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V.  8 


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Copyright,  1905,  by  Hakfer  &  Brothers. 
Copyright,  1901,  by  Hari'er  &  Brothers 

^//  risht!  reserved. 


General  William  T.  Sherman Froi  Hspiece 

Major-General  Arthur  St.  Clair Facing  f. age    lo 

The    Spanish-xVmerican    War — the    Capture    of 

San  Juan  Block-house "        "       42 

The  Destruction  of  Cervera's  Fleet,  Santiago  .  "  "  58 
Lieutenant  -  General    John    McA.     Schofield, 

Retired "         "       86 

General  Winfield  Scott "        "       g6 

General  Philip  H.  Sheridan     .......  '*        "     154 

.  oooo<^ 




Sabin,  Joseph,  bibliophile;  born  in 
Braunston,  Northamptonshire,  England, 
Dec.  9,  1821;  received  a  common  school 
education;  was  apprenticed  to  a  book- 
seller and  publisher;  and  later  opened  a 
similar  establishment  of  his  own  and  pub- 
lished The  XXXIX  Articles  of  the  Church 
of  England,  with  Scriptural  Proofs  and 
References.  He  came  to  the  United  States 
in  1848  and  settled  in  Philadelpl^i^,  Pa.; 
removed  to  New  York  City  in  1850;  and 
returned  in  1856  to  Philadelphia,  where 
he  opened  a  book-store.  In  1861  he  re- 
turned to  New  York  City  and  made  a 
specialty  of  collecting  rare  books  and 
prints.  He  prepared  catalogues  of  many 
valuable  libraries;  edited  and  published 
7'he  American  Bibliopolist ;  a  Literary 
Register  and  Monthly  Catalogue  of  Old 
Books;  and  contributed  to  the  American 
Publisher's  Circular.  He  also  published 
parts  of  a  Dictionary  of  Books  Relating 
to  America  from  Its  Discovery  to  the 
Present  Time.  He  died  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y., 
June  5,  1881. 

Sabin,  Lorenzo,  historian ;  born  in  New 
Lisbon,  N.  H.,  Feb.  28,  1803;  was  self- 
educated;  became  prominent  in  the  poli- 
tics of  his  native  State.  In  1852  he  was 
made  a  secret  agent  of  the  United  States 
Treasury  Department  to  look  after  United 
States  commerce  with  the  British  colonies 
under  the  Ashburton  treaty.  He  was  the 
author  of  a  Life  of  Commodore  Edward 
Preble;  The  American  Loyalists,  or  Bio- 
graphical Sketches  of  Adherents  to  the 
British  Croicn  in  the  War  of  the  Revolu- 
vm. — A 

tion;  Report  on  the  Principal  Fisheries  Of 
the  American  Seas;  Hundredth  Anni- 
versary of  the  Death  of  Major-General 
James  Wolfe,  etc.  He  died  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  April  14,  1877. 

Sabine  Cross-roads,  Battle  at.  The 
Confederates  made  a  stand  at  Sabine 
Cross-roads,  La.,  during  the  Red  River 
expedition  under  General  Banks,  in  1864. 
Franklin's  troops  moved  forward,  with 
General  Lee's  cavalry  in  the  van,  followed 
by  two  thin  divisions  under  General  Ran- 
som. General  Emory  followed  Ransom. 
Among  his  troops  was  a  brigade  of  colored 
soldiers.  Lee  was  ordered  to  attack  the 
Confederates  wherever  he  should  find 
them,  but  not  to  bring  on  a  general  en- 
gagement. Franklin  advanced  to  Pleas- 
ant Hill  (q.  v.),  where  Banks  joined 
him.  Near  Sabine  Cross-roads,  Lee  found 
the  trans-Mississippi  army,  fully  20,000 
strong,  under  several  Confederate  leaders. 
Waiting  for  the  main  army  to  come  up, 
Lee  and  Ransom  were  attacked  (April  8), 
by  the  Confederates.  At  a  little  past 
noon,  General  Banks  arrived  at  the  front, 
and  found  the  skirmishers  hotly  engaged. 
Orders  were  sent  to  Franklin  to  hurry 
forward,  but  he  did  not  arrive  in  time  to 
give  needed  assistance,  for  at  4  p.m.  8,000 
infantry  and  12,000  cavalry  had  fallen 
upon  the  Nationals  along  their  whole  line, 
and  drove  them  back.  Franklin,  with  a 
division  under  General  Cameron,  arrived 
at  five  o'clock,  but  the  overwhelming  num- 
ber of  the  Confederates  turned  the  Na- 
tional    flank    and     struck    their     centra 


heavily.  This  assault,  like  the  first,  was 
stubbornly  resisted,  biit,  finding  the  Con- 
federates gaining  their  rear,  the  Nationals 
fell  back,  and  were  received  by  General 
Emory,  who  was  advancing.  Ransom  lost 
ten  guns  and  1.000  men  captured,  and  Lee 
156  wagons  filled  with  supplies. 

Sable,  Isle  of.  See  Roche,  Etienne, 
Marquis  de  la. 

Sac  and  Eox  Indians,  associate 
families  of  the  Algonquian  nation.  They 
were  seated  on  the  Detroit  River  and 
Saginaw  Bay  when  the  French  discovered 
them,  but  were  driven  beyond  Lake  Michi- 
gan by  the  Iroquois.  Settling  near  Green 
Bay,  they  took  in  the  Foxes,  and  they  have 
been  intimately  associated  ever  since,  espe- 
cially in  wars.  Roving  and  restless,  they 
were  continually  at  war  with  the  fiery 
Sioux,  and  were  allies  of  the  French 
against  the  latter.  In  the  conspiracy  of 
PoNTiAC  {q.  v.),  the  Sacs  were  his  con- 
federates, but  the  Foxes  were  not;  and 
in  the  wars  of  the  Revolution  and  1812 
they  were  friends  of  the  British.  They 
were  divided  into  a  large  number  of  class- 
es distinguished  by  totems  of  different 
animals.  They  remained  faithful  to  trea- 
ties with  the  United  States  until  Black 
Hawk  (q.  v.)  made  war  in  1832,  when 
Keokuk,  a  great  warrior  and  diplomat,  re- 
mained faithful.  The  Foxes  proper  were 
first  known  as  Outagamies  (English 
"  foxes  " ) .  They  were  visited  in  their 
place  of  exile  with  the  Sacs  by  the  Jesuit 
missionary  Allouez,  in  1667,  when  they 
numbered  500  warriors.  The  missionaries 
could  make  very  little  impression  upon 
them.  When  De  Nonville  made  his  cam- 
paign against  the  Five  Nations,  the  unit- 
ed Sacs  and  Foxes  joined  him,  as  they 
had  De  la  Barre  in  1684,  but  they  soon 
became  friendly  to  the  Iroquois,  and  pro- 
posed to  join  their  confederacy.  In  1712 
they  attacked  Detroit,  and  hostilities  were 
carried  on  for  almost  forty  years,  when 
they  joined  the  French  in  their  final 
struggle  to  hold  Canada.  The  Foxes  be- 
friended the  white  people  in  Pontiac's 
War.  Since  the  War  of  1812  the  history 
of  the  Sacs  and  Foxes  is  nearly  the  same. 
In  1899  there  were  seventy-seven  Sac  and 
Fox  Indians  of  the  Missouri  at  the  Pot- 
tawattomie  and  Great  Nehama  agency  in 
Kansas;  388  Sacs  and  Foxes  of  Missis- 
sippi at  the  Sac  and  Fox  agency  in  Iowa; 

and  521  of  the  latter  band  of  the  Sac  and 
Fox  agency  in  Oklahoma. 

Sachem,  among  American  Indian  na- 
tions, the  title  of  a  chief  having  differ- 
ent powers  in  different  tribes  or  families. 
The  office  was  both  hereditary  and  elective 
in  various  tribes;  in  some  it  was  applied 
to  the  head  chief  of  a  group  of  families, 
each  family  having  its  own  chief.  In  the 
Iroquois  Confederacy  there  were  fifty 
sachems  in  whom  was  vested  the  supreme 
power.  They  were  equal  in  rank  and 
authority;  were  distributed  among  the  na- 
tions composing  the  confederacy,  and  were 
united  in  what  was  known  as  the  council 
of  the  league,  which  was  the  body  pos- 
sessing the  executive,  legislative,  and  ju- 
dicial authority  for  the  entire  confederacy. 
Among  the  New  England  Indians,  the  high- 
est functionaries  were  known  as  sachems, 
and  the  ones  immediately  subordinate  to 
them  as  sagamores. 

Sachse,  Julius  Friedbich,  author; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Nov.  22,  1842. 
He  is  the  author  of  The  German  Pietists 
of  Provincial  Pennsylvania;  Pennsyl- 
vania: The  German  Influence  in  Its  Set- 
tlement and  Development ;  The  German 
Separatists  of  Pennsylvania,  1120-1800 ; 
Critical  and  Legendary  History  of  the 
Ephrata  Cloister  and  the  Dunkers,  etc. 

Sackett's  Harbor.  Early  in  July,  1812, 
a  rumor  spread  that  the  Oneida  had  been 
captured  by  the  British,  and  that  a  squad- 
ron of  British  vessels  were  on  their  way 
from  Kingston  to  recapture  the  Lord  Nel- 
son, lying  at  Sackett's  Harbor.  General 
Brown,  with  a  militia  force,  immediately 
took  post  at  the  harbor.  The  story  was 
not  true,  but  a  squadron  made  an  attack 
on  the  harbor  eighteen  days  afterwards. 
The  squadron,  built  at  Kingston,  consisted 
of  the  Royal  George,  24 :  Prince  Regent, 
22;  Earl  of  Moira,  20;  Simcoe,  12;  and 
Stneca,  4,  under  the  command  of  Commo- 
dore Earle,  a  Canadian.  Earle  sent  word 
to  Colonel  Bellinger,  in  command  of  the 
militia  at  Sackett's  Harbor,  that  all  he 
v/anted  was  the  Oneida  and  the  Lord  Nel- 
son, at  the  same  time  warning  the  inhabi- 
tants that  in  case  of  resistance  the  village 
would  be  destroyed.  The  Oneida  weighed 
anchor  and  attempted  to  escape  to  the 
lake.  She  failed,  and  returned.  She  was 
moored  just  outside  of  Navy  Point,  in 
position   to   have   her    broadside   of   nine 


sackett's  harbor  in  1812. 

guns  brought  to  bear  upon  i  pproaching 
vessels.  The  remainder  of  her  (juns  were 
taken  out  to  be  placed  in  batteiy  on  the 
land.  An  iron  32-pounder,  which  .^ad  been 
lying  in  the  mud  near  the  shore,  and 
from  that  circumstance  was  calkd  the 
"  Old  Sow,"  was  placed  in  battery  on  a 
bluff  with  three  other  heavy  guns;  and  a 
company  of  artillery  had  four  heavy  guns. 
With  this  force  the  Americans  were  pre- 
pared to  receive  the  invaders. 

The  squadron  slowly  entered  the  harbor 
(July  29),  and  when  the  Royal  George 
and  Prince  Regent  were  near  enough, 
Capt.    William    Vaughan,    a    sailing-mas- 

the  Royal  George.  Shots  came  from  the 
two  British  vessels,  which  were  returned, 
and  a  brisk  cannonading  was  kept  up  for 
about  two  hours,  the  squadron  standing  off 
and  on  out  of  the  range  of  the  smaller 
guns.  One  of  the  enemy's  shot  (a  32- 
pounder)  came  over  the  bluff,  struck  the 
ground,  and  ploughed  a  furrow.  Sergeant 
Spier  caught  it  up  and  ran  with  it  to 
Vaughan,  exclaiming,  "  I  have  been  play- 
ing ball  with  the  redcoats  and  have  caught 
'em  out.  See  if  the  British  can  catch  it 
back  again."  The  Royal  George  was  at 
that  moment  nearing  to  give  a  broadside. 
Vaughan's  great  gun  immediately  sent  back 


ler,  in  charge  of  the  "  Old  Sow  "  and  her  the  ball  with  such  force  and  precision  that 
companions,  opened  fire  upon  them,  but  it  went  crashing  through  the  stern  of  the 
without  effect.  The  people  on  the  shore  British  vessel,  raked  her  decks,  sent 
plainly  heard  derisive  laughter  on  board    splinters   as  high   as  her  mizeen  topsail, 



kiHed  fourteen  men,  and  wounded  eigh- 
teen. The  Royal  Oeorge  had  already  re- 
ceived a  shot  between  wind  and  water, 
and  been  pierced  by  another,  and  she  now 
showed  a  signal  for  retreat.  The  squad- 
ron put  about  and  sailed  out  of  the  harbor, 
while  the  band  on  shore  played  "  Yankee 
Doodle."  The  Americans  received  no  in- 

When,  in  May,  1813,  the  British  au- 
thorities heard  of  the  depletion  of  the 
military  force  at  Sackett's  Harbor  when 
Chauncey  and  Dearborn  sailed  for  York, 
they  resolved  to  attempt  its  capture.  It 
was  then  the  chief  place  of  deposit  for  the 

28th  he  was  in  Backus's  camp.  Thence  he 
sent  expresses  in  all  directions  to  summon 
the  militia  to  the  field,  and  fired  alarm 
guns  to  arouse  the  inhabitants. 

As  fast  as  the  militia  came  in  they  were 
armed  and  sent  to  Horse  Island,  where 
the  Sackett's  Harbor  light-house  was 
erected.  It  was  connected  with  the  main 
by  an  isthmus  covered  with  water  of 
fordable  depth,  and  there  it  was  expected 
the  invaders  would  attempt  to  land.  At 
noon  six  British  vessels  and  forty  bateaux 
appeared  off  Sackett's  Harbor,  having  over 
1,000  land  troops,  under  the  command  of 
Gov.-Gen.  Sir  George  Prevost.    The  troops 


naval  and  military  stores  of  the  Americans 
on  the  northern  frontier,  and  its  possession 
would  give  to  the  holder  the  command  of 
the  lake.  The  fall  of  Y^ork  made  the  Brit- 
ish hesitate;  but  when  it  was  knoNvn  that 
Chauncey  and  Dearborn  had  gone  to  the 
Niagara  River,  an  armament  proceeded 
from  Kingston  to  assail  the  harbor.  On 
the  evening  of  May  27,  word  reached  that 
place  that  a  British  squadron,  under  Sir 
James  Yeo,  had  sailed  from  Kingston. 
Colonel  Backus  was  in  command  of  the 
troops  at  Sackett's  Harbor.  Gen.  Jacob 
Brown  was  al  his  home,  a  few  miles  from 
Watertown,  and  he  had  promised  to  take 
chief  command  in  case  of  invasion.  He 
was  lUTnmoned.and  before  the  dawn  of  the 

were  embarked  in  the  bateaux,  but  were 
soon  ordered  back,  when  the  whole  squad- 
ron went  out  on  the  open  lake.  The  ap- 
pearance' of  a  flotilla  of  American  gun- 
boats approaching  from  the  westward  had 
alarmed  Prevost.  They  were  conveying 
part  of  a  regiment  from  Oswego  to  join 
the  garrison  at  Sackett's  Harbor.  As  soon 
as  their  real  weakness  was  discovered  the 
squadron  returned  to  the  harbor,  and  on 
the  next  morning  a  considerable  force, 
armed  with  cannon  and  muskets,  landed  on 
Horse  Island.  The  militia  had  been  ^\ith- 
drawn  from  the  island,  and  placed  behind 
a  gravel  ridge  on  the  main.  These  fled 
almost  at  the  first  fire  of  the  invaders. 
This     disgraceful     conduct     astonished 


General  Brown,  and  he  attempted  to  rally  one  of  the  most  popular  of  foreign  minis- 
the  fugitives.  Colonel  Backus,  with  his  ters  until  the  closing  days  of  the  Presi- 
regulars  and  Albany  volunteers,  was  dis-  dential  campaign  of  1888.  On  Oct. 
puting  the  advance  inch  by  inch,  and  a  24,  a  letter  alleged  to  have  been  written 
heavy  gun  at  Fort  Tompkins,  in  the  front,  to  him  by  Charles  F,  Murchison,  of  Po- 
was  playing  upon  the  British,  when  a  mona,  Cal.,  was  published.  In  it  Murchi- 
dense  smoke  was  seen  rising  in  the  rear  of  son  said  that  he  was  a  naturalized  citizen 
the  Americans.  The  storehouses,  in  which  of  the  United  States,  but  of  English  birth, 
an  immense  amount  of  materials  had  been  and  that  he  wished  information  not  only 
gathered,  and  a  ship  on  the  stocks,  had  for  himself  but  for  many  other  citizens 
been  fired  by  the  officers  in  charge,  under  of  English  birth  whose  political  action  he 
the  impression,  when  the  militia  fled,  that  desired  to  influence.  The  letter  also  re- 
the  fort  would  be  captured.  For  a  moment  fleeted  upon  the  conduct  of  the  United 
it  was  believed  the  British  were  the  in-  States  respecting  unsettled  controversies 
cendiaries,  and  the  sight  was  dishearten-  between  the  two  countries.  The  British 
ing;  but  when  •Bro\vn  found  it  was  an  un-  minister  answered  this  letter,  advising  his 
wise  friend,  he  felt  a  relief,  and  redoubled  correspondent  to  vote  with  the  Democratic 
his  exertions  to  rally  the  militia.  He  sue-  party,  which,  he  declared,  was  favorable 
ceeded,  and  so  turned  the  fortunes  of  the  to  England.  The  United  States  govern- 
day  in  his  favor.  Prevost,  moving  cau-  ment  at  once  requested  of  Great  Britain 
tiously  with  his  troops,  mounted  a  high'  the  recall  of  her  minister  on  the  ground 
stump,  and,  with  his  field-glass,  saw  the  that  he  had  abused  the  usual  privileges  of 
rallying  militia  on  his  flank  and  rear.  Be-  diplomatic  life  by  interfering  in  the  politi- 
lieving  them  to  be  reinforcements  of  Amer-  cal  affairs  of  a  friendly  nation.  As  this 
ican  regulars,  he  sounded  a  retreat,  and  request  was  not  promptly  complied  with 
that  movement  soon  became  a  disorderly  the  State  Department  sent  Lord  Sackville 
flight,  as  his  men  hurried  to  reach  their  his  passports  on  Oct.  30.  The  aff'air  was 
boats,  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  be-  the  subject  of  much  diplomatic  correspond- 
hind  them.  At  noon  the  whole  armament  ence,  entered  largely  into  the  arguments 
left  the  harbor,  and  the  menaced  place  of  the  campaign,  and  led  Great  Britain  to 
was  saved.  So,  also,  was  the  ship  on  the  withhold  the  appointment  of  a  successor 
stocks ;  not  so  the  stores,  for  half  a  million  till  after  the  inauguration  of  the  new  ad- 
dollars'  worth  was  destroyed.  Sackett's  ministration.  Lord  Sackville  openly  dis- 
Harbor  was  never  again  molested,  and  it  claimed  any  intention  to  interfere  in  the 
remained  the  chief  place  of  deposit  for  political  affairs  of  the  United  States,  and 
supplies  of  the  army  on  the  northern  fron-  it  was  widely  believed  that  he  had  un- 
tiers  during  the  war.  For  his  conduct  in  wittingly  fallen  into  a  trap  purposely 
the  defence  of  Sackett's  Harbor,  Brown  set  to  influence  the  Presidential  election, 
was  promoted  brigadier-general.  United  Saco  Bay,  Settlement  of.  In  1616 
States  army.     See  Brown,  Jacob.  Sir   Ferdinando   Gorges   sent   out,   at  his 

Sackville,  George  Germain,  Viscount,  own   expense,   Richard   Vines   to   make   a 

military    officer;    born    in    England,    Jan.  settlement  in  New  England.     On  Saco  Bay 

26,    1716;    educated    at    Trinity    College,  he  spent  the  winter  of  1616-17,  at  a  place 

Dublin;    won    distinction    in    the    British  called  Winter  Harbor.  During  that  period 

army;      promoted     lieutenant-general      in  the    pestilence    that    almost    depopulated 

1758 ;  was  secretary  of  state  for  the  colo-  the  country  from  the  Penobscot  to  Nar- 

nies  during   the   Revolutionary   War   and  raganset  Bay  raged  there,  and  Vines,  be- 

was  especially  bitter   against  the   Ameri-  ing  a  physician,  attended  the  sick  Indians 

cans;  created  Viscount  in  February,  1782.  with  great  kindness,  which  won  their  grati- 

He  died  Aug.  26,  1785.  tude.     He  and  his  companions  dwelt  and 

Sackville,    Baron    Lionel    Sackville  slept  among  the  sick  in  their  cabins,  but 

Sackville- West,     diplomatist;     born     in  were    never    touched    by    the    pestilential 

England,  July  19,  1827;   entered  the  dip-  fever.     He  made  the  whole  coast  a  more 

lomatic   service   in    1847;    was   envoy   ex-  hospitable    place    for    Englishmen    after- 

traordinary  and  minister   plenipotentiary  wards.      He   restrained    traders    from    de- 

to  the  United  States  in  1881-88.     He  was  bauching  the  Indians  with  rum,  and  he 



was  the  first  Englishman  who  described 
the  White  Mountains,  for  he  went  to  the 
source  of  the  Saco  River  in  a  canoe.  In 
1630  the  Plymouth  Company  gave  Rich- 
ard Vines  and  John  Oldham  each  a  tract 
of  land  on  the  Saco  River,  4  miles  wide  on 
the  sea.  and  extending  8  miles  inland. 

Sacramento,  capital  of  the  State  of 
California,  was  early  known  as  New  Hel- 
vetia and  a  trading-post.  It  was  settled 
by  John  A.  Sutter  {q.  v.)  ;  became  a 
place  of  large  importance  on  the  discovery 
of  gold  by  James  W.  Marshall,  the  first 
building  being  erected  in  1849;  and  was 
made  the  State  capital  in  1854.  Popula- 
tion in  1900,  29,282. 

Sacramento,  Battle  of  the.  After 
the  battle  of  Braceti  {q.  v.),  Col.  Alex- 
ander W.  Doniphan  entered  El  Paso  with- 
out opposition,  and  sent  a  messenger  to 
hurry  up  artillery  which  he  had  sent  for  to 
Santa  Fe.  It  arrived  on  Feb.  1,  1847,  and 
on  the  11th  he  set  out  for  Chihuahua  in 
search  of  General  Wool.  After  marching 
145  miles  he  learned  that  Wool  was  not  at 
Chihuahua.  He  pressed  forward,  however, 
and  halted  near  the  Sacramento  River, 
about  18  miles  from  the  city  of  Chihuahua, 
in  the  State  of  the  same  name.  There  he 
was  confronted  (Feb.  28)  by  about  4,000 
Mexican  cavalry,  infantry,  and  artillery. 
After  a  contest  of  about  three  hours,  the 
Mexicans  were  routed  by  the  men  under 
Doniphan.  Twelve  of  their  cannon  were 
captured,  with  ammunition  and  other  mu- 
nitions of  war.  The  loss  of  the  Mexicans 
was  about  600  men;  of  the  Americans, 
eighteen.  Doniphan  then  pressed  forward, 
and  entered  Chihuahua,  a  city  of  40,000  in- 
habitants, without  opposition,  and  planted 
the  American  flag  upon  its  citadel.  He 
took  formal  possession  of  the  province  in 
the  name  of  the  United  States.  After  rest- 
ing there  six  weeks,  Doniphan  pushed  for- 
ward and  joined  Wool  at  Saltillo  (May 
22 ) .   See  Mexico,  War  with. 

SafPord,  James  Merrill,  geologist; 
born  in  Putnam  (now  Zanesville),  O., 
Aug.  13,  1822;  graduated  at  the  Ohio 
State  University  in  1844;  Professor  of 
Natural  Science  in  Cumberland  Univer- 
sity, Lebanon,  Tenn.,  in  1848-72;  during 
which  time  n854-G0  and  since  1871)  he 
was  State  Geologist  of  Tennessee;  Pro- 
fensor  of  Chemistry  in  the  medical  de- 
partment of  the  University  of  Nashville 

and  Vanderbilt  University  in  1874-94; 
and  for  more  than  thirty  years  was  a 
member  of  the  State  board  of  health. 
He  is  author  of  Geology  ReconnoissancG 
of  Tennessee;  Geology  of  Tennessee;  and 
many  papers  on  geological  subjects. 

SafEord,  William  Harrison,  lawyer; 
born  in  Parkersburg,  Va.,  Feb.  19,  1821; 
was  educated  at  Asbury  Academy,  Par- 
kersburg, Va.;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1842; 
began  practice  in  Chillicothe,  O.,  in  1848: 
served  in  the  State  Senate  in  1858-60; 
and  was  judge  of  the  second  sub-di- 
vision of  the  fifth  judicial  circuit  of  Ohio 
in  1868-74.  He  is  author  of  Life  of  Blen- 
ncrhassett  and  The  Blennerhassett  Pa- 

Sag  Harbor,  Expedition  to.  Early  in 
1777  the  British  gathered  much  forage  at 
Sag  Harbor,  at  the  eastern  end  of  Long 
Island,  protected  by  an  armed  schooner 
and  a  company  of  infantry.  General  Par- 
sons, in  command  in  Connecticut,  sent 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Meigs  with  170  men  in 
thirty  whale-boats  to  capture  or  destroy 
their  forage.  They  landed  near  Southold, 
carried  their  boats  across  to  a  bay,  about 
15  miles,  and,  re-embarking,  landed  before 
daylight  about  4  miles  from  Sag  Harbor. 
They  took  the  place  by  surprise.  May  25, 
killing  six  men  and  capturing  ninety. 
They  burned  the  forage  and  twelve  ves- 
sels, and  returned  without  the  loss  of  a 

Sage,  Henry  William,  philanthropist; 
born  in  Middletown,  Conn.,  Jan.  31,  1814; 
acquired  a  large  fortune  in  the  lumber 
trade,  and  will  be  remembered  best  for 
his  benefactions  to  Cornell  University. 
He  was  elected  one  of  the  trustees  in  1870, 
and  from  1875  till  his  death  president  of 
the  board.  His  gifts  to  Cornell  include 
the  Sage  College  for  Women,  cost  $266,- 
000 ;  the  Sage  School  of  Philosophy,  $200,- 
000;  University  Library  Building,  $260,- 
000;  and  endowment,  $300,000;  the  Susan 
E.  Linn  Sage  chair  of  philosophy  and 
home  for  the  Sage  professors  of  philoso- 
phy, $61,000;  the  Sage  Chapel;  and  the 
Museum  of  Classical  Archaeology.  His 
various  gifts  aggregated  about  $1,250,000 
in  value.  He  died  in  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  Sept. 
17,  1897.  After  his  death  his  sons,  Dean 
Sage,  of  Albany,  and  William  H.  Sage,  of 
Ithaca,  presented  the  university,  for  a 
student's     hospital,    the     Sage    mansion, 



valued  at  $80,000,  a  full  equipment,  and 
an  endowment  of  $100,000. 

Sage,  Russell,  capitalist;  born  in 
Shenandoah,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  4,  1816;  re- 
ceived a  public  school  education;  and  till 
1857  was  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits 
in  Troy.  He  was  elected  alderman  in 
1841  and  1848;  served  as  treasurer  of 
Rensselaer  county  for  seven  years;  was 
in  Congress  as  a  Whig  in  1853-57;  later 
became  interested  in  railroads;  removed  to 
New  York  City  in  1803  and  engaged  in 
business  in  Wall  Street;  and  for  many 
years  has  been  closely  connected  with  the 
affairs  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad.  On 
Dee.  4,  1891,  a  man  named  Norcross  ob- 
tained access  to  Mr.  Sage's  office;  secured 
an  interview  with  the  millionaire;  de- 
manded from  him  $1,200,000  in  cash;  and, 
on  Mr.  Sage's  refusal  to  pay  the  money, 
pulled  a  small  dynamite  bomb  from  a 
satchel  in  his  hand,  and  dashed  it  on  the 
floor.  The  explosion  that  followed  killed 
Norcross,  seriously  injured  Mr.  Sage, 
wounded  a  clerk  so  severely  that  he  died 
soon  afterwards,  and  partially  wrecked 
the  building.  At  the  time  of  the  outrage 
William  R.  Laidlaw,  Jr.,  a  clerk  for  a 
banking  firm,  was  in  Mr.  Sage's  office. 
He  claimed  that  Mr.  Sage  seized  him  and 
held  him  as  a  shield  for  his  own  person, 
with  a  result  that  Laidlaw  was  also 
severely  injured.  Soon  afterwards  he  be- 
gan suit  against  Mr.  Sage  for  damages. 
After  many  delays  a  jury  awarded  him  a 
handsome  sum,  whereupon  Mr.  Sage  ap- 
pealed to  the  higher  court,  an-d  the  mat- 
ter is  still    (1905)    in  litigation. 

Sahaptin  Indians,  a  family  regarded 
as  a  distinct  nation  of  Indians  within  the 
domains  of  the  United  States.  It  is  one 
of  the  nine  Columbian  families  in  the 
States  of  Oregon  and  Washington.  Their 
country  extends  from  the  Dalles  of  the 
Columbia  River  to  the  Bitter  Root  Moun- 
tains on  both  sides  of  the  Columbia,  and 
on  the  forks  of  the  Lewis  and  the  Snake 
and  Sahaptin  rivers.  The  nation  includes 
the  Nez  Perce's  (q.  v.)  or  Sahaptins 
proper,  the  Walla  Wallas,  and  other  clans 
of  less  importance.  On  the  northern  bor- 
der are  the  Salish  family,  chiefly  in  the 
British  possessions,  and  on  the  southern 
the  Shoshones.  They  are  of  medium  stat- 
ure; the  men  are  brave  and  muscular, 
and  dignified  in  appearance;   the  women 

plump  and  generally  handsome;  and  some 
of  the  tribes,  especially  the  Nez  Perces, 
are  neat  in  their  personal  appearance. 
With  the  exception  of  the  latter,  none  of 
the  Sahaptin  nation  have  figured  in  the 
history  of  the  republic.  See  Nez  Perces 

Sailor's  Creek,  a  small  tributary  of  the 
Appomattox  River  in  Virginia,  the  scene  of 
an  engagement  on  April  6,  18G5,  between 
Sheridan's  cavalry  and  the  2d  and  6th 
Corps  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  and 
the  Confederates  of  the  Army  of  Northern 
Virginia  under  Generals  Ewell,  Anderson, 
Pickett,  and  Bushrod  Johnson.  Ewell's 
corps  was  captured  and  the  divisions  of 
Anderson,  Pickett,  and  Johnson  almost 
broken  up,  about  10,000  men  in  all  be- 
ing captured.  This  action  is  variously 
known  as  the  battle  of  Sailor's  Creek, 
Harper's   Farm,   and   Deatonsville. 

St.  Albans,  a  city  and  county  seat  of 
Franklin  county,  Vt.,  near  Lake  Cham- 
plain.  On  Oct.  19,  1864,  a  party  of  armed 
Confederate  refugees  in  Canada,  under 
the  leadership  of  Lieut.  Bennett  H.  Young, 
raided  the  town  in  the  afternoon,  and  at- 
tacked the  St.  Albans,  Franklin  County, 
and  First  National  banks.  They  over- 
powered the  few  employes  of  the  banks 
then  on  duty,  secured  an  aggregate  of 
$211,150  in  bank-notes,  seized  all  the 
horses  they  could  find,  and  rode  off  has- 
tily towards  Canada.  The  party  numbered 
between  thirty  and  forty,  and  the  entire 
proceeding  occupied  only  about  twenty 
minutes.  Nearly  the  entire  party  was 
subsequently  captured  by  the  Canadian 

In  1867  the  town  was  again  a  centre  of 
public  interest.  An  invasion  of  Canada 
from  the  United  States  had  been  arranged 
for  the  spring  by  members  of  the  Fenian 
Brotherhood.  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  Detroit, 
Mich.,  were  chosen  as  the  principal  ren- 
dezvous, and  St.  Albans,  Vt.,  and  Odgens- 
burg,  N.  Y.,  as  depots  for  the  accumulation 
of  arms  and  stores,  and  as  points  of  de- 
parture for  subordinate  contingents  of 
the  "  army  of  invasion."  The  vigilance  of 
the  United  States  government  and  lack 
of  harmony  among  the  Fenian  leaders  pre- 
vented anything  more  serious  than  a  bor- 
der excitement. 

St.  Andrew,  Brotherhood  op,  an  or- 
ganization of  men  in  the  Protestant  Epis> 


copal  Church.  Its  sole  object  is  the 
spread  of  Christ's  kingdom  among  men. 
It  works  under  two  rules,  known  as  ( 1 ) 
The  Rule  of  Prayer:  To  pray  daily  for  the 
spread  of  Christ's  kingdom  among  men, 
and  that  Christ's  blessing  may  be  upon  the 
labors  of  the  Brotherhood;  and  (2)  The 
Rule  of  Service :  To  make  an  earnest  effort 
each  week  to  bring  at  least  one  man  within 
the  hearing  of  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ. 
The  Brotherhood  started  in  St.  James's 
Church.  Chicago,  on  St.  Andrew's  Day, 
1883.  It  takes  its  name  from  the  apostle 
who,  when  he  had  found  the  Messiah, 
first  found  his  own  brother  Simon  and 
brought  him  to  Jesus.  This  Brotherhood 
in  St.  James's  parish  was  started  simply 
as  a  parochial  organization,  with  no 
thought  of  its  extending  beyond  the  limits 
of  the  parish.  Its  work,  however,  was 
so  successful  in  bringing  men  to  church 
that  attention  was  called  to  it,  and  other 
brotherhoods,    having    the    same    objects 


and  the  same  rules,  were  formed  in  other 
parishes  in  Chicago  and  in  difTerent  parts 
of  the  country.    In  1880  there  were  about 

thirty-five  of  these  separate  brotherhoods. 
It  then  was  proposed  to  form  them  into 
one  general  Church  organization.  This 
was  done  in  1886.  Since  that  time  the 
Brotherhood  has  gone  on  growing,  and 
has  spread  to  all  parts  of  the  United 
States.  There  are  now  1,220  active  chap- 
ters, with  a  membership  of  13,000  men. 

St.  Augustine,  a  city  in  Florida; 
founded  by  Menendez  in  1565;  population 
in  1900,  4,272.  When  Menendez  gave  up. 
the  chase  of  the  Frenchmen  under  Ribault 
( see  Huguenots  ) ,  he  turned  back  towards 
the  Florida  coasts,  entered  an  estuary  in  a 
boat  manned  by  six  oarsmen,  leaving  his 
large  flag-ship  at  anchor  outside,  and,  ac- 
companied by  his  chaplain,  Mendoza,  and 
followed  by  other  boats  filled  with  "  gen- 
tlemen "  and  ecclesiastics,  he  went  ashore, 
while  trumpets  sounded,  drums  beat,  can- 
nons thundered,  and  flags  waved.  The 
chaplain  walked  at  head  of  the  procession, 
bearing  a  large  cross  and  chanting  a  hymn. 
Menendez  followed  with 
his  train,  and  carrying 
in  his  own  hand  the 
standard  of  Spain  un- 
furled. Mendoza,  array- 
ed in  rich  sacerdotal 
garments,  kissed  the 
cross,  and  then  planted 
it  in  the  sand  by  the 
side  of  the  staff  that  up- 
held the  royal  standard, 
and  against  which  lean- 
ed a  shield  bearing  the 
arms  of  Spain.  Tlien, 
after  all  had  done  hom- 
age to  the  priest,  Men- 
endez took  formal  pos- 
session of  the  country  in 
the  name  of  Philip  of 
Spain.  With  such  con- 
"^  secration     he     laid     the 

foundation  of  the  city  of 
St.   Augustine.     From 
that  spot  he  marched  to 
the    destruction     of    the 
Huguenots     on     the     St. 
John,  and  there  the  un- 
fortunate    Ribault     and 
his   followers   were   slain 
( see     Ribault,     Jean  ) . 
Such    was    the    human    sacrifice    at    the 
founding  of  St.  Augustine,  now  the  oldest 
town  in  the  United  States. 


ST.    AtrGtrSTIITE 


Soon  after  the  beginning  of  "  Queen 
Anne's  War  "  ( see  Anne,  Queen  ) ,  Gov- 
ernor Moore,  of  South  Carolina,  pro- 
posed an  expedition  against  the  Span- 
iards at  St.  Augustine.  The  Assembly 
appropriated  $10,000  for  the  service. 
An  army  of  1,200  men  (one-half  Ind- 
ians)   was   raised,  and  proceeded  in  two 


divisions  to  the  attack.  The  governor, 
with  the  main  division,  went  by  sea  to 
blockade  the  harbor,  and  the  remainder, 
under  Colonel  Daniels,  proceeded  along  the 
coast.  The  latter  arrived  first  and  plun- 
dered the  town,  the  Spaniards  retiring 
within  their  fortress  with  provisions  for 
four  months.     Their  position  was  impreg- 


nable,  for  the  Carolinians  had  no  artii-  Augustine,  and  imprisoned,  when  they 
lery.  Daniels  went  to  Jamaica  to  procure  were  required  a  second  time  to  give  their 
battering  cannon,  but  before  his  return  parole  to  keep  within  certain  limits  as  the 
two  Spanish  war-vessels  appeared.  Gov-  price  of  their  release  from  close  confine- 
ernor  Moore  raised  the  blockade  and  fled.  ment.  Among  the  prisoners  was  the 
This  expedition  burdened  the  colony  with  a  sturdy  patriot  Col.  Ciikistopher  Gads- 
debt  of  more  than  $26,000,  for  the  pay-  den  {q.  v.).  He  had  been  treacherously 
ment  of  which  bills  of  credit  were  issued  taken  from  his  bed  at  night  and  conveyed 
— the  first  emission  of  paper  money  in  on  board  a  prison-ship.  Gadsden  was  re- 
South  Carolina.  Oglethorpe,  having  been  quired  by  the  commanding  officer  at  St. 
joined  by  a-  South  Carolina  regiment  and  Augustine  to  give  his  parole.  He  refused, 
a  company  of  Highlanders,  marched  with  saying  he  had  already  given  his  parole 
his  whole  force,  about  2,000  strong,  to  and  kept  it  inviolate,  that  his  rights  as  a 
Fort  Moosa,  within  2  miles  of  St.  Angus-  paroled  prisoner  had  been  violated,  and 
tine,  in  May,  1740.  The  Spanish  garri-  that  he  would  not  trust  his  persecutors 
son  evacuated  the  fort  and  fled  into  the  again.  The  commander  haughtily  said  he 
town.  Oglethorpe  proceeded  to  reconnoitre  would  hear  no  arguments,  and  demanded 
the  town  and  castle,  and,  finding  they  had  an  explicit  answer  whether  Gadsden  would 
more  than  1,000  defenders,  determined  to  or  would  not  give  his  parole.  "  I  will 
turn  the  siege  into  a  blockade  with  some  not,"  answered  Gadsden,  firmly.  "  In  God 
ships  lying  at  anchor  near  the  bar.  Hav-  I  put  my  trust,  and  fear  no  consequences." 
ing  disposed  troops  so  as  to  hold  impor-  He  was  conhned  in  a  loathsome  prison, 
tant  points,  Oglethorpe,  with  the  remain-  apart  from  his  fellow-patriots,  until  ex- 
der,  went  to  the  island  of  Anastasia,  lying  changed,  in  July,  1781,  eleven  months 
opposite,  from  which  he  might  bombard  the  after  the  surrender  at  Charleston, 
castle.  After  planting  batteries  there  he  St.  Brandan  (or  Brendan),  abbot  of 
summoned  the  Spanish  governor  to  sur-  Cluainfert,  Ireland;  died  May  16,  577. 
render ;  but,  secure  in  his  stronghold,  he  According  to  a  popular  story  of  the  Mid- 
sent  word  to  Oglethorpe  that  he  should  die  Ages,  he  with  seventy-five  monks  spent 
be  glad  to  shake  hands  with  him  in  his  seven  years  on  an  island  far  in  the  At- 
castle.  Indignant  at  this  reply,  the  gen-  lantic  Ocean.  The  island  was  believed  to 
eral  opened  his  batteries  against  the  cas-  be  visible  from  the  Canaries. 
tie,  and,  at  the  same  time,  threw  a  num-  St.  Clair,  Arthur,  military  ofiicer ;  boril 
ber  of  bombshells  into  the  town.  The  fire  in  Thurso,  Caithness,  Scotland,  in  1734; 
was  returned  with  spirit  from  the  castle  was  a  grandson'of  the  Earl  of  Roslyn,  and 
and  armed  ships,  but  the  distance  was  so  was  educated  at  the  University  of  Edin- 
great  that  very  little  damage  was  done,  burgh.  He  studied  medicine  under  the  cele- 
Meanwhile  a  party  of  Spaniards  went  out  brated  Hunter,  of  London,  but  inheriting  a 
and  attacked  the  Georgian  garrison  at  large  sum  of  money  from  his  mother,  he 
Tcrt  Moosa  and  cut  it  in  pieces.  The  purchased  an  ensign's  commission  in  a  reg- 
Chickasaw  Indians  with  Oglethorpe,  of-  iraent  of  foot  (May  13,  1757)  and  came  in 
fended  at  some  incautious  expression  of  Boscawen's  fleet  to  America  in  1758.  He 
his,  deserted  him,  and  the  Spaniards  by  was  with  Amherst  at  the  capture  of  Louis- 
some  means  received  a  reinforcement  of  burg,  and,  promoted  to  lieutenant  in  April, 
700  men.  All  prospects  of  success  began  1759,  distinguished  himself,  under  Wolfe, 
to  fade.  The  Carolina  troops,  enfeebled  at  Quebec.  In  May,  1760,  he  married,  at 
by  the  heat  of  the  climate  and  dispirited  Boston,  a  half-sister  of  Governor  Bowdoin; 
by  much  sickness,  marched  away  in  con-  resigned  his  commission  in  1762,  and  in 
siderable  numbers;  and  the  naval  com-  1764  settled  in  Lioonier  Valley,  Pa.,  where 
manders  thought  it  imprudent  to  remain  he  established  mi? is  and  built  a  fine  dwell- 
long'iT  on  the  coast,  for  the  season  of  hur-  ing-house.  Hav'ng  held,  by  appointment, 
rioanes  was  nigh.  The  enterprise  was  ac-  several  civil  offices  of  trust,  he  became  a 
cyrdingly  abandoned  in  July.  colonel  of  militia  in  1775,  and  in  the  fall 
In  violation  of  the  capitulation  at  Char-  of  that  yeai  accompanied  Pennsylvania 
leston.  many  of  the  patriotic  citizens  were  commissioners  to  treat  with  the  Western 
torn    from    their    families,    taken    to    St.  Indians  at  Fort  Pitt.     As  colonel  of  the 




2d  Pennsylvania  Regiment.,  he  was  ordered  ror  over  the  frontier  settlements  in  the 
to  Canada  in  February,  1776,  and  in  the  Northwestern  Territory.  In  May,  1791, 
early  summer  aided  Sullivan  in  saving  his  Glen.  Charles  Scott,  of  Kentucky,  led  800 
army  from  capture.  In  August  he  was  men,  and  penetrated  to  the  Wabash  coun- 
niade  a  brigadier-general,  and  joined  try,  almost  to  the  present  site  of  La- 
Washington  in  November.  St.  Clair  was  fayette,  Ind.,  and  destroyed  several  Indian 
actively  engaged  in  New  Jersey  until  villages.  At  the  beginning  of  August 
April,  1777,  when  he  took  command  of  General  Wilkinson,  with  more  than  500 
Ticonderoga,  which  he  was  compelled  to  men,  pushed  into  the  same  region  to 
evacuate  (July  4-5),  by  the  presence  of  Tippecanoe  and  the  surrounding  prairies, 
Burgoyne  in  overwhelming  force.  After  destroyed  some  villages  of  Kickapoos,  and 
that  he  was  a  member  of  Washington's  made  his  way  to  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio, 
military  family,  acting  as  his  aide  at  the  opposite  Louisville.  These  forays  caused 
battle  near  the  Brandywine.  He  was  with  the  Indians  to  fight  more  desperately  for 
Sullivan  in  the  Seneca  country  in  1779.  their  country.  Congress  then  prepared  to 
St.  Clair  commanded  the  light  infantry  plant  forts  in  the  Northwestern  Territory, 
in  the  absence  of  Lafayette,  and  was  a  and  in  September  there  were  2,000  troops 
member  of  the  court  that  condemned  at  Fort  Washington,  under  the  immediate 
Major  Andre.  He 
was  in  command  at 
West  Point  from 
Oct.  1,  1780,  and 
aided  in  suppress- 
ing the  mutiny  of 
the  Pennsylvania 
line  in  January, 
1781.  Joining 
Washington  in  Oc- 
tober, he  partici- 
pated in  the  capt- 
ure of  Cornwallis, 
and  afterwards  led 
a  body  of  troops  to 
join  Greene  in  South 
Carolina,  driving 
the  British  from 
Wilmington  on  the 
way.  He  was  after- 
wards a  delegate  in 
Congress;  president 
of  that  body 
( February  to  No- 
vember, 1787)  ;  ap- 
pointed governor  of 
the  Northwestern 
Territory  (Febru- 
ary, 1788)  ;  fixed  the 

seat  of  government  at  Cincinnati,  and,  command  of  Gen.  Richard  Butler.  With 
in  honor  of  the  Cincinnati  Society,  gave  General  St.  Clair  as  chief,  these  troops 
the  place  that  name.  marched     northward.       They    built     Fort 

Made  commander-in-chief  of  the  army  Hamilton,  on  the  Miami  River,  20  miles 
(March  4,  1791),  he  moved  against  the  from  Fort  Washington,  and  garrisoned  it. 
Indians  on  the  Wabash,  while  so  lame  Forty-two  miles  farther  on  they  built  Fort 
from  gout  that  he  was  carried  on  a  litter.  Jefferson,  and,  when  moving  from  that 
The  Indians,  encouraged  by  the  defeat  of  post,  late  in  October,  thei'e  were  evidences 
Harmar   (October,  1790),  had  spread  ter-    that  Indian  scouts  were  hovering  on  their 




flanks.  The  invaders  halted  and  encamp-  island  and  demanded  of  Governor  De 
ed  on  a  tributary  of  the  Wabash,  in  Darke  Graat  its  surrender  wnthin  an  hour.  The 
county,  O.,  100  miles  north  from  Fort  surprised  and  astonished  inhabitants,  un- 
Washington  (now  Cincinnati).  There  the  able  to  offer  any  resistance,  and  ignorant 
wearied  soldiers  slept  (Nov.  3),  without  of  war  between  their  home  government 
suspicion  of  danger  near.  During  the  and  Great  Britain,  surrendered  the  post 
night  the  sentinels  gave  warning  of  prowl-  and  its  dependencies,  at  the  same  time  in- 
ing  Indians,  and  early  the  next  morning,  voking  clemency  for  the  town.  The  island 
while  the  army  were  preparing  for  break-  ^vas  a  rich  prize,  for  it  was  a  free  port  for 
fast,  they  were  furiously  attacked  by  the  all  nations  and  was  "  one  continued  store 
barbarians.  The  slaughter  among  the  of  French,  Dutch,  American,  and  English 
troops  was  dreadful.  General  Butler  was  property."  All  the  magazines  and  store- 
killed,  and  most  of  the  other  officers  were  houses  were  filled,  and  even  the  beach  was 
slain  or  wounded.  The  army  fled  in  con-  covered  with  tobacco  and  sugar.  The 
fusion,  and  it  was  with  great  difficulty  value  of  merchandise  found  there  was 
that  St.  Clair  escaped  on  a  pack-horse,  estimated  at  $15,000,000.  There  were 
after  having  three  horses  killed  under  taken  in  the  bay  a  Dutch  frigate,  five 
him.  Among  the  fugitives  were  100  wom-  smaller  vessels  of  war,  and  150  merchant- 
en,  wives  of  soldiers,  most  of  whom  es-  ships.  Thirty  richly  laden  Dutch  ships 
caped.  St.  Clair  lost  nearly  half  of  his  which  had  just  left  the  island  were  over- 
army — over  800  men  killed  and  wounded,  taken  by  a  detachment  from  Rodney's 
The  remainder  returned  to  Fort  Washing-  fleet  and  captured,  together  with  their 
ton.  convoy,    a    60-gun    Dutch    ship.      Keeping 

Blamed  severely,  a  committee  of  Con-  the  Dutch  flag  flying  on  the  island,  no 
gress  vindicated  St.  Clair;  but  he  re-  less  than  seventeen  Dutch  ships  were  de- 
signed his  commission,  March  5,  1792,  and  coyed  into  port  and  seized. 
in  November,  1802,  Jefferson  removed  him  St.  Francis  Indians,  a  tribe  inhabiting 
from  the  governorship  in  the  Northwest,  a  village  on  the  edge  of  Canada,  which 
He  was  then  broken  in  health,  spirits,  and  was  long  a  terror  to  the  frontier  settlers 
fortune,  and,  retiring  to  a  log-house  on  of  New  England.  Enriched  by  plunder 
the  summit  of  Chestnut  Ridge,  among  the  and  the  ransoms  paid  for  their  captives, 
Alleghany  Mountains,  he  there  passed  the  they  possessed  a  handsome  chapel  (they 
remainder  of  his  days  in  poverty,  while  were  Roman  Catholics),  with  plate  and 
he  had  unsettled  righteous  claims  against  ornaments.  In  their  village  might  be 
the  government.  Five  years  before  his  seen,  stretched  on  hoops,  many  scalps  of 
death  the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania  both  sexes  displayed  as  trophies  of  their 
granted  him  an  annuity  of  $400,  and,  a  valor  in  smiting  the  English.  Against 
short  time  before  his  death,  a  pension  these  Indians  General  Amherst,  while  at 
from  the  government  of  $60  a  month  was  Crown  Point,  in  1759,  sent  Maj.  Robert 
awarded  him.  He  published  a  narrative  Rogers,  a  distinguished  partisan  officer, 
of  his  unfortunate  campaign  against  the  at  the»  head  of  a  corps  of  New  Hampshire 
Indians.  He  died  in  Greensburg,  Pa.,  Aug.  rangers.  With  200  of  his  rangers,  Rogers 
31,  1818.  traversed  the  forest  so  stealthily  that  he 

St.  Eustatius,  Capture  of.  While  surprised  the  village  in  October,  slew  a 
negotiations  between  the  Dutch  and  Eng-  large  part  of  the  warriors,  and  plundered 
lish  were  going  on  at  The  Hague,  British  and  burned  the  town.  Attempting  to  re- 
cruisers  pounced  upon  Dutch  merchant-  turn  by  way  of  Lake  Memphremagog  and 
men,  capturing  200  ships  of  the  republic  the  Connecticut  River,  the  rangers  suffered 
of  Holland,  worth,  with  their  cargoes,  terribly.  Their  provisions  gave  out,  and 
15.000,000  guilders.  Swift  cutters  were  some  perished  for  want  of  food;  others 
sent  to  Admiral  Rodney  at  Barbadoes  to  were  killed  by  pursuing  Indians,  but  the 
seize  the  Dutch  island  of  SI.  Eustatius,  greater  part  reached  Crown  Point  in 
in  the  West  Indies.     Suddenly,  on  Feb.  3,  safety. 

1781,    the    British    West    India    fleet    and  Saint  -  Gaudens,    Augustus,   sculptor; 

army,  after  making  a  feint  on  the  coast  born   in  Dublin,   Ireland,  March   1,   1848; 

of  Martinique,   appeared   off  the  doomed  was  brought  to  the  United  States  when 



an  infant;  learned  the  trade  of  cameo-cut- 
ter; studied  drawing  at  Cooper  Institute 
in  1861;  student  at  the  National  Acad- 
emy of  Design  in  1865-66;  then  studied 
in  Paris  till  1870  and  in  Rome  in  1871-72, 
producing  in  the  latter  city  his  first  figure, 
Hiawatha.  He  returned  to  New  York  in 
1873.  Among  his  most  important  works 
are  Adoration  of  the  Cross;  The  Puritan; 
statues  of  Abraham  Lincoln,  John  A. 
Logan,  Admiral  Farragut;  monument  of 
General  Slierman;  and  numerous  other 
statues,  busts,  etc.  He  designed  the  Medal 
of  Award  of  the  Columbian  Exposition; 
several  medals  authorized  by  Congress; 
in  1901  was  engaged  on  the  Parnell  Memo- 
rial monument;  and  in  1904-05  on  a 
Hanna  memorial  for  Cleveland,  O. 

Boys,  led  by  Col.  Seth  Warner,  also  joined 
him.  The  garrison,  commanded  by  Major 
Preston,  was  well  supplied  with  provisions 
and  ammunition.  This  circumstance,  the 
disaster  to  Ethan  Allen  near  Montreal,  and 
the  insubordination  and  mutinous  spirit 
displayed  by  the  Connecticut  and  New 
York  troops,  prolonged  the  siege.  It  last- 
ed fifty-five  days.  On  the  evening  of  Nov. 
2,  when  Preston  heard  of  the  defeat  of  a 
considerable  force  under  Carleton,  on 
their  way  to  relieve  him,  and  was  noti- 
fied of  the  fall  of  Chambly,  he  determined 
to  surrender  the  fort  unless  relief  speedily 
came.  Montgomery  demanded  an  immedi- 
ate surrender.  Preston  asked  a  delay  of 
four  days.  His  request  was  denied,  and 
the  garrison  became  prisoners  of  war  on 


St.  John,  John  Pieece,  lawyer;  born 
in  Brookville,  Ind.,  Feb.  25,  1833;  was 
educated  in  Indiana;  served  in  the  Union 
army  during  the  Civil  War,  attaining  the 
rank  of  lieutenant-colonel;  was  elected  to 
the  Kansas  State  Senate  in  1872,  and  gov- 
ernor of  Kansas  in  1879;  and  was  the 
Prohibition  candidate  for  President  of  the 
United  States  in  1884,  receiving  151,809 
popular  votes.  In  1900  he  supported  Mr. 
Bryan  for  President,  and  while  claiming 
independence  in  politics,  is  an  advocate 
of  the  free  coinage  of  both  gold  and  silver, 
prohibition,  and  woman  suflfrage. 

St.  John,  Siege  of.  Because  of  the 
illness  of  General  Schuyler,  General  Mont- 
gomery was  placed  in  active  command  of 
the  American  army  invading  Canada. 
On  Sept.  10,  1775,  Montgomery  left  Isle 
aux  Noix  and  landed  1,000  troops  near 
St.  John,  the  first  military  post  within 
the  Canadian  border.  Deceived  concern- 
ing the  strength  of  the  garrison  anu  thP 
disposition  of  the  Canadians,  he  fell  back 
and  waited  for  reinforcements.  Other 
New  York  troops  joined  him.  Lamb's 
company  of  artillery  came  late  in  Septem- 
ber. Some  troops  from  New  Hampshire 
linder  Colonel  Bedel,  and  Green  Mountain 

the  3d,  marching  out  of  the  fort  with  the 
honors  of  war.  There  were  500  regulars 
and  100  Canadian  volunteers.  The  spoils 
were  forty-eight  pieces  of  artillery,  800 
small-arms,  some  naval  stores,  and  a  quan- 
tity of  lead  and  shot. 

St.  Joseph,  Fort.  On  the  morning  of 
May  25,  1763,  a  party  of  Pottawattomie 
Indians  appeared  before  the  English  post 
at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph's  River,  on 
Lake  Michigan.  The  fort  was  garrisoned 
by  an  ensign  and  fourteen  men.  With 
friendly  greetings  the  Pottawattomies 
were  permitted  to  enter  the  fort,  and  in 
"  two  minutes "  they  had  massacred  the 
whole  garrison  (see  Pontiac).  In  1781 
the  Spanish,  under  Don  Pourre,  captured 
the  fort,  which  was  at  that  time  garri- 
soned by  the  British.  It  was  restored  to 
the  United  States  by  the  treaty  of  1783. 

St.  Lawrence,  Movement  on  the. 
When  news  of  the  declaration  of  war  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  Great 
liritain  (June,  1812)  reached  Ogdensburg, 
N.  T.,  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  eight  Amer- 
ican schooners — trading  vessels — lay  in 
the  harbor.  They  endeavored  to  escape 
into  Lake  Ontario,  bearing  away  affright- 
ed families  and  their  effects.     An  active 



Canadian  partisan  named  Jones  had  was  ordered  to  guard  the  region  from  Og- 
raised  a  company  of  men  to  capture  densburg  to  St.  Regis  {q.  v.)  with  a  com- 
them.  He  gave  chase  in  boats,  overtook  petent  force,  and  militia  were  gathered  at 
the  unarmed  flotilla  at  the  foot  of  the  Ogdensburg  and  St.  Vincent.  This  was 
Thousand  Islands,  captured  two  of  the  the  first  v/arlike  movement  on  the  river 
schooners,  and  emptied  and  burned  them  in  the  war  of  1812-15. 
(June  29).  A  rumor  was  circulated  that  St.  Leger,  Barry,  military  officer;  born 
the  British  were  erecting  fortifications  in  England  in  1737;  entered  the  army  as 
among  the  Thousand  Islands,  and  that  ex-  ensign  in  1749;  came  to  America  with  his 
peditions  of  armed  men  were  to  be  sent  regiment  in  1757,  and  was  with  Wolfe  at 
across  the  St.  Lawrence  to  devastate  Quebec.  He  was  appointed  lieutenant- 
American  settlements  on  its  borders.  Gen-  colonel  in  1772;  and  in  1775  was  sent  to 
eral  Brown  and  Commander  Woolsey,  of  Canada,  where  he  took  charge  of  an  luisuc- 
the  Oneida,  were  vested  with  ample  power  cessful  expedition  to  the  Mohawk  Valley, 
to  provide  for  the  defence  of  that  frontier,  by  way  of  Lake  Ontario,  in  1777,  to  assist 
Colonel  Benedict,  of  St.  Lawrence  county,  Burgoyne  in  his  invasion.    He  died  in  1789. 


St.  Louis,  city,  port  of  delivery,  com-  Public  Interests. — The   State   Constitu- 

mercial  metropolis  of  the  Mississippi  Val-  tion   separated   the   city  from   the   county 

ley,  and  fourth  city  in  the  United  States  and  gave  the  former,   in  addition  to  the 

in    population    according    to    the    Federal  usual    municipal    powers,    the    authority 

census  of  1900;  in  St.  Louis  county,  Mo.;  vested    in    the    other    counties.      The    city 

popularly  kno\A-n  as  the  "Mound  City";  charter    framed    in    1876    was    considered 

population.     1900,     575,238;     1905     (esti-  by   students  of   municipal   administration 

mated),  714,290.  as   a   model.      It   made   possible   a   larger 

Location.  Area,  etc. — It  is  situated  on  municipal  independence  than  the  city  had 
the  west  bank  of  the  Mississippi  River,  previously  enjoyed,  and  St.  Louis  soon  be- 
20  miles  below  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  came  the  most  distinctive  home-rule  city 
and  190  miles  above  that  of  the  Ohio,  and  in  the  United  States.  In  1877  the  city 
on  the  line  of  more  than  a  dozen  of  the  and  county  were  merged,  the  former  as- 
most  important  railroads  in  the  country,  suming  the  debts  of  the  latter,  and  in 
It  has  an  area  of  sixty-six  square  miles,  1902  Constitutional  amendments  were 
with  a  r'ver  frontage  of  nineteen  miles,  adopted  which  permitted  the  city  to  frame 
and  extends  twenty-one  miles  on  its  west-  a  new  charter,  to  levy  an  additional  tax 
em  line  and  six  miles  back  from  the  of  thirty-five  cents  for  municipal  pur- 
river.  The  densest  portion  stretches  about  poses,  and  to  exempt  the  county  debt  of 
ten  miles  along  the  river,  with  a  width  of  $6,111,000  and  the  water-works  debt  of 
about  four  miles.  The  surface  rises  from  $5,808,000  in  determining  the  limit  of  the 
the  river  in  three  terraces  of  20,  150,  and  city's  gross  indebtedness.  Under  the  latter 
200  feet,  respectively,  to  Grand  Avenue,  authorization  the  city  had  power  to  in- 
where  it  broadens  into  a  beautiful  plateau,  crease  its  indebtedness  by  about  $8,000,- 
pleasingly  undulating.  The  streets  are  000,  provided  the  increase  was  sanctioned 
quite  regularly  laid  out,  and  the  build-  by  two-thirds  of  the  voters  at  an  election 
ings  are  numbered  on  the  Philadelphia  for  that  purpose.  On  June  22,  1902, 
plan,  100  to  each  block.  Streets  parallel  the  charter  was  amended  according  to 
with  the  river  are  numbered  north  and  the  foregoing  provisions,  and  at  the 
south  of  Market  Street,  and  the  number-  election  on  April  4,  1905,  a  proposition 
ing  of  those  running  east  and  west  begins  to  issue  $9,000,000  additional  bonds  was 
at  the   Tjcvee.      One   of   the  most  notable  defeated. 

features  of  the  tofjogray^hy  and  adornment  In  1905  the  city  had  881  miles  of  streets, 

of  the  city  is  the  extensive  and  liberally  of   which    147   were   paved;    522   miles   of 

supported       system      of      public      parks,  sewers;  a  police  department  of  1,286  men, 

squares,  and  other  reservations.  costing  annually  about  $1,786,634,  and  s^ 



firo  dopnrtnipnt  of  (110  mon,  costing  about  munications,   and   tlip   extent   and   variety 

$S32,200.     The  water-works  system,  owned  of  its  manufactures,  conihine  to  make  St. 

by    the    city,    cost    $25,000,000,    had    800  Louis  a  great  wholesale  and  retail  trade, 

miles   of    mains   and   a    daily   capacity   of  jobbing,    and    shipping    centre,    with    the 

160,000,000  gallons,  and  yielded  a  revenue  whole  of  the  lower  Mississippi  valley  and 

of  $2,011,(555,  with  net  operating  expenses  the   Southwest   for   its  special   field.     The 

and    cost    of    collecting    water    rates    of  wholesale  trade  alone  now  exceeds  in  value 

$952,957  in  1904-5. 
Under  its  charter 
the  city  must  appro- 
priate $1,200,000  an- 
nually toward  the 
extinction  of  the  wa-  E 
ter  debt  and  for  in- 
terest on  the  bonds,  I 
and  any  portion  of 
the  appropriation 
not  required  for  in- 
terest constitutes  the  sinking-fund,  which  $600,000,000  per  annum,  a  few  of  the  lead- 
in  1905,  held  $1,356,455.  The  assessed  ing  articles  being  beer,  in  the  manufac- 
valuations  of  taxable  property  for  1905  ture  of  which  the  city  surpasses  all  others, 
aggregated  $468,840,290;  the  tax  rate  dry-goods,  groceries,  footwear,  chemicals, 
was  $14.70  per  $1,000;    the  total   bonded    hardware,  furniture,  wool,  hides  and  furs. 




debt.  May  1,  1905,  was  $22,439,278,  in- 
cluding the  water  debt  of  $5,808,000; 
and  the  annual  cost  of  maintaining  the 
city  government  was  about  $8,450,000. 

Commerce  and  Trade. — Although  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  the  commerce  of  the 
city  is  credited  to  the  port  of  New  Orleans, 
St.     Louis     had     direct     importations     of 

tobacco,  glass,  railroad  cars,  agricultural 
implements,  wooden  ware,  drugs,  silk,  and 

It  was  anticipated  that  after  the  close 
of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  in 
1904,  there  would  be  some  recession  of 
the  tide  of  business;  but  by  the  summer 
of  '  1905    the    banks    and    post-ofSce    were 

foreign  merchandise  in  the  calendar  year  doing  more  business  than  a  year  before, 
1904  to  the  value  of  $5,309,449.  Unusu-  and  there  was  no  branch  of  the  city's  in- 
ally  favorable  transportation  facilities,  dustrial  activities  in  which  the  tide  was 
afforded  by  the  railroad  and  water  com-   not  flowing  to  higher  than  known  markets. 



Manufactures. — ^According  to  the  United  on   Grand   and   Lindell    avenues;    St.   Al- 

States  Census  of  1900.  St.  Louis  had  6,732  phonsus's,    on    North    Grand    and    Easton 

manufacturing  and  mechanical  industries,  avenues;    and    Sts.    Peter   and    Paul's,   on 

which  were  operated  on  a  total  capital  of  Allen   Avenue.      The   principal   Protestant 

$162,179,331;      employed      82.672      wage-  Episcopal  is  Christ  Church,  of  stone,  with 

earners:   paid  for  wages  $38,191,076,  and  lofty  nave,  and  architecturally  represent- 

for     materials     used     in     manufacturing,  ing  the  cathedral-Gothic   style.     It  is  on 

$117,861,443;   and  had  a  combined  output  the     corner     of     Locust    and     Thirteenth 

valued  at  $233,629,733,  giving  the  city  the  streets.     Among  Presbyterian  churches  of 

tifth  rank  in  value  of  manufactures.     The  note  are  the  Grand  Avenue,  First,  Second, 

principal  industries  with  the  value  of  their  Central,      Lafayette,      and      Cumberland; 

products  were  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  among  the  Congregational,  the  First  and 

in     all      forms,     $26,067,670;      wholesale  'Pilgrim,    the    latter    having    a    handsome 

slaughtering   and   meat-packing,    $12,267,-  belfry  containing  a  full  set  of  chimes;  and 

532;    malt    liquors,    $11,673,599;    foundry  among   the   Jewish,   the   Temple   on   Pine 

and    machine-shop    products,    $11,628,140;  Street     and    the     Synagogue    on    Lindell 

boots  and   shoes    (factory  work),  $8,286,-  Avenue,   both   attractive   structures.     The 

156;   men's  clothing    (factory  work),  $5,-  Unitarians  have  a  Gothic  Church  of  the 

577,442;    steam-railroad   cars,   $4,974,662;  Messiah;      the     Methodists,     the     Union 

coffee  and  spices,  $4,765,564 ;  carriages  and  Church ;   and  the  Baptists,  a  stone  edifice 

wagons,   $4,033,799;    flour   and   grist   mill  of  handsome  design  on  Locust  Street. 

products,  $4,004,062;    iron   and  steel,  $3,-  Schools  and   Colleges. — The   city   has   a 

274,448;    and    furniture    (factory   work),  school   population   of   about    175,000,   and 

$3,268,765.     Here   are  located  the  largest  of  this  number  about  84.000  are  enrolled 

brewery,  tobacco  factory,  fire-brick  plant,  in  the  public  schools  and  26,000  in  private 

tin    and    sheet-iron    stamping    mill,    and  and   parochial    schools.     The   annual    cost 

ciacker  bakery  in  the  world,  and  also  the  of  the  public-school  system  is  over  $1,620,- 

largest  wholesale  drug-house  and  hardware  000,  and  the  value  of  public-school  prop- 

and  wooden-ware  establishments.  erty    exceeds    $6,600,000.      Secondary    in- 

Banks. — St.  Louis  is  one  of  the  three  struction  is  provided  in  a  high  school  for 
central  reserve  cities  under  the  national  white  pupils  and  a  summer  high  school 
banking  system  and  the  fifth  city  in  the  for  colored ;  and,  among  private  institu- 
country  in  amount  of  annual  clearings,  tions,  by  the  Academy  of  the  Visitation 
At  the  end  of  1904  there  were  eight  na-  (P.  C),  Bishop  Robertson  Hall  (P.  E.), 
tional  banks,  with  aggregate  capital  of  Hosmer  Hall  (non-sect.),  Loretto  Acad- 
$15,000,000;  surplus,  "$10,354,600;  out-  emy  (R.  C),  Phillips  School  (non-sect.), 
standing  circulation,  $12,875,337;  indi-  Sacred  Heart  Academy  (R.  C),  Ursuline 
vidual  deposits,  $59,769,963;  loans  and  Academy  and  Day  School  (R.  C),  and 
discounts,  .$89,662,514;  and  assets  and  Walther  College  (Luth,). 
liabilities  balancing  at  $171,492,895.  In  The  institutions  for  higher  instruction 
the  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1904,  the  ex-  include  St.  Louis  University  (R.  C), 
changes  at  the  United  States  clearing-  opened  in  1829;  Christian  Brothers  Col- 
house  here  amounted  to  .$2,682,218,323—  lege  (R.  C),  opened  in  1851;  and  Wash- 
an  increase  in  a  year  of  $217,160,397.  ington   University    (non-sect.),   opened   in 

Churches. — St.  Louis  is  the  seat  of  a  1859.  The  last  named  has  grounds  and 
Roman  Catholic  archbishop  and  of  a  buildings  valued  at  over  $500,000,  scien- 
Protestant  Episcopal  bishop,  and  has  tific  apparatus  and  equipment  valued  at 
nearly  300  church  edifices  and  places  of  about  $155,000,  and  productive  funds  of 
worship,  the  Roman  Catholic  predomi-  over  $4,750,000.  The  university  includes 
nating  in  number.  The  most  noticeable  the  college  proper,  the  School  of  Engineer- 
churches  of  the  latter  communion  are  the  ing,  the  Shaw  School  of  Botany,  the  St. 
Cathedral  on  Walnut  Street,  having  a  Louis  School  of  Fine  Arts,  law  and  medical 
fagade  of  polished  freestone,  a  Doric  schools,  and,  as  preparatory  schools, 
portico,  and  a  lofty  spire  containing  a  Smith  Academy  for  boys,  Mary  Institute 
chime  of  bells;  St.  Xavier's,  accounted  the  for  girls,  and  a  manual  training  school, 
handsomest  Catholic  structure  in  the  city,  one  of  the  first  in  the  United  States. 



Among    the    professional     schools    not  in    Paris,    cost    $1,000,000.      The    United 

mentioned  above  are  the  Concordia  Theo-  States    Government    Building,    accommo- 

logical    Seminary    (Evan.    Luth.),   opened  dating  the  Custom-House,  Post-OflBce,  and 

in  1839;  Eden  Theological  Seminary  (Gcr.  Sub-Treasury,    is    of   Maine   granite   with 

Evan.  Synod  of  N.  A.),  opened  in   1850;  rose-colored   granite   trimmings,   and    cost 

and    the    Kenrick    Theological    Seminary  nearly   $8,000,000.      The    building   of    the 

(R.  C),  opened  in   1893;   Benton  College  Chamber    of    Commerce    is    223    feet   long 

of   Law,    1896;    and   Missouri    College    of  by  187  feet  deep,  and  six  stories  high,  is 

Law,  1899;  Barnes  Medical  College,  1892;  built  of  gray  limestone,  has  an  exchange 

Marion   Sims  Beaumont  College  of  Medi-  222   feet  long,   65   feet  wide,   and  60   feet 

cine;  St.  Louis  College  of  Physicians  and  high,  and  cost  $1,500,000. 

Surgeons,  1879;   Homoeopathic  Medical  Col-  Cupples  Station,  the  centre  of  a  group 

lege  of  Missouri,  1857;  and  the  American  bf  great  warehouses,  where  the  wholesale 

Medical  College,   1873;   Marion   Sims  and  trades  are  concentrated,  and  where  goods 

Washington    University    dental    colleges;  are    loaded    directly    from    warehouse    to 

St.   Louis   College   of  Pharmacy;    Normal  cars;  the  St.  Louis  Elevator,  on  the  Levee 

School  of  St.  Louis  University;  and  twelve  at   the    foot   of    Ashley    Street,   having   a 

training    schools     for     nurses,     connected  capacity  of  2,000,000  bushels;  the  Mercian- 

with  the  hospitals.  tile  Library,  with  its  choice  collection  of 

Of    forty    public,    society,    and    school  paintings,   coins,   and    statuary;    the   Mu- 

libraries,  the  largest  are  the  Public,  with  seura    of    Fine    Arts,    with    art    schools, 

170,000    volumes;     St.    Louis    Mercantile,  lecture  hall,  and  collections  of  paintings, 

126,500;     St.    Louis    University,     37,500;  statuary,  ceramic  ware,  wood-carving,  and 

Law  Association,  28,000 ;  Washington  Uni-  casts    from    Grecian    and    Egyptian    an- 

versity,    28,000;     Washington    University  tiques;   the  Fair  Groimds,  with  its  great 

Law     School,     22,000;      and     St.     Louis  amphitheatre;    the    Exposition    Building; 

Academy  of  Science,  20,000.  the  Union  Market;  and  the  Levee — should 

Charities. — St.  Louis  has  a  grand  array  all  be  visited  by  tourists, 
of  charitable  institutions  and  beneficent  Foremost  among  the  attractions  of  the 
activities.  The  hospitals  include  the  city  is  the  great  St.  Louis,  or  Eads,  Bridge, 
Evangelical  Deaconess,  Good  Samaritan,  extending  from  the  foot  of  Washington 
Lutheran,  Mayfield  Sanitarium,  Mission  Avenue  across  the  Mississippi  to  East  St. 
Baptist  Sanitarium,  Protestant,  Provi-  Louis.  It  was  projected  by  the  late 
dent,  Rebekah,  St.  Louis  Baptist,  St.  James  B.  Eads,  begun  in  1869,  completed 
Louis  City,  St.  Louis  Mullanphy,  and  in  1874,  and  cost,  with  4,800  feet  of  tun- 
St.  Luke's,  each  with  a  training  school  nel,  over  $10,000,000.  Three  miles  further 
for  nurses,  and  a  United  States  Marine  up  the  river  is  the  Merchants'  Bridge, 
Hospital.  For  the  defective  classes  there  built  in  1889-90  at  a  cost  of  $3,000,000, 
are  the  County  Insane  Asylum,  the  Mis-  and  used  for  railroad  traffic  exclusively, 
souri  School  for  the  Blind,  the  Gallaudet  The  Grand  Avenue  Bridge  across  the  rail- 
School  for  the  Deaf,  and  the  House  of  road  tracks  is  a  suspension  structure  of 
Refuge.  much  attractiveness.     The  Union  Railway 

Notable  Buildings. — The  County  Court-  Station,  erected  at  a  cost  of  $6,500,000,  is 

House  is  a  limestone  building  in  the  form  a  focal  point  of  twenty-seven  lines  of  rail- 

of  a   cross,   with   a   lofty   dome   in   which  ways,  and  is  the  largest  structure  of  its 

are  noteworthy  frescoes  by  Karl  Weimer.  kind  in  the  world. 

It  occupies  the  square  bounded  by  Chest-  Parks,     Monuments,     etc. — The     public 

nut,    Market,    Fourth,    and    Fifth    streets,  parks,    squares,    and    recreation  -  grounds 

and   cost   $1,200,000.      The   City   Hall,   of  now  embrace  an  area  of  about  2,500  acres, 

stone  and  brick,  on  the  square  bounded  by  and.  adequate  as  they  have  seemed  to  be 

Clark   Avenue   and   Market,   Twelfth,   and  in  the  past,  the  St.  Louis  Civic  Improve- 

Tliirteenth    streets,    cost    $2,000,000,    and  ment  League  has  undertaken  a  great  work 

the   building   locally  known   as   the   Four  for  the  beautifying  of  the  city,  involving 

Courts,     containing    police    headquarters,  among   other    schemes    the   creation   of   a 

criminal  courts,  and  other  public  bureaus,  new    boulevard    and    park    system.      The 

on  Clark  Avenue,  planned  after  the  Louvre  principal  parks  at  present  are  Lafayette, 
vm. — ^B                                                17 


30    acres,    containing    bronze    statues    of  Louisiana   Territory   till    1798,   and   then 

Thomas  H.   Benton  and  George  Washing-  receded  it  to  France,  by  whom  it  was  sold 

ton;   Forest,  the  handsomest  in   the   city,  to  the  United  States  for  $15,000,000,  the 

1,371   acres,   containing   a   zoological   gar-  act  of  cession  bearing  the  date  of  March  9, 

den,    driving  -  park,    athletic  -  fields,    and  1803.     The  actual  transfer  took  place  at 

bronze    statues    of    Frank    P.    Blair    and  St.  Louis.     Charles  Dehauet  Delassus  de 

Edward    Bates;    Tower   Grove,   276   acres,  DelYisiere  formally  delivered  the  territory 

with  statues  of  Columbus,  Humboldt,  and  to   Amos    Stoddard,    representing    France, 

Shakespeare;    Shaw's   Gardens,   109   acres,  on   March   9,    1804,   and   Stoddard   turned 

presented  to  the  city  with  endo^^^nent  of  it  over  to  the  American  authorities  on  the 

about    $5,000,000    by    Henry    Shaw,    con-  following  day. 

taining   a   Floretum,   Fruticetum,   Arbore-  St.   Louis  was   incorporated  as   a  town 

tum.   Herbarium,   and   Labyrinth;    Caron-  on   Nov.   9,    1809;    welcomed  the   Harriet, 

delet,     180    acres;     O'Fallon,     IGO    acres;  the  first  steamboat  direct  from  New  Or- 

Hyde,   12   acres,   and   St.   Louis   Place,   11  leans,  June  2,  1819;   was  incorporated  as 

acres.     During  the  summer  season  weekly  a  city,  with  an  area  of  385  acres,  Dec.  9, 

concerts  are  given  in  all  the  principal  parks.  1822;  inaugurated  its  first  water-works  in 

History. — In  1762  the  Governor-General  1832;  lost  four  per  cent,  of  its  population 
of  Louisiana,  then  a  French  province,  within  a  month  from  cholera  in  1832;  re- 
granted  authority  to  Pierre  Ligueste  La-  ceived  a  new  city  charter,  Feb.  26,  1835, 
clede  and  his  partners,  comprising  the  and  another,  Feb.  11,  1839;  launched  its 
Louisiana  Fur  Company,  to  establish  first  home-built  steamboat  in  1842;  and 
trading  posts  on  the  Mississippi,  and  on  in  1849  suff"ered  two  calamities — a  fire  de- 
Feb.  15,  1764,  Auguste  Chouteau,  repre-  stroyed  twenty-seven  vessels  in  the  river 
senting  the  firm,  selected  the  site  of  St.  and  400  buildings  m  the  city,  causing  a 
Louis  for  a  headquarters,  and  named  it  loss  of  $2,750,000,  and  an  epidemic  of 
as  at  present.  In  the  following  year  St.  cholera  resulted  in  over  4,000  deaths  in 
Auge  de  Bellerive,  French  commandant  at  four  months. 

Fort  De  Chartres,  arrived,  and  was  in-  In  1807  the  legislature  authorized  the 
vested  with  civil  and  military  power.  A  consolidation  of  Carondelet  with  St.  Louis, 
body  of  Spanish  troops  under  Captain  and  in  1871  a  new  city  charter,  covering 
Prios  took  possession  of  the  post  in  the  the  consolidation,  went  into  efl'ect.  The 
name  of  their  King,  on  Aug.  11,  1768,  new  State  Constitution  of  1875,  besides 
but  exercised  no  civil  functions,  and  re-  separating  the  city  from  the  county,  ex- 
tired  in  July,  1769.  In  the  latter  year  tended  the  city  limits  to  include  nearly 
the  Indian  chief  Pontiac  was  murdered  40,000  acres  bordering  on  the  river,  and 
while  visiting  the  French  commandant,  in  the  same  year  the  city  acquired 
near  Cahokia,  and  was  buried  near  the  Carondelet,  Forest,  and  O'Fallon  parks, 
present  corner  of  Walnut  and  Fourth  Other  charter  changes  have  already  been 
streets,  and  Don  Pedro  Pieruas  took  pos-  mentioned. 

session  of  the  post,  having  been  appointed  On  May  27,  1896,  the  city  was  visited 
Spanish  lieutenant-governor  and  military  by  a  cyclone  which  overthrew  many  build- 
commandant  of  Upper  Louisiana.  ings,  destroyed  shipping,  tore  out  a  shore 

In   1779   a  wall  of  brush  and  clay  five  span  of  the  great  bridge,  greatly  injured 

feet  high  was  built  around  the  to\vn  and  Tower    Grove    and    Lafayette    parks    and 

a   small   defensive  work,   named   Fort   La  Shaw's    Gardens,    and    caused    a    loss    of 

Tour,   was    erected    on    the    site    of    the  several    hundred    lives    and    of    a    large 

present     Fourth      Street     near     Walnut,  amount    of    property.      During    1902-3    a 

These   precautions   were   soon   put  to   the  number  of  public  officials  were  successfully 

test,  for  on  May  26,  1780,  a  band  of  1,.500  prosecuted  on  charges  of  bribery  by  Joseph 

Indians,  led  by  British  regulars  from  Fort  W.  Folk,  then  district  attorney,  and  later 

Michilimackinac,  surprised  the  people  out-  governor  of  the  State. 

side  of  the  wall,  killed  fifteen  or  twenty,  The  centennial  anniversary  of  the  pur- 
and  then  assaulted  the  town,  but  were  re-  chase  of  the  Louisiana  Territory,  author- 
pulsed  with  only  a  small  loss  to  the  de-  ized  by  Congress  for  1903  and  postponed 
fenders.      Spain    held    possession    of    the  a  year,  was  celebrated  here  by  an  inter- 



national  exposition,  opened  April  30,  1904,   the    influence    of    Col.    (afterwards   Maj.- 

and    closed   on   Dec.    1    following,    during   Gen.)    Frank  P,   Blair,  who  had  already 

which  time  the  total  attendance  was  18,-    raised  and  organized  a  regiment  of  Mis- 

741,073,   and   the   largest   single   day,   St.    sourians,  and  assisted  in  the  primary  for- 

Louis  Day,   Sept.   15,  404,450.     The  total    mation  of  four  others. 

cost  was  $44,500,000,  and  the  exposition       Meanwhile,  in  accordance  with  an  order 

closed  free  of  debt,  but  with  no  prospect    from  General  Wool,  a  large  portion  of  the 

of  dividends  for  citizen  subscribers.     The   arms  at  the  arsenal  were  removed   (April 

National   Government  and  nearly  all   the   26)  secretly  to  Alton,  111.,  in  a  steamboat. 

States  and  Territories  had  special   build-    and    thence    by    railway    to    Springfield. 

ings,  and  threescore  foreign  countries  and   Frost,     whom   the  governor  had   commis- 

colonies  were  represented  by  exhibits.  Tlie   sioned     a     brigadier-general,      formed     a 

score    of    large    buildings    contained    128   militia  camp  in  the  suburbs  of  St.  Louis, 

acres  of  exhibit  floor  space,  far  exceeding  and,  to  deceive  the  people,  kept  the  na- 

that  of  any  other  world's  fair.  tional   flag  flying  over  it.     Captain  Lyon 

St.  Louis  Arsenal.    Under  the  inspira-   enrolled  a  large  number  of  volunteers,  who 

tion   of   a   graduate    of    the    West    Point   occupied   the   arsenal   grounds.      Some  of 

Academy,  Daniel  M.  Frost,  and  under  the   them,  for  want  of  room,  occupied  ground 

lead  of  the  governor  of  Missouri    (C.   F.    outside.     The  St.   Tx)uis  police  demanded 

Jackson),  an  attempt  was  made  in  May,    their  return  to  the  government  grounds, 

1861,  to  seize  the  United   States  Arsenal    because  they  were  "  Federal  soldiers,  vio- 

at   St.   Louis.     The   Confederates   had   al-    lating  the  rights  of  the  sovereign  State  of 

ready    seized    one    unguarded    arsenal    at   Missouri."    No  attention  was  paid  to  this 

Liberty,  Clay  county,  under  the  direction    demand.     To  make  his  little  force  appear 

of  the  governor,  but  the  one  at  St.  Louis    large,  Lyon  sent  out  squads  at  night  to 

was  guarded  by  500  regular  troops,  under    distant  points,  to  return  in  the  morning 

Capt.  Nathaniel  Lyon,  who  had  been  ap-    with  drums  beating  and  flags  flying. 

pointed   commander   of  the  post  in  place        Finally  word  came  to  Lyon  that  cannon 

of  Major  Bell,  a  Confederate.    The  govern-    and  mortars,  in  boxes  marked  "  marble," 

or  had  sent  orders  to  the  militia  officers    had    been   landed    from   a    steamboat   and 

of  the  State  to  assemble  their  respective    sent   to    Frost's    Confederate   camp.      Dis- 

commands  and  go  into  encampment  for  a    guised   as   a  woman,   closely  veiled,  Lyon 

week.      For   weeks   before   the   President's    rode   around    that    camp,    and   was    satis- 

call    for    troops    the    Confederates    of    St.    fied  that  it  was  time  for  him  to  act  with 

Louis  were  drilled  in  the  use  of  fire-arms;    vigor.     Early  in  the  afternoon  of  May  9, 

were   furnished    with    State   arms   by   the   Lyon,   by   a   quick   movement,   surrounded 

governor;  received  commissions  from  him.    Frost's  camp  with  6,000  troops  and  heavy 

and  were  sworn  into  the  military  service  of    cannon,  and  placing  guards  so  as  to  pre- 

the  State.    They  were  closely  watched  by  a    vent    any    communication    with    the    city, 

few  Unionists    (who  were   largely  of  the    demanded  of  the  commander  the  immedi- 

German  population )  were  formed  into  mili-    ate   surrender   of   men   and   munitions   of 

tary  companies,  and  drilled  in  the  use  of   war   under   him,   giving   him   only   thirty 

fire-arms.     When  the  President's   call  for    minutes   for  deliberation.     Intelligence  of 

troops    came,    they    openly    drilled,    made    this  movement  had  reached  the  city,  and 

their   place   of   meeting   a    citadel,    estab-    an  armed  body  of  Confederates  rushed  out 

lished  a  perpetual  guard,  and  kept  up  con-    to  assist  their  friends.    They  were  too  late. 

stant    communication    with    the    arsenal.    Frost  surrendered  his  1,200  militia,  1,200 

They  were  denounced  by  the  Confederates    new  rifles,   twenty  cannon,   several   chests 

as    "  outlaws,     incendiaries,    and    miscre-    of  muskets,  and  a  large  quantity  of  am- 

ants,"  preparing  to  make  war  on  Missouri,    munition.    Most  of  these  materials  of  war 

They  were  relieved  by  an  order  from  the    had  been  stolen  from  the  arsenal  at  Baton 

President    (April    30,    1861)    for   Captain    Rouge.    The  arsenal  was  saved. 

Lyon  to  enroll  into  the  military  service  of       St. -Luc,  La  Corne  de,  military  oflScer; 

the  United  States  the  loyal  citizens  of  St.    born   in    1712.      Prior   to   and   during  the 

Louis,    in    number    not    exceeding    1,000.    French    and    Indian    War   he   bitterly   op- 

This  order  was  procured  chiefly  through    posed  the  British ;  won  great  distinction  at 



libe  battle  of  Ticonderoga,  capturing  150  of  pers,"  were  built.  Seven  of  these  were  on 
General  AberCrombie's  wagons;  partiei-  the  stocks  there  in  August,  1814,  when 
pated  in  tlie  victory  of  St.  Foy,  near  Admii-al  Coekburn  appeared,  with  the  in- 
Quebec,  and  in  the  battle  on  the  Plains  of  tention  of  destroying  them  and  the  village. 
Abraham.  When  the  Revolutionary  War  The  veteran  Gen.  Derry  Benson,  com- 
began  he  gave  his  support  to  the  British  mander  of  the  militia  of  Talbot  county, 
side;  incited  the  Indians  of  the  North  and  prepared  to  receive  the  invaders.  He  con- 
Northwest  against  the  colonists;  took  part  structed  two  redoubts,  and  the  militia 
in  the  capture  of  Ethan  Allen;  and  later  from  the  adjacent  country  were  called  to 
commanded  the  Indians  in  the  Burgoyne  the  defence  of  the  place.  Benson  had,  in 
campaign.  He  died  in  Montreal,  Canada,  the  aggregate,  about  300  men.  Between 
Oct.  1,  1784.  midnight   and   dawn   on   Aug.    11    the   in- 

St.  Mary's  River.     See  SAtTLT  de  Ste.  vaders  proceeded  to  the  attack  in  eleven 

Marie  Ship-canal.  barges,  each  armed  with  a  6-pounder  field- 

St.      Memin,      Charles      Balthazar,  piece.    The  night  was  intensely  dark,  and 

JuLlEN  Fevre  de,  artist;   born  in  Dijon,  the  first  intimation  of  their  presence  wag 

France,  March  12,  1770;  went  to  Canada  the  booming  of  their  cannon.     The  Mary- 

in    1793    and    soon   after   settled   in   New  landers,  though  a  little  surprised,  made  a 

York:    introduced  into  the  United  States  gallant     resistance     from     the     batteries. 

the  physionotrace,  a  machine  designed  by  Under   cover  of  their  guns,   the   invaders 

Chretien,  by  which  a  copy  of  the  human  landed   in   a   compact  body   to   storm  the 

profile  could  be  made  with  mathematical  batteries,  when  a  9-pounder  in  one  of  them 

accuracy.      In   connection   with   its    intro-  opened  and  cut  a  wide  swath  through  the 

duction  St  Memin  made  a  pantograph,  by  line  of  the   British,   killing  nineteen  and 

which  he  could  reduce  the  original  design  wounding    many.       The    Americans,    out- 

of    the    life-size    profile    to    a    size    small  numbered,  fell  back  to  the  other  battery, 

enough  to  be  engraved  in  a  circle  2  inches  and  continued  the  contest  until  daylight, 

in  diameter.     He  made  hundreds  of  these  when  the  invaders,  after  spiking  the  guns 

profiles  of  the  most  prominent  people  in  of  the  lower  battery,  fled,  discomfited,  to 

the  United   States.     They  have  been  pre-  their  vessels. 

served  and  in  many  instances  are  the  only  St. -Ours,   Jean   Baptiste   de,   military 

portraits   of   these   persons   now   in   exist-  officer;    born   in   Canada   in    1668;    joined 

ence.      In    1798    he    secured    a    profile    of  the  French  Canadian  army  early  in  life; 

Washington,  which  is  of  interest  as  it  was  promoted    lieutenant    in    1702,    and    soon 

the  last  portrait  of  him  taken  from  life. 
In  1814  St.  Memin  removed  to  France, 
and  in  1817  became  director  of  the 
Museum  in  Dijon.  He  died  in  Dijon, 
France,  June  23,   1852. 

after  garde-marine;  was  one  of  the  three 
in  command  of  the  expedition  against 
Fort  Orange  (now  Albany)  in  1708.  At 
the  head  of  about  200  Iroquois  Indians 
St.  -  Ours    took    the    village    and    fort    of 

St.  Michael,  the  chief  port  of  Alaska  on    Haverhill.     Later  he  was  made  major  of 
Bering  Sea;   also  the  trading  port  of  the   Montreal,   and   afterwards  was   appointed 

Yukon  Valley.  It  is  on  Norton  Sound,  in 
a  region  swampy  and  subject  to  inunda- 
tions, and  could  be  given  an  excellent 
harbor  by  extensive  dredging  and  other  inv 
provements.  For  many  years  it  was  an 
important  station  of  the  Russian  Fur 
Company,  and  prior  to  the  acquisition  of 
Alaska  by  the  United  States  was  known  as 
Mikhailovsk.     See  Alaska. 

St.  Michael,  Defence  of.  On  the  east- 
ern shore  of  Chesapeake  Bay  was  the  little 
town  of  St.  Michael,  in  Talbot  county, 
Md.,  founded  by  ship-builders,  and  famous 
asi  the  place  where  most  of  the  swift-sail- 
ing   privateers,    called    "  Baltimore    clip- 

king's  lieutenant.     He  died  in  Montreal, 
Canada,  in  1747. 

St.  Paul,  a  city,  county  seat  of  Ram- 
sey county,  and  capital  of  the  State  of 
Minnesota;  on  both  sides  of  the  Missis- 
sippi River,  with  the  principal  portion  on 
the  east  bank,  and  the  two  parts  con- 
nected by  bridges.  Four  trans-continental 
and  seven  Eastern  trunk  line  railroads 
pass  through  or  extend  to  it.  giving  it  ex- 
ceptional importance  as  a  shipping  point. 
The  site  was  first  occupied  by  the  whites 
by  a  small  French  colony,  principally  en- 
gaged in  the  fur  trade,  and  its  name  was 
derived  from  the  Roman  Catholic  mission 



of  St.  Paul,  established  in  1841.  Six 
years  afterwards  the  settlement  was 
plotted;  in  1849  the  town  was  made  the 
territorial  capital;  and  in  1854  it  was 
given  a  city  charter.  Its  remarkable  de- 
velopment is  due  to  its  location  at  the 
head  of  navigation  on  the  Mississippi  as 
well  as  to  its  railroad  connections.  Popu- 
lation in  1900,  163,065. 

St.  Philip,  Fort,  Attack  on.  While 
the  armies  were  burying  their  dead  on  the 
field  of  strife  near  New  Orleans  after  the 
battle  there  (Jan.  8,  1815),  some  of 
the  British  troops  sought  to  secure  the 
free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  for  them- 
selves by  capturing  Fort  St.  Philip,  at 
a  bend  of  the  stream,  70  or  80  miles  below 
New  Orleans  in  a  direct  line.  It  was  re- 
garded as  the  key  to  Louisiana.  It  was 
garrisoned  by  366  men,  under  Major  Over- 
ton, of  the  Rifle  Corps,  and  the  crew  of 
a.  gunboat  which  had  been  warped  into  a 
bayou  at  its  side.  A  British  squadron  of 
five  vessels  appeared  near  the  fort  on  the 
morning  of  Jan.  9  and  anchored,  out  of 
range  of  the  heavy  guns  of  the  fort,  two 
bomb-vessels  with  their  broadsides  to  the 
fort.  These  opened  fire  in  the  afternoon, 
and  continued  a  bombardment  and  can- 
nonade, with  little  interruption,  until  day- 
break on  the  18th.  During  that  time  the 
Americans  were  much  exposed  to  rain  and 
cold.  The  British  cast  more  than  1,000 
shells,  besides  many  round  and  grape  shot, 
upon  the  fort,  the  result  of  which  was 
two  Americans  killed  and  seven  wounded. 
They  had  expended  20,000  lbs.  of  pow- 
der, and  withdrew  without  gaining  the 
fort,  spoils,  or  glory.  See  also  Jackson 
AND  St.  Philip,  Forts. 

St.  Regis,  Skirmish  at.  On  each  side 
of  the  boundary-line  between  the  United 
States  and  Canada  is  the  Indian  village 
of  St.  Regis,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Regis 
River.  In  that  village  Captain  McDon- 
nell was  placed,  with  some  armed  Ca- 
nadian voyageurs,  in  September,  1812. 
Maj.  G.  D.  Young,  stationed  at  French 
Mills  (afterwards  Fort  Covington),  left 
that  post  on  the  night  of  Oct.  21  with 
about  200  men,  crossed  the  St.  Regis  in  a 
boat,  a  canoe,  and  on  a  hastily  constructed 
raft,  and  before  dawn  was  within  half  a 
mile  of  St.  Regis.  There  they  were  rested 
and  refreshed,  and  soon  afterwards  pushed 
forward   and   surrounded   the  town.     As- 


sailing  the  block-house,  a  sharp  skirmish 
ensued,  in  which  the  British  lost  seven 
men  killed,  while  not  an  American  was 
hurt.  The  spoils  of  victory  were  forty 
prisoners  (exclusive  of  the  commander 
and  the  Roman  Catholic  priest),  with 
their  arms  and  accoutrements,  thirty-eight 
muskets,  two  bateaux,  a  flag,  and  a  quan- 
tity of  baggage,  including  800  blankets. 
The  flag  which  waved  over  the  block-house 
was  captured  by  Lieut.  William  L.  Marcy, 
afterwards  governor  of  New  York. 

St.  Sacrament  Lake,  a  former  name 
of  Lake  George ;  a  beautiful  sheet  of 
water  lying  west  of  the  upper  end  of 
Lake  Champlain ;  originally  named  by 
Father  Jogues,  a  Jesuit  missionary  who 
visited  it  about  the  middle  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  This  lake  was  the  theatre 
of  important  military  events  in  the  French 
and  Indian  War  (q.  v.)  and  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  At  the  head  of  the  lake 
Gen.  Sir  William  Johnson  was  encamp- 
ed early  in  September,  1755,  with  a 
body  of  provincial  troops  and  a  party 
of  Indians  under  the  Mohawk  chief  Hen- 
drick.  There  he  was  attacked  (Sept.  8) 
by  the  French  under  Dieskau,  and  would 
have  been  defeated  but  for  the  energy 
and  skill  of  Gen.  Phineas  Lyman.  The 
assailants  were  repulsed,  and  their  lead- 
er (Dieskau)  was  badly  wounded,  made 
prisoner,  sent  to  New  York,  and  paroled. 
He  died  of  his  wounds  not  long  after- 
wards. Johnson  was  knighted,  and  gave 
the  name  of  Lake  George  to  the  sheet 
of  water,  in  honor  of  his  sovereign,  by 
which  name  it  is  still  kno^vn.  At  its 
head  Fort  William  Henry  was  built,  and 
suffered  siege  and  capture  by  the  French 
and  Indians  in  1757.  The  next  year  it 
was  the  scene  of  a  vast  armament  upon 
its  bosom  going  to  the  attack  of  TicoN"- 
DEROGA    [q.   v.). 

St. -Simon,  Claude  Anne,  Marquis  de, 
military  officer ;  born  in  the  Castle  of  La 
Faye,  Spain,  in  1743;  learned  the  art  of 
gunnery  and  fortifications  at  Strasburg; 
distinguished  himself  in  Flanders;  and 
was  chief  of  the  body-guard  of  the  King 
of  Poland  in  1758.  After  various  ser- 
vices in  Europe,  he  came  to  America  with 
De  Grasse,  at  the  head  of  French  troops, 
and  assisted  in  the  siege  of  Yorktown  in 
1781.  In  1789  he  was  a  deputy  in  the 
States-General.     Being  a  native  of  Spain, 


he  returned  to  the  service  of  that  coun-  Salaberry,  Charles  Michel  d'Ibum- 
try.  and  assisted  in  the  defence  of  Ma-  berry,  Seigneur  de  Chambly  et  de  Beau- 
drid  in  ISOS.  He  was  made  prisoner  and  lac,  military  officer;  born  in  Beauport, 
condemned  to  death,  but  the  sentence  Canada,  Nov.  19,  1778;  served  in  the  Brit- 
ish army  eleven  years  in  the  West  Indies; 
was  aide-de-camp  to  General  de  Rotten- 
burg;  was  in  Canada  in  1812,  where  he 
organized  the  Voltigeurs,  and  repulsed 
Americans  under  Dearborn  at  La  Salle  in 
that  year.  On  Oct.  28,  1813,  he  gained 
a  decisive  victory  over  Gen.  Wade  Hamp- 
ton at  Chateaugay,  for  which  he  was 
presented  with  a  gold  medal,  the  Order 
of  the  Bath,  and  the  thanks  of  the  Ca- 
nadian legislature.  He  was  afterwards  Sen- 
ator, and  entered  the  legislative  council 
as  Monseigneur  Plessis.  He  died  in  Cham- 
bly, Canada,  Feb.  26,  1829. 

Salary  Grab,  The.  The  popular  name 
of  the  law  passed  by  Congress,  March  4, 
1873,  to  increase  the  salaries  of  Senators 
and  Representatives  from  $5,000  to  $7,500 
per  year.  Although  it  was  to  go  into  force 
was  commuted  to  exile.  After  Ferdinand  "  on  and  after  March  4,  1873,"  it  was  so 
VII.  was  re-established  on  the  throne  worded  as  to  include  the  members  of  Con- 
(1814),  St.-Simon  returned  to  Spain.  He  gress  who  passed  it,  and  whose  terms  of 
died  Jan.  3,  1819.  office  expired  on  that  day.     It  was,  there- 

St.  Tammany.     See  Tammany,  St.  fore,   so  far  as  they  were   concerned,  re- 

st. Thomas.     See  Danish  West  Indies. 


St.  Vincent.     See  Martinique. 

St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  Society  of,  a  Re- 

troactive in  its  provisions,  and  gave  to  each 
of  them  $15,000  instead  of  $10,000  for  his 
two  years'  services.   The  passage  of  the  bill 

man  Catholic  organization  engaged  in  the  aroused  a  storm  of  indignation  in  all  parts 
work  of  caring  for  the  Roman  Catholic  of  the  country,  and  all  persons  united  in 
poor  in  the  large  cities  of  the  United  condemning  the  course  of  those  who  had 
States.  Its  head  is  the  superior  council  supported  it.  Every  act  of  Congress  pre- 
of  the  New  York  Circumscription,  which  viously  passed  to  increase  the  pay  of  its 
has  its  office  at  No.  2  Lafayette  Place,  members  had  been  in  like  manner  retro- 
Local  bodies,  over  which  it  has,  in  near-  active  in  its  operation,  and  had  been 
ly  all  cases,  jurisdiction,  are  known  as  regarded  with  similar  but  less  intense 
particular  councils.  The  principal  work  disfavor.  In  this  case,  however,  the 
of  the  particular  councils  consists  in  feeling  of  popular  indignation  was  such 
visiting  the  poor  and  relieving  them,  that  the  greater  number  of  those  who 
procuring  situations  for  deserving  per-  drew  the  increased  salaries  paid  the 
sons  out  of  employment,  and  promoting  excess  back  again  into  the  United  States 
attendance  on   the   Sunday-schools  of   the  treasui-y. 

Church.  j3y  ^^.j^  ^f  ^j^q  next  Congress,  Jan.  24, 

Sala,   George  Augustus  Henry,   jour-  1874,  the  law  was  repealed,  except  in  so 

ralist;  born  in  London,  England,  in  1828;  far    as    it    concerned    the    salaries    of    the 

was   educated   in   art,   but  turned   his   at-  President  and  of  the  judges  of  the  Supreme 

tention    to    literary    work,    and    contnb-  Court.       The    compensation    of    Senators 

uted  to  London  magazines;  was  the  Amer-  and  Representatives  was,  therefore,  again 

ican    correspondent   of    the    London    Tele-  fixed   at   $5,000   a  year,   and   that  of   the 

graph    in    1863-64,    and    published    Amer-  Vice-President  and  of  the  cabinet  officers 

ica   in    the    Midst    of    Wa/r   and    America  at  $8,000  a  year;  while  the  salary  of  the 

Revisited.     He  died   in   Brighton,   Dec.   8,  President  remained  at  $50,000,  that  of  the 

1895.  chief-justice  at  $10,500,  and  those  of  the 



associate  judges  at  $10,000  each.  The 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  provides 
that  Congress  shall  determine  the  salaries 
of  its  own  members.  In  accordance  with 
this  provision  the  first  Congress  passed 
an  act  (Sept.  24,  1789)  fixing  the  com- 
pensation at  $6  a  day  while  in  attendance, 
and  $6  for  each  20  miles  of  travel  in 
going  and  coming.  The  speaker  of  the 
House  was  to  have  $12  a  day.  In  1866 
the  compensation  of  Senators  and  Repre- 
sentatives was  increased  to  $5,000  a  year, 
and  mileage  at  the  rate  of  20  cents  a 
mile  going  to  and  returning  from  each 
session.  The  pay  of  the  speaker  was 
made  $8,000  a  year,  the  same  as  the  Vice- 

Salem,  a  city  and  the  county  seat  of 
Essex  county,  Mass.;  founded  in  1626;  in- 
corporated as  a  city  in  1836;  noted  for  its 
historical  associations,  and  its  educational 
and  scientific  interests;  population  in 
1900,  35,956.  After  the  abandonment  of 
Cape  Ann  there  was  a  revival  of  zeal  for 
colonization  at  Naumkeag  (Salem),  and 
John  Endicott  was  chosen,  by  a  new  com- 
pany  of    adventurers,    to    lead    emigrants 

thither  and  be  chief  manager  of  the  colony, 
A  grant  of  land,  its  ocean  line  extend- 
ing from  3  miles  north  of  the  Merrimac 
River  to  3  miles  south  of  the  Charles 
River,  and  westward  to  the  Pacific  Ocean, 
was  obtained  from  the  council  of  New 
England,  March  19,  1628,  and  in  June 
John  Endicott,  one  of  the  six  patentees, 
sailed  for  Naumkeag,  with  a  small  party, 
as  governor  of  the  new  settlement.  Those 
who  were  there — the  remains  of  Oonant's 
settlers — were  disposed  to  question  the 
claims  of  the  new-comers.  An  amicable 
settlement  was  made,  and  in  commemora- 
tion of  this  adjustment  Endicott  named 
the  place  Salem,  the  Hebrew  word  for 
peaceful.  The  colony  then  comprised 
about  sixty  persons.  Previous  to  this 
emigration  about  thirty  persons,  under 
Captain  Wollaston,  had  set  up  an  in- 
dependent plantation  at  a  place  which 
they  named  Mount  Wollaston  (afterwards 
Quincy,  Mass.),  which  soon  fell  under  the 
control  of  a  "  pettifogger  of  Furnival's 
Inn,"  named  Morton,  who,  being  a  conviv- 
ial and  licentious  character,  changed  the 
name  to  Merry  Mount,  and  conducted  him- 




self  in  a  most  shameless  manner.    He  sold  ton  port  bill,  General  Gage  adjourned  the 

powder  and  shot  to  the  Indians;  gave  ref-  Massachusetts  Assembly,  May  31,  1774,  to 

use    to    runaway    servants;    and,    setting  Salem,    June    7.     Anticipating    this,    the 

up   a  May-pole,   he  and   his   companions  patriots  in  the  Assembly  appointed  Samuel 


danced  around  it,  sang  ribald  and  obscene   Adams  and  James  Warren  to  act  in  the 

songs,  broached  a  cask  of  wine  and  a  hogs- 
head of  ale,  and  held  a  great  revel  and 
carousal  there,  to  the  great  scandal  of  all 
the  Puritan  settlers.  Morton  was  in  Eng- 
land when  Endicott  came.  The  rigid 
Puritan,  finding  Merry  Mount  to  be  with- 
in the  domain  of  the  Massachusetts  char- 
ter, proceeded  to  cut  down  the  May-pole, 
and  called  the  place  Mount  Dagon.  He 
rebuked  the  settlers  there,  lectured  them 
severely  on  the  "  folly  of  amusements," 
and  warned  them  to  "  look  there  should 
be  better  walking."  Morton  was  angry 
on  his  return,  and  defied  the  stout  Puritan 
sentiments  of  his  neighbors.  Plymouth 
was  called  to  interfere,  and  Captain 
Standish  seized  the  bacchanalian  ruler  of 
Merry  Mount  and  he  was  sent  a  prisoner 
to  England. 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  Bos- 

interim.  They  held  private  conferences 
with  others,  and  arranged  plans  for  future 
action.  They  made  arrangements  for  a 
Continental  Congress;  provided  funds  and 
munitions  of  war;  prepared  an  address  to 
other  colonies  inviting  their  co-operation 
in  the  measures  of  a  general  congress;  and 
drew  up  a  non-importation  agreement. 
^Mien  the  Assembly  met  on  the  7th  these 
various  bold  propositions  were  laid  before 
it.  The  few  partisans  of  the  croAvn  in  the 
House  were  astonished  and  alarmed.  Gage 
sent  his  secretary  to  dissolve  the  Assembly 
by  proclamation,  but  the  patriots  were  too 
vigilant  for  him.  The  hall  doors  were 
closed,  and  the  key  was  in  Samuel  Adams's 
pocket.  The  reading  of  the  proclamation 
on  the  stairs  was  unheeded  by  the  patriots 
within.  They  adopted  and  signed  a  non- 
importation league,  and  copies  of  this  and 



their  proposition  for  a  general  congress, 
at  a  time  and  place  appointed,  were  sent 
to  the  other  colonies.  They  chose  Thomas 
Gushing  (their  speaker),  and  James  Bow- 
doin,  Samuel  Adams,  John  Adams,  and 
Robert  Treat  Paine  as  their  delegates  to 
the  Continental  Congress.  This  was  the 
last  session  of  the  Massachusetts  As- 
sembly under  a  royal  governor. 

In  February,  1775,  Gage  heard  that 
some  cannon  had  been  deposited  at  Salem 
by  the  patriots,  and  on  Sunday,  the  26th, 
he  sent  Colonel  Leslie,  with  140  regular 
troops,  in  a  vessel  from  Castle  William  to 
seize  them.  They  landed  at  Marblehead 
and  marched  to  Salem,  but,  not  finding  the 
cannon  there,  moved  on  towards  Danvera. 
Reaching  a  drawbridge  over  a  stream  be- 
tween the  two  towns,  they  found  a  large 
number  of  people  assembled  there,  and  on 
the  opposite  side  forty  militia  under  Col. 
Timothy  Pickering.  The  bridge  was  drawn 
up.  Leslie  ordered  it  to  be  let  down,  but 
Pickering  refused,  declaring  it  to  be 
private  property.  Leslie  determined  to 
ferry  a  few  troops  over  in  a  gondola  that 
lay  near.  Perceiving  this,  some  of  the 
militia  instantly  scuttled  the  vessel.  The 
minister  at  Salem  (Mr.  Barnard),  fear- 
ing instant  hostilities,  interfered,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  moderating  the  zeal  of  both 
parties.  Leslie  finally  promised  that  if  he 
might  cross,  he  would  go  only  a  few  rods 
beyond.  The  bridge  was  let  down,  the 
troops  marched  over  and  beyond  a  short 
distance,  and  then  returned  to  their  ves- 
sel at  Marblehead  without  finding  the 
cannon.     See  Witchcratt,  Salem, 

Salem,  a  city  in  Forsyth  county,  N.  C, 
generally  spoken  of  as  the  dual  city  of  Sa- 
lem-Winston. The  Salem  part  of  the 
twin  cities  was  settled  by  Moravians  in 
1766;  was  the  scene  of  several  thrilling 
events  in  the  Indian  and  Revolutionary 
wars ;  and  was  occupied  by  National  and 
Confederate  armies  during  the  Civil  War. 

Salisbury  (N.  C.) ,  a  Confederate 
prison  camp,  captured  April  12,  1865,  by 
(General  Stonenian.  Fourteen  hundred 
National  soldiers  were  freed,  and  an 
enormous  quantity  of  stores  was  captured. 
See  Confederate  States   ( Prisons ) . 

Salishan  Indians.  See  Flathead 

Salm-Salm,  Prince  Felix,  military 
officer;   born  in  Anhalt,  Prussia,  Dec.  25, 

1828;  educated  in  Berlin;  made  an  officei 
in  the  Prussian  cavalry;  distinguished 
himself  in  the  Schleswig-Holstein  War; 
came  to  the  United  States  in  1861 ;  joined 
the  National  army  as  colonel  and  served 
throughout  the  Civil  War;  brevetted  brig- 
adier-general of  volunteers,  April  15,  1865; 
served  in  Mexico  under  Emperor  Maxi- 
milian, to  whom  he  was  an  aide-de-camp ; 
and  was  captured  at  Queretaro.  He  re- 
turned to  Europe  after  the  execution  of 
Maximilian ;  rejoined  the  Prussian  array ; 
and  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Gravelotte, 
near  Metz,  Alsace,  Aug.  13,  1870. 

His  wife,  Agnes  Leclercq  Joy,  boin  in 
Swanton,  Vt.,  in  1842;  educated  in  Pliila- 
flelphia.  Pa. ;  married  the  prince  Aug.  30, 
1862;  accompanied  him  through  all  his 
military  campaigns  in  the  South,  where 
she  performed  useful  service  in  field-hospi- 
tals. After  the  capture  of  her  husband  at 
Queretaro  she  rode  to  San  Luis  Potosi  and 
vainly  besought  President  Juarez  to  secure 
the  freedom  of  Maximilian  and  her  hus- 
band. She  raised  a  hospital  brigade  with 
which  she  did  much  good  in  the  Franco- 
Prussian  War.  She  visited  America  in 
1900  for  the  purpose  of  presenting  the 
old  battle-flags  to  the  survivors  of  her 
husband's  regiment,  which  had  been  in 
Sherman's  great  march  to  the  sea. 

Salomon,  Frederick,  military  officer; 
born  near  Halberstadt,  Prussia,  April  7, 
1826;  became  government  surveyor  and 
later  lieutenant  of  artillery;  emigrated 
to  the  United  States  and  settled  in  Mani- 
towoc, Wis.,  as  a  surveyor;  was  chief 
engineer  of  the  Manitowoc  and  Wiscon- 
sin Railroad  in  1857-59;  served  through 
the  Civil  War,  entering  the  volunteer  ser- 
vice as  captain  of  the  5th  Missouri  In- 
fantry and  rising  to  the  rank  of  brigadier- 
general,  June  16,  1862;  was  brevetted  ma- 
jor-general of  volunteers  in  March,  1865; 
mustered  out  of  the  service  Aug.  25  fol- 
lowing, and  for  several  years  thereafter 
was  surveyor-general  of  Utah. 

Salomon,  Haym,  financier;  born  in 
Lissa,  Prussian  Poland,  about  1740;  came 
to  the  United  States  several  years  be- 
fore the  ReA'olutionary  War,  and  settled 
in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  as  a  merchant  and 
banker;  acquired  a  large  fortune,  which 
the  United  States  government  had  the  use 
of  during  the  war.  He  acted  as  pay- 
master-general of  the  French  forces  in  the 


United  States;  and  loaned  money  to  the 
agents  or  ministers  of  foreign  states  and 
to  the  United  States  government,  a  large 
part  of  which  was  never  repaid.  He  died 
in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1785. 

Salt  Lake  City,  capital  of  the  State  of 
Utah  and  county  seat  of  Salt  Lake  county ; 
population  in  1900,  53,531.  The  city  is 
one  of  the  Avonders  of  United  States 
history.  It  is  in  mid-continent;  was 
founded  by  the  Mormons  in  1847,  after 
their  exodus  from  the  Mississippi  region; 
is  at  the  western  base  of  the  Wasatch 
range  of  mountains,  4,334  feet  above  the 
sea ;  and  near  a  great  salt  lake.  Its 
streets  are  regularly  laid  out,  125  feet  in 
width,  and  the  city  covers  a  vast  space  in 
proportion  to  the  number  of  its  inhabi- 

with  separate  entrances  when  the  owners 
had  several  wives.  There  are  many  church 
schools  maintained  by  the  Mormons,  be- 
sides academies,  supported  by  various 
Christian  sects.     See  Mormons;  Utah. 

Salt  Water  Indians.  See  Micmac 

Salter,  William,  clergyman;  born  in 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  17,  1821;  graduated 
at  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York 
in  1840;  ordained  in  the  Congregational 
Church ;  was  pastor  of  the  Congregational 
church  at  Burlington,  la.,  for  more  than 
fifty  years  from  1846.  His  publications 
include  Life  of  Henry  Dodge  from  1182 
to  1867 ;  Memoirs  of  Augustus  C.  Dodge, 
United  States  Senator  from  Iowa;  Life  of 
James  W.  Grimes,  Governor  of  lovxt  and 

A   VIEW   OF   SALT    LAKK    CITY. 

tants.  It  originally  had  260  blocks,  each 
an  eighth  of  a  mile  square,  and  contain- 
ing ten  acres.  Each  block  was  divided  into 
eight  lots,  ten  by  twenty  rods,  and  con- 
tained an  acre  and  a  quarter.  Since  the 
city  was  laid  out,  several  of  the  blocks 
have  been  intersected  by  new  streets. 
There  the  Mormons  built  their  greatest 
tabernacle,  capable  of  seating  8,000  per- 
sons, covered  by  a  «elf-supporting  roof, 
and  also  a  vast  temple  constructed  of 
grayish-white  granite,  at  a  cost  of  nearly 
$12,000,000.  It  was  dedicated  April  6, 
1893,  forty  years  after  it  was  begun. 
There  are  nunierons  churcheH,  but  the 
larger  number  are  Mormon.  Their  houses 
ill  the  old  days  of  polygamy  were  built 

Senator;  Memoirs  of  Joseph  W.  Pickett; 
numerous  articles  on  the  history  of  Iowa 
in  the  Ainials  of  Iowa,  etc. 

Salton  Lake,  a  body  of  water  that  ap- 
peared imexpectedly  in  a  depression  287 
feet  below  sea-level  in  the  Colorado  Desert 
in  Califoinia,  in  the  summer  of  1891, 
caused  by  an  overflow  of  the  Colorado 
River.  The  water  soon  disappeared,  but 
through  the  breaking  of  the  dams  in  the 
Imperial  Canal,  which  drew  its  supplies 
from  the  Colorado,  other  and  more  dis- 
astrous overflows  occurred,  until  the  en- 
tiro  Colorado  River  emptied  into  the  val- 
ley. After  spending  millions  the  Colorado 
was  forced,  in  1906,  to  take  its  old 


Saltonstall,     Dudley,     naval     officer;  in  their  respective  States  or  Territories;, 

born  in  New  London,  Conn.,  Sept.  8,  1738;  seventeen  guns. 

nephsAV  of  Guidon  Saltonstall ;   appointed  To   a   committee   of   Congress,   officially 

captain   in   the   navy   by   the   Continental  visiting  a   military   post   or   station,   ser- 

Congress;  commanded  the  fleet  at  tlio  un-  enteen  guns. 

successful  attempt  on  the  British  post  on  To   a  general-in-chief,   field-marshal,   or 

the   Penobscot   in    1779.      He   died   in    the  admiral,  seventeen  guns. 

West  Indies  in  179G.  To  a  lieutenant-general  or  vice-admiral, 

Saltonstall,   Gurdon,   clergyman ;    born  fifteen  guns, 

in    Haverville,    Mass.,    March    27,    IGGG;  To   a   major-general   or   rear-admiral, 

great-grandson     of    Sir    Richard     Salton-  thirteen  guns. 

stall;   was  graduated  at  Harvard  College  To    a    brigadier-general    or    commodore, 

in  1684;   ordained  in  New  London,  Conn.,  eleven  guns. 

in    1G91;    and    was    distingui-shed    as    an  To  officers  of  marines,  volunteer  forces, 

orator.     He  became  influential  in  politics,  and   militia   when    in   the   service   of   the 

and  in   1707  was  made  governor  of   Con-  United  States,  a  salute  according  to  rank. 

necticut,  which  post  he  held  till  his  death  Commanders  of  divisions,  of  squadrons 

in  New  London,  Sept.  20,  1724.  of   divisions,   of   a    senior   officer   present, 

Saltonstall,     Sir     Richard,     colonist;  and  the  narrow  pennant  of  other  officers, 

born   in   Halifax,   England,   in    1586.     He,  no  salute;   but  when  these  officers  salute 

with  others,  signed  an  agreement,  Aug.  26,  an   officer   of   superior   rank,   they   are   to 

1G29,  to  settle  permanently  in  New  Eng-  receive,   if  a  captain,   a  return   salute  of 

land,    provided    that    the    government    be  nine   guns;    if    a   less   rank,    seven   guns, 

transferred   to   them   and   the   other   colo-  Return    salutes    of   officers   holding   equal 

nists.     The  proposition  was  accepted  and  rank,  gun   for  gun.     No  vessel  mounting 

he  was  made   first  assistant  to  Governor  less  than  six  guns  allowed  to  salute. 

Winthrop,  with  whom  he  arrived  in  New  (An  officer  assigned  to  duty,  according 

England  on  June  22,   1630.     He  returned  to  brevet  rank,   is   entitled   to   the   salute 

to  England  in  1631,  but  continued  his  in-  prescribed    for    the    grade    to    which    as- 

terest  in  the  colony.     He  died  in  England  signed.) 

about  1658.  When  several  persons,  each  of  whom  is 

Salutes.  A  salute  with  cannon  is  a  entitled  to  a  salute,  arrive  together  at  a 
certain  number  of  guns  fired  in  succession  post,  the  one  highest  in  rank  or  position 
with  blank  cartridges,  in  honor  of  a  per-  is  alone  saluted;  if  they  arrive  successive- 
son,  to  celebrate  an  event,  or  to  show  re-  ly  each  is  saluted  in  turn.  As  a  rule  a 
spect  to  the  flag  gf  a  country.  personal  salute  is  fired  when  the  person- 

The  national  salute,  which  is  fired  at  age  entitled  to  it  enters  the  port  or  sta- 

noon,   July   4,   at   each   military   post  or  tion. 

camp  provided  with  artillery^  is  one  gun  To    the    sovereign    or    chief    magistrate 

for  each  State  in  the  Union.  of  any  foreign  country,  twenty-one  guns. 

The  salute  to  a  national  flag  or  inter-  To  members  of  the  royal  family — name- 
national  salute  is  twenty-one  guns.  The  ly,  the  heir-apparent  and  consort  of  the 
international  salute  is  the  only  one  that  reigning  sovereign  of  a  foreign  country, 
is  returned.  twenty-one  guns. 

The  following  are  the  personal  salutes :  To    the    viceroy,    governor  -  general,    or 

To  the  President  of  the  United  States  governors  of  provinces  belonging  to   for- 

(given  on  both  arrival  at  and  departure  cign  states,  seventeen  guns, 

from    a    military   post,    or   when    passing  To  ambassadors  extraordinary  and  plen- 

the  vicinity;   no  other  personal   salute  is  ipotentiary,  seventeen  gims. 

fired  in  his  presence),  twenty-one  guns.  To  envoys  extraordinary  and  ministers 

To    the   Vice  -  President   of   the   United  plenipotentiary,  fifteen  guns. 

States   and   the   president   of   the   Senate,  To  ministers  resident,  accredited  to  thfl 

nineteen  guns.  United  States,  thirteen  guns. 

To  members  of  the  cabinet,  chief-jus-  To  charges  d'affaires,  or  subordinate 
tice  of  the  United  States,  speaker  of  the  diplomatic  agents  left  in  charge  of  mis- 
House  of  Representa tires,  governors  (with-  sions  in  the  United  States,  eleven  guns. 



To   consuls  •  general,    accredited   to   the  an    officer;    was    appointed    governor    of 

United  States,  nine  guns.  Louisiana    in    1724.      His    administration 

To  officers   of  foreign   services,  visiting  was  marked  by  inefficiency.     On  Nov.  29, 

any   military    post   or    station    (provided  1729,    the    Natchez    Indians,    after    being 

with  artillery),  in  accordance  with  their  exasperated  by  evil  persons,  massacred  all 

rank.  the    male    inhabitants    in    their    country. 

Salvation     Army,      a     quasi-military  Later    Perier    endeavored    to    restore    the 

organization  for  mission  work,  using,  as  French    prestige   by    sending    against   the 

special   means,    a   uniform,    out-door   pro-  Natchez  an  expedition  of  1,000  men,  who 

cessions,    with    banners    and    music,    and  took   several   hundred   prisoners   and   sent 

religious  talks  in  the  streets,  public  halls,  them  to  Santo  Domingo,  where  they  were 

theatres,  etc.     The  army  is  an  outgrowth  sold  as  slaves.    Salvert  returned  to  France 

of  the  East  London  Christian  Revival  So-  in   1733. 

ciety,  or,  as  afterwards  called,  the  "  Chris-  Salzburgers,    the    colony    of    seventy- 

tian  Mission,"   established   in  London   by  eight      persons,      representing      forty-two 

Eev.   William   Booth,   in   1865.     Its   aims  families,  who,  under  persecution,  left  their 

are:   First,  to  go  to  the  people  with  the  homes   in   the   archbishopric   of   Salzburg, 

message  of   salvation;    second,   to   attract  Bavaria;    arrived    in    Savannah,    Ga.,    in 

the    people;    third,    to    save    the    people;  March,   1734,  and  under  the  direction  of 

fourth,  to  employ  the  people  in  salvation  Oglethorpe    located    "  about    30    miles    in 

work.     Their  motto  is  "Blood  and  Fire."  the  interior."     See  Georgia;  Oglethorpe, 

It  publishes  many  weekly  newspapers  and  James  Edward. 

monthly  magazines.  Sam  Adams  Regiments,  the  name  ap- 
plied by  Lord  North  to  the  14th  and  29th 

William  Booth  holds  his  first  open-air  regiments   of  British   soldiers,   which  had 

meeting  at  the  Mile  End  Waste,  Lon-  been   stationed   in   Boston   for   more   than 

doD,    from   which   his   hearers   "pro-  a   year    when    the   massacre   of    1770    oc- 

cession-'  to  a  large  tent  near  Baker's  ^^,^    j      ^^^^   Crispus   Attucks    (see 

Row,  Whitechapel July  5,  I860  '                                              ■,  -,1    ■,       a  \ 

Work  of  the  Christian  Mission  first  in-  BOSTON),  among  others,  was  killed.    A  for- 

troduced   temporarily   in   the   United  mal  demand  for  the  immediate  removal  of 

States    at  Cleveland,   O.,   by  a  Lon-  ^^^^^  troops  from  the  city  was  made  on 

don  pflhiripf-TTifllvPr  loT 

War    Cry,    a    weekly  'newspaper,  "fiVst        "  Governor   Hutchinson  by  a   committee   of 

issued   1879  which  Samuel  Adams  was  chairman.     The 

Salvation  Army  corps  established  in  British  authorities  proposed  to  compromise 
^^^  SJn^rrXS^nl^^!:  1879  the  trouble  by  sending  away  the  29th  Regi- 
Meeting  held  in  Castle  Garden,  New  ment,  but  Adams  insisted  on  both  regi- 
York,  and  at  "  Harry  Hill's,"  by  Com-  ments  or  none.  He  stirred  up  such  a  com- 
missioner Ronton  and  seven  hal-  motion  in  the  streets  of  the  city  that  both 
lelujah  lasses  sent  over  from  Eng-  .  ^  ,  ,  ■'..,. 
land   (the  first  uniformed  corps  sent  regiments    were    ordered    away    withm    a 

out)  1880  few  hours. 

First  American  headquarters  opened  in  Samana  Bay.     See  Santo  DoMlNGO. 

FlS"  Rescue^omV  '  in  *  'England  '  b^guA  ^^^^  ^amar,  an  island  of  the  Visayan  group 

under     the     direction     of     Bramwell  of  the  Philippine  Islands.     It  is  the  most 

Booth    1884  eastern  of  the  group ;   is  about  250  miles 

General    Booth    publishes   his    book    7n  southeast  of  the  island  of  Luzon;   has  an 

Darkest  England,  and  the  Way  Out.  c   r-r>  ^/^/^                     -i              ^ 

Oct     1884  ^^^^  of  56,000  square  miles,  and  a  popu- 

Contlnental  congress  of  Salvation  Army  lation   of   about    185,000,    of   which   about 

of  the  United   States  begins   its  ses-  10,000  are  natives  living  in  the  mountains 

Blon  In  New  York  City Nov.  21,  1884  •             almoqt  savao-P  state      The  island  i«i 

Balllngton  Booth  appointed  commander  *"  ^"  almost  savage  state,     ine  island  is 

In  the  United  States 1887  traversed  by  mountain  ranges;  it  is  with- 

Balllngton  Booth  resigns  and  organizes  out  established  roads,  and  the  only  means 

the  •' Volunteers  of  America  •• 1890  of     communication    between     its    various 

parts  are  the  trails  laid  out  by  the  Araeri- 

Salvert,  Perieb  du,  colonial  governor;  can  troops  under  General  Hughes.    On  Sept. 

born   in   France  about   1690;    entered   the  28,  1901,  there  was  a  sudden  rising  of  the 

French  navy,  in  which  service  he  became  natives,  who  had  been  regarded  as  friendly 



to  the  Americans,  and  attacked  Company  The  group  consists  of  ten  inhabited  and 
C,  9th  United  States  Infantry,  near  Balan-  two  uninhabited  islands,  with  an  area  of 
giga.  Thenatives  surprised  the  troopswhile  1,700  square  miles  and  an  aggregate  popu- 
the  latter  were  at  breakfast,  fought  them  lation,  according  to  latest  estimates,  of 
with  hollos,  captured  all  the  stores  and  36,000  people,  of  which  something  over 
ammunitions  of  the  company  and  nearly  200  are  British  subjects,  125  Germans,  2r. 
all  the  rifles,  and  killed  forty-eight  mem-  Americans,  25  French,  and  25  of  other 
bers  of  the  company.  The  last  previous  in-  nationalities,  while  the  remainder  are 
telligence  from  Samar  was  under  date  of  natives  of  the  Polynesian  race.  The  bulk 
July  27,  1901,  which  noted  the  surrender  of  the  population  is  located  in  the  three 
of  500  natives,  with  two  field-guns,  twenty  islands  of  Upolou,  Savaii,  and  Tutuila,  the 
iifles,  and  seventy  hollos  to  the  Americans,  number  in  Upolou  being  16,600,  in  Savaii 
Jamoan,  formerly  known  as  Naviga-  12,500,  and  in  Tutuila  3,700.  The  islands 
tor,  Islands,  a  group  of  twelve  islands  are  of  volcanic  origin,  but  fertile,  pro- 
in  the  Southern  Pacific  Ocean.  They  are  ducing  cocoa-nuts,  cotton,  sugar,  and  coffee, 
located  about  2,000  miles  south  and  300  the  most  important,  however,  being  cocoa- 
miles  west  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands  and  nuts,  from  which  the  copra  of  com- 
fourteen  degrees  south  of  the  equator.  They  merce  is  obtained  by  drying  the  kernel  of 
lie  in  an  almost  direct  line  between  San  the  cocoa-nut,  the  copra,  which  is  ex- 
ported to  Europe  and  the 


United  States,  being  used 
in  the  manufacture  of  co- 
coa-nut oil.  The  exporta- 
tion of  copra  from  the  isl- 
ands in  1896  amounted  to 
12,565,909  lbs.,  valued  at 
$231,372.  A  considerable 
proportion  of  this  was  ex- 
ported to  the  United 
States,  a  larger  propor- 
tion, however,  to  Ger- 
many, whose  citizens  con- 
trol its  commerce  through 
a  trading  company  which 
has  long  been  established 
there.  The  cocoa-nut  and 
copra  productions,  how- 
ever, vary  greatly  from 
year  to  year,  owing  to 
the  fact  that  many  of  the 
cocoa-nut  trees  have  been 
destroyed  in  recent  wars 
between  native  factions, 
a  single  individual  being 
able,  by  cutting  out  the 
Francisco  and  Australia  and  slightly  south  crown  of  the  tree,  to  permanently  destroy 
of  the  direct  steamship  line  connecting  the  in  two  minutes'  time  the  fruit-bearing 
Philippines  with  the  proposed  Panama  or  qualities  of  trees  which  require  several 
Nicaraguan  interoceanic  canals.  Their  years  for  their  growth, 
especial  importance,  therefore,  lies  more  The  government  of  the  Samoan  Islands 
in  their  position  as  coaling  and  repair  had  been  from  time  immemorial  under 
stations  on  these  great  highways  of  com-  the  two  royal  houses  of  Malietoa  and 
merce  rather  than  in  their  direct  com-  Tupea,  except  on  the  island  of  Tutuila, 
niercial  value,  their  population  being  which  was  governed  by  native  chiefs.  In 
small  and  their  imports  and  exports  of  1873,  at  the  suggestion  of  foreign  resi- 
oomparatively  little  importa^nce.  dents,  a  house  of  nobles  and  a  houee  of 




representatives     were     established,     with  second,  all  civil  suits  between  natives  and 

Malietoa.  Lanpepa,   and  the   chief   of   the  foreigners    or    between    foreigners    of    dif- 

royal  house  of  Tupea  as  joint  kings.    Sub-  ferent     nationalities;     third,     all     crimes 

sequently  Malietoa  became  sole  king.     In  committed    by    natives     against    foreign- 


1887  he  was  deposed  by  the  German  gov- 
ernment upon  the  claim  of  unjust  treat- 
ment of  German  subjects,  who  formed  the 
bulk  of  the  foreign  population  on  the 
island,  and  was  deported  first  to  German 
Xew  Guinea  and  then  to  the  Cameroons, 
in  Africa,  and  finally  in  1888  to  Hamburg, 
Tamasese,  a  native  chief,  being  meantime 
proclaimed  by  the  Germans  as  king, 
though  against  the  protest  of  the  British 
and  American  consuls  at  Samoa.  Mataafa, 
a  near  relative  of  Malietoa,  made  war 
upon  Tamasese  and  succeeded  to  the  king- 

In  1889  a  conference  between  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  American,  British,  and 
German  governments  was  held  at  Berlin, 
at  which  a  treaty  was  signed  by  the  three 
powers  guaranteeing  the  neutrality  of  the 
islands,  in  which  the  citizens  of  the  three 
signatory  powers  would  have  equal  rights 
of  residence,  trade,  and  personal  protec- 
tion. They  agreed  to  recognize  the  inde- 
pendence of  the  Samoan  government  and 
the  free  rights  of  the  natives  to  elect 
their  chief  or  king  and  choose  a  form  of 
government  according  to  their  own  laws 
and  customs.  A  supreme  court  was  es- 
tablished, consisting  of  one  judge  styled 
tlie  chief-justice  of  Samoa.  To  this  court 
were  referred:  First,  all  civil  suits  con- 
cerning real  property  situated  in  Samoa : 

ers  or  committed  by  such  foreigners  as 
are  not  subject  to  any  consular  juris- 

The  future  alienation  of  lands  was  pro- 
hibited, with  certain  specified  exemptions. 
The  capital  was  located  at  Apia,  the  chief 
town  of  the  group  of  islands,  and  a.  local 
administration  provided  for  the  municipal 
district  of  Apia.  A  commission  was  ap- 
pointed to  investigate  titles  to  land  al- 
leged to  have  been  purchased  from  the 
natives,  and  this  in  1894  completed  its 
labors,  confirming  about  75,000  acres  of 
land  to  Germans,  36,000  to  British,  and 
21,000  to  Americans,  though  much  of  this 
land  has  since  changed  hands.  Malietoa, 
who  had  been  deported,  was  restored  as 
king  in  November,  1889,  and  continued  as 
such  until  his  death,  which  occurred  Aug. 
22,  1898,  when  the  consuls  of  the  three 
powers,  Avith  the  chief-justice  as  presi- 
dent, took  charge  of  the  administration 
pending  the  election  of  a  successor.  Out 
of  the  election  and  recognition  of  this  suc- 
cessor to  King  Malietoa,  deceased,  serious 
disagreements  between  the  local  repre- 
sentatives of  the  three  governments  main- 
taining the  joint  protectorate  over  the 
islands  occurred.  These  were  followed  iii 
1899  by  a  new  agreement  between  the 
three  nations,  which  has  been  been  de- 
scribed as  follows: 



The  treaty  bears  date  at  Washington,  Dec. 
2,  1809,  and  after  reciting  its  purpose  to  be 
to  adjust  amicably  questions  between  the 
three  powers  in  respect  to  the  Samoan  group, 
and  to  avoid  future  misunderstandings,  pro- 
ceeds textually  as  follows : 

Article  I.  The  general  act  concluded  and 
signed  by  the  aforesaid  powers  at  Berlin 
on  the  14th  day  of  June,  a.d.  1899,  and  all 
previous  treaties^  conventions,  and  agreements 
relating  to  Samoa  are  annulled. 

Art.  II.  Germany  renounces  in  favor  of  the 
United  States  of  America  all  her  rights  and 
claims  over  and  in  respect  to  the  island  of 
Tutuila  and  all  other  islands  of  the  Samoan 
group  east  of  long.  171  deg.  W.  of  Green- 
wich. Great  Britain  in  like  manner  renounces 
in  favor  of  the  United  States  of  Amei-ica  all 
her  rights  and  claim  over  and  in  respect  to 
the  island  of  Tutuila  and  all  other  islands  ©f 
the  Samoan  group  east  of  long.  171  deg.  W. 
of  Greenwich.     Reciprocally,  the  United  States 

by  arbitration  in  conformity  with  the  prin- 
ciples of  international  law  or  considerations 
of  equity." 

There  is  also  a  provision  to  the  effect  that 
"  either  of  the  three  governments  nained, 
with  the  consent  of  the  others,  previously 
obtained  in  every  case,  submit  to  the  King 
for  arbitration  similar  claims  of  persons,  not 
being  natives,  who  are  under  the  protection 
of  that  government  and  who  are  not  included 
in    the   above-mentioned   categories." 

The  agreement  provides  for  the  exchant,'e 
of  ratifications  four  months  from  the  date 
of  its  signature,  which  is  the  7th  of  Novem- 
ber last,  or  earlier  if  possible. 

Island  of  Tutuila  and  Pafin-Pa^jo  liar- 
bor. — The  harbor  of  Pago-Pajro.  in  th^^ 
island  of  Tutuila,  the  southernmost  of  the 
group,  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  for  a 
naval  and  coaling  station,  first  in  1872,  and 

of  America   renounces   in   favor  of  Germany    afterwards    confirmed   by   a   treaty   signed 

all  their  rights  and  claims  over  and  in  re- 
spect to  the  islands  of  Upolou  and  Savaii, 
and  all  other  islands  of  the  Samoan  group 
west  of  long.  171  deg.  W.  of  Greenwich. 

Art.  III.  It  is  understood  and  agreed  that 
each  of  the  three  signatory  powers  shall  con- 
tinue to  enjoy  in  respect  to  their  commerce 
and  commercial  vessels  in  all  the  islands  of 
the   Samoan   group   privileges   and   conditions 

in  Washington,  Jan.  17,  1878,  and  ratifi- 
cations exchanged  on  Feb.  13  of  the  same 
year,  by  which  the  United  States  was 
given  the  right  to  establish  at  that  harbor 
a  station  for  coaling,  naval  supplies,  free- 
dom of  trade,  commercial  treatment  as  a 
favored  nation,  and  extra-territorial  con- 
This  harbor  was  occu- 

equal  to  those  enjoyed  by  the  sovereign  power    sular  jurisdiction 

in  all  ports  which  may  be  open  to  the  com-    pied  by  the  United   States   in    1898 

"Trr/v^'^h:  preS- convention  shall  be  '^^  P-T^-  ^^  "^^--^  ^^s  advantages  as 
ratified  as  soon  as  possible  and  shall  come  ^  coaling  and  supply  station.  Tutuila, 
into  force  immediately  after  the  exchange  of    the  island  vipon   whose   coast   this  harbor 

is  located,  has  a  population  of  3,700  and 
an  area  of  54  square  miles,  while  Upolou 
has  an  area  of  340  square  miles,  and 
Savaii  659  square  miles.  By  the  above 
agreement  the  German  and  British  gov- 
ernments withdrew  their  claims  to  this 
island  in  favor  of  the  United  States.  See 

Samoset,  chief  of  the  Pemaquid  Ind- 
ians; born  in  New  England  about  1590. 
In  March,  1621,  a  naked  Indian,  who  had 
learned  a  few  words  of  English  fi'om  the 
fishermen  at  Pemaquid,  suddenly  appeared 


A  separate  treaty  was  negotiated  to  cover 
the  provisions  for  the  settlement  of  claims 
in  Samoa.  It  sets  forth  that  the  three  gov- 
ernments are  "  desirous  of  effecting  a  prompt 
and  satisfactory  settlement  of  the  claims  of 
the  citizens  and  subjects  of  their  respective 
countries  resident  in  the  Samoan  Islands  on 
account  of  recent  military  operations  con- 
ducted there,  and  have  concluded  a  con- 
vention for  the  accomplishment  of  this  end 
by  arbitration." 

The  King  of  Sweden  and  Norway  is  made 
arbitrator,  and  he  is  not  only  to  determine 
the  amount  of  claims,  but  is  to  decide  to 
"  what    extent    either    of    the    three    govern- 

ments  is   bound,    alone   or   jointly   with   the    in    the    streets    of    Plymouth,    Mass.,    and 

others,  to  make  good  these  losses. 

The  nature  of  the  claims  to  be  adjusted 
Is  set  forth  in  Article  I.  of  this  treaty,  as 
follows  : 

"  All  claims  put  forward  by  American  cit 

startled  the  Pilgrims  by  the  exclamation, 
"Welcome,  Englishmen!  Welcome,  Eng- 
lishmen!" He  was  Samoset,  and  gave 
them  much  information.     He  told  them  of 

'^y:i.S^r'\r^.^:^or^:^S:r.^!:r  ^l^  P^^f-  that  had  swept  off  the  Indians 

compensation  on  account  of  losses  which  they  ^.bout    four    years    before,    and    that    the 

allege  that  they  have  suffered  in  consequence  place  where   they  were   seated  was   called 

of   unwarranted    military    action,    if    this    be  Patuxet.      He    told    them    of    Massasoit 

shown  to  have  occurred,  on  the  part  of  Amer-  /„     .,  v         tt      i           ui    j.      at.          ^xi           i. 

leans,  German  or  British  officers,  between  the  ^^-    ^•'-      He   brought    to    the    settlement 

1st  of  January   last  and  the  arrival  of  the  some  of  the  friendly  Indians,  among  them 

joint  commission  in  Samoa,  shall  be  decided  Squanto,  whom  Weymouth  had  kidnapped 



and  given  to  Gorges. 
Squanto  taught  them 
how  to  plant  maize,  to 
catch  a  certain  fish 
wherewith  to  manure 
their  lands,  and  late  in 
the  season  he  guided  am- 
bassadors from  Plym- 
outh to  the  court  of 
Massasoit  at  Pokano- 
ket,  afterwards  Warren, 
R.   I. 

Sampson,  Deborah, 
heroine;  born  in  Plymp- 
ton,  Mass.,  Dec.  17, 
1760:  was  moved  by 
patriotic  feeling  to  dis- 
guise her  sex  and  enter 
the  Continental  army 
when  less  than  eighteen 
years  old.  Under  the 
name  of  Robert  Shurtleff 
she  joined  the  4th  Mas- 
sachusetts Regiment  and 
served  for  three  years  in 
the  ranks;  received  a 
sabre-cut  in  the  temple 
in  an  action  near  Tarry- 
town;  and  soon  after- 
wards was  shot  in  the 
shoulder.  During  the 
campaign  around  York- 
town  she  had  an  attack 
of  brain  fever,  and  was 
taken  to  a  hospital  in 
Philadelphia,  where  her 
sex  was  discovered. 
Upon    her    recovery    she 

was  sent  to  Washington,  who  gave  her  etc.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  ^ec.  12, 
an  honorable  discharge,  some  advice,  and  a    1823. 

purse  of  money.  After  the  war  she  was  Sampson,  William,  author;  born  in 
invited  to  the  capital,  and  Congress  voted  Londonderry,  Ireland,  Jan.  17,  1764; 
her  a  grant  of  lands  and  a  pension.  She  studied  at  Dublin  University  and  be- 
wrote  an  autobiography  entitled  The  Fe-  came  a  lawyer;  later  settled  in  New 
male  Review.  She  died  in  Sharon,  Mass.,  York  City.  His  writings  were  largely  in- 
April   29,   1827.  strumental    in    leading    to    the    consolida- 

Sampson,  Ezra,  clergyman;  born  in  tion  and  important  amending  of  the  laws 
Middleboro,  Mass.,  Feb.  12,  1749;  gradu-  of  New  York  State.  His  publications  in- 
ated  at  Yale  College  in  1773;  settled  in  cludie  Memoirs  of  William  Sampson;  Cath- 
Plympton,  Ma8.s.,  in  177.5;  was  chaplain  in  olic  Question  in  America;  Discourse  Before 
the  American  camp  at  Roxbury,  and  by  his  the  New  York  Historical  Society  on  the 
patriotic  speeches  greatly  encouraged  the  Common  Law:  Discourse  and  Correspond- 
soldiers.  His  publications  include  Ser-  ence  with  Learned  Jesuits  upon  the  His- 
mon  Before  Colonel  Cotton's  Regiment;  tory  of  the  Law;  History  of  Ireland, 
Thanksgiving  Discourse;  The  Sham,  Pa-  etc.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  Dec. 
triot    Unmasked;    Historical    Dictiona/ry,    27,   1836. 




Sampson,  William  Thomas,  naval  ofli-  the  flag-ship  l^ew  York,  was  about  7  miles 
cer;  born  in  Palmyra,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  9,  1840;  from  the  entrance  to  Santiago  Harbor, 
graduated    at    the    United    States    Naval    returning   from   Siboney,   whither   he   had 

Academy  in  1860;  promoted  master  in 
1861;  lieutenant  in  1862;  lieutenant-com- 
mander in  1866;  commander  in  1874;  cap- 


gone  for  a  conference  with  General 
Shafter.  In  the  absence  of  Rear-Admiral 
Sampson  the  command  of  the  American 
fleet  devolved  on  liear-Admiral  Schley. 
The  battle  which  resulted  in  the  destruc- 
tion of  Admiral  Cervera's  fleet  was  fought 
on  plans  formulated  by  Rear-Admiral 
Sampson,  who  was  unable  to  reach  the 
scene  of  the  fight  before  the  great  Amer- 
ican victory  had  been  secured.  For  his 
services  during  the  war  he  received  the 
thanks   of   the   President. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  an  unfort- 
unate    controversy     arose     between     the 
friends    of    Rear-Admirals    Sampson    and 
Schley.     This  extended  into  the  Congress 
and  prevented  the  carrying  out  the  wishes 
of    President   McKinley    for    the    suitable 
recognition  by  promotions  of  the  principal 
participants  in  the  victory.     An  attempt 
was    made    to    revive    the   grade    of   vice- 
admiral  and  to  authorize  the  President  to 
tain  in   1889;   and  was  superintendent  of    appoint  both  Sampson  and  Schley  to  that 
the  Naval  Academy  in   1886-90.      In  the    grade,    but    this    measure    also    failed    to 
Civil    War    he   was    serving    as    executive    pass  in  Congress. 

officer  of  the  iron-clad  Patapsco  when  that  After  the  close  of  the  hostilities  Rear- 
vessel  was  destroyed  by  a  mine  in  Charles-  Admiral  Sampson  was  appointed  one  of 
ton  Harbor.  He  was  blown  into  the  water,  the  three  American  commissioners  to  ar- 
but  was  soon  rescued.  In  the  latter  part  range  for  the  evacuation  of  Cuba.  He 
of  February,  1898,  he  was  made  president  then  resumed  active  command  of  the  North 
of  the  board  of  inquiry  on  the  destruction  Atlantic  Station  till  Oct.  14.  1809.  when 
of  the  United  States  battle-ship  Maine  in  he  was  appointed  commandant  of  the 
Havana  Harbor  (see  Cuba).  After  war  was  navy-yard  at  Boston.  He  died  in  Wash- 
declared  against  Spain  he  was  appointed  ington,  D.  C,  May  6.  1902.  See  Schley, 
acting  rear-admiral  by  the  President,  and  W.  S. ;  Santiago,  Battle  op. 
placed  in  command  of  the  North  Atlantic  Samuels,  Samuel,  seaman ;  born  in 
Squadron  over  the  heads  of  ten  officers  his  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  March  14,  1823;  went  to 
seniors  in  rank.  He  was  ordered  to  block-  sea  when  eleven  years  old  as  cabin-boy,  and 
ade  Havana,  April  21,1898.  With  a  portion  advanced  to  merchant  captain  when  twen- 
of  his  fleet  he  bombarded  the  fortification's  ty-one  years  old;  commanded  the  Dread- 
at  San  Juan,  Porto  Rico,  May  12.  He  naught  for  several  years;  captain  of  the 
then  placed  the  strongest  part  of  his  United  States  steamship  t/o^«- /?!ce  in  1863- 
squadron  off'  the  southern  shore  of  Cuba.  64;  general  superintendent  of  the  quarter- 
On  May  19,  after  eluding  the  American  master's  department  in  New  York  City  in 
ships.  Admiral  Cervera  entered  the  harbor  1864;  commanded  the  McClellan  at  the 
of  Santiago  with  his  fleet.  On  May  31,  taking  of  Fort  Fisher  in  1865;  captain  of 
Sampson  bombarded  the  fortifications  at  the  Fulton  in  1866;  the  Henrietta  yacht 
the  entrance  of  Santiago  harbor,  and  on  in  her  race  from  New  York  to  Southamp- 
June  9  seized  Guantanamo  Bay  and  made  ton ;  the  Dauntless  in  her  race  with  the 
it  a  base  of  supplies.  Cambria   from   Queenstown   to   New  York 

On  the  morning  of  July  3,  when  Admiral    in  1870,  and  with  the  Comet  in  1877.     He 
Cervera    attempted    to    escape    from    San-   organized    the   Samana   Bay   Company   of 
tiago  Harbor,  Rear- Admiral  Sampson,  with    Santo   Domingo   in   1872;    and  later   was 
vui.^c  33 


at  the  head  of  several  large  business  enter- 
prises. Captain  Samuels  published  a  nar- 
rative of  his  early  life  under  the  title  of 
From  Forecastle  to  Cabin. 

San  Antonio,  Battle  of,  one  of  three 
parts  of  a  general  engagement  fought  on 
Aug.  20,  1847,  between  the  Mexican  and 
American  troops,  the  others  being  kno\vn 
as  the  battles  of  Contreras  and  Churu- 
busco.    See  Mexico,  Wab  with. 

San  Diego,  a  city  and  county  seat  of 
San    Diego    county,    Cal.;    on    San   Diego 

Bay,  which  gives  it  importance  as  a  port 
of  entry,  and  ranks  as  the  second  bay  on 
the  Pacific  coast  for  commercial  purposes, 
San  Francisco  being  the  first.  Cabrillo 
discovered  the  bay  in  1542,  and  Father 
Junifero  Serra  made  the  first  settlement 
here  when,  in  1769,  he  established  the  mis- 
sion of  San  Diego,  the  earliest  of  the  cele- 
brated California  missions.  The  present 
city  was  laid  out  on  the  magnificent  water 
front  in  1867.  Population  in  1900,  17,700; 
estimated  in  1906,  over  20,000 


San  Francisco,  city,  port  of  entry,  and 
trade  and  financial  metropolis  of  the 
North  American  Pacific  coast;  co-exten- 
sive with  San  Francisco  county,  Cali- 
fornia; ranking  sixth  in  bank  clearings 
(1904),  and  ninth  in  population  according 
to  the  Federal  census  of  1900;  popularly 
known  as  the  "  Golden  City "  and  as  the 
"City  of  One  Hundred  Hills";  popula- 
tion, 1900,  342,782;  1905  (estimated), 

Location,  Area,  etc. — It  is  situated  on 
the  northern  extremity  of  a  peninsula 
thirty  miles  long,  between  the  Pacific 
Ocean  and  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco,  one 
of  the  grandest  harbors  in  the  world, 
which,  with  its  branches,  covers  an  area 
of  over  600  square  miles  and  is  entered  by 
the  Golden  Gate,  a  magnificent  strait  one 
and  one-eighth  miles  wide  and  two  and 
three-quarters  miles  long.  The  city  has 
an  area  of  about  forty-six  and  a  half 
square  miles,  lies  at  the  base  of  high  hills, 
and  has  within  its  limits  or  immediate 
vicinity  a  large  number  of  elevations, 
whence  one  of  its  popular  names  is  de- 

When  first  settled  the  site  was  far  more 
hilly  than  at  present.  A  number  of  the 
hills  have  been  cut  down,  the  long  stretches 
of  sand  dunes  in  what  is  now  the  southern 
part  of  the  city  have  been  levelled  and  the 
intervening  gullies  and  hollows  filled  in, 
and  a  considerable  area  has  been  re- 
claimed from  the  water  and  improved  in 
harmony  with  the  general  street  system. 
The  highest  elevations  are  Mission  Peaks, 
925  feet;  Reservoir  Hill,  920  feet;  Rus- 
sian Hill,  on  the  west  side,  360  feet;  Tele- 
graph Hill,  in  the  northeast  corner,  300 
feet;  Rinoon  Hill,  in  the  southeast  corner, 

120  feet;  California  Street,  locally  known 
as  Nob  Hill,  Clay  Street,  Pine  Street, 
Webster  Street,  and  Strawberry  Hills; 
and  Ashbury  and  Sutro  Heights. 

Market  Street,  which  runs  about  north- 
east and  southwest,  divides  the  two  main 
systems  of  streets;  the  others  cross  at 
right  angles,  and  are  numbered  from  the 
water  front  westward,  or  from  Market 
Street,  one  hundred  numbers  being  as- 
signed to  each  block,  as  in  Philadelphia. 
Although  there  are  several  lines  of  elec- 
tric street  railway,  the  principal  means  of 
communication,  because  of  the  great  ir- 
regularity of  the  surface,  are  cable  roads. 
Market  Street  being  the  centre  of  a  sys- 
tem, all  the  branches  of  which  converge 
on  it  and  have  a  common  terminus  at  the 
ferries  at  its  foot.  Retail  trade  is  largely 
established  on  Market  and  Kearny  streets; 
banking  and  insurance  on  Montgomery, 
California,  and  Pine;  importing  and  job- 
bing on  Front,  Sansome,  Montgomery,  Bat- 
tery, and  a  part  of  Market;  and  the  most 
costly  mansions,  Hopkins,  Crocker,  Flood, 
Stanford,  Huntington,  Tevis,  and  the  two 
Spreckelses,  on  California  and  Taylor 
streets  and  Van  Ness  and  Pacific  avenues. 

PuUic  Interests.— On  Sept.  29,  1903,  the 
city  voted  to  issue  $17,771,000  public  im- 
provement bonds,  and  in  the  following 
year  this  amount  was  reduced  to  $17,174,- 
000  by  a  court  decision.  The  issues  are 
to  be  periodical  as  required,  and  to  be 
applied  as  follows:  Hospital,  $1,000,000; 
sewers,  $7,250,000;  public  schools,  $3,595,- 
000;  streets,  $1,621,000;  jails,  $697,000; 
library  site  and  building,  $1,647,000; 
Golden  Gate  Park  and  Presidio  extension, 
$330,000;  children's  playgrounds,  $741,- 
000;    and   Mission    Paxk,    $293.00a      The 



Association  for  the  Improvement  and 
Adornment  of  San  Francisco  has  made  a 
contract  with  Daniel  H.  Burnham,  the 
distinguished  architect  of  Chicago,  to  plan 
a  comprehensive  system  for  beautifying 
the  city,  and  has  projected  a  civic  centre, 
as  a  part  of  the  general  scheme,  where  the 
most  if  not  all  of  the  proposed  large  pub- 
lic buildings  will  be  grouped. 

In  1905  there  were  800  miles  of  streets, 
of  which  223  were  paved;  324  miles  of 
sewers ;  a  private  water  -  works  plant, 
which  had  420  miles  of  mains  and  a  daily 
capacity  of  34,000,000  gallons,  and  cost 
$25,000,000;  a  police  department  of  G88 
men,  which  cost  annually  about  $936,800; 
and  a  fire  department  of  660  men,  costing 
about  $844,380.  The  assessed  valuations 
of  taxable  property  for  1904-5  were:  Real 
estate,  .$380,282,050;  personal,  $122,610,- 
409— total,  $502,892,459 ;  and  the  tax  rate 
was  $16.55  per  $1,000.  The  county  and 
city  owned  property  valued  at  $29,106,000, 
of  which  $13,000,000  was   represented  by 

parks,  squares,  and  reservations,  and  $5,' 
500,000  by  public-school  property.  The 
old  debt  matured  April  1,  1904,  and  that 
of  May,  1905,  consisted  of  issues  of  public 
improvement  bonds  amounting  to  $3,953,- 
000.  The  annual  cost  of  maintaining  the 
city  government  is  about  $6,900,000. 

Commerce  and  Trade. — San  Francisco 
is  the  trade  and  wholesale  centre  for  the 
Pacific  coast,  Alaska,  and  Hawaii,  and 
has  a  large  foreign  trade  with  Central 
and  South  America,  China,  Japan,  Aus- 
tralia, Siberia,  and  the  Philippine,  Caro- 
line, Ladrone,  and  Oceanic  islands.  In 
the  calendar  year  1904  the  imports  of 
merchandise  had  a  value  of  $43,409,980, 
of  gold,  $44,343,912,  of  silver,  $3,217,376— 
total,  $90,971,268;  and  exports  of 
merchandise,  $39,022,220,  of  gold,  $4,172,- 
485,  of  silver,  $7,694,536— total,  $50,889,- 
241.  The  tonnage  movement  of  all  class- 
es was:  entrances,  805,141;  clearances, 

Manufactures. — According  to  the  United 




States  census  of  1900,  San  Francisco  had 
4.002  manufacturing  and  mechanical  in- 
dustries, which  were  operated  on  a  total 
capital  of  $80,103,367;  employed  41,978 
wage-earners;  paid  for  wages  $22,037,527, 
and  for  materials  used  in  manufacturing 
$79,492,952;  and  had  a  combined  product 
valued  at  $133,069,416.  The  principal  in- 
dustries with  the  value  of  their  output 
were  sugar  and  molasses  refining,  $11,177,- 

Tlie  Olympia  was  Admiral  Dewey's  flag- 
ship at  Manila,  and  the  Oregon  made  a 
record  trip  from  San  Francisco  to  Key 
West  in  time  to  take  part  in  the  destruction 
of  the  Spanish  fleet  at  Santiago. 

Bmiks. — At  the  end  of  1904  there  were 
seven  national  banks  with  capital  of 
$7,800,000;  surplus,  $4,077,250;  outstand- 
ing circulation,  $7,185,980;  individual  de- 
posits, $21,464,426;  and  assets  and  liabili- 


181;  foundry  and  machine-shop  products, 
$8,366,967;  wholesale  slaughtering  and 
meat-packing  $5,221,839;  flour  and  grist 
mill  products,  $3,574,177;  fruit  and  vege- 
table canning,  $2,992,802;  malt  liquors, 
$2,872,.303;  leather,  $2,794,804;  and  coffee 
and  spices,  $2,766,387.  Here  are  located 
the  famous  Union  Works  where  were  built 
the  battle-ships  Oregon  and  Ohio,  the 
monit<^)r  Monterey,  and  the  cruisers 
Olympia,  Sa/n  Francisco,  and  Cha/rleston. 

ties,  $56,478,984.  Thirty-three  commer- 
cial banks  reported  resources  exceeding 
$125,000,000  and  deposits  of  over  $70,000,- 
000,  and  eleven  savings-banks  had  re- 
sources of  over  $175,000,000,  and  deposits 
of  over  $160,000,000.  In  the  year  ending 
Sopt.  30,  the  exchanges  at  the  United 
States  clearing-house  here  aggregated 
$1,513,927,257,  an  increase  of  $415,371  in 
a  year,  and  all  clearings  in  the  year 
amounted  to  $1,534,631,136. 



Street,  and  Joss-Houses  are  found  on 
Clay,  Montgomery,  and  Pine  streets.  The 
Mission  Dolores,  in  the  southwest  part  of 
the  city,  built  of  adobe,  in  the  Spanish 
style,  in  1778,  is  one  of  the  few  historical 
relics  of  early  San  Francisco. 

Schools  a/iid  Colleges. — In  1905  the 
school  population  numbered  about  84,000, 
of  whom  53,000  were  attending  the  public 
schools  and  12,000  private  and  parochial 
schools.  The  annual  cost  of  the  public- 
school  system  is  about  $1,450,000.  Pub- 
lic secondary  instruction  is  given  in  the 
Girls',  Lowell,  Mission,  and  Polytechnic 
high  schools,  and  the  principal  private 
secondary  schools  are  the  Academy  of  the 
Sacred  Heart,  College  of  Notre  Dame,  Our 
Lady  of  Mercy's  Academy,  Presentation 
Convent,  Sacred  Heart  College,  St. 
Brigid's  School,  St.  Patrick's  Academy, 
St.  Peter's  Academy,  St.  Vincent's  School 
(aW  Roman  Catholic),  Hamlin  School, 
Irving  Institute  (P.  E. ),  Murison  School, 
and  Ti'inity  School. 

St.  Ignatius's  College  is  the  only  institu- 
tion for  higher  education  in  the  city,  but 
there  are  near  by  the  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, in  Berkeley;  Leland  Stanford,  Jr., 
University,  in  Palo  Alto;  and  California 
College,  in  Oakland.  The  professional 
schools  include  the  Hastings  College  of 
Churches. — ^The  city  has  about  175  Law  of  the  University  of  California,  Col- 
churches,  missions,  and  other  places  of  lege  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Cooper 
religious  worship,  the  Roman  Catholic  Medical  College,  Medical  Department  of 
predominating.  Among  the  noteworthy  the  University  of  California,  Hahneman 
edifices  of  this  communion  are  St.  Mary's  Medical  College  of  the  Pacific,  California 
Cathedral,  a  Romanesque  structure  on  Medical  College,  San  Francisco  Dental 
Van  Ness  Avenue,  which  will  seat  4,000  College,  dental  schools  of  the  College  of 
persons;  St.  Ignatius's  Church  and  College,  Physicians  and  Surgeons  and  the  Univer- 
on  the  same  avenue,  having  a  seating  sity  of  California,  colleges  of  pharmacy 
capacity  of  3,500;  old  St.  Patrick's,  on  of  the  two  preceding  institutions,  and 
Mission  Street,  having  an  exceedingly  rich  ten  training  schools  for  nurses.  For 
interior;  and  the  Church  of  Neustra  technical  instruction  there  are  the  Poly- 
Seuora  Guadalupe,  on  Broadway,  support-  technie  High  School,  California  School 
ed  by  Spanish  and  Portuguese  citizens,  of  Mechanical  Arts,  Cogswell  Polyteeh- 
Other  conspicuous  churches  are:  Protest-  nie  College,  Mechanics'  Institute,  and 
ant  Episcopal,  Grace,  St.  John's,  Advent,  the  Wilmerding  School  of  Industrial 
and  Trinity;  Jewish,  Temples  Beth-Israel,   Arts. 

Emanu-El  (Byzantine  architecture),  and  Charities. — The  benevolent  activities  in- 
Sherith-Israel  (with  ceiling  frescoed  to  elude  a  large  number  of  hospitals,  notably 
imitate  the  evening  sky)  ;  Baptist,  First  the  United  States  Marine,  on  the  Presidio 
and  Columbia  Square;  Presbyterian,  Cal-  Reservation,  the  City  and  County,  French, 
vary  (Composite  style)  ;  Methodist,  First,  Lane,  Pacific,  St.  Luke's,  St.  Mary's,  State 
oldest  of  that  denomination  in  the  city  Woman's,  and  Children's,  and  the  Homoeo- 
(1849)  ;  and  Congregational,  First.  There  pathie  and  Waldeck  sanitariums.  The 
is  a  Chinese  Mission  House  on  Stockton    city  has  a  public  day  school  for  the  deaf, 




and  at  Berkeley,  eight  miles  distant,  is  a  and  Grounds,  ornate  music-stand,  Garfield 
State  Asvlum  for  the  Deaf,  Dumb,  and  monument,  and  a  statue  of  Francis  Scott 
Blind.  Orphanages  include  the  Protestant  Key,  author  of  "  The  Star-Spangled  Ban- 
Orphan  Asylum,  Maria  Kip  Orphanage,  ner."  Among  the  other  parks  are  the 
and  the  Roman  Catholic  Orphan  Asylum.  Franklin,  Portsmouth,  Garfield,  Alamo, 
There  is  an  asylum  for  the  insane  in  Ala-  Jackson,  and  Buena  Vista.  The  princi- 
meda  Park.  pal  squares  are  the  Adams,  Jackson,  La- 

Xotable  Buildings. — As  before  stated,  a  fayette,  Lobos,  Washington,  Union,  Co- 
number  of  new  and  imposing  buildings  lumbia,  Harrison,  and  the  Alta  Plaza, 
are  projected,  to  be  erected  at  what  is  At  Point  Lobos,  or  the  South  Head,  at 
tentatively  known  as  the  Civic  Centre,  the  entrance  of  the  Golden  Gate,  are  the 
The  present  buildings  of  note  include  the  Cliflf  House,  Seal  Rocks,  and  Sutro 
City  Hall,  in  Yerba  Buena  Park,  com-  Heights,  important  scenic  attractions,  and 
pleted  in  1896  at  a  cost  of  about  $6,000,-  fronting  on  the  Golden  Gate,  for  two 
000;  the  United  States  Branch  Mint,  a  miles  on  each  side  of  Fort  Point,  is  the 
massive  structure  in  the  Doric-Ionic  Presidio  Reservation,  belonging  to  the 
style,  on  Mission  Street;  the  United  Federal  Government,  and  having  several 
States  Government  Building,  containing  miles  of  beautiful  drives,  besides  all  the 
the  Custom-Hoiise  and  Post-Office,  on  features  of  a  large  military  post.  The 
Washington  Street;  the  United  States  atmosphere  is  so  clear  that  the  Farallone 
Sub-Treasury,  on  Commercial  Street;  the  Islands,  thirty-five  miles  distant,  may  be 
United  States  Appraisers'  Building,  on  clearly  discerned  from  Telegraph  Hill,  as 
Sansome  Street;  the  San  Francisco  Stock  well  as  Monte  Diablo,  Tamelpas,  the  Two 
Exchange,  a  six-story  granite  and  marble  Sisters,  the  Two  Brothers,  and  the  Point 
building  with  tower,  on  Pine  Street;   the    Bonita  lighthouse. 

Merchants'  Exchange,  one  of  the  most  In  the  square  in  front  of  the  City  Hall 
costly  buildings  in  the  city,  on  California  is  the  monument  erected  to  the  memory 
Street;  the  Bank  of  California  and  the  of  James  Lick,  a  shaft  of  granite,  on  the 
First  National  and  Nevada  banks;  the  pedestal  of  which  are  bronze  bas-reliefs 
Mercantile  Library,  on  Van  Ness  Avenue;  of  Mr.  Lick  and  scenes  from  pioneer  life, 
the  California  Market;  the  California  with  bronze  representations  in  groups  of 
Academy  of  Sciences;  and  the  San  Fran-  the  chief  industries  of  the  State.  A 
Cisco  Examiner,  Chronicle,  Crocker  Mills,  Native  Sons'  Memorial  Monument,  pre- 
Parrott,  Clark,  Wells,  Fargo,  &  Co.'s,  sented  to  the  city  by  Mayor  Phelan,  is  at 
American  Trust  Co.'s,  Pacific  Mutual  Life,  the  junction  of  Mason,  Turk,  and  Market 
and  San  Francisco  Savings  Union  build-  streets,  and  in  Portsmouth  Park  is  a 
ings;  and  the  Palace,  Baldwin,  Occidental,  memorial  fountain  to  Robert  Louis 
Lick,  and  California  hotels.  Stevenson,   who   was   fond   of   frequenting 

Parks,  Squares,  etc. — Although  possess-  this  spot.  In  Laurel  Hill  Cemetery  are 
ing  a  goodly  number  of  attractive  parks,  several  fine  monuments,  of  which  those 
the  city  considers  itself  only  in  the  of  Senator  Broderick  and  William  C. 
formative  stage  of  this  feature  of  Ralston  are  the  most  noticeable,  and  Cal- 
municipal  adornment,  and  plans  now  in  vary  Cemetery  contains  a  number  of 
process  of  execution  will  give  it  an  excep-  costly  tombs,  tli^ose  of  the  O'Brien,  Flood, 
tionally  fine  system  of  public  recreation-  and  Donahue  families  being  the  most 
grounds   connected   by   boulevards   of    rich    conspicuous. 

natural  and  artificial  beauty.  At  the  head  Chinatotw.. — The  Chinese  population  of 
of  the  present  system  is  the  famous  San  Francisco  is  believed  to  be  nearly 
Golden  Gate  Park,  extending  from  Stan-  2.'i,000,  and  the  section  occupied  almost 
yan  Street  to  the  ocean,  comprising  more  exclusively  by  Chinamen  extends  from 
than  1,000  acres,  and  costing  within  a  few  Stockton  Street  to  Kearny  and  from 
years  upward  of  $2,000,000  for  develop-  Sacramento  Street  to  Pacific,  the  most 
ment.  It  was  here  that  the  unique  Mid-  densely  populated  portion  of  the  section 
winter  Exposition  of  1894  was  held.  The  being  the  block  on  Dupont  Street  between 
yjark  contains  a  magnificent  conservatory,  Jackson  and  Pacific  streets.  The  Chinese 
Memorial   Museum,   Childern's  Play-house    have  theatres  on  Jackson  and  Washington 



streets,  and  six  principal  Joss-Houses  on 
Clay,  Sacramento,  Pine,  and  Jackson 
streets,  Montgomery  Avenue,  and  Waver- 
ly  Place.  No  visitor  to  San  Francisco 
should  fail  to  make  a  tour  of  Chinatown, 
which  is  a  fair  reproduction  on  a  small 
scale  of  the  largest  cities  of  China,  so 
closely  do  the  Chinese  here  cling  to  the 
manners  and  customs  of  their  national 
home  life. 

History. — On  June  17,  1776,  Francisco 
Palon  and  Benito  Cambon,  two  friars, 
left  Monterey  with  seven  civilians  and 
seventeen  dragoons,  with  their  families, 
and  ten  days  afterward  reached  the  lo- 
cality where,  on  Oct.  8,  they  established 
the  Spanish  mission  of  San  Francisco. 
This  mission  was  remarkably  successful 
from  the  start,  and  by  1825  was  widely 
known  for  its  wealth.  Several  others 
were  started  from  it,  and  all  prospered 
till  1834,  when  the  Mexican  authorities 
seized  them,  and  placed  them  tinder  civil 
administration.  The  first  mission  was  the 
Mission  Dolores  previously  mentioned.  In 
1835,  William  A.  Eichardson,  an  English- 
man who  had  settled  in  California  in 
1822,  moved  to  the  site  of  the  present  city, 
then  known  as  Yerba  Buena,  put  up  a  tent 
on  what  is  now  Dupont  Street,  and  began 
dealing  in  hides  and  tallow.  In  the  fol- 
lowing year  Jacob  P.  Leese  arrived  at  the 
Mission  and  erected  the  first  private 
dwelling.  Jean  Vioget  surveyed  the  town 
and  laid  out  streets  and  lots  in  1839;  a 
sawmill  was  bviilt  by  Messrs.  Spear  and 
Hinckley,  Americans,  in  1841 ;  Captain 
Montgomery,  of  the  sloop-of-war  Ports- 
mouth, raised  the  American  flag  on  what 
is  now  Portsmouth  Square,  July  8,  1846; 
and  in  the  latter  year  the  ship  Brook- 
li/n  arrived  from  New  York  with  200  Mor- 
mon immigrants. 

In  January,  1847,  the  alcalde  changed 
the  name  of  the  town  from  Yerba  Buena 
to  San  Francisco.  During  that  year  the 
first  private  school  was  opened,  a  commit- 
tee was  appointed  to  establish  a  public 
school,  the  first  hotel  was  completed,  and 
a  new  survey  of  the  town  was  made  by 
Jasper  O'Farrel.  The  discovery  of  gold 
at  John  A.  Sutter's  lumber  camp  at  Co- 
loma,  Jan.  18,  1848,  depopulated  the  town 
considerably:  but  in  1849  the  population 
of  the  entire  gold-bearing  region  was  in- 
creased tenfold.     At  one  time  there  were 

400  vessels  lying  idle  in  the  harbor,  de- 
serted by  passengers  and  crews  in  the 
wild  rush  to  the  gold-fields.  In  that  year 
the  Califoniio,  the  first  steamship  of 
the  Pacific  Mail  Company,  arrived  at  San 
Francisco;  the  Oregon  brought  John  W. 
Geary,  the  first  postmaster  of  the  city, 
and  the  first  United  States  mail  to  the 
Pacific  coast ;  Presbyterian,  Baptist,  and 
Congregational  churches  were  organized ; 
the  first  steamboat  to  ply  regularly  be- 
tween the  city  and  Sacramento  arrived; 
and  the  city  had  its  first  great  fire. 

The  town  was  incorporated  as  a  city, 
and  John  W.  Geary  elected  its  first  mayor 
on  May  1,  1850.  On  May  4,  1851,  occurred 
the  fourth  and  greatest  fire,  in  which 
sixteen  blocks  were  burned  over,  and  more 
than  1,500  houses  destroyed.  Increasing 
lawlessness  by  the  hordes  of  gold-seeking 
adventurers,  gamblers,  and  desperadoes  led 
to  the  organization  of  a  Vigilance  Com- 
mittee in  June,  1851,  and  during  this  year 
the  committee  hung  three  persons  in  its 
efforts  to  restore  order  and  rid  the  city 
of  obnoxious  characters.  In  1855  the  city 
suffered  from  a  financial  panic,  caused  by 
the  failure  of  Adams  &  Co''s  bank  on 
Feb.  23,  and  before  it  was  checked  there 
had  been  197  failures  with  liabilities  of 
over  $8,000,000.  A  widespread  sensation 
was  created  by  a  duel  between  David  S. 
Terry,  Chief  Justice  of  the  California  Su- 
preme Court,  and  David  C.  Broderick, 
United  States  Senator,  at  a  spot  ten  miles 
beyond  the  city  limits,  on  Sept.  13,  1859, 
resulting  in  the  fatal  wounding  of  Senator 

The  first  pony  express  arrived  April  14, 
1860,  nine  days  from  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  and 
on  Oct.  23,  following,  the  city  was  con- 
nected with  New  York  by  telegraph. 
Earthquakes  occurred  Oct.  8,  1865,  and 
Oct.  21,  1868.  The  failure  of  the  Bank  of 
California  and  the  death  of  President 
Ralston,  both  on  Aug.  26,  1875,  caused 
much  excitement  in  financial  circles 
throughout  the  country.  In  July,  1877, 
serious  anti -Chinese  rioting  broke  out, 
precipitated  by  Denis  Kearney,  leader  of 
the  Labor  or  Sand-Lot  party,  who  raised 
the  cry.  "The  Chinese  Must  Go!"  It 
was  subdued  by  a  second  Vigilance  Com- 
mittee. Kearney  was  arrested,  found 
guilty  of  misdemeanor,  and  sentenced  to 
imprisonment  and   a  fine,   but   the   State 



Supreme   Court    reversed   the   decision   of    tions  of  the  treaty  of  Washington  respect* 
the  police  court  in  ISSO.  ing  the   boundaries,  June   12,    1846.     The 

San  Francisco  had  its  first  industrial  matter  (by  treaty  of  Washington,  May  8, 
fair,  that  of  the  Mechanics'  Institute,  in  1871)  was  referred  for  arbitration  to  the 
1857.  and  its  first  great  exposition,  the  Emperor  of  Germany,  who  decided  in 
Midwinter,  in  1894.  In  1903  it  was  favor  of  the  United  States,  in  October, 
brouaht  into  direct  cable  communication  1872.  The  island  was  evacuated  by  the 
with"  the  Philippine  Islands.  British  on  Nov.  22,  following. 

William  H.  Seward,  Secretary  of  State,  San  Juan,  city,  seaport,  and  capital  of 
who  conducted  the  negotiations  with  Rus-  the  island  of  Porto  Rico,  in  the  depart- 
sia  leading  to  the  transfer  of  Alaska  to  ment  of  Bayamon,  on  a  long  and  narrow 
the  United  States,  said:  island,    separated    from    the    main    island 

"  Henceforth  European  commerce.  Euro-  at  one  end  by  a  shallow  arm  of  the  sea, 
pean  politics,  European  thought,  and  over  which  is  a  bridge  connecting  it  with 
European  activity,  although  actually  the  mainland,  which  rruis  out  at  this 
gaining  force,  and  European  connections,  point  in  a  long  sand  spit  some  9  miles 
although  actually  becoming  more  inti-  in  length,  apparently  to  meet  the  smaller 
mate,  will,  nevertheless,  relatively  sink  in  island;  at  the  other  end  the  island  ends 
importance ;  while  the  Pacific  Ocean,  its  in  a  rugged  bluff  or  promontory  some  hun- 
shores,  its  islands,  and  the  vast  regions  dred  feet  high  and  three-fourths  of  a  mile 
beyond  will  become  the  chief  theatre  of  distant  from  the  main  island.  This 
events  in  the  world's  great  hereafter."  promontory  is  crowned  by  Morro  Castle, 
This  sentiment,  expressed  by  Seward  forty  the  principal  fortification  of  the  city, 
years  ago.  is  rapidly  becoming  a  universal  At  this  end  of  the  island  is  the  entrance 
ijelief,  and  the  policy  of  all  the  great  na-  to  the  harbor,  with  a  narrow  channel  and 
tions  is  being  shaped  accordingly.  The  rocky  bottom.  The  water  here  is  some 
harbors  of  San  Francisco  and  her  sister  30  feet  deep.  To  a  mariner  unacquainted 
cities  on  the  coast  Avill  be  the  seats  of  a  with  the  locality,  or  when  a  norther  is 
commerce  as  great  as  that  on  the  At-  blowing,  this  entrance  is  one  of  difficulty 
lantic.  and  danger.    After  rounding  the  bluff  one 

April  18,  1906,  an  earthquake  destroyed  finds  a  broad  and  beautiful  bay,  land- 
the  business  portion  of  San  Francisco,  locked  and  with  a  good  depth  of  water, 
which  was  followed  by  a  fire,  destroying  which  is  being  increased  by  dredging.  It 
the  greater  part  of  the  city.  San  Jose,  is  by  far  the  best  harbor  in  Porto  Rico, 
Stanford  University,  and  many  other  and  probably  as  good  a  one  as  can  be 
places  were  damaged,  and  over  300,000  found  in  the  West  Indies, 
persons  were  temporarily  made  homeless.  The  island  upon  which  the  city  stands 
While  the  fire  was  burning  the  undaunted  is  shaped  much  like  an  arm  and  hand;  it 
citizens  began  planning  a  new  and  greater  is  about  2i/j  miles  long  and  averages  less 
San  Francisco.  than  one-fourth  of  a  mile  in  width.     The 

San  Jacinto,  a  river  in  Texas,  on  whose  greatest  width  is  a  little  over  half  a  mile 
bank  was  fought  the  last  battle  of  the  in  the  portion  representing  the  hand. 
Texan  war  for  independence,  April  21,  which  also  contains  the  major  part  of  the 
1836.     See  Texas.  city.     San  Juan  is  a  perfect  specimen  of  a- 

San  Jose,  a  city  and  county  seat  of  walled  town,  with  portcullis,  moat,  gates, 
Santa  Clara  county,  Cal. ;  population  in  and  battlements.  Built  over  250  years 
1900.  21,500.  In  1782  the  Spaniards  es-  ago,  it  is  still  in  good  condition  and  re- 
tablished  a  pueblo  here,  and  on  the  adop-  pair.  The  walls  are  picturesque,  and 
tion  of  the  first  constitution  of  Califor-  represent  a  stupendous  work  and  cost 
nia  the  State  capital  was  located  in  the  in  themselves.  Inside  the  walls  the 
town.  city     is     laid     off     in     regular     squares, 

San  Juan,  a  small  island  near  Van-  six  parallel  streets  running  in  the  direc- 
couver's  Island.  The  possession  of  this  tion  of  the  length  of  the  island  and  seven 
island,  commanding  the  strait  between  at  right  angles.  Tlie  houses  are  closely 
British  Columbia  and  the  United  States,  and  compactly  built,  of  brick,  usually  of 
was  disputed,  under  conflicting  interpreta-    two  stories,  stuccoed  on  the  outside  and 



painted  in  a  yariety  of  colors.  The  uppei- 
floors  are  occupied  by  the  more  respect- 
able people,  while  the  ground  floors,  al- 
most without  exception,  are  given  up  to 
negroes  and  the  poorer  class,  who  crowd 
one  upon  another  in  the  most  appalling 
manner.  The  entire  population  depends 
upon  rain-water,  caught  upon  the  flat 
roofs  of  the  buildings  and  conducted  to  the 
cistern,  which  occupies  the  greater  part  of 
the  inner  court-yard  that  is  an  essential 
part  of  Spanish  houses  the  world  over,  but 
that  here,  on  account  of  the  crowded  con- 
ditions, is  very  small.  There  is  no  sewer- 
age, except  for  surface  water  and  sinks, 
while  vaults  are  in  every  house  and  occupy 
whatever  remaining  space  there  may  be 
in  the  patios  not  taken  up  by  the  cisterns. 
The  streets  are  wider  than  in  the  older 
part  of  Havana,  and  will  admit  two  car- 
riages abreast.  The  sidewalks  are  nar- 
row, and  in  places  will  accommodate  but 
one  person.  The  pavements  are  of  a  com- 
position manufactured  in  England  from 
slag — pleasant  and  even,  and  durable  when 
no  hea\'y  strain  is  brought  to  bear  upon 
them,  but  easily  broken  and  unfit  for  heavy 
traffic.  The  streets  are  swept  once  a  day 
by  hand,  and  are  kept  very  clean.  Be- 
sides the  town  within  the  walls  there  are 
small    portions    just    outside,    called    the 

Marina  and  Puerta  de  Tierra,  containing 
2,000  or  3,000  inhabitants  each.  There  are 
also  two  suburbs — one,  San  Turce,  ap- 
proached by  the  only  road  leading  out  of 
the  city;  and  the  other,  Catano,  across 
the  bay,  reached  by  ferry.  The  Marina 
and  the  two  suburbs  are  situated  on 
sandy  points  or  spits,  and  the  latter  are 
surrounded  by  mangrove  swamps.  One- 
half  of  the  population  consists  of  negroes 
and  mixed  races.  There  is  but  little  manu- 
facturing, and  it  is  of  small  importance. 
The  Standard  Oil  Company  has  a  small 
refinery  across  the  bay  in  which  crvide 
petroleum,  brought  from  the  United 
States,  is  refined.  Matches  are  made, 
some  brooms,  a  little  soap,  and  a  cheap 
class  of  trunks.  There  are  also  ice,  gas, 
and  electric-light  works.  The  climate  is 
warm,  but  for  three  months  of  the  year 
agreeable,  although  one  is  subject,  from 
the  sudden  change,  to  colds  and  catarrh. 
The  natives  are  particularly  susceptible 
to  this  class  of  ailments,  and  to  con- 
sumption and  bronchitis. 

According  to  the  census  taken  by  the 
United  States  War  Department  in  1899, 
the  population  of  the  city  was  32,048.  For 
military  and  naval  operations  connected 
with  San  Juan,  see  Poeto  Ricoj  Spain, 
Wae  with. 



SAINT    JT7AN'    HUiL 

^^  \  ^Blockhouse 

Sen'f  Bates  vs    I       q 

I  Blockhovse 

O  BlocMouse   ^ 

Q  Fortified 
Bull  Ring 

\2Bloc'kho'use   /"^A,"^ inf 

J<^  * 

»  Dynamite, 

»        Gui?, 

<?e»rt  Chaffee, 

1st  Infantrjf 


San  Juan  Hill,  the  scene  of  a  severe 
engagement  between  the  American  and 
Spanish  troops  near  El  Caney,  while  the 
American  army  was  on  its  march  towards 
Santiago.  After  the  engagement  at  Las 
GuAsiMAS  {q.  v.),  the  time  up  to  June 
30  was  spent  in  concentrating  the  Ameri- 
can troops  and  making  preparations  for 
farther  advance.  To  the  northeast  of  San- 
tiago was  the  village  of  El  Caney,  and 
on  the  same  side,  some  2  to  3  miles  from 
it,  were  the  San  Juan  hills  and  block- 
houses. It  was  decided  to  attack  and 
carry  these  positions  without  further  de- 
lay. There  were  but  four  light  batteries, 
of  four  guns  each,  in  the  army,  and  Law- 
ton's  division,  assisted  by  Capron's  bat- 
tery, was  ordered  to  move  out  that  day 
— June  30 — and  make  an  attack  early  in 
the  morning  of  July  1  towards  El  Caney. 
Then,  after  carrying  El  Caney,  he  was  to 
move  by  the  road  of  that  name  towards 
Santiago,  and  take  a  position  on  the 
extreme  right  of  the  line.  Grimes's  bat- 
tery, of  the  2d,  attached  to  Kent's 
division,  had  orders  the  same  afternoon 
to  prepare  the  way  next  morning  for  the 
rtdvance  of  Kent's  and  Wheeler's  divisions 
on  the  San  .Juan  hills,  the  attack  of  which 
was  to  be  delayed  by  the  infantry  till  Law- 
ton's  guns  were  heard  at  El  Caney. 

AV^iut  this  time  news  was  brought  that 
the  Spanish  Gcnfral  Pando,  with  rein- 
forcements   of    8,000    men,    was    making 

rapid  approach,  and  would  probably  soon 
enter  Santiago  from  the  northwest.  Early 
on  July  1  Lawton  was  in  position,  Chaf- 
fee's brigade  on  the  right,  Ludlow's  on 
the  left,  and  Miles's  in  the  centre. 
The  conflict  opened  at  6  A.M.,  and 
soon  became  general.  The  naturally 
strong  position  of  the  enemy  was  ren- 
dered doubly  so  by  stone  block-houses 
and  forts.  After  two  hours'  fighting 
Bates's  brigade  was  ordered  from  the 
rear  to  the  support  of  Lawton,  and  the 
battle  continued.  It  was  in  these  assaults 
that  the  71st  Regim.ent  of  New  York 
Volunteers  participated.  The  Spaniards 
fought  with  great  obstinacy,  but  were 
slowly  and  surely  driven  from  their  in- 
trenchments  and  forced  to  retire.  After 
Lawton  had  become  well  engaged,  Grimes's 
battery  from  the  heights  of  El  Pozo  open- 
ed fire  on  the  San  Juan  block-houses  very 
effectively.  The  Spanish  replied  with 
field-pieces  and  smokeless  powder.  They 
soon  had  our  range,  while  their  smokeless 
powder  made  it  difficult  to  determine  their 
exact  locality. 

The  troops  of  Wheeler's  and  Kent's  di- 
visions, which  had  up  to  this  time  been 
partially  concealed,  were  ordered  to  de- 
ploy— Wheeler  to  the  right,  towards  Law- 
ton,  and  Kent  to  the  left.  We  here  quote 
General   Shaffer : 

"  In  the  mean  time  Kent's  division,  with 
the  exception  of  two  regiments  of  HaW' 


SAlr   TtTAN   HILL 


kins's  brigade,  being  thus  uncovered,  moved 
rapidly  to  the  front  from  the  forks  pre- 
viously mentioned  in  the  road,  utilizing 
both  trails,  but  more  especially  the  one 
to  the  left,  and,  crossing  the  creek,  formed 
for  attack  in  the  front  of  San  Juan 
Hill.  During  this  formation  the  2d 
Brigade  suffered  severely.  While  person- 
ally superintending  this  movement,  its 
gallant  commander,  Colonel  Wikoff,  was 
killed.  The  command  of  the  brigade  then 
devolved  upon  Lieutenant-Colonel  Worth, 
13th  Infantry,  who  was  soon  severely 
wounded,  and  next  upon  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Liscum,  24th  Infantry,  who,  five  min- 
utes later,  also  fell  under  the  terrible  fire 
of  the  enemy,  and  the  command  of  the 
brigade  then  devolved  upon  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Ewers,  9th  Infantry. 

"  While  the  formation  just  described 
was  taking  place,  General  Kent  took  meas- 
ures to  hurry  forward  his  rear  brigade. 
The  10th  and  2d  Infantry  were  ordered 
to  follow  Wikoff 's  brigade,  while  the  2 1st 
was  sent  on  the  right-hand  road  to  sup- 
port the  1st  Brigade,  under  General  Haw- 
kins, who  had  crossed  the  stream  and 
formed  on  the  right  of  the  division.  The 
2d  and  10th  Infantry,  Col.  E.  P.  Pearson 
commanding,  moved  forward  in  good  order 
on  the  left  of  the  division,  passed  over 
a  green  knoll,  and  drove  the  enemy 
back   towards   his   trenches. 

"  After  completing  their  formation  un- 
der a  destructive  fire,  and  advancing  a 
short  distance,  both  divisions  found  in 
their  front  a  wide  bottom,  in  which  had 
been  placed  a  barbed-wire  entanglement, 
and  beyond  which  there  was  a  high  hill, 


along  the  crest  of  which  the  enemy  was 
strongly  posted.  Nothing  daunted,  these 
gallant  men  pushed  on  to  drive  the  ene- 
my from  his  chosen  position,  both  divis- 
ions losing  heavily.  In  this  assault  Colo- 
nel Hamilton,  Lieutenants  Smith  and 
Shipp  were  killed,  and  Colonel  Carroll, 
Lieutenants  Thayer  and  Myer,  all  in  the 
cavalry,  were  wounded." 

The  battle  of  July  1,  called  the  battle 
of  El  Caney,  was  over,  with  the  Americans 
strongly  holding  all  they  had  gained  dur- 
ing the  day.  The  losses  were  very  heavy, 
and  the  reputed  coming  of  General  Pando 
made  it  necessary  at  once  to  continue  the 
struggle  the  next  day,  and  gain  a  decided 
victory  before  the  Spanish  could  be 
strengthened.  The  troops  had  advanced 
and  carried  certain  positions,  but  the  en- 
emy was  evidently  in  stronger  ones,  and 
it  was  necessary  to  drive  him  out  at  once. 
During  the  afternoon  of  July  1  the  two 
remaining  batteries  were  brought  up  and 
placed  in  position  near  Grimes,  and  direct- 
ed to  play  on  the  enemy's  trenches.  Gen- 
eral Duffield's  brigade,  composed  of  the 
33d  and  34th  Michigan  and  a  Massachu- 
setts regiment,  was  ordered  to  assault 
Aguadores,  a  small  outpost.  During  the 
afternoon  and  night  of  July  1  the  Ameri- 
can lines  were  rearranged  and  strength- 
ened, and  on  the  morning  of  the  2d  the 
enemy  himself  opened  the  battle  by  mak- 
ing a  fierce  assault.  But  while  Kent  and 
Wheeler  remained  behind  their  works  re- 
pelling numerous  assaults,  Lawton  ad- 
vanced his  lines  and  gained  strong  and 
commanding  positions  on  the  right.  On 
the  morning  of  July  3  the  fighting  was 


renewed,   but   the   enemy   soon   gave  way 
and   the  firing  ceased.     See  Spain,   Wab 


The  Roosevelt  Reports. — The  following 
are  the  two  reports  by  Lieut.-Col.  Theodore 
Eoosevelt,  detailing  the  gallantry  of  the 
"  Eough  Riders "  in  the  San  Juan  Hill 
fight,  which  were  not  made  public  till  Dec. 
22,  1898.    The  first  report  is  as  follows: 

Col.  Leonard  Wood,  commanding  2d  Cav- 
alry Brigade. 
Sir, — On  July  1  the  regiment,  with 
myself  in  command,  was  moved  out  by 
your  orders  directly  following  the  1st 
Brigade.  Before  leaving  the  camping- 
ground  several  of  our  men  were  wounded 
by  shrapnel.  After  crossing  the  river  at 
the  ford,  we  were  moved  along  and  up 
the  right  bank  under  fire,  and  were  held 
in  reserve  at  a.  sunk  road.  Here  we  lost 
a  good  many  men,  including  Captain 
O'Neill  killed  and  Lieutenant  Haskell 
wounded.  We  then  received  your  order 
to  advance  and  support  the  regular  cav- 
alry in  the  attack  on  the  intrenchments 
and  block-houses  on  the  hills  to  the  left. 
The  regiment  was  deployed  on  both  sides 
of  the  road  and  moved  forward  until  we 
came  to  the  rearmost  lines  of  the  reg- 
ulars.     We    continued    to    move    forward 

until  I  ordered  a  charge,  and  the  men 
rushed  the  block-house  and  rifle-pits  on 
the  hill  to  the  right  of  our  advance. 
They  did  the  work  in  fine  shape,  although 
suffering  severely.  The  guidons  of  Troops 
E  and  G  were  first  planted  on  the  sum- 
mit, though  the  first  men  up  were  some 
of  A  and  B  troopers,  who  were  with  me. 
We  then  opened  fire  on  the  intrenchments 
on  a  hill  to  our  left,  which  some  of  the 
other  regiments  were  assailing,  and  which 
they  carried  a  few  minutes  later. 

Meanwhile  we  were  under  a  heavy  fire 
from  the  intrenchments  along  the  hills 
to  our  front,  from  where  they  also  shelled 
u'ith  a  piece  of  field  artillery  until  some 
of  our  marksmen  silenced  it.  When  the 
iiien  got  their  wind  we  charged  again 
and  carried  the  second  line  of  intrench- 
ments with  a  rush.  Swinging  to  the  left, 
we  then  drove  the  Spaniards  over  the 
brow  of  the  chain  of  hills  fronting  on 
Santiago.  By  this  time  the  regiments 
were  much  mixed,  and  we  were  imder  a 
very  heavy  fire  both  of  shrapnel  and  from 
rifles,  from  the  batteries,  intrencnments, 
and  forts  immediately  in  front  of  the 
city.  On  the  extreme  front  I  was  myself 
in  command,  with  fragments  of  the  six 
cavalry  regiments  and  the  two  batteries 
under   me.     The   Spaniards   made   one   or 




two  efTorts  to  retake  the  line,  but  were  of  cool  head,  great  executive  ability,  and 
promptly  driven  back.  Both  General  literally  dauntless  courage. 
Sumner  and  you  sent  me  word  to  hold  the  The  guerillas  in  trees  not  only  fired  at 
line  at  all  hazards,  and  that  night  we  dug  our  troops,  but  seemed  to  devote  them- 
a  line  of  intrenchments  across  our  front,  selves  especially  to  shooting  at  the  sur- 
using  the  captured  Spanish  intrenching  geons,  the  hospital  assistants  with  Red 
tools.  We  had  nothing  to  eat  except  what  Cross  bandages  on  their  arms,  the  wound- 
we  captured  from  the  Spaniards,  but  their  ed  who  were  being  carried  in  litters,  and 
dinners  had  fortunately  been  cooked,  and  the  burying  parties.  Many  of  these  gueril- 
we  ate  them  with  relish,  having  been  las  were  dressed  in  green  uniforms.  We 
fighting  all  day.  We  had  no  blankets  sent  out  a  detail  of  sharp-shooters  among 
or  coats,  and  lay  by  the  trenches  all  those  in  our  rear  and  also  along  the  line 
night.  The  Spaniards  attacked  us  once  where  they  had  been  shooting  the  wound- 
in  the  night,  and  at  dawn  they  opened  ed,  and  killed  thirteen, 
a  heavy  artillery  and  rifle  fire.  Very  To  attempt  to  give  a  list  of  the  men 
great  assistance  was  rendered  us  by  Lieu-  who  showed  signal  valor  would  necessitate 
tenant  Parker's  Gatling  battery  at  crit-  sending  in  an  almost  complete  roster  of 
ical  moments.  He  fought  his  guns  at  the  the  regiment.  Many  of  the  cases  which 
extreme  front  of  the  firing-line  in  a  way  I  mention  stand  merely  as  examples  of 
that  repeatedly  called  forth  the  cheers  of  the  rest,  not  as  exceptions.  Captain  Jen- 
my  men.  One  of  the  Spanish  batteries  kins  acted  as  major,  and  showed  such  con- 
which  was  used  against  us  was  directly  spicuous  gallantry  and  efiiciency  that  I 
in  front  of  the  hospital,  so  that  the  Red  earnestly  hope  he  may  be  promoted  to 
Cross  flag  flew  over  the  battery,  saving  major  as  soon  as  a  vacancy  occurs.  Cap- 
it  from  our  fire  for  a  considerable  period,  tains  Lewellen,  Muller,  and  Luna  led  their 
The  Spanish  Mauser  bullets  made  clean  troops  throughout  the  charges,  handling 
wounds,  but  they  also  used  a  copper-  them  admirably.  At  the  end  of  the  bat- 
jacketed  or  brass-jacketed  bullet  which  tie  Lieutenants  Kane,  Greenwood,  and 
exploded,  making  very  bad  wounds  in-  Goodrich  were  in  charge  of  their  troops, 
deed.  immediately   under   my   eye,    and   I   wish 

Since  then  we  have  continued  to  hold  particularly  to  commend  their  conduct 
together.  The  food  has  been  short,  and  throughout.  Corporals  Waller  and  For- 
until  to-day  we  could  not  get  our  blank-  tescue,  and  Trooper  McKinley,  of  Troop 
ets,  coats,  or  shelter-tents,  while  the  men  E;  Corporal  Rhoades,  of  Troop  D;  Troop- 
lay  all  day  under  the  fire  of  the  Spanish  ers  Albertson,  Winter,  McGregor,  and  Ray 
batteries,  intrenchments,  and  guerillas  in  Clark,  of  Troop  F;  Troopers  Bugbe,  Jack- 
trees,  and  worked  all  night  in  the  trench-  son,  and  Waller,  of  Troop  A;  Trumpeter 
es,  never  even  taking  off  their  shoes;  McDonald,  of  Troop  L. ;  Sergeant  Hughes, 
biit  they  are  in  excellent  spirits,  and  ready  of  Troop  B,  and  Trooper  Geieren,  of  Troop 
and  anxious  to  carry  out  any  orders  they  G,  all  continued  to  fight  after  being  wound- 
receive.  At  the  end  of  the  first  day  the  ed,  some  very  severely;  most  of  them 
eight  troops  were  commanded,  two  by  cap-  fought  until  the  end  of  the  day.  Trooper 
tains,  three  by  first  lieutenants,  two  by  Oliver  B.  Norton,  of  Troop  B,  who  with 
second  lieutenants  and  one  by  the  sergeant  his  brother  was  by  my  side  all  throughout 
whom  you  made  acting  lieutenant.  the    charging,    was    killed   while    fighting 

We  went  into  the  fight  about  490  strong ;  with  marked  gallantry.  Sergeant  Fer- 
eighty-six  were  killed  or  wounded,  and  guson.  Corporal  Lee,  and  Troopers  Bell 
there  are  half  a  dozen  missing.  The  great  and  Carroll,  of  Troop  K,  Sergeant  Dame, 
heat  prostrated  nearly  forty  men,  some  of  of  Troop  E;  Troopers  Goodwin,  Campbell, 
them  among  the  best  in  the  regiment.  Be-  and  Dudley  Dean,  Trumpeter  Foster,  of 
sides  Captain  O'Neill  and  Lieutenant  Has-  Troop  B,  and  Troopers  Greenwold  and 
kell,  Lieutenants  Leahy,  Devereaux,  and  Bardehan,  of  Troop  A,  are  all  worthy  of 
Case  were  wounded.  All  behaved  with  special  mention  for  coolness  and  gallantry, 
great  gallantry.  As  for  Captain  O'Neill,  They  all  merit  promotion  when  the  time 
his  loss  is  one  of  the  severest  that  could  comes.  But  the  most  conspicuous  gal- 
have  befallen  the  regiment.    He  was  a  man  lantry  was  shown  by  Trooper  Rowland. 



He  was  wounded  in  the  side  in  our  first  the  batteries  opened  the  Spaniards  re- 
fight,  b«t  kept  in  the  firing-line;  he  was  plied  to  us  with  shrapnel,  which  killed  and 
sent  to  the  hospital  the  next  day,  but  left  wounded  several  of  the  men  of  my  reg- 
it and  marched  out  to  us,  overtaking  us,  iment.  We  then  marched  towards  the 
and  fought  all  through  this  battle  with  right,  and  my  regiment  crossed  the  ford 
such  indifference  to  danger  that  I  was  before  the  balloon  came  down  there  and 
forced  again  and  again  to  berate  and  attracted  the  fire  of  the  enemy,  so  that 
threaten  him  for  running  needless  risks.  at  that  point  we  lost  no  one.     My  orders 

Great    gallantry    was    also    shown    by  had  been  to  march  forward  until  I  joined 

four  troopers  whom  I  cannot  identify,  and  General    Lawton's    left    wing,    but    after 

by  Trooper   Winslow  Clark,  of  Troop   G.  going   about   three-quarters    of   a   mile    I 

It  was  after  we  had  taken  the  first  hill ;  I  was  halted  and  told  to  remain  in  reserve 

had   called   out   to   rush   the   second,   and,  near  the  creek  by  a  deep  lane.     The  bul- 

having  by  that  time  lost  my  horse,  climb-  lets  dropped  thick  among  us  for  the  next 

ed  a  wire  fence   and   started   towards   it.  hour  while  we  lay  there,  and  many  of  my 

After   going   a   couple   of   hundred   yards,  men  were  killed  or  wounded.     Among  the 

under  a  heavy  fire,  I  found  that  no  one  former  was   Captain   O'Neill,  whose  loss 

else  had  come.    As  I  discovered  later,   it  was  a  very  heavy  blow  to  the  regiment,  for 

was  simply  because,  in  the  confusion,  with  he  was  a  singularly  gallant  and  efficient 

men  shooting  and  being  shot,  they  had  not  officer.      Acting    Lieutenant    Haskell    was 

noticed  me  start.     I  told  the  five  men  to  also   shot   at   this   time.     He   showed   the 

wait  a  moment,  as  it  might  be  misunder-  utmost   courage,    and   had   been   of   great 

stood  if  we  all  ran  back,  while  I  ran  back  use  during  the  fighting  and  marching.     It 

and  started  the  regiment,  and  as  soon  as  seems  to  me  some  action  should  be  taken 

I  did  so  the  regiment  came  with  a  rush,  about  him. 

But  meanwhile  the  five  men  coolly  lay  You  then  sent  me  word  to  move  for 
down  in  the  open,  returning  the  fire  from  ward  in  support  of  the  regular  cavalry, 
the  trenches.  It  is  to  be  wondered  at  that  and  I  advanced  the  regiment  in  column 
only  Clark  was  seriously  wounded,  and  he  of  companies,  each  company  deployed  as 
called  out  as  we  passed  again  to  lay  his  skirmishers.  We  moved  through  several 
canteen  where  he  could  reach  it,  but  to  skirmish  lines  of  the  regiment  ahead  of 
continue  the  charge  and  leave  him  where  us,  as  it  seemed  to  me  our  only  chance 
he  was.  All  the  wounded  had  to  be  left  was  in  rushing  the  intrenchments  in 
until  after  the  fight,  for  we  could  spare  front  instead  of  firing  at  them  from  a  dis- 
no  men  from  the  firing-line.  tance.  Accordingly  we  charged  the  block- 
Very  respectfully,  house  and  intrenchments  on  the  hill  to 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  our  right  against  a  heavy  fire.  It  was 
Lieutenant  -  Colonel,     1st    United    States  taken  in  good  style,  the  men  of  my  reg- 

Volunteer  Cavalry.  iment  thus  being  the  first  to  capture  any 

n,,  J        J  „  ;™   „  4-     i 4.  fortified    position    and    to    break    through 

The  second  and  more  important  report  j^,       „       *  ,     ,.  rm  -j  i,  ^ 

-  „  r  r  |.jjg    Spanish    lines.      The    guidons    of    G 

18  as  follows:  j   -r,  j  ^      ^      4.  fr,-  •    4.    u    i. 

and  E  troops  were  first  at  this  point,  but 

Camp  Hamilton,  near  Santiago  de  Cuba,  some  of  the  men  of  A  and  B  troops  who 

July  20,  1898.  were  with  me  personally  got  in  ahead  of 

Brig.-Gen.    Leonard    Wood,    commanding  them.    At  the  last  wire  fence  up  this  hill 

2d  Brig(ule  Cavalry  Division.  I  was  obliged  to  abandon  my  horse,  and 

Sir, — In  obedience  to  your  directions  after  that  wen',  on  foot.  After  capturing 
I  herewith  report  on  the  operations  of  this  hill  we  first  of  all  directed  a  heavy 
my  regiment  from  the  1st  to  the  17th  fire  upon  the  San  Juan  Hill  to  our  left, 
inst.,  inclusive.  As  I  have  already  made  which  was  at  the  time  being  assailed  by 
you  two  reports  about  the  first  day's  the  regular  infantry  and  cavalry  sup- 
operations,  I  shall  pass  over  them  rather  ported  by  Captain  Parker's  Gatling  guns, 
briefly.  By  the  time  San  Juan  was  taken  a  large 

On  the  morning  of  the  first  day  my  reg-  force   had   assembled   on   the  hill   we  had 

iment  was  formed  at  the  head  of  the  2d  previously  captured,  consisting  not  only  of 

Brigade,  by  the  El  Paso  sugar-mill.   When  my  ovra  regiment,  but  of  the  9th  and  of 



portions  of  other  cavalry  regiments.  We 
then  charged  forward  under  a  very  heavy 
fire  across  the  valley  against  the  Spanish 
intrenchments  on  the  hill  in  the  rear  of 
the  San  Juan  Hill.  This  we  also  took, 
capturing  several  prisoners. 

We  then  formed  in  whatever  order  we 
could,  and  moved  forward,  driving  the 
Spanish  before  us,  to  the  crest  of  the 
hills  in  our  front,  which  were  immediately 
opposite  the  city  of  Santiago  itself.  Here 
I  received  orders  to  halt  and  hold  the  line 
of  hill-crest.  I  had  at  the  time  frag- 
ments of  the  6th  Cavalry  Regiment  and 
an  occasional  infantryman  under  me — 
three  or  four  hundred  men  all  told.  As 
I  was  the  highest  there,  I  took  command 
of  all  of  them,  and  so  continued  until 
next  morning.  The  Spaniards  attempted 
a  counter  attack  that  afternoon,  but  were 
easily  driven  back,  and  then  until  after 
dark  we  remained  under  a  heavy  fire 
from  their  rifles  and  great  guns,  lying 
flat  on  our  faces  on  a  gentle  slope  just 
behind  the  crest.  Captain  Parkhurst's 
Gatling  battery  was  run  up  to  the  right 
of  my  regiment,  and  did  most  excellent 
and  gallant  service.  In  order  to  charge 
the  men  had,  of  course,  been  obliged  to 
throw  away  their  packs,  and  we  had 
nothing  to  sleep  in  and  nothing  to  eat. 
We  were  lucky  enough,  however,  to  find 
in  the  last  block-house  captured  the  Span- 
ish dinners  still  cooking,  which  we  ate 
with  relish.  They  consisted  chiefly  of  rice 
and  pease,  with  a  big  pot  containing  a  stew 
of  fresh  meat,  probably  for  the  oSicers. 
We  also  distributed  the  captured  Span- 
ish blankets  as  far  as  they  would  go 
among  our  men,  and  gathered  a  good  deal 
of  Mauser  ammunition  for  use  in  the 
Colt  rapid-fire  guns,  which  were  being 
brought  up.  That  night  we  dug  intrench- 
ments across  our  front. 

At  three  o'clock  in  the  morning  the 
Spaniards  made  another  attack  upon  us, 
which  was  easily  repelled,  and  at  four 
o'clock  they  opened  the  day  with  a  heavy 
rifle  and  shrapnel  fire.  We  lay  all  day 
long  under  this,  replying  whenever  we 
got  the  chance.  In  the  evening  at  about 
eight  o'clock  the  Spaniards  fired  three 
guns,  and  then  opened  a  very  heavy  rifle 
fire,  their  skirmishers  coming  well  forward 
I  got  all  my  men  down  into  the  trenches, 
as  did  the  other  command  near  me,  and 

we  opened  a  heavy  return  fire.  The  Span- 
ish advance  was  at  once  stopped  and  after 
an  hour  their  fire  died  away. 

This  night  we  completed  most  of  our 
trenches,  and  began  to  build  bomb-proofs. 
The  protection  afi"orded  our  men  was  good, 
and  next  morning  I  had  but  one  man 
wounded  from  the  rifle  and  shell  fire  un- 
til twelve  o'clock,  when  the  truce  came. 
I  do  not  mention  the  officers  and  men 
who  particularly  distinguished  themselves, 
as  I  have  nothing  to  add  in  this  respect 
to  what  was  contained  in  my  two  former 
letters.  There  were  numerous  Red  Cross 
flags  flying  in  the  various  parts  of  the 
city,  two  of  them  so  arranged  that  they 
directly  covered  batteries  in  our  front, 
and  for  some  time  were  the  cause  of  our 
not  firing  at  them. 

The  Spanish  guerillas  were  very  active, 
especially  in  our  rear,  where  they  seemed 
by  preference  to  attack  the  wounded  men 
who  were  being  carried  on  litters,  the  doc- 
tors and  medical  attendants  with  Red 
Cross  badges  on  their  arms  and  the  burial 
parties.  I  organized  a  detail  of  sharp- 
shooters and  sent  them  out  after  the  gue- 
rillas, of  whom  they  killed  thirteen.  Two 
of  the  men  thus  killed  were  shot  several 
hours  after  the  truce  had  been  in  opera- 
tion, because,  in  spite  of  this  fact,  they 
kept  firing  upon  our  men  as  they  went  to 
draw  water.  They  were  stationed  in  the 
trees,  as  the  guerillas  were  generally,  and 
owing  to  the  density  of  the  foliage  and  to 
the  use  of  smokeless  powder,  it  was  an  ex 
ceedingly  difficult  matter  to  locate  them 

For  the  next  seven  days,  until  the  10th 
we  lay  in  our  line,  while  the  truce  contin 
ued.  We  had  continually  to  work  at  ad 
ditional  bomb-proofs  and  at  the  trenches 
and  as  we  had  no  proper  supply  of  food 
and  utterly  inadequate  medical  facilities 
the  men  sufTered  a  good  deal.  The  oflficers 
chipped  together,  purchased  beans,  toma.- 
toes  and  sugar  for  the  men,  so  that  they 
might  have  some  relief  from  the  bacon  and 
hardtack.  With  a  great  deal  of  difficulty 
we  got  them  coffee.  As  for  the  sick  and 
wounded,  they  suffered  so  in  the  hospitals, 
when  sent  to  the  rear,  for  lack  of  food  and 
attention  that  we  found  it  best  to  keep 
them  at  the  front,  and  give  them  such 
care  as  our  own  doctors  could. 

As  I  mentioned  in  my  previous  letter, 
thirteen  of  our  wounded  men  continued  to 



fight  through  the  battle,  in  spite  of  their  and  men  to  see  if  they  could  not  purchase 

wounds,    and    of    those    sent    to    the    rear  or    make    arrangements    for    a    supply   of 

many,  both  of  the  sick  and  wounded,  came  proper   food   and   proper   clothing  for   the 

up  to  rejoin  us  as  soon  as  their  condition  men,  even  if  we  had  to  pay  for  it  out  of 

allowed  them  to  walk;  most  of  the  worst  our  own  pockets.     Our  suffering  has  been 

cases  were  ultimately  sent  to  the  States.  due   primarily   to   lack   of   transportation 

On  the   10th   the  truce  was  at  an   end  and  of  proper   food  or   sufficient   clothing 
and   the   bombardment   reopened.     So   far  and  of  medical  supplies.     We  should  now 
as  our  lines  were  concerned,  it  was  on  the  have  wagon  sheets  for  tentage. 
Spanish  part  very  feeble.     We  suffered  no  Very  respectfully, 
losses  and  speedily  got  the  fire  from  their  Theodore  Roosevelt. 
trenches   in   our   front   completely   under.  Sanborn,   Alvan   Francis,   journalist: 
On  the  11th  we  were  moved  three-quarters  born   in   Marlboro,   Mass.,   July   8,    1866 
of  a  mile  to  the  right,  the  truce  again  be-  graduated   at   Amherst   College   in    1887: 
ing  on,  nothing  happened  here  except  that  associate    editor    of    International    Cyclo 
we  continued  to  watch  and  do  our  best  to  pcedia    in    1891;    author    of    a    series    o 
get  the  men,  especially  the  sick,  properly  studies   of   New   England   towns,   a   study 
fed,  and  having  no  transportation  and  be-  of  beggars,  etc.                                                    < 
ing  able  to  get  hardly  any  through  the  Sanborn,  Franklin  Benjamin,  author ; 
regular    channels,    we    used    anything    we  born   in   Hampton   Falls,   N.   H.,   Dec.    15, 
could     find,     captured     Spanish     cavalry  1831;    graduated   at   Harvard    College    in 
horses,  abandoned  mules  which  had  been  185.5;    lectured    at    Cornell,    Smith,    Wel- 
shot,  but  which  our  men  took  and  cured;  lesley,    and    the    Concord    School    of    Phi- 
diminutive,  skinny  ponies,  purchased  from  losophy;   an  active  member  of  the  Massa- 
the  Cubans,  etc.     By  these  means  and  by  chusetts   State  board  of  charities;    editor 
the  exertions  of  the  officers,  we  were  able  of    the     Boston    Commomcealth,    Spring- 
from  time  to  time  to  get  supplies  of  beans,  field   Repuhlican,    and   Journal    of   Social 
sugar,   tomatoes  and  even  oatmeal,  while  Science  in  1876-97,  and  author  of  Life  of 
from  the  Red  Cross  people  we  got  our  in-  Thoreau;  Life  and  Letters  of  John  Brown, 
^'aluable  load  of  rice,  corn-meal,  etc.     All  etc. 

»f  this  was  of  the  utmost  consequence,  not  Sand  Lots,  the  local  popular  name  of 
only  for  the  sick,  but  for  those  nominally  a  part  of  San  Francisco,  California,  where 
well,  as  the  lack  of  proper  food  was  telling  the  working-men  were  accustomed  to  hold- 
terribly  on  the  men.  It  was  utterly  im-  ing  public  meetings.  The  anti-Chinese 
possible  to  get  them  clothes  and  shoes;  agitation  was  the  beginning  of  the  Work- 
those  they  had  were  in  many  cases  liter-  ing-man's  party,  which  favored  the  new 
ally  dropping  to  pieces.  Constitution    proposed   to    the   people   for 

On  the   17th  the  city  surrendered.     On  ratification  on  May  7,  1879.     The  Repub- 

the  18th  we  shifted  camp  to  here,  the  best  lican  party  opposed  the  new  Constitution, 

camp  we  have  had,  but  the  march  hither  which,  however,  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of 

under  the  noonday  sun  told  very  heavily  77,959  against  67,134.    Denis  Kearney  was 

on  our  men,  weakened  by  underfeeding  and  the  leader  of  the  so-called  Labor  or  Sand 

overwork,  and  the  next  morning  123  cases  Lot  party  which  identified  itself  with  the 

were   reported   to   the   doctor,   and   I   now  Greenback  party;  while  a  large  number  of 

have  but  half  of  the  six  hundred  men  with  the  Labor  party,  including  Mayor  Kalloch, 

fthich    I    landed    four   weeks    ago    fit    for  voted  with  the  Democrats.     Kearney  was 

duty,  and  these  are  not  fit  to  do  anything  charged  with  making  incendiary  speeches, 

like  the  work  they  could  do  then.     As  we  He  was   found  guilty  of  misdemeanor  on 

had   but   one   wagon,   the   change   necessi-  March    16,    1880,    fined    $1,000    and    sen- 

tated   leaving   much   of   my   stuff   behind,  tenced  to  six  months'  imprisonment.     Two 

with   a  night   of  discomfort,   with   scanty  months    later    the    decision    and    sentence 

shelter  and  scanty  food  for  the  most  of  the  were  reversed  by  the  State  Supreme  Court. 

officers  and  many  of  the  men.     Only  the  Sandeman,   Robert,  reformer;   born  in 

possession  of  the  improvised  pack-train  al-  Perth,   Scotland,  in   1718;   founded  a  sect 

luded  to  above  saved  us  from  being  worse,  resembling  Calvinism,  with  a  distinction. 

Yesteiday  I  sent  in  a  detail  of  six  officers  The  sect  fell  into  two  divisions.    The  Bap- 



tist  Sandemanians,  who  practised  bap-  they  made  their  way  slowly  through  a 
tisiii,  and  the  Osbornites,  who  rejected  it.  poor,  thinly  inhabited  country,  without 
In  17ti4  he  came  to  the  United  States  and  provision  for  a  supply  of  food,  the  commis- 
founded  societies  in  Boston,  Mass.,  and  saries  without  credit,  and  compelled  to  ^et 
Danbury,  Conn.  The  Sandemanians  were  their  supplies  from  day  to  day  by  im- 
generally  loyalists  during  the  llevolution.  pressment.  With  De  Kalb's  forces  were 
Sandeman  published  a  series  of  letters  ad-  two  North  Carolina  regiments,  under  the 
dressed  to  James  Hervey  on  his  Thcron  respective  commands  of  Colonels  Ruther- 
and  Aspasio."  He  died  in  Danbury,  ford  and  Caswell,  who  were  chiefly  employ- 
Conn.,  April  2.  1771.  ed  in  repressing  the  North  Carolina  Tories. 

Sanders,  Elizabeth  Elkins,  author;  The  governor  of  that  State  (Nash)  had  re- 
born in  Salem,  Mass.,  in  1762;  was  edu-  cently  been  authorized  by  the  legislature 
cated  in  her  native  town;  and  married  to  send  8,000  men  to  the  relief  of  South 
Thomas  Sanders  in  1782.  She  was  author  Carolina.  To  raise  and  equip  them  was 
of  Conversations,  Principally  on  the  Abo-  not  easy  at  that  gloomy  juncture.  The 
rigines  of  North  America;  First  Settlers  Virginia  regiment  of  Porterfield  was  at 
of  New  England,  etc.  She  died  in  Salem,  Salisbury.  It  rallied  to  the  standard  of 
Mass.,  Aug.  10,  1851.  De    Kalb,    whose    slow    march    became    a 

Sanders,  John,  military  engineer;  born  halt  at  Deep  River,  a  tributary  of  the 
in  Lexington,  Ky.,  in  1810;  graduated  at  Cape  Fear.  There  De  Kalb  was  overtaken 
the  United  States  Military  Academy  in  by  General  Gates  { July  25 ),  who  had  been 
1834;  became  a  captain  in  the  engineer  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Southern 
corps  in  1838;  was  for  several  years  en-  Department.  Gates  pressed  forward  tow- 
gaged  in  improving  the  Ohio  River  and  in  ards  Camden,  through  a  barren  and  gen- 
the  construction  and  repair  of  ■  the  inte-  erally  disaffected  country, 
rior  defences  of  New  York  Harbor ;  served  The  approach  of  "  the  conqueror  of 
in  the  Mexican  War,  receiving  the  brevet  Burgoyne "  greatly  inspired  the  patriots 
of  major  for  gallantry  in  the  battle  of  of  South  Carolina,  and  such  active  par- 
Monterey;  and  later  was  engaged  in  im-  tisans  as  Sumter,  Marion,  Pickens,  and 
proving  the  Delaware  bay  and  river,  and  Clarke  immediately  summoned  their  fol- 
in  constructing  Fort  Delaware.  He  pub-  lowers  in  South  Carolina  and  Georgia  to 
lished  Memoirs  on  the  Resources  of  the  the  field,  and  they  seemed  to  have  prepared 
Valley  of  the  Ohio,  etc.  He  died  in  Fort  the  way  for  Gates  to  make  a  complete  con- 
Delaware,  Del.,  July  29,  1858.  quest  of  the  State.     Clinton  had  left  the 

Sanderson,    John,    author;    born   near  command  of  the  forces   in  the  South  to 

Carlisle,  Pa.,  in   1783;   was  educated  pri-  Cornwallis,     and    he    had    intrusted    the 

vately;   studied  law  but  never  practised;  leadership    of    the    troops   on    the   Santce 

became  a  teacher  and  later  associate  prin-  and    its   upper   waters    to   Lord   Rawdon, 

cipal  of  Clermont  Seminary;  and  was  Pro-  an  active  officer.     The  latter  was  at  Cam- 

fessor  of  Latin   and  Greek   in   the  Phila-  den  when  Gates  approached.     Cornwallis, 

delphia   High    School   from    1836    till   his  seeing  the  peril  of  the  troops  under  him, 

death.     He  published,  with  his  brother,  the  because  of  the  uprising  of  the  patriots  in 

first    two    volumes    of    Biography    of    the  all  directions,  hastened  to  the  assistance  of 

Signers    of    the    Declaration    of    Indepen-  Rawdon,  and  reached  that  village  on  the 

dence;  and  was  the  author  of  The  Ameri-  same  day  (Aug.  14)  that  Gates  arrived  at 

can  in  Paris;  The  American  in  London;  Clermont,  north  of  Camden,  and  was  join- 

etc.     He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  April  ed   by   700   more   Virginia   militia,   under 

5,  1844.  General  Stevens.    Then,  in  his  pride.  Gates 

Sanders's  Creek,  Battle  at.  In  1780,  committed  the  fatal  blunder  of  not  pre- 
before  Washington  heard  of  the  surren-  paring  for  a  retreat  or  rendezvous,  being 
der  of  Charleston  {q.  v.),  he  sent  a  de-  confident  of  victory.  He  also  weakened 
tachment  of  Delaware  and  Maryland  regi-  his  army  by  sending  a  detachment  to 
ments,  under  the  Baron  de  Kalb,  for  Sumter,  to  aid  him  in  intercepting  a  con- 
service  in  the  South.  They  marched  from  voy  of  supplies  for  Rawdon. 
Petersburg,  Pa.,  for  the  Carolinas.  After  On  the  evening  of  the  15th  Gates  march- 
leaving  the  southern  borders  of  Virginia,  ed  to  attack  Rawdon  with  little  more  than 
vm. — ^D                                                   49 



3,000  men.    Spurning  the  advice  of  his  offi-  by  General  Gist,  Colonel  Howard,  and  Cap- 

cers,  he  marched  before  he  had  made  any  tain    Kirkwood.      They    had    almost    won 

disposition    of    his    baggage    in    the    rear,  the   victory,   when    Cornwallis    sent    some 

Cornwallis  had  left  Camden  to  meet  Gates  fresh  troops  that  turned  the  tide.     In  this 
at     about    the    same     time. 

Foot  -  falls  could  not  be  _=s^^- 
heard  in  the  sandy  road.  As 
the  vanguard  of  the  British 
were  ascending  a  gentle 
slope  after  crossing  San- 
ders's Creek,  that  traversed 
a  swamp,  nearly  8  miles 
from  Camden,  they  met  the 
vanguard  of  the  Americans, 
at  a  little  after  2  a.m.,  on 
Aug.  16.  It  was  a  mutual 
surprise,  and  both  began  fir- 
ing at  the  same  time.  Colo- 
nel Armand's  troops,  who  led 
the  van,  fell  back  upon  the 

1st  Maryland  Brigade,  and  broke  its  line,  sharp  battle  De  Kalb  was  mortally  wound- 

The    whole    army,    filled    with    consterna-  ed.     Gates's  whole  army  was  utterly  rout- 

tion,  would  have  fled  but  for  the  wisdom  ed   and   dispersed.      For   many   miles   the 

and    skill    of    Porterfield,    who,    in    rally-  roads    were    strewed    with    dead    militia, 

ing    them,    was    mortally    wounded.     The  killed  in  their  flight  by  Tories;  and,  hav- 

British  had  the  advantage,  having  crossed  ing  made  no  provision  for  retreat.  Gates 

the    creek,   and    were   protected    on    flank  was  the  most  expert  fugitive  in  running 

and    rear    by     an     impenetrable     swamp,  away.     He  abandoned  his  army,  and,  in  an 

Both  parties  halted,  and  waited  anxiously  ignoble  flight  to  Hillsboro  he  rode  about 

for  the  dawn.             '  200  miles  in  three  days  and  a  half.     He 

The  right  of  the  British  line  was  com-  had  lost  about  1,000  men  in  killed,  wound- 

manded    by    Lieutenant-Colonel    Webster,  ed,  and  prisoners;  the  loss  of  the  British 

and  the  left  by  Lord  Rawdon.     De  Kalb  was  less  than  500.    The  Americans  lost  all 

commanded  the  American  right,  and  Gen-  their    artillery    and    ammunition,    and    a 

eral  Stevens  the  left,  and  the  centre  was  greater  part  of  their  baggage  and  stores, 

composed    of    North    Carolinians,    under  Sandiford,     Ralph,    author;     born    in 

Colonel  Caswell.    A  second  line  was  form-  Liverpool,  England,  about  1693;  settled  in 

ed  by  the   1st  Maryland   Brigade,  led   by  Pennsylvania,  where  he  became  a  Quaker 

General  Smallwood.     The  American  artil-  preacher;    was   one   of   the   earliest   aboli- 

lery   opened   the   battle.      This   cannonade  tionists,    and    in    the    advocacy    of    negro 

was  followed  by  an  attack  by  volunteers,  rights  published  A  Brief  Examination  of 

under    Col.    Otho    H.    Williams,    and    Stc-  the  Practice  of  the  Times,  by  the  Forego- 

vens's    militia.      The    latter    were    mostly  ing    and    Present    Dispensation,    etc.     He 

raw  recruits,  to  whom  bayonets  had  been  died   in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  28,   1733. 

given  only  the  day  before,  and  they  did  not  Sands,  Benjamin  Franklin,  naval  offi- 

know  how  to  use  them.     The  veterans,  led  cer;    born    in    Baltimore,    Md.,    Feb.    11, 

by   Webster,   fell   upon   these   raw   troops  1811;    entered   the   navy   as   midshipman, 

with  crushing  force,  and  they  threw  down  April  1,  1828;   was  attached  to  the  coast 

their  muskets  and   fled  to  the  woods   for  survey  before  and  after  the  war  against 

shelter.    Then  Webster  attacked  the  Mary-  Mexico    (in  which  he  participated),   and, 

land    Continentals,   who    fought   gallantly  while   engaged   in   the   blockading   service 

until    they    were    outflanked,    when    they  (1861-65),  was  in  both   attacks  on  Fort 

also  gave  way.     They  were  twice  rallied,  Fisher.    In  May,  1867,  he  was  made  super- 

but   finally  retreated,   when   the  brunt  of  intendent  of  the  Naval   Observatory,  and 

the    battle    fell    upon    the    Maryland    and  was  promoted  rear-admiral   in   1871.     He 

Delaware  troops,  led  by  De  Kalb,  assistwl  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  June  30,  1883. 



Sands,  James  Hoban,  naval  officer;  certed  signal,  they  seized  the  ensign  and 
born  in  Washington,  D.  C,  July  12,  1845;  carried  him  out  of  the  room,  where  he  saw 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Naval 
Academy  in  1863;  served  in  the  North 
Atlantic  blockading  squadron  in  1863-65, 
being  present  at  the  surrender  of  Charles- 
ton and  at  both  attacks  on  Fort  Fisher; 
and  was  promoted  rear-admiral  April  11, 
1902.  During  the  American-Spanish  war 
he  commanded  the  cruiser  Columbia  in 
the  North  Atlantic  patrol  fleet.    After  the 

the  dead  body  of  his  sentry  and  of  others 
of  the  garrison.  All  had  been  massacred 
by  the  treacherous  Indians.  They  also 
killed  the  traders,  seized  their  stores,  and 
carried  the  ensign  to  Detroit  as  a  trophy 
(see  PoNTiAC).  In  1782,  flushed  with  suc- 
cess against  the  Christian  Indians  on  the 
Muskingum,  480  men  marched,  under 
Colonels    Williamson    and    Crawford,    to 

Spanish  surrender  at  Santiago  he  joined    complete    their    destruction    by    assailing 
the  expedition  to  Porto  Kico,  and  subse-     "  ■   -      -     ■         -^ 

quently    was    appointed    governor    of    the 
Naval  Home. 

Sands,  Joshua  Ratoon,  naval  officer; 
born  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1795;  be- 
came a  midshipman  in  1812,  serving  under 
Chauncey  on  Lake  Ontario.  He  was 
promoted  commodore  on  the  retired  list  in 
1862,  and  rear-admiral  in  1866.  He 
served  on  the  Mexican  coast  in  1847-48, 
and  was  at  different  times  commander  of 
the  East  India,  Mediterranean,  and 
Brazilian  squadrons.  He  died  in  Balti- 
more, Md.,  Oct.  2,  1883. 

Sandusky,  a  city  and  port  of  entry  in 
Erie  county,  O. ;  on  Lake  Erie,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Sandusky  River.  Near  by  is 
Johnson's  Island,  on  which  2,500  Con- 
federate officers  who  had  been  taken  pris- 
oners were  confined  in  1863.     During  the 

them  at  Sandusky.  They  designed,  at  the 
same  time,  to  strike  a  blow  at  the 
Wyandotte  town.  They  fell  into  an  Indian 
ambush  near  Sandusky,  and,  attacked  by 
an  overwhelming  force,  were  compelled  to 
retreat.  Many  stragglers  were  killed,  and, 
while  Williamson  escaped,  Crawford  and 
others  were  made  prisoners.  The  colonel 
and  his  son-in-law  were  tortured  and 
burned  at  the  stake,  in  revenge  for  the 
cold-blooded  murder  on  the  Muskingum. 

Sandwich  Islands.     See  Hawaii. 

Sandy  Creek,  Battle  at.  There  was 
great  anxiety  felt  in  the  spring  of  1814, 
to  have  the  Superior,  ship-of-war,  built  at 
Sackett's  Harbor,  hastened  for  sea,  lest 
Sir  James  L.  Yeo  would  roam  over  Lake 
Ontario  the  unrestricted  lord  of  the 
waters.  Heavy  guns  and  cables  destined 
for  her  were  yet  at  Oswego.     The  roads 

summer    a    plot    was    formed    to    liberate  were  almost  impassable,  and  the  blockade 

these  prisoners  and  in  connection  with  this  of  Sackett's  Harbor  made  a  voyage  thither 

act  to  burn  or  otherwise  destroy  Buffalo  by  water  a  perilous  one.    The  gallant  mas- 

and  other  lake  cities.     An  expedition  for  ter-commander,  M.  T.  Woolsey,  declared  his 

these    objects   was    organized    in    Canada,  willingness  to  attempt  carrying  the  ord- 

The  plans  of  the  Confederate  sympathizers  nance  and  naval  stores  to  Stony  Creek,  3 

became  known  to  the  American  consul- 
general  in  Montreal,  who  immediately 
notified  the  Canadian  authorities.  By 
Nov.  11,  the  governor-general  had  gained 
sufficient  information  to  warrant  his  noti- 
fying Lord  Lyons,  the  British  minister  at 
Washington,    of    the    plot.     Lord    Lyons 

miles  from  Sackett's  Harbor,  where  they 
might  reach  Commodore  Chauncey  in 
safety.  On  May  19  Woolsey  was  at  Os- 
wego Avith  nineteen  boats  heavily  laden 
with  cannon  and  naval  stores.  The  flotilla 
went  out  of  the  harbor  at  twilight,  bearing 
Major  Appling,  with  130  riflemen.    About 

promptly  communicated  with   the  United    the  same  number  of  Oneida  Indians  agreed 

States  government,  and  by  midnight  of 
the  same  day  Secretary  Stanton  had  per- 
fected plans  which  put  an  end  to  the 

Sandusky,  Indian  Operations  at. 
On  May  16,  1763,  a  party  of  Indians  ap- 
peared at  the  gate  of  Fort  Sandusky.    The 

to  meet  the  flotilla  at  the  mouth  of  Big 
Salmon  River,  and  traverse  the  shore 
abreast  the  vessels,  to  assist  in  repelling 
any  attack.  Woolsey  found  it  unsafe  to 
attempt  to  reach  Stony  Creek,  for  the 
blockaders  were  vigilant,  so  he  ran  into 
Big   Sandy   Creek,   a   few  miles  from   the 

commander,  Ensign  Paulli,  admitted  seven    harbor,  under  cover  of  a  very  dark  night, 
of    them    as    friends    and    acquaintances,    and  landed  the  precious  treasure  there. 
They  smoked  awhile,  when,  at  a  precon-        The  British  heard  of  the  movement,  and, 



ignorant  of  the  presence  of  Major  Appling  lost  no  life.     They  captured  the  British 

and  the  Indians,  proceeded  to  attempt  to  squadron,    with    about    170    officers    and 

capture  the  flotilla  on  the  Big  Sandy.  That  men   as   prisoners   of  war.     A   ponderous 

stream    wound    through    a    marshy    plain  cable  for  the  Superior,  22   inches  in  cir- 

about    2    miles,    and    at    that    time    was  cumference,  and  weighing  9,600  lbs.,  was 

fringed   with    trees   and    shrubs.      Among  borne    to    the    harbor    in    a    day    and    a 

these  Major  Appling  ambushed  his   rifle-  half,  on  the  shoulders  of  200  militiamen, 


men   and    the    Indians.       Near    Woolsey's  carrying  it  a  mile  at  a  time  without  rest- 
boats  were  stationed  some  cavalry,  artil-  ing. 

lery,  and  infantry,  with  field-pieces,  which  Sandy  Hook.  See  Hancock,  Fort. 
had  been  sent  there  from  Sackett's  Har-  Sandys,  Edwin,  statesman,  born  in 
bor.  The  confident  Britons,  sure  of  sue-  Worcester,  England,  in  1561;  was  a  son 
cess,  pushed  up  the  sinuous  creek  with  of  the  Bishop  of  York;  became  a  pupil  of 
their  vessels,  and  strong  flanking  parties  Richard  Hooker  at  Oxford ;  travelled  much 
were  thrown  out  on  each  shore.  The  guns  in  Europe;  and,  on  the  accession  of  King 
of  the  vessels  sent  solid  shot  upon  the  James,  was  knighted.  He  became  an  in- 
American  flotilla  and  grape  and  canister  fluential  member  of  the  London  Company, 
among  the  bushes.  These  dispersed  the  in  which  he  introduced  reforms;  and  in 
cowardly  Indians,  but  young  Appling's  1G19,  being  treasurer  of  the  company,  he 
sharp-shooters  were  undisturbed.  When  was  chiefly  instrumental  in  introducing 
the  invaders  were  within  rifle-range  the  representative  government  in  Virginia, 
riflemen  opened  destructive  volleys  upon  under  Yeardly.  The  flckle  King  forbade 
them,  and  at  the  same  time  the  artillery  his  re-election  in  1620;  but  he  had  served 
on  shore  opened  a  furious  cannonade.  So  the  interest  of  the  colony  and  of  humanity 
sharp  and  unexpected  was  the  assault,  in  by  proposing  to  send  young  maidens  to 
front,  flank,  and  rear,  that  the  British  Virginia  to  become  wives  of  the  planters, 
surrendered  within  ten  minutes  after  the  He  died  in  Northbourne,  Kent,  in  1629. 
first  gun  was  fired  in  response  to  their  Sandys,  George,  poet;  born  in  Bishop- 
own.  They  had  lost  a  midshipman  and  thorpe,  England,  in  1577;  brother  of 
seventeen  men  killed,  and  at  least  fifty  Edwin  Sandys;  educated  at  Oxford;  ap- 
wounded.  The  Americans  had  one  rifle-  pointed  treasurer  of  Virginia;  and  was  an 
man  and  one  Indian  warrior  wounded,  but  earnest  worker  for  the  good  of  the  colony, 



building  the  first  water-mill  there.  He 
promoted  the  establishment  of  iron-works, 
and  introduced  ship-building.  He  had 
published  a  book  of  travels;  also  a  trans- 
lation of  the  first  five  books  of  Ovid's 
Metamor piloses,  before  he  left  England  for 
Virginia.  To  these  Drayton,  in  a  rhyming 
letter,  thus  alludes: 

"  And,  worthy  George,  by  industry  and  use, 
Let's  see  what  lines  Virginia  will   produce. 
Go  on  with  Ovid,  as  you  have  begun 
With  the  first  five  books ;   let  y'r  numbers 

Glib  as  the  former  ;  so  shall  it  live  long. 
And  do  much  honor  to  the  English  tongue." 

In  Virginia  he  translated  the  other  ten 
books,  and  the  whole  translation  was  pub- 
lished in  London  in  folio,  with  full-page 
engravings,  in  1626.  Sandys  wrote  several 
other  poetical  works.  He  died  in  Boxley 
Abbey,  Kent,  in  1644. 

Sanford,  Charles  VV.,  military  officer; 
born  in  Newark,  N.  J.,  May  5,  1796;  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  New  York  City  and 
practised  there  till  his  death,  attaining 
eminence  in  his  profession;  was  at  the 
head  of  the  New  York  State  militia  for 
more  than  thirty  years;  directed  the 
troops  in  suppressing  the  Astor  Place, 
Flour,  Street  Preachers',  and  Draft  riots; 
served  with  the  three  months'  volunteers 
at  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War;  held 
a  command  at  Harper's  Ferry  during  the 
engagement  of  Bull  Run.  He  died  in 
Avon  Springs,  N.  Y.,  July  25,  1878. 

Sanford,  Henry  Shelton,  diplomatist; 
born  in  Woodbury,  Conn.,  June  15,  1823; 
studied  in  Washington  College,  and  later 
in  Heidelberg  University;  entei'ed  the 
United  States  diplomatic  service  in  1847; 
was  secretary  of  the  United  States  lega- 
tion in  Paris  in  1849-54;  and  minister  to 
Belgium  in  1861-69,  where  he  negotiated 
the  Scheldt  treaty  of  commerce  and  navi- 
gation. He  founded  the  city  of  Sanford, 
Fla.,  in  1870;  was  United  States  com- 
missioner on  the  Congo  River  Colony  in 
1883;  and  was  a  delegate  to  the  inter- 
national Congo  conference  in  1885,  and 
to  the  anti-slavery  conference  at  Brus- 
sels in  1889.  He  died  in  Healing  Springs, 
Va.,  May  21,  1891. 

Sanford,  Nathan,  jurist;  born  in 
Bridgehampton.  N.  Y.,  Nov.  5,  1777;  edu- 
cated at  Yale  College ;  admitted  to  the  bar 
ia   1799;    was   United    States   district   at- 

torney in  1803-16,  and  during  this  period 
also  served  in  both  branches  of  the  State 
legislature;  and  was  elected  United  States 
Senator  as  a  Democrat,  serving  in  1815-21. 
On  the  adoption  of  the  new  constitution  of 
New  York,  he  succeeded  James  Kent  as 
chancellor;  was  again  in  the  United  States 
Senate  in  1826-31,  and  during  this  ser- 
vice he  was  chiefly  noted  for  his  efforts 
in  behalf  of  currency  reform,  and  for 
ui'ging  the  retaliatory  policy  towards 
France  which  was  subsequently  adopted 
by  Congress.  He  died  in  Flushing,  N.  Y., 
Oct.  17,  1838. 

Sanger,  Joseph  P.,  military  officer; 
born  in  Michigan;  distinguished  himself 
ill  the  Civil  War,  receiving  two  brevets; 
accompanied  General  Upton  on  his  tour 
of  inspection  of  the  armies  of  Japan, 
France,  Austria,  and  England  in  1875-77; 
was  appointed  inspector  of  volunteers  with 
the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  May, 
1898;  promoted  brigadier-general  of  vol- 
unteers May  27,  1898.  He  was  direct- 
or of  the  census  in  Cuba  and  Porto 
Rico  in  1899,  and  in  the  Philippines  in 

Sanger,  William  Cary,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  21, 
1853;  graduated  at  Harvard  College  in 
1874;  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  203d 
United  States  Volunteers  during  the 
American-Spanish  War.  He  is  the  author 
of  Sea  Coast  Defences  and  the  Organiza- 
tion of  Sea  Coast  Artillery  Forces;  Or- 
ganization and  Training  of  a  National  Re- 
serve, etc. 

Sanitary  Commission,  The  United 
States  ;  one  of  two  great  popular  organ- 
izations established  to  promote  the  relief 
and  comfort  of  the  National  soldiers  and 
sailors  during  the  American  Civil  War, 
the  other  body  being  the  United  States 
Christian  Commission  (q.  v.).  The  cor- 
porate names  of  the  two  organizations  in- 
dicate their  respective  spheres  of  operation. 

On  the  day  that  President  Lincoln  issued 
his  call  for  75,000  men,  the  women  of 
Bridgeport,  Conn.,  organized  a  society  for 
the  purpose  of  affording  relief  and  com- 
fort to  the  volunteers.  This  was  the  first 
in  all  the  land.  On  the  same  day  (April 
15,  1861)  a  woman  in  Charlestown,  Mass. 
(Miss  Almena  Bates),  took  steps  to  •'orm  a 
similar  organization,  and  a  few  days  later 
the  women  of  Lo^veil  d,id  the  same,    Thejf 



proposed  to  supply  nurses  for  the  sick 
and  wounded,  and  provisions,  clothing,  and 
other  comforts  not  furnished  bj'  the  gov- 
ernment :  also  to  send  books  and  newspa- 
pers to  the  camps,  and  to  keep  up  a  constant 
communication  with  their  friends  in  the 
field.  On  the  19th  the  women  of  Cleveland, 
0.,  formed  an  association  for  the  purpose 
of  takin.o;  care  of  the  families  of  the  volun- 
teers. Earnest  women  in  New  York,  at 
the  suggestion  of  Rev.  Henry  W.  Bel- 
lows, D.D.  iq.  V.)  and  Dr.  Elisha  Harris, 
met  with  a  few  earnest  men,  and  formed 
the  Women's  Central  Association  for  Re- 
lief.    Auxiliary  associations  were  formed. 

Then  an  organization  on  a  more  extend- 
ed and  efficient  plan  was  formed,  which 
contemplated  the  co-operation  of  the  medi- 
cal department  of  the  army,  under  the 
sanction  of  the  government,  in  the  care  of 
the  sanitary  interests  of  the  soldiers.  Al- 
ready jVIiss  Dorothy  Dix  {q.  v.)  had 
done  much  in  that  direction.  She  had 
offered  her  services  gratviitously  to  the 
government,  and  obtained  the  sanction 
of  the  War  Department  for  the  organ- 
ization of  military  hospitals  and  the  fur- 
nishing of  nurses  for  them.  Eight  days 
after  the  President's  call  for  troops  (April 
23)  the  Secretary  of  War  issued  a  procla- 
mation, announcing  the  fact  of  the  accept- 
ance of  Miss  Dix's  services,  and  on  May 
1,  Surgeon-General  Wood  "cheerfully  and 
thankfully  "  recognized  the  ability  and  en- 
ergy of  Miss  Dix,  and  requested  all  women 
who  offered  their  services  as  nurses  to  re- 
port to  her. 

On  June  9  the  Secretary  of  W^ar  issued 
an  order  appointing  Henry  W.  Bellows, 
D.D.,  Prof.  Alexander  D.  Bache,  Prof.  Jef- 
fries Wyman,  M.D.,  William  H.  Van  Buren, 
M.D.,  Surg.-Gen.  R.  C.  Wood,  U.  S.  A.,  Gen. 
George  W.  Cullum,  of  General  Scott's 
staff,  and  Alexander  Shiras,  of  the  Unit- 
ed States  army,  in  conjunction  with  such 
others  as  might  associate  with  them,  "  a 
commission  of  inquiry  and  advice  in  re- 
spect of  the  sanitary  interests  of  the 
United  States  forces."  The  surgeon-gen- 
eral issued  a  circular  announcing  the 
creation  of  this  commission.  On  June  12 
a  board  of  managers  was  organized,  with 
Dr.  Bellows  at  its  head.  He  submitted  a 
plan  of  organization,  which  was  adopted, 
and  it  became  the  constit\ition  of  the  com- 
mission, bearing  the  signatures  of  Presi 

dent  Lincoln  and  Secretary  of  War  Simon 
Cameron.  The  name  now  assumed  was 
'■  The  United  States  Sanitary  Commis- 
sion." Frederick  Law  Olmsted  was  chosen 
resident  secretary — a  post  of  great  impor- 
tance, for  that  officer  was  really  the  gen- 
eral manager  of  the  affairs  of  the  commis- 
sion. Its  seal  bore  the  name  and  date  of 
creation  of  the  commission;  also  a  shield 
bearing  the  figure  of  Mercy,  winged,  with 
the  symbol  of  Christianity  upon  her  bosom 
and  a  cup  of  consolation  in  her  hand,  com- 
ing down  from  the  clouds  to  visit  wounded 
soldiers  on  the  battle-field. 

The  commission  was  to  supplement  gov- 
ernment deficiencies.  An  appeal  was  made 
to  the  people,  and  was  met  by  a  most  € 
liberal  response.  Supplies  and  money  i 
flowed  in,  from  all  quarters,  sufficient  to 
meet  every  demand.  All  over  the  country, 
men,  women,  and  children  were  seen  work- 
ing singly  and  collectively  for  it.  Fairs 
were  held  in  cities,  which  turned  immense 
sums  of  money  into  the  treasury  of  the 
commission.  One  small  city  alone  (Pough- 
keepsie,  N.  Y.)  contributed  $16,000,  or  $1 
for  every  man,  woman,  and  child  of  its 
population.  Branches  were  established; 
ambulances,  army-wagons,  and  steamboats 
were  employed  in  the  transportation  of 
the  sick  and  wounded.  It  followed  the 
armies  closely  in  all  campaigns,  and  be- 
fore the  smoke  of  conflict  had  been  fairly 
lifted,  there  was  the  commission  with  its 
tents,  vehicles,  supplies,  ansl  necessaries. 

When  the  war  was  ended,  and  the  work 
of  the  sanitary  commission  was  made 
plain,  it  was  found  that  the  loyal  people 
of  the  land  had  given  to  it  supplies  valued 
at  $15,000,000,  and  money  to  the  amount 
of  $5,000,000.  The  archives  of  the  United 
States  sanitary  commission,  containing 
a  full  record  of  its  work,  were  deposited 
in  the  Astor  Library  in  1878,  as  a  gift  to 
that  institution.  "  With  this  act,"  wrote 
Dr.  Bellows,  in  his  letter  of  presentation, 
"  and  with  my  signature  as  president  of 
the  sanitary  commission,  the  last  official 
act  of  my  service,  the  United  States  sani- 
tary commission  expires.  You  receive  its 
ashes,  in  Avhich  I  hope  some  fragrance  may 
linger,  and,  at  least,  survive  to  kindle  in 
times  of  new  need  a  flame  equal  to  its 
own."  C.  T.  Stille  (q.  v.)  wrote  a  His- 
tory of  the  United  States  Sanitary  Com' 



Sankey,  Ika  David,  singer;  born  in  tained  his  election  to  the  Presidency  of 
Edinburgh,  Pa.,  Aug.  28,  1840;  settled  in  the  republic  of  Mexico.  He  was  a  favorite 
Newcastle,  Pa.,  where  he  joined  the  Meth-  with  the  army,  but  unpopular  with  the 
odist  Episcopal  Church;  became  inter-  natives.  There  were  repeated  insurrec- 
ested  in  the  work  of  the  Young  Men's  tions  during  his  administration,  and, 
Christian  Association;  and  while  attend-  finally,  discontents  in  Texas  broke  out  into 
ing  the  international  convention  of  that  revolution.  Santa  Ana  took  the  field  in 
association  in  Indianapolis  in  1870  met  person  against  the  revolutionists,  but  was 
DwiGiiT  L.  Moody  {q.  v.),  whom  he  joined  finally  defeated  at  San  Jacinto  and  taken 
as  a  solo  singer  in  his  evangelistic  work,  prisoner,  when  he  was  deposed  from  the 
His  books  of  Gospel  Hymns  and  Sacred  Presidency.  In  taking  part  in  defending 
Songs  and  Solos  have  been  translated  into  Vera  Cruz  against  the  French  in  1837  he 
many  languages.  He  became  hopelessly  was  wounded  and  lost  a  leg  by  amputa- 
blind  in  1903.  tion. 

Santa  Ana,  Antonio  Lopez  de,  mili-  In  the  long  contest  between  the  Federal- 
tary  officer;  born  in  Jalapa,  Mexico,  Feb.  ists  and  Centralists,  taking  part  with  the 
21,  1798;  began  his  military  career  in  former,  he  was  virtually  dictator  of 
1821   in   the   revolution   by  which  Mexico    Mexico    from    Oct.    10,    1841,    to   June   4, 

1844,  under  the  title  of 
provisional  President.  He 
was  constitutional  Presi- 
dent from  June  4  to  Sept. 
20,  1844,  when  he  was  de- 
posed by  a  new  revolu- 
tion, taken  prisoner  near 
Tlacolula,  Jan.  15,  1845, 
and  banished  for  ten  years. 
He  took  up  his  residence 
in  Cuba,  where  he  secretly 
negotiated  for  the  betrayal 
of  his  country  to  the  Unit- 
ed States.  He  was  allowed 
to  pass  through  Commo- 
dore Conner's  fleet  into 
Mexico,  where  he  was  ap- 
pointed generalissimo  of 
the  army,  and  in  Decem- 
ber was  again  elected  pro- 
visional President.  With 
an  army  of  20,000  men  he 
lost  the  battle  of  Buena 
Vista.  He  was  afterwards 
defeated  in  battle  at  Cer- 
ro  Gordo,  and  about  the 
middle  of  September,  1847, 
was  driven  with  nearly 
2,000  followers  from  the 
city  of  Mexico.  He  was 
achieved  its  independence  of  Spain.  Im-  deposed,  and  in  April,  1848,  fled  from 
perious,  disobedient,  and  revengeful,  he  the  country  to  Jamaica,  W.  I.  He  re- 
was  dismissed  from  the  service.  A  keen  turned  to  Mexico  in  1853,  where  he 
intriguer,  he  secured  the  overthrow  of  the  was  received  with  great  enthusiasm  and 
existing  government  in  IMexico  in  1828.  appointed  President  for  one  year,  after 
He  was  a  brave  and  rather  successful  which  time  he  was  to  call  a  consti- 
military  leader,  and  led  insurrection  after  tutional  Congress;  but  he  fomented  a 
insurrection,  until  in  March,  1833,  he  ob-    new    revolution    by    which    he    was    de- 




clared  President  for  life,  with  power  to 
appoint  his  successor.  He  began  to  rule 
despotically,  and  was  soon  confronted  by 
a  revolution  led  by  General  Alvarez.  After 
a  struggle  of  two  years,  he  signed  his  un- 
conditional abdication,  and  sailed  for  Cuba, 
Aug.  10,  1855. 

He  afterwards  spent  two  years  in  Vene- 
zuela, and  thence  went  to  St.  Thomas. 
During  the  French  military  occupation  of 
Mexico  he  appeared  there  and  pledged 
himself  to  take  no  part  in  public  affairs. 
But  his  passion  for  intrigue  could  not  be 
repressed,  and  having  issued  a  manifesto 
calculated   to   raise   a   disturbance   in   his 

lived  in  seclusion  in  the  city  of  Mexico, 
where  he  died,  June  20,  1876. 

Santa  Barbara,  a  city  and  county  seat 
of  Santa  Barbara  county,  Cal. ;  one  of 
the  most  noted  winter  resorts  on  the 
Pacific  coast;  popularly  known  as  the 
American  Mentone.  The  first  visit  known 
to  have  been  made  to  its  harbor  by  a 
white  man  was  in  1603  by  Sebastian  Viza- 
ino.  Gov.  Felipe  Neve  established  a  pre- 
sidio here  in  1782,  which  was  still  in  use 
on  the  arrival  of  General  Fremont. 

Santa  Fe,  a  city,  capital  of  the  Terri- 
tory of  New  Mexico,  and  county  seat  of 
Santa  Fe  county;  believed  to  be  the  oldest 

A   SANTA    FE    HOUSE. 

favor.  General  Bazaine  ordered  him  to 
quit  the  country  forever  in  May,  1864. 
Some  time  afterwards,  the  Emperor  Maxi- 
milian made  him  grand-marshal  of  the 
empire;  but  in  1865,  having  been  impli- 
cated in  a  conspiracy  against  the  Em- 
peror, he  fled  to  St.  Thomas.  In  1867  he 
again  made  an  attempt  to  gain  ascen- 
dency in  Mexico,  but  was  taken  prisoner 
at  Vera  Cruz  and  condemned  to  be  shot. 
President  Juarez  pardoned  him  on  condi- 
tion of  his  quitting  Mexico  forever.  He 
came  to  the  United  States.  After  the 
death  of  Juarez  he  was  permitted  to  re- 
turn to  his  native  country,  and  afterwards 

city  in  the  United  States.  It  still  exhibits 
many  relics  of  bygone  generations.  The 
streets  are  crooked  and  narrow;  many  of 
the  buildings  are  of  adobe;  and  among 
its  interesting  features  are  the  Church  of 
San  Miguel,  erected  about  1550,  and  re- 
built in  1710  after  having  been  destroyed 
by  the  Indians;  the  governor's  palace, 
a  long,  one-storied  building  with  walls  5 
feet  thick,  erected  in  1598;  and  the  Ca- 
thedral of  San  Francisco,  built  around 
a  similarly  named  structure,  whose  rec- 
ords go  back  as  far  as  1622.  In  1541 
Santa  Fe  was  a  thrifty  Indian  pueblo, 
with  a  population  of  about  15,000.     The 



Spaniards  occupied  the  place  about 
1605,  made  slaves  of  the  inhabitants, 
and  began  exploiting  the  rich  veins  of  gold 
and  silver  in  the  town  and  vicinity. 
They  continued  in  control  till  about  1680, 
when  the  Indians  rose  in  revolt,  drove  out 
the  Spaniards,  and  not  only  closed  the 
mines  but  effaced  all  indications  of  their 
existence.  In  1692  the  Spaniards  again 
acquired  control  of  the  town  under  Var- 
gas, and  maintained  it  till  1821,  when 
Mexico  secured  its  independence  of  Spain. 
Gen.  Stephen  W.  Kearny  took  possession 
of  the  to^vn  in  the  name  of  the  United 
States  in  1846;  the  territory  was  ceded 
to  the  United  States  in  1848;  and  the 
city  became  the  capital  of  the  newly 
organized  Territory  of  New  Mexico  in 

Santa  Rosa  Island,  Battle  on.  Fort 
Pickens  stands  on  Santa  Rosa  Island,  off 
the  harbor  of  Pensacola.  In  June,  1861, 
the  6th  Xew  York  (Zouave)  Regiment, 
Col.  William  Wilson,  arrived  there  as  a 
part  of  the  defenders  of  the  fort.  There 
was  also  a  small  blockading  squadron 
near.  On  the  night  of  Sept.  2  a  party 
from  Fort  Pickens  under  Lieutenant  Shep- 
ley  burned  the  dry-dock  at  the  navy-yard 
at  Warrington,  and  on  the  night  of  the 
loth  about  100  men  under  Lieut.  J.  H. 
Russell,  of  Commodore  Merwin's  flag-ship 
Colorado,  crossed  over  to  the  navy-yard 
and  burned  the  Judali,  then  fitting  out  for 
a  privateer.  There  were  then  near  the  navy- 
yard  about  1,000  Confederate  soldiers. 
These  daring  feats  aroused  the  Confeder- 
ates, and  they  became  aggressive.  Early 
in  October  they  made  an  attempt  to  sur- 
prise and  capture  Wilson's  Zouaves  on 
Santa  Rosa  Island.  About  1,400  picked 
men,  commanded  by  General  Anderson, 
crossed  over  from  Pensacola  in  several 
steamboats,  and  at  2  a.m.  on  the  9th 
landed  4  or  5  miles  eastward  of  the  Zouave 

camp.  They  marched  upon  the  camp  in 
three  columns,  drove  in  the  pickets,  and 
completely  surprised  the  Zouaves.  The 
war-cry  of  the  Confederates  was  "  Death 
to  Wilson!  no  quarter!"  The  Zouaves 
fought  desperately  in  the  intense  dark- 
ness while  being  driven  back  to  the  shelter 
of  the  batteries,  400  yards  from  Fort 
Pickens.  There  were  only  133  effective 
men.  While  falling  back  they  were  met 
by  Major  Vogdes  with  two  companies, 
which  were  followed  by  two  other  com- 
panies, when  the  combined  force  charged 
upon  the  Confederates,  who,  having 
plundered  and  burned  the  Zouave  camp, 
were  in  a  disorganized  state.  They  were 
driven  in  confusion  to  their  vessels,  and 
were  assailed  by  volleys  of  bullets  as  they 
moved  off.  One  of  the  vessels  was  so  rid- 
dled by  bullets  that  it  sank.  In  this  affair 
the  Nationals  lost  in  killed,  wounded,  and 
prisoners,  sixty-four  men.  Among  the 
latter  was  Major  Vogdes.  The  Confeder- 
ates lost  about  150,  including  those  who 
were  drowned. 

Santana,  Pedro,  statesman;  born  in 
Hincha,  Santo  Domingo,  June  29,  1801; 
studied  law;  appointed  brigadier -general 
and  served  in  the  rebellion  against  the 
Haitian  government  in  1844;  led  2,400 
men,  with  whom  he  defeated  the  southern 
army  of  15,000  on  March  19;  elected  Pres- 
ident in  November  of  the  same  year; 
favored  the  movement  for  the  annexation 
of  Santo  Domingo  to  the  United  States 
which  was  defeated  by  Baez.  He  died  in 
Santo  Domingo,  June  14,  1864. 

Santee  Indians,  originally  a  family  of 
the  Sioxjx  Indians  (q.v.).  In  1899  there 
were  two  branches  at  the  Santee  agency 
in  Nebraska,  the  Santee  Sioux  of  Flan- 
dreau,  numbering  296,  and  the  Santee 
Sioux  proper,  numbering  1,019. 

Santiago,  Military  Operations  at. 
See  Spain,  War  with. 


Santiago,  Naval  Battle  of.     See  also  trance  to  the  harbor  of  Santiago  de  Cuba 

Sampson,     William     Thomas;     Schley,  on  July  3,  1898:  

WiNFTELD     Scott;     Spain,     War    with. 

United  States  Senator  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  It  matters  little  now  why  Ceryera  push- 
in  a  narrative  of  the  American-Spanish  ed  open  the  door  of  Santiago  Harbor  and 
War,  gives  the  following  graphic  history  rushed  out  to  ruin  and  defeat.  The  ad- 
of  the  great  naval  engagement  off  the  en-  miral  himself  would  have  the  world  un- 



derstand  that  he  was  forced  out  by  ill- 
advised  orders  from  Havana  and  Madrid. 
Very  likely  this  is  true.  It  did  n9t  occur 
to  the  Spaniards  that  the  entire  Ameri- 
can army  had  been  flung  upon  El  Caney 
and  San  Juan,  and  that  there  were  no 
reserves.  Their  own  reports,  moreover, 
from  the  coast  were  wild  and  exagger- 
ated, so  that,  deceived  by  these  as  well 
as  by  the  daring  movements  and  con- 
fident attitude  of  the  American  army, 
they  concluded  that  the  city  was  menaced 
by  not  less  than  50,000  men.  Under  these 
conditions  '  Santiago  would  soon  be  sur- 
rounded, cut  off,  starved,  and  taken.  It 
is  true  that  Admiral-  Cervera  had  an- 
nounced that  if  the  -Americans  entered 
Santiago  he  would  shell  and  destory  the 
city,  and  he  would  probably  have  done  so, 
with  complete  Spanish  indifference  to  the 
wanton  brutality  of  such  an  act.  But  it 
is  difficult  to  see  how  this  performance 
would  have  helped  the  army  or  saved  the 
fleet.  With  the  American  army  on  the 
heights  of  San  Juan,  and  extending  its 
lines,  the  ultimate  destruction  or  capture 
of  the  entire  squadron  was  a  mere  ques- 
tion of  time.  The  process  might  be  made 
more  or  less  bloody,  but  the  final  outcome 
could  not  be  avoided,  and  was  certain  to 
be  complete.  On  the  other  hand,  a  wild 
rush  out  of  the  harbor  might  result  pos- 
sibly in  the  escape  of  one  or  more  ships, 
and  such  an  escape,  properly  treated  in 
official  despatches,  could  very  well  be 
made  to  pass  in  Spain  for  a  victory.  In 
remaining,  there  could  be  nothing  but 
utter  ruin,  however  long  postponed.  In 
going   out,   there   was   at   least   a   chance. 

however  slight,  of  saving  something.  So 
Cervera  was  ordered  to  leave  the  harbor 
of  Santiago.  He  would  have  liked  to 
go  by  night,  but  the  narrow  entrance 
glared  out  of  the  darkness  brilliant  with 
the  white  blaze  of  the  search-lights,  and 
beyond  lay  the  enemy,  veiled  in  darkness, 
waiting  and  watching.  The  night  was 
clearly  impossible.  It  must  be  daylight, 
if  at  all.  So  on  Sunday  morning  at  half- 
past  nine  the  Spanish  fleet  with  bottled 
steam  came  out  of  the  harbor  with  a  rush, 
the  flag-ship  Maria  Teresa  leading;  then 
the  other  three  cruisers,  about  800  yards 
apart;  then,  at  1,200  yards  distance,  the 
two  crack  Clyde  -  built  torpedo  -  boat  de- 
stroyers Furor  and  Pluton.  As  Admiral 
Sampson  was  to  meet  General  Shatter  that 
morning  at  Siboney,  the  New  York  had 
started  to  the  eastward,  and  was  4 
miles  away  from  her  station  when,  at  the 
sound  of  the  gvms,  she  swung  round  and 
rushed  after  the  running  battle  -  ships, 
which  she  could  never  quite  overtake. 
It  was  a  cruel  piece  of  ill  fortune  that 
the  admiral,  who  had  made  every  ar- 
rangement for  the  flght,  should,  by  mere 
chance  of  war,  have  been  deprived  of  his 
personal  share  in  it.  Equally  cruel  was 
the  fortune  which  had  taken  Captain  Hig- 
ginson  and  the  Massachusetts  on  that  day 
to  Guantanamo  to  coal.  These  temporary 
absences  left  (beginning  at  the  westward) 
the  Brooklyn,  Texas,  Iowa,  Oregon,  Indi- 
ana, and  the  two  converted  yachts  Glouces- 
ter and  Vixen  lying  near  inshore,  to  meet 
the  escaping  enemy.  Quick  eyes  on  the 
loica  detected  first  the  trailing  line  of 
smoke  in  the  narrow  channel.     Then  the 






Brooklyn  saw  them,  then  all  the  fleet,  fast  ship,  was  struck  twenty-five  times, 
and  there  was  no  need  of  the  signal  but  not  seriously  injured.  The  Spanish 
"  enemy  escaping,"  which  went  up  on  attack,  with  its  sudden  burst  of  fire,  was 
the  Iowa  and  Brooklyn.  Admiral  Samp-  chiefly  in  the  first  rush,  for  it  was  soon 
son's  order  had  long  since  been  given:  drowned  in  the  fierce  reply.  The  American 
"  If  the  enemy  tries  to  escape,  the  ships  crews  were  being  mustered  for  Sunday 
must  close  and  engage  as  soon  as  possi-  inspection  when  the  enemy  was  seen.  They 
ble  and  endeavor  to  sink  his  vessels  or  were  always  prepared  for  action,  and  as 
force  them  to  run  ashore."  Every  ship  the  signal  went  up  the  men  were  already 
was  always  stripped  for  action,  each  cap-  at  quarters.  There  was  no  need  for  Ad- 
tain  on  the  station  knew  this  order,  his  miral  Sampson's  distant  signal  to  close 
crew  needed  no  other,  and  the  perfect  in  and  attack,  for  that  was  what  they 
execution  of   it  was   the  naval  battle  at  did. 

Santiago.  The    only    disadvantage    at    the    outset 

The    Spanish    ships    came   out   at    8    to  was  that  they  were  under  low  steam,  and 

10  knots  speed,  cleared  the  Diamond  Shoal,  it  took  time  to  gather  way,  so  that  the 

and  then  turned  sharply  to  the  westward.  Spaniards,    with    a    full    head    of    steam, 

As  they  issued  forth  they  opened  a  fierce,  gained   in   the   first   rush.      But   this   did 

rapid,  but  ill-directed  fire  with  all  guns,  not   check  the   closing  in,  nor   the   heavy 

which     shrouded     them     in     smoke.      The  broadsides   which   were   poured   upon    the 

missiles   fell   most   thickly   perhaps   about  Spanish  ships  as  they  came  by  and  turned 

the  Indiana  and  Brooklyn,  the  two  ships  to   the  westward.     Then  it  was  that  the 

at  the  opposite  ends  of  the  crescent  line,  Maria    Teresa   and   the    Oquendo   received 

but  seemed  also  to  come  in  a  dense  flight  their  death-wounds.     Then  it  was  that  a 

over  the  Oregon  and  the  rest.    Around  the  13-inch  shell  from  the  Indiana  struck  the 

Indiana  the  projectiles  tore  the  water  into  Teresa,  exploding  under  the  quarter-deck; 

foam,  and  the  Brooklyn,  which  the  Span-  and    that    the    broadsides    of    the    loioa, 

iards  had   some  vague  plan  of  disabling,  flung  on  each  cruiser  as  it  headed  her  in 

because  they  believed  her  to  be  the  one  turn,  and  of  the  Oregon  and  Texas,  tora 



the  sides  of  the  Oquendo,  the  Vizcaya, 
and  the  flag-ship.  The  Spanish  fire  sank 
under  that  of  the  American  gunners,  shoot- 
ing coolly  as  if  at  target  practice,  and 
sweeping  the  Spanish  decks  with  a  fire 
which  drove  the  men  from  the  guns.  On 
went  the  Spanish  ships  in  their  des- 
perate flight,  the  American  ships  firing 
rapidly  and  steadily  upon  tliem,  always 
closing  in,  and  beginning  now  to  gather 
speed.  The  race  was  a  short  one  to  two 
of  the  Spanish  ships,  fatally  wounded  in 
the  first  savage  encounter. 

In  little  more  than  half  an  hour  the 
Spanish  flag-ship  Maria  Teresa  was  head- 
ed to  the  shore,  and  at  a  quarter  past 
ten  she  was  a  sunken,  burning  AVi'eck  upon 
the  beach  at  Nima  Nima,  a  distance  of 
about  6  miles  from  Santiago.  Fifteen 
minutes  later,  and  half  a  mile  farther  on, 
the  Oquendo  was  beached  near  Juan  Gon- 
zales, a  mass  of  flames,  shot  to  pieces,  and 
a  hopeless  wreck.  For  these  two  ships  of 
the  Spanish  navy,  flight  and  fight  were 
alike  over. 

At  the  start,  the  Brooklyn,  putting  her 
helm  to  port,  had  gone  round,  bearing 
away  from  the  land,  and  then  steamed  to 
the  westward,  so  that,  as  she  was  the  fast- 

est in  our  squadron,  she  might  be  sure  to 
head  off  the  swiftest  Spanish  ship.  In 
the  lead  with  the  Brooklyn  was  the  Texas, 
holding  the  next  position  in  the  line.  But 
the  Oregon  was  about  to  add  to  the  laurels 
she  had  already  won  in  her  great  voyage 
from  ocean  to  ocean.  With  a  burst  of 
speed  which  astonished  all  who  saw  her, 
and  which  seemed  almost  incredible  in  a 
battle-ship,  she  forged  ahead  to  the  sec- 
ond place  in  the  chase,  for  such  it  had  now 
become.  The  Teresa  and  Oquendo  had 
gone  to  wreck,  torn  by  the  fire  of  all  the 
ships.  The  Vizcaya  had  also  suffered  se- 
verely, but  struggled  on,  pursued  by  the 
leading  ships,  and  under  their  fire,  espe- 
cially that  of  the  Oregon,  until,  at  a  quar- 
ter past  eleven,  she  too  was  turned  to  the 
shore  and  beached,  at  Acerraderos,  15 
miles  from  Santiago,  a  shattered,  blazing 

In  the  mean  time  the  two  torpedo-boats, 
coming  out  last  from  the  harbor,  about 
ten  o'clock,  had  made  a  rush  to  get  by  the 
American  ships;  but  their  high  speed 
availed  them  nothing.  The  secondary  bat- 
teries of  the  battle-ships  were  turned  upon 
them  with  disastrous  effect,  and  they  also 
met  an  enemy  especially  reserved  for  them. 



The  Gloucester,  a  converted  yacht,  with  no  tie  avail,  and  which  has  made  the  Eng- 
armor,  but  with  a  battery  of  small  rapid-  lish-speaking  man  the  victor  on  the  ocean 
fire  guns,  was  lying  inshore  when  the  from  the  days  of  the  Armada. 
Spaniards  made  their  break  for  liberty.  When  the  Vizcaya  went  ashore  at  a 
Undauntedly  firing  her  light  shells  at  the  quarter  past  eleven,  only  one  Spanish  ship 
great  cruisers  as  they  passed,  the  Glouces-  remained,  the  Cristobal  Colon.  She  was 
ter  waited,  gathering  steam,  for  the  de-  the  newest,  the  fastest,  and  the  best  of  the 
stroyers.  The  moment  these  boats  appear-  squadron.  With  their  bottled  steam,  all 
ed.  Lieutenant  -  Commander  Wainwright,  the  Spanish  cruisers  gained  at  first,  while 
unheeding  the  fire  of  the  Socapa  battery,  the  American  ships  were  gathering  and 
droA'e  the  Gloucester  straight  upon  them  increasing  their  pressure,  but  the  Colon 
at  top  speed,  giving  them  no  time  to  gained  most  of  all.  She  did,  apparently, 
use  their  torpedoes,  even  if  they  had  so  comparatively  little  firing,  kept  inside  of 
desired.  The  fierce,  rapid,  well  -  directed  her  consorts,  hugging  the  shore,  and  then 
fire  of  the  Gloucester  swept  the  decks  of  raced  ahead,  gaining  on  all  the  American 
the  torpedo-boats,  and  tore  their  upper  ships  except  the  Brooklyn,  which  kept  on 
works  and  sides.  Shattered  by  the  shells  outside  to  head  her  off.  When  the  Viz- 
from  the  battle-ships,  and  overwhelmed  eaya  went  ashore,  the  Colon  had  a  lead 
by  the  close  and  savage  attack  of  the  of  about  6  miles  over  the  Brooklyn  and 
Gloucester,  which  fought  in  absolute  dis-  the  Oregon,  which  had  forged  to  the  front, 
regard  of  the  fire  from  either  ships  or  with  the  Texas  and  Vixen  following  at 
shore,  the  race  of  the  torpedo-boat  de-  their  best  speed.  As  the  New  York  came 
stroyers  was  soon  run.  Within  twenty  tearing  along  the  coast,  striving  with 
minutes  of  their  rush  from  the  harbor's  might  and  main  to  get  into  the  fight,  now 
mouth  the  Furor  was  beached  and  sunk,  so  nearly  done.  Admiral  Sampson  saw,  af- 
and  the  Pluton  had  gone  down  in  deep  ter  he  passed  the  wreck  of  the  Vizcaya, 
water.  At  the  risk  of  their  lives  the  offi-  that  the  American  ships  were  overhauling 
cers  and  men  of  the  Gloucester  boarded  the  Spaniard.  The  Colon  had  a  contract 
their  sinking  enemies,  whose  decks  looked  speed  5  knots  faster  than  the  contract 
like  shambles,  and  saved  all  those  who  speed  of  the  Oregon.  But  the  Spaniard's 
could  be  saved.  There  were  but  few  to  best  was  7  knots  below  her  contract 
rescue.  Nineteen  were  taken  from  the  speed,  while  the  Oregon,  fresh  from  her 
Furor,  twenty-six  from  the  Pluton;  all  the  14,000  miles  of  travel,  was  going  a  lit- 
rest  of  the  sixty-four  men  on  each  boat  tie  faster  than  her  contract  speed,  a  very 
were  killed  or  drowned.  It  is  worth  while  splendid  thing,  worthy  of  much  thought 
to  make  a  little  comparison  here.  The  and  consideration  as  to  the  value  of  per- 
Furor  and  Pluton  were  370  tons  each,  feet  and  honest  workmanship  done  quite 
with  a  complement  together  of  134  men.  obscurely  in  the  builder's  yard,  and  of  the 
They  had  together  four  11-pounders,  four  skill,  energy,  and  exact  training  which 
6-pounders,  and  four  Maxim  guns,  in  ad-  could  then  get  more  than  any  one  had  a 
dition  to  their  torpedoes.  The  Gloucester  right  to  expect  from  both  ship  and  en- 
was  of  800  tons,  with  ninety-three  men,  gines.  On  they  went,  the  Americans  com- 
four  6-pounders,  four  3-pounders,  and  two  ing  ever  Hearer,  until  at  last,  at  ten  min- 
Colt  automatic  guns.  The  Spanish  ships  utes  before  one,  the  Brooklyn  and  the 
were  fatally  wounded  probably  by  the  sec-  Oregon  opened  fire.  A  thirteen-inch  shell 
ondary  batteries  of  the  battle-ships,  but  from  the  great  battle  -  ship,  crushing  her 
they  were  hunted  down  and  destroyed  by  way  at  top  speed  through  the  water,  fell 
the  Gloucester,  which,  regardless  of  the  in  the  sea  beyond  the  Colon;  the  eight- 
fire  of  the  Socapa  battery,  closed  with  them  inch  shells  of  the  Brooklyn  began  to  drop 
and  overwhelmed  them.  There  is  a  very  in-  about  her;  more  big  shells  from  the  Ore- 
teresting  exhibition  here  of  the  superior  gon  turret  followed;  and  then,  without 
quality  of  the  American  sailor.  The  fierce,  firing  another  shot,  the  Spaniard  hauled 
rapid,  gallant  attack  of  the  Gloucester  car-  down  her  flag  and  ran  at  full  speed 
ried  all  before  it,  and  showed  that  spirit  ashore  upon  the  beach  at  Rio  Tarquino, 
of  daring  sea-fighting  without  which  the  45  miles  from  Santiago.  Captain  Cook 
best  ships  and  the  finest  guns  are  of  lit-   of  the  Brooklyn  boarded  her,  received  the 



surrender,  and  reported  it  to  Admiral 
Sampson,  who  had  come  up  finally  just 
in  time  to  share  in  the  last  act  of  the 
drama.  The  Colon  was  only  slightly  hurt 
by  shells,  but  it  was  soon  found  that  the 
Spaniards,  to  whom  the  point  of  honor 
is  very  dear,  had  opened  and  broken  her 
sea-valve  after  surrendering  her,  and  that 
she  was  filling  fast.  The  t^cio  York  push- 
ed her  in  nearer  the  shore,  and  she  sank, 
comparatively  uninjured,  in  shoal  water. 

So  the  fight  ended.  Every  Spanish  ship 
which  had  dashed  out  of  the  harbor  in  the 
morning  was  a  half-sunken  wreck  on  the 
Cuban  coast  at  half-past  one.  The  offi- 
cers and  men  of  the  Iowa,  assisted  by  the 
Ericsson  and  Hist,  took  off  the  Spanish 
crews  from  the  red-hot  decks  and  amid 
the  exploding  batteries  and  ammunition 
of  the  Vizcai/a.  The  same  work  was  done 
by  the  Gloucester  and  Harvard  for  the 
Oquendo  and  Maria  Teresa.  From  the  wa- 
ter and  the  surf,  from  the  beaches,  and 
from  the  burning  wrecks,  at  greater  peril 
than  they  had  endured  all  day,  American 
officers  and  crews  rescued  their  beaten 
foes.  A  very  noble  conclusion  to  a  very 
perfect  victory.  The  Spanish  lost,  accord- 
ing to  their  own  accounts  and  the  best 
estimates,  350  killed  or  drowned,  160 
wounded,  and  ninety-nine  officers  and 
1,675  men  prisoners,  including,  of  course, 
those  on  the  Furor  and  Pluton,  as  already 
given.  The  American  loss  was  one  man 
killed  and  one  woimded,  both  on  the  Brook- 
lyn. Such  completeness  of  result  and  such 
perfection  of  execution  are  as  striking  here 
as  at  Manila,  and  Europe,  which  had  been 
disposed  at  first  to  belittle  Manila,  saw  at 
Santiago  that  these  things  were  not  ac- 
cidental, and  considered  the  performances 
of  the  American  navy  in  a  surprised  and 
flattering,  but  by  no  means  happy,  silence. 
At  Santiago  the  Spaniards  had  the  best 
types  of  modern  cruisers,  three  built  by 
British  workmen  in  Spanish  yards,  and 
one,  the  Colon,  in  Italy,  while  the  tor- 
pedo-boat destroyers  were  fresh  from  the 
Clyde,  and  the  very  last  expression  of 
English  skill.  The  American  ships  were 
heavier  in  ..'•mament  and  armor,  but  much 
slower.  The  Americans  could  throw  a 
heavier  weight  of  metal,  but  the  Spaniards 
had  more  quick-fire  guns,  and  ought  to 
ha%'e  been  able  to  fire  at  the  rate  of  sev- 
entj'gevwi  more  shots  in  five  minutes  than 

their  opponents.  According  to  the  con- 
tract speed,  the  Spanish  cruisers  had  a 
great  advantage  over  all  their  American 
opponents,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Brooklyn,  and  of  the  New  York,  which 
was  absent.  If  they  had  lived  up  to  their 
qualities  as  set  down  in  every  naval  regis- 
ter, they  ought  to  have  made  a  most 
brilliant  fight,  and  some  of  them  ought 
to  have  escaped.  They  also  had  the  ad- 
vantage of  coming  out  under  a  full  head 
of  steam,  which  their  opponents  lacked, 
and  yet  in  less  than  two  hours  all  but  one 
were  shattered  wrecks  along  the  shore, 
and  in  less  than  two  hours  more  that  one 
survivor  had  been  run  down  and  had  met 
the  same  fate.  It  is  no  explanation  to 
say,  what  we  know  now  to  be  true,  that 
the  Colon  did  not  have  her  10-inch  guns, 
that  the  Vizcaya  was  foul-bottomed,  that 
much  of  the  ammunition  was  bad,  and  the 
other  ships  more  or  less  out  of  order.  One 
of  the  conditions  of  naval  success,  just  as 
important  as  any  other,  is  that  the  ships 
should  be  kept  in  every  respect  in  the 
highest  possible  efficiency,  and  that  the 
best  work  of  which  the  machine  and  the 
organization  are  capable  should  be  got 
out  of  them.  The  Americans  fulfilled 
these  conditions,  the  Spaniards  did  not; 
the  Oregon  surpassed  all  that  the  most  ex- 
acting had  a  right  to  demand;  the  Colon 
and  Vizcaya  did  far  less;  hence  one  reason 
for  American  victory.  It  is  also  said 
with  truth  that  the  Spanish  gunnery  was 
bad,  but  this  is  merely  stating  again  that 
they  fell  short  in  a  point  essential  to  suc- 
cess. They  fired  with  great  rapidity  as 
they  issued  from  the  harbor,  and  although 
most  of  the  shots  went  wide,  many  were 
anything  but  wild,  for  the  Brooklyn  was 
hit  twenty-five  times,  the  Iowa  repeatedly, 
and  the  other  ships  more  or  less.  When 
the  American  fire  fell  upon  them,  their  fire, 
as  at  Manila,  slackened,  became  ineffec- 
tive, and  died  away.  Again  it  was  shown 
that  the  volume  and  accuracy  of  the  Amer- 
ican fire  were  so  great  that  the  fire  of  the 
opponents  was  smothered,  and  that  the 
crews  were  swept  away  from  the  guns. 
The  overwhelming  American  victory  was 
due  not  to  the  shortcomings  of  the  Span- 
iards, but  to  the  efficiency  of  the  navy 
of  the  United  States  and  to  the  quality 
of  the  crews.  The  officers  and  seamen,  the 
gunners    and    engineers,     surpassed     the 




Spaniards  in  their  organization  and  in 
their  handling  of  the  machinery  they  used. 
They  were  thoroughly  prepared ;  no  sur- 
prise was  possible  to  them;  they  knew 
just  what  they  meant  to  do  when  the  hour 
of  battle  came,  and  they  did  it  coolly, 
effectively,  and  with  perfect  discipline. 
They  were  proficient  and  accurate  marks- 
men, and  got  the  utmost  from  their  guns 
as  from  their  ships.  Last,  and  most  im- 
portant of  all,  they  had  that  greatest 
quality  of  a  strong,  living,  virile  race,  the 
power  of  daring,  incessant,  dashing  at- 
tack, with  no  thought  of  the  punishment 
they  might  themselves  he  obliged  to  take. 
The  whole  war  showed,  and  the  defeat 
of  Cerrera  most  conspicuously,  that  the 
Spaniards  had  utterly  lost  the  power  of 
attack,  a  sure  sign  of  a  broken  race,  and 
for  which  no  amount  of  fortitude  in  facing 
<eath  can  compensate. 

No  generous  man  can  fail  to  admire 
and  to  praise  the  despairing  courage  which 
held  El  Caney  and  carried  Cervera's  fleet 
out  of  the  narrow  channel  of  Santiago; 
but  it  is  not  the  kind  of  courage  which 
leads  to  victory,  such  as  that  was  which 
sent  American  soldiers  up  the  hills  of  San 
Juan  and  into  the  blood-stained  village 
streets  of  El  Caney,  or  which  made  the 
.\merican     ships     swoop     down,    carrying 

utter  destruction,  upon  the  flying  Span- 
ish cruisers. 

Thus  the  long  chase  of  the  Spanish 
fleet  ended  in  its  wreck  and  ruin  beneath 
American  guns.  As  one  tells  the  story, 
the  utter  inadequacy  of  the  narrative  to 
the  great  fact  seems  painfully  apparent. 
One  wanders  among  the  absorbing  details 
which  cross  and  recross  the  reader's  path, 
full  of  interest  and  infinite  in  their  com- 
plexity. The  more  details  one  gathers, 
puzzling  what  to  keep  and  what  to  re- 
ject, the  denser  seems  the  complexity,  and 
the  dimmer  and  more  confused  the  picture. 
The  historian  writing  calmly  in  the  dis- 
tant future  will  weave  them  into  a  full 
and  dispassionate  narrative;  the  antiqua- 
rian will  write  monographs  on  all  inci- 
dents, small  or  large,  with  unwearying  pa- 
tience; the  naval  critic  and  expert  will 
even  now  draw  many  technical  and  sci- 
entific lessons  from  everything  that  hap- 
pened, and  will  debate  and  dispute  about 
it,  to  the  great  advantage  of  himself  and 
his  profession.  And  yet  these  are  not 
the  things  which  appeal  now  or  will  ap- 
peal in  the  days  to  come,  co  the  hearts  of 
men.  The  details,  the  number  of  shots, 
the  ranges,  the  part  taken  by  each  ship, 
the  positions  of  the  fleet — all  alike  have 
begun  to  fade  from  recollection  even  now, 


and  will  grow  still  dimmer  as  the  years 
recede.  But  out  of  the  mist  of  events  and 
the  gathering  darkness  of  passing  time  the 
great  fact  and  the  great  deed  stand  forth 
for  the  American  people  and  their  chil- 
dren's children,  as  white  and  shining  as 
the  Santiago  channel  glaring  under  the 
search-lights  through  the  Cuban  night. 

They  remember,  and  will  always  re- 
member, that  hot  summer  morning,  and 
the  anxiety,  only  half  whispered,  which 
overspread  the  land.  They  see,  and  will 
always  see,  the  American  ships  rolling 
lazily  on  the  long  seas,  and  the  sailors 
just  going  to  Sunday  inspection.  Then 
comes  the  long,  thin  trail  of  smoke  draw- 
ing nearer  the  harbor's  mouth.  The  ships 
see  it,  and  we  can  hear  the  cheers  ring  out, 
for  the  enemy  is  coming,  and  the  Ameri- 
can sailor  rejoices  mightily  to  know 
that  the  battle  is  set.  There  is  no  need  of 
signals,  no  need  of  orders.  The  patient, 
long-watching  admiral  has  given  direction 
for  every  chance  that  may  befall.  Every 
ship  is  in  place;  every  ship  rushes  for- 
ward, closing  in  upon  the  advancing 
enemy,  fiercely  pouring  shells  from  broad- 
side and  turret.  There  is  the  Gloucester 
firing  her  little  shots  at  the  great  cruisers, 
and  then  driving  doAvn  to  grapple  with  the 
torpedo-boats.  There  are  the  Spanish 
ships,  already  mortally  hurt,  running  along 
the  shore,  shattered  and  breaking  under 
the  fire  of  the  IndiaiKi,  the  Iowa,  and  the 
Texas;  there  is  the  Brooklyn  racing  by  to 
head  the  fugitives,  and  the  Oregon  deal- 
ing death-strokes  as  she  rushes  forward, 
forging  to  the  front,  and  leaving  her  mark 
everywhere  as  she  goes.  It  is  a  cap- 
tains' fight,  and  they  all  fight  as  if  they 
were  one  man  with  one  ship.  On  they  go, 
driving  through  the  water,  firing  steadily 
and  ever  getting  closer,  and  presently  the 
Spanish  cruisers,  helpless,  burning,  twist- 
ed wrecks  of  iron,  are  piled  along  the 
shore,  and  we  see  the  younger  officers  and 
the  men  of  the  victorious  ships  perilling 
their  lives  to  save  their  beaten  enemies. 
We  see  Wainwright  on  the  Gloucester,  as 
eager  in  rescue  as  he  was  swift  in  fight 
to  avenge  the  Maine.  We  hear  Philip  cry 
out:  "Don't  cheer.  The  poor  devils  are 
dying."  We  watch  Evans  as  he  hands 
back  the  sword  to  the  wounded  Eulate, 
and  then  writes  '.a  his  report:  "I  can- 
not express  my  admiration  for  my  mag- 

nificent crew.  So  long  as  the  enemy  show- 
ed his  flag,  they  fought  like  American  sea- 
men; but  when  the  flag  came  down,  they 
were  as  gentle  and  tender  as  American 
women."  They  all  stand  out  to  us,  these 
gallant  figures,  from  admiral  to  seaman, 
with  an  intense  human  interest,  fearless 
in  fight,  brave  and  merciful  in  the  hour  of 

And  far  away  along  the  hot  ridges  of 
the  San  Juan  heights  lie  the  American 
soldiers,  who  have  been  fighting,  and  win- 
ning, and  digging  intrenchments  for  forty- 
eight  hours,  sleeping  little  and  eating  less. 
There  they  are  under  the  tropic  sun  that 
Sunday  morning,  and  presently  the  heavy 
sound  of  guns  comes  rolling  up  the  bay, 
and  is  flung  back  with  many  echoes  from 
the  surrounding  hills.  It  goes  on  and  on, 
so  fast,  so  deep  and  loud,  that  it  is  like 
continuous  thunder  filling  all  the  air.  A 
battle  is  on;  they  know  that.  Wild 
rumors  begin  to  fly  about,  drifting  up 
from  the  coast.  They  hear  that  the  Amer- 
ican fleet  is  coming  into  the  harbor;  then 
for  an  hour  that  it  has  been  defeated;  and 
then  the  truth  begins  to  come,  and  before 
nightfall  they  know  that  the  Spanish  fleet 
is  no  more,  and  the  American  soldier 
cheers  the  American  sailor,  and  is  filled 
anew  with  the  glow  of  victory,  and  the 
assurance  that  he  and  his  comrades  have 
not  fought  and  sufi^ered  and  died  in  vain. 

The  thought  of  the  moment  is  of  the 
present  victory,  but  there  are  men  there 
who  recognize  the  deeper  and  more  distant 
meanings  of  that  Sunday's  work,  now 
sinking  into  the  past.  They  are  stirred 
by  the  knowledge  that  the  sea-power  of 
Spain  has  perished,  and  that  the  Spanish 
West  Indies,  which  Columbus  gave  to 
Leon  and  Castile,  shall  know  Spain  no 
more.  They  lift  the  veil  of  the  historic 
past,  and  see  that  on  that  July  morning 
a  great  empire  had  met  its  end,  and  pass- 
ed finally  out  of  the  New  World,  because 
it  was  unfit  to  rule  and  govern  men.  And 
they  and  all  men  see  now,  and  ever  more 
clearly  will  see,  that  in  the  fight  off  San- 
tiago another  great  fact  had  reasserted 
itself  for  the  consideration  of  the  world. 
For  that  fight  had  displayed  once  more  the 
victorious  sea  spirit  of  a  conquering  race. 
It  is  the  spirit  of  the  Jomsberg  Viking, 
who,  alone  and  wounded,  springs  into  the 
sea  from  his  sinking  boat  with  defiance  on 



his  lips.  It  comes  down  through  Grenville 
and  Drake  and  Howard  and  Blal-ce,  on  to 
Perry  and  Macdonough  and  Hull  and  Deca- 
tur. Here  on  this  summer  Sunday  it  has 
been  shown  again  to  be  as  vital  and  as 
clear  as  ever,  even  as  it  was  with  Nelson 
dying  at  Trafalgar,  and  with  Farragut  and 
his  men  in  the  fights  of  bay  and  river 
more  than  thirty  years  before. 

Santiago  de  Cuba,  the  second  city  in 
size  on  the  island,  is  probably  the  oldest 
city  of  any  size  on  this  hemisphere,  hav- 
ing been  founded  by  Velasquez  in  1514.  It 
fronts  on  a  beautiful  bay  6  miles  long  and 
2  miles  wide,  on  the  southeastern  coast  of 
Cuba,  100  miles  west  of  Cape  Maysi.  The 
mean  temperature  in  summer  is  88°;  in 
winter,  82°.  It  was  formerly  regarded  as 
very  unhealthy,  yellow  fever  being  prev- 
alent throughout  the  year  and  small-pox 
epidemic  at  certain  times.  These  condi- 
tions were  due  to  the  lack  of  sanitary  and 
hygienic  measures,  all  refuse  matter,  as 
well  as  dead  dogs,  cats,  chickens,  etc., 
being  thrown  into  the  streets  to  decay 
and  fill  the  air  with  disease  germs.    A  rail- 

road, called  the  Sabanilla  and  Marote, 
runs  from  the  city  to  San  Luis,  25  miles 
distant,  with  a  branch  to  Alto  Songo,  12 
miles  in  length.  It  is  largely  owned  and 
controlled  by  citizens  of  the  United  States. 
Santiago  is  the  headquarters  for  three 
large  mining  plants  owned  by  United 
States  citizens,  viz.,  the  Jurugua,  '  the 
Spanish- American,  and  the  Sigua,  together 
representing  the  investment  of  about  $8,- 
000,000;  the  last  named  are  not  in  oper- 
ation. Santiago  is  the  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince and  oriental  region.  There  are  a 
number  of  tobacco  factories,  but  the  chief 
business  is  the  exportation  of  raw  ma- 
terials and  the  importation  of  manufact- 
ured goods  and  provisions.  Sugar,  iron 
ore,  manganese,  mahogany,  hides,  wax, 
cedar,  and  tobacco  are  exported  to  the 
United  States. 

In  the  American-Spanish  War  this  city 
was  made  the  objective  -  point  of  the 
American  army.  For  the  details  of  this 
short  campaign  see  Spain,  War  with. 
The  Spanish  fleet,  under  command  of  Ad- 
miral Cervera,  entered  the  harbor  of  San- 

VIII. — E 




tiago,  and  on  July  3,  directed  by  impera-  Santo  Domingo,  one  of  the  larger  of 
tive  orders  from  the  governor-general  at  the  West  India  islands.  The  natives  called 
Havana,  emerged  into  the  sea  through  the  it,  Haiti,  the  Spaniards  Hispaniola,  and 
narrow  mouth  of  the  bay,  and  sought  to  afterwards  by  its  present  name.  It  was 
escape  the  large  blockading  and  fighting  called  Santo  Domingo  by  Bartholomew 
squadron  under  command  of  Eear- Admiral  Columbng  for  the  double  reason:  1.  That 
Sampson.  The  Spanish  ileet  had  no  sooner  it  was  discovered  by  his  brother  on  Sun- 
cleared  the  entrance  to  the  harbor  when  day — the  Lord's  day — and  he  spoke  of  it 
the  object  of  the  movement 
was  discerned  by  the  Amer- 
icans, and  the  fleet,  under 
the  command  of  Rear-Ad- 
miral Schley  during  the  tem- 
porary absence  of  Rear-Ad- 
miral  Sampson,  at  once 
opened  the  battle,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  destruction  of 
all  the  Spanish  vessels.  For 
details  of  this  notable  en- 
gagement see  Santiago, 
Naval  Battle  of;  Samp- 
son, William  Thomas;  and 
Schley,  Winfield  Scott. 

After  the  surrender  of  the 
army  and  the  territory  un- 
der his  control  by  the  Span- 
ish commander  -in  -  chief  in 
the  field,  Bbig.-Gen. 
Leonard  Wood  {q.  v.)  was 
appointed  the  first  American 
governor  of  the  city  and  dis- 
trict. He  found  the  city  in 
a  wretched  sanitary  con- 
dition, applied  bold  methods 
of  reform,  and  so  complete- 
ly transformed  the  con- 
ditions which  had  existed 
for  generations  that,  on  the 
return  to  the  United  States 
of  Maj.-Gen.  John  R, 
Brooke  {q.  v.) ,  the  Ameri- 
can governor  -  general  of 
Cuba,  General  Wood  was 
appointed  to  succeed  him, 
with  headquarters  in  Ha- 
vana, which  city,  also  un- 
der American  administra- 
tion, was  soon  made  a  model  of  healthful  as  Domina;  and,  2.  Dominica  was  the 
conditions.  name    of    their    father;    so    Bartholomew 

The  census  of  Cuba,  taken  under  the  di-  gave  it  the  title  of  Santo  Domingo.  The 
rection  of  the  United  States  War  Depart-  island  was  discovered  by  Columbus  in  De- 
ment in  1809,  showed  a  total  population  ccmber,  1492,  and  at  Isabella,  on  the  north 
of  th«  province  of  Santiago  de  Cuba  of  shore,  was  founded  the  first  Spanish 
527,716,  and  of  the  city,  4.5,478,  exclusive  colony  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.  The 
of  San  Luis  (11,081),  which  had  been  island  is  now  divided  between  the  repub- 
formed   from   Santiago.  lies  of   Santo  Domingo  and   Haiti.      The 


(After  a  sketch  said  to  have  been  made  by  Columbus.) 


THE  CITY  OF  SANTO  DOMINGO  (From  an  old  print). 

town  of  Santo  Domingo  was  founded  Aug. 
4,  1496.  The  natives  were  kind  and  friend- 
ly towards  the  discoverers.  "  So  loving  and 
tractable  and  peaceable  are  these  people," 
Columbus  wrote  to  Isabella,  "  that  I  de- 
clare to  your  majesties  that  there  is  not 
in  this  world  a  better  nation  or  a  better 
land.  They  love  their  neighbors  as  them- 
selves. Their  discourse  is  ever  sweet  and 
gentle,  and  accompanied  with  a  smile." 
The  Spaniards  soon  extirpated  the  natives 
by  their  cruel  treatment  of  them,  making 
them  slaves  to  work  in  the  mines,  without 
any  distinction  of  sex.  For  nearly  half  a 
century  the  Spanish  settlements  there 
M'ere  prosperous,  and  then  for  a  while 
they  were  nearly  desolated  because  of  the 
drain  of  men  from  there  to  settle  dis- 
covered regions  in  adjacent  islands  and 
the  continent. 

The  natives  made  several  attempts  to 
recover  their  liberties  from  the  Spanish 
invaders.    In  1505  Ovando  summoned  the 

Spaniards  to  arms  to  subjugate  the  whole 
population  of  the  island.  In  violation  of 
a  treaty,  he  seized  the  eastern  portion  of 
the  island  and  hanged  the  cacique.  A  fe- 
male cacique  governed  the  western  prov- 
ince of  the  island.  She  had  been  uniform- 
ly kind  towards  the  Spaniards,  and  was 
beloved  by  her  people.  She  was  falsely 
accused  of  a  design  to  exterminate  the  in- 
truders. With  this  pretext  as  an  excuse, 
Ovando,  under  the  pretence  of  making  her 
a  friendly  visit,  marched  towards  her  prov- 
ince with  300  foot  soldiers  and  70  horse- 
men. The  queen  received  him  with  every 
token  of  honor,  and  feasted  him  for  several 
days.  At  a  preconcerted  signal  the  Span- 
iards drew  their  swords,  rushed  on  the  de- 
fenceless Indians,  bound  them  hand  and 
foot,  seized  their  beloved  ruler,  and  setting 
fire  to  the  building  in  which  all  the  guests 
had  assembled,  left  the  bound  victims  to 
perish  in  the  flames.  Anacoana,  the  queen, 
was  carried  in  chains  to  the  Spanish  eapi- 



tal,  and  there,  without  trial,  was  hanged. 
This  terrible  affair  broke  the  spirit  of  the 
nation,  and  they  never  made  further  re- 
sistance to  their  Spanish  masters.  The  in- 
habitants of  the  island,  supposed  to  have 
jiumbered  100,000  when  Columbus  dis- 
covered it  thirteen  years  before,  were  now 
reduced  to  60,000.'  The  natives  of  the 
Lucayo  Islands,  once  numbering  120,000, 
had  been  so  wasted  in  the  mines  of  Santo 
Domingo  and  Cuba,  under  the  lash  of  the 
Spaniards  and  by  sickness  and  famine, 
that  they  had  become  extinct. 

In  1509  Diego  Columbus,  who  had  mar- 
ried a  daughter  of  the  great  Duke  of  Alva, 
and  obtained  a  decree  in  confirmation  of 
his  title  to  the  offices  of  his  father,  sailed 
from  Spain  as  governor,  or  viceroy,  of 
Santo  Domingo,  succeeding  Ovando.  He  was 
accompanied  "by  a  numerous  retinue  of  men 
and  women  of  some  of  the  first  families  in 


Spain,  and  with  pomp  and  ceremony  the 
young  Columbus,  with  his  "  vice-regal 
queen,"  held  a  court  which  spread  a  halo 
of  romance  around  the  West  Indian  em- 
pire. From  Santo  Domingo  were  sent  out 
expeditions  to  conquer  Cuba  and  other 
islands,  as  well  as  points  on  the  neighbor- 
ing continent,  and  until  the  middle  of  the 
sixteenth  century  it  was  the  heart  of 
Spanish  dominion  in  America. 

M.  de  Ternay,  when  he  superseded  the 
Count  de  Lloustier  as  French  minister  in 
the  United  States,  applied  to  the  govern- 
ment for  money,  arms,  and  ammunition 
for  the  relief  of  the  island  of  Santo  Do- 
mingo, then  rent  by  civil  discord.  The  in- 
fluence of  the  Revolution  in  America  had 
produced  much  commotion  in  France,  and 
the  first  terrible  throes  of  the  French 
Revolution  were  felt  in  1791.  The  vacil- 
lating and  conflicting  decrees  of  the  French 
National  Assembly  on  the  subject  of  citi- 
zenship had  given  rise  in  Santo  Domingo 
to  a  warm  controversy  as  to  the  political 
rights  of  the  free  mulattoes.  They  were 
a  class  considerable  in  numbers  and  prop- 
erty, and  the  controversy  was  attended 
with  some  bloodshed.  The  slaves  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Cape  Frangais,  the  north- 
ern district  of  the  island,  who  were  ten 
times  more  numerous  than  the  white 
people  and  mulattoes  united,  had  suddenly 
risen  in  insurrection,  destroying  all  the 
sugar  plantations  on  the  rich  plain  of  the 
cape,  and  threatening  the  city  with  de- 
struction. Fugitives  from  this  terrible 
scene  fled  to  the  United  States,  and  thus 
gave  emphasis  to  Ternay's  request.  The 
supplies  he  asked  for  towards  the  sup- 
pression of  this  rebellion  were  readily 
granted  by  the  United  States,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  spirit  of  the  treaties  with 
France  in  1778. 

Toussaint  I'Ouverture,  an  able  negro, 
became  a  trusted  military  leader  in  Haiti, 
or  Santo  Domingo,  in  1791.  When  the 
Fnglish  invaded  the  island  in  1793,  Tous- 
saint, who  had  resisted  the  claims  of  the 
French  to  the  island,  perceiving  that  the 
best  hopes  of  his  race  then  centred  in 
France,  whose  Assembly  had  proclaimed 
the  freedom  of  the  slaves,  declared  his 
fealty  to  the  republic.  He  and  his  follow- 
ers subdued  both  the  English  and  Span- 
iards, and,  in  1796,  he  was  made  com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  forces  of  the  island. 



He  was  rapidly  advancing  the  prosperity 
of  his  people  by  wise  and  energetic  meas- 
ures, when  a  civil  war  broke  out.  Tous- 
saint    restored    order,    and,    in    January, 


1801,  the  whole  island  became  subject  to 
his  sway,  and  he  assunied  the  government. 
A  constitution  was  drawn  up  by  which  he 
was  named  President  for  life.  Toussaint 
sent  it  to  Bonaparte,  who  angrily  exclaim- 
ed, "  He  is  a  revolted  slave,  whom  we 
must  punish;  the  honor  of  France  is  out- 
raged." He  sent  out  General  Leclerc,  his 
sister  Pauline's  husband,  with  30,000  men 
and  sixty-six  war-vessels,  to  subdue  the 
"  usurper."     Leclerc   arrived   in   January, 

1802.  Toussaint  regarded  this  armament 
as  an  instrument  of  enslavement  for  him- 
self and  his  people,  and  a  new  war  ensued, 
in  which  the  French  army  was  completely 
decimated    by    the    sword    and    the    more 

destructive  yellow  fever.  Of  Leclerc's 
troops,  20,000  perished,  and  60,000  white 
people  were  massacred  by  the  infuriated 
negroes.  Peace  was  restored,  and  Tous- 
saint was  treacher- 
ously seized,  taken  to 
France,  and  starved 
to  death  in  prison. 
Meanwhile,  the  black 
and  mulatto  popula- 
tion of  Guadeloupe 
arose  in  insurrection, 
seized  the  French  gov- 
ernor sent  out  by 
Bonaparte,  declared 
the  freedom  of  the 
slaves,  and  establish- 
ed a  provisional  gov- 
ernment in  October, 
1801.  They  were  sub- 
dued, and  Bonaparte 
re-established  slavery 
in  the  island  and  au- 
thorized the  reopen- 
ing of  the  slave-trade. 
The  island  was  di- 
vided among  several 
chiefs  after  the  assas- 
sination of  Dessalines, 
a  self-constituted  em- 
peror, in  1806.  The 
principal  of  these 
black  chiefs  was 
-""^  Henri  Christophe  in 
the  northwest,  and 
Petion  in  the  south- 
west. The  eastern 
portion  of  the  island 
was  repossessed  by 
Spain.  Christophe 
assumed  the  functions  of  a  monarch  in 
1811,  with  the  title  of  King  Henri  I.,  and 
had  the  office  made  hereditary  in  his 
family.  Wishing  to  establish  commercial 
relations  with  Santo  Domingo,  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  sent  an  agent  to 
Christophe  in  the  summer  of  1817.  The 
latter  and  Petion  had  lately  established 
friendly  relations  between  themselves  in 
order  to  present  a  better  front  against  the 
claims  of  the  restored  French  monarchy. 
Instead  of  ordinary  letters  of  credence  as 
between  independent  states,  this  agent 
bore  only  a  simple  certificate  of  his  ap- 
pointment. Christophe  expressed  a  desire 
for    friendly    relations    with    the    United 



States,  but,  standing  upon  bis  dignity,  be 
declined  to  enter  into  any  diplomatic  re- 
lations not  based  on  the  usual  formalities 
between  independent  nations.'  The  United 
States  government  hesitated  to  recognize 
the  independence  of  Haiti.  The  idea  of 
acknowledging  as  a  nation  a  community 
of  colored  people  was  distasteful  to  the 
represent;itives  of  the  slave-labor  States, 
and  the  mission  of  the  agent  was  a  fail- 

The  possession  of  territory  by  the 
United  States  among  the  West  India  Isl- 
ands was  considered  desirable  for  a  long 
time,  and  in  1869  the  governments  of  the 
United  States  and  Haiti  conferred  on  the 
subject  of  the  annexation  of  the  island 
of  Santo  Domingo  to  the  domain  of  the 
republic.  In  November  a  treaty  to  that 
effect  was  made,  but  the  United  States 
Senate  refused  to  ratify  it.  More  infor- 
mation was  needed.  The  President  ap- 
pointed a  commission  to  visit  the  island 
and  obtain  it.  Their  report  in  the  spring 
of  1872  did  not  lead  to  a  ratification,  and 
the  subject  was  dropped  as  a  national 
measure.  The  government  of  Santo  Do- 
mingo ceded  to  a  private  company  (1873) 
a  large  portion  of  the  island,  with  valu- 
able privileges  and  franchises.  All  the 
public  lands  on  the  peninsula  of  Samana 
and  the  waters  of  Samana  Bay  were  ceded 
to  the  Samana  Bay  Company. 

President  Pioosevelt  appointed  Com- 
mander Albert  C.  Dillingham,  U.S.N., 
special  commissioner  to  President  Morales 
to  assist  in  re-establishing  the  credit, 
peace,  and  order  of  the  Dominican  Re- 
public, and  on  Jan.  21,  1905,  an  agree- 
ment was  signed  by  which  the  United 
States  government  guaranteed  the  terri- 
torial integrity  of  Santo  Domingo,  and 
further  agreed  to  take  charge  of  the 
finances  of  Santo  Domingo,  with  a  view 
to  settling  the  claims  against  it.  This 
was  sent  by  the  President  to  the  United 
States  Senate,  accompanied  by  a  message 
showing  the  relation  of  the  problem  in- 
volved to  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  and  the 
duty  of  the  United  States  to  its  weaker 

The  United  States  agrees  to  attempt 
to  adjust  both  the  foreign  and  domestic 
debts,  and  for  that  purpose  to  hold  cus- 
tom-houses, name  employees,  and  collect 
the  revenue,  subject  to  inspection  by  the 

Santo  Domingo  government.  Of  the  rev- 
enues, forty-five  per  cent,  to  be  paid  to 
the  Santo  Domingo  government  for  the 
public  service,  and  the  rest  used  to  pay 
debts,  foreign  or  domestic,  as  ascertained 
and  liquidated,  including  interest.  The 
system  of  duties  and  taxes  to  be  changed 
only  in  agreement  with  the  President  of 
the  United  States;  but  export  duties 
upon  Dominican  products  to  be  reduced 
or  abolished  immediately  by  the  Domin- 
ican government,  but  not  increased;  the 
public  debt  not  to  be  increased  without 
the  consent  of  the  President  of  the 
United  States.  The  agreement  to  take 
effect  only  when  approved  by  the  Unit- 
ed States  Senate  and  the  Dominican 

Tliis  agreement  was  considered  at  both 
the  regular  and  the  extra  session  of  the 
Senate,  but  it  had  not  been  approved  by 
March  18,  1905,  when  the  Senate  ad- 

Saratoga,  Proposed  State  of.  Under 
Thomas  Jefferson's  plan  for  the  creation 
of  new  States  in  what  was  then  known  as 
the  Northwestern  Territory,  several  com- 
mittees of  the  Congress  were  appointed, 
which  in  1784  reported  a  resolution  for 
the  division  of  the  ceded  and  purchased 
territory  into  seventeen  Sta'3s,  which  were 
to  be  created  in  three  tiers.  The  portion 
east  of  what  was  proposed  to  be  called 
lUinoia  was  named  Saratog  ,  and  beyond 
it  was  a  territory  to  which  the  name  of 
Washington  was  given.  Immediately  south 
of  Illinoia  and  Saratoga  was  what  was 
then  called,  lacking  a  specific  name,  the 
Ninth   State. 

Saratoga,  Attack  upon.  Late  in  the 
fall  of  1745,  an  expedition  consisting  of 
more  than  500  French  and  Indians  and  a 
few  disaffected  warriors  of  the  Six  Na- 
tions, led  by  M.  Marin,  an  active  French 
officer,  invaded  the  upper  valley  of  the 
Hudson,  and  by  their  operations  spread 
alarm  as  far  south  as  the  Hudson  High- 
lands. They  came  down  from  Montreal, 
and  reached  Crown  Point  on  Nov.  28,  in- 
tending to  penetrate  the  valley  of  the 
Connecticut.  At  the  suggestion  of  Father 
Piquet,  the  French  Prefet  Apostolique  to 
Canada,  who  met  the  expedition  at  Crown 
Point.  Marin  determined  to  lead  his  party 
towards  Albany  and  cut  of  the  advancing 
English     settlements.       They    passed     up 



Lake  Champlain,  crossed  over  to  the  Hud-  Report  on  the  Forests  of  North  America; 

son    River,    destroyed    a    lumber-yard    on  Silver   of   North   America;    Catalogue   of 

the  site  of  Fort  Edward,  and  approached  the  Forest  Trees  of  North  America,  and 

the   thriving    settlement    of    Saratoga,    at  many  other  works  and  reports, 
the  junction  of  Fish  Creek  and  the  Hud-        Sargent,  Epes,  author ;  born  in  Glouces- 

son.      It    was    a    scattered    little    village,  ter,    Mass.,    Sept.    27,    1813;    received    an 

composed  mostly  of  the  tenants  of  Philip  academic  education;  became  editor  of  the 

Schuyler,   who   owned   mills   and   a   large  Boston  Evening  Transcript  in  1846.     Hia 

landed     estate     there.       Accompanied     by  publications  include  The  Life  and  Services 

Father  Piquet,  Marin,  having  laid  waste  of  Henry   Clay;  American  Adventure   by 

nearly   50    miles    of    English    settlements,  Land  and  Sea;  Arctic  Adventures  by  Sea 

fell   upon  the  sleeping  villagers   at   Sara-  and  Land;   Original  Dialogues,   etc.      He 

toga    at   midnight    (Nov.    28),    plundered  also  edited  the  Select  Works  of  Benja7nin 

everything  of  value,  murdered  Mr.  Schuy-  Franklin;    Works    of   Horace   and   James 

ler,    burned    a    small    ungarrisoned    fort  Smith,    etc.      He   died   in   Boston,   Mass., 

near  by  and  most  of  the  dwellings,  and  Dec.  31,  1880. 

made  109  men,  women,  and  children  cap-  Sargent,  Herbert  Howland,  jurist; 
tives.  The  next  morning,  after  chanting  born  in  Carlinville,  111.,  Sept.  29,  1858; 
the  Te  Deum  in  the  midst  of  the  desola-  graduated  at  Blackburn  University  in 
tion,  the  marauders  turned  their  faces  1878  and  at  the  United  States  Military 
towards  Canada  with  their  prisoners.  The  Academy  in  1883;  was  on  frontier  duty 
fort  was  rebuilt,  garrisoned,  and  called  till  the  outbreak  of  the  war  with  Spain ; 
Fort  Clinton;  but  late  in  1747,  unable  to  organized  volunteers  in  Washington  in 
defend  it  against  the  French  and  Indians,  May,  1898;  and  was  appointed  colonel 
it  was  burned  by  the  English.  of  the  5th  United  States  Volunteer  In- 
For  an  account  of  the  battles  of  Sept,  fantry  the  same  month ;  served  at  San- 
19,  1777,  and  Oct.  7,  1777,  which  led  to  tiago  and  Guantanamo,  Cuba;  returned 
the  surrender  of  Burgoyne,  see  Bemis's  to  the  United  States  with  his  regiment, 
Heights,  Battle  of;  Burgoyne,  Sir  May,  1899;  was  promoted  captain  of  cav- 
JoHN.  airy,  March  2,  1899,  and  appointed  lieu- 
Sargent,  Aaron  Augustus,  diploma-  tenant-colonel  of  the  29th  United  States 
tist;  born  in  Newburyport,  Mass.,  Sept.  Volunteer  Infantry  in  July  following.  In 
28,  1827;  learned  the  printer's  trade;  re-  October  he  sailed  for  Manila  with  his 
moved  to  California  in  1849  and  engaged  regiment;  fought  against  the  insurgents 
in  mining;  studied  law,  while  editing  the  in  the  island  of  Luzon;  and  commanded 
Nevada  Journal,  which  he  established,  and  the  assaulting  forces  during  the  action  in 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1854.  He  which  General  Lawton  was  killed  at  San 
was  elected  district  attorney  of  Nevada  Mateo,  Dec.  19,  1899.  He  is  the  author 
county  in  1856;  vice-president  of  the  Re-  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte's  First  Campaign; 
publican  National  Convention  in  1860;  and  The  Campaign  of  Marengo. 
served  in  Congress  in  1860-72,  and  in  the  Sargent,  John  Osborne,  laAvyer;  born 
United  States  Senate  in  1872-79;  was  ap-  in  Gloucester,  Mass.,  Sept.  20,  1811;  grad- 
pointed  United  States  minister  to  Ger-  uated  at  Harvard  College  in  1830;  ad- 
manj'^  in  1882;  and  was  offered  the  Rus-  mitted  to  the  bar  in  1833;  engaged  ex- 
sian  mission,  which  he  declined.  He  died  tensively  in  journalism;  associate  editor 
in  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  Aug.  14,  1887.  of  the  Courier  and  Enquirer  in  1838; 
Sargent,  Charles  Sprague,  arboricult-  founded  the  Republic  (with  Alexander  C. 
urist;  born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  April  24,  Bullitt).  His  publications  include  a 
1841;  graduated  at  Harvard  Univer-  Lecture  on  the  Late  Improvements  in 
sity  in  1862;  served  through  the  Civil  Steam  Navigation  and  the  Arts  of  Naval 
War,  attaining  the  rank  of  major;  was  Warfare;  a  version  of  Anastasius  Griin'a 
director  of  the  Arnold  Arboretinn  of  Har-  Last  Knight;  three  pamphlets  reviewing 
vard  University  in  1872-78;  became  Ar-  The  Rule  in  Minot's  Case;  and  four  num- 
nold  Professor  of  ArboriciJture  in  Har-  bers  of  Chapters  for  the  Times  by  a  Berk' 
vard  University  in  1878;  editor  of  Garden  shire  Farmer.  He  died  in  New  York  City; 
and   Forests   in    1887-97;    and   author   of  Dec.  28,   1891. 



Sargent,  John  Sixgeb,  artist;  born  in  pany  in  1786,  Congress  appointed  him  sur- 
Florence,  Italy,  in  1856;  educated  in  Italy  veyor  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  and  he 
and  Germany;  came  to  the  United  States  was  made  its  first  secretary.  He  was  St. 
in  1876,  and  revisited  it  several  times,  Clair's  adjutant-general  at  the  time  of 
chiefly  to  paint  certain  portraits;  was  his  defeat  in  1791,  when  he  was  wounded; 
commissioned  to  decorate  the  ends  of  the  and  was  adjutant-general  and  inspector  of 
upper  corridor  of  the  new  Boston  public  Wayne's  troops  in  1794-95.  He  was  made 
library,  and  chose  for  his  subject  the  governor  of  the  Northwest  Territory  in 
Progress  of  Religion;  is  a  member  of  the  1798.  Mr.  Sargent  was  a  member  of  the 
American  National  Academy  of  Design,  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  and  of  the 
and  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  England.  I'hilosophical  Society,  Philadelphia.  He 
In  the  exhibition  of  the  Royal  Academy  died  in  New  Orleans,  La.,  June  3,  1820. 
in  1900  he  had  a  Venetian  interior  with  Sartain,  Johx,  artist;  born  in  London, 
four  figures  which  was  pronounced  the  England,  Oct.  24,  1808;  came  to  the 
cleverest  canvas  in  the  exhibition.  He  is  United  States  and  settled  in  Philadelphia 
one  of  the  leading  portrait  -  painters  of  in  18-30;  contributed  miniature  engrav- 
llie  day.  ings  to  Graham's  Magazine  in  1840;  pro- 
Sargent,  Nathan  (pen-name  Oliver  prietor  and  editor  of  Campbell's  Foreign 
Oldschool),  author;  born  in  Pultney,  Vt.,  Semi-Monthly  Magazine;  and  later  had 
May  5,  1794;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1816  an  interest  in  the  Electric  Museum,  for 
and  settled  in  Cahawba,  Ala.,  where  he  which  he  engraved  many  plates;  had 
became  county  and  probate  judge;  re-  charge  of  the  art  department  at  the  Cen- 
moved  to  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1830;  and  tennial  Exposition  in  Philadelphia;  and 
established  a  Whig  newspaper;  and  be-  produced  many  prints  for  framing,  among 
came  Washington  correspondent  of  the  them  The  County  Election  in  Missouri; 
United  States  Gazette.  He  was  sergeant-  The  Battle  of  Gettyshurg,  etc.  He  died 
at-arms  in  Congress  in  1849-51;  commis-  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Oct.  25,  1897. 
sioner  of  customs  in  1861-67;  and  presi-  Sassacus,  Indian  chief;  born  near 
dent  of  the  Washington  Reform  School  Groton,  Conn.,  about  1560;  chief  of  the 
for  several  years.  He  published  Life  of  Pequod  Indians,  feared  greatly  by  the 
Henry  Clay ;  and  Public  Men  and  Events,  settlers  of  the  New  England  coast.  In 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  2,  103 7  his  tribe  murdered  several  women  at 
1875.  Wethersfield,  and  took  two  girls  captive. 
Sargent,  Wintheop,  author;  born  in  On  June  5,  1637,  the  colonists  attacked  the 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Sept.  23,  1825;  gradu-  Pequod  settlement  on  the  Mystic  River 
ated  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  and  won  a  victory.  Sassacus,  however, 
1845  and  at  the  Harvard  Law  School  in  escaped  to  the  Mohawks,  by  whom  he  was 
1847;  practised  in  his  native  city.  He  was  murdered  the  same  month. 
the  author  of  History  of  an  Expedition  Sastean  Indians,  a  stock  comprising 
Against  Fort  Duquesne  in  1775,  under  the  Autire  of  Shasta  Valley,  the  Edohwe 
Major-General  Braddock,  Edited  from  on  Klamath  River,  and  the  Iruwai  of 
Original  Manuscripts;  The  Loyalist  Poetry  Scott  Valley,  formerly  inhabiting  Siski- 
of  the  Revolution;  The  Journal  of  the  you  county,  Cal.,  the  region  along  the 
General  Meeting  of  the  Cincinnati ;  Life  l^lamath,  and  a  portion  of  the  territory 
and  Career  of  Maj.  John  Andre;  The  Con-  of  Oregon.  At  one  time  they  had  twenty- 
federate  States  and  Slavery,  etc.  He  died  four  villages,  and  numbered  about  3,000. 
in  Paris,  France.  May  18,  1870.  In  1899  there  were  twenty- four  Sasteans 
Sargent,  Wixthrop,  military  officer;  at  the  Grande  Ronde  agency,  and  487  at 
born  in  Gloucester,  Mass.,  May  1,  1753;  the  Siletz  agency,  both  in  Oregon.  They 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1771;  are  also  known  as  Shasta  Indians, 
entered  the  military  service  in  1775;  and  Satolli,  Francis,  clergyman;  born  in 
became  captain  of  Knox's  artillery  regi-  Merciano,  Italy,  July  21,  1831.  His  edu- 
ment  in  March,  1770,  serving  with  it  dur-  cation  from  early  childhood  was  under 
ing  the  war,  and  engaging  in  the  principal  the  direction  of  Archbishop  Pecci,  subse- 
battles  in  the  North,  attaining  the  rank  quently  Pope  Leo  XIII.  After  finishing  his 
of  major.     Connected  with  the  Ohio  Com-  theological    studios    he    became    Professor 



of  Dogmatic  Theology  at  Urban  College  of 
the  Propaganda,  Rome;  was  consecrated 
titular  archbishop  of  Lepanto  in  1888;  rep- 
resented Pope  Leo  at  the  centenary  of  the 
Koman  Catholic  hierarchy  in  the  United 
States,  celebrated  in  Baltimore;  and  was 
the  first  Papal  delegate  to  the  United 
States  (1893-96).  Though  in  a  delicate 
position,  he  manifested  great  wisdom  and 
succeeded  in  settling  several  serious  differ- 
ences which  had  arisen  in  the  Church  in 
the  United  States.  He  was  elevated  to  the 
cardinalate  in  1895;  appointed  president 
of  the  Academy  of  Noble  Ecclesiastics; 
and  in  July,  1900,  made  prefect  of  the 

Satterlee,  Herbert  Livingston,  law- 
yer; born  in  New  York,  Oct.  31,  1863; 
graduated  at  Columbia  College  in  1883, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1885;  was 
navigator  of  the  New  York  naval  bat- 
talion in  1891-95;  captain  of  the  naval 
militia  in  1897-98;  and  during  the  war 
with  Spain  was  lieutenant  and  chief  of 
staff  to  Capt.  John  R.  Bartlett,  U.  S.  N. 
He  is  the  author  of  Political  History  of 
the  Province  of  New  York,  etc. 

Sauganash,  Tilk,  a  half-breed  leader, 
popularly  known  as  Capt.  Billy  Caldwell; 
born  in  Canada  about  1780.  He  was  a 
chief  of  the  Ottawas  and  Pottawattomies. 
He  died  in  Council  Bluffs,  la.,  Sept.  28, 

Saulsbury,  Eli,  statesman;  born  in 
Kent  county,  Del.,  Dec.  29,  1817;  member 
of  the  State  legislature,  1853-54;  United 
States  Senator,  1871-89.  He  opposed 
military  interference  in  the  Southern 
States  during  the  reconstruction  period. 
He  died  in  Dover,  Del.,  March  10.  1893. 

Saulsbury,  Willard,  legislator;  born 
in  Kent  county,  Del.,  June  2,  1825;  re- 
ceived a  collegiate  education;  admitted  to 
the  bar  and  practised  in  Georgetown,  Del. ; 
attorney-general  of  the  State  in  1850-55; 
United  States  Senator  in  1858-71;  deliv- 
ered an  important  speech  on  the  State- 
rights  resolution  of  Jefferson  Davis,  April 
2,  1860;  and  became  chancellor  of  Dela- 
ware in  1873.  He  died  in  Dover,  April  6, 

Sault  de  Ste.  Marie  Ship-canal.  Saint 
Mary's  Strait  or  River,  connecting  Lakes 
Superior  and  Huron,  is  63  miles  in  length, 

A    LOCK   ON   THK    SATLT    DE    STE.    MAKIE    SBIP-CANAI* 



and  but  for  the  St.  Mary's  Falls,  or  Sault  the  Great  Metropolis;  Story  of  the  Dis- 
de  Ste.  Marie,  would  be  navigable  through-  covery  of  the  New  World  by  Columbus; 
out  its  course  for  the  largest  vessels,  etc.  He  died  in  New  York,  Dec.  12,  1902. 
These  falls,  or  more  properly  rapids,  are  Saunders,  Romulus  Mitchell,  states- 
about  a  mile  from  Lake  Superior,  and  have  man;  born  in  Caswell  county,  N.  C, 
within  the  space  of  three-quarters  of  a  March  3,  1791 ;  received  a  collegiate  edu- 
mile  a  fall  of  about  20  feet.  Until  the  cation;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1812; 
construction  of  a  canal  around  them,  elected  to  Congress  in  1821,  1823,  1825, 
they  completely  prevented  the  passage  and  1844.  In  the  latter  year  he  in- 
of  vessels  from  one  lake  to  the  other,  troduced  the  celebrated  two-thirds  rule 
On  May  19,  1855,  the  first  ship-canal  was  into  the  Democratic  National  Convention, 
opened,  having  been  constructed  at  great  making  it  necessary  for  a  nominee  to  re- 
expense  by  the  State  of  Michigan.  This  ceive  two-thirds  of  the  votes  of  all  mem- 
canal  was  afterwards  transferred  to  the  bers  present.  He  was  appointed  minister 
United  States,  and  in  1881  the  government  to  Spain  in  1845,  where  he  offered  $100,- 
opened  another  and  larger  one,  parallel  000,000  for  the  island  of  Cuba.  He  died 
with  it.  The  lock  in  the  latter  was  then  in  Ealeigh,  N.  C,  April  21,  1867. 
the  largest  in  the  world.  It  is  515  feet  Savage,  James,  histori.  ^;  bom  In 
long,  80  feet  wide,  and  has  a  lift  of  20  Boston,  Mass.,  July  13,  1784;  graduated 
feet.  It  can  be  filled  in  fifteen  minutes,  at  Harvard  College  in  1803;  admitted  to 
and  is  roomy  enough  to  admit  two  of  the  the  bar  in  1807;  served  in  the  Massa- 
largest  lake  steamers  at  a  time.  It  is  chusetts  legislature.  His  publications  in- 
built of  granite,  is  furnished  with  every  elude  John  Winthrop's  History  of  New 
improved  mechanism,  and  cost  $1,000,000.  England  from  1630  to  1646,  with  Notes  to 
To  facilitate  the  increasing  commerce  of  Illustrate  the  Civil  and  Ecclesiastical 
the  lakes  Congress  passed  an  act  for  the  Concerns,  the  Geography,  Settlement,  and 
construction  of  another  and  still  larger  Institutions  of  the  Country,  and  the  Lives 
lock,  to  cost  $5,000,000.  In  1855  the  total  and  Manners  of  the  Ancient  Planters;  and 
registered  tonnage  that  passed  through  the  Genealogical  Dictionary  of  the  First  Set' 
canal  was  106,296;  in  1898  it  was  16,426,-  tiers  of  Neio  England,  Showing  Three  Gen- 
472.  No  records  of  the  amount  of  freight  eration-s  of  Those  Who  Came  Before  May, 
transported  were  kept  prior  to  1881.  In  1692.  He  died  in  Boston,  Mass.,  March 
that    year    it    aggregated    1,567,741    net   8,  1873. 

tons;  in  1903-04,  20,318,659  net  tons.  For  Savage,  John,  author;  born  in  Dub- 
several  years  the  tonnage  and  freight  lin,  Ireland,  Dec.  13,  1828;  settled  in 
movement  have  far  exceeded  those  of  the  New  York  City  in  1848,  and  was  employed 
Suez  Canal.  as  proof-reader  on  the  New  York  Tribune; 

Saunders,  Alvin,  legislator;  born  in  removed  to  Washington,  D.  C,  in  1857, 
Fleming  county,  Ky.,  July  12,  1817;  re-  where  he  became  editor  of  The  States,  the 
moved  to  the  present  State  of  Iowa  in  organ  of  Stephen  A.  Douglas.  In  the 
1836;  delegate  to  the  Iowa  constitutional  Civil  War  he  served  in  the  69th  New 
convention  in  1846;  governor  of  the  Ne-  York  Regiment.  He  was  the  author  of  a 
braska  Territory  in  1861-67;  and  United  number  of  war-songs,  including  The  Mus- 
States  Senator  from  Nebraska  in  1877-83.  ter  of  the  North  and  The  Starry  Flag,  and 
During  this  period  he  secured  over  600,-  published  Our  Living  Representative  Men; 
000  acres  of  land  to  his  State  by  the  re-  Campaign  Life  of  Andrew  Johnson;  Life 
arrangement  of  the  northern  boundary,  and  Public  Services  of  Andrew  Johnson; 
He  died  in  Omaha,  Neb.,  Nov,  1,  1899.  Fenian  Heroes  and  Martyrs,  etc.    Mr.  Sav- 

Saunders,  Frederick,  librarian;  born  age  was  a  popular  and  forceful  orator, 
in  Ix)ndon,  England,  Aug.  14,  1807;  came  and  rendered  great  aid  to  the  Republican 
to  the  United  States  in  1837,  and  became  party  among  the  Irish-American  citizens 
city  editor  of  the  New  York  Evening  Post ;  in  General  Grant's  first  Presidential  cam- 
was  made  assistant  librarian  of  the  Astor  paign.  After  his  inauguration  President 
Library  in  1859,  librarian  in  1876,  and  Grant  sought  to  compliment  the  Irish  by 
was  retired  in  1896.  He  was  the  author  appointing  Mr.  Savage  to  one  of  the  most 
of  New  York  in  a  Nut-shell;  Memoir  of   lucrative  consulates  in  Great  Britain,  but 



because  of  Mr.  Savage's  connection  with 
political  movements  in  Ireland  the  United 
States  government  was  given  to  under- 
stand that  this  appointment  would  not  be 
agreeable.  He  died  in  Spragueville,  Pa., 
Oct.  9,  1888. 

Savage,  Richard  Henry,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Utica,  N.  Y.,  June  12,  1846; 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy  in  1868;   remained  in  the  army 

army  was  marching  for  Turkey  Bend,  on 
the  James  River,  in  its  transfer  from  the 
Chickahominy  to  the  James.  General 
Keyes  led  the  way  through  White  Oak 
Swamp,  followed  by  Porter's  shattered 
corps.  Then  came  a  train  of  5,000  wag- 
ons laden  with  ammunition,  stores,  and 
baggage,  and  a  drove  of  2,500  beef-cattle. 
This  movement  was  so  well  masked  that 
liCe,   who   suspected  McClellan   was  about 

(From  a  eontemporaneout  engraving,) 

for  three  years  as  second  lieutenant  in  the 
corps  of  engineers;  later  studied  law  and 
practised  in  New  York.  In  May,  1898,  he 
was  appointed  senior  major  in  the  2d 
United  States  Volunteer  Engineers  and 
served  during  the  war  with  Spain.  In 
November,  1898,  he  accompanied  his  com- 
mand to  Havana,  and  in  that  city  person- 
ally raised  the  first  American  flag  that 
had  ever  floated  in  Havana  province.  He 
is  the  author  of  After  Many  Years,  and 
Other  Poems;  For  Love  and  Life;  The 
Anarchist;  The  Flying  Halcyon,  etc. 

Savage's  Station,  Battle  at   (1862). 
Before  dawn  of  June  28,  1862,  McClellan's 

to  give  battle  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
Chickahominy  in  defence  of  his  stores 
at  the  White  House,  or  was  preparing  to 
retreat  down  the  Peninsula,  was  com- 
pletely deceived;  and  it  was  late  that 
night  when  the  astounding  fact  was  an- 
nounced to  him  that  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  was  far  on  its  way  towards  a 
new  position  on  the  James  River;  that  a 
large  portion  of  the  stores  at  the  White 
House  had  been  removed;  and  that  the 
remainder,  together  with  the  mansion 
(his  wife's  property),  were  in  flames.  He 
immediately  put  in  operation  measures  to 
overtake  and  destroy  the  retreating  army. 



MoClellan's  rear-guard,  composed  of  the 
divisions  of  Sedg%vick,  Richardson,  Heint- 
Eelman,  and  Smith,  of  Franklin's  corps, 
were  at  Savage's  Station,  under  the  gen- 
eral command  of  Sumner.  There  they 
were  assailed  by  a  Confederate  force  un- 
der Magruder,  who  first  attacked  Sedg- 
wick at  about  9  a.m.  on  June  29.  He 
was  easily  repulsed.  Supposing  the  Na- 
tionals to  be  advancing,  he  sent  to  Huger 
for  aid;  but  finding  they  were  only  a 
covering  party,  these  troops  did  not 
join  him.  By  a  misconception  of  an  or- 
der the  National  line  had  been  weakened, 
and  at  4  p.m.  Magruder  fell  upon  the 
Unionists  with  much  violence.  He  was 
again  repulsed  by  the  brigades  of  Burns, 
Brooke,  and  Hancock.  The  69th  New 
York  and  the  batteries  of  Pettit,  Osborn, 

and  Bramhall  then  took  an  effective  part 
in  the  action,  and  the  battle  ra^ed  furious- 
ly until  8  or  9  p.m.,  when  Magruder  re- 
coiled. He  had  expected  aid  from  Jack- 
son, but  was  disappointed.  Darkness  put 
an  end  to  the  battle.  Covered  by  French's 
brigade,  the  National  troops  fell  back  to 
White  Oak  Swamp,  and  by  5  a.m.  the 
next  day  they  were  beyond  the  creek, 
and  the  bridge,  over  which  nearly  the 
whole  Army  of  the  Potomac  had  passed, 
was  destroyed  behind  them. 

Savannah,  the  chief  commercial  city 
of  Georgia;  18  miles  from  the  Atlantic 
Ocean;  county  seat  of  Chatham  county; 
noted  for  its  large  exports  of  cotton,  naval 
stores,  rice,  and  lumber;  population  in 
1900,  54,244. 

Late    in    1778    Sir    Henry    Clinton    de- 

J.    VIl;\V   OF   SAVANNAH. 



spatched  Lieutenant-Colonel  Campbell  with  and    the    admiral's    willingness    to    assist 

about  2,000  men   to  invade  Georgia.     He  the   army   in  the   reduction   of   Savannah, 

sailed  from  New  York  on  Nov.  27,  under  provided    he   should    not   be   detained    too 

convoy  of  a  portion  of  Commodore  Hyde  long  on  that  dangerous  coast,  for  he  could 

PLAN  OF  THE  SIEGE  OP  SAVANNAH,  OCT.   9,  1779. 

Parker's  fleet.  They  arrived  at  the  mouth  find  neither  roadstead  nor  offing  for  his 
of  the  Savannah  on  Dec.  23,  and,  after  great  ships-of-war.  His  entire  fleet  con- 
much  hinderance,  made  their  way  towards  sisted  of  thirty-three  vessels,  bearing  a 
Savannah,  opposed  by  Gen.  Robert  Howe  large  nvimber  of  heavy  guns.  On  the  ap- 
with  about  600  Continentals  and  a  few  pearance  of  the  fleet  General  Prevost  sum- 
hundred  militia.  Howe  was  defeated,  and  moned  the  troops  from  all  his  outposts 
fled,  pursued  by  the  invaders.  Savannah  to  the  defence  of  Savannah,  and  300  ne- 
passed  into  the  hands  of  the  British,  with  gi-oes  from  the  neighboring  plantations 
453  prisoners,  forty-eight  cannon,  twenty-  were  pressed  into  the  service  in  strength- 
three  mortars,  the  fort  (with  its  ammuni-  ening  the  fortifications  around  the  town, 
tion  and  stores),  the  shipping  in  the  river,  Very  soon,  under  the  direction  of  Major 
and  a  large  quantity  of  provisions.  The  Moncrief,  thirteen  redoubts  and  fifteen 
Americans  lost,  in  killed  or  drowned,  about  batteries,  with  connecting  lines  of  intrench- 
100  men;  the  British,  about  twenty-six  ments  were  completed^  on  which  seventy- 
killed  and  wovmded.  Howe,  with  the  sur-  six  cannon  were  mounted.  Before  them  a 
vivors,  retreated  into   South  Carolina.  strong  abatis  was  laid. 

In   August,    1779,   Count   d'Estaing   ap-        Meanwhile   Lincoln    had   marched   from 

peared  off  the  southern  coast  with  tweii-  Charleston,    and    reached    the    Savannah 

ty-two  ships-of-the-line.     General  Lincoln,  Eiver  on  Sept.   12;   and  on  the  same  day 

in   command   of   the   Southern   army,   was  French  troops  landed  below  Savannah  and 

at  Charleston,  when  a  French  frigate  came  marched  up  to  within  3  miles  of  the  town, 

there  to  announce  the  arrival  of  the  fleet  Lincoln  approached,  and  on  Sept.  23  the 



combined  armies  commenced  a  siege. 
D'Estaing  had  demanded  a  surrender  of 
the  post  on  the  lOth,  when  Prevost,  hour- 
ly expected  reinforcements  of  800  men 
from  Beaufort,  asked  for  a  truce,  which 
was  unwisely  granted.  The  reinforcements 
came,  and  then  Prevost  gave  a  defiant 
refusal.  The  siege,  begun  on  Sept.  23,  last- 
ed until  Oct.  8,  with  varying  success.  Dur- 
ing the  last  five  days  a  heavy  cannonade 
and  bombardment  had  been  kept  up  on 
the  British  works  with  very  little  effect. 
D'Estaing,  impatient  of  delay,  then  pro- 
posed to  take  the  place  by  storm.  Lincoln 
reluctantly  agreed  to  the  proposal,  for 
there  seemed  a  certainty  of  final  victory 
if  the  siege  should  continue.  A  plan  of 
attack  was  revealed  to  Prevost  by  a  citi- 
zen of  Charleston — a  sergeant  in  Lincoln's 
army — and  gave  the  British  a  great  ad- 
vantage. The  assault  was  made  before 
da^^'n  on  Oct.  9  by  the  combined  forces, 
4,500  strong,  in  three  columns,  led  respec- 

ly  refused  to  remain  any  longer,  and  on 
the  evening  of  Oct.  18  the  allies  withdrew, 
the  French  to  their  ships,  and  the  Amer- 
icans to  Zubley's  Ferry,  on  the  Savan- 
nah. Lincoln  retreated  to  Charleston,  and 
the  French  ileet  sailed  for  France  at  the 
beginning  of  November,  The  British  lost 
only  120  men.  Thus  closed  the  campaign 
of   1779. 

On  July  11,  1782,  the  British  troops 
evacuated  Savannah,  after  an  occupation 
of  three  years  and  a  half.  In  considera- 
tion of  the  services  of  Gen.  James  Jack- 
son, Wayne,  who  was  in  command  of  the 
Continentals  in  Georgia,  appointed  him  to 
•'  receive  the  keys  of  Savannah  from  a 
committee  of  British  officers."  He  did  so, 
and  on  the  same  day  the  American  army 
entered  Savannah,  when  royal  power 
ceased  in  Georgia  forever.  Governor 
Martin  called  a  special  meeting  in  Savan- 
nah (Aug.  1),  of  the  Georgia  legislature, 
at  the  house  of  General  Mcintosh.     Very 


tively    by    D'Estaing,    Count    Dillon,    and    soon   the   free   and   independent   State   of 

Huger  (of  Charleston).  They  were  shroud- 
ed in  a  dense  fog  and  covered  by  the 
French  batteries.  After  five  hours  of 
fierce  conflict  there  was  a  truce  for  the 
purpose  of  burying  the  dead.    Already  1,000 

Georgia  began  its  career.     See  Georgia. 

Savannah,  The.  The  most  notable  of 
the  Confederate  privateers  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Civil  War  was  the  Savannah, 
Capt.   T.   H.   Baker,   of   Charleston,   S.   C. 

of  the  Americans  and  Frenchmen  had  been    She  was  a  little  schooner  which  had  done 
killed  or  wounded.     Among  the  latter  was    duty  in  Charleston  ,  arbor  as  a  pilot-boat, 

D'Estaing,  who  was  carried  to  his  camp. 
Count  Pulaski,  at  the  head  of  his  legion, 
was    mortally   wounded   by   a    grape-shot. 

only  fifty-four  tons'  burden.  She  sallied 
out  of  Charleston  Harbor  at  the  close  of 
May,    1861,    captured    a   Maine    merchant 

During  the  truce  D'Estaing  and  Lincoln  brig,  and  proceeded  in  search  of  other 
held  a  consultation.  The  former,  having  prizes.  On  June  3  she  fell  in  with  the 
lost  many  men,  wished  to  abandon  the  National  brig  Perry,  which  she  mistook 
siege;  the  latter,  confident  of  final  success,  for  a  merchant  vessel,  but,  discovering  her 
wished  to  continue  it.    D'Estaing  positive-    mistake,    attempted    to   escape.      After   a 



sharp  fight  the  Savannah  was  captured 
and  sent  to  New  York.  She  was  the  first 
vessel  captured  bearing  the  Confederate 
flag.  Her  captain  and  crew  were  tried  for 
piracy  in  New  York,  under  the  proclama- 
tion of  President  Lincoln  of  April  19,  1861, 
President  Davis,  in  a  letter  to  President 
Lincoln,  threatened  to  deal  with  prisoners 
in  his  hands  precisely  as  the  captain  and 
crew  of  the  Savannah  should  be  dealt  with. 
He  held  Col.  Michael  Corcoran,  of  the  69th 
New  York  (Irish)  Regiment,  and  others 
as  hostages,  to  sufi'er  death  in  case  that 
penalty  should  be  inflicted  on  the  prisoners 
of  the  Savannah.   The  case  attracted  much 

ment  having  so  far  conceded  belligerent 
rights  to  the  Confederates  as  to  exchange 
piisoners  of  war,  it  could  not  consistently 
make  a  distinction  between  prisoners  taken 
on  land  and  on  the  sea.  He  recommended, 
as  a  measure  of  expediency,  that  the  Presi- 
dent should  treat  the  prisoners  as  "  priva- 
teersmen "  and  prisoners  of  war.  This 
recommendation  was  followed. 

Savannah,  The,  the  first  steamship 
that  crossed  the  Atlantic.  She  was  pro- 
jected by  Daniel  Dodd;  was  built  in  New 
York  City  by  Francis  Picket  for  Mr.  Dodd, 
and  was  of  300  tons  burden.  Stephen 
Vail,  of  Morristown,  N.  J.,  built  her  en- 


attention  at  home  and  abroad,  and  in  the 
British  Parliament  it  was  argued  that, 
as  the  Confederates  possessed  belligerent 
rights  the  prisoners  were  privateers,  not 
pirates.  Judge  Charles  P.  Daly,  of  New 
York,  argued  that  they  were  on  the  same 
level  in  the  grade  of  guilt  with  every 
Confederate  soldier,  and  that  if  one  must 
suffer  death  for  piracy,  the  other  must 
suffer  death  for  treason;  and  the  govern- 

gines,  and  on  Aug.  22,  1818,  she  was 
launched,  gliding  gracefully  into  the  ele- 
ment which  was  to  bear  her  to  foreign 
lands,  there  to  be  crowned  with  the  laurels 
of  success.  On  May  25  this  purely  Amer- 
ican-built vessel  left  Savannah,  Ga.,  and 
glided  out  from  its  waste  of  marshes,  un- 
der the  command  of  Capt.  Moses  Rogers, 
with  Stephen  Rogers  as  navigator.  The 
port  of  New  London,  Conn.,  had  furnished 



these  able  seamen.  The  steamer  reached  Republicau  National  Conventions  in  1864, 
Liverpool  June  20,  the  passage  having  oc-  1876,  1880,  and  1896.  He  died  in  Oshkosh, 
eupied  twenty-six  days,  upon  eighteen  of  Wis.,  March  29,  1900. 
which  she  had  used  her  paddles.  On  the  Sawyer,  Thomas  Jefferson,  clergy- 
arrival  of  the  vessel  on  the  coast  of  Ire-  man;  born  in  Reading,  Vt.,  Jan.  9,  1804; 
land,  Lieut.  John  Borne,  of  the  King's  cut-  graduated  at  Middlebury  College  in  1829; 
ter  Kite,  sent  a  boat-load  of  sailors  to  was  ordained  in  the  Universalist  Church 
hoard  the  Savannah  to  assist  her  crew  to  in  1830;  pastor  of  a  church  in  New  York 
extinguish  the  tires  of  what  his  Majesty's  City  in  1830-45  and  again  in  1852-61  ; 
officers  supposed  to  be  a  burning  ship.  The  principal  and  Professor  of  Theology  in 
Savannah,  after  visiting  Liverpool,  con-  the  Liberal  Institute,  Clinton,  N.  Y.,  in 
tinned  her  voyage  on  July  23,  and  reached  1845-52;  one  of  the  founders  of  Tufts  Col- 
St.  Petersburg  in  safety.  Leaving  the  lat-  lege  in  1847 ;  Professor  of  Theology  there 
ter  port  on  Oct.  10,  this  adventurous  craft  in  1869-92,  when  he  was  made  professor 
completed  the  round  voyage  upon  her  ar-  emeritus.  He  was  author  of  Endless 
rival  at  Savannah,  Nov.  30.  Punishment  in  the  Very  Words  of  Its  Ad- 

Savings -banks.     The  first  regular  in-  vocates;    regular    contributor    for    forty 

stitution  of  this  kind  was  established  at  years  to  the  Universalist  Quarterly ;  and 

Hamburg  in  1778.    The  next  was  at  Berne,  editor  of  The  Christian  Messenger  and  the 

Switzerland,  in  1787.     The  oldest  savings-  Christian      Ambassador.      He      died      in 

bank  in  the  world,  still  in  existence,  was  Somerville,  Mass.,  July  23,  1899. 

founded  at  Zurich,  Switzerland,  in   1803.  Saxe,  John  Godfrey,  author;   born  in 

The    first     savings-bank     in     the     United  Highgate,  Vt.,  June  2,  1816;  graduated  at 

States  was  established  in  Philadelphia  in  Middlebury  College  in   1839;   admitted  to 

1816,  and  in  1880  still  existed  as  a  flour-  the   bar   in   St.   Albans,   and   practised   in 

ishing  institution.    It  was  called  the  Phila-  Franklin   county   in   1843-50;    was   editor 

delphia   Savings  Fund  Society.      The  sec-  of    the   Burlington    Sentinel    in    1850-56; 

ond     savings-bank     was     established     in  attorney  for  Vermont;   Democratic  candi- 

Boston   the   same  year,   and   the   third   in  date   for   governor   in    1859   and  i  gain  in 

New  York  in  1819.    These  banks  are  regu-  1860;    and   was   the   author   of   Progress; 

lated  by  State  laws,  and  the  average  rate  The  Money  King ;  Clever  Stories  of  Many 

of   interest   paid   by  them   is   3   per   cent.  Nations,  and  several  volumes  of  humorous 

For    statistics   of   the    mutual    and    stock  poems.     He  died  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  March 

savings-banks    in    the   United   States,    see  31,   1887. 

Banks,  Savings.  Saxton,     Joseph,     inventor;     born     in 

Sawtelle,  Charles  Greene,  military  Huntingdon  county,  Pa.,  March  22,  1799; 
oflicer;  born  in  Norridgewoek,  Me.,  May  received  a  common  school  education;  was 
10,  1834;  graduated  at  the  United  States  apprenticed  to  a  watch-maker;  removed 
Military  Academy  in  1854;  promoted  cap-  to  Philadelphia  in  1817,  and  while  working 
tain  in  1861;  served  through  the  Civil  at  his  trade,  invented  a  machine 'for  cut- 
War  principally  as  quartermaster  at  ting  the  teeth  of  chronometer  wheels;  and 
different  posts;  built  a  pontoon  bridge  900  later  made  the  town-clock  in  the  belfry  of 
feet  long  across  the  Red  River  in  Texas  Independence  Hall ;  visited  London  in 
early  in  1864;  brevetted  brigadier-general  1828-37;  superintended  the  construction  of 
United  States  army  in  1865;  promoted  the  machinery  and  balances  for  the  Phila- 
brigadier-general  United  States  army  Aug.  delphia  mint  on  his  return  to  the  United 
19,  1896;  and  retired  Feb.  16,  1897.  States,  till   1843,  when  he  was  placed  in 

Sawyer,  Philetus,  legislator;  born  in  charge  of  the  construction  of  the  standard 
WTiiting,  Vt.,  Sept.  22,  1816;  received  a  weights  and  measures  for  the  United 
common  school  education  in  New  York;  States.  Mr.  Saxton  received  a  medal  from 
removed  to  Wisconsin  in  1847  and  en-  the  Franklin  Institute  in  1834  for  his  re- 
gaged  in  the  lumber  business;  was  a  mem-  fleeting  pyi'ometer;  a  gold  medal  at  the 
her  of  the  State  legislature  in  1857  and  world's  fair  in  London;  and  was  one  of 
18R1;  mayor  of  Oshkosh  in  1863;  member  the  original  incorporators  of  the  National 
of  Congress  in  1864-74;  United  States  Academy  of  Sciences.  He  died  in  Wash- 
Senator  in  1881-93;  and  a  delegate  to  the  ington,  D.  C,  Oct.  26,  1873. 



Saxton,    RuFUS,   military  officer;    born  1703,  by    legislative    command,    to    frame 

in  Greenfield,  Mass.,  Oct.  I'J,  1824;  gradu-  an  ecclesiastical  constitution.    That  synod 

ated  at  West  Point  in  1849;  led  a  survey-  agreed    that    the    confession    of    faith    as- 

ing  party  across  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  scnted  to  by  the  synod  in  Boston  in  1680 

1853,  and  afterwards  was  employed  in  the  be  recommended  to  the  General  Assembly, 

coast  survey.     He  was  with  Captain  Lyon  at  the  next  session,  for  their  public  testi- 

at   St.   Louis   when   the   Civil   War   broke  mony  to  it  as  the  faith  of  the  churches  of 

out,   and   was   prominent   in   breaking  up  the  Connecticut  colony ;  and  that  the  heads 

the   Confederate   Camp   Jackson    (see    St.  of   agreement   assented   to   by   the   united 

Louis  Arsenal  ) .    He  was  with  McClellan  ministers,     formerly    called     Presbyterian 

in  western  Virginia,  and  then  with  Gen-  and  Congregational,  be  observed  through- 

eral    Sherman    in    the    South    as   quarter-  out  the  colony.     It  also  agreed  on  articles 

master-general.      He  was  in  command   at  for    the    administration    of    church    dis- 

Harper's  Ferry  awhile,  and,  as  brigadier-  cipline.     This  was   called   the  "  Saybrook 

general    (April  15,  1862),  was  made  mili-  Platform."     In  October  the  legislature  of 

tary  governor   of  the  Department  of  the  Connecticut    passed    an    act   adopting   the 

South,  serving  in  that  capacity  from  1862  platform  then  constructed  as  the  ecclesias- 

to  1865.    In  1865  he  was  brevetted  major-  tical  constitution  of  the  colony.     This  sys- 

general   of   volunteers;    in    1882   was   pro-  tem,  so  closely  Presbyterian,  was  favored 

moted  colonel  and  assistant  quartermaster-  by  the  Latitudinarians  because  it  dimin- 

general.  United  States  army;  and  in  1888  ished    the    influence    of    unrestrained    and 

was  retired.  bigoted  church  members  and  gave  the  more 

Say-Brook,    Fort.      On   his   arrival   at  intelligent     members     greater    weight    in 

Boston  in  1635,  John  Winthrop,  son  of  the  church  affairs. 

Governor  of  Massachusetts,  bearing  a  com-  Sayles,  John,  author;  born  in  Vernon, 
mission  from  Lord  Say  and  Seal  and  Lord  N.  Y.,  March  9,  1825 ;  received  a  collegiate 
Brook  to  begin  a  settlement  on  the  Con-  education;  was  admitted  to  the  Texas 
necticut  River  and  to  be  governor  there,  bar  in  1846,  and  began  practice  in  Bren- 
sent  a  bark  of  30  tons,  with  twenty  men,  ham.  When  the  Civil  War  opened  he 
to  take  possession  of  the  mouth  of  the  joined  the  Confederate  army  as  brigadier- 
river  and  begin  a  fortification  there.  He  general  of  the  Texas  militia,  and  after- 
brought  with  him  from  England  men,  wards  served  on  the  staff  of  Gen.  John 
ordnance,  ammunition,  and  $10,000  for  the  B.  Magruder.  His  publications  include 
purpose.  A  few  days  after  the  arrival  of  Treatise  on  the  Civil  Jurisdiction  of  Jus- 
the  English  at  the  mouth  of  the  river,  a  tices  of  the  Peace  in  the  State  of  Texas; 
Dutch  vessel  sent  from  Manhattan  ap-  The  Probate  Laics  of  Texas;  Constitution 
peared,  with  the  design  of  taking  posses-  of  Texas,  with  Notes;  The  Masonic  Juris- 
sion  of  the  same  spot.  The  English,  having  prudence  of  Texas;  Revised  Civil  SlAtutes, 
two  pieces  of  cannon  already  mounted,  and  Laics  passed  hy  the  Legislature  of 
would  not  allow  the  Dutch  to  land.  The  Texas,  u>ith  Notes;  etc.  He  died  in 
fort  erected  by  the  English  was  called  Say-  Abilene,  Tex.,  May  22,  1897. 
Brook,  in  honor  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Sayre,  Lewis  Albert,  surgeon ;  born 
land.  in  Battle  Hill   (now  Madison),  N.  J.,  Feb. 

Saybrook,  Attack  on.    Early  in  April,  29,  1820;  graduated  at  Transylvania  Uni- 

1814,    a   number   of    British   barges,    sup-  versify,   Lexington,   Ky.,   in    1839,   and   at 

posed  to  contain  about  220  men,   entered  the   College   of   Physicians   and   Surgeons, 

the  Connecticut  River,  passed  up   7   or  8  New  York  City,  in  1842,  when  he  became 

miles,  and  landed  at  a  place  called  Petti-  prosecutor  to  the  Professor  of  Surgery  in 

paug  (a  part  of  Saybrook),  where  the  in-  that  college,  which  he  held  till  1852;  was 

vaders  destroyed  about  twenty-five  vessels,  surgeon  in  Bellevue  Hospital  in  1853-73; 

This  disaster  caused  the  governor  of  Con-  the  Charity  Hospital  on  Blackwell's  Island 

necticut    (Smith)    to  call  out  the  militia  in  1859-73;  and  consulting  surgeon  in  both 

for    the   defence   of   the    sea-coast    of    the  hospitals    from    1873    till    his    death.     He 

State.  was   the   first   American    surgeon    to    suc- 

Saybrook  Platform.     A  colonial  synod  cessfully  operate  for  the  hip  disease;    in- 

was    held    at    Saybrook,    Conn.,    Sept.    9,  vented  numerous  surgical  instruments  and 
vrn. — F                                                   81 


appliances ;  introduced  new  methods  of 
treatment  in  various  diseases,  and  was 
author  of  Practical  Manunl  of  the  Treat- 
ment of  Clubfoot;  Spinal  Disease  and 
Spinal  Curvature,  etc.  He  died  in  New 
York  City.  Sept.  21,  1900. 

Scammel,  Alexander,  military  officer; 
born  in  Mendon  (now  Milford),  Mass., 
March  24,  1747;  graduated  at  Harvard 
College  in  1769;  taught  school,  practised 
surveying,  and  became  proprietor  of  the 
town  of  Shapleigh,  Me.  In  1775  he  was 
studying  law  with  General  Sullivan,  when 
he  left  his  books  and  joined  the  army  at 
Cambridge  as  Sullivan's  brigade-major. 
He  was  with  him  in  the  battle  of  Long 
Island,  and  of  Trenton  and  Princeton;  was 
especially  distinguished  at  Saratoga ;  and 
from  1778  to  1781  was  adjutant-general  of 
the  army.  He  commanded  a  regiment  of 
light  infantry  in  the  siege  of  Yorktown, 
where  he  was  surprised,  and  surrendered, 
but  was  so  badly  wounded  that  he  died 
in  Williamsburg,  Va.,  Oct.  6,  1781. 

Schaeffer,  Charles  William,  theologi- 
an; born  in  Hagerstown,  ]\td.,May  5,1813; 
graduated  at  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania in  1832,  and  at  the  Gettysburg  Theo- 
logical Seminary  in  1835;  ordained  in  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  1836;  Professor  of 
Ecclesiastical  History  at  the  Lutheran 
Theological  Seminary  in  Philadelphia  in 
1864-96.  His  publications  include  Early 
History  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  Amer- 
ica, etc.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
March  15,  1806. 

Schaff,  PiiiLiP,  clergyman ;  born  in 
Coire,  Switzerland,  Jan.  1,  1819;  educated 
at  the  universities  of  Tubingen,  Halle, 
and  Berlin ;  was  ordained  in  the  German 
Reformed  Church ;  came  to  the  United 
States  in  1844;  Professor  in  German  Re- 
formed Seminary  in  Mercersburg,  Pa.,  in 
1844-63;  and  Professor  of  Sacred  Litera- 
ture in  Union  Theological  Seminary  in 
1870-93.  He  was  chairman  of  the  Amer- 
ican committee  organized  in  1871  to  co- 
operate with  the  English  committee  on 
Bible  revision.  When  this  great  work  was 
finished — to  which  he  had  applied  him- 
self with  indefatigable  zeal — he  went  to 
England  to  arrange  for  its  publication. 
He  was  the  author  of  Sketch  of  the  Po- 
litical, Social,  and  Religious  Character  of 
the  United  States;  Lectures  on  the  Civil 
War    and    the    Overthrow    of    Slavery    in 

A  merica;  Historical  Account  of  the  Work 
of  the  American  Committee  of  Revision 
of  the  English  Version,  etc.,  and  co-editor 
of  The  Schaff-Herzog  Encyclopcedia  of 
Religious  Knoicledge,  etc.  He  died  in 
New  Y^ork  City,  Oct.  20,  1893. 

Scharf,  John  Thomas,  author;  born  in 
Baltimore,  Md.,  May  1,  1843;  joined  the 
Confederate  army  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Civil  War,  and  served  in  a  number  of 
important  actions.  After  peace  was  con- 
cluded he  engaged  in  mercantile  business 
and  newspaper  work,  and  became  a  lawyer 
in  1874.  His  publications  include  Chroni- 
cles of  Baltimore ;  History  of  Maryland; 
History  of  Baltimore  City  and  County; 
History  of  Western  Maryland ;  History  of 
St.  Louis;  History  of  Philadelphia;  His- 
tory of  Westchester  County, l^.Y.;  History 
of  the  Confederate  States  Navy  from  the 
Laying  of  the  First  Keel  to  the  Sinking 
of  the  Last  Vessel;  and  History  of  lu^ 
State  of  Delaioare.    He  died  in  1898. 

Schell,  Augustus,  lawyer;  born  in 
Rhinebeck,  N.  Y.,  Aug.  1,  1812;  gradu- 
ated at  Union  College  in  1830;  admitted 
to  the  bar  and  gained  a  large  practice  in 
New  Y'ork  City.  During  the  Presidential 
campaigns  of  1860  and  1872  he  was  chair- 
man of  the  national  committee  of  the 
Democratic  party,  which  supported  John 
C.  Breckinridge  for  President  in  the  for- 
mer year,  and  Horace  Greeley  in  the  lat- 
ter; elected  mayor  of  New  York  in  1878. 
He  died  in  New  York  City,  March  27, 

Schem,  Alexander  Jacor,  author ;  born 
in  Wiedenbriick,  Prussia,  March  16,  1826; 
educated  in  Bonn  and  Tiibingen ;  came  to 
the  United  States  in  1851 ;  Professor  of 
Ancient  and  Modern  Languages  at  Dick- 
inson College  in  1854-60,  and  then  de- 
voted himself  to  literature;  was  superin- 
tendent of  the  New  York  City  public 
schools  in  1874-81.  He  was  the  author 
of  Schem's  Statistics  of  the  World;  Amer- 
ican Ecclesiastical  Almanac;  Cyclopcedia 
of  Education  (with  Henry  Kiddle),  etc. 
He  died  in  West  Hoboken,"  N.  J.,  May  21, 

Schenck,  James  Findlay,  naval  offi- 
cer; born  in  Franklin,  O.,  June  11,  1807; 
entered  the  navy  in  1825;  served  on  the 
Pacific  coast  with  Stockton  during  the 
Mexican  War;  and  commanded  the  East 
India  Squadron  in  1860-61.   He  was  after- 



wards  engaged  in  the  blockading  service, 
and  was  in  command  of  a  division  in  Por- 
ter's fleet  in  the  attacks  on  Fort  Fisher. 
He  was  promoted  rear-admiral  in  1868, 
and  retired  in  1869.  He  died  in  Dayton, 
O.,  Dec.  21,  1882. 

Schenck,  Robert  Gumming,  diploma- 
tist; born  in  Franklin,  O.,  Oct.  4,  1809; 
brother  of  Admiral  Schenck;  graduated  at 
Miami  University  in  1827;  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1831,  and  settled  in  Dayton.  In 
1840  he  was  in  the  Ohio  legislature;  and 
from  1843  to  1851  in  Congress,  when  he 
went  as  American  minister  to  Brazil, 
where  he  took  part  in  the  negotiation  of 
several  treaties  in  South  America.  In 
1861  he  entered  the  field  as  brigadier-gen- 
eral   of    volunteers    (May    17),    and    had 

right  arm  shattered  by  a  ball.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1862,  he  was  promoted  to  major-gen- 
eral, and  a  little  later  was  in  command  at 
Baltimore.  From  1863  to  1871  he  was 
in  Congress,  and  in  the  latter  year  was  ap- 
pointed minister  to  England,  where  he 
served  till  1876,  when  he  resigned.  He 
died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  March  23, 

Schenectady,  a  city  and  county  seat  of 
Schenectady  county,  N.  Y. ;  one  of  the  old- 
est cities  in  the  State;  settled  by  Arent 
Van  Curler  in  1661.  Count  Frontenae  ar- 
rived in  Canada  as  governor  by  reap- 
pointment in  October,  1689.  He  brought 
with  him  troops  and  supplies  and  a 
plan  for  the  invasion  and  occupation 
of  New  York.     Invasions  by  the  Iroquois 


his  first  encounter  with  the  insurgents 
near  Vienna,  Va.  He  was  engaged  in  the 
battle  of  Bull  Run;  then  served  in  west- 
ern Virginia;  and, after  the  battle  at  Cross 
Keys,  Fremont  placed  him  in  command  of 
a  division.  In  the  battle  of  Groveton,  or 
the  second  battle  of  Bull  Run,  he  had  his 

had  reduced  Canada  to  great  distress,  and 
his  arrival  was  timely  relief.  Frontenae 
was  about  seventy  years  of  age,  but  pos- 
sessed the  vigor  and  buoyancy  of  a  young 
man.  He  set  to  work  with  energy  to 
carry  the  war  into  the  British  colonies  by 
land   and   sea.     His  first  organized  war- 



party  was  composed  chiefly  of  Mohawks 
converted  by  the  Jesuit  missionaries,  who 
were  settled  near  Montreal.  They  were 
acquainted  with  the  settlements  about  Al- 
bany. These  Mohawks,  with  a  number  of 
Frenchmen,  were  sent  to  attack  these  set- 
tlements. They  traversed  the  wooded 
•wilderness  southward  among  deep  snows, 
and,  after  a  march  of  twenty  days,  ap- 
proached Schenectady,  then  a  Dutch  vil- 
lage in  the  Mohawk  Valley,  and  the  out- 
post of  the  settlements  at  Albany.  There 
were  about  forty  houses  enclosed  in  a 
palisade,  but,  imaware  of  danger,  the  gates 
were  left  open,  and  the  people  were  sleep- 
ing soundly,  when,  on  the  night  of  Feb. 
8,  1690,  the  invaders  entered  the  village 
silently,  separated  into  several  bands. 
The  horrid  signal  of  the  war-whoop  was 
given,  and  the  attack  began.  Doors  were 
broken  open,  indiscriminate  slaughter 
ensued,  and  the  houses  were  set  on  fire. 
Sixty  men,  women,  and  children  were 
slain,  twenty-seven  were  taken  prisoners, 
and  the  remainder  fled,  half  -  naked, 
through  a  driving  snow-storm,  to  Albany, 
16  miles  distant.  The  cold  was  so  in- 
tense that  many  lost  their  limbs  by  frost. 
This  raid  created  intense  alarm. 

Scherzer,  Karl  von,  explorer;  born 
in  Vienna,  Austria,  May  1,  1821 ;  partici- 
pated in  the  discussion  of  social  reforms 
during  the  revolution ;  exiled  to  Italy  in 
1850;  came  to  the  United  States  in  1852, 
and  explored  large  parts  of  North  Amer- 
ica ;  sailed  around  the  world  in  the  frig- 
ate Novara  in  1857-59;  and  became  Aus- 
trian consul-general  in  Genoa  in  1884. 
He  was  the  author  of  Travels  in  North 
America;  Costa  Rica;  The  Novara  Ex- 
pedition; etc.  He  died  in  Goritz,  Austria, 
Fob.  20.  1003. 

Schimmelin,  Alkxandeb  Oliver,  his- 
torian; born  in  Flanders  about  1645; 
went  to  the  West  Indies  in  1666;  was  a 
buccaneer  in  1669-74;  returned  to  Eu- 
rope. He  was  the  author  of  History  of  the 
Adventures  of  the  Freebooters,  lohich  are 
Remarkable  in  the  Indies.  He  died  in 
France  in  1707. 

Schlaginweit,  PlObert,  traveller;  born 
in  Munich,  Bavaria,  Oct.  27,  1833;  a 
brother  of  Hermanx  and  Adolf,  noted  for 
their  geological  exploration  of  India  in 
1854-57,  in  which  he  participated.  He 
travelled   extensively   in   North   America; 

lectured  in  English  and  German  in  the 
large  cities  of  the  United  States;  and 
published  'The  Pacific  Railroad  in  North 
America;  California;  and  The  Mormons. 
He  died  in  Giessen,  Hesse-Darmstadt, 
June  6,  1885, 

Schlatter,  LIichael,  clergyman;  born 
in  St.  Gall,  Switzerland,  July  14,  1716; 
educated  at  the  University  of  Helmstedt; 
ordained  in  the  German  Reformed  Church ; 
settled  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1746,  and 
became  pastor  of  the  united  churches  of 
Philadelphia  and  Germantown  in  1747. 
He  returned  to  Europe  in  1751,  and 
appealed  for  help  in  Holland  and 
England  for  free  schools  among  the  Ger- 
mans in  America.  This  appeal  resulted 
in  a  fund  of  over  £20,000.  Schlatter  re- 
tired from  the  active  pastorate  in  1755, 
and  devoted  himself  to  founding  schools. 
He  served  in  the  Royal  American  army 
as  chaplain  in  1757-59.  When  the  Revo- 
lutionary War  began  he  sympathized  with 
the  patriots;  was  imprisoned  by  the  Brit- 
ish in  September,  1777,  and  had  his  house 
sacked,  because  he  refused  to  obey  their 
orders.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in 
November,  1790. 

Schley,  Winfield  Scott,  naval  officer; 
born  in  Frederick  county,  Md.,  Oct.  9, 
1839;  graduated  at  the  United  States 
Naval  Academy  in  1860;  was  with  the 
West  Gulf  blockading  squadron  in  1861; 
took  part  in  the  engagements  which 
led  to  the  surrender  of  Port  Hudson, 
La.,  in  1863;  was  promoted  lieuten- 
ant-commander in  1866,  and  commander 
in  1874.  He  was  placed  in  command 
of  the  Arctic  relief  expedition  in  1884, 
and  rescued  Lieutenant  Greely  and  six 
survivors  at  Cape  Sabine.  He  was  pro- 
moted captain  in  1888,  and  in  1891, 
when  a  number  of  American  sailors  were 
stoned  by  a  mob  in  Valparaiso,  Chile,  he 
went  to  that  port  in  command  of  the 
Baltimore  and  settled  the  trouble.  In 
August,  1801,  the  Baltimore,  still  under 
his  command,  was  detailed  to  convey  the 
remains  of  John  Ericsson  (q.  v.)  to 
Sweden,  in  recognition  of  which  service 
he  received  a  gold  medal  from  the  King 
of  Sweden.  He  was  promoted  commodore  in 
February,  1898,  and  when  the  American- 
Spanish  War  began  was  given  command 
of  the  newly  organized  Flying  Squadron 
for   service  off  the  coasts  of  the  United 




was  in  immediate  command  of  the  Amer- 
ican fleet,  as  Sampson,  the  commander-in- 

States  and  Cuba.  This  squadron  was  inj^ton  on  Sept.  12,  and  on  Doc.  13,  1901. 
united  with  the  North  Atlantic  Squadron  reported  its  proceedings  and  the  testi- 
undcr  Rear-Admiral  Sampson  on  Juno  29.  mony  taken,  Avith  a  full  and  detailed  stato- 
During  the  battle  which  followed  the  at-  ment  of  all  the  pertinent  facts  which  it 
tempt  of  Admiral  Cervera  to  escape,  Schley   deemed    to   be    established,    together   with 

its  opinion  and  recommendation  in  the 
premises.  The  court  found  that  Commo- 
dore Schley  failed  to  proceed  to  Santiago 
with  due  despatch,  that  the  squadron 
should  not  have  been  delayed  by  the  Eagle, 
that  he  should  not  have  turned  westward, 
that  he  should  have  promptly  obeyed  the 
Navy  Department's  order  of  May  25th, 
that  he  did  not  do  his  utmost  to  capture 
the  Colon,  that  the  turn  of  the  Brooklyn 
caused  the  Texas  to  stop,  that  he  did  in- 
justice to  Lt.-Com.  Hodgson,  that  his  con- 
duct in  the  Santiago  campaign  was  char- 
acterized by  vacillation,  dilatoriness,  and 
lack  of  enterprise,  and  that  his  coal  re- 
ports Avere  inaccurate  and  misleading.  The 
court  recommended  that  no  further  pro- 
ceedings be  had  in  view  of  the  length  of 
time  which  had  elapsed. 

Schmauk,  Theodore  Emmanuel,  edi- 
tor; born  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  in  18G0; 
chief,  was  absent  on  a  run  to  Siboney.  He  became  editor  of  The  Lutheran  in  1889. 
was  promoted  rear-admiral  in  August,  He  is  the  author  of  History  of  Old  Sa- 
1898;  and  was  retired  Oct.  9,  1901.  On  lem  and  Lebanon;  The  Nineteenth  Cen- 
July  22,  1901,  he  applied  for  a  court  of  tury:  Its  History,  Men,  and  Movements; 
inquiry  into  his  conduct  during  the  San-    etc. 

tiago  battle,  because  of  criticisms  as  to  the  Schmucker,  Samuel  Mosheim,  author; 
credit  for  the  victory.  The  majority  of  born  in  New  Market,  Va.,  Jan.  12,  1823; 
the  court  found  adversely  to  him,  but  graduated  at  Washington  College,  Pa.,  in 
Admiral  Dewey  gave  him  full  credit  for  1840;  became  a  Lutheran  clergyman  and 
the  victory.  He  published  The  Fight  off  held  pastorates  till  1848;  was  admitted 
Santiago  and  Forty-five  Years  Under  the  to  the  bar  in  1850,  but  applied  himself 
Flag,  both  in  1904.  See  Santl4.go,  Naval  to  literary  work.  He  was  author  of  Elec- 
Battle   of.  tion  of  Judges   by   the  People;   Constifu- 

Thc  Court  of  Inquiry. — The  controversy  tionality  of  the  Maine  Liquor  Law;  Life 
between  the  friends  of  Rear-Admirala  of  John  C.  Fremont;  Life  of  Alexander 
Sampson  and  Schley,  noted  in  the  sketch  Hamilton;  History  of  the  Mormons;  Life 
of  the  former,  led  to  criticisms  on  the  of  Thomas  Jefferson;  Arctic  Explorations 
conduct  of  the  latter  during  the  Santiago  and  Discoveries ;  Life  of  Dr.  Elisha  Kent 
fight,  which  were  considered  by  his  friends  Kane;  Life  of  Daniel  Webster;  Life  of 
exceedingly  unjust.  Personally  he  took  no  Henry  Clay ;  Life  of  Washington;  Blue 
notice  of  the  reflections  upon  his  profes-  Jjairs  of  Connecticut ;  A  History  of  the 
sional  conduct,  declaring  that  the  history  Civil  War;  etc.  He  died  in  Philadelphia, 
had  been  made,  and  the  proofs  of  it  were    Pa.,  May  12,  1863. 

in  the  public  documents,  until  July  22,  Schmucker,  Samuel  Simon,  theologian ; 
1901,  when  he  requested  a  court  of  inquiry  born  in  Hagerstown.  Md..  Feb.  28,  1799: 
into  his  conduct.  graduated    at    the    Princeton    Theological 

His  request  was  at  once  granted,  and  a  Seminary  in  1820;  chairman  of  the  fac- 
court  was  appointed,  comprised  of  Admiral  ulty  of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Get- 
Dewey,  Rear- Admirals  Benham  and  Ram-  tysburg.  Pa.,  in  1826-64:  was  largely  in- 
say.    The  court  began  its  inquiry  in  Wash-    strumental   in   founding  the  ecclesiastical 



connection  between  the  Lutheran  churches 
in  the  United  States  and  Europe.  His  pub- 
lications include  Fraternal  Appeal  to  the 
American  Churches  on  Christian  Union; 
The  American  Lutheran  Church,  Histori- 
cally,  Doctrinallif,  and  Practically  Deline- 
ated; American  Luthcranism  Vindicated, 
etc.  He  died  in  Gettysburg,  Pa.,  July  26, 

Schofield,  John  McAllister,  military 
oflBcer;  born  in  Chautauqua  county,  N.  Y., 
Sept.  29,  1831;  graduated  at  West  Point 
in  1S53,  where  he  was  instructor  in  nat- 
ural philosophy  for  five  years.  Under 
leave  of  absence  he  was  filling  a  like  post 
in  the  Washington  University,  Mo.,  when 
the  Civil  War  broke  out.  He  was  chief 
of  Lyon's  staff  at  Wilson's  Creek,  and  in 
November,  1861,  was  made  brigadier-gen- 
eral of  volunteers,  commanding  the  Mis- 
souri militia.  In  April,  1862,  he  command- 
ed the  •District  of  Missouri,  and  in  October 
the  Array  of  the  Frontier,  with  which  he 
drove  the  organized  Confederate  forces 
into  Arkansas.  In  November,  1862,  he  was 
made  major-general  of  volunteers.  In  the 
Atlanta  campaign,  in  1864,  he  was  con- 
spicuous; also  in  the  campaign  against 
Hood  in  Tennessee  until  the  battle  of 
Nashville,  when  he  was  transferred  to 
North  Carolina,  taking  possession  of  Wil- 
mington, and  was  active  until  the  sur- 
render of  Johnston.  He  was  breVetted  ma- 
jor-general. United  States  army,  in  March, 
186.5;  was  Secretary  of  War  ad  interim  on 
the  resignation  of  General  Grant  in  1808. 
He  was  promoted  lieutenant-general  in 
February,  1895,  and  retired  in  September 
following.  He  published  Forty-six  Years 
in  the  Army.  He  died  in  St.  Augustine, 
Florida,  March  4,   1906. 

Schoolcraft,  Henry  Rowe,  ethnologist; 
hotn  in  Watervliet,  N.  Y.,  March  28,  1793. 
His  ancestor  who  first  settled  in  America 
was  a  school-teacher  named  Calcraft,  and 
he  was  popularly  named  Schoolcraft. 
Henry  studied  chemistry  and  mineralogy 
in  Union  College  in  1807-8.  In  1817-18 
he  took  a  scientific  tour  in  the  West,  and 
made  a  fine  mineralogical  and  geological 
collection,  publishing,  in  1819,  A  View  of 
the  Lead  Mines  of  Missouri,  which  was  en- 
larged and  published  (1853)  under  the 
title  of  Scenes  and  Adventures  in  the  Hemi- 
Alpine  Regions  of  the  Ozark  Mountains  of 
Missouri  and  Arkansas.     In  1820  he  was 

geologist  of  an  exploring  expedition  under 
General  Cass  to  the  Lake  Superior  copper 
region.  He  was  also  on  a  commission  to 
treat  with  the  Indians  at  Chicago.  In 
1828  he  was  made  Indian  agent  at  the 
Falls  of  St.  Mary,  and  afterwards  at 
Mackinaw,  where  he  married  a  grand- 
daughter of  an  Indian  chief.  He  founded 
the  Historical  Society  of  Michigan  in 
1828;  the  Algic  Society,  at  Detroit,  in 
1831,  before  which  he  delivered  two  lect- 
ures on  the  grammatical  construction  of 
the  Indian  languages.  These,  translated 
into  French  by  Duponceau  and  presented 
to  the  French  Institute,  procured  for 
Schoolcraft  a  gold  medal  from  that  insti- 
tution. He  published  several  works  on 
Indian  literature,  as  well  as  fiction,  and 
in  1832  led  a  second  government  expedi- 
tion to  discover  the  real  chief  source  of 
the  Mississippi  River,  which  was  found  to 
be  Lake  Itasca.  In  a  treaty  with  the  Ind- 
ians on  the  Upper  Lakes  in  1836  he  pro- 
cured the  cession  of  16,000,000  acres  of 
land  to  the  United  States,  and  he  was  ap- 
pointed chief  disbursing  agent  for  the 
Northern  Department.  After  visiting  Eu- 
rope he  was  employed  by  the  State  of  New 
York  in  making  a  census  and  collecting 
statistics  of  the  Six  Nations  (q.  v.),  and 
in  1847  he  was  employed  by  authority  of 
Congress  in  the  preparation  of  a  work 
entitled  Historical  and  Statistical  In- 
formation Respecting  the  History,  Con- 
dition, and  Prospects  of  the  Indian  Tribes 
of  the  United  States.  He  wrote  Personal 
Memoirs  of  a  Residence  of  Thirty  Years 
with  the  Indian  Tribes  on  the  American 
Frontiers  (1863),  and  several  other  works 
on  the  red  race.  The  Indian  Fairy  Book, 
compiled  from  his  manuscripts,  was  pub- 
lished in  1868.  He  died  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  Dec.  10,  1864. 

Schools.  See  Education  ;  Technology  ; 
Manual  Training  Schools;  Colleges, 

Schooner  Pearl,  The.  In  1848  Captain 
Drayton  and  his  mate  Sayles,  attempt- 
ed to  carry  away  to  freedom,  from  the 
vicinity  of  Washington,  D.  C,  seventy- 
seven  fugitive  slaves  concealed  in  this 
schooner;  as  the  schooner  neared  the 
mouth  of  the  Potomac  River,  she  was  over- 
taken and  obliged  to  return.  These 
fugitive  slaves,  men,  women,  and  children, 
were  immediately  sold  to  the  cotton  plant- 



ers  of  the  Gulf  States;  while  Drayton  and    with  various  papers;  member  of  the  Mas- 
Sayles,   with   difficulty   saved   from   death    sachusetts    House    of    Representatives    for 

by  mob- violence,  were  brought  to  trial  in 
Washington.  The  aggregate  bail  required 
amounted  to  $228,000.  They  were  convict- 
ed and  in  prison  until  1852,  when,  through 
the  influence  and  efforts  of  Charles  Sum- 
ner, President  Fillmore  granted  them  an 
unconditional  pardon;   but,  notwithstand- 

four  terms  and  of  the  Senate  one  term ; 
adjutant-general  of  the  State  in  1860-66. 
He  published  a  History  of  Massachusetts 
in  the  Civil  War  (2  volumes).  He  died 
in  West  Roxbury,  Mass.,  Oct.  24,  1872. 

Schurman,     Jacob     Gould,     educator; 
born  in  Freetown,  Prince  Edward  Island, 

ing  this,  they  were  immediately  hurried  May  22,  18-54;  graduated  at  the  University 
out  of  the  city  and  sent  to  the  North  to  of  London  in  1877,  and  took  a  post-grad- 
save  them  from  violence  and  rearrest.  uate    course    at    the    University    of    Edin- 

Schoonmaker,    Martinus,    clergyman ;  burgh ;    was    Professor    of    Philosophy    at 

born  in  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in  1737;  licensed  Cornell   University   in    1886-92;    and   was 

to  preach  in  1765;  held  several  pastorates  then    elected   its   president.      In   January, 

till    1784,    when    he    took    charge    of    the  1899,   President  McKinley   appointed  him 

six   congregations   in   Kings   county;    was  chairman  of  the  United  States  Philippine 

among   the    last    ministers    who    preached  commission,   and  he  was  granted   a   leave 

in  Dutch.     During  the  Revolutionary  War  of  absence  from  Cornell.    He  is  the  author 

he  was  an  active  and  influential  Whig.   He  of  Ethics  of  Evolution ;  The  Ethical  Im- 

died  in  Flatbush,  N.  Y.,  in  1824.  port    of   Darwinism;   Belief   in    God,    etc. 

Schott,    Charles    Anthony,    civil    en-  See  Philippine  Islands. 
gineer;  born  in  Mannheim,  Germany,  Aug.        Schurz,    Carl,    military    officer;    born 

7,    1826;    graduated    at    the    Polytechnic  near   Cologne,   Germany,   March   2,    1829; 

School  in  Carlsruhe  in  1847;  came  to  the  studied    at    the    Gymnasium    at    Cologne 

United  States  in  1848,  and  secured  a  place  and    at    the    University    of    Bonn;    with 

on  the  coast  survey;   was  made  assistant  other  students  engaged  in  the  revolution- 

in  1856;  elected  a  member  of  the  Nation-  ary  movements  in   1848;   joined  Gottfried 

al  Academy  of  Science  in  1872.     His  pub-  Kinkel     in     publishing     a     liberal     news- 

lications  include  Magnetical  Observations  paper;    and,   after   the   failure   of   an   at- 

in    the  Arctic   Seas;    Tables   and   Results  tempt    at    insurrection    at    Bonn     (1849) 

of  the  Precipitation  in  Rain  and  Snoio  in  both  were  compelled  to  lly.     Schurz  made 

the  United  States,  and  at  Some  Stations  his   way   to    Switzerland.      On   the   night 

in  Adjacent  Parts  of  North  America,  and 
in  Central  and  South  America;  Tables, 
Distribution,  and  Variations  of  the  Atmos- 
pheric Temperature  in  the  United  States 
and  Some  Adjacent  Parts  of  America;  etc. 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.C.,  July  31,  1901. 
Schouler,  James,  historian;  born  in 
Arlington,  Mass.,  March  20,  1839;  grad- 
uated at  Harvard  College  in  1859,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1862;  became 
professor  in  the  law  department  of  the 
Boston  University,  and  later  was  made  a 
lecturer  in  Johns  Hopkins  University.  He 
is  the  author  of  The  Laiv  of  Domestic  Rela- 
tions; The  Law  of  Personal  Property;  Lato 
of  Executors  and  Administrators ;  Life  of 

of  Nov.  6,  1850,  he  rescued  Kinkel  from 
the  fortress  of  Spandau,  escaped  to  the 
sea,  and  took  passage  in  a  schooner  for 
Leith.  Thence  Schurz  went  to  Paris; 
thence  to  London,  in  1851,  where  he  was 
a  teacher  until  the  summer  of  1852,  when 
he  came  to  the  United  States,  landing  at 
Philadelphia.  There  he  remained  three 
years,  and  then  settled  at  Madison,  Wis. 
In  the  Presidential  campaign  of  1856  he 
became  a  noted  German  orator,  and  in 
1858  began  to  make  public  speeches  in 
English.  He  soon  afterwards  became  a 
1-awyer  at  Milwaukee,  and,  in  the  winter 
of  1859-60  was  recognized  as  a  popular 
lecturer.     He  took  a  leading  part  in  the 

Thomas  Jefferson;  Historical  Briefs;  His-    Republican  National   Convention  in   1860, 

tory  of  the  United  States  (6  volumes] 

Schouler,  William,  journalist;  born  in 
Kilbarchan,  Scotland,  Dec.  31,  1814;  was 
brought  to  the  United  States  in  1815;  re- 
ceived a  common  school  education;  en- 
gaged   in   journalism   and   was   connected 


when  Abraham  Lincoln  was  nominated  for 
President,  and  made  effective  speeches 
during  the  campaign.  After  his  inaugura- 
tion Mr.  Lincoln  appointed  him  minister 
to  Spain,  but  he  returned  to  the  United 
States  in  December,  resigned  the  office  ol 


the  Pvesidcncy;  in  Janu- 
ary, 1869,  he  was  chosen 
United  States  Senator 
from  INIissouri ;  opposed 
some  of  the  leading  meas- 
ures of  President  Grant's 
administration;  and  took 
a  prominent  part  in  the 
organization  of  the  Lib- 
eral Piepublican  party 
which  nominated  Greeley 
in  1872.  He  was  Secretary 
of  the  Interior  in  1877-81 ; 
editor  of  the  New  York 
Evening  Post  in  1881-84; 
and  president  of  the  Na- 
tional Civil  Service  Re- 
form League  in  1892-1901. 
Schussele,  Christian, 
artist;  born  in  Gueb- 
villers,  Alsace,  April  16, 
1824;  came  to  the  United 
States  about  1848;  was 
Professor  of  Drawing  and 
Painting  in  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Academy  in  1868-79. 
His  principal  works  include 
Franklin  before  the  Lords 
in  Council;  Men  of  Prog- 
ress, Zeisberger  Preaching 
to  the  Indians;  Washing- 
ton at  Valley  Forge;  and 
McClellan  at  Antietam. 
He  died  in  Merchantville, 
N.  J.,  Aug.  20,  1879. 
Schuyler,  Eugene,  diplomatist ;  born  in 
Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  26,  1840;  graduated 
at  Yale  College  in  1859,  and  at  the  Colum- 
bia Law  School  in  1863;  engaged  in  prac- 
tice in  1863-66;  was  United  States  con- 
sul at  Moscow  in  1866-69;  at  Eeval  in 
1869-70;  secretary  of  the  United  States 
legation  at  St.  Petersburg  in  1870-76;  at 
Constantinople  in  1876-78;  charge  d'af- 
war  General  Schurz  resumed  the  practice  f aires  at  Bucharest  in  1880-82;  minister 
of  law  in  Washington,  and  was  for  some  to  Greece,  Servia,  and  Rumania  in  1882- 
time  the  Washington  correspondent  of  the  84;  and  consul-general  at  Cairo  from  1889 
New  York  Tribune.  In  1806  he  was  sent  till  his  death.  He  contributed  to  magazines 
to  the  South  as  a  commissioner  to  examine  and  wrote  American  Diplomacy.  He  died 
and  report  on  the  condition  of  the  South-  in  Cairo,  Egypt,  July  18,  189'*. 
orn  States,  especially  upon  the  condition  Schuyler,  George  Lee,  sportsman;  born 
of  the  freedmcn's  bureau.  In  the  same  in  Rhinebeck,  N.  Y.,  June  9,  1811;  became 
year  he  founded  the  Detroit  Post,  and  in  deeply  interested  in  yachting.  In  1882  the 
1867  he  became  editor  of  a  German  paper  New  York  Yacht  Club  returned  the  Amer- 
published  in  St.  Louis.  He  lalwrcd  ear-  tea's  cup  to  him,  p>s  its  only  surviving 
nestly  for  the  election  of  General  Grant  to    donor;    but    he    immediately    donated    it 



minister,  became  a  brigadier-general  of 
volunteers  in  April,  1862,  and  major- 
general  in  March,  1863.  He  was  in  com- 
mand of  a  division  in  the  battle  of  Grove- 
ton,  or  second  battle  of  Bull  Run,  and  at 
Chancellorsville,  and  was  temporarily  in 
command  of  the  11th  Corps  at  the  battle 
of  Gettysburg,  afterwards  taking  part 
in  the  battle  of  Chattanooga.     After  the 


anew  to  the  club  as  a  challenge-cup.  In 
1887  he  was  referee  in  the  race  between  the 
Volunteer  and  Thistle.  He  published  Cor- 
respondence and  Remarks  upon  Bancroft's 
History  of  the  Northern  Campaign  in  1777  ; 
and  The  Character  of  Major-General  Philip 
Schuyler.  He  died  on  the  yacht  Electra 
off  New  London,  Conn.,  July  31,  1890. 

Schuyler,  George  Washington,  fin- 
anciei  ;  born  in  Stillwater,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  2, 
1810;  graduated  at  the  University  of  the 
City  of  New  York  in  1837;  removed  to 
Utica;  treasurer  of  New  York  State  in 
1863-65;  superintendent  of  the  New  York 
banking  department  in  1866-70;  auditor 
of  the  canal  department  in  1876-80;  was 
the  first  to  advocate  the  abolition  of  tolls  on 
canals,  thus  making  them  free  waterways. 
He  was  the  author  of  Colonial  New  York; 
Philip  Schuyler  and  His  Family  (2  vol- 
umes). He  died  in  Utica,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  1,  1888. 

Schuyler,  Peter,  military  officer;  born 
in  New  Jersey  in  1710.  He  early  became 
interested  in  military 'affairs;  was  com- 
missioned colonel  in  1746  and  commanded 
a  regiment  which  became  known  as  the 
"  Jersey  Blues " ;  was  assigned  to  Fort 
Clinton  at  Saratoga  and  left  it  only  when 
compelled  to  do  so  by  lack  of  provisions. 
In  1754  when  the  war  with  France  began 
a  second  time  he  was  stationed  at  Oswego 
with  his  regiment,  one-half  of  which,  in- 
cluding himself,  was  later  captured.  Sub- 
sequently he  served  with  his  regiment  in 
the  conquest  of  Canada.  He  died  in 
Newark,  N.  J.,  March  7,  1762. 

Schuyler,  Peter,  military  officer;  born 
in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  17,  1657;  second 
son  of  Philip  Pietersen  Van  Schuyler,  the 
first  of  the  name  in  America;  entered 
public  life  when  quite  young,  and  enjoyed 
the  confidence  of  his  fellow-citizens.  When, 
in  1686,  Albany  was  incorporated  a  city, 
young  Schuyler  and  Robert  Livingston 
went  to  New  York  for  the  charter,  and 
Schuyler  was  appointed  the  first  mayor 
under  it,  which  office  he  held  eight  years. 
In  1688  he  was  appointed  major  of  the 
militia,  and  towards  the  close  of  the  fol- 
lowing year  he  was  put  in  command  of 
the  fort  at  Albany.  It  was  at  about  that 
time  that  Milborne  attempted  to  take 
possession  of  the  fort.  He  was  successful- 
ly resisted  by  Schuyler  and  some  Mohawk 
Indians.  In  1691  Schuyler  led  an  expe- 
dition that  penetrated  to  La  Prairie,  near 

Montreal.  After  several  skirmishes,  in 
which  he  lost  nineteen  white  men  and  Ind- 
ians, and  killed  about  200  Frenchmen  and 
Indians,  he  returned  to  Albany.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  New  York  Assembly  from 
1701  until  1713.  In  1710  he  went  to  Eng- 
land with  five  chiefs  of  the  Five  Nations, 
at  his  own  expense,  for  the  purpose  of  im- 
pressing them  with  the  greatness  of  the 
English  nation,  and  so  detaching  them 
from  the  French;  and  to  arouse  the  gov- 
ernment to  the  necessity  of  assisting  the 
Americans  in  expelling  the  French  from 
Canada,  then  becoming  more  hostile  and 
powerful  every  day.  After  the  accession 
of  George  I.  (1714)  he  became  a  member 
of  the  King's  council  in  New  York.  At 
one  time  he  was  its  president,  and  in 
1719  was  acting  governor.      He  also  was 


commissioner  of  Indian  affairs,  and  ac- 
quired almost  unbounded  influence  over 
the  Five  Nations.  He  died  in  Albany, 
N.  Y.,  Feb.  19,  1724. 

Schuyler,  Philip  (John),  military  of- 
ficer; born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  22. 
1733;  inherited  the  whole  of  his  father's 
estate,  which  he  divided  with  his  brothers 


and  sisters,  and  also  inherited  from  Col.  to  carry  the  colonel  and  his  little  band  of 
Philip  Schuyler  the  Saratoga  estate,  which  followers.  The  wounded  Canadian  begged 
he  afterwards  occupied.  He  was  a  captain  to  be  taken  in,  but  was  refused.  "  Then 
of  provincial  troops  at  Fort  Edward  and  throw  me  into  the  river,"  he  cried,  "  and 
Lake   George   in   1755,   became  a   commis-    not  leave  me  here  to  perish  with  hunger 

and  thirst."  The  heart  of  Schuyler  was 
touched  by  the  poor  fellow's  appeals,  and, 
handing  his  weapons  and  coat  to  a  com- 
panion-in-arms, he  bore  the  wounded  man 
to  the  water,  swam  with  him  across  the 
deep  channel,  and  placed  him  in  the  hands 
of  a  surgeon.  The  soldier  survived;  and 
nineteen  years  afterwards,  when  Schuyler, 
at  the  head  of  the  Northern  Army  of  the 
Eevolution,  sent  a  proclamation  in  the 
French  language  into  Canada,  that  soldier, 
living  near  Chambly,  enlisted  under  the 
banner  of  Ethan  Allen,  that  he  might  see 
and  thank  the  preserver  of  his  life.  He 
went  to  Schuyler's  tent,  on  the  Isle  aux 
Noix,  and  kissed  the  general's  hand  in 
token  of  his  gratitude. 

An  influential  member  of  the  New  York 
Assembly,  Schuyler  was  chiefly  instru- 
mental in  stimulating  early  resistance  to 
British  encroachments  on  the  rights  of 
the  colonists.  In  the  Continental  Con- 
gress, in  1775,  he,  with  Washington,  drew 
up  the  regulations  for  the  army,  and  he 
was  appointed  one  of  the  first  major-gen- 
erals. Assigned  to  the  command  of  the 
sary  in  the  army  the  same  year,  and  held  Northern  Army,  he  was  charged  with 
the  ofiice  until  1763.  In  1756  Col.  John  planning  and  executing  an  invasion  of 
Bradstreet  was  sent  by  Shirley  to  pro-  Canada.  An  attack  of  govit  prevented  his 
vision  the  garrison  at  Oswego.  With  200  conducting  the  campaign  in  person  in  the 
provincial  troops  and  forty  companies  of  field,  and  after  going  with  the  army  to 
boatmen,  he  crossed  the  country  from  Al-  the  foot  of  Lake  Champlain,  he  relin- 
bany,  by  way  of  the  Mohawk  River,  Wood  quished  the  command  to  Gen.  Richard 
Creek,  Oneida  Lake,  and  the  Oswego  Montgomery  (q.  v.),  his  lieutenant,  and 
River,  and  placed  in  the  fort  provision  returned  to  Albany.*  He,  however,  ad- 
for  5,000  troops  for  six  months.  He  was  dressed  the  inhabitants  of  Canada  in  a  cii'- 
accompanied  by  Schuyler,  as  chief  com-  cular  letter,  written  in  French,  informing 
missary.  His  descent  of  the  Oswego  River  them  that  "  the  only  views  of  Congress 
had  been  observed  by  the  French  scouts,  were  to  restore  to  them  their  rights,  which 
and  when  he  had  ascended  that  stream  every  subject  of  the  British  Empire,  of 
about  9  miles  he  was  attacked  by  a  strong  whatever  religious  sentiments  he  may  be, 
party  of  French,  Canadians,  and  Indians,  is  entitled  to;  and  that,  in  the  execution 
These  were  driven  from  an  island  in  the  of  these  trusts,  he  had  received  the  most 
river,  and  there  Bradstreet  made  a  defen-  positive  orders  to  cherish  every  Canadian 
sive  stand.  One  of  the  Canadians,  too  and  every  friend  to  the  cause  of  liberty, 
severely  wounded  to  fly  with  his  compan-  and  sacredly  to  guard  their  property."  The 
ions,  remained,  and  a  boatman  was  about  wise  purposes  of  this  circular  were  frus- 
to  despatch  him,  when  Schuyler  saved  his  trated  by  the  bigotry  of  General  Wooster, 
life.  When,  soon  afterwards,  Bradstreet  who  saw  no  good  in  Roman  Catholics,  and 
abandoned  the  island,  only  one  bateau  the  dishonesty  of  Colonel  Arnold,  who 
was   left.     It   was   scarcely  large   enough    cheated  them. 




On  his  recovery  from  his  attack  of  gout 
he  entered  with  zeal  upon  his  various 
duties  as  commander-in-chief  of  his  de- 
partment and  principal  Indian  commis- 
sioner. Annoyed  by  the  insubordination 
and  loose  discipline  of  some  of  his  troops 
■ — with  interference  with  his  authority  and 
wicked  slanders  of  men  intriguing  to  put 
General  Gates  in  his  place — he  offered  his 
resignation ;  but  the  Congress,  knowing  his 
great  worth,  begged  him  to  remain.  Gen- 
eral Gates,  piqued  by  the  omission  of  the 
Continental  Congress  to  appoint  him  one 
of  the  major-generals  in  the  army  (June, 
1775),  but  only  adjutant-general,  with 
rank  of  brigadier-general,  indulged  in  un- 
worthy intrigues  for  promotion.  He  was 
a  favorite  with  some  of  the  leading  men 
in  Congress  from  New  England,  and  very 
soon  a  Gates  faction  appeared  in  that 
body.  When  disaster  overwhelmed  the 
American  army  in  Canada  he  was  sent 
thither,  by  order  of  Congress,  to  take  com- 
mand of  it,  and,  because  his  power  was 
independent  while  the  troops  were  in  Can- 
ada, he  assumed  that  his  command  would 


be  independent  in  any  part  of  the  North- 
ern Department.  When  the  troops  were 
out  of  Canada  he  assumed  that  indepen- 
dence.    Schuyler    questioned    his    powers, 

and  Congress  was  compelled  to  tell  Gates 
that  he  was  subordinate  to  Schuyler.  Late 
in  177G  Gates  repaired  to  the  Congress  at 
Baltimore  and  renewed  his  intrigues  so 
successfully  that,  on  account  of  false 
charges  against  Schuyler,  he  was  appoint- 
ed his  successor  in  the  command  of  the 
Northern  Department  in  the  spring  of 
1777.  The  report  of  a  committee  of  in- 
quiry caused  Schuyler's  reinstatement  a 
few  weeks  afterwards.  Gates  was  angry, 
and  wrote  impertinent  letters  to  his  supe- 
riors. He  refused  to  serve  under  Schuyler, 
who  had  always  treated  him  with  the  most 
generous  courtesy,  but  hastened  to  the 
Congress,  then  in  Philadelphia,  and,  by 
the  misrepresentation  of  one  of  his  fac- 
tion, was  admitted  to  the  floor  of  that 
body,  where  he  so  conducted  himself  as  to 
receive  rebuke.  A  conspiracy  for  the  re- 
moval of  Schuyler  and  the  appointment 
of  Gates  in  his  place  soon  ripened  into 
action.  The  evacuation  of  Ticonderoga 
early  in  July  (1777)  was  charged  to 
Schuyler's  inefficiency,  and  he  was  even 
charged,  indirectly,  with  treason.  So  great 
became  the  clamor  against  him,  espe- 
cially from  the  constituents  of  Gates's 
friends  in  Congress  from  New  England, 
that  early  in  August  those  friends  pro- 
cured Schuyler's  removal  and  the  appoint- 
ment of  Gates  to  his  place.  The  patriotic 
Schuyler,  unmoved  in  his  sense  of  duty  by 
this  rank  injustice,  received  Gates  kindly 
and  offered  his  services  to  the  new  com- 
mander, who  treated  the  general  with  the 
greatest  coolness.  The  victories  over  Bur- 
goyne  soon  ensued,  the  whole  preparation 
for  which  had  been  made  by  Schuyler.  Left 
thus  without  command,  Schuyler's  vigi- 
lance was  of  the  utmost  importance  to  the 
cause,  and  he  was  called  "  the  eye  of  the 
Northern  Department."  His  influence  in 
keeping  the  Indians  neutral  was  of  in- 
calculable importance  to  the  American 
cause  at  that  time.  Schuyler  resigned  his 
commission  in  April,  1779.  As  a  member 
of  Congress  (1778-81)  he  was  very  effi- 
cient in  military  affairs,  and  was  appoint- 
ed to  confer  with  Washington  concerning 
the  campaign  of  1780,  especially  in  the 
Southern  Department.  In  the  summer  of 
1781  Schuyler,  withdrawn  from  military 
service,  was  at  his  home,  just  on  the 
southern  verge  of  the  city  of  Albany.  Plans 
had.  been  matured  for  seizing  him,  Govem- 



or  Clinton,  and  other  leading  patriots  of  for  his  fire-arms.  From  the  window  he 
the  State.  In  August  an  attempt  was  perceived  that  the  house  was  surrounded 
made  to  abduct  Schuyler  by  \Yalter  Meyer,    by  armed  men.    They  were  Meyer  and  his 

gang.  To  arouse  his  guard  (three  of 
whom  were  asleep  on  the  grass),  and,  per- 
chance, to  alarm  the  town,  he  fired  a  pistol 
from  his  window.  At  the  same  moment 
Indians  burst  open  the  doors  below.  All 
these  movements  occurred  in  the  space  of  a 
few  minutes.  Mrs.  Schuyler  perceived  that 
in  the  confusion  in  going  up-stairs  she  had 
left  her  infant  (afterwards  Mrs.  C.  V.  R. 
Cochrane,  of  Oswego,  N.  Y.,  where  she 
died  in  August,  1857)  in  the  cradle  below. 
She  was  about  to  rush  to  the  rescue  of  her 
child,  when  the  general  restrained  her.  Her 
life  was  of  more  value  than  that  of  the 
infant.  Her  little  daughter  Margaret  (af- 
terwards  the   wife   of   Gen.    Stephen   Van 


a  Tory,  who  had  eaten  bread  at  the  gen- 
eral's table.  Meyer,  at  the  head  of  a  band 
of  Tories,  Canadians,  and  Indians,  repair- 
ed to  the  neighborhood  of  Albany,  where  he 
seized  a  Dutch  laborer  and  learned  from 
him  the  precise  condition  of  affairs  at 
Schuyler's  house.  He  was  allowed  to  de- 
part after  taking  an  oath  of  secrecy,  but, 
with  a  mental  reservation,  he  warned  the 
general,  and  Schuyler  and  his  family  were 
on  the  alert.  Just  at  twilight  of  a  sultry 
evening,  a  servant  told  the  general  that  a 
stranger  at  the  back  gate  desired  to  speak 
to  him.  He  comprehended  the  errand.  The 
doors  of  the  house  were  immediately  closed 
and  barred,  the  family  went  to  the  second 
story,  and  the  general  hastened  to  liis  room 


-.'  lirvLKR  8  MAS8I0S  AT  SARATOGA. 

Rensselaer,  the  "patroon")  ran  down  the 
stairs,  snatched  the  baby  from  the  cradle, 
and  bore  it  up  in  safety.  As  she  was 
ascending  an  Indian  threw  a  tomahawk  at 
her.  It  went  near  the  baby's  head,  through 
her  dress,  and  stuck  in  the  stair-railing. 
At  the  same  moment  one  of  the  miscre- 
ants, supposing  her  to  be  a  servant,  called 
out,  "  Wench !  wench !  where  is  your 
master?"  With  quick  presence  of  mind, 
she  replied,  "  Gone  to  alarm  the  town." 
The  Tories  were  then  in  the  dining-room, 
engaged  in  plunder.  The  general  threw  up 
his  window  and  called  out,  loudly,  as  to  a 
multitude,  "Come  on,  my  brave  fellows; 
surround  the  house  and  secure  the  villains 



who  are  plundering."  The  marauders  re- 
treated in  haste,  carrying  away  with  them 
a  quantity  of  silver-plate.  Three  of  the 
guards  fought  lustily,  but  were  overpower- 
ed and  carried  away  prisoners.  When  they 
were  exchanged  the  generous  and  grateful 
Schuyler  gave  each  of  them  a  farm  in 
Saratoga  county. 

General  Schuyler  was  one  of  the  New 
York  State  Senators;  one  of  the  principal 
contributors  to  the  code  of  laws  adopted 
by  that  State;  and  United  States  Senator 
from  1789  to  1791,  and  again  in  1797. 
He  was  an  earnest  advocate  of  internal 
improvements  for  the  development  of  the 
resources  of  the  country,  and  he  is  justly 
called  the  "  father  of  the  canal  system  of 
the  United  States."  He  was  a  man  of 
large  wealth.  He  owned  a  fine  mansion 
in  the  then  southern  suburbs  of  Albany, 
and  a  plain  one  on  his  large  estate  at 
Saratoga.  The  latter,  with  its  mills  and 
other  property,  valued  at  $50,000,  was  de- 
stroyed by  the  British  at  the  time  of  Bur- 
goyne's  invasion.  He  died  in  Albany, 
N.  Y.,  Nov.  18,  1804. 

Schuyler,    Fort.     On   the   site   of   the 

voort.  It  stood  as  a  sort  of  barrier 
against  hostile  tribes  of  the  Six  Nations. 
The  little  garrison  had  been  reinforced 
by  the  regiment  of  Col.  Marinus  Willett, 
and  was  well  provisioned.  Burgoyne  had 
sent  Colonel  St.  Leger  with  Canadians, 
Tories,  and  Indians,  by  way  of  Lake  On- 
tario, to  penetrate  the  Mohawk  Valley 
and  made  his  way  to  Albany,  there  to 
meet  the  general.  St.  Leger  appeared  be- 
fore Fort  Schuyler  on  Aug.  3.  The  Tories 
in  his  train  were  commanded  by  Colonels 
Johnson,  Claus,  and  Butler,  and  the  Ind- 
ians by  Brant.  On  receiving  news  that 
General  Herkimer  was  coming  to  the  aid 
cf  the  garrison  with  the  Tryon  county 
militia  a  larger  portion  within  the  fort 
made  a  sortie.  They  fell  upon  the  camp 
of  Johnson's  "  Greens "  so  suddenly  and 
furiously  that  they  were  dispersed  in 
great  confusion,  Sir  John  not  having  time 
lo  put  on  his  coat.  Papers,  clothing, 
stores,  and  other  spoils  of  his  camp 
sufficient  to  fill  twenty  wagons  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  Americans.  A  part  of 
the  "  Greens "  who  had  gone  to  oppose 
the  advance  of  Herkimer,  approaching  at 

village  of  Rome,  Oneida 
CO.,  N.  Y.,  General  Stan- 
wix  built  a  fort  which  re- 
ceived his  name.  After 
the  Revolutionary  War 
began  it  was  named  Fort 
Schuyler.  In  the  Revolu- 
tion it  was  on  the  west- 
ern borders  of  civilization. 


that  moment,  St.  Leger 
continued  the  siege.  Colo- 
nel Willett  stealthily  left 
the  fort  at  night  with  a 
message  to  Schuyler,  then 
near  the  mouth  of  the 
Mohawk,     asking    for     re- 

lief. Schuyler  called  tor 
There  was  a  a  volunteer  leader.  General  Arnold  re- 
small  garrison  there  in  the  summer  of  sponded,  and  beat  up  for  recruits.  The 
1777,    commanded    by    Col.    Peter    Ganse-    next  day  800  strong  men  were  following 



Arnold  up  the  J^Iohawk  Valley.  At  Fort 
Dayton  he  pardoned  a  young  Tory  pris- 
oner condemned  to  death,  on  condition 
that  he  should  go  into  the  camp  of  St. 
Leger's  savages  with  a  friendly  Oneida 
Indian,  represent  the  approaching  Amer- 
icans as  exceedingly  numerous,  and  so 
frighten  away  the  Indians.  It  was  done. 
The  Tory  had  several  shots  fired  through 
his  clothing.  Almost  breathless,  he  and 
the  Oneida  entered  the  camp,  and  told  of  a 
terrible  fight  they  had  just  had  with  the 
Americans,  who  were  as  numerous  as  the 
leaves  on  the  trees.  The  alarmed  Indians 
immediately  fled  as  fast  as  their  legs 
could  carry  them  towards  the  western 
wilds,  followed  by  the  Canadians  and 
Tories  pell-mell  in  a  race  towards  Os- 
wego. So  ended  the  siege,  and  so  did 
Burgoyne  receive  a  paralyzing  blow. 

While  the  Britisli  retained  possession 
of  the  Western  frontier  posts  in  1784 
it  was  difficult  to  fix  by  treaty  the 
Indian  boundaries  and  open  the  Western 
lands  to  settlers.  But  a  treaty  made  at 
Fort  Schiiyler  by  commissioners  of  the 
United  States  and  the  chiefs  and  warriors 
of  the  Six  Nations  gave  some  facilities 
in  that  direction.  By  this  treaty  the  Mo- 
hawks, Onondagas,  Cayugas,  and  Senecas 
who  had  adhered  to  the  Britisa  during 
the  war,  consented  to  a  peace  and  a  re- 
lease of  prisoners.  At  the  same  time  they 
ceded  all  their  territory  west  of  Penn- 

Schwab,  Charles  M.,  manufacturer; 
born  in  Williamsburg,  Pa.,  April  18,  1862; 
graduated  at  St.  Francis  College,  Loretto, 
Pa.,  in  1880:  secured  employment  as  stake- 
driver  in  the  engineering  corps  of  the 
Edgar  Thompson  Steel  Works;  was  made 
superintendent  of  that  plant  in  1881,  and 
served  in  that  capacity  till  1887,  when 
he  was  appointed  superintendent  of  the 
Homestead  Steel  Works.  In  1897  he  be- 
came president  of  the  Carnegie  Steel  Com- 
pany, Limited,  and  in  1901-03  was  presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  Steel  Corpora- 
tion, which  purchased  the  Carnegie  Steel 
Company,  the  Federal  Steel  Company,  and 
other  large  steel  interests.  He  founded  an 
industrial  school  in  Homestead,  Pa. ; 
built  a  Catholic  church  in  Loretto,  Pa.,  at 
a  cost  of  $1.30,000,  and  a  public-school 
at  Weatherly,  Pa. ;  and  is  noted  otherwise 
as  a  public  benefactor.     See  Trusts. 

Schwab,  John  Christopher,  educator; 
born  in  New  York  in  1865;  graduated  at 
Yale  College  in  1886,  and  studied  in  Ger- 
man universities  in  1887-89;  was  appoint- 
ed Professor  of  Political  Economy  at  Yale 
College  in  1898.  He  is  the  author  of 
History  of  t^eio  York  Property  Taw ;  Rev- 
olutionary History  of  Fort  Number  Eight ; 
and  magazine  articles  on  the  History  of 
the  Confederate  States. 

Schwan,  Theodore,  military  officer; 
born  in  Germany,  July  9,  1841 ;  joined  the 
United  States  army  in  1857;  served  credit- 
ably during  the  Civil  War;  was  promoted 
first  lieutenant  in  April,  1864,  and  received 
the  brevet  of  major  for  gallant  and  meri- 
torious services ;  was  appointed  brigadier- 
general  of  United  States  volunteers  in 
1898,  and  won  distinction  in  the  Philip- 
pines, where  he  captured  Cavite,  Viejo, 
Novaleta,  Rosario,  San  Cruz,  and  other 
places  in  the  province  of  Cavite.  He  was 
promoted  brigadier-general  United  States 
army,  in  February,  1901. 

Schwatka,  Frederick,  explorer;  born 
in  Galena,  111.,  Sept.  29,  1849;  graduated 
at  the  United  States  Military  Academy  in 
1871,  and  commissioned  second  lieutenant 
in  the  3d  LTnited  States  Cavalry.  He 
secured  a  leave  of  absence  in  1878  and 
took  command  of  the  Sir  John  Franklin 
search  expedition  which  sailed  from  New 
York  on  June  19,  in  the  Eothen.  In  a 
fifteen  months'  tour  he  succeeded  in  clear- 
ing up  a  great  deal  of  the  mystery  in  con- 
nection with  that  fated  expedition.  In 
1886  he  had  charge  of  a  special  expedition 
to  Alaska,  and  later  made  a  second  ex- 
ploring tour  in  that  territory.  His  pub- 
lications include  Along  Alaska's  G-reat 
River;  The  Franklin  Search,  under  Lieu- 
tenant Schicatka;  Nimrod  of  the  North; 
and  Children  of  the  Cold.  He  died  in 
Portland,  Ore.,  Nov.  2,  1892. 

Schwenkfelders,  a  religious  sect  found- 
ed by  Hans  Kaspar  Schwenkfeld  in  Sile- 
sia. In  1734  most  of  its  members,  owing 
to  persecution,  emigrated  and  settled  in 
Pennsylvania,  where  they  established  sev- 
eral churches  and  schools.  In  1900  they 
numbered   about   1,000. 

Scioto  Company.  Soon  after  the 
settlement  of  Marietta  was  commenced 
f«ee  Ohio  Company),  an  association  was 
formed  called  The  Scioto  Land  Company. 
The  history  of  that  company  is  involved 



in  some  obscurity.  Col.  William  Duer,  of 
New  York,  was  an  active  member.  It  was 
founded  in  the  East.  They,  at  first,  pur- 
chased lands  of  the  Ohio  Company,  and 
appointed  Joel  Barlow  their  agent  in 
Europe  to  make  sales  of  them.  Barlow 
had  been  sent  to  England  by  the  Ohio 
Company  for  the  same  purpose.  He  dis- 
tributed proposals  in  Paris  in  1789,  and 
sales  Avere  effected  to  companies  and  indi- 
viduals in  France.  On  Feb.  19,  1790,  218 
emigrants  sailed  from  Havre  to  settle 
on  these  lands.  They  arrived  at  Alexan- 
dria, Va.,  on  May  3,  crossed  over  to  the 
Ohio  River,  and  went  down  to  Marietta, 
where  about  fifty  of  them  settled,  and  the 
remainder  went  to  another  point  below, 
opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Kanawha, 
where  they  formed  a  settlement  called 
Gallipolis  (town  of  the  French).  These 
emigrants  were  to  be  furnished  with  sup- 
plies for  a  specified  time,  but  the  company 
failed  to  keep  their  promises.  They  suf- 
fered much.  They  failed,  also,  in  getting 
clear  titles  to  their  lands,  and  the  com- 
pany was  charged  with  swindling  opera- 
tions. The  settlers,  through  the  good 
offices  of  Peter  S.  Duponceau,  of  Philadel- 
phia, obtained  a  grant  from  Congress  of 
25,000  acres  opposite  the  Little  Sandy.  It 
was  ever  afterwards  known  as  "  The 
French  Grant."  Each  inhabitant  had  217 
acres.  The  aims  of  the  Scioto  Company 
seem  to  have  been  simply  land  speculation, 
not  foimding  actual  settlements.  "  It  com- 
prised," Dr.  Cutter  says,  "  some  of  the 
first  characters  in  America."  They  un- 
doubtedly expected  to  purchase  public 
securities  at  their  then  greatly  depreci- 
ated values,  and  with  them  pay  for  the 
lands  bought  of  the  government ;  but  the 
adoption  of  the  national  Constitution 
caused  a  sudden  rise  in  the  value  of  these 
securities,  and  blasted  the  hopes  of  the 
company.  Colonel  Duer,  who  seems  to 
have  been  the  originator  of  the  scheme, 
suff'ered  the  imjust  imputation  of  being 
a  swindler,  because  the  company  did  not 
(for  it  could  not)  meet  its  obligations. 

Sclopis,  Paul  Frederick  de  Salerno, 
Count,  diplomatist;  born  in  Turin,  Italy, 
Jan.  10,  1789;  studied  law  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Turin;  took  his  legal  degrees  in 
1818;  and  soon  rose  to  eminence  as  a  law- 
yer and  jurist.  He  was  also  distinguish- 
ed as  an  historian,  and  gave  his  first  his- 

torical lecture  before  the  Turin  Academy 
of  Science,  in  1827.  This  was  followed, 
in  1833,  by  a  History  of  Ancient  Legis- 
lation in  Piedmont  and  the  History  of 
Italian  Legislation.  His  fame  as  a  jurist 
was  enhanced  by  his  drawing  up  with 
great  ability  the  civil  code  of  Sardinia,  in 
1837.  In  1845  Count  Sclopis  became  a 
corresponding  member  of  the  Institute  of 
France,  and  a  foreign  member  in  1869. 
He  was  created  minister  of  justic*  and 
ecclesiastical  aff'airs  in  Piedmont  in 
March,  1848,  after  having  held  the  office 
of  president  of  the  superior  commune  of 
censorship.  At  the  close  of  1849  he  enter- 
ed the  Piedmontese  Senate,  of  which  he 
was  president  until  that  principality  was 
merged  into  the  kingdom  of  Italy,  in 
1861,  when  he  held  the  same  office  in  the 
Italian  Senate.  At  about  that  time  he 
became  president  of  the  Turin  Academy 
of  Sciences;  and  in  1868  Victor  Emanuel 
bestowed  upon  him  the  order  of  Annun- 
ziata,  the  highest  of  the  kingdom.  When, 
in  1871,  Victor  Emanviel  was  asked  to  ap- 
point an  arbitrator  for  the  tribunal,  at 
Geneva,  to  decide  upon  the  claims  growing 
out  of  the  devastations  committed  by  the 
cruiser  Alabama,  he  selected  Count  Sclo- 
pis, and  he  was  chosen  by  his  colleagues 
president  of  the  tribunal.  For  his  services 
on  that  occasion,  the  United  States  govern- 
ment presented  him  a  service  of  silver- 
plate.     He  died  in  Turin,  March  8,  1878. 

Scotdi-Irish.  Many  persons  distin- 
guished in  the  annals  of  the  United 
States  were  and  are  of  Scotch-Irish  de- 
scent— a  hardy  people,  formed  by  an  inter- 
mixture of  Scotch,  English,  and  Irish 
families,  nearly  300  years  ago.  Queen 
Elizabeth  found  her  subjects  in  Ireland 
so  uncontrollable  that  she  determined  to 
try  the  experiment  of  transplanting  to 
that  island  the  reformed  religion,  with 
some  of  her  English  and  Scotch  subjects. 
It  was  a  difficult  and  dangerous  experi- 
ment, for  the  Irish  regarded  it  simply  in 
the  light  of  a  measure  for  their  complete 
subjugation.  Elizabeth  did  not  meet  with 
much  success,  but  her  successor,  James  I., 
did.  He  determined  to  introduce  whole 
English  and  Scotch  colonies  into  Ireland, 
tliat  by  so  disseminating  the  reformed 
faith  he  might  promote  the  loyalty  of  the 
people.  These  were  sent  chiefly  to  the 
northerly    portions    of    Ireland;    first,    to 



six  counties  in  Ulster,  wliieh  were  divided  ized  south  of  the  James  River  for  the 
into  nnequal  proportions — some  of  2,000  Continental  sejvice.  On  Aug.  12,  1776, 
acres,  some  of  1,500,  and  some  of  1,000.  he  was  appointed  colonel,  and  was  distin- 
These  were  allotted  to  different  kinds  of  guished  at  Trenton  and  in  the  battle  of 
persons — first,  British  undertakers,  who  Princeton;  and  just  a  year  later  he  was 
voluntarily  engaged  in  the  enterprise;  promoted  to  brigadier-general.  He  was 
second,  servitors  of  the  crown,  consisting  the  last  officer  to  leave  the  field  at  Mon- 
of  civil  and  military  officers;  and,  third,  mouth  in  1778.  He  was  conspicuous  in 
natives,  whom  the  King  hoped  to  render  the  storming  of  Stony  Point,  under 
loyal  subjects.  The  occupants  of  the  Wayne,  in  1779,  and  the  next  year  was 
largest  portion  of  lands  were  bound,  with-  with  Lincoln,  at  Charleston,  where  he  was 
in  four  years,  to  build  a  castle  and  bawn  made  prisoner.  He  was  closely  confined 
(a  walled  enclosure  for  cattle),  and  to  for  a  while,  to  the  injury  of  his  health, 
settle  on  their  estates  forty-eight  able-  He  was  released  on  his  parole  near  the 
bodied  men,  eighteen  years  old  or  up-  close  of  the  war,  when  he  was  exchanged, 
ward,  of  English  or  Scotch  descent.  The  In  1785  General  Scott  settled  in  Woodford, 
second  class  were  also  required  to  put  up  Ky.,  and  in  1791,  as  brigadier  -  general 
suitable  buildings,  and  to  plant  English  or  of  the  Kentucky  levies,  led  an  expedi- 
Scotch  families  on  their  possessions  with-  tion  into  the  Ohio  country,  and  partici- 
in  two  years.  These  colonists  from  Scot-  pated  in  the  events  of  St.  Clair's  defeat, 
lond  and  England  intermarried  with  the  He  was  afterwards  successful  in  an  ex- 
natives,  and  from  this  union  sprang  the  pedition  against  the  Indians  on  the  Wa- 
race  of  law-loving,  law-abiding,  loyal,  bash,  and  commanded  a  portion  of 
enterprising  freemen  from  whom  came  Wayne's  troops  in  the  battle  of  Fallen 
many  of  the  best  settlers  in  Pennsylvania,  Timbers  in  1794.  He  was  elected  governor 
Virginia,  and  North  Carolina.  of  Kentucky  in  1808,  and  in  1812  he  re- 

Scctch-Irisli   Society   of   America,    a  tired   from   that   office   into   private   life. 

society  organized  in  May,  1889,  when  the  His  education  was  limited,  he  was  blunt 

first    Scotch-Irish    congress    was    held    at  in   manners,  and  was  decidedly  eccentric. 

Columbia,    Tenn.     It   is   composed   of   the  He  died  Oct.  22,  1820. 

people  of  Scotch-Irish  descent,  residents  of  Scott,    Dred.    See    Dred    Scott    Case, 

the  United  States  and  Canada.     Its  pur-  The. 

pose  is  declared  to  be  "  the  preservation  Scott,    James    Hutchison,    naval    ofii- 

of   Scotch-Irish   history   and   associations,  cer;   born   in   East  Liberty,   Pa.,   Feb.    11, 

the   increase   and   diffusion   of   knowledge  18G8:    graduated   at  the   Cadet   School   of 

regarding    the    Scotch-Irish    people,    the  the    United    States    Revenue-cutter    Ser- 

keeping  alive  of  the  characteristic  quali-  vice  in  1890.    When  the  American-Spanish 

ties  and  sentiments  of  the  race,  the  pro-  War  began  he  was  made  executive  officer 

motion  of  intelligent  patriotism,  and  the  of  the  revenue- cutter  Hudson,  and  distin- 

development    of     social     intercourse     and  guished  himself  at  the  battle  of  Cardenas 

fraternal  feeling."     State  societies  are  be-  Bay,    Cuba,    May    11,    when    the    Hudson 

ing   formed,    and   the   growth   of   the   or-  shielded   the   disabled   torpedo-boat   Wins- 

ganization  is  expected  to  be  large,  as  the  low,a.nA.  tower"  her  out  of  danger ;  was  later 

race  is  widely  extended  over   the   Union,  recommended    by    President   McKinley    to 

and    particularly    in    the    middle    South,  receive    the    thanks    of    Congress    and    a 

where  such  men  as  Andrew  Jackson,  John  medal  for  bravery  during  hostilities.     See 

C.   Calhoun,   and   Sam  Houston  were   its  Bagley,  Worth. 

types.  Membership  includes  females  as  Scott,  John,  legislator;  born  in  Alex- 
well  as  males.  andria.    Pa.,    July    14,    1824;    received    a 

Scott,  Charles,  military  officer;  born  good  education;  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
in  Cumberland  county,  Va.,  in  1733;  1846,  and  practised  in  Huntingdon;  pros- 
was  corporal  of  a  Virginia  company  in  the  ecuting  attorney  in  1846-49;  member  of 
battle  of  the  Monongahela,  where  Brad-  the  legislature  in  1862;  and  United  States 
dock  was  defeated  in  1755.  When  the  Senator  in  1869-75.  While  in  the  Senate 
Revolutionary  War  broke  out,  he  raised  he  made  an  address  favoring  the  adoption 
and  commanded  the  first  company  organ-  of  the  "  enforcement  bill "  permitting  the 




suspension  of  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus   He  was  author  of  Digest  of  the  Military 
act  in  States  when  Ku-klux  Klan  {q.  v.)    Laws  of  the  United  States.     He  died  in 
outrages  should  be  perpetrated.     He  died    Washington,  D.  C,  March  5,  1887. 
in  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  March  22,  1889.  Scott,  William  Amasa,  educator;  born 

Scott,  John,  military  officer;  born  in  in  Clarkson,  N.  Y.,  April  17,  18G2;  gradu- 
Jefferson  county,  0.,  April  14,  1824;  stud-  ated  at  the  University  of  Rochester  in 
ied  law,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  188G;  was  Professor  of  History  and  Polit- 
1845;  served  in  the  Mexican  War;  was  leal  Science  at  the  University  of  South 
taken  prisoner  at  Encarnacion  in  Janu-  Dakota  in  1887-90;  accepted  the  chair  of 
ary,  1847.  When  the  Civil  War  began  Economic  History  and  Theory  at  the  Uni- 
he  was  made  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  3d  versify  of  Wisconsin  in  1897.  He  is  the 
Iowa  Infantry;  was  colonel  of  the  2d  author  of  Repudiation  of  State  Debts; 
Iowa  Infantry  in  1862-64;  served  as  lieu-  Distribution  of  Wealth  in  the  United 
tenant-governor  of  Iowa  in  1868;  has  been  States;  Theory  of  Money;  Henry  George 
actively  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits,  and  His  Economic  Philosophy,  etc. 
He  is  the  author  of  Encarnacion,  or  the  Scott,  Winfield,  military  officer;  born 
Prisoners  in  Mexico;  Hugh  Scott  and  His  in  Petersburg,  Va.,  June  13,  1786;  gradu- 
Descendants;  and  History  of  the  S2d  In-  ated  at  the  College  of  William  and  Mary 
fantry.  in  1804;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1806, 

Scott,  John  Morin,  patriot;  born  in  but  entered  the  army  as  captain  of  artil- 
New  York  City  in  1730;  graduated  at  lery  in  1808;  became  lieutenant-colonel 
Yale  College  in  1746;  became  a  lawyer,  of  artillery  in  1812,  and  adjutant-general, 
and  was  one  of  the  early  opponents  of  with  the  rank  of  colonel,  in  March,  1813. 
the  obnoxious  laws  of  Parliament  in  New  He  was  among  the  prisoners  captured  at 
York.  He  and  William  Livingston,  and  Queenston  Heights,  and  sent  to  Quebec, 
one  or  two  others,  boldly  advised  in  their  with  other  prisoners  of  the  regular  army, 
writings  extreme  measures.  Scott  was  There  the  captives  were  all  paroled  except- 
one  of  the  most  active  members  of  the  ing  twenty  -  three,  who  were  claimed  as 
general  committee  in  1775,  and  was  aloo  British  subjects.  All  the  prisoners  had 
a  member  of  the  Provincial  Congress  that  been  placed  on  a  cartel-ship  to  be  sent  to 
year.  In  June,  1776,  he  was  appointed  Boston.  A  party  of  British  officers  came 
a  brigadier-general,  and  commanded  a  bri-  on  board,  mustered  the  captives,  and  began 
gade  in  the  battle  of  Long  Island.  After  separating  from  the  rest  those  who,  by 
the  organization  of  the  State  of  New  their  accent,  were  found  to  be  Irishmen. 
York,  he  was  appointed  its  secretary,  and  These  they  intended  to  send  to  England 
was  a  member  of  Congress  from  1780  to  to  be  tried  for  treason.  Scott,  who  was 
1783.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  Sept.  below,  hearing  a  commotion  on  deck,  and 
14,  1784.  informed  of  the  catise,  coming  up,  entered 

Scott,  Robert  Nicholson,  military  a  vehement  protest  against  the  proceed- 
officer;  born  in  Winchester,  Tenn.,  Jan.  ings.  He  ordered  his  soldiers  to  be  abso- 
21,  1838;  graduated  at  the  United  States  lutely  silent,  that  their  voices  might  not 
Military  Academy,  and  commissioned  sec-  betray  them.  He  was  frequently  ordered 
ond  lieutenant  in  the  4th  United  States  to  go  below.  He  refused,  and  his  soldiers 
Infantry  in  1857;  served  on  the  Pacific  obeyed  him.  The  twenty-three  already 
coast  till  1861 ;  had  charge  of  the  United  detected  were  taken  away.  Scott  assured 
States  steamer  Massachusetts  during  the  the  officers  that  if  the  British  government 
San  Juan  troubles  in  1859;  served  through  dared  to  touch  a  hair  of  their  heads  his 
the  Civil  War;  brevetted  lieutenant-colo-  o^vn  government  would  retaliate  in  kind 
nel  of  volunteers  in  1865;  commissioned  and  avenge  the  outrage.  He  defied  the 
major.  United  States  army,  in  1878;  menacing  officers.  When  he  was  exchanged 
promoted  lieutenant-colonel  in  1885.  In  in  January,  1813,  he  laid  the  matter  before 
1878  he  was  appointed  military  secretary  the  Secretary  of  War.  He  pressed  the  sub- 
to  the  joint  commission  of  Congress  on  ject  upon  the  attention  of  Congress.  The 
the  reorganization  of  the  army,  and  in  the  President  was  already  vested  with  power 
same  year  became  chief  of  the  Publication  to  retaliate,  but  he  never  had  occasion  to 
Office  of  War  Records  of  the  Rebellion,  do  so. 
viir.— Q  87 


After  bis  exchange,  under  General  Dear- 
born, he  commanded  the  advance  in  the 
attack  on  Fort  George,  May  27,  1813, 
where  he  was  badly  burned  by  the  ex- 
plosion of  the  magazine.  In  the  fall  he 
commanded  the  advance  of  Wilkinson's 
army  in  its  descent  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
to  attack  Montreal.  In  the  spring  of  1814 
he  was  made  a  brigadier -general,  estab- 
lished a  camp  of  instruction  at  Buffalo, 
and  early  in  July  gained  a  victory  over 
the  British  at  Chippewa  (see  Chippewa, 
Battle  of  ) .  Later  in  the  month  he  fought 
successfully  in  the  battle  of  Lundy's  Lane 
iq.  v.),  where  he  was  seriously  wounded 
in  the  shoulder,  which  left  one  of  his  arms 
partially  disabled.  For  his  services  in 
that  battle  he  received  the  thanks  of  Con- 
gress and  a  gold  medal.  At  the  close  of 
the  war  he  was  promoted  to  major-general, 
with  the  thanks  of  Congress  and  a  gold 
medal  for  his  services,  and  was  sent 
to  Europe  in  a  military  and  diplomatic 
capacity.  In  1832  he  was  in  command 
of  the  United  States  forces  at  Charleston 
Harbor,  during  the  nullification   troubles, 

death  of  General  Macomb  in  1841,  Scott 
became  general-in-chief  of  the  armies  of 
the  United  States,  and  in  1847  he  went 
to  Mexico  as  chief  commander  of  the  Amer- 
ican armies  there.  In  a  campaign  of 
about  six  months  he  became  the  conqueror 
of  that  country,  and  in  the  Mexican  cap- 
ital he  proclaimed  the  fact  in  September, 
1847.    See  IMexico,  War  with. 

In  1852  he  was  the  candidate  of  the 
Whig  party  for  President  of  the  United 
States,  and  in  1859  he,  as  United  States 
commissioner,  successfully  settled  a  dis- 
pute arising  about  the  boundary-line  be- 
tween the  LTnited  States  and  British  Amer- 
ica through  the  Strait  of  Fuca,  on  the 
Pacific  coast.  When  the  Civil  War  broke 
out,  his  age  and  infirmities  incapacitated 
him  for  taking  the  chief  command.  In 
a  letter  addressed  to  Governor  Seward 
on  the  day  preceding  Lincoln's  inaugura- 
tion (March  3,  18G1),  he  suggested  the 
limitation  of  the  President's  field  of  ac- 
tion in  the  premises  to  four  measures — ■ 
namely,  1.  To  adopt  the  Crittenden 
Compromise:     2.    To    collect    duties    out- 


and  his  discretion  did  much  to  avert  civil  side  the  ports  of  seceding  States  or  block- 
war.  He  was  afterwards  engaged  in  the  ade  them;  3.  To  conquer  those  States 
war  with  the  Seminoles  and  the  Creeks,  at  the  end  of  a  long,  expensive,  and  deso- 
and  in  1838  was  efficient  in  accomplish-  lating  war,  and  to  no  good  purpose;  and, 
ing  the  peaceful  removal  of  the  Cherokees  4.  To  say  to  the  seceded  States,  "  Way- 
from  Georgia.  His  discreet  conduct  on  ward  sisters,  depart  in  peace!"  He  was 
the  northern  and  eastern  frontiers  of  the  retired  from  the  service  Nov.  1,  1861, 
United  States  in  1839  did  much  to  allay  retaining  his  rank,  pay,  and  allowances, 
public  irritation   on  both   sides.     On   the  and  was  succeeded  by  (Gteneral  McClellan. 




Upon  the  occasion  of  his  retirement,  Presi- 
dent Lincoln  and  tlie  entire  cabinet  waited 
upon  him  in  a  body  to  pay  their  respects 
to  one  who  had  rendered  notable  service 
to  his  country.  In  1864  he  made  a  brief 
visit  to  Europe.  He  published  a  Life  of 
General  Scott,  prepared  by  himself.  He 
died  in  West  Point,  N.  Y.,  May  29,  1866. 
Scovel,  Sylvester,  journalist;  born  in 
Denny  Station,  Pa.,  July  29,  1869;  grad- 
uated at  the  Michigan  Military  Academy 
in  1887.  He  went  to  Cuba  as  war  corre- 
spondent for  the  Pittsburg  Dispatch  and 
the  New  York  Herald  in  October,  1895; 
was  imprisoned  in  Havana  in  January, 
1896,  but  escaped.  He  was  then  engaged 
by  the  New  York  World;  lived  with  the 
insurgents;  passed  through  the  Spanish 
police  and  military  lines  thirty  times  with- 
out detection,  but  was  finally  captured, 
Feb.    7,    1897,   and   imprisoned   in   Sancti 

Spiritus,  Cuba.  Later  he  was  set  at 
liberty  through  the  negotiations  of  the 
United  States  government.  He  served 
aftei'wards  as  correspondent  for  the  New 
York  World  in  the  Graeco-Turkish  War,  in 
Spain,  in  the  Klondike,  in  Havana  prior  to 
the  destruction  of  the  Maine,  and  then 
with  the  United  States  navy  and  army 
till  the  close  of  the  American-Spanish 

Screw  Propeller.  The  screw  propeller, 
which  took  the  place  of  the  paddle-wheel 
in  the  early  days  of  steam  navigation,  was 
practically  introduced  through  the  efforts 
of  Capt.  John  Ericsson   {q.  v.). 

Scruggs,  William  L.,  diplomatist ;  born 
near  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  Sept.  14,  1834;  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1860;  United  States 
minister  to  Colombia  in  1871-77  and  in 
1881-87;  United  States  consul  at  Chin- 
Kiang   and    Canton,    China,    in    1877-81; 


and  United  States  minister  to  Venezuela 
in  1SS9-93,  He  was  the  legal  adviser  and 
special  agent  for  Venezuela  to  arrange  the 
Anglo  -  Venezuelan  boundary  dispute  in 
iS93-9S;  brought  the  matter  to  arbitra- 
tion in  ISO".  He  is  the  author  of  British 
Aggressions  in  Venezuela,  or  the  Monroe 
Doctrine  on  Trial;  Lord  Salisbury's  Mis- 
takes; The  Colombian  and  Venezuelan  Re- 
publics, etc. 

Scudder,  Hexey  ^Iartyn,  clergyman; 
born  in  Panditeripo,  District  of  Jaffna, 
Ceylon,  Feb.  5,  1822;  came  to  the  Unit- 
ed States  in  1832;  graduated  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  the  City  of  New  York  in  1840; 
ordained  in  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
1843.  He  sailed  for  Madras  as  a  mission- 
ary in  the  latter  year,  and  remained 
abroad  till  1864.  While  in  Madras  he 
studied  medicine  and  opened  a  hospital 
and  dispensary  for  the  poor.  He  was  pas- 
tor of  churches  in  Jersey  City,  Brooklyn, 
and  Chicago,  between  1865  and  1887,  and 
then  went  to  Japan  as  a  missionary.  He 
published  several  works  in  the  Tamil  lan- 
guage, among  them  Liturgy  of  the  Re- 
formed Protestant  Church;  The  Bazar 
Booh;  Siceei  Savors  of  Divine  Truth,  a 
Catechism;  and  Spiritual  Teaching.  He 
died  in  Winchester,  Mass.,  June  4,  1895. 

Scudder,  Horace  Elisha,  author;  born 
in  Boston,  Mass.,  Oct.  6,  1838;  graduated 
at  Williams  College  in  1858;  was  editor  of 
the  Riverside  Magazine  for  Young  People 
in  1867-70,  and  of  the  Atlantic  Monthly 
in  1890-98.  He  was  author  of  Life  of  Noah 
Webster;  Boston  Town;  A  History  of  the 
United  States;  A  Short  History  of  the 
United  States;  George  Washington;  etc. 
He  died  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Jan.  11,  1902. 

Sculpture  Society,  National,  an  or- 
ganization with  headquarters  at  New 
York;  incorporated  in  1896.  It  is  com- 
posed of  lay  and  sculptor  members,  and 
has  for  its  object  the  spreading  of  the 
knowledge  of  good  sculpture,  the  foster- 
ing of  the  taste  for  ideal  sculpture  and 
its  production,  both  for  the  household  and 
museums;  the  promotion  of  the  decora- 
tion of  public  and  other  buildings,  squares, 
and  parks  with  sculpture  of  a  high  class; 
the  improvement  of  the  quality  of  the 
sculptor's  art  as  applied  to  industries,  and 
the  providing  from  time  to  time  for  ex- 
hibitions of  sculpture  and  objects  of  in- 
dustrial art  in  which  sculpture  enters. 

Sea  Adventurer,  The.  Under  the  new 
charter  of  the  London  Company  given  in 
1609,  Sir  Thomas  Gates,  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  Sir  George  Somers,  ad- 
miral, and  Captain  Newport,  vice-admiral, 
sailed  in  the  Sea  Adventurer  with  eight 
other  vessels,  bearing  about  500  emigrants 
to  Virginia.  The  fleet  was  dispersed  in  a 
storm,  and  the  Sea  Adventurer  wag 
wrecked  on  one  of  the  Bermuda  islands — 
the  "  still  vexed  Bermoothes "  of  Shake- 
speare. William  Strachey  was  with  them, 
who  wrote  a  vivid  account  of  the  wreck. 
"  Such  was  the  tumult  of  the  elements," 
wrote  Strachey,  "  that  the  sea  swelled 
above  the  clouds,  and  gave  battle  unto 
heaven.  It  could  not  be  said  to  rain:  the 
waters  like  whole  rivers  did  flood  in  the 
air."  For  three  days  and  four  nights  they 
were  beaten  by  this  storm,  while  the  ship 
was  leaking  fearfully.  The  Sea  Advent- 
urer outlived  the  storm;  when  it  ceased 
she  lay  fixed  between  two  rocks  on  the- 
Bermuda  shore.  It  is  believed  that  Stra- 
chey's  account  of  this  storm  and  shipwreck 
inspired  Shakespeare  to  write  his  Tempest. 

Seabury,  Sajiuel,  first  Protestant 
bishop  in  the  United  States;  born  in  Gro- 
ton,  Conn.,  Nov.  30,  1729;  graduated  at 
Yale  College  in  1748.  Going  to  Scotland 
to  study  medicine,  his  attention  was 
turned  to  theology.  Although  the  son  of  a 
Congregational  minister,  he  received  ordi- 
nation as  a  minister  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land in  London  in  1743.  On  his  return  he 
first  settled  as  a  minister  in  New  Bruns- 
wick, N.  J.,  then  in  Jamaica,  L.  I.  (1756- 
G6 ) ,  and  finally  in  Westchester  county, 
N.  Y.,  where  he  remained  until  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Revolutionary  War.  He  was  a 
loyalist,  and  at  one  time  was  chaplain  of 
the  King's  American  Regiment.  Becoming 
obnoxious  to  the  patriots  as  the  suspected 
author  of  some  Tory  pamphlets,  the  Con- 
necticut Light  -  horsemen,  under  Sears, 
seized  him  and  took  him  to  Connecticut, 
where  he  was  imprisoned  for  a  time.  His 
authorship  was  not  proven,  and  he  was  re- 
leased, and  while  the  British  held  posses- 
sion of  New  York  he  spent  most  of  his  time 
in  that  city.  Going  to  England  after  the 
Revolution,  he  obtained  consecration  as 
bishop  by  the  Scotch  prelates  at  Aberdeen. 
Nov.  14,  1784,  and  afterwards  fulfilled  the 
episcopal  office  in  New  London  until  his 
death    in    New    London,    Conn.,    Feb.    25, 



1796.  Bishop  Seabury  assisted  Bishop 
White  in  the  revision  of  the  Book  of  Com- 
mon Prayer,  and  in  framing  the  constitu- 
tion of  the  Church,  wliicli  was  adopted  in 
1789.  He  was  buried  in  a  church-yard  at 
New  London,  and  over  his  grave  was 
placed  a  pLiin  monument  of  marble,  upon 
the    recumbent    slab   of   which,    after    the 


usual  obituary  record,  are  the  following 
laudatory  words :  "  Ingenious  without 
pride,  learned  without  pedantry,  good 
without  severity,  he  was  duly  qualified  to 
discharge  the  duties  of  the  Christian  and 
the  bishop.  In  the  pulpit  he  enforced  re- 
ligion; in  his  conduct  he  exemplified  it. 
The  poor  he  assisted  with  his  charity;  the 
ignorant  he  blessed  with  his  instruction. 

Seal  of  the  United  States,  Great.  On 
July  4,  1770,  the  Continental  Congress, 
after  declaring  the  English-American  col- 
onies to  be  free  and  independent  States, 
appointed  a  committee  to  report  a  device 
for  a  seal — the  emblem  of  sovereignty. 
That  committee  and  others,  from  time  to 
time,  presented  unsatisfactory  devices. 
Finally,  in  the  spring  of  1782, 
Charles  Thomson,  the  secre- 
tary of  Congress,  gave  to  that 
body  a  device  mainly  suggest- 
ed to  John  Adams,  then  Unit- 
ed States  minister  to  Great 
Britain,  by  Sir  John  Prest- 
wich,  an  eminent  English  an- 
tiquary. This  suggestion  was 
made  the  basis  of  a  design 
adopted  by  Congress  June  20, 
1782,  and  which  is  still  the 
device  of  the  great  seal  of 
the  country.  It  is  composed  of  a  spread- 
eagle,  the  emblem  of  strength,  bearing  on 
its  breast  an  escutcheon  with  thirteen 
stripes,  alternate  red  and  white,  like  the 
national  fiag.  In  its  right  talon  the  eagle 
holds  an  olive-branch,  the  emblem  of  peace, 
and  in  its  left  thirteen  arrows,  emblems  of 
the  thirteen  States,  ready  for  war  should 
it  be  necessary.     In  its  beak  is  a  ribbon 


The  friend  of  men,  he  ever  designed  their  bearing  the  legend  "  E  Pluribus   Unum ''' 

good ;  the  enemy  of  vice,  he  ever  opposed  — "  Many  in  one  " — many  States  making 

it.    Christian!  dost  thou  aspire  to  happi-  .  mr..     i     ^i        .         ^   ^,,               u     i.         i 

,      o     ._          1          1            ji                 .,     .  This   IS   the   size   of   the   recumbent   seal 

noss?     Seabury  has  shown  the  way  that  ^hich  has  been  in  use  ever  since  the  date  of 

leads  to  it."  its  adoption  In  1782. 



one  nation,  a  motto  doubtless  suggested  by    Later   he   was   State-prison    inspector   foi 

its  appearance  on  the  title-page  of  the 
London  Gentlcinaiis  Magazine.  Over  the 
head  of  the  eagle  is  a  golden  light  break- 
ing through  a  cloud  surrounding  thirteen 
stars,  forming  a  constellation  on  a  blue 
field.  On  the  reverse  is  an  unfinished  pyra- 
mid, emblematic  of  the  unfinished  republic, 
the  building  of  which — the  increase  of 
States  and  Territories — is  still  going  on. 
In  the  zenith  is  an  all-seeing  eye  sur- 
rounded by  light,  and  over  this  eye  the 
words  "  Annuit  Cceptis  " — "  God  favors 
the  undertaking."  On  the  base  of  the  pyra- 
mid, in  Roman  numerals,  is  the  date  1776, 



and  below,  the  words  "  Novus  Ordo  Sec- 
lorum  " — "  A  new  order  of  ages."  This 
was  for  a  pendant  seal,  now  not  used;  the 
recumbent  seal,  the  obverse  above  de- 
scribed, being  always  used.  See  United 
States  Great  Seal. 

Seal  of  the  Confederacy,  Great.  See 
Confederate  States. 

Sealsfield,  Charles,  author;  born  in 
Poppitz,  Moravia,  Austria,  March  3,  179.3; 
came  to  the  United  States  soon  after  1822, 
and  changed  his  name  from  Karl  Postel 
to  Sealsfield.  His  publications  include 
American  and  German  Elective  Affinities; 
South  and  North,  etc.  He  died  in  So- 
lothurn,  Switzerland,  May  26,  1864. 

Seaman,  Ezra  Champion,  author;  born 
in  Chatham,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  14,  1805;  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  of  New  York  in  1826.  In 
1840-53  he  was  head  clerk  to  the  Unit- 
ed   States    comptroller    of    the    treasury. 

Michigan.  His  publications  include  Essayn 
of  the  Progress  of  Nations;  Commentaries 
on  tlie  Constitution  and  Laws,  People  and 
History  of  the  United  States;  The  Ameri- 
can System  of  Govermnent,  etc.  He  died 
in  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  July  1,  1880. 

Seamen,  Impressment  of.  On  June  25, 
1798,  Congress  passed  an  act  authorizing 
all  merchant  vessels  to  defend  themselves 
against  any  search,  seizure,  or  restraint  on 
the  part  of  any  vessel  under  French  colors ; 
and  to  subdue  and  capture  as  good  prize 
any  vessel  attempting  such  search  or 
seizure;  and  to  retake  any  vessel  seized 
by  the  French,  with  benefit  of  salvage. 

The  American  ship  Baltimore,  Captain 
Phillips,  sailed  out  of  the  harbor  of  Ha- 
vana on  the  morning  of  Nov.  16,  1798,  in 
charge  of  a  convoy,  bound  for  Charleston, 
S.  C.  In  sight  of  Morro  Castle  she  met  a 
British  squadron,  and  Phillips  bore  up  to 
the  Carnatic,  the  British  flag-ship,  to 
speak  to  the  captain,  when  three  of  the  con- 
voys were  cut  off  from  the  rest  and  were 
captured  by  the  British  vessels.  Captain 
Phillips,  by  invitation,  went  on  board  the 
Carnatic,  when  he  was  informed  that  every 
man  on  the  Baltimore  not  having  an  Amer- 
ican protection  should  be  transferred  to 
the  British  flag-ship.  Phillips  protested 
against  the  outrage,  and  declared  that  he 
would  formally  surrender  his  vessel  and 
refer  the  matter  to  his  government.  On 
returning  to  the  Baltimore,  he  found  a 
British  officer  mustering  his  men.  Fifty- 
five  ol  them  were  transferred  to  the  Car- 
natic, and  the  colors  of  the  Baltimore 
were  lowered.  Five  of  the  men  were  press- 
ed into  the  British  service;  the  remainder 
were  sent  back,  and  the  Baltimore  was 
released.  The  case  was  laid  before  the 
government  of  the  United  States.  This 
outrage  upon  the  sovereignty  of  the  na- 
tion —  the  practical  application  of  the 
claim  of  the  British  government  to  the 
right  of  search  and  impressment  without 
leave — aroused  fierce  indignation  through- 
out the  Union ;  yet  the  American  govern- 
ment, influenced,  if  not  controlled,  by  the 
mercantile  interests  (the  trade  with  Great 
Britain  was  then  very  profitable) ,  not  only 
submitted  meekly,  but  committed  an  act 
of  the  most  flagrant  injustice.  Captain 
Phillips  was  dismissed  from  the  navy, 
without   a    trial,    because   he   surrendered 



his  vessel  without  a  show  of  resistance,  ated  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  in  1839-, 
and  no  notice  was  taken  of  the  British  came  to  the  United  States  in  1848;  Pro- 
outrage.  The  administration,  in  deference  fessor  of  Languages  in  Manhattan  College 
to  Great  Britain,  had  instructed  the  Amer-  for  many  years;  editor  of  the  National 
ican  naval  commanders  not  to  molest  the  Quarterly  in  18G0-7G.  He  died  in  New 
cruisers  of  any  nation  (the  French  except-  York  City,  Dec.  7,  1876. 
ed) — not  even  to  save  their  own  vessels;  Sears,  Isaac,  patriot;  born  in  Norwalk, 
and  Phillips,  because  of  his  strict  adher-  Conn.,  in  1729,  His  ancestors  were  from 
ence  to  this  order,  was  cashiered.  Colchester,  England,  and  were  among  the 

Admiral  Berkeley,  in  command  of  the  earlier  emigrants  to  Massachusetts,  land- 
British  North  American  naval  station,  ing  at  Plymouth  in  1630.  He  was  one  of 
issued  a  circular,  June  1,  1807,  at  Hali-  the  most  earnest,  active,  and  pugnacious 
fax,  addressed  to  all  commanders  on  his  of  the  Sons  of  Liberty  in  New  York;  was 
station,  reciting  that  many  seamen,  sub-  a  successful  merchant  there,  engaged  in 
jects  of  his  Britannic  Majesty,  and  serving  the  European  and  West  India  trade,  when 
in  vessels  of  the  royal  fleet  (naming  political  matters  arrested  his  attention, 
them),  had  deserted  those  vessels,  enlisted  After  the  passage  of  the  Stamp  Act  he 
on  board  the  American  frigate  Chesapeake,  became  a  prominent  leader  of  the  opposi- 
and  had  openly  paraded  the  streets  of  tion  to  that  measure.  He  was  thoroughly 
New  York,  in  sight  of  their  officers,  under  hated  by  the  government  and  the  Tory 
American  colors,  and  protected  by  the  party,  and  was  in  custody  on  a  charge  of 
magistrates  of  the  town  and  the  recruiting  treason  when  the  news  of  the  fight  at 
officer,  who  refused  to  give  them  up  on  Lexington  reached  New  York.  Because 
demand  of  the  commanders  of  the  ships  of  his  leadership,  his  enemies  called  him 
to  which  they  belonged,  or  on  that  of  the  "  King  Sears."  He  was  maligned,  carica- 
British  consul.  The  commanders  to  whom  tured,  satirized,  and  made  the  object  of 
this  circular  was  addressed  were  directed,  Tory  squibs  and  epigrams  like  the  follow- 
in  case  of  meeting  the  Chesapeake  at  sea,  ing,  which  was  published  when  the  com- 
without  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  mittee  of  fifty-one  refused  to  recommend 
to  show  this  order  and  to  search  the  vessel  a  revival  of  the  non-importation  league: 
for  deserters.  It  was  done,  and  four  de- 
serters were  seized  and  carried  to  Halifax.  "  ^'^^  ,^°'  ^l  ^°°^  masters,  I  find  it  no  joke, 

--.,,,.,             ,             .•    .•          i_   .  For  York  has  stepped  forward  and  thrown 

On  the  failure  of  negotiations  between  qj^  ^j^g  yQ^g 

the  United   States   and  Great   Britain  on  Of   Congress,    Committees,    and   even   King 

the    subject    of    impressments,    measures  Sears, 

were  taken  to  call   for  the  return  of  all  ^'^°  ""^P^^  y°"  ^ood  nature  by  showing  his 

British    seamen    to    the    service    of    their 

native  country,  commanding  them  forth-  Rivington  abused  him  in  his  newspaper 
M'ith  to  leave  the  service  of  foreign  na-  without  stint.  Sears  retaliated  by  enter- 
tions,  whether  on  board  merchant  vessels  ing  the  city,  Nov.  23,  1775,  at  the  head  of 
or  in  ships-of-war.  A  royal  proclamation  some  Connecticut  horsemen,  and  destroy- 
to  this  effect  was  issued  Oct.  17,  1807.  All  ing  that  publisher's  printing  establish- 
commanders  of  British  ships-of-war  were  ment.  In  the  spring  of  1776  he  was  Gen. 
authorized  by  the  proclamation  to  seize  Charles  Lee's  adjutant.  In  1785  he  sailed 
and  bring  aAvay  from  on  board  foreign  for  Canton,  China,  where  he  died,  Oct.  28, 
merchant  vessels  all  British  mariners.     A  1786. 

demand   was    also    made    for    all    British  Sears,     Joseph     Hamblen,     publisher; 

mariners  serving  on  board  foreign  ships-  born  in  Boston,  April  10,  1865;  graduated 

of-war  to  leave  that  service  and  return  to  at     Harvard     University,     1889;     became 

the  royal  na\'y  immediately.     This  procla-  president    of    the    publishing    firm    of    D. 

mation  seemed  to  shut  the  door  to  further  Appleton   &   Co.   in    1904;    author  of   The 

negotiations    on    the   subject   of    impress-  Governments  of  the  World  To-day ;  Fur  and 

ments.     See  Impressments.  Feather  Tales;  Xanc  but  the  Brave;  etc. 

Search,  Right  of.    See  Impressment.  Sears,  Robert,  publisher ;   born  in   St. 

Sears,   Edward  T.,  journalist;    born   in  John,  New  Brunswick,  June  28,  1810;  set- 
County   Mayo,    Ireland,    in    1819;    gradu-  tied    in   New  York   City   in    1832:    began 



the  publication  of  illustrated  works  in  was  also  conspicuous  in  the  convention 
1839;  and  did  much  to  develop  the  art  that  framed  the  National  Constitution, 
of  wood  engraving  in  the  United  States,  and  especially  so  in  the  State  conventions 
Among  his  publications  the  most  irapor-  called  to  ratify  that  document.  It  was  so 
tant  is  the  Pictorial  History  of  the  Unit-  strong  in  New  York  that  the  ratification 
ed  States.  He  died  in  Toronto,  Canada,  was  effected  by  only  one  majority  in  the 
Feb.  17,  1802.  convention.  Whenever  the  imperious  will 
Seaton,  William  Winston,  journalist;  of  politicians  became  thwarted  by  a  public 
born  in  King  William  county,  Va.,  Jan.  policy  opposed  to  their  wishes,  they  were 
11,  1785;  received  a  private  education;  in  the  habit  of  speaking  of  a  dissolution 
early  engaged  in  journalism.  He  became  of  the  Union  as  the  remedy  for  the  provo- 
editor  of  the  Petersburg  Republican,  and  cation.  Such  was  eminently  the  case  with 
later  published  the  North  Carolina  Jour-  the  opposers  of  Jay's  treaty  in  1795.  Such 
nal  in  Halifax,  Va.  In  1812  he  settled  in  was  the  tone  of  the  famous  Virginia  reso- 
Washington  and  became  connected  with  lutions  of  1798.  So  threatening  to  the 
Joseph  Gaxes,  Jr.  (q.  v.),  his  brother-  peace  of  the  Union  had  the  expi-ession  of 
in-law,  in  the  publication  of  the  National  such  threats  become  during  the  adminis- 
Intelligencer.  In  1812-20  he  and  his  part-  tration  of  President  Washington,  that  the 
ner  were  the  only  Congressional  reporters,  chief  burden  of  his  Farewell  Address  was 
as  well  as  editors  of  their  paper.  With  a  plea  for  union.  The  purchase  of  Louisi- 
Mr.  Gales  he  was  the  author  of  Annals  of  ana  and  its  creation  as  a  State  called 
Congress;  Debates  and  Proceedings  in  the  forth  this  sentiment  from  New  England 
Congress  of  the  United  States  from  March  politicians  (see  Quincy,  Josiah,  vol.  vii., 
3,  1798,  till  May  27,  1S24;  Register  of  De-  p.  363),  and  the  positive  declarations 
bates  in  Congress  from  1824  to  1837 ;  and  of  Calhoun  to  Commodore  Stewart,  in 
American  State  Papers,  Edited  by  Wal-  1812,  of  the  intention  of  the  Southern 
ter  Lowne  and  M.  St.  Clair  Clarke.  He  politicians  to  dissolve  the  Union  in 
died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  June  16,  1866.  case  of  a  certain  contingency,  showed  the 
Secession.  See  Jackson,  Andrew:  alarming  prevalence  of  this  idea  in  the 
XrixiFicATioN ;  Wood.  Fernando.  slave-labor  States.  It  was  put  forth  con- 
Secession,  Consequences  of.  See  spicuously  in  the  debates  on  the  admis- 
Clay,  Henry.  sion  of  Missouri.  After  the  tariff  act  of 
Secession  in  New  England.  In  1747  1S28,  so  obnoxious  to  the  cotton-growers, 
the  towns  of  Suffield,  Somers,  Enfield,  and  became  a  law,  the  citizens  of  St.  John's 
Woodstock,  originally  settled  under  Mas-  parish,  S.  C,  said  in  convention:  "We 
sachusetts  grants,  and  assigned  to  that  have  sworn  that  Congress  shall,  at  our 
province  in  1713,  finding  taxation  there  demand,  repeal  the  tariff.  If  she  does  not, 
enhanced  by  its  military  operations,  ap-  our  State  legislature  will  dissolve  our 
plied  for  annexation  to  Connecticut.  They  connection  with  the  Union,  and  we  will 
seemed  to  be  clearly  within  the  Connecti-  take  our  stand  among  the  nations;  and  it 
cut  charter.  They  asked  permission  of  behooves  every  true  Carolinian  *  to  stand 
Massachusetts  to  withdraw.  The  request  by  his  arms,'  and  to  keep  the  lialls  of  our 
was  refused.  They  then  withdrew  with-  legislature  pure  from  foreign  intruders." 
cut  the  consent  of  Massachusetts,  were  an-  When,  in  the  autumn  of  1832,  the  fa- 
nexed  to  Connecticut,  and  still  remain  mous  nullification  ordinance  was  passed, 
I?art  of  that  State.  Massachusetts  threat-  so  positive  were  the  politicians  of  South 
ened  an  appeal  to  the  King  and  council,  Carolina  that  the  dissolution  of  the  Union 
but  fearing  she  might,  as  in  her  contro-  was  nigh,  that  they  caused  a  medal  to  be 
versy  with  New  Hampshire,  not  only  lose  struck  with  this  inscription,  "John  C. 
these  towns,  but  other  territory,  nothing  Calhoun,  First  President  of  the  South- 
further  was  done.  See  Quincy,  Josiah.  ern  Confederacy."  In  1836  a  novel  was 
Secession  of  Southern  States.  State  written  by  Beverly  Tucker,  of  Virginia, 
pride,  the  mother  of  the  doctrine  of  State  called  The  Partisan  Leader,  in  which  the 
fiupremacy,  was  conspicuously  manifested  doctrine  of  State  supremacy  and  sectional 
in  the  formation  of  the  League  of  States  feeling  was  inculcated  in  the  seductive 
under  the  Articles  of  Confederation.     It  form  of  a  romance,  which  was  widely  eir- 



culated  at  the  South,  and  made  the  people  would  assist   Carolina   in   such  an   issue 

familiar  with  the   idea  of  secession  as  a  ...  You  will  object  to  the  word  Democrat, 

great  good  for   that   section.      "  Southern  Democracy,    in    its   original    philosophical 

Rights  Associations  "  were  founded,  having  sense,  is,  indeed,  incompatible  with  slavery 


for    their    object   the    dissolution    of    the  and  the  whole  system  of  Southern  society." 

Union.    These  were  active  at  the  time  of  Mr.  Garnett  expressed  a  fear  that  if  the 

the    excitement    about    the    admission    of  question  was  raised  between  Carolina  and 

California   into   the   Union.      One  of   the  the  national  government,  and  the  latter 

most    active   of   the    Vii-ginians    in    these  prevailed,  the  last  hope  of  Southern  civili- 

movements  was  M.  R.  H.   Garnett    (who  zation  would  expire.     Preston  S.  Brooks, 

was  in  Congress  when  the  Civil  War  broke  who  assaulted  Senator  Sumner  of  Massa- 

out).     In  a  letter  to  W.  H.  Trescott,  a  chusetts,  when  alone  at  his  desk  in  the 

leader  in  the  "  Southern  Rights  Associa-  Senate,  said,  in  an  harangue  before  an  ex- 

tion"    of    South    Carolina     (May,    1851),  cited  populace  in  South  Carolina,  "I  tell 

Garnett  mourned  over  the  action  of  Vir-  you    that   the   only   mode   which    I   think 

ginia    in    hesitating    to    enter    into    the  available  for  meeting  the  issue  is,  just  to 

scheme  of  revolution  then.    "  I  do  not  be-  tear    in    twain    the    Constitution    of    the 

lieve,"  he  wrote,  "  that  the  course  of  the  United  States,  trample  it  under  foot,  and 

legislature    is    a    fair    expression    of    the  form  a  Southern  Confederacy,  every  State 

popular   feeling.      In    the   East,   at   least,  of  which   shall   be   a    slave-holding   State. 

the  great  majority  believe  in  the  right  of  ...  I  have  been  a  disunionist  from  the 

secession,   and   feel   the  deepest  sympathy  time  I  could  think.    If  I  were  commander 

with   Carolina   in  opposition  to  measures  of  an  army,  I  never  would  post  a  sentinel 

which  they  regard  as  she  does.     But  the  who  would  not  swear  slavery  was  right. 

West — Western  Virginia — here  is  the  rub!  ...  If  Fremont  be  elected  President  of  the 

Otily    60,000    slaves    to    494,000    tchites!  United    States,   I    am    for   the   people,    in 

When  I  consider  this  fact,  and  the  kind  of  their  majesty,  rising  above  the  laws  and 

argument  which   we  have   heard   in   this  leaders,  taking  the  power  into  their  own 

body,  I  cannot  but  regard  with  the  great-  hands,  going,  by  concert  or  not  by  con- 

est    fear    the   question    whether    Virginia  cert,  and  laying  the  strong  arm  of  South- 



ern  power  upon  the  treasury  and  archives  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  and  other  parts  ot 

of  the  government."  the  world,  and  that  they  lay  their  corre- 

In  order  to  carry  out  the  design  of  the  spondence  before  Congress  when  directed, 
few  leaders  of  the  secession  scheme  to  have  and  that  all  expenses  that  might  arise 
the  whole  fifteen  slave-labor  States  belong  by  carrying  on  such  correspondence,  and 
to  a  projected  Southern  Confederacy,  four  for  the  payment  of  such  agents  as  the 
of  the  State  conventions  which  adopted  committee  might  send  on  this  service, 
ordinances  of  secession  appointed  commis-  should  be  defrayed  by  the  Congress."  This 
sioners  to  go  to  these  several  States  as  was  the  germ  of  the  American  State  De- 
missionaries  in  the  cause.  The  names  and  partment,  and  the  initial  step  in  the  for- 
destinations  of  these  were  as  follows:  eign  diplomacy  of  the  United  States.  The 
South  Carolina  sent  to  Alabama  A.  P.  members  chosen  were  Benjamin  Harrison, 
Calhoun;  to  Georgia,  James  L.  Orr;  to  Dr.  Franklin,  Thomas  Johnson,  John  Dick- 
Florida,  L.  W.  Spratt;  to  Mississippi,  M.  inson,  and  John  Jay.  A  correspondence 
L.  Bonham;  to  Louisiana,  J.  L.  Manning;  was  immediately  opened  with  Arthur  Lee, 
to  Arkansas,  A.  C.  Spain;  to  Texas,  J.  B.  in  London,  and  C.  W.  Dumas  (a  Swiss 
Kershaw.  Alabama  sent  to  North  Caro-  gentleman),  residing  in  Holland, 
lina  Isham  W.  Garrett;  to  Mississippi,  E.  Sectarian  Influences.  In  1775  the 
W.  Fetters;  to  South  Carolina,  J.  A.  El-  American  members  of  the  Church  of  Eng- 
more;  to  Maryland,  A.  F.  Hopkins;  to  land  had,  through  natural  affection  for  the 
Virginia,  Trank  Gilmer ;  to  Tennessee,  L.  mother  Church,  an  aversion  to  a  severance. 
Pope  Walker;  to  Kentucky,  Stephen  F.  in  any  particular,  from  Great  Britain; 
Hale;  to  Arkansas,  John  A.  Winston,  and  a  large  number  of  these,  especially 
Georgia  sent  to  Missouri  Luther  J.  Glenn;  of  the  clergy,  took  sides  with  the  cro-wn 
to  Virginia,  Henry  L.  Benning.  Missis-  in  the  conflict  that  ensued.  The  other 
sippi  sent  to  South  Carolina  C.  E.  Hooker ;  denominations,  excepting  the  Friends,  or 
to  Alabama.  Joseph  W.  Matthews;  to  Quakers,  were  generally  among  the  friends 
Georgia,  William  L.  Harris;  to  Louisiana,  of  the  colonists.  The  Congregational  min- 
Wirt  Adams;  to  Texas,  H.  H.  Miller;  to  isters  of  New  England  and  their  flocks 
Arkansas,  George  B.  Fall;  to  Florida,  E.  were  almost  without  exception  Whigs, 
M.  Yerger;  to  Tennesser  T.  J.  Wharton;  and  the  larger  part  of  the  Presbyterians, 
to  Kentucky,  W.  S.  Featherstone ;  to  North  who  derived  their  origin  from  the  dis- 
Carolina,  Jacob  Thompson,  the  Secretary  senting  section  of  the  Scotch  Church,  were 
of  the  Interior ;  to  Virginia,  Fulton  Ander-  in  political  sympathy  with  the  Congrega- 
son;  to  Maryland,  A.  H.  Handy;  to  Dela-  tionalists.  Both  had  opposed  the-  scheme 
ware,  Henry  Dickinson;  to  Missouri,  P.  of  the  Anglican  Church,  through  the  so- 
Kussell.  ciety   for   the   propagation   of   the   Gospel 

Ordinances  of  secession  were  passed  in  in  foreign  parts,  to  establish  an  Episco- 
eleven  States  of  the  Union  in  the  following  pacy  in  the  colonies.  These  two  branches 
order:  South  Carolina,  Dec.  20,  1860;  Mis-  of  the  English  dissenting  body  cherished 
sissippi,  Jan.  9,  1861;  Florida,  Jan.  10;  a  traditionary  opposition  to  British  con- 
Alabama,  Jan.  11;  Georgia,  Jan.  19;  trol,  political  or  ecclesiastical,  and  the 
Louisiana,  Jan.  26;  Texas,  Feb.  1;  Vir-  Congregationalists  had  just  passed  through 
ginia,  April  17;  Arkansas,  May  6;  North  a  bitter  controversy  on  the  subject  of  the 
Carolina,  May  20,  and  Tennessee,  June  8.  introduction  of  bishops  into  America. 
Only  one  of  these  ordinances  was  ever  Witherspoon,  who  was  at  the  head  of 
submitted  to  the  people  for  their  consid-  the  Presbyterian  College  of  New  Jersey, 
oration.  See  Confedkrate  States  of  was  sent  as  a  delegate  to  the  Continental 
America;  articles  on  the  States  compos-  Congress,  and  was  very  active  in  that 
ing  the  Confederacy;  and  suggestive  titles  body. 

of  the  persons  and  events  that  were  con-  The     native  -  born     Presbyterians    were 

spiouous  in  the  Civil  War.  nearly  all  Whigs,  while  the  Scotch  Pres- 

Secret  Committee.     On  Nov.  29,  1775,  byterian   emigrants,   who   were   mostly   in 

the   Congress   resolved   "  That   a  commit-  the    Southern    colonies,    adhered    to    the 

tee  of  five  be  appointed  for  the  sole  pur-  crown.     Such  was  the  case  of  that  class 

pose  of  corresponding  with  our  friends  in  in  the  interior  of  New  York,   under  the 



influence   of   the   Johnson    family   in    the  ton  Feb.  4,  1861,  and  of  the  first  Confed- 

Mohawk  region.     In  Virginia,  where  Epis-  crate  Congress;  and  was  Secretary  of  War 

copacy  was  the  established  and  prevailing  in  the  cabinet  of  Jefferson  Davis  in  1802- 

form  of  religious  organization  and  mode  65.      He  died  in  Goochland   county,  Va. 

of   worship,   sectarian   zeal   had   not  been  Aug.  19,  1880. 

excited,  and  sectarianism  had  very  little  Sedgwick,  Catherine  Maria,  educator ; 

influence  on  political  questions.     Even  the  born  in  Stockbridge,  Mass.,  Dec.  28,  1789; 

scheme   for   an   American   bishop   was   de-  and  conducted   a   private   school   for   fifty 

novmced  by  the  Virginia' Assembly  as  "  the  years.     Her   publications   include   A    'New 

pernicious    project    of    a     few    mistaken  England  Tale;  Hope  Leslie,  or  Early  Times 

clergymen."     The  Friends,  who,  governed  in  Massachusetts    (2  volumes)  ;   The  Lin- 

by   their    "  peace    principles,"    had,    while  woods,  or  Sixty  Years  Since  in  America, 

having  control  of  the  legislature  of  Penn-  etc.     She  died  near  Roxbury,  Mass.,  July 

sylvania,    opposed    all    measures    for    the  31,  1867. 

public  defence  of  the  province  that  seemed  Sedgwick,  John,  military  officer;  born 
to  involve  the  necessity  for  the  use  of  in  Cornwall,  Conn.,  Sept.  13,  1813;  gradu- 
weapons  of  war,  now  deprecated  the  action  ated  at  West  Point  in  1837;  served  in 
of  the  Whigs  for  the  same  reason,  and  they  the  Seminole  War  and  the  war  against 
were  almost  universally  Tories,  though  Mexico,  where  he  became  highly  distin- 
generally  of  the  passive  kind;  yet  there  guished;  was  commissioned  a  brigadier- 
were  many  noble  exceptions  among  them,  general  of  volunteers  in  August,  1861. 
who  did  what  they  could  to  promote  the  In  May,  1862,  he  was  promoted  to  major- 

independence  of  the  colonies. 

general,   and   led   a   division   in   Sumner's 

While  the  Provincial  Convention  of  corps  in  the  Peninsula  campaign  imme- 
Pennsylvania  was  in  session  early  in  1775, 
and  after  it  had  passed  a  resolution  that, 
"  if  the  British  administration  should 
determine  to  effect  by  force  a  submission 
to  the  late  acts  of  Parliament,  in  such 
a  situation  we  hold  it  an  indispensable 
duty  to  resist,  by  force,  and  at  every 
hazard  to  defend  the  rights  and  liberties 
of  America  " — a  position  strongly  sustain- 
ed by  Thomas  MifHin,  a  Quaker  member 
of  the  convention — the  Friends,  in  a  year- 
ly meeting  assembled,  put  forth  a  testi- 
mony, in  which  the  members  of  the  so- 
ciety were  called  upon  "  to  unite  in  ab- 
horrence of  every  measure  and  writing 
tending  to  break  off  the  happy  connec- 
tion of  the  colonies  with  the  mother  coun- 
try, or  to  interrupt  their  just  subordina- 
tion to  the  King."  They  were  not  always 
passive  Tories.  This  "  testimony,"  which 
gave  great  offence  to  many  Friends  who 
were  patriots,  led  to  the  arrest  of  several 
leaders  and  their  banishment  from  the 
province,  and  the  execution  of  two  of 
them  for  active  participation  with  the 
British.     See  Quakers. 

Seddon,  James  Axexander,  lawyer; 
born  in  Falmouth,  Va.,  July  13,  1815,- 
graduated  at  the  law  school  of  the  Uni-  tietam  he  was  seriously  wounded,  and  in 
versity  of  Virginia;  was  a  member  of  December  he  was  put  in  command  of  the 
Congress  in  1845-47  and  1849-51;  of  the  9th  Army  Corps.  In  February,  1863,  he 
peace  convention  which  met  in  Washing-    took  command  of  the  6th  Corps,  and  in 



diately  afterwards.     At  the  battle  of  An- 


the  Chancellorsville  campaign,  in  May,  he 
made  a  brave  attack  upon  the  Heights  of 
Fredericksburg,  and  carried  them,  but 
was  compelled  to  retire.  During  the  Get- 
tysburg campaign  he  commanded  the  left 
wing  of  the  army;  and  in  November  fol- 
lowing, near  the  Eapidan  in  Virginia,  he 
captured  a  whole  Confederate  division. 
He  entered  earnestly  upon  the  Richmond 
campaign  in  the  spring  of  1864,  and  per- 
formed signal  service  in  the  battle  of  the 
Wilderness.  Afterwards,  while  superin- 
tending the  planting  of  a  battery,  he  was 
shot  by  a  sharp  -  shooter  and  instantly 
killed  near  Spottsylvania  Court  -  house, 
May  9,  1864. 

Sedgwick,  Robert,  military  officer ;  born 
in  England  in  1590;  was  one  of  the  first 
settlers  of  Charlestown,  Mass.  (1635)  ;  an 
enterprising  merchant,  and  for  many  years 
a  deputy  in  the  General  Assembly.  Hav- 
ing been  a  member  of  an  artillery  com- 
pany in  London,  he  was  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  the  Ancient  and  Honorable  Artillery 
of  Boston,  in  1638,  and  was  its  captain 
in  1640.  In  1652  he  was  promoted  to  the 
highest  military  rank  in  the  colony.  In 
1643  he  was  associated  with  John  Win- 
throp,  Jr.,  in  the  establishment  of  the  first 
furnace  and  iron-works  in  America.  In 
1654,  being  in  England,  he  was  employed 
by  Cromwell  to  expel  the  French  from  the 
Penobscot;  and  was  engaged  in  the  ex- 
pedition of  the  English  which  took  Ja- 
maica from  the  Spaniards.  He  was  soon 
afterwards  promoted  to  major-general.  He 
died  in  Jamaica,  May  24,   1656. 

Sedg-vrick,  Theodore,  jurist;  born  in 
Hartford,  Conn.,  in  May,  1746;  entered 
Yale  College,  and  left  it  without  gradu- 
ating in  1765.  Abandoning  the  study  of 
divinity  for  law,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1766.  An  earnest  patriot,  he  en- 
tered the  military  service  and  served  as 
aid  to  General  Thomas  in  the  expedition  to 
Canada  in  1776,  and  was  afterwards  active 
in  procuring  supplies  for  the  army.  Be- 
fore and  after  the  Revolutionary  War 
he  was  a  representative  in  the  Massachu- 
setts legislature,  and  in  1785-86  was  a 
delegate  in  the  Continental  Congress,  also 
in  the  national  Congress  from  1789  to 
1797.  He  performed  efficient  service  in 
putting  down  Shays's  insurrection ;  and 
he  was  one  of  the  most  influential  advo- 
cates of  the  national  Constitution,  in  the 


convention  in  Massachusetts,  in  1788.  He 
was  United  States  Senator  from  1796  to 
1799,  and  from  1802  until  his  death,  in 
Boston,  Jan.  24,  1813,  was  a  judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  Massachusetts. 

Sedition  Laws.  See  Alien  and  Se- 
dition Laws. 

Seeley,  Levi,  educator;  born  in  North 
Harpersfield,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  21,  1847;  grad- 
uated at  the  Albany  Normal  School, 
and  studied  three  years  in  German  uni- 
versities; was  appointed  Professor  of 
Pedagogy  at  the  Trenton  Normal  School 
in  1895.  He  is  the  author  of  The  Ameri- 
can Common  School  System;  The  Grube 
System  of  Numbers;  The  German  Common 
School  System  and  its  Lessons  to  Amer- 
ica; History  of  Education,  etc. 

Seelye,  Elizabeth  Eggleston,  author; 
born  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  Dec.  15,  1858; 
daughter  of  Edward  Eggleston  (q.  v.)  ; 
received  a  private  school  education;  was 
married  to  Elwyn  Seelye  in  1877,  and  set- 
tled near  Lake  George.  She  is  the  au- 
thor of  Tecumseh,  Montezuma,  Pocahon- 
tas (with  Edward  Eggleston)  ;  The  Story 
of  Columbus ;  The  Story  of  Washington; 
Lake  George  in  History;  Saratoga  and 
Lake  Champlain  in  History,  etc. 

Seelye,  JuLitrs  Hawley,  educator;  born 
in  Bethel,  Conn.,  Sept.  14,  1824;  gradu- 
ated at  Amherst  College  in  1849;  and  later 
studied  theology  in  Auburn  Seminary 
and  in  Halle,  Germany;  was  ordained 
and  became  pastor  of  the  First  Reformed 
Dutch  Church  in  Schenectady,  N.  Y., 
in  1853;  Professor  of  Mental  and  Moral 
Philosophy  in  Amherst  College  in  1858- 
75;  elected  to  Congress  in  1874;  presi- 
dent of  Amherst  College  in  1876,  resign- 
ing in  1890.  He  died  in  Amherst,  Mass., 
May   12,    1895. 

Seelye,  Laurenus  Clark,  educator; 
born  in  Bethel,  Conn.,  Sept.  20,  1837;  grad- 
uated at  Union  College  in  1857;  and  later 
at  Andover  Theological  Seminary,  and  at 
Berlin  and  Heidelberg  universities ;  was 
pastor  of  the  North  Congregational  Church, 
Springfield,  Mass,  in  1863-65;  Professor  of 
English  Literature  and  Oratory  at  Am- 
herst College  in  1865-74;  organized  and 
became  the  first  president  of  Smith  Col- 
lege, Northampton,  Mass.,  in  1873. 

Seeman,  Berthold,  traveller;  born  in 
Hanover,  Germany,  Feb.  28,  1825;  educated 
at  the  University  of  Gottingen.  In  1846 


he  was  appointed  naturalist  on  the  British  ing  of  Parsifal.    He  died  suddenly  in  New 

government  vessel  Herald,  which  made  an  York  City,  April  28,  1898. 

exploring    expedition    around    the    world.  Self-defence,  Law  of.  See  Livingston, 

He    published    Popular    'Nomenclature    of  Edward:    Capital  Punishment. 

the  American  Flora,  etc.    He  died  in  Nica-  Selfridge,   Thomas   Oliver,   naval  offi- 

ragua,  Oct.   10,  1871.  cer;  born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  April  24,  1804; 

Seidel,  Nathaniel,  missionary;  born  in  joined   the  navy  in    1818;    served   in  the 

Lauban,  Silesia,  Oct.  2,  1718;  was  ordained  Mexican  War  in  1847-48  as  commander  of 

in  the  Moravian  Church;   came  to  Amer-  the    sloop   Dale,    and   participated   in   the 

ica  in  1742,  and  became  an  untiring  evan-  capture   of   Matanzas   and   Guaymas.      He 

gelist  among  the  settlers  and  the  Indians;  served   creditably   during   the   Civil   War; 

spent  eighteen  years  of  uninterrupted  trav-  was  retired  on  reaching  the  age  limit  in 

el  principally  in  Pennsylvania,  Maryland,  April,  1866;  and  promoted  rear-admiral  in 

and  New  England  as  far  as   Boston.     In  July    following.       He    died    in    Waverly, 

1753    he    founded    a   Moravian    colony    in  Mass.,  Oct.  15,  1902. 

North  Carolina;  in  1761  was  made  presid-  Selfridge,   Ticomas   Oliver,   naval   offi- 

ing  bishop  of  his  church,  and  discharged  cer;   born  in  Charlestown,  Mass.,   Feb.   6, 

the  duties  of  that  office  with  great  faith-  1836;    son    of    Thomas    Oliver    Selfridge; 

fulness  until  his  death  in  Bethlehem,  Pa.,  graduated    at    the    United    States    Naval 

May  17,  1782.  Academy  in  1854;   was  promoted  lieuten- 

Seidl,  Anton,  orchestral  conductor;  ant  in  February,  1860;  was  second  lieu- 
born  in  Budapest,  Hungary,  May  7,  1850;  tenant  on  the  Cumberland  when  she  was 
studied  music  at  the  Leipsic  Conservatory,  sunk  in  Hampton  Roads  by  the  Merrimac; 
and  later  became  a  confidential  friend  and  was  commander  of  the  iron-clad  steamer 
amanuensis  of  Richard  Wagner  during  Cairo  when  she  was  destroyed  in  the 
the  latter's  labors  at  Bayreuth.  After  Yazoo  River  by  a  torpedo;  participated 
rapidly  rising  in  fame  as  Wagner's  as-  in  the  capture  of  Vicksburg  and  in  numer- 
sistant  conductor  and  as  a  general  con-  ous  other  important  actions;  promoted 
ductor  at  Leipsic  in  1878  as  the  leader  to  the  rank  of  captain  in  1881 ;  made  rear- 
of  the  Angelo  Neumann  tour  with  the  admiral  in  1896;  and  retired  in  1898,  at 
Nibelungen  dramas,  and  at  the  Bremen  which  time  his  father's  name  was  first  and 
Opera  House  in  1883-85,  Mr.  Seidl  was  his  own  last  on  the  list  of  admirals  (re- 
engaged,   in    1885,    as    conductor    for    the  tired). 

Metropolitan    Opera    House,    New    York,  Seligman,    Edwin    Robert    Anderson, 

to   succeed  Dr.   Leopold  Damrosch.     Dur-  educator;   born  in  New  York  City,  April 

ing    his    incumbency    of    this    post,    there  25,   1861;   graduated  at  Columbia  College 

were  produced  under  his  direction,  for  the  in    1879;    became    Professor    of    Political 

first    time    in    America,     Wagner's     Das  Economy  and  Finance  in  that  institution 

Rheingold;  Siegfried;   Gdtterddmmerung ;  in    1891.      He   is   the   author   of   Railtoay 

Tristan    und    Isolde;    and    Die    Meister-  Tariffs;    Finance    Statistics    of   American 

Sanger.     He  died  in  New  York,  March  28,  Commonwealth ;    The    Shifting    and    Tnci- 

1898.  dence  of  Taxation;  Progressive  Taxation 

In  addition  to  his  duties  as  conductor  in  Theory  and  Practice,  etc. 
at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  Mr.  Seminole  Indians,  a  tribe  of  Florida 
Seidl  was,  at  various  times  during  his  Indians,  made  up  of  two  bands  of  the 
residence  in  the  United  States,  conductor  Creeks,  who  withdrew  from  the  main  body 
of  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society,  in  1750,  and  remnants  of  tribes  who  had 
the  Seidl  Society,  the  Brighton  Beach  con-  come  in  contact  with  the  Spaniards.  The 
certs,  the  Astoria  concerts,  and  various  Seminoles  were  hostile  to  the  Americans 
other  musical  enterprises.  With  his  during  the  Revolutionary  War  and  after- 
orchestra  he  made  several  tours  through  wards.  The  Creeks  claimed  them  as  a 
the  country,  giving  concerts  in  nearly  all  part  of  their  nation,  and  included  them 
of  the  principal  cities.  In  the  summer  of  ia  a  treaty  with  the  United  States  in 
1897  he  was  one  of  the  conductors  at  1790;  but  the  Seminoles  repudiated  it  and 
the  Wagner  Festival  in  Bayreuth,  where  made  war  upon  the  Americans,  and  affili- 
he  attracted  much  attention  by  his  read-  a  ted  with  the   Spaniards  in   1793.     They 



were  also  enemies  of  the  United  States 
in  the  War  of  1812,  when  they  were  under 
Spanish  rule.  At  that  time  tliey  were  di- 
vided into  seven  clans,  and  were  rich  in 
live-stock  and  negro  slaves.  The  Creek 
War  led  to  trouble  between  the  Semi- 
noles  and  the  Georgians,  and  in  1817  they 
began   hostilities. 

Towards  the  close  of  that  year  a  motley 
host,  composed  chiefly  of  Seminoles  and 
runaway  negroes,  began  murderous  depre- 
dations upon  the  frontier  settlements  of 
Georgia  and  Alabama.  Gen.  E.  P.  Gaines, 
then  in  command  of  the  garrison  at  Fort 
Scott,  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Flint,  was 
ordered  to  suppress  these  outrages.  He 
demanded  of  the  Indians  on  the  opposite 
bank  the  surrender  of  certain  alleged  mur- 
derers; but  they  refused  to  give  them  up, 
on  the  ground  that  the  Georgians  had  been 
the  first  aggressors. 

Under  authority  from  the  War  Depart- 
ment to  expel  these  Indians  from  the 
lately  ceded  Creek  lands  north  of  the 
Florida  line,  Gaines  attacked  an  Indian 
village,  a  few  miles  below  Fort  Scott,  in 
the  night.     Three  or  four  of  the  inhabi- 


tants  were  killed  or  captured,  the  rest  es- 
caping into  the  woods.  In  another  skir- 
mish soon  afterwards  two  or  three  were 
killed  on  both  sides.  This  movement  of 
Gaines  aroused  the  fiercest  anger  of  the 
Indians,  who,  it  was  ascertained,  were 
incited  by  British,  subjects  protected  by 
the  Spanish  authorities  in  Florida.  The 
Indians  revenged  the  attacks  of  Gaines 
by  waylaying  a  boat  ascending  the  Apala- 
chicola  with  supplies  for  Fort  Scott.  Of 
forty  men  and  a  number  of  women  and 
children  on  board,  ah  were  killed  except 


six  men  and  one  woman.  Gainea  was  in 
a  perilous  position.  He  received  orders 
to  carry  the  war  into  Florida  if  neces- 
sary, with  directions,  however,  that  if 
the  Indians  took  refuge  under  any  Span- 
ish fort,  not  to  attack  it,  but  report  to 
the  War  Department.  For  his  o^vn  pro- 
tection he  called  out  a  body  of  Georgia 
militia ;  and  when  news  of  the  disaster 
on  the  Apalachicola  reached  the  govern- 
ment, General  Jackson,  who  commanded 
in  the  Southern  Department,  was  ordered 
(January,  1818)  to  take  the  field  in  per- 

With  1,000  Tennessee  mounted  volun- 
teers, Jackson  hastened  to  the  aid  of 
Gaines,  and  reached  Fort  Scott  March 
9,  after  a  march  of  400  miles.  These,  with 
a  body  of  Georgia  militia  and  1,000  reg- 
ulars at  Fort  Scott,  made  a  force  suf- 
ficient to  invade  Florida  if  necessary. 
Jackson  was  joined  by  friendly  Creeks, 
under  their  chief — Mcintosh — who  held 
the  commission  of  a  brigadier-general  in 
the  United  States  army.  So  short  were 
supplies  in  that  region  that  Jackson  had 
to  depend  vipon  provision-boats  ascending 
the  Apalachicola  from  New  Orleans,  and, 
as  a  depot  for  these  supplies,  he  built  a 
new  fort  on  the  site  of  the  old  Negro 
Fort,  and  called  it  Fort  Gadsden.  On 
March  26  he  marched  eastward  against 
the  Seminole  villages  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  present  city  of  Tallahassee,  being 
joined  on  the  way  by  a  fresh  body  of 
friendly  Creeks  (April  1)  and  a  few  more 
Tennessee  volunteers.  The  Seminoles  made 
but  slight  resistance.  Their  villages  were 
burned,  and  a  considerable  spoil  in  corn 
and  cattle  was  obtained.  Unrestrained 
by  such  orders  as  Gaines  had  received, 
and  satisfied  that  the  Seminoles  were  con- 
tinually encouraged  to  make  war  by  the 
British  and  Spaniards,  he  proceeded  to  the 
Spanish  post  of  St.  Mark's,  the  only  one 
in  that  region,  and  its  surrender  being  re- 
fused on  his  demand,  he  took  it  by  force, 
though  without  bloodshed. 

There  he  found  Alexander  Arbuthnot, 
a  Scotch  trader  with  the  Seminoles,  whom 
he  svispected  of  mischief,  and  held  him  a 
prisoner.  An  American  armed  vessel  on 
the  coast  having  hoisted  the  British  flag, 
two  refugee  Creek  chiefs  were  enticed  on 
board,  one  of  whom,  the  Prophet  Fran- 
cis, had  lately  visited  England  and  ex- 



cited  some  sympathy  there.  These  chiefs 
Jackson  hanged.  From  St.  Mark's  Jack- 
son marched  against  an  Indian  to^vn  on 
the  Suwanee  River  and  burned  it.  The 
Indians  and  negroes  there  were  led  in 
its  defence  by  Robert  Ambrister,  connected 
with  Arbuthnot  in  trading  enterprises,  and 
he,  too,  was  made  prisoner.  Returning  to 
St.  Mark's,  Arbuthnot  and  Ambrister  were 
tried  (April  26)  by  a  court-martial.  Both 
were  found  guilty  of  stirring  up  the  Ind- 
ians to  war,  and  executed. 

Meanwhile  one  or  two  other  Indian 
towns  were  destroyed  by  Georgians ;  and  a 
rumor  reaching  Jackson  of  encouragement 
being  given  by  the  Spanish  governor  at 
Pensacola  to  Indian  raids  into  Alabama, 
the  general  marched  for  that  place.  He 
was  met  on  the  way  by  a  protest  from  the 
governor  against  the  invasion  of  Florida, 
and  his  determination  to  resist  it  by  force. 
But  Jackson  pressed  on,  and  entered  Pen- 
sacola the  next  day  (May  24),  with  only  a 


show  of  resistance.  The  governor  fled  to 
the  fort  at  the  Barrancas,  which  Jackson 
assailed  with  cannon,  when  the  alarmed 
magistrate  thought  it  prudent  to  sur- 
render (May  27).  The  Spanish  authori- 
ties and  troops  were  sent  to  Havana.  When 
Jackson's  proceedings  in  Florida  were 
made  known  in  Washington  the  Spanish 
minister  (Don  Onis)  protested  against 
this  invasion  of  Spanish  territory.  Jack- 
son had  ended  the  Seminole  War,  and  the 
object  of  the  government  being  accom- 
plished, the  President  offered  to  restore 
Pensacola  at  once,  and  St.  Mark's  when- 
ever Spain  should  have  a  force  there  com- 
petent to  control  the  neighboring  Indians. 
The  Secretary  of  State  (J.  Q.  Adams) 
justified  Jackson's  conduct,  holding  that 
the  war  with  the  Seminoles  had  origi- 
nated entirely  in  the  instigations  of  Ar- 
buthnot and  Ambrister,  with  the  encour- 
agement of  the  Spanish  authorities. 

By  a  treaty  made  in  1823,  the  Seminoles 


gave  up  nearly  all  their  territory  for  a 
consideration;  but  some  refused  to  ac- 
cede, and  were  allowed  to  remain  on  small 
reserves,  with  the  understanding  that  they 
were  to  hunt  and  deliver  fugitive  slaves. 
Dissatisfaction  followed,  and  the  Geor- 
gians clamored  for  their  removal.  An  at- 
tempt to  remove  them  by  force  caused  the 
kindling  of  a  second  war  in  1835.  In  his 
annual  message  in  December,  1830,  Presi- 
dent Jackson  recommended  the  devotion 
of  a  large  tract  of  land  west  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi River  to  the  use  of  the  Indian 
tiibes  yet  remaining  east  of  it.  Congress 
passed  laws  in  accordance  with  this  rec- 
ommendation, and  in  May,  1832,  some  of 
the  chiefs  of  the  Creeks  and  Seminoles, 
in  council,  agreed  to  remove.  Other  chiefs 
and  the  great  body  of  the  nation  refused 


to  comply  with  the  terms  of  the  treaty, 
and  trouble  ensued.  In  1834  the  President 
sent  Gen.  Wiley  Thomson  to  Florida 
to  make  a  forcible  removal  of  the 
Seminoles  if  necessary.  Osceola  {q.  v.) 
stirred  up  the  nation  to  resistance.  One 
day  his  insolent  bearing  and  offensive 
words  in  Thomson's  presence  caused  that 
general  to  put  the  chief  in  irons,  and  in 
prison,  for  a  day.  Osceola's  wounded  pride 
called  for  vengeance,  and  it  was  fearfully 
wrought  during  a  war  that  lasted  about 
seven  years.  By  bravery,  skill,  strategy, 
and  treachery,  he  overmatched  United 
States  troops  sent  against  him  and  com- 
manded by  some  of  the  best  officers  in  the 
service;  but  he  was  secured  and  subdued 
finally  by  an  act  of  perfidy  on  the  part  of 
a  United  States  officer. 

The  first  blow  was  struck  in  the 
December  of  1835.  Osceola,  with 
all  the  cunning  of  a  Tecumseh  and 
the  heroism  of  a  Philip,  began  the 
war  by  an  act  of  perfidy.  He  had 
agreed  to  fulfil  treaty  stipulations, 
and  to  send  some  horses  and  cat- 
tle to  General  Thomson;  but  at  the 
very  time  he  was  to  do  so  he  was, 
with  a  small  war-party,  murdering 
the  unsuspecting  white  inhabitants 
on  the  borders  of  the  everglades,  a 
region  mostly  covered  with  water 
and  grass,  and  affording  a  secure 
hiding  -  place  for  the  Indians.  At 
that  time  General  Clinch  was  occu- 
pying Fort  Drane  with  a  small  body 
of  troops.  That  post  was  in  the 
interior  of  Florida,  40  miles  east- 
ward of  the  mouth  of  the  Withla- 
coochee  River,  and  the  garrison  was 
there  exposed  to  much  danger  from 
the  hostilities  of  the  Indians.  Major 
Dade,  with  more  than  100  soldiers, 
was  sent  from  Fort  Brooke,  at  the 
head  of  Tampa  Bay,  to  the  relief  of 
Clinch,  and,  falling  into  an  ambus- 
cade (Dec.  28),  he  and  his  followers 
were  all  massacred  excepting  fou? 
men,  who  afterwards  died  from  the 
effects  of  the  encounter.  That  event 
occurred  near  Wahoo  Swamp,  on  the 
upper  waters  of  the  Withlacoochee. 
On  the  same  day  Osceola  and  a 
small  war-party,  unobserved,  stole 
up  to  a  store  a  few  yards  from  Fort 
King   (about  60  miles  southwest  of 



ist.  Augustine),  where  General  Thomson 
and  five  of  his  friends  were  dining,  and 
murdered  them.  Osceola  killed  and  scalped 
the  general  with  his  own  hands,  and  so  he 
enjoyed  the  revenge  he  had  sought. 

Three  days  afterwards  General  Clinch 
had  a  sharp  fight  with  the  Seminoles  on 
the  Withlacoochee,  and  on  the  last  day  of 
February,  1836,  General  Gaines  was  as- 
sailed at  the  same  place.  The  Creeks 
helped  their  Florida  brethren  by  attack- 
ing white  settlers  within  their  domain  in 
the  spring  of  1836.  Being  successful,  they 
extended  their  forays  into  Georgia  and 
parts  of  Alabama,  attacking  mail-carriers 
on  horseback,  stage-coaches  on  the  land, 
and  steamboats  on  the  rivers;  and  finally 
they  assailed  villages,  and  thousands  of 
men,  women,  and  children  were  compelled 
to  fly  from  their  homes  and  seek  places  of 
safety  from  the  tomahawk,  the  bullet,  and 
the  scalping-knife.  Gen.  Winfield  Scott, 
in  chief  command  in  the  South  then,  prose- 
cuted the  war  against  the  Indians  with  so 
much  vigor  that  the  Creeks  were  speedily 
subdued,  and  during  the  summer  of  1836 
thousands  of  them  were  removed  to  lands 
west  of  the  Missisisippi.  At  about  the 
middle  of  Octcber  Governor  Call,  of 
Florida,  led  about  2,000  militia  and  volun- 
teers from  that  State  against  the  Semi- 
noles. Near  the  place  of  the  massacre  of 
Dade  and  his  command  a  detachment  of 
them,  about  500  in  number,  had  a  severe 
battle  with  the  Indians  on  Nov.  25,  but, 
like  all  other  encounters  with  these  Ind- 
ians in  their  swamp  fastnesses,  it  was 
not  decisive.  In  that  region  the  United 
States  troops  suffered  dreadfully  from 
miasmatic  fevers,  the  bites  of  venomous 
serpents,  and  the  stings  of  insects,  and 
the  year  1836  closed  with  no  prospect  of 
peace.  The  war  continued  all  winter  in 
that  mild  region. 

Finally,  in  March,  1837,  several  chiefs 
appeared  before  General  Jesup  (then  in 
chief  command  in  Florida),  at  his  quar- 
ters at  Fort  Dade,  and  signed  a  treaty 
which  was  intended  to  secure  an  immedi- 
ate peace  and  the  instant  departure  of  the 
Seminoles  to  the  new  home  prepared  for 
them  beyond  the  great  river.  The  wily 
Osceola  caused  this  treaty  to  be  violated, 
and  the  war  was  renewed;  and  it  con- 
tinued all  the  summer  of  1837,  during 
■which  many  troops  perished  in  the  swamps 
VIII. — H  1 

while  pursuing  the  Indians.  At  length 
Osceola,  several  chiefs,  and  seventy  war- 
riors appeared  in  Jesup's  camp  (Oct.  21), 
under  the  protection  of  a  flag,  with  friend- 
ly pretensions.  Jesup  determined  not  to 
trust  the  treacherous  Osceola  any  more. 
The  conference  was  held  in  a  grove  of  mag- 
nolias in  a  dark  swamp.  As  the  chief 
arose  to  speak  Jesup  gave  a  signal,  when 
two  or  three  of  his  soldiers  rushed  for- 
ward and  seized  and  bound  Osceola  with 
strong  cords.  He  made  no  resistance,  but 
several  of  his  excited  followers  drew  their 
gleaming  hatchets  from  their  belts.  They 
were  restrained  by  the  arms  of  Jesup's 
troops,  and  were  dismissed  without  their 
leader.  Osceola  was  sent  to  Charleston 
and  confined  in  Fort  Moultrie,  where  he 
died,  Jan.  31,  1839.  Jesup  was  severely 
censured  for  this  violation  of  the  sanctity 
of  a  flag  of  truce;  but  his  plea  in  justifica- 
tion was  that  it  was  the  only  way  to  stop 
the  distressing  war,  for  Osceola  could  not 
be  held  by  the  most  solemn  obligations  of 
a  treaty,  The  "  distressing  war "  had 
been  created  by  the  avarice  and  greed  of 
the  white  people,  who  were  seeking,  by 
legal  pretences  or  the  unjust  violence  of 
the  military  arm,  to  drive  an  ancient 
nation  from  their  rightful  soil. 

Although  the  capture  of  Osceola  was  a 
severe  blow  to  the  Seminoles,  they  con- 
tinued to  fight  for  their  country  under 
other  leaders,  notwithstanding  almost 
9,000  United  States  troops  were  in  their 
territory  at  the  close  of  1 837.  Their  fast- 
nesses in  the  everglades  could  not  be  pene- 
trated by  the  troops,  and  they  defied  them, 
even  after  they  had  received  severe  chas- 
tisement from  600  National  troops  under 
Col.  (afterwards  President)  Zachary  Tay- 
lor, who  had  succeeded  General  Jesup  in 
command.  This  chastisement  was  given 
them  in  a  battle  fought  on  Christmas  Day 
(1837)  on  the  northern  border  of  Lake 
Macaco.  After  that,  for  more  than  two 
years,  Taylor  and  his  men  endured  great 
hardships  in  Florida  in  attempts  to  bring 
the  war  to  a  close.  A  treaty  for  the  pur- 
pose was  concluded  in  May,  1839;  but  so 
lightly  did  its  obligations  bind  the  InfJ- 
ians  that  they  carried  on  their  depreda- 
tions whenever  opportimity  offered.  It 
was  not  until  1842  that  peace  was  perma- 
nently secured. 

This  war,  carried  on  almost  seven  years, 


cost  tho  United  States  1,466  lives  and 
$10,000,000.  Then  the  Seminoles  were  re- 
moved to  the  Indian  Territory,  and  only 
about  300  were  in  Florida  in  1842.  The 
negroes  were  taken  from  the  Seminoles 
in  their  new  home  in  such  numbers  that 
a  large  body  of  them  went  to  Mexico. 
About  hiilf  of  these  in  Florida  emigrated 
to  the  Indian  Territory  in  1858,  and  when 
joined  by  those  in  Mexico  they  numbered 
2,256.  The  tribe  was  divided  on  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  Civil  War,  and  a  large  por- 
tion of  them  became  allies  of  the  Con- 
federates. The  movement  was  disastrous 
lo  them.  Finally,  in  1866,  they  went 
upon  a  new  reservation  purchased  by  the 
United  States  of  the  Creeks,  where,  steady, 
sober,  and  industrious,  they  rank  next  to 
the  Cherokees  in  their  progress  in  civiliza- 
tion. In  1899  there  were  575  Seminoles 
in  Florida,  and  2,900  at  the  Union  agency 
in  Indian  Territory. 

Semitic  Race.  See  Jews  and  Juda- 

Semmes,  Raphael,  naval  officer;  born 
in  Charles  county,  Md..  Sept.  27,  1809; 
entered  the  United  States  navy  as  mid- 
shipman in  1826;  commanded  the  coast 
survey  steamer  Poinsett  in  1843,  and  the 
brig  Porpoise  in  1846.  In  the  war  against 
Mexico,  he  was  volunteer  aid  to  General 
Worth,  and  was  secretary  to  the  light- 
house board  from  1859  to  1861.  He  ac- 
cepted the  command  of  the  Confederate 
privateer  Sumter  (g.  v.),  with  which 
he  depredated  upon  American  commerce. 
In    England    the   fast-sailing   vessel    Ala- 

bama {q.  v.),  was  built,  furnished,  and 
chiefly  manned  for  him,  in  which  he  put 
to  sea  in  August,  1803,  and  made  a  de- 
structive cruise  against  American  vessels 
and  American  commerce.     She  was  sunk 


by  the  Kearsarge  off  Cherbourg,  June  19, 
1864.  Afterwards  Semmes  was  appointed 
Professor  of  Moral  Philosophy  in  the 
State  Seminary  of  Louisiana,  at  Alexan- 
dria. He  wrote  Service  Afloat  and  Ashore 
during  the  Mexican  War;  The  Campaign 
of  General  Scott  in  the  Valley  of  Mexico; 
Memoirs  of  Service  Afloat  during  the  War 
between  the  States;  and  The  Cruise  of  the 
Alahama.  He  died  in  Mobile,  Ala.,  Aug. 
30,  1877. 


Senate,  United  States.  The  following 
article  on  the  origin,  personnel,  organiza- 
tion, and  history  of  the  United  States  Sen- 
ate was  written  by  ex-Senator  W.  A.  Peffer. 

Being  Englishmen,  the  founders  of  the 
colonies  from  which  grew  the  United 
States  knew  little  of  any  form  of  govern- 
ment other  than  that  of  Great  Britain, 
so  their  descendants,  when  they  came  to 
form  a  government  of  their  own  and  to 
organize  its  powers,  were  naturally  in- 
clined to  adopt  the  English  system  in  so 
far  at  least  as  it  would  not  interfere  with 
the   free   exercise   of   popular   rights.    Ac- 


cordingly,  the  builders  of  the  Constitution, 
when  they  had  agreed  that  the  legislative 
department  of  the  proposed  government 
should  consist  of  a  Senate  and  House  of 
Kepresentatives,  and  when  their  discus- 
sions turned  upon  the  materials  of  which 
the  Senate  should  be  composed,  frequently 
alluded  to  the  House  of  Lords  and  the 
character  and  qualifications  of  its  members 
as  models  fit  to  be  studied. 

While  there  was  diversity  of  opinion 
among  the  delegates  concerning  the  num- 
ber of  Senators,  the  manner  of  choosing 
them,  their  duties,  etc.,  there  was  a  gen- 
eral agreement  that  it  would  be  well  to 


provide  for  one  legislative  body  whose 
members  would  probably  be  selected  with 
more  care  than  would  likely  be  exercised 
by  the  people  at  large  in  popular  elections, 
and  who,  therefore,  would  presumably 
be  less  susceptible  to  influences  of  sud- 
den movements  among  the  voters.  Mr. 
Madison  said :  "  The  use  of  the  Senate 
is  to  consist  in  its  proceeding  with  more 
coolness,  with  more  system,  and  with  more 
wisdom  than  the  popular  branch." 

The  then  existing  government  of  the 
United  States  was  administered  by  the 
Continental  Congress,  a  body  composed  of 
able,  patriotic,  brave  men,  but  they  had 
not  authority  to  levy  taxes  or  collect  rev- 
enues or  coin  money.  They  were  not  em- 
powered to  regulate  commerce,  either 
domestic  or  foreign.  In.  the  Articles  of 
Confedei-ation,  each  State  retained  its 
"  sovereignty,  freedom,  and  independence, 
and  every  power,  jurisdiction,  and  right," 
which  was  not  by  the  confederation  "  ex- 
pressly delegated  to  the  United  States  in 
Congress  assembled."  It  was  conceded  on 
all  hands  that  a  stronger  government  was 
necessary  for  the  safety  of  the  republic 
— a  government  with  full  powers  for  na- 
tional purposes,  having  original  and  ex- 
clusive jurisdiction  over  all  matters  ap- 
pertaining to  the  people  of  the  United 
States  as  a  nation,  and  the  convention 
called  for  May  14,  1787,  at  Philadelphia, 
was  held  for  the  purpose  of  preparing  a 
form  for  such  a  government. 

In  enumerating  the  powers  deemed  nec- 
essary for  the  successful  operation  of  the 
new  government  machinery,  the  several 
States  were  required  to  surrender  some 
important  prerogatives  of  sovereignty, 
and  in  order  to  make  sure  that  they  would 
not  be  overreached  by  the  federal  power 
and  that  the  small  States  would  not  be 
crowded  to  the  wall  by  the  larger  ones, 
it  was  provided  that  not  only  should  there 
be  two  Houses  of  Congress,  but  that  "  no 
State,  without  its  consent,  shall  be  de- 
prived of  its  equal  suffrage  in  the  Sen- 
ate." And  to  make  it  reasonably  certain 
that  every  State  would  always  be  repre- 
sented in  the  Senate,  it  was  further  pro- 
vided that  each  State  should  have  two 
Senators,  one  in  each  of  two  of  the  three 
classes  into  which  the  Senate  was  to  be 
divided,  and  that  each  Senator  should 
have  one  vote. 


The  Senators  first  chosen  answered  well 
to  the  ideals  outlined  by  delegates  in  the 
convention  which  created  the  office  of 
Senator.  One-half  of  them  had  been 
members  of  the  convention  that  framed 
the  Constitution,  and  seventeen  of  the 
twenty-two  had  taken  part  in  the  work 
of  the  Continental  Congress.  Eleven  of 
them  were  lawyers,  and  among  the  other 
half  the  record  shows  one  merchant,  one 
man  of  business,  one  physician,  and  one 

It  is  provided  in  the  Constitution  that 
the  Senators,  "  immediately  after  they 
shall  be  assembled  in  consequence  of  their 
first  election,  shall  be  divided  as  equally 
as  may  be  in  three  classes.  The  seats  of 
the  Senators  of  the  first  class  shall  be 
vacated  at  the  expiration  of  the  second 
year,  of  the  second  class  at  the  expira- 
tion of  the  fourth  year,  and  of  the  third 
class  at  the  expiration  of  the  sixth  year, 
so  that  one-third  may  be  chosen  every 
second  year."  In  pursuance  of  this  pro- 
vision the  members  of  the  Senate,  at  its 
first  session,  divided  themselves  by  lot 
into  three  classes,  according  to  the  fol- 
lowing order: 

"  Ordered,  that  the  secretary  put  into  the 
ballot-box  three  papers  of  equal  size,  one 
of  which  shall  be  numbered  1,  one  of  which 
shall  be  numbered  2,  and  one  of  which  shall 
be  numbered  3.  The  Senator  from  each  of 
said  States  whose  name  comes  first  in  alpha- 
betical order  shall  thereupon  in  the  presence 
of  the  Senate,  draw  one  of  said  papers  from 
the  box  in  behalf  of  his  State.  The  Senators 
from  the  States  drawing  the  paper  numbered 
1  shall  thereupon  first  be  assigned  to  their 
respective  classes.  The  Senators  from  the 
States  drawing  paper  number  2  shall  next 
be  assigned  to  their  respective  classes.  The 
Senators  from  the  States  drawing  paper  num- 
ber 3  shall  next  be  assigned  to  their  respective 

That  classification  has  been  strictly  fol- 
lowed from  that  time  to  the  present. 
Every  Senator  chosen  since  from  any  of 
the  States  then  and  there  represented  has 
gone  into  the  class  of  his  first  predecessor 
in  line,  and  when  a  new  State  has  been 
admitted  its  first  Senators  were  assigned 
to  their  classes  by  lot,  just  as  was  done 
in  the  first  instance,  and  their  successors 
have  followed  in  the  same  classes.  This 
classification  of  its  members  makes  the 
Senate  a  permanent  and  continuing  body. 
Two-thirds  of  its  members  are  always  in 


office.     There  is  never  less  than  a  quorum  Such  a  body,  clothed  as  this  is  with  the 

of    its    members    ready    for    duty.      The  power    to    ratify    treaties,    renders    com- 

House  of  Representatives  is  chosen  anew  plications  with   foreign   governments   less 

every  two  years.    Xo  member  of  that  body  probable  and  our  obligations  more  likely 

ever    holds    over.      When    the    House    ad-  to  be  observed. 

journs    sine    die   at    12    m.,    March    4,    of        The  installation  of  the  new  Senators  is 

the  odd-numbered  years,  the  term  of  that  a  very  simple  proceeding.     As  their  names 

House  is  ended,   and  until   the  new  Con-  are    called    in    alphabetical    order   by   the 

gress  meets  there  is  no  House  of  Repre-  secretary  of  the   Senate  they  go  forward 

sentatives.     When  the  members  chosen  at  to  the  Vice-President's  desk,  escorted  usu- 

the  last  election  meet  in  special  or  regular  ally   by   their   State  colleagues,   and  take 

session,   they   must   organize   by   choosing  the  oath  of  office. 

a  speaker,  clerk,  and  sergeant-at-arms  be-        If,  for   any  reason,  the  Vice-President- 

fore  they  can  do  any  business,  even  to  the  elect  should  not  appear  at  the  beginning 

extent   of   receiving  a   message  from   the  of  the  session,  the  duties  of  his  office  are 

President.     It  must  adopt  new  rules  or  re-  performed  by  the  president  pro  tempore; 

adopt  old  ones.     In  law  and  in  fact  it  is  and  in  case  of  the  latter's  absence  another 

wholly  a  new  body  fresh  from  the  people,  Senator    previously    agreed    upon    would 

though    some    of    its   members   may   have  take  the  oath  and  discharge  the  duties  of 

been  there  before.  the  chair  until  the  Vice-President  appear 

Not    so    with    the    Senate.     Its    officers  or  the  Senate  determine  otherwise. 
hold  continuously  until  they  are  relieved        If  a  vacancy  happen  in  a  Senator's  term 

by   the   choice   of   others.     The   Senate   is  by  death,   resignation,   or  otherwise,  dur- 

always  organized.     The  rules  of  the  body  ing  a  recess  of  the  legislature  of  his  State, 

never  change,  or  they  go  out  of  force  only  the   executive  thereof   may  make   a  tem- 

in   accord   with   methods   provided   in   the  porary  appointment  to  hold  until  the  next 

rules   themselves.     On   the   incoming  of  a  meeting    of    the    legislature,    which    shall 

new   administration,   March   4,   at    12   m.,  thea    fill    such    vacancy.     The    person    so 

the   Senate   is   then   regularly   in   session,  appointed  or  elected  does  not  hold  beyond 

for   that   is   the   closing   hour   of   a   term  the  end  of  that  senatorial  term.     In  case 

of  Congress — two  years.     The  new  Vice-  the  legislature  fail  to  choose  a  Senator  at 

President   appears   at  the   side  of  his   re-  the  proper  time  the  governor  is  not  au- 

tiring   predecessor   and   receives   the   oath  thorized    to    appoint.     The    vacancy    con- 

of    office    from    him.     This    done,    the   old  tinues  until  the  next  meeting  of  the  legis- 

Vice-President  formally  declares  the  Sen-  lature.     The  word  "  meeting  "  in  this  case 

ate    adjourned    sine    die    and    hands    the  is  construed  to  include  the  whole  session, 
gavel    over    to    his    successor,    who    says, 

"  The  Senate  will  be  in  order,"  and  at  once        "  •  No  person  shall  be  a  Senator  who  shall 

proceeds    to    business,    without    the    least  not  have  attained  to  the  age  of  thirty  years, 

confusion  or  interruption.     He  enters  im-  ^°"^  ^^^^  °*^®  ^^^^^  ^  citizen  of  the  United 

^^Ai^4.^-i  j-i-      J-     1  i-  1  •      1  states,    and    who    shall    not,    when    elected, 

mediately   upon   the   discharge   of  his   du-  be  an  inhabitant  of  that  State  for  which  he 

ties.     The  officers  of  the  Senate  are  present  shall  be  chosen.'     No   Senator   shall,   during 

in    their    places,    the    reporters    at    their  ^^^   time   for   which   he   was   elected,   be   ap- 

tables.  the  seargeant-at-arms  and  his  corps  ITJ"^^  *".  t°-\'n 'I  ""^'l  """^^  ^^%  ^°"^^ 

,         ■   ,       ,        *i,  J    ,  vi^  v-uipa  gj^a^gg   ^h,ch   shall   have  been   created,   or  of 

01  assistants — all  on  duty,  and  the  stand-  which    the    emoluments    shall    have    been    in- 

ing  and  select  committees  of  the  body  are  creased,  during  such  term.     No  person  hold- 

readv   to    receive    and    consider    any   mat-  '°S  ^"^  ^^^^  under  the  United  States  shall 

i^r-   +v,o+    «,„,,   u         t         J    i      XT  mi  be   a   member   of  the   Senate   during  his  con- 

ter   that   may  be   referred   to   them.     The  tinuance  in  such  office.     No  person  shall  be 

Senate     is     already     organized.      In     law  a  Senator  who,  having  as  a  federal  or  State 

and  in  fact  it  is  now  the  same  body  that  officer,  taken  an  oath  to  support  the  Consti- 

counted    its    first   quorum    on    the    6th    of  t"tion      afterwards     engaged      in      rebellion 

A      -1    17QQ  against   the    United    States,   unless   Congress 

.-iprii,  libj.  remove  such  disability." 

The    effect    of    this    continuity    of    the 
Senate    has    been    to   give    character    and        Usually    men    beyond    middle    age    are 

weight  to  its  proceedings,  to  inspire  con-  selected    for    Senators.     The    oldest    mem- 

fidence  at  home  and  insure  respect  abroad,  ber    of    the   body   at   any   time    in    office, 



Justin  S.  Morrill,  of  Vermont,  was 
born  April  14,  1810,  and  died  Dec.  28, 
1898,  in  his  eighty-ninth  year.  He  had 
been  longer  in  the  Senate,  too,  than  any 
other  man,  having  entered  on  March  4, 
1867.  Henry  Clay  entered  the  Senate 
at  an  earlier  age  than  any  other.  He 
was  appointed  Nov.  19,  1806,  to  fill  a 
vacancy.  Mr.  Clay  was  born  April  12, 

Among  the  curious  facts  connected  with 
the  personal  history  of  some  of  the  Sena- 
tors may  be  mentioned  these:  Gen.  James 
Shields  represented  three  different  States 
in  the  Senate — Illinois,  from  March  4, 
1849,  till  March  3,  1855;  Minnesota,  from 
May  12,  1858,  till  March  3,  1859;  Mis- 
souri, from  Jan.  24,  1879,  till  March  3, 
1879.  Three  men  of  the  same  family — 
James  A.  Bayard,  his  son  of  the  same 
name,  and  his  grandson,  Thomas  F.  Bay- 
ard— represented  Delaware,  the  first  from 
January,  1805,  till  March,  1813;  the  sec- 
ond from  April,  1867,  till  March,  1869, 
and  the  third  from  March,  1869,  till  March, 
1885.  Three  other  men  of  the  same  family 
name  also  represented  Delaware  in  the 
Senate — .Joshua  Clayton,  from  Jan.  19, 
1798,  till  his  death  the  following  July; 
Thomas  Clayton,  from  Jan.  8,  1824,  till 
March  3,  1827,  and  again  from  Jan.  9, 
1837,  till  March  3,  1847;  John  M.  Clayton, 
from  March  4,  1845,  till  Feb.  23,  1849, 
and  again  from  March  4,  1853,  till  his 
death,  Nov.  9,  1856.  Three  men  named 
Bell,  two  of  them  brothers,  the  third  a 
son  of  one  of  them,  represented  New 
Hampshire  in  the  Senate — Samuel  Bell, 
from  March  4,  1823,  till  March  4,  1835; 
his  son,  James  Bell,  from  July  30,  1855, 
till  May  26,  1859,  and  Charles  Henry  Bell 
from  March  13,  1879,  till  June  17,  1879. 
At  one  time  during  the  Cleveland  admin- 
istration both  of  the  Senators  from  each 
of  three  diflferent  States  resided  in  the 
same  city,  and  three  Senators  occupying 
adjoining  seats  and  representing  two 
States  were  born  in  adjoining  counties 
in  one  State.  In  1892  two  Senators,  rep- 
resenting one  State,  had  been  private 
soldiers  in  one  and  the  same  volunteer 
regiment  of  the  Union  army. 

Eleven  Senators  afterwards  became 
Presidents  of  the  United  States — Monroe, 
Adams  (J.  Q.),  Jackson,  Van  Buren,  Har- 
rison   (William   H.),   Tyler,   Pierce,   Bu- 


chanan,  Johnson,   Garfield,   and   Harrison 

The  first  Senator  that  died  during  his 
term  was  William  Grayson,  of  Virginia, 
whose  death  occurred  March  1,  1790.  The 
custom  of  taking  public  and  official  action 
on  the  decease  of  a  Senator  and  of  incur- 
ring expense  on  account  thereof  was  of 
slow  growth.  During  the  first  thirty-seven 
years  of  the  Senate's  history  twenty-two 
of  its  members  died  and  no  expense  was 
incurred  by  Congress  in  their  behalf.  The 
first  record  of  the  Senate's  official  action 
of  any  character  in  such  cases  appears  in 
the  Journal  of  Jan.  24,  1799,  as  follows: 
"  Besolved,  that  a  committee  be  appoint- 
ed to  take  order  for  superintending  the 
funeral  of  the  said  Henry  Tazewell,  Esq., 
and  that  the  Senate  will  attend  the  same, 
and  that  notice  of  the  event  be  given  to 
the  House  of  Representatives,  and  that 
this  committee  consist  of  Messrs.  Mason, 
Brown,  and  Marshall." 

The  first  time  any  part  of  a  deceased 
Senator's  funeral  expenses  was  paid  out 
of  public  funds  was  on  the  occasion  of 
the  death  of  John  Gaillard,  of  South  Caro- 
lina, who  died  Feb.  26,  1826.  Two  other 
Senators  died  that  year — Nicholas  Van 
Dyke,  of  Delaware,  May  19,  and  Joseph 
Mcllvaine,  of  New  Jersey,  Aug.  19. 
The  average  public  expense  incurred  on 
account  of  these  three  deaths  was  $292.47. 
Within  the  next  twenty-two  years — from 
1826  to  1847,  inclusive — twenty-seven  Sen- 
ators died,  and  the  remains  of  eleven  of 
them  were  interred  at  the  government's 
expense.  The  average  expenditure  in 
those  cases  was  $618.80.  From  1848  to 
1867,  inclusive,  twenty-eight  Senators  died, 
and  eighteen  of  them  were  buried  by  the 
Senate  at  an  average  expenditure  of  $1,- 
365.13.  The  record  from  1869  to  1894* 
shows  thirty  deaths  in  the  Senate,  and  all 
but  five  of  these  were  the  occasion  of  more 
or  less  outlay  of  public  money,  the  aggre- 
gate amounting  to  $68,849.96,  an  average 
of  $2,754.  In  all,  up  to  1894,  there  were 
fifty-four  interments  from  and  by  the 
Senate,  and  the  last  thirteen  cost  more, 
by  $4,139.82,  than  all  of  the  other  forty- 

*  There  have  been  a  number  of  deaths  in 
the  Senate  since  1894,  but  this  writer  has 
not  inquired  about  the  details  of  their 
obsequies.  Presumably  the  precedents  were 
followed  in  each  case. 


one.  The  total  amount  of  public  moneys 
expended  on  account  of  senatorial  funer- 
als, up  to  1S94,  is  $100,234.18,  ranging 
from  $4.50  in  one  case  to  $21,322.55  in 
another.     The  average  is  $1,856.37. 

These  funeral  occasions  are  now  accom- 
panied by  a  great  deal  of  ceremonial  dis- 
play. The  casket  is  placed  in  the  open 
space  in  front  of  the  reporter's  tables, 
and  the  services  are  attended  by  the  Presi- 
dent and  cabinet,  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, the  justices  of  the  Supreme 
Court  in  their  black  robes,  and,  in  full 
court  dress,  the  resident  ambassadors  and 
ministers  of  foreign  countries.  Each  of 
these  bodies,  as  they  approach  the  outer 
door  of  the  chamber,  is  announced  by  the 
doorkeeper,  and  the  Senators  rise  to  re- 
ceive them.  When  the  services  are  con- 
cluded a  committee  previously  appointed, 
usually  consisting  of  five  Senators  and 
an  equal  number  of  members  of  the  House, 
accompany  the  remains  of  the  deceased  to 
his  home  and  witness  the  interment  there. 

At  first  it  was  only  in  cases  of  death  at 
the  capital  during  a  session  of  Congress 
that  the  Senate  felt  called  upon  to  make 
a  national  matter  of  the  funeral  and  draw 
on  the  contingent  fvmd  to  defray  the  ex- 
penses. Latterly  a  custom  has  grown  to 
send  a  committee  to  attend  the  ceremo- 
nies of  interment  when  a  Senator  dies  at 
home  while  Congress  is  in  session. 

In  connection  with  the  decease  of  Sena- 
tors a  memorial  service  is  held  in  the 
Senate  chamber  a  month  or  so  after  the 
time  of  the  death,  when  addresses  are  de- 
livered in  memory  of  the  dead  Senator. 
These  addresses  are  usually  very  care- 
fully prepared.  They  are  printed  in  the 
Congressional  Record,  the  same  as  re- 
marks submitted  in  the  same  place  on 
other  subjects,  and  they  are  also  printed 
in  book  form,  8,000  copies  in  each  ease 
(under  existing  law),  2,000  for  the  use 
of  the  Senate,  4,000  for  the  use  of  the 
House  of  Representatives,  1,950  for  the 
use  of  Senators  and  Congressmen  from 
the  State  of  the  deceased,  and  fifty 
copies  in  extra  binding  for  the  use  of  his 
family.  The  printing  and  binding  of 
these  memorial  addresses  cost  about 
$3,000.  The  exact  figures  as  given  in  the 
report  of  the  public  printer  for  the  fiscal 
year  ending  .June  30,  1806,  are  $9,195.88 
for  the  materials  and  work  done  in  print- 


ing  and  binding  8,000  copies  of  the  me- 
morial addresses  in  each  case  of  the 
deaths  of  three  Senators.  The  average  is 

A  similar  custom  prevails  in  the  House 
of  Representatives.  The  expense  for  print- 
ing and  binding  memorial  addresses  in 
memory  of  fifty  -  four  deceased  Senators 
and  Congressmen  from  1885  to  1895,  both 
inclusive,  was  $233,520.44. 

As  to  compensation  of  Senators  and 
Representatives,  it  is  to  be  "  ascertained 
by  law."  That  is  the  language  of  the 
Constitution,  and  it  means  that  Congress 
shall  fix  its  own  compensation. 

No  distinction  has  ever  been  made  be- 
tween members  of  the  two  Houses  in  re- 
spect to  the  amount  of  their  pay.  Their 
compensation  has  always  been  equal.  By 
the  act  of  Sept.  22,  1789,  it  was  fixed  at 
$6  for  every  day's  attendance,  and  an 
equal  sum  for  every  20  miles'  travel 
going  to  and  returning  from  the  "  seat 
of  Congress."  This  rule  was  to  remain 
in  force  until  March  4,  1795,  when  it 
was  to  be  changed  to  $7  per  day  and  mile- 
age to  correspond.  Marcli  10,  1796,  the 
law  of  1789  was  re-enacted  and  it  re- 
mained in  force  until  the  act  of  March  19, 
1816,  increased  the  pay  to  $1,500  a  year, 
subject  to  deduction  for  absence  not  oc- 
casioned by  sickness  or  other  unavoidable 

This  act  was  repealed  the  6th  day  of 
the  following  February  (1817),  and  on 
Jan.  22,  1818,  the  compensation  of  each 
Senator  and  Representative  was  fixed  at 
$8  for  every  day's  attendance  and  $8 
"  for  every  20  miles  of  estimated  distance, 
by  the  most  usual  road  from  his  place 
of  residence  to  the  seat  of  Congress,  at 
the  commencement  and  end  of  every  such 
session  and  meeting."  This  act  was  to 
cover  the  time  from  March  3,  1817,  and 
it  remained  in  force  until  Aug.  16,  1856, 
when  the  rate  of  compensation  was 
changed  from  $8  a  day  to  $6,000  for  each 
Congress  (two  years),  mileage  remaining 
the  same  as  before,  for  but  only  one 
session  each  year. 

By  act  of  July  28,  1866,  a  yearly  salary 
of  $5,000  was  allowed  with  mileage  at  the 
rate  of  20  cents  per  mile  to  and  from 
each  regular  session,  "  estimated  by  the 
nearest  route  usually  travelled." 

The  act  of  March  3,  1873,  fixed  the 


salary  at  $7,500  a  year  and  actual  indi- 
vidual travelling  expenses  to  and  from 
each  session  "  by  the  most  direct  route  of 
usual  travel."  This  act  applied  to  the 
Congress  that  passed  it,  covering  two 
years,  and  from  that  fact  became  known 
as  the  "  salary-grab "  law.  It  was  re- 
pealed at  the  neyl  session,  Jan.  20,  1874, 
in  so  far  as  it  applied  to  members  of  the 
Senate  and  House  of  Representatives,  and 
their  compensation  was  put  at  $5,000  a 
year  with  mileage  at  the  rate  of  20  cents 
per  mile  to  and  from  each  regular  session. 

Most  of  these  acts  were  retroactive  in 
their  operation,  that  of  Sept.  22,  1789, 
covering  the  time  from  the  beginning  of 
that  Congress.  The  act  of  March  10,  1796, 
extended  back  six  days.  The  act  of  March 
19,  1816,  covered  the  time  from  March  4, 
1815,  The  act  of  Jan.  2,  1818,  applied  to 
fifty- three  days  of  past  time.  The  act  of 
Aug.  16,  1856,  applied  to  all  the  time  from 
March  4,  1855.  The  act  of  July  28,  1866, 
reached  back  to  March  4,  1865.  The  act 
of  March  3,  1873,  covered  the  whole  term 
of  that  Congress,  beginning  March  4,  1871 
• — two  years. 

There  has  not  been  any  general  law  al- 
loAving  mileage  for  attendance  upon  spe- 
cial or  extraordinary  sessions.  Where  it 
has  been  authorized  it  was  by  special  act 
applicable  to   the   particular   session. 

There  have  been  two  rules  regulating 
the  compensation  of  Senators  and  Repre- 
sentatives, one  before  the  war  of  the  Re- 
bellion, the  other  since.  The  earlier  acts 
were  all  drawn  on  lines  of  actual  service 
■ — so  much  a  day  for  each  day  of  attend- 
ance upon  the  sessions,  excepting  days  of 
sickness  or  unavoidable  absence.  The  act 
of  1856,  in  section  4,  provided: 

"  That  in  the  event  of  the  death  of  any 
Senator,  Representative,  or  Delegate  prior 
to  the  commencement  of  the  first  session  of 
the  Congress,  he  shall  be  entitled  neither  to 
mileage  nor  compensation  ;  and  in  the  event 
of  death  after  the  commencement  of  any 
session  his  representatives  shall  be  entitled 
to  receive  so  much  of  his  compensation,  com- 
puted at  the  rate  of  $3,000  per  annum,  as 
he  may  not  have  received,  and  any  mileage 
that  may  have  actually  accrued  and  be  due 
and  unpaid." 

Section  6  of  the  same  act  provided: 

"  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  sergeant- 
8t-arms  of  the   House  and  secretary  of   the 


Senate,  respectively,  to  deduct  from  the  . 
monthly  payments  to  members,  as  herein 
provided  for,  the  amount  of  his  compensation 
for  each  day  that  such  member  shall  be 
absent  from  the-  House  or  Senate  respective- 
ly, unless  such  Representative,  Senator,  or 
Delegate  shall  assign  as  the  reason  for  such 
absence  the  sickness  of  himself  or  some  mem- 
ber of  his  family." 

The  Vice-President,  being  in  doubt  when 
the  compensation  of  Senators  that  had 
been  chosen  since  the  session  commenced 
should  begin,  submitted  the  question  to 
the  Senate  and  it  was  referred  to  the 
judiciary  committee,  who,  through  Mr. 
Toombs,  March  2,  1857,  submitted  a  re- 
port, from  which  the  following  extracts 
are  taken: 

"  Though  the  mode  of  payment  is  by  annual 
salary,  the  consideration  therefor,  in  the 
contemplation  of  the  act  (of  1856),  was  per- 
formance of  the  duties  of  a  member  of  Con- 
gress when  in  actual  session,  and  the  times 
of  payment  seem  to  have  been  fixed  during 
or  at  the  end  of  each  session,  with  special 
reference  to  securing  this  consideration.  .  .  . 
Testing  the  cases  submitted  to  us  by  those 
principles,  we  find  the  rule  of  compensation 
in  all  cases  of  election  after  the  first  day  of 
the  first  regular  session  to  be  that  the  com- 
pensation does  not  commence  until  after 
election,  and  from  thence  to  the  end  of  the 
term,  at  the  rate  of  $3,000  per  annum." 

Minnesota  was  admitted  as  a  State  May 
11,  1858,  and  her  Senators,  who  had  been 
elected  Dec.  19,  1857,  appeared  and  took 
their  seats  May  12,  1858.  The  question 
when  their  compensation  should  commence 
arose,  and  the  judiciary  committee  re- 
ported that  they  should  be  paid  from  the 
date  of  the  State's  admission. 

They  were  paid  from  the  beginning  of 
the  session  at  which  the  State  was  ad- 
mitted. But  the  question  was  not  settled. 
Oregon  was  admitted  Feb.  14,  1859; 
Kansas,  Jan.  29,  1861;  West  Virginia, 
Dec.  31,  1862;  Nevada,  Oct.  31,  1864. 
During  all  this  time  the  act  of  1856  was 
in  force.  Then  came  the  act  of  July  11, 
1866,  and  Nebraska  was  admitted  March 
1,  1867.  The  reorganization  of  the  recon- 
structed States  and  the  admission  of  their 
Senators  kept  the  matter  alive  until  the 
new  Northwestern  States  came  in.  The 
Senators  from  Tennessee  were  seated  July 
27,  1866,  and  paid  from  March  4,  186.5, 
the  beginning  of  the  Congress  then  in  be- 
ing ( the  Thirty-fifth ) .  A  Senator  from 


Maryland   was   elected   for   the   term   be-  The  Constitution  provides  that: 

ginning  March   4,    1867,   but  he  was  not  ..  rj,jjg  vice-President  of  the  United  States 

admitted    and    received    no    compensation,  shall   be   president   of   the   Senate,   but  shall 

Alarch  7,  1868,  another  person  was  elected  have  no  vote  unless  they  be  equally  divided. 

*     „„  ,    '                          ,  ,  .         ,     „  ,„„„  ^„:j  The   Senate  shall   choose  their  other  officers 

to  fill  the  vacancy  and  his  salaiy  was  paid  ^^^    ^j^^    ^    president    pro    tempore    in    the 

to  him  from  March  4,  1867,  the  beginning  absence    of    the    Vice-President    or    when    he 

of    the    term.     Senators    from    Alabama,  shall  exercise  the  office  of  President  of  the 

Arkansas,     South     Carolina,     and     other  United  States." 

Southern    States    claimed   and   finally    se-  The    first    duty   of   the    Senate,   on    its 

cured   payment   of   salaries   from   the   be-  organization,     April     6,     1789,     was     the 

ginning  of  the  terms  for  which  they  were  choosing  of  a  President  pro  tempore  for 

elected  without  reference  to   the  time  of  the  sole  purpose  of  opening  and  counting 

their  election.  the   (electoral)  votes  for  President  of  the 

By  a  proviso  in  the  legislative  appropri-  United  States, 
ation  bill  of  July  31,  1894,  it  was  enacted  John  Langdon,  of  New  Hampshire,  was 
that  in  cases  of  the  election  or  appoint-  chosen  by  ballot.  After  the  votes  had 
ment  of  Senators  after  the  beginning  been  counted  and  the  members  of  the 
of  a  term  their  compensation  should  House  of  Representatives  had  retired,  the 
begin  the  day  of  their  election  or  ap-  Senate  proceeded  by  ballot  to  the  choice 
pointment.  The  legislatures  of  Montana  of  president  pro  tempore  and  John  Lang- 
and  Wyoming  failed  to  choose  Senators  at  don  was  duly  elected.  He  held  his  office 
their  sessions  in  1893  for  the  terms  be-  only  until  the  Vice-President  appeared, 
ginning  March  4  of  that  year,  but  did  elect  In  the  beginning  and  until  recently  a 
Senators  for  that  term  at  their  sessions  in  president  pro  tempore  was  chosen  every 
January,  1895.  The  credentials  of  these  time  the  Vice-President  was  absent.  It 
Senators  were  filed  in  the  Senate — one  of  is  now  the  rule  that  the  office  is  held  at 
them  Jan.  29,  1895,  the  other  Feb.  2  the  pleasure  of  the  Senate;  until  the  Vice- 
following.  They  appeared  and  took  the  President  resumes  the  chair  or  his  term  as 
oath  of  office,  one  on  Feb.  2,  the  other  on  a  Senator  expires,  the  president  pro  tern- 
the  6th  of  the  same  month.  By  a  resolu-  pore  continues  in  office  unless  the  Senate 
tion   of   the    Senate,   April    24,    1896,   the  otherwise  determine. 

secretary  of  the  Senate  was  directed  to  During  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of  Vice- 
pay  them  from  March  4,  1893,  the  begin-  President,  and  while  the  Vice-President 
ning  of  the  term,  until  July  31,  1894,  the  exercises  the  office  of  President  of  the 
date  of  the  proviso  in  the  appropriation  United  States,*  the  president  pro  tempore 
bill  above  mentioned,  which  had  taken  ef-  of  the  Senate  receives  the  salary  of  a 
feet  nearly  six  months  before  the  Senators  Vice-President,  but  he  has  no  vote  other 
were  elected.  than  that  of  a  Senator. 

Section  6  of  the  act  of  Aug.   16,   1856,  Of  the  twenty- four  Vice-Presidents,  one 

requiring  deductions  of  pay  for  absence  of  (Calhoun)    resigned;    four    (Gerry,   King, 

Senators  and  Representatives  is  preserved  Wilson  and  Hendricks)   died  in  office;  and 

in  the  revised  statutes,  section  40,  and  is  five  (Tyler,  Fillmore,  Johnson,  Arthur,  and 

now  the  law.  Roosevelt)    exercised   the   office   of   Presi- 

Joint  Resolution  No.  68,  approved  July,  dent  of  the  United  States  during  vacan- 

1862,  provides:  cies  in  that  office  occasioned  by  death. 

..  _,,                       .            J  ,      X       -XT,/,  „„„  All   of  the   twenty-four   Vice-Presidents 

"When  any  member  or  delegate  withdraws  ,,t     ^             j    ou.                \ 

from  his  seat  and  does  not  return  before  the  except   two  (Morton   and   Stevenson),    are 

adjournment  of  Congress,  he  shall,  in  addition  dead.     Their     average     age     was     seventy 

to   the  sum  deducted  for  each  day,   forfeit  a  ygaj-g^ 

sum   efjiial   to  the  amount  which  would  have    ^   „•  \     j-v  e     „<. T,„,r„     ^^^-r^A     „„ 

been   allowed   by   law   for  his   travelling  ex-  Sixty-three    Senators    have    served    aa 

penses  in  returning  home  ;  and  such  sum  shall  presidents    pro    tempore.     They    belonged 

be  deducted  from  his  rompensation,  unless  the  to  twenty-two  different  States,  Virginia 
withdrawal    is   with   the   leave  of   the   Senate 

or  House  of  Representatives  respectively,"  *  Whether  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of  Vlce- 

__  ,              .  ,           ,        .                      3   .      .,  President   is   occasioned    by   that   officer's   ex- 

This  provision,  also,  is  preserved  in  the  ercislng  the  office  of  President  of  the  United 

revised  statutes  as  section  41.  States  has  not  been  determined. 



leading   with    six;    Connecticut,    Georgia,  tainment,  and  pays  all  the  bills.    He  exe- 

North    Carolina,    New    Hampshire,    Ohio,  cutes  all  orders  of  the  Senate  relating  to 

Pennsylvania,  South  Carolina,  Tennessee,  any  matter  of  an  executive  character.     He 

and   Vemiont   each   had   three;    Alabama,  is    to   the    Senate   what   a   marshal   or    a 

Kentucky,  Maryland,  Massachusetts,  and  sheriff  is  to  a  court.     He  is  the  Senate's 

Eliode    Island    each    had    two;    Delaware,  executive  oflScer. 

Illinois,  Indiana,  Kansas,  Michigan,  The  principal  ofRces  of  the  Senate  are 
Mississippi,  Missouri,  Nebraska,  New  Jer-  honorable  as  well  as  responsible.  They 
sey,  and  New  York  each  had  one.  The  require  a  high  order  of  talent  combined 
present  incumbent  (Mr.  Frye)  is  from  with  good  executive  ability.  Two  mem- 
Maine,  bers    of   the    Senate    each    afterwards    be- 

The    other    important    officers    of    the  came   its   secretary.     In   several   instances 

Senate  are  the  secretary  and  sergeant-at-  men  who  had  been  members  of  the  House 

arms.     The   secretary,   in   addition  to   his  of    Representatives   have    been    elected   to 

responsibility   for   the   official   conduct   of  offices  in  the  Senate. 

a  large  number  of  clerks,  readers,  report-  The  number  of  persons  employed  in  one 
crs,  copyists,  and  other  subordinates  about  capacity  or  another  in  and  about  the 
his  office,  has  charge  of  everything  con-  Senate  is  over  300.  An  investigation 
nected  with  the  records,  journals,  reports,  recently  discovered  353,  among  whom  were 
bills,  and  other  documents,  papers,  and  121  clerks,  fifty-seven  messengers,  fifty- 
proceedings  of  the  Senate,  legislative  and  two  skilled  laborers,  twenty-three  pages, 
executive.     The    secretary    is    also    a    dis-  and  eighteen  folders. 

bursing  officer  and  gives  bond  for  a  proper  Salaries  of  Senate  officers  and  employes 
discharge  of  his  duties  as  such.  He  re-  range  as  follows:  Laborers  and  pages, 
ceives  and  pays  out  more  than  a  million  $720  to  $1,000  a  year;  messengers  and 
dollars  annually.  This  includes  salaries  clerks  to  Senators,  $1,440;  clerks  to  com- 
and  mileage  of  Senators,  of  officers,  clerks,  mittees,  $1,800  to  $3,000;  secretary's 
and  other  employes  about  the  Senate,  chief  clerk  and  the  financial  clerk,  each 
Here  are  the  items  summarized  in  that  $3,000;  secretary  of  the  Senate,  $5,000; 
officer's  report  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  sergeant-at-arms,  $4,500.  The  official  re- 
June  30,  1896.  porting  of  the  proceedings  and  debates  is 

Amounts   expended:  done  by  contract  at  $25,000  a  year. 

At  the  beginning  committees  of  the  Sen- 
Salaries  and  mileage   (of  Sena-  ate  were  appointed  only  for  special  duties 

Salary  o*f" Vke-pVe'sident. ';::::      ^^^filHl  "^^  *«  wait  upon  the  President,  to  pre- 

Salaries  of  officers,  clerks,  etc.        422,852.42  pare  a   rule   for  a  particular   proceeding. 

One  month's  extra  pay  to  offi-  to  consider  a  certain  matter  and  report  a 

cers  and  employes !2'2^^-f  i  bill,   etc.     The   committee   first   appointed 

Salaries  Capitol  police 19,392.53  ui.i-ci       j.  •  i.  :i     a  n  , 

Contingent  expenses 165,920.55  ^y  the  Senate  consisted  of  five  members  to 

. confer  with  a  like  committee  on  the  part 

Total    $1,121,376.33  of  the  House  of  Representatives   and   re- 
port rules  to  govern  in  cases  of  conference 

The  sergeant-at-arms,  with  his  corps  between  the  two  Houses.  They  were  also 
of  assistants,  has  charge  of  the  Senate  to  "  take  under  consideration  the  manner 
wing  of  the  Capitol  building.  He  takes  of  electing  chaplains."  There  was  some 
care  of  the  Senate  chamber  and  all  the  feeling  on  the  chaplaincy  question,  but  the 
property  in  it,  and  of  the  various  rooms,  choice  of  men  of  different  religious  de- 
halls,  and  other  apartments  and  annexes,  nominations — one  for  the  House,  the  other 
He  purchases  all  their  furniture  and  other  for  the  Senate — disposed  of  the  matter 
equipments.     He    attends    to    all    the    de-  satisfactorily. 

tails  of  great  occasions  in  and  about  the        Gradually,    as    the    lines    of    legislative 

hall  of  the  Senate — inaugurations  and  the  procedure    became    marked,    and    as    the 

like,  and  he  or  one  of  his  assistants  ac-  business   of   Congress  grew   in   magnitude 

"jompa.nies    every    Senate    committee    that  and   variety,    it   was    found    necessary   as 

travels  by  order   of   the   Senate.     He   ar-  well    as    convenient    to    appoint    standing 

ranges  for  their  transportation  and  enter-  committees   to  hold   during   the   pleasure 



of  the  Senate  for  the  consideration  of  doors.*  By  agreement  the  Senators  ar- 
classified  subjects.  There  are  now  forty-  ranged  themselves  in  a  semi-circle  in  front 
nine  standing  committees  of  the  Senate,  of  the  presiding  officer,  beginning  on  the 
of  which  one  has  fifteen  members ;  six  con-  right  with  New  Hampshire  and  ending  on 
sist  of  thirteen  members  each;  twelve  have  the  left  with  Georgia.  The  President-elect  of 
each  eleven  members;  eleven  have  nine  the  United  States  not  yet  having  appeared 
members;  four  have  seven;  four  have  and  taken  the  oath  of  office,  the  Senate 
five;  and  five  have  three.  The  others  devoted  a  good  deal  of  time  to  the  prep- 
have  even  numbers  and  are  subject  to  aration  of  rules  for  the  proper  trans- 
changes.  There  are  also  ten  select  com-  action  of  business.  The  manner  of  com- 
mittees, munication  between  the  two  Houses  was 
The  largest  committees  are  those  on  ap-  referred  to  a  select  committee  on  April 
propriations,  commerce,  judiciary,  pen-  16,  and  a  week  later  the  committee  re- 
sions,  claims,  coast  defences.  District  of  ported  that  they  had  conferred  with  a 
Columbia,  finance,  foreign  relations,  im-  like  committee  on  the  part  of  the  House 
migration,  Indian  affairs,  inter-State  com-  of  Eepresentatives,  and  they  had  agreed  to 
merce,  military  affairs,  naval  affairs,  post-  report  the  following  rule: 
offices  and  post  roads,  public  buildings  and  ..  when  a  bill  or  other  message  shall  be 
grounds,  public  lands,  railroads,  and  Ter-  sent  from  the  Senate  to  the  House  of  Repre- 
ritories  sentatives  it  shall  be  carried  by  the  secretary, 
^  T.«-  ^  ,  ■•nnn  j.\  J  „  ^  A  •„  +!,«  who  Shall  make  one  obeisance  to  the  chair 
On  March  4,  1789,  the  day  named  m  the  ^^  entering  the  door  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
Constitution  for  the  assembling  of  Con-  sentatives,  and  another  on  delivering  it  at 
gress  only  eight  Senators  appeared,  and  the  table  into  the  liands  of  the  speaker, 
they  adjourned  from  day  to  day  and  from  Af^ter  ^^^e  ^shall^  have  ^^^elivered^it,  ^he^^sha^i^ 
time  to  time  until  April  6  next  following,  j^  ^^  ^^  retires  from  the  House, 
when  a  quorum  was  present  and  eleven  "  When  a  bill  shall  be  sent  up  by  the 
States  were  represented.     North  Carolina  House   of   Representatives   to   the    Senate   it 

J  T>i.    J     T  T      J  u   A  „„+  „^+  ^r.+^fl«;i  +1.0  shall    be   carried    by    two    members,    who,    at 

and  Ehode  Island  had  not  yet  ratified  the  ^^^    ^^^    ^^    ^^^     ^^^^^^^    ^^^^^    ^^^^    ^^^.^ 

Constitution.    A  roll-call  disclosed  the  pres-  obeisance   to   the   president,   and   thence,   ad- 

ence    of    the    following-named    Senators:  vancing   to    the   chair,   make  a  second   obei 

From  New  Hampshire,  John  Langdon  and  sauce,  and  deliver  it   into   the  hands   of  the 

^  .  „^.        ,  ^       .  ,,        °,         ,.  president.      After    having    delivered    the   bill 

Fame      Wmgate;      from      Massachusetts,  ^^^^  ^^^^^  j^^ke  their  obeisance  to  the  presi- 

Caleb  Strong  and  Tristram  Dalton;   from  dent,  and  repeat  it  as  they  retire  from  the 

Connecticut,  Oliver  Elsworth  and  William  bar." 

S.  Johnson;  from  New  York,  Rufus  King        -jj^jg  j-gpoj.^.  ^^s  agreed  to  and  then  re- 

and   Philip    Schuyler;    from   New   Jersey,  considered.     The  subject  was  again  com- 

William   Paterson   and   Jonathan   Elmer;  fitted  and  recommitted  and  on  May  2  it 

from   Pennsylvania,   William   Maclay   and  ^^as  "  agreed  that  until  a  permanent  mode 

Robert   Morris;    from   Delaware,    Richard  of    communication    shall    be    adopted    be- 

Bassett    and    George    Read;    from    Mary-  tween    the    Senate    and    House    of    Repre- 

land,    Charles   Carroll    and   John    Henry;  sentatives,   the    Senate   will    receive    mes- 

from    Virginia,    Richard    Henry    Lee    and  gages   by  the   clerk  of  the   House,   if  the 

William   Grayson;    from    South   Carolina,  House  shall   think  proper  to   send  him— 

Ralph    Izard    and    Pierce    Butler;     from  and  papers  sent  from  the  House  shall  be 

Georgia,   William   Few  and   James   Gunn.  delivered   to  the   secretary  at  the  bar  of 

One-half  of  them  had  been  members  of  the  the  Senate,  and  by  him  conveyed  to  the 

convention  which  framed  the  Constitution  president." 
and  seventeen  of  them  had  taken  part  in 

the    work    of    the    Continental    Congress.        *  This  practice  was  continued  until  the  be 

Eleven     were     lawyers,     and     among     the  ginn'ns  of  the  session  that  commenced  Decem- 

^,  .,  11.  1.      -  ber,  1794.     As  early  as  April  29,  1790,  efforts 

others  the  record  shows  one  merchant,  one  ^.^^e    begun    to    open    the    doors    when    the 

man  of  business,  one  physician,   and  one  Senate  was  in  legislative  session,   but  with- 

farmer  ont  .success   (except  during  the  discussion  of 

Following    the    practice    of    the    Conti-  ^^'^   «^llatin    contested    election    case),    until 

'^  1     .i_       /-,       .L-a^    i-  on   Feb.   20,    1794,   when   a   resolution   passed 

nental    Congress    and    the    Constitutional  to   open   the  doors  at   the   beginning  of  the 

Convention,    the    Senate    sat    with    closed  next  session. 



The  committee's  report  was  never 
adopted.  The  early  practice  was  con- 
tinued. When  the  clerk  of  the  House 
appears  inside  the  door  of  the  Senate 
chamber  with  a  message,  the  fact  is  an- 
nounced by  the  doorkeeper  thus :  "  Mes- 
sage from  the  House  of  Representatives," 
when  business  is  temporarily  suspended, 
and  the  president  recognizing  "  Mr. 
Clerk,"  that  officer,  bowing  and  address- 
ing the  chair,  says:  "I  am  directed  to 
inform    the    Senate    that    the    House    has 

passed  ,"  a  certain  bill  or  resolution, 

or  whatever  may  be  the  nature  of  the  in- 
formation to  be  communicated.  Having 
thus  spoken,  he  delivers  the  paper,  or 
papers,  to  the  doorkeeper  and  politely 
retires.  The  document  is  then  delivered 
to  the  secretary  or  his  chief  clerk,  and 
business  is  resumed. 

The  same  simple  proceeding  is  had  when 
the  President's  private  secretary  appears 
with  a  m.essage  from  the  executive.  On 
being  announced  and  recognized  by  the 
chair,  he  says :  "  I  am  directed  by  the 
President  of  the  United  States  to  deliver 
a  message  in  writing,"  or  "  to  announce 
his  approval "  of  a  certain  bill,  or  what- 
ever may  have  been  the  President's  action 
on  a  particular  matter. 

The  Senate  communicates  with  the 
President  through  its  secretary  or  by  a 
special  committee  of  its  members. 

The  next  subject  involving  questions  of 
official  etiquette  which  the  Senate  at  the 
beginning  had  to  determine  was :  "  What 
style  or  title  it  will  be  proper  to  annex 
to  the  offices  of  President  and  Vice-Presi- 
dent," and  a  committee  was  appointed  to 
consider  the  matter.  The  subject  was 
discussed  frequently  from  April  23  until 
May  14,  and  many  different  titles  were 
suggested,  as  "  his  Highness,"  "  his  Ex- 
cellency," etc.  The  committee  finally  re- 
ported in  favor  of  "  his  Highness,  the 
President  of  the  United  States  of  Ameri- 
ca and  Protector  of  the  Rights  of  the 
Same."  But  the  House  of  Representatives 
favored  the  simple  language  of  the  Con- 
stitution, "  The  President  of  the  United 
States,"  and  that  has  been  the  form  of 
address  ever  since. 

At  first,  executive  communications  were 
delivered  to  the  Senate  by  cabinet  officers, 
and  when  the  President  wished  to  com- 
municate in  person  with   the   Senate,   he 


informed  that  body  when  he  would  ap 
pear,  as  he  did  on  several  occasions,  and 
conferred  with  the  Senate  in  respect  to 
treaties  and  appointments.  This  prac- 
tice did  not  long  continue,  however.  The 
President's  private  secretary  soon  came 
to  be  the  bearer  of  his  messages,  and  he 
has  performed  that  service  ever  since, 
though  the  rule  providing  for  the  recep- 
tion of  the  President,  when  he  calls  on  the 
Senate  officially,  is  still  preserved  and  is 
now  in  force. 

The  first  message  of  President  Washing- 
ton was  delivered  by  himself  orally  in  an 
address  before  both  Houses,  and  each 
House,  following  the  custom  of  the  Brit- 
ish Parliament,  prepared  and  delivered 
an  "  answer "  to  the  address. 

The  first  code  of  rules  adopted  for  the 
government  of  the  Senate  was  severely  dis- 
ciplinarian. One  of  them  required  that 
"  inviolable  secrecy  shall  be  observed  with 
respect  to  all  matters  transacted  in  the 
Senate  while  the  doors  are  shut,  or  as 
often  as  the  same  is  enjoined  from  the 
chair."     The  last  one  provided  that: 

"  These  rules  shall  be  engrossed  on  parch- 
ment and  hung  up  in  some  conspicuous  part 
of  the  Senate  chamber.  And  every  Senator 
who  shall  neglect  attendance  during  a  session, 
absent  himself  without  leave,  or  withdraw 
for  more  than  a  quarter  of  an  hour  without 
permission  after  a  quorum  is  formed,  shall 
be  guilty  of  disorderly  behavior,  and  his 
name,  together  with  the  nature  of  the  trans- 
gression, shall  be  written  on  a  slip  of  paper 
and  annexed  to  the  bottom  of  the  rules,  there 
to  remain  until  the  Senate,  on  his  application 
or  otherwise,  shall  take  order  on  the  same." 

Attention,  order,  and  manly  bearing, 
with  resulting  ease  and  dignity  in  speech, 
were  so  highly  prized  by  these  our  first 
Senators,  that  seven  of  their  rules  of 
procedure  related  to  personal  deportment 
of  members  of  the  body  during  session 

Looking  back  from  this  distance,  it 
seems  strange  that  such  rigid  rules  were 
deemed  necessary  among  gentlemen  so 
punctilious  as  they.  Congress  met  in 
Philadelphia  the  next  year  and  a  news- 
paper writer  of  that  city  thus  described 
the  Senate's  decorum: 

"  Among  the  Senators  is  observed  con- 
stantly during  the  debates  the  most  delight- 
ful silence,  the  most  beautiful  order,  gravity, 
and  personal  dignity  of  manner.  They  all 
appear  every  morning,  full  powdered  and 
dressed  in  the  richest  material.  The  very 


atmosphere  of  the  chamber  seems  to  inspire  Senator  who  desires  to  speak  upon  it  has 

wisdom,  mildness,  and  condescension.     Should  had   an   opportunity  to   be   heard.      If   he 

any    of    the    Senators    so    far    forget    for    a  ^^^g  ^^^  conclude  to-day  he  may  proceed 

moment  as  to  be  the  cause  of  a  protracted  j          x-          xi.           "l   j 

whisper    while    another    was   addressing    the  to-morrow  and  continue  the  next  day. 

Vice-President,    three    gentle    raps    with    his  And  from  this  courtesy  among  Senators 

silver  pencil-case  by  Mr.  Adams  Immediately  j^   sometimes   happens   that  a   small   mat- 

rf<!tored   evervthins   to    repose   and   the   most  j        •     .1                 •          r  i              i,i           j 

rtbioieu  cNci^Luius   L        f  jgj.  ,g  ^i^g  occasion  of  long,  able,  and  pow- 

respectful  attention.'  j-   1    3  ■,     .                      ,-          • 

eriul   debate  on  questions  m  no  way  re- 

These  rules  were  amended  and  modified  lated  to  the  pending  proposition.  No 
from  time  to  time  as  occasion  and  ex-  hav  ^as  come  from  this.  On  the  con- 
perience  suggested,  and  in  1806  a  new  trary,  it  has  been  instructive  and  help- 
code  was  adopted,  retaining  such  of  the  ful.  Every  great  discussion  in  the  Senate 
old  as  had  proven  to  be  suitable  for  the  has  served  to  enlarge  the  horizon  of  liberty 
work  of  the  Senate.  The  revision  in-  and  to  strengthen  the  foundations  of  the 
eluded  forty  rules,  the  exact  number  now  republic.  As  an  example  take  this:  In 
in  force.  The  most  important  change  January,  1830,  Mr.  Foote,  a  Senator  from 
from  the  old  code  was  the  omission  of  Connecticut,  offered  a  resolution  instruct- 
the  "  previous  question."  Under  the  ing  the  committee  on  public  lands  to  in- 
operation  of  that  rule  a  majority  of  a  quire  and  report  certain  facts  relating 
I  quorum  could  at  any  time  stop  a  iebate.  to  the  public  domain. 

The    rule    was    not    popular.      Only    four  Thomas  H.  Benton,  of  Missouri,  speak- 

times    in    sixteen    years    had    it    been    in-  ing  to  the  resolution,  criticised  the  East- 

voked,  and  in  one  of  the  instances  it  was  ern   people,   because,   as  he  believed,   they 

ruled    out    of    order    because    the    matter  were    disposed    to    prevent    emigration    to 

pending  was   a   preamble  and  not  a   sub-  the   Western   States   and   Territories,   and 

stantive  proposition.  would  be  aided  in  their  efforts  by  stopping 

There  have  been  several  attempts  to  re-  sales  of  the  public  lands  there.  This 
store  the  rule,  in  substance  at  least,  brought  Daniel  Webster  to  the  defence  of 
notably  in  1841  by  Henry  Clay,  in  1850  New  England,  and  in  his  answer  to  Mr. 
by  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  in  1870  by  Benton  he  alleged  that  the  author  of  the 
Hannibal  Hamlin  and  Henry  Wilson;  and  ordinance  of  1787,  which  opened  a  vast 
the  subject  has  been  brought  to  the  at-  region  of  the  West  to  settlement  and  dedi- 
tention  of  the  Senate  occasionally  since,  cated  the  Northwest  Territory  to  free- 
when  some  measure  was  vigorously  urged  dom,  was  an  Eastern  man.  Discussing 
and  persistently  opposed,  as  in  the  case  of  the  wisdom  of  that  measure,  he  referred 
the  bill  to  repeal  the  purchasing  clause  to  the  prevailing  customs  in  the  South, 
of  the  silver  law,  at  the  extraordinary  and  made  comparisons  distasteful  to 
session  in  1893.  Senators    from    the    slave-holding    States. 

The  effect  of  dropping  the  previous  Kobert  Y.  Hayne,  of  South  Carolina,  de- 
question  has  been  to  broaden  the  scope  of  fended  his  people  and  arraigned  those  of 
debate  and  this  sometimes  provokes  un-  the  East  in  a  long  and  able  speech, 
favorable  criticism  outside  the  chamber  Mr.  Hayne's  speech  was  delivered  on 
as  well  as  inside;  but  it  is  questionable  Jan.  21.  On  the  26th,  Mr.  Webster  re- 
whether  it  ever  will  be,  or  ought  to  be,  plied  in  an  argument  which  has  become 
restored.  historic. 

Without  the  spur  of  the  previous  ques-  Inspired   by   this  battle  of  giants,   Mr. 

tion  the  Senate  has  become  more  patient  Calhoun,    who    was    then    Vice-President, 

and   conservative  than   it  was   in   the  be-  resigned  that  position  that  he  might  enter 

ginning.     It   is   nowhere   recorded   in   the  the  Senate  as  a  member,  and  in  July  next 

proceedings  of  the  Senate,  since  the  cen-  following  he  delivered  a  speech  discussing 

tury  began,  that  any  member  of  the  body  not  anything  then  before  the  body,  but  the 

was   denied   the   privilege   of   speaking   to  argument    delivered   by   Mr.    Webster    six 

any   important   matter   pending.      A   vote  months  before. 

on  the  main  question  can  be  reached  only  Following  this,   at  the  next   session   of 

by  unanimous  consent,  and  that  is  never  Congress,     came    the    famous    free  -  trade 

given  on   any  great  question  until   every  report    of    the    committee    on    ways    and 



means,  followed  by  the  nullification  pro- 
ceedings of  1832  and  the  compromise  tariff 
act  of  1833,  and  eighteen  years  afterwards 
by  the  compromise  measures  of  1850,  and 
ill  1852  by  the  adoption  of  the  Virginia 
and  Kentucky  resolutions  of  1798-99,  as 
the  creed  of  the  Democratic  party,  sup- 
plemented by  the  slave-holders'  rebellion 
in  1861 — all  bearing  close  and  direct  re- 
lation to  what  was  said  in  the  Senate  in 
the  discussion  following  the  introduction 
of  Mr.  Foote's  modest  resolution  proposing 
to  inquire  whether  it  would  not  be  wise  to 
temporarily  limit  the  sale  of  public  lands. 

Speeches  of  Senators  on  important  sub- 
jects are,  in  most  cases,  prepared  care- 
fully in  advance,  reduced  to  writing  and 
read  by  the  author  from  manuscript.  It 
is  very  seldom  that  a  Senator  proceeds 
in  a  great  effort  without  copious  notes,  if 
his  speech  is  not  in  writing  or  print  be- 
fore him. 

In  order  to  maintain  the  relative  power 
of  parties  in  the  Senate  and  in  order  that 
no  Senator  need  "  lose  his  vote,"  a  custom 
prevails  by  Avhich  members  of  opposing 
parties  form  themselves  into  "  pairs,"  and 
if  one  of  a  "  pair  "  is  absent  when  a  vote 
is  taken,  the  other  does  not  vote. 

All  confidential  communications  from 
the  President  of  the  United  States  are 
considered  in  secret  executive  sessions,  and 
all  treaties  laid  before  the  Senate,  and  all 
remarks,  votes,  and  proceedings  thereon 
are  kept  secret,  under  the  thirty-sixth 
rule.  The  fourth  clause  of  this  rule  pro- 
vides that  "  any  Senator  or  officer  of  the 
Senate  who  shall  disclose  the  secret  or 
confidential  business  or  proceedings  of  the 
Senate  shall  be  liable,  if  a  Senator,  to  ex- 
pulsion from  the  body;  and  if  an  officer, 
to  dismissal  from  the  service  of  the  Senate, 
and   to  punishment  for   contempt." 

The  injunction  of  secrecy  may  be  re- 
moved, in  any  given  case,  by  a  resolution 
of  the  Senate.  This  is  not  often  done, 
however,  but  newspaper  reporters  have 
become  so  expert  in  their  profession  that 
they  publish  fairly  accurate  statements  of 
what  was  said  and  done  in  executive  ses- 
sions of  the  Senate. 

In  all  cases  except  treason,  felony,  and 
breach  of  the  peace.  Senators  are  privi- 
leged from  arrest  during  their  attendance 
at  the  sessions  of  the  Senate,  and  in  going 
to  and  returning  from  the  same,  and  for 

"  any  speech  or  debate "  in  the  Senate 
they  "  shall  not  be  questioned  in  any  other 

From  the  beginning  it  has  been  the  cus- 
tom to  allow  newspapers  to  be  paid  for 
out  of  the  "  contingent  fund,"  which  is  a 
fund  to  be  applied  to  special  uses  under 
the  exclusive  control  of  the  Senate — as 
stationery,  select  committee  expenses,  etc. 
At  first  the  number  of  papers  which  Sena- 
tors allowed  themselves  was  limited  to 
three  each.  Stationery  was  used  without 
limit  until  1868,  when  the  amount  allowed 
to  each  Senator  was  fixed  at  $125  a  session 
for  newspapers  and  stationery.  It  was 
subsequently  changed  to  $125  a  year,  and 
that  is  the  rule  now.  If  more  than  that 
amount  is  drawn  the  difference  is  paid  in 
cash  by  the  Senator;  if  less  is  drawn  he 
receives  the  difference  in  money. 

Senators  are  privileged  to  send  through 
the  mails,  free  of  charge,  any  public  docu- 
ment printed  by  order  of  Congress  and 
official  letters  to  any  officer  of  the  govern- 

Each  Senator  is  entitled  to  one  copy  of 
every  government  publication,  and  he  may 
have  it  bound  in  half-morocco  or  material 
no  more  expensive. 

No  person  is  admitted  to  the  floor  of 
the  Senate  chamber  while  the  body  is  in 
session  or  during  the  fifteen  minutes  im- 
mediately preceding  the  hour  of  meeting, 
except  the  following:  The  President  of  the 
United  States  and  his  private  secretary, 
the  President  and  Vice-President-elect,  ex- 
Presidents  and  ex-Vice-Presidents,  judges 
of  the  Supreme  Court,  ex-Senators  and 
Senators-elect,  the  officers  and  employes 
of  the  Senate  in  the  discharge  of  their 
official  duties,  ex-secretaries  and  ex-ser- 
geants-at-arms  of  the  Senate,  members  of 
the  House  of  Representatives,  and  mem- 
bers-elect, ex-speakers  of  the  House  of 
Representatives,  the  sergeant-at-arms  and 
his  chief  deputy,  and  the  clerk  of  the 
House  and  his  deputy,  heads  of  the  execu- 
tive departments,  ambassadors  and  minis- 
ters of  the  United  States,  governors  of 
States  and  Territories,  the  general  com- 
manding the  army,  the  senior  admiral 
of  the  navy  on  the  active  list,  members  of 
national  legislatures  of  foreign  countries, 
judges  of  the  court  of  claims,  commis- 
sioners of  the  District  of  Columbia,  the 
librarian    of    Congress    and    the    assistant 



librarian  in  charge  of  the  law  library,  the  all    other    oflScers    of    the    United    States 

architect  of  the  Capitol,  the  secretary  of  the  whose    appointments    are    not    otherwise 

Smithsonian  Institution,  clerks  to  Senate  provided    for    in    the    Constitution,    and 

committees  and  clerks  to  Senators,  when  which    shall    be    established    by    law.     A 

in  actual  discharge  of  their  official  duties,  simple  majority  of  a  quorum  may  advise 

The  Senate  meets,  usually,  at  twelve  and  consent  to  an  appointment,  but  two- 
o'clock  noon.  After  prayer  by  the  chap-  tliirds  ol  the  Senators  present  are  required 
plain   and   the  reading  of  the  journal   of  to  ratify  a  treaty. 

the  last  preceding  day's  proceedings,   the        Under    the    operation    of    the    Twelfth 

first    thing   in    order    is    the    presentation  Amendment    to    the    Constitution    of    the 

of  petitions   and   memorials;    then   follow  United  States,  taking  effect  Sept.  25,  1804, 

in  their  order  reports  of  standing  and  se-  the   Senate   is   charged  with   the   duty  of 

lect  committees,  introduction  of  bills  and  choosing  the  Vice-President  in   case  none 

joint     resolutions,     and     concurrent     and  of   the   persons   voted   for   for   that   office 

other   resolutions.  has  received  a  majority  of  the  votes  cast; 

The  first  two  hours  of  the  session  is  and,  when  sitting  for  this  purpose,  two- 
known  as  "  the  morning  hour,"  during  thirds  of  the  whole  number  of  Senators 
which  all  preliminary  proceedings  are  had,  must  be  present,  and  a  majority  of  the 
such  as  debates  on  Senate  resolutions,  whole  number  shall  be  necessary  to  a 
first  and  second  readings  of  bills,  motions  choice.  The  only  instance  of  the  Senate's 
for  reference,  consideration  of  matters  performing  this  function  was  in  the  case 
coming  over  from  a  previous  day,  etc.  At  of  Richard  M.  Johnson  in  1837. 
two  o'clock  the  presiding  officer  lays  before  The  Senate  has  power  to  compel  the  at- 
the  Senate  the  "  unfinished  business,"  if  tendance  of  absent  members,  to  inflict 
there  be  any,  and  if  not,  the  calendar  is  punishment  for  disorderly  behavior,  and 
in    order.  with   the   concurrence   of   two-thirds   may 

In  addition  to  the  usual  prerogatives  of  expel    a    member    for    any    cause    deemed 

parliamentary   bodies,    the    Senate    enjoys  sufficient. 

certain    privileges    and    exercises    certain        The  power  of  the  Senate  to  punish  per- 

functions  and  powers  which  are  conferred  sons   not   members   of   the  body,   for   con- 

upon  it  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  tempt,   defamation,   libel,   etc.,   has   never 

States.     It    may   originate   legislation    on  been   clearly  and   fully   defined.     None   of 

any  subject  over  which  Congress  has  juris-  the  cases  acted  upon  has  settled  any  im- 

diction,  except  revenue.  portant     questions      in      that      direction. 

It  may  concur  in,  amend  or  reject  any  Though  in  some  respects  fashioned  after 
bill  or  resolution  sent  to  it  by  the  House  the  model  of  the  Upper  House  of  the 
of  Representatives;  it  may  adjourn  for  any  British  Parliament,  the  Senate  has  no 
length  of  time  not  exceeding  three  days,  judicial  power,  except  in  cases  of  impeach- 
without  the  consent  of  the  other  House,  ment.  Its  powers  of  punishment  and  ex- 
but  must  not  adjourn  to  any  place  other  pulsion  are  applicable  only  to  its  own 
than  that  "  in  which  the  two  Houses  shall  members,  and  were  granted  for  its  own 
be  sitting."  The  Senate  is  the  judge  of  protection.  The  Duane  case  is  in  point, 
the  elections,  returns,  and  qualifications  of  William  Duane,  of  Philadelphia,  on  Feb. 
its  own  members,  and  it  chooses  its  own  19,  1800,  published  in  the  General  Adver- 
officers  and  makes  its  own  rules.  Though  User,  or  Aurora,  a  newspaper  of  that  city, 
a  legislative  body,  it  is  charged  with  ex-  a  copy  of  a  bill  "  prescribing  the  mode  of 
ecutive  functions  in  respect  to  treaties  and  deciding  disputed  elections  of  President 
appointments  to  oflSce.  The  President  has  and  Vice-President  of  the  United  States," 
power  to  make  treaties  and  appoint  together  with  editorial  comments  thereon, 
officers,  but  that  power  has  coupled  with  reflecting  on  the  action  of  the  Senate  and 
it — "  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  certain  Senators,  naming  them,  in  re- 
of  the  Senate."  The  President  "  shall  spect  to  the  alleged  passage  of  the  bill, 
nominate,  and  by  and  with  the  advice  and  which  matter  was  declared  by  the  Senate 
consent  of  the  Senate,  shall  appoint "  to  be  "  false,  defamatory,  scandalous,  and 
ambassadors,  other  public  ministers  and  malicious,  tending  to  defame  the  Senate," 
consuls,  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  and  Mr.  Duane  was  summoned  to  appear 



at  the  bar  of  the  Senate,  on  a  day  named,  tion  102  fails  to  testify,  and  the  facts  are 

'■  at  which  time  he  will  have  opportunity  reported  to  either  House,  the  president  of 

to  make  any  proper  defence  for  his  con-  the  Senate  or  the  speaker  of  the  House, 

duct,'"'  etc.     He  did  appear  and  asked  for  as  the  case  may  be,  shall  certify  the  fact 

the    assistance    of    counsel.     The    request  under  the  seal  of  the  Senate  or  the  House 

was   granted,    but   on    terms   that   he   re-  to   the  district  attorney   for   the   District 

garded    as    in    restraint    of    his    constitu-  of   Columbia,   whose   duty   it   shall   be   to 

tional  rights,  and  he  refused  to  further  ap-  bring   the   matter   before   the   grand   jury 

pear  or  answer.  for  their  action." 

On  March  27  following,  the  Senate  held  It  was  under  these  provisions  that  the 
that  Duane  was  in  contempt  and  the  witnesses  in  the  Sugar  Trust  scandal  inves- 
sergeant-at-arms  was  directed  to  take  him  tigation  in  1894  were  indicted  and  tried, 
into  custody  and  hold  him  subject  to  There  have  been  but  few  cases  of  dis- 
further  order  of  the  Senate.  But  Con-  order  among  Senators  in  the  Senate  cham- 
gress  being  about  to  adjourn,  and  the  ber  of  a  character  requiring  official  action. 
Senate  not  claiming  power  to  hold  a  Senators  rarely  violate  a  rule  of  order 
prisoner  beyond  the  session,  the  President  wilfully,  and  they  are  usually  prompt 
of  the  United  States  was  requested  by  a  to  make  proper  explanations  and  apologies 
resolution  of  the  Senate,  May  14,  1800,  to  for  any  breaches  of  privilege  happening 
instruct  the  proper  officer  to  institute  an  among  them  in  debate, 
action  against  Duane  for  the  defamatory  A  resolution  to  expel  Benjamin  Tappan, 
publication.  An  action  was  begun,  he  a  Senator  from  Ohio,  was  submitted  May 
submitted  his  case  to  the  court,  and  was  10,  1844.  That  Senator,  in  violation  of 
sentenced  to  thirty  days'  imprisonment  the  rule  of  secrecy,  had  delivered  to  a 
and  to  pay  the  costs  of  prosecution.  newspaper  reporter  for  publication  a  copy 
In  several  instances  happening  since  of  the  Texas  annexation  treaty.  The  reso- 
Duane's  case  was  disposed  of,  newspaper  lution  was  afterwards  modified  so  as  to 
reporters  have  been  deprived  of  the  privi-  declare  that  Mr.  Tappan  "  has  been 
leges  of  the  floor  or  gallery,  as  the  case  guilty  of  a  flagrant  violation  of  the  rules 
may  be,  because  of  publishing  matter  dis-  of  the  Senate  and  disregard  of  its  au- 
respectful  to  the  Senate  or  its  members.  thority."  After  the  resolution  was  adopt- 
As  to  the  power  of  the  Senate  to  com-  ed,  it  was  further  resolved,  "  That  in  con- 
pel  witnesses  to  appear  and  testify,  what-  sideration  of  the  acknowledgments  and 
ever  may  be  its  extent,  it  is  not  unlimited,  apology  tendered  by  the  said  Benjamin 
The  existence  of  this  power  was  taken  for  Tappan  for  his  said  offence,  no  further 
granted  until  1S57,  when  the  question  was  censure  be  inflicted  on  him." 
raised  by  the  refusal  of  a  witness  to  tes-  In  the  case  of  Senators  Benton,  of 
tify  before  a  committee  of  the  House  of  Missouri,  and  Foote,  of  Mississippi,  a 
Eepresentatives,  with  the  result  that,  special  committee  was  appointed  to  re- 
while  the  witness  was  in  custody  of  the  port.  On  several  occasions  prior  to  April 
sergeant-at-arms,  Jan.  21,  1857,  the  com-  17,  1850,  these  two  Senators  "had  some 
mittee  before  whom  he  was  subpoenaed  to  sharp  personal  altercations  in  the  Senate, 
testify  reported  to  the  House  a  bill,  which  On  that  date,  while  Mr.  Foote  was  speak- 
became  a  law  three  days  afterwards,  pro-  ing  in  reply  to  Mr.  Benton,  the  latter 
viding  for  trial  and  punishment  of  con-  started  from  his  seat  and  moved  towards 
tumacious  witnesses  before  committees  Mr.  Foote.  Mr.  Foote  left  his  seat  and 
of  either  House  of  Congress.  The  law  took  a  stand  in  front  of  the  secretary's 
was  changed  somewhat  by  act  of  Jan.  table,  at  the  same  time  drawing  and  cock- 
24,  1862.  The  present  statutory  provi-  ing  a  revolver.  Mr.  Benton  was  led  back 
sions  relating  to  this  subject  are  found  to  his  seat  by  Senators  in  the  midst  of 
in  sections  101  to  104,  inclusive,  and  great  confusion,  and  Mr.  Foote  was  in- 
section  859,  of  the  revised  statutes  of  dueed  to  surrender  the  pistol." 
1878.  By  section  102,  refusal  to  testify  The  committee  reported  that  the  whole 
is  declared  to  be  a  misdemeanor,  and  sec-  scene  was  most  discreditable  to  the 
tion  104  provides  that:  "Whenever  a  Senate,  but  recommended  no  action,  ex- 
witness   summoned   as   mentioned   in   sec-  pressing  the  hope  that  their  condemnation 



of  the  affair  would  be  "  a  sufficient  re- 
buke and  a  warning  not  unheeded  in 

The  attack  on  Charles  Sumner  occurred 
in  the  Senate  chamber  after  the  body  had 
adjourned,  and  the  offending  party  was 
not  a  member  of  the  Senate. 

The  Senate  has  exercised  its  power  of 
explusion  five  times.  William  Blount,  a 
Senator  from  Tennessee,  was  expelled  July 
8,  1797,  for  complicity  in  a  scheme  to 
transfer  New  Orleans  and  adjacent  terri- 
tory from  Spain  to  Great  Britain.  John 
C.  Breckinridge,  of  Kentucky,  was  ex- 
pelled Dec.  4,  1861,  for  participation 
in  the  Rebellion.  Trusten  Polk  and  Waldo 
P.  Johnson,  Senators  from  Missouri,  were 
expelled  Jan.  10,  1862,  for  aiding  and 
abetting  the  Pebellion.  Jesse  D,  Bright, 
of  Indiana,  was  expelled  on  Feb.  5,  1862, 
for  disloyalty  iu  writing  a  letter  to  Jef- 
ferson Davis  introducing  a  man  who 
wanted  "  to  dispose  of  what  he  regards  a 
great  improvement  in  fire-arms." 

In  connection  with  these  expulsions  for 
disloyalty  it  may  be  stated  that  the  Sena- 
tors from  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Florida, 
Georgia,  Louisiana,  Mississippi,  North 
Carolina,  South  Carolina,  Texas,  and 
Virginia  voluntarily  retired  between  the 
months  of  November,  1860,  and  July, 
1861.  A.  0.  P.  Nicholson,  of  Tennessee, 
retired  March  3,  1861. 

Of  the  Senators  in  office  May  1,  1898, 
twenty-one  served  in  the  Confederate  army. 
The  Senate  has  the  "  sole  power  to  try 
all  impeachments."  The  President,  Vice- 
President,  and  all  civil  officers  of  the  Unit- 
ed States  are  impeachable  for  "  treason, 
bribery,  or  other  high  crimes  and  mis- 
demeanors," and  on  conviction  for  any  of 
these  offences  they  shall  be  removed  from 
office;  but  no  person  shall  be  convicted 
without  the  concurrence  of  two-thirds  of 
the  members  present.  There  is  no  appeal 
from  the  judgment,  and  the  President, 
though  authorized  by  the  Constitution 
"  to  grant  reprieves  and  pardons  for  of- 
fences against  the  United  States,"  is 
specially  prohibited  from  interfering  in 
cases  of  impeachment.    They  are  excepted. 

"  .Todcraent,  !n  casp  of  Impeaohmpnt,  sTiall 
not  extend  further  than  to  removal  from 
oflice  and  dlsrinalififation  to  hold  and  enioy 
any  offifp  of  honor,  trust,  or  profit  under  the 
[Jnited  States;  but  the  party  convicted  shall, 

nevertheless,  be  liable  and  subject  to  indict- 
ment, trial,  judgment,  and  punlehaent  ac- 
cording to  law." 

The  Senate  is  not  called  upon  to  de- 
termine generally  who  are  "  civil  officers 
of  the  United  States " ;  it  is  sufficient, 
in  each  case  as  it  is  presented,  to  inquire 
whether  the  party  impeached  is  included 
in  that  class.  Articles  impeaching  Will- 
iam Blount  were  presented  to  the  Senate 
for  trial  in  1797.  Mr.  Blount,  being  a 
member  of  the  Senate,  pleaded  that  he  was 
not  a  "  civil  officer  of  the  United  States," 
and  on  that  ground  he  objected  to  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Senate.  On  argument, 
his  plea  was  held  good  and  the  impeach- 
ment proceedings  were  dismissed,  but  on 
the  evidence  against  him  he  was  expelled 
from  the  Senate. 

There  have  been  seven  cases  of  impeach- 
ment prosecuted  before  the  Senate.  (1) 
The  above-mentioned  William  Blount,  a 
Senator  from  Tennessee,  for  violating  the 
neutrality  laws  of  the  United  States, 
1797.  (2)  John  Pickering,  district  judge, 
New  Hampshire,  for  having  appeared  on 
the  bench  in  a  state  of  intoxication,  1803. 
(3)  Samuel  Chase,  associate  justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  for 
that  "...  disregarding  the  duties  and 
dignity  of  his  judicial  character,  did,  at 
the  circuit  court  for  the  District  of  Mary- 
land, held  at  Baltimore  in  the  month  of 
May,  1803,  pervert  his  official  right  and 
duty  to  address  the  grand  jury  .  .  . 
for  the  purpose  of  delivering  to  the  said 
grand  jury  an  intemperate  and  inflam- 
matory harangue,"  etc.  (4)  James  Peck, 
district  judge,  Missouri,  for  "  high  mis- 
demeanors in  office,"  1826-31.  (5)  West 
W.  Humphreys,  district  judge,  Tennessee, 
for  advocating  the  right  of  secession  in  a 
public  speech,  1861.  (6)  Andrew  Johnson, 
President  of  the  United  States,  for  "  high 
crimes  and  misdemeanors,"  1808.  (7)  Will- 
iam W.  Belknap,  Secretary  of  War,  for 
"  high  misdemeanor  in  office,"  1876-77. 

When  the  Senate  tries  a  case  of  im- 
peachment, each  Senator  takes  an  oath 
in  the   following   form: 

"  I  solemnly  swear  (or  aflBrm,  as  the  case 
maj  be)  that  in  all  things  appertaining  to  the 

trial  of  the  impeachment  of ,  now 

ponding,  I  will  do  impartial  justice  accord- 
ing to  the  Constitution  and  laws.  So  help  me 



Tlie     Senate     long    ago     prepared     and  chief-justice  of  the  United  States  entered  the 

adopted  a  code  of  rules  to  govern  in  the  Senate  chamber,  escorted  by  Mr.  Pomeroy, chair- 

.J         V,          •;.•               •             V,         i.  4.  •„!„  man   of   the   committee   heretofore   appointed 

body  when  sitting  on  impeachment  trials,  j.^^.  ^^^_^^  purposed 

and  in  the  case  of  President  Johnson,  on  ii^he   cliief-justice.— 'The   sergeant  at-arms 

advice   of    the    chief-justice,    the    Senate's  will  open  the  court  by  proclamation.' 

impeachment   code  of    (twenty-five)    rules  "The  sergeant -i>t  arms.  — 'Hear  ye!   hear 

J.          ,,         1      i  J  V     ii      u  J        -i-i--^^  ye!  hear  ye!     All  persons  are  commanded  to 

was  formally  adopted  by  the  body  sitting  ^^^p  ^.^J^^  ^^^^.^^  ^^^^  g^^^^^  ^j  ^^^  Unite.- 

for  the  trial  of  the  particular  case.  states  is  sitting  for  the  trial  of  the  articles 
The  House  of  Representatives  has  the  of  impeachment  exhibited  by  the  House  of 
sole  power  of  impeachment.  When  Representativ*  s  against  Andrew  Johnson, 
charges  of  an  impeachable  character  are  ..  rpj^g  President's  counsel,  '  Messrs.  Stan- 
preferred  in  the  House  against  the  Presi-  bery,  Curtis,  ICvarts,  and  Groesbeck,  entered 
dent,  Vice-President,  or  any  civil  oflScer  the  chamber  and  took  the  seats  assigned  to 
of  the  United  States  a  special  committee  ^^^^^  ^^^,^^  ^,^,^^j.  ^^^  thirty-five  minutes, 
is  usually  appointed  to  investigate  and  p.ji.^  the  sergeanu-at  arms  announced  the 
report  the  probable  facts,  and  the  ju-  presence  of  the  managers  of  the  Impeachment 
diciary  committee  consider  and  report  o^  the  part  of  the  Hcufse  of  Representatives, 
,,,  xi-rxi-ij  •  X,  and  they  were  condticted  to  the  seats  as- 
whether,  on  the  facts  stated,  an  impeach-  signed    to   them. 

able     offence     has     been     committed     and  "Immediately    afterwards    the    presence    of 

whether    the    person    charged    is    probably  the  members  oi  the   House  of  Representatives 

guilty.     If  the  report  is  affirmative,  a  com-  was  announced,  and  the  members  of  the  com- 

•  ij.          J!    cc                     »>    •               •   X  J    1  raittee  of  the  whole  House,  headed  by  Mr.  B. 

mittee   of       managers       is    appointed    by  b.  Washburn,  o£  IHii.ois,  the  chairman  of  that 

ballot  to  prepare  articles  of  impeachment  committee,   and  ai-companied   by  the  speaker 

and  to  conduct  the  prosecution  before  the  and   clerk   of  the    H^use  of   Representatives, 

e        .        rri,                                ii,           4.     e  ^.v.  entered    the    Senate    chamber    and    took    the 

Senate.    The  managers,  on  the  part  of  the  ^^^ts  prepared  Cor  tl-em." 
House,  in  the  President's  case,  were  John 

A.  Bingham,  of  Ohio;  George  S.  Boutwell,  The   Senate   is   a    school.     The  world's 

of   Massachusetts;    James    F.    Wilson,   of  history  is  its  text- book.     The  record  of  a 

Iowa;  John  A.  Logan,  of  Illinois;  Thomas  single  day's  ])roceedings  frequently  shows 

Williams,   of  Pennsylvania;    Benjamin   F.  a  range  of  work  as  wide  as  Christendom. 

Butler,      of      Massachusetts;      Thaddeus  No  man  well  made    up  can  be  there  long, 

Stevens,  of  Pennsylvania.*  if  he  will  but  listen,    without  himself  be- 

The     preliminary     proceedings     in     im-  coming  wiser  and   better.     His  opportuni- 

peachment  cases  are  formal   and  tedious,  ties   for   usefulness    multiply   as   the   new 

\^Tien  all   things  are  ready   the  members  days  come  to  him;   his  intellectual  horizon 

of   the   House,    before    proceeding   to    the  expands,  his  view  broadens,  and  he  grows 

Senate,  resolve  themselves  into  a  "  com-  stronger. 

mittee  of  the  whole  House"  for  the  pur-  It  is  no  disparagement  to  any  one  who 

pose  of  prosecuting  the  impeachment  and  ever  was  or  is  now  a  member  of  the  United 

attend   in   that   manner,    though   none   of  States  Senate,  to  say  that  it  is  only  the 

them  but  the  managers  takes  part  in  the  few  that  are  really  great.     The  work  of 

proceedings.  the  body  has  resulted  from  the  combined 

Wlien    the    President    of    the    United  labors  of  all  its  members;  each  is  entitled 

States   is   on   trial,   the   chief-justice   pre-  to  his  full  measure  of  credit.     The  least 

sides.  among  them  has  had  some  part  in  making 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  opening  up  the  Senate's  record.     But  in  all  these 

entry  on  the  journal  of  proceedings  of  the  hundred  years  and  moie  there  have  always 

trial    of    the    impeachment    of    President  been  some  strong  men  there,  men  of  great 

Johnson,  March  30,  186S: 

*•  At    half-past    twelve    o'clock,    p.m.. 


intellectual    stature,    who    were   seen    and 
heard    above    the    rest,    grand    characters 

that  stand  out  am  oiig  their  fellows  like 

•The  President's  counsel  were:  Henry  peaks  in  mountain  ranges  and  that  we 
Stanbery,  of  Kentucky  ;  B.  R.  Curtis,  of  Mas-  see  afar  off  as  we  see  cliffs  and  promon- 
sachusetts ;  Thomas  A.  R.  Nelson,  of  Tennes-    ±     •  iv,        i,         v  r   xi. 

see;  William  M.  Evarts.  of  New  York;  Will     Tories  on   the  shoie-lme  of  the  sea. 
iam  S.  Groesbeck,  of  Ohio ;  Jeremiah  S  Black,         ^^^    House    of   It  eprescntatives,    as    the 
of  Pennsylvania.  popular  branch  of  the  national  legislature, 

vin. — I  129 


is  commonly  regarded  as  being  nearer  the 
people  and  more  responsive  to  the  popular 
will  tLan  the  Senate  is.  Be  that  as  it 
may,  the  rules  of  the  Lower  House  are 
and  have  been  many  years  framed  to  re- 
strict rather  than  to  enlarge  the  freedom 
of  speech.  In  the  Senate  there  is  no  limit 
to  debate  except  unanimous  consent.  The 
youngest  member's  objection  prevents  a 
vote  if  he  desires  to  amend  or  to  be  heard 
on  the  main  question.  In  a  speech  of 
great  force  delivered  a  few  years  ago  in 
the  Senate  by  Mr.  Hoar,  alluding  to  this 
subject,  he  said: 

"  The  freedom  of  debate  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  is  gone.  What,  I  some- 
times think,  is  of  more  importance,  the 
freedom  of  amendment,  is  gone  also.  .  .  . 
It  is  here  only  that  the  freedom  of  de- 
bate is  secure.  .  .  .  Victories  in  arms  are 
common  to  all  nations.  .  .  .  But  the 
greatest  victories  of  constitutional  liberty 
since  the  world  began  are  those  whose  bat- 
tle-ground has  been  the  American  Senate 
and  whose  champions  have  been  the  Sena- 
tors, who,  for  a  hundred  years,  while  they 
have  resisted  the  popular  passions  of  the 
hour,  have  led,  represented,  guided,  obey- 
ed, and  made  effective  the  deliberate  will 
of  a  free  people." 

Seneca  Indians,  the  fifth  nation  of 
the  Iroquois  Confederacy  (q.  v.),  which 
inhabited  the  country  in  New  York  west 
of  Sodus  Bay  and  Seneca  Lake  to  the 
Niagara  River.  They  called  themselves 
Tsonnundawaono,  or  "  dwellers  in  the 
open  country."  Tradition  says  that  at 
the  formation  of  the  great  confederacy 
Hiawatha  said  to  them,  "  You,  Senecas,  a 
people  who  live  in  the  '  open  country,'  and 
possess  much  wisdom,  shall  be  the  fifth 
ration,  because  you  understand  better  the 
art  of  raising  corn  and  beans  and  making 
cabins."  The  Dutch  called  them  Sinne- 
kaas,  which  the  English  spelled  Senecas, 
and  they  were  denominated  the  Western 
Door  of  the  Long  House — the  confederacy. 
They  were  divided  into  five  clans — viz., 
the  Turtle,"  Snipe,  Hawk,  Bear,  and  Wolf, 
and  were  represented  in  the  great  council 
or  congress  by  seven  sachems.  There  was 
a  small  family  on  the  borders  of  the 
Niagara  River,  called  Neuters,  whose  do- 
main formed  the  western  boundary  of  the 
Seneca  territory;  also  the  Erikes,  or  Eries, 
south   of   Lake   Erie.     On   the   east   they 


joined  the  Senecas.  By  the  conquest  of 
the  Hurons,  most  of  the  Neuters,  the 
Eries,  and  Andastes  (or  Susquehannas) 
were  incorporated  with  the  Senecas. 

The  French  Jesuits  began  a  mission 
among  them  in  1657;  and  afterwards  the 
Senecas  permitted  La  Salle  to  erect  a 
biock-house  on  the  site  of  Fort  Niagara. 
They  also  allowed  the  French  to  build  a 
fort  on  the  same  spot  in  1712.  The  Sene- 
cas alone  of  the  Six  Nations  (g.  v.) 
joined  Pontiac  in  his  conspiracy  in  1763. 
They  destroyed  Venango,  attacked  Fort 
Niagara,  and  cut  off  an  army  train  on  that 
frontier.  In  the  Revolutionary  War  they 
sided  with  the  British,  and  their  country 
was  devastated  by  General  Sullivan  in 
1779.  After  the  war  they  made  peace, 
by  treaty,  at  Fort  Stanwix  (iort  Schuy- 
ler) ;  and  their  land  passed,  by  sale  and 
cession,  into  the  possession  of  the  white 
people,  excepting  the  reservations  of  Alle- 
ghany, Cattaraugus,  and  Tonawanda — 
66,000  acres.  They  were  the  friends  of 
the  Americans  in  the  War  of  1812,  and 
furnished  men  for  the  armies.  A  part  of 
them,  settled  on  Stony  Creek,  in  Canada, 
and  at  Sandusky,  O.,  joined  the  hostile 
tribes  in  the  West,  but  made  peace  in 
1815.  These  removed  to  the  Indian  Terri- 
lory  on  the  Neosho,  in  1831.  Protestant 
missions  have  been  in  operation  among 
them  since  the  beginning  of  this  century, 
and  the  Society  of  Friends  has  done  much 
to  aid  and  protect  them.  In  1899  there 
were  2,767  at  the  New  York  agency,  and 
323  at  the  Quapaw  agency  in  Indian  Ter- 

Separatists.  See  Congregationai. 

Sequoyali,  tribal  name  of  George  Guess, 
a  Cherokee  half-breed;  born  about  1770; 
became  widely  known  by  his  invention  in 
1826  of  the  Cherokee  alphabet,  which  con- 
sists of  eighty-five  characters,  and  is  used 
in  printing  and  writing.  He  was  also 
a  skilful  silversmith.  He  died  in  San  Fer- 
nando, Mexico,  in  August,  1843. 

Sergeant,  John,  jurist;  born  in  Phila- 
delphia. Pa..  Dec.  5,  1779;  graduated  at 
Princeton  College  in  1795;  admitted  to 
the  Philadelphia  bar  in  1799;  appointed 
commissioner  of  bankruptcy  by  President 
Jefferson  in  1801 ;  served  in  the  State 
legislature  in  1808-10,  and  in  Congress  in 
1815-23,  1827-29,  and  1837-42;  was  active 


in  promoting  the  Missouri  Compromise; 
was  an  envoy  to  the  Panama  congress  in 
1826;  president  of  the  Pennsylvania  con- 
stitutional convention  in  1830;  and  can- 
didate for  the  Vice-Presidency  of  the 
United  States  on  the  ticket  with  Henry 
Clay  in  1832.  In  1841  he  was  offered 
and  declined  the  mission  to  England. 
He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Nov.  25, 

Sergeant,  Thomas,  jurist;  born  in 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Jan.  14,  1782;  gradu- 
ated at  Princeton  College  in  1798;  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  1802;  was  a  judge  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Supreme  Court  in  1834- 
46.  He  won  the  reputation  of  being  the 
only  judge  who  did  not  have  a  single  de- 
cision reversed  during  the  time  he  sat  on 
the  Pennsylvania  bench.  His  publications 
include  Treatise  Upon  the  Law  of  Penn- 
sylvania  Relative  to  the  Proceedings  by 
Foreign  Attachment ;  Report  of  Cases  Ad- 
judged in  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsyl- 
vania (with  William  Rawle)  ;  Constitib- 
iional  Laic;  Sketch  of  the  National  Ju- 
diciary Poioers  Exercised  in  the  United 
States  Prior  to  the  Adoption  of  the  Pres- 
ent Federal  Constitution ;  and  View  of  the 
Land  Laws  of  Pennsylvania.  He  died  in 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May  8,  1860. 

Sergeant-at-arms.  An  officer  of  the 
United  States  Senate  whose  duties  are  to 
serve  processes,  make  arrests,  and  aid  in 
preserving  order.  In  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives the  same  officer  has  the  same 
duties,  and,  in  addition,  has  charge  of  the 
pay  accounts  of  the  members. 

Serra.     See  Junipero. 

Seton,  Elizabeth  Ann,  founder  of  the 
Sisters  of  Charity  in  the  United  States; 
born  in  New  York,  Aug.  28,  1774.  In  1809 
she  was  enabled  to  open  a  semi-conventual 
establishment  at  Emmettsburg.  The  first 
charge  of  the  sisters  outside  of  their  own 
convent  was  that  of  an  orphan  asylum 
in  Philadelphia.  She  died  in  Emmetts- 
burg, Md.,  Jan.  4,  1821. 

Settlement,  Act  of,  for  the  succession 
to  the  British  throne,  excluding  Roman 
Catholics,  was  passed  in  1689.  This  name 
is  also  given  to  the  statute  by  which  the 
crown,  after  the  demise  of  William  III. 
and  Queen  Anne,  without  issue,  was  limit- 
ed to  Sophia,  electress  of  Hanover,  grand- 
daughter of  James  I.,  and  her  heirs,  be- 
ing Protestants,   1702.     The   Irish   act   of 

settlement,   passed   in   1662,  was   repealed 
in  1689. 

Settlers  and  Defenders  of  America, 
Order  of.  A  new  hereditary-patriotic  or- 
der, incorporated  in  1899,  but  whose  or- 
ganization is  yet  incomplete.  The  incor- 
porators are  Walter  S.  Carter,  Robert  D. 
Benedict,  Ralph  E.  Prime,  William  De 
Hertburn,  Washington;  William  B.Daven- 
port, S.  Victor  Contant,  Robert  Endicott, 
Henry  Melville,  Edward  F.  Dwight,  P. 
Tecumseh  Sherman,  Everett  V.  Abbot, 
Rodney  S.  Dennis,  and  Grenville  B.  Win- 
throp.  Its  objects  are :  "  To  stimulate 
genealogical,  biographical,  and  historical 
research,  to  publish  patriotic  manuscripts 
and  records,  to  collect  colonial  and  Revo- 
lutionarj'  relics,  to  preserve  traditions, 
to  mark  patriotic  graves,  to  locate  and 
protect  historic  sites,  to  erect  tablets  and 
monuments,  to  aid  in  founding  and  erect- 
ing libraries,  museums,  and  memorial 
buildings;  and  in  all  other  fitting  ways, 
through  broad  fellowship  and  co-operation,, 
to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  settlers 
and  defenders  of  the  nation,  and  to  exem- 
plify and  teach  in  all  later  generations 
their  spirit  of  wise  patriotism,  to  the 
end  that  we  may  loyally  advance  the  pur- 
pose for  which  they  struggled." 

To  be  eligible,  a  person  must  be  eigh- 
teen years  of  age,  and  have  lineally  de- 
scended (1)  from  a  settler  in  one  of  the 
thirteen  original  colonies,  during  the  first 
thirty-three  years  of  its  settlement;  (2) 
from  one  who  is  also  lineally  descended 
from  an  ancestor  who,  between  May  13, 
1607,  and  April  19,  1775,  inclusive,  ren- 
dered civil  or  military  service  in  the  gen- 
eral government  of  such  colony;  and  (3) 
who  is  likewise  lineally  descended  from 
an  ancestor  who,  between  April  19,  1775, 
and  Sept.  13,  1783,  inclusive,  rendered 
actual  service  to  the  cause  of  American 
independence,  either  as  a  military  or  na- 
val officer,  soldier,  seaman,  privateer,  mili- 
tia or  minute  man,  associator,  signer  of 
the  Declaration  of  Independence,  mem- 
ber of  a  Continental,  Provincial,  or  Colo- 
nial Congress,  or  Colonial  or  State  legis- 
lature, or  as  a  recognized  patriot  who  per- 
formed or  actually  counselled  or  abetted 
acts  of  resistance  to  the  authority  of 
Great  Britain;  but  no  claim  of  eligibility 
through  descent  from  a  settler  or  from  an 
ancestor  who  rendered  colonial  service  to 



be  valid  unless  the  descendants  of  such 
ancestor  in  the  line  of  descent  of  the  ap- 
plicant were  patriots  in  the  War  of  the 
Revolution.  Women  are  eligible  to  ad- 
mission, and  junior  chapters  of  the  order 
are  to  be  established. 

Seven-days'  Fight.  The  popular  name 
of  a  series  of  battles  between  the  National 
and  Confederate  armies  in  McClellan's 
peninsular  campaign.  The  scene  was  east 
of  Richmond,  in  Chickahominy  Swamp. 
The  first  action  was  at  Oak  Grove,  June 
25,  1862,  and  the  series  included  engage- 
ments at  Mechanicsville,  Gaines's  Mill, 
Savage's  Station.  Frazer's  Farm,  and  Mal- 
vern Hill,  the  latter  being  fought  July  1. 
See  Pexi>"sular  Camp.vign. 

Seven  Pines,  Battle  of.  See  Fair 
Oaks,  Battle  of 

Seven  Years'  War.  See  French  axd 
IxDiAX  War. 

Sevier,  Johx,  pioneer;  born  in  Rock- 
ingham county,  Va.,  Sept.  23,  1745;  went 
to  the  Holston  River,  east  Tennessee,  with 
an  exploring  party,  in  1769,  and  built 
Fort  Watauga ;  was  in  the  battle  of  Point 
Pleasant:  settled  in  North  Carolina;  was 
a  member  of  its  legislature  in  1777;  fought 
the  Indians  on  the  frontiers;  and  was 
one  of  the  leaders  fas  colonel)  in  the 
battle  at  King's  Mountain  {q.  v.). 
He  was  afterwards  attached  t<->  Gpupval 
Marion's  command,  and  was  a  brigadier- 
general  at  the  close  of  the  war.  Sevier 
was  active  among  the  secessionists  of 
western  North  Carolina,  who  formed  the 
independent  State  of  Feankland  {q.  v.), 
over    which    he    was    elected    governor    in 

1784.  When   Tennessee  was  organized,   in 

1785,  he  was  governor  until  1801.  He 
was  again  governor  from  1803  to  1809, 
and  in  1811  he  was  a  member  of  Con- 
gress. In  1815  he  accepted  a  mission  to 
the  Creek  Indians,  and  died  while  in  per- 
formance of  it  near  Fort  Decatur,  Ga., 
Sept.  24,  1815.     See  Tennesseie. 

Se'wall,  Arthur,  capitalist;  born  in 
Bath,  Me.,  Nov.  25,  1835;  received  a  pub- 
lic school  education ;  was  apprenticed  in 
his  father's  ship-building  yards;  and  in 
1854,  with  his  brother  Edward,  assumed 
the  management  of  his  father's  interests. 
In  1879  he  became  the  head  of  the  firm, 
and  continued  so  until  his  death.  Under 
his  direction  the  ship-building  industry  of 
New    England    was    extended    beyond    all 


former  bounds.  He  was  a  delegate  to 
the  National  Democratic  conventions  in 
ISSO  and  1896;  was  an  unsuccessful  can- 
didate for  the  United  States  Senate  in 
1893;  member  of  the  national  Democratic 
committee  in  1888-96;  and  in  the  latter 
year  was  named  for  the  Vice-Presidency 
of  the  United  States  on  .the  ticket  with 
Mr.  Bryan.  He  was  an  advocate  of  the 
free  coinage  of  silver,  and  besides  his  large 
ship-building  interests,  Mr.  Sewall  was 
connected  with  a  number  of  railroad,  bank- 
ing, and  other  corporations.  He  died  in 
Small  Point,  Me.,  Sept.  5,  1900. 

Sewall,  Harold  M.,  diplomatist;  born 
in  Bath,  Me.,  in  1860;  graduated  at  Har- 
vard College  in  1882;  was  appointed  con- 
sul-general to  the  Samoan  Islands  during 
the  first  administration  of  President 
Cleveland,  but,  disagreeing  with  the  lat- 
ter's  policy,  resigned.  Later  he  participated 
under  President  Harrison  in  arranging  the 
Berlin  treaty  of  1889,  which  gave  to  the 
United  States,  Great  Britain,  and  Ger- 
many joint  jurisdiction  over  Samoan  af- 
fairs; was  then  reappointed  consul-gen- 
eral. In  1897  he  was  made  United  States 
minister  to  Hawaii,  and  held  that  post 
till  the  annexation  of  the  islands  to  the 
United  States.     See  Hawaii. 

Sewall,  Jonathan,  laivyer;  born  in 
Boston,  Mass.,  Aug.  24,  1728;  graduated 
at  Harvard  College  in  1748,  and  in  early 
life  was  the  intimate  associate  and  friend 
of  John  Adams.  Like  Adams,  he  was  a 
school-teacher;  became  a  lawyer  in  1767; 
and  was  appointed  attorney-general  of 
Massachusetts.  In  1769  he  began  a  suit  for 
the  freedom  of  a  negro  slave,  and  was  suc- 
cessful, two  years  before  the  settlement 
of  the  case  of  the  negro  Somerset,  which 
Blackstone  commended  so  highly,  and  Cow- 
per  commemorated  in  poetry.  He  and 
Adams  finally  diff'ered  in  politics,  Sewall 
taking  sides  with  the  crown.  When  the 
Revolutionary  War  broke  out,  he  was  re- 
siding in  the  house,  at  Cambridge,  which 
Washington  afterwards  occupied  as  his 
headquarters,  for  Sewall  went  to  England, 
and  was  among  the  proscribed  in  Massa- 
chusetts in  1779.  In  1788  he  removed  to 
St.  John,  N.  B.,  where  he  was  judge  of  the 
admiralty  court  until  his  death,  Sept.  26, 

Sewall,  RuFUS  King,  author;  born  in 
Edgecombe,  Me.,  Jan.  22,  1814;  graduated 


at  Bowdoin  College  in  1837,  and  at  Bangor 
Theological  kSeiuinaiy  in  1S41 ;  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  in  Maine.  He  was  author 
of  Ancient  Dominion  of  Maine;  Ancient 
Voyages  to  the  Western  Continent ;  Me- 
moir of  Joseph  Sewall,  D.D.;  etc.  He 
died  in  Wiscasset,  Me.,  April  17,  1903. 

Sewall,  Samuel,  jurist;  born  in  Bishop- 
stoke,  England,  March  28,  1652;  gradu- 
ated at  Harvard  College  in  1671;  studied 
divinity;  preached  a  vphile;  came  into  the 
possession  of  great  wealth  by  marrying 
the  daughter  of  a  Boston  goldsmith ;  be- 
came an  assistant  in  1684,  and  was  an- 
nually chosen  a  member  of  the  council 
from  1692  until  1725.  He  was  a  judge 
from  1712  until  1718,  when  he  became 
chief-justice  of  Massachusetts,  resigning 
in  1728,  in  consequence  of  age  and  infirm- 
ities. Judge  Sewall  shared  in  the  general 
belief  in  witches  and  witchcraft,  and  con- 
curred in  the  condemnation  of  many  of  the 
accused  persons,  but  afterwards   publicly 

acknowledged  his  error.  He  seems  to  have 
been  the  first  outspoken  "  abolitionist " 
in  the  United  States,  having  written  a 
tract  against  slavery,  in  which  he  gave 
it  as  his  opinion  that  thei-e  would  "be  no 
progress  in  gospelling "  until  slavery 
should  be  abolished.  He  died  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  Jan.   1,   1730.     See  Witchcbaft. 

Seward,  Frederick  William,  lawyer ; 
born  in  Auburn,  N.  Y.,  July  8,  1830; 
graduated  at  Union  College  in  1849;  as- 
sistant United  States  Secretary  of  State. 
1861-60  and  1877-81.  He  wrote  a  life  of 
his  father,  William  H.  Seward. 

Seward,  Theodore  Frelinghuysen, 
musician;  born  in  Florida,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  25, 
1835;  studied  music;  introduced  the  tonic 
sol-fa  system  of  instruction  in  the  United 
States  in  1880;  founded  the  Brotherhood 
of  Christian  Unity  in  1891;  and  the  Don't 
Worry  circles  in  1897-98;  and  wrote  A 
Plea  for  the  Christian  Year,  etc.  He  died 
in  Orange,  N.  J.,  Aug.  30,  1902. 


Seward,  William  Heney,  statesman; 
born  in  Florida,  Orange  co.,  N.  Y.,  May 
16,  1801;  graduated  at  Union  College  in 
1820;  became  a  lawyer;  began  practice 
at  Auburn  in  1823;  and  soon  acquired  a 
high  reputation,  especially  in  criminal 
practice.  He  first  appeared  conspicuously 
in  politics  as  president  of  a  State  conven- 
tion of  young  men  who  favored  the  re- 
election of  John  Quincy  Adams  to  the 
Presidency.  In  1830-34  he  was  a  member 
of  the  State  Senate,  and  became  a  leader 
of  the  Whig  party,  opposed  to  the  admin- 
istration of  Jackson.  In  1838  and  1840 
he  was  elected  governor  of  New  York; 
in  1842  resumed  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession, and  gained  an  extensive  business, 
chiefly  in  United  States  courts;  and  was 
United  States  Senator  from  1849  till  1861, 
when  he  was  called  to  the  cabinet  of  Presi- 
dent Lincoln  as  Secretary  of  State. 

As  early  as  March,  1861,  when  it  was 
known  that  emissaries  from  the  South 
had  been  sent  abroad  to  seek  recognition 
and  aid  for  their  cause,  Mr.  Seward  ad- 
dressed the  American  ministers  in  Europe, 
conjuring  them  to  use  all  diligence  to 
"  prevent  the  designs  of  those  who  would 
invoke  foreign  intervention  to  embarrass 

and  overthrow  the  republic."  President 
Lincoln  had  appointed  Charles  Francis 
Adams  minister  to  the  British  Court,  and 
on   April    10,    1861,   Secretary   Seward   in- 


structed  him  concerning  the  manner  in 
which  he  should  oppose  the  agents  of  the 
Confederates.  He  directed  him  to  stand 
up  manfully  as  the  representative  of  his 
irhole   country,    and    that   as   a   powerful 


nation,  asking  no  favors  of  others.  "  You 
will,  in  no  case,"  said  Mr.  Seward,  "  listen 
to  any  suggestions  of  compromise  by  this 
government,  under  foreign  auspices,  with 
its  discontented  citizens.  If — as  the  Pres- 
ident does  not  at  all  apprehend — you  shall 
unhappily  find  her  Majesty's  government 
tolerating  the  application  of  the  so-called 
Seceding  States,  or  wavering  about  it, 
you  will  not  leave  them  to  suppose  for  a 
moment  that  they  can  grant  that  appli- 
cation and  remain  the  friends  of  the 
United  States.  You  may  even  assure 
them  promptly,  in  that  case,  that  if  they 
determine  to  recognize  they  may  at  the 
same  time  prepare  to  enter  into  an  alli- 
ance with  the  enemies  of  the  republic. 
You,  alone,  will  represent  your  country  at 
London,  and  you  will  represent  the  whole 
of  it  there.  When  you  are  asked  to  divide 
that  duty  with  others,  diplomatic  relations 
between  the  government  of  Great  Britain 
and  this  government  will  be  suspended, 
and  will  remain  so  until  it  shall  be  seen 
which  of  the  two  is  most  strongly  in- 
trenched in  the  confidence  of  the  respec- 
tive nations  and  of  mankind."  The  high 
position  taken  in  the  name  of  his  govern- 
ment in  that  letter  of  instruction  was, 
doubtless,  one  of  the  most  efficient  causes, 
together  with  the  friendly  attitude  after- 
wards assumed  by  Russia  towards  the 
L'nited  States,  of  the  fortunate  delay  of 
Great  Britain  in  the  matter  of  recognizing 
the  independence  of  the  Southern  Con- 

As  Secretary  of  State  he  conducted,  with 
great  wisdom  and  sagacity,  the  foreign 
affairs  of  the  government,  through  all  the 
critical  period  of  the  Civil  War,  and  con- 
tinued in  President  Johnson's  cabinet, 
filling  the  same  office,  until  1869.  He  was 
a  conspicuous  opposer  of  slavery  for  many 
years,  in  and  out  of  Congress.  He  op- 
posed the  compromise  acts  of  1850,  the 
Kansas-Nebraska  bill  of  1854,  and  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  Republican 
party.  The  two  most  important  subjects 
of  his  diplomacy  during  the  Civil  War 
were  the  liberation  of  Mason  and  Slidell 
and  the  French  invasion  of  Mexico. 

According  to  a  proclamation.  May  2, 
1865,  of  President  Johnson,  there  was 
"  evidence  in  the  bureau  of  military  jus- 
tice that  there  had  been  a  conspiracy 
formed  by  Jefferson  Davis,  Jacob  Thomp- 

son, Clement  C.  Clay,  Beverly  Tucker, 
George  N.  Saunders,  William  G.  Cleary, 
and  other  rebels  and  traitors,  against  the 
government  of  the  United  States,  harbored 
in  Canada,"  to  assassinate  the  President 
and  the  Secretary  of  State.  Circum- 
stances seemed  to  warrant  a  suspicion 
that  the  same  fate  was  intended  for  other 
officers  of  the  government,  also  for  General 
Grant  and  leading  Republicans;  hoping, 
in  some  way,  that  the  Confederate  leaders, 
in  the  confusion  of  the  trying  moment, 
might  seize  the  reins  of  the  national 
government.  On  the  evening  when  Presi- 
dent Lincoln  was  shot  (April  14,  1865), 
Lewis  Payne  Po-yell,  a  Confederate  soldier 
of  Florida,  went  to  the  house  of  Secre- 
tary Seward,  who  was  then  severely  ill, 
v'ith  the  pretence  that  he  was  a  messen- 
ger from  the  minister's  physician.  Re- 
fused admission  by  the  porter,  he  rushed 
in,  and  up  two  flights  of  stairs,  to  Mr. 
Seward's  chamber,  at  the  door  of  which 
he  was  met  by  his  son,  Frederick  Seward, 
v/ho  resisted  him.  The  assassin  felled 
the  younger  Seward  to  the  floor  with  the 
handle  of  a  pistol,  fracturing  his  skull 
and  making  him  insensible.  The  Secre- 
tary's daughter  was  attracted  to  the  room 
door,  when  the  ruffian  rushed  past  her, 
sprang  upon  Mr.  Seward's  bed,  and  in- 
flicted three  severe  wounds  with  a  dagger 
upon  his  neck  and  face.  Mr.  Robinson, 
an  invalid  soldier  attending  as  nurse, 
seized  the  assassin,  and  while  they  were 
struggling  Miss  Seward  shouted  murder 
from  the  open  window,  and  the  porter 
cried  for  help  from  the  street.  Finding 
his  position  perilous,  the  miscreant  es- 
caped from  Robinson,  ran  down-stairs, 
and  sped  away  on  a  horse  he  had  in  readi- 
ness. Other  persons  were  accused  of  com- 
plicity with  Booth  and  Lewis  Payne 
Powell  in  their  murderous  raid  upon  men 
high  in  office.  The  assassin  was  soon  ar- 
rested; also  suspected  accomplices  of 
Booth.  Three  of  these  (with  Powell) 
were  found  guilty  and  hanged.  Their 
names  were  David  E.  Herrold,  George  A. 
Atzerott,  and  Mary  E.  Surratt.  Ths 
house  of  the  latter  was  proved  to  have 
been  a  place  of  resort  for  Booth  and  his 
accomplices.  Three  others  were  sentenced 
to  imprisonment,  at  hard  labor,  for  life, 
and  one  for  six  months.  President  John- 
son offered  $100,000  reward  for  the  arrest 



of  Jefferson  Davis;  $25,000  apiece  for  the 
arrest  of  Jacob  Thompson,  C.  C.  Clay, 
G.  N.  Saunders,  and  Beverly  Tucker;  and 
$10,000  for  the  arrest  of  W.  C.  Cleary. 

Mr,  Seward  never  recovered  fully  from 
the  shock  of  the  accident  and  the  assas- 
sin's attack.  Retiring  from  public  life  in 
March,  18G9,  he  made  an  extended  tour 
through  California  and  Oregon  to  Alaska, 
and  in  August,  1870,  he  set  out  upon  a 
tour  around  the  world,  returning  to  Au- 
burn in  October,  1871.  He  had  been 
everywhere  received  with  marks  of  the 
highest  consideration.  Mr.  Seward's 
^Yorks  (4  vols.),  contained  his  speeches 
in  legislative  debates,  eulogies  in  the  Sen- 
ate of  several  of  his  colleagues,  occasional 
addresses,  orations,  etc.  He  died  in  Au- 
burn, N.  Y.,  Oct.  10,  1872.  For  Mr. 
Seward's  speech  on  The  Crime  Against 
Kansas,  see  I^nsas;  and  for  that  on 
Protest  Against  Slavery,  see  Nebraska. 

A  Character  Appreciation. — The  follow- 
ing review  of  the  development  of  the  career 
of  the  great  American  foreign  secretary, 
by  Richard  Grant  White,  reveals  the  per- 
sonality of  the  statesman  in  a  clear  and 
discriminating  light: 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  Mr. 
Seward's  eminently  noble  and  useful  life 
was  ended  before  he  had  finished  the 
Autobiography  which,  at  the  request  of 
his  family,  he  had  begun.  For,  from  what 
he  had  written  of  it  before  his  death,  and 
from  the  revelations  of  his  letters  writ- 
ten to  his  family  and  his  nearest  personal 
friends,  we  may  infer  with  certainty  that 
he  v;ould  have  dealt  frankly  with  the 
world,  and  would  have  told  us  all  that  the 
most  candid  man  could  be  expected  to  tell 
of  his  purposes,  his  methods,  his  feelings, 
and  even  of  his  thoughts.  But  we  may  be 
sure  that  if  Mr.  Seward  had  completed 
his  record  of  his  life,  we  should  have 
known  him  thoroughly.  Perhaps  we  do  so 
now,  so  far  as  his  nature  and  his  motives 
are  concerned.  For  this  autobiography 
and  these  letters  reveal  him  to  us  as  a  man 
not  only  of  remarkable  singleness  of  pur- 
pose, but  of  a  rare  candor  and  simplicity 
of  soul.  He  did  wear  his  heart  upon  his 
sleeve  when  daws  were  not  by  to  peck 
it.  To  those  whom  he  loved  and  trusted 
and  who  loved  and  trusted  him  he  was  sin- 
gularly   open-hearted.      Sueh    is    not    the 


general  opinion  in  regard  to  him,  but  such 
will  almost  surely  be  the  verdict  of  those 
who  read  the  imperfect  record  of  his  life 
which  is  now  laid  before  the  world.  And, 
moreover,  it  is  manifest  that  no  small  part 
of  his  influence  over  men  and  upon  public 
afl'airs  was  due,  on  the  one  hand,  to  his 
candor  in  regard  to  himself,  and  on  the 
other,  to  his  charity  towards  others.  For 
more  than  thirty  years  of  his  life  Mr. 
Seward  was  a  power  in  the  land,  active, 
formative,  impelling.  To  no  other  one 
man  of  his  generation  is  due  so  much  of 
the  present  greatness  and  prosperity  of  the 
United  States.  That  greatness  and  that 
prosperity  have  been  achieved  in  the  di- 
rect lines  which  he  marked  out  and  in 
large  measure  by  the  very  means  which 
he  indicated.  He  was  at  one  time,  in 
the  earliest  years  of  his  public  life,  almost 
in  a  minority  of  one.  His  career  was  an 
unceasing  struggle.  He  did  battle  daily. 
He  had  hosts  of  bitter  political  enemies; 
he  was  subjected  to  constant  misappre- 
hension and  misconstruction,  and  he  suf- 
fered all  his  life  from  personal  misrepre- 
sentation and  abuse.  But  his  experience  of 
the  latter  was  invariably  from  the  hands 
of  strangers.  Of  those  who  were  brought 
into  personal  contact  with  him,  even  as 
opponents,  he  made  not  personal  enemies, 
but  often  personal  friends.  This  was  the 
result  of  his  perfect  candor,  his  good  faith, 
and  the  kindliness  of  his  nature.  And  yet 
it  was  his  fate  to  be  regarded  during  a 
groat  part  of  his  life  as  a  scheming 
demagogue,  a  man  of  bitter  soul,  unspar- 
ing enmity,  and  unscrupulous  ambition; 
how  unjustly  we  shall  see  by  glancing  over 
the  traces  ojf  his  career. 

Early  in  his  Autobiography  Mr.  Seward 
records  that  he  had  often  reflected  that, 
whatever  care  and  diligence  we  exercise, 
our  fortunes  in  life  are  beyond  our  control. 
Of  the  truth  of  this  reflection  no  reason- 
able man  of  any  experience  of  the  world 
will  entertain  a  moment's  doubt.  What- 
ever a  man's  ability  or  inclinations  may  be, 
circumstances,  of  which  opportunity  and 
necessity  are  the  most  important,  deter- 
mine his  career.  Mr.  Seward's  reflection 
was,  indeed,  brought  to  his  mind  by  the 
remembrance  that  his  course  of  life  was 
not  that  which  he  had  marked  out  for  him- 
self. He  tells  us  that  until  late  in  life 
iudicial  preferment  was  the  aim  of  his 


ambition.  He  meant  to  be  a  lawyer,  and 
he  wished  to  be  a  judge.  His  early  bias 
in  this  direction  was  caused  by  his  obser- 
vation of  the  deference  paid  to  his  father 
as  a  justice  of  the  peace.  This,  however, 
was  a  mere  boyish  fancy,  the  impulse  of 
which  would  not  long  have  acted  even 
upon  the  youthful  aspirations  of  such  a 
man  as  he,,  had  it  not  accorded  with  the 
great  niotive  force  of  his  nature.  This 
was  a  love  of  justice;  not  of  that  kind 
of  justice  which  warrants  the  apothegm 
sum  mum  jus  summa  injuria,  but  that 
which  consists  in  doing  essential  right 
to  all  men.  It  was  for  this  that  he  longed 
for  judicial  power  and  place — that  he 
might  defend  the  right,  protect  the  weak, 
and  give  restoration  to  the  injured.  But 
although  his  mind  was  in  a  certain  sense 
judicial — judicial  in  its  freedom  from  prej- 
udice and  from  personal  bias,  even  the 
bias  of  sympathy,  which,  however  strongly 
feltj  seems  never  to  have  blinded  him  to 
the  perception,  not  only  of  essential  right 
and  wrong,  but  of  what  on  the  widest  view 
of  every  ease  seemed  to  be  the  best  and 
most  prudent  course  to  be  taken — he  was 
not  juridical.  He  had  too  little  deference 
for  precedent  to  have  become  a  good  pre- 
siding officer  in  a  court  of  record,  at  least 
without  doing  violence  to  his  nature.  He 
would  have  fretted  under  the  legal  re- 
straints of  the  bench.  His  place  in  the 
attainment  of  justice  was  that  of  an  ad- 
vocate, the  earnest  and  implacable,  yet 
charitable  foe  of  wrong;  for  his  charity 
was  as  great  as  his  love  of  justice.  He 
could  not  sit  quietly  and  see  wrong  done, 
even  under  the  forms  of  law,  if  it  were 
done  to  others;  but  he  could  forgive  the 
wrong-doer,  and  even  seek  and  suggest  the 
excuses  that  would  palliate  his  wrong- 
doing. He  was  not  a  good  hater.  Such 
being  his  nature,  and  circumstances  hav- 
ing very  early  in  life  drawn,  almost  forced, 
him  into  the  field  of  politics,  he  became  a 
statesman  of  large  and  liberal  views,  a 
leader  in  the  great  progressive  movement 
of  his  age  and  country  towards  the  eleva- 
tion of  the  whole  people,  without  distinc- 
tion of  condition,  nativity,  race,  or  pre- 
scriptive right  of  whatever  kind,  to  all 
the  benefits  conferred  by  absolute  freedom 
of  personal  action  within  the  law,  by 
absolute  equality  before  the  law,  and  by 
such  education  as  should  fit  each  man  to 


hold  and  use  these  rights  and  advantages 
with  benefit  to  himself  and  to  the  whole 

It  is  a  remarkable  fact  jn  regard  to  our 
political  men  that  so  many  of  the  more 
distinguished  among  them  have  been  not 
only  lawyers,  but  lawyers  of  rural  birth 
and  education.  For  whatever  reason,  our 
large  cities  have  produced  very  few  of 
the  men  who  have  exercised  iny  great  in- 
fluence upon  our  public  affairs.  Almost 
all  of  these  have  come,  if  not  from  the 
agricultural  districts,  from  the  small 
towns  which  are  the  intellectual  centres 
of  such  districts.  Mr.  Seward  \i'as  not  an 
exception  to  this  general  rule.  H  was  born 
in  a  little  village  of  not  more  thair;  a  dozen 
dwellings,  almost  in  the  centre  of  1  Ke  State 
of  New  York,  and  he  was  first  heard  of  as 
a  young  lawyer  in  Auburn ;  and  in  Auburn, 
when  his  public  duties  did  not  call  him  to 
Albany  or  to  Washington,  or  when  he 
was  not  travelling  to  satisfy  that  in- 
satiable craving  to  study  the  world, 
physical  as  well  as  human,  which  never 
ceased  but  with  his  life,  he  lived  as  a 
practising  lawyer  until  he  became  too  im- 
portant a  personage  to  appear  as  attorney 
and  counsel  unless  for  a  nation  or  an 
oppressed  people. 

He  completed  his  academic  studies  at 
Union  College  under  Dr.  Nott,  whose 
liberal  "  broad-church "  management  of 
that  institution  made  it  such  a  refuge  of 
young  fellows  driven  out  from  other  col- 
leges by  their  stricter  discipline,  that  it 
received  and  long  retained  the  name  in 
college  circles  of  "  Botany  Bay."  The 
attempt  of  Dr.  Nott  to  control  under- 
gradut'tes  only  through  the  influence  of 
their  own  self-respect  had,  we  may  be  sure, 
the  young  Seward's  warmest  sympathy.  It 
must  have  commended  itself  wholly  and 
warmly  to  a  nature  like  his,  and  he  re- 
cords his  memory  of  the  manliness  of  spirit 
developed  under  the  system  of  Dr.  Nott. 
But  he  does  not  speak  so  highly  of  the 
system  of  instruction,  which  consisted 
chiefly  in  a  cultivation  of  the  memory 
under  which  much  was  forgotten  as  soon 
as  learned.  He  justly  says  that  this  sys- 
tem was  not  peculiar  to  Union,  and  then 
makes  another  remark  significant  of  his 
view  of  the  policy  in  all  respects  the 
wisest  for  America.  "  The  error,"  he  says, 
appears  to  be  "  incidental  to  our  system 


of  education,  which  sacrifices  a  full  and  disregard  of  that  which  they  had  in  corn- 
complete  training  of  the  individual  to  mon  with  the  people  of  older  political 
the  important  object  of  affording  the  ut-  organizations  in  more  thickly  settled 
most  possible  education  to  the  largest  countries  and  on  soil  longer  reclaimed, 
number  of  citizens."  Whether  the  edu-  Hence  his  "  Americanism "  was  not  "  na- 
cation  possible  under  this  system  is  the  tive  Americanism."  The  party  which  was 
best  that  could  be  given  even  with  such  founded  upon  that  one  idea  was  a  genuine 
an  end  in  view  may  be  questioned;  but  outgrowth  of  true  patriotic  feeling.  It 
that  that  end  commended  itself  to  his  was  an  honest  protest,  put  into  action 
judgment  in  his  later  as  well  as  in  his  against  the  demagogism  that  used  the 
earlier  years  there  can  be  no  doubt  what-  ignorant  emigrant,  and  was  in  turn  used 
ever.  These  were  the  ruling  motives  of  by  him,  for  selfish  purposes,  the  end  of 
his  life,  the  fundamental  principles  of  his  the  bargain  being  political  corruption  and 
political  action — war  upon  oppression  in  a  low  tone  of  social  morals.  It  sought 
whatever  form,  and  the  diffusion  of  to  make  Tweeds  and  Fernando  Woods  im- 
knowledge  among  the  whole  people;  all  possible.  Had  it  obtained  control  of  the 
else  was  incidental  to  these  or  developed  government  long  enough  to  have  effected 
from  them.  its  purpose,  it  would  have  accomplished 
This  view  of  education  is  very  "  Ameri-  a  certain  good ;  and  perhaps  Tweed  might 
can";  and  the  sum  of  Mr.  Seward's  have  been  impossible.  But  its  patriotism 
opinions  and  feelings  and  mental  traits  was  narrow.  It  would  probably  have  im- 
made  him  a  notably  "  American "  man.  paired  the  material  prosperity  of  the 
Capable  of  a  very  broad  view  of  poll-  country,  and  checked  the  development  of 
tics,  as  well  as  of  men  and  things,  he  its  resources;  and  it  certainly  would  have 
habitually  saw  them  with  the  eye  of  a  introduced  distinction  of  class,  and  have 
man  who  had  the  welfare  of  his  country  given  us  a  body  of  citizens  and  laboring 
close  at  heart,  and  to  whom  the  good,  the  men  of  foreign  birth  who  would  have 
happiness,  the  hopes  and  wishes,  and  even  found  themselves  disfranchised,  without 
the  peculiarities,  of  the  people  around  a  voice  in  a  government  professing  to  rest 
him  were  of  the  first  importance.  He  was  upon  the  principle  of  equal  political  and 
serenely  indifferent  to  foreign  criticism,  civil  rights  in  all  men.  Those  who  be- 
lt did  not  trouble  him  as  it  did  others  lieve  that  full  citizenship  and  a  voice  in 
less  self-contained  and  more  sensitive;  al-  the  government  should  be  a  privilege, 
though  he  studied  it  to  learn  from  it,  and  not  the  matter-of-course  possession  of 
much  however,  it  may  be  suspected,  as  if  every  human  being  of  legal  age  who  is  not 
he  had  the  leaden-eyed  fas  est  ah  Jioste  in  a  prison  or  a  mad-house,  may  still 
doccri  in  mind.  And  indeed  foreign  criti-  mourn  the  failure  of  "  native  American- 
cisms,  particularly  in  politics  and  diplo-  ism";  but  Mr.  Seward  was  not  of  their 
niacy,  are  rarely  friendly.  It  was  no  number.  His  "  Americanism "  welcomed 
mere  sense  of  duty  or  of  becomingness  the  immigrant,  and  sought  to  "  Ameri- 
that  placed  Mr.  Seward  thus  always  on  canize "  him  as  soon  as  possible,  and  as 
the  "  American  "  side  of  every  question,  thoroughly  as  possible.  His  attitude  upon 
and  tinged  all  his  opinions  with  "  Ameri-  this  question  subjected  him  to  the  charge 
canism."  He  had  a  genuine  and  lively  of  demagogism  on  the  part  of  many  honest 
sympathy  with  his  countrymen  of  the  people,  some  of  whom,  at  least,  changed 
"average"  class;  and  early  in  life  he  their  opinion  both  of  his  policy  and  his 
formed  the  opinion  that  in  the  long  run  good  faith  in  the  light  of  the  events  of 
they  might  be  safely  trusted  with  all  subsequent  years.  He  was  thought  to  be 
political  power.  He  also  was  not  long  in  bidding  for  the  votes  of  citizens  of  for- 
discovering  that  the  prosperity  of  the  eign  birth.  Those  who  imputed  this 
United  States  and  their  progress  to  the  motive  to  him  ought  at  least  to  have  ve- 
powor  and  station  which  they  have  since  membered  what  we  may  be  sure  he  knew 
attained  were  possible  by  the  wise  use  of  well  and  never  forgot,  that  the  bulk  of  our 
their  peculiar  advantages,  physical,  polit-  immigrant  citizens  was  always  to  be 
leal,  and  social,  and  a  development  of  found  acting  with  the  political  party  to 
their  peculiar  traits,  to  the  comparative  which   he  during  his   whole   life  was  in 



opposition.  His  policy  upon  this  question 
was  indicated  clearly,  unmistakably,  in 
his  first  message  as  governor  of  New 
York  in  1839,  long  before  the  "  Know- 
nothing  "  party  was  thought  of,  and  in 
the  treatment  of  a  subject  entirely  aloof 
from  the  political  notion  upon  which  that 
party  was  founded.  Discussing  the  sub- 
ject of  railways  and  canals  to  connect  the 
great  seaport  of  the  country  with  the 
West  through  the  great  State  of  which, 
at  the  age  of  thirty-eight  yeays,  he  found 
himself  the  first  magistrate,  he  put  forth 
views  which  his  son  and  biographer  has 
thus  summarized: 

"  America  is  a  land  of  latent,  unap- 
propriated wealth;  the  minerals  under 
its  soils  are  not  more  truly  wealth  hidden 
and  unused  than  are  its  vast  capabilities 
and  resources,  material,  political,  social, 
and  moral.  Two  streams  that  come  from 
the  Old  World,  in  obedience  to  great 
natural  laws,  are  pouring  into  it  daily 
fiesh,  invigorating  energies.  One  of  these 
streams  is  the  surplus  capital  of  Europe. 
The  other  is  the  surplus  labor  of  the 
world.  Both  steadily  increase  in  volume 
and  velocity.  It  is  idle  to  try  to  roll  back 
their  tide.  It  is  wise  to  accept  them  and 
to  use  them.  Instead  of  delaying  about  one 
great  line  of  communication  from  the  sea 
to  the  lakes,  rather  open  three — through 
the  centre  of  the  State,  through  its  north- 
ern counties,  and  through  its  southern 
ones.  Instead  of  vainly  seeking  to  ex- 
clude the  immigrant,  rather  welcome  him 
to  our  ports,  speed  him  on  his  Western 
way,  share  with  him  our  political  and 
religious  freedom,  tolerate  his  churches, 
establish  schools  for  his  children,  and  so 
assimilate  his  principles,  his  habits,  man- 
ners, and  opinions,  to  our  own.  In  a 
word,  open  as  far  as  possible  to  all  men 
of  whatever  race  all  paths  for  the  im- 
provement of  their  condition,  as  well  as 
for  their  mental  and  moral  culture." 

This  was  all;  but  it  was  enough.  He 
lived  long  enough  to  see  the  logic  of 
events  rapidly  prove  and  illustrate  the 
wisdom  of  his  policy,  and  to  know  that  no 
considerable  number  of  his  fellow-citizens, 
however  purely  "  American  "  in  birth  and 
feeling,  would  think  of  adopting  the 
"Know-nothing"  theory  of  exclusion 
sooner  than  they  would  have  returned  to 
the  early  New  England  practice   oi  mak- 


ing  church-membership  a  condition  of  full 


Mr.  Seward's  sagacity — and  he  was 
notably  sagacious — and  his  habit  of  look- 
ing at  all  questions  of  state  from  a  prac- 
tical point  of  view,  led  him,  no  less  than 
his  hatred  of  oppression  and  his  love  of 
his  fellow-men,  however  humble,  to  take 
a  view  of  slavery  which  was  in  entire  ac- 
cordance with  his  views  upon  that  of  im- 
migration. He  not  only  detested  slavery 
as  a  cruel  wrong  to  the  negro,  but  he  saw 
in  it  a  permanent  element  of  political 
weakness,  an  active  cause  of  social  de- 
moralization, and  the  means  of  a  fictitious 
prosperity  which  was  sure  to  end  iii 
poverty  and  ruin.  The  negroes  were  here, 
and  here  they  must  remain.  Would  we  or 
would  we  not,  they  were  a  part  of  our 
social  fabric;  for  they  were  men.  De- 
prived of  the  rights  of  men,  under  a  gov- 
ernment professing  to  be  founded  upon 
the  inalienable  rights  of  man,  they  were 
an  element  constantly  working  towards 
destruction.  His  dogma  of  the  "  irre- 
pressible conflict "  between  freedom  and 
slavery  which  brought  down  upon  him 
such  fierce  denunciation,  in  the  free 
States  hardly  less  than  in  the  slave,  was 
in  fact  only  the  foundation  of  a  funda- 
mental moral  truth  exemplified  and  illus- 
trated in  all  history,  a  truth  which  has 
its  foundations  in  man's  reason  and  man's 
nature.  He  saw  it,  and  with  that  bold- 
ness which,  no  less  than  his  candor,  was 
a  part  of  his  own  nature,  he  uttered  it  in 
a  happy  phrase  that  became  a  watchword 
and  a  battle-cry  in  one  of  the  grandest 
and  most  terrible  conflicts  of  opinion  and 
material  force  that  the  world  has  ever 

Although  he  may  have  been  silent  as  to 
his  opinions  in  regard  to  future  events, 
and  as  to  the  modes  of  action  he  should 
advise,  he  never  concealed  his  feeling  tow- 
ards slavery  or  his  purpose  to  withstand 
its  extension  at  all  hazards.  He  never 
curried  favor  with  the  slave-holders  at 
Washington,  or  bid  for  slave-holding  favor 
or  slave-holding  votes  in  any  way.  On 
the  contrary,  notwithstanding  his  respect 
for  the  law,  and  his  determination  to 
keep  within  the  bounds  of  the  Constitution, 
he  added  to  his  dogma  of  the  "  irrepres- 
sible conflict "  that  of  the  "  higher  law  " 
— a  higher  law,  that  is,  than  the  Con- 


stitution  of  the  United  States.  Truly,  to  the  year  1846 — that  one  day  a  South- 
if  a  trumpet  were  ever  blown  with  a  not  ern  Senator,  irritated  beyond  endurance 
uncertain  sound,  it  was  that  with  which  at  Seward's  calm  but  relentless  manner 
he  from  time  to  time  roused  up  and  of  treating  a  question  connected  with  sla- 
heartened  the  ever-increasing  band  which  very,  rose  and  poured  out  upon  him  a  sud- 
was  slowly  but  surely  moving  upon  the  den  volley  of  bitter  personal  vituperation, 
last  stronghold  of  slavery.  Neither  When  the  Southerner  had  taken  his  seat, 
friend  nor  foe  could  mistake  his  meaning.  Seward  rose,  bvit  did  not  reply;  he  walked 
There  might  have  been  reasonable  objec-  quietly  and  firmly  towards  his  assailant. 
tion,  if  not  to  the  doctrine  of  a  "  higher  The  Senate  was  mute  with  expectation,  al- 
law,"  at  least  that  the  proclamation  of  most  with  apprehension.  Was  Seward  at 
such  a  law  did  not  become  the  lips  of  a  last  driven  from  his  self-possession?  Was 
Senator  of  the  United  States,  whose  very  there  to  be  a  personal  scene,  a  persons  ^ 
senatorial  office  and  functions  were  the  insult,  perhaps  a  personal  conflict,  in  th. 
creation  of  the  Constitution;  it  might  chamber?  When  Seward  reached  his  still 
have  been  said  that  before  proclaiming  excited  opponent,  who  looked  at  him  in 
such  a  law  he  should  have  laid  aside  his  wonder  and  uncertainty,  he  extended  his 
senatorship,  because,  however  it  might  be  hand  towards  the  other's  desk,  upon  which 
with  a  private  man,  for  a  Senator  of  the  lay  a  small  box,  and  blandly  said,  "  Sena- 
United  States  there  could  be  no  higher  tor,  will  you  give  me  a  pinch  of  snuff?" 
law  than  the  Constitution  of  the  United  And  so  he  snuffed  the  man  and  his  bit- 
States;  but,  however  just  this  criticism,  ter  speech  out  into  utter  darkness.  What 
there  could  have  been  no  misunderstand-  could  be  done  with  a  man  who  feared  no 
ing  by  the  slave-holders  of  the  fellness  of  one,  hated  no  one,  who  broke  no  laws, 
his  purpose.  And  there  was  none.  They  even  those  of  social  courtesy,  and  who, 
recognized  in  him  their  most  dreadful  with  a  calm  consciousness  of  personal 
enemy.  But  with  their  enmity — we  can  dignity,  would  not  be  offended,  and  who 
hardly  say  their  hatred — there  was  yet  was  steadily  although  slowly  making 
mingled,  if  not  a  feeling  of  awe,  a  very  arrangements  for  your  utter  political  ex- 
profound  respect.  At  the  ordinary  agita-  tinguishment,  the  removal  of  your  social 
tors,  however  skilful  and  inflammatory,  candle-stick  out  of  its  place  forever! 
they  could  rave  and  storm,  and  threaten  Truly  a  most  perplexing  and  impracticable 
them  with  pistol  and  bowie-knife,  and,  person.  The  enemies  of  such  men  have 
when  they  caught  them,  coat  them  with  only  the  alternative  of  overcoming  them 
tar  and  feathers;  but  this  quiet,  clear-  by  argument  or  some  more  peaceful  con- 
headed,  law-abiding  man,  respecting  him-  trivance,  or  killing  them.  Now  in  Mr. 
self,  always  respecting  others,  never  giv-  Seward's  case  the  slave-holders  could  not 
ing  personal  offence  to  others  and  himself  do  the  first,  and  the  last  would  not  on 
refusing  to  be  offended — what  could  be  the  whole  have  been  a  very  serviceable 
done  with  him?  Nothing.  With  all  his  way  of  getting  rid  of  him,  such  are  the 
self-respect  and  his  consciousness  of  his  prejudices  of  modern  society. 
own  power,  he  had  no  offensive  egotism;  The  irrepressible  conflict  went  on;  the 
he  gave  no  provocation  to  personal  enmity  higher  law  asserted  itself ;  the  great  crisis 
by  personal  bitterness ;  and  the  fate  that  was  at  last  no  longer  to  be  put  off  by  what- 
fell  upon  Charles  Sumner  he  escaped,  ever  skill  or  whatever  endurance.  And 
Even  to  the  end  he  remained  upon  terms  when  it  came,  he  to  whom  all  eyes  had 
of  personal  intercourse  with  the  leading  been  turned  for  years  as  the  man  who  in 
representatives  of  slavery  at  Washington,  such  a  contingency  was  to  be  at  the  head 
For  not  only  did  he  refrain  himself  from  of  affairs  was  put  aside  in  favor  of  one 
giving  them  ground  of  personal  offence,  almost  unknown,  and  one  altogether  un- 
but  he  showed  them  unmistakably  that  he  trained  for  the  duties  of  such  a  place  in 
would  not  be  provoked  into  personal  re-  such  an  emergency.  It  is  not  too  much 
tort  by  personality,  but  he  would  keep  to  say  that  the  whole  civilized  world  was 
himself  to  the  question  in  the  abstract,  surprised  and  dissatisfied  when  the  Ke- 
lt is  told  of  him — but  not  in  the  book  publican  convention  of  1860  did  not  nomi- 
before  us,  which  brings  his  life  down  only  nate  Mr.  Seward  to  the  Presidency.     And 



this  failure  to  meet  the  expectations  of 
the  world,  foes  as  well  as  friends,  was  due 
entirely  to  one  of  those  manifestations  of 
personal  pique,  which  have  so  often  had 
an  influence  upon  the  fate  of  nations.  It 
was  by  the  hands  of  a  former  friend  and 
for  many  years  a  fast  ally,  that  Mr. 
Seward  saw  the  crown  of  his  life  petu- 
lantly snatched  from  him  and  given  to — 
no  matter  whom,  if  not  to  him — but  to 
one  who  had  done  nothing  to  merit  it,  and 
who  was  so  unknown  to  the  majority  of 
his  countrymen  that  his  identity  had  to 
be  explained  to  them.  When  Horace 
Greeley  announced  to  his  former  politi- 
cal partners  that  "  the  firm  of  Seward. 
Weed,  and  Greeley  was  dissolved,"  Mr^ 
Weed  doubtless  saw  that  he  meant  mis- 
chief; ]\Ir.  Seward  probably  did  not  give 
that  view  of  the  matter  much  thought. 
And  evidently  he,  with  all  his  sagacity, 
had  been  as  much  surprised  as  any  one 
when  he  found  that  Horace  Greeley,  by 
profession  philanthropist  and  journalist, 
hungered  after  office.  With  much  undis- 
ciplined mental  force,  with  a  power  of 
direct  utterance  on  paper  which  compelled 
attention,  with  many  vague,  inchoate, 
shifting  views  as  to  social  and  political 
science,  and  a  genuine  hatred  of  slavery, 
Horace  Greeley  was  probably  the  most  un- 
fit man  for  official  life  that  could  be  found 
in  his  party;  and  yet  he  wanted  to  be  a 
Senator,  longed  to  be  a  cabinet  minister, 
and  pined  to  be  President.  Probably  no 
two  men  knew  his  unfitness  for  any  ex- 
ecutive or  legislative  position  so  well  as 
Mr.  Seward  and  Mr,  Weed,  except  one 
other,  Charles  A.  Dana,  who  had  been 
managing  editor  of  the  Tribune  during 
the  years  while  it  was  becoming  a  power 
in  the  land;  and  his  political  partners  did 
not  encourage  him  in  his  aspirations.  But 
at  last  he  would  be  put  off  no  longer,  and 
he  broke  with  them  in  a  huff.  To  the 
workings  of  his  personal  spleen  was  due 
the  defection  from  Mr.  Seward  at  Chicago 
which  made  his  nomination  impossible. 

Here  he  was  at  the  end  of  his  career, 
and  that  which  the  world  looked  upon  as 
his,  according  to  all  the  laws  of  fitness 
and  desert,  was  given  to  another,  and  to 
one  of  whom  the  world  knew  nothing. 
That  the  disappointment  was  great  for  him 
as  well  as  for  others  cannot  be  doubted; 
it  must  have  carried  with  it  a  sense  of 

wrong.  But  it  bred  no  bitterness  in 
Seward's  soul.  Erelong  it  was  known 
that  he  had  accepted  the  post  of  Secre- 
tary of  State  under  his  obscure  and  un- 
cultured rival,  whose  success  was  the  most 
open  political  affront  that  could  have  been 
offered  to  him.  For  the  first  time  he  ac- 
cepted an  office  by  executive  appoint- 
ment. Only  once  before,  early  in  his  ca- 
reer— in  fact,  early  in  his  life,  so  long 
before  as  1828 — he  had  sought  the  ap- 
pointment of  surrogate;  and  although  he 
did  not  receive  it,  he  found,  in  the  seek- 
ing of  it,  that  office-holding  or  office-seek- 
ing would  not  comport  with  his  manner  of 
political  thought  and  action.  "  I  saw  at 
once,"  he  says,  "  how  much  the  desire  or 
the  holding  of  such  a  place  tended  to  com- 
promise my  personal  independence,  and  I 
resolved,  thenceforth,  upon  no  considera- 
tions other  than  the  safety  of  the  State 
ever  to  seek  or  accept  a  trust  conferred  by 
executive  authority.  That  case  occurred 
later,  when  I,  with  extreme  reluctance, 
and  from  convictions  of  public  duty,  took 
the  office  of  Secretary  of  State  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  Civil  War,  and  filled  it  un- 
til the  restoration  of  peace."  Of  the  value 
of  his  counsels,  his  sagacity,  and  his  long 
experience,  to  the  raw  and  entirely  un- 
trained and  inexperienced  man  who  found 
himself  in  the  chair  in  which  he  had  him- 
self expected  to  see  Mr.  Seward,  the  esti- 
mate can  hardly  be  too  high,  nor  of  their 
value  to  the  nation. 

Our  foreign  relations  became  perplex- 
ing and  full  of  danger  to  a  degree  before 
unimaginable;  and  with  them  was  com- 
plicated the  management  of  public  opinion 
at  home.  For  this  task  Mr.  Seward  had 
just  the  union  of  political  sagacity  and 
political  experience,  of  directness  in  pur- 
pose and  state-craft  in  method,  of  tact,  of 
imperturbability,  of  untiring  good-nature, 
that  was  required.  His  despatches  did 
not  quite  please  the  diplomatists  or  the 
political  censors  of  European  nations,  and 
particularly  those  of  Great  Britain.  And 
one  reason  of  this  was  that  they  were 
written,  and  necessarily  written,  with  one 
eye  at  home  and  the  other  abroad.  They 
effected  their  purpose.  They  maintained 
the  dignity  of  the  country  even  in  its 
darkest,  most  distracted  hour;  and,  sup- 
ported and  enforced  by  the  tact  and  skill 
of    Mr.    Adams,    they    carried    us    safely 



through  our  perils  from  those  who  loved 
us  not  abroad,  and  put  the  government  in 
no  peril  at  home.  The  British  political 
censors  never  tired  of  accusing  Mr.  Sew- 
ard of  a  sort  of  bad  faith  in  the  Trent 
affair.  According  to  them  he  should  have 
hastened  to  give  up  the  Confederate  com- 
missioners before  they  had  been  asked  for. 
But  Mr.  Seward  knew  that,  in  the  state 
of  feeling  among  his  countrymen  against 
the  British  government  and  governing 
classes,  to  do  that  would  have  put  Mr. 
Lincoln's  government  in  immediate  peril. 
He  knew  from  the  beginning,  we  may  be 
sure,  that  the  commissioners  would  be 
given  up;  but  he  postponed  their  surren- 
der until  the  last  moment,  that  excite- 
ment might  have  time  to  subside,  and  that 
cool  reason  might  be  heard;  and  when 
he  gave  them  up,  although  he  addressed 
the  British  minister,  he  used  all  the  inge- 
nuity in  his  power  to  work  out  a  series  of 
reasons  that  would  satisfy,  not  the  British 
government,  but  his  own  countrymen,  of 
the  necessity  and  rightfulness  of  compli- 
ance with  the  demands  of  a  government 
which  was  then  hated  at  the  North  even 
more  than  that  of  Jefferson  Davis.  The 
whole  record  of  Mr.  Seward's  life  shows 
him  to  have  been  eminently  a  magnani- 
mous and  faithful  man,  and  never  were 
his  magnanimity  or  his  faithfulness  to 
the  right  and  to  his  country  put  to  severer 
test  than  when  he  was  called  upon  to  ac- 
cept the  position  of  Secretary  of  State 
under  Mr.  Lincoln. 

Sewell,  May,  educator;  born  in  Mil- 
waukee, Wis.,  May  27,  1844;  graduated 
at  Northwestern  University  in  1866; 
edited  The  Historical  Resume  of  the 
World's  Congress  of  RepresentativeWomen. 

Sewell,  William  Joyce,  statesman ; 
born  in  Castlebar,  Ireland,  Dec.  6,  1835; 
removed  to  the  United  States  in  184G ; 
served  throughout  the  Civil  War,  reach- 
ing the  grade  of  major-general ;  wounded 
at  Chancellovsville  and  at  Gettysburg; 
State  Senator,  1872-81;  United  States 
Senator,  1882-88  and  1895,  till  his  death 
at  Camden,  N.  J.,  Dec.  27,  1901. 

Sewell's  Point,  a  locality  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Elizabeth  River,  Virginia,  where 
the  Confederates  erected  a  redoubt,  with 
three  hea\'j'  rifled  cannon,  in  the  middle 
of  May,  1861,  for  the  purpose  of  sweeping 
Hampton  floads.    The  battery  was  masked 

by  a  sand-hill,  but  it  was  discovered  by 
Capt.  Henry  Eagle,  of  the  National  armed 
schooner  Star,  who  sent  several  shots 
among  the  workmen  on  the  Point  on  May 
19.  The  fire  was  returned;  five  shots 
struck  the  Star,  and  she  was  compelled  to 
withdraw.  That  night  about  2,000  Con- 
federate troops  were  sent  down  to  the 
Point  from  Norfolk,  and  these  were  there 
on  the  morning  of  the  20th,  when  the 
Freeborn,  Captain  Ward,  opened  her  guns 
upon  them.  The  battery  was  soon  silenced, 
and  the  Confederates  driven  away.  This 
was  the  first  offensive  operation  against 
the  Confederates  in  the  Civil  War. 

Seymour,  Horatio,  statesman;  born  in 
Pompey  Hill,  N.  Y.,  May  31,  1810;  re- 
ceived an  academic  and  partially  military 
education,  and  fitted  himself  for  the  pro- 
fession of  law,  but  never  practised  it,  hav- 
ing inherited  an  ample  estate.  In  early 
life  he  engaged  in  politics;  served  six 
years  (1833-39)  on  the  staff  of  Governor 
Marcy;  was  elected  to  the  State  Assembly 
in  1841;  held  the  place  by  re-election 
four  years,  and  was  chosen  speaker  in 
1845.  He  was  also  mayor  of  Utica  in 
1842.  In  1852  and  1862  he  was  chosen 
governor  of  New  York,  and  in  1868  was 
the  Democratic  candidate  for  the  Presi- 
dency. He  died  in  Utica,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  12, 

Seymour,  Moses,  military  officer;  born 
in  Hartford,  Conn.,  July  23,  1742;  settled 
in  Litchfield,  Conn.,  in  early  life.  When  the 
Revolutionary  War  began  he  was  com- 
missioned captain  in  the  5th  Cavalry, 
which  repelled  Tryon's  invasion  in  1777, 
and  participated  in  the  campaign  which 
led  to  the  surrender  of  Burgoyne.  He  was 
retired  in  1783  with  the  rank  of  major; 
was  town-clerk  of  Litchfield  for  thirty- 
seven  years;  and  a  member  of  the  legislat- 
ure in  179.5-1811.  He  died  in  Litchfield, 
Conn..  Sept.  17,  1826. 

Seymour,  Thomas  Hart,  diplomatist; 
born  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  in  1808;  edu- 
cated at  the  Partridge  Military  School, 
Middletown,  Conn. ;  practised  law  in  Hart- 
ford, Conn.;  was  editor  of  The  Jefferso- 
nian  in  1837;  judge  of  probate;  and  a 
member  of  Congress  in  1843-45.  He  en- 
tered the  Mexican  War  as  major  of  the 
9th  Regiment;  was  promoted  lieutenant- 
colonel,  Aug.  12,  1847;  and  brevetted 
colonel,    Sept.    13,    1847,    for    services    at 



Chapultepec;  was  governor  of  Connecti- 
cut in  1850-53;  and  minister  to  Russia 
in  1853-57.  He  died  in  Hartford,  Conn., 
Sept.  3,  1868. 

Seymour,  Truman,  military  officer; 
born  in  Burlington,  Vt.,  Sept.  24,  1824; 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1846;  served 
in  the  war  against  Mexico,  and  also  in  the 
Florida  war  (1856-58)  ;  and  became  cap- 
tain of  artillery  in  1860.  He  was  in  Fort 
Sumter  during  its  siege  in  1861;  joined 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac  in  March,  1862; 
and  was  made  chief  of  artillery  of  Mc- 
Call's  division.  Late  in  April  of  that  year 
he  was  made  brigadier-general,  and  com- 
manded a  brigade  in  the  Peninsular  cam- 
paign. He  led  a  brigade  in  the  battles  at 
Groveton,  South  Mountain,  and  Antietam, 
and  commanded  a  division  in  the  assault 
on  Fort  Wagner,  where  he  was  severely 
wounded  (July  18,  1863).  In  February, 
1864,  he  commanded  an  expedition  to 
Florida,  and  fought  a  battle  at  Olustee. 
He  was  in  the  Kichmond  campaign  from 
December,  1864,  to  the  surrender  of  Lee 
at  Appomattox,  and  was  brevetted  major- 
general,  United  States  army,  "  for  services 
during  the  Rebellion."  He  was  retired  in 
1876.  He  died  in  Florence,  Italy,  Oct.  30, 

Shackamaxon  (Pa.),  where  William 
Penn  made  his  famous  treaty  with  the 
Indinns  in  1682. 

Shaffner,  Taliaferro  Preston,  in- 
ventor; born  in  Smithfield,  Va.,  in  1818; 
was  admitted  to  the  bar,  but  applied  him- 
self chielly  to  invention;  was  associated 
with  Professor  ]\Iorse  in  the  introduction 
of  the  telegraph ;  designed  several  methods 
of  blasting  with  high  explosives.  He  was 
the  author  of  Telegraph  Companion:  De- 
voted to  the  f>cience  and  Art  of  the  Morse 
American  Telegraph;  The  Telegraph 
Manual;  The  Secession  War  in  America; 
History  of  America;  and  Odd-Felloivship. 
He  died  in  Troy,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  11,  1881. 

Shafter,  William  Rufus,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Kalamazoo  county,  Mich.,  Oct. 
10.  1835;  received  a  common  school  edu- 
cation ;  entered  the  National  army  as  first 
lieutenant  in  the  7th  Michigan  Infantry. 
Aug.  22,  1861 ;  became  major  of  the  19th 
Michigan  Infantry,  Sept.  5,  1862;  was 
promoted  lieutenant-colonel,  June  5,  1863; 
colonel  of  the  17th  United  States  Colored 
Infantry,  April  19,  1864;  and  was  brevet- 

ted brigadier-general  of  volunteers,  March 
13,  1865.  He  was  commissioned  lieutenant- 
colonel  in  the  regular  army  in  January. 
1867,  and  was  promoted  brigadier-gen- 
eral in  May,  1897.  When  the  American- 
Spanish  War  began  he  was  appointed 
major-general  of  volunteers  and  ordered 
to  Tampa,  Fla.,  to  command  the  invading 


army  of  Cuba.  He  conducted  the  military 
operations  which  ended  in  the  surren- 
der of  Santiago  de  Cuba  in  July, 
1898.  Shafter  was  selected  to  lead  the 
American  troops  in  Cuba,  according  to 
General  Corbin,  "  on  account  of  his  rank 
and  conceded  ability,  his  vigor  and.  good 
judgment.  He  is  one  of  the  men  in  the 
army  who  has  been  able  to  do  what  he 
was  ordered  to  do;  not  a  man  to  find  out 
how  things  can  not  be  done."  On  his 
return  to  the  United  States  he  was 
temporarily  in  command  of  the  Mili- 
tary Department  of  the  East,  from 
which  he  was  transferred  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Pacific  in  December,  1898,  and 
on  Oct.  16,  1899,  he  was  retired,  on  reach- 
ing the  age  limit,  but  was  retained  in  his 
last  command.  See  El  Caney;  San  Juan 
Hill;  Spain,  War  with. 

Shaftesbury,  Earl  of  (Anthony  Ash- 
ley Cooper),  statesman;  born  in  Wim- 
borne,  Dorsetshire,  England,  July  22, 
1021 ;  represented  Tewkesbury  in  the  Short 
Parliament  in  1640;  first  supported 
Charles  I.  in  the  civil  war,  but  in  1644 
joined  the  Parliament  troops,  acted  with 
vigor,   served   in   Cromwell's   Parliaments, 



and  was  one  of  the  councillors  of  state,  changed  in  August  (1864),  he  afterwards 
He  retired  in  1654,  and  in  Parliament  commanded  a  division  in  Arkansas  (Janu- 
was  a  leader  of  the  opposition  to  Crom-  ary,  1865).  He  was  brevetted  a  major- 
well's  measures.  Active  in  the  overthrow  general  of  volunteers  in  1865.  In  1867-68 
of  the  Second  Protectorate,  he  was  one  of  he  was  major-general  of  the  1st  Division 
the  commissioners  who  went  to  Breda  to  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y.;  in  1867-73  connected  with 
invite  Charles  II.  to  come  to  England,  the  fire  department  of  New  York  City; 
The  grateful  King  made  him  governor  of  and  in  1874-75  reorganized  the  fire  de- 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  chancellor  of  the  ex-  partment  of  Chicago.  He  was  given  a 
chequer,  and  one  of  the  privy  council,  congressional  medal  of  honor  in  1893  for 
In  1661  he  was  created  Baron  Ashley,  and  distinguished  gallantry  in  the  battle  of 
was  one  of  the  commission  for  the  trial    Fredericksburg. 

of  the  regicides,  whom  he  zealously  prose-  Shaler,  Nathaniel  Southgate,  geol- 
cuted.  Charles  had  granted  to  him  and  ogist;  born  in  Newport,  Ky.,  Feb.  22, 
several  other  favorites  the  vast  domain  of  1841;  graduated  at  Laurence  Scientific 
Carolina  (1663),  and  he  was  employed  School  in  1S62;  served  in  the  National 
with  Locke  in  framing  a  scheme  of  gov-  army  during  the  Civil  War  as  artillery 
ernment  for  it.  He  was  created  Earl  of  officer  for  two  years;  instructor  of 
Shaftesbury  in  1672,  and  made  lord-chan-  Zoology  and  Geology  in  Laurence  Scien- 
cellor,  for  which  he  was  unfitted.  Oppos-  tific  School  in  1868-72;  Professor  of 
ing  the  government,  the  King  dismissed  Paleontology  in  1868-87;  during  which 
him  (1673).  Accused  of  treason,  he  fled  time  (1873-80),  he  was  also  director  of 
to  Amsterdam,  Holland,  in  1682,  where  the  Kentucky  geological  survey;  geol- 
he  died,  June  22,  1683.  ogist    of    the    United    States    geological 

Shakers,  an  English  sect,  now  chiefly  survey  in  charge  of  the  Atlantic  coast 
found  in  the  United  States,  arose  in  the  division  in  1884;  and  became  Professor 
time  of  Charles  I.,  and  derived  its  name  of  Geology  in  Harvard  in  1887.  Profess- 
from  voluntary  convulsions.  It  soon  dis-  or  Shaler  is  a  member  of  the  National 
appeared,  but  was  revived  by  James  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  author  of  A 
Wardley  in  1747,  and  more  successfully  by  First  Book  in  Geology;  Kentucky,  a 
Ann  Lee  (or  Standless) ,  expelled  Quakers,  Pioneer  Commonwealth;  The  Nature  of 
about  1757.  The  sect  emigrated  to  Amer-  Intellectual  Property;  The  United  States 
ica.  May,  1772,  and  settled  near  Albany,  of  America;  Fossil  Brachiopods  of  the 
N.  Y.,  1774.    They  have  several  communi-    Ohio  Valley,  etc. 

ties  in  the  United  States;  they  hold  all  Shanks,  William  Franklin  Gore, 
goods  in  common,  live  uprightly,  and  are  journalist;  born  in  Shelbyville,  Ky.,  April 
noted  for  frugality,  industry,  integrity,  20,  1837;  was  war  correspondent  for  the 
and  thrift.  They  denounce  marriage  as  New  York  Herald  during  the  Civil  War; 
sinful,  regard  celibacy  as  holy,  oppose  managing  editor  of  Harper's  Weekly  in 
war,  disown  baptism  and  the  Lord's  Sup-  1867-69;  city  editor  of  the  New  York 
per,  and  use  a  sort  of  dancing  as  part  Tribune  in  1871-80.  He  founded  and  be- 
of  worship.  came  editor  of  The  Daily  and  Weekly  Bond 

Shaler,  Alexander,  military  officer;  Buyer  in  1891.  He  is  the  author  of  Per- 
born  in  Haddam,  Conn.,  March  19,  1827;  sonal  Recollections  of  Distinguished  Gen- 
was  major  of  the  famous  New  York  7th  erals;  an  index  to  40  volumes  of  Harper's 
Eegiment  before  the  breaking  out  of  the  Magazine,  etc.  In  more  recent  years  he 
Civil  War,  and  became  lieutenant-colonel  carried  on  a  newspaper  syndicate  in  New 
of  the  65th  New  York  Volunteers  in  June,    York  City. 

1861.  He  served  in  the  Peninsular  cam-  Shannon,  Wilson,  diplomatist;  born  in 
paign,  and  under  Pope  in  Virginia  and  Belmont  county,  O.,  Feb.  24,  1802;  gradu- 
McClellan  in  Maryland  as  colonel.  In  ated  at  Athens  College  and  became  a  law- 
May,  1863,  he  was  promoted  brigadier-  yer;  was  governor  of  Ohio  in  1838-40  and 
general,  and  commanded  a  brigade  in  the  1842-44;  minister  to  Mexico  in  1844; 
battle  of  Fredericksburg.  In  the  battle  of  member  of  Congress  in  1853-55;  governor 
the  Wilderness  he  was  taken  prisoner,  and  of  Kansas  Territory  in  1855-56;  favored 
was   confined  at  Charleston,   S.   C.      Ex-    slavery,   but  was   very   cautious,   and   in 



1855  succeeded  in  settling  the  Wakarusha 
War  (see  IvAXSAS).  He  died  in  Lawrence, 
Kan.,  Aug.  31,  1877. 

Sliarpsburg.  See  Antietam,  Battle  of. 

Sharswood,  George,  jurist;  born  in 
PMladelpliia,  Pa.,  July  7,  1810;  gradu- 
ated at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1828:  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1831;  mem- 
ber of  the  Pennsylvania  legislature  in 
1837-38  and  1842-43;  appointed  judge  of 
the  district  court  of  Philadelphia  in  1845; 
president  of  that  court  in  1848-67;  was 
then  chosen  a  justice  of  the  Pennsylvania? 
Supreme  Court;  and  was  chief-justice  in 
1878-82.  He  became  widely  known  through 
his  book  entitled  Sha7-swood's  Blackstone's 
Commentaries ;  was  author  of  several  other 
books  on  law,  and  editor  of  many  text- 
writers.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  May 
28,  1883. 

Shaubena,  Ottawa,  Indian  chief;  born 
near  Maumee  River,  0.,  about  1775;  ac- 
companied Tecumseh  and  Sauganash 
(qq.  V.)  in  1810  to  the  Indian  tribes  living 
in  the  present  States  of  Illinois  and  Wis- 
consin in  order  to  incite  them  against 
the  white  settlers.  After  the  death  of 
Tecumseh  he  and  Sauganash  withdrew 
their  allegiance  from  the  British  and 
submitted  to  the  United  States.  He  died 
near  Morris,  111.,  July  27,  1859. 

Shaw,  Albert,  journalist;  born  in 
Shandon,  O.,  July  23,  1857;  graduated  at 
Iowa  College,  Grinnell,  la.,  in  1879; 
studied  abroad  in  1888-89.  Returning  to 
the  United  States,  he  established  and  be- 
came editor  of  the  American  Monthly  Re- 
view of  Reviews  in  1890.  He  is  the  author 
of  A  Chapter  in  the  History  of  Commu- 
nism; Local  Government  in  Illinois;  Co- 
operation in  the  'Northwest ;  Our  War  in 
Two  Hemispheres,  etc. 

Shaw,  Henry  Wheeler  (pen-name 
Josh  Billings),  humorist;  born  in 
Lanesboro,  Mass.,  April  21,  1818.  His 
publications  include  Josh  Billings  on  Ice; 
Josh  Billinfjs's  Complete  Works;  Josh  Bil- 
linr/s's  f:i pice-Box;  and  an  annual  comic 
almanac.  He  died  in  Monterey,  Cal.,  Oct. 
14,  1885. 

Shaw,  John,  naval  officer;  born  in 
Mount  Meilick,  Ireland,  in  1773;  came  to 
tiie  Unitfd  States  in  1790,  and  settled 
in  Philadelphia;  joined  the  navy  as  lieu- 
tenant in  1798;  was  placed  in  command 
of  the  Enterprise  in  December,   1799,  and 

with  that  vessel  in  an  eight  months 
cruise  captured  eight  French  privateers 
and  retook  eleven  American  prizes.  His 
greatest  fight  was  with  the  Flambeau, 
of  fourteen  guns  and  100  men,  which  he  de- 
feated in  a  little  more  than  an  hour.  He 
died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Sept.  17,  1823. 

Shaw,  Lemuel,  jurist;  born  in  Barn- 
stable, Mass.,  Jan.  9,  1781;  graduated  at 
Harvard  College  in  1800;  became  editor 
of  the  Boston  Gazette;  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  New  Hampshire  in  1804;  was  a 
member  of  the  State  legislature  in  1811- 
10  and  1819;  of  the  State  Senate  in  1821- 
22  and  1828-29;  and  chief-justice  of  the 
Massachusetts  Supreme  Court  in  1830-60. 
He  was  a  noted  jurist,  and  published  many 
orations,  addresses,  and  judicial  charges. 
He  died  in  Boston,  Mass.,  March  30,  186-1. 

Shaw,  Leslie  Mortier,  statesman; 
born  in  Morristown,  Vt.,  Nov.  2,  1848 ; 
graduated  from  Cornell  College,  Iowa,  in 
1874,  and  from  Iowa  Law  College  in  1876; 
twice  elected  governor  of  Iowa,  1898-1902; 
appointed  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  in 

Shaw,  Thompson  Darrah,  naval  oflB- 
cer ;  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  20, 
1801;  joined  the  navy  in  1820;  promoted 
lieutenant  in  1828 ;  commanded  the  schoon- 
er Petrel  during  the  Mexican  War,  and 
distinguished  himself  in  the  actions  at 
Tampico,  Vera  Cruz,  and  Tuspan;  pro- 
moted commander  in  1850;  served  in  the 
early  part  of  the  Civil  War  as  commander 
of  the  Montrjomery  in  the  Gulf  blockading 
squadron;  and  was  retired  Feb.  26,  1862. 
He  died  in  Germantown,  Pa.,  July  26, 

Shawmut,  a  peninsula  with  three  hills 
which  caused  it  to  be  called  "  Tri-moun- 
tain,"  on  which  Boston  was  built,  was  dis- 
covered by  the  Pilgrims  in  1621.  A  boat 
with  ten  men  was  sent  to  explore  Massa- 
chusetts Bay.  Towards  the  south  they 
saw  the  blue  hills  from  which  the  Indian 
name  Massachusetts  was  derived.  Two  or 
three  rivers  entered  the  bay,  and  penin- 
sulas jutted  into  it;  and  so  attractive 
were  its  shores  that  the  Pilgrims  regretted 
they  had  not  seated  themselves  there. 
When  Winthrop  and  a  large  colony  came 
(1630),  they  landed  at  Salem,  and  some 
of  them  settled  at  Charlestown,  Sickness 
prevailed  among  them.  Observing  a  fine 
spring  of  water  on  Shawmut,  and  believ- 



ing  its  high  ground  to  be  more  healthy  Missouri  and  received  land  from  the  Span- 
than  at  Charlesto\vn,  Winthrop  settled  iards.  Tecumseh  and  his  brother,  the 
there  and  founded  Boston  {q.  v.).  Prophet,  were  Shawnees,  and  attempted  to 
Shawnee  Indians,  a  once  powerful  confederate  Western  tribes  against  the 
family  of  the  Algonquian  nation,  sup-  white  people  in  1811,  but  most  of  his 
posed  to  have  been  originally  of  the  Kick-  people  in  Ohio  remained  loyal  to  the 
apoo  tribe,  a  larger  portion  of  whom  United  States  then  and  in  the  War  of 
moved  eastward,  and  a  part  removed  in  1812.  Those  in  Missouri  ceded  their  lands 
1648  to  the  Fox  River  country,  in  Wis-  to  the  United  States  in  1825,  and  those  in 
consin.  The  Iroquois  drove  them  back  Ohio  did  the  same  in  1831.  In  1899  there 
from  the  point  of  emigration  south  of  were  ninety-three  Eastern  Shawnees  at  the 
Lake  Erie,  when  they  took  a  stand  in  the  Quapaw  agency  in  Indian  Territory,  and 
basin  of  the  Cumberland  River,  where  493  absentee  Shawnees  at  the  Sac  and 
they  established  their  great  council-house  Fox  agency  in  Oklahoma, 
and  held  sway  over  a  vast  domain.  Some  Shawomet,  War  at.  Gorton,  the  rest- 
of  them  went  south  to  the  region  of  the  less  disturber  of  the  peace  in  New  Eng- 
Carolinas  and  Florida,  where  those  in  the  land,  had  been  whipped  from  colony  to 
latter  region  held  friendly  relations  with  colony,  and  had  settled  at  Shawomet 
the  Spaniards  for  a  while,  when  they  (afterwards  Warwick),  R.  I.,  on  land 
joined  the  English  in  the  Carolinas,  and  ceded  to  him  and  a  few  followers  by  Mian- 
were  known  as  Yamasees  and  Savannahs,  tonomoh.  The  settlement  consisted  of 
At  about  the  time  that  the  English  settled  twelve  men  and  their  wives  and  children, 
at  Jamestown  (1607), some  Southern  tribes  Two  Indian  chiefs,  claiming  to  be  inde- 
drove  the  Shawnees  from  the  Cumberland  pendent,  protested  against  the  cession,  and 
region,  when  some  of  them  crossed  the  appealed  to  the  authorities  at  Boston. 
Ohio  and  settled  on  the  Scioto  River,  at  These  were  seconded  by  Benedict  Arnold, 
and  near  the  present  Chillicothe.  Others  who  appears  to  have  been  moved  by  per- 
wandered  into  Pennsylvania,  where,  late  sonal  animosity.  He  entered  complaints 
in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  also  in  against  the  Shawomet  settlers.  Massa- 
1701,  they  made  treaties  with  William  chusetts  assumed  authority  over  that  por- 
Penn.  They  also  made  treaties  with  the  tion  of  Rhode  Island.  They  summoned 
Iroquois  after  joining  the  Fries  and  An-  Miantonomoh  to  Boston,  and  on  incompe- 
dastes  in  war  against  the  Five  Nations  in  tent  testimony  it  was  adjudged  that  he 
1672,  when  the  Shawnees  were  defeated  had  no  right  to  sell  the  land.  Then  the 
and  fled  to  the  land  of  the  Catawbas  in  Gorton  colony  were  summoned  to  Boston. 
South  Carolina,  but  from  which  they  were  They  replied  that  they  were  not  respon- 
soon  expelled,  taking  refuge  with  the  sible  to  Massachusetts,  but  to  the  govern- 
Creeks.  Finally,  they  joined  their  kindred  ment  of  Englaiid.  A  second  summons  was 
in  Ohio  when  those  in  Pennsylvania  went  sent,  with  the  same  result.  Commission- 
thither.  The  Iroquois,  who  claimed  sov-  ers  were  appointed  to  go  to  Shawomet. 
ereignty  over  them,  drove  them  farther  They  were  warned  by  Gorton  that  if  they 
westward,  where  they  joined  the  French  should  come  to  exercise  force  they  would 
and  were  active  in  the  events  of  the  French  be  met  by  force.  "  We  strictly  charge 
and  Indian  War.  They  continued  hostile  you,"  he  wrote,  "  that  you  set  not  a  foot 
to  the  English  after  the  conquest  of  Can-  upon  our  lands  in  any  hostile  way,  but 
ada,  and  were  in  Pontiac's  confederacy,  upon  your  peril;  and  that  if  any  blood  be 
Afterwards  they  made  war  on  the  Vir-  shed,  upon  your  own  heads  shall  it  be." 
ginia  frontier  in  connection  with  other  The  commissioners  went  with  a  min- 
Western  tribes.  In  1774  they  had  a  severe  ister,  a  band  of  soldiers,  and  some  Ind- 
battle  with  the  Virginia  militia  at  Point  ians.  On  their  approach,  alarm  spread 
Pleasant.  Under  English  influences  they  through  the  hamlet.  The  men  prepared 
took  part  with  the  Miamis  in  the  war  themselves  for  flght;  the  women,  with 
from  1790  until  1795,  and  participated  in  their  children,  for  flight.  The  latter,  when 
the  treaty  at  Greenville  in  1795.  At  that  the  Boston  party  came,  ran — some  to  the 
time  the  main  body  of  the  Shawnees  were  woods,  and  others  to  the  water  to  a 
on  the  Scioto  River,  but  some  passed  into  friendly  boat.  The  men  took  refuge  in  a 
VIII. — K                                                       145 


fortified    log -cabin.     The    commissioners  tents  like  those  which  produced  the  State 

demanded  an  instant  surrender.     It  was  of  Fkankland  iq.v.)  caused  revolutionary 

refused;    for,   as   the   besieged   said,    they  movements.    A  convention  of  the  people  of 

owed  no  allegiance  to  Massachusetts.     They  Maine,    sitting    in    Portland     (September, 

proposed  to  submit  the  case  to  arbitration,  1786),  considered  the  expediency  of  erect- 

and  a  truce  was  agreed  upon  until  word  ing  themselves  into  an  independent  State, 

could  be  received  from  Boston.  The  truce  but  nothing  came  of  it.  In  Massachusetts 
was  delusive.     Before  the  messenger  sent,  a  more  formidable  movement  took  place, 

to    Boston    could    return,    the    houses    of  The  General  Court  had  voted  customs  and 

Gorton's    people    were    broken    open    and  excise  duties  to  produce  a  revenue  suffi- 

plundered.     Even  the  women  and  children  cient   to   meet   the   interest   on   the   State 

returning  from  the  woods  were  fired  upon.  debt.    Besides  this  burden  laid  upon  them, 

The    Bostonians   besieged    the    Gortonians  the  people  were  suff'ering  from  private  in- 

for  several  days.     At  length  it  was  pro-  debtedness.    There  were  taxes  to  meet  the 

posed  to  Gorton  that  he  and  his  fellow-  instalments  to  be  paid  on  the  principal  of 

defenders    should    go    to    Boston,    not    as  the  State  debt,  and,  also,  responses  had  to 

prisoners,   but   as   "  free   men   and   neigh-  be   made   to   requisitions   of   Congress   for 

bors."     As  soon  as  the  besiegers  entered  the    proportion    of    money   required    from 

the   house,   Gorton   and   his   friends   were  Massachusetts  for  carrying  on  the  general 

disarmed   and   marclied   off   to   Boston   as  government.       The     taxes     of    the     State 

prisoners.       Their    property   was   left    be-  amounted  annually  to  $1,000,000.     Many 

hind,  a  prey  to  plundering  Indians,   and  of  the  farmers  had  fallen  behind  in  their 

their  wives   and   children   were   scattered,  payments.     A  multitu(l2  of  lawsuits  were 

and  some  of  them  died.  pending  in  the  courts.     Conventions  were 

On  the  way  to  Boston,  in  vil-  called,  especially  in  the  southern  and  west- 

lages  called  the  people  to  prayers  on  the  ern  counties,  tf  consider  their  grievances, 

street,  to  give  thanks  for  the  victory  of  and    these    were    sometimes    followed    by 

the  Bostonians.    In  Boston  the  troops  were  armed   mobs   which   prevented   the   courts 

drawn  up  in  front  of  Governor  Winthrop's  from  sitting. 

house.  The  commissioners  made  their  re-  The  poverty  and  exhaustion  of  the 
port,  and  the  governor  came  out  to  wel-  country  in  consequence  of  the  war  was 
come  back  the  valiant  troops  who  had  complete.  Artful  demagogues  stirred  up 
gained  a  victory  over  twelve  men,  whose  the  people  of  one  class  against  those  of 
most  heinous  offence  was  disagreement  in  another.  The  working-men  were  arrayed 
opinion  with  the  Church  and  State  of  against  the  capitalists.  The  government 
Massachusetts.  Their  trial  was  a  sort  of  of  Massachusetts  was  held  responsible  for 
theological  tilt.  The  ministers  and  magis-  every  evil;  and  these  demagogues,  seek- 
trates  wished  to  hang  the  prisoners,  but  ing  notoriety,  so  inflamed  the  people  that 
sensible  representatives  of  the  people  con-  large  masses  were  ready  to  take  up  arms 
sented  only  to  the  punishment  of  being  for  the  overthrow  of  the  commonwealth, 
put  at  hard  labor,  each  with  "  irons  upon  In  this  disturbed  state  of  the  public  mind, 
one  leg,"  and  commanded  that  they  should  the  governor  of  Massachusetts  (Bowdoin) 
not  "by  word  or  writing  maintain  any  of  called  (September,  1786)  a  special  ses- 
their  blasphemous  or  wicked  errors  upon  sion  of  the  legislature.  Unsuccessful  at- 
pain  of  death."  The  Narragansets,  under  tempts  were  made  to  pacify  the  malcon- 
the  lead  of  Miantonomoh,  took  up  the  tents,  when  the  governor  called  out  the 
quarrel  in  their  way,  and  it  proved  the  militia  to  protect  the  courts  in  the  south- 
ruin  of  that  chief.     See  Miantonomoh.  western  counties.     The  Congress,  fearing 

Shays,  Daniel,  insurgent;  born  in  Hop-  the  dissatisfied  people  might  seize  the  gov- 

kinton,  Mass.,  in  1747;  was  an  ensign  in  ernment   armory  at   Springfield,   voted  to 

Woodbridge's    regiment    at    the    battle    of  enlist    1,300   men    (October,    1786)    under 

Bunker  Hill,  and  became  a  captain  in  the  pretext  of  acting  against  Indians  in  the 

Continental   army.      His   place   in  history  Northwest;  but  before  these  troops  could 

was  obtained  by  his  leadership  of  an  in-  bo    raised,    an    insurrection    had    already 

surreetion  in  Massachusetts  in  1786-87.  broken  out.     Shays,  at  the  head  of  1,000 

Ih  other  portions  of  the  Union,  discon-  men  or  more,  took  possession  of  Worces- 




ter  (Dec.  5)  and  prevented  a  session  of  the  pelled  to  call  out  several  thousand  militia, 
Supreme  Court  in  that  town.  He  repeated  under  General  Lincoln,  to  suppress  it. 
this  act  at  Springfield    (Dec.  25).  They  assembled  at  Boston  (Jan.  17,  1787) 

The    insurrection    soon   became    so    for-    in  the  depth  of  winter,  and  marched  for 
midable  that  Governor  Bowdoin  was  com-    Worcester    and    Springfield.       Two    other 



bodies  of  insurgents  were  then  in  the  field 
under  the  respective  commands  of  Luke 
Day  and  Eli  Parsons.  United,  they  num- 
bered about  2,000.  Shays  demanded  the 
surrender  (Jan.  25)  of  the  arsenal  at 
Springfield,  and  approached  to  take  it. 
Colonel  Shepherd,  in  command  there,  first 
fired  cannon  over  their  heads.  Wlien  the 
pieces  were  pointed  at  the  insurgents,  they 
cried  "Murder!"  and  fled  in  confusion. 
Upon  Lincoln's  approach  (Jan.  27)  the 
insurgents  retreated.  Finally,  he  capt- 
ured 150  of  them  at  Petersham;  the  rest 
■were  dispersed  and  fled  into  New  Hamp- 
sliire.  Lincoln  then  marched  into  the  dis- 
tricts west  of  the  Connecticut  River,  where 
the  insurgents  were  numerous.  Their 
power  was  speedily  broken.  A  free  pardon 
was  finally  offered  to  all  persons  who  had 
engaged  in  the  insurrection.  Several  of 
the  leaders  were  tried  and  sentenced  to 
death,  but  none  were  executed;  for  it  was 
perceived  that  the  great  mass  of  the  people 
sympathized  with  them.  So  ended  what  is 
known  in  history  as  Shays's  Eebellion. 
Shays  died  in  Sparta,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  29, 

Shea,  Jonx  Dawson  Gh-makt,  his- 
torian; born  in  New  York  City,  July  22, 
1824;  educated  in  the  grammar  school  of 
Columbia  College,  of  which  his  father  was 
principal;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1846,  but  soon  abandoned  the  law  prac- 
tice and  devoted  himself  to  literature. 
He  was  deeply  interested  in  the  work  of 
the  early  Catholic  missions  among  the 
American  Indians,  and  spent  much  time  in 
collecting  material  out  of  which  to  write 
a  history  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  the 
United  States.  His  publications  include 
The  Discovery  and  Exploration  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi Valley;  History  of  the  Catholic 
Missions  among  the  Indian  Tribes  of  the 
United  States;  The  Fallen  Brave;  Early 
Voyages  up  and  doicn  the  Mississippi; 
Novitm  Belgium,  an  Account  of  the  Nevj 
^Netherlands  in  16ffS-.'fff;  The  Operations 
of  the  French  under  Count  de  Grasse; 
and  The  Lincoln  Memorial.  He  also  trans- 
lated from  the  French  many  works  relat- 
ing to  the  United  States,  including  Charle- 
voix's History  and  General  Description  of 
Neio  France;  Hennepin's  Description  of 
Louisiana;  De  Courcy's  Catholic  Church 
in  the  United  States,  etc.  He  died  in 
Elizabeth,  N.  J.,  Feb.  22,  1892. 

Sheaffe,  Sib  Roger  Hale,  military 
oflicer;  boin  in  Boston,  Mass.,  July  15, 
1763.  Earl  Percy  made  his  headquarters 
at  the  house  of  the  mother  of  young 
Sheaffe,  and  he  provided  for  the  lad  a 
military  education  and  a  commission  in  a 
regiment  of  foot  in  1773.  Sheaffe  per- 
formed various  military  services  in  Europe, 
and  in  1812  went  to  Canada,  with  the  rank 
of  major-general.  After  the  fall  of  Brock 
at  Queenston,  Sheaffe  took  command  of 
the  forces  and  gained  a  victory  there.  For 
this  service  he  was  knighted  (Jan.  16, 
1813).  In  April  of  the  same  year  he  de- 
fended York,  and  was  made  a  full  general 
in  1828.  He  died  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland, 
July  17,  1851. 

Shearman,  Thomas  Gaskell,  lawyer; 
born  in  Birmingham,  England,  Nov.  25, 
1834;  was  brought  to  New  York  by  his 
parents  in  1843;  received  a  private  edu- 
cation; was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1859. 
He  was  one  of  the  counsel  for  Henry  Ward 
Beecher  in  the  Beecher  -  Tilton  trial ;  be- 
came conspicuous  as  a  free-trade  advocate. 
He  was  the  author  of  'Natural  Taxation; 
Crooked  Taxation;  Does  Protection  Pro- 
tect? The  Single  Tax;  Distribution  o) 
Wealth;  Who  Oic-n  the  United  States?  etc. 
He  died  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  29,  1900. 

She-bears.     See  Mohaavk  Indians. 

Shedd,  William  Greenough  Thayer, 
clergyman;  born  in  Acton,  Mass.,  June 
21,  1820;  graduated  at  the  University  of 
Vermont  in  1839  and  at  the  Auburn  Theo- 
logical Seminary  in  1843;  ordained  in  the 
Congregational  Church  in  1844;  Professor 
of  English  Literature  in  the  University  of 
Vermont  in  1845-52;  of  Sacred  Rhetoric 
in  Auburn  Theological  Seminary  in  1852- 
53;  of  Church  History  in  Andover  Semi- 
nary in  1854-62;  associate  pastor  of  the 
Brick  Church,  New  York  City,  in  1862-63; 
Professor  of  Bible  Literature  in  the  Union 
Theological  Seminary  in  1863-74,  and  of 
Systematic  Theology  in  1874-90.  He  wrote 
Lectures  on  the  Philosophy  of  History; 
Discourses  and  Essays,  etc.  He  died  in 
New  York  City,  Nov.  17,  1894. 

Shelburne,  a  seaport  town  of  Nova  Sco- 
tia, capital  of  Shelburne  county;  141  miles 
southwest  of  Halifax.  It  has  a  beautiful 
harbor,  and  its  industries  include  com- 
merce, fishing,  and  ship-building.  Ex- 
cellent water-power  is  furnished  by  the 
river  Roseway.    During  the  Revolutionary 



War  it  had  a  population  of  about  12,000 
iuhabitants,  and  was  the  centre  of  loyalist 
influence.     Population   (1895),  2,500. 

Shelburne,  William  Petty  Fitz-Mau- 
BiCE,  Marquis  of  Lansdowne;  born  in 
Dublin,  Ireland,  May  20,  1737;  educated 
at  Oxford  University;  joined  the  British 
army  in  1757,  and  won  distinction;  suc- 
ceeded to  the  earldom  of  Lansdowne  in 
17G1;  elected  to  Parliament  in  the  same 
year;  opposed  the  Stamp  Act  and  other 
policies  oppressive  to  America;  was  a  per- 
sonal friend  of  Benjamin  Franklin;  began 
the  negotiations  which  brought  about 
peace  with  the  United  States;  created 
Marquis  of  Lansdowne  in  1784.  He  died 
in  London,  England,  May  2,  1805. 

Shelby,  Evan,  pioneer;  born  in  Wales 
in  1720;  accompanied  his  parents  to  Mary- 
land in  1 735 ;  rose  to  the  rank  of  captain 
in  the  French  and  Indian  War.  Early  in 
1779  about  1,000  Indians  assembled  at 
Chickamauga  and  Chattanooga,  Ga.,  to 
join  the  Northern  Indians  in  Hamilton's 
conspiracy.  To  restrain  their  ravages, 
the  governments  of  North  Carolina  and 
Virginia  appointed  Shelby  to  the  command 
of  1,000  men,  called  into  service  chiefly 
from  the  region  west  of  the  mountains. 
These  were  joined  by  a  regiment  of  twelve- 
month men  who  had  been  enlisted  to  rein- 
force Clarke  in  Illinois.  In  the  middle  of 
April  they  went  down  the  Tennessee  River 
in  canoes  and  pirogues  so  rapidly  that  the 
savages  were  surprised,  and  fled  to  the 
hills    and    woods,    pursued    by    the    white 

troops.  Forty  of  the  Indians  were  killed. 
Their  towns  were  burned,  their  cultivated 
lields  were  laid  waste,  and  their  cattle 
were  driven  away.  For  the  rest  of  the 
jear  there  was  peace  among  the  Western 
{settlements,  and  a  stream  of  emigrants 
flowed  through  the  mountains  into  Ken- 
tucky, increasing  the  number  of  settle- 
ments. Shelby  afterwards  attained  the 
rank  of  brigadier-general.  He  died  at 
Kmg's  Meadows,  Tenn.,  Dec.  4,  1794. 

Shelby,    Isaac,    military    officer;    born 
near  Hagerstown,  Md.,  Doc.  11,  1750;  son 


of  Gen.  Evan  Shelby;  in  early  life  was  a 
surveyor  in  western  Virginia;  became  a 
captain  in  1776,  and  commissary  in  1777, 
rising  to  the  rank  of  colonel  in  1780. 
He   was   a   chief   leader   in   the   defeat   of 




Ferguson  at  King's  Mountain,  and  was  in 
other  engagements,  serving  under  Marion 
in  1781,  and  subsequently  joining  Greene 
with  500  mounted  volunteers.  He  received 
from  the  legislature  of  North  Carolina 
a  vote  of  thanks  and  a  sword  (delivered 
to  him  in  1813)  for  the  victory  at  King's 
Mountain.  Shelby  was  governor  of  Ken- 
tucky from  1792  to  179(5,  and  again  from 
lS12*to  1816.  At  the  head  of  4,000  troops, 
he  joined  General  Harrison  in  an  invasion 
of  Canada  in  1813,  and  fought  at  the 
battle  of  the  Thames.  For  his  conduct 
there  Congress  gave  him  a  gold  medal. 
He  declined  the  offer  of  a  seat  in  Presi- 
dent Monroe's  cabinet  as  Secretary  of  War 
on  account  of  his  age.  His  last  public 
act  was  serving  as  a  commissioner  with 
General  Jackson  in  forming  a  treaty  with 
the  Chickasaw  Indians.  He  died  near 
Stanford,  Ky.,  July  18,  1826, 

Sheldon,  George  William,  author; 
born  in  Summerville,  S.  C,  Jan.  28,  1843 ; 
graduated  at  Princeton  College  in  1863; 
instructor  of  Oriental  languages  in  the 
[Jnion  Theological  Seminary,  1867-73.  He 
is  the  author  of  American  Painters;  The 
Volunteer  Fire  Department  of  New  YorJc 
City;  Recent  Ideals  of  American  Art,  etc. 

Shenandoah,  Confederate  cruiser.  See 
Confederate  States    {Navy). 

Shenandoah  Valley,  Chronology  of 
THE  Operations  in  the. 

Campaign  of  Grant  against  Lee  em- 
braced movements  up  the  Slienandoah 
Valley.  Sigel,  commanding  Depart- 
ment of  West  Virginia,  is  sent  up  the 
valley  with  10,000  men,  supported  by 
General  Crook,  who  leaves  Charles- 
town,    W.    Va.,    at    the    same    time.. 

May  1,  1864 

Breckinridge  defeats  Sigel  at  New- 
market   May   15,  1864 

Grant  relieves  Sigel  and  appoints  Hun- 
ter, who  defeats  the  Confederates 
under  Gen.  W.  E.  Jones  at  Piedmont. 

June  5,  1864 

Hunter,  joined  by  Crook  and  Averill, 
advances  to  Staunton,  and  instead  of 
proceeding  to  Gordonsville  to  join 
Sheridan,  goes  to  Lexington,  and  on 
June  18  threatens  Lynchburg  with 
20,000  men  ;  but  opposed  by  a  much 
stronger  force,  escapes  into  West 
Virginia,  where  his  force  for  the 
time   Is   useless. 

Confederate  forces,  now  under  General 
Early,  move  rapidly  down  the 
Shenandoah  to  the  Potomac,  and 
spread  consternation  from  Baltimore 
to  Washington July  2-3,  1864 


Gen.  Lew.  Wallace  attempts  to  check 
the  Confederates  at  Monocacy,  but  Is 
defeated  with  a  loss  of  ninety-eight 
killed,  579  wounded,  and  1,280  miss- 
ing  July  9,  1864 

Confederate  cavalry  approach  Baltimore. 

July  10,  1864 

On  the  11th  Early  is  within  6  or  7 
miles  of  Washington,  and  menaces 
the  capital  on  the  12th,  but  retires 
on  the  13th.  The  19th  Corps 
(Emory's),  arriving  at  Fortress  Mon- 
roe from  Louisiana,  and  the  6th 
Corps  from  before  Petersburg,  sent 
by  Grant  under  Wright  to  attack 
Early,  pursue  him  some  distance  up 
the  valley,  and  return  to  Leesburg, 
and  are  ordered  back  to  Petersburg. 
Early  returns  as  soon  as  the  pursuit 
ceases  ;  strikes  Crook  at  Martinsburg, 
defeats  him,  and  holds  the  Potomac 
from  Shepardstown  to  Williamsport, 

Early  now  sends  B.  R.  Johnston  and 
McCausland  with  some  3,000  cavalry 
on  a  raid  into  Pennsylvania.. July  30,   1864 

Approaching  Chambersburg,  Pa.,  they 
demand  $100,000,  which  is  not  paid, 
and  burn  the  town July  30,  1864 

Sixth  and  19th  Corps,  on  their  way 
to  Petersburg,  return.  Grant  relieves 
General  Hunter,  organizes  the  army 
of  the  middle  division,  and  gives  the 
command  to  Sheridan Aug.  7,  1864 

Sheridan  attacks  and  defeats  Early, 
strongly  fortified  at  Opequan  Creek, 
near  Winchester Sept.   19,  1864 

Early  falls  back  to  Fisher's  Hill,  south 
of  Winchester,  where  Sheridan  routs 
him,  taking  1,100  prisoners  and  six- 
teen gims Sept.  22,   1864 

Sheridan  pushes  Early  to  the  moun- 
tains ;  returns  to  Cedar  Creek,  and, 
leaving  his  command,  visits  Wash- 
ington   Oct.  15,  1864 

Early,  reinforced,  returns  to  Fisher's 
Hill,  and,  learning  of  Sheridan's  ab- 
sence, sets  out  to  attack  on  the  even- 
ing of Oct.  18.  1864 

Surprises  the  Federals  under  Wright, 
driving  them  back  with  a  loss  of 
twenty-four  guns  and  1,200  prisoners, 
morning  of Oct.  19,  1864 

Sheridan  at  Winchester  on  the  night  of 
the  18th.  On  his  way  to  the  front 
news  of  the  rout  of  his  army  reaches 
him.  His  arrival  on  the  field  stops 
the  retreat.  Early  is  crushed  and 
the  campaign  in  the  valley  ended, 
Oct.  19,  1864.     See  Cedar  Crehk. 

Sheridan,  with  10,000  cavalry,  drives 
the  Confederates  from  Waynesboro, 
Feb.  27.  and,  advancing,  joins  Grant 
before  Petersburg March  27,  1865 

Shepard,  Thomas,  .clergyman ;  born  in 
Toweester,  England,  Nov.  5,  1605;  gradu- 
ated at  Oxford  University  in  1627;  set- 
tled in  Boston,  Mass.,  in  1635;  and  was 
active  in  establishing  Harvard  College. 
His  publications  include  New  England's 


Lamentations  for  Old  England's  Errors; 
The  Clear  Sunshine  of  the  Gospel  Break- 
ing out  on  the  Indians  of  New  England, 
etc.  He  died  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Aug. 
25,  1649. 

Shepard,  William,  military  officer; 
born  near  Boston,  Mass.,  Dec.  1,  1737; 
served  in  the  provincial  army  in  1757-63; 
commissioned  colonel  of  the  4th  Massa- 
chusetts Regiment  in  1777;  remained  in 
the  army  till  1783,  taking  part  in  twenty- 
two  actions;  settled  in  Medway,  Mass., 
appointed  brigadier-general  of  militia; 
prevented  Daniel  Shays's  followers  from 
seizing  the  Springfield  arsenal  in  1786; 
and  was  member  of  Congress  in  1797-1803. 
He  died  in  Westfield,  Mass.,  Nov.  11, 

Shepherd,  Oliver  Lathrop,  military 
officer;  born  in  Clifton  Park,  N.  Y.,  Aug. 
15,  1815;  graduated  at  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  in  1840;  served  in  the 
Mexican  War,  winning  distinction  at  Con- 
treras,  Churubusco,  and  Chapultepec; 
promoted  captain  in  1847;  served  through 
the  Civil  War;  promoted  colonel  in  1863 
and  received  the  brevet  of  brigadier-gen- 
eral in  1805;  retired  in  1870.  He  died  in 
New  York  City,  April  16,  1894. 

Shepherd,  William  Robeet,  author; 
born  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  June  12,  1871; 
graduated  at  Columbia  College  in  1893, 
and  became  a  lecturer  there.  He  is  the 
author  of  History  of  Proprietary  Govern- 
ment in  Pennsylvania;  The  Battle  of  Har- 
lem Heights;  The  Land  System  of  Provin- 
cial Pennsylvania,  etc. 

Shepley,  Ether,  jurist;  born  in  Groton, 
Mass.,  Nov.  2,  1789;  graduated  at  Dart- 
mouth College  in  1811;  practised  law  in 
Saco  and  Portland;  was  in  the  Massachu- 
setts legislature  in  1819:  in  the  Maine 
constitutional  convention  in  1820;  United 
States  district  attorney  for  Maine  in  1821- 
23;  United  States  Senator  in  1833-36;  be- 
came a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Maine  in  1836;  was  chief  -  justice  in 
1848-55;  and  sole  commissioner  to  pre- 
pare the  Revised  Statutes  of  Maine.  He 
died  Jan.  15,  1877. 

Shepley,  George  Foster,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Saco.  Me.,  Jan.  1,  1819;  son 
of  Chief- Justice  Ether  Shepley;  graduated 
at  Dartmouth  College  in  1837;  studied  at 
the  Harvard  Law  School  and  at  Portland; 
and  began  the  practice  of  law  at  Bangor. 


President  Polk  appointed  him  United 
States  district  attorney,  which  post  he  held 
until  1861,  when  he  became  colonel  of  the 
12th  Maine  Volunteers,  and  took  part  in 
General  Butler's  expedition  against  New 
Orleans.  On  the  surrender  of  that  city  he 
was  made  its  commandant.  In  July  he  be- 
came a  brigadier-general,  and  was  mili- 
tary governor  of  Louisiana  from  July  2, 
1862,  until  1864.  On  the  surrender  of 
Piichmond  (April,  1865),  he  was  made 
military  governor  of  that  city.  He  re- 
signed in  July,  and  resumed  the  practice 
of  law  in  Portland.  In  1869  he  was  ap- 
pointed United  States  circuit  judge  for 
the  first  circuit,  and  held  the  office  till 
his  death  in  Portland,  Me.,  July  20,  1878. 
Sheppard,  Furman,  lawyer;  born  in 
Bridgeton,  N.  J.,  Nov.  21,  1823;  graduated 
at  Princeton  College  in  1845;  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1848  and  practised  in  Phila- 
delphia. In  1876  he  established  a  mag- 
istrate's court  in  the  Centennial  Exhibi- 
tion grounds,  which  became  known  as 
Sheppard's  Railroad,  and  which  effectually 
broke  up  the  preparations  of  the  criminal 
classes  to  prey  upon  visitors.  His  pub- 
lications include  The  Constitutional  Text- 
hook:  A  Practical  and  Familiar  Exposi- 
tion of  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States;  The  First  Book  of  the  Constitu- 
tion, etc. 

Sherbrooke,  Sir  John  Coape,  military 
officer;  born  in  England,  about  1760;  be- 
came lieutenant-general  in  the  British 
army  in  1811.  Early  in  July,  1814,  Com- 
modore Hardy  sailed  secretly  from  Hali- 
fax, with  a  considerable  land  and  naval 
force,  and  captured  Eastport,  Me.,  with- 
out much  opposition.  This  easy  conquest 
encouraged  the  British  to  attempt  the 
seizure  of  the  whole  region  between  Passa- 
maquoddy  Bay  and  the  Penobscot  River. 
A  strong  squadron,  under  Admiral  Grif- 
fith, bearing  about  4,000  troops,  led  by 
Sherbrooke,  then  governor  of  Nova  Scotia, 
captured  Castine,  on  Penobscot  Bay,  and 
also  Belfast,  and  went  up  the  Penobscot 
River  to  Hampden,  a  few  miles  below 
Bangor,  to  capture  or  destroy  the  Amer- 
ican corvette  John  Adams,  which,  caught 
in  that  stream,  had  gone  up  so  far  to 
escape  from  the  British.  The  militia, 
called  to  defend  Hampden  and  the  Adams, 
fled  when  the  British  approached,  and  the 
object  of  the  latter  was  accomplished. 


Captain  Morris,  commander  of  the  Adams,  duties.  In  May,  1862,  he  was  made 
burned  her  to  prevent  her  falling  into  the  colonel  of  the  2d  Michigan  Cavalry;  on 
hands  of  the  British.  The  latter  pressed  June  6  defeated  Forrest's  cavalry,  and 
on  to  Bangor,  where  they  tarried  about    on  July  1  repulsed  and  defeated  a  superior 

Confederate  force  under  Chalmers 
at  Booneville,  Miss.  He  was  then 
at  the  head  of  a  brigade  of 
cavalry,  and  was  made  brigadier- 
general.  In  August  he  defeated 
Faulkner's  cavalry  in  Mississippi 
Late  in  September  he  took  com- 
mand of  a  division  in  the  Army 
of  the  Ohio,  and  led  another  divis- 
ion at  the  battle  of  Perryville. 
He  also  commanded  a  division 
with  great  efficiency  in  the  battle 
at  Stone  River,  and  for  his  ser- 
vices there  he  was  made  (Dec.  31^ 
major-general  of  volunteers.  He 
afterwards  rendered  signal  service 
in  the  battles  of  Chickamauga 
and  Missionary  Ridge,  when  he 
was  transferred  to  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac  (April,  1864)  as 
chief  of  cavalry. 

When  the  Federal  army  emerged 
from  the  Wilderness,  in  1864,  Gen- 
eral Sheridan  was  sent  to  cut 
Lee's  communications  with  Rich- 
mond. This  was  the  first  of  the 
great  raids  of  that  leader  in  Vir- 
ginia, and  was  a  short  but  de- 
thirty  liours,  destroyed  several  vessels  at  structive  one.  He  took  with  him  a 
the  mouth  of  the  Kenduskeag,  and  plun-  greater  portion  of  the  cavalry  led  by 
dered  property  valued  at  over  $20,000.  Morritt,  Gregg,  and  Wilson,  crossed  the 
Then  they  returned  to  Hampden  and  there  North  Anna  on  May  9,  and  struck 
repeated  their  destructive  work.  Then  the  Virginia  Central  Railroad,  capturing 
the  troops  and  fleet  descended  the  Penob-  Beaver  Dam  Station.  He  destroyed  10 
scot,  and,  after  capturing  Machias,  re-  miles  of  the  railway,  its  rolling  stock,  1,- 
turned  to  Halifax.  General  Gosselin  was  500,000  rations,  and  released  400  Union 
left  to  hold  the  country,  which  he  did  prisoners  on  their  way  to  Richmond, 
with  dignity  and  humanity.  Sir  John  There  he  was  attacked  by  Stuart  and  his 
died  in  Claverton,  England,  Feb.  14,  1830.  cavalry,  but  was  not  much  impeded  there- 
Sheridan,  Philip  Henry,  military  offi-  by.  He  pushed  forward,  and  on  the  morn- 
cer;  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  March  6,  1831;  ing  of  the  11th  captured  Ashland  Station, 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1853;  served  on  the  Fredericksburg  road,  a  few  miles 
with  much  credit  in  Texas  and  Oregon,  from  Richmond,  where  he  destroyed  the 
doing  good  service  in  the  latter  region,  railroad  for  6  miles  and  a  large  quantity 
and  settling  difficulties  with  the  Indians:  of  stores.  He  was  charged  with  menacing 
was  made  captain  in  May,  1861,  and  dur-  Richmond  and  communicating  with  the 
ing  the  summer  was  president  of  a  mili-  Army  of  the  James,  under  General  Butler, 
tnry  commission  to  audit  claims  in  Mis-  A  few  miles  from  Richmond  he  had  an- 
feouri.  In  December  he  was  made  chief  other  sharp  contest  with  Stuart,  and  drove 
commissary  of  the  Army  of  the  South-  him  and  his  cavalry  toAvards  Ashland, 
west,  and  was  on  the  staff  of  General  Stuart  was  killed,  and  General  Gordon  was 
Halleck  at  Corinth,  performing  the  same    mortally  wounded.     Sheridan  still  pressed 




on,  and  made  a  dash  upon  the  outer  works 
at  Kichmond.  Custer's  brigade  carried 
them  at  that  point  and  made  100  prisoners. 
The  inner  works  were  too  strong  for 
cavalry.  The  Confederates  gathered,  and 
in  a  fight  Sheridan  was  repulsed.  He  led 
his  command  across  the  Chickahominy, 
fighting  a  Confederate  force  at  Meadow 
Bridge ;  destroyed  a  railway  bridge ;  rested 
three  days  at  Haxhall's  Landing,   on  the 

James,  and  procured  supplies;  and  then, 
by  way  of  the  White  House,  leisurely  re- 
turned to  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 

In  the  campaign  against  Richmond  until 
August,  18(54,  he  did  signal  service  in 
making  destructive  raids  on  Lee'a  com- 
munications. On  Aug.  1  he  was  detached 
to  the  valley  of  the  Shenandoah,  where  he 
defeated  the  Confederates  in  several  en  ' 
gagements.      During   this   campaign   Gen- 




eral  Wright  was  defeated  by  General 
Early  on  Oct.  18,  1864,  at  Cedar  Creek 
iq.  v.).  Sheridan  at  the  time  was  in 
Winchester,  and  as  soon  as  he  got  the 
news  he  rode  to  the  front  at  a  swinging 
gallop,  rallied  the  Nationals,  and  crushed 
Early.  Sheridan's  ride  has  been  immor- 
talized in  poetry,  art,  and  song. 

Sheridan  left  Winchester  on  Feb.  27, 
1865,  with  about  10,000  men,  composed  of 
the  divisions  of  cavalry  of  Merritt  and 
Custer.  To  the  latter  division  was  added  a 
brigade  of  W^est  Virginia  troops  under 
Colonel  Capehart.  Sheridan's  troops 
moved  rapidly  up  the  Shenandoah  Valley 
towards  Staunton.  On  the  way  they  met 
Eosser,  with  400  men,  who  was  disposed  to 
dispute  the  passage  of  a  fork  of  the 
Shenandoah;  but  he  was  soon  chased 
away,  and  the  column  moved  on  to 
Staunton  and  Rockfish  Gap.  Early,  with 
2,500  men  behind  strong  intrenchments, 
was  at  Waynesboro  to  dispute  their  pas- 
sage. Custer  soon  routed  him,  captur- 
ing 1,600  of  his  men,  with  eleven 
guns,  seventeen  battle-flags,  and  200 
loaded  Avagons,  with  a  loss  of  less 
than  a  dozen  men.  This  finished  Early 
as  a  military  leader.  The  raiders  de- 
stroyed Confederate  property  in  the  vi- 
cinity valued  at  $1,000,000.  During  that 
night  Sheridan  went  over  the  Blue  Ridge 
in  a  drenching  rain,  and  entered  Char- 
lottesville late  the  next  day,  where  he 
waited  for  his  pontoons  and  ammunition 
to  come  over  the  mountains.  In  the  mean 
time  his  troops  destroyed  bridges,  fac- 
tories, depots,  and  the  railway  in  the  di- 
rection of  Lynchburg  for  about  8  miles. 
Satisfied  that  the  latter  place  was  too 
strong  for  him,  he  divided  his  force  and 
pushed  for  the  James  River.  Rains  had 
so  swollen  the  river  that  his  pontoons 
would  not  span  it.  Proceeding  eastward, 
he  destroyed  the  James  River  Canal  (then 
the  chief  channel  of  supplies  for  Rich- 
mond) and  numerous  bridges.  This  pro- 
duced the  greatest  consternation  in  Rich- 
mond. The  Confederate  government  pre- 
pared to  fly,  and  the  families  of  officials 
packed  for  a  journey.  The  Congress,  made 
nervous,  wanted  to  adjourn  and  depart, 
but  they  were  persuaded  to  remain.  From 
Columbia,  where  Sheridan  rested  a  day, 
he  dashed  off  to  the  Virginia  Central  Rail- 
way, which  he  destroyed  for  the  distance 


of  15  miles.  Then  Custer  in  one  direction, 
and  Devin  in  another,  made  complete  de- 
struction of  railways  and  bridges,  as  well 
as  supplies,  in  Lee's  rear,  inflicting  a  more 
serious  blow  to  the  Confederate  cause  than 
any  victory  during  the  last  campaign. 
Sheridan  then  swept  around  by  the  White 
House,  and  joined  the  army  before  Peters- 
burg on  March  26.  He  had  disabled  fully 
200  miles  of  railway,  destroyed  a  vast 
number  of  bridges,  and  property  to  the 
value  of  several  million  dollars. 

After  the  war  he  was  in  command  in 
Louisiana  and  Texas,  and  enforced  the 
"  reconstruction "  acts  there,  for  which 
he  was  removed  by  President  Johnson 
in  August,  1867.  He  was  made  lieutenant- 
general  in  March,  1869,  and  general  of  the 
army,  June  1,  1888.  He  died  in  Non- 
quitt,  Mass.,  Aug.  5,  1888. 

Sherman,  Henry,  laAvyer;  born  in  Al- 
bany, N.  Y.,  March  6,  1808;  graduated 
at  Yale  College  in  1829.  He  published 
Marine  Insurunce  to  the  Present  Time; 
The  Governmental  History  of  the  United 
States  of  America;  and  Slavery  in  the 
United  States  of  America.  He  died  in 
Washington,  D.   C,  March  28,   1879. 

Sherman,  James  Schoolcraft;  born 
in  Utica,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  24,  1855;  graduated 
from  Hamilton  College,  1878 ;  admitted  to 
the  bar,  1880;  mayor  of  Utica,  1884; 
member  of  Congress,  1887-91,  1893-1909; 
chairman  of  the  Republican  State  Con- 
vention, 1895,  1900.  He  was  elected  Vice- 
President  of  the  United  States  Nov.  3, 
•  1908,  on  the  Republican  ticket. 

Sherman,  John,  statesman;  born  in 
Lancaster,  O.,  May  10,  1823;  brother  of 
Gen.  William  T.  Sherman ;  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1844;  elected  to  Congress  in 
1854,  and  served  there  until  1861,  when  he 
became  United  States  Senator.  He  was 
a  leading  member  of  the  finance  commit- 
tee of  the  Senate  during  the  Civil  War. 
He  and  Thaddeus  Stevens  were  the 
framers  of  the  bill  passed  in  1866-67  for 
the  reorganization  of  the  so-called  "  seced- 
ed States."  He  was  also  the  author  of  a 
bill  providing  for  the  resumption  of  specie 
payments  on  Jan.  1,  1879;  and  on  March 
4,  1877,  President  Hayes  called  him  to  his 
cabinet  as  Secretary  of  the  Treasury.  In 
1881  he  was  re-elected  to  the  Unite<l 
States  Senate ;  became  chairman  of  the 
committee  on  foreign  relations;  resigned 




in  1897  to  become  Secretary  of  State;  and 
retired  from  that  office  in  April,  1898.  He 
died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Oct.  22,  1900. 
Mr.  Sherman  published  Recollections  (2 
volumes,  189G). 

Sherman,  Roger,  signer  of  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence;  born  in  Newton, 
Mass.,  April  19,  1721;  in  early  life  was  a 
shoemaker,  and  after  the  death  of  his 
father  (1741)  he  supported  his  nipther 
and  several  younger  children  by  his  in- 
dustry, at  the  same  time  employing  all  his 
leisure  time  in  acquiring  knowledge,  espe- 
cially of  mathematics.  In  1743  he  join- 
ed an  elder  brother  in  keeping  a  small 
store  in  New  Milford,  Conn.,  and  the  next 
year  was  appointed  county  surveyor  of 
lands.  For  several  years  (1748-60)  he 
furnished  the  astronomical  calculations 
for  an  almanac  published  in  New  York. 
Meanwhile  he  had  studied  law,  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1754.  He  was 
elected  to  the  Connecticut  Assembly  sev- 

eral times,  and  in  1759  became  a  judge 
of  the  court  of  common  pleas.  Removing 
to  New  Haven  in  1701,  he  became  a  judge 
of  the  same  court  there  in  1765,  holding 
the  office  until  1789.  He  was  also  chosen 
an  assistant  in  1766,  and  held  the  office 
nineteen  years.  In  1774  he  was  chosen  a 
delegate  to  the  first  Continental  Congress. 
He  continued  in  Congress  until  his  death, 
at  which  time  he  was  in  the  United  States 
Senate.  Judge  Sherman  was  one  of  the 
committee  appointed  to  draft  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence;  served  on  the  most 
important  committees  during  the  war; 
from  1784  until  his  death  was  nlayor  of 
New  Haven,  and  was  chiefly  instrumental 
in  securing  the  ratification  of  the  national 
Constitution  by  Connecticut.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  useful  men  of  his  time.  Jef- 
ferson declared  that  he  "  never  said  a 
foolish  thing  in  his  life."  He  died  in  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  July  23,  1793. 

Sherman,  Thomas  West,  military  of- 
ficer; born  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  March  26, 
1813;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1836; 
served  with  General  Taylor  in  the  war 
against  Mexico,  in  command  of  a  battery; 
and  was  brevetted  major.  He  commanded 
a  division  in  the  battle  of  Bull  Run,  and 
led  the  land  forces  in  the  Port  Royal  ex- 
pedition, landing  at  Hilton  Head  Nov.  7, 
1861.  In  March,  1862,  he  was  superseded 
by  General  Hunter,  and  joined  the  army 
under  Halleck  at  Corinth.  He  did  excel- 
lent service  in  the  region  of  the  lower 
Mississippi  in  1862-63;  commanded  a  di- 
vision in  the  siege  of  Port  Hudson;  re- 
ceived (March  13,  1865)  the  brevet  of 
major-general.  United  States  army,  for 
services  there  and  during  the  war;  and 
was  retired  with  the  rank  of  major-gen- 
eral, Dec.  31,  1870.  He  died  in  Newport, 
R.  I.,  March  16,  1879. 


Sherman,  William  Tecumseh,  mili- 
tary officer;  born  in  Mansfield,  O.,  Feb.  8, 
1820;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1840. 
His  father  died  in  1829,  when  he  was 
adopted  by  Thomas  "Ewing,  whose  daugh- 
ter Ellen  he  married  in  1850.  He  served 
in  the  Seminole  War,  and  in  September, 
1850,  was  made  commissary,  with  the 
rank  of  captain.     In  1853  he  resigned,  be- 

came a  broker  in  California,  and,  prac- 
tising law  for  a  while  in  Kansas,  was 
made  superintendent  of  a  new  military 
academy  established  by  the  State  of  Loui- 
siana. When  the  convention  of  that  State 
passed  the  ordinance  of  secession.  Captain 
Sherman  resigned ;  was  made  colonel  of 
United  States  infantry  in  May,  1861 ;  and 
commanded  a  brigade  at  the  battle  of  Bull 



Kun    havin"  been  made  brigadier-general  mand;  but  events  proved  that  he  was  more 

of  volunteers  in  May.     In  October,  1861,  sane  than  most  other  people, 

bo  .succeeded  General  Anderson  in  the  com-  After  the  capture  of  Fort  Donelson  he 

mand    of    the    Department    of    Kentucky,  was  placed  in  command  of  a  division  ol 

The    Secretary    of    War    asked    him    how  Grant's  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  and  per- 

manv    men    he    should    require.       He   an-  formed    signal    service    in    the    battle    of 


swered,  "Sixty  thousand  to  drive  the  Shiloh.  « To  his  individual  efforts »  said 
nemv  from  Kentucky,  and  200,000  to  Grant,  « I  am  indebted  for  the  succes  of 
fini^the  war  in  this  ^^ction."  This  esti-  that  battle."  There  he  was  slightly  wound- 
^"te  seemed  so  wild  that  he  was  reputed  ed,  and  had  three  horses  shot  under  him. 
To  be  insTne,  and  was  relieved  of  his  com-    In   May   he   was    made   a    major-general. 



From  July  to  November,  1862,  he  com- 
manded at  Memphis;  and  throughout  the 
campaign  against  Vicksburg  (December, 
1862,  to  July,  1863)  his  services  were  most 
conspicuous  and  valuable. 

How  fully  General  Grant  appreciated 
the  services  of  both  Sherman  and  Mc- 
Pherson  can  be  seen  from  the  following 
letter : 

"  Headquarters  Department  of 

"  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  July  22,  1863. 

'*  His  Ecncellency  A.  Lincoln,  President  of 
the  United  States,  Washington,  D.  C: 

"  I  would  most  respectfully  but  urgent- 
ly recommend  the  promotion  of  Ma j. -Gen. 
W.  T.  Sherman,  now  commanding  the  15th 
Army  Corps,  and  Maj.-Gen.  J.  B.  Mc- 
Pherson,  commanding  the  17th  Army 
Corps,  to  the  position  of  brigadier-gen- 
eral in  the  regular  army.  The  first  reason 
for  this  is  their  gi'eat  fitness  for  any  com- 
mand it  may  ever  become  necessary  to  in- 
trust to  them.  Second,  their  great  purity 
of  character  and  disinterestedness  in  any- 
thing except  the  faithful  performance  of 
their  duty,  and  the  success  of  every  one 
engaged  in  the  great  battle  for  the  preser- 
vation ot  the  Union.  Third,  they  have 
honorably  won  this  distinction  upon  many 
well-fought  battle-fields.  I  will  -only  men- 
tion some  of  his  :5ervices  while  serving 
under   my   command. 

"To  General  Sherman  I  wa*  greatly 
indebted  for  his  promptness  in  forward- 
ing to  me,  during  the  siege  of  Fort  Donel- 
son,  reinforcements  and  supplies  from  Pa- 
ducah.  At  the  battle  ot  Shiloh,  on  the 
first  day,  he  held  with  raw  troops  the  key 
points  to  the  landing.  To  his  individual 
effort  I  am  indebted  for  the  success  ol  that 
battle.  Twice  hit,  and  (I  think  three) 
horses  shot  under  him  on  that  day,  he 
maintained  his  position  with  his  raw 
troops.  It  is  no  disparagement  to  any 
other  officer  to  say  that  I  do  not  believe 
there  was  another  division  commander  on 
the  field  who  had  the  skill  or  experience 
to  have  done  it.  His  services  as  division 
commander  in  the  advance  on  Corinth,  I 
will  venture,  were  appreciated  by  the 
(now)  general  -  in  -  chief  beyond  those  of 
any  other  division  commander.  General 
Sherman's  management,  as  commander  of 


troops  in  the  attack  on  Chickasaw  Bkiflf, 
last  December,  was  admirable.  Seeing  the 
ground  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  at- 
tack, I  see  the  impossibility  of  making  it 
successfiil.  The  conception  of  the  attack 
on  Arkansas  Post  was  General  Sherman's. 
His  part  of  the  execution  no  one  denies 
was  as  good  as  it  possibly  could  have  been. 
His  demonstration  on  Haines's  Bluff,  in 
April,  to  hold  the  enemy  at  Vicksburg 
while  the  army  was  securing  a  foothold 
east  of  the  Mississippi ;  his  rapid  march 
to  join  the  army  afterwards;  his  manage- 
ment at  Jackson,  Miss.,  in  the  first  at- 
tack; his  almost  unequalled  march  from 
Jackson  to  Bridgeport,  and  passage  of 
that  stream ;  his  securing  Walnut  Hill, 
on  May  18,  and  thus  opening  communica- 
tion with  our  supplies — all  attest  his 
great  merits  as  a  soldier. 

"  The  siege  of  Vicksburg,  the  last  capt- 
ure of  Jackson,  and  the  dispersion  of 
Johnston's  army,  entitle  General  Sherman 
to  more  credit  than  it  usually  falls  to 
the  lot  of  one  man  to  earn. 

"  General  McPherson  has  been  with  me 
in  every  battle  since  the  commencement 
of  the  rebellion,  except  Belmont.  At  Hen- 
ry, Donelson,  Shiloh.  and  the  siege  of  Cor- 
inth, as  a  staff  officer  and  engineer,  his 
services  were  conspicuous  and  highly  meri- 
torious. At  the  second  battle  of  Corinth 
his  skill  as  a  soldier  was  displayed  in 
successfully  carrying  reinforcements  to  the 
besieged  garrison  when  the  enemy  was 
between  him  and  the  point  to  be  reached. 
In  the  advance  through  central  Missis- 
sippi, last  November  and  December,  Gen- 
eral McPherson  commanded  one  wing  of 
the  army  with  all  the  ability  possible  to 
show,  he  having  the  lead  in  advance  and 
the  rear  in  return.  In  the  campaign  and 
siege,  terminating  in  the  fall  of  Vicksburg, 
General  McPherson  has  borne  a  conspicu- 
ous part.  At  the  battle  of  Port  Gibson, 
it  was  under  his  immediate  direction  that 
the  enemy  was  driven,  late  in  the  after- 
noon, from  a  posi^iion  that  they  had  suc- 
ceeded in  holding  all  day  against  an  ob- 
stinate attack.  His  corps — the  advance 
always  under  his  immediate  eye — were  the 
pioneers  in  the  advance  from  Port  Gibson 
to  Hankerson's  Ferry.  From  the  North 
Fork  of  Bayou  Pierre  to  the  Black  River 
it  was  a  constant  skirmish,  the  whole  skil- 
fully managed.  The  enemy  was  so  closely 


pressed  as  to  be  unable  to  destroy  their 
bridge  of  boats  after  them.  From  Hanker- 
son's  Ferry  to  Jackson  the  17th  Army- 
Corps  marched  upon  roads  not  travelled  by 
other  troops,  fighting  the  battle  of  Ray- 
mond alone;  and  the  bulk  of  Johnston's 
army  at  Jackson  also  was  fought  by  this 
corps  entirely  under  the  management  of 
General  McPherson.  At  Champion  Hill, 
the  17th  Army  Corps  and  General  Mc- 
Pherson were  conspicuous.  All  that  could 
be  termed  a  battle  there  was  fought  by 
two  divisions  of  General  McPherson's 
Corps  and  Hovey's  division  of  the  13th 

"  In  the  assault  of  May  22  on  the  for- 
tifications of  Vicksburg,  and  during  the 
entire  siege,  General  McPherson  and  his 
command  won  unfading  laurels.  He  is 
one  of  our  ablest  engineers  and  most  skil- 
ful generals. 

"  Very  respectfully, 

"  Your  obedient  servant, 
**U.  S.  Grant,  Major-General." 

He  commanded  one  of  the  three 
corps  in  the  siege  of  Vicksburg.  After 
the  fall  of  Vicksburg  he  operated  success- 
fully against  Gen.  Joseph  E.  Johnston. 
In  October,  1863,  he  was  made  commander 

of  the  Department  of  the  Tennessee,  and 
joined  Grant  at  Chattanooga  in  the  middle 
of  November;  was  in  the  battle  of  Mis- 
sionary Ridge  (Nov.  25)  ;  and  then  moved 
to  the  relief  of  Burn  side  in  east  Tennes- 
see. When  he  was  called  to  Chattanooga, 
he  left  Gen.  J.  B.  McPherson  in  com- 
mand at  Vicksburg;  but  soon  after  Bragg 
was  driven  southward  from  Chattanooga 
Sherman  suddenly  reappeared  in  Missis- 
sippi. At  the  head  of  20,000  troops  he 
made  a  most  destructive  raid  (February, 
1864)  from  Jackson  to  the  intersection  of 
important  railways  at  Meridian,  in  thaT 

His  object  was  to  inflict  as  much  in- 
jury on  the  Confederate  cause  and  its 
physical  strength  as  possible.  He  believed 
in  the  righteousness  and  efficacy  of 
making  such  a  war  terrible,  and  the  line 
of  his  march  eastward  presented  a  black 
path  of  desolation.  No  public  property 
of  the  Confederates  was  spared.  The 
station-houses  and  rolling-stock  of  the 
railways  were  burned.  The  track  was 
torn  up,  and  the  rails,  heated  by  the 
burning  ties  cast  into  heaps,  were  twisted 
and  ruined.  Sherman  intended  to  push  on 
to  Montgomery,  Ala.,  and  then,  if  circum- 
stances  appeared   favorable,   to   go   south- 




ward  and  attack  Mobile.  He  waited  at 
Meridian  for  Gen.  W.  S.  Smith  to  join  him 
with  a  considerable  force  of  cavalry,  but 
that  officer  was  held  back  by  the  Confeder- 
ate forces  under  Forrest  and  others.  After 
waiting  in  vain  for  a  week,  Sherman  laid 
Meridian  in  ashes,  and  returned  to  Vicks- 
burg  with  500  prisoners  and  5,000  liber- 
ated slaves.  This  raid  created  great  con- 
sternation, for  General  Polk,  with  his 
15,000  men,  made  but  a  feeble  resistance. 
Sherman's  loss  was  171  men. 

General  Grant  arranged  two  grand  cam- 
paigns for  the  year  18G4.  One,  under  his 
own  immediate  direction,  was  for  the 
seizure  of  Richmond,  the  Confederate  capi- 
tal; the  other  was  for  the  seizure  of  At- 
lanta, Ga.,  the  focus  of  several  converg- 
ing railways.  The  latter  expedition  was 
led  by  General  Sherman.  His  army  num- 
bered neariy  100.000  men.  comprising  the 
Army  of  the  Cumberland,  led  by  Gen. 
George  H.  Thomas;  the  Army  of  the  Ten- 
nessee, commanded  by  Gen.  J.  B.  McPher- 
8on;   and  the  Army  of  the  Ohio,   led  by 

Gen.  J.  M.  Schofield.  Wlien,  on  May  6, 
1864,  Sherman  began  to  move  southward 
from  the  vicinity  of  Chattanooga,  his 
army  was  confronted  by  a  Confederate 
force  of  55,000  men,  led  by  Gen.  Joseph 
E.  Johnston,  and  arranged  in  three  corps, 
commanded  respectively  by  Generals 
Hardee,  Hood,  and  Polk.  This  army  then 
lay  at  Dal  ton,  at  the  parting  of  the  ways 
— one  leading  into  east  Tennessee  and  the 
other  into  west  Tennessee.  To  strike  that 
position  in  front  was,  at  least,  perilous: 
so  Sherman  began  a  series  of  successful 
flanking  movements.  When  he  flanked  the 
Confederates  at  Dalton,  they  fell  back  to 
Resaca  Station,  on  the  Oostenaula  River, 
on  the  line  of  the  railway  between  Chat- 
tanooga and  Atlanta.  There  a  sharp 
battle  was  fought  on  May  15.  Johnston 
took  his  next  position  at  Allatoona  Pass, 
and  Sherman  massed  his  troops  at  Dallas, 
westward  of  that  post,  where  a  severe 
battle  was  fought  May  25.  Johnston 
finally  pressed  on  to  Marietta  and  Atlanta, 
where,  towards  the  middle  of  July,  he  was 



succeeded  by  Hood.  The  latter  city  was 
captured  by  Sherman,  who  entered  it 
Sept.  2,  1S64.  Late  in  October  Sher- 
man prepared  for  a  march  through 
Georgia  from  Atlanta  to  Savannah.  See 

When  he  resolved  to  march  through 
the  heart  of  Georgia  from  Atlanta  to 
the  sea,  he  delegated  to  General  Thomas 
full  power  over  all  the  troops  under  his 
(Sherman's)  command  excepting  four 
corps.  He  also  gave  him  command  of 
two  divisions  of  A.  J.  Smith's,  then  re- 
turning from  the  expulsion  of  Price  from 
Missouri,  also  of  the  garrisons  in  Ten- 
nessee, and  all  the  cavalry  of  the  military 
division  excepting  a  division  under  Kil- 
patrick,  which  he  reserved  for  operations 
in  Georgia.  General  Wilson  had  just 
arrived  from  Petersburg  to  take  command 
of  the  cavalry  of  the  army.  He  was  sent 
to  Nashville  to  gather  up  all  the  Union 
cavalry  in  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  and 
report  to  Thomas.  It  was  believed  that 
Thomas  now  had  strength  sufficient  to 
keep  Hood  out  of  Tennessee,  whose  force 
then  was  about  35,000  infantry  and  10,000 
cavalry.  When,  on  Nov.  1,  Hood  was  lay- 
ing a  pontoon  bridge  over  the  Tennessee 
at  Florence  for  the  invasion  of  Tennessee, 

Sherman,  who  had  pursued  him,  turned 
his  forces  towards  Atlanta,  his  troops 
destroying  all  the  mills  and  foundries 
at  Rome,  and  dismantling  the  railway 
from  the  Etowah  River  to  the  Chat- 
tahoochee. The  railways  around  Atlanta 
were  destroyed,  and  on  Nov.  14  the 
forces  destined  for  the  great  march 
were  concentrated  around  the  doomed 

Those  forces  were  composed  of  four  army 
corps,  the  right  wing  commanded  by  Gen. 
O.  0.  Howard,  and  the  left  wing  by  Gen. 
H.  W.  Slocum.  Howard's  right  was  com- 
posed of  the  corps  of  Generals  Osterhaus 
and  Blair,  and  the  left  of  the  corps  of  Gen. 
J.  C.  Davis  and  A.  S.  Williams.  General 
Kilpatrick  commanded  the  cavalry,  coa- 
sisting  of  one  division.  Sherman's  entire 
force  numbered  60,000  infantry  and  artil- 
lery and  5,500  cavalry.  On  Nov.  11  Sher- 
man cut  the  telegraph  wires  that  connected 
Atlanta  with  Washington,  and  his  army 
became  an  isolated  column  in  the  heart 
of  an  enemy's  country.  It  began  its  march 
for  the  sea  on  the  morning  of  the  14th, 
when  the  entire  city  of  Atlanta — excepting 
its  court-house,  churches,  and  dwellings — 
was  committed  to  the  flames.  The  build- 
ings in  the  heart  of  the  city,  covering  200 





£icres  of  ground,  formed  a  great  conflagra- 
tion ;  and,  while  the  fire  was  raging,  the 
bands  played,  and  the  soldiers  chanted 
the  stirring  air  and  words,  "  John  Brown's 
soul  goes  marching  on!" 

For  thirty-six  days  that  army  moved 
through  Georgia,  with  very  little  op- 
position, subsisting  off  the  country.  It  was 
a  sort  of  military  promenade,  requiring 
very  little  military  skill  in  the  perform- 
ance, and  as  little  personal  prowess. 
It  was  grand  in  conception,  and  easily 
executed.  Yet  on  that  march  there  were 
many  deeds  that  tested  the  prowess 
and  daring  of  the  soldiers  on  both  sides. 
Kilpatrick's  first  dash  across  the  Flint 
River  and  against  Wheeler's  cavalry,  and 
then  towards  Macon,  burning  a  train  of 
cars  and  tearing  up  the  railway,  gave 
the    Confederates    a    suspicion    of    Sher- 

vni. — L 


man's  intentions.  There  was  wide-spread 
consternation  in  Georgia  and  South  Caro- 
lina, for  the  invader's  destination  was  un- 
certain. Beauregard  was  sent  from  the 
Appomattox  to  the  Savannah  to  confront 
the  Nationals.  He  sent  before  him  a 
manifesto  in  which  he  said,  "  Destroy  all 
the  roads  in  Sherman's  front,  flank,  and 
rear,"  and,  "  be  trustful  in  Providence." 
Benjamin  H.  Hill,  of  Georgia,  in  the  Con- 
federate Congress  at  Piichmond,  wrote  to 
the  people  of  his  State:  "Every  citizen 
with  his  gun  and  every  negro  with  his 
spade  and  axe  can  do  the  work  of  a  soldier. 
You  can  destroy  the  enemy  by  retarding 
his  march.  Be  firm!"  The  representatives 
of  Georgia  in  the  Confederate  Congress 
called  upon  their  people  to  fly  to  arms. 
"  Remove  your  negroes,  horses,  cattle,  and 
provisions    from    Sherman's    army,"    they 


said,  "  and  burn  what  jou  cannot  carry 
away.  Burn  all  bridges  and  block  up  the 
roads  in  his  roiite.  Assail  the  invader  in 
front,  flank,  and  rear,  by  night  and  by  day. 
Let  him  have  no  rest."  And  Governor 
BroAvn,  before  he  fled  from  Milledgeville 
on  the  approach  of  the  Nationals,  issued 
a  proclamation  ordering  a  le\'y  en  masse 
of  the  whole  white  population  of  the  State 
between  the  ages  of  sixteen  and  forty-five, 
and  offering  pardon  to  prisoners  in  the 
penitentiary  if  they  would  volunteer  and 
prove  themselves  good  soldiers.  But  the 
people  did  none  of  these  things,  and  only 
about  100  convicts  accepted  the  offer. 

All  confidence  in  President  Davis  and  the 
Confederate  government  had  disappeared  in 
Georgia,  and  a  great  portion  of  the  people 
were  satisfied  that  it  was,  as  they  express- 
ed it,  "  the  rich  man's  war,  and  the  poor 
man's  fight,"  and  would  no  longer  lend 
themselves  to  the  authorities  at  Rich- 
mond. The  National  army  moved  steadily 
forward.  At  Griswoldsville  there  was  a 
sharp  engagement  (Nov.  22)  with  a  por- 
tion of  Hardee's  troops  sent  up  from  Sa- 

vannah, and  several  brigades  of  militia. 
The  Confederates  were  repulsed  with  a 
loss  of  2,500  men.  Howard  could  have 
taken  Macon  after  this  blow  upon  its  de- 
fenders, but  such  was  not  a  part  of  Sher- 
man's plan.  The  Nationals  were  attacked 
at  the  Oconee  River  while  laying  a  pon- 
toon bridge,  but  the  assailants,  largely 
composed  of  Wheeler's  cavalry,  were  de- 
feated. Kilpatrick  made  a  feint  towards 
Augusta  to  mislead  the  Confederates  as 
to  Sherman's  destination,  also  to  cover 
the  passage  of  the  army  over  the  Ogeechee 
River,  and,  if  possible,  to  release  Union 
captives  in  the  prison-pen  at  Millen.  Kil- 
patrick and  Wheeler  had  several  skir- 
mishes, but  no  severe  battles.  On  Nov. 
30,  Sherman's  whole  army,  excepting  one 
corps,  had  passed  the  Ogeechee.  This 
was  a  most  skilful  manoeuvre;  and  then, 
having  destroyed  the  principal  railways  in 
Georgia  over  long  distances,  Sherman  was 
prepared  to  make  a  final  conquest  of  the 
State.  Moving  on  seaward,  the  division 
of  Hazen  had  a  severe  skirmish  (Dec. 
4)    at  Statesburg,  south  of  the  Ogeechee. 





The  Confederates  were  dispersed.  On  the 
same  day  Kilpatrick  fought  Wheeler 
on  the  railway  between  Millen  and  Au- 
gusta, drove  him  from  his  barricades 
through  Waynesboro,  and  pushed  him 
8  miles,  while  a  supporting  column  of 
Union  infantry  under  Baird  were  tear- 
ing up  the  railway  and  destroying 

When  Sherman  reached  Millen,  the 
Union  prisoners  had  been  removed;  and  he 
pushed  on,  amid  swamps  and  sands,  with 
the  city  of  Savannah,  where  Hardee  was  in 
command,  as  his  chief  object.  Kilpatrick 
and  Baird  covered  the  rear  of  the  wing 
columns  between  the  Ogeechee  and  Savan- 
nah rivers.  There  was  some  skirmishing, 
but  no  Confederates  in  force  were  seen  un- 
til within  15  miles  of  Savannah.  All  the 
roads  leading  into  that  city  were  obstruct- 
ed by  felled  trees,  earthworks,  and  artil- 
lery. These  were  turned,  and  by  Dec.  10 
the  Confederates  were  all  driven  within 
their  lines,  and  Savannah  was  completely 
beleaguered;  but  the  only  approaches  to  it 
were  by  five  narrow  causeways.  They  had 
broken   communications,   so   that  no   sup- 


plies  could  be  received  in  Savannah.  Sher- 
man sought  to  make  the  Ogeechee  an  ave- 
nue of  supply,  oceanward,  for  his  army, 
and  to  communicate  with  the  Union  fleet 
outside.  The  latter  was  soon  efTtcted.  Fort 
McAllister,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Ogeechee, 
was  in  the  way,  and,  on  the  13th,  Slocum 
ordered  General  Hazen  to  carry  it  by  as- 
sault. It  was  a  strong,  enclosed  redoubt, 
garrisoned  by  200  men.  It  was  carried, 
and  this  was  the  brilliant  ending  of  the 
march  from  Atlanta  to  the  sea.  It  open- 
ed to  Sherman's  army  a  new  base  of  sup- 
plies. Sherman  communicated  with  the 
officers  of  the  fleet,  and,  on  Dec.  17,  he 
summoned  Hardee  to  surrender.  Hardee 
refused.  Perceiving  the  arrangements 
made  to  cut  off  his  retreat  to  Charleston, 
Hardee  secretly  withdrew  on  the  dark  and 
stormy  night  of  Dec.  20,  and,  with  15,000 
men,  escaped  to  that  city.  The  National 
army  took  possession  of  Savannah  on  Dec. 
22,  1804.  On  the  2f)th  Sherman  wrote  to 
President  Lincoln :  "  I  beg  to  present  to 
you,  as  a  Christmas  gift,  the  city  of  Sa- 
vanah,  with  150  heavy  guns  and  plenty 
of  ammunition,  and  also  about  25,000  bales 


of  cotton.''  On  his  march  Sherman  had 
lived  generously  off  the  country,  which 
was  abundantly  fiUed  with  provisions.  He 
appropriated  to  the  use  of  the  army  13,000 
beeves,  160,000  bushels  of  corn,  more  than 
5,000  tons  of  fodder,  besides  a  large 
number  of  sheep,  swine,  fowls,  and  quan- 
tities of  potatoes  and  rice.  He  forced 
into  the  service  5,000  horses  and  4,000 
mules.  He  captured  1,328  prisoners  and 
167  guns,  and  destroyed  20,000  bales  of 
cotton.  Fully  10,000  negroes  followed 
the  flag  to  Savannah,  and  many  thou- 
sands more,  chiefly  women  and  children, 
were  turned  back  at  the  crossings  of 

Sherman  appointed  Jan.  15,  1865,  as  the 
day  for  beginning  his  march  northward 
from  Savannah.  The  17th  Corps  was  sent 
by  water  to  a  point  on  the  Charleston  and 
Savannah  Eailway,  where  it  seriously 
menaced  Charleston.  The  left  wing,  under 
Slocum,  accompanied  by  Kilpatrick's  cav- 

effect  the  passage  until  the  first  week  in 
February.  Savannah  and  its  dependencies 
were  transferred  to  General  Foster,  then 
in  command  of  the  Department  of  the 
South,  with  instructions  to  co  -  operate 
with  Sherman's  inland  movements  by  occu- 
pying, in  succession,  Charleston  and  other 
places.  Sherman  notified  General  Grant 
that  it  was  his  intention,  after  leaving 
Savannah,  "  to  undertake,  at  one  stride, 
to  make  Goldsboro  an  open  communi- 
cation with  the  sea  by  the  Newbern  Rail- 
way. Feints  of  attacks  on  Charleston  kept 
Hardee  from  interfering  with  Sherman's 
inland  march.  Wheeler  had  been  putting 
obstructions  in  his  pathway  to  Columbia,: 
but  the  movements  of  the  Nationals  were 
so  mysterious  that  it  distracted  the  Con- 
federates, who  could  not  determine  whether 
Sherman's  objective  was  Charleston  or 

His    invasion    produced    wide  -  spread 
alarm.       Sherman's     army     steadily     ad- 


airy,  was  to  have  crossed  the  Savannah  vanced  in  the  face  of  every  obstacle. 
on  a  pontoon  bridge  at  that  city;  but  in-  They  drove  the  Confederates  from  their 
cessant  rains  had  so  flooded  the  swamps  position  at  Orangeburg  and  began  destroy- 
and  raised  the  streams  that  the  army  was  ing  the  railway  there.  On  Feb.  18  they 
compelled  to  cross  higher  up,  and  did  not    began  a  march  directly  to  Columbia,  the 



capital  of  South  Carolina,  driving  the  Shields,  James,  military  officer;  born 
Confederates  before  them  wherever  they  iii  Tyrone  county,  Ireland,  in  1810;  emi- 
appeared.  Sherman's  march  was  so  rapid  grated  to  the  United  States  in  1826,  and 
that  troops  for  the  defence  of  the  capital  began  the  practice  of  law  in  Kaskaskia, 
could  not  be  gathered  in  time.  He  was  in  111.,  in  1832.  He  held  a  seat  in  the  legis- 
front  of  Columbia  before  any  adequate  lature  in  1836;  was  State  auditor  in 
force  for  its  defence  appeared.  Beaure-  1839,  and  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  in 
gard  was  in  command  there,  and  had  prom-  1843.  In  1845  he  was  commissioner  of 
ised  much,  but  did  little.  On  Feb.  17  the  the  general  land  office;  and  when  the  war 
Nationals  entered  Columbia ;  and  on  the  with  Mexico  began  President  Polk  corn- 
same  day  Charleston,  flanked,  was  evacu-  missioned  him  a  brigadier-general.  United 
ated  by  Hardee  (see  Charleston).  The  States  army  (1847).  In  two  battles  he 
rear  guard  of  the  Confederates,  under  was  severely  wounded.  He  was  appointed 
Wade  Hampton,  on  retiring,  set  fire  to  governor  of  Oregon  Territory  in  1848. 
cotton  in  the  streets;  and  the  high  This  office  he  soon  resigned,  and  from 
wind  sent  the  burning  fibre  into  the  air,  1849  to  1855  he  represented  Illinois  in 
setting  fire  to  the  dwellings,  and  in  the  the  United  States  Senate.  He  aferwards 
course  of  a  few  hours  that  beautiful  city  resided  in  Minnesota,  and  was  United 
was  in  ruins  (see  Columbia).  Sherman,  States  Senator  from  that  State  from  1858 
after  destroying  the  arsenal  at  Columbia,  to  1860,  and  then  went  to  California.  In 
left  the  ruined  city  and  pressed  on  with  August,  1861,  he  was  made  brigadier-gen- 
his  forces  to  Fayetteville,  N.  C,  his  eral  of  volunteers,  and  performed  gallant 
cavalry,  under  Kilpatrick,  fighting  the  services  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  receiv- 
Confederate  cavalry  led  by  Wheeler  many  ing  a  severe  wound  in  the  battle  of  Kerns- 
times  on  the  way.  He  left  a  black  path  town.  He  resigned  his  commission  in 
of  desolation  through  the  Carolinas  40  March,  1863,  and  afterwards  held  several 
miles  in  width.  Arriving  at  Fayetteville,  public  offices  in  Missouri.  He  died  in 
Sherman  opened  communications  with  the  Ottumwa,  la.,  June  1,  1879. 
National  troops  at  Wilmington.  Shillaber,       Benjamin       Penhallow, 

General  Sherman  Avas  promoted  major-  author  (popularly  known  as  Mrs.  Part- 
general.  United  States  army,  in  August,  ington)  ;  born  in  Portsmouth,  N.  H., 
1864,  and  lieutenant-general  in  July,  July  12,  1814;  educated  at  Exeter  Acad- 
1866.  On  March  4,  1869,  he  succeeded  emy;  learned  the  printer's  trade  in  Dover, 
General  Grant  as  general-in-chief  of  the  N.  H.,  removed  to  Boston  in  1840;  and 
armies  of  the  United  States.  He  was  re-  was  connected  with  the  Boston  Post  till 
tired  on  his  own  request,  Feb.  8,  1884,  on  1850;  editor  of  the  Pathfinder,  and,  with 
full  pay.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  Feb.  Charles  G.  Halpine,  of  The  Carpet  Bag; 
14,   1891.  returned    to    the    Post    in    1853,    and    re- 

Sherman  Silver  Act,  passed  July  17,  mained  till  1856,  when  he  became  an 
1890.     See  Sil\t:r  Legislation.  editor  on  The  Saturday  Evening  Gazette, 

Sherwood,  Sidney,  educator ;  born  in  with  which  he  remained  ten  years.  He 
Saratoga  county,  N.  Y.,  May  28,  1860;  was  author  of  Rhymes  With  Reasons  and 
graduated  at  Princeton  College  in  1879;  Without;  Life  Sayings  of  Mrs.  Parting- 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1885;  studied  ton;  Partingtonian  Patchwork,  etc.  He 
economics,  history,  and  politics  at  Johns  died  in  Chelsea,  Mass.,  Nov.  25,  1890. 
Hopkins  University  in  1888-91.  In  Shiloh,  Battle  of.  After  the  capture 
1892  he  became  associate  Professor  of  of  Fort  Donelson  in  1862,  General  Grant 
Political  Economy  in  that  institution.  He  prepared  to  push  towards  Corinth,  an  im- 
wrote  History  and  Theory  of  Money ;  The  portant  position  at  the  intersection  of  the 
Rates  Question  in  Recent  Railway  Litera-  Charleston  and  Memphis,  Mobile  and  Ohio 
ture;  University  of  the  State  of  New  railways.  Possession  of  that  point  would 
York;  Alliance  ivith  England;  Tendencies  give  the  National  troops  control  of  the 
in  American  Economic  Thought;  Influence  great  railway  communications  between  the 
of  the  Trust  in  the  Development  of  Under-  Mississippi  and  the  East,  and  the  border 
taking  Genius;  etc.  He  died  in  Ballston,  slave-labor  States  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 
N.  Y.,  Aug.  6,  1901.  Passing  up  the  Tennessee  River,  the  main 



body  of  Grant's  troops  were  encamped,  at 
the  beginning  of  April,  between  Pitts- 
burgh Landing,  on  that  stream,  and  Shiloh 


Meeting  -  house,  in  the  forest,  2  miles 
from  the  river  bank.  General  Beauregard, 
under  the  supreme  command  of  Gen.  A. 
Sidney  Johnston,  was  straining  every  nerve 
to  resist  this  movement.  He  confronted 
the  Nationals  near  Shiloh  Meeting-house, 
where  he  was  assisted  by  Generals  Pope, 
Hardee,  Bragg,  and  Breckinridge.  With 
these  expert  leaders  the  Confederates  had 

come  up  from  Corinth  in  a,  heavy  rain- 
storm, in  separate  columns,  and  so  stealth- 
ily that  they  were  within  4  miles  of  the 
National  camp  before  they  were  discovered 
by  Grant's  sentinels.  There  they  halted 
(April  5)  to  await  the  arrival  of  Van 
Dorn  and  Price,  who  were  approaching 
Memphis  with  a  large  force  from  Central 

The  Confederate  army  now  numbered 
about  40,000  men.  Grant  had  made  his 
headquarters  at  Savannah,  on  the  Ten- 
nessee, and  he  there  continued  until  the 
first  week  in  April,  having  very  little  ap- 
prehension of  an  attack  from  the  Confed- 
erates. General  Sherman's  division  was 
just  behind  Shiloh  Meeting-house.  Gen- 
eral Prentiss  was  encamped  across  the 
road  to  Corinth,  with  General  McCler- 
nand's  division  behind  his  right.  Their 
three  divisions  formed  the  advanced  line. 
In  the  rear,  near  the  river,  lay  General 
Hurlbut's  division  and  that  of  General 
Smith,  under  the  command  of  Gen.  W.  H. 
L.  Wallace,  of  Illinois.  General  Stuart's 
brigade,  of  Sherman's  division,  lay  on  the 
Hamburg  road,  and  the  division  of  Gen. 
Lew.  Wallace  was  at  Crump's  Landing,  be- 
low Pittsburgh   Landing.     Such  was  the 




disposition  of  the  National  army  on  Sun- 
day morning,  April  6.  Buell  had  been 
marching  very  tardily  across  Tennessee  in 
the  direction  of  Corinth.  Hearing  of  his 
approach,  Johnston  resolved  not  to  wait 
for  Van  Dorn  and  Price,  but  to  strike 
the  Nationals  before  Buell's  arrival.  At 
a  council  of  war  (April  5)  that  made  this 
decision,  Beauregard  said:  "Gentlemen, 
we  sleep  in  the  enemy's  camp  to-morrow 

Almost  the  first  intimation  of  the  near 
presence  of  the  Confederates  was  the  wild 
cry  of  pickets  flying  into  camp,  and  the 
sharp  attack  upon  Sherman's  troops  by 
Hardee's  division,  before  daylight  had 
fairly  appeared.  It  was  a  surprise. 
Screaming  shells  dashed  through  the  forest 
and  bullets  whistled  among  the  tents. 
The  Confederates  had  rushed  into  the 
camp,  driving  half-dressed,  half-armod 
soldiers  before  them,  dealing  death  and 
terror  in  every  direction.  Prentiss's 
division  was  next  attacked;  his  column 
was  shattered,  and  he,  with  a  large  por- 
tion of  his  followers,  were  made  prisoners, 
his  camp  being  captured  by  the  Confed- 
erates. The  struggle  soon  became  general, 
and  for  tsn  hours  the  battle  raged  with 
varying  fortune  on  both  sides.  Gen.  W. 
H.  L.  Wallace,  of  the  Nationals,  and  Gen. 
A.  S.  Johnston,  of  the  Confederates,  had 
been  killed.  On  both  sides  the  slaughter 
was  severe,  and  the  National  army  was 
pushed  back  to  the  river,  then  brimful 
with  a  spring  flood.  The  day  was  fairly 
lost  to  the  Union  troops.  All  the  Union 
camps  were  occupied  by  the  Confederates 
but  one — that  of  General  Wallace,  of 
which  General  MacArthur  was  now  in 
command.  In  the  rear  of  this  the  smit- 
ten army  had  gathered  at  twilight,  in  a 
space  not  more  than  400  acres  in  extent, 
on  the  verge  of  the  river.  They  could  be 
pushed  back  no  farther.  Beauregard  tele- 
graphed to  Richmond  a  shout  of  victory. 

The  Nationals  were  in  a  most  perilous 
position.     A    single    vigorous    blow    then 

given  would  have  justified  this  shout. 
Beauregard  gave  feeble  ones  that  were 
parried  by  two  gunboats  on  the  river, 
vv-hich  had  just  arrived,  and  by  a  hastily 
formed  battery  on  the  shore.  That  evening 
the  van  of  Buell's  army  also  appeared  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  river;  and  at  mid- 
night. Gen.  Lew.  Wallace,  who  had  been  de- 
tained by  misinformation,  arrived.  In  the 
morning  twilight  (April  7)  Wallace's  troops 
opened  the  battle  anew  on  the  Confederate 
left,  where  Beauregard  commanded  in  per- 
son. Others  soon  joined  in  the  battle,  and 
it  became  general  all  along  the  line.  The 
Confederates  fought  gallantly,  but  were 
speedily  pushed  back  by  a  superior  force. 
When  they  perceived  that  all  was  lost, 
they  fled  in  the  direction  of  Corinth,  in  a 
blinding  storm  of  rain  and  sleet,  and  halt- 
ed on  the  heights  of  Monterey,  covered 
in  their  retreat  by  a  rear  guard  of  12,000 
men,  led  by  General  Breckinridge.  The 
Confederates  had  lost  over  10,000  men  in 
the  engagement  and  retreat.  Fully  3,000 
died  during  the  flight  to  the  heights  of 
ISIonterey.  The  National  loss  in  killed, 
wounded,  and  prisoners  was  about  15,000. 
The  slain  on  the  battle-field  were  buried; 
the  dead  horses  were  burned.  The  hos- 
pital vessels  sent  down  the  Tennessee  were 
crowded  with  the  sick  and  wounded, 
Beauregard's  shattered  army  fell  back  to 
Corinth,  and  Grant  was  about  to  pursue 
and  capture  it,  when  General  Halleck,  his 
superior  in  rank,  came  up  and  took  the 
chief  command,  and  caused  the  army  to 
loiter  until  the  Confederates,  recuperated, 
were  ready  for  another  battle. 

Shinplaster,  the  popular  name  of  Amer- 
ican bank-notes,  especially  of  notes  for 
fractional  parts  of  a  dollar,  issued  dur- 
ing the  Civil  War;  also  applied  to  paper 
money  of  any  kind.  This  particular  des- 
ignation is  said  to  have  been  derived  from 
the  act  of  a  soldier  in  the  Revolutionary 
War,  who,  having  a  quantity  of  worthlees 
paper  currency,  used  the  pieces  as  plasters 
for  a  wounded  leg. 


Ship-building.  This  industry  began  iean  colonies  (see  Naviqattoit  Acts)  by 
in  the  United  States  at  the  da^vn  of  Great  Britain  almost  stifled  it  at  its  birth. 
American  commerce,  but  the  restrictions  The  commerce  of  the  colonies,  if  left  free, 
placed  upon  the  commerce  of  the  Amer-    would  have  fostered  an  extensive  business 



in  ship-building.  An  English  author,  in  in  the  course  of  two  years  six  large  vessels 
1670.  wrote:  "Our  American  plantations  were  built,  in  which  voyages  were  under- 
employ  nearly  two-thirds  of  our  English  taken  to  Madeira,  the  Canaries,  and  soon 
shipping,  and  thereby  give  constant  sub-  afterwards  to  Spain,  with  cargoes  of 
sistence  to,  it  may  be,  200,000  persons  staves  and  fish,  which  found  a  ready  mar- 
here  at  home."    Notwithstanding  these  re-  ket.     These   vessels   brought  back   wines, 

strictions,  there  were  built,  in  the  aggre- 
gate, in  1771,  in  the  thirteen  colonies,  128 
square-rigged  vessels  and  241  sloops  and 
schooners,  with  an  aggregate  tonnage  of 
24,068.  Ship-building  had  become  a  very 
extensive  industry  in  our  country  when 
the  Civil  War  (1861-65)  broke  out.  The 
Anglo-Confederate  cruisers  drove  much  of 
the  American  carrying-trade  into  foreign 
bottoms,  and  ship-building  in  the  United 
States  was  for  many  years  a  much-de- 
pressed industry;  but  since  1890  it  has 
been  unusually  active  vmder  the  impetus 
given  by  the  United  States  government  in 
building  its  "  new  navy." 

Ship-building  and  commerce  in  New 
England  was  begun  at  Salem  about  1640, 
when  Hugh  Peters  was  active  in  getting 
up  a  company  to  engage  in  the  fisheries  on 
the  Eastern  coasts,  which  had  been 
hitherto  carried  on  extensively  by  the  peo- 
ple of  Old  England.  The  General  Court 
made  an  order  that  all  property  engaged 
in  that  business  should  be  free  from  taxa- 
tion for  seven  years.  Peters  was  active 
in  promoting  the  building  of  vessels;  and 


sugar,  and  dried  fruit.  So  began  the 
career  of  navigation  and  commerce  which 
has  specially  distinguished  the  New  Eng- 
land States.  See  Navigation  Acts;  Na- 
val Ships;  Great  Lakes  and  the  Navy. 
Ship-iiiilding  on  the  Lakes. — Henry 
Sherman  Boutell,  who  has  been  a  mem- 
ber of  Congress  from  Hlinois  since 
1897,  contributes  the  following  illumina- 
tive discussion  of  the  Rush-Bagot  conven- 
tion in  its  relation  to  the  subject  of  the 
building  and  maintenance  of  war-ships  on 
the  Great  Lakes.  Mr.  Boutell  was  born 
in  Boston,  Mass.,  March  4,  1856;  grad- 
iiated  at  Harvard  in  1876;  admitted  to 
the  Illinois  bar  in  1879;  and  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Illinois  legislatiire  in  1884. 
He  was  elected  to  Congress  in  November, 
1897,  and  re-elected  in  1898  and  1900. 

In  1815,  at  the  close  of  the  war  between 
the    United    States    and    Great    Britain, 


each  country  had  a  considerable  naval 
force  on  the  northern  lakes.  The  reduc- 
tion of  this  force  was  essential  to  a  per- 
manent peace.  Nevertheless,  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  summer  of  1815,  Mr.  John 
Quincy  Adams,  our  minister  to  Great 
Britain,  forwarded  to  this  government 
evidence  that  Great  Britain,  instead  of 
disarming  her  lake  fleet,  was  making  plans 
to  increase  its  size  and  efficiency.  This 
determination  on  the  part  of  the  British 
government  led  Mr.  Monroe,  our  Secretary 
of  State,  on  Nov.  16,  1815,  to  write  to 
Mr.  Adams  instructing  him  to  propose  to 
the  British  authorities  a  mutual  dis- 
armament on  the  Great  Lakes.  Mr. 
Adams  prorrptly  took  up  the  subject  with 
Lord  Castlereagh,  the  British  secretarj-  of 
foreign  aftairs;  but  after  six  months  of 
negotiation  with  him  no  conclusion  had 
been  reached.  Ba'  July,  1816,  the  British 
minister  to  the  United  States,  Right  Hon- 
orable Charles  Bagot,  had  received  au- 
thority from  his  government  to  treat  with 
our  Secretary  of  State  relative  to  dis- 
armament on  the  lakes. 

The  method  adopted  for  carrying  out 
the  understanding  between  the  two  govern- 
ments was  the  diplomatic  device  known 
as  an  interchange  of  notes.  On  April  28, 
1817,  Mr.  Bagot  wrote  to  Richard  Rush, 
our  acting  Secretary  of  State,  as  follows: 

"  Washington,  April  28,  1817. 

"  The  undersigned,  his  Britannic  Maj- 
esty's envoy  extraordinary  and  minister 
plenipotentiary,  has  the  honor  to  acquaint 
Mr.  Rush  that,  having  laid  before  his 
Majesty's  government  the  correspondence 
which  passed  last  year  between  the  Secre- 
tary of  the  Department  of  State  and  the 
undersigned  upon  the  subject  of  a  pro- 
posal to  reduce  the  naval  force  of  the 
respective  countries  upon  the  American 
lakes,  he  has  received  the  commands  of 
his  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent  to 
acquaint  the  government  of  the  United 
States  that  his  Royal  Highness  is  willing 
to  accede  to  the  proposition  made  to  the 
undersigned  by  the  Secretary  of  the  De- 
partment of  State  in  his  note  of  Aug.  2 

"  His  Royal  Highness,  acting  in  the 
name  and  on  the  behalf  of  his  Majesty, 
agrees  that  the  naval  force  to  be  main- 
tained  upon   the   American   lakes   by   his 


Majesty  and  the  government  of  the  United 
States  shall  henceforth  be  confined  to  the 
following  vessels  on  each  side,  that  is: 

"  On  Lake  Ontario  to  one  vessel  not 
exceeding  100  tons  burden  and  armed  with 
one  18-pounder  cannon. 

"  On  the  upper  lakes  to  two  vessels  not 
exceeding  like  burden  each  and  armed  with 
like  force. 

"  On  the  waters  of  Lake  Champlain  to 
one  vessel  not  exceeding  like  burden  and 
armed  with  like  force. 

"  And  his  Royal  Highness  agrees  that  all 
other  armed  vessels  on  these  lakes  shall 
be  forthwith  dismantled,  and  that  no  other 
vessels  of  war  shall  be  there  built  or 
armed.  His  Royal  Highness  further  agrees 
that  if  either  party  should  hereafter  be 
desirous  of  annulling  this  stipulation, 
and  should  give  notice  to  that  effect  to 
the  other  party,  it  shall  cease  to  be  bind- 
ing after  the  expiration  of  six  months 
from  the  date  of  such  notice. 

"  The  undersigned  has  it  in  command 
from  his  Royal  Highness  the  Prince 
Regent  to  acquaint  the  American  govern- 
ment that  his  Royal  Highness  has  issued 
orders  to  his  Majesty's  officers  on  the  lakes 
directing  that  the  naval  force  so  to  be 
limited  shall  be  restricted  to  such  services 
as  will  in  no  respect  interfere  with  the 
proper  duties  of  the  armed  vessels  of  the 
other  party. 

"  The  undersigned  has  the  honor  to  re- 
new to  Mr.  Rush  the  assurances  of  his 
highest  consideration. 

"  Charles  Bagot." 

To  this  note  Mr.  Rush  sent  the  follow- 
ing reply  on  the  next  day: 

"  Department  of  State,  April  29,  1817. 

"  The  undersigned,  acting  Secretary  of 
State,  has  the  honor  to  acknowledge  the 
receipt  of  Mr.  Bagot's  note  of  the  28th  of 
this  month,  informing  him  that,  having 
laid  before  the  government  of  his  Britan- 
nic Majesty  the  coi-respondence  which 
passed  between  the  Secretary  of  State  and 
himself  upon  the  subject  of  a  proposal  to 
reduce  the  naval  force  of  the  two  coun- 
tries upon  the  American  lakes,  he  has  re- 
ceived the  commands  of  his  Royal  High- 
ness the  Prince  Regent  to  inform  this 
government  that  his  Royal  Highness  was 
willing  to  accede  to  the  proposition  made 



by  the  Secretary  of  State  in  his  note  of 
Aug.   2   last. 

"  The  undersigned  has  the  honor  to  ex- 
press to  Mr.  Bagot  the  satisfaction  which 
the  President  feels  at  his  Royal  Highness 
the  Prince  Regent's  having  acceded  to  the 
proposition  of  this  government  as  con- 
tained in  the  note  alluded  to.  And  in 
further  answer  to  Mr.  Bagot's  note,  the 
undersigned,  by  direction  of  the  President, 
has  the  honor  to  state  that  this  govern- 
ment, cherishing  the  same  sentiments  ex- 
pressed in  the  note  of  Aug.  2,  agrees 
that  the  naval  force  to  be  maintained 
upon  the  lakes  by  the  United  States 
and  Great  Britain  shall  henceforth  be 
confined  to  the  following  vessels  on  each 
side,  that  is: 

"  On  Lake  Ontario  to  one  vessel  not 
exceeding  100  tons  burden,  and  armed  with 
one  18-pounder  cannon.  On  the  upper 
lakes  to  two  vessels  not  exceeding  the 
like  burden  each,  and  armed  with  like 
force,  and  on  the  waters  of  Lake  Cham- 
plain  to  one  vessel  not  exceeding  like  bur- 
den and  armed  with  like  force. 

"  And  it  agrees  that  all  other  armed 
vessels  on  these  lakes  shall  be  forthwith 
dismantled,  and  that  no  other  vessels  of 
war  shall  be  there  built  or  armed.  And 
it  further  agrees  that  if  either  party 
should  hereafter  be  desirous  of  annulling 
this  stipulation,  and  should  give  notice  to 
that  effect  to  the  other  party,  it  shall 
cease  to  be  binding  after  the  expiration  of 
six  months  from  the  date  of  such  notice. 

"  The  undersigned  is  also  directed  by 
the  President  to  state  that  proper  orders 
will  be  forthwith  issued  by  this  govern- 
ment to  restrict  the  naval  force  thus 
limited  to  such  services  as  will  in  no  re- 
spect interfere  with  the  proper  duties  of 
the  armed  vessels  of  the  other  party. 

"  The  undersigned  eagerly  avails  him- 
self of  this  opportunity  to  tender  to  Mr. 
Bagot  the  assurances  of  his  distinguished 
consideration  and  respect. 

"  Richard  Rush." 

This  correspondence  constitutes  the  com- 
pact which  has  been  binding  upon  the  two 
countries  for  over  eighty-four  years.  By 
the  statesmen  and  publicists  of  both  coun- 
tries it  has  been  variously  termed  an  ar- 
rangement, agreement,  convention,  and 


It  was  nearly  a  year  after  the  exchange 
of  notes  that,  on  April  6,  1818,  President 
Monroe  submitted  to  the  Senate  the  cor- 
respondence between  Mr.  Rush  and  Mr. 
Bagot.  Ten  days  later  the  Senate,  by 
the  unanimous  vote  of  thirty  Senators, 
approved  the  agreement,  and,  on  April  28, 
the  President  published  it  in  a  proclama- 

It  does  not  appear  that  the  action  of 
Mr.  Bagot  was  ever  formally  confirmed 
by  his  government,  and  no  exchange  of 
ratifications  took  place.  But  we  assumed 
that  Mr.  Bagot  had  full  power  and  au- 
thority to  bind  his  government,  and  Great 
Britain  has  acted  on  the  assumption  that 
Mr.  Rush  was  duly  authorized  and  em- 
powered to  contract  on  behalf  of  the 
United  States.  The  agreement,  therefore, 
although  concluded  in  an  unconventional 
manner,  and  partaking  of  none  of  the 
ordinary  characteristics  of  a  formal  treaty, 
must  be  considered  as  possessing  all  the 
binding  force  and  effect  of  a  treaty.  As 
such  it  has  been,  since  April  29,  1817,  a 
part  of  the  supreme  law  of  the  land. 

The  agreement  became  immediately  oper- 
ative upon  the  interchange  of  notes,  and 
the  work  of  dismantling  the  fleets  was 
promptly  begun.  In  a  short  time  the 
victorious  ships  of  Perry  and  Macdonough 
were  rotting  on  the  sands,  or  had  been 
converted  into  peaceful  merchantmen. 

A  knowledge  of  the  environment  of  the 
contracting  parties  is  essential  to  an  in- 
telligent interpretation  of  every  contract. 
The  conditions  which  surrounded  the  fram- 
ers  of  this  convention  differed  so  radically 
from  the  conditions  which  exist  to-day, 
that  a  literal  compliance  with  the  terms 
of  the  agreement  is  little  less  than  absurd, 
inasmuch  as  it  often  produces  results 
which  were  not  intended,  or  even  contem- 
plated, by  the  parties. 

In  1817  the  navies  of  the  United  States 
and  Great  Britahi  on  the  lakes  were  about 
evenly  matched,  and  numbered  some 
twenty-five  wooden  vessels  each.  No  irop 
or  steel  vessels  then  existed,  and  steam  had 
not  yet  been  used  in  ships-of-war.  There 
was  no  communication  for  vessels  from  one 
lake  to  another,  except  from  Lake  Erie  to 
Lake  Huron,  and  from  Lake  Huron  to 
Lake  Michigan,  and  there  was  no  passage 


from  the  lakes  to  the  ocean.  The  Welland 
Canal  was  not  opened  for  small  vessels 
until  1833,  and  the  chain  of  St.  Lawrence 
canals  was  not  completed  until  1848.  The 
shores  of  the  lower  lakes  were  sparsely 
settled,  and  the  region  of  the  upper  lakes 
was  an  unexplored  wilderness  inhabited  by 
savages.  The  chain  of  lakes  was  the  only 
pathway  of  commerce  to  the  West  and 
Northwest.  The  war  had  left  the  Ameri- 
cans and  Canadians  along  the  border  in 
bad  humor  and  not  at  all  disposed  to  treat 
one  another  in  a  neighborly  manner.  The 
presence  on  the  lakes  of  large  fleets  of 
armed  vessels,  recently  opposed  to  each 
other,  hindered  a  reconciliation  and  the 
establishment  of  friendly  commercial  in- 

These  were  the  conditions  which  existed 
when  Secretary  Monroe  wrote  to  Mr. 
Adams,  in  November,  1815.  The  thought 
that  was  uppermost  in  the  minds  of  the 
framers  of  the  convention  was  the  neces- 
sity for  the  immediate  removal  of  the 
greatest  obstacle  to  a  good  understanding 
between  the  two  countries  by  the  disarma- 
ment of  the  naval  force  on  the  lakes. 
Their  main  object  was  to  secure  a  present 
reduction  of  the  existing  force.  They  were 
less  concerned  about  the  more  remote 
future.  This  is  apparent  from  the  corre- 
spondence which  preceded  and  constituted 
the  agreement.  The  subject  under  con- 
sideration was  the  "  Proposal  to  reduce 
the  naval  force  of  the  respective  countries 
on  the  American  lakes."  Of  this  force 
four  vessels  were  to  be  "  maintained,"  or 
"  retained,"  by  each  party,  and  all  other 
armed  vessels  were  forthwith  to  be  dis- 

Three  facts  are  especially  to  be  noted  in 
connection  with  the  terms  of  the  agree- 

First.  Except  for  the  four  vessels  agreed 
upon,  no  other  vessels  of  war  were  to  be 
"  maintained,"  "  built  "  or  "  armed  "  on 
the  lakes.  As  there  was  no  navigable  con- 
nection between  the  lakes,  or  between  Lake 
Ontario  and  the  ocean,  when  Mr.  Bagot 
and  Mr.  Rush  used  these  terms,  they  un- 
derstood that  a  vessel  could  not  be  main- 
tained upon  the  lakes  unless  it  had  been 
built  there,  and  that  a  vessel  could  not 
be  armed  or  built  on  the  lakes  and  main- 
tained elsewhere.  They  did  not  contem- 
plate a  time  when  yessels  larger  than  the 


largest  war-ships  with  which  they  were 
then  familiar  could  pass  to  and  fro  be- 
tween the  ocean  and  the  headwaters  of 
Michigan  and  Superior.  From  their  point 
of  view,  to  build  on  the  lakes  was  to  main- 
tain on  the  lakes. 

Second.  The  only  restriction  that  Mr. 
B.agot  in  his  note  specifically  places  upon 
the  vessels  to  be  maintained  by  each  power 
is  that  they  shall  "  in  no  respect  interfere 
with  the  proper  duties  of  the  armed  ves- 
sels of  the  other  party."  He  does,  how- 
ever, state  in  the  first  paragraph  of  his 
note  that  "  his  Royal  Highness  is  willing 
to  accede  to  the  proposition  made  to  the 
undersigned  by  the  Secretary  of  the  De- 
partment of  State  in  his  note  of  Aug. 
2  last."  Now,  a  part  of  Secretary  Mon- 
roe's proposition  was  that  the  naval  force 
to  be  retained  by  each  party  should  be 
restricted  in  its  duty  "  to  the  protection 
of  its  revenue  laws,  the  transportation  of 
troops  and  goods,  and  to  such  other  ser- 
vices as  will  in  no  respect  interfere  with 
the  armed  vessels  of  the  other  party."  It 
was  clearly  the  intention  that  the  four 
vessels  agreed  upon  should  be  the  only 
armed  ships  maintained  by  either  govern- 
ment on  the  lakes  for  any  purpose. 

Third.  The  agreem.ent  makes  no  provi- 
sion for  any  temporary  deviations  from  the 
strict  letter  of  the  contract.  It  takes  no 
account  of  the  necessities  of  civil  war, 
or  of  the  duty  of  each  party  to  maintain 
the  neutrality  of  its  own  citizens. 

As  an  arrangement  for  immediate 
mutual  disarmament,  the  convention  was 
effective  and  beneficial  to  both  parties.  It 
was  a  distinct  aid  in  bringing  about  a 
better  feeling  between  the  people  along  the 
border.  It  stimulated  commerce  on  the 
lakes  and  encouraged  settlement  along 
their  shores.  The  agreement  worked 
smoothly  during  the  first  twenty  years  of 
its  life.  It  injured  no  one  and  was  of  un- 
deniable advantage  to  both  parties.  By 
the  end  of  twenty  years  it  probably  had 
done  all  that  its  framers  expected  of  it, 
and,  in  the  opinion  of  many,  it  had  accom- 
plished all  the  good  of  which  it  was 


Changed     conditions     and     unforeseen 
events  speedily  demonstrated  that  a  literal 
compliance   with   the   agreement  was  im- 


practicable,  and  might  be  suicidal.  Great 
Britain  first  felt  the  necessity  of  trans- 
gressing the  letter  of  the  contract.  Dur- 
ing the  revolution  in  Canada  of  1838  the 
British  authorities  increased  their  naval 
armament  on  the  lakes  beyond  the  limits 
fixed  in  the  agreement,  for  the  purpose  of 
defending  their  shores  from  the  incursions 
of  small  bands  of  so-called  "'  Canadian 

This  increase  of  the  naval  force  led  our 
Secretary  of  State,  Mr.  Forsyth,  to  re- 
monstrate to  Mr.  Fox,  the  British  minister. 
Mr.  Fox  replied  that  the  increase  was  made 
necessary  in  consequence  of  unlawful  and 
piratical  acts  of  hostility;  that  the  arma- 
ment was  equipped  for  the  sole  purpose  of 
guarding  her  Majesty's  province  against 
a  manifest  and  acknowledged  danger,  and 
that  it  would  be  discontinued  at  the  ear- 
liest possible  period  after  the  causes  which 
created  the  danger  had  ceased  to  exist. 
This  reply  satisfied  Mr.  Forsyth  for  a 
year,  when  he  again  called  the  attention 
of  Mr.  Fox  to  the  matter  and  suggested 
that,  the  causes  for  the  increase  in  the 
armament  having  ceased  to  exist,  the 
President  expected  that  the  British  force 
would  be  reduced  to  the  limits  fixed  by  the 

This  reminder  of  her  treaty  obligations 
did  not  deter  Great  Britain  from  laying 
plans  for  a  still  further  increase  in  her 
naval  force  on  the  lakes.  This  action 
brought  forth  a  protest  from  Mr.  Webster, 
who  had  become  Secretary  of  State.  In 
replying  to  Mr.  Webster's  notes,  Mr.  Fox 
stated  that  the  vessels  of  war  serving 
on  the  Canadian  lakes  were  equipped  for 
the  sole  purpose  of  guarding  her  Majesty's 
province  against  hostile  attack.  With  a 
touch  of  sarcasm  he  added  that  the  hostile 
incursions  with  which  Canada  was  threat- 
ened were  from  combinations  of  armed 
men  unlawfully  organized  and  prepared 
for  war  in  the  United  States,  in  defiance 
of  the  eff'orts  of  the  government  to  prevent 
them.  The  explanation  made  by  Mr.  Fox 
apparently  satisfied  Mr.  Webster,  although 
he  had  originally  insisted  upon  a  rigid 
compliance  with  the  terms  of  the  con- 

In  the  mean  time  Congress  had  done 
something  besides  protest.  The  fortifica- 
tion act  of  Sept.  9,  1841,  contained  a  clause 
authorizing    the    construction    and    arma- 

ment of  such  vessels  on  the  lakes  as  the 
President  might  think  proper,  and  such 
as  should  "  be  authorized  by  the  existing 
stipulations  between  this  and  the  British 
government."  Under  this  authority  the 
iron  side-wheel  bark  Michigan  was  built 
at  Pittsburg  and  taken  in  sections  to 
Erie,  where  she  was  completed  and  launch- 
ed in  the  sununer  of  1844.  She  registered 
498  tons  and  carried  two  8-inch  guns  and 
four  32-pounder  carronades. 

It  was  now  Great  Britain's  turn  to  re- 
monstrate. All  immediate  necessity  for  in- 
creasing her  navy  had  disappeared,  and 
so  her  minister,  Mr.  Packenham,  conveyed 
to  Secretary  Calhoun  his  conviction  that  it 
was  by  all  means  desirable  that  the  con- 
vention of  1817  should  be  fulfilled  to  the 
letter  by  both  contracting  parties.  Mr. 
Calhoun's  reply  merely  refers  to  an  en- 
closed note  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy, 
to  whom  he  had  referred  Mr  Packenham's 
communication.  The  reasons  given  by  Mr. 
Mason,  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  for  our 
violation  of  the  agreement  were  that  Great 
Britain  was  violating  the  agreement,  and 
that  the  methods  of  naval  construction  had 
greatly  changed  since  1817.  On  the  lat- 
ter point  he  wisely  said:  "It  is  worthy  of 
remai'k  that  at  the  date  of  the  agreement 
between  the  two  governments  steamers 
were  in  use  to  a  very  limited  extent  as 
passenger  vessels,  and  perhaps  not  at  all 
as  ships-of-war.  The  restriction  as  to  ton- 
nage would  probably  not  have  been  adopt- 
ed if  their  use  had  been  anticipated.  No 
effective  steamer  for  any  purpose,  it  is  be- 
lieved, would  be  built  of  a  tonnage  of 
100  tons." 

Either  the  British  ministry  took  thir- 
teen years  to  consider  and  digest  this  sug- 
gestion, or  the  Michigan  kept  out  of  sight 
of  British  officers  during  that  time,  for 
it  was  not  until  1857  that  she  attracted 
the  attention  of  Lord  Napier.  He  de- 
scribes her  as  a  revenue  cruiser  of  the 
burden  of  800  tons,  and  ventures  to  sug- 
gest to  Mr.  Cass  that  it  would  be  ex- 
pedient for  him  to  inquire  whether  his 
government  is  complying  with  the  treaty 
of  1817.  There  is  no  record  of  any  writ- 
ten reply  to  Lord  Napier's  note. 

For  the  next  four  years  the  Michigan 
again  seems  to  have  escaped  attention.  In 
August,  1861,  Lord  Lyons  wrote  to  Secre- 
tary Seward  that  he  had  been  instructed 



to  represent  to  the  United  States  govern-  regret  and  no  little  alarm."  The  United 
ment  that  the  armament  of  the  Michi-  States,  however,  was  not  so  much  concern- 
gan  would  seem  to  be  in  excess  of  the  ed  about  the  alarms  and  regrets  of  Great 
limit  stipulated  in  the  agreement  of  1817.  Britain  as  she  was  about  her  own  self- 
Mr.  Seward  replied,  giving  the  exact  ton-  preservation. 

nage  and  armament  of  the  Michigan,  and  On  Oct.  24,  1864,  Secretary  Seward,  act'' 

stating  that  she  was  then,  as  theretofore,  ing  under  instructions  from  the  President, 

used    exclusively    for    the    purpose    of    re-  wrote    to    Charles    Francis    Adams,    our 

cruiting  the  navy,  with  artillery  practice  minister   to   England,   instructing  him   to 

for   the   newly   recruited   men.      He   said :  give  to  Earl  Russell  the  six  months'  notice 

"  It   is  not   supposed  by  this  government  necessary    to    terminate    the    convention, 

that    their    retaining    of    the    steamer    in  Mr.    Adams    gave    this    notice    Nov.    23, 

question  upon  the  lakes  is  a  violation  of  1864. 

their  arrangement  of  1817.  But  if  the  It  will  be  noted  that  the  executive  de- 
British  government  thinks  otherwise,  we  partraent  acted  in  this  matter,  without 
shall  be  happy  to  consider  its  views  in  any  authority  from  Congress.  It  assumed 
that  respect."  the  right  to  annul  the  convention  without 

Up  to  the  present  time  the  British  gov-  legislative  action.     Jan.  17,  1865,  Senator 

ernment  has  not  accepted  this  invitation  Sumner,    chairman    of    the    committee    on 

or    presented    its   views.      The    subject   of  foreign  relations,  reported  to  the  Senate, 

the  armament  and  tonnage  of  the  Michigan  with  an  amendment,  the  resolution  which 

has    not    occupied    the    British    ministry  had  passed  the  House  at  its  last  session, 

for   forty  years.      During   that   time   this  On    the    next    day    the    resolution    passed 

vessel  has  been  prudently  repaired  and  has  the    Senate.      On    Feb.    4    the    amendment 

survived   in  good   condition   the   shot  and  was  agreed  to  by  the  House,  and,  on  Feb. 

shell   of   sixty  years  of   diplomatic   cori'e-  9,  the  resolution  Avas  approved  and  signed 

spondence.     Even  now,   in  quiet  weather,  by  the  President  in  the  following  form: 

this    venerable    craft    may    still    be    seen  "  Joint     resolution     to     terminate     the 

proudly  but  slowly  bearing  the  American  treaty  of  eighteen  hundred  and  seventeen, 

flag  over   the   calm   waters   of   the   Great  regulating  the  naval  force  on  the  lakes. 

Lakes  as  she  goes  about  her  hydrographic  "  Whereas    the    United    States,    of    the 

task  of  surveying  the  scenes  of  her  former  one    part,    and    the    United    Kingdom    of 

triumphs.  Great   Britain   and   Ireland,   of   the   other 

We  come  now  to  the  most  interesting  part,  by  a  treaty  bearing  date  April, 
and  critical  period  in  the  life  of  the  Rush-  eighteen  hundred  and  seventeen,  have  reg- 
Bagot  convention.  During  the  Civil  War  ulated  the  naval  force  upon  the  lakes, 
the  United  States  found  herself  involved  in  and  it  was  further  provided  that  '  if  either 
a  difficulty  similar  to  that  which  enibar-  party  should  hereafter  be  desirous  of  an- 
rassed  Great  Britain  during  the  Canadian  nulling  this  stipulation  and  should  give 
Revolution  of  1838.  In  1864,  Confeder-  notice  to  that  effect  to  the  other  party, 
ate  sympathizers  organized  on  Canadian  it  shall  cease  to  be  binding  after  the  ex- 
soil  for  the  purpose  of  making  depre-  piration  of  six  months  from  the  date  of 
dations  on  the  commerce  of  the  lakes  such  notice';  and  Avhereas  the  peace  of  our 
and  hostile  incursions  into  the  Northern  frontier  is  now  endangered  by  hostile  ex- 
States.  To  suppress  these  demonstrations  peditions  against  the  commerce  of  the 
it  became  necessary  to  increase  our  naval  lakes  and  by  other  acts  of  lawless  persons, 
force  on  the  lakes.  June  18,  1864,  the  which  the  naval  force  of  the  two  coun- 
House  of  Representatives  passed  a  resolu-  tries,  allowed  by  the  existing  treaty,  may 
tion  directing  that  notice  should  be  given  be  insufficient  to  prevent;  and  whereas, 
to  abrogate  the  convention  of  1817.  The  further,  the  President  of  the  United 
Senate  did  not  consider  the  resolution  at  States  has  proceeded  to  give  the  notice 
that  session.  In  commenting  upon  the  required  for  the  termination  of  the  treaty 
action  of  the  House  'of  Representatives,  by  a  communication  which  took  eflFect  on 
Lord  Lyons  wrote  to  Secretary  Seward  the  twenty-third  of  November,  eighteen 
that  Great  Britain  would  view  the  hundred  and  sixty-four:  Therefore, 
abrogation  of  the  agreement  "  with  great  "  Be    it    resolved    by    the    Senate    and 



House  of  Repreeentatives  of  the  United 
States  of  America  in  Congress  assembled, 
that  the  notice  given  by  the  Tresident  of 
the  United  States  to  the  government  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland  to  terminate 
the  treaty  of  eighteen  hundred  and  seven- 
teen, regulating  the  naval  force  upon  the 
lake,  is  hereby  adopted  and  ratified  as  if 
the  same  had  been  authorized  by  Con- 

••Approved,  Feb.  9,  1865." 

Secretary  Seward,  Senator  Sumner,  both 
Houses  of  Congress,  and  President  Lincoln 
called  this  convention  a  treaty,  so  that 
there  is  ample  justification  for  giving  it 
that  title.  As  a  treaty  it  was  a  part  of 
the  supreme  law  of  the  land.  As  a  law  of 
the  land  it  was  repealed  by  this  joint 
resolution  of  Congress.  Such  action  cer- 
tainly would  have  been  a  death-blow  to 
any  other  treaty,  but  the  Eush-Bagot  con- 
vention still  survives.  It  was  resus- 
citated in  this  remarkable  manner: 

As  the  final  triumph  of  the  Federal 
arms  became  certain,  the  attitude  of  Great 
Britain  towards  the  United  States 
changed,  and  the  unfriendly  manifesta- 
tions along  our  northern  border  ceased. 
On  March  8,  1865,  Secretary  Seward 
wrote  to  Mr.  Adams :  "  You  may  say  to 
Lord  Russell  that  we  are  quite  willing  that 
the  convention  should  remain  practically 
in  force." 

No  record  has  been  found  of  any  com- 
munication to  the  British  authorities  by 
Mr.  Adams  of  his  instructions.  He  may 
have  conveyed  them  orally  at  an  informal 
interview,  but  it  is  strange  that  he  made 
no  report  of  his  action  to  his  government. 
The  notice  given  by  Mr.  Adams.  Nov.  23, 
1864,  would  have  terminated  the  agree- 
m.ent  May  23,  1865. 

June  15,  1865,  Sir  Frederick  Bruce, 
who  had  succeeded  Lord  Lyons  as  British 
minister,  wrote  to  Mr.  Hunter,  acting 
Secretary  of  State,  inquiring  whether  the 
agreement  of  1817  was  virtually  at  an 
end,  or  whether  the  despatch  to  Mr. 
Adams  of  March  8  was  intended  as  a 
formal  withdrawal  of  the  notice  of  Nov. 
23,  1864.  Secretary  Seward  replied  in  writ- 
ing to  these  inquiries  the  next  day  that 
f,he  instruction  to  the  United  States  minis- 
ter at  London  of  March  8,  1865,  "was 
intended  as  a  withdrawal  of  the  previous 
notice  within  the  time  allowed,  and  that 


it  is  so  held  by  this  government."  This  is 
probably  the  only  instance  where  an  act 
of  Congress  has  been  set  aside  through 
instructions  issued  by  our  Secretary  of 
State  to  one  of  our  foreign  ministers.  It 
is  not  a  legislative  precedent  that  is  likely 
to  meet  with  the  approval  of  modern  Con- 
gresses, although  it  has  been  considered 
effective  by  the  governments  of  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain. 

Notwithstanding  the  passage  by  Con- 
gress of  the  joint  resolution  of  1865,  the 
Rush-Bagot  convention  still  exerts  its 
neutralizing  influence  upon  the  waters 
of  the  Great  Lakes,  to  the  manifest  satis- 
faction of  the  diplomatists  of  both  coun- 
tries, and  with  equally  manifest  injustice 
to  the  ship-builders  and  naval  militia  of 
the  lake  States.  In  April,  1890,  F.  W. 
Wheeler  &  Co.,  ship-builders  of  West  Bay 
City,  Mich.,  were  the  lo^vest  bidders  for 
the  construction  of  a  steel  practice  vessel 
for  the  Naval  Academy,  of  about  800  tons 
displacement.  Their  bid  was  rejected  on 
account  of  the  agreement  of  1817,  .and  the 
contract  was  awarded  to  another  firm, 
whose  bid  was  $5,000  in  excess  of  that 
of  the  Michigan  firm.  Other  similar  bids 
of  lake  ship-builders  have  been  rejected 
by  the  Navy  Department  on  the  same 
ground.  The  department  now  rejects  all 
bids  for  the  construction  of  naval  vessels 
on  the  lakes,  even  when  they  are  to  be 
taken  unarmed  to  the  ocean,  or  in  sec- 
tions to  Atlantic  ship-yards  for  comple- 

This  action  on  the  part  of  the  govern- 
ment led  to  the  presentation  in  Congress 
of  numerous  petitions  for  the  abrogation 
or  modification  of  the  agreement.  On 
April  11,  1892,  the  Senate  passed  a  resolu- 
tion directing  the  Secretary  of  State  to 
inform  the  Senate  whether  the  State  De- 
partment considered  the  agreement  of 
1817  in  force,  and,  if  so,  what  action  had 
been  taken  to  revive  it  after  the  passage 
of  the  joint  resolution  of  1865.  In  re- 
sponse to  this  resolution.  President  Har- 
rison sent  to  the  Senate,  Dec.  7,  1892, 
a  message  containing  a  most  interesting 
and  exhaustive  account  by  Mr.  John  W. 
Foster,  Secretary  of  State,  of  the  birth, 
life,  death,  resuscitation  and  accomplish- 
ments of  the  Rush-Bagot  convention.  In 
reply  to  the  inquiry  whether  the  depart- 
ment   considered    the    agreement    still    in 


force,  he  said :  "  The  correspondence  ex- 
changed in  1865  shows  that  it  is  so  re- 
garded." He  assumes  that  Mr.  Adams 
communicated  to  the  British  ministry 
the  instruction  of  our  Secretary  of  State 
to  withdraw  the  notice  terminating  the 
agreement,  and  explains  that  Great 
Britain  could  not  question  Secretary 
Seward's  power  to  make  such  a  with- 
drawal. To  sustain  the  Secretary's  action 
was  commendable  international  courtesy, 
good  statesmanship,  and  sound  policy. 
Whether  Secretary  Seward's  action  in 
committing  his  government  to  the  revival 
of  a  treaty,  the  abrogation  of  which  Con- 
gress had  ratified  and  approved,  was  good 
statesmanship  and  sound  policy  may  well 
be  questioned. 

At  the  second  session  of  the  Fifty-sixth 
Congress  the  writer  introduced  in  the 
House  of  Representatives  a  bill  authoriz- 
ing the  construction  and  maintenance  of 
a  gunboat  on  the  upper  lakes.  The  object 
of  the  bill  was  to  secure  a  modern  vessel 
for  the  training  of  the  naval  militia. 
Three  of  the  lake  States  had  thoroughly 
organized  companies  of  naval  reserves, 
but  most  of  the  members  of  this  force 
had  never  seen  a  modern  war-ship.  This 
bill  was  referred  to  the  committee  on 
naval  affairs  and  included  as  an  item  in 
the  naval  appropriation  bill  of  1898, 
with  the  proviso  "  that  said  construc- 
tion of  said  gunboat  shall  conform 
to  all  existing  treaties  and  conven- 

On  April  16,  1898,  immediately  upon  the 
passage  of  this  act,  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy  addressed  to  the  Secretary  of  State 
an  inquiry  whether  he  would  be  limited 
by  any  restrictions  as  to  armament  and 
tonnage  in  the  construction  of  a  gunboat 
for  the  lakes.  To  this  Secretary  Day  re- 
plied, July  1,  1898,  that  the  subject  was 
one  of  the  matters  to  come  before  the  joint 
high  commission  on  questions  affecting 
the  relations  between  the  United  States 
and  Canada. 

Jan.  15,  1900,  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives passed  a  resolution  requesting  the 
Secretary  of  State  to  communicate  to  the 
House  the  status  of  this  agreement  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  Great  Brit- 
ain. Feb.  27,  1900,  President  McKinley 
transmitted  to  the  House  a  message  con- 
taining a  report  of  Secretary  Hay  in  re 

sponse  to  this  resolution.  Mr.  Hay  in- 
cludes in  his  report  the  message  of  Presi- 
dent Harrison  of  Dec.  7,  1892. 

From  Mr.  Hay's  report  it  appears  that, 
on  May  30,  1898,  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britain  agreed  upon  the  creation  of 
a  joint  high  commission,  to  which  should 
be  referred  for  settlement  various  pend- 
ing questions  between  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  among  which  was  "  a  re- 
vision of  the  agreement  of  1817  respecting 
naval  vessels  on  the  lakes."  The  Ameri- 
can commissioners  were  instructed  to  se- 
cure a  declaration  that  it  was  not  contrary 
to  the  true  spirit  of  the  arrangement  of 
1817  to  build  war  -  vessels  on  the  lakes  to 
be  taken  to  the  ocean,  or  to  maintain 
gunboats  on  the  lakes  for  the  training  of 
the  navcxl  reserves.  They  were  also  in- 
structed to  arrange  with  Great  Britain  for 
the  passage  of  such  vessels  through  the 
Canadian  canals. 

The  Secretary's  report  concludes  with 
these  words :  "  It  is  understood  that  some 
satisfactory  progress  was  made  in  the 
joint  high  commission  towards  the  at- 
tainment of  these  ends,  but  the  labors  of 
the  commission  have  been  suspended  with- 
out reaching  a  definite  result."  And  so, 
with  the  suspension  of  the  labors  of  the 
commission,  the  construction  of  the  gun- 
boat authorized  by  Congress  three  years 
ago  is  also  suspended,  and  the  Rush-Bagot 
convention  still  survives. 

Before  passing  from  this  phase  of  the 
subject  it  should  be  noted  that  we  have 
for  many  years  maintained  on  the  lakes 
armed  revenue-cutters  exceeding  the  ton- 
nage and  armament  prescribed  in  the 
agreement  of  1817.  In  1857,  and  again  in 
1865,  Great  Britain  raised  the  point  that 
our  action  in  this  respect  was  in  violation 
of  the  agreement.  It  certainly  is  a  de- 
parture from  the  views  entertained  by  the 
framers  of  the  convention.  Our  revenue- 
cutter  service  is  under  the  Treasury  De- 
partment, and  we  have  replied  to  the 
several  remonstrances  of  Great  Britain 
that  the  revenue  -  cutters  were  not  naval 
vessels  and  were  used  exclusively  for  en- 
forcing the  revenue  laws.  This  explana- 
tion has  so  far  sufficed,  although  our 
revenue  -  cutters  are  always  available  for 
use  by  the  navy  in  time  of  Avar.  Many 
of  the  revenue  -  cutters  in  service  on  the 
Atlantic    coast    and    the    Gulf   of   Mexico 




■were  used  by  the  naval  commanders  dur-  which   Great   Britain   could  send  through 

ing  the  recent  conflict  with  Spain.  the  canals. 

The  locks  of  the  Welland  and  St.  Law- 
rence canals  are  270  feet  long,  45  feet  wide, 
and  14  feet  deep.     Great  Britain  now  has 

It  only  remains  to  consider  what  atti-  afloat    130    gunboats,    169    torpedo-boats, 

tude  the  United  States  should  assume  tow-  and  108  destroyers,  which  could  pass  from 

ards  this  convention  in  the  future.     The  the  ocean  to  the  lakes.     In   case  of  war, 

convention    reserves    to    both    parties    the  therefore,   the   convention   would   seem   to 

right    to    abrogate    the    agreement    upon  be  an  advantage  to  the  United  States.     It 

giving  six  months'  notice,  and,  therefore,  ig   devoutly   to   be   hoped   that   there   wuU 

rnay  be  honorably  terminated  at  any  time  never  be  another  war  between  the  United 

by   either   of   the  parties.      Shall   we   con-  States  and  Great  Britain,  either  with  or 

tinue   the   present   arrangement   and   keep  without  the   Rush-Bagot   convention;    but 

up    the    pretence    of    complying   with    the  it  seems  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  the 

spirit  while  persistently  violating  the  let-  abrogation  of  the  agreement  would  make 

ter  of  the  agreement?    Or  shall  we  seek  to  any  perceptible   diff'erence   in   the  present 

secure  such  modifications  of  the  contract  as  cordial    relations   between   the   two    coun- 

will  make  it  conform  to  present  conditions  tries.     The    ties    of    friendship    and    com- 

and  meet  the  probable  requirements  of  the  merce  are   now   too   strong   to   be   lightly 

future?     Or  shall  we  abrogate  the  agree-  severed,    or    even    strained,    without    just 

ment  altogether? 

As  we  have  seen,  the  prime  object  of  the 
convention  was  immediate  disarmament. 
In   securing   this   object   it  was,   and   has 


What  are  the  disadvantages  to  the 
United  States  of  the  present  arrangement? 
It  should  be  noted  at  the  outset  that  tliev 

since  been,  an  encouragement  to  peace  and  all   arise   from   conditions   which   did   not 

good-will.    It  conferred  no  power  on  either  exist  when  the  convention  was  agreed  to, 

party,  and  it  imposed  equal  restraints  on  and  could  hardly  have  been  anticipated  by 

them   both.     At   that   time   neither   party  its  framers. 

could  put  gunboats  upon  the  lakes  with-  In  the  first  place,  it  debars  the  ship- 
out  building  them  there.  This  is  still  true  builders  on  the  lakes  from  competing  for 
of  the  United  States,  unless  she  obtains  .the  construction  of  such  government  war- 
the  consent  of  Great  Britain  to  use  her  vessels  as  can  pass  the  Canadian  canals, 
canals.  Great  Britain,  on  the  other  hand,  This  is  a  discrimination  against  a  large 
can  put  upon  the  lakes  all  of  her  war-  and  important  industry  which  should  not 
vessels  that  can  pass  the  Canadian  locks,  be  tolerated  except  for  the  most  urgent 
In  time  of  peace,  therefore,  the  convention  reasons.  The  American  Ship  -  building 
places  a  restraint  upon  the  action  of  Great  Company  now  has  nine  plants  on  the  lakes, 
Britain.  This  restraint  would  continue  located  at  West  Superior,  Milwaukee, 
until  the  commencement  of  hostilities,  Chicago,  Bay  City,  Detroit,  Wyandotte, 
or  a  declaration  of  war,  so  that,  even  Buffalo,  Cleveland,  and  Lorraine.  There 
if  the  relations  between  the  two  coun-  are  three  other  yards  on  the  lakes,  at  Bay 
tries  should  become  strained  and  war  City,  Port  Huron,  and  Toledo.  Owing  to 
should  seem  imminent,  Great  Britain  their  proximity  to  the  coal  and  iron  de- 
could  not  put  a  hostile  fleet  on  the  lakes  posits,  all  rhese  lake  ship-yards  can  com- 
until  some  act  of  belligerency  had  taken  pete  successfully  with  any  of  the  yards  in 
place.  this  country  or  elsewhere.  They  have  built 
If,  however,  this  restriction  on  the  power  several  light-ships  and  other  vessels  for 
of  Great  Britain  should  be  removed  by  the  Treasury  Department,  and  have  been, 
the  abrogation  of  the  convention,  Great  as  we  have  seen,  the  lowest  bidders  for 
Britain  could,  at  any  time,  in  anticipa-  some  of  the  naval  vessels.  The  govem- 
tion  of  trouble  with  the  United  States,  ment  is  thus  a  loser  as  well  by  being  de- 
place  on  the  lakes  a  formidable  naval  prived  of  the  competition  of  these  lake 
force.     We  could  only  be  prepared  for  such  yards. 

an  emergency  by  maintaining  on  the  lakes  The  United  States  suffers  a  still  more 

a   force   sufficient  to   cope  with   the   fleet  serious  loss,  which  is  forcibly  alluded  to 



by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  in  his  letter  the  possibilities  of  war  between  the  two 

of  April  16,  1898:  countries.     War  ends  all  treaties  between 

"  This     inquiry     is     prompted     by     the  the  belligerents.     In   anticipation   of  hos- 

further   consideration   that   it  was  doubt-  tilities.   Great    Britain    could    concentrate 

less  not  at   all  within   the  contemplation  on    the    upper    St.    Lawrence    a    powerful 

of  the  understanding  of  1817  that  the  na-  naval    force    ready    for    operation    on   the 

tional     resources     in     naval     construction  lakes   upon  the   declaration   of  war.     Our 

should  be  materially  diminished   thereby,  most    efficient    method    of    opposing    this 

as   they   are   at   present   through   the   ex-  force    would    be    by    land    batteries    com- 

clusion  of  the  facilities  afTorded  by  ^stab-  manding  the  upper  St.  Lawrence  and  the 

lishments    in    the    lake    cities.      These    es-  waters    connecting    the    lakes.     With    or 

tablishments   might   in   emergency   render  without  this   convention  we   shall   always 

important   service   in   the   construction   of  be   at   a   disadvantage   in   a   conflict   with 

torpedo-boats     and     other     small     vessels,  Great  Britain  on  the  lakes  until  we  have 

which,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  British  constructed  a  waterway  through  our  own 

authorities    could    be    taken    through    the  territory  from  the  ocean  to  the  lakes  of 

Welland  Canal  and  placed  in  commission  sufficient    size    to    admit    the    passage    of 

for  sea   service  as  promptly  as  would  be  vessels  as  large  as  those  which  can  pass 

possible  if  they  were  built  on  the  Atlantic  through  the  Canadian  canals, 
seaboard."  A   careful   study  of  the  history  of  the 

A  strict  adherence  to  the  letter  of  the  Rush-Bagot  convention,  and  an  impartial 
convention  also  excludes  the  lake  yards  estimate  of  the  advantages  and  disadvan- 
fiom  the  construction  of  naval  vessels  for  tages  accruing  to  the  United  States  from 
other  countries  at  peace  with  the  United  an  adherence  to  its  terms,  as  now  inter- 
States  and  Great  Britain.  It  will  be  seen,  preted,  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  the  loss 
therefore,  that  the  United  States,  by  con-  to  the  United  States  outweighs  the  gain ; 
tinning  in  force  this  international  agree-  that  it  is  to  the  interest  of  both  parties 
ment,  deprives  twelve  private  American  to  make  a  new  arrangement  respecting 
ship-yards  of  great  advantages  which  are  naval  armaments  on  the  lakes;  that  the 
enjoyed  by  all  other  yards  in  the  country,  agreement  of  1817  is  obsolete,  and  not  fit 
What  prospect  of  national  gain  would  for  the  foundation  of  an  international 
now  induce  the  President  to  make,  or  understanding;  that  a  treaty  should  be 
the  Senate  to  ratify,  a  treaty  which  would  made  between  the  United  States  and  Great 
shut  out  from  the  construction  of  all  Britain  which  would  expressly  annul 
naval  vessels  twelve  other  private  Ameri-  the  Rush-Bagot  convention  and  settle  the 
can  ship-yards  on  the  Atlantic  or  Pacific  questions  of  armament  and  naval  con- 
coasts?  struction  on  the  lakes  in  conformity  with 

The  convention  of  1817  prevents  the  effi-  modern  conditions, 
cient  training  of  a  large  part  of  our  naval  Shipp,  Albert  Micajah,  educator ; 
militia.  We  now  have  over  5,000  officers  born  in  Stokes  county,  N.  C,  Jan.  15, 
and  men  organized  in  eighteen  States  and  1819;  graduated  at  the  University  of 
the  District  of  Columbia.  Of  this  num-  North  Carolina  in  1840;  ordained  a 
ber  1,000  are  in  Illinois,  Michigan,  and  Methodist  preacher  in  1841;  elected  Presi- 
Ohio.  It  is  a  disadvantage  to  the  gov-  dent  of  Greensboro  Female  College  in 
ernnment  and  an  injustice  and  discourage-  1848;  Professor  of  History  and  English 
ment  to  these  naval  reserves  to  be  deprived  Literature  in  the  University  of  North 
of  the  same  practice  on  a  modern  gunboat  Carolina  in  1849;  President  of  Wolford 
that  is  enjoyed  by  the  reserves  in  the  sea-  College,  South  Carolina,  in  1859;  Pro- 
board  States.  fessor  of  Exegetical  Theology  in  Vander- 

In   concluding  this   enumeration  of  the  bilt     University,      Nashville,      Tenn.,      in 

disadvantages  to  the  United  States  of  ad-  1875;    and    he    was    the    author    of    His- 

hering   to   the   agreement   of   1817,   atten-  tory    of    Methodism    in    South    Carolina. 

tion   miist   be   drawn    to   the   position    in  He  died  in  Cleveland  Springs,  N.  C,  June 

which    the   United   States   would   now   be  27,  1887. 

placed  in  case  of  a  war  with  Great  Britain,        Shippen,  William,  physician;  born  in 

although  I  do  not  take  much  account  of  Philadelphia,    Pa.,    Oct.    21,    1736;    grad- 
vni. — M                                                  177 


uated  at  Princeton  in  1754;  studied  medi-  the  expedition  against  Louisburg  in  1745, 
cine  in  London  and  Edinburgh,  and  be-  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  commis- 
gan  its  practice  in  Philadelphia  in  1762.  sioners  at  Paris  (1750)  for  settling  the 
In  the  autumn  of  that  year  he  began  the  limits  of  Acadia,  or  Nova  Scotia,  and 
first  course  of  anatomical  lectures  ever  other  controverted  rights  of  the  English 
given  in  the  United  States.  In  1765  he 
was  chosen  Professor  of  Anatomy  and 
Surgery  in  the  new  medical  school  of  the 
College  of  Philadelphia,  of  which  he  was 
the  founder.  In  1776  he  entered  the  medi- 
cal department  of  the  army,  and,  from 
April,  1777,  to  January,  1781,  was  its 
director-general.  He  withdrew  from  the 
practice  of  his  profession  in  1798,  and 
died  in  Germantown,  Pa.,  July  11,  1808. 

Shiras,  George,  jurist;  born  in  Pitts- 
burg, Pa.,  Jan.  26,  1832;  graduated  at 
Yale  College  in  1853,  and  after  studying 
at  the  Yale  Law  School  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  of  Pennsylvania  in  1856.  He  was 
engaged  in  private  practice  in  the  courts 
of  Pennsylvania  till  July,  1892,  when  h* 
was  appointed  associate  justice  of  thw 
United  States   Supreme   Court  to  succeed  wiluam  shtrlet. 

Joseph  P.  Bradley;   retired  in  1903. 

Shirley,  John  Milton,  lawyer;  born  in  and  French  in  America,  In  1754  he  made 
Sanbornton,  N.  H.,  Nov,  16,  1831;  received  a  treaty  with  the  Eastern  Indians  and  ex- 
an  academic  education;  was  admitted  to  plored  the  Kennebec,  erecting  some  forts 
the  bar  in  1854.  His  publications  include  upon  its  banks.  In  1755  he  was  appoint- 
The  Early  Jurisprudence  of  New  Eamp-  ed  commander-in-chief  of  the  British  forces 
shire;  Complete  History  of  the  Dartmouth  in  North  America.  The  expedition  against 
College  Case;  Reports  of  Cases  in  the  Fort  Niagara  was  planned  by  him,  and 
Supreme  Jttdicial  Court;  and  Reports  of  led  as  far  as  Oswego.  In  1759  he  was 
Cases  in  the  Superior  Court  of  Judicature,  commissioned  a  lieutenant-general.  He 
etc.  He  died  in  Andover,  N.  H.,  May  21,  was  governor  of  one  of  the  Bahama  Isl- 
1887.  ands  afterwards,  but  returned  to  Massa- 

Shirley,  Paul,  naval  officer;  born  in  chusetts  in  1770  and  built  a  spacious 
Kentucky,  Dec.  19,  1820;  joined  the  navy  mansion  at  Roxbury,  which  he  never  oc- 
in  1839;  promoted  ]ieutenant  in  1853;  cupied.  dying  the  next  year  after  his  ar- 
served  with  distinction  in  the  Civil  War.  rival  there,  March  24,  1771. 
In  1863,  while  in  command  of  the  sloop  Short,  Charles,  educator;  born  in 
Cyane,  he  captured  the  J.  M.  Chapman,  a  Haverhill,  Mass.,  May  28,  1821 ;  gradu- 
piratieal  cruiser,  and  later,  while  com-  ated  at  Harvard  College  in  1846;  was 
manding  the  Survanel,  captured  the  pirat-  instructor  in  Roxbury  and  Philadelphia 
ical  steamer  Cohort.  He  died  in  Columbus,  in  1847-63;  president  and  Professor  of 
0.,  Nov.  24,  1876.  Intellectual  and  Moral  Philosophy  in  Ken- 

Shirley,  William,  colonial  governor;  yon  College,  Ohio,  in  1863-67;  and  be- 
born  in  Sussex,  England,  in  1693;  was  came  Professor  of  Latin  in  Columbia  Col- 
educated  for  the  law;  came  to  Boston  in  lege.  New  York,  in  1868.  He  contributed 
1734,  where  he  practised  his  profession,  many  articles  to  periodicals.  He  died  in 
At  the  time  he  was  appointed  governor  New  York,  Dec.  24,  1886. 
n741)  he  was  a  commissioner  for  the  set-  Short,  William,  diplomatist;  born  in 
tlement  of  the  boundary  between  Massa-  Spring  Garden,  Va.,  Sept.  30,  1759;  was 
chusetts  and  Rhode  Island.  As  governor  educated  at  the  College  of  William  and 
he  was  superior  to  his  contemporaries  in  Mary;  became  a  member  of  the  Virginia 
the  same  office  in  America.     He  planned    executive  council  while  very  young;   and 



in  1784  accompanied  Jefferson  to  France  Shubrick,  William  Branford,  naval 
as  secretary  of  legation.  In  1789  Wash-  officer,  born  on  Bull's  Island,  S.  C,  Oct.  31, 
ington  appointed  him  charge  d'affaires  to  1790;  entered  the  navy  as  midshipman  in 
the  French  Republic  on  the  retirement  of  1806;  was  made  lieutenant  in  January, 
Jefferson  from  his  post  in  France.  This  1813,  and  in  June  assisted,  by  managing 
was  the  first  commission  signed  by  Presi-  :i  small  battery  on  Craney  Island,  in  re- 
dent  Washington,  and  Short  had  the  honor  pulsing  the  British.  Shubrick  was  lieuten- 
of  being  the  first  public  officer  appointed  ant  of  the  Constitution  in  her  action  with 
under  the  national  Constitution.  He  was  the  Cyane  and  Levant.  He  commanded 
successively  minister  resident  at  The  a  squadron  in  the  Pacific  in  1847, and  capt- 
II ague  and  minister  to  Spain.  He  died  in  ured  some  ports  from  the  Mexicans.  In 
Philadelphia,  Dec.  5,  1849.  1859   he   was   in   command   of   the   Brazil 

Shoshone,  or  Snake,  Indians,  believed  Squadron  and  the  Paraguay  expedition, 
to  have  formed  a  distinct  nation 
of  North  American  Indians,  in- 
habiting a  portion  of  the  country 
west  of  and  among  the  Rocky 
IMountains.  They  embraced  a  num- 
ber of  warlike  tribes,  among  whonj 
the  Comanches  are  best  known  in 
American  history.  According  to 
their  traditions,  they  came  from 
the  South.  When  Lewis  and 
Clarke  saw  them,  in  1805,  they 
had  been  driven  beyond  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  They  were  wide- 
spread, and  generally  peaceful. 
The  bands  of  Shoshones  have  gone 
by  various  names.  The  overland 
emigrants  to  California  met  them 
in  the  Great  Salt  Lake  region,  on 
the  Humboldt  River,  and  at  other 
places.  Soon  after  that  emigration 
began,  these  bands  assumed  a  hos- 
tile attitude  towards  the  white 
people,  and  in  1849  some  of  them 
were  engaged  in  open  war.  Short 
periods  of  peace  were  obtained  by 
treaties,  and  finally,  in  1864,  some 
of  the  Shoshones  ceded  their  lands 
to  the  United  States.  The  non-fulfil-  "nd  from  1860  to  1870  was  chairman  of 
ment  of  the  agreement  on  the  part  of  the  the  light-house  board.  He  was  made  rear- 
latter  caused  the  Indians  to  begin  hostili-  admiral  on  the  retired  list  in  July,  1862. 
ties  again.  In  18G7  a  treaty  was  made  at  He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  May  27, 
Fort    Bridger,    after    which    the    United    1874. 

States  government  attempted  to  gather  the  Sbuf eldt,  Robert  Wilson,  naval  officer ; 
scattered  bands  on  reservations,  and  par-  born  in  Red  Hook,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  21,  1822; 
tially  succeeded.  One  reservation  (Fort  entered  the  navy  as  midshipman  in  1839; 
Hall)  in  Idaho  contained  at  one  time  1,200  and  became  lieutenant  in  1853.  In  the 
of  the  tribe;  and  800  were  on  a  reserva-  following  year  he  resigned  and  took  ser- 
tion  in  Wyoming  Territory,  exposed  to  vice  with  the  merchant  marine.  He  was 
attacks  from  the  Sioux.  In  1899  there  in  charge  of  a  surveying  party  on  the 
were  1,016  Shoshones  at  the  Fort  Hall  Isthmus  of  Tehuantepec,  and  at  the  be- 
agency,  Idaho;  215  at  the  Lemhi  agency,  ginning  of  the  Civil  War  commanded  a 
in  the  same  State;  and  842  at  the  Sho-  steamship  plying  between  New  York  and 
shone  agency  in  Wyoming.  Havana.     Soon    afterwards    he    was    ap 




pointed    United    States    consul-general    in  pointed.     He  died  in  England,  April  15, 

Havana,    where    he    remained    till     1863,  1742. 

when  he  re-entered  the  navy  with  the  rank  Siamese  Twins,  The,  Chang  and  Eng; 
of  commander.  He  participated  in  the  born  in  a  small  village  on  the  coast  of 
operations  in  Charleston  Harbor,  and  after  Siam  in  1811.  Their  mother  bore  seven- 
the  war  commanded  the  Hartford,  of  the  teen  children;  once  she  had  three  at  a 
East  India  Squadron,  and  the  Wachusett  birth,  and  never  less  than  two.  These  two 
of  the  Asiatic  Squadron.  In  1870-71  he  children  were  the  only  deformed  ones 
spent  some  time  surveying  on  both  the  among  them.  They  were  united  by  a 
Tehuantepec  and  Nicaragua  routes;  in  strong  band  of  flesh,  three  or  four  inches 
1879-80  was  sent  on  a  special  commercial  in  diameter,  at  the  anterior  part  of  the 
mission  to  Africa  and  the  East  Indies;  chest.  Their  parents  lived  by  fishing,  and 
was  arbitrator  for  the  United  States  and  the  boys  sold  shell-fish  until  they  were 
British  governments  to  settle  the  Libe-  eighteen  years  of  age,  when  they  were 
rian  boundary  disputes;  negotiated  a  treaty  brought  to  the  United  States  and  ex- 
with  the  kingdom  of  Korea  for  the  better  hibited  as  curiosities.  They  were  shown 
conservation  of  American  interests;  and  in  difl"erent  cities  of  the  Union,  and  also 
as  special  agent  of  the  United  States  gov-  went  to  England  and  France,  where  they 
ernment  at  Peking  in  1881  he  secured  the  attracted  the  attention  of  scientific  men. 
treaty  that  opened  Korea  to  the  commerce  They  were  very  agile,  and  so  accommo- 
of  the  world.  He  became  rear-admiral  dated  themselves  to  their  situation  that 
May  27,  1883;  was  retired  Feb.  21,  1884;  they  could  run,  leap,  and,  when  crossing 
and  was  influential  in  his  last  service  in  the  ocean,  climb  to  the  masthead  as 
bringing  about  the  creation  of  the  new  quickly  as  any  sailor.  The  twins  finally 
navy  and  the  designing  of  the  first  steel  settled  in  North  Carolina,  where  they 
cruiser,  as  president  of  the  naval  ad-  purchased  an  estate.  Each  was  married 
visory  board.  In  recognition  of  the  (their  wives  were  sisters)  and  had  several 
beneficial  effects  of  his  oflicial  acts  children,  none  of  whom  were  deformed, 
in  connection  with  Korea,  he  was  for  They  died  within  a  few  hours  of  each 
some  time  the  guest  of  that  government  other,  Jan.  17,  1874,  at  the  age  of  sixty- 
after  his  retirement.  He  died  in  Wash-  three  years, 
ington,  D.  C,  Nov.  7,  1895.  Sibley,  Henky  Hastings,  pioneer;  born 

ShurtlefE,  Nathaniel  Bradstreet,  au-  in  Detroit,  Mich.,  Feb.  20,   1811;   became 

thor;    born    in    Boston,    Mass.,    June    29,  a  partner  in  the  American  Fur  Company 

1810:    graduated    at    Harvard    College    in  in   1834.     On  one  of  his  trips  he  arrived 

1831,   and   at  its   Medical   Department   in  at  the  mouth  of  the  Minnesota  Eiver,  and 

1834;    was    mayor    of    Boston,    Mass.,    in  was  so  much  pleased  with  the  place  that 

1868-70.     He  was  the   author   of  Passen-  he  settled  there.     On  May  29,  1848,  when 

gcrs    of    the    Mayfoiver   in   1620 ;    Genea-  Wisconsin  became  a  State,  St.  Croix  River 

logical    Memoir    of    the   Family    of   Elder  was  made  the  western  boundary.    This  left 

Thomas    Leavett    of    Boston;    Records    of  about  23,000  square  miles  east  of  the  Mis- 

the  Governor  and  Company  of  Massachu-  sissippi  without  a  government.   In  Novem- 

setts   Bay   in    Neio   England;    Memoir   of  ber,  1848,  Mr.  Sibley  was  elected  to  repre- 

the  Inangiiraiion  of  the  Statue  of  Frank-  sent  this  district  in  Congress  where  he  was 

lin,  etc.     He  died  in  Boston,  Mass.,   Oct.  instrumental    in    having    an    act    passed 

17,  1874.  creating  the  Territory  of  Minnesota,  which 

Shute,  Samuel,  colonial  governor;  was  made  to  include  the  rest  of  Wiscon- 
born  in  London,  England,  in  1653;  re-  sin  and  a  large  area  west  of  the  Missis- 
ceived  a  collegiate  education;  appointed  sippi.  He  served  in  Congress  till  1853. 
royal  governor  of  Massachusetts  in  1716,  Minnesota  was  created  a  State  on  May 
but  his  administration  was  marked  by  un-  11,  1858,  and  he  was  chosen  its  first  gov- 
fortunate  struggles  with  the  Assembly  ernor.  He  commanded  the  white  volunteer 
over  his  prerogatives.  In  1723  he  visited  forces  of  Iowa  and  Minnesota  against  the 
England  to  arrange  the  difficulties;  was  Sioux  rising  of  1862,  and  on  Sept.  23 
about  to  return,  in  June,  1727,  when  the  broke  the  power  of  the  Indians  in  a  de- 
King   died   and   a  new  governor   was   ap-  oisive  battle  at  Wood  Lake;  was  commis- 



sioned  brigadier-general  of  volunteers,  and 
later  received  the  brevet  of  major-general. 
He  died  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  Feb.  18,  1891. 

Sibley,  Heney  Hopkins,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Nachitoches,  La.,  May  25, 
1816;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1838, 
entering  the  dragoons  and  serving  in  the 
Seminole  War.  He  also  served  in  the  war 
against  Mexico.  In  February,  1861,  he 
was  major  of  dragoons,  and  was  serving 
against  Indians  in  New  Mexico;  but  in 
May  he  joined  the  Confederates,  accepted 
the  commission  of  brigadier-general  in 
tlieir  army,  and  led  a  force  from  Texas  for 
the  conquest  of  New  Mexico.  At  Fort 
Craig  he  was  repulsed  (June  5,  1862)  and 
was  driven  over  the  mountains  into  Texas. 
In  1869-74  he  was  in  the  service  of  the 
Khedive  of  Egypt.  He  died  in  Fredericks- 
burg, Va.,  Aug.  23,   1886. 

Sibley,  John  Langdon,  librarian; 
born  in  tjnion.  Me.,  Dec.  29,  1804;  grad 
uated  at  Harvard  College  in  1825;  stud- 
ied theology;  retired  from  the  ministry 
in  1833;  and  applied  himself  to  literary 
work  in  1833-41.  He  was  then  appointed 
assistant  librarian  of  the  Harvard  li- 
brary, and  was  librarian  in  1856-77.  He 
was  the  author  of  Index  to  the  Writings 
of  George  Washington;  History  of  the 
Toii-n.  of  Union,  Me.;  Index  to  the  Works 
of  John  Adams;  Notices  of  the  Triennial 
and  Annual  Catalogues  of  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, iciih  a  Reprint  of  the  Catalogues 
of  1674,  1682,  and  1100 ;  and  Biographical 
Sketches  of  Graduates  of  Harvard  Univer- 
sity. He  died  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Dec. 
9,  1885. 

Siboney,  a  seaport  town  in  the  province 
of  Santiago  de  Cuba,  a  few  miles  west 
of  Daiquiri.  In  the  American-Spanish 
War  the  greater  part  of  the  American 
army  was  landed  at  Daiquiri,  and  the 
remaining  portion  at  Siboney.  The  dis- 
embarkation of  the  army  at  Daiquiri  was 
begun  on  June  22,  and  by  the  evening  of 
the  24th  all  the  troops  of  this  contingent 
were  on  shore.  The  Spanish  troops  made 
but  little  resistance.  On  the  23d  General 
Lawton's  division  reached  Siboney,  and 
on  the  following  day  pushed  forward  so 
that  General  Kent's  division  might  imme- 
diately occupy  the  place.  In  these  early 
movements  the  Americans  were  greatly 
assisted  by  a  body  of  Cubans.  General 
Shafter  planned  that  General  Lawton's  di- 

vision should  take  a  strong  defensive  posi- 
tion on  the  road  from  Siboney  to  Santia- 
go; Kent's  division  was  to  be  held  near 
Santiago;  Bates's  brigade  was  to  support 
Lawton;  and  Wheeler's  cavalry  division 
was,  to  be  in  the  rear  on  the  road  from 
Daiquiri  to  Siboney.  On  the  23d-24th, 
however.  General  Young's  brigade,  of 
Wheeler's  division,  passed  Lawton,  and 
was  therefore  in  the  advance  early  the  next 
morning.  This  brigade  consisted  of  part 
of  the  10th  United  States  Cavalry  and  two 
battalions  of  the  1st  Volunteer  Cavalry 
(Rough  Riders).  On  the  road  to  San- 
tiago, and  about  3  miles  from  Siboney,  was 
the  strong  natural  position  called  Las 
Guasimas,  where  the  Spaniards  were  post- 
ed in  considerable  strength,  but  after  an 
obstinate  resistance  they  were  driven  from 
their  position  (see  Las  Guasimas).  It 
was  for  the  purpose  of  having  a  consulta- 
tion with  General  Shafter,  then  in  head- 
quarters at  Siboney,  that  Rear  -  Admiral 
Sampson,  with  his  flag-ship,  the  Neic  York, 
left  the  fleet  blockading  the  entrance  to 
the  harbor  of  Santiago,  and  was  thus  ab- 
sent from  the  opening  scene  of  the  great 
naval  engagement  of  July  3.  See  El  Ca- 
NEY;  San  Juan  Hill;  Spain,  War  with. 
Sickles,  Daniel  Edgar,  military  offi- 
cer: born  in  New  York  City,  Oct.  20,  1822; 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1844;  became 
a  member  of  the  legislature  in  1847,  and 
was  soon  a  prominent  leader  in  the  Demo- 
cratic party.  He  went  to  England  with 
Minister   Buchanan   as   secretary  of   lega- 




tion.  In  1855  he  \yas  elected  State  Sena- 
toi",  and  the  next  year  he  was  elected  to 
Congress.  He  shot  Philip  Barton  Key 
(Feb.  27,  1859),  in  Washington,  D.  C,  for 
alleged  unlawful  intimacy  with  his  wife; 
was  tried  for  murder,  but  acquitted,  and 
was  re-elected  to  Congress  in  1860,  When 
the  Civil  War  broke  out  he  raised  the  Ex- 
celsior (New  York)  Brigade;  was  made 
colonel,  and  commissioned  brigadier-gen- 
eral of  volunteers  in  September,  1861.  He 
commanded  a  brigade  on  the  Peninsula ; 
took  command  of  General  Hooker's  troops 
when  that  officer  was  placed  at  the  head 
of  an  army  corps ;  and  had  a  division  at 
Antietam  and  Fredericksburg.  At  Chan- 
cellorsville  he  commanded  an  army  corps; 
also  at  Gettj'sburg,  where  he  lost  a  leg. 
He  was  promoted  major-general  of  volun- 
teers in  1SG2;  retired  as  a  major-general, 
United  States  army,  in  1869;  appointed 
minister  to  Spain  in  the  latter  year;  and 
resigned  in  1874.  He  was  afterwards 
president  of  the  State  board  of  civil  ser- 
vice commissioners,  and  member  of  Con- 
gress in  1892-94. 

Sidell,  William  Henry,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  New  York  City,  Aug.  21, 
1810:  graduated  at  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  in  1833,  and  assigned 
to  the  artillery,  but  resigned;  became  city 
surveyor  of  New  York ;  assistant  engineer 
of  the  Croton  aqueduct;  division  engineer 
of  railroads  in  Massachusetts  and  New 
York;  chief  engineer  in  the  construction 
of  the  Panama  Railroad;  assistant  en- 
gineer in  the  hydrographic  survey  of  the 
delta  of  the  Mississippi  River;  assistant 
in  the  survey  of  a  railway  route  across 
the  Isthmus  of  Tehuantepec  and  became 
chief  engineer.  He  entered  the  Union 
army  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
as  major  of  the  15th  United  States  In- 
fantry; was  acting  assistant  adjutant- 
general  of  the  Department  of  the  Cumber- 
land in  1862-63;  acting  assistant  provost 
marshal  of  Kentucky  in  1863;  joined  the 
10th  Infantry  as  lieutenant-colonel  and 
served  in  Dakota  in  1867-69;  was  brev- 
etted  colonel,  and  later  brigadier-general. 
United  States  army,  for  faithful  services 
during  the  war;  and  was  retired  in  1870. 
He  died  in  New  York  City,  July  1,  1873. 

Siebert,  Wilbur  Henry,  educator; 
born  in  Columbus,  O.,  Aug.  30,  1866; 
graduated    at   the   Ohio   State  University 

in  1888,  and  studied  in  Germany  In  1890- 
91;  was  appointed  associate  Professor  of 
European  History  at  the  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity in  1898.  He  is  the  author  of 
The  Underground  Railroad  from  Slavery 
tc  Freedom;  Hand-book  of  Ohio  Govern- 
ment, etc. 

Sieges.  The  following  are  the  most 
noteworthy  sieges  in  the  history  of  the 
United  States.     See   also   Battles. 

Fort  William  Henry,  New  York 1757 

Louisburg,  Canada 1758 

Fort  Ticonderoga,   New  York 1758-59 

Boston,  Massachusetts 1775 

Fort  Henry,  West  Virginia 1777 

Fort  Mifflin,  Pennsylvania 1777 

Fort  Schuyler,  New  York 1777 

Charleston,  South  Carolina 1780,  1864-65 

Fort  Ninety-six,  South  Carolina 1781 

Yorktown,  Virginia 1781  and  1862 

Fort  Wabash,  Indiana 1812 

Fort  Wayne,  Indiana 1812 

Fort  George,   Canada 1813 

fort    Meigs,    Ohio 1813 

bort   Stephenson,   Ohio 1813 

Fort  Erie,  Canada 1814 

Fort  Brown,  Texas 1846 

Monterey,    Mexico 1846 

Piiebla,   Mexico 1847 

Vera   Cruz,    Mexico 1847 

Fort   Pickens,   Florida 1861 

Corinth,    Mississippi 1862 

Fort  Pulaski,  Georgia 1862 

Island  No.  10,  Kentucky 1862 

Fort  Wagner,   South  Carolina 1863 

Port  Hudson,   Louisiana 1863 

Vicksburg,  Mississippi 1863 

Atlanta,    Georgia 1864 

Forts  Gaines  and  Morgan,   Mobile,  Ala- 
bama      1864 

Fort  Fisher,  North  Carolina 1864-65 

Richmond,    Virginia 1864-65 

Fort  P.lakely  and  Spanish  Fort,  Mobile, 

Alabama 1865 

Santiago,  Cuha 1898 

Sigel,  Franz,  military  officer;  born  at 
Sinsheim,  Baden,  Nov.  18,  1824;  gradu- 
ated at  the  military  school  of  Carlsruhe; 
entered  the  Baden  service,  but  resigned  in 
1848,  when  he  became  a  champion  of  Ger- 
man unity  and  republicanism.  The  revo- 
lutionary government  appointed  him  sec- 
retary of  war.  At  the  head  of  a  beaten 
and  dispirited  force,  after  a  defeat  by  the 
Prince  of  Prussia,  he  made  a  skilful  re- 
treat within  the  walls  of  the  fortress  of 
Rastadt.  Upon  the  flight  of  the  provis- 
ional government,  in  July,  Sigel  withdrew 
to  Switzerland,  and,  being  expelled  by  the 
Swiss  government,  he  came  to  New  York 
in  1850,  taught  mathematics,  interested 
himself  in  the  State  militia,  became  maj-or 



of  a  regiment,  and  in  September,  1858,  re- 
moved to  St.  Louis  and  became  superin- 
tendent of  public  schools  there.  When  the 
Civil  War  broke  out  he  organized  a  regi- 
ment of  infantry  and  a  battery,  assisted 


Lyon  in  the  capture  of  Camp  Jackson, 
and  afterwards  did  signal  service  in 
southwestern  Missouri,  at  Carthage, 
Wilson's  Creek,  and  Springfield.  Com- 
missioned a  brigadier-general  of  volun- 
teers, he  commanded  a  division  in  Fre- 
mont's army.  In  command  of  a  division, 
early  in  1862,  he  bore  a  conspicuovis  part 
in  the  battle  of  Pea  Ridge  (q.  v.).  Pro- 
moted major-general,  he  was  placed  in 
command  at  Harper's  Ferry  in  June, 
1862,  and  late  in  that  month  succeeded  to 
the  command  of  Fremont's  army  corps, 
and  served  through  the  campaign  in  Vir- 
ginia under  Pope.  In  September  he  was 
placed  at  the  head  of  the  11th  Army 
Corps.  Early  in  1864  he  was  placed  in 
command  of  the  Department  of  West  Vir- 
ginia. Defeated  by  Breckinridge  at  New 
Market,  he  Avas  relieved  of  command  by 
General  Hunter.  He  performed  some  other 
military  service  on  the  upper  Potomac 
and  resigned  his  commission  May  4,  1865. 
He  afterwards  served  as  collector  of  in- 
ternal revenue,  register,  and  pension 
agent  in  New  York  City.  He  died  in 
New  York,  Aug.  21,  1902. 

Signal  Corps,  in  the  United  States 
army  a  bureau  of  the  War  Department 
under  the  direction  of  the  chief  signal 
officer.     This  official  is  charged  with  the 

supervision  of  all  military  signal  duties, 
and  of  books,  papers,  and  devices  con- 
nected therewith,  including  telegraph  and 
telephone  apparatus  and  the  necessary 
meteorological  instruments  for  use  on  tar- 
get ranges  and  other  military  uses;  the 
construction,  repair,  and  operation  of  mil- 
itary telegraph  lines,  and  the  duty  of  col- 
lecting and  transmitting  information  for 
the  army  by  telegraph  or  otherwise,  and 
all  other  duties  usually  pertaining  to  mil- 
itary signalling. 

In  1870  the  signal  service  of  the  army 
was  partially  transformed  into  a  me- 
teorological bureau  for  the  purpose  of  giv- 
ing mariners  and  farmers  notice  of  the 
advance  of  storms.  In  1891  this  branch, 
which  had  been  known  as  the  weather 
bureau,  was  transformed  from  the  War 
Department  to  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture, which  has  since  carried  on  this 
particular  work  through  its  weather  bu- 
reau, and  the  signal  service  of  the  army 
has  since  been  confined  to  the  duties  above 

Signals,  believed  to  have  been  first  used 
in  the  navies  of  Greece  and  Carthage,  and 
not  unlike  those  used  in  the  present  mili- 
tary and  naval  service.  A  regular  code  of 
day  and  night  signals  was  arranged  by 
Admirals  Howe  and  Kempenfelt  about 
1790,  and  in  1812  Captain  Rodgers,  of  the 
United  States  navy,  arranged  an  admi- 
rable signal  system  for  its  use.  This  con- 
sisted of  flags  of  various  forms  and  colors, 
to  be  displayed  in  different  positions,  so  as 
to  indicate  words  or  sentences  to  be  trans- 


mitted  long  distances.  The  signal-officers 
at  each  terminus  have  a  key  which  in- 
terprets the  message.  That  key  is  a 
"  signal-book,"  which,  when  in  actual 
service,  is  covered  Avith  canvas,  in  which 
is  a  plate  of  lead  on  each  side,  of  sufficient 




weight  to  sink  the  book  in  case  a  vessel  is 
about  to  strike  her  colors. 
As  each  nation  has  its  pe- 
culiar "  signal-books,"  this 
precaution  is  necessary,  so 
as  not  to  have  the  secrets 
of  one  revealed  to  the 
other.  Certain  flags  in- 
dicate certain  numbers, 
from  1  to  9;  and  these 
numerals,  by  combination, 
indicate  sentences  which 
are  given  in  the  key  by 
coresponding  numbers.     The  pennants  rep 

resent  duplicate.  In  the  engraving 
(No.  1)  are  nine  different  flags,  with 
their  numbers,  and  four  pennants. 
With  these  flags  and  pennants  about 
100,000  different  signals  may  be  given. 
A  frequent  change  in  the  arrangement 
of  signal-flags  is  necessary  for  ob- 
vious reasons.  The  code  of  signals  used 
in  the  United  States  navy  just  pre- 
vious to  the  late  Civil  War  was  pro- 
posed by  a  board  of  naval  ofiicers,  and 
adopted  by  the  Navy  Department  in 
1857.  Another  board,  in  1859,  tested 
and  approved  a  system  of  night- 
signals  invented  by  B.  F.  Coston,  of 
the  United  States  navy;   and  in  October, 


WIG-WAGGING   BY   FLAG. — NO.   2. 

1861,  these  signals  were  adopted  in  the 
United  States  army.  A  new  system  of 
signals,  for  both  the  army  and  navy, 
was  invented  by  Maj.  (afterwards  Gen.) 
Albert  J.  Myer  {q.  v.),  which  was  in  use 
in  both  branches  of  the  service,  night  and 
day,  on  land  and  on  water,  during  the 
Civil  War.  It  is  so  simple  and  flexible 
that  it  may  be  used  through  the  medium 
of  sounds,  forms,  colors,  and  motions,  all 
of  which  are  regulated  and  understood  by 
a  code.  The  engraving  (No.  2)  shows  the 
method  of  signalling  with  flags  by  day,  and 
with  torches  by  night,  by  motions.  The 
arrows  show  the  direction  of  the  motion. 
Like  the  Morse  telegraph  alphabet,  which 
consists  of  dots  and  dashes,  the  modern 
signal  code  is  made  up  of  two  elements,  a 
motion  to  the  right  and  a  motion  to  the 
left,  such  signalling  being  known  as  wig- 
wagging. For  instance,  in  the  engraving 
(No.  2),  fig.  1  indicates  "make  ready," 
fig.  2,  one  motion  to  the  right,  may  repre- 
sent the  letter  I,  fig.  3,  one  motion  to  the 
left,  the  letter  T,  fig.  4  is  "  rest,"  indicating 
the  end  of  a  word.  During  the  Civil  War 
signal-towers  were  erected  for  temporary 
use.      The    one   shown    herewith    was    at 



Point  of  Kocks,  on  the  Appomattox,  and  of  paying  a  ceremonial  visit,  as  is  cus' 
was  125  feet  in  height.  From  its  top  the  tomary  among  the  navies  of  the  world, 
spires  of  Richmond,  nearly  20  miles  dis-  On  the  night  of  Feb.  15,  1898,  the  Maine 
tant,  could  be  seen.  It  was  built  of  pine  was  suddenly  destroyed  at  her  assigned 
timber.  anchorage  in  Havana  Harbor,  by  an  ex- 

Signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Inde-  plosion  which  drove  her  hull  plates  in- 
pendence  and  the  Constitution.  See  ward  and  upward  (see  Cuba).  Soon  after 
Constitution  ;  Declaration  of  Inde-  this  catastrophe  Captain  Sigsbee  was 
PENDENCE.  Biographies  of  each  of  the  placed  in  command  of  the  auxiliary  cruis- 
signers  will  be  found  under  their  respec-  er  St.  Paul,  and  in  the  latter  part  of  June 
tive  names.  destroyed    the    Spanish    torpedo-boat    Ter- 

Sigourney,  Lydia  Huntley  (Mrs.),  ror  off  San  Juan,  Porto  Rico.  In  Au- 
author;  born  in  Norwich,  Conn.,  Sept.  1,  gust  of  the  same  year  he  was  assigned 
1791;  educated  in  Norwich  and  Hartford;  to  the  Texas;  was  appointed  chief  of  the 
and  attained  a  high  reputation  as  a  bureau  of  naval  intelligence  in  1899;  and 
writer.  Her  publications  include  Traits  was  promoted  rear-admiral  in  1903.  He 
of  the  Aborigines  of  America  (a  poem)  ;  is  the  author  of  Deep-Sea  Sounding  and 
Sketch  of  Connecticut  Forty  Years  Since;  Dredging ;  United  States  Coast  Survey, 
Pocahontas  and  Other  Poems;  Scenes  in  18S0;  Personal  Narrative  of  the  Battle- 
My  Native  Land,  etc.  She  died  in  Hart-  ship  Maine,  1899;  etc. 
ford,  Conn.,  June  10,  1865.  Sikes,  William  Wirt,  author;  born  in 

Sigsbee,  Charles  Dwight,  naval  offi-  Watertowri,  N.  Y.,  in  1836;  learned  type' 
cer;  born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  16,  1845;  setting  when  a  boy,  and  later  wrote 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Naval  for  newspapers;  was  editorially  connect- 
Academy  in  1863;  was  promoted  ensign  ed  with  the  Utica  Herald,  the  Chicago 
in  October  of  that  year,  and  served  in  Times  and  Evening  Journal,  and  the  New 
the  West  Gulf  Squadron  in  1863-64,  tak-    York  Sun;  removed  to  New  York  in  1867; 

and  was  United  States  consul  at  Cardiff, 
Wales,  in  1876-83.  He  died  in  London, 
England,  Aug.  19,  1883. 

Silk  Culture  and  Manufacture. 
James  I.  tried  to  establish  silk  culture  in 
the  American  colonies,  but  failed.  He  sent 
silk-worms  to  Virginia  and  offered  a 
bounty  for  silk  cloth  manufactured  there; 
but  the  planters  found  the  cultivation  of 
tobacco  more  profitable.  Some  silk  fabric 
v/as  sent  to  Charles  II.  in  1668.  Early  in 
the  century  it  was  introduced  into  Louisi- 
ana, and  the  industry  was  also  undertaken 
in  Georgia.  In  1734  Oglethorpe  took  eight 
pounds  of  cocoons  with  him  to  England. 
Sir  Thomas  Lombe  manufactured  it  into 
organzine,  of  which  Queen  Caroline  had  a 
gown  made  in  which  she  appeared  at  a 
Court  levee  on  her  husband's  birthday. 
The  business  became  considerable,  but 
finally  declined,  and  the  last  lot  of  Georgia 
ing  part  in  the  battle  of  Mobile  Bay;  silk  offered  for  sale  was  in  1790.  Before 
served  in  the  North  Atlantic  Squadron  in  the  Revolution,  silk  was  grown  and  manu- 
1865,  being  present  at  both  engagements  factured  in  New  England.  Governor  Law, 
with  Fort  Fisher.  He  was  promoted  cap-  of  Connecticut,  wore  a  silk  coat  and  stock- 
tain  March  21,  1897,  and  placed  in  com-  ings  of  New  England  production  in  1747, 
mand  of  the  battle-ship  Maine,  which  was  and  three  years  afterwards  his  daughter 
ordered  to  proceed  to  Havana  in  the  lat-  wore  the  first  silk  dress  of  New  Eneland 
ter  part  of  January,  1898,  for  the  purpose   manufacture.    A  silk  manufactory  was  es- 




tablished  at  Mansfield,  Conn.,  in  1776,  with  great  impetuosity.  After  a  severv* 
where  the  manufacture  is  yet  carried  on.  struggle,  finding  himself  outflanked  and 
The  legislature  incorporated  a  silk  manu-  in  danger  of  being  surrounded  by  superior 
facturing  company  in  1788,  and  the  same  numbers,  he  retreated  to  the  city.  In  that 
year  President  Stiles,  of  Yale  College,  ap-  encounter  the  English  lost  1,000  men, 
peared  at  "  commencement "  in  a  gown  the  French  still  more.  Then  the  English 
woven  from  Connecticut  silk.  After  that  were  besieged  by  the  French.  At  about 
the  silk  culture  and  silk  manufacture  were  the  middle  of  May  a  British  fleet  arrived 
carried  on  in  different  parts  of  the  North-  at  Quebec,  and  M.  de  Levi  was  compelled 
ern  and  Eastern  States,  and  were  fostered  to  abandon  the  siege  and  fly  in  haste  back 
by  legislative  action.    About  1836  to  1839    to  Montreal. 

there  was  a  mania  for  the  cultivation  of  Silliman,  Augustus  Ely,  financier; 
silk  and  of  the  Morus  multicaulis,  or  mul-  born  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  April  11,  1807;  en- 
berry-tree,  on  which  the  caterpillar  feeds,  tered  commercial  life ;  later  became  connect- 
As  high  as  $100  was  paid  for  a  single  ed  with  the  Merchants'  Bank  of  New  York 
plant.  The  bubble  soon  burst,  but  the  City,  was  its  president  in  1857-68,  when 
silk  culture  and  manufacture  have  gone  he  retired;  took  part  in  establishing  the 
on  moderately  ever  since.  Clearing  House  Association  in  1853.     He 

Sill,  Joshua  Woodrow,  military  offi-  published  A  Gallop  among  American 
cer;  born  in  Chillicothe,  O.,  Dec.  6,  1831;  Scenery,  or  Sketches  of  American  Scenes 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Mili-  and  Military  Adventure ;  and  bequeathed 
tary  Academy  and  was  commissioned  to  Yale  University,  in  memory  of  his 
second  lieutenant  in  the  ordnance  mother,  $100,000  for  the  foundation  of  an 
department  in  1853;  assistant  Pro-  annual  series  of  lectures.  He  died  in 
fessor  of  Geography,  History,  and  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  May  30,  1884. 
Ethics  at  West  Point  till  1857;  later  Silliman,  Benjamin,  scientist;  born  in 
was  in  command  of  the  Vancouver  ord-  North  Stratford,  Conn.,  Aug.  8,  1779; 
nance  depot,  Washington,  and  the  Leaven-  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1796,  and 
worth  depot,  Kansas,  and  resigned  from  was  a  tutor  there  from  1799  to  1804;  stud- 
the  army  in  1861  to  become  Professor  of  ied  law  and  was  admitted  to  practice  ir 
Mathematics  and  Civil  Engineering  in  the  1802,  but  in  that  year  was  appointed  Pro 
Brooklyn  Polytechnic  Institute.  He  en- 
tered the  volunteer  service  at  the  outbreak 
of  the  Civil  War  as  colonel;  was  com- 
missioned brigadier-general  of  volunteers 
in  July,  1862,  and  Avas  killed  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Murfreesboro,  Dee.  31,  1862. 

Sillery,  Battle  near.  After  the  fall 
of  Quebec  (September,  1759)  the  French 
army  repaired  to  Montreal.  M.  de  Levi, 
who  succeeded  Montcalm,  resolved  to  at- 
tempt the  recovery  of  Quebec  in  the  spring 
of  1760.  He  went  down  the  St.  Lawrence 
in  April  with  a  large  force  marching  by 
land,  and  artillery,  military  stores,  and 
baggage  in  boats,  under  convoy  of  six  frig- 
ates, and  rested  at  Pointe  aux  Trembles, 
a  few  miles  above  Quebec.  At  the  latter 
place  General  Murray  had  been  left  with 
5,000  troops  to  maintain  the  conquest  of 
Canada,  but  sickness  and  privation  had 
reduced  the  effective  force  of  the  gar- 
rison to  about  3,000.  With  this  force  he  fessor  of  Chemistry  and  Natural  History 
went  out  (April  28,  1760)  to  meet  the  in  Yale.  After  studying  these  branches 
approaching  foe.  Near  Sillery,  about  3  with  Dr.  Woodhouse  for  two  years,  he 
miles  above  Quebec,  he  attacked  the  French    gave,   in   the  winter  of    1804-5,  his   first 




full  course  of  lectures,  and  soon  after- 
wards went  to  England,  visiting  the  min- 
ing districts  there  and  attending  lectures 
in  London  and  Edinburgh.  He. also  visit- 
ed Holland,  and  published  an  account  of 
his  European  experiences.  He  made  a 
partial  geological  survey  of  Connecticut 
after  his  return,  which  is  believed  to  be 
the  first  of  such  explorations  made  in  the 
United  States.  In  1813  he  published  an 
account  of  his  experiments  with  the  oxy- 
hydrogen  blow-pipe  of  Dr.  Hare,  by  which 
he  (Silliman)  had  greatly  extended  the 
list  of  bodies  kno\vn  to  be  fusible.  He 
founded  the  American  Journal  of  Science 
and  Art  in  1810,  of  which  for  twenty- 
eight  years  he  was  an  editor,  and  twenty 
years  of  that  time  sole  editor.  His  son, 
Benjamin  Silliman,  Jr.,  be<jame  associ- 
ate editor  in  1838,  and  in  1846  the  editor- 
ship was  transferred  to  Prof.  James  D. 
Dana  and  Benjamin  Silliman,  Jr.  Besides 
giving  lectures  on  chemistry  and  geology 
in  most  of  the  large  cities  of  the  Union, 
Professor  Silliman  published  scientific  es- 
says, a  text-book  on  chemistry,  and  books 
of  travel.  In  1820  his  Account  of  a 
Journey  beticeen  Hartford  and  Quebec  at- 
tracted much  attention.  In  1853  he  re- 
signed his  professorship  in  Yale  and  was 
made  professor  emeritus.  He  died  in  New 
Haven,  Nov,   24,    1864. 

Silliman,  Benjamin,  chemist;  born  in 
New  Haven,  Conn.,  Dec.  4,  1816;  son  of 
the  preceding;  graduated  at  Yale  College 
in  1837.  From  1838  to  1847  he  was  in- 
structor in  that  institution  in  chemistry, 
mineralogy,  and  geology.  In  1846  he  was 
appointed  Professor  of  Chemistry,  applied 
to  the  arts,  in  the  scientific  school  of 
the  college.  For  about  five  years  (1849- 
54)  he  was  Professor  of  Medical  Chemistry 
and  Toxicology  in  the  University  of  Louis- 
ville, Ky.  In  1854  he  succeeded  his  father 
in  the  chair  of  Chemistry  at  Yale.  Tlie 
younger  Silliman  bore  well  the  mantle 
of  his  father  in  all  departments  of  learn- 
ing. He  died  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  Jan. 
14,  1885. 

Silver,  Eemonettzation  of.  See  Mor- 
rill, Justin  Sjiith. 

Silver  Dollar,  The.  Among  the  coins 
to  be  struck  at  the  United  States  mint, 
under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Con- 
gress approved  April  2,  1792,  was  a  silver 
dollar  of  the  weight  of  416   grains.     It 

was  enacted  that  all  silver  coins  of  the 
United  States  should  be  1,485  parts  fine 
to  179  parts  alloy;  the  former  to  be  of 
pure  silver  and  the  latter  of  pure  copper. 
The  silver  dollar  was  not  coined  until 
1794.  It  was  adorned  with  a  head  of  Lib- 
erty. These  dollars  continued  to  be  coined 
ot  the  mint  until  the  close  of  1803,  when 
their  coinage  was  stopped,  it  is  said,  by 
President  Jeff'erson,  because  it  stimulated 
the  exportation  of  silver  from  the  coun- 
try. Yet  during  the  years  1804-5  there 
were  issued  from  the  mint  silver  dollars 
of  the  coinage  of  former  years  to  the 
amount  of  $10,891.  The  dies  had  been 
prepared  for  issuing  the  dollar  of  1804, 
but  not  more  than  twenty  pieces  were 
struck.  These  are  held  in  the  most  sacred 
reverence  by  the  few  fortunate  collectors 
of  coins  who  possess  them.  Because  of 
the  cessation  in  the  coinage  of  the  silver 
dollar,  there  w'as  a  steady  increase  in 
the  coinage  of  the  half-dollar  and  other 
fractions  of  the  dollar  until  1834,  when 
$3,260,000  in  halves  were  coined  and  is- 
sued. Yet  the  public  demand  for  a  metal- 
lic currency  so  continually  increased  that 
Congress  passed  an  act  (Jan.  25,  1834) 
making  the  dollars  of  Mexico,  Peru,  Chile, 
and  Central  America,  of  a  given  weight 
and  certain  fineness,  a  legal  tender  in  pay- 
ment of  debts.  The  object  was,  as  the 
United  States  was  not  then  a  silver-pro- 
ducer, to  economize  the  importation  and 
use  of  the  silver  of  other  countries. 

The  act  approved  June  28,  1834,  left 
the  silver  dollar  at  its  original  weight 
and  fineness;  but  in  1837  there  was  a 
radical  change  made  by  act  approved  Jan. 
18,  1837,  The  change  was  in  the  fineness 
of  both  the  gold  and  the  silver  coins. 
By  increasing  the  fineness,  a  correspond- 
ing decrease  in  the  weight  of  each  piece 
was  effected.  The  standard  thus  estab- 
lished in  both  the  gold  and  the  silver 
coins  was  to  make  each  to  consist  of 
1,000  parts,  of  -which  900  parts  were 
to  be  pure  gold  or  silver  and  100  parts 
pure  copper  alloy.  LTnder  this  act  the 
silver  dollar  was  reduced  from  416  grains 
to  4121/2  gi'ains.  The  decreased  weight  in 
the  dollar  of  1837  was  caused  by  decreas- 
ing the  weight  of  the  copper  alloy.  For 
more  than  a  year  the  authorities  of  the 
mint  were  preparing  dies  for  the  new 
dollar,    and   a   few   pattern  -  dollars   were 



struck.  Several  devices  were  abandoned, 
and  a  sitting  figure  of  Liberty  was  adopt- 
ed, the  same  as  on  present  coins.  In 
1S40  the  mint  coined  61,000  of  the  new 
design  of  the  silver  dollar.  There  was 
no  popular  demand  for  this  coin;  but  the 
dollar  was  issued  from  the  mint  from 
time  to  time  until  April  1,  1S73,  when  the 
dollar  of  1792  and  1837  ceased  to  have  a 
place  in  the  national  coinage,  the  issue 
having  been  discontinued  by  act  of  Con- 
gress passed  Feb.   12,   1873. 

The  trade  dollar,  weighing  420  grains, 
and  900  fine,  contained  71/2  grains  more 
than  the  dollar  of  1837.  It  was  not  in- 
tended for  circulation  at  home,  but  for 
trade  with  Japan  and  other  Eastern  coun- 
tries. The  object  of  issuing  it  was  to 
compete,  if  possible,  with  the  dollars  of 
Mexico  and  Spain,  and  to  encourage  the 
shipment  of  American  silver  to  the  East 
Indies,  for  the  country  had  suddenly  be- 
come a  silver-producer.  In  1878  an  act 
was  passed  providing  for  the  coinage  of 
a  silver  dollar  weighing  412.5  grains,  and 
declaring  the  trade  dollar  not  a  legal  ten- 
der for  any  sum.  The  latter  almost  im- 
mediately disappeared  from  circulation. 
The  silver  dollar  which  took  its  place  was 
placed  legally  on  an  equality  with  gold. 
The  unpopularity  of  the  old  silver  dollar 
is  made  manifest  by  the  fact  that  of  the 
total  silver  coinage  of  $145,141,884,  is- 
sued between  1794''and  1873,  only  $8,045,- 
838  were  in  dollar  pieces.  A  large  por- 
tion of  these  were  issued  for  manu- 
facturers. But  of  the  new  silver  dollar 
the  total  coinage  in  the  year  1890  was 
$380,988,466,  and  of  this  amount  56,- 
278,749  dollar  pieces  were  in  actual  cir- 

Silver  Grays,  a  term  applied  to  the 
Whigs  of  New  York  who  supported  the 
administration  of  President  Fillmore,  and 
regarded  the  slavery  question  settled  by 
the  compromise  of  1850.  A  convention  of 
the  administration  was  held  at  Syracuse, 
Sept.  27,  1850,  to  secure  a  vindication  of 
the  President's  policy,  etc.  The  con- 
vention resulted  in  an  emphatic  majority 
against  the  administration;  whereupon  the 
chairman,  Mr.  Granger,  and  several  other 
administration  men,  left  the  convention; 
as  they  were  elderly  men,  they,  with  their 
following,  were  immediately  dubbed  "  Sil- 
ver Grays." 

Silver  Legislation.  The  silver  bill, 
which  was  adopted  by  act  of  Congress  and 
approved  July  14,  1890,  provided  that 
silver  bullion  to  the  amount  of  4,500,000 
ounces  might  be  purchased  monthly,  or  as 
much  thereof  as  should  be  offered,  and 
that  silver  notes  should  be  issued  on  de- 
posit of  silver  bullion,  the  same  to  be  re- 
deemed, upon  demand,  in  gold  or  silver 
coin  at  the  discretion  of  the  secretary. 
The  bill  also  declared  it  to  be  the  settled 
policy  of  the  United  States  to  maintain  a 
parity  between  the  two  metals,  gold  and 
silver,  at  such  ratio  as  the  law  should  de- 
termine ;  and  it  required  the  monthly  coin- 
age into  dollars  of  2,000,000  ounces  of  the 
bullion  purchased  until  July  1,  1891. 

The  purchasing  clause  of  the  silver  bill 
of  1890  was  repealed  in  1893.  The  Repub- 
lican party  pledged  itself  to  secure  inter- 
national recognition  of  silver  if  possible, 
and  on  that  issue  won  the  general  election 
of  1896.  In  the  fall  of  1897  Congress  was 
expected  to  take  action  appointing  com- 
missioners to  visit  European  countries, 
with  power  to  act.  Several  commissioners 
were  sent  by  the  President  during  the 
early  part  of  1897,  but  none  of  these  had 
power  to  do  more  than  examine  into  finan- 
cial conditions  abroad  and  report.  See 
Banks,  National;  Bimetallism;  Coin- 
age; Currency. 

Silver  Republican  Party,  a  political 
organization  in  the  United  States  which 
adopted  a  platform  in  national  convention 
in  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  July  6,  1900;  the  es- 
sential points  of  which  are: 

Adherence  to  Bimetallism. — We  declare 
our  adherence  to  the  principle  of  bimetal- 
lism as  the  right  basis  of  a  monetary  sys- 
tem imder  our  national  Constitution,  a 
principle  that  found  place  repeatedly  in 
Republican  platforms  from  the  demoneti- 
zation of  silver  in  1873  to  the  St.  Louis 
Republican  convention  of  1896. 

The  Currency  Law. — This  currency  law 
destroys  the  full  money  power  of  the  silver 
dollar,  provides  for  the  payment  of  all 
government  obligations  and  the  redemp- 
tion of  all  forms  of  paper  money  in  gold 
alone;  retires  the  time-honored  and  patri- 
otic greenbacks,  constituting  one-sixth  of 
the  money  in  circulation,  and  surrenders 
to  banking  corporations  a  sovereign  func- 
tion of  issuing  all  paper  money,  thus  en- 
abling these  corporations  to  control  the 


prices  of  labor  and  property  by  increas- 
ing or  diminishing  tlie  volume  of  money 
in  oirculation,  thus  giving  the  banks  power 
to  create  panics  and  bring  disaster  upon 
business    enterprises. 

The  provisions  of  this  currency  law 
making  the  bonded  debt  of  the  republic 
payable  in  gold  alone  change  the  contract 
between  the  government  and  the  bond- 
holders to  the  advantage  of  the  latter 
and  is  in  direct  opposition  to  the  declara- 
tion of  the  Matthews  resolution  passed 
by  Congress  in  1878,  for  which  resolution 
the  present  Republican  President,  then  a 
member  of  Congress,  voted,  as  did  also  all 
leading  Republicans,  both  in  the  House 
and   Senate. 

We  declare  it  to  be  our  intention  to 
lend  our  efforts  to  the  repeal"  of  this  cur- 
rency law,  which  not  only  repudiates  the 
ancient  and  time-honored  principles  of 
the  American  people  before  the  Constitu- 
tion was  adopted,  but  is  violative  of  the 
principles  of  the  Constitution  itself,  and 
we  shall  not  cease  our  efforts  until  there 
has  been  established  in  its  place  a  mone- 
tary system  based  upon  the  free  and  un- 
limited coinage  of  silver  and  gold  into 
money  at  the  present  legal  ratio  of  16  to  1 
by  the  independent  action  of  the  United 
States,  under  which  system  all  paper  mon- 
ey shall  be  issued  by  the  government  and 
all  such  money  coined  or  issued  shall  be  a 
full  legal  tender  in  payment  of  all  debts, 
public  and  private,  without  exception. 

Income  Tax  Favored. — We  are  in  favor 
of  a  graduated  tax  upon  incomes. 

Election  of  Senators  hy  the  People. — We 
believe  that  United  States  Senators  ought 
to  be  elected  by  direct  vote  of  the  people. 

Civil  Service  Reforms. — We  favor  the 
maintenance  and  the  extension  wherever 
practicable  of  the  merit  system  in  the  pub- 
lic service,  appointments  to  be  made  ac- 
cording to  fitness,  competitively  ascer- 
tained, and  public  servants  to  be  retained 
in  office  only  so  long  as  shall  be  compat- 
ible with  the  efficiency  of  the  service. 

Trusts  and  Monopolies. — Combinations, 
trusts,  and  monopolies  contrived  and  ar- 
ranged for  the  purpose  of  controlling  the 
prices  and  quality  of  articles  supplied  to 
the  public  are  unjust,  unlawful,  and  op- 
pressive. We  declare  against  them.  We 
demand  the  most  stringent  laws  for  their 
destruction  and  the  most  severe  punish' 

ment  of  their  promoters  and  maintainers 
and  the  energetic  enforcement  of  such 
laws  by  the  courts. 

The  Monroe  Doctrine. — We  believe  the 
Monroe  doctrine  to  be  sound  in  principle 
and  a  wise  national  policy,  and  we  de- 
mand a  firm  adherence  thereto.  We  con- 
demn acts  inconsistent  with  it  and  that 
tend  to  make  us  parties  to  the  interests 
and  to  involve  us  in  the  controversies  of 
European  nations  and  to  recognition  by 
pending  treaty  of  the  right  of  England  to 
be  considered  in  the  construction  of  an 
interoceanic  canal.  We  declare  that  such 
canal,  when  constructed,  ought  to  be  con- 
trolled by  the  United  States  in  the  inter- 
ests of  American  nations. 

Alien  Ownership. — We  observe  with 
anxiety  and  regard  with  disapproval  the 
increasing  ownership  of  American  lands 
by  aliens  and  their  growing  control  over 
our  international  transpoi-tation,  natural 
resources,  and  public  utilities.  We  de- 
mand legislation  to  protect  our  public  do- 
main, our  natural  resources,  our  fran- 
chises, and  our  internal  commerce  and  to 
keep  them  free  and  maintain  their  inde- 
pendence of  all  foreign  monopolies,  insti- 
tutions, and  influences,  and  we  declare  our 
opposition  to  the  leasing  of  the  public 
lands  of  the  United  States  whereby  cor- 
porations and  syndicates  will  be  able  to 
secure  control  thereof  and  thus  monopo- 
lize the  public  domain,  the  heritage  of  the 

Pensions  for  Soldiers. — In  view  of  the 
great  sacrifice  made  and  patriotic  services 
rendered  we  are  in  favor  of  liberal  pen- 
sions to  deserving  soldiers,  their  widows, 
orphans,  and  other  dependants.  We  be- 
lieve that  enlistment  and  service  should 
be  accepted  as  conclusive  proof  that  the 
soldier  was  free  from  disease  and  dis- 
ability at  the  time  of  his  enlistment.  We 
condemn  the  present  administration  of 
the  pension  laws. 

Sympathy  with  the  Boers. — We  tender 
to  the  patriotic  people  of  the  South  Afri- 
can republics  our  sympathy  and  express 
our  admiration  for  them  in  their  heroic 
attempts  to  preserve  their  political  free- 
dom, and  maintain  their  national  inde- 
pendence. We  declare  the  destruction  of 
these  republics  and  the  subjugation  of 
their  people  to  be  a  crime  against  civili- 




Abandon    the   Philippines. — We    believe  protest  against  the  adoption  of  any  policy 

in  self-government — a  government  by  the  that   will   change   in   the   thought   of   the 

consent    of    the    governed — and    are    un-  vi^orld  the  meaning  of  our  flag, 
alterably  opposed  to  a  government  based        The   party   indorsed   the  nomination   of 

upon  force.     It  is  clear  and  certain  that  William  J.  Bryan  for  President,  and  re- 

the   inhabitants   of  the   Philippine   Archi-  ferred  the  nomination  of  a  candidate  for 

pelago    cannot    be    made    citizens    of    the  Vice-President  to  its  national   committee, 

United    States    without    endangering    our  which  indorsed  the  Democratic  nomination 

civilization.     We   are,   therefore,   in   favor  of  A.  E.  Stevenson.     There  were  no  sepa- 

of  applying  to  the  Philippine  Archipelago  rate   returns   of  the  popular  vote  for   its 

the  principle  we  are  solemnly  and  publicly  Presidential  candidates, 
pledged  to  observe  in  the  case  of  Cuba.  Simcoe,  John  Gra\'ES,  military  officer; 

Repeal  of  War  Taxes. — There  no  longer  born  near  Exeter,  England,  Feb.  25,  1752; 

being    any    necessity    for    collecting    war  entered  the  army  in  1770;  came  to  Amer- 

taxes,  we  demand  the  repeal  of  the  war  ica  with  a  company  of  foot,  with  which  he 

taxes    levied   to    carry   on    the    war    with  fought  in  the  battles  of  Brandywine  and 

Spain.  Monmouth ;    raised   a   battalion  which   he 

Statehood  for  the  Territories. — We  favor  called   "  The   Queen's   Eangers  "  ;    trained 

the  immediate  admission   into   the  Union  them    for    light    and   active    service;    and 

of  States  the  Territories  of  Arizona,  New  with  them  performed  important  services, 

Mexico,  and  Oklahoma.  especially  in  the   South.      In  June,   1779, 

Cuba. — We  demand  that  our  nation's  Clinton  gave  him  the  local  rank  of  lieu- 
promises  to  Cuba  shall  be  fulfilled  in  tenant-colonel.  His  light  corps  was  always 
every   particular.  in.  advance  of  the  army   and   engaged   in 

Arid  Westerii  Lands. — We  believe  the  gallant  exploits.  His  corps  was  disbanded 
national  government  should  lend  every  after  the  war,  and  its  officers  were  placed 
aid,  encouragement,  and  assistance  tow-  on  half-pay.  Simcoe  was  governor  of  Can- 
ards the  reclamation  of  the  arid  lands  of  ada  in  1791-94;  wa§  made  major-general 
the  United  States,  and  to  that  end  we  are  in  1794,  and  lieutenant-general  in  1798. 
in  favor  of  a  comprehensive  survey  there-  He  was  governor  and  commander-in-chief 
of  and  an  immediate  ascertainment  of  the  of  Santo  Domingo  in  1796-97.  He  died  in 
water  supply  available  for  such  recla-  Torbay,  England,  Oct.  26,  1806. 
mation.  Simmons,  Franklin,  sculptor;  born  in 

Unreasonable  Railway  Charges. — Trans-  Webster,  Me.,  Jan.  11,  1842;  showed  a 
portation  is  a  piiblic  necessity,  and  the  love  for  art  early  in  life,  and  during  his 
means  and  methods  of  it  are  matters  of  college  career  spent  much  time  in  draw- 
public  concern.  Railway  companies  exer-  ing  and  modelling.  It  was  not  until  he 
else  a  power  over  industries,  business,  and  had  made  his  first  visit  to  Boston  that  he 
commerce  which  they  ought  not  to  do,  sav  a  statue  or  had  any  idea  of  the  art  of 
and  should  be  made  to  serve  the  public  sculpture,  there  being,  at  that  time,  few 
interests  without  making  unreasonable  examples  in  New  England.  On  leaving 
charges  or  unjust  discriminations.  college,  having  made   some  portrait-busts 

Ownership  of  Public  Utilities. — We  ob-  with  success,  he  decided  to  devote  himself 

serve  with  satisfaction  the  growing  senti-  to  sculpture.     The  Civil  War  then  burst 

ment   among   the   people   in   favor   of   the  upon     the     country,     and     Mr.     Simmons 

public  ownership  and  operation  of  public  sought  the   field   of   operations,   not   as   a 

utilities.  soldier,    but   as    a    commemorator    of    the 

Expansion  of  Commerce. — We  are  in  leading  soldiers  and  statesmen  of  the  day. 
favor  of  expanding  our  commerce  in  the  During  several  years  spent  in  Philadel- 
interests  of  American  labor  and  for  the  phia  and  Washington,  some  thirty  gen- 
benefit  of  all  our  people  by  every  honest  erals  and  statesmen  sat  to  him  for  their 
and  peaceful  means.  Our  creed  and  our  busts,  among  them  Lincoln,  Grant,  Sheri- 
history  justify  the  nations  of  the  earth  in  dan,  Meade,  Seward,  and  Chase,  which 
expecting  that  wherever  the  American  flag  gave  great  satisfaction.  Having  received 
is  unfurled  in  authority  human  liberty  a  commission  from  the  State  of  Rhode 
and  political  liberty  will  be  found.     We  Island  to  make  a  statue  of  Roger  Will- 





iams  for  the  Capitol  at  Washington,   he  3,    1886.      His    publications    include    Ord- 

went  to  Rome,  where  he  has  since  resided,  nance    and    Naval    Gunnery;    The    Naval 

He  has  also  made  for  the  national  Capi-  Mission    to    Europe;    and    Report    of    the 

tol  a  statue  of  William   King,  of  Maine,  Gun-Foundry  Board.    He  died  in  Washing- 

and    a    G.    A.    R.    monument    of    General  ton,  D.  C,  Dec.   2,   1888. 

Grant,  and  for  the  Iowa  Circle  in  Wash-  Simpson,  James  Hervey,  military  offi- 

ington   an   equestrian   monument   of   Gen-  cer;  born  in  New  Jersey,  March  9,  1813: 

eral   Logan.      His   other   works   include   a  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1832,  entering 

second  statue  of  Williams  for  the  city  of  the  artillery  corps.  He  was  aide  to  General 

Providence,    R.    I.;    ideal    statues    of    the  Eustis  in  the  Seminole  War,  and  in  1838 

Mother   of    Moses;    Abdiel,    the   Israelite  became  a  lieutenant  in  the  corps  of  topo- 

Woman;    Viewing    the    Promised    Land;  giaphical   engineers.      He  was   colonel   of 

The  Hymn  of  Praise,  etc.  He  was  knighted  the    4th    New    Jersey    Volunteers    in    the 

by  the  King  of  Italy  in  1898.  Pensacola   campaign,  and  was  afterwards 

Simms,  William  Gilmore,  author:  chief  engineer  of  the  Department  of  Ohio, 
born  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  April  17,  1806;  In  March,  1865, he  was  brevetted  brigadier- 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1827;  but  applied  general,  United  States  army.  Having  been 
himself  to  literature ;  was  editor  of  the  on  surveying  expeditions  in  the  West,  he 
Charleston  City  Gazette  in  1828-32;  and  published  a  Journal  of  a  Military  Recon- 
author  of  Views  and  Reviews  in  Ameri-  noissance  from  Hanta  Fe  to  the  Navajo 
can  History;  History  of  South  Carolina;  Country;  a  Report  on  the  Union  Pacific 
Geography  of  South  Carolina;  South  Railroad  and  its  Branches;  and  Essay  on 
Carolina  in  the  Revolution;  The  Parti-  Coronado's  March  in  Search  of  the  Seven 
san;  Mellichampe;  The  Scout;  The  For-  Cities  of  Cibola.  He  died  in  St.  Paul, 
agers;  Eutaw,  and  Other  Revolutionary  Minn.,  March  2,  1883. 
Romances;  The  Yemassee;  Guy  Rivers;  Simpson,  Matthew,  clergyman;  born 
Border  Beagles;  Beauchamp;  Charle-  in  Cadiz,  O.,  June  20,  1810;  graduated  at 
mont,  and  Other  Colonial  and  Border  Madison  College,  Pennsylvania,  in  1829; 
Romances  of  the  South,  etc.  He  died  in  taught  there  in  1829-32;  studied  medicine 
Charleston,  S.  C,  June  11,  1870.  and   later   theology;    ordained   and   joined 

Simonin,  Louis  Laurent,  geologist;  the  Pittsburg  conference  of  the  Methodist 
born  in  Marseilles,  Aug.  22,  1830;  was  Episcopal  Church  in  1833;  became  vice- 
educated  at  the  School  of  Mines,  at  Saint  president  and  Professor  of  Natural  Science 
i^tienne;  and  in  1852,  engaged  in  engineer-  in  Allegheny  College  in  1837;  president  of 
ing;  made  several  voyages  to  the  United  Indiana  Asbury  University,  Greencastle, 
States,  visited  Cuba,  the  West  Indies,  Ind.,  in  1839 ;  elected  bishop  in  1852;  and 
Central  America,  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  was  employed  by  the  government  on  sev- 
Mexico,  and  California;  was  a  member  of  ^?ral  important  confidential  missions  dur- 
the  international  jury  for  the  Centennial  ing  the  Civil  War.  He  was  author  of  A 
Exhibition  in  Philadelphia  in  1876.  Hundred:  Years  of  Methodism  and  an 
Among  his  publications  are  The  Great  edition  of  The  Western  Christian  Ad- 
West  of  the  United  States;  The  Amer-  vocate.  He  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
ican;    American    Society,    and    Gold    and  June  18,  1884. 

Silver.    He  died  in  Paris,  France,  in  June,  Sims,  James  Marion,  surgeon ;  born  in 

1886.  Lancaster   county,    S.    C,   Jan.    25,    1813; 

Simpson,   Edward,  naval  officer;   born  graduated  at  the  South  Carolina  College 

in  New  York  City,  March  3,  1824;   grad-  in  1832,  and  at  the  Jefferson  Medical  Col- 

uated   at  the  United   States  Naval   Acad-  lege   in    1835;    established   a   new   theory 

emy  in  1846;  served  on  the  steamer  Vixen  of  the  origin  and  nature  of  trismus  nas- 

during  the  Mexican   War,   and   took   part  centium;    discovered   how   to   operate   for 

in  various  engagements,  among  them  the  vesicovaginal  fistula  and  invented  instru- 

bombardment  and  capture  of  Vera  Cruz;  ments   for   the   saine;    called   attention   to 

promoted    lieutenant-commander    in    July,  both  of  these  in  1845;  settled  in  New  York 

1862;    served  on  the  monitor   Passaic  off  in   1853   and  later  obtained   a   charter   to 

Charleston    in    1863-64;     promoted    rear-  establish    the   Woman's    Hospital    of    the 

admiral  Feb.  9,  1884;  and  retired  March  State  of  New  York,  for  which  New  York 



City  gave  a  site.  Dr.  Sims  was  iden- 
tified with  many  learned  societies  in 
the  United  States  and  Europe,  and  was 
president  of  the  American  Medical  Asso- 
ciation. He  died  in  New  York  City,  Nov. 
13.   1S8.3. 

Singer,  Isaac  Merritt,  inventor;  born 
in  Oswego,  N.  Y.,  Oct.  27,  1811;  learned 
the  machinist's  trade;  devoted  himself  to 
improving  sewing-machines;  invented  a 
single-thread,  chain-stitch  machine,  for  the 
manufacture  of  which  he  built  a  factory 
in  Xew  Y'ork  (with  Edward  Clai-k,  a 
wealthy  lawyer).  He  was  sued  by  the 
Howe  Sewing  -  machine  Company  for  in- 
fringing upon  the  patents  of  Elias  Howe 
while  the  latter  was  absent  in  England 
in  1847-49.  After  much  litigation,  in 
which  some  of  the  most  prominent  la^vyers 
of  the  United  States  were  employed,  the 
priority  of  Howe's  invention  was  estab- 
lished and  a  compromise  was  eflfected  in 
1854.  Singer  died  in  Torquay,  England, 
July   23.    1875. 

Single  Tax,  the  doctrine  taught  by  the 
late  Hexry  George  {q.  v.)  in  Progress 
and  Povcrf}/.  For  lack  of  a  better  name, 
Mr.  George's  doctrines  have  been  called 
single-tax  doctrines,  and  his  adherents 
single-taxers.  It  is  claimed,  however,  that 
these  terms  only  measurably  and  briefly 
describe  the  reforms  proposed. 

The  following  exposition  of  the  doctrine 
was  prepared  by  Hamlin  Russell,  of  New- 
ark, N.  J.,  who  for  many  years  was  asso- 
ciated with  Mr.  George: 

Progress  and  Poverty,  the  work  upon 
which  Mr.  George's  fame  as  a  writer  and 
thinker  must  ever  rest,  was  written  be- 
tween August,  1877,  and  March,  1879. 
The  book  is  an  elaboration  of  a  previous 
pamphlet  entitled  Our  Land  and  Land 
Policy,  published  in  San  Francisco  in  1871. 
It  consists  of  a  careful  examination  in 
which  the  author  endeavors  to  " seek  the 
law  which  associates  poverty  with  prog- 
ress and  increases  want  with  advancing 
wef^lth."  As  a  preliminary  to  this  search 
he  first  endeavors  to  establish  the  proposi- 
tion that  poverty  deeperks  as  wealth  in- 
creases, that  "  where  the  lowest  class 
barely  lives,  as  has  been  the  case  for  a 
long  time  in  many  parts  of  Europe,  it  is 
impossible  for  it  to  get  any  lower,  for  the 

next  lowest  step  is  out  of  existence,  and 
no  tendency  to  further  depression  can 
readily  show  itself.  But  in  the  progress  of 
new  settlements  to  the  conditions  of  older 
communities  it  may  clearly  be  seen  that 
material  progress  does  not  merely  fail  to 
relieve  poverty — it  actually  produces  it. 
In  the  United  States  it  is  clear  that 
squalor  and  misery,  and  the  vices  and 
crimes  that  spring  from  them,  everywhere 
increase  as  the  village  grows  to  the  city 
and  the  march  of  development  brings  the 
advantages  of  the  improved  methods  of 
production  and  exchange.  If  there  is  less 
deep  poverty  in  San  Francisco  than  in 
New  York,  is  it  not  because  San  Fran- 
cisco is  yet  behind  New  York  in  all  that 
both  cities  are  striving  for?  Wlien  San 
Francisco  reaches  the  point  where  New 
York  now  is,  who  can  doubt  that  there 
will  also  be  ragged  and  barefooted  chil- 
dren on  her  streets?" 

It  is  difficult  to  briefly  formulate  the 
result  of  the  author's  researches  along 
these  lines  and  to  state  at  the  same  time 
the  remedy  he  proposes  for  the  betterment 
of  social  conditions.  He  infers  that  there 
must  be  a  common  cause,  seeing  that 
"  there  is  distress  where  large  standing 
armies  are  maintained,  but  that  there 
is  also  distress  where  the  standing  armies 
are  nominal ;  there  is  distress  where  pro- 
tective tariffs  stupidly  and  wastefully 
hamper  trade,  but  there  is  also  distress 
where  trade  is  nearly  free ;  there  is  dis- 
tress where  aiitocratic  government  yet 
prevails,  but  there  is  also  distress  where 
political  power  is  wholly  in  the  hands 
of  the  people;  in  countries  where  paper 
is  money,  and  in  countries  where  gold 
and  silver  are  the  only  currency."  After 
pursuing  his  inquiry  at  great  length  the 
cause  and  the  remedy  are  found  to  be, 
first,  that  a  primal  wrong  has  been  com- 
mitted in  the  institution  of  private  prop- 
erty in  land,  and,  second,  that  the  rem- 
edy is  to  make  land  common  property. 

Commenting  on  these  findings,  he  says: 
"  There  is  but  one  way  to  remove  an  evil, 
and  that  is  to  remove  its  cause.  Poverty 
deepens  as  wealth  increases,  and  wages 
are  forced  down  while  productive  power 
grows,  because  land,  which  is  the  source 
of  all  wealth  and  the  field  of  all  labor, 
is  monopolized.  To  extirpate  poverty,  to 
make  wages   what  justice  commands,  the 



full    earnings    of    the    laborer,    we    must  the  use  of  land  would  attach  to  all  those 

therefore    substitute    for    the    individual  thereafter  born,  irrespective  of  any  agree- 

o^vnership   of   land   a   common   ownership,  ment  made  by  their  predecessors. 

Nothing  else  will  go  to  the  cause  of  the  6.  There  can  be  no  modification  of  this 

evil — in  nothing  else  is  there  the  slightest  dictate  of   equity.     Either   all   men  have 

hope.     This,  then,   is  the  remedy  for  the  equal  right  to  the  use  of  the  land  or  some 

unjust  and  unequal  distribution  of  wealth  men  have  the  just  right  to  enslave  others 

apparent  in  modern   civilization,   and  for  and   deprive   them   of   life, 

all  the  evils  which  flow  from  it."  7.  As    a    matter    of   fact,    nobody    does 

The  announcement  of  these  doctrines  in  really  believe  in  private  property  in  land. 

Progress  and  Poverty  attracted  immediate  An   act    of    Parliament    even    now    super- 

and  serious  attention.     They  were   in  no  sedes  title-deeds.    That  is  to  say,  the  right 

sense   new    doctrines,    but    they    certainly  of    private   ownership    in    land    exists    by 

were    presented    to    thinking    and    active  general  consent;  that  being  withdrawn,  it 

minds  for  the  first  time  in  a  manner  that  ceases. 

imperatively  demanded   action.     Speaking  8.  But   the   doctrine   that   all   men   are 

of  the  French  economists  of  the  eighteenth  equally   entitled   to   the   use   of   the   land 

century,  headed  by  Quesnay  and  Turgot,  does  not  involve  communism  or  socialism, 

Mr.  George  says,  on  page  380  of  Progress  and  need  cause  no  serious  change  in  ex- 

and  Poverty    (Webster  &   Co.'s   edition)  :  Isting  arrangements.     It  is  not  necessary 

"  They   proposed   just   what   I    have    pro-  that    the    state    should    manage    land :    it 

posed,   that   all   taxation   should   be   abol-  is    only   necessary    that    rent,    instead    of 

ished,  save  a  tax  upon  the  value  of  land,"  going,   as  now,   to   individuals,   should  be 

and,  "  without  knowing  anything  of  Ques-  taken  by  society  for  common  purposes, 

nay  and  his  doctrines,  I  have  reached  the  9.  There  may  be  difficulty  in  justly  liqui- 

same  practical  conclusion."  dating  the  claims  of  existing  land-owners; 

In     1850     Herbert     Spencer     published  but   men,    having   got   themselves    into    a 

his  first  book,  Social  Statics,     The  ninth  dilemma,  must  get  out  of  it  as  well  as  they 

chapter    of    this    book,    which    is    entitled  can.     The  landed  class  are  not  alone  to  be 

The  Right  to  the  Use  of  the  Earth,  con-  considered.     So  long  as  the  treatment  of 

tains    a    long    argument    that    has    been  land    as   private    property    continues,    the 

fairly  paraphrased  by  Mr.  George  as  fol-  masses  suffer  from  an  injustice  only  in- 

lows:  ferior  in  wickedness  to  depriving  them  of 

1.  The   equal   right   of   all   men   to   the  life  or  personal  liberty. 

use  of  land  springs  from  the  fact  of  their  10.  However  difficult  it  may  be  to  em- 
existence  in  a  world  adapted  to  their  body  in  fact  the  theory  of  the  co-heirship 
needs  in  which  they  are  similarly  born.  of  all  men  to  the  soil,  equity  sternly  de- 

2.  Equity,    therefore,    does    not    permit  mands  it  to  be  done. 

private  property  in  land,  since  that  would  Mr.    Spencer's   views,    however,    do   not 

involve    the    right    of    some    to    deny    to  appear    to   have   moved    any    considerable 

others  the  use  of  land.  number  of  men   to   take   practical   action 

3.  Private  property  in  land  as  at  pres-  towards  righting  the  injustice  he  pointed 
ent  existing  can  show  no  original  title  out,  imtil  after  the  appearance  of  Progress 
valid  in  justice,  and  such  validity  cannot  and  Poverty.  In  1892  he  brought  out  a 
be  gained  either  by  sale  or  bequest,  or  new  edition  of  Social  Statics,  in  which 
by  peaceable  possession  during  any  length  everything  relating  to  land  is  omitted,  and 
of  time.  the  new  book  was  accompanied  by  a  pub- 

4.  Nor  is  there  any  mode  by  which  land  lisher's  advertisement  to  the  eff"ect  that  Mr. 
can  justly  become  private  property.  Cul-  Spencer  had  "  abandoned  "  the  views  con- 
tivation  and  improvement  can  give  title  tained  in  the  old  edition.  Mr.  Spencer  in 
to  their  results,  not  to  the  land  itself.  "  abandoning "     or     "  withdrawing "     his 

5.  Nor  could  an  equal  division  of  land  original  views  in  this  connection  negleet- 
with  the   consent  of  all,   even   if  it  were  ed.   however,  to  disprove  them. 

not  impossible  that  such  a  division  could  Other  -writers  and  apologists  of  the  ex- 
be  made,  give  valid  title  to  private  prop-  isting  order  sprang  up  by  scores  during 
erty    in    land.      For    the    equal    right   to  the  controversial  period  between  1880  and 
vin. — N                                                    193 


IS94,   and   manv  "  answers "   to   Progress    George,   chairman   of   committee   on   plat* 

a /i^  Porerf J/ were  given  to  the  world.    The    form:  

most  notable  of  these  "  answers  "  was  the 
one  prepared  by  the  late  Duke  of  Argj'll, 
entitled  The  Prophet  of  San  Francisco, 
and  republished  in  full,  with  Mr,  George's 
reply  thereto,  in  1893. 

Patrick  Edward  Dove  was  another  fore- 
runner of  George.  In  the  Theory  of 
Human  Progression  he  says:  "If,  then, 
successive  generations  of  men  cannot  have 
their  practical  share  of  the  actual  soil 
(including  mines,  etc.),  how  can  the  divi- 
sion of  the  advantages  of  the  natural  earth 
be  effected?  By  the  division  of  its  annual 
value  or  rent;  that  is,  by  making  the  rent 
of  the  soil  the  common  property  of  the 
nation.  That  is  (as  the  taxation  is  the 
common  property  of  the  State),  by  taking 
the  whole  of  the  taxes  out  of  the  rents  of 
the  soil,  and  thereby  abolishing  all  other 
kinds  of  taxation  whatever,  and  thus  all 
industry  would  be  absolutely  emancipated 
from  every  burden." 

Those  who  care  to  examine  further  into 
the  evolution  of  the  single-tax  doctrine  as 
it  appears  in  the  writings  of  men  who  pre- 
ceded George,  sometimes  directly  and 
clearly  and  at  other  times  dimly  seen 
or  only  partly  apprehended  by  men  who 
failed  to  follow  out  their  thought  to  its 
logical  conclusion,  will  find  in  The  Earth 
for  all  Calender,  compiled  by  Ernest  Cros- 
by, a  good  bibliography,  in  connection  with 
extended  quotations  from  all  the  authors 
mentioned  therein. 

It  may  properly  be  said,  then,  that  if 
^Ir.  George's  book  did  not  announce  a  new 
doctrine,  he  certainly  called  attention  to, 
and  made  clear,  a  doctrine  that  had  been 
more  or  less  perfectly  stated  but  which 
afterwards  became  obscured.  Or,  to  use 
Mr.  George's  own  words,  words  that  have 
been  carved  upon  his  tomb: 

"  The  truth  that  I  have  tried  to  make 
clear  will  not  find  easy  acceptance.  If 
that  could  be,  it  would  have  been  accepted 
long  ago.  If  that  could  be,  it  never  would 
have  been  obscured.  But  it  will  find 
friends — those  who  will  toil  for  it;  suffer 
for  it;  if  need  be,  die  for  it.  This  is  the 
power  of  truth." 

The  Hinr/le-tax  Platform. — Adopted  by 
the  national  conference  of  the  Single-tax 
I>eague  of  the  United  States  at  Cooper 
Union,  New  York,  Sept.  3,  1890.     Henry 

We  assert  as  our  fundamental  principle 
the  self-evident  truth  enunciated  in  the 
Declaration  of  American  Independence, 
that  all  men  are  created  equal  and  are 
endowed  by  their  Creator  with  certain 
inalienable  rights. 

We  hold  that  all  men  are  equally  en- 
titled to  the  use  and  enjoyment  of  what 
God  has  created  and  of  what  is  gained 
by  the  general  growth  and  improvement 
oif  the  community  of  which  they  are  a 
part.  Therefore,  no  one  should  be  permit- 
ted to  hold  natural  opportunities  without 
a  fair  return  to  all  for  any  special  privi- 
lege thus  accorded  to  him,  and  that  value 
which  the  growth  and  improvement  of  the 
community  attach  to  land  should  be  taken 
for  the  use  of  the  community. 

We  hold  that  each  man  is  entitled  to  all 
that  his  labor  produces.  Therefore  no  tax 
should  be  levied  on  the  products  of  labor. 

To  carry  out  these  principles  we  are  in 
favor  of  raising  all  public  revenues  for 
national,  State,  county,  and  municipal 
purposes  by  a  single  tax  upon  land  values, 
irrespective  of  improvements,  and  of  the 
abolition  of  all  forms  of  direct  and  in- 
direct taxation. 

Since  in  all  our  States  we  now  levy 
some  tax  on  the  value  of  land,  the  single 
tax  can  be  instituted  by  the  simple  and 
easy  way  of  abolishing,  one  after  another, 
all  other  taxes  now  levied,  and  commen- 
surately  increasing  the  tax  on  land  values, 
until  we  draw  upon  that  one  source  for 
all  expenses  of  government,  the  revenue 
being  divided  between  local  governments. 
State  governments,  and  the  general  govern- 
ment, as  the  revenue  from  direct  taxes 
is  now  divided  between  the  local  and 
State  governments ;  or,  a  direct  assess- 
ment being  made  by  the  general  govern- 
ment upon  the  States  and  paid  by  them 
from  revenues  collected  in  this  manner. 

The  single  tax  we  propose  is  not  a  tax 
on  land,  and  therefore  would  not  fall  on 
the  use  of  land  and  become  a  tax  on  labor. 

It  is  a  tax,  not  on  land,  but  on  the 
value  of  land.  Thus  it  would  not  fall  on 
all  land,  but  only  on  valuable  land,  and 
on  that  not  in  proportion  to  the  use  made 
of  it,  but  in  proportion  to  its  value — the 
premium   which   the   user    of   land   must 



pay  to  the  owner,  either  in  purchase  money 
or  rent,  for  permission  to  use  valuable 
land.  It  would  thus  be  a  tax  not  on  the 
use  or  improvement  of  land,  but  on  the 
ownership  of  land,  taking  what  would 
otherwise  go  to  the  owner  as  owner,  and 
not  as  user. 

In  assessments  under  the  single  tax  all 
values  created  by  individual  use  or  im- 
provement would  be  excluded,  and  the 
only  value  taken  into  consideration  would 
be  the  value  attaching  to  the  bare  land 
by  reason  of  neighborhood,  etc.,  to  be 
determined  by  impartial  periodical  assess- 
ments. Thus  the  farmer  would  have  no 
more  taxes  to  pay  than  the  speculator 
who  held  a  similar  piece  of  land  idle,  and 
the  man  who  on  a  city  lot  erected  a  valu- 
able building  would  be  taxed  no  more  than 
the  man  who  held  a  similar  lot  vacant. 

The  single  tax,  in  short,  would  call  upon 
men  to  contribute  to  the  public  revenues, 
not  in  proportion  to  what  they  produce 
or  accumulate,  but  in  proportion  to  the 
value  of  the  natural  opportunities  they 
hold.  It  would  compel  them  to  pay  just 
as  much  for  holding  land  idle  as  for  put- 
ting it  to  its  fullest  use. 

The  single   tax,  therefore,   would — 

1.  Take  the  weight  of  taxation  off  of 
the  agricultural  districts  where  land  has 
little  or  no  value  irrespective  of  improve- 
ments, and  put  it  on  towns  and  cities, 
where  bare  land  rises  to  a  value  of  mill- 
ions of  dollars  per  acre. 

2.  Dispense  with  a  multiplicity  of  taxes 
and  a  horde  of  tax-gatherers,  simplify  gov- 
erment  and  greatly  reduce  its  cost. 

3.  Do  away  with  the  fraud,  corruption, 
and  gross  inequality  inseparable  from  our 
present  methods  of  taxation,  which  allow 
the  rich  to  escape  while  they  grind  the 
poor.  Land  cannot  be  hid  or  carried  off, 
and  its  value  can  be  ascertained  with 
greater  ease  and  certainty  than  any  other. 

4.  Give  us  with  all  the  world  as  per- 
fect freedom  of  trade  as  now  exists  be- 
tween the  States  of  our  Union,  thus  ena- 
bling our  people  to  share,  through  free  ex- 
changes in  all  the  advantages  which  nature 
has  given  to  countries,  or  Avhich  the 
peculiar  skill  of  other  peoples  has  enabled 
them  to  attain.  It  would  destroy  the  trusts, 
monopolies,  and  corruptions  which  are  the 
outgrowths  of  the  tariff.  It  would  do  away 
with  the  fines  and  penalties  now  levied  on 

any  one  who  improves  a  farm,  erects  a 
house,  builds  a  machine,  or  in  any  way  adds 
to  the  general  stock  of  wealth.  It  would 
leave  every  one  free  to  apply  labor  or  ex- 
pend capital  in  production  or  exchange 
without  fine  or  restriction,  and  would  leave 
to  each  the  full  product  of  his  ex- 

5.  It  would,  on  the  other  hand,  by  tak- 
ing for  public  use  that  value  which  at- 
taches to  land  by  reason  of  the  growth 
and  improvement  of  the  community,  make 
the  holding  of  land  unprofitable  to  the 
mere  owner,  and  profitable  only  to  the 
user.  It  would  thus  make  it  impossible 
for  speculators  and  monopolists  to  hold 
natural  opportunities  unused  or  only  half 
used,  and  would  throw  open  to  labor  the 
illimitable  field  of  employment  which  the 
earth  offers  to  man.  It  would  thus  solve 
the  labor  problem,  do  away  with  involun- 
tary poverty,  raise  wages  in  all  occupa- 
tions to  the  full  earnings  of  labor,  make 
overproduction  impossible  until  all  human 
wants  are  satisfied,  render  labor  -  saving 
inventions  a  blessing  to  all,  and  cause 
such  an  enormous  production  and  such 
an  equitable  distribution  of  wealth  as 
would  give  to  all  comfort,  leisure,  and  par- 
ticipation in  the  advantages  of  an  ad- 
vancing civilization. 

With  respect  to  monopolies  other  than 
the  monopoly  of  land,  we  hold  that  where 
free  competition  becomes  impossible,  as  in 
telegraphs,  railroads,  water  and  gas  sup- 
plies, etc.,  such  business  becomes  a  proper 
social  function,  which  should  be  controlled 
and  managed  by  and  for  the  whole  people 
concerned,  through  their  proper  govern- 
ment, local.  State,  or  national,  as  may  be. 

The  single-tax  adherents  are  at  present 
far  better  organized  as  an  aggressive  force 
in  England  than  in  the  United  States. 
There  the  issue  is  brought  prominently 
and  persistently  to  the  front,  both  in 
Parliament  and  elsewhere.  In  New  Zea- 
land, perhaps,  the  greatest  advance  has 
been  made  in  the  application  of  laws  that 
have  a  genuine  bearing  upon  the  doctrine. 
These  laws,  of  comparatively  recent  enact- 
ment, are  looked  upon  by  single-taxers  as 
the  "  entering  wedge,"  and  the  experiment 
is  being  watched  with  great  interest. 
Single-tax  measures  are  also  being  consid- 
ered in  several  of  our  State  legislatures, 
notably  in  Colorado. 



Of  the  Anti-poverty  Society,  a  remark- 
able association  which  held  its  first  meet- 
ing in  Chickering  Hall,  New  York  City,  on 
May  1.  1SS7,  a  few  words  may  be  said.  In 
the' fall  of  1886  Mr.  George  was  the  candi- 
date of  the  United  Labor  party  for  the 
oflBce  of  mayor  of  New  York.  Opposed  to 
him  on  the  side  of  the  Democrats  were 
Abram  S.  Hewitt  (who  was  elected), 
and  Theodore  Roosevelt,  Republican.  Mr. 
George  received  68,000  votes.  Dr.  Edwakd 
McGlyxn  (g.  v.),  pastor  of  St.  Stephen's 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  was  an  ardent 
supporter  of  the  single-tax  doctrine,  and 
made  speeches  on  behalf  of  its  candidate. 
His  course  displeased  Archbishop  Corri- 
gan,  and,  having  been  publicly  announced 
to  speak  at  a  meeting  to  be  held  in  Chick- 
ering Hall  early  in  October,  he  was  for- 
mally forbidden  by  the  archbishop  to 
*'  attend  the  meeting  or  to  take  part 
in  future  in  any  political  meeting  what- 
ever without  permission  of  the  Sacred 
Congregation  Propaganda  Fide."  Dr. 
McGIynn  disobeyed  this  order  and  spoke 
at  the  meeting.  For  this  disobedience  he 
was  excommunicated,  and  an  attempt  was 
made  to  have  the  pope  condemn  the  books 
written  by  and  the  doctrines  held  by 
Henry  George.  The  contioversy  that 
arose  over  this  matter  caused  intense  ex- 
citement, not  only  in  New  YorR,  but 
throughout  the  country.  Anti-poverty 
societies  were  formed  in  Philadelphia, 
Chicago,  St.  Louis,  Cincinnati,  and  other 
cities.  These  meetings  were  intensely  re- 
ligious in  character,  and  were  addressed 
by  clergymen  of  many  Christian  denomina- 
tions and  in  some  instances  by  Hebrews. 
A  full  account  of  the  society  and  of  the 
addresses  delivered  by  Dr.  McGlynn  and 
others  may  be  found  in  the  Standard,  a 
weekly  newspaper  then  published  by 
Henry  George,  files  of  which  have  been  de- 
posited in  the  public  libraries  of  New 
York,  Boston,  and  St.  Louis,  and  perhaps 
in  other  cities.  Of  the  excommimi- 
cation  of  Dr.  McGlynn  and  of  the  sub- 
sequent lifting  of  the  ban  by  an 
apostolic  delegate  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church  who  was  sent  to  the  United  States 
in  18f)2,  the  Hfandnrd  and  its  successor. 
The  National  Hinfjle-Taxer,  also  contain 
full  accounts.  Dr.  McGlynn  did  not  re- 
cant nor  did  he  cease  to  publicly  and 
privately  support  the  doctrine  that  indi- 

vidual ownership  of  land  was  against 
natural  justice  after  he  was  reinstated  to 
the  office  of  the  priesthood. 

Among  the  current  publications  issued 
in  support  of  single-tax  doctrines  in  the 
United  States  are  The  Public,  Justice,  and 
the  Single-Tax  Revieio. 

Sinking-fund,  First  National.  Every- 
thing was  done  by  the  first  Congress  that 
could  be  to  raise  and  sustain  the  public 
credit.  For  this  purpose  a  sinking-fund 
for  the  reduction  of  the  public  debt  was 
provided  for.  The  funding  act  (see  Ham- 
ilton, Alexander)  required  the  interest 
on  the  public  debt  to  be  converted  into 
capital.  This  left  a  considerable  unappro- 
priated sum  to  accumulate  in  the  national 
treasury.  Congress  provided  that  all  the 
surplus  in  the  treasury  on  the  last  day  of 
December  (1790),  after  payment  of  the 
appropriations  of  the  current  session, 
should  be  applied  to  the  reduction  of  the 
public  debt.  This  sum,  with  $2,000,000 
more  which  the  President  was  authorized 
to  borrow,  was  made  to  constitute  a  fund 
to  be  employed  under  the  management  of  a 
board  composed  of  the  chief-justice,  the 
president  of  the  Senate,  the  Secretary  of 
the  Treasury,  and  the  Attorney-General,  in 
the  purchase  of  the  securities  of  the 
United  States  at  their  market  value,  if 
not  above  par.  The  securities  so  pur- 
chased were  to  be  vested  in  the  board,  and 
the  interest  thereon,  by  the  provisions  of 
a  subsequent  act,  was  to  be  applied  to  the 
purchase  of  further  securities,  with  a  re- 
serve, however,  towards  the  discharge  of 
the  borrowed  $2,000,000,  principal  and 
interest.  This  measure  was  intended  to 
raise  the  stock  market  so  as  to  prevent  the 
transfer  of  securities  to  Europe  at  depre- 
ciated rates. 

Sioux,  or  Dakota,  Indians,  a  large 
and  powerful  tribe  of  Indians,  who  were 
found  by  the  French,  in  1640,  near  the 
headwaters  of  the  Mississippi  River.  The 
Algonquians  called  them  Nadoivessioux, 
whence  they  came  to  be  called  Sioux.  They 
occupied  the  vast  domain  extending  from 
the  Arkansas  River,  in  the  south,  to  the 
western  tributary  of  Lake  Winnipeg,  in 
the  north,  and  westward  to  the  eastern 
slopes  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  They  have 
been  classed  into  four  grand  divisions — 
namely,  the  Winnebagoes,  who  inhabited 
the  country  between  Lake  Michigan  and 



the  Mississippi,  among  the  Algonquians; 
the  Assiniboines,  or  Sioux  proper  (the 
most  northerly  of  the  nation)  ;  the  Minne- 
taree  group,  in  Minnesota ;  and  the  South- 
ern Sioux,  who  dwelt  in  the  country  be- 
tween the  Arkansas  and  Platte  rivers,  and 
whose  hunting-grounds  extended  to  the 
Rocky  Mountains.  In  1679  Jean  Duluth, 
a  French  officer,  set  up  the  Gallic  stand- 
ard among  them  near  Lake  St.  Peter,  and 

Others  remained  on  the  shores  of  the  St. 
Peter.  Some  of  them  wandered  into  the 
plains  of  Missouri,  and  there  joined  the 
Southern  Sioux.  In  the  War  of  1812  the 
Sioux  took  sides  with  the  British.  In  1822 
the  population  of  the  two  divisions  of  the 
tribe  was  estimated  at  nearly  13,000.  In 
1837  they  ceded  to  the  United  States  all 
their  lands  east  of  the  Mississippi,  and 
in  1851  they  ceded  35,000,000  acres  west 


the  next  year  he  rescued  from  them 
Father  Hennepin,  who  first  explored  the 
upper  Mississippi.  The  French  took  for- 
mal possession  of  the  country  in  1685, 
when  they  were  divided  into  seven  eastern 
and  nine  western  tribes. 

In  wars  with  the  French  and  other 
Indians,  they  were  pushed  down  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and,  driving  off  the  inhabitants 
of    the    buffalo    plains,    took    possession. 

of  the  Mississippi  for  $3,000,000.  The 
neglect  of  the  government  to  carry  out  all 
the  provisions  of  the  treaties  for  these 
cessions  caused  much  bitter  feeling,  and 
a  series  of  hostilities  by  some  of  the  Sioux 
ensued;  but  after  being  defeated  by  Gen- 
eral Harney,  in  1855,  a  treaty  of  peace 
was  concluded.  Enraged  by  the  failure 
of  the  government  to  perform  its  part  of 
the  bargain  and  the  frauds  practised  upon 




both  sides.  By  one  of  these  the  Black 
Hills  were  made  part  of  a  reservation,  but 
gold  having  been  discovered  there,  the 
United  States  wished  to  purchase  the 
tract,  and  induce  the  Indians  to  abandon 
that  region  and  emigrate  to  the  Indian 
Territory.  They  showed  great  reluctance 
to  treat.  Sitting  Bull,  Spotted  Tail,  and 
Red  Cloud  visited  the  national  capital  in 
1875,  but  President  Grant  could  not  in- 
duce them  to  sign  a  treaty.  Commission- 
ers met  an  immense  number  of  them  at 
the  Red  Cloud  agency,  in  September,  but 
nothing  was  done.  The  sending  of  sur- 
veyors under  a  military  escort  to  the 
Black  Hills  excited  the  jealousy  of  the 
Sioux,  and  they  prepared  for  war.  In  the 
spring  of  1876  a  military  force  was  sent 
against  them,  and  in  June  a  severe  battle 
was  fought,  in  which  General  Custer  and 
all  of  his  immediate  command  were  slain. 

them,  there  was  a  general  uprising  of  the 
Upper  !t>ioux,  in  1802,  and  nearly  1,000 
settlers  were  killed.  The  Lower  Sioux,  of 
the  plains,  also  became  hostile,  but  all 
were  finally  subdued.  Fully  1,000  were 
held  captive,  and  thirty-nine  were  hanged. 
Many  bands  fled  into  what  was  then 
Dakota  Territory,  and  tlie  strength  of  the 
nation  was  greatly  reduced.  The  most 
ffuilty  bands  fled  into  the  British  domin- 
ions, while  others,  from  time  to  time,  at- 
tacked settlements  and  menaced  forts. 
LooHely    made    treaties   were   violated    on 




The  Indians,  after  liaving  been  severely  ber  they  began  a  series  ot  "  ghost  dances" 
beaten  in  several  encounters,  returned,  in  anticipation  of  the  Messiah's  coming; 
under  full  pardon,  to  their  reservations,  and,  to  show  their  devotion,  the  dancing 
The  advancement  made  by  the  Christian  was  continued  without  intermission  for 
or  progressive  portion  of  the  Sioux  Ind-  five  days  and  nights.  To  this  delusion 
ians  in  the  present  South  Dakota  had  Sitting  Bull  gave  every  encouragement, 
long  been  regarded  with  dis- 
favor by  the  pagan  and  conserva- 
tive element  under  the  leadership 
of  Sitting  Bull,  Red  Cloud,  and 
Kicking  Bear,  and  the  latter 
eagerly  waited  for  some  pretext 
to  bring  the  question  of  civil- 
ization or  non-civilization  to  a 
decisive  issue.  In  1890  there 
was  a  failure  on  the  part  of  the 
government  to  meet  promptly 
some  of  its  obligations  to  the 
Sioux,  especially  in  the  payment 
of  annuities  and  of  moneys  due 
to  the  Indians  for  certain  lands 
which  they  had  sold.  The  crops, 
too,  had  failed;  Congress  had 
cut  down  the  supplies;  and  there 
was  naturally  a  feeling  of  dis- 
satisfaction among  the  half- 
famished  Indians.  Inefficient 
agents  also  had  been  sent  out 
by  the  government  who  had  little 
regard  for  anything  save  their 
own  personal  gain,  and  not  much 
was  done  by  them  to  allay  the 
general  discontent.  All  these 
circumstances  combined  to  favor 
the  designs  of  Sitting  Bull  and 
his  associates.  A  wide  -  spread 
conspiracy  was  formed,  and 
plans  were  made  for  a  general 
uprising  in  the  spring. 

In  September  a  Shoshone  Indian,  a  His  adherents  arrayed  themselves  in  war- 
medicine-man,  began  to  predict  the  com-  paint,  and  provided  an  ample  supply  of 
ing   of    an    Indian    Messiah.      The    Great    guns   and   ammunition.      They   refused   to 


Manitou  had  taken  pity  upon  his  suffer 
ing  children.  The  Messiah  would  roll 
thirty  feet  of  soil,  timbered  and   sodded, 

report  themselves  at  the  different  agencies, 
and  a  few  of  the  most  desperate  began 
burning  and  pillaging  near  Wounded  Knee, 

upon  their  white  oppressors,  and  all  who  and  afterwards  escaped  to  the  Bad  Lands, 

escaped    being    smothered    thereby    would  On    Dec.    15    a   body   of    Indian    police, 

become  buffaloes  and  catfish.     But  all  the  acting  under   orders   from  General  Miles, 

dead   Indians   would   be   restored   to   life;  attempted   to   arrest    Sitting   Bull    in   his 

their  hunting-grounds  would  be  as  in  for'  camp,   about   40  miles  northwest  of  Fort 

mer    days;    herds    of   buffaloes    and    wild  Yates,  N.  D.     A  skirmish  ensued,  and  in 

horses    'would     again    abound     upon     the  it  the  noted  chieftain,   together  with  his 

prairies;  the  Indian  millennium  would  be  son  Crowfoot  and  six  other  Indians,  waL 

inaugurated.      These    glowing    predictions  killed.      The   remnant   of   the   band    made 

were  eagerly  listened  to  and  believed   by  its  way  to  the  Bad  Lands.     On  Dec.  28  a 

large  numbers  of  Indians.     Late  in  Octo-  battle  occurred  near  Wounded  Knee,  S.  D, 



between  a  cavalry  regiment  and  the  men 
of  Big  Foofs  band.  Thirty  of  the  whites 
were  killed,  while  the  Indian  dead  num- 
bered over  200,  including  many  of  their 
women  and  children.  Over  3,000  Indians 
then  fled  from  the  agency  and  encamped 
near  White  Clay  Creek,  where,  on  the  next 
day,  another  encounter  occurred.  The  re- 
sult of  this  engagement  was  the  dispersal 
of  the  Indians  with  heavy  loss,  and  the 
death  of  eight  soldiers  of  the  9th  Cavalry. 
Several  other  skirmishes  occurred  during 
the  week  which  followed,  with  loss  of  life 
on  both  sides.  On  Jan.  14,  1891,  two 
councils    were    held    with    General    Miles, 

drawn  from  the  neighborhood  of  the  reser- 
vation. On  the  29th,  a  delegation  of  Sioux 
chiefs,  under  charge  of  Agent  Lewis,  ar- 
rived in  Washington  for  the  purpose  of 
conferring  with  the  Secretary  of  the  In- 
terior. The  conference  began  on  Feb.  7, 
and  continued  four  days,  at  the  close  of 
which  the  Indians  were  received  by  Presi- 
dent Harrison  at  the  White  House.  They 
were  assured  that  the  cutting  down  of 
the  congressional  appropriation  was  an 
accident,  and  that  the  government  desired 
faithfully  to  carry  out  every  agreement 
made.  On  their  return  home  the  chiefs 
stopped  for  a  short  time  at  Carlisle,  Pa., 


and  the  chiefs,  sr-eing  the  hopelessness  of  where  the  children  of  several  of  them  were 
thfcir  cause,  agreed  to  surrender  their  arms  attending  school.  In  1899  the  total  num- 
and  return  to  the  agency.  The  war  was  ber  of  Sioux  was  27,21.5,  divided  into 
practically  enOed,  and  on  Jan.  21  the  nineteen  bands,  and  located  principally 
greater    part    of    the    troops    were    with-    in  South  Dakota, 



Six   Nations,    a   confederation   of   Ind-  ley  between  the  Blue  Ridge  and  the  central 

ians,   comprising  originally  the  Five  Na-  chain  of  the  Alleghany  Mountains.      The 

tions  —  Mohawks,      Oneidas,      Onondagas,  lands  in  Maryland  were,  in  like  manner, 

Cayugas,    and    Senecas — who   were    joined  transferred  to   Lord   Baltimore,   but   with 

by  their  Southern  brethren,  the  Tuscaro-  definite     limits.      By     the    deed     to     Vir- 

ras,  after  the  latter  were  signally  defeated  ginia,   the   claim   of   that   colony   was   ex- 

by  the  Carolinians  in  1712.  tended  indefinitely  in  the  West  and  North- 

The  Senecas,  and  the  Tories  among  them,  west, 
who  had  taken  refuge  at  Fort  Niagara,        Skene,    Philip,    military   officer;    born 

continued    depredations    on    the    frontiers  in  London,  England,  in  1725;  entered  the 

of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania.     The  On-  British  army  in  1739,  and  served  against 

ondagas   professed  neutrality,   but  it  was  Porto     Bello    and     Carthagena;     also     in 

believed  they  shared  in  the  hostilities  of  Great    Britain    in    the    rebellion    of    1745. 

the  Senecas.     To  chastise  them  for  their  He    came   to   America   in    1756,    and   was 

suspected  perfidy,  a  detachment  was  sent  wounded    in    the    attack    on    Ticonderoga. 

out  from  Fort  Stanwix  which  smote  them  He  was  afterwards  placed  in  command  at 

suddenly    and     destroyed    their    villages.  Crown  Point,  and  projected  a  settlement 

The  Indians  retaliated  by  devastating  the  at   the   head   of   Lake   Champlain,   on   the 

settlements  in   Schoharie   county  and  the  site    of   Whitehall.      In    the    storming   of 

western   border   of   Ulster    county,   N.   Y.  Morro   Castle    (1762)    he  was  one  of   the 

The    Pennsylvania    frontier,    particularly  first  to  enter  the  breach.     His  settlement 

in  the  vicinity  of  Pittsburg,  was  exposed  at  the  head  of  Lake  Champlain  was  called 

to     similar     incursions     from     the     Ind-  Skenesboro,  and  in  1770  he  made  his  resi- 

ians    of    western    New    York.      A    grand  dence  there.      Adhering  to  the  crown,  he 

campaign  to  chastise  the  hostile  Six  Na-  was  arrested  in  Philadelphia,  but  was  ex- 

tions  was  then   inaugurated,  and  the   ex-  changed   in    1776.      He   accompanied   Bur- 

pedition    was    led    by    Gen.    John    Sul-  goyne's    expedition,    and    was    with    the 

LIVAN   {q.  v.).  British  force  defeated  at  Bennington.     He 

The    confederacy    had    always    claimed  was    taken    prisoner    at    Saratoga.      The 

and    enjoyed    the    right    of    free    passage  legislature     confiscated    his     property     in 

through  the  great  valley  west  of  the  Blue  1779.     He  died   in   Bucks,   England,  June 

Ridge.      Some  backwoodsmen  of  Virginia  10,  1810. 

penetrated  that  valley,  and,  in  1743,  came        Skenesboro,  Capture  of  (1775).    After 

into    collision    with    the    Iroquois.       War  the    captiire    of    Ticonderoga    and    Crown 

with  the  French  was  then  threatened,  and  Point  in  1775,  Arnold  was  joined  by  about 

hostilities    between    any    of    the    colonists  fifty  recruits,  who  had  seized  a  schooner 

and    the    Six   Nations,    at   that   juncture,  and  some 'cannon,  with  several  prisoners, 

might  be  perilous.     Governor  Clinton,  of  at    Skenesboro    (now   Whitehall),    at   the 

New   York,    hastened   to    secure   the    firm  head  of  Lake  Champlain.    In  the  captured 

friendship    of   the    confederacy   by   liberal  schooner    Arnold    went    down    the    lake, 

presents,   for  which   purpose,   in   conjune-  entered  the  Sorel  River   (its  outlet),  and. 

tion  with   commissioners   from   New   Eng-  capturing  an  armed  vessel  and  some  valu- 

land,    he    held    a    meeting   at    Albany    in  able  stores  there,  returned  with  them  to 

June.       The    commissioners    proposed    an  Crown  Point.     A  superior  force  at  ]\Ion- 

association   of  the   five  Northern   colonies  treal    compelled    Arnold    to    abandon    St. 

for    mutual    defence ;    but    the    Assembly  John. 

of  New  York,  hoping  to  secure  the  Skinner,  Cortlandt,  military  officer; 
same  neutrality  enjoyed  during  the  pre-  born  in  New  Jersey  in  1728;  a  grandson 
vious  war,  declined  the  proposition,  of  Stephen  Van  Cortlandt,  of  Van  Cort- 
The  next  year  the  difficulties  between  the  landt's  Manor,  N.  Y.  In  1775  he  was  at- 
Six  Nations  and  the  Virginians  were  torney-general  of  New  Jersey.  He  organ- 
settled  by  a  treaty  concluded  at  Lancaster  ized  three  battalions  of  loyalists,  called 
(July  2),  to  which  Pennsylvania  and  "New  Jersey  Volunteers,"  and  was  given 
Maryland  were  parties.  By  the  terms  of  the  commission  of  brigadier-general.  He 
this  treaty,  in  consideration  of  $2,000,  the  went  to  England  after  the  war,  where 
Iroquois  relinquished  all  title  to  the  val-  he  received  compensation  for  losses  as  a 



loyalist.     He  died  in  Bristol,  England,  in 

Skinners,  a  predatory  band  in  the  Rev- 
olutionary War  whose  members  professed 
to  be  Whigs,  and  who  plundered  the  Tory 
families  living  on  the  Neutral  Ground,  in 
\\'estchester  county,  N.  Y.,  between  the 
British  and  American  lines.  They  were 
not  very  scrupulous  in  their  choice  of  vic- 
tims, plunder  being  their  chief  aim.  See 

Skraelings,  the  name  given  by  the 
Northmen  to  the  Eskimos,  in  con- 
tempt, as  it  implies  chips  or  dwarfs. 
Thorwald.  a  successor  of  Lief,  in  a  voyage 
to  America,  spoke  of  finding  Skraelings, 
who,  because  of  a  grave  offence  committed 
by  the  Northmen,  attacked  that  navigator 
and  his  followers  and  compelled  them  to 
leave  the  beautiful  country  where  they 
intended  to  settle.  Thorwald  was  mortally 
wounded  during  the  fray  and  was  buried 
on  the  shore.  The  boats  engaged  in  the 
attack  on  the  Northmen  were  made  of 
skins,  like  those  used  by  the  Eskimos 

Slafter,  EoituxD  Farwell,  author; 
born  in  Norwich,  Vt.,  May  30,  1816; 
graduated  at  Dartmouth  College  in  1840, 
and  took  a  course  in  Andover  Theological 
Seminary;  was  ordained  in  the  Protestant 
Episcopal  Church  in  1845;  rector  of  St. 
John's,  Boston,  Mass.,  in  1846-53.  Later 
he  became  register  of  the  diocese  of  Mas- 
sachusetts. His  publications  include  Sir 
William  Alexander  and  American  Colo- 
nization; Voyages  of  the  'Northmen  to 
America;  John  Checkly,  or  the  Evolution 
of  Religious  Tolerance  in  Massachusetts 
Bay;  History  and  Causes  of  Incorrect 
Latitudes  as  Recorded  in  the  Journals 
of  Early  Writers,  Navigators,  and  Ex- 
plorers, etc. 

Slater,  John  F.,  philanthropist;  born 
'n  Slatf-rville,  R.  L,  March  4,  1815;  was 
trained  in  the  manufacture  of  cotton,  in 
which  his  father  had  large  interests:  and 
on  the  death  of  his  father  succeeded  to 
those  interests.  He  early  manifested  an 
active  concern  in  the  cause  of  education. 
The  gift  by  which  he  is  best  known  was 
that  of  .$1,000,000,  made  in  April,  1882, 
for  the  purpose  of  "uplifting  the  lately 
emancipatr-d  population  of  the  Southern 
States  and  tlieir  posterity."  For  this  pa- 
triotic   and    jiiuniflcent    gift    the    thanks 

of  Congress  were  voted,  and  a  medal  was 
presented.  Neither  principal  nor  income 
is  expended  for  land  or  buildings.  Edu- 
cation in  industries  and  the  preparation 
of  teachers  are  promoted  in  institutions 
believed  to  be  on  a  permanent  basis.  The 
board  consists  of  Prof.  Daniel  C.  Gilman, 
ex-president  of  Johns  Hopkins  University, 
as  president;  Chief-Justice  Fuller,  as  vice- 
president;  Morris  K.  Jesup,  as  treasurer; 
J.  L.  M.  Curry,  as  secretary  and  general 
manager ;  and  Bishops  Potter  and  Gallo- 
way, and  ]\Iessrs.  William  E.  Dodge,  Will- 
iam A.  Slater,  John  A.  Stewart,  Alexander 
E.  Orr,  and  William  H.  Baldwin,  Jr.  The 
fund  is  a  potential  agency  in  working  out 
the  problem  of  the  education  of  the  negro, 
and  over  half  a  million  of  dollars  has  al- 
ready been  expended.  By  the  extraordi- 
nary fidelity  and  financial  ability  of  the 
treasurer,  the  fund,  while  keeping  up 
annual  appropriations,  has  increased  to 
$1,500,000.  Schools  established  by  States, 
denominations,  and  individuals  are  helped 
by  annual  donations.  Among  the  most 
prominent  are  the  Hampton  Normal  and 
Industrial ;  the  Spelman,  the  Tuskegee, 
and  schools  at  Orangeburg,  S.  C. ;  Ton- 
galoo,  Miss.;  Marshall,  Tex.;  Raleigh, 
N.  C. ;  New  Orleans ;  the  Meharry  College 
at  Nashville,  etc.  Mr.  Slater  died  in  Nor- 
wich, Conn.,  May  7,  1884. 

Slater,  Sa]\[1tel,  manufacturer;  born  in 
Belper,  Derbyshire,  England,  June  9,  1768; 
was  apprenticed  to  cotton-spinning  under 
Strutt,  partner  of  Sir  Richard  Arkwright, 
the  inventor  of  spinning  machinery.  One 
of  the  first  acts  of  the  national  Congress 
in  1789  was  for  the  encouragement  of 
American  manufactures,  and  the  legislat- 
ure of  Pennsylvania  off'ered  a  bounty  for 
the  introduction  of  the  Arkwright  patents. 
Yoimg  Slater  was  a.  favorite  of  his  master, 
aiding  him,  with  his  inventive  genius,  in 
making  improvements  in  his  mills.  He 
heard  of  the  action  of  the  Pennsylvanians, 
and  believed  that  his  thorough  mastery  of 
Arkwright's  machinery  would  enable  him 
to  build  a  machine  without  models  or 
drawings.  When  his  apprenticeship  had 
ended  he  hastened  to  America  with  the 
treasures  of  his  brain.  He  landed  in  New 
York  in  November,  1789.  Hea^"y  penalties 
deterred  any  one  from  making  a  model  or 
drawing  and  sending  it  out  of  the  country. 
Slater    accidentally    learned    that    Moses 



B^"o^vn,  of  Rhode  Island,  liad  made  some  fax;  Life  of  Col.  Joshua  Fry,  Sometime 
attempts  at  cotton-spinning  by  machinery  Professor  in  William  and  Mary  College, 
there.  He  wrote  to  Mr.  Brown,  informing  Virginia,  and  Washington's  Senior  in 
him  of  what  he  could  do.  "  If  thou  canst  Command  of  Virginia  Forces  in  175.^;  The 
do  this  thing,"  wrote  the  earnest  manu-  Colonial  Church  of  Virginia;  Christianity 
facturer,  "  I  invite  thee  to  come  to  Rhode  the  Key  to  the  Character  of  Washington^^ 
Island  and  have  the  credit  and  the  profit  etc.  He  died  in  1890. 
of  introducing  cotton-manufacture  into  Slaughter-house  Cases.  On  March  8, 
America."  Slater  went,  and,  with  the  aid  1869,  the  legislature  of  Louisiana  passed 
of   the   Brown   family,   succeeded   in   pro-    an  act  incorporating  a  Live-stock  Landing 

•and  Slaughter-house  Company,  whereby  it 
imposed  upon  that  company  the  duty  of 
erecting  stock  -  yards,  slaughter  -  houses, 
etc. ;  made  it  the  duty  of  that  company 
to  permit  any  person  to  slaughter  ani- 
mals in  its  slaughter-houses,  under  a 
heavy  penalty  for  each  refusal;  fixed  the 
limits  of  charges  for  each  animal  slaugh- 
tered; provided  for  the  inspection  by  an 
officer  appointed  by  the  governor  of  the 
State  of  all  animals  to  be  slaughtered, 
and  ordered  the  closing  up  of  all  other 
stock-landings  and  slaughter-houses  with- 
in certain  territory,  including  the  city 
of  New  Orleans.  The  Butchers'  Benevo- 
lent Association  of  New  Orleans  and  others 
who  had  been  long  engaged  in  butchering 
in  that  city  sought  to  resist  the  Slaugh- 
ter-house Company  in  the  exercise  of  its 
powers,  on  the  ground  that  the  act  of 
the  legislature  was  in  violation  of  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States,  in  that 
ducing  machinery,  by  the  close  of  1790,  "  it  creates  an  involuntary  servitude  for- 
that  made  cotton-yarn  equal  in  quality  to  bidden  by  the  Thirteenth  Article  of  Amend- 
the  best  then  made  in  England.  Slater  ment;  that  it  abridges  the  privileges  and 
secured  both  the  "credit  and  the  profit"  immunities  of  citizens  of  the  United  States; 
of  introducing  cotton  manufacture  into  that  it  denies  to  plaintiffs  the  equal  pro- 
the  United  States.  Within  six  years  tection  of  the  laws;  and  that  it  deprives 
Slater  had  many  persons  at  work  for  him,  them  of  their  property  without  due  proc- 
and  established  a  Sabbath-school  for  the  ess  of  law,  contrary  to  the  provisions  of 
benefit  of  these  and  their  children.  His  the  first  section  of  the  Fourteenth  Article 
first  mill  was  set  up  at  Pawtucket.  In  of  Amendment."  The  Supreme  Court  of 
1812  he  began  the  building  of  mills  at  the  State  of  Louisiana  decided  the  cases 
Oxford  (now  Webster),  which  soon  be-  in  favor  of  the  Slaughter-house  Company, 
came  a  large  establishment.  He  died  in  and  the  butchers  brought  the  cases  to  the 
Webster,  Mass.,  April  21,  1835.  Supreme   Court  of  the  United   States  by 

Slaughter,  Philip,  clergyman;  born  in  writs  of  error.  There  the  decision  of  the 
Springfield,  Va.,  Oct.  26,  1808;  studied  in  Louisiana  court  was  affirmed  on  the 
the  University  of  Virginia  and  was  ad-  ground  that  the  act  in  question  was  a 
mitted  to  the  bar  in  1828.  Later  he  took  a  proper  exercise  of  the  police  power  of  the 
course  in  the  Episcopal  Theological  Semi-  State.  Chief-Justice  Chase  and  Justices 
nary,  Alexandria,  Va. ;  was  ordained  in  Field,  Swayne,  and  Bradley  dissented, 
the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  18-3.5,  The  case  is  valuable  for  the  elaborate 
and  served  in  various  pastorates  till  discussions  of  the  amendments  to  the 
1848,  when  his  health  failed.  His  pub-  Constitution  and  the  subject  of  monop- 
lications  include  Life  of  Randolph  Fair-   olies. 




Slavery.  In  15G2  John  Hawkins,  an  and  Central,  for  thirty  years,  stipulating 
English  navigator,  seeing  the  want  of  to  deliver  144,000  negro  slaves  within  that 
slaves  in  the'West  Indies,  determined  to  period.  One  quarter  of  the  stock  of  the 
enter  upon  the  piratical  traffic.  Several  company  was  taken  by  King  Philip  V.  of 
London  gentlemen  contributed  funds  liber-  Spain,  and  Queen  Anne  of  England  re- 
ally for  "the  enterprise.  Three  ships  were  served  for  herself  the  other  quarter.  So 
provided,  and  with  these  and  100  men  the  two  monarchs  became  great  slave-deal- 
Hawkins   sailed   to   the   coast   of   Guinea,  ers. 

where,  by  bribery,  deception,  treachery,  and  The  first  slaves  were  introduced  into 
force,  he  procured  at  least  300  negroes  the  English-American  colonies  by  a  Dutch 
and  sold  them  to  the  Spaniards  in  His-  trader,  who,  in  1619,  sold  twenty  of  them 
paniola.  or  Santo  Domingo,  and  returned  to  the  settlers  at  Jamestown,  Va.  After 
to  Ensland  with  a  rich  freight  of  pearls,  that  the  trade  between  North  America 
susar.^and  ginger.  The  nation  was  shock-  and  Africa  was  carried  on  quite  vigorous- 
ed\v  the  barbarous  traffic,  and  the  Queen  ly;  but  some  of  the  colonies  remonstrated, 
(Elizabeth)  declared  to  Hawkins  that,  and  in  the  Continental  Congress,  and  also 
'•  if  any  of  the  Africans  were  carried  away  in  the  public  mind,  there  was  a  strong 
without  their  o\\ti  consent,  it  would  be  desire  evinced  to  abolish  the  slave-trade, 
detestable,  and  call  down  the  vengeance  of  Lawrence  and  Cassandra  Southwick  were 
Heaven  upon  the  undertakers."  He  satisfied  banished  from  the  colony  of  Massachusetts, 
the  Queen  and  continued  the  traffic,  pre-  in  1658,  under  penalty  of  death  if  they 
tending  that  it  was  for  the  good  of  the  should  return.  Their  crime  was  the  em- 
souls  of  the  Africans,  as  it  introduced  bracing  of  the  principles  and  mode  of 
them  to  Christianity  and  civilization.  worship  of  the  Quakers.     Their  two  chil- 

Already  negro  slaves  had  been  intro-  dren  remained  behind  in  extreme  poverty, 
duced  by'  the  Spaniards  into  the  West  In-  They  were  fined  for  non-attendance  upon 
dies.  They  first  enslaved  the  natives,  but  the  public  worship  carried  on  by  their 
these  were  unequal  to  the  required  toil,  persecutors.  The  magistrates  insisted  that 
and  they  were  soon  almost  extinguished  the  fine  must  be  paid,  and  passed  the 
by  hard  labor  and  cruelty.  Charles  V.  following  order:  "  Whereas.  Daniel  South- 
of  Spain  granted  a  license  to  a  Fleming  wick  and  Provided  Southwick,  son  and 
to  import  4,000  negroes  annually  into  the  daughter  of  Lawrence  Southwick,  absent- 
West  Indies.  He  sold  his  license  to  Geno-  ing  themselves  from  the  public  ordinances, 
ese  merchants,  who  began  a  regular  trade  having  been  fined  by  the  courts  of  Salem 
in  human  beings  between  Africa  and  the  and  Ipswich,  pretending  they  have  no 
West  Indies.  These  were  found  to  thrive  estates,  and  resolving  not  to  work,  the 
where  the  native  laborers  died.  The  be-  court,  iipon  perusal  of  a  law-  which  was 
nevolent  Las  Casas  (see  Las  Casas,  made  upon  account  of  debts,  in  what 
Bartolome  de)  and  others  favored  the  should  be  done  for  the  satisfaction  of  the 
system  as  a  means  for  saving  the  Indian  fines,  resolves,  that  the  treasurers  of  the 
tribes  from  destruction ;  and  the  trade  several  counties  are  and  shall  be  fully 
was  going  on  briskly  when  the  English,  empowered  to  sell  said  persons  to  any 
under  the  influence  of  Hawkins,  engaged  of  the  English  natives  at  Virginia  or  Bar- 
in  it  in  1.562.  Ten  years  before  a  few  badoes  to  answer  the  said  fines."  Endi- 
negroes  had  been  sold  in  England,  and  cott,  it  is  said,  urged  the  execution  of  the 
it  is  said  that  Queen  Elizabeth's  scruples  measure  with  vehemence ;  but,  to  the  honor 
were  so  far  removed  that  she  shared  in  of  the  marine  service,  not  a  sea-captain 
the  yirofits  of  the  traffic  carried  on  by  in  the  port  of  Boston  could  be  induced 
Englishmen.  The  Stuart  kings  of  Eng-  to  become  a  slave-dealer  to  please  the 
land  chartered  companies  for  the  trade;  General  Court.  They  were  spared  the 
and  Charles  II.  and  his  brother  James  usual  brutal  whipping  of  contumacious 
were  membf^rs  of  one  of  them.  persons  as  a  special  mark  of  humanity. 

After  the  revolution  of   1088  the  trade        In  1662  the  Virginia  Assembly  passed  a 

was  thrown  open,  and  in  171.3  an  English  law  that  children  should  be  held,  bond  or 

company  obtained  the  privilege  of  supply-  free,   "  according  to  the   condition   of  the 

ing  the  Spanish  colonies  in  America,  South  mother."     This  was  to  meet  the  case  of 



mulatto  children,  born  of  black  mothers,  slaves   were  then   subjected   to   civil   dis- 

in   the  colony.     It  was   thought  right  to  abilities. 

hold  heathen  Africans  in  slavery;  but,  as  In    1663    the   Maryland   legislature    en- 

mulattoes    must    be    part    Christians,    a  acted  a  law  that  "  all  negroes  and  other 

knotty  question  came  up,  for  the  English  slaves  within  the  province,  and  all  negroes 

law  in  relation  to   serfdom  declared  the  and  other  slaves  to  be  thereafter  import- 


condition  of  the  child  must  be  determined 
by  that  of  the  father.  The  Virginia  law 
opposed  this  doctrine  in  favor  of  the  slave- 
holders. Some  of  the  negroes  brought  into 
Virginia  were  converted  to  Christianity 
and  baptized.  The  question  was  raised, 
"  Is  it  lawful  to  hold  Christians  as  slaves  ?" 
The  General  Assembly  came  to  the  relief 
of  the  slave-holders  by  enacting  a  law  that 
slaves,  though  converted  and  baptized, 
should  not  therefore  become  free.  It  was 
also  enacted  that  killing  a  slave  by  his 
master  by  "  extreme  correction "  should 
not  be  esteemed  a  felony,  since  it  might 
not  be  presumed  that  "  malice  prepense  " 
would  "  induce  any  man  to  destroy  his  own 
estate."  It  was  also  enacted,  as  an 
evasion  of  the  statute  prohibiting  the  hold- 
ing of  Indians  as  slaves,  "  that  all  ser- 
vants, not  being  Christians,  imported  by 
shipping,  shall  be  slaves  for  life."  Indian 
slaves,  under  this  law,  were  imported  from 
New  England  and  the  West  Indies.    Freed 

ed  into  the  province,  should  serve  during 
life;  and  all  children  born  of  any  negro 
should  be  slaves,  as  their  fathers  were, 
for  the  term  of  their  lives."  The  same 
law  recited  that  "  divers  free-born  English- 
women, forgetful  of  their  free  condition, 
and  to  the  disgrace  of  the  nation,  did  in- 
termarry with  negro  slaves,"  and  it  was 
enacted  for  deterring  from  such  "  shame- 
ful matches  "  that,  during  their  husbands' 
lives,  white  women  so  intermarrying  should 
be  servants  to  the  masters  of  their  hus- 
bands, and  that  the  issue  of  such  mar- 
riages should  be  slaves  for  life. 

In  1681  the  legislature  of  Maryland 
passed  a  new  act  to  remedy  the  evils  of  in- 
termarrying of  whites  and  blacks.  The 
preamble  recited  that  such  matches  were 
often  brought  about  by  the  instigation  or 
connivance  of  the  master  or  mistress,  who 
took  advantage  of  the  former  law  to  pro- 
long the  servitude  of  their  white  feminine 
servants,  and  at  the  same  time  to  raise 



up  a  brood  of  mulatto  slaves.  The  new 
law  enacted  that  all  \yhite  feminine  ser- 
vants intermarrying  with  negro  slaves 
were  free,  at  once,  after  the  nuptials,  and 
their  children  also;  and  that  the  minister 
celebrating  and  the  master  or  mistress 
promoting  or  conniving  at  such  marriages 
were  subjected  to  a  fine  of  10,000  pounds 
of  tobacco. 

In  16S2  the  slave  code  of  "Virginia  re- 
ceived additions.  It  was  enacted  that 
runaways  who  refused  to  be  arrested 
might  be  lawfully  killed.  Slaves  were  for- 
bidden to  carry  arms,  offensive  or  de- 
fensive, or  to  go  off  the  plantations  of 
their  masters  without  a  written  pass,  or 
to  lift  a  hand  against  a  Christian,  even 
in  self-defence.  The  condition  of  slavery 
was  imposed  upon  all  servants,  whether 
"  negroes.  Moors,  mulattoes,  or  Indians, 
brought  into  the  colony  by  sea  or  land, 
whether  converted  to  Christianity  or  not, 
provided  they  were  not  of  Christian  par- 
entage or  country,  or,  if  Turks  or  Moors,  in 
amity  with  his  Majesty."  Nearly  a  cen- 
tury afterwards  Virginia  tried  to  sup- 
press the  traffic  in  African  slaves,  and  in 
1761  it  was  proposed  in  her  legislature  to 
suppress  the  importation  of  Africans  by 
levying  a  prohibitory  duty.  Danger  to  the 
political  interest  of  that  colony  was  fore- 
boded by  her  wisest  men  in  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  trade.  An  act  for  levying 
the  tax  was  passed  by  the  Assembly,  but 
in  England  it  met  the  fate  of  similar  bills 
from  other  colonies  to  suppress  the  nefa- 
rious traffic.  It  was  sent  back  with  a 

The  King  in  council,  on  Dec.  10,  1770, 
issued  an  instruction,  under  his  own  hand, 
commanding  the  governor  of  Virginia, 
"  upon  pain  of  the  highest  displeasure, 
to  assent  to  no  law  by  which  the  impor- 
tation of  slaves  should  be  in  any  re- 
spect prohibited  or  obstructed."  In  1772 
the  Virginia  Assembly  earnestly  discussed 
the  question,  "  How  shall  we  get  rid  of  the 
great  evil?"  Jefferson,  Henry,  Lee,  and 
other  leading  men  anxiously  desired  to  rid 
the  colony  of  it.  "  The  interest  of  the 
country,"  it  was  said,  "manifestly  re- 
quires the  total  expulsion  of  them."  The 
Assembly  finally  resolved  to  address  the 
King  himself  on  the  subject,  who,  in  coun- 
cil, had  compelled  the  toleration  of  the 
traffic.     They  pleaded  with  him  to  remove 

all  restraints  upon  their  efforts  to  stop 
the  importation  of  slaves,  which  they  call- 
ed "  a  very  pernicious  commerce."  In  this 
matter  Virginia  represented  the  sentiments 
of  all  the  colonies,  and  the  King  knew  it; 
but  the  monarch  "  stood  in  the  path  of 
humanity  and  made  himself  the  pillar  of 
the  colonial  slave-trade."  Ashamed  to  re- 
ject the  earnest  and  solemn  appeal  of  the 
Virginians,  he  evaded  a  reply.  The  con- 
duct of  the  King  caused  Jefferson  to  write 
as  follows  in  his  first  draft  of  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence :  "  He  has  waged 
cruel  war  against  human  nature  itself, 
violating  its  most  sacred  rights  of  life 
and  liberty  in  the  persons  of  a  distant  peo- 
ple who  never  offended  him,  capturing  and 
carrying  them  into  slavery  in  another 
hemisphere,  or  to  incur  a  miserable  death 
in  their  transportation  thither.  This 
piratical  warfare,  the  opprobrium  of  in- 
fidel powers,  is  the  warfare  of  the  Chris- 
tian King  of  Great  Britain.  Determined 
to  keep  open  a  market  where  men  should, 
be  bought  and  sold,  he  has  prostituted  his 
negative  for  suppressing  every  legislative 
attempt  to  prohibit  or  to  restrain  this 
execrable  commerce."  This  paragraph  was 
stricken  out  of  the  Declaration  of  Indepen- 
dence before  the  committee  submitted  it  to 
a,  vote  of  the  Congress. 

The  unwise  regulations  of  the  trustees 
of  Georgia,  which  crushed  incentives  to 
industry  and  thrift,  and  other  causes 
which  exist  in  all  new  settlements,  made 
that  colony  languish.  The  settlers  saw  the 
prosperity  of  their  neighbors  in  South 
Carolina,  and  attributed  the  difference  to 
the  positive  prohibition  of  slavery  in 
Georgia.  This  became  their  leading  griev- 
ance, and  even  Whitefield  advocated  the 
introduction  of  slavery,  under  the  old  (and 
later)  pretence  of  propagating,  in  that  way, 
Christianity  among  the  heathen  Africans. 
Habersham,  too,  advocated  the  introduc- 
tion. "  Many  of  the  poor  slaves  in  Amer- 
ica," he  wrote,  "  have  already  been  made 
freemen  of  the  heavenly  Jerusalem."  The 
Germans  were  assured  by  their  friends  in 
Germany  of  its  harmlessness.  Word  came 
to  them  in  1749:  "If  you  take  slaves  in 
faith  and  with  the  intent  of  conducting 
them  to  Christ,  the  action  will  not  be  a  sin, 
but  may  prove  a  benediction."  So  it  was 
that  avarice  subdued  conscience.  Already 
slaves  had  been  introduced   into  Georgia 



from  South  Carolina  as  hired  servants, 
nnder  indentures  for  life,  or  for  ninety- 
nine  years;  and  at  Savannah  the  contin- 
ual toast  was,  "  The  one  thing  needful," 
which  meant  negro  slaves.  Leading  men 
among  the  Scotch  and  Germans  who  op- 
posed the  introduction  of  slavery  were 
threatened  and  persecuted.  Under  great 
pressure,  the  trustees  yielded,  and  slavery 
was  introduced  on  the  condition  that  all 
masters  should  be  obliged  to  compel  the 
negroes  to  "  attend,  at  some  time  on  the 
Lord's  day,  for  instruction  in  the  Chris- 
tian religion."     In   1752  the  charter  was 

American  colonies,  the  British  Parlia- 
ment, in  1750,  gave  liberty  to  trade  in 
negroes,  as  slaves,  to  and  from  any  part 
of  Africa  between  Sal  lee,  in  South  Bar- 
bary,  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  to  all 
the  subjects  of  the  King  of  England.  This 
was  designed  to  fill  the  colonies  with 
slaves,  who  should  neither  trouble  Great 
Britain  with  fears  of  encouraging  political 
independence  nor  compete  with  their  in- 
dustry with  British  workshops;  neither 
would  they  leave  their  employers  the  en- 
tire security  that  might  enable  them  to 
prepare  a  revolt. 


surrendered  to  the  crown,  the  colony  had       James  Somerset,  a  negro  slave  of  James 

all  the  privileges  accorded  to  others,  and    Stewart,    was     taken     from    Virginia     to 

flourished.  England,   where   he   refused   to   serve   his 

To     completely     enslave     the     English-    master  any  longer.     Stewart  caused  him 



to  be  arrested  and  put  on  board  a  vessel  instrument.      A    compromise    was    agreed 

to  be  conveyed  to  Jamaica.    Being  brought  to  by  the   insertion  of  a   clause    (art.   I., 

before   Chief-Justice  Mansfield   on   a   writ  sec.   9,  clause   1)    in  the  Constitution,  as 

of   habeas   corpus    (December,    1771),   his  follows:    "The  migration  or  importation 

— I" "  "  "  u:% 


case  was  referred  to  the  full  court,  where 
it  was  argued  for  the  slave  by  the  great 
philanthropist,  Granville  Sharp.  Tlie  de- 
cision would  affect  the  estimated  number 
of  14,000  slaves  then  with  their  masters 
in  England,  involving  a  loss  to  their 
owners  of  $3,500,000.  After  a  careful 
judicial  investigation  of  the  subject  in  its 
legal  aspects,  Chief-Justice  Mansfield  gave 
the  decision  of  the  court  that  slavery  was 
contrary  to  the  laws  of  England — that 
slavery  could  not  exist  there.  "  Whatever 
inconveniences,  therefore,  may  follow  from 
the  decision,"  he  said,  "  I  cannot  say  this 
case  is  allowed  or  approved  by  the  law  of 
England,  and  therefore  the  black  must  be 

The  question  of  prohibiting  the  African 
slave-trade  by  a  provision  in  the  national 
f'onstitution  caused  much  and  warm  de- 
bate in  the  convention  that  framed  that 

of  such  persons  as  any  of  the  States  now 
existing  shall  think  proper  to  admit  shall 
not  be  prohibited  by  the  Congress  prior  to 
the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eight;  but  a  tax,  or  duty,  may  be  im- 
posed on  such  importation,  not  exceeding 
ten  dollars  for  each  person."  The  idea  of 
prohibiting  the  African  slave-trade,  then 
warmly  advocated,  was  not  new.  In  1774 
the  Continental  Congress,  while  releasing 
the  colonies  from  other  provisions  of  the 
American  Association  (g.  v.),  had  ex- 
pressly resolved  "  that  no  slave  be  im- 
ported into  any  of  the  United  States." 
Delaware,  by  her  constitution,  and  Vir- 
ginia and  Maryland  by  special  laws,  had 
prohibited  the  importation  of  slaves.  Simi- 
lar prohibitions  were  in  force  in  all  the 
more  northern  States ;  but  they  did  not 
prevent  the  merchants  of  those  States 
from    carrying    on    the    slave-trade    else- 



where,  and  already  soiiie  New  England 
ships  were  engaged  in  a  traflic  from  the 
African  coast  to  Georgia  and  South  Caro- 
lina. These  States  were  forgetful  of  or 
indifferent  to  the  pledges  they  had  made 
through  their  delegates  in  the  face  of  the 
world  by  their  concurrence  in  the  Dec- 
laration of  Independence,  and  seemed 
fully  determined  to  maintain  not  only  the 
slave  system  of  labor,  but  the  nefarious 
slave-trade.  North  Carolina  did  not  pro- 
hibit the  traffic,  but  denounced  the  further 
importation  of  slaves  into  the  State  as 
"  highly  impolitic,"  and  imposed  a  heaA-y 
duty  on  future  importations. 

On  the  demand  of  Henry  Laurens,  of 
South  Carolina,  who  entered  into  the 
negotiations  for  a  preliminary  treaty  of 
peace,  at  a  late  hour,  a  clause  in  the 
treaty  (1782)  was  interlined,  prohibiting, 
in  the  British  evacuation,  the  "  carry- 
ing away  any  negroes  or  other  property  of 
the  inhabitants."  So  this  treaty  of  peace, 
in  which  no  word  had,  excepting  indirectly, 
indicated  the  existence  of  slavery  in  the 
United  States,  made  known  to  the  world 
that  men  could  be  held  as  property. 

The  legislature  of  Connecticut,  early 
in  1784,  passed  an  act  that  no  negro  or 
mulatto  child  born  within  that  State  after 
March  1  that  year  should  be  held  in  servi- 
tude longer  than  until  the  age  of  twenty- 
five  years. 

In  1788  the  captain  of  a  vessel  in  Boston 
seized  three  colored  persons,  took  them  to 
the  West  Indies,  and  sold  them  there  for 
slaves.  This  event  caused  the  legislature 
of  Massachusetts  to  pass  a  law  to  prevent 
the  slave-trade  in  that  State,  and  for 
granting  relief  to  the  families  of  such 
persons  as  may  be  kidnapped  or  decoyed 
from  the  commonwealth.  The  law  sub- 
jected to  a  heavy  penalty  any  person  who 
should  forcibly  take  or  detain  any  negro 
for  the  purpose  of  transportation  as  a 
slave,  and  the  owner  of  the  A'essel  in  which 
such  kidnapped  man  should  be  carried 
nway  incurred,  also,  a  hea^vy  penalty.  The 
insurance  on  the  vessel  was  made  void ; 
and  the  relatives  of  the  person  kidnapped, 
if  the  latter  were  sold  into  slavery  in  a 
distant  country,  were  allowed  to  prosecute 
for  the  crime. 

On  May  12,  1789,  a  tariff  bill  having 
been  reported  to  Congress,  and  being 
under   discussion   on  the  question   of   its 



second  reading,  Parker,  of  Virginia,  moved 
to  insert  a  clause  imposing  a  duty  of  $10 
on  every  slave  imported.  "  He  was  sorry," 
he  said,  "  the  Constitution  prevented  Con- 
gress from  prohibiting  the  importation 
altogether.  It  was  contrary  to  revolu- 
tionary principles,  and  ought  not  to  be 
permitted."  A  warm  debate  ensued.  It 
called  forth  the  opposition  of  South  Caro- 
linians and  Georgians  particularly.  Jack- 
son, of  Georgia,  made  a  vehement  speech 
in  opposition,  in  the  course  of  which  he 
said  he  hoped  the  proposition  would  be 
withdrawn,  and  that  if  it  should  be 
brought  forward  again  it  would  compre- 
hend "  the  white  slaves  as  well  as  the 
black  imported  from  all  the  jails  of  Eu- 
rope —  wretches  convicted  of  the  most 
flagrant  crimes,  who  were  brought  in  and 
sold  without  any  duty  whatever."  This 
was  an  allusion  to  the  indentured  white 
servants  who  were  sold  by  the  captains  of 
vessels  on  their  arrival  here  to  pay  the 
cost  of  their  passage,  a  practice  which 
had  beeen  put  a  stop  to  by  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  but  partially  revived.  Tlie 
motion  was  finally  withdrawn. 

In  1804  a  provision  was  inserted  into 
the  act  organizing  the  Territory  of  Or- 
leans, that  no  slaves  should  be  carried 
thither,  except  from  some  part  of  the 
United  States,  by  citizens  removing  into 
the  Territory  as  actual  settlers,  this  per- 
mission not  to  extend  to  negroes  intro- 
duced into  the  United  States  since  1798. 
The  object  of  this  provision  was  to  guard 
against  the  effects  of  an  act  recently 
adopted  by  the  legislature  of  South  Caro- 
lina for  reviving  the  slave-trade  after  a 
cessation  of  it,  as  to  that  State,  for  fifteen 
years,  and  of  six  years  as  to  the  whole 
Union.  This  was  a  consequence  of  the 
vast  increase  and  profitableness  of  cotton 
culture,  made  so  by  Whitney's  cotton- 

On  Feb.  15,  1804,  the  legislature  of  New 
Jersey,  by  an  almost  unanimous  vote, 
passed  an  act  to  abolish  slavery  in  that 
State  by  securing  freedom  to  all  persons 
born  there  after  July  4  ne.xt  ensuing,  the 
children  of  slave  parents  to  become  free, 
masculine  at  twenty-five  years  of  age, 
feminine  at  twenty-one. 

The  rapid  extension  of  settlements  in 
ihe  Southwest  after  the  War  of  1812-15, 
and  the  great  profits  derived  there  from 


the  cultivation  of  cotton,  not  only  caused 
the  revival  of  the  African  slave-trade,  in 
spite  of  prohibitory  laws,  but  it  gave 
occasion  to  a  rival  domestic  slave-trade, 
of  which  the  national  capital  had  become 
one  of  the  centres,  where  it  was  carried 
on  by  professional  traffickers  in  human 
beings.  They  bought  up  the  slaves  of  im- 
poverished planters  of  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia, and  sold  them  at  large  profits  in 
the  cotton-growing  districts  of  the  South 
and  West.  This  new  traffic,  which  includ- 
ed many  of  the  worst  features  of  the  Af- 
rican slave-trade,  was  severely  denounced 
by  John  Randolph,  of  Virginia,  as  "  hein- 
ous and  abominable,  inhuman  and  illegal." 
This  opinion  was  founded  on  facts  re- 
ported by  a  committee  of  inquiry.  Gov. 
D.  R.  Williams,  of  South  Carolina,  de- 
nounced the  traffic  as  "  remorseless  and 
cruel";  a  "ceaseless  dragging  along  the 
streets  and  highways  of  a  crowd  of  suffer- 
ing victims  to  minister  to  insatiable  ava- 
rice," condemned  alike  by  "  enlightened 
humanity,  wise  policy,  and  the  prayers  of 

the  just."  The  governor  urged  that  it 
had  a  tendency  to  introduce  slaves  of  all 
descriptions  from  other  States,  "  defiling 
the  delightful  avocations  of  private  life  " 
'*  by  the  presence  of  convicts  and  male- 
factors." The  legislature  of  South  Caro- 
lina passed  an  act  forbidding  the  intro- 
duction of  slaves  from  other  States.  A 
similar  act  was  passed  by  the  Georgia 
legislature.  This  legislation  was  fre- 
quently resorted  to  on  occasions  of  alarm, 
but  the  profitable  extension  of  cotton 
cultivation  and  the  demand  for  slave  labor 
overcame  all  scruples.  Within  two  years 
after  its  passage  the  prohibitory  act  of 
South  Carolina  was  repealed.  The  inter- 
State  slave-traffic  was  carried  on  exten- 
sively until  slavery  was  abolished  in  1863. 
A  Richmond  newspaper,  in  1861,  urging 
Virginia  to  join  the  Southern  Confederacy, 
which  had  prohibited  the  traffic  between 
them  and  States  that  would  not  join 
them,  gave  as  a  most  urgent  reason  for 
such  an  act  that,  if  it  were  not  accom- 
plished, the  "  Old  Dominion  "  would  lose 





this   trade,   amounting   annually   to   from 
$13,000,000  to  $20,000,000. 

When  Admiral  Cockburn  began  his 
marauding  expedition  on  the  American 
coast  in  the  spring  of  1813,  he  held  out  a 
promise  of  freedom  to  all  slaves  who 
should  join  his  standard.  Many  were 
seduced  on  board  his  vessels,  but  found 
themselves  wretchedly  deceived.  Intelli- 
gence of  these  movements  reached  the 
plantations  farther  south,  and,  in  the 
summer  of  1813,  secret  organizations  were 
formed  among  the  slaves  to  receive  and 
co-operate  with  Cockburn's  army  of  liber- 

Wrest   the    scourge   from   Buckra's    hand, 
And  drive  each  tyrant  from  the  land ! 

(  Chorus. ) 

"  Firm,  united  let  us  be. 
Resolved  on  death  or  liberty ! 
As  a  band  of  patriots  joined, 
Peace  and  plenty  we  shall  find." 

They  held  meetings  every  night,  and 
had  arranged  a  plan  for  the  rising  of 
all  the  slaves  in  Charleston  when  the 
British  should  appear.  At  one  of  the 
meetings    the    question,    "  What    shall    be 

ation,  as  they  supposed  it  to  be.     One  of    done  with  the  white  people?"  was  warmly 

these  secret  organizations  met  regularly 
on  St.  John's  Island,  near  Charleston. 
Their  leader  was  a  man  of  great  sagacity 
and  influence;,  and  their  meetings  were 
opened  and  closed  by  singing  a  hymn  com- 
posed by  that  leader — a  sort  of  parody  of 
Bail  Columbia.  The  following  is  the  last  of 
the  three  stanzas  of  the  hymn  alluded  to: 

••  Arise  !  arise  !  shake  off  your  chains  ! 
Your  cause  is  just,   so  Heaven  ordains ; 
To  you  shall  freedom  be  proclaimed ! 

Raise    your    arms    and    bare    your    breasts, 
Almighty  God  will  do  the  rest. 
Blow  the  clarion's  warlike  blast ; 
Call  every  negro  from  his  task ; 

discussed.  Some  advocated  their  indis- 
criminate slaughter  as  the  only  security 
for  liberty,  and  this  seemed  to  be  the  pre- 
vailing opinion,  when  the  leader  and  the 
author  of  the  hymn  came  in  and  said: 
"  Brethren,  you  know  me.  You  know  that 
I  am  ready  to  gain  your  liberty  and  mine. 
But  not  one  needless  drop  of  blood  must 
be  shed.  I  have  a,  master  whom  I  love, 
and  the  man  who  takes  his  life  must  pass 
over  my  dead  body."  Had  Cockburn  been 
faithful  to  his  promises  to  the  negroes, 
and  landed  and  declared  freedom  to  the 
slaves  of  South  Carolina,  no  doubt  many 
thousands  of  colored  people  would  have 


flocked    to    his    standard.      But    he    was  couraged    by    the    practical    sympathy    ot 

content    to    fill    his    pockets    by    plunder-  the   national   government,    the   friends   of 

ing  and   carrying   on   a   petty   slave-trade  the    slave-labor   system   formed   plans   for 

for  his  private  gain.  its    perpetuity,    which    practically    disre- 

On  March  13,  1824,  articles  of  conven-  garded  the  plain  requirements  of  the 
tion  between  the  United  States  and  Great  fundamental  law.  They  resolved  to  re- 
Britain  were  signed  at  London,  by  diplo-  open  the  African  slave-trade.  Africans 
matists  appointed  for  the  purpose,  pro-  were  kidnapped  in  their  native  country, 
viding  for  the  adoption  of  measures  to  brought  across  the  sea,  and  landed  on  our 
suppress  the  African  slave-trade.  The  shores  as  in  colonial  times,  and  placed  in 
first  article  provided  that  the  command-  perpetual  slavery.  In  Louisiana,  leading 
ers  and  commissioned  officers  of  each  of  citizens  engaged  in  a  scheme  for  legal- 
the  two  contracting  powers,  duly  author-  izing  the  traffic,  under  the  guise  of  what 
ized  to  cruise  on  the  coast  of  Africa,  of  they  called  the  African  Labor-supply  As- 
America.  and  of  the  West  Indies,  for  the  sociation,  of  which  James  B.  De  Bow, 
suppression  of  the  slave-traffic,  were  em-  editor  of  De  Boio's  Review,  published  in 
powered,  under  certain  restrictions,  to  New  Orleans,  was  president.  His  Review 
detain,  examine,  capture,  and  deliver  over  was  the  acknowledged  organ  of  the  slave- 
for  trial  and  adjudication  by  some  compe-  holders,  and  wielded  extensive  and  power- 
tent  tribunal,  any  ship  or  vessel  con-  ful  influence  when  the  flames  of  the  Civil 
cerned  in  the  illicit  traffic  in  slaves,  and  War  were  kindling.  In  Georgia,  negroes 
carrying  the  flag  of  either  nation.  This  from  Africa  were  landed  and  sold,  and 
convention  was  signed  by  Richard  Bush  when  a  grand  jury  at  Savannah  was  com- 
for  the  United  States,  and  by  W.  Hus-  pelled  by  law  to  flnd  several  bills  against 
kisson  and  Sir  Stratford  Canning  for  persons  engaged  in  the  traffic,  or  charged 
Great  Britain.  with   complicity   in   the   slave-trade,   they 

On  March  6,  1857,  Roger  B.  Taney,  protested  against  the  law  they  were  com- 
chief-justice  of  the  United  States,  and  a  pelled  to  support.  "  We  feel  humbled," 
majority  of  his  associates  in  the  Supreme  they  said,  "  as  men,  conscious  that  we  are 
Court,  uttered  an  extra-judicial  opinion,  born  freemen  but  in  name,  and  that  we 
that  any  person  who  had  been  a  slave,  or  are  living,  during  the  existence  of  such 
was  a  descendant  of  a  slave,  could  not  en-  laws,  under  a  tyranny  as  supreme  as  that 
joy  the  rights  of  citizenship  in  the  United  of  the  despotic  governments  of  the  Old 
States.  Five  years  afterwards  (1862)  World.  Heretofore  the  people  of  the 
Secretary  Seward  issued  a  passport  to  a  South,  flrm  in  their  consciousness  of  right 
man  who  had  been  a  slave  to  travel  abroad  and  strength,  have  failed  to  place  the 
as  "  a  citizen  of  the  United  States."  Six  stamp  of  condemnation  upon  such  laws 
jears  later  still  (July  20,  1868)  the  na-  as  reflect  upon  the  institution  of  slavery, 
tional  Constitution  was  so  amended  that  but  have  permitted,  unrebuked,  the  in- 
all  persons,  of  whatever  race  or  color,  fluence  of  foreign  opinion  to  prevail."  The 
born  or  naturalized  in  the  United  States.  True  Southron,  published  in  Mississippi, 
and  subject  to  the  jurisdiction  thereof,  suggested  the  "  propriety  of  stimulating 
are  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  of  the  zeal  of  the  pulpit  by  founding  a  prize 
the  State  wherein  they  reside.  By  the  for  the  best  sermon  on  free-trade  in 
same  amendment  every  civil  right  was  negroes."  This  proposition  was  approved, 
given  to  every  such  person.  And  by  a  and  pulpits  exhibited  zeal  in  the  cause, 
subsequent  amendment  (1860)  it  was  de-  James  H.  Thornwell,  D.D.,  president  of 
creed  that  "  the  rights  of  any  of  the  the  Presbyterian  Theological  Seminary  in 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  or  any  Columbus,  S.  C,  asserted  his  conviction 
State,  on  account  of  race,  color,  or  previ-  that  the  African  slave-trade  formed  the 
ou.s  condition  of  servitude  should  not  be  most  worthy  of  all  missionary  societies. 
abridged."  Southern     legislatures     and     conventions 

By  a   provision  of  the  national  Consti-  openly  discussed  the  subject  of  reopening 

tution     the     foreign     slave-trade     in     the  the   slave-trade.      The   Southern   Commer- 

United    States    was    abolished,    and    Con-  cial  Convention,  held  in  Vicksburg,  Miss., 

gress   declared    it   to   be   "piracy."      En-  May  11,  1859,  resolved,  by  a  vote  of  47  to 




16,  that  "  all  laws,  State  or  federal,  pro- 
hibiting the  African  slave-trade  ought  to 
be  abolished."  It  was  warmly  advocated 
by  several  men  who  became  Confederate 
leaders  in  the  Civil  War.  The  late  John 
Slideix  (7.  v.),  of  Louisiana,  urged  in 
the  United  States  Senate  the  propriety  of 
withdrawing  American  cruisers  from  the 
coasts  of  Africa,  that  the  slave-trade 
might  not  be  interfered  with  by  them. 
When,  in  the  summer  of  1858,  it  was 
known  that  the  traffic  was  to  be  carried 
on  actively  by  the  African  Labor-supply 
Association,  the  British  cruisers  in  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  were  unusually  vigilant, 
and  in  the  course  of  a  few  weeks  boarded 
about  fifty  American  vessels  suspected  of 
being  slavers.    The  influence  of  the  slave- 


holders  was  brought  to  bear  so  powerfully 
upon  the  administration  that  the  govern- 
ment protested  against  what  it  was  pleased 
to  call  the  "  odious  British  doctrine  of  the 
right  of  search."  The  British  government, 
for  "  prudential  reasons,"  put  a  stop  to 
the  practice  and  laid  the  blame  on  the 
officers  of  the  cruisers. 

On  April  7,  1862,  a  treaty  was  con- 
cluded iDetween  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britain  for  the  suppression  of  the 
African  slave-trade,  and  signed  at  the 
city  of  Washington,  D.  C.  By  it  ships  of 
the  respective  nations  should  have  the 
right  of  search  of  suspected  slave-ships ; 
but  that  right  was  restricted  to  vessels  of 
war  authorized  expressly  for  that  object, 
and  in  no  ease  to  be  exercised  with  respect 


to  a  vessel  of  the  navy  of  either  of  the 
powers,  but  only  as  regards  merchant 
vessels.  Nothing  was  done  under  this 
treaty,  as  the  emancipation  proclamation 
and  other  circumstances  made  action  un- 

In  his  annual  message  to  the  Confeder- 
ate Congress  (Nov.  7,  1864),  President 
Davis  drew  a  gloomy  picture  of  the  condi- 
tion of  the  Confederate  finances  and  the 
military  strength.  He  showed  that  the 
Confederate  debt  was  $1,200,000,000,  with- 
out a  real  basis  of  credit,  and  a  paper  cur- 
rency depreciated  several  hundred  per 
cent.  It  had  been  recommended,  as  the  en- 
listments and  conscriptions  of  the  white 
people    failed    to    make    up    losses    in    the 

there  seems  to  be  no  reason  to  doubt  what 
should  then  be  the  decision";  and  he  sug- 
gested the  propriety  of  holding  out  to  the 
negro,  as  an  inducement  for  him  to  give 
faithful  service,  even  as  a  laborer  in  the 
army,  a  promise  of  his  emancipation  at 
the  end  of  the  war.  These  propositions 
and  suggestions  disturbed  the  slave- 
holders, for  they  indicated  an  acknowl- 
edgment on  the  part  of  "  the  government  " 
that  the  cause  was  reduced  to  the  alter- 
native of  liberating  the  slaves  and  relying 
upon  them  to  secure  the  independence  of 
the  Confederacy,  or  of  absolute  subjuga- 
tion. There  was  wide-spread  discontent; 
and  when  news  of  the  re-election  of  Presi- 
dent   Lincoln,    by    an    imprecedented    nia- 


f Confederate  army,  to  arm  the  slaves;  but 
this  was  considered  too  dangerous,  for 
tljey  would  be  more  likely  to  fight  for  the 
Nationals  than  for  the  Confederates. 
Davis  was  averse  to  a  general  arming  of 
the  negroes,  but  he  recommended  the  em- 
ployment of  40,000  of  them  as  pioneer  and 
engineer  laborers  in  the  army,  and  not  as 
soldiers,  excepting  in  the  last  extremity. 
"  Should  the  alternative  ever  be  pre- 
hf-Miad,"  he  said,  "  of  a  subjugation,  or 
che  employment  of  the  slave  as  a  soldier, 

jority,   reached    the   peojjle,    they   yearned 
for  peace  rather  than  for  independence. 

The   following   is   the    full    text   of   the 
fugitive-slave  law  of  1850: 


An  act  to  amend  and  supplementary  to 
the  act  entitled  "  An  act  respecting  fugi- 
tives from  justice  and  persons  escaping 
from  the  service  of  their  masters,"  ap- 
proved Feb.   12,   1793. 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House 
of  Picpresentatives  of  the  United  States  of 


America  in  Congress  assembled,  that  the  tory  proof  being  made,  with  authority  to 

persons  who  liave  been  or  may  hereafter  take  and  remove  such  fugitives  from  such 

be   appointed   commissioners   in   virtue   of  service    or    labor,    under    the    restrictions 

any  act  of  Congress,  by  the  circuit  courts  lierein   contained,   to   the   State   or   Terri- 

of  the  United  States,  and  who,  in  conse-  tory  from  which   such  persons  may  have 

quence  of   such  appointment,  are   author-  escaped  or  fled. 

ized  to  exercise  the  powers  that  any  jus-  Sec.  5.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
tice  of  the  peace,  or  other  magistrate  of  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  all  marshals  and 
any  of  the  United  States,  may  exercise  deputy  marshals  to  obey  and  execute  all 
in  respect  to  offenders  for  any  crime  or  warrants  and  precepts  issued  under  the 
offence  against  the  United  States,  by  ar-  provisions  of  this  act,  when  to  them  di- 
resting,  imprisoning,  or  bailing,  the  same,  rected;  and  should  any  marshal  or  deputy 
under  and  by  virtue  of  the  thirty-third  marshal  refuse  to  receive  such  warrant  or 
section  of  the  act  of  the  24th  of  Septem-  other  process  when  tendered,  or  to  use 
ber,  1789,  entitled,  "An  act  to  establish  all  proper  means  diligently  to  execute  the 
the  judicial  courts  of  the  United  States,"  same,  he  shall,  on  conviction  thereof,  be 
shall  be,  and  are  hereby  authorized  and  re-  fined  in  the  sum  of  $1,000,  to  the  use  of 
quired  to  exercise  and  discharge  all  the  such  claimant,  on  the  motion  of  such 
powers  and  duties  conferred  by  this  act.  claimant,  by  the  circuit  or  district  court 
Sec.  2.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  for  the  district  of  such  marshal ;  and  after 
the  superior  court  of  each  organized  terri-  arrest  of  such  fugitive  by  such  marshal  or 
tory  of  the  United  States  shall  have  the  his  deputy,  or  whilst  at  any  time  in  his 
same  power  to  appoint  commissioners  to  custody  under  the  provisions  imder  this 
take  acknowledgments  of  bail  and  afSda-  act,  should  such  fugitive,  whether 
vits,  and  to  take  depositions  of  witnesses  with  or  without  the  assent  of  such  marshal 
in  civil  causes,  which  is  now  possessed  or  his  deputy,  such  marshal  shall  be  liable 
by  the  Circuit  Court  of  the  United  States;  on  his  official  bond  to  be  prosecuted  for 
and  all  commissioners  who  shall  hereafter  the  benefit  of  such  claimant  for  the  full 
be  appointed  for  such  purposes  by  the  value  of  the  service  or  labor  of  said 
superior  court  of  any  organized  Territory  fugitive,  in  the  State,  Territory,  or  dis- 
of  the  United  States,  shall  possess  all  the  trict  whence  he  escaped;  and  the  better 
powers,  and  exercise  all  the  duties,  con-  to  enable  the  said  commissioners,  when 
ferred  by  the  law  upon  commissioners  ap-  thus  appointed,  to  execute  their  duties 
pointed  by  the  United  States  for  similar  faithfully  and  efficiently  in  conformity 
purposes,  and  shall  moreover  exercise  and  with  the  requirements  of  the  Constitu- 
discharge  all  the  powers  and  duties  con-  tion  of  the  United  States  and  of  this  act, 
ferred  by  this  act.  they  are  hereby  authorized  and  empowered, 
Sec.  3.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  within  their  counties,  respectively,  to  ap- 
the  circuit  courts  of  the  United  States,  point,  in  writing,  under  their  hands,  any 
and  the  superior  courts  of  each  organized  one  or  more  suitable  persons,  from  time 
Territory  of  the  United  States,  shall  from  to  time,  to  execute  all  such  warrants  and 
time  to  time  enlarge  the  number  of  com-  other  process  as  may  be  issued  by  them 
missioners,  with  a  view  to  reasonable  fa-  in  the  lawful  performance  of  their  respect- 
eilities  to  reclaim  fugitives  from  labor,  and  ive  duties,  with  authority  to  such  com- 
to  the  prompt  discharge  of  the  duties  missioners,  or  the  persons  to  be  appoint- 
imposed  by  this  act.  ed  by  them,  to  execute  process  as  afore- 
Sec.  4.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that  said  to  simimon  and  call  to  their  aid 
the  commissioners  above-named  shall  have  the  bystanders,  or  posse  comitatns  of  the 
concurrent  jurisdiction  with  the  judges  of  proper  county,  when  necessary  to  insure 
the  cireviit  and  district  courts  of  the  Unit-  a  faithful  observance  of  the  clause  of  the 
ed  States  in  their  respective  circuits  and  Constitution  referred  to,  in  conformity 
districts  within  the  several  States,  and  Avith  this  act;  and  all  good  citizens  are 
the  judges  of  the  superior  courts  of  the  hereby  commanded  to  aid  and  assist  in 
Territories,  severally  and  collectively,  in  the  prompt  and  efficient  execution  of  this 
term-time  and  vacation,  shall  grant  cer-  law,  whenever  their  services  may  be  re- 
tificates  to  such  claimants,  upon  satisfac-  quired,  as  aforesaid,  for  that  purpose;  and 



said  warrants  shall  run  and  be  executed 
by  said  officers  anywhere  in  the  Sl^te  with- 
in which  they  are  issued. 

Sec.  6.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
when  a  person  held  to  service  or  labor  in 
any  State  or  Territory  of  the  United 
States  has  heretofore  or  shall  hereafter 
escape  into  another  State  or  Territory  of 
the  United  States,  the  person  or  persons 
to  whom  such  service  or  labor  may  be  due, 
or  his,  her,  or  their  agent  or  attorney, 
duly  authorized  by  power  of  attorney,  in 
writing,  acknowledged  and  certified  under 
the  seal  of  some  legal  officer  or  court  of 
the  State  or  Territory  in  which  the  same 
may  be  executed,  may  pursue  and  reclaim 
such  fugitive  person,  either  by  procuring 
a  warrant  from  some  one  of  the  courts, 
judges,  or  commissioners  aforesaid,  of  the 
proper  circuit,  district,  or  county,  for  the 
apprehension  of  such  fugitive  from  ser- 
vice or  labor,  or  by  seizing  or  arresting 
such  fugitive,  where  the  same  can  be  done 
without  process,  and  hy  taking,  or  causing 
such  person  to  be  taken,  forthwith  before 
such  court,  judge,  or  commissioner,  whose 
duty  it  shall  be  to  hear  and  determine  the 
case  of  such  claimant  in  a  summary  man- 
ner; and  upon  satisfactory  proof  being 
made,  by  deposition  or  affidavit,  in  writ- 
ing, to  be  taken  and  certified  by  such 
court,  judge,  or  commissioner,  or  by  other 
satisfactory  testimony,  duly  taken  and 
certified  by  some  court,  magistrate,  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  or  other  legal  officer 
authorized  to  administer  an  oatli  and  take 
depositions  under  the  laws  of  the  State 
or  Territory  from  which  such  person  owing 
service  or  labor  may  have  escaped,  with 
a  certificate  of  such  magistracy  or  other 
authoritj',  as  aforesaid,  with  the  seal  of 
the  proper  court  or  officer  thereto  at- 
tached, which  seal  shall  be  sufficient  to 
establish  the  competency  of  the  proof,  and 
with  proof,  also  by  aflidavit,  of  the  iden- 
tity of  the  person  whose  service  or  labor 
is  claimed  to  be  due,  as  aforesaid,  that 
the  person  so  arrested  does  in  fact  owe 
fifrvice  or  labor  to  the  person  or  persons 
claiming  him  or  her,  in  the  State  or  Ter- 
ritory from  which  such  fugitive  may  have 
escaped  as  aforesaid,  and  that  said  per- 
son CHcapcA.  to  make  out  and  deliver  to 
such  claimant,  his  or  her  agent  or  at- 
torney, a  certificate  setting  forth  the  sub- 
stantial facts  as  to  the  service  or  labor 


due  from  such  fugitive  to  the  claimant, 
and  of  his  or  her  escape  from  the  State 
or  Territory  in  which  such  service  or  labor 
was  due,  to  the  State  or  Territory  in 
which  he  or  she  was  arrested,  with 
authority  to  such  claimant,  or  his 
or  her  agent  or  attorney,  to  use  such 
reasonable  force  and  restraint  as  may 
be  necessary,  under  the  circumstances  of 
the  case,  to  take  and  remove  such  fugi- 
tive person  back  to  the  State  or  Terri- 
tory whence  he  or  she  may  have  escaped 
as  aforesaid.  In  no  trial  or  hearing, 
under  this  act,  shall  the  testimony  of 
such  alleged  fugitive  be  admitted  in  evi- 
dence; and  the  certificates  in  this  and  the 
first  section  mentioned  shall  be  conclusive 
of  the  right  of  the  person  or  persons  in 
whose  favor  granted,  to  remove  such 
fugitive  to  the  State  or  Territory  from 
which  he  escaped,  and  shall  prevent  all 
molestation  of  such  person  or  persons, 
by  any  process  issued  by  any  court,  judge, 
magistrate,  or  other  persons  whomsoever. 
Sec.  7.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
any  person  who  shall  knowingly  and  will- 
ingly obstruct,  hinder,  or  prevent  such 
claimant,  his  agent  or  attorney,  or  any 
person  or  persons  lawfully  assisting  him, 
her,  or  them  from  arresting  such  a  fugi- 
tive from  service  or  labor,  either  with  or 
without  process  as  aforesaid;  or  shall 
rescue,  or  attempt  to  rescue,  such  fugitive 
from  service  or  labor  from  the  custody  of 
such  claimant,  his  or  her  agent  or  attor- 
ney, or  other  person  or  persons  lawfully 
assisting  as  aforesaid,  when  so  arrested, 
pursuant  to  the  authority  herein  given 
and  declaimed;  or  shall  aid,  abet,  or  assist 
such  person  so  owing  service  and  labor  as 
aforesaid,  directly  or  indirectly,  to  escape 
from  such  claimant,  his  agent  or  attorney, 
or  other  person  or  persons  legally  au- 
thorized as  aforesaid;  or  shall  harbor  or 
conceal  such  fugitive,  so  as  to  prevent  the 
discovery  and  arrest  of  such  person,  after 
notice  or  knowledge  of  the  fact  that  such 
person  was  a  fugitive  from  service  or 
labor  as  aforesaid,  shall,  for  either  of  said 
offences,  be  subject  to  a  fine  not  exceed- 
ing $1,000,  and  imprisonment  not  ex- 
ceeding six  months,  by  indictment  and  con- 
viction before  the  district  court  of  the 
United  States  for  the  district  in  which 
such  offence  may  have  been  committed,  or 
before  the  proper  court  of  criminal  juris- 


diction,  if  committed  within  any  one  of 
the  organized  Territories  of  the  United 
States;  and  shall  moreover  forfeit  and 
pay,  by  way  of  ci\il  damages  to  the  party 
injured  by  such  illegal  conduct,  the  sum 
of  $1,000  for  each  fugitive  so  lost  as  afore- 
said, to  be  recovered  by  action  of  debt, 
in  any  of  the  district  or  territorial  courts 
aforesaid,  within  whose  jurisdiction  the 
said  offence  may  have  been  committed. 

Sec.  8.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
the  marshals,  their  deputies,  and  the  clerks 
of  the  said  district  and  territorial  courts, 
shall  be  paid  for  their  services  the  like 
fees  as  maj'  be  allowed  to  them  for  similar 
services  in  other  cases;  and  where  such 
services  are  rendered  exclusively  in  the  ar- 
rest, custody,  and  delivery  of  the  fugitive 
to  the  claimant,  his  or  her  agent  or  at- 
torney, or  where  such  supposed  fugitive 
may  be  discharged  out  of  custody  for  the 
want  of  sufficient  proof  as  aforesaid,  then 
such  fees  are  to  be  paid  in  the  whole  by 
such  claimant,  his  agent  or  attorney;  and 
in  all  cases  where  the  proceedings  are  be- 
fore a  commissioner,  he  shall  be  entitled  to 
a  fee  of  $10  in  full  for  his  services  in 
each  case,  upon  the  delivery  of  the  said 
certificate  to  the  claimant,  his  or  her 
agent  or  attorney;  or  a  fee  of  $5  in  cases 
where  the  proof  shall  not,  in  the  opinion 
of  such  commissioner,  warrant  such  cer- 
tificate and  delivery,  inclusive  of  all  ser- 
vices incident  to  such  arrest  and  exami- 
nation, to  be  paid  in  either  case  by  the 
claimant,  his  or  her  agent  or  attorney. 
The  person  or  persons  authorized  to  exe- 
cute the  process  to  be  issued  by  such  com- 
missioners, for  the  arrest  and  detention  of 
fugitives  from  service  or  labor  as  afore- 
said, shall  also  be  entitled  to  a  fee  of  $5 
each  for  each  person  he  or  they  may  ar- 
rest and  take  before  any  such  commis- 
sioner as  aforesaid,  at  the  instance  and  re- 
quest of  such  claimant;  with  such  other 
fees  as  may  be  deemed  reasonable  by  such 
commissioner  for  such  other  additional 
services  as  may  be  necessarily  performed 
by  him  or  them;  such  as  attending  at  the 
examination,  keeping  the  fugitive  in  cus- 
tody, and  providing  him  with  food  and 
lodging  during  his  detention,  and  until 
the  final  determination  of  such  commis- 
sioner; and  in  general  for  performing  such 
other  duties  as  may  be  required  by  such 
claimant,  his  or  her  attorney  or  agent,  or 

commissioner  in  the  premises,  such  fees 
to  be  made  up  in  conformity  with  the  fees 
usually  charged  by  the  officers  of  the 
courts  of  justice  within  the  proper  dis- 
trict or  county,  as  near  as  may  be  prac- 
ticable, and  paid  by  such  claimants,  their 
agents  or  attorneys,  whether  such  sup- 
posed fugitives  from  service  or  labor  be 
ordered  to  be  delivered  to  such  claimants 
by  the  final  determination  of  such  com- 
missioner or  not. 

Sec.  9.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
upon  affidavit  made  by  the  claimant  of 
such  fugitive,  his  agent  or  attorney,  after 
such  certificate  has  been  issued,  that  he 
has  reason  to  apprehend  that  such  fugi- 
tive will  be  rescued  by  force  from  his  or 
their  possession  before  he  can  be  taken  be- 
yond the  limits  of  the  State  in  which  the 
a,rrest  is  made,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
officer  making  the  arrest  to  retain  such 
fugitive  in  his  custody,  and  to  remove  him 
to  the  State  whence  he  fled,  and  there  to 
deliver  him  to  said  claimant,  his  agent  or 
attorney.  And  to  this  end,  the  officer 
aforesaid  is  hereby  authorized  and  re- 
quired to  employ  so  many  persons  as  he 
may  deem  necessary  to  overcome  such 
force,  and  to  retain  them  in  his  service  so 
long  as  circumstances  may  require.  The 
said  officer  and  his  assistants,  while  so 
employed,  to  receive  the  same  compensa- 
tion, and  to  be  allowed  the  same  expenses, 
as  are  now  allowed  by  law  for  transporta- 
tion of  criminals,  to  be  certified  by  the 
judge  of  the  district  within  which  the  ar- 
rest is  made,  and  paid  out  of  the  treasury 
of  the   United   States. 

Sec.  10.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  that 
when  any  person  held  to  service  or  labor, 
in  any  State  or  Territory,  or  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia,  shall  escape  therefrom, 
the  party  to  whom  such  service  or  labor 
shall  be  due,  his,  her,  or  their  agent  or  at- 
torney, may  apply  to  any  court  of  record 
therein,  or  judge  thereof  in  vacation, 
and  make  satisfactory  proof  to  such  court, 
or  judge  in  vacation,  of  the  escape  afore- 
said, and  that  the  person  escaping  owed 
service  or  labor  to  such  party.  Where- 
upon, the  court  shall  cause  a  record  to  be 
made  of  the  matters  so  proved,  and  also 
a  general  description  of  the  person  so  es- 
caping, with  such  convenient  certainty  as 
may  be;  and  a  transcript  of  such  record, 
authenticated   by   the   attestation   ai   the 



elerk  and  of  the  seal  of  the  said  court, 
being  procured  in  any  other  State,  Ter- 
ritory, or  district,  in  which  the  person  so 
escaping  may  be  found,  and  being  exhib- 
ited to  any  judge,  commissioner,  or  other 
otBcer  authorized  by  the  law  of  the  United 
States  to  cause  persons  escaping  from 
service  or  labor  to  be  delivered  up,  shall 
be  held  and  taken  to  be  full  and  conclu- 
sive evidence  of  the  fact  of  escape,  and 
that  the  service  or  labor  of  the  person  es- 
caping is  due  to  the  party  in  such  record 
mentioned.  And  upon  the  production  of 
the  said  party  of  other  and  further  evi- 
dence, if  necessary,  either  oral  or  by  affi- 
davit, in  addition  to  what  is  contained  in 
the  said  record,  of  the  identity  of  the  per- 
son escaping,  he  or  she  shall  be  delivered 
up  to  the  claimant.  And  the  said  court, 
commissioner,  judge,  or  other  person  au- 
thorized by  this  act  to  grant  certificates 
to  claimants  of  fugitives,  shall,  upon  the 
production  of  the  record  and  other  evi- 
dences aforesaid,  grant  to  such  claimant  a 
certificate  of  his  right  to  take  any  such 
person  identified  and  proved  to  be  owing 
service  or  labor  as  aforesaid,  which  certifi- 
cate shall  authorize  such  claimant  to  seize 
or  arrest  and  transport  such  person  to  the 
State  or  territory  from  which  he  escaped: 
provided,  that  nothing  herein  contained 
shall  be  construed  as  requiring  the  pro- 
duction of  a  transcript  of  such  record  as 
evidence  as  aforesaid.  But  in  its  ab- 
sence, the  claim  shall  be  heard  and  deter- 
mined upon  other  satisfactory  proofs,  com- 
petent in  law. 

Howell  Cobb, 

Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 
William  R.  King, 
President  of  the  Senate  j)ro  tempore. 

Approved,  Sept.   18,   1850. 

Millard  Fillmore. 

For  additional  details  of  slavery  and 
the  slave-trade,  see  cognate  titles. 

Slemmer,  Adam  J.,  military  officer; 
born  in  Montgomery  county,  Pa.,  in  1828; 
graduated  at  West  Point  in  1850;  was 
promoted  for  gallant  conduct  in  the  Semi- 
nole War;  was  for  a  while  assistant  Pro- 
fessor of  Ethics  and  ^Mathematics  at  West 
Point,  and  was  in  command  of  a  small  gar- 
rison at  Fort  McRae,  near  Pensacola,  when 
the  Civil  War  broke  out.  He  took  his 
men  and  supplifs  to  stronger  Fort  Pickens, 
and  held  it  against  the  Confederates  until 

relieved  by  Colonel  Brown  (sci  Pickens 
Fort)  .  He  was  made  brigadier-general  ot 
volunteers  in  1862;  was  severely  wounded 
iu  the  battle  of  Stone  River,  and  was  dis- 
abled from  further  active  service.  Id 
March,  1865,  he  was  brevetted  brigadier 
general.  United  States  army,  and  was  af- 
terwards commandant  at  Fort  Laramie, 
Kan.,  where  he  died,  Oct.  7,  1868. 

Slidell,  John,  diplomatist;  born  in  New 
York  City  in  1793;  graduated  at  Columbia 
College  in  1810,  and  settled,  as  a  lawyer, 
in  New  Orleans,  where,  in  1829-30,  he  was 
United  States  district  attorney.  He  served 
in  the  State  legislature,  and  from  1843  to 
1845  was  in  Congress.  In  the  latter  year  he 
was  appointed  United  States  minister  to 
Mexico,  and  in  1853  was  elected  to  the 
United  States  Senate,  where  he  remained, 
by  re-election,  mitil  February,  1861.  He 
was  a  very  conspicuous  Confederate,  and 
withdrew  from  the  United  States  Senate 
to  engage  in  furthering  the  cause.  He 
was  sent  as  a  commissioner  of  the  Con- 
federacy to  France,  in  the  fall  of  1861, 
when  he  was  captured  by  a  cruiser  of  the 


tows  SLIDELU 

United  States  under  command  of  Capt, 
Charles  Wilkes  (q.  v.).  After  his  re- 
lease frojn  Fort  Warren,  he  sailed  for  Eng- 
land, Jan.  1,  1862,  where  he  resided  until 
his  death,  July  29,  1871. 

Slocum,  Henry  Warner,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Delphi,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  24, 
1827;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1852; 
resigned  in  1856,  and  settled  in  Syra- 
cuse   as    a    lawyer.     Early    in    the    CivL' 


War  he  was  corsimissioned 
colonel  o^  27th  New  York 
Volunteers;  joined  McDowell's 
troops,  and  took  part  in  the 
battle  of  Bull  Run,  where  he 
was  shot  through  the  thigh. 
He  was  made  brigadier-gen- 
eral of  volunteers  in  August, 
1861,  and  commanded  a  bri- 
gade in  Franklin's  division. 
He  served  with  distinction  in 
the  campaign  on  the  Peninsula, 
in  1862,  and  on  July  4,  1862, 
he  was  promoted  major-gen- 
eral. In  the  battle  of  Grove- 
ton  (or  second  battle  of  Bull 
Run ) ,  at  South  Mountain,  and 
Antietam,  he  was  signally  ac- 
tive, and  in  October,  1862,  was 
assigned  to  the  command  of 
the  12th  Corps,  which  he  led 
at  Fredericksburg,  Chancellors- 
ville,  and  Gettysburg.  At  the 
latter  he  commanded  the  right 
wing  of  Meade's  army.  From 
September,  1863,  to  April, 
1864,  he  guarded  the  Nashville 
and  Chattanooga  Railroad,  and 
in  the  Atlanta  campaign  com- 
manded the  20th  Corps.  In 
the  march  to  the  sea  he  com- 
manded one  of  the  grand  di- 
visions of  Sherman's  army;  also  through  After  a  series  of  exhaustive  experiments 
the  Carolinas,  until  the  surrender  of  John-  lasting  years,  a  board  composed  of  officers 
ston.  He  resigned  Sept.  28,  1865;  was  of  the  line  and  ordnance  experts,  all  rec- 
defeated  as  Democratic  candidate  for  sec-  ognized  authorities  on  the  subject,  de- 
retary  of  state  of  New  York  in  1865;  was  cided  that  the  Krag-Jorgenson  rifle,  cali- 
a  Presidential  elector  in  1868;  elected  to  bre  .30  inch,  was  the  best  gun,  and  in  all 
Congress  in  1868  and  1870,  and  as  Repre-  respects  superior  to  any  other,  and  should 
sentative  at  large  in  1884.  He  died  in  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  all  United  States 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  April  14,  1894.  troops.     This  report  was  approved  by  the 

Small,  JoiiN,  military  officer;  born  in  general  commanding  the  army  and  the 
Strathardle,  Scotland,  in  1726;  joined  the  Secretary  of  War,  both  of  whom  were 
British  army;  participated  in  the  attack  well  qualified  to  judge.  Notwithstanding 
on  Fort  Ticonderoga  in  1758;  promoted  this,  small  appropriations  only  were  made, 
captain  in  1762.  He  took  part  in  the  and  the  regular  army  at  the  outbreak  of 
battle  of  Bunker  Hill  in  1775;  served  the  war  with  Spain  had  barely  sufficient 
tinder  Sir  Henry  Clinton  at  New  York  in  arms  for  its  own  use.  The  result  wag 
1779;  promoted  lieutenant-colonel  in  1780;  that  the  old  weapons  used  before  the 
major-general  in  1794.  He  died  on  the  Krag-Jorgenson — the  Springfield,  calibre 
island  of  Guernsey,  March,  17,  1796.  .45  inch — was  placed  in  the  hands  of  most 

Small  -  arms.      The   year    1898    settled   of  the  volunteer  troops, 
most   conclusively  for  the  United   States       The  result  was  exactly  as  line  officers 
the  question  of  the  superiority  of  a  small    predicted,  the   comparative  uselessness  of 
calibre    small-arm    over    the    larger    sizes    the  Springfield.     The  Krag,  by  its  smoke- 
formerly  in  use.  less  powder  cartridges,  as  well  as  its  re- 




maikable  accuracy,  range,  and  power,  Small-pox.  In  1721  small-pox  made 
seemingly  was  as  mnch  to  be  praised  for  great  havoc  in  Boston  and  its  vicinity, 
the  winning  of  El  Caney,  San  Juan,  and  There  were  nearly  6,000  cases  in  New 
Santiago  as  the  bravery  and  endurance  England,  and  about  1,000  deaths.  Inocu- 
and  skill  of  the  men.  Armed  with  Spring-  lation  for  the  disease,  so  as  to  mitigate  its 
fields  only,  it  is  doubtful  whether  our  malignity,  had  just  been  introduced  into 
forces  would  ever  have  got  beyond  the  England  by  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montagu, 
sliores  of  Cuba.  Another  great  advantage  whose  son  had  been  so  treated  in  Con- 
of  the  small  calibre  is  the  effect  of  the  bul-  stantinople.  Her  daughter  was  the  first 
let.  At  short  ranges  it  is  terrible.  It  is  person  inoculated  in  England.  An  account 
what  the  surgeons  say  is  smashing,  tear-  of  the  innovation  had  been  previously  pub- 
ing  the  bones,  sinews,  and  flesh.  It  has,  lished  in  the  transactions  of  the  Eoyal 
therefore,  the  stopping  powers  to  be  de-  Society.  Dr.  Cotton  Mather,  having  read 
sired.  But  at  the  ordinary  fighting  ranges,  the  account,  recommended  the  physicians 
where  most  of  the  killing  and  wound-  of  Boston  to  try  the  operation.  None 
ing  occur,  as  well  as  at  long  ranges,  the  dared  attempt  it  excepting  Dr.  Zabdiel 
small  bullet  is  a  merciful  punisher.  The  Boylston,  who,  to  show  his  confidence  of 
hole  made  by  it  is  small,  clean-cut,  and  success,  began  with  his  own  family,  and 
scarcely  felt.  In  the  Cuban  campaign  continued  the  practice  against  violent  op- 
there  were  but  eleven  amputations,  and  position.  Pious  persons  denounced  it  as 
every  case  recovered.  an   interference  with   the  prerogatives  of 

In  official  tests  made  recently  comparing  Jehovah — an  attempt  to  thwart  God,  who 
the  iMaiiser,  calibre  .30,  and  the  Krag-  sent  the  small-pox  as  a  punishment  for 
Jorgenson,  calibre  .30,  rifles,  it  was  shown  sins,  and  whose  vengeance  would  thus  be 
that  from  either  gun  twenty  shots  a  min-  provoked  more.  Other  physicians  de- 
ute  with  a  good  degree  of  accuracy  could  nounced  the  practice,  and  many  sober 
be  fired,  while  without  aiming  twenty  shots  people  declared  that  if  any  of  Dr.  Boyl- 
could  be  fired  in  forty  seconds.  When  ston's  inoculated  patients  should  die  he 
used  as  single  loaders  it  was  shown  that  cught  to  be  tried  for  murder.  An  ex- 
forty  shots  could  be  fired  with  great  ac-  asperated  mob  paraded  the  streets  with 
curacy  in  two  minutes,  while  the  continu-  halters  in  their  hands,  threatening  to 
ity  of  magazine  fire  with  either  did  not  hang  the  inoculators,  and  Dr.  Boylston's 
exceed  that  of  the  same  when  employed  family  was  hardly  safe  in  his  ovra  house, 
as  single  loaders.  A   lighted   grenade   was   thrown   into   the 

Some  of  the  conclusions  reached  by  chamber  of  an  inoculated  patient  in  the 
medical  officers  as  to  the  effects  of  new  house  of  Dr.  Cotton  Mather.  The  se- 
small-calibre  guns  and  powerful  powders  lectmen  of  Boston  took  strong  ground 
are:  1.  That  while  weapons  like  the  Mau-  against  inoculation;  so,  also,  did  the  popu- 
ser  leave  nothing  to  be  desired  on  the  score  lar  branch  of  the  legislature.  The  violent 
of  humanity,  they  are  failures  in  that  opposition  of  the  physicians,  led  by  a 
they  do  not  serve  the  special  service  for  Scotchman  named  Douglas,  was  the  chief 
which  they  were  intended.  Soldiers  fire  cause  of  the  excitement.  When  news  ar- 
with  the  intention  of  putting  as  many  as  rived  of  the  success  attending  the  opera- 
possible  of  the  enemy  hors  de  combat,  but  tion  on  Lady  Mary's  daughter  (performed 
when  the  bullets  bore  neat  little  holes  the  same  month  that  Dr.  Boylston  intro- 
th rough  flesh  and  bone,  and,  except  when  duced  it  in  Boston)  opposition  was  soon 
vital  organs  are  traversed,  cause  no  shock  silenced,  and  inoculation  was  extensively 
to  the  system,  then  the  soldier's  task  is  practised  in  the  colonies  until  Jenner's 
more  difficult.  In  other  words,  guns  of  the  greater  discovery  of  the  merits  of  vaccina- 
Mauser  type  prolong  conflicts.   2.  The  mis-  tion  for  the  kine-pox. 

Biles  from  new  rifles  do  greater  harm  or  Smalley,    Eugene    Virgil,    journalist; 

are  more  effective  at  long  range  than  at  born  in  Randolph,  O.,  July  18,  1841;  edu- 

short,  but,  unlike  the  old  bullets,  clothing  cated  at  Central  College;   member  of  the 

is  not  HO  apt  to  be  carried  into  the  flesh,  7th  Ohio  Infantry  during  the  Civil  War; 

and  thus  poison  it.     ?,.  Abdominal  wounds  served  as  correspondent  and  on  the  staff 

are  now  almost  always  fatal.  of   the   New   York    Tribune   in    1871-82; 



later  became  editor  of  the  'Northwest  Mag- 
azine in  St.  Paul,  Minn.  He  was  the 
author  of  A  History  of  the  Republican 
Party;  Political  History  of  Minnesota; 
and  History  of  the  Northern  Pacific  Rail- 
road. He  died  in  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  Dee. 
29,  1899. 

Smalley,  George  Washburn,  journal- 
ist; born  in  Franklin,  Mass.,  June  2,  1833; 
graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1853;  studied 
law  and  practised  in  Boston  till  the  Civil 
War  broke  out,  when  he  became  war  corre- 
spondent for  the  New  York  Tribune.  He 
joined  its  editorial  staff  in  1862;  removed 
to  London;  Avas  foreign  correspondent  for 
the  Tribune  in  1867-95;  and  in  the  lat- 
ter year  became  correspondent  for  the  Lon- 
don Times  in  the  United  States. 

Smallwood,  William,  military  officer; 
born  in  Kent  county,  Md.,  in  1732;  be- 
came a  colonel  in  the  Maryland  line  in 
1776,  and  his  battalion,  which  joined 
Washington,  at  New  York,  before  the  bat- 
tle of  Long  Island,  was  composed  of  men 
belonging  to  the  best  families  of  his  native 
State.     These  suffered  in  that  battle,  at 


which  Smallwood  was  not  present.  He 
was  in  the  action  at  White  Plains,  about 
two  months  later;  and  when,  late  in  the 
summer  of  1777,  the  British,  under  the 
Howes,  appeared  in  Chesapeake  Bay,  he 
was  sent  to  gather  the  militia  on  the 
western  shore  of  Maryland.     With  about 

1,000  of  these  he  joined  Washington  after 
the  battle  of  Brandywine.  He  was  in  the 
battle  of  Germantown  with  his  militia. 
While  with  Gates,  in  the  South,  he  was 
promoted  major-general  (Sept.  15,  1780), 
and  soon  afterwards  he  returned  to  the 
North.  Smallwood  refused  to  serve  under 
Baron  de  Steuben,  who  was  his  seniol 
officer,  and  demanded  that  his  own  com 
mission  should  be  dated  two  years  before 
his  appointment.  He  was  a  member  of 
Congress  in  1785,  and  governor  of  Mary- 
land in  1785-88.  He  died  in  Prince 
George  county,  Md.,  Feb.   14,  1792. 

Smibert,  or  Smybert,  John,  portrait- 
painter;  born  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland, 
about  1684;  studied  in  Italy  and  painted 
in  London,  and  in  1728  accompanied  Dean 
Berkeley  to  America.  He  painted  the 
portraits  of  many  New  England  worthies 
The  only  portrait  of  Jonathan  Edward*; 
ever  made  was  painted  by  Smibert,  who 
died  in  Boston  in  1751.  Smibert  intro- 
duced portrait-painting  into  America.  He 
was  not  an  artist  of  the  first  rank,  for 
the  arts  were  then  at  a  low  ebb  in  Eng- 
land; but  the  best  portraits  that  we  have 
of  the  eminent  magistrates  and  divines 
in  New  England  and  New  York,  who  lived 
between  1725  and  1751,  are  from  his  pen- 
cil. While  with  Berkeley  at  Newport  he 
painted  a  gi'oup  of  portraits,  including 
the  dean  and  a  part  of  his  family,  in  which 
the  figure  of  the  artist  appears.  The 
picture  belongs  to  Yale  College. 

Smith,  Andrew  Jackson,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Bucks  county,  Pa.,  April  28, 
1S15;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1838; 
entered  the  dragoons;  served  in  the  war 
against  Mexico  and  against  the  Indians 
in  Oregon  (1855-60)  ;  and  when  the  Civil 
War  broke  out  he  was  promoted  major  of 
cavalry.  He  was  chief  of  cavalry  in  the 
Department  of  Missouri  in  the  spring  of 
1862,  and  in  the  Department  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi from  March  to  July.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  active  and  useful  officers  in  the 
Southwest,  commanding  divisions  in  Mis- 
souri and  Arkansas,  in  the  Vicksburg  and 
Red  RiA'er  campaigns,  and  afterwards 
(1864)  in  driving  Price  out  of  Missouri, 
and  assisting  Thomas  against  Hood  at 
Nashville.  He  was  in  the  Mobile  campaign, 
early  in  1865.  For  his  services  during  the 
war  he  was  brevetted  major-general  and 
commissioned  colonel  of  tl^e  7th  United 




States  Cavalry.   He  resigned  in  May,  1869, 
and  died  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  in  1897. 

ers.  At  the  National  Republican  Conven- 
tion in  Chicago  in  1860  he  actively  favored 
the  nomination  of  Abraham  Lincoln  for 
the  Presidency,  and  in  1861  was  appointed 
by  him  Secretary  of  the  Interior.  He  re- 
signed this  office  in  December,  1862,  on 
being  appointed  United  States  Circuit 
Judge  for  Indiana.  He  died  in  Indianap- 
olis. Ind.,  Jan.  7,  1864. 

Smith,  Charles  Ferguson,  military 
officer;  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  April 
24,  1807;  graduated  at  West  Point  in 
182.5,  and  was  assistant  instructor  of 
tactics  there  from  1829  to  1831.  He  was 
adjvitant  of  the  post  from  September,  1831, 
to  April,  1838,  and  then  again  instructor, 
till  1842.  He  served  in  the  w^r  against 
Mexico,  received  the  brevet  of  colonel,  and 
was  made  full  colonel  in  September,  1861. 
In  August,  1861,  he  was  promoted  'briga- 
dier-general of  volunteers,  and  in  March, 
1862,  major-general,  after  the  capture  of 
Fort  Donelson.  He  was  afterwards  order- 
ed to  Savannah,  Tenn.,  where  he  died, 
April  25,  1862. 

Smith,  Charles  Emoey,  journalist; 
born  in  Mansfield,  Conn.,  Feb.  18,  1842; 
graduated  at   Union  College,   1861.     Sue- 

Smith,  Buckingham, historian;  born  on  cessively  editor  of  the  Albany  Press,  1865, 
Cumberland  Island,  Ga.,  Oct.  31,  1810;  Albany  Journal,  1870,  Philadelphia  Press, 
graduated  at  Cambridge  Law  School  in  1880  to  the  present  time,  tfnited  States 
1836;  elected  to  the  Florida  legislature;  Minister  to  Russia,  1890-92;  Postmaster- 
was  secretary  of  the  United  States  lega-  General  of  the  United  States,  1898-1902, 
tion  at  Mexico  in  1850-52,  and  at  Madrid  Smith,  Charles  Henry,  military  officer ; 
in  185.5-58;  and  later  settled  in  Florida,  born  in  Hollis,  Me.,  Nov.  1,  1827;  was 
where  he  became  a  judge  and  a  member  made  captain  of  the  1st  Maine  Cavalry 
of  the  State  Senate.  He  made  many  soon  after  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War ; 
important  researches  in  Indian  philology,  rose  to  colonel  in  the  spring  of  1863,  and 
Mexican  history  and  antiquities,  and  was  actn-e  as  a  cavalry  officer  in  the  cam- 
early  Spanish  expeditions  in  North  Amer-  paigns  in  Virginia  and  at  Gettysburg  that 
ica.  He  aided  Bancroft,  Paikman,  and  year.  He  was  with  Sheridan  in  his  oper- 
Sparks  in  their  researches,  and  published  aiions  in  May  and  June,  1864,  and  was  one 
An  Inquiry  into  the  Authenticity  of  Doc-  of  the  most  efficient  cavalry  officers  of  tne 
uments  concerning  a  Discovery  of  North  Army  of  the  Potomac  in  the  campaign 
America  claimed  to  have  been  made  by  against  Richmond.  For  "  gallant  and 
Verra^ano.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  meritorious  services  during  the  war "  he 
Jan.  5,  1871.  was  brevetted  major-general.  United  States 

Smith,  Caleb  Blood,  jurist;  born  in  army,  in  1867;  commissioned  colonel  of 
Boston,  Mass.,  April  16,  1808;  was  edu-  the  28th  United  States  Infantry  in  1866; 
cated  at  Cincinnati  and  Miami  colleges;  and  was  retired  in  1891.  He  died  in  Wash- 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1828,  and  began  ington,  D.  C,  July  17,  1902. 
practice  in  Connersville,  Ind.  He  served  Smith,  Edmund  Kirby,  military  officer ; 
in  the  State  legislature  for  several  terms;  born  in  St.  Augustine,  Fla.,  May  16,  1824; 
was  a  Whig  representative  in  Congress  in  giaduatod  at  West  Point  in  1845;  en- 
lS4.';-49,  and  during  this  period  was  also  tered  the  field  under  General  Tay- 
one  of  the  Mexican   Claims   Commission-  lor,    at   the   beginning  of   the  Mrar   with 



Mexico,  and  after  the  war  was  assistant 
rrofessor  of  Mathematics  at  West  Point 
(1849-52).  He  resigned  his  commission 
in  April,  1861 ;  joined  the  Confederates, 
and  became  a  brigadier  -  general  in  the 
army  under  Gen.  Joseph  E.  Johnston. 
Promoted  to  major-general,  he  was  placed 
in  command  of  the  Department  of  East 
Tennessee  early  in  1862;  was  made  lieu- 
tenant-general (October,  1862),  and  was 
in  the  battle  at  Stone  River.  Early  in 
1863  he  was  put  in  command  of  the  Trans- 
Mississippi  Army,  which  he  surrendered 
to  Gen.  Edward  R.  S.  Canby  {q.  v.) ,  May 
26,  1865,  at  Baton  Eouge.  In  1864  he 
defeated  General  Banks  in  the  Red  River 
campaign.  He  was  chancellor  of  the 
University  of  Nashville  in  1870-75, 
and  then  became  professor  of  mathe- 
matics in  the  University  of  the  South. 
He  died  in  Sewanee,  Tenn.,  March  28, 

Smith,  Francis,  military  officer;  born 
in  England  about  1720;  became  colonel 
and  aide-de-camp  to  the  King  in  1775; 
came  to  America  early  that  year,  and  com- 
manded the  troops  sent  to  seize  the  Ameri- 
can stores  at  Concord,  in  April,  1775.  In 
the  skirmish  at  Lexington  he  was  wound- 
ed. Made  a  brigadier  -  general,  he  com- 
manded a  brigade  in  the  battle  on  Long 
Island  and  that  on  Quaker  Hill.  He  died 
in  England,  Nov.  17.  1791. 

Smith,  George  Washington,  author; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  4,  1800; 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1823,  but  difl 
not  practice;  was  the  founder  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Historical  Society.  His  publica- 
tions include  Facts  and  Arguments  in 
Favor  of  Adoptinrj  Railroads  in  Prefer- 
eiice  to  Canals;  Defence  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Siystem  in  Favor  of  Solitary  Con- 
finenieiit  of  Prisoners,  etc.  He  died  in 
Philadelphia.  Pa.,  April  22,  1876. 

Smith,  Gn.ES  Alexander,  military 
officer ;  born  in  Jefferson  county,  N.  Y., 
Sept.  29,  1829;  engaged  in  the  dry  goods 
business  in  Cincinnati,  O..  and  Blooming- 
ton.  111. ;  entered  the  Civil  War  as  captain 
in  the  8th  Missouri  Volunteers  in  1861; 
becoming  lieutenant-colonel  and  colonel  in 
1862;  brevetted  brigadier-general,  United 
States  volunteers  in  1863;  and  was  later 
transferred  to  the  25th  Army  Corps,  and  be- 
came major-general  of  volunteers  in  1865; 
resigned  in  1866  and  settled  in  Blooming- 

ton,  III. ;  was  second  assistant  postmaster- 
general  in  1869-72;  and  founded  the  So- 
ciety of  the  Army  of  Tennessee.  He  died 
in    Bloomington,  111.,  Nov.  8,  1876. 

Smith,  GoLDWiN,  author;  born  in  Read- 
ing, England,  Aug.  23,  1823;  graduated  at 
Oxford  University  in  1845;  was  Professor 
of  Modern  History  at  Oxford  in  1858-66. 
During  the  Civil  War  in  the  United  States 
he  was  a  stanch  champion  of  the  nation- 
al government.  He  visited  the  United 
States  in  1864,  and  later  was  for  a  time 
honorary  Professor  of  English  and  Consti- 
tutional History  at  Cornell  University. 
In  1871  he  settled  in  Toronto,  Canada. 
He  is  widely  known  as  an  exponent  of  the 
idea  that  Canada  will  finally  unite  her 
political  life  with  that  of  the  United 
States.  His  publications  include  Does  the 
Bible  Sanction  American  Slavery?  On,  the 
Morality  of  the  Emancipation  Proclama- 
tion; A  Letter  to  a  Whig  Member  of  the 
Southerii  Independence  Association;  Eng- 
land and  America;  The  Civil  War  in  Amer- 
ica; The  Relations  between  England  and 
America;  The  Political  Destiny  of  Can- 
ada; William  Lloyd  Garrison;  History  of 
the  United  States,  etc. 

Sm^ith,  Green  Clay,  military  officer; 
born  in  Richmond,  Ky.,  July  2,  1830;  was 
in  the  volunteer  service  during  the  Mexi- 
can War;  graduated  at  Transylvania  Uni- 
versity in  1850;  studied  law  and  practised 
in  Covington,  Ky. ;  was  a  member  of  the 
State  legislature  in  1861;  entered  the  Civil 
War  as  colonel  of  the  4th  Kentucky  Cav- 
alry; promoted  brigadier-general  of  volun- 
teers in  1862;  resigned  in  1863;  served 
in  Congress  in  1863-66;  was  a