 

® Pesaro and the duchy of Urbino became part of the Papal States 
in 1626 under Urban VIII. 

^^ These towns are on the Adriatic. 



no FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

fhairsing a n-imfhoixe in osta-thighe sin tra. .Deich leige 
ro aistrigset in la sin. 

XC. Ar n-a mharach doibh cle-lamh re fairrgi gusin 
primh-chat[h]raigh n-adhamra n-oirrdirc .i. Ancona. Tri 
caisslein ro-dhaingne ag in papa sa gcathraigh sin go mbard- 
oip laidire linmhara co n-a n-uile riachtanus. Cennus 7 
uachtaranachi na cathrach 7 imfhoixe in chuain aca. Ascnait 
as a haithle go Loreta. Naoi leige a n-aister. Comhnaigit 
7 airissit immorro an oidche sin. Ar n-a mharach tra 
dognit turns na heguilsi bennaigthe mor-loigighechta sin. 
Comhnaigit issin mbaili in dara hoidche. 

XCL I. Do reir mar fuaramar scriptha a sen-starthach- 
aibh, a n-ainm De laipeoram uaite do ilibh .i. began do moran 
ar shupailcip Loreta : Seppel Loreta immorro bui ar n-a 
ordugadh 7 ar n-a thogha on Athoir nemdha cien-aimser 
ria n-a thogbail for talmain do threibh lesse. A prim- 
chathraigh oirrdirc adamra oirdnide, Nasaret Galale [p. 50]^ 
conrotacht in tegh sin o thuss. Ann ro chomhnaig 7 ro 
thairissimh laicim 7 Anna, athoir 7 mathoir naomhMuire 
oighe. Ann foss ro coimpredh, ro geinedh, ro hoilemhnaigedh 
in nsem-ogh. Isin tegh chetna sin du-s-rat in t-archaingel 
uassal Gabriel in techtaireacht on Athoir nemhdha go 
naomMuire triasa ttainic saoradh na nAdhomh-chloinne 
chintoip 7 turcbhaloip Y>^3.cadh na seinnsear. Isan * tegh sin 
tra gan caillemhain a hoghachta isseadh rugadh ar Slanaigt[h] 
eoir Issa Crist. Ro hoilemhnaigedh as a haithle ar geil- 



* The i and the n were added in different ink. 

^ Clement VII took possession of Ancona in 1532. 

2 Loreto is 15 miles from Ancona. Wotton writes to the King that,. 
" as he has cast up his [O NeiU's] travel, he could not be at Loreto before 
the 21st at night." Cal. St. Pa. 654. 

^ This long digression, which extends to p. 161, is of no historical 
value, but may possibly be of interest to students of the legend of the 
holy house of Loreto, and for that reason it is here translated. The 
whole question of the authenticity of the story has been fully discussed 
by Chevalier, Notre-Dame de Lorette, Paris, 1906, and after an examina- 
tion of all available documents, he concludes that the legend relative ta 
the translation is not of older date than 1472, and that by 1531 it hadi 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS iir 

flowered, level, wide green near that hostel. They had 
travelled ten leagues that day. 

XC. The next day they advanced with the sea on their 
left to the famous city of Ancona.^ The Pope has three 
strong castles there and many strong guards, with all 
necessaries [for defence]. They command the city and the 
country near the bay. Afterwards they pushed on to 
Loreto.^ Their journey was nine leagues. They stopped 
and rested there that night. On the next day they made a 
pilgrimage to that holy and highly-indulgenced church. 
They remained in the town a second night. 

XCL i.^ In the name of God we shall narrate a few 
of the many, or a small number of the multitude, of the 
miracles of Loreto, according as we found them written in 
ancient histories : The chapel of Loreto was ordered and 
selected by the heavenly Father long before its erection on 
earth by the tribe of Jesse. In the great, remarkable,, 
worthy city of Nazareth in Galilee that house was first built. 
It was there that Joachim and Anna, the father and mother 
of the holy Virgin Mary, lived and remained. It was there 
too that the holy Virgin was conceived, born, and reared. 
In that same house the noble archangel Gabriel delivered 
the message from the heavenly Father to holy Mary whence 
came the redemption of the children of Adam from the sins 
and transgressions consequent on original sin* In that 
house without loss of her virginity she gave birth to our 
Saviour, Jesus Christ. He was nourished afterwards on 



grown into the expanded form here represented. According to thfr 
Catholic Encyclopedia, the balance of Cathohc opinion is in favour of 
Chevalier's view. O Cianain, it will be observed, confuses two different 
versions of the story. According to Baptist the Mantuan, the translation^ 
took place in the reigns, of Heraclius, the Roman Emperor (575-642 )^ 
and of Chosroes, Emperor of Persia (590-G28) : see his Historia in Chevalier- 
p. 243. The later version, which was developed by Angelita in 1531, 
puts the first translation to Tersatto in the reign of Pope Nicholas IV. 
(1288-1292). 



112 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

'chichoip naomh-lachtmhara na hoige go riacht in t-aingel 
do neim dia erbadh 7 dia fholairemh fuirre dol co n-a Mac 
ar innarbadh 7 deoraidhecht gusin Eigipt ar toithedh Iruaith 
m^Ic * Anntipi^^^r intan ro bassaighedh in mhacraidh oirrderc 
adhamra. An dara bliadain deg d'aoiss in Tigerna ternoidhit 
tar aiss on Eigipt gusin tegh cetna. Ann tra ro thochaith 
in naom-ogh a laithe 7 a haimsir ar in saoghal 6 sin suass. 
Ass immorro ro-ss-togaipset aingil 7 archaingil f in choimdedh 
chumhachtaigh a corp naomhtha go nemh n-ainglidhi go 
ifollus fiadhnach do na huilip chomhfhoixib. lar gcumsanadh 
don nsem-oigh ar nemh bator tra apstail 7 descipail in 
Tigerna i n-a gcomnaidhe sealat sa teagh sin. Cinnit 7 
comhairlighit ier sin a bennugadh 7 a choissrecadh assa 
mbiadh amhain i n-a teghduiss 7 i n-a dhuirrthech etorguide 
in choimdedh chumachtaigh aca. UHmhaigit na hapstail 
amne dia lamhoip bennaigthe badhdein croch ro-mhaith 
mirbaileach a fhodhair 7 a fforaithmet chroiche Crist. 
Fiodhair-dhealp 7 imhaidh naemMuire oighe ier n-a himden- 
omh do lamhoip Lucaiss suiiscel, issi amhain is [p. 51] 
mirbaihghe gan imressain fon uile dhoman. Atait immorro 
ar n-a gcomhshuidhiughadh isan sepel sin. Fo bhithin a 
imat fert 7 mirbal 7 naomhthachta du-s-ratsat lucht inot- 
achta 7 aittreptha prim-chathrach Nasaret ro-onoir go 
priuileid ndermhair ndichra do. Na regioin chomhfhoixe 
ag a chomhmoradh mar in gcetna. 

2. Ro bul immorro impire airigthe ier n-a thogha issin 
Roimh an inbaidh sin, Herachus a ainm. Coimhchengluiss 
a n-aghoidh reachta 7 chreidimht eguilsi De fri Cosr^^t, ri 
na Persia. Scrissait 7 innarbait in creidemh catolice as 
talomh lerosohma go huihdhi. Togbhait suass go hain- 
ifesach michreidmheach gne dee, Mahomet a c[h]omainm. 
Ni ro leicc immorro in t-imfhaitchess § do lucht aittreptha 
na cathrach no in regioin umhla no adradh do chreidemh 
I)e sa naomh-s[h]epel sin. An papa in cethramadh Niclas 
bui issin Roimh trialluis cocadh 7 conblicht a gcertaghaidh 
na n-eritchcd sin, Cuiriss pairt dia armail go primh-chath- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 113 

the white, milky, holy breasts of the Virgin, until the angel 
came from heaven to command and order her and her Son 
to go in exile and banishment to Egypt to escape Herod, 
son of Antipater, when the holy Innocents were slain. When 
our Lord was twelve years of age they returned from Egypt 
to the same house. There the holy Virgin spent the re- 
mainder of her days in this world. From it Almighty God's 
angels and archangels raised her holy body to the heaven of 
the angels plainly and evidently before all who saw it. 
When she rested in heaven, the apostles and disciples of 
the Lord dwelt for a while in that house. Afterwards they 
decided to bless and consecrate it so that it might serve 
only as an oratory and house wherein they might invoke 
Almighty God. Accordingly the apostles made with their 
own blessed hands a splendid miraculous cross in the shape 
of the Cross of Christ to commemorate it. Without doubt 
the only more miraculous image in all the world is that of 
the holy Virgin Mary made by the hands of Luke the 
evangelist. They were placed together in that chapel. 
Because of the number of its wonders and miracles and its 
holiness, the inhabitants of the cit)' of Nazareth did great 
honour and showed exceeding great devotion to it. The 
neighbouring countries honoured it also. 

2. Now there was a certain emperor named Heraclius 
elected in Rome at that time. He joined with Chosroes,, 
king of Persia, in opposition to the law and faith of the 
church of God. They destroyed and banished the Catholic 
faith out of all the land of Jerusalem. They set up in 
ignorance and disbelief a supposed god by name Mahomet. 
The inhabitants of the city and the country were prevented 
by fear from submitting to God's religion in that holy chapel. 
Pope Nicholas IV, who was in Rome, commenced a war 

* ic is superscribed. 

t archaingil is written twice. 

J MS. chreidhimh. 

§ MS.—thchess. 



114 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

raigh n-oirrdirc full isin Aissia, Tripoli a comhaiiim. Cuirit 
leger fuirre. Ticit na righa paganta adupramar dia comh- 
fhortacht. A n-inbaidh na huaire 7 na haimsire sin immorro 
gluaissis in teagh naomhtha so Loreta co n-a uile oibriughadh 
7 imdenomh, e ag a imachor do grassoibh De 7 naemhMuire 
ar guaillip 7 ar ochtoibh aingel 7 archaingel in choimdedh 
chumhachtoigh. Toirlingit 7 airissit ar foradh-chnoc 
aoibhinn adhamhra a magh choimhreidh chomthrom chomh- 
fhairsing a tTersato a rigacht Eschiouia timchell medhoin 
oidche do shonnradh in seissedh la do mi Mail don bliadain 
adupramar. Ba gnathbhess immorro la lucht * inotachta 7 
7 aittreptha in tire sin comhchruinniugadh ar in magh 
remraite isna laiihip sin go fir-chinnte gacha bliadhna go 
subailcip 7 go sollamantus adbal-mor [p. 52]. Ba machtnadh 
adpal 7 ba hingantus dermhair leo 6 'dchonnarcatar in 
sepel sonnradhach 7 na fitirset cia leth ttudhchaidh. 
Eirgit ann astech assa haithle. Fogabhait ann dealbh 7 
pictuir naomhMuire oighe gussin gcroich remhraite. Messait 
7 brethnaigit ieromh gur uo he tegh 7 teghduis mirbailteach 
coimperta 7 geinemhna mhathar in tSlanaightheora e. 
Glacait imegla ndermhair fo dhaighin gluasachta 7 toighechta 
in tighe. Assa haithle tra gabhait cuca go hairmitneach 
onorach e. Dogeibhdiss ilimat do lucht galair 7 esslainte 
na region gcomhfhocus comhaisseg 7 comhfhortacht a 
slainte ann. Ro mhedaigh sin immorro deuosion 7 inn- 
fheithemh na gcinedhach gcomhfocus gusin teagh sin amne. 
3. Aroile prioir ro-onorach ro-s-bui i n-a uachtaran a 
mainistir Sanct Seoirsi. Brethnaigit each fo bhithin a 
deigh-beathadh a bheith naomhtha. Allexandro a chomh- 
ainm. Gapuiss fiaprass teinntighe neimhneach in prioir. 
Earbais a threorugadh go naoimh-theagh Loreta. Gnither 
samhloidh. Ernaigiss 7 etorguidhiss in prioir gusin naomh- 
oigh a ffrithchetfaid na himhaidhe. Do connarcus don 
oigh naomhtha eachtra fholaigtheach 7 rundiamair ro- 
dhiadha in tseipeil oirrdirc adhamra sin d'foillsiughadh 7 do 
thaisselbadh don naomh-prioir remraite. An prioir immorro, 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 115 

and an attack on these heretics. He despatched portion 
of his arm^' to a great citv in Asia named Tripoh. They 
besieged it. The pagan kings already mentioned came to 
reheve it. At that particular time, then, this holy house 
of Loreto, with all its materials and structure, moved 
awav, being carried bv the favour of God and holy Mary 
on the shoulders and breasts of the angels and archangels 
of Almightv God. They alighted and came to rest on a 
remarkable, beautiful eminence in a level, even, wide plain 
in Tersatto, in the kingdom of Slavonia, about midnight on 
the sixth of Mav of the year we have mentioned. Now the 
inhabitants of that country were accustomed to gather in 
this plain on these particular ciays each year for a festival 
and great ceremony. They were greatly surprised and 
wondered much when they saw the splendid chapel, for they 
knew not whence it came. After a time they went in. 
Thev found in it the image of the holy Virgin Mary and the 
cross already mentioned. Then they all came to the con- 
clusion that it was the miraculous house and home where 
the Mother of the Redeemer w^as conceived and born. They 
feared greath' because of the transference and coming of the 
house. Afterwards they reverenced and honoured it. Many 
of the diseased and sick of the neighbouring districts had 
their health restored and benefited there. That also in- 
creased the earnestness and devotion to that house of the 
people who dwelt near it. 

3. There was once a certain very noble prior superior in 
the monastery of Saint George, Because of his good life 
he is considered by everyone to be a saint. Alexandre was 
liis name. This prior contracted a burning painful fever. 
He ordered that he should be conducted to the holy house 
of Loreto. That was done. He prayed and invoked the 
holy Virgin before the image. It seemed good to her to 
make known and reveal to that holy prior the secret history. 

* MS. luchtcht. The second t in the next word was added later. 



ii6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

mar ro bui naomhtha foghlomtha go n-imat egna 7 rundiamr^ 
on Athoir nemhdha, ticcis in ogh naomhtha cetna a persain 
do briathradh 7 do chomradh fris. lar n-a taisselbadh 
Immorro go loghmhar dealraigthech mirbaileach do ba headh 
ro raidh : Ag so meissi Muire mathair in tSlanaigtheora as 
do chomhair neoch ro ataiss 7 ro etorguidhiss go linmhar. 
Cuir h'uile dhoigh 7 inntinn 7 h'innfheithem am Mac mir- 
baileach 7 dia t[h]rocaire ro-d-fia slainte [p. 53]. An teagh 
naomhtha so tra, tuig gurab ann ro coimpredh, ro geinedh, 
ro hoilemnaigedh me. Is ann foss ro-m-toghadh lassan 
Athoir nemhdha mar mhathoir chorparrdha dia aon-Mhac 
badhdein. Ann foss ro cheiliobhrainn tratha 7 urnaigthe^ 
immoinn 7 canntaireacht, ag ettorguidhe in choimdedh 
chomachtaigh. Ann foss ro-m-possadh do reir in reachta 
7 ru-s-gabhus mar cheile la losep firinneach. Ro choimhetas 
mh' oghacht gur glacus on Athoir nemhdha in t-uassal- 
toirrchess triasa ttainic comhshaoradh na hAdhomh-chloinne 
o peacoibh 7 turcbaloip na seinnsear. Ro imchrass go 
honorach assa haithle fri re naoi mioss go rugass go mir- 
baileach grassamail, gan saothar, gan dochar s^galta, gan 
docomhal nadurtha, gan milledh mh' oghachta, Dia 7 duine 
a n-aoinpersain issin tigh sin amne. Ro oilemhnaighess 
issin tigh chetna, ro bethaiges ar cighoip m'ochta, ro imchras 
7 ro altromus as a haithle go ttainic in t-aingel do neimh 
dia erbadh oram ascnamh lem Mac gusin Eigipt for teithcdb 
Ivuaith mc'ic AnntipateT. losep dier ttreorughadh 7 ag^ 
comfhortacht duinn seachnoin na sligedh. In dara bliadain 
deg d'aoiss mo Mheic ternoidhemaoit tar aiss gusin tigh 
gcetna. Oirissim 7 comhnaighim ann as a haithle an gcein 
ro bui [me] a mbethaidh ar in saogal. Ar ndol damharnemh 
n-archainglidhe du-s-fic Eoin bruinne gusin gcuid oile do 
na hapstaloibh d'aittrebadh 7 d'inotacht in tighe. Doghnit 
tabernacw/ 7 ionadh onorach airmitnech adhamra urnaigthe 
de. Scaoilit badhdein seachnoin in domain as a haithle do 
reir aithnc in choimdedh chumachtaigh do shioladh chreidimh 
7 chrabaidh. Athraigis in teagh go mirbaileach * ier sin 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 117 

and the sacred mystery of that wonderful chapel. She 
came in person to speak and discourse with him, for he was 
holy and learned in wisdom and truths given him by the 
heavenly Father. Having miraculously appeared in splen- 
dour and brightness, she said : " Here before thee am I, 
Marv the Mother of the Redeemer, whom thou hast besought 
and invoked with many prayers. Direct all thy hope and 
intention and meditation to my wondrous Son, and by His 
mercy thou shalt have health. Understand that it was in 
this holy house that I was conceived, born, and reared. In 
it, too, I was chosen by the heavenly Father as bodily 
Mother for his own Son. In it, also, I celebrated the hours, 
said prayers, and chanted hymns, invoking the Almightv 
God. There I was espoused in accordance with the Law 
and became spouse to Joseph the just. I preserved my 
virginity until I received from the heavenly Father the 
great conception whence came the saving of the race of 
Adam from the sins and transgressions of the first parents. 
For nine months afterwards Him I bore with reverence, 
until by grace I miraculously gave birth without labour, 
without earthly pain, without natural difhculty, without 
harm to my virginity, to Him, God and Man in one Person 
in that same house. There I reared Him, I fed Him on the 
breasts of my bosom, I carried Him and nursed Him, until 
the angel came from heaven to command me to fly with 
my Son to Egypt, to avoid Herod, son of Antipater. Joseph 
guided us and supported us throughout the journey. When 
my Son was twelve years old, we returned to the same 
house. I lived there afterwards as long as I was in life in 
the world. When I went to heaven of the archangels, John 
of the Bosom, with the other apostles, came to dwell in the 



* MS. mirbailteach with a punctuin delens under the t. Mirhailleach 
is a form based on the plural of mirbail, and is quite correct according 
to spoken usage ; compare p. 114. 'O Cianain naturally prefers the 
other. 



ii8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

go rainic gusin log so. Foillsigther immorro 7 comhoirrdherc- 
aighther let in stair 7 in eachtra so 7 na naomh-scela do na 
huilip chomhfhoixibh 7 ro-d-fia slainte 6 mo Mhac glormhar 
grassamai] si. 

4. Tigit a gcetoir ilimat do legionoibh aingel 7 archaingel 
do neimh a gcomairrchis [p. 54] 7 a gcomhdhail na naomh- 
oige. Gabuiss a ced ag in athair naomhtha sin ieromh. 
Fo bhlthin ruithenta logmaire shubhailcighe in holtan^ighe 
dhiadha glormhair bui ar gach taep di dogeibh in t-athoir 
slainte a gcetoir. Du-s-rat in t-athoir altugadh buide don 
naomh-oigh 7 dia Mac mirbaileach. Aistrighis dia t[h]igli 
ier sodhain. Aisneidhiss na scela sin do na huilibh adchidh. 

5. Rainic tra clu 7 alia 7 oirrdercass in sceoil * gusin 
uachtaran bui ag guibernoracht an tire, Nicolauss Fransis- 
fane a chomhainm. Treoraigis chuicce an t-athair remraite 
ar go ffessadh deimin agus bunadhus na mor-mirbal. Ier 
n-a gcloss do cuiris d'fiachaibh fair ascnamh gan moille 
gach ndirech go prim-chathraigh Nasaret d'fioss 7 do dear- 
badh an sceoil. Cethror immorro do daoinibh oiregdha 
oirdnidhe adhamra onoracha in tire i n-a choimhiteacht. 
Rangatar Nasaret. Bui tra in sligt^ go soirp socomhlach 
aca. Fochtait imthuss 7 turthechta in tigi do maithib na 
cathrach. Adfedsat doip uile scela 7 eachtra 7 mirbaile in 
tige in airet bui aca badhdein 7 a thogbail uaidhip assa 
haithle ar guaillibh 7 ar ochtoip aingel go mirbaileach 7 na 
fitirset cia leth dodeachaidh. Araoi sin tra toimsit na teachta 
fundaimint in tige, a fod, a lethet, a himthacmhac. Ter- 
noidhit tar ais go Tarsato. Ba cudruma coimhinann don 
tegh ier n-a thomhus in tan sin frissin tomhus doronsator a 
Nasaret. larsna huile dearpthoip sin immorro dognit 
lucht aittrebhtha na gcathrach gcomfhocus 7 an regioin go 
huilide onoir 7 airmitin adbal-mor mun tigh, go n-imthath- 
aidhi linmair, go ndeuosion ndichra. Seacht missa ar 
tribh bliadhnaibh ro bui in teagh i n-a chomhnaighe issin 
inadh remraite. Imeglaigit immorro aittreabaigh in tire 
ainmien 7 ansmacht, borrfadh 7 diberg an impire .i. Heraclius. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 119 

house. They made of it a tabernacle and a venerable, 
honoured, holy place of prayer. Then they scattered 
throughout the world, according to the Almighty God's 
command, to plant the faith. Afterwards the house 
miraculously moved, so that it came to this place. Let 
this history and narrative and the holy tidings be made 
known and published by thee to all the neighbouring regions, 
and thou shalt have health from mv Son, who is glorious 
and full of grace." 

4. Lnmediately there came a multitude of legions of 
angels and archangels to meet the holy Virgin. Then she 
departed from that holy father. From the brightness and 
splendour, and the pleasantness of the divine heavenly odour 
on every side of her, he received health at once. He gave 
thanks to the holy Virgin and to her miraculous Son. He 
then journeyed to his home and narrated the events to all 
he saw. 

5. The report and account of the matter reached the 
officer who was governing the country, Nicolas Frangipani 
was his name. He summoned to him the aforesaid father to 
learn the certainty and true account of the great miracle. 
When he heard them, he obliged the father to go without 
delay straight to Nazareth to find out if the story were 
true. There were four great, worthy, honoured noblemen 
of the country along with him. They reached Nazareth. 
Their journey was easy and without difficulty. They made 
enquiries of the great men of the city as to what had happened 
to the house. They narrated to them all the deeds and 
events and miracles connected with the house while it re- 
mained with them, how it was at length taken away from 
them miraculously on the shoulders and breasts of angels, 
and that they did not know whither it had gone. However, 
the messengers measured the foundation of it, its length, its 
breadth, and its circuit. They returned to Tersatto. That 

* in sceoil over the line. 



120 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Tic asside gne nemhthathaidhe [p. 55] 7 mainnechtnaig^ 
deuosioin 7 imfhuaire i n-a gcroidhedhaibh do beith don 
naolmh-theagh oirrderc adhamra so, as nach ttucsat 
adhradh no onorachus * do mar ha gnath. Ba toil immorro 
lassin Mac mhor-mhirbaileach 7 lassan gcoimdidh gcomach- 
tach an teagh do athrugadh assin du a mbui. Togbhait 
aingil 7 archaingil leo i n-a staid 7 i n-a innioll badhdein 
gan cumhscughadh cloch no clarach. Ascnait seach mor- 
fhairrge gcoimhleathain gcomfhairsing Adriatica. Nir hairis- 
sedh leo go riachtsat gusin Edaill. Toirlingit a primh- 
choill chomhdhluith a prouensi Marca a gcomhfhoixe sen- 
chathrach Recanati. Laureta comhainm na baintreabaighe 
uaissle dier uo sealp go sainigthe in choill sin chena. Araoi 
sin cuirit na poipleach[a] a ngnathugadh dealb Muire Loreto 
do chomhghairm don pictuir. Aoiss in Tigerna in tan sin 
mile ar da cHed ceithre bliadhna deg ar cheithri fichit, in 
dechmadh la Septembris. Ger uo comhdhluith aimhreidh 
imdorcha in fhiodhbadh sin isin aimsir ses-chmataigh, araoi 
sin chena ba ruithen-sholus dealraigthech glormhar on 
soillsi ainglecdha ro-dus-fagoibset na haingil issin tigh 
naomhtha 7 i n-a uile timchuairt 7 tocheall(2^/6. Messait 
7 brethnaigit lucht a faircsena gur uo teinnte 7 tennala 
bator iar n-a gcomadhnadh issin ffidhbhaidh. 

6. Bator tra aodhairzW/'e ag forchoimed a ttreod ar a 
comhgar. Ar ffaixin an ingantuiss adpail examail fagbuid 
a ttreda. Ar teithedh dien-tinnesnach iad gusin prlm- 
chathraigh remraite. Adfetsat tra dia ttuistidip in seel 
uathbasach ingantach forcaomhnagoir. La sodhain tra 
attrachtsat lucht na cathrach eirgi athlamh aoinfhir. Ascnait 
gusin ffidbhaidh a ttraide [p. 56]. Tar ffaixin an ingantuiss 
adbal-moir doibh gabuis omhan 7 imecla dermhair iat. 
Eirgit dronga aca go gcrith-egla 7 go gcomhfhaitches 
sechnoin na fidbaidi as a haithli. Rangator immorro i 
n-a cert-medhon. An teagh onorach airmitncach iar n-a 
imdenomh go haughdardha inntlechtach go ffidhair-dheilbh 
Muire oige 7 na croichi cesta ann ier n-inmedhon. Bidhgait 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 121 

house, when measured then, had a measurement exactly 
equal to that which they had made at Nazareth. After 
all these proofs the people of the neighbouring cities and 
all the country gave great reverence and honour to the 
house, visiting it frequently with great devotion. For 
three vears and seven months it remained in that place. 
The natives of the country, however, began to fear the passion 
and tyranny, the rage and rapine, of the Emperor Heraclius. 
For that reason the remarkable, wondrous, holy house 
became unfrequented, they neglected their devotion and 
their hearts grew cold, so that they did not give it such 
honour and respect as had been customary. But the great, 
wondrous Son and Almighty God were pleased to remove 
it from the place where it was. Angels and archangels 
carried it with them in its own form and shape, without 
change of stones or timbers, over the great, wide Adriatic 
Sea. They rested not until they reached Italy. They 
alighted in a dense wood in the province of the Marches, 
near the ancient city of Recanati. Laureta was the name 
of the noble widow whose private possession that wood was. 
For that reason the people acquired the habit of naming the 
picture the image of Mary of Loreto. The year of the Lord 
that time was one thousand two hundred and ninety-four, 
the tenth of September. Though that wood was close, 
intricate, and dark in olden times, yet it was gleaming, 
bright, and glorious from the angelic light the angels left in 
the holy house and around about it. Those who saw it 
believed that there were fires and conflagrations alighted in 
the wood. 

6. Now there were shepherds guarding their flocks close 
to the wood. When they observed the great strange wonder, 
they abandoned their flocks and fled in haste to the city 
mentioned. They told their parents of the striking and 
wonderful event which had happened. Then the people 

* on is added above the line in later ink. 



122 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

7 ingantaigit la sodain. As a liaithle tra ba hi a ttoimdin 7 
a mbaramail gur uo torchur-shet tidlaictheach ro dirigh in 
t-Athoir nemhda Dia uile-chomachtach chuca. Leicit ar 
a ngluinib iat. i\dhrait 7 ernaigit 7 etorguidit in coimde 
comhachtach go n-altugadh buidhi go linmar fo bithin na 
meide sin da mor-shupailcip examhla do thaissealbadh 
doibh. Fobs dognit oraite 7 caintic coimmbinn i n-a tten- 
gaidh uoden. Ro chansat a mbriathraib millsi gur uo 
bennaigthe aoinDia uile-chomhachtach, fos bennaigthe 
diadha glormhar in naomh-ogh throcaireach, mathoir in 
Mheic moir-mhirbailigh, ro thoiligh 7 ro thidlaic dia mor- 
grassoib * badhdein a macsamhla sin do naom-thaispenadh 
throcairech do thaisselbadh go mirbaileach examail ingantach 
dia popal bocht. As a haithle tra ternoidhit na maithe si 
a ffritheing na conaire cetna go riachtsat gusin gcathraigh 
remhraite. 

7. Ba gnath-bess la lucht na cathrach ier sin in gach 
uile aimsir imthathaidhi ro-onorach maille re uisitation 7 
reuerens go n-imat adhartha De 7 naemMuire oighe do denom 
isin tig si amne. A aois galair 7 esslainti 7 gach treablaidi 
archena ag foghbail chomfhortachta 7 imaisic a slainte 
gacha haimsire isin teg so do grasoibh De [p. 57] 7 do thro- 
caire oghMhuire a ffrithchetfaidh na himhaidhe 7 na croichi 
adupramar. Dia bhithin sin immorro ticdiss ilimat do 
dhaoinip o na regionaip oile do denomh turaiss, deuosioin 
7 oilithre gusin naoimh-theghdhuis sin ier n-oirrdercughadh 
a mhor-mhirbal. Ba gnath la himat eiritchedh 7 bith- 
benach, mar ro bui in teagh a ndithreb uaigneach imdorcha 
7 comhthathaidhi na n-oilithrech chuice 7 uaidhe, teacht 
do denomh sladaighcachta 7 duine-mharptha ar a chom- 
fochraip. Ar n-a fhaixin sin immorro do Dhia uile-chom- 
achtach earbuis ar dhroing dia ainglip an sepel d'aither- 
rach 7 do threorugadh go magh coimhreidh comhfhairsing 
bui ar comhgar na fidbaidhi remhraite. Dognit samhloidh. 
Comhshuidhigit e ar gairdln-chnoc aoibhinn oirrderc oiregh- 
dha go Immhaireacht luibinn degh-bholtanach. Daoine 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 123 

of the city arose with the ready rising of one man. They 
came to the wood at once. On seeing the great strange 
sight, fear and terror came upon them. Groups of them went 
trembhng and in fright through the wood. When they 
reached the centre of it, they found the splendid venerable 
house, built with skill and dexterity, and having inside in it 
the images of the Virgin Mary and of the Cross of the Cruci- 
fixion. They were startled and amazed. Afterwards they 
considered that it was a bounteous gift which the Heavenly 
Father, Almighty God, had sent to them. They fell on 
their knees. They adored and prayed and invoked the 
Lord, giving Him abundant thanks for vouchsafing to them 
so much of his great graces. They prayed and sung a sweet 
canticle in their own language. They chanted in sweet- 
sounding words that the Almighty God was blessed, and 
that blessed, holy and glorious, too, was the merciful holy 
Virgin, the Mother of the wonderful Son, who was pleased 
to grant by her own graces that such a holy merciful sight 
should be miraculously exhibited to her poor people. In 
the end they returned by the same route until they reached 
the city. 

7. After that the people of the city were wont at all times 
to make visits of respect in this house, visiting, reverencing 
and worshipping God and the holy Virgin Mary. Their 
sick and diseased, and those afflicted with any other trouble, 
found comfort and restoration of health always there, by 
God's grace and the mercy of Mary, in the presence of the 
image and the cross. For that reason many people from 
other countries came to make a journey, devotion, and a 
pilgrimage to the holy house, when its great miracles became 
known. But many heretics and robbers, as it was situated 
in a lonely dark waste, and as pilgrims went to and from it, 
used to go to rob and murder near it. When Almighty God 



* The final b is followed by the Une-and-dot coinpendmni in antici- 
pation of the next letter. 



124 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

uaissle do lucht na cathrach, diss derbrathor dieroile. ba 
leo bith-dilsecht in magha sin tra. Ro bui imthathaidhi 
ghnathach gusin sepel ar in magh sin do shonnradh fri re 
imchien. Dogeibhdiss na daoine uaissle imat oir 7 aircit 7 
gacha maithessa archena dia thorbha. Glacait fein ier sin 
aingideacht fhlch-mheiscneach 7 imthnuth adpal-mor re 
aroile. Ni mor nach bittiss gach laoi ag fobairt chomhmarp- 
tha a cheile. An mhathair o ar gheinsetair ba congnamh 
imbressna 7 etorchossaide doibh, oir in mac ba hinmaine 
7 ba dichra sere 7 annsacht le, adbeiredh fiadh na huilip 
gur uo leiss in magh tre fhir-chert gan chomhroinn don fhior 
oile. Eirgiss ier sin cogadh 7 conbhlicht eidir na derbraithrip 
amne fo chomhroinn torbha in tsepeil. Ar n-a fhaixin so do 
Dhia uile-chomachtach, augdar 7 bunadhus [p. 58] na huile 
hsithchana* 7 imbressna, reidhighiss go mirbaileach deabaidh 
7 dechetfaidh na nderbraithrech remhraidhsemar. Cuiriss 
da mor-chomachtoip glormhara aingil 7 archaingil d'imluadh 
7 do choimhthreorugadh in naemh-shepeil gur chomhshuidh- 
ighset e a n-inmedhon 7 a gcert-lar in rig-roid rigdha 
thairmnigess eitir primh-chathraigh Recanati agas in sen- 
fhairrge, ionadh airigthe ar nach roibhi cennus no uach- 
taranacht no selb sonnradhagh ag en-duine fon uile dhoman. 
Ata issin du sin gusin tan sa. Ag sin amhain in tres imirci 
7 athrugadh doronadh leiss ier riachtain do tar fairrgi, 

8. Assa haithle sin immorro ingantaigit daoine simplidhe 
neimheacnaidhi issin tir examhlacht 7 ingantaighi eachtra 
7 imircrdh in tseipeil. Cuirit i n-inntinn-chroidheadhoip 
lochta na cathrach gne fondaiminti do chor n-a urthimchell, 
oir ro imeglaighset tre ainffioss a athrugadh uaidip in ceth- 
ramadh feacht. Teaglamait immorro 7 comhchruinnigit 
lucht na gcathrach gcomhfhocus 7 an tire go huilidhi. Do- 
gnlt go lan-obbann gne oibre 7 fondasioin timchuairt in 
tsepeil. Bator tra na hEdailligh 7 lucht na region gcom- 
fhocus ag imthathaidhe go lan-llnmhar fair. Ba machtnadh 

* This is the spelling of the MS. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 125 

saw that, He ordered some of His angels to remove the 
chapel and bring it to a level wide plain in proximity to the 
wood. They did so, and placed it on a beautiful, fine, com- 
manding garden-hill which had abundance of sweet-smelling 
herbs. Two noblem.en of the city, brothers, had the owner- 
ship of that plain The chapel was frequented as usual 
on the plain for a long time. The noblemen got much gold 
and silver and wealth of all kinds as a result. But then 
they conceived fierce enmit\' and great jealousy for each 
other. Almost every day they sought to kill each 
other. It was the mother who gave them birth who helped 
on their fighting and contention, for she used to sav openlv 
that to the son whom she liked and who was dearest to her 
the plain belonged by right, and that the other had no share 
in it. A fight arose between them in that way for a division 
of the profits of the chapel. When Almightv God, the 
author and beginning of all peace and contention, saw this, 
He settled by a miracle the dispute and disunion of the 
brothers. By His great glorious power He sent angels and 
archangels to move and bring the holy chapel until thev 
placed it in the middle of the high road which crosses 
between the city of Recanati and the sea, in a Darticular 
place over which no one in the world had supremacv, mastery, 
or possession. It is in that place until the present time. 
That was the third moving and changing it had undergone 
since it had come across the sea. 

8. After that, however, simple unwise people in the 
country wondered at the variety and strangeness of the 
movements and translations of the chapel. Thev suggested 
to the people of the city to put a foundation around it, 
for in their ignorance they feared lest it might be changed 
from them for the fourth time. The inhabitants of the 
neighbouring cities and all the country gathered and as- 
sembled. They quickly set works and a foundation around 
the chapel. The Italians and the people of the neighbouring 
countries frequented it in large numbers. They marvelled 



126 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

dermair leo mett 7 imat a fhert 7 a mhirbal co n-a uile 
eachtra 7 imtheachta. Ar n-a fhaixin sin don oigh naomhtha 
bliadain airighthe d'aoiss in Tigerna, mile ar da chett se 
bliadhna deg ar cheithri fichit, ro fhoillsig mar so siss uile 
scela 7 turtheachta in tsetpeil. 

9. Aroile senoir naom-arsanta go ndegh-airilte 7 go 
gcaoin-bhessoip dorala i n-a gnath-chomnaighe ar comgar 
in tsepeil. Ro gnathaigedh a imthathaidhi go meinic maille 
re deuosion dichra 7 re duthracht inntinni [p. 59]. Taissel- 
buiss in naemh-ogh i badhdein cetna a persain do. Adfett 
do feip ro innis don athair irisseach Alexandro, prioir Thar- 
sato, toighecht 7 imthecht 7 uile eachtra 7 imthiisa in 
tseipeil on ched-uair riam gusin tan sin, a aistriughadh 7 a 
imachor go mirbhailech ar guaillip 7 ochtaibh aingel 7 arch- 
aingel, an aimsir 7 an inbaidh i n-a nderna gach athrugadh 
7 gach imirce dia nderna. Earbuiss 7 folairis fair ina huile 
scela sin d'oirrdercugadh 7 d'fir-fhaisneis do na huilip 
poipleachaibh no-bheitiss i n-a chomhgar. A gcetoir teit 
in senoir go cathraigh Recanati. Aisneidiss na scela mir- 
baileacha do lucht inotachta na cathrach gusna huilibh 
choipnessoibh. Gapait tra na poipleacha d'formhor na scela 
so go hettrom nemfhoirpthe michreidmheach chuca. Is 
suaill nach ag fochuidmedh 7 fanamait bator fon senoir. 
Araoi sin chena mar do chonnarcatar ilimat na ffert 7 na 
mirbal gacha laithi, cinnit 7 comhairligit do chomhaonta 
aroile se fir deg do roighnip na ndaoine ba crlnna foghlomtha 
chocubhassaigi firinnighe * a prournsi Marca do thogha 7 a 
gcor go Nasaret Galalee do chomhshaothrugadh bunadhuis 
7 seicreide seel in tsepeil. Gapsat tra na se fir deg remhraite 
loingess co n-a n-uile riachtanus aistir 7 imtheachta. Ascnait 
assa hait[h]le. Dirgit a gcursa tar cuan Adriatico. Mar 
sin doib go riachtsat cuan 7 caladh-port a Sinonia. Asside 
gan mhoille go magh Tarsato. Innissit immorro 7 coimder- 



* This word is inserted over the line ; the next is foghlomtha with 
puncta delentia. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 127 

greatlv at the magnitude and number of its miracles and 
wonders, and at all its travels and movements. When the 
holy Virgin saw that, in a particular year of the Lord, 
one thousand twelve hundred and ninety-six, she made 
known as follows the whole story and- account of the chapel. 
9. A certain holy old man of unblemished character 
and good life chanced to dwell near the chapel. He used 
to visit it frequentlv with great devotion and piety of in- 
tention. To him first the holy Virgin appeared in person. 
She told him, as she had told the pious father Alexandro, 
the prior of Tersatto, of the coming and going, and the 
whole story and adventure of the chapel, from the first up 
to that time, of its being transferred and carried miraculously 
on the shoulders and breasts of angels and archangels, and 
of the time and period at which it made every one of its 
changes and movements. She ordered anci directed him to 
make known and truly narrate these things to all who were 
in his neighbourhood. At once the old man went to the city 
of Recanati. He told the wonderful tidings to the inhabitants 
of the city and all their kinsfolk. The people for the most 
part took small and imperfect heed of the story, regarding 
it with disbelief. They were all but mocking and ridiculing 
the old man. Still, when they saw the number of the 
wonders and miracles every day, they unanimously decided 
to select sixteen chief men, the wisest, most learned, most 
conscientious, and most truthful in the province of the 
Marches, and to send them to Nazareth in Galilee to in- 
vestigate the origin and meaning of the story of the chapel. 
These sixteen men took a fleet, with all necessaries for a 
journey and travel. They set out then, and directed their 
course over the Adriatic sea. Thus they went till they 
reached harbour in Slavonia. From that they hastened to 
the plain of Tersatto. The inhabitants and dwellers in the 
country, and in that plain in particular, narrated and affirmed 
how that remarkable, wonderful, holy house came and 
descended on the plain, its wonders and miracles while it 



128 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

pait aittrehthaidhe 7 lucht inotachta an tire 7 in maga sin 
do shonnradh mar do thainic 7 mar do thoirling in naoimh- 
thegh oirrderc adhamra sin ar in magh remraite [p. 60], 
a fherta 7 a mirbaili in cein ro bui ann, mar ro thaisprm 
naemMuire ogh dia mor-throcaire i badhdein d' Alexandre, 
go ru-s-fet eachtra 7 uile scela in tsepeil, dol Alexandre 
gusin gcethror remraite go Nassare do promad agus do 
dherbadh an sceoil, 7 sin d'fagail go huilidhi mar ata i n-ar 
ndiaigh, 7 an sepel do thogbail uaidip assa haithle 7 na 
fitirset fon uile doman cia leth dochoidh. Leicet sein ar 
siopal gach ndirghi iat go ro riachtsat Nasaret. Ba guasach- 
tach imomhnach na sligthe rompa tresan mBarbiass batar i 
n-a naimdip bunaidh 7 i n-a scristoirib creidim Crist. Ar 
ndol doip go Nasaret rangatar in t-inadh airigthe gusin 
ffundaimint for ar comhshuidhigedh an teagh o thus. Mes- 
sait 7 toimsit iaramh a fhod 7 a lethet 7 a imthacmac fri 
compass in tige ro-dus-fagoibset i n-a ndeghaidh issin Edaill. 
Ba cutruma coimhinann doibh. Eistit ier sin ina huile 
dherptha 7 scela ru-s-batar ag lucht na cathrach um dhaighin 
in tighe, a ttaop a thogbala 7 a chomhshuidhigthe o thuss 
7 a im heachta go mirbaileach ingantach assa haithle. 
Doratsat creidemain gur uo fir-briathra foirpthe gach ar 
chan in senoir issin Edaill, gur uo he sin an teagh firinneach 
bui ar in inadh remraite ar n-a threorugadh go mirbaileach 
examail do mor-chomachtoibh an choimdedh chomhachtaigh 
in gach du i n-ar chomhnaigh diaigh a ndiaigh gur oiris as 
a haithle isin log bennaigthi i n-a ffuil. lar sin tra ternoidhit 
na hEdailligh dia ttir. Fuilingit imat guasachta 7 mertin 
mara 7 tire sechnoin na sligedh. Ar rochtain a n-atharrda 
badhdein atfetsat tra go follus [p. 61] ina huile derptha 7 
scela fuaratar um dhala in tighe. Creidit tra ina huile 
chinedhaigh ro-s-batar sa prouensi gur uo fir gach ar chansat. 
Doratsat altughadh * buidhi do Dia uile-chomachtach. 
Adamhraighther 7 oirrdercaigt[h]er an seel fo na rcgionoip 

* The t is added in pale ink over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 129 

was there, how the holy Virgin Mary in her great mercy 
appeared to Alexandro and told the story and account of 
the chapel, how Alexandro and the four men went to Nazareth 
to test and confirm the story, and how they heard it all as 
it is above, and that the chapel was removed from them 
afterwards, and that they did not know where in the world 
it had gone. They then proceeded right straight till they 
reached Nazareth. Their journey through the country of 
the Barbarians, who were hereditary enemies and destroyers 
of the faith of Christ, was dangerous and terrifying. 
When they went to Nazareth, they found the particular 
spot and the foundation on which the house was first seated. 
They estimated and measured its length, and breadth, and 
circuit in comparison with the house they had left behind 
them in Italy. They were equal and alike. They then 
heard the statements and accounts the people of the city 
gave concerning the house, how it was built and erected at 
first, and how it afterwards disappeared strangelv and 
miraculously. These showed that the old man in Italy had 
spoken words really true, and that the house was the veritable 
house which once stood on the spot mentioned, and was 
brought by a strange miracle, by the great power of Almighty 
God, to every place where it had successively been, until it 
rested in the end in the holy place where it then was. Then 
the Italians returned to their country. They underwent 
much danger and sickness by sea and land throughout 
the journey. When they reached their own country, they 
told plainly all the accounts and information they had 
got about the house. All the people in the province believed 
that what they said was true. They gave thanks to Almighty 
God. The matter was made known and published in 
all the neighbouring countries. All increased their venera- 
tion, their visits, and their devotion to the chapel. 
Not only the Italians frequented it, but also many 
ecclesiastics of the regular orders of Christendom from 
other countries. 



130 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

comhfhoixibh. * Dognit each ieromh metughadh onora, 
tathaidhi 7 deuosioin don sepel. Ni hiat na hEtailligh 
amhain batar tathaigeach air, acht ilimat o regionaibh oile 
do macoibh egailsi d'uile ordoib riagalta na cristaig- 
echta. 

10. Aroile duine uassal irisseach ro bui a n-aoiss foirpthe, 
a n-imfhoixe don sepel remraiti ro bui a aittreb 7 a inotacht. 
Bat[ar] maithe a degh-airilte 7 a chain-bessa. Paulus dela 
Silua a chomhainm. Ba gnath-bes do uisltation meinic 7 
tadhall gnathach ar in sepel naomhtha sin go linmar gacha 
laithe. Oidhche n-aon a ffeil nati[ui]tatis Beate Marie 
Uirginis do issin sepel ag adhradh 7 ag etorguidi naemMuire 
oighe, adchonnairc dia shuilip corparrda in soillsi ro-mhoir 
.i. primh-lochrann lassamail ag toirling anuass ar in sepel. 
Ba hi a thoimdin 7 a baramail da throigh deg i n-a chomhfhat 
go se ttroigtibh i n-a lethet. Da uair in chluig riassan lo 
do shoillsiugadh ba hedh ro thoirling samhloidh. Deich 
mbliadhna diaigh a ndiaigh comhainm na hoidche sin do 
shonnradh 7 a n-inbaidh na huaire cetna don duine uassal 
ag faixin rundiemair na mor-mirbal. Ni ro fhaisneis frissin 
re sin do neach. Aimsir aithgerr ria mbass cuiriss techta 
do thochuiredh espoig Recanati go n-espogoibh maithi oile. 
Adfed tra doibh na mor-mirbaili examhla ingantacha for- 
caomhnacair issin sepel co n-a uile derbthoibh 7 deg-chomar- 
thoibh. Deimin lasna sruithibh sin amne gur uo hi in 
naom-ogh badhdein inaid aingil uaithe ro-s-ficedh comhainm 
na fele [p. 62] uaissle ro raidhsem d'onorugadh 7 d'airmhit- 
niughadh an tsepeil uassail adhamra. Comhoirrdercaigther 
ier sin in s[c]el fo na regionoibh comfhoixibh amail is foUuss. 

11. Feacht n-aon du-s-riacht espog chathrach Recanati 
dia oilithre go Loreto, Terremano a chomhainm. Dogni a 
thurus. Ier gcloisteacht ilimat fert 7 mirbal an tsepeil 
ternoidhiss ar ais go cathraigh Recanati. Duine firenta 
uassal Paulus Rinaltinus ro bui issin gcathraigh in tan sin, 
ro dearp don tigerna-easpog, a ffoirfecht aoissi 7 aimsire a 
shen-athar badhdein, gur mhinnaig go fiadnach go ffacatar 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 131 

10. There was a certain pious nobleman advanced in 
years who dwelt near the chapel. He was of unblemished 
character and good life, and Paulus de la Silva was his 
name. He was accustomed to visit frequentlv the holy 
chapel each day. One night, on the feast of the nativity 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, as he was in it praying and 
beseeching the holy Virgin, he saw with his own eyes a 
great light, namely, a shining torch, descending on the 
chapel. He thought it was twelve feet in length and six 
in breadth. Two hours before the dawn of day it descended 
thus. For ten successive years, on the same particular 
night and at the same hour, the nobleman saw the mystery 
of the great miracles. During that period he never spoke 
of it to anybody. A short time before death he sent 
messengers to call the bishop of Recanati and other good 
bishops. He narrated to them the strange, wonderful 
miracles which took place in the chapel, giving all his proofs 
and confirmations. These prelates considered that it was 
the holy Virgin herself, or angels from her, who used to 
come at the recurrence of the noble festival mentioned to 
honour and venerate the great wonderful chapel. After 
that the story was made known to the neighbouring countries, 
as is manifest. 

II. On one occasion the bishop of the city of Recanati, 
whose name was Terremano, came on a pilgrimage to Loreto. 
He performed his pilgrimage, and having heard the multi- 
tude of the wonders and miracles of the chapel, returned to 
the city of Recanati. A noble and just man, Paulus 
Rinaldutius, who was in the city at that time, assured the 
lord bishop that his own grandfather in his old age swore 
definitely that his own eyes saw the chapel being transported 
over the sea on angels' shoulders until, wonderfully and 
miraculouslv, it descended in the aforesaid wood. A certain 



* Corrected in later ink from comhjlioixc. 



132 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

a shuile fein in sepel ag a imachor tar in ffairrgi * ar guaillibh 
aingel gu ro thoirling go mirbailech ingantach issin ffid- 
baidh remraiti. Aroile prioir airigthe ro bui issin chathraigh 
chetna sin, Fransisco a ainm, dorat a minna a ffiadhnaissi in 
espoig Terremano go ro minnaig a sen-athair badhdein fo 
n-a chubhus a fforcinn se fichet bliadi^w dia aoiss go ffacatar 
a shuile fein in sepel ag ascnamh 7 ag ceimniugadh tar in 
ffairrge gur thoirinn 7 gur thoirling go mirbaileach isin 
diamar-choill adupramar, go roibhi fein ag urnaigthe 7 ag 
etorguide in choimdhedh chomhachtaig 7 naemMuire oighi 
go meinic isin inadh sin ann, an dara feacht ag dol go cnoc 
na deissi derbrathor, in tres fecht ag ascnamh gusin du i 
n-a mbaoi. Fo bithin na n-ilimat derptha sin tra cinnit 7 
comairligit na cinedhoigh d'ein-inntinn amhain gan examen 
no cuiss amaruiss hadh moo do chor a leith in tsepeil. Go 
hairigthe os a chenn sin, ilimat a fert 7 a mhirbal gacha 
laithi, ger-scrudaiss sin inntinn-chroidedha na region 7 na 
gcinedach gcomhfhoccus chom adhartha 7 creidemna do. 

12. [p. 63] Bui aroile duine uassal adhamra issin fFrainc ria 
sunn, Petro Orgentoris a chomainm. A gcathraigh oirrdirc 
Granobile ro buT a inotacht 7 a chomhnaighe. Ro theacht 
mhnaoi a dhingbala, si ro-uassal go ndeilb nderscnaigthigh 
do threibh ro-onoraigh issin fFrainc, dier uo comhainm 
Donna Antonia. Gapuis tra ben oile issin gcathraigh 
gcetna doigh etta, imthnuith, 7 acaissi di imon ffer-scal 
remhraite. Dealbhuis breachta diablaidhechta 7 draoith- 
echta, idhalachta 7 ainchreidmhe, i n-a haghaidh. La 
sodain gabuis mire 7 dassacht difhulaing in cheid-ben, Ro 
threic a ceill 7 a cetfaidh. Brethnaigit lucht a faircsena 
gur uo droch-spirut bui ag inotacht innti amoil ba hoirrderc 
i n-a dheghaidh. Ascnais in duine uasal gusin mban-scal 
remraiti ag iarraidh caomhna 7 comfhortachta di in gach 
recles 7 in gach ionadh bennaigthe mirbaileach adcloss do 
seachnoin na Fraingce. Nir uo tarba do. Treoraigidh ier 
sin go primh-chathraigh Melan issin Edaill i, go huasail- 
eclais S. lulio, du a ng[n]athaigdiss lucht na haicide sin da 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 133 

prior, also, who was in that same city, Francisco by name, 
gave his oath in the presence of bishop Terremano that his 
own grandfather swore by his conscience, at the age of one 
hundred and twenty years, that his own eyes saw the chapel 
coming and advancing over the sea until it alighted and 
descended miraculously in the wood we have mentioned, that 
he himself was praying and beseeching Almighty God and the 
holy Virgin Mary in that place there ; also, the second time 
going to the hill that belonged to the two brothers, and the 
third time proceeding to the place where it then was. Be- 
cause of these many proofs the people decided with one 
accord not to enquire or doubt further concerning the 
chapel. Besides, in addition to that, the multitude of its 
wonders and miracles every day incited the minds of the 
countries and peoples in the neighbourhood to worship 
and believe in it. 

12. There was a certain great nobleman in France before 
that time, Petro Orgentorix was his name. He lived in 
the great city of Grenoble. He had a worthy wife, of noble 
blood and great beauty, of a distinguished family in France, 
whose name was Donna Antonia. Another woman in the 
same city became smitten with jealousy, envy, and hatred 
of her because of the man. She performed charms of devilry 
and witchery, of idolatry and heathenism, against her. 
Thereupon madness and unbearable frenzy came upon the 
first woman. She lost her senses and intelligence. Those 
who saw her were of opinion that there was an evil spirit 
in her, and that became evident afterwards. The nobleman 
went wdth the woman, seeking help and relief, to every 
church and miraculous holy place that he heard of in France. 
It was of no avail. After that he brought her to the city 
of Milan in Italy, to the great church of San lulio, where 
people afHicted with that disease were accustomed to get 



* MS. ffairrsL 



134 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

shonnradh foirigthin 7 comhfhortacht a riachtanuis 7 a 
n-anacra d'foghbhail go meinic mirbaileach. Sealat doip 
issin recles sin, acht chena ba dimhaoin a ttoisc. Ceimnigit 
go cathraigh Madonain as a haithle, go primh-thempall 
oireghdha i n-a ndingentaidhe a set samhla sin d'fertoib 7 
mirbailip go linmar .i. tempall Gemeniano. Urnaighit 7 
etorghuidit ann. Ni fhuaratarcomfhortachtbheos. Tochomh- 
lait tra as a haithle go prim-chathraigh na Roma. Fri 
re misa go comlan doip issin Roimh a prim-thempall Petair 
Uaticano. Coloman adhamra oirrderc mirbaileach go ngrat 
[p. 64] imremar ieroinn i n-a uirthimchell isin tempall, neoch 
ata aniu 7 o do bui Crist ar in saogal so ag buain droch- 
spirut demnaidhe as lucht a imthathaidhi, do grassoibh De, 
go foUus fiadhnach don doman. Ni meinic * ternoidh on 
choloman sin fer no ben ar a mbiadh an anacair sin gan 
comfhortacht d'fagail. Sealat airigthe gacha laithe go 
forcinn na missa sin don ban-seal remraiti astig fo iadhadh 
issin ngrata a ffochair in cholomain. Nir uo tol la Dia 
comhaiseg a slainte d'fogbail di bheos. ler sin tra gluaissit 
in chuideachta so go comhthuirsech dibergoideach. Acht 
trocaire De amhain, ni mor na ro chuirsetar suil do chabair. 
Mesait go dicheillidhe midhochusach, o nach deachaidh a 
ttarpa doip primh-thurus mor-oirrderc dia ndernsatar, 
ascnamh 7 ceimniugadh go a n-at[h]ardha bhunaidh 7 gan 
ni hadh moo do thurus do denamh go forcionn bethadh na 
mna uaissle. Aroile ridire uassal d'ord Malta ro bui ag 
ternodh o thuruss Loreto tegmaic doib-sen forsan set. 
Bennachoid each dia chele dip. Coimfhierfaigit scela aroile. 
Adfetsat tra a n-uile eachtra 7 imthechta 7 amoil forcaomna- 
gair doip. Adhamhraighis 7 oirrdercaigis in rittiri remraite 
ferta 7 mirbaili naoim-sheipeil 7 fidair-deilpe 7 sompla- 
chroiche Loreto. Comhairligiss doib-sen ascnamh go Loreto. 
Fo bithin gach a ndernatar-san do station 7 d'oilithre a 
prim-eguilsip oirrderca oile is suaill na ro glacsat gne mido- 
chuiss, oir ro mesatar nach rachadh a ttarpa doip turuss 
ar bith dia ndingnedis. larruiss an ben uasal a n-athchuin- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 135 

assistance and relief often in their trouble and necessity 
by miracles. They spent some time in that church, but 
their quest was in vain. Next they went to the city of 
Modena, to a great church where miracles and wonders 
like that used to be wrought frequently, namely, the church 
of Geminiano. They prayed and invoked there, but yet 
they got no relief. Then they proceeded to the city of 
Rome. For a full month they remained in Rome in the 
church of Pietro Vaticano. There is a great, famous, 
miraculous column, with a stout iron grating around it, in 
the church, which to-day and ever since Christ was in this 
world drives demoniacal spirits out of those who visit it 
by God's grace clearly and plainly to the world. It is not 
often that any man or woman suffering from that malady 
goes away from that column without getting relief. The 
woman remained for a time each day to the end of the month 
within the enclosure of the grating beside the column. 
Even yet God was not pleased that she should obtain restora- 
tion of health. After that the company set out in grief 
and affliction. Except only the mercy of God, they had 
almost lost hope of assistance. Since none of the famous 
pilgrimages which they had made availed them, they 
thoughtlessly and in despair proposed to return to their 
native country, and to perform no other pilgrimage till 
the end of the woman's life. A certain noble knight of the 
order of Malta, who was returning from a pilgrimage to 
Loreto, met them on the road. They saluted each other, 
and each asked where the other had been. They told all 
their doings and adventures, and how they fared. The 
knight told and made known the wonders and miracles of 
the holy chapel, and the image, and the cross of Loreto, 
and advised them to go there. Because of all the stations 
and pilgrimages in other famous churches they had made, 



* c is added in pale ink over the n.- 



136 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

gidh a treorugadh go Loreto. Gnlt[h]er samhloidh an 
seachtmadh la deg lulii, [p. 65] aoiss in Tigerna in tan sin 
mile ar cheithre chet ocht mbliadhna ar cheithri fichit. 
Aroile cananach on5rach ba huachtaran issin sepel, bui go 
ndegh-bhethaidh, Steffanus Fransigena a chomhainm. Du- 
s-riacht i n-a gcomdhail go maccleirchip imdha maille fris. 
Eeiriss gusin sepel iad. Ar ndol astech doip slechtait, 
etorghuidhit 7 urnaigit a ffrithchetfaidh 7 a ffiadhnuisi 
imhaide Muire 7 na croiche remraidsemar. Ro-s-gni in 
t-athair onorach sin ord coniuration do reir uird 7 forcetail 
na heguilsi Romhanaighe chom na ndroch-spirut ndemnaidhe 
d'innarbadh asin mnaoi uassail. Nir uo himchien doip ier 
sin in tan ro fregairset secht ndemain a n-einfhecht as cert- 
medhon na mna uaisle do briathraibh neimhnecha naim- 
demhla do. La sodain tra fagbuiss en-spirut amhain 
demnaidhe in ban-seal. Toirlingis ar lochrann lassamail 
ciera ro-s-bui issin sepel, Ni roibhi ar comus do a fagbail, 
acht bui ar n-a chrochadh leis go foUus do na huilip. Adbert 
do glor neimnech gur uo Sordo a ainm. Assa haithle tra 
fagbuiss in darna droch-spirut i. Adbert gur uo Herot a 
chomainm 7 gur tria n-a aimsiughadh 7 aidhbhirseoracht 
tainic marbadh dhiuc de Burgondi ro bui ag cothughadh 
7 ag togbail chreidimh 7 crabaidh eguilsi De. Ier sin ro 
gremoig do lochrann oile dia mbui issin sepel. Du-s-rat a 
chert-aghaidh granna grainemail forsan athair remraite. 
Nochtaiss 7 glomaiss a draint-fhiacla imdorch[a] adheitche. 
La sodain ro chan go follus do sherp-gl5r dhiablaidhe : Ni 
tusa ro innarb sinne assin aittrep i n-a rabamar i n-ar gcom- 
naighe re haimsir imchein, acht mor-throcaire mirbaileacha 
Muire. Beiriss in cananach na deoraidh uaissle adhamra 
sin leisss [p. 66] dia teghduis badhdein an oidche sin. Ono- 
raigiss 7 fiadhaigis friu. Ar n-a mharach doip gusin sepel 
naomhtha. Guidhit 7 adhrait 7 urnaigit go dichra gusin 
naomh-oig a ffiadhnuisi a pictuire. Ro gni in t-athair in 
t-ord forcetail 7 celipartha cetna. Fagbuis spirut oile 
demnaidhi in mnaoi n-uassail. Adbert gur uo he * a ainm 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 137 

they had almost despaired, for they thought that any 
pilgrimage they would make would be of no use to them. 
The woman requested that she should be brought to Loreto. 
That was done on the seventeenth of July, the year of the 
Lord then being one thousand four hundred and eighty-eight. 
A venerable canon was superior in the chapel. He was a 
holy man, and Stephanus Francigena was his name. He 
came to meet them, having with him many young clerics. 
He conducted them to the chapel. Having entered, they 
prostrated themselves and invoked and prayed before the 
image of Mary and of the Cross. The venerable father read 
an exorcism according to the regulation and instruction of 
the Roman church to banish the demoniacal spirits out of 
the woman. It was not long then until seven devils with 
hateful inimical words answered him together out of the 
woman. Thereupon one diabolical spirit left her. It 
alighted on a bright torch of wax which was in the chapel. 
It could not leave it, but remained hanging from it visible 
to all. It said in a horrid voice that Sardo was its name. 
After a time a second spirit left her. It said that Herot 
was its name, and that through its agency and machinations 
there came about the death of the Duke of Burgundy, who 
had been establishing and supporting the faith and piety 
of God's church. After that it stuck to another torch which 
was in the church. It turned its ugly, horrible face on the 
father, and grinned and bared its dark, ugly teeth. Then 
it said plainly with a diabolical, bitter tone of voice : " It 
is not you that has banished us from the home in which we 
have been remaining for a long time, but the wonderful 
mercies of Mary." The canon brought these great, noble 
■strangers with him to his own house that night, and gave 
them honour and welcome. On the next day they came to 
the holy chapel. They prayed, and worshipped, and in- 



* he is over the line. 



138 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Horribile. Beiris i n-a bheol go neimhnech naimhdighi ar 
lampa airgit go soillsib linmara bui crochta issin sepeL 
Alsneidis go poiplidhi fiadnach gur uo he badhdein tria n-a 
anchomachtoib diablaidhi ro folair ar popul Iruaith Eoin 
Bauptaist do dichennadh. Ro eig 7 ro scret as a haithle 7 
issead ro chan : A Muire, a Muire, is dien dlgaltach naim- 
demoil sTrraidhe ataoi i n-ar n-agaid. Lo sodain tra gabuis 
in t-athair 7 each archena ag etorguide n^mMuire. Tainic 
in cethramadh spirut assin mnaoi n-uasail. Du-s-rat a 
ainm os airtt .i. Aroto. Is meissi, ol se, trem inntlecht 7 
trem ealadhnoib diaplaidhi ro chuir fo inntinn Iruaith meic 
Antipatcr in macraidh oirrderc adhamra do dichennadh for 
ierroidh Crist a n-aimsir a geinemhna. ler sin a gcetoir, ni 
ba neimnighe oldas in coicele cealgach oile, gremaighiss 7 
coimlenuis di eroile lampa dia mbui isin sepel. Du-s-rat 
as a haithle a aghoidh go reacht 7 go ffraech neimhe ar 
chach 7 do shonnradh forsan athair. Adbert ier sin : A 
Mhuire ogh, is nert-laidir nemchoimseach do mor-chomachta 
mirbailecha mor-throcaireacha, oir iss tre do mor-grassoip 
trocairecha ro dhlchuiriss 7 ro innarbuiss sinne assin sossadh- 
chomnaighi i n-a rabhamar [p. Sy^. Ar gcloistecht na 
mbriathor sin don athoir cuiris d'fiachaibh ar in diapal a 
n-ainm lossa Crist 7 Muire oighe gach a mbui do senchuss 
7 do sceloip in tigi sin aigi d'foillsiugadh do a ffiadhnuissi 
caich a gcoitchinne. Fregruis in diabal do : Ag so, ol se, 
go firinneach teagh Muire oige, mathair in choimdedh 
chomhachtaigh. Adbert in t-athair d'inchreachadh 7 do 
grennughadh in droch-spiruit gur uo briathor-chealga breg- 
acha ro chan. Ni headh go firinneach, ol se, acht issi in 
naomh-og ro-m-coimeiccnigh um fhirinne na mbriathor so 
do fhaisneis ; 7 dia derbadh sin ro thaispein don athair go 
neimnech naimdighi in t-ionadh airigthi 7 in ait chinnte isin 
sepel i n-a mbui in naomh-ogh in tan tainic in t-archaingel 
do neimh lesin techtairecht on Athoir nemda, foss in t-inadh 
i n-ar shessoimh 7 i n-ar oiris in t-archaingel in cein ro bui 
ag tabairt na techtairechta uaidh. Ro fhaisneidh ilimat da 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 139 

voked earnestly the holy Virgin before her picture. The 
father carried out the same instructions and ceremony. 
Another demoniacal spirit left the woman. It said its name 
was Horribile. With its mouth it viciously and fiercely 
caught hold of a silver lamp with many lights which was 
hung in the chapel. It told publicly and plainly that itself, 
by its devilish powers, incited the people of Herod to behead 
John the Baptist. It wept and cried out then, and this is 
what it said : " Mary, Mary, strong, avenging, inimical, 
and constant art thou against us." Thereupon the father 
and the others commenced to invoke holy Mary. A fourth 
spirit came out of the woman. It pronounced its name 
loudly, namely, Aroto. " I am the one," it said, " which, 
by my cunning and infernal arts, put it in the mind of Herod, 
son of Antipater, to slay the Holy Innocents while seeking 
Christ at the time of His birth." Immediately afterwards, 
more viciously than the other treacherous one, it stuck 
and adhered to a lamp in the chapel. With rage and terrible 
frenzy it turned its face to all, and particularly to the father. 
It said : " Virgin Mary, strong and unmeasurable are thy 
miraculous merciful powers, for through thy great merciful 
graces thou hast driven and banished us from the habitation 
in which we were." When the father heard these words, 
he obliged the devil, in the name of Jesus Christ and the 
Virgin Mary, to make known to him before all present all 
the knowledge and history of that house that he had. The 
devil answered him : " Here is, truly, the house of the 
Virgin Mary, the mother of Almighty God." To rebuke 
and provoke the evil spirit, the father said it had spoken 
deceitful, lying words. "Not so, truly," it said, "but it 
is the Virgin who compelled me to narrate the truth of these 
words." To prove that, it showed to the father, with hatred 
and enmity the particular spot in the chapel in which 
the Virgin was when the archangel came from heaven 
with the message from the heavenly Father, and also the 
place where the archangel stood and rested while he was 



140 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

sceloip 7 mirbailip in tigi cenmotha sin ar forchongra in 
athar. A haithle na mbriethor sin gerruis in t-athoir 
comhartha 7 signum na croiche cesta. A gcetoir immorro 
tuitit tri sp'iTuit dia ndupramar go mbatar fo chosoip in 
athor, an cethramadh spirut crochta frisin lampa, gan ar 
comus do nechtar aca comhfhortacht no foirithin * 
dieroile. Cuiris in t-athoir d'fiachaibh ar in gcethror sin, 
as ucht in chomdedh chomachtaig 7 naomMuire oige, co 
n-a mbatar do droch-spirutoib isin mnaoi n-uasail coimeirgi 
suass a ffraigtip na firmeinnte 7 gan urchoidiugadh di ni 
hadh mo. lar sin tra sceinnit trI demoin oile asin mnaoi 
remraite. Du-s-rat gach aon scret 7 eigem adpal-mor 
adhuathmar os aird. La sodain tra eirgit a morseiser a 
ffiadnuisi na poiplech d'ein-citil aerdha enamail go ndechatar 
issin aer etorbuas a gcoimitecht na gaoithe gloraighi [p. 68]. 
Tuitiss in ben uassal a gcetoir a ttaissip 7 a ttaim-neloibh 
baiss. Ro mesatar each a beith marp gan anmain. Ro-s- 
togbadh a corp forsan altoir ata a ffiadhnuisi na iiodhair- 
delbe mor-mirbailigi adupramar. A gcenn trill ier sin ro 
hathbeoaigedh in ben uassal. Eirgis i n-a suide as urchomair 
chaich. Du-s-rat signum na croichi cesta fo a gnuis. Tug 
altugadh buide dermhair don Mac mor-uilechomachtach 7 
dia mathoir mor-mirbailigh uman trocaire ndimoir doronadh 
fuirre .i. athchor 7 innarbadh na seacht ndiapal este ier 
n-aittreabadh 7 ier n-inotacht ier gcein mair doib innte ier 
n-inmedon. Eirgiss as a haithle cen galar gan esslainti. 
Du-s-rat almsana mora do chomdach na heguilsi moire fuil 
timchuairt in tsepeil. Altaigit ina huile poipleacha la Dia co 
n-a mathair glormhair na m5r-mirbaili forcaomnagair. 
Ascnaiss in ben uassal 7 a fer co n-a lucht coimhitechta 
go a n-athorrdha bhunaidh. Rangatar slan. Batar ag 
comhfhognom do Dhia 7 do Muire go a n-egoibh diaigh 
a ndiaigh a ndeig-bethaidh mharthanaigh go fforaithmhet 
7 go ndeuosion lan-linmar ar Loreto mirbaileach. Ba 
gnath a mac samhla sin do mirbailip ag a ndenom isin 
sepel naomhtha sin go follus iiadhnach do na huilip itir 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 141 

delivering it. It told also much of the story and miracles 
of the house at the command of the father. After these 
words the father made the sign of the cross, and forthwith 
three of the spirits fell under his feet, while the fourth 
hung on the lamp, none being able to assist or relieve the 
other. He forced these four, together with all the other 
evil spirits in the woman, in the name of Almighty God 
and the Virgin Mary, to ascend into the firmament and to 
injure her no longer. Three other devils then leaped out of 
the woman. Each of them gave a screech and great, 
horrible cry aloud. The seven of them arose before the 
people in birdlike flight in the air with the noisy wind. 
The woman fell at once into a fit and faint of death. All 
thought she was lifeless. Her body was placed upon the 
altar before the miraculous image. After a while she came 
to life, and sat up before all. She made the sign of the 
cross on her face and gave great thanks to the powerful 
Son and His merciful mother for the great mercy granted 
to her, namely, the banishing and expulsion of the seven 
devils out of her after they had dwelt a long time in her. 
She arose without sickness or disease. She gave much 
alms for the building ot the great church which is around 
the chapel. All the people gave thanks to God and His 
glorious mother for the great miracles which had been 
wrought. The woman and her husband and their retinue 
returned safely to their own country. They served God 
and Mary continuously to their deaths, persevering in a holy 
life with great devotion to miraculous Loreto. Such 
miracles were frequently wrought in that holy chapel before 
all, both lay and cleric, but to narrate them all would be 
tedious. Still, one other miraculous story we shall tell,, 
for it is confirmed bv a stone in the chapel. 



* (7 is written on t. 



142 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

chill 7 tuaith, acht is eimilt a uile ferta 7 mirbaile re a 
ffaisneis. Araoi sin tra laipeoram aoin-scel amhain mir- 
bailech ier n-a derbadh tria cloich airighthi don sepel. 

13. Baoi aroile ardespog onorach airmitnech a primh- 
chathroig Cambria a rigacht na Portengal. Odcloss do 
clu 7 alia 7 oirrdercus ilmat fert 7 mor-mlrbal sepeil Loreto 
is ead ba menmarc 7 ba hinntinn toltanach leis sepel do 
thogbail 7 do chomdach [p. 69] a n-onoir 7 a n-airmitin 
sepeil Loretolo. Ro siacht gusin Roimh. Bui aimsir imchian 
issin Roimh ag siuit lessin papa ag a iarroidh a n-athchuingidh 
7 mar grassoip aon chloch amhain do sepel Loreto do thabairt 
do badhdein as go mbiadh aigi mar reliciass onorach issin 
sepel ba menmarc leiss do thogbhail i n-a espogoide fein 
issin Portengal. lar n-aimsir imchein du-ss-rat in t-athoir 
naomhtha maille re comairle 7 re foghar ro-mhor an aiscidh 
7 an athchuingidh sin do. Cuiriss a letrecha 7 a aithne co 
n-a shela mor go prioir Loreto dia erbadh fair aon chloch 
amhain don sepel naomhtha do thabairt don airdespog 
adupramar. Sagart altora in airdeaspoig badhdein mar 
thechtaire dearptha frisna letreachoib. Ier rochtain Loreto 
doip taisspenait augdarrass 7 aithne in papa 7 na cuirte 
Romhanaighe don prioir. Ni ro leic imegla in papa don 
prioir, ge gur dobronach dibergoidech leiss, gan a aithne 
do choimhlinadh. Ascnais in t-airdespog on Roimh go 
cathraigh Thrent. Adbert go ndingnadh oirissemh 7 comh- 
naighe issin gcathraigh sin go roichedh in gcloich gusin 
sacart altora e. Benuis in prioir 7 maccleirigh na heguilsi 
aon chloch amhain assin sepel. Ier ffogbail na cloichi don 
athoir gluaisis as Loreto an ced la do mhl Decembris do 
shonnradh, asside go cathraigh Ancona. Ro fhagoipset 
Ancona in tres la don mi chetna. Bator ar siopal car gach 
aon laithe go forcinn na missa sin amne, siad badhdein co 
n-a n-eachroidh go mbrisedh croidhe saothair 7 docomail 
7 gach * imdhoraidh archcna frisin re sin. Ier sin rangator 
Terento. An t-airdespog ar a gcinn ag furnaidhe friu isin 
gcathroigh. A gcetoir ru-s-fuaratar a n-eachraidh uile bass 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 143 

13. There was a certain honoured, venerable arch- 
bishop in the city of Coimbra in the kingdom of PortugaL 
When he heard of the fame, and renown, and greatness of 
the many wonders and miracles of the chapel of Loreto, 
his desire and intention was to build and erect a chapel 
in its honour. He came to Rome. He was a long time 
there pleading with the Pope, asking him as a grace and a 
favour to give him one stone out of the chapel of Loreto, 
that he might have it as an honoured relic in the church 
he wished to erect in his own diocese in Portugal. After 
a long time the holy Father, after consultation and much 
discussion, gave him that favour and request. He sent 
letters and a command, under his great seal, to the prior 
■of Loreto, instructing him to give one stone out of the holy 
chapel to the archbishop. The altar priest of the arch- 
bishop himself was the special messenger who brought the 
letters. When these reached Loreto, they showed the authority 
and the command of the Pope and the Roman court to the 
prior. Fear of the Pope prevented the prior from not 
fulfilling his command, though he was sad and regretted it. 
The archbishop set out from Rome to the city of Trent. 
He said he would rest and remain there until the stone and 
the altar priest should overtake him. The prior and young 
clerics of the church took one stone out of the chapel. 
When the father got it he left Loreto on the first of December, 
and went from there to the city of Ancona. They left 
Ancona on the third of the same month. They were pro- 
ceeding every day to the end of that month, they and their 
horses overpowered with toil, and labour, and every difficulty 
during that period. They reached Trent, where the arch- 
bishop had been awaiting them. Immediately all their 
horses died from the labour and toil they experienced 
carrying the stone. The father showed the stone with 



* gacli is inserted over the line. 



144 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

fo bhithin a ffuaratar do saothar 7 do dhocomal ag imchar 
na cloichi [p. 70]. Taisselbuis in t-athoir remraite an 
gcloich go secreidech onorach don airdespog. Forffailtigis 
uile chroide 7 inntinn an airdespoig ier n-a faixin. Adbert 
ier sin sol do raghadh assan gcathraigh sin go gcuirfedh 
comdach 7 imdenomh oir 7 aircit i n-a hurt[h]imchell, go 
gcomraidh nderscnaigthigh ndegh-oibrigthigh, go peinnte- 
ladh ndealraigthech sechtoir. Ro forbadh 7 ro crlchnaigedh 
go habaigh ullamh gach nl de sin. In tan ba toltanach 
lassan airdespog ascnamh go a atharrdha bhunaidh gussan 
gcloich leiss gabuis tra galor 7 esslainte neimhnech e gur uo 
comhfhocus bass do. Doreglamadh uile doctuiridhe 7 
fisice na cathrach dia innsaigidh. Adbertsat na fitirset 
fon uile dhoman crett hadh cuiss esslainte do no cinnus ro 
bui aca comfhortacht ar bith do denomh dho. Ier sin 
dodeachaidh in t-airdespog a n-egcruas 7 a n-aimnirte 
adbal-moir. Ro thocoibset na doctuiridhe de ier gcor 
aithne i n-a aghaidh. ^O 'dchonnairc sagart altera in aird- 
espoig sin ba hedh ro taisspenadh i n-a menmain 7 i n-a 
inntinn do, o dochuaidh leighess saogalta don airdespog, 
leiges spiratailte d'iarraidh do. Batar cupla do chaillechoip 
dupa onoracha a nda mhainistir issin gcathraigh. Ro 
messatar each a mbeith go ndeigh-bethaidh naomhtha. 
Eirgiss in sacart gus in du a mbui aroile dip. Ro egnaigh 
le uile threplait 7 anacair an ardespoig. Ro ierr uirre a 
n-onoir Dhe uile-chomhachtaigh 7 naomMuire oighe guide 
ar a shon. Adbert in naomh-chaillech : Guidhfetsa fom 
dhithill ar a shon 7 ticidh-si dia in tres laoi dom aithreoss.. 
Briathraigiss ier sin frisin dara ban-seal. Tingealluis mar 
in gcetna. Tic in tres la. Fochtuis diaigh a ndiaigh do 
na caillechoip an doronsat amail ro geallsat. Fregruis in 
dara ben do 7 isedh ro raidh : Doronusa tra mo dhithill 
etorguide 7 urnaighthe ar a shon [p. 71] acht chcna ba 
dimhaoin damh. Ni folair do go ro aisige a ndorat as 
naomh-s[h]epel ogMhuire Loreto. As a haithle sin ba heittir 
go tticfadh do grasoip De 7 d'fertoip na bantigerna comhaiseg 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 145 

reverence and in secret to the archbishop. His mind and 
heart were dehghted at seeing it. He then said that, before 
he would leave that city, he would put a coffer and covering 
of gold and silver about it, with a beautiful, well-wrought 
shrine and splendid painting on the outside. That was 
all done and completed quickly and readily. When the 
archbishop wished to return to his own country with the 
stone, sickness and virulent disease came upon him, and he 
was near death. The doctors and physicians of the city 
were gathered to him. They said they did not know at 
all what was his ailment, or how they could give him any 
assistance. After that he became extremely feeble and 
weak. The doctors gave him up, although he had com- 
manded them not to do so. When his altar priest saw that, 
it occurred to his mind, since earthly cure had failed, to 
seek a spiritual one for him. There were two venerable 
nuns in two monasteries in the city. Everybody believed 
that they led saints' lives. The priest went to the place 
where one of them was. He told her sorrowfully of all the 
sickness and malady of the archbishop, and asked her, 
for the honour of Almighty God and the holy Virgin Mary, 
to pray for him. The holy nun said : " I shall earnestly 
pray for him, and do thou come after three days to see me." 
Next he spoke to the other one. She promised likewise. 
He returned on the third day. He asked the nuns in turn 
if they had done as they had promised. One answered, 
and this is what she said : " I have done my best to pray 
and intercede for him, but it was in vain. He must restore 
whatever he has taken out of the holy chapel of the Virgin 
Mary at Loreto. Then perhaps, by the grace of God and 
the miracles of our Lady, he shall obtain restoration of 
health." He went then to the second nun. The words of 
both were the same. When the priest heard them he was 
startled and surprised, for up to that time he was certain 
that no one in the city knew the story or secret of the stone 
except the archbishop and himself. He went to the arch- 

k 



146 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

a shlainte d'fagail do. Teid ier sin gusin dara cailligh 
nduib. Ba coimhinann comhlapra doibh. Bidhguiss 7 
ingantalghiss in sacart la cloisteacht na mbriathar sin, oir 
ba deimin leiss gussin tan sin nach roipe fiss seel no seicreide 
na cloichi ag aoinneach issin gcathraigh acht ag in ardespog 
7 aigi badhdein. Ier sin tra teid gussin ardespog go muich 
7 go ttoirrsi ndermhair. Adfet do uile scela 7 briathra na 
niban-naomh. Gabuis aithmele 7 aithreachus adpal-mor 
an t-airdeaspog. Aitchis 7 etorguidiss naomMuire ogh. 
Du-s-rat a choipsena di aroile athair irissech. Admhaiss 
go truaighmelech tuirseach * dibergoidech gur uo dimsach 
uaipreach ro ierr a n-aiscidh 7 a n-athchuingidh ar an papa 
gusin gcuirt Romhanaigh an sepel uassal-naomhtha do 
bloghadh agus do urissedh. Ro thingheall ier sin fognomh 
frichnamach 7 seruiss sirraidhi go forcinn a bhethadh do 
denom do Muire maille re comhaisseg na cloichi go naomh- 
s[h]epel Loreto. La sodhain tra trialluiss in t-airdespog t in 
sacart remhraite gussin gcloich for set Loreto o chathraigh 
Trent timchell medhoin laoi dia haoine. Ni mor go rangatar 
amach assin gcathraigh amain in tan fuair in t-airdespog 
comfhortacht ro-mhor on uile treplait bui fair. Bator 
a gcathraigh Ancona timchell medhoin laoi in luan baoi ar 
a gcinn gan saothar, dochor no docomhal d'foghbail doip 
fein no dia n-eachraidh seachnoin na sligedh. Eirgiss post 
o chathraigh Thrent i n-a ndeghoid go sceloip slainte in 
airdespoig go mbuideachus ndermhair 7 go n-altughadh 
ndichra do Muire oigh [p. 72]. La sodain tra ro theglaimset 
samhadh 7 coimthinol Loreto 7 lucht inotachta 7 aittrebtha 
in tire la cloistecht in sceoil. Ascnaid ieromh go cathraigh 
Ancona a gcoinne 7 a gcomdail na cloichi. Coig leige ba 
hedh ro aistrighset. A prosesion onorach doip ag ternodh 
go Loreto in dara feacht, go nda mile laoch 7 cleirech go 
lochrann lan-mhor lassamail ciera a laimh gach aoin, an 
gcloich remraite ag a himachor go honorach airmitneach ag 
prioir na heguilsi. Bator tra na hilmhilte do shloghaip 7 
do shochaidhip cenmotha sin issin prosesion. Ar rochtain 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 147 

bishop in great sorrow and distress, and told him all the 
doings and sayings of the holy women. Sorrow and intense 
regret came upon the archbishop. He besought and invoked 
the holv Virgin Mary, and made his confession to a certain 
holy father. He confessed in sadness, grief, and affliction 
that in pride and haughtiness he had requested the Pope 
and the Roman court to dismember and tamper with the 
holy chapel. He then promised to serve Mary earnestly 
and continually to the enci of his life, and to restore 
the stone to the holv chapel of Loreto. Thereupon the 
priest set out with the stone from the city of Trent, on the 
road to Loreto, about middav on Friday. They had scarcely 
left the city when the archbishop got great relief from his 
ailment. About midday the following Monday they had 
reached the city of Ancona, neither they nor their horses 
having encountered toil, difficulty, or trouble on the way. 
A post set out from Trent after them stating that the arch- 
bishop was well, and giving great gratitude and thanks to 
the Virgin Mary. Then the community and assembly of 
Loreto, and the inhabitants of the country, gathered to- 
gether when they heard the story. They went to the city 
of Ancona to meet the stone. They journeyed five leagues. 
They returned in a splendid procession to Loreto, two 
thousand laics and clerics with a great bright torch in the 
hand of each, and the stone carried solemnly and reverently 
by the prior of the church. There were also hosts of many 
thousands in the procession. When they reached Loreto, 
they placed and settled the stone in its proper place as it 
had been before. At once it miraculously, strangely, and 
wonderfully took hold of the proper adjoining stones, as if 
there had never been a separation of them from the first 
day until that time. Ever since it is plain to be seen in the 



* Over the line. 

t in tairdesp. should have deletion marks, but the scribe has over- 
looked inserting them. 



148 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Loreta doip dirgit 7 comhshuidhigit an gcloich i n-a hinadh 
7 i n-a hadbadh badhdein amail ro bui ria sunn. A gcetoir 
immorro gremaigiss 7 coimhlenuis an c[h]loch go mirbaileach 
examail ingantach dia coiceilip comadhus[a] cloch-chomhars- 
nach[a] oile mar nach biadh etorscaradh etorra riamh on chet 
lo gussin tan sin. Ata go foUuss re a taisspenadh do ^na 
huilip issin sepel on uair sin anuass. Fiodhair na croiche 
cessta innte do shonnradh a gcuimhne 7 a fforaithmet na 
mor-mlrbal. Athascnaiss an t-athair remraite go ro 
riacht cathroig Thrento. Ro-s-fairnic in t-airdespog ar a 
chinn gan neimh gan galar gan doilgess mar nach gcomhair- 
sedh urchoid fris, gur comhmoradh * 7 gur hoirrdercaigedh 
ainm Muire oighe 7 onorachus a naoimh-sheipeil mor- 
mirbailigh tresna fertoibh adh[am]raibh sin. 

14. O'dchonnarcatar immorro na haithrecha naomtha 
ru-s-batar i n-a papaidhip issin Roimh an ilimat fert 7 
mirbal so, o re 7 o reimhess in dara Paulus .i. in coicedh 
papa deg ar da chet batar a gcathaoir Petair issin Roimh 
gusan inbaidh sin, aoiss an Tigerna in tan sin mile ar cheithri 
chett ceithri bhadhna ar tri fichit, du-s-rat in papa so> 
badhdein, in dara Pauplus remraite, na loghaidh imlana 
so do [p. 73] mhait[h]em a chinadh a peacadh 7 a t[h]urcbal 
do gach aon teid maille fri hinneithemh 7 aithrechus 7 lebar- 
gnimh do thurus Loreto, o aoiss na haimsire sin gusin tan 
so, gach uile papa dia ttainic isin Roimh, go fedh da papa 
ar fichit go reimhess in athor naomhtha so Paulus Quintus, 
a aois in Tigerna in tan so mile ar se ched ar naoi mbliadh- 
noibh, ardaighit 7 onoraigit mor-loigidhecht Loreto diaigh 
a ndiaigh maille re daingniughadh gach priuileide dia ttardsat 
na papaidhi rompa do, Messait 7 brethnaighit each gurab 
e Loreto, gan imressain ganf cuiss chompraite no chommortuis 
ar bith, aain-tegh amhain is onoraighi airmitnighe naomhtha 
mhirbailighi mor-loighidhech[t]a t fon uile doman. Doratsat 
tra na papaidhi remraiti ro-linmaireacht bronntanus 7 
deuosion don teg so as go ffuil ro-shaidbir costusach 
gusin uile riachtanus rices a les. Righa agus prinnsaighi 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 149 

chapel. The figure of the Cross is on it to commemorate 
the miracle. The father returned to the city of Trent. He 
found the archbishop there without pain, disease, or trouble, 
as if no injury had happened to him. The name of the 
Virgin Mary, and the fame of her holy, miraculous chapel, 
were rendered great by these remarkable wonders. 

14. When the holy fathers who w^ere Popes in Rome saw 
the number of these wonders and miracles, from the time 
of Paul n, the two hundred and fifteenth of those who were 
in the chair of Peter in Rome up to that time, the year of 
the Lord being then one thousand four hundred and sixty- 
four (this Pope himself, Paul H aforesaid, gave these full 
indulgences for the forgiveness ot his crimes, sins, and 
transgressions to every one who, with devotion, repentance, 
and penitence, goes to the pilgrimage of Loreto) to the 
present, every Pope who was in Rome, to the number of 
twenty-two, to the reign of this holy father, Paul V, the 
year of the Lord being now one thousand six hundred and 
nine, successively exalted and honoured the indulgences of 
Loreto by confirming every privilege which their prede- 
cessors had conferred on it. Everyone thinks and believes 
that Loreto, without doubt or comparison at all, is the 
most honoured, venerated, holy, miraculous, and privileged 
house in all the world. The Popes have granted many 
gifts and bequests to this house, and it is rich and wealthy, 
possessing every thing it needs. Kings, and princes, and 
the Catholic nobles of Christendom send as presents and 
gifts to it many splendid, precious gems of gold and silver, 
precious stones, splendid many-coloured garments, mass 
vestments of all colours, and chains of bright gold. Every 
nation in Christendom also, which comes to and from it, 
bestows on it. O Neill and the Earl, the lords and the 



* CO is written on 'in. 

t ga is written on no. 

% dis, written on g, and vice versa. 



150 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

7 daoine uaisle catoilce na cristaighechta ag cor ilimat do 
sheotoib uaisle onoracha oir 7 aircit, clocha uaisle, bruit 
onoracha ildathacha, culaidheacha aiffrinn d'ilraidh 7 d'ex- 
amhlacht na n-uile dath, go slapradhoip derc-oir a presantoip 
7 a ndeuosion gusin tig si chena, mailli re deuosion in uile 
nasion don christaigecht bit ag imthathaidhi chuice 7 uaidhe. 
Fuair O Neill 7 in t-ierla, na tigernaidhi 7 na daoine uaissle 
Eirennacha batar maille friu, radharc 7 taispenadh in 
oir-chiste sin. Ni rangatar roimhe sin riem a sed samhla. 

15. Papa airigthi dar comhainm * dorat mar ardughadh 
gloire 7 onorachuis don sepel naomhtha so, ro ordaigh 
aonach 7 la margaidh la airigthi do mhi Decembris gacha 
bliadhna do bheith i n-a fhochair, a bheith coimdiless [do] 
nasion sa chrTstaighecht toigecht gusin aonach sin. Do- 
bheirit in lucht sin tra gusin mbaili 7 gussin tir arc[h]ena 
in uile riachtanus 7 socomal ricit a less, as go ndeachaidh 
sin a ttormach 7 a saidbres adbal-mor don mbaili 7 don 
tir go huilidhi [p. 74]. Is gnath in llnmairecht sin d'fertoip 
7 do mirbailip o aimsir go haimsir issin sepel naomtha sin 
7 do shonnradh a n-inbaidh 7 a n-aimsir na n-aonach so, 
dia mbeittis tengtha in domain a gcenn aon-duine, nach roich- 
fedh leiss a rimh, a n-airemh, a ttuiremh no a ffaisneiss. Ba 
himairgide son tra fo bithin nar u6 duine talmaidhi no 
corparrda amail Adhomh ro cruthaigedh t don talmain 
choitchinn ro inotaig 7 ro aittreb ann acht ar Slanaigtheoir 
lossa Crist ar n-a duiniugadh go mirbaileach on Athoir 
nemhdha a mbruinne na naomh-oighe, foss nach do chnaimh 
duine amail Eupa ro cruthaigedh i, acht a geinemain i n-a 
hoig genmnaigh isin tigh sin amne a n-agoidh chursa nadurtha. 
Ni tri haingil amhain ro bhator issin tig si chena coimhinann 
7 bui ag in uassal-athair Apraham, acht comnaighe 7 tairis- 
semh an uile ord aingel 7 archaingel. Ann foss bui sossadh 
7 comnaighi ar Slanaightheora Issa Crist fri re naoi miss 
a mbruinne na naomh-oighe o n-a ffuair in tegh sin adhamh- 
rugadh 7 oirrdercughadh fo bhithin gurap ann amhain ro 
coimhchengladh diadhacht 7 daonnacht Meic De bhi. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 151 

Irish noblemen with them, obtained a view of that treasure. 
They had never seen the Hke before. 

15. A certain Pope, whose name was , as 

an increase of glory and honour to this holy chapel, ordered 
that, on a certain day in the month of December each year, 
a fair and market should be held beside it, and that any 
nation in Christendom had the right of coming to that 
fair. These people brought to the town and all the country 
every necessary and comfort that they needed, and that 
increased and greatly enriched the town and the whole 
country. That frequency of wonders and miracles happens 
from time to time in the holy chapel, and especially at the 
occurrence of these fairs. If one person had all the tongues 
in the world, he could not count, enumerate, estimate or 
narrate them. That was fitting, for it was no earthly or 
bodily man like Adam, who was made of common earth, 
who dwelt and remained there, but our Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, miraculously made man by the heavenly Father in the 
womb of the holy Virgin ; also, it was not of the bone of a 
man that she was fashioned, like Eve, but was born a chaste 
virgin in that house contrary to the course of nature. It 
was not three angels alone that were in that house, as they 
were with the patriarch Abraham, but it was the abode and 
resting-place of all the orders of angels and archangels. 
In it, also, was the home and abode of our Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, for nine months in the womb of the holy Virgin, 
whence it acquired fame and notability, for in it alone the 
divinity and humanity of the Son of the living God were 
united. Everyone regards the mountain of Thabor as a 
holy place, and so it is. After having endured the Cross of 
passion and martyrdom, from it Jesus Christ ascended to 
the right hand of His Father. But this house is more noble, 



* Space for the name is left vacant in the manuscript. 
t ch is corrected to cr. 



152 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Messait each mar inadh naomhtha sliap Taboir 7 is fir son. 
lar ffulang chroichi paissi 7 martra d'lossa Crist is de do- 
dheachoidh as a liaithle ar deiss a athor. Is uaissle onoraighe 
airmitnighe adhamra in tegh so chena fo bithin gurab ann 
ro geinedh 7 ro hoilemnaigedh an Tigerna, gurab ann fos 
ro coimpredh ro geined 7 ro hoilemnaigedh a mhathair 
mhirbaileach 7 ro thochaith a huile laithe 7 aimsir acht 
madh beg ar in saogal. Mestor bheos mar inadh naomhtha 
onorach oirdnidhe in tomba [i n-a roibhe] corp ar tTigerna 
marp gan anmain denuis-treidhe 7 as ar eirigh o mharpoip 
as a haithle. Ba himairgidhe son tra. Is uaissle onoraighi 
airmitnighe go mor in tegh in ro geinedh, in ro hoiledh e, 
i n-a roibhi cien-aimsir beo ar in saogal, i n-ar thomail 
biadh 7 deoch go meinic aimserrdha ; i n-a nderna supailque 
7 conuersait re n-a desciblaib, a ndenadh urnaighthe 7 
etorguidhe gusin Athair nemda gacha laithi [p. 75], Mess 
7 brethnaig 6 eiffecht 7 aughdarras uile theghdhuissidhi 7 
inadha bennaigthe rundiamra mor-loigh[igh]echta mir-bail- 
echa in domain, tuicc 7 creid nach ffuil cuiss chompraide no 
chommortuis eitir in tegh so 7 aoin-inadh dip. Is e amhain 
is uaisle onoraighi oirrderca adhamra oirdnidhe bennaigthi 
mirbailighe dhiadha trocairige examhla ingantaighe. Is 
eittir tegh De 7 a mathar do chomhgairm ar in saogal so de 
ier n-a imchor 7 ier n-a thair-cheimniugadh go m.irbaileach 
ar guaillip 7 ochtoip aingel 7 archaingel in choimdedh 
chomachtaigh. 

16. Doratsat tra righa 7 prinnsaighe 7 aoss gach titail 
archena do chatoilcip na cristaigheachta in gcoibheis sin 
do bronntanus oir 7 aircit, do c[h]lochoip uaisle, do s[h]eodoibh 
examhla ingantach[a] airmitnecha, don uile innstrament 
na heguilsi naoimhe 6 deuosion dichra do go ffuil ar thigthib 
saidbre costusacha na cristaigechta gusin primh-egluis is 
deissi deg-fhoirgenta deig-denmaighe a fformhor na cristaigh- 
eachta go srethoip do cholomhnaib marmair aingil i n-a 
urthimchell go ttairimthecht chomthrom choimhreidh do 
c[h]lochoib coimlethna marmair. Sibal laoi go n-oidhche 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 153 

honourable, and venerable, for in it the Lord was born and 
reared, also in it His wondrous mother was conceived, born, 
and reared, and spent all her days, except a few, in this 
world. The tomb, too, in which the body of our Lord lay 
dead and lifeless for three days, and whence it arose from 
the dead afterwards, is considered a holy, venerable, and 
worthy place, and that is fitting truly. Much more noble, 
honourable, and venerable is the house where He was born 
and reared, where He lived for a long time in the world, 
where He took many a time food and drink, where He kindly 
discoursed with His disciples, and where He prayed and in- 
voked the heavenly Father every day. Consider and ex- 
amine with all your power and authority all the houses and 
holy, mysterious, meritorious, miraculous places in the 
world, and understand and believe there is no comparison 
or similarity between this house and any place of them. It 
alone is the most noble, honourable, famous, wonderful, 
worthy, blessed, miraculous, holy, merciful, strange, and 
wondrous. It may be called the house of God and His 
mother in this world, transported and miraculously trans- 
lated on the shoulders and breasts of the angels and arch- 
angels of Almighty God. 

16. The kings and princes and the titled people of the 
Catholics of Christendom have given so many presents of 
gold and silver, of precious stones, of various, wonderful, 
splendid jewels, and of every instrument of the holy Church 
to it with earnest devotion that it is one of the richest and 
wealthiest houses in Christendom, having the fairest, 
best built, and best made church in the world, with rows of 
columns of white marble around it, and an even, level 
circuit of broad, marble stones. It is a walk of a day and a 
night from Loreto to the frontier of the kingdom of Turkey. 
There is perpetual, lasting war and conflict between the 
Pope, the head of the Church and God's vicegerent on earth, 
and the Turk. However, notwithstanding the number of 
the hostings and expeditions of the Turks in Italy, especially 



154 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

otha Loreto go leith-imel righachta in Turcaigh. Cocadh 
7 conbhlicht go sTrraidhi suthain elttir in papa, cenn na 
heguilsi, fer inaidh De a ttalmain, 7 in Turcach, araoi sin 
cena dia linmaire fecht 7 sloighedh doronsat na Turcaigh 
issin Edaill 7 ar comhghar in baili do shonnradh, tainic tre 
grassoib 7 mirbailip naomMuire oighe na ro urchoidighset 
o beg go mor do Loreto oldas * do lucht a aittrebtha 7 a 
inotachta, fos na ro chaomhsat toigeacht fo da mile go 
leith i n-a imfhoixi riamh. 

17. An papa dar chomhainm in dechmadh Leo conrotacht 
leis [p. yS] mur daingen dithoghlaidhi, go n-iudusaip deptha 
7 dechetfaidhi agus go turoip treapj^r-dhaingne tren-laidire, 
go n-ilimat canon riagalta 7 gach ordanaiss moir archena, 
CO n-a n-uile riachtanus i n-a moir-thimchell 7 a uir.t 
Trup marclaighi garda llnmar saigdiuir go sirraidhi suthain 
on papa ag a imchoimhet d'oidhche 7 do lo ar nach 
ttairsitis bith-naimhde na hecuilsi a bhaogah 

18. Cebe dianab ail turus mor-loigidheachta Loreto do 
dhenomh ni folair dho go ru-s-tarda dia uidh gurab o deuosion 
dichra 7 o innfheithemh firinneach aistrighess chuicce 7 
nach o chuis no chaingin saogalta no aimserrdha. ler 
ttabairt a choipsen go huilidhi gan urchuidmedh fon doman 
an sacrament njemhtha do chaithemh. Seachnadh tra 7 
imgabadh droich-descip^/ gussin uile chuis as a tticfadh 
peacadh marptha. Madh dia ttegmha immorro egluss isin 
mbaih i n-a n-oirisfe in t-oihthreach gach n-oidhche, denadh 
slechtaine go n-urnaighthe ndichra nduthrachtaig go naom- 
Muire. Biodh nach biadh eglus issin mbaih denadh-san 
urnaigthe go seicreideach rundiamair a n-aimsir luighe 7 
eirghe i n-a chubhachal chodalta. Eistedh aiffrenn gacha 
domhnaigh do shonnradh. NT seachhaidh go ttarta go fiu 
a chomhaing deirc 7 almsa do bochtoip 7 d'aidhilgneachaibh 
in choimdedh chomhachtaigh. Madh dia tteghma go nach 
biaidh ar commus do in deirc do thapairt uaidh taisselbadh 
tra a dheigh-inntinn do na bochtaibh. Canadh Aue Maria 
amhain do raith anma gach aoin. Dia nu-s-teacmha 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 155 

near the town, bv the grace of God and the holy Virgin 
Mary it has come that they have not injured, much or Httle, 
Loreto or its inhabitants, and that they have been unable 
to come within two and a half miles of it at any time. 

17. The Pope who was styled Leo X built a strongs 
impregnable rampart, with outhouses for defending and 
fighting, and with sure, strong, fortified towers, having 
many regular cannon and much big ordnance of every kind, 
with all their equipment, about it. The Pope has a troop 
of horse, and a large guard of soldiers, continually on the 
watch by night and day, so that no enemies of the Church 
may take it unawares. 

18. Whoever wishes to perform the meritorious pilgrim- 
age of Loreto must remember that it is with earnest de- 
votion and perfect intention he must journey to it, and not 
for any earthly or temporal purpose. When he has made 
his confession completely, without any excuse at all, 
he must receive the holy Sacrament. Let him avoid any 
bad companion, and every cause whence mortal sin might 
come. If there be a church in the town where the pilgrim 
remains each night, let him prostrate himself with hearty 
and earnest prayers to holy Mary. If there be no church in 
the town, let him pray secretly at hours of going to bed and 
getting up in his sleeping chamber. Especially let him hear 
Mass every Sunday. He shall not neglect to give, to the 
extent of his means, charity and alms to Almighty God's 
poor and indigent. If it be that he is unable to give alms, 
let him show his kindly feeling to the poor. Let him say 
an Ave Maria for the soul of each. If weariness of mind 
or tribulation of spirit befall him, let him make the sign and 
image of the Cross of the Crucifixion upon himself. Let him 
consider after that the passion of Christ, or the virtues and 

* o is written on the commencement of the letter n. 

t This is probably intended for uirthimchell. The scribe has not 
deleted the three last words of the sentence, though apparently he 
meant to do so. 



156 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

athtuirsi inntinne no dibergoit dhoimenman chuice tardadh 
fidhair 7 signum na croiche cesta i n-a urthimchell. Smuain- 
edh ier sin ar paiss Crist no ar supailcip 7 trocoire naomh- 
Muire oige, ar in mbas is airchionn [p. 77] do gach aon, ar 
breithemnus laoi bratha, ar gloir 7 aoibhness 7 adpchloss 
in flaithemnuiss uachtaraigh a ffrithchetfaidh na Trinoide 
nemdha, naomMuire oige, aingel 7 archaingel 7 naoi ngradh 
neimhe na tairmdheachator, ar pientoip dirimhe dofhaisneisi 
iffrin a ffrithchetfaidh Lucifer co n-a daosgor-s[h]logh dem- 
naidhe,,airm a ffuil 7 i n-a mbiaidh imat 7 examhlacht ina 
n-uile pien 7 todhernamh tre bith sir, airm a mbiaidh crith 
for detoip 7 toleagadh rose, fuacht 7 gorta, tess 7 tart, 
dorchato dermair difhulaing, comhaonta 7 comhaittreb fri 
gnuissip daoscar-shlo/^Z) demnaidhe, no tugadh dia uidh 
paiss 7 martra aroile do na hapstaloip uaisle adhamra, 
nechtair do naomhoip no d'flrenchaibh dier fhulaingset bass 
7 martra ar in mbith ffrercjnairc si ar son De uile-chomacht- 
aigh, no smumnedh eicin oile diadha d'inotacht 7 d'aittre- 
badh i n-a chroidhe a n-ait 7 a n-inadh in droch-smuainzWZ) 
amne. Bidh go hairech innill urnaigtheach seachnoin na 
sHgedh. Tardadh dia aoidh na ro chaille mor-loigidheacht 
a deagh-thuraiss fri buaidhirt 7 aimsiughadh in adhuerseoir. 
Dia no-s-teacmha magh sciemach scoth-shemrach go-n-imat 
mblath 7 gach degh-thoraidh archena fris, smuainedh ar 
shoillsi, ar ghloir, ar aoipness pardhuiss. La cloisteacht 
chelipartha na henlaithe smuainedh ceol comhmbinn 7 
claiscetal ceolmhar aingel 7 archaingel na Trinoide nemdha. 
Ruibeir ro-aoibhne 7 min-srotha fir-uisce do thegmail do, 
smuainedh tra sasadh 7 gloir neimhe naomh-ainglidhi. 
Ier ttegmail do a nglenntoip doimhne dorcha 7 a ndroibeloip 
diamra docomhlacha smuainedh ar pientoip examhla uath- 
basacha 7 ar dhorchacht difhulaing dofhaisneissi iffrin * 
[p. 78]. Ascnaidedh 7 ceimnigedh diaigh a ndiaigh gacha 
laithe, do reir a neirt 7 a chomhaing, no go roichidh forcinn 
a thurais. Tuigedh tra 7 smuainedh o n-a uile chridhe go 
ffuil a reimhes 7 a re ar in mbith ffrecnairc si ag a tochaithemh 
gacha laithe go ru-s-siasat t fo dheoigh gusin gcrich ndeige- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 157 

the mercy of the holy Virgin Mary ; death, which is in store 
for everyone ; the glory and pleasure and happiness of 
Heaven above, in the presence of the heavenly Trinity, of 
the holy Virgin Mary, of the angels and archangels and the 
nine orders of Heaven which did not transgress ; the in- 
numerable, unspeakable pains of hell, in the presence of 
Lucifer and his demoniacal rabble, where there shall be a 
multitude and variety of all pains and grief forever, where 
there shall be gnashing of teeth and melting of eyes, cold 
and hunger, heat and thirst, great, unbearable darkness, 
union and habitation with the faces of the rabble of devils. Or 
let him contemplate the passion and martyrdom of some of 
the noble, great apostles, or some of the saints or just who 
suffered death and martyrdom in this present life for 
Almighty God, or some other holy thought should rest and 
dwell in his heart instead of an evil one. Let him be careful, 
prepared, and prayerful on his way. Let him take heed that 
he do not lose the merit of his pilgrimage by temptation and 
attack of the devil. ■ If he meet a beautiful, blossomy plain, 
with much flowers and good fruit, let him think of the 
brightness, glory, and pleasure of paradise. When he hears 
the birds' song, let him contemplate the sweet music and 
iTielodious harmony of the angels and archangels of the 
holy Trinity. If he should chance upon beautiful rivers and 
streams of pure water, let him consider the contentment 
and glory of the angelic heaven. When he reaches deep, 
dark glens, and hidden, difficult, pathless places, let him 
think of the many horrid pains and the unbearable, un- 
speakable darkness of hell. Let him proceed and advance 
gradually each day, according to his power and strength, 
until he reaches his journey's end. Let him know and 
consider with all his heart that his period in this world is 



* Here follows the entry : Tadhc O Cienain do scrip 7 tabairsi mile 
ennacht for a anmain et cetera 1609, Tadhg O Cianain wrote this, and 
give thou a thousand blessings for his soul, et cetera, 1609. 
t MS. russiast 



158 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

noigh. Ni folair do na hiiilip go ro oirlchlit go hairecli 
imomhnach imchoimhetach in slige sin, oir issi amliain 
crich deighenach 7 cinnem fhir-chinnte gach aoin. Mad 
eitir leis ticedh o lo gusin mbaili as go mbiaidh aimsir im- 
chupaidh slechtaine 7 urnaighthi issin naom-recles ben- 
naigthi aigi sol raghus dia chod^/-tigh. As a haithle tra 
caithedh in sacrament naomhtha ier ttabairt a uile choibsen 
do leir 6 chroide ghlan. Denad in turns ierdain o inn- 
fheithemh 7 o deigh-inntinn tessaide spiritailte go n-aith- 
rechuss n-imlan i n-a peacoip 7 i n-a dupailcip, go fforaithmet 
paissi Crist 7 breithemnuis bratha, go ngradh foirbthe dia 
chruthaigtheoir 7 dia chomharsnachaibh, go n-altughadh 
buide 7 reuerens ro-onorach don naomh-oigh nemdha fo 
bithin gurap i n-a hainm 7 i n-a honoir ro-s-fuair in teagh 
bennaighthe grassamail sin an uile mor-loigidheacht 7 
priuileit. Aitchedh 7 etorguidedh in Mac mor-chomachtach 
7 a mathoir mirbailech a fltrithchetfaid na fidair-deilpe 
Muire 7 na croichi ro remraidhsemar um slainte anma 7 
chuirp d'fogbail do badhdein on choimsigh chomachtach 
ar impide 7 ar folairemh na naom-oige, a uile riachtanus 
imchubaidh cenmotha, deg-stait 7 grasa in papa 7 in chreid- 
imh chatoilce 7 lochta a chothaighi, go macoip eguilsi Loreto 
do shonnradh, go supailcip in naoim-s[h]epeil badhdein. 
A fforcinn a thurais madh [p. 79] eidir laiss canadh in psalm 
Te Deum laudamus, no tucadh do reir a inntinne buidechus 
adpal-mor don Slanaigtheoir fo bithin a t[h]reoraigthe 
gusin naoim-t[h]eagduiss mor-loigidhechta sin. Tabradh 
dia uidh ier sin na ru-s-tegma d'aimsiughadh no do chath- 
ugadh in aidberseora do, a haithle a thuraiss 7 a oilithre, 
michinnemain nemchonaich assa gcaillfedh in degh-thurus 
mirbaileach mor-loigidechta du-s-roine. Oirrdercaigit 7 
innissit 7 adhamhraigit * na hoilithrigh do na huilip 
chinedhachaibh ru-s-tegmat friu in meitte bus cumain leo 
d'fertoip 7 mirbailip in tighi sin tra, as go ngabait lucht 
a nemthathaidhi imthnuth adbal-mor chom a thuruiss 
7 a chuarta do thabairt, as a ticfa saoradh 7 comfhortacht 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 159 

being spent every day, and that his days shall finally come 
to an end. It is necessary for all to watch carefully, in fear, 
and on their guard, that journey, for it alone is the last end 
and certain fate of every one. If he is able, let him com'e 
by day to the town, so that he may have sufficient time to 
prostrate and pray in the holy church before he retires to 
rest. Then let him receive the holy Sacrament, after having 
made his full confession with a clean heart. Let him make 
the pilgrimage then with piety and a warm, holy intention, 
with full repentance in his sins and vices, with remembrance 
of Christ's passion and the last judgment, with perfect 
love of his Creator and his neighbours, with thanks and 
respectful reverence to the heavenly Virgin, for it was in 
her name and in her honour that blessed, holy house ob- 
tained all merits and privileges. Let him pray and beseech 
the all-powerful Son and His wondrous mother before the 
image of Mary and of the Cross we have mentioned that he 
may obtain safety of soul and body from the Almighty Lord 
at the request of the holy Virgin, all his suitable necessities 
besides, the welfare and grace of the Pope, and the Catholic 
Church, and those who support it, and of the clerics of 
Loreto in particular, and the glory of the holy chapel itself. 
In the end of his pilgrimage, let him sing Tc Dcum laudamus 
if he can, or, according to his ability, let him give great 
thanks to the Saviour for his being led to that meritorious 
house. Let him take heed afterwards that no unlucky 
misfortune befall him, by the temptation of the devil, after 
his journey and pilgrimage, whereby he might lose the 
wonderful, meritorious good he has done. Let the pilgrims 
make known and narrate to those who meet them all the 
wonders and miracles of this house that they remember, 
that those who have not been there may conceive a great 
desire to perform the pilgrimage to it, and that they may 
obtain for themselves relief and comfort of soul and body, 

* MS. adhramhaiyit. 



i6o FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

anma 7 cuirp doib badhdein go scris ngslo-r 7 aingcisi 7 gacha 
dodhaingi archena, go ngloir 7 go n-adbc[h]loss don Athoir 
nemda 7 do naomhMuire oigh ro thoirbir na mor-grassa sin 
do. Gacha sathairn go sirraidhi cantar a gcanntairecht 
commbinn go n-organoip ce5lmara 7 go muisice gne letan 
ro chuirset an eglus amach a n-onoir do Muire d'oirrdercugadh 
7 d'adhmolad na fidair-deilpe adupramar. 

19. Guidhmit-ne tra aitchimit 7 adhramait in coimde 
comachtach ro-dus-cruthaigh 7 ro-dus-cennaig in Adhomh- 
c[h]lann, in naom-ogh nemda ru-s-fuair na mor-mirbaile si 
don sepel uassal examail si, go ru-s-tardat duinn ar in 
mbith ffrecnairc si slighi a n-ascnaidfem, a gceimnigfem, a 
ttreoraigfem gussin sossadh nemda 7 gusin siodh suthain, 
go na rabam a n-inotacht no a gcomhaittreb re diapal co 
n-a daoscar-s[h]lo^/;, acht a n-aontaidh aingel 7 archaingel, 
uasal-aithrech 7 fhaidhedh, naomh 7 naomh-ogh in domain, 
a n-aontaidh apstal 7 descipal meic De uile-chomachtaigh, 
a n-aontaidh deachta aguss daonnachta meic De [p. 80], a 
n-aontaidh naoi ngradh neimhe na tairmdhechator, a 
n-aontaidh naomMuire oighe, isin aontaidh is uaisle no 
gach aontaidh, a n-aontaidh na naomThrinoide uaisle, 
Athair Mac Spirut naomh. Ailem trocoire De uile-chomh- 
achtaig tre impidhe naomMuire go rissam go ro aittrepam 
an aontaidh sin in secula seculorum. Amen. 

XCn. lar n-atach 7 ier n-etorguide naomMuire oige 7 a 
meic mirbaihgh issin sepel naomhtha sin 7 ier ndenamh a 
tturais do leir do reir uird na heguilsi, ceihbhraiss O Neill 
7 in t-ierla, na tigernaidhi 7 na maithe ru-s-batar maille 
friii, don fhiodhair-dheilp grasamail, don chroich ro raidhse- 
mar, don naom-s[h]epel diadha, don primh-egluiss archena. 
Ascnaid 7 ceimnigit lor sligidh na Romha an tres la iichet 
aprihs, dia cedaoin araoi laithi sechtmaine do shonnradh, 
1608. Gabhait tre primh-chathraigh Recanati aon leige 
amhain otha Loreto, iar sin go cathraigh Maserata, ria 
ndeoigh laoi go Tolentino. Seacht leigi ro aistrigset in la 
sin. ^^ 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS i6i 

destruction of disease, and pain, and every calamity, and 
glory for the heavenly Father and the Virgin Mary who 
granted these graces to it. Every Saturday let there be 
always sung with sweet chanting, and harmonious organs 
and music, litanies which the Church has published in Mary's 
honour, to render famous and renowned the image we have 
spoken of. 

19. We beseech, implore, and adore Almighty God, 
who created and redeemed the children of Adam, and the 
holy, heavenly Virgin, who obtained these miracles for this 
great, strange chapel, that they may grant to us in this life 
a way in which we shall walk, and progress, and journey 
to the heavenly seat and the eternal peace, that we may not 
dwell or habitate with the devil and his rabble host, but in 
union with the angels and archangels, the patriarchs and 
prophets, the saints and virgins of the world, in union with 
the apostles and disciples of the Son of Almighty God, in 
union with the divinity and humanity of the Son of God, 
in union with the nine orders of heaven who did not transgress, 
in union with the holy Virgin Mary, in the union which is 
nobler than every union, in union with the noble, holy 
Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. We 
implore the mercy of Almighty God, through the inter- 
cession of holy Mary, that we may reach and occupy that 
union in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

XCII Having invoked and besought the holy Virgin 
Mary and her wondrous Son in that holy chapel, and having 
diligently performed their pilgrimage according to the regu- 
lation of the Church, ^O Neill and the Earl, the lords and 
the nobles who were with them, bade adieu to the holy 
image and the cross we have spoken of, to the holy chapel, 
and to the great church. They set out and proceeded on 
the road to Rome on the twenty-third of April, 1608, the 
day of the week being Wednesday. They went through 
a great city, Recanati,^ distant one league from Loreto, 
^ Recanati, a town of the Marches, is a few miles inland from Loreto. 

/ 



1 62 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

XCHL Ar n-a marach doip triasan mbaili dier comhainm 
Ualsimara tre baile oile Poluerina. Assa haithle tra go 
Mutsia go Nueuocasa, naoi leige uile. Da loch chomfhair- 
singe, do leith-leith na sligedh in la sin. lar sin doibh go 
baile dess daingen dar comhainm Sarauale, des-lam fris 
ba hedh ru-s-gapsat, as a hait[h]le tre baili ro-fhata edluith 
Uerchianno gusin primh-chathraigh n-oirrdirc dier comh- 
ainm Fulino. Baoi aroile dithrebach go ndeigh-bheathaidh 
a scailp comhadhpail cairrgi do leith-imel na sligedh. 
Duirrtheach 7 aittreb dia lamhoip badhdein ar n-a imden- 
omh leiss a n-inmedhon na cairrgi cenn-gairpe sin. Eirghiss 
in t-ierla 7 an barun, Maguidir 7 mac Ui Domnaill, drong 
do daoinibh [p. 81] uaissle dia gcoimhiteacht, do denomh 
oilithre 7 turaiss ota Fulino gusin primh-chathraigh n-oirrdirc 
dier chomhainm Assidhis, airm i n-a ffuil corp in naoimh- 
erloimh uassoil oirrdirc adhamra oirdnide, id est, Sanctus 
Fransiscus, dier comhlan in christaighecht go huilide dia 
s[h]upailcip 7 fertoibh 7 mirbailip, for ar mhuidhset coic 
crechta a ffidhair 7 a fforaithmet paisi Crist 7 na gcoic 
n-aladh do shonnrad. Ata immorro a chorp go n-onoir 7 



^ Macerata is 8 miles from Recanati. 

2 Tolentino lies about 11 miles from Macerata. The treaty made 
between Pius VI and Napoleon in 1797 is named from this place. 

^ On this day, April 24, King James' ambassador at Venice made a 
bid for a commission to have 'O N(^ill assassinated : " Four days since 
came unto me an Italian of middle age .... He was sent from a gentlf - 
man banished by a Prince with whom Your Majesty might do much, 
which gentleman had understood that in Milan were arrived certain 
dangerous rebels against your Majesty, whereof there was one said to 
be the head and leader of the rest, whom he would find a means to send 
a casa del diavolo (to the house of the devil), if he might be assured it 
would be so acceptable a piece of service unto Your Majesty, as it might 
merit your favourable letters for his repatriation. ... As for my part> 
I have left him in the motions of his own will, and as Your Majesty shall 
be further pleased to command me, I will proceed in it." Sir Henry Wotton, 
(pseudonymn " Ottavio Baldi ") to James I, Cal. St. Pa. 657. 

* Valcimara is a small town lying to the south-west of Tolentino. 

^ Camerino. The Irish form seems to be corrupt. Camerino is an 
episcopal town in the Marches. 

« Muccia is not far distant from Camerino, and is nearly due south 
of that town. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 163 

then to-the city of Macerata,^ and before night to Tolentino.^ 
Seven leagues they travelled on that day. 

XCin. On the following day^ they proceeded through 
the town which is named Valcimara,^ and through another 
named Camerino.^ Afterwards they went to Muccia,® and 
to Nuovacasa,' in all a distance of nine leagues. There were 
two extensive lakes one on each side of the road they travelled 
that day. After that they advanced to a fine, strong town 
named Serravalle,* and passed it on the left. The direction 
they took next was through a very long, incompact town, 
Verchianno,^ to the well-known, great city which is called 
Foligno.^° There was a certain hermit of holy life in a great 
rocky cleft by the road-side. He had constructed, with 
his own hands, a house and a habitation in the middle of 
that rugged rock. The Earl and the Baron, ^^ Maguidhir, 
and the son ^^ of ^O Domhnaill, with a party of nobles ac- 
companying them, proceeded from Foligno to the great, 
famous city named Assisi ^^ to make a pilgrimage ; in that 
place is the body of the noble, famous, illustrious, worthy 
patron, Saint Francis, of whose virtues, and miracles, and 
wonders the whole of Christendom is full, and on whom there 
broke forth five wounds like unto, and in commemoration of, 
the Passion of Christ and the Five Wounds. His body is 
preserved with honour and veneration, attended by wonders 



' This is the modern Casenove. It should be mentioned after Serra- 
valle, not before it. 

* Serravalle. The order of the places on this portion of the road is 
Muccia, Serravalle, Casenove, Foligno. 

* Perhaps this is for Colfiorito, a place between Serravalle and 
Casenove. 

^^ Foligno, a town in Umbria, situated on the Topino, a tributary of 
the Tiber. 

" This was Aodh, son of 'O Neill. The other Baron, the Earl of Tyr- 
conneU's son, a mere infant, had been left beliind in Flanders ; see supra, 
ch. Ivii. 

^^ Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill ; see supra p. 7, n. 13. 

^^ A town in Umbria, famous for its connexion with St. Francis. Father- 
Meehan's narrative, p. 169, would give the wrong impression that 'O 
N^ill, and the main body of the party, passed through this place. 



1 64 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

go n-airmltin, go ffertoip 7 go mirballlp, a soiler thalman 
ag a chongbail suass go grasamail examail ingantach gan 
buain aigi frissin talmain faoi no frissin boutain uassa chenn. 
Ni cetaigther lessin egluiss a fhaixin acht mailli re haugh- 
darrass 7 ced spesialta on papa. General in auird minuir 
sechnoin na crTstaigechta gusna cetoip do braithrip 7 d'aith- 
rechoibh onoracha for a gcinn issin mainistir. Gabhait 
chuca na hEirennoigh sin go ro-onorach forffailidh. ler 
sin dognit a tturas mor-loigidhechta. Taisealpthar ilimat 
do roignibh relicias doip. Ascnaidhit a n-iermoracht Ul 
Neill ierdain. 

XCIV. Gabuis O Neill go Montefalto. Aroile recles issin 
mbaili sin i n-a ttaispentar go follus do na huilibh corp 
Sancta Clara ro bul i n-a hingin ag diuc Lombardi, ier 
gcomchlaocliludh bethadh da chet bliadan roimhe sin, si 
go ndeigh-bethaidh naomhtha ar in saogal. Ni mor aitt[h]- 
errach no claochlodh ar bith doroine a corp, acht mar do 
bhiadh i n-a toirrchim codalta. Cessadh Crist eitir a lamoip 
bennaigthe. Ord onorach chaillech ndup ro bennaigedh i 
n-a hainm badhdein ar gach taopa di. In tan ro scoiltedh 
a croide ier n-a hegoip ru-s-frit[h] stair 7 * instrament paissi 
Crist ier n-a gcruthugadh 7 ier n-a n-imdenomh ann, fidhair 
chroiche 7 choroine, chassuir 7 pinnsuir, sleigi 7 sgiursa, go 
ttrl ttairrngibh [p. 82] As a haithle sin tra ro-s-frith tri 
gema uaisle oireghdha i n-a croidhe. Cutruma comthroma 
coiminann commeide doip. Aon chloch amain dib f do chor 
a meidh thomuis dobeir comthrom don di cloich oile. 
Feacht n-aon dia ro tescadh screpal beac dieroile chloich 
ndip, an screpal amne do chor a meidh thomais, dobeir 
comthrom cert do na trI clochoip. Messait tra 7 breth- 
naigit diadhairidhi na heguilsi 7 trachtairidhi in X screptra 
naoimhe gurab a ffidhair 7 a fforaithmet na naemTrinoide 



* stair 7 is over the line. 
t dib is over the Une. 
t Rea.d inna or 71a. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 165 

and miracles, in a cellar in the ground, supernaturally, 
strangely, and miraculously supported, not touching the 
ground beneath it, nor the vault above it. The Church does 
not allow it to be seen except by the authority and special 
permission of the Pope. In the monastery, when they ar- 
rived, there were the General of the order of Minors in all 
Christendom, and hundreds of brothers and respected 
fathers. They received these Irishmen with great respect 
and welcome. After that they performed their meritorious 
pilgrimage. A large number of the finest relics were shown 
to them. Afterwards they set out to overtake ^O Neill. 

XCIV. 'O Neill went on to Montefalco.^ There is a 
certain church in that town where the body of Saint Clare, 
who was a daughter of the Duke of Lombardy, and who had 
died two hundred years before, having lived a good, holy 
life in the world, is exhibited plainly to all. Her body has 
not undergone much change or transformation, no more 
than if she were only asleep. There is a crucifix between 
her blessed hands. On either side of her there is a splendid 
order of nuns who were consecrated in her own name. When 
her heart was opened after her death, the inscription and the 
instruments of the Passion of Christ were found marked and 
figured in it, an image of the cross and the crown, of a hammer 
and a pincers, of a spear and a scourge, and three nails. 
After that three precious, splendid gems were discovered in 
her heart. The three were of exactly equal size. When 
one of them is put into a scales it balances the other two. 
On one occasion a small portion was broken off one of them, 
and the fragment, when placed in a scales, was exactly 
equal in weight to the three stones. Theologians of the 
Church and commentators on the Holy Scripture consider 
and are of opinion that it is as a figure and resemblance of 
the heavenly Holy Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
who are co-eternal, alike, and equal, that these three splendid 



^ Montefalco is situated 7 J miles south-west of Foligno. 



1 66 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

nemda athair mac spirut naomh is comhshuthain coimhinann 
cutrama ro cruthalgedh na tri gema logmhara sin a gcert- 
medh5n croidhe na hoighe gusna hairrdhenoip ro raidh- 
semar. x^roile do meroip Sancta Anna .i. naom-mathair og- 
Muire, corr-mher a cle-laimhe do sonnradh agus * in uile 
reliciass adupramar re a ttaispenadh do na huilip gacha 
laithi a ffochair cuirp na ban-nacime uaisle issin eagluis 
sin. 

XCV. ler ndenom a thurais d'Ua Neill 7 dia lucht 
coimitechta issin recles sin ascnaidhis as a haithle go ro 
siacht gussin primh-chathraigh dier comhainm Spoleto leigi 
si daingen daoineachair ar n-a comhshuidiughadh ar ferann 
chomthrom choimhreidh do lethtaop sleibhe ro-airtt. Is 
meinic immorro urchoidigess tuile teinnesnach tolcanach 
tren-tuinnsemach in tsleibi sin do lucht inotachta 7 aittreb- 
tha na cathrach ier n-inmheadon. Gnathaigit gne dhroichet 
thairmcheimniges adiu 7 anaill f uas na sraitibh itir thegh- 
duissip na gcomharsan a n-inbaidh 7 a n-inam in tuile 
threathain sin do bheith aca. A cethoir deg d'eguilsip 
onoracha uassan gcathraigh ar lethtaop in tsleibhi. Sepel 
is lor feabhus i n-a fhir-mhullach go n-ord S, Pronseis gusin 
altoir is daoire dheissi dealraighthigh[e] issin rann-chuid 
sin don Etaill. Caislen lan-daingen go mbardoip laidire 
linmara ag in papa isin gcathraigh [p. 83]. Droichet ro- 
maith is lor comhairde t issin doman ier n-a imdenomh go 
hinntlechtach otha in caistel go leith-imel in tsleibhi. 

XCVI. Gluaisit na maithi si ar n-a marach go Strectura, 
go Terni, go Nerni, go Hotriocli. Aon leig[e] deg issedh 
ro ascnaidset in la sin, Dia domnaigh in t-ochtmadh la 
fichet aprilis 1608 ceimnigit rompa ier n-estecht aiffrinn go 
Teuere, cathair i n-a mbit bait ag imchor daoine 7 each- 
raidhi tar ruiber ro-laidir na Tipiri. Asside tra go Borgeto, 
go Ciuita Castellana, go cathroigh Rignano go Castel Nouo. 



* gu is written on clela, a case of corrected tlittography. 

t Read anall. 

X comh is added over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 167 

gems were formed in the heart of the virgin with the qualities 
we have described. One of the fingers of Saint Anne, the 
holy mother of the Virgin Mary, namely, the forefinger of 
her left hand, and all the relics we have spoken of, are to be 
seen by all, every day, beside the body of the holy saint in 
that church. 

XCV. When ^O Neill had performed his pilgrimage in 
that church, together with those who accompanied him, he 
moved on one league until he reached the great city which is 
called Spoleto,^ and which is strong and extensive, situated 
on an even, level piece of ground by the side of a very high 
mountain. The rapid, rushing, violent torrent from that 
mountain frequently does harm to those who inhabit and 
dwell within the city. They are accustomed to use bridges of 
a certain kind which span the streets between either side, 
joining the neighbours' houses at the time and season of this 
violent flood. There are fourteen splendid churches above the 
city on the side of the mountain. On its very summit is an 
excellent chapel, belonging to the Order of Saint Francis, 
having the most costly, most splendid, and most beautiful 
altar in that part of Italy. In the city the Pope has a very 
strong castle, having many strong defenders. There is a 
very good bridge, one of the highest in the world, skilfully 
constructed from the castle to the side of the mountain. 

XCVI. The princes went the next day to Strettura, then 
to Terni, to Narni, and to Otricoli.^ Eleven leagues they 
travelled on that day. On Sunday the twenty-eighth 
[tlcU twenty-seventh] of April, 1608, after having heard Mass, 

^ Spoleto is an important town south of Montefalco, but considerably 
more than a league distant from it. The " excellent chapel " on the 
summit of the neighbouring mountain is the Franciscan Convent on Monte 
Luco which I'ises to a height of 2,723 feet. The castle of Spoleto, known 
as La Rocca, is now used as a prison. The Piedmontese troops took it 
in 1860, after a gallant defence by Major ]Myles O'Reilly, with three hundred 
Irishmen and some other soldiers. The famous Ponte delle Torri connects 
the town with Monte Luco. 

^ These towns lie, in the order mentioned, between Spoleto and the 
point near Borghetto where the Via Flaminia crosses the Tiber. 



1 68 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Da leige deg issedh ro aistrigset Ba hecnach doip ota sin 
clogais 7 ballaidhi na Romha. 

XCVn. Ar n-a marach doip go Prima Porta tri leige. 
Furnaigit ann an oidhche sin. Leicit daoine rompa gusin 
Roimh. ler sin go Pounte Male da leige. Du-s-riacht 
Petrus Lombardus ardespog Aird Macha 7 primaidh na 
hErenn go ndescipal onorach i n-a choimitecht go lin- 
maireacht coistidhi 6 chardenaloip i n-a gcomdail 7 i n-a 
gcomairrchis cusin dau sin. Teit stiuartt gach aoin fo leith 
do droing airigthi do na cardenaloip i n-a gcoinne d'forffail- 
tiugadh friu 7 dia nglacadh go honorach a n-ainm na gcarde- 
nal. Eirgit a coistidhip as a haithle. Ceimnigit go ro 
riachtsat in R5im. Porta Popule comhainm an gepta do 
shonnradh ar a ndeachsat astech isin gcathraigh. Gluaisit 
ier sin go ro-onorach tre primsraidip oireghdha na Romha. 
Nir hairissedh leo go ro riachtsat primthempall Petair in 
Uaticano. Scuirit a n-echraidh ann. Eirgit astech isin 
eacluis. Dognit slechtaine. Timchillit * a modh thurais 
na secht primh-altora priuileidecha t mor-loigidhechta fuilet 
isin egluis. Ascnaidhit ier sin go palas ro-onorach ro 
ordaigh naomhthacht in papa doip a mBurgouechio Sancti 
Spiritus. Batar tra coic coisti deg gusin se d'eachroidh [p. 84] 
ag comhtharraing gacha coiste acht madh beac ag tairm- 

* a is erased before it. 

t This word is written after the next with marks to indicate that it 
is to be transferred. 

^ It is strange that 'O Cianain has no reference to a bridge here. 
There is no " city " between Otricoh and Borghetto. The bridge on the 
Via Flaminia, now known as Ponte Felice, may have had a descriptive 
name Ponte Tevere ' Tiber Bridge.' 

2 Borghetto is a small place, on the right bank of the Tiber, about 
40 miles from Rome. 

* Civita Castellana is 33 J miles north of Rome. 

* The full name of this town is Rignano Flaminio. 

^ It is Castelnuovo di Porto on maps, and lies 18 miles to the north of 
Rome. 

® Prima Porta is 8 miles from Rome, and is named from a cutting made 
on the Via Flaminia between two hills. 

' Ponte Molle or Ponte Milvio is the Mulvian Bridge of early Roman 
history. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 169 

they advanced to Tevere/ a city where boats convey people 
and horses across the very strong river Tiber. From that 
they proceeded to Borghetto,- then to Civita Castellana,^ to 
the city of Rignano,* and to Castelnuovo.^ The distance 
they travelled was twelve leagues. From that place they 
could see the belfries and the walls of Rome. 

XCVH. The following day they went to Prima Porta, ^ 
a distance of three leagues. They stopped there that 
night. They sent on some persons before them to Rome. 
After that they went two leagues to Ponte Molle.' Peter 
Lombard,^ the archbishop of Armagh and primate of 
Ireland, came with a noble young man ^ in his company, 
having a large number of coaches sent by cardinals, to meet 
them to that place. The steward of each of a certain number 
of the cardinals came to them to welcome them and to 
receive them with honour in the cardinals' name. Then 
they proceeded in coaches. They went on until they came 
to Rome. Porta del Populo ^" was the name of the gate 
by which they entered the city. They went on after that 
through the principal streets of Rome in great splendour. 
They did not rest until they reached the great church of 
San Pietro in Vaticano. They put up their horses there, 
and entered the church. They worshipped, and went 
around, as if on a pilgrimage, the seven privileged altars of 
great merit which are in the church. Afterwards they 
proceeded to a splendid palace ^^ which his Holiness the Pope 
had set apart for them in the Borgo Vecchio [and in the 
Borgo] Santo Spirito. They had fifteen coaches, all except 



8 Peter Lombard was appointed to the see of Armagh on July 9, 1601. 
He was a native of Wateiford city. He never visited his diocese, and 
died on September 5, 1625, aged seventy years. 

® Probably Kobert Lombard, nephew of the archbishop, who after- 
wards turned informer. 

1* This gate was constructed in 1562 on the site of the old Porta Flaminia. 
It was named after the neighbouring church of Santa Maria del Populo. 

^1 The Palazzo dei Penitenzieri lies between the Borgo Vecchio and the 
Borgo Santo Spirito, close to the church of San Pietro in Vaticano. 



170 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

cheimniugadh doip tria primh-shraidip comfhata na cathrach 
in la sin do shonnradh. A haithle a n-aistir 7 a n-imthechta 
oirissit 7 comnaigit ag leicen a scissi 7 a merten gusin domnach 
ar a cinn. 

XCVHL An cethramadh la do mhl maii domhnach 
araoi laithi i-,iY/;/m[ain]e aoiss in Tigerna in tan sin mile ar 
se chet ar ocht mbliadhnaibh ro thoiligh naomhthacht in 
papa doip as go ragdaois i n-a persanoibh badhdein da * 
lathair in tres uair ier medhon laoi. Cuirit na cardenail 
buidhen do choistidhip ro-mhaithi go n-eachraidh ba lor 
feabus 7 deissi issin doman i n-a gcomhairrchis dia gcoimh- 
t[h]reorughadh gusin dti i n-a mbaoi in papa. Eirgit gussan 
palass ro-onorach dar comhainm Monte Caualle. In t-athair 
naomtha Paulus Quintus ar a gcinn annsin. Ar ndol dia 
lathair doip gabuis chuice go ro-onorach grassamail moranta 
forfailidh iad. Ier sin doratsat badhdein co n-a lucht 
coimhitecht[a] diaig a ndiaig poic dia chois bennaight[h]e 
maille fri humhla 7 reuerens. Batar tra timchell uaire 
do lo i n-a lathoir, e onorach supailcech degh-aigthech ag 
comfhierfaighi a seel 7 a n-echtra frisin re sin. Gabhait a 
gcet ier mbenedixion mbennaigthi d'fogbail. Dobeirit altu- 
gadh do Dia 7 don athair naomtha fo bhithin a onoraighi 
airmitnighi ro thaisspein a s[h]upailce mor-throcairecha 
dhoip. As sin doip go cardenal Burgeis mac derpsethar in 
papa. Ba failidh rompa. Ier sin gussin palass i n-a mbatar 
diss derbrathar in papa. Failtigit friu. Ro gapsat as a 
haithle go hambasadoir righ Frannc f ro bui ag fagbail na 
cathrach ar n-a marach do shonnradh. Comnaigit cusin 
diardaoin bui ar a gcinn. Batar tra cardenail na cathrach 



* a is altered from o. 

t MS. Fravnc. 

^ The followinc: is Wotton's report of the Earls' entry into Rome : 
" Has received particular advertisement from Rome touching the Irish. 
Tyrone arrived on [Tuesday] the 29th ot April. About two miles out of 
the town he was met by eight coaches, and six horses to every coach, 
sent by the Cardinals Montalto, Farnese, Colonna, and Barberini. The 
English papists, by commandment from the Pope, went to ineet him, and 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 171 

a few drawn by six steeds, as they traversed the long, chief 
streets of the city that day.^ After their journey and their 
travel they rested and kept still until the following Sunday 
recovering from their weariness and exhaustion. 

XCVni. On the fourth of May, the day of the week 
being Sunday, and the year of the Lord being then one 
thousand six hundred and eight, his Holiness the Pope 
consented to their coming in person into his presence 
at three o'clock in the afternoon. The cardinals sent a 
number of good coaches, and some of the most excellent 
and most beautiful horses in the world, to them, to conduct 
them to the place where the Pope was. They went to the 
splendid palace which is called Monte Cavallo.- The holy 
Father, Paul V, was awaiting them there. When they 
appeared before him, he received them with respect, with 
kindness, with honour, and with welcome. Then they 
themselves and their followers, one after another, kissed 
with humility and reverence his holy foot. They were 
about one hour of the day in his presence, and he was cour- 
teous, glad, and kind to them during that time, asking them of 
what occurred to them and how they had fared. They took 
their leave after having received holy benediction. They 
gave thanks to God and the holy Father for the respect and 
the reverence wherewith he had exhibited his great, merciful 
kindness to them. From there they went to Cardinal 
Borghese, the son of the Pope's sister.^ He showed them 



he was thus conducted to St. Peter's church in the Vatican, where he 
first set foot on ground, and so, after a short Ave Maria, was brought to 
a palace close by furnished for him by the Pope, who defrays all his 
charges." Wotton to Salisbviry, May 9, Cal. St. Pa. 654. 

2 This palace is now called Regio Palazzo del Quirinale, and the piazza 
in front of it was named Monte Cavallo from two marble figures of horse- 
tamers stUl preserved there. Since 1870 the palace has been the residence 
of the king of Italy. 

^ Hortensia, sister of Pope Paul V, married Marco Antonio Caftarelli, 
and had an only son, Scipio Caftarelli, who took the name of Borghese. 
He was created cardinal on July 18, 1605, and became archbishop of 
Bologna in 1610. 



1/2 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

frissin re sin ag cor meitte airigthi do dhaoinibh uaisle 
adhamra 7 d'oifficechaibh ro-onoracha d' forfailtiughadh 
friu aguss dia nglacadh go hairmitneach as a n-ucht badh- 
dein. 

XCIX. [p. 85] A haithle a scissi 7 a n-aistir cuirit rompa 
cuairt do denomh ag na cardeneloip diaig a ndiaigh i n-a 
palassoip badhdein. Dia dardaoin do shonnradh in t-ocht- 
madh la maii eirgit do lathoir chardenail Colona, sen- 
Romanach uassal d'fir-threib in tsenaidh Romanaig. Gabh- 
uis chuigi go honorach. Acht ata ni chena, do ronsat 
cuairt fo leith ag gach aon do sheacht gcairdenaloip deg ar 
fichit diaig a ndiaigh. Bator uile tra go degh-aigthech 
forffailidh onorach rompa. Bator coicer cardenal oile issin 
gcathraigh nach rangatar a ffaixin sol do fhagoipset in gcath- 
raigh. 

C. Dia dardaoin desgabala do shonnradh in coicedh la 
deg maii gacha bliadhna dobeir in papa benedixion gene- 
railte go follus do ua huilip catoilcip theagmus as a urchomh- 
air. An la cetna sin chena ro togadh do na maithip si 
bheith a palass chardeneil Ascoli a ffrithchetfaidh palais 
moir in papa. Is gnath lasna hilmiltip do daoinip toigheacht 
d'ierroidh in benedixion sin. lar sin adchid an t-athoir 
naomhtha ag teacht ar ailiff * aird aoibhinn fuil a leith-imiol 
in palaiss si ar n-a himfholach do bratoip saitin 7 sToda 
d'examhlacht na n-uile dhath. ^E fein ag a imchor go 
honorach airmitneach a gcathaoir dheiligthe dealraigt[h]igh 
si ar n-a comdach d'or 7 do miliuent deirg, a choroin derg-oir 
ier n-a himchengal do demont 7 do c[h]lochaibh uaissle um 
a chenn. An chloch uassal ro bul ag comdunadh a bruit 
.examail ro chosain t • Na cairdeneil 

7 na hespoig i n-a urthimchell go cananchaibh 7 maccleir- 
chip thempaill Petair. A garda saigdiuir Suser ar gach 
taepa de. Da thrup ro-mhora marcslaighi ba lor X dian- 



* Possibly from the French allee, ' a passage, gallery.' 
t This space is left vacant in the MS. 
I lor is over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 173 

welcome. After that they went to the palace where there 
were the Pope's two brothers. They also made them 
welcome. Then they went to the ambassador of the King 
of France, who was about to leave the city on the following 
day. They rested until the next Thursday. During that 
time the cardinals of the city continued to send a number of 
great noblemen and of very high officers to welcome them 
and to receive them with respect in their own behalf. 

XCIX. When they had recovered from the fatigue 
of their journey, they proposed to make a visit to the 
cardinals, one after another, in their own palaces. On 
Thursday, the eighth of May, they went before Cardinal 
Colonna, a noble Roman, of the true stock of the Roman 
people. He received them with honour. In short, they 
paid a special visit to each of thirty-seven cardinals in 
succession. They all showed them kindness, welcome, and 
honour. There were five others in the city whom they were 
unable to see before they left it. 

G. On Ascension Thursday — the fifteenth of May [in 
1608] — in particular each year the Pope gives a general 
benediction in public to all Catholics who chance to come 
before him. On that day, then, the princes had selected 
for a visit the palace of Cardinal Ascoli, which is in front of 
the great palace of the Pope. Many thousands of people 
are accustomed to come to seek that benediction. After a 
time they saw the holy Father approaching on a beautiful, 
high balcony which is at the side of the palace, and which 
was covered with cloths of satin and silk of all varieties of 
colours. He was carried reverently and respectfully in a 
splendid, bright chair, covered with gold and red velvet, 
and on his head his crown of red gold, encircled with 
diamonds and precious stones. The precious stone which 

fastened his splendid garment cost . The cardinals 

and the bishops were around him, and the canons and young 
clerics of Saint Peter's. His guard of Swiss soldiers was on 
either side of him. In front of him were two very large 



174 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

fheabhus isin doman, eitir arm eachroid 7 eideadh co n-a 
persanoip urdhalta, as a urchomair. [p. 86] Eirghiss in 
t-athair naomtha as a haithle. Du-s-rat benedixion ben- 
naigthi grassamail mor-loigidechta do na huilip chatoilcip 
ro batar as a urchomair. Gluaississ issin innioll chetna gusin. 
palass as a haithle. Ro seinnit na trompaidhi maille re 
commbualadh na ndromaighi * ler sin. Ro scaoiledh orda- 
nass mor in palaiss 7 Chaislein na nAingel diaigh a ndiaigh. 
Do hadh cuiss ingantuis le fer a nemt[h]athaidhi bheith ag 
faixin a ttrethain 7 a ttormain eitir choistidhip 7 eachraidh 
7 ordanasss. Ro bui cardenel AscoH go forfaihdh supailcech 
frisna maithip si. ler ffogbail benedixion an athor naomh- 
t[h]a doibh du-s-rat-san bangced onorach costusach doip» 
Eirgit assa haithle dia palas badhdein. 

CL In sathorn bui ar a gcinn in t-ochtmadh la deg 
maii 1608 dodeachaidh in t-ierla go ndroing do na daoinibh 
uaisle do denomh turais mor-loigidechta seacht primh-eglus 
gcatharrdha na Romha. Oidche domnaigh chingcissi do 
shonnradh ro bui espart sollamanta ag in papa isin sepel 
dier comhainm Capella Paulinus. Du-s-riacht tochuiredh 
ar na maithib sin chom an espairt. Eirgit uile a gcetoir 
acht amain ro bui gne egcruais fiaprasa ar in ierla. Ro 
togadh inadh onorach d'Ua Neill a n-imfhoixe an athar 
naomhtha as a urchomair badhdein. ler gceileabhrad in 
espairt onoraigh ticit buiden do bhraithrib sanct Dominic, 
timchell da mile eicin brathar, do lathair in papa. Ro 
batar tra a modh prosesioin ier ttogha generail airigthi orra 
badhdein 7 ar a n-ord sechnoin na cristaigeachta in la sin. 
Doratsat uile deoigh a ndeoigh poic do choiss in papa. 
Dobheir benedixion doibh 7 do chach arc[h]ena. Gluaisis 
dia palas ier sin. Eirgit each dia ttigthibh. [p. 87] Domh- 
nach cingcissi do shonnradh ro bui station onorach go 
loghadh na n-uile peacadh a primh-eclais S. Spiritus. Do- 
deachatar na maithi si chom aiffrinn 7 esparta ann. Seruis 



* These two words were added later in the margin. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 175 

troops of cavalry, the strongest and best in the world in 
regard to weapons, horses, clothing, and their own persons. 
Then the holy Father stood up. He gave a holy, gracious 
and precious benediction to all the Catholics in his presence. 
After that he returned to the palace in the same manner. 
Then there was a blare of trumpets and a beating of drums. 
The great ordnance of the palace and of the castle of Sant* 
Angelo were fired one after the other. One who had never 
seen the like would be surprised at the sight of the confusion 
and noise of the coaches, the horses, and the ordnance. 
Cardinal Ascoli showed great welcome and kindness to the 
princes. When they had received the blessing of the holy 
Father, he gave them a splendid costly banquet. They 
then returned to their own palace. 

CL On the following Saturday, the eighteenth [rede 
seventeenth] day of May, 1608, the Earl with a number of 
the nobles came to make a meritorious pilgrimage to the 
seven chief churches of Rome. On the eve of Pentecost 
Sunday exactly the Pope held solemn vespers in the chapel 
which is called Cappella Paolino.^ An invitation to the 
vespers came to the princes. They all set out at once, 
except only the Earl, who had somewhat of a feverish 
sickness. A place of honour was selected for 'O Neill, close 
to the holy Father and opposite him. When solemn vespers 
had been sung, a group of friars of Saint Dominick, to the 
number of about two thousand, came before the Pope. 
They were in processional order, and had elected a 
particular General for all Christendom over themselves 
and their Order on that day. All in succession kissed 
the foot of the Pope. He gave a blessing to them 
and to all present. Then he went to his palace, and all 
returned to their homes. On Whit Sunday - there w-as a 
splendid station and an indulgence for all sins in the great 



1 It is in the Vatican, and near the Sistine. 

2 Pentecost fell on May 25 in 1608. 



176 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

De ar onorachuss na cristaigeachta go huilidhi issin egluiss 
go n-ilimat sacart ro-onorach 7 do preghlaidip prmileidecha 
gussin gcoraigh channtairechta ba lor dien-fheabus issin 
doman go nda peire no a ttri d'organoibh ceolmara comh- 
mbinni go ro-imat d'innstramainntip muisici 7 ciuil cenmotha 
sin. 

Cn. Ar n-a mharach dia luain eirgit orphain na heguilsi 
sin a prosesion onorach go tempall Petair. Drong do garda 
in papa a remhthuss na sligedh rompa 7 ar gach tasp * sagart 
onorach airmitnech ro bin i n-a ierla 7 i n-a chommendator 
uassin egluiss go maccleir[ch]ip na heguilsi go huilidhe siad 
go gcanntairecht chomhmbinn ag ceimniugadh i n-a ndegh- 
aidh. Eitir fer-scail is ban-scail ba hedh a nuimhir re a 
gcomhairemh triar ar cheithri fichit ar cheithri ched. Batar 
tra moirsheiser ar da fichit ar tribh cetoip d'og-mhnaibh 
dib sin. D'fer-scaloip oga na ro sharaigh in t-aon ba sine 
a cheithre bliadhna deg se fir deg ar ched. Clann in papa 
comgairmther dip so fo uithin nach mor go ffitirset each 
aithre bunaidh mhorain dip, acht grassa an athar naomhtha 
dia n-oilemain 7 dia gcongbail suass ar son De. Tre grata 
airighthi ieroinn comhchuirther gach lenban dip astech 
issin eacluis ria gcoimhlTnadh cheithri lo go n-oidche dia 
n-aoiss ar in saoghal. An coimhlin na ro gap baistedh 
roimhe sin dip baitsither an tan sin ied. Togoibhther suas 
on aimsir sin amach gach aon dip a ttaop oilemna 7 foghloma 
7 gach taparta suass is imchuibhde archena f go cor deigh- 
chriche orra. Is gnath ueronica .i. naipicin uassal oirrderc 
[p. 88] mor-mirbaileach ro chomail ban-naomh in chomhan- 
ma sin do gnuis geil-deirg gruadh-c[h]orcra 7 do glan-aghaid 
glormair chrechtnaighthi ar Slanaigtheora Issa Crist in tan 
ro bui fo dhaoirsi 7 docomal 7 aimhnirte fo lamhoibh namat 
n-ettrocar ag imachor chroichi a paissi 7 a martra gussin 
gcoroin spine um a chenn a haithle a ffuair do pein 7 do 



* There is a portion of a written after p and a slight erasure. 
t Written before is with transposition marks. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 177 

church of Santo Spirito.^ The princes came to Mass and 
vespers there. There was a divine service, the most beauti- 
ful in all Christendom, in the church, with many worthy 
priests and exalted prelates, and a choir the most excellent 
in the world ; also two or three pairs of sweet musical 
organs, and many instruments of music and harmony besides. 
CH. On Monday, the next day, the orphans "^ of that 
church went in a splendid procession to the church of San 
Pietro. A company of the papal guard preceded them on 
the way, and on either side there was a revered, respected 
priest who was an earl and a director over the church, with 
all the younger clergy singing sweetly as they advanced 
behind them. Including boys and girls their number 
was four hundred and eighty-three. Of these, three hundred 
and forty-seven were girls. Of boys, the eldest of whom 
did not exceed fourteen years, there were one hundred 
and sixteen. They were styled ' the Pope's children,' for 
scarcely anyone knew the fathers of many of them, but they 
were reared and supported for God's sake by the kindness 
of the holy Father. Through a special iron grating each 
child of them is introduced into the church before it has 
completed four days and nights of its life in the w^orld. 
All of them who have not received baptism by that time are 
baptized then. After that each of them is brought up, 
reared, instructed, and educated in every appropriate way 
until they are finally well provided for. The veronica was 
exhibited to these ' children of the Pope ' on that day, that 
is to say, the holy, well-known, very miraculous napkin 
which the virgin of that name applied to the glowing red, 
crimson-cheeked face and the pure, glorious, wounded 
countenance of Our Saviour, Jesus Christ, when He was in 
suffering, and distress, and weakness under the hands of 
merciless enemies, carrying the Cross of His Passion and 



^ The church of Santo Spirito in Sassia is close to St. Peter's. 
^ These were connected with the foundling institution in the Ospedale 
di Santo Spirito, which is situated near the church of that name. 

in 



178 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

pennait roimhe sin, do taispenadh don chloinn si in papa in 
la sin e.* Ata go ffidair dheilbhi 7 aigthi Crist ier n-a 
choimhlmadh 7 ier na uassal-peinnteladh go mirbaileach 
examail dia fhuil luachmhoir badhdein. Ro taisselbadh 
doip ier sin cenn na sleighe slinn-leithne do chuir Longinus 
tre chompar croide Crist in tan ro buT marp gan anmain a 
gcrann na croichi, Batar na hog-mhna tra a n-edaigip 
maithi dessa, drong dib go n-innill 7 go ndeilp n-imchubaidh. 
Ro possadh se mna deg in la sin dip, an papa ar n-Tc a 
ttinnscra. Mar chuiss onorachuis 7 sollamantuis do na hog- 
mnaip posta sin ni lugha na da mile persa fuair festa 7 
fledhachus a S. Spiritus in la sin 7 an oidhchi do shonnradh 
a ffecmhuis samaidh 7 choimthinoil gnathaigh na heguilsi 
badhdein. 

CHL Primh-eaclus dhiadha onorach ro-chatharrdha S. 
Spiritus ar n-a comdach o thuss le nasion airigthi don 
Germainn dier uo comhainm Saxonie. Ba hedh a ainm as a 
haithle Sassiae. Ier n-eitirdealugadh 7 ier gcomhscaradh 
do frisna Germainneachaibh du-ss-rat in papa Innosensius 
Tertius onoir 7 airmiten ro-mor do go mbronntanus 7 
deuosion dermhair go saidpress cissa 7 ferainn. An papa 
dier uo comhainm Sextus Quartus do-rat ro-ardughadh mor 
i n-a uile riachtanus don recles so. [p. 89] Ro thogoip 7 ro 
chomdaigh ilimat do theghdhuissibh onoracha costusacha 
deigh-denmacha ann. Mestor 7 brethnaighther tra, ar in 
taep amoigh d'ainm in papa, dia impriulacht 7 dia righacht, 
do gach mital oir 7 aircit comhmbuailter dho, go roipe in 
tegh so amhain a gcomprait chissa gacha bliadhna friss, oir 
ba fiu timchell ficYirt mile coroin gacha missa e. lar n-a 
fhaixin sin don stat Romhanach f ro benatar rannchuid 7 
uirbhernadh go iiu da mile coroin gacha missa de. Ro 
choimhchengailset sin fri beathaidh in papa. In meide is 
lugha dhe ocht mile deg coroin aige-sen gacha missa. Tic 

* There is anacoluthon in this sentence. To correct it omit either 
is gndth or e. The first alternative has been adopted in the translation, 
t MS. romhananach. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 179 

His martyrdom, with the crown of thorns about His head, 
after all the pain and suffering He had undergone before 
that. It has an image of the figure and face of Christ 
wondrously and miraculously outlined and painted with 
His own precious blood. After that, the head of the broad 
spear which Longinus ^ put through the breast and heart 
of Christ when He was dead and lifeless on the wood of the 
Cross, was shown to them. The young girls were dressed in 
comely, good clothes, and some of them had a fine deport- 
ment and appearance. Sixteen of them were married that 
day, and the Pope paid their dowry. For solemnity and 
as an honour to these young married women, not less than 
two thousand persons had a banquet and feast in Santo 
Spirito, besides the usual community and congregation of 
the church itself. 

cm. The holy, splendid, great church of Santo 
Spirito was built in the beginning by a certain nation of 
Germany which was called Saxony. For that reason the 
settlement was named Sassia. On its severance and separa- 
tion from the Germans, Pope Innocent HI gave it great 
honour and respect, gifts and great indulgences, and 
abundance of rents and lands. To this church the Pope 
who was named Sixtus IV granted a great increase 
in all its necessaries. He built and erected many 
splendid, costly, well-made buildings in it.^ It is 
estimated and calculated that, apart from the Pope's title, 
his empire and kingship, and all the gold and silver 
metal which is coined for him, this house alone could be 
compared with him in regard to yearly rents, for they were 
worth about twenty thousand crowns each month. When 
the Roman State saw that, they exacted a portion and a 



* A common name in Christian tradition for the centurion who pierced 
Our Saviour's side with the lance. It is derived from the word Ao'yx'? 
' lance ' used by St. John in his gospel, xix. 34. 

* The Ospedale and the brick campanile of the church date from the 
reign of Sixtus IV (1471-1484). 



i8o FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

sin timchell cheithri mile deg is da fhichit mile ponnta gacha 
bliadhna. Cebe do messfadh gurab mor 7 gurab dirimh * 
an betha 7 an tigernuss aoin-eguilsi amain so tuigedh tra 
gurap adhpal 7 gurab difhaisneissi in daidhbhir 7 in bhuaidirt 
ata i n-a deghaidh. Ni lugha tra no deich mile persa f co 
n-a n-uile bhethaidh chostus 7 gach riachtanuiss archena 
ag a ttabairt suass a ngioll ar in tig sin a ffegmuis na heguilsi 
7 innte ier n-i[n]mhedhon gach aon-l6 issan mbliadhain. 
Ospitail onorach mor-chostuiss ar lain-fheabhus na crist- 
aigheachta issin egluis sin ar a mbl gabail go gnath 7 forffailte 
grassamail fris gach n-aon don uile nasion issan cristaigeacht 
do lucht trebhlaide 7 esslainte galoir 7 haprassa, go ndoctuir- 
ibh onoracha inntlechtacha 7 go leagoip lain-eolcha di[a] 
ffrestal 7 dia ffritheoilemh. An meide is lugha dhe ced 
coroin on tigh mar chrodh fris gach mnaoi da ndupramar 
posfus fer. An chora cleirech canntairechta gusna halth- 
ribh is onoraige 7 is ferr seruiss De a fformhor na cristaigh- 
echta uile issin egluis sin. A n-imfhulang 7 a gcongbail 
suass a mbethaidh 7 a n-edaigib imchuibhde onoracha mailli 
fri comdach 7 comfhoirgneamh na heguilsi do gnath ar 
chostus 7 chios in reclesa sa badhden. [p. 90] Congbail 
suass 7 onorachuss in uachtarain ata ag guibernoracht 
uassin egluiss co n-a dhescipal uas a chenn so. Mesait 7 
brethnaigit each go ffuil ar na daoinip is onoraighe shoirbhe 
shuaimhnighe nemmbuaidirthe betha 7 tabairt suass issin 
cristaigheacht uile. Mainistir ro-mhaith go gcailleachaibh 
dupa linmara ar costuss na heguilsi ier n-a himdenomh 7 
ier n-a comdach fo iadhadh a ballaidhi. Na hog-mhna 
adupramar, gach aon dip gabhuss spirut genmnaighechta 
do laimh is chuca teighit. Is aca teagaiscther 7 togoipther 
suass go huilidhi iad go tteacmhann do gach aon dip in 
fortun 7 in chinnemain bhus toltanach la Dia. Imat im- 
morro maigistrech ag teacusc 7 ag foghloim isin egluiss gacha 
laithi don chlann-mhaicne si in papa. Teaguiscit tra crei- 

* MS. dirimh. 

t p is written on du. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS i8i 

fraction from it to the extent of two thousand crowns 
monthly. They united that with the income of the Pope. 
He has at least eighteen thousand crowns per month. That 
amounts to about fiftv-four thousand pounds per year. 
Whoever would consider that this income and property is 
large and extraordinary for one church, let him remember 
that the poverty and misery it relieves is huge and in- 
describable. For not less than ten thousand persons, with 
all their support, expense, and necessaries, are maintained 
depending on that house every day of the year, outside 
the church and inside it. There is a splendid, very 
wealthy hospital, one of the finest in Christendom, in that 
church, which everyone of all nations in Christendom, in 
sickness, ill health, disease, and fever, may visit at any time 
and receive a gracious welcome, and have worthy, learned 
doctors and skilful physicians to serve and attend to them. 
The house gives at least one hundred crowns as a dowry to 
each of those girls we have spoken of who marries a husband. 
In the church there is the finest choir, and the most worthy 
and best fathers for divine service, in the greater part of 
all Christendom. Their support and maintenance in food 
and proper, splendid clothing, as well as the building and 
continual repairs of the church, is borne by the resources and 
income of the church itself. There is also the upkeep and 
state of the superior who manages the church and of his 
assistant. Everyone considers and believes he is one of 
the most splendid, kindly persons in all Christendom, and 
the least troubled or disturbed about upkeep and support. 
There is a very good abbey, with many nuns, maintained 
bv the church, built and erected within the enclosure of 
its walls. If any of the young girls we have spoken of 
undertakes the spirit of chastity, she joins these. By them 
they are all instructed and brought up until the luck and 
fortune which God wills falls to each of them. In the church 
each day there are manv masters teaching and instructing 
the male 'children of the Pope.' They teach them the 



I«2 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



demh eguilsi De, canntaireacht 7 muissice 7 leighenn 7 gach 
foghloim imchupaidh archena doip go mbeirit ar gne dia 
gceill 7 dia ttuixin, gach aon dip gussin tabairt suas bus 
toltanach leiss badhdein do reir mar thaispenus Dia dia 
supailcip dho. Messait each fri torbha puiphdhi ann fein 
ier n-inmhedhon an tegh so fo uithin go ffuil a uile riachtanuss 
7 imfulang ann badhdein.* Nl he amhain acht ata in meide 
sin do na huihbh chethroip 7 treotoip aigi go ttarttann feoil 
re a cennach d'formhor in tsenaidh Romanaig co n-a uile 
riachtanus badhdein. Foss ata d'ihmat flnemhna 7 do 
mhaighnessoip mor-fhairsinge cruithnechta 7 gacha degh- 
thoraidh archena aige, ni imfhuilngess dronga mora do na 
Romanchaibh 6s cinn a riachtanuis ; d'eachraidh aloinn 
adhbal-moir Edailhgh 7 do greghoip is lor med 7 deissi isin 
doman, dogni eachraidh mor do na Romhanchaibh mailli 
fri saothar 7 tinrumh uile thoisci 7 timthirthecht an tighi 
badhden.t [p. 91] Ar uairip airighthe go linmhar bid 
timchell mile persa do lucht fiaprusa tessaighi teinntighi 7 
gacha esslainti archena a n-ospitail in reiclesa remhraite. 
Adeirit each gurap e in tegh sin gan imbressain aoin-tegh t 
amhain is dercaighi throeairighi shaidbhre chostusaighi issan 
eristaigheacht 7 is bith-bhuaine onoraighe seruiss De 7 is 
fearr i n-a ffuil gach ein-ni inndenta a modh imqubaidh. 
Stair 7 fidhair ehroiche Crist issin egluiss a rann-chuid ro- 
onoraigh mirbhailigh 6 ffuair in egluss adhamhrughadh 7 
oirrdercugadh dogni ilimat fert 7 mirbal gacha § laithe, go 
ndesslaimh S. Andriass, go moran reliciass do thaisip naomh 
7 firen mor-luaighidhechta oile. Armass na croiche sin tra 
ata ar mac-cleirchibh 7 samhadh 7 chomhthinol na heguilsi 
CO n-a huile chethroip. 

CIV. Dia dardaoin do shonnradh in naomadh la fichet 
Maii 1608 comhainm in laithe ro cuiredh coroin ar in athair 

* After this word ier ninmhedh is written with puncta delentia under- 
neath. 

t This sentence is shghtly misconstructed. The relative clauses be- 
ginning with ni and dogni should be consecutive ; else read ilimat d' 
fhinemhain. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 183 

faith of the Church of God, singing, music, and every learning 
and proper instruction, until they acquire some intelligence 
and understanding, each of them getting the education he 
himself wishes for, according as God in His goodness reveals 
it to him. Everyone knows that this house in itself is a 
public benefit, because all its necessaries and support are 
supplied by itself. And not only that, but it has so much of 
all kinds of cattle and sheep, that it supplies meat for sale 
to the greater part of the Roman people, besides what it 
requires for itself. Also, it has so large a quantity of vines, 
and of great, wide fields of wheat and of every other crop, 
that they support large numbers of the Romans, as well as 
its own needs ; and so great a number of beautiful, big, 
Italian horses, and of steeds, the largest and most beautiful 
in the world, that they serve as a great horse-supply for the 
Romans, as well as do the work, the carrying out of every 
undertaking, and the service of the house. On particular 
occasions there are frequently about one thousand persons 
in hot, fiery fever, and in every sickness, in the hospital of 
this church. Everyone says that this house is, without 
doubt, the most charitable, merciful, rich, and wealthy in 
Christendom, the most continuous and splendid in the divine 
service, and the house that is best in regard to doing every 
necessary work in the proper way. There is a figure and 
image of the Cross of Christ in the church, whence it acquired 
fame and notoriety, in a splendid, miraculous position, and it 
works many miracles and wonders every day ; also the 
right hand of Saint Andrew, and many other meritorious 
relics of saints and holy people. The young clerics, and 
the community and congregation of the church, and all its 
live stock, bear that cross as their emblem. 

CIV. On Thursday, the twenty-ninth day of May, 1608, 
the anniversary of the day on which the holy Father, Paul V, 



t MS. a aointegh. 
§ MS. gacha a. 



1 84 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

naomhtha Paulus Quinctus cuirls cardenal * Burgesiuss 
aroile dia dhaoinip uaissle mar thechtaire onorach do tho- 
chuiredh na ttigernadh so chom aiffrinn sollamanta ro bui 
ag onoir an athar naomhtha a primh-thempall Petair. Ro 
toghadh thra inadh onorach 7 ait imchubaidh dhoip a n- 
imfhoixe 7 a gcomhghar in papa. Bator badhdein 7 am- 
basadoir righ na Spainne go hnmhaireacht do prinnsaigip 
mora oile a n-aoin-inadh. Ba haoipinn onorach airmitneach 
oirrderc adhamhra in t-aiffrenn mor-loighidhechta ro bui 
annsin. Naomhthacht in papa badhdein dia radha go 
n-idhbairt chuirp Crist. An chora f cheoil-bhinn chomh- 
mbinn [ba] chaointetnamaighi channtaireachta isan cristaigh- 
eacht uile ar gach taobha de. [p. 92] Do metughadh gloire 
7 onorachuiss an laoi sin d'airigthi doronadh canonsasion 
ar bhan-naoimh uassail adhamra ro bui isan Roimh da 
chett bhadan roimhe sin Sancta Fransisca Romana a comh- 
ainm. Ro tuigedh tra 7 ro scrudadh as a deigh-bethaidh ar 
in saogal so, triasa nderna Dia d'fertoibh 7 do mirbaiHp 
trithe, go roibhi betha naomhtha aice. Onoraighther a 
hainm 7 adhamhraigther issan egluiss 7 oirrdercaighther go 
huassal airmitnech eitir bhan-naomhoibh, acht is eimhilt re 
a fhaisneis gach a ndernadh do stat 7 d'onorachus 7 do 
dhegh-sermoniass a n-urthimchell a naomhthachta. Cebe 
do bhiadh do lathair in radhairc adhamra ro bui annsin ba 
heitir lais a radha nach ffacatar a shuile riamh comprait n5 

* MS. cardenen. 

t There is a dot under the a. Compare cor, Meyer, Contributions to 
Irish Lexicography. 

^ Something has been said above, p. 54, n. 1, about James Eatli, the 
spy whom Sahsbury employed to worlc in Flanders. On November 6/16 
lie wrote that he was about to accompany O Neill to Rome, and that he 
would deliver his letters to Salisbury to the Fi'ench ambassador there 
(Cal. St. Pa. 635). In January he asked that his employer should " direct 
where he shaU receive means at Rome . . . and that he may receive 
three or four months pay before he depart " {ibid. 643). On January 21/31 
Salisbury replied to him under the name of Henry Richardson, informing 
him of provision for his entertainment at Rome, and directing him to 
forward his letters to London through another channel. " the style . . . 
being carried as from one Catholic to another " [ibid. 646). Observe 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 185 

was crowned, Cardinal Borghese sent one of his noblemen 
as a grand messenger to invite the lords to solemn Mass 
which, in honour of the holy Father, was celebrated in the 
great church of Saint Peter. A position of honour and a 
fitting place was selected for them close to and near the Pope. 
Thev, and the ambassador of the King of Spain, and a great 
number of other great princes, were in the same place. 
Beautiful, splendid, reverent, remarkable, and wonderful was 
the precious Mass which was celebrated there. His Holiness 
the Pope himself said it and offered the Body of Christ. 
On either side of him was the melodious, sweet choir, the 
most harmonious in all Christendom. To increase the 
glory and the solemnity of that particular day, a noble, 
wonderful, holy woman named Saint Francesca Romana, 
who was in the city two hundred years before, was canonised.^ 
It was discovered and deduced from her holy life in this 
world, in virtue of all the miracles God performed through 
her, that she had the life of a saint. Her name is revered 
and honoured in the Church, and she is proclaimed noble 
and venerable among holy women, but it would be tedious to 
narrate all the state, and splendour, and ceremony connected 
with her canonization. Whoever had been present at the 
wonderful sight that was there, might say that his eyes 

how carefvilly Rath follows his instructions in the following, describing 
the events referred to in the present chapter : " Reports the canonization 
on this holiday, the Thursday before Trinity Sunday, of St. Francesca. 
in St. Peter's. . . . The Pope himself in his patriarchal habit sang mass ; 
all the cardinals, bishops, prelates, canons, and religious for the most 
part were present. Overnight his Holiness gave order that the Earl of 
Tyrone, and the rest with him, should have the best place in the church. 
Saw this order carried out, and to grace the matter more, his Holiness's 
niece went in coach to the Earl's house, and brought with her the Countess 
to St. Peter's, giving her both in place and church the better hand, which 
she had also of the Pope's sisters, amongst all the duchesses and other 
nobility of Rome. And when all the ceremonies were ended, the same 
niece that fetched the Countess, carried her home again to her own palace, 
from whence she took her. . . . Sends a picture of the canonized. . . 
Sends 40 Agnus DeVs. and would send more if he had them " (ibid. 655-6). 
The suggestion in the passage cited supra, p. 55, that Rath did not go to 
Rome, is incorrect. 



1 86 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

baramail do ar dhiadhacht ar ghlormhaire ar onoraighi ar 
cheolmhaire ar stat saoghalta co n-a uile subhailcip archena 
cenmotha sin. Ar gcrichnugadh in aiffrinn gussin ser- 
moniass amne dobheir in t-athair naomhtha benedixion 
bennaigthi do na huilip chatoilcip ro bator dia lathoir. 
Dodheachaidh dia palass ier sin. La sodain tra seinnter 7 
comhmbuailter trompaidhi agus dromaighi in garda itir 
marcshlaigh 7 troighthech. Comhscaoilter ier sin uile orda- 
nas mor 7 beag Chaislein na nAingel 7 in palais mh5ir. Ro 
batar na sraide ar comhchrithnughadh 7 bogadh-bertnugadh 
o threthan 7 6 thorann-chless na heachraidhi aille andrennda 
€gceillidhi Edailligi ag * tren-tarraing a gcoistidhi go tairptech 
trie tolganach tren-tuinnsemhach tinnesnach. Rangatar na 
tigernaidhi si chom a palais badhdein iar sin. Du-ss-riacht 
chuca pressantaidhi onoracha fuair naomhthacht in papa 
isan sermonias amne .i. bascaoit airg[djidhe, cupla do choilm- 
nibh gleigheala, buide'/ orthaidhe co n-a Ian fina, [p. 93] 
bairgen arain ier n-a comhoradh. 

CV. Domhnach na Trlnoide i n-a dheghaidh sin eirgit na 
mna uaisle do lathoir naomhthachta in papa. Gabhuis chuige 
go honorach sulchair degh-aighthech iad. Dobeirit diaigh a 
ndiaigh poic dia choiss. Dorat benedixion doibh. Fillit dia 
ttigh. Rangatar immorro formhor ord 7 mhac-cleirech in 
tsenaidh Romhanaigh go linrnhar 7 go ro-onorach airmitnech 
adhamra a prosesion go tempall Petair in la cetna sin mar 
uaissle 7 mar oirrdhercass don mban-naoimh ro remraidh- 
semair. Ascnaidhit as a haithle otha tempall Petoir go ro 
riachtsat Sancta Maria Noua airm i n-a ffuil fert 7 tomba na 
ban-naoimhe uaissle sin. Ro bator tra imat do mhiltibh 
persa eguilsi. Nir cuimhgedh rimh no airemh forra re a 
n-imat-lTnmaire. Adhnait na Romhanaigh teinnte 7 tennala 
i n-a palassoip 7 a n-imdoirsip a tteghdhuissighe go n-ilimat 
do choinnlip 7 do lochrannoip lasamna uas a ttighip. In 
tairimtheacht uas Chaislen na nAingel ar n-a coimhlmadh 

* ag is added over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 187 

never saw anything like or similar to it for piety, splendour, 
reverence, music, earthly state, and all the other virtues 
besides. When the Mass and the ceremony was finished, 
the holy Father gave a holy blessing to all Catholics who 
were present. He went to his palace after that. Then the 
trumpets of the guard, horse and foot, were sounded, and 
the drums beaten. After that all the great and small 
ordnance of the Castle of Sant' Angelo and of the great 
palace were fired at the same moment. The streets were 
shaking and trembling from the noise and clattering of the 
beautiful, mettlesome, wild, Italian horses, which were 
drawing their coaches strongly, quickly, fiercely, violently, 
and hastily. The princes returned to their own palace after 
that. Splendid presents which his Holiness the Pope 
received at the ceremony came to them, namely, a silver 
basket, a pair of white doves, a golden bottle full of wine, 
and a gilded loaf of bread. 

CV. On the Trinity Sunday following, the ladies went 
into the presence of his Holiness the Pope. He received 
them with honour, with affability, and with welcome. 
They one after the other kissed his foot. He gave them 
a blessing, and they returned home. On that same day, 
as a mark of respect and honour to the holy woman we 
have spoken of, the greater part of the Orders and of the 
young clerics of Rome came in large numbers, and in a 
splendid, respectful, grand procession, to the church of Saint 
Peter. After that, they went from Saint Peter's to the 
church of Sancta Maria Nova,^ where the monument and 
tomb of that noble saint is. There were, indeed, many 
thousands of ecclesiastics there. It was not possible to 
number or count them, there were so many of them. The 
people of Rome lit fires in their palaces and at the doors 
of their houses, with many candles and bright torches over 



1 This church is now kuo\\n by the title of Santa Francesca Bomana. 
Francesca died in 1440. 



1 88 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

do shoillsip examhla. Pictuir ilair 7 draguin ar n-a ndealbadh 
go hinntlechtach aigentach suadhamail uas Chaislen na. 
nAingel siad ar n-a n-imdhenomh 7 ar n-a gcoimhlinadh o 
pudar ar in taop astigh. Timchell chlulg Aue Maria do 
bhuain deoigh laoi adhantor teinnte isna heonoibh examhla 
ingantacha sin. La sodhain tra scuchait 7 comhlassait a 
n-aoinfheacht 7 a n-aon-fhabhall go ro leigset caora 7 casracha 
go gcethoip toirneacha teinntighe trichemh-ruaide os aird 
innus gur choimhlTnatar meid airighthi don aer etaruas 
uassan gcaislen do na cethoibh 7 do na [p. 94] frossoibh 
teinntidhe ro leicset. Ba lor do chuiss uathbhaiss 7 ingant- 
uiss in domain fri fer a nemhfhaixena gusin tan sin bheith 
ag a ffaircsin Gabhait as a haithle tra ar bheith ag comh- 
scaoiledh lamhoigh re aroile 7 a cheile ass na seomraidhip 7 
as na teghdhuissibh examhla inntlechtacha aigentacha ro 
hullmhaigedh i n-a n-inmhedhonaibh go ttairnic crich 7 
comhchaithemh a n-uile chostuis. 

CVL Dia dardaoin chuirp Crist du-ss-riacht ordugadh 
on athair naomhtha gusna maithibh si as go raghdaois i n-a 
persanoibh badhdein ochtar do roighnibh a ndegh-dhaoine 
d'imachor chanabi ro bui uassan sacrament naomhtha sT a 
lamhoip in papa ag a himchor go honorach a modh prosesioin 
otha primh-thempall Petair in Vaticano go ro riacht tempall 
Sanct Sem a mBurgouesia, as sin ariss go ro riachtsat tempall 
Petair. Dodeachatar-san do lathoir naomhthachta in papa. 
Ro imchradar an canabi uassan sacrament naomtha 7 uassan 
papa, acht ni fhuaratar Eirennaig riamh a comprait sin 
d'onoir 7 d'airmhitin. Ingantaigit na hEdailligh go mor a 
mac samhla sin d'onoir 7 do supailcibh d'foghbail doibh, 
oir atbertsat dronga dip nach meinic go ffuair en-nasion 
amhain isan doman riemh bheith ag imchor in chanabi. 
Ambasadoiridhe uile rTgh 7* prinnsaidhe catoilce na crlst- 
aighechta doralaighset issin gcathraigh an inbaidh sin, ba 
gnath-bhes bunaidh leo diaigh a ndiaigh gacha bhadhna a 



* uile righ 7 is added above the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 189 

their dwellings. The top of the castle of Sant' Angelo 
was covered with lights of many colours. The images of 
an eagle and a dragon artistically, finely, and beautifully 
placed over it, were made and filled with powder in the 
inside. About the time of the striking of the bell for the 
Ave Maria in the evening, fires were lighted in these strange, 
wonderful figures. Then, at once and at the same moment, 
they burst and flamed forth, so that they emitted flashes, 
and flames, and thunderous, fiery, red-flaming showers on 
high, in such manner that they filled a portion of the atmo- 
sphere over the castle with the showers and fiery flames 
they sent forth. For one who had never seen the like 
before, to view it was enough to cause the greatest terror 
and admiration. After that, they commenced firing at 
one another from the rooms and the numerous, skilfully 
arranged apartments which were laid out inside them, until 
their supplies were wasted and exhausted. 

CVL On the Thursday of Corpus Christi an order came 
from the holy Father to the princes that eight of their noble- 
men should go in person to carry the canopy over the 
Blessed Sacrament while it was being borne solemnly in 
the hands of the Pope in procession from the great church 
of San Pietro in Vaticano to the church of Saint James ^ in 
Borgo Vecchio, and from there back to the church of Saint 
Peter. They came into his Holiness' presence. They 
carried the canopy over the Blessed Sacrament and the Pope, 
and never before did Irishmen receive such an honour and 
privilege. The Italians were greatly surprised that they 
should be shown such deference and respect, for some of 
them said that seldom before was any one nation in the 
world appointed to carry the canopy. With the ambassadors 
of all the Catholic kings and princes oi Christendom who 
happened to be then in the city it was an established custom 
that they, in succession, every year carried the canopy in 

^ This is the church of San Giacomo Scossa Cavalli. 



190 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

seal d'imchar in chanabi d'foghbhail. Ba hetmar imthnuth- 
ach ingantach leo mar nach ffuaratar a imchor in la sin do 
sonnradh.* [p. 95] Ba honorach airmitneach aoipinn in 
prosesion, oir bator formhor ord riaghalta 7 uile ord 7 
chomhthinol primh-eglus gcatharrdha na Romha ann go 
n-imat prinnsaidhe 7 diucaidhe 7 mor-t[h]igernadh.t Nir 
uo lugha leo oldas mile lochrann lasam«<3 ciara. Seiser ar 
fhichit eitir ardeaspoig 7 subespoig i n-a ndeghaidh sein. Se 
cardenail deg ar fhichit as a haithle. An papa ag imchar na 
sacramente, na tigernaidhi Eirennacha 7 na daoine uaisle 
ochtar a gcoimhlin fon chanabi. A garda saigdiuir Suser a 
moir-thimchell in papa 7 ar gach taop de 7 i n-a deghaidh 
a dhi thrup mora marcshlaighi. Bator na sraide coimhlinta 
o dhaoinip as a haithle. Samalta fri each nar uo lugha 
oldas cet mile ro batar. lar rochtain tempaill Petair doibh 
leicis in papa in sacrament naomhtha forsan t prim-altoir 
moir. ler sin ro-s-leic ar a gluinibh e. Du-s-gni slechtain 
etarguidhi 7 urnaigthi. As a haithle tra dorat benedixion 
do chach a gcoitchinne. Eirgis dia palas ier sin. Teigit na 
huile ro batar ann dia palassoibh 7 dia gcoimhtheghdhuissibh. 

CVn. An sathorn ro baoi ar a gcinn do shonnradh 
gabais Maguidir .i. Cuchonnacht Maguidhir a ched ag na 
maithibh si. Leicis gussin Naples e, primh-chathair oirrderc 
oireghdha gabhus fri righ na Spainne, leigi ar da fichit leige 
on Roimh. Semus mhac Eimir meic Cuuladh § meic 
Aodha Ruaidh Meg Mat[h]gamhna go n-uathadh oile i n-a 
choimhiteacht 7 immailli friss. 

CVHL I. Dia dardaoin in dechmadh la don ml chetna 
eirgis O Neill 7 in t-ierla co n-a mbatar i n-a gcoimhiteacht 
do thurus seacht primh-eglus gcatharrdha na Romha. Ro 



* Here there is the entry : Tadc do scriohh 7 bennacht for a anmain 
1609, Tadhg wrote [this], and a blessing on his soul, 1609. 

t a is corrected to adh in pale ink. 

J san is in different ink. 

§ cu- is represented by q. 

^ The date was June 7th. Tinnity Sunday was the 1st, and Corpus 
Christi the 5th. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 191 

turn. They were jealous, envious, and surprised, that they 
were not allowed to carry it on this particular day. The 
procession was reverent, imposing, and beautiful, for the 
greater part of the regular Orders and all the clergy and 
communities of the great churches of Rome were in it, and 
many princes, dukes, and great lords. They had no less 
than a thousand lighted, waxen torches. Following them 
there were twenty-six archbishops and bishops. Next there 
were thirty-six cardinals. The Pope carried the Blessed 
Sacrament, and the Irish lords and noblemen to the number 
of eight bore the canopy. About the Pope was his guard of 
Swiss soldiers, and on either side of him and behind him 
were his two large troops of cavalry. The streets were 
filled with people behind. It was considered by all ihat 
they were not less in number than one hundred thousand. 
When they reached Saint Peter's, the Pope laid the Blessed 
Sacrament on the great high-altar. Then he went on his 
knees. He prostrated himself, prayed, and invoked. After- 
wards he gave Benediction to all. He retired to his palace 
after that, and everyone who was there went to his palace 
or his home. 

CVII. On the Saturday ^ following, exactly, Maguidhir,. 
that is, Cuchonnacht Maguidhir, took leave of the princes. 
He set out for Naples, a well-known, famous city, which 
belongs to the King of Spain, forty-one leagues from Rome. 
Semus, son of ^Eimher, son of Cuuladh, son of Aodh Ruadh, 
Mag Mathghamhna ^ and a few others went along with him. 

CVIII. I. On Thursday, the tenth [recte twelfth] of the 
same month, O Neill and the Earl, and all that were along 
with them, set out for a pilgrimage of the seven great 
churches^ of Rome. They had with them the permission 



« See p. 17 (16, 17) suvra. 

* " The Seven Churches of Rome," to which pilgrims from all the 
world came, were, in the order in which the Irish visited them, Santa 
Maria Maggiore, San Lorenzo, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, San Giovanni 
in Laterano, San Sebastiano, San Paolo fuori le Mura, and San Pictro in 
Vaticano. 



192 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

bui barantus 7 augdarras in athar naomhtha leo as go 
ifuighbhediss taissealbadh uile reliciasss gach aoin-eguilsi 
gusa roichfitis. Tinnscnait tra ag[us] tossaighit a n-ainm 
De a tturuis mor-loigidhechta ag Sancta Maria Maiora. 
[p. 96] lar ttapairt a gcoipsen 7 ier gcaithemh na sacramente 
naomhtha taisselbhthor doib cenn S. Bibiana, cenn Marcelhna 
papa, aroile do lamhoibh Tomais apstail, stoil S. Giralamo, 
stoil go nanfuinn 7 go rann-chuid oile do chulaidh aiffrinn 
S. Tomaiss espoig Cannturbi, an chaban i n-a roibhi in 
Slanaightheoir a mBeithil ludda, na cet-ghipail ro chuir in 
naomh-ogh i n-a urt[h]imchell a n-inbaidh a lenbachta, 
mailh fri hihmat relicias ro-onorach oile. Acht mailli fri ced 
spesialta on pa[pa] nl gnath a ffaixin acht ier medhon laoi 
gach domhnaigh case go sirraidhe. 7 is amhloidh thra ro 
tocbhadh 7 ro cumdaigedh in prlmh-eclus sin o thus : Aroile 
duine uassal onorach airmitneach ro bul issan Roimh feacht 
n-aill, loannes Patricius a chomhainm, ro thecht commaim a 
dhingbala acht chena nl ro tuismedh ierdraighi ar doman 
etorra. Batar tra go n-imat conaich 7 sobharthain saoghalta. 
Cinnit 7 comhairligit aca badhdein oigre diless dingmhala do 
denomh* do naomh-Muire oigh ar a n-uile innmhus 7 
maithess 7 a idhbairt go huilide o a n-uile croide i n-a seruis 
7 i n-a subhailcip. Feacht n-aon du-s-riacht spirut ainglide 
gussan mnaoi n-uassail remraite a ffidhair amra 7 aislinge. 
Atbert fria go ro erbadh 7 go folairedh for a fer coimeirgi a 
gcrepscul na maitne muiche ar n-a mharach, secip foradh- 
chnoc ard aoipinn i n-a tteicemadh imat snechta 7 oigridh 
do, eaclus onorach do chomdach do Mhuire isin dau sin. 
An coicedh la do mi Augustus sin do shonnradh. Aimsir 
theinntide thessaide neimhneach is gnath mun samoil sin 
do bliadhain isin Etaill uile 7 isin Roimh d'airigthi.f [p. 97] 

* do denomh is written twice. 

t A note which occupies the last few lines of this page makes it clear 
that O Cianain composed this portion of his work some time before making 
the present transcript. He treats of the sickness of young Aodh O N(5ill 
later (ch. cxi.-cxiii.), but here, as he writes, he is reminded of its fatal 
ending. He says : Forior ger ataid sccla derpiha agoinni o urchoid cvir 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 193 

and authority of the holy Father that they might have ex- 
hibited to them all the relics of each church to which they 
would go. They began and commenced their meritorious 
pilgrimage in God's name at Santa Maria Maggiore, After 
having made their confessions and having received the 
Blessed Sacrament, there were exhibited to them the head 
of Saint Bibiana, the head of Marcellinus the Pope, one of 
the hands of Thomas the Apostle, the stole of Saint Girolamo, 
the stole and maniple, and another portion of the Mass 
vestments of Saint Thomas, bishop of Canterbury, the cradle 
in which our Saviour was in Bethlehem of Juda, the first 
clothes which the Virgin put around Him in His infancy, 
together with many other splendid relics. Except with 
the special permission of the Pope they are not usually 
seen, saving always on each Easter Sunday after mid-day. 
And it was in this way the church came first to be built 
and erected : There was once in Rome a certain venerable, 
worthy nobleman, Johannes the Patrician was his name, 
who had a worthy wife, but no child at all was born to them. 
They possessed much wealth and earthly goods. They 
decided and determined between themselves to make the 
holy Virgin Mary their own sole heir to all their wealth and 
goods, and to offer them all, with all their heart, in her 
service and in her honour. On one occasion an angelic 
spirit came to this noble wife in a strange form and in a 
dream. He told her to order and instruct her husband to 
rise at the dawn of early morning on the following day, and 
on whatever high, beautiful, commanding hill he found a 
place with much ice and snow, that he should build a splendid 



na Romha. Arte 24. Septembris 1609 ro hadhlaicedh mac 7 oigri diles 
dingbala TJi Neill .i, Aodh O Neill, barun Duin Genainn, adbar tigerna 
Cheneil Eogain 7 an taopa uothuaidh d'Eirinn gan imresain gan fresapra. 
Bitter woe 1 we have certain information of the harmfulness of the air of 
Rome ; yesterday, the twenty-fourth of September, 1609, the son and 
proper worthy heir of O Neill, Aodh O Neill, Baron of Dun Geanainn, he 
who would have been lord of Cenel Eoghain and the northern half of 
Ireland without contention or opposition, was buried. 

n 



194 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Attracht in duine uassal la cloisteacht in sceoil. Ascnaidhiss 
gussin dau i n-a ffuil in recles. Du-ss-fairnic an cnoc iTnta 
' lomlan do shneachta 7 d'oighredh. Ba machtnadh son. 
Eirgis gussin espog ba huachtaran uassan rann-chuid sin 
don chathraigh. Is amhloidh tra forcaomhnagair go ro 
taissealbadh set samhla na haislinge sin badhdein don 
tigerna espog in oidhche chetna sin. Tochomhlait ieromh 
dip linaibh go n-imat diairmhe oile immaille friu. Rangatar 
gussin maigin i n-a mbui in snechta. Timaircit 7 togbait e 
dia lamhoibh badhdein. ler sin comhdaighther 7 comhtho- 
gaibhther primh-eglus chatharrdha chostusach chain-denmh- 
ach is lor met 7 feapus issan uile doman ier n-a bennugadh 7 
ier n-a coisrecadh a n-onoir na naomh-oighe issin inadh 
chetna sin. 

2. As a haithle tra dodheachatar go hegluis S. Laurass 
mile ceimenn seachtair 6 ballaigip na Romha. Ier ndenomh 
a tturais do reir auirtt na heguilsi taisselbhthor doip aon do 
na clochaibh dia ro tuairgedh Steffan martir gusin leic gcoimh- 
lethain mharmair for ar leicedh corp S. Laurais ier n-a 
rossadh for greidil. Is ecnach do na huilip pairt dia fhuil 
7 dia fulradh fuirre ueos go n-ianoip gloinidhip i n-a full 
rann-chuid dia fhuil 7 anbhroth, cuid d'ieronn na greidle ar 
ar rossadh 7 for ar commbruithedh e. Isan egluis chetna 
sin atait cuirp S. Lauras 7 S. Steffain martir, soigthech 
bennaigthi i n-ar baistedh ban-naomh uassal dier uo comh- 
ainm Lucilla maille fri hilimat relicias oile. An t-impire 
Constantinus Magnus ba he ru-s-togoibh 7 ru-s-comhdaig in 
eglus sin a n-onoir na naomh-martir remraite. Siluester 
papa isse ru-s-bennaigh in naoimh-eglus sin. 

3. [p. 98] Ternoidhit na maithe si astech tar ballaigip 
na Romha in dara feacht. Eirgit go S. Cruce a nierusalem. 
Doghnit a tturus. Taisselpthor doibh aroile soigtheach i 
n-a ffuil pairt d'fuil luachmhoir ^Issa Crist, gussin spongia i 
n-ar chuirset in cinedh ludaidhe domblas ae in draguin gusin 
ffineacra chuice a gcrann na croichi, di delg don choroin 
spine, do mesfadh fer a ffaixena nach ssia oldas coic laithe 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 195 

church there to Mary. That happened on the fifth day of 
the month of August. Hot, sunny, injurious weather is 
usual about that time of the year in all Italy and in Rome 
especially. The nobleman rose when he heard the story. 
He hastened to the place where the church is. He found 
the hill filled and covered with snow and ice. That was 
strange. He proceeded to the bishop who was superior 
over that part of the city. It had happened that a similar 
vision had been revealed to the lord bishop that same night. 
They both then set out, and a large crowd of other people 
with them. They came to the place where the snow was. 
They gathered it and took it away with their own hands. 
After that a splendid church, wealthy and beautifully 
'constructed, one of the biggest and finest in the world, was 
erected and built, and it was blessed and consecrated in 
honour of the holy Virgin in that same place. 

2. After that they came to the church of Saint Laurence, 
one mile outside the walls of Rome. When they had 
performed their pilgrimage according to the order of the 
Church, one of the stones with which Stephen the martyr 
was stoned, and the broad marble flag on which the body of 
Saint Laurence was laid after having been roasted on a 
gridiron, were shown to them. On it portion of his blood 
and gore is still visible to all, and glass vessels which con- 
tain some of his blood and fluid, as also a piece of the iron 
of the gridiron on which he was baked and roasted. In 
that same church there are the bodies of Saint Laurence 
and Stephen the martyr, a holy vessel in which a noble 
holy maiden named Lucilla was baptized, and many other 
relics. It was the Emperor Constantine the Great who built 
and erected that church in honour of these holy martyrs. 
It was Sylvester the Pope who consecrated it. 

3. The princes came inside the walls of the city again. 
They went to Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and performed 
their pilgrimage. There were exhibited to them a certain 
vessel which contains portion of the Precious Blood of 



196 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

deg o do benadh iad, an tairrnge dochuaidh tria throigthip 
an tSlanaightheora a gcrann na croiche se ro-laidir imremhor 
mullach-lethan masl-rennach ier n-a imdenamh d'ierann 
uassal aithlegtha in meide is lugha se hordlaighi i n-a chomh- 
fhat, go titul na croichi ro scrib Pilaid dia lamhoip badhdhein 
a laitin a ngregis a n-eabhra IHS NASARENUS REX 
lUDEORUM ier n-a chomdach go ro-onorach go n-or go 
n-airget go gclochaibh uaisle examhla ingantacha lasan 
mban-impir n-oirrderc Elena mathair Constantin moir, aon 
do na deich ttallannoip fichet ar ar reacadh an Slanaigh- 
theoir an coimde * comachtach Issa Crist la ludass Scariot, 
tri pissa mora don chroich chesta, go rann-chuid ro-mhoir 
do chroich ghadaidhe na des-laimhe, gusan gcoirrmer 
ro chuir Tomas apstal a gcneidh an taoip in t-ochtmadh 
la do shonnradh ier n-eisseirghe an t-Slanaigtheora immaille 
fri hilimat reliciass ro-onorach oile. Constantinuss og mac 
Constantinus moir ba he conrotacht 7 ru-s-togoip in prlmh- 
eglus naomhtha sin for impidhi 7 folairemh Elena si ar n-a 
bennughadh fri sanctuss Siluester papa. 

4. La sodain tra eirgit ier sin go primh-eclus ardespoig 
na Romha .i. in papa S. lohannis Laterani a comhainm. 
[p. on] lar ndenamh a tturaiss taisselbhthor doip cenn 
Acarias athair Eoin baiste, cenn S. Pancratius ro bui tri lo 
go n-oidhchi ag coimhsileadh fola cro-deirge feacht n-aon 
dia ru-s-loiscset eritchide 7 scristoiridhe in chreidimh 
chatoilce an n-eglus so tra .i. S. lohannis Laterani, pairt do 
thaissip Muire Madalen, slinnen S. Laurass, fiacoil Petoir, 
an chailiss as ar ibh Eoin bruinne digh neimhe for folairemh 
an impire ettrocair aingidhe Domisianuss 7 do chomhfhort- 
acht De na ro urchoidigh do, an slabhradh aggarp ieroinn dia 
mbul in naomh-apstal uassal adhamra Eoin bruinne cengailti 
cruaidh-chuibrighthe otha Efeso go ro riacht gussin Roimh 
gusin edach dia ro eirigh se slan go hopann a haithle a 
bassaighthe do reir inntinne na n-Idal 7 na n-anchristaighe, 



* MS. choimde. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



197 



Jesus Christ ; the sponge in which the Jews gave Him 
the gall of the liver of the dragon and the vinegar 
when He was on the tree of the Cross ; two thorns 
of the Crown of Thorns (one who had seen them would 
think that they had not been cut longer than fifteen 
days) ; the nail that went through the feet of the 
Saviour on the Cross, very strong, thick, broad-headed, 
blunt-pointed, made of fine cast iron, and of at least six 
inches in length ; the inscription of the Cross which Pilate 
wrote with his own hands in Latin, in Greek, and in Hebrew, 
lesus Nazarcnus Rex ludacorum, splendidly worked in gold, 
silver, and wonderful, variegated, precious stones by the 
famous Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great ; 
one of the thirty talents for which the Saviour, the Almighty 
Lord, Jesus Christ, was betrayed by Judas Iscariot ; three 
large pieces of the Cross of the Crucifixion ; a very large 
portion of the cross of the thief of the right hand ; the 
forefinger which Thomas the Apostle put into the wound of 
the side on the eighth day after the Resurrection of the 
Saviour, together with many other splendid relics. It was 
Constantine the Younger, the son of Constantine the Great, 
who built and erected that holy church, at the request and 
demand of Helena, and it was consecrated by Saint Sylvester 
the Pope. 

4. Next after that thev went to the chief church of the 
archbishop of Rome, the Pope, Saint John Lateran's is its 
name. When they had performed their pilgrimage, there 
were exhibited to them the head of Zacarias, the father of 
John the Baptist ; the head of Saint Pancratius, which 
continued to shed blood on one occasion for three days and 
nights when heretics and destroyers of the Catholic faith 
burned this church, namely, Saint John Lateran's ; a part 
of the relics of Mary Magdalen ; a shoulder of Saint Lawrence ; 
a tooth of Peter ; the chalice out of which John of the 
Bosom drank a poisonous draught at the command of the 
merciless, wicked Emperor Domitianus, which by God's 



198 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

rann-chufd ro-mhor do thaissip bennaigthi Eoin baisti, 
pairt d'folt naomhtha 7 do gruaig bhennaigthe naomhMuire 
oighe gussin gceid-leinidh doroine si dia lamhoibh badhdein 
dia haonMac mirbaileach mor-chomachtach Tsa Crist, an 
tubhaille ro chomail an Slanaightheoir do chossoip na 
n-apstal dia lamhoip badhdein ier n-innlat a gcoss uochetoir 
a haithle an tsuipeir deighennaigh riasan pais, an cassur dia 
ro bhuailetair in cinedh iudaide na cloithe coimhremhra 7 
na tairrngidhe aggarpa iernaidhe go mithrocaireach nemh- 
choigealtach tria chossoip 7 lamhoip in Tigerna Tssa Crist a 
gcrann na croichi gusin gcoroin spine um a chenn gussin 
edach purpur ro fhogair Pilaid do chor i n-a urthimchell, 
pairt d'fuil luachmoir an Tigerna, scealp do chrann na 
croichi cesta,* [p. 100] sudarium .i, an t-edach sonnradhach 
ro coimhlegadh for ghlan-ghnuis chrech[t]naighthi an Tigerna 
ier n-a chor isan tompa d'imfholach a aighthi, pairt don 
fhuil 7 don uisce ro scuch as chneidh an taoip an tan ro gon 
an dall Longinus an Tigerna go nemhchoigeltach a gcrann 
na croichi gusin sleigh slinn-lethain, cenn Peatoir 7 cenn 
Poil siat a ngrata imremhor ieroinn uas primh-altoir na 
heguilsi. Gach iTnmairecht aimsire taisspentor iet ro thoilig 
naomthacht na papaidhe diaig a ndiaigh tri mile bliadan do 
loghadh a peacadh 7 a thurcbal ag gach aon don senadh 
Romanach do biadh o deuosion 7 innfheithem do lathair 
in tan sin, gach aon du-s-fic 6 prouensip oile dia ffaixin se 
mile bliadan do maitheamh a peacadh ag gach aon aca, na 
daoine ticit 6 rigachtoip 7 6 regi6n[aib] oile imchiena dia 
tturast da mile deg bliadan do maithem a uile peacadh ag 
gach aon gusan tres rann dia pect[h]oib 7 dia cintoibh ar 
maithemh X aca. Ceithri colamain roi-dhessa as urchomair 
na prim-altora moire siat ar n-a n-ullmhughadh do bras ar 
n-a gcomhoradh go delraigthech ar in tc-ep amoigh, coimlinta 



* At the end of the page O Cianain writes mo chrech Aodh, My loss 
is Aodh. 

t In the MS. oile imchiena comes after tturas with transposition marks. 
+ MS. nailhemJi. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 199 

assistance did him no harm ; the rough chain of iron with 
which the holy, noble, great apostle, John of the Bosom, 
was bound and lettered on his way from Ephesus to Rome, 
together with the garment whence he suddenly arose perfect 
after his being slain, as the Jews and the pagans thought ; 
a very great portion of the blessed relics of John the Baptist ; 
a part of the holy hair and blessed locks of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, together with the first undergarment which she made 
with her own hands for her Almighty, wonderful, only Son, 
Jesus Christ ; the towel which the Saviour rubbed to the 
feet of the apostles with His own hands immediately after 
having washed their feet after the last supper before the 
Passion ; the hammer with which the Jews drove the thick 
spikes and the rough iron nails mercilessly and unsparingly 
through the feet and hands of the Lord Jesus Christ upon 
the wood of the Cross, with the crown of thorns about His 
head, and the purple garment which Pilate ordered to be 
put around Him ; portion of the precious Blood of the 
Lord ; a splinter of the wood of the Cross of the Crucifixion ; 
the sudarium, that is, the particular piece of cloth which 
was laid on the pure, wounded face of the Lord to conceal 
it when He was put in the tomb ; portion of the blood and 
water which gushed from the wound in the side when the 
blind ^ Longinus unsparingly wounded the Lord on the wood 
of the Cross with the broad-bladed spear ; the head of 
Peter and the head of Paul in a stout grate of iron over the 
chief altar in the church. Every time that they are ex- 
hibited, the Popes, one after another, have granted three 
thousand years of an indulgence for his sins and trans- 
gressions to every one of the natives of Rome who should be 
then present with devotion and attention ; to every one 
who comes from other provinces to see them, six thousand 
years of remission for his sins ; to each of those people who 

^ Longinus (see p. 179, n. 1, supra) is commonly referred to in. Irish 
as an dall ' the bhnd man,' a name which was probably understood in a 
spiritual or mystic sense. 



200 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ier n-inmedhon don talom naomhtha ier n-a treorugadh 5 
lerusalem gusan dau sin. Augustus impire ba he ro chomdaig 
na colamain sin don chonach catha ro eirigh do forsan ffairrgi. 
Adbeirit aroile gurap neptuin ro bator. Oratorium ro bui 
ag Eoin bruinne ag etorguide in choimdedh chomachtaig an 
tan ru-s-bui a ngiallna la Romanchaibh * se ar n-a chomh- 
shuidiugadh fon altoir moir. Isin f egluis chetna sin in 
naomhaltoir bennaigthi ro-n-bui ag Eoin baisti in tan ro bui 
isan dithreb, [p. loi] flesc Mhaoissi 7 Aroin, an bord dia ro 
thomail in Slanaighthe5ir in suiper deigenach a ffochair a 
apstal t 7 a dhescipal. Titus in t-aonmadh impiri deg ro 
bui isan Roimh is e ru-s-treoraigh 6 lerusalem cusin dau sin 
bliadain ar cheithri fichet d'aois in Tigerna, Mairidh aniu 
go nuaide nemchrion nemarsaigh go hecnach dona huilibh 
an colomhan comhfhata coimremor do riiarmar derg, ru-s- 
scoilt § 5 mullach go talmain a nierusalem an tan ro thoirbir 
7 ro thimain an Slanaigtheoir a gcrann na croiche a anmain 
a lamhoip an Athar nemda 7 atbert in manus tuas commendo 
spiritum meum, gusin leic do mharmar derg for ar chuirsetor 
in cinedh iudaidhe crann-chor for faidp 7 etach Crist, go 
sompla 7 go ffidhair na ndislighi ro bator aca ; da leic 
onoracha oile i n-a ffuil tomhus meite 7 airde Issa Crist 7 
naomhMuire oighi ar in saogal so, an t-omar comadbal 
cloichi i n-ar baistedh Constantinus mor [] la Seluester papa. 
Isan omar chetna isedh baister gach uile duine don Turcia 7 
don chineth iudaidhe 7 don ainchristaigecht go huilidhi in 
meide dip impaidhes isin Roimh fo chuing creidmhe 7 
crabaidh. Ata tra isan egluis^ [s]in sepel ro-onorach ro bui 
fri re imchein i n-a sheomra codalta 7 cumsanaidh ag an impiri 
Constantinus se ar n-a bennugadh a n-onoir Eoin baisti ro 



* dncaibh is in later ink. 

t in is in later ink. 

J MS. apsap- 

§ MS. rus dus scoilt. 

II The r and the mark of length are in later ink. 

H egluisin is over the line and sin is erased after scpel. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 201 

come from other kingdoms and distant countries on pilgrim- 
age to these objects, twelve thousand years of remission for 
all his sins, and [full] remission for a third part of his sins 
and transgressions. There are four very fine columns be- 
fore the great high altar, made of brass and brightly gilt 
on the outside, and filled in the interior with holy clay 
brought from Jerusalem to that place. It was Augustus 
the Emperor who built these columns for the success which 
he had upon the sea. Others say they were neptunes.^ 
Situated under the high altar is the oratory which John of 
the Bosom had, at which he worshipped Almighty God when 
he was imprisoned by the Romans. In that same church 
is the blessed, holy altar which John the Baptist had when he 
was in the desert, the rod of Moses and Aaron, and the 
table from which the Saviour ate the last supper with His 
apostles and disciples. It was Titus, the eleventh Emperor 
of Rome, who brought them from Jerusalem to that place 
in the year eighty-one of the age of the Lord. There re- 
mains to-day, fresh, unworn, in its original state, visible to 
all, the long, stout pillar of red marble which split from its 
summit to the ground in Jerusalem when the Saviour offered 
and gave up His life on the wood of the Cross into the hands 
of the heavenly Father, saying In 7nanus tuas commendo 
spiritum meum, together with the flag of red marble on 
which the Jews cast lots for the garments and raiment of 
Christ, and an image and representation of the dice which 
they used ; also two other splendid flagstones upon which 
there is the measure of the size and height of Jesus Christ 
and the holy Virgin Mary when they were in this world, 
and the large stone trough in which Constantine the Great 
was baptized by Sylvester the Pope. It is in that same 
trough that every person from Turkey, and of the Jewish 
race, and of all pagandom, who is converted in Rome to the 



^ This is the translation of the sentence as it stands in the manuscript, 
but there is, perhaps, a word or more missing before neptuin. 



202 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

chuir ann ilimat reliciass ro-onorach go rann-chuld moir don 
croich chesta. Isan ecluis chetna sin fuil in coloman coim- 
remar do marmar derg dia ro gairm in cailech a niarusalem 
a haithle na paisi gar riasan eisseirgi choimdheta. A n-im- 
fhoixi na heguilsi ospitail lan-mor ro-chostusach ro togbadh 
ier gcein mhair la sen-chmcdh uassal don tsenadh Romhanach 
[p. 102] .i. Co]ona. Imat trocairi 7 deirci 7 leigis ag a denam 
isan ospitail sin ar lucht treblaite galair 7 esslainte. 

5. Feacht n-aon dia ru-s-gap treplait lupra 7 esslainti 
neimneach dhasachtach an t-impiri Constantinus mor rb-s- 
baoi go n-anacair 7 go ndocomal n-adpal-mor, nir chuim- 
getair doctuiridhe teacaiscthi inait fisicidhe fathacha com- 
fhortacht no caomhna do denomh do. Ro baoi a pennait 
7 a peirical anbhail. Aroile senoir glic naomh-arsanta 
dorala issan chathraigh comhairligis don impiri * go ro 
thochuiredh Seluester papa ru-s-bui ag a dithladh badhdein 
a ndiamroibh 7 a ndroibeloib a sliap chorrach chomadbal 
ceithri mile deg on Roimh. Gnither samloidh. Ar rochtain 
naomhthachta in papa do lathair umhlaigis in t-impiri o a 
uile chroide 7 innfheithemh do chreidem Crist do reir na 
heguilsi catoilci 7 ier ngabail baisti issin omar remraiti do 
ba hogh-shlan uochetoir gan doig gan galar gan lupra gan 
esslainti. Ro timain in t-impiri in palas so i n-ar comh- 
daigedh an eclus don papa do cheid-neit[li]ibh. E ba sossadh 
comhnaidhe do badhdein gussin tan sin. Siris a n-athchuin- 
gidh ar naomhthacht in papa in eglus so do bennachadh 7 
do choissrecadh a n-ainm 7 a n-onoir Eoin baiste 7 Eoin 
bruinne. Gnither samhloidh in dechmadh la do ml Nouem- 
bris ro bui for a ccionn. Ocht mbliadhna deg ar trip cetoib 
aois an Tigerna in tan sin. A n-inbaidh 7 a n-aimsir in 
chonsecratioin do beith ag a denomh ro thaispein pictuir 
diadha 7 lidhair fir-naomhtha an choimdedh chomhachtaigh 
i fein go follus mirbaileach. Ata aniu uasan altoir moir. 
[p. 103] Ro loiscedh in eglus so la hainchristaigibh 7 la 

* ath was written first and then converted into imp. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 203 

yoke of faith and piety, is baptized. In that church there 
is a very beautiful chapel which the Emperor Constantine 
used for a long time as a bed and sleeping apartment, and 
it is blessed in honour of John the Baptist, who placed in 
it many splendid relics and a large portion of the Cross of 
the Crucifixion, In that same church is the stout column 
of red marble from which the cock crew in Jerusalem after 
the Passion, and a short time before the Resurrection of the 
Lord. Near the church there is a great rich hospital ^ which 
was erected a long time ago by an old noble family of the 
Romans, namely, the Colonnas. Great mercy, and charity, 
and cures are bestowed in that hospital on those who suffer 
from disease and ill health. 

5. On one occasion, when a troublesome malady and a 
painful, violent sickness seized the Emperor Constantine the 
Great, he was in trouble and very great distress. The 
learned doctors and the skilful physicians could not bring 
him any assistance or relief. His pain and peril were very 
great. A certain wise, holy, old man, who chanced to be 
in the city, advised the Emperor to summon Sylvester the 
Pope, who was concealing himself in secret and pathless 
places in a great rugged mountain fourteen miles from 
Rome. This was done. When his Holiness the Pope came 
into his presence, the Emperor submitted with his whole 
heart and intention to the faith of Christ according to the 
Catholic Church, and after his having received baptism in 
the trough we have spoken of, he became immediately 
healed of pain, disease, sickness, and weakness. At once 
he granted to the Pope this palace in which his church was 
built. It had been his own residence up to that time. He 
besought his Holiness to bless and consecrate the church in 
the name and honour of John the Baptist and John of the 
Bosom. That was done on the tenth day of November 
following. The age of the Lord then was three hundred and 

^ At the present time the Ospedale di San Giovanni lies in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Saint John Lateran's. 



204 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

scristoirip chreidim Crist feacht fo dhi 7 ni ro urchoidigh o 
bheag go mor don pictuir acht ata go solus logmar dealraig- 
thech. 

6. As a haithle tra eirgit na maithi si go Scala Sancta 
dier comhainm an staighre naomhtha a gcomhfhochraibh 7 
a n-imfhoixe don primh-egluis remraite. Ocht gcoisceim 
fhichet a gcomhfhat in staigri sin se ar n-a oibriughadh do 
chlochaibh comhfhata coimhlethna gleigheala marmair. An 
palas sainigthi son[n]radhach i n-a mbul Pilait a gcathraigh 
lerusalem ba hann ro suidhigedh 7 conrotacht 6 thus. An 
tan tra ro hergapadh an Slanaigtheoir lossa Crist la hludach- 
aibh aimhirseachaibh a n-aimsir a paissi is triasan staigri 
chomhard sin rucatar ceangailti cruaidh-chuiprigthi a ffrith- 
chetfaidh agus a ffiadhnuisi an breitheman Pilait e. On 
tren-tarroing trie thuinnsemaigh nemchoiceltaigh mhi- 
trocairighe du-s-ratsat do ro trascradh e a gcert-meadhon 
an staigri as gur doirtedh pairt dia fhuil luachmoir. Mairidh 
ueoss slicht-lorcc na fola fir-uaisle flrinnighi forsan gcloich. 
Grata iernaidhe uas a cenn dia himchoimet. A fforcinn an 
staigri atait tri doirrsi do mharmar aoin-gheal ru-s-batar a 
nierusalem ar n-a suidiugadh a palas in Pilait chetna sin. 
Ro gap in Tigerna triasna tribh doirrsip sin ria ndol do 
lathair Pilait do.* As urchomhair an staighre tabernacal 
onorach dier comainm di sancta sanctorum. Ata immorro 
for na sepeloip is linmhaire reliciais mhor-loighidhecht isan 
uile cristaighecht, Ann ata fidhair 7 pictuir lossa Crist 
doroine Lucas suiscel dia lamhoibh badhdein [p. 104] an 
tan ro baoi Crist forsan saogal so a n-aois 7 a n-aimsir a da 
bliadhan deg si ar n-a comdach go honorach airmitneach 
adhamra go n-6r go n-aircet go gclochaibh uaissle ingantacha 
examhla. An tres Niclas ro baui i n-a papa issin Roimh ba 
he du-s-roine consecration forsan sepel naomhtha sin for 
impidhe S. Laurass martir. Ni llnmhar tra oscailter no 
taisselpthor an naomh-shepel sin ier n-inmedhon. Go brath 

* o is written on e. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 205 

eighteen years. At the time and moment the consecration 
was being carried out the holy picture and truly sacred image 
of Almighty God was manifested plainly and miraculously. 
It exists to-day above the high altar. This church was 
twice burned by pagans and destroyers of the faith of Christ, 
and the burning did not injure, much or little, the picture, 
and it is to-day bright, shining, and splendid. 

6. After that the princes went to Scala Santa, which is 
named ' the Holy Stair,' near and in proximity to the afore- 
mentioned church. There are twenty-eight steps in the 
length of that stair, and it is constructed of long, broad, 
bright marble stones. It was in the special, particular 
palace in which Pilate was, in the city of Jerusalem, that it 
was first placed and erected. When the Saviour, Jesus 
Christ, was seized by the unbelieving Jews at the time of 
His Passion, by that high stair they brought Him, bound 
and fettered, before and into the presence of the judge 
Pilate. From the strong, forcible, unsparing, unmerciful 
dragging which they gave Him, He was knocked down in 
the middle of the stair, so that portion of His precious 
blood was spilled. The trace of that precious innocent blood 
still remains on the stone. There is an iron grate over it 
to protect it. At the end of the stair there are three doors 
of uniformly white marble which were in Jerusalem, placed 
in the palace of that same Pilate. The Lord passed through 
these three doors before He appeared before Pilate. In front 
of the stair is a splendid tabernacle which is called Sancta 
sanctorum. It is one of the richest chapels in precious 
relics in all Christendom. In it there is an image and picture 
of Jesus Christ, which Luke the Evangelist made with his 
own hands when Christ was in this world, at the age of 
twelve years, and it is ornamented splendidly, beautifully, 
and wonderfully with gold and silver and wonderful, varie- 
gated precious stones. Nicholas III who was Pope in Rome 
consecrated that holy chapel under the invocation of Saint 
Lawrence the martyr. To not many people is the interior 



2o6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

ni theit ban-seal fon doman for a doras astech. For a nglul- 
nip eirgit ina huile chinedhaigh suass triasan staigri naomhtha. 
Gach aon teid o deuosion 7 o innfheithemh ghlan tri bliadhna 
do mhaithemh a peacadh ar gach en-choisceim fo leith * 
aige, gusin tres rann dia uile peact[h]oibh 7 turcbhaloip ier 
n-a loghadh t aige. Is imaircidhe do na huilibh go rapait ag 
aithrighe ag urnaighthi ag etorghuide an choimdedh cho- 
mhachtaigh go gcongain chroidhe i n-a n-uile dupailchip fri 
seirc nDe 7 coibhnessamh ag ascnamh triasan naomh- 
staigri bennaigt[h]i m6r-loig[ig]echta sin. 

7. Gluaissit na maithe si as a haithle otha Scala Sancta 
gusin primh-eclais n-oirrdirc S. Sebastian a comhainm. 
Gapait tra forsan sligidh gusin sepel n-adhamra dier comh- 
ainm Domine quo uadis. Is amhloidh forcaomhnagair 
ainmniugadh an tsepeil remhraiti o thus : feacht n-aon dia 
ro bhaoi ingreim foilenmain 7 persecution ag anchrlstaigip, 
ag scristoiribh na heguilsi a ndeghaidh prinnsa 7 uachtarain 
na n-apstal naomhtha .i. Petor, smuainis Petar an Roimh 
d'fagbail X [p- 105] 7 dol do a ndiemhroip 7 a ndroibeloibh 
7 a ffoithribh fassaigh sechtair for imegla a bhassaigthe acht 
ge ro baoi i n-a papa. Ar ttoighecht go haonda duaithnidh 
go hinadh in reclassa sin do adchonnairc an Slanaigtheoir 
i n-a chomdhail. Adbert Petor ier ttabairt aithne fair 
Domine quo uadis .i. a T[h]igerna cia leth raghair. Atbert 
an Tigerna : Ragat gussin Roimh as go ffuilengat croch 7 
cessadh 7 martra an dara fecht. Atbert Petor : AT[h]igerna 
is do chuis inghrema 7 inchreachaidh oramsa adeir bhar 
n-onoir-si na briathra sin 7 raghat-sa tar mh'aiss gusin 
Roimh 7 fuilengat bass 7 martra ar bar son-sa. Ba flor 
son. FiUis Petor gusin Roimh. Ro bui innte go ro bas- 
saigedh e mar uassal-martir onorach adhamra amail is 
foUus do na huihbh. 

* Froiri ar to leith is added in later ink. 

t i is written on the beginning of m. 

X At the end of the page O Cianain writes : Uch uch ro ehraidh 7 ro 
treghd bass Aoda ar gcroidi, Alas alas, the death of Aodh has wrung and 
pierced our heart. See p. 192, n. supra. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 207 

of that holy chapel opened or exhibited. No woman in 
the world ever enters by its door. All persons who ascend 
the holy stair do so on their knees. Everyone who ascends 
with devotion and pure intention has three years' remission 
for his sins for each individual step, and the third part of 
all his sins and transgressions are remitted to him. It is 
expected of all that they repent, pray, and invoke 
Almighty God with compunction of heart for all their 
wickedness, having the love of God and their neighbour, as 
they ascend that holy, blessed, meritorious stair. 

7. The princes set out afterwards from Scala Santa to 
the great, remarkable church named San Sebastiano.^ On 
their way they went to the wonderful chapel which is named 
Domine quo vadis. This is how the naming of that chapel 
first came about : at one time when torture, oppression, and 
persecution were practised by the pagans and the destroyers 
of the Church against the prince and head of the holy apostles, 
namely, Peter, he thought of leaving Rome and of going into 
secret and pathless places, and into wild woods, through 
fear of being put to death, even though he was Pope. Having 
come to the place where that church is, alone and unrecog- 
nized, he beheld the Saviour approaching him. Peter, 
when he had recognized Him, said : Domine quo vadis, 
' Lord, whither goest Thou.' The Lord said : " I go 
to Rome that I may suffer again the Cross and Crucifixion 
and a bloody Death once more." Peter said : " O Lord, to 
cast reproof and reproach upon me Thine honour speaks 
these words, and I shall return to Rome, and I shall endure 
death and martyrdom for Thy sake." That was true, for 
Peter returned to Rome. He remained there until he was 
put to death as a noble, great, and glorious martyr, as is 
known to all. 



^ San Sebastiano is some distance outside the walls on the Appian Way. 
The church of Domine quo vadis lies between it and the Porta San Sebastiano. 



2o8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

8. Rangatar Sebastian primh-eglus ro-onorach conrotacht 
la ban-naoimh * ro uassail do threip na Romhanach badh- 
dein .i. Sancta Lucina a n-onoir S. Sebastian. Taibernacul 
ro-onorach issan egluis sin airm a mbaoi corp Petair 7 corp 
Poil fri haimsir imchein. Gach aon tra raghus astech 
deuosion 7 o chongain cride isan ionadh sin ata a chudrama 
do logadh a peacadh aige ionnamail 7 dodhenadh turass 
tempaill Petoir 7 Poil. Eirgit a n-uamaidh thalman as a 
haithle Semiterium Calisti a comainm .i. relec Calisti. Ro 
hadhnacht isan reilic sin ceithri mile deg ar tri fichit ar ched 
mile martir. Isan uamaidh sin tra ro bhittiss apstail 7 
descipail [p. 106] an Tigherna for imgabail 7 for teithedh na 
n-anchristaigedh. Ro hadhnacht immorro ocht papa deg 
ier n-a mbasugadh mar t martireachaibh uaissle adhamra 
oirrderca la heiritchidhip aimhirseachaibh issin uamaidh sin 
tra. Ata maithemh 7 loghadh na n-uile peacadh ag gach 
aon teit o deuosion 7 chongain cride trithe. Isan egluis 
sin tra aroile do na saigdip dia ro basaigedh S. Sebastian 
gussin gcloich mbennaigthi marmair for ar shessoimh an 
Slanaightheoir an comhfhat aimsire ro bui ag briathradh 
fri Petor apstal ag in sepel remhraite dier comhainm Domine 
quo uadiss 7 ata foilhcht a choss issin ailigh ueoss. Ata 
tra corp S. Sebastian 7 corp na ban-naoimhe uaisle adhamra 
Sancta Lucina 7 corp Steffain papa I issin egluiss chetna sin 
maille fri hilimat relicias oile. 

9. As a haithle sin tra eirgit go Cauarello .i. inadh 
aoibhinn onorach go mbortt marmair go n-imat sreabhan 
d'fir-uisce fhinnfhiiar ar n-a gcomhtharraing go hinntleach- 
tach examail ingantach lassan § senadh Romhanach ier cein 
mhair a gcomdhail an impire. lar ndenomh a medhoin laoi 
issin inadh sin doip eirgit go tempall Muire na sanuissi. As 
a haithle go hegluis ro-onoraigh mhor-loigidheachta oile 



* After this word an chomhanmasin follows with deletion marks. 

t Over the line. 

J mart- with delection marks comes before papa. 

§ ar na tharraing is written before lassan with deletion marks. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 209 

8, They reached San Sebastiano, a very beautiful church 
which was built by a noble holy woman of the race of the 
Romans themselves, namely, Saint Lucina, in honour of 
Saint Sebastian. There is a splendid chapel in that church 
where the body of Peter and the body of Paul were for a 
long time. Every one who shall enter that place with de- 
votion and compunction of heart has a like amount of 
indulgence for his sins as if he were to make a pilgrimage of 
the churches of Peter and Paul. After that, they went into 
a cave in the ground named CcEtneterium Callisti, that is, 
the cemetery of Callistus. In that cemetery there were 
buried one hundred and seventy-four thousand martyrs. 
In that cave the apostles and disciples of the Lord used to 
remain to avoid and escape the pagans. Eighteen Popes 
were buried in it after having been put to death as noble, 
great, and glorious martyrs by unbelieving heretics. Each 
person who goes through it with devotion and compunction 
of heart has remission and indulgence for all sins. In that 
church there is one of the arrows by which Saint Sebastian 
was put to death, together with the blessed marble stone on 
which the Saviour stood during the time that He was con- 
versing with Peter the apostle at the chapel mentioned 
called Dominc quo vadis, and the track of His feet is in 
the rock still. The body of Saint Sebastian and that of 
the noble, great, holy woman. Saint Lucina, and the body of 
Stephen the Pope are in that same church, together with 
many other relics. 

9. After that they proceeded to the Caffarella, a splendid, 
beautiful spot,^ having a table of marble, and a large number 
of streamlets of pure, cool water, skilfully, strangely, and 
wonderfully carried to the Emperor a long time ago by the 
Roman people. Having taken their dinner in that place, 
they went to the church of Mary of the Annunciation, ^ and 

^ This is perhaps the modern Grotto di Egeria at the Cafarella river, a 
short distance from San Sebastiano. 

^ This is now the Chiesa delV Annunciatiella. 

O 



2IO FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Tria Fountania a comhainm airm in ro dichennadh in ti 
Pol .i. doctuir na gcinedhach 7 ier n-a dichennadh uochetoir 
du-s-rat a chenn tri leimenna diaigh a ndiaigh. Ro mhuidh- 
set tra teora tipraite d'flr-uisce fhinn-fhuar oigreata assin 
talmain tirim in gach maighin a ndo-rat na teora leimenna 
sin. [p. 107] Ata ann ueos in colim marmair for ar dichen- 
nadh e go ndib cennoip Anustatius 7 Uinsentius martir 
maille re himat diairme oile. Ar comgar na heguilsi sin tra 
mainistir ro-onorach dar comainm Scala Celi .i. dreimire 
nime. Fo altoir moir na heguilsi uaimh i n-a ffiuilit taisi 7 
adhnacal deich mile martir. Taisselbthor a ttaisi do na 
huilibh. Ni heittir a nglacadh no a ngluasacht. Feacht 
n-aon dia ro bui S. Bernard ag rad aiffrinn 7 ag idh- 
bairt chuirp Crist forsan prim-altoir remraite adchon- 
nairc dia shuilip corparrda aingil 7 archaingil an choim- 
dedh chomachtaigh ag treorugadh na n-anmann o 
piantoib purgatora gusin fflaithemnus uachtarach 7 gusin 
sosadh nemdha. Ata do prluileit ag in altoir on uair sin 
anuas anam do breith as paurgadoir gach iTnmairecht d'uairip 
aderthor aiffrenn uirre. Ord Sanct Bernard is samadh 7 is 
coimht[h]inol isin mainistir si tra. Ro taisspenadh doip 
cenn S. Sonnonius ro bul i n-a ard-chaiptln ar deich mile 7 
ar da chet saigdiiiir siat immorro ar n-a mbassugadh uile a 
n-aoin-fhecht isan Roimh ar son chreidimh De 7 na heguilsi 
naoimhe, fos ilimat reliciass ro-onorach mor-loigidechta oile. 
10. As sin doip go tempall Foil.* Dognit turus a shecht 
prim-altoir mor-loigidechta. Taisselbthor doib aon do lamh- 
oip S. Anna, an slabradh aggarp iernaidhe dia mbai Pol 
cengailti cruaidh-c[h]uibrigthi an tan ro-n-bai a ngialna 
lasna Romhanchaibh, cenn in samaritana, aroile do meroip 
S. Niclas, mailli re himat relicias ro-onorach oile. Ata 
immorro corp Timmoteus naomh [p. 108] ro bui i n-a descipal 
diograisech ag Pol ar in saogal so isin egluis sin, corp Selsus, 
corp lulianus, corp Basilisa, maille re corpoip morain don 

* Poll is in later ink over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 211 

after that to another very beautiful, very meritorious church 
named Tre Fontane,^ where Paul, the doctor of the Gentiles, 
was beheaded ; and immediately after his being beheaded 
his head made three successive leaps. Three springs of 
icy, cold, pure water burst out of the dry earth in each spot 
where it made these three leaps. In it still are the marble 
column on which he was beheaded, and the heads of 
Anastatius and Vincentius the martyrs, and a large number 
of others. Near that church is the very beautiful monastery 
name Scala Cceli,^ that is, ' the Ladder of Heaven.' Under 
the great altar of the church there is a cave where the relics 
and tomb of ten thousand martyrs are. Their relics are 
exhibited to everybody. It is not permitted to touch or 
remove them. Once, when Saint Bernard was saying Mass, 
and offering the Body of Christ on the high altar mentioned, 
he saw with his bodily eyes the angels and archangels of 
Almi hty God conducting souls from the pains of purgatory 
to the high heavens and the heavenly seat. Since that 
time the altar has the privilege of releasing a soul out of 
purgatory every time that Mass is said upon it. The order 
of Saint Bernard form the community and assembly in that 
monastery. The head of Saint Zeno, who was a commander 
of ten thousand two hundred soldiers who were all put to 
death at the same time in Rome for the faith and the holy 
Church, was shown to them (the Irish), and also many other 
very beautiful, highly meritorious relics. 

10. From there they went to the church of Saint Paul.^ 
They performed the pilgrimage of its seven meritorious chief 
altars. There were shown to them one of the hands of 
Saint Anna, the rough iron chain with which Paul was 
bound and fettered when he was imprisoned by the Romans, 
the head of the Samaritan woman, one of the fingers of Saint 
Nicholas, and a great number of other splendid relics. The 

1 Tre Foniane is on the Laurentian Way. 

- It is now called Abbadia delle Tre Foniane. 

3 The full title. of this church is San Paolo fiiori le Mura. 



tiz FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

macraidh olrrdirc adamra ro basaigedh la Hiruath mac 
Antipater in tan ro baoi ag ingreim 7 ag foilenmain for 
Crist. Crucifix ro-onorach mirbaileach isin egluis ro lapair 
feacht anaill agaidh a n-agaidh fri ban-naoimh uassail dier 
uo comhainm Brigita 7 i ag denomh urnaigthi n-a fiadhnuisi 
ro bui in tan sin i n-a banrigain a rigacht Suesia. Fo 
primh-altoir moir na heguilsi in dara leith do thaisip Petair 
7 Poil. Constantinus mor is leis conrotacht in eglus so o 
tus a n-onoir 7 a n-airmitin Poil a.-pstal fo uithin gurab isin 
inadh sin d'airigthe ru-s-fairnegadh cenn Poil ^ go mir- 
baileach examail ier n-a thescadh dia cholainn, 7 ier n-a 
chomdach uochetoir du-s-rat do raith a annia don papa 
Seluester coimhinann 7 dorat prim-t[h]empall Petoir 7 
primh-thempall Eoin. A n-aon-l6 amhain ro bennaig 7 ro 
choisric Seluester papa tempall Petair 7 tempall Poil. 
Coimhinann cutruma in loigidheacht ro fhagoip aca araon 
acht amain cebe dodenadh turus tempaill Poil gacha dom- 
naigh fri re bliadhna a coibeis 7 a aurdail do loghadh a 
peacadh aigi 7 do ragadh do thuras lerusalem no Sanct 
Sem mor na Galissi. 

II. As a haithle tra eirgit go tempall Petoir in Vaticano 
prim-chathair Petair isin Roim. Gabait forsan sligidh go 
sepel beg dar comhainm sepel Petair 7 Poil. In tan ro 
hergabadh Petor is Pol la Romhanchaibh aimhirseachaibh 
ro treoraigedh amach asin gcathraigh gusin dau sin iat. 
[p. 109] Ceilibrait dieroile. Ier sin du-s-ratadh in ti Pol 
dia dichennadh go Tria Fontania fo bithin go roibi lex ag 
na Romanchaibh gan neach t d'flr-threib in tsenaidh Ro- 
manaigh badhden do basugadh acht fri cathraigh anechtair. 
Petor immorro ro bai i n-a Galaleus du-s-ratadh astech tar 
ballaigip na cathrach go shap ro-ard do shecht primh- 
shleibtip na Romha dier comainm lanicolo. Treoraigit e 
gusin gcnoc don sliap dar comainm Montorio. Cuirit croch 



* MS. Poil Poil. 

t neach is in later ink over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 213 

body of Saint Timothy, who was a zealous disciple of Paul 
in this world, is in that church, also the body of Celsus, the 
body of Julianus, the body of Basilisa, together with those 
of many of the great, remarkable children who were slain 
by Herod, son of Antipater, when he was persecuting and 
seeking for Christ. There is a very beautiful, miraculous 
crucifix in the church which spoke on one occasion face to 
face with a noble holy woman named Birgitta, who was 
then a queen in the kingdom of Suecia, as she prayed before 
it. Under the great high altar of the church there is one 
half of the relics of Peter and Paul. It was first built by 
Constantine the Great in honour and in reverence of Paul 
the Apostle, because it was in that particular place that the 
head of Paul was strangely and miraculously discovered 
after having been separated from his body ; and having 
erected it at once, he gave it for the good of his soul to 
Pope Sylvester in the same way as he had given the church 
of Peter and the church of John. Sylvester the Pope conse- 
crated and blessed the church of Peter and the church of 
Paul on the same day. He left equal and the same in- 
dulgences to both, save that if an^'one should perform the 
pilgrimage of the church of Paul on each Sunday during a 
year, he has as much and as great remission of his sins as 
if he should perform a pilgrimage to Jerusalem or the great 
Saint James' in Galicia. 

II. After that they went to the church of San Pietro in 
Vaticano, the chief seat of Peter in Rome. On the way they 
went to a little chapel ^ named the chapel of Peter and 
Paul. When Peter and Paul were taken prisoner by the 
unbelieving Romans they were conducted out of the city 
to that place. They took leave of each other. Then Paul 
was brought to be beheaded to Tre Fontane, for the Romans 
had a law that no one of the Roman people should be put 
to death except outside the city. Peter, however, who was 

^ This chapel is only a short distance from the Porta San Paolo. 



214 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

chomart i n-a sesomh do go gc oithibh imremra aggarbha 
iarainn i n-a chosaip 7 i n-a lamhoibh. Ru-s-fuair fein mar 
athchuingidh bais a chrochadh 7 a basugadh a ndeghaidh a 
chos as a mbeith neimliinannus martra 7 basaigthi do fria 
n-a Thigerna. Conrotacht immorro la ri na Spainne .i. 
Fardinando mainistir ro-onorach isin inadh sin a n-onoir 
Petoir, a hainm gusin tan so S. Petro Montorio. Ata aniu 
go samadh 7 go gcoimt[h]inol d'aithrechoib ro-onoracha 
d'ord S. Pronseis. Du-s-rat immorro in t-athair naomhtha 
an papa Paulus Tertius ro-imat logadh 7 maithemnuis na 
peacadh 7 na tturcbal do lucht cuarta turais 7 taistil na 
heguilsi si amail ata a gcloich marmair fuil uas fordoruss 
sepeil ro-onoraigh * ata a gclaustor na mainistrech isin ait 
sainighthi an ro bassaigedh Petor. 

12. ler ndenomh turais seacht primhaltor priuileidech 
thempaill Petair doip taispentor tra cenn in apstail uassail 
adhamra S. Andriass doibh se ar n-a t[h]reorughadh gusin 
Roimh feacht naill la prinnsa na Muraighe a re 7 a reimhes in 
dara Pius do bheith i n-a papa 7 dodeachaidh badhdein 
cetna a persain [p. no] da mile o ballaigip na Romha 
sechtair go Ponte Molle a prosesion ro-onorach do glacadh 
chinn in naom-apstail uasail on prinnsa. Ro taisselbadh 
doip as a haithle cenn Lucais suiscel, cenn Sanct Sem oig, 
cenn S. Sebastian, cenn S. Tomais espo^ Cantorbi, cenn S. 
Amando, lamh Steffain martir, lamh S. Cristoforus martir 
maille fri hilimat oile do thaissip naom 7 firen. Fo prlmh- 
altoir moir na heguilsi in dara leith do thaisibh Petoir 7 
Poil. Taipcrnacul ro-onorach uas uillinn descertaigh na 
primh-altora moire airm i n-a ffuil volta sancta .i. an aghaidh 
naomhtha .i. a[n] naipicin ro chomail an ban-naomh uassal 
adhamra Veronica do glan-ghnuis chrechtnaigthi an tSlanaig- 
theora Issa Crist in tan ro bhaoi fo dhaoirsi 7 fo mhartra 
ag imchar na croichi cesta. Is follus 7 is ecnach do na huilc 
dhaoinibh pictuir 7 fidhair ghnuissi 7 aigthi an Tigerna dia 

* MS. ro oHoraighe. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 215 

a Gallilean, was brought inside the walls of the city to a 
high hill, one of the seven chief hills of Rome, which was 
called Janiculum. They conducted him to the eminence on 
the hill which is called Montorio. They erected a high cross 
to receive him, with stout, rough, iron nails through his hands 
and his fe':t. He himself obtained as a request before death 
that he should be crucified and put to death feet upwards, 
that there might be dissimilarity between him and his Lord 
in martyrdom and death. A very beautiful monastery was 
built in that place in honour of Peter by Ferdinand, King of 
Spain, and its name to this time is San Pietro Montorio. 
It is held to-day by a community and assembly of revered 
fathers of the Order- of Saint Francis. The holy Father, 
Pope Paul III, bestowed much indulgences and remission of 
sins and transgressions to those who visit, make a journey, 
and travel to this church, as is stated on a marble stone which 
is over the lintel of the beautiful chapel, in the cloister of 
the monastery, in the exact spot where Peter was put to 
death. 

12. When they had made the pilgrimage of the seven 
chief privileged altars of the church of Saint Peter's, the 
head of the noble, great Apostle, Saint Andrew, was shown 
to them, it having been transported to Rome at one time 
by a prince of the Moors, at the time and period when 
Pius II was Pope, and he himself came first in person two 
miles outside the walls of Rome, to Ponte Molle, in a 
splendid procession to receive the head of the holy, noble 
Apostle from the prince. After that there were exhibited 
to them the head of Luke the Evangelist, the head of Saint 
James the younger, the head of Saint Sebastian, the head of 
Saint Thomas, bishop of Canterbury, the head of Saint 
Amandus, the hand of Stephen the martyr, the hand of 
Saint Christopher the martyr, together with many other 
relics of saints and holv men. Under the chief high altar 
of the church there is one half of the relics of Peter and Paul. 
There is a very beautiful tabernacle over the South corner 



2i6 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

fhuil luachmoir chro-deirc issin naipicm sin, cenn na sleighi 
slinn-lelthne dfa ro goin in dall Longinus 7 dia ro thregd go 
nemchoiceltach compar croidhe Crist in tan ro bul marp 
gan anmain * a gcrann na croichi. An Turcach mor ba he 
ru-s-tidhlaic na seoit adhamra oireghdha sin gusin papa .i. 
in t-ochtmadh Innocentius. Atait aniu go ffertoibh 7 mirbh- 
ailip examhla ingantacha. Gach aon do threib na Romha 
biss do lathair a ttaispenta 6 innfheithemh 7 deuosion tri 
mile bliadan do loghadh a peacadh aige, se mile bliadhan 
ag gach neach do rigachtoip no prouensip oile, da mile deg 
bliadan ag eachtor-chrichaibh oile imchiena ainiuil gus 
[p. Ill] in tress rann dia peacadh ar n-a maithemh 7 ar n-a 
loghadh ag gach aon aca acht go tticit o deuotion 7 o chongain 
cridhe. Isin egluis chetna sin corp f S. Simon 7 S. lud ,i. 
diss naom-apstal ro-onorach, corp S. Cristostus, corp S. 
Gregoriuss papa, corp ban-naoimhe uaisle S. Patronella. 
A n-imfhochraib sepeil Petair deich gcolamain chasta 
chompassacha cham-denmacha do marmar aoingheal. A 
ttempall Solman a nierusalem is eadh ro togbadh 7 ro 
huUmaigedh 6 thuss. Ar in taop chle don altoir moir aon 
cholun amhain casta mharmair, grata ieroinn i n-a urthim- 
chil. In tan tra ro biodh an Slanaightheoir ria nimfhulang 
na paisi a gcathraigh lerusalem ag senmoir ag teagusc ag 
dispoirecht 7 apcoideacht lasan chinedh n-iudaidhi ba gnath 
leis sessamh fri hucht in choluin sin 7 a guala no a uille do 
leicen leiss ar uairip. Is follus tra sin as na fertoibh 7 as 
na mirbailip doghni Dia trid, oir na persana i n-a mestur 
droich-spiriit aimsigt[h]e aidberseoracht 7 tochuirter astech 
fo iadhadh in grata sin, ni mor dip nach ffaghann slainti 7 
comfortacht a gcetoir. Taispentar doib ro-imat radharc 
examail oilc.t Constantinus mor is leis ro-n-comhdacht 7 
ro togbadh in eglus so o thus. Ro idhbair as a haithle do 
raith a anma don papa Seluester mar dorat tempall Foil 7 

* gan anmain is in the margin in later ink. 
t p was added later. 
t ii added later. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 217 

of the great high altar where the Volta Santa is, that is, 
' the Holy Face,' namely the napkin which the great, noble, 
holy woman Veronica applied to the pure, wounded face of 
the Saviour, Jesus Christ, when He was in affliction and 
martyrdom carrying the Cross of Crucifixion. Manifest and 
visible to all people is the picture and image of the face and 
countenance of the Lord in His precious, red blood in the 
napkin, and also the head of the broad-bladed spear with 
which the blind Longinus wounded and pierced unsparingly 
the breast of Christ while He was dead and lifeless on the 
wood of the Cross. It was the grand Turk who presented 
these great, wonderful treasures to the Pope, namely. Inno- 
cent VIII. They work to-day miracles and strange re- 
markable wonders. Each one of the Roman people who is 
present with attention and devotion when they are exhibited 
receives three thousand years of remission for his sins, 
each person from other kingdoms or provinces six thousand 
years, other outside, distant, foreign nations twelve thousand 
years, and a third part of his sin is pardoned and remitted 
to each person of them provided they come with devotion 
and penitence of heart. In that same church are the bodies 
of Saint Simon and Saint Jude, two holy venerable Apostles, 
the body of Saint Chrysostom, the body of Saint Gregory the 
Pope, and the body of the noble holy woman Saint Patronella. 
Near the chapel of Peter there are ten circular, massive, 
beautifully carved pillars of white marble. They were first 
erected and set up in the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. 
On the left-hand side of the high altar there is one circular 
marble column with a grate of iron around it. When the 
Saviour used to be in Jerusalem before suffering the Passion, 
preaching, instructing, disputing, and arguing with the Jewish 
people. He was wont to stand in front of that pillar, and to 
lay His shoulder or His elbow at times against it. That is 
manifest from the miracles and wonders which God works by 
means of it, for of those persons in whom it is believed that 
there is an attacking evil spirit and a devil, and who are 



2i8 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

tempall Eoin. An t-ochtmadh la deg do mi Nouembrls 
issedh ro bennaigedh 7 ro coissrecadh e lasan papa chetna 
sin aois an Tigerna in tan sin tri cet bliadhan ar tribh 
bliadhnoibh fichet. Ro thoilidh 7 ro aontaidh naomthacht 
in papa ro-imat logadh 7 indulgens ag gach aon dodenadh 
a chuairt 7 a thurus o deuotion [p. 112] ; se mhile bliadan 
ar ocht mbliadhnoib fichet gusin tres rann dia uile peacadh 
ar n-a maithemh 7 ar n-a loghadh ag gach aon dogni turns 
na secht primh-altoir mor-loigidechta priuileidecha fuiht a 
ttempall Petair, acht is imaircidhi do gu ro thechta sere 
nDe 7 coibnessamh maille fri cungain cridc i n-a peacoibh 
7 i n-a dupailcibh. An chathair cranngaih i n-ar shuidh 
Petar fein gusin mbrat ro cuiredh uas Petar 7 uas Pol ier 
n-a mbasugadh issin tempall so tra. Seacht mbliadhna do 
logadh a peacadh aige gach linmaire aimsire cheimneochass 
se a n-aghaidh in staigri marmair fuil as urchomair dhorais 
an tempaill 7 raghus do denamh urnaigthi astech a sepel 
Petair. Cros chomhartt cheithireochair c[h]omhfhata chain- 
denmach d'aon chloich amhain is fir-airde isin christaigecht 
uile ar n-a comhshuidiughadh go hinntlechtach aughdarrdha 
as urchomhair in dorais mhoir. Ceithri leoman do bras ier 
n-a gcomhoradh fuithe uas trI hinneonaibh marmair uas a 
cheile. Cros ier n-a comoradh go dealraigthech ar n-a 
himdenamh * do bras i n-a fir-mullach. Sixtus Quinctus 
brathair d'ord sanct Pronseis ru-s-togoibh 7 ro chuir i n-a 
coimhsesamh airm a ffuil anosa. Adeirit drong do lucht 
inotachta 7 aithreptha na Romha gur chosain a cor i n-a 
sesamh amhain deich mile ar da fichit mile coroin. Snathat 
Petair a comhainm. Deich mbliadhna do logadh a peacadh 
ag gach aon chanus tri paitrccha 7 tri Aue Maria as a hurcho- 
mair. Gach aon do-s-gni uisitation no imthathaidhe o 
deuotion ar in prim-egluis so Petair o fhel Muire na [p. 113] 
sanuissi .i. an coicedh la fichet do mhi mharta gusin gced lo 
augustii .i. festa Sancti Petri ad Uincula, atait da mile deg 

* Mm. is over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 219 

introduced under the covering of that grating, not many 
fail to receive health and relief at once. Many other wonder- 
ful sights were shown to them. By Constantine the Great 
this church was first built and erected. He presented it 
afterwards for the good of his soul to Pope Sylvester, as he 
had given the church of Paul and the church of John. On 
the eighteenth day of November it was blessed and conse- 
crated by that same Pope, the age of the Lord at that time 
being three hundred and twenty-three years. His Holiness 
the Pope granted and bestowed many favours and indulgences 
to each person who should perform a visit and a pilgrimage 
to it with devotion ; each person who performs the pilgrimage 
of the seven chief, meritorious, privileged altars which are in 
the church of Peter, has an indulgence of six thousand and 
twenty-eight years, and the third part of all his sins remitted 
and forgiven, but it is essential for him that he possess the 
love of God and his neighbour, with contrition for his sins 
and vices. In this church is the wooden chair in which 
Peter himself sat, and the cloth which was put over Peter 
and Paul when they were put to death. A person receives 
seven years' indulgence for his sins every time that he shall 
ascend the stair of marble which is opposite the door of the 
church, and that he shall enter the chapel of Peter to pray. 
A tall, four-cornered, long cross, beautifully made of one 
stone, the highest in all Christendom, is artistically and 
beautifully placed in front of the great door. Beneath it 
are four lions of gilt brass set on three marble anvils placed 
one above the other. On the summit of it there is a brightly 
gilt cross made of brass. Sixtus V, a friar of the Order of 
Saint Francis, erected it, and put it standing where it is 
now. Some of those who live and dwell in Rome say that 
the erection of it alone cost fifty thousand crowns. It is 
called ' Peter's Needle.' Each person who recites three 
Our Fathers and three Ave Marias before it has an indulgence 
of ten years for his sins. Every one who makes a visitation 
or journey with devotion to this great church of Peter from 



220 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

bliadan do loghadh a peacadh aigi, 7 gach linmhairecht 
aimsire denus en-chuid dip sin a fiesta eigin spesialta d'fes- 
toibh na heguilsi badhdein, ata in uile logadh sin dupalta 
aige. Ag sin amhain primh-eglus chatharrdha les nach 
heitir eglus no obair fon uile doman do chor a gcomprait 
no a gcommortus, oir issi is mo dheisi dheigdenmaighe for 
bith, is ferr coluin 7 tairimthecht marmair 7 is saothraighi 
airde fhlr-fhairsingi fo thalmain 7 uas talman. Uile stuadha 
comharda an tempail ar in taep astigh ar na gcomhoradh 
uile go lonnradhach dealraighthech examail. Cenn luaighi 
fair ar in taop amoigh. Samhalta la each go mbeitis fichi 
mile fer i n-a n-armoibh i n-a sesomh a n-aoinfheacht forsan 
tairimthecht ata fair ar in taep amoigh. An palas is mo 7 is 
deisi 7 do derrsgnaigh do palasoip in domain ag in papa ar 
a uilhnn tuaiscertaigh. Obair ro-chatharrdha ag in papa 
Paulus Quinctus ar in egluis sin gach en-la isin mbhadhain 7 
da ttugadh Dia saogal nadurtha do reir a chomplexa 7 a 
persan do, is inmesta go nderscnochaidh si d'uile oibreachaibh 
in domain ge nach ffuil set samhla di amail ata. Imat 
taispenta ro-onorach 7 relicias mor-loigidhechta cenmotha 
sin issin prim-egluis so Petair 7 do brigh gurab eimilt labairt 
ar gach aon fo leith dip, gach aon dianab ail a ffaircsin 
dogepaidh re a n-uile thaissealbadh a ffestaibh uaisle im- 
chuibdi iad. 

13. A fforcinn in turais mor-l5ighidheachta sin eirgit na 
maithi si dia palass. Airissit 7 comhnaigit ag leicen a scisi 
7 a mertin a haithle a tturais neoch ba subailceach [p. 114] 
dia n-anmannoibh 7 ba saothrach dia gcolloibh. 

CIX. I. Laibheoram began briathor ar eoluss na Romha 
annso sioss mar is ferr fuaramar fria scrudadh e 7 sinn ag 
inotacht isin Roimh fri haimsir imchein anossa. Atait se 
tempail ar da fichit ar da chet tempail innti gan na seacht 
primh-eguilsi do lapramar do chomhairemh orra sin. Aon 
dip side tempail roi-dhess ata for foradh-chnoc ard aoibinn 
ar comhghar in palaiss i n-a mbui comnaidhe na ttigernadh 
so, Honofrius a chomhainm, suas odes go coimhdirech c 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 221 

the feast of Mary of the Annunciation, that is, the twenty- 
fifth day of the month of March, to the first day of August, 
that is, the feast of Saint Peter ad Vincula, receives twelve 
thousand years of indulgence for his sins, and each time that 
he performs any of these on some special feast of the feasts 
of the Church itself, he receives double all that indulgence. 
This is the sole chief church with which it is impossible 
to compare or liken any church or construction in the world, 
for it is the greatest, the most beautiful, and best built in 
the world, with the best marble top and columns, and the 
most elaborate, highest, and most extensive both above and 
below the ground. All the high arches of the church 
inside are entirely gilt, bright, shining, and remarkable. 
There is a covering of lead on it on the outside. One 
would imagine that twenty thousand men in arms could 
stand together on the top of it on the outside. The 
Pope has the greatest, most beautiful, and most excellent 
of all the palaces in the world at its northern angle. Pope 
Paul V is carrying out splendid work at that church every 
day of the year, and if God should give him a natural span 
of life according to his constitution and appearance,'^, it is 
likely that it will surpass all the buildings in the world, 
though there is no peer of it as it is. There are many other 
splendid exhibits and meritorious relics in this church 
besides these, and because it would be tedious to speak of 
each of them separately, each person who desires to'see them 
will have them all exhibited to him on great, appropriate 
festivals. 

13. At the end of that highly meritorious pilgrimage, 
the princes went to their palace. They stayed and rested, 
recovering from their weariness and fatigue, after their 
pilgrimage, which was pious for their souls though full of 
labour for their bodies. 

CIX. I. Here we shall say a few words on the descrip- 
tion of Rome, as far as we have learned it by experience, 
we having lived in Rome for a long period now. There are 



222 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Gepta S. Spiritus. Radharc 7 faircsin na Romha uile ass 
gusin tTihir ag ascnam 7 ag ceimniugadh trithe, fos radharc 
meide airigthi do s[h]liabh Alpa 7 don Edaill mor-thimchell 
na cathrach. Ameno comhainm an chnuic airighthe don 
sliabh for ar togbadh an eglus. Ord Benedict is samadh 7 is 
coimt[h]inol innte. Is aire ro hainmnigedh Honofrius 
fuirre : bai aroile ri amra oireghdha for san Persia fecht 
n-aill ro thecht mhnaoi a dhingbala. Ba supailcech airmhit- 
nech oirrderc adhamra in ri sin acht chena ni ro tuismedh 
clann no ierdraighe ar doman do. Ba tuirsecK dibergoidech 
dobronach leis gan a oigri dlles dingmala do bheith ag 
luamhairecht a righi 7 a fhlaithemhnuis i n-a dheghaidh. 
Jar mbeith treimhsi imchian fon dogra 7 fon doimenmain 
sin is eadh ro scrud 7 ro fhorbhair i n-a menmain e badhdein 
7 a chomhmaim go roignip a ndeghdhaoine a sruithi 7 a 
senoire do dol gusin egluiss, an Trinoit nemda do atach 7 
do etorguide i ffrithchetfaidh na sacramente naomhtha 
maille fri troscadh aurnaighthi 7 oilithri um aon tuismedh 
amhain cloinni dfagail do. Gnither samloidh. Eirgit gusin 
egluis. Ainit urnaighit [p. lit;] ciit a pea.caidh 7 a ndubailce 
CO n-a n-uile riachtanus 7 amghar. Ro eist an coimdhe 
comachtach geran 7 egnach na ffiren so. Du-s-fainic tra 
dia fertoibh 7 mhirbailibh a fforcinn aimsire aithgirre as a 
haithle go ttarla toirrches don mbanrigain. Ba luthghaireach 
ilgairdeach lasin rig 7 la mait[h]ibh rigachta na Persia uile 
odclos deimin 7 deaarbh in sceoil sin. Sen-namha arsanta 
na ffiren n-irissech .i. in diapal ro-ss-gap ett 7 imthnuth 
adpal fo bithin in tabartuis 7 in tidhlaicthi sin dfagail don 
righ on Trinoid nemda. Is edh ro dholp 7 ro scrud i n-a 
menmain maillsigh mhichinnemhnaigh fecht n-aon ru-s-fuair 
baogal ar in rIgh 7 e a n-airegal uaignech, eirgis dia innsaigidh 
a n-aibit oilit[h]righ imt[h]ruaigh. Adfet in rl scela de. 
Oilit[h]rech athtruagh tuirsech me. Ro shiplus formhor in 
domain ag denamh turais 7 treideanuis. Mesait each mo 
beith naomhtha 7 go ffuil spirat fhaidetorachta innam ier 
n-inmedhon 7 is truagh lim, a ri na Persia, mar do mealladh 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 223 

two hundred and forty-six churches in it, without counting 
among these the seven chief churches which we have spoken 
of. One of these is a very beautiful church situated on a 
beautiful, high hill near the palace where the lords lived, 
Sant' Onofrio is its name, lying exactly southwards from the 
gate of Santo Spirito. There is a view and sight of all Rome 
from it, of the Tiber as it flows and advances through it, 
of a certain portion of the Alps, and of the part of Italy 
around the city. Amoeno was the name of the particular 
eminence of the mountain ^ on which the church was built. 
The congregation and community in it is the Orcier of Saint 
Benedict. This is the reason why it was named Sant' 
Onofrio's : There was a certain great, renowned King in 
Persia at one time, and he had a wife that was worthy of 
him. This King was virtuous, venerable, notable, and 
splendid, but no children or posterity were born to him. 
He was sorry, regretful, and grieved that his own worthy 
heir should not rule his kingdom and principality after him. 
When he had been a long time in this grief and sorrow, the 
thought came to his mind that he himself and his wife, 
together with the noblest of their relatives, their venerable 
men and elders, should go to the church, and invoke and 
beseech the heavenly Trinity in the presence of the Blessed 
Sacrament with fasting, prayer, and pilgrimage, that he 
might have one child. That was done. They went to the 
church. They fasted, they prayed, they wept for their sins 
and their vices, and all their delinquencies and wretchedness. 
Almighty God heard the prayer and plaint of these holy 
people. By His miraculous intervention it came about at 
the end of a short time that the Queen became pregnant. 
The King and noblemen of all the kingdom of Persia were 
glad and delighted when the certainty of the matter was 
known. But the old enemy of the pious faithful, the devil. 



^ By this is meant the Janiculum, on the slope of which the church 
of Sant' Onofrio stands. 



224 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

7 mar do toghaothadh thussa lessln mbanrigain. Cinnus on, 
ol in ri. Ni hannsa, ol in t-oilit[h]rech ; adbiur-sa frit tre 
briathraibh fire. Ba himshnimach athtuirsech let 7 i an 
coimhlm so do bliadhnoibh ad choimhleapaidh gan clann 
no ierdraighi agoip, Tarla dissi adaltrannus 7 peacadh 
granna do denomh tar do chenn sa as go ffuil taebht[h]rom 
torrach in comhfhat so d'aimsir. Na leic-si in chlann sin 
do baistedh no do bheathugadh for do sheilp, 7 ar imegla go 
tticfadh cenel comhaigthech do thruailledh fir-f[h]ola na 
righachta, folair more mor tinedh do denomh 7 ar in uair a 
ngeinftder an chlann sin teilgter let a gcertmedhon na teinedh 
trichemh-ruaide sin i. [p. 116] Mesais an ri go neimhghlic 
fo bithin chealcc 7 chathaigh[th]e an aidhbirseoir gur uo 
fir-bhriathra gach ar chan fris 7 gur uo duine naomhtha e 
7 creidis gach ni ro raidh. lar ttuismedh chloinne don 
mbanrigain cuiris an ri comhchruinniugadh ar roignib a 
deghdaoine go huihde 7 teilcis dia lamhoip badhdein an 
mac ro bui ag in mbanrigain a gcertmedhon teinedh romhoire 
tuc fodera do denamh. Tarla an mac ar a da ghlun go 
direch isan teinidh. Fechuis uassa. Togbais a dl laimh a 
ffidair chroisi 7 umlachta don Tiinoit nemhdha. Ro bui 
an bhanrighan for a gluinibh a ffrithchetfaidh in righ dia 
atach 7 dia etorghuidhe as nach basaighfedh an t-aon-mac 
fuair o Dhia, maithe na rigachta mar in gcetna, acht chena 
ba dimhaoin doibh. Do grassoibh na Trln5ide ba follus 
don rl 7 do chach archena aingel De uassaibh isin aer 7 ro 
fhorchongair forsan ri an mac do thesarcain, a chor dia 
bhaistedh, Honofrius do thabairt mar ainm fair. Dogni an 
ri samhloidh ar comairle an aingil 7 ni ro erchoidigh an tene 
don mac o beg go mor. Gabuis aithmhele adbal-mor 7 
aithrechus dermair an ri 7 smuainis gur uo he an diabal 
tainic chuici a richt an oilithrigh 7 dorat fo n-a inntinn an 
mac do chor isan teinidh. Is eadh ro scrud i n-a menmain, 
o do thesairc Dia an mac 7 a sithchain a peacaidh, a idhbairt 
do Dhia 7 don egluis. Eirgis go mainistir d'ord Gerelamo 
7 riagal Benedict aca .i. ord dithreabach. Ro chuir an 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 225 

conceived great envy and jealousy because the King had 
obtained that grant and gift from the heavenly Trinity. 
This is what he meditated and considered in his wicked, 
baneful mind : once when he took the King unawares in a 
lonely room, he approached him in the habit of a poor 
pilgrim. The King asked him who he was. " I am a 
wretched, poor pilgrim," [said he]. " I have walked the 
greater part of the world performing pilgrimage and ab- 
stinence. It is believed that I am a saint, and that I have 
the spirit of prophecy within me, and I regret, O King of 
Persia, how you have been cheated and deceived by the 
Queen." " In what way ? " said the King. " It is easy 
to say," said the pilgrim ; " I will speak to you in words of 
truth. You grieved and were sorry that she should be so 
many years your consort, and that you had no children or 
posterity. She has committed adultery and a vile sin against 
you, so that she is for some time bearing child and pregnant. 
Do not allow that child to be baptized or reared as yours, 
and for fear that an outside breed should enter to corrupt 
the true blood of the kingdom, give order to have a great 
pile of fire made, and when this child is born, let it be 
pitched by you into the middle of that raging, red fire." 
The King foolishly thought, because of the wiles and tempta- 
tion of the devil, that all he said to him was true, and that 
he was a holy man, and he believed everything that he said. 
When the Queen had given birth to the child, he assembled 
all the nobles of his people, and with his own hands he pitched 
the Queen's child into the centre of a very great fire which 
he had caused to be made. The boy fell straight on his two 
knees into the fire. He looked up. He raised his two hands 
in the form of a cross, and in humility to the heavenly 
Trinity. The Queen was on her knees before the King, 
praying him and beseeching him not to put to death the 
one child which he had received from God, and the nobles 
of the kingdom did the same, but in vain. By the favour 
of the Trinity there appeared to the King, and to all the 



226 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

lenamh dia bhaistedh. Ro fholair Honofrius do thabairt 
mar ainm fair do reir theguisc 7 aithne an aingil. As a 
haithle tra idhbraiss [p. 117] 7 toirbhiriss as a lamhoip 
badhdein do thigerna-ab na mainistrech e a n-onoir na 
naom-Thrionoide nemhdha. Gabuis an tigerna-ap an 
uionnianus naomhtha sin chuice go sulchair 7 nir uo hail 
leis a chor assin mainistir amach dia oilemain 7 ro bui a 
ffrithchetfaidh na riaghla co nach tissadh banscal for bith 
astech tar ballaighip na mainistrech. Tarla eiUt ghleigheal 
go ngaimnin a comdhatha i n-a fochair a pairc na mbrathor. 
Eirgis an t-ab gusin dau i n-a mbaui. Ergabthar leis in 
laogh bui le. Cuiris in t-ogmhac dia saigidh. Ba cennuis 
aumhal ailgen ru-s-gabadh an dalta sin lasan eilit. Ro bui 
Honofrius tri bliadhna comhlana ag a biathadh for lacht 
na heillti. Ticedh chuici d'oidhque 7 do lo go leithimiol na 
pairce as urchomhair na mainistrech. Ro bul-semh ag 
fass 7 ag forbairt frisin re sin. A fforcinn na haimsire sin 
mesait na braithri betha dhaonnaighi do thabairt do. Ba 
gnathbes do-san gach a ffaghadh do bairgenoip 7 do bluireacli 
uaidip do breith amach go a buime oilemna. Laithi n-aon 
ro-s-baoi ag dol amach gusin eilit. Bairgen arain lais. Ro- 
s-fuair naomhMuire ogh 7 a Mac mirbaileach i n-a hucht a 
Ifidhair a lenbachta for a chionn issin pairc. Failtighis a 
uile chroide ier n-a ffaixin. Du-s-gni umla 7 reuerens. 
Adbert as a haithle : a T[h]igerna, lenamh sipsi ; meisi 
lenamh oile. Ag so mo bairgen arain dip. Guidim sip ier 
n-a glacadh dip na hithidh i innamail 7 ithim fein. Glacuis 
an Tigerna an mbairgin a lamhoip Honofrius. Du-s-rat do 
as a haithle. Ro fholair fair go ru-s-tardadh don tigerna-ab. 
Bator sealat ag lenbacht 7 ag diamair-naomthacht chomh- 
raidh re aroile. Gabuis Muire 7 a Mac a gcet ag a serbhon- 
taighe diles umal as a haithle. Teit Honofrius gusin mbairgin 
do lathair in tigerna-ab. [p. 118] Ni mor go rainic leis a 
himchar fo bhithin mar do fhass 7 mar do fhorbhair 5 
lamhoibh an duileman dia glacadh. Ba machtnadh adpal 
lassan tigerna-ab 7 lasna braithribh archena an mheide ro 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 227 

rest, the angel of God above them in the air, and he gave 
orders to the King to save the boy, to have him baptized, 
and to give him Honuphrius as his name. The King did 
thus on the advice of the angel, and the fire did no harm, 
great or small, to the boy. The King had great regret and 
extraordinary sorrow, and he recognized that it was the 
devil that came to him in the shape of the pilgrim, and 
suggested to him to cast the boy into the fire. The deter- 
mination he then came to was to give up the boy to God 
and the Church, as God had rescued him, as an offering for 
his own sin. He went to a monastery of the Order of Giro- 
lamo which had the Benedictine rule, and was an Order 
of hermits. He got the child baptized. He ordered that 
he should be named Honuphrius, as the angel had com- 
manded. After that he granted and offered him from his 
own hands to the abbot of the monastery in honour of the 
heavenly Holy Trinity. The abbot gladly accepted that 
holy gift, but he was not content to allow him out of the 
monastery to be reared, and it was contrary to the rule 
that any woman should enter inside the walls of the mon- 
astery. There was a white hind, and with her a fawn of like 
colour, in the field of the friars. The abbot went to the place 
where it was. He took away the fawn that was with it, 
and brought to it the young boy. The fosterling was 
adopted by the hind with meekness, quietness, and gentleness. 
Honuphrius was fed for three full years on the milk of the 
hind. It used to come to him night and day to the side of 
the field in front of the monastery. He continued to grow 
and improve during that time. At the end of that period 
the friars commenced to give him ordinary food. His habit 
was to bring out to his nurse all the bread and fragments 
that he got from them. One day he was going out to the 
hind, and he had with him a loaf of bread. He found before 
him in the field the Holy Virgin Mary and her wondrous 
Son in her bosom, as He was when a child. His whole 
heart rejoiced when he saw them, and he made sign of 



228 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

fhass forsan mbairghin. Mesait 7 tuicit aca badhdein gur 
go mirbaileach examail ingantach ro-s-£uair Honofrius an 
taispenadh sin. 

2. Ro bui rath diadha a ffoilenmhain Honofrius oir ro 
lin d'egna 7 d'foghloim 7 do shupailchip an Spirait naoimh. 
Foss ro fhorbhair a mhet a mhaissi 7 a mhiadhamhlacht. 
Fecht ri-ann ro thoghsat an t-ord Honofrius mar uachtaran 
orra badhdein. Ni ro fhaomh-samh an togha sin. Atbert 
go raghadh fo dhiamraibh 7 droibheloibh for ierroidh an 
leinb chompanta dorala do a n-ucht naomhMuire oighe isin 
pairc ria sunn. Ni ro gabh toirmesc. Ceihbrais don 
tigerna-ap, do na braithribh archena. Leicis go fassach na 
hEigipte e. Ag toigheacht do ar comhghar an fhassaigh 
adchi an lochrann teinntidhe for comhlassadh issin aer 
etorbhuass. Bidgais 7 comhchrithnaigis la sodain. Leicis 
for a gluinibh e. Feacaidh for aithrighi 7 aurnaigthi. Tic 
aingel De i n-a chomhdhail 7 adbert fris : Na ro-t-imeglaig- 
ther, a uassail, a Onofrius, oir ro fortachtaigh Dia duit 7 is 
mar chomharrdha mirbaileach deit ro thaissealbh an lochrann 
lassamna adchi. Failtighis Honofrius la cloisteacht uriathar 
an aingil. Du-s-rat altugadh buide mor do Dia. Eirgis 
isin dit[h]rebh as a haithle. Ag ascnamh astech a ndroibhel 
deirrit diemhoir do adchonnairc chuice senduine ro-arsanta 
a n-aipit oilithrigh no dithrebhaigh. Forffailtighis an senoir 
ier n-a fhaixin uochetoir, oir ba lainneach luthghaireach 
lais an macaomh og aoidedhach go rath 7 go supailcip 
diadha i n-a choimhitecht do chor chuice. [p. 119] Treoraigis 
leis e as a haithle gusin duirrtheach ndeirrit ndiemhoir, airm 
a mbaui a aittrebh 7 a inotacht do ghnath. Is amhloidh 
immorro bui an duirrtheach .i. bothnait beg chumhang fo 
bhun chroinn chomhaird pailme. Airisit 7 comhnaigit ann 
a gcomhaontaidh aroile 7 a cheile. Is edh ba tuara 7 ba 
hacnamhadh doibh toradh an chroinn pailme do thomhailt 
maille fri fir-uisque na tipraiti ro-s-buT fo bun an chroinn. 
Barrghar 7 duilleabar an chroinn isseadh ba himditen doibh 
for dherdain 7 doishln, fuacht 7 tes. Nir uo himchien tra 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 229 

humility and reverence. He then said : " O Lord, Thou 
art a child ; I, too, am a child, and here for Thee is my loaf 
of bread. I beseech Thee, when Thou takest it, eat it not 
as I eat it." The Lord took the loaf out of the hands of 
Honuphrius. He afterwards returned it to him, and en- 
joined upon him to give it to the abbot. They remained 
for a while playing and in holy converse with each other. 
Then Mary and her Son took leave of their faithful, humble 
servant. Honuphrius went with the loaf to the abbot. 
He was with difficulty able to carry it, for it had grown and 
increased from the hands of the Creator having touched it. 
The abbot and the friars all wondered greatly at how much 
the loaf had increased, and thev understood and believed 
that it was miraculously, strangely, and wonderfully that 
Honuphrius had been granted that manifestation. 

2. Divine grace followed Honuphrius, for he was filled 
with wisdom and learning, and with the gifts of the Holy 
Ghost. Besides he grew in size, in beauty, and in comeliness. 
On one occasion the Order elected Honuphrius as their 
superior. He would not accept their election, and he said 
he would go into secret and pathless places to search for 
the Child companion that he had once met in the field in 
the bosom of the Holy Virgin Mary. He would not be 
denied. He bade farewell to the abbot and to all the 
friars, and went into the desert of Egypt. As he was 
approaching the edge of the desert, he saw a fiery torch 
shining in the air above. He was frightened and startled 
thereat, and threw himself upon his knees. He commenced 
doing penance and praving. The angel of God came to him 
and said to him : " Fear not, noble Honuphrius, for God 
has given thee assistance, and as a miraculous sign to thee, 
He has shown the bright torch which thou seest." Honu- 
phrius became glad on hearing the words ot the angel. He 
gave great thanks to God, and then entered the desert. 
As he proceeded into a secret, hidden, pathless place, he 
saw approaching him an elder of great age in the habit 



230 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

doip a gcomhaontaidh in tan ro-s-fuair in sendit[h]rebhach 
bas. Fagbuis a ttimna tholtanach an crann pailme gusin 
mbot[h]nait mbic gusin ttiprait ffir-uisce ag Honofrius a 
n-oighrecht. Ro hadhlaicedh an senoir la Honofrius sealat 
beg 5n chrann. Bui fein go n-aoine 7 go n-urnaighthe fo 
bhun an chroinn sin fri re deich mbliadan ffichet ag 
moladh 7 ag etorghuide na Trinoite nemdha ag 
aithrighe 7 ag urnaigthi do 16 7 d'oidhque. Toradh 
an chroinn gusin ffir-uisce isseadh fo betha dho frisin 
re sin. 

3 . Feacht n-aon dia ro smuain forsan gcompanach lenbaidhi 
dia mbui n-a fhoilenmain, cuiris de uochetoir in meide ro 
mhair d'iersma na senaipite du-s-rat asin mainistir tricha 
bliadan roimhe sin. Fagbuis an crann gusan ttiprait gusin 
mbothnait. Gluaisis as a haithle seachnoin an dit[h]ribh. 
Aimser imchien do fon samhla sin gan comhfhortacht 
bidh no edaigh. let sin tra teit a n-enerte 7 a egcruass 
adpalmhor. Laithi n-aon do isin imdhoraidh sin ad- 
chonnairc aingel in choimdedh chomhachtaigh chuici 
go proinn 7 go ttomaltus do neimh. Du-s-rat-san 
altugadh buide dia T[h]igerna [p. 120]. Coimhinann 
ro bheiredh an t-aingel an sasadh nemhdha .i. an 
sacrament naomhtha dho gacha domnaigh dia lamhoibh 
badhden 7 do bheiredh an sassadh aimserdha seachnoin na 
seachtmaine. Deich mbliadhna fichet oile isin dithreb gan 
comhthathaigidh no comaontaidh o neoch for talmain acht 
cuairt an aingil. Finnfadh a chinn 7 a ulchan, a ochta 7 a 
chuirp archena, ba himditen do ar fhuacht 7 tes frisin re 
sin. A aittreb 7 a inotacht fo barroibh crann. Smuainis a 
fforcinn na haimsire sin tra dol do thaistel 7 do chomhsibal 
gacha meide na ro shipal go sin don dithrep. A mbaoi ann 
confhaca a ndroibel dorcha a n-inmedhon na coilledh an 
duirrthech dess deirrit deighdenmhach. Ba machtnadh 
adpalmhor lais. Atchonnairc tra for a chomhghar senoir 
aosmhar arsanta. Eirghis for a amus. Mar atchonnairc 
an senoir an creatuir imthruagh anaithnidh se ar n-a thuighi 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 231 

of a pilgrim or hermit. The old man rejoiced immediately 
on seeing him for he was pleased and delighted that the 
young boy of tender years, with grace and divine virtue 
about him, should be sent to him. He then conducted him 
to the secret hidden house where his dwelling and habita- 
tion was. Now this was the kind of house he had, a small, 
narrow hut at the foot of a tall palm tree. They remained 
and tarried there in company with each other. Their 
food and nourishment they had by eating the fruit of the 
palm tree, together with the water of the well which was at 
the base of the tree. The branches and foliage of the tree 
made a shelter for them against wind and storm, heat and 
cold. They were not long together, however, when the old 
hermit died. He left by will to Honuphrius the palm tree, 
and the little hut, and the spring well as an inheritance. 
The old man was buried by Honuphrius at a short distance 
from the tree. He himself remained fasting and praying 
beneath the tree for a period of thirty years, praising and 
invoking the heavenly Trinity, doing penance and praying 
by day and by night. The fruit of the tree and the spring 
water were his food during that time. 

3. On one occasion when he thought of the Child com- 
panion whom he was searching for, he put off at once all 
that remained of the old habit which he had brought out of 
the monastery thirty years before. He left the tree, and 
the well, and the hut. He then set out on his way through 
the desert. He continued for a long time thus without 
food or clothing. After that he fell into a weakness and 
heavy sickness. One day, as he was in these straits, 
he saw the angel of Almighty God coming to him with 
repast and food from heaven. He gave thanks to his Lord. 
The angel used to bring him the heavenly food, the Blessed 
Sacrament, every Sunday with his own hands in the same 
way as he brought him the food of the body in the course of 
the week. He was for thirty years more in the desert 
without meeting or converse with anyone, but only the 



232 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

7 ar n-a imfholach dia fholt 7 dia fhinnfadh otha * a bhonn 
go a bhathuis bfdhgais 7 imomhnaighis 7 ru-s-leic a raon 
madhma 7 ro-theithidh e. Ro-s-len Honofrius e. Siris 
fair a n-onoir na Trinoide nemdha furnaidhe 7 airisemh i 
n-a chomnaidhe. Dearcuis an senoir i n-a dheghaidh. 
Suidhis Honofrius forsan talmain. Tuigis tra an senoir gur 
a modh umhla 7 cennsachta 7 nemhurchoide doroine Hono- 
frius an suidhe. ler sin du-s-riacht for a chomhghar go 
himeglach faitchesach. Fochtait araon scela dieroile. Atfet 
an senoir gur uo dit[h]repach e badhdein ro-s-bui fri re 
imchein ag inotacht 7 aittrebhadh isin dit[h]rebh sin, gur 
uo Pamplutius a chomhainm. Leicis Honofrius for a 
gluinibh e la cloisteacht an sceoil sin. Ro inniss a imthus 7 
a uile echtra badhdein. Athchuinghis 7 etorghuidis an 
senoir naomhtha [p. 121] um Dhia do ghuide ar a shon. 
Odclos immorro lasin senoir gur uo heissen Honofrius ru-s- 
leic for a gluinibh e. Siris a n-impidhi 7 a n-athchuingidh 
fair Dia do guide ar a shon. La sodain tra etorghuidit an 
Trinoit nemdha do raith anma aroile 7 a chele. ler sin 
atchonnairc an senoir an t-aingel do neimh go mbairgin 7 
go mbuidel fina ag toirling ar culoip Honofrius. Ba dearb 
laiss o sin suas gur uo duine diadha go ndeigbhethaidh 
naomhtha e. Bator sealat a gcomhaontaidh. Laithi n-aon 
doip ag urnaigthi adchluin in dit[h]reabach guth an aingil 
do neimh 7 issedh ro raidh : Honofrii, audita est petitio tua 
.i. a Honofri, ro heistedh h'ierratus. Ba moite sa chach 
gradh toltanach in dithreabaigh d'Onofrius cloistecht briathar 
in aingil. 

4. Laithi n-aon siris Honofrius a n-onoir De for in senoir 
a chulpa do eistecht 7 apsuloit na heguilsi do thabairt do i 
n-a auile peacthoip 7 dupailchip. Du-s-gni in senoir samh- 
loidh. ler ttabairt a uile choipsen d'Onofrius ro scar a 
spirat anma fria chorp ar mbreith buadha o doman 7 o 



* MS. a tha with''punctuni delens. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 233 

visits of the angel. The hair of his head and his beard, of 
his breast and all his body, was his only protection against 
cold and heat during that time. His dwelling and habita- 
tion was beneath the branches of the trees. At the end of 
that time he bethought him of going to travel and traverse 
all the portion of the desert which he had not travelled until 
then. As he went on, he saw In a dark, pathless place, in 
the middle of the wood, a beautiful, secret, well-constructed 
house. He was greatly surprised. Then, near to it, he saw 
an elder of great age. He advanced towards him. When 
the old man saw the wretched, unknown creature, covered 
and hidden with his hair and locks from foot to head, he 
became frightened and alarmed, and he ran and fled as 
fast as he could. Honuphrlus followed him. He asked him 
in honour of the heavenly Trinity to stand and remain at 
rest. The old man looked behind him. Honuphrlus sat 
down on the ground. The old man then knew that It was 
as a sign of humility, and meekness, and innocence that 
Honuphrlus sat down. After that he approached him 
cautiously and with fear. Each inquired of the other 
who he was. The old man told him that he himself was 
a hermit who had been for a long time dwelhng and 
living in that desert, and that Pamplutlus was his name. 
Honuphrlus fell on his knees when he heard this. He 
narrated all his own doings and history. He besought and 
prayed the holy old man to pray to God for him. When 
the old man heard that he was Honuphrlus, he threw him- 
self upon his knees. He besought and requested him to 
pray God on his behalf. Then they both invoked the 
heavenly Trinity, each for the soul of the other. After 
that, the old man saw the angel descending from heaven 
with a loaf and a bottle of wine, and alighting behind 
Honuphrlus. He was assured thenceforward that he was 
a godly man of holy life. They remained together for 
some time. One day, as they were praying, the hermit 
heard an angel's voice from heaven, and It said : Honofrh, 



234 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

deaman 7 e eitir dibh lamhoip * an dithreabaigh. La 
sodhain tra cirgis crith 7 cumsgugadh adpolmor issin 
dithrebh i n-a n-uirthimchell 7 gapait na croinn ag coimh- 
letradh agus a[g] comthuargain a cheile seachnoin na fid- 
baidhi. ler sin tra adchi an senoir na se haingil go lochran- 
noib lassamna go n-ilcheoloib examlila ag toirling do neimh 
ar gach taep do chorp Honofrius. Da aingel oile i n-a 
ndeghaidh-sein, long thuissi a laimh nechtair aca, turibulum 
a laim in dara haingil. Comscaoilit snpailci 7 boltanugadh 
na tuissi morthimchell an chuirp. Ba hecnach 7 ba follus 
don senoir ag ternodh suas do na hainglip in dara fecht anam 
in fhirein uassail Honofrius ag a imchar ag di aingel dip a 
richt 7 a ffidair choilmne gleigile [p. 122]. Adchonnairc as a 
haithle an Slanaigtheoir badhdein ag toighecht do dingnoip 
rigthighi nemda ag gabail an anma sin i n-a lamhoip bad- 
deissin. Ba tuirsech imshnimhach an senoir a haithle a 
chompain charthanaigh 7 a choicele comhaduis. Ro bui in 
meide sin d'foirfeacht aoissi 7 d'aimneirti fair cona fitir fon 
uile doman cinnus do adhlaicfedh an corp. Gar ier sin 
atchonnairc an da leoman lonna leidmecha chuici. La 
sodain tra crithnaigis 7 commbidgais. Derbh leis go 
muiriitis na leomain e budein maille fri coimhithe chuirp a 
chompain. lar sin tra ticit na leomain ar amus chuirp 
Honofrius. Leicit for a ngluinibh iet. Gapsat tra ag pocadh 
7 ag lighi a chos 7 a lamh. Ro batar ier sin ag commbualadh 
a gcos forsan talmain 7 ag tabairt chomarthadh don sendir 
cia in t-inadh airigthi in badh toltanach leis fert 7 adnacal 
do chlaide. Ro thogh in senoir aroile inadh imchubaidh 
doip. Gerrais co n-a throstan comartha na croichi cesta 
isin talmain. Cumais fot 7 leithet an adnacail. La sodain 
tra comhthochlait na leomain in talmain co n-a gcosoip. 
Treoraigit ieramh corp an erloimh uassail adhamra leo go 
mbui for bru an adhnacail. Cuirit a ttalmain as a haithle 
do reir forchongra an dit[h]reabaigh. Leicit fon fhdbaidh 

* MS. dibh lamh lamhoip. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 235 

audita est petitio tua, that is, " Honuphrius, thy prayer has 
been heard." The love of the hermit for Honuphrius was 
the greater for hearing the words of the angel. 

4. One day Honuphrius besought the old man, for the 
honour of God. to hear his sins, and to give him the absolu- 
tion of the Church for all his transgressions and vices. The 
old man did thus. When Honuphrius had made his full 
confession, his soul separated from his body, having tri- 
umphed over the world and the devil, as he lay in the arms 
of the hermit. Thereupon, there came a trembhng and a 
dreadful earthquake in the desert all around them, and the 
trees commenced to strike and smite one another through- 
out the forest. After that, the old man saw six angels, with 
lighted torches and many kinds of music, descending from 
heaven on either side of the body of Honuphrius. After 
these were two other angels, an incense-boat in the hand of 
one of them, and a thurible in that of the other. They 
scattered the sweetness and fragrance of the incense about 
the body. Visible and evident to the old man, as the angels 
returned, was the soul of the noble, holy man, Honuphrius, 
transported by two of the angels in the shape and form of a 
bright dove. He saw then the Saviour Himself coming 
from the citadels of the heavenly palace, and receiving 
that soul into His own hands. The old man was sad and 
lonely for his lovable companion and fitting mate-fellow. 
He was so advanced in years, and so infirm, that he did not 
know how he should bury the body. In a short time after- 
wards he saw two fierce, powerful lions coming towards 
him. He trembled and shuddered. He was certain that 
the lions would kill himself, and devour the body of his 
companion. Then the lions came towards the body of 
Honuphrius. They fell on their knees. They commenced 
to kiss and lick his feet and his hands. They then began 
to strike the ground with their paws, and to make signs 
to the old man asking him in what particular place he 
wished to have a grave and burial-place dug. He selected 



236 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

iet as a haithle ier gcoimlegadh chloch 7 chriadh forsan 
corp 7 ier ngabail a gceta go humal ailgen ag an dithrebhach. 
An comhfhat tra ro bui an t-adhnacal ag a denomh teglamait 
7 comhchruinnigit uile fhiadhmila 7 ethaiti allta egcennuis 
an dit[h]reib goleic. Ro bator tra go taoi tostach taoithenach 
go ttairnic an t-adnacal. Comscaoilit seachn5in an dithreibh 
ieromh. Ata immorro rannchuit dia chorp go ffertoibh 7 go 
mirbailip issin recles remraiti. Ata immorro a anam a 
n-aontaid ■uassal-[p. 123] aithrech 7 fhaidedh, a n-aontaidh 
nsemh 7 nsemh-og in domain, a n-aontaidh apstal 7 descibal, 
a n-aontaidh deachta 7 daonnachta mic De uile-chomachtaigh, 
a n-aontaidh naoi ngrad neime na airmdeachatar, a n-aon- 
taidh aingel 7 archaingel in choimdedh na ndula, isin aontaidh 
is uaisle gach n-aontaidh, a n-aontaidh na naom-T[h]rinoide 
uaisle Athair Mac Spirat naomh. Aihm trocoire De uile- 
chomachtaigh tre impide in naoimh-erloimh uassail sin go 
rissam go ro aittrepam an aontaidh sin in cecula ceculorum 
amen. Gar ier sin tic aingel De gusin dlt[h]reabhach. 
Earbuis fair athascnamh dia atharrdha ndllis badhdein .i. 
gusin Eigipt. Du-s-gni samhloidh. Aisneidis 7 oirrdercaigis 
fiadh na huilip uile scela 7 betha 7 naomt[h]acht Honofrius 
7 cetera. 

ex. In nomadh la fichet lunii .i. la fele Petair do shonn- 
radh tainic ambasadoir rig na Spainne fri cTos rigachta na 
Napless gusin papa. Ba honorach airmitnech cath-reimech 
du-s-riacht. Ro bui timchell a coic no a se do chetoib 
marcach maille fri ro-imat coistidhi go gcoisigib iTnmara a 
libhre ro-onoraigh. Each roi-dess ban go ndiallait mhor- 
loigh ier n-a himfholach d'or-snaithe a remthuss na sligedh, 
gne sparain nar uo beg fo a bragait i n-a mbuT cioss na 
Naples. Ar ndol do lathair naomthachta in papa do du-s-rat 
dia onoir an t-each gusin gcTos a n-ainm in rig. lar sin 
ternoidis dia thigh. 

CXI. Ba tuirseach nemgnathach la hierla Tire Conaill 
re mac Ui Neill, re mac Ul Domnaill in comhfhat ru-s-batar 
i n-a ngnath-chomhnaidhe isin Roimh. Smuainit 7 comair- 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 237 

for them a suitable spot. He marked with his staff the sign, 
of the cross upon the ground. He measured out the length 
and breadth of the grave. Then the lions dug the ground with 
their paws. They afterwards brought the body of the noble, 
wondrous saint with them to the brink of the grave, and 
lowered it into the ground according to the orders of the 
hermit. Afterwards they went away into the forest, having 
laid stones and clay on the body, and having taken leave 
gently and humbly of the hermit. While the burial was 
being carried out, all the beasts and wild, untame birds of 
the desert gathered and assembled. They remained quiet, 
ciumb, and silent until it was finished. Then they scattered 
all over the desert. Now there is a portion of his body in 
the aforesaid church attended with miracles and wonders. 
His soul, however, is in the noble union of fathers and 
prophets, in union with the saints and virgins of the world, 
in union with the apostles and disciples, in union with the 
Divinity and Humanity of Almighty God, in union with 
the nine orders of heaven which did not transgress, in union 
with the angels and archangels of the Lord of the elements, 
in the union which is nobler than every union, in union with 
the Holy noble Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Holv 
Ghost. We beseech the mercy of Almighty God, through the 
intercession of this holy, noble patron, that we may reach 
and ciwell in that union in saccula saeculorum. Amen. A 
short time after that the angel of God came to the hermit. 
He instructed him to return again to his own country, that 
is, to Egpyt. He did so. He narrated and published to all 
all the doings, and the life, and the holiness of Honuphrius 
ct cetera. 

ex. On the twenty-ninth of June, the feast of Saint 
Peter, the ambassador of the King of Spain came with the 
revenue of the kingdom of Naples to the Pope. He came 
with great honour, dignity and state. There were about 
five or six hundred horsemen, together with a great number 
of coaches, and many footmen in splendid livery. At 



238 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

liglt etorra badhdein an Roimh d'fagbail sealat, dol do 

spaisteoracht 7 do glacadh aitherraigh aeir. Gluaisit a 

ttriar, buacha'i 7 coisighi i n-a gcoimhitecht. Monuar nir 

soirb soinmhech a tturus deoraidhechta. Eirgit go baile 

airigthi ar comhghar na fairrgi for bru [p. 124] srotha Tipzr 

dar comhainm Ostia coic mile deg on Roimh. Dognit gne 

chomnaidhe ar gach taep don ruiber fri re da lo go n-oidqibh. 

Teit in doctuir onorach Domnall Ua Cerbhaill i n-a ndeghaidh. 

Ternoidit na maithe si tar ais gusin Roimh. Ni mor gur uo 

cuis ilghairdis dia gcairdip a ttoisc gusin dau sin oir mesait 

each gur do hinadhoip is messa anffallaine aer * mor-thimchell 

na hEtaille uile an t-inadh sin d'airigthi. Foss nir dermait 

se sin do thaispenadh doip-sen oir ro gap fiaprass tessaighi 

teinntighi neimhneach an t-iarla an t-ochtmadh la deg don 

mi chetna dia haoine do shonnradh ar aoi laithi sechtmaine 

1608. Ar n-a mharach dia sathairn gabuis in fiapras cetna 

mac I Domnaill .i. Cathbarr. Ro leagadh an barun isin 

ffiaprus an luan ro bui for a gcinn, fos Domnall O Cerbaill 

go gar n-a dheghaidh. An buachaill 7 in coisighi ru-s-batar 

maille friu gabait araon fiapras go lan-gairit i n-a dheghaidh. 

Ro bui an t-ierla go tteinnes ndichra 7 go ndocomal n-adpal 

fri re en-la deg. Dorat a uile choipsena. Gabuis chuice an 

sacrament naomhtha. Ro scar a Sinmain fria chorp. Fuair 

bas do moladh De 7 na heguilsi ier mbuaidh o doman 7 5 

deman timchell medhom oidque dia luain. Ar n-a mharach 

immorro dia mairt la Sancta Marta an t-ochtmadh la fichet 

do mi lulii ro hadhlaicedh in t-ierla a mainistir S. Petro 

Montorio. Sochraiti linmar 7 torramh ro-onorach ar n-a 

n-ordugadh o naomht[h]acht in papa a prosesion onorach 



* Over the line. 

^ Aodh 'O Neill. See note, cli. cviii. § 1. 

* Cathbharr 'O Domhnaill, brother of Aodh Ruadh and Rudhraighe, 
the Earl. 

^ Domhnall 'O Cearbhaill. Meehan erroneously refers to him as 
" physician to the Earl," but from our narrative it is plain that he was a 
clergyman. 

* This should be "on the eighteenth of July." 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 239 

the head of the procession was a beautiful white horse 
with a splendid saddle that was covered with cloth of gold, 
and a large purse hanging from his neck containing the 
revenue of Naples. When the ambassador came into his 
Holiness' presence, he gave his Highness the horse and the 
revenue in the King's name. Then he returned to his 
house. 

CXL It was a wearisome and unusual experience for 
the Earl of Tyrconnell, the son ^ of ^O Neill, and the son ^ 
of 'O Domhnaill, to spend so long without moving out of 
Rome. They proposed and determined that they should 
leave it for a time, and should go to make holiday 
and take a change of air. The three set out, taking with 
them a page and a footman. Alas ! their trip was attended 
with ill luck and misfortune. They went to a certain town 
on the sea coast named Ostia, on the bank of the Tiber, 
fifteen miles from Rome. They stayed for two days and 
nights on both sides of the river. The Reverend Doctor 
Domhnall 'O Cearbhaill ^ followed them. These noblemen 
next returned to Rome. Their journey to Ostia was no 
source of rejoicing to their friends, for all are agreed that 
that particular place is one of the worst and most unhealthy 
for climate in all Italy. Indeed, it was not long until it 
proved so to them, for the Earl took a hot, fiery, violent 
fever on the eighteenth of the same month ^ in 1608, the 
day of the week being Friday. On Saturday, the following 
day, Cathbharr, the son of ^O Domhnaill, caught the same 
fever. On the Monday afterwards, the Baron was stricken 
with it, and Domhnall 'O Cearbhaill in a short time after 
him. The page and the footman who were with them both 
got the fever in a very short time. The Earl had a violent 
sickness and great pain during a period of eleven days. He 
made a full confession and received the Holy Sacrament. 
His soul separated from his body and he died, by the grace of 
God and the Church, after victory over the world and the 
devil, about midnight on Monday. On the following day> 



240 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

go n-imat-linmairecht do lochrannoibh lasamhain ciera go 
gcanntaireacht gcaoin-bhinn ttaidiuir ttuirsigh ar gach 
taeba de. E a n-aibit Sanct Pronseis mar do theguisg fein 
a cor i n-[a] urthimchell. Muiriss, buachaill in iarla, d'fagail 
baiss in tress la Augustii. An t-ochtmhadh la don mi 
[p. 125] chetna ro-s-fuair in doctiiir diadhachta Domnall O 
Cerboill mac Uaithne Ui Cherboill o Moigh Dreithne a 
nUrmumain bass 7 cetera. 

CXH. Scela Meguidir. ler mbeith do fri re secht 
sechtmain imlan issin Napless smuainis 7 comairlighis dol 
don Spainn. Gluaississ for fairrgi otha in Napless do 
denamh ar in primh-chathraig n-oirrdirc n-adhamra darab 
comhainm Genua. Tainic fein 7 a chuidechta a ttir go fedh 
en-oidque amhain isin ait a gcomraic sruth Tibir frissin 
ffairrgi a n-imfochroib 7 a n-imfhoixi an inaidh chetna i 
n-ar glacatar na maithe adupramar romhainn in droch-aer 
mimessarrdha anffallain. Glacuis tuile 7 dassacht fiaprassa 
neimhnigh naimhdemail Maguidir 7 Semus mac Eimir meic 
Cuuladh Meg Mathgamna. Treoraigther ier sin gusin prlm- 
chathraigh Genua iat. Fuarator araon bass ier ttabairt a 
n-uile choi'psen 7 ier gcomhchaithemh na sacramenti naemtha 
in dara la deg Augustii 1608. Se huaire an chluig amhain 
isseadh ro bui etorra gur uo luaithi fuair Semus Mag Mat[h]- 
gamna bass no Maguidhir. Ge tharla tra nar uo linmar a 
gcuideachta no a lucht lenamhna issin gcathraigh sin, ar 
aoi sin tra mar doclos a scela 7 a n-uaissle comchruinnighit 
suim airigthi do chleir 7 do daoinibh maithi na cathrach i 
n-a n-urt[h]imchell a prosesion onorach go ro hadhnacht 
iet 7 aibididhi S. Pronseis umpa a mainistir oirrdirc bhrathor 
minur issin chathraigh chetna sin. 

CXHL Ro bui in barun 7 mac Ui Domnaill i n-a luighi 
issin ffiapras frisin re aimsire sin go huilidc. Tochuirter do reir 



1 This is an error. Tuesday was the twenty-ninth, on which date 
the feast of Saint Martha is still celebrated. 

* Magh Dreithne, now Modreeny, the name of a townland and parish 
in. the barony of lower Ormond, County Tipperary. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 241 

Tuesday the twenty-eighth ^ of July, the feast of Saint 
Martha, the Earl was buried in the monastery of San Pietro 
Montorio. A large and splendid funeral in grand procession 
was ordered by his Holiness the Pope, and on either side 
of the bod\'' there were large numbers of lighted waxen 
torches and sweet, sad, sorrowful singing. It was enwrapped 
in the habit of Saint Francis, as he himself had ordered that 
it should be put about him. Muiris, the Earl's page, died 
on the third of August. On the eighteenth of the same month 
Domhnall ^O Cearbhaill, Doctor of Divinity, the son of 
Uaithne ^O Cearbhaill of Magh Dreithne ^ in Urmhumha, 
died £t cetera. 

CXII. As for Maguidhir, when he had been for a space 
of seven full weeks in Naples, he proposed and resolved to 
go to Spain. He set out by sea from Naples in the direction 
of the great, famous city which is named Genoa. He and 
his retinue landed for one night at the place where the 
river Tiber meets the sea, near and close to the identical 
place where the noblemen we have spoken of above were 
affected by the bad, injurious, and unhealthy climate. A 
wild and raging, painful and harmful, fever seized Maguidhir 
andSemus, son of 'Eimher, son of Cuulad Mag Mathghamhna. 
After that they were brought to the great city of Genoa. 
They both died on the twelfth of August, 1608, after having 
made their full confession and received the Holy Sacrament. 
There were only six hours between their deaths, Semus 
Mag Mathghamhna having died sooner than Maguidhir. 
Though their retinue and their followers in the city were 
not numerous, still, when their doings and their nobility 
were spoken of, a number of the clergy and noblemen of 
the city gathered about them in splendid procession, and 
they were buried with Franciscan habits about them in the 
great monastery of the Friars Minors in that same city. 

CXIII. The Baron and the son of ^O Domhnaill lay in 
the fever during all that time. By order of the doctors 
they were brought to a splendid palace on Monte Citorio 

r 



242 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

teguisc na ndoctuiridhi iat go palas onorach a monte Sitorio 
do glacadh aitherraigh aieir ba ferr* oldass beith a mBurgo 
airm a mbatar gusin tan sin.f [p. 126] Ar mbeith doip 
aimsir annsin fuair mac Ul Domnaill bass in coicedh la deg 
Septembriss. Is inmesta immorro nach don degh-fhortun 
no don degh-chinnemain iss ferr tarraidh Eire an aurdail 
sin do degh-roignib mhac Miledh Espainne dfoghbhail bhaiss 
go hobann diaigh a ndiaigh a n-echtar-c[h]rich imchein 
ainiuil a gcoimhfhegmhuiss a n-atharrdha bunaid badhdein. 
Ro hadhnacht tra mac Ui Domnaill a n-aipid Sanct Pronseiss 
go sochraiti iTnmair laiss 7 go ttorramh ro-onorach a prosesion 
i n-a thimchiol issin mainistir chetna S. Petro Montorio 
ar en-denamh 7 a n-imfochroib do thomba in iarla. 

CXIV. Bui mac Ui Neill leith-bliadhain imlan i n-a 
luighi a pericail ro-marbthaigh 7 a nguasacht baiss 7 
buideachas mor do Dhia ro thoiligh do ternod 6 bass sealat 
oile maille fri comhaisseg a shlainti d'fagail, acht gurab e 
sin bladh do mhichinnemain chaich 7 dia ndighbail re haer 
neimnech naimdighi Ostia. 

CXV. In cet la Augustii .i. la Lughnusa do shonnradh 
1608 eirgis O Neill go tempall ro-onorach mor-loighideachta 
darab comainm S. Petri ad Uincula .i. eglus ro-onorach ro 
togbadh 7 ro cumhdaigedh a n-ainm 7 a n-onoir Petair 
apstail. Taisselbtor do in slabradh imremar aggarp iernaidhi 
dia mbui Petor cengailti cruaidh-chuipright[h]i in tan ro 
bui a ngialna la ludaidhip aimhirseachaibh. Fecht n-ann 
ro-s-bm in dara leth don slabhradh chetna isin Roimh. Du- 
s-rat Elena in bainimpir an dara rann gusin Roimh de. Ar 
n-a gcoimshinedh araon re aroile iadhait 7 comhthathait le 
cheile go mirbaileach examail mar nach biadh etorscaradh 
ar bith etorra remhe sin riamh. Fos ba he in slabradh sin 



* ba ferr is over the line in different ink. 

t O Cianain finishes the last line of the page with these words, which 
are parenthetical : Forior ni mor gur lan-binn na scela so, Alas ! this 
account is hardly very pleasing. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 243 

that they might have air different and better than that of 
the Borgo, where they had been up to that time. When 
they had been some time there, the son of 'O Domhnaill 
died on the fifteenth day of September. It may well be 
believed that it was not through good fortune or the best of 
fate that it happened to Ireland that so many of the choicest 
of the descendants of Mil Easpainne died suddenly, one 
after another, in a foreign and strange land, far removed 
from their own native soil. The son of ^O Domhnaill was 
buried in the habit of Saint Francis, after having had a 
great funeral and splendid cortege following him in pro- 
cession, in the same monastery of San Pietro Montorio, in 
the same manner as the Earl, and close to his tomb. 

CXIV. The son of 'O Neill was a full half year lying in 
deadly peril and danger of death ; but great thanks be to 
God, who granted to him that he should escape death for 
another space, and that he should have his health restored.^ 
And that is but a portion of the misfortune of each of them, 
and of the harm done them, by the unhealthy, injurious 
air of Ostia. 

CXV. On the first of August, the day of Lughnas exactly, 
1608, 'O Neill went to a splendid, meritorious church with 
the title of Saint Peter ad Vincula, which was erected and 
built in the name and honour of the Apostle Peter. The 
stout, rough, iron chain with which Peter was tied and 
bound, when he was imprisoned by the unbelieving Jews, 
was exhibited to him. At one time there was but one half 
of that chain in Rome. The Empress Helena brought the 
other portion of it to Rome. When the two portions were 
put side by side, they closed and united together miraculously 
and strangely, as if they had never been separated at all 
previously. Besides, it was that chain which of itself burst 



* This must have been %vritten before Aodh 'O Neill died, that is, 
September, 1609. See note, p. 192. The Four Masters record his death 
under 1608. 



244 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

uaide fein ro sgaoil go mirbaileach comhainm in fhesta sin 
in tan [p. 127] ro bui Petor a gcengal 7 a gcruaidh-chuibhrech 
a nierusalem. Ro taispenadh do ier sin pictuir Mhaoissi meic 
Amhra ier n-a tarraing go hinntlechtach finelta a marmar, 
rann-chuid ro-mor do chroich S. Andriu, go n-imat reliqias 
oile. 

CXVL An c5icedh la deg * don mi chetna .i. la cheid- 
fheile Muire eirgiss O Neill go hegluiss oirrdirc oile dier 
comhainm Sancta Maria in Trasteuere. Ro bui station 
onorach mor-loighighechta go loghadh na n-uile peacadh 
issin eglais sin. Ba he in teg sin tra fo taibernacuil 7 fo 
tegh comhchruinnighthe ag an senadh Romanach fri re 
aimsire imcheine. Comhairlighit as a haithle a thabairt 
mar inadh oirissimh 7 comhnaidhe d'athlaochaibh trogha 
tuirsecha 7 do sen-saighdiuirip arsanta ier sgithlim a 
luthmaireachta 7 a neirt. Ro bui aca fri re fhota. Oidhche 
gheineamhna Crist .i. oidche notlac mor do shonnradh 
sguchaiss 7 comhsgeinnis tipra imdhomain ola go mirbailech 
ingantach assin egluis sin. Ro-s-bm tra ag snighe 7 ag 
tebersain mar hadh sruth comhadpal fri re laoi go n-oidhche 
go tteigheadh amach a n-inmedhon srotha Tibir. Odclos 
sin tra la Calisto Primo an seissedh papa deg ier Petor 
conrotacht sepel onorach laiss uassin tiprait sin tra. Ro 
bennaigh ieromh an sepel a n-ainm n?emhMuire oighe. Acht 
madh teagh Loreto amhain do bheith ier gcein mair roimhe 
sin ier n-a thogha 7 ier n-a bennugadh a gcomhainm Muire 7 
a Meic, ag sin ceid-eglus ro bennaigedh a n-onorachuss do 
Muire issin crTstaighecht go huilidhi. Fichi bliadan for dip 
cetoip aiss an Tigerna an tan sin tra. A reimhess in treass 
Grighoir do beith i n-a papa issin Roimh ro metaighedh an 
eglus so leiss as go ffuil i n-a primh-egluiss chatharrdha 
mhor-loigigheachta. Fichi bliadan ar sheacht gcet aoiss in 
Tigerna an tan sin. Ferta 7 adnacail a cethair do papaidhip 
[p. 128] issin egluis sin .i. Calistuss, Innocentiuss, luliuss. 



* .X. is over the line. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 245 

asunder by a miracle on the occasion of that feast/ when 
Peter was in bonds and chains in Jerusalem. After that 
there were shown to him a statue of Moses, son of Amram, 
skilfully and finely executed in marble, a great portion of 
the cross of Saint Andrew, and a large number of other 
relics. 

CXVL On the fifteenth of the same month, the day of 
the first feast of Mary, ^O Neill went to another famous 
church which is named Sancta Maria in Trastevere. There 
was a splendid, meritorious pilgrimage in that church, 
together with an indulgence for all sins. That edifice was 
a meeting-place and house of assembly for the Roman Senate 
during a very long period of time. In the end they de- 
termined to give it up as a residence and home to indigent, 
retired officers and to old soldiers who had outlived the 
days of vigour and strength. These held it for a long time. 
On the night that Christ was born, that is, the night of great 
Christmas exactly, a deep spring of oil sprung and leaped 
miraculously and wonderfully out of that church. It was 
streaming and flowing like a great river for the space of a 
day and a night, and went out into the middle of the river 
Tiber. When Callistus I, the sixteenth Pope after Peter, 
heard of it, he built a splendid chapel above the spring, 
and he dedicated it in the name of the Holy Virgin Mary. 
Were it not that the house of Loreto alone had been for a 
long time previously chosen and consecrated in the name of 
Mary and her Son, this would have been the first church 
which was dedicated in honour of Mary in the whole of 
Christendom. The year of the Lord at that time was two 
hundred and twenty. When Gregory III was Pope in 
Rome, this church was enlarged by him, so that it is a great, 
splendid, meritorious church. The year of the Lord at that 
time was seven hundred and twenty. The tombs and 
burial place of four Popes are in it, namely, Callistus, 

1 That is, the feast of Saint Peter ad Vincvila, which is celebrated on 
the first of August. 



246 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Corp Quirlnus espoig, maille fri hilimat oile do thaissip 
naomh 7 firen, issin prim-egluiss chatharrdha chetna sin. 

CXVH. An cethramadh la fichet don mi chetna .i. la 
fheile Parthalain do shonnradh eirghis O Neill go hoilen 
oirrderc ata forsan Tibir dier comainm Insola Tiberina. 
Mainistir onorach go n-ord Sanct Pronseiss forsan oilen sin, 
Corp Parthaloin apstail issin mainistir sin ier n-a threorughadh 
lassin impir in darna Hotono otha Beneuento gusin Roimh. 
Ilimat do thaissip naomh 7 firian cenmotha sin issin egluiss 
naomhtha sin, foss pictuiridhe 7 fidhracha Sancta Caterina, 
Sancta Agata, 7 morain do ban-naomhuibh uaissle adhamra 
oile, ier n-a n-oibriugadh 7 ier n-a n-imdenomh go healadhanta 
inntlechtach examail issin staid 7 issin innioll chetna a 
mbator a n-aimsir a martra 7 a mbassaighthi la ludaidhip 
aimhirseachaib. Mainistir Eoin go n-ospitail ro-mhaith, 
airm a ndingentar do gnath imat deirce 7 trocaire, forsan 
oilen sin. 

CXVHL In nomadh la fichet Septembris i n-a deghaidh 
.i. la fele Micheil teit O Neill go tempol Micheil a mBurgo. 
Gregoriuss papa is laiss conrotacht o thus. Aroile aimser 
imchien ro-s-bui plaigh adpal-mor issin Roimh. Fuaratar 
tra formhor lochta a haittrebhtha 7 a hinotachta an inbaidh 
sin bass. Gluaissis Gregoriuss 7 gach meide ru-s-mair do 
na Romhanchaibh a prosetion onorach aithrigeach otha 
mainistir Arass Celi go tempall Petair, fidair-dhealbh naom- 
Muire oighi ata issin mainistir sin rompa. Ag ceimniugadh 
doip tar Droichet na n-Aingel fuil for sruth Tibir adchonnar- 
catar dia suilibh corparrdha aingel De uasaip issin aeier, 
cloidemh nochtaighthi linta lom-lan d'fuil [p. 129] chroi- 
deirg i n-a laimh. Toirlingis as a haithle forsan gcarraic 
gcomaird for ar comdaighedh Caislen na n-Aingel. Ar 
ffaixin naomhthachta in papa do cuiris a chloidemh i n-a 



^ The name of the tourth is not given. 

* The Franciscan monastery belonging to the church of Santa Maria 
in Aracoeli was, for the most part, pulled down in 1888, to make way for 
the monument to Victor Emmanuel II. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 247 

Innocent, and Julius.^ The body of Quirlnus the bishop, 
and a very great number, besides, of rehcs of saints and 
holy men, are in that same beautiful church. 

CXVII. The twenty-fourth of the same month, the feast 
of Bartholomew exactly, 'O Neill went to a famous island 
on the Tiber which is named Isola Tiberina There is a 
splendid monastery belonging to the Order of Saint Francis 
on that island. The body of Bartholomew the Apostle is 
in the monastery, having been brought by the Emperor 
who was named Otho II from Benevento to Rome. There 
is a great number of relics of saints and holy men, in addition 
to that, in that holy church, as also pictures and images of 
Saint Catherine, Saint Agatha, and of many other noble, 
remarkable, holy women, executed and constructed artfully, 
artistically, and exquisitely in the same state and con- 
dition iji which they were when they were martyred and 
put to death by the unbelieving Jews. The monastery of 
Saint John, and a good hospital where many works of charity 
and mercy are always carried on, are on that island. 

CXVIII. On the twenty-ninth of September following, 
the feast of Saint Michael, ^O Neill went to the church of 
Saint Michael in the Borgo. By Pope Gregory it was first 
erected. For a long time there had been a very great 
plague in Rome. The majority of the inhabitants and those 
who dwelt in the city died at that time. Gregory and all 
the Romans who still lived went in splendid procession of 
penance from the monastery of Ara Coeli ^ to the church of 
Saint Peter, with an image of the Holy Virgin Mary which is 
in the monastery borne in front of them. As they passed 
over the bridge of Sant' Angelo, which crosses the river 
Tiber, they saw with their bodily eyes the angel of God above 
them in the air, and in his hand a bare sword covered and 
besmeared with red gore. He afterwards alighted on the 
high rock on which the castle of Sant' Angelo was built. 
When he beheld his Holiness the Pope, he sheathed his 
sword. The Pope and the Romans understood from that 



248 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

thruaill taisgedha. Tuigis in papa 7 in senadh Romhanach 
asside ferc in Tigerna riu ar ttoirnemh. Ata foilliucht choss 
in aingil isin leic mharmair for ar thoirling ueos. Conrotacht 
tra in eglus so lassan papa a n-onoir 7 a n-airmitin Micheil 
archaingil. Ru-s-fagoibh fein gusna papaidhibh oile deoigh 
a ndeoigh imat loghadh 7 maithemnuiss na peacadh aice. 
Ni ro gapsat tra braithri Arais Celi gan in gcloich marmair 
remraite d'fogbail doib badhdein a n-athchuingidh o naomh- 
thacht in papa fo bithin gur uo hi in fidair mirbaileach Muire 
bui leo ru-s-bui a remhthuss in prosesioin riasan papa. 
Gnathaigit na Romhanaigh dol for a ngluinip suass issin 
staigri chomhard marmair for a gceimnigther gusin egluis 
sin la feli Micheil do shonnradh. 

CXIX. Dia cetaoin in treas la Septembris teit naomh- 
thacht in papa a prosesion ro-onorach go maithibh na Ro- 
manach a prosesion mailli fris otha tempol Muire na n-Aingel 
go ro riacht Sancta Maria maiora 7 an aoine ru-s-bui for a 
gcionn 6 thempall Muire Menerua go Sancta Maria de Pace. 
Bui O Neill i n-a coimidecht frisin re sin. 

CXX. In cethramadh la Octobris .i. la Sanct Proinseiss 
eirgis O Neill go mainistir onoraigh darab comhainm S. 
Francisco. Tegh bunaidh 7 inadh oirissimh 7 comhnaidhe 
aine 7 apstanaite S. Pronseiss issin Roim in reicles ro-onorach 
sin. Sepel ro-onorach i n-a mbid ag aithrighe 7 ag urnaigthi 
7 ag etorguide in choimsigh chomhachtaigh issin mainistir 
cetna sin.* [p. 130] Crann ingantach examail oraistidhi issin 
mainistir chetna sin. Naomhthacht Sanct Proinseis ru-s- 
cuir a ttalmain thuss dia lamhoip bennaighthi badein. 
Coic cnapain bhega chomhchruinne a ffidair chroissi for 
gach n-oraisti dia ffasann forsan gcronn. Baramail lasna 
diadhairidip 7 la trachtairigip in[na] screptra naoimhe gur a 
fhdair 7 a fforaithmet na gcoic n-aladh ro shilset full S. 
Proinseis a gcuimhne 7 a ndibergoit paissi Crist bit na coic 



* The last line of the page is finished with Tahair hennacMain for 
anmain in sgribnora, Give a blessing for the soul of the writer. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 249 

that the Lord's anger towards them had come to an end. The 
track of the angel's feet is still in the marble flag on which 
he alighted. This church was erected by the Pope in honour 
and reverence of Michael the Archangel. He himself, and 
the other Popes one after another, left to it numerous 
indulgences and remissions of sin. Now, the friars of Ara 
Coeli were not content until they got as a gift for themselves, 
from his Holiness the Pope, this marble stone, for it was 
their miraculous image of Mary which was at the head of 
the procession, in front of the Pope. The Romans are 
accustomed, on the feast of Saint Michael in particular, to 
ascend on their knees the high marble stairs which lead to 
that church. 

CXIX. On Wednesday, the third of September, his 
Holiness the Pope went in a splendid procession, in which 
the nobles of the Romans were in his company, from the 
church of Mary of Sant' Angelo to that of Santa Maria 
Maggiore ; and on the following Friday from the church of 
Mary of Minerva ^ to that of Santa Maria della Pace. 'O 
Neill was along with them on these occasions. 

CXX. On the fourth of October, the feast of Saint 
Francis, 'O Neill went to a splendid monastery ^ which is 
named San Francesco. That splendid church was the founda- 
tion house, the seat and residence, and the place of fasting 
and abstinence of Saint Francis in Rome, There is a 
splendid chapel in this monastery, where the worshippers 
do penance, and pray, and beseech Almighty God. In it 
also is a wonderful, strange orange tree. The holy Saint 
Francis planted it in the beginning with his own blessed 
hands. On each orange that grows on the tree there are 
five small round lumps in the form of a cross. Theologians 
and commentators on the Holy Scripture think that it 
is in sign and commemoration of the five wounds which 

^ This church is called Santa Maria sopra Minerva from having 
been erected on the ruins of a temple of Minerva. 

^ This monastery adjoined the church of Sa7i Francesco a Ripa. 



250 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

cnapain sin forsna horaistidhip sin d'airigthi seach oraistidhip 
oile an domain. Dobeirit each aithne forra in gach inadh a 
ngabait sechnoin na cristaigheachta. Taisselbthar doip ier 
sin ilimat reliciass ro-onorach do thaissibh naomh 7 firen. 

CXXL In cet-la Nouembris .i. la samhna do shonnradh 
eirgis O Neill go Sancta Maria Rotunda egluss ro-onorach 
airmitnech adhamra conrotacht lassan senadh Romhanach 
ier cein mair aimser imchien ria ngeinemain Crist. A n-onoir 
na n-uile dee ro togbadh in egluss 6 thuss. Coimhinann fot 
airde 7 leithet di. En-fhuinneoc amhain i n-a ffuilit deich 
ttroighthi fichet i n-a fir-mhullach si comhchruinn comfhair- 
sing du-s-gni soillsi d'uile altoirip in reclesa i n-a fir-mhullach.* 
Dorass na heguilsi ier n-a imdhenomh d'aon-chloich amhain 
itir di ursain is fordhoruss, ocht ttroigthe fichet in a Ieit[h]et, 
samalta a chomhairde fri da pice deoigh a ndeoigh. Delp 
Muire mhirbhaileach doroine Lucass suiscel dia lamhoip 
badhdein a n-inbaidh 7 a n-aimsir naomhMuire do bheith 
forsan saogal so issin egluis sin tra. Ceithri colaman deg 
ar lain-mhet cholaman na cristaigheachta go huilidhi siat 
ar n-a gcomhshuidhiughadh a ndorus na heguilsi. Innte 
atait cuirp S. Anastatio, Sancta Ratio, ilimat do thaisibh 
naom 7 firen archena. 

CXXII. [p. 131] Assa haithle sin tra eirgis O Neill go 
tempall S. Gregori in tress deg. Station 7 loghadh ro- 
onorach mor-loigh ann an la sin. E amhain ba haruss 
bunaidh agus ba histadh gnath-chomnaidhe don Grig5ir 
chetna sin. Runn-tapla ro-onorach marmair aoingil ann 
for a ngnathaighedh se comhshassadh bidh 7 dighi 7 gach 
derce olchena do thabairt do bochtaip 7 d'aidhilgneachaibh 
an choiiTidhedh chomhachtaigh gacha laithe. Fecht n-aon 
tig an Tigerna fein cetna a persain forsan mbord a mesc na 
ndeoradh, fer mar chach, mar shupailcip 7 mar airmitin 
dho-samh fo bhithin a dheirci 7 a t[h]rocaire go ro lapair 
aghaidh a n-aghaidh friss 7 e ag aurgnamh 7 ag coimhriar 

* ina firmullach is superfluous here. 



^ FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 251 

shed the blood of Saint Francis in memory and in invoca- 
tion of the Passion of Christ that these lumps are on these 
oranges in particular, rather than on any others in the 
world. Everybody recognizes them wherever they go 
throughout Christendom. Afterwards there were exhibited 
to them many splendid relics of the remains of saints and 
holy men. 

CXXL On the first day of November, the day of Samhain 
in particular, 'O Neill went to Santa Maria Rotonda,^ a 
splendid, beautiful, remarkable church which was built by 
the Roman Senate long ago, a long time before the birth of 
Christ. In honour of all the gods it was first erected. Its 
length and height and breadth are the same. In the very 
top of it there is a single thirty foot window, circular and 
wide, which admits light to all the altars in the church. 
The doorway is all made of one stone, both jambs and lintel, 
and it is twenty-eight feet wide, while its height is about 
that of two pikes, one placed on the other. In that church 
there is a miraculous image of Mary which Luke the evangelist 
made with his own hands at the time that Holy Mary was 
in the world. There are fourteen columns, as large as any 
in all Christendom, situated in front of the church. In it 
there are the bodies of Saint Anastatius and Saint Ratio 
and a large number of relics of other saints and holy people. 

CXXII. After that 'O Neill went to the church of 
Saint Gregory on the thirteenth. There was a pilgrimage and 
a great, meritorious indulgence in it on that day. It alone was 
the chief seat and fixed residence of that Gregory. In it there 
is a splendid round table of pure white marble from which 
he was accustomed to distribute each day their requirements 
in food, and drink, and every alms, to Almighty God's poor 
and needy. On one occasion the Lord Himself came in 
person to the table among the strangers, in the same way as 
the others, as a mark of respect and honour to him for his 

^ The Pantheon temple was erected under Agustus in 27 B.C., was 
renovated several times, and was dedicated as a Christian church in 6O9. 



252 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

na mbocht. An darna bliadain ier papa do gairm de ro 
bheannaigh an primh-eglus sin a n-ainm 7 a n-onoir S. 
Andriass apstail. Fuil a lamh badhdein go ffiacail Petair 
go n-ilimatt do thaissip naomh agas firen issin egluis chetna 
sin. 

CXXHL In fichetmadh la do mi Nouembriss tic don 
Roimh o righ cristaighe na Fraingci do thaispenadh aidite 7 
umhlachta an rIgh do naomhthacht in papa 7 do thabairt 
poice dia choiss as a ucht extraordinarii ambasadoir, diuc 
de Neuers a chomhainm. E ba diuc a Retel, ba hard- 
prinnsa Arceis, prinnsa Porsian, marceis an Oilein, iarla 
Manudess, guibernoir 7 leptinont general fo laimh an rIgh 
a prouensi Compania 7 Bria. Karalo Consago Decleuess a 
chomhainm baiste. Ba honorach airmhitnech adhamra 
du-s-riacht an diuc astech is in Roimh, for Gepta na n-Aingel 
do shonnradh, ar comghar 7 a n-imfoixe tempail Petair. Ro 
bator tra tri fichit mul fo n-a * [p. 132] charaiste, airm a 
mbui a libhre a plata 7 a chostus, a remhthuss na sligedh, 
bruit ingantacha examla ildathacha go mbroidinelacht 7 go 
gcir-chimhsoip suaithenta sidaidhi uass a gcennoibh. Da 
mul deg fo throngcoip dessa gerra peinnteailte i n-a ndea- 
ghaidh sein, brat do miliuent deirg ier n-a oibriughadh la 
hor-shnaithe 7 airget-snaithe uas gach mul, armus in diuc 
badhdein ier n-a chomhtharraing go ro-inntlechtach in gach 
brat. Clarcraithe coimhlethna capcainn-reamra for gach 
mul siat uile d'airget aoingeal aithleghtha. Bacain chomh- 
fhata CO n-uile bhuclaidhi 7 tairrngide a srien 7 a n-audhaim 
d'airget mar in gcetna. Cleitighe comharda go n-examhlacht 
na n-uile dhath a ffir-airde uas cennoip na mul. Aradhna 
comhfhota coimremhra do shida dherg go sgoth-dhossaibh 
mora for a gcennoip ass srien gach muil. Garda mor 
marcshlaighi in papa i n-a ndeghaidh sein ar ndol amach 

* fona is repeated on the next page. This text seems favilty. 

^ He was a French nobleman who was advanced to the name, title, 
and estates of the Mantuan family of Gonzaga. 

- This translation is a conjecture, and the meaning of capcainn is 
quite obscure. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 253 

charity and kindness, and He spoke to him face to face as he 
served and attended the poor. The second year after he 
was proclaimed Pope, he consecrated this church in the 
name and honour of Saint Andrew the Apostle. His own 
hand, and a tooth of Peter, and a large number of relics of 
saints and holy people are in that same church. 

CXXHL On the twentieth of November there came to 
Rome from the Christian King of France, to offer his sub- 
mission and humility to his Holiness the Pope, and to kiss 
his foot on his behalf, an ambassador extraordinary. The 
Duke de Nevers^ was his name. He was Duke of Retel, 
High Prince of Arques, Prince of Porsien, Marquis of I'lsle, 
Earl of Montserrat, and Governor and Lieutenant-General 
under the King in the province of Champagne and Brie. 
Carlo Gonzaga de Cleves was his baptismal name. The 
Duke entered Rome in great splendour and grandeur, by 
the gate of Sant' Angelo in particular, near and close to the 
church of Saint Peter. There were three score mules drawing 
their carriages at the head of the procession, wherein were his 
livery, his plate, and his valuables, and upon their heads 
were grand, variegated, particoloured embroidered clothing, 
with conspicuous, silken combs. After these there were 
twelve mules carrying beautiful, short, painted trunks, and 
on each mule there was a sheet of red velvet adorned with 
gold and silver thread, and the coat of arms of the Duke 
himself skilfully wrought on each sheet. On each mule 
there were very broad, strong blinkers,- and they were 
all made of pure bright, refined silver. The long 
hooks, and all the buckles and nails of their bridles and 
harness were likewise made of silver. There were tall 
plumes, with variety of all colours, standing on the heads 
of the mules. Long, stout reins of red silk, having large 
tassels at their ends, were attached to the bridle of each 
mule. A great guard of the Pope's cavalry came after these, 
having gone out from the city with the Pope's brother, 
John Baptist Borghese, to meet the Duke. The Cardinals' 



254 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

assin gcathraigh la derurathair in papa Seon Bautista 
Burgeis a gcomdhail an diuc. Muil persan na gcardenal 
timchell da ficW/ doip go ffudclocaibh coimhderga i n-a 
ndeghaidh sein, searbontaidhe cardinail for gach muL 
Trier do dhaoinibh uaisle 7 trier tromp5ir assa haithle. 
Coissighi in diuc badhdein go libre ro-ingantaigh fichi a lin 
for eachraidh i n-a ndeghaidh sin. Paitsidhe an diuc i n-a 
ndeghaidh da fer deg doip, a n-edaighi do meleuent buidi. 
Na Romhanaigh timchell da chet marcach do dhaoinibh 
uaissle ro-onoracha for eachaibh aille uaibreacha a n-etaigibh 
comhdhorcha i n-a ndeghaidh. Na Frangcaigh ceithri fichit 
marcach for eachraidh roi-deiss luthmair luath-leimnigh 
degh-audhaim assa haithle, co n-imat slabrudh oir fo a 
mprai^^hdibh. [p. 133] Da fichit barun 7 tigeina as a haithle 
siet a n ordugadh deissi batar a gcomprait stait frisna 
Frangcacha'bh acht a n-etaigi do bheith dorcha. Cethror do 
thrompoiribh in papa 7 a cethoir do dromatoirib in tscnaidh 
Romhanaig i n-a ndiaigh sin. Edaighe derga dealraighthecha 
bui leo. TrI fichit marcach d'oifficeach 7 do lucht fedhma 
in papa i n-a nd ghaidh. Bator fein 7 a n-eachradh a 
n-etaigib derga. Buidhen mor d'uaislib in tsenaidh Ro- 
manaigh as a haithle. Cethror do daoinip uaisle ro-onoracha 
do mo t[h]ir righ na Spainne a n-etaigip dupa i n-a ndeghaidh. 
Fichi do dhaoinibh uaisle mor-t[h]itail i n-a ndeghaidh, don 
Frainc doip. Loghmhar examail mor-loigh a n-etaighi fein 
CO n-a n-eachraidh. Diuc de Forsa go ndirim moir marc- 
shlaighi do diucaidhip 7 prinnsaidhip na Romha 7 na hEtaille 
archena i n-a ndiaigh sin. Ba lor a onoraighi 7 a statusaighe 
fon uile doman du-s-riacht diuc de Fors. Derbrathair in 
papa as a haithle, garda Suser in papa i n-a urthimchell. 
Cethror marcach a n-etaigibh derca go gcolbhaip commora 
airgit aingil a remthus na sligedh roimhe. Di lecicaidh deg 
do muinntir in diuc 7 seiser Suser a n-etaighip buidhi as a 
haithle. Beirt d'feroip gorma i n-a ndeghaidh, a n-etaighi 

^ He was a faino\i3 French general who died in 1652. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 255 

own mules, to the number of about forty, with red footcloths, 
came after these, and on each of them rode a cardinal's 
servant. Next there were a trio of noblemen and a trio 
of trumpeters. After these came the footmen of the Duke 
himself in very grand livery, twenty in number, and riding 
on horses. After these were the Duke's pages, twelve in 
number, and their dress was of yellow velvet. After these 
were the Romans, about two hundred great noblemen, 
riding on beautiful, mettlesome horses, and dressed in 
black. Next were the Frenchmen, eighty horsemen on 
beautiful, active, swift, well-equipped horses, with many 
golden chains about their necks. Forty barons and lords 
came next, two and two, and they were as stately as the 
Frenchmen, but their dress was of dark colour. After these 
there were four of the Pope's trumpeters, and four drummers 
belonging to the Romans. They wore red, glittering suits. 
After them were sixty men of the officers and servants of 
the Pope on horseback. They and their horses were dressed 
in red. After them was a large group of the nobles of the 
Romans. After these were four great noblemen of the 
chief country of the King of Spain, dressed in black. Next 
to them were twenty titled noblemen, and they were from 
France. Precious, grand, and valuable were their dress 
and their horses. After these came the Duke of Force, ^ 
with a great group of horsemen, dukes and princes of Rome 
and of the rest of Italy. The Duke of Force came with the 
greatest splendour and grandeur in all the world. After 
these there came the Pope's brother, with the Pope's Swiss 
guard about him. In front of him on the road there were 
four horsemen in red suits with great maces of pure bright 
silver. Next came twelve lackeys of the Duke's party, 
and six Swiss in suits of yellow. Following them were 
two coloured men, their garments made of red damask, with 
much wide, golden laces. Near them was a team of beauti- 
ful horses, with saddles of red velvet covered with em- 
broidery in golden thread. The Duke himself came next,. 



256 FLIGHT OF T?IE EARLS 

do damusc dherc go n-imat do lassaigibh lethna 6r-snaithe. 
Cuingir d'eachraidh roi-dheis go ndiallaitibh do meleuent 
deirg ier n-a n-imfholach do broidinelacht or-snaithi i n-a 
n-aice. In diuc badhdein as a haithle, e for chrninn-each 
beg roi-dess bhan, futcloc do melement uinnsinn os e iTnta 
do lassaigip orraidhe for a dhiallait. [p. 134] Bacain 
chomhfhata choimhreamra in tsrien co n-a buclaidhip, go 
stiroipib na diallaiti, co n-a huile ballaibh, ier n-a n-imdenomh 
do derg-6r go huilidhi. Edach ro-onorach mor-loigh uime 
badhdein ier n-a uile-broidinelacht la hor-snaithe. Moran 
demont 7 do chlochaibh uaissle coimchengailte a gcorda in 
hata ro bui for a chenn, acht chena ba nemhchomhnaigtliech 
dia laimh ag sir-buain in hata sin de ag tabairt umhlachta 7 
cuirtissighi do lucht a fhaixena 7 a forfailtighi. Ro buT 
immorro patriarca HierosoHma dia dess-laimh, ardesspog 
Uitail dia chle-laimh. Mounseignour de Breues i n-a 
ndeghaidh, amba[sa]doir gnath ro bui o righ Franc isin 
gcathraigh, ardespog onorach for gach taep de. Batar tra 
leithched eitir espoig is prelait onoraigh eguilsi as a haithle, 
muilHdhi ro-dessa go ndiallaitib 7 futclocaibh ba lor feapus 
fo gach n-aon. 

CXXIV. Ag ceimniugadh astech tar Gepta na n-Aingel 
doibh dognit tra na Romhanaigh m5ran ciuil. Ba 
linmar trompaidhe 7 uile aightheacha ciuil 7 muissice aca. 
Trompoiridhi in papa ag in palass mhor. Comhscaoilit 
garda in palais an ro bui d'ordanass mhor 7 beg aca in tan 
doratsat in marcshlach a ndromanna friu. Nir uo lugha 
sa chach la garttae Chaislein na n-Aingel ag sTr-sgailedh 
ordanaiss moir. Do mesfadh tra fer a nemfhaixena go sin 
o fhuaim 7 6 fhothromh in ordanais mhoir ag a chomhscailedh, 
6 luth-leimnigh na heachraidhi aindiuiti aille aindrennda, 
go rabatar na sraitte 7 na margaidhi trissa gceimnighdiss 
for comhchrithnughadh 7 bogadh-bertnugadh. Ascnaidis 
an diuc ier sin tre primh-shraidip oirrderca [p. 135] na 
cathrach gusin stat 7 gusin onoir gcetna n-a thimchell 
go ro riacht dia palass neoch ba hurdhailte for a chomhair. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 257 

riding on a beautiful, white, small, stout horse, a 
footcloth of Indian velvet, covered with golden laces, 
upon his saddle. The long, strong hooks of the bridle, 
its buckles, the stirrups of the saddle, and all its parts, 
were made entirelv of red gold. About himself was a 
splendid, valuable garment, all embroidered with golden 
thread. There were many diamonds and precious stones 
united in the cord of his hat on his head, and his hand 
was continually in motion dofhng his hat while saluting 
and bowing to those who saw and welcomed him. The 
Patriarch of Jerusalem was on his right hand, the Arch- 
bishop of Volterra ^ on his left. After them was Monsignor 
de Breves, the ambassador in ordinary of the King of 
France in the city, with a noble archbishop on either side 
of him. After these were fifty bishops and grand prelates 
of the Church, each riding on a beautiful mule, with the 
most excellent saddles and footcloths. 

CXXIV. As they entered by the gate of Sant' Angelo 
the Romans commenced a great burst of music. Thev 
had numbers of trumpets and of every musical instrument. 
At the great palace were the trumpeters of the Pope. The 
guard of the palace fired all the large and small ordnance 
as soon as the cavalcade had gone by them. Likewise the 
guard of the Castle of Sant' Angelo continued firing the 
large ordnance. One who had never seen it would imagine 
from the sound and rumbling of the large ordnance being 
discharged, and from the prancing of the wild, beautiful, 
mettlesome horses, that the streets and market-places through 
which they advanced were trembling and quaking. The 
Duke then proceeded through the principal streets of the 
city, with the same great state and honour about him, until 
he came to his palace which was ready to receive him. 
The palaces and buildings on either side of the streets were 
filled with people wishing to view them. When the Duke 

^ I can find no name of a diocese corresponding more exactly with 
the Irish iiitail. 

P 



258 FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 

Na palaiss 7 na teghdhuissidhi for gach taep do na 
sraidip coimlinta o dhaoinibh dia ffaircsin. ler ndol 
gusin palass don diuc ceilipruiss do na huile mhaithibh 
sin. Airisis 7 comhnaigis gusin dia dardaoin bui do for cionn. 
Eirgis tra do lathoir naomhthachta in papa in la sin do 
shonnradh. Ro bui immorro stat 7 onoir nar uo lugha sa 
chach oldas stat in chedlaoi i n-a urt[h]imchell in la cetna 
sin. Formhor a dhaoine a libhre dubh-dhatha.* A chulaidh 
7 a thruscan badhdein go n-udhaim a eich ier n-a gcoimh- 
dessugadh do chlochaibh uaissle margarit 7 do bugil granado. 
Batar tra na Romanaigh go ro-linmhar dia chommoradh. 
Taisselbthor do in muissici 7 na ciuil chomhmbinne chetna 
go gcomscaoiledh in ordanais mhoir amail du-s-ronadh o 
thuss. Ier ndol do lathair naomhthachta in papa do du-s- 
rat poic dia chois. Ro thaispein as a haithle an patent 7 
in t-augdarrass ro bui aigi 5 righ Frangc um thoigheacht a 
n-ainm 7 a persain in rIgh badhdein do lathair naomh- 
thachta t 7 on5ra in papa do thabairt umhlachta 7 reuerens 
do, foss go letrechoip laimhe in righ ag tabairt supmission 
7 admhala umhlachta go ffolairemh a serbissi go sirraidhe 
for naomhthacht an papa 7 forsan tegduis apostolice 
sechnoin na cristaigheachta. Orator in righ, Mauritio 
Bressio comh-fhoillsighis 7 minighis ina huile briathra 
sin do na huilib batar ann. 

* MS. duibhdhatha. 
t MS. nomhihacMa. 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 259 

reached the palace, he dismissed all these noblemen. He 
rested and remained at ease until the Thursday following. 
On that day in particular he went into the presence of his 
Holiness the Pope. That same day the state and honour 
surrounding him was no less than that of the first day. 
The greater part of his retinue were in livery of black 
colour. His suit and equipment, anci the outfit of his 
horse, were ornamented with precious stones of pearl and 
of garnet bugle. The Romans in large numbers feted 
him. The same sweet music was played for him, and the 
large ordnance was fired as had been cione before. When 
he came before his Holiness the Pope, he kissed his foot. 
Afterwards he exhibited the patent of authority which he 
had from the King of France to come in the name and as a 
representative of the King himself before his Holiness the 
Pope to offer him humility and respect, and also the King's 
own letters making submission and acknowledgment of 
obedience, and entrusting his service for ever, in all parts of 
Christendom, to his Holiness and to the Apostolic See. The 
King's interpreter, Mauricio Bressio, made known and ex- 
plained all that was said to all the people that were there. 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Aat, Ath. 40. 

Aba Mor, The Blackivater, 6. 

Acarias. Zachary. 196. 

Adhanih, Adam, 72, 150. 

Adriatieo. Adriatica. Adricatia, The 

Adriatic, 108. 120, 126. 
Sancta Agata, St. Agatha, 246. 
Airola. Airolo, SS. 
Aissia, Asia, 114. 
Alba, Scotland, 24. 
Al(l)exandro, 114, 126, 128. 
Alniainn, Almainni, Germany, 80, 

82, 94. 96. 
S. Amando, St. Amandtis, 214. 
S. Anibross. St. Ambrose, 100. 
Ameno. Amoeno. 222. 
Amens, Amiaunce, Amiens, 30, 32. 
Aiiipse, Alpnacher-See. 86. 
S. Anastatic, Anustatius, St. Ana- 

statius, 210, 250. 
Ancona, 110, 142, 146. 
S. Andriass, S. Andriu, St. Andrew, 

182, 214, 244, 252. 
Sancta Anna, St. Anne, 110. 166, 

210. 
Donna Antonia, 132. 
Anuerp, Anu{u)orp, Antwerp, 56, 

64, 66, 70, 104. 
Appensel, Appenzell, 92. 
Apraham, Abraham, 150. 
Ara, Arranmore. 8. 
Arass, Arras, 28, 32. 
Arass Celi, Ara Coeli, 246. 248. 
Arceis, Arques, 252. 
Ard Macha, Armagh, 6, 168. 
Arlon, 74. 
Ai'on, Aaron, 200. 
Aroto, 138. 
An tArs{a)diuc, The Archduke, 24, 

28, 42, 44, 46. 54, 64, 70, 72, 82. 
Artoes, Artois, 38. 
Cardenel Ascoli, Cardinal Ascoli, 

172, 174. 
Diuc de Ascot, Duke of Ascot, 72. 
Assidhis, Assist, 162. 
Augustus, 200. 

Baili Atha Cliath, Dublin, 58. 
Baili Shlaine, Slane, 2. 
Barbiass, Barbary. 128. 
An Barun mac in lerla. The Baron, 
son of the Earl of Tyrconnell, 72. 



Basalea, Basilica, Bale, 84, 92. 

Basilisa. 210. 

Bastoinn, Bastogne, 74. 

Seen Bat. .John Bath, 2. 

Tigherna Beinne liEttoir, Lord 
Hou-th. 58. 

Beithil Ividda. Bethlehem, 192. 

Bel Atha in Airgit. Silverbridge, 6. 

Belunsona, Bellinzona, 90. 

Bench, Binche, 44. 

Benedict, 222, 224. 

Beneuento, 246. 

S. Bernard, 210. 

S. Bibiana, 192. 

Caiptin Seon Blint, 40. 

Bologna, Bolonia, 104, 106. 

Borgeto. Borghetto, 166. 

Borgondii, Burgundy, 82. 

Cardenal Borromeo, Serlus Bore- 
nieus. Cardinal Charles Borromeo, 
96, 98. 

Diuc de Borti, Duke of Urbino, 108. 

Bounhoni. Bonhomme, 82. 

Mauritio Bressio, 258. 

Mounseignoui' de Breves, 256. 

Bria, Brie. 252. 

Brigita. Birgitta, 212. 

An Britainn. Brittany, 10, 20. 

Bruxel. Brnxeil. Brussels, 42, 46. 
54, 58, 64. 

Buaiss. 68. 

Bun Diennoide, Burn Dennet, 6. 

Cardenal Burgeis, Burgesiuss, Car- 
dinal Borghese, 170, 184. 

Seon Baiitista Burgeis, John Bap- 
tist Borghese. 252. 

Diuc de Burgondi, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, 136. 

Burgouecliio Sancti Spiritus, Bur- 
gouesia, Bui'go. Borgo Vecchio. 
168, 188, 242, 246. 

Buriegh, Zurich, 92. 

Caislen na nAingel, Castle of Sanf 
Angelo. 174, 186. 188, 246, 256. 

Calisto Primo, Callistus I, 244. 

Calistuss. Callistus, 244. 

Caluuin, Calvin, 84. 

Cambria, Coimbra, 142. 

Campser, 82. 

Cannturbi, Cantorbi, Canterbury^ 
192, 214. 



263 



264 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



Caput de Lacu, Capo dl Lugo, 92. 
CastelBurneis, Castel Boloc/nese, 106. 
Castel Franco, Caslelfranco, 106. 
Castel Nouo, Castelnuovo, 166. 
Sancta Caterina, St. Catherine, 240. 
Catolica, Cattolica, 108. 
Cauarello, Cajfarella, 208. 
Ceizerspell, Kaysersberg, 82. 
Cenel Eoghain, 193n. 
Cenn Flonndruis, 66. 
Churches : 
Amiens : 

Tempall .Aruire, 30. 
Arras : 

Tempall Muire, 31. 
Bale, 84. 
Bologna : 

Sanct Sem, 106. 
S. Gotardo, 88. 
Hal: 

Egluis Muire, 42, 48. 
Louvain : 

Eglus Muire, 60, 62. 
Tempall Pet air, 72. 
Mechlin, 66. 
Milan : 

8. Ambrosio Maiore, 98. 
Eagluss Eustorgioss, 100. 
S. lulio, 132. 
S. Laurentio Maiore, 98. 
Sancta Maria del Duomo, 96, 

98. 
S. Nastaro ^laiore, 98. 
S. Simplisiano, 98. 
S. Steffano Parimente Maiore. 

98. 
S. Uictor al Corpo, 98. 
Modena : 

Tempall Gemeniano, 134. 
Rome : 

8. Cruce a nierusalem. 194. 
Domine quo uadis, 206, 208. 
Mainistir Eoin, 246. 
Tria Fountania, Tre Foniane, 

210, 212. 
8. Fransisco, 248. 
Tempall 8. Gregori, 250. 
Honofrius, Sani' Onofrio's, 220, 

222. 
8. lohannis Laterani, Teampall 

Eoin, 196, 212. 218. 
Eglus 8. Laurass, 194. 
8ancta Maria Maiora, 192, 248. 
8ancta Maria Nona, 186. 
8ancta Maria de Pace, 248. 
Sancta Maria Rotunda, 250. 
Sancta Maria in Trasteuere, 

244. 
Tempall Micheil a mBurgo, 

246. 
Tempall Muire na nAingel, 248. 
Tempall Muire Menerua, 248. 



Tempall Muire na Sanuisi. 208. 

Capella Paulinus. 174. 

Tempall Petair in Uaticano, 

Tempall Petair. 134, 168, 

172, 176, 184, 186, 188, 190, 

208, 212, 214, 218, 220, 246, 

252. 

Sepel Petair (in St. Peter's), 

216, 218. 
Sepel Petair agus Poil, 212. 
8. Petri ad Uincula, 242. 
8. Petro Montorio. 214, 238, 

242. 
Tempall Poil. 208, 210, 212, 

216. 
Scala Cell, 210. 
Scala Sancta, 204. 206. 
S. Sebastian, 206, 208. 
Sanct Sem a niBurgouesia, 188. 
8. Spiritus. 174. 178. 
Sanct Sem mor na Galissi, 212. 
Ciennacht Ghlinne Geimin, Keen- 

acjht. 56. 
Cilbuf, QuiUeba'iif. 14. 20, 26. 
Civiita Castellana, 166. 
Sancta Clara, St. Clare, 164. 
Karalo Consago declevies. Carlo 

Gonzaga de Cleves, 252. 
Codelacu, Capolago, 92. 
Irish Colleges : 
Antwerp, 68. 
Douai, 36. 
Cardenal Colona, Cardinal Colonna, 

172. 
Colona (family), 202. 
Columbier, Colmar, 82. ■ 

Comma. Couma, Coma, 94, 96. 
Compania, Champagne, 252. 
Connachta. Con)iaught. 10. 
Const antin( us) ^Magnus. ]Mor, Con- 
stantine the (Ireat, 194, 196, 200, 
202, 212, 216. 
Constantinus Og, Constantine the 

Younger, 196. 
Cosrat. Chosroes, 112. 
Countflaune, Conflans, 76. 
An Chraobh, Creeve, 6. 
8. Cristoforus, St. Christopher. 214. 
8. Cristostus, St. Chrysostom, 216. 
Croissic. Le Croisic, 10. 
Cruach Padraig. Croagh-Patrick, 8. 
An Chruinne, Corunna, 12. 
An Chvintaois, The Countess O Neill, 
18. 

Barun Dealpna. Baron of Delvin, 58. 
Desampach, Sempach, 86. 
Domisianuss, Domitian, 196. 
Sanct Dom(i)nic, St. Dominic, 106, 

174. 
Doua, Douai, 32, 36, 38, 40. 
DroichetAdhamhnain,fioZHndrrtii, 6. 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



265 



Droichet in Diabhail, Tcufclsbrucke, 

86. 
Droichet na iiAingel, Ponte SanV 

Angelo, 246. 
Dun Genainn, Dtou/annon, 6. 
Barun Duin (Tenainn. See Aodh 

O Neill. 

An Edaill, Edailli. Hall/. 72, 92, 94, 
100, 104. 108, 120, 128, 132, 154, 
166, 192, 222, 238, 254. 

Efeso, Ephesus, 196. 

Eigipt, Egypt, 112, 116, 228. 236. 

Eire, Ireland, 2, 24, 86, 58, 60, 66, 
168, 193n., 242. 

Elena, Helena, 196. 242. 

Eliuesia, Helvetia, 84, 92. 

Eoin Baiste. Baptaist. Bauptaist, 
John the Baptist, 30, 138, 196, 
198. 200, 202. 

Eoin Bruinne. John the Evangelist, 
116. 196. 200, 202. 

Eschiouia, Slavonia, 114. See Si- 
no nia. 

Eupa, Eve. 150. 

Faensa. Faenza. 106. 
Faido. 90. 
Fanait, Fanad, 4. 
Fardinando, Ferdinand, 214. 
Farlingrando, Forligrande, 106. 
Fattio Sancti Petri, Castel San 

Pietro, 106. 
Feilirs. Fillieres, 76. 
Feno, Fano, 108. 
Fersat Mor, 6. 
Filfort, Vilvorde. 70. 
An Fiodh, The Feus. 6. 
Flelan, Silenen, 86. 
Fliella Pourlacii, Flilelen. 86. 
Flonndrus. Flanders, 24, 28, 30, 32, 

36, 38, 42, 64. 72, 84, 104. 
Diuc de Forsa, Fors, Duke of Force, 

254. 
Count de Fo(u)nte, Count de Fuentes 

94, 100. 
An Flirain(g)c, France. 10, 12. 14, 

22, 24, 30, 32, 62, 94, 132, 252, 

254. 
Fran(g)c. France. 14, 22, 26, 28, 30, 

42, 170, 256, 258. 
Fransisco, 132. 
Corenel Francisco, 46. 
Sanctus Fransiscus, St. Francis, 

162. 
Sancta Fransisca Romana, St. Fran- 

eesca Romana, 184. 
Friburg, 92. 
Fvilino, Foligno, 162. 

Gabriel, 110. 

Cuan na Gaillbhe, Galivay Bay, 10. 



Gant, Ghent, 66, 70. 

Garsii, Guernsey, 12. 

Genua, Genoa, 240. 

Gepta na nAingel, Porta SanV 

Angelo, 252, 256. 
Gepta Iftrinn, 90. 
Gepta S. Spiritus, Porta Santo 

Spirito, 222. 
An Gemiainn, Germany, 178. 
Giralanio, St. Girolamo, 192, 224. 
Glaris, Glarus, 92. 
Gorgi, Jersey, 12. 
S. Gotardo, St. Gotthard, 88. 
Gra(u)niviiris(s), Grauniore(i)s, 48, 

50, 54. 
Granobile, Grenoble, 132. 
S. Gregori, St. Gregory, 250. 
S. Gregoriuss Papa, St. Gregory, 

216. 
Gregoriuss Papa, Po2)e Gregory, 246. 
Antreass Grighoir, Gregory HI, 244. 
An tres Grigoir deg, Gregory XIII, 

98. 

Hal. See Novitre Dam. 

Harboure de Grace, Havre de Grace, 

14. 
Divic de Haura, Dulce of Hal, 42. 
Heraclius, 112, 118. 
Herot. 136. 
Honofrius, 224-236. 
Horribile. 138. 
Hotmers. Ottmarsheim, 84. 
An darna Hotono, Otho II, 246. 

laicim. Joachim, 110. 
lanicolo, Janiculum, 212. 
larla Thire Conaill, Earl of Tyrcon- 
nell, 4, 8. 20, 46, 52. 64, 68, 78. 
88, 90. 150', 160, 162, 174. 190, 
236-242. 
lerosolinia, Jerusalem. larusalem, 
Jerusalem. 112, 200, 202, 204, 
212, 216, 244, 256. 
\ lesse, Jesse, 110. 
Imola, 106. 

Infanta, The Infanta, 46. 
Inginn. Enghien. 42. 
Innocentiuss. Innocent, 244. 
, An t-ochtmadh Innocentius, Inno- 
! cent VIII. 216. 
Innosensius Tertius. Innocent III. 

178. 
Insola Tiberina, Isola Tiberina, 246. 
loannes Patricius. 192. 
losep, Joseph. 116. 
Iruath, Herod. 138. 
Iruath mac Antipater. Herod, son 
of Antipater, 96, 112, 116, 138. 
212. 
S. lud, St. Jude, 216. 
' ludass Scariot, Judas Iscariot, 196. 



266 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



lug, Zug, 92. 
lulianvis, 210. 
luliuss, 244. 

Laboill, La Bouille. 20, 22. 

Labourshire, La Boissiere. 28. 

8. Lauras, St. Latcrence. 194, 196, 

204. 
Laureta, 120. 
Leistel, Liesthal, 84. 
An dechniadh Leo, Leo X, 154. 
Liegeuuaie, Liegeciuaie. Lisieux, 

20, 22. 
Sanct Linard, 38. 
Lisboarn, Lisbon, 94. 
Loch Beigfhine, (3, 
Loch Comma, Couma, Lake Como, 

94. 96. 
Loch Febail, Lough Foyle. 6. 
Lochlamn, 12. 

Loch Lucana, Lake Lugoito, 92. 
Lodi, 102. 
Petrus Lombardus, Peter LomJjurd, 

168. 
Longmus, 178, 198, 216. 
Diuc de Lore(i)n(e), Dulce of Lor- 
raine, 74, 76. 
Loreta, Loreto, 110-160, 244.^ 
Louam(e), Louvain. 52. 54, 56, 58, 

64, 70, 72. 
Lticana, Liigano. 90. 
Lucass Suiscel, Luke the Evangelist, 

112, 204, 214, 250. 
Lucifer, 156. 
Lucilla, 194. 
•Sancta Lucina, 208. 
Lumbardi, Lombardii. Lombardy, 

94, 102. 
Diuc Lumbardi, Duke of Lombardy, 

164. 
Lvin(n)dain, London, 24, 58. 
Luserna, Lucerne, 86, 92, 94. 
Luter, Luther, 84. 
Luueaniell, Luneville, 80. 

Corbmac Mac an Baruin, 58. 

An Doctuir Robert Mac Artuir, 36. 

Mac Suipne Fanat, Mac Suibhne of 
Fanad, 8. 

]\rag Mathgamhna, 58, 60. 

Eogan ]Mag Mhathgamhna, 32. 

S^mus mac Eimhir meic Cuuladh 
meic Aodha Ruaidh Meg Mhath- 
gamhna, 190, 240. 

Magh Dreithne, Modreeny, 240. 

Cuchonnacht Maguidhir, 4, 20, 46, 
162, 190, 240. 

Mahomet, 112. 

Maiclin, Mechlin, 64, 66. 

An Mhainistir Mhor, Mellifont, 4. 

Mainistir Sanct Seoirsi, 20. 

Mainistir Sanct Seoirsi, 114. 



Malatur, Mars-la-Tour, 76. 
Malta, 134. 

Manudess. Montserrat, 252. 
Maoissi, Moses, 200, 244. 
Marca, The Marches, 120, 126. 
Marcellina Papa, Pope Marcellinus, 

192. 
Mariniount, Mariraont, 42. 
Mars, Marche, 74. 
Marsee, The Me^irthe, 82. 
Sancta Marta, St. Martha, 238, 
Sanct Martin, St. Martin (mountain) 

80. 
Maserata, Macerata, 160. 
Michel Archaingel. Michael the 

Archangel, 246, 248. 
Mil Easpainne, Milesius, 242. 
Milan, Melan, Milan, 94, 98, 100, 

104, 132. 
Milbruc, Willebroeck, 70. 
Sir Geroid Modhar, Sir Garret 

Moore. 4. 
Modona(in), Modena, 104. 134. 
Diuc de Modona. Duke of Modena, 

104. 
Mons Senerum, Monte Ceneri, 90. 
Monte Caualle, Monte Cavallo, 170. 
Montefalto, Montefalco, 164. 
Monte Sitorio, Monte Citorio, 242. 
Montorio, 212. 
Muinechan, Monaghan, 60. 
Muinntir Luinigh, 6. 
Muire, The Virgin Mary, 36, 48, 52, 

60, 62, 68, 72, 104, 110-160, 166, 

192, 198, 200, 226, 228, 244-250. 
Muire Madalen, Mary Magdalen, 

32, 196. 
Muiris, Maurice, the EarVs page, 240. 
Muraighe, The Moors, 214. 
Mutsia, Muccia. 162. 

Namures, Namur, 54, 74, 76. 
Nancside, Nancsii, Nancy, 76, 82. 
Naples, 96, 190, 236, 240. 
Nasaret (Galalee), Nazareth, 110, 

112, 118, 126, 128. 
Nerni, Narni, 166. 
Neuel, Nyvel, 44, 46. 
Diuc de Neuers, Duke of Nevers, 

252. 
S. Niclas, St. Nicholas, 210. 
An tres Niclas, Nicholas III, 204. 
An cethramadh Niclas, Nicholas IV, 

112. 
Sanct Niclas, St. Nicholas (town in 

Italy), 106. 
Sanct Niclas, St. NicJiolas (town in 

Lorraine), 80. 
Nicolauss Fransisfane, Nicholas 

Frangipani, 118. 
Niderharga, Niederhergheim, 84^. 
Normainnti, Normandy, 12, 20. 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



267 



Noutre Da(a)m (de Hauer), Notre 
Dame de Hal, 40, 42, 46, 48, 52. 
Nueuocasa. Casoiovc. 1(>2. 
Nueuofhattel, Neufchatel, 2S. 

Seaaii O liAgain, 72. 

Donnchadh O Briaiii, 4. 

An Doftuir Domhnall O Cearbhaill, 

238, 240. 
Tadhg O Cianain, 40n., 108n., 

157n,, 190n. 
O Coinue, 72. 

Diennait O Conchiibliair, 06. 
Aotlh mac Cathbha[ijrr Ui Dhomh- 

naill, 72. 
Mac Ui Dhomhnaill (Cathbharr 

mac Aodha meic Maghnusa), 6, 

72, 1(52, 236-242. 
Eughraighi O Domhnaill. See 

larla Thire Conaill. 
Ingeu Ui Dhomhnaill, 18. 
An tOilen, risJe, 252. 
Flaithri O ^Maelconaire, 36. 
Matha Og O Maeltuile, 4, 22, 24. 
O Xeill. 2, 4. 10. 18, 20, 44, 46, 52, 

56, 58. 64, 68, 78, 86. 88, 106, 

150, 160, 164, 166, 174, 190, 

193n., 242-250. 
Aodh O Neill Barun Duin Genainn, 

The Baron of Dum/amion, 78, 

162. 193n.. 198n., 206n., 236-242. 
Aodh Og O Neill (mac Briain mheic 

Airt), 28. 
]\[ac Ui Neill (Brian), 72. 
Brian O Neill (mac Airt meic an 

Bharuin), 60. 
Mac Ui Neill, an Corenel (Enri), 24, 

42. 72. 74. 
Maigbhethadh O Neill, 28, 32, 76. 
3Iac Ui Neill (Sean), 72. 
Ophinga. Zoffinqen, 84. 
Ostia, 238, 242. 
Otriocli, Otricoli, 166. 
Oula. Olten, 84. 
Oumalle, Aumale, 28. 
Diuc de Ounial, Umaar, Duke of 

Aumale, 46. 

Pairis. Paris, 22, 26, 94. 

Pamplutiiis, 232. 

S. Pancratius, 196. 

Pannara, Panaro, 106. 

Parma. 102, 104. 

Diuc de Parma, Dulie of Parma. 102. 
104. 

Parthalan. Parthalon, St. Bartho- 
lomew, 246. 

S. Patronella. 216. 

An dara Pau(p)lns, Paul II, 148. 

Paulus Tertius. Paul III, 214. 

Pauhis Quin(c)tus, Paul V, 148, 
170, 184, 220. 



Paulus Rinaltinus, Paulas liinaldu' 

tius, 130. 
Paulus dela Hilua, Pauhis de la 

Silva, 130. 
Pede Montain. Picdimoyite, 88. 
Pensaro, Pesaro, 108. 
Persia, 112, 222. 
Pesense, Piacenza, 102. 
Petar. St. Peter, 148, 196, 198, 206, 

208, 212. 214, 218, 236, 242, 244, 

252. 
Petarcha, iSS. 
Petro Orgentoris, Petro OrrjentorLv, 

1.32. 
Pilaid, Pilate, 196, 198, 204. 
An dara Pius, Pius II, 214. 
El Po, The Po. 102. 
Poeise. PoLv. 28. 
Pol. St. Paul, 198, 208. 210, 212, 

214. 218. 
Poluerina, Canierino, 162. 
Pontemountson, Pont-a-Mousson, 

76. 
Persian, Porsien. 252. 
Porta Popule. Porta del Populo, 168. 
Portengal, Portugal, 94, 142. 
Pountau, C onlay. 30. 
Po(u)nte Male, Molle, The Milvian 

Bridge, 168, 214. 
Prima Porta, 168. 
S. Pronsias, St. Francis. 14, 36, 56, 

166, 214, 218, 240, 242, 246, 248. 
Purune, Pencez, 54. 

Quirinvis, 246. 

Raith ]\Iaolain, Baihmullen, 4, 8. 

Raith ^lealltain, Rathmelton, 6. 

Seon Rat. .lohn Bath, 4. 

Sancta Ratio, 250. 

Recanati. 120, 124, 126, 130, 160. 

An Reen, The Rhine, 84, 86. 

Region. Beggio, 104. 

Retel. 252.' 

Rignano, 166. 

Rimini. 108. 

Ro(dli)an, Ruadhan, Rouen, 14, 
20, 22, 24, 26, 28. 32. 

Don Rodrico, Don Bodrigo. 4^4:. 

An Roimh, Borne, 96, 98, 112, 134, 
142, 148. 160, 168, 174, 184, 190, 
192. 193n.. 194. 196. 200, 202, 
204, 206, 210-222, 236, 238, 242, 
246, 248, 252, 254. 

Salignano, Savignano, 108. 
Sarauale, Serravalle, 162. 
.Saungdi, St. Die, 80. 
Diuc de Sauoi, Duke of Savoy, 

106. 
Saxain, England, 10, 12, 22, 24, 

58. 



268 



FLIGHT OF THE EARLS 



Saxonie, Saxony, 178. 

S. Sebastian, 208, 214. 

Selsus, Celsus, 210. 

San Sem, St. James, 32. 

Sanct Sem Og, St. James the Less, 

214. 
Senietirium Calisti, The Cemetery oj 

Callistus, 208. 
Sensena, Cesena, 108. 
Sanct Seoirsi, St. George, 80. 
Sesnort, Schicyz, 92. 
luil Sessair, Julius Caesar, 38. 
Sextus Quartus, Sixtus IV, 178. 
Siafusial, Schaffhausen, 92. 
Sidona, lodo'ujne, 54. 
(Sanct us) Siluester, Seluester, St. 

Sylvester, 194, 196, 200, 202, 212, 

210. 
S. Simon, 216. 
Sinigaglia, Senigallia, 108. 
Sinonia, Slavonia, 126. See Es- 

chiovxia. 
Sir Artuir Sitsestar, Sitsetsar, Sir 

Arthur Chichester, 2, 60. 
Sixtus Quinctus, Si.vtus V, 218. 
Sliap Alpa, The Ali)s, 86, 88, 90, 

222. 
Sliap Fuait, 6. 
Sliap Sanct ]Martin, 80. 
Sliap Sioss. Slewshise, 6. 
Sliap Taboir, Mount Thabor, 152. 
Cuan Sligigh, Sligo Bay, 8. 
Solman, Solomon, 216. 
Soluturum. Sohdhurn, 92. 
S. Sonnoniuss, St. Zeno, 210. 
Sordo, 136. 
An Spainn, Spain, 10, 12, 24, 30, 

32, 36. 40, 42, 46, 54, 66, 68, 74, 

94. 102, 184, 190, 214, 236, 240, 

254. 
Marcues Spinnala, Marquis Spinola, 

42. 
Spoleto, 166. 
Sradbaili Duna Dealgan, an Srad- 

baili, Dundalk, 4, 6. 
Sir Uuilliam Stanlui, Sir William 

Stanley, 52, 64. 
S. Steft'an, St. Stephen, 194, 214. 
Steffan Papa, Pope Stephen, 208. 
Steffanus Fransigena, Stephanus 

Francigena, 136. 



Strectura, Strettura, 166. 

An tAthair Tomass Strong, 76. 

Suesia, Sweden, 212. 

Cuan Suilighe Moire, Lough Swilly, 

4. 
Diuc de Suna, Sana, Duke ofOssuna, 

44, 46. 
Sursei, Sursee, 84. 



Tegh an Impire, 52. 

Terni, 166. 

Terremano, 130. 132. 

Tersato, Tarsato, Tersatto, 114, 118, 

126. 
Teuere, The Tiber, 166. 
Timmotevis, Timothy, 210. 
Tipir. The Tiber, 166, 222, 238, 240. 

244, 246. 
Tir Conaill, Tyrconnell, 8. 
Tit VIS 200. 

Tolintino, Tolentino, 160. 
Tomas, Thomas the Apostle, 192, 

196. 
Tomas. Thomas, Bishop of Canter- 
bury. 192, 214. 
Trent(o), Terento, Trent, 142, 146, 

148. 
Trian Congail Chlaireinigh meic 

Rughraidhe, Clannaboy, 60. 
Tripoli, 114. 
An Turcach (Mor), The (Grand) 

Turk, 154. 216. 
An Turcia, Turkey, 200. 
Turnae, Turnuie, Tournai, 38, 40. 



U(u)a£er. Wavre, 54. 72. 
Ualis. Vulais, 92. 
Ualsimara, Valcimara, 162. 
Uenis, Venice, 108. 
Uerchianno, 162. 
Ueredinasdea, Stanz, 92. 
Uernu, Bern, 92. 
Uinsentius. Vincent, 210. 
Uitail. 256. 
Urii. Uri, 92. 
Urmhumha, Ormond, 240. 



Veronica, 214. 



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