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From    458    a. d.   to    1906  "'' 




BOOK    OF    THE    WAR     OF     l8l3"     ETC.,      ETC.,      ETC.  ,'_■', 




WM.  R.  HARPER,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  D.D.         GOLDWIN  SMITH,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.  7 ', 






JOHN  FRYER,  A.M.,  LL.D.  R.  J.  H.  GOTTHEIL,  Ph.D. 




ETC.,    ETC.,    ETC.,    ETC. 

WITH     A     PREFACE     ON"     THE     STUDY     OF      AMERICAN      HISTORY     BY 




"A     HISTORY     OF    THE     AMERICAN     PEOPLE,"     ETC.,     ETC. 



NEW    YORK         -  1907         -         LONDON 


v  J° 

Copyright,  1905,  by  Harper  &  Brothbrs. 

Copyright,  10-.1,  by  Harper  &  Brothers. 

All  rights  rtser-ued. 



President  Ulysses  S.  Grant 
President  J.  A.  Garfield 
General  Ulysses  S.  Grant    . 
President  Benjamin  Harrison 
President  W.  H.  Harrison  . 
President  R.  B.  Hayes     .     . 


Facing  page    16 

"     132 

"  "      256 

"  "      272 

"  ".    336 


Hawaii Facing  page  320 




Gabriel's  Insurrection  (1800).  Thom- 
as Prosser,  of  Richmond,  Va.,  owned  a 
slave  called  "  Jack  Bowler,"  or  "  General 
Gabriel,"  who  fomented  an  insurrection 
among  the  slaves,  with  the  intention  of 
murdering  the  inhabitants  of  Richmond. 
The  militia  was  ordered  out;  the  ring- 
leaders were  captured  and  punished. 

Gadsden,  Christopher,  patriot;  born 
in  Charleston,  S.  C,  in  1724;  was  edu- 
cated in  England;  became  a  merchant  in 
Charleston,  and  a  sturdy  champion  of 
the  rights  of  the  colonies.  He  was  a  dele- 
gate to  the  Stamp  Act  Congress,  and  ever 
advocated  openly  republican  principles. 
He  was  also  a  member  of  the  first  Con- 
tinental Congress.  Chosen  a  colonel  in 
1775,  he  was  active  in  the  defence  of 
Charleston  in  1776,  when  he  was  made  a 
brigadier-general.  He  was  active  in  civil 
affairs,  and  was  one  of  the  many  civil- 
ians made  prisoners  by  Sir  Henry  Clinton 
and  carried  to  St.  Augustine.  He  was  ex- 
changed in  1781  and  carried  to  Philadel- 
phia. In  1782  he  was  elected  governor  of 
his  State,  but  declined  on  account  of  in- 
firmity. He  died  in  Charleston,  S.  C, 
Aug.  28,  1805.     See  St.  Augustine. 

Gadsden,  James,  statesman;  born  in 
Charleston.  S.  C,  May  15,  1788;  grad- 
uated at  Yale  College  in  1806.  During 
the  War  of  1812  his  service  was  marked 
with  distinction,  and  when  peace  was 
concluded  he  became  aide  to  General 
Jackson  in  the  expedition  to  investigate 
the  military  defences  of  the  Gulf  of  Mex- 
ico   and    the    southwestern    frontier.      In 

1818  he  participated  in  the  Seminole 
War.  Later  he  went  with  Jackson  to 
Pensacola,  when  the  latter  took  posses- 
sion of  Florida,  and  was  the  first  white 
man  to  cross  that  peninsula  from  the  At- 
lantic to  the  Gulf.  In  1853  he  was  minis- 
ter to  Mexico,  and  on  Dec.  10  of  that  year 
negotiated  a  treaty  by  which  a  new  boun- 
dary was  made  between  the  United  States 
and  Mexico.  He  died  in  Charleston,  S.  C, 
Dec.  25,  1858. 

Gadsden  Purchase,  the  name  applied 
to  the  land  bought  from  Mexico  in  1853, 
because  its  transfer  waSt  negotiated  by 
Gen.  James  Gadsden,  who  was  United 
States  minister  to  Mexico  when  the  pur- 
chase was  made.  It  includes  a  strip  of 
land  extending  from  Rio  Grande  del 
Norte,  near  El  Paso,  westward  about  500 
miles  to  the  Colorado  and  the  border  of 
Lower  California,  and  from  the  Gila 
River  to  the  border  fixed  by  the  treaty. 
Its  greatest  breadth  is  120  miles;  aiea, 
45,535  square  miles;  cost,  $10,000,000. 

Gag-rule.  Adopted  by  Congress  on 
motion  of  John  C.  Calhoun  in  January, 
1836,  providing  that  all  anti-slavery  peti- 
tions be  laid  on  the  table  unnoticed.  It 
was  abolished  Dec.  3,  1844. 

Gage,  Lyman  Judson,  financier;  born 
in  De  Ruyter,  Madison  co.,  N.  Y.,  June 
28,  1836;  was  educated  at  the  Academy 
in  Rome,  N.  Y7. ;  entered  the  Oneida  Cen- 
tral Bank  when  seventeen  years  old,  re- 
maining there  till  1855,  when  he  re- 
moved to  Chicago.  In  1868  he  was  made 
cashier,     in     1882     vice-president,     and 


Gaillardet,  Theodore  Frederic,  jour- 
nalist; born  in  Auxerre,  France,  April  7, 
1808;  emigrated  to  the  United  States  and 
established  the  Courrier  des  Etats-Unis 
in  New  York;  took  part  in  the  Presiden- 
tial canvass  of  1872  on  behalf  of  Horace 
Greeley.  He  is  the  author  of  Profession 
de  foi  et  considerations  sur  le  systeme  re- 
publicain  des  Etats-Unis,  and  of  a  large 
number  of  communications  on  American 
subjects  which  appeared  in  the  leading 
French  newspapers.  He  died  in  Plessy- 
Bouchard,  France,  Aug.  12,  1882. 

Gaine,  Hugh,  journalist;  born  in  Ire- 
land in  1726;  emigrated  to  America  and 
became  a  printer  in  New  York  City  in 
1750;  established  The  Mercury  in  1752, 
originally  a  Whig  journal.  After  the  capt- 
ure of  New  York  by  the  English,  The 
Mercury  was  a  strong  advocate  of  the 
British.  Upon  the  conclusion  of  the  Rev- 
olutionary War  he  was  permitted  to  re- 
main in  New  York,  but  was  obliged  to  give 
up  the  publication  of  his  newspaper.  He 
died  in  New  York  City,  April  25,  1807. 

Gaines,  Edmund  Pendleton,  military 
officer;  born  in  Culpeper  county,  Va., 
March  20,  1777;  removed  with  his  family 
to  Tennessee  in  1790;  entered  the  army  as 
ensign  in  1799;  and  was  promoted  to  lieu- 
tenant-colonel in  the  summer  of  1812.  He 
rcse  to  brigadier-general  in  March,  1814; 


his  general  good  services  during  the  war, 
Congress  gave  him  thanks  and  a  gold 
medal.  Gaines  served  under  Jackson  in. 
the  Creek  War,  and  fought  the  Seminoles 
in  1836.  Late  in  life  he  married  Myra 
Clark,  of  New  Orleans,  heiress  of  a  large 
estate,   who,   after   his   death,   became    fa- 


and  after  his  gallant  conduct  at  Fort  mous  for  her  successful  persistence  in  liti- 
Erie  in  August,  that  year,  he  was  brevet-  gation  to  secure  her  rights.  He  died  in 
ted  major-general.     For  that  exploit,  and    New  Orleans,  June  6,  1849. 


Gaines,  Fort.  See  Mobile;  Morgan 
and  Gaines,  Forts. 

Gaines,  Myra  Clark,  claimant;  wife 
of  Edmund  Pendleton  Gaines;  daughter  of 
Daniel  Clark,  who  was  born  in  Sligo, 
Ireland,  and  emigrated  to  New  Orleans, 
where  Myra  was  born  in  1805.  Her  fa- 
ther inherited  a  large  estate  from  his 
uncle  in  1799,  and  died  in  New  Orleans, 
Aug.  16,  1813,  devising  all  his  property 
to  his  mother,  Mary  Clark.  Myra  married 
first  W.  W.  Whitney  in  1832,  and  on  his 
death  General  Gaines  in  1839.  She 
claimed  the  estate  of  her  father,  who 
was  reputed  a  bachelor  at  the  time  of  his 
death,  and  after  a  litigation  of  over  fifty 
years  she  succeeded  in  establishing  her 
rights.  She  died  in  New  Orleans,  Jan. 
9,    1885. 

Gaines's  Mill,  Battle  of.  In  June, 
1862,  General  McClellan  transferred  his 
army  from  the  Chickahominy  and  his 
stores  from  the  Pamunkey  to  the  James 
River.  He  ordered  the  stores  and  muni- 
tions of  war  to  be  sent  to  Savage's  Sta- 
tion, and  what  could  not  be  removed  to 
be  burned,  and  supplies  to  be  sent  to  the 
James  as  speedily  as  possible.  He  also 
sent  his  wounded  to  the  same  station,  and 
prepared  to  cross  the  Chickahominy  for 
the  flight  with  the  right  wing — a  perilous 
undertaking,  for  Jackson  and  Ewell  were 
prepared  to  fall  on  Porter's  flank.  This 
movement  was  so  secretly  and  skilfully 
made,  however,  that  Lee  was  not  informed 
of  the  fact  until  twenty-four  hours  after 
it  was  actually  begun  on  the  morning  of 
the  27th.  The  duty  of  protecting  the 
stores  in  their  removal  was  assigned  to 
General  Porter.  His  corps  (the  5th)  was 
also  charged  with  the  duty  of  carrying 
away  the  siege-guns  and  covering  the  army 
in  its  march  to  the  James.  These  troops 
were  accordingly  arrayed  on  the  rising 
ground  near  Gaines's  Mills,  on  the  arc  of 
a  circle  between  Cold  Harbor  and  the 
Chickahominy,  when  they  were  attacked 
by  a  Confederate  force,  in  the  afternoon, 
led  by  Generals  Longstreet  and  A.  P.  Hill. 
A  few  of  the  siege-guns  were  yet  in  posi- 
tion. MorelFs  division  occupied  the  left, 
Sykes's  regulars  and  DuryeVs  Zouaves 
the  right,  and  McCall's  division  formed  a 
second  line,  his  left  touching  Butterfield's 
right.  Seymour's  brigade  and  horse-bat- 
teries commanded  the  rear,  and  cavalry 

under  Gen.  Philip  St.  George  Cooke  were 
on  flanking  service  near  the  Chickahom- 
iny. The  brunt  of  the  battle  first  fell  upon 
Sykes,  who  threw  the  assailants  back  in 
confusion  with  great  loss.  Longstreet 
pushed  forward  with  his  veterans  to  their 
relief,  and  was  joined  by  Jackson  and  D. 
H.  Hill.  Ewell's  division  also  came  into 
action.  The  Confederate  line,  now  in  com- 
plete order,  made  a  general  advance.  A 
very  severe  battle  ensued. 

Slocum's  division  was  sent  to  Porter's 
aid  by  McClellan,  making  his  entire  force 
about  35,000.  For  hours  the  struggle 
along  the  whole  line  was  fierce  and  per- 
sistent, and  for  a  long  time  the  issue  was 
doubtful.  At  five  o'clock  Porter  called 
for  more  aid,  and  McClellan  sent  him  the 
brigades  of  Meagher  and  French,  of  Rich- 
ardson's division.  The  Confederates  were 
making  desperate  efforts  to  break  the 
line  of  the  Nationals,  but  for  a  long  time 
it  stood  firm,  though  continually  grow- 
ing thinner.  Finally  a  furious  assault  by 
Jackson  and  the  divisions  of  Longstreet 
and  Whiting  was  made  upon  Butterfield's 
brigade,  which  had  long  been  fighting.  It 
gave  way  and  fell  back,  and  with  it  sev- 
eral batteries.  Then  the  whole  line  fell 
back.  Porter  called  up  all  of  his  reserves 
and  remaining  artillery  (about  eighty 
guns),  covered  the  retreat  of  his  infantry, 
and  checked  the  advance  of  the  victors  for 
a  moment.  Just  then  General  Cooke, 
without  orders,  attacked  the  Confederate 
flank  with  his  cavalry,  which  was  repulsed 
and  thrown  into  disorder.  The  horses, 
terrified  by  the  tremendous  roar  of  nearly 
200  cannon  and  the  rattle  of  thousands 
of  muskets,  rushed  back  through  the 
Union  batteries,  giving  the  impression 
that  it  was  a  charge  of  Confederate  cav- 
alry. The  artillerists  recoiled,  and  Por- 
ter's whole  force  was  pressed  back  to  the 
river.  While  flying  in  fearful  disorder, 
French  and  Meagher  appeared,  and  gather- 
ing up  the  vast  multitude  of  stragglers, 
checked  the  flight.  Behind  these  the  scat- 
tered brigades  were  speedily  formed,  while 
National  batteries  poured  a  destructive 
storm  of  shot  and  shell  upon  the  head  of 
the  Confederate  column.  Seeing  fresh 
troops  on  their  front,  and  ignorant  of  their 
number,  the  Confederates  fell  back  and 
rested  upon  the  field  they  had  won  at  a 
fearful  cost.    In  this  battle  the  Nationals 


lost  about  8,000  men,  of  whom  6,000  were 
killed  or  wounded.  The  loss  of  the  Con- 
federates was  about  5,000.  General  Reyn- 
olds was  made  prisoner.  Porter  lost 
twenty-two  siege-guns.  During  the  night 
he  withdrew  to  the  right  side  of  the 
Chickahominy,  destroying  the  bridges  be- 
hind him. 

Gaither,  Henry,  military  officer;  born 
in  Maryland  in  1751;  was  actively  en- 
gaged throughout  the  Revolutionary  War; 
served  under  General  St.  Clair  in  the  cam- 
paign against  the  Miami  Indians  in  1791; 
and  at  one  time  was  in  command  of  Fort 
Adams  and  Fort  Stoddart.  He  died  in 
Georgetown,  D.  C,  June  22,   1811. 

Gale,  Levin,  lawyer;  born  in  Cecil  coun- 
ty, Md.,  in  1824;  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
and  began  practice  at  Elkton,  Md.  He 
published  A  List  of  English  Statutes  Sup- 
posed to  be  Applicable  to  the  Several 
States  of  the  Union.  He  died  in  Balti- 
more, Md.,  April  28,  1875. 

Gales,  Joseph,  journalist;  born  near 
Sheffield,  England,  April  10,  1786.  His 
father  emigrated  to  the  United  States  in 
1793,  and  established  the  Independent 
Gazetteer  in  Philadelphia,  and  in  1799  re- 
moved to  Raleigh,  N.  C,  where  he  estab- 
lished the  Register.  Joseph  became  a 
printer,  and  subsequently  a  partner  of 
Samuel  Harrison  Smith,  publisher  of  the 
National  Intelligencer,  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  the  successor  of  the  Independent 
Gazetteer.  In  connection  with  William 
Winston  Seaton  he  made  the  Intelligencer 
a  daily  newspaper.  Both  partners  were 
efficient  reporters,  and  to  their  interest 
and  foresight  is  due  the  preservation  of 
many  important  speeches,  notably  those 
of  Webster  and  Hayne.  Gales  died  in 
Washington,  D.  C,  July  21,  1860. 

Gallagher,  William  Davis,  journalist; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  21,  1808; 
became  a  printer  and  eventually  an  edi- 
tor; was  connected  with  the  Backwoods- 
man at  Xenia;  the  Cincinnati  Mirror; 
the  Western  Literary  Journal  and  Month- 
ly Review;  The  Hesperian;  Ohio  State 
Journal,  and  the  Cincinnati  Gazette. 
Among  his  writings  are  A  Journey 
Through  Kentucky  and  Mississippi;  The 
I'rogress  and  Resources  of  the  Northwest. 
He  died  in  1894. 

Gallatin,  Alijert,  financier;  born  in 
Geneva,  Switzerland,  Jan.  29,  1761;   was 

a  graduate  of  the  University  of  Geneva. 
Both  of  his  parents  were  of  distinguished 
families,  and  died  while  he  was  an  infant. 
Feeling  great  sympathy  for  the  Americans 


struggling  for  liberty,  he  came  to  Massa- 
chusetts in  1780,  entered  the  military 
service,  and  for  a  few  months  command- 
ed the  post  at  Passamaquoddy.  At  the 
close  of  the  war  he  taught  French  in 
Harvard  University.  Having  received  his 
patrimonial  estate  in  1784,  he  invested 
it  in  land  in  western  Virginia;  and  in 
1786  he  settled  on  land  on  the  banks  of 
the  Monongahela,  in  Fayette  county,  Pa., 
which  he  had  purchased,  and  became 
naturalized.  Having  served  in  the  Penn- 
sylvania State  convention  and  in  the  legis- 
lature (1789  and  1790-92),  he  was  chosen 
United  States  Senator  in  1793,  but  was 
declared  ineligible  on  the  ground  that  he 
had  not  been  a  citizen  of  the  United  States 
the  required  nine  years.  He  was  instru- 
mental in  bringing  about  a  peaceful  ter- 
mination of  the  "  Whiskey  Insurrection," 
and  was  elected  a  member  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  in  1795.  An  active 
member  of  the  Republican,  or  Democratic, 
party,  he  even  went  so  far,  in  a  speech 
in  Congress  (1796),  as  to  charge  Wash- 
ington and  Jay  with  having  pusillani- 
mously  surrendered  the  honor  of  their 
country.  This,  from  the  lips  of  a  young 
foreigner,  exasperated  the  Federalists. 
He  was  a  leader  of  the  Democrats  in  the 
House,  and  directed  his  attention  par- 
ticularly to  financial  matters.  Mr.  Gal- 
latin   remained    in    Congress    until    1801, 


when  President  Jefferson  appointed  him 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  which  office  he 
held  until  1813,  and  obtained  the  credit 
of  being  one  of  the  best  financiers  of  the 

The  opponents  of  Jefferson's  adminis- 
tration complained  vehemently,  in  1808, 
that  the  country  was  threatened  with 
direct  taxation  at  a  time  when  the  sources 
of  its  wealth,  by  the  orders  and  decrees 
of  Great  Britain  and  France,  were  drying 
up.  Gallatin  replied  to  these  complaints 
by  reproducing  a  flattering  but  delusive 
suggestion  contained  in  his  annual  re- 
port the  preceding  year.  He  suggested 
that,  as  the  United  States  were  not  likely 
to  be  involved  in  frequent  wars,  a  revenue 
derived  solely  from  duties  on  imports, 
even  though  liable  to  diminution  during 
war,  would  yet  amply  suffice  to  pay  off, 
during  long  intervals  of  peace,  the  ex- 
panses of  such  wars  as  might  be  under- 
taken. Should  the  United  States  become 
involved  in  war  with  both  France  and 
Great  Britain,  no  internal  taxes  would  be 
necessary  to  carry  it  on,  nor  any  other 
financial  expedient,  beyond  borrowing 
money  and  doubling  the  duties  on  imports. 
The  scheme,  afterwards  tried,  bore  bitter 

Gallatin's  influence  was  felt  in  other  de- 
partments of  the  government  and  in  the 
politics  of  the  country.  Opposed  to  going 
to  war  with  Great  Britain  in  1812,  he  ex- 
erted all  his  influence  to  avert  it.  In 
March,  1813,  he  was  appohited  one  of  the 
envoys  to  Russia  to  negotiate  for  the 
mediation  of  the  Czar  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain.  He  sailed  for 
St.  Petersburg,  but  the  Senate,  in  special 
session,  refused  to  ratify  his  appointment 
because  he  was  Secretary  of  the  Treasury. 
The  attempt  at  mediation  was  unsuccess- 
ful. When,  in  January,  1814,  Great  Brit- 
ain proposed  a  direct  negotiation  for  peace, 
Gallatin,  who  was  still  abroad,  was  ap- 
pointed one  of  the  United  States  commis- 
sioners to  negotiate.  H"  resigned  his 
Secretaryship.  In  1815  he  was  appointed 
minister  to  France,  where  he  remained 
until  1S23.  He  refused  a  seat  in  the  cabi- 
net of  Monroe  on  his  return,  and  declined 
to  be  a  candidate  for  Vice-President,  to 
which  the  dominant  Democratic  party 
nominated  him.  President  Adams  ap- 
pointed  him   minister   to   Great   Britain, 

where  he  negotiated  several  important 
commercial  conventions.  Returning  to  the 
United  States  in  1827,  he  took  up  his  resi- 
dence in  the  city  of  New  York.  He  was 
the  chief  founder  (1842)  and  first  presi- 
dent of  the  American  Ethnological  Society, 
and  was  president  of  the  New  York  His- 
torical Society  from  1843  until  his  death, 
in  Astoria,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  12,  1849.  Although 
strictly  in  private  life,  Mr.  Gallatin  took 
special  interest  in  the  progress  of  the 

Gallaudet,  Thomas  Hopkins,  educator ; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Dec.  10,  1787; 
graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1805,  where 
he  was  a  tutor  for  a  while.  At  An- 
dover  Theological  Seminary  he  prepared 
for  the  ministry,  and  was  licensed  to 
preach  in  1814.  Becoming  interested  in 
the  deaf  and  dumb,  he  began  his  labors 
for  their  instruction  in  1817,  with  a  class 
of  seven  pupils.  He  became  one  of  the 
most  useful  men  of  his  time,  labored  inces- 
santly for  the  benefit  of  the  deaf  and 
dumb,  and  was  the  founder  of  the  first  in- 
stitution in  America  for  their  instruction. 
He  was  president  of  it  until  1830,  when 
he  resigned.  The  asylum  was  located  at 
Hartford,  where  Dr.  Gallaudet  became 
chaplain  for  the  Connecticut  Retreat  for 
the  Insane  in  1833,  which  office  he  re- 
tained until  his  death,  Sept.  9,  1851.  Dr. 
Gallaudet  published  several  works  for  the 
instruction  of  the  young,  besides  other 
books.  He  was  of  Huguenot  descent. 
His  two  sons,  Thomas  and  Edward 
Miner,  also  devoted  their  lives  to  the  in- 
struction of  the  deaf  and  dumb.  The 
former,  an  Episcopal  clergyman,  was  in- 
strumental in  organizing  churches  for  the 
deaf  and  dumb;  and  the  latter  established 
in  Washington,  D.  C,  the  National  Deaf- 
Mute  College,  in  1864,  of  which  he  became 
president.     Thomas  died  Aug.  27,  1902. 

Gallinger,  Jacob  H.,  legislator;  born  in 
Cornwall,  Ont.,  March  28,  1837;  was  a 
printer;  later  studied  medicine  and  prac- 
tised till  he  became  a  member  of  Congress. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  New  Hampshire 
legislature  in  1872-73  and  in  1891 ;  of  the 
State  constitution  convention  in  1876;  of 
the  State  Senate  in  1878,  1879,  and  1880, 
and  its  president  in  1879  and  1880;  mem- 
ber of  Congress  in  1885-89;  and  United 
States  Senator  in  1891-1909. 

Gallitzin,   Prince  Demetrius  Attgus- 


TINE,  clergyman;  born  in  The  Hague.  Hoi-  abandoned  tbe  Whig,  or  republican,  cause, 
land,  Dec.  22,  1770,  where  his  father  was  and  was  thenceforward  an  uncompromis- 
Russian  ambassador.  He  belonged  to  one  ing  Tory.  When  the  British  army  evacu- 
of  the  oldest  and  richest  families  among  ated  Philadelphia,  in  1778,  he  left  his 
the  Russian  nobles.  In  1792  he  came  country,  with  his  daughter,  went  to  Eng- 
to  the  United  States  for  the  purpose  of  land,  and  never  returned.  He  died  in 
travel,  but  determined  to  become  a  Roman  Watford,  Hertfordshire,  Aug.  29,  1803. 
Catholic  priest.  He  entered  the  St.  Sul-  Gaily,  Merritt,  inventor;  born  near 
pice  Seminary  in  Baltimore,  and  was  or-  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  15,  1838;  learned 
dained  a  priest  March  18,  1795,  being  the  the  printer's  trade;  graduated  at  the  Uni- 
first  priest  who  had  both  received  holy  versity  of  Rochester  in  1863,  and  at 
orders  and  been  ordained  in  the  United  the  Auburn  Theological  Seminary  in  1866 ; 
States.  He  was  sent  on  missions,  but  was  was  a  Presbyterian  minister  for  three 
recalled  in  consequence  of  his  impetuos-  years.  In  1869  he  founded  a  manufactory 
ity  and  over-zeal.  In  1799  he  was  ap-  for  the  construction  of  the  "  Universal  " 
pointed  pastor  at  Maguire's  settlement,  printing-press,  which  he  had  shortly  before 
He  purchased  20,000  acres  in  the  present  designed.  His  patents  aggregate  more 
Cambria  county,  Pa.,  which  he  divided  than  400,  including  the  "  Orchestrone," 
into  farms  and  offered  to  settlers  on  easy  an  automatic  musical  instrument;  the 
terms.  Although  constantly  hampered  by  back  vent  system,  for  tubular  church 
lack  of  money  to  carry  out  the  grand  organs;  the  counterpoise  pneumatic  sys- 
schemes  he  contemplated,  his  colony  took  tem  of  the  seolian,  pianola,  and  other 
root  and  soon  sent  out  branches.  He  had  automatic  musical  instruments ;  a  ma- 
adopted  the  name  of  Schmettau,  which  chine  for  making  type  from  cold  metal; 
was  anglicized  into  Smith,  but  in  1811  differential  telephone;  etc. 
he  resumed  his  own  name.  He  died  in  Galveston,  city,  seaport,  and  commer- 
Loretto,  Pa.,  May  6,  1841.  cial  metropolis  of  Texas;  on  an  island  of 
Galloway,  Joseph,  loyalist;  born  near  the  same  name.  It  was  settled  in  1837; 
West  River,  Anne  Arundel  co.,  Md.,  about  captured  by  National  forces  in  1862;  re- 
1730;  was  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  taken  by  Confederates  in  1863;  was  nearly 
Assembly  in  1704,  and  at  one  time  Speaker  destroyed  by  fire  in  1885;  and  was  visited 
and,  with  Franklin,  advocated  a  change  of  by  a  terrible  tornado  and  flood,  Sept.  8, 
the  government  of  Pennsylvania  from  the  1900,  which  destroyed  nearly  3,000  build- 
proprietary  to  the  royal  form.  A  mem-  ings,  caused  a  loss  of  between  8,000  and 
ber  of  the  first  Continental  Congress,  he  10,000  lives,  and  damaged  property  and 
was  conservative  in  his  views,  yet  his  line  trade  to  the  extent  of  more  than  $45,000,- 
of  argument  in  his  first  debates  tended  000.  To  prevent  a  recurrence  of  the  dis- 
towards  political  independence.  He  pro-  aster  the  city  constructed  a  sea-wall,  17,- 
posed  a  plan  of  colonial  government,  which  593  feet  long,  16  feet  wide  at  the  base,  5 
was  rejected.  It  contemplated  a  govern-  feet  wide  at  the  top,  standing  17  feet 
ment  with  a  president-general  appointed  above  mean  low  tide,  and  having  a  rip- 
by  the  King,  and  a  grand  council,  chosen  rap  apron  extending  27  feet  out  on  the 
every  three  years  by  the  colonial  assem-  Gulf  side.  The  wall  was  completed  in 
blies,  who  were  to  be  authorized  to  act  July,  1904,  and  cost  $1,198,1  IS.  The  pro- 
jointly  with  Parliament  in  the  regulation  tective  scheme  also  provided  for  the  eleva- 
of  the  affairs  of  the  colonies.  Parliament  tion  of  the  grade  of  the  city  from  one  to 
was  to  have  superior  authority,  with  a  fifteen  feet,  so  that  it  will  slope  gradu- 
right  to  revise  all  acts  of  the  grand  coun-  ally  from  the  top  of  the  sea-wall.  This 
oil,  which,  in  turn,  was  to  have  a  negative  work  will  cost  $1,500,000  more.  The 
in  British  statutes  relating  to  the  colonies,  foreign  commerce  of  the  port  in  the  fiscal 
This  plan  was,  at  first,  favorably  consid-  year  ending  June  30,  1904,  was:  Imports, 
ered  by  many  in  the  Congress;  but  it  was  $1,847,646;  exports,  $145,316,457;  the 
rejected,  and  not  permitted  to  be  entered  manufactures  in  the  census  year  1900 
on  the  minutes  of  the  journal.  aggregated  in  value  $5,016,360;  the  assess- 
After  the  question  of  independence  be-  ed  property  valuation  in  1903  was  $20,- 
gan    to    be    seriously    agitated,    Galloway  574,098;  and  the  net  citv  debt,  $2,747,541. 



The   population   in    1890   was    29,084;    in  16,   1779.     Galvez,  without  waiting  to  be 

1900,  37,789.  reinforced,  marched  north  and  took  Fort 

In  the  early  part  of  the  Civil  War  at-  Manchac,    Baton    Rouge,    Fort    Panmure. 

tempts  were  made  to  "  repossess  "  impor-  and  Fort  Natchez.     In  February,  1780,  he 

tant  posts  in  Texas,  especially  Galveston,  captured  Mobile;   and   soon  after  invaded 

On  May   17,   1862,  Henry  Eagle,   in  com-  Florida,   where  he  met  with   several   suc- 

mand  of  war-vessels   in   front   of   Galves-  cesses.    On  May  9,  1781,  he  forced  the  sur- 

ton,    demanded    its    surrender,    under    a  render  of  Pensacola  and  gained  control  of 

threat  of  an  attack  from  a  large  land  and  the  whole  western   coast  of  Florida.     He 

naval     force     that    would     soon    appear.  died  in  the  city  of  Mexico,  Nov.  30,  1786. 

"  When    those    forces    appear,"    said    the  See  Vasco  da  Gama. 

authorities,   "  we    shall    reply."     So   mat-  Gamble,  Hamilton  PvOwan,  statesman 

ters  remained  until  Oct.  8,  when  Galves-  bora   in   Winchester,  Va.,   Nov.   29,    1798 

ton  was  formally  surrendered  by  its  civil  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Virginia  in  1817 

authorities    to    Commodore    Renshaw,    of  went  to   Missouri   in    1818.     In   1861    the 

the  National  navy.     To  hold  the  city  more  State    constitution    convention    appointed 

securely,  a  Massachusetts  regiment,  under  him   provisional  governor.      He   served   in 

Colonel  Burrill,  was  sent  there  from  New  this  office  until  his  death  in  Jefferson  City, 

Orleans.     In  front  of  the  city    (Dec.  28)  Mo.,  Jan.  31,  1864. 

lay  six  National  war-vessels,  under  the  Gamble,  Robert  Jackson,  lawyer; 
command  of  Renshaw.  General  Magruder,  horn  in  Akron,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  7,  1851 ;  was 
of  the  Confederate  army,  then  in  com-  graduated  at  Lawrence  University  in 
mand  of  the  Department  of  Texas,  col-  1874;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1875,  and 
lected  a  land  and  naval  force  near  Galves-  hegan  practice  in  Yankton,  Dak. ;  was  a 
ton,  and  before  daylight  on  Jan.  2,  1863,  State  Senator  in  1S85;  a  member  of  Con- 
he  attacked  the  National  forces  by  land  gress  in  1895-97  and  in  1899-1902;  and  a 
and  water.  At  first  the  men  from  Massa-  United  States  Senator  from  South  Dakota 
chusetts  repulsed  those  of  Magruder,  but,  in  1901-07. 

Confederate    vessels    coming    up    with    a  Gammell,  William,  educator;  born  in 

fresh   supply,   the   National   soldiers  were  Medfield,    Mass.,    Feb.    10,    1812;    gradu- 

overpowered.       After   a   brief   action,   the  ated   at    Brown    University    in    1831;    be- 

Earriet  Lane    (one   of   the   National   ves-  came    professor    of    history    and    political 

sels)     was    captured,    and    the    Westfield,  economy  there  in  18S0.     His  publications 

Renshaw's  flag-ship,  was  blown  up  by  his  include  the  lives  of  Roger  Williams  and 

order,    to    prevent    her    falling    into    the  Gov.  Samuel  Ward,  in  Sparks's  American 

hands    of    the    Confederates.     The    firing  Biographies.    He  died  in  Providence,  R.  I., 

of  the  magazine  of  the  Westfield  was  done  April  3.  1889. 

prematurely,  by  an  intoxicated  man,  and  Gannett,    Henry,     scientist;     born    in 

Commodore  Renshaw,  a  lieutenant,  and  an  Bath,   Me.,   Aug.   24,    1846;    graduated   at 

engineer,  with  about  a  dozen  of  her  crew,  Lawrence    Scientific    School    in    1869;    be- 

perished    by    the    explosion.     Nearly    as  came    connected    with    the    United    States 

many  officers  and  men  were  killed  in  a  gig  Geological  Survey  in  1882.     He  is  the  au- 

lying  by  the  side  of  the  Westfield.     Ma-  thor  of  Statistical  Outlines  of  the  Tenth 

grader's  victory  was  almost  a  barren  one,  and  Eleventh  Censuses;  Commercial  Geog- 

for   Farragut   re-established   the   blockade  raphy ;    Building    of    a    Nation:    United 

before  the  Earriet  Lane  could  be  converted  States;   and   was   employed   on   the    10th, 

into  a  Confederate  cruiser.  11th,  and  12th  Censuses,  and  on  those  of 

Galvez,    Bernardo, military  officer;  born  Cuba,  Porto  Rico,  and  the  Philippines, 

in  Malaga.  Spain,  in  1755;  became  govern-  Ganse,  Hervey  Doddridge,  clergyman; 

or  of  Louisiana  in  1776;  secretly  aided  the  born    in    Fishkill.    N.    Y.,    Feb.    7,    1822; 

Americans     with     military    supplies     and  graduated     at     Columbia     University     in 

$70,000    in    money    in    1778.      About    the  1S39.   and   at   the   New   Brunswick   Theo- 

same  time  Spain's  offer  of  mediation  be-  logical    Seminary   in    1843;    was   ordained 

tween  the  United  States  and  Great  Brit-  to   the   ministry   of   the   Dutch   Reformed 

ain    was    declined,    whereupon    Spain    de-  Church.      He    was    the    author    of    Bible 

clared   war   against   Great   Britain,   June  Slave-holding  not  Sinful,  a  reply  to  Dr. 



Samuel  B.  How's  Slave-holding  not  Sin- 

Gansevoort,  Henry  Sandford,  military 
officer;  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  15, 
1835;  grandson  of  Gen.  Peter  Ganse- 
voort; entered  the  regular  artillery  ser- 
vice, April,  1861,  and  fought  gallantly 
during  the  Peninsular  campaign  of  1862, 
and  in  several  battles  afterwards.  He 
first  became  lieutenant-colonel  and  then 
colonel  of  the  13th  N.  Y.  Volunteer  Cav- 
alry, with  which  he  performed  gallant 
service  in  Virginia.  In  1865  he  was 
brevetted  brigadier-general  of  volunteers 
"  for  faithful  and  meritorious  services," 
and  became  captain  of  artillery  in  the  reg- 
ular army.  His  health  failed,  and  when 
returning  from  the  Bahama  Islands  he  died, 
April  12,  1871. 

Gansevoort,  Peter,  military  officer; 
born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  July  17,  1749; 
was  appointed  major  of  a  New  York  regi- 
ment in  July,  1775,  and  in  August  joined 
the    army,    under    Montgomery,    that    in- 


vaded  Canada.  He  rose  to  colonel  the 
next  year;  and  in  April,  1777,  he  was 
put  in  command  of  Fort  Schuyler  (see 
Stanwix,  Fort),  which  he  gallantly  de- 
fended against  the  British  and  Indians  in 
August.  He  most  effectually  co-operated 
with  Sullivan  in  his  campaign  in  1770, 
and  afterwards  in  the  Mohawk  region. 
In  1781  he  received  from  the  legislature 
of  New  York  the  commission  of  brigadier- 

general.  General  Gansevoort  filled  civil 
offices,  particularly  that  of  commissioner 
for  Indian  affairs,  with  great  fidelity.  In 
1803  he  was  made  military  agent  and 
brigadier-general  in  the  regular  army.  He 
died  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  July  2,  1812. 

Garakonthie,  Daniel,  chief  of  the  On- 
ondaga Indians.  In  1658,  although  the 
French  were  compelled  to  flee  from  On- 
ondaga, Garakonthie  became  a  protector 
of  Christian  doctrines  and  an  advocate  for 
peace.  It  was  not,  however,  till  1669 
that  he  was  converted  and  baptized.  The 
name  Daniel  was  given  him  at  his  bap- 
tism, and  he  learned  to  read  and  write. 
His  influence  went  far  in  checking  the 
superstition  of  the  Indians  and  in  set- 
tling difficulties  between  Indian  tribes, 
and  also  in  protecting  French  colonists. 
He  died  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y.,  in   1676. 

Garcia,  Calixto,  military  officer;  born 
in  Holguin,  Cuba,  Oct.  14,  1836.  He 
studied  law  and  began  practice,  but  subse- 
quently joined  the  struggling  patriots  in 
Cuba,  and  in  1868  (with  Carlos  Manuel 
Cespedes  and  Marmol)  planned  the  revo- 
lution which  is  known  historically  as 
the  "Ten  Years'  War."  On  Oct.  10,  1868, 
he  took  up  arms  with  Marmol  at  the  head 
of  150  men.  For  a  time  great  success 
attended  them,  and  they  captured  many 
towns.  For  courage  and  ability  in  these 
actions  Garcia  was  made  brigadier-gen- 
eral under  Gomez.  Later  the  provisional 
government  made  him  commander-in-chief 
of  the  Cuban  forces  in  place  of  Gomez, 
removed.  On  Sept.  3,  1873,  his  victorious 
career  suffered  a  decided  reverse.  With 
twenty  men  he  was  attacked  by  500  Span- 
iards at  San  Antonio  del  Babor.  When 
commanded  to  surrender  he  determined  to 
die  by  his  own  hand  rather  than  submit 
to  capture.  Placing  a  revolver  in  his 
mouth  he  fired  upward.  The  ball  came 
out  at  his  forehead,  and  he  carried  a  scar 
for  life.  He  was  taken  to  Manzanillo  in 
his  wounded  condition,  and  when  he  re- 
covered was  sent  to  Spain.  After  peace 
was  made  in  1878  he  was  pardoned  and 
returned  to  Cuba.  He  did  not,  however, 
consider  the  peace  either  honorable  or 
binding,  and  took  part  in  the  "  little 
war,"  in  which  he  fought  with  Maceo. 
He  was  compelled  to  surrender,  and  was 
sent  to  Madrid,  where  he  spent  seventeen 
years   under   the   surveillance  of   the   po- 




lice.  In  September,  1895,  he  crossed  the 
frontier  into  France,  sailed  to  New  York, 
and  on  Jan.  26,  1896,  planned  a  filibuster- 
ing expedition  which  was  successful. 
Afterwards,  while  fitting  out  another  ex- 
pedition, he  was  arrested  by  the  United 
States  government.  He  forfeited  his  bail, 
and  on  March  15,  1896,  met  the  Ber- 
muda, a  filibustering  steamer,  off  Cape 
Henlopen,  and  reached  Cuba  with  sixty- 
two  Cubans,  six  field-guns,  and  a  quantity 
of  dynamite.  He  won  several  brilliant 
victories,  among  them  that  at  Victoria  de 
los  Yunos,  the  loss  of  which  was  one  of 
the  reasons  for  the  recall  of  General  Wey- 
ler.  After  the  occupation  of  Santiago 
by  the  Americans,  Garcia  withdrew  from 
the  Cuban  army,  because  General  Shafter 
would  not  turn  over  to  him  the  command 
of  Santiago;  but  he  was  subsequently  rec- 
onciled to  the  new  military  conditions. 
In  November  of  the  same  year  (1898), 
he  came  to  the  United  States  as  chair- 
man of  a  commission  to  present  the  views 
of  the  Cuban  leaders  to  President  Mc- 
Kinley,  but  before  accomplishing  his  pur- 
pose he  suddenly  died,  Dec.  11.  High 
official  and  military  honors  were  paid  to 
his  remains  in  Washington. 

Garde,  Pierre  Paul  Francis  de  la. 
See  Jesuit  Missions. 

Garden,  Alexander,  military  officer; 
born  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  Dec.  4,  1757; 
was  educated  abroad;  returning  to  Amer- 
ica, he  entered  the  Continental  army  in 
1780;   was  promoted  lieutenant  in  Febru- 

ary, 1782.  He  was  the  author  of  Anec- 
dotes of  the  Revolutionary  War,  with 
Sketches  of  Character  of  Persons  most 
Distinguished  in  the  Southern  States  for 
Civil  and  Military  Services.  He  died  in 
Charleston,  Feb.  29,  1829. 

Gardiner,  Lion,  military  officer;  born 
in  England  in  1599;  was  sent  to  America 
in  1635  by  the  proprietors  for  the  pur- 
pose of  laying  out  a  city,  towns,  and  forts 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Connecticut  River. 
He  built  the  fort  which  he  called  Say- 
brook  after  Lord  Saye  and  Sele  and  Lord 
Brooke.  In  1639  he  purchased  Gardiner's 
Island,  at  the  extremity  of  Long  Island, 
then  known  by  the  Irdian  name  of  Man- 
chonat,  and  at  first  called  Isle  of  Wight 
by  Gardiner.  He  secured  a  patent  for  the 
island,  which  made  it  a  "  plantation  "  en- 
tirely distinct  and  separate  from  any  of 
the  colonies.  It  contains  about  3,300 
acres,  and  has  descended  by  law  of  entail 
through  eight  lords  of  the  manor,  the 
last  being  David  Johnson,  who  died  in 
1829.  From  him  the  property  was  passed 
through  the  hands  of  his  two  brothers  and 
two  sons.  This  is  believed  to  be  the  only 
property  in  the  United  States  which  has 
descended  by  entail  to  its  present  holders 
(see  Entail  of  Estates).  The  manor 
house  built  in  1775  is  still  in  existence. 
Ihe  island  was  resorted  to  by  Captain 
Kidd,  who  buried  treasures  there  which 
were  afterwards  secured  by  Governor 
Bellomont,  of  New  York.  Gardiner  died 
in  Easthampton,  N.  Y.,  in  1663. 

Gardner,  Caleb,  military  officer;  born 
in  Newport,  R.  I.,  in  1739.  When  the 
Revolutionary  War  began  he  recruited  a 
company  and  joined  Richmond's  regiment; 
in  1778  he  greatly  distinguished  himself 
by  piloting  with  his  own  hands  to  a  place 
of  safety  the  French  fleet  under  Count 
d'Estaing,  who  was  blockaded  in  the 
harbor  at  Newport  by  a  large  British 
squadron.  As  a  reward  for  this  feat  the 
French  King  sent  him  a  money  gift.  He 
died  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  Dec.  24,  1806. 

Gardner,  Charles  K.,  military  officer; 
born  in  Morris  county.  N.  J.,  in  1787; 
joined  the  army  in  May,  1808;  served 
in  the  War  of  1812,  being  present  at  the 
actions  of  Chrysler's  Field,  Chippewa, 
Niagara,  and  Fort  Erie:  was  in  the  Treas- 
ury Department  in  1850-67.  His  publi- 
cations include  A  Dictionary  of  Commis- 



sioned  Officers  who  have  served  in  the 
Army  of  the  United  States  from  1789  to 
1853;  A  Compendium  of  Military  Tactics; 
and  A  Permanent  Designation  of  Compa- 
nies, and  Company  Books,  by  the  First 
Letters  of  the  Alphabet.  He  died  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Nov.  1,  1869. 

Gardner,  Dorset,  lexicographer;  born 
in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  1,  1842;  was 
educated  at  Yale  University.  His  publi- 
cations include  A  Condensed  Etymological 
Dictionary  of  the  English  Language;  a 
rearrangement  of  Webster's  American 
Dictionary  of  the  English  Language ;  etc. 
He  died  in  Short  Hills,  N.  J.,  Nov.  30,  1894. 

Gardner,  John  Lane,  military  officer; 
born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Aug.  1,  1793;  took 
part  in  the  War  of  1812  as  lieutenant  of 
infantry;   was  also  in  the  war  with  the 

Seminoles  in  Florida  and  in  the  Mexican 
War,  where  he  received  brevets  for  gallant 
conduct  at  the  battles  of  Cerro  Gordo  and 
Contreras.  He  was  in  command  at  Charles- 
ton when  South  Carolina  seceded,  but  was 
relieved  from  his  command  by  order  of 
Secretary  Floyd.  He  was  succeeded  in 
the  command  of  Fort  Moultrie  by  Maj. 
Robert  Anderson.  He  died  in  Wilming- 
ton, Del.,  Feb.  19,  1869.  See  Moultrie, 

Gardner,  Thomas,  military  officer; 
born  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  in  1724;  was 
a  member  of  the  committee  of  safety  in 
1775,  and  in  the  same  year  raised  a  regi- 
ment in  accordance  with  instructions  from 
the  Provincial  Congress.  At  the  battle 
of  Bunker  Hill  he  was  severely  wounded, 
and  died  the  next  day. 


Garfield,  James  Abram,  twentieth  President  of  the  United  States,  and  en- 
President  of  the  United  States;  born  in  tered  upon  his  duties  on  March  4,  1881. 
Orange,  Cuyahoga  co.,  0.,  Nov.  19,  1831.  After  an  administration  of  four  months, 
Left  an  orphan,  his  childhood  and  youth  he  was  shot  by  Charles  J.  Guiteau,  a 
were  spent  alternately  in  school  and  in  disappointed  office-seeker,  in  Washing- 
labor  for  his  support.  He  drove  horses  ton,  July  2,  1881,  and  lingered  until 
on  the  Ohio  canal ;  learned  the  carpen- 
ter's trade;  worked  at  it  during  school 
vacations;  entered  the  Geauga  Academy, 
at  Chester,  O.,  in  1850,  and,  at  the  end 
of  four  years,  had  fitted  himself  for 
junior  in  college.  He  entered  Williams 
College,  Mass.,  that  year;  graduated  in 
1S56;  and  then,  till  1861,  was  first  an  in- 
structor in  Hiram  College,  and  afterwards 
its  president;  gave  his  first  vote  for  the 
Republican  candidates,  and  took  part  in 
the  canvass  as  a  promising  orator;  stud- 
ied law;  was  a  member  of  the  Ohio  State 
Senate  in  1859,  and  often  preached  to 
congregations  of  the  Disciples'  Church, 
of  which  he  was  a  member.  A  firm  sup- 
porter of  the  government,  Garfield  en- 
tered the  military  service  in  its  defence, 
and  in  eastern  Kentucky  and  elsewhere 
proved  himself  a  skilful  soldier,  becom- 
ing a  major-general  of  volunteers  in  1863. 
In  that  year  he  was  elected  to  Congress, 
where  his  career  as  a  statesman  was 
marvellous.      He    grasped   every    topic    in 

debate  with  a  master's  hand.  In  1880  Sept.  19  following,  when  he  died  at  El- 
he  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Sen-  beron,  on  the  sea-shore,  in  New  Jersey, 
ate,    and    in   the    same   year    was    elected    His  death   was   sincerely  mourned  in   all 


JAMES    A11KAM    GARKIl'.I.D    AT    16. 


parts  of  the  civilized  world.     See  Blaine,  life    has    indicated    the    wisdom    of    the 

James  Gillespie;  Guiteau,  Charles  J.  founders  and  given  new  hope  to  their  de- 

Inaugural  Address. — On  March  4,  1881,  scendants.     Under    this    Constitution    our 

President  Garfield  delivered  the  following  people    long    ago    made    themselves    safe 

inaugural  address,  in  which  he  eloquently  against  danger  from  without  and  secured 

considered  the  condition  of  the  country  at  for    their    mariners   and    flag   equality   of 

the  turning  of  a  century  of  its  constitu-  rights  on  all  the  seas.     Under  this  Consti- 

tional  existence:  tution   twenty-five   States  have  been  add- 

ed  to  the  Union,  with  constitutions  and 

Fellow-Citizens, — We  stand  to-day  upon  laws,   framed  and   enforced  by  their  own 

an    eminence    which    overlooks    100    years  citizens,  to  secure  the  manifold  blessings 

of  national  life — a  century  crowded  with  of   local    self-government, 
perils,  but  crowned  with  the  triumphs  of        The    jurisdiction    of    this    Constitution 

liberty   and    law.      Before   continuing   the  now  covers  an  area  fifty  times  greater  than 

onward  march  let  us  pause  on  this  height  that  of  the  original  thirteen  States  and  a 

for  a  moment  to  strengthen  our  faith  and  population  twenty  times  greater  than  that 

renew  our  hope  by  a  glance  at  the  path-  of  1780. 

way   along   which   our    people   have   trav-        The   supreme  trial   of  the   Constitution 

elled.  came  at  last  under  the  tremendous  press- 
It    is   now   three    days   more    than    100 
years  since  the  adoption  of  the  first  writ- 
ten   Constitution    of    the    United    States 
— the     Articles     of      Confederation      and 

ure  of  civil  war.  We  ourselves  are  wit- 
nesses that  the  Union  emerged  from  the 
blood  and  fire  of  that  conflict  purified  and 
made  stronger  for  all  the  beneficent  pur- 

Perpetual  Union.     The  new  republic  was    poses  of  good  government. 

then  beset  with  danger  on  every  hand.  It 
had  not  conquered  a  place  in  the  family 
of  nations.  The  decisive  battle  of  the  war 
for  independence,  whose  centennial  an- 
niversary   will    soon    be    gratefully    cele- 

And  now,  at  the  close  of  this  first  cen- 
tury of  growth,  with  the  inspirations  of 
its  history  in  their  hearts,  our  people  have 
lately  reviewed  the  condition  of  the  na- 
tion,  passed   judgment   upon   the   conduct 

brated  at  Yorktown,  had  not  yet  been  and  opinions  of  political  parties,  and  have 
fought.  The  colonists  were  struggling  registered  their  will  concerning  the  future 
not  only  against  the  armies  of  a  great  administration  of  the  government.  To  in- 
nation,  but  against  the  settled  opinions  terpret  and  to  execute  that  will  in  accord- 
of  mankind;  for  the  world  did  not  then  ance  with  the  Constitution  is  the  para- 
believe    that    the    supreme    authority    of  mount  duty  of  the  executive. 

government   could   be   safely   intrusted   to 
the  guardianship  of  the  people  themselves. 

Even  from  this  brief  review  it  is  mani- 
fest  that   the   nation   is   resolutely   facing 

We  cannot  overestimate  the  fervent  love  to  the  front,  resolved  to  employ  its  best 
of  liberty,  the  intelligent  courage,  and  the  energies  in  developing  the  great  possibili- 
sum  of  common  -  sense  with  which  our  ties  of  the  future.  Sacredly  preserving 
fathers  made  the  great  experiment  of  self-  whatever  has  been  gained  to  liberty  and 
government.  When  they  found,  after  a  good  government  during  the  century,  our 
short  trial,  that  the  confederacy  of  States  people  are  determined  to  leave  behind  them 
was  too  weak  to  meet  the  necessities  of  a  all  those  bitter  controversies  concerning 
vigorous  and  expanding  republic,  they  things  which  have  been  irrevocably  set- 
boldly  set  it  aside,  and  in  its  stead  estab-  tied,  and  the  further  discussion  of  which 
lished  a  national  union,  founded  directly  can  only  stir  up  strife  and  delay  the  on- 
upon  the  will  of  the  people,  endowed  with  ward  march. 

full  power  of  self-preservation  and  ample        The    supremacy   of   the   nation   and   its 

authority   for   the   accomplishment   of   its  laws  should  be  no  longer  a  subject  of  de- 

great   object. 

bate.     That  discussion,  which   for  half  a 

Under  this  Constitution  the  boundaries  century  threatened  the  existence  of  the 
of  freedom  have  been  enlarged,  the  foun-  Union,  was  closed  at  last  in  the  high  court 
dations  of  order  and  peace  have  been  of  war  by  a  decree  from  which  there  is  no 
strengthened,  and  the  growth  of  our  peo-  appeal — that  the  Constitution  and  the 
pie  in  all  the  better  elements  of  national    laws  made  in  pursuance  thereof  are  and 



shall  continue  to  be  the  supreme  law  of 
the  land,  binding  alike  upon  the  States 
and  the  people.  This  decree  does  not  dis- 
turb the  autonomy  of  the  States  nor  in- 
terfere with  any  of  their  necessary  rights 
of  local  self-government,  but  it  does  fix 
and  establish  the  permanent  supremacy  of 
the  Union. 

The  will  of  the  nation,  speaking  with 
the  voice  of  battle  and  through  the  amend- 
ed Constitution,  has  fulfilled  the  great 
promise  of  1776  by  proclaiming  "  liberty 
throughout  the  land  to  all  the  inhabitants 

The  elevation  of  the  negro  race  from 
slavery  to  the  full  rights  of  citizenship 
is  the  most  important  political  change  we 
have  known  since  the  adoption  of  the  Con- 
stitution of  1787.  No  thoughtful  man  can 
fail  to  appreciate  its  beneficent  effect  upon 
our  institutions  and  people.  It  has 
freed  us  from  the  perpetual  danger  of 
war  and  dissolution.  It  has  added  im- 
mensely to  the  moral  and  industrial 
forces  of  our  people.  It  has  liberated  the 
master  as  well  as  the  slave  from  a  re- 
lation which  wronged  and  enfeebled  both. 
It  has  surrendered  to  their  own  guardian- 
ship the  manhood  of  more  than  5,000,000 
people,  and  has  opened  to  each  one  of 
them  a  career  of  freedom  and  usefulness. 
It  has  given  new  inspiration  to  the  power 
of  self-help  in  both  races  by  making  labor 
more  honorable  to  the  one  and  more  neces- 
sary to  the  other.  The  influence  of  this 
force  will  grow  greater  and  bear  richer 
fruit  with  the  coming  years. 

No  doubt  this  great  change  has  caused 
serious  disturbance  to  our  Southern  com- 
munities. This  is  to  be  deplored,  though 
it  was  perhaps  unavoidable.  But  those 
who  resisted  the  change  should  remember 
that  under  our  institutions  there  was  no 
middle  ground  for  the  negro  race  between 
slavery  and  equal  citizenship.  There  can 
be  no  permanent  disfranchised  peasantry 
in  the  United  States.  Freedom  can  never 
yield  its  fulness  of  blessings  so  long  as 
the  law  or  its  administration  places  the 
smallest  obstacle  in  the  pathway  of  any 
virtuous  citizen. 

The  emancipated  race  has  already  made 
rcmarkaWe  progress.  With  unquestion- 
ing devotion  to  the  Union,  with  a  patience 
and  gentleness  not  born  of  fear,  they 
have    "  followed    the    light    as    God   gave 

them  to  see  the  light."  They  are  rapidly 
laying  the  material  foundations  of  self- 
support,  widening  their  circle  of  intel- 
ligence, and  beginning  to  enjoy  the  bless- 
ings that  gather  around  the  homes  of  the 
industrious  poor.  They  deserve  the  gen- 
erous encouragement  of  all  good  men.  So 
far  as  my  authority  can  lawfully  extend, 
they  shall  enjoy  the  full  and  equal  pro- 
tection of  the  Constitution  and  the  laws. 

The  free  enjoyment  of  equal  suffrage 
is  still  in  question,  and  a  frank  statement 
of  the  issue  may  aid  its  solution.  It  is 
alleged  that  in  many  communities  negro 
citizens  are  practically  denied  the  free- 
dom of  the  ballot.  In  so  far  as  the  truth 
of  this  allegation  is  admitted,  it  is  answer- 
ed that  in  many  places  honest  local  gov- 
ernment is  impossible  if  the  mass  of  un- 
educated negroes  are  allowed  to  vote. 
These  are  grave  allegations.  So  far  as 
the  latter  is  true,  it  is  the  only  palliation 
that  can  be  offered  for  opposing  the  free- 
dom of  the  ballot.  Bad  local  government 
is  certainly  a  great  evil,  which  ought  to  be 
prevented;  but  to  violate  the  freedom  and 
sanctities  of  the  suffrage  is  more  than  an 
evil.  It  is  a  crime  which,  if  persisted  in, 
will  destroy  the  government  itself.  Sui- 
cide is  not  a  remedy.  If  in  other  lands 
it  be  high  treason  to  compass  the  death 
of  the  king,  it  shall  be  counted  no  less  a 
crime  here  to  strangle  our  sovereign  power 
and  stifle  its  voice. 

It  has  been  said  that  unsettled  ques- 
tions have  no  pity  for  the  repose  of  na- 
tions. It  should  be  said  with  the  utmost 
emphasis  that  this  question  of  the  suffrage 
will  never  give  repose  or  safety  to  the 
States  or  to  the  nation  until  each,  within 
its  own  jurisdiction,  makes  and  keeps  the 
ballot  free  and  pure  by  the  strong 
sanctions  of  the  law. 

But  the  danger  which  arises  from 
ignorance  in  the  voter  cannot  be  denied. 
It  covers  a  field  far  wider  than  that  of 
negro  suffrage  and  the  present  condition 
of  the  race.  It  is  a  danger  that  lurks 
and  hides  in  the  sources  and  fountains  of 
power  in  every  State.  We  have  no  stand- 
ard by  which  to  measure  the  disaster  that 
may  be  brought  upon  us  by  ignorance  and 
vice  in  the  citizens  when  joined  to  cor- 
ruption and  fraud  in  the  suffrage. 

The  voters  of  the  Union,  who  make  and 
unmake  constitutions,  and  upon  whose  will 



hang   the    destinies    of    our   governments,  to  our  moral  and  material  well-being  unite 

can  transmit  their  supreme  authority  to  us   and   offer   ample   employment   of    our 

no  successors  save  the  coming  generation  best  powers.     Let  all  our  people,  leaving 

of    voters,    who    are    the    sole    heirs    of  behind  them  the  battle-fields  of  dead  issues, 

sovereign  power.    If  that  generation  comes  move   forward   and   in   their    strength   of 

to    its    inheritance   blinded    by    ignorance  liberty  and   the  restored   Union  win   the 

and  corrupted  by  vice,  the  fall  of  the  re-  grander  victories  of  peace, 

public  will  be  certain  and  remediless.  The   prosperity  which  now   prevails   is 

The    census    has    already    sounded    the  without  parallel  in  our  history.     Fruitful 

alarm  in  the  appalling  figures  which  mark  seasons  have  done  much  to  secure  it,  but 

how   dangerously   high   the   tide   of   illit-  they  have  not  done  all.    The  preservation 

eracy   has    risen    among    our    voters    and  of  the  public  credit  and  the  resumption  of 

their  children.  specie  payments,  so  successfully  attained 

To  the  South  this  question  is  of  supreme  by  the  administration  of  my  predecessors, 

.importance.      But    the    responsibility    for  have    enabled    our    people    to    secure    the 

the  existence  of  slavery  did  not  rest  upon  blessings  which  the  seasons  brought, 

the  South  alone.     The  nation  itself  is  re-  By  the  experience  of  commercial  nations 

sponsible  for  the  extension  of  the  suffrage,  in  all  ages  it  has  been  found  that  gold 

and  is  under  special  obligations  to  aid  in  and  silver  afford  the  only  safe  foundation 

removing  the  illiteracy  which  it  has  added  for   a   monetary   system.      Confusion   has 

to  the  voting  population.     For  the  North  recently  been  created  by  variations  in  the 

and  South  alike  there  is  but  one  remedy,  relative  value  of   the   two   metals,   but  I 

All  the  constitutional  power  of  the  nation  confidently  believe  that  arrangements  can 

and  of  the  States,  and  all  the  volunteer  be  made  between  the  leading  commercial 

forces  of  the  people,  should  be  surrendered  nations  which  will  secure  the  general  use 

to    meet   this    danger    by   the    savory   in-  of  both  metals.     Congress  should  provide 

fluenee  of  universal  education.  that  the  compulsory  coinage  of  silver  now 

It  is  the  high  privilege  and  sacred  duty  required    by    law    may    not    disturb    our 

of  those  now  living  to  educate  their  sue-  monetary  system  by  driving  either  metal 

cessors  and  fit  them,  by  intelligence  and  out  of  circulation.     If  possible,   such  an 

virtue,  for  the  inheritance  which  awaits  adjustment  should  be  made  that  the  pur- 

them.  chasing  power  of  every  coined  dollar  will 

In  this  beneficent  work  sections  and  be  exactly  equal  to  its  debt-paying  power 
races  should  be  forgotten  and  partisan-  in  all  the  markets  of  the  world, 
ship  should  be  unknown.  Let  our  people  The  chief  duty  of  the  national  govern- 
find  a  new  meaning  in  the  divine  oracle  ment  in  connection  with  the* currency  of 
which  declares  that  "  a  little  child  shall  the  country  is  to  coin  money  and  declare 
lead  them,"  for  our  own  little  children  its  value.  Grave  doubts  have  been  enter- 
will  soon  control  the  destinies  of  the  re-  tained  whether  Congress  is  authorized  by 
public.  the  Constitution  to  make  any  form  of  pa- 

My  countrymen,  we  do  not  now  differ  per  money  legal  tender.    The  present  issue 

in   our   judgment    concerning   the   contro-  of  United  States  notes  has  been  sustained 

versies  of  past  generations,  and  fifty  years  by  the  necessities  of  war;  but  such  paper 

hence  our  children  will  not  be  divided  in  should  depend  for  its  value  and  currency 

their     opinions     concerning     our     contro-  upon  its  convenience  in  use  and  its  prompt 

versies.     They    will     surely    bless    their  redemption    in    coin    at    the    will    of    the 

fathers  and  their   fathers'   God   that  the  holder,  and  not  upon  its  compulsory  cir- 

Union    was    preserved,    that    slavery   was  culation.     These  notes  are  not  money,  but 

overthrown,    and    that    both    races    were  promises  to   pay  money.     If  the  holders 

made    equal    before    the    law.     We    may  demand  it,  the  promise  should  be  kept, 

hasten  or  we  may  retard,  but  we  cannot  The  refunding  of  the  national   debt  at 

prevent,    the    final    reconciliation.      Is    it  a  lower  rate  of  interest  should  be  aeeom- 

not  possible  for  us  now  to  make  a  truce  plished  without  compelling  the  withdrawal 

with  time  by  anticipating  and  accepting  of  the  national  bank  notes,  and  thus  dis- 

its  inevitable  verdict?  turbing  the  business  of  the  country. 

Enterprises  of  the  highest  importance  I  venture  to  refer  to  the  position  I  have 



occupied  on  financial  questions  during  a 
long  service  in  Congress,  and  to  say  that 
time  and  experience  have  strengthened  the 
opinions  I  have  so  often  expressed  on 
these  subjects. 

The  finances  of  the  government  shall 
suffer  no  detriment  which  it  may  be  pos- 
sible for  my  administration  to  prevent. 

The  interests  of  agriculture  deserve 
more  attention  from  the  government  than 
they  have  yet  received.  The  farms  of  the 
United  States  afford  homes  and  employ- 
ment for  more  than  one-half  our  people, 
and  furnish  much  the  largest  part  of  all 
our  exports.  As  the  government  lights 
our  coasts  for  the  protection  of  mariners 
and  the  benefit  of  commerce,  so  it  should 
give  to  the  tillers  of  the  soil  the  best  lights 
of  practical  science  and  experience. 

Our  manufactures  are  rapidly  making 
us  industrially  independent,  and  are  open- 
ing to  capital  and  labor  new  and  profit- 
able fields  of  employment.  Their  steady 
and  healthy  growth  should  still  be  ma- 
tured. Our  facilities  for  transportation 
should  be  promoted  by  the  continued  im- 
provement of  our  harbors  and  great  in- 
terior water-ways  and  by  the  increase  of 
our  tonnage  on  the  ocean. 

The  development  of  the  world's  com- 
merce has  led  to  an  urgent  demand  for 
shortening  the  great  sea  voyage  around 
Cape  Horn  by  constructing  ship-canals 
or  railways  across  the  isthmus  which 
unites  the  continents.  Various  plans  to 
this  end  have  been  suggested  and  will  need 
consideration,  but  none  of  them  has  been 
sufficiently  matured  to  warrant  the  United 
States  in  extending  pecuniary  aid.  The 
subject,  however,  is  one  which  will  im- 
mediately engage  the  attention  of  the  gov- 
ernment with  a  view  to  a  thorough  pro- 
tection to  American  interests.  We  will 
urge  no  narrow  policy  nor  seek  peculiar  or 
exclusive  privileges  in  any  commercial 
route;  but,  in  the  language  of  my  pred- 
ecessor, I  believe  it  to  be  the  right  "  and 
duty  of  the  United  States  to  assert  and 
maintain  such  supervision  and  authority 
over  any  interoceanic  canal  across  the 
fsthmus  that  connects  North  and  South 
America  as  will  protect  our  national  in- 

The  Constitution  guarantees  absolute 
religious  freedom-  Congress  is  prohibited 
from  making  any  law  respecting  an  estab- 

lishment of  religion  or  prohibiting  the  free 
exercise  thereof.  The  Territories  of  the 
United  States  are  subject  to  the  direct 
legislative  authority  of  Congress,  and 
hence  the  general  government  is  respon- 
sible for  any  violation  of  the  Constitution 
in  any  of  them.  It  is  therefore  a  reproach 
to  the  government  that  in  the  most  popu- 
lous of  the  Territories  the  constitutional 
guarantee  is  not  enjoyed  by  the  people,  and 
the  authority  of  Congress  is  set  at  naught. 
The  Mormon  Church  not  only  offends  the 
moral  sense  of  manhood  by  sanctioning 
polygamy,  but  prevents  the  administration 
of  justice  through  ordinary  instrumen- 
talities of  law. 

In  my  judgment  it  is  the  duty  of  Con- 
gress, while  respecting  to  the  uttermost 
the  conscientious  convictions  and  relig- 
ious scruples  of  every  citizen,  to  prohibit 
within  its  jurisdiction  all  criminal  prac- 
tices, especially  of  that  class  which  de- 
stroy the  family  relations  and  endanger 
social  order.  Nor  can  any  ecclesiastical 
organization  be  safely  permitted  to  usurp 
in  the  smallest  degree  the  functions  and 
powers  of  the  national  government. 

The  civil  service  can  never  be  placed 
on  a  satisfactory  basis  until  it  is  regu- 
lated by  law.  For  the  good  of  the  ser- 
vice itself,  for  the  protection  of  those 
who  are  intrusted  with  the  appointing 
power  against  the  waste  of  time  and 
obstruction  to  the  public  business  caused 
by  the  inordinate  pressure  for  place,  and 
for  the  protection  of  incumbents  against 
intrigue  and  wrong,  I  shall  at  the  proper 
time  ask  Congress  to  fix  the  tenure  of  the 
minor  offices  of  the  several  executive  de- 
partments, and  prescribe  the  grounds  upon 
which  removals  shall  be  made  during  the 
terms  for  which  incumbents  have  been 

Finally,  acting  always  within  the  au- 
thority and  limitations  of  the  Constitu- 
tion, invading  neither  the  rights  of  the 
States  nor  the  reserved  rights  of  the  peo- 
ple, it  will  be  the  purpose  of  my  adminis- 
tration to  maintain  the  authority  of  the 
nation  in  all  places  within  its  juris- 
diction; to  enforce  obedience  to  all  the 
laws  of  the  Union  in  the  interests  of  the 
people;  to  demand  rigid  economy  in  all 
the  expenditures  of  the  government,  and 
to  require  the  honest  and  faithful  service 
of  all  executive  officers,  remembering  that 



the  offices  were  created,  not  for  the  bene-  study  in  reference  to  our  country,  I  will 

fit  of  incumbents  or  their  supporters,  but  call  attention  to  a  few  general  facts  con- 

for  the  service  of  the  government.  cerning  its  discovery  and  settlement. 

And  now,  fellow-citizens,  I  am  about  to  First. — The    Romantic    Period    of    Dis- 

assume   the   great   trust   which   you   have  covery  on  this  Continent, 

committed  to  my  hands.     I  appeal  to  you  There    can    scarcely    be    found    in    the 

for   that   earnest   and  thoughtful   support  realms   of   romance   anything   more   fasci- 

which    makes    this    government    in    fact,  nating  than  tne  records  of  discovery  and 

as    it    is    in    law,    a    government    of    the  adventure  during  the  two   centuries   that 

people.  followed  the  landing  of  Columbus  on  the 

I   shall   greatly   rely   upon   the   wisdom  soil   of   the   New   World.      The   greed   for 

and  patriotism  of  Congress,  and  of  those  gold;     the    passion    for    adventure;     the 

who  may  share  with  me  the  responsibilities  spirit    of    chivalry;    the    enthusiasm    and 

and  duties  of  administration,  and,   above  fanaticism    of    religion — all    conspired    to 

all,  upon  our  efforts  to  promote  the  wel-  throw  into  America  the  hardiest  and  most 

fare  of  this  great   people   and  their  gov-  daring   spirits   of   Europe,   and   made   the 

ernments  I  reverently  invoke  the  support  vast    wilderness    of    the    New    World    the 

and  blessings  of  Almighty  God.  theatre  of  the  most  stirring  achievements 

The    Western    Reserve. — On    Sept.     1G,  that  history  has  recorded. 

1873,   General   Garfield   delivered   the   ad-  Early  in  the   sixteenth  century,   Spain, 

dress   that   follows   before    the    Historical  turning  from  the  conquest  of  Granada  and 

Society  of  Geauga  county,  Ohio:  her  triumph  over  the  Moors,  followed  her 

golden  dreams  of  the  New  World  with  the 

From  the  historian's  stand-point,  our  same  spirit  that  in  an  earlier  day  ani- 
country  is  peculiarly  and  exceptionally  mated  her  Crusaders.  In  1528  Ponce  de 
fortunate.  The  origin  of  nearly  all  great  Lecn  began  his  search  for  the  fountain  of 
nations,  ancient  and  modern,  is  shrouded  perpetual  youth,  the  tradition  of  which 
i  a  fable  or  traditionary  legend.  The  story  he  had  learned  among  the  natives  of  the 
of  the  founding  of  Rome  by  the  wolf-  West  Indies.  He  discovered  the  low-lying 
nursed  brothers,  Romulus  and  Remus,  has  coasts  of  Florida.,  and  explored  its  in- 
long  been  classed  among  myths  of  history;  terior.  Instead  of  the  fountain  of  youth, 
and  the  more  modern  story  of  Hengist  and  he  found  his  grave  among  its  everglades. 
Horsa  leading  the  Saxons  to  England  is  A  few  years  later  De  Soto,  who  had  ac- 
almost  equally  legendary.  The  origin  of  companied  Pizarro  in  the  conquest  of 
Paris  can  never  be  known.  Its  founda-  Peru,  landed  in  Florida  with  a  gallant 
tion  was  laid  long  before  Gaul  had  written  array  of  knights  and  nobles,  and  corn- 
records.  But  the  settlement,  civilization,  menced  his  explorations  through  the  west- 
and  political  institutions  of  our  country  ern  wilderness.  In  1541  he  reached  the 
can  be  traced  from  their  first  hour  by  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi  River,  and,  cross- 
clear  light  of  history.  It  is  true  that  ing  it,  pushed  his  discoveries  westward 
over  this  continent  hangs  an  impenetrable  over  the  great  plains;  but,  finding  neither 
veil  of  tradition,  mystery,  and  silence,  the  gold  nor  the  South  Sea  of  his  dreams, 
But  it  is  the  tradition  of  races  fast  pass-  he  returned  to  be  buried  in  the  waters  of 
ing  away;  the  mystery  of  a  still  earlier  the  great  river  he  had  discovered. 
race,  which  flourished  and  perished  long  While  England  was  more  leisurely  ex- 
before  its  discovery  by  the  Europeans,  ploring  the  bays  and  rivers  of  the  Atlan- 
The  story  of  the  Mound-builders  can  never  tic  coast,  and  searching  for  gold  and  pel- 
be  told.  The  fate  of  the  Indian  tribes  try,  the  chevaliers  and  priests  of  France 
will  soon  be  a  half-forgotten  tale.  But  were  chasing  their  dreams  in  the  North, 
the  history  of  European  civilization  and  searching  for  a  passage  to  China  and  the 
institutions  on  this  continent  can  b^  realms  of  Far  Cathay,  and  telling  the 
traced  with  precision  and  fulness,  unless  mystery  of  the  Cross  to  the  Indian  tribes 
we  become  forgetful  of  the  past,  and  neg-  of  the  far  West.  Coasting  northward, 
lect  to  save  and  perpetuate  its  precious  her  bold  navigators  discovered  the  mouth 
memorials.  of  the  St.  Lawrence;  and  in  1525  Cartier 

In    discussing    the    scope    of    historical  sailed  up  its  broad  current  to  the  rocky 
TV.— B                                                                           17 


heights  of  Quebec,  and  to  the  rapids  above 
Montreal,  which  were  afterwards  named 
La  Chine,  in  derision  of  the  belief  that 
the  adventurers  were  about  to  find  China. 

In  1609  Champlain  pushed  above  the 
rapids  and  discovered  the  beautiful  lake 
that  bears  his  name.  In  1615  Priest  La 
Caron  pushed  northward  and  westward 
through  the  wilderness  and  discovered 
Lake  Huron. 

In  1635  the  Jesuit  missionaries  founded 
the  Mission  St.  Mary.  In  1654  another 
priest  had  entered  the  wilderness  of 
northern  New  York  and  found  the  salt 
springs  of  Onondaga.  In  1659-60  French 
traders  and  priests  passed  the  winter  on 
Lake  Superior  and  established  missions 
along  its  shores. 

Among  the  earlier  discoverers,  no  name 
shines  out  with  more  brilliancy  than  that 
of  the  Chevalier  La  Salle.  The  story  of 
his  explorations  can  scarcely  be  equalled 
in  romantic  interest  by  any  of  the  stirring 
tales  of  the  Crusaders.  Born  of  a  proud 
and  wealthy  family  in  the  north  of  France, 
he  was  destined  for  the  service  of  the 
church  and  of  the  Jesuit  order.  But  his 
restless  spirit,  fired  with  the  love  of  ad- 
venture, broke  away  from  the  ecclesiasti- 
cal restraints  to  confront  the  dangers  of 
the  New  World,  and  to  extend  the  empire 
of  Louis  XIV.  From  the  best  evidence  ac- 
cessible, it  appears  that  he  was  the  first 
white  man  that  saw  the  Ohio  River.  At 
twenty-six  years  of  age  we  find  him  with 
a  small  party,  near  the  western  extremity 
of  Lake  Ontario,  boldly  entering  the  do- 
main of  the  dreaded  Iroquois,  travelling 
southward  and  westward  through  the  win- 
try wilderness  until  ho  reached  a  branch 
of  the  Ohio,  probably  the  Alleghany.  He 
followed  it  to  the  main  stream,  and  de- 
scended that,  until  in  the  winter  of  1669 
and  1670  he  reached  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio. 
near  the  present  site  of  Louisville.  His 
companions  refusing  to  go  farther,  he  re- 
turned to  Quebec,  and  prepared  for  still 
greater  undertakings. 

In  the  mean  time  the  Jesuit  missionaries 
had  been  pushing  their  discoveries  on  the 
northern  lake.  In  1673  Joliet  and  Mar- 
quette started  from  Green  Bay.  dragging 
llioir  canoes  up  the  rapids  of  Fox  River; 
crossed  Lake  Winnebago;  found  Indian 
guides  to  conduct  them  to  the  waters  of 
the  Wisconsin ;   descended  that  stream  to 

the  westward,  and  on  the  16th  of  June 
reached  the  Mississippi  near  the  spot 
where  now  stands  the  city  of  Prairie  du 
Chien.  To-morrow  will  be  the  200th  anni- 
versary of  that  discovery.  One  hundred 
and  thirty-two  years  before  that  time  De 
Soto  had  seen  the  same  river  more  than 
1,000  miles  below;  but  during  that  in- 
terval it  is  not  known  that  any  white  man 
had  looked  upon  its  waters. 

Turning  southward,  these  brave  priests 
descended  the  great  river,  amid  the  awful 
solitudes.  The  stories  of  demons  and 
monsters  of  the  wilderness  which  abounded 
among  the  Indian  tribes  did  not  deter 
them  from  pushing  their  discoveries. 
They  continued  their  journey  southward 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas  River,  tell- 
ing as  best  they  could  the  story  of  the 
Cross  to  the  wild  tribes  along  the  shores. 
Returning  from  the  Kaskaskias,  and 
travelling  thence  to  Lake  Michigan,  they 
reached  Green  Bay  at  the  end  of  Septem- 
ber, 1673,  having  on  their  journey  pad- 
dled their  canoes  more  than  2,500  miles. 
Marquette  remained  to  establish  missions 
among  the  Indians,  and  to  die,  three  years 
later,  on  the  western  shore  of  Lake  Michi- 
gan, while  Joliet  returned  to  Quebec  to  re- 
port  his   discoveries. 

In  the  mean  time  Count  Frontenac,  a 
noble  of  France,  had  been  made  governor 
of  Canada,  and  found  in  La  Salle  a  fit 
counsellor  and  assistant  in  his  vast 
schemes  of  discovery.  La  Salle  was  sent 
to  France,  to  enlist  the  Court  and  the 
ministers  of  Louis;  and  in  1677-78  re- 
turned to  Canada,  with  full  power  under 
Frontenac  to  carry  forward  his  grand  en- 
terprises. He  had  developed  three  great 
purposes:  first,  to  realize  the  old  plan  of 
Champlain,  the  finding  of  a  pathway  to 
China  across  the  American  continent; 
second,  to  occupy  and  develop  the  regions 
of  the  northern  lakes;  and,  third,  to  de- 
scend the  Mississippi  and  establish  a  for- 
tified post  at  its  mouth,  thus  securing  an 
outlet  for  the  trade  of  the  interior  and 
checking  the  progress  of  Spain  on  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico. 

Tn  pursuance  of  this  plan,  we  find  La 
Salle  and  his  companions,  in  January. 
1079,  dragging  their  cannon  and  ma- 
terials for  ahip-building  around  the  Falls 
of  Niagara,  and  laying  the  keel  of  a  ves- 
sel 2  leagues  above  the  cataract,  at  the 


mouth  of  Cayuga  Creek.  She  was  a 
schooner  of  45  tons  burden,  and  was 
named  The  Griffin.  On  Aug.  7,  1679, 
with  an  armament  of  five  cannon  and 
a  crew  and  company  of  thirty-four  men, 
she  started  on  her  voyage  up  Lake  Erie, 
the  first  sail  ever  spread  over  the  waters 
of  our  lake.  On  the  fourth  day  she  en- 
tered Detroit  River;  and,  after  en- 
countering a  terrible  storm  on  Lake 
Huron,  passed  the  strait  and  reached 
Green  Bay  early  in  September.  A  few 
weeks  later  she  started  back  for  Niagara, 
laden  with  furs,  and  was  never  heard 

While  awaiting  the  supplies  which  The 
Griffin  was  expected  to  bring,  La  Salle 
explored  Lake  Michigan  to  its  southern 
extremity,  ascended  the  St.  Joseph,  crossed 
the  portage  to  Kankakee,  descended  the 
Illinois,  and,  landing  at  an  Indian  vil- 
lage on  the  site  of  the  present  village 
of  Utica,  111.,  celebrated  mass  on  New 
Year's  Day,  1680.  Before  the  winter 
was  ended  he  became  certain  that  The 
Griffin  was  lost.  But,  undaunted  by 
his  disasters,  on  March  3,  with  five  com- 
panions, he  began  the  incredible  feat  of 
making  the  journey  to  Quebec  on  foot 
in  the  dead  of  winter.  This  he  accom- 
plished. He  reorganized  his  expedition, 
conquered  every  difficulty,  and  on  Dec. 
21,  1681,  with  a  party  of  fifty-four 
Frenchmen  and  friendly  Indians,  set  out 
for  the  present  site  of  Chicago,  and  by 
way  of  the  Illinois  River  reached  the 
Mississippi,  Feb.  6,  1682.  He  descended 
its  stream,  and  on  April  9,  1682,  stand- 
ing on  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 
solemnly  proclaimed  to  his  companions 
and  to  the  wilderness  that,  in  the  name 
of  Louis  the  Great,  he  took  possession  of 
the  Great  Valley  watered  by  the  Missis- 
sippi River.  He  set  up  a  column,  and  in- 
scribed upon  it  the  arms  of  France,  and 
named  the  country  Louisiana.  Upon  this 
act  rested  the  claim  of  France  to  the  vast 
region  stretching  from  the  Alleghany  to 
the  Rocky  Mountains,  from  the  Rio 
Grande  and  the  Gulf  to  the  farthest 
springs   of  the  Missouri. 

I  will  not  follow  further  the  career  of 
the  great  explorers.  Enough  has  been  said 
to  exhibit  the  spirit  and  character  of  their 
work.  T  would  I  were  able  to  inspire  the 
young  men  of  this  country  with  a  desire 

to  read  the  history  of  these  stirring  days 
of  discovery  that  opened  up  to  Europe 
the  mysteries  of  this  New  World. 

As  Irving  has  well  said  of  their  work: 
"  It  was  poetry  put  into  action ;  it  was 
the  knight-errantry  of  the  Old  World  car- 
ried into  the  depths  of  the  American 
wilderness.  The  personal  adventures ;  the 
feats  of  individual  prowess;  the  pictu- 
resque descriptions  of  steel-clad  cavalier*, 
with  lance  and  helm  and  prancing  steed, 
glittering  through  the  wilderness  of 
Florida,  Georgia,  Alabama,  and  the 
prairies  of  the  far  West — would  seem  to 
us  mere  fictions  of  romance  did  they  not 
come  to  us  in  the  matter-of-fact  narra- 
tives of  those  who  were  eye-witnesses,  and 
who  recorded  minute  memoranda  of  every 

Second. — The  Struggle  for  National  Do- 

I  next  invite  your  attention  to  the  less 
stirring  but  not  less  important  struggle 
for  the  possession  of  the  New  World  which 
succeeded  the  period  of  discovery. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury North  America  was  claimed  mainly 
by  three  great  powers.  Spain  held  pos- 
session of  Mexico  and  a  belt  reaching 
eastward  to  the  Atlantic  and  northward 
to  the  southern  line  of  Georgia  except  a 
portion  near  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi 
held  by  the  French.  England  held  from 
the  Spanish  line  on  the  south  to  the 
northern  lakes  and  the  St.  Lawrence  and 
westward  to  the  Alleghanies.  France  held 
all  north  of  the  lakes  and  west  of  the  Al- 
leghanies, and  southward  to  the  posses- 
sions of  Spain.  Some  of  the  boundary- 
lines  were  but  vaguely  defined,  others 
were  disputed;  but  the  general  outlines 
were  as  stated. 

Besides  the  struggle  for  national  pos- 
session, the  religious  element  entered 
largely  into  the  contest.  It  was  a  strug- 
gle between  the  Catholic  and  Protestant 
faiths.  The  Protestant  colonies  of  Eng- 
land were  enveloped  on  three  sides  by  the 
vigorous  and  perfectly  organized  Catholic 
powers  of  France  and  Spain. 

Indeed,  at  an  early  date,  by  the  bull  of 
Pope  Alexander  VI.,  all  America  had  been 
given  to  the  Spaniards.  But  France,  with 
a  zeal  equal  to  that  of  Spain,  had  entered 
the  list  to  contest  for  the  prize.  So  far 
as  the  religious  struggle  was  concerned, 


the  efforts  of  France  and  Spain  were  re- 
sisted only  by  the  Protestants  of  the  At- 
lantic coast. 

The  main  chain  of  the  Alleghanies  was 
supposed  to  be  impassable  until  1714, 
when  Governor  Spotswood,  of  Virginia, 
led  an  expedition  to  discover  a  pass  to 
the  great  valley  beyond.  He  found  one 
somewhere  near  the  western  boundary  of 
Virginia,  and  by  it  descended  to  the  Ohio. 
On  his  return  he  established  the  "  Trans- 
montane  Order,"  or  "  Knights  of  the 
Golden  Horse-shoe."  On  the  sandy  plains 
of  eastern  Virginia  horse-shoes  were  rare- 
ly used,  but,  in  climbing  the  mountains, 
he  had  found  them  necessary,  and,  on 
creating  his  companions  knights  of  this 
new  order,  he  gave  to  each  a  golden  horse- 
shoe,  inscribed   with   the   motto, 

"  Sic  juvat  transcendere  montes." 

He  represented  to  the  British  ministry 
the  great  importance  of  planting  settle- 
ments in  the  western  valley;  and,  with  the 
foresight  of  a  statesman,  pointed  out  the 
danger  of  allowing  the  French  the  undis- 
puted possession  of  that  rich  region. 

The  progress  of  England  had  been 
slower,  but  more  certain,  than  that  of  her 
great  rival.  While  the  French  were  es- 
tablishing trading-posts  at  points  widely 
remote  from  each  other,  along  the  lakes 
and  the  Mississippi,  and  in  the  wilderness 
of  Ohio,  Indiana,  and  Illinois,  the  English 
were  slowly  but  firmly  planting  their  set- 
tlements on  the  Atlantic  slope,  and  pre- 
paring to  contest  for  the  rich  prize  of  the 
great  West.  They  possessed  one  great 
advantage  over  their  French  rivals.  They 
had  cultivated  the  friendship  of  the  Iro- 
quois Confederacy,  the  most  powerful  com- 
bination of  Indian  tribes  known  to  the 
New  World.  That  confederacy  held  pos- 
session of  the  southern  shores  of  lakes 
Ontario  and  Erie;  and  their  hostility  to 
the  French  bad  confined  the  settlements 
of  that  people  mainly  to  the  northern 

During  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth 
century  many  treaties  were  made  by  the 
English  with  these  confederated  tribes, 
and  some  valuable  grants  of  land  were  ob- 
tained on  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Missis- 
sippi Valley. 

About  the  middle  of  that  century  the 
British  government  began  to  recognize  the 

wisdom  of  Governor  Spotswood,  and  per- 
ceived that  an  empire  was  soon  to  be 
saved  or  lost. 

In  1748  a  company  was  organized  by 
Thomas  Lee  and  Lawrence  and  Avigustine 
Washington,  under  the  name  of  "  The  Ohio 
Company,"  and  received  a  royal  grant  of 
500,000  acres  of  land  in  the  valley  of  the 
Ohio.  In  1751  a  British  trading-post  was 
established  on  the  Big  Miami;  but  in  the 
following  year  it  was  destroyed  by  the 
French.  Many  similar  efforts  of  the  Eng- 
lish colonists  were  resisted  by  the  French; 
and  during  the  years  1751-53  it  became 
manifest  that  a  great  struggle  was  im- 
minent between  the  French  and  the  Eng- 
lish for  the  possession  of  the  West.  The 
British  ministers  were  too  much  absorbed 
in  intrigues  at  home  to  appreciate  the  im- 
portance of  this  contest;  and  they  did 
but  little  more  than  to  permit  the  colonies 
to  protect  their  rights  in  the  valley  of  the 

In  1753  the  Ohio  Company  had  opened 
a  road,  by  "  Will's  Creek,"  into  the  west- 
ern valley,  and  were  preparing  to  locate 
their  colony.  At  the  same  time  the 
French  had  sent  a  force  to  occupy 
and  hold  the  line  of  the  Ohio.  As  the 
Ohio  Company  was  under  the  especial 
protection  of  Virginia,  the  governor  of 
that  colony  determined  to  send  a  mes- 
senger to  the  commander  of  the  French 
forces  and  demand  the  reason  for  in- 
vading the  British  dominions.  For  this 
purpose  he  selected  George  Washington, 
then  twenty-one  years  of  age,  who,  with 
six  assistants,  set  out  from  Williams- 
burg, Va.,  in  the  middle  of  November,  for 
11k-  waters  of  the  Ohio  and  the  lakes. 
After  a  journey  of  nine  days  through 
sleet  and  snow,  he  reached  the  Ohio,  at 
the  junction  of  the  Alleghany  and  the 
Monongahela;  and  his  quick  eye  seemed 
to  foresee  the  destiny  of  the  place.  "  I 
spent  some  time,"  said  he,  "  in  viewing 
the  rivers.  The  land  in  the  fork  has  the 
absolute  command  of  both."  On  this  spot 
Fort  Pitt  was  afterwards  built,  and  still 
later  the  city  of  Pittsburg. 

As  Bancroft  has  said,  "  After  creating 
in  imagination  a  fortress  and  city,  his 
party  swam  across  the  Alleghany,  and 
wrapped  their  blankets  around  them  for 
the  night  on  the  northwest  bank."  Pro- 
ceeding  down   the   Ohio   to   Logstown,   he 



held  a  council  with  the  Shawnees  and  the 
Delawares,  who  promised  to  secure  the 
aid  of  the  Six  Nations  in  resisting  the 
French.  He  then  proceeded  to  the  French 
posts  at  Venango  and  Fort  Le  Bceuf  (the 
latter  15  miles  from  Lake  Erie),  and 
warned  the  commanders  that  the  rights 
of  Virginia  must  not  be  invaded.  He  re- 
ceived for  his  answer  that  the  French 
would  seize  every  Englishman  in  the  Ohio 

Returning  to  Virginia  in  January, 
1754,  he  reported  to  the  governor,  and 
immediate  preparations  were  made  by 
the  colonists  to  maintain  their  rights  in 
the  West  and  resist  the  incursions  of  the 
French.  In  this  movement  originated  the 
first  military  union  among  the  English 

Although  peace  existed  between  France 
and  England,  formidable  preparations 
were  made  by  the  latter  to  repel  en- 
croachments on  the  frontier,  from  Ohio 
to  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence.  Braddock 
was  sent  to  America,  and  in  1755,  at 
Alexandria,  Va.,  he  planned  four  expe- 
ditions against  the  French. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  speak  in  detail 
ef  the  war  that  followed.  After  Brad- 
dock's  defeat,  near  the  forks  of  the  Ohio, 
which  occurred  on  July  9,  1755,  England 
herself  took  active  measures  for  prose- 
cuting the  war. 

On  Nov.  25,  1758,  Forbes  captured  Fort 
Duquesne,  which  thus  passed  into  the  pos- 
session of  the  English,  and  was  named 
Fort  Pitt,  in  honor  of  the  great  minister. 
In  1759  Quebec  was  captured  by  General 
Wolfe;  and  the  same  year  Niagara  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  English. 

In  1760  an  English  force,  under  Major 
Eogers,  moved  westward  from  Niagara, 
to  occupy  the  French  posts  on  the  upper 
lakes.  They  coasted  along  the  south 
shore  of  Erie,  the  first  English-speaking 
people  that  sailed  its  waters.  Near  the 
mouth  of  the  Grand  River  they  met  in 
council  the  chiefs  of  the  great  warrior 
Pontiae.  A  few  weeks  later  they  took 
possession  of  Detroit.  "  Thus,"  says  Mr. 
Bancroft,  "  was  Michigan  won  by  Great 
Britain,  though  not  for  itself.  There 
were  those  who  foresaw  that  the  acquisi- 
tion of  Canada  was  the  prelude  of  Ameri- 
can independence." 

Late   in   December   Rogers  returned   to 

the  Maumee;  and,  setting  out  from  the 
point  where  Sandusky  City  now  stands, 
crossed  the  Huron  River  to  the  northern 
branch  of  White  Woman's  River,  and, 
passing  thence  by  the  English  village  of 
Beaverstown,  and  up  the  Ohio,  reached 
Fort  Pitt  en  Jan.  23,  1761,  just  a  month' 
after  he  left  Detroit. 

Under  the  leadership  of  Pitt,  England 
was  finally  triumphant  in  this  great 
struggle;  and  by  the  treaty  of  Paris,  of 
Feb.  10,  1763,  she  acquired  Canada  and 
all  the  territory  east  of  the  Mississippi 
River,  and  southward  to  the  Spanish  ter- 
ritory, excepting  New  Orleans  and  the 
island  on  which  it  is  situated. 

During  the  twelve  years  which  followed 
the  treaty  of  Paris,  the  English  colonists 
were  pushing  their  settlements  into  the 
newly  acquired  territory;  but  they  en- 
countered the  opposition  of  the  Six  Na- 
tions and  their  allies,  who  made  fruitless 
efforts  to  capture  the  British  posts — De- 
troit,  Niagara,   and   Fort   Pitt. 

At  length,  in  1768,  Sir  William  John- 
son concluded  a  treaty  at  Fort  Stanwix 
with  these  tribes,  by  which  all  the  lands 
south  of  the  Ohio  and  the  Alleghany  were 
sold  to  the  British,  the  Indians  to  re- 
main in  undisturbed  possession  of  the 
territory  north  and  west  of  those  rivers. 
New  companies  were  organized  to  occupy 
the  territory  thus  obtained. 

"  Among  the  foremost  speculators  in 
Western  lands  at  that  time,"  says  the 
author  of  Annals  of  the  West,  "  was 
George  Washington."  In  1769  he  was  one 
of  the  signers  of  a  petition  to  the  King  for 
a  grant  of  2,500.000  acres  in  the  West.  In 
1770  he  crossed  the  mountains  and  de- 
scended the  Ohio  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Great  Kanawha,  to  locate  the  10.000 
acres  to  which  he  was  entitled  for  services 
in  the  French  War. 

Virginians  planted  settlements  in  Ken- 
tucky; and  pioneers  from  all  the  colonics 
began  to  occupy  the  frontiers,  from  the 
Alleghany  to  the  Tennessee. 

Third. — The  War  of  the  Revolution,  and 
its  Relations  to  the  West. 

How  came  the  thirteen  colonies  to  pos- 
sess the  valley  of  the  Mississippi?  The 
object  of  their  struggle  was  independence, 
and  yet  by  the  treaty  of  peace  in  1783 
not  only  was  the  independence  of  the 
thirteen  colonies  conceded,  but  there  was 



granted    to    the    new   republic   a    western  with  the  importance  of  warding  off  these 

territory  bounded   by  the  northern  lakes,  dangers,    he    appealed    to    the    governor, 

the  Mississippi,  and  the  French  and  Span-  I'atrick    Henry,    and    received    from    him 

ish  possessions.  authority  to  enlist  seven  companies  to  go 

How  did  these  hills  and  valleys  become  to   Kentucky   subject   to   his   orders,   and 

a   part  of  the  United  States?     It  is  true  serve  for  three  months  after  their  arrival 

that   by  virtue   of   royal   charters   several  in  the  West.     This  was  a  public  commis- 

of  the  colonies  set  up  claims  extending  to  sion. 

the  "South   Sea."     The  knowledge  which  Another   document,   bearing   date   Will- 

the  English  possessed  of  the  geography  of  iamsburg,  Jan.  2,  1778,  was  a  secret  com- 

this   country   at   that   time   is   illustrated  mission,    which    authorized    him,    in    the 

by  the  fact  that   Capt.   John   Smith   was  name  of  Virginia,  to  capture  the  military 

commissioned   to   sail   up   the   Chickahom-  posts  held  by  the  British  in  the  Northwest. 

iny  and  find  a  passage  to  China!  But  the 
claims  of  the  colonies  were  too  vague 
to  be  of  any  consequence  in  determining 

Armed  with  this  authority,  he  proceedeJ 
to  Pittsburg,  where  he  obtained  ammuni- 
tion and  floated  it  down  the  river  to  Ken- 

the  boundaries  of  the  two  governments,  tucky,  succeeded  in  enlisting  seven  corn- 
Virginia  had  indeed  extended  her  settle-  panies  of  pioneers,  and  in  the  month  of 
ments  into  the  region  south  of  the  Ohio  June,  1778,  commenced  his  march  through 
River,  and  during  the  Revolution  had  the  untrodden  wilderness  to  the  region  of 
annexed  that  country  to  the  Old  Do-  the  Illinois.  With  a  daring  that  is  scarce- 
minion,  calling  it  the  county  of  Kentucky,  ly  equalled  in  the  annals  of  war,  he  capt- 
ured the  garrisons  of  Kaskaskia,  St.  Vin- 
cent, and  Cahokia,  and  sent  his  prisoners 
to  the  governor  of  Virginia,  and  by  his 
energy  and  skill  won  over  the  French  in- 
habitants  of   that   region   to   the   Ameri- 

But  previous  to  the  Revolution  the  colo- 
nies had  taken  no  such  action  in  refer- 
ence to  the  territory  northwest  of  the 

The  cession  of  that  great  territory,  un- 
der the  treaty  of  1783,  was  due  mainly  to    can  cause. 

the  foresight,  the  courage,  and  the  en- 
durance of  one  man,  who  never  received 
from   his    country   any   adequate   recogni- 

In  October,  1778,  the  House  of  Burgesses 
passed  an  act  declaring  that  "  all  the  citi- 
zens   of    the    Commonwealth    of    Virginia, 

tion  for  his  great  service.    That  man  was    who    are    already    settled    there,    or    shall 
George  Rogers  Clark ;  and  it  is  worth  your    hereafter   be   settled   on   the   west   side   of 

while  to  consider  the  work  he  accom- 
plished. Born  in  Virginia,  he  was  in  early 
life  a  surveyor,  and  afterwards  served  in 

the  Ohio,  shall  be  included  in  the  District 
of  Kentucky,  which  shall  be  called 
Illinois  county."     In  other  words,  George 

Lord  Dunmore's  War.     In  1776  he  settled  Rogers   Clark  conquered   the  Territory  of 

in  Kentucky,  and  was,  in  fact,  xhe  founder  the   Northwest   in   the  name   of   Virginia, 

of   that   commonwealth.      As   the   war   of  and  the  flag  of  the  republic  covered  it  at 

the    Revolution    progressed,    he    saw   that  the  close  of  the  war. 

the  pioneers  west  of  the  Alleghanies  were  In  negotiating  the  treaty  of  peace  at 
threatened  by  two  formidable  dangers:  Taris,  in  1783,  the  British  commission- 
first,  by  the  Indians,  many  of  whom  had  ers  insisted  on  the  Ohio  River  as  the 
joined    the    standard    of    Great    Britain;  northwestern     boundary     of     the     United 

and,  second,  by  the  success  of  the  war  it- 
self.    For,  should  the  colonies  obtain  their 

States;     and   it  was  found  that  the  only 
tenable    ground    on    which    the    American 

independence  while  the  British   held   pos-  commissioners  relied,  to  sustain  our  claim 

session  of  the  Mississippi  Valley,  the  Al-  to  the  Lakes  and  the  Mississippi   as   the 

kphanies  would  be  the  western  boundary  boundary,  was  the  fact  that  George  Rogers 

of  the  new  republic,  and  the  pioneers  of  Clark  had  conquered  the  country,  and  Vir- 

the  West  would  remain  subject  to  Great 

Inspired  by  these  views,  he  made  two 
journeys  to  Virginia  to  represent  the 
case  to  the  authorities  of  that  colony. 
Failing  to  impress  the  House  of  Burgesse? 

ginia  was   in   undisputed   possession  of  it 
at  the  cessation  of  hostilities. 

In  his  Notes  on  the  Farh/  Settlement 
of  the  Northwest  Territory,  Judge  Bur- 
net says.  "That  fact  [the  capture  of  the 
British  posts]   was  confirmed  and   admit- 



ted,  and  was  the  chief  ground  on  which  Washington  a  portrait  of  Clark,  which 
the  British  commissioners  reluctantly  gives  unmistakable  evidence  of  a  char- 
abandoned   their   claim."  acter  of   rare  grasp  and  power.     No  one 

It   is   a   stain    upon    the   honor   of    our  can  look  upon  that  remarkable  face  with- 

country  that   such   a   man — the   leader   of  out  knowing  that  the  original  was  a  man 

pioneers    who    made    the    first    lodgment  of  unusual  force. 

on     the     site     now     occupied     by     Louis-        Fourth. — Organization    and    Settlement 

ville,  who  was  in  fact  the  founder  of  the  of  the  Northwest  Territory. 
State  of  Kentucky,  and  who  by  his  per-        Soon  after  the  close  of  the  Revolution 

sonal  foresight  and  energy  gave  nine  great  our    Western    country    was    divided    into 

States    to    the    republic — was    allowed    to  three    territories  —  the    Territory    of    the 

sink   under    a    load   of   debt    incurred   for  Mississippi,    the    Territory    south    of    the 

the  honor  and  glory  of  his  country.  Ohio,  and  the  Territory  northwest  of  the 

In    1799    Judge    Burnet    rode    some    10  Ohio.      For   the   purposes  of   this   address 
or     12    miles    from    Louisville    into 
country   to    visit    this    veteran   hero. 

the    I    shall    consider    only    the    organization 
He    and  settlement  of  the  latter. 

says   he   was   induced   to   make   this   visit 
by    the     veneration     he    entertained     for 
Clark's   military   talents   and   services. 
"  He   had,"   says   Burnet,   "  the   appear- 

It  would  be  difficult  to  find  any  country 
so  covered  with  conflicting  claims  of  title 
as  the  territory  of  the  Northwest.  Sev- 
eral States,  still  asserting  the  validity  of 

ance  of  a  man  born  to  command,  and  fit-  their  royal  charters,  set  up  claims  more  or 
ted  by  nature  for  his  destiny.  There  was  less  definite  to  portions  of  this  territory. 
a  gravity  and  solemnity  in  his  demeanor  First — by  royal  charter  of  1662,  confirm- 
ing a  council  charter  of  1630,  Connecticut 
claimed  a  strip  of  land  bounded  on  the 
east  by  the  Narraganset  River,  north  by 
Massachusetts,  south  by  Long  Island 
Sound,   and   extending   westward   between 

resembling  that  which  so  eminently  dis 
tinguished  the  venerated  Father  of  his 
Country.  A  person  familiar  with  the 
lives  and  character  of  the  military  vet- 
erans of  Rome  in  the  days  of  her  great- 
est power  might  readily  have  selected  this  the  parallels  of  41°  and  42°  2'  north  lati- 
remarJcable  man  as  a  specimen  of  the  tude,  to  the  mythical  "  South  Sea."  Sec- 
model  he  had  formed  of  them  in  his  own  ond — New  York,  by  her  charter  of  1614, 
mind;  but  he  was  rapidly  falling  a  vie-  claimed  a  territory  marked  by  definite 
tim  to  his  extreme  sensibility,  and  to  the  boundaries,  lying  across  the  boundaries  of 
ingratitude    of    his    native    State,    under    the    Connecticut    charter.     Third — by    the 

whose  banner  he  had  fought  bravely  and 
with  great  success. 

grant  to  William  Penn,  in  1664,  Pennsyl- 
vania claimed  a  territory  overlapping  part 

"  The    time    will    certainly    come    when  of    the    territory    of   both    these    colonies, 

the    enlightened    and    magnanimous    citi-  Fourth — the  charter  of  Massachusetts  also 

zens  of  Louisville  will  remember  the  debt  conflicted  with   some  of  the  claims  above 

of  gratitude  they  owe  the  memory  of  that  mentioned.     Fifth — Virginia    claimed    the 

distinguished    man.      He    was    the    leader  whole  of  the  Northwest  territory  by  right 

of  the  pioneers  who  made  the  first  lodg-  of  conquest,  and  in  1779,  by  an  act  of  her 

ment   on    the    site   now   covered    by    their  legislature,     annexed     it     as     a     county. 

rich  and   splendid  city.     He  was  its  pro-  Sixth — several   grants   had   been   made   of 

tector  during  the  years  of  its  infancy,  and  special   tracts   to   incorporated   companies 

in  the  period  of  its  greatest  danger.    Yet  by  the  different  States.     And,  finally,  the 

the  traveller,  who  had  read  of  his  achieve-  whole    territory    of    the    Northwest    was 

ments,  admired  his  character,  and  visited  claimed  by  the  Indians  as  their  own. 

the  theatre  of  his  brilliant  deeds,  discov-  The    claims    of    New    York,    Massachu- 

ers  nothing  indicating  the  place  where  his  setts,  and  part  of  the  claim  of  Pennsylva- 

remains  are  deposited,  and  where  he  can  nia   had   been   settled   before   the   war   by 

go   and   pay   a   tribute   of   respect   to   the  royal  commissioners;  the  others  were  still 

memory  of  the  departed  and  gallant  hero."  unadjusted.     It    became    evident    that    no 

This  eulogy  of  Judge  Burnet  is  fully  satisfactory  settlement  could  be  made  ex- 
warranted  by  the  facts  of  history.  There  cept  by  Congress.  That  body  urged  the 
is  preserved  in   the  War  Department  at  several   States  to  make  a  cession  of  the 



lands  they  claimed,  and  thus  enable  the 
general  government  to  open  the  North- 
west for  settlement. 

On  March  1,  1784,  Thomas  Jefferson, 
Samuel  Hardy,  Arthur  Lee,  and  James 
Monroe,  delegates  in  Congress,  executed  a 
deed  of  cession  in  the  name  of  Virginia, 
by  which  they  transferred  to  the  United 
States  the  title  of  Virginia  to  the  North- 
west Territory,  but  reserving  to  that  State 
150,000  acres  of  land  which  Virginia  had 
promised  to  George  Rogers  Clark,  and  to 
the  officers  and  soldiers  who  with  him 
captured  the  British  posts  in  the  West. 
Also,  another  tract  of  land  between  the 
Scioto  and  Little  Miami,  to  enable  Vir- 
ginia to  pay  her  promised  bounties  to  her 
officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary 

On  Oct.  27,  1784,  a  treaty  was  made 
at  Fort  Stanwix  (now  Rome,  N.  Y.)  with 
the  Six  Nations,  by  which  these  tribes 
ceded  to  the  United  States  their  vague 
claims  to  the  lands  north  and  west  of 
the  Ohio.  On  Jan.  31,  17S5,  a  treaty  was 
made  at  Fort  Mcintosh  (now  the  town 
of  Beaver,  Pa.)  with  the  four  Western 
tribes,  the  Wyandottes,  the  Delawares, 
the  Chippewas,  and  the  Tawas,  by  which 
all  their  lands  in  the  Northwest  Territory 
were  ceded  to  the  United  States,  except 
that  portion  bounded  by  a  line  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  up  that  river 
to  the  portage  between  the  Cuyahoga  and 
Tuscarawas,  thence  down  that  branch  to 
the  mouth  of  Sandy,  thence  westwardly  to 
the  portnge  of  the  Big  Miami,  which  runs 
into  the  Ohio,  thence  along  the  portage 
to  the  Great  Miami  or  Maumee,  and  down 
the  southeast  side  of  the  river  to  its 
mouth,  thence  along  the  shore  of  Lake 
Erie  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga.  The 
territory  thus  described  was  to  be  forever 
the  exclusive  possession  of  these  Indians. 

In  1788  a  settlement  was  made  at  Ma- 
rietta, and  soon  after  other  settlements 
were  begun.  But  the  Indians  were  dis- 
satisfied, and,  by  the  intrigues  of  their 
late  allies,  the  British,  a  savage  and 
bloody  war  ensued,  which  delayed  for 
several  years  the  settlement  of  the  State. 
The  campaign  of  General  Harmar  in  1700 
was  only  a  partial  success.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year  a  more  formidable  force  was 
placed  under  the  command  of  General 
St.   Clair,  who   suffered  a  disastrous  and 

overwhelming  defeat  on  Nov.  4  of  that 
year,  near  the  head-waters  of  the  Wa- 

It  was  evident  that  nothing  but  a  war 
so  decisive  as  to  break  the  power  of  the 
Western  tribes  could  make  the  settlement 
of  Ohio  possible.  There  are  but  few 
things  in  the  career  of  George  Washington 
that  so  strikingly  illustrate  his  sagacity 
and  prudence  as  the  policy  he  pursued  in 
reference  to  this  subject.  He  made  prep- 
arations for  organizing  an  army  of  5,000 
men,  appointed  General  Wayne  to  the 
command  of  a  special  force,  and  early  in 
1792  drafted  detailed  instructions  for  giv- 
ing it  special  discipline  to  fit  it  for  Indian 
warfare.  During  that  and  the  following 
year  he  exhausted  every  means  to  secure 
the  peace  of  the  West  by  treaties  with  the 

But  agents  of  England  and  Spain  were 
busy  in  intrigues  with  the  Indians  in 
hopes  of  recovering  a  portion  of  the  great 
empire  they  had  lost  by  the  treaty  of 
1783.  So  far  were  the  efforts  of  England 
carried  that  a  British  force  was  sent  to 
the  rapids  of  the  Maumee,  where  they 
built  a  fort,  and  inspired  the  Indians 
with  the  hope  that  the  British  would  join 
them  in  fighting  the  forces  of  the  United 

All  efforts  to  make  a  peaceable  settle- 
ment on  any  other  basis  than  the  abandon- 
ment on  the  part  of  the  United  States 
of  all  territory  north  of  the  Ohio  having 
failed.  General  Wayne  proceeded  with  that 
wonderful  vigor  which  had  made  him  fam- 
ous on  so  many  fields  of  the  Revolution, 
and  on  Aug.  20,  1794,  defeated  the  Ind- 
ians and  their  allies  on  the  banks  of  the 
Maumee,  and  completely  broke  the  power 
of  their  confederation. 

On  Aug.  3,  1795,  General  Wayne  con- 
cluded at  Greenville  a  treaty  of  lasting 
peace  with  these  tribes  and  thus  opened 
the  State  to  settlement.  In  this  treaty 
there  was  reserved  to  the  Indians  the 
same  territory  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  as 
described  in  the  treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh 
of  1785. 

Fifth. — Settlement  of  the  Western  Re- 

I  have  now  noticed  briefly  the  adjust- 
ment of  the  several  claims  to  the  North- 
western Territory,  excepting  that  of  Con- 
necticut.    It  has  already  been  seen  that 



Connecticut  claimed  a  strip  westward  from 
the  Narraganset  River  to  the  Mississippi, 
between  the  parallels  of  41°  and  42°  2'; 
but  that  portion  of  her  claim  which  cross- 
ed the  territory  of  New  York  and  Penn- 
\vlvania  had  been  extinguished  by  adjust- 
ment. Her  claim  to  the  territory  west  of 
Pennsylvania  was  unsettled  until  Sept.  14, 
1786,  when  she  ceded  it  all  to  the  United 
States,  except  that  portion  lying  between 
the  parallels  above  named  and  a  line  120 
miles  west  of  the  western  line  of  Penn- 
sylvania and  parallel  with  it.  This  tract 
of  country  was  about  the  size  of  the  pres- 
ent State,  and  was  called  "  New  Con- 

In  May,  1792,  the  legislature  of  Con- 
necticut granted  to  those  of  her  citizens 
whose  property  had  been  burned  or  other- 
wise spoliated  by  the  British  during  the 
war  of  the  Revolution  half  a  million  of 
acres  from  the  west  end  of  the  reserve. 
Thejse  were  called  "  The  Fire  Lands." 

On  Sept.  5,  1795,  Connecticut  executed 
a  deed  to  John  Caldwell,  Jonathan  Brace, 
and  John  Morgan,  trustees  for  the  Con- 
necticut Land  Company,  for  3,000,000 
acres  of  reserve  lying  west  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, for  $1,200,000,  or  at  the  rate  of 
40  cents  per  acre.  The  State  gave  only 
a  quit-claim  deed,  transferring  only  such 
title  as  she  possessed,  and  leaving  all  the 
remaining  Indian  titles  to  the  reserve  to 
be  extinguished  by  the  purchasers  them- 
selves. With  the  exception  of  a  few  hun- 
dred acres  previously  sold  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  Salt  Spring  tract  on  the 
Mahoning,  all  titles  to  lands  on  the  re- 
serve east  of  "  The  Fire  Lands "  rest  on 
this  quit-claim  deed  of  Connecticut  to 
the  three  trustees,  who  were  all  living 
as  late  as  1836,  and  joined  in  making 
deeds  to  the  lands  on  the  reserve. 

On  the  same  day  that  the  trust  deed 
was  made,  articles  of  association  were 
signed  by  the  proprietors,  providing  for 
the  government  of  the  company.  The 
management  of  its  affairs  was  intrusted 
to  seven  directors.  They  determined  to 
extinguish  the  Indian  title,  and  survey 
their  land  into  townships  5  miles  square. 
Moses  Cleaveland,  one  of  the  directors, 
was  made  general  agent;  Augustus  Por- 
ter, principal  surveyor;  and  Seth  Pease, 
astronomer  and  surveyor.  To  these  were 
added    four    assistant    surveyors,    a    com- 

missary, a  physician,  and  thirty-seven 
other  employees.  This  party  assembled 
at  Schenectady,  N.  Y.,  in  the  spring  of 
1796,   and   prepared   for   their   expedition. 

It  is  interesting  to  follow  them  on 
their  way  to  the  Reserve.  They  ascended 
the  Mohawk  River  in  bateaux,  passing 
through  Little  Falls,  and  from  the  present 
city  of  Rome  took  their  boats  and  stores 
across  into  Wood  Creek.  Passing  down 
the  stream,  they  crossed  the  Oneida  Lake, 
thence  down  the  Oswego  to  Lake  Ontario, 
coasting  along  the  lake  to  Niagara.  After 
encountering  innumerable  hardships,  the 
party  reached  Buffalo  on  June  17,  where 
they  met  Red  Jacket  and  the  principal 
chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations,  and  on  the  23d 
of  that  month  completed  a  contract  with 
those  chiefs,  by  which  they  purchased  all 
the  rights  of  those  Indians  to  the  lands 
on  the  Reserve,  for  £500,  New  York  cur- 
rency, to  be  paid  in  goods  to  the  Western 
Indians,  and  two  beef  cattle  and  100  gal- 
lons of  whiskey  to  the  Eastern  Indians, 
besides  gifts  and  provisions  to  all  of 

Setting  out  from  Buffalo  on  June  27, 
they  coasted  along  the  shore  of  the  lake, 
some  of  the  party  in  boats  and  others 
marching  along  the  banks. 

In  the  journal  of  Seth  Pease,  published 
in  Whittlesey's  History  of  Cleveland,  I 
find  the  following: 

"  Monday,  July  4,  1796. — We  that  came 
by  land  arrived  at  the  confines  of  New 
Connecticut,  and  gave  three  cheers  pre- 
cisely at  five  o'clock  p.m.  We  then  pro- 
ceeded to  Conneaut,  at  five  hours  thirty 
minutes,  our  boats  got  on  an  hour  after; 
we  pitched  our  tents  on  the  east  side." 

In  the  journal  of  General  Cleaveland  is 
the  following  entry: 

"  On  this  Creek  ('  Conneaugh  ') ,  in  New 
Connecticut  Land,  July  4,  1796,  under 
General  Moses  Cleaveland,  the  surveyors 
and  men  sent  by  the  Connecticut  Land 
Company  to  survey  and  settle  the  Con- 
necticut Reserve,  were  the  first  English 
people  who  took  possession  of  it.  .  .  . 

"  We  gave  three  cheers  and  christen- 
ed the  place  Fort  Independence;  and,  af- 
ter many  difficulties,  perplexities,  and 
hardships  were  surmounted,  and  we  were 
on  the  good  and  promised  land,  felt  that 
a  just  tribute  of  respect  to  the  day  ought 
to  be  paid.     There  were  in  all,  including 


women  and  children,  fifty  in  number.  The 
men,  under  Captain  Tinker,  ranged  them- 
selves on  the  beach  and  fired  a  federal 
salute  of  fifteen  rounds,  and  then  the 
sixteenth  in  honor  of  New  Connecticut. 
Drank  several  toasts.  .  .  .  Closed  with 
three  cheers.  Drank  several  pails  of  grog. 
Supped  and  retired  in  good  order." 

Three  days  afterwards  General  Cleave- 
land  held  a  council  with  Paqua,  chief  of 
the  Massasagas,  whose  village  was  at  Con- 
neaut  Creek.  The  friendship  of  these  Ind- 
ians was  purchased  by  a  few  trinkets  and 
$25  worth  of  whiskey. 

A  cabin  was  erected  on  the  bank  of  Con- 
neaut  Creek ;  and,  in  honor  of  the  com- 
missary of  the  expedition,  was  called 
"  Stow  Castle."  At  this  time  the  white 
inhabitants  west  of  the  Genesee  River  and 
along  the  coasts  of  the  lakes  were  as  fol- 
lows: the  garrison  at  Niagara,  two  fam- 
ilies at  Lewiston,  one  at  Buffalo,  one  at 
Cleveland,  and  one  at  Sandusky.  There 
were  no  other  families  east  of  Detroit: 
and,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  advent- 
urers at  the  Salt  Springs  of  the  Mahon- 
ing, the  interior  of  New  Connecticut  was 
an  unbroken  wilderness. 

The  work  of  surveying  was  commenced 
at  once.  One  party  went  southward  on 
the  Pennsylvania  line  to  find  the  41st 
parallel,  and  began  the  survey;  another, 
under  General  Cleaveland,  coasted  along 
the  lake  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
which  they  reached  on  July  22,  and  there 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  chief  city  of  the 
Reserve.  A  large  portion  of  the  survey 
was  made  during  that  season,  and  the 
work  was  completed  in  the  following 

By  the  close  of  the  year  1800  there 
were  thirty-two  settlements  on  the  Re- 
serve, though  as  yet  no  organization  of 
government  had  been  established.  But 
the  pioneers  were  a  people  who  had  been 
trained  in  the  principles  and  practices  of 
civil  order;  and  these  were  transplanted 
to  their  new  home.  In  New  Connecticut 
there  was  but  little  of  that  lawlessness 
which  so  often  characterizes  tie  people 
of  a  new  country.  In  mny  instances 
a  township  organization  was  completed 
and  their  minister  chosen  before  the  pio- 
neers left  home.  Thus  they  planted  the 
institutions  and  opinions  of  Old  Connecti- 
cut in  their  new  wilderness  homes. 

There  are  townships  on  this  Western 
Reserve  which  are  more  thoroughly  New 
England  in  character  and  spirit  than  most 
of  the  towns  of  the  New  England  of  to- 
day. Cut  off  as  they  were  from  the 
metropolitan  life  that  had  gradually  been 
moulding  and  changing  the  spirit  of  New 
England,  they  preserved  here  in  the  wil- 
derness the  characteristics  of  New  Eng- 
land, as  it  was  when  they  left  it  at  the 
beginning  of  the  century.  This  has  given 
to  the  people  of  the  Western  Reserve 
those  strongly  marked  qualities  which 
have  always  distinguished  them. 

For  a  long  time  it  was  difficult  to  as- 
certain the  political  and  legal  status 
of  the  settlers  on  the  Reserve.  The  State 
of  Connecticut  did  not  assume  jurisdic- 
tion over  its  people,  because  the  State 
had  parted  with  her  claim  to  the  soil. 

By  a  proclamation  of  Governor  St.  Clair, 
in  1788,  Washington  county  had  been  or- 
ganized, having  its  limits  extended  west- 
ward to  the  Scioto  and  northward  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  with  Marietta  as 
the  county  seat.  These  limits  included 
a  portion  of  the  Western  Reserve.  But 
the  Connecticut  settlers  did  not  consider 
this  a  practical  government,  and  most  of 
them  doubted  its  legality. 

By  the  end  of  the  century  seven  coun- 
ties, Washington.  Hamilton.  Ross.  Wayne. 
Adams,  Jefferson,  and  Knox,  had  been 
created,  but  none  of  them  were  of  any 
practical  service  to  the  settlers  on  the 
Reserve.  No  magistrate  had  been  ap- 
pointed for  that  portion  of  the  country, 
no  civil  process  was  established,  and  no 
mode  existed  of  making  leeal  conveyances. 

But  in  the  year  1800  the  State  of  Con- 
necticut, by  act  of  her  legislature,  trans- 
ferred to  the  national  government  all 
her  claim  to  civil  jurisdiction.  Congress 
assumed  the  political  control,  and  the 
President  conveyed  by  patent  the  fee  of 
the  soil  to  the  government  of  the  State 
for  the  use  of  the  grantees  and  the  parties 
claiming  under  them.  Whereupon,  in  pur- 
suance of  this  authority,  on  Sept. 
22,  1800,  Governor  St.  Clair  issued 
a  proclamation  establishing  the  county 
of  Trumbull,  to  include  within  its  boun- 
daries the  "  Fire  Lands "  and  adjacent 
is'ands,  and  ordered  an  election  to  be 
held  at  Warren,  its  county  seat,  on 
the  second  Tuesday  of  October.     At  that 


election  forty -two  votes  were  cast,  of 
which  General  Edward  Paine  received 
thirty-eight,  and  was  thus  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Territorial  legislature.  All 
the  early  deeds  on  the  Reserve  are  pre- 
served in  the  records  of  Trumbull  county. 

A  treaty  was  held  at  Fort  Industry 
on  July  4,  1805,  between  the  commis- 
sioners of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company 
and  the  Indians,  by  which  all  the  lands 
in  the  Reserve  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  be- 
longing to  the  Indians  were  ceded  to  the 
Connecticut  Company. 

Geauga  was  the  second  county  of  the 
Reserve.  It  was  created  by  an  act  of 
the  legislature,  Dec.  31,  1805;  and  by  a 
subsequent  act  its  boundaries  were  made 
to  include  the  present  territory  of  Cuy- 
ahoga county  as  far  west  as  the  Four- 
teenth Range. 

Portage  county  was  established  on  Feb. 
10.  1807;  and  on  June  16,  1810,  the  act 
establishing  Cuyahoga  county  went  into 
operation.  But  that  act  all  of  Geauga 
west  of  the  Ninth  Range  was  made  a  part 
of  Cuyahoga  county.  Ashtabula  county 
was  established  on  Jan.  22,  1811. 

A  considerable  number  of  Indians  re- 
mained on  the  Western  Reserve  until  the 
breaking  out  of  the  War  of  1812.  Most 
of  the  Canadian  tribes  took  up  arms 
against  the  United  States  in  that  struggle, 
and  a  portion  of  the  Indians  of  the  West- 
ern Reserve  joined  their  Canadian  breth- 
ren. At  the  close  of  that  war  occasional 
bands  of  these  Indians  returned  to  their 
old  haunts  on  the  Cuyahoga  and  the  Ma- 
honing; but  the  inhabitants  of  the  Re- 
serve soon  made  them  understand  that 
they  were  unwelcome  visitors  after  the 
part  they  had  taken  against  us.  Thus 
the  War  of  1812  substantially  cleared  the 
Reserve  of  its  Indian  inhabitants. 

In  this  brief  survey  I  have  attempted 
to  indicate  the  general  character  of  the 
leading  events  connected  with  the  discov- 
ery and  settlement  of  our  country.  I 
cannot,  on  this  occasion,  further  pursue 
the  history  of  the  settlement  and  building 
up  of  the  counties  and  townships  of  the 
Western  Reserve.  I  have  already  noticed 
the  peculiar  character  of  the  people  who 
converted  this  wilderness  into  the  land  of 
happy  homes  which  we  now  behold  on  ev- 
ery hand.  But  I  desire  to  call  the  atten- 
tion of  the  young  men  and  women  who 

hear  me  to  the  duty  they  owe  to  them- 
selves and  their  ancestors  to  study  care- 
fully and  reverently  the  history  of  the 
great  work  which  has  been  accomplished 
in  this  New  Connecticut. 

The  pioneers  who  first  broke  ground 
here  accomplished  a  work  unlike  that 
which  fell  to  the  lot  of  any  succeeding 
generation.  The  hardships  they  endured, 
the  obstacles  they  encountered,  the  life 
they  led,  the  peculiar  qualities  they  need- 
ed in  their  undertakings,  and  the  traits 
of  character  developed  by  their  works 
stand  alone  in  our  history.  The  genera- 
tion that  knew  these  first  pioneers  is  fast 
passing  away.  But  there  are  sitting  in 
this  audience  to-day  a  few  men  and  wom- 
en whose  memories  date  back  to  the  early 
settlement.  Here  sits  a  gentleman  near 
me  who  is  older  than  the  Western  Re- 
serve. He  remembers  a  time  when  the 
axe  of  the  Connecticut  pioneer  had  never 
awakened  the  echoes  of  the  wilderness 
here.  How  strange  and  wonderful  a 
transformation  has  taken  place  since  he 
was  a  child!  It  is  our  sacred  duty  to 
rescue  from  oblivion  the  stirring  recol- 
lections of  such  men,  and  preserve  them 
as  memorials  of  the  past,  as  lessons  for 
our  own  inspiration  and  the  instruction 
of  those  who  shall  come  after  us. 

The  materials  for  a  history  of  this  Re- 
serve are  rich  and  abundant.  Its  pioneers 
were  not  ignorant  and  thoughtless  ad- 
venturers, but  men  of  established  charac- 
ter, whose  opinions  on  civil  and  religious 
liberty  had  grown  with  their  growth  and 
become  the  settled  convictions  of  their 
maturer  years.  Both  here  and  in  Con- 
necticut the  family  records,  journals,  and 
letters,  which  are  preserved  in  hundreds 
of  families,  if  brought  out  and  arranged 
in  order,  would  throw  a  flood  of  light 
on  every  page  of  our  history.  Even  the 
brief  notice  which  informed  the  citizens 
of  this  county  that  a  meeting  was  to  be 
held  here  to-day  to  organize  a  Pioneer 
Society  has  called  this  great  audience  to- 
gether, and  they  have  brought  with  them 
many  rich  historical  memorials.  They 
have  brought  old  colonial  commissions 
given  to  early  Connecticut  soldiers  of  the 
Revolution,  who  became  pioneers  of  the 
Reserve  and  whose  children  are  here  to- 
day. They  have  brought  church  and  oth- 
er records  which  date  back  to  the  besin- 



ning  of  these  settlements.  They  have  lowed  the  occupation  of  a  soap-boiler 
shown  us  implements  of  industry  which  on  Staten  Island.  In  1854  he  returned 
the  pioneers  brought  in  with  them,  many  to  Italy,  and  purchased  the  northern  part 
of  which  have  been  superseded  by  the  supe-  of  Caprera,  where  he  remained  until  1859, 
rior  mechanical  contrivances  of  our  time,  when  he  organized  and  commanded  an  in- 
Some  of  these  implements  are  symbols  of  dependent  corps,  known  as  the  "  Hunters 
the  spirit  and  character  of  the  pioneers 
of  the  Reserve.  Here  is  a  broad  -  axe 
brought  from  Connecticut  by  John  Ford, 
father  of  the  late  governor  of  Ohio;  and 
we  are  told  that  the  first  work  done  with 
this  axe  by  that  sturdy  old  pioneer,  after 
he  had  finished  a  few  cabins  for  the  fam- 
ilies that  came  with  him,  was  to  hew  out 
the  timbers  for  an  academy,  the  Burton 
Academy,  to  which  so  many  of  our  older 
men  owe  the  foundation  of  their  educa- 
tion, and  from  which  sprang  the  Western 
Eeserve  College. 

These  pioneers  knew  well  that  the 
three  great  forces  which  constitute  the 
strength  and  glory  of  a  free  government 
are  the  family,  the  school,  and  the  church. 
These  three  they  planted  here,  and  they 
nourished  and  cherished  them  with  an 
energy  and  devotion  scarcely  equalled  in 
any  other  quarter  of  the  world.  On  this 
height  were  planted  in  the  wilderness  the 
symbols  of  this  trinity  of  powers;  and 
here,  let  us  hope,  may  be  maintained  for- 
ever the  ancient  faith  of  our  fathers  in 
the  sanctity  of  the  home,  the  intelligence 

of    the 


Alps,"    in    the    Sardinian    service 
the   war   of   Sardinia   and   France 

of  the  school,  and  the  faithfulness  of  the  against  Austria.  Secretly  abetted  by  Sar- 
church.  Where  these  three  combine  in  dinia,  after  peace  was  made,  he  organ- 
prosperous  union,  the  safety  and  prosperity  ized  an  expedition  against  the  Two  Sici- 
of  the  nation  are  assured.  The  glory  of  lies,  having  as  his  object  the  union  of 
our  country  can  never  be  dimmed  while  Italy.  In  May,  1800.  he  descended  upon 
these  three  lights  are  kept  shining  with  Sicily  with  1.000  volunteers,  and  when 
an  undimmed  lustre.  he  had  made  himself  dictator  he  crossed 
Garibaldi,  Giuseppe,  patriot;  born  at  to  the  mainland  and  expelled  Francis  II. 
Nice,  Italy,  July  4,  1807;  because  of  his  from  Naples  and  entered  the  capita!,  Sept. 
political  opinions  was  driven  into  exile  7,  1860.  Upon  the  union  of  the  Two  Sici- 
in  1834,  and  went  to  South  America,  where  lies  with  Sardinia,  and  the  proclamation  of 
he  was  employed  in  the  service  first  of  Victor  Emmanuel  as  King  of  Italy,  March 
the  republic  of  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  and  17,  I860,  he  retired  to  Caprera.  Anxious 
subsequently  in  that  of  Uruguay,  in  1836-  for  the  complete  unification  of  Italy,  he 
48.  Returning  to  Italy,  he  entered  the  organized  an  expedition  against  Rome 
service  of  the  Roman  republic  in  1849,  and  in  1862,  but  was  defeated  and  taken  pris- 
supreme  command  was  given  to  him  and  oner  by  the  Sardinians  at  Aspromonte, 
to  General  Roselli.  The  grand  defence  of  in  August.  A  few  years  later  he  was  again 
Rome  against  French  intervention  in  1S49  in     arms     against     the     Pope.     Marching 

was  due  principally  to  bis  tact  and  brav- 
ery. After  this  cause  became  hopeless, 
in  1850,  he  came  to  the  United  States, 
where  he  became  a  naturalized  citizen, 
and   where   for   about   three  years  he   fol- 


into  the  Campagna,  he  defeated  the  Papal 
troops  at  Montorotondo  on  Oct.  25,  1867, 
but  shortly  after,  while  moving  upon 
Rome,  he  was  defeated  by  the  French  and 
Papal  army  near  Mentana.     In   1870  tho 


misfortunes    of    France    and    an    appeal  force  of   the  National   army   at   Carrick's 

from   Gambetta   decided   him   to   take   up  Ford,    in    which    action    his    troops    were 

the    French    cause    against    the    Germans,  defeated   and   himself   killed,   July    13. 

He  received  the  command  of  a  corps  call-  Gamier,     Julien.      See     Jesuit    Mis- 

ed  the  "  Volunteers  of  the  Vosges."     His  sions. 

son  Ricciotti  won  a  small  victory  over  Garrard,  Kenner,  military  officer;  born 
the  Germans  on  Oct.  19,  and  that  the  in  Cincinnati,  0.,  in  1830;  graduated  at 
latter  advanced  no  further  in  that  direc-  the  United  States  Military  Academy  in 
tion  was  due  to  the  management  of  1851;  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Con- 
Garibaldi.  He  died  at  Caprera,  June  1,  federates  while  on  frontier  duty  in 
1882.  Texas,  April   12,   1861,   and   paroled  until 

Garland,  Augustus  Hill;  born  in  Tip-  exchanged  in  August,    1862;    served  with 

ton  county,  Tenn.,  June  11,  1832;  was  ad-  marked  distinction  through  the  remainder 

mitted  to  the  bar  of  Arkansas  in  1853,  to  of  the  war,  taking  part  in   many  impor- 

which  State  his  parents  had  removed  when  tant   actions,    including   that   of    Blakely, 

he  was  a  child.     He  opposed  the  secession  which  place  was  captured  by  his  command; 

of  his  State,  but  accepted   the   same  and  was  brevetted  major-general,  U.  S.  A.,  Nov. 

was   sent   as   delegate   to   the   Provisional  9,   1866.     He  died  in  Cincinnati,  O.,  May 

Congress    at   Montgomery,    Ala.,    in    1861.  15,  1879. 

He  was  also  elected  to  the  first  Confederate  Garrett,   Edmund  H.,  author;   born  in 

Congress,  and  afterwards  to  the  Confeder-  Albany,   N.   Y.,   Oct.    19,    1853;    was   edu- 

ate  Senate.    In  1867  he  was  elected  United  cated  in  Paris.     His  publications  include 

States    Senator,   but   was   not   allowed   to  Three  Heroines  of  New  England  Romance; 

take  his  seat;   in   1876  was  again  elected  Romance    and    Reality     of     the    Puritan 

in  place  of  Powell  Clayton,  and  was  ad-  Coast;  and  the  Pilgrim  Shore. 

mitted.     He  remained  in  the  Senate  until  Garrett,  Thomas,  abolitionist;  born  in 

March,    1885,    when    he    resigned   to   take  Upper  Darby,  Pa.,  Aug.  21,  1783;  acquired 

the  post  of  Attorney-General  of  the  United  a  fortune  in  the  iron  business.     In   1807 

States,    offered    him    by    President    Cleve-  his    sympathy    for    the    slaves    was    first 

land.     He  resumed  practice  in   1889,  and  aroused,    and    for    forty   years    thereafter 

died  in  court,  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Jan.  he  aided  escaping  slaves  so  skilfully  that 

26,    1899.  when    their    owners    found    the    fugitives 

Garlington,    Ernest   A.,   military  offi-  had    reached    his    house    they    generally 

cer;  born  in  Newberry  Court-house,  S.  C,  abandoned    the    chase.      He    was    instru- 

Feb.   20,    1853;    graduated   at   the   United  mental   within   the   limits   of   the   law   in 

States   Military   Academy   in    1876;    com-  liberating  about  3,000  slaves  from  Mary- 

manded  the  Greeley  Relief  Expedition  in  land,     Delaware,     and     Virginia.      Later, 

1883   (see  Arctic  Exploration)  ;  was  in-  however,  he  was  forced  to  part  with  his 

spector-general    of    a    cavalry   division    in  whole  fortune  in  paying  damages   to   the 

Cuba    in    1898,    and    participated    in    the  owners    of    runaway    slaves.      Afterwards 

siege   of    Santiago.      His    publications    in-  his    friends    loaned    him    money   to    again 

elude     Historical     Sketches     of     the     7th  engage  in  business,  and  before  his  death 

Cavalry  Regiment;  Cavalry  Outposts,  Ad-  he    accumulated    a    second    fortune.      He 

vance  and  Rear  Guards;  Reconnoissance,  died  in  Wilmington,  Del.,  Jan.  23,  1871. 

etc.  Garrison,  Joseph  Fithian,  clergyman; 

Garnett,  Robert  Selden,  military  of-  born  in  Fairton,  N.  J.,  Jan.  20,  1823; 
ficer;  born  in  Essex  county,  Va.,  Dec.  16,  graduated  at  Princeton  College  in  1842; 
1819;  graduated  at  the  United  States  Mili-  became  a  Protestant  Episcopal  minister 
tary  Academy  in  1841;  served  as  aide  to  in  1855;  later  accepted  the  chair  of  Litur- 
General  Taylor  in  the  war  with  Mexico,  gics  and  Canon  Law  in  the  Philadelphia 
When  the  Civil  War  broke  out  he  re-  Divinity  School.  His  publications  in- 
signed  from  the  National  army,  and  in  elude  The  Formation  of  the  Protestant 
June,  1861,  was  appointed  brigadier-gen-  Episcopal  Church  in  the  United  States, 
eral  in  the  Confederate  service,  and  assign-  etc. 

ed  to  the  western  part  of  Virginia.     In  Garrison,  Wendell  Phillips,  journal- 

the  following  month  he  was  met  by  a  large  ist ;   born  in  Cambridgeport,  Mass.,  June 



4,  1840;  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1861; 
became  literary  editor  of  The  Nation; 
author  of  The  Benson  Family  of  Newport, 
R.  I.;  joint  author  of  Life  of  William 
Lloyd  Garrison. 

Garrison,  William  Lloyd,  abolitionist; 
born  in  Newburyport,  Mass.,  Dec.  12, 
1804;  was  a  shoemaker's  apprentice,  but 
finally  learned  the  art  of  printing,  and 
became  a  contributor  to  the  press  in  early 
life.  In  all  his  writings  he  showed  a 
philanthropic  spirit,  and  a  sympathy  for 
the  oppressed  everywhere.  In  1827  he 
edited  the  National  Philanthropist,  in 
Boston;  and,  as  assistant  editor  of  a  Ba1- 
timore  paper,  he  denounced  the  taking  of 
a  cargo  of  slaves  from  that  city  to  New 
Orleans  as  "  domestic  piracy."  For  this 
he  was  fined,  and  imprisoned  forty-nine 
days,  until  Arthur  Tappan,  of  New  York, 
paid  the  fine.  On  Jan.  1,  1831,  he  began 
the  publication  of  his  famous  Liberator,  a 
weekly  newspaper  and  uncompromising 
opponent  of  slavery,  which  was  discontin- 
ued in  1865,  when  the  result  for  which  he 
had  devoted  the  best  energies  of  his  life 
had  been  effected  by  the  Emancipation 
Proclamation  of  President  Lincoln.  Mr. 
Garrison  was  a  founder  (1832)  of  the 
American  Anti-slavery  Society,  and  was 
its  president  from  that  time  until    1865. 


Attending,  as  a  delegate,  the  World's  Anti- 
slavery  Convention,  in  London  (1840),  he 
refused  to  take  his  seat,  because  the  wom- 
en delegates  from  the  United  States  were 
refused  seats  in  that  body.     In   1866  ne 

received  about  $30,000  as  a  national  tea 
timonial  from  his  friends  for  his  ardu- 
ous labors  in  the  cause  of  humanity.  He 
died  in  New  York,  May  24,  1879.  See 
Phillips,  Wendell. 

Lessons  of  Independence  Day. — On  July 
4,  1842,  he  delivered  the  following  oration 
in  Boston: 

I  present  myself  as  the  advocate  of  my 
enslaved  countrymen,  at  a  time  when 
their  claims  cannot  be  shuffled  out  oi 
sight,  and  on  an  occasion  which  entitles 
me  to  a  respectful  hearing  in  their  behalf. 
If  I  am  asked  to  prove  their  title  to  lib- 
erty, my  answer  is,  that  the  Fourth  of 
July  is  not  a  day  to  be  wasted  in  estab- 
lishing "  self-evident  truths."  In  the 
name  of  the  God  who  has  made  us  of  one 
blood,  and  in  whose  image  we  are  created ; 
in  the  name  of  the  Messiah,  who  came  to 
bind  up  the  broken-hearted,  to  proclaim 
liberty  to  the  captives,  and  the  opening 
of  a  prison  to  them  that  are  bound — 1 
demand  the  immediate  emancipation  of 
those  who  are  pining  in  slavery  on  the 
American  soil,  whether  they  are  fatten- 
ing for  the  shambles  in  Maryland  and 
Virginia,  or  are  wasting,  as  with  a  pesti- 
lent disease,  on  the  cotton  and  sugar  plan- 
tations of  Alabama  and  Louisiana;  wheth- 
er they  are  male  or  female,  young  or  old, 
vigorous  or  infirm.  I  make  this  demand, 
not  for  the  children  merely,  but  the  par- 
ei.ts  also;  not  for  one,  but  for  all;  not 
with  restrictions  and  limitations,  but  un- 
conditionally. I  assert  their  perfect 
equality  with  ourselves,  as  a  part  of  the 
human  race,  and  their  inalienable  right 
to  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness. 
That  this  demand  is  founded  in  justice, 
and  is  therefore  irresistible,  the  whole 
ration  is  this  day  acknowledging,  as  upon 
oath  at  the  bar  of  the  world.  And  not 
until,  by  a  formal  vote,  the  people  re- 
pudiate the  Declaration  of  Independence 
as  a  false  and  dangerous  instrument,  and 
cease  to  keep  this  festival  in  honor  of  lib- 
erty, as  unworthy  of  note  or  remem- 
brance; not  until  they  spike  every  cannon, 
and  muffle  every  bell,  and  disband  every 
procession,  and  quench  every  bonfire,  and 
gag  every  orator;  not  until  they  brand 
Washington, and  Adams,  and  Jefferson,  and 
Hancock  as  fanatics  and  madmen;  not 
until  they  place  themselves  again  in  the 


condition  of  colonial  subserviency  to  sequences!  To  save  them  from  danger,  I 
Great  Britain,  or  transform  this  republic  am  not  obligated  to  suppress  the  truth, 
into  an  imperial  government;  not  until  or  to  stop  proclaiming  liberty  "through- 
they  cease  pointing  exultingly  to  Bunker  out  all  the  land,  unto  all  the  inhabitants 
Hill,  and  the  plains  of  Concord  and  Lex-  thereof."  No,  indeed.  There  are  two 
ington;  not,  in  fine,  until  they  deny  the  important  truths,  which,  as  far  as  prac- 
authority  of  God,  and  proclaim  them-  ticable,  I  mean  every  slave  shall  be  made 
selves  to  be  destitute  of  principles  and  to  understand.  The  first  is,  that  he  has 
humanity,  will  I  argue  the  question,  as  a  right  to  his  freedom  now;  the  other  is, 
one  of  doubtful  disputation,  on  an  occa-  that  this  is  recognized  as  a  self-evident 
sion  like  this,  whether  our  slaves  are  en-  truth  in  the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
titled  to  the  rights  and  privileges  of  free-  Sedition,  forsooth.  Why,  what  are  the 
men.  That  question  is  settled  irrevoca-  American  people  doing  this  day?  In 
bly.  There  is  no  man  to  be  found,  un-  theory,  maintaining  the  freedom  and  equal- 
less  he  has  a  brow  of  brass  and  a  heart  ity  of  the  human  race;  and,  in  practice, 
cf  stone,  who  will  dare  to  contest  it  on  declaring  that  all  tyrants  ought  to  be 
a  day  like  this.  A  state  of  vassalage  is  extirpated  from  the  face  of  the  earth! 
pronounced,  by  universal  acclamation,  to  We  are  giving  to  our  slaves  the  follow- 
tie  such  as  no  man,  or  body  of  men,  ought  ing  easy  sums  for  resolution:  If  the 
to  submit  to  for  one  moment.  I  there-  principle  involved  in  a  threepenny  tax 
fore  tell  the  American  slaves  that  the  on  tea  justified  a  seven  years'  war,  how 
time  for  their  emancipation  is  come;  that,  much  blood  may  be  lawfully  spilt  in 
their  own  task-masters  being  witnesses,  resisting  the  principle  that  one  human 
they  are  created  equal  to  the  rest  of  man-  being  has  a  right  to  the  body  and 
kind,  and  possess  an  inalienable  right  to  soul  of  another,  on  account  of  the  color 
liberty;  and  that  no  man  has  a  right  to  of  the  skin?  Again,  if  the  impressment 
hold  them  in  bondage.  I  counsel  them  of  6,000  American  seamen  by  Great  Brit- 
not  to  fight  for  their  freedom,  both  on  ac-  ain  furnished  sufficient  cause  for  a  bloody 
count  of  the  hopelessness  of  the  effort,  struggle  with  that  nation,  and  the  sac- 
and  because  it  is  rendering  evil  for  evil;  rifice  of  hundreds  of  millions  of  capital 
but  I  tell  them,  not  less  emphatically,  it  in  self-defence,  how  many  lives  may  be 
is  not  wrong  for  them  to  refuse  to  wear  taken,  by  way  of  retribution,  on  account 
the  yoke  of  slavery  any  longer.  Let  them  of  the  enslavement  as  chattels  of  more 
shed  no  blood — enter  into  no  conspiracies  than  2.000,000  of  American  laborers? 
— raise  no  murderous  revolts;  but,  how-  Oppression  and  insurrection  go  hand-in- 
ever  and  wherever  they  can  break  their  hand,  as  cause  and  effect  are  allied  to- 
feiters,  God  give  them  courage  to  do  so!  gether.  In  what  age  of  the  world  have 
And  should  they  attempt  to  elope  from  tyrants  reigned  with  impunity,  or  the 
their  house  of  bondage,  and  come  to  the  victims  of  tyranny  not  resisted  unto 
North,  may  each  of  them  find  a  covert  blood?  Besides  our  grand  insurrection 
from  the  search  of  the  spoiler,  and  an  against  the  authority  of  the  mother  coun- 
invincible  public  sentiment  to  shield  them  try,  there  have  been  many  insurrections, 
from  the  grasp  of  the  kidnapper!  Sue-  during  the  last  200  years,  in  various 
cess  attend  them  in  their  flight  to  Can-  sections  of  the  land,  on  the  part  of  the 
ada,  to  touch  whose  monarchical  soil  victims  of  our  tyranny,  but  without  the 
insures  freedom  to  every  republican  success  that  attended  our  own  struggle, 
slave!  The  last  was  the  memorable  one  in 
Is  this  preaching  sedition?  Sedition  Southampton,  Va.,  headed  by  a  black 
against  what?  Not  the  lives  of  the  patriot,  nicknamed,  in  the  contemptuous 
Southern  oppressors,  for  I  renew  the  nomenclature  of  slavery,  "  Nat "  Turner, 
solemn  injunction,  "  Shed  no  blood!" — but  The  name  does  not  strike  the  ear  so 
against  unlawful  authority,  and  barba-  harmoniously  as  that  of  Washington,  or 
rous  usage,  and  unrequited  toil.  If  slave-  Lafayette,  or  Hancock,  or  Warren;  but 
holders  are  still  obstinately  bent  upon  the  name  is  nothing.  It  is  not  in  the 
plundering  and  starving  their  long-suf-  power  of  all  the  slave  -  holders  upon 
fering  victims,  let  them  look  well  to  con-  earth    to    render    odious    the    memory    of 



that  sable  chieftain.  "  Resistance  to  ty-  their  rights,  but  also  of  their  wrongs! 
rants  is  obedience  to  God  "  was  our  Rev-  That  must  be  a  rare  piece  of  information 
olutionary  motto.  We  acted  upon  that  to  them,  truly.  Tell  a  man  who  has  just 
motto — what  more  did  Nat  Turner?  Says  had  his  back  flayed  by  the  lash,  till  a 
George  McDuffie:  "A  people  who  deliber-  pool  of  blood  is  at  his  feet,  that  somebody 
ately  submit  to  oppression,  with  a  full  has  flogged  him!  Tell  him  who  wears  an 
knowledge  that  they  are  oppressed,  are  fit  iron  collar  upon  his  neck,  and  a  chain 
only  to  be  slaves.  No  tyrant  ever  made  upon  his  heels,  that  his  limbs  are  fettered, 
a  slave;  no  community,  however  small,  as  if  he  knew  it  not!  Tell  those  who  re- 
having  the  spirit  of  freedom,  ever  yet  had  coive  no  compensation  for  their  toil  that 
a  master.  It  does  not  belong  to  men  to  they  are  unrighteously  defrauded!  In 
count  the  costs  and  calculate  the  hazards  spite  of  all  their  whippings,  and  depriva- 
of  vindicating  their  rights  and  defending  tions,  and  forcible  separations,  like  cattle 
their  liberties."  So  reasoned  Nat  Turner,  in  the  market,  it  seems  that  the  poor 
and  acted  accordingly.  Was  he  a  patriot,  slaves  realized  a  heaven  of  blissful  igno- 
or  a  monster?  Do  we  mean  to  say  to  the  ranee,  until  their  halcyon  dreams  were 
oppressed  of  all  nations,  in  the  sixty-third  disturbed  by  the  pictorial  representations 
year  of  our  independence,  and  on  July  4,  and  exciting  descriptions  of  the  aboli- 
that  our  example  in  1776  was  a  bad  one,  tionists!  What!  have  not  the  slaves 
and  ought  not  to  be  followed?  As  a  eyes?  Have  they  not  hands,  organs,  di- 
Christian  non-resident  I,  for  one,  am  pre-  mensions,  senses,  affections,  passions? 
pared  to  say  so;  but  are  the  people  ready  Are  they  not  fed  with  the  same  food,  hurt 
to  say  no  chains  ought  to  be  broken  by  with  the  same  weapons,  subject  to  the 
the  hands  of  violence,  and  no  blood  spilt  same  diseases,  healed  by  the  same  means, 
in  defence  of  inalienable  human  rights,  in  warmed  and  cooled  by  the  same  winter  and 
any  quarter  of  the  globe  ?  If  not,  then  summer,  as  freemen  are  ?  "  If  we  prick 
our  slaves  will  peradventure  take  us  them,  do  they  not  bleed?  If  we  tickle 
at  our  word  and  there  will  be  given  unto  them,  do  they  not  laugh?  If  we  poison  them, 
us  blood  to  drink,  for  we  are  worthy,  do  they  not  die?  And  if  we  wrong  them, 
Why  accuse  abolitionists  of  stirring  them  will  they  not  be  revenged?" 
up  to  insurrection?  The  charge  is  false;  "For  the  slave-holders,"  we  are  told, 
but  what  if  it  were  true?  If  any  man  "there  is  no  peace,  by  night  or  by  day; 
has  a  right  to  fight  for  liberty,  this  right  but  every  moment  is  a  moment  of  alarm, 
equally  extends  to  all  men  subjected  to  and  their  enemies  are  of  their  own  house- 
bondage.  In  claiming  this  right  for  them-  hold."  It  is  the  hand  of  a  friendly  vindi- 
selves,  the  American  people  necessarily  cator,  moreover,  that  rolls  up  the  cur- 
concede  it  to  all  mankind.  If,  therefore,  tain!  What  but  the  most  atrocious 
they  are  found  tyrannizing  over  any  part  tyranny  on  the  part  of  the  masters,  and 
of  the  human  race,  they  voluntarily  seal  the  most  terrible  sufferings  on  the  part 
their  own  death-warrant,  and  confess  that  Gf  the  slaves,  can  account  for  such  alarm, 
they  deserve  to  perish.  sucn   insecurity,   such   apprehensions   that 

"  even  a  more  horrible  catastrophe  "  than 

«  Wftat  are  the  banners  ye  exalt?— the  deeds  that  of  arson  and  murder  may  transpire 

ThfaLe?1Sed    y°Ur    fatbCrS'    Pyi'amid    °f  lightly?     It  requires  all   the  villany  that 

Ye   show   the  wound   that  still   In  history  has  ever  been  charged  upon  Southern  op- 

bleeds,  pressors,    and    all    the   wretchedness    that 

And  talk  exulting  of  the  patriot's  name—  la     ever   been   ascribe(j   to   the   oppressed, 

Then,  when  your  words  have  waked  a  kin-  .             ,         .          .       ,   ,                ,,      rl  ,    ,,     , 

dred  flame  to  work  out  so  fearful  a  result — and  that 

And  slaves  behold  the  freedom  ye  adore,  the    statement    is    true,    the    most    dislin- 

And    deeper    feel    their    sorrow    and    their  guished  slave-holders  have  more  than  once 

Ye^ouble  all  the  fetters  that  they  wore,  certified.     That  it  is  true    the  entire  code 

And  press  them   down   to  earth,   till   hope  of   slave  laws — whips  and  yokes  and   fet- 

exults  no  more!"  tors — the    nightly     patrol — restriction    of 

locomotion  on  the  part  of  the  slaves,  ex- 

But.    it    seems,    abolitionists    have    the  ccpt    with    passes — muskets,    pistols,    and 

audacity   to   tell    the   slaves,   not   only   of  bowie-knives   in   the   bed-chambers   during 



the  hours  of  rest — the  fear  of  intercom-  our  character,  can  disturb  the  serenity  o! 
munication  of  colored  freemen  and  the  our  minds;  nor  can  any  threats  of  vio- 
slaves — the  prohibition  of  even  alphabeti-  knee,  or  prospect  of  suffering,  deter  us 
eal  instruction,  under  pains  and  penalties,  from  our  purpose.  That  we  manifest  a 
to  the  victims  of  wrong — the  refusal  to  bad  spirit  is  not  to  be  denied  on  the  tes- 
admit  their  testimony  against  persons  of  timony  of  the  Southern  slave-driver,  or  his 
a  white  complexion — the  wild  consterna-  Northern  apologist.  That  our  philan- 
tion  and  furious  gnashing  of  teeth  exhib-  thropy  is  exclusive,  in  the  favor  of  but 
ited  by  the  chivalric  oppressors  at  the  one  party,  is  not  proved  by  our  denouncing 
sight  of  an  anti-slavery  publication — the  the  oppressor,  and  sympathizing  with  his 
rewards  offered  for  the  persons  of  aboli-  victim.  That  we  are  seeking  popularity, 
tionists — the  whipping  of  Dresser,  and  is  not  apparent  from  our  advocating  an 
the  murder  of  Lovejoy — the  plundering  of  odious  and  unpopular  cause,  and  vindicat- 
the  United  States  mail — the  application  ing,  at  the  loss  of  our  reputation,  the 
of  lynch  law  to  all  who  are  found  sym-  rights  of  a  people  who  are  reckoned  among 
pathizing  with  the  slave  population  as  the  offscouring  of  all  things.  That  our 
men,  south  of  the  Potomac — the  reign  of  motives  are  disinterested,  they  who  swim 
mobocracy  in  place  of  constitutional  law —  with  the  popular  current,  and  partake 
and,  finally,  the  Pharaoh-like  conduct  of  of  the  gains  of  unrighteousness,  and 
the  masters,  in  imposing  new  burdens  and  plunder  the  laborers  of  their  wages,  are 
heavier  fetters  upon  their  down-trodden  net  competent  to  determine.  That  our 
vassals — all  these  things,  together  with  a  language  is  uncharitable  and  un-Christian, 
long  catalogue  of  others,  prove  that  the  tbey  who  revile  us  as  madmen,  fanatics, 
abolitionists  have  not  "  set  aught  down  incendiaries,  traitors,  cut-throats,  etc., 
in  malice"  against  the  South;  that  cannot  be  allowed  to  testify.  That  our 
they  have  exaggerated  nothing.  They  measures  are  violent  is  not  demon- 
warn  us,  as  with  miraculous  speech,  that,  strated  by  the  fact  that  we  wield  no 
unless  justice  be  speedily  done,  a  bloody  physical  weapons,  pledge  ourselves  not  to 
catastrophe  is  to  come,  which  will  roll  a  countenance  insurrection,  and  present  the 
gory  tide  of  desolation  through  the  land,  peaceful  front  of  non-resistance  to  those 
and  may,  peradventure,  blot  out  the  mem-  who  put  our  lives  in  peril.  That  our  ob- 
ory  of  the  scenes  of  Santo  Domingo.  They  ject  is  chimerical  or  unrighteous  is  not 
are  the  premonitory  rumblings  of  a  great  substantiated  by  the  fact  of  its  being 
earthquake — the  lava  token  of  a  heaving  commenced  by  Almighty  God,  and  sup- 
volcano!  God  grant  that,  while  there  is  ported  by  His  omnipotence,  as  well  as  ap- 
time  and  a  v/ay  to  escape,  we  may  give  proved  by  the  wise  and  good  in  every  age 
heed  to  these  signals  of  impending  retri-  and  in  all  countries.  If  the  charge,  so 
bution!  often   brought   against   us,   be   true,   that 

One  thing  I  know  full  well.     Calumni-  our   temper   is   rancorous,   and   our   spirit 

ated,    abhorred,    persecuted    as    the    aboli-  turbulent,  how  has  it  happened  that,  dur- 

tionists    have    been,    they    constitute    the  ing  so  long  a  conflict  with  slavery,  not  a 

body-guard    of    the    slave-holders,    not    to  single  instance  can  be  found  in  which  an 

strengthen  their  opposition,  but  to  shield  abolitionist    has    committed    a    breach    of 

them  from  the  vengeance  of  their  slaves,  the    peace,    or    violated    any    law    of    his 

Instead    of    seeking    their    destruction,  country?     If  it  be  true  that  we  are  not 

abolitionists  are  endeavoring  to  save  them  actuated  by  the  highest  principles  of  rec- 

from   midnight   conflagration   and   sudden  titude,  nor  governed  by  the  spirit  of  for- 

death,  by  beseeching  them  to  remove  the  bearanee,    I    ask   once    more    how    it    has 

cause    of    insurrection;    and    by    holding  come    to    pass    that,    when    our    meetings 

out  to  slaves  the  hope  of  a  peaceful  de-  have  been  repeatedly  broken  up  by  lawless 

Iterance.      We    do    not    desire    that    any  men,  our  property  burned  in  the  streets, 

should  perish.     Having  a  conscience  void  our  dwellings  sacked,  our  persons  brutally 

of  offence  in  this  matter,  and  cherishing  assailed,   and   our  lives  put  in   imminent 

a  love  for  our  race  which  is  "  without  par-  peril,  we  have  refused  to  lift  a  finger  in 

tiality    and    without    hypocrisy,"    no    im-  self-defence,    or    to    maintain    our    rights 

peachment  of  our  motives,  or  assault  upon  in  the  spirit  of  worldly  patriotism? 
rv.— c                                                       33 


If  it  must  be  so,  let  the  defenders  of 
slavery  still  have  all  the  brick-bats, 
bowie-knives,  and  pistols,  which  the  land 
can  furnish;  but  let  us  possess  all  the 
arguments,  facts,  warnings,  and  promises 
which  insure  the  final  triumph  of  our 
holy  cause. 

Nothing  is  easier  than  for  the  abo- 
litionists, if  they  were  so  disposed,  as  it 
were  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye,  to  "  cry 
havoc  and  let  slip  the  dogs  of  war,"  and 
fill  this  whole  land  with  the  horrors  of  a 
civil  and  servile  commotion.  It  is  only 
for  them  to  hoist  but  one  signal,  to  kindle 
but  a  single  torch,  to  give  but  a  single 
bugle-call,  and  the  3,000,000  of  colored  vic- 
tims of  oppression,  both  bond  and  free, 
would  start  up  as  one  man,  and  make 
the  American  soil  drunk  with  the  blood 
of  the  slain.  How  fearful  and  tremen- 
dous is  the  power,  for  good  and  evil,  thus 
lodged  in  their  hands!  Besides  being 
stimulated  by  a  desire  to  redress  the 
wrongs  of  their  enslaved  countrymen, 
they  could  plead  in  extenuation  of  their 
conduct  for  resorting  to  arms  (and  their 
plea  would  be  valid,  according  to  the 
theory  and  practice  of  republicanism), 
that  they  had  cruel  wrongs  of  their  own 
to  avenge,  and  sacred  rights  to  secure, 
inasmuch  as  they  are  thrust  out  beyond 
the  pale  of  the  Constitution,  excluded  from 
one-half  of  the  Union  by  the  fiat  of  the 
lynch  code,  deprived  of  the  protection  of 
the  law,  and  branded  as  traitors,  because 
they  dare  to  assert  that  God  wills  all  men 
to  be  free!  Now,  I  frankly  put  it  to 
the  understandings  of  Southern  men, 
whether,  in  view  of  these  considerations, 
it  is  adding  anything  to  their  safety,  or 
postponing  the  much-dreaded  catastrophe 
a  single  hour  —  whether,  in  fact,  it  is 
not  increasing  their  peril,  and  rendering 
an  early  explosion  more  probable — for 
them  to  persevere  in  aggravating  the  con- 
dition of  their  slaves,  by  tightening  their 
chains  and  increasing  the  heavy  burdens 
— or  wreaking  their  malice  upon  the  free 
people  of  color  or  in  adopting  every  bas* 
and  unlawful  measure  to  wound  the  char- 
acter, destroy  the  property,  and  jeopard 
the  lives  of  abolitionists,  and  thus  leaving 
no  stone  unturned  to  inflame  them  to  des- 
peration? All  this  Southern  men  have 
done,  and  are  still  doing,  as  if  animated 
by  an  insane  desire  to  be  destroyed. 

The  object  of  the  Anti-slavery  Asso- 
ciation is  not  to  destroy  men's  lives,  des- 
pots though  they  be,  but  to  prevent  the 
spilling  of  human  blood.  It  is  to  en- 
lighten the  understanding,  arouse  the  con- 
science, affect  the  heart.  We  rely  upon 
moral  power  alone  for  success.  The 
ground  upon  which  we  stand  belongs  to 
no  sect  or  party — it  is  holy  ground. 
Whatever  else  may  divide  us  in  opinion, 
in  this  one  thing  we  are  agreed,  that 
slave-holding  is  a  crime  under  all  circum 
stances,  and  ought  to  be  immediately  and 
unconditionally  abandoned.  We  enforce 
upon  no  man  either  a  political  or  a  re- 
ligious test  as  a  condition  of  membership; 
but  at  the  same  time  we  expect  every 
abolitionist  to  carry  out  his  principles 
consistently,  impartially,  faithfully,  in 
whatever  station  he  may  be  called  to  act, 
or  wherever  conscience  may  lead  him  to 
go.  I  hail  this  union  of  hearts  as  a 
bright  omen  that  all  is  not  lost.  To  the 
slave-holding  South  it  is  more  terrible 
than  a  military  army  with  banners.  It  is 
indeed  a  sublime  spectacle  to  see  men  for- 
getting their  jarring  creeds  and  party 
affinities,  and  embracing  each  other  as  one 
and  indivisible  in  a  struggle  in  behalf  of 
our  common  Christianity  and  our  com- 
mon nature.  God  grant  that  no  root  of 
bitterness  may  spring  up  to  divide  us 
asunder!  "United  we  stand,  divided  we 
fall,"  and  if  we  fall  what  remains  for  our 
country  but  a  fearful  looking  for  of  judg- 
ment and  of  fiery  indignation  that  shall 
consume  it?  Tall  we  cannot  if  our  trust 
be  in  the  Lord  of  Hosts  and  in  the  power 
of  His  might — not  in  man,  nor  any  body 
of  men.  Divided  we  cannot  be  if  we  truly 
"  remember  them  that  are  in  bonds  as 
bound  with  them,"  and  love  our  neighbors 
as  ourselves. 

Genuine  abolitionism  is  not  a  hobby 
got  up  for  personal  or  associated  aggran- 
dizement; it  is  not  a  political  ruse;  it  is 
not  a  spasm  of  sympathy  which  lasts  but 
for  a  moment,  leaving  the  system  weak 
and  worn ;  it  is  not  a  fever  of  enthusiasm ; 
it  is  not  the  fruit  of  fanaticism;  it  is  not 
a  spirit  of  faction.  It  is  of  Heaven,  not 
of  men.  It  lives  in  the  heart  as  a  vital 
principle.  It  is  an  essential  part  of 
Christianity,  and  aside  from  it  there  can 
be  no  humanity.  Its  scope  is  not  con- 
fined to  the  slave  population  of  the  United 


States,  but  embraces  mankind.  Opposi- 
tion cannot  weary  it  out,  force  cannot  put 
it  down,  fire  cannot  consume  it.  It  is  the 
spirit  of  Jesus,  who  was  sent  "  to  bind 
up  the  broken-hearted,  to  proclaim  liberty 
to  the  captives,  and  the  opening  of  the 
prison  to  them  that  are  bound;  to  pro- 
claim the  acceptable  year  of  the  Lord, 
and  the  day  of  vengeance  of  our  God." 
Its  principles  are  self-evident,  its  meas- 
ures rational,  its  purpose?  merciful  and 
just.  It  cannot  be  diverted  from  the 
path  of  duty,  though  all  earth  and  hell 
oppose;  for  it  is  lifted  far  above  all 
earth-born  fear.  When  it  fairly  takes 
possession  of  the  soul,  you  may  trust  the 
soul-carrier  anywhere,  that  he  will  not  be 
recreant  to  humanity.  In  short,  it  is  a 
life,  not  an  impulse — a  quenchless  flame 
of  philanthropy,  not  a  transient  spark  of 

Will  it  be  retorted  that  we  dare  not 
resist — that  we  are  cowards?  Cowards! 
no  man  believes  it.  They  are  the  dastards 
who  maintain  might  makes  right;  whose 
arguments  are  brick-bats  and  rotten  eggs; 
whose  weapons  are  dirks  and  bowie- 
knives;  and  whose  code  of  justice  is  lynch 
law.  A  love  of  liberty,  instead  of  un- 
nerving men,  makes  them  intrepid,  heroic, 
invincible.  It  was  so  at  Thermopylae — it 
was  so  on  Bunker  Hill. 

Who  so  tranquil,  who  so  little  agi- 
tated, in  storm  or  sunshine,  as  the  abo- 
litionists? But  what  consternation,  what 
running  to  and  fro  like  men  at  their  wits' 
end,  what  trepidation,  what  anguish  of 
spirit,  on  the  part  of  their  enemies!  How 
Southern  slave-mongers  quake  and  tremble 
at  the  faintest  whisperings  of  an  abo- 
litionist ?  For,  truly,  "  the  thief  doth  fear 
each  bush  an  officer."  Oh!  the  great  poet 
of  nature  is  right — 

"  Thrice   is  he   arm'd  that  hath  his  quarrel 
just ; 
And  he  but  naked,  though  lock'd  up  in  steel, 
Whose    conscience    with    injustice    is    cor- 

A  greater  than  Shakespeare  certifies 
the  "wicked  flee  when  no  man  pursueth; 
but  the  righteous  are  bold  as  a  lion."  In 
this  great  contest  of  right  against  wrong, 
of  liberty  against  slavery,  who  are  the 
wieked,  if  they  be  not  those  who,  like 
vultures  and  vampires,  are  gorging  them- 

selves with  human  blood;  if  they  be  not 
the  plunderers  of  the  poor,  the  spoilers 
of  the  defenceless,  the  traffickers  in 
"  slaves  and  the  souls  of  men  "  ?  Who  are 
the  cowards,  if  not  those  who  shrink  from 
manly  argumentation,  the  light  of  truth, 
the  concussion  of  mind,  and  a  fair  field; 
if  not  those  whose  prowess,  stimulated 
by  whiskey  potations  or  the  spirit  of  mur- 
der, grows  rampant  as  the  darkness  of 
night  approaches;  whose  shouts  and  yells 
are  savage  and  fiend-like;  who  furiously 
exclaim :  "  Down  with  free  discussion ! 
down  with  the  liberty  of  the  press!  down 
with  the  right  of  petition!  down  with 
constitutional  law!";  who  rifle  mail-bags, 
throw  type  and  printing-presses  into  the 
river,  burn  public  halls  dedicated  to  "  vir- 
tue, liberty,  and  independence,"  and  assas- 
sinate the  defenders  of  inalienable  human 
rights  ? 

And  who  are  the  righteous,  in  this  case, 
if  they  be  not  those  who  will  "  have  no 
fellowship  with  the  unfruitful  words  of 
darkness,  but  rather  reprove  them  " ;  who 
maintain  that  the  laborer  is  worthy  of  his 
hire,  that  the  marriage  institution  is  sa- 
cred, that  slavery  is  a  system  cursed  of 
God,  that  tyrants  are  the  enemies  of  man- 
kind, and  that  immediate  emancipation 
should  be  given  to  all  who  are  pining  in 
bondage?  Who  are  the  truly  brave,  if 
not  those  who  demand  for  truth  and  error 
alike  free  speech,  a  free  press,  an  open 
arena,  the  right  of  petition,  and  no 
quarter?  If  not  those,  who,  instead  of 
skulking  from  the  light,  stand  forth  in  the 
noontide  blaze  of  day,  and  challenge 
their  opponents  to  emerge  from  their 
wolf-like  dens,  that,  by  a  rigid  examina- 
tion, it  may  be  seen  who  has  stolen  the 
wedge  of  gold,  in  whose  pocket  are  the 
thirty  pieces  of  silver,  and  whose  gar- 
ments are  stained  with  the  blood  of  inno- 
cence ? 

The  charge,  then,  that  we  are  beside 
ourselves,  that  we  are  both  violent  and 
cowardly,  is  demonstrated  to  be  false,  in 
a  signal  manner.  I  thank  God  that  the 
weapons  of  our  warfare  are  not  carnal, 
but  spiritual.  I  thank  Him  that,  by  His 
grace,  and  by  our  deep  concern  for  the  op- 
pressed, we  have  been  enabled,  in  Chris- 
tian magnanimity,  to  pity  and  pray  for 
our  enemies,  and  to  overcome  their  evil 
with  good.     Overcome,  I  say:  not  merely 



Buffered  unresistingly,  but  conquered  glo-  aground  upon  a   low,  sandy  point    (ever 

riously.  since    known    as    Gaspee    Point)     on    the 

Gaspe,   Philip  Ignatius,  military  offi-  west  side  of  Narraganset  Bay.     The  same 

cer;  born  in  Canada,  April  5,  1714;  joined  night  (June  9,  1772), sixty- four  armed  men 

the  army  in  1727;  served  in  a  campaign  went  down  from  Providence  in  boats,  capt- 


against  the  Natchez  and  Chicache  Ind- 
ians in  1739;  took  part  in  the  defeat  of 
Washington  at  Fort  Necessity;  led  the 
Canadian  militia  when  Fort  Carillon  was 
attacked  by  the  English,  and  was  largely 
instrumental  in  their  defeat.  He  died  in 
Canada,  June  19,  1787. 

Gaspee,  an  armed  schooner  in  the  Brit- 
ish revenue  service,  which  greatly  annoyed 
the  American  navigators  in  Narraganset 
Bay  by  her  commander  haughtily  demand- 
ing the  lowering  of  their  flags  whenever 
they  passed  her,  in  token  of  submission. 
They  often  disobeyed.  For  this  disobedi- 
ence a  Providence  sloop  was  chased  by  the 
schooner.  The  former,  by  taking  a  pe- 
culiar   course,    caused    the    latter    to    run 

ured  the  people  on  board  the  Gaspee,  and 
burned  the  vessel.  A  large  reward  was 
offered  for  the  discovery  of  the  perpetra- 
tors (who  were  well  known  in  Provi- 
dence), but  they  were  not  betrayed. 
Joseph  Wanton,  the  royal  governor  of 
Rhode  Island,  issued  a  proclamation  or- 
dering diligent  search  for  the  perpetra- 
tors of  the  act.  Admiral  Montague  made 
endeavors  towards  the  same  end,  and  the 
home  government  offered  a  reward  of 
$5,000  for  the  leader,  with  the  promise  of 
a  pardon  if  the  informer  should  be  an 
accomplice.  Not  one  of  the  men  betrayed 
their  trusted  leader,  Abraham  Whipple 
(q.  v.),  afterwards  a  commodore  in  the 
Continental    navy.     When,    subsequently, 



the  colonists  were  at  war  with  Great 
Britain,  the  act  of  Captain  Whipple 
was  avowed,  and  Sir  James  Wallace, 
in  command  of  a  British  ship-of-war 
in  Narraganset  Bay,  wrote  as  fol- 
lows to  the  perpetrator  of  the  act: 
"  You,  Abraham  Whipple,  on  June 
9,  1772,  burned  his  Majesty's  vessel, 
the  Gaspee,  and  I  will  hang  you  at 
the  yard-arm."  Whipple  coolly  re- 
plied :  "  Sir,  always  catch  your  man 
before  you  hang  him."  A  ballad  was 
written  at  the  time,  containing  fifty- 
eight  lines  of  doggerel  verse,  which 
ended  as  follows: 

"  Now,  for  to  And  these  people  out, 
King  George  has  offered  very  stout, 
One  thousand  pounds  to  find  out  one 
That  wounded  William  Duddington. 
One  thousand  more  he  says  he'll  spare 
For  those  who  say  the  sheriff's  were. 
One  thousand  more  there  doth  remain 
For  to  find  out  the  leader's  name ; 
Likewise  five  hundred  pounds  per  man 
For  any  one  of  all  the  clan. 
But,  let  him  try  his  utmost  skill, 
I'm  apt  to  think  he  never  will 
Find  out  any  of  those  hearts  of  gold, 
Though  he  should  offer  fifty-fold." 

After  the  destruction  of  the  Gaspee, 
a  commission,  composed  of  Admiral 
Montague,  the  vice-admiralty  judge  at 
Boston,  the  chief-justices  of  Massachusetts 
(Peter  Oliver),  New  York  (D.  Horsman- 
den),  and  New  Jersey  (F.  Smyth),  and 
the  governor  of  Rhode  Island  (J.  Wan- 
ton), met  at  Newport  to  inquire  into  the 
affair.     Robert  Auchmuty  took  the  place 

ufcittfm  tAn 


of  Montague.  The  commissioners  were 
notified  that  there  had  been  no  neglect  of 
duty  or  connivance  on  the  part  of  the 
provincial  government,  and  it  was  inti- 
mated that  this  special  court  was  unneces- 
sary and  alarming.  The  Assembly  of  Rhode 
Island  met  at  East  Greenwich  to  watch 


the  commissioners,  and  Governor  Wanton 
laid  before  it  his  instructions  to  arrest 
offenders,  and  send  them  to  England  for 
trial.  Chief  -  Justice  Stephen  Hopkins 
asked  the  Assembly  how  he  should  act. 
They  left  it  to  his  discretion,  for  they 
were  assured  of  his  patriotism  and  sound 
judgment.  "  Then,"  said  Hopkins,  in  the 
presence  of  both  Houses,  "  for  the  purpose 
of  transportation  for  trial  I  will  neither 
apprehend  any  person  by  my  own  order, 
nor  suffer  any  executive  officer  in  the 
colony  to  do  it."  Ihe  commissioners  ad- 
journed without  eliciting  any  positive 
knowledge  of  the  persons  who  destroyed 
the  vessel.    See  Brown,  John. 

Gaston,  William,  jurist;  born  at  New- 
bern,  N.  C,  Sept.  19,  1778;  graduated 
at  the  College  of  New  Jersey  in  1796, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1798, 
when  he  soon  became  the  leading  lawyer 
in  his  State.  Serving  in  his  State  legis- 
lature, he  was  elected  to  Congress  in  1812, 
and  remained  in  that  body  until  1817. 
The  laws  and  judicial  organization  of  his 
State  bear  marks  of  his  wisdom.  He  was 
judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  North 
Carolina  from  1834  till  hia  death,  in 
Raleigh,  N.  C,  Jan.  23,  1844.  Judge  Gas- 
ton was  an  advocate  of  free  suffrage  foi 
colored  men. 

Gates,  Horatio,  military  officer ;  born 
in  Maldon,  England,  in  1728;  was  a  god- 
son of  Horace  Walpole ;  entered  the  Brit- 
ish army  in  his  youth,  and  rose  rapidly 
to  the  rank  of  major ;  came  to  America; 
was  severely  wounded  at  Braddock's  de- 
feat (1755);  and  was  aide  to  General 
Monckton  in  the  expedition  against  Mar- 
tinique in  1762.  After  the  peace  he 
bought  an  estate  in  Virginia,  and  when 
the  Revolutionary  War  broke  out  Con- 
gress appointed  him  (June,  1775)  ad- 
jutant-general of  the  Continental  army, 
with  the  rank  of  brigadier-general.  In 
1776-77  he  was  twice  in  command  of  the 
Northern  army,  having,  through  intrigue, 
displaced  General  Schuyler.  He  gained 
undeserved  honors  as  commander  of  the 
troops  that  defeated  and  captured  Bur- 
goyne  and  his  army  in  the  fall  of  1777. 
He  soon  afterwards  intrigued  for  the  po- 
sition of  Washington  as  commander-in- 
chief,  using  his  power  as  president  of  the 
board  of  war  for  the  purpose,  but  igno- 
miniously  failed.    In  June,  1780,  he  was 

made  commander  of  the  Southern  Depart- 
ment, but  made  a  disastrous  campaign,  his 
army  being  utterly  defeated  and  routed 
by  Cornwall  is  near  Camden,  S.  C,  in 
August,  1780.  This  defeat  terminated 
Gates's  military  career.  He  was  removed 
from  command  and  suspended  from  ser- 
vice, but  was  finally  vindicated,  and  re- 
instated in  command  in  1782.  He  re- 
tired to  his  estate  in  Virginia,  and  in 
1790  made  his  residence  in  New  York 
City,  having  first  emancipated  all  his 
slaves,  and  provided  for  such  of  them 
as  could  not  take  care  of  themselves.  He 
was  presented  with  the  freedom  of  the 
city  of  New  York,  and  elected  to  the  State 
legislature,  but  declined  to  serve.  He  died 
in  New  York  City,  April  10,  1806. 

Gates,  Sir  Thomas,  colonial  governor; 
born  in  England  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
and  lived  during  a  part  of  the  seventeenth ; 
left  England  with  r>00  settlers  for  the  Vir- 
ginia colony  in  1609.  The  expedition  con- 
sisted of  ten  ships,  three  of  which  were 
lost  during  the  voyage,  which  did  not  end 
till  May  24,  1610.  Gates  soon  after  re- 
turned to  England  to  report  the  affairs 
of  the  colony,  and  collected  300  new 
emigrants,  with  whom  he  arrived  in  Vir- 
ginia in  August,  1611.  He  then  became 
governor  of  the  colony,  but  returned 
finally  to  England  in  1614. 


Gates,  William,  military  officer;  born 
in  Massachusetts  in  1788;  graduated  at 
West  Point  in  1806;  served  throughout  the 
War  (A  1812,  the  Florida  War,  and  the  war 
with  Mexico.  He  was  retired  from  active 
service  in  1863,  and  died  in  New  York 
City,  Oct.  7,  1868. 

Gatling,  Richard  Jordan,  inventor; 
born  in  Hertford  county,  N.  C,  Sept.  12, 
1818.     His    first   invention    was    a    screw 


for  propelling  water-craft.  Later  he  de- 
signed a  machine  for  sowing  rice,  and, 
on  removing  to  St.  Louis  in  1844,  adapted 
it  to  sowing  wheat  in  drills.  In  1861 
he  conceived  the  idea  of  his  revolving  bat- 
tery gun.  This  was  first  manufactured 
in  1862,  at  Indianapolis.  Subsequently 
twelve  were  made  and  used  on  the  James 
River,  Va.,  by  General  Butler.  In  1866 
Gatling  further  improved  this  invention, 
and  after  satisfactory  trials  at  Washing- 
Ion  and  Fort  Monroe  the  Gatling  gun  was 
adopted  by  the  United  States  government. 
It  is  now  in  use  also  in  nearly  all  Euro- 
pean countries.  In  1886  he  invented  a 
new  gun-metal,  composed  of  steel  and  alu- 
minum. Later  Congress  voted  him  $40,000 
far  proof  experiments  in  a  new  method  of 
<astiiig  camion.  He  died  in  New  York, 
Feb.  26,  1903. 

Gaul,  Gilbert  William,  artist;  born  in 
Jersey  City,  March  31,   1855;   elected  as- 

sociate of  the  National  Academy  of 
in  1879,  and  academician  in  1882.  He  has 
made  a  specialty  of  historical  paintings, 
and  has  contributed  many  drawings  il- 
lustrating the  wars  of  the  United  States 
to  the  illustrated  periodicals. 

Gay,  Ebenezer,  clergyman;  born  in 
Dedham,  Mass.,  Aug.  26,  1696;  gradu- 
ated at  Harvard  in  1714;  became  pastor 
of  the  Congregational  church  at  Hing- 
ham,  Mass.,  which  he  served  for  seventy 
years.  During  the  Revolution  he  sympa- 
thized with  the  British.  The  sermon 
which  he  preached  upon  the  completion 
of  his  eighty-fifth  year  was  published  in 
America  and  reprinted  in  England.  It 
is  generally  known  as  The  Old  Man's  Cal- 
endar.  He  died  in  Hingham,Mass.,in  1787. 

Gay,  Picard  du,  explorer;  born  in 
France  and  lived  in  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury; was  with  Michael  Ako  and  Father 
Hennepin  on  an  expedition  to  discover  the 
sources  of  the  Mississippi  River.  On  April 
11,  1680,  they  reached  Wisconsin,  and  not 
long  afterwards  discovered  the  cataract 
which  Hennepin  named  the  "  Falls  of  St. 
Anthony."  They  remained  in  this  district 
about  three  months,  and  then  returned 
to  Canada  by  the  way  of  the  St.  Lawrence 

Gay,  Sydney  Howard,  historian;  born 
in  Hingham,  Mass.,  in  1814;  began  the 
study  ot  law,  but  abandoned  it  and  con- 
nected himself  with  the  anti-slavery  move- 
ment; was  editor  of  the  Anti- slavery 
Standard  in  1844-57;  managing  editor  of 
the  New  York  Tribune  for  some  years ;  and 
subsequently  was  connected  with  the  Chi- 
cago Tribune  and  the  New  York  Evening 
Post.  He  wrote  a  History  of  the  United 
States  (4  volumes),  to  which  William  Cul- 
len  Bryant  furnished  a  preface,  and  also 
many  valuable  suggestions.  He  died  on 
Staten  Island,  N.  Y.,  June  25,  1888. 

Gayarre,  Charles  Etienne  Arthur, 
historian;  born  in  New  Orleans,  La.,  Jan. 
9,  1805;  studied  law  in  Philadelphia;  ad- 
mitted to  the  New  Orleans  bar  in  1830: 
served  his  State  in  various  capacities  until 
1835,  when  he  was  elected  to  the  United 
States  Senate,  but  was  unable  to  take  his 
seat  on  account  of  ill  health.  He  was 
abroad  eight  years,  and  on  his  return  was 
again  sent  to  the  State  legislature;  sub- 
sequently appointed  secretary  of  state. 
Among    his    works    are    Louisiana    as    a 


French  Colony;  Louisiana  under  the 
Spanish  Domination;  Louisiana:  Its  Colo- 
nization, History  and  Romance;  A  Com- 
plete History  of  Louisiana,  etc.  He  died 
in  New  Orleans,  La.,  Feb.  11,  1895. 

Geary,  John  White,  military  officer; 
Lorn  in  Mount  Pleasant,  Westmoreland 
co.,  Pa.,  Dec.  30,  1819;  became  a  civil 
engineer,  and  served  as  lieutenant-colonel 
of  a  Pennsylvania  regiment  of  volunteers 
in  the  war  with  Mexico,  wherein  he  was 
wounded,  and  for  gallant  services  was 
made  colonel  of  his  regiment.  He  was 
first  commander  of  the  city  of  Mexico 
after  its  capture.  He  went  to  San  Fran- 
cisco in  1848,  and  was  the  first  mayor  of 
that  city.  Returning  to  Pennsylvania,  he 
was  appointed  territorial  governor  of 
Kansas  in  July,  1856,  an  office  he  held 
one  year.  Early  in  1861  he  raised  and 
equipped  the  28th  regiment  of  Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers.     In  the  spring  of  1862 

ernor  of  Savannah  and  brevet  major-gen- 
eral. In  1866  he  was  elected  governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  held  the  office  till  with- 
in two  weeks  of  his  death,  in  Harris- 
burg,  Feb.  8,  1873. 

Geddes,  James  Lorraine,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  March 
19,  1827;  emigrated  to  Canada  in  1837; 
subsequently  returned  to  the  continent  and 
enlisted  in  the  Indian  army,  serving  in 
the  Punjab  campaign;  emigrated  to  Iowa 
in  1857;  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
enlisted  as  a  private,  but  soon  received  a 
commission,  and  ultimately  was  made 
brevet  brigadier-general  of  volunteers.  He 
wrote  a  number  of  war  songs  which  be- 
came very  popular,  among  them  The  Stars 
and  Stripes  and  The  Soldier's  Battle-pray- 
er.    He  died  in  Ames,  la.,  Feb.  21,  1887. 

Geiger,  Emily,  heroine;  born  in  South 
Carolina  about  1760.  While  General 
Greene     was     pursuing     Lord      Rawdon 


he  was  promoted  brigadier  -  general,  and  towards  Orangeburg,  he  wished  to  send 
did  good  service  throughout  the  war,  be-  «  message  to  General  Sumter,  then  on  the 
coming,  at  the  end  of  Sherman's  march  Santee,  to  take  a  position  in  front  of  the 
from   Atlanta    to    the   sea,    military   gov-    enemy  and  impede  his  flight.    The  errand 



was  a  most  perilous  one,  and  no  man  in  General  Armstrong,  The,  a  noted 
the  army  was  bold  enough  to  undertake  it,  privateer,  fitted  out  in  New  York  in 
for  the  Tories  were  everywhere  on  the  1812.  The  merchants  of  New  York  fitted 
alert.  Emily  Geiger,  a  girl  of  eighteen  out  no  less  than  twenty-six  fast-sailing 
years  of  age,  volunteered  to  carry  the  let-  privateers  and  letters-of-marque  within 
ter  to  Sumter.  Greene  told  her  its  con-  120  days  after  the  declaration  of  war 
tents,  so  that,  in  case  she  found  it  neces-  (1812),  carrying  about  200  pieces  of  arti!- 
sary  to  destroy  it,  the  message  might  be  lery,  and  manned  by  over  2,000  seamen, 
delivered  orally.  The  girl  mounted  a  fleet  Among  the  most  noted  of  these  privateers 
horse,  crossed  the  Wateree  at  the  Camden  was  the  General  Armstrong,  a  moderate- 
ferry,  and,  while  passing  through  a  dry  sized  schooner,  mounting  a  "  Long  Tom  " 
swamp,  was  arrested  by  some  Tory  scouts.  42-pounder  and  eighteen  carronades.  Her 
As  she  came  fi'om  the  direction  of  Greene's  complement  was  140  men;  her  first  eom- 
army,  her  errand  was  suspected.  She  was  mander  was  Captain  Barnard;  her  see- 
taken  to  a  house  at  the  edge  of  a  swamp,  ond,  Capt.  G.  R.  Champlin.  Early  in 
and  a  woman  employed  to  search  her.  March,  1813,  while  Champlin  was  cruising 
When  left  alone,  she  ate  up  Greene's  let-  oil'  the  Surinam  River,  on  the  coast  of 
ter,  piece  by  piece,  and  no  evidence  being  South  America,  he  gave  chase  to  the  Brit- 
found  against  her,  she  was  released  with  ish  sloop-of-war  Coquette,  mounting  twen- 
many  apologies.  She  passed  on  to  Sum-  ty-seven  guns  and  manned  by  126  men 
ter's  camp,  and  very  soon  he  and  Marion  and  boys.  They  engaged  in  conflict  be- 
were  co-operating  with  Greene.  Emily  tween  nine  and  ten  o'clock  (March  11, 
afterwards  married  a  rich  planter  on  the  1813).  Supposing  his  antagonist  to  be  a 
Congaree.  British     letter-of-marque,     Champlin    ran 

Gelelemend,  or  Kill-Buck,  a  chief  of  the  Armstrong  down  upon  her,  with  the 
the  Delaware  Indians;  born  in  Penn-  intention  of  boarding  her.  When  it  was 
sylvania  in  1737.  During  the  Revolution-  too  late,  Champlin  discovered  that  she 
ary  War  he  did  all  in  his  power  to  keep  was  a  heavier  vessel  than  he  suspected, 
his  people  neutral,  a  stand  which  aroused  They  poured  heavy  shot  into  each  other, 
the  animosity  of  those  in  his  tribe  who  and  for  a  while  the  fight  was  very  obsti- 
had  joined  the  English.  In  1788  he  join-  nate,  within  pistol-shot  distance.  Champ- 
ed the  Moravian  mission  in  Salem,  O.,  lin  was  wounded  and  his  vessel  severely 
receiving  the  name  of  William  Henry,  bruised,  but,  getting  free  from  the  Co- 
He  died  in  Goshen,  O.,  in  1811.  quette  by   a  vigorous  use  of   sweeps,   the 

Genealogies,  American.  In  recent  Armstrong  escaped  under  a  heavy  fire 
years,  and  especially  since  the  organization  from  her  antagonist.  The  Tammany  So- 
of  the  various  patriotic  societies,  there  ciety  of  New  York  gave  the  captain  an 
has  been  a  much  larger  attention  paid  to  elegant  sword,  and  voted  thanks  to  his 
the  gathering  and  perfecting  of  family  companions  in  the  fight.  In  1814  the 
records  than  ever  before.  The  chief  pres-  General  Armstrong  was  under  the  cont- 
ent desire  is  confined  in  a  large  measure  itiand  of  Capt.  Samuel  C.  Reid,  and  in 
to  an  ambition  to  become  allied  to  one  September  she  was  in  the  harbor  of  Fayal, 
or  more  of  the  patriotic  orders,  and  this  one  of  the  islands  of  the  Azores,  belong- 
desire  has  become  so  widely  spread  and  ing  to  Portugal.  It  was  a  neutral  port, 
deep-rooted  that  the  public  libraries  of  and  Reid  did  not  expect  to  be  disturbed 
the  country  have  found  it  necessary  to  there  by  British  vessels.  He  was  mis- 
assemble  county  histories  and  genealogical  taken. 

works   in   one   place    for   the   convenience  On  the  26th  Commodore  Lloyd  appeared 

of  this  class  of  investigators.     The  same  off    the    harbor    with    his    flag-ship,    the 

desire  has  also  increased  the  publication  1'lantagenet,  seventy-four  guns;   the  frig- 

of  family  records.     The  genealogical   lit-  ate  Rota,  forty-four,  Captain  Somerville; 

erature  of  the  United  States  is  now  ex-  and  the  brig  Carnation,  eighteen,  Captain 

ceedingly  voluminous.     One  of  the  earliest  Bentham;    each   with   a   full   complement 

and  most  important  publications  of  this  of  men.     The  Armstrong  had  only  seven 

character  is  Savage's  New  England  Gene-  guns  and  ninety  men,  including  her  offi- 

alogies.  cers.    In  violation  of  the  laws  and  usages 



of  neutrality,  Lloyd  sent  into  the  harbor, 
at  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening,  four  large 
and  well-armed  launches,  manned  by 
about  forty  men  each.  At  that  time  Reid, 
suspecting  mischief,  was  warping  his  ves- 
sel under  the  guns  of  the  castle.  The 
moon  was  shining  brightly.  The  barges 
and  the  privateer  opened  fire  almost 
simultaneously,  and  the  launches  were 
driven  off  with  heavy  loss.  At  midnight 
fourteen  launches  were  sent  in,  manned 
by  about  500  men.  A  terrible  conflict  en- 
sued, which  lasted  forty  minutes,  when 
the  launches  were  again  repulsed,  with  a 
loss  of  120  killed  and  130  wounded.  At 
daylight  (Sept.  27)  a  third  attack  was 
made  by  the  brig  Carnation,  which  opened 
heavily,  but  was  soon  so  cut  up  by  the 
well-directed  guns  of  the  Armstrong  that 
she  hastily  withdrew.  The  privateer  was 
also  much  damaged,  and  it  being  evident 
that  she  could  not  endure  a  fourth  attack, 
Captain  Reid  directed  her  to  be  scuttled, 
to  prevent  her  falling  into  the  hands  of 
the  British.  She  was  then  abandoned, 
when  the  British  boarded  her  and  set  her 
on  fire.  While  the  British  lost  over  300 
men  in  the  three  attacks,  the  Armstrong 
lost  only  two  men  killed  and  seven  wound- 
ed during  the  ten  hours. 

To  Captain  Reid  and  his  brave  men  is 
justly  due  the  credit  of  saving  New 
Orleans  from  capture.  Lloyd's  squadron 
was  a  part  of  the  expedition  then  gath- 
ering at  Jamaica  for  the  invasion  of 
Louisiana.  The  object  of  the  attack  on 
the  Armstrong  was  to  capture  her,  and 
make  her  a  useful  auxiliary  in  the  work. 
She  so  crippled  her  assailants  that  they 
did  not  reach  Jamaica  until  ten  days 
later  than  the  expedition  intended  to  sail 
from  there.  It  had  waited  for  Lloyd,  and 
when  it  approached  New  Orleans  Jackson 
had  made  ample  arrangements  to  receive 
the  invaders.  Had  they  arrived  ten  days 
sooner  the  city  must  have  fallen.  The 
State  of  New  York  gave  Captain  Reid 
thanks  and  a  sword,  and  he  was  greeted 
with  enthusiasm  on  his  return  to  the 
United  States.  The  Portuguese  government 
demanded  and  received  from  the  British 
an  apology  for  the  violation  of  neu- 
trality, and  restitution  for  the  destruc- 
tion of  Portuguese  property  at  Fayal  dur- 
ing the  action.  That  government  also  de- 
manded   satisfaction    and    indemnification 

for  the  destruction  of  the  American  vessel 
in  their  neutral  port.  This  was  refused, 
and  neither  the  owners  of  the  vessel  nor 
their  heirs  ever  received  indemnification 
for  their  losses  either  from  Great  Britain 
or  Portugal. 

Genest,  or  Genet,  Edmond  Charles, 
diplomatist;  born  in  Versailles,  France, 
Jan.  8,  1765.  His  literary  talent  was 
early  developed.  At  the  age  of  twelve 
years  he  received  from  the  King  of  Swe- 


den  a  gold  medal  for  a  translation  of  the 
history  of  Eric  XIV.  into  Swedish,  with 
notes  by  himself.  He  was  a  brother  of 
the  celebrated  Madame  Campan,  and  was 
brought  up  in  the  French  Court;  yet  he 
was  a  republican.  Attached  to  the  em- 
bassies of  Berlin,  Vienna,  London,  and 
St.  Petersburg,  he  maintained  his  repub- 
lican bias,  and  on  his  return  from  the 
Russian  Court  (1792)  was  appointed  min- 
ister to  the  United  States.  He  had  al- 
ready been  made  adjutant-general  of  the 
armies  of  France  and  minister  to  Hol- 
land by  the  revolutionists,  and  employed 
in  revolutionizing  Geneva  and  annexing 
it  to  France.  He  arrived  at  Charleston, 
S.  C,  April  0,  1793.  He  was  received 
with  open  arms  by  the  Republican,  or 
Democratic,  party.  He  was  disposed  to 
treat  the  United  States  government  with 
contempt,     believing     the     people     would 



not  sustain  it  in  its  coldness  towards 
the  French  revolutionists.  He  came  with 
blank  commissions  for  naval  and  military 
service,  and  before  he  proceeded  to  the 
seat  of  government  to  present  his  creden- 
tials he  fitted  out  two  privateers  at 
Charleston  to  prey  on  British  commerce, 
and  gave  authority  to  every  French  con- 
sul in  America  to  constitute  himself  a 
court  of  admiralty  to  dispose  of  prizes 
brought  into  American  ports  by  French 
cruisers.  One  of  these  vessels,  L'Embus- 
cade,  went  prowling  up  the  coast,  seizing 
several  small  vessels,  and  finally  captur- 
ing a  British  merchantman  within  the 
capes  of  the  Delaware,  when  she  proceeded 
in  triumph  to  Philadelphia,  where  she 
was  received  with  acclamations  of  joy  by 
the  excited  people.  Upon  the  bow  of 
L'Embuscade,  her  foremast,  and  her  stern 
liberty-caps  were  conspicuous,  and  the 
British  colors  were  reversed  in  the  prize, 
with  the  French  colors  flying  above  them. 
Fourteen  days  later  Genest  arrived  by 
land  at  Philadelphia,  where,  according  to 
preconcert,  a  number  of  citizens  met  him 
at  the  Schuylkill  and  escorted  him  into 
the  city,  while  cannon  roared  and  church 
bells  rang  out  merry  peals  of  welcome. 
There  he  received  addresses  from  various 
societies,  and  go  anxious  were  his  admir- 
ers to  do  homage  to  the  representative  of 
the  authors  of  the  Reign  of  Terror  in 
France  that  they  invited  him  to  a  public 
dinner  before  he  had  presented  his  cre- 
dentials to  the  President  of  the  United 

Genest  presented  his  credentials  to 
Washington  in  person  (April  19,  1793), 
and  found  himself  in  an  atmosphere  of  the 
most  profound  dignity.  He  felt  his  own 
littleness  as  a  mere  political  enthusiast 
while  standing  before  the  representative 
of  true  democracy  in  America,  and  of  the 
soundest  principles  of  the  American  re- 
public. He  withdrew  from  the  audience 
abashed  and  subdued.  He  had  heard  ex- 
pressions of  sincere  regard  for  the  people 
of  France  that  touched  the  sensibilities 
of  his  heart,  and  he  had  felt,  in  the  cour- 
tesy and  severe  simplicity  and  frankness 
of  the  President's  manner,  wholly  free 
from  effervescent  enthusiasm,  a  withering 
rebuke,  not  only  of  the  adulators  in  pub- 
lic places,  but  also  of  his  own  pretensions, 
aspirations,  and  offensive  conduct.    Once 

out  of  the  presence  of  Washington,  he  be- 
came the  same  defiant  champion  of  the 
"  rights  of  the  people,"  affecting  to  be 
shocked  at  the  evidences  of  monarchical 
sympathies  in  the  President's  house.  He 
there  saw  a  bust  of  Louis  XVI.,  and  de 
dared  its  presence  in  the  house  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States  was  an 
"  insult  to  France,"  and  he  was  "  aston- 
ished "  to  find  that  relatives  of  Lafayette 
had  lately  been  admitted  to  the  presence 
of  the  President.  His  feelings  were  speed- 
ily soothed  in  a  great  banquet-hall  of  his 
republican  friends,  May  23,  1793,  where 
his  ears  were  greeted  with  the  Marseilles 
Hymn,  and  his  eyes  delighted  with  a  "  tree 
of  Liberty"  on  the  table.  His  heart  was 
made  glad  by  having  the  red  cap  of  Lib- 
erty placed  on  his  own  head  first  and  then 
upon  the  head  of  each  guest,  while  the 
wearer,  under  the  inspiration  of  its  sym- 
bolism, uttered  some  patriotic  sentiment. 
At  dinner,  at  which  the  governor  of  Penn- 
sylvania (Mifflin)  was  present,  a  roasted 
pig  received  the  name  of  the  murdered 
French  King,  and  the  head,  severed  from 
his  body,  was  carried  around  to  each  of 
the  guests,  who,  after  placing  the  cap  of 
Liberty  on  his  own  head,  pronounced  the 
word  "  tyrant,"  and  proceeded  to  mangle 
with  his  knife  that  of  the  poor  pig.  One 
of  the  Republican  taverns  in  Philadelphia 
displayed  as  a  sign  a  revolting  picture  of 
the  mutilated  and  blood-stained  corpse  of 
Queen   Marie   Antoinette. 

This  madness  ran  a  short  course,  and  its 
victims  became  heartily  ashamed  of  it. 
Genest  took  this  for  a  genuine  and  settled 
feeling,  and  acted  upon  it.  Meanwhile 
the  insulted  government  took  most  digni- 
fied action.  The  captured  British  mer- 
chantman was  restored  to  its  owners,  and 
the  privateers  were  ordered  out  of  Ameri- 
can waters.  Orders  were  sent  to  the  col- 
lectors at  all  American  ports  to  seize  all 
vessels  fitted  out  as  privateers,  and  to 
prevent  the  sale  of  any  prize  captured  by 
6uch  vessels.  Chief-Justice  Jay  declared 
it  to  be  the  duty  of  grand  juries  to  present 
all  persons  guilty  of  such  violation  of  the 
laws  of  nations  with  respect  to  any  of  the 
belligerent  powers.  The  French  ambassa- 
dor and  his  friends  were  greatly  irritated. 
Pie  protested,  and  the  Secretary  of  State 
(Jefferson),  who  had  favored  the  enthu- 
siasm of  Genest's  reception,  finding  he  had 


a  troublesome  friend  on  his  hands,  plain- 
ly told  Genest  that  by  commissioning  pri- 
vateers he  had  violated  the  sovereignty  of 
the  United  States.  With  offensive  per- 
tinacity, Genest  denied  this  doctrine  as 
contrary  to  right,  justice,  and  the  laws 
of  nations,  and  threatened  to  "  appeal 
from  the  President  to  the  people";  and  in 
this  the  Republican  newspapers  sustained 
him.  Secret  Democratic  societies  which 
had  been  formed  became  more  bold  and 
active,  and  Genest,  mistaking  the  popular 
clamor  for  the  deliberate  voice  of  the  na- 
tion, actually  undertook  to  fit  out  a  pri- 
vateer at  Philadelphia,  in  defiance  of  the 
government,  during  the  President's  ab- 
sence at  Mount  Vernon.  It  was  a  vessel 
captured  by  L'Embuscade,  and  Genest 
named  her  The  Little  Democrat. 

Governor  Mifflin,  like  Jefferson,  had  be- 
come sick  of  the  "  Citizen,"  and  he  inter- 
fered. Genest  would  not  heed  his  threats 
nor  the  persuasion  of  Jefferson.  He  de- 
nounced the  President  as  unfaithful  to 
the  wishes  of  the  people,  and  resolved  to 
force  him  to  call  Congress  together. 
Washington,  on  his  return  to  Philadel- 
phia, and  informed  of  the  insolence  of 
Genest,  exclaimed,  "  Is  the  minister  of  the 
French  republic  to  set  the  acts  of  the  gov- 
ernment at  defiance  with  impunity?"  Hia 
cabinet  answered  "  No ! "  The  most  ex- 
acting country  could  not  counsel  longer 
forbearance,  and  the  French  government 
was  requested,  July,  1793,  to  recall  its 
minister;  and  it  was  done.  There  was  a 
reaction  in  the  public  mind  towards  a 
more  patriotic  attitude.  The  insolence  of 
Genest  had  shocked  the  national  pride. 
On  April  22,  1793,  the  President  issued 
a  proclamation  of  neutrality,  which  the 
radical  Democrats  denounced  as  an 
"  edict  of  royalty."  Genest — succeeded  by 
M.  Fouchet,  a  man  equally  indiscreet — 
did  not  leave  the  country,  as  he  did  not 
think  it  prudent  to  return.  Marrying  the 
daughter  of  Gov.  George  Clinton,  he  be- 
came a  naturalized  citizen  of  the  United 
States.  He  was  twice  married,  his  second 
wife  being  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Osgood,  the 
first  Postmaster-General  under  the  new 
Constitution.  Fond  of  agriculture,  he 
took  great  interest  in  its  pursuit;  and  his 
last  illness  was  occasioned  by  attendance 
at  a  meeting  of  an  agricultural  society 
of  which  he  was  the  president.     He  was 

known  as  "  Citizen  Genest,"  a  title  as- 
sumed by  the  French  revolutionists,  and 
imitated  by  their  American  admirers.  He 
died  in  Schodak,  N.  Y.,  July  14,  1834. 

Geneva  Convention.     See  Red  Cross. 

Geneva  Tribunal  of  Arbitration.  See 
Alabama  Claims. 

Gentry,  Meredith  Poindexter,  legis- 
lator; born  in  North  Carolina,  Sept.  15, 
1809;  removed  with  his  father  to  Tennes- 
see in  1813;  elected  to  the  State  legislat- 
ure in  1835;  to  Congress  in  1839.  When 
his  State  seceded  he  entered  the  Confed- 
erate Congress.  He  died  at  Nashville, 
Tenn.,  Nov.  2,  1S66. 

Geographical  Society,  American,  an 
organization  established  in  1852.  It  aims 
to  encourage  geographical  exploration 
and  discovery;  to  examine  and  spread 
new  geographical  information;  and  to 
found  a  suitable  place  in  New  York  where 
accurate  information  of  every  part  of  the 
globe  may  be  obtained.  Its  headquarters 
are  at  11  West  Twenty-ninth  street,  New 
York  City.  Its  officers  in  1900  were: 
President,  Seth  Low;  vice-presidents,  W. 
H.  H.  Moore,  Gen.  Egbert  L.  Viele,  C.  C. 
Tiffany,  D.D. ;  corresponding  secretaries — 
foreign,  William  Libbey ;  domestic,  Chand- 
ler Robbins;  recording  secretary,  Anton 
A.  Raven.  The  membership  in  1900  was 

Geological  Society  of  America, 
founded  in  1888.  Officers:  President, 
George  M.  Dawson,  Canadian  Geological 
Survey,  Ottawa,  Canada;  secretary,  H.  L. 
Fairchild,  University  of  Rochester;  treas- 
urer, I.  C.  White;  editor  of  the  Bulletin 
of  the  Geological  Society  of  America,  J. 
Stanley  Brown.  In  1900  there  were  245 
fellows.  The  entrance  fee  is  $10,  and  the 
annual  dues  $10. 

Geological  Survey  of  the  United 
States,  a  branch  of  the  Department  of 
the  Interior,  founded  in  1879,  when  it  in- 
cluded only  the  geological  examination  of 
the  Territories;  but  in  1881  it  was  en- 
larged so  as  to  comprise  the  entire 
country,  and  its  corps  were  gradually  in- 
creased till  the  survey  became  the  most 
important  of  all  governmental  organiza- 
tions for  the  purpose  of  geological  ex- 
amination. The  director  of  the  survey 
has  charge  of  the  classification  of  the 
public  lands,  the  examination  of  the  geo- 
logical structures,  mineral  resources,  and 


products  of  the  national  domain,  and  of  George  (Augustus)  II.,  King  of  Great 
the  survey  of  the  forest  reserves.  In  Britain;  son  of  the  preceding  and  Sophia 
1900  the  chief  officers  were:  Director,  Dorothea;  born  in  Hanover,  Oct.  20,  1683. 
Charles  D.  Wolcott;  Division  of  Hydrog-  In  his  childhood  and  youth  he  was  neg- 
raphy,  chief,  F.  H.  Newell;  Division  of  looted  by  his  father,  and  was  brought  up 
Mineral  Resources,  chief,  David  T.  Day;  by  his  grandmother,  the  Electress  So- 
Division  of  Physical  and  Chemical  Re-  phia.  In  1705  he  married  a  daughter  of 
searches,  chief,  G.  F.  Becker;  Division  of  the  Margrave  of  Brandenburg- Anspach,  a 
Topography,  Forest  Reserves,  Henry  woman  of  superior  character  and  ability. 
Gannett.  He  was  made  a  peer  of  England  the  next 
George  (Lewis)  I.,  King  of  Great  year,  with  the  chief  title  of  Duke  of 
Britain,  born  in  Osnabriick,  Hanover,  May  Cambridge.  He  was  a  brave  soldier  under 
28,  1660;  eldest  son  of  Ernest  Augustus,  the  Duke  of  Marlborough.  In  1714  he  ac- 
Elector  of  Hanover,  and  the  first  sover-  companied  his  father  to  England,  and  was 
eign  of  the  Hanoverian  line.  His  mother  proclaimed  Prince  of  Wales  Sept.  22.  The 
was  Sophia,  daughter  of  James  I.  of  Eng-  prince  and  his  father  hated  each  other 
land.  In  1681  he  went  to  England  to  cordially,  and  he  was  made  an  instrument 
seek  the  hand  of  his  cousin,  the  Princess  of  intrigue  against  the  latter.  The  Prin- 
Anne  (afterwards  Queen),  in  marriage,  cess  of  Wales  was  very  popular,  and  the 
but,  being  ordered  by  his  father  not  to  father  also  hated  her.  At  one  time  the 
proceed  in  the  business,  he  returned,  and  King  proposed  to  send  the  prince  to  Amer- 
married  his  cousin  Sophia  Dorothea.  By  ica,  there  to  be  disposed  of  so  that  he 
act  of  the  convention  of  Parliament  in  should  have  no  more  trouble  with  him. 
1689,  and  by  Parliament  in  1701,  the  sue-  He  was  crowned  King  Oct.  11,  1727.  His 
cession  of  the  English  crown  was  so  fixed  most  able  minister  was  Walpole  (as  he 
that  in  the  event  of  a  failure  of  heirs  by  was  of  George  I.),  and  he  and  the  clever 
William  and  Mary,  and  Anne,  it  should  Queen  ruled  the  realm  for  fourteen  years, 
be  limited  to  the  Electress  Sophia,  of  He,  in  turn,  hated  his  son  Frederick, 
Hanover,  George's  mother,  passing  over  Prince  of  Wales,  as  bitterly  as  he  had 
nearer  heirs  who  were  Roman  Catholics,  been  hated  by  his  father.  It  was  during 
By  the  treaty  of  union  with  Scotland  the  later  years  of  the  reign  of  George  II. 
(1707)  the  same  succession  was  secured  that  the  War  of  the  Austrian  Sue- 
for  its  crown.  By  the  death  of  Sophia  cession  and  the  French  and  Indian  War 
three  months  before  Queen  Anne  died,  (in  which  the  English- American  colonies 
George  became  heir-apparent  to  the  throne  were  conspicuously  engaged)  occurred, 
of  the  latter  because  of  failure  of  heirs,  During  that  reign  England  had  grown 
and  he  succeeded  her.  His  son,  the  Prince  amazingly  in  material  and  moral  strength 
of  Wales,  became  openly  hostile  to  his  among  the  nations.  The  wisdom  of  Will- 
father  in  1718,  and  at  Leicester  House  iam  Pitt  had  done  much  towards  the  ac- 
he established  a  sort  of  rival  court.  This  quirement  of  the  fame  of  England,  which 
enmity  arose  from  the  treatment  of  the  had  never  been  greater  than  in  1760. 
prince's  mother,  the  unfortunate  Sophia  George  died  suddenly,  like  his  father,  in 
Dorothea  (to  whom  he  was  much  at-  Kensington  Palace,  Oct.  25,  1760.  He  had 
tached),  who,  accused  of  intrigue  with  never  been  popular  with  the  English 
Count  Konigsmarek,  was  divorced  in  1694,  people. 

and  imprisoned  from  that  time  until  her  There  had  been  peace  between  France 
death  in  1726.  George  I.  was  a  man  of  and  England  for  about  thirty  years  after 
moderate  intellectual  ability,  a  cruel  hus-  the  death  of  Queen  Anne,  during  which 
band,  a  bad  father,  but  not  a  bad  sover-  time  the  colonists  in  America  had  enjoyed 
eign,  for  he  allowed  able  men  to  manage  comparative  repose.  Then  the  selfish 
the  affairs  of  the  kingdom.  He  was  taken  strifes  of  European  monarchs  kindled  war 
with  a  fit  in  his  carriage,  while  on  his  again.  In  March,  1744,  France  declared 
way  to  Osnabriick,  and  died  before  he  war  against  Great  Britain,  and  the  colo- 
reached  that  place,  June  10,  1727.  His  nists  cheerfully  prepared  to  begin  the  con- 
son,  George,  by  the  unfortunate  Sophia  test  in  America  as  King  George's  War;  in 
succeeded  him.  Europe,  the  War  of  the  Austrian  Succes- 



sion.  A  contest  arose  between  Maria 
Theresa,  Empress  of  Hungary,  and  the 
Elector  of  Bavaria,  for  the  Austrian 
throne.  The  King  of  England  espoused 
the  cause  of  the  empress,  while  the  King 
of  France  took  part  with  her  opponent. 
This  caused  France  to  declare  war  against 
Great  Britain.  The  French  had  built  the 
strong  fort  of  Louisburg,  on  the  island  of 
Cape  Breton,  after  the  treaty  of  Utrecht, 
and,  because  of  its  strength,  it  was  called 
the  Gibraltar  of  America.  When  the  war 
was  proclaimed,  Governor  Shirley,  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, perceiving  the  importance  of 
that  place  in  the  coming  contest,  plans 
for  its  capture  were  speedily  laid  before 
the  Massachusetts  legislature.  That  body 
hesitated,  but  the  measure  was  finally 
agreed  upon  by  a  majority  of  only  one 
vote.  Rhode  Island,  New  Hampshire,  and 
Connecticut  furnished  their  proper  quota 
of  troops.  New  York  sent  artillery,  and 
Pennsylvania  provisions.  Commodore 
Warren  was  in  the  West  Indies  with  a 
fleet,  and  was  expected  to  join  the  provin- 
cials in  the  expedition.  After  waiting 
some  time,  the  colonial  forces,  under  Sir 
William  Pepperell,  sailed,  April  4,  1745, 
for  Louisburg.  Warren  joined  them  at 
Canso  early  in  May,  and  on  the  11th 
the  combined  land  forces,  4,000  strong, 
debarked  at  Gabarus  Bay,  a  short  dis- 
tance from  the  fortress.  The  first  intima- 
tion the  French  had  of  danger  near  was 
the  sudden  appearance  of  this  formidable 
armament.  Consternation  prevailed  in 
the  fort  and  the  town.  A  regular  siege 
was  begun  on  May  31.  Other  English 
vessels  of  war  arrived,  and  the  combined 
fleet  and  army  prepared  for  attack  on 
June  29.  Unable  to  make  a  successful  re- 
sistance, the  fortress,  the  town  of  Louis- 
burg, and  the  island  of  Cape  Breton  were 
surrendered  to  the  English  on  the  28th. 
This  event  mortified  the  pride  of  France, 
and  the  following  year  the  Duke  d'Anvillc 
was  sent  with  a  powerful  naval  armament 
to  recover  the  lost  fortress,  and  to  destroy 
English  settlements  along  the  seaboard. 
Storms  wrecked  many  of  his  vessels,  sick- 
ness swept  away  hundreds  of  his  men,  and 
D'Anville  abandoned  the  enterprise  with- 
out striking  a  blow.  Anchoring  at  Che- 
bucto  (now  Halifax),  D'Anville  died 
there  by  poison,  it  is  believed.  With  the 
capture  of  Louisburg  the  war  ended  in  the 

colonies.  By  a  treaty  made  at  Aix-la- 
Chapelle,  all  prisoners  and  property  seized 
by  either  party  were  restored.  The  strug- 
gle had  been  costly,  and  fruitless  of  good 
except  in  making  a  revelation  of  the 
strength  of  the  colonists. 

George  (William  Frederick)  III., 
King  of  Great  Britain;  born  in  London, 
June  4,  1737;  grandson  of  George  II. 
His  mind  was  narrow,  his  disposition 
was  crafty  and  arbitrary,  and  during 
his  long  reign,  while  he  was  sane, 
his  years  were  passed  in  continual  com- 
bat against  the  growing  liberal  spirit  of 
the  age.  Being  a  native  of  England  (which 
his  two  royal  predecessors  were  not),  and 
young  and  moral,  he  was  at  first  pop- 
ular on  his  accession  to  the  throne,  Oct. 
26,  1760.  In  his  first  speech  in  Parlia- 
ment he  expressed  pride  in  his  English 
birth,  and  thereby  great  enthusiasm  in 
his  favor  was  excited.  On  Sept.  8,  1761, 
he  married  Charlotte  Sophia,  sister  of  the 
Duke  of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  who  shared 
his  throne  fifty-seven  years,  and  bore  him 
fifteen  children,  all  but  two  of  whom  grew 
to  maturity.  Unfortunately  for  his  king- 
dom, he  neglected  the  wise  counsels  of 
Pitt,  and  made  his  preceptor,  the  Scotch 
Earl  of  Bute,  his  prime  minister  and  con- 
fidential friend.  The  minister  and  his 
master  became  very  unpopular,  and  in 
1763  Bute  resigned,  and  was  succeeded  by 
George  Grenville  (q.  v.),  who  inaugu- 
rated the  Stamp  Act  policy  and  other  ob- 
noxious measures  towards  the  English- 
American  colonies,  which  caused  great  dis- 
content, a  fierce  quarrel,  a  long  war,  the 
final  dismemberment  of  the  British  em- 
pire, and  the  political  independence  of  the 
colonies.  With  the  Stamp  Act  began  the 
terribly  stormy  period  of  the  reign  of 
George  III.  In  1783  he  was  compelled  to 
acknowledge  the  independence  of  his  lost 
American  colonies.  Then  he  had  continual 
quarrels  with  his  ministry,  and  talked  of 
leaving  England  and  retiring  to  his  little 
kingdom  of  Hanover,  but  refrained  on  be- 
ing assured  that  it  would  be  much  easier  for 
him  to  leave  England  than  to  return  to  it. 

Like  his  two  royal  predecessors,  George 
hated  his  oldest  son,  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
because  he  was  generally  in  political  op- 
position to  him  and  led  a  loose  life.  After 
a  serious  dispute  with  Russia,  which 
threatened   to   seize  Turkey,  and  another 




with  Spain,  war  with  revolutionized 
France  began  in  1793,  and  the  most  arbi- 
trary rule  was  exercised  in  England,  driv- 

at  Waterloo,  June,  1815.  In  1810  the 
King  lost  his  youngest  and  favorite 
daughter,  Amelia,  by  death.     His  anxiety 

the  people  at  times  to  the  verge  of  during  her  illness  deprived  him  of  reason, 
revolution.  Ireland  was  goaded  into  re*  He  had  been  threatened  with  insanity  once 
tcllion,  which  was  suppressed  by  the  most  or  twice  before;  now  his  mind  was  cloud- 
cruel  methods — equal  in  atrocity  to  any  ed  forever.  The  first  indication  of  hi? 
perpetrated  by  the  French  in  La  Vendue  malady  appeared  on  the  day  of  the  com- 
and  Brittany.  The  union  of  Great  Brit-  pletion  of  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  reign, 
ain  and  Ireland  was  effected  in  1800,  the  Oct.  25,  1810.  From  that  date  his  reign 
parliament  of  the  latter  ceasing  to  exist,  ceased  in  fact,  and  his  son  George,  Prince 
Against  the  King's  wishes,  peace  was  made  of  Wales,  was  made  regent  of  the  king- 
with  France  in  1802;  but  war  was  again  dom  (Feb.  5,  1811).  For  nearly  nine 
begun  the  next  year.  Then  came  the  years  the  care  of  his  person  was  intrusted 
struggle  with  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  which  to  the  faithful  Queen.  In  1819  the  Duke 
lasted  until  the  overthrow  of  that  ruler  of  York  assumed  the  responsibility.     The 



Queen  was  simple  in  her  tastes  and  habits,  to  the  army.  The  same  evening  a  large 
rjgid  in  the  performance  of  moral  duties,  concourse  of  soldiers  and  civilians  as- 
kind  and  benevolent.  Their  lives  were  sembled  at  the  Bowling  Green,  pulled 
models  of  moral  purity  and  domestic  hap-  down  the  statue,  broke  it  in  pieces,  and 
piness.  The  King  died  in  Windsor  Castle,  sent  a  portion  to  the  house  of  Oliver  Wol- 
Jan.  29,  1820.  cott,  on  the  western  edge  of  Connecticut, 
There  were  members  of  the  aristocracy  where  it  was  run  into  bullets  by  his 
that,  through  envy,  hated  Pitt,  who,  in  family.  In  a  letter  to  General  Gates 
spite  of  them,  had  been  called  to  the  upon  this  event,  Ebenezer  Hazard  wrote: 
highest  offices  in  the  kingdom.  When  "  His  [the  King's]  troops  will  probably 
young  Prince  George  heard  of  the  death  have  melted  majesty  fired  at  them."  The 
of  the  King,  he  went  to  Carleton  House,  venerable  Zachariah  Greene  (q.  v.), 
the  residence  of  his  mother,  and  sent  for  who  was  present  at  the  pulling  down  of 
Newcastle,  Pitt's  political  enemy.  He  the  statue,  said  the  artist  had  made  an 
and  Lord  Bute  prevailed  upon  the  young  omission  of  stirrups  for  the  saddle  of  the 
King  to  discard  Pitt  and  favor  their  own  horse,  and  it  was  a  common  remark  of  the 

schemes.  Newcastle  prepared  the  first 
speech  from  the  throne  of  George  IIL; 
and  when  Pitt,  as  prime  minister,  went 
to  him  and  presented  the  draft  of  an  ad- 
dress to  be  pronounced  at  the  meeting  of 
the  Privy  Council,  he  was  politely  in- 
formed that  the  speech  was  already  pre- 
pared and  the  preliminaries  were  ar- 
ranged. Pitt  immediately  perceived  that 
the  King's  tutor  and  warm  personal 
friend  of  the  young  King's  mother,  the 
Earl  of  Bute,  had  made  the  arrangements, 
and  would  occupy  a  conspicuous  place 
in  the  administration.  George  chose  Bute 
for  his  counsellor  and  guide,  and  Pitt, 
to  whom  England,  more  than  to  any  other 
nan,  owed  its  present  power  and  glory, 
was  allowed  to  retire  and  have  his  place 
filled  by  this  Scotch  adventurer.  The 
people  of  England  were  disgusted,  and 
by  this  blunder  George  created  a  power- 
ful opposition  party  at  the  beginning  of 
his  reign. 

The  people  of  New  York  City,  grateful 
for  the  repeal  of  the  Stamp  Act,  voted  a 
statue  to  the  King  and  to  Pitt.  That  of 
the  former  was  equestrian,  made  of  lead, 
and  gilded.  It  was  placed  in  the  centre 
of  the  Bowling  Green,  near  Fort  George, 
at  the  foot  of  Broadway.  Raised  upon  a 
pedestal,  with  the  head  of  the  King  and 
the  horse  facing  westward,  it  made  an 
imposing  appearance.  It  was  set  up,  with 
great  parade,  Aug.  21,  1770.  Within  six 
years  afterwards  the  people  pulled  it 
down,  with  demonstrations  of  contempt. 
Washington  occupied  New  York  with 
Continental  troops  in  the  summer  of  1776. 
There  he  received  the  Declaration  of 
Independence   (July  9),  and  it  was  read 

soldiers,  "  The  King  ought  to  ride  a  hard- 
trotting  horse  without  stirrups."  Por- 
tions of  that  statue  are  now  in  possession 
of  the  New  York  Historical  Society. 

(From  a  sketch  by  Gear.) 

The  arrival  of  Richard  Penn  in  London 
with  the  second  petition  of  Congress 
aroused  the  an^er  of  the  King  towards, 
and    his    fixed    determination    concerning, 



the  "  rebellious  colonies."  He  refused  to 
see  Penn  or  receive  the  petition,  and  on 
Aug.  23  he  issued  a  proclamation  for  sup- 
pressing rebellion  and  sedition  in  Amer- 
ica. "  There  is  reason,"  said  the  procla- 
mation, "  to  apprehend  that  such  re- 
bellion [in  America]  hath  been  much  pro- 
moted and  encouraged  by  the  traitorous 
correspondence,  counsels,  and  comfort  of 
divers  wicked  and  desperate  persons  with- 
in our  realm,"  and  he  called  upon  all 
officers  of  the  realm,  civil  and  military, 
and  all  his  subjects,  to  disclose  all  "  trait- 
orous conspiracies,"  giving  information 
of  the  same  to  one  of  the  secretaries  of 
state,  "  in  order  to  bring  to  condign  pun- 
ishment the  authors,  perpetrators,  and 
abettors  of  such  traitorous  designs."  This 
proclamation  was  aimed  at  Chatham  and 
Camden  in  the  House  of  Lords,  and  Barre 
in  the  House  of  Commons,  and  their  ac- 
tive political  friends.  When  it  was  read 
to  the  people  at  the  Royal  Exchange  it 
was  received  with  a  general  hiss  from  the 
populace.  But  the  stubborn  King  would 
not  yield.  He  would  rather  perish  than 
consent  to  repeal  the  alterations  in  tho 
charter  of  Massachusetts,  or  yield  the 
absolute  authority  of  Parliament.  And 
North,  who  in  his  heart  thought  the  King 
wrong,  supported  him  chiefly,  as  was  al- 
leged, because  he  loved  office  with  its 
power  and  emoluments  better  than  jus- 
tice. When,  in  November,  the  wife  of 
John  Adams  read  the  King's  proclamation, 
she  wrote  to  her  husband,  saying,  "  This 
intelligence  will  make  a  plain  path  for 
you,  though  a  dangerous  one.  I  could 
not  join  to-day  in  the  petitions  of  our 
worthy  pastors  for  a  reconciliation  be- 
tween our  no  longer  parent  state,  but  ty- 
rant state,  and  the  colonies.  Let  us  sepa- 
rate; they  are  unworthy  to  be  our 
brethren.  Let  us  renounce  them;  and, 
instead  of  supplications  as  formerly  for 
their  prosperity  and  happiness,  let  us  be- 
seech the  Almighty  to  blast  their  coun- 
cils and  bring  to  naught  all  their  de- 
vices." The  proclamation  stimulated  Con- 
gress to  recommend  the  formation  of  State 
governments,  and  filled  the  minds  and 
hearts  of  the  people  with  thoughts  of, 
and  desires  for,  independence.  Encour- 
aged by  Franklin,  Rush,  and  others, 
Thomas  Paine  (q.  v.),  an  emigrant  from 
England,  and  a  clear  and  powerful  writer, 

prepared  an  appeal  to  the  people  of  Amer- 
ica  in   favor   of   independence. 

The  British  ministry,  either  blind  or 
wicked,  misled  George  III.  into  the  be; 
lief  that  a  few  regiments  could  subdue 
Massachusetts,  and  that  New  York  could 
easily  be  seduced  to  the  support  of  the 
crown  by  immunities  and  benefactions. 
The  deceived  monarch,  therefore,  ordered 
letters  to  be  written  to  Gage,  at  the  mid- 
dle of  April,  1775,  to  take  possession  of 
every  colonial  fort;  to  seize  and  secure 
all  military  stores  of  every  kind  col- 
lected for  "  the  rebels  " ;  to  arrest  and  im- 
prison all  such  as  should  be  thought  to 
have  committed  treason;  to  repress  re- 
bellion by  force;  to  make  the  public 
safety  the  first  object  of  consideration, 
and  to  substitute  more  coercive  measures 
for  ordinary  forms  of  procedure,  without 
pausing  to  require  the  aid  of  a  civil 
magistrate.  Four  regiments,  at  first 
destined  for  Boston,  were  ordered  to  New 
York,  to  assist  in  the  progress  of  in- 
trigue; and  a  vessel  carried  out  six  pack-n  , 
ages  of  pamphlets,  containing  a  very., 
soothing  and  complimentary  Address  0f„\ 
the  People  of  Great  Britain  to  the  In-' 
habitants  of  America,  written  by  Sir  Johji| 
Dalrymple,  at  the  request  of  Lord  North. 
The  Americans  were  not  coaxed  by  thi&. 
persuasive  pamphlet,  nor  awed  by  the  at- 
tempts to  execute  the  sanguinary  orderfcJ 
of  Lord  Dartmouth  to  Gage.  I  \ 

The  great  landholders  in  England,  as. 
well  as  the  more  warlike  classes,  had  be;-' 
come  sick  of  trying  to  tax  the  American^ 
without  their  consent.  Indeed,  all  classes, 
were  convinced  of  its  futility,  and  yearned  -, 
for  a  change  in  the  policy.  Even  the  stub-  # 
born  King,  though  unrelenting  in  his  pui^, 
pose  to  bring  the  Americans  into  submis,- , 
sion,  declared  that  the  man  who  should 
approve  the  taxing  of  them,  in  connection 
with  all  its  consequences,  was  "  more  fit 
for  a  madhouse  than  for  a  seat  in  Parlia- 
ment." In  the  House  of  Commons  (June, 
1779),  Lord  John  Cavendish  moved  for 
orders  to  withdraw  the  British  forces  em- 
ployed in  America;  and  the  Duke  of  Rich- 
mond, in  the  House  of  Lords,  proposed  a 
total  change  of  measures  in  America  and 
Ireland.  In  both  Houses  these  sensible 
measures  were  supported  by  increasing 
numbers.  North  was  frequently  dropping 
hints  to  the  King  that  the  advantages  to 

IV. — D 



be  gained  by  continuing  the  war  would  dent  of  the  Royal  Society  in  this  wise: 
sever  repay  its  expenses.  The  King,  dis-  The  King  unjustly  requested  the  society  to 
turbed  by  these  propositions  and  the  yield-  publish,  with  the  authority  of  its  name, 
ing  disposition  of  his  chief  minister,  sum-  a  contradiction  of  a  scientific  opinion  of 
moned  them  all  to  his  library,  June  21,  the  rebellious  Franklin.  Pringle  replied 
1779,  where,  in  a  speech  of  more  than  an  that  it  was  not  in  his  power  to  reverse 
hour  in  length,  he  expressed  to  them  "  the  the  order  of  nature,  and  resigned.  The 
dictates  of  his  frequent  and  severe  self-  pliant  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  with  the  prac- 
examination."  He  declared  his  firm  reso-  tice  of  a  true  courtier,  advocated  the  opin- 
lution  to  carry  on  the  war  against  Amer-  ion  patronized  by  his  majesty,  and  was 
ica,  France,  and  Spain;  and  that,  "before  appointed  president  of  the  Royal  Society, 
he  would  hear  of  any  man's  readiness  to  As  before  stated,  King  George  was 
come  into  office,  he  would  expect  to  see  it  greatly  disturbed  by  the  action  of  Parlia- 
signed,  under  his  own  hand,  that  he  was  ment  concerning  the  cessation  of  war  in 
resolved  to  keep  the  empire  entire,  and  America.  He  said  they  had  lost  the  feel- 
that,  consequently,  no  troops  should  be  ings  of  Englishmen;  and  he  took  to  heart 
withdrawn  from  America,  nor  its  inde-  what  he  called  "  the  cruel  usage  of  all  the 
pendence    ever    be    allowed."     Stubbornly  powers  of  Europe,"  who,  excepting  Spain, 

blind  to  well-known  facts,  he  persisted  in 
believing  that,  "  with  the  activity  of  Clin- 
ton, and  the  Indians  in  the  rear,  the  prov- 
inces, even  now,  would  submit."  This  ob- 
stinacy left  him  only  weak  men  to  sup- 
port him;  for  it  ranged  every  able  states- 

had  expressed  a  desire  for  the  freedom 
and  independence  of  the  United  States. 
His  ministry  (North's)  having  resigned, 
he  was  compelled  to  accept  a  liberal  one. 
Lord  Shelbourne  brought  about  the  call  of 
Lord   Rockingham    (whom   the   King   dis- 

.nan  and  publicist  in  the  kingdom  on  the    liked)    to   form   a  cabinet,   and  when   his 

bide  01  the  opposition. 

majesty  finally  yielded,  he   said,   "  Neces- 

Wright,  in  his  England  under  the  House  sity  made  me  yield  to  the  advice  of  Lord 
of  Hanover,  says  that,  notwithstanding  Shelbourne."  And  when,  finally,  he  was 
the  King,  in  his  speech  from  the  throne,    compelled    to    acknowledge    the    indepen- 

Dec.  5,  1783,  had  said, 

have  sacrificed    dence   of   the   United   States,   he   said,   "  I 

every  consideration  of  my  own  to  the  feel  sensibly  this  dismemberment  of 
wishes  and  opinions  of  my  people.  I  make  America  from  the  empire,  and  I  should  be 
it  my  humble  and  earnest  prayer  to  Al-  miserable,  indeed,  if  I  did  not  feel  that 
mighty  God  that  Great  Britain  may  not  no  blame  on  that  account  can  be  laid  at 
feel  the  evils  which  might  result  from  so  my  door,"  when  he  had  been  the  chief 
great  a  dismemberment  of  the  empire,  and  obstacle  to  reconciliation  from  the  begin- 
that  America  may  be  far  from  those  ning  of  the  quarrel.  He  had  such  a  poor 
calamities  which  have  formerly  proved,  in  opinion  of  the  Americans  that  he  consoled 
the   mother   country,   how   essential   mon-  himself  for  the  dismemberment  by  saying, 

archy  is  to  the  enjoyment  of  constitu- 
tional liberty.  Religion,  language,  inter- 
ns, affection  may — and  I  hope  will — yet 

"  It  may  not  in  the  end  be  an   evil   that 
they  will  become  aliens  of  the  kingdom." 
George     (Augustus    Frederick)     IV., 

prove  a  bond  of  permanent  union  between    King    of     Great     Britain;     born     in     St. 
the   two   countries.     To   this    end   neither    James's    Palace,    London,    Aug.    12,    1762. 

attention  nor  disposition  shall  be  want- 
ing on  my  part,"  he  nevertheless  detest- 
ed everything  American.  The  acknowledg- 
ment of  the  independence  of  the  United 
States  was  wrung  from  him   by  dire  ne- 

In  consequence  of  the  insanity  of  George 
III.,  George,  the  Prince  of  Wales,  was 
created  by  Parliament  regent  of  the  king- 
dom. The  act  for  that  purpose  passed 
Feb.   5,    1811,   and   from   that   time   until 

cessity.  Ever  since  the  beginning  of  the  the  death  of  his  father,  George  was  act- 
troubles  he  had  thoroughly  hated  Frank-  ing  monarch.  On  Jan.  9,  1813,  he  issued 
lin  personally,  to  whom,  on  account  of  his  from  the  royal  palace  at  Westminster  a 
coolness  and  adroitness,  he  had  given  the  manifesto  concerning  the  causes  of  the 
name  of  "  Arch  Rebel."     The  King  carried  war  with  the  United  States,  and  the  sub- 

hia  prejudices  so  far  that  Sir  John  Prin- 
gle was  driven  to  resign  his  place  as  Presi- 


jects'of  blockade   and  impressments.     He 
declared  the  war  was  not  the  consequence 


of  any  fault  of  Great  Britain,  but  that 
it  had  been  brought  on  by  the  partial  con- 
duct of  the  American  government  in  over- 
looking the  aggressions  of  the  French, 
and  in  their  negotiations  with  them.     He 


alleged  that  a  quarrel  with  Great  Britain 
had  been  sought  because  she  had  adopted 
measures  solely  retaliatory  as  to  France, 
and  that  as  these  measures  had  been 
abandoned  by  a  repeal  of  the  Orders  in 
Council,  the  war  was  now  continued  on 
the  questions  of  impressment  and  search. 
On  this  point  he  took  such  a  decisive  po- 
sition that  the  door  for  negotiation  which 
the  recommendation  of  the  committee  of 
the  American  Congress  on  foreign  rela- 
tions proposed  to  open  seemed  irrevocably 
shut.  "  His  royal  highness,"  said  the 
manifesto,  "  can  never  admit  that  the  ex- 
ercise of  the  undoubted  and  hitherto  un- 
disputed right  of  searching  neutral  mer- 
chant vessels  in  time  of  war,  and  the 
impressment  of  British  seamen  when 
found  therein,  can  be  deemed  any  viola- 
tion of  a  neutral  flag;  neither  can  he  ad- 
mit that  the  taking  of  such  seamen  from 
on  board  such  vessels  can  be  considered 
by  any  neutral  state  as  a  hostile  measure 
or  a  justifiable  cause  of  war."  After  re- 
affirming the  old  English  doctrine  of  the 
impossibility  of  self-expatriation  of  a 
British  subject,  the  manifesto  continued: 
"  But  if  to   the  practice  of  the  United 

States  to  harbor  British  seamen  be  added 
their  asserted  right  to  transfer  the  al- 
legiance of  British  subjects,  and  thus  to 
cancel  the  jurisdiction  of  their  legitimate 
sovereign  by  acts  of  naturalization  and 
certificates  of  citizenship,  which  they  pre- 
tend to  be  as  valid  out  of  their  own 
territory  as  within  it,  it  is  obvious  that 
to  abandon  this  ancient  right  of  Great 
Britain,  and  to  admit  these  naval  pre- 
tensions of  the  United  States,  would  be 
to  expose  the  very  foundations  of  our 
maritime  strength."  The  manifesto 
charged  the  United  States  government 
with  systematic  efforts  to  inflame  the 
people  against  Great  Britain;  of  ungener- 
ous conduct  towards  Spain,  Great  Brit- 
ain's ally,  and  of  deserting  the  cause  of 
neutrality.  He  spoke  of  the  subserviency 
of  the  United  States  to  the  ruler  of 
France,  and  against  this  course  of  con- 
duct the  prince  regent  solemnly  protested. 
He  thought  that  while  Great  Britain  was 
contending  for  the  liberties  of  mankind, 
she  had  a  right  to  expect  from  the  United 
States  far  different  treatment — not  an 
"  abettor  of  French  tyranny."  George 
became  King  in  1820,  and  died  in  Windsor, 
June  26,  1830. 

George,  Fort,  the  name  of  four  de- 
fensive works  connected  with  warfare  in 
the  United  States.  The  first  was  erected 
near  the  outlet  of  Lake  George,  N.  Y., 
and,  with  Fort  William  Henry  (q.  v.) 
and  other  works,  was  the  scene  of  im- 
portant operations  during  the  French 
and  Indian  War   (q.  v.)   of  1755-59. 

The  second  was  on  Long  Island.  In 
the  autumn  of  1780,  some  Rhode  Island 


Tory  refugees  took  possession  of  the 
manor-house  of  Gen.  John  Smith,  at 
Smith's  Point,  L.  I.,  fortified  it  and  the 
grounds  around  it,  and  named  the  works 
Fort  George,  which  they  designed  as  a  de- 



poeitory  of  stores  for  the  British  in  New 
York.  They  began  cutting  wood  for  the 
British  army  in  the  city.  At  the  solicita- 
tion of  General  Smith,  and  the  approval 
of  Washington,  Maj.  Benjamin  Tallmadge 
crossed  the  Sound  from  Fairfield,  with 
eighty  dismounted  dragoons,  and  landed, 
on  the  evening  of  Nov.  21,  at  Woodville. 
There  he  remained  until  the  next  night, 
on  account  of  a  storm.  At  the  mills,  2 
miles  from  Fort  George,  he  found  a  faith- 
ful guide,  and  at  dawn  he  and  his  follow- 
ers burst  through  the  stockade,  rushed 
across  the  parade,  shouting  "  Washing- 
ton and  glory!"  and  so  furiously  assailed 

1,800.  Besides  that  fort,  they  had  several 
works  along  the  Niagara  River.  The 
American  troops  were  debarked  May  8, 
and  Chauneey  sailed  for  Sackett's  Harbor 
for  supplies  and  reinforcements  for  the 
army.  He  returned  to  Dearborn's  camp, 
in  the  Madison,  on  May  22,  and  the  same 
evening  Commodore  Perry  arrived  there. 
Arrangements  were  immediately  made  for 
tin  attack  on  Fort  George.  The  commo- 
dore and  Perry  reconnoitred  the  enemy's 
batteries  in  the  Lady  of  the  Lake.  Dear- 
born was  ill,  but  on  the  morning  of  the 
27th  the  troops  were  conveyed  by  the 
squadron  to  a  point  a  little  westward  of 

the  redoubt  on  three  sides  that  the  gar 
son  surrendered  without  resistance.  Ta 
madge  demolished  the  fort,  burned  vessels 
lying  at  the  wharf,  and,  with  300  prison- 
ers, started  for  Fairfield.  For  this  ex- 
ploit Tallmadge  received  the  thanks  of 

Another  Fort  George  was  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Niagara  River.  After  the 
capture  of  York,  the  victors  left  that 
place  early  in  May,  1813,  to  attack  Fort 
George.  Stormy  weather  had  detained 
them  at  York  for  a  week.  Losses  and 
sickness  had  reduced  the  number  of  the 
troops  to  1.000.  These  were  again  con- 
veyed by  the  fleet  of  Chauneey,  who,  with 
Dearborn  and  other  naval  commanders, 
went  before  in  the  pilot-schooner  Lady 
of  the  Lake,  and  selected  a  landing-place 
4  miles  east  of  Fort  Niagara.  The  British 
force  at  Fort  George  and  vicinity,  under 
General    Vincent,    then    numbered    about 

the  mouth  of  the  Niagara,  and  landed 
under  cover  of  the  guns  of  the  fleet.  The 
advance  was  led  by  Col.  Winfield  Scott, 
accompanied  by  Commodore  Perry,  who 
had  charge  of  the  boats.  He  and  Scott 
both  leaped  into  the  water  at  the  head  of 
the  first  division  of  the  men,  and,  in  the 
face  of  a  galling  fire  and  gleaming  bay- 
onets, they  ascended  the  bank.  The  other 
troops  followed,  and.  after  a  severe  con- 
flict on  the  plain,  the  British  fell  back 
discomfited.  General  Vincent,  satisfied 
that  he  must  retreat,  and  knowing  Fort 
George  to  be  untenable,  ordered  the  gar- 
rison to  spike  the  guns,  destroy  the  am- 
munition, and  abandon  it.  This  wa9 
done,  and  the  whole  British  force  retreat- 
ed westward  to  a  strong  position  among 



the  hills,  at  a  place  called  "The  Beaver  the  autumn  of  1897  he  was  nominated  for 
Dams,"  about  18  miles  from  the  Niagara  mayor  of  Greater  New  York,  by  several 
River.     There    Vincent   had   a   deposit   of    organizations.     Later  these  bodies  united 

stores  and  provisions.  The  garrisons  of 
forts  Erie  and  Chippewa  abandoned  them, 
and  the  whole  Niagara  frontier  passed  into 
the  hands  of  the  Americans. 

Still  another  Fort  George  was  at  the 
end  of  Manhattan  Island.  When  the 
English  captured  New  Amsterdam  the 
name  was  changed  to  New  York,  and 
the  fort  to  Fort  James,  and  later  to  Fort 

George,  Henry,  political  economist; 
born  in  Philadelphia.,  Pa.,  Sept.  2,  1839; 
was  educated  in  the  public  school  of  his 
native  place,  and  after  working  in  a  store 
for  a  short  time,  went  to  sea  and  served 
as  a  cabin-boy  for  fourteen  months.  Later 
he  shipped  as  an  ordinary  seaman  on  a 
coasting  vessel  running  between  Phila- 
delphia and  Boston.  In  1858  he  went  to 
British  Columbia  in  search  of  gold,  but, 
meeting  with  disappointment,  went  to 
San  Francisco  in  18G0,  and  with  two  others 
established  a  paper  called  the  Journal. 
His  inability  to  secure  news  from  the 
Eastern  States  because  he  was  not  a  mem- 

under   the   name   of    the    "  Democracy   of 


Thomas  Jefferson,"  and  Mr.  George  accept- 
ed the  nomination.  He  began  the  cam- 
paign with   great   energy.     On   the   night 

ber  of  the  press  association  led  to  the  before  his  death  he  delivered  four  ad- 
speedy  failure  of  this  enterprise.  After  dresses.  He  retired  about  twelve  o'clock, 
various  other  unsuccessful  projects  he  was  was  seized  with  apoplexy,  and  died  before 
offered  a  place  on  the  staff  of  the  San  morning,  Oct.  29.  His  son,  Henry  George, 
Francisco  Times,  of  which  he  later  became  Jr.,  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  ticket, 
managing  editor.  He  was  subsequently  and  continued  the  canvass.  Mr.  George's 
connected  with  the  San  Francisco  Vhron-  writings  include  Progress  and  Povertij ; 
icle.  the  San  Francisco  Herald,  and  the  The  Irish  Land  Question;  Social  Prob- 
Oakland  Recorder.  In  1872  he  was  a  dele-  lems;  Protection  or  Free  Trade;  a  num- 
gate  to  the  convention  which  nominated  ber  of  pamphlets  on  The  Condition  of 
Horace  Greeley  for  the  Presidency,  and  Labor;  An  Open  Letter  to  Pope  Leo 
in  the  same  year  he  established  the  San  XIII.;  A  Perplexed  Philosopher;  and 
Francisco  Evening  Post,  the  first  one  -  cent  The  Science  of  Political  Economy.  See 
paper  on  the  Pacific  coast.     In   1880  he  Single  Tax. 

removed  to  New  York,  and  in  the  following 
year  went  to  Ireland  to  write  up  the  land 
question    for    several    American    newspa- 

George,  William  Reuben,  reformer; 
born  in  West  Dryden,  N.  Y.,  June  4,  1866; 
settled  in  New  York  City  in  1880.     Later 

pers.  In  1886  he  was  the  candidate  of  he  became  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the 
the  United  Labor  Party  (q.  v.)  for  children  of  the  very  poor.  In  1895  he 
mayor  of  New  York,  and  in  the  election  founded  the  "  Junior  Republic,"  a  move- 
polled  68 J 10  votes.  In  1887  he  founded  ment  in  which  children  govern  themselves, 
The  Standard  and  with  the  Rev.  Edward  receiving  pay  for  all  the  work  they  per- 
McGlynn,  D.D.  {q.  v.),  an  eminent  Ro-  form.  Since  this  plan  was  instituted  it 
man  Catholic  priest,  organized  the  Anti-  has  become  a  successful  method  in  caring 
poverty  Society.  In  the  same  year  he  for  delinquent  and  dependent  children, 
was  an  unsuccessful  candidate  for  secre-  George  Griswold,  The,  a  ship  sent 
tary  of  state.  In  1889  he  went  to  Eng-  from  the  United  States  in  1862  with  food 
land,  and  in  1890  visited  Australia.     In  for     starving    English     operatives.      The 



blockade  of  Southern  ports  had  caused  a  Vice-President  of  the  Confederacy.  The 
lack  of  the  cotton  supply  in  England  and  governor  of  Georgia  ordered  the  seizure 
the  running  of  mills  on  half-time  or  shut-  of  the  public  property  of  the  United 
ting  them  up  altogether.  This  produced  States  within  the  limits  of  his  State,  and 
wide-spread  distress  in  the  manufacturing  war  made  havoc  on  its  coasts  and  in 
districts.  In  Lancashire  alone  1,000,000  the  interior.  Sherman  swept  through  the 
depended  for  bread  on  the  mills.  In  1862  State  with  a  large  army  late  in  1864, 
a  pitiful  cry  of  distress  came  over  the  "  living  off  the  country,"  and  within  its 
sea.  It  was  heard  by  the  loyal  people  of  borders  the  President  of  the  Confederacy 
the  North,  who,  repressing  their  just  re-  was  captured  in  May,  1865  (see  Davis, 
sentment  against  the  British  government  Jefferson).  Within  its  borders  was  the 
for  the  "aid  and  comfort"  it  had  given  famous  Andersonville  prison  -  pen  (see 
to  the  enemies  of  the  republic,  heeded  the  Confederate  Prisons  ).  In  June,  1865, 
cry,  and  the  George  Griswold  was  laden 
at  New  York,  chiefly  through  the  liberal- 
ity of  merchants  there,  with  food  for  the 
starving  English  operatives  of  the  value 
of  more  than  $200,000.  With  her  was 
sent  a  government  war-vessel  as  a  con- 
voy to  protect  her  precious  freight  from 
any  possible  attack  of  the  Anglo  -  Con- 
federate cruiser  Alabama  (q.  v.),  which 
was  then  lighting  the  ocean  with  a 
blaze  of  American  merchant  vessels 
which  she  had  set  on  fire.  See  Cotton 

Georgia,  the  latest  settled  State  of 
the  original  thirteen.  It  framed  its  first 
State  constitution  in  1777,  its  second  in 
1789,  and  a  third  in  179S,  which  was 
several  times  amended.  On  June  2,  1788, 
Georgia  ratified  the  national  Constitution. 
The  settlers  on  the  frontier  suffered 
much  from  incursions  of  the  Creek  and 
Cherokee  Indians  (qq.  v.),  but  their 
friendship  was  secured  by  treaties  in 
1790-01.     By  a  treaty  in  1802  the  Creeks    of  secession,   declared  the  war  debt  void. 

SEAL  OF  c:eoi:<;ia. 

a  provisional  governor  was  appointed  for 
the  State.  A  convention  held  at  Milledge- 
ville  late  in  October  repealed  the  ordinance 

ceded  to  the  United  States  a  large  tract, 
which  was  afterwards  assigned  to  Georgia, 
now  forming  the  southwestern  counties  of 
the  State.  The  same  year  Georgia  ceded 
to  the  United  States  all  its  claims  to  the 
lands  westward  of  the  boundaries  of  its 
present  limits.  Finally  difficulties  arose 
between  the  State  and  the  national  gov- 
ernment respecting  the  Cherokces,  and 
on   their  removal   to  the  country  west  of 

unended  the  constitution  so  as  to  abolish 
slavery,  and  in  November  elected  a  gov- 
ernor, legislature,  and  members  of  Con- 
gress. Congress  did  not  approve  these 
measures,  and  the  Senators  and  Represent- 
atives chosen  were  not  admitted  to  seats. 
In  1867,  Georgia,  with  Alabama  and 
Florida,  formed  a  military  district,  and 
was  placed  under  military  rule.  A  con- 
vention    at     Atlanta,     in     March,     1868, 

the    Mississippi, 

1838,    Georgia    came    framed    a    constitution,    which    was    rati- 

into  possession  of  all  their  lands.  Imme- 
diately after  the  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln 
in  1860,  the  politicians  of  Georgia  took 
measures  for  accomplishing  the  secession 
of  the  State.  Its  delegates  in  the  Con- 
federate government  organized  at  Mont- 
gomery,    Ala.,     were     conspicuous,     At.ex- 

fied  in  April  by  a  majority  of  nearly  18,- 
000  votes.  On  June  25,  Congress,  by  act. 
provided  for  the  roadmission  of  Georgia, 
with  other  States,  upon  their  ratification 
of  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  to  the  na- 
tional Constitution.  For  a  violation  of 
the  Reconstruction  Act    (q.  v.),  in  not 

ander  H.   Stephens    (7.   v.)    being  made    permitting  colored  men,  legally  elected,  to 



occupy  seats  in  the  legislature,  Georgia 
representatives  were  not  permitted  to  take 
seats  in  Congress.  The  Supreme  Court  of 
the  State  declared  that  negroes  were  en- 
titled to  hold  office.  A  new  election  was 
held,  both  houses  of  the  State  legislat- 
ure were  duly  organized,  Jan.  31,  1869,  all 
the  requirements  of  Congress  were  acceded 
to,  and,  by  act  of  July  15,  Georgia  was 
readmitted  into  the  Union.  Its  represent- 
atives took  their  seats  in 'December,  1869. 
Since  the  close  of  the  war  Georgia  has 
had  a  most  remarkable  material  develop- 
ment, caused  in  large  part  by  the  intro- 
duction of  cotton  manufacturing.  Its 
mills  are  among  the  largest  in  the  world, 
and  their  output  is  steadily  increasing. 
Th*  State  was  the  first  to  feel  the  life 
of  the  "New  South."  The  Cotton  Expo- 
sition in  1881  and  the  Cotton  States  and 
International  Exposition  in  1895,  both  in 
Atlanta,  showed  to  the  world  the  prac- 
tical accomplishments  under  the  new 
order  of  things,  and  greatly  stimulated 
all  industrial  efforts.  In  1900  the  as- 
sessed valuation  of  all  taxable  property 
was  $435,000,000,  and  the  recognized 
bonded  debt  was  $7,836,000.  The  popu- 
lation in  1890  was  1,837,353;  in  1900, 

When,  in   1729,  the  proprietors  of  the 
Carolinas  surrendered  their  charter  to  the 

crown,  the  whole  country  southward  of 
the  Savannah  River  to  the  vicinity  of  St. 
Augustine  was  a  wilderness,  peopled  by 
native  tribes,  and  was  claimed  by  the 
Spaniards  as  a  part  of  Florida.  The  Eng- 
lish disputed  the  claim,  and  war  clouds 
seemed  to  be  gathering.  At  that  juncture 
Gen.  James  Edward  Oglethorpe  (q.  v.), 
commiserating  the  wretched  condition  of 
prisoners  for  debt  who  crowded  the  Eng- 
lish prisons,  proposed  in  Parliament  the 
founding  of  a  colony  in  America,  partly 
for  the  benefit  of  this  unfortunate  class, 
and  as  an  asylum  for  oppressed  Protes- 
tants of  Germany  and  other  Continental 
states.  A  committee  of  inquiry  reported 
favorably,  and  the  plan,  as  proposed  by 
Oglethorpe,  was  approved  by  King  George 
II.  A  royal  charter  was  obtained  for  a 
corporation  (June  9,  1732)  for  twenty- 
one  years,  "  in  trust  for  the  poor,"  to 
establish  a  colony  in  the  disputed  terri- 
tory south  of  the  Savannah,  to  be  called 
Georgia,  in  honor  of  the  King.  Individ- 
uals subscribed  largely  to  defray  the  ex- 
penses of  emigrants,  and  within  two  years 
Parliament  appropriated  $160,000  for  the 
same  purpose.  The  trustees,  appointed 
by  the  crown,  possessed  all  legislative  and 
executive  power,  and  there  was  no  politi- 
cal liberty  for  the  people.  In  November, 
1732,   Oglethorpe  left   England  with    120 





emigrants,  and,  after  a  passage  of  fifty  with  300  emigrants,  among  them  150 
days,  touched  at  Charleston,  giving  great  Highlanders  skilled  in  military  affairs, 
joy  to  the  inhabitants,  for  he  was  about  John  and  Charles  Wesley  and  George 
to  erect  a  barrier  between  them  and  the  Whitefield  came  to  spread  the  gospel 
Indians  and  Spaniards.  Landing  a  large  among  the  people  and  the  surrounding 
portion  of  the  emigrants  on  Port  Royal  heathen.  Moravians  had  also  settled  in 
Island,  he  proceeded  to  the  Savannah  Georgia,  but  the  little  colony  was  threat- 
River  with  the  remainder,  and  upon  ened  with  disaster.  The  jealous  Span- 
Yamacraw  Bluff  (the  site  of  Savannah)  iards  at  St.  Augustine  showed  signs  of 
he  laid  the  foundations  of  the  future  hostility.  Against  this  expected  trouble 
State  in  the  ensuing  spring  of  1733.  The  Oglethorpe  had  prepared  by  building  forts 
rest  of  the  emigrants  soon  joined  him.  in  that  direction.  Finally,  in  1739,  war 
They  built  a  fort,  and  called  the  place  broke  out  between  England  and  Spain, 
Savannah,  the  Indian  name  of  the  river,  and  Oglethorpe  was  made  commander  of 
and  there  he  held  a  friendly  conference  the  South  Carolina  and  Georgia  troops, 
with  the  Indians,  with  whom  satisfactory  With  1,000  men  and  some  Indians  he  in- 
arrangements  for  obtaining  sovereignty  vaded  Florida,  but  returned  unsuccessful, 
of  the  domain  were  made.  Within  eight  In  1742  the  Spaniards  retaliated,  and, 
years  2,500  emigrants  were  sent  over  from  with  a  strong  land  and  naval  force,  threat- 
England  at  an  expense  to  the  trustees  of  ened  the  Georgia  colony  with  destruction. 
$400,000.  Disaster  was  averted  by  a  stratagem  em- 
The  condition  upon  which  the  lands  ployed  by  Og'ethorpe,  and  peace  was  re- 
were  parcelled  out  was  military  duty;  and  stored. 

so  grievous  were  the  restrictions,  that  Slavery  was  prohibited  in  the  colony, 
many  colonists  went  into  South  Carolina,  and  the  people  murmured.  Many  settle- 
where  they  could  obtain  land  in  fee.  ments  were  abandoned,  for  tillers  of  the 
Nevertheless,  the  colony  increased  in  num-  soil  were  few.  Finally,  in  1750  the  re- 
bers,  a  great  many  emigrants  coming  from  strictions  concerning  slavery  were  re* 
Scotland  and  Germany.  Oglethorpe  went  moved;  and  in  1752,  the  trustees  having 
to  England  in  1734,  and  returned  in  1736  surrendered   their   charter   to   the   crown, 



Georgia    became    a    royal    province,   with  doni.     The  code  of  laws  and  regulations 

privileges  similar  to  the  others.     A  Gen-  adopted    by    the    trustees    provided    that 

eral    Assembly   was   established    in    1755,  each   tract  of   land  granted   to  a   settler 

and   in    17G3   all   the   lands    between   the  should  be  accepted  as  a  pledge  that  the 

Savannah  and  St.  Mary  rivers  were,  by  owner  should  take  up  arms  for  the  com- 

royal   proclamation,   annexed    to   Georgia,  mon   defence  whenever  required;    that  no 

The  colony  prospered  from  the  time  of  the  tract   should    exceed    25    acres   in   extent, 

transfer    to    the    crown.      The    Georgians  and  no  person  should  possess  more  than 

sympathized   with    their    Northern   breth-  500    acres;     that    no    woman    should    be 

ren  in  their  political  grievances,  and  bore  capable  of  succeeding  to  landed  property ; 

a  conspicuous  part  in  the  war  for  inde-  that,  in  default  of  male  heirs,  the  prop- 

pendence.      A      State      constitution      was  erty  of  a  proprietor  should  revert  to  the 

adopted  by  a  convention  on  Feb.  5,  1777,  trustees,   to  be  again  granted  to  another 

and    Georgia    took    its    place    among    the  emigrant;    that    if    any    portion    of    land 

independent    States    of    the    Union,    with  granted  should  not,  within  eighteen  years 

Button    Gwinnett    (q.    v.),    one    of    the  thereafter,   be  cleared,   fenced,   and   culti- 

signers    of    the    Declaration    of    Indepen-  vated,   it   should   relapse   to   the   trustees, 

dence,  as  acting  governor.  It  was   recommended   that   the   daughters 

Under  the  King's  charter   for  planting  of  a  deceased  proprietor  having  no  male 

the    new    colony,    there    were    twenty-one  heirs,    unless    provided    for    by    marriage, 

trustees.     Lord    (Viscount)    Perceval  was  should   have   some  compensation,   and   his 

chosen   president   of   the   trustees,   and   a  widow  have  the  use  of  his  house  and  half 

code  of   regulations   for  the   colony,  with  his  land  during  her  life.     No  inhabitant 

agreements    and    stipulations,   was    speed-  was  permitted  to  leave  the  province  with- 

ily  prepared.     The  title  of  the  association  out  a  license;  the  importation  of  rum  was 

was,    Trustees    for    Settling    and    Estab-  disallowed;    trade   with   the   West   Indies 

lishing     the     Colony     of     Georgia.       The  was  declared  unlawful,  and  negro  slavery 

trustees  were:   Anthony,  Earl  of  Shaftes-  wa°    absolutely    forbidden.      It    has    been 

bury,     John      (Lord)      Perceval,     Edward  well  said  that,  with  one  or  two  exceptions, 

Digby,  George  Carpenter,   James   Edward  this  code  did  not  exhibit  a  trace  of  com- 

Oglethorpe,     George     Heathcote,     Thomas  mon-sense.      It    is   no   wonder   the   colony 

Tower,     Robert     Moore,     Robert     Hucks,  did  not  prosper,  for  the  laws  were  hostile 

Roger   Holland,   William    Sloper,   Francis  to  contentment,  discouraging  every  plant- 

Eyles,    John    La    Roche,    James    Vernon,  er  whose  children  were  girls,  and  offering 

William    Beletha,   John    Burton,   Richard  very  poor  incentives  to  industry.     When, 

Bundy,    Arthur    Beaford,    Samuel    Smith,  in  1752,  the  trusteeship  expired,  and  Geor- 

Adam     Anderson,     and     Thomas     Coram,  gia  was  made  a  royal  province,  its  growth 

They  were  vested  with  legislative  powers  was  rapid. 

for  the  government  of  the  colony,  for  the  In  1742  the  Spaniards  at  St.  Augus- 
space  of  twenty-one  years,  at  the  expira-  tine  determined  to  invade,  seize,  and  hold 
tion  of  which  time  a  permanent  govern-  Georgia,  and  capture  or  drive  the  English 
ment  was  to  be  established  by  the  King  or  settlers  from  it.  With  a  fleet  of  thirty- 
his  successor,  in  accordance  with  British  six  vessels  from  Cuba  and  a  land  force 
law  and  usage.  They  adopted  a  seal  for  about  3,000  strong, they  entered  the  harbor 
the  colony,  which  indicated  the  avowed  of  St.  Simon's  in  July.  Oglethorpe,  always 
intention  of  making  it  a  silk-producing  vigilant,  had  learned  of  preparations  for 
commonwealth.  On  one  side  was  repre-  this  expedition,  and  he  was  on  St.  Simon's 
sented  a  group  of  toiling  silk-worms,  and  Island  before  them,  but  with  less  than 
the  motto,  "  Non  sibi,  sed  alms";  on  the  1,000  men,  including  Indians,  for  the  gov- 
other,  the  genius  of  the  colony,  between  ernor  of  South  Carolina  had  failed  to  fur- 
two  urns  (two  rivers),  with  a  cap  of  nish  men  or  supplies.  The  task  of  defend- 
liberty  on  her  head,  in  her  hands  a  spear  ing  both  provinces  from  invasion  devolved 
and  a  horn  of  plenty,  and  the  words,  upon  the  Georgians.  When  the  Spanish 
"  Colonia  Georgia  Aug."  This  was  a  fleet  appeared  Oglethorpe  went  on  board 
strange  seal  for  a  colony  whose  toilers  his  own  little  vessels  and  addressed  the 
and    others    possessed    no    political    free-  seamen  with  encouraging  words ;  but  when 



he  saw  the  ships  of  the  enemy  pass  the  Sir  James  Wright  was  appointed  roj?vl 
English  batteries  at  the  southern  end  of  governor  of  Georgia  in  1764.  He  rul«4 
the  island,  he  knew  resistance  would  be  wisely,  but  was  a  warm  adherent  of  t><e 
in  vain,  so  he  ordered  his  squadron  to  royal  cause.  His  influence  kept  down 
run  up  to  Frederica,  while  he  spiked  the  open  resistance  to  the  acts  of  Parliament 
guns  at  St.  Simon's  and  retreated  with  for  some  time;  but  when  that  resistant 
his  troops.  There,  waiting  for  reinforce-  became  strong,  it  was  suddenly  overpower- 
ments  from  South' Carolina  (which  did  ing.  In  January,  1776,  Joseph  Haber- 
not  come),  he  was  annoyed  by  attacks  sham,  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  raisec 
from  Spanish  detachments,  but  always  re-  a  party  of  volunteers  and  made  Governoi 
pulsed  them.  Finally,  he  proceeded  to  Wright  a  prisoner,  but  set  him  free  od 
make  a  night  attack  on  the  Spanish  camp  his  parole  not  to  leave  his  own  house 
at  St.  Simon's.  When  near  the  camp  a  This  parole  he  violated.  A  sentinel  was 
Frenchman  in  his  army  ran  ahead,  fired  placed  before  his  door,  and  all  intercourse 
his  musket,  and  deserted  to  the  enemy,  between  Wright  and  friends  of  the  crown 
The  Spaniards  were  aroused,  and  Ogle-  was  forbidden.  One  stormy  night  (Feb. 
thorpe  fell  back  to  Frederica,  and  accom-  11,  1776),  Governor  Wright  escaped  from 
plishcd  the  punishment  of  the  deserter  in  a  back  window  of  his  house,  with  an  at- 
a  novel  way.  He  addressed  a  letter  to  tendant,  fled  to  a  boat  at  the  river-side, 
the  Frenchman  as  a  spy  in  the  Spanish  and  went  down  the  Savannah  5  miles  to 
camp,  telling  him  to  represent  the  Geor-  Bonaventure,  the  residence  of  his  com- 
gians  as  very  weak  in  numbers  and  arms,  panion;  thence  he  was  conveyed  before 
and  to  advise  the  Spaniards  to  attack  daylight  to  the  British  armed  ship  Scar- 
them  at  once;  and  if  they  would  not  do  borough,  in  Tybee  Sound.  So  ended  the 
so,  to  try  and  persuade  them  to  remain  at  rule  of  the  last  royal  governor  in  Georgia. 
St.  Simon's  three  days  longer;  for  within  Sir  James  was  a  native  of  Charleston, 
that  time  a  British  fleet,  with  2,000  land  S.  C;  the  son  of  a  chief-justice  (Robert 
troops,  would  arrive  to  attack  St.  Augus-  Wright)  of  that  province;  agent  of  the 
tine.  This  letter  was  sent  to  the  deserter  province  in  Great  Britain;  and  attorney- 
by  a  Spanish  prisoner,  who,  as  it  was  ex-  general;  and  in  1760  was  appointed  chief- 
pected  he  would,  carried  it  to  the  Spanish  justice  and  lieutenant-governor.  In  1772 
commander.  The  Frenchman  was  put  in  he  was  created  a  baronet.  After  his 
irons,  and  afterwards  hanged.  A  council  escape  from  Savannah  he  retired  to 
of  war  was  held,  and  while  it  was  in  England,  losing  all  his  large  estate  in 
session  vessels  from  Carolina,  seen  at  sea,  Georgia  by  confiscation.  He  died  in 
were   mistaken    for    the    British    fleet    al-    1786. 

luded  to.  The  Spaniards  determined  to  Late  in  1771  Noble  Wimberley  Jones 
attack  Oglethorpe  immediately,  and  then  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  Georgia  As- 
hasten  to  the  defence  of  St.  Augustine,  sembly.  He  was  a  man  of  exemplary  life, 
They  advanced  on  Frederica,  along  a  nar-  but  the  royal  governor,  Sir  James  Wright, 
row  road  flanked  by  a  forest  and  a  who  had  reported  him  a  strong  opposer 
morass;  and  when  within  a  mile  of  the  of  government  measures,  would  not  con- 
fort  Oglethorpe  and  his  Highlanders,  ly-  sent  to  the  choice.  The  Assembly  voted 
ing  in  ambush,  fell  upon  them  furiously,  this  interference  a  breach  of  their  privi- 
Nearly  the  whole  of  the  advanced  division  leges.  Hillsborough,  the  secretary  of 
were  killed  or  captured,  and  a  second,  state  for  the  colonies,  censured  the  House 
pressing  forward,  shared  their  fate.  The  for  their  "unwarrantable  and  inconsist- 
Spaniards  retreated  in  confusion,  leaving  ent  arrogance,"  and  directed  the  governor 
about  200  dead  on  the  field.  They  fled  to  "  put  his  negative  upon  any  person 
to  their  ships,  and  in  them  to  St.  Augus-  whom  they  should  next  elect  for  speaker, 
tine,  to  find  that  they  had  been  out-  and  to  dissolve  the  Assembly  in  case  they 
generaled  by  Oglethorpe.  The  place  of  the  should  question  the  right  of  such  nepa- 
slaughter  is  called  "  Bloody  Marsh "  to  five."  So  the  affections  of  the  colonies, 
this  day.  This  stratagem  probably  saved  one  after  another,  were  alienated  from 
Georgia  and  South  Carolina  from  utter  the  mother  country  by  her  unwise 
destruction.  rulers, 



The  Provincial  Congress  of  Georgia  as-  approach.  He  crossed  and  pursued,  and 
sembled  at  Tondee's  Long  Room,  in  Savan-  at  Brier  Creek,  about  half-way  to  Savan- 
nah, July  4,  1775,  at  which  delegates  from    nah,  he  lay  encamped,  when  he  was  sur- 

fourteen  districts  and  parishes  were  in 
attendance  —  namely,  from  the  districts 
of  Savannah,  Vernonburg,  Acton,  Sea  Isl- 
and, and  Little  Ogeechee,  and  the  parishes 
of  St.  Matthew,  St.  Philip,  St.  George, 
St.  Andrew,  St.  David,  St.  Thomas,  St. 
Mary,    St.    Paul,    and    St.    John.     Archi- 

prised,  and,  after  a  sharp  skirmish,  was 
defeated,  and  his  troops  dispersed.  The 
British  reoccupied  Augusta  and  opened 
a  communication  with  the  South  Caro- 
lina Tories  and  the  friendly  Creek  Ind- 
ians. Now  secured  in  the  quiet  posses- 
sion of  Georgia,  Prevost  issued  a  procla- 

bald  Bullock  was  elected  president  of  the  mation  reinstating  Sir  James  Wright  as 

Congress,    and   George   Walton   secretary,  governor,    and    the    laws    as    they    had 

The     Congress     adopted     the     American  been  before   1775.      Savannah   became   the 

Association,    and    appointed    as    delegates  headquarters  of  the  British  army  in  the 

to  the  Continental  Congress  Lyman  Hall  South. 

(already  there),  Archibald  Bullock,  Dr. 
Jones,  John  Houstoun,  and  Rev.  Dr.  Zub- 
ley,  a  Swiss  by  birth,  who  soon  became  a 
Tory.  Sir  James  Wright  (the  governor) 
issued  proclamations  to  quench  the  flames 
of  patriotism,  but  in  vain.  His  power 
had  departed  forever. 

By  a  compact  between  the  national  gov- 
ernment and  Georgia,  made  in  1802,  they 
forever  agreed,  in  consideration  of  the  lat- 
ter relinquishing  her  claim  to  the  Missis- 
sippi territory,  to  extinguish,  at  the  na- 
tional expense,  the  Indian  title  to  the 
lands  occupied  by  them  in  Georgia,  "  when- 

In  the  winter  of  1778-79,  General  Lin-  ever  it  could  be  peaceably  done  on  reason- 
able terms."  Since  making  that  agree- 
ment, the  national  government  had  ex- 
tinguished the  Indian  title  to  about 
15,000,000  acres,  and  conveyed  the  same 
to  the  State  of  Georgia.  There  still  re- 
mained 9,537,000  acres  in  possession  of 
the  Indians,  of  which  5,292,000  acres  be- 
longed to  the  Cherokees  and  the  remainder 

coin  was  sent  to  Georgia  to  take  the  place 
of  General  Howe.  General  Prevost,  com- 
manding the  British  forces  in  east  Flor- 
ida, was  ordered  to  Savannah,  to  join 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Campbell  for  the  sub- 
jugation of  Georgia  to  British  rule.  On 
his  way,  Prevost  captured  Sunbury  (Jan. 
9,  1779)  and  took  200  Continental  prison- 

As  soon  as  he  reached  Savannah  he  to  the  Creek  nation.  In  1824  the  State 
sent  Campbell  against  Augusta,  which  government  became  clamorous  for  the  en- 
was  abandoned  by  the  garrison,  who  es-  tire  removal  of  the  Indians  from  the  com- 
caped  across  the  river.  The  State  now  monwealth,  and,  at  the  solicitation  of 
seemed  at  the  mercy  of  the  invader.  An  Governor  Troup,  President  Monroe  ap- 
invasion    of    South    Carolina   was    antici-  pointed    two    commissioners,    selected    by 


The    militia    of    that    State 

were    the  governor,  to  make  a  treaty  with  the 

summoned   to   the  field.     Lincoln  was   at    Creeks   for   tho   purchase   of   their   lands. 

Charleston.  With  militia  lately  arrived 
from  North  Carolina  snd  the  fragments 
of  Howe's  force,  he  had  about  1,400  men, 
whom  he  stationed  to  guard  the  fords 
of  the   Savannah.     The  force   under   Pre- 

The  latter  were  unwilling  to  sell  and  move 
away,  for  they  haS  begun  to  enjoy  the 
arts  and  comforts  of  civilization.  They 
passed  a  law  forbidding  the  sale  of  any 
of  their  lands,  on  pain  of  death.     After 

vost  was   much   larger,   but  he  hesitated    the  breaking  up  of  the  general  council,  a 
to  cross  the  river,  the  marshy  borders  of   few  of   the   chiefs   violated    this   law   by 

which  were  often  overflowed  to  the  width 
of  3  or  4  miles,  threaded  only  at 
one  or  two  points  by  a  narrow  causeway. 

negotiating  with  the  United  States  com- 
missioners. By  these  chiefs,  who  were 
only  a  fraction  of  the  leaders  of  the  tribes, 

A    detachment   sent   by    Prevost   to    take    all    the   lands   of   the    Creeks   in   Georgia 

possession  of  Port  Royal  Island  was  re- 
pulsed by  Colonel  Moultrie.  Lincoln,  be- 
ing reinforced,  sent  Colonel  Ashe,  of  North 
Carolina,  with  1,400  troops,  to  drive  the 
British   from   Augusta.     The   British   fled 

were  ceded  to  the  United  States.  The 
treaty  was  ratified  by  the  United  States 
Senate,  March  3,  1825.  When  informa- 
tion of  these  proceedings  reached  the 
Creeks,  a  secret  council  determined  not  to 

down  the  Georgia  side  of  the  river  at  his    accept  the  treaty  and  to  slay  Mcintosh, 



the  chief  of  the  party  who  had  assented  to 
it.  He  and  another  chief  were  shot,  April 
30.  A  new  question  now  arose.  Govern- 
or Troup  contended  that  upon  the  ratifi- 
cation of  the  treaty  the  fee  simple  of  the 
lands  vested  in  Georgia.  He  took  meas- 
ures for  a  survey  of  the  lands,  under  the 
authority  of  the  legislature  of  Georgia, 
and  to  distribute  them  among  the  white 
inhabitants  of  the  State.  The  remon- 
strances of  the  Creeks  caused  President 
Adams  to  appoint  a  special  agent  to  in- 
vestigate the  matter,  and  General  Gaines 
was  sent  with  a  competent  force  to  pre- 
vent any  disturbance.  The  agent  reported 
that  bad  faith  and  corruption  had  marked 
the  treaty,  and  that  forty-nine-fiftieths  of 
the  Creeks  were  hostile  to  it.  The  Presi- 
dent determined  not  to  allow  interference 
with  the  Indians  until  the  next  meeting  of 
Congress.  Troup  determined,  at  first,  to 
execute  the  treaty  in  spite  of  the  Presi- 
dent, but  the  firmness  of  the  latter  made 
the  governor  hesitate.  A  new  negotia- 
tion was  opened  with  the  Creeks,  and 
finally  resulted  in  the  cession  of  all  the 
Creek  lands  in  Georgia  to  the  United 
States.  By  this  new  treaty  the  Creeks 
retained  all  their  lands  in  Alabama, 
which  had  been  ceded  by  a  former 

On  the  recommendation  of  Senator 
Toombs  and  others  at  Washington,  in  the 
winter  of  18G0-G1,  the  governor  of  Geor- 
gia (Joseph  Brown)  ordered  the  seizure 
of  the  United  States  coast  defences  on  the 
border  of  the  State  before  the  secession 
convention  met.  Fort  Pulaski,  on  Cock- 
spur  Island,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Savan- 
nah River,  and  Fort  Jackson,  near  the  city 
of  Savannah,  were  seized  on  Jan.  3,  1SG1. 
On  the  same  day  the  National  arsenal  at 
Savannah  was  taken  possession  of  by  Con- 
federates, and  700  State  troops,  by  the 
orders  and  in  the  presence  of  the  governor, 
took  possession  of  the  arsenal  at  Augusta, 
Jan.  24,  when  the  National  troops  there 
were  sent  to  New  York.  In  the  arsenal 
were  22  000  muskets  and  rifles,  some  can- 
non, and  a  large  amount  of  munitions  of 
war.  The  forts  wore  without  garrisons, 
and  each  was  in  charge  of  only  two  or 
three  men. 

Late  in  November,  18G1,  Commodore 
Dupont  went  down  the  coast  from  Port 
Royal    (q.   v.)    with    a    part   of   his   fleet, 

and  with  ease  took  possession  of  the  Big 
Tybee  Island,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Savan- 
nah River,  from  which  Fort  Pulaski, 
which  was  within  easy  mortar  distance, 
might  be  assailed,  and  the  harbor  of  Sa- 
vannah perfectly  sealed  against  block- 
ade runners.  On  the  approach  of  the 
National  gunboats  the  defences  were  aban- 
doned, and  on  Nov.  25,  Dupont  wrote  to 
the  Secretary  of  War:  "The  flag  of  the 
United  States  is  flying  over  the  territory 
of  Georgia."  Before  the  close  of  the  year 
the  National  authority  was  supreme  from 
Warsaw  Sound,  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Savannah,  to  the  North  Edisto  River,  be- 
low Charleston.  Every  fort  on  the  islands 
of  that  region  had  been  abandoned,  and 
there  was  nothing  to  make  serious  oppo- 
sition to  National  authority.  When  the 
National  forces  reached  those  sea  islands 
along  the  coasts  of  South  Carolina  and 
Georgia,  there  was  a  vast  quantity  of  val- 
uable sea-island  cotton,  gathered  and  un- 
gathered,  upon  them.  When  the  first 
panic  was  over  the  Confederates  re- 
turned, stealthily,  and  applied  the  torch 
to  millions  of  dollars'  worth  of  this 

On  Jan.  2,  1861,  elections  were  held 
in  Georgia  for  members  of  a  convention 
to  consider  the  subject  of  secession.  The 
people,  outside  of  the  leading  politicians 
and  their  followers,  were  opposed  to  seces- 
sion ;  and  Alexander  H.  Stephens,  the  most 
consistent  and  able  statesman  in  Georgia, 
though  believing  in  the  right  of  secession, 
opposed  the  measure  as  unnecessary  and 
full  of  danger  to  the  public  welfare.  On 
the  other  hand,  Robert  Toombs,  a  shallow 
but  popular  leader,  unscrupulous  ir 
methods  of  leadership,  goaded  the  people 
on  to  disaster  by  harangues,  telegraphic 
despatches,  circulars,  etc.  He  was  then 
one  of  the  most  active  of  the  conspirators 
in  the  national  Congress,  and  worked 
night  and  day  to  precipitate  his  State  into 
revolution.  The  vote  at  the  election  was 
from  25.000  to  30.000  less  than  usual,  and 
there  was  a  decided  majority  of  the  mem- 
bers elected  against  secession.  The  con- 
vention assembled  at  Millodgoville,  the 
capital  of  the  State,  on  Jan.  1G.  There 
were  205  members  present,  who  chose  Mr. 
Crawford  to  preside.  "  With  all  the  ap- 
pliances brought  to  bear,  with  all  the 
fierce,   rushing,   maddening  ftvents   of   the- 


hour,"  said  the  writer  of  the  day,  "  the 
co-operationists  had  a  majority,  notwith- 
standing the  falling-off  of  nearly  30,000, 
and  an  absolute  majority  of  elected  dele- 
gates of  twenty-nine.  But,  upon  assem- 
bling, by  coaxing,  bullying,  and  all  other 
arts,  the  majority  was  changed."  On  the 
ISth  a  resolution  was  passed  by  a  vote  of 
105  to  130,  declaring  it  to  be  the  right 
and  duty  of  the  State  to  withdraw  from 
the  Union.  On  the  same  day  they  ap- 
pointed a,  committee  to  draft  an  ordinance 
of  secession.  It  was  reported  almost  im- 
mediately, and  was  shorter  than  any  of 
its  predecessors.  It  was  in  a  single  para- 
graph, and  simply  declared  the  repeal  and 
abrogation  of  all  laws  which  bound  the 
commonwealth  to  the  Union,  and  that  the 
State  of  Georgia  was  in  "  full  possession 
and  exercise  of  all  the  rights  of  sover- 
eignty which  belong  and  appertain  to  a 
free  and  independent  State."  The  ordi- 
nance elicited  many  warm  expressions  of 
Union  sentiments.  Mr.  Stephens  made  a 
telling  speech  in  favor  of  the  Union,  and  he 
and  his  brother  Linton  voted  against  seces- 
sion in  every  form.  When,  at  two  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon  of  Jan.  19,  1861,  the  or- 
dinance of  secession  was  adopted,  by  a 
vote  of  208  against  89,  Stephens  declared 
that  he  should  go  with  his  State,  and, 
in  accordance  with  a  resolution  adopted, 
he  signed  the  ordinance.  A  resolution  to 
submit  the  ordinance  to  the  people  of  the 
State  for  ratification  or  rejection  was  re- 
jected by  a  large  majority.  At  that  stage 
of  the  proceedings,  a  copy  of  a  resolution 
passed  by  the  legislature  of  the  State  of 
New  York,  tendering  to  the  President  of 
the  United  States  all  the  available  forces 
of  the  State,  to  enable  him  to  enforce  the 
laws,  was  received,  and  produced  much  ex- 
citement. Toombs  immediately  offered  the 
following  resolution,  which  was  adopted 
unanimously:  "  As  a  response  to  the  reso- 
lution of  New  York,  that  this  convention 
highly  approve  of  the  energetic  and  pa- 
triotic conduct  of  the  governor  of  Georgia 
in  taking  possession  of  Fort  Pulaskt 
\q.  v.)  by  Georgia  troops,  and  request 
him  to  hold  possession  until  the  relations 
of  Georgia  with  the  federal  government 
he  determined  by  this  convention,  and  that 
i  copy  of  this  resolution  be  ordered  to  be 
transmitted  to  the  governor  of  New 

While  General  Mitchel  was  holding  the 
Charleston  and  Memphis  Railway  in 
northern  Alabama,  he  set  on  foot  one  of 
the  most  daring  enterprises  attempted 
during  the  war.  It  was  an  efl'ort  to  break 
up  railway  communications  between  Chat- 
tanooga and  Atlanta,  in  Georgia.  For 
this  purpose  J.  J.  Andrews,  who  had  been 
engaged  in  the  secret  service  by  General 
Buell,  was  employed.  In  April,  1862, 
with  twenty  picked  men,  in  the  guise  of 
Confederates  from  Kentucky  seeking 
Georgia's  freedom,  Andrews  walked  to 
Marietta.  At  that  place  they  took  the 
cars  for  a  station  not  far  from  the  foot 
of  Great  Kenesaw  Mountain,  and  there, 
while  the  engineer  and  conductor  were  at 
breakfast,  they  uncoupled  the  engine, 
tender,  and  box-car  from  the  passenger 
train  and  started  up  the  road  at  full 
speed.  They  told  inquirers  where  they 
were  compelled  to  stop  that  they  were  con- 
veying powder  to  Beauregard's  army. 
They  passed  several  trains  before  they 
began  to  destroy  the  road.  The  first  train 
that  came  to  a  broken  spot  had  its  engine 
reversed  and  became  a  pursuer  of  the 
raiders.  Onward  they  dashed  with  the 
speed  of  a  gale,  passing  other  trains, 
when,  at  an  important  curve  in  the  road, 
after  destroying  the  track  a  considerable 
distance,  Andrews  said,  "  Only  one  more 
train  to  pass,  boys,  and  then  we  will  put 
our  engine  at  full  speed,  burn  the  bridges 
after  us,  dash  through  Chattanooga,  and 
on  to  Mitchel,  at  Huntsville."  The  excit- 
ing chase  continued  many  miles.  The 
raiders  cut  telegraph  wires  and  tore  up 
tracks.  The  pursuers  gained  upon  them. 
Finally  their  lubricating  oil  became  ex- 
hausted, and  such  was  the  speed  of  the 
engine  that  the  brass  journals  in  which 
the  axles  revolved  were  melted.  Fuel  fail- 
ing, the  raiders  were  compelled  to  leave 
their  conveyance,  15  miles  from  Chatta- 
nooga, and  take  refuge  in  the  tangled 
woods  on  Chickamauga  Creek.  A  great 
man-hunt  was  organized.  The  mountain 
passes  were  picketed,  and  thousands  of 
horse  and  foot  soldiers  scoured  the  country 
in  all  directions.  The  whole  party  were 
finally  captured,  and  Andrews  and  seven 
of  his  companions  were  hanged.  To  each 
of  the  survivors  the  Secretary  of  War  gave 
a  bronze  medal  in  token  of  approval.  See 
United  States,  Georgia,  vol.  ix. 








John  Reynolds 

Henry  Ellis 





Archibald  Bullock,  acting 
Button  GwiuDett,  acting.. 
John  A  Trueitlen 

(Appointed     by     the 
|     Georgia  Assembly. 
<  Under  the  new  Slate 
(     constitution. 

Georgia  in  the  hands  of  j 
the   British,  with   Sir  ! 
James  Wright  as  roy-  f 

George  Matthews 

George  Handley  



George  Walton 

Edward  Telfair 

George  Matthews 

Jared  Irwin 

James  Jackson 

David  Emanuel 

Josiah  Tattnall 

John  Milledge 

Jared  Irwin 

David  B.  Mitchell 

Peter  Early 

David  B.  Mitchell 

William  Rabun 

M  itthew  Talbot,  acting. 

John  Clark 

George  M.  Troup 

John  Forsyth 

George  R.  Gilmer 

Wilson  Lumpkin 

William  Schley 

George  R.  Gilmer 

Charles  J.  McDonald 

George  W.  Crawford.... 
George  W.  B.  Towns... 

Howell  Cobb 

Herschel  V.  Johnson. . . . 

Joseph  E.  Brown 

James  Johnson 

Charles  J.  Jenkins 

Gen.  T.  H  Ruger 

Rufus  B.  Bullock 

James  Milton  Smith. . . . 

Alfred  H.  Colquitt 

Alexander  H.  Stephens. 

Henry  D.  McDaniel 

John  B.  Gordon   

William  J.  Northen.... 
William  Y.  Atkinson... 

Allen  D   Candler 

Joseph  M.  Terrell 








































William  Few 

James  Gunn 

James  Jackson 

George  Watson 

Josiah  Tattnall 

Abraham  Baldwin 

James  Jackson 

John  Milledge 

George  Jones 

William  H.  Crawford. 

No.  of  Congress. 

1st  and  2d 
1st    to    7th 


4th  to  5th 
6th  "  9th 
7th  "  8th 
9th  "  12th 

10th  to  12th 


1789  to  1793 

1789  "  1801 

1794  "  1795 


1796  to  1799 

1799  "  1807 

1801  «  1806 

1806  "  1809 

1807  to  1813 


No.  of  Congress. 



13th  to  14th 
14th    "   15th 

ICth  to  18th 

17th  to  18th 
18th    '•  2Uth 
19th    "  20th 

21st  to  23d 
21st   "    22d 
23d    "   27  th 
23d    "  24th 
25th    "  20th 
27th    "  32d 
28th   "  30th 

31st    to    33d 

33d    to  36th 
34th   "   36th 
36th   "   41st 
41st    "   42d 

42d    to  43d 
43d     "  46th 
45th   "  47th 
47th   "  51st 

48th  to  53d 
52d     "  55th 

54th    "  

55th    "   

William  B.  Bullock 

William  Wyatl  Bibb 

1813    to   1816 


1819    to   1824 

Freeman   Walker 

1819     "    1821 
1821     "    1824 

1824    "    1828 

John  McPhersou  Berrien. 

1825     "    1829 

Alfred  Cuthbert 

1834     "    1843 

1833     "    1837 

Wilson  Lumpkin 

John  McPherson  Berrien. 

Walter  T.  Colquitt 

Herschel  V.  Johnson 

William  C.  Dawson 

Robert  M.  Charlton 

1837     '«    1841 
1841     "    1852 
1843    "    1848 

1849    to    1855 

1853    to   1861 

1861    "    1871 

Joshua  Hill 

1871     "    1873 

H.  V.  M.  Miller 


Thomas  M.  Norwood 

1871    to   1875 
1873    "    1881 

Benjamin  H.  Hill 

Joseph  E.  Brown..   

1877    "    1882 

1881    "    1891 


Alfred  H.  Colquitt 

1883    to   1894 
1891    "    1897 

A  ugustus  O.  Bacon 

Alexander  S.  Clay 

1895    "    

1897    «    . 

Gerard,  James  Watson,  lawyer;  born 
in  New  York  City  in  1794;  graduated 
at  Columbia  in  1811;  practised  law 
in  New  York  till  1869;  secured  the  incor- 
poration of  the  House  of  Refuge  for  Ju- 
venile Delinquents  in  New  York,  which 
was  the  first  institution  of  this  kind  in 
the  United  States.  He  was  also  an  ar- 
dent advocate  for  a  uniformed  police.  He 
died  in  New  York,  Feb.  7,  1874. 

Gerard  de  Rayneval,  Conrad  Alex- 
andre, diplomatist;  born  in  France.  On 
the  ratification  of  the  treaty  between 
France  and  the  United  States,  of  Feb.  6, 
1778,  diplomatic  relations  were  fully  es- 
tablished between  the  two  governments  by 
the  French  sending  M.  Gerard  (who  had 
been  an  active  participator  in  the  ne- 
gotiations) as  minister  plenipotentiary 
to  the  young  republic.  He  sailed  for 
America  in  D'Estaing's  flag-ship,  in  com- 
pany with  Silas  Deane,  and  arrived  at 
Philadelphia  early  in  July.  There  being 
no  traditionary  rules  of  etiquette  suitable 
for  the  occasion,  the  ceremonials  which 
took  place  at  his  reception  by  Congress, 
on  Aug.  6,  were  entirely  new.  Richard 
Henry  Lee  and  Samuel  Adams,  delegates 


in  Congress,  in  a  coach  drawn  by  six 
horses,  provided  by  that  body,  waited  upon 
the  minister  at  his  lodgings.  A  few  min- 
utes afterwards  the  two  delegates  and 
M.  Gerard  entered  the  coach;  the  minis- 
ter's chariot,  being  behind,  received  his 
secretary.  The  carriages  arrived  at  the 
State-house  a  little  before  one  o'clock, 
when  the  minister  was  conducted  by 
Messrs.  Lee  and  Adams  to  a  chair  in  the 
Congress  chamber,  the  members  of  that 
body  and  the  president  sitting;  M. 
Gerard,  being  seated,  presented  his  cre- 
dentials into  the  hands  of  hie  secretary, 
who  advanced  and  delivered  them  to  the 
president  of  Congress.  The  secretary  of 
Congress  then  read  and  translated  them, 
which  being  done,  Mr.  Lee  introduced  the 
minister  to  Congress,  at  the  same  moment 
the  minister  and  Congress  rising.  M. 
Gerard  bowed  to  the  president  (Henry 
Laurens)  and  Congress,  and  they  bowed 
to  him,  whereupon  the  whole  seated  them- 
selves. In  a  moment  the  minister  arose, 
made  a  speech  to  Congress  (they  sitting), 
and  then,  seating  himself,  he  gave  a  copy 
of  his  speech  to  his  secretary,  who  pre- 
sented it  to  the  president.  The  presi- 
dent and  Congress  then  rose,  when  the 
former  made  a  reply  to  the  speech  of  the 
minister,  the  latter  standing.  Then  all 
were  again  seated,  when  the  president 
gave  a  copy  of  his  answer  to  the  secre- 
tary of  Congress,  who  presented  it  to  the 
minister.  The  president,  the  Congress, 
and  the  minister  then  arose  again  to- 
gether.    The  minister  bowed  to  the  presi- 

31.  GERARD. 

dent,  who  returned  the  salute,  and  then 
to  the  Congress,  who  bowed  in  return; 
and  the  minister,  having  bowed  to  the 
president,  and  received  his  bow  in  return, 
withdrew,  and  was  attended  home  in  the 

same  manner  in  which  he  had  been  con- 
ducted to  the  audience.  Within  the  bar 
of  the  House,  the  Congress  formed  a  semi- 
circle on  each  side  of  the  president  and 
the  minister,  the  president  sitting  at  one 
extremity  of  the  semicircle,  at  a  table 
upon  a  platform  elevated  two  steps,  the 
minister  sitting  at  the  opposite  extremity 
of  the  semicircle,  in  an  arm-chair,  upon 
the  same  level  with  the  Congress.  The 
door  of  the  Congress  chamber  being 
thrown  open  below  the  bar,  about  200 
gentlemen  were  admitted  to  the  audience, 
among  whom  were  the  vice-presidents  of 
the  supreme  executive  council  of  Penn- 
sylvania, the  supreme  executive  council, 
the  speaker  and  members  of  the  assembly, 
several  foreigners  of  distinction,  and 
officers  of  the  army.  The  audience  being 
over,  the  Congress  and  the  minister  at  a 
proper  hour  repaired  to  an  entertainment 
given  by  the  Congress  to  the  minister, 
at  which  were  present,  by  invitation,  sev- 
eral foreigners  of  distinction  and  gentle- 
men of  public  character.  Such  was  the 
unostentatious  manner  in  which  the  first 
foreign  minister  of  the  United  States  was 
received,  and  he  from  the  gayest  court  in 
Europe.  M.  Gerard  died  in  Strasburg 
in  April,  1790. 

Gerhardt,  Karl,  sculptor;  born  in  Bos- 
ton, Mass.,  Jan.  7,  1853.  He  has  made 
a  specialty  of  portraiture.  Among  his 
works  are  busts  of  General  Grant,  Henry 
Ward  Beecher,  Mark  Twain,  and  statues 
of  General  Putnam,  Nathan  Hale,  and 
John  Fitch. 

Germain,  Lord  George,  Viscount 
Sackville,  statesman;  born  in  England, 
Jan.  26,  1716;  third  son  of  the  first  Duke 
of  Dorset,  lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland;  was 
educated  there;  entered  the  army,  and 
rose  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general. 
He  entered  Parliament  in  1761,  and  was 
made  colonial  secretary  in  1775,  ever 
evincing  a  most  vindictive  spirit  towards 
the  Americans.  He  became  so  unpopular 
at  home  that,  during  the  London  riots  in 
1780,  he  felt  compelled  to  barricade  his 
house  in  the  city.  So  consonant  were  his 
views  with  those  of  the  King  that  he  was 
a  great  favorite  at  court.  His  influence 
over  the  young  King  at  the  time  of  his 
coronation,  and  soon  afterwards,  was  so 
well  known  that  a  handbill  appeared 
with  the  words,  "  No  Lord  George  Sack- 



ville!  No  Petticoat  Government!"  allud- 
ing to  the  influence  of  the  monarch's 
mother.  He  died  in  England,  Aug.  26, 

Lord  George  seemed  to  take  pride  and 
comfort  in   employing  agents  who   would 


incite  the  savages  of  the  wilderness  to 
fall  on  the  Americans.  He  complained 
of  the  humanity  of  Carleton,  who,  in  the 
autumn  of  1776,  hesitated  to  employ  the 
Indians  in  war;  but  in  Hamilton,  govern- 
or of  Detroit,  he  found  a  ready  agent  in 
the  carrying  out  of  his  cruel  schemes. 
Early  in  September  (1776)  that  function- 
ary wrote  he  had  assembled  small  parties 
of  Indians  in  council,  and  that  the  Ot- 
tawas,  Chippewas,  Wyandottes,  and  Potta- 
wattomies,  with  the  Senecas,  would  "  fall 
on  the  scattered  settlers  on  the  Ohio  and 
its  branches";  and  saying  of  the  Ameri- 
cans, "  Their  arrogance,  disloyalty,  and 
imprudence  has  justly  drawn  upon  them 
this  deplorable  sort  of  war."  It  was  Ger- 
main and  his  agents  (sometimes  un- 
worthy ones)  who  excited  the  Indians  to 
scalp  and  murder  the  white  settlers,  with- 
out distinction  of  age  or  sex,  all  along 
the  frontier  line  from  New  York  to 
Georgia.  He  reproved  every  commander 
who  showed  signs  of  mercy  in  his  conduct 
in  this  business. 

German  Flats.  Sir  William  Johnson 
concluded  a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  West- 
ern Indians  at  German  Flats,  N.  Y.,  in 
1765.     During  the  Revolution  the  Six  Na- 

tions were  induced  by  him  to  aid  the  Brit- 
ish, and  were  led  by  Joseph  Brant  and 
Walter  Butler.  The  Indians  plundered 
and  burned  Cobleskill,  Springfield,  Ger- 
man Flats,  and  Cherry  Valley.  In  retali- 
ation the  Americans,  led  by  Colonel  Van 
Schaick  and  Colonel  Willett,  laid  waste 
the  Indian  villages,  seizing  all  provisions 
and  weapons  which   they  could   find. 

German  Mercenaries.  Soon  after  the 
opening  of  the  British  Parliament  in  the 
autumn  of  1775,  that  body,  stimulated 
by  Lord  North,  the  premier,  and  Lord 
George  Germain,  secretary  for  the  colo- 
nies, and  at  the  suggestion  of  Admiral 
Howe,  promptly  voted  25,000  men  for 
service  against  the  Americans.  It  was 
difficult  to  obtain  enlistments  in  Great 
Britain,  and  mercenaries  were  sought  in 
Germany.  At  the  close  of  the  year,  and 
at  the  beginning  of  1776,  bargains  were 
effected  between  representatives  of  the 
British  government  and  the  reigning 
princes  of  Hesse-Cassel,  Hesse-Hanau, 
Brunswick,  Anhalt,  Ai'spach,  and  Wal- 
deek.  In  the  bargains,  :he  fundamental 
law  of  trade — supply  and  demand — pre- 
vailed. The  King  of  England  had  money, 
but  lacked  troops ;  the  German  rulers  had 
troops,  but  wanted  money.  The  bargain 
was  a  natural  one  on  business  principles; 
the  morality  of  the  transaction  was  an- 
other affair.  About  30.000  German 
troops,  most  of  them  well  disciplined, 
were  hired.  The  German  rulers  were  to 
receive  for  each  soldier  a  bounty  of 
$35,  besides  an  annual  subsidy,  the 
whole  amounting  to  a  large  sum. 

The  British  government  agreed  to  make 
restitution  for  all  soldiers  who  might  per- 
ish from  contagious  disease  while  being 
transported  in  ships  and  in  engagements 
during  sieges.  They  were  to  take  an  oath 
of  allegiance  to  the  British  sovereign  dur- 
ing their  service,  without  its  interfering 
with  similar  oaths  to  their  respective 
rulers.  Their  chief  commanders,  when 
they  sailed  for  America,  were  Generals 
Baron  de  Riedesel,  Baron  Knyphausen. 
and  De  Heister.  The  general  name  of 
"  Hessians "  was  given  to  them  by  the 
Americans,  and,  because  they  were  merce- 
naries, they  were  heartily  detested  by  the 
colonists.  When  any  brutal  act  of  op- 
pression or  wrong  was  to  be  carried  out, 
such  as  a  plundering  or  burning  expedi- 



tion,  the  Hessians  were  generally  em- 
ployed in  the  service.  The  transaction 
was  regarded  by  other  nations  as  disgrace- 
ful to  the  British.  The  King  of  Great 
Britain  shrank  from  the  odium  it  inflict- 
ed, and  refused  to  give  commissions  to 
German  recruiting  officers  (for  he  knew 
their  methods  of  forcing  men  into  the 
service),  saying,  "It,  in  plain  English, 
amounts  to  making  me  a  kidnapper,  which 
I  cannot  think  a  very  honorable  occupa- 
tion." All  Europe  cried  "Shame!"  and 
Frederick  the  Great,  of  Prussia,  took  every 
opportunity  to  express  his  contempt  for 
the  "  scandalous  man-traffic  "  of  his  neigh- 
bors.     Without    these    troops,    the    war 

it  was  resolved  to  attack  the  British  army 
at  Germantown.  Washington  had  been 
reinforced  by  Maryland  and  New  Jersey 
troops.  His  army  moved  m  four  columns 
during  the  night  of  Oct.  3,  the  divisions 
of  Sullivan  and  Wayne,  flanked  by  Gen- 
eral Conway's  brigade  on  the  right,  mov- 
ing by  way  of  Chestnut  Hill,  while  Arm- 
strong, with  Pennsylvania  militia,  made 
a  circuit  to  gain  the  left  and  rear  of  the 
enemy.  The  divisions  of  Greene  and 
Stephen,  flanked  by  McDougall's  brigade 
(two-thirds  of  the  whole  army),  moved 
on  a  circuitous  route  to  attack  the  front 
of  the  British  right  wing,  while  the  Mary- 
land and  New  Jersey  militia,  under  Small- 

would  have  been  short.     A  part  of  them,    wood  and  Forman,  marched  to  fall  upon 
under    BJedesel,    went    to    Canada    (May,    the    rear    of    that    wing.     Lord    Stirling, 
1776)  ;  the  remainder,  under  Knyphausen    with  the  brigades  of  Nash   and  Maxwell, 
and    De    Heister,    join- 
ed   the    British    under 
Howe,       before       New 
York,    and    had    their 
first      encounter      on 
Long   Island,    Aug.    27. 
See   Hessians. 

Germantown,  Bat- 
tle of.  There  were 
formidable  obstructions 
in  the  Delaware  River 
below  Philadelphia, 
placed  there  by  the 
Americans,  and  also  two 
forts  and  a  redoubt  that 
commanded  the  stream. 
The  British  fleet  was  in 
Delaware  Bay,  Sept. 
25,  1777,  but  could 
not  reach  Philadel- 
phia before  these  ob- 
structions were  re- 
moved. General  Howe 
prepared  to  assist  his 
brother  in  removing 
these  obstructions, 
and  sent  strong  de- 
tachments from  his 
army  to  occupy  the 
shores  of  the  Delaware 
below  Philadelphia, 
which  the  Americana 
still  held.  Perceiving 
the  weakening  of 
Howe's  army,  and  feeling 
sity    of    speedily    striking    a 

the     neces- 
blow    that 

should  revive  the  spirits  of  the  Americans,    with 
iv. — e  65 


formed  the  reserve.  Howe's  force  stretched 
across    the    country    from    Germantown, 

a   battalion    of   light   infantry   and 


Simcoe's  Queen's  Rangers  (American  loy-  American  small-arms  upon  the  building 
alists)  in  the  front.  In  advance  of  the  was  ineffectual.  Finally  Maxwell's  artil- 
ieft  wing  were  other  light  infantry,  to  lorists  brought  cannon  to  bear  upon  the 
support  pickets  on  Mount  Airy,  and  the    house,   but   its    strong   walls   resisted   the 

heavy,  round  shot.  Then  an  attempt 
was  made  to  set  fire  to  the  man- 
sion. This  check  in  the  pursuit 
brought  back  Wayne's  division, 
leaving  Sullivan's  flank  uncovered. 
This  event,  and  the  failure  of 
Greene  to  attack  at  the  time  or- 
dered, disconcerted  Washington's 
plansi.  Greene's  troops  had  fallen 
into  confusion  in  the  fog,  as  they 
traversed  the  broken  country,  but 
they  soon  smote  the  British  right 
with  force.  The  failure  of  the  other 
troops  to  co-operate  with  them  by 
turning  the  British  left  caused 
Greene  to  fail,  and  the  golden  op- 
portunity to  strike  a  crushing  blow 
had   passed. 

In  the  fog  that  still  prevailed, 
parties  of  Americans  attacked  each 
other  on  the  field;  and  it  was  after- 
wards ascertained  that,  while  the  assault 
on  Chew's  house  was  in  progress,  the  whole 
tration),  at  the  head  of  the  village,  was  a  British  army  were  preparing  to  fly  across 
strong  regiment  under  Colonel  Musgrave.  the  Schuylkill,  and  rendezvous  at  Chester. 
Washington's  army,  moving  stealthily,  At  that  moment  of  panic  General  Grey  ob- 
tried  to  reach  Chestnut  Hill  before  the  served  that  his  flanks  were  secure,  and 
dawn  (Oct.  4),  but  failed.  It  was  near  Knyphausen  marched  with  his  whole  force 
sunrise  when  they  emerged  from  the  woods  to  assist  the  beleaguered  garrison  and  the 
on  that  eminence.  The  whole  country  contending  regiments  in  the  village, 
was  enveloped  in  a  thick  fog.  The  Brit-  Then  a  short  and  severe  battle  occurred  in 
ish  were  surprised.  The  troops  of  Wayne  the  heart  of  Germantown.  The  Ameri- 
and  Sullivan  fell,  unexpectedly  and  with  cans  could  not  discern  the  number  of  their 
heavy  force,  upon  the  British  infantry  in  assailants  in  the  confusing  mist,  when 
front,  and  they  were  hurled  back  upon  suddenly  the  cry  of  a  trooper,  "  We  are 
their  main  line  in  confusion  by  a  storm    surrounded!"   produced  a  panic,   and   the 


extreme  left  was  guarded  by  Hessian 
yagers  (riflemen).  Near  the  large  stone 
mansion  of  Chief- Justice  Chew   (see  illus- 

of  grape-shot.  This  cannonade  awakened 
Cornwallis,  who  was  sleeping  soundly  in 
Philadelphia,  unconscious  of  danger  near. 
Howe,  too,  nearer  the  army,  was  aroused 
from  slumber,  and  arrived  near  the  scene 
of  conflict   to  meet  his   flying  battalions. 

patriots  retreated  in  great  confusion. 
The  struggle  lasted  about  three  hours. 
The  Americans  lost  about  GOO  killed, 
wounded,  and  missing;  the  British  about 
800.  Washington  fell  back  to  his  encamp- 
ment on  Skippack  Creek.     General  Nash, 

Then  he  hastened  to  his  camp,  to  prepare  while   covering  the  retreat   with   his   bri- 

his   troops    for   action.     Musgrave   sent  a  gade,  was  mortally  wounded, 
part  of  his  regiment  to  support  the  fugi-        Geronimo,  Apache  Indian  chief;  became 

tives,  and,  with  six  companies,  took  refuge  a   war-chief  when   sixteen   years   old,   and 

in  Chew's  strong  dwelling.     He  barricaded  for  almost  fifty  years  led  a  band  of  blood- 

the  doors  and   lower  windows,  and   made  thirsty  savages;  was  a  constant  terror  to 

it  a  castle.     From   its  upper  windows  he  the   settlers   in    the   Southwest,   where   he 

poured    such    a    volley    of    bullets    upon  perpetrated  Tiiany  frightful  atrocities.     He 

Woodford's    pursuing    brigade    that    their  was  captured  near  Prescott,  Ariz.,  in  18SG, 

march     was     chocked.     The     fire    of     the  by   Generals  Miles   and    Lawton,   after   a 

no  ' 


continued  chase  of  four  years,  at  the  ex- 
pense of  hundreds  of  lives.     He  was  first 



imprisoned  at  Mount  Vernon,  Ala.,  but 
bter  at  Fort  Sill,  Oklahoma. 

Gerrish,  Theodore,  author;  born  in 
Houlton,  Me.,  June  19,  1846;  received 
an  academic  education;  served  in  the  Civil 
War,  being  wounded  four  times.  In  1871- 
88  he  was  a  Methodist  Episcopal  min- 
ister at  various  places  in  Maine.  His  pub- 
lications include  Reminiscences  of  the 
War;  The  Blue  and  the  Gray,  etc. 

Gerry,  Elbridge,  signer  of  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence;  born  in  Marblehead, 
Mass.,  July  17,  1744;  graduated  at  Har- 
vard in  1762;  took  part  in  the  early 
strife  before  the  Revolution,  and  in  1772 
represented  his  native  town  in  the  State 
legislature.  Gerry  was  the  first  to  pro- 
pose, in  the  Provincial  Congress  of  Massa- 
chusetts, a  law  for  fitting  out  armed  ves- 
sels and  establishing  a  court  of  admi- 
ralty. He  took  a  seat  in  the  Continental 
Congress  early  in  1776,  signed  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  and  remained  in 
that  body,  with  few  intermissions,  until 
1785.  He  was  an  efficient  member  of 
finance  committees  in  the  Congress,  and 
was  president  of  the  treasury  board  in 
1780.  A  delegate  in  the  convention  that 
framed  the  national  Constitution,  he  was 

one  of  those  who  refused  to  sign  the  in- 
strument. He  was  a  member  of  Congress 
from  1789  to  1793,  and  in  1797  was  sent 
as  one  of  the  special  envoys  on  a  mission 
to  France.  He  was  elected  governor  of 
Massachusetts  by  the  Democratic  party 
in  1810,  and  in  1812  was  chosen  Vice- 
President  of  the  United  States.  He  died 
in  Washington,  D.  C,  while  Vice-Presi- 
dent, Nov.  23,  1814. 

Gerrymandering,  a  political  term  em- 
ployed in  the  United  States  since  1812. 
After  a  bitter  contest  for  power  in  Massa- 
chusetts between  the  ,  Federalists  and 
Democrats,  the  latter  succeeded,  in  1811, 
in  electing  their  candidate  for  governor, 
Elbridge  Gerry,  and  a  majority  of  both 
Houses  of  the  legislature.  In  order  to  se- 
cure the  election  of  United  States  Senators 
in  the  future,  it  was  important  to  per- 
petuate this  possession  of  power,  and 
measures  were  taken  to  retain  a  Demo- 
cratic majority  in  the  State  Senate  in 
all  future  years.  The  senatorial  districts 
had  been  formed  without  any  division  of 
counties.  This  arrangement,  for  the  pur- 
pose alluded  to,  was  now  disturbed.  The 
legislature  proceeded  to  rearrange  the 
senatorial  districts  of  the  State.  They 
divided  counties  in  opposition  to  the  pro- 
tests and  strong  constitutional  arguments 


of    the    Federalists;    and    those    of    Essex 
and  Worcester  were  so  divided  as  to  form 



a  Democratic  majority  in  each  of  those 
Federal  counties,  without  any  apparent 
regard  to  convenience  or  propriety.  The 
work  was  sanctioned  and  became  a  law 
by   the  signature  of   Governor  Gerry,   for 

Gerstaecker,  Friedrich.  German  au- 
thor; born  in  Hamburg,  Germany,  May 
16,  1816;  emigrated  to  America  in  1837; 
remained  in  the  country  about  six  years, 
when   he   returned   to   Germany,   but   sub- 

which  act  the  opposition  severely  castigat-  sequently  made  many  trips  to  every  quar- 

ed    him   through    the   newspapers   and   at  ter  of  the  globe.     He  is  best  known  by  his 

public   gatherings.     In   Essex   county   the  writings,  originally  published  in  German, 

arrangement   of   the   district,    in    relation  but  many  of  which  were  translated  and  re- 

to   the  towns,  was   singular   and   absurd,  published  in  the  United   States.     Among 

Russell,  the  veteran  editor  of  the  Boston  his   writings   are   The  Regulators   of  Ar- 

Ccntinel,    who    had    fought    against    the  kansas;  Pictures  of  the  Mississippi;  Jour- 

scheme    valiantly,    took    a    map    of    that  ney    through   the   United   States,   Mexico, 

county,  and  designated  by  particular  col-  etc.;  Incidents  of  Life  on  the  Mississippi, 

oring  the  towns  thus  selected,  and  hung  etc.     He  died  in  Vienna,  Austria,  May  31, 

it  on  the  wall  of  his  editorial  room.     One  1872. 

day  Gilbert  Stuart,  the  eminent  painter, 
looked  at  the  map,  and  said  the  town9 
which  Russell  had  thus  distinguished  re- 
sembled some  monstrous  animal.  He  took 
a  pencil,  and  with  a  few  touches  repre- 
sented a  head,  wings,  claws,  and  tail. 
"  There,"  said  Stuart,  "  that  will  do  for 
a  salamander."  Russell,  who  was  busy 
with  his  pen,  looked  up  at  the  hideous 
figure,  and  exclaimed,  "  Salamander ! 
Call  it  Gerry-mander."    The  word  was  im- 

Getty,   George   Washington,    military 
officer;     born   in   Georgetown,   D.   C,   Oct. 
2,    1819;     was   graduated   at   West   Point 
in  1840;    served  in  the  war  with  Mexico, 
and  in  the  Seminole  War  in  Florida ;    and, 
becoming   brigadier-general    of    volunteers 
in  1862,  did  excellent  service  in  the  cam- 
paign on  the   Peninsula.     He  was   in  the 
battles  of  South  Mountain,  Antietam,  and 
Fredericksburg  in  1862;    also  in  the  cam- 
paign   against    Richmond    in    1864    until 
August,  when  he  was  brevetted 
major  -  general     of    volunteers. 
He    was    in    the    army    in    the 
Shenandoah  Valley  the  remain- 
der of  the  year.     He  was  also 
in  the  battle  at  Sailor's  Creek, 
and   at   the   surrender   of   Lee. 
On   Aug.    1,   1864,  he  was  bre- 
vetted major-general  of  volun- 
teers, and  March  13,  1865,  ma- 
jor-general in  the  regular  army. 
He    was    commissioned    colonel 
of  the  37th   Infantry  in   1866, 
and  retired  Oct.  2,   1883.     His 
last  service  was  as  commander 
of    the    United    States    troops 
along  the   Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad    during    the    riots    of 
1877.     He  died  in  Forest  Glen. 
Md.,  Oct.  2,  1901. 

Gettysburg,  Battle  op.  On 
the  day  when  General  Meade 
took  command  of  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac,  June  28,  1863, 
Lee  was  about  to  cross  the  Sus- 
mediately  adopted  into  the  political  quehanna  at  Harrisburg  and  march  on 
vocabulary  as  a  term  of  reproach  for  Philadelphia.  The  militia  of  Pennsylvania, 
those  who  change  boundaries  of  districts  who  had  shown  great  apathy  in  responding 
for  a  partisan  purpose.  to  the  call  for  help,  now,  when  danger  was 



at  their  door,  turn- 
ed out  with  con- 
siderable spirit ; 
and  Lee,  observing 
this,  and  hearing 
that  the  augment- 
ed Army  of  the 
Potomac  was  in 
Maryland  and 
threatening  his 
rear  and  flanks, 
immediately  aban- 
doned his  scheme 
for  further  inva- 
sion, and  ordered 
a  retrograde  move- 
ment. On  the 
same  day,  Stuart, 
with  a  large  force 
of  cavalry,  crossed 
the  Potomac,  push- 
ed on  to  Westmin- 
ster,   at   the   right 

of  the  Nationals,  crossed  over  to  Car-  Marsh  Creek,  a  few  miles  distant,  was 
lisle,  encountering  Kilpatrick  and  his  cav-  then  advancing  with  his  own  corps,  fol- 
alry,  and  followed  Ewell  in  his  march  lowed  by  Howard's,  having  those  of  Sickles 
towards  Gettsyburg.  Longstreet  had  been  and  Slocum  within  call.  The  sound  of 
ordered  to  cross  the  South  Mountain  fire-arms  quickened  his  pace,  and  he 
range,  and  press  on  through  Gettysburg  marched  rapidly  to  the  relief  of  Buford, 
to  Baltimore  to  keep  Meade  from  cutting  who  was  holding  the  Confederates  in 
Lee's  communications.  Lee  hoped  to  crush  check.  While  Reynolds  was  placing  some 
Meade,  and  then  march  in  triumph  on  of  his  troops  on  the  Chambersburg  road, 
Baltimore  and  Washington;  or,  in  the  Confederates  made  an  attack,  when  a 
case  of  failure,  to  secure  a  direct  line  volley  of  musketry  from  the  56th  Penn- 
of  retreat  into  Virginia.  Meanwhile  sylvania  led  by  Col.  J.  W.  Hoffman,  opened 
Meade  was  pushing  towards  the  Susque-  the  decisive  battle  of  Gettysburg, 
hanna  with  cautious  movement,  and  on  Meredith's  "  Iron  Brigade "  then 
the  evening  of  June  30  he  discover-  charged  into  a  wood  in  the  rear  of  the 
ed  Lee's  evident  intention  to  give  bat-  Seminary,  to  fall  upon  Hill's  right,  under 
tie  at  once.  On  the  day  before,  Kil-  General  Archer.  The  Nationals  were 
patrick  and  Custer's  ca.artv  had  de-  pushed  back,  but  other  troops,  under  the 
feated  some  of  Stuart's  a  few'  miles  from  personal  direction  of  Reynolds,  struck 
Gettysburg.  Buford's  cavalry  entered  Archer's  flank,  and  captured  that  officer 
Gettysburg;  and  on  the  30th  the  left  wing  and  800  of  his  men.  At  the  moment 
of  Meade's  army,  led  by  General  Reyn-  when  this  charge  was  made,  the  bullet  of 
olds,  arrived  near  there.  At  the  same  a  Mississippi  sharp-shooter  pierced  Reyn- 
time  the  corps  of  Hill  and  Longstreet  olds's  neck,  when  he  fell  forward  and  ex- 
were  approaching  from  Chambersburg,  and  pired.  General  Doubleday  had  just  ar- 
Ewell  was  marching  down  from  Carlisle  rived,  and  took  Reynolds's  place,  leaving 
in  full  force.  On  the  morning  of  July  1  his  own  division  in  charge  of  General 
Buford,  with  6,000  cavalry,  met  the  van  Rowley.  Very  soon  the  Mississippi  bri- 
of  Lee's  army,  led  by  General  Heth,  be-  gade,  under  General  Davis,  was  captured, 
tween  Seminary  Ridge  (a  little  way  from  and  at  noon  the  whole  of  the  1st  Corps, 
Gettysburg)  and  a  parallel  ridge  a  little  under  General  Doubleday,  was  well  post- 
farther  west,  when  a  sharp  skirmish  en-  ed  on  Seminary  Ridge,  and  the  remain- 
sued.  Reynolds,  who  had  bivouacked  at  der  of  Hill's  corps  was  rapidly  approach- 


ing.  Meanwhile,  the  advance  division  of  of  Reynolds,  and  he  ordered  General  Han- 
Ewell's  corps  had  taken  a  position  on  a  cock,  Howard's  junior,  to  leave  his  corps 
ridge  north  of  the  town,  connecting  with  with  Gibbons  and  take  the  chief  command 
Hill,  and  seriously  menacing  the  National  at  Gettysburg.  He  arrived  just  as  the 
right,  held  by  General  Cutler.  Double-  beaten  forces  were  hurrying  towards 
day  sent  aid  to  Cutler,  when  a  severe  Lemetery  Hill.  He  reported  to  Meade 
struggle  ensued  for  some  time,  and  three  that  he  was  satisfied  with  Howard's  dis- 
North  Carolina  regiments  were  captured,  position  of  the  troops.  The  latter  had 
Now  the  battle  assumed  far  grander  pro-  called  early  upon  Sloeum  and  Sickles,  and 
portions.  Howard's  corps,  animated  by  both  promptly  responded.  Sickles  joined 
the  sounds  of  battle  on  its  front,  pressed  the  left  of  the  troops  on  Cemetery  Hill 
rapidly  forward,  and  reached  the  field  of  that  night.  Hancock  had  gone  back;  and, 
strife  at  a  little  past  noon.  He  left  Stein-  meeting  his  own  corps,  posted  it  a  mile 
wehr's  brigade  on  Cemetery  Hill,  placed  and  a  half  in  the  rear  of  Cemetery  Hill. 
General  Schurz  in  temporary  charge  of  Meade  had  now  given  orders  for  the  con- 
the  corp3,  and,  ranking  Doubleday,  took  centration  of  his  whole  army  at  Gettys- 
the  chief  command  of  all  the  troops  in  burg,  and  he  aroused  them  at  one  o'clock 
action.  The  Confederate  numbers  were  in  the  morning  of  July  2,  when  only  the 
continually  augmented,  and,  to  meet  an  corps  of  Sykes  and  Sedgwick  were  absent, 
expected  attack  from  the  north  and  west,  Lee,  too,  had  been  bringing  forward  his 
Howard  was  compelled  to  extend  the  Na-  troops  as  rapidly  as  possible,  making  his 
tional  lines,  then  quite  thin,  about  3  headquarters  on  Seminary  Ridge.  On  the 
miles,  with  Culp's  Hill  on  the  right,  morning  of  the  2d  a  greater  portion  of 
Round  Top  on  the  left,  and  Cemetery  Hill  the  two  armies  confronted  each  other. 
in  the  centre,  forming  the  apex  of  a  Both  commanders  seemed  averse  to  tak- 
redan.  At  about  three  o'clock  in  the  ing  the  initiative  of  battle.  The  Nation- 
afternoon  there  was  a  general  advance  als  had  the  advantage  of  position,  their 
of  the  Confederates,  and  a  terrible  battle  lines  projecting  in  wedge-form  towards 
ensued,  with  heavy  losses  on  both  sides,  the  Confederate  centre,  with  steep  rocky 
The  Nationals  were  defeated.  They  had  acclivities  along  their  front.  It  was  late 
anxiously  looked  for  reinforcements  from  in  the  afternoon  before  a  decided  move- 
the  scattered  corps  of  the  Army  of  the  ment  was  made.  Sickles,  on  the  left,  be- 
Potomac.  These  speedily  came,  but  not  tween  Cemetery  Hill  and  Round  Top,  ex- 
pecting an  at- 
tack, had  ad- 
vanced his  corps 
well  towards 
the  heaviest 
columns  of  the 
Confedera  tes. 
Then  Lee  at- 
cked  him  with 
L  o  ngstreet's 
corps.  There 
was  first  a  se- 
vere struggle 
for  the  posses- 
sion  of  the 
rocky  eminence 
on  Meade's  ex- 
treme  left, 
where  R-irney 
until  the  preliminary  engagement  in  the  was  stationed.  The  Nationals  won. 
great  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  ended.  Meanwhile    tliere    was    a    fierce    contest 

General    Meade   was   at   Taneytown,    13    near    the    centre,    between    Little    Round 
miles  distant,  when  he  heard  of  the  death    Top  and  Cemetery  Hill.     While  yet  there 





was  strife  for  the  former,  General  Craw-  where  General  Slocum  was  in  chief  com- 

ford,  with  six  regiments  of  Pennsylvania  mand.     Ewell   had   attacked    him   with   a 

reserves,    swept    down     its    northwestern  part  of  his  corps  at  the  time  Longstreet 

side  with   tremendous   shouts,   and   drove  assailed  the  left.     The  assault  was  vigor- 

the    Confederates    through    the    woods    to  ous.     Up  the  northern  slopes  of  Cemetery 

the    Emmettsburg    road,    making    300    of  Hill  the  Confederates  pressed  in  the  face 

them     prisoners.        Generals     Humphreys  of  a  murderous  fire  of  canister  and  shrap- 

and   Graham   were   then   in    an   advanced  nel  to  the  muzzles  of  the  guns.     Another 

position,    the    former    with    his    right    on  part  of  Ewell's  corps   attempted  to  turn 

the    Emmettsburg    road,    when    Hill,    ad-  the  National  right  by  attacking  its  weak- 

vancing    in    heavy    force    from    Seminary  ened  part  on  Culp's  Hill.     The  Confeder- 

Ridge,    fell    upon    him    and    pushed    him  ates   were   repulsed   at   the   right   centre; 

back,     with     a     loss     of     half     his 

and,  after  a  severe  battle  on  the  extreme 

lost    a    leg,    and    Birney    took    command 
of    the    corps.     Elated    by    this    success, 

and    three    guns.     In    this    onset    Sickles    right  of  the  Nationals,   the   Confederates 

there  were  firmly  held  in  check.  So  end- 
ed, at  about  ten  o'clock  at  night,  the  see- 
the Confederates  pushed  up  to  the  base  ond  day's  battle  at  Gettysburg,  when 
of  Cemetery  Hill  and  its  southern  slope,  nearly  40,000  men  of  the  two  armies,  who 
throwing  themselves  recklessly  upon  sup-  were  "  effective "  thirty-six  hours  before, 
posed  weak  points.  In  this  contest  were  dead  or  wounded. 
Meade  led  troops  in  person.  Finally  The  advantage  seemed  to  be  with  the 
Hancock,  just  at  sunset,  directed  a  general  Confederates,  for  they  held  the  ground  in 
charge,     chiefly    by    fresh     troops    under    advance    of    Gettysburg    which    the    Na- 

Doubleday,  who  had  hastened  to  his  as- 
sistance from  the  rear  of  Cemetery  Hill. 
These,  with   Humphreys's   shattered   regi- 

tionals  had  held  the  previous  day.  Dur- 
ing the  night  Meade  made  provision  for 
expelling  the  Confederate  intrusion  on  the 

ments,  drove  the  Confederates  back  and  National  right  by  placing  a  heavy  artil- 
recaptured  four  guns.  The  battle  ended  lery  force  in  that  direction.  Under  cover 
on  the  left  centre  at  twilight.  Then  the  of  these  guns  a  strong  force  made  an  at- 
battle  was  renewed  on  the  National  right,    tack,  and  for  four  hours  Geary's  division 



kept  up  a  desperate  struggle.  Then  the 
Confederates  fell  back,  and  the  right  was 
made  secure.  Now  Ewell  was  repulsed  on 
the  right,  and  Round  Top,  on  the  left, 
was  impregnable;  so  Lee  determined  to 
strike  Meade's  centre  with  a  force  that 
should  crush  it.  At  noon  (July  3)  he 
had  145  cannon  in  battery  along  the  line 
occupied  by  Longstreet  and  Hill.  All 
night  General  Hunt,  of  the  Nationals,  had 
been  arranging  the  artillery  from  Ceme- 
tery Hill  to  Little  Round  Top,  where  the 
expected  blow  would  fall.  Lee  determined 
to  aim  his  chief  blow  at  Hancock's  posi- 
tion on  Cemetery  Hill.  At  1  o'clock  p.m. 
115  of  his  cannon  opened  a  rapid  concen- 
trated fire  on  the  devoted  point.  Four- 
score National  guns  replied,  and  for  two 
hours  more  than  200  cannon  shook  the 
surrounding  country  with  their  detona- 
tions. Then  the  Confederate  infantry,  in 
a  line  3  miles  in  length,  preceded  by 
a  host  of  skirmishers,  flowed  swiftly  over 

the  undulating  plain.  Behind  these  was 
a  heavy  reserve.  Pickett,  with  his  Vir- 
ginians, led  the  van,  well  supported,  in  a 
charge  upon  Cemetery  Hill.  In  all,  hie 
troops  were  about  15,000  strong.  The 
cannon  had  now  almost  ceased  thundering, 
and  were  succeeded  by  the  awful  roll  of 
musketry.  Shot  and  shell  from  Han- 
cock's batteries  now  made  fearful  lanes 
through  the  oncoming  Confederate  ranks. 
Hancock  was  wounded,  and  Gibbons  was 
placed  in  command.  Pickett  pressed  on- 
ward, when  the  divisions  of  Hayes  and 
Gibbons  opened  an  appalling  and  con- 
tinuous fire  upon  them.  The  Confed- 
erates gave  way,  and  2,000  men  were 
made  prisoners,  and  fifteen  battle-flags  be- 
came trophies  of  victory  for  Hayes.  Still 
Pickett  moved  on,  scaled  Cemetery  Hill, 
burst  through  Hancock's  line,  drove  back 
a  portion  of  General  Webb's  brigade,  and 
planted  the  Confederate  flag  on  a  stonewall. 
But  Pickett  could  go  no  farther.    Then 




Stannard's  Vermont  brigade  of  Double- 
day's  division  opened  such  a  destructive 
fire  on  Pickett's  troops  that  they  gave 
way.  Very  soon  2,500  of  them  were  made 
prisoners,  and  with  them  twelve  battle- 
flags,  and  three-fourths  of  his  gallant  men 
were  dead  or  captives.  Wilcox  supported 
Pickett,  and  met  a  similar  fate  at  the 
hands  of  the  Vermonters.  Meanwhile 
Crawford  had  advanced  upon  the  Confed- 
erate right  from  near  Little  Round  Top. 
The  Confederates  fled;  and  in  this  sortie 
the  whole  ground  lost  by  Sickles  was  re- 
covered, with  260  men  captives,  7,000 
small-arms,  a  cannon,  and  wounded  Union- 
ists, who  had  lain  nearly  twenty-four 
hours  uncared  for.  Thus,  at  near  sunset, 
July  3,  1863,  ended  the  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg. During  that  night  and  all  the  next 
day  Lee's  army  on  Seminary  Ridge  pre- 
pared for  flight  back  to  Virginia.  His  in- 
vasion was  a  failure;  and  on  Sunday 
morning,  July  5,  his  whole  army  was 
moving  towards  the   Potomac. 

This  battle,  in  its  far-reaching  effects, 
was  the  most  important  of  the  war.  The 
National  loss  in  men,  from  the  morning 
of  the  1st  until  the  evening  of  the  3d  of 
July,  was  reported  by  Meade  to  be  23,186, 
of  whom  2,834  were  killed,  13,709  wound- 
ed, and  6,643  missing.  Lee's  loss  was 
probably  about  30,000.  The  battle-ground 
is   now   the   National    Soldiers'   Cemeterv, 

nearly  all  of  the  Confederate  dead  having 
been  removed  to  Southern  cemeteries. 
The  battle-field  is  now  studded  with  State 
and  regimental  monuments  marking  the 
most  important  spots  in  the  three-days' 
battle.  Near  the  centre  of  the  battle-field 
stands  a  national  monument  of  gray  gran- 
ite, erected  at  a  cost  of  $50,000,  and  also 
a  bronze  statue  of  General  Reynolds. 

Almost  immediately  after  the  battle  the 
government  determined  to  acquire  and  set 
apart  the  battle-field  for  a  National  Sol- 
diers' Cemetery.  On  Nov.  19,  1863,  the 
field,  which  then  contained  the  graves  of 
3,580  Union  soldiers,  was  dedicated  by 
President  Lincoln,  who  delivered  the  fol- 
lowing memorable  speech: 

"  Fourscore  and  seven  years  ago  our 
fathers  brought  forth  on  this  continent  a 
new  nation,  conceived  in  liberty,  and  dedi- 
cated to  the  proposition  that  all  men  are 
created  equal. 

"  Now  we  are  engaged  in  a  great  civil 
war,  testing  whether  that  nation,  or  any  na- 
tion so  conceived  and  so  dedicated,  can  long 
endure.  We  are  met  on  a  great  battle- 
field of  that  war.  We  have  come  to  dedicate 
a  portion  of  that  field  as  a  final  resting- 
place  for  those  who  here  gave  their  lives 
that  thatnation  might  live.  It  is  altogether 
fitting  and  proper  that  we  should  do  this. 

"  But,  in  a  larger  sense,  we  cannot  dedi- 
cate,   we    cannot    consecrate,    we    cannot 



hallow  this  ground.  The  brave  men,  liv-  and  that  government  of  the  people,  by  the 
ing  and  dead,  who  struggled  here  have  people,  for  the  people,  shall  not  perish 
consecrated  it,  far  above  our  poor  power 

to  add  or  detract.     The  world  will  little 

from    the   earth."     See   Adams,   Charles 
Francis;  Everett,  Edward. 

Ghent,  Treaty  of,  the  treaty  between 
the  United  States  and  Great  Britain, 
which  terminated  the  War  of  1812.  The 
American  commissioners  were  John 
Quincy  Adams,  James  Bayard,  Henry 
Clay,  Jonathan  Russell,  and  Albert  Galla- 
tin; the  British  commissioners  were 
Lord  Gambier,  Henry  Goulburn,  and  Will- 
iam Adams.  The  American  commis- 
sioners assembled  in  the  city  of  Ghent, 
Belgium,  in  July,  1814;  the  British  com- 
missioners early  in  the  following  month. 
The  terms  of  the  treaty  were  concluded 
Dec.  24,  following,  and  the  ratifications 
were  exchanged  Feb.  17,  1S15.  While  the 
negotiations  were  in  progress  the  leading 
citizens  of  Ghent  took  great  interest  in 
the  matter.  Their  sympathies  were  with 
the  Americans,  and  they  mingled  their 
rejoicings  with  the  commissioners  when 
the  work  was  done.  On  Oct.  27  the 
Academy  of  Sciences  and  Fine  Arts  at 
Ghent  invited  the  American  commis- 
sioners to  attend  their  exercises,  when  they 
were  all  elected  honorary  members  of  the 
academy.  A  sumptuous  dinner  was 
given,  at  which  the  intendant,  or  chief 
magistrate,  of  Ghent  offered  the  following 
sentiment:  "Our  distinguished  guests 
and  fellow-members,  the  American  minis- 
ters— may  they  succeed  in  making  an 
honorable  peace  to  secure  the  liberty  and 
independence  of  their  country."  The 
band  then  played  Bail,  Columbia.  The 
British  commissioners  were  not  present. 
After  the  treaty  was  concluded,  the 
American  commissioners  dined  the  British 
commissioners,  at  which  Count  H.  van 
note,  nor  long  remember,  what  we  say  Steinhuyser,  the  intendant  of  the  depart- 
here,  but  it  can  never  forget  what  they  ment,  was  present.  Sentiments  of  mutual 
did  here.  It  is  for  us  the  living,  rather,  friendship  wore  offered.  A  few  days  after- 
to  be  dedicated  here  to  the  unfinished  wards  the  intendant  gave  an  entertainment 
work  which  they  who  fought  here  have  to  the  commissioners  of  both  nations, 
thus  far  so  nobly  advanced.  It  is  rather  The  leading  provisions  of  the  treaty 
for  us  to  be  here  dedicated  to  the  great  were:  (1)  Bestoration  of  all  territory, 
task  remaining  before  us,  that  from  these  places,  and  possessions  taken  by  either 
honored  dead  we  take  increased  devotion  party  from  the  other  during  the  war,  ex- 
to  that  cause  for  which  they  gave  the  last  eept  the  islands  mentioned  in  Article  IV. 
full  measure  of  devotion,  that  we  here  Public  property  remaining  in  such  places 
highly  resolve  that  these  dead  shall  not  at  the  time  of  ratifying  the  treaty  was 
have  died  in  vain,  that  this  nation,  under  not  to  be  destroyed  or  carried  away,  and 
God,  shall  have  a  new  birth  of   freedom,    the    same    engagement    was    made    as    *• 




slaves  and  other  private  property  (Article 
I.).  (2)  Article  IV.  provides  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  commission  to  decide  to  which 
of  the  two  powers  certain  islands  in  and 
near  Passamaquoddy  Bay  belong;  and  if 
the  commission  should  fail  to  rome  to  a 
decision,  the  subject  was  to  be  referred 
to  some  friendly  sovereign  or  state.  (3) 
Articles  V.-VI1I.  provide  for  several  com- 
missions to  settle  the  line  of  boundary  as 
described  in  the  treaty  of  1783,  one  com- 
mission to  settle  the  line  from  the  river 
St.  Croix  to  where  the  45th  parallel 
cuts  the  river  St.  Lawrence  (called  tha 
Iroquois  or  Cataraqua  in  the  treaty)  ;  an- 
other to  determine  the  middle  of  the  wa- 
ter communications  from  that  point  to 
Lake  Superior:    and  a  third  to  adjust  the 

deavors  to  abolish  the  slave-trade,  as  be- 
ing "  irreconcilable  with  the  principles  of 
humanity  and  justice. ' 

Gherardi,  Bancroft,  naval  officer ;  born 
in  Jackson,  La.,  Nov.  10,  1832;  appointed 
midshipman  June  29,  1846;  took  part  in 
the  attack  on  Fort  Macon  and  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Mobile  Bay;  promoted  to  rear-ad- 
miral in  1887;  retired  Nov.  10,  1894. 

Giauque,  Florien,  author;  born  near 
Berlin,  0.,  May  11,  1843;  served  in  the 
Civil  War  in  1862-65;  graduated  at 
Kenyon  College  in  1869;  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1875.  His  publications  include  Re- 
vised Statutes  of  Ohio;  Present  Value  Ta- 
bles; Naturalization  and  Election  Laics  of 
the  United  States;  Ohio  Election  Laws, etc. 

Gibault,  Peter,  Roman  Catholic  priest. 

limits  from  the  "  water-communication  be- 
tween Lakes  Huron  and  Superior  to  the 
most  northwestern  point  of  the  Lake  of 
the  Woods."  If  either  of  these  commis- 
sions should  not  make  a  decision,  the  sub- 
ject was  to  be  referred  to  a  friendly  sover- 
eign or  state  as  before.  (4)  Article  IX. 
binds  both   parties   to   use  their   best   en- 

The  bishop  of  Quebec  in  1770  sent  him  to 
the  territory  now  included  in  Illinois  and 
Louisiana.  He  lived  a  portion  of  the  time 
in  Vincennes,  Kaskaskia,  Cahokia,  and  St. 
Genevieve.  During  the  Bevolutionary  War, 
through  his  influence,  the  settlers  in  this 
territory,  who  were  mostly  French,  became 
ardent  advocates  of  the  American   cause, 



and  he  also  induced  the  Indians  to  remain 
neutral.  Judge  Law  says:  "  Next  to  Clark 
and  Vigo,  the  United  States  are  indebt- 
ed more  to  Father  Gibault  for  the  acces- 
sion of  the  States  comprised  in  what  was 
the  original  Northwest  Territory  than  to 
any  other   man." 

Gibbes,  Robert  Wilson,  historian; 
born  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  July  8,  1809; 
graduated  at  the  South  Carolina  Col- 
lege in  1827;  was  the  editor  of  the  Week- 
ly Banner  and  the  Daily  South-Carolini- 
an, and  was  also  twice  elected  mayor  of 
Columbia.  During  the  Civil  War  he  was 
surgeon-general  of  South  Carolina.  Among 
his  writings  are  A  Documentary  History 
of  the  American  Revolution,  consisting  of 
letters  and  papers  relating  to  the  contest 
for  liberty,  chiefly  in  South  Carolina.  He 
died  in  Columbia,  S.  C,  Oct.  15,  1866. 

Gibbes,  William  Hasell,  lawyer;  born 
in  Charleston,  S.  C,  March  16,  1754;  stud- 
ied law  in  London,  and  was  one  of  the 
thirty  Americans  living  there  who  signed  a 
petition  to  the  King  against  the  Parlia- 
mentary enactments  which  resulted  in  the 
Revolutionary  War.  He  entered  the  Con- 
tinental army  as  captain-lieutenant  of  ar- 
tillery. In  1783-1825  he  was  master  in  chan- 
cery of  South  Carolina.     He  died  in  1831. 

Gibbon,  Edward,  historian ;  born  in 
Putney,  Surrey,  England,  April  27,  1737; 
was  from  infancy  feeble  in  physical  con- 
stitution. His  first  serious  attempt  at 
authorship  was  when  he  was  only  a 
youth — a  treatise  on  the  age  of  Sesostris. 
He  was  fond  of  Oriental  research.  Read- 
ing Bossuet's  Variations  of  Protestant- 
ism and  Exposition  of  Catholic  Doctrine, 
he  became  a  Roman  Catholic,  and  at 
length  a  free-thinker.  He  was  a  student 
at  Oxford  when  he  abjured  Protestantism, 
and  was  expelled.  He  read  with  avidity 
the  Latin,  Greek,  and  French  classics,  and 
became  passionately  fond  of  historical  re- 
search. He  also  studied  practically  the 
military  art,  as  a  member  of  the  Hamp- 
shire militia,  with  his  father.  In  1751 
he  published  a  defence  of  classical  studies 
against  tlie  attacks  of  the  French  phi- 
losophers. In  1764  he  went  to  Rome,  and 
studied  its  antiquities  with  delight  and 
seriousness,  and  there  he  conceived  the 
idea  of  writing  his  great  work,  The  De- 
cline and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire. 
"It   was    at    Pome,"    he   wrote,   "on    the 

15th  of  October,  1764,  as  I  sat  musing 
amid  the  ruins  of  the  Capitol,  while  bare- 
footed friars  were  singing  vespers  in  the 
Temple  of  Jupiter,  that  the  idea  of  writ- 
ing the  decline  and  fall  of  the  city  first 
started  to  my  mind."  But  that  work 
was  not  seriously  begun  until  1770,  and 
the  first  volume  was  completed  in  1775. 
In  1774  he  became  a  member  of  the  House 
of  Commons,  and  at  first  took  sides  with 
the  Americans,  writing  much  in  their 
favor.  He  finally  became  a  firm  sup- 
porter of  the  British  ministry  in  their 
proceedings  against  the  Americans,  writ- 
ing in  their  defence  a  pamphlet  in  the 
French  language,  when  he  was  provided 
by  them  with  a  lucrative  sinecure  office 
worth  $4,000  a  year.  His  mouth  (or, 
rather,  pen)  was  thus  stopped  by  the 
government  favor.  To  this  venality  the 
following  epigram  alludes.  It  was  writ- 
ten, it  is  said,  by  Charles  James  Fox: 

"  King  George,  in  a  fright,  lest  Gibbon  should 
The  story  of  Britain's  disgrace. 
Thought  no   means   more   sure   his   pen    to 
Than  to  give  the  historian  a  place. 

"  But  his  caution  is  vain,  'tis  the  curse  of 
his  reign 
That  his  projects  should  never  succeed  : 
Though  he  write  not  a  line,  yet  a  cause  of 
In  the  author's  example  we  read." 

1  I'.v  vlll.    IMHHON. 

On  the  downfall  of  the  North  adminis- 
tration, and  the  loss  of  his  salary,  Gib- 
bon   loft     England    and    went    to    live    at 


Lausanne,  Switzerland.  There  he  com-  Charles  College,  Maryland,  and  in  1857 
pleted  his  great  work  in  June,  1787,  and,  was  transferred  to  St.  Mary's  Seminary, 
sending  the  manuscript  to  England,  it  Baltimore.  He  was  ordained  a  priest 
was  issued  on  his  fifty-first  birthday.  It  June  30,  1861;  was  made  an  assistant  in 
is  said  that  his  booksellers  realized  a 
profit  on  the  work  of  $300,000,  while  the 
author's  profits  were  only  $30,000.  On 
setting  out  for  England,  in  the  spring  of 
1793,  he  was  afflicted  with  a  very  serious 
malady,  which  he  had  long  concealed, 
until  it  finally  developed  into  a  fatal  dis- 
order, which  terminated  his  life  suddenly 
in  London,  Jan.  16,  1794. 

Gibbon,  John,  military  officer;  born 
near  Holmesburg,  Pa.,  April  20,  1827; 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1847;  served 
to  the  close  of  the  Mexican  War  in  the 
artillery.  During  the  Civil  War  he  was 
chief  of  artillery  to  General  McDowell  till 
May,  1862,  when  he  was  promoted  briga- 
dier-general of  volunteers.  His  brigade 
was  in  constant  service,  and  Gibbon  was 
soon  promoted  colonel,  U.  S.  A.,  and  ma- 
jor-general, U.  S.  V.  He  took  part  in  the 
battles  of  the  Wilderness,  Cold  Harbor,  St.  Patrick's  Cathedral,  Baltimore;  and 
and  Petersburg.  He  received  the  brevet  soon  after  was  appointed  pastor  of  St. 
of  major-general,  U.  S.  A.,  March  13,  1865.  Bridget's  Church,  in  Canton,  a  suburb  of 
He  published  The  Artillerist's  Manual.  He    Baltimore.     Subsequently  he  was  private 


died  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  Feb.  6,  1896. 

Gibbons,   Abigail  Hopper,   philanthro- 
pist;   born   in   Philadelphia,   Pa.,   Dec.    7, 

secretary  to  Archbishop  Spalding,  and 
chancellor  of  the  diocese.  In  October, 
1866,    he   was    appointed   assistant   chan- 

1801;  wife  of  James  Sloan  Gibbons;  was  cellor  to  the  Second  Plenary  Council  of 
the  chief  founder  of  the  Isaac  T.  Hopper  the  American  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
Home,  and  was  interested  in  numerous  which  met  in  Baltimore,  and  in  1868 
other  charitable  movements.  During  the  became  vicar-apostolic  of  North  Carolina, 
draft  riots  of  1863  her  home  was  among  with  the  title  of  bishop.  On  May  20, 
the  first  to  be  entered  by  the  mob  be-  1877,  he  was  appointed  coadjutor  arch- 
cause   of   her   abolition    sympathies.      She  bishop  of  Baltimore,  and  on  Oct.  3  of  the 

died  in  New  York  City,  Jan.  10,  1893. 

same  year  succeeded  to  the  see.     In  No- 

Gibbons,    Edward,    colonist;    born    in  vember,    1884,   he   presided   at  the   Third 

England;    came  to  America  in   1629  and  National  Council  at  Baltimore.     In  1886 

settled  in  Boston;  became  sergeant-major  he  was  elevated  to  the  dignity  of  cardi- 

of    the    Suffolk    regiment    in    1644;    was  nal,  being  the  second  prelate  in  the  United 

major-general  of  militia  in  1649-50.     He  States    to    attain    that    high    distinction, 

was  a  member  of  the  commission  of  1643  Cardinal   Gibbons   boldly   put   an   end   to 

to    establish    the    confederation    of    the  Cahensleyism     (q.    v.)     in    the    United 

Massachusetts,      Plymouth,      Connecticut,  States,   and   has   shown   himself   to   be   a 

and  New  Haven  colonies.    He  died  in  Bos-  thorough    American    citizen.      He    is    the 

ton,  Mass.,  Dec.  9,  1654.  author  of  The  Faith  of  Our  Fathers;  Our 

Gibbons,    James,    clergyman;    born    in  Christian  Heritage;  and  The  Ambassador 

Baltimore,  Md.,  July  23,   1834;    removed  of  Christ. 

to  Ireland  with  his  parents  at  an  early  Gibbons,  James  Sloan,  banker;  born 
age,  and  there  received  his  preliminary  in  Wilmington,  Del.,  July  1,  1810;  set- 
education,  and  in  1848  returned  with  his  tied  in  New  York  City  in  1835,  and  en- 
parents  to  the  United  States,  settling  in  gaged  in  banking.  His  publications  in- 
New    Orleans.      In    1855    he    entered    St.  elude  The  Banks  of  New  York,  their  Deal- 



ers,    the    Clearing-House,    and    the   Panic  In  the  battle,  Nov.  4,  1791,  in  which  St. 

of  1851;  The  Public  Debt  of  the  United  Clair    was    defeated,    Colonel    Gibson    was 

Slates;  and  a  song,  We  are  Coming, Father  mortally   wounded,   dying   in   Fort  Jeffer- 

Abraham,  Three  Hundred  Thousand  More  son,  O.,  Dec.  14,  1791.     His  brother  John 

(popular  during  the  Civil  War).    He  died  was  also  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution;  born 
in  New  York  City,  Oct.  17,  1892. 

in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  May  23,   1730;   was  in 
Gibbons,  Joseph,  abolitionist ;   born  in    Forbes's  expedition  against  Fort  Duquesne, 
Lancaster,     Pa.,     Aug.     14,     1818;     grad-    and  acted  a  conspicuous  part  in  Dunmore's 
n    1845;    was    war    in    1774.      He    commanded    a    Conti- 
of    the    nental  regiment  in  the  Revolutionary  War. 

uated   at   Jefferson   College 

one    of    the    principal    conductor 

"  underground    railroad,"    through    which    He    was    made    a    judge    of    the    Common 

institution  he  and  his  father  aided  hun- 
dreds of  slaves  to  freedom.  He  died  in 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  Dec.  8,  1883. 

Gibbs,    Alfred,    military    officer;    born 
in    Sunswick,    Long   Island,    N.    Y.,   April 

Plea?  of  Alleghany  county,  and  in  1800 
was  appointed  by  Jefferson  secretary  of 
the  Territory  of  Indiana.  He  died  near 
Pittsburg,  Pa.,  April  10,   1S22. 

Gibson,  James,  merchant;  born  in  Lon- 

23,    1823;    graduated    at    West    Point    in  don  in  1G90;   became  a  merchant  in  Bos- 

1846:   served  under  Scott  in  Mexico,  and  ton,   Mass.;    took   part  in   the  capture  of 

afterwards     against     the     Indians;      and  Louisburg,  and  after  its  surrender  superin- 

when  the  Civil  War  broke  out  he  was  in  tended    the    removal    of    the    prisoners   to 

Texas.     He  was  made  prisoner,  and  when  France.     He  published  an  account  of  the 

exchanged   in    1862   he   was   made   colonel  Louisburg   expedition,   under   the   title   of 

of  the   130th   New  York  Volunteers,   and  A  Boston  Merchant  of  17Jf5.     He  died  in 

served  under  Sheridan,  in  the  latter  part  the  West  Indies  in  1752. 
of    the    war,    in    command    of    a    cavalry        Gibson,  John,  military  officer;  born  in 

brigade.     He  was  active  in  the  Army  of  Lancaster,  Pa.,  May  23,  1740.     While  still 

the    Potomac    at    all    times,    and    was    a  a  boy  he  was  with  the  expedition  which 

thoroughly  trustworthy  officer.     In  March,  captured  Fort  Duquesne  in  1757.    He  mar- 

1S65,   he   was   brevetted   major-general   of  ried  the  Indian  chief  Logan's  sister;  took 

volunteers.     He  was  mustered  out  of  the  part   in    the   negotiations    between    Logan 

service   Feb.    1,    1866;     was   commissioned  and  Lord  Dunmore  in  1774;  was  in  active 

major  of  the  7th  Cavalry  on  July  28  fol-  service      throughout      the      Revolutionary 

lowing;     and    served    in    Kansas    till    his  War.   In  1801  Jefferson  appointed  him  see- 

death^in  Fort  Leavenworth,  Dec.  26,  1868.  retary  of  the  Indiana  Territory,  which  of- 

Gibbs,  George,  historian;  born  in 
Astoria,  N.  Y.,  July  17,  1815;  was  at- 
tached   to    the    United    States    boundary 

commission  for  many  years;  did  military 
duty    in    Washington    during    the    Civil 

fice  he  held  till  it  became  a  State.    He  died 
at  Braddock's  Field,  Pa..  April  10.  1822. 

Gibson,  Paris,  legislator;  born  in 
Brownfield,  Me.,  July  1,  1830;  was  gradu- 
ated   at    Bowdoin    College    in    1851;    re- 

War;    was   a    member   of   the   New   York  mo^ed    to    Minneapolis,    Minn.,    in    1S58. 

Historical    Society    for    many    years    and  where  with  W.  W.  Eastman  he  built  the 

its   secretary   for   six   years.      Among   his  first  flour  and  woollen  mills  in  the  city: 

works  are  Memoirs  of  the  Administrations  member  of  the  convention  that  framed  the 

of  Washington  and  John  Adams;  A 
Dictionary  of  the  Chinese  Jargon:  Ethnol- 
ogy and  Philology  of  America,  etc.  He 
died  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  April  9,  1873. 
Gibson,  Geouce,  military  officer;    born 

constitution  of  Montana  in  1889;  elected 
a  State  Senator  in  1891;  and  a  United 
States  Senator  in  1901. 

Gibson,  Randall  Lee,  statesman;  1mm 
in  Spring  Hill,  Ky..  Sept.  10,  1S:>2;  grad- 

Lancaster,  Pa.,  Oct.   10,   1747.     On  the    uated    at    Yale    in     1853;    at    the    begin- 
breaking-out  of  the   devolution   he  raised    ning  of  the  Civil  War  enlisted  as  a  private, 
a  company  of  100  men  at  Fort  Pitt,  who    hut  soon  received  a  commission  as  captai 
were  distinguished   for  their  bravery  and 
as  sharp-shooters,  and  were  called  "  Gib- 
son's   Lambs."     These    did     good    service 

in     the     Louisiana     Artillery,     and     sub- 
sequently was  elected  colonel  of  the   13th 
Louisiana   Infantry,     lie  took  part  in  the 
throughout  the  war.     A  part  of  the  time    battles     of     Shiloh,      Murfrcesboro,     and 
Gibson  was  colonel  of  a  Virginia  regiment.    Chickamauga.      At    Nashville    he    covered 



the  retreat  of  Hood's  army.  After  the 
war  he  resumed  the  practice  of  law  and 
was  elected  to  the  United  States  House  of 
Representatives,  but  was  not  allowed  to 
take  his  seat  until  a  subsequent  election. 
In  1882  and  1888  he  was  elected  to  the 
United  States  Senate.  He  died  in  Hot 
Springs,  Ark.,  Dec.  15,  1892. 

Gibson,  Tobias,  clergyman;  born  in 
Liberty,  S.  C,  Nov.  10,  1771;  became  a 
minister  of  the  Methodist  Church  in  1702; 
went  as  a  missionary  to  Natchez  in  1800; 
travelled  alone  through  the  forests  for 
600  miles  to  the  Cumberland  River;  sailed 
800  miles  in  a  canoe  to  the  Ohio  River; 
and  then  went  down  the  Mississippi.  He 
is  noted  chiefly  for  the  introduction  of 
Methodism  in  the  Southwest.  He  died  in 
Natchez,  Tenn.,  April  10,  1804. 

Giddings,  Franklin  Henry,  educator; 
born  in  Sherman,  Conn.,  March  23,  1855; 
graduated  at  Union  College  in  1877;  be- 
came Professor  of  Sociology  in  Colum- 
bia University  in  1S04.  He  is  the  au- 
thor of  Democracy  and  Empire;  The 
Principle  of  Sociology;  Modern  Distri- 
butive Process;  Theory  of  Socialization, 

Giddings,  Joshua  Reed,  statesman; 
born  in  Athens,  Pa.,  Oct.  6,  1795.  His 
parents  removed  to  Ohio,  and  in  1812  he 
enlisted  in  a  regiment  under  Colonel 
Hayes,  which  was  sent  on  an  expedition 
against  the  Sandusky  Indians.  In  1826 
he  was  elected  to  the  Ohio  legislature;  in 
1838  to  the  United  States  Congress. 
While  still  a  young  man  Giddings  was 
known  to  be  an  active  abolitionist.  In 
1841  the  Creole  sailed  from  Virginia  to 
Louisiana  with  a  cargo  of  slaves  who,  on 
the  voyage,  secured  possession  of  the  ves- 
sel and  put  into  Nassau,  Bahama  Isl- 
ands. In  accordance  with  British  law 
these  negroes  were  declared  free  men. 
The  United  States  set  up  a  claim  against 
the  British  government  for  indemnity. 
Giddings  offered  a  resolution  in  the  House 
to  the  effect  that  slavery  was  an  abridg- 
ment of  a  natural  right,  and  had  no  effect 
outside  of  the  territory  or  jurisdiction 
that  created  it;  and  that  the  negroes  on 
the  Creole  had  simply  asserted  their  nat- 
ural rights.  Under  the  leadership  of 
John  Minor  Botts,  of  Virginia,  the  House 
censured  Giddings.  and  as  it  gave  him  no 
opportunity   for  defence  he  resigned  and 

appealed  to  his  constituents  for  a  re- 
election. He  was  sent  back  within  six 
weeks,  and  subsequently  re-elected,  serving 
in  all  twenty  years.  Giddings  opposed  the 
annexation  of  Texas.  During  the  contro- 
versy in  reference  to  the  northern  boun- 
dary of  the  United  States  he  held  that 
the  United  States  was  entitled  to  the  line 
"  Fifty-four,  forty."  He  refused  to  support 
the  candidates  of  his  party  if  their  views 
on  the  slavery  question  were  not  in  con- 
formity with  his  own.  As  a  result  of  this 
opposition  Robert  C.  Winthrop  (q.  v.) 
failed  of  an  election  to  the  speakership 
in  1849,  the  Democratic  candidate,  Howell 
Cobb  (q.  v.),  of  Georgia,  being  success- 
ful. Giddings  opposed  the  Fugitive  Slave 
Law  and  the  repeal  of  the  Missouri  Com- 

promise. He  published  a  selection  of  his 
speeches  and  The  Rebellion:  Its  Authors 
and  Causes.  He  died  in  Montreal,  Canada, 
where  he  was  United  States  consul-gen- 
eral, May  27,  1864. 

Gilbert,  David  McConatjghy,  clergy- 
man ;  born  in  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  Feb.  4, 
1836;  graduated  at  Pennsylvania  College 
in  1857;  ordained  to  the  ministry 
of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  1860.  His 
publications  include  The  Lutheran  Church 
in  Virginia,  1776-1876 ;  The  Synod  of  Vir- 
ginia, Its  History  and  Work;  Muhlen- 
berg's Ministry  in  Virginia,  a  Chapter  of 



Colonial    Luthero-Episcopal    Church    His- 
tory, etc. 

Discourse  of  a  Disco verie  for  a  New  Pas- 
sage to  Cathaia  and  the  East  Indies.    He 

Gilbert,  Rufus  Henry,  inventor;  born    obtained  letters-pateut  from  Queen  Eliza- 

in  Guilford,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  26,  1832;  studied 
medicine;    served   as    surgeon    throughout 

bcth,    dated    June    11,    1578,    empowering 
him  to  discover  and  possess  any  lands  in 

the  Civil  War.    He  is  best  known  through  North  America  then  unsettled,  he  to  pay 

the   Gilbert  Elevated   Railroad   Company,  to  the  crown  one-fifth  of  all  gold  and  silver 

which  extended  from  the  Battery  through  which  the  countries  he  might  discover  and 

Greenwich    Street   and    Ninth    Avenue    to  colonize  should  produce.     It  invested  him 

Thirtieth    Street,   New   York   City.     This  with  powers  of  an  absolute  ruler  over  his 

was  the  first  elevated  railroad.    Soon  after  colony,   provided   the  laws   should   not  be 

the  Sixth  Avenue  railroad  was  built,  and  in  derogation  of  supreme  allegiance  to  the 

these  two  were  merged  into  one  with  the  crown.     It  guaranteed  to  his  followers  all 

other    elevated    railroads    in    New    York  the   rights   of    Englishmen;     and    it   also 

City,  under  the  title  of  the  Metropolitan  guaranteed    the   absolute   right   of   a   ter- 

Elevated  Railroad  Company.     He  died  in 
New  York  City,  July  10,  1885. 

Gilbert,     Sib    Humphrey,     navigator; 

ritory  where  they  might  settle,  within 
200  leagues  of  which  no  settlement  should 
be  permitted  until   the  expiration  of  six 

born  at  Compton,  near  Dartmouth,  Eng-  years.  This  was  the  first  colonial  charter 
land,  in  1539;  half-brother  of  Sir  Walter  granted  by  an  English  monarch.  Armed 
Raleigh.  Finishing  his  studies  at  Eton  and  with  this,  Gilbert  sailed  for  Newfound- 
Oxford,  he  entered  upon  the  military  pro-  land  in  157C  with  a  small  squadron;  for 
fession;  and  being  successful  in  suppress-  he  did  not  believe  there  would  be  profit 
ing  a  rebellion  in  Ireland  in  1570,  he  was  in  searching  for  gold  in  the  higher  lati- 
made  commander-in-chief  and  governor  of  tudes,  to  which  Frobisher  had  been. 
Munster,  and  was  knighted  by  the  lord-  He  was   accompanied   by   Raleigh;    but 

deputy.     Returning  to  England  soon  after 
wards,    he    married    a    rich    heiress.     In 

heavy  storms   and   Spanish  war-ships  de- 
stroyed  one   of   his   vessels,    and    the   re- 
mainder were  compelled  to  turn  back. 
Gilbert   was   too    much    impoverished 
to  undertake  another  expedition  until 
four  years  afterwards,  when  Raleigh 
and    his    friends    fitted    out    a    small 
squadron,   which    sailed    from    Plym- 
outh under  the  command  of  Gilbert. 
The  Queen,  in  token  of  her  good-will, 
had   sent  him  as  a  present  a  golden 
anchor,    guided    by    a    woman.      The 
flotilla     reached     Newfoundland     in 
i s     August,  and  entered  the  harbor  of  St. 
<<v     John,   where    Cartier    had    found    La 
« 'l<  J^i&fiik^^^^^^!^^^^^    R0(lue     almost     fifty     years     before. 

There,  on  the  shore,  Gilbert  set  up  a 
column  with  the  arms  of  England 
upon  it,  and  in  the  presence  of  hun- 
dreds of  fishermen  from  western  Eu- 
rope, whom  he  had  summoned  to  thr 
spot,  he  took  possession  of  the  island 
in  the  name  of  his  Queen.  Storms 
had  shattered  his  vessels,  but,  after 
making  slight  repairs,  Gilbert  pro- 
ceeded to  explore  the  coasts  south- 
1572  he  commanded  a  squadron  of  nine  ward.  Off  Cape  Breton  he  encountered  a 
ships  to  reinforce  an  armament  intended  fierce  tempest,  which  dashed  the  larger 
for  the  recovery  of  Flushing;  and  soon  vessel,  in  which  he  sailed,  in  pieces  on  the 
after   his   return   he   published    (1576)    a    rocks,  and  about  100  men  perished.     The 




commander  was  saved,  and  took  refuge  in  Britain  in  1796,  and  opposed  the  proposed 

a  little  vessel    (the  Squirrel)   of  ten  tons,  war   with   France   in    1798.      He   was   ap- 

His    little    squadron    was    dispersed,    and  pointed    United    States    Senator    in    1804, 

with    the    other    vessel     (the    Hind),    he  and     was     subsequently     elected,     serving 

turned    his    prow    homeward.      Again,    in  until   March   3,    1815,   when   he   resigned; 

a  rising  September  gale,  the  commander  of  governor   of  Virginia   in    182G-30,   resign- 

the    Hind    shouted    to    Gilbert    that    they  ing    to    take    part    in    the    Constitutional 

were  in  great  peril.     The  intrepid  navi-  Convention.    He  died  in  Albemarle  county, 

gator  was  sitting  abaft,  with  a  book  in  Va.,  Dec.  4,  1830. 

his  hand,  and  calmly  replied,  "We  are  as  Gillet,  Bansom  H.,  legislator;   born  in 

near  heaven  on  the  sea  as  on  land."     The  New  Lebanon,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  27,  1800;  elected 

gale   increased,   and   when   night   fell   the  to    Congress    in    1833;    appointed'  Indian 

darkness  was  intense.     At  about  midnight  commissioner    in     1837;     register    of    the 

the   men   on   the   Hind  saw  the  lights   of  Treasury  in  1845;  solicitor  of  the  Court  of 

the  Squirrel  suddenly  go  out.     The  little  Claims  in  1858.    He  wrote  a  History  of  the 

bark  had  plunged  beneath  the  waves,  and  Democratic  Party;  Life  of  Silas  Wright; 

all  on  board  perished,  Sept.  9,  1583.    Only  and  The  Federal  Government.     He  died  in 

the  Hind  escaped,  and  bore  the  news  of  the  Washington,  D.  C,  Oct.  24,  1876. 

disaster  to  England.  Gillett,  Ezra  Hall,  educator;  born  in 

Gilbert,     Thomas,    royalist;     born    in  Colchester,  Conn.,  July  15,   1823;   gradu- 

1714;  took  part  in  the  capture  of  Louis-  ted  at  Yale  in  1841;  appointed  Professor 

burg  in  1745,  and  also  in  the  attack  on  of  Political  Economy  in  the  University  of 

Crown  Point  in  1755.     He  raised  a  com-  New  York  in  1868.     Among  his  writings 

pany  of  300   royalists  at  the  request  of  are  History  of   the  Presbyterian   Church 

General   Gage,   but  was   obliged   to   leave  in  the  United  States;  Ancient  Cities  and 

the  country,  as  the  legislature  of  Massa-  Empires,  etc. 

chusetts    had    declared    him    "  a    public  Gillmore,  James  Clarkson,  naval  offi- 

enemy."     He  died  in  New  Brunswick  in  cer;    born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  July  10, 

1796.  1854;    graduated    at    the    United    States 

Gilder,  William  Henry,  explorer;  born  Naval  Academy  in   1875;    promoted  lieu- 

in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  16,  1838;  served  tenant     in     1891.      He    was     ordered    to 

through   the  Civil   War   and  received   the  Manila,  Jan.   14,   1899,  where  he  was  as- 

brevet  of  major  at  its  close.     In  1878  he  signed  to  the  Yorktown.    In  April  of  that 

was  appointed  second  in  command  of  the  year  he  was   captured  with   seven  others 

expedition   to   King  William's   Land,   and  while    scouting    at    Baler,    Luzon.      After 

while   so   engaged   made   a   sledge-journey  spending  over  eighteen  months  in  captiv- 

of    3,251    statute    miles,    the    longest    on  ity    and    suffering    great    privations    the 

record.     In  1881  he  was  with  the  Rodgers  party  was  rescued  in  the  mountains  near 

expedition  to  look  for  the  Jeannette.  After  Cagayan  by  Col.   Luther  B.  Hare,  in  De- 

the  Rodgers  was  burned  he  journeyed  from  cember,  1899. 

Bering  Strait  across  Siberia,  a  distance  of  Gillmore,  Quincy  Adams,  military  offi- 
2,000  miles,  in  the  depth  of  winter,  and  cer;  born  in  Black  Biver,  Lorain  co.,  O., 
sent  a  despatch  of  the  misfortune  to  the  Feb.  28,  1825;  graduated  at  West  Point 
Secretary  of  the  Navy.  His  publications  in  1849,  and  entered  the  engineer  corps, 
include  Schwatka's  Search,  and  Ice-Pack  He  was  for  four  years  (1852-56)  assist- 
ant Tundra.  He  died  in  Morristown,  ant  instructor  of  engineering  at  West 
N.  J.,  Feb.  5,  1900.  Point.    In  October,  1861,  he  was  appointed 

Giles,     William     Branch,     legislator;  chief   engineer    of   an    expedition   against 

born  in  Amelia  county,  Va.,  Aug.  12,  1762;  the    Southern    coasts    under    Gen.    W.    T. 

was  a  member  of  Congress  in  1791-1803,  Sherman.     He  superintended  the  eonstruc- 

with   the  exception  of  two  years.     Origi-  tion  of  the  fortifications  at  Hilton  Head, 

nally     a     Federalist     he     soon     affiliated  and  planned   and   executed   measures   for 

with   the  Democrats;    attacked  Alexander  the  capture  of  Fort  Pulaski  in  the  spring 

Hamilton,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  ac-  of  1862,  when  he  was  made  brigadier-gen- 

cusing  him  of  corruption;  he  also  opposed  eral  of  volunteers.     After  service  in  west- 

the  ratification  of  the  treaty  with  Great  ern  Virginia  and  Kentucky,  he  was  brevet- 
iv.— v                                                         81 


Colonization  of  America;  The  Making  of 
the  American  Nation,  etc 

Gilman,  Daniel  Coit,  educator;  born 
in  Norwich,  Conn.,  July  6,  1831;  grad- 
uated at  Yale  University  in  1852;  and 
continued  his  studies  in  Berlin.  In  1856- 
72  he  served  as  librarian,  secretary  of 
the  Sheffield  Scientific  School,  and  Pro- 
fessor of  Physical  and  Political  Geog- 
raphy at  Yale  University;  in  1872  be- 
came president  of  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, where  he  remained  until  1875. 
when  he  was  chosen  president  of  Johns 
Hopkins  University,  which  had  just  been 
founded.  In  1893-99  he  was  president  of 
the  American  Oriental  Society;  in  1896- 
97  a  member  of  the  United  States  com- 
mission on  the  boundary  -  line  between 
Venezuela  and  British  Guiana;  in  1901  re- 
signed the  presidency  of  the  university 
ttd  colonel  in  the  United  States  army,  and    and    became    editor-in-chief    of    The    Neio 


succeeded  Hunter  (June,  1863)  in  com- 
mand of  the  Department  of  South  Caro- 
lina,  when    he    was    promoted    to    major- 

International  Cyclopaedia  and  president 
of  the  National  Civil  Service  Reform 
League;  and  in  1902  was  elected  president 

general.  After  a  long  and  unsuccessful  of  the  Carnegie  Institution.  He  has  writ- 
attempt  to  capture  Charleston  in  1862,  he  ten  Life  of  James  Monroe;  University 
was  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  10th 
Army  Corps,  and  in  the  autumn  of  1863, 
resumed  operations  in  Charleston  Harbor, 
which  resulted  in  his  occupation  of  Mor- 
ris* Island,  the  reduction  of  Fort  Sumter, 
and  the  reduction  and  capture  of  Fort 
Wagner  and  Battery  Gregg.  General 
GilJmore  was  the  author  of  many  works 
on  engineering  and  a  notable  one  on  The 
Strength  of  the  Building  Stones  of  the 
United  States  (1874).  For  these  services 
during  the  war  he  was  brevetted  major- 
general  in  the  regular  army.  He  died  in 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  April  7,  1888. 

■Gillon,  Alexander,  naval  officer;  born 
in  Rotterdam,  Holland,  in  1741;  came  to 
.America  and  settled  in  Charleston.  S.  C, 
in  1766.  He  captured  three  British 
cruisers  in  May,  1777:  was  promoted  com- 
modore in  1778;  and  captured  the  Bahama 
islands    in   May,    1782,    while    commander    Problems 


Introduction     to    De    Tocque- 
ville's  Democracy  in  America:  etc. 

Gilman,  Nicholas,  legislator:  born  in 
Exeter,  N.  II.,  Aug.  3,  175.">;  entered  the 
Continental  army  in  1776:  and  served  dur- 

of  a  large  fleet.  He  died  at  Gillon's  Re- 
treat, on  the  Congaree  River,  S.  C,  Oct. 
6,  1794. 

Gilman,  Arrnin:.  author;  horn  in  Al- 
ton, 111.,  June  22,  1837;  was  the  executive  ing  11k1  remainder  of  the  war.  He  was 
officer  of  tlie  Harvard  Annex,  and  ils  re-  willi  Washington  at  the  surrender  of 
gent  when  it  became  Radcliffe  College.  Yorktown,  where  it  became  his  duty  to 
Among  his  works  are  Tales  of  the  Path-  take  an  account  of  the  prisoners.  In 
finders:   The  Discovery   of   America;   The    September,  1787,  he  was  a  delegate  to  the 



convention  to  frame  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States;  and  in  1805-14  held 
a  seat  in  the  United  States  Senate.  He 
died  in  Exeter,  N.  H.,  May  2,  1814. 

Oilman,  Nicholas  Paine,  educator; 
born  in  Quincy,  111.,  Dec.  21,  1849;  was 
graduated  at  Harvard  Divinity  School  in 
1871;  became  Professor  of  Sociology  and 
Ethics  in  the  Meadville  Theological  School 
in  1895.  He  published  Socialism  and  the 
American  Spirit,  etc. 

Gilmer,  George  Rockingham,  lawyer; 
born  in  Wilkes  (now  Oglethorpe)  county, 
Ga.,  April  11,  1790.  He  was  made  lieu- 
tenant of  the  43d  Infantry  in  1813,  and 
sent  against  the  Creek  Indians;  was  gov- 
ernor of  Georgia  in  1829-31  and  1837-39. 
He  was  the  author  of  Georgians  (a  his- 
torical work).  He  died  in  Lexington,  Ga., 
Nov.  15,  1859. 

Gilmer,  Thomas  Walker,  statesman; 
born  in  Virginia;  governor  6f  the  State 
in  1840;  member  of  Congress,  1841-44, 
when  he  became  Secretary  of  the  Navy; 
killed  by  the  explosion  of  a  gun  on  the 
Princeton  ten  days  later,  Feb.  28,  1844. 

Gilmor,  Harry,  military  officer;  born 
in  Baltimore  county,  Md.,  Jan.  24,  1838 ; 
entered  the  Confederate  army  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Civil  War.  In  May,  1863. 
he  recruited  a  battalion  of  cavalry  and 
was  commissioned  major.  He  was  the 
author  of  Four  Years  in  the  Saddle.  He 
died  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  March  4,  1883. 

Gilmore,  James  Roberts,  author;  born 
in  Boston,  Mass.,  Sept.  10,  1823.  In  July, 
1864,  with  Colonel  Jaquess  he  was  sent 
on  an  unofficial  mission  to  the  Confederate 
government  to  see  if  peace  could  be  estab- 
lished. Jefferson  Davis  gave  answer  that 
no  proposition  of  peace  would  be  con- 
sidered except  the  independence  of  the 
Confederacy.  Mr.  Gilmore's  publications 
include  My  Southern  Friends;  Down  in 
Tennessee;  Life  of  Garfield;  the  Rear- 
Guard  of  the  Revolution ;  Among  the  Pines 
(a  novel  which  had  a  remarkable  sale)  ; 
John  Sevier  as  a  Commonioealtli-Builder ; 
The  Advance-Guard  of  Western  Civiliza- 
tion; etc.  He  died  in  Glens  Falls,.  N.  Y., 
Nov.  16,  1903. 

Gilmore,  Joseph  Albree,  "  war  gov- 
ernor"; born  in  Weston,  Vt.,  June  10, 
1811;  settled  in  Concord,  N.  H.,  in  1842: 
elected  governor  of  New  Hampshire  in 
1863   and    1864.      When  a   draft  was   or- 

dered in  1863,  although  the  spirit  of 
patriotism  had  somewhat  waned,  he  re- 
cruited the  18th  Infantry,  the  1st  Heavy 
Artillery,  and  the  1st  Cavalry,  which 
brought  the  whole  number  of  New  Hamp- 
shire troops  supplied  during  the  war  up 
to  31,000,  about  10  per  cent,  of  the  popu- 
lation. He  died  in  Concord,  N.  H.,  April 
17,  1867. 

Gilmore,  Patrick  Sarseield,  musi- 
cian and  composer ;  born  near  Dublin,  Ire- 
land, Dec.  25,  1830;  was  employed  for  a 
short  time  in  a  mercantile  house  in  Ath- 
lone,  when  his  employer,  having  noticed 
his  remarkable  taste  for  music,  hired  him 
to  instruct  his  son  in  music.  In  1849  he 
came  to  the  United  States,  went  to  Bos- 
ton, and  became  the  leader  of  a  band. 
His  fame  as  a  cornet  player  soon  spread 
throughout  the  country.  After  having 
been  bandmaster  in  nearly  1,000  concerts 
he  established  in  1858  what  bocame  popu- 
larly known  as  Gilmore's  Band,  and  which 
later  gave  concerts  throughout  the  United 
States  and  in  more  than  half  of  Europe. 
When  the  Civil  War  broke  out  Gilmore 
and  his  band  volunteered  and  went  to  the 
front  with  the  24th  Massachusetts  Regi- 
ment. He  was  with  General  Burnside  in 
North  Carolina,  and  later,  while  in  New 
Orleans,  General  Banks  placed  him  in 
charge  of  all  the  bands  in  the  Department 
of  the  Gulf.  After  the  war  he  returned 
to  Boston  and  resumed  his  profession.  In 
1869  he  organized  a  great  peace  jubilee 
in  Boston,  in  which  over  20,000  people, 
2,000  musicians,  and  the  best  military 
bands  of  Europe  took  part.  He  conducted 
a  similar  grand  musical  event  in  1872. 
In  1873  he  removed  to  New  York,  and  be- 
came bandmaster  of  the  22d  Regiment. 
During  1873-76  he  gave  more  than  600 
concerts  in  what  was  known  as  Gilmore's 
Garden.  In  the  latter  year  his  band  was 
employed  to  play  at  the  Centennial  Expo- 
sition in  Philadelphia.  Later  he  took 
the  band  to  Europe,  where  he  gave  con- 
certs in  all  the  principal  cities.  Two 
days  before  his  death  he  was  appointed 
musical  director  of  the  World's  Columbian 
Exposition.  Among  his  most  popular 
compositions  are  Good  News  from  Borne; 
When  Johnny  Comes  Marching  Home;  and 
The  Voice  of  the  Departing  Soul,  or  Death 
at  the  Door  (which  was  rendered  at  his 
own     funeral).     His     anthems     are     On-- 



lumbia;  Ireland  to  England;  and  a  na-  morality,  leaving  them  to  adopt  their  own 
tional  air  for  the  republic  of  Brazil.  He  religious  opinions.  The  beneficiaries  are 
died  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  Sept.  24,  1892.  admitted  between  the  age  of  six  and  ten 

Gilpin,  Henry  Dilwood,  lawyer:  born  years;  fed,  clothed,  and  educated;  and 
in  Lancaster,  England,  April  14,  1801;  between  the  age  of  fourteen  and  eighteen 
graduated  at  the  University  of  Pennsyl-  are  bound  out  to  mechanical,  agricultural, 
vania  in  1819;  began  law  practice  in  or  commercial  occupations.  At  the  end 
Philadelphia  in  1822;  was  Attorney-Gen-  of  1900  the  college  reported  sixty-seven 
eral  of  the  United  States  in  1840-41.  His  professors  and  instructors;  1,731  students, 
publications  include  Reports  of  Cases  in  16,800  volumes  in  the  library,  4,754  grad- 
the  United  States  District  Court  for  the  uates,  and  $15,958,293  in  productive  funds. 
Eastern  District  of  Pennsylvania,  1828-  A.  H.  Fetterolf,  LL.D.,  was  president. 
36;  Opinions  of  the  Attorney-Generals  of  Girard  College.  See  Giraed,  Stephen. 
the  United  States,  from  the  Beginning  of  Girty,  Simon,  partisan;  born  in  Penn- 
the  Government  to  18^1.  He  also  edited  sylvania  about  1750;  was  a  spy  for  the 
The  Papers  of  James  Madison.  He  died  British  at  Port  Pitt  in  1774.  When  the 
in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Jan.  29,  1860.  Revolutionary  War  broke  out  he  became  a 

Girard,  Stephen,  philanthropist;  born  leader  of  the  Indians  and  took  part  in 
near  Bordeaux,  France,  May  24,  1750;  numerous  atrocities.  In  1778  he  went  to 
engaged  in  the  merchant  service  in  early  Detroit,  inciting  the  Indians  on  the  way 
life;  established  himself  in  mercantile  to  hostility  against  the  United  States, 
business  in  Philadelphia  in  1769,  and  He  was  present  when  Col.  William  Craw- 
traded  to  the  West  Indies  until  the  be-  ford  (q.  v.)  was  tortured  to  death  by  the 
ginning  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  Re-  savages,  and  it  is  alleged  that  he  mani- 
suming  his  West  India  trade  after  the  fested  joy  in  Crawford's  agony.  In  1791 
war,  he  accumulated  a  large  fortune;  but  he  was  present  at  the  defeat  of  Gen. 
the  foundation  of  his  great  wealth  was  Arthur  St.  Clair,  and  while  Gen.  William 
laid  by  events  of  the  negro  insurrection  Butler  lay  wounded  he  ordered  an  Indian 
in  Santo  Domingo.  Two  of  his  vessels  to  kill  and  scalp  him.  He  also  took  up 
being  there,  planters  placed  their  effects  the  cause  of  the  British  in  the  War  of 
on  board  of  them,  but  lost  their  lives  in  1812.  He  died  in  Canada  about  1815. 
the  massacre  that  ensued  The  property 
of  owners  that  could  not  be  found  was 
left  in  Girard's  possession.  In  1812  he 
bought  the  building  and  much  of  the  stock 
of  the  old  United  States  Bank,  and  began 
business  as  a  private  banker.  He  amassed 
a  large  fortune,  and  at  his  death,  in  Phil- 
adelphia. Dec.  26,  1831,  left  property 
valued  at  almost  $9,000,000.  Besides 
large  bequests  to  public  institutions,  he 
gave  to  Philadelphia  $500,000  for  the  im- 
provement of  the  city.  His  most  note- 
worthy gift  was  $2,000,000  and  a  plot  of 
ground  in  Philadelphia  for  the  erection 
and  support  of  a  college  for  orphans, 
which  was  opened  Jan.  1,  1848.  In  it  as 
many  poor  white  orphan  boys  as  the  en- 
dowment will  support  are  admitted.  By 
a  provision  of  the  will  of  the  founder,  no 
ecclesiastic,  missionary,  or  minister  of  any 
sect  whatever  is  to  hold  any  connection 
with  the  college,  or  be  admitted  to  the 
premises  as  a  visitor;  but  the  officers  of 
the  institution  are  required  to  instruct 
the    pupils    in    ihe    purest    principles    of 


Gist,   Mordecai,   military  officer;    bora 
in  Baltimore,  Md.,  in  1743;  was  captaia 



of  the  first  troops  raised  in  Maryland  at 
the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution;  was 
made  major  of  Smallwood's  regiment  in 
1776;  and  commanded  it  at  the  battle  of 
Long  Island.  Promoted  to  colonel  in 
1777,  ant  brigadier-general  early  in  1779, 
he  did  good  service  throughout  the  war, 
saving  the  remnant  of  the  army  after 
Gates's  defeat,  and  being  present  at  the 
surrender  of  Cornwallis.  He  died  in 
Charleston,  S.  C,  Sept.  2,  1792. 

Gladden,      Washington,      clergyman; 
born   at  Pottsgrove,  Pa.,  Feb.   11,   1836; 

Gleig,  Geouge  Robert,  author;  born  In 
Stirling,  Scotland,  April  20,  1796;  was 
educated  at  Glasgow  and  Baliol  College. 
His  publications  include  Campaigns  of 
Washington  and  New  Orleans,  etc.  He 
died  in  Berkshire,  England,  July  11, 

Glendale,  or  Frazier's  Farm,  Battle 
of.  There  was  a  sharp  contest  at  White 
Oak  Swamp  Bridge  on  the  morning  of 
June  30,  1862,  after  the  Army  of  the  Po- 
tomac had  passed  on  its  way  to  the  James 
River.      General    Franklin    had    been   left 


ordained  in  18G0;  connected  with  the  In- 
dependent as  editor,  1871-75,  and  Sunday 
Afternoon,  1875-82.     He  has  been  a  suc- 

with  a  rear-guard  to  protect  the  passage 
of  the  bridge  and  to  cover  the  withdrawal 
of   the   wagon-trains   at  that  point.     The 

cessful     lecturer     and    writer     for    many    Confederate    pursuers,    in    two    columns 

years.     See  Protestantism  in  the  Unit- 
ed States. 

Glass.  The  oldest  bottle  glass  man- 
ufactory in  the  United  States  was  estab- 
lished at  Glassboro,  N.  J.,  in  1775;  a  cut- 
glass  manufactory  was  established  at 
White's   Mill,   Pa.,    in    1852.      To-day   the 

were  checked  by  the  destruction  of  the 
bridges.  Jackson,  at  noon,  was  met  at 
the  site  of  the  destroyed  bridge  by  the 
troops  of  Smith,  Richardson,  and  Nablee, 
and  the  batteries  of  Ayres  and  Hazard, 
who  kept  him  at  bay  during  the  day  and 
evening.     Hazard  was   mortally  wounded, 

United  States  manufactures  more  glass  of  and  his  force  was  cut  up,  but  Ayres  kept 
almost  every  variety  than  any  country  in  up  a  cannonade  with  great  spirit.  Dur- 
the  world.  ing  the  night  the  Nationals  retired,  leav- 



mg   350    sick    and    wounded    behind,    and    was  in  a  strong  position  on  Malvern  Hill, 
some  disabled  guns.     At  the  same  time  a    about  18  miles  from  Richmond, 
sharp  battle  had  been  going  on  at  Glen-        Glendy,  John,  clergyman;  born  in  Lon 
dale,  or  Nelson's,  or  Frazier's  Farm,  about    douderry,    Ireland,    June    24,    1755;    edw- 
2  miles   iistant.  cated  at  the  University  of  Glasgow;  came 

Near  Willis's  Church  General  McCall's  to  the  United  States  in  1799,  and  settled 
division  was  posted  in  reserve,  General  in  Norfolk,  Va.;  was  chaplain  of  the 
Meade's  division  on  the  right,  Seymour's  House  of  Representatives  in  1815-16.  He 
on  the  left,  and  that  of  Reynolds  (who  was  the  author  of  Oration  in  Commemora- 
was  a  prisoner)  under  Col.  S.  G.  Sim-  tion  of  Washington.  He  died  in  Phila- 
mons.  The  artillery  was  all  in  front  of  delphia,  Pa.,  Oct.  4,  1832. 
the  line.  Sumner  was  some  distance  to  Glenn,  James,  colonial  governor;  was 
the  left,  with  Sedgwick's  division;  Hooker  governor  of  South  Carolina  in  1744-55; 
was  at  Sumner's  'eft;  and  Kearny  was  made  a  treaty  with  the  Cherokee  Indians 
at  the  right  of  McCall.  Longstreet  and  by  which  a  large  piece  of  territory  was 
Hill  had  tried  to  intercept  McClellan's  ceded  to  the  British  government.  He  was 
army  there,  but  were  too  late,  and  found  the  author  of  A  Description  of  South 
themselves  confronted  by  these  Nationals.    Carolina. 

General  Lee  and  Jefferson  Davis  were  with  Glisson,  Oliver  S.,  naval  officer ;  born 
Longstreet.  The  Confederates  waited  for  in  Ohio  in  1809;  entered  the  navy  in  1826; 
Magruder  to  come  up,  and  it  was  between  in  1862  was  commander  of  the  Mount 
three  and  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  be-  Vernon,  which  rescued  the  transport  Mis- 
fore  they  began  an  attack.  Longstreet  sissippi,  on  which  were  General  Butler 
then  fell  heavily  upon  McCall's  Pennsyl-  and  1,500  men.  This  vessel  had  grounded 
vania  reserves,  6,000  strong.  He  was  re-  on  the  Frying-Pan  Shoals,  off  North  Caro- 
pulsed  by  four  regiments,  led  by  Colonel  lina,  while  on  the  way  to  New  Orleans. 
Simmons,  who  captured  200  of  his  men  He  was  promoted  rear-admiral  in  1870; 
and  drove  them  back  to  the  woods.  Then  retired  in  1871.  He  died  in  Philadelphia, 
the   fugitives   turned,   and,   by  a   murder-    Pa.,  Nov.  20,  1890. 

ous  fire,  made  the  pursuers  recoil  and  flee  Glover,  John,  military  officer;  born  in 
to  the  forest.  In  that  encounter  the  Salem,  Mass.,  Nov.  5,  1732;  at  the  begin- 
slaughter   was   dreadful.  ning  of  the  Revolution  raised   1,000  men 

The  first  struggle  was  quickly  followed  at  Marblehead  and  joined  the  army  at 
by  others.  The  contending  lines  swayed  Cambridge.  His  regiment,  being  coin- 
in  charges  and  counter-charges  for  two  posed  almost  wholly  of  fishermen,  was 
hours.  The  Confederates  tried  to  break  called  the  "  Amphibious  Regiment,"  and 
the  National  line.  Finally  General  in  the  retreat  from  Long  Island  it  manned 
Meagher  appeared  with  his  Irish  brigade,  the  boats.  It  also  manned  the  boats  at 
and  made  such  a  desperate  charge  across  the  crossing  of  the  Delaware  before  the 
an  open  field  that  the  Confederates  were  victory  at  Trenton.  Glover  was  made 
driven  to  the  woods.  Then  Randall's  bat-  brigadier-general  in  February,  1777,  and 
tery  was  captured  by  the  Confederates,  joined  the  Northern  army  under  General 
when  McCall  and  Meade  fought  desperate-  Schuyler.  He  did  good  service  in  the  cam- 
ly  for  the  recovery  of  the  guns  and  carried  paign  of  that  year,  and  led  Burgoyne's 
them  back.  Meade  had  been  severely  captive  troops  to  Cambridge.  He  was 
wounded.  Just  at  dark  McCall  was  capt-  afterwards  with  Greene  in  New  Jersey, 
ured,  and  the  command  devolved  on  Sey-  and  Sullivan  in  Rhode  Island.  He  died  in 
mour.  Very  soon  afterwards  troops  of  Marblehead,  Jan.  30,  1797. 
Hooker  and  Kearny  came  to  help  the  re-  Glynn,  James,  naval  officer;  born  about 
serves,  the  Confederates  were  driven  to  1800;  joined  the  navy  in  March,  1815; 
the  woods,  and  the  battle  at  Glendale  served  in  the  Mexican  War.  In  June, 
ended.  Before  dawn  the  next  morning  1846,  eighteen  Americans  were  wrecked 
the  National  troops  were  all  silently  with-  in  Yeddo  and  made  prisoners  in  Nagasaki, 
drawn;  and  early  the  next  day  the  Army  Japan.  Later  Glynn,  in  command  of  the 
of  the  Potomac,  united  for  the  first  time  P«cble,  ran  within  a  mile  of  Nagasaki,  and 
since   the   Chickahominy    first   divided    it,    through     the     urgency     of     his     demand 



secured  the  release  of  all '  the  seamen. 
This  success  led  Glynn  to  propose  that  the 
United  States  attempt  to  open  trade  with 
Japan  by  diplomacy.  The  plan  was  suc- 
cessfully carried  out  by  Commodore 
Perry.  Glynn  was  promoted  captain  in 
1855.     He  died  May  13.   1871. 

Gmeiner,  John,  clergyman;  born  in 
Baernan,  Bavaria,  Dec.  5,  1847;  came  to 
the  United  States  in  1849;  was  ordained 
a  Roman  Catholic  priest  in  1870;  became 
professor  of  ecclesiastical  history  and 
homiletics  in  the  Seminary  of  St.  Francis 
of  Sales,  Milwaukee,  in  1876.  His  publica- 
tions include  The  Church  and  the  Various 
Nationalities  of  the  United  States,  etc. 

Gobin,  John  Peter  Shindel,  lawyer; 
born  in  Sunbury,  Pa.,  Jan.  26,  1837;  be- 
came a  brevet  brigadier-general  in  the 
Civil  War;  brigadier-general  of  United 
States  volunteers  in  the  war  against 
Spain  (1898)  ;  lieutenant-governor  of 
Pennsylvania  in  1898;  commander  of  the 
National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania  during 
the  coal  strike  of  1902;  State  Senator 
since  1884;  and  commander-in-chief  G.  A. 
R.  in  1897-98. 

Godfrey,  Thomas,  inventor;  born  in 
Bristol,  Pa.,  in  1704;  was  by  trade  a 
glazier,  and  became  a  self-taught  mathe- 
matician. In  1730  he  communicated  to 
James  Logan,  who  had  befriended  him, 
an  improvement  on  Davis's  quadrant.  In 
May,  1742,  Logan  addressed  a  letter  to 
Dr.  Edmund  Hadley,  in  England,  describ- 
ing fully  Godfrey's  instrument.  Hadley 
did  not  notice  it,  when  Logan  sent  a  copy 
of  this  letter  to  Hadley,  together  with 
Godfrey's  account  of  his  inventions,  to  a 
friend,  to  be  placed  before  the  Royal  So- 
ciety. Hadley.  the  vice-president,  had 
presented  a  paper,  a  year  before,  describ- 
ing a  reflecting-quadrant  like  Godfrey's. 
They  both  seem  to  have  hit  upon  the  same 
invention;  and  the  society,  deciding  that 
both  were  entitled  to  the  honor,  sent  God- 
frey household  furniture  of  the  value  of 
$1,000.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in 
December,  1749. 

Godkin,  Edwin  Lawrence,  journalist; 
born  in  Ireland,  Oct.  2.  1831;  graduated 
at  Queen's  College,  Belfast,  in  1851 ;  was 
the  first  editor  of  the  Nation,  which  was 
merged  with  the  New  York  Evening  Post 
in  1882,  which  he  also  edited  till  1899. 
He  is  the  author  of   Problems  of  Democ- 

racy :  Unforeseen  Tendencies  of  Democ- 
racy ;  Reflections  and  Comments,  etc.  He 
died  in  Brixham,  England,  May  20,  1902. 
See  Newspapers. 

God  Save  the  King  (or  Queen), 
the  national  hymn  of  Great  Britain;  sup- 
posed to  have  been  written  early  in  the 
eighteenth  century  as  a  Jacobite  song, 
and  the  air  has  been,  by  some,  attributed 
to  Handel.  It  was  sung  with  as  much 
unction  in  the  English-American  colonies' 
as  in  England.  The  air  did  not  originate 
with  Handel  in  the  reign  of  George  I.,  for 
it  existed  in  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV.  of 
France.  Even  the  words  are  almost  a 
literal  translation  of  a  canticle  which  was 
sung  by  the  maidens  of  St.  Cyr  whenever 
King  Louis  entered  the  chapel  of  that 
establishment  to  hear  the  morning  prayer. 
The  author  of  the  words  was  De  Brinon, 
and  the  music  was  by  the  eminent  Lulli 
The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  words: 

*•  Grand    Dieu   sauve   'le   Roi ! 
Grand    Dieu   venge   le   Roi ! 

Vive   le   Roi ! 
Que    toujouis    glorieux, 
Louis  victorieux ! 
Voye   ses  ennemis 

Toujours   sonmis  ! 
Grand   Dieu   sauve   le  Roi  i 
Grand  Dieu   sauve   le  Roi ! 

Vive    le    Roi  !" 

Other  authorities  credit  Henry  Carey  witfe 
the  authorship  of  both  words  and  music 
of  the  English  hymn.  The  music  of  My 
Country,  'tis  of  Thee  (words  by  Rev.  S.  F. 
Smith,  D.D.,  q.  v.),  is  the  same  as  that 
of  God  Save  the  King. 

Godwin,  Parke,  author;  born  in  Pater- 
son,  N.  J.,  Feb.  25,  1816;  graduated  at 
Princeton  in  1834;  one  of  the  editors  of 
the  New  York  Evening  Post  from  1836 
to  1S86.  Among  his  works  are  Pa-ciftc 
and  Constructive  Democracy ;  Dictionary 
■jf  Biography ;  Political  Essays;  etc.  He 
died  in  New  York,  Jan.  7.  1904. 

Goff,  Nathan,  statesman;  born  in 
Clarksburg,  \V.  Va.,  Oct.  9,  1843;  enlisted 
in  the  National  army  in  1861;  Secretary 
of  the  Navy  in  1881 ;  member  of  Congress. 

Goffe,  William,  regicide;  born  in  Eng- 
land about  1605;  son  of  a  Puritan  cler- 
gyman. With  his  father-in-law,  GeneraJ 
Whalley,  he  arrived  in  Boston  in  the  sum- 
mer of    1660.   and   shared  his  fortunes   iff 



America,  becoming  a  major-general  in 
1665.  When,  during  King  Philip's  War, 
Hadley  was  surrounded  by  the  Indians, 
and  the  alarmed  citizens  every  moment 
expected  an  attack  (1675),  Goffe  sud- 
denly appeared  among  them,  took  com- 
mand, and  led  them  so  skilfully  that 
the  Indians  were  soon  repulsed.  He  as 
suddenly  disappeared.  His  person  was 
a  stranger  to  the  inhabitants,  and  he  was 
regarded  by  them  as  an  angel  sent  for 
their  deliverance.  Soon  after  Goffe's  ar- 
rival in  Boston,  a  fencing-master  erected 
a  platform  on  the  Common,  and  dared  any 
man  to  fight  him  with  swords.  GofTe, 
armed  with  a  huge  cheese  covered  with  a 
cloth  for  a  shield,  and  a  mop  filled  with 
muddy  water,  appeared  before  the  cham- 
pion, who  immediately  made  a  thrust  at 
his  antagonist.  Goffe  caught  and  held 
the  fencing-master's  sword  in  the  cheese 
and  besmeared  him  with  the  mud  in  his 
mop.  The  enraged  fencing-master  caught 
up  a  broadsword,  when  Goffe  cried, 
"  Hold!  I  have  hitherto  played  with  you; 
if  you  attack  me  I  will  surely  kill  you." 
The  alarmed  champion  dropped  his  sword, 
and  exclaimed,  "Who  can  you  be?  You 
must  be  either  Goffe,  or  Whalley,  or  the 
devil,  for  there  are  no  other  persons  who 
could  beat  me."  He  died,  either  in  Hart- 
ford, Conn.,  in  1679,  or  in  New  Haven, 
in  1680.     See  Regicides. 

Goiogwen.     See  Cayuga  Indians. 

Gold.  The  total  production  of  the 
world  of  this  metal  in  the  calendar  year 
1900  amounted  in  value  to  $256,462,438, 
a  decrease  from  $313,645,534  in  1899, 
owing  to  the  British-Boer  war  in  the 
former  South  African  (or  Transvaal)  re- 
public. Among  countries  the  United 
States  led,  with  $78,658,785;  Australia 
ranking  second  with  $75,283,215;  Canada 
third  (because  of  the  Klondike  produc- 
tion) with  $26,000,000;  and  Russia, 
fourth  with  $23,000,862.  The  production 
in  the  American  States  and  Territories 
was,  in  round  numbers,  as  follows:  Ala- 
bama, $4,300;  Alaska,  $5,450,500;  Ari- 
zona, $2,566,000;  California,  $15,198,000; 
Colorado,  $25,892,000;  Georgia,  $113,000; 
Idaho,  $1,889,000;  Maine,  $3,600;  Mary- 
land, $800;  Michigan,  $100;  Missouri, 
$100;  Montana,  $4,760,000;  Nevada, 
$2,219,000;  New  Mexico,  $584,000;  North 
Carolina,     $34,500;     Oregon,     $1,429,500; 

South  Carolina,  $160,000;  South  Dakota, 
$6,469,500;  Texas,  $6,900;  Utah,  $3,450,- 
800;  Vermont,  $100;  Virginia,  $7,000; 
Washington,  $685,000;  and  Wyoming, 

Golden  Circle,  The.  The  scheme  for 
establishing  an  empire  whose  corner-stone 
should  be  negro  slavery  contemplated  for 
the  area  of  that  empire  the  domain  in- 
cluded within  a  circle  the  centre  of  which 
was  Havana,  Cuba,  with  a  radius  of  16 
degrees  latitude  and  longitude.  It  will 
be  perceived,  by  drawing  that  circle  upon 
a  map,  that  it  included  the  thirteen  slave- 
labor  States  of  the  American  republic. 
It  reached  northward  to  the  Pennsylvania 
line,  the  old  "  Mason  and  Dixon's 
line,"  and  southward  to  the  Isthmus  of 
Darien.  It  embraced  the  West  India  Isl- 
ands and  those  of  the  Caribbean  Sea, 
with  a  greater  part  of  Mexico  and  Central 
America.  The  plan  of  the  plotters  seems 
to  have  been  to  first  secure  Cuba  and  then 
the  other  islands  of  that  tropical  region, 
with  Mexico  and  Central  America;  and 
then  to  sever  the  slave-labor  States  from 
the  Union,  making  the  former  a  part  of 
the  great  empire,  within  what  they  called 
"  The  Golden  Circle."  In  furtherance  of 
this  plan,  a  secret  association  known  as 
the  "  Order  of  the  Lone  Star  "  was  formed. 
Another  association  was  subsequently 
organized  as  its  successor,  the  members 
of  which  were  called  "  Knights  of  the 
Golden  Circle  "  (q.  v.).  Their  chief 
purpose  seems  to  have  been  the  corrupt- 
ing of  the  patriotism  of  the  people  to 
facilitate  the  iniquitous  design.  The  lat- 
ter association  played  a  conspicuous  part 
as  abettors  of  the  enemies  of  the  republic 
during  the  Civil  War.  They  were  the  effi- 
cient allies  of  those  who  openly  made  war 
on  the  Union. 

Golden  Gate.     See  San  Francisco. 

Golden  Hill,  Battle  of.  The  Bos- 
ton Massacre  holds  a  conspicuous  place 
in  history;  but  nearly  two  months  before, 
a  more  significant  event  of  a  similar 
character  occurred  in  the  city  of  New 
York.  British  soldiers  had  destroyed  the 
Liberty  Pole  (Jan.  16,  1770),  and,  two 
days  afterwards,  two  of  them  caught  post- 
ing scurrilous  handbills  throughout  the 
city,  abusing  the  Sons  of  Liberty,  were 
taken  before  the  mayor.  Twenty  armed 
soldiers  went  to  their  rescue,  when  they 



were  opposed  by  a  crowd  of  citizens,  who 
seized  stakes  from  carts  and  sleds  stand- 
ing near.  The  mayor  ordered  the  soldiers 
to  their  barracks.  They  obeyed,  and  were 
followed  by  the  exasperated  citizens  to 
Golden  Hill    (on  the  line  of  Cliff  Street, 

Nearly  all  the  National  troops  in  North 
Carolina  were  encamped  that  night 
around  Goldsboro.  Gen.  Joseph  E.  John- 
ston, with  the  combined  and  concentrated 
forces  of  Beauregard,  Hardee,  Hood,  the 
garrison    from    Augusta,    Hoke,    and    the 

between  Fulton  Street  and  Maiden  Lane),    cavalry  of  Wheeler  and  Hampton,  was  at 

Smithfield,    half-way    between    Goldsboro 

where  the  soldiers,  reinforced,  charged 
upon  their  pursuers.  The  citizens  re- 
sisted with  clubs,  and  a  severe  conflict  en- 
sued,   during:    which    an    old    sailor    was 

and    Raleigh,    with    about    40,000    troops, 
mostly  veterans. 
Goldsborough,  Charles  Washington, 
mortally    wounded    by    a    bayonet.     The    author;    born    in    Cambridge,    Md.,    April 

mayor  appeared  and  ordered  the  soldiers 
to  disperse;  but  they  refused,  when  a 
party  of  "  Liberty  Boys,"  who  were  play- 

18,  1779;  became  secretary  of  the  naval 
board  in  1841.  He  was  the  author  of 
The  United  States  Naval  Chronicle;  and 

ing  ball  on  the  corner  of  John  Street  and  History  of  the  American  Navy.     He  died 

Broadway,   dispersed  them.     The   soldiers  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Sept.  14,  1843. 
made   another   attack   on   citizens   in  the        Goldsborough,    John    Rodgers,    naval 

afternoon;   and  these  conflicts  continued,  officer;   born  in  Washington,  D.  C,  July 

with  intermissions,  about  two  days,  dur-    2, 

entered  the  navy  in  1824;   was 

ing  which  time  several  persons  were  badly    midshipman   on   the   Warren   in    1824-30, 

injured.     Twice    the    soldiers    were 
armed     by     the     citizens.     See 

Golden  Horseshoe,   Knights  of  the 

dis-    when  the  Mediterranean  fleet  was  search- 
Libebty    ing  for  Greek  pirates.     He  captured  the 
Helene,  on  which  were  four  guns  and  fifty- 
eight  pirates,  with  a  launch  and  nineteen 

Sir  Alexander  Spottswood  in  1716  headed    men.      During    the    Civil    War,    while    in 

an  expedition  to  visit  the  country  beyond 
the   Blue  Rid^e  Mountains.     On  their  re- 

command  of  the  Union,  he  sunk  the  York, 
a  Confederate  steamer,  and  rendered  other 

turn    to    Williamsburg,    Spottswood    had  important   service;    retired   in    1870.     He 

small    golden    horseshoes    made,    set   with  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  June  22,  1877. 

garnets,    and   inscribed   "  Sic  juvat    tran-  Goldsborough,     Louis     Maleshebbes, 

scendere  monies,"  which   he   presented   to  naval  officer;   born  in  Washington,  D.  C, 

those  who  had  taken  part  in  the  expedi 

Goldsboro,  Junction  of  National 
Armies  at.  The  Confederates  under  Hoko 
fled  from  Wilmington  northward,  towards 
Goldsboro,  towards  which  the  Nationals 
rnder  Schofield  were  pressing.  It  was  at 
the  railroad  crossing  of  the  Neuse  River. 
General  Cox,  with  5,000  of  Palmer'? 
troops,  crossed  from  Newbern  and  es- 
tablished a  depot  of  supplies  at  Kingston, 
after  a  moderate  battle  on  the  way  with 
Hoke.  Perceiving  the  Confederate  force 
to  be  abotit  equal  to  his  own,  Schofield  or- 
dered Cox  to  intrench  and  wait  for  ex- 
peted  reinforcements.  On  March  10, 
18(>5,  Hoke  pressed  Cox  and  attacked  him. 
but  was  repulsed  with  severe  loss — 1,500 
men.  The  Nationals  lost  about  300.  The 
Confederates  fled  across  the  Neuse,  and 
Schofield  entered  Goldsboro  on  the  20th. 
Then  Terry,  who  had  been  left  at  Wil- 
mington, joined  Schofield  (March  22),  and 
the    next    day    Sherman    arrived    there. 

Feb.    18,    1805;    was    appointed    midship- 


man  in  1821,  and  lieutenant  in  1825.     In 
the  Seminole  War  {q.  v.)  he  commanded 



ji.  company  of  muunted  volunteers,  and 
also  an  armed  steamer.  Made  commander 
in  1841,  he  took  part  in  the  Mexican  War. 
From  1853  to  1857  he  was  superintendent 
of  the  Naval  Academy  at  Annapolis.  In 
the  summer  of  1861  he  was  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  North  Atlantic  blockading 
squadron,  and  with  Burnside  commanded 

r  reserve  fund  of  $150,000,000  in  gold  cow 
and  bullion,  which  fund  shall  be  used  for 
f-uch  redemption  purposes  only,  and  whenever 
and  as  often  as  any  of  said  notes  shall  be  re- 
deemed from  said  fund  it  shall  be  the  duty  of 
the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  to  use  said 
notes  so  redeemed  to  restore  and  maintain 
such  reserve  fund  in  the  manner  following, 
to  wit : 

"  First.  By    exchanging    the    notes    so    re- 

the    joint    expedition    to    the    sounds    of    ^ t^f  J^^  g°W  ^  ^  ^  SeDei'al  **'* 
North  Carolina.     For  his  services  in  the 
capture     of     Roanoke     Island     Congress 
afterwards    dispersed 

thanked  him.  He 
the  Confederate  fleet  under  Lynch  in 
North  Carolina  waters.  He  was  made 
rear-admiral  July  16,  1862;  became  com- 
mander of  the  European  squadron  in 
1865;  and  was  retired  in  1873.  He  died 
in  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  20,  1877. 

Gold  Standard  Act.  The  bill  in  the 
fifty-sixth  Congress,  first  session,  entitled, 
"  An  act  to  define  and  fix  the  standard 
of  value,  to  maintain  the  parity  of  all 
forms  of  money  issued  or  coined  by  the 
United  States,  to  refund  the  public  debt 

"  Second.  By  accepting  deposits  of  gold 
coin  at  the  treasury  or  at  any  sub-treasury 
in  exchange  for  the  United  States  notes  s* 

"  Third.  By  procuring  gold  coin  by  the  aeie 
of  said  notes,  in  accordance  with  the  pro- 
visions of  Section  3,700  of  the  Revised  Stat- 
utes of  the  United  States. 

"  If  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  is  unable 
to  restore  and  maintain  the  gold  coin  in  the 
reserve  fund  by  the  foregoing  methods,  and 
the  amount  of  such  gold  coin  and  bullion  la 
said  fund  shall  at  any  time  fall  below  $100,- 
000,000,  then  it  shall  be  his  duty  to  restore 
the  same  to  the  maximum  sum  of  $150,000,000 
by  borrowing  money  on  the  credit  of  the 
United  States,  and  for  the  debt  thus  incurred 
to  issue  and  sell  coupon  or  registered  bonds 
of  the  United  States,  in  such  form  as  he  may 

and  for  other  purposes,"  as  reported  from  prescribe,  in  denominations  of  $50  or  any 
the  conference  committee  of  the  two 
Houses,  passed  the  Senate  March  6,  1900, 
by  a  party  vote  of  44  to  26  (one  Demo- 
crat, Mr.  Lindsay,  of  Kentucky,  support- 
ing the  bill,  and  one  Republican,  Mr. 
Chandler,  of  New  Hampshire,  voting 
against  it),  and  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives March  13,  by  a  vote  of  166  yeas 
to  120  nays,  ten  members  present  and 
not  voting.  The  President  signed  the 
bill  March   14. 

By  this  act  the  dollar  consisting  of 
twenty-five  and  eight-tenths  grains  of 
gold,  nine-tenths  fine,  shall  be  the  stan- 
dard of  value,  and  all  forms  of  money 
issued  or  coined  shall  be  maintained  at 
a  parity  of  value  with  this  gold  standard. 
The  United  States  notes  and  treasury 
notes  shall  be  redeemed  in  gold  coin,  and 
a  redemption  fund  of  $150,000,000  of  gold 
coin  and  bullion  is  set  aside  for  that  pur- 
pose only.  The  following  is  the  text  of 
the  section  carrying  out  this  provision: 

"  Sec.  2.  That  United  States  notes,  and 
Treasury  notes  issued  under  the  act  of  July 
14,  1800,  when  presented  to  the  treasury  for 
redemption,  shall  be  redeemed  in  gold  coin  of 
the  standard  fixed  in  the  first  section  of  this 
act,  and  in  order  to  secure  the  prompt  and    t)V   the   United    States   is   not   affected 

multiple  thereof,  bearing  interest  at  the  rate 
of  not  exceeding  3  per  centum  per  annum, 
payable  quarterly,  such  bonds  to  be  payable 
at  the  pleasure  of  the  United  States  after 
one  year  from  the  date  of  their  issue,  and  to 
be  payable,  principal  and  interest,  in  gold 
coin  of  the  present  standard  value,  and  to  be 
exempt  from  the  payment  of  all  taxes  or 
duties  of  the  United  States,  as  well  as  from 
taxation  in  any  form  by  or  under  State,  mu- 
nicipal, or  local  authority  :  and  the  gold  coin 
received  from  the  sale  of  said  bonds  shall 
first  be  covered  into  the  general  fund  of  the 
treasury  and  then  exchanged,  in  the  manner 
hereinbefore  provided,  for  an  equal  amount  of 
the  notes  redeemed  and  held  for  exchange, 
and  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  may,  in 
his  discretion,  use  said  notes  in  exchange  for 
gold,  or  to  purchase  or  redeem  any  bonds  of 
the  United  States,  or  for  any  other  lawful 
purpose  the  public  interests  may  require,  ex- 
cept that  they  shall  not  be  used  to  meet  de- 
ficiencies in  the  current  revenues. 

"  That  United  States  notes  when  redeemed 
in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  sec- 
tion shall  be  reissued,  but  shall  be  held  in  the 
reserve  fund  until  exchanged  for  gold,  as 
herein  provided  ;  and  the  gold  coin  and  bull- 
ion in  the  reserve  fund,  together  with  the 
redeemed  notes  held  for  use  as  provided  In 
this  section,  shall  at.  no  time  exceed  the  max- 
imum sum  of  $150,000,000." 

The  legal  tender  quality  of  the  silver 
dollar  and  other  money  coined  or  issued 

certain  redemption  of  such  notes  as  herein 
provided  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Secretary 
yt  the  Treasury  to  set  apart  in  the  treasury 

the  act. 

The  deposit  of  gold  coin  with  the  tre«*v 



\irer,    and    the    issue    of    gold    certificates  difference  between  their  present  worth,  cooi- 

therefor,  and  the  coinage  of  silver  bullion  P"ted  as  aforesaid,  and  their  par  value,  and 

,,        .                     •    ,            ,    ■  ,  ■              •,  the    payments    to    be    made    hereunder    shall 

in    the    treasury    into    subsidiary    silver  be  held  t0  be  payable  on  account  of  the  gink_ 

coin  are  provided  for.  ing-fund  created  by  Section  3,694  of  the  Re- 

The  National  Bank  Law  is  amended  to  vised  Statutes. 

permit  banks  to  be  created  with  $25,000  tl  "  Ah°dJ!'°/id,ed  J?*1*.6*'  T,nat*he  2  pef  .cen" 

1      .,    .    .         .                ,                     i'.'\  lum  bonds  to  be  issued  under  the  provisions 

capital    in   places   whose   population   does  of  this  act  shall  be  issued  at  not  less  than 

not  exceed   3,000.     Provision  is  made  for  par,  and  they  shall  be  numbered  consecutively 

the  refunding  of  outstanding  bonds  at  a  !n  tne  ordeJ'  of  their  issue,  and  when  payment 

low  rate  of  interest,  and  under   it  bonds 

is    made    the    last    numbers    issued    shall    be 
first   paid,   and   this   order   shall    be   followed 

bearing  3,  4,  and  5  per  cent,  interest  have  until  all   the  bonds  are  paid,  and  whenever 

been    refunded    for    bonds    bearing    2    per  any  of  the  outstanding  bonds  are  called  for 

cent.     The     following     are     the     sections  E^nt nSS^L ^n™.   ^1!   ceas\thrKee 

f  months  after  such  call ;   and  there  is  hereby 

covering  these  amendments:  appropriated  out  of  any  money  in  the  treas- 

«a         <n    mu   4.    c     ..:        c„o      *   ^      r,  !1'*y  not  otherwise  appropriated,  to  effect  the 

•     ?E^V  1°;  Th-at  ^eC\i0n   5'13!  „°f   thG   Rt  exchanges  of  bonds  provided  for  in  this  act,  a 

vised   statutes   is   hereby   amended   so   as   to  sum  not  exceeding  one-fifteenth  of  1  per  cen- 

as  follows  : 

Section  5,138.  No    association    shall    be 

of  the  face  value  of  said  bonds,  to  pay 
the    expense    of    preparing    and    issuing    the 

organized  with  a  less  capita)  than  $100,000,  same  and  other  expenses  incident  thereto, 
except  that  banks  with  a  capital  of  not  less 
than  $50,000  may    with  the  approval  of  the        Section  12  provides  for  the  issue  of  cir- 
Secretary   of    the   Treasury,    be   organized    in         ,    ,.  ,  r     .       ,       ,  ,  ., 

any  place  the  population  of  which  does  not  bating    notes    to    banrcs    on    deposit    of 

exceed    6.000    inhabitants,    and    except     that  bonds,   and   for   additional    deposits   when 

banks  with  a  capital  of  not  less  than  $25,000  there   is   a   depreciation   in   the   value   of 

may,   with   the   sanction   of   the   Secretary   of  i,„jn       rril„  x„+„i   „  .      e        t  ■, 

the  Treasury,  be  organized  in  any  place  the  bonds-     The  total  amo"nt  of  notes  issued 

population   of   which   does   not   exceed   3,000  by  any  national  banking  association  may 

inhabitants.     No  association  shall  be  organ-  equal   at  any  time,  but   shall   not  exceed, 

ized,  in-A™ty  the  P°Pu,lation  of  which  ,ex"  the  amount  at  any  such  time  of  its  capi- 

ceeds  oO.OOO   persons   with  a   capital   of   less  .    ,     ,     ,         ,,,.,.  r 

than  $200,000.*  lal  stock  actually  paid  in. 

"  Sec.  11.  That  the  Secretary  of  the  Treas-        Every      national      banking      association 

ury    is   hereby   authorized   to   receive   at   the  shall    pa^    a    tax    in    January    and    July 

treasury    any    of    the    outstanding    bonds    of  „f  „„„  # ',_ai.   „*    i „„   x  .. 

the    United    States    bearing    interest    at    5  or  one-four  Ji  of   1  per  cent,  on  the  aver- 

per  centum  per  annum,  payable  February  1,  age  amount  of  such  of  its  notes  in  cireula- 

1904,   and   any    bonds   of   the   United    States  tion  as  are  based  on  its  deposit  of  2  per 

bearing  interest  at  4  per  centum  per  annum,  cent<    bondg     and    guch    taxeg    shall    be    • 

payable  July   1,   1907,  and  any  bonds  of  the  ..  .  ,.  ..  .... 

United  States  bearing  interest  at  3  per  cen-  heu  of  the  taxes  on  its  notes  in  circula- 

tum  per  annum,  payable  August  1,  1908,  and  tion  imposed  by  Section  5,214  of  the  Re- 

to  issue  in  exchange  therefor  an  equal  amount  vised     Statutes.      Provision     for     interna- 

of  coupon  or  registered  bond*  of  the  United  .•        .    i,j„^„iun„    :„    ™„j„    .•       ±i.      a    „i 

States  in  such  form  as  he  may  prescribe,  in  tlonal    bimetallism    is    made    in    the    final 

denominations  of  $50  or  any  multiple  thereof,  section  of  the  act,  which  is  as  follows: 
bearing  interest  at  the  rate  of  2  per  centum 

per    annum,    payable    quarterly,    such    bonds         "  Sec.  14.     That  the  provisions  of  this  act 

to  be  payable  at  the  pleasure  of  the  United  are  not  intended  to  preclude  the  aecomplish- 

States    after    thirty   years   from    the   date   of  ment   of   international    bimetallism    whenever 

their    issue,    and    said    bonds    to    be    payable,  conditions  shall  make  it  expedient  and  prac- 

principal    and    interest,    in    gold    coin   of    the  ticable    to    secure    the    same    by    concurrent 

present    standard    value,    and    to    be    exempt  action  of  the   leading  commercial   nations   of 

from  the  payment  of  all   taxes  or  duties  of  the  world  and  at  a  ratio  which  shall   insure 

the  United  States,  as  well  as  from  taxation  permanence    of   relative    value    between   gold 

in  any  form  by  or  under  State,  municipal,  or  and   silver." 
local  authority. 

"Provided,    That    such    outstanding    bonds        Goliad,    MASSACRE    AT.      See    Fanniw, 

may  be  received   in  exchange  at  a  valuation  James  W. 

not  greater  than  their  present  worth  to  yield         Go  Maximo,  military  officer;   bom 

an  income  of  214  uer  centum  per  annum  ;  and  '  '.  .  *  '  . 

in  consideration  of  the  reduction  of  interest  or  Spanish  parents  in  Bam,  San  Domingo, 

effected,    the    Secretary    of    the    Treasury    is  in    1838.     He   entered   the   Spanish   army, 

authorized  to  pay  to  the  ho'ders  of  the  out-  and  served  as  a  lieutenant  of  cavalry  dur- 

standing  bonds  surrendered  for  exchange,  out  .    „   .,      lo,    _-_'«_   „f  fi„.+   •  i„    A  t_ 

of  any  money  in  the  treasury  not  otherwise  m£  the  last  occupation  of  that  island  by 

appropriated,    a    sum    not    greater    than    the  Spain.     In  the  war  with  Haiti  he  greatly 



distinguished  himself  in  the  battle  of  San 
Tome,  where  with  twenty  men  he  routed 
a  much  superior  force.  After  San  Domin- 
go became  free  he  went  with  the  Spanish 
troops  to  Cuba,  and  for  a  time  was  in 
Santiago.  Becoming  dissatisfied  with  the 
way  in  which  the  Spanish  general,  Villar, 
treated  some  starving  Cuban  refugees  he 
called  him  a  coward  and  personally  as- 
saulted him.  He  at  once  became  a  bitter 
enemy  of  Spain,  left  the  Spanish  army, 
and  settled  down  as  a  planter;  but  when 
the  Ten  Years'  War  broke  out  in  1868 
he  joined  the  insurgents  and  received  a 
command  from  the  Cuban  president,' 
Cespedes.  Along  with  the  latter  and  Gen- 
eral Agramonte,  he  captured  Jugnani, 
Bayamo,  Tunas,  and  Holguin.  He  also 
took  Guaimaro,  Nuevitas,  Santa  Cruz,  and 


Cascorro,  and  fought  in  the  battles  of 
Palo  Sico  and  Las  Guasimas.  Later  he 
invaded  Santa  Clara  and  defeated  Gen- 
eral Jovellar.  He  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  major-general,  and  when  General 
Agramonte  died  succeeded  him  as  com- 
mander-in-chief. When  Gen.  Martinez 
Campos  was  sent  to  Cuba  in  1878  and 
succeeded  in  persuading  the  Cuban  leaders 
to  make  terms  of  peace,  General  Gomez 
withdrew  to  Jamaica,  refusing  to  remain 
under  Spanish  rule.  Subsequently  he 
went  to  San  Domingo,  where  he  lived  on 
a  farm  until  the  beginning  of  the  revolu- 
tion in  1895.     When  Jose  Marti,  who  had 

been  proclaimed  president  of  the  new  revo- 
lutionary party,  sent  for  him  he  promptly 
responded.  Landing  secretly  on  the 
Cuban  shore  with  Maceo  and  Marti,  he 
pledged  his  faith  with  theirs,  and  began 
the  war  which  ended  with  the  American 
occupation  in  1898.  On  Feb.  24,  1899, 
he  was  permitted  to  march  through 
Havana  with  an  escort  of  2,500  of  his 
soldiers,  and  on  the  following  night  was 
given  a  grand  reception  and  banquet  in 
that  city  by  the  United  States  military 
authorities.  In  the  following  month  the 
Cuban  military  assembly  removed  him 
from  his  command  as  general-in-chief  of 
the  Cuban  army,  because  the  United  States 
authorities  treated  with  him  instead  of 
it  concerning  the  distribution  of  $3,000,- 
000  among  the  bona-fide  Cuban  soldiers; 
but  he  ignored  the  action  of  the  as- 
sembly and  gave  invaluable  assistance  to 
General  Brooke,  then  American  gov- 
ernor-general. See  Cuba;  Garcia,  Ca- 

Gonannhatenha,  Frances,  Indian 
squaw;  born  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y. ;  con- 
verted to  Christianity;  captured  by  a 
hostile  party;  was  tortured,  and  entreat- 
ed by  a  relative  to  recant.  She  refused, 
and  was  killed  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y.,  in  1692. 

Gompers,  Samuel,  labor  leader;  born 
in  England,  Jan.  27,  1850;  an  advocate 
of  trades-unions  for  thirty-five  years ;  one 
of  the  founders  of  the  American  Federa- 
tion of  Labor  and  its  president,  with  the 
exception  of  one  year,  since  1882.  He  has 
written  largely  on  the  labor  question. 

Gooch,  Sir  William,  colonial  governor; 
born  in  Yarmouth,  Eng.,  Oct.  21,  1681; 
had  been  an  officer  under  Marlborough, 
and  in  1740  commanded  in  the  unsuccess- 
ful attack  on  Carthagena.  In  1746  he 
was  made  a  brigadier  -  general  and  wae 
knighted,  and  in  1747  a  major-general. 
He  ruled  with  equity  in  Virginia,  and  was 
never  complained  of.  He  returned  to  Eng- 
land in  1749.  and  died  in  London,  Dec  17, 

Good,  James  Isaac,  clergyman;  born 
in  York,  Pa.,  Dec.  31,  1850;  graduated 
at  Lafayette  College  in  1872,  and  later  at 
Union  Theological  Seminary;  ordained  a 
minister  of  the  German  Reformed  Church; 
became  Professor  of  Dogmatics  and  Pas- 
toral Theology  at  Ursinus  College,  Phila- 
delphia,   in    1893.      His    publications    in- 


elude  History  of  the  Reformed  Church  in 
the  United  States,  etc. 

Goode,  William  Athelstane  Mere- 
dith, author;  born  in  Newfoundland, 
June  10,  1875;  was  a  correspondent  on 
board  the  flag-ship  New  York  for  the 
Associated  Press  during  the  war  with 
Spain.  He  is  the  author  of  With  Sampson 
Through  the  War. 

Goodrich,  Aakon,  jurist;  born  in 
Sempronius,  N.  Y.,  July  6,  1807;  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  and  began  practice  in 
Stewart  county,  Tenn.;  secretary  of  the 
United  States  legation  at  Brussels  in 
1861-69.  He  published  A  History  of  the 
Character  and  Achievements  of  the  So- 
oalled  Christopher  Columbus. 

Goodrich.,  Charles  Augustus,  clergy- 
man; born  in  Ridgefield,  Conn.,  in  1790; 
graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1812.  His 
publications  include  Lives  of  the  Signers; 
History  of  the  United  States  of  American- 
Child's  History  of  the  United  States; 
Great  Events  of  American  History,  etc. 
He  died  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  Jan.  4,  1862. 

Goodrich,  Frank  Boott,  author;  born 
in  Boston,  Mass.,  Dec.  14,  1826;  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  College  in  1845.  His 
publications  include  History  of  Maritime 
Adventure,  Exploration,  and  Discovery ; 
The  Tribute-book,  a  Record  of  the  Munifi- 
cence, Self-sacrifice,  and  Patriotism  of 
the  American  People  during  the  War  for 
the  Union.  He  died  in  Morristown,  N.  J., 
March  15,  1894. 

Goodrich,  Samuel  Griswold,  author; 
popularly  known  as  "  Peter  Parley  " ;  born 
in  Ridgefield,  Conn.,  Aug.  19,  1793;  was 
a  publisher  in  Hartford  in  1824;  soon 
afterwards  he  settled  in  Boston,  and  for 
many  years  edited  The  Token.  He  began 
the  issuing  of  Peter  Parley's  Tales  in  1827, 
and  continued  them  until  1857.  He  also 
published  geographical  and  historical 
school-books.  From  1841  to  1854  he 
edited  and  published  Merry's  Museum  and 
Parley's  Magazine.  Of  170  volumes  writ- 
ten by  him,  116  bear  the  name  of  "  Peter 
Parley  " ;  and  more  than  7,000,000  copies 
of  his  books  for  the  young  have  been  sold. 
Mr.  Goodrich  was  American  consul  at 
Paris  during  Fillmore's  administration. 
He  died  in  New  York  City,  May  9,  1860. 

Good  Roads.  Prior  to  the  advent  and 
popularity  of  the  bicycle,  the  matter  of 
improving  the  public  thoroughfares  of  the 

country,  particularly  in  suburban  dis- 
tricts, was  almost  entirely  in  the  hands 
of  county,  township,  and  village  officials. 
As  the  wheel  grew  in  popularity,  and  peo- 
ple found  it  an  admirable  means  of  travel 
an  agitation  sprang  up  for  the  better 
improvement  of  roads  leading  through 
various  parts  of  the  country  which  the 
devotees  of  the  wheel  had  come  to  pat- 
ronize. This  agitation  by  petitions  and 
bills  personally  introduced  was  soon  mani- 
fested in  State  legislatures  and  boards 
of  county  commissioners.  In  the  Middle 
States,  particularly,  the  movement  for 
good  roads  was  actively  promoted  by  the 
League  of  American  Wheelmen,  which 
issued  numerous  guide-maps  for  "  cen- 
tury" runs,  showing  the  best  roads  for 
wheelmen  between  popular  points.  State 
Good  Roads  associations  were  formed, 
and  these  in  turn  formed  a  national,  or 
interstate,  association.  The  latter  body 
held  a  convention  in  Chicago  in  November, 
1900,  with  delegates  from  thirty  -  eight 
States  present.  The  State  associations 
operate  principally  in  their  respective  ter- 
ritories with  a  view  of  securing  the  im- 
provements of  the  roads  therein,  while 
the  national  association  seeks  to  secure 
congressional  action  for  the  improvement 
of  the  highways  of  the  country.  Much 
had  already  been  accomplished  at  the 
time  of  this  convention,  and  the  radical 
improvements  were  undoubtedly  due  first 
to  the  wide-spread  use  of  the  bicycle  and 
more  recently  to  that  of  the  automobile. 

Good  Templars,  Independent  Order 
of,  an  organization  the  members  of  which 
pledge  themselves  not  to  make,  buy, 
sell,  furnish,  or  cause  to  be  furnished,  in- 
toxicating liquors  to  others  as  a  beverage. 
It  originated  in  the  United  States  in  1851, 
and  in  Birmingham,  England,  in  1868. 
The  order  has  since  developed  into  an  in- 
ternational organization,  with  supreme 
headquarters  in  Birmingham,  England. 
In  1901  there  were  over  100  grand  lodges 
and  a  membership  of  nearly  500,000.  The 
order  has  a  membership  in  nearly  every 
State  in  the  Union,  and  it  also  has  a 
juvenile  branch  comprising  about  200,000 

Goodwin,  Daniel,  lawyer :  born  in  New 
York  City,  Nov.  26,  1832;  graduated  at 
Hamilton  College  in  1852;  admitted  to  the 
bar;   became  United  States  commissioner 



for  Illinois  in   1861.     He  published  James  1879.      His   publications   include   Congres- 

Pitts  and  His  Sons  in  the  American  Rev-  sional    Currency;    Befo'   dc    War;    Echoes 

olution,  etc.  in    Negro    Dialect    (with    Thomas    Nelson 

Goodwin,  Nathaniel,  genealogist;  born  Page):     and    For    Truth    and    Freedom: 

in   Hartford,   Conn.,   March  5,   1782.     His  Poems  of  Commemoration. 
publications       include      Descendants      of        Gordon,    George   Henry,   military  offi- 

Thomas  Olcott;   The  Foote  Family;   and  cer;  born  in  Charlestown,  Mass.,  July  19, 

Genealogical  Notes  of  Home  of  the  First  1825;    graduated    at    the    United    States 

Settlers    of    Connecticut    and    Massachu-  Military  Academy  in  1846;   served  in  the 

setts.    He  died  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  May  29,  war    with    Mexico,    participating    in    the 

1855.  siege  of  Vera  Cruz,  the  actions  of  Cerro 

Goodwin,  William  Frederick,  author;  Gordo,    Contreras,    and    Chapultepec,    and 

born   in  Limington,   Me.,   Sept.   27,   1823;  the  capture  of  the  city  of  Mexico.     During 

graduated    at    Bowdoin    College    in    1848;  the  Civil   War  his  bravery  was  conspicu- 

began  law  practice  in  Concord,  N.  H.,  in  ous    in    many    battles.      He    received    the 

1855;  served  with  distinction  in  the  Civil  brevet  of  major-general  of  volunteers  in 

War;  was  promoted  captain  in  1864.     His  April,    1865.     He  was  the  author  of  The 

publications  include  a  History  of  the  Con-  Army   of   Virginia  from    Cedar   Mountain 

stitution  of  New  Hampshire  of  1776,  1784,  to  Alexandria ;  A  War  Diary ;  and  From 

1792;  Record  of   Narragansett   Township,  Brook    to    Cedar   Mountain.      He   died    in 

No.  1,  etc.     He   died   in   Concord,   V.   H.,  Framingham,   Mass.,   Aug.   30,   1886. 
March  12,  1872.  Gordon,  John  Brown,  military  officer: 

Goodyear,  Charles,  inventor;  born  in  born  in  Upson  county,  Ga.,  Feb.  6,  1832: 
North  Haven,  Conn.,  Dec.  29,  1800;  was  was  educated  at  the  University  of  Geor- 
an  early  manufacturer  of  India  rubber,  gia;  studied  law;  was  admitted  to  the 
and  made  vast  improvements  in  its  prac-  bar,  and  shortly  after  he  began  to  prac- 
tical use  in  the  arts.  His  first  impor-  tise  the  Civil  War  broke  out,  and  he  en- 
fant discovery  was  made  in  1836 — a  tered  the  Confederate  army  as  a  captain 
method  of  treating  the  surface  of  the  gum.  of  infantry.  He  passed  successively 
This  process  was  superseded  by  his  dis-  through  all  grades  to  the  rank  of  lieuten- 
covery  early  in  1849  of  a  superior  method  ant-general.  During  the  war  he  was- 
of  vulcanization.  He  procured  patent  wounded  in  battle  eight  times,  the  wound 
after  patent  for  improvements  in  this  received  at  Antietam  being  very  severe. 
method,  until  he  had  more  than  sixty  in  He  was  a  candidate  for  governor  of  Geor- 
number.  in  America  and  Europe.  He  gia  on  the  Democratic  ticket  in  1868,  and 
obtained  the  highest  marks  of  distinction  claimed  the  election,  but  his  Republican 
at  I  lie  international  exhibitions  at  London  opponent,  Rufus  B.  Bullock,  was  given 
and  Paris.  He  saw,  before  his  death,  his  the  office.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Na- 
material  applied  to  almost  500  uses,  and  tional  Democratic  conventions  of  1868 
to  give  employment  in  England,  France,  and  1872,  and  presidential  elector  for  the 
Germany,  and  the  United  States  to  about  same  years.  He  was  elected  to  the  United 
60,000  persons.  He  died  in  New  York  States  Senate  in  1873;  re-elected  in  1879: 
City,    July    1,    1860.  resigned    in    1880,    and    again    elected    in 

Gookin,    Daniel,   military  officer;   born  1891;    and    was    governor    of    Georgia,    in 

in    Kent.    England,   about    1612;    removed  1887-90.    On  May  31.  1900.  he  was  elected 

to  Virginia  with  his  father  in   1621;   set-  commander-in-chief  of  the  United   Obn> 

tied    in    Cambridge,    Mass.,    in    1644:    be-  federate     Veterans.      General    Gordon    at- 

eame  major-general  of  the  colony  in    1681.  tained  wide  popularity  as  a  lecturer  on  the 

lie    was    author    of    Historical    Collections  events    of    the    Civil    War.       He    died    in. 

of  the  Indians;  of  Massachusetts.     He  died  Miami.  Pla..  Jan.  9.  1904. 
in  Cambridge,   Mass..  March   19,   1687.  Gordon,    Patrick,    colonial    governor; 

Gordon,    Anthony.     See  Jesuit   Mis-  born  in  England  in  1644 ;  became  governor 

btons.  of  Pennsylvania  in  172(1.     lie  was  the  au 

Gordon,    Armistead    CnuROHllx,    law-  thor  of  Two  Indian    Treaties  at   Conesto- 

▼er;   born   in   Albemarle  county,  Va.,  Dec.  goe.     He  died   in  Philadelphia.  Pa.,  Aug. 

20.    1855;    was   admitted   to   the   »:>r   »n  •">•   1736. 



Gordon,    Thomas    F.,    historian;    born 
in   Philadelphia,   Pa.,   in    1787;    practised 

associates.     In   1(515,  after  the  return  of 
Capt.   John    Smith    (q.   v.),   he   set   sail 

law.     His   publications   include  Digest   of    for  New  England,  but  a  storm  compelled 
the  Laivs  of  the  United  States;  History    the    vessel    to    put    back,    while    another 

of    Pennsylvania    from    its    Discovery    to    vessel,     under     Capt 

1776;  History  of  New  Jersey  from  its  Dis 

eovery  to  1789;  History  of  America;  Gaz 

etteer  of  New  Jersey;  Gazetteer  of  New    on    the   River    Saco   through   the   winter: 

York,  and  Gazetteer  of  Pennsylvania.     He    and  in  1619-20  Captain  Dermer  repeated 

Thomas  Dermeb 
(q.  v.),  prosecuted  the  voyage.  Gorges 
sent  out  a  party   (1616),  which  encamped 

died  in  Beverly,  N.  J.,  Jan.   17,   1860. 
Gordon,    William,   historian;    born   in 

the    voyage.      The    new    charter    obtained 
by  the   company   created   such  a   despotic 

Hitchin,     England,     in     1730;      came     to    monopoly    that    it    was    strongly   opposed 
America   in    1770;    and   was   ordained    at    in  and  out  of  Parliament,  and  was  finally 

rges  had,  mean- 
while, prosecuted  colonization  schemes 
with  vigor.     With  John  Mason  and  others 

Roxbury  in  1772.  He  took  an  active  dissolved  in  1635. 
part  in  public  affairs  during  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  in  1778  the  College  of  New  Jer- 
sey conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  he  obtained  grants  of  land  (1622),  which 
doctor  of  divinity.  Returning  to  Eng-  now  compose  a  part  of  Maine  and  New 
land  in  1786,  he  wrote  and  published  a  Hampshire,  and  settlements  were  at- 
history  of  the  Revolution,  in  4  volumes,  tempted  there.  His  son  Robert  was  ap- 
octavo.  He  died  in  Ipswich,  England,  pointed  "  general  governor  of  the 
Oct.  19,  1807.  country,"  and  a  settlement  was  made 
Gordy,  Wilbur  Fisk,  educator ;  born  ( 1 624 )  on  the  site  of  York,  Me.  After 
near  Salisbury,  Md.,  June  14,  1854;  grad-  the  dissolution  of  the  company  (1635), 
uated  at  Wesleyan  University  in  1S80;  Gorges,  then  a  vigorous  man  of  sixty 
later  became  supervising  principal  of  the  years,  was  appointed  (1637)  governor- 
Hartford  (Conn.)  public  schools.  He  is  general  of  New  England,  with  the  powers 
author  of  A  School  History  of  the  United  of   a   palatine,   and   prepared   to   come   to 

States,  and  joint  author  of  The  Pathfind- 
er in  American  History. 

Gorges,   Sir  Ferdinando,  colonial  pro- 
prietor;  born  in  Ashton  Phillips,  Somer- 

America,  but  was  prevented  by  an  acci- 
dent to  the  ship  in  which  he  was  to  sail. 
He  made  laws  for  his  palatinate,  but 
they    were    not    acceptable.      Gorges    en- 

set,  England,  about  15G5;  was  associated    joyed   his   viceregal   honors   a   few   yeara. 

with  the  courtiers  of  Queen  Elizabeth; 
was  engaged  in  the  conspiracy  of  the 
Earl  of  Essex  against  the  Queen's  council 

and  died  in  England  in  1647. 

His  son  Robert  had  a  tract  of  land  be- 
stowed   upon    him    in    New    England,    on 

(1600);  and  testified  against  him  at  his  the  coast  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  extend- 
trial  for  treason  (1601).  Having  served  ing  10  miles  along  the  coast  and  30  miles 
in  the  royal  navy  with  distinction,  he  inland.  He  was  appointed  lieutenant- 
was  appointed  governor  of  Plymouth  in  general  of  New  England,  with  a  council, 
1604.  A  friend  of  Raleigh,  he  became  of  whom  Francis  West,  who  had  been 
imbued  with  that  great  man's  desire  to  commissioned  "  Admiral  of  New  Eng- 
plant  a  colony  in  America,  and  when  Cap-  land,"  by  the  council  of  Plymouth,  and 
tain  Weymouth  returned  from  the  New  the  goA'ernor  of  New  Plymouth  for  the 
England  coast  (1605),  and  brought  cap-  time  being,  were  to  be  members,  having 
tive  natives  with  him,  Gorges  took  three  the  power  to  restrain  interlopers.  West, 
of  them  into  his  own  home,  from  whom,  as  admiral,  attempted  to  force  tribute 
after  instructing  them  in  the  English  from  the  fishing-vessels  on  the  coast, 
language,  he  gained  much  information  Gorges  brought  to  New  England  with 
about  their  country.  Gorges  now  became  him  a  clergyman  named  Morrell,  ap- 
thiefly  instrumental  in  forming  the  pointed  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
Plymouth  Company  (q.  v.),  to  settle  to  act  as  commissioner  of  ecclesiastical 
western  Virginia,  and  from  that  time  affairs;  also  a  number  of  indentured 
be  was  a  very  active  member,  defending  servants.   After  being  a  year  at  Plymouth. 

its   rights  before  Parliament,  and   stimu- 
lating   by    his    own    zeal    his    desponding 

Gorges    attempted    to    plant    a    colony   at 
Wissasnis.      He   had   encountered    Weston. 


who  came  over  to  look  after  his  colony, 
and  took  proceedings  against  him  as  an 
interloper.     See  Weston's  Colony. 

Gorham,  Nathaniel,  statesman;  born 
in  Charlestown,  Mass.,  May  27,  1738; 
■was  a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress 
(1782-83  and  from  1785  to  1787);  and 
was  chosen  its  president  in  June.  1786.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  convention  that 
framed  the  national  Constitution,  and  ex- 
erted great  power  in  procuring  its  ratifica- 
tion by  Massachusetts.  He  died  in 
Charlestown,  June  11,  1796.  See  Holland 
Land  Company. 

Gorman,  Arthur  Pue,  legislator;  born 
in  Howard  county,  Md.,  March  11,  1839; 
was  a  page  in  the  United  States  Senate  in 
1852-66;  collector  of  internal  revenue  for 
the  Fifth  District  of  Maryland  in  1866- 
69;  appointed  director  of  the  Chesapeake 
&  Ohio  Canal  Company  in  the  latter 
year,  becoming  president  in  1872;  was  a 
State  Senator  in  1875-81;  member  of  the 
Maryland  House  of  Delegates  in  1S69-75; 
and  a  United  States  Senator  in  1881-99 
and  in  1903-09.  In  March,  1903,  he  was 
chosen  the  Democratic  leader  in  the  United 
States  Senate. 

Gorrie,  Peter  Douglas,  clergyman; 
born  in  Glasgow,  Scotland,  April  21,  1813; 
came  to  the  United  States  in  1820,  and 
was  ordained  in  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Chinch.  He  was  the  author  of 
The  Churches  and  Sects  in  the  United 
States;  Black  River  Conference  Memori- 
al; etc.  He  died  in  Potsdam,  N.  Y.,  Sept. 
12,  1884. 

Gorringe,  Henry  Honeyciiurch,  naval 
officer;  born  in  Barbadoes,  W.  I.,  Aug. 
11,  1841;  came  to  the  United  States  in 
early  life;  served  through  the  Civil  War 
with  marked  distinction ;  was  promoted 
lieutenant-commander  in  December,  1868. 
He  became  widely  known  in  1880-81 
through  having  charge  of  the  transporta- 
tion of  the  Egyptian  obelisk  (Cleopatra's 
Needle)  presented  to  the  United  States 
by  the  Khedive  of  Egypt,  and  erected  in 
Central  Park,  New  York  City,  Jan.  23, 
1881.  The  total  cost  of  transportation — 
$100,000— was  paid  by  William  H.  Van- 
derbilt.  Gorringe  published  a  History  of 
Egyptian  Obelisks.  He  died  in  New  York 
City,  July  7,  1885. 

Gorton,  Samuel,  clergyman;  born  in 
England   about    1600;    was   a    clothier   in 

London,  and  embarked  for  Boston  in 
1636,  where  he  soon  became  entangled  iu 
theological  disputes  and  removed  to  Plym- 
outh. There  he  preached  such  heterodox 
doctrines  that  he  was  banished  as  a  heretic 
in  the  winter  of  1637-38.  With  a  few 
followers  he  went  to  Rhode  Island,  where 
he  was  publicly  whipped  for  calling  the 
magistrates  "  just-asses,"  and  other  re- 
bellious acts.  In  1641  he  was  compelled 
to  leave  the  island.  He  took  refuge  with 
Roger  Williams  at  Providence,  but  soon 
made  himself  so  obnoxious  there  that  he 
escaped  public  scorn  by  removing  (1642) 
to  a  spot  on  the  west  side  of  Narraganset 
Bay,  where  he  bought  land  of  Mianto- 
nomoh  and  planted  a  settlement.  The  next 
year  inferior  sachems  disputed  his  title 
to  the  land;  and,  calling  upon  Massa- 
chusetts to  assist  them,  an  armed  force 
was  sent  to  arrest  Gorton  and  his  follow- 
ers, and  a  portion  of  them  were  taken  to 
Boston  and  tried  as  "  damnable  heretics." 
For  a  while  they  endured  confinement  and 
hard  labor,  in  irons,  and  in  1644  they 
were  banished  from  the  colony.  Gorton 
went  to  England  and  obtained  from  the 
Earl  of  Warwick  an  order  that  the  cler- 
gyman and  his  followers  should  have 
peace  at  the  settlement  they  had  chosen. 
He  called  the  place  Warwick  when  he  re- 
turned to  it  in  1648.  There  he  preached 
on  Sunday  and  performed  civil  service 
during  the  week.  He  died  in  Rhode  Isl- 
and late  in  1677. 

Gosnold,  Bartholomew,  navigator ; 
born  in  England;  date  unknown;  became 
a  stanch  friend  of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh. 
Because  of  Raleigh's  failure,  he  did  not 
lose  faith.  The  long  routes  of  the  vessels 
by  way  of  the  West  Indies  seemed  to  him 
unnecessary,  and  he  advocated  the  feasi- 
bility of  a  more  direct  course  across  the 
Atlantic.  He  was  offered  the  command  of 
an  expedition  by  the  Earl  of  Southampton, 
to  make  a  small  settlement  in  the  more 
northerly  part  of  America:  and  on  April 
26,  1602,  Gosnold  sailed  from  Falmouth, 
England,  in  a  small  vessel,  with  twenty 
colonists  and  eight  mariners.  He  took 
the  proposed  shorter  route,  and  touched 
the  continent  near  Nahant,  Mass.,  it  is 
supposed,  eighteen  days  after  his  depart- 
\ire  from  England.  Finding  no  good  har- 
bor there,  he  sailed  southward,  discovered 
and   named   Cape  Cod.   and   landed   there. 



This  was  the  first  time  the  shorter  (pres-  Gospel,  Society  fob  the  Propagation 
ent)  route  from  England  to  New  York  of  the.  Edward  Winslow  (q.  v.),  the 
and  Boston  had  been  traversed ;  and  it  was  third  governor  of  the  Plymouth  colony, 
the  first  time  an  Englishman  set  foot  on  became  greatly  interested  in  the  spiritual 
New  England  soil.  Gosnold  passed  concerns  of  the  Indians  of  New  England; 
around  the  cape,  and  entered  Buzzard's  and  when,  in  1649,  he  went  to  England 
Bay,  where  he  found  an  attractive  group  on  account  of  the  colony,  he  induced  lead- 
of  Islands,  and  he  named  the  westernmost  ing  men  there  to  join  in  the  formation  of 
Elizabeth,  in  honor  of  his  Queen.  The  a  society  for  the  propagation  of  the  Gos- 
whole  group  bear  that  name.  He  and  his  pel  among  the  natives  in  America.  The 
followers  landed  on  Elizabeth  Island,  and  society  soon  afterwards  began  its  work 
were  charmed  with  the  luxuriance  of  veg-  in  America,  and  gradually  extended  its 
etation,  the  abundance  of  small  fruits,  labors  to  other  English  colonies.  In  1701 
and  the  general  aspect  of  nature.  (June  16)    it  was  incorporated  under  the 

Gosnold  determined  to  plant  his  colony  title  of  the  Society  for  the  Propagation 
there,  and  on  a  small  rocky  island,  in  the  of  the  Gospel  in  Foreign  Parts.  Wili- 
bosom  of  a  great  pond,  he  built  a  fort;  iam  III.  zealously  promoted  the  opera- 
and,  had  the  courage  of  the  colonists  held  tions  of  the  society,  for  he  perceived  that 
out,  Gosnold  would  have  had  the  im-  in  a  community  of  religion  there  was  se- 
ruortal  honor  of  making  the  first  perma-  curity  for  political  obedience.  The  society 
nent  English  settlement  in  America,  still  exists,  and  its  operations  are  widely 
Afraid  of  the  Indians,  fearing  starvation,  extended  over  the  East  and  West  Indies, 
wondering  what  the  winter  would  be,  and  Southern  Africa,  Australia,  and  islands 
disagreeing  about  the  division  of  profits,  of  the  Southern  Ocean, 
they  were  seized  with  a  depressing  home-  Gosport  Navy-Yard.  See  Norfolk. 
sickness.  So,  loading  the  vessel  with  Goss,  Elbridge  Henry,  author;  born 
sassafras-root  (then  esteemed  in  Europe  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Dec.  22,  1830;  received 
for  its  medicinal  qualities),  furs  gathered  a  common-school  education.  His  publica- 
from  the  natives,  and  other  products,  tions  include  Early  Bells  of  Massachu- 
they  abandoned  the  little  paradise  of  setts;  Centennial  Fourth  Address;  Life  of 
beauty,  and  in  less  than  four  months  after  Col.  Paul  Revere;  History  of  Melrose,  etc 
their  departure  from  England  they  had  Goss,  Warren  Lee,  author;  born  in 
returned;  and,  speaking  in  glowing  terms  Brewster,  Mass.,  Aug.  19,  1838;  received 
of  the  land  they  had  discovered,  Kaleigh  an  academic  education  and  studied  law; 
advised  the  planting  of  settlements  in  served  in  the  Civil  War;  was  captured 
that  region,  and  British  merchants  after-  and  imprisoned  in  Libby,  Belle  Isle, 
wards  undertook  it.  Elizabeth  Island  Andersonville,  Charleston,  and  Florence, 
now  bears  its  original  name  of  Cottyunk.  S.  C;  released  in  November,  1865.  His 
Gosnold  soon  afterwards  organized  a  com-  publications  include  The  Soldier's  Story 
pany  for  colonization  in  Virginia.  A  °f  Captivity  at  Andersonville ;  The  Recol- 
charter  was  granted  him  and  his  associ-  lections  of  a  Private;  In  the  Navy,  etc. 
ates  by  James  I.,  dated  April  10,  1606,  Gottheil,  Gustave,  rabbi;  born  in 
the  first  under  which  the  English  were  Pinne,  Germany,  May  28,  1827;  educated 
settled  in  America.  He  sailed  Dec.  19,  at  the  University  of  Berlin;  was  assist- 
1606,  with  three  small  vessels  and  105  ant  rabbi  at  Berlin  in  1S55-00;  rabbi  at 
adventurers,  of  whom  only  twelve  were  Manchester,  England,  in  1860-72;  rabbi 
laborers;  and,  passing  between  Capes  of  the  Temple  Emanuel  in  New  York  City 
Henry  and  Charles,  went  up  the  James  after  1873.  He  died  in  New  York,  April 
River  in  April,  1607,  and  landed  where  15,  1903.  His  son,  Richard  Gotthetl, 
they  built  Jamestown  afterwards.  The  is  the  Professor  of  Rabbinical  Literature 
place  was  an  unhealthful  one,  and  Gos-  and  Semitic  Languages  in  Columbia  Uni- 
nold  remonstrated  against  founding  the  versity,  and  the  author  of  the  article  on 
settlement  there,  but  in  vain.  Sickness  Jews  and  Judaism  in  vol.  v.,  p.  146. 
and  other  causes  destroyed  nearly  half  the  Gouge,  William  M.,  author;  born  in 
number  before  autumn.  Among  the  vie-  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Nov.  10,  1796;  was 
tims  was  Gosnold,  who  died  Aug.  22,  1607.  connected  with  the  United  States  Treasury 
rv.— o  97 


Department  for  thirty  years.  His  publi-  bis  life  to  the  cause  of  temperance  be- 
cations  include  History  of  the  American  fame  irresistible.  He  left  Worcester,  and 
Banking  System;  Fiscal  History  of  Texas,  with  a  carpet-bag  in  hand  travelled  on 
etc.  He  died  in  Trenton,  N.  J.,  July  14,  toot  through  the  New  England  States, 
1863.  lecturing  wherever  he  could  gain  auditors. 

Gough,  John  Bartholomew,  temper-  His  intense  earnestness  and  powers  of  ex- 
ance  lecturer;  born  in  Sandgate,  Kent,  pression  and  imitation  enabled  him  to 
England,  Aug.  22,  1817;  was  educated  sway  audiences  in  a  manner  attained  by 
principally  by  his  mother,  and  when  few  speakers.  For  more  than  seventeen 
twelve  years  old  came  to  the  United  years  he  lectured  on  temperance,  speaking 
States.  In  1831  he  was  employed  in  a  to  more  than  5,000  audiences.  In  1854 
publishing  house  in  New  York  City,  and  ne  went  to  England,  intending  to  remain 
there  learned  the  bookbinding  trade.  In  but  a  short  time.  His  success,  however, 
1833  he  lost  his  place  and  soon  drifted  was  so  great  that  he  stayed  for  two  years, 
into  the  worst  habits  of  dissipation.  For  In  1857  he  again  went  to  England  and 
several  years  he  spent  his  time  in  drink-  lectured  for  three  years.  In  1859  he  be- 
ing resorts,  making  his  meagre  living  by  gan  to  speak  before  lyceums  on  literary 
singing  and  by  his  wonderful  powers  of  and  social  topics,  though  his  chief  subject 
comic  delineation.  In  1842  he  went  to  was  always  temperance.  He  published  a 
work  in  Worcester,  Mass.,  where  he  was  number  of  works,  including  Autobiog- 
soon  looked  upon  as  a  hopeless  drunkard,  raphy;  Orations;  Temperance  Addresses; 
In  October  of  that  year  a  little  kindness  Temperance  Lectures;  and  Sunlight  and 
extended  to  him  by  a  Quaker  led  him  to  a  Shadow,  or  Gleanings  from  My  Lifework. 
temperance  meeting,  where  he  signed  a  He  died  in  Frankford,  Pa.,  Feb.  18,  1886. 
pledge  which  he  faithfully  kept  for  sev-  Gould,  Benjamin  Apthorp,  astrono- 
eral   months,   when   some  old   companions    mer;    born    in    Boston,    Mass.,    Sept.    27, 

1824;  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1844, 
and  went  abroad  for  further  study  in 
1845.  Returning  to  the  United  States  in 
1848  he  settled  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  and 
early  in  1849  started  the  Astronomical 
Journal,  in  which  were  published  the  re- 
sults of  many  original  investigations.  In 
1851  he  took  charge  of  the  longitude  oper- 
ations of  the  United  States  Coast  Survey. 
After  the  Atlantic  cable  was  laid  in  1866, 
he  went  to  Valencia,  Ireland,  and  founded 
a  station  where  he  could  determine  the 
difference  in  longitude  between  America 
and  Europe.  He  also,  by  exact  observa- 
tions, connected  the  two  continents. 
These  were  the  first  determinations,  by 
telegraph,  of  transatlantic  longitude,  and 
they  resulted  in  founding  a  regular  series 
of  longitudinal  measurements  from  Louisi- 
ana to  the  Ural  Mountains.  In  1856-59 
Dr.  Gould  was  director  of  the  Dudley  Ob- 
servatory in  Albany,  N.  Y.  In  this  build- 
ing the  normal  clock  was  first  employed 
to  give  time  throughout  the  observatory 
by  telegraph.  He  later  greatly  improved 
this  clock,  which  is  now  xised  in  all  parts 
of  the  world.  In  1868  he  organized  and 
directed  the  national  observatory  at  Cor- 
doba, in  the  Argentine  Republic.  He 
there    mapped    out    a    large    part    of    the 

JOnN   B.    OOI'Cll. 

led   him   astray.     He   soon    however,   con- 
quered  nis  appetite,  and   o  desire  to  give 



southern  heavens.  He  also  organized  a 
national  meteorological  office,  which  was 
connected  with  branch  stations  extending 
from  the  tropics  to  Terra  del  Fuego,  and 
from  the  Andes  Mountains  to  the  Atlan- 
tic. He  returned  from  South  America  in 
1885,  and  died  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Nov. 
26,  1896.  His  publications  include  In- 
instigations  in  the  Military  and  Anthro- 
pological statistics  of  American  Soldiers; 
Investigations  of  the  Orbit  of  Comet  V.; 
Report  of  the  Discovery  of  the  Planet 
Jfeptune;  Discussions  of  Observations 
Made  by  the  United  States  Astronomical 
Expedition  to  Chile  to  Determine  the  Solar 
Parallax;  The  Transatlantic  Longitude  as 
Determined  by  the  Coast  Survey;  Ura- 
nontetry  of  the  Southern  Heavens;  Ances- 
try of  Zaccheus  Gould,  etc. 

Gould,  Helen  Miller,  philanthropist; 
born  in  New  York  City,  June  20,  1868; 
daughter  of  Jay  Gould ;  has  been  actively 
associated   with   benevolent   work.     When 

the  war  with  Spain  began  in  1898 
she  gave  the  United  States  gov- 
ernment $100,000  to  be  used  at 
the  discretion  of  the  authorities. 
She  was  also  actively  identified 
with  the  Woman's  National  War 
Relief  Association  and  freely  con- 
tributed to  its  work.  When  the 
sick,  wounded,  and  convalescent 
soldiers  from  Cuba  were  taken  to 
Camp  Wikoff  on  Long  Island,  she 
gave  her  personal  services  and 
also  $25,000  for  needed  supplies. 
Among  her  other  benefactions  are 
$250,000  to  the  University  of  New 
York  for  a  new  library  (secretly 
given  in  1895),  and  later  $60,000 
for  additional  cost;  $60,000  to 
Rutgers  College,  New  Brunswick, 
N.  J.;  $10,000  for  the  engineering 
school  of  the  University  of  New 
York;  $8,000  to  Vassar  College; 
$100,000  to  the  University  of  New 
York  for  a  Hall  of  Fame;  $250,- 
000  for  the  erection  of  a  Presby- 
terian church  at  Roxbury,  N.  Y., 
and  $50,000  for  a  building  for  the 
Naval  Branch  of  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association  in  Brook- 
lyn, N.  Y. 

Gould,  Jay,  capitalist;  born  in 
Roxbury,  N.  Y.,  May  27,  1836; 
studied  in  Hobart  Academy  and 
afterwards  was  employed  as  book-keeper  in 
a  blacksmith  shop.  Later  he  learned  sur- 
veying and  was  given  employment  in 
making  surveys  for  a  map  of  Ulster 
county.  After  completing  the  survey 
of  several  other  counties,  he  became 
interested  in  the  lumbering  business  with 
Zadock  Pratt,  whose  share  he  later  pur- 
chased. Just  before  the  panic  of  1857  he 
sold  his  lumber  business  and  went  to 
Stroudsburg,  Pa.,  where  he  entered  a 
bank.  It  was  at  this  time  that  he 
first  became  interested  in  railroad  en- 
terprises. Removing  to  New  York  City 
he  became  a  broker,  dealing  at  first  in 
Erie  Railroad  bonds.  In  1868  he  was 
elected  president  of  that  company  and  re- 
mained in  that  office  till  1872,  when  the 
company  was  reorganized,  and  he  was 
forced  as  a  result  of  long  litigation  to  re- 
store $7,550,000,  a  portion  of  the  amount 
which  it  was  alleged  he  had  wrongfully  ac- 
quired.    While  president  of  the  Erie  com- 


pany  he  invested  heavily  in  stocks  of 
various  railroads  and  telegraph  companies. 
After  losing  his  office  in  the  Erie  company 
he  applied  himself  to  the  Pacific  railroads, 
in  which  he  had  become  interested,  the 
elevated  railroads  of  New  York,  and  the 
Western  Union  Telegraph  Company.  He 
built  many  branch  roads,  took  a  number 
of  roads  from  receivers,  and  brought 
about  combinations  which  effected  what 
was  known  as  the  "  Gould  System."  He 
was  actively  connected  with  the  Black 
Friday  (q.  v.)  and  other  financial  sen- 
sations. His  financial  standing  having 
been  assailed  in  1882,  he  exhibited  to  a 
committee  of  financiers  stocks  and  bonds 
to  the  face  value  of  $53,000,000,  and  stated 

an  important  place  in  English  political 
history,  but  in  the  general  history  of  the 
development  of  the  idea  of  a  written  con- 

The  following  is  its  text: 

that  he  could  produce  $20,000,000  more  if 
desired.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  Dec. 
2,   1802. 

Gourges,  Dominic  de.    See  Florida. 

Government,  Instrument  of.  A  con- 
stitution adopted  by  Cromwell  and  his 
council  of  officers  when  the  Little  Parlia- 
ment dissolved  itself  in  December,  1G53, 
surrendering  authority  to  Cromwell  as 
Lord  Protector.  It  is  therefore  to  be  re- 
garded as  the  constitutional  basis  of  defini- 
tion of  the  Protectorate;  and  under  it  the 
reformed  Parliament  met  in  September, 
1054.  This  assembly  proceeded  to  settle 
the  government  on  a  Parliamentary  basis, 
taking  the  "Instrument"  as  the  ground- 
work of  the  new  constitution,  and  carry 
ing  it  clause  by  clause.  The  Instrument 
of   Government   holds    therefore   not   only 

The  government  of  the  Commonwealth 
of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  and 
the  dominions  thereunto  belonging. 

I.  That  the  supreme  legislative  author- 
ity of  the  Commonwealth  of  England. 
Scotland,  and  Ireland,  and  the  dominions 
thereunto  belonging,  shall  be  and  reside  in 
one  person,  and  the  people  assembled  in 
Parliament;  the  style  of  which  person 
shall  be  the  Lord  Protector  of  the  Com- 
monwealth of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ire- 

II.  That  the  exercise  of  the  chief  magis- 
tracy and  the  administration  of  the  gov- 
ernment over  the  said  countries  and 
dominions,  and  the  people  thereof,  shall  be 
in  the  Lord  Protector,  assisted  with  a 
council,  the  number  whereof  shall  not 
exceed  twenty-one,  nor  be  less  than  thir- 

III.  That  all  writs,  processes,  commis- 
sions, patents,  grants,  and  other  things, 
which  now  run  in  the  name  and  style 
of  the  keepers  of  the  liberty  of  England, 
by  authority  of  Parliament,  shall  run  in 
the  name  and  style  of  the  Lord  Protector, 
from  whom,  for  the  future,  shall  be  de- 
rived all  magistracy  and  honours  in  these 
three  nations;  and  have  the  power  of  par- 
dons (except  in  case  of  murders  and  trea- 
son) and  benefit  of  aU  forfeitures  for 
the  public  use;  and  shall  govern  the  said 
countries  and  dominions  in  all  things  by 
the  advice  of  the  council,  and  accord 
ir,g  to  these  presents  and  the  laws. 

IV.  That  the  Lord  Protector,  the  Par- 
liament sitting,  shall  dispose  and  order 
the  militia  and  forces,  both  by  sea  and 
land,  for  the  peace  and  good  of  the  throe 
nations,  by  consent  of  Parliament;  and 
that  the  Lord  Protector,  with  the  advice 
and  consent  of  the  major  part  of  the 
council,  shall  dispose  and  order  the  militia 
for  the  ends  aforesaid  in  the  intervals  of 

V.  That  the  Lord  Protector,  by  the  ad- 
vice aforesaid,  shall  direct  in  all  things 
concerning  the  keeping  and  holding  of  a 
good  correspondency  with  foreign  kings, 
princes,   and    states;    and   also,   with    the 



consent  of  the  major  part  of  the  council,  Plymouth,  2;  Clifton,  Dartmouth,  Hardness, 

hare  the  power  of  war  and  peace.  1  '.   Totnes,    1 ;   Barnstable,    1  :   Tiverton,    1 ; 

VI.  That  the  laws  shall  not  be  altered,  "onltoD;H1 :   D„or8?ft8}1,r\  V   f,orc1hesteTr'   1: 

,    .  .    ,  ,    .  Weymouth     and     Melcomb-Regis,     1  ;     Lyme- 

suspended,    abrogated,    or    repealed,    nor  Regis,  i .  Pooie,  1  ;  Durham,  2  ;  City  of  Dur- 

any  new  law  made,  nor  any  tax,  charge,  ham.  1 ;  Essex,  13  ;  Maiden,  1 ;  Colchester,  2 ; 

or   imposition   laid   upon   the   people,   but  Gloucestershire,    5;    Gloucester,    2;    Tewkes- 

.  r  _     ,    f      -o     .._„      .      „„„„  bury,    1;    Cirencester,    1;    Herefordshire,    4; 

by  common  consent  in  Parliament,  save  Hereford,  1;  Leominster,  1;  Hertfordshire, 
only  as  is  expressed  in  the  thirtieth  ar-  5  ;  St.  Alban's,  1 ;  Hertford,  1 ;  Huntingdon- 
title,  shire,  3  ;   Huntingdon,   1 ;   Kent,   11 ;   Canter- 

VII.  That  there  shall  be  a  Parliament  1buryon2n:H^chhes^er'  j£ J5KS5?  V  ^t™' 

,    ,  ,    ,„    ,     .      .  1 ;     bandwich,     1  ;     Queenborough,     1  ;     Lan- 

eummoned  to  meet  at  Westminster  upon  casuire,  4;  Preston,  1;  Lancaster,  1;  Llver- 

the    third    day    of    September,    1654,    and  pool,    1 ;    Manchester,    1  ;    Leicestershire,    4 ; 

that   successively   a   Parliament   shall    be  Leicester,   2;    Lincolnshire,    10;    Lincoln,   2; 

j  ..    i_    ™ „    j.v,;_j    „„„_     *„  Boston,  1  ;  Grantham,  1  ;  Stamford,  1  ;  Great 

summoned  once  m  every  third  year,  to  Grlmsb'V)  1;  Middlese'x,  4;  London,  6 ;  West- 
be  accounted  from  the  dissolution  of  the  minster,  2 ;  Monmouthshire,  3  ;  Norfolk,  10  ; 
present  Parliament.  Norwich,  2;  Lynn-Regis,  2;  Great  Yarmouth. 

VIII.  That    neither    the    Parliament    to  j*;    Northamptonshire     6 ;    Peterborough     1; 

,  .  Northampton,  1  ;  Nottinghamshire,  4 ;  Not- 
be  next  summoned,  nor  any  successive  tlngham(  2;  Northumberland,  3;  New- 
Parliaments,  shall,  during  the  time  of  castle-upon-Tyne,  1  ;  Berwick,  1  ;  Oxford- 
five    months,    to    be    accounted    from    the  ahlre.  5 ;  Oxford  City,  1 ;  Oxford  University, 

j„„   „*   *!,„:-   i„„+    ™««+; u„   nA;m,*.nnA  1;    Woodstock,    1;    Rutlandshire,    2;    Shrop- 

day  of  their  last  meeting,  be  adjourned,  ghlre>    4 .    Sh;.ewsbury!    2 .    Bridgnorth,     1 ; 

prorogued,  or  dissolved,  without  their  own  Ludlow,    1 ;    Staffordshire,    3  ;    Lichfield,    1 ; 

consent.  Stafford,    1 ;   Newcastle-under-Lyne,    1 ;    Som- 

IX.  That  as  well  the  next  as  all  other  ersetshire,  11 ;  Bristol,  2  ;  Taunton    2  ;  Bath. 

_  ,.  ,  .,  .  1;  Wells,  1;  Bridgewater,  1;  Southampton- 
successive  Parliaments,  shall  be  sum-  sblre>  8.  winchester,  1;  Southampton,  1; 
moned  and  elected  in  manner  hereafter  Portsmouth,  1 ;  Isle  of  Wight,  2 ;  Andover, 
expressed;  that  is  to  say,  the  persons  to  1;  Suffolk,  10;  Ipswich,  2;  Bury  St.  Ed- 
be  <*<**„  within  England,  Wales,  and  J^Si&SE^iiJStffiiSTi 
Ihles  of  Jersey,  Guernsey,  and  the  town  Sussex,  9 ;  Chichester,  1  ;  Lewes,  1  ;  East 
of   Berwick-upon-Tweed,   to   sit  and   serve  Grinstead,  1 ;  Arundel,  1  ;  Rye,  1  ;  Westmore- 

in  Parliament  shill  be  and  not  exceed  land'  2  :  Warwickshire,  4  ;  Coventry,  2 ;  War- 
in   Parliament,  snail   t»e,  ana  not  exceea,  ^^  1;  Wiltshire   10;  New  sarum>  2;  Marl- 

the   number    of    four   hundred.     Ihe    per-  borough,   1;   Devizes,   1;   Worcestershire,   5; 

sons  to  be  chosen  within  Scotland,  to  sit  Worcester,  2. 

and  serve  in  Parliament,  shall  be,  and  not  YwteMre.— West  Elding,  C I;  East  Riding, 
,  .,  ,  .  ...  ,  ,  .,  M„  4  ;  North  Riding,  4  ;  City  of  York,  2  ;  Kings- 
exceed,  the  number  of  thirty;  and  the  per-  ton.upon.Hull>  !  .  Beverley,  1  ;  Scarborough, 
sons  to  be  chosen  to  sit  in  Parliament  for  1 ;  Richmond,  1  :  Leeds,  1  ;  Halifax,  1. 
Ireland  shall  be,  and  not  exceed,  the  num-  Wales.— Anglesey,  2;  Brecknockshire,  2  ; 
vp-  nf  +hirtv  Cardiganshire,  2  ;  Carmarthenshire,  2  ;  Car- 
L    J,        7;                               ^        ,     *  narvonshire,   2;   Denbighshire,   2;   Flintshire, 

X.  That  the  persons  to  be  elected  to  2 ;  Glamorganshire.  2 ;  Cardiff,  1  ;  Merioneth- 
Bit  in  Parliament  from  time  to  time,  for  shire,  1 ;  Montgomeryshire,  2  ;  Pembrokeshire, 
the   several    counties   of   England,   Wales,  2;   Haverfordwest,   1;   Radnorshire,   2. 

the    Isles    of   Jersey    and    Guernsey,    and        „.,......  .   ,,  .      . 

.,      .             e  -r,        .  ,             rp„    j         a   oil        The   distribution   of   the   persons   to   be 
the  town  of  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  and  all        X11C  "         "  '        ,        ,  T    ,      ,         ,  ..„ 
places  within  the  same  respectively,  shall  A—  ««  Scotland  and  Ireland,  and  the 
be     according    to     the     proportions     and  -several  con nties,  cities,  an  dp  ^es  ^re- 
numbers hereafter  expressed:    that  is  to  J,    shall    be    according    to    such    proper- 
r  tions  and  number  as  shall  be  agreed  upon 
y'  and  declared  by  the  Lord  Protector  and 
Bedfordshire,   5 ;   Bedford  Town.   1 ;   Berk-  the  major  part  of  the  council,  before  the 
shire,  5 ;  Abingdon,  1 ;  Reading,  1 ;  Bucking-  sending  forth  writs  of   summons   for  the 
hamshire,    5 :    Buckingham    Town,    1  ;    Ayles-  nex^  Parliament 

1 ;  Isle  of  Ely,  2 ;  Cheshire,  4  ;  Chester,  1 ;  shall  be  by  writ  under  the  Great  beal  ot 

Cornwall,     8 ;     Launceston,     1 ;     Truro,     1 ;  England,   directed   to   the   sheriffs   of   the 

cXESlaU  ^cJXle."?:   DeerbyshTree;   l\  -veral  and  respective  counties    with  such 

Derby  Town,  1  ;  Devonshire,  11  ;  Exeter,  2 ;  alteration  as  may   suit  with   the  present 



government,  to  be  made  by  the  Lord 
Protector  and  his  council,  which  the 
"Chancellor,  Keeper,  or  Commissioners  of 
the  Great  Seal  shall  seal,  issue,  and  send 
abroad  by  warrant  from  the  Lord  Pro- 
tector. If  the  Lord  Protector  shall  not 
give  warrant  for  issuing  of  writs  of  sum- 
mons for  the  next  Parliament,  before  the 
first  of  June,  1G54,  or  for  the  Triennial 
Parliaments,  before  the  first  day  of 
August  in  every  third  year,  to  be  ac- 
counted as  aforesaid;  that  then  the 
Chancellor,  Keeper,  or  Commissioners  of 
the  Great  Seal  for  the  time  being,  shall, 
without  any  warrant  or  direction,  within 
seven  days  after  the  said  first  day  of 
•Tune,  1654,  seal,  issue,  and  send  abroad 
writs  of  summons  (changing  therein 
what  is  to  be  changed  as  aforesaid)  to 
the  several  and  respective  sheriffs  of 
England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  for  sum- 
moning the  Parliament  to  meet  at  West- 
minster, the  third  day  of  September  next: 
and  shall  likewise,  within  seven  days 
after  the  said  first  day  of  August,  in  every 
third  year,  to  be  accounted  from  the  dis- 
solution of  the  precedent  Parliament, 
seal,  issue,  and  send  forth  abroad  several 
writs  of  summons  (changing  therein 
what  is  to  be  changed)  as  aforesaid,  for 
summoning  the  Parliament  to  meet  at 
Westminster  the  sixth  of  November  in 
that  third  year.  That  the  said  several 
and  respective  sheriffs,  shall,  within  ten 
days  after  the  receipt  of  such  writ  as 
aforesaid,  cause  the  same  to  be  pro- 
claimed and  published  in  every  market- 
town  within  his  county  upon  the  market- 
days  thereof,  between  twelve  and  three 
of  the  clock;  and  shall  then  also  publish 
and  declare  the  certain  day  of  the  week 
and  month,  for  choosing  members  to  serve 
in  Parliament  for  the  body  of  the  said 
county,  according  to  the  tenor  of  the  said 
writ,  which  shall  be  upon  Wednesday  five 
weeks  after  the  date  of  the  writ;  and 
shall  likewise  declare  the  place  where  the 
election  shall  be  made:  for  which  pur- 
pose he  shall  appoint  the  most  con- 
venient place  for  the  whole  county  to 
meet  in ;  and  shall  send  precepts  for  elee- 
tions  to  be  made  in  all  and  every  city, 
town,  borough,  or  place  within  his 
county,  where  elections  are  to  be  made 
by  virtue  of  these  presents,  to  the  Mayor, 
Sheriff,  or  other  head  officer  of  such  city. 

town,  borough,  or  place,  within  three 
days  after  the  receipt  of  such  writ  and 
writs;  which  the  said  Mayors,  Sheriffs, 
and  officers  respectively  are  to  make  pub- 
lication of,  and  of  the  certain  day  for 
such  elections  to  be  made  in  the  said 
city,  town,  or  place  aforesaid,  and  to 
cause  elections  to  be  made  accordingly. 

XII.  That  at  the  day  and  place  of  elec- 
tions, the  Sheriff  of  each  county,  and  the 
said  Mayors,  Sheriffs,  Bailiffs,  and  other 
head  officers  within  their  cities,  towns, 
boroughs,  and  places  respectively,  shall 
take  view  of  the  said  elections,  and  shall 
make  return  into  the  chancery  within 
twenty  days  after  the  said  elections,  of 
the  persons  elected  by  the  greater  num- 
ber of  electors,  under  their  hands  and 
seals,  between  him  on  the  one  part,  and 
the  electors  on  the  other  part;  wherein 
shall  be  contained,  that  the  persons 
elected  shall  not  have  power  to  alter  the 
government  as  it  is  hereby  settled  in  one 
single  person  and  a  Parliament. 

XIII.  That  the  Sheriff,  who  shall  wit- 
tingly and  willingly  make  any  false  re- 
turn, or  neglect  his  duty,  shall  incur  the 
penalty  of  2000  marks  of  lawful  English 
money;  the  one  moiety  to  the  Lord  Pro- 
tector, and  the  other  moiety  to  such  per- 
son as  will  sue  for  the  same. 

XIV.  That  all  and  every  person  and 
persons,  who  have  aided,  advised,  assisted, 
or  abetted  in  any  war  against  the  Par- 
liament, since  the  first  day  of  January 
1641  (unless  they  have  been  since  in  the 
service  of  Parliament,  and  given  signal 
testimony  of  their  good  affection  there- 
unto) shall  be  disabled  and  incapable  to 
be  elected,  or  to  give  any  vote  in  the  elec- 
tion of  any  members  to  serve  in  the  next 
Parliament,  or  in  the  three  succeeding 
Triennial  Parliaments. 

XV.  That  all  such,  who  have  advised, 
assisted,  or  abetted  the  rebellion  of  Ire- 
land, shall  be  disabled  and  incapable  for 
ever  to  be  elected,  or  give  any  vote  in 
the  election  of  any  member  to  serve  in 
Parliament;  as  also  all  such  who  do  or 
shall  profess  the  Roman  Catholic  religion. 

XVI.  That  all  votes  and  elections  given 
or  made  contrary,  or  not  according  to 
these  qualifications,  shall  be  null  and 
void:  and  if  any  person,  who  is  hereby 
made  incapable,  shall  give  his  vote  for 
election   of   members   to    serve   in    Parlia- 



raent,  such  person  shall  lose  and  forfeit  sities,  cities,  boroughs,  and  places  afore- 
one  full  year's  value  in  his  real  estate,  6aid,  by  such  persons,  and  in  such  man- 
and  one  full  third  part  of  his  personal  ner,  as  if  several  and  respective  writs  of 
estate;  one  moiety  thereof  to  the  Lord  summons  to  Parliament  under  the  Great 
Protector,  and  the  other  moiety  to  him  Seal  had  issued  and  been  awarded  accord- 
or  them  who  shall  sue  for  the  same.  ing  to   the   tenor   aforesaid:     that   if   the 

XVII.  That  the  persons  who  shall  be  sheriff,  or  other  persons  authorized,  shall 
elected  to  serve  in  Parliament,  shall  be  neglect  his  or  their  duty  herein,  that  all 
such  (and  no  other  than  such)  as  are  and  every  such  sheriff  and  person  author- 
persons  of  known  integrity,  fearing  God,  ized  as  aforesaid,  so  neglecting  his  or  their 
and  of  good  conversation,  and  being  of  duty,  shall,  for  every  such  offence,  be 
the  age  of  twenty-one  years.  guilty  of   high   treason,   and   shall    suffer 

XVIII.  That  all  and  every  person  and  the  pains  and  penalties  thereof. 

persons  seized  or  possessed  to  his  own  XXI.  That  the  clerk,  called  the  clerk 
use,  of  any  estate,  real  or  personal,  to  of  the  Commonwealth  in  Chancery  for  the 
the  value  of  £200,  and  not  within  the  time  being,  and  all  others,  who  shall  after- 
aforesaid  exceptions,  shall  be  capable  to  wards  execute  that  office,  to  whom  the 
elect  members  to  serve  in  Parliament  for  returns  shall  be  made,  shall  for  the  next 
counties.  Parliament,  and  the  two  succeeding  Trien- 

XIX.  That  the  Chancellor,  Keeper,  or  nial  Parliaments,  the  next  day  after  such 
Commissioners  of  the  Great  Seal,  shall  return,  certify  the  names  of  thp  several 
be  sworn  before  they  enter  into  their  of-  persons  so  returned,  and  of  the  places  for 
flees,  truly  and  faithfully  to  issue  forth,  which  he  and  they  were  chosen  respec- 
and  send  abroad,  writs  of  summons  to  tively,  unto  the  Council ;  who  shall  peruse 
Parliament,  at  the  times  and  in  the  man-  the  said  returns  and  examine  whether  the 
ner  before  expressed;  and  in  case  of  neg-  persons  so  elected  and  returned  be  such  as 
lect  or  failure  to  issue  and  send  abroad  is  agreeable  to  the  qualifications,  and  not 
writs  accordingly,  he  or  they  shall  for  disabled  to  be  elected :  and  that  every  per- 
every  such  offence  be  guilty  of  high  trea-  son  and  persons  being  so  duly  elected,  and 
son,  and  suffer  the  pains  and  penalties  being  approved  of  by  the  major  part  of  the 
thereof.  Council    to   be   persons   not    disabled,   but 

XX.  That  in  case  writs  be  not  issued  qualified  as  aforesaid,  shall  be  esteemed 
out,  as  is  before  expressed,  but  that  there  a  member  of  Parliament,  and  be  admitted 
be  a  neglect  therein,  fifteen  days  after  the  to  sit  in  Parliament  and  not  otherwise, 
time  wherein  the  same  ought  to  be  issued  XXII.  That  the  persons  so  chosen  and 
out  by  the  Chancellor,  Keeper,  or  Com-  assembled  in  manner  aforesaid,  or  any 
missioners  of  the  Great  Seal;  that  then  sixty  of  them,  shall  be.  and  be  deemed 
the  Parliament  shall,  as  often  as  such  the  Parliament  of  England,  Scotland,  and 
failure  shall  happen,  assemble  and  be  held  Ireland;  and  the  supreme  legislative 
at  Westminster,  in  the  usual  place,  at  power  to  be  and  reside  in  the  Lord  Pro- 
the  time  prefixed,  in  manner  and  by  the  tector  and  such  Parliament,  in  manner 
means    hereafter    expressed;     that    is    to  herein  expressed. 

say,  that  the  sheriffs  of  the  several  and  XXIII.  That  the  Lord  Protector,  with 
respective  counties,  sheriffdoms,  cities,  bor-  the  advice  of  the  major  part  of  the  Coun- 
oughs,  and  places  aforesaid,  within  Eng-  cil,  shall  at  any  other  time  than  is  before 
land,  Wales,  Scotland,  and  Ireland,  the  expressed,  when  the  necessities  of  the 
Chancellors,  Masters,  and  Scholars  of  the  State  shall  require  it,  summon  Par- 
Universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge,  liaments  in  manner  before  expressed,  which 
and  the  Mayor  and  Bailiffs  of  the  borough  shall  not  be  adjourned,  prorogued,  or  dis- 
of  Berwick-upon-Tweed,  and  other  places  solved  without  their  own  consent,  during 
aforesaid  respectively,  shall  at  the  sev-  the  first  three  months  of  their  sitting, 
eral  courts  and  places  to  be  appointed  as  And  in  case  of  future  war  with  any  for- 
aforesaid,  within  thirty  days  after  the  cign  State,  a  Parliament  shall  be  forth- 
said  fifteen  days,  cause  such  members  with  summoned  for  their  advice  concern- 
to  be  chosen  for  their  said  several  and  ing  the  same, 
respective    counties,    sheriffdoms,    univer-  XXTV.  That    all    Bills    agreed    unto   by 



the  Parliament,  shall  be  presented  to  the  may,  at  any  time  before  the  meeting  of 
Lord  Protector  for  his  consent;  and  in  the  next  Parliament,  add  to  the  Council 
case  he  shall  not  give  his  consent  thereto  such  persons  as  they  shall  think  fit,  pro- 
within  twenty  days  after  they  shall  be  pre-  vided  the  number  of  the  Council  be  not 
sented  to  him,  or  give  satisfaction  to  the  made  thereby  to  exceed  twenty-one,  and 
Parliament  within  the  time  limited,  that  the  quorum  to  be  proportioned  according- 
then,  upon  declaration  of  the  Parliament  ly  by  the  Lord  Protector  and  the  major 
that    the    Lord    Protector    hath    not    con-  part  of  the  Council. 

sented   nor   given   satisfaction,   such   Bills  XXVII.     That  a   constant  yearly  reve- 

shall  pass  into  and  become  laws,  although  nue    shall    be   raised,    settled,    and    estab- 

he  shall  not  give  his   consent  thereunto;  lished  for  maintaining  of  10,000  horse  and 

provided    such    bills    contain    nothing    in  dragoons,    and    20,000    foot,    in    England, 

them   contrary   to   the   matters    contained  Scotland  and  Ireland,  for  the  defence  and 

in  these  presents.  security  theieof,  and  also  for  a  convenient 

XXV.  That  Henry  Lawrence,  Esq.,  number  of  ships  for  guarding  of  the  seas; 
&c,  or  any  seven  of  them,  shall  be  a  Coun-  besides  £200,000  per  annum  for  defraying 
cil  for  the  purposes  expressed  in  this  the  other  necessary  charges  of  admin- 
writing;  and  upon  the  death  or  other  re-  istration  of  justice,  and  other  expenses  of 
moval  of  any  of  them,  the  Parliament  the  Government,  which  revenue  shall  be 
shall  nominate  six  persons  of  ability,  in-  raised  by  the  customs,  and  such  other 
teority,  and  fearing  God,  for  every  one  ways  and  means  as  shall  be  agreed  upon 
that  is  dead  or  removed;  out  of  which  the  by  the  Lord  Protector  and  the  Council, 
major  part  of  the  Council  shall  elect  two,  and  shall  not  be  taken  away  or  dimin- 
and  present  them  to  the  Lord  Protector,  ished,  nor  the  way  agreed  upon  for  raising 
of  which  he  shall  elect  one;  and  in  case  the  same  altered,  but  by  the  consent  of 
the  Parliament  shall  not  nominate  within  the  Lord  Protector  and  the  Parliament, 
twenty  days  after  notice  given  unto  them  XXVIII.  That  the  said  yearly  revenue 
thereof,  the  major  part  of  the  Council  shall  be  paid  into  the  public  treasury, 
shall  nominate  three  as  aforesaid  to  the  and  shall  be  issued  out  for  the  uses  afore- 
Lord    Protector,    who    out    of    them    shall  said. 

supply  the  vacancy;  and  until  this  choice  XXIX.     That  in  case  there  shall  not  be 

be  made,  the  remaining  part  of  the  Coun-  cause  hereafter  to  keep  up  so  great  a  de- 

cil  shall' execute  as  fully  in  all  things,  as  fence  both  at  land  or  sea,  but  that  there 

if   their  number  were   full.     And   in   case  be  an  abatement  made  thereof,  the  money 

of  corruption,  or  other  miscarriage  in  any  which  will  be  saved  thereby  shall  remain 

of  the  Council  in  their  trust,  the  Parlia-  in  bank  for  the  public  service,  and  not  be 

ment  shall  appoint  seven  of  their  number,  employed   to   any   other   use   but   by   con- 

and   the   Council   six,  who,   together  with  $ent  of  Parliament,  or,  in  the  intervals  of 

the  Lord  Chancellor,  Lord  Keeper,  or  Com-  Parliament,    by   the   Lord    Protector   and 

missioners  of  the  Great  Seal  for  the  time  major  part  of  the  Council 

being,  shall  have  power  to  hear  and  de-  XXX.   That   the   raising  of  money   for 

termine  such  corruption  and  miscarriage,  defraying  the  charge  of   the  present  ex- 

and  to  award  and  inflict  punishment,  as  traordinary  forces,  both  at  sea  and  land, 

the   nature   of   the   offence   shall    deserve,  in  respect  of  the  present  wars,  shall  be  by 

which   punishment  shall  not  be  pardoned  consent  of  Parliament,  and  not  otherwise: 

or  remitted  by  the  Lord  Protector;   and,  save  only  that  the  Lord   Protector,  with 

in  the  interval  of  Parliaments,  the  major  the  consent  of  the  major  part  of  the  Coun- 

part  of  the  Council,  with  the  consent  of  cil,  for  preventing  the  disorders  and  dan- 

the  Lord  Protector,  may,  for  corruption  or  gers  which  might  otherwise  fall  out  both 

other    miscarriage    as    aforesaid,    suspend  by  sea  and  land,  shall  have  power,  until 

any  of  their  number  from  the  exercise  of  the   meeting   of   the    fir3t   Parliament,   to 

their  trust,  if  they  shall  find  it  just,  until  raise  money  for   the   purposes   aforesaid ; 

the  matter  shall  be  heard  and  examined  as  and  also  to  make  laws  and  ordinances  for 

aforesaid.  *ne    peace   and   welfare   of   these   nations 

XXVT.     That   the  Lord   Protector   and  where  it  shall  be  necessary,  which  shall 

the  major   part  of   the   Council   aforesaid  be  binding  and  in  force,  until  order  shall 


be   taken    in    Parliament    concerning    the  election   be   past,   the   Council   shall   take 

same.  care  of  the  Government,   and  administer 

XXXI.  That  the  lands,  tenements,  in  all  things  as  fully  as  the  Lord  Pro- 
rents,  royalties,  jurisdictions  and  heredit-  tector,  or  the  Lord  Protector  and  Council 
amenta  which  remain  yet  unsold  or  undis-  art  enabled  to  do. 

posed  of,  by  Act  or  Ordinance  of  Parlia-  XXXIII.  That    Oliver    Cromwell,    Cap- 

ment,    belonging    to    the    Commonwealth  tain  -  General   of  the    forces   of   England, 

(except   the   forests   and   chases,   and   the  Scotland  and  Ireland,  shall  be,  and  is  here- 

honours    and    manors    belonging    to    the  by  declared  to  be,  Lord  Protector  of  the 

same;  the  lands  of  the  rebels  in  Ireland,  Commonwealth  of  England,  Scotland  and 

lying  in  the  four  counties  of  Dublin,  Cork,  Ireland,    and    the    dominions    thereto    be- 

Kildare,  and  Carlow;   the  lands  forfeited  longing,  for  his  life. 

by  the  people  of  Scotland  in  the  late  XXXIV.  That  the  Chancellor,  Keeper 
wars,  and  also  the  lands  of  Papists  and  or  Commissioners  of  the  Great  Seal,  the 
delinquents  in  England  who  have  not  yet  Treasurer,  Admiral.  Chief  Governors  of 
compounded),  shall  be  vested  in  the  Lord  Ireland  and  Scotland,  and  the  Chief  Jus- 
Protector,  to  hold,  to  him  and  his  sue-  tices  of  both  the  Benches,  shall  be  chosen 
cessors,  Lords  Protectors  of  these  nations,  by  the  approbation  of  Parliament;  and, 
ard  shall  not  be  alienated  but  by  consent  in  the  intervals  of  Parliament,  by  the 
in  Parliament.  And  all  debts,  fines,  is-  approbation  of  the  major  part  of  the 
sues,  amercements,  penalties  and  profits,  Council,  to  be  afterwards  approved  by 
certain   and   casual,    due   to   the   Keepers  the  Parliament. 

of  the  liberties  of  England  by  authority  XXXV.  That  the  Christian  religion,  as 

of  Parliament,  shall  be  due  to  the  Lord  contained  in  the  Scriptures,  be  held  forth 

Protector,  and  be  payable  into  his  public  and  recommended  as  the  public  profession 

receipt,  and  shall  be  recovered  and  pros-  of  these  nations ;  and  that,  as  soon  as  may 

ecuted  in  his  name.  be,  a  provision,  less  subject  to  scruple  and 

XXXII.  That  the  office  of  Lord  Pro-  contention,  and  more  certain  than  the 
tector  over  these  nations  shall  be  elective  present,  be  made  for  the  encouragement 
and  not  hereditary;  and  upon  the  death  and  maintenance  of  able  and  painful 
of  the  Lord  Protector,  another  fit  person  teachers,  for  the  instructing  the  people, 
shall  be  forthwith  elected  to  succeed  him  and  for  discovery  and  confutation  of  er- 
in  the  Government;  which  election  shall  ror,  hereby,  and  whatever  is  contrary  to 
be  by  the  Council,  who,  immediately  upon  sound  doctrine;  and  until  such  provision 
the  death  of  the  Lord  Protector,  shall  as-  be  made,  the  present  maintenance  shall 
seinble  in  the  Chamber  where  they  usu-  not  be  taken  away  or  impeached. 

ally   sit    in    Council;    and,    having   given  XXXVI.  That  to  the  public  profession 

notice  to  all  their  members  of  the  cause  held    forth    none    shall    be    compelled    by 

of  their  assembling,  shall,  being  thirteen  penalties  or  otherwise;   but  that  endeav- 

at  least  present,  proceed  to  the  election;  ours  be  used  to  win  them  by  sound  doc- 

and,  before  they  depart  the  said  Chamber,  trine  and  the  example  of  a  good  conversa- 

shall  elect  a  fit  person  to  succeed  in  the  tion. 

Government,  and  forthwith  cause  procla-  XXXVII.  That  such  as  profess  faith  in 

mation  thereof  to  be  made  in  all  the  three  God    by    Jesus    Christ    (though    differing 

nations    as    shall    be    requisite;    and    the  in   judgment   from   the   doctrine,   worship 

person   that   they,   or   the   major   part  of  or    discipline    publicly    held    forth)     shall 

them,   shall   elect  as   aforesaid,   shall   be,  not  be  restrained  from,  but  shall  be  pro- 

and  shall  be  taken  to  be,  Lord  Protector  tected  in,  the  profession  of  the  faith  and 

over  these  nations  of  England,   Scotland  exercise  of  their  religion ;  so  as  they  abuse 

and    Ireland,   and    the   dominions   thereto  not    this    liberty    to    the    civil    injury    of 

belonging.      Provided    that    none    of    the  others   and   to   the   actual   disturbance   of 

children  of  the  late  King,  nor  any  of  his  the  public  peace  on  their  parts;  provided 

line  or  family,  be  elected  to  be  Lord  Pro-  this  liberty  be  not  extended  to  Popery  or 

toetor    or    other    Chief    Magistrate    over  Prelacy,   nor   to   such   as,   under   the   pro- 

these  nations,  or  any  the  dominions  there-  fession  of  Christ,  hold  forth  and  practice 

to    belonging.      And    until    the    aforesaid  licentiousness. 



XXXVIII.  That  all  laws,  statutes  and  ing  to  the  best  of  their  knowledge;  and 
ordinances,  and  clauses  in  any  law,  that  in  the  election  of  every  successive 
statute  or  ordinance  to  the  contrary  of  Lord  Protector  they  shall  proceed  therein 
the  aforesaid  liberty,  shall  be  esteemed  as  impartially,  and  do  nothing  therein  for 
null  and  void.  any  promise,  fear,  favour  or  reward. 

XXXIX.  That  the  Acts  and  Ordinances  Government  of  the  United  States, 
of  Parliament  made  for  the  sale  or  other  See  Calhoun,  John  Caldwell. 
disposition  of  the  lands,  rents  and  here-  Grady,  Henry  Woodfen,  journalist; 
ditaments  of  the  late  King.  Queen,  and  born  in  Athens,  Ga.,  in  1851 ;  was  educated 
Prince,  of  Archbishops  and  Bishops,  &c,,  in  the  universities  of  Georgia  and  Vir- 
Deans  and  Chapters,  the  lands  of  delin-  ginia,  and  entered  journalism  soon  after 
quents  and  forest-lands,  or  any  of  them,  the  close  of  the  Civil  War.  From  the 
or  of  any  other  lands,  tenements,  rents  beginning  he  made  a  specialty  of  seeking 
and  hereditaments  belonging  to  the  Com-  the  requirements  of  the  South  for  its  re- 
monwealth,  shall  nowise  be  impeached  or  habilitation  in  prosperity.  His  early  pub- 
made  invalid,  but  shall  remain  good  and  lications,  relating  to  the  resuurces  and 
firm;  and  that  the  securities  given  by  possibilities  of  the  State  of  Georgia,  were 
Act  and  Ordinance  of  Parliament  for  published  in  the  Atlanta  Constitution. 
any  sum  or  sums  of  money,  by  any  of  the  The  clearness  and  practical  vein  of  these 
said  lands,  the  exercise,  or  any  other  pub-  letters  attracted  the  attention  of  the  editor 
lie  revenue;  and  also  the  securities  given  of  the  New  York  Herald,  who  appointed 
by  the  public  faith  of  the  nation,  and  the  Mr.  Grady  a  correspondent  for  that  paper, 
engagement  of  the  public  faith  for  satis-  In  1872  he  became  interested  in  the  At- 
faction  of  debts  and  damages,  shall  re-  lanta  Herald,  and  in  1880  he  bought  a 
main  firm  and  good,  and  not  be  made  void 
and  invalid  upon  any  pretence  whatso- 

XL.  That  the  Articles  given  to  or  made 
with  the  enemy,  and  afterwards  confirmed 
by  Parliament,  shall  be  performed  and 
made  good  to  the  persons  concerned  there- 
in ;  and  that  such  appeals  as  were  de- 
pending in  the  last  Parliament  for  relief 
concerning  bills  of  sale  of  delinquent's 
estates,  may  be  heard  and  determined  the 
next  Parliament,  any  thing  in  this  writ- 
ing or  otherwise  to  the  contrary  notwith- 

XLI.  That  every  successive  Lord  Pro- 
tector over  these  nations  shall  take  and 
subscribe  a  solemn  oath,  in  the  presence 
of  the  Council,  and  such  others  as  they 
shall  call  to  them,  that  he  will  seek  the 
peace,  quiet  and  welfare  of  these  nations, 
cause  law  and  justice  to  be  equally  ad- 
ministered; and  that  he  will  not  violate 
or  infringe  the  matters  and  things  con- 
tained in  this  writing,  and  in  all  other 
things  will,  to  his  power  and  to  the  best 
of  his  understanding,  govern  these  nations 
according  to  the  laws,  statutes  and  cus- 
toms thereof.  quarter  interest  in  the  Atlanta  Constitu- 

XLTI.  That  each  person  of  the  Council  tion  for  $20,000,  which  sum  was  loaned 
shall,  before  they  enter  upon  their  trust,  him  by  Cyrus  W.  Field,  and  was  repaid 
take  and  subscribe  an  oath,  that  they  will  with  interest  within  two  years.  During 
be  true  and  faithful  in  their  trust,  accord-    these  years  Mr.  Grady  was  known  chiefly 




a«  a  painstaking  journalist,  warmly  de-  courtesy  to-night.  1  am  not  troubled 
voted  to  the  promotion  of  the  interests  about  those  from  whom  1  come.  \'ou  re- 
of  the  Southern  States.  In  1886  he  ac-  member  the  man  whose  wife  sent  him  to 
cepted  an  invitation  from  the  New  Eng-  a  neighbor  with  a  pitcher  of  milk,  and 
land  Society  of  New  York  to  deliver  the  who,  tripping  on  the  top  step,  fell,  with 
formal  speech  at  its  annual  dinner  (Dec.  such  casual  interruptions  as  the  landings 
22).  He  chose  for  his  subject  "The  New  afforded,  into  the  basement;  and,  while 
South,"  and  the  speech  in  its  composition  picking  himself  up,  had  the  pleasure  of 
and  delivery  gave  him  a  sudden  and  wide  hearing  his  wife  call  out: 
fame  as  an  orator.  On  Dec.  12,  1889,  he  "John,  did  you  break  the  pitcher?" 
delivered  by  invitation  an  address  before  "No,  I  didn't,"  said  John,  "but  I  be 
the  Merchants'  Association  in  Boston  on    dinged  if  I  don't." 

"The  Future  of  the  Negro,"  and  this  So,  while  those  who  call  to  me  from 
speech  still  farther  increased  his  fame,  behind  may  inspire  me  with  energy,  if  not 
He  was  ill  at  the  time  of  its  delivery,  be-  with  courage,  I  ask  an  indulgent  hearing 
came  worse  before  leaving  Boston,  and  from  you.  I  beg  that  you  will  bring 
died  in  Athens,  Ga.,  on  the  23d  of  that  your  full  faith  in  American  fairness  and 
month.  The  citizens  of  Atlanta,  grateful  frankness  to  judgment  upon  what  I  shall 
for  what  he  had  done  for  the  city,  State,  say.  There  was  an  old  preacher  once 
and  the  South,  testified  their  appreciation  vho  told  some  boys  of  the  Bible  lesson  he 
of  his  worth  by  erecting  in  that  city  the  was  going  to  read  in  the  morning.  The 
Grady  Memorial  Hospital,  which  was  for-  boys,  finding  the  place,  glued  together 
mally  opened  June  2,  1892.  the  connection  pages.     The  next  morning 

he    read    on    the    bottom    of    one    page: 

The  New  South.— "There  was  a  South  :i  When  Noah  was  120  years  old  he  took 
of  slavery  and  secession — that  South  is  unto  himself  a  wife,  who  was" — then 
dead.  There  is  a  South  of  union  and  turning  the  page — "  140  cubits  long,  40 
freedom— that  South,  thank  God,  is  living,  cubits  wide,  built  of  gopher  wood,  and 
breathing,  growing  every  hour."  These  covered  with  pitch  inside  and  out."  He 
words,  delivered  from  the  immortal  lips  was  naturally  puzzled  at  this.  He  read 
of  Benjamin  H.  Hill,  at  Tammany  Hall,  it  again,  verified  it,  and  then  he  said: 
in  1866,  true  then,  and  truer  now,  I  "  My  friends,  this  is  the  first  time  I  ever 
shall  make  my  text  to-night.  met  this  in  the  Bible,  but  I  accept  it  as 

Mr.  President  and  Gentlemen,— Let  me  an  evidence  of  the  assertion  that  we  are 
express  to  you  my  appreciation  of  the  fearfully  and  wonderfully  made."  If  I 
kindness  by  which  I  am  permitted  to  ad-  could  get  you  to  hold  such  faith  to-night, 
dress  you.  I  make  this  abrupt  acknowl-  I  could  proceed  cheerfully  to  the  task  I 
edgment  advisedly,  for  I  feel  that  if,  when  otherwise  approach  with  a  sense  of  con- 
I  raised  my  provincial  voice  in  this  ancient    secration. 

and  august  presence,  I  could  find  courage  Pardon  me  one  word,  Mr.  President, 
for  no  more  than  the  opening  sentence,  spoken  for  the  sole  purpose  of  getting 
it  would  be  well  if,  in  that  sentence,  I  had  into  the  volumes  that  go  out  annually 
met  in  a  rough  sense  my  obligation  as  a  freighted  with  the  rich  eloquence  of  your 
guest,  and  had  perished,  so  to  speak,  with  speakers  the  fact  that  the  Cavalier,  as 
courtesy  on  the  lips  and  grace  in  my  heart,  well  as  the  Puritan,  was  on  the  conti- 
Permitted,  through  your  kindness,  to  nent  in  its  early  days,  and  that  he  was 
catch  my  second  wind,  let  me  say  that  I  "  up  and  able  to  be  about."  I  have  read 
appreciate  the  significance  of  being  the  your  books  carefully,  and  I  find  no  men- 
first  Southerner  to  speak  at  this  board,  tion  of  that  fact,  which  seems  to  me  an 
which  bears  the  substance,  if  it  surpasses  important  one  for  preserving  a  sort  of 
the  semblance,  of  original  New  England  historical  equilibrium,  if  for  nothing  else, 
hospitality,  and  honors  a  sentiment  that  Let  me  remind  you  that  the  Virginia 
in  turn  honors  you,  but  in  which  my  per-  Cavalier  first  challenged  France  on  this 
sonality  is  lost  and  the  compliment  to  my  continent;  that  Cavalier  John  Smith 
people  made  plain.  gave    New    England    its    very    name,    and 

I  bespeak   \^e   utmost   stretch    of   your    was  so  pleased  with  the  job  that  he  has 



been  handing  his  own  name  around  ever  ting  crown  to  a  life  consecrated  from  the 
Bince;  and  that,  while  Miles  Standish  cradle  to  human  liberty.  Let  us,  each 
was  cutting  off  men's  ears  for  courting  cherishing  the  traditions  and  honoring  his 
a  girl  without  her  parents'  consent,  and  fathers,  build  with  reverent  hands  to  the 
forbade  men  to  kiss  their  wives  on  Sun-  type  of  his  simple  but  sublime  life,  in 
day,  the  Cavalier  was  courting  everything  which  all  types  are  honored;  and  in  our 
in  sight;  and  that  the  Almighty  had  common  glory  as  Americans  there  will  be 
vouchsafed  great  increase  to  the  Cavalier  plenty  ard  some  to  spare  for  your  fore- 
colonies,  the  huts  in  the  wilderness  being  fathers  and  for  mine. 

as  full  as  the  nests  in  the  woods.  In  speaking  to  the  toast  with  which 
But  having  incorporated  the  Cavalier  you  hav*  honored  me,  I  accept  the  term, 
as  a  fact  in  your  charming  little  book,  I  "  The  New  South."  as  in  no  sense  dis- 
shall  let  him  work  out  his  own  salva-  paraging  to  the  old.  Dear  to  me,  sir,  is 
tion,  as  he  has  always  done  with  engag-  the  home  of  my  childhood  and  the  tradi- 
ing  gallantry,  and  we  will  hold  no  con-  tions  of  my  people.  I  would  not,  if  I 
troversy  as  to  his  merits.  Why  should  could,  dim  the  glory  they  won  in  peace 
we?  Neither  Puritan  nor  Cavalier  long  and  war,  or  by  word  or  deed  take  aught 
survived  as  such.  The  virtues  and  tradi-  from  the  splendor  and  grace  of  their  civ- 
tions  of  both  happily  still  live  for  the  ilization,  never  equalled,  and,  perhaps, 
inspiration  of  their  sons  and  the  saving  never  to  be  equalled  in  its  chivalric 
of  the  old  fashion.  Both  Puritan  and  strength  and  grace.  There  is  a  New 
Cavalier  were  lost  in  the  storm  of  the  South,  not  through  protest  against  the 
first  Revolution,  and  the  American  citi-  old,  but  because  of  new  conditions,  new 
zen,  supplanting  both,  and  stronger  than  adjustments,  and,  if  you  please,  new  ideas 
either,  took  possession  of  the  republic  and  aspirations.  It  is  to  this  that  I  ad- 
bought  by  their  common  blood  and  fash-  dress  myself,  and  to  the  consideration  of 
ioned  to  wisdom,  and  charged  himself  which  I  hasten,  lest  it  become  the  Old 
with  teaching  men  government  and  estab-  South  before  I  get  to  it.  Age  does  not 
lishing  the  voice  of  the  people  as  the  endow  all  things  with  strength  and  virtue, 
voice  of  God.  nor  are  &U  new  things  to  be  despised. 
My  friend,  Dr.  Talmage,  has  told  you  The  shoemaker  who  put  over  his  door, 
that  the  typical  American  has  yet  to  "John  Smith's  Shop,  Founded  in  1760," 
come.  Let  me  tell  you  that  he  has  al-  was  more  than  matched  by  his  young  rival 
ready  come.  Great  types,  like  valuable  across  the  street,  who  hun?  out  his  sign, 
plants,  are  slow  to  flower  and  fruit.  But  "  Bill  Jones,  Established  1886.  No  Old 
from  the  union  of  these  colonist  Puritans  Stock  Kept  in  This  Shop." 
and  Cavaliers,  from  the  straightening  of  Dr.  Talmage  has  drawn  for  you,  with  a 
their  purposes  and  the  crossing  of  their  master  hand,  the  picture  of  your  return- 
blood,  slow  perfecting  through  a  century,  ing  armies.  He  has  told  you  how,  in  the 
came  he  who  stands  as  the  first  typical  pomp  and  circumstance  of  war,  they  came 
American,  the  first  who  comprehended  back  to  you,  marching  witli  proud  and  vic- 
within  himseh  all  the  strength  and  gen-  torious  tread,  reading  their  glory  in  a 
tleness,  all  the  majesty  and  grace  of  this  nation's  eye.  Will  you  bear  with  me 
republic— Abraham  Lincoln.  He  was  the  while  I  tell  you  of  another  army  that 
sum  of  Puritan  and  Cavalier;  for  in  his  sought  its  home  at  the  close  of  the  late 
ardent  nature  were  fused  the  virtues  of  war?  An  army  that  marched  home  in  de- 
both,  and  in  the  depths  of  his  great  soul  feat  and  not  in  victory;  in  pathos  and  not 
the  faults  of  both  were  lost.  He  was  in  splendor,  but  in  glory  that  equalled 
greater  than  Puritan,  greater  than  Cava-  yours,  and  to  hearts  as  loving  as  ever  wel- 
lier,  in  that  he  was  American,  and  that  corned  heroes.  Let  me  picture  to  you  the 
in  his  homely  form  were  first  gathered  footsore  Confederate  soldier  as,  button- 
the  vast  and  thrilling  forces  of  his  ideal  ing  up  in  his  faded  gray  jacket  the  parole 
government,  charging  it  with  such  tre-  which  was  to  bear  testimony  to  his  chil- 
mendous  meaning,  and  so  elevating  it  dren  of  his  fidelity  and  faith,  he  turned 
above  human  suffering  that  martyrdom,  his  face  southward  from  Appomattox  in 
though   infamously  aimed,  came  as  a  fit-  April,    1865.     Think    of    him    as    ragged, 



half  starved,  heavy  hearted,  enfeebled  by  "  You  may  leave  the  South  if  you  want 

want  and  wounds;   having  fought  to  ex-  to,  but  I  am  going  to  Sandersville,  kiss 

haustion   he   surrenders   his  gun,   wrings  my    wife    and    raise    a    crop,    and    if    the 

the  hands  of  his  comrades  in  silence,  and,  Yankees   fool   with  me  any  more   I  will 

lifting    his    tear-stained    and    pallid    face  whip  'em  again."     I  want  to  say  of  Gen- 

for  the  last  time  to  the  graves  that  dot  eral  Sherman — who  is  considered  an  able 

the  old  Virginia  hills,  pulls  his  gray  cap  man    in   our    parts,    though    some    people 

over  his   brow  and  begins  the  slow  and  think  he  is  kind  of  careless  about  fire — 

painful    journey.     What    does    he    find?  that  from  the  ashes  he  left  us  in   1864, 

Let  me  ask  you  who  went  to  your  homes  we  have  raised  a  brave  and  beautiful  city ; 

eager    to   find,    in    the   welcome   you   had  that  somehow  or  other  we  have  caught  the 

justly  earned,  full  payment  for  four  years'  sunshine  in  the  bricks  and  mortar  of  our 

sacrifice,  what  does  he  find  when,  having  homes,  and  have  builded  therein  not  one 

followed  the  battle-stained   cross   against  ignoble  prejudice  or  memory, 
overwhelming    odds,    dreading    death    not        But  in  all  this  what  have  we  accom- 

half  so  much  as  surrender,  he  reaches  the  plished?     What  is  the  sum  of  our  work? 

home  he  left  so  prosperous  and  beautiful?  We  have  found  out  that  in  the  general 

He  finds  the  house  in  ruins,  his  farm  de-  summary  the  free  negro  counts  more  than 

vastated,  his  slaves  free,  his  stock  killed,  he  did  as  a  slave.     We  have  planted  the 

his  barn  empty,  his  trade  destroyed,  his  school-house  on  the  hill-top  and  made  it 

money  worthless,  his  social  system,  feudal  free  to  white  and  black.     We  have  sowed 

in  its  magnificence,  swept  away;  his  peo-  towns  and  cities  in  the  place  of  theories, 

pie  without  law  or  legal  status;  his  com-  and  put  business  above  politics.     We  have 

rades    slain,    and    the   burdens    of   others  challenged    your    spinners    in    Massachu- 

heavy  on  his  shoulders.     Crushed  by  de-  setts   and   your    iron-makers   in    Pennsyl- 

feat,    his    very   traditions    gone,    without  vania.     We  have  learned  that  the  $4,000,- 

money,  credit,  employment,  material  train-  000    annually    received    from    our    cotton 

ing,  and  besides  all  this,  confronted  with  crop  will  make  us  rich,  when  the  supplies 

the  gravest  problem  that  ever  met  human  that  make  it  are  home-raised.     We  have 

intelligence — the  establishing  of  a   status  reduced   the   commercial   rate  from   24  to 

for  the  vast  body  of  liberated  slaves.  4  per  cent.,  and  are  floating  4  per  cent. 

What   does   he    do — this    hero    in    gray  bonds.     We  have  learned  that  one  North- 

v?ith  a  heart  of  gold?     Does  he  sit  down  ern    emigrant    is    worth    fifty   foreigners, 

in  sullenness  and  despair?    Not  for  a  day.  and    have    smoothed    the    path    to    the 

Surely  God,  who  has  stripped  him  of  his  southward,    wiped    out    the    place    where 

prosperity,    inspired    him    in    his    adver-  Mason  and  Dixon's  line  used  to  be,  and 

sity.     As  ruin  was  never  before  so  over-  hung    out    our    latch-string    to    you    and 

whelming,  never  was  restoration  swifter,  yours. 

This    soldier    stepped    from    the    trenches        We  have  reached  the  point  that  marks 

into  the  furrow;  horses  that  had  charged  perfect  harmony  in  every  household,  when 

Federal  guns  marched  before  the  plough,  the  husband  confesses  that  the  pies  which 

and  field  that  ran  red  with  human  blood  his  wife  cooks  are  as  good  as  those  his 

in  April  were  green  with  the  harvest  of  mother  used  to  bake;  and  we  admit  that 

June;    women   reared    in   luxury   cut   up  the  sun  shines  as  brightly  and  the  moon 

their  dresses  and  made  breeches  for  their  as  softly  as  it  did  "  before  the  war."    We 

husbands,  and,  with  a  patience  and  hero-  have   established   thrift   in   the   city   and 

ism  that  fit  women  always  as  a  garment,  country.      We   have    fallen    in    love   with 

gave  their  hands  to  work.    There  was  lit-  work.    We  have  restored  comfort  to  homes 

tie   bitterness   in   all   this.      Cheerfulness  from   which    culture    and   elegance   never 

8nd    frankness    prevailed.       "  Bill    Arp "  departed.     We  have  let  economy  take  root 

struck  the  key-note  when  he  said :  "  Well,  and  spread  among  us  as  rank  as  the  crab- 

I  killed  as  many  of  them  as  they  did  of  grass  which  sprung  from  Sherman's  cav- 

me,  and  now  I  am  going  to  work."     Or  airy   camps,   until   we   are   ready   to   lay 

the   soldier   returning  home   from   defeat  odds  on  the  Georgia  Yankee,  as  he  manu- 

and  roasting  some  corn  on  the  road-side,  fjictures  relics  of  the  battle-field  in  a  one- 

who  made  the  remark  to  his  comrades:  story  shanty  and  squeezes  pure  olive  oil 



out  of  his  cotton-seed,  against  any  down- 
Easter  that  ever  swapped  wooden  nutmegs 
for  flannel  sausages  in  the  valley  of  Ver- 

Above  all,  we  know  that  we  have 
achieved  in  these  "  piping  times  of  peace," 
a  fuller  independence  for  the  South  than 
that  which  our  fathers  sought  to  v/in  in 
the  forum  by  their  eloquence,  or  compel 
on  the  field  by  their  swords. 

It  is  a  rare  privilege,  sir,  to  have  had 
part,  however  humble,  in  this  work.  Never 
was  nobler  duty  confided  to  human  hands 
than  the  uplifting  and  upbuilding  of  the 
prostrate  and  bleeding  South,  misguided, 
perhaps,  but  beautiful  in  her  suffering, 
and  honest,  brave,  and  generous  always. 
In  the  record  of  her  social,  industrial, 
and  political  illustrations  we  await  witli 
confidence  the  verdict  of  the  world. 

But  what  of  the  negro?  Have  we  solved 
the  problem  he  presents,  or  progressed  in 
honor  and  equity  towards  the  solution? 
Let  the  record  speak  to  the  point.  No 
section  shows  a  more  prosperous  laboring 
population  than  the  negroes  of  the  South ; 
none  in  fuller  sympathy  with  the  employ- 
ing and  land-owning  class.  He  shares  our 
school  fund,  has  the  fullest  protection 
of  our  laws  and  the  friendship  of  our 
people.  Self-interest,  as  well  as  honor,  de- 
mand that  they  should  have  this.  Our 
future,  our  very  existence,  depends  upon 
our  working  out  this  problem  in  full  and 
exact  justice.  We  understand  when  Lin- 
coln signed  the  Emancipation  Procla- 
mation, your  victory  was  assured;  for  he 
then  committed  you  to  the  cause  of  hu- 
man liberty,  against  which  the  arms  of 
man  cannot  prevail ;  while  those  of  our 
statesmen  who  trusted  to  make  slavery 
the  corner  -  stone  of  the  Confederacy 
doomed  us  to  defeat  as  far  as  they  could, 
committing  us  to  a  cause  that  reason 
could  not  defend  or  the  sword  maintain 
in  the  sight  of  advancing  civilization. 
Had  Mr.  Toombs  said,  which  he  did  not 
say,  that  he  would  call  the  roll  of  his 
slaves  at  the  foot  of  Bunker  Hill,  he  would 
have  been  foolish,  for  he  might  have  known 
that  whenever  slavery  became  entangled 
in  war  it  must  perish,  and  that  the  chat- 
tel in  human  flesh  ended  forever  in  New 
England  when  your  fathers,  not  to  be 
blamed  for  parting  with  what  did  not 
pay,  sold  their  slaves  to  our  fathers,  not 


to  be  praised  for  knowing  a  paying  thing 
when  they  saw  it. 

The  relations  of  the  Southern  people 
with  the  negro  are  close  and  cordial.  We 
remember  with  what  fidelity  for  four  years 
he  guarded  our  defenceless  women  and 
children,  whose  husbands  and  fathers  were 
fighting  against  his  freedom.  To  his 
credit  be  it  said  that  whenever  he  struck 
a  blow  for  his  own  liberty  he  fought  in 
open  battle,  and  when  at  last  he  raised 
his  black  and  humble  hands  that  the 
shackles  might  be  struck  off,  those  hands 
were  innocent  of  wrong  against  his  help- 
less charges,  and  worthy  to  be  taken  in 
loving  grasp  by  every  man  who  honors 
loyalty  and  devotion. 

Ruffians  have  maltreated  him,  rascals 
have  misled  him,  philanthropists  estab- 
lished a  bank  for  him,  but  the  South  with 
the  North  protest  against  injustice  to  this 
simple  and  sincere  people.  To  liberty  and 
enfranchisement  is  as  far  as  the  law  can 
carry  the  negro.  The  rest  must  be  left 
to  conscience  and  common  -  sense.  It 
should  be  left  to  those  among  whom  his 
lot  is  cast,  with  whom  he  is  indissolubly 
connected,  and  whose  prosperity  depends 
upon  their  possessing  his  intelligent  sym- 
pathy and  confidence.  Faith  has  been 
kept  with  him  in  spite  of  calumniouB 
assertions  to  the  contrary  by  those  who 
assume  to  speak  for  us,  or  by  frank  op- 
ponents. Faith  will  be  kept  with  him 
in  future  if  the  South  holds  her  reason 
and  integrity. 

But  have  we  kept  faith  with  you?  In 
the  fullest  sense,  yes.  When  Lee  sur- 
rendered— I  don't  say  when  Johnston  sur- 
rendered, because  I  understand  he  still  al- 
ludes to  the  time  when  he  met  General 
Sherman  last  as  the  time  when  he  "  de- 
termined to  abandon  any  further  prose- 
cution of  the  strutrTle " — when  Lee  sur- 
rendered, I  say,  and  Johnston  quit,  the 
South  became,  and  has  been,  loval  to  the 
Union.  We  fought  hard  enough  to  know 
that  we  were  whipped,  and  in  perfect 
frankness  accepted  as  final  the  arbitra- 
ment of  the  sword  to  which  we  had  ap- 
pealed. The  South  found  her  jewel  in 
the  toad's  head  of  defeat.  The  shackles 
that  had  held  her  in  narrow  limitations 
fell  forever  when  the  shackles  of  the 
negro  slave  were  broken. 

Under  the  old  regime  the  negroes  were 


to  the  South,  the  South  was  a  slave 
to  the  system.  The  old  plantation,  with 
its  simple  police  regulation  and  its  feudal 
habit,  was  the  only  type  possible  under 
slavery.  Thus  was  gathered  in  the  hands 
of  a  splendid  and  chivalric  oligarchy  the 
substance  that  should  have  been  diffused 
among  the  people,  as  the  rich  blood,  under 
certain  artificial  conditions,  is  gathered 
at  the  heart,  filling  that  with  affluent 
rapture,  but  leaving  the  body  chill  and 

The  Old  South  rested  everything  on 
slavery  and  agriculture,  unconscious  that 
these  neither  give  nor  maintain  healthy 
growth.  The  New  South  presents  a  per- 
fect democracy,  the  oligarchs  leading  in 
the  popular  movement — a  social  system 
compact  and  closely  knitted,  less  splendid 
on  the  surface  but  stronger  at  the  core; 
a  hundred  farms  for  every  plantation, 
fifty  homes  for  every  palace,  and  a  di- 
versified industry  that  meets  the  complex 
needs  of  this  complex  age. 

The  New  South  is  enamored  of  her  new 
work.  Her  soul  is  stirred  with  the  breath 
of  a  new  life.  The  light  of  a  grander  day 
is  falling  fair  on  her  face.  She  is  thrill- 
ing with  the  consciousness  of  a  growing 
power  and  prosperity.  As  she  stands  up- 
right, full-statured  and  equal  among  the 
people  of  the  earth,  breathing  the  keen 
air  and  looking  out  upon  the  expanding 
horizon,  she  understands  that  her  emanci- 
pation came  because,  in  the  inscrutable 
wisdom  of  God,  her  honest  purpose  was 
crossed  and  her  brave  armies  were  beaten. 

This  is  said  in  no  spirit  of  time-serving 
or  apology.  The  South  has  nothing  for 
which  to  apologize.  She  believes  that  the 
late  struggle  between  the  States  was  war 
and  not  rebellion,  revolution  and  not  con- 
spiracy, and  that  her  convictions  were  as 
honest  as  yours.  I  should  be  unjust  to 
the  dauntless  spirit  of  the  South  and  to 
my  own  convictions  if  I  did  not  make  this 
plain  in  this  presence.  The  South  has 
nothing  to  take  back.  In  my  native  town 
of  Athens  is  a  monument  that  crowns  its 
central  hills — a  plain,  white  shaft.  Deep 
cut  into  its  shining  side  is  a  name  dear 
to  me  above  the  names  of  men,  that  of  a 
brave  and  simple  man  who  died  in  brave 
and  simple  faith.  Not  for  all  the  glories 
of '  New  England-— from  Plymouth  Rock 
all  the  way — would  I  exchange  the  heri- 


tage  he  left  me  in  his  soldier's  death.  To 
the  feet  of  that  shaft  I  shall  send  my 
children's  children  to  reverence  him  who 
ennobled  their  name  with  his  heroic  blood. 
But,  sir,  speaking  from  the  shadow  of 
that  memory,  which  1  honor  as  I  do  noth- 
ing else  on  earth,  1  say  that  the  cause  in 
which  he  suffered  and  for  which  he  gave 
his  life  was  adjudged  by  higher  and  fuller 
wisdom  than  his  or  mine,  and  I  am  glad 
that  the  omniscient  God  held  the  balance 
of  battle  in  His  almighty  hand,  and  that 
human  slavery  was  swept  forever  from 
American  soil — the  American  Union  saved 
from  the  wreck  of  war. 

This  message,  Mr.  President,  comes  to 
you  from  consecrated  ground.  Every  foot 
of  the  soil  about  the  city  in  which  I  live 
is  sacred  as  a  battle-ground  of  the  re- 
public. Every  hill  that  invests  it  is 
hallowed  by  the  blood  of  your  brothers 
who  died  for  your  victory,  and  doubly 
hallowed  to  us  by  the  blood  of  those  who 
died  hopeless,  but  undaunted,  in  defeat — 
sacred  soil  to  all  of  us,  rich  with  memo- 
ries that  make  us  purer  and  stronger  and 
better,  silent  but  stanch  witnesses  in  its 
red  desolation  of  the  matchless  valor  of 
American  hearts  and  the  deathless  glory 
of  American  arms — speaking  an  eloquent 
witness  in  its  white  peace  and  prosperity 
to  the  indissoluble  union  of  American 
States  and  the  imperishable  brotherhood 
of  the  American  people. 

Now,  what  answer  has  New  England 
to  this  message?  Will  she  permit  the 
prejudice  of  war  to  remain  in  the  hearts 
of  the  conquerors,  when  it  has  died  in 
the  hearts  of  the  conquered?  Will  she 
transmit  this  prejudice  to  the  next  gener- 
ation, that  in  their  hearts,  which  never 
felt  the  generous  ardor  of  conflict,  it 
may  perpetuate  itself?  Will  she  with- 
hold, save  in  strained  courtesy,  the  hand 
which,  straight  from  the  soldier's  heart, 
Grant  offered  to  Lee  at  Appomattox? 
Will  she  make  the  vision  of  a  restored 
and  happy  peop!e,  which  gathered  above 
the  couch  of  your  dying  captain,  filling 
his  heart  with  grace,  touching  his  lips 
with  praise  and  glorifying  his  path  to 
the  grave — will  she  make  this  vision 
on  which  the  last  si<rh  of  his  expiring 
soul  breathed  a  benediction,  a  cheat  and 
a  delusion?  If  she  does,  the  South,  never 
abject  in  asking  for  comradeship,  must 


accept  with  dignity  its  refusal;  but  if 
she  does  not — if  she  accepts  with  frank- 
ness and  sincerity  this  message  of  good- 
will and  friendship,  then  will  the  proph- 
ecy of  Webster,  delivered  in  this  very 
society  forty  years  ago,  amid  tremendous 
applause,  be  verified  in  its  fullest  and 
final  sense,  when  he  said :  "  Standing 
hand  to  hand,  and  clasping  hands,  we 
should  remain  united  as  we  have  been 
for  sixty  years,  citizens  of  the  same 
country,  members  of  the  same  govern- 
ment, united,  all  united  now  and  united 
forever."  There  have  been  difficulties, 
contentions,  and  controversies,  but  I  tell 
you  that,  in  my  judgment, 

"  Those  opposed  eyes, 
Which  like  the  meteors  of  a  troubled  heaven. 
All  of  one  nature,  of  one  substance  bred. 
Did  lately  meet  In  th'  intestine  shock, 
Shall   now    in   mutual   well   beseeming   ranks 
March  all  one  way." 

Graebner,  August  L.,  theologian:  born 
in  Frankentrost,  Mich.,  July  10,  1849; 
graduated  at  Concordia  College,  Fort 
Wayne,  Ind.,  and  at  the  Concordia  Theo- 
logical Seminary,  St.  Louis,  where  he  be- 
came Professor  of  Theology  in  1887.  He 
is  the  author  of  History  of  the  Lutheran 
Church  in  America;  Half  a  Century  of 
Sound  Lutheranism  in  America,  etc. 

Graham,  David,  lawyer;  born  in  Lon- 
don, England,  Feb.  8,  1808;  came  to  the 
United  States  with  his  father;  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  and  gained  renown  in 
his  profession.  He  was  the  author  of 
Practice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
State  of  New  York;  New  Trials;  Courts 
of  Laio  and  Equity  in  the  State  of  New 
York,  etc.  He  died  in  Nice,  France,  May 
27,  1852. 

Graham,  George,  lawyer;  born  in 
Dumfries,  Va.,  about  1772;  graduated 
at  Columbia  College  in  1790;  began  the 
practice  of  law  in  Dumfries,  but  later 
settled  in  Fairfax  county,  where  he  re- 
cruited the  "  Fairfax  Light-horse  "  which 
he  led  in  the  War  of  1812.  He  was  act- 
ing Secretary  of  War  in  1815-18;  and  was 
then  sent  on  a  perilous  mission  to  Gal- 
veston Island,  where  General  Lallemande, 
the  chief  of  artillery  in  Napoleon's  army, 
had  founded  a  colony  with  600  armed  set- 
tlers, whom  he  persuaded  to  give  up  their 
undertaking  and  submit  to  the  United 
States   government.      He    is   also    said    to 


have  been  instrumental  in  saving  the  gov- 
ernment $250,000  by  successfully  con- 
cluding the  "  Indian  factorage  "  affairs. 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  in  August, 

Graham,  James  Duncan,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Prince  William  county,  Va., 
April  4,  1799;  graduated  at  the  United 
States  Military  Academy  in  1817;  ap- 
pointed a  topographical  engineer  in  1829; 
made  the  survey  of  the  northeast  boun- 
dary of  the  United  States ;  represented  the 
United  States  under  the  treaty  of  Wash- 
ington in  determining  the  boundary  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  the  British 
provinces,  etc.;  promoted  colonel  of  engi- 
neers, June  1,  1863.  He  died  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  Dec.  28,  1865. 

Graham,  Joseph,  military  officer;  born 
in  Chester  county,  Pa.,  Oct.  13,  1759;  re- 
moved to  North  Carolina  at  an  early  age. 
In  1778  he  joined  the  Continental  army 
and  served  through  the  remainder  of  the 
war  with  gallantry;  in  1780  received 
three  bullet  wounds  and  six  sabre-thrusts 
while  guarding  the  retreat  of  Maj.  W.  R. 
Davie,  near  Charlotte;  later,  after  his  re- 
covery, he  defeated  600  Tories  near  Fay- 
etteville  with  a  force  of  136  men.  In  1814 
he  was  commissioned  major-general,  when 
he  led  1,000  men  from  North  Carolina 
against  the  Creek  Indians.  He  died  in 
Lincoln  county,  N.  C,  Nov.  12,  1836. 

Graham,  William  Alexander,  Senator ; 
born  in  Lincoln  county,  N.  C,  Sept.  5, 
1804;  graduated  at  the  University  of 
North  Carolina  in  1824;  admitted  to  the 
bar;  began  practice  in  Hillsboro,  N.  C; 
United  States  Senator  in  1840-43;  gov- 
ernor of  North  Carolina  in  1844-48;  and 
Secretary  of  the  Navy  in  1850-52.  He 
was  a  Senator  in  the  Confederate  Con- 
gress from  1864  until  the  close  of  the 
war.  He  died  in  Saratoga  Springs,  N.  Y., 
Aug.  11,  1875. 

Grahame,  James,  historian;  born  in 
Glasgow,  Scotland,  Dec.  21,  1790;  grad- 
uated at  Cambridge  University;  and  ad- 
mitted to  the  Scottish  bar  in  1812.  His 
publications  include  History  of  the  Rise 
and  Progress  of  the  United  States  of 
North  America  till  the  British  Revolution 
of  1688;  Who  is  to  Blame?  or  Cursory 
Review  of  the  American  Apology  for 
American  Accession  to  Negro  Slavery,  eta 
He  died  in  London,  England,  July  3,  1842. 


Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  The.  crease  of  membership  followed,  causing 
The  order  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Re-  almost  a  total  disruption  of  the  order  in 
public  was  organized  in  the  State  of  Illi-  the  West.  In  May,  1869,  a  change  in  the 
nois,  early  in  the  year  1866.  To  Dr.  B.  F.  ritual  was  made,  providing  for  three 
Stephenson,  of  Springfield,  TIL,  belongs  grades  of  membership,  but  this  met  with 
the  honor  of  suggesting  the  formation  little  favor,  and  in  1871  all  sections  pro- 
of this  union  of  veteran  soldiers,  and  of  viding  for  degrees  or  ranks  among  mem- 
launching  the  organization  into  exist-  bers  were  stricken  from  the  rules.  At 
ence.  The  object  of  the  combination  was  the  same  time,  a  rule  was  adopted  pro- 
to  afford  assistance  to  disabled  and  un-  hibiting  the  use  of  the  organization  for 
employed  soldiers.  Dr.  Stephenson  had  any  partisan  purpose  whatever,  a  prin- 
been  a  surgeon  in  a  volunteer  regiment  ciple  which  has  ever  since  been  strictly 
during  the  war,  and  was  firmly  convinced  adhered  to.  Following  is  the  record  of 
that  an  organization  of  the  returned  the  national  encampments  of  the  Grand 
volunteers,  for  mutual  benefit,  was  im-  Army  of  the  Republic  held  thus  far,  with 
peratively  needed.  A  ritual  was  drafted  the  names  of  the  commanders-in-chief 
under  his  supervision,  and  the  first  post  elected: 

of  the  new  order  was  formed  at  Decatur,  1.  Indianapolis,    Ind.,    1866 ;    S.    A.    Hurl- 
Ill.     Other     posts     were     soon     mustered  bu*-  ™ino|.s\  . .     „      .,_„„     ,  .      .    _ 
,,           ,       ,     *„,.                     ,              ,.  2.  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1868;  John  A.  Logan, 
throughout       Illinois       and       contiguous  minois. 

States,  and  the  first  department    (State)  3.  Cincinnati,    O.,    1869;    John   A.   Logan, 

convention   was   held   at   Springfield,   111.,  Illinois. 

July  12,  1806.     Gen.  John  M.  Palmer  was  noJ^  Washington,  1870;  John  A.  Logan,  Illi- 

there      elected      department      commander.  5."  Boston,    Mass.,    1871 ;   A.    E.    Burnside, 

Oct.    31,    1866,    Dr.    Stephenson,    as    pro-  Rhode   Island. 

visional   commander-in-chief,  sent  out  an  r^J^"?'    °-'    1872 ;    A"    E'    Burnside- 

order  to  all  the  posts  then  formed,  call-  7°  New^Haven,     Conn.,     1873;     Charles 

ing   for    the    first   national    convention    of  Devens,   Jr.,   Massachusetts. 

the  Grand   Army   of   the   Republic.      This  8.  Ilarrisburg,  Pa.,  1874;  Charles  Devens, 

was  held   in   Indianapolis,   Ind.,   on  Nov.  Jr-  ^?sachusre"s\OTK     ,  „     „   „    ,      ~ 

_-,.„.                .                     .    j.  9.  Chicago,   III.,  1875;  John  F.  Hartranft, 

20    following,    and    representatives    were  Pennsylvania. 

present  from  the  States  of  Illinois,  Mis-  10.  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1876 ;  John  F.  Har- 

souri,     Kansas,     Wisconsin,     New     York,  tranft,  Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Iowa,  Kentucky,  Indi-  ULon?  N^w  Yor^     U     ^ ''     "**     °' 

ana,  and  the  District  of  Columbia.     Gen.  12.  Springfield,  Mass.,  1878  ;  John  C.  Robin- 

S.     A.     Hurlbut     was     elected     as     com-  son,  New  York. 

mander-in-chief.      During    the    year    1867  „13'  Albany,    N.    Y.,    1879;    William    Earn- 

.,            ,                   ,           .,°         __f            .  shaw,  Ohio. 

the    order    spread    rapidly.      The    various  14.  Dayton,  O.,  1880 ;  Louis  Wagner,  Penn- 

States    completed    their    work    of    depart-  sylvania. 

ment  organization,  and  posts  were  formed  15-  Indianapolis,    Ind.,    1881 ;    George    S. 

in  all  the  large  cities  and  in  many  conn-  ^USS^f  1882 .   Paul   Van  Der 

ties.      The    second    national    encampment,  Voort,  Nebraska. 

meeting    in    Philadelphia,    Pa.,    Jan.    15,  17.  Denver,  Col.,  1883 ;  Robert  B.  Beatte, 

1868,  found  the  order  in  a  most  promis-  Pennsylvania. 

,.,.             T       ,000      ,,           *  .       ,  18.  Minneapolis,     Minn.,     1884;     John     S. 

ing    condition.      In     1868,    the    first    ob-  Kountz,  Ohio. 

servance   of  May   30   as   a   memorial   day  19.  Portland,    Me.,    1885 ;    S.    S.    Burdett, 

by  the  Grand  Army  was  ordered,  and  on  Washington. 

May  11,  1870,  May  30  was  fixed  upon  for  J*  %£££*"*  C&U  1886  :  Luciua  Falr* 

the     annual     observance     by     an     article  21.'  St.    Louis,    Mo.,    1887 ;    John    P.    Rea, 

adopted  as  part  of  the  rules  and  regula-  Minnesota. 

tions  of   the   order.      Unfortunately,   dur-  22.  Columbus,  O.,  1888 ;   William  Warner, 

.         ,,                  ,             ,     ,    ,         ....    V  Missouri. 

lug   the  warmly   contested   political   cam-  23.  Milwaukee,     Wis.,     1889 ;    Russell    A. 

paign   of    1868,   the   idea   that   the   Army  Alger,  Michigan. 

was   intended  as   a   political   organization  24-  Boston,     Mass.,     1890 ;     Wheelock     G. 

gained   currency,   with    the   result   of   in-  ^DeTrX^    1891;    John    Palmer, 

junng  the   order   greatly.      A   heavy   de-  New  York. 
»*--                                                          113 


A.     G.     Weissert, 
193 ;    John    G.    B. 

20.    Washington,      1892  ; 

27.  Indianapulis.    Ind.,    1 
Adams,  Massachusetts. 

28.  Pittsburg,   Pa.,   1894  ;  Thomas  G.  Law 
ler,  Illinois. 

29.  Louisville,  Ky.,  1895  ;  Ivan  N.   Walker. 

30.  St.    Paul,    Minn.,    1896;    Thaddeus    S, 
Clarkson,    Nebraska. 

31.  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1897  ;  John  P.  S.  Gobin, 

32.  Cincinnati,  O.,  1898  ;  *James  A.  Sexton. 

:;:;.   Cincinnati,    O.,    1898 ;    W.    C.    Johnson, 

34.  Philadelphia,     Pa.,     1899 ;     Albert     D. 
Shaw,  New  York. 

35.  Chicago,      111.,      1900;      Leo      Uassieur, 

36.  Denver.   Col.,   1901;   Eli  Torrance,  Mis- 

37.  Washington,    D.    C,    1 902  ;    Thomas    J. 
Stewart,  Pennsylvania. 

38.  San    Francisco,    Cal.,     1903  ;    John    C. 
Black,    Illinois. 

39.  Boston,     Mass.,     1904  ;     W.     W.     Black- 
mar.    Massachusetts. 

Grand  Gulf,  Battle  at.  On  the  morn- 
ing of  April  29,  1863,  Admiral  Porter  at- 
tacked the  Confederate  batteries  at  Grand 

transports,  as  he  had  done  at  Vicksburg 
and  Warrenton,  while  the  army  (on  the 
west  side  of  the  river)  should  move  down 
to  Rodney,  below,  where  it  might  cross 
without  much  opposition.  At  six  o'clock 
in  the  evening,  under  cover  of  a  heavy  fire 
from  the  fleet,  all  the  transports  passed  by 
in  irood  condition. 

Grand  Remonstrance,  The.  This  re- 
markable document  was  a  statement  of 
the  cause  of  the  British  Parliament 
against  King  Charles  I.,  and  was  laid  be- 
fore the  House  of  Commons  by  John 
Pym  in  November,  1641.  It  was  adopted 
after  a  few  days'  debate,  and  was  pre- 
sented to  the  King  on  Dec.  1.  As  a  reply, 
the  King  undertook  the  arrest  and  im- 
peachment of  Pym  and  four  of  his  most 
active  associates  on  Jan.  3,  1642;  with- 
drew from  London  in  the  following  week. 
On  Aug.  9  the  King  issued  a  proclama- 
tion "  for  suppressing  the  present  rebel- 
lion under  the  command  of  Robert,  Earl 
of  Essex,"  and  inaugurated  the  Civil  War 
by  raising  his  standard  at  Nottingham  on 
Aug.  22. 



Gulf,  on  the  Mississippi,  and  after  a  con-        The  remonstrance  and  its  introductory 
lest  of  over  five  hours  silenced  the  lower    petition  are  here  given  in  full: 

batteries.     Grant,  becoming  convinced  that  

Porter  could  not  take  the  batteries,  ordered        Most    Gracious    Sovereign, — Your    Maj- 
him   to   run   by   them    with   gunboats   and    esty's  most  humble  and   faithful   subjects 

the  Commons  in  this  present  Parliament 
*  Died   Feb    r>    ls'>'>  assembled,    do    with    much    thankfulness 



and  joy  acknowledge  the  great  mercy  great  danger  of  this  kingdom,  and  most 
and  favour  of  God,  in  giving  your  Maj-  grievous  affliction  of  your  loyal  subjects, 
esty  a  safe  and  peaceful  return  out  of  have  so  far  prevailed  as  to  corrupt  divers 
Scotland  into  your  kingdom  of  England,  of  your  Bishops  and  others  in  prime 
where  the  pressing  dangers  and  dis-  places  of  the  Church,  and  also  to  bring 
tempers  of  the  State  have  caused  us  with  divers  of  these  instruments  to  be  of  your 
much  earnestness  to  desire  the  comfort  of  Privy  Council,  and  other  employments  of 
your  gracious  presence,  and  likewise  the  trust  and  nearness  about  your  Majesty, 
unity  and  justice  of  your  royal  authority,    the    Prince,    and    the   rest   of   your    royal 


And  by  this  means   have   had   such  an 

to  give  more  life  and  power  to  the  dutiful 
and  loyal  counsels  and  endeavours  of  your 
Parliament,    for    the    prevention    of    that    operation   in  your   counsel   and   the   most 

eminent    ruin     and     destruction    wherein 
your  kingdoms  of  England  and   Scotland 

important  affairs  and  proceedings  of  your 
government,      that      a      most      dangerous 

are  threatened.     The  duty  which  we  owe    division    and    chargeable    preparation    for 
to  your  Majesty  and  our  country,  cannot    war   betwixt   your   kingdoms   of   England 

the   increase   of   jealousies 
Majesty    and    your    most 

but  make  us  very  sensible  and  apprehen-  and    Scotland 

give,  that  the  multiplicity,  sharpness  and  betwixt    your 

malignity  of  those  evils  under  which  we  obedient  subjects,  the  violent  distraction 
have  now  many  years  suffered,  are  fo-  and  interruption  of  this  Parliament,  the 
mented  and  cherished  by  a  corrupt  and  insurrection  of  the  Papists  in  your  king- 
ill-affected  party,  who  amongst  other  their  dom  of  Ireland,  and  bloody  massacre  of 
mischievous  devices  for  the  alteration  of  your  people,  have  been  not  only  en- 
religion  and  government,  have  sought  by  deavoured  and  attempted,  but  in  a  great 
many  false  scandals  and  imputations,  measure  compassed  and  effected, 
cunningly  insinuated  and  dispersed  For  preventing  the  final  accomplishment 
amongst  the  people,  to  blemish  and  dis-  whereof,  your  poor  subjects  are  enforced 
grace  our  proceedings  in  this  Parliament,  to  engage  their  persons  and  estates  to 
and  to  get  themselves  a  party  and  fac-  the  maintaining  of  a  very  expensive  and 
tion  amongst  your  subjects,  for  the  better  dangerous  war,  notwithstanding  they 
strengthening  themselves  in  their  wicked  have  already  since  the  beginning  of  this 
courses,  and  hindering  those  provisions  Parliament  undergone  the  charge  of  £150,- 
and  remedies  which  might,  by  the  wisdom  000  sterling,  or  thereabouts,  for  the  neces- 
of  your  Majesty  and  counsel  of  your  Par-  sary  support  and  supply  of  your  Majesty 
liament,  be  opposed  against  them.  in  these  present  and  perilous  designs. 
For  preventing  whereof,  and  the  better  And  because  all  our  most  faithful  en- 
information  of  your  Majesty,  your  Peers  deavours  and  engagements  will  be  in- 
and  all  other  your  loyal  subjects,  we  have  effectual  for  the  peace,  safety  and  pres- 
been  necessitated  to  make  a  declaration  of  ervation  of  your  Majesty  and  your  peo- 
the  state  of  the  kingdom,  both  before  and  pie,  if  some  present,  real  and  effectual 
since    the    assembly    of    this    Parliament,  course  be  not  taken  for  suppressing  this 

unto  this  time,  which  we  do  humbly  pre- 
sent to  your  Majesty,  without  the  least 
intention  to  lay  any  blemish  upon  your 
royal  person,  but  only  to  represent  how 
your  royal  authority  and  trust  have  been 
abused,  to  the  great  prejudice  and  danger 
of  your  Majesty,  and  of  all  your  good  sub- 

And  because  we  have  reason  to  believe 
that  those  malignant  parties,  whose  pro- 
ceedings evidently  appear  to  be  mainly 
for  the  advantage  and  increase  of  Popery, 
is  composed,  set  up,  and  acted  by  the  sub- 
tile practice  of  the  Jesuits  and  other  engi- 
neers  and   factors   for  Rome,   and   to   the 

wicked  and  malignant  party: — 

We,  your  most  humble  and  obedient 
subjects,  do  with  all  faithfulness  and 
humility  beseech  your  Majesty, — ■ 

1.  That  you  will  be  graciously  pleased 
to  concur  with  the  humble  desires  of  your 
people  in  a  parliamentary  way,  for  the 
preserving  the  peace  and  safety  of  the 
kingdom  from  the  malicious  designs  of 
the  Popish  party:  — 

For  depriving  the  Bishops  of  their  votes 
in  Parliament,  and  abridging  their  im- 
moderate power  usurped  over  the  Clergy, 
and  other  your  good  subjects,  which  they 
have    perniciously   abused    to   the   hazard 



of  religion,  and  great  prejudice  and  op- 
pression of  the  laws  of  the  kingdom,  and 
just  liberty  of  your  people:  — 

For  the  taking  away  such  oppressions  in 
religion,  Church  government  and  disci- 
pline, as  have  been  brought  in  and  foment- 
ed by  them: — ■ 

For  uniting  all  such  your  loyal  subjects 
together  as  join  in  the  same  fundamental 
truths  against  the  Papists,  by  removing 
some  oppressions  and  unnecessary  cere- 
monies by  which  divers  weak  consciences 
have  been  scrupled,  and  seem  to  be  divided 
from  the  rest,  and  for  the  due  execution 
of  those  good  laws  which  have  been  made 
for  securing  the  liberty  of  your  sub- 

2.  That  your  Majesty  will  likewise  be 
pleased  to  remove  from  your  council  all 
such  as  persist  to  favour  and  promote 
any  of  those  pressures  and  corruptions 
wherein  your  people  have  been  grieved, 
and  that  for  the  future  your  Majesty  will 
vouchsafe  to  employ  such  persons  in  your 
great  and  public  affairs,  and  to  take  such 
to  be  near  you  in  places  of  trust,  as  your 
Parliament  may  have  cause  to  confide  in; 
that  in  your  princely  goodness  to  your 
people  you  will  reject  and  refuse  all 
mediation  and  solicitation  to  the  con- 
trary, how  powerful  and  near  soever. 

3.  That  you  will  be  pleased  to  forbear 
to  alienate  any  of  the  forfeited  and 
escheated  lands  in  Ireland  which  shall 
accrue  to  your  Crown  by  reason  of  this 
rebellion,  that  out  of  them  the  Crown  may 
be  the  better  supported,  and  some  satisfac- 
tion made  to  your  subjects  of  this  king- 
dom for  the  great  expenses  they  are  like 
to  undergo  [in]  this  war. 

Which  humble  desires  of  ours  being 
graciously  fulfilled  by  your  Majesty,  we 
will,  by  the  blessing  and  favour  of  God, 
most  cheerfully  undergo  the  hazard  and 
expenses  of  this  war,  and  apply  ourselves 
to  such  other  courses  and  counsels  as  may 
support  your  real  estate  with  honour  and 
plenty  at  home,  with  power  and  reputa- 
tion abroad,  and  by  our  loyal  affections, 
obedience  and  service,  lay  a  sure  and  last- 
ing foundation  of  the  greatness  and  pros- 
perity of  your  Majesty,  and  your  royal 
prosperity  in  future  times. 

The  Grand  Remonstrance. — The  Com- 
mons in  this  present  Parliament  as- 
sembled,   having    with    much    earnestness 

and  faithfulness  of  affection  and  zeal 
to  the  public  good  of  this  kingdom,  and 
His  Majesty's  honour  and  service  for  the 
space  of  twelve  months,  wrestled  with 
great  dangers  and  fears,  the  pressing 
miseries  and  calamities,  the  various  dis- 
tempers and  disorders  which  had  not  only 
assaulted,  but  even  overwhelmed  and  ex- 
tinguished the  liberty,  peace  and  pros- 
perity of  this  kingdom,  the  comfort  and 
hopes  of  all  His  Majesty's  good  subjects, 
and  exceedingly  weakened  and  under- 
mined the  foundation  and  strength  of  his 
own  royal  throne,  do  yet  find  an  abound- 
ing malignity  and  opposition  in  those 
parties  and  factions  who  have  been  the 
cause  of  those  evils,  and  do  still  labour 
to  cast  aspersions  upon  that  which  hath 
been  done,  and  to  raise  many  difficulties 
for  the  hindrance  of  that  which  remains 
yet  undone,  and  to  foment  jealousies  be- 
tween the  King  and  Parliament,  that  so 
they  may  deprive  him  and  his  people  of 
the  fruit  of  his  own  gracious  intentions, 
and  their  humble  desires  of  procuring 
the  public  peace,  safety  and  happiness  of 
this  realm. 

For  the  preventing  of  those  miserable 
effects  which  such  malicious  endeavours 
may  produce,  we  have  thought  good  to 
declare  the  root  and  the  growth  of  these 
mischievous  designs:  the  maturity  and 
ripeness  to  which  they  have  attained  be- 
fore the  beginning  of  the  Parliament:  the 
effectual  means  which  have  been  used  for 
the  extirpation  of  those  dangerous  evils, 
and  the  progress  which  hath  therein  been 
made  by  His  Majesty's  goodness  and  the 
wisdom  of  the  Parliament:  the  ways  of 
obstruction  and  opposition  by  which  that 
progress  hath  been  interrupted:  the 
courses  to  be  taken  for  the  removing  those 
obstacles,  and  for  the  accomplishing  of 
our  most  dutiful  and  faithful  intentions 
and  endeavours  of  restoring  and  estab- 
lishing the  ancient  honour,  greatness  and 
security  of  this  Crown  and  nation. 

The  root  of  all  this  mischief  we  find 
to  be  a  malignant  and  pernicious  design 
of  subverting  the  fundamental  laws  and 
principles  of  government,  upon  which  the 
religion  and  justice  of  this  kingdom  are 
firmly  established.  The  actors  and  pro- 
moters hereof  have  been: 

1.  The  Jesuited  Papists,  who  hate  the 
laws,  as  the  obstacles  of  that  change  and 



subversion  of  religion  which  they  so  much 
long  for. 

2.  The  Bishops,  and  the  corrupt  part  of 
the  Clergy,  who  cherish  formality  and 
superstition  as  the  natural  effects  and 
more  probable  supports  of  their  own 
ecclesiastical  tyranny  and  usurpation. 

3.  Such  Councillors  and  Courtiers  as  for 
private  ends  have  engaged  themselves  to 
further  the  interests  of  some  foreign 
princes  or  states  to  the  prejudice  of  His 
Majesty  and  the  State  at  home. 

The  common  principles  by  which  they 
moulded  and  governed  all  their  particular 
counsels  and  actions  were  these: 

First,  to  maintain  continual  differences 
and  discontents  between  the  King  and  the 
people,  upon  questions  of  prerogative  and 
liberty,  that  so  they  might  have  the  ad- 
vantage of  siding  with  him,  and  under 
the  notions  of  men  addicted  to  his  service, 
gain  to  themselves  and  their  parties  the 
places  of  greatest  trust  and  power  in  the 

A  second,  to  suppress  the  purity  and 
power  of  religion,  and  such  persons  as 
were  best  affected  to  it,  as  being  contrary 
to  their  own  ends,  and  the  greatest  im- 
pediment to  that  change  which  they 
thought  to  introduce. 

A  third,  to  conjoin  those  parties  of  the 
kingdom  which  were  most  propitious  to 
their  own  ends,  and  to  divide  those  who 
were  most  opposite,  which  consisted  in 
many  particular  observations. 

To  cherish  the  Arminian  part  in  those 
points  wherein  they  agree  with  the 
Papists,  to  multiply  and  enlarge  the  dif- 
ference between  the  common  Protestants 
and  those  whom  they  call  Puritans,  to 
introduce  and  countenance  such  opinions 
and  ceremonies  as  are  fittest  for  accom- 
modation with  Popery,  to  increase  and 
maintain  ignorance,  looseness  and  profane- 
ness  in  the  people;  that  of  those  three 
parties,  Papists,  Arminians  and  Liber- 
tines, they  might  compose  a  body  fit  to 
act  such  counsels  and  resolutions  as  were 
most  conducible  to  their  own  ends. 

A  fourth,  to  disaffcct  the  King  to  Par- 
liaments by  slander  and  false  imputations, 
and  by  putting  him  upon  other  ways  of 
supply,  which  in  show  and  appearance 
were  fuller  of  advantage  than  the  ordinary 
course  of  subsidies,  though  in  truth  they 
brought  more  loss  than  gain  both  to  the 

King  and  people,  and  have  caused  the 
great  distractions  under  which  we  both 

As  in  all  compounded  bodies  the  oper- 
ations are  qualified  according  to  the  pre- 
dominant element,  so  in  this  mixed  party, 
the  Jesuited  counsels,  being  most  active 
and  prevailing,  may  easily  be  discovered 
to  have  had  the  greatest  sway  in  all  their 
determinations,  and  if  they  be  not  pre- 
vented, are  likely  to  devour  the  rest,  or 
to  turn  them  into  their  own  nature. 

In  the  beginning  of  His  Majesty's  reign 
the  party  began  to  revive  and  flourish 
again,  having  been  somewhat  damped  by 
the  breach  with  Spain  in  the  last  year  of 
King  James,  and  by  His  Majesty's  mar- 
riage with  France;  the  interests  and  coun- 
sels of  that  State  being  not  so  contrary  to 
the  good  of  religion  and  the  prosperity  of 
this  kingdom  as  those  of  Spain;  and  the 
Papists  of  England,  having  been  ever  more 
addicted  to  Spain  than  France,  yet  they 
still  retained  a  purpose  and  resolution  to 
weaken  the  Protestant  parties  in  all  parts, 
and  even  in  France,  whereby  to  make  way 
for  the  change  of  religion  which  they 
intended  at  home. 

1.  The  first  effect  and  evidence  of  their 
recovery  and  strength  was  the  dissolution 
of  the  Parliament  at  Oxford,  after  there 
had  been  given  two  subsidies  to  His 
Majesty,  and  before  they  received  relief 
in  any  one  grievance  many  other  more 
miserable  effects  followed. 

2.  The  loss  of  the  Rochel  fleet,  by  the 
help  of  our  shipping,  set  forth  and  de- 
livered over  to  the  French  in  opposition 
to  the  advice  of  Parliament,  which  left 
that  town  without  defence  by  sea,  and 
made  way  not  only  to  the  loss  of  that  im- 
portant place,  but  likewise  to  the  loss  of 
all  the  strength  and  security  of  the  Prot- 
estant religion  of  France. 

3.  The  diverting  of  His  Majesty's  course 
of  wars  from  the  West  Indies,  which  was 
the  most  facile  and  hopeful  way  for  this 
kingdom  to  prevail  against  the  Span- 
iard, to  an  expenseful  and  successless 
attempt  upon  Cadiz,  which  was  so  order- 
ed as  if  it  had  rather  been  intended  to 
make  us  weary  of  war  than  to  prosper 
in  it. 

4.  The  precipitate  breach  with  France, 
by  taking  their  ships  to  a  great  value 
without  making  recompense  to  the  Eng- 



lish,  whose  goods  were  thereupon  imbarred 
and  conhscated  in  that  kingdom. 

5.  The  peace  with  Spain  without  consent 
of  Parliament,  contrary  to  the  promise  of 
King  James  to  both  Houses,  whereby  the 
Palatine's  cause  was  deserted  and  left  to 
chargeable  and  hopeless  treaties,  which  for 
the  most  part  were  managed  by  those  who 
might  justly  be  suspected  to  be  no  friends 
to  that  cause. 

6.  The  charging  of  the  kingdom  with 
billeted  soldiers  in  all  parts  of  it,  and  the 
concomitant  design  of  German  horse,  that 
the  land  might  either  submit  with  fear  or 
be  enforced  with  rigour  to  such  arbitrary 
contributions  as  should  be  required  of 

7.  The  dissolving  of  Parliament  in  the 
second  year  of  His  Majesty's  reign,  after 
a  declaration  of  their  intent  to  grant  five 

8.  The  exacting  of  the  like  proportion 
of  five  subsidies,  after  the  Parliament  dis- 
solved, by  commission  of  loan,  and  divers 
gentlemen  and  others  imprisoned  for  not 
yielding  to  pay  that  loan,  whereby  many 
of  them  contracted  such  sicknesses  as  cost 
them  their  lives. 

9.  Great  sums  of  money  required  and 
raised  by  privy  seals. 

10.  An  unjust  and  pernicious  attempt 
to  extort  great  payments  from  the  subject 
by  way  of  excise,  and  a  commission  issued 
under  the  seal  to  that  purpose. 

11.  The  Petition  of  Right,  which  was 
granted  in  full  Parliament,  blasted,  with 
an  illegal  declaration  to  make  it  destruc- 
tive to  itself,  to  the  power  of  Parliament, 
to  the  liberty  of  the  subject,  and  to  that 
purpose  printed  with  it,  and  the  Petition 
made  of  no  use  but  to  show  the  bold  and 
presumptuous  injustice  of  such  ministers 
as  durst  break  the  laws  and  suppress  the 
liberties  of  the  kingdom,  after  they  had 
been   so  solemnly  and  evidently  declared. 

12.  Another  Parliament  dissolved  4 
Car.,  the  privilege  of  Parliament  broken, 
by  imprisoning  divers  members  of  the 
House,  detaining  them  close  prisoners  for 
many  months  together,  without  the  liberty 
of  using  books,  pen,  ink  or  paper ;  denying 
them  all  the  comforts  of  life,  all  means  of 
preservation  of  health,  not  permitting 
their  wives  to  come  unto  them  even  in  the 
time  of  their  sickness. 

13.  And     for    the    completing    of    that 


cruelty,  after  years  spent  in  such  miser- 
able durance,  depriving  them  of  the  neces- 
sary means  of  spiritual  consolation,  not 
suffering  them  to  go  abroad  to  enjoy  God's 
ordinances  in  God's  House,  or  God's  min- 
isters to  come  to  them  to  minister  com- 
fort to  them  in  their  private  chambers. 

14.  And  to  keep  them  still  in  this  op- 
pressed condition,  not  admitting  them  to 
be  bailed  according  to  law,  yet  vexing 
them  with  informations  in  inferior  courts, 
sentencing  and  fining  some  of  them  for 
matters  done  in  Parliament;  and  extort- 
ing the  payments  of  those  fines  from  them, 
enforcing  others  to  put  in  security  of 
good  behavior  before  they  could  be  re- 

15.  The  imprisonment  of  the  rest,  which 
refused  to  be  bound,  still  continued, 
which  might  have  been  perpetual  if  neces- 
sity had  not  the  last  year  brought  another 
Parliament  to  relieve  them,  of  whom  one 
died  by  the  cruelty  and  harshness  of  his 
imprisonment,  which  would  admit  of  no 
relaxation,  notwithstanding  the  imminent 
danger  of  his  life  did  sufficiently  appear 
by  the  declaration  of  his  physician,  and 
his  release,  or  at  least  his  refreshment, 
was  sought  by  many  humble  petitions, 
and  his  blood  still  cries  either  for 
vengeance  or  repentance  of  those  Ministers 
of  State,  who  have  at  once  obstructed  the 
course  both  of  His  Majesty's  justice  and 

16.  Upon  the  dissolution  of  both  these 
Parliaments,  untrue  and  scandalous  dec- 
larations were  published  to  asperse  their 
proceedings,  and  some  of  their  members 
unjustly ;  to  make  them  odious,  and  colour 
the  violence  which  was  used  against  them; 
proclamations  set  out  to  the  same  pur- 
pose; and  to  the  great  dejecting  of  the 
hearts  of  the  people,  forbidding  them  even 
to  speak  of  Parliaments. 

17.  After  the  breach  of  the  Parliament 
in  the  fourth  of  His  Majesty,  injustice, 
oppression  and  violence  broke  in  upon 
us  without  any  restraint  or  moderation, 
and  yet  the  first  project  was  the  great 
sums  exacted  thorough  the  whole  kingdom 
for  default  of  knighthood,  which  seemed 
to  have  some  colour  and  shadow  of  a  law, 
yet  if  it  be  rightly  examined  by  that 
obsolete  law  which  was  pretended  for  it, 
it  will  be  found  to  be  against  all  the  rules 
of  justice,  both  in  respect  of  the  persons 



charged,  the  proportion  of  the  fines  de- 
manded, and  the  absurd  and  unreasonable 
manner  of  their  proceedings. 

18.  Tonnage  and  Poundage  hath  been 
received  without  colour  or  pretence  of 
law;  many  other  heavy  impositions  con- 
tinued against  law,  and  some  so  unrea- 
sonable that  the  sum  of  the  charge  ex- 
ceeds  the  value  of  the  goods. 

19.  The  Book  of  Rates  lately  enhanced 
to  a  high  proportion,  and  such  mer- 
chants that  would  not  submit  to  their  il- 
legal and  unreasonable  payments,  were 
vexed  and  oppressed  above  measure ;  and 
the  ordinary  course  of  justice,  the  com- 
mon birthright  of  the  subject  of  England, 
wholly  obstructed   unto   them. 

20.  And  although  all  this  was  taken 
upon  pretence  of  guarding  the  seas,  yet 
a  new  unheard-of  tax  of  ship-money  was 
devised,  and  upon  the  same  pretence,  by 
both  of  which  there  was  charged  upon 
the  subject  near  £700,000  some  years, 
and  yet  the  merchants  have  been  left 
so  naked  to  the  violence  of  the  Turkish 
pirates,  that  many  great  ships  of  value 
and  thousands  of  His  Majesty's  subjects 
have  been  taken  by  them,  and  do  still  re- 
main  in   miserable    slavery. 

21.  The  enlargements  of  forests,  con- 
trary to  Carta  de  Foresta,  and  the  com- 
position thereupon. 

22.  The  exactions  of  coat  and  conduct 
money  and  divers  other  military  charges. 

23.  The  taking  away  the  arms  of 
trained  bands   of  divers   counties. 

24.  The  desperate  design  of  engrossing 
all  the  gunpowder  into  one  hand,  keep- 
ing it  in  the  Tower  of  London,  and  set- 
ting so  high  a  rate  upon  it  that  the  poorer 
sort  were  not  able  to  buy  it,  nor  could 
any  have  it  without  license,  thereby  to 
leave  the  several  parts  of  the  kingdom 
destitute  of  their  necessary  defence,  and 
by  selling  so  dear  that  which  was  sold  to 
make  an  unlawful  advantage  of  it,  to 
the  great  charge  and  detriment  of  the 

25.  The  general  destruction  of  the 
King's  timber,  especially  that  in  the  For- 
est of  Deane,  sold  to  Papists,  which  was 
the  best  store-house  of  this  kingdom  for 
the  maintenance  of  our  shipping. 

26.  The  taking  away  of  men's  right, 
under  the  colour  of  the  King's  title  to 
land,  between  high  and  low  water  marks. 


27.  The  monopolies  of  soap,  salt,  wine, 
leather,  sea-coal,  and  in  a  manner  of  all 
things  of  most  common  and  necessary 

28.  The  restraint  of  the  liberties  of  the 
subjects  in  their  habitation,  trades  and 
other  interests. 

29.  Their  vexation  and  oppression  by 
purveyors,  clerks  of  the  market  and  salt- 
petre men. 

30.  The  sale  of  pretended  nuisances,  as 
building  in  and  about  London. 

31.  Conversion  of  arable  into  pasture, 
continuance  of  pasture,  under  the  name 
of  depopulation,  have  driven  many  mill- 
ions out  of  the  subjects'  purses,  with- 
out any  considerable  profit  to  His  Maj- 

32.  Large  quantities  of  common  and 
several  grounds  hath  been  taken  from  the 
subject  by  colour  of  the  Statute  of  Im- 
provement, and  by  abuse  of  the  Commis- 
sion of  Sewers,  without  their  consent,  and 
against  it. 

33.  And  not  only  private  interest,  but 
also  public  faith,  have  been  broken  in 
seizing  of  the  money  and  bullion  in  the 
mint,  and  the  whole  kingdom  like  to  be 
robbed  at  once  in  that  abominable  project 
of  brass  money. 

34.  Great  numbers  of  His  Majesty's 
subjects  for  refusing  those  unlawful 
charges,  have  been  vexed  with  long  and 
expensive  suits,  some  fined  and  censured, 
others  committed  to  long  and  hard  im- 
prisonments and  confinements,  to  the  loss 
of  health  in  many,  of  life  in  some,  and 
others  have  had  their  houses  broken  up, 
their  goods  seized,  some  have  been  re- 
strained from  their  lawful   callings. 

35.  Ships  have  been  interrupted  in  their 
voyages,  surprised  at  sea  in  a  hostile 
manner  by  projectors,  as  by  a  common 

36.  Merchants  prohibited  to  unlade 
their  goods  in  such  ports  as  were  for 
their  own  advantage,  and  forced  to  bring 
them  to  those  places  which  were  much 
for  the  advantage  of  the  monopolisers 
and  projectors. 

37.  The  Court  of  Star  Chamber  hath 
abounded  in  extravagant  censures,  not 
only  for  the  maintenance  and  improvement 
of  monopolies  and  other  unlawful  taxes, 
but  for  divers  other  causes  where  there 
hath    been    no    offence,    or    very    small  ; 



whereby  His  Majesty's  subjects  have  been  47.  The    Common    Law   Courts,    feeling 

oppressed     by    grievous     fines,     imprison-  all  men  more  inclined  to  seek  justice  there, 

nients,    stigmatisings,    mutilations,    whip-  where  it  may  be  fitted  to  their  own  desire, 

pings,    pillories,   gags,   confinements,    ban-  are  known  frequently  to  forsake  the  rules 

ishments;  after  so  rigid  a  manner  as  hath  of  the  Common  Law,  and  straying  beyond 

not  only  deprived   men  of  the  society  of  their    bounds,    under   pretence    of    equity, 

their  friends,  exercise  of  their  professions,  to   do   injustice. 

comfort  of  books,  use  of  paper  or  ink,  but  48.  Titles    of    honour,    judicial    places, 

even  violated  that  near  union  which  God  sergeantships    at    law,    and    other    offices 

hath   established   between   men   and   their  have  been  sold  for  great  sums  of  money, 

wives,  by  forced  and  constrained  separa-  whereby  the  common  justice  of  the  king- 

tion,  whereby  they  have  been  bereaved  of  dom  hath  been  much  endangered,  not  only 

the  comfort  and  conversation  one  of  an-  by  opening  a  way  of  employment  in  places 

other   for   many   years   together,   without  of  great  trust,  and  advantage  to  men  of 

hope  of  relief,  if  God  had  not  by  His  over-  weak  parts,  but  also  by  giving  occasion 

ruling  providence  given  some  interruption  to  bribery,  extortion,  partiality,  it  seldom 

to  the  prevailing  power,   and   counsel   of  happening  that  places  ill-gotten  are  well 

those  who  were  the  authors  and  promot-  used, 

ers  of  such  peremptory  and  heady  courses.  49.  Commissions  have  been  granted  for 

38.  Judges  have  been  put  out  of  their  examining  the  excess  of  fees,  and  when 
places  for  refusing  to  do  against  their  great  exactions  have  been  discovered,  com- 
oaths  and  consciences;  others  have  been  positions  have  been  made  with  delin- 
so  awed  that  they  durst  not  do  their  quents,  not  only  for  the  time  past,  but 
duties,  and  the  better  to  hold  a  rod  over  likewise  for  immunity  and  security  in 
them,  the  clause  Quam  diu  se  bene  ges-  offending  for  the  time  to  come,  which 
serit  was  left  out  of  their  patents,  and  a  under  colour  of  remedy  hath  but  con- 
new  clause,  Durante  bene  placito,  inserted,  firmed  and  increased  the  grievance  to  the 

39.  Lawyers  have  been  checked  for  be-  subject. 

ing    faithful    to    their    clients;    solicitors  50.  The  usual  course  of  pricking  Sher- 

and  attorneys  have  been  threatened,  and  iffs  not  observed,  but  many  times  Sheriffs 

some  punished,  for  following  lawful  suits,  made  in  an  extraordinary  way,  sometimes 

And  by  this  means  all  the  approaches  to  as  a  punishment  and  charge  unto  them; 

justice   were    interrupted   and    forecluded.  sometimes  such  were  pricked  out  as  would 

40.  New  oaths  have  been  forced  upon  be  instruments  to  execute  whatsoever  they 
the  subject  against  law.  would  have  to  be  done. 

41.  New  judicatories  erected  without  51.  The  Bishops  and  the  rest  of  the 
law.  The  Council  Table  have  by  their  Clergy  did  triumph  in  the  suspensions,  ex- 
orders  offered  to  bind  the  subjects  in  their  communications,  deprivations,  and  degra- 
freeholds,  estates,  suits  and  actions.  dations    of    divers    painful,    learned    and 

42.  The  pretended  Court  of  the  Earl  pious  ministers,  in  the  vexation  and  griev- 
Marshal  was  arbitrary  and  illegal  in  its  ous  oppression  of  great  numbers  of  His 
being  and  proceedings.  Majesty's  good  subjects. 

43.  The  Chancery,  Exchequer  Chamber,  52.  The  High  Commission  grew  to  such 
Court  of  Wards,  and  other  English  Courts,  excess  of  sharpness  and  severity  as  was 
have  been  grievous  in  exceeding  their  ju-  not  much  less  than  the  Romish  Inquisi- 
risdiction.  tion,  and  yet  in  many  cases  by  the  Arch- 

44.  The  estate  of  many  families  weak-  bishop's     power    was    made     much     more 
encd,  and  some  ruined  by  excessive  fines,  heavy,  being  assisted  and  strengthened  by 
exacted    from    them    for    compositions    of  authority  of  the  Council  Table, 
wardships.  53.  The  Bishops  and  their  Courts  were 

45.  All  leases  of  above  a  hundred  years  as  eager  in  the  country;  although  their 
made  to  draw  on  wardship  contrary  to  jurisdiction  could  not  reach  so  high  in 
law.  rigour  and  extremity  of  punishment,  yet 

46.  Undue  proceedings  used  in  the  find-  were  they  no  less  grievous  in  respect  of 
ing  of  officers  to  make  the  jury  find  for  the  generality  and  multiplicity  of  vexa- 
the  King.  tions,    which    lighting    upon    the    meaner 



sort  of  tradesmen  and  artificers  did  im-  63.  II.  There  must  be  a  conjunction  be- 

poverish  many  thousands.  tween  Papists  and  Protestants  in  doctrine, 

54.  And  so  afflict  and  trouble  others,  discipline  and  ceremonies;  only  it  must 
that  great  numbers  to  avoid  their  miseries  not  yet  be  called  Popery. 

departed  out  of  the  kingdom,  some  into  64.  III.  The     Puritans,     under     which 

New  England  and  other  parts  of  America,  name  they  include  all  those  that  desire  to 

others  into  Holland.  preserve  the  laws  and  liberties  of  the  king- 

55.  Where  they  have  transported  their  dom,  and  to  maintain  religion  in  the 
manufactures  of  cloth,  which  is  not  only  power  of  it,  must  be  either  rooted  out  of 
a.  loss  by  diminishing  the  present  stock  of  the  kingdom  with  force,  or  driven  out 
the  kingdom,  but  a  great  mischief  by  im-  with  fear. 

pairing  and  endangering  the  loss  of  that  65.  For    the    effecting    of    this    it    was 

particular   trade  of  clothing,  which  hath  thought   necessary  to   reduce   Scotland   to 

been  a  plentiful   fountain  of  wealth  and  such  Popish  superstitions  and  innovations 

honour  to  this  nation.  as  might  make  them  apt  to  join  with  Eng- 

56.  Those  were  fittest  for  ecclesiastical  land  in  that  great  change  which  was  in- 
preferment,  and  soonest  obtained  it,  who  tended. 

were  most  officious  in  promoting  supersti-  66.  Whereupon  new  canons  and  a  new 

ti.on,  most  virulent  in  railing  against  god-  liturgy  were  pressed  upon  them,  and  when 

liness  and  honesty.  they  refused  to  admit  of  them,  an  army 

57.  The  most  public  and  solemn  sermons  was  raised  to  force  them  to  it,  towards 
before  His  Majesty  were  either  to  advance  which  the  Clergy  and  the  Papists  were 
prerogative  above  law,  and  decry  the  prop-  very  forward  in  their  contribution. 

erty  of  the  subject,  or  full  of  such  kind  67.  The  Scots  likewise  raised  an  army 

of  invectives.  for  their  defence. 

58.  Whereby  they  might  make  those  68.  And  when  both  armies  were  come  to- 
odious  who  sought  to  maintain  the  re-  gether,  and  ready  for  a  bloodv  encounter, 
ligion,  laws  and  liberties  of  the  kingdom,  His  Majesty's  own  gracious  disposition, 
and  such  men  were  sure  to  be  weeded  out  and  the  counsel  of  the  English  nobility 
of  the  commission  of  the  peace,  and  out  and  dutiful  submission  of  the  Scots,  did 
of  all  other  employments  of  power  in  the  so  far  prevail  against  the  evil  counsel  of 
government  of  the  country.  others,  that  a  pacification  was  made,  and 

59.  Many  noble  personages  were  coun-  His  Majesty  returned  with  peace  and 
cillors  in  name,  but  the  power  and  author-  much  honour  to  London. 

ity  remained   in  a   few  of  such   as  were  69.  The    unexpected    reconciliation   was 

most  addicted  to  this  party,  whose  resolu-  most  acceptable  to  all   the  kingdom,  ex- 

tions  and  determinations  were  brought  to  cept  to  the  malignant  party;  whereof  the 

the  table  for  countenance  and  execution,  Archbishop    and    the    Earl    of    Strafford 

and  not  for  debate  and  deliberation,  and  being  heads,  they  and  their  faction  begun 

no  man  could  offer  to  oppose  them  with-  to  inveigh  against  the  peace,  and  to  ag- 

out  disgrace  and  hazard  to  himself.  gravate    the    proceedings    of    the    states, 

60.  Nay,  all  those  that  did  not  wholly  which  so  increased  His  Majesty,  that  he 
concur  and  actively  contribute  to  the  fur-  forthwith  prepared  again  for  war. 
therance  of  their  designs,  though  other-  70.  And  such  was  their  confidence,  that 
wisf  persons  of  never  so  great  honour  and  having  corrupted  and  distempered  the 
abilities,  were  so  far  from  being  employed  whole  frame  and  government  of  the  king- 
in  any  place  of  trust  and  power,  that  they  dom,  they  did  now  hope  to  corrupt  that 
were  neglected,  discountenanced,  and  upon  which  was  the  only  means  to  restore  all 
all  occasions  injured  and  oppressed.  to  a  right  frame  and  temper  again. 

61.  This  faction  was  grown  to  that  71.  To  which  end  they  persuaded  His 
height  and  entireness  of  power,  that  now  Majesty  to  call  a  Parliament,  not  to  seek 
they  began  to  think  of  finishing  their  counsel  and  advice  of  them,  but  to  draw 
work,  which  consisted  of  these  three  parts,  countenance  and   supply   from   them,   and 

62.  I.  The  government  must  be  set  free  to  engage  the  whole  kingdom  in  their 
from  all  restraint  of  laws  concerning  our  quarrel. 

persons  and  estates.  72.  And  in  the  meantime  continued  all 



their    unjust    levies    of    money,    resolving  78.  Thereupon    they    wickedly    advised 

either  to  make  the  Parliament  pliant  to  the  King  to  break  off  the  Parliament  and 

their  will,  and  to  establish  mischief  by  a  to   return   to   the  ways   of   confusion,   in 

law,  or  else  to   break   it,  and   with   more  which  their  own  evil  intentions  were  most 

colour  to  go  on  by  violence  to  take  what  likely  to  prosper  and  succeed, 

they   could   not   obtain   by   consent.      The  79.  After     the     Parliament     ended     the 

ground    alleged    for    the    justification    of  5th  of  May,  1G40,  this  party  grew  so  bold 

this  war  was  this,  aa  to  counsel  the  King  to  supply  himself 

73.  That  the  undutiful  demands  of  the  out  of  his  subjects'  estates  by  his  own 
Parliaments  in  Scotland  was  a  sufficient  power,  at  his  own  will,  without  their  con- 
reason    for    His    Majesty    to    take    arms  sent. 

against  them,  without  hearing  the  reason  80.  The   very   next   day   some   members 

of   those   demands,   and   thereupon   a   new  of  both  Houses  had  their  studies  and  cabi- 

army    was    prepared    against    them,    their  nets,  yea,  their  pockets  searched:  another 

ships    were    seized    in    all    ports    both    of  of    them    not    long    after    was    committed 

England    and    Ireland,    and   at   sea,   their  close  prisoner  for  not  delivering  some  peti- 

petitions  rejected,  their  commissioners  re-  tions   which   he   received   by  authority  of 

fused  audience.  that  House. 

74.  The  whole  kingdom  most  miserably  81.  And  if  harsher  courses  were  in- 
distempered  with  levies  of  men  and  tended  (as  was  reported)  it  is  very  prob- 
money,  and  imprisonments  of  those  who  able  that  the  sickness  of  the  Earl  of  Straf- 
denied  to  submit  to  those  levies.  ford,  and  the  tumultuous  rising  in  South- 

75.  The  Earl  of  Strafford  passed  into  wark  and  about  Lambeth  were  the  causes 
Ireland,  caused  the  Parliament  there  to  that  such  violent  intentions  were  not 
declare    against    the    Scots,    to   give    four  brought  to  execution. 

subsidies    towards   that   war,   and    to    en-  82.  A  false  and  scandalous  Declaration 

gage  themselves,  their  lives  and  fortunes,  against  the  House  of  Commons  was  pub- 

for  the  prosecution  of  it,  and  gave  direc-  lished  in  His  Majesty's  name,  which  yet 

tions  for  an  army  of  eight  thousand  foot  wrought  little  effect  with  the  people,  but 

and  one  thousand  horse  to  be  levied  there,  only  to  manifest  the  impudence  of  those 

which  were  for  the  most  part  Papists.  who  were  authors  of  it. 

76.  The  Parliament  met  upon  the  13th  83.  A  forced  loan  of  money  was  at- 
of  April,  1640.  The  Earl  of  Strafford  and  tempted  in  the  City  of  London. 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  with  their  84.  The  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  in 
party,  so  prevailed  with  His  Majesty,  that  their  several  wards,  enjoined  to  bring  in 
the  House  of  Commons  was  pressed  to  a  list  of  the  names  of  such  persons  as 
yield  a  supply  for  maintenance  of  the  war  they  judged  fit  to  lend,  and  of  the  sums 
with  Scotland,  before  they  had  provided  they  should  lend.  And  such  Aldermen  as 
any  relief  for  the  great  and  pressing  refused  to  do  so  were  committed  to  prison, 
grievances  of  the  people,  which  being  85.  The  Archbishop  and  the  other 
against  the  fundamental  privilege  and  Bishops  and  Clergy  continued  the  Convo- 
proceeding  of  Parliament,  was  yet  in  cation,  and  by  a  new  commission  turned 
humble  respect  to  His  Majesty,  so  far  ad-  it  into  a  provincial  Synod,  in  which,  by 
mitted  as  that  they  agreed  to  take  the  an  unheard-of  presumption,  they  made 
matter  of  supply  into  consideration,  and  canons  that  contain  in  them  many  mat- 
two  several  days  it  was  debated.  ters  contrary  to  the  King's  prerogative,  to 

77.  Twelve  subsidies  were  demanded  for  the  fundamental  laws  and  statutes  of  the 
the  release  of  ship-money  alone,  a  third  realm,  to  the  right  of  Parliaments,  to  the 
day  was  appointed  for  conclusion,  when  property  and  liberty  of  the  subject,  and 
the  heads  of  that  party  begun  to  fear  the  matters  tending  to  sedition  and  of  dan- 
people  might  close  with  the  King,  in  gerous  consequence,  thereby  establishing 
falsifying  his  desires  of  money;  but  that  their  own  usurpations,  justifying  their 
withal  they  were  like  to  blast  their  altar-worship,  and  those  other  supersti- 
malicious  designs  against  Scotland,  find-  tious  innovations  which  they  formerly  in- 
ing   them   very   much    indisposed    to   give  troduced  without  warrant  of  law. 

any  countenance  to  that  war.  86.  They    imposed    a    new    oath    npo« 



divers  of  His  Majesty's  subjects,  both 
ecclesiastical  and  lay,  for  maintenance  of 
their  own  tyranny,  and  laid  a  great  tax 
on  the  Clergy,  for  supply  of  His  Majesty, 
and  generally  they  showed  themselves  very 
affectionate  to  the  war  with  Scotland, 
which  was  by  some  of  them  styled  Bellum 
Episcopate,  and  a  prayer  composed  and  en- 
joined to  be  read  in  all  churches,  calling 
the  Scots  rebels,  to  put  the  two  nations 
in  blood  and  make  them  irreconcileable. 

87.  All  those  pretended  canons  and  con- 
stitutions were  armed  with  the  several 
censures  of  suspension,  excommunication, 
deprivation,  by  which  they  would  have 
thrust  out  all  the  good  ministers,  and 
most  of  the  well-affected  people  of  the 
kingdom,  and  left  an  easy  passage  to  their 
own  design  of   reconciliation  with  Rome. 

88.  The  Popish  party  enjoyed  such  ex- 
emptions from  penal  laws  as  amounted  to 
a  toleration,  besides  many  other  encour- 
agements and  Court  favours. 

89.  They  had  a  Secretary  of  State,  Sir 
Francis  Windebanck,  a  powerful  agent  for 
speeding  all  their  desires. 

90.  A  Pope's  Nuncio  residing  here,  to 
act  and  govern  them  according  to  such  in- 
fluences as  he  received  from  Rome,  and  to 
intercede  for  them  with  the  most  powerful 
concurrence  of  the  foreign  Princes  of  that 

91.  By  his  authority  the  Papists  of  all 
sorts,  nobility,  gentry,  and  clergy  were 
convocated  after  the  manner  of  a  Parlia- 

92.  New  jurisdictions  were  erected  of 
Romish  Archbishops,  taxes  levied,  an- 
other state  moulded  within  this  state  in- 
dependent in  government,  contrary  in  in- 
terest and  affection,  secretly  corrupting 
the  ignorant  or  negligent  professors  of  our 
religion,  and ,  closely  uniting  and  combin- 
ing themselves  against  such  as  were 
found  in  this  posture,  waiting  for  an  op- 
portunity by  force  to  destroy  those  whom 
they  could  not  hope  to  seduce. 

93.  For  the  effecting  whereof  they  were 
strengthened  with  arms  and  munitions, 
encouraged  by  superstitious  prayers,  en- 
joined by  the  Nuncio  to  be  weekly  made 
for  the  prosperity  of  some  great  design. 

94.  And  such  power  had  they  at  Court, 
that  secretly  a  commission  was  issued  out, 
or  intended  to  be  issued  to  some  great 
men  of  that  profession,  for  the  levying  of 

soldiers,  and  to  command  and  employ 
them  according  to  private  instructions, 
which  we  doubt  were  framed  for  the  ad- 
vantage of  those  who  were  the  contrivers 
of  them. 

95.  His  Majesty's  treasure  was  con- 
sumed, his  revenue  anticipated. 

96.  His  servants  and  officers  compelled 
to  lend  great  sums  of  money. 

97.  Multitudes  were  called  to  the 
Council  Table,  who  were  tired  with  long 
attendances  there  for  refusing  illegal  pay- 

98.  The  prisons  were  filled  with  their 
commitments;  many  of  the  Sheriffs  sum- 
moned into  the  Star  Chamber,  and  some 
imprisoned  for  not  being  quick  enough 
in  levying  the  ship-money;  the  people 
languished  under  grief  and  fear,  no  vis- 
ible hope  being  left  but  in  desperation. 

99.  The  nobility  began  to  weary  of 
their  silence  and  patience,  and  sensible 
of  the  duty  and  trust  which  belongs  to 
them:  and  thereupon  some  of  the  most 
ancient  of  them  did  petition  His  Majesty 
at  such  a  time,  when  evil  counsels  were 
so  strong,  that  they  had  occasion  to  ex- 
pect more  hazard  to  themselves,  than  re- 
dress of  those  public  evils  for  which  they 

100.  Whilst  the  kingdom  was  in  this 
agitation  and  distemper,  the  Scots,  re- 
strained in  their  trades,  impoverished  by 
the  loss  of  many  of  their  ships,  bereaved 
of  all  possibility  of  satisfying  His  Maj- 
esty by  any  naked  supplication,  entered 
with  a  powerful  army  into  the  kingdom, 
and  without  any  hostile  act  or  spoil  in 
the  country  they  passed,  more  than  forc- 
ing a  passage  over  the  Tyne  at  Newburn, 
near  Newcastle,  possessed  themselves  of 
Newcastle,  and  had  a  fair  opportunity  to 
press   on   further   upon   the  King's   army. 

101.  But  duty  and  reverence  to  His 
Majesty,  and  brotherly  love  to  the  Eng- 
lish nation,  made  them  stay  there,  where- 
by the  King  had  leisure  to  entertain  bet- 
ter counsels. 

102.  Wherein  God  so  blessed  and  di- 
rected him  that  he  summoned  the  Great 
Council  of  Peers  to  meet  at  York  upon 
the  24th  of  September,  and  there  declared 
a  Parliament  to  begin  the  3d  of  Novem- 
ber then  following. 

103.  The  Scots,  the  first  day  of  the 
Great  Council,   presented   an  humble  Pe- 



tition    to    His    Majesty,    whereupon    the 
Treaty  was  appointed  at  Ripon. 

104.  A  present  cessation  of  arms 
agreed  upon,  and  the  full  conclusion  of 
all  differences  referred  to  the  wisdom  and 
care  of  the  Parliament. 

105.  At  our  first  meeting,  all  oppo- 
sitions seemed  to  vanish,  the  mischiefs 
were  so  evident  which  those  evil  counsel- 
lors produced,  that  no  man  durst  stand 
up  to  defend  them:  yet  the  work  itself 
afforded  difficulty  enough. 

106.  The  multiplied  evils  and  corrup- 
tion of  fifteen  years,  strengthened  by  cus- 
tom and  authority,  and  the  concurrent 
interest  of  many  powerful  delinquents, 
were  now  to  be  brought  to  judgment  and 

107.  The  King's  household  was  to  be 
provided  for: — they  had  brought  him  to 
that  want,  that  he  could  not  supply  his 
ordinary  and  necessary  expenses  without 
the  assistance  of  his  people. 

108.  Two  armies  were  to  be  paid,  which 
amounted  very  near  to  eighty  thousand 
pounds  a  month. 

109.  The  people  were  to  be  tenderly 
charged,  having  been  formerly  exhausted 
with  many  burdensome  projects. 

110.  The  difficulties  seemed  to  be  insu- 
perable, which  by  the  Divine  Providence 
we  have  overcome.  The  contrarieties  in- 
compatible, which  yet  in  a  great  measure 
we  have  reconciled. 

111.  Six  subsidies  have  been  granted 
and  a  Bill  of  poll-money,  which  if  it  be 
duly  levied,  may  equal  six  subsidies  more, 
in  all  £000,000. 

112.  Besides  we  have  contracted  a  debt 
to  the  Scots  of  £220,000,  yet  God  hath  so 
blessed  the  endeavours  of  this  Parliament, 
that  the  kingdom  is  a  great  gainer  by  all 
these  charges. 

113.  The  ship-money  is  abolished,  which 
cost  the  kingdom  about  £200,000  a  year. 

114.  The  coat  and  conduct-money,  and 
olher  military  charges  are  taken  away, 
which  in  many  countries  amounted  to 
little  less  than  the  ship-money. 

115.  The  monopolies  are  all  suppressed, 
whereof  some  few  did  prejudice  the  sub- 
ject, above  £1,000,000  yearly. 

116.  The   soap   £100.000. 

117.  The  wine  £300,000. 

118.  The  leather  must  needs  exceed 
both,  and  salt  could  be  no  less  than  that. 

119.  Besides  the  inferior  monopolies, 
which,  if  they  could  be  exactly  computed, 
would  make  up  a  great  sum. 

120.  That  which  is  ir;>re  beneficial  than 
all  this  is,  that  the  root  of  these  evils 
is  taken  away,  which  was  the  arbitrary 
power  pretended  to  be  in  His  Majesty  of 
taxing  the  subject,  or  charging  their  es- 
tates without  consent  in  Parliament, 
which  is  now  declared  to  be  against  law 
by  the  judgment  of  both  Houses,  and  like- 
wise by  an  Act  of  Parliament. 

121.  Another  step  of  great  advantage 
is  this,  the  living  grievances,  the  evil 
counsellors  and  actors  of  these  mischiefs 
have  been  so  quelled. 

122.  By  the  justice  done  upon  the  Earl 
of  Strafford,  the  flight  of  the  Lord  Finch 
and  Secretary  Windebanck. 

123.  The  accusation  and  imprisonment 
of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  of 
Judge  Berkeley;   and 

124.  The  impeachment  of  divers  other 
Bishops  and  Judges,  that  it  is  like  not 
only  to  be  an  ease  to  the  present  times, 
but  a  preservation  to  the  future. 

125.  The  discontinuance  of  Parliaments 
is  prevented  by  the  Bill  for  a  triennial 
Parliament,  and  the  abrupt  dissolution 
of  this  Parliament  by  another  Bill,  by 
which  it  is  provided  it  shall  not  be  dis- 
solved or  adjourned  without  the  consent 
of  both  Houses. 

126.  Which  two  laws  well  considered 
may  be  thought  more  advantageous  than 
al'  the  former,  because  they  secure  a  full 
operation  of  the  present  remedy,  and  af- 
ford a  perpetual  spring  of  remedies  for 
the  future. 

127.  The  Star  Chamber. 

128.  The  High  Commission. 

129.  The  Courts  of  the  President  and 
Council  in  the  North  were  so  many  forges 
of  misery,  oppression  and  violence,  and 
are  all  taken  away,  whereby  men  are  more 
secured  in  their  persons,  liberties  and  es- 
tates, than  they  could  be  by  any  law  or 
example  for  the  regulation  of  those  Courts 
or  terror  of  the  Judges. 

130.  The  immoderate  power  of  the 
Council  Table,  and  the  excessive  abuse  of 
that  power  is  so  ordered  and  restrained, 
that  we  may  well  hope  that  no  such 
things  as  were  frequently  done  by  them, 
to  the  prejudice  of  the  public  liberty,  will 
appear  in  future  times  but  only  in  stories, 



to  give  lis  and  our  posterity  more  occasion 
to  praise  God  for  His  Majesty's  goodness, 
and  the  faithful  endeavours  of  this  Par- 

131.  The  canons  and  power  of  canon- 
making  are  blasted  by  the  votes  of  both 

132.  The  exorbitant  power  of  Bishops 
and  their  courts  are  much  abated,  by  some 

government  of  the  kingdom,  may  be  more 
certainly  provided  for. 

140.  The  regulating  of  courts  of  justice, 
and  abridging  both  the  delays  and  charges 
of  law-suits. 

141.  The  settling  of  some  good  courses 
for  preventing  the  exportation  of  gold 
and  silver,  and  the  inequality  of  exchanges 
between    us    and    other    nations,    for    the 

provisions   in   the   Bill   against   the   High    advancing  of  native  commodities,  increase 
Commission    Court,    the    authors    of    the    of  our  manufactures,  and  well  balancing 

many   innovations   in   doctrine   and   cere- 

133.  The  ministers  that  have  been  scan- 
dalous in  their  lives,  have  been  so  terri- 
fied in  just  complaints  and  accusations, 
that  we  may  well  hope  they  will  be  more    our  coasts,  which  will  be  of  mighty  use 

of  trade,  whereby  the  stock  of  the  king- 
dom  may  be   increased,   or   at   least  kept 
from  impairing,  as  through  neglect  hereof 
it  hath  done  for  many  years  last  past. 
142.  Improving  the  herring-fishing  upon 

modest  for  the  time  to  come;  either  in- 
wardly convicted  by  the  sight  of  their 
own  folly,  or  outwardly  restrained  by  the 
fear  of  punishment. 

134.  The  forests  are  by  a  good  law  re- 
duced to  their  right  bounds. 

in  the  employment  of  the  poor,  and  a 
plentiful  nursery  of  mariners  for  enabling 
the  kingdom  in  any  great  action. 

143.  The  oppositions,  obstructions  and 
other  difficulties  wherewith  we  have  been 
encountered,  and  which  still  lie  in  our  way 

135.  The  encroachments  and  oppressions    with  some  strength  and  much  obstinacy, 
of  the  Stannary  Courts,  the  extortions  of    are  these:   the  malignant  party  whom  we 

have  formerly  described  to  be  the  actors 
and    promoters    of    all    our    misery,    they 

the  clerk  of  the  market. 

136.  And  the  compulsion  of  the  subject 

to  receive  the  Order  of  Knighthood  against  have  taken  heart  again. 

his  will,  paying  of  fines  for  not  receiving  144.  They    have    been    able    to    prefer 

it,   and   the   vexatious   proceedings   there-  some  of  their  own  factors  and  agents  to 

upon   for   levying  of  those   fines,  are   by  degrees  of  honour,  to  places  of  trust  and 

other   beneficial    laws   reformed   and   pre-  employment,  even  during  the  Parliament. 


145.  Thev  have  endeavoured  to  work  in 

137.  Many  excellent  laws  and  provisions  His  Majesty  ill  impressions  and  opinions 

are  in  preparation   for  removing  the  in-  of   our    proceedings,   as    if   we    had   alto- 

ordinate  power,  vexation  and  usurpation  gether  done  our  own  work,  and  not  his; 

of  Bishops,   for  reforming  the  pride  and  and  had  obtained  from  him  many  things 

idleness  of  many  of  the  clergy,  for  easing  very   prejudicial    to   the   Crown,   both   in 

the   people   of  unnecessary   ceremonies 
religion,  for  censuring  and  removing  un- 

respect  of  prerogative  and  profit. 

146.  To  wipe  out  this  slander  we  think 

worthy    and    unprofitable    ministers,    and    good    only   to    say    thus    much:    that    all 

for  maintaining  godly  and  diligent  preach- 
ers through  the  kingdom. 

that  we  have  done  is  for  His  Majesty,  his 
greatness,  honour  and  support,  when  we 

138.  Other  things   of  main   importance  yield    to   give   £25,000    a    month    for    the 

for    the    good    of    this    kingdom    are    in  relief    of    the    Northern   Counties;     this 

proposition,     though     little     could     hith-  was  given  to  the  King,  for  he  was  bound 

erto  be  done  in  regard  of  the  many  other  to  protect  his  subjects. 

more  pressing   businesses,   which   yet  be-  147.  They     were     His     Majesty's     evil 

fore    the    end    of    this    Session    we    hope  counsellors,     and     their     ill     instruments 

may    receive    some    progress    and    perfec- 

139.  The  establishing  and  ordering  the 
King's  revenue,  that  so  the  abuse  of  offi- 

that    were    actors     in     those    grievances 
which  brought  in  the  Scots. 

148.  And  if  His  Majesty  please  to  force 
those  who  were  the  authors  of  this  war 

eers  and  superfluity  of  expenses  may  be  to  make  satisfaction,  as  he  might  justly 
cut  off,  and  the  necessary  disbursements  and  easily  do,  it  seems  very  reasonable 
for  His  Majesty's  honour,  the  defence  and    that    the   people   might    well    be   excused 



from  taking  upon  them  this  burden,  being  out   of    the    Crown,    but   to    suspend   the 

altogether   innocent  and  free  from  being  execution  of  it  for  this  time  and  occasion 

any  cause  of  it.  only:    which    was    so    necessary    for    the 

149.  When  we  undertook  the  charge  King's  own  security  and  the  public  peace, 
of  the  army,  which  cost  above  £50,000  that  without  it  we  could  not  have  under- 
a  month,  was  not  this  given  to  the  King?  taken  any  of  these  great  charges,  but 
Was  it  not  His  Majesty's  army?  Were  must  have  left  both  the  armies  to  dis- 
not  all  the  commanders  under  contract  order  and  confusion,  and  the  whole  king- 
with    His    Majesty,   at   higher    rates    and  dom  to  blood  and  rapine. 

greater  wages  than  ordinary?  159.  The  Star  Chamber  was  much  more 

150.  And  have  not  we  taken  upon  us  fruitful  in  oppression  than  in  profit,  the 
to  discharge  all  the  brotherly  assistance  great  fines  being  for  the  most  part 
of  £300,000,  which  we  gave  the  Scots?  given  away,  and  the  rest  stalled  at  long 
Was  it  not  toward  repair  of  those  dam-  times. 

ages  and  losses  which  they  received  from         160.  The    fines    of    the    High    Commis- 

the  King's  ships  and  from  his  ministers?  sioner  were  in  themselves  unjust,  and  sel- 

151.  These  three  particulars  amount  to  dom  or  never  came  into  the  King's  purse, 
above  £1,100,000.  These  four  Bills  are  particularly  and  more 

152.  Besides,  His  Majesty  hath  received  specially   instanced. 

by  impositions  upon  merchandise  at  least        161.  In  the  rest  there  will  not  be  found 

£400,000.  so  much  as  a  shadow  of  prejudice  to  the 

153.  So    that    His    Majesty    hath    had  Crown. 

out  of  the  subjects'  purse  since  the  Par-        162.  They  have  sought  to  diminish  our 

liament   began   £1,500,000,   and   yet   these  reputation  Avith  the  people,  and  to  bring 

men   can   be   so   impudent   as   to   tell    His  them  out  of  love  with  Parliaments. 
Majesty  that  we  have  done   nothing  for        163.  The    aspersions    which    they    have 

him.  attempted    this   way    have   been    such    aa 

154.  As    to   the   second   branch   of   this  these: 

slander,     we     acknowledge     with     much        164.  That    we    have    spent    much    time 

thankfulness     that     His     Majesty     hath  and  done  little,  especially  in  those  griev- 

passed  more  good  Bills  to  the  advantage  ances  which  concern  religion. 
of  the  subjects  than  have  been  in  many        165.  That  the  Parliament  is  a  burden 

ages.  to    the    kingdom    by    the    abundance    of 

155.  But  withal  we  cannot  forget  that  protections  which  hinder  justice  and 
these  venomous  councils  did  manifest  trade;  and  by  many  subsidies  granted 
themselves  in  some  endeavours  to  hinder  much  more  heavy  than  any  formerly  en- 
these  good  acts.  dnred. 

156.  And  for  both  Houses  of  Parlia-  166.  To  which  there  is  a  ready  answer; 
ment  we  may  with  truth  and  modesty  say  if  the  time  spent  in  this  Parliament  be 
thus  much:  that  we  have  ever  been  care-  considered  in  relation  backward  to  the 
ful  not  to  desire  anything  that  should  long  growth  and  deep  root  of  those  griev- 
weaken  the  Crown  either  in  just  profit  or  ances,  which  we  have  removed,  to  the 
useful   power.  powerful    supports    of    those    delinquents, 

157.  The  triennial  Parliament  for  the  which  we  have  pursued,  to  the  great 
matter  of  it,  doth  not  extend  to  so  much  necessities  and  other  charges  of  the 
as  by  law  we  ought  to  have  required  commonwealth  for  which  we  have  pro- 
(there   being   two   statutes   still    in   force  vided. 

for  a  Parliament  to  be  once  a  year),  and         167.  Or  if  it  be  considered   in   relation 

for  the  manner  of  it,  it  is  in  the  King's  forward   to  many   advantages,    which   not 

power   that   it   shall   never  take  effect,   if  only  the  present  but  future  apes  are  like 

he   by   a    timely    summons   shall    prevent  to  reap  by  the  good  laws  and  other  pro- 

ary  other  way  of  assembling,  ceedings  in  this  Parliament,  we  doubt  not 

158.  In  the  Bill  for  continuance  of  this  but  it  will  be  thought  by  all  indifferent 
present  Parliament,  there  seems  to  be  judgments,  that  our  time  hath  been  much 
sortie  restraint  of  the  royal  power  in  better  employed  than  in  a  far  greater 
dissolving  of  Parliaments,  not  to  take  it  proportion  of  time  in  manv  former  Parlia- 



ment9    put    together;     and    the    charges  execute  their  malice  to  the  subversion  of 

which   have  been   laid   upon  the   subject,  our   religion   and   the   dissolution   of   our 

and  the  other  inconveniences  which  they  government. 

have  borne,  will  seem  very  light  in  re-  175.  Thus  they  have  been  continually 
spect  of  the  benefit  they  have  and  may  practising  to  disturb  the  peace,  and  plot- 
receive,  ting  the  destruction  even  of  all  the  King's 

168.  And  for  the  matter  of  protections,  dominions;  and  have  employed  their 
the  Parliament  is  so  sensible  of  it  that  emissaries  and  agents  in  them,  all  for 
therein  they  intended  to  give  them  what-  the  promoting  their  devilish  designs, 
soever  ease  may  stand  with  honour  and  which  the  vigilancy  of  those  who  were 
justice,  and  are  in  a  way  of  passing  a  well  affected  hath  still  discovered  and  de- 
Bill  to  give  them  satisfaction.  feated   before   they   were   ripe   for    execu- 

169.  They  have  sought  by  many  subtle  tion  in  England  and  Scotland, 
practices  to  cause  jealousies  and  divisions  176.  Only  in  Ireland,  which  was  farther 
betwixt  us  and  our  brethren  of  Scotland,  off,  they  have  had  time  and  opportunity 
by  slandering  their  proceedings  and  inten-  to  mould  and  prepare  their  work,  and  had 
tions  towards  us,  and  by  secret  endeavours  brought  it  to  that  perfection  that  they 
to  instigate  and  incense  them  and  us  one  had  possessed  themselves  of  that  whole 
against  another.  kingdom,    totally    subverted    the    govern- 

170.  They  have  had  such  a  party  of  ment  of  it,  routed  out  religion,  and  de- 
Bishops  and  Popish  lords  in  the  House  stroyed  all  the  Protestants  whom  the  con- 
of  Peers,  as  hath  caused  much  opposition  science  of  their  duty  to  God,  their  King 
and  delay  in  the  prosecution  of  delin-  and  country,  would  not  have  permitted 
quents,  hindered  the  proceedings  of  di-  to  join  with  them,  if  by  God's  wonder- 
verse  good  Bills  passed  in  the  Commons'  ful  providence  their  main  enterprise  upon 
House,  concerning  the  reformation  of  sun-  the  city  and  castle  of  Dublin,  had  not 
dry  great  abuses  and  corruptions  both  in  been  detected  and  prevented  upon  the. 
Church  and  State.  very  eve  before  it  should  have  been  exe- 

171.  They  have  laboured  to  seduce  and  euted. 

corrupt  some  of  the  Commons'  House  to  177.  Notwithstanding  they  have  in  other 

draw  them  into  conspiracies  and  combina-  parts   of  that   kingdom   broken   out   into 

tions    against    the    liberty    of    the    Par-  open     rebellion,     surprising     towns     and 

liament.  castles,    committed    murders,    rapes    and 

172.  And  by  their  instruments  and  other  villainies,  and  shaken  off  all  bonds 
agents  they  have  attempted  to  disaffect  of  obedience  to  His  Majesty  and  the  laws 
and  discontent  His  Majesty's  army,  and  of  the  realm. 

to  engage  it  for  the  maintenance  of  their  178.  Ana  in  general   have  kindled  such 

wicked  and  traitorous  designs;   the  keep-  a     fire,    as    nothing    but     God's     infinite 

ing  up  of  Bishops  in  votes  and  functions,  blessing     upon     the     wisdom     and     en- 

and  by  force  to  compel  the  Parliament  to  deavours   of   this    State   will    be    able   to 

order,  limit  and  dispose  their  proceedings  quench  it. 

in  such  manner  as  might  best  concur  with  179.  And  certainly  had  not  God  in  His 

the  intentions  of  this  dangerous  and  po-  great  mercy  unto  this  land  discovered  and 

tent  faction.  confounded  their  former  designs,  we  had 

173.  And  when  one  mischievous  design  been  the  prologue  to  this  tragedy  in  Ire- 
and  attempt  of  theirs  to  bring  on  the  land,  and  had  by  this  been  made  the  la- 
army  acrainst  the  Parliament  and  the  City  mentable  spectacle  of  misery  and  con- 
of  London,  hath  been  discovered  and  pre-  fusion. 

vented;  180.  And  now  what  hope  have  we  but 

174.  They  presently  undertook  another  in  God,  when  as  the  only  means  of  our 
of  the  same  damnable  nature,  with  this  subsistence  and  power  of  reformation  is 
addition  to  it,  to  endeavour  to  make  the  under  Him  in  the  Parliament. 
Scottish  army  neutral,  whilst  the  Eng-  181.  But  what  can  we  the  Commons, 
lish  army,  which  they  had  laboured  to  without  the  conjunction  of  the  House  of 
corrupt  and  envenom  against  us  by  their  Lords,  and  what  conjunction  can  we  ex- 
false  and   slanderous   suggestions,  should  peel    there,  when   the   Bishops   and   recu 



sant  lords  are  so  numerous  and  prevalent  liament,  to  be  there  allowed  of  and  con- 
that  they  are  able  to  cross  and  interrupt  firmed,  and  receive  the  stamp  of  authority, 
our  best  endeavours  for  reformation,  and  thereby  to  find  passage  and  obedience 
by  that  means  give  advantage  to  this  throughout  the  kingdom, 
malignant  party  to  traduce  our  proceed-  18G.  They  have  maliciously  charged  us 
ings?  that  we  intend  to  destroy  and  discourage 

182.  They  infuse  into  the  people  that  learning,  whereas  it  is  our  chiefest  care 
we  mean  to  abolish  all  Church  govern-  and  desire  to  advance  it,  and  to  provide  a 
ment,  and  leave  every  man  to  his  own  competent  maintenance  for  conscionable 
fancy  for  the  service  and  worship  of  God,  and  preaching  ministers  throughout  the 
absolving  him  of  that  obedience  which  he  kingdom,  which  will  be  a  great  encourage- 
owes  under  God  unto  His  Majesty,  whom  ment  to  scholars,  and  a  certain  means 
we  know  to  be  entrusted  with  the  ecclesi-  whereby  the  want,  meanness  and  ignor- 
astical  law  as  well  as  with  the  temporal,  ance,  to  which  a  great  part  of  the  clergy 
to  regulate  all  the  members  of  the  Church  is  now  subject,  will  be  prevented. 

of  England,  by  such  rules  of  order  and  187.  And  we  intended  likewise  to  re- 
discipline  as  are  established  by  Parlia-  form  and  purge  the  fountains  of  learning, 
ment,  which  is  his  great  council,  in  all  the  two  Universities,  that  the  streams 
affairs  both  in  Church  and  State.  flowing    from    thence    may    be    clear    and 

183.  We  confess  our  intention  is,  and  pure,  and  an  honour  and  comfort  to  the 
our  endeavors  have  been,  to  reduce  within  whole  land. 

bounds   that  exorbitant  power  which   the  188.  They   have    strained    to    blast    our 

prelates    have    assumed    unto    themselves,  proceedings    in    Parliament,    by    wresting 

so  contrary  both  to  the  Word  of  God  and  the    interpretations    of    our    orders    from 

to  the  laws  of  the  land,  to  which  end  we  their  genuine  intention, 

passed    the    Bill    for    the    removing    them  189.  They  tell  the  people  that  our  med- 

from    their   temporal    power   and   employ-  dling  with  the  power  of  episcopacy  hath 

ments,  that  so  the  better  they  might  with  caused    sectaries    and    conventicles,    when 

meekness    apply    themselves    to    the    dis-  idolatrous   and   Popish   ceremonies,   intro- 

charge  of  their  functions,  which  Bill  them-  duced  into  the  Church  by  the  command  of 

selves  opposed,  and  were  the  principal  in-  the  Bishops  have  not  only  debarred   the 

struments  of  crossing  it.  people    from    thence,    but    expelled    them 

184.  And  we  do  here  declare  that  it  is  from  the  kingdom. 

far  from  our  purpose  or  desire  to  let  loose  190.  Thus  with  Elijah,  we  are  called  by 

the  golden  reins  of  discipline  and  govern-  this  malignant  party  the  troublers  of  the 

ment  in  the  Church,  to  leave  private  per-  State,    and    still,   while   we   endeavour   to 

sons  or  particular  congregations   to   take  reform    their    abuses,    they   make    us    the 

up    what    form    of    Divine    Service    they  authors   of   those   mischiefs   we   study   to 

please,  for  we  hold  it  requisite  that  there  prevent. 

should  be  throughout  the  whole  realm  a  191.  For    the    perfecting    of    the    work 

conformity  to  that  order  which  th?  laws  begun,    and    removing   all    future    impedi- 

enjoin  according  to  the  Word  of  God.   And  ments,  we  conceive  these  courses  will   be 

we  desire  to  unburden  the  consciences  of  very  effectual,   seeing  the  religion   of  the 

men    of    needless    and    superstitious    cere-  Papists   hath   such    principles   as   do   cer- 

monies,    suppress    innovations,    and    take  tainly  tend  to  the  destruction  and  extir- 

away  the  monuments  of  idolatry.  pation  of  all  Protestants,  when  they  shall 

185.  And    the    better    to    effect    the    in-  have  opportunity  to  effect  it. 

tended   reformation,  we  desire   there  may  192.  It   is   necessary   in   the   first   place 

be    a   general    synod    of    the    most    grave,  to   keep   them   in   such   condition   as   that 

pious,    learned    and    judicious    divines    of  they  may  not  be  able  to  do  us  any  hurt, 

this  island;   assisted  with  some  from  for-  and  for  avoiding  of  such  connivance  and 

eign   parts,    professing   the   same   religion  favour  as  hath  heretofore  been  shown  unto 

with  us,  who  may  consider  of  all   things  them. 

necessary  for  the  peace  and  good  govern-  193.  That   His    Majesty    be    pleased    to 

ment  of  the  Church,  and  represent  the  re-  grant    a    standing    Commission    to    some 

suits  of  their  consultations  unto  the  Par-  choice    men    named    in    Parliament,    who 



may  take  notice  of  their   increase,  their  proceed  against  them  in  any  legal  way  of 

counsels  and  proceedings,  and  use  all  due  charge  or  impeachment, 

means  by  execution  of  the  laws  to  pre-  202.  That  all  Councillors  of  State  may 

vent  all   mischievous  designs   against  the  be  sworn  to  observe  those  laws  which  con- 

peace-  and  safety  of  this  kingdom. 

cern  the  subject  in  his  liberty,  that  they 

194.  Thus  some  good  course  be  taken  to  may  likewise  take  an  oath  not  to  receive 

discover    the    counterfeit    and    false    con-  or  give  reward  or  pension  from  any  for- 

formity    of    Papists    to    the    Church,    by  eign  prince,  but  such  as  they  shall  within 

colour    whereof    persons    very    much    dis-  some    reasonable    time    discover    to    the 

affected    to    the    true   religion    have    been  Lords  of  His  Majesty's  Council, 
admitted  into  place  of  greatest  authority 
and  trust  in  the  kingdom. 

203.  And  although  they  should  wicked- 
ly forswear  themselves,  yet  it  may  herein 
195.  For  the  better  preservation  of  the    do  good  to  make  them  known  to  be  false 
laws   and   liberties  of   the   kingdom,   that    and  perjured  to  those  who  employ  them, 

all  illegal  grievances  and  exactions  be  pre- 
sented and  punished  at  the  sessions  and 

196.  And  that  Judges  and  Justices  be 
very  careful  to  give  this  in  charge  to  the 

and    thereby    bring    them    into    as    little 
credit  with  them  as  with  us. 

204.  That  His  Majesty  may  have  cause 
to  be  in  love  with  good  counsel  and  good 
men,  by  shewing  him  in  an  humble  and 

grand    jury,    and    both    the    Sheriff    and    dutiful  manner  how  full  of  advantage  it 
Justices  to  be  sworn  to  the  due  execution    would  be  to  himself,  to  see  his  own  estate 

of  the  Petition  of  Right  and  other  laws. 
197.  That  His  Majesty  be  humbly  peti- 

settled  in  a  plentiful  condition  to  support 
his  honour;    to   see  his   people  united   in 

tioned    by    both    Houses    to    employ    such    ways  of  duty  to  him,  and  endeavours  of 

counsellors,  ambassadors  and  other  minis 
ters,  in  managing  his  business  at  home  and 

the  public  good,  etc. 

Granger,  Francis,  statesman;  born  in 

abroad  as  the  Parliament  may  have  cause    Suffield,  Conn.,  Dec.  1,  1792;  graduated  at 

to  confide  in,  without  which  we  cannot 
give  His  Majesty  such  supplies  for  sup- 
port of  his  own  estate,  nor  such  assist- 
ance to  the  Protestant  party  beyond  the 
sea,  as  is  desired. 

198.  It  may  often  fall  out  that  the 
Commons  may  have  just  cause  to  take  ex- 
ceptions  at   some  men   for   being  council- 

Yale  in  1811;  Whig  candidate  for  Vice- 
President  in  1836;  member  of  Congress, 
1835-37  and  1839-41;  Postmaster-General 
in  1841.  He  died  in  Canandaigua,  N.  Y., 
Aug.  28,  1868. 

Granger,  Gideon,  statesman;  born  in 
Suffield,  Conn.,  July  19,  1767;  graduated 
at  Yale  College  in  1787;  became  a  lawyer; 

lors,  and  yet  not  charge  those  men  with    Postmaster-General  in  1801-14.     His  pub- 
crimes,  for  there  be  grounds  of  diffidence    lications  include  a  Fourth  of  July  oration 

which  lie  not  in  proof. 

199.  There    are    others,    which 
they  may  be  proved,  yet  are  not  legally 

200.  To  be  a  known  favourer  of  Papists, 

and  Political  Essays.     He  died  in  Canan- 
though    daigua,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  31,  1822. 

Granger,  Gordon,  military  officer ;  born 
in  New  York  City,  in  1821 ;  graduated  at 
West   Point   in   1845;    served   in   the   war 

or  to  have  been  very  forward  in  defending  with  Mexico.  He  served  under  Halleck 
or  countenancing  some  great  offenders  and  Grant  in  the  West,  and  was  made 
questioned    in    Parliament;    or    to    speak    major-general  of  volunteers,  Sept.  17,  1862. 

contemptuously  of  either  Houses  of  Par- 
liament  or   Parliamentary   proceedings. 

He    commanded    the 
Kentucky,    was    put 

district    of    central 
command   of   the 

201.  Or   such   as   are   factors  or   agents    4th  Army  Corps  after  the  battle  of  Chicka- 

for  any  foreign  prince  of  another  religion ; 
such  are  justly  suspected  to  get  council- 
lors' places,  or  any  other  of  trust  concern- 

mauga,  was  engaged  in  the  struggle  on 
Missionary  Ridge,  November,  1863,  and 
was  active  in  the  military  movements  that 

ing  public  employment  for  money;  for  all  led  to  the  capture  of  Mobile  in  1864.  He 
these  and  divers  others  we  may  have  great  was  mustered  out  of  the  volunteer  service 
reason  to  be  earnest  with  His  Majesty,  jn  1866;  was  promoted  to  colonel  in  the 
not  to  put  his  great  affairs  into  such  regular  army  the  same  year;  and  died  in 
hands,  though  we  may  be  unwilling  to  Santa  Fe,  N.  M.,  Jan.  10,  1876. 
rv.— i  129 


Granger,    Moses    Moouhead,    lawyer;  !New  York,  and  in  1889  President  Harri- 

born  in  Zanesville,  O.,  Oct.  22,  1831 ;  grad-  son   apj>ointed    him   minister    to   Austria- 

uated  at   Kenyon   College   in    1850;    prac-  Hungary,  where  he  remained  till  1893.   He 

tised  law  at  Zanesville  from  1853  to  1861;  was  a  police  commissioner   in  New  York 

served  throughout  the  Civil   War   in   the  City  through  the  administration  of  Mayor 

National  army  with  much  distinction,  and  Strong.     In   1898,   on  the  call   for  volun- 

received    the    brevet    of    colonel.      He    is  teers    for    the    war    with    Spain,    Colonel 

the  author  of  Washington  Versus  Jeffer- 
son, and  The  Case  Tried  by  Battle  in 

Grant  offered  his  services  to  the  Presi- 
dent, and  went  to  the  front  as  colonel  of 
the    14th   New  York   regiment.     On   May 

Grangers.     See    Husbandby,    Pateons  27   he   was  appointed  a  brigadier-general 

or.  of   volunteers;    served   in   the   Porto   Rico 

Granite  State,  a  popular  name  for  the  campaign;    and    after    the    war    was    ap- 

State    of    New    Hampshire,    because    the  pointed   commander   of   the   military   dis- 

mountainous    portions    of    it    are    largely  trict   of    San   Juan.      While   holding   this 

composed   of   granite.  post     he     organized     an     effective     police 

Grant,   Fredebick  Dent,  military  offi-  force  for  the  city  similar  in  plan  to  that 

cer;  born  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  May  30,  1850;  of  New  York  City.     Subsequently  he  was 

eldest  son  of  Ulysses  S.  Grant;  was  with  ordered   to  the   Philippine  Islands,  where 

his   father   at   various    times    during   the  he     rendered     such     valuable     service     in 

Civil     War;     graduated     at     the     United  operations  against  the  insurgents,  and  also 

States  Military  Academy  in  1871;  accom- 
panied General  Sherman  on  his  European 
trip  in  1872;  was  appointed  aide-de-camp 

as  an  administrative  officer,  that  on  the 
reorganization  of  the  regular  army  in 
February,    1901,    President   McKinley   ap- 

on  the  staff  of  General  Sheridan  with  the    pointed    him    one    of    the    new    brigadier- 
rank   of   lieutenant-colonel   in    1873;    took    generals.     In  August,   1904,  he  was  given 

of     the     Department     of     the 


part    in    the    campaign    on    the    frontier 


Grant,  James,  military  officer;  born  in 
Ballendalloch,  Scotland,  in  1720;  was 
major  of  the  Montgomery  Highlanders  in 
1757.  He  was  in  the  expedition  against 
Fort  Duquesne  in  1758,  and  in  1760  was 
governor  of  East  Florida.  He  led  an  ex- 
pedition against  the  Cherokees  in  May, 
1761,  was  acting  brigadier-general  in  the 
buttle  of  Long  Island  in  1776,  and  was 
made  major-general  in  1777.  He  was  with 
Howe  in  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania  in 
1777.  He  fought  the  Americans  at  Mon- 
mouth in  1778,  and  in  November  sailed  in 
command  of  troops  sent  against  the 
French  in  the  West  Indies,  taking  St. 
Lucia  in  December.  In  1791  he  was  made 
governor  of  Stirling  Castle,  and  was  sev- 
eral years  in  Parliament.  It  is  said  that 
he  was  such  a  notorious  gourmand  in  his 
lnler  life  that  he  required  his  cook  to 
sleep  in  the  same  room  with  him.  He  died 
April  13,  1806. 

Grant,  Robert,  author;  born  in  Boston, 

against  the  Indians;  accompanied  his  Mass.,  Jan.  24,  1852;  graduated  at 
father  on  his  trip  around  the  world;  and  Harvard  College  in  1873;  later  began  law 
resigned  his  commission  in  the  army  in  practice  in  his  native  city.  He  is  the 
1881.  In  1887  he  was  defeated  as  Repub-  author  of  Yankee  Doodle;  The  Oldest 
lican  candidate  for  secretary  of  state  of    School  in  America,  etc. 



Grant,  Ulysses  Simpson,  eighteenth 
President  of  the  United  States;  named  at 
birth  Hiram  Ulysses,  but,  through  an 
error  when  he  entered  the  Military 
Academy,  he  was  given  the  Christian 
names  which  he  afterwards  adopted;  born 

of  the  21st  Illinois  Infantry.  In  May, 
1861,  he  was  appointed  a  brigadier-general 
of  volunteers,  and  placed  in  command  at 
Cairo.  He  occupied  Paducah,  broke  up 
the  Confederate  camp  at  Belmont,  and  in 
February,  18G2,  captured  Forts  Henry  and 


in  Point  Pleasant,  0.,  April  27,  1822; 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1843.  He 
served  in  the  war  with  Mexico,  first  under 
General  Taylor,  and  then  under  General 
Scott,  taking  part  in  every  battle  between 
Vera  Cruz  and  the  city  of  Mexico.  He 
was  made  captain  in  1853,  and  resigned 
the  next  year,  when  he  settled  in  St. 
Louis.  He  was  one  of  the  first  to  offer 
his  services  to  the  national  government 
when  the  Civil  War  broke  out,  but,  as  no 
notice  was  taken  of  him,  became  colonel 

Donelson.  He  was  then  promoted  to 
major  -  general ;  conducted  the  battle  ot 
Pittsburg  Landing,  or  Shiloh.  and  for  a 
while  was  second  in  command  to  Halleck. 
He  performed  excellent  service  in  the 
West  and  Southwest,  especially  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Mississippi  River,  and  at 
and  near  the  Tennessee  River,  in  1863. 
He  was  promoted  to  lieutenant-general 
March  1,  1864,  and  awarded  a  gold  medal 
by  Congress.  He  issued  his  first  order  as 
general-in-chief  of  the  armies  of  the  Unite 



ed  States  at  Nashville,  March  17,  18G4. 
In  the  Errand  movements  of  the  armies  in 
1SG4,  he  accompanied  that  of  the  Potomac, 
with  his  headquarters  "  in  the  field,"  and 
he  remained  with  it  until  he  signed  the 
articles  of  capitulation  at  Appomattox 
Court-house,  April  9,  1865.  In  1866  he 
was  promoted  to  general  of  the  United 
States  army.  After  the  war  Grant  fixed 
his  headquarters  at  Washington.  When 
President  Johnson  suspended' Stanton  from 
the  office  of  Secretary  of  War,  Grant 
was  put  in  his  place  ad  interim.  Stan- 
ton was  reinstated  by  the  Senate,  Jan.  14, 
1868.     In   1868,  Grant  was  elected  Presi- 

dent of  the  United  States  by  the  Republi- 
can party,  and  was  re-elected  in  1872. 
He  retired  from  the  office  March  4,  1877, 
and  soon  afterwards  made  a  journey 
around  the  world,  receiving  great  honors 

Towards  the  close  of  his  life  he  was 
financially  ruined  by  an  unprincipled 
sharper.  Congress  created  him  a  general 
on  the  retired  list;  and,  £A  make  further 
provision  for  his  family,  he  began  com- 
piling Personal  Memoirs  of  U.  S.  Grant,  a 
work  that  was  completed  shortly  before 
his  death,  on  Mount  McGregor,  N.  Y., 
July   23,    1885.      His   remains    lie   in   the 






magnificent  mausoleum  in  Riverside 
Park,  New  York  City,  that  cost  $500,000, 
raised  principally  by  popular  subscrip- 
tion. See  Army  (Army  in  the  Civil  War; 
Disbanding  of  the  Union  Armies)  ;  Lee, 
Robert  Edward. 

Let  Us  Have  Peace. — On  the  receipt 
of  the  official  notification  of  his  first 
nomination  for  the  Presidency,  he  ad- 
dressed to  General  Hawley  the  following 
letter,  concluding  with  one  of  those  brief 
phrases  for  which  this  "  silent  man  "  was 
noted :  

Washington,  D.  C,  May  29,  1868. 
To    Gen.    Joseph    R.    Hawley,    President 

National  Republican  Convention: 

In  formally  accepting  the  nomination 
of  the  "  National  Union  Republican  Con- 
vention "  of  the  21st  of  May  last,  it  seems 
proper  that  some  statement  of  views,  be- 
yond the  mere  acceptance  of  the  nomina- 
tion, should  be  expressed. 

The  proceedings  of  the  convention 
were  marked  with  wisdom,  moderation, 
and  patriotism,  and,  I  believe,  expressed 
the  feelings  of  the  great  mass  of  those 
who  sustained  the  country  through  its 
recent  trials.  I  endorse  their  resolu- 

If  elected  to  the  office  of  President  of 
the  United  States,  it  will  be  my  endeavor 
to  administer  all  the  laws  in  good  faith, 
with  economy,  and  with  the  view  of  giv- 
ing peace,  quiet,  and  protection  every- 
where. In  times  like  the  present,  it  is 
impossible,    or    at    least    eminently    im- 

proper, to  lay  down  a  policy  to  be  adhered 
to,  right  or  wrong.  Through  an  admin- 
istration of  four  years,  new  political  is- 
sues, not  foreseen,  are  constantly  arising, 
the  views  of  the  public  on  old  ones  are 
constantly  changing,  and  a  purely  ad- 
ministrative officer  should  always  be  left 
free  to  execute  the  will  of  the  people.  1 
always  have  respected  that  will,   and  al- 



ways  shall.  Peace  and  universal  pros- 
perity, its  sequence,  with  economy  of  ad- 
ministration,  will   lighten   the   burden   of 


bring  to  it  a  conscientious  desire  and  de- 
termination to  fill  it  to  the  best  of  my 
ability  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  people. 
On   all   leading  questions   agitating   the 
public    mind,    I    will    always    express    my 
views  to  Congress,  and  urge  them  accord- 
ing to  my  judgment;  and,  when  I  think  it 
advisable,  will  exercise  the  constitutional 
Citizens    of    the    United    States,— Your    privilege  of   interposing  a  veto  to  defeat 
suffrages     having     elected     me     to     the    measures  which  I  oppose.     But  all  laws 

taxation,  while  it  constantly  reduces  the 
national  debt.     Let  us  have  peace. 

With  great  respect,  your  obedient  ser- 
vant, U.  S.  Grant. 

The   following    is    General    Grant's    ad- 
dress at  his  first  inaugural  March  4,  1869: 


office  of  President  of  the  United  States, 
I  have,  in  conformity  with  the  Con- 
stitution of  our  country,  taken  the  oath 
of  office  prescribed  therein.  I  have  taken 
this  oath  without  mental  reservation, 
and  with  the  determination  to  do  to 
the  best  of  my  ability  all  that  it  requires 
of  me.  The  responsibilities  of  the  po- 
sition I  feel,  but  accept  them  without 
fear.  The  office  has  come  to  me  unsought. 
I    commence    its   duties   untrammelled.     T 

will  be  faithfully  executed  whether  they 
inert  my  approval  or  not. 

I  shall,  on  all  subjects,  have  a  policy 
to  recommend,  but  none  to  enforce 
against  the  will  of  the  people.  Laws  are 
to  govern  all  alike,  those  opposed  as 
well  as  those  who  favor  them.  I  know  no 
method  to  secure  the  repeal  of  bad  or  ob- 
noxious laws  so  effective  as  their  stringent 

The  country  having  just  emerged  from 



a    great    rebellion,    many    questions    will  lock  to  meet  the  very  contingency  that  is 

come  before  it  for  settlement  in  the  next  now  upon  us. 

four     years,     which     preceding     adminis-        Ultimately  it  may  be  necessary  to  in- 

trations  have  never  had  to  deal  with.     In  sure   the   facilities   to  reach   these   riches, 

meeting   these,   it   is   desirable   that   they  and    it   may    be   necessary   also    that   the 

should    be     approached     calmly,     without  general    government    should   give    its    aid 

prejudice,    hate,    or    sectional    pride,    re-  to   secure   this   access.     But   that   should 

membering  that  the  greatest  good  to  the  only   be   when   a   dollar   of   obligation   to 

greatest  number   is   the  object  to  be  at- 

This  requires  security  of  person,   prop- 
erty, and  for  religious  and  political  opin- 

pay  secures  precisely  the  same  sort  of 
dollar  to  use  now,  and  not  before.  While 
the  question  of  specie  payments  is  in 
abeyance,    the    prudent    business    man    is 

is,  in  every  part  of  our  common  coun-    careful    about    contracting    debts    payable 

try,  without  regard  to  local  prejudice,  iu  the  distant  future. 
All  laws  to  secure  these  ends  will  receive  follow  the  same  rule, 
my  best  efforts  for  their  enforcement. 

The  nation  should 
A   prostrate   com- 
merce is  to  be  rebuilt  and  all  industries 

A   great    debt    has    been    contracted    in    encouraged. 

securing  to  us  and  our  posterity  the 
Union;  the  payment  of  this,  principal 
and  interest,  as  well  as  the  return  to  a 
specie  basis,  as  soon  as  it  can  be  accom- 

The  young  men  of  the  country,  those 
who  from  their  age  must  be  its  rulers 
twenty- five  years  hence,  have  a  peculiar  in- 
terest in  maintaining  the  national  honor. 

plished  without  material  detriment  to  the  A  moment's  reflection  as  to  what  will  be 
debtor  class  or  to  the  country  at  large,  our  commanding  influence  among  the  na- 
must  be  provided  for.  To  protect  the  na-  tions  of  the  earth  in  their  day,  if  they 
tional  honor,  every  dollar  of  government  are  only  true  to  themselves,  should  in- 
indebtedness  should  be  paid  in  gold  un-  spire  them  with  national  pride.  All  di- 
less  otherwise  expressly  stipulated  in  the  visions,  geographical,  political,  and  relig- 
contract.  Let  it  be  understood  that  no  ious,  can  join  in  this  common  sentiment, 
repudiator  of  one  farthing  of  our  public  How  the  public  debt  is  to  be  paid,  or  specie 
debt  will  be  trusted  in  public  place,  and  payments  resumed,  is  not  so  important 
it  will  go  far  towards  strengthening  a  as  that  a  plan  should  be  adopted  and  ac- 
credit which  ought  to  be  the  best  in  the    quiesced  in. 

world,  and  will  ultimately  enable  us  to  A  united  determination  to  do  is  worth 
replace  the  debt  with  bonds  bearing  less  more  than  divided  counsels  upon  the 
interest  than  we  now  pay.     To  this  should    method   of   doing.     Legislation   upon   this 

subject   may   not   be   necessary  now,   nor 

even  advisable,  but  it  will  be  when  the 
and    the    civil    law    is    more    fully    restored    in    all 

parts  of  the  country,  and  trade  resumes 

its  wonted  channels. 

It  will  be  my  endeavor  to  execute  all 

laws  in  good  faith,  to  collect  all  revenues 

be  added  a  faithful  collection  of  the  rev 
enue,  a  strict  accountability  to  the  treas 
ury  for  every  dollar  collected 
greatest  practicable  retrenchment  in  ex 
penditure  in  every  department  of  govern 

When  we  compare  the  paying  capac 
ity  of  the  country  now  with  the  ten  States  assessed,  and  to  have  them  properly  ac- 
in  poverty  from  the  effects  of  war,  but  counted  for  and  economically  disbursed, 
soon  to  emerge,  I  trust,  into  greater  pros-  I  will,  to  the  best  of  my  ability,  appoint 
perity  than  ever  before,  with  its  paying  to  office  those  only  who  will  carry  out  this 
capacity   twenty-five   years   ago,   and   cal-    design. 

culate  what  it  probably  will  be  twenty- 
five  years  hence,  who  can  doubt  the  feasi- 
bility  of   paying   every   dollar   then   with 

In  regard  to  foreign  policy,  I  would 
deal  with  nations  as  equitable  law  requires 
individuals  to  deal  with  each  other,   and 

more   ease   than   we  now   pay   for   useless  I   would   protect   the   law-abiding   citizen, 

luxuries?     Why,  it  looks  as  though  Provi-  whether  of  native  or  foreign  birth,  wher- 

dence  had  bestowed  upon  us  a  strong  box  ever  his  rights  are  jeopardized  or  the  flag 

in   the  precious  metals  locked   up   in   the  of    our    country    floats.     I    would    respect 

sterile    mountains    of    the    far    West,    of  the  rights  of  all  nations,  demanding  equal 

which  we  are  now  forging  the  key  to  un-  respect    for    our    own.     If    others    depart 



from  this  rule  in  their  dealings  with  us,  seems  to  me  oftener  in  the  selections  made 

we  may  be  compelled  to  follow  their  prece-  of    the    assistants    appointed    to    aid    in 

dent.  carrying  out  the  various  duties  of  admin- 

The    proper    treatment    of    the    original  istering  the  government,   in  nearly  every 

occupants  of  this  land,  the  Indians,  is  one  case  selected  without  a  personal  acquaint- 

deserving  of  careful  study.     I  will   favor  ance  with  the  appointee,  but  upon  recom- 

any  course  towards  them  which  tends  to  mendations  of  the  representatives  chosen 

their  civilization  and  ultimate  citizenship,  directly  by  the  people.     It  is  impossible, 

The  question  of  suffrage  is  one  which  where  so  many  trusts  are  to  be  allotted, 
is  likely  to  agitate  the  public  so  long  as  that  the  right  parties  should  be  chosen  in 
a  portion  of  the  citizens  of  the  nation  are  every  instance.  History  shows  that  no 
excluded  from  its  privileges  in  any  State,  administration,  from  the  time  of  Wash- 
It  seems  to  me  very  desirable  that  this  ington  to  the  present,  has  been  free  from 
question  should  be  settled  now,  and  I  en-  these  mistakes.  But  I  leave  comparisons 
tertain  the  hope  and  express  the  desire  to  history,  claiming  that  I  have  acted  in 
that  it  may  be  by  the  ratification  of  the  every  instance  from  a  conscientious  desire 
fifteenth  article  of  amendment  to  the  Con-  to  do  what  was  right,  constitutional  with- 
stitution.  in  the  law,  and  for  the  very  best  interests 

In    conclusion,    I    ask    patient    forbear-  of  the  whole  people.     Failures  have  been 

ance  one  towards  another  throughout  the  errors  of  judgment,  not  of  intent, 

land,  and  a  determined  effort  on  the  part  My    civil   career   commenced,   too,    at   a 

of  every  citizen  to  do  his  share  towards  most  critical  and  difficult  time.     Less  than 

cementing  a  happy  Union ;  and  I  ask  the  four  years  before  the  country  had  emerged 

prayers  of  the  nation  to  Almighty  God  in  from  a   conflict   such   as  no   other  nation 

behalf  of  this  consummation.  had  ever  survived.     Nearly  one-half  of  the 

Last  Message  to  Congress. — The  follow-  States  had  revolted  against  the  govern- 
ing is  the  opening  of  his  last  message  to  ment;  and,  of  those  remaining  faithful  to 
Congress  (Dec.  5,  1876),  the  part  in  which  the  Union,  a  large  percentage  of  the  popu- 
he  reviews  the  events  of  his  double  term  lation  sympathized  with  the  rebellion  and 
of  office:  made  an  "enemy  in  the  rear,"  almost  as 

dangerous   as   the  more  honorable   enemy 

To  the  Senate  and  House  of  Kepresenta-  in  the  front.  The  latter  committed  errors 
tives, — In  submitting  my  eighth  and  last  of  judgment,  but  they  maintained  them 
annual  message  to  Congress,  it  seems  openly  and  courageously;  the  former  re- 
proper  that  I  should  refer  to,  and  in  some  ceived  the  protection  of  the  government 
degree  recapitulate,  the  events  and  official  they  would  see  destroyed,  and  reaped  all 
acts  of  the  past  eight  years.  the  pecuniary  advantage  to  be  gained  out 

It  was   my   fortune,   or   misfortune,    to  of  the  then  existing  state  of  affairs, 

be  called  to  the  office  of  chief  executive  Immediately   on    the    cessation    of   hos- 

without   any    previous    political    training,  tilities,  the  then  noble  President,  who  had 

From   the   age   of   seventeen   I   had   never  carried    the    country    so    far    through    its 

even   witnessed   the   excitement   attending  perils,  fell  a  martyr  to  his  patriotism  at 

a  Presidential  campaign  but  twice  antece-  the  hands  of  an  assassin, 

dent  to  my  own  candidacy,  and  at  but  one  The    intervening   time    to    my   first    in- 

of  them  was  I  eligible  as  a  voter.  auguration  was  filled  up  with  wranglings 

Under  such  circumstances  it  is  but  between  Congress  and  the  new  executive 
reasonable  to  suppose  that  errors  of  judg-  as  to  the  best  mode  of  "  reconstruction," 
ment  must  have  occurred.  Even  had  they  or,  to  speak  plainly,  as  to  whether  the  con- 
not,  differences  of  opinion  between  the  trol  of  the  government  should  be  thrown 
executive,  bound  by  an  oath  to  the  strict  immediately  into  the  hands  of  those  who 
performance  of  his  duties,  and  writers  and  had  so  recently  and  persistently  tried  to 
debaters,  must  have  arisen.  It  is  not  destroy  it,  or  whether  the  victors  should 
necessarily  evidence  of  blunder  on  the  part  continue  to  have  an  equal  voice  with 
of  the  executive  because  there  are  these  them  in  this  control.  Reconstruct  ion,  ;'s 
differences  of  views.  Mistakes  have  been  finally  agreed  upon,  means  this  and  only 
made,  as  all  can  see  and  I  admit,  but  it  this,  except  that  the  late  slave  was  en- 



franchised,  giving  an  increase  as  was  sup- 
posed, to  the  Union-loving  and  Union-sup- 
porting votes.  If  free,  in  the  full  sense  of 
the  word,  they  would  not  disappoint  this 
expectation.  Hence,  at  the  beginning  of 
my  first  administration  the  work  of  re- 
construction— much  embarrassed  by  the 
long  delay — virtually  commenced.  It  was 
the  work  of  the  legislative  branch  of  the 
government.  My  province  was  wholly  in 
approving  their  acts,  which  I  did  most 
heartily,  urging  the  legislatures  of  States 
that  had  not  yet  done  so  to  ratify  the 
fifteenth  ffmendment  to  the  Constitution. 
The  country  was  laboring  under  an  enor- 
mous debt,  contracted  in  the  suppression 
of  rebellion,  and  taxation  was  so  oppres- 
sive as  to  discourage  production.  Another 
danger  also  threatened  us — a  foreign  war. 
The  last  difficulty  had  to  be  adjusted,  and 
was  adjusted  without  a  war,  and  in  a 
manner  highly  honorable  to  all  parties 
concerned.  Taxes  have  been  reduced 
within  the  last  seven  years  nearly  $300,- 
000,000,  and  the  national  debt  has  been 
reduced  in  the  same  time  over  $435,000,- 
000.  By  refunding  the  6  per  cent,  bonded 
debt  for  bonds  bearing  5  and  4%  per  cent, 
interest,  respectively,  the  annual  interest 
has  been  reduced  from  over  $130,000,000 
in  1869  to  but  little  over  $100,000,000  in 
1S76.  The  balance  of  trade  has  been 
changed  from  over  $130,000,000  against 
the  United  States  in  1869  to  more  than 
$120,000,000  in  our  favor  in   1S76. 

Opening  the  Centennial  Exhibition. — 
On  May  10,  1876,  he  formally  opened  the 
Centennial  Exhibition  in  Philadelphia 
with  the  following  speech: 

My  Countrymen, — It  has  been  thought 
appropriate,  upon  this  centennial  occa- 
sion, to  bring  together  in  Philadelphia, 
for  popular  inspection,  specimens  of  our 
attainments  in  the  industrial  and  fine 
arts,  and  in  literature,  science,  and  phi- 
losophy, as  well  as  in  the  great  business 
of  agriculture  and  of  commerce. 

That  we  may  the  more  thoroughly  ap- 
preciate the  excellences  and  deficiencies 
of  our  achievements,  and  also  give  em- 
phatic expression  to  our  earnest  desire  to 
cultivate  the  friendship  of  our  fellow- 
members  of  this  great  family  of  nations, 
the  enlightened  agricultural,  commercial, 
and   manufacturing   people   of    the   world 

have  been  invited  to  send  hither  corre- 
sponding specimens  of  their  skill  to  ex- 
hibit on  equal  terms  in  friendly  competi- 
tion with  our  own.  To  this  invitation 
they  have  generously  responded;  for  so 
doing  we  tender  them  our  hearty  thanks. 

The  beauty  and  utility  of  the  con- 
tributions will  this  day  be  submitted  to 
your  inspection  by  the  managers  of  this 
exhibition.  We  are  glad  to  know  that 
a  view  of  specimens  of  the  skill  of  all 
nations  will  afford  you  unalloyed  pleasure, 
as  well  as  yield  to  you  a  valuable  practi- 
cal knowledge  of  so  many  of  the  remark- 
able results  of  the  wonderful  skill  exist- 
ing in  enlightened  communities. 

One  hundred  years  ago  our  country 
was  new  and  but  partially  settled.  Our 
necessities  have  compelled  us  to  chiefly  ex- 
pend our  means  and  time  in  felling  for- 
ests, subduing  prairies,  building  dwellings, 
factories,  ships,  docks,  warehouses,  roads, 
canals,  machinery,  etc.,  etc.  Most  of  our 
schools,  churches,  libraries,  and  asylums 
have  been  established  within  a  hundred 
years.  Burdened  by  these  great  primal 
works  of  necessity,  which  could  not  be  de- 
layed, we  yet  have  done  what  this  exhibi- 
tion will  show,  in  the  direction  of  rival- 
ling older  and  more  advanced  nations  in 
law,  medicine,  and  theology;  in  science, 
literature,  philosophy  and  the  fine  arts. 
While  proud  of  what  we  have  done,  we 
regret  that  we  have  not  done  more.  Our 
achievements  have  been  great  enough, 
however,  to  make  it  easy  for  our  people 
to  acknowledge  superior  merit  wherever 

And  now,  fellow  -  citizens,  I  hope  a 
careful  examination  of  what  is  about  to 
be  exhibited  to  you  will  not  only  inspire 
you  with  a  profound  respect  for  the  skill 
and  taste  of  our  friends  from  other  na- 
tions, but  also  satisfy  you  with  the  attain- 
ments made  by  our  own  people  during  the 
past  100  years.  I  invoke  your  generous 
co-operation  with  the  worthy  commission- 
ers to  secure  a  brilliant  success  to  this 
international  exhibition,  and  to  make  the 
stay  of  our  foreign  visitors — to  whom  we 
extend  a  hearty  welcome — both  profitable 
and  pleasant  to  them. 

I  declare  the  international  exhibition 
now  open. 

Vindication  of  Fits-John  Porter. — Gen- 
eral Grant's  magnanimity  was  never  more 



touchingly  illustrated  than  in  his  efforts  to  be  placed  in  a  position  where  he  could 

to    secure    justice    for    Gen.    Fitz-John  be  made  responsible   for  his  indifference, 

Portee   (q.  v.).     The  story  of  his  actions  and   that   the   punishment   was   not   a   se- 

iu   this   matter   is  most   fittingly   told   in  vere  one  for  such  an  offence.     I  am  now 

his  own  language.     On  Dec.   22,   1881,  he  convinced      that     he     rendered      faithful, 

addressed   the   following  appeal   in   behalf  efficient,   and   intelligent   service,   and   the 

of  General  Porter  to  the  President:  fact  that  he  was  retained  in  command  of  a 

corps   for   months  after  his  offences   were 

New  York,  Dec.  22,  1881.  said    to    have    been    committed    is    in    his 

The  President,  Washington,  D.  C:  favor.     What  I  would  ask  in  General  Por- 

Dear    Sir,  —  At    the    request    of    Gen.  ter's  behalf,  from  you,  is,  if  you  can  pos- 

Fitz  -  John    Porter,    I    have    recently    re-  sibly   give    the    time,    that    you    give    the 

viewed   his   trial   and   the   testimony   fur-  subject  the  same  study  and  thought  that 

nished  before  the   Schofield  Court  of  In-  I   have   given   it,   and   then    act   as   your 

quiry  held  in   1879,  giving  to  the  subject  judgment  shall  dictate.     But,  feeling  that 

three    full    days    of    careful    reading    and  you  will   not  have  the  time  for   such   an 

consideration,    and    much    thought    in   the  investigation    (for   it   would   take   several 

intervening    time.     The    reading    of    this  days'  time),  I  would  ask  that  the  whole 

record  has  thoroughly  convinced  me  that  matter   be   laid   before   the    Attorney-Gen- 

for  these  nineteen  years  I  have  been  do-  eral    for    his    examination    and    opinion, 

ing  a  gallant  and  efficient  soldier  a  very  Hoping  that  you  will   be  able  to  do  this 

great  injustice  in  thought  and  sometimes  much  for  an  officer  who  has  suffered  for 

in  speech.     I   feel   it  incumbent  upon  me  nineteen   years   a   punishment   that  never 

now  to  do  whatever  lies  in  my  power  to  should  be  inflicted  upon  any  but  the  most 

remove    from    him    and    from    his    family  guilty,    I   am, 

the  stain  upon  his  good  name.  I  feel  Very  truly  yours,  U.  S.  Grant. 
this  the  more  incumbent  upon  me  than  On  Feb.  4,  1882,  in  order  to  still  fur- 
I  should  if  I  had  been  a  corps  commander  ther  impress  his  convictions  of  General 
only,  or  occupying  any  other  command  in  Porter's  innocence  upon  influential  rueni- 
the  army  than  the  one  which  I  did;  but  bers  of  Congress,  he  addressed  the  follow- 
as  general  I  had  it,  possibly,  in  my  power  ing  detailed  letter  to  J.  Donald  Cameron, 
to  have  obtained  for  him  the  hearing  United  States  Senator  from  Pennsylvania: 
which   he   had    only   got   at   a   later   day, 

and    as    President    I    certainly    had    the  New  York>  Feh-  !h  1882. 

power  to  have  ordered  that  hearing.     In  Hon.  J.  D.  Cameron,  U.  S.  Senate,  Wa^h- 
justification   for   my   injustice  to   General        ington,  D.  C: 

Porter,  I  can  only  state  that  shortly  after        Dear    Sir, — It   has    been   my    intention 

the  war  closed  his  defence  was  brought  to  until    within   the   last   few   days   to   visit 

my   attention,    but    I    read    in    connection  Washington    this    winter    to    spend    some 

with   it   a   sketch   of   the   field   where   his  time,    and    there   to    have    a    conversation 

offences  were  said  to   have  been   commit-  with  you  and  with  General  Logan  on  the 

ted,  which  I  now  see,  since  perfect  maps  subject    of    the     Fitz-John     Porter    case; 

have  been  made  by  the  engineers'  depart-  but  having  now  pretty  nearly  decided  not 

ment  of  the  whole  field,  were  totally  in-  to  go  to  Washington,  I  have  determined 

correct  as  showing  the  position  of  the  two  to   write,   and  write   to   you   so   that  you 

armies.     I    have    read    it    in    connection  may   state   my   position   to   your    friends, 

with    the    statements   made   on   the   other  and   particularly  to   General   Logan,   and, 

side   against    General    Porter,   and,   I   am  if   you    choose,    show    this    letter    to    any 

afraid,  possibly  with  some  little  prejudice  such  people. 

in  the  case,  although  General  Porter  was        When    I    commenced    the    examination 

a  man  whom  I  personally  knew  and  liked  of   the   Fitz-John    Porter   case   as   it   now 

before;     but   I    pot   the   impression,   with  stands,   it   was   with   the   conviction   that 

many  others,  that  there  was  a  half-hearted  his  sentence  was  a  just  one,  and  that  his 

support  of  General  Pope  in  his  campaigns,  punishment  had  been  light  for  so  hideous 

and   that  General   Porter,   while   possibly  an  offence;   but  I  tried  to  throw  off  all 

not    more   guilty    than    others,    happened  prejudice  in  the  case,  and  to  examine  it 



on  its  merits.  I  came  out  of  that  exami- 
nation with  the  firm  conviction  that  an 
entirely  innocent  man  had  been  most  un- 
justly punished.  I  cast  no  censure  upon 
the  court  which  tried  him,  because  the 
evidence  which  now  proves  his  entire  inno- 
cence of  disobedience  of  orders  it  was  im- 
possible to  have  before  that  court. 

When  I  completed  the  investigation 
and  came  to  the  conclusion  that  I  did — 
of  his  innocence — my  first  thought  was 
to  write  to  General  Logan,  because  I  re- 
gard him  as  my  friend,  and  I  am  sure  I 
am  his,  and  he  has  made,  probably,  the 
ablest  speech  of  his  life  in  opposition  to 
the  bill  for  General  Porter's  restoration 
to  the  army.  I  thought,  therefore,  it  was 
due  to  him  that  I  should  inform  him  of 
the  conclusion  that  I  had  come  to  after 
the  investigation.  But  as  the  President 
was  just  about  visiting  this  city  when  my 
letter  to  him  was  written,  and  it  was  de- 
sired to  present  it  to  him  here,  I  re- 
quested, in  lieu  of  a  letter  to  General 
Logan,  to  have  a  copy  of  my  letter  to 
the  President  sent  to  him.  This  was  done. 

You  are  aware  that  when  General 
Logan  made  his  speech  against  General 
Porter,  it  was  in  opposition  to  a  bill 
pending  in  Congress.  He,  like  myself, 
was  thoroughly  convinced  of  the  guilt  of 
General  Porter,  and  was  therefore  opposed 
to  the  bill.  His  investigations  therefore 
were  necessarily  to  find  arguments  to  sus- 
tain his  side  of  a  pending  question.  I 
of  course  had  no  knowledge  of  the  papers 
he  would  refer  to,  or  would  examine, 
to  find  such  arguments;  but  I  knew  that 
he  could  have  the  testimony  which  was 
taken  before  the  court-martial  which  con- 
victed ;  probably  also  the  arguments  of 
the  officer  who  acted  as  prosecutor  when 
the  case  was  before  the  Schofield  court, 
and  arguments  that  have  been  made  by 
lawyers,  J.  D.  Cox  and  others  possibly, 
all  of  which  were  in  opposition  to  General 
Porter  as  much  as  that  of  paid  attorneys 
in  cases  before  the  civil  courts. 

But  my  investigation  of  all  the  facts 
that  I  could  bring  before  me  of  the  oc- 
currence from  the  27th  of  August,  1862, 
and  for  some  little  time  prior,  to  the 
1st  of  September,  the  same  year,  show 
conclusively  that  the  court  and  some  of 
the  witnesses  entirely  misapprehended  the 
position  of  the  enemy  on  that  day. 

General  Porter  was  convicted  of  dis- 
obedience of  the  order  of  General  Pope's, 
dated  at  4.30  p.m.,  on  the  29th  of  August, 
to  attack  the  enemy  on  his  right  flank,  and 
in  his  rear,  if  possible.  Despatches  of  Gen- 
eral Pope  of  that  day  show  that  he  knew 
General  Lee  was  coming  to  the  support  of 
Jackson,  whom  he  thought  commanded 
the  only  force  in  his  front  at  that  time; 
but  that  he  could  not  arrive  until  the 
evening  of  the  following  day,  or  the  morn- 
ing of  the  day  after.  It  was  sworn  to  be- 
fore the  court  that  this  order  of  4.30  p.m. 
reached  General  Porter  at  about  five  or 
half-past  five  in  the  afternoon,  but  it 
must  be  recollected  that  this  testimony 
was  given  from  memory,  and  unquestion- 
ably without  any  idea  at  the  time  of  the 
occurrence  that  they  were  ever  to  be  called 
upon  to  give  any  testimony  in  the  case. 

Investigation  shows  a  despatch  from 
General  Porter,  dated  six  o'clock  of  that 
afternoon,  which  makes  no  mention  of 
having  received  the  order  to  attack,  and 
it  is  such  a  despatch  as  could  not  be 
written  without  mentioning  the  receipt 
of  that  order,  if  it  had  been  received. 
There  is  other  testimony  that  makes  it 
entirely  satisfactory  to  my  mind  that  the 
order  was  not  received  until  about  sun- 
down, or  between  sundown  and  dark.  It 
was  given,  as  stated  before,  to  attack  the 
enemy's  right,  and,  if  possible,  to  get  into 
his  rear.  This  was  on  the  supposition 
that  Jackson  was  there  alone,  as  General 
Pope  had  stated  he  would  be  until  the 
evening  of  the  next  day,  or  the  morning 
of  the  day  following.  I  believe  that  the 
court  was  convinced  that  on  the  evening 
of  the  29th  of  August  Jackson,  with  his 
force,  was  there  alone;  but  now  it  is 
proved  by  testimony  better  than  sworn 
evidence  of  any  persons  on  the  Union  side 
that  by  11  o'clock  a.m.,  of  the  29th, 
Ivongstreet  was  up  and  to  the  right  of 
Jackson  with  a  force  much  greater  than 
General  Porter's  entire  force.  The  attack 
upon  Jackson's  right  and  rear  was,  there- 
fore, impossible,  without  first  wiping  out 
the  force  of  Longstreet.  The  order  did 
not  contemplate,  either,  a  night  attack, 
and,  to  have  obeyed  it,  even  if  Longstreet 
had  not  been  there,  General  Porter  would 
have  been  obliged  to  make  a  night  attack. 
But,  even  as  it  was,  I  find  that  General 
Porter,  notwithstanding  the  late  hour,  did 



all  he  could  to  obey  that  order.  He  had  gallant  and  devoted  commanders.  Then, 
previously  given  a  command  to  General  too,  in  re-examining  the  case,  my  atten- 
Morell,  who  commanded  the  most  ad-  tion  was  called  again  to  General  Pope's 
vanced  division,  or  one  most  fronting  the  early  order  in  taking  command  of  the 
enemy,  to  throw  out  a  skirmish  line  to  Army  of  Virginia.  I  send  you  a  copy  of 
engage  the  enemy,  or  to  keep  him  occu-  this  order.  You  will  see  that  it  was  cal- 
pied,  and  on  the  receipt  of  this  order,  al-  culated  to  make  the  army  to  whom  it  was 
though  at  this  late  hour,  he  immediately  addressed  feel  that  it  was  a  reflection 
sent  orders  to  General  Morel  I  to  increase  upon  their  former  services  and  former 
it  from  a  skirmish  line  to  a  large  force,  commanders,  from  that  of  a  company  to 
and  that  he  would  be  with  him  as  soon  as  the  commander  of  the  whole,  and  that 
he  could  get  there.  even  as  amiable  people  as  General  Logan 
He  did  actually  go  to  the  front,  al-  and  myself  are  would  have  been  very  apt 
though  it  was  dark,  to  superintend  this  to  have  made  some  very  uncomplimentary 
movement,  and  as  far  as  possible  to  pre-  remarks  if  they  had  been  addressed  by  an 
vent  the  enemy  detaching  anything  from  Eastern  officer  sent  West  to  command  over 
his  front,  thus  showing  a  desire  to  obey  us  in  our  field  of  duty.  I  commenced 
the  order  strictly  and  to  the  best  of  his  reading  up  this  case  with  the  conviction 
ability.  I  find  the  Schofield  board  acquit  that  General  Porter  had  been  guilty,  as 
him  entirely,  but  throw  some  censure  found  by  the  court,  but  came  out  of  the 
upon  him  for  having  expressed  a  lack  of  investigation  with  a  thorough  conviction 
confidence  in  his  commanding  officer.  Such  that  I,  and  the  public  generally,  had  done 
conduct  might  be  censured,  although  if  him  a  fearful  injustice,  and  entirely  satis- 
every  man  in  the  army  had  been  punished  fied  that  any  intelligent  man,  or  lawyer, 
who  had  expressed  lack  of  confidence  in  who  will  throw  aside  prejudice  and  ex- 
his  superior  officer  many  of  our  best  sol-  amine  the  case  as  I  have  done,  will  come 
diers  would  have  been  punished.  But,  in  to  the  same  conclusion, 
fact,  if  this  was  not  stated  in  the  sum-  As  stated  in  my  letter  to  the  Presi- 
ming  up  of  the  case  by  the  board,  I  should  dent,  I  feel  it  incumbent  upon  me,  in  view 
not  have  found  that  he  had  expressed  any  of  the  positions  that  I  have  held  hereto- 
such  lack  of  confidence.  On  the  contrary,  fore,  and  my  failure  then  to  do  what  I 
to  my  mind  now,  he  was  zealous  in  giving  now  wish  I  had  done,  to  do  all  in  my 
a  support  to  General  Pope,  and  more  so,  power  to  place  General  Porter  right  before 
possibly,  for  the  reason  that  he  knew  the  public  and  in  future  history,  and  to 
among  his  former  army  associates  there  repair  my  own  intentional  injustice, 
was  a  good  deal  of  apprehension,  to  say  I  address  this  letter  to  you,  knowing 
the  least,  of  his  fitness  for  his  new  place,  that  you  will  have  a  desire  to  do  just  what 
It  must  be  recollected  that  General  Pope  your  judgment  dictates  as  being  right  in 
was  selected  from  a  Western  army  and  the  matter,  and  that  you  will  state  to 
brought  East  to  command  an  army  where  whomsoever  it  may  seem  to  you  proper 
there  were  a  great  many  generals  who  and  necessary  my  present  convictions  upon 
had  had  experience  in  a  previous  war,  and  this  case. 

who  had,  like  himself,  a  military  educa-  Very  truly  yours,  U.  S.  Grant. 
tion,  and  there  may  (improperly)  have  Perhaps  no  person  unconnected  with  the 
been  a  feeling  that  it  was  a  reflection  army  contributed  in  so  great  a  degree  to 
upon  them  to  go  out  of  their  own  command  General  Grant's  success  in  the  Civil  War 
to  find  a  suitable  commander;  and  it  is  as  the  Hon.  Elihu  1'..  Washburne,  to  whom 
also  very  probable  that  expression  was  1he  following  extremely  interesting  letter 
freely  given  to  that  feeling.  But  it  would  was  addressed.  It  is  certainly  of  great 
be  well  to  reflect  what  would  have  been  historical  value,  and  reveals  in  a  very  La- 
the sentiment  in  the  West,  if  an  officer  teresting  way  some  of  the  strongest  and 
from  the  Eastern  army  had  been  sent  out  most  admirable  traits  of  General  Grant *s 
to  supersede  all  of  them  and  to  command  character.  Mr.  Washburne  (1816-87) 
them,  and  whether  or  not  there  might  was  the  member  of  Congress  from  Galena, 
have  not  been  some  harsh  criticisms,  even  111.,  where  Grant  was  employed  at  the  be- 
by  men  who  proved  to  be  among  our  most  ginning  of   the   war.     The   two   men   first 



met  at  that  time ;  they  immediately  became  contracts,  and  a  change  of  quartermaster 
friends,  and  during  the  great  struggle  having  taken  place  in  the  mean  time  the 
Washburne  was  the  constant  supporter  and  new  quartermaster  would  not  receive  them 
sturdy  defender  of  the  Silent  Commander,  without  my  order,  except  at  rates  he  could 
who  would  never  defend  himself  from  the  then  get  the  same  articles  for  from  other 
shameful  charges  that  were  frequently  parties.  This  I  refused  to  give.  The 
made  against  his  private  character,  and  contractors  then  called  on  me,  and  tried  to 
also  as  a  soldier.  When  Grant  became  convince  me  that  the  obligation  was  bind- 
President  he  appointed  Mr.  Washburne  his  ing,  but  finding  me  immovable  in  the  mat- 
Secretary  of  State,  but  after  occupying  ter,  asked  if  General  Allen's  approval  to 
that  high  office  for  a  few  weeks,  he  was  the  contract  would  not  be  sufficient.  My 
sent  as  the  American  representative  to  reply  was,  in  substance,  that  General  Allen 
France.  He  filled  that  position  with  pre-  was  chief  quartermaster  of  the  depart- 
eminent  ability  and  signal  distinction,  ment,  and  I  could  not  control  him.  They 
publishing  after  his  return  to  the  United  immediately  left  me,  and,  thinking  over 
States  a  valuable  and  interesting  work,  in  the  matter,  it  occurred  to  me  that  they 
2  octavo  volumes,  entitled  Recollections  would  go  immediately  to  St.  Louis  and 
of  a  Minister  to  France,  1869-1877:  present  their  contract  for  approval  without 

mentioning   the   objection    I    made    to    it. 

La  Grange,  Tenn.,  Nov.  7,  1862.  j  then  telegraphed  to  General  Allen  the 

Not  having  much  of  special  note  to  write  facts,  and  put  him  on  his  guard  against 

you  since  your  visit  to  Jackson,  and  know-  these  men.     For  some  reason,  however,  my 

ing  that  you  were  fully  engaged,  I  have  despatch  did  not  reach  St.  Louis  for  two 

not  troubled  you  with  a  letter.     I  write  days.     General   Allen   then   replied   to   it, 

now  a  little  on  selfish  grounds.  stating  that  those  parties  had  been  to  him 

I   see   from   the   papers   that   Mr.   the  day  before,  and  knowing  no  objection 

is  to  be  called  near  the  President  in  some  to  the  contract  he  had  approved  it. 

capacity.     I  believe  him  to  be  one  of  my  The  parties  then  returned  to  Cairo  evi- 

bitterest    enemies.      The    grounds    of    his  dently  thinking  they  had  gained  a  great 

enmity    I    suppose    to    be    the    course    I  triumph.      But  there   being  no   money   to 

pursued   while   at   Cairo   towards    certain  pay  at  that  time  and  because  of  the  bad 

contractors    and    speculators   who   wished  repute     the     quartermaster's     department 

to  make  fortunes  off  of  the  soldiers  and  was  in,  they  were  afraid  to  take  vouchers 

government,   and  in  which  he  took  much  without  my  approval.     They  again  called 

interest,  whether  a  partner  or  not.   He  call-  on  me  to  secure  this.     My  reply  to  them 

ed  on  me  in  regard  to  the  rights  of  a  post  was  that  they  had  obtained  their  contract 

sutler    for    Cairo     (an    appointment    not  without  my  consent,  had  got  it  approved 

known  to  the  law)   whom  he  had  got  ap-  against  my  sense  of  duty  to  the  govern- 

pointed.    Finding  that  I  would  regard  him  ment,  and  they  might  go  on  and  deliver 

in  the  light  of  any  other  merchant  who  their  forage  and  get  their  pay  in  the  same 

might  set  up  there,  that  I  would  neither  way.      I   would   never   approve   a   voucher 

secure  him  a  monopoly  of  the  trade  nor  for  them  under  that  contract  if  they  never 

his   pay  at  the  pay-table  for   such   as  he  got  a  cent.    I  hoped  they  would  not.    This 

might  trust  out,  the  sutler  never  made  his  forced  them  to  abandon  the  contract  and 

appearance.     If  he  did  he  never  made  him-  to    sell    the    forage   already   delivered   for 

self  known  to   me.  what  it  was  worth. 

In  the  case  of  some  contracts  that  were        Mr.   took    much    interest   in    this 

given  out  for  the  supply  of  forage,  they  matter  and  wrote  me  one  or  more  let- 
were  given,  if  not  to  the  very  highest  ters  on  the  subject,  rather  offensive  in 
bidder,  to  far  from  the  lowest,  and  full  their  manner.  These  letters  I  have  pre- 
30  per  cent,  higher  than  the  articles  could  served,  but  they  are  locked  up  in  Mr. 
have  been  bought  for  at  that  time.  Learn-  Safford's  safe  in  Cairo.  I  afterwards 
ing  these  facts,  I  immediately  annulled  learned  from  undoubted  authority  that 
the  contracts.  there  was  a  combination  of  wealthy  and 

Quite   a   number   of   car-loads   of   grain  influential   citizens  formed,   at   the  begin- 

and  hay  were  brought  to  Cairo  on  these  ning    of    this    war,    for    the    purpose    of 



monopolizing  the  army  contracts.     One  of    American   Revolutionary   War;    and   died 
their  boasts  was  that  they  had  sufficient    in  Paris,  Jan.  11,  1788. 
influence  to  remove  any  general  who  did        On  Aug.  3,  1781,  the  French  fleet,  under 
not  please  them.  his  command,  appeared  on  the  American 

The  modus  operandi  for  getting  con-  coast.  He  had  sailed  from  France,  tow- 
tracts  at  a  high  rate,  I  suppose,  was  for  ards  the  end  of  March,  with  twenty-six 
a  member  of  this  association  to  put  in 
bids  commencing  at  as  low  rates  as  the 
articles  could  be  furnished  for,  and  after 
they  were  opened  all  would  retire  up  to 
the  highest  one  who  was  below  any  out- 
side person  and  let  him  take  it.  In  many 
instances  probably  they  could  buy  off  this 
one  for  a  low  figure  by  assuring  him  that 
he  could  not  possibly  get  the  contract,  for 
if  he  did  not  retire  it  would  be  held  by 
the  party  below. 

Grants  for  State  Colleges.  On  July 
8,  1901,  the  United  States  Treasury  De- 
partment drew  warrants  aggregating 
$1,200,000,  or  $25,000  each,  for  the  State 
and  Territorial  agricultural  colleges,  being 
the  maximum  amount  provided  for  by 
Congress  in  the  act  of  Aug.  30,  1890,  for 
the  endowment  and  maintenance  of  col-  ships-of-the-line,  followed  by  an  immense 
leges  for  the  benefit  of  agriculture  and  convoy  of  about  250  merchantmen.  That 
mechanic  arts.  This  act  provided  a  min-  convoy  he  put  safely  into  the  harbor  of 
imum  sum  of  $15,000  for  that  year,  with  Port  Royal,  having  carefully  avoided  a 
an  annual  increase  of  $1,000  for  ten  years  close  engagement  with  a  part  of  Rodney's 
up  to  $25,000.  The  maximum  was  reach-  fleet,  under  Admiral  Hood.  He  engaged 
ed  in  1901,  and  hereafter  each  of  the  with  British  vessels  at  long  range  (April 
States  and  Territories  will  receive  an-  29),  and  so  injured  them  that  they  were 
nually  this  sum  for  its  agricultural  col-  obliged  to  go  to  Antigua  for  repairs,  and, 
leges.     This  money  is  the  proceeds  of  the    meanwhile,   he  accomplished  the  conquest 

sale  of  public  lands. 

Grape  Island,  Affair  at.  In  Boston 
Harbor  was  Grape  Island,  to  which,  on 
Sunday  morning.  May  21,  1775,  some  Brit- 
ish troops  repaired  to  secure  hay;  for  so 
closely  were  they  besieged  in  Boston,  that 
only  on  the  islands  in  and  near  the  har- 
bor   could    they    procure    grass    or    straw 

of  Tobago  in  June.  He  then  proceeded 
with  the  fleet  of  merchantmen  to  Santo 
Domingo,  and  soon  afterwards  sailed  with 
an  immense  return  convoy,  bound  for 
France.  After  seeing  it  well  on  its  way, 
he  steered  for  the  Chesapeake,  and,  de- 
spite the  activity  of  British  fleets  wa tell- 
ing for  him,  he  was  safe  within  the  capes 

or  fresh  meat.  Three  alarm-guns  were  of  Virginia,  and  at  anchor,  with  twenty- 
fired;  the  drums  beat  to  arms;  the  bells  four  ships-of-the-line,  at  the  beginning  of 
of  neighboring  towns  were  rung;  and  very  September.  He  found  an  officer  of  Lafay- 
soon  about  2,000  of  the  men  of  that  region  ette's  staff  at  Cape  Henry,  sent  to  request 
were  flocking  to  the  water's  edge.  They  him  to  blockade  the  York  and  James  riv- 
sc.on  obtained  a  lighter  and  a  sloop,  when  ers,  so  as  to  cut  off  Cornwallis's  retreat, 
many  jumped  on  board,  pushed  off,  and  This  was  done  by  four  ships-of-the-line 
landed  on  the  island.  The  British  fled,  and  several  frigates;  and  3,000  French 
and  the  Americans  burned  the  hay  they  troops  were  sent  to  join  Lafayette. 
had  gathered.  Admiral  Rodney  supposed  part  of  the 
Grasse-Tilly,  Francois  Joseph  Paul,  French  fleet  had  left  the  West  Indies  for 
Count  de,  naval  officer;  born  in  Valette,  America,  but  did  not  suppose  the  whole 
France,  in  1723;  entered  the  navy  when  fleet  would  take  that  direction.  He 
eleven  years  old;  was  conspicuous  in  the  thought  it  only  necessary  to  reinforce  Ad- 



miral  Graves,  so  he  sent  Admiral  Hood 
with  fourteen  ships-of-the-line  for  the  pur- 
pose. He  reached  the  Chesapeake  (Aug. 
25,  1781)  before  the  French.  Not  finding 
Graves  there,  he  proceeded  to  New  York, 
where  news  had  just  arrived  that  the 
French  squadron  at  Newport  had  gone  to 
sea,  plainly  with  intent  to  join  the  new 
French  fleet.  In  the  hope  of  cutting  off 
one  or  the  other  of  the  French  fleets  be- 
fore the  junction  could  be  effected,  Graves 
sailed  with  the  united  British  fleets,  nine- 
teen ships-of-the-line,  and  was  astonished, 
when  he  arrived  at  the  capes  of  Virginia, 
to  find  the  French  anchored  within.  De 
Grasse,  also  surprised  at  this  sudden  ap- 
pearance of  a  heavy  British  fleet,  ordered 
his  ships  to  slip  their  cables  and  put  to 
sea.  For  five  days  the  contending  ves- 
sels manoeuvred  in  sight  of  each  other. 
De  Grasse  avoided  a  close  contact,  his  ob- 
ject being  to  cover  the  arrival  of  the 
squadron  from  Newport.  So  a  distant 
cannonade  was  kept  up.  De  Barras  en- 
tered the  Chesapeake.  Graves  finding  his 
vessels  badly  shattered,  returned  to  New 
York  to  refit,  leaving  the  French  in  un- 
disturbed possession  of  the  bay,  and  the 
French  transports  were  then  sent  to  An- 
napolis to  convey  to  the  James  River  the 
allied  armies. 

On  April    12,    1782,   a  fierce  naval   en- 
gagement occurred  in  the  West  Indies  be- 


tween  Count  de  Grasse  and  Admiral  Sir 
George  Rodney.  The  count's  flag-ship  was 
the  Ville  de  Paris,  the  same  as  when  he 
assisted  in  the  capture  of  Oornwallis  at 

Yorktown.  She  was  a  magnificent  vessel, 
which  the  city  of  Paris  had  presented  to 
the  King  (Louis  XV.).  The  count  fought 
his  antagonist  with  such  desperation  that 
when  he  was  compelled  to  strike  his  colors 
only  two  men  besides  himself  were  left 
standing  on  the  upper  deck.  By  this  de- 
feat and  capture  there  fell  into  the  hands 
of  the  English  thirty-six  chests  of  money 
and  the  whole  train  of  artillery  intended 

/ls  fjo^J^  ot~**y* 


for  an  attack  on  Jamaica.  The  French 
lost  in  the  engagement,  in  killed  and 
wounded,  about  3,000  men;  the  British 
lost  1,100.  For  more  than  a  century  the 
French  had  not,  in  any  naval  engagement, 
been  so  completely  beaten. 

The  family  of  De  Grasse  were  ruined 
by  the  fury  of  the  French  Revolution, 
and  four  of  his  daughters  (Amelia, 
Adelaide,  Melanie,  and  Silvia)  came  to 
the  United  States  in  extreme  poverty. 
Congress,  in  February,  1795,  gave  them 
each  $1,000,  in  consideration  "of  the  ex- 
traordinary services  rendered  the  United 
States  in  the  year  1781  by  the  late  Count 
de  Grasse,  at  the  urgent  request  of  the 
commander-in-chief  of  the  American  forces, 
beyond  the  term  limited  for  his  co-opera- 
tion with  the  troops  of  the  United  States." 

Grassi,  John,  clergyman;  born  in 
Verona,  Italy,  Oct.  1,  1778;  settled  in 
Maryland  as  the  superior  of  Jesuit  mis- 
sions in  1810;  returned  to  Italy  in  1817. 
He  was  the  author  of  Various  Notices  of 
the  Present  State  of  the  Republic  of  the 
United,  States  of  America.  He  died  in 
Italy,  Dec.  12,  1849. 

Graves  (Lord),  Thomas,  was  born  in 
1725.  Having  served  under  Anson,  Hawke, 
and  others,  he  was  placed  in  command  of 
the  Antelope,  on  the  North  American  sta- 
tion, in  1761,  and  made  governor  of  New- 
foundland. In  1779  he  became  rear- 
admiral  of  the  blue,  and  the  next  year 
came  to  America  with  reinforcements  for 
Admiral    Arbuthnot.      On    the    return    of 



the  latter  to  England  in  1781,  Graves  be-  Bell.  In  1893  Professor  Gray  invented 
came  chief  naval  commander  on  the  Amer-  the  telautograph,  which  so  far  improved 
ican  station.  He  was  defeated  (Sept.  5)  the  telephone  and  the  telegraph  as  to 
by  De  Grasse.  In  1795  he  was  second  in  transmit  the  actual  handwriting  of  mes- 
command  under  Lord  Howe,  and  was  sages.  He  established  the  Gray  Electric 
raised  to  an' Irish  peerage  and  admiral  of  Company  at  Highland  Park,  111.,  and 
the  white  on  June'l,  the  same  year.  He  organized  the  Congress  of  Electricians,  in 
died  Jan.  31  1802.  connection  with  the  World's  Columbian 
Graveyard  Insurance,  the  popular  des-  Exposition  in  1893,  and  was  its  chairman, 
ignation  of  a  form  of  life  insurance  that  His  works  include  Experimental  Be- 
at one  time  was  extensively  carried  on  in  searches  in  Electro-Harmonic  Telegraphy 
several  of  the  Northern  States,  especially  and  Telephony;  and  Elementary  Talks  on 
Pennsylvania.  It  was  an  outgrowth  of  Science.  He  died  in  Newtonville,  Mass., 
what    is   known   as    industrial    insurance,  Jan.  21,  1901. 

in  which  policies  were  issued  for  small  Gray,  George,  patriot;  born  in  Phila- 
amounts  from  childhood  up  to  extreme  old  delphia,  Pa.,  Oct.  26,  1725;  became  a  mem- 
age,  the  premiums  being  paid  in  small  and  ber  of  the  board  of  war  in  1777,  and 
frequent  instalments.  For  a  time  no  later  was  chairman  of  that  body  till  the 
medical  examination  nor  personal  identi-  conclusion  of  peace.  He  wrote  the  cele- 
fication  was  required  from  agents,  and  brated  Treason  Resolutions.  He  died  near 
because  of  this  they  added  largely  to  Philadelphia  in  1800. 
their  income  by  presenting  applications  Gray,  George,  lawyer;  born  in  New 
to  their  respective  companies  in  the  names  Castle,  Del.,  May  4,  1840;  graduated 
of  people,  long  dead,  taken  from  head-  at  Princeton  College  in  1859;  studied  law 
stones  in  cemeteries.  at  the  Harvard  Law  School,  and  was  ad- 
Gray,  Asa,  botanist;  born  in  Paris,  mitted  to  the  bar  in  18G3.  In  1879-85 
N.  Y.,  Nov.  18,  1810;  studied  botany  he  was  attorney-general  of  Delaware;  in 
under  Dr.  John  Torrey,  Professor  of  Nat-  1885-99  United  States  Senator.  In  the 
ural  History  at  Harvard  College  in  1S42-  Presidential  campaign  of  189G  he  was 
73;  became  widely  known  by  his  text-  affiliated  with  the  National  (gold-stand- 
books  on  botany,  which  are  in  general  use  ard)  Democratic  party.  In  1898  he  was 
throughout  the  United  States.  He  was  first  appointed  a  member  of  the  Anglo- 
the  author  of  Elements  of  Botany;  Struct-  American  Commission  (q.  v.),  and  soon 
ural  and  Systematic  Botany;  Manual  of  afterwards  one  of  the  commissioners  to 
the  Botany  of  the  Northern  United  States;  negotiate  peace  between  the  United  States 
Gray's  Botanical  Text-Book,  and  many  and  Spain.  On  Oct.  17,  1900,  he  was  ap- 
others.  He  died  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  pointed  one  of  the  American  members  of 
Jan.  30  1888.  The  Hague  Arbitration  Commission;  and 
Gray)  Elisha,  electrician;  born  in  in  1902,  a  member  of  the  Coal-Strike  Com- 
Barnesville,  O.,  Aug.  2,  1835;  in  early  life  mission;  and  judge  of  the  U.  S.  Circuit 
was  a  blacksmith,  carpenter,  and  boat-  Court  since  1899.  He  is  popular  as  an 
builder.  Later  he  went  to  Oberlin  Col-  arbitrator  in  labor  troubles, 
lege,  where  he  followed  special  studies  in  Gray,  Henry  Peters,  artist;  born  in 
physical  science,  supporting  himself  by  New  York  City,  June  23,  1819;  established 
working  at  his  trade.  In  18G7  he  in-  a  studio  in  New  York  in  1869.  His 
vented  a  self-adjusting  telegraph  relay,  works  include  Wages  of  War;  The  Birth 
and  soon  afterwards  designed  the  tele-  of  our  Flag;  etc.  He  died  in  New  York 
graphic  switch  and  annunciator  for  hotels,  City,  Nov.  2,  1877. 

the  private  telegraph  line  printer,  the  tele-  Gray,   Horace,  jurist;   born  in  Boston, 

graphic  repeater,  etc.     In  1872  ho  organ-  Mass.,  March  24,  1828;  graduated  at  Har- 

ized  the  Western  Electric  Manufacturing  vard  in  1845;  justice  of  the  United  States 

Company,  but  in   1874  withdrew  from  it.  Supreme  Court  in   1882.     He  died  in  Na- 

In  1876  he  claimed  to  have  invented  the  hant,  Mass.,  Sept.  15,  1902. 

speaking  telephone,   but  after   a  momma-  Gray,  Roman',  explorer;  born  in  Tiver- 

ble  litigation  that  honor  was  awarded  by  ton.   R.   I.,   in    1755;    Mas   captain   of   the 

the    courts    to    Prof.    Alexander    Graham  Washington,  which  was  sent  in    1787  to 



the  northwest  coast  to  trade  with  the  Ind- 
ians by  a  number  of  Boston  merchants. 
In  1790  he  returned  by  way  of  the  Pa- 
cific Ocean  on  board  the  Columbia,  which 
vessel  had  accompanied  the  Washington, 
and  was  thus  the  first  to  sail  around  the 
world  under  the  American  flag.  Later  he 
made  a  second  trip  to  the  Northwest,  and 
on  May  11,  1791,  discovered  the  mouth 
of  the  great  river,  which  he  named  Colum- 
bia.   He  died  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  in  1806. 

Graydon,  Alexander,  author;  born  in 
Bristol,  Pa.,  April  10,  1752;  studied  law; 
entered  the  Continental  army  in  1775; 
was  captured  in  the  engagement  on  Har- 
lem Heights  and  imprisoned  in  New  York, 
and  later  in  Flatbush;  was  paroled  and  in 
1778  exchanged.  He  was  the  author  of 
Memoirs  of  a  Life,  chiefly  passed  in  Penn- 
sylvania, within  the  Last  Sixty  Years, 
with  Occasional  Remarks  upon  the  Gen- 
eral Occurrences,  Character,  and  Spirit 
of  that  Eventful  Period.  He  died  in 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  2,  1818. 

Graydon,  William,  lawyer;  born  near 
Bristol,    Pa.,    Sept.    4,    1759;    brother    of 

1809;  began  law  practice  at  Beaufort; 
member  of  Congress  in  1833-37;  was  op- 
posed to  the  Civil  War.  He  was  the  au- 
thor of  The  Hireling  and  Slave;  The  Coun- 
try (a  poem)  ;  The  Life  of  James  Lewis 
Petigru,  etc.  He  died  in  Newberry,  Oct. 
4,  18G3. 

Great  Bridge,  Battle  at  the.  On  the 
invasion  of  the  Elizabeth  River  by  Lord 
Dunmore  (November,  1775),  Colonel 
Woodford  called  the  militia  to  arms. 
Dunmore  fortified  a  passage  of  the  Eliza- 
beth Biver,  on  the  borders  of  the  Dismal 
Swamp,  where  he  suspected  the  militia 
would  attempt  to  cross.  It  was  known  as 
the  Great  Bridge.  There  he  cast  up  in- 
trenchments,  at  the  Norfolk  end  of  the 
bridge,  and  amply  supplied  them  with 
cannon.  These  were  garrisoned  by  Brit- 
ish regulars,  Virginia  Tories,  negroes,  and 
vagrants,  in  number  about  600.  Wood- 
ford constructed  a  small  fortification  at 
the  opposite  end  of  the  bridge.  On  Satur- 
day morning,  Dec.  9,  Captains  Leslie  and 
Fordyce,  sent  by  Dunmore,  attacked  the 
"Virginians.     After     considerable     manceu- 


Alexander  Graydon;  studied  law;  removed  vring  and  skirmishing,  a  sharp  battle  en- 
to  Pittsburg,  where  he  began  practice.  In  sued,  lasting  about  twenty-five  minutes, 
1794-95  he  was  a  prominent  leader  in  the    when    the    assailants    were    repulsed    ano. 

"  Mill-dam     troubles."      He     published     a 
Digest  of  the  Laws  of  the  United  States; 

fled,  leaving  two  spiked  field-pieces  behind 
them.     The    loss    of    the    assailants    was 

Forms   of   Conveyancing   and   of   Practice  fifty-five  killed  and  wounded.     Not  a  Vir- 

in  the  Various  Courts  and  Public  Offices,  ginian  was  killed,  and  only  one  man  was 

etc.     He  died  in  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  Oct.  13,  slightly  wounded  in  the  battle. 
1840.  Great    Britain.     Although    this    name 

Grayson,  William  John,  lawyer;  born  was  applied  by  the  French  at  a  very  early 

in  Beaufort,  S.   C,  Nov.   10,   1788;   grad-  period  to  distinguish  it  from  "  Little  Brit 

uated    at    the    College    of    Charleston    in  ain,"  the  name  of  the  western  peninsular 
iv. — K                                                       145 


projection  of  France,  called  by  the  Ro- 
mans Amorica,  it  was  seldom  used  on  that 
island  until  the  accession  of  James  I.  to 
the  crown  of  England  (1603),  when  the 
whole  of  the  island,  comprising  England, 
Scotland,  and  Wales,  was  united  under 
one   sovereign.     By   the   legislative   union 

between  England  and  Scotland  in  1707- 
Great  Britain  became  the  legal  title  of  the 
kingdom.  The  official  style  of  the  empire 
is  now  United  Kingdom  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland. 

Great  Britain,  Arraignment  of.     Set 
Hancock,  John. 


Great  Charter  (Magna  Charta).  The 
corner-stone  of  personal  liberty  and  civil 
rights.  The  basis  of  the  British  consti- 
tution and  the  formal  beginning  of  mod- 
era  constitutional  government.  See  Mag- 
na Charta. 

John,  the  only  John  who  ever  sat  on  the 
throne  of  England,  and  reputed  to  be  one 
of  the  most  detestable  wretches  that  ever 
lived,  will  have  his  name  associated  to  the 
end  of  time  with  one  of  the  most  memor- 
able epochs  of  history. 

In  1207,  a  few  years  after  John  came  to 
the  throne,  he  quarrelled  with  the  pope 
over  the  appointment  of  an  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  which  at  last  culminated  in 
the  whole  country  being  placed  under  an 
interdict,  the  most  terrible  form  of  whole- 
sale excommunication  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  could  impose,  and  in  those  times 
it  was  dreaded ;  it  is  indubitable,  however, 
that  personally  John  deserved  all  the  pun- 
ishment he  received,  and  no  historian  has 
a  word  of  pity  for  him. 

About  three  years  before  this  time  the 
French  provinces  had  been  lost,  and  the 
barons,  who  held  estates  both  in  England 
and  Normandy,  had  been  obliged  to  choose 
the  one  or  the  other,  so  that  the  barons 
who  wrested  from  John  the  great  charter 
were  English  barons,  and  some  of  them 
were  smarting  over  the  loss  of  their  conti- 
nental possessions. 

As  the  barons  found  that  every  promise 
that  had  been  made  at  his  coronation  had 
been  broken,  and  that  nothing  but  force 
had  any  effect,  they  determined  to  bring 
the  matter  to  a  climax,  and  took  up  arms 
against  the  King. 

The  clergy,  though  John  was  the  vassal 
of  the  pope,  and  specially  under  his  pro- 
tection, ranged  themselves  mostly  on  the 
side  of  the  barons,  and  the  freemen,  many 
of  whom  had  had  their  goods  seized  ille- 

gally, and  some  had  suffered  in  person, 
were  also  on  the  same  side.  Stephen 
Langton,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
supported  the  barons  and  the  people,  and 
when  it  was  seen  that  nothing  but  force 
would  do,  the  barons  set  out,  and  gather- 
ing men  as  they  went,  came  up  with  the 
King  at  the  historic  Runnymede,  near 
Windsor,  and  he,  seeing  their  forces,  was 
constrained  on  June  15,  1215,  to  sign  the 
great  charter,  the  text  of  which  is  as  fol- 
lows : 


John,  by  the  grace  of  God,  King  of  Eng- 
land, Lord  of  Ireland,  Duke  of  Normandy 
and  Aquitaine,  and  Count  of  Anjou;  to  all 
archbishops,  bishops,  abbots,  priors,  earls, 
barons,  sheriffs,  officers,  and  to  all  bailiffs 
and  other  his  faithful  subjects,  greeting. 

Know  ye,  that  we,  in  the  presence  of 
God,  and  for  the  health  of  our  soul,  and 
the  souls  of  our  ancestors  and  heirs,  and 
to  the  honour  of  God  and  the  exaltation 
of  Holy  Church,  and  amendment  of  our 
kingdom;  by  advice  of  our  venerable  fa- 
thers, Stephen  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
primate  of  all  England,  and  cardinal  of 
the  Holy  Roman  Church;  Henry  arch- 
bishop of  Dublin,  William  bishop  of  Lon- 
don, Peter  of  Winchester,  Jocelin  of  Bath 
and  Glastonbury,  Hugh  of  Lincoln,  Walter 
of  Worcester,  William  of  Coventry,  Bene- 
dict of  Rochester,  bishops;  and  Master 
Pandulph  the  pope's  sub-deacon  and  famil- 
iar, Brother  Aymerick  master  of  the 
Knights  Templars  in  England,  and  the  no- 
ble persons,  William  the  marshal,  earl  of 
Pembroke,  William  earl  of  Salisbury, 
William  earl  of  Warren,  William  earl 
of  Arundel,  Alan  de  Galloway,  constable 
of  Scotland,  Warin  Fitzgerald,  Peter  Fitz- 
Herbcrt,  and  Hubert  de  Burgh,  seneschal 
of  Poictou,  Hugo  de  Nevil,  Matthew  Fitz- 
Herbert,    Thomas    Basset,    Alan    Basset 



Thilip  of  Albiney,  Robert  de  Ropele,  John 
Marshall,  John  Fitz-Hugh,  and  others  our 
liegemen,  have  in  the  first  place  granted 
to  God,  and  by  this  our  present  Charter 
confirmed  for  us  and  our  heirs  forever. 

I.  That  the  Church  of  England  shall  be 
free,  and  shall  have  her  whole  rights,  and 
her  liberties  inviolable;  and  I  will  this  to 
be  observed  in  such  a  way  that  it  may  ap- 
pear thence,  that  the  freedom  of  elections, 
which  is  reckoned  most  necessary  to  the 
English  Church,  which  we  granted,  and  by 
our  charter  confirmed,  and  obtained  the 
confirmation  of  it  from  Pope  Innocent  III 
before  the  discord  between  us  and  our 
barons,  was  of  our  own  free  will.  Which 
charter  we  shall  observe;  and  we  will  it 
to  be  observed  faithfully  by  our  heirs  for- 

II.  We  have  also  granted  to  all  the 
freemen  of  our  kingdom,  for  us  and  our 
heirs  forever,  all  the  underwritten  liber- 
ties, to  be  held  and  enjoyed  by  them  and 
their  heirs,  of  us  and  our  heirs.  If  any 
of  our  earls  or  barons,  or  others  who  hold 
of  us  in  chief  by  military  service,  shall  die, 
and  at  his  death  his  heir  shall  be  of  full 
age,  and  shall  owe  a  relief,  he  shall  have 
his  inheritance  for  the  ancient  relief,  viz., 
the  heir  or  heirs  of  an  earl,  a  whole  earl's 
estate  for  one  hundred  pounds;  the  heir 
or  heirs  of  a  baron,  a  whole  barony,  for 
one  hundred  pounds;  the  heir  or  heirs 
of  a  knight,  a  whole  knight's  fee,  for  one 
hundred  shillings  at  most;  and  he  who 
owes  less,  shall  pay  less,  according  to  the 
ancient  custom  of  fees. 

III.  But  if  the  heir  of  any  such  be  a 
minor,  and  shall  be  in  ward,  when  he 
comes  of  age  he  shall  have  his  inheritance 
without  relief  and  without  fine. 

IV.  The  guardian  of  an  heir  who  is  a 
minor,  shall  not  take  of  the  lands  of  the 
heir  any  but  reasonable  issues,  and  rea- 
sonable customs,  and  reasonable  services, 
and  that  without  destruction  and  waste  of 
the  men  or  goods;  and  if  we  commit  the 
custody  of  any  such  lands  to  a  sheriff,  or 
to  any  other  person  who  is  bound  to  an- 
swer to  us  for  the  issues  of  them,  and  he 
shall  make  destruction  or  waste  on  the 
ward  lands,  we  will  take  restitution  from 
him,  and  the  lands  shall  be  committed  to 
two  legal  and  discreet  men  of  that  fee, 
who  shall  answer  for  the  issues  to  us,  or 
to  him  to  whom  we  shall  assign  them;  and 

if  we  grant  or  sell  to  any  one  the  custody 
of  any  such  lands,  and  he  shall  make  de- 
struction or  waste,  he  shall  lose  the  cus- 
tody; which  shall  be  committed  to  two  le- 
gal and  discreet  men  of  that  fee,  who  shalj 
answer  to  us,  in  like  manner  as  afore- 

V.  Besides,  the  guardian,  so  long  as  he 
hath  the  custody  of  the  lands,  shall  keep 
in  order  the  houses,  parks,  warrens,  ponds, 
mills,  and  other  things  belonging  to  them, 
out  of  their  issues ;  and  shall  deliver  to  the 
heir,  when  he  is  full  age,  his  whole  lands, 
provided  with  ploughs  and  other  imple- 
ments of  husbandry,  according  to  what  the 
season  requires,  and  the  issues  of  the  lands 
can  reasonably  bear. 

VI.  Heirs  shall  be  married  without  dis- 
paragement, and  so  that,  before  the  mar- 
riage is  contracted,  notice  shall  be  given 
to  the  relations  of  the  heir  by  consanguin- 

VII.  A  widow,  after  the  death  of  her 
husband,  shall  immediately,  and  without 
difficulty,  have  her  marriage  goods  and  her 
inheritance;  nor  shall  she  give  anything 
for  her  dower,  or  her  marriage  goods,  or 
her  inheritance,  which  her  husband  and 
she  held  at  the  day  of  his  death.  And 
she  may  remain  in  the  mansion  house  of 
her  husband  forty  days  after  his  death; 
within  which  time  her  dower  shall  be  as- 
signed, if  it  has  not  been  assigned  before, 
or  unless  the  house  shall  be  a  castle,  and 
if  she  leaves  the  castle,  there  shall  forth- 
with be  provided  for  her  a  suitable  house, 
in  which  she  may  properly  dwell,  until 
her  dower  be  to  her  assigned,  as  said 
above ;  and  in  the  mean  time  she  shall  have 
her  reasonable  estover  from  the  common 
income.  And  there  shall  be  assigned  to  her 
for  her  dower  the  third  part  of  all  the 
lands,  which  were  her  husband's  in  his 
lifetime,  unless  a  smaller  amount  was  set- 
tled at  the  church  door. 

VIII.  No  widow  shall  be  distrained  to 
marry  herself  so  long  as  she  has  a  mind 
to  live  without  a  husband.  But  yet  she 
shall  give  security  that  she  will  not  marry 
without  our  assent,  if  she  holds  of  us;  or 
without  the  consent  of  the  lord  of  whom 
she  holds,  if  she  holds  of  another. 

IX.  Neither  we  nor  our  bailiffs  shall 
seize  any  land  or  rent  for  any  debt,  so 
long  as  the  chattels  of  the  debtor  are 
sufficient  to  pay  the  debt,  and  the  debtor 



is  prepared  to  give  satisfaction.     Nor  shall  the  archbishops,  bishops,  earls,  and  greater 

the   sureties   of  the   debtor   be   distrained,  barons,  singly,  by  our  letters;  and  besides, 

so  long  as  the  principal  debtor  be  sufficient  we  will  cause  to  be  summoned  generally  by 

for  the  payment  of  the  debt.     And  if  the  our  sheriffs  and  bailiffs,  all  those  who  hold 

principal  debtor  fail  in  the  payment  of  the  of  us  in  chief,  for  a  certain  day,  that  is  to 

debt,  not  having  wherewithal  to  discharge  say,    forty   days   before   their   meeting   at 

it,  or  will  not  discharge  it  when  he  is  able,  least,  and  to  a  certain  place;   and   in   all 

then   tne   sureties   shall   answer   the   debt,  the   letters   of   summons,   we   will   declare 

and  if  they  will  they  shall  have  the  lands  the  cause  of  the  summons;   and  the  sum- 

and  rents  of  the  debtor,  until  they  shall  mons  being  thus  made,  the  business  shall 

be  satisfied  for  the  debt  which  they  paid  go  on  at  the  day  appointed,  according  to 

for  him;   unless  the  principal  debtor  can  the  advice  of  those  who  shall  be  present, 

show  himself  acquitted  thereof  against  the  although  all  who  had  been  summoned  have 

said  sureties.  not  come. 

X.  If  any  one  have  borrowed  anything  XV.  We  will  not  authorize  any  one,  for 
of  the  Jews,*  more  or  less,  and  dies  before  the  future,  to  take  an  aid  of  his  freemen, 
the  debt  is  satisfied,  there  shall  be  no  in-  except  to  ransom  his  body,  to  make  his 
terest  paid  for  that  debt,  so  long  as  the  eldest  son  a  knight,  and  once  to  marry  his 
heir  is  a  minor,  of  whomsoever  he  may  eldest  daughter;  and  for  these  only  a  rea- 
hold:  and  if  the  debt  falls  into  our  hands,  sonable  aid. 

we  will  take  only  the  chattel  mentioned  in  XVI.  No  one  shall  be  distrained  to  do 

the  deed.  more  service  for  a  knight's  fee,  nor  for  any 

XI.  If  any  one  shall  die  indebted  to  other  free  tenement,  than  what  is  due  from 
Jews,  his  wife  shall  have  her  dower,  and  thence. 

pay  nothing  of  that  debt;   and  if  the  de-  XVII.  Common    pleas    shall   not   follow 

ceased  left  children  under  age,  they  shall  our  court,  but  shall  be  held  in  some  certain 

have  necessaries  provided  for  them  accord-  place. 

ing  to  the  tenement  of  the  deceased,  and  XVIII.  Assizes  upon  the  writs  of  Novel 

out  of  the  residue  the  debt  shall  be  paid;  Disseisin,    Mort    d'Ancestre    and    Darrein 

saving  however  the  service  of  the  lords.  In  presentment,*   shall   not   be   taken   but   in 

like  manner  the  debts  due  to  other  persons  their  proper  counties,  and  in  this  manner, 

than  Jews  shall  be  paid.  — We,  or  our  chief  justiciary  when  we  are 

XII.  No  scutage  or  aid  shall  be  im-  out  of  the  kingdom,  shall  send  two  jus- 
posed  in  our  kingdom,  unless  by  the  com-  ticiaries  into  each  county  four  times  a 
mon  council  of  our  kingdom,  except  to  year,  who,  with  four  knights  chosen  out 
ransom  our  person,  and  to  make  our  eldest  of  every  shire  by  the  people,  shall  1  old  the 
son  a  knight,  and  once  to  marry  our  eld-  said  assizes  at  a  stated  time  and  place, 
est   daughter;    and   for   these   there    shall  within  the  county. 

only  be  paid  a  reasonable  aid.  XIX.  And  if  any  matters  cannot  be  de- 

XIII.  In  like  manner  it  shall  be  concern-  termined  on  the  day  appointed  for  holding 
ing  the  aids  of  the  City  of  London ;  the  the  assizes  in  each  county,  let  as  many 
City  of  London  shall  have  all  its  ancient  knights  and  freeholders  of  those  who  were 
liberties  and  free  customs,  as  well  by  land  present  remain  behind,  as  may  be  neces- 
as  by  water.  Furthermore  we  will  and  sary  to  decide  them,  according  as  there  is 
grant  that  all   other   cities  and  boroughs,  more  or  less  business. 

and  towns  and  ports  shall  have  all  their  XX.  A  freeman  shall  not  be  amerced  for 

liberties  and  free  customs.  a  small  offence,  but  only  according  to  the 

XIV.  And  for  holding  the  common  coun-  degree  of  the  offence:  and  for  a  great 
cil  of  the  kingdom  concerning  the  assess-  crime,  according  to  the  heinousness  of  it, 
ment  of  aids,  otherwise  than  in  the  three  saving  to  him  his  contenement;  and  after 
aforesaid  cases,  and  for  the  assessment  of  the  same  manner  a  merchant,  saving  to 
scutages,  we  will   cause  to   be   summoned  him  his  merchandise;   and  a  villein  shall 

be  amerced  after  the  same  manner,  saving 

•Christians  in  those  days  were  forbidden  to  him  hjg  waina„0i  jf  ]ie  falls  under  our 
by    the    canon    law    to    lend    on     usury ;     the 

whole  or  the  money-lending  was  therefore  in  *  Last  presentation  to  a  benefice. — Fthcldnn 

the  hands  of  the  Jews.  Amos. 



mercy;  and  none  of  the  aforesaid  amercia- 
ments shall  be  assessed  but  by  the  oath  of 
honest  men  in  the  neighbourhood. 

XXI.  Earls  and  barons  shall  not  be 
amerced  but  by  their  peers,  and  according 
to  the  degree  of  the  offence. 

XXII.  No  ecclesiastical  person  shall  be 
amerced  for  his  lay-tenement,  but  accord- 
ing to  the  proportion  of  the  others  afore- 
said, and  not  according  to  the  value  of  hiss 
ecclesiastical  benefice. 

XXIII.  Neither  a  town  nor  any  tenant 
shall  be  distrained  to  make  bridges  or 
banks,  unless  that  anciently  and  of  right 
they  are  bound  to  do  it.  No  river  for  the 
future  shall  be  imbanked  but  what  was 
imbanked  in  the  time  of  King  Henry  I., 
our  grandfather. 

XXIV.  No  sheriff,  constable,  coroner,  or 
other  our  bailiffs,  shall  hold  pleas  of  the 

XXV.  All  counties,  hundreds,  wapen- 
takes, and  tithings  shall  stand  at  the  old 
rents,  without  any  increase,  except  in  our 
demesne  manors. 

XXVI.  If  any  one  holding  of  us  a  lay- 
fee,  dies,  and  the  sheriff  or  our  bailiff  show 
our  letters  patent  of  summons  for  debt 
which  the  deceased  did  owe  to  us,  it  shall 
be  lawful  for  the  sheriff  or  our  bailiff  to 
attach  and  register  the  chattels  of  the  de- 
ceased found  upon  his  lay-fee,  to  the  value 
of  the  debt,  by  the  view  of  lawful  men,  so 
as  nothing  be  removed  until  our  whole  debt 
be  paid;  and  the  rest  shall  be  left  to  the 
executors  to  fulfil  the  will  of  the  deceased; 
and  if  there  be  nothing  due  from  him  to 
us,  all  the  chattels  shall  remain  to  the  de- 
ceased, saving  to  his  wife  and  children 
their  reasonable  shares. 

XXVII.  If  any  freeman  dies  intestate, 
his  chattels  shall  be  distributed  by  the 
hands  of  his  nearest  relations  and  friends 
by  view  of  the  church,  saving  to  every 
one  his  debts,  which  the  deceased  owed. 

XXVIII.  No  constable  or  bailiff  of  ours 
shall  take  the  corn  or  other  chattels  of  any 
man,  without  instantly  paying  money  for 
them,  unless  he  can  obtain  respite  by  the 
good-will  of  the  seller. 

XXIX.  No  constable  shall  distrain  any 
knight  to  give  money  for  castle-guard,  if 
he  is  willing  to  perform  it  in  his  own  per- 
son, or  by  another  able  man  if  he  cannot 
perform  it  himself  through  a  reasonable 
eause.     And   if   we   have   carried   or   sent 

him  into  the  army,  he  shall  be  excused 
from  castle-guard  for  the  time  he  shall  be 
in  the  army  at  our  command. 

XXX.  No  sheriff  or  bailiff  of  ours  or 
any  other  person  shall  take  the  horses 
or  carts  of  any  freeman  to  perform  car- 
riages, without  the  assent  of  the  said 

XXXI.  Neither  we,  nor  our  bailiffs, 
shall  take  another  man's  timber  for  our 
castles  or  other  uses,  without  the  consent 
of  the  owner  of  the  timber. 

XXXII.  We  will  not  retain  the  lands  of 
those  who  have  been  convicted  of  felony 
above  one  year  and  one  day,  and  then 
they  shall  be  given  up  to  the  lord  of  the 

XXXIII.  All  kydells*  for  the  future 
shall  be  removed  out  of  the  Thames,  the 
Medway,  and  throughout  all  England,  ex- 
cept upon  the  sea- coast. 

XXXIV.  The  writ  which  is  called  Prae- 
cipe, for  the  future,  shall  not  be  made  out 
to  any  one  concerning  any  tenement  by 
which  any  freeman  may  lose  his  court. 

XXXV.  There  shall  be  one  measure  of 
wine  and  one  of  ale  through  our  whole 
realm;  and  one  measure  of  corn,  viz.,  the 
London  quarter;  also  one  breadth  of  dyed 
cloth  and  of  russets,  and  of  halberjects,** 
viz.,  two  ells  within  the  lists.  It  shall  be 
the  same  with  weights  as  with  measures. 

XXXVI.  Nothing  shall  be  given  or 
taken  for  the  future  for  the  writ  of  in- 
quisition of  life  or  limb,  but  it  shall  be 
granted  freely,  and  not  denied. 

XXXVII.  If  any  one  hold  of  us  by  fee- 
farm,  or  socage,  or  burgage,  and  holds 
lands  of  another  by  military  service,  we 
shall  not  have  the  custody  of  the  heir,  or 
of  his  land,  which  is  held  of  the  fee  of 
another,  through  that  fee-farm,  or  socage, 
or  burgage;  nor  will  we  have  the  ward- 
ship of  the  fee-farm,  socage,  or  burgage, 
unless  the  fee-farm  is  bound  to  perform 
knight's  service  to  us.  We  will  not  have 
the  custody  of  an  heir,  nor  of  any  land 
which  he  holds  of  another  by  military  ser- 
vice, by  reason  of  any  petit-sergeantry  he 
holds  of  us,  as  by  the  service  of  paying  a 
knife,  an  arrow,  or  such  like. 

XXXVIII.  No  bailiff  from  henceforth 
shall   put   any  man   to  his   law  upon   his 

*  A  dam  made  across  a  river  for  diverting 
water  to  a  mill  or  taking  fish. 
**  A  coarse  kind  of  cloth. 



own  saying,  without  credible  witnesses  to 
prove  it. 

XXXIX.  No  freeman  shall  be  taken,  or 
imprisoned,  or  disseized,  or  outlawed,  or 
banished,  or  any  ways  destroyed,  nor  will 
we  pass  upon  him,  nor  will  we  send  upon 
him,  unless  by  the  lawful  judgment  of  his 
peers,  or  by  the  law  of  the  land. 

XL.  We  will  sell  to  no  man,  we  will  not 
deny  to  any  man,  either  justice  or  right. 

XLI.  All  merchants  shall  have  safe  and 
secure  conduct,  to  go  out  of,  and  to  come 
into  England,  and  to  stay  there,  and  to 
pass  as  well  by  land  as  by  water,  for  buy- 
ing and  selling  by  the  ancient  and  allowed 
customs,  without  any  evil  tolls;  except  in 
time  of  war,  or  when  they  are  of  any  na- 
tion at  war  with  us.  And  if  there  be  found 
any  such  in  our  land  in  the  beginning  of 
the  war,  they  shall  be  attached,  without 
damage  to  their  bodies  or  goods,  until  it 
be  known  unto  us  or  our  chief  justiciary 
how  our  merchants  be  treated  in  the  coun- 
try at  war  with  us;  and  if  ours  be  safe 
there,  the  others  shall  be  safe  in  our  do- 

XLII.  It  shall  be  lawful  for  the  time  to 
come  for  any  one  to  go  out  of  our  king- 
dom, and  return,  safely  and  securely,  by 
land  or  by  water,  saving  his  allegiance  to 
us;  unless  in  time  of  war,  by  some  short 
6pace,  for  the  common  benefit  of  the  realm, 
except  prisoners  and  outlaws,  according  to 
the  law  of  the  land,  and  people  in  war 
with  us,  and  merchants  who  shall  be  in 
such  condition  as  is  above  mentioned. 

XLIII.  If  any  man  hold  of  any  escheat, 
as  of  the  honour  of  Wallingford,  Notting- 
ham, Boulogne,  Lancaster,  or  of  other  es- 
cheats which  are  in  our  hands,  and  are 
baronies,  and  shall  die,  his  heir  shall  give 
no  other  relief,  and  perform  no  other  ser- 
vice to  us,  than  he  should  have  done  to 
the  baron  if  it  had  been  in  the  hands  of 
the  baron;  and  we  will  hold  it  in  the  same 
manner  that  the  baron  held  it. 

XLIV.  Men  who  dwell  without  the  for- 
est shall  not  come,  for  the  future,  before 
our  justiciary  of  the  forest  on  a  common 
summons,  unless  they  be  parties  in  a  plea, 
or  sureties  for  some  person  who  is  attach- 
ed for  something  concerning  the  forest. 

XLV.  We  will  not  make  any  justici- 
aries, constables,  sheriffs,  or  bailiffs,  but 
from  those  who  understand  the  law  of  the 
realm,  and  are  Well-disposed  to  observe  it. 

XLVI.  All  barons  who  have  founded  ab- 
beys, which  they  hold  by  charters  of  the 
kings  of  England,  or  by  ancient  tenure, 
shall  have  the  custody  of  them  when  they 
become  vacant,  as  they  ought  to  have. 

XLVI1.  All  forests  which  have  been 
made  in  our  time,  shall  be  immediately 
disforested;  and  the  same  shall  be  done 
with  water  banks  which  have  been  made 
in  our  time. 

XLVI1I.  All  evil  customs  connected 
with  forests  and  warrens,  foresters  and 
warreners,  sheriffs  and  their  officers,  wa- 
ter-banks and  their  keepers,  shall  at  once 
be  inquired  into  in  eaeh  county  by  twelve 
sworn  knights  of  the  county  who  shall 
be  chosen  by  creditable  men  of  the  same 
county;  and  within  forty  days  after  the 
inquiry  is  made,  they  shall  be  utterly 
abolished  by  them,  never  to  be  restored; 
provided  notice  be  given  to  us  before  it  is 
done,  or  to  our  justiciary,  if  we  are  not  in 

XLIX.  We  will  at  once  give  up  all  host- 
ages and  writings  that  have  been  given  to 
us  by  our  English  subjects,  as  securities 
for  their  keeping  the  peace,  and  faithfully 
performing  their  services  to  us. 

L.  We  will  remove  absolutely  from  their 
bailiwicks  the  relations  of  Gerard  de 
Athyes,  that  henceforth  they  shall  have 
no  bailiwick  in  England;  we  will  also  re- 
move Engelard  de  Cygony,  Andrew,  Peter, 
and  Gyon  from  the  Chancery;  Gyon  de 
Cygony,  Geoffrey  de  Martyn,  and  his 
brothers;  Philip  Mark,  and  his  brothers; 
his  nephew,  Geoffrey,  and  all  their  fol- 

LT.  As  soon  as  peace  is  restored  we  will 
send  out  of  the  kingdom  all  foreign  sol- 
diers, crossbow-men,  and  stipendiaries, 
who  are  come  with  horses  and  arms,  to  the 
injury  of  onr  people. 

LII.  If  any  one  has  been  dispossessed  or 
deprived  by  us,  without  the  legal  judg- 
ment of  his  peers,  of  his  lands,  castles,  lib- 
erties, or  right,  we  will  forthwith  restore 
them  to  him :  and  if  any  dispute  arise 
upon  this  head,  let  the  matter  be  decided 
by  the  five-and-twenty  barons  hereafter 
mentioned,  for  the  preservation  of  the 
peace.  As  for  all  those  things  for  which 
any  person  has,  without  the  legal  judg- 
ment of  his  peers,  boon  dispossessed  or  de- 
prived, either  by  King  Henry  our  father, 
or  our  brother  King  Richard,  and  which 



we  have  in  our  hands,  or  are  possessed  by  pute  shall  arise  about  it,  the  matter  shall 

others,  and  we  are  bound  to  warrant  and  be  determined  in  the  marches  by  the  ver- 

make  good,  we  shall  have  a  respite  till  the  diet  of  their  peers;  for  tenements  in  Eng- 

term   usually   allowed   the   crusaders;    ex-  land,   according   to   the   law   of   England; 

cepting  those  things  about  which  there  is  for  tenements  in  Wales,  according  to  the 

a  plea  depending,   or  whereof  an   inquest  law    of     Wales;     for    tenements    in     the 

hath  been  made,  by  our  order,  before  we  marches,    according    to    the    law    of    the 

undertook  the  crusade,  but  when  we  return  marches.     The   Welsh   shall   do   the   same 

from  our  pilgrimage,  or  if  perchance  we  to  us  and  our  subjects, 

stay  at  home  and  do  not  make  the  pilgrim-  LVII.  As  for  all  those  things  of  which 

age,  we  will  immediately  cause  full  justice  any  Welshman  hath  been  disseized  or  de- 

to  be  administered  therein.  prived,  without  the  legal  judgment  of  his 

LIU.  The   same   respite  we   shall   have,  peers,  by  King  Henry  our  father,  or  King 

and  in  the  same  manner,  about  administer-  Richard  our  brother,  and  which  we  have 

ing    justice,    disafforesting   or    continuing  in   our   hands,    or    others   hold   with    our 

the  forests,  which  Henry  our  father  and  warranty,  we  shall  have  respite,  till  the 

our  brother  Richard  have  afforested;  and  time    usually   allowed   the    crusaders,    ex- 

for  the  wardship  of  the  lands  which  are  cept  those  concerning  which  a  suit  is  de- 

in  another's  fee  in  the  same  manner  as  we  pending,  or  an  inquisition  has  been  taken 

have  hitherto  enjoyed  those  wardships,  by 
reason  of  a  fee  held  of  us  by  knight's  ser- 
vice; and  for  the  abbeys  founded  in  any 
other  fee  than  our  own,  in  which  the  lord 

by  our  order  before  undertaking  the  cru- 
sade. But  when  we  return  from  our  pil- 
grimage, or  if  we  remain  at  home  without 
performing  the  pilgrimage,  we  shall  forth- 

of  the  fee  says  he  has  right;  and  when  we    with  do  them  full  justice  therein,  accord- 

return  from  our  pilgrimage,  or  if  we  stay 
at  home  and  do  not  make  the  pilgrimage, 
we  will  immediately  do  full  justice  to  all 
the  complainants  in  this  behalf. 

LIV.  No  man  shall  be  taken  or  im- 
prisoned upon  the  accusation  of  a  woman, 
for  the  death  of  any  other  than  her  hus- 

ing  to  the  laws  of  Wales,  and  the  parts. 

LVIII.  We  will,  without  delay,  dismiss 
the  son  of  Llewellin,  and  all  the  Welsh 
hostages,  and  release  them  from  the  en- 
gagements they  have  entered  into  with  us 
for  the  preservation  of  the  peace. 

LIX.  We    will    treat    with   Alexander, 
band.  King  of   Scots,   concerning   the   restoring 

LV.  All  unjust  and  illegal  fines  made  his  sisters  and  hostages,  and  his  right  and 
by  us,  and  all  amerciaments  that  have  been  liberties,  in  the  same  form  and  manner 
imposed  unjustly,  or  contrary  to  the  law  as  we  shall  do  to  the  rest  of  our  barons 
of  the  land,  shall  be  remitted,  or  left  to  of  England;  unless  by  the  charters  which 
the  decision  of  the  five-and-twenty  barons  we  have  from  his  father,  William,  late 
of  whom  mention  is  made  below  for  the  King  of  Scots,  it  ought  to  be  otherwise; 
security  of  the  peace,  or  the  majority  of  and  this  shall  be  left  to  the  determination 
them,  together  with  the  aforesaid  Stephen  of  the  peers  in  our  court, 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  if  he  can  be  LX.  All  the  aforesaid  customs  and  lib- 
present,  and  others  whom  he  may  think  erties,  which  we  have  granted  to  be  holden 
fit  to  bring  with  him ;  and  if  he  cannot  be  in  our  kingdom,  as  much  as  it  belongs  to 
present,  the  business  shall  proceed  notwith-  us,  towards  our  people  of  our  kingdom, 
standing  without  him ;  but  so,  that  if  one  both  clergy  and  laity  shall  observe,  as  far 
or  more  of  the  aforesaid  five-and-twenty  as  they  are  concerned,  towards  their  de- 
barons  be  plaintiffs  in  the  same  cause,  they    pendents. 

must  be  removed  from  this  particular  LXI.  And  whereas  for  the  honour  of  God 
trial,  and  others  be  chosen  instead  of  them  and  the  amendment  of  our  kingdom,  and 
out  of  the  said  five-and-twenty,  and  sworn    for  the  better  quieting  the  strife  that  has 

arisen  between  us  and  our  barons,  we  have 
granted  all  these  things  aforesaid;  willing 

by  the  rest  to  decide  the  matter. 

LVT.  If  we  have  disseized  or  dispossess- 
ed   the    Welsh    of    their    lands,    or    other    to   render   them   firm   and   lasting,   we  do 
things,  without  the  legal  judgment  of  their    give   and   grant   our    subjects    the   under- 

peers.  in  England  or  in  Wales,  they  shall 
be  at  once  restored  to  them;  and  if  a  dis- 


written  security,  namely,  that  the  barons 
may  choose  five-and-twenty  barons  of  the 


kingdom  whom  they  think  convenient,  who 
shall  take  care,  with  all  their  might,  to 
hold  and  observe,  and  cause  to  be  observed, 
the  peace  and  liberties  we  have  granted 
them,  and  by  this  our  present  charter  con- 
firmed :  so  that  if  we,  our  justiciary,  our 
bailiffs,  or  any  of  our  officers,  shall  in  any 
circumstance  fail  in  the  performance  of 
them  towards  any  person,  or  shall  break 
through  any  of  these  articles  of  peace  and 
security,  and  the  offence  be  notified  to  four 
barons  chosen  out  of  the  five-and-twenty 
above  mentioned,  the  said  four  barons 
shall  repair  to  us,  or  our  justiciary,  if  we 
are  out  of  the  kingdom,  and  laying  open 
the  grievance  shall  petition  to  have  it  re- 
dressed without  delay;  and  if  it  not  be  re- 
dressed by  us,  or  if  we  should  chance  to  be 
out  of  the  kingdom,  if  it  should  not  be  re- 
dressed by  our  justiciary  within  forty 
days,  reckoning  from  the  time  it  has  been 
notified  to  us,  or  our  justiciary  (if  we 
should  be  out  of  the  kingdom),  the  four 
barons  aforesaid  shall  lay  the  cause  before 
the  rest  of  the  five-and-twenty  barons ;  and 
the  said  five-and-twenty  barons,  together 
with  the  community  of  the  whole  kingdom, 
shall  distrain  and  distress  us  in  all  possi- 
ble ways,  by  seizing  our  castles,  lands, 
possessions,  and  in  any  other  manner  they 
can,  till  the  grievance  is  redressed  accord- 
ing to  their  pleasure;  saving  harmless  our 
own  person,  and  the  persons  of  our  queen 
and  children;  and  when  it  is  redressed 
they  shall  obey  us  as  before.  And  any  per- 
son whatsoever  in  the  kingdom  may  swear 
that  he  will  obey  the  orders  of  the  five-and- 
twenty  barons  aforesaid,  in  the  execution 
of  the  premises,  and  will  distress  us  joint- 
ly with  them,  to  the  utmost  of  his  power, 
and  we  will  give  public  and  free  liberty  to 
any  one  that  shall  please  to  swear  to  this, 
and  never  will  hinder  any  person  from 
taking  the  same  oath. 

LXII.  As  to  all  those  of  our  people  who 
of  their  own  accord  will  not  swear  to  the 
five-and-twenty  barons,  to  join  them  in  dis- 
tressing and  harassing  us,  we  will  issue 
orders  to  compel  them  to  swear  as  afore- 
said. And  if  any  one  of  the  five-and- 
twenty  barons  die,  or  remove  out  of  the 
land,  or  in  any  way  shall  be  hindered  from 
executing  the  things  aforesaid,  the  rest  of 
the  five-and-twenty  barons  shall  elect  an- 
other in  his  place,  at  their  own  free  will, 
who  shall  be  sworn  in  the  same  manner  as 

the  rest.  But  in  ail  these  things  which 
are  appointed  to  be  done  by  these  five-and- 
twenty  barons,  if  it  happens  that  the  whole 
number  have  been  present,  and  have  differ- 
ed in  their  opinions  about  anything,  or  if 
some  of  those  summoned  would  not  or  could 
not  be  present,  that  which  the  majority  of 
those  present  shall  have  resolved  will  be 
held  to  be  as  firm  and  valid,  as  if  all  the 
five-and-twenty  had  agreed.  And  the  afore- 
said five-and-twenty  shall  6wear  that 
they  will  faithfully  observe,  and,  to  the 
utmost  of  their  power,  cause  to  be  observ- 
ed, all  the  things  mentioned  above.  And 
we  will  procure  nothing  from  any  one  by 
ourselves,  or  by  another,  by  which  any  of 
these  concessions  and  liberties  may  be  re- 
voked or  lessened.  And  if  any  such  thing 
be  obtained,  let  it  be  void  and  null;  and 
we  will  neither  use  it  by  ourselves  nor  by 
another.  And  all  the  ill-will,  indigna- 
tions, and  rancors,  that  have  risen  be- 
tween us  and  our  people,  clergy  and  laity, 
from  the  first  breaking  out  of  the  discord, 
we  do  fully  remit  and  forgive;  in  addi- 
tion all  transgressions  occasioned  by  the 
said  discord  from  Easter,  in  the  sixteenth 
year  of  our  reign,  till  the  restoration 
of  peace  and  tranquillity,  we  do  fully  re- 
mit to  all,  both  clergy  and  laity,  and  as 
far  as  lies  in  our  power,  forgive.  More- 
over, we  have  caused  to  be  made  to  them 
letters  patent  testimonial  of  my  lord 
Stephen  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  my 
lord  Henry  archbishop  of  Dublin,  and 
the  bishops  aforesaid,  as  also  of  Master 
Pandulph,  for  the  security  and  concessions 

LXIIT.  Wherefore  wre  will  and  firmly 
enjoin  that  the  Church  of  England  bo  free. 
and  that  all  men  in  our  kingdom  have  and 
hold  all  the  aforesaid  liberties,  rights, 
and  concessions  truly  and  peaceably,  freely 
and  quietly,  fully  and  wholly  to  themselves 
and  their  heirs,  of  us  and  our  heirs,  in  all 
things  and  places,  forever,  as  is  aforesaid. 
It  is  also  sworn,  as  well  on  our  pail  as  on 
the  part  of  the  barons,  that  all  the  things 
aforesaid  shall  be  observed  bona  /i*l<-  and 
without  evil  subtlety.  Given  under  our 
hand,  in  the  presence  of  the  witnesses 
above  named  and  many  others,  in  (lie 
meadow  called  Runnymede.  between  Wind- 
sor and  Staines,  the  fifteenth  day  of 
June,  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  our 



Coke  pointy  out  the  evils  from  which  the 
charter  is  a  protection,  in  their  proper 

1st.  Loss  of  Liberty. 

2d.  Loss  of  Property. 

3d.  Loss  of  Citizen  Rights. 

Creasy  remarks  that  a  careful  examina- 
tion of  the  great  charter  will  show  that  the 
following  constitutional  principles  may  be 
found  in  it,  either  in  express  terms  or  by 
logical  inference: 

"  The  government  of  the  country  by  a 
hereditary  sovereign  ruling  with  limited 
powers,  and  bound  to  summon  and  consult 
a  parliament  of  the  whole  realm,  compris- 

ing hereditary  peers  and  elected  represent- 
atives of  the  commons. 

"  That  without  the  sanction  of  Parlia- 
ment no  tax  of  any  kind  can  be  imposed, 
and  no  law  can  be  made,  repealed,  or  altered. 

"  That  no  man  be  arbitrarily  fined  or  im- 
prisoned; that  no  man's  properties  or  lib- 
erties be  impaired;  and  that  no  man  be  in 
any  way  punished  except  after  a  lawful 

"  Trial  by  jury. 

"  That  justice  shall  not  be  sold  or  de- 

Great  Eastern,  The.  This  vessel,  in 
her    day,    was    remarkable    as    being    the 




Targest  steamship  ever  built.  She  was 
692  feet  in  length,  and  83  feet  in  breadth. 
23  feet  in  draught,  and  of  24,000  tons 
measurement.  At  30  feet  draught  she 
displaced  27,000  tons — an  enormous  total 
for  an  unarmored  merchant  vessel.  As 
early  as  1853,  this  vessel  was  projected 
for  the  East  India  trade  around  the  Cape 
of  Good  Hope.  There  were  then  no  ac- 
cessible coal-mines  in  South  Africa,  and 
the  Eastern  Steam  Navigation  Company- 
wanted  a  vessel  that  could  carry  its  own 
fuel  to  India  and  return,  besides,  a  large 
number  of  passengers  and  a  great  cargo. 
The  vessel  was  designed  by  I.  K.  Brunei, 
and  was  built  at  the  ship-yards  of  Messrs. 
Scott,  Russell  &  Co.,  Millwall,  near  Lon- 
don. The  operation  of  launching  her  last- 
ed from  Nov.  3,  1857,  to  Jan.  31,  1858.  A 
new  company  had  to  be  formed  to  fit  her 
for  sea,  as  the  capital  first  subscribed  for 
her  had  all  been  spent.  She  was  lifted  up 
to  convey  4,000  persons  from  London  to 
Australia,  800  first-class,  2,000  second- 
class,  and  1,200  third-class.  She  had,  be- 
sides, capacity  for  5,000  tons  of  mer- 
chandise and  15,000  tons  of  coal.  Curi- 
ously enough,  after  all  these  vast  prepa- 
rations, the  ship,  during  all  of  her  varied 
career,  was  never  used  in  the  East  India 
trade  at  all.  From  the  first  she  was  un- 
fortunate. In  a  test  trip  from  Deptford 
to  Portland  Roads,  in  1860,  an  explosion 
of  one  of  the  boilers  occurred,  when  ten 
firemen  were  killed  and  many  persons 
were  wounded.  The  steamer  started  on 
lier  first  trip  from  Liverpool  to  New  York, 

June  17,  1S60,  making  the  trip  in  eleven 
days.  She  made  her  return  trip  in 
August  in  ten  days.  She  made  a  number 
of  trips  to  and  from  New  York  during  the 
three  years  following,  but,  owing  to  the 
lack  of  freight  at  profitable  rates,  she 
was  a  source  of  loss  to  her  owners.  In 
1864  she  was  chartered  to  convey  the 
Atlantic  submarine  cable;  carried  the 
first  cable  in  1865,  which  broke  in  mid- 
ocean,  and  also  that  of  1866,  which  was 
laid  successfully.  During  this  time,  also, 
the  British  government  occasionally  em- 
ployed her  as  a  transport  ship.  In  1867 
she  was  again  fitted  up  for  a  passenger 
vessel  to  ply  between  New  York  and 
Europe;  sailed  for  New  York  March  26, 
1867,  with  accommodations  for  2,000  first- 
class  passengers,  and  returned  with  191, 
and  was  immediately  seized  by  the  sea- 
men as  security  for  their  unpaid  wages. 
After  this  matter  was  adjusted,  the  ves- 
sel was  leased  by  a  cable  construction 
company.  She  laid  the  French  Atlantic 
telegraph  cable  in  1869;  went  to  the 
Persian  Gulf  and  laid  the  cable  from 
Bombay  to  Suez  in  1870;  in  1873  laid  the 
fourth  Atlantic  telegraph  cable;  in  1874 
laid  the  fifth,  and  was  further  used  to 
some  extent  in  cable  construction.  When 
there  seemed  to  be  no  more  use  for  her  in 
that  line,  she  was  made  to  serve  as  a 
"  show."  After  the  vessel  had  been  tried 
by  the  government  as  a  coal  barge,  and 
proved  too  unwieldy  to  do  good  service, 
she  was  condemned  to  be  broken  up  and 
sold  as  junk. 


Great  Lakes  and  the  Navy,  The.  interest  to  those  who  are  watching  the 
The  following  careful  study  of  the  close  progress  of  our  merchant  marine;  and  as 
connection  between  our  navy,  the  Great  this  progress  is  intimately  associated  with 
Lakes  and  connecting  waterways  is  by  the  growth  of  the  navy,  it  becomes  an  im- 
Lieut.  J.  H.  Gibbons,  U.  S.  N.:  portant  question  how  far  this  industrial 

movement   on    the    Great   Lakes    may   be 

made  a  factor  in  our  naval  policy. 

The    coast    lines    of    the    Great    Lakes 
border  upon  nine  States  containing  more 

The  report  of  the  commissioner  of  navi- 
gation for  1897  contains  the  following 
statement :     "  The     Great    Lakes    region, 

for  the  first  time  in  our  history,  has  built  than    one-third    of    our    population.     The 

more  tonnage  than  all  the  rest  of  the  coun-  six   large    cities    on    this    coast    line    will 

try:    One  hundred   and   twenty  vessels  of  easily  aggregate  a  population  of  3.000,000, 

116,937    tons,   compared   with    137   vessels  and   to   this  must   be   added   hundreds   of 

of  115,296  tons  for  the  rest  of  the  United  prosperous    towns.     Until    within    a    few 

States."     This  statement  is  fraught  with  years    agricultural    products    and    lumber 



were  the  principal  freights  in  the  lake  other  sources  of  supply,  Sweden,  for  ex- 
carrying  traffic,  but  the  discoveries  of  ample;  but  they  are  not  easily  accessible, 
iron-ore  in  the  Lake  Superior  region  and  cheapness  of  transportation  is  essen- 
brought  about  an  unparalleled  commercial  tial.  The  condition  of  affairs  promises, 
and  maritime  growth.  This  latter  industry  therefore,  to  be  very  much  the  same,  so 
must  necessarily  prove  far-reaching  in  its  far  as  materials  go,  as  it  was  at  that 
effects;  for  we  are  living  in  the  age  of  period  when  England  passed  from  the  use 
steel,  and  whatever  tends  to  place  us  of  wood  to  that  of  metal  in  building  ships, 
abreast  of  our  rivals  in  the  production  of  Let  us  now  look  at  the  condition  of 
steel  tends  at  the  same  time  to  increase  the   steel   industry   in   the   United   States. 

our    prosperity,    and    to    make    us    great 
among  the  nations  of  the  earth. 

Turning  to  the  particular  branch  of  the 
steel  industry  that  is  of  the  most  impor- 
tance  to   the  navy — viz.,   ship-building,   a 

In  1892  there  were  put  out  16,036,043 
tons  of  iron  ore,  of  which  the  Lake  Su- 
perior region  contributed  9,564,388  tons. 
The  ore  from  the  Great  Lakes  surpasses 
in  richness  the  ores  from  any  other  part 

brief  historical  retrospect  will  show  that,    of  the   country.     New  discoveries  are  be- 

after  years  of  exclusion,  everything 
points  to  our  again  entering  the  contest 
for   commercial   supremacy  on  the   ocean. 

mg  constantly  reported,  and  the  deposits 
are  so  easily  accessible  as  to  make  it  pos- 
sible to  supply  any  demand.     Since   1888 

In  the  transitory  period  from  wood  to  there  has  been  an  enormous  development 
metal  in  ship  construction,  a  period  in  this  new  industry  in  the  Lake  Superior 
roughly  estimated  as  extending  from  1840  region,  until  the  amount  of  capital  in- 
to 1880,  the  American  flag  practically  dis-  vested  in  mining  and  transportation  is 
appeared  from  the  high  seas,  while  Eng-  estimated  at  $234,000,000.  The  rapid 
land,  who  had  held  for  over  200  years  the  growth  of  this  industry  justifies  the  pre- 
first  place  as  a  ship-building  and  ship-own-  diction  that  with  access  to  the  ocean  by 
ing  power,  still  maintained  her  position,  a  practicable  deep  water-way  we  can  not 
Finding  her  home  supply  of  ship  timber  only  balance  our  domestic  iron  and  steel 
exhausted,  she  began  to  import  it,  and  as  trade,  but  also  compete  in  the  foreign  mar- 
this  was  necessarily  incompatible  with  the    ket. 

maintenance  of  her  supremacy,  the  next  plants  on  the  seaboard 
step  was  to  take  advantage  of  her  increas- 
ing production  of  metals.  The  evolution 
of  the  iron  ship  and  its  successor,  the 
steel  ship,  was  the  result.  The  period 
since  1863  has  witnessed  the  production 
of  the  English  steam  fleet,  until  now  Brit- 
ish steamers  carry  the  freight  and  passen- 
gers of  the  greater  part  of  the  world.  The 

British  ship-yards,  too,  can  now  undertake  creasing  the  field  for  capital  and  industry, 
the  construction  of  at  least  twenty  battle-  while  at  the  same  time  the  iron  and  steel 
ships   and   more   than  twice   this  number    of  the  establishments  on  the  Great  Lakes 

At  present  many  iron  and  steel 
mport  foreign 
iron  ores,  as  the  low  value  of  iron  ore 
in  proportion  to  its  weight  shuts  out 
transportation  by  rail  from  the  West. 
But  with  a  deep-water  canal  reaching  from 
the  Great  Lakes  to  the  ocean,  the  ores 
required  by  the  manufacturers  on  the 
Atlantic  seaboard  could  be  supplied  more 
cheaply   than   the   foreign   ores,   thus   in- 

of  cruisers  at  the  same  time,  a  potential 
strength  that  adds  immensely  to  the 
maintenance  of  her  present  sea  power. 

But  England  will  in  time  be  confronted 
with  a  new  difficulty.  The  ores  in  that 
country  are  not  suitable  for  steel  making, 
and  for  some  years  past  large  quantities 
of    ore    have    been    imported    from    mines 

could  be  shipped  through  by  water  with- 
out breaking  bulk  and  seek  the  markets 
of  the  world. 

This  brings  us  to  the  subject  of  deep- 
water  canals.  For  several  years,  while 
the  national  government  has  been  busy 
with  the  projected  Nicaraguan  canal,  the 
people  of  the  West,  through  private  en- 

the  northern  part  of  Spain.  These  deavor  and  public  discussion,  have  been 
mines  are  being  rapidly  exhausted.  Four-  agitating  the  question  of  deep  water-ways, 
fifths  of  the  output  goes  to  England,  and  from  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  seaboard, 
it  has  been  estimated  that  at  the  present  The  International  Deep  Water-ways  Con- 
rate  ten  years  will  exhaust  the  mines  of  vention  met  at  Cleveland,  O.,  Sept.  24, 
the   Biscay  region.     Of   course   there   are  1S95,  and  among  the  delegates  were  many 



business  men,  noted  capitalists,  and  civil 
engineers  from  the  Lake  States,  and  also 
from  the  Dominion  of  Canada.  Through 
the  efforts  of  this  association  the  matter 
was  brought  before  Congress  by  Senator 
William  Vilas,  of  Wisconsin,  who,  on 
Feb.  8,  1895,  introduced  a  joint  resolution 
authorizing  a  preliminary*  inquiry  con- 
cerning deep  water-ways  between  the  ocean 
and  the  Great  Lakes.  This  resolution 
was  incorporated  in  the  sundry  civil  ap- 
propriation bill,  and  became  a  law  on 
March  2,  1895.  On  Nov.  4  the  President, 
in  conformity  with  its  provisions,  appoint- 
ed three  commissioners,  James  B.  Angell, 
of  Michigan;  John  E.  Russel,  of  Massa- 
chusetts; and  Lyman  E.  Cooley,  of  Illi- 
nois. Soon  after  this,  the  Dominion  of 
Canada  appointed  a  similar  commission, 
and  a  joint  meeting  was  held  in  January, 
1896.  The  United  States  commission 
spent  a  year  in  thoroughly  investigating 
the  canal  question,  and  submitted  their 
report  to  the  President  Jan.  8,  1897.  In 
this  letter  transmitting  the  report  to  Con- 
gress, President  Cleveland  says: 

"  The  advantages  of  a  direct  and  un- 
broken water  transportation  of  the  prod- 
ucts of  our  Western  States  and  Territories 
from  a  convenient  point  of  shipment  to 
our  seaboard  ports  are  plainly  palpable. 
The  report  of  the  commissioners  contains, 
in  my  opinion,  a  demonstration  of  the 
feasibility  of  securing  such  transportation, 
and  gives  ground  for  the  anticipation  that 
better  and  more  uninterrupted  commerce, 
through  the  plan  suggested,  between  the 
Great  West  and  foreign  ports,  with  the 
increase  of  national  prosperity  which 
must  follow  in  its  train,  will  not  long 
escape  American  enterprise  and  activity."' 

Meanwhile  American  "  enterprise  and 
activity"  have  been  giving  the  world  an 
object-lesson  in  canal  building.  The  Chi- 
cago drainage  canal,  designed  primarily 
to  furnish  an  adequate  system  of  drainage 
for  the  city  of  Chicago,  but  containing  all 
the  features  of  a  ship  canal,  is  a  munici- 
pal undertaking  that  is  particularly  valu- 
able in  Bhowing  the  immense  improvement 
in  excavating  machines  and  the  resultant 
low  cost  of  canal  building.  The  main 
drainage  channel  extends  from  the  west 
fork  of  the  south  branch  of  the  Chicago 
River  southwest  to  Lockport,  a  distance 
of  about  29  miles.     The  width  at  the  top 


is  from  162  feet  to  300  feet,  and  at  the 
bottom  from  160  feet  to  200  feet.  The 
depth  of  water  varies  from  23  feet  to  26 
feet.  According  to  present  estimates,  it 
will  cost  $27,303,216.  A  statement  has 
been  made  that  the  work  of  excavation 
will  be  carried  out  for  less  than  half  the 
cost  of  similar  work  on  the  Manchester 
ship  canal,  the  dimensions  of  which  are, 
length,  30y3  miles;  width  at  top,  172  feet; 
width  at  bottom,  120  feet;  depth,  26  feet. 

President  Cleveland's  prediction,  there- 
fore, that  the  feasibility  of  deep-water 
transportation  from  the  Great  Lakes  to 
the  ocean  will  not  long  escape  American 
enterprise,  bids  fair  to  be  realized.  If  the 
city  of  Chicago  can  demonstrate  practi- 
cally that  deep-water  canal  building  has 
been  brought  within  the  bounds  of  reason- 
able cost,  the  general  government  must, 
in  response  to  urgent  appeals  from  a  large 
section  of  the  country  interested,  soon 
pass  beyond  the  stage  of  preliminary  in- 
vestigation to  that  of  definite  action. 
Thus  far  the  question  of  cost  has  not  been 
thoroughly  dealt  with,  but  valuable  data 
have  been  collected.  Among  the  more  im- 
portant conclusions  reached  by  the  United 
States  Deep  Water-ways  Commission  are 
the  following: 

1.  That  it  is  entirely  feasible  to  con- 
struct such  canals  and  develop  such  chan- 
nels as  will  give  28  feet  of  water  from  the 
Great  Lakes  to  the  seaboard. 

2.  That,  starting  from  the  heads  of 
Lakes  Michigan  and  Superior,  the  most 
eligible  route  is  through  the  several  Great 
Lakes  and  their  intermediate  channels 
and    the    proposed    Niagara     ship    canal 

(Tonawanda  to  Olcott)  to  Lake  Ontario. 
From  Lake  Ontario  the  Canadian  seaboard 
can  be  reached  by  the  way  of  the  St.  Law- 
rence River,  while  the  American  seaboard 
can  be  reached  by  way  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
River,  Lake  Champlain  and  the  Hudson 
Biver.  or  by  way  of  the  Oswego-Oncida- 
Mohawk  Valley  route  and  the  Hudson 

3.  That  while  our  policy  of  canal  build- 
ing should  contemplate  the  ultimate  de- 
velopment  of  the  largest  useful  capacity, 
and  all  work  should  be  planned  on  that 
basis,  at  the  same  time  it  is  practicable 
to  develop  the  work  in  separate  sections, 
each  step  having  its  economic  justifica- 
tion.    The     Niagara     ship     canal     should 



first  be  undertaken,  and   incidentally  the  placement,  and  has  a  main  battery  of  four 

broadening    and    deepening    of    the    inter-  G-pounder  guns.     In  the  building  up  of  the 

mediate  channels  of  the  lakes.  new   navy,    some   of   the   ship-builders   on 

Such  then  is  a  brief  resume  of  this  im-  the  Great  Lakes,  whose  energy  and  enter- 
portant  industrial  movement  and  its  col-  prise  had  gone  so  far  as  to  build  whale 
lateral  engineering  undertakings.  From  backs  that  were  towed  through  the  canals 
a  military  point  of  view,  a  series  of  canals  in  sections  and  put  together  at  Montreal, 
entirely  within  the  limits  of  the  United  began  to  inquire  whether  these  methods 
States  could  be  more  readily  defended,  would  not  be  extended  to  war  vessels.  In 
But  the  advantages  of  following,  as  far  1890  F.  W.  Wheeler  &  Co.,  of  West 
as  possible,  the  natural  waterways  will  at  Bay  City,  Mich.,  were  the  lowest  bid- 
first  probably  outweigh  the  question  of  ders  for  the  construction  of  an  armored 
defence.  If  the  lake  coast  -  line  of  over  cruiser,  one  protected  cruiser,  and  a  prac- 
3,000  miles  is  brought  into  deep-water  tice  ship.  In  1895,  the  Detroit  Dry-Dock 
connection  with  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  its  Company  proposed  the  construction  of 
permanent  defence  will  be  a  question  for  parts  of  vessels  of  war.  Both  of  these 
the  army.  On  the  other  hand,  if  perma-  bids  were  rejected  by  the  Navy  Depart- 
nent  arbitration  is  to  be  depended  upon  ment  as  being  in  violation  of  the  Rush- 
as  a  warrant  for  following  natural  com-  Bagot  agreement.  The  clause  of  the 
mercial  routes  without  any  thought  of  agreement  which  was  adjudged  to  pro- 
ultimate  defence,  the  international  char-  hibit  such  construction  is  as  follows.- 
acter  of  parts  of  the  work  and  the  riparian  "All  other  armored  vessels  (besides 
interests  involved  will  make  the  readjust-  those  authorized  to  be  retained)  on  these 
ment  of  the  existing  treaty  relations  a  lakes  shall  be  forthwith  dismantled,  and 
question  for  our  statesmen.  no    other   vessels    of   xoar    shall    he    there 

Coming  now  to  the  direct  interests  of  built  or  armed."  On  account  of  this  de- 
the  navy  in  this  politico-economic  ques-  cision,  the  activity  in  shipbuilding  for 
tion,  it  will  be  found  that  under  existing  government  purposes  has  been  confined, 
conditions  there  is  little  hope  of  any  on  the  Great  Lakes,  to  revenue  cutters 
immediate  addition  from  this  new  source  and  light  ships.  The  Mississippi  Valley, 
to  our  war-vessel  The  Rush-  unhampered  by  these  restrictions,  has 
Bagot  convention  of  1817,  entered  into  built  one  torpedo-boat,  the  Ericsson. 
by  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  Although  vessels  of  war  cannot  be  built 
provides  that  the  naval  forces  to  be  main-  on  the  Great  Lakes,  the  building  there  of 
tained  on  the  Great  Lakes  shall  be  con-  merchant  vessels  that  by  means  of  the 
fined  on  each  side  to  one  vessel  on  Lake  projected  canals  will  be  able  to  reach  the 
Ontario,  one  vessel  on  Lake  Champlain,  seaboard  will  have  an  indirect  bearing 
and  two  vessels  on  the  Upper  Lakes.  These  on  the  future  of  the  navy.  Captain  Ma- 
vessels  are  limited  to  100  tons  burden  and  han  and  other  writers  have  pointed  out 
an  armament  of  one  18-pounder  cannon  that  we  have  practically  reversed  the 
each.  This  treaty  has  not  taken  the  shape  natural  order  of  things  in  building  ves- 
of  a  formal  international  treaty,  but  has  sels  of  war  before  building  up  the  mer- 
been  practically  accepted  as  binding  by  chant  marine.  For  more  than  twenty 
both  countries  for  a  period  of  three-  years  the  government  has  been  a  steady 
quarters  of  a  century.  Its  stipulations  customer  of  the  ship-builders  on  the  At- 
bave  twice  during  its  history  been  not-  lantic  and  Pacific  coasts.  As  a  result 
ably  disregarded,  once  by  each  country,  ship-building  plants  have  been  improved, 
but  only  on  occasions  of  serious  public  workmen  have  been  trained,  and  contrib- 
emergency.  In  view  of  the  great  prog-  utory  industries  have  been  developed.  But 
ress  made  in  ship-building  and  marine  it  is  claimed  by  these  builders  that  the 
engineering,  it  is  not  strange  that  there  patronage  of  the  government  is  a  tempo- 
has  been  an  evasion  of  the  spirit  of  these  rary  help  only  and  that  the  demands  of 
antique  stipulations,  if  not  a  direct  viola-  our  coastwise  trade  are  insufficient  to 
tion  of  the  letter  of  the  law.  The  United  promote  ship-building  on  a  large  scale. 
States  steamer  Michigan,  now  in  service  The  main  demand  for  ships  must  be  cre- 
on  the  Upper  Lakes,   is  of  685  tons  dis-  ated  bv  an  extensive  foreign  trade  carried 



on    in    American    bottoms.      It    has    been  officers   that   we   really   possess   a   strong 

demonstrated   that   the   economic   changes  naval  reserve  in  our  seafaring  population, 

which  will   be  brought  about   by  a   deep-  Careful  investigation  will  prove  that  this 

water  route  from  the  Great  Lakes  to  the  is   not   a   fact.     In   the   merchant   marine 

seaboard  will  enable  us  to  compete  with  and  deep-sea  fisheries  from  50  per  cent,  to 

England     in     the     ocean-carrying     trade.  70   per   cent,   of   the  men  are   foreigners, 

Since  the  Civil  War,  all  our  energies  have  and  the  number  of  men  available,  even  if 

been  directed  towards  purely  domestic  de-  they  all   enlisted,   which   of   course  would 

velopment,  and  capital  has  sought  invest-  be  impossible,  would  not  serve  to  put  the 

ments  in  the  extension  of  railways,   the  navy  on  a  war  footing.     The  Naval  War 

settlement   of  new  territory,   and   the   in-  College   has   been   investigating   the   vari- 

dustrial  regeneration  of  the  South.     The  ous  phases  that  war  on  our  coast  might 

events   of  more   recent  years  force  us   to  assume,  and  has  found  that  we  shall  need 

look  beyond  the  limits  of  our  own  shores,  a  great  number  of  officers,  in  addition  to 

and  our  diplomacy  has  made  the  Monroe 
Doctrine  something  more  than  a  rhetorical 
declaration.  If  we  boldly  aspire  to  com- 
mercial   and    political    supremacy    in    the 

those  of  the  regular  navy.  Where  are 
these  additional  officers  to  come  from? 
The  sources  from  which  they  were  ob- 
tained  in    1861   no  longer   exist,   for   our 

western  hemisphere,  and  to  the  creation  deep-sea  merchant  shipping  has  practical- 
of  a  foreign  carrying  trade,  we  must  ad-  ly  disappeared.  Captain  Taylor,  of  the 
mit  the  absolute  necessity  for  a  steadily    War  College,  has  given  the  following  brief 

summary  of  the  present  condition  of  af- 

"...  The     same     conditions     do     not 
exist   now    as    did    during    the    Rebellion. 

increasing  navy. 

The  canal-builders  and  the  ship-build- 
ers of  the  Great  Lakes  have  shown  that, 
if  they  are  accorded  the  proper  encourage- 
ment by  the  national  government,  the  That  war,  especially  on  the  part  of  the 
country  may  rest  satisfied  with  its  re- 
sources   for    establishing    a    foreign    com- 

n&vy,  was  offensive  and  attacked  an 
enemy  upon  its  own  coast,  and  required 
merce  carried  in  domestic  bottoms  and  a  large  number  of  deep-sea  ships  and  deep- 
to  provide  naval  war  material  to  protect  sea  officers. 

it.  Behind  these  industrial  leaders  stand,  "  The  wars  for  which  we  must  plan,  at 
as  has  been  said  before,  more  than  one-  least  for  the  next  few  years,  are  de- 
third  of  the  entire  population  of  the  fensive  for  our  part,  and  to  be  waged 
United  States.  Nothing  can  be  more  against  enemies  probably  superior  to  us 
gratifying  to  the  navy  than  the  growth  on  the  sea.  This  throws  upon  us  as  a 
of  a  sentiment  favorable  to  it  in  a  region  principal  role  the  defence  of  our  coast  and 
that  a  few  years  ago  was  most  apathetic,  the  supplementing  of  our  small  sea-going 
To-day  the  citizens  of  the  Middle  West  navy  by  a  formidable  flotilla  of  small 
show  a  lively  interest  in  naval  affairs,  craft,  which  when  thoroughly  organized 
and  are  taking  a  prominent  part  in  naval  and  drilled,  shall  dominate  our  channels, 
militia  work.  Chicago,  Saginaw,  De-  sounds,  and  bays,  and  make  their  eomfort- 
troit,  Toledo,  Cleveland,  and  Rochester  able  or  permanent  occupation  by  hostile 
have  large,  flourishing  naval  militia  organ-  fleets  an  impossibility." 
izations.  The  Detroit  organization  re-  Our  small  sea-going  navy  is  now  mani- 
cently  took  the  old  Yantic  from  Montreal  festly  undermanned.  As  additions  are 
to  Detroit  without  either  State  or  national  made  to  its  material,  the  deficiency  in 
aid.  In  Rochester  the  boat  reconnois-  personnel  is  partly  made  up  by  stop-gap 
sance  work  on  Lake  Ontario  performed  legislation  —  always  an  unsatisfactory 
by  the  local  organization  has  received  process.  As  a  business  proposition,  there 
well-merited  praise  from  the  War  Col-  has  been  among  our  legislators  a  desire 
lege.  These  are  only  two  instances,  but  to  build  up  an  adequate  navy,  but  as 
they  show  the  existence  of  a  patriotic  a  purely  naval  undertaking  there  has 
spirit  that  ought  to  be  fostered  and  di-  always  been  opposition  to  providing  the 
rooted  to  the  proper  ends.  Here  is  a  new  necessary  personnel.  England  is  now 
field  for  recruiting  the  naval  personnel,  going  through  an  interesting  experience. 
There  is  a  vague  idea  among  many  naval  of  which   we   may  well    take  heed.     For 



several  years  the  naval  policy  of  that  into  closer  relations  with  the  other  mari- 
country  has  tended  towards  maintaining  time  States  kindred  interests  that  have 
in  time  of  peace  a  personnel  that  is  prac-  already  produced  such  excellent  ship- 
tically  on  a  war  footing.  The  objection  builders,  and  such  skilled  seamen, 
to  this  policy  has  been  that  it  involves  an  To  those  who  doubt  the  possibility  of 
immense  expenditure  in  pay,  provisions,  recruiting  inland  men  for  general  service 
and  pensions,  besides  the  maintenance  of  in  the  navy,  and  who  question  the  ulti- 
ships  to  give  the  necessary  instruction  at  mate  efficiency  of  the  men  thus  recruited, 
sea.  The  alternative  has  been  to  develop  it  is  only  necessary  to  point  out  that 
the  efficiency  of  the  naval  reserve.  But  in  a  single  summer  the  bureau  of  navi- 
here  the  supporters  of  such  a  plan  have  gation  established  recruiting  stations  on 
met  with  the  same  difficulties  that  beset  the  Great  Lakes,  during  the  busiest  part 
us — i.  e.,  the  merchant  marine,  which  of  the  navigation  season,  and  from  more 
ought  to  be  the  source  of  supply  of  the  than  500  applications  enlisted  300  men, 
naval  reserve,  is  becoming  honeycombed  seamen  and  mechanics.  These  men,  ac- 
with  foreigners.  Reliable  calculations  cording  to  the  reports  from  the  officers  of 
show  that  the  number  of  foreigners  in  ships  to  which  they  were  assigned,  were 
British  ships  increased  22  3-10  per  cent,  in  all  of  very  high  standard, 
eight  years.  Poor  wages  and  the  natural  They  were  self-respecting  Americans, 
discomforts  of  sea  life  caused  men  of  This  in  itself  is  a  great  gain.  After  re- 
British  birth  to  seek  employment  as  cruiting  the  general  service  to  three-quar- 
skilled  workers  ashore.  ters  of  its  full  war  strength,  which  can  be 

But  the  United  States  has  one  advan-  done  as  occasion  demands,  by  the  enlist- 
tage  over  England.  The  latter,  in  inspect-  ment  of  seamen  and  mechanics,  and  by 
ing  the  source  of  supply  for  the  naval  re-  fostering  the  apprentice  system,  a  naval 
serve,  has  turned  to  her  widely  scattered  reserve  will  have  to  be  depended  upon  to 
colonies,  and  reasonably  expects  that  in  supply  the  remaining  fourth,  and  to  make 
time  of  war  they  will  contribute  their  up  the  wastage  of  war.  This  is  the  Eng- 
share  of  men.  The  peculiar  system  of  lish  estimate,  and  it  is  apparently  sound, 
federal  government  of  the  United  States  Until  the  national  government  takes  up 
permits  it  to  rely,  in  a  measure,  upon  the  naval  reserve  question  the  business 
thfe  States  to  organize  and  maintain  and  professional  men  who,  combining  a 
volunteers  for  national  defence,  although  patriotic  spirit  with  aquatic  tastes,  enlist 
until  recently  the  system  was  applied  al-  in  the  naval  militia,  will  be  very  valuable 
most  exclusively  to  recruiting  the  land  aids  in  examining  into  and  keeping  in- 
forces.  In  1888  an  unsuccessful  attempt  formed  concerning  the  seafaring  personnel 
was  made  in  Congress  to  create  a  naval  of  their  States.  The  energy  and  execu- 
reserve  of  officers  and  men  from  the  tive  ability  of  the  men  that  have  taken 
merchant  marine.  Several  States  border-  hold  of  this  movement  in  the  West  (many 
ing  upon  the  sea-coast  then  made  the  mat-  of  them  graduates  of  the  Naval  Acad- 
ter  a  local  issue,  and  what  were  called  emy)  can  be  depended  upon  in  case  of 
"  naval  battalions  to  be  attached  to  the  sudden  need  to  enroll  a  very  desirable  set 
volunteer  militia"  was  the  result.  With  of  men,  and  thus  relieve  the  regular  navy 
the  Great  Lakes  brought  into  deep-water  of  preliminary  work  which  its  scarcity  of 
communication  with  the  Mississippi  and  regular  officers  would  otherwise  make  a 
the  Atlantic  seaboard,  a  cordon  of  coast-  very  difficult  undertaking, 
line  States  will  be  formed  whose  similar-  One  word  more  about  our  seafaring 
ity  of  interests  will  greatly  increase  the  population.  Recent  investigation  by  the 
source  from  which  the  country  can  draw  War  College  has  developed  the  fact  that 
for  that  second  line  of  defence  required  during  the  Civil  War  a  large  number  of 
in  time  of  war  to  "  dominate  our  chan-  men — fishermen  and  local  watermen — 
nels,  sounds,  and  bays."  Barred  by  the  along  the  North  Atlantic  coast  did  not  en- 
Rocky  Mountains,  the  Pacific  coast  stands  list  for  service  in  the  regular  navy.  The 
apart  from  any  immediate  benefits  from  long  term  of  enlistment  required,  coupled 
interior  waterway  improvements,  but  the  with  the  fact  that  the  sea  had  no  novelty 
building  of  an  isthmian  canal  will  bring    for  them,  may  have  blunted  their  patriot- 



ism.     An  inquiry  among  their  successors  their  quota  of  men  that  have  the  handi 

confirms    the    opinion    that    they    would  ness  of  the  seaman,  the  skill  of  the  gun 

much   prefer   to   be   utilized   for   local   de-  ner,    and    the    ingenuity    of    the    artisan. 

fence.     Torpedo-boat     flotillas,     mosquito  The  scene  changes  to  the  high   seas,  but 

fleets,  coast  signal  stations,  and  submarine  in  the  ranks  of  the  militia  coast-defenders 

mining    squads    would    therefore    be    able  will   b<>   found  the  same  spirit  that  ani- 

to  obtain  among  this  class  very  valuable  mated   the   volunteers  at  Put-in-Bay  and 

recruits,  while  the  cruising  navy,  especial-  Saekett's  Harbor. 

ly  with  its  term  of  enlistment  extended,  Great  Seal  of  the  Confederacy,  The, 
as  has  frequently  been  recommended,  from  was  made  in  England,  and  completed 
three  to  four  years,  would  not  succeed  in  July,  1SG4,  at  a  cost  of  $000.  It  reach- 
attracting  them.  ed  Richmond  in  April,  186.5,  but  was  never 
The  foregoing  propositions  and  the  con-  used.  It  is  now  in  the  office  of  the  State 
elusions  to  be  drawn  from  them  may  be  secretary  of  South  Carolina, 
briefly  summarized  as  follows :  Great  Seal  of  the  United  States.     See 

1.  The  Great  Lakes  region  has  de-  Seal  of  the  United  States  of  America. 
veloped  the  iron  and  steel  industry  to  a  Great  Water.  See  Mississippi  River. 
degree  that  enables  it  to  surpass  all  the  Greek  Eire,  a  combustible  composition 
rest  of  the  United  States  in  the  important  (unknown,  thought  to  have  been  princi- 
industry  of  ship-building.  pally  naphtha)   invented  by  Callinicus,  an 

2.  The  improvements  in  canal  building  engineer  of  Heliopolis,  in  Syria,  in  the 
make  it  only  a  question  of  time  when  this  seventh  century,  and  used  by  the  Greek 
region  will  have  a  deep-water  outlet  to  emperors.  A  so-called  Greek  fire,  prob- 
the  sea.  ably    a    solution    of    phosphorus     in     bi- 

3.  The  result  of  this  deep  water-way  sulphide  of  carbon,  was  employed  at  the 
will  be  the  rehabilitation  of  our  mer-  siege  of  Charleston,  S.  C,  in  1803.  The 
chant  marine  and  the  creation  of  an  ex-  use  of  all  such  substances  in  war  is 
tensive  foreign  trade  carried  in  American  now  prohibited,  under  a  decision  of  the 
bottoms.  International    Peace    Conference    at    The 

4.  The     expansion     of     our     merchant  Hague  in  1889. 

marine  will  be  followed  necessarily  by  the  Greeley,    Horace,    journalist;    born   in 

expansion  of  the  navy.  Amherst,   N.   H.,   Feb.    3,    1811.     Fond   of 

5.  The  Great  Lakes  region  is  debarred  reading  almost  from  babyhood,  he  felt  a 
by  existing  treaty  relations  from  contrib-  strong  desire  as  he  grew  to  youth  to  be- 
uting  material  for  naval  warfare,  but,  come  a  printer,  and  in  1S2G  was  appren- 
containing  as  it  does  more  than  one-third  Heed  to  the  art  in  Poultney.  Yt..  where 
of  our  entire  population,  the  navy  should,  he  became  an  expert  workman.  His  pa- 
as  a  peace  precaution,  give  immediate  en-  rents  had  moved  to  Erie,  Pa.,  and  during 
couragement  to  the  naval-militia  move-  his  minority  he  visited  them  twice,  walk- 
ment  in  that  part  of  the  United  States,  ing  nearly  the  whole  way.  In  August, 
thus  developing  a  source  of  supply  for  the  1831,  he  was  in  New  York  in  search  of 
large  increase  in  our  personnel  that  war  work,  with  $10  in  his  pocket.  He  worked 
will  render  necessary.     See  Ship-building,  as  a  journeyman  until  1S33,  when  he  began 

The  names  of  Perry  and  Chauncey  re-  business  on  his  own  account,  with  a  part- 
mind  us  that  Lake  Erie  and  Lake  Ontario  ner,  printing  the  Morning  Post,  the  first 
were  once  the  scene  of  important  naval  penny  daily  paper  (owned  by  Dr.  H.  D. 
battles.  In  the  hurried  preparations  of  Shepard)  ever  published.  His  partner 
those  days,  when  officers  and  men  were  (Storey)  was  drowned  in  July,  and  Jonas 
brought  from  the  seaboard  over  rough  Winchester  took  his  place.  The  new  firm 
trails  to  improvise  and  man  flotillas  on  issued  the  New  Yorker,  devoted  mainly  to 
the  lakes,  the  frontiersman  stood  ready  current  literature,  in  1S34.  of  which  ^Ir. 
with  his  ride  to  aid  the  sailor.  To-day,  Greeley  was  editor.  The  paper  reached  a 
When  the  bri^  has  tjiven  place  to  the  circulation  of  0.000,  and  continued  seven 
battle-ship,  and  the  32-pounder  to  the  13-  years.  In  1840  he  edited  and  published 
inch  gun,  the  descendants  of  these  fron-  the  Log  Cahin,  a  campaign  paper  that  ob- 
tiersmen  may  be  depended  upon  to  furnish  tained  a  circulation  of  80,000  copies;  and 



on  April  10,  1841,  he  issued  the  first  num-  War,  in  2  volumes,  The  American  Conflict. 

ber  of  the  Daily   Tribune,   a   small   sheet  Mr.   Greeley   died   in   a   full   belief   in   the 

that  sold  for  one  cent.     In  the  fall  of  that  doctrine  of  universal  salvation,  which  he 

year  the  Weekly  Tribune  was  issued.     Mr.  had  held  for  many  years. 

Greeley  formed  a  partnership  with  Thomas 
McElrath,  who  took  charge  of  the  busi- 
ness department,  and  from  that  time  until 

In  the  summer  of  1864  a  number  of 
leading  conspirators  against  the  life  of 
the   republic   were   at   the   Clifton   House, 

his  death  he  was  identified  with  the  New    at  Niagara  Falls,  in  Canada,  where  they 

plotted  schemes  for  exciting  hostile  feel- 
ings between  the  United  States  and  Great 
Britain;  for  burning  Northern  cities; 
rescuing  the  Confederate  prisoners  on  and 
near  the  borders  of  Canada;  spreading 
contagious  diseases  in  the  national  mili- 
tary camps;  and,  ultimately,  much 
greater  mischief.  These  agents  were  vis- 
ited by  members  of  the  Peace  Party 
(q.  v.).  At  the  suggestion,  it  is  said, 
of  a  conspicuous  leader  of  that  faction, 
a  scheme  was  set  on  foot  to  make  the 
loyal  people,  who  yearned  for  an  honor- 
able peace,  dissatisfied  with  the  adminis- 
tration. The  Confederates  at  the  Clifton 
House  employed  a  Northern  politician  to 
address  a  letter  to  Mr.  Greeley,  informing 
him  that  a  delegation  of  Confederates 
were  authorized  to  go  to  Washington  in 
the  interest  of  peace  if  full  protection 
could  be  guaranteed  them.  The  kindly 
heart    of    Mr.    Greeley    sympathized    with 

necessary  here  to  speak,  for  it  is  generally    this  movement,  for  he  did  not  suspect  a 

trick.  He  drew  up  a  "  Plan  of  Adjust- 
ment," which  he  sent,  with  the  letter  of 


York    Tribune.     Of    Mr.    Greeley's    career 
in   connection  with   that   paper   it   is   not 

known.     His   course   on   political   and   so- 
cial questions  was  erratic.     He  believed  it 

better,  before  the  Civil  War  broke  out,  to  the    Confederates,    to    President    Lincoln, 

let   the   States   secede   if   the   majority  of  and  urged  the  latter  to  respond  to  it.    The 

the  people  said  so.     When  Jefferson  Davis  more    sagacious    President   had    no    confi- 

was  to  be  released  on  bail  he  volunteered  dence    in    the    professions    of    these    con- 

his   signature   to   his   bail-bond;    and   yet  spirators;     yet,   unwilling   to   seem   heed- 

during  the  whole  war  he  was  thoroughly  less  of  any  proposition  for  peace,  he  de- 

loyal.     In    1869    he   was    defeated   as    the  puted  Mr.   Greeley  to  bring   to   him   any 

Republican    candidate    for    comptroller    of  person  or  persons  "  professing  to  have  any 

the  State  of  New  York;   and  in   1872  he  proposition  of  Jefferson  Davis,  in  writing, 

accepted  a  nomination  for  President  of  the  for    peace,    embracing    the   restoration    of 

United   States   from   the   Liberal   Repub-  the  Union  and  abandonment  of  slavery," 

lican  Party   (q.  v.),  and  the  nomination  with  an  assurance  of  safe  conduct  for  him 

was   endorsed  by  the  Democratic  conven-  or    them    each    way.     Considerable    corre- 

tion   (see  Wilson,  Henry).     It  is  evident  spondence   ensued.     Mr.    Greeley   went   to 

now  that  for  a  year  or  more  Mr.  Greeley  Niagara     Falls.     Then     the     Confederates 

was   overworked;    and   when   the    election  pretended  there  was  a  misunderstanding, 

that  year  was  over,  and  he  was  defeated,  The    matter    became    vexatious,    and    the 

his  brain,  doubly  taxed  by  anxiety  at  the  President    sent    positive    instructions    to 

bedside   of   a   dying  wife,   was   prostrated  Greeley  prescribing  explicitly  what  propo- 

with    disease.     He    died    in    Pleasantville,  sitions   he   would   receive — namely,   for   a 

N.  Y.,  Nov.  29,  1872.     Mr.  Greeley  was  the  restoration  of  peace,  the  integrity  of  the 

author  of  several  books,  his  most  consid-  whole    Union,    and    the    abandonment    of 

erable  work  being  a  history  of  the  Civil  slavery,   and   which   might   come   by   and 

IV.— L  161 


with  the  authority  that  could  control  the 
armies  then  at  war  with  the  United 
States.  This  declaration  was  the  grand 
object  of  the  Confederates  at  Niagara,  and 
they  used  it  to  "  fire  the  Southern  heart  " 
and  to  sow  the  seeds  of  discontent  among 
the  loyal  people  of  the  land. 

Accepting  Presidential  Nominations. — 
The  Liberal  Republican  Convention,  held 
in  Cincinnati,  gave  him  the  nomination 
for  the  Presidency  on  May  1,  1872,  and  on 
the  3d  the  committee  on  notifications  in- 
formed him  of  the  convention's  choice. 
On  the  day  following  the  nomination  Mr. 
Greeley  retired  from  all  connection  with 
the  editorial  department  of  the  Tribune, 
and  on  May  20  he  accepted  the  nomination 
in  the  following  letter  to  the  committee: 

New  York,  May  20,  1872. 

Gentlemen, — I  have  chosen  not  to  ac- 
knowledge your  letter  of  the  3d  inst.  until 
I  could  learn  how  the  work  of  your  con- 
vention was  received  in  all  parts  of  our 
great  country,  and  judge  whether  that 
work  was  approved  and  ratified  by  the 
mass  of  our  fellow-citizens.  Their  re- 
sponse has  from  day  to  day  reached  me 
through  telegrams,  letters,  and  the  com- 
ments of  journalists  independent  of  offi- 
cial patronage  and  indifferent  to  the 
smiles  or  frowns  of  power.  The  number 
and  character  of  these  unconstrained,  un- 
purchased, unsolicited  utterances  satisfy 
me  that  the  movement  which  found  ex- 
pression at  Cincinnati  has  received  the 
stamp  of  public  approval,  and  been  hailed 
by  a  majority  of  our  countryman  as  the 
harbinger  of  a  better  day  for  the  repub- 

I  do  not  misinterpret  this  approval  as 
especially  complimentary  to  myself,  nor 
even  to  the  chivalrous  and  justly  esteemed 
gentleman  with  whosr  name  I  thank  your 
convention  for  associating  mine.  T  re- 
ceive and  welcome  it  as  a  spontaneous 
and  deserved  tribute  to  that  admirable 
platform  of  pr'/nciples  wherein  your  con- 
vention so  tp/sely,  so  lucidly,  so  forcibly 
set  forth  the  convictions  which  impelled, 
and  the  purposes  which  guided  its  course; 
a  platfrvm  which,  casting  behind  it  the 
wreck  and  rubbish  of  worn-out  conten- 
tions and  by-gone  feuds,  embodies  in  fit 
md  few  words  the  needs  and  aspirations 
of  to-day.     Though  thousands  stand  ready 

to  condemn  your  every  act,  hardly  a  sylla- 
ble of  criticism  or  cavil  has  been  aimed  at 
your  platform,  of  which  the  substance 
may  be  fairly  epitomized  as  follows: 

1.  All  the  political  rights  and  fran- 
chises which  have  been  acquired  through 
our  late  bloody  convulsion  must  and  shall 
be  guaranteed,  maintained,  enjoyed,  re- 
spected evermore. 

2.  All  the  political  rights  and  fran- 
chises which  have  been  lost  through  that 
convulsion  should  and  must  be  promptly 
restored  and  re-established,  so  that  there 
shall  be  henceforth  no  proscribed  class 
and  no  disfranchised  caste  within  the 
limits  of  our  Union,  whose  long-estranged 
people  shall  unite  and  fraternize  upon  the 
broad  basis  of  universal  amnesty  with  im- 
partial suffrage. 

3.  That,  subject  to  our  solemn  con- 
stitutional obligation  to  maintain  the 
equal  rights  of  all  citizens,  our  policy 
should  aim  at  local  self-government  and 
not  at  centralization;  that  the  civil 
authority  should  be  supreme  over  the 
military;  that  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus 
should  be  jealously  upheld  as  the  safe- 
guard of  personal  freedom;  that  the  in- 
dividual citizen  should  enjoy  the  largest 
liberty  consistent  with  public  order,  and 
that  there  shall  be  no  federal  subversion 
of  the  internal  polity  of  the  several  States 
and  municipalities,  but  that  each  shall  be 
left  free  to  enforce  the  rights  and  pro- 
mote the  well-being  of  its  inhabitants  by 
such  means  as  the  judgment  of  its  own 
people  shall  prescribe. 

4.  There  shall  be  a  real  and  not  mere- 
ly a  simulated  reform  in  the  civil  service 
of  the  republic;  to  which  end  it  is  indis- 
pensable that  the  chief  dispenser  of  its 
vast  official  patronage  shall  be  shielded 
from  the  main  temptation  to  use  his 
power  selfishly,  by  a  rule  inexorably  for- 
bidding and  precluding  his  re-election. 

5.  That  the  raising  of  revenues,  wheth- 
er by  tariff  or  otherwise,  shall  be  recog- 
nized and  treated  as  the  people's  immedi- 
ate business,  to  be  shaped  and  directed  by 
them  through  their  representatives  in  Con- 
gress, whose  action  thereon  the  President 
must  neither  overrule  by  his  veto,  at- 
tempt to  dictate,  nor  presume  to  punish, 
by  bestowing  office  only  on  those  who 
agree  with  him  or  withdrawing  it  from 
those  who  do  not. 



G.  That  the  public  lands  must  be  sa- 
credly reserved  for  occupation  and  acquisi- 
tion by  cultivators,  and  not  recklessly 
squandered  on  the  projectors  of  railroads, 
for  which  our  people  have  no  present  need, 
and  the  premature  construction  of  which 
is  annually  plunging  us  into  deeper  and 
deeper  abysses  of  foreign  indebtedness. 

7.  That  the  achievement  of  these 
grand  purposes  of  universal  beneficence 
is  expected  and  sought  at  the  hands  of 
all  who  approve  them,  irrespective  of  past 

8.  That  the  public  faith  must  at  all 
hazards  be  maintained  and  the  national 
credit  preserved. 

9.  That  the  patriotic  devotedness  and 
inestimable  services  of  our  fellow-citizens, 
who,  as  soldiers  or  sailors,  upheld  the 
flag  and  maintained  the  unity  of  the  re- 
public, shall  ever  be  gratefully  remembered 
and  honorably  requited. 

These  propositions,  so  ably  and  forci- 
bly presented  in  the  platform  by  your 
convention,  have  already  fixed  the  atten- 
tion and  commanded  the  assent  of  a  large 
majority  of  our  countrymen,  who  joyfully 
adopt  them  as  I  do,  as  the  basis  of  a  true, 
beneficent  national  reconstruction — of  a 
new  departure  from  jealousies,  strifes,  and 
hates,  which  have  no  longer  adequate  mo- 
tive or  even  plausible  pretext,  into  an  at- 
mosphere of  peace,  fraternity,  and  mutual 
good-will.  In  vain  do  the  drill-sergeants 
of  decaying  organizations  flourish  men- 
acingly their  truncheons  and  angrily  in- 
sist that  the  files  shall  be  closed  and 
straightened;  in  vain  do  the  whippers-in 
of  parties  once  vital,  because  rooted  in  the 
vital  needs  of  the  hour,  protest  against 
straying  and  bolting,  denounce  men  no- 
wise their  inferiors  as  traitors  and  rene- 
gades, and  threaten  them  with  infamy 
and  ruin.  I  am  confident  that  the  Ameri- 
can people  have  already  made  your  cause 
their  own.  fully  resolved  that  their  brave 
hearts  and  strong  arms  shall  bear  it  on 
to  triumph.  In  this  faith  and  with  the 
distinct  understanding  that,  if  elected,  I 
shall  be  the  President  not  of  a  party  but 
of  the  whole  people,  I  accept  your  nomina- 
tion, in  the  confident  trust  that  the  masses 
of  our  countrymen  North  and  South  are 
eager  to  clasp  hands  across  the  bloody 
chasm  which  has  too  long  divided  them, 
forgetting   that    they   have    been    enemies 

in  the  joyful  consciousness  that  they  are 
and  must  henceforth  remain  brethren. 
Yours   gratefully, 

Horace  Greeley. 
The  National  Democratic  Convention 
met  in  Baltimore  on  July  9,  and  also 
gave  its  nomination  to  Mr.  Greeley.  To 
the  address  of  the  committee  on  notifica- 
tions Mr.  Greeley  responded  as  follows: 

Mr.  Chairman  and  Gentlemen  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Convention, — I  should 
require  time  and  consideration  to  reply 
fitly  to  the  very  important  and,  I  need 
not  say,  gratifying  communication  that 
you  have  presented  to  me.  It  may  be 
that  I  should  present  in  writing  some  re- 
ply to  this.  However,  as  I  addressed  the 
Liberal  convention,  of  Cincinnati,  in  a  let- 
ter somewhat  widely  considered,  it  is, 
perhaps,  unnecessary  that  I  should  make 
any  formal  reply  to  the  communication 
made,  other  than  to  say  I  accept  your 
nomination,  and  accept  gratefully  with  it 
the  spirit  in  which  it  has  been  presented. 
My  position  is  one  which  many  would 
consider  a  proud  one,  which,  at  the  same 
time,  is  embarrassing,  because  it  subjects 
me  to  temporary — I  trust  only  temporary 
— misconstruction  on  the  part  of  some  old 
and  lifelong  friends.  I  feel  assured  that 
time  only  is  necessary  to  vindicate,  not 
only  the  disinterestedness,  but  the  patriot- 
ism, of  the  course  which  I  determined  to 
pursue,  which  I  had  determined  long  be- 
fore I  had  received  so  much  sympathy  and 
support  as  has,  so  unexpectedly  to  me, 
been  bestowed  upon  me.  I  feel  certain 
that  time,  and,  in  the  good  Providence  of 
God,  an  opportunity,  will  be  afforded  me 
to  show  that,  while  you,  in  making  this 
nomination,  are  not  less  Democratic,  but 
rather  more  Democratic,  than  you  would 
have  been  in  taking  an  opposite  course, 
I  am  no  less  thoroughly  and  earnestly 
Republican  than  ever  I  was.  But  these 
matters  require  grave  consideration  be- 
fore I  should  make  anything  that  seems 
a  formal  response.  I  am  not  much  ac- 
customed to  receiving  nominations  for  the 
Presidency,  and  cannot  make  responses  so 
fluently  as  some  other  might  do.  I  can 
only  say  that  I  hope  some,  or  all,  if  you 
can  make  it  convenient,  will  come  to  my 
humble  farm-hon<=<\  not  far  distant  in  the 
country,  where  I  shall  be  glad  to  meet  all 



of  you,  and  where  we  can  converse  more  itself  deliberately,  by  a  vote  nearly  unani* 

freely  and  deliberately  than  we  can  here,  mous,  upon  the  fullest  and  clearest  enun- 

and  where  I  shall  be  glad  to  make  you  ciation   of    principles   which    are   at   once 

welcome — well,     to     the     best     the     farm  incontestably     .Republican     and     emphati- 

affords.     I    hope   that   many   of   you— all  cally    Democratic,    gives    trustworthy    as- 

of  you — will  be  able  to  accept  this  invi-  surance  that  a  new  and  more  auspicious 

tation,  and  I  now  simply  thank  you  and  era  is  dawning  upon  our  long  -  distracted 

say  farewell.    Take  the  train.  country. 

On  July   18,  he  addressed  a  fuller  ex-        Some  of  the  best  years  and  best  efforts 

pression  of  his  views  on  the  political  situ-  of    my    life    were    devoted    to    a    struggle 

tion  to  the  committee  in  the  following  let-  none  the  less  earnest  or  arduous  because 

ter.  respect  for  constitutional  obligations  con- 
strained me  to  act,  for  the  most  part,  on 

Gentlemen,  —  Upon  mature  delibera-  the  defensive,  in  resistance  to  the  diffusion 
tion,  it  seems  fit  that  I  should  give  to  your  rather  than  in  direct  efforts  for  the  ex- 
letter  of  the  10th  inst.  some  further  and  tension  of  human  bondage.  Throughout 
fuller  response  than  the  hasty,  unpremedi-  most  of  those  years  my  vision  was  un- 
tated  words  in  which  I  acknowledged  and  cheered,  my  exertions  were  rarely  ani- 
accepted  your  nomination  at  our  meeting  mated  by  even  so  much  as  a  hope  that  I 
on  the   12th.  should  live  to  see  my  country  peopled  by 

That  your  convention  saw  fit  to  ac-  freemen  alone.  The  affirmance  by  your 
cord  its  highest  honor  to  one  who  had  convention  of  the  Cincinnati  platform  is 
been  prominently  and  pointedly  opposed  a  most  conclusive  proof  that  not  merely 
to  your  party  in  the  earnest  and  some-  is  slavery  abolished,  but  that  its  spirit 
times  angry  controversies  of  the  last  forty  is  extinct ;  that,  despite  the  protests  of 
years  is  essentially  noteworthy.  That  a  respectable  but  isolated  few,  there  re- 
many  of  you  originally  preferred  that  the  mains  among  us  no  party  and  no  formid- 
Liberal  Republicans  should  present  an-  able  interests  which  regret  the  overthrow 
other  candidate  for  President,  and  would  or  desire  the  re-establishment  of  human 
more  readily  have  united  with  us  in  the  bondage,  whether  in  letter  or  in  spirit, 
support  of  Adams  or  Trumbull,  Davis  or  J  am  thereby  justified  in  my  hope  and 
Brown,  is  well  known.  I  owe  my  adoption  trust  that  the  first  century  of  American 
at  Baltimore  wholly  to  the  fact  that  I  independence  will  not  close  before  the 
had  already  been  nominated  at  Cincinnati,  grand  elemental  truths  on  which  its 
and  that  a  concentration  of  forces  upon  rightfulness  was  based  by  Jefferson  and 
any  new  ticket  had  been  proved  impracti-  the  Continental  Congress  of  1776  will  no 
cable.  Gratified  as  I  am  at  your  concur-  longer  be  regarded  as  '  glittering  generali- 
rence  in  the  nominations,  certain  as  I  am  ties,'  but  will  have  become  the  universally 
that  you  would  not  have  thus  concurred  accepted  and  honored  foundations  of  our 
had    you    not    deemed    me    upright    and  political  fabric. 

capable,    I    find    nothing    in    the    circum-        I    demand    the    prompt    application    of 

stance    calculated    to    inflame    vanity    or  those  principles  to  our  existing  conditions. 

nourish  self-conceit.  Having  done  what   I   could   for   the   com- 

But  that  your  convention  saw  fit,  in  plete  emancipation  of  blacks,  T  now  insist 
adopting  the  Cincinnati  ticket,  to  reaffirm  on  the  full  enfranchisement  of  all  my 
the  Cincinnati  platform,  is  to  me  a  white  countrymen.  Let  none  say  that  the 
source  of  profoundest  satisfaction.  That  ban  has  just  been  removed  from  all  but 
body  waB  constrained  to  take  this  im-  a  few  hundred  elderly  gentlemen,  to  whom 
portant  step  by  no  party  necessity,  real  eligibility  to  office  can  be  of  little  Con- 
or supposed.  It  might  have  accepted  the  sequence.  My  view  contemplates  not  the 
candidates  of  the  Liberal  Republicans  hundreds  proscribed,  but  the  millions 
upon  grounds  entirely  its  own,  or  it  who  are  denied  the  right  to  be  ruled  and 
might  have  presented  them  (as  the  first  represented  by  the  men  of  their  unfet- 
Whig  national  convention  did  Harrison  tered  choice.  Proscription  were  absurd 
and  Tyler)  without  adopting  any  plat-  if  these  did  not  wish  to  elect  the  very 
form   whatever.     That   it   chose  to  plant  men  whom  they  were  forbidden  to  choose. 



I  have  a  profound  regard  for  the  peo- 
ple of  that  New  England  wherein  I  was 
born,  in  whose  common  schools  I  was 
taught.  I  rank  no  other  people  above  them 
in  intelligence,  capacity,  and  moral  worth. 
But,  while  they  do  many  things  well,  and 
some  admirably,  there  is  one  thing  which 
I  am  sure  they  cannot  wisely  or  safely 
undertake,  and  that  is  the  selection,  for 
States  remote  from  and  unlike  their  own, 
of  the  persons  by  whom  those  States  shall 
be  represented  in  Congress.  If  they  do 
all  this  to  good  purpose,  then  republican 
institutions  were  unfit,  and  aristocracy 
the  only  true  political  system. 

Yet  what  have  we  recently  witnessed? 
Zebulon  B.  Vance,  the  unquestionable 
choice  of  a  large  majority  of  the  present 
legislature  of  North  Carolina — a  major- 
ity backed  by  a  majority  of  the  people 
who  voted  at  its  election — refused  the 
seat  in  the  federal  Senate  to  which  he  was 
fairly  chosen,  and  the  legislature  thus 
constrained  to  choose  another  in  his  stead 
or  leave  the  State  unrepresented  for 
years.  The  votes  of  New  England  thus 
deprived  North  Carolina  of  the  Senator 
of  her  choice,  and  compelled  her  to  send 
another  in  his  stead — another  who,  in  our 
late  contest,  was,  like  Vance,  a  Confeder- 
ate, and  a  fighting  Confederate,  but  one 
who  had  not  served  in  Congress  before 
the  war  as  Vance  had,  though  the  latter 
remained  faithful  to  the  Union  till  after 
the  close  of  his  term.  I  protest  against 
the  disfranchisement  of  a  State — pre- 
sumptively, of  a  number  of  States — on 
grounds  so  narrow  and  technical  as  this. 
The  fact  that  the  same  Senate  which  re- 
fused Vance  his  seat  proceeded  to  remove 
his  disabilities  after  that  seat  had  been 
filled  by  another  only  serves  to  place  in 
stronger  light  the  indignity  to  North 
Carolina,  and  the  arbitrary,  capricious 
tyranny  which  dictated  it. 

I  thank  you,  gentlemen,  that  my  name 
is  to  be  conspicuously  associated  with 
yours  in  the  determined  effort  to  render 
amnesty  complete  and  universal  in  spirit 
as  well  as  in  letter.  Even  defeat  in  such 
a  cause  would  leave  no  sting,  while  tri- 
umph would  rank  with  those  victories 
which  no  blood  reddens  and  which  in- 
voke no  tears  but  those  of  gratitude  and 


Gentlemen,    your    platform,    which    is 

also  mine,  assures  me  that  Democracy  is 
not  henceforth  to  stand  for  one  thing  and 
Republicanism  for  another,  but  that  those 
terms  are  to  mean  in  politics,  as  they  al- 
ways have  meant  in  the  dictionary,  sub- 
stantially one  and  the  same  thing — 
namely,  equal  rights  regardless  of  creed,  ' 
or  clime,  or  color.  I  hail  this  as  a 
genuine  new  departure  from  out-worn 
feuds  and  meaningless  contentions,  in  the 
direction  of  progress  and  reform.  Whether 
I  shall  be  found  worthy  to  bear  the  stand- 
ard of  the  great  liberal  movement  which 
the  American  people  have  inaugurated  is 
to  be  determined  not  by  words  but  by 
deeds.  With  me  if  I  steadily  advance,  over 
me  if  I  falter,  its  grand  army  moves  on  to 
achieve  for  our  country  her  glorious, 
beneficent  destiny. 

I  remain,  gentlemen,  yours, 

Horace  Greeley. 
Greely,  Adolphus  Washington,  ex- 
plorer; born  in  Newburyport,  Mass., 
March  27,  1S44;  was  liberally  educated; 
and  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War 
joined  the  volunteer  army  and  served 
faithfully  until  the  close  of  the  strife, 
when  he  was  commissioned  a  lieutenant 
in  the  regular  army  and  assigned  to  the 
signal  service.  In  1881  he  commanded  an 
expedition  sent  into  the  arctic  regions 
by  the  government  to  establish  a  series  of 
circumpolar  stations  for  scientific  obser- 
vations, in  accordance  with  a  plan  of  the 
International  Geographical  Congress  held 
at  Hamburg  in  1879.  He  landed  with  his 
party  of  twenty-five  at  Discovery  Harbor, 
in  lat.  81°  44'  N.,  on  Aug.  12,  1881. 
They  made  their  permanent  camp  at  Cape 
Sabine  in  October,  1883,  where  they  suf- 
fered intensely  for  want  of  supplies  which 
had  failed  to  reach  them.  There  all  but 
six  of  the  twenty-five  died  of  starvation. 
The  six,  of  whom  Lieutenant  Greely  was 
one,  were  rescued  by  a  relief  party  under 
Capt.  Winfield  S.  Schley  (q.  v.)  on 
June  22,  1884.  Had  the  rescuers  been 
forty-eight  hours  later,  not  one  of  the 
party  would  have  been  found  alive.  The 
living,  and  the  dead  bodies,  were  brought 
home.  Two  officers  of  the  party,  Lieuten- 
ant Lockwood  and  Sergeant  Brainerd,  had 
penetrated  to  lat.  83°  24'  N.,  and  hoisted 
the  American  flag.  It  was  the  highest 
northerly  point  that  had  then  been  at- 
tained.    On  the  death  of  Gen,  William 



24,  1704,  issued  the 
first  number  of  the 
Boston  News  -  Letter. 
He  died  in  Boston, 
Dec.  28,   1732. 

Green,  Beriaii,  re- 
former; born  in  New 
York  in  1794:  gradu- 
ated at  Middlebury 
College  in  1819;  settled 
in  Ohio  in  1S21,  and 
became  president  of  the 
Oneida  Institute  in 
1824;  was  a  leader  in 
the  organization  of  the 
American  Anti-Slavery 
Society,  and  for  some 
time  its  president.  He 
was  the  author  of 
History  of  the  Quakers. 
He  died  in  Whitestow  n, 
X.  Y..  May  i,  1874. 

Green,  Duff,  jour- 
nalist; born  in  Ken- 
tucky, Aug.  15,  1791. 
In  1829-33  he  conduct- 
ed the  United  States 
Telegram.  It  was  de- 
clared that  he  exerted 
a  large  influence  over 
President  Jackson,  and 
the  opponents  of  the 
President  included 
Green  in  what  they 
termed  the  "  kitchen 
B.  Hazen  (q.  v.),  Greely  was  appointed  cabinet."  Green  published  Facts  and  Bug- 
his  successor.  gestions.     He  died  in   Dalton,  Ga.,  June 

Green,  Andrew  Haswell,  lawyer;  10,  1875. 
born  in  Worcester,  Mass.,  Oct.  6,  1820;  Green,  Samuel,  second  printer  in  the 
studied  law  and  began  practice  in  New  United  States;  born  in  England  in  1615; 
York  City.  He  was  at  different  times  succeeded  Day  (see  Day,  or  Date,  Ste- 
eity  comptroller,  president  of  the  Board  of  phen)  in  1648.  He  printed  the  Cam- 
Education,  comptroller  of  Central  Park,  bridge  Platform  in  1649,  the  entire  Bible 
president  of  the  Park  Commission,  a  and  Psalter,  translated  into  the  Indian 
trustee  of  the  New  York  Public  Library  language  by  John  Eliot  the  Apostle,  in 
and  of  the  Museum  of  Natural  History,  1663,  and  many  other  books.  He  died  in 
originator  of  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Cambridge.  Mass.,  Jan.  1,  1792. 
Art,  etc.  He  was  popularly  known  as  the  Green,  Samuel  Abbott,  physician;  born 
"Father"  of  the  park  system  of  New  in  Groton,  Mass.,  March  16,  1830:  grad- 
York,  and  as  the  "  Father  "  of  the  Greater  uated  at  Harvard  College  in  1851,  and 
New  York.  He  was  murdered  in  New  at  Harvard  Medical  School  in  1854; 
York,  Nov.  13,  1903.  served  in  the  Civil  War  as  assistant  sur- 

Green,  BARTHOLOMEW,  publisher;  born  goon  and  surgeon;  and  received  the  bre- 
in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Oct.  12,  1666;  son  vet  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  1864.  He  is 
vi  Samuel  Crcen:  succeeded  his  father  the  author  of  History  of  Medicine  in  Mas- 
as     printer,     in     Boston,     and     on     April    sachusetts;     Gfroton    During     the    Indian 




Wars;  and  of  several  volumes  in  the  Oro-  cumstance  gave  birth  also  to  the  name  of 
ton  Historical  Series.  Greenbacker,  applied  to  those  who  op- 
Green,  Seth,  pisciculturist;  born  in  posed  the  resumption  of  specie  payments, 
Rochester,  N.  Y.,  March  19,  1817;  was  according  to  the  act  of  Congress  of  Jan. 
educated  in  the  public  schools  of  his  7,  1875,  which  designated  Jan.  1,  1879,  as 
native  city.  He  early  showed  a  passion  the  day  on  which  the  government  and 
for  fishing  and  hunting,  and  in  1837  dis-  national  banks  would  make  such  resump- 
covered  how  to  propagate  fish  artificially,  tion.  The  opponents  of  the  measure  fa- 
in 1838  he  went  to  Canada  and  studied  vored  the  continual  issue  of  a  paper  cur- 
the  habits  of  salmon,  which  he  observed  rency  that  should  be  given  the  quality  of 
ate  their  spawn  as  soon  as  it  was  cast,  a  full  legal  tender.  For  several  years  the 
He  established  methods  to  prevent  this  Greenbackers  formed  a  considerable  body 
and  increased  the  yield  of  fish  to  95  per  of  citizens  and  maintained  a  national 
cent.  In  1864  he  settled  in  Caledonia,  political  organization.  See  Fiat  Money; 
N.  Y.,  where  he  propagated  fish  bv  im-  Currency,  National;  Finances,  United 
pregnating  dry  spawn  by  an  artificial  States;  Greenback  Party;  Specie  Pay- 
method.     In   1S67   the   fish   commissioners  ments. 

of  New  England  invited  him  to  experi-  Greenback  Party,  a  political  organiza- 
ment  in  the  hatching  of  shad.  Going  to  tion  founded  at  a  convention  at  Indian- 
Holyoke,  he  made  improvements  which  in  apolis,  Ind.,  on  Nov.  25,  1874.  At  that 
an  incredibly  short  time  hatched  15,000,-  time  three  propositions  which  have  been 
000,  and  in  1868  40,000,000.  In  the  latter  the  foundation  of  all  greenback  platforms 
year  he  was  made  superintendent  of  the  were  endorsed.  These  read  as  follows:  1. 
New  York  State  fisheries.  In  1871  he  That  the  currency  of  all  national  and 
sent  the  first  shad  ever  transported  State  banks  and  corporations  should  be 
to  California.  As  a  result  of  this  trial  withdrawn;  2.  That  the  only  currency 
more  than  1,000,000  shad  were  sent  to  should  be  a  paper  one,  issued  by  the  gov- 
the  Pacific  coast  in  1885.  During  his  eminent,  "based  on  the  faith  and  re- 
life  he  hatched  by  artificial  methods  the  sources  of  the  nation,"  exchangeable  on 
spawn  of  about  twenty  kinds  of  fish,  demand  for  bonds  bearing  interest  at  3.65 
He  was  the  author  of  Trout  Culture  per  cent. ;  and  3.  That  coin  should  only  be 
and  Fish  Hatching  and  Fish  Catching,  paid  for  interest  on  the  present  national 
He  died  in  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  20,  debt,  and  for  that  portion  of  the  principal 
1888.  for  which  coin  had  been  specifically  prom- 
Green,  Thomas,  military  officer;  born  ised.  For  a  time  the  progress  of  the 
in  Virginia  in  1816;  settled  in  Texas  early  Greenback  party  was  hindered  by  the 
in  life;  served  in  the  war  with  Mexico;  adoption  of  these  three  propositions  in 
and  when  the  Civil  War  began  joined  the  Democratic  State  conventions,  but  in 
the  Confederate  army,  and  took  part  in  1876  the  party  was  again  revived.  A  na- 
the  engagements  of  Valverde,  Bisland,  and  tional  convention  was  held  in  Indian- 
Galveston.  and  the  capture  of  the  United  apolis,  May  17,  1876,  and  Peter  Cooper, 
States  revenue-cutter  Harriet  Lane.  In  of  New  York,  was  nominated  for  Presi- 
1863  he  defeated  the  National  army  dent,  with  Samuel  F.  Cory,  of  Ohio,  for 
in  the  action  of  Bayou  la  Fourche;  Vice-President.  The  election  returns  show- 
was  promoted  major  -  general  in  recogni-  ed  a  popular  vote  of  81,737  for  these  can- 
tion  of  his  gallantry;  and  was  fatally  didates.  On  Feb.  22,  1878,  the  Labor-re- 
wounded  at  Pleasant  Hill,  La.,  by  a  form  and  Greenback  parties  were  united  in 
shot  from  a  United  States  war  -  ship,  a  national  convention  held  in  Toledo,  O., 
April  12,  1864,  and  died  two  days  after-  and  a  few  new  resolutions  in  favor  of  leg- 
wards,  islative  reduction  of  working-men's  hours 
Greenbacks,  the  name  popularly  given  of  labor  and  against  the  contract  system 
to  issues  of  paper  currency  by  the  national  of  using  inmates  of  prisons  were  added 
government  in  the  Civil  War  and  recon-  to  the  Greenback  platform.  This  fusion 
struction  periods,  because  the  lettering  of  the  two  parties  met  with  much  ap- 
and  devices  on  the  back  of  the  notes  probation,  as  was  evidenced  in  the  State 
were   printed   with   green   ink.     This    cir-  and  congressional  elections  of  1878,  when 



more  than  1,000,000  votes  were  polled  and 
fourteen  congressmen  were  elected.  The 
nexL  national  convention  of  the  party  was 
held  in  Chicago,  June  9-10,  1880,  when 
James  B.  Weaver,  of  Iowa,  was  nominated 
for  President,  and  B.  J.  Chambers,  of 
Texas,  for  Vice-President.  The  whoie 
number  of  votes  then  cast  was  307,306.  In 
1884  the  Greenback  party  united  with  an 
Anti-Monopolist  party  in  nominating 
Benjamin  F.  Butler,  of  Massachusetts,  for 
President,  and  in  the  election  he  received 
133.825  votes.  In  succeeding  Presidential 
campaigns  the  Greenback  party  had  no 
candidates  in  the  field,  the  bulk  of  its 
former  adherents  probably  uniting  with 
the  People's  Party  ( q.  v.). 

Greene,  Albert  Gorton,  lawyer;  born 
in  Providence,  P.  I.,  Feb.  10,  1802;  grad- 
uated at  Brown  University  in  1820;  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  1823,  and  began 
practice  in  Providence;  president  of  the 
Rhode  Island  Historical  Society  in  1854- 
68.  He  was  the  author  of  the  poems  The 
Militia  Muster;  Old  Grimes;  Adelheid; 
The  Baron's  Last  Banquet;  and  Canon- 
chet.  He  died  in  Cleveland,  O.,  Jan.  4, 

Greene,  Christopher,  military  officer; 
born  in  Warwick,  R.  I.,  May  12,  1737; 
was  major  in  the  "  army  of  observation  " 
authorized  by  the  legislature  of  Rhode 
Island.  He  accompanied  Arnold  through 
the  wilderness  to  Quebec  in  the  fall  of 
1775,  and  was  made  prisoner  in  the  at- 
tack on  that  city  at  the  close  of  Decem- 
ber. In  October,  1776,  he  was  put  in  com- 
mand of  a  regiment,  and  was  placed  in 
charge  of  Fort  Mercer,  on  the  Delaware, 
which  he  gallantly  defended  the  next  year. 
He  took  part  in  Sullivan's  campaign  in 
Rhode  Island  in  1778,  and  in  the  spring 
of  1781  his  quarters  on  the  Croton  River, 
Westchester  CO.,  N.  Y.,  were  surrounded 
by  a  party  of  loyalists,  and  he  was  slain 
May  13,  1781.  For  his  defence  of  Fort 
Mercer,  Congress  voted  him  a  sword  in 
1786,  and  it  was  presented  to  his  eldest 

Greene,  Francis  Vinton,  military 
officer ;  born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  June  27, 
1850;  son  of  Gen.  George  Sears  Greene; 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Mili- 
tary Academy  in  1870,  and  commissioned 
a  second  lieutenant  of  the  4th  Artillery. 
He  served  at  Fort  Foote,  Md.;  Fort  Mon- 


roe,  Va.1,  and  at  various  posts  in  North 
Carolina  till  June  10,  1872,  when  he  was 
transferred  to  the  engineer  corps,  and 
served  as  assistant  astronomer  on  the 
northern  boundary  of  the  United  States 
till  1876.  He  was  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant, Jan.  13,  1874.  He  was  military, 
attache  to  the  United  States  legation  at 
St.  Petersburg  in  1877-79,  and  during 
the  Russo-Turkish  War  was  with  the 
Russian  army,  being  present  at  the  bat- 
tles of  Shipka  Pass,  Plevna,  the  passage 
of  the  Balkans,  Taskosen,  Sofia,  and  Phil- 
opopolis.  For  bravery  in  several  of  these 
battles  he  received  the  Orders  of  St.  Anne 
and  St.  Vladimir,  and  a  campaign  medal 
from  the  Emperor  of  Russia.  In  1879- 
85  he  was  assistant  to  the  engineer  com- 
missioner of  the  District  of  Columbia. 
In  1883  he  was  promoted  to  captain.  In 
1885  he  became  Professor  of  Practical  Mili- 
tary Engineering  at  West  Point;  and  Dec. 
31,  1886,  resigned  from  the  army.  When 
the  war  with  Spain  broke  out  in  1898  he 
was  commissioned  colonel  of  the  71st  New 
York  Regiment,  but  before  this  regiment 
embarked  for  Cuba  he  was  sent  to  Manila 
with  the  rank  of  brigadier-general  of 
volunteers,  and  had  command  of  the 
United  States  forces  in  the  battle  of  Ma- 
late,  June  30,  1898,  and  in  other  actions 
around  Manila  in  August.  On  Aug.  13, 
1898,  he  was  promoted  to  major-general. 
Returning  from  the  Philippines  in  Oc- 
tober he  was  placed  in  command  of  the  2d 
Division  of  the  7th  Army  Corps,  and  was 
on  duty  at  Jacksonville  (Fla.),  Savannah 
(Ga.),  and  Havana.  He  resigned  his  com- 
mission Feb.  28,  1899;  police  commis- 
sioner of  New  York  in  1903-04.  He  is 
the  author  of  The  Russian  Army  and  Its 
Campaigns  in  Turkey;  Army  Life  in  Rus- 
sia; The  Mississippi  Campaign  of  the  Civil 
War;  Life  of  ~Nathanael  Greene,  Major- 
General  in  the  Army  of  the  Revolution ;  etc. 
Greene,  Ceorge  Sears,  military  officer; 
born  in  Warwick,  R.  I.,  May  *6,  1801; 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1823.  He  re- 
signed in  1836;  became  a  civil  engineer; 
and  was  employed  in  the  construction  of 
the  High  Bridge  and  Croton  reservoir  in 
New  York  City.  In  January,  1862,  he  was 
appointed  colonel  of  the  60th  New  York 
Regiment,  and  commanded  in  Auger's  di- 
vision in  Banks's  corps.  Having  been  ap 
pointed  brigadier-general,  he  took  com- 


mand  of  Auger's  division  on  the  latter's 
promotion,  and  fought  gallantly  under 
Mansfield  at  Antietam.  He  was  in  the 
battles  of  Chancel  lor sville  and  Gettys- 
burg. He  was  wounded  at  Wauhatchie  in 
18G3;  and  was  in  eastern  North  Carolina 
early  in  1865;  was  brevetted  major-gen- 
eral of  volunteers,  March  13,  1865;  and 
was  mustered  out  of  the  service,  April 
30,  1866.  As  the  oldest  graduate  of  West 
Point,  Congress  authorized  his  reappoint- 
ment to  the  regular  army  as  a  first  lieu- 
tenant of  artillery,  Aug.  2,  1894,  and  he 
was  retired  on  the  11th.  He  died  in  Mor- 
ristown,  N.  J.,  Jan.  28,  1899. 

Greene,  George  Washington,  author; 
born  in  East  Greenwich,  R.  I.,  April  8, 
1811;  was  educated  at  Brown  College; 
became  Professor  of  History  at  Cornell 
University  in  1872.  His  publications  in- 
clude Historical  View  of  the  American 
Revolution;  Nathanael  Greene;  An  Ex- 
amination of  the  Ninth  Volume  of  Ban- 
croft's History;  The  German  Element  in 
the  War  of  American  Independence ;  Short 
History  of  Rhode  Island,  etc.  He  died  in 
East  Greenwich,  R.  I.,  Feb.  2,  1883. 

Greene,  Nathanael,  military  officer; 
born  in  Warwick,  R.  I.,  May  27,  1742; 
was  the  son  of  a  member  of  the  Society  of 
Friends  or  Quakers.  His  education  was 
confined  to  the  English  of  the  common 
school,  and  his  youth  was  spent  on  the 
farm,  in  a  mill,  or  in  a  blacksmith's  shop. 
At  the  age  of  twenty  years  he  studied  law 
and  afterwards  military  tactics.  He  was 
fond  of  books  from  his  childhood.  In 
1770  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Rhode  Island  legislature,  wherein  he  held 
a  seat  until  appointed  to  the  command  of 
the  Southern  army  in  1780.  His  military 
proclivities  caused  him  to  be  "  disowned  " 
by  Friends,  and  he  became  a  member  of  a 
military  company.  Three  regiments  of 
militia  were  organized  in  Rhode  Island 
after  the  affair  at  Lexington,  as  an  "  army 
of  observation,"  and  these  Greene,  as  pro- 
vincial brigadier-general,  led  to  Cam- 
bridge, where  he  was  created  a  brigadier- 
general  in  the  Continental  army,  June  22, 

1775.  Washington  saw  and  appreciated 
his    soldierly    qualities,    and    in    August, 

1776,  he  was  made  a  major-general.  He 
commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  army  at 
Trenton;  w?s  active  in  New  Jersey;  by  a 
rapid  movement  saved  the  army  from  de- 

struction at  the  Brandywine;  was  in  the 
battle  of  Germantown,  Oct.  4,  1777,  and 
in  March,  1778,  accepted  the  office  of 
quartermaster-general,  but  with  a  guar- 
antee that  he  should  not  lose  his  right  of 
command  in  action.  This  office  he  resign- 
ed in  August,  1780.  In  the  battle  of 
Springfield,  in  June,  1780,  he  was  con- 
spicuous. During  Washington's  visit  to 
Hartford  (September,  1780)  he  was  in 
command  of  the  army,  and  was  president 
of  the  court  of  inquiry  in  the  case  of 
Major  Andre"  soon  afterwards  (see  Andre, 
John).  Greene  succeeded  Gates  in  com- 
mand of  the  Southern  army,  Oct.  14,  1780, 
which  he  found  a  mere  skeleton,  while  a 
powerful  enemy  was  in  front  of  it.  He 
took  command  of  it  at  Charlotte,  N.  C, 
Dec.  4.  By  skill  and  energy  he  brought 
order  and  strength  out  of  confusion,  and 
soon    taught    Cornwall  is    that    a    better 


general  than  Gates  confronted  him.  He 
made  a  famous  retreat  through  Carolina 
into  Virginia,  and,  turning  back,  fought 
the  British  army  at  Guildford  Court- 
house, N.  C,  March  15,  1781.  Greene 
then  pushed  into  South  Carolina,  and 
was  defeated  by  Lord  Rawdon  in  the 
battle  of  Hobkirk's  Hill,  April  25.  Soon 
afterwards  he  besieged  the  fort  of  Ninety- 
six,  and  on  Sept.  8  gained  a  victory  at 
Eutaw  Springs,  S.  C,  for  which  Congress 
gave  him  thanks,  a  British  standard,  and 
a  gold  medal.  Expelling  the  British  from 
the  Southern  country,  Greene  returned  to 
Rhode   Island   at    the   close   of    the  war. 



Congress   presented  him  with  two  pieces  the  hero  was  settled  early  in  March,  1901, 

of   artillery.     The   State  of   Georgia  gave  when   Col.   Asa   Bird   Gardiner,   acting   in 

him   a   fine  plantation   a   few   miles   from  behalf    of    the    Rhode    Island    Society    of 

Savannah,  where  he  settled  in  the  fall  of  the  Cincinnati,  made  an  exploration  of  the 


1785,  and  died  June  19,  178G.  South  cemeteries  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  and,  in  the 
Carolina  also  gave  him  a  valuable  tract  Jones  vault  of  the  long-abandoned  colo- 
of  land.  A  monument  dedicated  jointly  nial  cemetery,  found  the  plate  that  had 
to  Greene  and  Pulaski  stands  in  the  city  been  on  General  Greene's  coffin  and  three 
of  Savannah,  and  the  State  of  Rhode  metal  buttons,"  with  the  American  eagle  on 
Island  has  erected  an  equestrian  statue  of  them,  doubtless  from  the  uniform  in 
him  at  the  national  capital,  executed  by  which  it  is  known  that  General  Greene 
H.  K.  Browne.     The  doubt  thaf  had  long    was  buried. 

existed   as   to    the   actual    burial-place   of        While  Greene  and   his   army   remained 

on  the  Santee  Hills 
until  late  in  the 
fall,  his  partisan 
corps,  led  by  Mari- 
on, Sumter,  Lee, 
and  others,  were 
driving  the  British 
forces  from  post  to 
post,  in  the  low 
country,  and  smit- 
ing Tory  bands  in 
every  direction. 
The  British  finally 
evacuated  all  their 
interior  stations 
and  retired  to 
Charleston,  pur- 
sued almost  to  the 
edge  of  the  city 
by  the  partisan 
troops.  The  main 
army  occupied  a 
position        hot  worn 

TO  ...:... 





that  city  and  Jacksonboro,  where  the 
South  Carolina  legislature  had  resumed 
its  sessions.  Greene  had  failed  to  win 
victories  in  battle,  but  had  fully  ac- 
complished the  object  of  his  campaign — 
namely,  t ,  liberate  the  Carolinas  and 
Georgia  British  rule.  In  the  course 
of  nine  months  he  had  recovered  the  three 
Southern  States,  and  at  the  close  of  1781 
he  had  all  the  British  troops  below  Vir- 

ginia hemmed  within  the  cities  of  Charles- 
ton and  Savannah. 

After  the  disaster  at  the  Cowpens. 
Cornwallis  placed  his  force  in  light 
marching  order  and  started  in  pursuit  of 
Morgan,  hoping  to  intercept  him  before 
he  could  cross  the  Catawba  River.  The 
earl  ordered  all  his  stores  and  superflu- 
ous baggage  to  be  burned,  and  his  whole 
army   was   converted   into    light    infantry 


corps.  The  only  wagons  saved  were  those  Academy  in  1859.  When  the  Civil  War 
with  hospital  stores,  salt,  and  ammuni-  broke  out  he  was  assigned  to  the  iron- 
tion,  and  four  empty  ones  for  sick  and  clad  Monitor,  and  during  her  action  with 
wounded.  Sensible  of  his  danger,  Morgan,  the  Merrimac  he  directed  every  shot  that 
leaving  seventy  of  his  wounded  under  a  was  fired,  until  he  took  command  in  place 
flag  of  truce,  crossed  the  Broad  River  of  Lieutenant  Worden,  who  had  been 
immediately  after  the  battle  at  the  Cow-  wounded.  He  served  on  the  Monitor  till 
pens  (q.  v.),  and  pushed  for  the  Catawba,  she  sank  near  Cape  Hatteras.  He  web 
Cornwallis  followed  the  next  morning,  promoted  commander  in  1872.  He  died 
Two  hours  before  the  van  of  the  pursuers  in  Portsmouth  Navy-yard,  N.  H.,  Dec.  11, 
appeared,  Morgan  had  passed  the  Catawba    1884. 

at  Trading  Ford,  and  before  the  British  Greene,  Zechariah,  chaplain;  born  in 
could  begin  the  passage,  heavy  rains  pro-  Stafford,  Conn.,  Jan.  11,  1760;  was  a  sol- 
duced  a  sudden  rise  in  the  waters,  and  dier  in  the  army  of  the  Revolution;  be- 
time  was  given  to  Morgan  to  send  off  his  came  a  minister  of  the  Gospel  and  a  set- 
prisoners,  and  to  refresh  his  weary  tied  pastor  on  Long  Island,  and  was  a 
troops.  When  Greene  heard  of  the  affair  chaplain  in  the  army  in  the  War  of  1812- 
at  the  Cowpens,  he  put  his  troops  in  mo-  15.  He  died  in  Hempstead,  L.  I.,  June  20, 
tion   to   join   Morgan.      Pressing   forward    1858. 

with  only  a  small  guard,  he  joined  Mor-  Greener,  Richard  Theodore,  lawyer* 
gan  two  days  after  he  had  passed  the  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Jan.  30,  1844; 
Catawba  (Jan.  29,  1781),  and  assumed,  was  the  first  negro  graduate  at  Harvard 
in  person,  the  command  of  the  division.  College,  where  he  finished  with  a  brilliant 
And  now  one  of  the  most  remarkable  record  in  1870;  became  a  lawyer  in  1877; 
military  movements  on  record  occurred.  United  States  consul  at  Vladivostok,  Si- 
It  was  the  retreat  of  the  American  army,  beria,  in  1898.  His  addresses  include 
under  Greene,  from  the  Catawba  through  Charles  Sumner,  the  Idealist,  Statesman, 
North  Carolina  into  Virginia.  When  the  and  Scholar;  Eulogy  on  the  Life  and 
waters  of  the  Catawba  subsided,  Corn-  Services  of  William  Lloyd  Garrison;  The 
wallis  crossed  and  resumed  his  pursuit.  Intellectual  Position  of  the  Aegro;  etc. 
He  reached  the  right  bank  of  the  Yadkin  Greenhow,  Robert,  author;  born  in 
(Feb.  3),  just  as  the  Americans  were  Richmond,  Va.,  in  1800;  graduated  at 
safely  landed  on  the  opposite  shore.  Again  William  and  Mary  College  in  1816;  re- 
he  was  arrested  by  the  sudden  swelling  moved  to  California  in  1850.  He  publish- 
of  the  river.  Onward  the  flying  patriots  ed  History  of  Tripoli,  and  a  Report  on  the 
sped,  and  after  a  few  hours  Cornwallis  Discovery  of  the  Xorthicest  Coast  of 
was  again  in  full  pursuit.  At  Guilford  North  America,  which  was  later  enlarged 
Court-house  Greene  was  joined  (Feb.  7)  and  republished  under  the  title  of  His- 
by  his  main  army  from  Cheraw,  and  all  tory  of  Oregon  and  California.  He  died 
continued  their  flight  towards  Virginia,  in  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  in  1854. 
for  they  were  not  strong  enough  to  give  Greenland.  See  Vinland,  Voyages  to. 
battle.  After  many  hardships  and  nar-  Greenleaf,  Jonathan,  clergyman;  born 
row  escapes,  the  Americans  reached  the  in  Newburyport,  Mass.,  Sept.  4,  1785. 
Dan  (Feb.  15,  1781),  and  crossed  its  ris-  His  publications  include  Sketches  of  the 
ing  waters  into  the  friendly  bosom  of  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Maine;  History 
Halifax  county,  Va.  When  Cornwallis  of  Neio  York  Churches,  etc.  He  died  in 
arrived,  a  few  hours  afterwards,  the  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  April  24,  1865. 
stream  was  so  high  and  turbulent  that  he  Greenleaf,  Moses,  author:  born  in 
could  not  cross.  There,  mortified  and  dis-  Newburyport,  Mass.,  in  1778.  He  was  the 
appointed,  the  earl  abandoned  the  chase,  author  of  Statistical  View  of  the  District 
and,  moving  sullenly  southward  through  of  Maine,  and  Survey  of  the  State  of 
North  Carolina,  established  his  camp  at  Maine.  He  died  in  Williamsburg,  Me., 
Hillsboro.  March  20,  1834. 

Greene,  Samuel  Dana,  naval  officer;  Green  Mountain  Boys.  Some  of  the 
born  in  Cumberland,  Md.,  Feb.  11,  1839;  settlers  who  had  received  grants  of  land 
graduated    at    the    United    States    Naval    from  Governor  Wentworth,  of  New  Hamp- 



sbire,   had   crossed  the   Green  Mountains  issuing  any  more  patents  for  lands  east- 

and    occupied    lands    on    the    shores    of  ward  of  Lake  Charnplain.     The  order  was 

Lake  Charnplain.     Emigration  flowed  over  not    ex   post    facto,    and    the    New    York 

the  mountains  rapidly  after  tbe  close  of  the  patentees  proceeded  to  take  possession  of 

French  and  Indian  War  (q.  v.),  and  the  their     purchased     lands.       The     settlers 

present  State  of  Vermont  was  largely  cov-  aroused  for  resistance,  led  by  a  brave  and 

ered  by  Wentworth's  grants.    The  authori-  determined  commander  from  Connecticut, 

ties  of  New  York  now  proceeded  to  assert  Ethan   Allen    (q.   v.).     The   men   under 

their  claims  to   this  territory  under  the  his  command  called  themselves  the  "  Green 

charter  given  to  the  Duke  of  York.     Act-  Mountain  Boys  " ;  and  for  some  years  the 

ing-Governor    Colden    issued    a   proclama-  New  Hampshire  Grants  formed  a  theatre 

tion  to  that  effect,  Dec. 

1763,  to  which    where  all   the   elements   of  civil  war,   ex- 

Wentworth  replied  by  a  counter-proclama- 
tion. Then  the  matter,  on  Colden's  appli- 
cation, was  laid  before  the  King  in  coun- 

cepting  actual  carnage,  were  in  active 
exercise.  In  1774  Governor  Tryon,  of  New 
York,     issued    a    proclamation,    ordering 

oil.  A  royal  order  was  issued,  March  13,  Ethan  Allen,  Seth  Warner,  and  other  lead- 
1764,  which  declared  the  Connecticut  ers  of  the  Green  Mountain  Boys,  to  sur- 
Biver  to  be  the  eastern  boundary  of  New  render  themselves  within  thirty  days,  or 
York.  The  settlers  did  not  suppose  this  be  subjected  to  the  penalty  of  death.  These 
decision  would  affect  the  titles  to  their  leaders  retorted  by  offering  a  reward  for 
lands,  and  they  had  no  care  about  politi-  the  arrest  of  the  attorney-general  of  New 
cal  jurisdiction.  Land  speculators  caused  York.  The  war  for  independence  soon 
the  New  York  authorities  to  assert  fur-  broke  out  and  suspended  the  controversy, 
ther  claims  that  were  unjust  and  impoli-  In  that  war  the  Green  Mountain  Boys  took 
tic.    On  the  decision  of  able  legr'  author-    a  conspicuous  part. 

ity,  they  asserted  the  right  of  pr^erty  in  Green  Mountain  State.  A  popular 
the  soil,  and  orders  were  issued  for  the  name  of  Vermont,  the  principal  mountain 
survey  and  sale  of  farms  on  the  "  Grants  "  range  being  the  Green  Mountains. 
in  the  possession  of  actual  settlers,  who  Greenough,  Horatio,  sculptor;  born  in 
had  bought,  paid  for,  and  improved  them.  Boston,  Mass.,  Sept.  6,  1805;  gradu- 
The  settlers,  disposed  to  be  quiet,  loyal  ated  at  Harvard  in  1825;  evinced  a  taste 
subjects  of  New  York,  were  converted  into  and  talent  for  the  cultivation  of  art  in 
rebellious  foes,  determined  and  defiant. 

A  new  and  powerful  opposition  to  the 
claims  of  New  York  was  created,  composed 
of  the  sinews  and  muskets  and  determined 
wills  of  the  people  of  the  "  Grants,"  backed 
by  New  Hampshire,  and,  indeed,  by  all 
New  England.  New  York  had  left  them 
no  alternative  but  the  degrading  one  of 
leaving  or  repurchasing  their  posses- 
sions. The  governor  and  council  of  New 
York  summoned  the  people  of  the 
"  Grants "  to  appear  before  them  at  Al- 
bany, with  their  deeds  and  other  evidences 
of  possession,  within  three  months,  failing 
in  which  it  was  declared  that  the  claims 
of  all  delinquents  would  be  rejected.  No 
attention  was  paid  to  the  summons. 
Meanwhile  speculators  had  been  purchas- 
ing from  Ne.v  York  large  tracts  of  these 
estates,  and  were  preparing  to  take  pos- 
session.    The    settlers    sent   an   agent   to 

England  to  lay  their  case  before  the  King,  his  early  youth ;  and  soon  after  his 
He  came  back  in  1767  with  an  order  for  graduation  he  went  to  Italy,  where  he 
the  governor  of  New  York  to  abstain  from    remained  about  a  year.     On  his  return  to 



Boston  in  1826  he  modelled  several  busts,  found  the  wreck  of  the  Polaris  at  Little- 
and  then  returned  to  Italy,  making  Flor-  ton  Island,  North  Greenland;  was  pro- 
ence  his  residence.  Ever  active,  ever  moted  rear-admiral  in  April,  1892;  retired 
learning,  and  exceedingly  industrious,  he    in  February,  1895. 

executed  many  pieces  of  sculpture  of  great  Gregg,  David,  clergyman ;  born  in 
merit.  Among  them  was  a  group — The  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  March  25,  1846;  grad- 
Chanting  Cherubs — the  first  of  the  kind  uated  at  Washington  and  Jefferson  Col- 
ever  undertaken  by  an  American  sculptor,  lege  in  1865;  and  settled  in  Brooklyn, 
He  made  a  colossal  statue  of  Washington,  N.  Y.,  in  1889.  He  is  the  author  ol 
half  nude,  in  a  sitting  posture,  for  the  Makers  of  the  American  Republic,  etc. 
Capitol  at  Washington,  but  it  was  so  large  Gregg,  David  McMurtkie,  military 
that  it  could  not  be  taken  into  the  rotunda,  officer ;  born  in  Huntingdon,  Pa.,  April 
its  destined  resting-place,  and  it  occupies  10,  1833;  graduated  at  West  Point  in 
a  position  before  the  eastern  front  of  the  1855,  entering  the  dragoon  service.  He 
great  building.  He  also  executed  a  colos-  was  in  expeditions  against  the  Indians  in 
sal  group  for  the  government  —  The  Washington  Territory  and  the  State  of 
Rescue — which  occupied  the  artist  about  Oregon  (1858-GO),  and  was  promoted  to 
eight  years.  Besides  numerous  statues  captain  of  cavalry  in  May,  1861.  He  was 
and  groups,  Mr.  Greenough  made  busts  of  colonel  of  the  8th  Pennsylvania  Cavalry 
many  of  our  statesmen.  His  Life  and  through  the  campaign  in  Virginia  in 
Essays  were  published  in  1853  by  his  1862,  and  in  November  of  that  year  was 
friend  Henry  T.  Tuckerman.  Mr.  Green-  promoted  to  brigadier-general  of  volun- 
ough  was  greatly  beloved  by  those  who  teers.  He  commanded  a  division  of 
were  favored  with  his  personal  acquaint-  cavalry  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  from 
ance  as  a  noble,  generous,  and  kind-  December,  1862,  until  February,  1865, 
hearted  man.  He  died  in  Summerville,  when  he  resigned.  In  August,  1864,  he 
Mass.,  Dec.  18,  1852.  was  brevetted  major-general  of  volunteers. 

Greenville,  Treaty  at.  After  the  He  was  appointed  United  States  consul 
successful  campaigns  of  Gen.  Anthony  at  Prague,  Bohemia,  in  1874. 
Wayne  against  the  Northwestern  Indian  Gregory,  Francis  Hoyt,  naval  officer; 
tribes  in  1793-94,  his  army  lay  in  winter  born  in  Norwalk,  Conn.,  Oct.  9,  1789;  en- 
quarters  in  Greenville,  Darke  co.,  O.,  and  tered  the  United  States  navy  as  mid- 
there,  on  Aug.  3,  1795,  he  concluded  a  shipman  in  1809;  was  made  lieutenant  in 
treaty  with  several  of  the  tribes — namely,  1814,  and  captain  in  1828.  He  served 
Wyandottes,  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Otta-  under  Chauncey  on  Lake  Ontario;  was 
was,  Chippewas,  Pottawatomies,  Miamis,  made  a  prisoner  and  confined  in  England 
Eel  River  Indians,  Weas,  Piankshaws,  eighteen  months.  In  the  war  with  Mex- 
Kickapoos,  and  Kaskaskias.  There  were  ico  he  commanded  the  frigate  Raritan. 
1,130  Indian  participants  in  making  the  His  last  sea  service  was  in  command  of 
treaty.  The  principal  chiefs  present  were  the  African  squadron.  During  the  Civil 
Tarhe,  Buckhongehelas,  Black  Hoof,  Blue  War  he  superintended  the  construction  of 
Jacket,  and  Little  Turtle.  The  basis  of  ivon-clads.  On  July  16,  1862,  Captain 
the  treaty  was  that  hostilities  should  per-  Gregory  was  made  a  rear-admiral  on  the 
manently  cease  and  all  prisoners  be  re-  retired  list.  During  the  War  of  1812, 
stored.  The  boundary-line  between  the  supplies  for  the  British  were  constantly 
United  States  and  the  lands  of  the  several  ascending  the  St.  Lawrence.  Chauncey 
tribes  was  fixed.  ordered    Lieutenant   Gregory    to    capture 

Greenwood,  Grace.  See  Lippincott,  some  of  them.  With  a  small  force  he  lay 
Sara  Jane.  in   ambush   among   the   Thousand    Islands 

Greer,  James  Augustin,  naval  officer;  in  the  middle  of  June,  1814.  They  were 
born  in  Cincinnati,  0.,  Feb.  28,  1833;  discovered,  and  a  British  gunboat  was 
joined  the  navy  in  January,  1848;  com-  sent  to  attack  them.  They  did  not  wait 
manded  the  iron-clad  Benton,  April  16,  for  the  assault,  but  boldly  dashed  upon 
lsc,:;.  during  the  passage  of  the  batteries  and  captured  their  antagonist.  She  car- 
at Vicksburg  and  in  subsequent  actions,  ried  an  18-pounder  carronade,  and  was 
In   1873  as  commander  of  the  Tigress  he    manned    by    eighteen    men.      These    were 




the  Turks,  and  on  his  return  was  ap- 
pointed to  a  command  in  Ireland, 
and  made  sheriff  of  Cork.  In  157 1 
he  had  a  seat  in  Parliament  and  was 
knighted  by  Queen  Elizabeth.  The 
colonization  schemes  of  his  kinsman 
commanded  his  ardent  approval,  and 
on  April  9,  1585,  he  sailed  from 
Plymouth,  England,  in  command  of 
some  ships  fitted  out  by  Raleigh, 
bearing  180  colonists  and  a  full  com- 
plement of  seamen,  for  the  coast  of 
Virginia.  Ralph  Lane,  a  soldier  of 
experience,  accompanied  him  as  gov- 
ernor of  the  colony.  Thomas  Har- 
riott, a  distinguished  mathematician 
and  astronomer,  was  with  them  as 
historian  and  naturalist  (see  Har- 
riott, Thomas)  ;  also  Thomas  Cav- 
endish, the  eminent  English  naviga- 
tor, who  sailed  around  the  earth. 
Grenville  was  more  intent  upon 
plunder  and  finding  gold  than  plant- 
ing a  colony;  the  choice  of  him  for 
commander  was  unfortunate.  Sail- 
ing over  the  usual  long  southern 
taken  prisoners  to  Sackett's  Harbor.  This  route,  they  did  not  reach  the  coast  of 
and  other  exploits,  though  appreciated  at  Florida  until  June,  and  as  they  went  up 
the  time,  were  not  then  substantially  re-  the  coast  they  encountered  a  storm  off  a 
warded,  except  by  promotions ;  but,  thirty  point  of  land  that  nearly  wrecked  them, 
years  afterwards,  Congress  gave  Gregory  and  they  called  it  Cape  Fear, 
and  his  companion  officers  in  the  capture 
of  the  gunboat  ( Sailing-Masters  Vaughan 
and  Dixon)  $3,000.  He  died  in  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.,  Oct.  4,  1866. 

Grenville,  George,  statesman;  born  in 
England,  Oct.  14,  1712.  A  graduate  of 
Cambridge  University,  a  fine  mathema- 
tician, and  a  student  of  law.,  he  gave 
promise  of  much  usefulness.  Entering 
Parliament  in  1741,  he  represented  Buck- 
inghamshire for  twenty-nine  years,  until 
his  death,  Nov.  13,  1770.  In  1762  he  was 
made  secretary  of  state;  chancellor  of 
the  exchequer  and  first  lord  of  the 
treasury  in  1763;  and  in  1764-  he  pro- 
posed the  famous  Stamp  Act  (q.  v.).  He 
was  the  best  business  man  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  but  his  statesmanship  was 
narrow.  Thomas  Grenville,  who  was 
one  of  the  agents  employed  in  negotiating 
the  treaty  of  peace  in  1783,  was  his  son. 
Grenville,  Sir  Richard,  born  in  Eng- 
land in  1540;  was  a  cousin  of  Sir  Walter 
Raleigh.  When  a  mere  youth  he  served 
in  the  imperial  army  of  Germany  against 




They  finally  landed  on  Roanoke  Island, 
with  Manteo,  whom  they  had  brought  back 
from  England,  and  who  had  been  created 
Lord  of  Roanoke.  Grenville  sent  him  to 
the  mainland  to  announce  the  arrival  of 
the  English,  and  Lane  and  his  principal 
companions  soon  followed  the  dusky  peer. 
For  eight  days  they  explored  the  country 
and  were  hospitably  entertained  every- 
where. At  an  Indian  village  a  silver  cup 
was  stolen  from  one  of  the  Englishmen, 
and  was  not  immediately  restored  on  de- 
mand. Grenville  ordered  the  whole  town 
to  be  destroyed,  with  all  the  standing 
maize,  or  Indian  corn,  around  it.  This 
wanton  act  kindled  a  flame  of  hatred  in 
the  bosoms  of  the  natives  that  could  not 
be  quenched.  Not  observing  this,  the  com- 
mander left  the  colony  and  returned  to 
England  with  his  ships.  These  all  be- 
came piratical  cruisers  on  the  seas,  and 
entered  the  harbor  of  Plymouth  on  Sept. 
18,  laden  with  plunder  from  Spanish 

Governor  Lane  also  treated  the  natives 
cruelly,  and  they  became  greatly  exas- 
perated in  spite  of  the  soothing  influence 
of  Harriott,  their  benefactor.  In  mortal 
fear  of  the  Indians,  their  provisions  ex- 
hausted, and  no  ship  arriving  from  Eng- 
land, they  hailed  with  joy  the  appearance 
of  Sir  Francis  Drake,  who,  returning  from 
the  West  Indies,  touched  at  Roanoke 
Island  (see  Drake,  Sir  Francis).  They 
gladly  entered  his  ship  and  returned  to 
England.  About  three  weeks  afterwards 
Grenville  arrived  there  with  three  ships, 
laden  with  provisions.  Leaving  fifteen 
men  on  the  deserted  spot  to  keep  posses- 
sion of  the  country,  Grenville  again  sailed 
for  England.  He  afterwards,  as  vice-ad- 
miral, performed  notable  exploits  against 
the  Spaniards,  but  finally,  in  a  battle  with 
a  large  Spanish  fleet  off  the  Azores,  in 
1591,  he  was  wounded,  made  prisoner,  and 
soon  afterwards  died. 

Gresham,  Walter  Quintpn,  jurist; 
born  near  Lanesville,  Harrison  co.,  Ind., 
March  17,  1832.  He  attended  the  State 
University  of  Indiana;  and  in  1854  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  and  began  the  practice  of 
law.  He  had  served  in  the  legislature  when 
the  Civil  War  broke  out.  As  colonel  of  the 
52d  Indiana  Volunteers  he  served  credit- 
ably in  the  Western  army.  After  the  war 
he  was  defeated  as  Republican  candidate 

for  Congressman,  and  from  1869  to  1882 
held  the  post  of  United  States  district 
judge  in  Indiana.  In  President  Arthur's 
administration  Gresham  was  Postmaster- 
General  from  1882  to  1884,  and  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury  from  September  to  Decem- 
ber, 1884.  He  then  became  United  State* 
circuit  judge,  and  held  that  post  until 
1893.  Meanwhile  he  was  in  1S88  a  promi- 
nent candidate  for  the  Republican  nomina- 
tion to  the  Presidency,  and  in  1892  he  de- 
clined the  Populist  invitation  to  stand  for 
the  same  office.  His  views  on  public  ques- 
tions had  somewhat  changed,  so  that  his 
appointment    by    President    Cleveland    to 


the  office  of  Secretary  of  State  was  not 
entirely  a  surprise.  He  held  this  office  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  in  Washington,  May 
28,  1895. 

Grey,  Charles,  Earl,  military  officer; 
born  in  England  Oct.  23,  1729;  was  aide- 
de-camp  to  Wolfe,  at  Quebec,  in  1759; 
was  commissioned  lieutenant-colonel  in 
1761;  and,  as  colonel,  accompanied  Gen- 
eral Howe  to  Boston  in  1775,  who  gave 
him  the  rank  of  major-general.  He  led 
the  party  that  surprised  General  Wayne 
in  the  night.  He  was  an  active  com- 
mander in  the  battle  of  Germantown 
(q.  v.)  and  as  a  marauder  on  the  New 
England  coast  in  the  fall  of  1778.  He 
surprised  and  cut  in  pieces  Baylor's 
dragoons  at  Tappan.  For  these  and  other 
services  in  America  he  was  made  a  lieu- 
tenant-general in  1783.    He  became  a  gen- 



eral  in  1795;  was  elevated  to  the  peerage 
in  1801 ;  and  was  the  father  of  the  cele- 
brated English  statesman  of  the  same 
name.    He  died  Nov.  14,  1807. 

Greytown,  the  only  seaport  of  Nicara- 
gua; at  the  mouth  of  the  San  Juan  River. 
It  is  locally  known  as  San  Juan  del  Norte. 
The  town  has  considerable  trade,  which, 
however,  was  for  many  years  held  in  check 
by  the  choking  up  of  the  harbor.  It  is 
the  Atlantic  terminus  of  the  projected 
Nicaragua  Canal,  and,  as  such,  was 
neutralized  by  the  Clayton-Btxlwer 
Treaty  (q.  v.).  Considerable  work  has 
been  done  towards  improving  the  harbor 
under  the  direction  of  the  United  States 
government.  On  June  13,  1854,  the  former 
town  was  bombarded  and  destroyed  by  the 
United  States  naval  ship  Cyane  under 
command  of  George  N.  Hollins    (q.  v.). 

Gridley,  Charles  Vernon,  naval  offi- 
cer; born  in  Logansport,  Ind.,  in  1845. 
He  was  appointed  an  acting  midshipman 
in  the  United  States  navy  in  1860;  was 
promoted  to  midshipman  July  16,  1862; 
lieutenant,  Feb.  21,  1867;  lieutenant-com- 
mander, March  12,  1868;  commander, 
March  10,  18S2;  and  captain,  March  4, 
1897;  and  was  assigned  to  the  Asiatic 
squadron.  Upon  his  arrival  at  Hong- 
Kong,  China,  he  was  given  command  of 
the   protected   cruiser    Olympia,   the   flag- 


ship.  Just  before  the  battle  of  Manila 
Bay,  on  May  1,  1898,  Captain  Gridley 
took  his  place  in  the  conning  tower  of  the 
Olympia,  with  Commodore  Dewey  on  the 

IV. — M  1 

bridge.  When  the  American  fleet  drew 
near  to  the  Spanish  vessels,  Commodore 
Dewey  gave  the  laconic  order :  "  You 
may  fire  when  you  are  ready,  Mr.  Grid- 
ley,"  and  almost  immediately  the  battle 
was  opened.  Captain  Gridley  managed 
his  ship  superbly  throughout  the  fight, 
and  fired  the  broadside  which  destroyed 
the  Spanish  flag-ship.  During  the  battle 
he  was  very  ill,  but  insisted  on  command- 
ing his  ship.  Soon  afterwards  his  sick- 
ness grew  worse,  and  he  died  in  Kobe, 
Japan,  June  4,  1898,  while  on  his  way 

Gridley,  Richard,  military  officer; 
born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Jan.  3,  1711;  chief 
engineer  in  the  siege  of  Louisburg,  in 
1745.  He  entered  the  service,  as  colonel 
of  infantry,  in  1755;  was  in  the  expedi- 
tion to  Crown  Point,  under  General  Wins- 
low;  planned  the  fortifications  at  Lake 
George;  served  under  Amherst,  and  was 
with  Wolfe  at  Quebec.  He  retired  as  a 
British  officer  on  half-pay  for  life.  Was 
appointed  chief  engineer  of  the  army  that 
gathered  at  Cambridge;  planned  the  works 
on  Bunker  Hill  and  Dorchester  Heights; 
and  was  in  the  battle  there,  in  which  he 
was  wounded.  In  1775  he  was  commis- 
sioned a  major-general.  He  was  com- 
mander of  the  Continental  artillery  until 
superseded  by  Knox.  He  died  in  Stough- 
ton,  Mass.,  June  20,  1796. 

Grier,  Robert  Casper,  jurist;  born  in 
Cumberland  county,  Pa.,  March  5,  1794; 
graduated  at  Dickinson  in  1812;  justice 
of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court, 
1846-70.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Sept. 
26,  1870. 

Grierson,  Benjamin  Henry,  military 
officer;  born  in  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  July  8, 
1826;  went  on  the  staff  of  General  Pren- 
tiss when  the  Civil  War  broke  out,  and 
became  an  active  cavalry  officer.  Some  of 
Grant's  cavalry,  which  he  had  left  in  Ten- 
nessee, were  making  extensive  and  de- 
structive raids  while  he  was  operating 
against  Vicksburg.  On  April  17  Colonel 
Grierson,  then  commanding  the  6th  Illi- 
nois Cavalry,  left  La  Grange,  Tenn.,  with 
his  own  and  two  other  regiments,  and,  de- 
scending the  Mississippi,  swept  rapidly 
through  the  rich  western  portion  of  that 
State.  These  horsemen  were  scattered  in 
several  detachments,  striking  Confederate 
forces  here  and  there,  breaking  up  rail- 


ways  and  bridges,  severing  telegraph  of  volunteers  in  May,  18G5,  and  for  his 
wires,  wasting  public  property,  and  as  services  in  the  war  was  brevetted  major- 
much   as   possible  diminishing  the   means    general,    United    States   army,    in    March. 

of  transportation  of  the  Confederates  in 
their  efforts  to  help  their  army  at  Vicks- 
burg.      Finally,   on   May   2,   having   pene- 

cy  • 

BKNJAMIN     1IKNKV    G  ItlKksuN. 

trated  Louisiana,  this  great  raid  ceased, 
when  Grierson,  with  his  wearied  troops 
and  worn-out  horses,  entered  Baton  Rouge, 

1867.  He  had  been  commissioned  lieuten- 
ant-colonel of  United  States  cavalry  in 
July,  1866.  From  1868  till  1873  he  was 
in  command  of  the  Indian  Territory  dis- 
trict, and  was  actively  employed  in  cam- 
paigns against  hostile  Indians;  and  in 
1873-81  was  similarly  engaged  in  western 
Texas  and  New  Mexico.  In  1886  he  be- 
came commander  of  the  District  of  New 
Mexico,  and  in  1890  he  was  retired  with 
the  rank  of  brigadier-general  in  the  reg- 
ular army. 

Griffin,  Appleton  Phentiss  Clakk,  au- 
thor; born  in  Wilton,  N.  H. ;  became 
assistant  librarian  of  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress in  1897.  His  publications  include 
Discovery  of  the  Mississippi ;  Index  of 
Articles  upon  American  Local  History  in 
Collections,  etc. 

Griffin,  Charles,  military  officer;  born 
in  Licking  county,  O.,  in  1826;  gradu- 
ated at  West  Point  in  1S47,  and  entered 
the  artillery.  He  was  made  captain  of 
artillery  in  April,  1861,  and  with  his  bat- 
tery fought  bravely  in  the  battle  of  Bull 
Run.  He  was  promoted  brigadier-general 
of  volunteers  in  July,  1862;  served  under 
General  Potter  in  the  campaign  against 
Richmond,  and  was  active  in  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac  until  the  surrender  of  Lee 
at  Appomattox  Court  -  house,  where,  as 
commander  of  the  5th  Corps,  he  received 

where  some  of  General  Banks's  troops  were    the  arms  and  colors  of  the  Army  of  North 
stationed.     In  the  space  of  sixteen  days    era    Virginia.     In    March,    1865,    lie    was 

he  had  ridden  600  miles,  in  a  succession  of 

forced  marches,  often  in  drenching  rain, 
and  sometimes  without  rest  for  forty- 
eight  hours,  through  a  hostile  country, 
over  ways  most  difficult  to  travel,  fighting 
men  and  destroying  property.  His  troops 
had  killed  and  wounded  about  100  Con- 
federates, captured  and  paroled  full  500, 
destroyed  3,000  stand  of  arms,  and  in- 
flicted a  loss  on  their  foes  of  property 
valued  at  $6,000,000.  Grierson's  loss  was 
twenty-seven  men  and  a  number  of  horses. 

brevetted  major-general,  United  States 
army,  and  received  other  brevets  for 
"  meritorious  services  during  the  Rebel- 
lion." In  the  winter  of  1865-66  he  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  Department  of 
Texas,  with  headquarters  in  Galveston. 
On  Sept.  5,  1867,  when  that  city  was 
scourged  with  yellow  fever,  he  was  given 
a  temporary  command  in  New  Orleans, 
but  he  refused  to  leave  his  post,  and  died 
of  the  fever  on  the  15th. 

Griffin,    Cyhus,    jurist;    born    in    Vir- 

During  the  twenty-eight  hours  preceding  ginia  in  1749;  was  educated  in  England; 
the  arrival  of  the  raiders  at  Baton  Rouge  was  connected  by  marriage  there  with  a 
they  had  travelled  76  miles,  engaged  in  noble  family:  and  when  the  Revolution 
four  skirmishes,  and  forded  the  Comite  broke  out  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  pa- 
River.  Grierson  dedared  that  he  found  triots.  From  1778  to  1781,  and  in  1787-88, 
the  Confederacy  to  be  only  a  shell.  This  he  was  a  member  of  the  Continental  Con- 
was  in  1863.     He  was  made  major-general  gress,  and  in  the  latter  year  its  president. 



He  was  commissioner  to  the  Creek  nation  Grimke,     John   Faucheraud,     jurist; 

in    1789,    and    from    that   year    until    his  born   in    South   Carolina,   Dee.    16,    1752; 

death  in  Yorktown,  Va.,  Dee.  14,  1810,  he  studied  law  in  London,  England;  was  one 

was  judge  of  the  United  States  District  of   the  thirty  Americans  who   petitioned 

Court  in  Virginia.  the  King  to  stay  the  acts  of  Parliament 

Griffin,    Simon   Goddell,   military  offi-  infringing  on  American  rights.     He  pub- 

eer;  born  in  Nelson,  N.  H.,  Aug.  9,  1824;  lished    Revised   Edition   of    the   Laws   of 

began  law  practice  in  Concord  in   1860;  South   Carolina  to  1789;  Public  Lata  of 

served   with    marked    distinction    through  South  Carolina;  Duty  of  Justices  of  the 

the  Civil  War;   was  commissioned  briga-  Peace;    etc.      He    died    in    Long    Branch, 

dier-general   of   volunteers   in    1864;    and  1ST.  J.,  Aug.  9,  1819. 

on  June  16  of  that  year  led  an  assault  at  Grimshaw,  William,  author;   born  in 

Petersburg,   capturing    1,000   Confederates  Greencastle,  Ireland,  in  1782;  came  to  the 

and    their    works.      Subsequently    he    was  United  States  in   1815;    settled  in  Phila- 

brevetted  major-general  of  volunteers.     He  delphia.     He  was  author  of  the  American 

died  in  Keene,  N.  H.,  Jan.  14,  1902.  Chesterfield;     a     school     history     of     the 

Griffin,  The,  the  vessel  of  La  Salle,  on  United  States,  etc.,  and  editor  of  a  re- 
Lake  Erie;  built  early  in  1667,  at  the  vised  edition  of  Ramsey's  Life  of  Wash- 
ington. He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in 
Griswold,  Fort,  a  defensive  work  on 
seven  small  cannon  and  some  muskets,  the  east  bank  of  the  Thames  River  in 
and  floated  a  flag  bearing  the  device  of  an  Connecticut.  On  Sept.  6,  1781,  while  de- 
eagle.  In  August,  the  same  year,  she  fended  by  Col.  William  Ledyard  and  150 
sailed  for  the  western  end  of  Lake  Erie, 
This  was  the  beginnin 
the  Great  Lakes. 

mouth  of  Cayuga  Creek,  not  far  below  the 
site  of  Buffalo,  and  near  the  foot  of  Squaw 
Island.     She  was  armed  with  a  battery  of 

men,  it  was  captured  by  the  British,  who, 
of  the  commerce  on    undei     Benedict    Arnold,    acted    treacher- 
ously after  the  surrender,  Colonel  Ledyard 
Griggs,  John  William,  lawyer;   born   being   killed   when   delivering   his    sword. 

in  Newton,  N.  J.,  July  10,  1849;  grad- 
uated at  Lafayette  College  in  1868;  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  1871;  and  began  prac- 

No  quarter  was  given,  and  only  twenty- 
six  men  escaped. 

Groesbeck,  William  Slocomb,  lawyer; 

tice  in  Paterson,  N.  J.     In  1876-77  he  was  born   in   New  York   City,  July   24,   1815; 

a  member  of  the  New  Jersey  House  of  Rep-  received  an  academic  education ;  admitted 

resentatives,  and  in  1882-88  of  the  State  to   the  bar,   and   practised   in   Cincinnati, 

Senate,  of  which  he  was  president  in  1886.  O. ;     member     of    Congress     in     1857-59; 

He  was  elected  governor  of  New  Jersey  in  State   Senator   in    1862;    and   one  of  the 

November,  1895,  and  served  till  January, 
1898,  when  he  was  appointed  Attorney- 
General  of  the  United  States.  In  March, 
1901,  he  resigned  this  office  to  resume 
private  practice. 

counsel  for  President  Johnson  in  the  im- 
peachment trial  of  1868.  He  died  in  Cin- 
cinnati, O.,  July  7,  1897. 

Grover,   Cuvier,  military  officer;   born 
in  Bethel,  Me.,  July  24,  1829;   graduated 
Grijalva,  Juan  de,  adventurer;  born  in    at  West  Point  in   1850;   was  made  briga- 

Cuellar,  Spain,  near  the  close  of  the  fif- 
teenth century.     His  uncle,  Diego  Velas- 

dier-general  of  volunteers  in  April,  1861 ; 
and    commanded    a    brigade    in    Heintzel- 

quez  (q.  v.),  the  first  governor  of  Cuba,  man's  corps  in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac, 
sent  him,  in  command  of  four  vessels,  to  He  was  in  the  Shenandoah  campaign  in 
complete  the  discoveries  of  Cordova.  He  1864;  and  from  January  till  June,  1865, 
sailed  from  Santiago,  Cuba,  in  the  spring  was  in  command  of  the  District  of  Savan- 
of  1518.  He  cruised  along  the  peninsula  nah.  General  Grover  was  brevetted  briga- 
of  Yucatan  as  far  as  the  region  of  the  dier-general  and  major-general  in  the 
Panuco,  where  he  held  friendly  communi-  regular  army,  March  13,  1865;  was  pro- 
cation  with  the  Aztecs,  the  subjects  of  moted  to  colonel  of  the  1st  Cavalry  in  1875, 
Montezuma.  Grijalva  afterwards  settled  which  command  he  held  till  his  death  in 
in  Nicaragua,  where  he  was  killed  by  the  Atlantic  City,  N.  J.,  June  6,  1885. 
natives,  Jan.  21,  1527.  He  was  the  dis-  Groveton,  Battle  of.  After  the  bat- 
coverer  of  Mexico.  tie    at    Cedar    Mountain    (q.  v.),    Pope 



took  position  with  his  army  along  the  line 
of  the  Rapidan,  where  he  was  reinforced 
by  troops  from  North  Carolina,  under 
Burnside  and  Stevens.  The  Confederates 
now  concentrated  their  forces  for  a  dash 
on  Washington  in  heavy  columns.  Hal- 
leck,  perceiving  possible  danger  to  the 
capital,  issued  a  positive  order  to  McClel- 
lan,  Aug.  3,  18G2,  for  the  immediate  trans- 
fer of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  from 
the  James  River  to  the  vicinity  of  Wash- 
ington. The  commander  of  that  army  in- 
structed Halleck  that  the  "  true  defence 
of  Washington "  was  "  on  the  banks  of 
the  James."  The  order  was  at  once  re- 
peated, but  it  was  twenty  days  after  it 

ery  hour.  Troops  were  coming  with  tardy 
pace  from  the  Peninsula,  and  on  tne  25th, 
when  those  of  Franklin,  Heintzelman,  and 
Porter  had  arrived,  Pope's  army,  some- 
what scattered,  numbered  about  60,000 
men.  Jackson  crossed  the  Rappahannock, 
marched  swiftly  over  Bull  Run  Mountain, 
through  Thoroughfare  Gap,  to  Gainesville 
(Aug.  26),  where  he  was  joined  by  Stuart, 
with  two  cavalry  brigades.  At  twilight 
Stuart  was  at  Bristow  Station,  in  Pope's 
rear,  and  between  the  latter  and  Wash- 
ington. He  and  Banks  had  no  suspicion 
of  this  movement.  Jackson  knew  the 
perils  of  his  position,  and  the  necessity 
for  quick  action.     He  sent  Stuart  forward 


was  first  given  before  the  transfer  was 
accomplished.  Meanwhile,  General  Lee 
having  massed  a  heavy  force  on  Pope's 
front,  the  latter  had  retired  behind  the 
forks  of  the  Rappahannock.  Lee  pushed 
forward  to  that  river  with  heavy  columns, 
and  on  Aug.  20-21  a  severe  artillery  duel 
was  fought  above  Fredericksburg,  for 
7  or  8  miles  along  that  stream.  Find- 
ing they  could  not  force  a  passage 
of  the  river,  the  Confederates  took  a  cir- 
cuitous route  towards  the  mountains  to 
flank  the  Nationals,  when  Pope  made 
movements  to  thwart  them. 

But  danger  to  the  capital  increased  ev- 

to  Manassas  Junction  before  daylight 
(Aug.  27),  to  break  up  Pope's  communi- 
cations with  the  capital.  The  alarm  in- 
stantly spread  among  the  Nationals. 
Jackson,  with  his  whole  force,  pressed 
to  the  Junction,  and  Pope  attempted  to 
capture  him  before  he  should  form  a  junc- 
tion with  Longstreet,  at  the  head  of  Lee's 
column,  then  approaching.  Pope  ordered 
McDowell,  with  Sigel  and  the  troops  of 
Reynolds,  to  hasten  to  Gainesville  to  inter- 
cept Longstroot.  Reno  was  ordered  to 
move  on  a  dilVerent  road,  and  support 
McDowell,  while  Pope  moved  along  the 
railway  towards  Manassas  Junction  with 



Hooker's  division.  He  directed  General 
Porter  to  remain  at  Warrenton  Station 
until  Banks  should  arrive  there  to  hold 
it,  and  then  hasten  to  Gainesville. 
McDowell  reached  Gainesville  without 
interruption;  but  near  Bristow  Station, 
Hooker  encountered  General  Ewell,  and  in 
the  struggle  that  ensued  each  lost  about 
300  men. 

The  latter  hastened  towards  Manassas, 
but  Hooker's  ammunition  failing,  he  was 
unable  to  pursue.  Pope  now  ordered  a 
rapid  movement  upon  the  Confederates 
at  the  Junction,  while  General  Kearny 
was  directed  to  make  his  way  to  Bristow 
Station,  where  Jackson  might  mass  his 
troops  and  attempt  to  turn  the  National 
right.  This  movement  was  made  early 
on  the  morning  of  Aug.  28,  1862.  Porter 
was  ordered  to  move  towards  Bristow  Sta- 
tion at  one  o'clock,  but  did  not  march 
before  daylight,  at  which  time  Jackson 
had  taken  another  direction.  He  de- 
stroyed an  immense  amount  of  captured 
stores,  and  hastened  to  join  Longstreet, 
then  approaching  through  Thoroughfare 
Gap.  Some  of  Pope's  troops  failed  to  exe- 
cute orders.  The  latter  arrived  at  the 
Junction  just  after  Jackson  had  left, 
and  pushed  all  of  his  available  forces 
upon  Centreville  in  pursuit.  Kearny  drew 
Jackson's  rear-guard  out  of  Centreville 
late  in  the  afternoon  (Aug.  28),  and  the 
forces  of  the  Confederates  were  turned 
towards  Thoroughfare  Gap,  from  which 
was  coming  their  help.  Towards  evening 
the  troops  under  Ewell  and  Taliaferro  en- 
camped near  the  battle-ground  of  Bull 
Run  nearly  a  year  before.  King's  division 
of  McDowell's  corps  was  in  close  pursuit, 
and  when  they  had  reached  a  point  desired 
by  the  watching  Confederates,  the  latter 
fell  fiercely  upon  them.  A  sanguinary 
battle  ensued.  The  brunt  of  it  was  borne 
by  Gibbons's  brigade,  supported  by  that  of 
General  Doubleday.  The  struggle  con- 
tinued until  dark.  The  losses  were  heavy, 
and  in  that  battle  General  Ewell  lost  a 

Pope,  at  Centreville,  now  attempted  to 
crush  Jackson  before  Longstreet  could 
join  him.  McDowell  and  King  were  di- 
rected to  maintain  their  position,  while 
Kearny  should  follow  Jackson  closely  at 
one  o'clock  in  the  morning  (Aug.  29),  and 
Porter    (whom  he  believed  to   be  at  the 

Junction)  to  move  upon  Centreville  at 
dawn.  Before  these  movements  could 
be  executed,  Longstreet  and  Jackson  had 
formed  a  partial  junction.  Near  the  en- 
trance to  Thoroughfare  Gap,  through 
which  Longstreet  had  marched,  there  was 


a  sharp  engagement,  which  ended  at  twi- 
light. Longstreet  was  held  in  check  for 
a  while  by  Bicketts's  division,  and  the 
cavalry  of  Buford  and  Bayard,  which  had 
fought  the  battle.  Early  the  next  morn- 
ing (Aug.  29),  Ricketts  fled  to  Gaines- 
ville, closely  pursued.  Pope's  army  was 
now  scattered  and  somewhat  confused. 
Lee's  whole  army,  now  combined,  pressed 
forward.  Pope  ordered  Sigel,  supported 
by  Reynolds,  to  advance  from  Groveton 
and  attack  Jackson  on  wooded  heights 
near.  He  ordered  Heintzelman,  with  the 
divisions  of  Hooker  and  Kearny,  towards 
Gainesville,  to  be  followed  by  Reno,  while 
Porter,  with  his  own  corps  and  King's 
division,  was  to  move  upon  the  road  to 
Gainesville  from  Manassas,  for  the  turn- 
ing of  Jackson's  flank  on  the  Warrenton 
pike,  and  to  fall  heavily  on  his  rear. 
Lee  was  then  approaching  along  that  pike, 
and  Jackson  determined  to  hold  his  ad- 
vantageous position,  at  all  hazards,  until 
the  main  army  should  arrive. 

At   five   o'clock   in   the   morning,   Sigel, 
with  the  divisions  of  Schuvz,  Schenck,  and 



Milroy,  advanced  to  attack  Jackson.  A 
battle  began  at  seven  o'clock,  and  con- 
tinued with  great  fury  until  ten,  Sigel 
constantly  advancing,  while  it  was  evi- 
dent that  Jackson  had  been  reinforced. 
Jt  was  so.  Longstreet,  with  the  vanguard 
of  Lee's  whole  army,  which  had  been 
streaming  through  Thoroughfare  Gap  all 
the  morning  unopposed,  had  now  reached 
the  field  of  action.  Sigel  maintained  his 
ground  until  noon,  when  Kearny's  division 
arrived,  and  took  position  on  Sigel's  right. 
Reynolds  and  Reno  also  came  up,  followed 
soon  afterwards  by  Hooker.  Then  the 
Nationals  outnumbered  the  Confederates, 
and  for  some  hours  the  battle  assumed 
the  aspect  of  a  series  of  skirmishes.  Pope 
ordered  Porter  into  action,  and  other 
troops  were  directed  to  support  him;  but 
Porter,  as  he  alleged,  did  not  receive  the 
order  until  dusk,  and  the  brunt  of  the 
battle  fell  upon  his  intended  supports. 
It  was  desperately  and  gallantly  fought 
on  both  sides.  Jackson  was  hourly  re- 
inforced by  fresh  divisions  of  Lee's  army. 
Soon  after  dusk  this  sharp  and  important 
battle  at  Gvoveton  ended,  without  victory 
on  either  side,  and  each  having  lost  about 
7,000  men.  Pope's  entire  army  (except- 
ing Banks's  forces  at  Bristow  Station) 
and  a  part  of  McClellan's  were  in  this 
action.  Pope's  effective  men  had  been  re- 
duced in  numbers  by  various  causes,  and 
it  was  estimated  that  his  army  fit  for 
service  did  not  exceed  40,000  men. 

Grow,  Galusha  Aaron,  statesman; 
born  in  Eastford,  Conn.,  Aug.  31,  1824; 
graduated  at  Amherst  College  in  1844; 
admitted  to  the  bar  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1847 ;  elected  a  member  of  Congress  in 
1851 ;  served  as  speaker  from  1861  to 
1803,  when  his  term  of  office  expired.  He 
continued  to  take  an  active  part  in  politics 
for  many  years,  and  was  .  re-elected  to 
Congress  as  member  -  at  -  large  from  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania  in  1894. 

Grundy,  Felix,  statesman;  born  in 
Berkeley  county,  Ya.,  Sept.  11,  1777;  re- 
moved to  Tennessee  in  1S08;  member  of 
Congress,  1811-14;  United  States  Senator, 
1829-38;  Attorney-General  of  the  United 
States,  1838-39;  United  Stales  Senator, 
1839-40.  He  died  in  Nashville,  Tenn., 
Dec.  19,  1840. 

Guadalupe-Hidalgo,  Treaty  op,  Fi  b 
2,    1848,   between   the    United    States    and 

Mexico,  by  which  the  latter  ceded  to  the 
United  States  all  the  country  north  of  the 
Rio  Grande  to  the  point  where  that  river 
strikes  the  southern  boundary  of  New 
Mexico,  and  westward  to  one  league  south 
of  San  Diego,  Cal. 

Guam,  the  chief  island  in  the  Ladrone 
group,  in  the  Pacific.  During  the  war  with 
Spain  it  was  seized  by  the  United  States 
naval  authorities,  June  21,  1898;  and  by 
the  treaty  of  peace  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States.  On  Feb.  1,  1899,  formal 
American  possession  was  taken,  Capt. 
Richard  P.  Leary,  U.  S.  N.,  becoming  the 
first  governor.  The  United  States  govern- 
ment has  established  a  naval  and  coaling 
station  in  the  harbor  of  San  Luis  d'Apra. 
There  is  to  be  a  breakwater,  a  coaling 
wharf  and  repair  shops,  and  shore  bat- 
teries for  protection.  On  Nov.  13,  1900, 
a  typhoon  of  unprecedented  violence  swept 
over  Guam,  causing  the  wreck  of  the 
United  States  auxiliary  cruiser  Yosemite. 
Although  the  vessel  had  two  anchors  down 
the  terrific  wind  drove  her  a  mile  across 
the  harbor  of  San  Luis  d'Apra,  where  she 

struck  a  reef  and  was  then  driven  to 
sea,  and  sank  Nov.  15.  A  launch  con- 
taining live  nun  had  been  sent  to  find 
shelter,  but  it  capsized  and  the  occupants 



were  drowned.  The  remainder  of  the 
crew,  numbering  173,  were  rescued  on  the 
afternoon  of  Nov.  15  by  the  United 
States  collier  Justin.  There  was  also  a 
loss  of  more  than  thirty  natives  upon  the 
island.  The  principal  city  of  Guam  is 
Agana  (q.  v.). 

Guanica,  a  seaport  in  the  southwestern 
corner  of  the  province  of  Ponce,  about 
15  miles  from  the  city  of  Ponce,  Porto 
Rico.  In  the  early  part  of  the  war  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  Spain 
(1898),  when  it  became  known  that  a 
military  expedition  under  Gen.  Nelson 
A.  Miles  (q.  v.)  was  to  be  sent  to  Porto 
Rico,  it  was  reported  with  apparent  offi- 
cial sanction  that  the  objective  point  was 
San  Juan,  which  Admiral  Sampson  would 
cover  with  the  guns  of  his  fleet  while  a 
landing  was  being  made  by  the  troops. 
This,  however,  was  a  ruse  to  mislead  the 
Spanish  spies  in  New  York  and  Washing- 
ton, and  while  the  Spaniards  in  San  Juan 
were  completing  preparations  to  resist 
invasion,  General  Miles  quietly  debarked 
his  army  at  Guanica  on  July  25,  opposed 
only  by  a  small  force  of  Spaniards  in  a 
block-house.  On  the  following  day  the 
Americans  advanced  to  Yauco,  and  capt- 
ured the  railroad  leading  into  Ponce. 
By  July  29  all  of  the  Americans,  number- 
ing 16,973  officers  and  men,  had  landed 
and  concentrated  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Ponce  for  a  forward  movement  against 
San  Juan   (q.  v.). 

Guantanamo  Bay,  a  harbor  lying  38 
miles  east  of  Santiago,  Cuba;  one  of  the 
best  on  the  southern  coast,  The  town  and 
fort  of  the  same  name  are  located  about 
5  miles  back  of  the  bay.  Just  outside  of 
this  bay  United  States  war-ships  made  an 
attempt  in  thp  early  days  of  the  war  of 
1898  to  cut  'he  very  important  cables 
which  ran  from  Santiago  to  Guantanamo 
and  thence  to  Spain.  Had  this  attempt 
succeeded  Cuba  would  have  been  entirely 
isolated  from  the  mother-country.  On 
May  18,  the  St.  Louis  and  the  tug  Wampa- 
tuck  approached  the  mouth  of  the  harbor, 
lint  the  heavy  fire  from  the  Spanish  bat- 
teries and  the  gunboat  in  the  bay  forced 
the  Wampatuck  to  retire  after  grappling 
one  of  the  cables  within  800  yards  of  the 
shore.  On  the  hills  before  mentioned  the 
Spaniards  had  constructed  earthworks 
and  rifle-pits  commanding  the  entrance  of 

the  bay.  On  June  10,  1898,  the  United 
States  cruiser  Marblehead  was  sent  to 
shell  the  bluffs.  Captain  McCalla  found 
this  task  easy,  two  dozen  shells  sufficing 
to  drive  the  enemy  away.  On  the  follow- 
ing day  the  transport  Panther  landed  600 
marines  at  Caimanera  (q.  v.).  In  1903 
an  agreement  was  signed  between  the 
United  States  and  Cuba  for  the  cession  of 
territory  on  Guantanamo  bay  for  the 
establishment  of  a  United  States  naval 
station.     See  Las  Guastmas. 

Guayamo,  a  town  about  40  miles  east 
of  Ponce,  in  the  district  of  Guayamo, 
Porto  Rico.  Early  in  August,  1898,  Gen- 
eral Brooke,  of  the  United  States  army, 
decided  to  capture  the  town  and  make  it 
a  base  of  operations,  as  it  was  the  only 
town  of  importance  on  the  main  road 
leading  to  the  military  road  between 
Ponce  and  San  Juan.  On  the  morning  of 
Aug.  5  General  Hains,  with  the  4th  Ohio 
and  the  3d  Illinois  regiments,  under  the 
orders  of  General  Brooke,  moved  against 
the  place.  There  was  no  sign  of  the 
enemy  until  the  advance  entered  a  cut 
leading  up  a  steep  hill  about  a  mile  from 
the  town,  when  a  hail  of  Spanish  bullets 
whistled  over  their  heads.  Owing  to  their 
small  force,  the  advance  were  compelled 
to  retire.  As  soon  as  this  firing  was 
heard  the  main  body  of  American  troops 
hurried  forward  and  up  the  hill-sides.  At 
a  short  turn  in  the  road  the  Spaniards 
had  built  a  barricade,  but  a  flanking  move- 
ment forced  them  to  retire.  For  about  a 
half-hour  the  Americans  pushed  forward, 
meeting  with  little  resistance.  The  enemy 
then  rallied,  made  a  stand,  and  wounded 
three  Americans.  Soon,  however,  the 
Spaniards  were  driven  from  their  posi- 
tion. At  11  a.m.  General  Hains  entered 
the  town,  and  shortly  afterwards  a  flag  of 
truce  was  raised  and  Guayamo  surren- 
dered. The  inhabitants  greeted  the  Amer- 
icans with  manifestations  of  joy  and 
friendliness.  At  about  the  same  time  the 
Spaniards  in  the  hills  began  to  bombard 
the  town.  This  action  lasted  about  a  half- 
hour,  when  the  Americans  sent  six  dyna- 
mite shells  into  the  midst  of  the  enemy 
and  nothing  more  was  heard  from  them. 
The  entire  action  lasted  about  five  hours 
and  was  notable  for  its  slight  casualties. 
The  town  of  Guayamo  has  a  population  of 



Guerber,  Helene  Adeline,  author.  Her  arms  and  munitions  of  war  captured  by 

publications  include  Story  of  the  Thirteen  them.      This    act    was    repealed    Feb.    15, 

Colonies;  Story  of  the  Great  Republic ;  etc.  1864,  and  provision  made  for  uniting  all 

Guerillas.       The     name     guerilla     was  the  ranger  bands  under  the  discipline  of 

first  given  to  bands  of  irregular  soldiery,  the  regular  army, 

or   armed   peasants,    in    Spain,   who    har-  Guernsey,  Alfred  Hudson,  journalist; 

assed  Napoleon's  armies  during  the  Pen- 
insular War,  in  1808-14.  The  name  is 
from  the  Spanish  and  means  "  a  little 
war."  One  of  the  bands,  led  by  the  no- 
torious General  Mina,  joined  Wellington, 
and  after  having  undergone  a  course  of 
discipline,  did  good  service  as  regular 
troops.  From  Spain  the  name  guerilla 
was  brought  to  Central  America,  and 
thence  to  the  United  States.  Guerilla 
bands  of  Mexico  and  Texas  were  a  source 

born  in  Brandon,  Vt.,  May  12,  1818;  con- 
nected with  Harper's  Magazine  from  1850 
to  1869  as  contributor  and  editor;  associ- 
ate editor  of  the  American  Cyclopaedia. 
With  Henry  M.  Alden  he  wrote  Harper's 
Pictorial  History  of  the  Great  Rebellion. 
He  died  in  New  York,  Jan.  17,  1902. 

Gueslis,  Francis  Vaillant  de.  See 
Jesuit  Missions. 

Guild,  Reuren  Aldridge,  author;  born 
in    West   Dedham,    Mass.,    May   4,    1822; 

of   great   annoyance   during   the   Mexican    graduated   at   Brown   University  in   1847, 

War.  In  the  Civil  War  guerillas,  or 
"  partisan  rangers,"  as  they  were  called, 
were  commanded  by  officers  duly  commis- 
sioned by  the  Confederate  President  for 
such  service.  By  an  act  of  the  Confeder- 
ate Conjrress,  passed  April  21,  1862,  it  was 
provided  that  these  "  partisan  rangers " 
should  receive  the  full  pay  of  regular 
soldiers  and  be  paid  the  full  value  of  all 

ntals;  9.  Second   |">  Itlo 
position  of  British. 


of  Brit;  t.  j  B.  Front 

I)     FiJ;ht    l.,"l »,",',  'lli- 


and  served  there  as  librarian  for  forty- 
six  years.  His  publications  include  Life 
and  Journals  of  Chaplain  Smith ;  Life  of 
Roper  Williams;  Early  History  of  Brown 
University;  Documentary  History  of 
Brown  University  ;  etc.  He  died  in  1899. 
Guilford,  Battle  of.  Resting  his  troops 
a  while  in  Virginia,  after  his  race  with 
Cornwallis,  Gen.  Nathanael  Greene  (q. 
v.)  recrossed  the  Dan 
into  North  Carolina: 
and  as  he  moved  cau- 
tiously forward  to  foil 
the  efforts  of  Cornwallis 
to  embody  the  Tories  of 
that  State,  he  found  him- 
self, March  1,  1781,  at 
the  head  of  about  5,000 
troops  in  good  spirits. 
Feeling  strong  enough  to 
cope  with  Cornwallis,  he 
sought  an  engagement 
with  him ;  and  on  the 
15th  they  met  near  Guil- 
ford Court  -  house,  where 
they  fiercely  contended 
for  the  mastery.  The  bat- 
tle -  field  was  about  5 
miles  from  the  (present) 
village  of  Greensboro,  in 
Guilford  county,  N.  C. 
Greene  had  encamped 
within  8  miles  of  the 
earl,  on  the  evening  of 
the  14th,  and  on  the 
morning  of  the  15th  he 
moved  against  his  enemy. 
The  latter    was  prepared 

-North  Cnro- 
Virginia  Con- 

lis;  3.  Third 


to  receive  him.     Greene  had  disposed  his  with  the  right  division  in  the  face  of  a 

army  in  three  positions — the  first  at  the  terrible  storm  of  grape-shot  and  musketry, 

edge  of  woods  on  a  great  hill;  the  second  Nearly  the  whole  of  the  two  armies  were 

in  the  forest,  300  yards  in  the  rear;   and  now  in  conflict.     The  battle  lasted  almost 


the  third  a  little  more  than  one-fourth 
of  a  mile  in  the  rear  of  the  second.  The 
first  line  was  composed  of  North  Caro- 
lina militia,  mostly  raw  recruits,  nearly 
1,100  in  number,  commanded  by  Generals 
Butler  and  Eaton.  These  had  two  can- 
non, with  Washington's  cavalry  on  the 
right  wing,  and  Lee's  legion,  with  Camp- 
bell's militia,  on  the  left  wing.  The 
whole  were  commanded  by  Greene  in 

The  British  appeared  in  front  of  the 
Americans  at  a  little  past  noon  in  full 
force,  the  right  commanded  by  General 
Leslie,  and  the  left  by  Colonel  Webster. 
Under  cover  of  a  severe  cannonade  the 
British  advanced,  delivering  a  volley  of 
musketry  as  they  approached,  and  then, 
with  a  shout,  rushed  forward  with  fixed 
bayonets.  The  American  militia  fled  after 
the  firing  of  one  or  two  volleys,  when 
the  victors  pressed  on  and  attacked  the 
second  line,  composed  of  Virginia  militia 
under  Generals  Stevens  and  Lawson.  After 
a  stout  resistance  they,  too,  fell  back  upon 
the  third  line.  Up  to  this  time  the  battle 
had  been  carried  on,  on  the  part  of  the 
British,  by  their  right,  under  Leslie.  Now 
Webster,   with   the   left,    pressed   forward 

two  hours,  when  Greene,  ignorant  of  the 
heavy  losses  sustained  by  the  British, 
ordered  a  retreat,  leaving  his  cannon  be- 
hind and  Cornwallis  master  of  the  field. 
It  was  one  of  the  most  sanguinary  battles 
of  the  war.  The  Americans  lost  about 
400  killed  and  wounded,  besides  1,000  who 
deserted  to  their  homes.  The  British  loss 
was  about  600.  Among  the  fatally  wounded 
was  Colonel  Webster.  That  battle  ended 
British  domination  in  North  Carolina. 
The  army  of  Cornwallis  was  too  much 
shattered  for  him  to  maintain  the  advan- 
tage he  had  gained.  After  issuing  a  procla- 
mation boasting  of  his  victory,  calling 
upon  the  Tories  to  rally  to  his  standard, 
and  offering  pardon  to  the  "  rebels  "  who 
should  submit,  he  moved  with  his  whole 
army  towards  Wilmington,  near  the  sea- 
board. The  news  of  the  battle  produced  a 
profound  sensation  in  England.  "  Another 
such  victory,"  said  Charles  J.  Fox,  in  the 
House  of  Commons,  "  will  ruin  the  British 
army;"  and  he  moved,  June  12,  1781,  to 
recommend  the  ministers  to  conclude  a 
peace  with  the  Americans  at  once.  Will- 
iam Pitt  (son  of  the  great  Chatham) 
spoke  of  the  war  against  the  Americans 
with  great  severity. 



Guillotine,  Song  of  the.  During  the 
prevailing  madness  occasioned  by  the 
French  Revolution  of  1793,  Thehvall,  a 
celebrated  English  Jacobin,  wrote  and  put 
forth  the  following  song,  adapted  to  the 
air  of  "  God  Save  the  King,"  calling  it 
"  God  Save  the  Guillotine  ": 

"  God   save  the  guillotine  ' 
Till  England's  king  and  queen 

Her  power  shall   prove; 
Till  each  anointed  knob 
Affords   a   clipping   job, 
Let  no  rude  halter  rob 

The   guillotine. 

"  France,  let  thy  trumpet  sound — 
Tell   all   the  world  around 

How   Capet   fell  ; 
And  when  great  George's  poll 
Shall   in   the   basket   roll, 
Let  mercy  then  control 

The   guillotine. 

"  When  all  the  sceptred  crew 
Have  paid  their  homage  due 

The  guillotine, 
Let    Freedom's   flag   advance 
Till  all  the  world,  like  France, 
O'er    tyrants'    graves   shall    dance, 

And   peace  begin." 

Joel  Barlow,  an  American,  who  had  be- 
come a  radical  French  Democrat,  was  in- 
vited to  a  Jacobin  festival  at  Hamburg, 
on  July  4,  1793,  where  he  furnished  Thel- 
wall's  song,  at  dinner,  and  it  was  sung, 
with  great  applause.  It  was  supposed  to 
have  been  written  by  Barlow,  who,  on  his 
return,  was  coldly  received  in  New  Eng- 
land, not  only  on  that  account,  but  be- 
cause he  had  assisted  Paine  in  publishing 
his  Age  of  Reason:  The  Song  of  the  Guil- 
lotine was  republished  in  Boston.  See 
Barlow,  Joel. 

Guiteau,  Charles  J.,  assassin;  born 
about  1840,  of  French-Canadian  parents; 
became  an  inconspicuous  lawyer  in  Chi- 
cago. When  James  A.  Garfield  was  elect- 
ed President  (1880),  Guiteau  went  to 
Washington  to  seek  the  office  of  Ameri- 
can consul  at  Marseilles,  but  was  unsuc- 
cessful. This  failure,  along  with  the  polit- 
ical antagonism  between  Garfield  and  Ros- 
coe  Conkling,  greatly  incensed  him.  and  on 
July  2.  1881,  in  the  waiting-room  of  the 
Baltimore  and  Potomac  Railroad  depot, 
in  Washington,  he  fired  two  shois  at  the 
President,  one  of  which  took  effect.  The 
President  lingered  until  Sept.  19,  when 
he   died   at   Elberon,   N.   J.      Immediately 

after  the  shooting,  Guiteau  was  arrested, 
and  letters  found  in  his  pockets  made  it 
evident  that  he  had  premeditated  the 
murder  of  the  President.  On  Aug.  7  he 
attempted  to  murder  William  McGill,  one 
of  his  jail  guards,  and  on  Sept.  13,  Sergt. 
John  Mason,  another  guard,  fired  at  him. 
On  Oct.  7  he  was  indicted  for  murder, 
and  on  Nov.  14  was  placed  on  trial  be- 
fore Judge  Cox,  in  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  District  of  Columbia.  The  prose- 
cution was  conducted  by  United  States 
District     Attorney     Georee     B.     Corklr.ll, 


while  the  counsel  for  the  defence  was 
George  M.  Scoville.  The  trial  continued 
through  the  remainder  of  the  year  and 
to  the  latter  part  of  January,  1SS2.  Dur- 
ing the  last  month,  ex-Judge  John  K. 
Porter  became  associated  with  the  prose- 
cution, and  on  Jan.  23  began  the  final  ad- 
dress to  the  jury.  On  Jan.  25  the  jury 
was  charged  by  Judge  Cox,  and  within 
an  hour  a  verdict  of  guilty  of  murder  in 
the  first  degree  was  agreed  upon.  During 
most  of  the  trial  Guiteau  was  violent  and 
abusive,  and  was  frequently  threatened  by 
Judge  Cox  with  removal  from  the  court- 
room. In  accordance  with  the  verdict, 
and  its  consequent  sentence.  Guiteau  was 
hanged  in  the  district  jail,  June  30,  1882. 
Gunboats.  By  the  act  of  Congress  ap- 
proved April  21,  1806,  provision  was  made 
for  the  construction  of  fifty  gunboats. 
President  Jefferson  had  imbibed  very 
strong  prejudice  in  favor  of  such  vessels. 
A  flotilla  of  them,  obtained   from  Naples, 



GUNBOATS    IN   1807. 

had  been  used  effectively  in  the  war  with 
Tripoli  in  1804;  and  they  were  favorites 
in  the  service,  because  they  afforded  com- 
mands for  enterprising  young  officers.  A 
few  had  been  built  in  the  United  States 
in  1805,  their  chief  contemplated  use  being 
the  defence  and  protection  of  harbors  and 
rivers.  Then  was  inaugurated  the  "  gun- 
boat policy "  of  the  government,  so  much 
discussed  for  three  or  four  years  after- 
wards. Towards  the  close  of  the  year 
(1806)  the  President  announced  that  the 
fifty  gunboats  were  so  far  advanced  that 
they  might  be  put  into  commission  the 
following  year.  In  December,  1807,  the 
President  was  authorized  to  procure   188 

additional  gunboats,  by  purchase  or  con- 
struction, making  in  all  257.  These  gun- 
boats were  variously  rigged  as  seen  in 
the  engraving.  Some  carried  a  single 
swivel  amidship,  and  others  one  in  the 
bow,  and  sometimes  one  in  the  stern.  Jef- 
ferson, who  had  urged  the  construction 
of  these  little  vessels  of  war,  appears  to 
have  conceived  the  idea  that  sach  a  flotilla 
should  merely  be  kept  in  readiness,  prop- 
erly distributed  along  the  coast,  but  not 
actually  manned  until  necessity  should 
call  for  their  being  put  into  commission. 
For  this  proposition  he  was  ridiculed  not 
only  by  naval  officers,  but  among  the  peo- 
ple at  large,  and  he  was  denounced  by  the 

•■ootk's  gunboat  flotilla  in  1862. 


THE    NEW   ERA. 

opposition  as  "  a  dreaming  philosopher,"  lery,  and  were  placed  under  the  command 
and  the  whole  gunboat  system  as  "waste-  of  Flag-Officer  A.  H.  Foote  (q.  v.),  of 
ful    imbecility    called    by    the    name    of    the  navy. 

economy."  Grant    withdrew    his    forces    from    the 

Quite  different  were  the  gunboats  that    bayous   above   Vicksburg,   and   sent   them 

performed    most    efficient    service    on    the    down  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi,  to 

cross  and  gain  the  rear  of 
Vicksburg,  on  the  line  of 
the  Black  River.  Porter 
prepared,  at  the  same 
time,  to  run  by  the  bat- 
teries at  Vicksburg  with 
all  his  gunboat  and  mor- 
tar fleet,  with  transports 
and  barges.  The  object 
was  to  cover  and  assist 
Grant's  movement  below. 
The  armored  vessels  were 
laden  with  supplies;  so, 
also,  were  the  transports. 
It  was  arranged  for  the 
gunboats  to  go  down  in 
single  file,  a  few  hundred 
yards  apart,  attack  the 
batteries  as  they  passed, 
and  allow  the  transports 
Western  rivers  during  the  Civil  War.  to  pass  under  cover  of  the  smoke.  This 
They  were  largely  covered  with  plates  of  was  done  on  the  evening  of  April  16, 
iron,  moved  by  steam,  and  armed  with  1863.  These  vessels  were  terribly  pound- 
very  heavy  guns.  Foote  commanded  the  ed  by  the  batteries  on  the  heights,  but  re- 
first  flotilla  of  gunboats  on  the  Mississippi  turned  the  fire  with  spirit.  One  of  the 
River.  Some  of  them  were  wooden  vessels  was  set  on  fire,  which  burned  to  the 
structures  only,  while  others  were  of  iron  water's  edge  and  sank.  The  gantlet  was 
or  covered  with  heavy  plates  of  iron.  The  successfully  run,  and  only  one  man  lost 
Manassas  had  no  appearance  of  a  boat,  his  life  in  the  operation.  Grant  imme- 
but  looked  like  a  huge  water  -  mon- 
ster. The  Louisiana  showed  another 
form  of  boat.  Indeed,  it  was  a  float- 
ing battery  movable  by  steam.  This 
was  a  Confederate  structure.  The 
"New  Era  was  another  form.  It  was 
two  boats  covered  by  one  common 
deck,  and  all  heavily  armored. 

When  the  Confederate  line  across 
Kentucky  had  been  broken,  the  na- 
tional government  determined  to  con- 
centrate the  forces  of  Halleck  and 
Buell  for  a  great  forward   movement  RSB^^^MBPBI^R^BB!* 

to    push     the    Confederates     towards  tiie  Louisiana. 

the    Gulf    of    Mexico,    according    to 

Fremont's  plan  (see  Fremont,  John  diately  ordered  six  more  transports  to  do 
Charles).  Twelve  gunboats  (some  of  likewise,  and  it  was  done. 
them  iron -plated)  had  been  construct-  Gunnison,  John  W.,  military  engineer; 
ed  at  St.  Louis  and  Cairo,  and  at,  the  born  in  New  Hampshire  in  1812;  grad- 
close  of  January,  1862,  those  wore  armed  uatod  at  the  United  States  Military  Acad- 
with  126  heavy  guns  and  some  light  artil-    emy;    commissioned   second   lieutenant  ^f 


'    ' 


jects.  His  publications  include  biog- 
raphies of  Carl  Ritter,  James  H.  Coffin, 
and  Louis  Agassiz;  A  Treatise  on  Physi- 
cal Geography ;  Creation,  or  the  Biblical 
Cosmogony  in  the  Light  of  Modern 
Sciences;  and  also  numerous  lectures. 
He  died  in  Princeton,  N.  J.,  Feb.  8,  1884. 
Gwin,  William  McKendree,  politician; 
born  in  Sumner  county,  Tenn.,  Oct.  9, 
1805;  acquired  a  classical  education;  and 
for  a  time  studied  law,  and  later  entered 
topographical  engineers,  July  7,  1838;  en-  the  medical  department  at  Transylvania 
gaged  with  Capt.  Howard  Stansbury  in  University,  where  he  took  his  degree  in 
drawing  maps  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  1828.  He  went  to  Clinton,  Miss.,  and 
region  in  1849-51.  He  was  author  of  practised  there  till  1833,  when  he  was 
a  History  of  the  Mormons  of  Utah:  Their  appointed  United  States  marshal  for  the 
Domestic  Polity  and  Theology.  He  was  Mississippi  district.  In  1840  he  was 
murdered,  with  seven  others,  by  a  band  of  elected  to  Congress  by  the  Democratic 
Mormons   and   Indians  near   Sevier   Lake,    party.      He   refused   a   renomination,   and 



Ut.,  Oct.  26,  1853. 

was    later    appointed    to    superintend    the 

Gunpowder.    See  Du  Pont,  Eleuthere    construction  of  the  new  custom-house  at 


Adam,     Count,     author ; 

New  Orleans.     In  1849  he  removed  to  Cali- 
fornia,  and   in    September    served    in   the 

born  in  Poland,   Sept.   10,   1805;   came  to    convention  at  Monterey  called  to  draw  up 
the  United  States  in  1849.     His  publica- 
tions include  America  and  Europe;  Sla- 
very in  History;  My  Diary   (notes  on  the    term  secured  a  survey  of  the  Pacific  coast, 

constitution.     In  December  he  became  a 
United    States    Senator,    and    during    his 

Civil   War),    etc.     He   died   in   Washing 
ton,  D.  C,  May  4,  1866. 
Guthrie,    James,    statesman;    born    in 

a  mint  in  San  Francisco,  a  navy  -  yard 
(Mare  Island),  and  got  a  bill  passed  for 
the   establishment   of   a   line   of   steamers 

Nelson  county,  Ky.,  Dec.  5,  1792;  member    between      San      Francisco,      Japan,      and 
of  State  legislature,  1827-40;  Secretary  of    China.     He  was  re-elected,  but  when  the 

Treasury,  1853-57;  United  States  Sen- 
ator, 1865-68.  He  died  in  Louisville,  Ky., 
March  13,  1869. 

Civil  War  began  was  accused  of  disloy- 
alty, arrested,  and  imprisoned  till  1863, 
when  he  was  released.     He  interested  the 

Guyot,  Arnold  Henry,  geologist;  born    Emperor  of  France  in  a  plan  to  colonize 
in   Bondevilliers,    Neuchatel,    Switzerland,    Sonora,  Mexico,  with  Confederates.     It  is 

Sept.  28,  1807;  was  educated  at  the  Col- 
lege of  Neuchatel.     In   1838  he  made  ex- 

alleged  that  the  French  minister  of  for- 
eign   affairs    encouraged   him   to   draft   a 

animations  of  the  Swiss  glaciers,  at  the  scheme  for  the  colony,  which,  after  meet- 
request  of  Prof.  Louis  Agassiz  ( q.  v.).  ing  the  approbation  of  the  Emperor,  was 
In  1839-48  he  was  Professor  of  History  given  into  the  hands  of  Emperor  Maxi- 
and  Physical  Georraphy  at  Neuchatel.  In  milian.  After  the  latter  had  been  in 
1848  he  came  to  th 3  United  States.  In  1854  Mexico  two  years,  Dr.  Gwin  also  went 
he  became  Professor  of  Geography  and  there,  but  received  no  promises  of  support 
Geology  at  Princeton.  He  established  the  from  Maximilian  in  his  colonization  plans, 
museum  in  Princeton,  which  has  become  Eeturning  to  France  in  1865  he  again 
widely  known.  In  1866-75  he  was  en-  laid  the  matter  before  Napoleon,  at  whose 
gaged  in  the  preparation  of  a  series  of  solicitation  he  returned  to  Mexico  with 
geographies  and  a  series  of  wall-maps,  orders  to  Marshal  Bazaine  to  provide 
For  this  work  the  Vienna  Exposition  of  whatever  force  was  necessary  to  make  his 
1873  awarded  him  a  medal.  In  1873-77  plans  successful.  Dr.  Gwin,  however,  re- 
he  edited  Johnson's  New  Universal  Cyclo-  ceived  no  encouragement  and  returned  to 
pwdia  (with  Frederick  A.  P.  Barnard),  California.  He  engaged  actively  in  pol- 
and  was  the  author  of  many  articles  in  itics,  and  in  1876  supported  Samuel  J. 
it  on   physical   geography   and   like    sub-  Tilden  for  President.     He  was  for  many 



years    known    as    "Duke    Gwin,    of    Sono-  May     15.     1777,    was    mortally    wounded, 

ra."     He  died  in  New  York  City,.  Sept.  3,  dying  on  the  27th. 

1885.  Gwyn,  William  M.     See  Gwin,  Will- 

Gwinnett,  Button,  a  signer  of  the  iam  M. 
Declaration  of  Independence;  born  in  Eng-  Gwyn's  Island  (Va.).  After  the  de- 
land  about  1732;  was  a  merchant  at  Bris-  struction  of  Norfolk  (q.  v.)  by  Lord  Dun- 
tol,  and  emigrated  to  Charleston.  S.  C,  more,  the  Tory  governor  of  Virginia,  the 
in  1770.  He  settled  on  St.  Catharine's  Americans,  under  Stevens,  held  the  town 
Island,  off  the  coast  of  Georgia,  in  1772.  until  late  in  February,  1776,  when  they 
Cautious  and  doubtful,  he  took  no  part  abandoned  the  place.  Dunmore  Bailed 
in  political  affairs  until  after  the  Revo-  down  the  Elizabeth  River  and  landed  at 
lutionary  War  was  begun,  when  he  be-  Gwyn's  Island,  which  he  fortified.  Gen. 
came  active  in  the  patriot  cause.  He  was  Andrew  Lewis  (q.  v.)  erected  two  bat- 
chosen  a  Representative  in  Congress  in  teries,  with  which  he  attacked  Dunmore  on 
177G,  where  he  voted  for  and  signed  the  July  8,  1776.  The  next  day  the  British 
Declaration  of  Independence.  In  1777  he  fled  to  their  ships,  and,  after  plundering 
was  president  of  the  provincial  council  a  number  of  plantations  on  the  Potomac, 
of  Georgia,  and  by  hostility  to  General  divided  their  fleet,  sending  some  of  the 
Mcintosh  excited  the  resentment  of  the  ships  to  the  Bermudas,  some  to  the  West 
latter,  who  challenged  Gwinnett  to  fight  Indies,  and  the  remainder,  with  Dunmore. 
a  duel.    He  accepted  the  challenge,  and  on  to  New  York  City. 



Haanel,    Eugene,    educator;    born    in  old   common-law)    is   next   in   importance 

Breslau,    Germany,   May   24,    1841 ;    came  to      magna      clMrta.      Parliament      may 

to  the  United  States  in   1859;   taught  in  suspend    the    habeas    corpus    act    for    a 

Adrian,  Hillsdale,  and  Albion  colleges  in  specified  time  in  great  emergency.     Then 

Michigan;  was  professor  in  Victoria  Col-  the  nation  parts  with  a  portion  of  liberty 

lege,    Coburg,    Ontario,    in    1873-88;    then  to     secure     its     permanent     welfare,     and 

became   Professor   of   Physical   Science   in  suspected   persons   may   then   be   arrested 

Syracuse  University.    He  resigned  the  last  without  cause  assigned. — Blackstone. 

charge  in  June,  1901,  on  being  appointed  Act   suspended  for  a   short   time.  1689, 

superintendent  of  mines  in  Canada.     Pro-  1696,  1708 

fessor  Haanel  is  a  charter  member  of  the    Suspended  for  Scots'  Rebellion 1715-16 

Royal  Society  of  Canada.  *uspen^  for  etwe'!e,mh°f s Willi 

jL   ,  ,       ,    J  .,  ,  .       Suspended  tor  Scots    Rebellion 1744-45 

Habberton,     John,     author;     born     in    suspended  for  American  War 1777-79 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  24,  1842;   was  edu-  Again    by    Mr.    Pitt,    owing    to    French 

cated  in  the  public  schools  of  Illinois,  and        Revolution   1794 

■tozn          i.  a     tvt        ^     i         j  i            j  jv.  Suspended    in    Ireland    in    the   great   re- 
in 1859  went  to  New  lork  and  learned  the  bellion                                                         1798 

printer's    trade.     In    the     Civil    War    he  Suspended  in  England.Aug.  28,  1799,  and 

served  in  the  Union  army  from   1862   to  April  14,  1801 

1865,    rising    from    private    to    lieutenant.  Again,  on  account  of  Irish  insurrection.   1803 

...         ,,  t  x        t    xi  ■  *    Again,  on  alleged  secret  meetings 

After   the  war   he  entered   the   service  of  Feb.  21    1817 

Harper  &  Brothers,  where  he  remained  till  Bill    to    restore    habeas    corpus    intro- 

1872.     In   1874-77  he  was  literary  editor       duced Jan.  28,  1818 

of  the   Christian   Union;   in   1876-93   was  Suspended  in  Ireland   (insurrection).^.   ^ 

on    the   editorial    staff   of   the   New   York    Restored  there March  l]  1849 

Herald;  and  in   1893-94  on  the  editorial  Suspended    again    Feb.    17,    1866;    Feb. 

staff  of  Godey's  Magazine      His  writings  g,  ^May  31,  1867;  and^Feb.  28,  ^ 

include    Helens    Babies;    Other    Peoples  Because   of   the   affair   of   John   Anderson, 

Children;    The    Barton    Experiment ;    The  an  act  of  1862  enacted  that  no  writ  of  habeas 

Jericho  Road;   Who   Was  Paul   Grayson?  corpus  should   issue  out  of  England  to  any 

m,      a     ■   4.         m    i.     -c  T7„77        t>     +     n  colony,    etc.,    having   a   court    with   authority 

The  Scripture  Club  of  Valley  Rest ;  Coun-  t0  gl;a'nt  su'ch  wrl£ 

try    Luck;    Grown-up    Babies;    Life    of 

Washington;  My  Mother  -  in  -  law;  The  In  United  States  history  the  Constitu- 
Worst  Boy  in  Town;  All  He  Knew;  Honey  tion  provides  that  "  the  privilege  of 
and  Gall;  The  Lue\y  Lover;  etc.  Deacon  habeas  corpus  shall  not  be  suspended,  un- 
Crankett,  his  only  drama,  has  been  per-  less  when,  in  cases  of  rebellion  or  invasion, 
formed  with  much  success.  the  public  safety  may  require  it " ;  but 
Habeas  Corpus,  in  English  history,  does  not  specify  what  department  of  the 
the  subjects'  writ  of  right,  passed  "  for  government  may  suspend  it.  A  series  of 
the  better  securing  the  liberty  of  the  sub-  contests  on  this  subject  began  with  the 
ject,"  31  Charles  II.,  c.  2,  May  27,  1679.  Civil  War  and  continued  throughout,  both 
If  any  person  be  imprisoned  by  the  order  as  to  the  legality  of  suspension  and  the 
of  any  court,  or  of  the  King,  he  may  have  jurisdiction.  The  writ  of  habeas  corpus  was 
a  writ  of  habeas  corpus  to  bring  him  be-  first  suspended  by  President  Lincoln  be- 
fore the  King's  bench  or  common  pleas,  tween  Washington  and  Philadelphia,  April 
which  shall  determine  whether  his  com-  27,  1861,  in  instructions  to  General  Scott 
mittal  be  just.     This  act  (founded  on  the  (it  had  been  suspended  by  State  authority 



in  Rhode  Island  for  a  brief  time  during  ing  the  absence  of  Sir  James  Wright  from 

Dorr's  rebellion).  See  Dork,  Thomas  Wil-  1769   to    1772.     He  was   the   first   person 

son.  to   plant   cotton  in   Georgia.     He   died   in 

President    suspends    the    writ    in    Key  New  Brunswick,  N.  J.,  Aug.  28,  1775. 

West,  Tortugas,  and  Santa  Rosa....  Habersham,     John,     military    officer; 

May   10,  1861  born  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  in  1754;  appointed 

SS£SSDT&"  l^ues ■•;■  wl??  £  ^  ™jor  of  the  1st  Georgia  Regiment  of  Con- 

habeas  corpus   May  27,   to  Gen.  Geo.  tinentals;    served   throughout  the   Revolu- 

Cadwallader     on     appeal     by     John  tionary  War  in  the  army,  and  after  peace 

Merryman,    of   Baltimore,    then    con-  declared  was  appointed  Indian  agent ; 

fined  in  Fort  McIIenry May  2o,   1861  ,     .    ,    .       ,,    rtl      ..         .    .    „,     °        ' 

[On   the  general's   refusal   to   obey  was   elected   to   the   Continental   Congress 

the    writ   Taney    attempts    to    arrest  from    Georgia    in    1785.      He   died   in    Sa- 

him,  but  fails.]  vannah,  Ga.,  Nov.  19,  1799. 

Theophilus  Parsons  supports  President's  Habersham      Tosfpw     ut.^mm-    hnm 

power  to  suspend June  5,  1861  .    ^aoersnam,    JOSEPH,   statesman,    born 

Attorney-General      Bates      asserts      the  in    Savannah,    Ga.,    July    28,    1751.     His 

President's  power  to  declare  martial  father,  James,  who  was  born  in  England 

cVr  «Td  SUSpend  the  Writ  °f  Jul6™8  1861  in  1712'  and  died  at  New  Brunswick> 
OnThundred"knd'"BeVenty-four"perlons  N-  J>  in  1775>  accompanied  Whitefield  to 

committed  to  Fort  Lafayette,  July  to  Georgia  in  1738,  and  was  secretary  of  the 

Oct.,  1861    province  in   1754;   president  of  the   eoun- 
Suspension    of   the   writ   made^neraL  ^^    ^  and  acting  governor   in    i7G9-72.     Jo- 
Congress    by    act    upholds    this    power!  seph  was  a  member  of  the  first  patriotic 
March  3,  1863    committee   in   Georgia   in    1774,   and   ever 

Vallandlgham  arrested   .May  -1    1863    afterwards  took  an  active  part  in  the  de- 

President     suspends     by     proclamation.  -  ,   ,,      ...      ,.  .  .  .  TX 

Sept.   15,  1863    fence  of  the  liberties  of  his  country.     He 
All  persons  held  under  suspension  of  the  helped  to  seize  gunpowder  in  the  arsenal 

writ  discharged May,  1864 

Suspends  in  Kentucky July  5,   1864 

President  Johnson   restores  the  writ  of 

habeas  corpus  except   in   the   late  in- 
surrectionary     States,       District      of 

Columbia,   New   Mexico,   and  Arizona, 

by  proclamation Dec.  11,  1865 

In    all    States    and    Territories    except 

Texas   April  2,   1866 

Throughout  the  United  States.. Aug.  20,  iS66  "  Iflfct 

Thirty-eight  thousand  arrests  were 
made  according  to  the  provost-mar- 
shal's   record,    Washington,    during    the  "  !     xV* 

Civil  War"  ":illl»  mm ^ . '  V  m 

Habersham,  Alexander  Wylly,  naval  HHH 

officer;  born  in  New  York  City,  March  24, 
1826;  joined  the  navy  in  1841;  promoted 
lieutenant  in  1855;  resigned  in  May, 
18G0;  went  to  Japan  as  a  tea  merchant; 
and  was  the  first  to  introduce  that  plant 
from  Japan   into   the  United   States.     At  ijj 

the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War  he  returned 
home    and   was    a    prisoner    at    Fort   Mc-  J08Epn  HABBR3H4M. 

Henry  for  six  months.     He  was  the  author 

of  a  narrative  of  the  United  States  North  in  1775,  and  was  a  member  of  the  council 
Pacific  Exploring  Expedition.  He  died  of  safety.  He  was  one  of  a  company  who 
in  Baltimore,  Md.,  March  26,  1883.  captured  a  government  ship  (July,  1775), 

Habersham,  James,  statesman;  born  with  munitions  of  war,  including  15,000 
in  Beverly,  England,  in  1712;  emigrated  lbs.  of  gunpowder.  He  led  some  volun- 
to  Georgia  in  1738;  was  appointed  coun-  teers  who  made  the  royal  governor, 
cillor  and  secretary  of  the  province  in  Wright,  a  prisoner  (Jan.  18,  1776),  and 
1754;  president  of  the  Assembly  in  1767 j  confined  him  to  his  house  under  a  guard, 
and  was  acting  governor  of  Georgia  dur-    When   Savannah  was  taken  by  the  Brit- 



ish,  early  in  1778,  he  took  his  family  to  1,  1675.  The  inhabitants  were  in  the 
Virginia;  but  in  the  siege  of  Savannah  meeting-house,  it  being  fast-day.  The  men 
(1779)  by  Lincoln  and  D'Estaing,  he  held  seized  their  arms  to  defend  themselves, 
the  office  of  colonel,  which  he  retained  till  their  wives,  and  their  little  ones  from  the 
the  close  of  the  war.  He  was  Postmaster-  savages.  Just  as  the  latter  seemed  about 
General  in  1795-1801,  and  president  of  the  to  strike  a  destructive  blow,  and  the  men, 
Savannah  branch  of  the  United  States  unskilled  in  military  affairs,  felt  them- 
Bank  from  1802  till  its  charter  expired,  selves  almost  powerless,  a  man  with  a 
He  died  in  Savannah,  Nov.  17,  1815.  long,  flowing  white  beard  and  military  air 

Hadley,  Arthur  Twining,  educator;  suddenly  appeared,  drew  his  sword,  and, 
born  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  April  23,  putting  himself  at  the  head  of  the  armed 
1856;  graduated  at  Yale  University  in  men,  filled  them  with  courage  and  led  them 
1876,    and    then    studied    in    the    Univer-    to  victory.   The  Indians  fell  back  and  fled, 

when  the  mysterious  leader  as  suddenly 
disappeared,  none  knowing  whence  he  came 
or  whither  he  went.  It  was  Col.  Will- 
iam Goffe  (q.  v.),  the  "regicide,"  who 
was  then  concealed  in  the  house  of  Mr. 
Russell,  at  Hadley. 

Hague,  Parthenia  Antoinette  Var- 
daman,  author;  born  in  Harris  county, 
Ga.,  Nov.  29,  1838;  is  the  author  of  A 
Blockaded  Family,  or  Life  in  Southern 
Alabama  during  the  Civil  War. 

Hague,  William,  clergyman;  born  in 
Pelham,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  4,  1808;  graduated 
at  Hamilton  College  in  1826,  and  at  the 
Newton  Theological  Institution  in  1829. 
He  wrote  The  Bapiist  Church;  Review  of 
Fuller  and,  Wayland  on  Slavery;  etc.  He 
died  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Aug.  1,  1887. 

Hague  Court  of  Arbitration.  See 

Hahn,  Michael,  jurist;  born  in  Bava- 
ria, Germany,  Nov.  24,  1830;  graduated 
sity  of  Berlin.  Returning  to  the  United  at  the  University  of  Louisiana  in  1854. 
States  he  was  a  tutor  at  Yale  in  1879-83,  He  was  opposed  to  secession  and  did  all 
and  university  lecturer  on  railroad  ad-  in  his  power  to  keep  Louisiana  in  the 
ministration  in  1883-86.  In  the  latter  Union.  When  New  Orleans  was  captured 
year  he  was  made  Professor  of  Political  in  April,  1862,  he  immediately  took  the 
Science  in  the  graduate  department,  where  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  United  States; 
he  remained  till  1890,  when  he  was  elected  was  elected  governor  of  the  State  in  1864; 
president  of  the  university  by  a  unani-  and  United  States  Senator  in  1865,  but 
mous  vote.  The  onlj  public  office  he  has  was  unable  to  obtain  his  seat.  He  served 
ever  held  was  of  commissioner  of  labor  in  the  legislature  for  several  years  and  in 
of  Connecticut  in  1885-87.  He  is  the  1879  was  elected  district  judge,  which 
author  of  Economics,  an  Account  of  the  office  he  held  until  his  resignation  on  being 
Relations  Between  Private  Property  and  elected  to  the  national  House  of  Repr<f- 
Fullic  Welfare;  Railroad  Transportation,  sentatives  in  1885.  He  died  in  Washing* 
Its  History  and  Laws;  and  Report  on  the    ton,  D.  C,  March  15,  1886. 


System  of  Weekly  Payments.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  American  Economic  Association. 

Hail,    Columbia,"   a   stirring,   patri- 
otic song  written  in  the   spnnsr  of   1798„ 

Hadley,    Attack   on.     At   Hadley,    on    when  war  between  the  United  States  and 

the  Connecticut  River,  the  Indians,  in  the     France    seemed    inevitable.     Mr.    Fox,    a 

absence  of  the  little  garrison,  attempted    yonn?    singer    and    actor    in    the    Phila- 

the  destruction  of  life  and  property,  Sept.    delphia   Theatre,   was   to   have   a   benefit. 

iv.— n  193 


There  was  so  little  novelty  in  the  play- 
house that  he  anticipated  a  failure.  On 
the  morning  before  the  appointed  day  he 
called  upon  Joseph  Hopkinson  (q.  v.),  a 
lawyer  and  man  of  letters,  who  indulged 
in  writing  verses,  and  said:  "  Not  a  single 
box  has  been  taken,  and  I  fear  there  will 
be  a  thin  house.     If  you  will   write   me 

for  it  touched  the  public  heart  with  elec- 
trical effect  at  that  moment.  Eight  time9 
the  singer  was  called  out  to  repeat  the 
song.  When  it  was  sung  the  ninth  time 
the  whole  audience  arose  and  joined  in 
the  chorus.  On  the  following  night, 
April  30,  President  Adams  and  his  wife, 
and    some   of   the   heads   of   departments, 

some  patriotic  verses  to  the  air  of  the 
President's  March  I  feel  sure  of  a  full 
house.  Several  people  about  the  theatre 
have  attempted  it,  but  they  have  come  to 
the  conclusion  it  can't  be  done.  I  think 
you  may  succeed."  Hopkinson  retired  to 
his  study,  wrote  the  first  verse  and 
chorus,  and  submitted  them  to  Mrs.  Hop- 
Kinson,  who  sang  them  with  a  harpsichord 
accompaniment.  The  tune  and  words 
harmonized.  The  song  was  soon  finished, 
and  the  young  actor  received  it  the  same 
evening.  Next  morning  the  theatre  plac- 
ards contained  an  announcement  that  Mr. 
Fox  would  sing  a  new  patriotic  song.  The 
house  was  crowded ;  the  song  was  sung, 
and  the  audience  were  wild  with  delight. 

with  their  families,  were  present,  and  tin 
singer  was  called  out  time  after  time.  It 
was  repeated  night  after  night  in  the 
theatres  of  Philadelphia  and  other  places, 
and  it  became  the  universal  song  of  the 
boys  in  the  streets.  On  one  occasion  a 
throng  of  people  gathered  before  the 
author's  residence,  and  suddenly  the  song. 
Hail,  Columbia!  from  500  voices  broke  the 
stillness  of  the  night. 

Haines,  Ai.anson  Austin,  clergyman; 
born  in  Hamburg,  N.  J.,  March  18,  1830; 
graduated  at  Princeton  in  1857;  appoint- 
ed chaplain  of  the  15th  New  Jersey  Regi- 
ment in  18G2;  and  was  present  in  thirty- 
six  battles.  In  1873-70  he  was  engineer  of 
the   United    States    Palestine    Exploration 



Society,    and    made    maps,    sketches,    and  same    year.     It    contains    many    curious 

copies   of   rock   inscriptions    in    the   Holy  documents,    and    is    illustrated    by    maps. 

Land,     Egypt,     and     Turkey.      His     pub-  Anthony    a    Wood,    writing    late    in    the 

lications  include  History  of  the  15th  Regi-  seventeenth     century,     referring    to     this 

merit  New  Jersey  Volunteers.     He  died  in  great  work,  spoke  of  it  as  an  "  honor  to 

Hamburg,  N.  J.,  Dec.  11,  1891.  the  realm  of  England,  because  possessing 

Haines's  Bluff.     At  this  point  on  the  many  ports  and  islands  in  America  that 

Yazoo  River  there  were  stirring  military  are  bare  and  barren,  and  only  bear  a  name 

events  preparatory  to  the  siege  of  Vicks-  for     the    present,    but    may    prove    rich 

burg.     General    Sherman,    with    the    15th  places  in  future  time."     Hakluyt  was  ap- 

Corps,   had   been   operating   in   the  Yazoo  pointed    prebendary    of    Westminster    in 

region,    and    when    Grant    determined    to  1605,   having  been   previously   prebendary 

change  his  base  of  supplies  to  Grand  Gulf,  of  Bristol.     Afterwards  he  was  rector  of 

below    Vicksburg,    Sherman    was    ordered  Wetheringset,   Suffolk,   and   at  his   death, 

to   make   a   feint   against   Haines's   Bluff,  Oct.  23,  1616,  was  buried  in  Westminster 

which  the  Nationals  had   been   unable  to  Abbey.      Henry    Hudson,    who    discovered 

pass.     On  the  morning  of  April  29,  1863,  Spitzbergen    in    1608,    gave    the   name    of 

he   proceeded  from  Milliken's   Bend,  with  Hakluyt's  Head  to  a  point  on  that  island; 

Blair's   division,    in   ten    steamboats,    and  and  Bylot  gave  his  name  to  an  island  in 

armored  and  other  gunboats,  and  went  up  Baffin   Bay.     A   society   founded   in    1846, 

the  Yazoo.     On  the  morning  of  May  6  the  for  the  republication  of  early  voyages  and 

armored    gunboats    assailed    the   fortifica-  travels,  took  his  name, 

tions  at  Haines's  Bluff,  and  in  the  evening  Haldeman,    Samuel    Stehman,    natu- 

Blair's  troops  were  landed,  as  if  with  the  ralist;    born   in   Locust  Grove,   Pa.,   Aug. 

intention  of  making  an  attack.     The  bom-  12,    1812;    was    educated    in    a    classical 

bardment  was  kept  up  until   dark,   when  school    in    Harrisburg    and    in    Dickinson 

the  troops  were  quietly  re-embarked.     The  College.      In    1836    he    was    assistant    to 

assault  and  menace  were  repeated  the  next  Henry  D.  Rogers,  State  geologist  of  New 

day,    when    Sherman    received    an    order  Jersey,  and  in  the  following  year  he  joined 

from    Grant    to    hasten    Avith    his    troops  the  Pennsylvania  survey,  in  which  he  was 

down  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi  and  engaged   till    1842.     He  was   Professor   of 

join  him  at  Grand  Gulf.     See  Vicksburg.  Natural    Sciences    in    the    University    of 

Hakluyt,  Richard,  author;  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1851-55,  and  then  took 
England  about  1553.  Educated  at  Ox-  the  similar  chair  in  Delaware  College. 
ford  University,  he  was  engaged  there  as  From  1869  till  his  death,  Sept.  10,  1880, 
a  lecturer  on  cosmography,  and  was  the  he  was  Professor  of  Comparative  Philology 
first  who  taught  the  use  of  globes.  In  in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  Pro- 
1583  he  published  an  account  of  voyages  fessor  Haldeman  had  a  wonderfully  del- 
of  discovery  to  America;  and  four  years  icate  ear.  In  1848  he  described  in  the 
afterwards,  while  with  the  English  am-  American  Journal  of  Science  a  new 
bassador  at  Paris,  Sir  Edward  Stafford,  origin  of  sound  which  he  had  discovered 
probably  as  his  chaplain,  he  published  in  in  lepidopterous  insects.  He  also  deter- 
French  a  narrative  of  the  voyages  of  mined  more  than  forty  varieties  of  vocal 
Laudonniere  and  others:  and  in  1587  he  repertoire  in  the  human  voice.  His  pub- 
published  them  in  lnglish,  under  the  title  lications  include  Fresh -Water  Univalve 
of  Four  Voyages  unto  Florida.  On  his  Molluska  of  the  United  States;  a  prize 
return  to  England  in  1589,  Hakluyt  was  essay  on  Analytical  Orthography;  Zoologi- 
appointed  by  Raleigh  one  of  the  company  cal  Contributions ;  Elements  of  Latin  Pro- 
of  adventurers  for  colonizing  Virginia,  nunciation;  an  edition  of  Taylor's  Sta- 
His  greatest  work,  The  Principal  Nam-  tistics  of  Coal;  Tours  of  a  Chess  Knight; 
gations,  Voyages,  Trafficks,  and  Discov-  Affixes  in  their  Origin  and  Application; 
cries  of  the  English  Nation,  made  by  Sea  Rhymes  of  the  Poets;  Pennsylvania  Dutch; 
or  over  Land,  to  the  most  remote  and  Outlines  of  Etymology;  Word  Building, 
farthest    distant    Quarters    of   the   Earth,  etc. 

at  any  time  within  the  Compass  of  these  Haldimand,    Sir    Frederick,    military 

Fifteen  Hundred  Years,  was  published  the  officer;  born  in  Neuchatel,  Switzerland,  ia 



October,  1728;  served  for  some  time  in  One  is  Ten;  Margaret  Percival  in  Amer- 
the  Prussian  army,  and,  in  1754,  entered  ica;  In  His  Name;  Mr.  Tangiers'  Vaca- 
the  British  military  service.  He  came  to  lions;  Mrs.  Merriam's  Scholars;  His  Level 
.America  in  1757,  and  as  lieutenant-colonel  Best;  Ups  and  Doicns;  Fortunes  of 
distinguished  himself  at  Ticonderoga  Rachel;  Four  and  Five;  Crusoe  in 
(1758)  and  Oswego  (1759).  He  accom-  New  York;  Christmas  Eve  and  Christmas 
panied  Amherst  to  Montreal  in  1760.  In  Day ;  Our  Christmas  in  a  Palace ;  Sketches 
1767  he  was  employed  in  Florida,  and  be-  in  Christian  History;  Kansas  and  Nc~ 
came  major-general  in  1772.  Returning  braska;  What  Career?  Boys'  Heroes; 
to  England  in  1775  to  give  the  ministry  Sybaris,  and  O'her  Homes;  For  Fifty 
information  respecting  the  colonies,  he  Years;  A  New  England  Boyhood;  Chau- 
was  commissioned  a  major-general  (Jan.  tauquan  History  of  the  United  States, 
1,  1776),  and  in  1777  a  lieutenant-general  etc.  See  Lend-a-Hand  Clubs. 
and  lieutenant-governor  of  Quebec,  where  Hale,  Eugene,  lawyer;  born  in  Turner, 
he  succeeded  Carleton  as  governor  in  1778.  Me.,  June  9,  1836;  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
He  ruled  arbitrarily  until  1784,  when  he  1857;  was  county  attorney  for  Hancock 
returned  to  England.  He  died  in  Yver-  county  nine  years;  elected  to  the  State 
dun,  Switzerland,  June  5,  1791.  legislature    in    1867    and    to    Congress    in 

Hale,  Charles  Reuben,  clergyman;  1869,  where  he  served  ten  years.  In  1881 
born  in  Lewiston,  Pa.,  in  1837;  graduated  he  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate, 
at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1858;  and  re-elected  in  1887,  1893,  and  1899. 
was  made  a  bishop  of  the  Protestant  Hale,  George  Silsbee,  lawyer;  born  in 
Episcopal  Church  in  1892.  He  published  Keene,  N.  H.,  Sept.  24,  1825;  graduated 
the  Universal  Episcopate;  The  American  at  Harvard  College  in  1844;  admitted  to 
Church  and  Methodism,  etc.  He  died  in  the  bar  in  1850,  and  began  practice  in 
Cairo,  111.,  Dec.  25,  1900.  Boston.    His  publications  include  Memoirs 

Hale,  Edward  Everett,  clergyman;  of  Joel  Parker  and  Theron  Metcalf.  He 
born  in  Boston,  April  3,  1822;  gradu-  also  edited  the  sixteenth,  seventeenth,  and 
ated  at  Harvard  College  in  1839;  studied  eighteenth  volumes  of  the  United  States 
theology  and  was  minister  of  the  Church  Digest.  He  died  in  Schooner  Head,  Me., 
of  the  Unity,  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1846-    Ju]y  28,  1897. 

Hale,  Irving,  military  officer;  born  in 
North  Bloomfield,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  28,  1861; 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy  in  1884,  having  made  the  best 
record  ever  achieved  in  that  institution. 
When  the  war  with  Spain  broke  out  he 
went  to  the  Philippines  as  colonel  of  the 
1st  Colorado  Volunteer  Regiment,  which 
he  led  in  the  capture  of  Manila.  In 
recognition  of  his  services  in  the  Philip- 
pines he  was  promoted  brigadier-general 
of  volunteers. 

Hale,  John,  clergyman;  born  in 
Charlestown,  Mass.,  June  9,  1636;  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  in  1657;  ordained  pastor 
of  Beverly  in  1667.  He  approved  the 
prosecution  of  alleged  witches  during  the 
Salem  witchcraft  excitement  in  1692,  and 
in  1697  published  an  inquiry  into  the 
nature  of  witchcraft.  He  died  May  15, 

Hale,  John  Parker,  politician;  born 
in  Rochester.  N.  H..  March  31,  1806; 
1,  1904.  He  is  the  author  of  The  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1827; 
Man     Witliout     a    Country ;     Ten     Times    studied  in  his  native  town,  and  was  there 


56,  and  of  the  South  Church  (Unitarian), 
Boston,  in  1856-99.  On  December  15, 
1903,  he  was  elected  chaplain  of  the 
United   States   Senate   to   date   from   Jan. 


admitted  to  the  bar  in  1830.  He  was 
appointed  United  States  district  attorney 
in  1834  and  reappointed  in  1838,  but  was 
removed,  June  17,  1841,  by  President  Tyler 
on  party  grounds.  In  1842  he  was  elected 
to  Congress;  and  in  1847-53  was  a  United 
States  Senator.  He  was  counsel,  in  1851, 
in  the  trials  which  resulted  from  the 
forcible  rescue  of  the  fugitive  slave  Shad- 
rach  from  the  custody  of  the  United  States 
marshal  in  Boston.  He  was  nominated 
by  the  Free-soil  party  for  President  of  the 
United  States,  with  George  W.  Julian  for 
Vice-President,  in  1852,  and  received  157,- 
680  votes.  In  1855  he  was  returned  to 
the  United  States  Senate  for  the  four 
years  of  the  unexpired  term  of  Mr.  Ather- 
ton,  deceased,  and  in  1859  was  re-elected 
for  a  full  term.  He  was  United  States 
minister  to  Spain  in  1865-69.  He  died 
in  Dover,  N.  H.,  Nov.  19,  1873. 

Hale,  Nathan,  patriot;  born  in  Coven- 
try, Conn.,  June  6,  1755;  graduated 
at  Yale  College  in  1773;  and  taught  school 
till  the  fight  in  Lexington  prompted  him 

enter  the  British  lines  and  procure  needed 
information.  At  the  house  of  Robert  Mur- 
ray, on  the  Incleberg  (now  Murray  Hill, 
in  the  city  of  New  York),  where  Washing- 
ton had  his  headquarters  for  a  brief  time 
while  retreating  towards  Harlem  Heights. 
Hale  received  instructions  on  duty  from 
the  commander-in-chief.  He  entered  the 
British  camp  on  Long  Island  as  a  plain 
young  farmer,  and  made  sketches  and 
notes  unsuspected.  A  Tory  kinsman  knew 
and  betrayed  him.  He  was  taken  to 
Howe's  headquarters  at  the  Beekman  man- 
sion, and  confined  in  the  green-house  all 
night.  He  frankly  avowed  his  name,  rank, 
and  character  as  a  spy  (which  his  papers 
revealed),  and,  without  even  the  form  of 
a  trial,  was  handed  over  to  the  provost- 
marshal  (Cunningham)  the  next  morning 
(Sept.  22,  1776)  to  be  hanged.  That  in- 
famous officer  denied  Hale  the  services  of 
a  clergyman  and  the  use  of  a  Bible;  but 
the  more  humane  officer  who  superintended 
the  execution  furnished  him  with  mate- 
rials  to   write   letters   to   his   mother,   his 


to  join  Col.  Charles  Webb's  regiment.  He  betrothed,  and  sisters.  These  the  brutal 
took  part  in  the  siege  of  Boston :  was  pro-  Cunningham  destroyed  before  the  face  of 
moted  to  captain  in  January,  1776;  and  his  victim,  while  tears  and  sobs  marked 
was  sent  to  New  York.  In  response  to  a  the  sympathy  of  the  spectators.  With  un- 
call    from   Washington   he   volunteered   to    faltering  voice,  Hale  said,  at  the  last  mo- 




rnent,  "  I  only  regret  that  I  have  but  one 
life  to  lose  for  my  country."  Statues  of 
the  patriot  have  been  erected  in  the  capi- 
tol  in  Hartford  and  in  City  Hall  Park, 
New  York  City. 

Hale,  Salma,  historian;  born  in  Al- 
stead,  N.  H.,  March  7,  1787;  was  elected 
to  Congress  in  1816;  appointed  cierk  of 
the  Supreme  Court  in  1817;  and  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1834.  He  is  the  author  of 
a  History  of  the  United  States;  The  Ad- 
ministration of  John  Quincy  Adam$; 
Annals  of  the  Town  of  Keene,  etc.  He 
died  in  Somerville,  Mass.,  Nov.   19,   1866". 

Hale,  Sarah  Josepha.  (Buell), 
author;  born  in  Newport,  N.  H.,  Oct.  24, 
1788;  was  educated  by  her  mother;  mar- 
ried David  Hale  in  1813;  was  left  a 
widow  in  1822,  and  engaged  in  literature 
as  a  means  of  support.  In  1828-37  she 
conducted  the  Ladies'  Magazine  in  Bos- 
ton. In  the  latter  year  this  paper  was 
united  with  Godey's  Lady's  Book  in  Phil- 
adelphia, of  which  Mrs.  Hale  became  edi- 
tor.    She  was  an  early  and  influential  ad- 

vocate of  higher  education  for  women. 
In  1860  she  suggested  that  Thanksgiving 
Day  be  instituted  by  the  national  gov- 
ernment as  a  national  holiday,  and  in 
18G4  President  Lincoln  established  this 
holiday.  She  continued  in  active  edi- 
torial work  till  1S77.  Her  writings  in- 
clude the  poems,  The  Light  of  Home; 
Mamfs  Lamb;  It  Snows,  etc.  Among  her 
Other  works  are  Woman's  Record,  or 
Sketches  of  All  Distinguished  Women 
from  the  Creation  to  the  Present  Day; 
~Sorthu>ood;  Sketches  of  American  Charac- 
ter; Traits  of  American  Life;  Flora's  In- 
terpreter; The  Ladies'  Wreath;  The  Way 
to  Live  Well  and  to  be  Well  While  We 
Live;  Grosvenor,  a  Tragedy;  The  White 
Veil;  Alice  Ray;  Harry  Gray,  the  Widow's 
Son;  Three  Hours,  or  the  Vigil  of  Love; 
Dictionary  of  Poetical  Quotations ;  The 
■fudge,  a  Drama  of  American  Life;  The 
Bible  Reading-Book;  Matiners,  or  Happy 
Homes  and  Good  Society,  etc.  She  died 
in  Philadelphia,  April  30,  1879. 

The  following  is  an  extract  from   Mrs. 


Hale's  Remarks  in  her   Woman's  Record 
for  the  period  1800-68: 

In  truth,  when  we  look  over  the 
world,  with  the  exception  of  two  nations, 
it  still  bears  that  shadow  of  gloom  which 
fell  when  the  ground  first  drank  human 
blood;  and  Man  the  Murderer,  Woman 
the  Mourner,  is  still  the  great  distinction 
between  the  sexes! 

Thank  God  there  is  hope.  The 
Anglo-Saxon  race  in  Europe  numbers 
about  30,000,000,  living  on  a  little  isl- 
and in  the  stormy  northern  ocean.  But 
there,  for  over  100  years,  the  sounds  of 
battle  have  not  been  heard;  the  Salic  law 
never  shamed  the  honor  of  their  royal 
race;  the  holy  Bible  has  been  for  three 
centuries  their  household  book,  and  a  free 
press  now  disseminates  truth  among  the 
people.  Those  30,000,000  hold  the  mas- 
tery of  mind  over  Europe  and  Asia;  if 
we  trace  out  the  causes  of  this  superiority 
they  would  centre  in  that  moral  influence 
which  true  religion  confers  on  the  woman. 

Therefore,  the  Queen  of  Great  Britain 
is  the  greatest  and  most  honored  sover- 
eign now  enthroned;  feminine  genius  is 
the  grace  and  glory  of  British  literature; 
feminine  piety  the  purest  light  of  the 
Anglican  Church;  and  this  era  is  made 
brilliant  by  the  distinguished  women  of 
the  British  island.  There  is  still  a  more 
wonderful  example  of  this  uplifting  power 
of  the  educated  mind  of  woman.  It  is 
only  ninety  years  since  the  Anglo-Saxons 
in  the  New  World  became  a  nation,  then 
numbering  about  3,000,000  souls.  Now 
this  people  form  the  great  American  re- 
public, with  a  population  of  30,000,000; 
and  the  destiny  of  the  world  will  soon  be 
in  their  keeping.  The  Bible  has  been  their 
"  Book  of  books  "  since  the  first  Puritan 
exile  set  his  foot  on  Plymouth  Rock.  Re- 
ligion is  free;  and  the  soul,  which  woman 
always  influences  win  re  God  is  worshipped 
in  spirit  and  truth,  is  untrammelled  by 
code,  or  creed,  or  caste.  No  blood  has 
been  shed  on  the  soil  of  this  nation,  save 
in  the  sacred  cause  of  freedom  and  self- 
defence;  therefore,  the  blasting  evils  of 
war  have  seldom  been  felt;  nor  has  the 
woman  ever  been  subjected  to  the  hard 
labor  imposed  by  God  upon  the  man — that 
of  "  subduing  the  earth."  The  advantages 
of  primary  education  have  been  accorded 

to  girls  equally  with  boys,  and,  though 
the  latter  have,  in  their  endowed  colleges, 
enjoyed  the  special  benefit  of  dirett  legis- 
lation, yet  public  sentiment  has  always 
been  favorable  to  feminine  education,  and 
private  liberality  has  supplied,  in  a  good 
degree,  the  means  of  instruction  to  the 
daughters  of  the  republic.  The  result  is 
before  the  world — a  miracle  of  national 
advancement.  American  mothers  train 
their  sons  to  be  men! 

The  old  Saxon  stock  is  yet  superior  to 
the  new  in  that  brilliancy  of  feminine 
genius  the  artificial  state  of  social  life  in 
England  now  fosters  and  elicits,  surpass- 
ing every  nation  in  its  list  of  learned 
ladies;  yet  in  all  that  contributes  to  pop- 
ular education  and  pure  religious  senti- 
ment among  the  masses,  the  women  of 
America  are  in  advance  of  all  others  on 
the  globe.  To  prove  this,  we  need  only 
examine  the  list  of  American  missionary 
women,  the  teachers  and  authoresses  of 
works  instructive  and  educational,  con- 
tained in  this  Record. 

Hale,  William  Bayard,  clergyman; 
born  in  Richmond,  Ind.,  April  6,  1869; 
graduated  at  Boston  University;  ordain- 
ed in  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church 
in  1894.  His  publications  include  The 
Making  of  the  American  Constitution; 
The  Genesis  of  Nationality,  etc. 

Half-breeds,  the  name  applied  by  the 
"  Stalwarts  "  under  Conkling  to  those  Re- 
publicans who  opposed  the  third  nomina- 
tion of  Grant,  the  course  of  President 
Hayes  in  reconciling  the  South,  and  who 
favored  the  policy  of  Blaine. 

Half-way  Covenant.  In  1657  a  coun- 
cil was  held  in  Boston,  and  in  1662  a 
synod  of  all  the  clergy  in  Massachusetts 
was  convened  to  reconsider  the  decision  of 
the  council  that  all  Baptist  persons  of 
upright  and  decorous  lives  ought  to  be 
considered  for  practical  purposes  as  mem- 
bers of  the  Church,  and  therefore  entitled 
to  the  exercise  of  political  rights,  even 
though  unqualified  for  participation  in  the 
Lord's  Supper.  In  1660  the  advocates  of  the 
"  Half-way  Covenant "  seceded  from  the 
old  Church,  forming  a  new  society,  and 
built  a  meeting-house,  which  was  succeeded 
in  1729  by  the  present  Old  South  Church. 

Haliburton,  Thomas  Chandler,  au- 
thor; born  in  Windsor,  Nova  Scotia,  in 
1797;    studied  law  and  was  admitted   tc 



the  bar  in  1820.  Later  lie  became  a  Halkett,  Sir  Petee,  military  officer; 
member  of  the  House  of  Assembly.  He  born  in  Pitfirrane,  Scotland;  elected 
was  chief-justice  of  the  court  of  com-  to  Parliament  in  1734;  commanded  a  regi- 
mon  pleas  in  1829,  and  was  appointed  ment,  and  with  his  son  was  killed  in  the 
judge  of  the  supreme  court  in  1840.  battle  near  Pittsburg,  Pa.  (where  Brad- 
He  held  this  office  till  1842,  when  he  dock  was  defeated) ,  July  9,  1755. 
removed  to  England.  In  1859  he  repre-  Hall,  Asaph,  astronomer;  born  in 
sented  Launceston  in  Parliament  as  a  Goshen,  Conn.,  Oct.  15,  1829;  received  a 
Conservative,  and  remained  there  till  common-school  education ;  worked  on  a 
18G5.  His  publications  include  The  farm;  and  later  became  a  carpenter.  In 
Clock-Maker,  or  the  Sayings  and  Doings  1853  he  took  up  the  study  of  geometry 
of  Samuel  Slick,  of  Slickville,  which  con-  and  algebra;  subsequently  pursued  special 
sists  of  a  collection  of  newspaper  sketches  courses  in  the  University  of  Michigan, 
satirizing  New  Englanders.  His  other  and  afterwards  entered  the  observatory 
writings  include  The  Attache,  or  Sam  of  Harvard  College,  where  he  served  as 
Slick  in  England;  An  Historical  and  assistant  in  1857-G2.  In  August  of  the 
Statistical  Account  of  ~Nova  Scotia;  Bub-  latter  year  he  was  made  aide  in  the 
ties  of  Canada;  The  Old  Judge,  or  Life  United  States  Naval  Observatory  in 
in  a  Colony;  Letter-Bag  of  the  Great  Washington,  and  in  the  following  year 
Western;  Rule  and  Misrule  of  the  Eng-  was  appointed  Professor  of  Mathematics 
lish  in  America;  Yankee  Stories;  Traits  with  the  relative  rank  of  captain.  In 
of  American  Humor,  etc.  He  also  edited  1895  he  became  Professor  of  Astronomy 
a  number  of  books,  among  them  one  on  at,  Harvard  University.  He  has  led  many 
the  Settlement  of  Neio  England.  He  died  astronomical  expeditions  for  the  govern- 
in  Isleworth,  England,  Aug.  27,  1865.  ment,  among  them   being   that  to   Bering 

Halifax,     Earl     of.     See     Montague,  Sea,  in  18G9,  to  observe  the  solar  eclipse, 

Charles.  and    that    to    Vladisvostok,    Siberia,    in 

Halifax  Fisheries  Award.     One  of  the  1874,  to  study  the  transit  of  Venus.     His 

articles  of  the  treaty  of  Washington  pro-  most     important     discovery,     which     won 

vided  for  a  commission  to  adjudicate  the  him    great    distinction,    was    that    of    the 

value  of  the  fishery  privileges  conceded  to  two  moons  of  Mars,  which  he  located  in 

the   United   States   by   that   treaty.      This  August,      1877,     and     which     he     named 

commission  met  in  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  "  Deimos "    and    "  Phobos "     (Terror    and 

June   5,   1877.     Great   Britain   was   repre-  Fear).     The  Royal   Astronomical    Society 

sented    by    Sir    Alexander    F.    Gait;    the  of   London   awarded   him   its   gold   medal 

United    States    by    E.    H.    Kellogg.      The  in    1879.      In    1875   he   became   a   member 

third  commissioner,  Maurice  Del  fosse,  was  of  the  National   Academy  of  Sciences,  of 

named  by  Austria,  as  provided  for  in  the  which  he  was  president  in  1901.     He  has 

treaty.      The    commission    awarded    Great  contributed  to  many  astronomical  journal.-.. 

Britain  $5,500,000  for  the  use  of  the  fish-  Hall,   Benjamin  Homer,  author;    born 

ing    privileges     for     twelve    years.       The  in   Troy,   N.   Y.,   Nov.    14,    1830;    was   ad- 

money   was   appropriated   by   Congress   in  mitted  to  the  bar  in  1850,  and  began  prac- 

187S   with   the   proviso   "  articles    18    ind  tice  in   his  native  city.     His  publications 

21     of    the    treaty    between    the     United  include  History  of  Eastern   Vermont,  etc.; 

States   and    Great   Britain,    concluded    on  and    Bibliography    of    the    United   States: 

May  8,   1871,  ought  to   be  terminated   at  Vermont;    and    he    was    the    editor    of    A 

the    earliest    period    consistent    with    the  Tribute    by    the   Citizens   of   Troy    to    the 

provisions    of    article    33     of    the     same  Memory  of  Abraham  Lincoln.     He  died  in 

treaty."      The    President    of    the    United  Troy,  N.  Y.,  April  6,  1893. 

States,  in  pursuance  of  instructions  from  Hall,  Bolton,  lawyer;  born  in  Ireland 

Congress,    gave    the    required    notice,    and  in     1854;     graduated    at    Princeton    Col- 

the  fishery  articles   therefore   came  to  an  lege  in  1875.     He  has  been  a  strong  plead- 

end  July  1,  1885.     In  1888  the  new  treaty  er   for  the  restoration  of  the  land  to  the 

was  negotiated  in  reference  to  the  fishery  people,    and    has    put    into    practice    his 

question,  but  was  rejected  by  the  United  theory  by  inducing  many  unemployed  per- 

States  Senate,  Aug.  21,  1888.  sons  to  engage  in  the  cultivation  of  vacant 



lots.     He  is  known  as  a  lecturer  on  uni- 
versity extension  and  other  reforms. 

Hall,  Charles  Francis,  explorer;  born 
in  Rochester,  N.  H.,  in  1821;  in  early 
life  was  first  a  blacksmith,  and  then  a 
journalist  in  Cincinnati.  In  1859  he  ap- 
peared in  New  York,  and  at  a  meeting  of 
the  American  Geographical  Society  he 
oflered  to  go  in  search  of  the  remains  of 
Sir  John  Franklin.  Funds  for  the  pur- 
pose were  raised,  and  in  May,  1860,  he 
sailed  from  New  London,  Conn.,  in  a 
whaling  vessel,  commanded  by  Capt.  Sid- 
ney O.  Buddington.  The  vessel  became 
locked  in  the  ice.  He  made  the  acquaint- 
ance of  the  Eskimos,  learned  their 
language,  acquired  their  friendship,  and 
lived  with  them  two  years,  making  his 
way  back  to  the  United  States  in  Sep- 
tember, 1862,  without  having  discovered 
any  traces  of  Sir  John  Franklin  and  his 
party.  He  was  accompanied  by  an  Es- 
kimo and  his  wife.  His  Arctic  Re- 
searches and  Life  among  the  Eskimos 
was  published  in  1864.  In  July  of  that 
year  he  set  out  on  another  polar  expe- 
dition, with  Buddington,  expecting  to  be 
absent  two  or  three  years,  but  did  not  re- 
turn until  late  in  1869.  Satisfied  that 
none  of  Franklin's  men  were  alive,  Hall 
labored  to  induce  Congress  to  fit  out  a 
ship  to  search  for  the  supposed  open  polar 
sea,  and  it  made  an  appropriation  for 
the  purpose.  A  ship  called  the  Polaris 
was  fitted  out,  and  sent  (from  New  York, 
June  29,  1871)  under  the  general  com- 
mand of  Hall,  Buddington  going  as  sail- 
ing-master, accompanied  by  scientific  as- 
sociates. In  August  they  reached  the 
northern  settlement  in  Greenland.  Push- 
ing on  northward,  the  vessel  reached  lat. 
86°  16',  the  most  northerly  point  reached 
up  to  that  time.  They  wintered  in  a  cove 
(which  they  called  Polaris),  in  lat.  81° 
38'.  In  October  Hall  and  three  others 
started  on  a  sledge  expedition  northward, 
and  reached  a  point  a  few  miles  short  of 
that  touched  by  the  Polaris.  They  soon 
returned,  when  Hall  was  taken  sick  and 
died  Nov.  8,  1871.  In  August,  1872,  Cap- 
tain Buddington  attempted  to  return  with 
the  Polaris,  but  for  weeks  was  in  the  ice- 
pack. She  was  in  great  peril,  and  prepa- 
rations were  made  to  abandon  her.  The 
boats,  provisions,  and  nineteen  of  the 
crew  were  put  on  the  ice,  but  before  the 

rest  of  them  could  get  out  the  vessel  broke 
loose  and  drifted  away.  Those  on  the  ice 
drifted  southward  for  195  days,  floating 
helplessly  about  2,000  miles.  An  Es- 
kimo, the  friend  of  Captain  Hall,  kept 
the  company  from  starving  by  his  skill 
in  seal-fishing.  The  party  was  picked  up 
in  April,  1873,  by  a  Nova  Scotia  whaling 
steamer,  and  the  Polaris  made  a  port  on 
an  island,  where  her  crew  wintered,  made 
boats  of  her  boards,  and  set  sail  south- 
ward. They  were  picked  up,  June  23, 
by  a  Scotch  whaler  and  taken  to  Dundee. 
Captain  Buddington  was  born  in  Grotori, 
Conn.,  Sept.  16,  1823;  and  died  there, 
June  13,  1888. 

Hall,  David,  printer;  born  in  Edin- 
burgh, Scotland,  in  1714;  emigrated  to 
America  in  1747;  became  a  partner  of 
Benjamin  Franklin,  but  the  partnership 
was  dissolved  in  1766,  when  the  firm  of 
Hall  &  Sellers  was  established.  This  firm 
had  the  printing  of  the  Pennsylvania 
colonial  currency  and  also  the  Continental 
money  issued  by  authority  of  Congress. 
He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Dec.  24,   1772. 

Hall,  Domtnick  Augustine,  jurist; 
born  in  South  Carolina  in  1765;  was  dis- 
trict judge  of  Orleans  Territory  from  1809 
till  it  became  the  State  of  Louisiana  in 
1812,  when  he  was  appointed  United 
States  judjre  of  the  State.  While  the  city 
of  New  Orleans  was  under  martial  law 
early  in  1815,  General  Jackson  caused 
Judge  Hall's  arrest  for  interfering  with 
the  operations  of  that  law.  On  his  re- 
lease, in  March,  he  summoned  Jackson  to 
answer  for  contempt  of  court,  and  fined 
him  $1,000.  He  died  in  New  Orleans,  Deo 
19,  1820. 

Hall,  Edwin,  clergyman;  born  in  Gran- 
ville N.  Y.,  Jan.  11,  1S02;  graduated 
at  Middlebury  College  in  1826;  pastor  of 
a  Congregational  church  at  Norwalk. 
Conn.,  in  1832-54;  then  elected  Professor 
of  Theology  in  Auburn  Seminary.  He  is 
the  author  of  The  Puritans  and  Their 
Principles ;  Historical  Records  of  Norwalk, 
etc.  He  died  in  Auburn,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  8, 

Hall,  Gordon,  first  American  mission- 
ary to  India;  born  in  Tolland  county, 
Mass.,  April  8,  1784;  was  ordained  at 
Salem  in  1812,  and  sailed  for  Calcutta, 
where  he  arrived  in  February,  1813.  and 
spent  thirteen  years  there  in   missionary 



labors.     He    died     of     cholera     in     India, 
March  20,  1826. 

Hall,  Granville  Stanley,  educator; 
born  in  Ashfield,  Mass.,  May  5,  1845; 
graduated  at  Williams  College  in  1867. 
He  served  as  professor  of  psychology  in 
Antioch  College,  Ohio,  in  1872-76.  Later 
he  studied  in  Bonn,  Leipsic,  Heidelberg, 
and  Berlin.  Returning,  he  lectured  on 
psychology    in    Harvard    University    and 

nois  Monthly  Magazine,  and  the  West- 
ern Monthly  Magazine.  Among  his  pub- 
lished works  are  Life  of  Thomas  Posey; 
Life  of  Gen.  W.  H.  Harrison;  Notes  on 
the  Western  States;  History  of  the  Indian 
Tribes;  The  Wilderness  and  the  War- 
Path,  etc.     He  died  July  5,  1868. 

Hall,  James,  geologist;  born  in  Hing- 
ham,  Mass.,  Sept.  12,  1811;  was  gradu- 
ated at  the  Rensselaer  School    (now  Poly- 

Williams  College  in  1880-81.  In  1881  he  technic  Institute)  in  Troy,  in  1832;  was 
became  Professor  of  Psychology  in  Johns  retained  there  as  assistant  Professor  of 
Hopkins  University,  and  remained  there  Chemistry  and  Natural  Science,  and  be- 
till  1888,  when  he  accepted  the  presidency, 
with  the  chair  of  psychology,  of  Clark 
University.  He  is  author  of  Aspects  of 
German  Culture;  Hints  Toioard  a  Select 
and  Descriptive  Bibliography  of  Education 

came  full  professor  in  1854.  He  held  this 
chair  till  1876,  when  he  became  professor 
emeritus.  In  1836,  when  the  geological  sur- 
vey of  New  York  was  organized,  and  four 
divisions  made  of  the   State,   he  was  ap- 

(with  John  M.  Mansfield),  etc.     In   1900  pointed   assistant  geologist   in  the   second 

he  was  editor  of  The  American  Journal  of  division.      In   the   following   year   he   was 

Psychology    and    The    Pedagogical    Semi-  appointed  State  geologist.     In  1838-41  ho 

tiary.  explored  the  western  portion  of  the  State 

Hall,  Hiland,  jurist;  born  in  Benning-  and   embodied   the   results   in   the   second, 

ton,  Vt.,  July  20,   1795;   admitted  to  the  third,    fourth,   and    fifth    Annual    Reports 

bar  in   1819;   was  a  member  of  the  first  on  the  work.     His  final  report  on  the  sur- 

National  Republican  Convention  in   1856.  vey  of  the  fourth  geological   district   was 

He  was  governor  of  Vermont  in  1858-59;  issued  in   1843  as   Geology  of  New   York, 


and  published  a  History  of  Vermont.     He 
died  in  Springfield,  Mass.,  Dec.  18,  1885. 

Hall,  James,  military  officer;  born  in 
Carlisle,  Pa.,  Aug.  22,  1744;  gradu- 
ated at  Princeton  in  1774;  became  pastor 
of  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Bethany, 
N.  C,  in  1778.    He  belonged  to  the  church 


Part  IV.  During  that  year  he  took  charge 
of  the  paleontological  work  of  the  State 
survey,  the  results  of  which  are  published 
in  13  volumes  entitled  the  Natural  History 
of  New  York.  This  is  considered  the  great- 
est work  of  its  kind  in  the  world.  It  is  es- 
timated that  the  work  cost  the  State  more 

militant,    and    during    the    Revolutionary  than  $1,000,000.     It  is  valuable  not  only 

War  was  an  ardent  patriot.     He  raised  a  because  of  the  paleontological  information 

troop  of  cavalry,   and  was   at   once   com-  which  it  contains,  but  also  for  its  details 

mander  and  chaplain.     He  is  the  author  of  the  researches  westward  to  the  Rocky 

of  a  Report  of  a  Missionary  Tour  Through  Mountains.      These    researches    form    the 

the     Mississippi     and     the     Southioesiem  basis   of  all   the  knowledge  of  geology  of 

Country.      He    died    in    Bethany,    N.    C,  the   Mississippi   Valley.      In    1855   he   was 

July  25,  1826.  also  State  geologist  for  Iowa.,  and  in  1857 

Hall,   James,  military  officer;   born  in  for  Wisconsin.   In  1866-93  he  was  director 

Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  19,  1793;  enlisted  of  the  New  York  State  Museum.     Dr.  Hall 

as   a   private   in   1812;    commanded   a   de-  gave   much   time    to   the    investigation    of 

tachment  from  his  company  at  the  battle  crystalline    stratified    rocks,    and    he    was 

of  Chippewa  in  1814  and  at  the  siege  of  the  discoverer  of  the  persistence  and  sig- 

Fort  Erie;   received  a  commission  in  the  nificance  of  mineralogies!  character  as  an 

army   in    1815;    and    served   in    Decatur's  indicator  to  classification.     In  speaking  of 

expedition  to  Algiers  on  the  United  States  this   a   scholar   has   said:    "It   is  not   too 

brig    Enterprise.      He    left    the    army    in  much   to  say  that  the  method  was  estab- 

1818;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  the  same 
year;  removed  to  Shawneetown,  111.,  in 
1820,    and    to    Cincinnati    in    1833.      He 

lished  by  the  New  York  survey,  and  that 
it  finds  its  best  in  the  classic  fourth  dis- 
trict;   here   it  was   that    American    strati- 

edited     at     various     times     the     Illinois    graphic  geology  was   founded."     Further- 
Gazette,  the  Illinois  Intelligencer,  the  Illi-    more.    Dr.    Hall    originated    the    rational 



theory  of  mountains,  which  is  held  to  be 
one  of  the  most  valuable  contributions 
made  to  isostasy.  His  publications  in- 
clude, besides  those  mentioned:  Graptolites 
of  the  Quebec  Group;  the  paleontological 
portions  of  Fremont's  Exploring  Expedi- 
tion, Appendix  A;  Expedition  to  the 
Great  Salt  Lake;  United  States  and  Mexi- 
can Boundary  Survey ;  United  States  Geo- 
logical Exploration  of  the  Fortieth  Paral- 
lel (vol.  iv.,  1877);  Geological  Survey  of 
Ioica,  and  chapters  on  geology,  paleontol- 
ogy and  physical  geography  in  the  Report 
on  the  Geological  Survey  of  the  State  of 
Wisconsin.  He  died  in  Echo  Hill,  N.  H., 
Aug.  7,  1898. 

Hall,  Lyman,  signer  of  the  Declaration 
of  Independence;  born  in  Connecticut  in 
1725;  graduated  at  Yale  College  in 
1747,  and,  becoming  a  physician,  estab- 
lished himself  at  Sunbury,  Ga.,  where  he 
was  very  successful.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Georgia  convention  in  1774-75,  and 
was  influential  in  causing  Georgia  to  join 
the  other  colonies.  He  was  a  delegate 
to  Congress  in  March,  177,5,  from  the 
parish  of  St.  John,  and  in  July  was  elect- 
ed a  delegate  by  the  provincial  convention 
of  Georgia.  He  remained  in  Congress  un- 
til 1780,  when  the  invasion  of  the  State 
caused  him  to  hasten  home.  He  was  gov- 
ernor of  Georgia  in  1783,  and  died  in 
Burke  county,  Ga.,  Oct.  19,  1790. 

Hall,  Nathan  Kelsey,  statesman; 
born  in  Marcellus,  N.  Y.,  March  10,  1810; 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1832;  appointed 
judge  of  the  court  of  common  pleas  in 
1841;  elected  to  the  Assembly  in  1845; 
to  Congress  in  1847.  President  Fillmore 
appointed  him  Postmaster  -  General  in 
1850  and  United  States  district  judge  in 
1852.  He  died  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y,  March 
2,  1874. 

Hall,  Newman,  clergyman;  born  in 
Maidstone,  Kent,  England,  May  22,  1816; 
graduated  at  the  University  of  London 
in  1841.  He  was  pastor  of  the  Albion  Con- 
gregational Church  in  Hull  in  1842-54.  In 
the  latter  year  he  became  pastor  of  Surrey 
Chapel,  London.  While  the  American 
Civil  War  was  being  waged,  he  was  a 
strong  friend  of  the  Union,  and  at  the 
conclusion  of  the  war  he  made  a  lecturing 
tour  of  the  United  States  for  the  purpose 
of  promoting  international  good-will.  This 
Tisit    was    afterwards    commemorated    by 

the  construction,  as  a  part  of  the  new 
church  on  Westminster  Road,  of  the  Lin- 
coln Tower,  the  cost  of  which  was  met  by 
subscriptions  from  American  and  English 
citizens.  His  publications,  which  have 
met  with  much  favor  in  the  United 
States,  include:  The  Christian  Philoso- 
pher; Italy,  the  Land  of  the  Forum  and 
the  Vatican;  Lectures  in  America;  Ser- 
mons and  History  of  Surrey  Chapel;  From 
Liverpool  to  St.  Louis;  Pilgrims'  Songs; 
Prayer,  its  Reasonableness  and  Efficacy; 
The  Lord's  Prayer;  Songs  of  Earth  and 
Heaven;  and  a  lecture  on  the  assassina- 
tion of  President  Lincoln,  in  London,  in 
1865.    He  died  in  London,  Feb.  18,  1902. 

Hall,  Robert  Henky,  military  officer; 
born  in  Detroit,  Mich.,  Nov.  15,  1837; 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Mili- 
tary Academy  in  I860;  was  promoted  to 
second  and  first  lieutenant  of  the  10th  In- 
fantry in  1861;  captain  in  1863;  major  of 
the  22d  Infantry  in  1883;  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  the  6th  Infantry  in  1888;  and 
colonel  of  the  4th  Infantry,  May  18,  1893. 
In  the  volunteer  service  he  was  appoint- 
ed a  brigadier-general  May  27,  1898;  was 
honorably  discharged  under  that  commis- 
sion and  reappointed  to  the  same  rank 
April  15,  1899;  and  on  the  reorganization 
of  the  regular  army  in  February,  1901,  he 
was  appointed  one  of  the  new  brigadier- 
generals.  During  the  Civil  War  he  served 
on  the  frontier;  in  the  Rappahannock 
campaign ;  in  the  operations  about  Chatta- 
nooga; and  in  the  action  at  Weldon,  Va., 
where  he  was  wounded.  In  1865-71  he 
was  again  on  frontier  duty,  and  in  1871-78 
was  on  duty  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy.  For  some  time  prior  to  his  last 
promotion  he  was  on  duty  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands. 

Hall,  Samuel,  printer;  born  in  Med- 
ford,  Mass.,  Nov.  2,  1740;  was  a  partner 
of  the  widow  of  James  Franklin  in  1761— 
68,  in  which  year  he  published  the  Essex 
Gazette  in  Salem,  Mass.  He  removed  to 
Cambridge  in  1775  and  published  the  New 
England  Chronicle,  and  subsequently  the 
Massachusetts  Gazette.  He  died  in  Bos- 
ton, Mass.,  Oct.  30,  1807. 

Hall  of  Fame,  a  building  erected  in 
1900  on  the  grounds  of  the  New  York- 
University,  New  York  City,  with  funds 
provided  by  Helen  M.  Gould  ( q.  v.) ,  and 
officially   known   as   "  The   Hall   of   Fame 




for  Great  Americans."  It  is  built  in  the  Ceorge  Washington,  97;  Abraham  Lin- 
form  of  a  semicircle,  506  feet  long,  15  coin,  96;  Daniel  Webster,  96;  Benjamin 
feet  wide,  and  170  feet  high.  Within  the  Franklin,  04;  Ulysses  S.  Grant,  92;  John 
colonnade  will  be  150  panels,  each  2  by  8  Marshall,  91;  Thomas  Jefferson,  00; 
feet  in  dimensions,  to  contain  the  names.  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson,  87;  Henry  W. 
The  rules  adopted  allow  the  names  of  such  Longfellow,  85 ;  Robert  Fulton,  85 ;  Wash- 
persons  only  who  were  born  within  the  ington  Irving,  83;  Jonathan  Edwards,  81; 
United  States,  who  have  been  dead  ten  or  Samuel  F.  B.  Morse,  80;  David  G.  Farra- 

gut,  70;   Henry  Clay,  74;   Nathaniel   Haw- 

more  years,  and  who  were  included  with 

in    one   of   ten    classes — viz.,   authors   and    thorne, 

editors,    business   men,    educators,    invent 

ors,    missionaries    and    explorers,    philan 

3;  George  Peabody,  72;  Robert 
E.  Lee.  CO:  Peter  Cooper.  (JO:  Eli  Whit- 
ney, (17:  John  J.  Audubon,  07:  Hor- 
ace   Mann,    66;     Henry    Ward     Bcecher. 


Joseph     Story. 


John       Adams,     (il  ;       William       E. 
anninar,    58;    Gilbert    Stuart,    52:    Asa 

thropists    and    reformers,    preachers    and 
theologians,  scientists,  engineers  and  archi-    66; 
tects,      lawyers     and     judges,     musicians,    04; 
painters    and    sculptors,     physicians     and 
surgeons,    rulers    and    statesmen,    soldiers   Gray,  51. 

and  sailors,  and  distinguished  men  and  In  1005  the  following  were  added:  John 
women  outside  the  above  classes.  Fifty  Quincy  Adams.  60;  dames  Russell  Low- 
names  were  first  to  be  inscribed,  with  five  ell,  50:  William  Teeumseh  Sherman,  58; 
additional  names  every  five  years  until  the  .Fames  Madison,  56;  John  Grccnleaf  Whit- 
year  2000,  when  the  150  inscriptions  will  tier.  53.  Two  loggia  were  added,  one  for 
be  completed.  In  Oct.,  1000,  a  jury  of  100  great  Americans  of  foreign  birth,  to 
persons  was  appointed  to  vote  on  the  first  which  were  elected,  in  1005,  Alexander 
fifty  names.  The  number  of  names  sub-  Hamilton,  88;  Louis  Agassiz,  83;  and 
mitted  reached  252,  of  which  only  29  re-  John  Paul  Jones,  55;  and  one  for  great 
ceived  51  or  more  votes:  American  women,  to  which  were  elected, 



in   1905,  Mary  Lyon,  59;   Emma  Willard,    fessor  at  West  Point,   and  from   1841   to 
50;   and  Maria  Mitchell,  48.  1844   was   employed   on   the   fortifications 

Halleck,  Fitz-Greene,  poet;  born  in  in  New  York  Harbor.  In  1845  he  visited 
Guilford,  Conn.,  July  8,  1790;  became  a  the  military  establishments  of  Europe, 
clerk  in  the  banking-house  of  Jacob  Bar-  In  the  winter  of  1845-46  he  delivered  at 
ker  at  the  age  of  eighteen  years;  and  was  the  Lowell  Institute,  Boston,  a  series  of 
long  a  confidential  clerk  with  John  Jacob  lectures  on  the  science  of  war,  afterwards 
Astor,  who  made  him  one  of  the  first  published  in  book  form  with  the  title  of 
trustees  of  the  Astor  Library.  From  Elements  of  Military  Art  and  Science. 
early  boyhood  he  wrote  verses.  With  He  served  in  California  and  on  the  Pacific 
Joseph  Rodman  Drake,  he  wrote  the  hu-  coast  during  the  war  with  Mexico,  in 
morous  series  known  as  The  Croker  Pa-  which  he  distinguished  himself.  He  was 
pers  for  the  Evening  Post  in  1819.  His  on  the  staff  of  Commodore  Shubrick  at 
longest  poem,  Fanny,  a  satire  upon  the  the  capture  of  Mazatlan,  and  was  made 
literature  and  politics  of  the  times,  was  lieutenant-governor.  From  Aug.  13,  1847, 
published  in  1821.  The  next  year  he  went  to  Dec.  20,  1849,  he  was  secretary  of  the 
to  Europe,  and  in  1827  his  Alnwick  Castle,  province  and  Territory  of  California,  and 
Marco  Bozzaris,  and  other  poems  were  had  a  large  share  in  preparing  the  State 
published  in  a  volume.  Halleck  was  a  constitution.  He  left  the  army  in  1854, 
genuine  poet,  but  he  wrote  comparatively  and  began  the  practice  of  law  in  San 
little.  His  pieces  of  importance  are  only  Francisco.  In  August,  1861,  he  was  ap- 
thirty-two  in  number,  and  altogether  com-    pointed    a    major-general    of    the    regular 

army,  and  succeeded  Fr§mont  in  com- 
mand of  the  Western  Department  in  No- 
vember. In  1862  he  took  command  of  the 
army  before  Corinth,  and  in  July  of  that 
year  he  was  appointed  general-in-chief, 
and  held  that  post  until  superseded  by 
Grant,  when  he  became  chief  of  staff  of 
the  army,  remaining  such  till  April,  1865, 
when  he  was  placed  in  command  of  the 
Military  Division  of  the  James,  with  his 
headquarters  at  Richmond.  In  August  he 
was  transferred  to  the  Division  of  the 
Pacific,  and  in  March,  1869,  to  that  of 
the  South,  with  headquarters  at  Louis- 
ville, where  he  died  Jan.  9,  1872.  Gen- 
eral Halleck  published  several  works 
upon  military  and  scientific  topics. 

Hallowell,  Richard  Price,  author; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Dec.  16,  1835; 
removed  to  Massachusetts  in  1859;  waa 
identified  with  the  abolition  movement; 
aided  the  formation  of  negro  regiments 
prise  only  about  4,000  lines.  Yet  he  wrote  during  the  Civil  War.  He  is  the  author 
with  great  facility.  His  Fanny,  in  the  of  The  Quaker  Invasion  of  Massachusetts, 
measure  of  Byron's  Don  Juan,  was  com-  and  The  Pioneer  Quakers. 
pleted  and  printed  within  three  weeks  Halpine,  Charles  Graham,  author 
after  it  was  begun.  Late  in  life  he  joined  and  soldier;  born  in  Oldcastle,  Ireland, 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  He  died  in  Nov.  20,  1829;  graduated  at  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Dublin,  in  1846;  emigrated  to  the 
United  States  in  1850;  was  connected  at 
cer;  born  in  Westernville,  Oneida  co.,  various  times  with  the  Boston  Post,  New 
N.  Y.,  Jan.  16,  1815;  graduated  at  West  York  Herald,  New  York  Times,  New  York 
Point  in  1839,  entering  the  engineer  corps.  Leader,  and  New  York  Tribune.  He  en- 
Until   June,   1840,   he   was   assistant   pro-    listed  in  the  69th  New  York  Infantry  at 



Guilford,  Nov.   19,   1867. 

Halleck,  Henry  Wager,  military 


the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War,  and 
reached  the  rank  of  brigadier-general. 
After  the  war  he  established  the  Citizen. 
He  was  best  known  under  his  nom  de 
plume  Miles  O'Reilly.  He  was  the 
author  of  the  well-known  lyric  beginning: 

"  Tear  down   the   flaunting   lie ! 
Half-mast  the  starry  flag  !" 

He  died  in  New  York  City,  Aug.  3, 

Halsall,  William  Formby,  artist; 
born  in  Kirkdale,  England,  March  20, 
1844;  removed  to  Boston,  where  he  began 
to  study  fresco-painting  in  1860,  but 
in  the  following  year  joined  the  navy, 
and  served  until  1863.  Later  he  de- 
voted himself  to  marine  painting  in  Bos- 
ton. His  works  include  Chasing  a  Block- 
ade-Runner in  a  Fog;  First  Fight  of 
Ironclads,  Monitor  and  Merrimac,  which 
was  purchased  by  the  government  and 
hum?  in  the  United  States  Senate  Cham- 

ber; The  Mayflower,  now  in  Memorial 
Hall,  Plymouth,  Mass.,  etc. 

Halstead,  Murat,  journalist;  born  in 
Paddy's  Run,  O.,  Sept.  2,  1829;  graduated 
at  Farmer's  College  in  1851;  became  a 
journalist  and  was  on  the  Cincinnati 
Commercial  from  1853  until  its  consoli- 
dation with  the  Gazette  in  1883,  when  he 
became  president  of  the  company.  In  1890 
he  became  editor  of  the  Brooklyn  Stand- 
ard-Union. He  is  the  author  of  The  Con- 
vention of  1860;  Life  of  William  Mc- 
Kinley ;  Story  of  the  Philippines,  etc. 

Hamer,  Thomas  Lewis,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Pennsylvania  about  1800; 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Ohio  in  1821 ; 
elected  to  the  Ohio  legislature;  to  Con- 
press  in  1833.  It  was  he  who  nominated 
Ulysses  S.  Grant  for  a  cadetship  at  West 
Point.  During  the  Mexican  War  he  reach- 
ed the  rank  of  brigadier-general  of  volun- 
teers; was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Mon- 
terev,  and  died  there  Dec.  2,  1846. 


Hamilton,  Alexander,  statesman;  83),  and  soon  took  the  lead  in  his 
born  in  Nevis,  W.  I.,  Jan.  11,  1757.  His  profession.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
father  was  a  Scotchman;  his  mother,  of  New  York  legislature  in  1787,  and  of 
Huguenot  descent.  He  came  to  the  Eng-  the  convention  at  Philadelphia,  that 
lislf-American  colonies  in  1772,  and  at-  year,  that  framed  the  national  Con- 
tended a  school  kept  by  Francis  Barber  slitution.  With  the  aid  of  the  able  pens 
at  Elizabeth,  N.  J.,  and  entered  King's  of  Madison  and  Jay,  Hamilton  put  forth 
(Columbia)  College  in  1773.  He  made  a  a  series  of  remarkable  essays  in  favor  of 
speech  to  a  popular  assemblage  in  New  the  Constitution,  which,  in  book  form,  bear 
York  City  in  1774,  when  only  seventeen  the  name  of  The  Federalist.  Hamilton 
years  of  age,  remarkable  in  every  particu-  wrote  the  larger  half  of  that  work.  He 
lar,  and  he  aided  the  patriotic  cause  by  was  called  to  the  cabinet  of  Washington 
his  writings.  In  March,  1776,  he  was  as  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  and  was 
made  captain  of  artillery,  and  served  at  the  founder  of  the  financial  system  of 
White  Plains,  Trenton,  and  Princeton;  the  republic.  Having  finished  the  great 
and  in  March,  1777,  became  aide-de-camp  work  of  assisting  to  put  in  motion  the 
to  Washington,  and  his  secretary  and  machinery  of  the  government  of  the 
trusted  confidant.  He  was  of  great  assist-  United  States,  and  seeing  it  in  successful 
ance  to  Washington  in  his  correspondence,  working  order,  he  resigned,  Jan.  31,  1795, 
and  in  planning  campaigns.  In  Decern-  and  resumed  the  practice  of  law;  but  his 
ber,  1780,  he  married  a  daughter  of  Gen.  pen  was  much  employed  in  support  of 
Philip  Schuyler,  and  in  1781  he  retired  the  policy  of  the  national  government, 
from  Washington's  staff.  In  July  he  was  When,  in  1798,  war  with  France  seemed 
appointed  to  the  command  of  New  York  probable,  and  President  Adams  appointed 
troops,  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  capt-  Washington  commander-in-chief  of  the 
ured  by  assault  a  redoubt  at  Yorktown,  armies  of  the  republic,  Hamilton  was 
Oct.  14,  1781.  After  the  surrender  of  made  his  second  in  command,  with  the 
Cornwallis  he  left  the  army;  studied  rank  of  major-general.  On  the  death  of 
law;   was  a  member  of  Congress    (1782-  Washington    (December,   1799),  Hamilton 



succeeded  him  as  commander-in-chief,  but  1  following,  with  full  authority  to  con- 
the  provisional  army  was  soon  disbanded,  elude,  finally,  upon  a  general  confedera- 
On  Sept.  3,  1780,  Hamilton  wrote  to  tion.  He  traced  the  cause  of  the  want  of 
Duane,  a  member  of  Congress  from  New  power  in  Congress,  and  censured  that 
York,  and  expressed  his  views  on  the  body  for  its  timidity  in  refusing  to  as- 
subiect  of  State  supremacy  and  a  na-  sume  authority  to  preserve  the  infant  ra- 
tional government.  He  proposed  to  call  public  from  harm.  "Undefined  powers, 
for  a  convention  of  all  the  States  on  Nov.  he     said,     "  are     discretionary     powers, 



limited  only  by  the  object  for  which  they  admiration  of  the  English  constitution  as 
were  given.'*  He  said  that  "  some  of  the  the  best  model ;  nor  did  he  conceal  his 
lines  of  the  army,  but  for  the  influence  theoretical  preference  for  monarchy,  while 
of  Washington,  would  obey  their  States  he  admitted  that,  in  the  existing  state  of 
in  opposition  to  Congress.  .  .  .  Con-  public  sentiment,  it  was  necessary  to  ad- 
dress should  have  complete  sovereignty  in  here  to  republican  forms,  but  with  all  the 
all  that  relates  to  war,  peace,  trade,  strength  possible.  He  desired  a  general 
finance,  foreign  affairs,  armies,  fleets,  government  strong  enough  to  counter- 
fortifications,  coining  money,  establishing  balance  the  strength  of  the  State  govern- 
banks,  imposing  a  land-tax,  poll-tax,  ments  and  reduce  them  to  subordinate  im- 
duties     on     trade,     and     the     unoccupied  portance. 

lands."  He  proposed  that  the  general  The  first  report  to  the  national  Con- 
government  should  have  power  to  pro-  gress  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  was 
vide  certain  perpetual  revenues,  produc-  waited  for  with  great  anxiety  not  only 
tive  and  easy  of  collection.  He  claimed  by  the  public  creditors,  but  by  every 
the  plan  of  confederation  then  before  thoughtful  patriot.  It  was  presented 
Congress  to  be  defective,  and  urged  to  the  House  of  Representatives  Jan. 
alteration.  "  It  is  neither  fit  for  war,"  15,  1790.  It  embodied  a  financial  scheme, 
he  said,  "  nor  for  peace.  The  idea  of  an  which  was  generally  adopted,  and  re- 
uncontrollable  sovereignty  in  each  State  mained  the  line  of  financial  policy  of 
will  defeat  the  powers  given  to  Congress,  the  new  government  for  more  than  twenty 
and  make  our  union  feeble  and  precari-  years.  On  his  recommendation,  the  na- 
ous."  He  recommended  the  appointment  tional  government  assumed  not  only  the 
of  joint  officers  of  state — for  foreign  af-  foreign  and  domestic  debts  of  the  old  gov- 
fairs,  for  war,  for  the  navy,  and  for  the  ernment,  incurred  in  carrying  on  the 
treasury — to  supersede  the  "  committees  "  Revolutionary  War,  as  its  own,  but  also 
and  "boards"  hitherto  employed:  but  he  the  debts  contracted  by  the  several  States 
neither  favored  a  chief  magistrate  with  during  that  period  for  the  general  welfare, 
supreme  executive  power,  nor  two  The  foreign  debt,  with  accrued  interest, 
branches  in  the  national  legislature.  The  amounting  to  almost  $12,000,000,  was  due 
whole  tone  of  Hamilton's  letter  was  hope-  chiefly  to  France  and  private  lenders  in 
ful  of  the  future,  though  written  in  his  Holland.  The  domestic  debt,  including 
tent,  in  the  midst  of  a  suffering  army.  outstanding  Continental  money  and  in- 
Hamilton  was  afraid  of  democracy.  He  terest,  amounted  to  over  $42,000,000,  near- 
wished  to  secure  for  the  United  States  ly  one-third  of  which  was  accumulated  ac- 
a  strong  government;  and  in  the  conven-  crued  interest.  The  State  debts  assumed 
tion  at  Philadelphia  in  1787  he  presented  amounted  in  the  aggregate  to  $21,000,000, 
a  plan,  the  chief  features  of  which  were  distributed  as  follows:  New  Hampshire, 
an  assembly,  to  be  elected  by  the  people  $300,000;  Massachusetts,  $4,000,000; 
for  three  years;  a  senate,  to  be  chosen  Rhode  Island,  $200,000;  Connecticut, 
by  electors  voted  for  by  the  people,  to  hold  $1,000,000;  New  York,  $1,200,000;  New 
office  during  good  behavior;  and  a  gov-  Jersey,  $800,000;  Pennsylvania.  $2,200,- 
ernor,  also  chosen  to  rule  during  good  be-  000;  Delaware.  $200,000;  Maryland,  $800,- 
havior  by  a  similar  but  more  complicated  000;  Virginia,  $3,000,000:  North  Carolina, 
process.  The  governor  was  to  have  an  ab-  $2,400,000:  South  Carolina.  $4,000,000; 
solute  negative  upon  all  laws,  and  the  ap-  Georgia,  $300,000.  Long  and  earnest  de- 
pointment  of  all  officers,  subject,  however,  bates  on  this  report  occurred  in  and  out 
to  the  approval  of  the  Senate.  The  gen-  of  Congress.  There  was  but  one  opinion 
eral  government  was  to  have  the  appoint-  about  the  foreign  debt,  and  the  President 
ment  of  the  governors  of  the  States,  and  was  authorized  to  borrow  $12,000,000  to 
a  negative  upon  all  State  laws.  The  Sen-  pay  it  with.  As  to  the  domestic  debt, 
ate  was  to  be  invested  with  the  power  of  there  was  a  wide  difference  of  opinion, 
declaring  war  and  ratifying  treaties.  In  The.  Continental  bills,  government  eer- 
a  speech  preliminary  to  his  presentation  of  tificatcs,  and  other  evidences  of  debt  were 
this  plan,  Hamilton  expressed  doubts  as  mostly  held  by  speculators,  who  had  pur- 
to  republican  government  at  all,  and  his  chased  them  at  greatly  reduced  rates;  and 


many  prominent  men  thought  it  would  be 
proper  and  expedient  to  apply  a  scale  of 
depreciation  to  them,  as  in  the  case  of 
the  paper  money  towards  the  close  of  the 
war,  in  liquidating  them. 

Hamilton  declared  such  a  course  would 
be  dishonest  and  impolitic,  and  that  the 
public  promises  should  be  met  in  full,  in 
whatever  hands  the  evidences  were  found. 
It  was  the  only  way,  he  argued  justly,  to 
sustain  public  credit.  He  proposed  the 
funding  of  the  public  debt  in  a  fair  and 
economical  way  by  which  the  creditors 
should  receive  their  promised  6  per  cent, 
until  the  government  should  be  able  to 
pay  the  principal.  He  assumed  that  in 
five  years,  if  the  government  should  pur- 
sue an  honorable  course,  loans  might  be 
made  for  5,  and  even  4,  per  cent.,  with 
which  the  claims  might  be  met.  The 
propositions  of  Hamilton,  though  warmly 
opposed,  were  obviously  so  just  that  they 
were  agreed  to  in  March  (1790),  and  a 
new  loan  was  authorized,  payable  in  cer- 
tificates of  the  domestic  debt  at  their  par 
value  in  Continental  bills  of  credit  (new 
issue),  at  the  rate  of  100  to  1.  Congress 
also  authorized  an  additional  loan  to  the 
amount  of  $21,000,000,  payable  in  certifi- 
cates of  the  State  debts.  A  system  of 
revenue  from  imports  and  internal  excise, 
proposed  by  Hamilton,  was  also  adopted. 

The  persistent  and  sometimes  violent 
attacks  upon  the  financial  policy  of  the 
government,  sometimes  assuming  the  as- 
pect of  personality  towards  Hamilton, 
that  appeared  in  Freneau's  National  Ga- 
zette in  1792,  at  length  provoked  the 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury  to  publish  a 
newspaper  article,  over  the  signature  of 
"  An  American,"  in  which  attention  was 
called  to  Freneau's  paper  as  the  organ  of 
the  Secretary  of  State,  Mr.  Jefferson,  and 
edited  by  a  clerk  employed  in  his  office. 
This  connection  was  represented  as  in- 
delicate, and  inconsistent  with  Jefferson's 
professions  of  republican  purity.  He 
commented  on  the  inconsistency  and  in- 
delicacy of  Mr.  Jefferson  in  retaining  a 
place  in  the  cabinet  when  he  was  opposed 
to  the  government  he  was  serving,  vilify- 
ing its  important  measures,  adopted  by 
both  branches  of  the  Congress,  and  sanc- 
tioned by  the  chief  magistrate;  and  con- 
tinually casting  obstacles  in  the  way  of 
establishing  the  public  credit  and  provid- 

ing for  the  support  of  the  government. 
The  paper  concluded  with  a  contrast,  as 
to  the  effect  upon  the  public  welfare,  be- 
tween the  policy  adopted  by  the  govern- 
ment and  that  advocated  by  the  party  of 
which  Jefferson  aspired  to  be  leader. 
Freneau  denied,  under  oath,  that  Jefferson 
had  anything  to  do  with  his  paper,  and 
declared  he  had  never  written  a  line  for 
it.  To  this  "  An  American  "  replied  that 
"  actions  were  louder  than  words  or 
oaths,"  and  charged  Jefferson  with  being 
"  the  prompter  of  the  attacks  on  govern- 
ment measures  and  the  aspersions  on  hon- 
orable men."  The  papers  by  "  An  Ameri- 
can "  were  at  once  ascribed  to  Hamilton, 
and  drew  out  answers  from  Jefferson's 
friends.  To  these  Hamilton  replied.  The 
quarrel  waxed  hot.  Washington  (then  at 
Mount  Vernon),  as  soon  as  he  heard  of 
the  newspaper  war,  tried  to  bring  about 
a  truce  between  the  angry  Secretaries.  In 
a  letter  to  Jefferson,  Aug.  23,  1792,  he 
said :  "  How  unfortunate  and  how  much 
to  be  regretted  it  is  that,  while  we  are  en- 
compassed on  all  sides  with  avowed  ene- 
mies and  insidious  friends,  internal  dis- 
sensions should  be  harrowing  and  tearing 
out  our  vitals."  He  portrayed  the  pub- 
lic injury  that  such  a  quarrel  would  in- 
flict. He  wrote  to  Hamilton  to  the  same 
effect.  Their  answers  were  characteristic 
of  the  two  men,  Jefferson's  concluding 
with  an  intimation  that  he  should  retire 
from  office  at  the  close  of  Washington's 
term.  Hamilton  and  Jefferson  were  never 
reconciled ;  personally  there  was  a  truce, 
but  politically  they  were  bitter  enemies. 

In  the  winter  of  1804  Hamilton  was  in 
Albany,  attending  to  law  business.  While 
there  a  caucus  or  consultation  was  held 
by  the  leading  Federalists.  It  was  a  secret 
meeting  to  consult  and  compare  opinions 
on  the  question  whether  the  Federalists, 
as  a  party,  ought  to  support  Aaron  Burr 
for  the  office  of  governor  of  the  State  of 
New  York.  In  a  bedroom  adjoining  the 
closed  dining-room  in  which  the  caucus 
was  held  one  or  two  of  Burr's  political 
friends  were  concealed,  and  heard  every 
word  uttered  in  the  meeting.  The  charac- 
ters of  men  were  fully  discussed,  and 
Hamilton,  in  a  speech,  spoke  of  Burr 
as  an  unsuitable  candidate,  because  no 
reliance  could  be  placed  in  him.  The 
spies    reported    the    proceedings    to    their 



principal,  and  on  Feb.  17  a  correspond- 
ent of  the  Morning  Chronicle  wrote 
that  at  a  Federal  meeting  the  night 
before  the  "  principal  part  of  Hamilton's 
speech  went  to  show  that  no  reliance  ought 
to  be  placed  in  Mr.  Burr."  In  the  election 
which  ensued  Burr  was  defeated,  and, 
though  Hamilton  had  taken  no  part  in  the 
canvass,  his  influence  was  such  that 
Burr  attributed  his  defeat  to  him.  Burr, 
defeated  and  politically  ruined,  evidently 
determined  on  revenge — a  revenge  that 
nothing  but  the  life  of  Hamilton  would 
satiate.  Dr.  Charles  Cooper,  of  Albany, 
had  dined  with  Hamilton  at  the  table  of 

a  pretext  for  a  challenge  to  mortal  com- 
bat; and,  seizing  upon  the  word  "despica- 
ble," sent  a  note  to  Hamilton,  demanding 
"  a  prompt  and  unqualified  acknowledg- 
ment or  denial  of  having  said  anything 
which  warranted  such  an  expression." 
Several  notes  passed  between  Hamilton 
and  Burr,  through  the  hands  of  friends,  in 
one  of  which  Hamilton  frankly  said  that 
"  the  conversation  which  Dr.  Cooper  alluded 
to  turned  wholly  on  political  topics,  and  did 
not  attribute  to  Colonel  Burr  any  instance 
of  dishonorable  conduct,  nor  relate  to  his 
private  character;  and  in  relation  to  any 
other  language  or  conversation  of  General 

Judge  Taylor,  where  Hamilton  spoke  freely    Hamilton  which  Colonel  Burr  will  specify, 
of  Burr's  political  conduct  and  principles 
only,  to  which  he  declared  himself  hostile. 
Dr.    Cooper,   in   his   zeal,   just   before   the 
election,  in  published  letters,  said:  "  Ham- 


ilton  and  Kent  both  consider  Burr,  politi- 
cally, as  a  dangerous  man,  and  unfit  for 
the  office  of  governor."    He  also  wrote  that 
Hamilton    and    Kent    both    thought    that    thirty    years. 
Burr  ought  not  to  be  "trusted  with  the  .J  Report  on  the  Coinage. — On  Jan.  28,  1791, 

a  prompt  and  frank  avowal  or  denial  will 
be  given."  This  was  all  an  honorable  man 
could  ask.  But  Burr  seemed  to  thirst 
for  Hamilton's  life,  and  he  pressed  him  to 
fight  a  duel  in  a 
manner  which,  in 
the  public  opinion 
which  then  pre- 
vailed concerning 
the  " code  of  hon- 
or," Hamilton 
could  not  decline. 
They  fought  at 
Weehawken,  July 
11,  1804,  on  the 
west  side  of  the 
Hudson  River,  and 
Hamilton,  who 
w  o  u  1  d  not  dis- 
charge his  pistol 
at  Burr,  for  he  did 
not  wish  to  hurt 
him,  was  mortally 
wounded,  and  died 
the  next  day.  The 
public  excitement, 
without  regard  to 
party,  was  intense. 
Burr  fled  from  New 
York  and  became 
for  a  while  a  fugitive  from  justice.  He 
was  politically  dead,  and  bore  the  bur- 
den  of  scorn  and  remorse   for  more  than 

reins  of  government,"  and  added,  "  I  could 
detail  a  still  more  despicable  opinion  which 
Hamilton  had  expressed  of  Burr."  The  lat- 
ter made  these  private  expressions  of  Ham- 
ilton   concerning    his    political    character 

Secretary  Hamilton  sent  the  following  re- 
port to  the  House  of  Representatives: 

The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  having  at- 
tentively considered  the  subject  referred  to 




him  by  the  order  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  15th  of  April  last,  rel- 
atively  to   the   establishment   of    a   mint, 

has  caused  no  general  sensation  of  in- 
convenience, should  alterations  be  at- 
tempted, the  precise  effect  of  which  can- 

most  respectfully  submits  the  result  of  his    not  with  certainty  be  calculated' 

inquiries   and   reflections. 

A  plan  for  an  establishment  of  this 
nature  involves  a  great  variety  of  con- 
siderations— intricate,    nice,    and    impor- 

The  answer  to  this  question  is  not  per- 
plexing. The  immense  disorder  which 
actually  reigns  in  so  delicate  and  im- 
portant  a   concern,   and   the   still   greater 

tant.      The   general    state   of   debtor    and  disorder  which  is  every  moment  possible, 

creditor;     all    the    relations    and    conse-  call    loudly    for    a    reform.      The    dollar 

quences   of   price;    the   essential   interests  originally     contemplated     in     the     money 

of  trade  and  industry;    the  value  of  all  transactions  of  this  country,  by  successive 

property;   the  whole  income,  both  of  the  diminutions    of    its    weight    and    fineness, 

State  and  of  the  individuals — are  liable  to  has    sustained    a    depreciation    of    5    per 

be  sensibly  influenced,  beneficially  or  oth- 
erwise, by  the  judicious  or  injudicious 
regulation  of  this  interesting  object. 

cent.;  and  yet  the  new  dollar  has  a  cur- 
rency in  all  payments  in  place  of  the  old, 
with  scarcely  any  attention  to  the  differ- 

It  is  one,  likewise,  not  more  necessary    ence  between  them.     The  operation  of  this 
than  difficult  to  be  rightly  adjusted;   one    in  depreciating  the  value  of  property,  de- 

which  has  frequently  occupied  the  reflec- 
tions and  researches  of  politicians,  with- 

pending  upon  past  contracts,  and    (as  far 
as    inattention    to    the    alteration    in    the 

out  having  harmonized  their  opinions  on    coin  may  be  supposed  to  leave  prices  sta- 

some  of  the  most  important  of  the  prin- 
ciples which  enter  into  its  discussion.    Ac- 

tionary)    of  all   other  property  is   appar- 
ent.     Nor    can    it    require    argument    to 

cordingly,    different    systems    continue    to    prove  that  a  nation  ought  not  to   suffer 
be  advocated,  and  the  systems  of  different    the  value  of  the  property  of  its  citizens 

nations,    after    much    investigation,    con- 
tinue to  differ  from  each  other. 

But,  if  a  right  adjustment  of  the  mat- 
ter be  truly  of  such  nicety  and  difficulty 

to  fluctuate  with  the  fluctuations  of  a 
foreign  mint  and  to  change  with  the 
changes  in  the  regulations  of  a  foreign 
sovereign.     This,  nevertheless,  is  the  con- 

a  question  naturally  arises,  whether  it  dition  of  one  which,  having  no  coins  of 
may  not  be  most  advisable  to  leave  things,  its  own,  adopts  with  implicit  confidence 
in  this  respect,  in  the  state  in  which  they  those  of  other  countries, 
are.  Why,  might  it  be  asked,  since  they 
have  so  long  proceeded  in  a  train  which 

The  unequal  values  allowed  in  different 
parts'  of  the  Union  to  coins  of  the  same 



intrinsic  worth,  the  defective  specie?  of  The  pound,  though  of  various  value,  is 
them  which  embarrass  the  circulation  of  the  unit  in  the  money  account  of  all  the 
some  of  the  States,  and  the  dissimilarity    States.     But    it    is    not    equally    easy    to 

in  their  several  moneys  of  account,  are 
inconveniences  which,  if  not  to  be  ascribed 
to  the  want  of  a  national  coinage,  will 
at  least  be  most  effectually  remedied  by 
the  establishment  of  one, — a  measure  that 
will  at  the  same  time  give  additional  se- 
curity against  impositions  by  counterfeit 
as  well  as  by  base  currencies. 

It    was    with    great    reason,    therefore, 

pronounce  what  is  to  be  considered  as 
the  unit  in  the  coins.  There  being  no 
formal  regulation  on  the  point  (the  reso- 
lutions of  Congress  of  the  6th  of  July, 
1785,  and  8th  of  August,  1786,  having 
never  yet  been  carried  into  operation),  it 
can  only  be  inferred  from  usage  or  prac- 
tice. The  manner  of  adjusting  foreign 
exchanges    would    seem    to    indicate    the 

that  the  attention  of  Congress,  under  the  dollar  as  best  entitled  to  that  character, 

late  Confederation,  was  repeatedly  drawn  In   these  the  old  piaster  of  Spain  or  old 

to  the  establishment  of  a  mint;  and  it  is  Seville  piece  of  eight  reals,  of  the  value 

with    equal    reason    that   the    subject    has  of  four  shillings  and  sixpence  sterling,  is 

been    resumed,    now    that    the    favorable  evidently     contemplated.      The     computed 

change  which  has  taken  place  in  the  situ-  par   between   Great  Britain   and   Pennsyl- 

ation  of  public  affairs  admits  of  its  being 
carried  into  execution. 

But,  though  the  difficulty  of  devising  a 
proper  establishment  ought  not  to  deter 
from    undertaking    so    necessary    a    work, 

vania  will  serve  as  an  example.  Accord- 
ing to  that,  one  hundred  pounds  sterling 
is  equal  to  one  hundred  and  sixty-six 
pounds  and  two-thirds  of  a  pound,  Penn- 
sylvania    currency;      which     corresponds 

yet  it  cannot  but  inspire  diffidence  in  one  with  the  proportion  between  4s.  Qd.  ster- 

whose  duty  it  is  made  to  propose  a  plan  ling  and  7s.  6d.,  the  current  value  of  the 

for  the  purpose,  and  may  perhaps  be  per-  dollar  in  that  State  by  invariable  usage, 

nutted  to  be  relied  upon  as  some  excuse  And,    as    far    as    the    information    of    the 

for   any  errors  which   may  be  chargeable  Secretary  goes,  the  same  comparison  holds 

upon  it,or  for  any  deviations  from  sounder  in  the  other  States. 

principles  which  may  have  been  suggested  But  this  circumstance  in   favor   of  the 

by  others  or  even  in  part  acted  upon  by  dollar  loses  much  of  its  weight  from  two 

the    former    government    of    the    United  considerations.     That  species  of  coin  has 

States.  never  had  any  settled  or  standard  value. 

In  order  to   form   a  right  judgment   of  according  to  weight  or   fineness,   but  has 

what  ought  to  be  done,  the  following  par-  been  permitted  to  circulate  by  tale,  with- 

ticulars  require  to  be  discussed: —  out  regard  to  either,  very  much  as  a  mere 

1st.  What  ought  to  be  the  nature  of  the  money  of  convenience,  while  gold  has  had 

money  unit  of  the  United  States?  a  fixed  price  by  weight,  and  with  an  eye 

2d.  What  the   proportion   between   gold  to  its  fineness.     This  greater  stability  of 

and  silver,  if  coins  of  both  metals  are  to 
be  established? 

3d.  What  the  proportion  and  composi- 
tion of  alloy  in  each  kind? 

4th.  Whether  the  expense  of  coinage 
shall  be  defrayed  by  the  government  or 
out  of  the  material  itself? 

ftth.  What  shall  be  the  number,  denom- 
inations,  sizes,  and   devices  of  the   coins? 

6th  Whether  foreign  coins  shall  be  per- 
mitted to  be  current  or  not;  if  the  former, 
at  what  rate,  and  for  what  period? 

A  prerequisite  to  determining  with 
propriety    what   ought    to    be    the    money 

value  of  the  gold  coins  is  an  argument  of 
force  for  regarding  the  money  unit  as  hav- 
ing been  hitherto  virtually  attached  to 
gold   rather  than  to  silver. 

Twenty-four  grains  and  six-eighths  of 
a  grain  of  fine  gold  have  corresponded 
with  the  nominal  value  of  the  dollar  in 
the  several  States,  without  regard  to  the 
successive  diminutions  of  its  intrinsic 

But  if  the  dollar  should,  notwithstand- 
ing, be  supposed  to  have  the  best  title  to 
being  considered  as  the  present  unit  in 
the   coins,   it   would   remain    to   determine 

unit  of  the  United  States  is  to  endeavor  to  what  kind  of  dollar  ought  to  be  under- 
torm  as  accurate  an  idea  as  the  nature  of  stood;  or,  in  other  words,  what  precise 
the  case  will  admit  of  what  it  actually  is.    quantity  of  fine  silver. 



The  old  piaster  of  Spain,  which  appears  ing  landed  property;    but  far  the  greater 

to  have  regulated  our   foreign  exchanges,  number    of    contracts    still    in    operation 

weighed  17  dwt.  12  grains,  and  contained  concerning  that  kind  of  property  and  all 

386   grains   and    15    mites   of    fine   silver,  those  of  a  merely  personal  nature  now  in 

But  this  piece  has  been  long  since  out  of  force   must   be   referred   to   a   dollar   of   a 

circulation.     The  dollars  now  in  common  different  kind.     The  actual  dollar,  at  the 

currency  are  of  recent  date,  and  much  in-  time  of  contracting,  is  the  only  one  which 

ferior  to  that  both  in  weight  and  fineness,  can   be   supposed   to   have   been   intended; 

The    average    weight    of    them    upon    dif-  and  it  has  been  seen  that,  as  long  ago  as 

ferent    trials    in    large    masses    has    been  the  year  1761,  there  had  been  a  material 

found  to  be  17  dwt.  8  grains.     Their  fine-  degradation  of  the  standard.     And  even  in 

ness  is  less  precisely  ascertained,  the  re-  regard  to  the  more  ancient  contracts,  no 

suits  of  various  assays,  made  by  different  person  has  ever  had  any  idea  of  a  scruple 

persons,   under   the   direction   of   the   late  about  receiving  the  dollar  of  the  day  as  a 

superintendent  of  the  finances  and  of  the  full  equivalent  for  the  nominal  sum  which 

Secretary,  being  as  various  as  the  assays  the  dollar   originally  imported, 
themselves.     The  difference  between  their        A  recurrence,   therefore,  to  the  ancient 

extremes  is  not  less  than  24  grains  in  a  dollar  would  be  in  the  greatest  number  of 

dollar  of  the  same  weight  and  age,  which  cases  an  innovation  in  fact,  and  in  all  an 

is  too  much  for  any  probable  difference  in  innovation    in    respect    to    opinion.      The 

the  pieces.     It   is   rather   to  be  presumed  actual   dollar   in   common   circulation   has 

that  a  degree  of  inaccuracy  had  been  oc-  evidently  a   much   better   claim  to  be  re- 

casioned  by  the  want  of  proper  apparatus  garded  as  the  actual  money  unit, 
and,  in  general,  of  practice.     The  experi-        The  mean  intrinsic  value  of  the  different 

ment  which  appears  to  have  the  best  pre-  kinds  of  known  dollars  has  been  intimated 

tensions  to  exactness  would  make  the  new  as    affording    the    proper    criterion.     But, 

dollar    to    contain    370    grains    and    933  when  it  is  recollected  that  the  more  an- 

thousandth  parts  of  a  grain  of  pure  sil-  cient  and  more  valuable  ones  are  not  now 

ver.  to  be  met  with  at  all  in  circulation,  and 

According  to  an  authority  on  which  the  that  the  mass  of  those  generally  current 

Secretary  places  reliance,  the  standard  of  is   composed   of  the   newest   and   most  in- 

Spain    for    its    silver    coin,    in    the    year  ferior  kinds,  it  will  be  perceived  that  even 

1761,  was  261  parts  fine  and  27  parts  al-  an   equation   of   that   nature   would   be   a 

loy,   at  which   proportion   a   dollar   of    17  considerable     innovation     upon     the     real 

dwt.  8  grains  would  consist  of  377  grains  present  state  of  things,  which  it  will  cer- 

of    fine    silver    and    39    grains    of    alloy,  tainly  be  prudent  to  approach,  as  far  as 

But  there  is  no  question  that  this  stand-  may  be  consistent  with  the  permanent  or- 

ard    has    been    since    altered    considerably  der  designed  to  be  introduced. 
for    the    worse, — to    what    precise    point        An    additional    reason    for    considering 

is   not    as    well    ascertained    as    could    be  the   prevailing  dollar   as   the   standard  of 

wished;    but,  from  a   computation  of  the  the   present   money  unit   rather   than   the 

value  of   dollars   in   the   markets   both   of  ancient   one   is   that   it   will    not   only  be 

Amsterdam  and  London  (a  criterion  which  conformable  to  the  true  existing  propor- 

cannot  materially  mislead)    the  new  dol-  tion  between  the  two  metals  in  this  coun- 

lar   appears  to   contain   about   368   grains  try,  but  will  be  more  conformable  to  that 

of  fine  silver,  and  that  which  immediately  which    obtains    in    the    commercial    world 

preceded  it  about  374  grains.  generally. 

Tn   this    state   of   things   there   is   some        The  difference  established  by  custom  in 

difficulty  in   defining  the   dollar  which   is  the  United  States  between  coined  gold  and 

to  be  understood  as  constituting  the  pres-  coined  silver  has  been  stated  upon  another 

ent  money  unit,  on  the  supposition  of  its  occasion  to  be  nearly  as  1  to  15.6.     This. 

being  most   applicable   to   that   species   of  if  truly  the  case,  would  imply  that  gold 

coin.     The  old  Seville  piece  of  386  grains  was   extremely   overvalued   in   the   United 

and  15  mites  fine  comports  best  with  the  States;   for  the  highest  actual  proportion 

computations    of    foreign    exchanges,    and  in  any  part  of  Europe  very  little,  if  at  all, 

with  the  more  ancient  contracts  respect-  exceeds  1   to  15,  and  the  average  propor- 



tion  throughout  Europe  is  probably  not  parts  of  a  grain  of  pure  gold,  equal  to  ten 
more  than  about  1  to  144/b-  But  that  dollars,  and  the  other  of  half  that  quan- 
statement  has  proceeded  upon  the  idea  of  tity  of  pure  gold,  equal  to  five  dollars, 
the  ancient  dollar.  One  pennyweight  of  And  it  is  not  explained  whether  either  of 
gold  of  twenty-two  carats  fine  at  6s.  8d.  the  two  species  of  coins,  of  gold,  or  silver, 
and  the  old  Seville  piece  of  380  grains  and  shall  have  any  greater  legality  in  pay- 
15  mites  of  pure  silver  at  7s.  Gd.  furnish  ments  than  the  other.  Yet  it  would  seem 
the  exact  ratio  of  1  to  15.G2G2.  But  this  that  a  preference  in  this  particular  is 
does  not  coincide  with  the  real  difference  necessary  to  execute  the  idea  of  attaching 
between  the  metals  in  our  market  or,  the  unit  exclusively  to  one  kind.  If  each 
which  is  with  us  the  same  thing,  in  our  of  them  be  as  valid  as  the  other  in  pay- 
currency.  To  determine  this,  the  quan-  ments  to  any  amount,  it  is  not  obvious  in 
tity  of  fine  silver  in  the  general  mass  of  what  effectual  sense  either  of  them  can  be 
the  dollars  now  in  circulation  must  af-  deemed  the  money  unit  rather  than  the 
ford  the  rule.     Taking  the  rate  of  the  late  other. 

dollar  of  374  grains,  the  proportion  would  If  the  general  declaration,  that  the  dol- 

be  as  1  to  15.11.     Taking  the  rate  of  the  lar  shall  be  the  money  unit  of  the  United 

newest  dollar,  the  proportion  would  then  States,   could  be  understood  to  give  it  a 

be  as   1   to   14.87.     The  mean  of  the  two  superior  legality  in  payments,  the  institu- 

would  give  the  proportion  of  1  to  15  very  tion  of  coins  of  gold  and  the  declaration 

nearly:   less  than  the  legal  proportions  in  that  each  of  them  shall  be  equal  to  a  cer- 

the   coins   of   Great   Britain,   which   is   as  tain  number  of  dollars,  would  appear  to 

1   to   15.2;   but   somewhat  more  than  the  destroy  that  inference.     And  the  circum- 

actual  or  market  proportion,  which  is  not  stance  of  making  the  dollar  the  unit  in  the 

quite  1  to  15.  money  of  account  seems  to  be  rather  mat- 

The  preceding  view  of  the  subject  does  ter  of  form  than  of  substance, 
not  indeed  afford  a  precise  or  certain  Contrary  to  the  ideas  which  have  here- 
definition  of  the  present  unit  in  the  coins,  tofore  prevailed  in  the  suggestions  con- 
but  it  furnishes  data  which  will  serve  as  cerning  a  coinage  for  the  United  States, 
guides  in  the  progress  of  the  investiga-  though  not  without  much  hesitation,  aris- 
tion.  It  ascertains,  at  least,  that  the  sum  ing  from  a  deference  for  those  ideas,  the 
in  the  money  of  account  of  each  State,  Secretary  is,  upon  the  whole,  strongly  in- 
corresponding  with  the  nominal  value  of  clined  to  the  opinion  that  a  preference 
the  dollar  in  such  State,  corresponds  also  ought  to  be  given  to  neither  of  the  metals 
with  24  grains  and  6/8  of  a  grain  of  fine  for  the  money  unit.  Perhaps,  if  either 
gold,  and  with  something  between  368  were  to  be  preferred,  it  ought  to  be  gold 
and  374  grains  of  fine  silver.  rather  than  silver. 

The  next  inquiry  towards  a  right  deter-  The  reasons  are  these:  — 

mination  of  what  ought  to  be  the  future  The  inducement  to  such  a  preference  is 

money   unit   of   the   United    States    turns  to   render   the   unit   as   little   variable   as 

upon   these   questions:   Whether    it   ought  possible,     because    on     this     depends     the 

to  be  peculiarly  attached  to  either  of  the  steady   value   of   all    contracts   and,    in   a 

metals  in  preference  to  the  other  or  not;  certain  sense,  of  all  other  property.     And 

and.  if  to  either,  to  which  of  them?  it  is  truly  observed  that,  if  the  unit  be- 

The  suggestions  and   proceedings,  hith-  long  indiscriminately  to  both  the  metals, 

erto,    have   had    for    object    the    annexing  it   is   subject  to  all   the  fluctuations  that 

of    it    emphatically    to    the    silver    dollar,  happen   in   the  relative  value  which   they 

A   resolution    of   Congress   of   the    6th   of  bear  to  each  other.     But  the  same  reason 

July,   178"),  declares  that  the  money  unit  would   lead   to   annexing   it   to   that   par- 

of    the   United    States    shall    bo    a    dollar;  ticular  one  which  is  itself  the  least  liable 

and    another    resolution    of    the    8th    of  to   variation,   if   there   be   in   this   respect 

August,    1786,    fixes    that    dollar    at    375  any     discernible    difference     between     the 

grains   and   64   hundredths   of  a  grain   of  two. 

fine  silver.     The  same  resolution,  however,  Gold  may  perhaps,  in  certain  senses,  be 

determines   that   there   shall    also   be   two  said  to  have  greater  stability  than  silver, 

gold    coins,    one    of    246    grains    and    268  as,  being  of  superior  value,  less  liberties 



have  been  taken  with  it  in  the  regula- 
tions of  different  countries.  Its  stand- 
ard has  remained  more  uniform,  and  it 
has  in  other  respects  undergone  fewer 
changes,  as,  being  not  so  much  an  article 
of  merchandise,  owing  to  the  use  made  of 
silver  in  the  trade  with  the  East  Indies 
and  China,  it  is  less  liable  to  be  influ- 
enced by  circumstances  of  commercial  de- 
mand. And  if,  reasoning  by  analogy,  it 
could  be  affirmed  that  there  is  a  physical 
probability  of  greater  proportional  in- 
crease in  the  quantity  of  silver  than  in 
that  of  gold,  it  would  afford  an  addi- 
tional reason  for  calculating  on  greater 
steadiness  in  the  value  of  the  latter. 

As  long  as  gold,  either  from  its  in- 
trinsic superiority  as  a  metal,  from  its 
greater  rarity,  or  from  the  prejudices  of 
mankind,  retains  so  considerable  a  pre- 
eminence in  value  over  silver  as  it  has 
hitherto  had,  a  natural  consequence  of 
this  seems  to  be  that  its  condition  will 
be  more  stationary.  The  revolutions, 
therefore,  which  may  take  place  in  the 
comparative  value  of  gold  and  silver  will 
be  changes  in  the  state  of  the  latter 
lather  than  in  that  of  the  former. 

If  there  should  be  an  appearance  of  too 
much  abstraction  in  any  of  these  ideas, 
it  may  be  remarked  that  the  first  and 
most  simple  impressions  do  not  naturally 
incline  to  giving  a  preference  to  the  in- 
ferior or  less  valuable  of  the  two  metals. 

It  is  sometimes  observed  that  silver 
ought  to  be  encouraged  rather  than  gold, 
as  being  more  conducive  to  the  extension 
of  bank  circulation,  from  the  greater  dif- 
ficulty and  inconvenience  which  its 
greater  bulk  compared  with  its  value  oc- 
casions in  the  transportation  of  it.  But 
bank  circulation  is  desirable  rather  as 
«;t  auxiliary  to  than  as  a  substitute