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■      Mil*  -»i*^^' 

.  :      ,  ,     -  I 

V-  ■.'^' 






^^\  OF  /) . 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2010  with  funding  from 

University  of  Pittsburgh  Library  System 




From    458    a.d.    to    1909  '.V,'    5V>'> 

BASED  UPON  THE  PLAN  OF  ;  •  >  >  " 


SOMETIME    EDITOR    OF    "THE    AMERICAN    HISTORICAL     RECORD"     AND    AUTH(jliy>F     '■  ,  ,  >' 

"  THE  PICTORIAL  FIELD-BOOK  OF  THE  revolution"    "  THE  PICTORIAL  FIEIJ^-i  j  >        /'   ,' 

BOOK     OF    THE     WAR     OF     l8l2"     ETC.,      ETC.,      E I  C.  1     o     '         )ji'> 

DEVELOPMENT   BY   p-'TNENT   AUTHORITIES,    INCLUDING  /,^,  ,  „ '.  .  ^ 



WM.  R.  HARPER,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  D.D.  GOLDWIN  SMITH,  D.C.L.,  LL.D. 






JOHN  FRYER,  A.M.,  LL.D.  R.  J.  H.  GOTTHEIL,  Ph.D. 




ETC.,    ETC.,    ETC.,   ETC. 

WITH     A     PREFACE     ON     THE     STUDY     OF      AMERICAN      HISTORY     BY 




"A     HISTORY     OF     THE    AMERICAN     PEOPLE,"     ETC.,     ETC. 


VOL.    IX 

NEW     YORK         -  =  -         LONDON 

Copyngnt,  1905,  by  Haki'ER  &  Brothers. 

Copyright,  1901,  by  Harper  &  Brothers. 

ylil  rights  reserved. 


President  William  Howard  Taft Frontispiece 

President  Zachary  Taylor       .......  Facing  page     22 

The  Storming  of  Fort  Ticonderoga    .     .     .     .  "          "        78 

The  Battle  of  Trenton "          "116 

President  John  Tyler "          "      144 

Washington  Receiving  the  Announcement  of 

His  Election  to  the  First  Presidency  of 

the  United  States "          "      168 


The  Original  Thirteen  States Facing  page  160 

United  States      .     .     .     / »       "  "      272 

.  35333 





Taft,  Alphonso,  jurist;  born  in  Towns- 
hend,  Vt.,  Nov.  5,  1810;  graduated  at  Yale 
College ;  admitted  to  tlie  bar  in  1838 ; 
practised  in  Cincinnati,  O. ;  and  was  judge 
of  the  Superior  Covirt  of  Cincinnati  in 
18G6-72.  He  was  made  Secretary  of  War 
in  ]\Iarch,  1876,  and  in  May  of  the  same 
year  was  transferred  to  the  Attorney-Gen- 
eralship, serving  till  March,  1877;  was 
United  States  minister  to  Austria  in  1882- 
84;  was  then  transferred  to  Russia,  where 

lie    served    one    year.      He    died    in    San 
Diego,  Cal.,  May  21,  1891. 

Taft,  LoRADO,  sculptor;  born  in  Elm- 
wood,  111.,  April  29,  18G0;  graduated  at 
the  University  of  Illinois  in  1879;  student 
at  the  Ecole  des  Beaux  Arts,  Paris,  in 
1880-83;  instructor  at  the  Chicago  Art 
Institute  since  1886;  and  lecturer  on  art 
in  the  University  of  Chicago  since  1893.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  National  Sculpture  So- 
ciety and  the  Western  Society  of  Artists, 


Taft,  William  Howard,  born  in  Cin- 
cinnati, O.,  Sept.  15,  1857;  son  of  Al- 
phonso  Taft,  graduated  at  Woodward 
High  School  1874;  at  Y'ale  1878  second 
in  the  class  of  121  members;  and  at  Cin- 
cinnati College  Law  School  in  1880.  His 
political  record  since  then  has  been: 

Jan.,  1881.  —  Assistant  Public  Prose- 
cutor, Cincinnati. 

March,  1882. — Resigned  and  became  U. 
S.  Internal  Revenue  Collector.  (Resigned 
March,   1883.) 

Jan.,  1885. — Assistant  County  Solicitor. 

March,  1887. — Resigned  and  appointed 
Judge  of  the  Superior  Cour.t. 

April,  1888. — Elected  to  the  same  posi- 
tion. He  decided  the  case  of  Moore 
Brothers  vs.  the  Bricklayers'  Union, 
since  become  a  leading  case  on  the  law 
of  boycott. 

Feb.,  1890. — Resigned  and  became  Soli- 
citor-General of  the  United  States. 

March,  1892.  —  Resigned  and  became 
Judge  of  the  United  States  Court  for  the 
Sixth  Judicial  Circuit.  He  decided  the 
Addystone  Pipe  Co.  case  enforcing  the 
Sherman  anti-trust  law;   the  Phelan  con- 

tempt case  against  a  strike-leader,  which 
later  on  formed  the  basis  of  the  defence 
of  the  Brotherhood  of  Railway  Trainmen 
and  Firemen,  successfully  resulting  in  hav- 
ing the  injunction  against  them  dissolved. 

March,  1900.  —  Visited  and  became 
president  of  the  Philippine  Commission. 

July  4,  1901. — Inaugairated  first  Civil 
Governor  of  the  Philippines. 

Dec,  1901.  — Visited  the  United  States 
-  by  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War. 

July,  1902. — Conferred  with  Pope  Leo 
XIII.  and  committee  of  cardinals  at  Rome, 
and  made  a  satisfactory  settlement  as  to 
the  friars'  landsi  in  the  Philippines. 

Dec,  1903.— Left  the  Philippines  to  be- 

Feb.,  1904.— Secretary  of  War. 

Nov..   1904. — Visited  Panama. 

July-Sep.,  1905. — Visited  the  Philippines 
with  a  party  of  Senators  and  Congress- 

Sep.,  1906.  —  Visited  Cuba  and  acted 
awhile  as  Provisional  Governor,  re-estab- 
lishing peace  in  the  island. 

March-April,  1907.  —  Visited  Panama, 
Cuba,  and  Porto  Rico. 


Autumn  of  1907. — Opened  the  Congress 
in  Manila,  returning  nid  the  Siberian  Rail- 

June  IS,  190S. — Xoniinated  for  Presi- 
dent on  the  first  ballot  by  702  votes  at 
the  Chicago  Convention. 

June  19.  190S. — Resigned  as  Secretary 
of  War;  succeeded  by  Luke  E.  Wright. 

Xov.  3,  1908.— .Elected  President  by  321 
votes  in  the  Electoral  College  against  162 
for  William  Jennings  Bryan. 

1909. — ^Visited  Panama  to  inspect  the 

Mr.  Taft's  ambition  for  years  was  to 
sit  on  the  Bench  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  United  States.  He  told  the  Presi- 
dent that  he  would  rather  wear  the  robe 
of  a  Supreme  Court  Justice  than  be  Presi- 
dent of  the  L'nited  States.  Although 
several  occasions  oifered,  he  put  aside  his 
ambition  so  as  to  serve  the  country  as  a 
diplomatic  and  political  representative,  as 
his  record  above  given  shows.  His  views 
as  to  the  tariff  were  declared  in  his  speech 
at  Bath,  Maine,  in  Sept.,  1906:  "I  be- 
lieve that  since  the  passage  of  the  Dingley 
Bill  there  has  been  a  change  m  the  busi- 
ness conditions  of  the  country,  making  it 
wise  and  just  to  revise  the  schedules  of 
the  existent  tariff."  Furthermore,  he  has 
consistently  striven  to  persuade  the  South 
to  resume  its  proper  place  in  taking  part 
in  the  decision  of  great  political  questions 
by  freeing  itself  from  the  trammels  of 
blind  adhesion  to  any  one  party. 

Tailfer,  Patrick,  physician;  lived  in 
the  eighteenth  century.  He  emigrated  to 
the  colony  of  Georgia,  and,  becoming  dis- 
satisfied with  the  conduct  of  affairs,  he 
left  the  colony  in  1740  and  went  to 
Charleston,  S.  C,  where,  with  Hugh  An- 
derson and  David  Douglass,  he  printed 
A  Xarrative  of  the  Colony  of  Georgia 
from  the  first  Heitlement  thereof  until 
the  Present  Period   n741). 

Talbot,  .John,  colonial  bishop;  born  in 
Wymondham,  England,  in  164.5.  In  1704 
the  clergj'  of  New  York,  New  Jersey,  and 
Pennsylvania  petitioned  for  a  bishop.  Tal- 
bot was  favored  by  Queen  Anne  in  his  ef- 
forts, but  failed  to  obtain  the  appointment 
of  a  suffragan,  and  he  resolved  to  ask 
for  fonrtfcration  for  himself  by  nonjuring 
bishops.  This  was  done  by  two  bishops, 
and  in  1722  he  returned  to  America  and 
assumed    episcopal    authority.      The    gov- 

ernor of  Pennsylvania  (Keith)  complained 
of  him  to  the  Lords  of  the  Privy  Seal, 
and  he  was  summoned  to  England,  but 
did  not  go.  He  died  in  Burlington,  N.  J., 
Nov.  29,  1727. 

Talbot,  Silas,  naval  officer;  born  in 
Dighton,  Mass..  in  1751;  was  captain  in  a 
Rhode  Island  regiment  at  the  siege  of 
Boston;   accompanied  the  American  army 


to  New  York;  and,  for  skilful  operations 
with  fire-rafts  against  the  British  ship- 
ping there,  received  from  Congress  the 
commission  of  major.  In  the  summer  of" 
1776  he  accepted  the  command  of  a  fire- 
brig  on  the  Hudson.  By  orders  of  Wash- 
ington, after  gaining  Harlem  Heights 
(Sept.  15),  Talbot  attempted  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  British  vessels  of  war  lying 
off  the  present  124th  Street,  New  York 
City.  At  2  A.M.  on  the  16th,  Talbot  ran 
down  the  river  and,  grappling  the  Rom- 
ney,  set  his  brig  on  fire.  The  crew  of  the 
brig  escaped  in  a  boat,  and  the  Romney 
soon  freed  herself  without  injury.  The 
other  war-vessels  fied  out  of  the  harbor 
in  alarm.  Talbot  received  a  severe  wound 
in  the  defence  of  Fort  Mifflin,  and  gave 
material  aid  to  General  Sullivan  on 
Rhode  Island  in  1778.  A  few  weeks  later 
he  captured  a  British  floating  battery 
anchored  in  one  of  the  channels  com- 
manding   Newport,    and    for    this    exploit 


was,  commissioned  captain.  In  his  prize 
(the  Pigot)  he  cruised  off  the  New  Eng- 
land coast,  capturing  several  prizes.  In 
1780  he  was  captured  and  confined  in  the 
prison-ship  Jersey,  removed  to  England, 
and  exchanged  in  1781.  After  the  war  he 
purchased  tlie  confiscated  estate  of  Sir 
William  Johnson,  near  the  Mohawk  River; 
served  in  the  New  York  Assembly,  and 
was  a  member  of  Congress  in  1793-94.  He 
was  employed  in  1794  to  superintend  the 
construction  of  the  frigate  Constitution, 
wliich,  in  1799,  was  his  flag-ship  in  a 
cruise  to  the  West  Indies.  He  resigned 
Sept.  21,  1801.  He  died  in  New  York 
City  June  30,  1813. 

Talcott,  Andrew,  civil  engineer;  born 
in  Glastonbury,  Conn.,  April  20,  1797; 
g'raduated  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy  in  1818;  accompanied  Gen.  H. 
Atkinson,  1819,  to  establish  military  posts 
on  the  upper  Missouri  and  Yellowstone 
rivers.  He  devised  the  Talcott  method  for 
determining  territorial  latitudes  by  ob- 
servations of  stars  near  the  zenith.  He 
died  in  Richmond,  Va.,  April  22,  1883. 

Talcott,  George,  military  officer;  born 
in  Glastonbury,  Conn.,  Dec.  6,  1786;  join- 
ed the  army  in  1813;  promoted  first  lieu- 
tenant in  March,  1814;  served  through 
the  Mexican  War,  being  promoted  colonel 
and  chief  of  ordnance  in  March,  1848. 
Talcott  was  court-martialled  and  forced 
to  retire  on  July  8,  1851.  Many  promi- 
nent men  declared  the  sentence  unjust 
and  illegal.  Talcott  died  in  Albany,  N.  Y., 
April  25,  1862. 

Talcott,  John,  military  officer;  born 
in  Braintrce,  England,  abovxt  1630;  set- 
tled in  Boston,  and  later  in  Hartford, 
Conn. ;  was  made  ensign  of  colonial  troops 
in  1650;  became  captain  in  1660;  treas- 
urer of  the  colony  in  1660-76;  and  was 
one  of  the  patentees  named  in  the  charter 
granted  to  Connecticut  in  1662  by  Charles 
I.  He  served  in  the  Indian  War  of  1676 
as  major,  and  as  head  of  the  ''  standing 
army "  of  Connecticut,  accompanied  by 
200  Mohican  and  Pequod  Indians,  fought 
a  successful  battle  at  the  Housatonic.  He 
was  promoted  lieutenant-colonel  during  the 
war.  Many  of  liis  official  papers  are  pre- 
served among  the  State  records  in  Hart- 
ford. He  died  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  July 
23,  1688. 
Talladega,  Battle  at.    On  the  evening 

of  Nov.  8,  1813,  Gen.  Andrew  Jackson  and 
his  troops  were  resting  within  6  miles  of 
Talladega,  one  of  the  chief  gathering- 
places  of  the  hostile  Creek  Indians  in 
Talladega  county,  Ala.,  a  little  east  of  the 
Coosa  River.  Jackson's  forces,  composed 
of  1,200  infantry  and  800  mounted  men, 
were  disposed  for  action  so  as  to  enclose 
the  foe  in  a  circle.  He  moved  at  sunrise, 
Nov.  9.  The  battle  soon  became  general, 
and  raged  for  about  fifteen  minutes,  when 
the  Indians  broke  and  fled  in  all  direc- 
tions. They  were  pursued  for  several 
miles,  and  over  300  of  the  dusky  war- 
riors were  slain,  besides  a  large  number 
wounded.  The  Americans  lost  fifteen 
killed  and  eighty-five  wounded. 

Tallasahatchee,  Battle  at.  The  mas- 
sacre at  Fort  Mimg  (see  Mims,  Fort, 
Massacre  at)  stirred  the  indignation  of 
the  wliole  people  of  the  Southwest.  Jack- 
son was  then  prostrate  at  a  Nashville  inn, 
from  the  effects  of  a  bullet  received  from 
the  hands  of  Thomas  H.  Benton,  in  a 
duel.  He  appealed  to  the  Tennesseeans  to 
take  the  field.  Five  thousand  men  speedi- 
ly responded.  Jackson  despatched  (Sept. 
26,  1813)  Gen.  John  Coffee,  with  500 
dragoons  and  as  many  mounted  volunteers 
as  could  join  him  immediately,  towards 
tlie  Creek  country.  Jackson  joined  him 
soon  afterwards,  and  drilled  his  troops 
thoroughly  for  the  emergency.  When  he 
arrived  at  the  Coosa  he  was  informed  that 
the  hostile  Creeks  were  assembled  at 
Tallasahatcliee.  Jackson  sent  Coffee,  with 
1,000  horsemen,  to  attack  them.  He  was 
accompanied  by  friendly  Creeks  and 
Cherokees.  On  the  morning  of  Oct.  3 
the  Indians  were  decoyed  out  of  the  town 
and  were  immediately  smitten  by  a  volley 
of  bullets.  The  Creeks  fought  valiantly. 
Inch  by  inch  they  were  pushed  back  by 
their  assailants,  who  attacked  them  at  all 
points.  Not  one  would  ask  quarter. 
Every  warrior  was  killed.  Fully  200  In- 
dians perished,  and  eightj^-four  women 
and  children  were  made  prisoners.  The 
loss  of  the  Americans  was  five  killed  and 
forty-one  wounded.  Having  destroyed  the 
town,  Coffee  marched  back  to  Jackson's 
camp  on  the  Coosa,  followed  by  a  train 
of  sorrowful  captives. 

Tallmadge,  Benjamin,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  Brookhaven,  N.  Y.,  Feb. 
25,    1754;    entered    the    patriot    army    as 


lieutenant  of  a  Connecticut  regiment  in 
June,  1776,  and  soon  rose  to  the  rank  of 
colonel.  In  1779-80  he  was  engaged  in 
expeditions  against  bodies  of  British  and 
Tories  on  Long  Island,  and  was  in  some 
of  the   principal   battles   of  the   war.     In 

the  fall  of  1780  he  had  the  custody  of 
Major  Andre  until  after  that  officer's 
execution.  He  was  long  in  Washington's 
military  family,  and  was  his  confidential 
correspondent.  He  became  a  successful 
merchant,  and,  from  1801  to  1817,  was 
a  member  of  Congress.  He  died  in  Litch- 
field,  Conn.,  March   7,   1835. 

Tallmadge,  James,  la^vyer;  born  in 
Stamford,  X.  Y.,  Jan.  28,  1778;  graduated 
at  Brown  University  in  1798;  studied  law 
and  practised  for  several  years;  but  later 
turned  his  attention  to  agriculture.  He 
was  for  some  time  private  secretary  to 
Gen.  George  Clinton;  had  command  of  a 
regiment  in  New  York  during  the  War  of 
1812-1.5;  was  member  of  Congress  in  1817- 
19,  and  introduced  an  amendment  to  the 
bill  restricting  slavery  to  the  region  west 
of  the  Mississippi;  was  a  member  of  the 
State  legislature  in  1825-26;  visited  Rus- 
sia and  introduced  American  machinery 
there  in  18.35;  and  was  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York. 
He  died  in  New  York,  Sept.  20,  185.3. 

Talmadge,  Thomas  de  Witt,  clergy- 
man; born  in  Bound  Brook,  N.  J.,  Jan.  7, 
1832;  studied  at  the  University  of  the 
City  of  New  York,  and  graduated  at  the 
New  Brunswick  Theological  Seminary  in 
1856;  was  ordained  pastor  of  the  Reformed 

Dutch  Church  in  Belleville,  N.  J.,  in  the 
same  year;  was  pastor  of  the  Central 
Presbyterian  Church  (popularly  kno\vn  as 
the  Tabernacle)  of  Brooklyn,  in  1869-94, 
during  which  time  this  well-known  place 
of  worship  was  destroyed  by  fire  three 
times.  Feeling  himself  tuiable  to  stand  the 
strain  of  building  another  church  edifice, 
he  removed  to  Washington,  D.  C.  His 
sermons  were  published  every  week  for 
twenty-nine  years.  In  1900  it  was  esti- 
mated that  their  publication  in  3,600 
papers  carried  them  to  no  less  than 
30,000,000  people  weekly  throughout  the 
world.  He  was  editor  of  the  Christian 
Herald  for  many  years.  He  died  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  April  12,  1902. 

Talon,  Pierre,  explorer;  born  in  Can- 
ada after  1650;  was  with  the  La  Salle 
expedition  to  Illinois  in  1687.  After  the 
murder  of  La  Salle  he  lived  for  a  time 
with  the  Cenis  Indians.  Later  he  became 
an  interpreter  to  Franciscan  missionaries 
who  had  arrived  at  the  village.  Subse- 
quently he  went,  with  a  sister  and  two 
brothers,  to  Mexico.  He  ^vl•ote  an  ac- 
count of  La  Salle's  death  in  a  work  en- 
titled 'Narrative  of  Pierre  and  Jean  Ta- 
lon, hy  the  Order  of  Count  Ponchartrain, 
to  their  Arrival  at  Vera  Cruz,  Sept.  H, 
1698.     He  died  after  1700. 

Tammany,  St.,  a  great  and  good  chief 
of  the  Delaware  Indians,  called  Tamenand 
by  the  early  settlers  of  Pennsylvania.  He 
is  supposed  to  have  been  one  of  those 
who  made  the  famous  treaty  with  Will- 
iam Penn  {q,  v.).  He  was  revered  by 
the  Delawares  almost  like  a  deity,  and 
old  and  young  went  to  him  for  counse\. 
He  never  had  his  equal  among  them. 
In  the  Revolutionary  War  the  admirers 
of  the  good  chief  conferred  upon  him  the 
title  of  saint,  and  he  was  established  as 
the  patron  saint  of  America.  His  name 
was  inserted  in  some  calendars,  and  his 
festival  was  celebrated  on  May  1  of  each 
year.  After  the  Revolution  an  associ- 
ation was  formed  in  Philadelphia,  called 
the  Tammany  Society.  On  May  1  they 
paraded  the  streets,  with  bucktails  in 
their  hats,  and  proceeded  to  a  pleasant 
retreat  out  of  to\vn,  which  they  called 
the  "  wigwam,"  where,  after  a  long  talk, 
or  Indian  "  palaver,"  had  been  delivered, 
and  the  calumet  of  peace  and  friendship 
had    been    duly    smoked,    they    spent   the 


day  in  festivity  and  mirth.  After  dinner 
Indian  dances  were  performed  in  front 
of  the  wigwam,  the  calumet  was  again 
smoked,  and  the  company  separated. 

Tammany  Society,  or  Columbian  Or- 
der, a  political  organization  formed  chief- 
ly through  the  exertions  of  William  Moo- 
ney,  an  upholsterer  in  the  city  of  New 
York,  at  the  beginning  of  the  administra- 
tion of  President  Washington.  Its  first 
meeting  was  held  on  May  13,  1789.  The 
society  took  its  name  from  St.  Tammany. 
The  officers  of  the  society  consisted  of  a 
grand  sachem  and  thirteen  inferior  sa- 
chems, representing  the  President  and  the 
governors  of  the  thirteen  States.  Besides 
these  there  was  a  grand  council,  of  which 
the    sachems    were    members.      It    was    a 

tammany  hall. 

very  popular  society  and  patriotic  in  its 
influence.  Its  membership  included  most 
of  the  best  men  of  New  York  City.  No 
party  politics  were  tolerated  in  its  meet- 
ings. But  when  Washington  denounced 
"  self-constituted  societies,"  in  consequence 
of  the  violent  resistance  to  law  made  by 
the  secret  Democratic  societies,  at  the 
time  of  the  Whiskey  Insurrection  {q. 
v.),  nearly  all  the  members  left  it,  be- 
lieving their  society  to  be  included  in 
the  reproof.     Mooney  and  others  adhered 

to  the  organization,  and  from  that  time 
it  became  a  political  society.  They  met 
at  first  in  Martling's  Long  Room,  on  the 
corner  of  Nassau  and  Frankfort  streets. 
In  1800  the  society  determined  to  build 
a  wigwam,  and  Tammany  Hall  was  erect- 
ed by  them  on  that  spot.  Many  years  af- 
terwards they  abandoned  the  old  wigwam 
and  made  their  quarters  in  a  fine  build- 
ing on  Fourteenth  Street,  adjoining  the 
Academy  of  Music.  Although  the  actual 
membership  of  the  society  embraced  only 
a  few  hundred  men,  it  has  been  able 
for  many  years  to  control  and  poll  many 
thousand  votes  and  wield  an  immense 
power  in  the  politics  both  of  New  York 
City  and  of  the  State.  Its  connection 
with  the  gigantic  frauds  of  the  Tweed 
ring  led  to  a  natural  reaction  and  a 
temporary  check.  But  it  soon  recovered 
its  prestige  and  increased  power.  See 
New  York  Chronology,  in  this  volume. 

Tampa,  a  city,  port  of  entry,  and  county 
seat  of  Hillsboro  county,  Fla.  During  the 
American-Spanish  War  in  1898  it  was  one 
of  the  rendezvous  for  the  American  army 
when  being  assembled  for  the  invasion  of 
Cuba.     Population    (1900),   15,839. 

Tampico,  a  seaport  town  of  Mexico, 
in  the  State  of  Tamaulipas,  on  the  Pa- 
nuco  River,  5  miles  from  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico;  was  taken  possession  of  by  the 
fleet  of  Commodore  Conner,  Nov.  14,  1846, 
in  the  early  part  of  the  war  with  Mexico. 

Taney,  Roger  Brooke,  jurist;  born  in 
Calvert  county,  Md.,  March  17,  1777;  grad- 
uated at  Dickinson  College  in  1795;  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  in  1799.  He  was  of  a 
family  of  English  Roman  Catholics  who 
settled  in  Maryland.  At  the  age  of 
twenty-three  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Maryland  Assembly;  was  State  Senator 
in  1816,  and  attorney-general  of  Mary- 
land in  1827.  In  1831  President  Jackson 
appointed  him  United  States  Attorney- 
General,  and  in  1836  he  was  appointed 
chief-justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
United  States,  to  succeed  Judge  Marshall. 
In  1857  he  gave  his  famous  opinion  in 
the  Dred  Scott  Case  ( q.  v. ) ,  and  was  an 
earnest  upholder  of  the  slave-system.  He 
died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Oct.  12,  1864. 

Tanner,  Benjamin,  engraver;  born  in 
New  York  City,  March  27,  1775;  removed 
to  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1799,  and  with  his 
brother  Henry  founded  a  map-publishing 


establishment.  He  also  founded  the  bank- 
note engraving  house  of  Tanner,  Vallance, 
Kearny  &  Co.,  in  1816.  Later  this  enter- 
prise was  abandoned  and  he  founded  a 
blank-check-note  and  draft  publishing  con- 
cern. His  engravings  include  Apotheosis 
of  Washington ;  Perry's  Victory  on  Lake 
Erie,  Sept'^  10,'  1813;  The  Launch  of  the 
Steam  Frigate  Fulton;  Macdonough's 
Victory  on  Lake  Champlain,  and  Defeat  of 
the  British  Army  at  Plattsiurg  hy  General 
McComb,  Sept.  11,  1S14;  The  Surrender 
of  Cornwallis  at  Yorktoion;  America 
Guided  hy  Wisdom,  etc.  He  died  in  Balti- 
more, Md.,  Nov.  14,  1848. 

Tanner,  Benjamin  Tucker,  clergyman; 
born  of  African  parents  in  Pittsburg,  Pa., 
Dec.  25,  1835;  studied  theology  in  the 
Western  Theological  Seminary;  was  editor 
of  the  Christian  Recorder  for  sixteen 
years;  founded  the  African  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  Revicic,  of  which  he  was 
editor  for  four  years.  He  was  ordained 
bishop  in  1888.  His  publications  include 
The  Origin  of  the  'Negro;  The  Negro  In 
Holy  Writ;  The  Color  of  Solomon:  What? 

Tanner,  Heney  S.,  cartographer;  born 
in  New  York  City  in  1786;  brother  of 
Benjamin  Tanner;  settled  in  Philadelphia 
early  in  life;  returned  to  New  York  in 
1850.  His  maps  include  the  Nev)  Ameri- 
can Atlas;  The  World;  Map  of  the  United 
States  of  Mexico;  Map  of  Philadelphia; 
and  Map  of  the  United  States  of  AmeV' 
ica.  He  was  also  the  author  of  Memoir 
on  the  Recent  Surveys  in  the  United 
States;  View  of  the  Valley  of  the  Missis- 
sippi; American  Traveller ;  Central  Travel- 
ler; New  Picture  of  Philadelphia;  and 
Description  of  the  Canals  and  Railroads 
of  the  United  States.  He  died  in  New 
York  City  in  1858. 

Tanner,  James,  attorney;  born  in 
Pichmondville,  N.  Y.,  April  4,  1844;  re- 
ceived a  common  school  education;  en- 
listed as  a  private  in  the  87th  New  York 
Volunteers  in  1861 ;  was  promoted  cor- 
poral ;  took  part  in  the  second  battle  of 
Bull  Run,  and  there  lost  both  legs.  He 
returned  to  his  native  State  in  1866; 
studied  law;  was  appointed  to  a  post 
in  the  New  York  Custom-house;  became 
deputy  collector  under  General  Arthur; 
was  tax  collector  of  Brooklyn  in  1877-85; 
and   was   appointed   United   States    Com- 


missioner  of  Pensions  in  1889.  On  resign- 
ing this  office  he  became  a  pension  attor- 

Tanner,  John,  captive;  born  in  Ken- 
tucky about  1780.  His  father  laid  out  a 
farm  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Miami 
River,  O.  When  John  was  six  years  old 
he  was  captured  by  an  Indian,  and  after 
two  years'  detention  was  sold  to  Net-no- 
kwa,  an  Ottawa  Indian.  He  lived  in 
captivity  for  thirty  years,  becoming  so 
thoroughly  accustomed  to  Indian  life  that 
he  forgot  his  own  language.  He  engaged 
in  warlike  expeditions  and  married  Mis- 
kwa-bun-o-kwa  ( "  the  Red  Sky  of  the 
Morning  " ) .  Subsequently  he  went  to  De- 
troit, where  he  met  his  brother  and  visit- 
ed his  family.  He  was  then  employed 
as  an  interpreter.  He  was  the  author  of 
a  Narrative  of  the  Captivity  and  Ad- 
ventures of  John  Tanner  during  Thirty 
Years'  Residence  among  the  Indians.  He 
died  in  1847. 

Tanoan  Indians,  a  family  of  North 
American  Indians  that  were  widely  scat- 
tered in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, and  were  divided  into  several 
groups  which  received  distinct  names  from 
the  Spanish  discoverers  and  conquerors. 
They  occupied  nearly  all  of  the  valley 
of  the  Rio  Grande  del  Norte,  a  stretch  of 
country  approximately  230  miles  long  by 
an  extreme  width  of  100  miles,  and  ex- 
tending within  forty  miles  of  New  Mexico 
to  within  120  miles  of  Mexico.  The 
Pueblo  of  Isleta,  in  New  Mexico,  contains 
the  largest  population,  about  1,000. 

Taos.     See  Tanoan  Indians. 

Tappan,  a  village  of  New  York,  24 
miles  north  of  New  York  City,  and  1% 
miles  west  of  the  Hudson  River.  Here, 
on  Oct.  2,  1780,  Maj.  John  Andre  (q.  v.) 
was  hanged  as  a  British  spy. 

Tappan,  Arthur,  philanthropist;  born 
in  Northampton,  Mass.,  May  22,  1786;  re- 
ceived a  common  school  education;  es- 
tablished himself  in  business  in  Portland, 
Me.,  and  subsequently  in  Montreal,  Can- 
ada, where  he  remained  until  the  begin- 
ning of  the  War  of  1812.  He  was  the 
founder  of  Oberlin  College,  and  erected 
Tappan  Hall  there;  endowed  Lane  Theo- 
logical Seminary  in  Cincinnati;  estab- 
lished a  professorship  at  Auburn  Theo- 
logical Seminary;  was  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  the  American  Tract  Society;   and 


with  his  brother  established  the  New  York 
Journal  of  Commerce  in  1828  and  The 
Emancipator  in  1833.  He  was  the  first 
president  of  the  American  Anti  -  slavery- 
Society,  to  which  he  contributed  $1,000  a 
month  for  several  years,  but  withdrew  in 
1S40  on  account  of  the  aggressive  spirit 
manifested  by  many  members  towards  the 
churches  and  the  Union;  and  during  his 
later  years  was  connected  with  a  mercan- 
tile agency  which  his  brother  Lewis  es- 
tablished. He  died  in  New  Haven,  Conn., 
July  23,  1865. 

Tappan,  Lewis,  merchant;  brother  of 
Arthur  Tappan;  born  in  Northampton, 
Mass.,  May  23,  1788;  received  a  common 
school  education;  established  himself  in 
business  with  his  brother  in  1814.  Later 
he  became  interested  in  calico-print  works 
and  the  manufacture  of  cotton;  removed 
to  New  York  in  1827,  and  with  his  brother 
engaged  in  the  importing  trade.  In 
1833  he  became  deeply  interested  in  the 
anti-slavery  movement,  in  consequence  of 
which  he  and  his  brother  at  various  times 
suffered  personal  violence.  He  was  in- 
volved in  the  crisis  of  1837,  and  soon  after 
withdrew  from  the  firm  and  established  the 
first  mercantile  agency  in  the  country. 
He  died  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  June  21, 

Tarbox,  Increase  Niles,  author;  born 
in  East  Windsor,  Conn.,  Feb.  11,  1815; 
graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1839;  studied 
theology  and  became  pastor  of  a  Congre- 
gational church  in  Framingham,  Mass.,  in 
1844;  later  was  made  secretary  of  the 
American  College  and  Education  Society 
of  Boston.  His  publications  include  The 
Curse,  or  the  Position  Occupied  in  History 
hy  the  Race  of  Ham;  Life  of  Israel  Put- 
nam, Major-General  in  the  Continental 
Army :  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  and  His  Colony 
m  America,  etc.  He  died  in  West  Newton, 
Mass.,  May  3,  1888. 

Tariff.  The  tariff  is  a  tax  levied  upon 
exports  or  (especially)  imports.  A  duty 
was  early  collected  by  Moslem  rulers  at 
the  Spanish  port  Tarifa,  whence  the 
modern  name,  on  goods  passing  through 
the  Strait  of  Gibraltar.  The  word  as  used 
in  the  United  States  was  adopted  from  the 
English  tariffs,  which  before  the  reign  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  were  prohibitory,  and 
since  used  as  a  source  of  revenue.  In  the 
United    States   the   tariff   is   for   revenue 

and  protection;  there  are  no  prohibitory 
duties  except  on  chiccory,  shoddy,  doctor- 
ed wines,  and  a  few  articles  of  like  char- 
acter. Before  the  adoption  of  the  United 
States  Constitution  most  of  the  American 
colonies  had  systems  of  taxation  on  im- 
ports. The  first  acts  of  the  Dutch  West 
India  Company  with  reference  to  the 
colony  of  New  Netherlands  provided  for 
export  and  import  duties,  and  specific 
rates  were  levied  on  furs  and  codfish  by 
act  of  June  7,  1629.  In  1661  the  council 
of  Virginia  laid  an  import  tax  on  rum  and 
sugar,  and  forbade  unloading  them  except 
at  appointed  ports.  The  government  ot 
Massachusetts  enacted  a  general  import 
tax,  November,  1668.  Under  the  confed- 
eration, the  Continental  Congress  made 
numerous  unsuccessful  attempts  to  induce 
the  States  to  join  in  an  import  tax  for 
the  common  treasury,  only  succeeding  in 
securing,  in  1786,  an  agreement  from  New 
York,  granting  to  the  United  States  cer- 
tain imposts,  provided  the  other  States 
did  the  same.  A  measure  for  taxing  im- 
ports, "  for  the  support  of  the  government, 
for  the  discharge  of  debts  of  the  United 
States,  and  the  encouragement  and  protec- 
tion of  manufactures,"  was  introduced  in 
the  House  of  Representatives  of  the  First 
Congress,  by  James  Madison,  April  8, 
1789.  From  this  dates  tariff  legislation 
in  the  United  States. 


Congress  passes  first  tariff  act,  to  con- 
tinue in  force  until  June,  1796,  combining 
specific  duties  on  some  articles  and  ad  va- 
lorem on  others,  equivalent  to  an  S^/g  per 
cent,  ad  volorem  rate,  with  drawback,  eX' 
cept  1  per  cent,  of  duties,  on  all  articles 
exported  within  twelve  months,  except  dis- 
tilled spirits  other  than  brandy  and 
geneva,   signed   by   Washington 

July  4,  1789 

Act  of  Congress  passed  to  regulate  the 
collection  of  duties.  Each  collection  dis- 
trict to  lie  within  a  State.  Providing  for 
collectors,  deputy  collectors,  naval  officers, 
surveyors,  weighers,  measurers,  gaugers, 
and  inspectors.  Ad  valorem  duties  to  be 
estimated  by  adding  20  per  cent,  to  the 
actual  cost  thereof  if  imported  from  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  or  any  place  beyond, 
and  10  per  cent,  if  from  any  other  country. 
Duties  to  be  paid  in  cash  if  under  $50;  if 


over,  might  be  secured  by  bond  to  run  from  88  to  54,  and  the  Senate  by  25  to  7,  and 

four  to  twelve  months,  with  10  per  cent,    becomes  a  law April  27,  1816 

discount  for  prompt  payment  Act  passed  deferring  the  time  of  reduc- 

July  31,  1789  tion    of    tariff    on    woollens    and    oottons 

Act  laying   duties   on   importations   ex-  until   1826,   and  raising  the  duty  on  bar 

tended  to  Xorth  Carolina,  Feb.  8,  and  to  iron  from  $9  to  $15   per  ton 

Rhode  Island June   14,   1790  April  20,  1818 

Act  of  July  4,   1789,  repealed,  and  new  Eesolutions  introduced  in  Congress  for 
law   enacted    raising    duties    to    equal    an  the   abolition   of   drawbacks,   and   bills   to 
11    per    cent,    ad    valorem    rate  shorten   long   credits   on   importations,   to 
Aug.    10,    1790  tax  auction  sales  of  imports,  and  to  col- 
Tariff    rate    raised    to    equal    131/^    per  lect  duties  in  cash  debated,  but  fail  to  be- 
eent.,  by  act  of May  2,   1792    come  laws 1819-22 

Additional    duties    levied    on    imports.  Auction    system,    by    which    foreigners 

particularly    tobacco,    snuff,    and    refined  shipped  goods  to  the  United  States,  under- 

sugar,  by  acts  of June  5-7,   1794  valuing   them    in    the    invoice,    for   which 

Tariff   on    bro\ATi    sugar,    molasses,    and  the  auctioneer  gave  bonds  and  immediately 

tea  increased March  3,   1797  sold  for  what  they  would  bring,  is  rem- 

Duty  on   salt  increased  from   12  to  20  edied   by   deterrent  legislation,   which   be- 

cents  by  act  of July  8,  1797  gan  in  1818  and  concluded  in  act  of 

First  elaborate  act  of  Congress  for  tak-  March  1,  1823 

ing    possession    of    arriving    merchandise.  Tariff  bill  with  average  rate  of  37  per 

and  levying  and  collecting  duties  cent,  duties,  after  a  debate  of  ten  weeks, 

March  2,  1799  passes  the  House  by  vote  of   107  to   102. 

Additional    duties    imposed    on    wines.  The    Senate   adds   amendments   which   the 

sugar,  molasses,  and  such  articles  as  have  Hovise   rejects.      The   difference   is   settled 

paid  10  per  cent May  13,  1800  by    a    committee    of    conference,    and    bill 

Two  and  one-half  per  cent,  ad  valorem  passes  Senate  by  25  to  22,  approved 

imposed  on  all  importations  in  American  May  22,  1824 

vessels,  and  10  per  cent,  in  foreign  vessels,  National  convention,  called  by  the  Penn- 

in  addition  to  existing  rates,  for  a  fund  sylvania    Society    for    the    Promotion    of 

to  protect   commerce  and  seamen  against  Manufactures  and  Mechanic  Arts  at  Har- 

the  Barbary  powers,  commonly  called  the  risburg,    adopts    resolutions    in    favor    of 

'*  Mediterranean  fund  "...  .March  27,  1804  more  protection  on  iron,  steel,  glass,  wool. 

All  tariff  duties  increased  100  per  cent.,    woollens,  and  hemp July  30,  1827 

and  10  per  cent,  additional  on  goods  im-  Tariff  bill,  based  on  recommendation  of 
ported  in  foreign  ships July  1,  1812  Harrisburg  convention,  introduced  in  Con- 
Double  war  duties  continued  until  June   gress Jan.  31,  1828 

30,  1816,  and  after  that  day  an  additional  New   tariff,   with   a   41    per   cent,    rate, 

duty   of   42   per   cent,   until   a   new  tariff  favored    by    Daniel    Webster,    is    debated 

shall  be  formed Feb.  5,  1816  from    March    4    to    May    15;    passed    by 

A.  J.  Dallas,  Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  House,   109  to  91 ;   Senate,  26  to  21,  and 

reports   to   Congress   on   the   subject   of   a    approved May   19,   1828 

general  tariff  of  increased  duties  [This  became  known  as  the  "  Tariff  of 

Feb.   13,  1816  Abominations."     South  Carolina  protested 

Mr.  Lowndes,  of  South  Carolina,  reports  against  it  as  unconstitutional,  oppressive, 
a  bill  from  the  committee  on  ways  and  and  unjust.  North  Carolina  also  pro- 
means  to  regulate  duties  on  imports  and  tested,  and  Alabama  and  Georgia  denied 
tonnage March   12,   1816  the  power   of  Congress  to  lay  duties  for 

Tariff  bill  opposed  by  Mr.  Webster  and  protection.] 
most  of  the  Eastern  States,  and  by  John  Duties    on    coffee,    cocoa,    and    tea    re- 
Randolph,  and  supported  by  Messrs.  Clay,  duced  by  act  of  May  20;  on  molasses  and 

Calhoun,     and     Lowndes.      Among     other    salt  by  act.  .- May  29,  1830 

provisions  was  one  for  the  gradual  reduc-  Secretary   ot   the   Treasury   Ingham,   in 

tion   of   the    tax    on    cotton    and    woollen  his   report,    advocates   "  home "   valuation 

goods.    Act  passes  the  House  by  a  vote  of  in  place  of  "  foreign,"  the  current  value 



of  goods  in  the  United  States  to  be  the 
dutiable   value Dec.    15,    1830 

National  free  -  trade  convention  meets 
in  Philadelphia Sept.  30,  1831 

National  protection  convention  meets 
in    New    York Oct.    26,    1831 

George  McDuffie,  representative  from 
South  Carolina,  from  committee  on  ways 
and  means,  reports  a  bill  proposing  ad 
valorem  duties  for  revenue  only 

Feb.    8,    1832 

John  Quincy  Adams  reports  a  bill  re- 
pealing the  act  of  1828,  and  reducing 
duties  on  coarse  woollens,  iron,  etc. 

May  23,  1832 

Tariff  bill  retaining  the  protective  feat- 
ures of  the  tariff  of  1828,  but  reducing 
or  abolishing  many  taxes,  is  reported.  It 
reduced  the  tax  on  iron,  increased  that 
on  woollens,  made  some  raw  wools  free, 
and  left  cotton  unchanged.  Duties  of 
less  than  $200  to  be  paid  in  cash  without 
discount,  law  to  take  effect  ]\Iarch  3, 
1833;  approved July  14,  1832 

Representatives  from  South  Carolina 
publish  an  address  on  the  subject  of  the 
tariff,  urging  resistance.  ..  .July  15,  1832 

Convention  meets  in  Columbia,  S.  C, 
Nov.  19,  and  calls  on  the  legislature  to 
declare  the  tariff  acts  of  1824  and  1828 
null  and  void  in  that  State,  and  to  pro- 
hibit the  collection  of  duties  there  after 
Feb.   1,   1833;   law  passed.. Nov.   24,   1832 

Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  in  his  report, 
recommends  a  reduction  of  duties  to  the 
requirements   of   revenue.  ..  .Dec.    5,    1832 

President  proclaims  intention  to  en- 
force  the   laws Dec.    11,    1832 

Mr.  Verplanck,  from  the  committee  on 
ways  and  means,  reports  a  bill  providing 
for  the  reduction  of  duties  in  the  course 
of  two  years  to  about  one-half 

Jan.   8,    1833 

"  Compromise  Tariff  bill "  introduced 
by   Mr.    Clay Feb.    12,    1833 

House  strikes  out  Mr.  Verplanck's  bill 
and  substitutes  Mr.  Clay's,  which  de- 
clares its  object  to  be  "  to  prevent  the 
destruction  of  the  political  system,  and 
to  arrest  civil  war  and  restore  peace  and 
tranquillity  to  the  nation."  It  provides 
for  a  gradual  reduction  in  duties,  and  for 
"home  valuation,"  all  duties  to  be  paid 
in  cash.  Passed  by  vote  of  118  to  84  in 
the  House,  and  29  to  16  in  the  Senate,  and 
approved March    2,    1833 

"Force  bill"  or  "Bloody  bill,"  to  en- 
force the  collection  of  duties,  passed  by 
Congress March    2,    1833 

Nullification  acts  repealed  by  South 
Carolina March     18,     1833 

Home  league  formed  to  agitate  for  high 
duties     1841 

A  general  tariff  act,  with  average  rate 
of  duty  about  33  per  cent.,  and  dropping 
the  principle  of  "  home  valuation,"  is 
passed Sept.     11,     1841 

Tariff  law  passed  containing  the  much- 
controverted  and  litigated  "  similitude 
section"  (sec.  20),  imposing  duties  on 
non-enumerated  articles  which  may  be 
similar  in  material,  quality,  texture,  or  use 
to  any  enumerated  article.  .Aug.  30,  1842 

Tariff  bill  passes  the  House  by  a  vote 
of  114  to  95,  and  the  Senate  by  the  cast- 
ing vote  of  the  Vice-President,  George  M. 
Dallas.  Average  rate  of  duty  251/2  per 
cent July    30,  "  1846 

Warehouse  system  established  by  act 
of   Congress Aug.    6,    1846 

Robert  J.  Walker  introduces  the  sys- 
tem of  private  bonded  warehouses,  which 
is  confirmed  by  act  of  Congress 

March    28,    1854 

Free-trade  policy  declared  in  the  plat- 
form of  the  Democratic  party  at  Cincin- 
nati  June  6,  1856 

Tariff  act  passed  lowering  the  average 
duty  to  about  20  per  cent.  .March  3,-  1857 

Republican  Convention  at  Chicago 
adopts  a  protective-tariff  platform 

May  17,  1860 

Tariff  bill,  raising  the  tariff  of  1857 
about  one-third,  introduced  in  the  House 
by  Mr.  Morrill,  passed  and  approved, 
March  2,   1861;   goes   into  effect 

April    1,    1861 

Amended  tariff  act  raising  duties 
passed Aug.    5,    1861 

Act  passed  increasing  tariff  on  tea, 
coffee,  and  sugar Dec.   24,   1861 

Act  passed  raising  tariff  duties  tempo- 
rarily  July    14,     1862 

Act  passed  "  to  prevent  and  punish 
frauds  upon  the  revenue,"  etc.,  which 
provides  that  all  invoices  of  goods  be 
made  in  triplicate,  one  to  be  given  the 
person  producing  them,  a  second  filed  in 
the  office  of  the  consular  officer  nearest 
the  place  of  shipment,  and  the  third 
transmitted  to  the  collector  at  the  port  of 
entry March    3,    1863 



Joint   resolution    raising   all    duties   50  al    duty   of    10   per   cent,   on   goods   from 

per   cent,   for   sixty   days,   afterAA'ards   ex-  places  west  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope), 

tended  to  ninety  days April  29,  1864    May  4,  and  amended Dec.  23,  1882 

General    revision    of    tariff,    increasing  Senate    reports    a    tariff    bill    which    is 

duties    passed June    30,    1864  called  up  for  consideration,  Jan.  10;  House 

Bill  passed  increasing  tariff  rates,  bill  reported  by  ways  and  means  corn- 
March  3,  1865,  and  amended.. July  28,  1866  mittee,  Jan.   16;   both  bills  discussed  anr" 

Transportation    in    bond    of   goods    des-  amended  for  several  weeks;   a   conference 
tined  for  Canada  or  Mexico,  through  the  committee    meets,    Feb.    28;     after    some 
United  States,  provided  for  by  act  of  resignations  and  reappointments  of  mem- 
July  28,   1866  bers,    reports,    March    2,    accepted    in   the 

Convention    of    woollen    manufacturers  Senate,    12.30    a.m.,    March  .3,    by    32    to 

at    Syracuse   ask   increased   duties.     They  31   votes,  and  in  the  House  at  5.30  p.m., 

form  an  alliance  with  wool-growers,   and  March  3,  by  152  to  116  votes,  and  signed 

arrange  a  tariff  which  becomes  a  law  by  by     the     President     before     adjournment, 

act  of March   2,    1867  which  was  after  midnight.  .March  3,  1883 

Duty    on    copper    and    copper    ore    in-  A   bill    "  to   reduce    import    duties    and 

creased  by  act  of Feb.  24,  1869  war-tariff  taxes,"  introduced  by  Mr.  Mor- 

First  law  distinctly  authorizing  the  ap-  rison,    is    reported    in    the    House,    March 

pointment  of  special  agents  of  the  treas-  11,  and  defeated  by  vote  of  159  to  155 

ury  in  the  customs  service,  passed  April   15,   1884 

May    12,    1870  A  bill  to  reduce  tariff  taxes,  introduced 

Following  a   general   debate   on   an   act  by  Mr.  Morrison,   is   lost  by  vote  of  the 

to  reduce  internal  taxes,  etc.,  a  new  tariff,    House,   157   to   140 June   17,   1886 

retaining  most  of  the  protective  features.  Mills  bill,  a  measure  "  to  reduce  taxa- 

becomes  a   law July   14,   1870  tion  and  simplify  the  laws  in  relation  to 

Duties    removed    from    tea    and    coffee  the   collection   of  revenue,"   introduced   in 

after  July  1,  1872,  by  act  of.. May  1,  1872  the   House   by   Eoger   Q.   Mills,   of   Texas, 

General   act   passed   reducing   duties   on  chairman    of    the   ways    and    means    com- 

imports  and  internal  taxes.  .June  6,  1872    mittee April   2,    1888 

All  provision  moieties  to  informers  re-  Mills   bill    is   taken   up    for    discussion, 

pealed,  and  the  proceeds  of  all  fines,  pen-  April   17,  and  debated  until  July  19,  and 

alties,  and  forfeitures  to  be  paid  into  the  passes  the  House  by  vote  of  149  to  14 

treasury,  by  act  of June  22,  1874  July  21,   1888 

Tariff  law  amended  by  act  of  Congress  [Referred  in  the  Senate  to  the  finance 

Feb.    8,    1875  committee,  by  whom  a  substitute  was  pre- 

Salts   and   sulphate   of   quinine   put   on  pared,  and  failed  to  become  a  law.] 

the    free-list July    1,    1879  A  bill  "  to  equalize  duties  upon  imports 

Act  creating  a  tariff  commission  of  nine  and    to    reduce    the    revenue    of    the    gov- 

civilians    appointed    by    the    President    to  ernment,"  introduced  by  William  McKin- 

visit  different   sections  of  the  country  in    ley,  Jr.,  of  Ohio April   16,  1890 

the  interest  of  tariff  revision  and  report  McKinley   Customs   Administration   act 

May    15,    1882    approved June    10,    1890 

Tariff  commission,  consisting  of  John'  McKinley  tariff  bill  passes  the  House, 
L.  Hayes,  president,  Henry  W.  Oliver,  Jr.,  May  21 ;  referred  to  Senate  committee 
Austin  ^I.  Garland,  Jacob  Ambler,  Robert  on  finance.  May  23;  reported  to  the 
P.  Porter,  John  W.  H.  Underwood,  Dun-  Senate  with  amendments,  June  18;  pass- 
can  F.  Kenner,  Alexander  R.  Boetler,  and  es  Senate  with  amendments,  Sept.  10; 
William  H.  McMahon,  organizes  at  the  reported  by  conference  committee  to 
Ebbitt    House,    Washington,    D.    C,  House,   Sept.   26;    approved  by  the  Presi- 

July   6,   1882  dent,  Oct.  1,  and  takes  effect  Oct.   6,   1890 

Report   of   tariff   commission   submitted  Tariff    (Wilson)    bill   made  public 

to    Congress    and    referred    to    ways    and  Nov.  27,  1893 

means    committee Dec.    4,    1882  Internal  revenue  bill  containing  the  in- 

Act    passed    repealing    section    2510    of  come-tax   reported   t©   the   House 

the  Revised  Statutes  (levying  an  addition-  Jan.  24,   1894 



Tariff    bill    with    income  -  tax    attached  Chairman  Dingley,  of  the  committee  on 

passes  the  House,  204  to  140.  .Feb.  1,  1894  ways    and    means,    introduces    new    tariff 

'      Senate  passes  tariff  bill,  39  yeas  ( thirty-    bill Dec.    7,    1896 

seven  Democrats,  two  Populists ) ,  34  nays  Measure    reported    from    committee    on 

(thirty-one    Republicans,    two    Populists,    ways  and  means March  19,  1897 

one  Democrat,  D.  B.  Hill) July  3,  1894  Bill  passes  the  House,  205  ayes  to   122 

Tariff  bill   received   in  the   House  with  nays,  twenty-seven  not  voting 

633   Senate   amendments;    rates   increased  March  31,   1897 

July  5,  1894  Bill  passes  the  Senate  with  about  870 

House    disagreeing,    a    conference    com-  amendments,    38    ayes,    28    nays,    twenty- 

mittee   is   appointed;    the   Senate   compels    three  not  voting July  7,  1897 

the  House  to  adopt  its  amendments  House  non-concurred  in   Senate  amend- 

Aug.   13,   1894  ments;      conference     committee     reported 

Bill  sent  to  the  President  Aug.  17,  1894  favorably  on   majority   of   Senate   amend- 

Becomes  a  law  without  his  signature  ments;    report    agreed    to;     and    act    ap- 

Aug.  27,   1894   proved  by  the  President July  24,  1897 


Tariff  Legislation.  The  question  of  1819  came  an  attempted  tariff  measure  in 
tariffs  in  the  United  States  has  been  a  1820.  By  1824  the  movement  towards 
disputed  point  since  the  very  formation  higher  protection  showed  itself  in  the  act 
of  the  nation.  The  overthrow  of  one  po-  of  May  22,  in  which  the  average  rate  was 
litical  party  has  almost  invariably  been  37  per  cent.  Woollen  goods,  cotton  goods, 
followed  by  a  revision  of  the  tariff.  Grad-  and  iron  were  main  subjects  of  debate 
ually  through  all  these  changes  the  two  from  the  early  stages  of  the  controversy, 
great  national  parties  have  come  to  have  The  tariff  of  1824  was  protectionist,  but 
a  rather  settled  policy  in  regard  to  the  in  1828  a  tariff  was  passed  which,  on  ac- 
tariff.  The  history  of  the  tariff  struggle  count  of  its  various  eccentricities,  re- 
in the  United  States  is  here  given.  ceived  the  name  of  the  Tariff  of  Abomina- 

The  question  of  raising  a  sufficient  na-  tions.  Opposition  to  this  act  was  very 
tional  revenue  was  one  of  the  first  and  bitter  in  the  South,  and  led  to  the  nulli- 
most  important  matters  discussed  by  the  fication  movement.  The  law  was  modified 
Congress  of  1789.  The  tariff,  which  was  in  1832,  and  further  in  1833  by  the  com- 
passed on  July  4  of  that  year,  was  nomi-  promise  tariff  promoted  by  Henry  Clay, 
nally  protective.  Specific  duties  were  By  this  act  duties  were  to  be  gradually  re- 
placed on  spirits  and  fermented  liquors,  duced  to  20  per  cent.  Parties  had  again 
sugar,  coffee,  tea,  and  some  other  articles,  crystallized;  protection  was  a  Whig  doc- 
while  the  remaining  mass  of  imports  bore  trine,  together  with  internal  improve- 
ad  valorem  duties  averaging  about  814  per  ments.  See  American  System. 
cent.  This  tariff  of  1789  was  largely  High  protection  was  revived  by  the 
the  work  of  Madison.  Protection  was  not  tariff  of  1842,  in  which  the  duties  aver- 
in  the  early  years  of  the  republic  a  party  aged  about  33  per  cent.  But  in  1846  the 
measure,  or  indeed  a  vital  question.  Democrats  passed  the  low  Walker  tariff, 

The  effect  of  the  restrictive  actions  of  named  after  the   Secretary  of  the   Treas- 

France  and  Great  Britain  in  the  Napole-  ury,  Robert  J.  Walker.     The  average  rate 

onic  regime  and  of  the  embargo,  followed  was  about  25  per  cent.,  and  under  this  law 

by   the   War   of    1812,    was    to   make   the  the   country   continued   until    1857,   when. 

United    States   more    dependent    on    itself  with  an  overflowing  revenue,  the  rate  was 

for  manufactures.    Soon  after  the  close  of  still  further  reduced  to  about  20  per  cent, 

the  war  the  tariff  of  April  27,  1816,  was  From  1846  to  1861,  accordingly,  there  was 

jdopted.     The  increase  of  manufacturing  an    approach    to    a    revenue    tariff.       The 

interests    was    shown    in    the    increasing  Morrill  tariff,  named  after  the  chairman 

duties,  which  in  the  case  of  cotton  reached  of   the   ways    and    means    committee,   was 

25  per  cent.      Shortly  after  the  panic  of  enacted  in  1861,  having  a  protection  char- 



acter;  the  Civil  War  broke  out;  expenses  provided  for  free  lumber  and  wool,  redue- 

of  government   enormously   increased;    in  tion  on  pig-iron,  and  abolition  of  specific 

1862  a  stringent  internal  revenue  act  was  duties   on   cottons.      The   Democrats  were 

passed.     As  the  war  developed,  all  finan-  now  practically  united  on   this  side,  and 

cial  experiments  were  tried,  taxes  on  in-  only    4    out   of    169    votes   were    recorded 

comes  and  corporation  receipts,  on  manu-  against  the  bill.     It  failed  in  the  Repub- 

factures,  also  loans,  and  inconvertible  cur-  lican  Senate.     The  same  year  the  election 

rency;    in   1864  a  tariff  bill  was  enacted  for    President    occurred,    with    Cleveland 

which  accorded  a  high  measure  of  protec-  and   Harrison   as   opposing   champions   of 

tion  and  produced  a  large  amount  of  reve-  tariff  reform  and  protection  respectively, 

nue.      From    1866    to    1872    the    internal-  The   tariff   was   the   main   issue,   and   the 

revenue  taxes  were  mainly  abolished,  but  Republicans     were     successful.     As     Con- 

a  movement  .towards  reforming  the  tariff  gress   was   also   Republican   a   revision   of 

failed   in    1867.      In    1870   the   duties   on  the  tariff  laws  was  made,  and  this  meas- 

purely  revenue  articles  were  lowered,  and  ure  bore  the  name  of  the  McKinley  tariff, 

in  1872  tea  and  coffee  were  admitted  free,  from  the  chairman  of  the  ways  and  means 

and   the   protective   duties    received   a    10  committee.     Of   this   act,   passed   October, 

per  cent.  "  horizontal "  reduction.     Party  1890,    the    following    features    are    to    be 

lines  were  not  drawn  upon  these  measures,  noted.     Under  the  influence  largely,  it  is 

although  the  war  tariffs  had  been  passed  claimed,   of   Secretary   Blaine,   reciprocity 

by  the  Republicans.    This  10  per  cent,  re-  provisions  were  inserted  when  the  bill  was 

duction  was  in  1875  revoked,  but  the  tariff  before   the    Senate.      By   these   provisions 

was  not  generally  discussed,  although  re-  the  President   could  by  proclamation   im- 

forra   bills   were   introduced   in    1876   and  pose    fixed    duties    on    sugar,    wool,    tea, 

1878.  coffee,    and    hides    from    other    countries. 

In  the  campaign  of   1880  the  Republi-  whenever  the  duties  imposed  by  such  coun- 

eans  made  some  use  of  protection,  and  the  tries     on     American     products     shall     be 

Democratic     candidate.     Gen.     Winfield  deemed  unjust.     Duties  were  accordingly 

Scott  Hancock  (^.  u.),  referred  to  it  as  a  laid    on    imports    from    Venezuela,    Haiti, 

local  issue.    In  1882  the  Republicans  took  and    Colombia;    reciprocity   treaties    were 

up  the  matter  seriously;  a  tariff  commis-  negotiated    with     Brazil,     San     Domingo, 

sion  was   appointed,   and   in   1883   an   act  Cuba,    and    Porto    Rico,   Jamaica,    Barba- 

was   passed;    this  measure  was  distinctly  does.   Trinidad,   British   Guiana,   and   sev 

protective;   some  reductions  were  made  in  eral  States  of  Central  America;  also  some 

wool,  iron,  etc.,  and  the  duty  on  steel  rails  reciprocity  arrangements  were  made  with 

was  reduced  from  $28  to  $17.    Almost  im-  Germany  and  France. 

mediately  the  Democrats  gained  control  Other  important  features  were  the  re- 
of  the  House.  The  Morrison  bill  of  1884  mission  of  the  duty  on  sugar,  a  general  in- 
proposed  a  "  horizontal "  reduction  of  20  crease  in  wool  and  woollen  goods,  dress 
per  cent.,  with  free  iron  ore,  coal,  and  goods,  knit  goods,  linen,  plush,  velvets, 
lumber.  It  was  opposed  by  the  Republi-  etc.;  tin  plates  were  protected;  the  to- 
cans  and  defeated,  as  41  out  of  192  Demo-  bacco  tax  was  reduced;  there  was  an  in- 
crats  antagonized  it.  Again  in  1886  an-  crease  on  barley,  eggs,  potatoes,  a  de- 
other  low-tariff  bill  met  the  same  fate,  but  crease  on  some  articles,  and  additions  tc 
the  number  of  opposing  Democrats  had  the  free  list.  On  the  whole  the  act  was 
fallen  to  20  out  of  169;  free  wool,  salt,  regarded  as  a  high  protective  measure, 
and  lumber  were  offered.  It  raised  considerable  Republican  opposi- 

In   1887   the  protective  contest   entered  tion,  especially  in  the  Northwest.     A  few 

on  its  last  phase.      The   election   of   1884  weeks   later  the   Republican   party  met  a 

had  not  turned  distinctively  on  the  tariff;  Waterloo  in  the  elections  throughout  the 

but    in    the    December    message    of    1887  country,   and  this  result  was  ascribed  to 

President  Cleveland  devoted  his  attention  the  tariff.    In  1893  the  Democrats,  having 

entirely  to  the  surplus  in  the  treasury  and  regained   possession   of  the  executive  and 

the  cause  of  tariff  reform  (see  Cleveland,  both    branches    of    Congress,    prepared   to 

Gkover).     The  following  year  the  Demo-  deal  with  the  question.     President  Cleve- 

cratic  House  passed  the  Mills  bill,  which  land  was  elected  in  1892  largely  on  this 



issue,   and   the  party  platform   had   con-  upon    sugar,    molasses,    coffee,    tea,    and 

demned  the  principle  of  protection.     The  hides,  the  product  of  or  exported  from  such 

Wilson    bill,    framed    by    Chairman    Wil-  designated  country. 

son,    of    the    ways    and    means    commit-  Among  other  provisions  of  the  McKinley 

tee,  and  his  associates,  was  presented  to  law,   the   following  were   especially  note- 

the  House  at  the  close  of  1893,  and  pro-  worthy: 

vided    for    reduction    of    duties    in    some  A   bounty   of    2    cents   per   pound   was 

cases,  and  of  some  notable  additions   to  authorized  for  all  sugar  grown  within  the 

the  free  list,  including  wool.     On  Feb.  1,  United  States,  testing  not  less  than  90'^ 

1894,  it  passed  the  House  by  a  vote  of  204  by  the  polariscope;    and  upon   all   sugars 

to  140.     Sixteen  Democrats  voted  against  testing  less  than  90°   and  not  less  than 

the  bill.  80°,  a  bounty  of  1%  cents  per  pound.     It 

The  Wilson  bill  failed  to  provide  suffi-  was   estimated   that  this   provision   would 
cient  revenue.     After  the  election  of  Mc-  cause  an  annual  expenditure  of  $7,000,000, 
Kinley    and    a    Republican    Congress    in  based  upon  the  annual  production  of  sugar 
1896,  a  strong  effort  was  at  once  made  to  at  the  time  of  the  passage  of  the  bill, 
pass  another  tariff  measure,  entitled  the  All  packages  or  boxes   containing  arti- 
Dingley    bill.        This    bill    somewhat    re-  cles  of  foreign  merchandise  imported  into 
sembles  the  McKinley  bill,  although  the  the  United  States  must  be  plainly  marked 
duties    proposed    were    not    as    excessive,  or  stamped  with  the  name  of  the  country 
The  duty  on  wool  was  restored.   The  Ding-  in  which  the  articles  originated, 
ley  bill   met  with   much   opposition,   but  When  foreign  raw  materials  have  been 
was   passed   at   the   close   of  July,    1897-  made  into  finished  products  in  this  coun- 
This  was  chiefly  due  to  Western  Senators,  try  and  exported,  99  per  cent,  of  the  du- 
who  refused  to  aid  the  Republican  tariff  ties  paid  on  such  raw  materials  was  re- 
plans   unless    that   party   would   support  funded, 
free-silver  legislation.  All  special  taxes  and  licenses  imposed 

The  Wilson  tariff  was  chiefly  noted  for  upon  the  manufacture  of  tobacco,  cigars, 

its  free-wool    (raw)    provision,  while  one  and  snuff,  and  upon  dealers  in  them,  were 

of  the  leading  features  of  the  McKinley  abolished,  thus  reducing  the  tax  on  manu- 

law  was   its   reciprocity  clause,  the  text  factured  tobacco  from  about  8  cents  per 

of  which  was  as  follows:  pound  to  about  4  cents  per  pound.    This  is 

Section  3.  With  a  view  to  secure  re-  the  only  important  change  made  in  the 
ciprocal  trade  with  countries  producing  internal-revenue  laws, 
the  following  articles,  and  for  this  pur-  On  March  18,  1897,  a  bill  to  "  provide 
pose,  on  and  after  July  1,  1892,  when-  revenue  for  the  government  and  to  en- 
eA'er  and  so  often  as  the  President  shall  courage  the  industries  of  the  United 
be  satisfled  that  the  government  of  any  States  "  was  introduced  into  the  House  of 
country  producing  and  exporting  sugars,  Representatives  by  Nelson  Dingley,  Jr.,  of 
molasses,  coffee,  tea,  and  hides,  raw  and  Maine.  The  treasury  had  suffered  since 
uncured,  or  any  of  such  articles,  impose  1893  from  yearly  deficits,  and  the  finances 
duties  or  other  exactions  upon  the  agri-  had  been  further  deranged  by  the  growing 
cultural  or  other  products  of  the  United  conviction  that  the  currency  system  was 
States,  which  in  view  of  the  free  introduc-  not  as  perfect  as  it  should  be.  Many  be- 
tion  of  such  sugar,  molasses,  coffee,  tea,  lieved  the  aggravating  cause  to  be  a  want 
and  hides  into  the  United  States  he  may  of  a  sufficient  revenue,  and  the  new  tariff 
deem  to  be  reciprocally  unequal  and  un-  was  framed  to  produce  this  revenue.  By 
reasonable,  he  shall  have  the  power,  and  raising  all  existing  duties  to  the  rates  col- 
it  shall  be  his  duty,  to  suspend,  by  procla-  lected  under  the  law  of  1890,  and  by  sub- 
mation  to  that  effect  the  provisions  of  jecting  to  duties  a  large  number  of  arti- 
this  act  relating  to  the  free  introduction  cles,  raw  materials  of  industry,  imported 
of  such  sugar,  molasses,  coffee,  tea,  and  free  under  the  laws  of  1890  and  1894,  the 
hides,  the  production  of  such  country,  for  framer  of  the  measure  estimated  that  the 
such  time  as  he  shall  deem  just;  and  in  new  scheme  of  duties  would  produce  an 
such  case  and  during  such  suspension  annual  revenue  of  $273,500,000,  or  nearly 
duties  shall  be  levied,  collected,  and  paid  $50,000,000  more  than  had  been  obtained 



from  customs  in  any  one  year  since  1S67. 
The  measure  passed  the  House,  almost 
without  debate,  and  the  Senate  finance 
committee  prepared  a  bill  of  its  own,  as  a 
substitute,  differing  in  many  important 
particulars  from  the  House  measure.  Af- 
ter many  conferences  the  two  bodies  came 
to  an  agreement,  and  the  bill  received  the 
signature  of  the  President  on  July  24, 
1897.  This  tariff  is  one  of  the  most  de- 
tailed and  extensive  ever  framed  by  Con- 
gress. The  first  two  sections  enumerate 
705  articles  and  classes,  of  which  463  were 
subject  to  duty.  Provision  was  made  in 
Section  3  for  reciprocity  agreements  with 
such  nations  or  countries  as  would  make 
adequate  concessions  on  the  products  and 
manufactures  of  the  United  States;  but 
the  list  of  foreign  products  on  which  re- 
duction of  duty  may  be  made  by  the 
United  States  was  too  limited  to  offer 
much  scope  for  reciprocal  agreements.  In 
Section  5  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 
was  directed  to  ascertain  the  net  amount 
of  any  bounty,  direct  or  indirect,  paid  by 
a  foreign  government  on  the  exportation 
of  any  article  or  merchandise,  which 
amount  was  to  be  added  to  the  duty  im- 
posed on  such  articles  or  merchandise  im- 
ported  into  the  United   States  from  the 

bounty-paying  country.  By  Section  22  a 
discriminating  duty  of  10  per  cent.,  in 
addition  to  the  duties  imposed  by  law, 
was  imposed  on  "  all  goods,  wares,  or 
merchandise  which  shall  be  imported  in 
vessels  not  of  the  United  States,  or  which., 
being  the  production  or  manufacture  of 
any  foreign  country  not  contiguous  to 
the  United  States,  shall  come  into  the 
United  States  from  such  contiguous  coun- 
try."' This  section  was  at  first  believed  to 
have  the  imlooked-for  efl"ect  of  imposing 
a  discriminating  duty  on  foreign  goods 
brought  into  the  United  States  througu 
Canada — a  commerce  of  some  importance. 
The  Attorney-General  decided  that  such 
was  not  the  effect.  A  fiirther  important 
provision  was  contained  in  Section  32  per- 
mitting appraising  officers,  in  determin- 
ing the  dutiable  value  of  imported  mer- 
chandise, to  take  into  consideration  the 
wholesale  price  at  which  such  or  similar 
merchandise  is  sold  or  offered  for  sale  in 
the  United  States.  This  permitted  "  home 
market  value "  to  be  considered  where 
"  foreign  market  value  is  in  doubt." 

As  the  intention  of  the  framers  of  the 
act  was  to  go  back  to  the  law  of  1890, 
a  comparison  is  made  with  the  rates  im- 
posed by  that  act: 





All  other,  not  specially  provided  for , 

Alcoholic  perfumerj-,  Incluiling  cologne  water) 

and  other  toilet  waters j 

Compounds,  alcoholic,  n.  s.  p.  t. 

Chloride  of  Lime 

Camphor,  refined , 

Chalk  preparations,  all  other,  n.  s.  p.  f < 

Chicle , 

Oil.  fasel-oil,  or  amylic  alcohol 


Crude  or  unmannfa'tiired,  etc , 

Morphia  or  morphine,  etc , 

.Spirit  varnishes 


Crayons , 

.Smalts  and  fh>8ting3,  Indian  red,  etc 

Potash,  chlorate  of , 

Preporations  of  which  alcohol  is  a  component  1 

part,  etc | 

Boda,  chlorate  of 

Soda  anh , 

Plaster  rock  or  gypeiim , 

Plaster  of  Paris,  ground , 


Wholly  or  partially  mannfactured , 


Rates  of  duty  nnder^ 

Act  of  Oct  1,  1890. 




$2  per  gal.  and  50  per  cent. 

|2  per  gal.  and  25  per  cent. 


4c.  per  lb 

20  percent 


ID  per  cent 


50c.  per  ounce 

$1.32  per  gaL  and  35  per  cent. . 

25  percent o 


60c.  per  lb. 


l-4c.  per  lb. 


$1  per  ton. . 


Law  of  1897. 

3c.  per  lb. 

25  per  cent. 

60c.  per  lb.  and  45  per  cent, 

It  1<  (t  u  u 

l-5c.  per  lb. 
6c.  per  lb. 
25  per  cent. 
10c.  per  lb. 
l-4c.  per  lb. 

$1  per  lb. 

$1  per  ounce. 

$1.32  per  gal.  and  35  per  cent 

80  per  cent 

it   «t 

ti  (t 
2c.  per  lb. 
65c.  per  lb. 

2c.  per  lb. 
3-8c.  per  lb. 
GOc.  per  ton. 
$2.25  per  toa 

$(!  per  ton. 
15  per  cent 




Aspbaltuni  aod  bitumen: 

Not  dried  or  advanced 

Dried  or  advanced 

Bauxite  or  bcauxite,  crude 

Chemical  glassware,  for  use  in  laboratory,  n.  s.  p.  f. 
Plate  glass,  fluted,  etc..  above  16  by  24  ins.,  and) 

out  above  24:  by  Ml  ius ( 

Flale  glass,  cast,  [lolished: 

Not  e.xceeding  10  by  24  Ins 

Above  16  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  80  Ins. . . 
Plate-glass,  cast,  polished,  silvered: 

Not  exceeding  16  by  24  ins 

Above  IG  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  30  ins... 
Cylinder  and  crown  glass,  polished,  silvered: 

Not  exceeding  10  by  24  ins 

Above  16  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  30  Ins. . . 
Cylinder   and  crown  glass,    polished,    silvered, 
when  ground,  obscured,  frosted,  etc. : 

Not  exceeding  16  by  24  ins 

Above  10  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  30  ins. 
Plate-glass,  cast,  polislied,  silvered,  v?hen  ground, 
obscured,  frosted,  etc. : 

Not  exceeding  16  by  24  ins 

Above  10  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  30  ins. . 
Plate -glass,    cast,    polished,    unsilvered,    when 
ground,  obscured,  frosted,  etc. : 

Not  exceeding  10  by  24  ins 

Above  10  by  24  and  not  above  24  by  30  ins. . . 
All  other  ni:inufactures: 

Paste,  manufactures  of 

Glass,  broken,  and  old  glass,  etc 

Manufactures  of: 




Freestone,  granite,  sandstone,  etc.: 

Undressed  or  unmanufactured 

Hewn,  dressed,  or  polished.... 

Polishing  and  burnishing  stones 

Scissors  and  shears  and  blades  for  the  eame, 
finished  or  unfinished: 

Valued  at  not  more  than  .50c.  per  doien  . . , . , 

Valued  at  more  than  50c.  and  not  more\ 
than  $1.75  per  dozen j 

Valued  at  more  than  $1. 75  per  dozen , 

Tinsel  wire,  lame  or  lahn 


Chronometers,  bos  or  ship's,  and  parts  thereof. . , 


Watch-cases,  movements,  etc 

Jewels   for   use    in    the    manufacture   ot\ 

watches  or  clocks j 




Molasses : 

Testing  above  W  and  not  above  66° 

Above  56° 


All  not  above  Na  16,  Dutch  standard 

Sugar  above  No.  16,  Dutch  standard 

Sugar,  maple,  and  syrup 

Glucose  or  grape  sugar 

Saccharine , 

Orchids,  lily  of  the  valley,  azaleas,  palms,  etc. 


Fruits  preserved  in  their  own  Juice 

Currants , 

Olives,  green  or  prepared 


Oranges,  lemons,  and  limes 

Orange  and  lemon  peel,  not  preserved 

Cocoanut  meat  or  copra,  ete 

Rales  of  duty  auder- 

Act  of  Oct.  1,  1890. 




45  percent... 

8c.  per  sq.  ft. , 

6c.  per  sq.  ft., 
8c.  per  sq.  ft.. 

Oc.  per  sq.  ft. 
10c.  per  sq.  ft 

6c.  per  sq.  ft. 
10c.  per  sq.  ft. 

6c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent. , 
10c.  jar  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent, 

6c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent. , 
10c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent. 

5c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent 
8c.  persq.  ft.  and  10  percent. 

25  per  cent 


20  percent 

25  percent 

lie.  per  cu.  ft 

40  percent , 


35  per  cent 

<(        i<   ^^ ^ 


35  percent....... 

10  per  cent 

25  per  cent 



$1  per  M 

20c.  perM 




6-lOc.  per  lb 

20  percent 

3-4c.  per  lb 

25  per  cent 


30  per  cent 

Free ■ 

Free ■ 

Free • 

10c.  per  cu.  ft 

Free ' 

20  per  cent 


$1.25  per  ton. 
$2.50  per  ton. 
$1  per  ton. 
60  per  cent. 

10c.  per  sq.  ft. 

8c.  per  sq.  ft. 
10c.  per  sq.  (L 

lie.  per  sq.  ft. 
13c.  per  sq.  ft. 

lie.  per  sq.  ft. 
13c.  per  sq.  ft. 

lie.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent 
13c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent 

lie.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent. 
13c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  10  per  cent. 

8c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  5  per  cent. 
10c.  per  sq.  ft.  and  6  per  cent. 

45  per  cent. 
20  per  cent. 

50  per  cent. 

12c.  per  cu.  ft. 
50  per  cent. 
20  per  cent. 

15c.  per  doz.  and  15  per  cent 

50c.  per  doz.  and  15  per  cent 

75c.  per  doz.  and  25  per  cent. 

6c.  per  lb. 

6c.  per  lb.,  etc. 

40  per  cent 


20  per  cent 
$1.60  perM. 
25c.  per  M. 

3c.  per  gal. 
6c.  per  gal. 

Testing  not  above  75°,  95-lOOc. 
per  lb. ;  for  each  additional 
degree,  35-lOOOc.  per  lb.  ad- 

1  95-lOOc.  per  lb. 

4c.  per  lb. 

1  l-2c.  per  lb. 

$1.50  per  lb.  und  10  percent 

25  per  cent. 

$1.60  per  ton. 

35  percent. 

2c.  per  lb. 

20c.  per  gal. 

l-2c.  per  lb. 

Ic.  per  lb. 

2c.  per  lb. 



rineapples. ■ 

Meals,  ilresseil  or  uiulressed.  etc 

Chooohilo  auil  cocoa,  prepared  or  mauufactured.. 

I>.iuaflioD  root,  etc.,  prepared 

Gmger-ale  or  g;ugerbeer 

Miuenil  waters,  natural 

All  other  inauufactiires  of  coitou  not  specially  ( 

provided  for ) 

Hemp,  tow  of 

Hemp  and  Jiite  carpets 

All  manufaotUR^s  of  othervegetable  fibre  except ) 

&.i\.  hemp,  and  raiuie ) 

Gunny  K'lgs  and  gunny-doth,  old  or  refuse.. 

Carpet,s.  treble  ingr.iin.  3-ply.  etc 

C;«rpets.  wi>ol.  Dutch,  and  i  plv  ingrain 

Oirds,  pl.iving ". 

Other  manufactures  of  paper 

Beads  ot  gl.xss.  louse,  unthreaded 

Beads,  beaded  or  jet  trimmings,,  etc 

Braids,  plaits,  laces,  willow  sheets,  etc 

Coal,  anthracite 


Feithers  and  downs,  crude: 


All  other 

Feathers  and  downs  for  beds 

Haircloth,  known  as  crinoline  cloth 


Precious  stones  and  imitations  of,  set,  not  spe-l 

cially  provided  for ] 

PearLs,  set 

Hides  of  cattle,  raw  or  uncured,  etc 


Bind  or  belling 

All  leather,  not  specially  provided  for 

Coral,  manufai-lurcs  of 

Spar,  manufactures  of 

Uusi'al  instruments  and  parts  of: 

Metal,  chef  value  

Wood,  chief  value  etc.,  covered  with  other   material) 

than  silk,  wool,  etc f 

Sticks  for  umbrellas,  para.sols,  or  sunshades 

Rates  of  duty  ander — 

Act  of  Oct.  1,  1S90. 


10  per  cent. .. 

2c.  per  lb 

11-ic.  per  lb. 
13c.  per  doz.. 

40  percent 

$11.20  per  ton. 
6c.  per  sq.  yd. 

40  per  cent 


19c.  persq.  yd.  and  40  per  cent. 
14c.  per  sq,  yd.  and  40  per  cent 

50c.  per  puck 

25  per  cent 

10  per  cent 

35  per  cent 



15c.  per  lb 

10  per  cent. 


8c.  per  sq.  yd. 
50  per  cent. .. 

25  percent... 


10  percent. 
25  per  cent. 

45  per  cent . 
35  per  cent. 

45  per  cent. 

35  per  cent. 

t&v/  of  1897. 

7c.  per  cu.  ft. 

25  per  cent. 

5c.  per  lb.  and  10  per  cent. 

2c.  per  lb. 

18c.  per  doz. 

Estimated  30  per  cent. 

45  per  cent. 

$20  per  ton. 

10c.  per  sq.  yd.  and  35  per  cent 

45  per  cent. 

10  per  cent. 

22c.  per  sq.  yd.  and  40  per  cent, 
18c.  per  sq.  yd.  and  40  per  cent, 
10c.  per  pack  and  20  per  cent. 
35  per  cent. 

60  per  cent. 
15  per  cent. 
67c.  per  ton. 
15c.  per  lb. ;  25c.  per  lb. 

15  per  cent. 

10c.  per  sq.  yd. 
60  per  cent. 

15  per  cent 
20  per  cent 
50  per  cent. 

46  per  cent 
45  per  cent. 

50  per  cent. 

40  per  cent. 

Tarleton,  Sir  Banastre,  military  offi-  ure  of  General  Lee  late  in  1776.  After 
cor;  born  in  Liverpool,  England,  Aug.  21,  the  evacuation  of  Philadelphia,  1778,  he 
1754;     purchased    a    commi.ssion    in    the    commanded    a    cavalry    corps    called    the 

"  British  Legion,"  and  accompanied  the 
troops  that  captured  Charleston  in  May, 
1780.  He  was  one  of  Cornwallis's  most 
active  officers  in  the  Carolinas  and  Vir- 
ginia, in  1780-81,  destroying  Colonel 
Bii  ford's  regiment  at  Waxhaw  Creek. 
"  Tarleton's  quarter "  was  synonymous 
with  wholesale  butchery.  He  was  one  of 
tlio  prisoners  at  the  surrender  of  Corn- 
wallis.  Ho  published  a  history  of  his  cam- 
•  v,j  paign   in    1780-81.     He  died   in   England, 

•Jan.  23,  183;}.    .Sec  Buford,  Abraham. 
I  Ta-ron-tee,  or  Riviere  aux  Canards, 

SKiit.Mi.sir    AT.      (Jen.    William    Hull    cau- 
mu.  ■■.*-.*  Tp,   T  tioiiHJy  moved,  July  13,   1812,  from  Sand- 

wifh  to  attack  Fort  Maiden,  18  miles  be- 
T'.ritinh  army  rdrafjoonH).  At  the  begin-  low.  He  sent  forward  a  reconnoitring 
nini(  of  thfr  Hfvoliitionary  War  he  came  party,  who  returned  with  information 
to  America,  ana  weh  concerned  in  the  capt-    that    Tecumseh,    with    his    Indians,    had 



been  lying  in  ambush  near  Turkey  Creek, 
not  far  from  Amherstburg,  and  that  the 
forest  was  full  of  prowling  barbarians. 
There  were  rumors  also  that  British 
armed  vessels  were  about  to  ascend  the 
Detroit  River.  Hall  ordered  his  cannon  to 
be  placed  near  the  shore  and  his  camp 
fortified  on  the  land  side.  He  sent  Mc- 
Arthur  in  pursuit  of  the  Indians  in  the 
woods,  and  Colonel  Cass  pushed  on  towards 
the  Ta-ron-tee,  as  the  Indians  called  it, 
with  280  men.  It  is  a  broad  and  deep 
stream  flowing  through  marshes  into  the 
Detroit  River  about  4  miles  above  Fort 
Maiden,  at  Amherstburg,  and  was  then 
approached    by    a    narrow    causeway    and 

iams,  and  Van  Wart;  and  contains  the 
home  and  burial  -  place  of  Washington 
Irving;  the  Philipse  manor-house,  erected 
in  1G82;  a  Dutch  church,  erected  prior  to 
IGO'J;  and  a  monument  to  the  Revolu- 
tionary soldiers  of  the  vicinity,  dedicated 
in  1894. 

Tatham,  William,  author;  born  in 
Hutton,  England,  in  1752;  settled  in  Vir- 
ginia in  1769;  served  in  the  Revolutionary 
War  as  a  colonel  of  Virginia  cavalry. 
After  the  war  he  studied  law  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1784;  settled  in 
North  Carolina  in  1786;  was  in  England 
in  1796-1805;  then  returned  to  the  United 
States.     He  was  the  author  of  Memorial 


spanned  by  a  bridge.    At  the  southern  end    07v  the  Civil  and  Military  Government  of 

of  the  bridge  was  a  detachment  of  British 
regulars,  Canadian  militia,  and  Indians 
under  Tecumseh.  Cass  marched  up  the 
stream  to  a  ford,  crossed  it,  at  sunset 
dashed  upon  the  enemy,  and,  after  a  con- 
flict of  a  few  minutes,  dispersed  them  and 
drove  them  into  the  forest.  He  asked  per- 
mission to  hold  the  bridge  as  an  important 
point  in  the  march  upon  Fort  Maiden,  but 
his  detachment  was  too  weak  to  face  the 
peril  of  such  nearness  to  the  fort,  and  the 
request  was  denied.  Besides,  Hull  was  not 
then  aware  of  the  real  strength  of  the  gar- 
rison at  Fort  Maiden,  and  was  not  pre- 
pared to  attack  it.  The  affair  at  the  Ta- 
ron-tee  Avas  the  first  skirmish  and  victory 
in  the  War  of  1812-15. 

Tarrytown,  a  village  in  Westchester 
county,  N.  Y.,  where  the  Hudson  River 
expands  and  is  locally  known  as  Tappan 
Sea.  It  was  the  scene  of  the  capture  of 
Major    John    Andre    by    Paulding,    Will- 

the  Tennessee;  An  Analysis  of  the  State  of 
Virginia;  Tico  Tracts  Relating  to  the 
Canal  Between  Norfolk  and  North  Caro- 
lina; Plan  for  Insulating  the  Metropo- 
lis hy  Means  of  a  Navigable  Canal,  etc. 
He  died  in  Richmond,  Va.,  Feb.  22,  1819. 
Tatnall,  Josiah,  naval  officer;  born 
near  Savannah,  Ga.,  Nov.  9,  1796;  entered 
the  United  States  navy  in  1812;  rose  to 
captain  in  1850;  first  served  in  the  frigate 
Constellation,  and  assisted  in  the  repulse 
of  the  British  at  Craney  Island  in  1813. 
He  afterwards  served  under  Perry  and 
Porter,  and  was  engaged  on  the  Mexican 
coast  during  the  war  against  Mexico.  He 
entered  the  Confederate  service;  impro- 
vised a  flotilla  known  as  the  Mosquito 
Fleet,  and  attempted  tc  defend  Port  Royal 
Soimd  against  Dupont.  He  commanded  at 
Norfolk  when  the  Merrimac  was  destroyed, 
and  the  Mosquito  Fleet  at  Savannah.  He 
died  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  June  14,  1871. 



Taussig,  Fraxk  William,  educator; 
born  in  St.  Louis,  Dec.  2S,  1S59;  gradu- 
ated at  Harvard  College  in  1879;  later  made  Professor  of  Political  Economy 
at  Harvard  College.  He  is  the  author  of 
Tariff  History  of  the  United  States; 
Silcer  Situation  in  the  United  States; 
Wanes  and  Capital,  etc. 

Taxation,  Exemptions  fkom.     See  Ex- 


Taxation,  Protest  Against.  See 
Adams.  Sajii^el. 

Taxation  no  Tyranny,  the  title  of  a 
pamphlet  written  by  Dr.  Samuel  Johnson 
in  favor  of  the  taxation  schemes  of  the 
British  government.  It  appeared  early 
in  1775,  and  is  one  of  the  most  heartless, 
intensely  bitter,  and  savagely  insolent  of 
all  the  essays  of  the  day.  It  was  only  the 
echo  of  the  angry  threats  and  grotesque 
arguments  of  the  stubborn  King  and  venal 
minister,  and  the  mad  passions  of  the 
aristocracy,  which  were  then  poisoning  the 
minds  of  the  people  of  Great  Britain  with 
unreasoning  hatred  of  the  Americans. 
Johnson  was  employed  by  the  ministry  in 
this  work  of  inflaming  the  passions  sf  the 
British  people  to  divert  their  attention 
from  the  monstrous  injustice  they  were 
inflicting  upon  their  fellow-subjects  in 
America  by  oppressing  Boston  and  rob- 
bing ilassachusetts  of  its  charter,  and  en- 
deavoring to  make  its  free  people  absolute 
slaves  to  a  tyrant's  will.  The  one  great 
blot  upon  the  names  of  Johnson  and  Gib- 
bon, the  historian,  is  the  barter  of  their 
consciences  for  money;  for  both  had  ex- 
pressed sympathy,  for  the  Americans  up 
to  that  time.  Gibbon  had  even  written 
against  the  ministerial  measures.  He  be- 
came suddenly  silent  at  the  time  when 
Johnson's  pen  was  inditing  his  coarse  and 
ribald  paragraphs.  To  them  a  writer  of  a 
stinging  epigram  alluded  in  the  line, 

"  What  made  Johnson  write  made  Gibbon  dumb." 

With  unpardonable  malignity  he  uttered 
ponderous  sarcasms  and  conscious  sophis- 
tries as  arguments.  Pointing  at  Franklin 
(then  in  England)  with  a  sneer,  he  spoke 
of  him  as  '"'  a  master  of  mischief,  teaching 
Congress  to  put  in  motion  the  engine  of 
political  electricity,  and  to  give  the  great 
stroke  the  name  of  Boston." 

To  the  declaration  of  the  people  of 
Boston    that    to    preserve    their    liberties 


they  were  willing  to  leave  their  rich  tovra 
and  wander  into  the  coimtry  as  exiles,  he 
heartlessly  said :  "  Alas !  the  heroes  of 
Boston  will  only  leave  good  houses  to 
v»'iser  men."  To  the  claim  of  the  Ameri- 
cans to  the  right  of  resistance  to  oppres- 
sion, he  exclaimed:  "Audacious  defiance! 
The  indignation  of  the  English  is  like  that 
of  the  Scythians,  who,  returning  from  war, 
found  themselves  excluded  from  their  own 
houses  by  their  slaves."  To  the  words  of 
"  A  Pennsylvania  Farmer  "  insisting  that 
the  Americans  complained  only  of  innova- 
tions, he  retorted :  "  We  do  not  put  a  calf 
into  the  plough;  we  wait  till  he  is  an  ox." 
The  ministry  bade  him  erase  these  lines 
because  they  were-  unwilling  to  concede 
that  the  calf  had  been  spared,  and  not  for 
its  coarse  ribaldry.  Johnson  shamelessly 
avowed  his  bargain  by  comparing  himselfj 
when  he  obeyed  the  commands  of  the  min- 
isters, to  a  mechanic  for  whom  "  his  em- 
ployer is  to  decide."  To  the  assertion  that 
the  Americans  were  increasing  in  num- 
bers, wealth,  and  love  of  freedom,  he  re- 
torted :  "  This  talk  that  they  multiply  with 
the  fecundity  of  their  own  rattlesnakes 
disposes  men  accustomed  to  think  them- 
selves masters  to  hasten  the  experiment  of 
binding  obstinacy  before  it  becomes  yet 
more  obdurate."  He  sneered  at  the  teach- 
ings of  the  rule  of  progression  which 
showed  that  America  must  in  the  end  ex- 
ceed Europe  in  population,  and  said  in  de- 
rision, with  no  suspicion  that  he  was 
uttering  a  sure  prophecy :  "  Then,  in  a 
century  and  a  quarter,  let  the  princes  of 
the  earth  tremble  in  their  palaces!"  That 
was  a  sad  spectacle  of  an  old  man  prosti- 
tuting the  powers  of  a  great  intellect,  and 
weakening  the  prop  of  his  morality,  by 
aiming  such  a  malignant  but  utterly  feeble 
shaft  at  his  kindred  in  nationality  strug- 
gling for  freedom. 

Taxes.  In  the  United  States  taxes  for 
the  support  of  the  federal  government  are 
mainly  indirect  taxes,  such  as  customs 
and  excise.  The  Constitution  gives  Con- 
gress "  power  to  collect  taxes,  duties,  im- 
posts, and  excises,  to  pay  the  debts  and 
provide  for  the  common  defence  and  gen- 
oral  welfare  of  the  United  States,"  sub- 
ject to  restrictions,  no  capitation  or  other 
direct  tax  to  be  laid  unless  in  proportion 
to  the  census.  The  first  direct  tax  ($2,- 
000,000)     was    levied    upon    the    sixteen 


States,      pro      rata,      in      1798.        Subsc-  to    retailers,    sales    at   auction,    carriages, 

quently     the     tax    was     levied     in     1813,  stamped    vellum,    parchment,    and    paper 

1815,  181G,  and  1861.     That  of  18G1   ($20,-   after  June  30 April  G,  1802 

000,000)     was    refunded,    March    2,    1891.  Act    passed    imposing    duties    of   -1    per 

According    to     rulings     of    the     Supreme  cent,  on  sales  at  auction  of  merchandise, 

Court,    Congress    has    no    power    to    levy  and  25  per  cent,  on  ships  and  vessels,  on 

duties    on    exports,    and    the    restriction  licenses  to  distillers  of  spirituous  liquors; 

upon    direct   taxation    does   not   apply   to  and   on   sugar   refined   within   the   United 

an  income  tax.     The  systems  and  rates  of    States July  24,  1813 

State,  county,  and  municipal  taxation  are  Act  passed  imposing  duties  on  licenses 

numerous    and    constantly    changing,    but  to   retailers   of   wines,   spirituous   liquors, 

the  taxes  are  direct,  and  are  levied  upon  and  foreign  merchandise,  and  on  notes  of 

the  assessed  value  of  real  estate  and  per-  banks,    etc.,    bonds    and    obligations    dis- 

sonal  property.     According  to  the  Single-  counted    by    banks,    and    on    certain    bills 

TAX    (q.  V.)    theory,  advocated  by  Henry    of  exchange Aug.  2,   1813 

George  (q.  v.)  and  others,  taxation  should  Direct    tax    of    $3,000,000    imposed    on 

be  solely  on  land  value,  exclusive  of   im-    States  by  counties Aug.  2,  1813 

provements.    The  development  of  the  pres-  Duties    laid   on    carriages    and   harness, 

ent   system   of   federal   taxation   is   sho\vn  except  those  exclusively  employed  in  hus- 

below:  bandry Dec.  15,  1814 

Duties  laid  upon  spirits  distilled  with-  Fifty  per   cent,   added  upon   licenses   to 

in    the    United    States    from    foreign    and  retailers  of  wines,  etc.,  and  100  per  cent. 

home   material,   March    3,    1791,    followed    on  sales  by  auction Dec.  23,  1814 

by    an    act    further    regulating   these    du-  Direct  tax  of  $0,000,000  laid  upon  the 

ties   and   imposing   a   tax   on    stills  United  States  annually Jan.  9,  1815 

May  8,  1792  Internal-revenue  tax  of  $1   per  ton  im- 

Execution   of   the   above   laws   leads   to  posed    on    pig-iron;     1     cent    per    lb.    on 

the  whiskey  insurrection  in  Pennsylvania  nails ;    also   tax   on   candles,   paper,   hats, 

1794  umbrellas,    playing-cards,    boots,    tobacco. 

Duties   imposed   on   licenses   for   selling  leather,    etc.,    and    an    annual    duty    on 

wines  and  foreign  distilled  spirituous  liq-  household  furniture,   and  gold  and   silver 

ors    by    retail ;     8    cents    per    lb.    on    all    watches,  by  act Jan.  18,  1815 

snuff   manufactured    for    sale    within    the  Internal-revenue  tax  on  gold  and  silver 

United   States;    2   cents  per   lb.   on   sugar  and  plated  ware,  jewelry,  and  paste-work 

refined    within    the    United    States;    and  manufactured    within    the    United    States 

specific     duties     as     follows:      On     every  Feb.  27,  1815 

coach,   $10   yearly;    chariot,   $8;    phaeton,  Direct    tax    of    $19,998.40    laid    on    the 

$6;  wagons  used  in  agriculture  or  trans-  District  of  Columbia  annually,  by  act 

portation  of  goods,  exempt  by  act  Feb.  27,  1815 

June  5,  1794  Acts  of  Jan.  18  and  Feb.  27,  1815,  re- 
Duties  laid  on  property  sold  at  auction    pealed Feb.    22,    1816 

June  9,  1794  Act  of  Jan.  9,  1815,  and  Feb.  27  repeal- 
Taxes  on  snuff  repealed  and  duty  laid  ed,   and   direct   tax  of  $3,000,000   laid   on 

on   snuff-mills March   3,    1795  the    States,    and    direct    tax    of   $9,999.20 

Duties  on  carriages  increased  by  act  laid  on  the  District  of  Columbia 

May  28,  1796  March  5,   1816 

Duties  laid  on  stamped  vellum,   parch-  Duties     on     household     furniture     and 

ment,  and  paper  by  act July  6,  1797  watches  kept  for  use  removed  by  act 

Direct  tax  of  $2,000,000  laid,  proportion-  April  9,  1816 

ed  among  the  States July  14,  1798  Acts  of  July  24,  1813.  and  Aug.  2,  Dec. 

Act  to   establish   a  general   stamp-office  15  and  23,  1814,  repealed.  .  .  .Dec.  23,  1817 

at  seat  of  government.  .  .  .April   23,   1800  Act  passed  allowing  States  to  tax  public 

Duty   on   snuff-mills   repealed  lands  of  the  United  States  after  they  are 

April  24,  1800  sold  by  the  United  States.. Jan.  26.' 1847 

Repeal  of  act  taxing  stills  and  domestic  Direct  tax  of  $20,000,000  laid  annually, 

distilled    spirits,    refined    sugar,    licenses  and  apportioned  to  the  States  by  act  of 



Congress    (one  tax  to  be  le^-ied  previous       Congress  passes  a  war-revenue  act,  im- 

to  April   1,   1865) Aug.  5,   1861    posing  taxes  on  a  large  number  of  articles, 

Act  passed  to  provide  internal  revenue  in  consequence  of  the  declaration  of  war 
to    support   the   government    and    to    pay    against    Spain,    which    was    approved    by 

interest  on  the  public  debt,  imposing  taxes    the  President June  13,  1898 

on  spirits,  ale,  beer,  and  porter,  licenses.  Congress  passes  an  act  relieving  many 
manufactured  articles  and  products,  auc-    articles  from  the  war-revenue  tax,  to  take 

tion  sales,  yachts,  billiard-tables,  slaugh-    effect July  1,  1901 

tered  cattle,  sheep,  and  hogs,  railroads,  Taxes,  Direct.  Only  five  times  in  the 
steamboats,  ferry-boats,  railroad  bonds,  history  of  the  country  has  a  direct  tax 
banks,  insurance  companies,  etc.,  salaries  been  successfully  levied  by  Congress — and 
of  officers  in  service  of  the  United  States,  never  upon  all  the  property  of  the  coun- 
advertisements.  incomes,  legacies,  business  try.  In  1798  a  direct  tax  was  levied  of  50 
papers  of  all  kinds,  like  bank-checks,  con-    cents  on  every  slave  within  the  jurisdic- 

vevances,  morto-afes,  etc July  1,  1862    tion  of  the  United  States.     In  1813,  1815, 

"Act  to  increase  internal  revenue  passed    1816,  and  1861  taxes  were  levied  upon  all 

March  7,  1864    dwelling-houses,  lands,  and  slaves,  and  ap- 

Act  of  Aug.  5,   1861,  repealed  portioned  among  the   States,   as  required 

June   30,    1864    by  the  Constitution,  not  according  to  their 

Act  passed  to  reduce  internal  taxation       wealth,  but  according  to  their  population. 

July  13,   1866    The  tax  of   1861   was  made  necessary  in 

Internal-revenue  taxes   reduced  by  acts    order  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  war 

of  July  14,  1870,  and  June  6 1872    just    then    beginning,    and    all    the    loyal 

All  special  taxes  imposed  by  law  accru-  States,  except  Delaware,  assumed  its  pay- 
ino-  after  April  30,  1873,  including  taxes  ment.  Thirty  years  afterwards,  in  1891, 
on°  stills,  to  be  paid  by  stamps  denoting    Congress  passed  an  act  providing  that  the 

the  amount  of  tax,  by  act Dec.  24,  1872    taxes  thus  contributed  for  the  prosecution 

Internal-revenue   tax  on  tobacco,   snuff,    of  the  war  should  be  returned  to  the  sev- 

and   cif'ars   increased,   and   former   tax  of    eral  States  which  had  paid  them.     Under 

70    cents   per    gallon   on    distilled    spirits    this  act  the  total  amount  refunded  to  the 

raised  to  90  cents,  by  act. .  .March  3,  1875    State   treasuries   reached   nearly  $15,000,- 

Internal-revenue  tax  on  tobacco  reduced    000,      Of   this   New   York,   of   course,   re- 

Ijy  act March  1,  1879    ceived  the  largest  share,  nearly  $3,000,000. 

Henry  George's  Progress  and  Poverty,  Taxes  on  incomes  above  $4,000  were  col- 
advocating  the  "Single-tax"  theory,  pub-    Iccted  in  1895  under  a  law  passed  Dec.  12, 

lished    1879    1894.    This  measure  aroused  great  opposi- 

Act  passed  reducing  internal-revenue  tion  among  merchants,  bankers,  and 
taxes,  and  repealing  tax  on  banks,  checks,  brokers,  and  John  G.  ]\Ioore,  of  New  York, 
etc.,  matches,  and  medicinal  preparations  brought  a  suit  to  restrain  the  internal- 
March  3,  1883  revenue  collector  from  collecting  the  tax. 
Special  tax  laid  on  manufacturers  and  On  Jan.  23,  1895,  the  constitutionality  of 
dealers  in  oleomargarine,  and  a  stamp  tax  the  tax  was  affirmed.  Appeal  was  made  to 
of  2  cents  per  lb.  laid  on  the  manufact-    the  United  States  Supreme  Court,  which, 

ured  article Aug.  2,  1886    on  April  8,  1895,  declared  the  income  tax 

Special  internal-revenue  tax  on  dealers  iniconstitutional.  Only  about  $75,000  had 
in   tobacco   repealed,   and   tax   on   tobacco    been  collected  imder  the  law,  and  this  was 

and  snnfT  reduced  by  act Oct.  1,  1890    returned.        The    decision    aroused    much 

Act    passed    to    refund    to    the    several    comment,  and  caused  great  dissatisfaction 

States  and  Territories  the  amount  of  di-    among  the  poorer  classes. 

rect  tax  paid  under  act  of  Aug.  5,  1861  Taylor,     Bayard,    traveller;     born    in 

March  2,  1891    Kcnnet    Square,    Pa.,   Jan.    11,    1825;    be- 

Income    tax    appended    to    the    Wilson    came  a  printer's  apprentice  at  seventeen 

tariff  hill  and  passed  with  it,  becoming  a    years  of  age,  and  at  about  the  same  time 

law Aug.  27,  1894    wrote    verses    with    much    facility.       His 

Declared   unconstitutional  by  the  Unit-    rhymes  were  collected  and  published  in  a 

ed  States  Supreme  Court May  20,  1895    volume  in  1844,  entitled  Ximena.   In  1844- 



46  he  made  a  tour  on  foot  in  Europe,  of 
which  he  puhlished  (1840)  an  account  in 
Vieics  Afoot.  In  1847  he  went  to  New 
i'ork  and  wrote  for  the  Literary  World 
and  for  the  Tribune,  and  in  1848  pub- 
lished Rhpnies  of  Travel.     In  1849  he  be- 


came  owner  of  a  share  in  the  Tribune,  and 
was  one  of  the  shareholders  at  the  time  of 
his  death.  After  serving  two  months  as 
the  secretary  of  the  American  legation 
at  Shanghai,  he  joined  the  expedition  of 
Commodore  Perry  to  Japan,  In  the  spring 
of  1878  he  went  to  Berlin  as  American 
minister  at  the  German  court,  and  died 
there,  Dec.  19,  1878. 

Taylor,  Fred  Manville,  educator;  born 
in  Northville,  Mich.,  July  11,  1855;  gi'ad- 
iiated  at  Northwestern  Universityin  1876; 
was  Professor  of  History  in  Albion  College 
in  1879-92;  assistant  Professor  of  Politi- 
cal Economy  and  Finance  in  the  University 
of  Michigan  in  1892-94;  and  junior  Pro- 
fessor of  Political  Economy  and  Finance 
in  1895.  He  wrote  The  Right  of  the  ^tate 
to  Be;  Do  We  Want  an  Elastic  Cur- 
rency? The  Object  and  Methods  of  Cur- 
rency; Reform  in  the  United  States,  etc. 

Taylor,  George,  a  signer  of  the  Decla- 
ration of  Independence;  born  in  Ireland 
iu  1716;  arrived  in  the  United  States  at 

the  age  of  twenty  years,  but,  having  a 
good  education,  rose  from  the  position  of 
a  day  laborer  in  an  iron  foundry  to  the 
station  of  clerk,  and  finally  married  his 
employer's  widow  and  acquired  a  hand- 
some fortune.  For  five  consecutive  years 
he  was  a  prominent  member  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Assembly,  and  in  1770  was  made 
judge  of  the  Northumberland  county 
court.  He  was  elected  to  Congress  July 
20,  1776,  and  signed  the  Declaration  of 
Independence  on  Aug.  2.  He  died  in 
Easton,  Pa.,  Feb.  23,  1781. 

Taylor,  James  Wickes,  author;  born 
in  Starkey,  N.  Y.,  Nov.  6,  1819;  graduated 
at  Hamilton  College  in  1838;  admitted 
to  the  bar  and  practised  in  Ohio  in  1842- 
")0;  special  United  States  treasury  agent 
in  1860-70;  and  United  States  consul  at 
Winnipeg,  Canada,  in  1870-93.  His  publi- 
cations include  History  of  Ohio;  First  Pe- 
riod, 1620-1787 ;  Manual  of  the  Ohio  School 
!<i/stein;  Reports  to  Treasury  Department 
oil  Commercial  Relations  ivith  Canada; 
Alleghania,  or  the  Strength  of  the  Union 
and  the  Weakness  of  Slavery  in  the  High- 
lands of  the  South,  etc.  He  died  in  Win- 
nipeg. Manitoba,  Canada,  April  28,  1893. 

Taylor,  Joiin,  Mormon;  born  in  Win- 
throp.  England,  Nov.  1,  1808;  went  to 
Toronto,  Canada,  in  1832;  was  there  con- 
verted to  Mormonism  by  the  preaching  of 
Parley  D.  Pratt  in  1836;  was  made  an 
apostle  in  1838  and  settled  in  Missouri. 
He  was  with  Joseph  Smith  when  the  latter 
was  killed,  and  was  himself  shot  four 
times.  He  represented  Utah  Territory  in 
Congress.  In  1877,  on  the  death  of  Brig- 
ham  Young,  he  was  elected  president  of 
the  Church,  and  in  1880  became  head 
and  prophet  of  the  Mormon  Church. 
He  was  indicted  for  polygamy  in  March, 
1885,  and  in  order  to  avoid  arrest  he 
exiled  himself.    He  died  July  25,  1887. 

Taylor,  John,  "of  Caroline";  born  in 
Orange  county,  Va.,  in  1750 ;  graduated 
at  William  and  Mary  in  1770;  United 
States  Senator,  1792-94,  1803,  and  1822- 
24.  He  was  the  mover  of  the  Virginia 
Resolutions  of  1798  (see  Kentucky  axd 
Virginia  Resolutions).  He  wrote  sev- 
eral works  on  the  Constitution  and  the 
policy  of  the  United  States.  He  died  in 
Caroline  county,  Va.,  Aug.  20,  1824. 

Taylor,  John  W.,  laA\yer;  born  in 
Charlton,   N.   Y.,  March   26,    1784;   grad- 



uated  at  Union  College  in  1803;  admitted 
to  the  bar  iu  1807;  practised  in  Ballston; 
member  of  Congress  in  1813-33;  succeed- 
ed Henry  Clay  as  speaker  in  1820,  and 
held  that  place  till  the  close  of  the  second 
session;  was  again  speaker  in  1825-27; 
was  opposed  to  the  extension  of  slavery 
during  the  prolonged  agitation  of  that 
question  in  Congress.  He  died  in  Cleve- 
land, 0.,  Sept.  8,  1854. 

Taylor,  Eiciiard,  military  officer;  born 
in  New  Orleans,  La.,  Jan.  27,  1826;  son 
of  President  Zachary  Taylor ;  graduated 
at  Yale  College  in  1845;  and  entered  the 
Mexican  War  with  his  father.  In  1861 
he  became  colonel  of  the  9th  Louisiana 
Volunteers  in  the  Confederate  service, 
and  was  in  the  battle  of  Bull  Run.  In 
October  he  was  made  a  brigadier-gen- 
eral ;  served  under  "  Stonewall  "  Jackson 
in  Virginia ;  was  promoted  to  major-gen- 
eral ;  and  in  1863-64  served  under  E. 
Kirby  Smith  in  the  trans-Mississippi  De- 
partment, opposing  Banks  in  his  Red 
River  expedition.  When  Banks  left 
Alexandria,  on  the  Red  River,  and  march- 
ed to  the  siege  of  Port  Hudson  General 
Taylor,  whom  he  had  driven  into  the  wilds 
of  western  Louisiana,  returned,  occupied 
that  abandoned  city  and  Opelousas,  and 
garrisoned  Fort  De  Russy.  Then  he  swept 
vigorously  over  the  country  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  Mississippi  River  and  New 
Orleans.  With  a  part  of  his  command  he 
captured  Brashear  City  (June  24,  1863), 
with  an  immense  amount  of  public  prop- 
erty and  the  small-arms  of  4,000  National 
troops.  By  this  movement  about  5,000  ref- 
ugee negroes  were  remanded  into  slavery. 
Another  portion  of  the  Confederates,  un- 
der General  Greene,  operating  in  the  vi- 
cinity of  Donaldsonville,  on  the  Missis- 
sippi, was  driven  out  of  that  district. 
New  Orleans  was  then  garrisoned  by  only 
about  700  men,  when  a  way  was  opened  for 
Taylor  to  Algiers,  opposite;  but  the  Con- 
federate leader  was  unable  to  cross  the 
Mississippi,  for  Farragut's  vessels  were 
patrolling    its    waters    and    guarding    the 

city.  When  Banks's  forces  were  released 
by  the  surrender  of  Port  Huron  (July 
9)  they  proceeded  to  expel  Taylor  and  his 
forces  from  the  country  eastward  of  the 
Atchafalaya.  This  was  the  last  struggle 
of  Taylor  to  gain  a  foothold  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi. Afterwards  he  was  in  command 
at  Mobile,  and  on  May  4,  1865,  surren- 
dered to  General  Canby.  He  died  in  New 
York  City,  April  12,  1879. 

Taylor,  William,  clergyman;  born  in 
Rockbridge  county,  Va.,  May  2,  1821 ;  was 
educated  in  Lexington,  Va. ;  entered  the 
ministry  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  in  1842;  went  to  California  as  a 
missionary  in  1849;  spent  several  months 
in  evangelistic  work  in  the  English- 
speaking  countries  of  the  world;  and  was 
made  missionary  bishop  of  Africa  in  1884. 
He  was  the  author  of  Seven  Years'  Street 
Preaching  in  San  Francisco:  California 
Life  Illustrated,  etc.  He  died  at  Palo 
Alto.  Cal..  May  18,  1902. 

Taylor,  William  Rogers,  naval  officer ; 
born  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  Nov.  7,  1811; 
son  of  Capt.  William  Vigeron  Taylor ; 
entered  the  navy  in  1828;  he  was  engaged 
on  the  Mexican  coast  during  the  war 
(1846-48),  and  in  the  Atlantic  blockading 
squadron  in  1862-63 ;  was  flag-captain  in 
operations  against  Forts  Wagner  and 
Sumter  in  1863;  and  was  in  the  North 
Atlantic  blockading  squadron  in  1864-65, 
engaging  in  both  attacks  on  Fort  Fisher. 
In  1871  he  was  promoted  rear-admiral; 
in  1873  was  retired.  He  died  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  April  14,  1889. 

Taylor,  William  Vigeron,  naval  offi- 
cer; born  in  Newport,  R.  I.,  in  1781;  hav- 
ing been  for  some  time  in  the  merchant- 
marine  service,  was  appointed  sailing- 
master  in  the  navy  in  April,  1813,  and 
ably  assisted  in  fitting  out  Perry's  fleet 
at  Erie.  He  navigated  Perry's  flag-ship 
{Lavyrence)  into  and  during  the  battle. 
His  last  service  was  on  a  cruise  in  the 
Pacific,  in  command  of  the  Ohio,  seventy- 
four  guns,  in  1847.  He  died  in  Newport, 
11.  I.,  Feb.   11,   1858. 


Taylor,  Zachary,  twelfth  President  of  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  removed  from 
the  United  States;  from  March  4,  1849,  Virginia  to  Kentucky  in  1785,  where  he 
to  July  0,  1850;  Whig;  born  in  Orange  had  an  extensive  plantation  near  Louis- 
county,  Va.,   Sept.   24,   1784.     His  father,  ville.     On  that  farm  Zachary  was  engaged 


until  1808,  when  he  was  appointed  to  fill 
the  place  of  his  brother,  deceased,  as  lieu- 
tenant in  the  army.  He  was  made  a  captain 
in  1810;  and  after  the  declaration  of  war, 
in  1812,  was  placed  in  command  of  Fort 
Harrison,  which  he  bravely  defended 
against  an  attack  by  the  Indians.  Taylor 
was  active  in  the  West  until  the  end  of 
the  war.  In  1814  he  was  commissioned  a 
major;  but  on  the  reduction  of  the  army, 
in  1815,  was  put  back  to  a  captaincy,  when 
he  resigned,  and  returned  to  the  farm 
near  Louisville.  Being  soon  reinstated 
as  major,,  he  was  for  several  years  engaged 
in  military  life  on  the  northwestern 
frontier  and  in  the  South.  In  1819  he 
was  promoted  to  lieutenant  -  colonel.  In 
1832  he  was  commissioned  a  colonel,  and 
was  engaged  in  the  Black  Hawk  War 
(q.  v.).  From  1836  to  1840  he  served  in 
Florida  (see  Seminole  Wae),  and  in  1840 
was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  1st 
Department  of  the  Army  of  the  South- 
west, with  the  rank  of  brevet  brigadier- 
general.  At  that  time  he  purchased  an 
estate  near  Baton  Rouge,  to  which  he  re- 
moved his  family. 

After  the  annexation  of  Texas  {q.  v.), 
when  war  between  the  United  States  and 
Mexico  seemed  imminent,  he  was  sent  with. 

then  promoted  to  major-general.  He  en- 
tered Mexico  May  18,  1846,  and  soon  after- 
wards captured  the  stronghold  of  Mon- 
terey. He  occupied  strong  positions,  but 
remained  quiet  for  some  time,  awaiting 
instructions  from  his  government.  Early 
in  1847  a  requisition  from  General  Scott 
deprived  him  of  a  large  portion  of  his 
troops,  and  he  was  ordered  to  act  on  the 
defensive  only.  While  so  doing,  with 
about  5,000  men,  he  was  confronted  by 
Santa  Ana  with  20,000.  Taylor  defeated 
and  dispersed  the  Mexicans  in  a  severe 
battle  at  Buena  Vista,  Feb.  23,  1847.  Dur- 
ing the  remainder  of  the  war  the  valley  ot 
the  Rio  Grande  remained  in  the  quiet 
possession  of  the  Americans.  In  his  cam- 
paign in  Mexico  he  acquired  the  nickname 
of  •'  Old  Rough  and  Ready,"  in  allusion  to 
the  plainness  of  his  personal  appearance 
and  deportment. 

On  his  return  home,  in  November,  1847, 
he  was  greeted  everyAvhere  with  demonstra- 
tions of  warmest  popular  applause.  In 
June,  1848,  the  Whig  National  Convention, 
at  Philadelphia,  nominated  him  for  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  with  Millard 
Fillmore,  of  New  York,  for  Vice-Presi- 
dent. He  was  elected,  and  inaugurated 
March  5,  1849.     On  July  4,  1850,  he  was 


a  considerable  force  into  Texas  to  watch  seized  with  a  violent  fever,  and  died  on  the 

the     movements     of     the     Mexicans.      In  9th.    He  was  attended  in  his  last  moments 

March,    1846,   he   moved   to   the   banks   of  by  his  wife;   his  daughter    (Mrs.  Colonel 

the  Rio  Grande,  opposite  Matamoras,  and  Bliss)   and  her  husband;  his  son.  Colonel 

in    May    engaged    in    two    sharp    battles  Taylor,   and   family;    his   son-in-law-   Jef- 

with  the  Mexicans  on  Texas  soil.     He  was  ferson   Davis,   and    family;    and   by   Vice- 



President  Fillmore,  other  officers  of  the 
government,  members  of  the  diplomatic 
corps,  etc.  His  last  audible  words  were: 
"  I  am  about  to  die.  I  expect  the  sum- 
mons soon.  I  have  endeavored  to  discharge 
all  my  official  duties  faithfully.  I  regret 
nothing,  but  am  sorry  that  I  am  about  to 
leave  my  friends."  The  funeral  occvirred 
on  Saturday,  July  13,  and  was  attended 
by  a  A-ast  concourse  of  citizens  and 
strangers.  The  pageant  exceeded  every- 
thing of  the  kind,  in  order  and  magnifi- 
cence, that  had  ever  taken  place  at  the  na- 
tional capital. 

The  Central  American  States. — On 
March  18,  1850,  President  Taylor  sent  the 
following  message  to  the  Congress  con- 
cerning new  treaties  with  the  Central 
American  States,  the  American  political 
policy  towards  them,  and  the  pretensions 
of  Great  Britain  in  Nicaragua: 

Washington,  March  19,  1850. 

To  the  Senate  of  the  United  States, — 
I  herewith  transmit  to  the  Senate,  for 
their  advice  in  regard  to  its  ratification, 
"  a  general  treaty  of  amity,  navigation, 
and  commerce  "  between  the  United  States 
of  America  and  the  State  of  Nicaragua, 
concluded  at  Leon  by  E.  George  Squier, 
charge  d'affaires  of  the  United  States,  on 
their  part,  and  Seiior  Zepeda  on  the  part 
of  the  republic  of  Nicaragua. 

I  also  transmit,  for  the  advice  of  the 
Senate  in  regard  to  its  ratification,  "  a 
general  treaty  of  amity,  navigation,  and 
commerce  "  negotiated  by  Mr.  Squier  with 
the  republic  of  San  Salvador. 

I  also  transmit  to  the  Senate  a  copy  of 
the  instructions  to  and  correspondence 
with  the  said  charge  d'affaires  relating  to 
those  treaties. 

I  also  transmit,  for  the  advice  of  the 
Senate  in  regard  to  its  ratification,  "  a 
general  treaty  of  peace,  amity,  commerce, 
and  navigation "  negotiated  by  Elijah 
Hise,  our  late  charge  d'affaires,  with  the 
State  of  Guatemala. 

I  also  transmit,  for  the  information  of 
the  Senate,  a  cofty  of  a  treaty  negotiated 
by  Mr.  Ilise  with  the  government  of  Nica- 
ragua on  June  21  last,  accompanied  by 
copies  of  his  instructions  from  and  cor- 
respondence with  the  Department  of 

On    Nov.     12,     1847,    Senor     BuOtrago, 

secretary  of  state  and  of  the  affairs 
of  war  and  foreign  relations  and  do- 
mestic administration  of  the  supreme 
government  of  the  state  of  Nicara- 
gua, addressed  a  letter  from  the  govern- 
ment house  at  Leon  to  Mr.  Buchanan, 
tlien  Secretary  of  State  of  the  United 
States,  asking  the  friendly  offices  of  this 
government  to  prevent  an  attack  upon  the 
town  of  San  Juan  de  Nicaragua  then  con- 
templated by  the  British  authorities  as 
the  allies  of  the  Mosquito  King.  That 
letter,  a  translation  of  which  is  herewith 
sent,  distinctly  charges  that — 

The  object  of  the  British  in  taking  this 
key  of  the  continent  is  not  to  protect  the 
small  tribe  of  the  Mosquitos,  but  to  es- 
tablish their  own  empire  over  the  Atlantic 
extremity  of  the  line,  by  which  a  canal 
connecting  the  two  oceans  is  most  prac- 
ticable, insuring  to  them  the  preponder- 
ance of  the  American  continent,  as  well 
as  their  direct  relations  with  Asia,  the 
East  Indies,  and  other  important  coun- 
tries in  the  world. 

No  answer  appears  to  have  been  re- 
turned to  this  letter. 

A  communication  was  received  by  my 
predecessor  from  Don  Jose  Guerrero, 
President  and  Supreme  Director  of  the 
state  of  Nicaragua,  dated  Dec.  15,  1847, 
expressing  his  desire  to  establish  relations 
of  amity  and  commerce  with  the  United 
States,  a  translation  of  which  is  herewith 
enclosed.  In  this  the  President  of  Nica- 
ragua says: 

"  My  desire  was  carried  to  the  utmost 
on  seeing  in  your  message  at  the  opening 
of  the  Twenty-ninth  Congress  of  your  re- 
public a  sincere  profession  of  political 
faith  in  all  respects  conformable  with  the 
principles  professed  by  these  States,  de- 
termined, as  they  are,  to  sustain  with 
firmness  the  continental  cause,  the  rights 
of  Americans  in  general,  and  the  non- 
interference of  European  powers  in  their 

This  letter  annoimces  the  critical  situa- 
tion in  which  Nicaragua  was  placed,  and 
charges  upon  the  Court  of  St.  James  a 
"  well-known  design  to  establish  colonies 
on  the  coast  of  Nicaragua  and  to  render 
itself  master  of  the  interoccanic  canal, 
for  which  so  many  facilities  are  pre- 
sented by  the  isthmus  in  that  state."  No 
reply  was  made  to  this  letter. 



The   British   ships -of -war   Alarm   and  would    take    possession    of    San    Juan    de 

Vixen  arrived  at  San  Juan  de  Nicaragua  Nicaragua  in  January,  1848. 

on  Feb.  8,  1848,  and  on  the  12th  of  that  In  another  letter,  dated  April  8,   1848, 

month    the    British    forces,    consisting    of  Mr.    Livingston    states    that   "  at    the   re- 

260  officers  and  men,   attacked  and  capt-  quest  of  the  minister   for   foreign   affairs 

ured   the   post  of  Serapaquid,   garrisoned,  of  Nicaragua  he  transmits   a   package  of 

according   to    the    British    statements,    by  papers  containing  the  correspondence  rela- 

about   200   soldiers,   after   a   sharp   action  tive  to  the  occupation  of  the  port  of  San 

of  one  hour  and  forty  minutes.  Juan   by   British   forces    in   the   name   of 

On  March  7,  1848,  articles  of  agreement  the  Mosquito  nation." 

were  concluded  by  Captain  Locke,  on  the  On  June  3,  1848,  Elijah  Hise,  being  ap- 

part  of  Great  Britain,  with  the  commis-  pointed    charge    d'affaires    of    the    United 

sioners  of  the  state  of  Nicaragua  in  the  States  to  Guatemala,  received  his  instruc- 

island  of  Cuba,  in  the  Lake  of  Nicaragua,  tions,   a   copy   of   which   is   herewith   sub- 

a  copy  of  which  will  be  found  in  the  cor-  mitted.     In  these  instructions  the  follow- 

respondence  relating  to  the  Mosquito  Ter-  ing  passages  occur: 

ritory  presented  to  and  published  by  the  "  The  independence  as  well  as  the  inter- 
House  of  Commons  of  Great  Britain  on  ests  of  the  nations  on  this  continent  re- 
July  3,  1848,  herewith  submitted.  A  copy  quire  that  they  should  maintain  the  Amer- 
of  the  same  document  will  also  be  found  ican  system  of  policy  entirely  distinct 
accompanying  the  note  of  the  minister  from  that  which  prevails  in  Europe.  To 
for  foreign  affairs  of  Nicaragua  to  the  suffer  any  interference  on  the  part  of  the 
Secretary  of  State  of  the  United  States  European  governments  with  the  domestic 
under  date  March  17,  1848.  concerns   of   the   American   republics,   and 

By  the   third   article   of   the   agreement  to  permit  them  to  establish  new  colonies 

it  is  provided  that  Nicaragua  "  shall  not  upon  this  continent,  would  be  to  jeopard 

disturb  the  inhabitants  of  San  Juan,  un-  their   independence  and  to  ruin   their  in- 

derstanding    that    any    such    act    will    be  terests.      These    truths    ought    every^vhere 

considered  by  Great  Britain  as  a  declara-  throughout  this  continent  to  be  impressed 

tion   of   open   hostilities."      By   the   sixth  on   the   public   mind.      But  what   can   the 

article   it  is   provided   that   these   articles  United  States  do  to  resist  such  European 

of  agreement  will  not  "  hinder  Nicaragua  interference    while    the    Spanish-American 

from    soliciting   by   means    of    a    commis-  republics    continue   to   weaken    themselves 

sioner   to   her   Britannic   Majesty   a   final  by    division    and    civil    Avar,    and    deprive 

arrangement  of  these  affairs."  themselves    of   the   ability   of    doing   any- 

The  communication  from  Senor  Sebas-  thing  for  their  own  protection." 
tian  Salinas,  the  secretary  of  foreign  af-  This  last  significant  inquiry  seems  plain- 
fairs  of  the  state  of  Nicaragua,  to  Mr.  ly  to  intimate  that  the  United  States 
Buchanan,  the  Secretary  of  State  of  the  could  do  nothing  to  arrest  British  aggres- 
United  States,  dated  March  17,  1848,  a  sion  while  the  Spanish-American  repub- 
translation  of  which  is  herewith  submit-  lies  continue  to  weaken  themselves  by  di- 
ted,  recites  the  aggressions  of  Great  Brit-  vision  and  civil  war,  and  deprive  them- 
ain  and  the  seizure  of  a  part  of  the  Nica-  selves  of  the  ability  of  doing  anything  for 
raguan  territory  in  the  name  of  the  Mos-  their   protection. 

quito  King.     No  answer  appears  to  have  These  instructions,  which  also  state  the 

been  given  to  this  letter.  dissolution   of   the    Central   American   re- 

On  Oct.  28,  1847,  Joseph  W,.  Living-  public,  formerly  composed  of  the  five 
ston  was  appointed  by  this  government  states  of  Nicaragua,  Costa  Rica,  Hondu- 
consul  of  the  United  States  for  the  port  ras,  San  Salvador,  and  Guatemala,  and 
of  San  Juan  de  Nicaragua.  On  Dec.  16,  their  continued  separation,  authorize  Mr. 
1847,  after  having  received  his  exequatur  Hise  to  conclude  treaties  of  commerce  with 
from  the  Nicaraguan  government,  he  ad-  the  republics  of  Guatemala  and  San  Sal- 
dressed  a  letter  to  Mr.  Buchanan,  Secre-  vador,  but  conclude  with  saying  that  it 
tary  of  State,  a  copy  of  which  is  herewith  was  not  deemed  advisable  to  empower 
submitted,  representing  that  he  had  been  Mr.  Hise  to  conclude  a  treaty  with  either 
informed    that    the    English    government  Nicaragua,  Honduras,  or  Costa  Rica  until 



more  full  and  statistical  information 
should  have  been  communicated  by  him 
to  the  Department  in  regard  to  those 
states  than  that  which  it  possesses. 

The  states  of  Nicaragua,  Costa  Rica, 
and  Honduras  are  the  only  Central  Amer- 
ican states  whose  consent  or  co-operation 
would  in  any  event  be  necessary  for  the 
construction  of  the  ship-canal  contem- 
plated between  the  Pacific  and  Atlantic 
oceans  by  the  way  of  Lake  Nicaragua. 

In  pursuance  of  the  sixth  article  of  the 
agreement  of  March  7,  1848,  between 
the  forces  of  Great  Britain  and  the 
authorities  of  Nicaragua,  Sefior  Fran- 
cisco Castillon  was  appointed  commis- 
sioner from  Nicaragua  to  Great  Britain, 
and  on  Nov.  5,  1848,  while  at  Wash- 
ington, on  his  way  to  London,  ad- 
dressed a  letter  to  the  Secretary  of 
State,  a  translation  of  which  is  herewith 
submitted,  asking  this  government  to 
instruct  its  minister  plenipotentiary  re- 
siding in  London  to  sustain  the  right  of 
Nicaragnia  to  her  territory  claimed  by 
Mosquito,  and  especially  to  the  port  of 
San  Juan,  expressing  the  hope  of  Nica- 
ragua "  that  the  government  of  the 
Union,  firmly  adhering  to  its  principle  of 
resisting  all  foreign  intervention  in  Amer- 
ica, would  not  hesitate  to  order  such  steps 
to  be  taken  as  might  be  effective  before 
things  reached  a  point  in  which  the  inter- 
vention of  the  United  States  would  prove 
of  no  avail." 

To  this  letter  also  no  answer  appears 
to  have  been  returned,  and  no  instruc- 
tions were  given  to  our  minister  in  Lon- 
don in  pursuance  of  the  request  contained 
in  it. 

On  March  3,  1847,  Christopher  Hemp- 
stead was  appointed  consul  at  Belize, 
and  an  application  was  then  made 
for  his  exequatur  through  our  minister 
in  London,  Mr.  Bancroft.  Lord  Pal- 
mer ston  referred  to  Mr.  Bancroft's  appli- 
cation for  an  exequatur  for  Mr.  Hemp- 
stead to  the  Colonial  Office.  The  exequatur 
was  granted,  and  Mr.  Hempstead,  in  a 
letter  to  the  Department  of  State 
bearing  date  of  Feb.  12,  1848,  a  copy 
of  which  is  herewith  submitted,  ac- 
knowledged the  receipt  of  his  exequatur 
from  her  Britannic  Majesty,  by  virtue  of 
which  he  has  discharged  his  consular 
functions.     Thus  far  this  government  has 

recognized  the  existence  of  a  British  col 
ony  at  Belize,  within  the  territory  of  Hon- 
duras. I  have  recalled  the  consul,  and 
have  appointed  no  one  to  supply  his  place. 

On  May  26,  1848,  Mr.  Hempstead 
represented  in  a  letter  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  that  the  Indians  had 
"  applied  to  her  Majesty's  superintendent 
at  Belize  for  protection,  and  had  desired 
him  to  take  possession  of  the  territory 
which  they  occupied  and  take  them  under 
his  protection  as  British  subjects";  and 
he  added  that  in  the  event  of  the  success 
of  their  application  "  the  British  govern- 
ment would  then  have  possession  of  the 
entire  coast  from  Cape  Conte  to  San 
Juan  de  Nicaragua."  In  another  letter, 
dated  July  29,  1848,  he  wrote: 

"  I  have  not  a  doubt  but  the  designs  of 
her  Majesty's  officers  here  and  on  the 
Mosquito  shore  are  to  obtain  territory  on 
this  continent." 

The  receipt  of  this  letter  was  regularly 
acknowledged  on  Aug.  29,  1848. 

When  I  came  into  office  I  found  the 
British  government  in  possession  of  the 
port  of  San  Juan,  which  it  had  taken  by 
force  of  arms  after  we  had  taken  pos- 
session of  California,  and  while  we  were 
engaged  in  the  negotiation  of  a  treaty  for 
the  cession  of  it,  and  that  no  official  re- 
monstrance had  been  made  by  this  gov- 
ernment against  the  aggression,  nor  any 
attempt  to  resist  it.  Efforts  were  then 
being  made  by  certain  private  citizens  of 
the  United  States  to  procure  from  the 
state  of  Nicaragua  by  contract  the  right 
to  cut  the  proposed  ship-canal  by  the  way 
of  the  river  San  Juan  and  the  lakes  of 
Nicaragua  and  Managua  to  Realejo,  on 
the  Pacific  Ocean.  A  company  of  Ameri- 
can citizens  entered  into  such  a  contract 
with  the  state  of  Nicaragua.  Viewing 
the  canal  as  a  matter  of  great  importance 
to  the  people  of  the  United  States,  I  re- 
solved to  adopt  the  policy  of  protecting 
the  work  and  binding  the  government  of 
Nicaragua,  through  whose  territory  it 
would  pass,  also  to  protect  it.  The  in- 
structions to  E.  George  Squier,  appointed 
by  me  charge  d'affaires  to  Guatemala 
on  April  2,  1849,  are  herewith  sub- 
mitted as  fully  indicating  the  views 
which  governed  me  in  directing  a  treaty 
to  be  made  with  Nicaragua.  I  considered 
the  interference  of  the  British  government 



on  this  continent  in  seizing  the  port  of  to  us  the  exclusive  right  to  fortify  and 
San  Juan,  which  commanded  the  route  command  it.  I  have  not  approved  it,  nor 
believed  to  be  the  most  eligible  for  the  have  I  now  submitted  it  for  ratification; 
canal  across  the  isthmus,  and  occupying  not  merely  because  of  the  facts  already 
it  at  the  very  moment  when  it  was  known,  mentioned,  but  because  on  Dec.  31  last 
as  I  believe,  to  Great  Britain  that  we  were  Seiior  Edwardo  Carcache,  on  being 
engaged  in  the  negotiation  for  the  pur-  accredited  to  this  government  as  charge 
chase  of  California,  as  an  unfortunate  d'affaires  from  the  state  of  Nicaragua 
coincidence,  and  one  calculated  to  lead  to  in  a  note  to  the  Secretary  of  State, 
the  inference  that  she  entertained  designs  a  translation  of  which  is  herewith 
by  no  means  in  harmony  with  the  inter-  sent,  declared  that  he  was  "  only  em- 
ests  of  the  United  States.  powered   to   exchange   ratifications   of  the 

Seeing  that  Mr.  Hise  had  been  positive-  treaty  concluded  with  Mr.  Squier,  and 
ly  instructed  to  make  no  treaty,  not  even  that  the  special  convention  concluded  at 
a  treaty  of  commerce,  with  Nicaragua,  Guatemala  by  Mr.  Hise,  the  charge  d'af- 
Costa  Rica,  or  Honduras,  I  had  no  sus-  faires  of  the  United  States,  and  Seiior 
picion  that  he  would  attempt  to  act  in  Selva,  the  commissioner  of  Nicaragua,  had 
opposition  to  his  instructions,  and  in  Sep-  been,  as  was  publicly  and  universally 
tember  last  I  was  for  the  first  time  in-  known,  disapproved  by  his  government." 
formed  that  he  had  actually  negotiated  We  have  no  precedent  in  our  history 
two  treaties  with  the  state  of  Nicaragua,  to  justify  such  a  treaty  as  that  negoti- 
the  one  a  treaty  of  commerce,  the  other  ated  by  Mr.  Hise  since  the  guarantees 
a  treaty  for  the  construction  of  the  pro-  we  gave  to  France  of  her  American  pos- 
posed  ship-canal,  which  treaties  he  brought  sessions.  The  treaty  negotiated  with 
with  him  on  his  return  home.  He  also  New  Granada  on  Dec.  12,  1846,  did  not 
negotiated  a  treaty  of  commerce  with  Hon-  guarantee  the  sovereignty  of  New  Gran- 
duras;  and  in  each  of  these  treaties  it  ada  on  the  whole  of  her  territory,  but 
is  recited  that  he  had  full  powers  for  only  over  "  the  single  province  of  the 
the  purpose.  He  had  no  such  powers,  isthmus  of  Panama,"  immediately  adjoin- 
and  the  whole  proceeding  on  his  part  ing  the  line  of  the  railroad,  the  neutrality 
with  reference  to  those  states  was  not  of  which  was  deemed  necessary  by  the 
only  unauthorized  by  instructions,  but  in  President  and  Senate  to  the  construction 
opposition  to  those  he  had  received  from  and  security  of  the  work, 
my  predecessor  and  after  the  date  of  The  thirty-fifth  article  of  the  treaty 
his  letter  of  recall  and  the  appointment  with  Nicaragua  negotiated  by  Mr.  Squier, 
of  his  successor.  But  I  have  no  evidence  which  is  submitted  for  your  advice  in 
that  Mr.  Hise,  whose  letter  of  recall  (a  regard  to  its  ratification,  distinctly  rec- 
copy  of  which  is  herewith  submitted)  ognizes  the  rights  of  sovereignty  and  prop- 
bears  date  of  May  2,  1849,  had  received  erty  which  the  state  of  Nicaragua  pos- 
that  letter  on  June  21,  when  he  nego-  sesses  in  and  over  the  line  of  the  canal 
tiated  the  treaty  with  Nicaragua.  The  therein  provided  for.  If  the  Senate  doubt 
difficulty  of  communicating  with  him  was  on  that  subject,  it  will  be  clearly  wrong  to 
so  great  that  I  have  reason  to  believe  he  involve  us  in  a  controversy  with  England 
had  not  received  it.  He  did  not  acknowl-  by  adopting  the  treaty;  but  after  the  best 
edge  it.  consideration  which   I   have  been   able  to 

The  twelfth  article  of  the  treaty  nego-  give  to  the  subject,  my  own  judgment  is 
tiated  by  Mr.  Hise  in  effect  guarantees  convinced  that  the  claims  of  Nicaragua 
the  perfect  independence  of  the  state  of  are  just,  and  that  as  our  commerce  and 
Nicaragua  and  her  sovereignty  over  her  intercourse  with  the  Pacific  require  the 
alleged  limits  from  the  Caribbean  Sea  to  opening  of  this  communication  from  ocean 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  pledging  the  naval  and  to  ocean,  it  is  our  duty  to  ourselves  to 
military   power   of   the   United   States   to    assert  their  justice. 

support  it.  This  treaty  authorizes  the  This  treaty  is  not  intended  to  secure  to 
chartering  of  a  corporation  by  this  gov-  the  United  States  any  monopoly  or  ex- 
ernment  to  cut  a  canal  outside  of  the  elusive  advantage  in  the  use  of  the  canal, 
limits   of   the   United    States,    and    gives    Its   object   is  to  guarantee  protection   to 



American  citizens  and  others  who  shall 
construct  the  canal,  and  to  defend  it  wlien 
completed  against  unjust  confiscations  or 
obstructions,  and  to  deny  the  advantages 
of  navigation  through  it  to  those  nations 
only  which  shall  refuse  to  enter  into  the 
same  guarantees.  A  copy  of  the  contract 
of  the  canal  company  is  herewith  trans- 
mitted, from  which,  as  well  as  from  the 
treaty,  it  will  be  perceived  that  the  same 
benefits  are  offered  to  all  nations  in  the 
same  terms. 

The  message  of  my  predecessor  to  the 
Senate  of  Feb.  10,  1847,  transmit- 
ting for  ratification  the  treaty  with 
New  Granada,  contains  in  general  the 
principles  by  which  I  have  been  actuated 
in  directing  the  negotiation  with  Nica- 
ragua. The  only  difference  between  the 
two  cases  consists  in  this:  In  that  of 
Nicaragua    the    British    government    has 

have  no  doubt  that  the  British  pretension 
to  the  port  of  San  Juan  in  right  of  the 
Mosquito  King  is  without  just  foundation 
in  any  public  law  ever  before  recognized  in 
any  other  instance  by  Americans  or  Eng- 
lishmen as  applicable  to  Indian  titles  on 
this  continent,  I  shall  ratify  this  treaty 
in  case  the  Senate  shall  advise  that  course. 
Its  principal  defect  is  taken  from  the 
treaty  with  New  Granada,  the  negotiator 
having  made  it  liable  to  be  abrogated  on 
notice  after  twenty  years.  Both  treaties 
should  have  been  perpetual  or  limited  only 
by  the  duration  of  the  improvements  they 
were  intended  to  protect.  The  instructions 
to  our  charge  d'affaires,  it  will  be  seen, 
prescribe  no  limitation  for  the  continuance 
of  the  treaty  with  Nicaragua.  Should  the 
Senate  approve  of  the  principle  of  the 
treaty,  an  amendment  in  this  respect  is 
deemed  advisable ;   and  it  will  be  well  to 

seized  upon  part  of  her  territory,  and  was    invite  by  another  amendment  the  protec- 

in  possession  of  it  when  we  negotiated  the 
treaty  with  her.  But  that  possession  was 
taken  after  our  occupation  of  California, 
when  the  effect  of  it  was  to  obstruct  or 
control  the  most  eligible  route  for  a  ship 
communication  to  the  territories  acquired 
by  us  on  the  Pacific.  In  the  case  of  New 
Granada,  her  possession  was  undisturbed 
at  the  time  of  the  treaty,  though  the 
British  possession  in  the  right  of  the 
Mosquito  King  was  then  extended  into  the 
territories  claimed  by  New  Granada  as  far 

tion  of  other  nations,  by  expressly  of- 
fering them  in  the  treaty  what  is  now 
offered  by  implication  only — the  same  ad- 
vantages which  we  propose  for  ourselves 
on  the  same  conditions  upon  which  we 
shall  have  acquired  them.  The  policy  of 
this  treaty  is  not  novel,  nor  does  it  orig- 
inate from  any  suggestion  either  of  my 
immediate  predecessor  or  myself.  On 
March  3,  1835,  the  following  resolution, 
referred  to  by  the  late  President  in  his 
message    to    the    Senate    relative    to    the 

as  Boca  del  Toro.     The  professed  objects    treaty   with   New   Granada,    was    adopted 

in  executive  session  by  the  Senate  without 

"  Eesolved,  that  the  President  of  the 
United  States  be  respectfully  requested 
to  consider  the  expediency  of  opening  ne- 
gotiations with  the  governments  of  Cen- 
tral America  and  New  Granada  for  the 
purpose  of  effectually  protecting  by  suit- 

of  both  the  treaties  are  to  open  communi- 
cations across  the  isthmus  to  all  nations 
and  to  invite  their  guarantees  on  the  same 
*erms.  Neither  of  them  proposes  to  guar- 
antee territory  to  a  foreign  nation  in 
which  the  United  States  will  not  have  a 
common  interest  with  that  nation.  Neither 
of  them   constitutes   an   alliance   for   any 

political  object,  but  for  a  purely  commer-    able  treaty  stipulations  with   them,   such 

cial  purpose,  in  which  all  the  navigating 
nations  of  the  world  have  a  common  in- 
terest. Nicaragua,  like  New  Granada,  is  a 
power  which  will  not  excite  the  jealousy 
of  any  nation. 

As  there  is  nothing  narrow,  selfish, 
illiberal,  or  exclusive  in  the  views  of  the 
United  States  as  set  forth  in  this  treaty, 
as  it  is  indispensable  to  the  successful 
completion   of   the   contemplated   canal   to 

individuals  or  companies  as  may  under- 
take to  open  a  communication  between 
the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  oceans  by  the 
construction  of  a  ship  -  canal  across  the 
isthmus  which  connects  North  and  South 
America,  and  of  securing  forever  by  such 
stipulations  the  free  and  equal  rights  of 
navigating  such  a  canal  to  all  such  na- 
tions on  the  payment  of  such  reasonable 
tolls  as  may  be  established  to  compensate 

secure  protection  to  it  from  the  local  an-    the   capitalists   who   may   engage   in   such 
thorities  and  this  government,  and  as  I    undertaking  and  complete  the  work." 



President  Jackson  accorded  with  the 
policy  suggested  in  this  resolution,  and 
in  pursuance  of  it  sent  Charles  Biddle 
as  agent  to  negotiate  with  the  govern- 
ments of  Central  America  and  New  Gra- 
nada. The  result  is  fully  set  forth  in  the 
report  of  a  select  committee  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  of  Feb.  20,  1849,  upon 
a  joint  resolution  of  Congress  to  author- 
ize the  survey  of  certain  routes  for  a 
canal  or  railroad  between  the  Atlantic 
and  Pacific  oceans.  The  policy  indicated 
in  the  resolution  of  March  3,  1835,  then 
adopted  by  the  President  and  Senate,  is 
that  now  proposed  for  the  consideration 
and  sanction  of  the  Senate.  So  far  as 
my  knowledge  extends,  such  has  ever  been 
the  liberal  policy  of  the  leading  statesmen 
of  this  country,  and  by  no  one  has  it  been 
more  earnestly  recommended  than  by  my 
lamented   predecessor. 

Status  of  California,  New  Mexico,  and 
Texas.— On  June,  23,  1850,  President  Tay- 
lor transmitted  to  the  Congress  the  fol- 
lowing special  message  concerning  com- 
plications that  had  arisen  in  newly  ac- 
quired territory: 

Washington,  Jan.  23,  1850. 

To  the  Senate  of  the  United  States, — 
I  transmit  to  the  Senate,  in  answer  to 
a  resolution  of  that  body  passed  on  the 
17th  inst.,  the  accompanying  reports  of 
heads  of  departments,  which  contain  all 
the  official  information  in  the  possession 
of  the  Executive  asked  for  by  the  resolu- 

On  coming  into  office  I  found  the  mili- 
tary commandant  of  the  Department  of 
California  exercising  the  functions  of 
civil  governor  in  that  Territory,  and  left, 
as  I  was,  to  act  under  the  treaty  of  Guada- 
lupe-Hidalgo, withovit  the  aid  of  any  legis- 
lative provision  establishing  a  government 
in  that  Territory,  I  thought  it  best  not 
to  disturb  that  arrangement,  made  under 
my  predecessor,  until  Congress  should 
take  some  action  on  that  subject.  I, 
therefore,  did  not  interfere  with  the  powers 
of  the  military  commandant,  who  con- 
tiniied  to  exercise  the  functions  of  civil 
governor  as  before;  but  I  made  no  such 
appointment,  conferred  no  such  authority, 
and  have  allowed  no  increased  compen- 
sation  to    the    commandant   for    his    ser- 

With  a  view  to  the  faithful  execution 
of  the  treaty  so  far  as  lay  in  the  power 
of  the  executive,  and  to  enable  Congress 
to  act  at  the  present  session  with  as  full 
knowledge  and  as  little  difficulty  as  pos- 
sible on  all  matters  of  interest  in  these 
Territories,  I  sent  the  Hon.  Thomas 
Butler  King  as  bearer  of  despatches  to 
California,  and  certain  officers  to  Cali- 
fornia and  New  Mexico,  whose  duties  are 
particularly  defined  in  the  accompanying 
letters  of  instruction  addressed  to  them 
severally  by  the  proper  departments. 

I  did  not  hesitate  to  express  to  the  peo- 
ple of  those  Territories  my  desire  that 
each  Territory  should,  if  prepared  to 
comply  with  the  requisitions  of  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States,  form  a  plan 
of  a  State  constitution  and  submit  the 
same  to  Congress  with  a  prayer  for  ad- 
mission into  the  Union  as  a  State,  but 
I  did  not  anticipate,  suggest,  or  authorize 
the  establishment  of  any  such  government 
without  the  assent  of  Congress,  nor  did 
I  authorize  any  government  agent  or 
officer  to  interfere  with  or  exercise  any 
influence  or  control  over  the  election  of 
delegates  or  over  any  convention  in  mak- 
ing or  modifying  their  domestic  institu- 
tions, or  any  of  the  provisions  of  their 
proposed  constitution.  On  the  contrary, 
the  instructions  given  by  my  orders  were 
that  all  measures  of  domestic  policy 
adopted  by  the  people  of  California  must 
originate  solely  with  themselves;  that 
while  the  executive  of  the  United  States 
was  desirous  to  protect  them  in  the 
formation  of  any  government  republican 
in  its  character,  to  be  at  the  proper 
time  submitted  to  Congress,  yet  it  was 
to  be  distinctly  understood  that  the  plan 
of  such  a  government  must  at  the  same 
time  be  the  result  of  their  own  deliber- 
ate choice,  and  originate  with  them- 
selves, without  the  interference  of  the 

I  am  unable  to  give  any  information 
as  to  laws  passed  by  any  supposed  gov- 
ernment in  California  or  of  any  census 
taken  in  either  of  the  Territories  men- 
tioned in  the  resolution,  as  I  have  no 
information  on  those  subjects. 

As  already  stated,  I  have  not  disturbed 
the  arrangements  which  I  found  had  ex- 
isted under  my  predecessor. 

In  advising  an  early  application  by 


fhe  people  of  these  Territories  for  ad- 
miesion  as  States,  I  was  actuated  prin- 
cipally by  an  earnest  desire  to  afford  to 
the  wisdom  and  patriotism  of  Congress 
the  opportunity  of  avoiding  occasions  of 
bitter  and  angry  dissensions  among  the 
people  of  the  United  States. 

Under  the  Constitution  every  State 
has  the  right  of  establishing  and  from 
time  to  time  altering  its  municipal  laws 
and  domestic  institutions  independently 
of  every  other  State  and  the  general 
government,  subject  only  to  the  prohibi- 
tions and  guarantees  expressly  set  forth  in 
the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 
The  subjects  thus  left  exclusively  to  the 
respective  States  were  not  designed  or 
expected  to  become  topics  of  national  agi- 
tation. Still,  as  under  the  Constitution 
Congress  has  power  to  make  all  need- 
ful rules  and  regulations  respecting  the 
Territories  of  the  United  States,  every 
new  acquisition  of  territory  has  led  to 
discussions  on  the  question  whether  the 
system  of  involuntary  servitude  which 
prevails  in  many  of  the  States  should 
or  should  not  be  prohibited  in  that  Terri- 
tory. The  periods  of  excitement  from  this 
cause  which  have  heretofore  occurred  have 
been  safely  passed,  but  during  the  inter- 
val, of  whatever  length  which  may  elapse 
before  the  admission  of  the  Territories 
ceded  by  Mexico  as  States,  it  appears 
probable  that  similar  excitement  will  pre- 
vail to  an  undue  extent. 

Under  these  circumstances,  I  thought, 
and  still  think,  that  it  was  my  duty  to 
endeavor  to  put  it  in  the  power  of  Con- 
gress, by  the  admission  of  California  and 
New  Mexico  as  States,  to  remove  all  oc- 
casions for  the  unnecessary  agitation  of 
the  public  mind. 

It  is  understood  that  the  people  of  the 
western  part  of  California  have  formed  a 
plan  of  a  State  constitution,  and  will 
soon  submit  the  same  to  the  judgment 
of  Congress,  and  apply  for  admission  as 
a  State.  This  course  on  their  part,  though 
in  accordance  with,  was  not  adopted  ex- 
clusively in  consequence  of  any  expression 
of  my  wishes,  inasmuch  as  measures  tend- 
ing to  this  end  had  been  promoted  by  the 
officers  sent  there  by  my  predecessor,  and 
were  already  in  active  progress  of  execu- 
tion before  any  communication  from  me 
reached  California.     If  the  proposed  con- 

stitution shall,  when  submitted  to  Con- 
gress, be  found  to  be  in  compliance  with 
the  requisitions  of  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States,  I  earnestly  recommend  that 
it  may  receive  the  sanction  of  Congress. 

The  part  of  California  not  included  in 
the  proposed  State  of  that  name  is  be- 
lieved to  be  uninhabited,  except  in  a  set 
tlement  of  our  countrymen  in  the  vicinitj 
of  Salt  Lake. 

A  claim  has  been  advanced  by  the  State 
of  Texas  to  a  very  large  portion  of  the 
most  populous  district  of  the  Territory 
commonly  designated  by  the  name  of  New 
Mexico.  If  the  people  of  New  Mexico  had 
formed  a  plan  of  a  State  government  for 
that  Territory  as  ceded  by  the  treaty  ot 
Guadalupe-Hidalgo,  and  had  been  ad 
mitted  by  Congi-ess  as  a  State,  our  Con- 
stitution would  have  afforded  the  means 
of  obtaining  an  adjustment  of  the  ques- 
tion of  boundary  with  Texas  by  a  judi- 
cial decision.  At  present,  however,  no 
judicial  tribunal  has  the  power  of  decid- 
ing that  question,  and  it  remains  for  Con 
gress  to  devise  some  mode  for  its  adjust- 
ment. Meanwhile  I  submit  to  Congress 
the  question  whether  it  would  be  expe- 
dient before  such  adjustment  to  estab- 
lish a  Territorial  government,  which,  by 
including  the  district  so  claimed,  would 
practically  decide  the  question  adversely 
to  the  State  of  Texas,  or  by  excluding  it 
would  decide  it  in  her  favor.  In  my 
opinion  such  a  course  would  not  be  expe- 
dient, especially  as  the  people  of  this 
Territory  still  enjoy  the  benefit  and  pro- 
tection of  their  municipal  laws  originally 
derived  from  Mexico,  and  have  a  mili- 
tary force  stationed  there  to  protect  them 
against  the  Indians.  It  is  undoubtedly 
true  that  the  property,  lives,  liberties, 
and  religion  of  the  people  of  New  Mexico 
are  better  protected  than  they  ever  were 
before  the  treaty  of  cession. 

Should  Congress,  when  California  shall 
present  herself  for  incorporation  into  the 
Union,  annex  a  condition  to  her  admis- 
sion as  a  State  affecting  her  domestic  in- 
stitutions contrary  to  the  wishes  of  her 
people,  and  even  compel  her  temporarily 
to  comply  with  it,  yet  the  State  could 
change  her  constitution  at  any  time  after 
admission  when  to  her  it  shor^ld  seem  ex- 
pedient. Any  attempt  to  deny  to  the 
people    of    the    State    the    right    of    self 



government  in  a  matter  which  peculiarly  spire    fidelity    and    devotion    to    it,    and 

affects    themselves    will    infallibly    be   re-  admonish    us    cautiously    to    avoid    any 

garded  by  them   as  an  invasion  of   their  necessary    controversy    which    can    either 

rights,  and,  upon  the  principles  laid  down  endanger    it   or   impair    its    strength,    the 

in  our  own  Declaration  of  Independence,  chief  element  of  which  is  to  be  found  in 

they   will    certainly   be   sustained   by   the  the  regard  and  affection  of  the  people  for 

great  mass  of   the  American   people.     To  each  other. 

assert  that  they  are  a  conquered  people  Tazewell,    Littleton    Waller,    legis- 

and  must  as  a  State  submit  to  the  will  lator;  born  in  Williamsburg,  Va.,  Dec.  17, 

of   their    conquerors    in    this    regard   will  1774;    graduated    at    William    and    Mary 

meet    with    no    cordial    response    among  College  in   1792;   admitted  to  the  bar   in 

American    freemen.       Great    numbers     of  1796;    member    of    Congress    in    1800-2; 

them    are    native    citizens    of    the    United  member  of  the  commission  to  treat  with 

States,    not    inferior    to    the    rest    of    our  Spain  for  the  purchase  of  Florida  in  1819; 

countrymen  in  intelligence  and  patriotism,  member   of   the   United    States    Senate   ia 

and   no    language   of   menace   to    restrain  1824-33;  and  was  chosen  governor  of  Vir- 

them    in    the    exercise    of    an    undoubted  ginia  in  1834.     In  1840  he  was  the  candi- 

right,    substantially    guaranteed    to    them  date  for  the  Vice-Presidency  on  the  ticket 

by  the  treaty  of  cession  itself,  shall  ever  with  James  G.  Birney.     He  died  in  Nor- 

be  uttered  by  me  or  encouraged  and  sus-  folk,  Va.,  March  6,  1860. 

tained  by  persons  acting  under  my  author-  Tea.  The  tea-plant,  which  played  such 

ity.     It    is    to    be    expected    that    in    the  a   conspicuous   part   in   American   history 

residue   of   the   territory   ceded   to   us   by  just  previous  to  the  Revolutionary  War, 

Mexico  the  people  residing  there  will   at  was    brought    to    Europe    by    the    Dutch 

the  time  of  their  incorporation   into   the  East   India   Company,   and   first  appeared 

Union  as  a  State  settle  all  questions  of  in    Holland.      It    was    nearly    100    years 

domestic  policy  to  suit  themselves.  before    the    exports    were    very    large    or 

No   material    inconvenience   will    result  its  use  became  extensive  in  England  and 

from   the  want   for   a   short   period   of   a  in    the    English  -  American    colonies.      As 

government  established  by  Congress  over  early  as  1770  the  cultivation  of  the  tea- 

the  part  of  the  territory  which  lies  east-  plant    was    undertaken    in    Georgia,    and 

ward  of  the  new  State  of  California;  and  from  time  to  time  the  attempt  has  been 

the  reasons  for  my  opinion  that  New  Mex-  renewed.      The    imports    of    tea    into    the 

ico  will  at  no  very  distant  period  ask  for  United    States    in    the   year    ending   June 

admission  into  the  Union  are  founded  on  30,  1904,  aggregated  112,898,016  lbs.,  val- 

unofficial  information  which,  I  suppose,  is  ued  at  $18,229,310. 

common  to  all  who  have  cared  to  make  in-  Tea  in  Politics.     Among  other  articles 

quiries  on  that  subject.  imported  into  the  colonies  upon  which   a 

Seeing,  then,  that  the  question  which  duty  was  laid,  in  1767,  was  tea,  the  fur- 
now  excites  such  painful  sensations  in  the  nishing  of  which,  for  England  and  her 
country  will  in  the  end  certainly  be  set-  colonies,  was  a  monopoly  of  the  East 
tied  by  the  silent  effect  of  causes  inde-  India  Company.  In  consequence  of  the 
pendent  of  the  action  of  Congress,  I  again  violent  manifestation  of  opposition  to 
submit  to  your  wisdom  the  policy  recom-  this  method  of  taxation,  and  especially 
mended  in  my  annual  message  of  await-  of  the  serious  effects  upon  British  trade 
ing  the  salutary  operation  of  those  causes,  by  the  operations  of  the  non-importation 
believing  that  we  shall  thus  avoid  the  league,  Lord  North,  then  prime  minister, 
creation  of  geographical  parties,  and  se-  offered  a  bill  in  Parliament,  in  the  spring 
cure  the  harmony  of  feeling  so  necessary  of  1770,  for  the  repeal  of  the  duties  upon 
to  the  beneficial  action  of  our  political  every  article  enumerated,  excepting  tea. 
system.  Connected,  as  the  Union  is,  with  He  thought,  unwisely,  that  tea,  being  a 
the  remembrance  of  past  happiness,  the  luxury,  the  colonists  would  not  object  to 
sense  of  present  blessings,  and  the  hope  paying  the  very  small  duty  imposed  upon 
of  future  peace  and  prosperity,  every  die-  it,  and  he  retained  that  simply  as  a  stand- 
tate  of  wisdom,  every  feeling  of  duty,  and  ing  assertion  of  the  right  of  Parliament 
every  emotion  of  patriotism  tend  to  in-  to    tax    the    colonists.      It    was    a    fatal 



mistake.      The   bill    became    a    law    April  Six    of    Snyder's    school  -  mates    bore    the 

2.  1770.    The  minister  mistook  the  charac-  coffin,  and  nearly  500  school-boys  led  the 

ter  and  temper  of  the  Americans.     It  was  procession.      The    bells    of     Boston    were 

not  the  petty  amount  of  duties  imposed,  tolled;   so,  also,  were  those  of  the  neigh- 

for  none  of  this  species  of  taxation  was  Iwring  towns. 

burdensome;  it  was  the  principle  involved,  By  smuggling,  non-importation,  and  non- 
which  lay  at  the  foundation  of  their  liber-  consumption  agreements,  the  tax  on  ^a,, 
ties.  They  regarded  the  imposition  of  ever  retained  for  the  purpose  of  vindicating 
so  small  a  duty  upon  one  article  as  much  the  authority  of  Parliament,  was  virtu- 
a  violation  of  their  sacred  rights  as  if  ally  nullified  at  the  opening  of  1773.  Then 
a  hea\'y  duty  on  tea  was  imposed.  The  a  new  thought  upon  taxation  occurred 
ministry  Avould  not  yield  the  point,  and  to  Lord  North.  The  East  India  Company 
a  series  of  troubles  followed.  Merchants  severely  felt  the  effects  of  these  causes, 
in  Boston,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  An-  and  requested  the  government  to  take  off 
napolis,  and  other  places  agreed  not  to  the  duty  of  3d.  a  pound  on  their  tea  levied 
import  tea,  and  there  were  combinations  in  America.  Already  17,000,000  lbs.  had 
against  its  use  in  various  places.  Before  accumulated  in  their  warehouses  in  Eng- 
North  introduced  his  repeal  bill  into  Par-  land,  and  they  offered  to  allow  the  gov- 
liament  the  mistresses  of  300  families  in  ernment  to  retain  6cZ.  upon  the  pound 
Boston  subscribed  to  a  league,  Feb.  9,  as  an  exportation  tariff  if  they  would 
1770,  binding  themselves  not  to  drink  any  take  off  the  3d.  duty.  Here  was  an  op- 
tea  until  the  revenue  act  should  be  re-  portunity  for  conciliation;  but  the  min- 
pealed.  Three  days  afterwards  (Feb.  12)  istry,  deluded  by  false  views  of  national 
the  young  maidens  followed  the  example  honor,  would  not  accede  to  the  proposi- 
of  the  matrons,  and  multitudes  signed  tion,  but  stupidly  favored  the  East  India 
the  following  document :  "  We,  the  daugh-  Company,  and  utterly  neglected  the  prin- 
ters of  those  patriots  who  have,  and  do  ciples  and  feelings  of  the  Americans.  They 
now,  appear  for  the  public  interest,  and  proposed  a  bill  for  the  exportation  of  tea 
in  that  principally  regard  their  posterity  to  America  on  their  own  account,  without 
— as  such,  do  with  pleasure  engage  with  paying  export  duty,  and  it  passed  May 
them  in  denying  ourselves  the  drinking  10,  1773.  Agents  and  consignees  were 
of  foreign  tea,  in  hopes  to  frustrate  a  appointed  in  the  several  colonies  to  re- 
plan  which  tends  to  deprive  a  whole  com-  ceive  the  tea,  and  the  ministry  congratu- 
munity  of  all  that  is  valuable  in  life."  lated  themselves  with  outwitting  the  pa- 
Violators  of  the  non-importation  agree-  triots.  This  movement  perfected  the  nul- 
ments  were  sometimes  handled  roughly,  lification  of  the  tea  tax,  for  universal 
A  Boston  merchant,  Theophilus  Lillie,  of  opposition  to  its  use  was  manifested. 
Tory  tendencies,  continued  to  sell  tea  Those  who  accepted  the  office  of  con- 
openly,  which  excited  popular  indignation,  signees  of  the  tea  cargoes  of  the  East 
A  company  of  half-grown  boys  placed  an  India  Company  were  held  in  equal  dis- 
effigy  near  his  door  with  a  finger  upon  repute  with  the  stamp-distributers.  They 
it,  pointing  towards  his  store.  While  a  were  requested  to  refrain  from  receiving 
man  was  attempting  to  remove  it,  he  the  proscribed  article.  The  request  of  a 
was  pelted  with  dirt  and  stones.  Hun-  public  meeting  in  Philadelphia,  Oct.  2, 
ning  into  the  store,  he  seized  a  gun,  and  1773,  that  Messrs.  Wharton  should  not 
discharged  its  contents  among  the  crowd,  act,  was  complied  with,  and  their  answer 
A  boy  named  Snyder  was  killed,  and  a  was  received  with  shouts  of  applause. 
lad  named  Samuel  Gore  was  wounded.  Another  firm  refused,  and  they  were 
The  affair  produced  intense  excitement,  greeted  with  groans  and  hisses.  A  public 
not  only  in  Boston,  but  throughout  the  meeting  in  Boston  (Nov.  5)  appointed  a 
colonies.  The  funeral  of  Snyder  was  a  committee  to  wait  upon  the  consignees  in 
most  impressive  pageant.  His  coffin,  in-  that  town  and  request  them  to  resign, 
scribed  "  Innocence  itself  is  not  safe,"  These  consignees  wei'e  all  friends  of  Gov- 
was  borne  to  Liberty  Tree,  where  an  ernor  Hutchinson — two  of  them  were  his 
immense  concourse  were  assembled,  who  sons  and  a  third  his  nepheWo  They  had 
thence  followed  the  remains  to  the  grave,  been  summoned  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the 



Sons  of  Liberty  (under  Liberty  Tree)  and 
resign  their  appointments.  They  con- 
temptuously refused  to  comply;  now,  in 
the  presence  of  the  town  committee,  they 
so  equivocated  that  the  meeting  voted 
their  answer  "  unsatisfactory  and  dar- 
ingly affrontive."  Another  committee  was 
appointed  for  the  same  purpose  at  a  meet- 
ing on  the  18th,  when  the  consignees  re- 
plied: "It  is  out  of  our  power  to  comply 
with  the  request  of  the  town."  The  meet- 
ing broke  up  with  ominous  silence.  The 
consignees  became  alarmed  and  asked 
leave  to  resign  their  appointments  into 
the  hands  of  the  governor  and  council. 
The  prayer  was  refused,  and  the  con- 
signees fled  to  the  protection  of  the  castle. 
At  a  meeting  held  first  in  Faneuil  Hall 
and  then  in  the  South  Meeting-house 
( Xov.  29 ) ,  a  letter  was  received  from  the 
consignees,  offering  to  store  the  tea  until 
they  could  write  to  England  and  receive 
instructions.  The  offer  was  rejected  with 
disdain.  The  sheriff  then  read  a  procla- 
mation from  the  governor,  ordering  the 
meeting  to  disperse.  It  was  received  with 
hisses.  Then  the  meeting  ordered  that  two 
tea  -  vessels  hourly  expected  at  Boston 
should  be  moored  at  Griffin's  Wharf.  At 
the  demand  of  a  popular  meeting  in  New 
York  (Nov.  25)  the  appointed  consignees 
there  declined  to  act,  whereupon  Governor 
Tryon  issued  an  order  for  the  cargo  of  any 
tea-ship  that  might  arrive  to  be  deposited 
in  the  barracks. 

When  news  reached  America  that  tea- 
ships  were  loading  for  colonial  ports,  the 
patriots  took  measures  for  preventing  the 
unloading  of  their  cargoes  here.  The 
Philadelphians  moved  first  in  the  matter. 
At  a  public  meeting  held  Oct.  2,  1773,  in 
eight  resolutions  the  people  protested 
against  taxation  by  Parliament,  and  de- 
nounced as  "  an  enemy  to  his  country " 
whoever  should  "  aid  or  abet  in  unloading, 
receiving,  or  vending  the  tea."  A  town- 
meeting  was  held  in  Boston  (Nov.  5),  at 
which  John  Hancock  presided,  which 
adopted  the  Philadelphia  resolutions,  with 
a  supplement  concerning  remissness  in  ob- 
serving non-importation  and  non-consump- 
tion agreements,  but  insisting  upon  a 
strict  compliance  with  them  in  the  future. 
A  tea-vessel,  bound  for  Philadelphia,  was 
stopped  (Dec.  25)  4  miles  below  that  city, 
information  having  been  received  of  the 

destruction  of  the  tea  in  Boston.  An- 
other, driven  by  stress  of  weather  to  the 
West  Indies,  did  not  arrive  at  New  York 
for  several  months  afterwards.  When  it 
arrived  (April  21,  1774)  at  Sandy  Hook, 
the  pilots,  under  instructions  from  the 
city  committee,  refused  to  bring  her  up, 
and  a  committee  of  vigilance  soon  took 
possession  of  her.  When  the  captain  was 
brought  to  town  he  was  ordered  to  take 
back  his  ship  and  cargo.  The  consignees 
lefused  to  interfere;  and  meanwhile  an- 
other ship,  commanded  by  a  New  York 
captain,  was  allowed  to  enter  the  harbor, 
on  the  assurance  that  she  had  no  tea  on 
board.  A  report  soon  spread  that  she  had 
tea  on  board,  and  the  captain  was  com- 
pelled to  acknowledge  that  he  had  eigh- 
teen chests,  belonging  to  private  parties, 
and  not  to  the  East  India  Company.  The 
indignant  people  poured  the  tea  into  the 
harbor,  and  the  captain  of  the  East  India 
tea-ship — with  grand  parade,  a  band  of 
music  playing  "  God  save  the  King,"  the 
city  bells  ringing,  and  colors  flying  from 
liberty-poles — was  escorted  from  the  cus- 
tom-house to  a  pilot-boat,  which  took  him 
to  his  vessel  at  the  Hook,  when,  under  the 
direction  of  the  vigilance  committee,  the 
vessel  was  started  for  England.  A  tea- 
ship  (the  Dartmouth)  arrived  at  Boston 
late  in  November,  1773,  and  was  ordered 
by  a  town-meeting  (Nov.  29)  to  be  moored 
at  Griffin's  Wharf.  It  was  voted  by  the 
same  meeting  that  the  "  owner  be  directed 
not  to  enter  the  tea-ship  at  his  peril"; 
and  the  captain  was  warned  not  to  suffer 
any  of  the  tea  to  be  landed.  Two  other 
tea-ships  that  arrived  there  were  served 
in  the  same  way,  and  suffered  outrage.  A 
fourth  tea-vessel,  bound  for  Boston,  was 
wrecked  on  Cape  Cod,  and  a  few  chests  of 
her  tea,  saved,  were  placed  in  the  castle 
by  the  governor's  orders.  About  twenty 
chests  brought  in  another  vessel,  on  pri- 
vate account,  were  seized  and  cast  into 
the  water.  In  Charleston  a  cargo  was 
landed,  but,  being  stored  in  damp  cellars, 
was  spoiled.    See  Boston  Tea  Party. 

Teclinology,  Institutes  of,  a  notewor- 
thy feature  of  the  educational  progress 
in  the  United  States  in  recent  years  is 
the  great  attention  that  is  being  paid 
to  the  education  of  the  young  in  technical 
lines.  The  institutes  of  technology  are  in- 
stitutions wholly  distinct  from  the  agri- 




cultural  and  mechanical  colleges  that  northern  branch  of  the  upper  Wabash), 
have  been  established  in  the  various  among  the  Delawares  and  Miamis.  There 
States  and  Territories  imder  provisions  throughout  1809  the  Prophet  attracted 
of  two  acts  of  Congress.  The  latter,  large  numbers  of  Indians,  when  military 
while  providing  special  instruction  in  exercises  were  interspersed  with  religious 
agriculture,  also  give  courses  to  a  mummeries  and  warlike  sports.  These 
limited  extent  in  manual  training.  Tech-  military  exercises,  and  an  alleged  secret 
nical  institutes  also  differ  from  what  are  intercourse  of  the  brothers  with  the 
kno^vn  as  manual  training-schools,  the  British  traders  and  agents,  had  drawn 
latter  affording  instruction  in  a  few  branch- 
es of  industry  dependent  on  hand  work. 
The  usual  course  in  the  purely  technical 
institutions  includes  civil,  mechanical,  and 
electrical  engineering,  foundry  work,  model- 
making,  wood  and  metal  turning,  and 
mechanical  drawing,  in  addition  to  the 
French  and  German  languages,  chemistry, 
and  other  necessities  for  a  professional 
technical  career.  At  the  end  of  the  school- 
year  1902  there  were  in  the  United  States 
forty-three  institutes  of  technology,  having 
a  total  of  1,434  professors  and  instruc- 
tors: 18.990  students  in  all  departments; 
12  fellowships;  1,193  scholarships;  494,- 
981  bound  volumes,  and  140,312  pamphlets 
in  their  libraries;  scientific  apparatus 
valued  at  $3,510,219;  grounds  and  build- 
ings valued  at  $24,001,683;  productive 
funds  aggregating  $14,454,783;  and  total 
income,  $4,796,613. 

In  1905  much  of  an  extraordinary  de- 
mand for  graduates  of  the  leading  insti- 
tutes of  technology  was  directly  traceable 
to  the  remarkable  development  of  the  man-  tecl-mseh. 

ufacturing  interests  of  the  country. 

Tecumseh,  an  Indian  warrior,  chief  of  upon  the  Prophet  and  his  brother  the  sus- 
the  Shawnees;  born  in  Old  Piqua,  near  picions  of  Harrison,  the  governor  of  the 
Springfield,  O.,  about  1768;  was  one  of  Indian  Territory  and  superintendent  of 
the  boldest  and  most  active  of  the  braves  Indian  affairs.  With  consummate  du- 
who  opposed  Wayne  (1794-95),  and  was  plicity,  the  Prophet,  visiting  Harrison  at 
at  the  treaty  of  Greenville.  As  early  as  Vincennes,  allayed  his  suspicions  by  as- 
1804  he  had  begun  the  execution  of  a  suming  to  be  a  warm  friend  of  peace,  his 
scheme,  in  connection  with  his  brother,  sole  object  being  to  reform  the  Indians 
"  The  Prophet,"  for  confederating  the  and  to  put  a  stop  to  their  use  of  whiskey. 
Western  Indians  for  the  purpose  of  ex-  Not  long  afterwards,  a  treaty  made  with 
terminating  the  white  people.  He  made  several  tribes  by  Harrison  was  denounced 
use  of  the  popularity  of  his  brother  as  a  by  Tecumseh,  and  serious  threats  were 
prophet  or  medicine-man,  whose  influence  made  by  him.  Harrison  invited  the 
had  been  very  great  over  large  portions  of  brothers  to  an  interview  at  Vincennes 
the  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Wyandotteg,  (August,  1810),  when  the  latter  appeared 
Miamis,  Ottawas,  Pottawattomies,  Kicka-  with  many  followers  and  showed  so  much 
poos,  Winnebagoes,  and  Chippewas.  It  hostility  that  the  governor  ordered  him 
was  among  the  more  remote  tribes  that  a  and  his  people  to  quit  the  neighborhood, 
greater  part  of  his  converts  were  obtained.  Tecumseh  went  among  the  Seminoles 
In  the  summer  of  1808  the  Prophet  re-  in  Florida,  the  Creeks  in  Alabama  and 
moved  his  village  to  Tippecanoe  Creek  (a    Georgia,    and   tribes    in    Missouri    in   the 



spring  of  1811,  trying  to  induce  them  to  to  the  war-path.  The  wily  Prophet,  who 
join  his  confederacy.  He  went  on  a  sim-  had  been  told  by  the  British  when  a  comet 
ilar  mission  in  the  autumn,  taking  with  would  appear,  told  the  excited  multitude 
him  his  brother,  the  Prophet,  partly  that  they  would  see  the  arm  of  Tecumseh, 
to  employ  him  as  a  cunning  instrument  like  pale  fire,  stretched  out  in  the  vault 
in  managing  the  superstitious  Indians,  of  heaven  at  a  certain  time,  and  thus 
and  partly  to  prevent  his  doing  mischief  they  would  know  by  that  sign  when  to  be- 
at home  in  Tecumseh's  absence.  About  gin  the  war.  The  people  looked  upon  him 
thirty  warriors  accompanied  them.  His  with  awe,  for  the  fame  of  Tecumseh 
mission,  then,  was  to  engage  the  Indians  and  the  Prophet  had  preceded  them.  Te- 
as allies  for  the  British  and  against  the  cumseh  continued  his  mission  with  suc- 
Americans.  The  Choctaws  and  Chicka-  cess,  but  found  opponents  here  and  there, 
saws,  through  whose  country  Tecumseh  Among  the  most  conspicuous  of  them  was 
passed,  would  not  listen  to  him ;  but  the  Tustinuggee-Thlucco,  the  "  Big  Warrior." 
Seminoles  and  Creeks  lent  him  willing  Tecumseh  tried  every  art  to  convert  him 
ears.  He  addressed  the  assembled  Creeks  to  his  purposes.  At  length  he  said,  an- 
for  the  first  time  in  the  lower  part  of  grily:  "Tustinuggee-Thlucco,  your  blood 
(the  present)  Autauga  county,  Ala.,  late  is  white.  You  have  taken  my  redsticks 
in  October.  Soon  afterwards,  having  ad-  and  my  talk,  but  you  do  not  mean  to 
dressed  the  Creeks  at  different  points,  he  fight.  I  know  the  reason;  you  do  not 
approached  a  great  council  called  by  Colo-  believe  the  Great  Spirit  has  sent  me. 
nel  Hawkins,  United  States  Indian  agent.  You  shall  believe  it.  I  will  leave  directly 
at  Toockabatcha,  the  ancient  Creek  cap-  and  go  straight  to  Detroit.  When  I  get 
ital,  where  fully  5,000  of  the  nation  were  there,  I  will  stamp  my  foot  upon  the 
gathered.  Tecumseh  marched  with  dig-  ground  and  shake  down  every  house  in 
nity   into   the    square   with   his   train   of  Toockabatcha." 

thirty  followers,  entirely  naked,  excepting  Strangely  enough,  at  about  the  time 
their  flaps  and  ornaments,  their  faces  Tecumseh  must  have  arrived  at  Detroit, 
painted  black,  their  heads  adorned  with  there  was  heard  a  deep  rumbling  under- 
eagles'  feathers,  while  buffalo  tails  dragged  ground  all  over  the  Alabama  region,  and 
behind,  suspended  by  bands  around  their  there  was  a  heaving  of  the  earth  that 
waists.  Like  appendages  were  attached  made  the  houses  of  Toockabatcha  reel  and 
to  their  arms,  and  their  whole  appearance  totter  as  if  about  to  fall.  The  startled 
was  as  hideous  as  possible,  and  their  bear-  savages  ran  out,  exclaiming:  "Tecumseh 
ing  uncommonly  pompous  and  ceremoni-  is  at  Detroit!  Tecumseh  is  at  Detroit! 
ous.  They  marched  round  and  round  in  We  feel  the  stamp  of  his  foot!"  It  was 
the  square,  and  then,  approaching  the  the  shock  of  an  earthquake  that  was  felt 
Creek  chiefs,  gave  them  the  Indian  salu-  all  over  the  Gulf  region  in  Deceniber,  1812. 
tation  of  a  hand-shake  at  arm's-length  and  At  the  same  time  the  comet — the  blazing 
exchanged  tobacco  in  token  of  friendship,  arm  of  Tecumseh  —  appeared  in  the  sky. 
So  they  made  their  appearance  each  day  These  events  made  a  powerful  impression 
until  Hawkins  departed.  on  nearly  the  whole  Creek  nation,  but 
That  night  a  council  was  held  in  the  it  did  not  move  the  "  Big  Warrior  "  from 
great  round-house.  It  was  packed  with  his  allegiance  to  the  United  States.  The 
eager  listeners.  Tecumseh  made  a  fiery  Creeks  rose  in  arms,  and  in  less  than  two 
and  vengeful  speech,  exhorting  the  Creeks  years  their  nation  was  ruined, 
to  abandon  the  customs  of  the  pale  faces  In  the  War  of  1812-15  Tecumseh  was 
and  return  to  those  of  their  fathers;  to  the  active  ally  of  the  British,  and  re- 
cast away  the  plough  and  loom  and  cease  ceived  the  commission  »f  brigadier-general 
the  cultivation  of  the  soil,  for  it  was  an  in  the  British  army.  Assisting  General 
unworthy  pursuit  for  noble  hunters  and  Proctor  in  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  he 
warriors.  He  warned  them  that  the  Amer-  was  slain  there,  Oct.  5,  1813.  Who  killed 
icans  were  seeking  to  exterminate  them  Tecumseh?  was  an  unsettled,  and,  at  one 
and  possess  their  country;  and  told  them  time,  exciting  question.  It  was  supposed, 
that  their  friends,  the  British,  had  sent  at  the  time  of  the  battle  on  the  Thames, 
him  from  the  Great  Lakes  to  invite  them  that  he  was   slain  by  the   pistol   of  Col. 



Richard  M.  Johnson.  Indeed,  the  friends  He  deserted  the  Moravians  in  1754,  and 
of  Colonel  Johnson  asserted  it  positively  led  the  Delawares  and  their  allies  who 
as  an  undoubted  fact;  and  during  the  resided  within  the  Walking  Purchase 
political  campaign  when  he  was  a  can-  (q.  v.),  Wyoming  Valley.  In  November, 
didate  for  the  Vice  -  Presidency  of  the  1757,  a  treaty  of  pacification  was  con- 
United  States,  the  question  caused  much  eluded  with  Teedyuscung  at  Easton,  Pa., 
warm  discussion.  That  he  killed  an  Ind-  and  in  the  following  year  a  town  was  laid 
ian  under  circumstances  which  were  war-  out  in  Wyoming  Valley  for  him  and  his 
ranted  was  never  denied.  Two  Indian  tribe.  His  house  was  set  afire  by  an 
wari-iors  lay  dead  upon  the  spot  after  the  enemy  while  he  was  asleep,  and  he  was 
battle,  one  of  whom  was  believed  to  be  burned  to  death,  April  16,  1763. 
Tecumseh.  They  were  stripped  naked.  Teganakoa,  Stephex,  Indian  convert; 
It  has  been  pretty  clearly  shown  that  went  with  his  family  to  the  mission  of 
neither  body  was  that  of  Tecumseh,  for  Sault  St.  Louis,  where  they  were  bap- 
his  was  carried  away  by  his  warriors,  tized.  In  the  fall  of  1790,  while  on  a 
The  exasperated  Kentuckians  mutilated  hunting  expedition  with  his  wife  and  an- 
the  supposed  body  of  Tecumseh,  and  later  other  Indian,  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  a 
Kentuckians   have   recorded,   by   a   sculpt-    band  of  Cayugas  and  carried  to  Onondaga, 

N.  Y.  One  of  the  party  said  to  him  that 
he  owed  his  death  to  having  left  his  coun- 
trymen for  the  "  dogs  of  Christians  at  the 
Sault."  He  answered:  "Do  what  you 
will  with  me,  I  fear  neither  your  outrages 
nor  your  fires.  I  willingly  give  my  life 
for  a  God  who  shed  his  blood  for  me." 
He  was  then  slowly  tortured  to  death, 
enduring  his  agony  with  fortitude  and 
praying  for  his  torturers. 

Teganissorens,  an  Iroquois  Indian 
chief;  born  in  Onondaga,  N.  Y. ;  became 
a  strong  ally  of  the  French ;  was  converted 
to  Christianity  in  1693;  and  in  the  fol- 
lowing year  visited  Frontenac,  the  French 
governor,  to  whom  he  proposed  the  re- 
habilitation of  Fort  Catarocoviy  (Kings- 
ton), which  appeared  to  Frontenac  as  a 
wise  policy.  He  accordingly  raised  an  ex- 
pedition to  carry  out  the  plan  which  he 
was  soon  forced  to  abandon,  owing  to 
orders  received  from  the  French  Court. 
Later  Teganissorens  received  both  Eng- 
lish and  French  agents,  to  whom  he  de- 
clared that  he  would  remain  neutral,  and 
thereafter  strongly  protested  against  at- 
tacks on  the  English  settlers.  In  1711  he 
gave  information  to  the  French  that  prepa- 
ure  in  marble  upon  Colonel  Johnson's  rations  were  being  made  in  New  York, 
monument,  in  the  cemetery  at  Frankfort,  Boston,  and  Albany  for  the  invasion  of 
their  conviction  that  he  killed  the  great  Canada.  He  died  in  Caughnawaga,  or 
chief.  Sault  St.  Louis,  after  1711. 

Teedyuscung,  chief  of  the  Delaware  Tehuantepec  Ship  Railway.  Early  in 
Indians;  born  near  Trenton,  N.  J.,  about  1881  Capt.  James  B.  Eads,  who  had  won 
1700;  removed  to  the  forks  of  the  Dela-  considerable  reputation  as  an  engineer  in 
ware  in  1730;  received  Christian  baptism  building  the  great  bridge  over  the  Mis- 
and  the  name  Gideon  from  Bishop  Cam-  sissippi  at  St.  Louis,  and  also  in  construct- 
merhoff,  a  Moravian  missionary,  in   1750.    ing  the  system  of  jetties  at  the  mouth  of 




that  river,  obtained  from  the  Mexican 
government  the  riglit  to  build  a  ship  rail- 
way across  the  isthmus  of  Tehuantepec. 
That  government  also  promised  him  a 
large  grant  of  money  and  land,  and  he 
immediately  made  application  to  Con- 
gress for  further  aid  to  secure  the  carry- 
ing-out of  the  plan.  The  matter  was  re- 
ferred in  the  House  of  Representatives  to 
a  committee,  and  this  body,  Feb.  12,  1881, 
made  report  endorsing  the  project,  and 
recommending  the  passage  of  a  bill  pledg- 
ing the  protection  of  the  United  States 
to  the  railway  company  and  guarantee- 
ing the  interest  on  $50,000,000  of  its 
bonds.  This  report,  however,  was  laid 
upon  the  table  by  an  overwhelming  vote, 
and  thus  for  the  time  being  the  consid- 
eration of  the  merits  of  the  project  was 

Captain  Eads  estimated  the  cost  of  the 
railway  over  the  Tehuantepec  route,  112 
miles  in  length,  at  $75,000,000.  He 
claimed  that  wherever  a  canal  could 
be  built  a  strong  railway  for  the  trans- 
portation of  ships  could  be  built  for 
half  the  cost  of  the  canal.  He  selected 
the  Tehuantepec  in  preference  to  the 
Panama  route. 

In  the  fall  of  1881,  and  in  1882,  a 
corps  of  engineers  were  employed  in  sur- 
veying this  route.  However,  all  Captain 
Eads  obtained  from  the  Forty-sixth  or  the 
two  subsequent  congresses  was  favorable 
committee  reports.  When  he  was  alto- 
gether worn  out  with  the  struggle  to 
obtain  due  recognition  for  his  scheme,  the 
Forty-ninth  Congress  partially  consented 
to  incorporate  his  company.  A  bill  w^as 
passed  by  the  Senate  Feb.  17,  1887,  which 
constituted  James  B.  Eads  and  some 
eighty  other  persons  named  as  a  body 
politic  under  the  name  and  title  of  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  Ship  Railway  Com- 
pany. The  stock  was  not  to  exceed  $100,- 
000,000,  and  when  10  per  cent,  of  the 
stock  had  been  subscribed  for  and  10  per 
cent,  thereon  paid  in  cash,  a  meeting  of 
stockholders  was  to  be  held  in  Wash- 
ington or  New  York  for  the  election  of 
directors.  If  $10,000,000  of  stock  was  not 
subscribed  for  and  10  per  cent,  in  cash 
paid  thereon  within  two  years,  the  charter 
— so  the  bill  declared — must  expire  by 
limitation.  This  bill  did  not  get  through 
the  House,  however,  being  lost  in  the  rush 

of  legislation  before  adjournment,  and  aa 
Captain  Eads  died  March  8  following, 
nothing  was  accomplished  with  his 

Telegraph.  A  telegraph  on  an  im- 
proved plan  was  invented  by  Jonathan 
Grant,  of  Belchertown,  Mass.,  as  early  as 
1799.  The  inventor  set  up  one  of  his 
lines  between  Boston  and  Martha's  Vine- 
yard, places  90  miles  apart,  at  which  dis- 
tance he  asked  a  question  and  received  an 
answer  in  less  than  ten  minutes.  Until 
the  perfecting  of  the  electro-magnetic  tele- 
graph by  Professor  Morse  in  1844,  teleg- 
raphy was  carried  on  by  means  of  con- 
trivances visible  to  the  eye.  In  1846  three 
men  conducted  the  entire  telegraph  busi- 
ness in  the  United  States  from  a  dingy 
basement  in  New  York  City;  in  1904 
there  were  200,000  miles  of  poles  and 
cables;  1,155,405  miles  of  wire;  23,458 
offices;  67,909,973  messages  handled;  $29,- 
249,390  gross  receipts;  and  $21,361,915 

The  latest  development  is  in  wireless 
telegraphy.  On  Feb.  26,  1905,  communi- 
cation was  established  between  Key  West, 
Florida,  and  Chicago,  and  between  Key 
West  and  a  steamer  200  miles  east  of 
New  York. 

Telegraph,  Submarine.  See  Atlantic 

Telephone,  The.    Chronology  of: 

Robert  Hook  conveyed  sounds  to  a  dis- 
tance by  distended  wire 1667 

Alexander  Graham  Bell  begins  his  in- 
vestigation of  electrical  transmission  and 
reproduction  of  articulate  speech 

July,  1874 

Bell  constructs  an  electrical  telephone, 
with  a  diaphragm  of  gold-beater's  skin, 
which  transmits  speech July,  1875 

Thomas  A.  Edison,  furnished  by  Will- 
iam Orton,  president  of  the  Western  Union 
Telegraph  Company,  with  a  description  of 
Reis's  telephone,  begins  experiments  with 
a  view  to  producing  an  articulating  tele- 
phone   July,   1875 

Elisha  Gray  files  his  caveat  for  an  in- 
vention "  to  transmit  the  tones  of  the 
human  voice  through  a  telegraphic  cir- 
cuit," etc Feb.  14,  1876 

Professor  Bell  publicly  explains  his 
method  before  the  American  Academy  of 
Arts  and  Sciences  of  Boston 

May  10,  1870 


Bell's   telephone   exhibited   at   the   Can-  ments,  till  they  ground  the  36-inch  tele- 

tennial  Exhibition  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.  scope   for  the  Lick   Observatory,   in   Cali- 

June,  1876  fornia,  and  the  son,  Alvan  G.,   made  the 

Iron  diaphragm  first  used  by  Bell  40-inch  Yerkes  telescope  for  the  observa- 

June  30,  1876  tovy  of  the  University  of  Chicago,  erected 

Edison's  carbon,  loud-speaking  telephone  at  Williams  Bay,  Wis.     The  movable  part 

invented January,  1877  of   the   latter,   which   turns   on   the   polai 

Professor    Bell    exhibits    at    the    Essex  axis,    weighs    about     12     tons,     and     the 

Institute,     Salem,    Mass.,    his    telephone,  clock    weighs    IV2    tons.     The    refracting 

using    a    powerful    horseshoe    magnet,    by  telescopes    of    the    Naval    Observatory,    at 

which    a    short    speech,    shouted    into    a  Washington,    33    feet    long,    and    at    the 

similar    telephone    in    Boston,     16    miles  Leander     McCormick     Observatory,     Uni- 

distant,    is    distinctly   audible   to    an    au-  versity  of  Virginia,  both  made  by  Alvan 

dience  of  600   persons  in  Salem  Clark   &   Sons,   have   a    26-inch   aperture. 

Feb.  12,  1877  The    largest    reflecting    telescope    in    the 

First-known  telephone  line  connects  the  United   States   is   at  Harvard  University, 

office  of  Charles  Williams,  electrician,  in  28-inch   mirror.     Other  notable  telescopes 

Boston,  and  his  house  in  Somerville  are   at   Princeton   University    (Clark,    23- 

April,  1877  inch)  ;  Rochester,  N.  Y.   (Clark,  16-inch)  ; 

First  telephone  exchange  established  in  Madison,    Wis.    (Clark,    15.5-inch)  ;    Dud- 
Boston,    Mass 1877  ley,    at   Albany,    N.    Y.     (Fitz,    13-inch)  ; 

One    form    of    microphone    invented    by  University  of  Michigan   (Fitz,  12.5-inch)  ; 

Edison April  1,  1877  and    Middletown    University    (Clark,    12- 

Experiments    begun    in    Brown    Univer-  inch), 
sity  by  Prof.   Eli   W.   Blake,   Prof.   John        Telfair,  Edward,  patriot;  born  in  Scot- 
Pierce,    and    others,    result    in    the    con-  land  in  1735;  came  to  America  in  1758  as 
struction    by    Dr.    William    F.    Channing  agent  for  a  mercantile  house;  resided  first 
of  the   first   portable   telephone  in  Virginia,  then  in  North  Carolina,  and 

April,  1877  finally  settled  as  a  merchant  in  Savannah 

Handle  telephone,  now  generally  in  use,  in   1766.     An  active  patriot  there,  he  was 

made    by    Dr.    Channing    and    Edson    S.  on  the  revolutionary  committees,  and  was 

Jones,  at  Providence,  R.  I May,   1877  one  of  a  party  which  broke  open  the  maga- 

Glass-plate  telephone  invented  by  Hen-  zine   at   Savannah   and  removed   the  gun- 

ry  W.  Vaughan,  State  assayer.  Providence,  powder  in  1775.     He  served  in  the  Conti- 

R-   I June,    1877  nental  Congress  in   1778,   1780-83,  and  in 

Bell  telephone  patent  expires  1786    and    1790-93    he    was    governor    of 

March  7,  1893  Georgia.    He  died  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  Sept. 

Telephone  company  in  opposition  to  the  17^  1807, 
American  Bell  Telephone  Company  organ-        Teller,   Henrt  Moore,  legislator;   born 

^ze<l 1901  in   Granger.   N.    Y.,   May   23,    1830 ;    edu- 

fitatistics:  Miles  of  wire,  2,983,719;  cated  at  Alfred  University,  N.  Y.;  ad- 
circuits,  798,901;  stations,  1,525,167;  in-  mitted  to  the  bar  in  1858;  settled  in 
struments  in  use  under  lease,  3.779,517;  Colorado  in  1861;  major-general  of  the 
average  daily  connections  of  exchanges,  Colorado  militia  in  1862-64;  United 
9,876,402;  capital  of  American  Bell  Tele-  States  Senator  in  1876-82;  Secretary  of 
phone  Company,  $154,179,300.  the  Interior  in  1882-85;  again  a  Demo- 
Report  of  Jan.  1,  1905  cratic  United   States  Senator  in   1885-91. 

Telescope.  Telescopes  were  first  con-  He  was  then  re-elected  to  the  Senate  as  a 
structed  in  the  Netherlands  about  1608.  Republican,  but  in  1896  withdrew  from  the 
In  1853  Alvan  Clark,  of  Cambridgeport,  National  Republican  Convention  on  ac- 
Mass.,  a  comparatively  unknown  portrait-  count  of  its  financial  policy;  and  was  re- 
painter,  after  having  experimented  from  turned  to  the  Senate  in  1897  as  an  in- 
1846  in  grinding  lenses,  succeeded  in  dependent  Silver  Republican, 
turning  out  a  glass  superior  to  any  made  Temperance,  Order  of  the  Sons 
elsewhere  in  the  world.  He  and  his  sons  of.  See  Sons  of  Temperance,  Order  op 
went  on  making  large  and  larger  instru-  the. 



Temperance     Reform.     Maurice,     the  lication  house,  with  headquarters  at  New 

landgrave  of  Hesse,   founded  an  order  of    York,    organized 18G5 

temperance,    Dec.    25,    1600;    a    total-ab-  National    Prohibition    party    organized 

stinence  society  existed  at  Skibbereen,  Ire-    at  Chicago,   111 Sept.    1-2,    1869 

land,    in    1817;    the    Sober    Society    was  National    Prohibition    party    nominates 

formed  at  Allentown,  N.  J.,  in  1805,  and  James    Black     (Pa.)     for    President    and 

this    was    followed    by    temperance    socie-  John  Russell    (Mich.)    for  Vice-President, 

ties   organized,   one   at  Moreau,   Saratoga  who   receive   5,608   popular   votes.  ...  1872 

CO.,    N.    Y.,    April    30,    1808;    another    at  Blue-ribbon   movement   begun   by   Fran- 

Greenfleld,  N.  Y.,  in  1809;  and  another  at    cis    Murphy,    of   Maine 1873 

Hector,  N.  Y.,  April  3,  1818.     The  Massa-  Woman's  temperance  crusade  begins  in 

chusetts   Society    for   the    Suppression    of    Ilillsboro,  O December,  1873 

Intemperance  was  instituted  at  Boston,  National  Woman's  Christian  Temper- 
Feb.  5,  1813;  but  temperance  reform  as  an  ance  Union  organized ..  Nov.  18-20,  1874 
organized  movement  began  Feb.  13,  1826,  Women's  international  temperance  con- 
when  the  American  Society  for  the  Pro-  gress  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.. June  12,  1876 
motion   of   Temperance   was   organized   at  International    temperance    congress    in 

the    Park    Street    Church,    Boston,    Mass.    Philadelphia,  Pa June  13-14,  1876 

Drs.  Justin  Edwards,  Woods,  Jenks,  and  Department     of     scientific     temperance 

Wayland,   and  Messrs.   John   Tappan   and  in    public    schools    created    in    connection 

S.  V.  S.  Wilder  were  prominent  in  it.  with   the   Women's   Christian  Temperance 

The  following  is  the  chronology  of  the   Union   1880 

chief  events  in  the  temperance  movement  World's    Christian    Temperance    Union 

in  America:  organized   by   Frances   E.   Willard.  .  .  1883 

First    women's    temperance    society    or-  John  B.  Gough  dies  in  Philadelphia 

ganized  in  Ohio,  close  of 1828  Feb.  17,  1886 

New  York  State  and  Connecticut  State  Law    for    compulsory    temperance    edu- 
temperance   societies   organized 1829  cation   in   public   schools   passed   by   Con- 
Congressional  Temperance  Society  organ-  gress    for    District   of    Columbia    and   the 
ized  at  Washington,  D.  C Feb.  26,  1833    Territories May    17,    1886 

First    national    temperance    convention  Frances    E.    Willard,    president    of    the 

meets  at  Philadelphia;  440  delegates  from  Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union,  and 

twenty-two   States May   24-27,    1833  founder    of    the    World's    Christian    Tem- 

Order  of  Sons  of  Temperance  organized  perance  Union,  dies  in  New  York  City 

in   New   York Sept.    29,    1842  Feb.  18,  1898 

John  B.  Gough  signs  the  pledge  at  Wor-  See   Presidential   Elections   for   Pro- 

cester,  Mass Oct.  31,  1842  hibition  candidates,  1880-1904. 

Father  Mathew  visits  the  United  States;  Tem.perance  Societies.    French  traders 

arriving  in  New  York  on  the  Ashburton ;  engaged  extensively  in  the  sale  of  intoxi- 

he  is  welcomed  at  the  Irving  House  as  the  eating  liquors  to   the  Indians  in  Canada, 

guest  of  the  city July  2,  1849  The  Jesuit  missionaries  opposed  the  traffic 

Maine  liquor  law  passed.. June  2,  1851  with  all  their  power,  as  it  was  not  only 

Order  of  Good  Templars  formed  in  New  injurious    to   the    Indians,   but   interfered 
York   State 1851  seriously  with  the  labors  of  the  mission- 
Father  Mathew  sails  from  Philadelphia  aries.      The   wealthy   traders   managed   to 
on    the   Pacific   for    Ireland   after    an    ex-  interest  the  governor-general  in  their  be- 
tended  tour  throughout  the  United  States  half,  also  the  King's  counsel,  on  the  pre- 

Nov.   8,    1851  text    that    the    traffic    was    necessary    to 

John  B.  Gough  makes  a  two  years'  tour  secure   the  good-will   of   the   Indians.      It 

of  England,  delivering  his  first  address  in  wag  asserted  that  the  evils  of  it  were  im- 

Exeter    Hall,    London Aug.    2,    1853  aginary  or  much  exaggerated.     For  once, 

World's  temperance  convention  in  Met-  however,     philanthropy     triumphed     over 

ropolitan    Hall,   N.   Y...Sept.    6-10,    1853  sordid    interest.       The    Bishop    of    Quebec 

Spirit  rations  in  the  navy  of  the  United  went  to  France  in   1678,   and   obtained   a 

States   abolished   after Sept   1,    1862  royal  decree  prohibiting  the  traffic  upder 

National  Temperance  Society  and  pub-  heavy  penalties. 



The  first  modern  temperance  society  was 
formed  in  17S9  by  200  farmers  of  Litch- 
field county,  Conn.,  who  agreed  not  to  use 
*•  any  distilled  liquor  in  doing  their  farm- 
work  the  ensuing  season."  Organized 
societies  of  a  similar  kind  began  to  be 
formed  in  1811,  and  in  1826  the  first  pub- 
lic temperance  society  was  organized  in 
the  United  States.  The  total  abstinence 
principle  was  not  adopted  until  1836,  when 
a  national  convention  held  at  Saratoga, 
N.  Y.,  took  that  higher  stand.  The  Wash- 
ingtonian  Society,  the  first  formed  on 
total-abstinence  principles,  was  organized 
in  Baltimore  in  1840  by  six  men  of  intem- 
perate habits  who  signed  a  pledge  to 
totally  abstain  from  intoxicating  drinks. 
At  the  first  anniversary  of  the  society 
1,000  reformed  drunkards  walked  in  pro- 

Temple,  Oliver  Perry,  la^vyer;  born  in 
Green  county,  Tenn.,  Jan.  27,  1820;  grad- 
uated at  Washington  College,  Tennessee, 
in  1844,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 

1846.  He  delivered  the  first  speech  for  the 
Union  made  in  Tennessee  after  the  first 
election  of  Abraham  Lincoln;  was  chan- 
cellor of  Tennessee  in  1866-78;  retired 
from  the  practice  of  law  in  1881;  was 
postmaster  in  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  in  1881- 
85.  He  is  the  author  of  The  Covenanter, 
the  Cavalier,  and  the  Puritan;  and  East 
Tennessee  and  the  Civil  War. 

Ten  Broeck,  Abraham,  military  officer; 
born  in  Albany,  N.  Y.,  May  13,  1734; 
became  a  merchant  in  1753;  member  of 
the  Provincial  Congress  in  1775;  and 
chairman  of  the  convention  that  inaugu- 
rated the  State  government  in  1776. 
Soon  after  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution- 
ary War  he  was  appointed  colonel  of 
militia ;  was  made  brigadier-general  in 
1778,  and  commanded  the  forces  in  Ulster 
and  Dutchess  counties,  and  a  brigade  in 
the  action  at  Bemis's  Heights  in  October, 
1777.  He  was  mayor  of  Albany  in  1779- 
83.  He  died  in  Albany,  N,  Y.,  Jan.  10, 


Tennessee,  State  of,  was  originally  a  and  over  intervening  ridges  to  the  Clinch 
part  of  North  Carolina,  and  was  claimed  and  one  or  two  other  streams,  while  others 
as  a  hunting-ground  by  the  Chickasaws,  penetrated  Powell  Valley  and  began  a  set- 
Choctaws,  Shawnees,  and  even  by  the  Six  tlement  in  the  southwest  corner  of  Vir- 
Nations.  No  tribe  made  it  a  fixed  habita- 
tion excepting  the  Cherokees,  who  dwelt 
in  the  extreme  southeast  part.  Earl  Lou- 
don, governor  of  Virginia,  sent  Andrew 
Lewis  thither  in  1756  to  plant  a  settle- 
ment, and  he  built  Fort  Loudon,  on  the 
Tennessee  Piiver,  about  30  miles  from  the 
site  of  Knoxville.  It  was  besieged  by 
Indians  in  1760  and  captured,  the  inmates 
being  murdered'  or  reduced  to  captivity. 
Armed  men  from  Virginia  and  North  Caro- 
lina retook  the  fort  in  1761,  and  com- 
pelled the  Indians  to  sue  for  peace. 

Immigrants  from  North  Carolina,  led 
by  James  Robinson,  settled  on  the  Watau- 
ga River,  one  of  the  head  streams  of  the 
Tennessee,  in  1768.  It  was  on  lands  of 
the  Cherokees,  from  whom  the  settlers  ob- 
tained an  eight-year  lease  in  1771.  They 
there  organized  themselves  into  a  body 
politic,  and  adopted  a  code  of  laws  signed 
by  each  adult  individual  of  the  colony. 
Others  soon  joined  them  and  extended  set- 


ginia.  These  early  settlers  were  known  as 
the  "Watauga  Association"  from  1709  to 

The    territory    was    represented    in    the 

tlements  down  the  valley  of  the  Holston,    North  Carolina  legislature  as  the  District 



of    Washington.     In    1785    the    State    of   would  have  been  impolitic  and  hazardous 
TKANKLANn     (q.    V.)    was    organized,    but    to  undertake  by  open  force.     They  went 
was     reunited    with    North    Carolina    in    mounted,  and  leading  a  mare  of  Sevier's 
1788,    and    the    next    year 
that   State   ceded   the  terri- 
tory   to    the    national    gov- 

John  Sevier  {q.  v.), 
first  governor  of  Frankland, 
stands  out  as  one  of  the 
most  i^rominent  and  pict- 
uresque figures  in  the  early 
and  formative  history  of 
Tennessee.  He  was  called 
"  the  greatest  of  Indian 
fighters,"  having  fought 
against  the  savage  Creeks, 
Choctaws,  and  Cherokees — • 
the  bravest,  most  warlike, 
and  most  blood-thirsty  of 
all  the  native  tribes  east 
of  the  Mississippi.  The  set- 
tlers were  constantly  men- 
aced by  them,  and  noth- 
ing had  saved  the  stout- 
hearted pioneers  from  total 
extermination  except  their 
rude  log  forts  and  the  sleep- 
less and  untiring  vigilance 
of  such  men  as  Sevier,  whose 
sterling  honesty,  captivat- 
ing manners,  and  generous 
public  spirit,  great  personal 
bravery,  and  high  soldierly 
qualities  had  won  for  him 
the  admiration  and  affection 

of  every  man,  woman,  and  child  through-    which   was   known   as   the   swiftest-footed 
out  the  wide  expanse  of  the  territory.  animal    in    the    territory.      The    rescuers 

An  incident  which  well  serves  to  illus-  halted  on  the  outskirts  of  Morganton,  and, 
trate  their  devotion  to  him,  as  well  as  concealing  their  horses  in  a  clump  of  un- 
a  typical  phase  of  the  arduous  life  of  those  derbrush,  left  them  there  in  charge  of  the 
times,  is  recorded  in  the  story  of  the  trial  young  Seviers.  Then  Cosby  and  Evans, 
of  Sevier  by  the  State  authorities  of  North  disguised  as  countrymen,  entered  the  town. 
Carolina,  for  high  treason  and  outlawry.  When  they  arrived  at  the  court-house, 
and  his  ingenious  and  dramatic  rescue  by  Evans  dismounted,  and,  throwing  the  bridle 
a  party  headed  by  one  of  his  lieutenants,  loosely  over  the  neck  of  the  animal,  stood 
James  Cosby.  The  trial  was  in  progress  with  her  directly  before  the  open  door 
at  Morganton,  and  many  thousands  had  and  in  plain  view  of  the  interior  of  the 
come  together  to  witness  what  was  deemed  building.  Then  Cosby  entered  the  court- 
by  them  the  most  important  political  room,  and,  elbowing  his  way  up  the  crowd- 
event  that  had  occurred  since  the  proc-  ed  aisle,  halted  directly  in  front  of  the 
lamation  of  peace  with  Great  Britain,  judge's  bench,  and  only  a  few  feet  from 
With  three  others — Major  Evans,  and  where  his  beloved  leader  stood  encompass- 
James  and  John  Sevier,  the  two  sons  of  ed  by  the  court  officials.  Catching  his 
the  general — Cosby  proposed  to  go  to  the  eye,  Cosby,  by  a  significant  gesture,  di- 
rescue,    to    effect    by    stratagem    what    it    rected  Sevier's  attention  to  his  horse,  that 





r    INDIANS. 

stood  impatiently  pawing  the  ground  at 
the  door.  At  one  glance,  the  quick  eye  of 
Sevier  took  in  the  situation.  Seeing  that 
he  was  understood,  Cosby  pressed  closer 
to  the  bench,  and  in  quick,  energetic  tones 
said  to  the  judge:  "Are  you  not  about 
done  with  that  man  ?"  The  question,  and 
the  tone  and  manner  of  the  speaker,  drew 

all  eyes  upon  him  in  amazement.  For  a 
few  moments — as  Cosby  had  intended — all 
was  confusion.  Taking  instant  advantage 
of  this,  Sevier  sprang  from  among  the  offi- 
cers, and,  the  crowd  parting  to  the  right 
and  left,  with  two  bounds  he  was  upon  the 
back  of  his  horse  and  in  two  hours  far 
away  in  the  mountains.     He  was  followed 



by  the  cheers  of  the  crowd,  and  by  a  posse 
of  State  officials,  but  the  mare  outstripped 
them  and  bore  her  brave  rider  in  safety 
to  his  home  on  the  Nolichucky.  As  the 
news  of  Sevier's  escape  flew  from  hamlet 
to  hamlet,  the  whole  territory  broke  out 
into  a  blaze  of  bonfires  and  illuminations, 
and  soon  the  people  elected  him — branded 
rebel  and  outlaw  as  he  was — to  the  Senate 
of  North  Carolina,  and  within  twelve 
months  Washington  gave  him  the  rank  of 
general,  with  the  supreme  military  com- 
mand of  the  district  now  comprised  in 
east  Tennessee. 

In  1790  it  was  organized,  together  with 
Kentucky,  as  "  The  Territory  South  of  the 
Ohio."  A  distinct  territorial  government 
was  granted  to  Tennessee  in  1794,  and  in 
1796  (June  1)  it  entered  the  Union  as  a 
State.    The  constitution  then  framed  was 

amended  in  1835,  and  again  in  1853.  The 
seat  of  government  was  migratory,  having 
been  at  Knoxville,  Kingston,  Nashville, 
and  Murfreesboro  until  1826,  when  it  was 
permanently  fixed  at  Nashville.  Tennes- 
see took  an  active  part  in  the  War  of 
1812-15,  especially  in  the  operations  in 
the  Gulf  region. 

Tidings  of  the  declaration  of  war 
reached  Andrew  Jackson  at  the  Hermit- 
age, near  Nashville,  a  week  after  that 
event,  and  on  the  same  day  (June  26)  he 
authorized  Governor  Blount  to  tender  to 
the  President  of  the  United  States  the 
services  of  himself  and  2,500  men  of  his 
division  (he  was  a  major-general  of  Ten- 
nessee militia)  as  volunteers  for  the  war. 
Madison  received  Jackson's  generous  offer 
with  gratitude,  and  accepted  it  "  with 
peculiar  satisfaction."     The  Secretary  of 




War  wrote  (July  11)  a  cordial  letter  of 
acceptance  to  Governor  Blount,  and  that 
official  publicly  thanked  Jackson  and  his 
volunteers  for  the  honor  they  had  done  the 
State  of  Tennessee  by  their  patriotic  move- 
ment. Everything  seemed  so  quiet  below 
the  Tennessee  Eiver  that  it  was  past  mid- 
autumn  before  the  Tennessee  volunteers 
were  called  upon.  On  Oct.  21  Governor 
Blount  was  asked  for  1,500  volunteers  to 
be  sent  to  New  Orleans  to  reinforce  Wil- 
kinson, and  he  made  a  requisition  upon 
Jackson  for  that  number.  The  latter  im- 
mediately entered  upon  that  military 
career  which  rendered  his  name  famous. 
On  Dec.  10,  when  the  weather  in  Tennessee 
was  intensely  cold  and  deep  snow  lay  upon 
the  ground,  about  2,000  troops  assembled 
at  Nashville,  bearing  clothes  for  both  cold 
and  warm  weather.  When  organized,  these 
consisted  of  two  regiments  of  infantry  of 
700  men  each,  commanded  respectively  by 
Cols.  William  Hall  and  Thomas  H.  Benton, 
and  a  corps  of  cavalry,  670  in  number, 
under  the  command  of  Col.  John  Coffee. 
These  troops  were  composed  of  the  best 
physical  and  social  materials  of  the  State. 
On  Jan  7,  1813,  the  little  army  went 
down  the  Cumberland  River  in  boats, 
excepting  the  mounted  men,  whom  Coffee 
led  across  the  country  to  join  the  others 
at  Natchez,  on  the  Mississippi.  In  a  letter 
to  the  Secretary  of  War,  General  Jack- 
son, alluding  to  the  conduct  of  some  Penn- 
sylvania and  New  York  troops  on  the 
Niagara  frontier  who  had  constitutional 
objections  to  going  into  a  foreign  country 
by  invading  Canada,  said:  "I  am  now 
at  the  head  of  2,070  volunteers — the 
choicest  of  our  citizens — who  go  at  the 
call  of  their  country  to  execute  the  will 
of  the  government,  '  who  have  no  constitu- 
tional scruples,'  and,  if  the  government 
orders,  will  rejoice  at  the  opportunity  of 
placing  the  American  eagle  on  the  ram- 
parts of  Mobile,  Pensacola,  and  Fort 
Augustine,  effectually  banishing  from  the 
Southern  coasts  all  British  influence." 
Jackson  was  then  forty-six  years  of  age. 
The  troops,  after  many  hardships,  reach- 
ed Natchez  and  disembarked,  when  they 
met  an  order  from  Wilkinson  to  halt  there 
and  await  further  orders,  as  he  had  no 
instructions  concerning  their  employment; 
nor  had  he  quarters  for  their  accom- 
modation.     There   Jackson    and   his   men 

waited  until  March  1,  when  he  wrote  to 
the  Secretary  of  War,  saying  he  saw  little 
chance  for  the  employment  of  his  small 
army  in  the  South,  and  suggested  that 
they  might  be  used  in  the  North. 

Day  after  day  he  waited  anxiously  for 
an  answer.  At  length  one  came  from  John 
Armstrong,  the  new  Secretary  of  War,  who 
wrote  simply  that  the  causes  of  calling 
out  the  Tennessee  volunteers  to  march  to 
New  Orleans  had  ceased  to  exist,  and  that 
on  the  receipt  of  that  letter  they  would 
be  dismissed  from  public  service.  He  was 
directed  to  turn  over  to  General  Wilkin- 
son all  public  property  that  may  have  been 
put  into  his  hands.  The  letter  conclud- 
ed with  the  tender  of  cold  and  formal 
thanks  of  the  President  to  Jackson  and 
his  troops.  The  hero's  anger  was  fiercely 
kindled  because  of  this  cruel  letter,  which 
dismissed  his  army  500  miles  from  their 
homes,  without  pay,  without  sufficient 
clothing,  without  provisions,  or  means  of 
transportation  through  a  wilderness  in 
which  Indians  only  roamed.  He  wrote 
fiery  letters  to  the  President,  Secretary  of 
War,  and  Governor  Blount,  and  took  the 
responsibility  of  disobeying  his  orders  and 
taking  the  troops  back  to  Nashville  before 
he  would  dismiss  them.  Tlie  Secretary  apol- 
ogized, saying  he  did  not  know  that  Jack- 
son had  moved  far  from  Nashville  when 
he  wrote  the  letter.  Late  in  March  he  be- 
gan his  homeward  movement.  It  was  full 
of  peril  and  fatigue,  and  it  took  a  month 
to  accomplish  it,  moving  18  miles  a  day. 
The  general  shared  the  privations  of  his 
soldiers,  who  admired  his  wonderful  en- 
durance. They  said  he  was  as  "  tough 
as  hickory,"  and  he  received  the  nick- 
name, which  he  bore  through  life,  of 
"  Old  Hickory."  Drawn  up  in  the  public 
square  at  Nashville,  the  Tennessee  volun- 
teers were  presented  with  an  elegant  stand 
of  colors  from  the  ladies  of  Knoxville, 
and  were  there  disbanded,  May  22,  1813. 

The  people  of  Tennessee — the  daughter 
of  North  Carolina — like  those  of  the  par- 
ent State,  loved  the  Union  supremely; 
but  their  governor,  Isham  G.  Harris 
(q.  v.),  had  been  for  months  in  con- 
fidential correspondence  with  the  Confed- 
erates in  the  Gulf  States  and  in  South 
Carolina  and  Virginia.  To  further  this 
cause  he  labored  incessantly  to  brin!» 
about  the  secession  of  Tennessee.  He  call- 


'ed  a  special  session  of  the  legislature  at 
Nashville,  Jan.  7,  1861,  and  in  his  mes- 
sage he  recited  a  long  list  of  so-called 
grievances  which  the  people  of  the  State 
had  suffered  under  the  rule  of  the  na- 
tional government.  He  appealed  to  their 
passions  and  prejudices,  and  recommended 
amendments  to  the  national  Constitution 
favorable  to  the  perpetuation  and  protec- 
tion of  the  slave  system.  The  legislature 
provided  for  a  convention,  but  decreed 
that  when  the  people  should  elect  the  dele- 
gates thev  should  vote  for  "  Convention  " 

to  meet  on  April  25,  1861,  and  in  a  mes- 
sage to  them  he  strongly  urged  the  imme- 
diate secession  of  the  State.  He  urged  that 
there  was  no  propriety  in  wasting  time  in 
submitting  the  question  to  the  people,  for 
a  revolution  was  imminent.  A  few  days 
afterwards  Henry  W.  Hilliard,  a  com- 
missioner of  the  Confederate  States  of 
America,  clothed  with  authority  to 
negotiate  a  treaty  of  alliance  with  Ten- 
nessee, appeared  (April  30)  and  was  al- 
lowed to  address  the  legislature.  He  ex- 
pressed  his   belief   that   there   was   not   a 


or  "  No  convention " ;  also,  that  any 
ordinance  adopted  by  the  convention  con- 
cerning "  Federal  relations  "  should  not 
be  valid  until  submitted  to  the  people  for 
ratification  or  rejection.  The  election  was 
held  Feb.  9,  1861,  and  the  Union  candi- 
dates were  elected  by  an  aggregate 
majority  of  about  65,000 ;  and,  by  a 
majority  of  nearly  12,000,  decided  not  to 
have  a  convention.  The  loyal  people  were 
gratified,  and  believed  the  secession  move- 
ments in  the  State  would  cease. 

true-hearted  man  in  the  South  who  would 
not  spurn  submission  to  the  "  Abolition 
North,"  and  considered  the  system  of  gov- 
ernment founded  on  slavery  which  had 
just  been  established  as  the  only  form  of 
government  that  could  be  maintained  in 
America.  The  legislature,  in  which  was  a 
majority  of  Confederate  sympathizers,  au- 
thorized (May  1)  the  governor  to  enter 
into  a  military  league  with  the  Confed- 
erate States,  by  which  the  whole  military 
rule  of  the  commonwealth  was  to  be  sub- 

Governor  Harris  called  the  legislature    jected  to  the  will  of  Jefferson  Davis.     It 



.,...,..............,-.,.^  and  Washington  Bar- 
row, commissioners 
for  the  purpose.  They 
negotiated  a  treaty 
with  the  agent  of  the 
Confederate  States, 
Henry  W.  Hilliard, 
and  on  the  7th  a  copy 
of  the  treaty  was  sub- 
mitted to  the  legislat- 
ure. By  the  treaty  the 
authorities  of  Tennes- 
see were  to  "turn 
over "  to  the  Confed- 
erate States  "  all  the 
public  property,  naval 
stores,  and  munitions 
of  war  of  which  she 
might  then  be  in  pos- 
session, acquired  from 
the  United  States,  on 
the  same  terms  and  in 
the  same  manner  as 
the  other  States  of  the 
Confederacy."  Already 
Governor  Harris  had 
ordered  (April  29, 
1861)  the  seizure  of 
Tennessee  bonds  to  the 
amount  of  $66,000  and 
$5,000  in  cash  belong- 
ing to  the  United 
States  in  the  hands  of 
was  done  on  May  7.  The  eighteen  mem-  the  collector  at  Nashville.  At  about  that 
bers  from  East  Tennessee  (which  section  time  Jefferson  Davis,  disgusted  with  the 
remained  loyal)  did  not  vote.  timidity    of    Governor    Magoffin,    of    Ken- 

The  legislature  passed  an  act  to  sub-  tucky,  recommended  the  Kentuckians 
mit  to  a  vote  of  the  people  of  Tennessee  "  true  to  the  South  "  to  go  into  Tennessee 
a  declaration  of  independence  and  an  ordi-  and  there  "  rally  and  organize." 
nance  of  secession;  also  an  ordinance  for  East  Tennessee,  where  loyalty  to  the 
the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  the  Union  was  strongly  predominant,  was  kept 
Confederate  States  of  America.  The  gov-  in  submission  to  the  Confederacy  by  the 
ernor  was  empowered  to  raise  50,000  strong  arm  of  military  power.  The  peo- 
volunteers  "  for  the  defence  of  the  State,"  pie  longed  for  deliverance,  which  seemed 
and,  if  necessary,  to  call  out  the  whole  near  at  hand  when,  in  January,  1862.  the 
available  military  strength  of  the  common-  energetic  General  Mitchel  made  an  effort 
weath,  to  be  under  the  absolute  immediate  to  seize  Chattanooga.  His  force  was  too 
control  of  the  governor.  He  was  also  au-  small  to  effect  it,  for  E.  Kirby  Smith  was 
thorized  to  issue  bonds  of  the  State  for  watching  that  region  with  a  strong  Con- 
$5,000,000,  to  bear  an  annual  interest  of  federate  force.  Mitchel  asked  Buell  for 
8  per  cent.  reinforcements,   but  was   denied.     Finally 

Pursuant  to  the  act  of  the  legislature  General  Neglcy,  after  a  successful  attack 
authorizing  the  governor  to  take  meas-  upon  Confederates  near  Jasper,  having 
ures  to  annex  that  State  to  the  Con-  made  his  way  over  the  rugged  ranges  of 
federacy,  the  governor  appointed  Gus-  the  Cumberland  Mountains,  suddenly  ap- 
taruB  A.  Henry,  Archibald  0.  W.  Totten,    peared    opposite    Chattanooga    (June    7). 




Towards  evening  he  had  heavy  guns  in 
position,  and  for  two  hours  he  can- 
nonaded the  town  and  the  Confederate 
works  near.  The  inhabitants  and  Con- 
federates fled  from  the  town.  With  a  few 
more  regiments  Negley  might  have  capt- 
ured and  held  the  place,  and  Mitchel  could 
have  marched  into  east  Tennessee.  But 
Buell  would  not  allow  it.  The  Confederates 
had  already  evacuated  Cumberland  Gap 
voluntarily,  and  the  inhabitants  of  east 
Tennessee  were  jubilant  with  hope  of  de- 
liverance. But  they  were  again  disap- 
pointed and  compelled  to  wait.  The  cau- 
tious Buell  and  the  fiery  Mitchel  did  not 
work  well  together,  and  the  latter  was 
soon  assigned  to  the  command  of  the  De- 
partment of  the  South. 

In  August,  1863,  General  Burnside  was 
assigned  to  the  command  of  the  Army  of 
the  Ohio,  and  was  ordered  to  take  active 
co-operation  with  the  Army  of  the  Cum- 
berland. He  had  gathered  20,000  men 
near  Richmond,  Ky.,  well  disciplined  and 
equipped.  They  left  camp  Aug.  21,  climb- 
ed over  the  Cumberland  Mountains,  and 

entered  the  magnificent  valley  of  east 
Tennessee,  their  baggage  and  stores  car- 
ried, in  many  places,  by  pack-mules.  On 
his  entering  the  valley  20,000  Confed- 
erates, commanded  by  Gen.  Simon  B. 
BucKNER  (q.  v),  fled  to  Georgia  and 
joined  Bragg.  General  Burnside  had  been 
joined  by  General  HartsufT  and  his  com- 
mand. Their  numbers  were  swelled  by 
junction  with  other  troops.  At  the  mouth 
of  the  Clinch  River  they  first  had  com- 
munication with  Colonel  Minty's  cavalry, 
on  Rosecrans's  extreme  left.  At  Loudon 
bridge  General  Shackelford  had  a  skir- 
mish with  Confederates,  and  drove  them 
across  the  stream,  they  burning  the 
magnificent  structure,  2,000  feet  long. 
Early  in  September  a  force  of  Confeder- 
ates, under  General  Frazer,  holding  Cum- 
berland Gap,  surrendered  to  the  Nationals, 
and  the  great  valley  between  the  Cumber- 
land and  Alleghany  Mountains  (of  which 
Knoxville  was  the  metropolis),  extending 
from  Cleveland  to  Bristol,  seemed  to 
be  permanently  rid  of  armed  Confeder- 
ates.   The  loyal  inhabitants  of  that  region 

burmsidb's  army  at  cumbekland  gap. 



received    the    National    troops   with    open  garrison    of    600    men    under    Col.    A.    C. 

arms.  Harding,  assisted  by  gunboats.    There  was 

After  the  battle  of  Stone  River,  or  Mur-  a   severe  engagement    (Feb.   3),  and   at   8 

freesboro,    the    armies    of    Rosecrans    and  p.m.  the  Confederates  fled  with  a  loss  of 

Bragg    lay    confronting    each    other,    the  nearly    600    men.      Harding    lost    156,    of 

former  at  the  scene  of  the  battle  and  the  whom  fifty  were  made  prisoners.    Late  in 

latter    below    the    Duck    River.      Bragg's  January,   Gen.   J.   C.   Davis   swept  over   a 

main  base  of  supplies  was  at  Chattanooga,  considerable   space   in   thirteen   days,   and 

In  that  relative  position   the   two  armies  captured    141    of    Wheeler's    men.      Later, 

continued  from  January  until  June,  1863.  Gen.  Earl  Van  Dorn,  with  a  large  mounted 

Meanwhile  detached  parties  were  very  ac-  force,  was  hovering  near  Franklin,  below 

tive  in  various  parts  of  Tennessee.    At  the  Nashville.    Sheridan,  at  Murfreesboro,  and 

beginning    of    February    (1863),    General  Colonel    Colburn,    at    Franklin,    marched 

Wheeler,   Bragg's   chief  of  artillery,   with  simultaneously    to    confront    him.       Van 

4,.500   mounted   men,   with    Brigadier-Gen-  Dorn  was  accompanied   by   Forrest.     Col- 

erals  Forrest  and  Wharton,  attempted  to  burn,  with  2,700  men,  moved  against  Van 

recapture  Fort  Donelson.    The  chief  object  Dorn  at  Spring  Hill,  but  failed   to   form 

of  the  Confederates  there  was  to  interrupt  a  junction  with  Sheridan.     After  a  sharp 

the  navigation  of  the  Cumberland   River,  encounter    he    was    forced    to    surrender 

and    thus   interfere   with    the   transporta-  (March    5)    about    1,300   of   his   infantry, 

tion  of  supplies  for  Rosccrans's  army.  The  The  remainder,  with  the  cavalry,  escaped. 

Confederates   failed    in    their    project,    for  Sheridan,  with  about   1,800  cavalry,   skir- 

the   tort   was   well    defended    by    a    little  inishcd  in  several  places  with  the  Confed- 



crates,  and  finally  at  Thompson's  Station, 
after  a  sharp  engagement,  captured  some 
of  his  antagonists  and  drove  Van  Dorn 
beyond  the  Duck  Kiver.  He  returned  to 
IMurfrcesboro  with  nearly  100  prisoners, 
with  a  loss  of  ten  men  killed  and  wounded. 
On  March  IS,  Col.  A.  S.  Hall  with  1,400 
men  was  attacked  by  Morgan,  the  guerilla, 
and  2,000  men  at  Milton,  12  miles  from 
Alurfrcesboro.  With  the  aid  of  Harris's 
battery,  in  a  three  hours'  struggle  Hall 
repulsed  Morgan,  who  lost  300  or  400  men 
killed  and  wounded.  Early  in  April,  Gen. 
Gordon  Granger  was  in  command  at 
Franklin,  building  a  fort  near.  He  had 
about  5,000  troops.  Van  Dorn  attacked 
him  there  (April  10)  with  9,000  Confed- 
erates. The  latter  intended  if  successful 
to  push  on  and  seize  Nashville,  but  he  was 
repulsed  with  a  loss  of  about  300  men. 
Rosecrans   sent   Col.   Abdel  D.   Streight 

(q.  V.)  on  an  extensive  raid  in  Alabama 
and  Georgia  in  April  and  May,  which 
resulted  in  the  capture  of  the  leader  and 
his  men. 

Late  in  November,  1SG3,  General  Sher- 
man iq.  V.)  arrived  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Chattanooga.  It  was  imperative  tliat  he 
should  get  his  army  over  the  river  without 
being  discovered.  To  draw  the  attention 
of  the  Confederates  to  another  quarter. 
Hooker  was  ordered  to  engage  them  on  the 
northern  side  of  Lookout  Mountain.  His 
entire  force  consisted  of  approximately 
10,000  men.  The  main  Confederate  force 
was  encamped  in  a  hollow  half-way  up  the 
mountain,  the  summit  of  which  was  held 
by  several  brigades.  Hooker  began  the  at- 
tack on  the  morning  of  November  24. 
Geary,  supported  by  Cruft,  proceeded  to 
Wauhatchie,  crossing  Lookout  Creek  there, 
the  rest  of  the  troops  crossing  in  front  of 




the  Confederates  on  temporary  bridges. 
Geary  crossed  at  eight  o'clock,  and,  seizing 
a  picket-guard  of  forty  men,  extended  his 
line  to  the  base  of  the  mountain.  By 
eleven  o'clock  Hooker  was  striving  to  drive 
the  Confederates  from  the  mountain;  all 
his  guns  opened  at  once  upon  the  breast- 
works and  rifle-pits  along  the  steep  wood- 
ed acclivity,  and  Gross's  and  T.  J.  Wood's 
brigades,  sweeping  everything  before  them, 
captured  the  rifle-pits.  At  the  same  time 
the  troops  scaled  the  heights,  driving  the 
Confederates  from  the  hollow  to  a  plateau 
well  up  towards  the  crest  and  around 
towards  the  Chattanooga  Valley.  At  con- 
siderably past  noon  the  plateau  was  clear- 
ed, and  the  Confederates  were  retreating 
in  confusion  towards  the  Chattanooga  Val- 
ley. Hooker  established  his  line  on  the 
easterly  face  of  the  mountain;  so  that,  by 
an  enfilading  fire,  he  completely  command- 
ed the  Confederate  defences,  stretching 
across  the  valley  to  Missionary  Ridge. 
See  CuATTANooGA  Campaign,  The;  Look- 
out Mountain,  Battle  on;  Missionary 
Ridge,  Battle  of. 

General  Burnside,  with  the  Army  of 
the  Ohio,  had  occupied  Knoxville,  Sept. 
'23,  1863.  The  Confederate  General  Buck- 
ner,  upon  his  advance,  evacuated  east 
Tennessee  and  joined  Bragg  at  Chat- 
tanooga. Early  in  November,  General 
Livingstone,  with  16,000  men,  advanced 
against  Knoxville.  On  the  14th  he  cross- 
ed the  Tennessee.  Burnside  repulsed  him 
on  the  16th  at  Campbell's  Station,  thereby 
gaining  time  to  concentrate  his  army  in 
Knoxville.  Longstreet  advanced,  laid  siege 
to  the  town,  and  assaulted  it  twice  (Nov. 
18  and  29),  but  was  repulsed.  Meantime 
Grant  had  defeated  Bragg  at  Chattanooga, 
and  Sherman,  with  25,000  men,  was  on  the 
way  to  leave  Knoxville.  Livingstone,  com- 
pelled to  raise  the  siege,  therefore,  retired 
up  the  Holston  River,  but  did  not  en- 
tirely abandon  eastern  Tennessee  until  the 
next  spring,  when  he  again  joined  Lee  in 

On  Jan.  9,  1865,  a  State  convention  as- 
sembled at  Nashville  and  proposed  amend- 
ments to  the  constitution  abolishing 
slavery  and  prohibiting  the  legislative 
recognition  of  property  in  man.  The  mili- 
tary league  with  the  Confederacy,  the 
ordinance  of  secession,  and  .all  acts  of  the 
Confederate   States  government  were   an- 

nulled, and  the  payment  of  any  debts  con- 
tracted by  that  government  was  prohibited. 
These  proceedings  were  ratified  by  tha 
people,  and  William  G.  Brownlow 
iq.  V.)  was  chosen  governor.  In  April 
the  legislature  ratified  the  Thirteenth 
Amendment  to  the  national  Constitution, 
reorganized  the  State  government,  and 
elected  Senators  to  Congress.  The  Four- 
teenth Amendment  to  the  national  Con- 
stitution having  been  ratified  by  the  State 
in  1866,  it  was  soon  afterwards  admitted 
to  representation  in  Congress.  The  con- 
stitution of  the  State  was  revised  early 
in  1870.  Population  in  1890,  1,767,518;  in 
1900,  2,020,616.  See  United  States, 
Tennessee,  in  this  volume. 

William  Blount,  appointed  governor  of  the 
territory  southwest  of  the  Ohio Aug.  7, 1790 



John  Sevier assumes  ofiSce 

•  March  30 


Archibald  Roane 


.     Sept, 


John  Sevier ,, 



William  Blount 


Joseph  Mcllinn 




William  Carroll 




Samuel  Houston 




William  Carroll 




Newton  Cannon..... 




James  K.  Polk 


11  ' 


James  C.  Jones 




Aaron  V.  Brown 




Neil  S.  Brown 

II            ..... 



William  Trousdale... 




William  B.  CampbeU. 




Andrew  Johnson .... 




Isham  G.  Harris 


_          " 


Andrew  Johnson..., 

"           prov. 

March  12 


W.  G.  Brownlow.... 


.     April, 


DeWitt  C.  Senter.... 




John  C.  Brown 




James  f).  Porter,  Jr.. 




Albert  S.  Marks 




Alvin  Hawkins 




William  B.  Bate 

"                    .  •  .  .  . 



Robert  L.  Taylor. 




John  P.  Buchanan... 


.         " 


Peter  Turney 




H.  Clav  Evans 




Robert  L.  Taylor 




Renton  McMillin.... 




James  B.  Frazier. . . . 




M.  K.  Patterson 






No.  of  Congrress. 


William  Blount 

4th  to   5th 

4th  "    9th 


6th  to  14th 
9th  "  11th 
11th  "  12th 
12th  "  13th 
13th  "  14th 
14th  "  18th 
14th  "  15th 

1796   to   1797 

3796    "    1805 

Joseph  Anderson 

1797    "   1798 

It        .(       u 

Daniel  Smith 


Joseph  Anderson 

Daniel  Smith 

1799  to  1815 
1805    "   1809 

Jenkin  Whiteside 

George  W.  Campbell 

1809    "   1811 
1811    "   1814 
1814    "   1815 

John  Williams 

1815    '«  1823 

George  W.  Campbell 

1815    "  1818 





John  Henry  Eaton 

Andrew  Jackson 

Hugh  Lawson  White 

Felix  Grundy 

Ephraim  H.  Foster. 

Alexander  Anderson 

Felix  Grundy 

Alfred  0.  P.  Nicholson... 
Ephraim  H.  Foster. ....   . 

Spencer  Jarnagin 

Hopk  i  ns  L.  Turney 

John  Bell 

James  C.  Jones 

Andrew  Johnson. 

Alfred  O.  P.  Nicholson... 
37th  and  38th 

David  T.  Patterson 

Joseph  S.  Fowler 

William  6.  Brownlow. . . . 

Henry  Cooper 

Andrew  Johnson 

David  McKendree  Key. . . 

James  E.  Bailey 

Isham  G.  Harris 

Howell  E.  Jackson 

Washington  C,  Whitthorne 

William   B.  Bate 

Thomas  B.  Turley 

Edward  W.  Carmack 

James  B.  Frazier 

No.  of  Congress. 

15th  to  •21st 
18th  "  19th 
lS»th  "  2lMh 
21st  "  25th 
25th  "  26th 
26th  "  27th 

26th  to  28th 
28th  "  29th 
28th  "  30th 
29th  "  32d 
30th  "  36th 
32d  "  35th 
35th  "  38th 



1818  to  1829 



1840  "  1841 




a  terrapin.  Squibs,  epigrams,  caricatures, 
and  songs  were  levelled  against  the  acts. 
Newspapers  and  speakers  especially  con- 
demned the  "  land  embargo  " — the  cutting- 
oir  trade  with  Canada.  The  trade  so  sud- 
denly thrown  into  confusion  by  it  was 
represented  in  a.  caricature  by  a  bewil- 
dered   serpent   which    had    been    suddenly 

Congresses  vacant. 

39th  to  41st 
39th  "  42d 
41st  "  44th 
42d  "  45  Ih 

44th  to  47th 
45th  "  54th 
47th  "  49th 
49th  "  60th 
50th  "  .58th 
54th  "  57th 

57th  "  

59th  "  

1866  to  1869 
1866  "  1871 
1869  "  1875 
1871  "  1877 

1875  to  1877 
1877  "  1881 
1877  "  1897 
1881  "  1886 
1886  "  1888 
1888  "  1905 
1897  "  1901 

1901  "  

lilOo  "  

Tenure-of-office  Act.  Late  in  Febru- 
ary, 1867,  a  bill  was  passed  by  Congress 
limiting  the  powers  of  the  President  in 
removals  from  office.  It  took  from  the 
President  the  power  to  remove  members  of 
his  cabinet  excepting  by  permission  of  the 
Senate,  declaring  that  they  should  hold 
office  "  for  and  during  the  term  of  the 
President  by  whom  they  may  have  been 
appointed,  and  for  one  month  thereafter, 
subject  to  removal  by  and  with  the  consent 
of  the  Senate."  President  Johnson  vetoed 
this  bill  (March  2),  when  it  was  passed 
over  his  veto  and  became  a  law. 

Ternay,  Charles  Louis  D'Aesac, 
CiiEVAiJER  BE,  naval  officer;  boim  in  Ter- 
nay Castle,  near  Laudun,  France,  in  1722; 
entered  the  French  service  in  1738;  com- 
manded a  squadron  in  the  invasion  of 
Newfoundland  in  June,  1762;  resigned 
in  1772;  and  in  1779  was  governor  of 
Bourbon  and  the  adjacent  islands.  He 
arrived  at  Newport,  R.  I.,  as  commander 
of  the  fleet  that  brought  Iroops  to  Amer- 
ica under  Rochambeau,  July  10,  1780^ 
and  died  there,  Dec.  15,  1780. 

Terrapin  War.  The  opponents  of  the 
War  of  1812  denounced  the  embargo  acts 
in  unmeasured  terms  of  scorn  and  ridi- 
cule. They  called  the  conflict  a  "  Terrapin 
War  " — the  nation,  by  extinguishing  com- 
merce, drawing  within  its  own  shell  like 


stopped  in  its  movements  by  two  trees, 
marked,  respectively,  "  Embargo "  and 
"  Non-Importation  Act."  The  wondering 
snake  is  puzzled  to  know  what  has  hap- 
pened, and  the  head  cries  out,  "  What's 
the  matter,  tail?"  The  latter  answers, 
"  I  can't  get  out."  A  cock,  representing 
France,  stands  by,  crowing  joyfully.  In 
the  late  spring  and  early  summer  of  1812 
a  very  popular  song  was  sung  at  all  gath- 
erings of  the  Federalists.  The  following 
is  a  copy: 

"  Huzza  for  our  liberty,  boys, 

These  are  the  days  of  our  glory — ■ 
The  days  of  true  national  joys, 

When  terrapins  gallop  before  ye ! 
There's  Porter  and  Grundy  and  Rhea, 

In  Congress  who  manfully  vapor, 
Who  draw  their  six  dollars  a  day, 
And  fight  bloody  battles  on  paper  f 
Ah  !  this  is  true  Terrapin  war. 

"  roor  Madison  the  tremors  has  got, 
'Bout  this  same  arming  the  nation ; 
Too  far  to  retract,  he  cannot 

Go  on — and  he  loses  his  station. 
Then  bring  up  your  '  regulars,'  lads. 
In  '  attitude  '  nothing  ye  lack.  sirs. 
Ye'll  frighten  to  death  the  Danads, 
With  flre-eoals  blazing  aback,  sirs ! 
Oh,  this  is  true  Terrapin  war! 



"  As  to  powder  and  bullet  and  swords. 
For,  as  they  were  never  intended, 
They're  a  parcel  of  high-sounding  words. 

But  never  to  action  extended. 
Ye  must  frighten   the   rascals   away. 

In  'rapid  descent'  on  their  quarters; 
Then  the  plunder  divide  as  ye  may. 

And  drive  them  headlong  in  the  waters. 
Oh,  this  is  great  Terrapin  war !" 

Territories  of  the  TJnited  States.  All 
the  States  of  the  Eepiiblie  were  first 
organized  as  Territories,  excepting  the 
original  thirteen  States:  Texas,  received 
by  annexation :  California,  admitted  di- 
rect; and  West  Virginia,  formed  from 
a  part  of  Virginia.  There  were  in 


Date  of 

Are.a  in 
Square  Miles. 

in  1900. 







6!  740 


122  212 

New  Mexico 


398  331 

The  Territory  of  Alaska  had  been  par- 
tially organized;  the  Indian  Territory 
was  still  without  a  central  organization; 
and  the  District  of  Columbia  was  gov- 
erned by  commissioners  under  direct  legis- 
lation of  Congress.  Of  the  insular  pos- 
sessions, the  Philippines  were  given  civil 
government  in  1902;  Porto  Rico  in  1900; 
Hawaii  in  1900;  Guam,  Tutuila,  Wake, 
and  other  Pacific  islands  are  administered 
by  naval  officers. 

Terry,  Alfred  Howe,  military  officer; 
horn  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  Nov.  10,  1827; 
educated  at  Yale  College;  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1848,  and  practised  from  18.54  to 
1860.  He  entered  the  National  army  as 
colonel  of  the  2d  Connecticut  Volunteers; 
led  the  regiment  in  the  battle  of  Bull 
Eun,  retiring  in  good  order  when  defeat 
was  certain,  hurrying  up  the  rear  of  the 
retreat,  and  saving  a  large  amount  of 
government  property.  Returning  home 
and  raising  the  7th  Connecticut  Volim- 
teers,  he  was  attached  to  the  expedition 
to  the  coast  of  South  Carolina,  under  Gen. 
W.  T.  Sherman,  and  occupied  Hilton 
Head.  He  assisted  in  the  capture  of  Port 
Royal  and  Fort  Pulaski,  and  was  placed 
in  command  of  the  latter;  and  during  the 
summer  of  1862  ha^l  command  of  the  posts 
and  forts  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Florida, 
having  been  made  brigadier-general  of 
rolunteers  in  March.     He  led  a  division 


in  the  operations  against  Fort  Wagner, 
and  afterwards  in  the  Army  of  the  James, 
in  its  operations  against  Petersburg  and 
Richmond.  From  ]\Iay  to  December,  1864, 
he  commanded  the  10th  Corps;  and  in 
January,  1865,  aided  by  the  fleet  of  Porter, 
he  captured  Fort  Fisher.  For  this  act  he 
was  made  major-general  of  volunteers  and 
brigadier-general.  United  States  army.  He 
afterwards  captured  Wilmington,  N.  C, 
and  was  brevetted  major-general.  After 
the  surrender  of  Lee  he  was  in  command 
of  Richmond.  He  was  promoted  major- 
general  in  1886,  and  was  retired  in  1888. 
He  died  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  Dec.  16, 

Terry,  Silas  Wright,  naval  officer; 
born  in  Kentucky,  Dec.  28,  1842;  appoint- 
ed acting  midshipman  in  the  Naval  Acad- 
emy in  1858 ;  was  engaged  in  blockading 
service  on  the  Atlantic  coast  in  1861-63 ; 
in  the  Mississippi  squadron  and  on  the 
Red  River  expedition  in  1863-64;  and  was 
present  during  the  naval  operations  at 
forts  Fisher  and  Anderson,  at  the  capture 
of  Wilmington,  and  at  the  fall  of  Rich- 
mond. In  Januaiy,  1882,  while  in  com- 
mand of  the  Marion,  he  rescued  the  crew 
of  the  bark  Trinity,  which  had  been 
wrecked  on  Heard  Island,  in  the  Indian 
Ocean,  in  1880;  and  in  February,  while 
at  Cape  Town,  saved  the  English  ship 
Poonah  from  total  loss  by  hauling  her  off 
the  beach,  for  wiiich  he  received  the  thanks 
of  the  government  of  both  Cape  Colony 
and  Great  Britain.  He  was  assigned  to 
the  command  of  the  loica  in  1898;  de- 
tached in  September,  1899;  appointed 
to  the  command  of  the  na\'y-yard  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  March  24, "  1900,  and  pro- 
moted rear-admiral  on  the  27th  folloAving. 

Tesla,  Nicola,  electrician;  born  in 
Smiljan,  Croatia,  Austria-Hungary,  in 
1857;  graduated  at  the  Polytechnic  School 
in  Gratz;  later  studied  philosophy  and 
languages  at  Prague  and  Budapest;  came 
to  the  United  States  and  was  employed 
in  the  Edison  works ;  became  electrician 
of  the  Tesla  Electric  Light  Company,  and 
established  the  Tesla  Laboratory  in  New 
York  for  independent  electrical  research, 
lie  invented  the  rotary  magnetic  field 
embodied  in  the  apparatus  used  in  the 
transmission  of  power  from  Niagara  Falls; 
new  forms  of  dynamos,  transformers,  in- 
duction coils,  condensers,  arc  and  incan* 


descent  lamps,  and  the  oscillator  combin- 
ing steam-engine  and  dynamo,  etc. 

Test  Oath.     See  Oaths. 

Tetinchoua,  Miami  Indian  chief;  was 
met  by  the  French  traveller  Nicolas  Rer- 
rot,  at  Chicago,  in  1G71,  and  is  described 
by  him  as  a  great  chief,  having  had  con- 
trol of  abont  4,000  warriors.  He  was  con- 
stantly guarded  night  and  day  by  forty 
men,  and  scarcely  ever  had  any  personal 

communication  with  his  people,  but  issued 
orders  to  them  through  subordinates.  He 
was  unable  on  account  of  old  age  to  go 
to  the  mouth  of  Lake  Superior,  where  all 
th.e  country  bordering  on  the  lakes  was 
formally  claimed  by  the  French,  but  dele- 
gated the  Pottawattomies  to  act  for  him. 
It  is  said  that  Father  Claude  Dablon 
iq.  V.)  met  him  and  his  3,000  Miamis  in 
1G72,  but  made  no  converts. 


Texas,  State  of.  The  first  European 
settlement  made  in  Texas  was  by  La 
Salle,  in  1685,  by  accident.  In  1689  Cap- 
tain De  Leon,  a  Spanish  officer,  was  sent 
to  drive  out  the  French.  He  found  them 
scattered,  and  the  next  year  he  returned 
with  110  men  and  some  friars,  and  on  the 
site  of  a  fort  built  by  La  Salle,  on  Mata- 
gorda Bay,  established  a  Spanish  mission. 
A    Spanish    governor,    with    troops,    was 


sent  thither  in  1691,  but  Indian  hostilities 
and  menaces  of  famine  caused  the  settle- 
ment to  be  abandoned  in  1693.  In  1714 
the  French  again  attempted  to  plant 
settlements  in  Texas,  under  the  direction 
of  Crozat,  of  Louisiana.  Soon  aiterwards 
(1715)  Spanish  missions  were  planted  at 
various  points  in  the  present  domain  of 
Texas;  the  name  of  "New  Philippines" 
was  given  to  the  country,  and  a  governor- 
general  was  appointed.  The  Indians 
slaughtered  the  people  at  some  of  the  mis- 

sions, and  in  1765  there  were  not  more 
than  750  white  inhabitants  in  Texas. 

Texas  was  a  part  of  the  Spanish  prov- 
ince of  Mexico  which  had  declared  itself 
independent  of  Spain.  In  1824,  when  a 
considerable  number  of  colonists  from 
the  United  States  were  there,  the  Mexican 
government  united  Coahuila,  previously  a 
separate  state,  with  Texas,  and  placed 
a  Mexican  as  governor  over  the  united 
states.  He  treated  the  Americans  there 
with  great  injustice,  and  some  of  them, 
engaged  in  a  revolution,  were  compelled 
to  retreat  into  the  United  States  in  1827. 
In  1830  Bustamente,  who  had  made  him- 
self dictator  of  Mexico,  issued  a  decree 
forbidding  the  people  of  the  United  States 
to  enter  Texas  as  colonists.  The  American 
settlers  in  Texas  then  numbered  about 
20,000,  and  in  1833  they  held  a  convention, 
determined  to  separate  Texas  from  Coa- 
huila, prepared  a  State  constitution,  and 
requested  Santa  Ana,  then  at  the  head  of 
the  government  of  Mexico,  to  admit  them 
as  a  separate  State  of  the  republic.  Col. 
Stephen  F.  Austin  {q.  v.),  representing 
the  American  colonists,  went  to  Mexico, 
where  Santa  Ana  detained  him  until  1835 ; 
during  which  time — keeping  the  Texans 
quiet  by  promises  of  compliance  with  their 
desires — he  prepared  to  occupy  the  country 
with  his  troops.  A  committee  of  safety 
was  created  in  Texas,  which  assumed  gov- 
ernmental powers.  The  people  armed. 
A  skirmish  took  place  with  some  Mexi- 
cans, near  Gonzales,  Oct.  2,  1835,  and  other 
battles  followed.  On  Nov.  9  a  provisional 
government  was  formed  in  a  delegate  con- 
vention, called  the  "  Consultation,"  and  a 
governor  and  lieutenant-governor  were 

At    the   same   time    Samuel   Houston 



laration  of  independence,  and  a  provisional 
president  (David  G.  Burnet)  was  chosen. 
On  the  27th  the  command  of  Colonel  Fan- 
ning, at  Goliad,  were  massacred  in  cold 
blood,  and  successive  defeats  of  the  Texans 
produced  a  panic.  Houston,  meanwhile, 
in  order  to  scatter  the  Mexican  forces,  con- 
tinually fell  back,  until  he  reached  San 
Jacinto.  There,  at  the  head  of  a  force  of 
800  troops,  he  gave  battle  (April  21, 
1S36)  to  about  twice  that  number  of 
Mexicans,  and  in  the  pursuit  of  them  kill- 
ed 630,  wounded  208,  and  took  730  pwson- 
ers.  Among  the  latter,  captured  the  nest" 
day,  was  President  Santa  Ana.  His  force 
was  annihilated.  The  survivors  fled  west- 
ward in  terror.  The  war  was  practically 
at  an  end.  The  Mexicans  did  not  again 
invade  Texas.  Houston  was  elected  presi- 
dent of  the  republic  (September,  1836). 
The  independence  of  Texas  was  acknowl- 
edged by  the  United  States  in  March, 
1837,  but  Mexico  did  not  give  up  her 
claim  to  it.  See  Acquisition  of  Terri- 
tory;  Benton,  Thomas  Hart. 

Annexation  of  Texa^. — The  Southern 
people  were  anxious  to  have  the  State 
of  Texas  annexed  to  the  United  States, 
and  such  a  desire  was  a  prevailing  feel- 
ing in  that  sovereign  State.  The  prop- 
osition, when  formally  made,  was  op- 
posed by  the  people  of  the  North,  be- 
(g.  v.),  of  Tennessee,  who  had  settled  in  cause  the  annexation  would  increase  the 
Texas,  was  chosen  commander-in-chief  of  area  and  political  strength  of  the  slave 
the  forces,  and  Austin  was  sent  as  com-  power,  and  lead  to  a  war  with  Mexico, 
missioner  to  the  United  States.  After  But  the  matter  was  persisted  in  by  the 
San  Antonio  de  Bexar  was  captured  (Dec.  South,  and,  with  the  approbation  of  Presi- 
10),  the  entire  Mexican  force  was  driven 
out  of  Texas,  and  on  the  20th  a  declara- 
tion of  independence  was  adopted,  and 
issued  at  Goliad,  by  Capt.  Philip  Dimitt 
and  others.  Santa  Ana,  with  a  well-pro- 
vided army  of  7,500  men,  set  out  for  the 
recovery  of  Texas.  He  invested  the  Alamo 
(q.  V.) ,  a  strong  fort  near  San  Antonio, 
with  4,0d0  men,  and,  after  bombarding  it 
eleven  days,  carried  it  by  storm.  It  was 
garrisoned  by  about  170  men,  under  Capt. 
W.  B.  Travis.  The  whole  garrison  was 
massacred  (March  6)  by  order  of  Santa 
Ana — only  one  woman,  a  child,  and  a 
servant  were  saved.  "  Remember  the  Ala- 
mo!" was  a  Texan  war-cry  after  that. 
The  Mexicans  lost,  in  the  attack,  1,600 

On  March  1  a  convention  issued  a  dec- 

.2^  SiHKISSiBl^^^ 





tHE    ALAUO. 

dent   Tyler,   a   treaty  to   that   effect  was    resolution    of    the    Congress    and    of    the 
signed    in    Washington,    D.    C,   April    12,    Texas  ordinance: 

1844,  by  Mr.  Calhoun,  Secretary  of  State, 
and  Messrs.  Van  Zandt  and  Henderson  on 

Committee  Room,  July  ^,  ISlfS. 

Coni>ention : 
The    committee   to   whom   was    commit- 

the  part  of  Texas.     It  was  rejected  by  the  Hon.    Thomas   J.   Rusk,   President   of   the 
Senate  in  June  following.   The  project  was 
presented  at  the  next  session  of  Congress 

in  the  form  of  a  joint  resolution.     It  had  ted  the  communication  of  his  Excellency 

been  made  a  leading  political  question  at  the    President    of    the    republic,    together 

the  Presidential  election  in  the  autumn  of  with    the   accompanying   documents,    have 

1844.    James  K.  Polk  had  been  nominated  had    the    same    under    consideration,    and 

over  Mr.  Van  Buren,  because  he  was  in  fa-  have  instructed  me  to  report  the  following 

vor  of  the  annexation.   The  joint  resolution  ordinance,  and  recommend  its  adoption  by 

was  adopted  March  1,   1845,  and  received  the  convention. 

the  assent  of  President  Tyler  the  next  day.  Abner  S.  Lipscomb,  Chairman. 
On  the  last  day  of  his  term  of  office  he 

sent  a  message  to  the  Texas  government.  Whereas,    the    Congress    of    the    United 

with   a   copy   of   the   joint   resolutions   of  States  of  America  has  passed  resolutions 

Congress   in   favor   of   annexation.     These  providing    for    the    annexation    of    Texas 

were  considered  by  a  convention  in  Texas,  to  that  Union,  which  resolutions  were  ap- 

called  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  State  proved    by    the    President    of    the    United 

constitution.      That    body    approved    the  States  on  the  first  day  of  March,  1845;  and 

measure   (July  4,  1845),  and  on  that  day  Whereas,    the   President   of   the   United 

Texas   became   one   of   the   States   of   the  States  has  submitted  to  Texas  the  first  and 

Union.  second  sections  of  the  said  resolutions  as 

The  following  is  the  text  of  the  joint  the  basis  upon  which  Texas  may  be  ad- 



mitted  as  one  of  the  States  of  said  Union, 

Whereas,  the  existing  government  of  the 
republic  of  Texas  has  assented  to  the  pro- 
posals thus  made,  the  terms  and  conditions 
of  which  are  as  follows: 

Eesolved  by  the  Senate  and  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  United  States  of 
America  in  Congress  assembled,  that  Con- 
gress doth  consent  that  the  territory 
properly  included  within,  and  rightfully 
belonging  to,  the  republic  of  Texas,  may 
be  erected  into  a  new  State,  to  be 
called  the  State  of  Texas,  with  a  re- 
publican form  of  government,  adopted  by 
the  people  of  said  republic,  by  deputies 
in  convention  assembled,  with  consent  of 
the  existing  government,  in  order  that  the 
same  may  be  admitted  as  one  of  the  States 
of  this  Union, 

And  be  it  further  resolved,  that  the 
foregoing  consent  of  Congress  is  given 
upon  the  following  conditions,  to  wit: 
First,  said  State  to  be  formed,  subject  to 
the  adjustment  by  this  government  of  ail 
questions  of  boundary  that  may  arise  with 
others  governments,  and  the  constitution 
thereof,  with  the  proper  evidence  of  its 
adoption  by  the  people  of  said  republic 
of  Texas,  shall  be  transmitted  to  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  to  be  laid  before 
Congress  for  its  final  action,  on  or  before 
the  first  day  of  January,  1846;  second, 
said  State,  when  admitted  into  the  Union, 
after  ceding  to  the  United  States  all  pub- 
lic edifices,  fortifications,  barracks,  forts 
and  harbors,  navy  and  navy-yards,  docks, 
magazines,  and  armaments,  and  all  other 
means-  pertaining  to  the  public  defence 
belonging  to  the  said  republic,  shall  retain 
all  its  public  funds,  debts,  taxes,  and  dues 
of  every  kind  which  may  belong  to  or  be 
due  and  owing  to  the  said  republic,  and 
shall  also  retain  all  the  vacant  and  unap- 
propriated lands  lying  within  its  limits,  to 
be  applied  to  the  payment  of  the  debts  and 
liabilities  of  said  republic  of  Texas,  and 
the  residue  of  said  lands,  after  discharg- 
ing said  debts  and  liabilities,  to  be  dis- 
posed of  as  said  State  may  direct;  but  in 
no  event  are  said  debts  and  liabilities  to 
oecome  a  charge  upon  the  government  of 
the  United  States;  third,  new  States,  of 
convenient  size,  not  exceeding  four  in 
number,  in  addition  to  said  State  of  Texas, 
and     having    sufficient    population,    may 

hereafter,  bj  the  consent  of  said  State,  be 
formed  out  of  the  territory  thereof,  which 
shall  be  entitled  to  admission  under  the 
provisions  of  the  federal  Constitution ;  and 
such  States  as  may  be  formed  out  of  that 
portion  of  said  territory  lying  south  of 
36°  30'  N.  lat.,  commonly  known  as  the 
Missouri  Compromise  line,  shall  be  ad- 
mitted into  the  Union,  with  or  without 
slavery,  as  the  people  of  each  State  asking 
admission  may  desire;  and  in  such  State 
or  States  as  shall  be  formed  out  of  said 
territory  north  of  said  Missouri  Compro- 
mise line  slavery  or  involuntary  servitude 
(except  for  crime)   shall  be  prohibited. 

Now,  in  order  to  manifest  the  assent 
of  the  people  of  the  republic,  as  is  re- 
quired in  the  above-recited  portions  of 
said  resolution,  we,  the  deputies  of  the 
people  of  Texas  in  convention  assembled, 
in  their  name  and  by  their  authority,  do 
ordain  and  declare  that  we  assent  to,  and 
accept  the  proposals,  conditions,  and  guar- 
antees contained  in  the  first  and  second 
sections  of  the  resolutions  of  the  Congress 
of  the  United  States  aforesaid. 

Adopted  by  a  vote  of  56  to  1,  July  4, 
1845,  in  the  tenth  year  of  the  republic. 
Thomas  J.  Rusk,  President. 
James  H.  Raymond,  Secretary. 

After  the  cession  of  Louisiana  to  the 
United  States  a  controversy  arose  about 
its  western  boundary,  which  was  amicably 
settled,  in  1806,  by  General  Wilkinson  and 
the  Spanish  commander,  establishing  the 
territory  between  the  Sabine  River  and 
Arroya  Honda  as  neutral  ground.  In  1806 
revolutionary  movements,  incited  by  those 
of  Aaron  Burr  { q.  v. ) ,  began  in  that 
region,  and  many  skirmishes  and  battles 
occurred,  chiefly  by  invasions  of  Amer- 
icans. In  confiicts  in  1813  the  Spanish 
lost  about  1,000  men;  and  in  a  conflict  the 
same  year,  a  force  of  about  2,500  Ameri- 
cans and  revolted  Mexicans  was  nearly  de- 
stroyed. Only  about  100  escaped.  The 
Spaniards  murdered  700  of  the  peaceable 
inhabitants  of  San  Antonio.  After  the 
close  of  the  War  of  1812-15  Lafitte  made 
Galveston  Island  his  headquarters,  estab- 
lished there  a  town  named  Campeachy, 
and  remained  there  imtil  1821,  when  the 
settlement  was  broker  up  by  United  States 
forces.  In  181.9  the  Sabine  waa  estab- 
lished as    the  eastern  bounc'ary  o    Texas, 



but  dissatisfaction  caused  dis- 
turbances to  continue,  and  the 
territory  was  almost  deserted. 
In  1820  Moses  Austin,  then  liv- 
ing in  Missouri,  received  from  the 
Spanish  authorities  of  Mexico  a 
grant  of  land  in  Texas,  and  dying, 
his  son,  Stephen  F.,  received  a 
confirmation  of  the  grant  in  1823. 
Emigrants  from  the  United  States 
floclced  into  Texas.  A  thovisand 
families  were  soon  there.  Span- 
ish rule  was  harsh  towards  the 
American  colonists,  and  they  were 
so  oppressed  that,  in  1833,  they 
took  the  measures  to  obtain  the 
independence  of  the  State  al- 
ready described.  The  annexation 
of  Texas  to  the  United  States  led 
to  a  war  with  Mexico  (see 
Mexico,  War  w^ith  ) ,  begun  in 
1846,  and  ended  by  treaty  in 
February,  1848.  It  then  embraced 
an  area  of  376,163  square  miles. 
In  1850  the  State  ceded  to  the 
United  States  its  claims  to  all 
territory  beyond  its  present  limits 
(274,350  square  miles),  in  con- 
sideration of  $10,000,000  in  bonds, 
with  the  proceeds  of  which  the 
State  debt  was  paid. 

In  1860  politicians  began  to  move  for  to  assist.  Not  one-half  of  the  122  coun- 
secession.  The  venerable  governor,  Sanuiel  ties  in  the  State  were  represented.  On 
Houston,  opposed  the  movement  with  all  Feb.  1,  1861,  an  ordinance  of  secession  was 
his  might;  but  members  of  the  Knights  adopted  by  a  vote  of  166  against  7.  It  de- 
OF  THE  Golden  Circle  (q.  v.)  were  work-  clared  that  the  national  government  had 
ing  secretly  and  effectively.  Among  the  failed  "  to  accomplish  the  purpose  of  the 
Knights  were  many  members  of  the  legis-  compact  of  union  between  the  States,"  and 
lature,  and  active  politicians  all  over  the  the  chief  grievance  complained  of  was 
State.  Sixty  of  these  irresponsible  per-  that  the  national  government  would  no 
sons,  early  in  January,  1861,  called  a  State  longer  uphold  the  slave  system.  They 
convention,  to  meet  at  Austin  on  the  28th  therefore  abrogated,  in  the  name  of  the 
of  that  month ;  and  a  single  member  of  the  people  of  Texas,  the  ordinance  of  an- 
legislature  issued  a  call  for  the  assembling  nexation  adopted  July  4,  1845.  They  talk- 
of  that  body  at  the  same  time  and  place,  ed  of  a  "  resumption  of  sovereign  powers  " 
When  they  met,  the  legislature,  by  a  joint  with  some  plausibility,  for  Texas  was  the 
resolution,  declared  the  convention  a  legal-  only  State  in  the  Union  that  had  ever 
ly  constituted  body.  Governor  Houston  possessed  them,  as  an  absolutely  indepen- 
protested  against  the  assumption  of  any  dent  State.  They  decreed  that  the  ordi- 
power  by  the  convention,  except  to  refer  nance  should  be  submitted  to  the  people, 
the  matter  of  secessirn  to  the  people.  The  but  the  day  named  (Feb.  23)  was  so  early 
convention  assembled  in  the  hall  of  the  that  no  opportunity  was  afforded  the  peo- 
House  of  Representatives,  on  the  appoint-    pie  for  discussion. 

ed  day,  under  the  chairmanship  of  Judge  The  convention  appointed  a  committee 
John  H.  Eeagan  (q.  v.).  A  commissioner  of  safety  to  carry  out  its  decision  before 
from  South  Carolina  (McQueen)  was  there    the  people  could  think  or   act  upon  the 



ordinance  of  secession.  The  committee  the  Federal  troops  to  be  removed  from 
was  immediately  organized,  and  appointed  posts  in  the  country  exposed  to  Indian 
two  of  their  number  (Devine  and  Maver-  depredations,  and  had  them  located,  with 
ick)  commissioners  to  treat  with  Gen.  their  arms  and  field-batteries,  on  the 
David  E.  Twiggs,  then  in  command  of  the  coast,  where,  if  their  desire  is  to  maintain 
National  troops  in  Texas,  for  the  sxirren-  a  position  in  the  country,  they  cannot 
der  of  his  army  and  the  public  property  only  do  so  successfully,  but  destroy  the 
under  his  control  to  the  authorities  of  commerce  of  the  State.  They  have  usurp- 
Texas.  Twio-gs  performed  that  act.  In  ed  the  power  to  withdraw  these  troops 
counting  the  votes  cast  on  Feb.  23  from  the  frontier;  but  though  in  pos- 
concerning  the  ordinance  of  secession  session  of  ample  stores,  munitions  of  war, 
there  seemed  to  be  fully  23,000  ma-  and  transportation,  have  failed  to  supply 
jority  in  favor  of  the  ordinance,  when  troops  in  place  of  those  removed.  As  a 
it  is  asserted  that  really  a  very  large  consequence,  the  wail  of  women  and 
proportion  of  the  people  of  Texas  were  children  is  heard  upon  the  border.  De- 
opposed  to  it.  vastation  and  ruin  have  thus  come  upon 
Governor  Houston,  in  his  address  to  the  people;  and  though  the  convention, 
the  people  of  his  State,  early  in  March,  with  all  the  means  in  its  power,  has  been 
1861,  revealed  what  he  called  its  usurpa-  in  session  two  weeks  (adjourned  session), 
tions.  .He  had  denounced  the  convention  no  succor  has  been  sent  to  a  devastated 
as  an  illegal  body,  gathered  through  fraud  frontier.  .  ,  .  The  convention  has  assumed 
and  violence.  "To  enumerate  all  its  to  appoint  agents  to  foreign  States,  and 
usurpations,"  he  said,  "  would  be  impos-  created  offices,  civil  and  military,  unknown 
sible,  as  a.  great  portion  of  its  proceed-  to  the  laws,  at  its  will,  keeping  secret  its 
ings  were  in  secret.  This  much  has  been  proceedings.  It  has  deprived  the  people 
revealed:  It  has  elected  delegates  to  the  of  a  right  to  know  its  doings.  It  has  ap- 
provisional  council  of  the  Confederate  pointed  officers  and  agents  under  its  as- 
States  at  Montgomery  before  Texas  had  sumed  authority."  "  It  has  declared,"  he 
withdrawn  from  the  Union ;  and  also,  on  said,  "  that  the  people  of  Texas  ratify  the 
the  2d  day  of  March,  annexed  Texas  to  provisional  government  of  the  Confederate 
the  Confederate  States  and  constituted  States,  requiring  all  persons  then  in  office 
themselves  members  of  Congress,  when  it  to  take  an  oath  of  allegiance  to  the  same 
was  not  officially  known  by  the  convention  or  suffer  the  penalty  of  removal."  It  had 
until  the  4th  of  Jklarch  that  a  majority  of  changed  the  State  constitution  and  estab- 
the  people  had  voted  for  secession.  While  lished  a  test-oath  of  allegiance  to  the  Con- 
a  portion  of  these  delegates  were  repre-  federate  States,  and,  "in  the  exercise  of 
senting  Texas  in  the  Congress  of  the  Con-  its  petty  tyi-anny,"  had  required  the  gov- 
federate  States,  two  of  them,  still  claim-  ernor  and  other  officers  to  appear  at  its 
ing  to  be  United  States  Senators,  have  bar  at  a  certain  time  to  take  the  oath.  It 
continued  to  represent  Texas  in  the  United  had  assumed  to  create  organic  laws,  and  to 
States  Senate,  under  the  administration  put  the  same  into  execution.  "  It  has  over- 
of  Mr.  Lincoln — an  administration  which  throwTi,"  he  said,  "the  theory  of  free 
the  people  of  Texas  have  declared  odious  government  by  combining  in  itself  all  the 
and  not  to  be  borne.  Yet  Texas  has  been  departments  of  government  and  exercis- 
exposed  to  obloquy  and  forced  to  occupy  ing  the  powers  belonging  to  each."  The 
the  ridiculous  attitude,  before  the  world,  governor  concluded  by  saying:  "I  have 
of  attempting  to  maintain  her  position  as  refused  to  recognize  this  convention.  I 
one  of  the  United  States,  and.  at  the  same  believe  it  has  received  none  of  the  powers 
time,  claim  to  be  one  of  the  Confederate  it  has  assumed  either  from  the  people  or 
States.  It  has  created  a  committee  of  the  legislature.  I  believe  it  guilty  of  a 
safety,  a  portion  of  which  has  assumed  usurpation  which  the  people  cannot  suffer 
the  executive  power  of  the  government,  tamely  and  preserve  their  liberties.  I  am 
and,  to  supplant  the  executive  authority,  ready  to  lay  down  my  life  to  maintain 
have  entered  into  negotiations  with  fed-  the  rights  and  liberties  of  Texas.  I  am 
era!  officers.  This  committee,  and  com-  ready  to  lay  down  office  rather  than  yield 
missioners   acting  under   it,  have   caused  to  usurpation  and  degradation." 



In  1863  General  Banks  sent  General 
Franklin,  with  4,000  troops,  accompanied 
by  four  gunboats,  under  Lieutenant 
Crocker,  to  seize  the  Confederate  post  at 
Sabine  Pass,  on  the  boundary-line  be- 
tween Louisiana  and  Texas,  preparatory 
to  an  attempt  to  recover  the  latter  State 
from  Confederate  control.  The  expedition 
sailed  from  New  Orleans  Sept.  5.  A  pre- 
mature attack  was  made  by  the  gunboats 
on  the  garrison  at  Sabine  Pass  (Sept.  8), 
and  the  expedition  was  a  disastrous  fail- 
ure. Two  of  the  gunboats  were  captured, 
and  the  transports,  with  Franklin's  troops, 
fled  back  to  New  Orleans,  the  Nationals 

a  march  upon  Alexandria  and  Shreveport 
was  again  begun.  When,  in  obedience  to 
orders,  he  began  falling  back,  he  was  sud- 
denly and  furiously  struck  by  Confeder- 
ates under  Gen.  Richard  Taylor,  and  a  reg- 
iment (23d  Wisconsin)  on  which  the  blow 
fell  was  reduced  from  226  men  to  ninety- 
eight,  most  of  them  made  prisoners.  Mean- 
while about  6,000  National  troops,  under 
General  Dana,  with  some  war-vessels,  had 
sailed  for  the  Rio  Grande.  Banks,  in  per- 
son, accompanied  the  expedition.  The, 
troops  debarked  ( Nov.  2 )  at  Brazos  Santi- 
ago, drove  a  small  Confederate  cava'/ry 
force  stationed  there,  and  followed  thsiii  to 



having  lost  200  men  made  prisoners  and 
fifty  killed  and  wounded;  also  two  gun- 
boats and  fifteen  heavy  rifled  cannon. 
The  garrison  attacked  consisted  of  about 
200  men,  and  only  forty  were  present. 
Banks  now  concentrated  his  forces  on  the 
Atchafalaya,  for  the  purpose  of  pene- 
trating Texas  by  way  of  Shreveport.  on 
the  Red  River;  but  this  design  was  aban- 
doned for  a  time  (see  Red  River  Expedi- 
tion), and  it  was  determined  to  attempt 
to  seize  and  hold  the  coast  harbors  of 
Texas.  To  mask  this  movement,  Gen.  C. 
C.  Washburne,  with  a  considerable  body 
of  troops,  advanced  from  Brashear  City 
to  Opelousas,  to  give  the  impression  that 

Brownsville,  opposite  Matamoras,  which 
Banks  entered  on  Nov.  6.  At  the  close  of 
the  year  the  National  troops  occupied  all 
the  strong  positions  on  the  Texan  coast  ex- 
cepting Galveston  Island  and  a  formi- 
dable work  at  the  mouth  of  the  Brazos 
River,  and  the  Confederates  had  aban- 
doned all  Texas  west  of  the  Colorado 

Notwithstanding  the  downfall  of  the 
civil  and  military  power  of  the  Confed- 
eracy east  of  the  Mississippi,  the  in- 
surgents west  of  it,  under  the  command 
and  influence  of  Gen.  E.  Kirby  Smith, 
were  disposed  to  continue  the  conflict 
longer.  He  addressed  his  soldiers  on  April 


21,  1S65,  telling  tliem  that  upon  their 
prowess  depended  "  the  hopes  of  the  [Con- 
federate] nation."  He  assured  them  that 
there  were  liopes  of  succor  from  abroad. 
"  Protract  tlie  struggle,"  he  said,  "  and 
you  will  surely  receive  the  aid  of  nations 
who  already  deeply  sympathize  with  you." 
Public  meetings  were  held  in  Texas,  where 
resolutions  to  continue  the  contest  were 
adopted.  To  meet  this  danger.  General 
Sheridan  was  sent  to  New  Orleans  with  a 
large  force,  and  made  preparations  for  a 
vigorous  campaign  in  Texas.  His  appear- 
ance dismayed  the  trans-Mississippi  in- 
surgents, and  they  refused  to  longer  fol- 
low their  leaders  in  the  hopeless  struggle. 
General  Smith  formally  surrendered  his 
whole  command  to  General  Canby  (May 
26),  but  exhibited  "the  bad  faith,"  said 
Grant  in  his  report,  "  of  first  disbanding 
most  of  his  army,  and  permitting  an  in- 
discriminate plunder  of  the  public  prop- 
erty." So  ended  the  Civil  War  in  the 

Andrew  J.  Hamilton  was  appointed  by 
the  President  provisional  governor  in  the 
summer  of  1865,  and  measures  were  taken 
for  the  reorganization  of  civil  government 
there.  Under  the  reconstruction  acts  of 
1867,  Texas,  with  Louisiana,  was  made  a 
military  district,  and  subjected  to  mili- 
tary rule  under  General  Sheridan.  A  con- 
vention assembled  Dec.  7,  1868,  adopted 
a  constitution,  which  was  ratified  at  an 
election  (Nov.  30  to  Dec.  3)  in  1869,  and 
a  governor  and  legislature  were  chosen 
at  the  same  time.  The  Fourteenth  and 
Fifteenth  Amendments  to  the  national 
Constitution  were  ratified  (Feb.  23,  1870), 
and  on  March  30,  by  act  of  Congress,  the 
State  was  entitled  to  representation  in 
Congress.  On  April  16  the  government 
was  transferred  to  the  civil  authorities. 
Population  in  1890,  2,235,523;  in  1900, 
3,048,740.  See  Benton,  Thomas  H.  ;  Unit- 
ed States  of  America,  Texas,  in  this 


Pamu»!l  Houston inaugurated Oct.  22,1836 

M.  B   Lamar "  Dec.  10,  1838 

Dr.  Anson  .lonps "  Dec.    9,1841 

Samuel  Houston "  Dec.  13,  1841 

STATE  governors— Cow«n«ed 

.T.  P.  HftnfJerson. 
fieorge  T.  Wood. 
P.  Hanaboro  BfJl 
E.  M.  Pease , 


...Feb.  19,1846 
...Dec.  21,  1847 


<■<■    1853 

H.  R.  Runnels assumes  oflBce 

Samuel  Houston " 

Edward  Clark •» 

F.  R.  Lubbock " 

P.  Murrah " 

A.J.  Hamilton " 

J.  W.  Throckmorton. .  " 

E.  M.  Pease " 

E.  J.  Davis " 

Richard  Coke "  

R.B.Hubbard "  

Oran  M.  Roberts "  

John  Ireland "  

Lawrence  S.  Ross "  

James  S.  Hogg. ..... .  "  

James  S.  Hogg "  

Charles  A.  Culberson..  "  

Charles  A.  Culberson..  "  

Joseph  D.  Sayers *'  

Joseph  D.  Sayers "  

Samuel  W.  T.  Lanham.  "  

Thomas  M.  Campbell.  "  



March  20, 

July  21, 
Aug.  13, 
.July  30, 



Samuel  Houston 

Thomas  J.  Rusk 

J.  Pinckney  Henderson, 

Matthias  VV^ard 

John  Hemphill 

Louis  T.  Wigfall 

37th,  38th,  39th,  and 

J.  W.  Flanagan . . 

Morgan  C.  Hamilton. . . 
Samuel  Bell  Maxey.... 

Richard  Coke 

John  H.  Reagan 

Horace  Chilton 

Roger  Q.  Mills 

Horace  Chilton 

Charles  A.  Culberson. . 
Joseph  W.  Bailey 

No.  of  Congrress. 


to  3<ith 


"  35  th 

35th          1 


to  36th 


"  37th 


"  37th 


1846  to 

1846  " 


1858  to 

1859  " 

1860  " 
40th  Congresses  vacant. 

1870  to 

1870  " 

1875  " 

1877  " 

1888  " 

1891  " 

1892  " 
1895  " 
1899  " 
1901  " 


to  44th 


"  45  th 


"  50th 


"  54th 


"  52d 



to  56th 


"  57th 









Texas  Rangers,  a  body  of  armed  and 
mounted  men  constituting  a  combined 
military  and  constabulary  force.  It  has 
been  in  existence  for  many  years;  is  made 
up  of  carefully  selected  men;  and  has 
many  deeds  of  extraordinary  daring  credit- 
ed to  its  memory.  As  the  name  implies, 
this  body  ranges  over  the  State  in  the 
performance  of  its  unique  work,  at  one 
time  assisting  the  officers  of  the  law  in 
their  duties,  at  others  defending  the  Rio 
Grande  border  against  raiding  cattle 
thieves  from  Mexico,  and  at  others  sup- 
pressi/ig  riots  and  other  disturbances  of 
the  peace.  The  best  idea  of  the  peculiar 
fimctions  of  this  body  is  obtained  from  a 
report  of  its  operations  in  the  single 
month  of  December,  1897,  when  the  mem- 
bers made  forty  arrests  for  various  crimes ; 
were  sent  on  seventy  scouting  expeditions ; 
assisted  sheriffs  forty-seven  times;  guard- 
ed jails  nine  times;  attended  district  courts 
thirty-four  times;  made  nine  attempts  to 




arrest   that    failed;    and    travelled    4,843  the  father  of  cotton  manufacturing  in  the 

miles.  United  States.      But  his  operations  were 

Textile  Fabrics.    The  difficulty  of  pay-  only  in  spinning  the  yarn.     It  remained 

ing  for  imported  goods  in  Massachusetts,  for  a  citizen  of  the  United  States,  Francis 

about  1640,  stimulated  the  people  to  new  C.  Lowell,  a  merchant  of  Boston,  to  intro- 

kinds  of  industry.     Among  other  things,  duce    the    weaving    of    cotton    cloth    here, 

cotton  and  woollen  cloths  were  manufact-  He   invented   a  power  loom,   and   in   1812 

ured.     The  cultivation  of  hemp  and  flax  he  and  Francis  S.  Jackson  erected  a  mill 

was     successfully     undertaken.        Vessels  in   Waltham,   Mass.     The   machinery   was 

were  sent  to  the  West  Indies  for  cotton,  constructed  by  Paul  Moody.     After  many 

and,  at  Rowley,  where  a  colony  of  York-  failures    and    alterations,    they    succeeded 

shire   clothiers   had   recently    settled,    the  in  perfecting  looms  that  worked  well,  and 

fabrication  of  linen,  woollen,  and   cotton  in   1813   they  had  also   f.   spinning-wheel, 

cloth  was  set  on  foot.      The  first  cotton  with     1,300     spindles.       Slater's     Rhode 

factory  in  the  United  States  was  started  Island  mill  had  then   only   144   spindles, 

in  Beverly,  Mass.,  in  1789,  by  a  company  See  Cotton. 

who   only   succeeded   in   introducing   that  Thacher,    James,    physician;    born    in 

industry,  with  very  imperfect  machinery.  Barnstable,   Mass.,   Feb.    14,    1754;    joined 

A    woollen    factory   was    in    operation    in  the    Continental    army    at    Cambridge    in 

Hartford,  Conn.,  in  1789,  and  in  1794  one  1775,  and  served  through  the  war  as  sur- 

was    established    in    Byfield,    Mass.       The  geon,  being  present  at  many  of  the  promi- 

same  year  a  carding-machine  for  wool  was  nent   battles    in    the   North.      He   kept   a 

first    put    into    operation    in    the    United  diary,   and   in   1824   published  a  Military 

States.       It    was    constructed    under    the  Journal  of  the  Revolution,  a  work  of  great 

direction   of   John   and   Arthur   Schofield.  historical  value.     He  was  author,  also,  of 

Samuel  Slater  (g.  v.)  may  be  considered  several  other  works,  scientific,  philosophi- 



cal,  and  historical.  He  died  in  Plymouth, 
Mass..  May  26.  1S44. 

Thacher,  John  Boyd,  author;  born  in 
Ballston.  X.  Y.,  Sept.  11,  1S47;  gradu- 
ated at  Williams  College  in  1869;  served 
in  the  State  Senate  in  1SS4-S5,  where  he 
introduced  measures  which  later  resulted 
in  the  reform  of  the  tenement-house  con- 
struction and  management;  was  mayor  of 
Albany  in  1SS6-S7  and  1896-97;  was 
appointed  by  President  Harrison  a  mem- 
ber of  the  World's  Columbian  Exposi- 
tion Commission,  and  became  chairman 
of  its  bureau  of  awards.  He  wrote  The 
Continent  of  America,  its  Discovery  and 
its  Baptism;  The  Cabotian  Discovery, 

Thames,  Battle  of  the.  When  Gen- 
eral Harrison  landed  his  invading  army 
near  Fort  Maiden,  Canada,  in  1813,  Gen- 
eral Proctor,  in  command  of  the  British 
troops  there,  fled  northward,  leaving  the 
fort,  na%'y  buildings,  and  store-houses  in 
flames.  Proctor  had  impressed  into  his 
service  all  the  horses  of  the  inhabitants 
to  facilitate  his  flight,  Harrison  wrote 
to  the  Secretary  of  War  (Sept.  27):  "I 
will  pursue  the  enemy  to-morrow,  although 
there  is  no  probability  of  overtaking  him, 
as  he  has  upwards  of  1,000  horses  and  we 
have  not  one  in  the  army.     I  shall  think 

myself  fortunate  to  collect  a  sufficiency 
to  mount  the  general  officers."  Harrison 
did  pursue.  On  Oct.  1  he  was  joined  by 
Col.  Richard  M.  Johnson,  with  his  cavalry, 
at  Sandwich.  There  a  council  of  officers 
was  held.  Only  two  lines  of  pursuit 
were  feasible — one  by  Lake  Erie  to  Long 
Point,  the  other  by  land  to  the  rear  of 
the  fugitives.  The  latter  was  chosen. 
McArthur  and  his  brigade  were  left  to 
hold  Detroit;  Cass's  brigade  and  Ball's 
regiment  were  left  at  Sandwich,  and  3,500 
men,  mostly  Kentucky  volunteers,  start- 
ed in  pursuit  towards  Chatham,  on  the 
Thames  River,  where,  it  was  ascertained, 
Proctor  had  encamped.  General  Cass  ac- 
companied Harrison  as  volunteer  aide. 

Learning  that  some  small  vessels  con- 
taining the  enemy's  artillery  and  baggage 
were  escaping  on  Lake  St.  Clair  towards 
the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  Commodore 
Perry  despatched  a  portion  of  his  fleet, 
under  Captain  Elliott,  in  pursuit.  Perry 
soon  followed  in  the  Ariel,  accompanied 
by  the  Caledonia.  The  little  squadron 
reached  (Oct.  2)  the  mouth  of  the  Thames, 
with  the  baggage,  provisions,  and  am- 
munition wagons  of  the  Americans,  but 
the  vessels  of  the  enemy  had  escaped  up 
that  stream.  Harrison  pressed  forward 
rapidly,  along  the  border  of  the  lake  and 

AI'l-KAKANCK   OF   TllK   THAMKS    IIATTLK  GKOl'.NU    I.N    186U. 



up  the  Thames.  Three  of  Perry's  armed  and  scorned  by  honorable  men  for  hia 
vessels  also  went  up  the  river  as  convoys  career  of  cruelty  and  cowardice  in  Amer- 
j;o  transports.  The  British  had  encamped  ica,  Proctor  sank  into  merited  obscurity, 
at  Dolsen's — 700  white  men  and  1,200  Harrison's  victory  was  complete.  The 
Indians — but  on  the  approach  of  Harrison  whole  country  resounded  with  his  praises, 
they  continued  their  flight,  Tecumseh  Congress  gave  him  and  Shelby  the  thanka 
cursing  Proctor  for  his  coward- 
ice. The  former  boasted  of  the 
victory  he  should  win,  but  kept 
on  retreating,  destroying  bridges 
and  other  property  in  his  flight, 
burning  his  own  vessels  and 
leaving  arms  behind.  At  last 
the  pursuit  was  so  sharp  and 
close  that  Proctor  was  compelled 
to  make  a  stand  on  the  bank  of 
the  Thames,  near  the  Moravian 
town,  his  left  on  the  river,  where 
the  bank  is  high  and  precipitous, 
and  on  his  right  a  marsh,  run- 
ning almost  parallel  with  the 
river  for  about  2  miles.  The 
space  between  was  covered  with 
woods,  with  very  little  under- 

The  British  regulars  were 
formed  in  two  lines  between  a 
smaller  swamp  and  the  river, 
their  artillery  being  planted  in 
the  road,  near  the  bank  of  that 
stream.  The  Indians  were  post- 
ed between  the  two  swamps,  and 
so  disposed  as  easily  to  flank 
Harrison's  left.  They  were  com- 
manded by  Tecumseh,  assisted 
by  Oshawahnah,  a  brave  Chip- 
pewa chief.  Harrison's  force 
was  now  little  more  than  3,000 
ber,    composed   of    120    regulars, 


in  num-  of    the    nation    and    each    a    gold    medal. 

five   bri-  At   the   battle    of    the   Thames    six   brass 

gades  of  Kentucky  volunteers,  under  Gov-  cannon  taken  from  Hull  at  Detroit  were 

ernor  Shelby,  and  Colonel  Johnson's  regi-  recovered,  on  two  of  which  were  engraved 

ment  of  mounted  men.     Harrison  attacked  the  words,  "  Surrendered  by  Burgoyne  at 

(Oct.    5),    and    a    severe    battle    ensued.  Saratoga."      These   may   now   be    seen    at 

Tecumseh  was  slain,  and  his  amazed  fol-  West  Point.     The   loss   in   this   short  but 

lowers,  who  had  fought  desperately,  broke  decisive  battle  is  not  exactly  kno\vn.  It 
and  fled  to  the  shelter  of  the  swamp.    The 

whole  British  force  was  speedily  van- 
quished, and  most  of  them  were  made 
prisoners.  Proctor  escaped  in  a  carriage, 
with   his   personal   staff",   a   few   dragoons. 

*  This  picture  is  from  a  photograph  from 
life  of  Tecumseh's  lieutenant  at  the  battle  of 
the  Thames,  taken  at  Brantford,  Canada,  iu 
September,  1858,  when  he  was  attending  a 
grand  council  there.  ,  In  that  council  he  ap- 
peared with  all  his  testimonials  of  bravery- 

and  mounted  Indians,  hotly  pursued  some  ^ig  "  stars  and  garters  "—as  seen  in  the  pict- 

distance    by    Johnson    and    his    horsemen,  ure.     Around  his  hat  was  a  silver  band.     He 

He  made  his  way  to  the  western  end  of  also  displayed  a  silver  gorget,  medals,  etc.,  a 

T    I        r\   J.     •             J     j.1.           I.-           -i-i.  sash   of   bead-work,   strings   of   wampum,   and 

Lake    Ontario,     and     there    his     military  ^^  ornamented  tomahawk  pipe.     He  was  then 

career     was     ended.      Censured     by     his  about  ninety  years  of  age.     He  had  been  a 

superiors,  rebuked  by  the  Prince  Regent,  famous  warrior — the  hero  of  fifteen  battles. 



iasted   only   about   fifteen   minutes.     The    reciting  the  occasion  which  prompted  the 

Americans  lost  about  forty-five  killed  and 
wounded;  the  British  forty-four,  besides 
GOO  made  prisoners.  Harrison  had  recov- 
ered all  that  Hull  had  lost.  He  had  gained 
much.  He  liad  subdued  western  Canada, 
broken  up  the  Indian  Confederacy,  and 
ended  the  war  on  the  northwestern  border 
of  the  Union.  The  frontier  being  secured, 
Harrison  dismissed  a  greater  portion  of 
the  vohmteers.  Leaving  General  Cass 
(whom  he  had  appointed  civil  and  military 
governor  of  ^Michigan)  in  command  of  a 
garrison  at  Detroit,  composed  of  1,000 
regulars,  he  proceeded  (Oct.  23)  with  the 
remainder    of    his    troops    to   Niagara,    to 

observance.  With  only  one  exception, 
Congress  suspended  business  on  the  days 
appointed  for  thanksgiving. 

Washington  issued  a  proclamation  for 
a  general  thanksgiving  by  the  Continental 
army  on  Thursday,  Dec.  18,  1777;  and 
again,  at  Valley  Forge,  May  7,  1778.  As 
President,  Washington  appointed  Thurs- 
day, Nov.  26,  1789,  a  day  for  general 
thanksgiving  throughout  the  Union;  also 
Thursday,  Feb,  19,  1795.  Successive 
Presidents  of  the  United  States  were 
moved  to  do  likewise,  from  time  to  time. 
The  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  revised 
(1789)     for    the    use    of    the    Protestant 

join  the  Army  of  the  Centre.  For  some  Episcopal  Church  in  America,  directed  the 
unexplained  reason  General  Armstrong,  first  Thursday  of  November  (unless  an- 
the  Secretary  of  War,  treated  Harrison  so    other  day  be  appointed  by  the   civil   au- 

badly  that  the  latter  left  the  army,  and 
the  country  was  deprived  of  his  valuable 
services  at  a  most  critical  time.  See  Hab- 
Risox,  William  Henry. 

Thanksgiving  Day.  The  first  record- 
ed public  thanksgiving  appointed  by  au- 
thority, in  America,  was  proclaimed  in 
Massachusetts  Bay  in  1631.  Owing  to  the 
great    scarcity    of    provisions    and    con- 

thorities)  "to  be  observed  as  a  day  of 
thanksgiving  to  Almighty  God  for  the 
fruits  of  the  earth,"  etc.  In  New  England, 
especially,  a  day  of  thanksgiving  has  been 
annually  celebrated  for  a  century  and 
more,  and  made  the  occasion  for  family 
reunions.  The  custom  gradually  extended 
to  other  States,  and  for  several  years  the 
President  of  the  United  States  has  issued 

sequent  menace  of  starvation,  Feb.  22  was  a  proclamation  for  a  day  of  public  thanks- 
appointed  to  be  observed  as  a  fast-day.  giving  throughout  the  Union — usually  the 
Before  that  time  a  long-expected  vessel  last  Thursday  in  November — and  the  State 
arrived,  laden  with  provisions,  and  the  executives  have  chosen  the  same  day,  so 
fast-day  was  changed  into  one  of  thanks-  that  the  custom  is  now  general.  Thanks- 
giving. The  practice  was  sometimes  ob-  giving  Day  is  now  a  legal  holiday, 
served  in  New  Netherland.  Governor  Tharin,  Robert  Seymour  Symmes, 
Kieft  proclaimed  a  public  thanksgiving,  laAvyer;  born  in  Magnolia,  S.  C,  Jan.  10, 
to  be  held  in  February,  1644,  on  account  1830;  graduated  at  the  College  of  Charles- 
of  a  victory  over  the  Indians;  and  again,  ton  in  1857  and  at  the  Law  Department  of 
in  1645,  because  of  the  conclusion  of  peace,  the  University  of  New  York  in  1859; 
Thanksgivings  and  fasts,  sometimes  general  was  strongly  in  favor  of  the  Union  prior 
and  sometimes  partial,  were  appointed  in  to  the  Civil  War,  and  owing  to  his  opinions 
the, several  colonies,  and  early  in  the  Revo-  was  attacked  by  a  mob  in  1861.  He  fled 
lutionary  War  the  Continental  Congress  to  Cincinnati;  afterwards  settled  in  Rich- 
adopted  the  practice.     The  days  appoint-  mond,    Ind. ;    and    served    in    the    Union 

ed  during  the  war  were  as  follows:  Thurs- 
day, .July  20,  1775;  Friday,  May  17,  1776; 
and  another,  to  be  fixed  by  the  several 
States,  ordered  by  resolution,  Dec.  11, 
1776:   Wednesday,  April  22,  1778;  Thurs- 

army  in  1861-62.  In  1888  he  declined 
a  nomination,  by  the  Industrial  Con- 
ference in  Washington,  for  President  of 
the  United  States;  and  was  later  engaged 
in    the    auditor's    office    in    Washington. 

day,   May   6,    1779;    Wednesday,   April    6,  His    publications    include    Arbitrary    Aj-- 

1780;   Thursday,  May  3,   1781;  Thursday,  rests   in   the   South;   and   Letters  on   the 

April   25,   1782.     These   eight   several   ap-  Political  Situation. 

pointments    of    thanksgiving    days    were  Thatcher,  Benjamin  Bussey,  author; 

made  by  the  Continental  Congress,  in  the  born  in  Warren,  Me.,  Oct.  8,  1809;  gradu- 

form  of  recommendations  to  the  executive  atod  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1826;   studied 

heads  of  the  several   State  governments,  law   and   was   admitted   to   the   bar,   but 



turned  his  attention  to  literary  work.  He 
was  the  author  of  Biography  of  North 
American  Indians;  Memoir  of  Phillis 
Wheatley;  Memoir  of  8.  Osgood  Wright; 
Traits  of  the  Boston  Tea-party;  Traits 
of  Indian  Manners,  etc.;  and  Tales  of  the 
American  Revolution.  He  died  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  July  14,  1840. 

Thatcher,  Henry  Knox,  naval  officer; 
born  in  Thomaston,  Me.,  May  26,  1806: 
grandson  of  Gen.  Henry  Knox;  entered 
the  navy  in  1823;  was  made  captain  in 
1831,  and  commodore  in  July,  1862.  In 
1862-63  he  commanded  the  Mediterranean 
Squadron,  and  was  in  command  of  the 
steam-frigate  Colorado,  of  the  North  At- 
lantic Squadron,  in  both  attacks  on  Fort 
Fisher.  He  afterwards  commanded  the 
West  Gulf  Squadron,  and  assisted  Gen- 
eral Canby  in  the  reduction  of  Mobile. 
On  May  10,  1865,  Thatcher  received  the 
surrender  of  the  Confederate  naval  forces 
at  Mobile  and  on  the  Alabama  River.  In 
July,  1866,  he  was  made  rear-admiral, 
and  in  May,  1868,  retired.  He  died  in 
Boston,  Mass.,  April  5,  1880. 

Thayer,  Eli,  educator ;  born  in  Mendon, 
Mass.,  June  11,  1819;  graduated  at  Brown 
College  in  1845;  established  the  Oread 
Institute,  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1848;  mem- 
ber of  the  legislature  in  1853-54,  during 
which  period  he  organized  and  founded 
the  Emigrant  Aid  Company  and  endeav- 
ored to  unite  the  North  in  favor  of  his 
scheme  to  send  into  Kansas  anti-slavery 
settlers.  His  company  founded  Topeka, 
Lawrence,  Manhattan,  and  Ossawatomie, 
of  which  places  Gov.  Charles  Robinson 
said :  "  Without  these  settlements  Kansas 
would  have  been  a  slave  State  without  a 
struggle;  without  the  Aid  Society  these 
towns  would  never  have  existed;  and  that 
society  was  born  of  the  brain  of  Eli 
Thayer."  Mr.  Thayer  was  a  member  of 
Congress  in  1857-61.  He  invented  an 
automatic  boiler  cleaner,  an  hydraulic 
elevator,  and  a  sectional  safety  steam- 
boiler.  His  publications  include  a  history 
of  the  Emigrant  Aid  Company;  several 
lectures;  a  volume  of  his  speeches  in  Con- 
gress; and  the  Kansas  Crusade.  He  died 
iii  Worcester,  Mass.,   April   15,   1899. 

Thayer,  Martin  Russell,  jurist;  born 
in  Petersburg,  Va.,  Jan.  27,  1819;   grad- 
uated at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1840;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1842;  mcm- 
IX. — E 

ber  of  Congress  in  1863-07;  jwdge  of  tho 
district  court  of  Philadelphia  in  1867-90. 
He  is  the  author  of  The  Duties  of  Citizen- 
ship; The  Great  Victory  [of  the  Civil 
War],  its  Cost  and  its  Value;  The  Bat- 
tle of  Germantown;  The  Philippines: 
What  is  Demanded  of  the  United  States 
by  the  Obligations  of  Duty  and  National 
Honor,  etc. 

Thayer,  Simeon,  military  officer;  born 
in  Mendon,  Mass.,  April  30,  1737;  he 
served  with  the  Rhode  Island  troops  in  the 
French  and  Indian  War,  and  in  1757  in  the 
Massachusetts  line,  under  Colonel  Frye 
and  Rogers  the  Ranger.  He  was  taken 
prisoner  in  1757  at  Fort  William  Henry. 
He  accompanied  Arnold  in  his  famous  ex- 
pedition to  Quebec  (1775),  and  was  made 
prisoner;  but  was  exchanged  in  July,  1777, 
and  was  prominent  in  the  defence  of  Red 
Bank  and  Fort  Mifflin,  where  he  was  ma- 
jor. He  was  wounded  in  the  battle  of 
Monmouth;  served  in  New  Jersey  in  1780, 
and  in  1781  retired  from  the  service.  He 
left  a  Journal  of  the  Invasion  of  Canada 
in  1775,  which  was  published  in  1867. 
He  died  in  Cumberland,  R.  I.,  Oct.  14, 

Thayer,  Sylvanus,  military  officer; 
born  in  Braintree,  Mass.,  June  9,  1785; 
graduated  at  Dartmouth  College  in  1807 
and  at  West  Point  in  1808,  entering  the 
corps  of  engineers.  He  was  chief  engineer 
of  Dearborn's  army  in  1812,  and  of  Hamp- 
ton's division  in  1813.  He  was  chief 
engineer  in  the  defence  of  Norfolk,  Va., 
in  1814.  In  1815  he  was  sent  with  Colonel 
McRae  to  Belgium  and  France  to  examine 
the  fortifications  there;  and  from  1817  to 
1833  he  was  superintendent  at  West  Point, 
and  established  the  academy  on  its  present 
basis.  In  1838  he  was  made  lieutenant- 
colonel,  and  from  1833  to  1857  was  con- 
structing engineer  of  the  defences  of  Bos- 
ton Harbor,  and  temporary  chief  of  the 
engineer  corps  from  1857  to  1859.  He 
was  commissioned  colonel  in  March,  1863; 
brevetted  brigadier-general  in  May;  and 
resigned  June  1.  He  died  in  South  Brain- 
tree,  Mass.,  Sept.  7,  1872. 

Thayer,  William  ]Makepeace,  author 
born   in  Franklin,  Mass.,  Feb.  23,   1820 
graduated  at  Brown  University  in   1843 
later  studied  theology;  was  in  charge  of 
the     Orthodox     Congregational     Church, 
Ashland,  Mass.,   in   1849-57;    and   subse- 


quently  applied  himself  to  literary  work;  thanksgiving  at  the  close  of  autumn.    The 

returned  to  Franklin  in  1858;  member  of  observance   of   Christmas   and   other   holi- 

the    legislature    in    1857    and    1863;    and  days  of  the  Roman  Catholic  and  English 

secretary  of  the  Massachusetts  Temperance  churches  was  denounced,  and  came  to  be 

Alliance   in    1860-76.     He   was   author   of  legarded    by    the    people    as    idolatrous. 

Character  and  Public  Service  of  Abraham  Even  the  eating  of  mince-pies  on  Christ- 

Lincohi ;     Marvels    of     the     New     West;  mas    was    discontinued.       This    tyi'annous 

Youth's  History  of  the  Rebellion ;  From  theocracy  prevailed  in  Massachusetts  with 

Tannery  to  the  White  House;  From  Log  increasing   strength   for   fully   fifty  years, 

Cabin  to  the  White  House,  etc.     He  died  until  the  chain  was  gradually  removed  by 

in   Franklin,   ^lass.,   April   7,   1898.  enlightenment.      "  It    seemed   like   an   at- 

Thekakisqui,    Iroquois   chief;    born   in  tempt  to  establish  a  vast  Puritan  nionas- 

central   New  York   in   1756;   was  made   a  tery,  with  freedom  only  in  marrying  and 

chief  in  1776;  gave  considerable  aid  to  the  money-making.     See  Aristocracy. 

British  in   the  Revolutionary  War;    com-  Theondechoren,    Joseph,    Indian    con- 

manded  a  band  of  Indians  who  laid  waste  vert;   embraced  Christianity  in  1641,  and 

parts  of  the  Carolinas  with  fire  and  sword,  became  a  fervent  preacher;  took  part  with 

In    1794    he    turned    over    to    the    United  the  Iroquois  in  an  attack  on  Quebec,  where 

States  government  a  part  of  the  lands  of  he  was  wounded,  but  escaped  to  the  woods, 

his  tribe.     Under  his  leadership  his  people  He  was  captured  by  hostile  Indians,  who 

made  progress  in  the  science  of  agricult-  were  so  influenced  by  his  preaching  that 

ure  and  civilization.     He  died  in  1802.  they  nursed  him  back  to  health.     In  1649, 

Theocracy.     In  1631  the  government  of  when  the  Hurons  were  forced  to  leave  their 

Massachusetts  was  made  a  theocracy.     In  country,  he  went  to  live  on   St.  Joseph's 

May  of  that  year  the  General  Court  de-  Island,  but  subsequently,  with  a  number 

creed  that  no  man  should  be  a  "  freeman  "  of   his    countrymen,    settled   near    Quebec. 

— a   citizen  and  voter — unless  he  were  a  He  died  near  Tadoussac,  Canada,  June  26, 

member  of  some  colonial  church.     To  be-  1652. 

come  such  was  to  submit  to  the  most  Theosophy,  a  name  derived  from  the 
rigid  tests  of  his  purity  of  life  and  his  Greek  word  theosophia,  divine  wisdom, 
orthodoxy  in  religion.  The  magistrates  The  object  of  theosophical  study  is  pro- 
and  General  Court  were  aided  by  the  fessedly  to  understand  the  nature  of 
clergy,  and  they  jointly  exercised  a  su-  divine  things.  It  differs,  however,  from 
preme  control  in  temporal  as  well  as  both  philosophy  and  theology,  even  when 
spiritual  matters.  The  clergy  were  always  these  have  the  same  object  of  investi- 
consulted  in  matters  purely  temporal,  gation.  For  in  seeking  to  learn  the  divine 
They  were  maintained  at  the  public  ex-  nature  and  attributes,  philosophy  employs 
pense,  for  which  the  people  were  taxed;  the  methods  and  principles  of  natural  rea- 
and  by  the  joint  influence  of  the  clergy  soning;  theology  uses  these,  adding  to 
and  magistrates  many  severe  laws  were  en-  them  certain  principles  derived  from  rev- 
acted,  sumptuary  and  otherwise.  Men  were  elation.  Theosophy,  on  the  other  hand, 
whipped,  their  ears  were  cropped,  or  they  professes  to  exclude  all  reasoning  processes 
were  banished,  for  "  slandering  the  gov-  as  imperfect,  and  to  derive  its  knowledge 
ernment  or  the  churches,  or  for  writing  from  direct  communication  with  God  him- 
letters  in  disparagement  of  the  authori-  self.  It  does  not,  therefore,  accept  the 
ties  in  Church  and  State."  The  system  truths  of  recorded  revelation  as  immut- 
of  manners  during  the  reign  of  this  tyran-  able,  but  as  subject  to  modification  by 
nous  theocracy  was  very  austere.  Gravity  later  direct  and  personal  revelations.  The 
was  a  sign  of  holiness;  all  amusements  theosophical  idea  has  had  followers  from 
were  proscribed;  gayety  seemed  to  be  re-  the  earliest  times.  Since  the  Christian 
garded  as  sin ;  religious  lectures  on  week-  era  we  may  class  among  theosophists  such 
days  were  so  frequent  that  their  attend-  sects  as  Neoplatonists,  the  Hesychasts 
ance  imposed  a  heavy  burden  on  the  in-  of  the  Greek  Church,  the  Mystics  of 
dustry  of  the  peofde,  who  went  from  toVn  mediaeval  times,  and,  in  later  times, 
to  town  to  hear  them.  There  was  a  rigid  the  disciples  of  Paracelsus,  Thalhauser, 
fast  in  spring,  answering  to  Lent,  and  a  Bohme,  and  others.     Recently  a  sect  haa 



arisen,  which  has  taken  the  name  of  mittee,  G.  E.  Harter,  Chicago;  William 
theosophists.  Its  leader  was  an  English  Main,  New  York;  Gen.  William  Ludlow, 
gentleman  who  had  become  fascinated  Rhode  Island;  A.  P.  Buchman,  Fort 
with  the  doctrines  of  Buddhism.  Taking  Wayne,  Ind. ;  W.  P.  Phelps,  New  York; 
a  few  of  his  followers  to  India,  they  have  and  J.  D.  Bood,  Fort  Wayne,  Ind. 
been  prosecuting  their  studies  there,  cer-  Thomas,  Allen  Clapp,  historian;  born 
tain  individuals  attracting  considerable  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  Dec.  26,  1846;  grad- 
attention  by  a  claim  to  miraculous  powers,  uated  at  Haverford  College  in  1865;  be- 
lt need  hardly  be  said  that  the  revelations  came  Professor  of  History,  and  librarian 
they  have  claimed  to  receive  have  been,  of  Haverford  College  in  1878.  He  is  the 
thus  far,  without  noteworthy  benefit  to  author  of  A  History  of  the  United  States 
the  human  race.  for  Schools  and  Academies;  An  Elemen- 

The   Universal   Brotherhood. — The   Uni-  tary  History  of  the  United  States;  His- 

versal  Brotherhood  for  the  benefit  of  the  tory  of  the  Society  of  Friends  in  Amer- 

people  of  the  earth  and  all  creatures  was  ica,  etc. 

founded  by  Katherine  A.  Tingley,  Jan.  13,        Thomas,    Cyrus,   ethnologist;    born   in 

1898,    in    New    York    City;      This    organ-  Kingsport,  Tenn.,  July  27,  1825;  was  ad- 

ization  is  the  outgrowth  and  expansion  of  mitted  to  the  bar  and  practised  till  1865; 

the   Theosophical    Society   founded   by   H.  became  assistant  on  the  United  States  geo- 

P.  Blavatsky,  W.  Q.  Judge,  and  others  in  logical  and  geographical  surveys  of  Terri- 

New  York  in  1875,  and  reorganized  under  tories    in    1869;     accepted    the    chair    of 

William  Q.  Judge  at  its  annual  convention  Natural  Sciences  at  the  Southern  Illinois 

in  Boston,  Mass.,  in  1895.     The  constitu-  Normal    University    in     1873;     appointed 

tion    of    the    Universal    Brotherhood    was  archaeologist  to  the  United  States  Bureau 

adopted   by    the    Theosophical    Society    in  of  Ethnology  in  1882.     He  is  the  author 

America  at  its  annual  convention  held  in  of   The  Cherokees  and   Shaionees  in  Pre- 

Chicago,  Feb.   18,   1898,  by  which  act  the  Columbian  Times;  Mound  Explorations  of 

Theosophical    Society   in   America   became  the    Bureau    of    Ethnology ;    Prehistoric 

the  literary  department  of  the  Universal  Works  East  of  the  Rocky  Mountains;  In- 

Brotherhood.  troduction  to  American  Archceology,  etc. 

There  are  over  150  lodges  of  the  Uni-        Thomas,  George  Henry,  military  ofli- 

versal   Brotherhood   in   the  United   States  cer;    born    in    Southampton    county,    Va., 

and  Canada,  also  lodges  in  England,  Ire-  July  31,   1816;   graduated  at  West  Point 

land,  Sweden,  Holland,  France,  Germany,  in    1840,   and   entered   the   artillery.      He 

Greece,  India,  Australia,  and  New  Zealand,  served   in   the    Seminole   War;    was   with 

The  central  office  of  the  organization  is  at  General  Taylor  in  the  war  with  Mexico; 

Point  Loma,  San  Diego,  Cal.  and  again  fought  the  Seminoles  in  Florida 

The  officers  are:   Katherine  A.  Tingley,  in   1849-50.      From   1851   to   1854  he  was 

leader  and  official  head;  Frank  M.  Pierce,  instructor  of  artillery  at  West  Point,  and 

secretary-general;    E.    Aug.    Neresheimer,  was  made  major  of  cavalry  in  May,  1855. 

treasurer.  From  1856  to  1860  he  served  in  Texas,  and 

Theosophical  Society  in  America. — The  in  a  fight  with   the  Indians  near  Brazos 

headquarters  of  the  Theosophical   Society  River   was   wounded.      He   was   promoted 

in    America     are    at    Point    Loma,     San  colonel  of  the  5th  Cavalry  (Col.  Robert  E. 

Diego,    Cal.      President,    E.    Aug.    Neres-  Lee's   old   regiment)    in   May,    1861;    and, 

heimer.     American  headquarters,   11   East  having   served    awhile   in   the   vicinity   of 

Fifty-ninth  Street,  New  York  City.  the   upper   Potomac,   was  made  brigadier- 

Eclcctic  Theosophical  Society. — An  in-  general  of  volunteers  in  August.  From 
dependent  international  body,  with  head-  November,  1861,  till  March,  1802,  he  corn- 
quarters  in  New  York  City.  manded  a  division  of  the  Army  of  the  Ohio, 

John    M.     Pryse,     president,     17     West  defeating   the   Confederates   in   the   battle 

Ninety-eighth  Street,  New  York  City.  of  Mill  Spring    {q.  v.)    in  January.     At 

A^jierican     Theosophical    Association. —  Corinth,   Miss.,   he   commanded   the   right 

President,  Dr.  J.  D.  Buck,  of  Cincinnati ;  wing  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee,  and 

vice-president,    secretary,    and    treasurer,  v.'as  second  in  command  of  the  Army  of  the 

Dr.  Stewart,  of  New  York;  executive  com-  Ohio  at  Perryville  in  October.    For  nearly 





B  year  from  November,  1862,  he  com-  repulsed  the  assault  of  Oconosta.  Later 
manded  the  14th  Corps  of  the  Army  of  he  led  the  party  that  invaded  the  Indian 
the  Cumberland,  doing  eminent  service  in  country.  He  was  guide  to  General  Sevier 
the  battles  of  Stone  Rn'ER  and  Chicka-  for  twenty  years  in  almost  all  of  his 
MAUGUA    {qq.  V.) .     In  October,   1863,  he    numerous  movements  against  the   Creeka 

and   Cherokees.      He   died    in    Sevierville, 
Tenn.,  in  1819. 

Thomas,  Isaiah,  printer;  born  in 
Boston,  Mass.,  Jan.  19,  1749;  was  ap- 
prenticed to  a  printer  seven  years,  and 
started  business  for  himself  in  Newbury- 
port,  Mass.,  when  he  was  eighteen  years 
of  age.  In  1770  he  transferred  his  print- 
ing establishment  to  Boston,  and  on  July 
17,  1771,  began  the  publication  of  the 
Massachusetts  8py,  which  became  the 
champion  of  the  colonies  contending  for 
right  and  justice.  The  government  tried 
to  suppress  it,  but  in  vain.  After  the 
skirmish  at  Lexington  (April  19,  1775)  he 
transferred  his  establishment  to  Worces- 
ter, where  he  continued  to  publish  the  Spy 
until  1801,  when  it  was  continued  by  his 
son  from  that  time  until  1819.  Enterpris- 
ing in  business,  he  established  a  book- 
store in  Boston  in  1788  with  Mr.  Andrews, 
was  placed  in  command  of  the  Department  and  they  established  branches  of  their 
and  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  and  was  publishing  business  in  various  places, 
promoted  brigadier-general,  United  States  They  published  the  Massachusetts  Maga- 
army.  He  was  in  the  battle  of  Mission-  zine  from  1789  to  1796,  and  the  Islew  Eng- 
aky  Ridge  {q.  v.),  and  did  signal  service  land  Almanac  forty-two  years — from  1775. 
in  the  Atlanta  campaign,  when  he  took  For  many  years  the  Bibles  and  school 
post  at  Nashville  and  defended  Tennessee  books  used  in  the  English  colonies,  and  in 
against  the  invasion  of  Hood.  For  this  the  States  afterwards,  were  issued  from 
service  he  was  made  a  major-general,  Thomas's  press  at  Worcester.  He  printed 
and  received  the  thanks  of  Congress,  and  several  editions  of  the  Bible.  In  1791  he 
from  the  legislature  of  Tennessee  a  issued  a  folio  edition,  with  copper-plates, 
gold  medal.  In  February,  1868,  he  and  another,  in  quarto,  with  a  concord- 
was  offered  the  brevet  of  lieutenant-gen-  ance;  in  1793  an  edition  in  octavo;  and 
eral  by  President  Johnson,  but  he  declined  in  1797  another  in  duodecimo.  Thomas 
to  receive  it.  He  died  in  San  Francisco,  says  Isaac  Collins  printed,  at  Trenton, 
Cal.,  March  28,  1870.  On  Nov.  19,  1879,  N.  J.  (where  he  was  State  printer),  ^' a 
an  exquisitely  wrought  equestrian  statue  handsome  and  very  correct  octavo  edition 
of  General  Thomas,  in  design  and  execu-  of  the  Bible."  Collins  also  printed  a 
tion  by  J.  Q.  A.  Ward,  was  imveiled  at  quarto  edition.  In  1812  Mr.  Thomas 
the  national  capital,  with  very  imposing  founded  the  American  Antiquarian  So- 
ceremonies,  such  as  had  never  been  seen  ciety  in  Worcester;  provided  a  building 
there  before.  for  its  use  on  his  grounds:  gave  it  nearly 

Thomas,  Isaac,  scout ;  born  in  Virginia  8,000  books  and  a  most  valuable  series  of 
about  1735;  settled  among  the  Cherokee  newspapers;  and  bequeathed  to  it  the  land 
Indians  in  1755.  He  warned  Gen.  John  on  which  the  hall  was  built.  He  also  made 
Sevier  and  James  Robertson  at  Watauga,  a  provision  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
Va.,  on  May  30,  1776,  of  an  intended  at-  library  and  museum  equal  to  about  $24.- 
taok  by  the  Indians.  About  the  middle  000.  Mr.  Thomas  wrote  and  published 
of  July  he  joined  the  small  force  of  forty  (1810)  a  valuable  History  of  Printhw.  He 
in   the   fort   at   Watauga,   and   with   them    died  in  Worcester,  Mass.,  April  4,  1831. 



Thomas,  Jane,  heroine;  born  in  Ches-  tary  of  the  Treasury,  1860-61;  member  ol 

ter    county,    Pa.,    in    the    eighteenth    cen-  Congress,  1875-77.     He  died  in  Baltimore, 

tury;   wife   of   Col.   John   Thomas,  of   the  Aid.,  Oct.  2,  1890. 

South  Carolina  Spartan  Regiment.  Prior  Thomas,  Theodore,  musician;  born  in 
to  the  Revolutionary  War  Colonel  Thomas,  Esens,  Hanover,  Germany,  Oct.  11,  1835; 
learning  that  a  large  party  of  Tories  was  received  his  musical  education  principal- 
on  the  way  to  seize  the  ammunition  that  ly  from  his  father,  with  whom  he  came 
Gov.  John  Rutledge  had  left  in  his  charge,  to  the  United  States  in  1845.  He  organ- 
fled,  carrying  with  him  a  part  of  the  ized  the  world-famed  orchestra  in  New 
powder.  Two  men  and  two  women,  one  York,  which  he  conducted  till  1888.  He 
of  whom  was  Mrs.  Thomas,  remained  in  was  director  of  the  Cincinnati  College  of 
charge  of  the  house.  When  the  place  was  Music  in  1878-81;  conductor  of  the  Cin- 
attacked  the  woman  loaded  the  gun  while  cinnati  musical  festivals,  1873-98;  and  of 
the  men  kept  up  an  incessant  firing  till  the  the  American  Opera  Company  in  1885-87. 
enemy  withdrew.  It  was  said  that  the  He  removed  to  Chicago,  111.,  in  1891,  to 
ammunition  thus  saved  was  the  main  conduct  the  Chicago  orchestra;  and  was 
supply  for  the  troops  of  Sumter  during  musical  director  of  the  World's  Colum- 
the  skirmishes  around  Hanging  Rock  and  bian  Fair.  He  died  in  Chicago,  111.,  Jan. 
Rocky  Mount.  4,  1905. 

Thomas,   John,  military  officer;   born  Thompson,   Alexander  Ramsey,  mili- 

in    Marshfield,    Mass.,    in    1725;     was    a  tary  officer;   born  in   1790;   graduated   at 

practising  physician,  and  was  surgeon  in  the   United    States   Military   Academy   in 

the  provincial  army  sent  to  Nova   Scotia  1812;   served  in  the  War  of  1812,  taking 

in  1746.   In  1747  he  was  on  Shirley's  medi-  part  in  Gen.  James  Wilkinson's  expedition 

cal   staflF,  and  in   1759  he  became  colonel  down  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  the  defence  of 

of  a  provincial  regiment.     He  commanded  Plattsburg,    and    in    other    operations    on 

a  regiment  under  Amherst  and  Haviland  Lake  Champlain;  promoted  captain  of  in- 

in     1760    in    the    capture    of    Montreal,  fantry   in    1814;    became   major   in    1832, 

Colonel  Thomas  was  one  of  the  most  active  and  lieutenant-colonel  in  1837;   served  in 

Sons    of   Liberty    in    Massachusetts;    was  the  war  with  the  Seminole  Indians;   and 

appointed    brigadier-general    by    Congress  was   killed    in    the    battle    of    Okeechobee, 

in  1775;  commanded  a  brigade  during  the  Dec.  25,   1837. 

siege  of  Boston,  and  after  the  evacuation  Thom.pson,  Alfred  Wordsworth,  art- 
was  sent  to  take  command  of  the  American  ist;  born  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  May  26, 
troops  in  Canada.  He  joined  the  army  1840;  studied  art  in  Paris,  France;  settled 
before  Quebec  May  1,  1776,  and  died  in  in  New  York  in  1863;  became  an  associate 
Chambly,  June  2,  1776.  of    the    National    Academy   of    Design    in 

Thomas,     Lorenzo,     military     officer;  1873,    and    a    member    of   the    Society   of 

born   in   Newcastle,    Del.,    Oct.    26,    1804;  American  Artists  in  1878.     His  paintings 

graduated  at  West  Point  in  1823;   served  include.    Desolation;   Annapolis   in   1776; 

in  the  Seminole  War  and  in  the  war  with  Revieio   at    Philadelphia,    1777 ;    The   Ad- 

Mexico;    and    in    May,    1861,    was    made  vance  of  the  Enemy;   The  Departure  for 

adjutant-general,  with  the  rank  of  briga-  the  War,  1776,  etc.     He  died  in  Summit, 

dier-general,  which  office  he  held  through-  N.  J.,  Aug.  28,  1896. 

out  the  Civil  War.     In  1863  he  was  en-  Thompson,  Sir  Benjamin.     See  Rusi- 

gaged  in  organizing  colored  troops  in  the  ford. 

South.     He  was  brevetted  major-general,  Thompson,     Daniel    Pierce,    author; 

United  States  army,  in  1865,  and  retired  born  in  Charlestown,  Mass.,  Oct.  1,  1795; 

in  1869.     He  died  in  Washington,  D.   C,  graduated  at  Middlebury  College  in  1820; 

March  2,  1875.    See  Johnson,  Andrew.  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1823,  and  practised 

Thomas,  Philip  Francis,  statesman;  in  Montpelier,  Vt. ;  was  register  of  probate 
born  in  Easton,  Md.,  Sept.  12,  1810;  ad-  in  1824;  clerk  of  the  legislature  in  1830- 
mitted  to  the  bar,  1831;  member  of  the  33 ;  and  was  appointed  to  compile  the  Latcs 
State  legislature,  1838  and  1843-45;  mem-  of  Vermont  from  1824  down  to  and  in- 
hex  of  Congress,  1839-41;  governor  of  eluding  the  year  1834.  He  was  judge  oi 
Maryland,   1848-51;    United  States  Secre-  probate    in    1837-40;     clerk    of    the    Su- 



preme  and  county  courts  in  1843-45,  and  mont,  at  the  foot  of  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
Secretary  of  State  in  1853-55.  He  was  a  and  gave  640  acres  of  land  and  $300  to 
popular  lecturer ;  edited  the  Green  Moun-  each  colonist  there.  She  contributed  large- 
tain  Freeman  in  1849-56;  and  was  author  ly  to  the  purchase  of  the  Vassar  College 
of  The  Green  Moioitain  Boys;  The  Histo'i/  telescope;  purchased  and  presented  to  Con- 
of  Montpelier,  IISI-ISGO,  etc.  He  died  in  gress  Francis  B.  Carpenter's  painting  of 
Montpelier,  Vt.,  June  6,  1868.  i\\e  Signing  of  the  Emancipation  Proclama- 

Thompson,  David,  explorer;  born  in  tion  by  President  Lincoln  in  the  Presence 
St.  John,  England,  April  30,  1770;  entered  of  his  Calinct,  and  for  this  was  gi-anted 
the  employ  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  the  freedom  of  the  lloor.  She  also  con- 
in  1789;  later  engaged  in  exploring  ex-  tributed  large  sums  to  the  American  As- 
peditions.  On  April  27,  1798,  he  discov-  sociation  for  the  Advancement  of  Science, 
ered  Turtle  Lake,  from  which  the  Mis-  and  was  made  its  first  patron.  She  died 
sissippi  River  takes  its  southerly  course  in  Littleton,  N.  H.,  July  20,  1899. 
to  the  Gulf.  He  explored  the  southern  Thompson,  George,  reformer;  born  in 
shore  of  Lake  Superior  in  1798;  crossed  Liverpool,  England,  June  18,  1804;  came 
the  Rocky  Mountains  in  1807,  and  explored  to  the  United  States  at  the  request  of 
the  whole  length  of  Columbia  River  in  William  Lloyd  Garrison  to  aid  the  abo- 
1811;  was  employed  by  Great  Britain  in  lition  cause;  addressed  large  meetings  in 
surveying  and  laying  out  the  boundary-  the  Northern  States,  and  through  his  ef- 
line  between  the  United  States  and  Can-  forts  150  anti-slavery  societies  were  form- 
ada  in  1816-26.  He  was  the  author  of  ed.  He  was  threatened  by  mobs  several 
Map  of  the  Northioest  Territory  of  the  times,  and  once,  when  in  Boston,  escaped 
Province  of  Canada,  made  for  the  North-  death  by  fleeing  in  a  small  boat  to  an  Eng- 
west  Company  in  1813-14-  He  died  in  lisli  vessel,  on  which  he  sailed  to  England. 
Longueil,  Canada,  Feb.  16,  1857.  His  visit  created  much  excitement  and  was 

Thompson,  Egbert,  naval  officer;  born  denounced  by  President  Jackson  in  a  mes- 
in  New  York  City,  July  6,  1820;  entered  sage  to  Congress.  He  revisited  the  United 
the  navj  in  1837;  was  attached  to  the  States  in  1851,  and  again  during  the  Civil 
South  Sea  Exploring  Expedition,  and  was  War,  when  a  public  reception  was  given  in 
in  all  the  operations  of  the  home  squadron  his  honor  at  which  President  Lincoln  and 
in  the  war  with  Mexico.  In  the  attacks  his  cabinet  were  present.  In  1870  a  testi- 
on  Fort  Donelson  and  Island  Number  Ten  monial  fund  was  raised  for  him  by  his  ad- 
he  commanded  one  of  the  iron-clad  gun-  mirers  in  the  United  States  and  in  Eng- 
boats;  also  in  the  attack  on  Confederate  land.  He  died  in  Leeds,  England,  Oct. 
rams  near   Fort  Pillow.      He   commanded    7,  1878. 

the  steamer  Commodore  Macdonough  in  Thompson,  Henry  Adams,  clergyman; 
the  South  Pacific  Squadron  in  1866-67;  born  in  Stormstown,  Pa.,  March  23,  1837; 
was  promoted  captain  in  1867,  and  re-  graduated  at  Jefferson  College  in  1858, 
tired  in  1874.  He  died  in  Washington,  and  studied  theology  at  the  Western  Theo- 
D.  C,  Jan.  5,  1881.  logical  Seminary;  was  Professor  of  Math- 

Thompson,  Elizabeth,  philanthropist;  ematics  in  Otterbein  University.  O.,  in 
born  in  Lyndon,  Vt.,  Feb.  21,  1821;  was  1872-86;  candidate  for  Vice-President  on 
the  daughter  of  Samuel  Rowell,  a  farmer,  the  Prohibition  ticket  with  Neal  Dow  in 
and  at  the  age  of  nine  went  out  to  service.    1880. 

Her  education  was  chiefly  self-acquired.  Thompson,  Jacob,  lawyer;  born  in 
While  on  a  visit  to  Boston  in  1843  her  re-  Caswell  county,  N.  C,  May  15,  1810; 
markable  beauty  so  attracted  the  attention  graduated  at  the  University  of  North 
of  Thomas  Thompson,  a  millionaire,  that  Carolina  in  1831.  Admitted  to  the  bar  in 
they  were  married  within  a  year.  At  Mr.  1834,  he  began  the  practice  of  law  in 
Thompson's  death  the  entire  income  of  his  Chickasaw  county,  Miss.,  in  1835.  He  was 
immense  estate  was  left  to  her.  She  gave  elected  to  Congress  in  1839,  and  remained 
large  sums  of  money  to  the  cause  of  tern-  in  that  l)ody  until  1851.  For  several 
perance  and  charity;  provided  $10,000  for  years  he  was  chairman  of  the  committee 
a  thorough  investigation  of  yellow  fever  on  Indian  afl"airs,  and  he  defended  his 
in  the  South;  founded  the  town  of  Long-    adopted    State   when    she   repudiated   her 



bonds.  He  was  vehemently  pro- slavery  in 
bis  feelings,  and  was  one  of  the  most 
active  disunionists  in  his  State  many 
years  before  the  Civil  War.  He  was  Sec- 
retary of  the  Interior  under  President 
Buchanan,  but  resigned,  Jan.  7,  18G1,  and 
entered  into  the  services  of  the  Confed- 
eracy. He  was  governor  of  Mississippi  in 
1862-64,  and  was  then  appointed  Con- 
federate commissioner  in  Canada.  He  died 
in  Memphis,  Tenn.,  March  24,  1885.  See 
Peace  Commission. 

Thompson,  John,  author;  born  in  1777. 
He  was  the  author  of  articles  published  in 
the  Petersburg  Gazette,  and  signed  *'  Cas- 
ca  "  and  "  Gracchus,"  in  which  he  attacked 
President  Adams's  administration,  and  of 
letters  signed  "  Curtiss,"  which  were  ad- 
dressed to  Chief-Justice  John  Marshall  in 
1798,  and  later  published  in  book  form. 
He  died  in  Petersburg,  Va.,  in  1799. 

Thompson,  Launt,  sculptor;  born  in 
Abbeyleix,  Queen's  County,  Ireland,  Feb. 
8,  1833:  came  to  the  United  States  in 
1847;  studied  medicine  and  later  drawing 
and  modelling;  and  opened  a  studio  in 
New  York  in  1858.  Among  his  best-known 
works  are  statues  of  General  Sedgwick, 
Winfield  Scott,  and  Abraham  Pierce,  and 
busts  of  Edwin  Booth,  Bryant,  and  Gen- 
eral Dix.  He  was  vice-president  of  the 
National  Academy  of  Design  in  1874.  He 
died  in  Middletown,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  26,  1894. 

Thompson,  Richard  Wigginton,  states- 
man ;  born  in  Culpeper  county,  Va., 
June  9,  1809;  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1834;  began  practice  in  Bedford,  Ind. ; 
member  of  Congress  in  1841-43  and  in 
1847-49,  and  Secretary  of  the  Navy  in 
1877-81.  He  resigned  in  the  latter  year 
and  became  chairman  of  the  American 
committee  of  the  Panama  Canal  Com- 
pany. His  publications  include  History 
of  the  Tariff  and  Recollections  of  Sixteen 
Presidents.  He  died  in  Terre  Haute,  Ind., 
Feb.  9,  1900. 

Thompson,  Smith,  jurist;  born  in 
Stanford,  N.  Y.,  Jan.  17,  1768;  graduated 
at  Princeton  in  1788 ;  Secretary  of  the 
Navy,  1818-23;  justice  of  the  United 
States  Supreme  Court,  1823-43.  He  died 
in  Poughkeepsie.  N.  Y.,  Dec.  18,  1843. 

Thompson,  Zodoc,  geologist;  born  in 
Bridgewater,  Vt.,  May  23,  179G;  gradu- 
ated at  the  University  of  Vermont  in 
1823;    was    appointed    State   geologist   of 

Vermont  in  1845-48;  accepted  the  chair 
of  Chemistry  and  Natural  History  in  the 
University  of  Vermont  in  1851.  He  was 
the  author  of  Gazetteer  of  the  State  of 
Vermont;  History  of  the  State  of  Ver- 
mont to  1832;  History  of  Vermont, 
Natural,  Civil,  and  Statistical;  Guide  to 
Lake  George,  Lake  Champlain,  Montreal, 
OAid  Quebec;  Geography  and  Geology  of 
Vermont,  etc.  He  died  in  Burlington, 
Vt.,  Jan.  19,  1856. 

Thomson,  Charles,  patriot;  born  in 
Maghera,  Ireland,  Nov.  29,  1729;  came  to 
America  in  1741;  educated  by  the  famous 
Dr.  Allison,  and  became  teacher  in  the 
Friends'  school  at  Newcastle,  Del.  After- 
wards making  his  home  in  Philadelphia, 
he  was  favored  with  the  friendship  of  Dr. 
Franklin,  and,  taking  an  interest  in  the 
labors  in  behalf  of  the  Indians  by  the 
Friendly  Association,  he  attended  Indian 



treaties.  The  Delawares  adopted  him  with 
a  name  which  signified  "  one  who  speaks 
the  truth."  As  he  was  alighting  from  a 
carriage  in  Philadelphia  with  his  Quaker 
bride — the  possessor  of  a  handsome  fort- 
une— a  messenger  came  to  him  from  the 
Continental  Congress,  just  assembled,  say- 
ing, "  They  want  you  at  Carpenter's  Hall 
to  keep  the  minutes  of  their  proceedings, 
as  yoii  are  very  expert  at  that  business." 
Thomson  complied,  and  he  served  in  that 
capacity  almost  fifteen  years.     He  was  a 


thorough  patriot,  and  held  the  respect  and 
confidence  of  all  his  associates.  He  had 
married,  at  the  age  of  forty-five,  Hannah 
Harrison,  aunt  of  President  Harrison. 
Thomson  was  an  excellent  classical  scholar, 
and  made  a  translation  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testaments.  He  had  gathered  much 
material  for  a  history  of  the  Revolution, 
but  destroyed  it.  He  died  in  Lower 
Merion,  Pa.",  Aug.  16,  1824. 

Thomson,  Elihu,  electrician;  born  in 
Manchester,  England,  March  29,  1853; 
graduated  at  Central  High  School  in 
1870;  appointed  Professor  of  Chemistry 
in  Central  High  School  in  1870;  connect- 
ed with  the  Thomson-Houston  and  Gen- 
eral Electric  companies  for  the  past 
twenty  years.  Mr.  Thomson  has  patented 
many  hundreds  of  inventions  bearing 
upon  electric  welding,  lighting,  heating, 
and  power.  He  was  made  an  officer  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor  by  the  French  govern- 
ment in  1889.     See  Electeicity. 

Thoreau,  Henry  David,  author;  born 
in  Concord,  Mass.,  July  12,  1817;  gradu- 
ated at  Harvard  College  in  1837;  became 


a  lecturer  and  writer,  and  was  strongly 
opposed  to  slavery;  was  an  intimate 
friend  of  Bronson  Alcot  and  Ralph  Waldo 

Emerson.  His  publications  include  Re- 
sistance to  Civil  Government ;  A  Week  on 
the  Concord  and  Merrimac  Rivers;  Wal- 
den,  or  Life  in  the  Woods;  The  Maine 
Woods;  Cape  Cod;  Letters  to  Various 
Persons;  A  Yankee  in  Canada,  etc.  He 
died  in  Concord,  Mass.,  May  6,  1862. 

Thorfinn,  Scandinavian  navigator ;  born 
in  Norway;  sailed  from  Norway  to  Green- 
land with  two  vessels  in  1006.  In  the 
same  year  he  organized  an  expedition  to 
sail  for  Vinland,  which  consisted  of  160 
men  and  women  and  three  vessels.  They 
were  driven  by  wind  and  current  to  what 
is  probably  Newfoundland.  They  next 
reached  Nova  Scotia,  and  in  looking  for 
the  grave  of  Thorvald  (q.  v.)  are  sup- 
posed to  have  sailed  along  the  coast  of 
New  England.  After  passing  Cape  Cod 
two  scouts  were  landed,  who  spent  three 
days  searching  the  country  to  the  south- 
west, and  then  returned,  bringing  some 
ears  of  wheat  and  bunches  of  grapes. 
They  spent  the  winter  at  what  is  either 
Nantucket  or  Martha's  Vineyard,  where 
they  constructed  booths,  and  during  the 
spring  cultivated  the  land  and  explored 
the  country.  Thorfinn  then  sailed  for  what 
is  probably  Mount  Hope  Bay  and  there 
founded  a  settlement.  Here  they  first 
met  the  Eskimos,  who  then  inhabited 
the  country,  and  carried  on  a  consid- 
erable trade  with  them.  In  the  fall  of 
1009  a  son  was  born  to  Thorfinn,  who  was 
in  all  probability  the  first  child  of  Euro- 
pean parents  born  within  the  present 
boundary  of  the  United  States.  In  the 
following  winter  the  natives  became  hos- 
tile, and  after  combating  them  for  some 
time  Thorfinn  returned  to  Norway,  where 
he  arrived  in  1011,  and  was  received  with 
great  honors.  He  died  in  Gloembceland, 
Ireland,  after   1016. 

Thornton,  Sir  Edward,  diplomatist; 
born  in  London,  England,  July  17,  1817; 
graduated  at  Cambridge  University  in 
1840;  was  appointed  minister  to  the  Unit- 
ed States  in  December,  1867;  member  of 
the  joint  high  commission  on  the  Ala- 
hama  claims  in  1871;  member  of  the  ar- 
bitration board  of  the  American  and  Mexi- 
can claims  commission  in  1873;  and  of 
the  board  to  arrange  the  boundaries  of 
Ontario  in  1878.  He  was  transferred  from 
Washington  to  St.  Petersburg  in  Mav, 



Thornton,      James      Shepard,      naval  he  signed  the  Declaration.     He  was  made 

officer;  born  in  Merrimac,  N.  H.,  Feb.  25,  chief -justice   of   the    county   of    Hillsboro, 

1826;    entered    the    navy    as    midshipman  and   judge   of   the   Supreme   Court   of   the 

in  1841;   served  in  the  sloop  John  Adams  State.      He  was   in   both  branches  of   the 

during  the  Mexican  War;  became  a  passed  legislature,    and    in   the    council    in    1785. 

midshipman   in    1846;    and   resigned   from  He  died  in  Newburyport,  Mass.,  June  24, 

the  navy  in   1850.     He  was  reinstated  in  1803. 

1854;  promoted  master  in  1855;  and  lieu-  Thornton, 

tenant  in  1855;  served  during  the  Civil 
^^'ar  in  the  brig  Bainhridc/e;  was  execu- 
tive officer  of  the  flag-sliip  Hartford;  pro- 

Seth  Barton,  military 
officer;  born  near  Fredericksburg,  Va., 
in  1814;  served  in  the  Seminole  War  as 
second   lieutenant   of   United   States   Dra- 

moted    lieutenant  -  commander    in    1862;  goons,   becoming   first   lieutenant   in    1837 

had  charge  of  the  gunboat  Winona  in  the  and  captain  in   1841;   had  command  of  a 

engagements  at  Mobile ;  executive  ofiicer  of  squadron    in    the    Mexican    War    and    ex- 

the  Kearsarge  in  the  fight  with  the  Ala-  changed  the  first  shots  with  the  enemy  at 

bama  off  Cherbourg,  and  for  his  gallantry  La    Rosia,   April    25,    1846,    in   which   en- 

in  this  action  was  given  a  vote  of  thanks  gagement   he    was    severely   wounded    and 

and  advanced  thirty  numbers  in  his  rank,  captured    with    the    greater    part    of    his 

He  served  in  the  na^^-yard  at  Portsmouth,  force.     At  the  close  of   Scott's  campaign, 

N.  H.,  in  1866-67;  promoted  commander  in  while  leading  his  squadron  in  advance  of 

1866;    and   captain   in   1872.     He   died   in  Worth's    division    at    the    village    of    San 

Germantown,  Pa.,  May  14,  1875. 

Thornton,  John  Wingate,  historian; 
born  in  Saco,  Me.,  Aug.  12,  1818;  gradu- 
ated at  the  Harvard  Law  School  in  1840; 

Augustin,   he  was   shot  dead. 

Thorpe,  Francis  Newton,  author ;  born 
in  Swampscott,  Mass.,  April  16,  1857; 
studied  at  Syracuse  University  and  at  the 

was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  practised  in  University  of  Pennsylvania  Law  School; 
lk)ston;  was  one  of  the  originators  of  the  was  fellow  Professor  of  American  Con- 
New  England  Historic-Genealogical  So-  stitutional  History  at  the  University  of 
ciety.  His  publications  include  Lives  of  Pennsylvania  in  1885-98.  He  is  the  author 
Isaac  Heath  and  John  Boioles,  and  of  of  The  Government  of  the  People  of  the 
Rev.  John  Eliot,  Jr.;  The  Landing  at  Cape  United  f?tates;  Franklin  and  the  Uni- 
Anne,  or  the  Charter  of  the  First  Perma-  versity  of  Pennsylvania ;  The  Story  of  the 
nent  Colony  on  the  Territory  of  the  Massa-  Constitution ;  The  Government  of  the 
chusetts  Company,  noio  Discovered  and  State  of  Pennsylvania;  The  Constitution 
First  Published  from  the  Original  Manu-  of  the  United  States,  toith  Bibliography; 
script;  Ancient  Pemaquid  and  Historic  A  Constitutional  History  of  the  American 
Revietv;  Peter  Oliver's  "Puritan  Com-  People,  1776-1850;  The  Constitutional 
monwealth  "  Revieiced;  The  Pulpit  of  the  History  of  the  United  States  in  1765-1895 ; 
American  Revolution,  or  the  Political  Ser-  and  A  History  of  the  United  States  for 
mons  of  the  Period  of  1776,  with  an  Intro-  Junior  Classes. 

duction,  Notes,  and  Illustrations;  Colonial  Thorpe,   Thomas  Bangs,  author;   born 

Schemes  of  Popham  and  Gorges;  The  His-  in   Westfield,   Mass.,   March    1,    1815;    re- 

torical   Relation   of  Neio  England   to   the  ceived   a   collegiate   education;    settled   in 

English  Commonwealth,  etc.     He  died  in  Louisiana  in  1836  and  devoted  himself  to 

Saco,  Me.,  June  6,  1878.  literature;    served    in    the    Mexican    War 

Thornton,   Matthew,   a   signer   of   the  and  was  promoted  colonel  for  meritorious 

Declaration  of  Independence ;  born  in  Ire-  services.      His    publications    include    Tlie 

land  in   1714;    came  to  America   in  early  Big  Bear  of  Arkansas;  Our  Army  of  the 

life;   was  educated  at  Worcester,  and  be-  Rio  Grande;  Our  Army  at  Monterey;   A 

came    a    physician    in    New    Hampshire.  Voice  to   America;  Scenes  in  Arkansaw; 

He  was  in  Pepperell's  expedition  against  Reminiscences   of  Charles  L.  Elliott,   etc. 

Louisburg  in  1745  as  a  surgeon;  presided  He   died   in   New   York   City   in   October, 

over  the  New  Hampshire  Provincial  Con-  1878. 

vention  in  1775;  and  was  a  short  time  a  Thorvald,    Ericsson,    navigator;    born 

delegate     to     the     Continental     Congress,  in  Scandinavia  in  the  tenth  century.     In 

taking  his  seat  in  November,  1776,  when  1002  he  selected  a  crew  of  thirty  men  arwj 



sailed  westward.  He  is  supposed  to  have  the  mouth  of  the  Sorel.  A  British  force 
reached  what  is  now  the  coast  of  Rhode  took  post  at  Three  Rivers.  General  Sulli- 
Island,  and  to  have  wintered  near  the  van  sent  General  Thompson  with  Penn- 
present  site  of  Providence.  In  the  spring  sylvania  troops,  led  by  St.  Clair,  Wayne, 
of  1003  he  sailed  southward  and  westward  and  Irvine,  to  attack  the  British  there, 
and  anchored  near  what  is  supposed  to  be  Thompson  was  badly  beaten,  and  he  and 
Cape  Alder  ton.  Here  were  sighted  three  Irvine,  with  150  private  soldiers,  were 
canoes  containing  nine  savages,  eight  of  made  prisoners.  This  disaster  discouraged 
whom  were  slain.  The  ninth  escaped,  and  Sullivan,  and  he  was  compelled  to  aban- 
on    the    following   night    brought    back    a    don  Canada. 

large  number  of  Eskimos,  who  appeared  Thurman,  Allen  Granbery,  states- 
man; born  in  Lynchburg, 
Va.,  Nov.  13,  1813;  prac 
tised  law  in  Chillicothe, 
O.,  and  became  eminent  at 
the  bar;  was  a  life-long 
Democrat.  In  1845-47  he 
represented  Ohio  in  the 
national  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, and  in  1851-55 
was  a  judge  of  the  State 
Supreme  Court.  In  1867 
he  was  the  candidate  for 
governor  in  opposition  to 
Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  and 
the  campaign  was  close 
and  exciting,  though 
Hayes  won.  During  two 
terms,  1869  to  1881,  Thur- 
man was  a  member  of  the 
United  States  Senate, 
where  he  served  on  the 
judiciary  committee  and 
on  the  electoral  commis- 
sion of  1877,  and  was  a 
leader  of  the  party  and  an 
authority  on  constitution- 
al questions.  He  had  been 
a  candidate  for  the  Presi- 
dential nomination,  and  in 
1888  he  accepted  the  sec- 
ond place  on  the  ticket 
with  Grover  Cleveland.  In 
to  have  lived  in  the  tenth  century  much  the  election  Cleveland  and  Thurman  were 
farther  south  than  in  later  times.  These  defeated  by  Harrison  and  Morton.  Senator 
natives,  after  discharging  a  shower  of  ar-  Thurman  died  in  Oolumbus,0.,Dec.  12, 1895. 
rows  on  the  Scandinavians,  fled.  During  Thurston,  Lorrin  A.,  diplomatist; 
the  attack  Thorvald  received  an  arrow  born  in  Hawaii;  studied  law  in  Columbia 
wound  of  which  he  died.  After  burying  College  in  1880-81;  practised  in  Honolulu, 
him  at  Cape  Alderton  his  crew  returned  where  he  also  published  the  Daily  Bulletin 
to  Rhode  Island,  and  in  1005  sailed  for  in  1884;  elected  to  the  legislature  in  1886; 
Greenland.  prominent    in    the    reform    movement    of 

Three  Rivers,  Battle  of.  When  a  1887;  minister  of  the  interior  in  1887-90; 
large  British  and  German  force  began  to  member  of  the  House  of  Nobles  in  1892- 
arrive  in  the  St.  Lawrence  (May,  1776)  98;  and  was  chairman  of  the  commission 
the  Americans  retreated  up  the  river  to   appointed  in  1893  to  present  to  the  United 




States  government  the  project  for  the  an-  4    miles    from    Ticondcroga.       The    whole 

nexation   of   the   Sandwich    Islands.      See  country  was  covered  Avith  a  dense  forest, 

Hawaii.  and  tangled  morasses   lay   in   the  way  of 

Thwaites,     Rextben     Gold,     historian;  the  English.     Led  by  incompetent  guides, 

born  in  l^orchester,  Mass.,  May  15,  1853;  they  were  soon  bewildered;   and  while  in 

was  educated  at  Yale  College;    served  as  that   condition   the   right   column,   led   by 

editor  of  the  Wisconsin  State  Journal  in  Lord   Howe,  was   suddenly  attacked  by  a 

187C-8G;  then  became  secretary  and  super-  small  French  force.    A  sharp  skirmish  en- 

intendent    of    the    Wisconsin    State    His-  sued.      The  French  were  repulsed  with   a 

torical  Society.    He  is  the  author  of  His-  loss  of  148  men  made  prisoners.     At  the 

toric  Waterways ;  The  Story  of  Wisconsin;  first  fire  Lord  Howe  was  killed,  when  the 

The  Colonies  in  l.'i92-1750;  Afloat  on  the  greater   part   of   the    troops    fell    back    in 

Ohio,    etc.     He    was    also    editor    of    the  confusion  to  the  landing-place.     From  the 

Wisconsin  Historical  Collections  (volumes  prisoners  Abercromhie  learned  that  a  re- 

ix.-xv. )  ;    Chronicles  of  Border  Warfare;  inforcement  for  Montcalm  was  approach- 

The  Jesuit  Relations    (73  volumes);   Ori-  ing.     He  was  also  told  of  the  strength  of 

ginal  Journals  of  Lewis  and  Clark  (\903)  ;  the    garrison    and    the    condition    of    the 

etc.  fortress;    but   the   information,   false   and 

Tibbies,  Thomas  Henry,  politician;  deceptive,  induced  him  to  press  forward 
born  in  Washington  county,  O.,  in  1840;  to  make  an  immediate  attack  on  the  fort 
joined  in  the  movement  to  settle  Kansas  without  his  artillery.  This  was  a  fatal 
and  make  it  a  free  State;  became  an  mistake.  The  outer  works  were  easily 
itinerant  Methodist  preacher,  then  a  taken,  but  the  others  were  guarded  by 
Presbyterian  minister,  and  subsequently  abatis  and  thoroughly  manned.  Aber- 
a  journalist  and  editor  of  the  Independent  crombie  ordered  his  troops  to  scale  the 
of  Lincoln,  Neb.  He  early  affiliated  with  works  in  the  face  of  the  enemy's  fire 
the  Populist  party  and  was  its  candidate  (July  8),  when  they  were  met  by  in- 
fer vice-president  in   1904.  superable  obstacles.     After  a  bloody  con- 

Ticknor,     George,     author;     born     in  flict    of   four   hours,    the    assailants   were 

Boston,    Mass.,    Aug.    1,    1791;    graduated  compelled   to    fall    back    to   Lake    George, 

at  Dartmouth  College  in   1807;   admitted  leaving  about  2,000  men  dead  or  wounded 

to  the  bar  in   1813;   professor  of  modern  in  the  forest.     Abercrombie  then  hastened 

languages     and     literature     at     Harvard  to  his  camp  at  the  head  of  the  lake.    The 

College  in   1819-35.     His  publications  in-  loss  of  the  French  was  inconsiderable, 

elude  History  of  Spanish  Literature ;  the  Pitt    conceived   a   magnificent   plan   for 

Life  of  General  Lafayette;  Report  of  the  the  campaign  of  1759,  the  principal  feat- 

Board   of    Visitors   on    the    United   States  ure    of    which    was    the    conquest    of    all 

Military  Academy  at  West  Point  for  1826 ;  Canada,   and   so   ending   the   puissance   of 

Life  of  W.  H.  Prescott ;  etc.     He  died  in  France    in    America.       Abercrombie,    who 

Boston,  Mass.,  Jan.  26,  1871.  had  been  unsuccessful,  was  superseded  by 

Ticonderoga,   Operations  at.     In  the  Gen.  Sir  Jeff"rey  Amherst  in  the  command 

summer    of    1758    the    Marquis    de    Mont-  of  the   British   forces   in   America   in   the 

calm  occupied  the  fortress  of  Ticonderoga,  spring  of  1759.    The  new  commander  found 

on  Lake  Champlain,  with  about  4,000  men,  20,000   provincial   troops   at   his   disposal. 

French  and  Indians.    General  Abercrombie  A  competent  land  and  naval  force  was  sent 

personally  commanded  the  expedition  de-  from     England     to     co-operate    with     the 

signed    to    capture    this    fortress,    and    at  Americans.   The  plan  of  operations  against 

the   beginning  of  July  he  had   assembled  Canada  was  similar  to  that  of  Phipps  and 

at     the     head     of     Lake     George     about  Winthrop  in  1690.     A  powerful  land  and 

7.000    regulars,    nearly    9,000    provincials,  naval  force,  under  Gen.  James  Wolfe,  were 

and  a  heavy  train  of  artillery.     The  army  to    ascend    the    St.    Lawrence    and    attack 

moved    (July    5)    down   the    lake    in    900  Quebec.      Another   force,   under   Amherst, 

bateaux   and    125   whale-boats,   and   spent  was  to  drive  the  French  from  Lake  Cham- 

the  night  at  a  place  yet  known    (as  then  plain,  seize  Montreal,  and  join  Wolfe  at 

named)    as  Sabbath-day  Point.     At  dawn  Quebec;    and    a    third    expedition,    under 

they  landed  at  the  foot  of  the  lake,  about  General    Prideaux,    was   to    capture   Fort 




Niagara,  and  then  hasten  down  Lake  On-  was  talked  of  in  the  Connecticut  legislat- 
tario  and  the  St.  Lawrence  to  Montreal,  ure  after  the  affair  at  Lexington,  and 
Amherst  appeared  before  Ticonderoga  several  gentlemen  formed  the  bold  design 
(July  22,  1759)  with  about  11,000  men.  of  attempting  their  capture  by  surprise. 
The  French  commander  had  just  heard,  With  this  view,  about  forty  volunteers 
by  Indian  runners,  of  the  arrival  of  Wolfe  set  out  lor  Bennington  to  engage  the  co- 
before  Quebec  (June  27),  and  immedi-  operation  of  Ethan  Allen,  a  native  of  Con- 
ately  prepared  to  obey  a  summons  to  sur-  necticut,  and  the  leader  of  the  Green 
render.  The  garrison  left  their  outer  lines  Mountain  Boys  {q.  v.).  He  readily  see- 
on  the  23d  and  retired  within  the  fort,  onded  their  views.  They  had  been  joined 
and  three  days  afterwards,  without  offer-  at  Pittsfield,  Mass.,  by  Colonels  Easton 
ing  any  resistance,  they  abandoned  that  and  Brown,  with  about  forty  followers, 
also,  partially  demolished  it,  and  fled  to  Allen  was  chosen  the  leader  after  the 
Crown  Point.  That,  too,  they  abandoned,  whole  party  reached  Castleton,  at  twi- 
and  fled  dovm  the  lake  to  the  Isle  aux  light,  on  May  7.  Colonel  Easton  wa3 
Xoix,  in  the  Sorel.  Amherst  pursued  them  chosen  to  be  Allen's  lieutenant,  and  Seth 
only  to  Crown  Point.  Warner,  of  the  Green  Mountain  Boys,  was 
When,  in  1775,  it  became  apparent  that  made  third  in  command.  At  Castleton 
war  was  inevitable,  the  importance  of  the  Colonel  Arnold  joined  the  nartv.  He  had 
strong  fortresses  of  Ticonderoga  and  heard  the  project  spoken  of  in  Connecticut 
Crown  Point,  on  Lake  Champlain,  and  their  just  as  he  was  about  to  start  for  Cam- 
possession,  became  subjects  of  earnest  con-  bridge.  He  proposed  the  enterprise  to  the 
sultation    among    patriots.     The    subject  Massachusetts    committee   of   safety,    and 



was  commissioned  a  colonel  by  the  Pro- 
vincial Congress,  and  furnished  with  means 
and  authority  to  raise  not  more  than  400 
men  in  western  Massachusetts  and  lead 
them  against  the  forts.  On  reaching 
Stockbridge,  he  was  disappointed  in  learn- 
ing that  another  expedition  was  on  the 
way.  He  hastened  to  join  it,  and  claimed 
the  right  to  the  chief  command  by  virtue 
of  his  commission.  It  was  emphatically 
refused.  He  acquiesced,  but  with  a  bad 

On  the  evening  of  the  9th  they  were  on 
the  shore  of  Lake  Champlain,  opposite 
Ticonderoga,  and  at  dawn  the  next  morn- 
ing the  officers  and  eighty  men  were  on 
the  beach  a  few  rods  from  the  fortress, 
sheltered  by  a  blufi".  A  lad  familiar  with 
the  fort  was  their  guide.  Following  him, 
they  ascended  stealthily  to  the  sally-port> 
where  a  sentinel  snapped  his  musket  and 
retreated  into  the  fort,  closely  followed 
by  the  invaders,  who  quickly  penetrated 
to  the  parade.  With  a  tremendous  shout 
the  New-Englanders  awakened  the  sleep- 
i^ig  garrison,  while  Allen  ascended  the 
outer  staircase  of  the  barracks  to  the 
chamber  of  the  commander  (Captain  Dela- 

place),  and  beating  the  door  with  the 
handle  of  his  sword,  cried  out  with  his 
loud  voice,  "  I  demand  an  instant  sur- 
render!" The  captain  rushed  to  the  door, 
followed  by  his  trembling  wife.  He  knew 
Allen,  and  recognized  him.  "  Your  er- 
rand?" demanded  the  commander.  Point- 
ing to  his  men,  Allen  said,  "  I  order 
you  to  surrender."  "  By  what  authority 
do  you  demand  it?"  inquired  Delaplace. 
"  By  the  authority  of  the  Great  Jehovah 
and  the  Continental  Congress!"  answer- 
ed Allen,  with  emphasis,  at  the  same  time 
flourishing  his  broadsword  over  the  head 
of  the  terrified  commander.  Delaplace 
surrendered  the  fort  and  its  dependen- 
cies, and  a  large  quantity  of  precisely 
such  munitions  of  war  as  the  colonists 
needed — 120  iron  cannon,  fifty  swivels, 
two  mortars,  a  howitzer,  a  coehorn,  a  large 
quantity  of  ammunition  and  other  stores, 
and  a  warehouse  full  of  naval  munitions, 
with  forty-eight  men,  women,  and  chil- 
dren, who  were  sent  to  Hartford.  Two 
days  afterwards  Col.  Seth  Warner  made  an 
easy  conquest  of  Crown  Point. 

In  June,   1777,  with  about  7,000  men, 
Lieutenant  -  General     Burgoyne     left     St. 




Johns,  on  the  Sorel,  in  vessels,  and  moved  distant.      He    took    possession    of    Mount 

up  Lake  Champlain.     His  army  was  corn-  Defiance  and  Mount  Hope,  the  old  French 

posed    of    British    and    German    regulars,  lines,    200   bateaux,    several   gunboats,   an 

Canadians  and  Indians.    The  Gemans  were  armed    sloop   with   290    prisoners,   besides 

led  by  Ma j. -Gen.   Baron  de  Riedesel,  and  releasing     100    American     prisoners.      He 

Burgoyne's  chief  lieutenants  were  Major-  then    proceeded    to    attempt    the    capture 

General    Phillips    and    Brigadier  -  General  of   Ticonderoga   and   Mount   Independence 

Fraser.      The   invading   army    (a   part   of  opposite,  but  it  was  found  impracticable, 

it  on  land)  reached  Crown  Point,  June  26,  and  abandoned  the  enterprise  and  rejoined 

and  menaced  Ticonderoga,  where  General  Lincoln. 

St.  Clair  was  in  command.     The  garrison  Tiebout,     Cornelius,     engraver;     born 

there,    and    at    Mount    Independence    op-  in   New   York   in    1777;    was   apprenticed 

posite,   did  not  number   in  the   aggregate  to  a  silversmith;  studied  art  in  London  in 

more  than  3,500  men,  and  not  more  than  1795-97;     settled     in     Philadelphia,     Pa., 

one  in  ten  had  a  bayonet;   while  the  in-  where  he  engraved  portraits  of  Washing- 

vaders  numbered  between  8,000  and  9,000,  ton,     Gen.     Horatio     Gates,     John     Jay, 

including     a     reinforcement     of     Indians,  Thomas     Jefferson,     and     Bishop     White. 

Tories,  and  a  splendid  train  of  artillery.  Later  he  removed  to  Kentucky,  where  he 

There    were    strong    outposts    ai'ound    Ti-  died  in  1830. 

conderoga,  but  St.  Clair  had  not  men  Tiedeman,  Christopher  Gustavus, 
enough  to  man  them.  On  the  29th  Bur-  legal  writer ;  born  in  Charleston,  S.  C, 
goyne  issued  a  grandiloquent  proclama-  July  16,  1857;  graduated  at  the  College 
tion  to  the  people,  and  on  July  1  moved  of  Charleston  in  1876,  and  at  the  New 
against  the  fort.  He  secured  important  York  Law  School  in  1879;  was  Professor 
points  near  it,  and  finally  planted  a  bat-  of  Law  in  the  University  of  Missouri  for 
tery  on  a  hill  700  feet  above  the  fort,  since  ten  years,  and  in  the  New  York  Univer- 
known  as  Mount  Defiance.  The  battery  sity  for  six  years.  He  is  the  author  of 
there  made  Ticonderoga  absolutely  unten-  Limitations  of  Police  Powers;  Unioritten 
able,  and  a  council  of  war  determined  to  Constitution  of  the  United  States;  Mu- 
evacuate  it.  On  the  evening  of  July  5,  nicipal  Corporations;  State  and  Federal 
invalids,  stores,  and  baggage  were  sent  Control  of  Persons  and  Property,  etc. 
off  in  boats  to  Skenesboro  (afterwards  Tiffin,  Edward,  legislator;  born  in  Car- 
Whitehall)  ;  and  at  2  A.M.  on  the  6th  the  lisle,  England,  June  19,  1766;  emigi-ated 
troops  left  the  fort  silently,  and  withdrew  to  the  United  States  and  settled  in 
to  Mount  Independence  across  a  bridge  Charlestown,  Va.,  in  1784;  studied  med- 
of  boats.  Thence  they  began  a  flight  icine;  became  a  Methodist  preacher;  re- 
southwards  through  the  forests  of  Ver-  moved  to  Ohio  in  1798;  was  first  gov- 
mont  before  daylight.  The  movement  was  ernor  of  the  State  in  1803-7;  served  an 
discovered  by  the  British  by  the  light  of  unexpired  term  in  the  United  States  Sen- 
a  building  set  on  fire  on  Mount  Indepen-  ate  in  1807-9;  was  commissioner  of  the 
dence,  and  pursuit  was  immediately  be-  United  States  land  office  in  1812-15;  and 
gun.  The  Americans  lost  at  Ticonderoga  subsequently  surveyor  -  general  of  the 
a  large  amount  of  military  stores  and  Northwest  Territory.  The  city  of  Tiffin, 
provisions,  and  nearly  200  pieces  of  artil-  0.,  was  named  in  his  honor.  He  died  in 
lery.  Chillicothe,  O.,  Aug.  9,  1829. 

While  Burgoyne  was  pressing  down  the  Tilden,  Samuel  Jones,  statesman; 
valley  of  the  upper  Hudson  towards  Al-  born  in  New  Lebanon,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  9,  1814; 
bany,  General  Lincoln,  in  command  of  entered  Yale  College,  but  his  health  failed, 
troops  eastward  of  that  river,  attempted  and  he  returned  home.  He  finished  his 
to  recover  Ticonderoga  and  other  posts  in  studies  at  the  University  of  New  York; 
the  rear  of  the  invaders.  On  Sept.  13,  studied  law  with  Benjamin  F.  Butler,  and 
1777,  he  detailed  Col.  John  Brown  with  entered  upon  its  practice;  became  a  jour- 
.500  men  for  the  purpose.  Brown  landed  nalist,  and  in  1844  established  the  Daily 
at  the  foot  of  Lake  George,  and  by  quick  'News  in  New  York  City.  He  soon  re- 
movements  surprised  all  the  posts  between  turned  to  the  bar  and  practised  his  pro- 
that  point  and  Fort  Ticonderoga,  4  milea  fession   with   great   success.     In    1874  he 



was  elected  governor  of 
New  York,  and  broke  up 
the  corrupt  "  canal  ring  " ; 
and  in  1876  was  the 
Democratic  candidate  for 
the  Presidency,  after 
which  he  retired  to  pri- 
vate life,  but  exercised 
great  influence  in  the 
councils  of  his  party.  He 
died  at  his  country  seat, 
"  Greystone,"  near  Yon- 
kers,  Aug.  4,  1886,  leaving 
a  fortune  of  several  mill- 
ion dollars,  the  bulk  of 
which  he  desired  to  be 
used  in  founding  a  great 
public  library  in  New 
York  City,  but  his  will 
was  successfully  con- 
tested. See  Electorai, 
Commission  ;  New  York 
Public  Library. 

Tilghman,  Matthew, 
patriot;  born  in  Hermi- 
tage, Md.,  Feb.  17,  1718; 
member  of  the  General  As- 
sembly of  Maryland  in 
1751-77;  served  on  the 
committee  to  protest  to  the 
King  against  the  Stamp 
Act.  He  was  president  of 
the  Revolutionary  Con- 
vention which  managed  the 
province  in  1774-77;  was. 
called  from  his  seat  in  Congress  in  June, 
1776,  to  become  president  of  the  con- 
vention which  drew  up  the  first  con- 
stitution of  Maryland-,  and  was  elected 
to  the  Maryland  Senate  in  1777  and 
1781.  He  died  in  Hermitage,  Md.,  May 
4,  1790. 

Tilghman,  Tench,  military  officer; 
born  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  Dec.  25,  1744; 
was  a  merchant  before  the  Revolution; 
became   one   of  Mercer's   Flying   Camp   as 


concerned.  He  was  chosen  by  Washington 
to  bear  to  Congress  at  Philadelphia  de- 
spatches announcing  the  surrender  of 
Cornwallis.  In  a  letter  to  General  Sulli- 
van in  Congress  (May  11,  1781),  he  had 
highly  commended  Tilghman  as  deserv- 
ing of  great  consideration.  He  died  in 
Baltimore,  Md.,  April   18,   1786. 

Tillman,  Benjamin  Ryan,  legislator; 
born  in  Edgefield  county,  S.  C,  Aug.  11, 
1847;     received    an    academic    education; 

captain  of  a  company  of  Philadelphia  governor  of  South  Carolina  in  1890-92; 
light  infantry.  In  August,  1776,  he  be- 
came Washington's  aide  and  confidential 
secretary,  and  remained  in  that  post  until 
the  close  of  the  war,  with  the  rank  of 
lieutenant-colonel  after  April,  1777.  He 
was  thoroughly  patriotic,  and  much  of  the 
time  while  with  Washington  for  five  years 
he  refused  pay  for  his  services.  He  was  in 
every  action  in  which  the  main  army  was 

elected  to  the  United  States  Senate 
1894  and  1900.  He  has  been  interested 
in  agriculture  for  many  years;  estab- 
lished the  Clemson  Agricultural  and  Me- 
chanical College  in  Fort  Hill,  S.  C. ;  orig- 
inated the  dispensary  system  of  selling 
liquor  under  State  control  (see  South 
Carolina  ) .  He  became  known  as  "  Pitch- 
fork Tillman/'  on  account  of  his  savage 



speech  in  the  Senate  against  President 

Tilton,  Theodore,  journalist;  born  in 
New  York  City,  Oct.  2,  1835;  graduated 
at  the  College  of  the  City  of  New  York; 
employed  for  a  year  on  the  New  Y^ork 
Observer;  editor  of  the  Independent  in 
1856-71;  established  the  Golden  Age,  but 
retired  from  it  after  two  years.  In  1874 
he  created  wide-spread  excitement  by 
charging  Henry  Ward  Beecher  with  un- 
lawful intimacy  with  his  wife.  A  com- 
mittee of  Plymouth  Church,  to  whom  the 
charges  were  referred,  reported  that  they 
were  groundless,  but  Mr.  Tilton's  civil 
suit  against  Mr.  Beecher  for  $100,000 
damages  led  to  a  most  sensational  trial 
and  resulted  in  the  disagreement  of  the 
jury.  In  1883  Mr.  Tilton  went  to  Paris, 
where  he  afterwards  resided.  For  many 
years  he  was  a  popular  and  successful 
lecturer;  was  an  opponent  of  slavery  and 
an  advocate  of  woman's  rights. 

Timby,  Theodore  Ruggles,  inventor; 
born  in  Dover,  N.  Y.,  April  5,  1822.  He 
conceived  the  idea  of  a  revolving  turret 
for  military  purposes  when  he  was  a  lad. 
At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  made  a  model, 
and  at  the  beginning  of  1843  filed  his  first 
caveat  in  the  United  States  Patent  Office. 
He  obtained  other  patents  for  improve- 
ments, and  received  for  his  invention  the 
official  sanction  of  the  national  govern- 
ment several  years  before  the  time  when 
Captain  Coles,  of  the  British  navy,  claims 
to  have  invented  the  turret.  When  the 
Civil  War  broke  out,  Mr.  Timby  perfected 
his  invention  and  obtained  a  fifth  patent 
— a  broad  one — for  it  was  for  "  a  revolving 
tower  for  off'ensive  or  defensive  warfare, 
whether  used  on  land  or  water."  The 
constructors  of  "  monitors,"  after  the 
aflFray  with  the  Merrimac,  recognized  the 
validity  of  Mr.  Timby's  claim,  and  paid 
him  a  liberal  sum  for  the  right  to  use  his 
invention.  He  also  invented  the  American 
turbine  water-wheel  and  the  method  of 
firing  ordnance  by  electricity. 

Timrod,  Hexry,  poet;  born  in  Charles- 
ton, S.  C,  Dec.  8,  1829;  was  educated  at 
the  University  of  Georgia;  practised  law; 
taught  for  several  years,  during  which 
time  he  contributed  to  Southern  papers 
and  magazines;  was  editor  of  the  South 
Carolinian,  in  Columbia,  from  1864  till 
the  city  was  burned  in  1865,  when  he  lost 

all.  His  best  known  poem  was  a  short 
ode  written  for  Memorial  Day.  He  died 
in  Columbia,  S.  C,  Oct.  6,  1867. 

Tingey,  Thomas,  naval  officer;  born  in 
London,  England,  Sept.  11,  1750;  served 
in  the  British  na\'y;  came  to  America 
before  the  Eevolutionary  War,  and  became 
an  East  India  trader.  He  was  ap- 
pointed captain  in  the  Continental  navy 
in  1798;  commanded  the  Ganges  in  1799, 
and  captured  many  French  vessels.  He 
was  in  the  naval  service  fifty  years, 
twenty-eight  of  which  he  was  in  com- 
mand of  the  navy-yard  at  Washington, 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  23, 

Tippecanoe,  Battle  of.  In  the  summer 
of  1811,  the  followers  of  Tecumseh  and 
his  brother  showing  signs  of  hostility,  the 
governor  of  Indiana  suggested  to  the  gov- 
ernment the  propriety  of  establishing  a 
military  post  high  up  the  Wabash.  The 
government  proposed  the  seizure  of  Te- 
cumseh and  his  brother  as  hostages  for 
peace.  A  regiment  under  Col.  John  Boyd, 
stationed  at  Pittsburg,  was  ordered  to  re- 
pair to  Vincennes  to  be  placed  under  Har- 
rison's command,  and  the  latter  was  au- 
thorized, should  the  Indians  begin  hos- 
tilities, to  call  out  the  militia.  Harrison 
agreed  with  the  people  of  Vincennes  that 
decisive  measures  should  be  taken  at  once. 
Tecumseh  had  gone  South,  and  it  was  evi- 
dent that  his  brother,  the  Prophet,  was 
stirring  up  the  Indians  to  war.  Harrison, 
with  Boyd's  regiment,  300  strong,  and 
500  militia,  partly  from  Kentucky,  in- 
cluding two  or  three  mounted  companies, 
went  up  the  Wabash  about  60  miles  to 
Terre  Haute,  and  near  there  established 
a  post  called  Fort  Harrison.  Thence  he 
sent  Delaware  chiefs  on  a  mission  to  the 
Prophet,  who  treated  them  with  scorn. 
The  troops  pressed  forward,  and  on  Nov. 
6,  1811,  they  encamped  within  3  miles  of 
the  Prophet's  town.  For  more  than  a  day 
they  had  discerned  savages  hanging  on 
their  flanks,  for  the  Prophet  had  become 
aware  of  their  approach. 

Harrison  arranged  his  camp  in  the  form 
of  an  irregular  parallelogram,  having  on 
its  front  a  battalion  of  United  States  in- 
fantry under  Maj.  G.  R.  C.  Floyd,  flanked 
on  the  left  by  one  company,  and  on  the 
right  by  two  companies,  of  Indiana  militia 
under  Col.  J.  Bartholomew.     In  the  rear 



was  a  battalion  of  United  States  infantry 
under  Capt.  W.  C.  Bean,  acting  as  major, 
with  Capt.  R.  C.  Barton,  of  the  regulars, 
in  immediate  command.  These  were  sup- 
ported on  the  right  by  four  companies  of 
Indiana  militia,  led  respectively  by  Cap- 
tains Snelling,  Posey,  Scott,  and  War- 
rick, the  whole  commanded  by  Lieut.-Col. 
L.  Decker.  The  right  flank,  80  yards 
wide,  was  filled  with  mounted  riflemen 
under  Captain  Spencer,  The  left,  about 
150  yards  in  extent,  was  composed  of 
mounted     riflemen     under     Maj.-Gen.     S. 

crept  through  the  prairie  grass,  and  with 
horrid  yells  fell  upon  Harrison's  camp. 
The  whole  camp  was  soon  awakened,  and 
their  fires  were  extinguished.  A  desperate 
fight  ensued.  Nineteen-twentieths  of  the 
troops  had  never  seen  a  battle.  The  com- 
bat soon  extended  to  almost  the  whole 
square.  The  Indians  advanced  and  re- 
treated several  times  until,  after  daylight, 
they  ^.ere  attacked  and  dispersed  by  the 
mounted  men,  leaving  forty  of  their  dead 
on  the  field.  Harrison's  loss  was  upward 
of     sixty     killed,     and     twice     as     many 


Wells,  and  led  by  Cols.  F.  Geiger  and 
David  Robb.  Two  troops  of  dragoons 
under  Col.  J.  H.  Daviess,  were  stationed 
in  the  rear  of  the  first  line,  and  at  a  right- 
angle  with  those  companies  was  a  troop 
of  cavalry  as  a  reserve,  under  Capt.  B. 
Parke.  In  the  centre  were  the  wagons, 
baggage,  officers'  tents,  etc.  Having  sup- 
ped, Harrison  gave  instructions  to  the 
several  officers,  and  very  soon  the  whole 
camp,  excepting  the  sentinels  on  duty,  were 
soundly  slumbering.  There  was  a  slight 
drizzle  of  rain,  and  the  darkness  was  in- 

In  the  camp  of  the  Prophet  all  were 
awake,  prepared  to  execute  his  orders, 
and  after  midnight  (Nov.  7)  the  warriors 

IX.— F  81 

wounded.  The  mounted  men  rode  to  the 
Prophet's  town  and  found  it  entirely  de- 
serted. They  had  left  much  that  was 
valuable  behind.  The  town  was  burned, 
and  Harrison  deemed  it  prudent  to  make 
a  speedy  retreat,  encumbered  as  he  was 
with  the  wounded.  He  destroyed  much 
of  the  baggage  of  the  army  to  afi"ord 
transportation  to  the  wounded,  and 
fell  back  to  Vincennes.  This  battle 
of  Tippecanoe  gave  Harrison  a  de- 
cided military  reputation.  The  battle- 
ground is  close  by  Battle  Ground,  a 
little  town  near  the  Louisville,  New 
Albany,  and  Chicago  Railway,  in  Indi- 
ana. The  battle-field,  yet  covered  with 
the  same  oaks  as  at  the  time  of  the  con- 


lest,    belongs    to    the    State    of    Indiana,  Carolina.      The  disappointed  planters  as- 

which  has  enclosed  about  7  acres.  sembled,  and  in  a  riotous  manner  cut  up 

Tobacco,     a    plant    so    called    by    the  the  tobacco-plants  extensively.    They  were 

natives  of  Haiti,  or   Santo  Domingo.      It  prosecuted.     Several  of  them  were  found 

played    an    important    part    in    the    early  guilty,   and,   under   advice  from   England, 

history  of  Virginia,  and  was  found  there  some  of  them  were  executed — not  for  the 

under   cultivation   by   the   natives   by   the  act  of  cutting  the  plants  alone,  but  for  a 

first    adventurers    sent    by    Raleigh,    and  violation    of    a    colonial    act    which    pro- 

by  them   introduced  into   England,   where  nounced  the  assembling  of  eight  or  more 

its  use  rapidly  increased.    Ralph  Lane  and  persons  to  destroy  crops  of  any  kind  to  be 

his   companions,   who  went   back  to   Eng-  high    treason.      It   was    afterwards    culti- 

land     from    Virginia    with     Sir     Francis  vated  in  other  English-American  colonies, 

Drake,    carried    with    them    the    first    to-  and    at    the    middle    of    the    last    century 

bacco     seen     in    that    country,     and     Sir  there  were  exported  to  England  in  three 

Walter   introduced    it   to    the   Queen   and  years  40,000,000  lbs.,  of  which  about  one- 

the  nobility.     When   the   English   became  half   was   re-exported   and   the   remainder 

seated  at  Jamestown,  they  began  its  cul-  consumed  in  England, 

tivation,   and   it   soon  became   the   staple  The  following  shows  the  production  in 

agricultural    product   of    the   colony,    and  pounds    of    manufactured    tobacco    in    the 

their    chief    source    of    revenue.       Within  United  States  in  the  calendar  year  1899: 

less  than  ten  years  it  became  the  standard  chewing,  smoking,  and  snuff. . . .   286,453,7.38 

currency  of  the  colonies,  by  the  price  of    cigars  and  cigarettes 106,855,524 

which  values  were  regulated.     The  stand-    Exports,  domestic 346,823,677 

ard   price   was   about   66    cents   a   pound.    Exports,  foreign 1M7,QS7 

For  the  seven  years  ending  in   1621,  the        Total    741,980.576 

annual  exportation  of  tobacco  to  England        Less  imports 17,107,839 

from    Virginia     averaged     about     143,000  „             _ 

lbs.     King    James    tried    to    suppress    its        ^^* '     '     "'* 

inordinate  use,  and  wrote  A  Counter-blast  Tocqueville,  Alexis  Charles  Henri 
to  Tobacco:  and  in  May,  1621,  Parliament  Clerel,  Count  ue,  statesman:  born  in 
passed  a  bill  for  that  purpose,  by  which  Paris,  France,  July  29,  1805;  became .  a 
no  tobacco  was  allowed  to  be  imported  into  la^vyer  in  1827;  visited  the  United  States 
England  except  from  Virginia  and  the  with  Gustave  de  Beaumont  in  1831  to 
Somers  Isles  (Bermudas),  and  none  was  study  the  penitentiary  system.  Return- 
allowed  to  be  planted  in  England.  It  Avas  ing  to  France  he  there  advocated  the 
also  subject  to  a  crown  duty  of  6d.  per  solitary  method  as  practised  in  the  peni- 
pound.  In  1624  the  King  forbade  by  proc-  tentiary  of  Cherry  Hill,  Philadelphia,  and 
lamation  its  cultivation  except  in  Vir-  was  largely  instrumental  in  entirely  ra- 
ginia  and  the  Somers  Isles.  Finally,  by  modelling  not  only  the  penitentiary  sys- 
relaxing  restrictions,  it  became  a  source  tem  of  France,  but  of  the  continent, 
of  large  revenue  to  England,  amounting  He  was  the  author  of  The  Penitentiary 
in  1676  to  $775,000.  In  1680  it  had  fallen  System  of  the  United  States  and  its  Ap- 
in  price  to  a  penny  a  pound,  and  the  plication  in  France  (with  Gustave  de 
colonists  were  not  able  to  buy  common  Beaumont)  ;  Democracy  in  America;  On 
necessaries.  They  petitioned  for  permis-  the  Penitentim-y  System  in  the  TJnit- 
sion  to  resort  to  an  old  plan  for  reducing  cd  States  and  the  Confidential  Mission 
production  and  so  raising  the  price  by  a  for  the  Minister  of  the  Interior  of  MM. 
cessation  of  crops  for  a  year  or  two.  The  de  Beaumont  and  de  Tocqueville,  etc. 
inhabitants  of  several  counties  signed  a  He  died  in  Cannes,  France,  April  16, 
petition  to  the  governor  to  call  a  special  1859. 

session  of  the  Assembly  for  that  purpose.  Tod,  Daatd,  diplomatist;  born  in 
The  governor,  alarmed  by  symptoms  of  Youngstown,  O.,  Feb.  21,  1805;  admitted 
a  new  rebellion,  did  so  (April  18)  ;  but  to  the  bar  in  1827  and  practised  in  War- 
that  body  proceeded  no  further  than  to  ren  for  fifteen  years;  was  a  member  of  the 
petition  the  King  to  order  a  "stint,"  or  State  Senate  in  1838;  minister  to  Brazil 
"cfjsation,"   in  Virginia,   Maryland,   and  in    1847-52;    delegate   to    the    Charleston 



convention  in  1860;  and  governor  of  Ohio  schools  and  at  Ypsilanti  Normal  School, 
in  1861.  He  died  in  Youngstown,  O.,  in  Michigan;  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the 
Nov.  13,  1868.  Supreme  Court  of  California  in  1881;  and 

Todd,  Charles  Burr,  author;  born  in  practised  there  for  several  years.  She 
Redding,  Conn.,  Jan.  9,  1849;  received  a  wrote  Prof.  Goldwin  Smith  and  His  Satel- 
public  school  education;  taught  school  lites  in  Congress;  Protective  Tariff  De- 
for  several  years;  was  appointed  secre-  lusion;  Pizarro  and  John  Sherman;  and 
tary  of  the  commission  to  print  the  early  Railroads  of  Europe  and  America. 
records  of  New  York  City  in  1895.  His  Todd,  Thomas,  jurist;  born  in  King 
publications  include  History  of  the  Burr  and  Queen  county,  Va.,  Jan.  23,  1765; 
Family ;  History  of  Redding,  Conn.;  Life  served  in  the  latter  part  of  the  Revolution 
and  Letters  of  Joel  Barlow;  Story  of  the  with  the  Continental  army;  became  a 
City  of  'Mew  York;  Story  of  Washington,  lawyer  in  1786;  was  appointed  clerk  of 
the  National  Capital;  Lance  Cross  and  th*  United  States  court  for  the  district 
Canoe  in  the  Valley  of  the  Mississippi  of  Kentucky,  and  when  it  became  a  State 
(with  Rev.  W.  H.  Milburn)  ;  A  Brief  in  1799  was  made  clerk  of  the  court  of 
History  of  Neto  York,  etc.  appeals;  became  chief-justice  of  the  court 

Todd,  Charles  Scott,  military  officer;  in  1806.  He  was  appointed  an  associate 
born  near  Danville,  Ky.,  Jan.  22,  1791;  justice  of  the  United  States  Supreme 
graduated  at  William  and  Mary 
College  in  1809;  was  a  subaltern 
and  judge  -  advocate  of  Winches- 
ter's division  of  Kentucky  volun- 
teers in  1812;  made  captain  of 
infantry  in  May,  1813;  and  was 
aide  to  General  Harrison  in  the 
battle  of  the  Thames  (q.  v.).  In 
March,  1815,  he  was  made  in- 
spector-general, with  the  rank  of 
colonel;  and  in  1817  was  secretary 
of  State  of  Kentucky.  In  1820 
he  was  confidential  agent  to  Co- 
lombia, and  in  1841-45  was  Unit- 
ed States  minister  to  Russia.  He 
died  in  Baton  Rouge,  La.,  May  17, 

Todd,  John,  military  officer ; 
born  in  Montgomery  county.  Pa., 
in  1750;  was  adjutant-general  to 
Gen.  Andrew  Lewis  in  the  action 
of  Point  Pleasant,  Va.,  in  1774; 
accompanied  Daniel  Boone 
{q.  V.)  on  an  exploring  tour  as 
far  as  Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  in 
1 775 ;  settled  near  Lexington,  Ky., 
in     1776;     represented     Kentucky 

county  in  the  Virginia  legislature  in  the  Court,  Feb.  7,  1826,  but  died  in  Frankfort, 
same  year;  was  commissioned  colonel  in  Ky.,  on  the  same  day. 
1777;  for  two  years  was  commandant  of  Tohopeka,  or  Horseshoe  Bend,  Battle 
the  civil  government  of  that  county,  which  AT.  In  February,  1814,  troops  from  east 
subsequently  was  made  the  State  of  II-  Tennessee  were  on  the  march  to  reinforce 
linois.  He  was  killed  while  leading  his  Jackson  for  the  purpose  of  striking  a 
forces  against  the  Indians  at  the  Blue  finishing  blow  at  the  power  of  the  Creek 
Licks,  Ky.,  Aug.  19,  1782.  Indians.     About    2,000    of    them    pressed 

Todd,  Marion,  lawyer;  born  in  Plym-    towards  the  Coosa,  and  at  the  same  time 
outh,   N.  Y.;    educated   in  Eaton   Rapids   a    similar    number    from    west    Tennessee 




rt'ere  making  their  way  into  Alabama. 
Colonel  ^A'illiams,  with  600  regulars, 
reached  Fort  Strother  on  Feb.  6.  Other 
troops  soon  joined  them,  and  the  Choctaw 
Indians  openly  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
United  States.    At  the  close  of  February, 

peninsula,  near  the  river,  was  a  village  of 
log-huts,  where  hundreds  of  canoes  were 
moored,  so  that  the  garrison  might  have 
the  means  of  escape  if  hard  pushed.  They 
had  an  ample  supply  of  food  for  a  long 
siege.     They  were  about  1,200  in  number, 

<? ■ — »».*eW9^>./j-~...|^_,^ 

•  ,--x  ""^^ 


Jackson  found  himself  at  the  head  of  one-fourth  being  women  and  children. 
5,000  men.  Supplies  were  gathered,  and  There  the  Indians  determined  to  defend 
at  the  middle  of  March  the  troops  were  themselves  to  the  last  extremity. 
ready  to  move.  Meanwhile  the  Creeks,  To  this  stronghold  Jackson  marched, 
from"  experience,  had  such  premonitions  sending  his  stores  down  the  Coosa  in  flat- 
of  disaster  that  they  concentrated  their  boats;  and  on  the  morning  of  March  27 
forces  at  the  bend  of  the  Tallapoosa  River,  he  halted  within  a  few  miles  of  the  breast- 
in  the  northeast  part  of  Tallapoosa  county,  works  at  Tohopeka.  His  spies  soon  in- 
Ala.,  at  a  place  called  Tohopeka,  or  Horse-  formed  him  of  the  position  of  the  Indians, 
shoe  Bend,  a  peninsula  containing  about  He  sent  General  Coflfee,  with  all  the 
100  acres  of  land.  White  men  from  Pen-  mounted  men  and  friendly  Indians,  to 
sacola  and  half-bloods  hostile  to  the  United  cross  the  river  two  miles  below  and  take 
States  aided  them  in  building  a  strong  position  opposite  the  village  at  the  foot 
breastwork  of  logs  across  the  neck  of  the  of  the  peninsula.  Then  he  pressed  forward 
peninsula.  They  pierced  it  with  two  rows  and  planted  two  cannon  within  80  yards 
of  port-holes,  arranged  in  such  a  manner  of  the  breastworks  on  the  neck,  and  opened 
as  to  expose  the  assailants  to  a  cross-fire  fire  upon  them.  As  the  small  balls  were 
from  within.  Back  of  this  was  a  mass  of  buried  in  the  logs  and  earth  the  Indians 
logs  and  brush;    and  at  the   foot  of  the  sent  up  a  shout  of  derision  and  defied  their 



assailanta.  Coflfee,  with  some  Cherokees, 
swam  across  the  river  and  seized  the  boats, 
with  which  quite  a  body  of  troops  were 
enabled  to  cross  at  once.  These  burned 
the  Indian  village  and  approached  the 
enemy  in  their  rear,  but  were  too  few  to 
dislodge  the  Indians.  Meanwhile  Jackson 
had  been  vainly  battering  the  works  on 
the  neck  with  cannon-balls,  and  he  pro- 
ceeded to  storm  them.  In  the  face  of  a 
tempest  of  bullets  they  pressed  forward. 
The  leader  of  the  storming-party  (Maj. 
L.  P.  Montgomery)  leaped  upon  the 
breastworks  and  called  upon  his  men  to 
follow.  He  was  shot  dead,  when  Ensign 
Sam  Houston  (afterwards  conqueror  and 
President  of  Texas,  United  States  Senator, 
etc.),  who  was  wounded  in  the  thigh  by  a 
barbed  arrow,  leaped  down  among  the 
Indians  and  called  upon  his  companions 
to  follow.  They  did  so,  and  fought  like 
tigers.  Their  dexterous  use  of  the  bayonet 
caused  the  Indians  to  break  their  line  and 
flee  in  wild  confusion  to  the  woods  that 
covered  the  peninsula. 

Believing  torture  awaited  every  cap- 
tive, not  one  of  them  would  suffer  himself 
to  be  taken  or  ask  for  quarter.  Some 
attempted  to  escape  by  swimming  across 
the  river,  but  were  shot  by  Tennessee 
sharp-shooters.  Others  secreted  themselves 
in  thickets,  and  were  driven  out  and 
slain;  and  a  considerable  number  took 
refuge  under  the  river  bluffs,  where  they 
were  covered  by  a  part  of  the  breastworks 
and  felled  trees.  To  the  latter  Jackson 
sent  a  messenger,  telling  them  their  lives 
should  be  spared  if  they  would  surrender. 
He  was  fired  upon.  A  cannon  brought  to 
bear  upon  the  stronghold  effected  little. 
Then  the  general  called  for  volunteers 
to  storm  it,  and  wounded  Ensign  Houston 
was  the  first  to  step  out.  Nothing  could 
be  effected  until  the  torch  was  applied; 
and  as  the  Indians  rushed  out  from  the 
flames  they  were  shot  down  without 
mercy.  The  carnage  continued  until  late 
in  the  evening;  and  when  it  ended  557 
Creek  warriors  lay  dead  on  the  peninsula. 
Of  1,000  who  went  into  the  battle  in  the 
morning,  not  more  than  200  were  alive, 
and  many  of  these  were  severely  wounded. 
Jackson  lost  thirty-two  killed  and  ninety- 
nine  wounded.  The  Cherokees  lost  eighteen 
killed  and  thirty-six  wounded.  This  blow 
broke  the  proud  spirit  of  the  Creeks,  and 


they  had  no  heart  to  make  a  stand  any- 
where else. 

Toledo,  a  city  and  county  seat  of  Lucas 
county,  O.,  near  the  junction  of  the 
Maumee  River  and  Mauniee  Bay.  Its 
early  name  was  the  Miami  of  the  Lakes, 
which  in  time  gave  way  to  that  of  the 
Lady  of  the  Lakes.  Long  before  the 
whites  settled  here  the  place  was  a  noted 
fishing  resort  of  the  Miami  Indians.  Sub- 
sequently it  became  a  trading-post.  It 
was  not  till  after  the  victory  of  General 
Wayne  at  Fallen  Timbers  that  it  was  pos- 
sible for  the  whites  to  settle  here.  Popu- 
lation  (1900)    131,822. 

Toledo  War,  a  contest  regarding  the 
boundary-line  between  the  State  of  Ohio 
and  the  Territory  of  Michigan  in  1835-37. 
Owing  to  both  the  State  and  the  Terri- 
tory taking  possession  of  a  disputed  sec- 
tion of  land,  each  appealed  to  President 
Jackson  for  a  settlement  of  the  difficulty. 
He,  however,  refused  to  interfere,  where- 
upon the  governor  of  Ohio  called  out  the 
State  militia  and  the  governor  of  Michi- 
gan Territory  took  possession  of  Toledo. 
Just  as  matters  were  assuming  a  threat- 
ening phase.  Congress  decided  to  admit 
Michigan  into  the  Union  as  a  State,  June 
15,  1836,  on  conditions  regarding  the 
boundary-line  which  were  formally  ac- 

Toleration  Acts.  At  a  General  Court  of 
Elections,  held  at  Portsmouth,  beginning 
May  19,  1647,  for  "the  colonic  and  prov- 
ince of  Providence,"  after  adopting  many 
acts  and  orders  concerning  the  govern- 
ment and  for  the  punishment  of  crimes, 
it  was  decreed  that  "  These  are  the  laws 
that  concern  all  men,  and  these  are  the 
penalties  for  the  transgression  thereof, 
which  by  common  consent  are  ratified  and 
established  throughout  the  whole  colony; 
and  otherwise  than  thus,  what  is  herein 
forbidden,  all  men  may  walk  as  their  con- 
sciences persuade  them,  every  one  in  the 
name  of  his  God."  This  act  of  toleration 
was  so  broad  and  absolute  that  it  would 
include  Christian,  Jew,  Mohammedan, 
Parsee,  Buddhist,  or  pagan. 

The  General  Assembly  of  Maryland, 
convened  at  St.  Mary's,  April  2,  1649, 
after  enacting  severe  punishments  for 
the  crime  of  blasphemy,  and  declar- 
ing that  certain  penalties  should  be 
inflicted   upon   any   one   who   should   call 


another    a    sectarian    name    of    reproach,  known   his  wants  by  inarticulate  sounds, 

adopted    the    declaration    that    "  whereas  His     performances     on     the     piano     were 

the  enforcing  of  conscience  in  matters  of  wonderful    and   he    could   reproduce   from 

religion  hath  frequently  fallen  out  to  be  memory   over   5,000   compositions,   includ- 

of  dangerous  consequence  in  those  common-  ing    the    most    difficult    selections    from 

w^ealths  where  it  has  been  practised,  and  Beethoven,    Chopin,    Thalberg,    Bach,    and 

for  the  more  quiet  and  peaceable  govern-  Gottschalk. 

ment  of  this  province,  and  the  better  to  Tomahawk,  originally  a  North  Ameri- 
preserve  mutual  love  and  unity  among  can  Indian  war-club,  more  generally  ap- 
the  inhabitants,  ...  no  person  or  persons  plied  to  the  war-hatchet  which  the  Indians 
whatsoever  within  this  province,  or  the  made  of  stone.  After  the  Europeans  had 
islands,  posts,  harbors,  creeks,  or  havens  formed  alliances  with  the  Indians,  the 
thereunto  belonging,  professing  to  believe  former  introduced  a  new  form  of  toma- 
in  Jesus  Christ,  shall  from  henceforth  be  hawk  which  combined  the  features  of  an 
anyways  troubled  or  molested  or  discoun-  implement  of  warfare  with  a  tobacco-pipe, 
tenanced  for  or  in  respect  of  his  or  her  the  handle  forming  the  stem, 
religion,  nor  in  the  free  exercise  thereof.  Tomes,  Robert,  physician;  born  in  New 
within  the  province  or  the  islands  there-  York  City,  March  27,  1817;  graduated  at 
unto  belonging,  nor  any  way  compelled  Washington  (now  Trinity)  College  in 
to  the  belief  or  exercise  of  any  other  re-  183.5;  studied  medicine  in  Philadelphia 
ligion  against  his  or  her  conscience."  This  and  later  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh; 
was  an  outgrowth  of  English  statutes,  returned  to  the  United  States  and  prac- 
On  Oct.  27,  1645,  the  English  House  of  tised  in  New  York  for  a  few  years,  and 
Commons  ordered  "  that  the  inhabitants  was  then  appointed  surgeon  on  a  vessel  for 
of  the  Bermudas,  and  of  all  other  Ameri-  the  Pacific  Mail  Steamboat  Company,  and 
can  plantations  now  or  hereafter  plant-  made  trips  between  Panama  and  San 
ed,  should,  without  molestation  or  trouble,  Francisco.  He  was  United  States  consul 
have  and  enjoy  the  liberty  of  conscience  at  Rheims,  France,  in  1865-67.  He  con- 
in  matters  of  God's  worship."  In  1647  tributed  largely  to  journals  and  maga- 
Parliament  passed  another  act,  allowing  zines;  and  was  author  of  Panama  i?i  iS55; 
all  persons  to  meet  for  religious  duties  The  American  in  Japan;  The  Battles  of 
and  ordinances  in  a  fit  place,  provided  America  by  Sea  and  Land;  The  War  with 
the  public  peace  was  not  disturbed.  The  the  South:  A  History  of  the  Great  Ameri- 
Maryland  toleration  act  (1649)  was  the  ca7i  Rebellion,  etc.  He  died  in  Brooklyn, 
joint  work  of  Roman  Catholics  and  Prot-  N.  Y.,  Aug.  28,  1882. 

estants.  The  General  Assembly  at  that  To-m.o-clii-clii,  Creek  chief;  born  in 
time  was  composed  of  eight  Roman  Cath-  Georgia  about  1642;  met  Oglethorpe  in 
olics  and  sixteen  Protestants — three  coun-  Savannah  in  friendly  conference  early  in 
cillors,  and  five  burgesses  were  Roman  1733.  He  was  then  ninety-one  years  old, 
Catholics,  and  the  governor  (William  of  commanding  person  and  grave  de- 
Stone),  six  councillors,  and  nine  burgess-  meanor,  and  though  for  some  reason  he 
es  were  Protestants.  The  act  did  not  es-  had  been  banished  from  the  Lower  Creeks, 
tablish  absolute  toleration,  as  did  the  act  he  had  great  infiuence  throughout  the  con- 
of  Rhode  Island  passed  two  years  before,  federacy  as  a  brave  chief  and  wise  sachem, 
for  it  applied  only  to  orthodox  Christians,  Mary  Musgrave,  the  half-breed  wife  of  a 
so-called,  who  accepted  the  doctrine  of  South  Carolina  trader,  acted  as  interpret- 
the  Trinity.  er.  He  pledged  his  unwavering  friend- 
Tom,  popularly  known  as  Blind  Tom,  ship  for  the  English,  and  he  kept  his 
musician ;  born  blind,  and  of  negro  slave  word.  A  satisfactory  treaty  was  made, 
parents,  near  Columbus,  Ga.,  May  25,  by  which  the  English  obtained  sovereign- 
1849.  During  infancy  he  gave  no  sign  of  ty  over  the  domain  between  the  Savannah 
intelligence  excepting  when  he  heard  a  and  Altamaha  rivers,  and  westward  as 
sound;  was  afterwards  precocious  in  learn-  far  as  the  extent  of  their  tide  -  waters, 
ing  words,  but  while  he  could  repeat  whole  Oglethorpe  distributed  presents  among  the 
conversations  that  he  had  heard,  words  friendly  Indians.  In  the  spring  of  1734 
had    no    meaning    to    him,    and    he    made  To-mo-chi-chi    went    with    Oglethorpe    to 



England.      He    was    accompanied    by    his  Tonikan    Indians,    a    stock    of    North 

wife,  their  adopted  son  and  nephew,  and  American  Indians  belonging  politically  to 

five  chiefs.     They  were  cordially  received  the     Chicasa     Confederacy.     About     1700 

in  England,  and  were  objects  of  great  curi-  there  were  three  tribes  living  respectively 

osity,   for   Indians   had   not   been   seen   in  in  Avoyelles  parish,  La.,  at  Tonica  Bluffs, 

that    country    since    Peter    Schuyler    was  on    the   Mississippi    River,    and   near    the 

there    with    Mohawks    in    Queen    Anne's  junction    of    the    Yazoo    and    Mississippi 

reign.     They  were  taken  in  coaches,  each  rivers.     The    second    of    these   tribes    was 

drawn   by    six   horses,    to   have   an   inter-  noted  for  its  friendship  with  the  French 

view  with  the  King,  arrayed  in  brilliant  colonists,    and    all    of    them    were    skilful 

English  costume — the  Creek  monarch  and  warriors.     The   Tonikans   now   living   are 

his  queen  in  scarlet  and  gold.     He  made  located  on  the  old  Avoyelles   reservation, 

a  speech  to  King  George  and  gave  him  a  near  Marksville,  La. 

bunch  of  eagle's  feathers,  to  which  a  Tonti,  Henri,  Chevalier  de,  explor- 
gracious  reply  was  made  assuring  the  er;  born  in  Gaeta,  Italy,  about  1650; 
Indians  of  English  protection.  They  re-  son  of  Lorenzo  Tonti;  inventor  of  the 
mained  four  months  in  England,  during  Tontine  system  of  association;  entered  the 
which  time  a  brother  of  the  Indian  queen  French  army  in  his  youth,  and  in  the 
died  of  small-pox.  The  company  were  con-  French  naval  service  he  lost  a  hand.  In 
veyed  to  the  place  of  embarkation  in  the  1678  he  accompanied  La  Salle  to  Canada, 
royal  coaches,  with  presents  valued  at  and  assisted  him  in  his  Western  explora- 
$2,000;  and  the  Prince  of  Wales  gave  tions,  building  a  fort  on  the  site  of  Peoria, 
To-mo-chi-chi's  heir  a  gold  watch,  with  HI.,  in  1680.  He  descended  the  Missis- 
an  injunction  to  call  upon  Jesus  Christ  sippi  to  its  mouth  with  La  Salle  in  1682. 
every  morning  when  he  looked  at  it.  In  1684  he  went  to  the  mouth  of  the  Mis- 
They  reached  Savannah  late  in  Decem-  sissippi  to  meet  La  Salle,  and  attempted  a 
ber,  1734.  To-mo-chi-chi  died  Oct.  5,  settlement  of  Europeans  in  Arkansas.  In 
1739.  At  his  funeral  minute-guns  were  1685  he  incited  a  force  of  Western  Indians 
fired  at  the  battery  at  Savannah,  and  to  attack  the  Senecas.  Again  he  went 
musketry  was  discharged.  He  was  buried  down  to  the  Gulf  to  meet  La  Salle,  and 
in  the  centre  of  the  town,  and  Ogle-  was  again  disappointed;  and  in  1699  he 
thorpe  ordered  a  "  pyramid  of  stone "  went  down  to  meet  Iberville,  and  remain- 
to  be  erected  over  his  grave.  The  ed  in  the  Gulf  region,  dying  in  Fort  St. 
funeral  was  attended  by  the  magistrates  Louis,  IMobile,  in  September,  1704. 
and  people  of  Savannah  and  a  train  of  Toombs,  Robert,  legislator;  born  in 
Indians.  Washington,  Wilkes  co.,  Ga.,  July  2,  1810; 

Tompkins,  Daniel  D.,  statesman;  born  graduated  at  Union  College,  Schenectady, 
in  Fox  Meadows  (now  Scarsdale),  N.  Y.,  N.  Y.,  in  1828;  studied  law  at  the  Uni- 
June  21,  1774;  graduated  at  Columbia  versity  of  Virginia;  practised  until  elect- 
College  in  1795;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  ed  to  Congress  in  1845;  was  a  captain  un- 
1797;  governor  of  New  York  in  1807-16;  der  General  Scott  in  the  Creek  War;  was 
elected  Vice-President  of  the  United  States  several  years  a  member  of  the  Georgia 
in  1816  and  1820.  Prior  to  retiring  from  legislature;  and  remained  in  Congress 
the  governorship  of  New  York  he  sent  a  until  1853,  when  he  became  United  States 
message  dated  Jan.  17,  1817,  urging  that  Senator.  He  was  re-elected  in  1859.  In 
a  day  be  set  for  declaring  the  abolition  the  Senate,  on  Jan.  7,  1861,  following 
of  slavery  in  that  State.  Acting  upon  his  a  patriotic  speech  by  Senator  Crittenden, 
wish  the  legislature  set  July  4,  1827.  He  of  Kentucky,  he  said:  "The  abolitionists 
died  on  Staten  Island,  N.  Y.,  June  11,  have  for  long  years  been  sowing  dragons* 
1825.  teeth,   and   they  have   finally   got   a   crop 

Toms  River,  a  village  and  county  seat  of   armed   men.      The   Union,   sir,    is    dis- 

of  Ocean  county,  N.  J.;   founded  in  early  solved.     That    is    a    fixed    fact    lying    in 

colonial    days;    formerly    contained    large  the  way  of  this  discussion,  and  men  may 

salt  works;   was  a  retreat  for  privateers  as  well  hear  it.     One  of  your  confederates 

in  the  Revolutionary  War;  and  was  burned  (South     Carolina)     has     already    wisely, 

by  the  British,  March  24,  1782.  bravely,    boldly,    met    the    public    danger 



and  confronted  it.  She  is  only  ahead  and 
beyond  any  of  her  sisters  because  of  her 
greater  facility  of  action.  The  great  ma- 
jority of  those  sister  States  under  like 
circumstances  consider  her  cause  as  their 
cause."  He  then  declared  that  "  the 
South  "  was  prepared  for  the  arbitrament 
of  the  sword.     "  Now,  sir,"  he  said,  "  you 


may  see  the  glitter  of  the  bayonet  and 
hear  the  tramp  of  armed  men  from  your 
capital  to  the  Rio  Grande."  This  was 
uttered  before  any  State  convention  ex- 
cepting that  of  South  Carolina  had  pass- 
ed an  ordinance  of  secession.  Toombs  then 
defined  his  own  position.  "  I  believe,"  he 
said,  "  for  all  the  acts  which  the  Kepub- 
lican  party  call  treason  and  rebellion 
there  stands  before  them  as  good  a  traitor 
and  as  good  a  rebel  as  ever  descended  from 
Eevolutionary  loins."  He  demanded  the 
right  of  going  into  all  Territories  with 
slaves  as  property,  and  that  property  to 
be  protected  by  the  national  government. 
"  You  say  Xo,"  he  said ;  "  you  and  the 
Senate  say  Xo ;  the  House  says  No ;  and 
throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  your 
whole  conspiracy  against  the  Constitu- 
tion there  is  one  shout  of  No!  It  is  the 
price  of  my  allegiance.  Withhold  it,  and 
you  can't  get  my  obedience.  There  is  the 
philosophy  of  the  armed  men  that  have 
sprung  up  in  this  country;  and  I  had 
rather  see  the  population  of  my  own,  my 
native  land,  beneath  the  sod  than  that 
they  should  support  for  one  hour  such  a 
government."  He  was  expelled  from  the 
Senate  on  March  14,  1861;  became  a  mem- 

ber of  the  Confederate  convention  at  Jlont- 
gomery  in  February,  1861 ;  was  made 
Secretary  of  State  of  the  provisional  gov- 
ernment, and  became  a  brigadier-general 
in  the  Confederate  army  in  September. 
He  died  in  Washington,  Ga.,  Dec.  15,  1885. 
See  Stephens,  Alexander  H. 

Topeka  Constitution.     See  Kansas. 

Topolobampo,  the  name  of  a  bay  of  the 
Gulf  of  California,  belonging  to  the  State 
of  Sinaloa,  Mexico;  selected  in  1886  by  a 
number  of  conspicuous  socialists  in  the 
United  States  as  a  site  for  a  new  colony. 
A  charter  was  obtained  under  the  laws  of 
California ;  a  model  town  was  planned ; 
and  several  hundred  colonists  went  to  the 
bay  in  the  latter  part  of  that  year.  Sub- 
sequently the  company  divided,  and  nearly 
all  the  members  returned  to  the  United 
States,  the  failure  of  the  scheme  being  at- 
tributed to  the  unsuitable  rharacter  of  the 
land  and  the  lack  of  water. 

Torbert,  Alfred  Thomas  Archimedes. 
military  officer;  born  in  Georgetown,  Del., 
July  1,  1833;  giaduated  at  West  Point 
in  1855,  serving  in  Florida  in  1856-57. 
He  became  colonel  of  the  1st  New  Jersey 
Volunteers  in  September,  1861,  and  was 
active  in  the  Peninsular  campaign.  He 
commanded  a  brigade  in  the  battles  of 
Groveton,  or  second  battle  of  Bull  Run. 
South  Mountain  (where  he  was  wounded), 
and  Antietam.  In  November,  1862,  he  was 
promoted  brigadier-general  of  volunteers ; 
was  engaged  at  Gettysburg;  and  command- 
ed a  division  of  cavalry  in  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac  from  May  to  July,  1864.  He 
Avas  chief  of  cavalry  in  the  Shenandoah 
campaign  from  August  to  October,  1864, 
and  was  brevetted  major-general,  United 
States  army,  in  March,  1865.  He  resigned 
in  October,  1866,  and  in  1871  was  sent  as 
consul-general  to  Havana.  He  was  drown- 
ed in  the  wreck  of  the  steamer  Vei-a  Crus 
off  the  coast  of  Florida,  Sept.  30,  1880. 

Tories,  or  Loyalists.  There  was  a  great 
diversity  of  sentiment  in  the  English- 
American  colonies  during  the  disputes 
with  the  mother-country  before  war  com- 
menced in  1775  and  during  its  progress. 
Probably  every  American  citizen  desired 
the  freedom  which  the  most  zealous  pa- 
triot sought ;  they  differed  only  in  their 
opinions  as  to  the  best  method  to  be  em- 
ployed for  obtaining  it.  The  Whigs,  or 
the    popular    party,    were    radicals;    the 



lories,  or  the.  adherents  of  the  crown  and 
Parliament,  were  conservatives.  The  lat- 
ter defended  or  condoned  the  oppressive 
measures  of  Parliament;  the  former  de- 
nounced them  as  absolutely  tyrannical 
and  not  to  be  endured.  The  question, 
Which  party  is  right?  was  a  vital  one. 
The  imperial  government  settled  it  in  fa- 
vor of  the  Whigs  by  rescinding  their  op- 
pressive measures  one  after  another;  and 
this  decision  has  been  ratified  by  the  judg- 
ment of  posterity  on  both  sides  of  the 
Atlantic.  The  Declaration  of  Indepen- 
dence compelled  men  of  opposite  opinions 
to  avow  them  publicly.  Then  the  im- 
portant question  arose  concerning  the  pol- 
icy of  tolerating  the  Tories,  or  loyalists 
— their  acts  must  be  restrained  as  a  pru- 
dential measure  against  injury  to  the  pa- 
triot cause.  Having  the  power,  and  be- 
lieving themselves  to  be  in  the  right, 
the  Whigs  took  decisive  measures  to  that 
end.  Imprisonment  or  other  odious  re- 
straint at  home,  or  banishment,  was  the 
alternative  presented.  To  a  large  pro- 
portion of  the  loyalists  the  latter  horn  of 
the  dilemma  appeared  the  least  affliction, 
and  many  hundreds  abandoned  their  coun- 
try and  fled  to  Nova  Scotia  or  to  Eng- 
land ;  while  a  considerable  number,  espe- 
cially of  the  young  men,  were  embodied  in 
military  corps,  and  took  up  arms  against 
their   Whig   countrymen. 

This  embodiment  was  undertaken  by  the 
deposed  Governor  Tryon,  of  New  York. 
He  was  ably  seconded  by  Oliver  De  Lancey, 
brother  of  a  lieutenant-governor  of  the 
province  of  New  York,  and  Courtlandt 
Skinner,  of  New  Jersey,  But  the^e  loyal- 
ist corps  numbered  far  less,  for  x  long 
time,  than  the  ministry  or  their  parti- 
sans in  America  anticipated.  The  greatest 
exertions  of  the  three  leaders  above  named 
had  not  caused  an  enrolment  of  over 
1.200  of  them  as  late  as  the  spring  of 
1777.  Afterwards  the  number  greatly  in- 
creased, though,  there  were  not  a  great 
many  in  the  field  at  one  time.  Sabine 
estimates  the  whole  number  enrolled 
during  the  Revolutionary  War  at  20,000. 
The  first  organization  was  under  Lord 
Dunmore  in  Virginia  and  Martin  in  North 
Carolina,  in  1775.  Later  there  were  loyal- 
ists under  Sir  John  Johnson  and  Colonel 
Butler  in  New  York;  also  under  Tryon 
and  De  Lancoy  in  the  same  State,   and 

Skinner,  of  New  Jersey.  Later  still  the 
loyalists  of  the  Carolinas,  who  were 
numerous  in  the  western  districts,  were 
embodied  under  Maj.  Patrick  Ferguson, 
killed  at  King's  Mountain  in  1781.  Alto- 
gether, there  were  twenty-nine  or  thirty 
regiments,  regularly  officered  and  en- 
rolled. The  most  noted  loyalist  corps  in 
the  war  was  that  of  the  Queen's  Rangers, 
led  by  Major  Simcoe,  afterwards  governor 
of  Canada. 

The  loyalists  were  of  two  kinds.  Some 
were  honorable,  conscientious  men,  gov- 
erned by  principle,  and  friends  of  the 
British  government  by  conviction;  others 
were  selfish  and  unscrupulous,  siding  with 
the  supposed  stronger  side  for  purposes  of 
gain,  spite,  or  opportunities  for  plunder 
and  rapine  under  legal  sanction.  The  ma- 
jority of  the  latter  class  filled  the  mili- 
tary ranks,  and  their  oppressions  and 
cruelties  excited  the  fiercest  animosities 
of  the  Whigs,  who  suffered  dreadl'ully. 
They  were  made  to  hate  the  name  of  Tory, 
and  in  many  instances  the  aversion  was 
felt  for  at  least  two  generations  in  Whig 
families  towards  the  descendants  of  Tories. 
Banishments  and  confiscations  by  the 
Whig  authorities  were  popular;  but  when 
peace  came  and  animosities  subsided, 
mercy  and  justice  combined  to  do  right. 
In  the  negotiation  of  the  treaty  of  peace 
(1782),  the  British  commissioners  claimed 
indemnity  for  the  losses  of  the  loyalists. 
It  was  denied  on  the  ground  that  the  Whigs 
during  the  war  had  really  suffered  greater 
losses  through  the  acts  of  the  Tories,  and 
the  claim  was  not  allowed. 

At  the  close  of  the  war  the  military  or- 
ganizations of  the  loyalists  were  dis- 
banded, and  some  of  the  officers  were  trans- 
ferred to  the  royal  army  and  continued  iii 
service  for  life.  Others,  less  fortunate, 
went  with  a  host  of  civil  and  military 
companions  into  exile,  the  northern  ones 
chiefiy  to  Nova  Scotia,  New  Brunswick, 
and  Canada,  and  the  southern  ones  to  the 
Bahamas,  Florida,  and  the  British  West 
Indies.  Many  also  went  to  England,  and 
for  years  were  importunate  petitioners 
for  relief  from  the  British  government. 
The  officers  generally  received  half  pay. 
Towards  the  close  of  1782  the  British  Par- 
liament appointed  a  committee  to  attend 
to  the  claims  of  the  loyalists.  By  their  de- 
cision (June,  1783)  the  sum  of  $216,000 


was  to  be  distributed  annually  among  687 
loyalist  pensioners.  The  claimants  finally 
became  so  numerous  that  a  permanent 
board  of  commissioners  was  appointed, 
which  continued  about  seven  years.  On 
March  25,  1784,  the  .number  of  claimants 
was  2.063,  and  the  aggregate  amount  of 
property  claimed  to  have  been  destroyed 
or  confiscated,  besides  debts  which  they 
had  lost,  was  about  $35,000,000.  In  1790 
the  Parliament  settled  the  whole  matter 
by  enactment.  Altogether,  nearly  $15,000,- 
000  were  distributed  among  the  American 
loyalists  by  the  British  government.  It 
was  regarded  as  a  most  generous  act  in  a 

government  remained  until  1841,  when 
Upper  and  Lower  Canada  (now  Ontario 
and  Quebec)  formed  a  legislative  union. 
When  the  confederation  was  formed,  in 
1867,  Toronto,  the  name  by  which  York 
had  been  known  since  1834,  became  the 
permanent  seat  of  government  for  Ontario. 
In  the  winter  of  1812-13  the  American 
Secretary  of  War  (John  Armstrong)  con- 
ceived a  new  plan  for  an  invasion  of  Can- 
ada. He  did  not  think  the  American 
troops  on  the  northern  frontier  sufficiently 
strong  to  attaek  Montreal,  and  he  pro- 
posed instead  to  attack  successively  Kings- 
ton,    York      ( now     Toronto ) ,     and     Fort 

nation  which  had  expended  nearly  $100,-  George,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara 
000,000  in  the  war,  and  by  it  lost  a  vast  River,  thus  cutting  oif  the  communication 
and  valuable  domain.  between  Montreal  and  Upper  Canada.    As 

Tornado,  a  violent  storm  of  high  ve-  the  British  had  a  sloop-of-war  on  the 
locity;  named  from  the  Spanish  because  of  stocks  at  York,  another  fitting  out  there, 
the  turning  and  twisting  of  an  air-current,  and  a  third  repairing.  Dearborn  and 
In  the  United  States  the  tornado  is  quite  Chauncey  were  of  opinion  that  the  surest 
a  common  occurrence  in  sections  east  of  way  to  secure  the  supremacy  of  Lake  On- 
the  great  plains;  in  the  spring  in  most  of  tario,  and  so  make  an  invasion  successful, 
the  Southern  States,  and  in  both  spring  would  be  to  attack  York  first.  This  propo- 
and  summer  in  some  of  the  Northern  sition  was  sanctioned  by  the  President, 
States.  A  tornado  is  frequently  and  er-  and  at  the  middle  of  April  (1813)  Chaun- 
roneously  given  the  name  of  cyclone,  but  cey  and  Dearborn  had  matured  a  plan  of 
while  a  cyclone  may  be  several  hundred  operations  with  a  combined  land  and  naval 
miles  in  diameter  and  only  a  mile  or  two  force.  It  was  to  cross  the  lake  and  capture 
deep,  a  tornado  is  usually  only  a  few  York,  and  then  proceed  to  attack  Fort 
score  feet  in  diameter  and  only  several  George.  At  the  same  time  troops  were  to 
hundred  feet  high.  The  cyclone  may  last  cross  the  Niagara  River  and  capture  Fort 
several  days,  AA'hile  the  life  of  a  tornado  is  Erie,  opposite  Buff"alo,  and  Fort  Chippewa, 
generally  limited  to  an  hour  or  two.  below,  join  the  victors  at  Fort  George,  and 

all  proceed  to 
capture  Kings- 
ton. With  1,700 
troops  under 
the  immediate 
command  of 
Brig.-Gen.  Zeb- 
ulon  M.  Pike, 
Dearborn  sailed 
in  Chauncey's 
fleet  from  Sack- 
ett's  Harbor, 
April  25,  and  on 
the  morning  of 
the  27th  the 
armament  ap- 
peared before 
Toronto,  the  name  of  an  Indian  village  York.  Chauncey's  fleet  consisted  of  the 
when  Governor  Simcoe  made  it  the  capital  new  sloop-of-war  Madison,  twenty-four 
of  Upper  Canada  in   1794,  and  named  it   guns,     the     brig     Oneida,     and     eleven 

YORK    (TOHO.STOJ    IX    ISli,   FROM     THE   KLOCK  HODSK    EAST  OF   TUE    DOS. 


There  the  seat  of  the  provincial    armed  schooners. 



York  was  then  the  headquarters  of  Gen- 
eral Sheaffe,  at  the  head  of  regulars  and 
Indians.  It  was  intended  to  land  at 
a  clearing  near  old  Fort  Toronto,  but  a 
strong  easterly  wind  drove  the  boats  in 
which  the  troops  had  left  the  Heet  farther 
westward,  and  beyond  any  effectual  cover- 
ing by  the  guns  of  the  navy.  Major 
Forsyth  and  his  riflemen  led  the  van  in 
landing.  When  within  half  rifle-shot  of 
the  shore  they  were  assailed  by  a  deadly 
volley  of  bullets  from  a  company  of  Glen- 
gary  men  and  a 
party  of  Indians 

concealed    in    the  "^ 

woods.  Pike, 
from  the  deck  of 
the  Madison,  saw 
this,  and,  jump- 
ing into  a  boat, 
ordered  his  staff 
to  follow.  Very 
soon  he  was  in 
the  midst  of  a 
sharp  fight  be- 
tween Forsyth's 
men  and  the 
party  on  shore. 
The    main    body 

soon  followed,  and  the  British  were  driven 
back  to  their  works  near  the  town.  The 
Americans,  led  by  Pike,  followed  closely 
and  captured  two  redoubts,  and  at  the 
same  time  Chauncey  hurled  deadly  vol- 
leys of  grape-shot  on  the  foe  from  his  guns. 
Heavy  ordnance  had  been  landed,  and  these 
were  pressed  forward  with  great  fatigue 
over  the  many  ravines.  The  Indian  allies 
of  the  British,  frightened  by  the  cannon, 
deserted  Sheaffe,  and  the  latter  fell  back 
to    the    Western    Battery,    mounting    24- 

pounders.  Pike's  men  were  about  to  storm 
it,  and  Chauncey's  round-shot  were  pound- 
ing it,  when  the  wooden  magazine  of  the 
battery,  which  had  been  carelessly  left 
open,  exploded,  killing  some  of  the  gar- 
rison and  seriously  damaging  the  works. 
The  dismayed  enemy  spiked  the  cannon  and 
retired  to  a  battery  nearer  the  town.  That, 
too,  was  soon  abandoned,  and  Sheaffe  and 
his  men  fled  to  the  garrison,  near  the  gover- 
nor's house,  and  then  opened  a  fire  of  round 
and  grape  shot  upon  the  Americans. 


The  great  guns  of  the  British  were  soon 
silenced,  and  the  Americans  expected  every 
moment  to  see  a  white  flag  displayed  from 
the  block-house,  when  a  sudden  and  awful 
calamity  occurred.  General  Pike  was  sit- 
ting upon  a  stump  conversing  with  a  huge 
British  sergeant  who  had  been  taken 
prisoner,  and  with  his  staff  around  him, 
when  a  sudden  tremor  of  the  ground  was 
felt,  followed  by  a  tremendous  explosion 
near  the  British  garrison.  The  enemy, 
despairing  of  holding  the  place,  had  bloAvn 




up  their  powder-magazine,  situated  upon  victory  when  the  British  ensign  was  pull- 

the  edge  of  the  lake,  at  the  mouth  of  a  ed   down   at   York.     He   lingered    several 

ravine.      Fragments    of    timber    and   huge  hours.     Just  before  he   expired  that  flag 

stones,  of  which  the  magazine  walls  were  was  brought  to  him.     He  made  a  sign  for 

built,  were  scattered  in  every  direction  over  it  to  be  placed  under  his  head,  and  in  that 

a  space  of  several  hundred  feet.     By  that  position  he  died.    The  port  and  village  of 

OLD   FORT   AT   TORONTO   IN   1860. 

explosion  fifty-two  Americans  were  slain 
and  180  wounded.  Forty  of  the  British 
also  lost  their  lives.  General  Pike,  two 
of  his  aides,  and  the  captive  sergeant  were 
mortally  hurt.  The  terrified  Americans 
scattered  in  dismay,  but  were  soon  rallied, 
the  column  was  reformed,  and  Col.  Crom- 
well Pearce,  of  Pennsylvania,  assumed  the 

The  Americans  pressed  forward  to  the 
village,  where  they  were  met  by  the  civil 
authorities  of  the  town,  who  surrendered 
the  place,  together  with  290  regulars  and 
the  militia.  With  them  were  also  taken 
the  war-vessel  (the  Duke  of  Gloucester) 
and  a  large  quantity  of  naval  and  military 
stores.  The  loss  of  the  Americans  in  the 
capture  of  York,  in  killed  and  wounded 
on  land,  was  269 ;  and  on  the  fleet,  seven- 
teen. The  British  loss,  besides  the  prison- 
ers, was  149.  General  Pike  was  crushed 
between  two  stones,  and  was  carried  on 
board  the  Pert,  then  Chauncey's  flag-ship. 
His    benumbed    ears    heard   the   shout   of 


York  were  abandoned  by  the  Americans, 
for  they  were  of  little  value  to  them.  Gen- 
eral SheaflFe,  taking  advantage  of  the  con- 
fusion after  the  explosion,  and  the  time 
purposely  consumed  in  the  capitulation, 
after  destroying  some  vessels  on  the  stocks 
and  some  storehouses,  escaped  with  the 
larger  portion  of  the  regulars  to  Kingston. 
After  the  Americans  left,  the  fort  at 
Toronto  was  repaired,  and  has  been  gar- 
risoned ever  since,  only  the  barracks  being 
kept  in  order. 

When  the  Americans  took  possession  of 
York,  the  Parliament-house  and  other  pub- 
lic buildings  were  burned  by  an  unknown 
hand.  Tt  was  said  that  the  incendiary  was 
instigated  by  the  indignation  of  the  Amer- 
icans, who  found  hanging  upon  the  wall 
of  the  legislative  chamber  a  "  human 
scalp,"  for  which  commodity  Proctor  had 
paid  bounties  when  at  Fort  Maiden.  It  is 
not  pleasant  to  relate  a  fact  so  discredit- 
able; but,  as  a  British  historian  (Auehin- 
leck),    has    intimated    that    the    scalp    in 


question  —  which     Commodore     Chauncey  feet  in  height,  and  a  shower  of  pitch  and 

sent  to  the  Secretary  of  War — was  taken  tar  fell  on  the  deck  of  the  Ramillies.    The 

from  the  head  of  a  British  Indian  "  shot,  Eagle  and  the  first  lieutenant  and  ten  men 

while  in  a  tree,"  by  that  officer  when  the  of   the  Ramillies  were  blown  into   atoms, 

Americans  advanced,  the  fair  fame  of  a  and  some  of  the  occupants  of  boats  near 

dead  man  demands  the  revelation  of  the  were  fatally  injured.     This  was  followed 

truth.      Chauncey    was    not    on    shore    at  by  an  attempt  to  explode  a  torpedo  under 

York.     A  few  days  after  the  capture  of  the  Ramillies. 

tliat  city  he  wrote  from  Sackett's  Harbor  A  citizen  of  Norwich,  Conn.,  acquainted 
to  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy:  "I  have  the  with  Bushnell's  torpedo,  invented  a  sub- 
honor  to  present  to  you,  by  the  hands  of  marine  boat,  in  which  he  voyaged  under 
Lieutenant  Dudley,  the  British  standard  water  at  the  rate  of  3  miles  an  hour, 
taken  at  York  on  the  27th  of  April  last.  Three  times  he  went  under  the  Ramillies, 
accompanied  by  the  mace,  over  which  hung  and  on  the  third  occasion  had  nearly  fast- 
a  human  scalp.  These  articles  were  taken  ened  the  torpedo  to  the  ship's  bottom, 
from  the  Parliament-house  by  one  of  my  when  the  breaking  of  a  screw  baffled  the 
officers  and  presented  to  me."  General  attempt.  He  was  discovered,  but  escaped. 
Dearborn  wrote:  "A  scalp  was  found  in  A  fisherman  of  Long  Island,  named  Penny, 
the  legislative  council-chamber,  suspended  made  attempts  on  the  Ramillies  with  a 
near  the  speaker's  chair,  accompanied  by  torpedo  in  a  whale-boat,  and  Hardy  was 
the  mace."  kept  continually  on  the  alert.  He  kept 
Torpedoes.  The  government  of  the  the  Ramillies  constantly  in  motion,  and 
United  States,  like  that  of  Great  Britain,  caused  her  bottom  to  be  swept  with  a  cable 
refused  to  make  use  of  Fulton's  torpedoes  every  two  hours,  night  and  day.  Finally 
in  warfare,  but  it  was  attempted  by  in-  he  warned  the  inhabitants  that  if  such 
dividuals  against  the  British  blockading  warfare  was  not  discontinued  he  would 
squadron.  In  New  York  Harbor  a  proceed  to  burn  the  town.  The  warning 
schooner   named   the  Eagle   was   used   as  was  eff"ectuai. 

a  torpedo-vessel.  In  her  hold  John  Scud-  In  July,  Mr.  Mix,  of  the  navy,  attempted 
der,  Jr.,  originator  of  the  plot,  placed  ten  to  blow  up  the  Plantagenet,  seventy-four 
kegs  of  gunpowder,  with  a  quantity  of  guns,  with  a  torpedo.  She  was  lying  off 
sulphur  mixed  with  it,  in  a  strong  cask,  Cape  Henry,  Va.  Under  cover  of  intense 
and  surrounded  it  with  huge  stones  and  darkness,  the  torpedo  was  carried  out  in  an 
other  missiles,  which,  in  the  event  of  an  open  boat  called  the  Chesapeake  Avenger, 
explosion,  might  inflict  great  injury.  At  and  dropped  so  as  to  float  down  under  the 
the  head  of  the  cask,  in  the  inside,  were  ship's  bow.  It  exploded  a  few  seconds  too 
fixed  two  gunlocks  with  cords,  attached  to  soon.  A  column  of  water  25  feet  in 
their  triggers  at  one  end,  and  two  barrels  diameter,  half-luminous  with  lurid  light, 
of  flour  at  the  other  end,  so  that,  when  was  thrown  up  at  least  40  feet  high,  with 
the  flour  should  be  removed,  the  lock  an  explosion  as  terrific  as  thunder,  pro- 
would  be  sprung,  the  powder  ignited,  and  ducing  a  concussion  like  the  shock  of  an 
the  terrible  mine  exploded.  The  Eagle,  earthquake.  It  burst  at  the  crown,  and 
commanded  by  Captain  Eiker,  sailed  for  water  fell  in  profusion  on  the  deck  of  the 
New  London  late  in  June,  1813,  where,  as  Plantagenet.  At  the  some  moment  she 
was  intended,  she  was  captured  by  armed  rolled  into  the  chasm  made  by  the  ex- 
men  in  boats  sent  from  the  Ramillies,  plosion,  and  nearly  upset. 
Commodore  Hardy's  flag-ship.  The  crew  Torpedoes  were  also  placed  at  intervals 
of  the  Eagle  escaped  to  the  shore  and  across  the  Narrows,  at  New  York,  and  at 
watched  the  result.  An  unavailing  at-  the  entrance  to  the  harbor  of  Portland, 
tempt  was  made  to  get  the  Eagle  along-  The  impression  prevailed  in  the  British 
side  the  Ramillies,  for  the  purpose  of  navy  that  the  United  States  government 
transferring  her  cargo  to  that  ship,  had  adopted  Fulton's  torpedoes,  and  this 
Finally  boats  were  sent  out  as  lighters,  made  the  British  commanders  on  our  coast 
and  when  the  first  barrel  of  flour  was  re-  very  circumspect.  No  doubt  the  fear  of 
moved  the  explosion  took  place.  A  volume  torpedoes  saved  the  American  coast-towns 
ijf  fire  shot  up  from  the  Eagle  fully  200  from  plunder  and  the  torch.    Torpedo  war- 




A,  platform ;  B,  torpedo ;  C,  waUr-tight  pine-box  ;  D,  pin  to  be  drawn.    Lower  cut :  A,  vessel  at  anchor  ; 
B,  her  cable ;  E,  F,  two  torpedoes ;  C,  D,  the  coupling  lines. 

given.  Others 
were  arranged  as 
No.  2.  In  the 
James  River  the 
torpedoes  were 
chiefly  galvanic. 
Some  were  cylin- 
drical, with  one 
end  conical,  but 
a  greater  portion 
were  pear-^ 
shaped.  These 
were  anchored  in 
the  channels  or 
in  shallow  water, 
by  means  of  a 
segment  of  a  hol- 
low iron  sphere, 
called  a  "  mush- 
room," which  was 
attached  to  the 
buoyant  mine  by 
a  cliain.  These 
were  generally 
sunk  opposite 
batteries,     where 

fare  was  much  practised  in  the  Civil  War.  the  wires  connected  with  bomb-proofs  on 
The   torpedoes   used   by   the   Confederates    shore. 

were  various  in  form  and  construction.  One  of  these,  containing  nearly  a  ton 
The  most  efficient  ones  were  the  galvanic  of  powder,  was  planted  in  the  centre  of 
and  percussion.  The  former  were  pro-  the  deep  channel  at  Drury's  Bluflf.  On  ac- 
vided  with  a  wire  connected  with  a  gal-  count  of  the  depth  of  water,  it  was  at- 
tached to  a  long  rod,  and  that  to  the 
"  mushroom  "  anchor  by  a  chain,  as  it  was 
desirable  to  have  the  torpedo  only  the 
depth  of  a  vessel  below  the  surface.  No.  1 
was  made  of  a  common  barrel,  with  solid 
pointed  ends,  -made  of  palmetto-wood,  and 
were  used  in  Charleston  Harbor.  After 
the  capture  of  Fort  Fisher,  vessels  were 
vanic  battery  on  the  shore,  by  which  the  sent  to  pick  up  the  torpedoes  sunk  in  the 
mine  might  be  exploded  at  any  moment.    Cape  Fear  River. 

The  percussion  or  "  sensitive  "  ones  ex-  As  soon  as  Richmond  was  evacuated  by 
ploded  by  the  act  of  forcible  contact,  the  Confederates,  in  April,  1865,  a  notable 
Some  of  these  were  made  in  the  form  of  expedition  was  undertaken  in  search  of 
a  double  cone,  with   percussion  tubes  ar-    torpedoes,    with    which    it    was    known    a 

portion  of  that  river  abounded.  The  ex- 
pedition consisted  of  about  300  men  in 
several  tugs  and  thirty  small  boats,  all 
imder  the  command  of  Capt.  Ralph 
Chandler,  U.  S.  N.  On  the  morning  of 
April  3,  Captain  Chandler  started  from 
Dutch  Gap,  with  a  flotilla  and  his  flag- 
ranged  around  the  cylinder  thus  formed,  ship  the  Hangamon,  and  before  sunset  he 
at  tlie  point  of  contact  of  the  bases  of  the  had  so  cleai-ed  the  river  of  these  dangerous 
cones,    as    seen    in    the    illustration    here    obstructions  that  the  passage  to  Richmond 





was  made  comparatively  safe,  and  the 
next  morning  President  Lincoln  went  up 
to  Richmond  from  City  Point  in  the  Mal- 
vern, Admiral  Porter's  flag-ship.  The  fish- 
ing was  carried  on  in  this  wise :  The  steam- 
vessels  were  protected  by  torpedo-nets 
formed  of  ropes  weighted  with  iron  or  lead, 
and  furnished  with  hooks  to  catch  the 
little  submarine  mines.  These  nets  were 
hung  from  spars  placed  athwart  the  bow- 
sprit in  front  of  the  vessel,  and  sometimes 
in  like  manner  along  its  sides.  A  net  like 
that  at  the  bow  was  placed  off  the  stern, 
and  was  dragged  after  the  vessel  as  a 
fisherman  drags  his  net.     No  officer  in  the 


J-U  JliLLU-i-U ' 

-       _       4_L 








navy  was  better  qualified  for  performing 
this  task  than  Captain  Chandler,  requir- 
ing as  it  did  cool  courage  and  rare  judg- 
ment. "  The  knowledge  that  a  simple 
touch  will  lay  your  ship  a  helpless,  sink- 
ing wreck  upon  the  water  without  even 
the  satisfaction  of  firing  one  shot  in  re- 
turn," wrote  Captain  Chandler,  "  calls  for 
more  courage  than  can  be  expressed,  and  a 
short  cruise  among  torpedoes  will  sober 
the  most  intrepid   disposition." 

Torrens's  Land  System,  a  plan  of  land 
transfer  drawn  up  by  Sir  Robert  Torrens, 
and  by  him  put  in  operation  in  Australia. 
It  is  now  used  in  all  the  Australian  prov- 
inces, in  Tasmania  and  New  Zealand,  and 
in  British  Columbia  and  Ontario,  and  has 
been  attempted  in  various  parts  of  the 
United  States.  Its  object  is  to  make  the 
transfer  of  land  as  simple  as  that  of  bank 
stock,  and  render  the  title  of  the  holder 
thereof  as  free  from  danger  or  difficulty 
as  ordinarily  the  title  of  the  holder  of 
bank  stock  is  to  the  shares  he  holds.  A 
land  registry  is  established  under  the  con- 
trol of  an  officer  known  as  the  master  of 
titles,  by  whom  all  land  transactions  are 
registered.     A  title  may  be  registered  as 

absolute  or  possessory;  if  absolute,  the 
title  must  be  approved  by  the  master  of 
titles  before  the  ownership  can  be  regis- 
tered in  fee-simple. 

Tortugas,  Dry.     See  Dry  Tortugas. 

Torture.  Although  various  kinds  of 
torture  were  in  use  in  Europe  and  Great 
Britain  for  many  ages,  the  use  of  such 
cruelty  was  never  legally  recognized  in 
the  British  colonies,  and  it  was  exceed- 
ingly seldom  that  resort  was  had  to  such 
punishment.  A  notable  exception  is  found 
in  the  case  of  Giles  Corey,  a  supposed 
witch  in  Salem,  Mass.,  who,  in  1G92,  re- 
fused to  answer  any  questions  on  his  trial, 
and  was  pressed  to  death,  this  being  the 
only  known  instance  in  America  of  the  in- 
fliction of  the  penalty,  known  in  French  as 
peine  forte  et  dure,  or  pressing  to  death. 

Totem,  among  savage  tribes,  especially 
the  North  American  Indians,  the  token  or 
symbol  of  a  family  or  clan;  usually  an 
animal  or  some  natural  object  selected  for 
reverence  and  superstitious  regard.  It 
serves  for  a  sort  of  surname  of  the  family. 
Its  importance  lies  in  the  notion  that  in- 
dividuals trace  their  lineage  from  it.  The 
turtle,  the  bear,  and  the  wolf  appear  to 
be  favored  and  honored  totems  among 
many  tribes.  The  obligations  growing  out 
of  a  common  totem  are  scrupulously  re- 
garded. Intermarriage  among  those  hav- 
ing it  was  criminal.  All  such,  of  what- 
ever clan  or  tribe,  friendly  or  hostile,  have 
the  rights  of  hospitality,  of  succor  in  dis- 
tress, and  of  friendship  as  blood-relations. 
The  totem  is  never  changed. 

Totten,  Charles  A.  L.,  military  offi- 
cer ;  born  in  New  London,  Conn.,  Feb. 
3,  1851 ;  graduated  at  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  in  June,  1873;  and 
was  commissioned  a  second  lieutenant 
of  the  4th  United  States  Artillery.  In 
1889  he  was  appointed  militaiy  instruc- 
tor at  the  Yale  Scientific  School,  and  while 
there  gained  notoriety  as  a  chronological 
investigator.  His  eccentric  speculations 
as  to  the  length  of  time  that  the  earth 
had  existed,  and  his  prophecy,  which  he 
based  on  the  book  of  Daniel,  that  the  world 
would  come  to  an  end  in  1895,  along  with 
many  other  similar  teachings,  made  him 
the  object  of  much  ridicule  and  subjected 
Yale  University  to  severe  criticism.  He 
was  therefore  notified  in  April,  1892, 
that  he  would  be  relieved  of  his  instruc- 



torsliip  on  Aug.  1,  1892.  He,  however, 
resigned  his  commission  in  the  army  and 
devoted  himself  to  literary  work. 

Totten,  Joseph  Gilbert,  military  offi- 
cer; born  in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  Aug.  23, 
1788;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1805, 
and  was  chief  engineer  of  the  army  on  the 
Niagara  frontier  in  1812-13.  For  meri- 
torious services  in  the  capture  of  Fort 
George  he  was  brevetted  major  in  June, 
1813.  He  was  chief  engineer  of  Generals 
Izard  and  Macomb  on  Lake  Erie  in  1814, 
and  was  brevetted  lieutenant-colonel  for 
gallantry  in  the  battle  of  Plattsburg.  He 
was  chief  engineer  of  the  army  of  Gen- 
eral Scott  in  the  siege  of  Vera  Cruz  in 
1847,  and  brevetted  brigadier-general. 
From  1846  to  1864  he  was  a  regent  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution,  and  in  the  Civil 
War  was  chief  engineer  of  the  United 
States  army.  He  was  brevetted  major- 
general.  United  States  army,  the  day  be- 
fore his  death,  in  Washington,  D.  C, 
April  22,  1864.  He  was  author  of  an  able 
Report  on  the  Subject  of  National  De- 
fences (1851),  and  translator  of  Vicat  on 

Toucey,  Isaac,  statesman;  born  in 
Newtown,  Conn.,  Nov.  5,  1796;  received  a 
private  education;  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1818;  pi-actised  at  Hartford,  Conn.;  mem- 
ber of  Congress  in  1835-39;  governor  of 
Connecticut  in  1845.  He  served  as  Attor- 
ney-General of  the  United  States  in  1848- 
49 ;  as  a  United  States  Senator  in  1852-57 ; 
and  as  Secretary  of  the  Navy  in  1857-61. 
He  then  resumed  the  practice  of  law.  He 
died  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  July  30,  1869. 

Tourgee,  Albion  Winegab,  jurist; 
born  in  Williamsfield,  0.,  May  2,  1838; 
graduated  at  Rochester  University  in 
1862;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1864;  served 
in  the  Civil  War ;  wounded  twice  and  im- 
prisoned for  six  months  in  Libby  prison; 
appointed  United  States  consul  at  Bor- 
deaux in  1897.  He  is  the  author  of  Figs 
and  Thistles;  A  Fool's  Errand;  The  Man 
Who  Outlived  Himself;  The  Story  of  a 
Thousand;  An  Appeal  to  Ccesar ;  War  of 
the  Standards ;  Digest  of  Cited  Cases,  etc. 

Tourjee,  Eben,  musician;  born  in  War- 
wick, R.  I.,  June  1,  1834;  was  organist  of 
a  church  when  thirteen  years  old;  re- 
moved to  Providence,  where  he  opened 
a  music  store  and  began  teaching  when 
seventeen,    and    in    1/859    to    Greenwich, 

where  he  foimded  the  Musical  Institute. 
He  studied  in  Europe  in  1863-67;  re- 
moved the  Musical  Institute  to  Boston, 
and  changed  its  name  to  the  New  England 
Conservatory  of  Music;  with  Patrick  S. 
Gilmore  organized  the  World's  Peace 
Jubilee  in  1872;  and  organized  and  con- 
ducted the  large  chorus  of  the  Music  Hall 
Society  in  1876.  He  died  in  Boston, 
Mass.,  April  12,  1891. 

Touro,  JuDAH,  philanthropist;  born  iia 
Newport,  R.  I.,  June  16,  1775;  engaged 
in  mercantile  business  in  New  Orleans  in 
1802,  where  he  acquired  a  large  fortune. 
He  gave  considerably  to  charity  during 
his  life;  and,  at  his  death,  in  New  Orleans, 
La.,  Jan.  18,  1854,  he  bequeathed  most 
of  his  property  to  the  public  charitable 
institutions  of  that  city. 

Toussaint,  Francois  Dominique.  See 
Santo  Domingo. 

Tower,  Charlemagne,  diplomatist; 
born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  April  17,  1848; 
graduated  at  Harvard  College  in  1872; 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1878;  president  of 
the  Duluth  and  Iron  Range  Railroad  in 
1882-87;  United  States  minister  to  Aus- 
tria-Hungary in  1897-99,  ambassador  to 
Russia  in  1899-1902,  and  ambassador  to 
Germany  since  1902.  He  is  the  author 
of  The  Marquis  de  La  Fayette  in  the 
American  Revolution  (2  volumes). 

Town-meetings,  the  conspicuous  feat- 
ure in  New  England  colonial  politics,  and 
the  promoter  and  conservator  of  free 
speech,  a  free  press,  and  a  spirit  of  liberty 
which  pervaded  the  whole  population.  It 
was  the  fruitful  seed  of  republicanism. 
In  the  town-meetings  its  taxes  were  voted 
and  its  affairs  discussed  and  settled. 
Therein  the  agents  and  public  servants  of 
each  town  were  annually  elected  by  a  free 
ballot,  and  there  abstract  political  prin- 
ciples were  debated.  By  these  discussions 
an  intelligent  public  sentiment  was  cre- 
ated concerning  the  rights  of  man,  and 
particularly  the  rights  of  Englishmen  in 
America,  which  was  ready  to  support,  by 
its  power,  the  champions  of  freedom  in 
the  great  struggle  for  justice,  and  finally 
for  independence.  It  was  this  latter  feat- 
ure of  the  town-meeting  that  excited  the 
opposition  of  the  crown  officers,  who  called 
it  a  "  focus  of  rebellion."  They  hated  and 
feared  it. 

Pnof.   John   Fiske,   in   his   illuminating 



essay  on  the  town-meeting,  has  set  forth  completeness.  In  several  Southern  and 
its  origin  and  relation  to  German,  Eng-  Western  States  the  administrative  unit 
lish,  and  American  history  in  the  most  is  the  county,  and  local  affairs  are  man- 
brilliant  manner.  We  give  a  few  short  aged  by  county  commissioners  elected  by 
extracts  from  the  same.  the  people.     Elsewhere  we  find  a  mixture 

of  the  county  and  township  systems.     In 

Immediately  on  their  arrival  in  New  some  of  the  Western  States  settled  by  the 
England  the  settlers  proceeded  to  form  for  New  England  people,  town-meetings  are 
themselves  a  government  as  purely  demo-  held,  though  their  powers  are  somewhat 
cratic  as  any  that  had  ever  been  seen  in  less  extensive  than  in  New  England, 
the  world.  Instead  of  scattering  about  But  something  very  like  the  "town- 
over  the  country,  the  requirements  of  edu-  meeting  principle  "  lies  at  the  bottom  of 
cation  and  of  public  worship,  as  well  as  all  the  political  life  of  the  United  States. 
of  defence  against  Indian  attacks,  obliged  To  maintain  vitality  in  the  centre  v/ith- 
them  to  form  small  village  communities,  out  sacrificing  it  in  the  parts;  to  preserve 
As  these  villages  multiplied,  the  surface  tranquillity  in  the  mutual  relations  of 
of  the  country  came  to  be  laid  out  in  small  forty  powerful  States,  while  keeping  the 
districts  (usually  from  6  to  10  miles  in  people  everywhere  as  far  as  possible  in 
length  and  breadth)  called  townships,  direct  contact  with  the  government,  such 
Each  township  contained  its  village,  to-  is  the  political  problem  which  the  Ameri- 
gether  with  the  woodlands  surrounding  it.  can  imion  exists  for  the  purpose  of 
From  the  outset  the  government  of  the  solving,  and  of  this  great  truth  every 
township  was  vested  in  the  town-meeting.  Americ&in  citizen  is  supposed  to  have  some 
Once  in  each  year  a  meeting  is  held,  glimmering,  however  crude, 
at  which  every  adult  male  residing  within  Towne,  Charles  Arnette,  born  in  Oak- 
the  limits  of  the  township  is  expected  to  land  county,  Mich.,  Nov.  21,  1858;  edu- 
be  present,  and  is  at  liberty  to  address  cated  at  the  University  of  Michigan;  ad- 
the  meeting  or  vote  upon  any  question  mitted  to  the  bar  in  1886;  removed  to 
that  may  come  up.  Duluth,  Minn.,  in   1890;   member  of  Con- 

At  each  annual  town-meeting  there  are  gress  in  1895-97 ;  withdrew  from  the  Re- 
chosen  not  less  than  three  or  more  than  publican  convention  in  1897;  nominated 
nine  selectmen,  a  town  clerk,  a  town  treas-  for  Vice-President  by  the  People's  party 
urer,  a  school  committee,  assessors  of  and  by  the  Silver  Republicans  in  1900. 
taxes,  overseers  of  the  poor,  constables.  He  declined  both  nominations,  and  was 
surveyors  of  highways,  fence  viewers,  and  a  United  States  Senator  for  two  months 
other  officers.  In  very  small  townships  in  1900-01,  filling  a  vacancy, 
the  selectmen  themselves  may  act  as  as-  Townsend,  Edward  Davis,  military 
sessors  of  taxes  or  overseers  of  the  poor,  officer;  born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Aug.  22. 
The  selectmen  may  appoint  police  officers  1817;  graduated  at  West  Point  in  1837; 
if  such  are  required ;  thev  may  act  as  a  served  in  the  Seminole  and  Mexican  wars. 
board  of  health;  in  addition  to  sundry  He  was  adjutant-general  of  the  United 
specific  duties  too  numerous  to  mention  States  during  the  Civil  War,  and  chief  ex- 
here,  they  have  the  general  superintend-  ecutive  officer  under  Secretary  Stanton.  He 
ence  of  all  the  public  business,  save  such  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  May  11,  1893. 
as  is  expressly  assigned  to  the  other  offi-  Townsend,  George  Alfred,  journalist; 
cers;  and  whenever  circumstances  may  born  in  Georgetown,  Del.,  Jan.  30,  1841: 
seem  to  require  it,  they  are  authorized  educated  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  entered 
to  call  a  town-meeting.  journalism  in  1860;  was  war  correspond- 

Besides  choosing  executive  officers,  the  ent  for  the  New  York  World  in  1864-65, 
town-meeting  has  the  power  of  enacting  under  the  pen-name  of  Gath.  He  is  the 
by-laws,  of  making  appropriations  of  author  of  Real  Life  of  Abraham  Lincoln: 
money  for  town  purposes,  and  of  pro-  Washington  Outside  and  Inside;  Mormon 
viding  for  miscellaneous  emergencies  by  Trials;  Washington  Rebuilded;  The  En- 
'i^hat  might  be  termed  special  legislation,    tailed  Hat;  Life  of  Levi  P.  Morton,  etc. 

It   is   only   in   New   England   that   the       Townsend,     John     Kirk,     naturalist; 
.ownship    system   is   to   be   found   in   its    born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Aug.  10,  1809; 
IX. — G  97 


was  associated  with  John  J.  Audubon  in  is  now  in  the  library  of  Columbia  Um« 
the  preparation  of  American  Ornithol-  versity.  New  York.  He  delivered  many 
ogy;  travelled  through  the  West  in  1833-  lectures  and  addresses  on  the  Civil  War. 
37;  visited  the  Sandwich  Islands  and  Townshend,  George,  first  Marquis, 
South  America;  and  later  had  charge  of  military  officer;  born  in  Norfolk,  England, 
the  department  of  birds  in  the  Smith-  Feb.  28,  1724;  commanded  a  division  un- 
sonian  Institution.  While  in  Washington  der  Wolfe  in  the  expedition  against  Que- 
he  studied  dentistry;  was  a  member  of  bee,  and  took  command  of  the  army  after 
the  Philadelphia  Academy  of  Sciences  and  the  death  of  that  general,  receiving  the 
a  contributor  to  its  Proceedings ;  and  was  capitulation  of  the  French.  He  then  re- 
author  of  A  Narrative  of  a  Journey  Ao'oss  turned   to   England,    and   was   a   member 

thef  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Columbia  Riv- 
er: and  Ornithology  of  the  United  States. 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  16,  1851. 
Townsend,  Thomas  S.,  compiler;  born 
in  New  York  City,  Aug.  27,  1829;  received 
a  classical  education,  and  later  entered  a 
mercantile   firm   in   New   York   City.      In 

of  Parliament  ten  years  (1754-64).  He 
became  a  field-marshal  and  privy  council- 
lor; was  lord-lieutenant  of  Ireland  (1767- 
72),  and  was  created  marquis  in  October, 
1787.    He  died  Sept.  14,  1807. 

Towson,  Nathan,  artillery  officer;  bom 
near  Baltimore,  Md.,  Jan.   22,   1784;   was 

1860  he  began  a  chronological  history  of  appointed  captain  of  artillery  in  March, 
every  important  occurrence  in  connection  1812,  having  had  some  experience  in  that 
with  the  impending  Civil  War,  by  clipping  service  as  commander  of  a  volunteer  ar« 
from  the  newspapers  every  statement  of  tillery  company;  was  sent  to  the  Niagara 
value  relating  to  the  subject  and  the  ree-  frontier;  and  there,  in  1813-14,  performed 
ord  of  every  military  officer  in  both  armies,  distinguished  services.  He  bore  a  prom- 
His  collection  comprised  120  volumes,  and    inent  part  in  the  battles  of  Chippewa  and 

Lundy's  Lane;  also  in  the  defence  of 
Fort  Erie.  In  1816  he  was  brevetted 
lieutenant  -  colonel,  and  was  made 
paymaster-general  in  1819.  In  March, 
1849,  he  received  the  brevet  of  major- 
general  for  "  meritorious  services 
during  the  Mexican  War."  He  died 
in  Washington,  D.  C,  July  20,  1854. 
Tract  Society.  The  first  unde- 
nominational tract  society  in  the 
United  States  was  formed  in  Boston 
in  1803.  In  1814  a  society  was 
formed  at  Andover,  Mass.,  which, 
in  1823,  made  its  abode  in  Boston, 
with  the  name  of  the  American  Tract 
Society.  Another  American  Tract 
Society  was  formed  in  New  Yoi'k  in 
1825,  and  a  union  of  all  was  efi"ected. 
In  1859,  because  of  the  society's 
hesitancy  to  publish  tracts  on  the 
subject  of  slavery,  the  Boston  society 
withdrew.  A  colporteur  system  was 
established  in  1842,  and  the  colpor- 
teurs disposed  of  a  vast  number  of 
tracts.  The  various  denominations 
also  have  tract  societies. 

Tracy,  Benjamin  Franklin,  law- 
yer; born  in  Oswego,  N.  Y.,  April  26, 
1830;  became  an  influential  Repub- 
lican politician,  and  a  promiivent 
lawyer  in  New  York*  raised  two  regi* 

BKNJAMIM    ri.AMvLi:.     IKACV. 



ments  for  the  Civil  War;    commissioned  the  death  of  Queen  Anne,  the  new  min» 

colonel  of  the  109th  New  York  Volunteers;  istry  reduced  the  powerful  board  of  trade 

was  severely  wounded  at  the  battle  of  the  to  a  subordinate  position — a  mere  commit- 

Wilderness;  brevetted  brigadier-general  in  tee   for   reference   and   report,    and   a   de- 

1865;    received  a   congressional   medal   of  pendent  upon  the  secretary  of  state  for 

honor  for  gallantry  in  battle.     After  the  the  colonies.    In  March,  1749,  Horace  Wal- 

war  he  served  as  United  States  district  at-  pole,   at   the   instigation   of   the   board   of 

torney  and  associate  judge  of  the  court  of  trade    and    plantations,    reported    a    bill 

appeals;   and  was  Secretary  of  the  Navy  to  overrule  all  charters,  and  to  make  the 

in  President  Harrison's  cabinet,   1889-93.  orders  of  the  King,  or  under  his  author- 

At  the  close  of  his  term  he  returned  to  the  ity,   the   supreme   law   in   America.      This 

practice  of  law;  was  president  of  the  com-  seemed    to    be    consistent    with    the    high 

mission  which  drafted  the  charter  for  the  claim  of  legislative  authority  for  Parlia- 

Greater  New  York;    and  was   an   unsuc-  ment.     Onslow,  ppeaker  of  the  House  of 

cessful   candidate   for   first   mayor   under  Commons,    believed    the    Parliament    had 

this  charter.  power  to  tax  America,  but  not  to  delegate 

Trade,     Foreign.     See     Commerce    of  it.    He  ordered  the  objections  to  the  meas- 

THE  United  States.  ure  to  be  spread  at  length  on  the  journals 

Trade  and  Plantations,  Boards  of.  The  of   the   House,   and   the   board   of   trade 

first  of  these  commissions  was   suggested  dropped   the   matter. 

by  Charles  Davenant,  son  of  Sir  William  Trade  Dollar,  a  silver  dollar  containing 

Davenant,  and  an  English  author  of  note.  378  troy  grains  of  silver  and  42  troy  grains 

He  proposed,  in  an  essay,  that  the  care  of  alloy.  Dollars  of  this  description,  issued 

of  the  American  colonies  should  be  made  under   act   of   Congress  of   Feb.    12,    1873, 

"  the  province  of  a  select  number  of  lords  were  legal  tender  to  amount  of  $5.    Those 

and  gentlemen  of  reputation  both  for  parts  issued  imder  act  of  July  22, 1876,  possessed 

and    fortunes " ;    and    suggested    that    it  no  legal- tender  power.     The  trade  dollars 

would  be  in  their  power  "  to  put  things  were  intended  for  trade  with  countries  do- 

into  a  form  and  order  of  government  that  ing  business  on  a  silver  basis;  hence  the 

should  always  preserve  these  countries  in  name.    See  Coinage,  United  States. 

obedience    to    the    crown    and    dependence  Trade  Expansion.     See  Commerce  of 

upon  the  kingdom."    At  the  same  time,  hs  the  United  States. 

advocated  the  keeping  of  the  conditions  of  Trades  Unions.     The  first  local  labor 

their    charters    sacred    and    inviolate.      A  unions  arose  in  1800-25.     They  multiplied 

standing    coimcil    of    commerce    had    been  from    1815    up   to   the   time   of   the   Civil 

established,  but  in   1673   it  was   dropped.  War,   though   the  movement  was   opposed 

From   that   time   until    1696   all   disputes  by    the    press,    and    employers    combined 

and     regulations     relating     to     commerce  to    suppress    it.      The    first   central    labor 

and  the  colonies  were  usually  referred  to  union  in  the  United  States  was  the  Gen- 

a  committee  of  the  privy  council.  eral    Trades    Union,    established    in    New 

The  board  of  trade  and  plantations  York  (1833).  In  1850  the  Typographical 
was  established  by  King  William  III.  in  Union  Avas  formed.  Employers  at  first 
I  that  year.  It  consisted  of  a  first  lord  opposed,  but  later  all  endured,  while  most 
commissioner,  who  was  a  peer  of  the  welcomed  and  supported  it.  The  hatter?, 
realm,  and  seven  other  commissioners,  combined  in  1854,  the  iron  -  workers  in 
with  a  salary  of  $5,000  each.  The  mem-  1858,  the  machinists  in  1859,  etc.,  till.' in 
hers  of  the  board  were  styled  the  "  lord  1860,  twenty  -  six  labor  unions  existed, 
commissioners  for  trade  and  plantations."  International  labor  organizations  were 
With  this  board  the  governors  of  the  formed  by  the  cigar-makers  (1864),  the 
English-American  colonies  held  continual  engineers  (1864),  the  masons  (1865). 
correspondence  concerning  their  respec-  Among  other  unions  were  those  of  the  con- 
tive  governments;  and  to  this  board  they  ductors  (1868),  wool-hatters  (1869),  loco- 
transmitted  the  journals  of  their  councils  motive  firemen  (1869),  furniture-makers 
and  assemblies,  the  accounts  of  the  col-  (1873),  horseshoers  (1875),  granite-cut- 
lectors  of  customs  and  naval  officers,  and  ters  (1877),  coal-miners  (1885),  bakers 
similar  articles  of  official  intelligence.   On  (1886),     tailors,     plasterers,     carpenters, 



glM,  .workers,  bottle-blowers,  plumbers.  Train,  George  Francis,  author ;  born 
boilev  makers,  piano  -  makers,  bookkeep-  in  Boston,  Mass.,  March  24,  1829;  engaged 
ers,  lithographers,  stereotypers,  switch-  in  business  in  Boston  for  several  years; 
men,  spinners,  and,  lastly,  messenger-boys,  went  to  Australia  in  18.5.3;  travelled  ex- 
Women,  too,  organized  their  callings,  till  tensively  through  England,  where  he  lect- 
the  unions  were  universal.  Their  objects  ured  to  large  audiences;  returned  to  the 
have  always  been  substantially  the   same    United    States    in    18G2,    and    wrote    An 

yi2_    short  hours,  higher  wages,  laws  to    A7nerican  Merchant  in  Europe,  Asia,  and 

better'  the  laborer's  lot,  the  payment  of  Australia;  Young  America  Abroad;  Young 
the  same  wages  to  women  and  men  for  America  in  Wall  Street;  etc.  He  died  in 
the  same  work,  the  protection  of  laborers  New  York  City,  Jan.  18,  1904. 
in  factories  and  while  on  duty,  the  pre-  Transcendentalism,  a  term  derived 
vention  of  unorganized  and  useless  strikes,  from  the  Latin  transeenderc,  to  go  beyond, 
of  the  labor  of  children  under  fourteen  and  applied  to  that  doctrine  of  the  school 
years  of  ao'e   etc.  of  philosophy  in  New  England  which  was 

The  National  Labor  Union  was   called    founded  by  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson  and 
to    order    Feb.    22,    1861.      It   pushed   the    A.  Bronson  Alcott  (q.  v.). 
homestead    law,    and    obtained    an    eight-        Transportation.         See       Railroads; 
hour    working  -  day    for    government    em-    Steamboats. 

ploygs  (1868),  but,  with  its  successor,  the  Transylvania.  While  the  English  pop- 
Industrial  Brotherhood,  both  having  enter-  ulation  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard  were  ia 
ed  into  politics,  had  ceased  to  exist  by  1875.  great  political  commotion  in  the  early 
In  1869  was  formed  in  Philadelphia  the  part  of  1775,  efforts  were  in  progress  to 
first  association  of  the  Knights  of  Labor,  form  a  new  commonwealth  in  the  valley 
a  limited,  social,  and  (at  first)  secret  or-  of  the  Mississippi.  Richard  Henderson, 
ganization.  One  of  its  objects  was  to  an  energetic  la\vyer  of  North  Carolina, 
harmonize  labor  and  capital,  while  de-  and  a  land  speculator,  induced  by  the 
crying  strikes,  idleness,  and  frivolity.  It  reports  o'f  Finley,  Boone,  and  others  of  the 
also  collected  the  statistics  of  its  mem-  fertile  regions  on  the  banks  of  the  lower 
bers,  and  strove  to  promote  intelligence  Kentucky  River,  purchased  of  the  Chero- 
among  them.  In  1877  it  engaged  in  the  kees  for  a  few  wagon-loads  of  goods  a 
great  strike  on  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  great  tract  of  land  south  of  that  river. 
Railroad  and  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Others  were  associated  with  him ;  and  the 
to  resist  a  reduction  in  wages.  By  1877  adventurer  Daniel  Boone,  who  had  been 
it  had  450  societies;  in  1901  it  claimed  present  at  the  treaty,  was  soon  afterwards 
a  membership  of  200,000;  the  organiza-  sent  (March,  1775)  to  mark  out  a  road 
tion  became  national  in  1878.  It  organ-  and  to  commence  a  settlement.  He  built  a 
ized  labor  bureaus  in  twenty-eight  States;  palisaded  fort  on  the  site  of  Boonesboro, 
in  1884  the  United  States  bureau  of  la-  Madison  CO.,  Ky.  At  about  the  same 
bor  was  established;  in  1888  the  depart-  time  Col.  James  Harrod,  an  equally  bold 
ment  of  labor,  at  Washington.  Friction  has  backwoodsman,  founded  Harrodsburg. 
always  existed  between  the  American  Fed-  Governor  Dunmore,  of  Virginia,  denounced 
eration  of  Labor  and  the  Knights  of  Labor,  Henderson's  purchase  as  illegal  and  void, 
from  the  fact  that,  while  both  desire  in  the  and  offered  these  western  lands  for  sale 
main  the  same  ends,  each  favors  a  differ-  under  the  crown.  Regardless  of  the  proc- 
ent  means,  the  Knights  advocating  een-  lamation,  delegates  from  Boonesboro,  Har- 
tralization,  while  the  Federation  of  Labor  rodsburg,  and  two  other  settlements, 
would  have  each  union  govern  itself.  eighteen   in   number,   met   at   Boonesboro, 

The  usefulness  of  trades  unions  is  now  and  organized  t^^mselves  into  an  Assem- 
generally  acknowledged.  They  have  made  bly  of  a  State  which  they  named  Transyl- 
the  alien-labor  law  an  accomplished  fact,  vania  by  appointing  Thomas  Slaughter 
and  they  have  secured  in  many  cases  the  chairman,  and  Matthew  Jewett  clerk, 
nine-hour,  in  some  the  eight-hour,  work-  They  were  addressed  by  Henderson  on  be- 
ing-day. Their  main  contention,  however,  half  of  the  proprietors,  between  whom  and 
at  present,  is  still  for  the  eight-hour  day.  the  settlers  a  compact  was  made,  the  most 
See  Labor,  Industrial.  important  features  of  which  were  an  agree- 



ment — 1.  That  the  election  of  delegates  thirty-two  men  succeeded  in  passing  the 
should  be  annual;  2.  Perfect  freedom  of  Mexican  lines.  After  frequent  attacks  had 
opinion  in  matters  of  religion;  3.  That  been  repulsed  with  great  slaughter  a  hand- 
judges  should  be  appointed  by  the  proprie-  to-hand  fight  occurred  on  March  6,  in 
tors,  but  answerable  for  bad  conduct  to  which  the  Texans  were  not  overcome  until 
the  people;  and,  4.  That  the  Convention  only  six  of  their  number  were  left  alive, 
or  Assembly  have  the  sole  power  of  rais-  including  Travis,  David  Crockett,  and 
ing  and  appropriating  all  moneys,  and  of  James  Bowie.  These  surrendered  after  a 
electing  their  treasurers.  Courts  and  a  promise  of  protection  had  been  made,  but 
militia  were  organized,  and  laws  were  when  they  were  taken  before  Santa  Ana, 
enacted.  The  proprietors  held  a  meeting  near  San  Antonio,  on  the  same  day  he 
in  September  at  Oxford,  Greenville  co.,  gave  orders  to  cut  them  to  pieces.  Shortly 
X.  C,  and  elected  James  Hogg  a  delegate  afterwards,  during  the  battle  at  San  Ja- 
for  Transylvania  in  the  Continental  Con-  cinto,  where  the  Mexicans  met  a  bloody  de- 
gress, but  the  claim  of  Virginia  to  the  feat,  the  battle  cry  was  "  Remember  the 
territory  of  the  new  commonwealth  was  a  Alamo."  See  Alamo,  Fort. 
bar  to  his  admission.  The  legislature  of  Treason.  The  first  clause  of  section 
Virginia  afterwards  annulled  the  pur-  iii.,  article  3,  of  the  national  Constitu- 
chase  of  Henderson,  and  the  inchoate  tion  says:  "Treason  against  the  United 
State  disappeared.  Virginia  gave  Hender-  States  shall  consist  only  in  levying  war 
son  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Ohio  12  miles  against  them,  or  in  adhering  to  their 
square,  below  the  mouth  of  Green  River.  enemies,   giving   them    aid   and    comfort." 

Trask,  William  Blake,  historian;  In  consequence  of  the  disturbances  in 
born  in  Dorchester,  Mass.,  Nov.  25,  1812;  western  North  Carolina  (see  Frankland) 
received  a  common  school  education;  was  and  symptoms  of  disaffection  on  the  south- 
apprenticed  to  a  cabinet-maker,  and  work-  western  border,  and  in  Kentucky,  the  Vir- 
ed  at  his  trade  in  1823-35;  was  on  the  ginia  legislature  passed  a  law  in  October, 
school  committee  of  Dorchester;  and  be-  1785,  subjecting  to  the  penalties  of  treason 
came  assessor  in  1850,  which  he  resigned  all  attempts  to  erect  a  new  State  in  any 
soon  after,  owing  to  failing  health.  Later  part  of  her  territory  without  permission 
he  became  interested  in  historical  studies,  first  obtained  of  the  Assembly.  Pennsyl- 
He  copied  the  ancient  town  records  of  Bos-  vania  had  passed  a  similar  law. 
ton;  aided  Gen.  William  H.  Sumner  in  When  Admiral  Farragut  arrived  before 
preparing  a  History  of  East  Boston;  con-  New  Orleans  (April  28,  1862),  he  sent 
tributed  to  the  New  England  Historical  Captain  Bailey  ashore  with  a  flag  to  de- 
and  Genealogical  Register,  and  aided  in  mand  the  surrender  of  the  city.  The 
preparing  several  genealogies;  and  pub-  military  commander  (Lovell)  turned  over 
lished  il^emoiV  of  Andreio  H.  Ward;  Bay-  the  whole  matter  to  the  civil  authorities. 
lie's  Remarks  on  General  Cohb;  The  Bird  The  demand  was  refused.  Meanwhile  a 
Family,  and  The  Seaver  Family.  He  was  force  had  landed  from  one  of  the  vessels 
a  member  of  the  Dorchester  Antiquarian  and  hoisted  the  National  flag  over  the 
and  Historical  Society,  and  the  New  Eng-  Mint.  As  soon  as  they  retired  a  gambler, 
land  Historic-Genealogical  Society,  and  named  William  B.  Mumford,  with  some 
was  its  historiographer  in  1861-68.  young  men,  tore  down  the  flag  and  dragged 

Travis,  William  Barrett,  military  it  through  the  streets  in  derision.  This 
officer ;  born  in  Conecuh  county.  Ala.,  in  act  was  hailed  with  acclamat'  jns  of  ap- 
1811;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1830  and  be-  proval  by  the  Confederates  of  the  city, 
gan  practice  in -Claiborne,  Ala.;  went  to  and  paragraphs  of  praise  and  exultation 
Texas  about  1832  and  later  joined  the  appeared  in  the  New  Orleans  journals. 
Texas  army  and  fought  for  the  indepen-  General  Butler  arrived  with  2,000  troops 
dence  of  that  territory.  With  140  men  he  (May  1),  and  took  possession  of  the  city, 
defended  Fort  Alamo  (the  old  mission  His  headquarters  were  at  the  St.  Charles 
station  of  San  Antonio  de  Valerio)  against  Hotel,  before  which  a  threatening  crowd 
4,000  Mexicans,  Feb.  23,  1836.  The  place  gathered.  Among  them  was  Mumford, 
was  stoutly  defended  for  ten  days ;  numer-  who  openly  boasted  of  his  exploit  in  hum- 
ous appeals  were  made  for  aid,  but  only  bling  the  "  old  rag  of  the  United  States." 



He  became  so  dangerous  to  good  order  as 
the  leader  of  the  turbulent  spirits  in 
New  Orleans  that  Butler  had  him  arrested 
and  tried  for  treason.  He  was  found  guilty 
and  executed — the  only  man  who,  up  to 
1901,  had  been  tried,  found  guilty,  and 
suffered  death  for  that  crime  since  the 
foundation  of  the  national  government. 
In  1901,  after  the  death  of  President  Mc- 
Kinley  by  an  assassin's  bullet,  there  was  a 
wide-spread  opinion  that  Congress  should 
pass  an  act  making  an  attack  on  the 
person  of  the  President  of  the  United 
States,  whether  fatal  or  not,  an  act  of 

Treasury,  Department  of  the,  one  of 
the  executive  departments  of  the  United 
States  government.  The  chief  officer  is 
officially  known  as  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  and  is  charged  by  law  with  the 
management  of  the  national  finances.  He 
prepares  plans  for  the  improvement  of 
the  revenue  and  for  the  support  of  the 
public  credit;  superintends  the  collection 
of  the  revenue,  and  prescribes  the  forms 
of  keeping  and  rendering  public  accounts 
and  of  making  returns ;  grants  warrants 
for  all  moneys  drawn  from  the  treasury 
in  pursuance  of  appropriations  made  by 
law,  and  for  the  payment  of  moneys  into 
the  treasury,  and  annually  submits  to 
Congress  estimates  of  the  probable  reve- 
nues and  disbursements  of  the  govern- 
ment. He  also  controls  the  construction 
of  public  buildings,  the  coinage  and  print- 
ing of  money,  the  collection  of  statistics, 
the  administration  of  the  coast  and  geo- 
detic survey,  life-saving,  light-house,  rev- 
enue-cutter, steamboat  -  inspection,  and 
marine-hospital  branches  of  the  public 
service,  and  furnishes  generally  such  in- 
formation as  may  be  required  by  either 
branch  of  Congress  on  all  matters  per- 
taining to  the  foregoing. 

The  routine  work  of  the  Secretary's 
office  is  \  "ansacted  in  the  offices  of  the 
supervising  architect,  director  of  the  mint, 
director  of  engraving  and  printing,  super- 
vising surgeon-general  of  the  marine-hos- 
pital service,  general  superintendent  of  the 
life-saving  service,  supervising  inspector- 
general  of  steamboats,  bureau  of  statis- 
tics, light-house  board,  and  in  the  follow- 
ing divisions:  bookkeeping  and  warrants; 
appointments;  customs;  public  moneys; 
loans  and  currency;    revenue-cutter;    sta- 

tionery; printing  and  blanks;  mails  and 
files;  special  agents,  and  miscellaneous. 
See  Cabinet,  President's. 

Treat,  Robert,  governor;  born  in  Eng- 
land in  1622;  came  to  America  with  Sir 
Eichard  Saltonstall,  and  was  one  of  the 
first  settlers  of  Wethersfield,  Conn.  He 
was  chosen  judge,  then  a  magistrate 
(from  1661  to  1665),  and  major  of  the 
provincial  troops  in  1670.  In  King  Phil- 
ip's War  he  was  active  in  the  relief  of 
menaced  settlements  in  the  Connecti- 
cut Valley,  especially  of  Springfield  and 
Hadley.  He  aided  in  the  destruction  of 
the  Narraganset  fort  in  December, 
167G;  the  same  year  was  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor; and  was  governor  in  1686-1701. 
He  died  in  Milford,  Conn.,  July  12, 

Treaties.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the 
principal  treaties  and  conventions  of  the 
United  States  with  other  powers,  ex- 
clusive of  postal  conventions.  Treaties 
are  indicated   by  T. ;    conventions  by  C. : 


Foreign  Power  and  Object 
of  Treaty. 

Algiers : 
Peace  and  amity. 

Argentine  Cmifederation : 

Free  navigation  of  Para-  ) 
na  and  Uruguay ) 

Friendship,    commerce,  ) 

navigation j 


Commerce,  navigation ... 

Commerce  and  navigation 


Aii^ria-  Hungary  : 

Rights  of  coni?uls 



Baden  : 



Bavaria  : 

Abolishing  droit  d'au- 
baine  and  taxes  on  em- 


Citizenship  of  emigrants. . 
Belgium : 

Commerce  and  navigation. 

Peace,  amity, commerce,  etc 

Completing  treaty  of  IH.'JS. 

To  extinguish  Scheldt  dues. 


Trade  marks 


f'ominerce  and  navigation. 

Consular  rights 


Bnlivia  : 

Peace,   friendship,  com- 1 
merce,  navigation ) 


Algiers . 

San  Josd. 


Vienna.  . .. 

Berlin , 

Carlsruhe. . 



Brussels. . . . 
Brussels. .. . 


La  Paz. 

Sept.  5,  1795 
July  6,  1815 
Dec.  24, 1816 

July  10,1853 
July  27,     " 

Aug.  26, 1829 
May  8,  1848 
July  3,  1856 

July  11, 1870 
Sept.  20,    " 
Nov.  25, 1871 

Jan.  30,  1857 
July  19,  1868 

Jan.  21,  1845 

Sept.  12, 1853 
May  26,  1868 

Nov.  10, 
July  17, 
May  20, 
JulV  20, 
Nov.  16, 
Dec.  20, 
Mar.  19, 
Mar.  8, 
Mar.  9, 
April  7, 




May  13,  1858 






Borneo  : 
C.  Peace,  friendship, 
understanding  . .. 

Brazil : 
T.  Peace  uud  amity 

C.  Satisfying  U.  S.  claims. . . 

Bruni . 

( Rio  de  ; 
(Janeiro.  ] 

j  Rio  de  I 
{Janeiro,  j 
(  Rio  de  1 
I  Janeiro.  J 



Wang-Hiya . 

Tientsin  .... 

Bogota  , 

C.  Trademarks 

Brunswick  and  Luxemburg  ,  .     . 

C.  Rights  of  citizens Washington 

Central  America :  | 

C.  Peace,amity, navigation,  1 

etc ) 

Chile : 
C.  Peace,    commerce,    and) 

navigation ) 

C.  Arbitration      of     Mace  > 

doniau  claims ) 

China : 
T.  Peace,  amity,  and  com) 

merce ) 

T.  Peace,  amity,  and  com- 1 

merce ) 

G.  Adjustment  of  claim 

C.  Additions   to   treaty   of] 

June  18,  1858 ) 

T.  Emigration 

T.  Commercial  and  judicial.. 

t!  Peace  with  the  powers 

Colombia : 
C.  Peace, amity,  commerce,  1 

navigation ) 

C.  Extradition 

Costa  Rica  : 
T,  Friendship,    commerce,  1 

navigation ) 

C.  Adjustment  of  claims 

Denmark : 
C.  Friendship,    commerce,  \ 

navigation ( 

C.  To  indemnify  the  V.  S 

0.  Discontinuance  of  Sound  1 

dues ) 

C.  Naturalization 

Dominican  Republic : 

C.  Amity,  commerce,  navi-) 

gation,  extradition....  ( 

Ecuador : 

T.  Friendship,     commerce, ' 


C.  Mutual    adjustment 

claims ) 

C.  Naturalization 

T.  Extradition 

Egypt : 
C.  Concerning      commerce) 

and  customs ) 

France  : 


Amity  and  commerce 

Payment  of  loan | Versailles 

Power  of  consuls 

Navigation  and  commerce.  Washington 

Claims  for  indemnity Paris 

June  23, 1850 

Dec.  12,  1828 
Jan.  27, 1819 
Sept.  24, 1878 

Aug.  21, 1854 

San  Josg.... 


f    Santo    ) 
i  Domingo) 

Dec.  5,  1825 

May  16, 1832 
Nov.  10, 1858 

July  3,  1844 

June  18, 1858 
Nov.  8,      " 
July  28, 1868 
Nov.  17, 1880 

Sept.  7,  1901 

Oct.  3,  1824 
May  7,  1888  | 

July  10, 1851 
July  2,  1860 

Mar.  28, 1830 
July  20, 1872 

Feb.  8,  1867 

German  Empire : 

C.  Consuls  and  trademarks. 

T.  Commercial  reciprocity.. 

Great  Britain  : 

C.  Armistice 

T.  Peace 

T.  Amity,  commerce,  navi- 1 

gation j 

C.  Regarding  treaty  of  1794. 

T.  Peace  and  amity 

C.   Regulating  commerce 

C.  Naval    force    on    Great] 

Lakes,  U.  S ! 

C.  Fisheries,     northern 

boundary,  etc 

T.  Indemnification 

Berlin . 


Loudon.. . 

Ghent . . 

Dec.  11,  1871 
June,      1909 

Jan,  20, 1783 
Sept  3,     " 

Nov.  19, 1794 

Jan.  8,  1802 
Dec.  24,  1814 
luly  3,  1815 





Guayaquil . . 

June  13,1839 

Nov.  25, 1862 
May  6,  1872 
June  28,  " 

C.  Award 

C.  Boundary 

T.   Boundary,     slave-trade, 

extradition ) 

T.  Oregon  boundary,  etc 

C.  Nicaragua  ship-canal 

C.  Settlement  of  claims 

T.  Fisheries,  etc 

T.  Suppression  of  slave  trade. 
T.  Hudson   Bay  and  Puget  I 

Sound  claims J 

C.  Naturalization 

C.  Slave  trade 
T.  Fisheries,       A  lab  am 
claims,  etc. 

C.  Trade  marks 

C.  Supplementary  extradi- 
tion  treaty  of  Aug.  9, 


T.  For  Nicaragua  canal | 

(Amended    by    Senate     Dec. 

13   1900  ;  rejerted  b-   Great 

Britain,  March  10.    901.) 

Greece : 

T.  Commerce  and    avigation. 

T.  Amity,  commerce,  navi-\ 

gation,  etc  ( 

Hamburg,    Brevun,  and 

Luheck  : 

C.  Friendship,    commerce,) 

and  navigation ) 

C.  Extending  jurisdiction  of  I 

consuls ) 

Hanover : 
T.  Commerce  and  navigation 

Washington.  April, 

London....    Oct.  20,  1818 

(St.  ) 

}  Peters-  {   July  12,  1822 
(  burg... ) 

London Nov.  13,  1826 

Sept.  29, 1827 

Washington.  Aug.  9,  1842 
"  June  15, 1846 

April  17,  IS.SO 

London Feb.  8,  1853 

Washington.  June  5,  1854 

April  7,  1862 

«  July  1,  1863 

London May  13,  1870 

Washington.  June  3,     " 
"  May  8,  1871 

London |oct.  24,  1878 

Washington.  July  12, 1889 
Feb.  5,  1900 


l  Prince.. . 


(Dec.  10-22, 
\       1837 

Nov.  3,  1864 

Dec.  20,  1827 

Paris . 



C.  Trade-marks 

C.  Claims 

French  Repuhlic : 
C.  Terminating  difficulties... 
T    Regarding  treaty  of  Oct. ) 

27,  1795 I 

r.  Commercial  reciprocity... 

Guatemala : 
C.  Peace, amity, commerce,) 
navigation J 

Cairo Nov.  16, 1884 

Feb.  6,  1778 

July  16, 1782 
Nov  14, 1788 
June  24, 1822 
July  4,  1831 
Nov.  9,  1843 
Feb.  23,  1853 
April  16,1869 
Jan.  15, 1880 


London. . . 





Sept.  30, 1800 
July  24, 1899 

Mar.  3,  1849 


C.  Extradition 

T.  Stade  or  Brunshausen) 

dues  abolished / 

Hawaiian  Islands  : 
T.  Friendship,    commerce,) 

navigation J 

C.  Commercial  reciprocity... 

C.  Droit  d'aubaine  and  tax  1 
on  emigration  abolished ) 
Hesse-Darmstadt : 

T    Naturalization Darmstadt 

Italy  : 

C.  Consular 

C.  Extradition 

T.  Commerce  and  navigation. 

C.  Consular  privileges 

C.  Consular  rights 

Japan : 
T.  Peace,  amity,  commerce, ) 

etc ' 

T.  Commercial;  ports  opened 



May  20, 1840 
June  10, 1846 
Jan.  18,  1855 

Nov.  6,  1851 

Dec.  20,  1849 
Jan.  30,  1875 

Mar.  26, 1844 

Aug.  1,  1868 

Feb.  8,  1868 
Mar.  23,     " 
Veh.  26,  1871 
May  8,  1878 
Feb.  24, 1881 

Kanagawa  . .  Mar.  31, 1854 
Simoda June  17, 1857 



Foreign  Power  and  Object 
of  Treaty. 

ice,  \- 

Japan — Continued: 
Peace,  amity,   and  com-) 

merce j 

Reducing  import  duties 
Indemnities.    (U 
Great  Britain,    France 
and  Holland  sign) 
Regarding     expense    of 

shipwrecks / 


Korea : 
Peace,  amity,  commerce, ) 

navigation ) 

Loo-Choo : 
Permitting  unobstructed) 

trade ) 

Liberia : 
Commerce  and  navigation 

Luxemburg  : 
Extradition , 


Yokohama. , 

Madagascar  : 

Mexico  : 


Adjustment  of  claims. . . 

Citizenship  of  emigrants 

Mutual  right  to  pursue 
Indians  across  the 


International  boundary. 
Mexican  Republic  : 

Adjustment  of  claims. . . 

Peace,  friendship,  limits., 

Boundary,  etc 

Morocco : 

Peace  and  friendship.. . . 

Peace . 

To  maintain  lighthouse 
at  C;ipe  Spartel.  (Sign- 
ed by  U.  S.,  Austria, 
Belgium,  Spain,  France, 
Greut  Britain,  Italy, 
Netherlands,  Portugal, 

Protection  (signed  by  13 


Muscat : 

Amity  and  commerce. . . 
JVas.fau : 

Abolishing  droit  d'aubaine 
A'elhfrlands  : 

Amity  and  commerce 

Commerce  and  navigation 



Extradition . 

International  arbitration. 

New  Qranada  : 
Peace,     amity,     naviga-  ] 

tion,  commerce ) 

Consular  powers 


Nicaragua : 
Friendship,    commerce, ) 

navigation j 


O  range  Free  Slate  : 
Friendship,    commerce,  1 

extradition | 

Ottoman .  Empire : 
Commerce  and   naviga-) 

Oon i 






( Antana-  > 
( narivo. .  / 



C  Guada- 
'     lupe- 
( Hidalgo. 

Mexico . . . 




The  Hague. . 

The  Hague. . 

The  Hague. 






( Constan- 
\  tinople.. 

July  29, 1858 
Jan.  28, 186i 

Oct.  22,     " 

May  17,  1880 
April  29, 1886 

May  22,  1882 

July  11,  1854 

Oct.  21,  1862 
Oct.  29,  1883 

Feb.  14,  1867 

Dec.  11,  1861 
July  4,  1868 
July  10,    " 

July  29, 1882 

Jan.  20,  1883 
Nov.  12, 1884 

Aprilll,  1839 

Feb.  2,  1848 

Dec.  30, 1853 

Jan.,  1787 
Sept.  16, 1836 

May  31,  1865 

July  3,  1880 

Sept.  21, 1833 

May  27,  1846 

Oct.  8,  1782 
Jan  19,  1839 
Aug.  26,  1852 
Jan.  22,  1855 
May  23,  1878 
May  22,  1880 
June  2,  1887 
July  29,  1899 

Dec.  12, 

May  4, 
Sept  10, 

June  2.', 




Dec.  22,  1871 

Feb.  25,  1862 

Foreign  Power  and  Object 
of  Treaty. 

Ottoman  Empire — Continued. 
C.  Extradition 

Ottoman  Porte  : 

T.  Friendship 

Paraguay : 
C.  Friendship,     commerce,  ) 
navigation j 

Persia : 
T.  Friendship  and  commerce. 

Peru : 
C.  Peru   to   pay   claims   ofl 

$300,000 J 

T.  Friendship,    commerce,  | 

navigation ) 

C.  Rights    of    neutrals    at( 

sea ( 

C.  Claims 

C.         "      

C.  Adjustment  of  claims 

T.  Friendship,     commerce, ) 

navigation ) 

T.  Extradition 

T.  Friendship,    commerce,) 

navigation / 

Peru- Bolivia    Confederation : 
C.  Peace,   friendship,  com- ) 

merce,  navigation j 

Portugal : 
T.  Commerce    and   naviga-) 

tion j 

C.  Portugal  to  pay  $91,727) 

claims,  etc / 

Prussia : 
T.  Amity  and  commerce 

T.   Amity  and  commerce 

T.  Commerce  and  navigation. 
T.  Regulating  citizenship  of  1 

emigrants j 

Prussia    and    German    Con 

federation : 
C.  Extradition 

Roumania : 
C.  Consular 

( Constan-) 
j  tinople..) 

(Constan-  j 
(tinople..  j 



Aug.  11, 1874 
May  7,  1830 
Feb.  4,  1859 

Dec.  13,  1856 

Mar.  17, 1841 
July  26,  1851 

July  22, 1856 

Dec.  20,  1862 
Jan.  12,  18()3 
Dec.  4,   1868 

Sept.  6,  1870 

Sept.  12,   " 

Aug.  31, 1887 

Lima Nov.  30,  1836 

C.  Navigation,   fishery,  | 
boundary J 

T.  Navigation  and  commerce. 

C.  Rights  of  neutrals 

T.  Cession  of  Russian  pos-  ( 

sessions ) 

Addition  to  treaty  of  1832 

T.   Extradition 

.San  Salvador : 
T.  Amity,  navigation,  com- 1 

merce j 

C.  Extradition 

T.  Amity,  commerce,  con-  | 

sular  privileges j' 

Samoan  Islands  : 
T.   Friendship  and  commerce 

Sardinia : 
T.  Commerce  and  navigation. 

Saxony  : 
C.  Abolition  of  droit  d'au- ) 

baine j 

Siam  : 

T.  Amity  and  commerce 

T.   Friendship,  com  merce,  etc. 

Regulating  liquor  traffic  in) 

Siara 1 


Berlin . . . 





burg. .. 
St.  I 

Peters-  >- 


(  San  Sal- ) 
1  vador. . .  ) 
(  Sau  Sal-j 
(  vador... ) 






Aug.  26, 1840 
Feb.  26,  1851 

( July-Sept. 

t        1785 
July  11, 1799 
May  1,  1828 

Feb.  22,  1868 

June  16, 1852 

(June  5-17, 
t      1881 

( April  5-17, 
{       1824 

(Dec.  6-18, 
\       1832 

July  22, 1854 

Mar.  30,  1867 

Jan.  27,  1868 

Tan.  2,  1850 
May  23,  1870 
Dec.  6,      " 

Jan.  17,  1878 
Nov.  26, 1823 

May  14,  1845  20,  1833 
May  29,  1856 

May  14,  1884 




Foreign  Power  and  Object 
oi  Treaty. 

Spain  : 

T.  Friendship,  limits,  navi) 
gation ) 

C.   ludemnification 

T.   Amity,  settlement,  limits. 

C.  Settlement  of  claims 

C.  E.xtradition 

T".   Peace 

T.  Commerce  and  amity 

Sweden  : 

T.  Amity  and  commerce 

T.  Friendship  and  commerce. 

Sweden  and  Norway  : 
T.  Navigation,     commerce,  I 

consular  powers ) 

C.   Extradition 

C.  Naturalization 

Swiss  Confederation  : 
C.  Abolishing    droit    d'au 

baine  and  ta.xeson  em 


C.   Friendship,  commerce,  etc 

T.  International  Red  Cross. . . 

Texas  : 

C.  Indemnity 

C.  Boundary 

San  Lo 




Madrid . 




Washington.  Mar.  21, 1860 
Stockholm . .  May  26,  1869 

Tonga : 
T.  Amity,  commerce,  navi- 

Tripoli : 

T.  Peace  and  friendship 

T.  Peace  and  amity ,  . . . 

Tunis  : 

r.  Peace  and  friendship 

Two  Sicilies  : 
C.   Regarding     depredation! 

of  Murat ) 

T.  Commerce  and  navigation. 

C.  Rights  of  neutrals  at  sea. . 

C.  Peace,  friendship,  com- 1 

merce,  etc J 


Berne  .. 

Houston. . ., 

[  U.S.  ) 
<  Steamer  >- 
( Mohican) 



Oct.  27,  1795 

Aug.  11,1802 
Feb.  22,  1819 
Feb.  17,  1834 
Jan.  5,  1877 
Dec.  10,  1898 
August,  19U0 

April  3,  1783 
Sept.  4,  1816 

July  4,  1827 

May  18,  1847 

Nov.  25,  1850 
Mar.  1,  1882 

April  11, 1838 
April  25,  " 

Oct.   2,    1886 

Nov.  4,  1796 
June  4,  1805 

Mar.  26, 1799 

Oct.  14,  1832 

Dec.  1,  1845 
Jan.  13,  1855 

Foreign  Power  and  Object 
of  Treaty. 

United  Mexican  Stales : 

T.  Limits 

T.   Amity,  commerce,  navi-) 

gation    ) 

Venezuela : 
T.   Peace,   friendship,  navi-  | 

gation,  commerce ( 

C.  Satisfying    Aves    Island  1 

claims j 

T.  Amity,  commerce,  navi- 1 

gation,  extradition j 

C.   Referring  claims 

WUrlemberg  : 
C.  Abolishing    droit    d'au 

baine  and  taxes  on  em 


T.  Naturalization  . . 
Zanzibar : 
C.  Enlarging    treaty    with 

Muscat,  1833 


I'au- J 

emi-  ( 







Zanzibar. . . . 

Jan.  12,  1828 
April  5,  1831 

Jan.  20,  1836 

Jan.  14,  1859 

Aug.  27, 1860 

April  10,1844 
July  27, 1868 

July  3,  1886 


C.  With  Belgium,  Brazil,  Dominican  Republic, 
France,  Great  Britain,  Guatemala,  Italy,  the 
Netherlands,  Norway,  Portugal,  Salvador, 
Servia,  Spain,  Sweden,  Swiss  Confederation, 
and  Tunis  ;  conventions  for  the  protection  of 
industrial  property;  signed  at  Paris.. Mar.  20,  1883 

C.  With  Belgium,  Brazil,  Italy,  Portugal,  Servia, 
Spain,  and  Switzerland,  for  exchange  of  offi- 
cial documents  and  literary  publications ; 
signed  at  Brussels Mar.  15,  1886 

C.  With  Germany,  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  gen- 
eral act  for  neutrality  of  Samoan  Islands; 
signed  at  Berlin June  14,  1889 

C.  With  foreign  powers  for  an  international  union 
to  publish  customs  tariffs  ;  signed  at  Brussels, 

July  5,  1890 
With  Great  Britain  for  an  international  commis- 
sion to  arrange  adjustments  of  controversies 
between  the  United  States  and  Canada.. May  30, 1898 


Treaties,     Anglo-American.       In    the  requisites  in  a  treaty.      In  July,  Parlia- 

spring  of  1782,  Richard  Oswald  was  sent  ment  had  parsed  a  bill  to  enable  the  King 

by  the  British  ministry  to  Paris,  to  confer  to    acknowlet/^c   the    independence    of    the 

with  Dr.  Franklin  on  the  subject  of  peace.  United    States,    and    axi    obstacles    in    the 

His   mission  was   initiatory  in   character,  way  of  negotiations  were  removed.     Lau- 

In  July  following  Oswald  was  vested  with  rens  joined  the  other  American   commis- 

full  power  to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  peace,  sioners  at  Paris,  and  on  Nov.   30,    1782, 

and   in   September   the  United   States  ap-  a  preliminary  treaty  of  peace  was  signed 

pointed   four   commissioners,   representing  by    the    commissioners    and    Mr.    Oswald, 

the  various  sections  of  the  Union,  for  the  without  the  knowledge  of  the  French  gov- 

same  purpose.     These  were  John  Adams,  ernment.      This   was    a   violation    of   the 

of  Massachusetts ;  John  Jay,  of  New  York ;  treaty  of  alliance. 

Dr.  Franklin,  of  Pennsylvania ;  and  Henry        In  April,   1783,  the  preliminary  treaty 

Laurens,  of  South  Carolina.     These  were  of  peace  having  been  ratified  by  the  United 

^il  in  Europe  at  the  time.     Dr.  Franklin  States  and  Great  Britain,  the  latter  vested 

and  Mr.  Oswald  had  already  prepared  the  David  Hartley  with  full  powers  to  nego- 

way  for  harmonious  negotiations.     Frank-  tiate  a  definitive  treaty  with  the  Ameri- 

lin  had  assured  Oswald  that  independence,  can  commissioners.     It  was  concluded  and 

satisfactory  boundaries,   and  a  participa-  signed  at  Paris,  Sept.  3,  1783,  by  Hartley, 

tion  in  the  fisheries  would  be  indisputable  on    the   part   of   Great    Britain,    and   Dr. 



Franklin,  John  Adams,  and  John  Jay,  on 
the  part  of  the  United  States.  The  terms 
were  similar  to  those  of  the  preliminary 
treaty.  When  he  had  signed  it,  Franklin 
put  on  the  clothes  he  had  laid  aside  about 
ten  years  before,  in  accordance  with  a 
vow.  On  the  same  day  definitive  treaties 
between  Great  Britain,  France,  and  Spain 
were  signed,  and  one  between  Great  Brit- 
ain and  Holland  was  signed  the  day 

The  following  is  the  text  of  the  defini- 
tive treaty  of  peace  and  friendship  be- 
tween his  Britannic  Majesty,  and  the 
United  States  of  America,  signed  at 
Paris,  the  3d  day  of  September,  1783: 

In  the  name  of  the  most  holy  and  un- 
divided Trinity. 

It  having  pleased  the  Divine  Providence 
to  dispose  the  hearts  of  the  most  serene 
and  most  potent  prince,  George  III., 
by  the  grace  of  God  King  of  Great  Brit- 
ain, France,  and  Ireland,  Defender  of  the 
Faith,  Duke  of  Brunswick  and  Lunen- 
burg, arch-treasurer  and  prince  elector 
of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire,  etc.,  and  of 
the  United  States  of  America,  to  forget 
all  past  misunderstandings  and  diflfer- 
ences  that  have  unhappily  interrupted 
the  good  correspondence  and  friendship 
which  they  mutually  wish  to  restore,  and 
to  establish  such  a  beneficial  and  satis- 
factory intercourse  between  the  two  coun- 
tries, upon  the  ground  of  reciprocal  ad- 
vantages and  mutual  convenience,  as  may 
promote  and  secure  to  both  perpetual 
peace  and  harmony;  and  having  for  this 
desirable  end  already  laid  ithe  foundation 
of  peace  and  reconciliation,  by  the  pro- 
visional articles  signed  at  PcVi'is,  on  the 
thirtieth  day  of  November,  ono  thousand 
seven  hundred  and  eighty-two  by  the  com- 
missioners empowered  on  each  part;  which 
articles  were  agreed  to  be  inserted  in, 
and  to  constitute  the  treaty  of  peace  pro- 
posed to  be  concluded  between  the  crown 
of  Great  Britain  and  the  said  United 
States,  but  which  treaty  was  not  to  be 
concluded  until  terms  of  peace  should  be 
agreed  upon  between  Great  Britain  and 
France,  and  his  Britannic  Majesty 
should  be  ready  to  conclude  such  treaty 
accordingly;  and  the  treaty  between  Great 
Britain  and  France  having  since  been 
concluded,  his  Britannic  Majesty  and  the 

United  States  of  America,  in  order  to 
carry  into  full  effect  the  provisional  arti- 
cles above  mentioned,  according  to  the 
tenor  thereof,  have  constituted  and  ap- 
pointed: that  is  to  say,  his  Britannic 
Majesty  on  his  part,  David  Hartley,  Esq., 
member  of  the  Parliament  of  Great  Brit- 
ain; and  the  said  United  States  on  their 
part,  John  Adams,  Esq.,  late  a  commis- 
sioner of  the  United  States  of  America 
at  the  Court  of  Versailles,  late  delegate 
in  Congress  from  the  State  of  Massachu- 
setts^ and  chief-justice  of  the  said  State, 
and  minister  plenipotentiary  of  the  said 
United  States  to  their  high  mightinesses 
the  States-General  of  the  United  Nether- 
lands; Benjamin  Franklin,  Esq.,  late  dele- 
gate in  Congress  from  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania, president  of  the  convention  of 
the  said  State,  and  minister  plenipoten- 
tiary from  the  United  States  of  America 
at  the  Court  of  Versailles;  and  John  Jay, 
Esq.,  late  president  of  Congress,  and  chief- 
justice  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and 
minister  plenipotentiary  from  the  said 
United  States  at  the  Court  of  Madrid;  to 
be  the  plenipotentiaries  for  the  conclud- 
ing and  signing  the  present  definitive 
treaty,  who,  after  having  reciprocally 
commimicated  their  respective  full  pow- 
ers, have  agreed  upon  and  confirmed  the 
following  articles: 

Article  1.  His  Britannic  Majesty  ac- 
knowledges the  said  United  States — ^viz.. 
New  Hampshire,  Massachusetts  Bay, 
Rhode  Island  and  Providence  Plantations, 
Connecticut,  New  York,  New  Jersey, 
Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  Maryland,  Vir- 
ginia, North  Carolina,  South  Carolina, 
and  Georgia,  to  be  free,  sovereign,  and 
independent  States;  that  he  treats  with 
them  as  such,  and  for  himself,  his  heirs, 
and  successors,  relinquishes  all  claim  to 
the  government,  proprietary  and  terri- 
torial rights  of  the  same,  and  every  part 

Art.  2.  And  that  all  disputes  which 
might  arise  in  future  on  the  subject  of 
the  boundaries  of  the  said  United  States 
may  be  prevented,  it  is  hereby  agreed  and 
declared  that  the  folloAving  are  and  shall 
be  their  boundaries — viz. :  From  the  north- 
west angle  of  Nova  Scotia — viz.,  that 
angle  which  is  formed  by  a  line  drawn  due 
north  from  the  source  of  St.  Croix  River 
to    the   high   lands,   along  the   said   high 



lands     which     divide     those     rivers     that  one  part  and   east  Florida  on  the  other, 

gmpty  themselves  into  the  river  St.  Law-  shall  respectively  touch  the  Bay  of  Fundy 

rence,  from  those  which  fall  into  the  At-  and    the    Atlantic    Ocean,    excepting    such 

lantic    Ocean,    to    the    northwesternmost  islands    as    now    are    or    heretofore    have 

nead  of  Connecticut  River;   thence  drawn  been  within  the  limits  of  the  said  prov- 

along    the    middle    of    that    river    to    the  ince  of  Nova  Scotia. 

forty-fifth  degree  of  north  latitude;  from  Art.  3.  It  is  agreed  that  the  people  of 
thence  by  a  line  due  west  on  said  lati-  the  United  States  shall  continue  to  en- 
tude,  until  it  strikes  the  river  Iroquois  or  joy  unmolested  the  right  to  take  fish  of 
Cataraquy;  thence  along  the  middle  of  every  kind  on  the  Great  Bank,  and  on  all 
said  river  into  Lake  Ontario;  through  the  the  other  banks  of  Newfoundland;  also 
middle  of  said  lake,  until  it  strikes  the  in  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence,  and  at  all 
communication  by  water  between  that  other  places  in  the  sea  where  the  inhabi- 
lake  and  Lake  Erie;  thence  along  the  tants  of  both  countries  used  at  any  time 
middle  of  the  said  communication  into  heretofore  to  fish ;  and  also  that  the  in- 
Lake  Erie,  through  the  middle  of  said  habitants  of  the  United  States  shall  have 
lake  until  it  arrives  at  the  water  com-  liberty  to  take  fish  of  every  kind  on  such 
munication  between  that  lake  and  Lake  part  of  the  coast  of  Newfoundland  as 
Huron;  thence  through  the  middle  of  British  fishermen  shall  use  (but  not  to 
said  lake  to  the  water  communication  dry  or  cure  the  same  on  that  island), 
between  that  lake  and  Lake  Superior;  and  also  on  the  coasts,  bays,  and  creeks 
thence  through  Lake  Superior  northward  of  all  other  of  his  Britannic  Majesty's 
to  the  isles  Eoyal  and  Philipeaux,  to  the  dominions  in  America ;  and  that  the 
Long  Lake;  thence  through  the  middle  American  fishermen  shall  have  liberty  to 
of  said  Long  Lake  and  the  water  com-  dry  and  cure  fish  in  any  of  the  unsettled 
munication  between  it  and  the  Lake  of  bays,  harbors,  and  creeks  of  Nova  Scotia, 
the  Woods,  to  the  said  Lake  of  the  Magdalen  Islands,  and  Labrador,  so  long 
Woods;  thence  through  the  said  lake  to  as  the  same  shall  remain  unsettled;  but 
the  most  northwesternmost  point  thereof,  so  soon  as  the  same  shall  be  settled,  it 
and  from  thence  a  due  west  course  to  the  shall  not  be  lawful  for  the  said  fishermen 
river  Mississippi;  thence  by  a  line  to  be  to  dry  or  cure  fish  at  such  settlement, 
drawn  along  the  middle  of  said  river  without  a  previous  agreement  for  that 
Mississippi,  until  it  shall  intersect  the  purpose  with  the  inhabitants,  proprietors, 
northernmost  part  of  the  thirty-first  de-  or  possessors  of  the  ground, 
gree  of  north  latitude;  south,  by  a  line  to  Art.  4.  It  is  agreed  that  the  credit- 
be  drawn  due  east  from  the  determination  ors  on  either  side  shall  meet  with  no 
of  the  line  last  mentioned,  in  the  latitude  lawful  impediment  to  the  recovery  of  the 
of  thirty-one  degrees  north  of  the  equator,  ixill  value  in  sterling  money  of  all  bona 
to  the  middle  of  the  river  Apalachicola  or  fide  debts  heretofore  contracted. 
Catahouche;  thence  along-  the  middle  Art.  5.  It  is  agreed  that  Congress  shall 
thereof,  to  its  junction  with  the  Flint  earnestly  recommend  it  to  the  legislat- 
Eiver;  thence  straight  to  the  head  of  St.  ures  of  the  respective  States  to  provide 
Mary's  River,  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean;  for  the  restitution  of  all  estates,  rights, 
east,  by  a  line  to  be  drawn  along  the  and  properties  which  have  been  confis- 
middle  of  the  river  St.  Croix,  from  its  eated,  belonging  to  real  British  subjects; 
mouth  in  the  Bay  of  Fimdy  to  its  source,  and  also  of  the  estates,  rights,  and  prop- 
and  from  its  source  directly  north  to  erties  of  persons  resident  in  districts  in 
the  aforesaid  high  lands,  which  divide  the  possession  of  his  Majesty's  arms,  and 
the  rivers  that  fall  into  the  Atlantic  who  have  not  borne  arms  against  the  said 
Ocean  from  those  which  fall  into  the  United  States;  and  that  persons  of  any 
river  St.  Lawrence,  comprehending  all  other  description  shall  have  free  liberty 
islands  within  twenty  leagues  of  any  part  to  go  to  any  part  or  parts  of  any  of  the 
of  the  shores  of  the  United  States,  and  thirteen  United  States,  and  therein  to 
lying  between  lines  to  be  drawn  due  east  remain  twelve  months  unmolested  in  their 
from  the  points  where  the  aforesaid  endeavors  to  obtain  the  restitution  of 
boundaries  between   Nova   Scotia   on   the  such   of   their   estates,   rights,    and    prop- 



erties  as  may  have  been  confiscated;  and 
that  Congress  shall  also  earnestly  recom- 
mend to  the  several  States  a  reconsidera- 
tion and  revision  of  all  acts  or  laws 
regarding  the  premises,  so  as  to  render 
the  said  laws  or  acts  perfectly  consistent, 
not  only  with  justice  and  equity,  but 
with  that  spirit  of  conciliation  which, 
on  the  return  of  the  blessings  of  peace, 
should  invariably  prevail;  and  that  Con- 
gress shall  also  earnestly  recommend  to 
the  several  States  that  the  estates, 
rights,  and  properties  of  such  last-men- 
tioned persons  shall  be  restored  to  them, 
they  refunding  to  any  persons  who  may 
be  now  in  possession  the  bona  fide  price 
( where  any  has  been  given ) ,  which  such 
persons  may  have  paid  on  purchasing  any 
of  the  said  islands,  rights,  or  properties 
since   the   confiscation. 

And  it  is  agreed  that  all  persons  who 
have  any  interest  in  confiscated  lands, 
either  by  debts,  marriage  settlements,  or 
otherwise,  shall  meet  with  no  lawful  im- 
pediment in  the  prosecution  of  their  just 

Art.  6.  That  there  shall  be  no  future 
confiscations  made,  nor  any  prosecutions 
commenced  against  any  person  or  per- 
sons, for  or  by  reason  of  the  part  which 
he  or  they  may  have  taken  in  the  present 
war;  and  that  no  person  shall  on  that  ac- 
count suffer  any  future  loss  or  damage 
either  in  his  person,  liberty,  or  property; 
and  that  those  who  may  be  in  confinement 
on  such  charges,  at  the  time  of  the  ratifi- 
cation of  the  treaty  in  America,  shall  be 
immediately  set  at  liberty,  and  the  prose- 
cutions so  commenced  be  discontinued. 

Art.  7.  There  shall  be  a  firm  and 
perpetual  peace  between  his  Britannic 
Majesty  and  the  said  United  States,  and 
between  the  subjects  of  the  one  and  the 
citizens  of  the  other;  wherefore  all  hos- 
tilities, both  by  sea  and  land,  shall  from 
henceforth  cease;  all  prisoners,  on  both 
sides,  shall  be  set  at  liberty;  and  his 
Britannic  Majesty  shall  with  all  conven- 
ient speed,  and  without  causing  any  de- 
struction, or  carrying  away  any  negroes 
or  other  property  of  the  American  in- 
habitants, withdraw  all  his  armies,  gar- 
risons, and  fleets  from  the  said  United 
States,  and  from  every  post,  place,  and 
harbor  within  the  same,  leaving  in  all 
fortifications  the  American  artillery  that 


may  be  therein;  and  shall  also  order  and 
cause  all  archives,  records,  deeds,  and 
papers  belonging  to  any  of  the  said 
States,  or  their  citizens,  which  in  the 
course  of  the  war  may  have  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  his  officers,  to  be  forthwith 
restored,  and  delivered  to  the  proper 
States  and  persons  to  whom  they  belong. 

Art.  8.  The  navigation  of  the  river 
Mississippi,  from  its  source  to  the  ocean, 
shall  forever  remain  free  and  open  to 
the  subjects  of  Great  Britain  and  the  citi- 
zens of  the  United  States. 

Art.  9.  In  case  it  should  so  happen 
that  any  place  or  territory  belonging  to 
Great  Britain  or  to  the  United  States 
should  have  been  conquered  by  the  arms 
of  either  from  the  other,  before  the  ar- 
rival of  the  said  provisional  articles  in 
America,  it  is  agreed  that  the  same  shall 
be  restored  without  difficulty  and  without 
requiring  any  compensation. 

Art.  10.  The  solemn  ratifications  of  the 
present  treaty,  expedited  in  good  and  due 
form,  shall  be  exchanged  between  the  con- 
tracting parties  in  the  space  of  six 
months,  or  sooner,  if  possible,  to  be  com- 
puted from  the  day  of  the  signature  of 
the  present  treaty. 

In  witness  whereof,  we,  the  under- 
signed, their  ministers  plenipotentiary, 
have  in  their  name,  and  in  virtue  of  our 
full  powers,  signed  with  our  hands  the 
present  definitive  treaty,  and  caused  the 
seals  of  our  arms  to  be  affixed  thereto. 

Done  at  Paris,  this  third  day  of  Septem- 
ber, in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand 
seven   hundred   and   eighty-three. 

David  Hartley, 
JoHX  Adams, 
B.  Franklin, 
John  Jay, 

For  some  years  the  British  government 
omitted  to  execute  the  provisions  or  the 
treaty  of  peace  with  the  United  States 
concerning  the  delivering  up  of  the  forts 
on  the  northeastern  frontier.  Gouver- 
neur  Morris  was  directed  by  Washington 
to  go  to  England  from  Paris  (1791)  to 
sound  the  British  ministry  on  the  subject 
of  a  full  and  immtdiate  execution  of  the 
treaty.  He  remained  there  about  nine 
months,  endeavoring  to  obtain  a  positive 
answer  to  the  questions,  Will  you  execute 
the  treaty?  Will  you  make  a  treaty  of 


Jommerce  with  the  United   States?     The  New  England  fishermen  a  valuable  right, 

British     came     to     the     conclusion     that  hitherto  used  from  the  earliest  time,  that 

the     new    national    government     contain-  of  catching  and  curing  fish  on  the  shores 

ed   vastly   more   vitality   than   the   league  of    the    Gulf    of    St.    Lawrence.       It   was 

of    States,    and    could    enforce    its   wishes  agreed  that  both  parties  should  use  their 

with  energy;   so  in  August,   1791,  George  best    endeavors    to    suppi-ess    the    African 

Hammond   was    sent   as   full    minister    to  slave-trade.      Hostilities  on   land  were  to 

the  United  States.    But  the  treaty  of  178o  terminate    with    the    ratification    of    the 

was  not  fully  executed  until  after  that  of  treaty  of  peace,  and  on  the  ocean  at  speci- 

Jay  was  negotiated  and  ratified.    See  Jay,  fied    periods,    according    to    distance,    the 

John.  longest  being  four  months.     It  did  not  se- 

In    1814    the    British    government    re-  cure  to  the  Americans  what  they  went  to 

jected   the  mediation   of  the   Empress   of  war   for — namely,  immunity  from  search 

Russia    in    bringing   about   a,   peace    with  and   impressment. 

the  United  States,  but  finally  offered  to  The  treaty  was  ratified  Dec.  28,  1814, 
treat  directly  with  the  United  States,  by  the  Prince  Regent,  and  then  sent  to 
The  ancient  city  of  Ghent,  in  Belgium,  the  United  States  in  the  British  sloop-of- 
was  selected,  and  there  the  commission-  war  Favorite.  She  arrived  in  New  York 
ers  of  the  two  governments  met  in  on  Feb.  II,  1815.  Mr.  Hughes,  principal 
the  summer  of  1814.  The  American  com-  secretary  to  the  American  commissioners, 
missioners  were  John  Quincy  Adams,  left  Ghent  with  a  copy  of  the  treaty  at 
James  A.  Bayard,  Henry  Clay,  Jonathan  the  same  time,  sailed  for  the  Chesapeake 
Russell,  and  Albert  Gallatin.  The  Brit-  from  the  Texel  in  the  schooner  Transit, 
ish  commissioners  were  Lord  Gambler,  landed  at  Annapolis  two  days  after  the 
Henry  Goulburn,  and  William  Adams.  Favorite  reached  New  York,  and  put  his 
These  joined  the  American  commission-  copy  of  the  treaty  into  the  hands  of 
ers  at  Ghent,  Aug.  6,  1814.  Christo-  President  Madison  before  the  ratified  copy 
pher  Hughes,  Jr.,  the  American  charge  arrived  there.  The  treaty  of  peace  spread 
d'affaires  at  Stockholm,  was  appoint-  joy  over  the  land,  because  it  assured 
ed  secretary  to  the  American  com-  peace;  but  when  its  contents  were  known, 
missioners.  Negotiations  were  speedily  and  that  immunity  from  search  or  im- 
opened,  when  a  wide  difi'erence  of  views  pressment  had  not  been  secured,  it  was 
appeared,  which  at  first  threatened  the  severely  criticised.  The  opposition  point- 
most  formidable  obstructions  to  an  agree-  ed  to  it  exultingly  as  proof  of  the  wisdom 
ment.  The  discussions  continued  several  of  their  prophecies,  the  patriotism  of  their 
months,  and  a  conclusion  was  reached  by  course  in  opposing  the  war,  and  the  truth 
a  mutual  agreement  to  a  treaty  on  Dec.  of  their  declaration  that  the  "war  was  a 
24,  1814,  when  it  was  signed  by  the  re-  failure."  The  English  people,  too,  indulged 
spective  commissioners.  It  provided  for  in  strong  condemnation  of  the  treaty,  be- 
the  mutual  restoration  of  all  conquered  cause  it  made  concessions  to  the  Ameri- 
territory,  and  for  three  commissions — one  cans. 

to  settle  the  titles  to  islands  in  Passama-  The  effect  of  the  treaty  upon  financial 

quoddy    Bay,    another    to    mark    out    the  matters  was   very   marked.     Six-per-cents 

northeastern     boundary     of     the     United  rose,    in    twenty-four    hours,    from    76    to 

States  as  far  as  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  a  86,    and    treasury   notes    from    92    to    98. 

third  to  run  the  line  through  the  St.  Law-  Coin,   which   was    22   per   cent,    premium, 

rence  and  the  Lakes  to  the  Lake  of  the  fell   to   2   per   cent,   in   forty-eight   hours. 

Woods.    In  case  of  disagreement  in  either  The  effect  on  commerce  was  equally  great, 

commission,  the  point  Tn   dispute  was   to  Within     forty  -  eight     hours     sugar     fell 

be  referred  to  some  friendly  power.      No  fiora   $26   per   cwt.   to   $12.50;    tea,   from 

provision   was   made   as   to   the   boundary  $2.25   per   pound   to  $1;    tin,   from   $80   a 

west  of  the  Lake  of  the  Woods,  nor  as  to  box    to    $25.      In    England    medals    were 

the    fisheries    on    the    shores    of    British  struck    in    commemoration    of    the    event, 

America.     It  took  away  from  the  British  See   Alaska;    Clayton-Bulwer   Treaty? 

a    normal    right    (never    used),    that    of  Panama    Canal;    Washington,    Treaty 

navigating  the  Mississippi;  and  from  the  of. 




/^fz^'    't.^yx 

c/^y-L.^ / y^eyt^^^t^  a^^yL,cf/  ■e^o^'^z;^    Ayu^^^yT,  ^JJ^^^^i-d-ti??^  O^tt,  ^ 




ucrn/n  cLui/ixCu  J}cOa/ni£ 







Treaties,  Fbanco-American.  In  Sep- 
tember, 1776,  the  Continental  Congress, 
after  weeks  of  deliberation,  adopted  an 
elaborate  plan  of  a  treaty  to  be  proposed 
to  France.  They  wanted  France  to  engage 
in  a  separate  war  with  Great  Britain,  and 
so  give  the  Americans  an  opportunity  for 
establishing  their  independence.  They  re- 
nounced in  favor  of  France  all  eventual 
conquests  in  the  West  Indies,  but  claimed 
the  sole  right  of  acquiring  British  Con- 
tinental America,  and  all  adjacent  isl- 
ands, including  the  Bermudas,  Cape  Bre- 
ton and  Newfoundland.  They  proposed 
arrangements  concerning  the  fisheries; 
avowed  the  principle  of  Frederick  the 
Great  that  free  ships  made  free  goods, 
and  that  a  neutral  power  may  lawfully 
trade  with  a  belligerent.  Privateering 
was  to  be  restricted,  not  abolished;  and 
while  the  Americans  were  not  willing  to 
make  common  cause  with  the  French,  they 
were  willing  to  agree  not  to  assist  Great 
Britain  in  the  war  on  France,  nor  trade 


with  that  power  in  goods  contraband  vA 
war.  The  commissioners  sent  to  negotiate 
the  treaty  were  authorized  to  promise 
that,  in  case  France  should  become  in- 
volved in  the  war,  neither  party  should 
make  a  definitive  treaty  of  peace  without 
six  months'  notice  to  the  other. 

Franklin,  Deane,  and  Lee  were  United 
States  commissioners  at  the  French  Court 
at  the  close  of  1776.  The  Continental  Con- 
gress had  elaborated  a  plan  of  a  treaty 
with  France,  by  which  it  was  hoped  the 
States  might  secure  their  independence. 
The  commissioners  were  instructed  to  press 
for  an  immediate  declaration  of  the  French 
government  in  favor  of  the  Americans. 
Knowing  the  desire  of  the  French  to  widen 
the  breach  and  cause  a  dismemberment  of 
the  British  Empire,  the  commissioners 
were  to  intimate  that  a  reimion  of  the 
colonies  with  Great  Britain  might  be  the 
consequence  of  delay.  But  France  was 
then  unwilling  to  incur  the  risk  of  war 
with  Great  Britain.     When  the  defeat  of 


Burgoyne  wat  made  known  at  Versailles, 
assured  thereby  that  the  Americans  could 
help  themselves,  the  French  Court  were 
teady  to  treat  for  an  alliance  with  them. 
The  presence  of  an  agent  of  the  British 
ministry  in  Paris,  on  social  terms  with  the 
American  commissioners,  hasten^  the 
,  negotiations,  and,  on  Feb.  6,  1778,  two 
treaties  were  secretly  signed  at  Paris  by 
the  American  commissioners  and  the 
Count  de  Vergennes  on  the  part  of  France. 
One  was  a  commercial  agreement,  the 
other  an  alliance  contingent  on  the  break- 
ing out  of  hostilities  between  France  and 
Great  Britain.  It  was  stipulated  in  the 
treaty  of  alliance  that  peace  should  not 
be  made  until  the  mercantile  and  political 
independence  of  the  United  States  should 
be  secured.  The  conciliatory  bills  of  Lord 
North  made  the  French  monarch  anxious, 
for  a  reconciliation  between  Great  Britain 
and  her  colonies  would  thwart  his  scheme 
for  prolonging  the  war  and  dismembering 
the  British  Empire;  and  he  caused  the 
secret  treaties  to  be  officially  communi- 
cated to  the  British  government,  in 
language  so  intentionally  offensive  that 
the  anonuncement  was  regarded  as  tan- 
tamount to  a  declaration  of  war,  and  the 
British  ambassador  at  the  French  Court 
was  withdrawn. 

Because  the  treaties  with  France  had 
been  repeatedly  violated;  the  just  claims 
of  the  United  States  for  the  reparation  of 
injuries  to  persons  and  property  had  been 
refused;  attempts  on  the  part  of  the 
United  States  to  negotiate  an  amicable 
adjustment  of  all  difficulties  between  the 
two  nations  had  been  repelled  with  in- 
dignity; and  because,  under  the  authority 
of  the  French  government,  there  was  yet 
pursued  against  the  United  States  a  sys- 
tem of  predatory  violence  infracting  those 
treaties,  and  hostile  to  the  rights  of  a 
free  and  independent  nation — Congress,  on 
July  7,  1797,  passed  an  act  declaring  the 
treaties  heretofore  concluded  with  France 
no  longer  obligatory  on  the  United  States. 
Treaties,  Ixdian.  Easton,  on  the  Dela- 
ware, was  a  favorite  place  for  holding 
councils  with  the  Indian  chiefs  between 
1754  and  1761.  On  these  occasions  200 
to  .500  Indians  were  frequently  seen. 
Teedyuscung,  an  eminent  Delaware  chief, 
who  represented  several  tribes,  was  chief 
speaker  and  manager.     In  1756  the  rela- 

tions between  the  English  and  the  Six 
Nations,  the  DelawareB^  Shawnees,  and 
Mohegans  were  critical,  for  the  Indiana^ 
especially  the  Delawares,  had  become 
greatly  incensed  against  the  white  people 
of  Pennsylvania.  The  Quakers  of  that 
State  had  espoused  the  cause  of  the  Ind- 
ians and  formed  an  association  for  se- 
curing justice  for  them^  and  friendship 
between  them  and  the  white  people.  They 
held  two  conferences  at  Easton  with  the 
Indians,  and  Sir  William  Johnson  com- 
plained that  the  Quakers  had  intruded 
upon  his  office.  Finally,  in  July,  1756, 
a  conference  was  held  between  the  Dela- 
wares, Shawnees,  Mohegans,  the  Six  Na- 
tions, and  Governor  Denny  and  his  coun- 
cil, and  George  Croghan,  an  Indian  trader. 
At  the  suggestion  of  the  Quakers,  Teedy- 
USCUNG  iq.  V.)  invited  Charles  Thomson, 
master  of  the  Quaker  Academy  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  afterwards  permanent  secre- 
tary of  the  Continental  Congress,  to  act  as 
his  secretary.  Denny  and  Croghan  op- 
posed it;  Teedyuscung  persisted  in  hav- 
ing Thomson  make  minutes  of  the  pro- 
ceedings, so  that  garbled  and  false  report? 
of  interested  men  might  not  be  given  aj 
truth.  By  this  arrangement  the  Indiana 
received  fair  play. 

The  conference  was  thinly  attended;  but 
at  another,  begun  on  ±\bv.  8  the  sam^ 
year,  the  Indian  tribes  were  well  repre- 
sented. In  reply  to  questions  by  Governor 
Denny  of  what  he  complained,  Teedyus- 
cung charged  the  proprietaries  of  Penn- 
sylvania wath  obtaining  large  territories 
by  fraud,  and  specified  well-known  in- 
stances like  that  of  the  '*  Indian  Walk.' 
At  that  conference  there  were  many  citi- 
zens from  Philadelphia,  chiefly  Quakers, 
and  the  restilt  was,  after  deliberations 
kept  up  for  nine  days,  a  satisfactory 
treaty  of  peace  was  made  between  the 
Indians  and  the  English,  the  governor 
offering  to  indemnify  the  Delawares  for 
any  lands  which  had  been  fraudulently 
taken  from  them.  That  matter  was  de- 
ferred until  a  council  w'as  iield  at  Easton 
in  July,  1757.  when  Teedyuscung  was  well 
plied  with  liquor.  The  Quakers,  with 
much  exertion,  enabled  the  old  chief  to 
resist  the  intrigues  of  Croshan  to  weak- 
en his  influence  among  the  Indians. 

Another  council   was  heid  there  in  the 
autumn  of  1758.     The  object  was  to  ad- 


just  all  differences  between  the  English  powers  on  Oct.  18  (N.  S.) ,  1748.  By  it 
and  the  Six  Nations,  as  well  as  other  the  treaties  of  Westphalia  (1648),  of  Nime- 
tribes  farther  westward  and  southward,  guen  (1678-79),  of  Ryswick  (1697),  of 
The  governors  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Utrecht  (1713),  of  Baden  (1714),  of  the 
Jersey,  Sir  William  Johnson,  Colonel  Triple  Alliance  (1717),  of  the  Quadruple 
Croghan,  and  a  large  number  of  the  Alliance  (1718),  and  of  Vienna  (1738), 
Friendly  Association  were  present.  Teedy-  were  renewed  and  confirmed.  It  was  fond- 
uscung  acted  as  chief  speaker,  which  ly  hoped  this  treaty  would  insure  a  per- 
offended  the  Six  Nations,  who  regarded  manent  peace  for  Europe.  It  was,  how- 
the  Delawares  as  their  vassals ;  but  he  ever,  only  a  truce  between  France  and  Eng- 
conducted  himself  admirably,  maintain-  land,  contending  for  dominion  in  America, 
ed  his  position  finely,  and  resisted  the  The  English  regarded  as  encroachments 
wiles  of  Colonel  Croghan  and  the  gov-  the  erection  by  the  French  of  about  twen- 
ernor.  This  great  council  continued  eigli-  ty  forts,  besides  block-houses  and  trading- 
teen  days.  The  land  question  was  thor-  posts,  within  claimed  English  domain, 
oughly  discussed.  All  causes  for  misun-  So  while  Acadia  (q.  v.)  furnished  one 
derstanding  between  the  English  and  the  field  for  hostilities  between  the  two  na- 
Indians  were  removed,  and  a  treaty  for  a  tions,  the  country  along  the  lakes  and  in 
general  peace  was  concluded  Oct.  26,  1758.  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  valleys  furnished 
There  was  another  council  held  at  Easton    another. 

in  1761,  concerning  settlements  at  Wy-  Treaty  of  Ghent.  See  Treaties, 
oming,    in    which    Teedyuscung    took    an    Anglo-Ameeican. 

active  and  eloquent  part.  See  Susque-  Treaty  of  Guadalupe  -  Hidalgo.  A 
HANNA  Settlers.  treaty  of  peace,  friendship,  limits,  and  set- 

A  treaty  signed  in  New  York,  Aug.  tlements  was  concluded  at  Guadalupe- 
7,  1790,  by  Gen.  Henry  Knox  for  the  Hidalgo,  a  city  of  Mexico,  Feb.  2,  1848, 
United  States,  and  Alexander  McGillivray  between  Nicholas  P.  Trist  on  the  part  of 
and  twenty-three  other  Creek  chiefs,  pro-  the  United  States,  and  Don  Luis  Gonzaga 
vided  for  the  relinquishment  of  Georgia  Cuevas,  Don  Bernardo  Couto,  and  Don 
to  claims  of  an  immense  tract  of  land  Miguel  Atristain  on  the  part  of  Mexico, 
belonging  to  the  Creeks  south  and  west  It  provided  for  a  convention  for  the  pro- 
of the  Oconee  River;  the  acknowledgment  visional  suspension  of  hostilities;  for  the 
of  the  Creeks  being  under  the  protection  cessation  of  the  blockade  of  Mexican  ports ; 
of  the  United  States;  the  resignation  of  for  the  evacuation  of  the  Mexican  capital 
the  Creeks  of  all  pretensions  to  lands  by  the  United  States  troops  within  a 
north  and  east  of  the  Oconee  River;  a  month  after  the  ratification  of  the  treaty, 
mutual  exchange  of  prisoners,  and  an  and  the  evacuation  of  Mexican  territory 
agreement  for  the  delivery  of  an  Indian  within  three  months  after  such  evacua- 
murderer  of  a  white  man.  A  secret  ar-  tion;  for  the  restoration  of  prisoners  of 
tide  provided  that  presents  to  the  value  war;  for  a  commission  to  survey  and  de- 
of  $1,500  should  be  distributed  annually  fine  the  boundary-lines  between  the  United 
among  the  nation;  annuities  of  $100  se-  States  and  Mexico;  for  the  free  naviga- 
cured  to  six  of  the  principal  chiefs,  tion  of  the  Gulf  of  California  and  the 
and  $1,200  a  year  to  McGillivray  annu-  Colorado  and  Green  rivers  for  United 
ally,  in  the  name  of  a  salary;  also  the  States  vessels;  freedom  of  Mexicans  in 
privilege  of  importing  goods  for  supply-  any  territory  acquired  by  the  United 
ing  the  Indians.  These  money  consid-  States;  Indian  incursions;  payment  of 
erations  to  the  leaders  were  intended  to  money  to  Mexico  for  territory  conquered 
secure  their  fidelity  to  the  terms  of  the  and  held,  and  of  debts  due  citizens  of  the 
treaty.  United    States   by   Mexico;    regulation  of 

Treaty,  The  Hay-Paxtncefote.  See  international  commerce,  and  other  minor 
Clayton-Bulwer  Treaty.  regulations    about    property,    etc.       Both 

Treaty  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  a  treaty  governments  ratified  the  treaty.  See 
between  Great  Britain,   France,   Holland,    Mexico,  War  with. 

Germany,    Spain,   and   Greece;    signed   by       Treaty  of  Lancaster.    See  LANCASTER, 
the    representatives    of    these    respective   Treaty  of. 

IX.— H  iia 


Treaty    of    Paris,    a    definitive    treaty  excepting  by  debts  or  criminal  prosecutions, 

of  peace,  signed  at  Paris  on  Feb.  18,  1763  France  ceded  to  Great  Britain  the  islands 

(and    was    soon    after    ratified)     between  of  Grenada  and  the  Grenadines,  with  the 

Great  Britain,  France,  Spain,  and  Portvi-  same   stipulation   as   to   their   inhabitants 

gal,  which  materially  changed  the  political  as  those  in  the  case  of  the  Canadians;  the 

boundaries  and  aspects  of  North  America,  islands  of  St.  Vincent,  Dominica,  and  To- 

The    acquisitions   of-  Great    Britain,   both  bago  to  remain  in  the  possession  of  Eng- 

from  France  and  Spain,  on  the  continent  land,   and   that  of   St.   Lucia,   of   France; 

of   North   America,   during  the   war   then  that  the  British  should  cause  all  the  forti- 

recently   closed,   were   most   important   in  fications  erected  in  the  Bay  of  Honduras, 

their  bearings  upon  the  history  of  the  so-  and  other  territory  of  Spain  in  that  region. 

called  New  World.  France  renounced  and 
guaranteed  to  Great  Britain  all  Nova 
Scotia  or  Acadia,  Canada,  the  Isle  of  Cape 
Breton,  and  all  other  islands  in  the  Gulf 
and  River  of  St.  Lawrence.  The  treaty 
gave  to  the  French  the  liberty  of  fishing 
and  drying  on  a  part  of  Newfoundland 
and   in   the  Gulf   of   St.   Lawrence,   at   a 

to  be  demolished;  that  Spain  should  de- 
sist from  all  pretensions  to  the  right  of 
fishing  about  Newfoundland;  that  Great 
Britain  should  restore  to  Spain  all  her 
conquests  in  Cuba,  with  the  fortress  of 
Havana;  that  Spain  should  cede  and 
guarantee,  in  full  right,  to  Great  Britain, 
Florida,  with  Fort  St.  Augustine  and  the 

distance    of    3    leagues    from    the    shores    Bay  of  Pensacola,  and  all  that  Spain  pos- 

belonging  to  Great  Britain;  ceded  the 
islands  of  St.  Peter  and  Miquelon,  as  a 
shelter  for  French  fishermen;  declared 
that  the  confines  between  the  dominions 
of  Great  Britain  and  France,  on  this  con- 
tinent,  should  be   fixed  by  a   line   drawn 

sessed  on  the  continent  of  America  to  the 
east,  or  to  the  southeast,  of  the  Missis- 
sippi River.  Thus  was  vested  in  the 
British  crown,  by  consent  of  rival  Euro- 
pean claimants,  the  whola  eastern  half  of 
North  America,  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 

along  the  middle  of  the  Mississippi  River, /to  Hudson  Bay  and  the  Polar  Ocean,  in- 

from  its  source  as  far  as  the  River  Iber- 
ville (14  miles  below  Baton  Rouge),  and 
from  thence  by  a  line  drawn  along  the 
middle  of  this  river  and  of  the  lakes 
Maurepas  and  Pontchartrain,  to  the  sea; 
guaranteed  to  Great  Britain  the  river 
/  and  port  of  Mobile,  and  everything  on  the  the  separation  of  the  French  and  Spanish 
left  side  of  the  Mississippi,  excepting  the  crowns,  the  destruction  of  Dunkirk,  the 
town  of  New  Orleans  and   the   island  on    enlargement    of    the    British    colonies    in 

eluding  hundreds  of  thousands  of  square 
miles  of  territory  which  the  foot  of  white 
man  had  never  trodden. 

Treaty  of  ITtreclit,  a  treaty  signed 
April  11,  1713,  which  secured  the  Protes- 
tant succession  to  the  throne  of  England, 

which  it  is  situated,  which  should  remain 
to  France;  the  navigation  of  the  Missis- 
sippi to  be  equally  free  to  the  subjects  of 
both  nations,  in  its  whole  breadth  and 
length,  from  its  source  to  the  sea,  as  well 
as  the  passage  in  and  out  of  its  mouth; 
that  the  French  in  Canada  might  freely 
profess  the  Roman  Catholic  faith,  as  far 
as  the  laws  of  Great  Britain  would  per- 
mit, enjoy  their  civil  rights,  and  retire 
when  they  pleased,  disposing  of  their 
estates  to  British  subjects;  that  Great 
Britain  should  restore  to  France  the 
islands  of  Guadeloupe,  Marie  Galante, 
Deseada,    and    Martinique,    in    the    West 

America,  and  a  full  satisfaction  from 
France  of  the  claims  of  the  allies,  Eng- 
land, Holland,  and  Germany.  This  treaty 
terminated  Queen  Anne's  War,  and  secured 
peace  for  thirty  years. 

Treaty  of  Washington,  The.  See 
Washington,  the  Treaty  of. 

Treaty  of  Westminster.  See  West- 
minster, Treaty  of. 

Treaty  with  Texas.     See  Texas. 

Trenchard,  Stephen  Decatur,  naval 
ofilcer;  born  in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  July  10, 
1818;  entered  the  navy  in  1834;  promoted 
lieutenant  in  1847;  rescued  the  British 
bark  Adieu  off  Gloucester,  Mass.,  while  on 

Indies,  and  of  Belle-Isle,  on  the  coast  of  coast-survey  duty  in  1853-57;  served  with 
France,  with  their  fortresses,  giving  the  distinction  during  the  Civil  War;  com- 
British  subjects  at  these  places  eighteen  manded  the  Rhode  Island  when  that  ves- 
months  to  sell  their  estates  and  depart,  sel  endeavored  to  tow  the  Monitor  from 
without  being  restrained  on  any  account,    Hampton  Roads  to  Beaufort,  N.  C.     The 



latter  vessel  foundered  off  Cape  Hatteras, 
but  Lieutenant  Trenchard  succeeded  in 
saving  the  crew;  promoted  rear-admiral 
in  1875;  retired  in  1880.  He  died  in  New 
York  City,  Nov.  15,  1883. 

Trent,  The.  On  Nov.  7,  1861,  James 
M.  Mason,  of  Virginia,  Confederate  envoy 
to  Great  Britain,  and  John  Slidell,  of 
Louisiana,  accredited  to  France,  em- 
barked at  Havana  in  the  British  mail 
steamer  Trent  for  England.  The  United 
States  steamship  San  Jacinto,  Captain 
Wilkes,  was  watching  for  the  Trent  in 
the  Bahama  channel,  240  miles  from  Ha- 
vana, Captain  Wilkes  having  decided,  on 
his  own  responsibility,  to  seize  the  two 
Confederate  envoys.  The  San  Jacinto  met 
the  Trent  on  the  forenoon  of  Nov.  8,  sig- 
nalled her  to  stop  in  vain,  and  then  fired 
a  shot  across  her  bow.  Her  captain  un- 
willingly allowed  Mason  and  Slidell,  with 
their  secretaries,  to  be  taken  aboard  the 
San  Jacinto.  Captain  Wilkes  reached 
Boston  on  Nov.  19,  and  the  two  ministers 
were  confined  in  Fort  Warren.  This 
seizure  was  received  with  favor  in  the 
L'nitcd  States,  but  Great  Britain  de- 
manded from  the  government  at  Wash- 
ington a  formal  apology  and  the  immedi- 
ate release  of  the  prisoners.  Lord  John 
Russell  instructing  the  minister,  Lord 
Lyons,  at  Washington,  Nov.  30,  1861, 
that  unless  a  satisfactory  answer  were 
given  within  seven  days  he  might,  at  his 
discretion,  withdraw  the  legation  and  re- 
turn to  England.  This  despatch  was  re- 
ceived on  Dec.  18;  on  the  19th  Lord  Lyons 
called  on  Mr.  Seward,  and  in  a  personal 
interview  an  amicable  adjustment  was 
made  possible  by  the  moderation  of  both 
diplomats.  On  Dec.  ^6  Mr.  Seward  trans- 
mitted to  Lord  Lyons  the  reply  of  the 
United  States,  in  which  the  illegality  of 
the  seizure  was  recognized,  while  the  satis- 
faction of  the  United  States  government 
was  expressed  in  the  fact  that  a  principle 
for  which  it  had  long  contended  was  thus 
accepted  by .  the  British  government. 
Mason  and  Slidell  were  at  once  released, 
and  sailed  for  England  Jan.  1,  1862.  See 
Mason,  James  Murray;  Slidell,  John; 
Wilkes,  Charles. 

Trent,  William  Peterfield,  educator; 
born  in  Richmond,  Va.,  Nov.  10,  1862; 
graduated  at  the  University  of  Virginia 
in  1884;  Professor  of  English  at  the  Uni- 


versity  of  the  South  in  1888-1900;  ac- 
cepted the  chair  of  English  Literature  at 
Columbia  University  in  the  latter  year. 
He  is  the  author  of  English  Culture  in 
Virginia;  Southern  Statesmen  of  the  Old 
Regime;  Robert  E.  Lee;  Authority  of 
Criticism,  etc. 

Trenton,  a  city  and  capital  of  the  State 
of  New  Jersey;  originally  settled  under 
the  name  of  Yeffalles  of  ye  De  la  Ware. 
A  number  of  members  of  the  Society  of 
Friends,  including  Mahlon  Stacy,  pur- 
chased land  here  in  1680,  and  large  plan- 
tations were  bought  by  Judge  Trent  in 
1715,  which  caused  the  settlement  to  be 
called  Trent  Town.  The  place  was  cre- 
ated a  borough  tovv^n  by  royal  charter  in 
the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and 
the  town  became  the  State  capital  in  1790. 
After  the  Revolutionary  War  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  once  met  here.  The  city 
is  best  known  historically  because  of  the 
decisive  battle  fought  here  (see  Trenton, 
Battle  of).  The  event  has  been  com- 
memorated by  a  memorial  shaft  erected 
at  the  old  Five  Points,  and  surmounted 
by  a  statue  of  Washington  directing  his 

Trenton,  Battle  of.  Late  in  December, 
1776,  Washington's  army,  by  much  exer- 
tion, had  increased  to  nearly  6,000  men. 
Lee's  division,  under  Sullivan,  and  some 
regiments  from  Ticonderoga  under  Gates, 
joined  him  on  the  21st.  Contrary  to 
Washington's  expectations,  the  British, 
content  with  having  overrun  the  Jerseys, 
made  no  attempt  to  pass  the  Delaware, 
but  established  themselves  in  a  line  of 
cantonments  at  Trenton,  Pennington, 
Bordentown,  and  Burlington.  Other  corps 
were  quartered  in  the  rear,  at  Princeton, 
New  Brunswick,  and  Elizabethtown ;  and 
so  sure  was  Howe  that  the  back  of  the 
"  rebellion "  was  broken  that  he  gave 
Cornwallis  leave  to  return  to  England, 
and  he  was  preparing  to  sail  when  an  un- 
expected event  detained  him.  Washington 
knew  that  about  1,500  of  the  enemy, 
chiefly  Hessians  (Germans),  were  sta- 
tioned at  Trenton  under  Colonel  Rail,  who, 
in  his  consciousness  of  security  and  con- 
tempt for  the  Americans,  had  said,  ''  What 
need  of  intrenchments?  Let  the  rebels 
come ;  we  will  at  them  witli  the  bayonet." 
He  had  made  the  fatal  mistake  of  not 
planting  a  single  cannon.  Washington  felt 


strong  enough  to  attack  this  force,  and  at 
twilight  on  Christmas  night  he  had  about 
2,000  men  on  the  shore  of  the  Delaware  at 
McConkey's  Ferry  (afterwards  Taylors- 
ville),  a  few  miles  above  Trenton,  prepar- 
ing to  cross  the  river.  He  rightly  be- 
lieved that  the  Germans,  after  the  usual 
carouse  of  the  Christmas  festival,  would 
be  peculiarly  exposed  to  a  eurprise,  and 
he  prepared  to  fall  upon  them  before  day- 
light on  the  morning  of  the  26th. 

With     him     were     Generals      Stirling, 
Greene,    Sullivan,    Mercer,    Stephen,    and 

eral  Lee,  with  wilful  disobedience  refused 
the  duty,  and  turning  his  back  on  Wash- 
ington, rode  on  towards  Baltimore  to  in- 
trigue among  Congressmen  against  Gen. 
Philip  Schuyler  (q.  v.) .  Ice  was  form- 
ing in  the  Delaware,  and  its  surface  was 
covered  with  floating  pieces.  The  current 
was  swift,  the  night  was  dark,  and  towards 
midnight  a  storm  of  snow  and  sleet  set  in. 
It  was  4  A.M.  before  the  troops  in  march- 
ing order  stood  on  the  New  Jersey  shore, 
boats  having  been  hurriedly  provided  for 
their   passage.      The  army  moved   in  two 


Knox,    commanding    the    artillery.       Ar-  columns — one,    led   by    Sullivan,    along   a 

rangements  were  made  for  a  similar  move-  road  nearest  the  river;   the  other,  led  by 

ment  against  the  cantonments  below  Tren-  Washington  and  accompanied  by  the  other 

ton,  the  command  of  which  was  assigned  generals,  along  a  road  a  little  distance  to 

to  General  Gates ;  but  that  officer,  jealous  the  left.    It  was  broad  daylight  when  they 

of  Washington,  and  in  imitation  of  Gen-  reached    Trenton,    but    they    were    undis- 




covered  until  they  reached 
the  picket-line  on  the  out- 
skirts of  the  village.  The 
firing  that  ensued  awak- 
ened Rail  and  his  fellow- 
officers  (who  had  scarcely 
recovered  from  the  night's 
debauch)  from  their  deep 
slumbers.  The  colonel  was 
soon  at  the  head  of  his 
men  in  battle  order.  A 
sharp  conflict  ensued  in 
the  village,  lasting  only 
thirty-five  minutes.  The 
Germans  were  defeated 
and  dispersed,  and  Colonel 

Rail  was  mortally  wounded,  and  taken  to  graduated  at  Charleston  College  in  1840; 
his  qviarters,  where  he  died.  The  main  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1843;  assistant 
body,  attempting  to  escape  by  the  Prince-  Secretary  of  State  from  December,  1860, 
ton  road,  were  intercepted  by  Colonel  Hand  till  the  secession  of  South  Carolina;  held 
and  made  prisoners.  Some  British  light-  a  seat  in  the  legislature  of  that  State 
horse  and  infantry  at  Trenton  escaped  to  in  1862-66;  began  the  practice  of  law  in 
Bordentown.  The  victory  was  complete.  Washington  in  1875;  was  a  member  of 
The  spoils  were  about  1,000  prisoners,  the  commission  of  1880  to  revise  the 
1,200  small-arms,  six  brass  field-pieces,  treaty  with  China;  special  agent  to  the 
and  all  the  German  standards.  The  tri-  belligerents  of  Peru,  Chile,  and  Bolivia 
umphant  army  recrossed  the  Delaware  in  1881,  and  during  the  same  year  repre- 
with  their  prisoners  (who  were  sent  to  sented  the  government  in  the  negotia- 
Philadelphia ) ,    and    went    back    to    their    tions  concerning  its  rights  in  the  Isthmus 

of  Panama;  appointed  with  General  Grant 
in  1882  to  effect  a  commercial  treaty  with 
Mexico.  His  publications  include  A  Few 
Thoughts  on  the  Foreign  Policy  of  the 
United  States;  The  Diplomacy  of  the 
Revolution;  Diplomatic  System  of  the 
United  States;  An  American  View  of  the 
Eastern  Question;  The  Diplomatic  His- 
tory of  the  Administrations  of  Washing- 
ton and  Adams;  Address  before  the  South 
Carolina  Historical  Society,  etc.  He  died 
in  Pendleton,  S.  C,  May  4,  1898. 

Trespass  Act.  Some  of  the  States 
whose  territory  had  been  longest  and  most 
recently  occupied  by  the  British  were  in- 
encampment.  This  bold  stroke  puzzled  clined  to  enact  new  confiscation  laws, 
and  annoyed  the  British.  Cornwallis  did  Such  was  the  so-called  trespass  act  of 
not  sail  for  England,  but  was  sent  back  New  York,  which  authorized  the  owners 
into  New  Jersey.  The  Tories  were  of  real  estate  in  the  city  to  recover  rents 
alarmed,  and  the  dread  of  the  mercenary  and  damages  against  such  persons  as  had 
Germans  was  dissipated.  The  faltering  used  their  buildings  under  British  au- 
militia  soon  began  to  flock  to  the  standard  thority  during  the  war.  This  act  was 
of  Washington,  and  many  of  the  soldiers  passed  before  the  news  arrived  of  the 
who  were  about  to  leave  the  American  terms  of  the  preliminary  treaty  of  peace 
army  re-enlisted.  (see    Treaties,    Anglo-American).        In 

Trescot,  William  Henrt,  diplomatist;    1786    the    Supreme    Court   of   New  York, 
born  in  Charleston,  S.  C,  Nov.  10,  1822;    by  the  eflfortu  of  Hamilton,  declared  the 


rall's  headquartkrs. 


trespass    act    void,    as    being    in    conflict  Duane,     Reynolds,     Moore,     and     Cum- 

with  the  definitive  treaty  of  Paris.     See  ming  acquitted  of  seditious  riot,  Pennsyl- 

Treaties,  Franco-American.  vania    1799 

Trials.     The  following  is  a  list  of  the  Matthew    Lyon    convicted    in   Vermont, 

most  notable  trials  in  the  United  States:  October,   1798,  of  writing  for  publication 

Anne  Hutchinson ;  sedition  and  heresy  a  letter  calculated  "  to  stir  up  sedition 
(the  Antinomian  controversy)  ;  imprison-  and  to  bring  the  President  and  the  govern- 
ed  and   banished 1637  ment     into     contempt ";      confined     four 

Trials  of  Quakers  in  Massachusetts  months  in  Vergennes  jail;   fine  of  $1,000 

1656-61  paid  by  friends,  and  Lyon  released 

Jacob  Leisler,  New  York,  convicted  and  Feb.  9,  1799 

executed  for  treason May  16,  1691  J.   T.   Callender,   for   libel   of   President 

Trials  for  witciicraft,  Massachusetts  Adams  in  a  pamphlet,   The  Prospect  Be- 

1692  fore    Us;    tried    at   Richmond,    Va.,    fined 

Thomas  Maule,  for  slanderous  publica-  $200   and   sentenced   to  nine  months'   im- 

tions  and  blasphemy,  Massachusetts.. 1696    prisonment June   6,    1800 

Nicholas   Bayard,  treason 1702  Thomas  Daniel,  for  opening  letters  of  a 

John    Peter    Zenger,    for    printing    and    foreign    minister 1800 

publishing   libels   on   the   colonial   govern-  Judge  John  Pickering  impeached  before 

ment,  November,  J734,  acquitted 1735  the  United  States  Senate,  March  3,  1803, 

William  Wemms,  James  Hartegan,  for  malfeasance  in  the  New  Hampshire 
William  McCauley,  and  other  British  district  court  in  October  and  November, 
soldiers,  in  Boston,  Mass.,  for  the  murder  1802,  in  restoring  ship  Eliza,  seized  for 
of  Crispus  Attucks,  Samuel  Gray,  Samuel  smuggling,  to  its  owners;  Judge  Picker- 
Maverick,  James  Caldwell,  and  Patrick  ing,  though  doubtless  insane,  is  convicted 
Carr March  5,  1770  and  removed  from  office.  .  .  .March  4,  1804 

Maj.-Gen.     Charles     Lee,     court-martial  Judge   Samuel   Chase   impeached   before 

after    the    battle    of    Monmovith;     found  the  United  States  Senate,  acquitted.  .  1805 

guilty  of,   first,  disobedience  of  orders  in  Thomas  O.  Selfridge  tried  for  murder  of 

not  attacking  the  enemy;  second,  unneces-  Charles  Austin  on  the  public  exchange  in 

sary   and    disorderly    retreat;    third,    dis-    Boston Aug.  4,  1806 

respect    to    the    commander-in-chief;    sus-  Aaron  Burr,   for  treason,  Virginia;   ac- 

pended  from  command  for  one  year,  tried    quitted March   27-Sept.   7,   1807 

July  4,  1778  Col.  Thomas  H.  Cushing,  by  court-mar- 
John   Ilett    Smith,   for    assisting   Bene-  tial  at  Baton  Rouge,  on  charges  of  Brig- 
diet  Arnold,  New  York,  not  guilty.  .  .  1780    Gen.  Wade  Hampton 1812 

Maj.    John    Andre,    adjutant  -  general,  Patrick  Byrne,   for  mutiny,  by  general 

British  army,  seized  as  a  spy  at  Tappan,  court-martial  at  Fort  Columbus;  sentenced 

N.   Y.,   Sept.   23,    1780,   tried  by   military    to  death May  22,   1813 

court  and  hanged Oct.  2,  1780  Gen.   W.   Hull,   commanding  the  north- 
Stewart,    Wright,    Porter,    Vigol,    and  western   army   of   the   United    States,    for 
Mitchell,  Western  insurgents,  found  guilty  cowardice  in  surrender  of  Detroit,  Aug.  16, 

1795  etc.;    by    court-martial,    held    at    Albany, 

William   Blount,  United   States   Senate,  sentenced   to   be   shot;    sentence   approved 

impeached   for   misdemeanor 1797  by  the  President,  but  execution  remitted 

William  Cobbett,  for  libelling  the  King  Jan.  3,  1814 

of  Spain  and  his  ambassador,  writing  as  Dartmouth    College    ease,    defining    the 

"  Peter    Porcupine "    in    Porcupine's    Ga-  power  of  States  over  corporations 

zette,  July   17,   before   Supreme   Court  of  1817-18 

Pennsylvania;  acquitted 1797  Arbuthnot  and  Ambrister,  by  court-mar- 

Thomas     Cooper,  •  of     Northumberland,  tial,  April  26,  1818,  for  inciting  Creek  Ind- 

Pa.,   convicted   under   the   sedition   act   of  ians   to   war   against   the   United   States; 

libel   on   the   administration   of   President  executed  by  order  of  General  Jackson 

Adams  in  Reading  Advertiser  of  Oct.  26,  April  30,   1818 

1799,    imprisonment   for    six   months    and  Stephen  and  Jesse  Boorn,  at  Manchester, 

$400  fine 1799  Vt.,  Nov.   1819,  for  the  murder  of  Louis 



Colvin,  who  disappeared  in  1813;  sen- 
tenced to  be  hanged Jan.  28,  1820 

[Six  years  after  Colvin  disappeared  an 
uncle  of  the  Boorns  dreamed  that  Colvin 
came  to  his  bedside,  declared  the  Boorns 
his  murderers,  and  told  where  his  body 
was  buried.  This  was  April  27,  1819.  The 
Boorns  were  arrested,  confessed  the  crime 
circumstantially,  were  tried  and  convicted, 
but  not  executed,  because  Colvin  was  found 
alive  in  New  Jersey.  Wilkie  Collins's 
novel,  The  Dead  Alive,  founded  upon  this 

Capt.  David  Porter,  by  court-martial  at 
Washington,  for  exceeding  his  powers  in 
landing  200  men  on  Porto  Rico  and  de- 
manding an  apology  for  arrest  of  the  com- 
manding officer  of  the  Beadle,  sent  by  him, 
October,  1824,  to  investigate  alleged  stor- 
age of  goods  on  the  island  by  pirates;  sus- 
pended for  six  months July  7,  1825 

James  H.  Peck,  judge  of  United  States 
district  court  for  the  district  of  Missouri, 
impeached  for  alleged  abuse  of  judicial  au- 
thority; trial  begins  May  4,  1830;  ac- 
quitted  Jan.    31,    1831 

John  A.  Murrell,  the  great  Western 
land  pirate,  chief  of  noted  bandits  in 
Tennessee  and  Arkansas,  whose  central 
committee,  called  "  Grand  Council  of  the 
Mystic  Clan,"  is  broken  up  by  arrest  of  its 
leader   1834 

[Murrell  lived  near  Denmark,  Madison 
CO.,  Tenn.  He  was  a  man  without 
fear,  physical  or  moral.  His  favorite 
operations  were  horse-stealing  and  "  negro- 
running."  He  promised  negroes  their 
freedom  if  they  allowed  him  to  conduct 
them  North,  selling  them  on  the  way  by 
day  and  stealing  them  back  by  night, 
always  murdering  them  in  the  end.  He 
was  captured  by  Virgil  A.  Stewart  in 
1834,  convicted,  and  sentenced  to  the  peni- 
tentiary, where  he  died.] 

Spanish  pirates  (twelve  in  number),  for 
an  act  of  piracy  on  board  the  brig  Mexi- 
can; trial  at  Boston;  seven  found  guilty, 
five  acquitted Nov.    11-25,   1834 

Heresy  trial ;  Rev.  Lyman  Beecher,  Pres- 
byterian, before  the  presbytery  and  synod 
of  Cincinnati,  on  charges  preferred  by 
Dr.  Wilson,  of  holding  and  teaching  Pe- 
lagian and  Arminian  doctrines;  acquit- 
ted  June  9  et  seq.,  1835 

Rev.  Albert  Barnes,  Presbyterian,  for 
heresies  in  Notes  on  the  Epistles  to  the 

Romans;  tried  and  acquitted  by  presby- 
tery of  Philadelphia,  June  30-July  8, 
1835;  condemned  by  the  synod  and  sus- 
pended for  six  months,  but  acquitted  by 
the  general  assembly 1836 

Case  of  slave  schooner  Amistad 


Alexander  McLeod,  a  Canadian,  charged 
as  an  accomplice  in  burning  the  steamer 
Caroline  in  the  Niagara  River,  and  in 
the  murder  of  Amos  Durfee,  is  taken  from 
Lockport  to  New  York  on  habeas  corpus, 
May,  1841.  Great  Britain  asks  his  release 
in  extra  session  of  Congress;  Mr.  Webster 
advocates  his  discharge.  A  special  session 
of  the  circuit  court,  ordered  by  the  legis- 
lature of  New  York  at  Utica,  tries  and  ac- 
quits him Oct.  4-12,  1841 

A.  W.  Holmes,  of  the  crew  of  the  Will- 
iam Brown  for  murder  on  the  high  seas 
(forty-four  of  the  passengers  and  crew 
escaping  in  the  long-boat,  the  sailors  threw 
some  passengers  overboard  to  lighten  the 
boat,  April  19,  1841),  convicted,  but  rec- 
ommended  to   mercy May,    1842 

Thomas  W.  Dorr,  Rhodt  Island;  treason 


Alexander  S.  Mackenzie  (Somers's  mu- 
tiny)     1842 

Bishop  Benjamin  T.  Onderdonk,  of  New 
York,  for  immoral  conduct;  by  ecclesias- 
tical court,  suspended 

Dec.  10,  1844-Jan.  3,  1845 

Ex-Senator  J.  C.  Davis,  of  Illinois;  T. 
C.  Sharp,  editor  of  Warsaw  Signal;  Mark 
Aldrich,  William  N.  Grover,  and  Col.  Levi 
Williams,  for  murder  of  Hiram  and  Joe 
Smith  (Mormons)  ;  trial  begins  at  Car- 
thage, 111.;    acquitted May  21,   1845 

Albert  J.  Tirrell  (the  somnambulist 
murderer),  for  killing  Maria  A.  Bickford 


[Acquitted  on  the  plea  that  the  murder 
was  committed  while  he  was  sleep-walking.] 

Dr.  John  W.  Webster,  for  the  murder 
of  Dr.  George  W.  Parkman  in  the  Medi- 
cal College,  Boston,  Nov.  23,  1849.  Web- 
ster partly  burns  his  victim.  The  remains 
identified  by  a  set  of  false  teeth.  Web- 
ster  convicted   and   hanged ;    trial 

March  19-30,  1850 

Catherine  N.  Forrest  v.  Edwin  Forrest; 
divorce  and  alimony  granted  to  Mrs.  For- 
rest  Dec.  16,  1851-Jan.  26,  1852 

Anthony  Burns,  fugitive-slave  case,  Bos- 
ton  May  27-31,  1854 



Dr.  Stephen  T.  Beale,  ether  case..  1855  May  16;   tried  by  a  military  commission 

United    States   v.   Henry   Hertz   et   al.,  at  Indianapolis,  Ind.,  beginning  Sept.  27; 

for    hiring   and    retaining    persons    to   go  William  A.   Bowles,  L.   P.  Milligan,   and 

out  of  the  United  States  to  enlist  in  the  Stephen  Horsey  sentenced  to  be  hanged 

British    foreign    legion    for    the    Crimea ;  Oct.  17,  1864 

tried  in  the  district  court  of  the  United  J.  Y.  Beall,  tried  at  Fort  Lafayette  by  a 

States  for  eastern  district  of  Pennsylvania  military  commission,  for  seizing  the  steam' 

1855  er  Philo  Parsons  on  Lake  Erie,  Sept.   19, 

Slave  case  in  Cincinnati,  O.    (see  Ha/r-  and    other    acts    of    war,    without   visible 

pet's  Magazine,  vol.  xii.,  p.  691)  badge   of   military    service;    sentenced   to 

April,  1856  death  and  hanged;  trial  occurs 

James    P.    Casey,    for    shooting    James  December,  1864 

King,  of  William,  editor  of  the  San  Fran-  Capt.  Henry  Wirtz,  commander  of  An- 

cisco  Bulletin,  and  Charles  Cora,  murderer  dersonville    prison    during    the    war,    for 

of    LTnited    States    Marshal    Richardson;  cruelty;     trial    begins     Aug.     21;     Wirtz 

tried    and   hanged   by   the   vigilance   com-    hanged Nov.  10,  1865 

mittee  in  San  Francisco. ..  .May  20,  1856  Conspirators  for  assassination  of  Presi- 

Dred  Scott  case  {q.  v.) 1856    dent  Lincoln 1865 

R.    J.    M.    Ward    ("  the    most    extraor-       John  H.  Surratt 1867 

dinary  murderer   named   in   the   calendar  In  the  case  of  William  H.  McCardle,  of 

of   crime"),   Cleveland,   0 1857  Mississippi,  testing  the  constitutionality  of 

Emma  A.  Cunningham,  for  the  murder  the  reconstruction  act  of  1867 ;   Matthew 
of  Dr.   Burdell,   in   New  York   City,   Jan.  H.      Carpenter,      of      Wisconsin,      Lyman 
30,  1856;   acquitted May,   1857  Trumbull,    of    Illinois,    and    Henry    Stan- 
Daniel  E.  Sickles,  for  killing  Philip  Bar-  berry.   Attorney  -  General,   appear   for   the 
ton   Key,    Wasiiington,    D.    C. ;    acquitted  government,  and  Judge  Sharkey,  Robert  J. 
April  4-26,  1859  Walker,  of  Mississippi,  Charles  O'Conor, 

John    Brown,    for    insurrection    in   Vir-  of  New  York,  Jeremiah  S.  Black,  of  Penn- 

ginia;     tried    Oct.    29,    and    executed    at  sylvania,    and    David    Dudley    Field    for 

Charlestown,  Va Dec.  2,  1859  McCardle;      reconstruction     act     repealed 

Albert  W.  Hicks,  pirate;   tried  at  Bed-  during  the  trial;  habeas  corpus  issued 

loe's  Island,  May  18-23;  convicted  of  triple  Nov.  12,  1867 

murder    on    the    oyster  -  sloop    Edwin    A.        Andrew  Johnson  impeachment 1868 

Johnson  in  New  York  Harbor ;  hanged  Colonel  Yerger,  for  murder  of  Colonel 

July  13,  1860  Crane,  U.  S.  A.,  at  Jackson,  Miss. 

Officers  and  crew  of  the  privateer  Sa-  June  8,  1869 

vannah,   on   the    charge   of    piracy;    jury  William  H.  Holden,  governor  of  North 

disagree Oct.  23-31,  1861  Carolina,  impeached  and  removed 

Nathaniel  Gordon,  for  engaging  in  the  March   22,    1870 

slave-trade,  Nov.  6-8,   1861;   hanged  at  Daniel  MacFarland,  for  the  murder  of 

New   York Feb.   21,    1862  Albert  D.   Richardson,   Nov.   25,    1869,   in 

Fitz-John  Porter  tried  by  military  court  New  York  City;   acquitted 

1863  April   4-May  10,   1870 

C.  L.  Vallandigham,  for  treasonable  ut-  David  P.  Butler,  governor  of  Nebraska, 

terances ;     by    court  -  martial    in    Cincin-  impeached  for  appropriating  school  funds, 

nati;  sentence  of  imprisonment  during  the    and  suspended June  2,  1870 

war  commuted  to  banishment  to  the  South  "  The  Bible  in  the  public  schools,"  case 

May  5-16,  1863  of;    J.    D.    Miner   et   al.   v.   the   board   of 

Pauline  Cushman,  Union  spy;  sentenced  education  of  Cincinnati  et  al.;  tried  in  the 

to  be  hanged  by  a  court-martial  held  at  Superior  Court  of  Cincinnati ;   arguments 

General  Bragg's  headquarters;   is  left  be-  for    the   use    of   the    Bible    in    the    public 

hind  at  the  evacuation  of  Shelbyville,  Tenn.,  school  by  William  M.  Ramsey,  George  R. 

and  rescued  by  Union  troops.  .  .June,  1863  Sage,  and  Rufus  King;  against,  J.  B.  Stal- 

For     conspiracy     against     the     United  lo,  George  Hoadly,  and  Stanley  Matthews 

States,  in  organizing  the  Order  of  Ameri-  1870 

«an    Knights    or    Sons    of    Liberty    about  Mrs.  Wharton,  for  murder  of  Gen.  W.  S. 



Ketchum,  U.  S.  A.,  at  Washington,  June  Elliott   at   Frankfort,   Ky. ;    acquitted   on 

28,  1871;  acquitted  ground  of  insanity;  trial July,  1879 

Dec.  4,  1871-Jan.  24,  1872  Whittaker,  colored  cadet  at  West  Point, 

George  C.  Barnard    (judge  of  Supreme  by  military  court  for  injuring  himself  on 

Court,   New    York)    impeached.    May    13,  pretence  of  being  hurt  by  others,  April  6; 

for   corruption,   and   deposed  expelled  1880 

Aug.  18,  1872  Lieutenant  Flipper,  colored,  by  military 

Captain  Jack  and  three  other  Modoc  court,  for  embezzlement  and  false  state- 
Indians  tried,  July  3,  for  the  massacre  of  ments,    November,    1881;    dismissed    from 

Gen.  E.  R.  S.  Canby,  U.   S.  A.,  and  Rev.    the   service 1882 

Dr.    Thomas     (commissioner),    April    11;  Charles  J.  Guiteau,  for  the  assassination 

convicted  and  hanged  at  Fort  Klamath,  of  President  Garfield;  convicted,  Feb.  26; 

Or Oct.  3,  1873    hanged June  30,  1882 

Edward   S.    Stokes,   for   the  murder   of        Star  Route  trials 1882 

James  Fisk,  Jr.,  in  New  York,  Jan.  6,  John  Cockrill,  managing  editor  of  the 
1872;  first  jury  disagree,  June  19,  1872;  St.  Louis  Post-Despatch,  for  fatally  shoot- 
second  trial  (guilty  and  sentenced  to  be  ing  Colonel  Slayback;  acquitted 
hanged  Feb.  28,  1873),  Dec.  18,  1872-Jan.  Oct.  13,  1882 
6,  1873;  third  trial  (guilty  of  man-  Debris  suit  (California) , decided  against 
slaughter  in  third  degree;  sentence,  four  hydraulic  miners,  Judge  Sawyer,  of  the 
years  in  prison  at  Sing  Sing)  United  States  court,  San  France,  eo,  Cal., 
Oct.  13-29,  1873  granting  a  perpetual  injunction 

W.  M.  Tweed,  for  frauds  upon  the  city  Jan.  7,  1884 

and   county   of   New   York;    sentenced   to  William  Berner,  convicted  at  Cincinnati 

twelve  years'  imprisonment.  .Nov.  19,1873  of    manslaughter    in    killing    William    H. 

A.  Oakey  Hall,  ex-mayor  of  New  York,    Kirk March  28,  1884 

for  complicity  with  the  Tweed  "ring"  [Berner  was  a  confessed  murderer;  the 
frauds;  jury  disagree,  March  1-21,  1872;  verdict  of  manslaughter,  when  twenty  un- 
second  trial,  jury  disagree,  Nov.  1 ;  ac-  tried  murderers  were  in  the  city  jail,  led 
quitted Dec.  24,  1873  to  a  six  days'  riot,  during  which  the  court- 
David  Swing,  for  heresy  before  the  Chi-  house  and  other  buildings  were  set  on  fire, 
cago  Presbytery,  April  15  et  seq.,  in  forty-five  persons  were  killed,  and  138  in- 
twenty-eight  specifications  by  Prof.  Fran-  jured.] 

cis  L.  Patton;  acquitted  after  a  long  trial  Brig.-Gen.  D.  G.  Swaim,  judge-advocate- 

1874  general  of  the  army,  tried  by  court-martial 

[Professor    Swing    withdrew    from    the  for  attempt  to  defraud  a  banking  firm  in 

Presbyterian  Church  and  formed  an  inde-  Washington,  and  failing  to  report  an  army 

pendent  congregation.]  officer    who    had    duplicated    his    pay    ac- 

Theodore  Tilton  v.  Henry  Ward  Beecher,  count;  sentenced  to  suspension  from  duty 

for  adultery,   Brooklyn,   N.  Y. ;   jury  dis-  for  twelve  years  on  half-pay;   trial  opens 

agree;   case  ended July  2,   1875  Nov.  15,  1884 

Jesse  Pomeroy,  the  Boston  boy  mur-  James  D.  Fish,  president  of  the  Ma- 
derer,  for  killing  of  Horace  W.  Millen,  rine  Bank,  of  New  York,  secretly  con- 
April  22,  1874,  supposed  to  be  Pomeroy's  nected  with  the  firm  of  Grant  &  Ward, 
fourth  victim 1875  convicted    of    misappropriation    of    funds. 

Gen.   O.    E.    Babcock,   private   secretary  April   11,   and   sentenced   to   ten  years   at 

of  President  Grant,  tried  at  St.  Louis  for  hard  labor  in  Sing  Sing,  N.  Y. 

complicity   in   whiskey   frauds;    acquitted  June  27,  1885 

Feb.  7,  1876  Ferdinand  Ward,  of  the  suspended  firm 

W.   W.    Belknap,   United    States    Secre-  of  Grant  &  Ward,  New  York  City,  indict- 

tary  of  War,   impeached;    acquitted  ed   for   financial   frauds,   June  4;    convict- 

Aug.  1,  1876  ed    and    sentenced    to    ten    years    at   hard 

John  D.  Lee,  for  the  Mountain  Meadow    labor  in   Sing  Sing Oct.   31,   1885 

massacre,    Sept.    15,    1857;    convicted   and  [Released,  April  30,  1892.] 

executed March    23,     1877  Henry  W.  Jaehne,  vice-president  of  the 

Col.  Thomas  Buford,  for  killing  Judge   New  York  common  council,  for  receiving 


n  bribe  to  support  Jacob  Sharp's  Broad- 
way surface  road  on  Aug.  30,  1884;  sen- 
tence,'nine  years  and  ten  months  in  Sing 
Sing May   20,    1886 

Alfred  Packer,  one  of  six  miners,  who 
killed  and  ate  his  companions  when  starv- 
ing in  their  camp  on  the  site  of  Lake 
City,  Col.,  in  1874;  convicted  at  New 
York  of  manslaughter,  and  sentenced  to 
forty  years'   imprisonment.  .August,    1886 

Trial  of  Jacob  Sharp;  found  guilty  of 
bribery  and  sentenced  to  four  years'  im- 
prisonment and  a  line  of  $5,000. 

July   14,   1887 

[Sentence  reversed  by  court  of  ap- 

Anarchists  at  Chicago:  Twenty-two  in- 
dicted. May  27,  1886;  seven  convicted  of 
murder,  Aug.  20;  four  (Spies,  Parsons, 
Fischer,  and  Engel)  hanged;  and  one 
(Lingg)    commits   suicide.  .Nov.    11,   1887 

[Governor  Altgeld  pardoned  all  the  an- 
archists (Schwab,  Neebe,  and  Fielden)  in 
prison,  June   26,    1893.] 

City  of  New  Orleans  against  adminis- 
tratrix of  the  estate  of  Myra  Clark 
Gaines,  deceased.  Jan.  9,  1885,  in  Su- 
preme Court  of  United  States;  judgment 
against  the  city  for  over  $500,000 

May   13,   1889 

[About  1836  Myra  Clark  Gaines  filed 
a  bill  in  equity  to  recover  real  estate  in 
the  possession  of  the  city  of  New  Or- 
leans. Her  father,  Daniel  Clark,  who  died 
in  New  Orleans  a  reputed  bachelor,  Aug. 
16,  1813,  by  will  dated  May  20,  1811,  gave 
the  property  to  his  mother,  and  by  mem- 
orandum for  a  will  (which  was  never 
found)  made  in  1813,  gave  it  to  his 
daughter  Myra.  The  latter  will  was  re- 
ceived by  the  Supreme  Court  of  Louisiana 
Feb.  18,  1856,  and  the  legitimacy  of  Myra 
questioned.  Judge  Billings,  of  the  United 
States  circuit  court  at  New  Orleans,  ren- 
dered a  decision  which  recognized  the  pro- 
bate of  the  will  of  1813,  in  April,  1877; 
an  appeal  was  taken,  and  in  1883  judg- 
ment was  again  given  in  favor  of  Mrs. 
Gaines  for  .$1,925,607  and  interest.  The 
final  appeal,  June,  1883,  resulted  as  above. 
In  1861  the  value  of  the  property  was 
estimated  at  $35,000,000.] 

Dr.  Patrick  Henry  Cronin,  Irish  dyna- 
mite nationalist  (expelled  from  the  Clan- 
na-Gael,  and  denounced  as  a  spy  by  Alex- 
ander Sullivan  and  the  leaders,  termed  the 


"  triangle,"  and  condemned  to  death  by 
them  for  accusing  them  of  embezzling 
funds  allotted  for  dynamiting  in  England 
in  February,  May  4),  found  murdered  at 
Lake  View,  Chicago May  22,  1889 

Coroner's  jury  declare  the  murder  to 
be  the  result  of  a  conspiracy,  of  which 
Alexander  Sullivan,  P.  O'Sullivan,  Daniel 
Coughlin,  and  Frank  Woodruff  (connected 
with  the  Clan-na-Gael)  were  the  prin- 
cipals. Alexander  Sullivan  and  others  ar- 
rested, June  12;  Sullivan  released  on  high 
bail June  15,  1889 

Martin  Burke  arrested  at  Winnipeg, 
Canada,  indicted  about  June  20.  The 
grand  jury  at  Chicago,  after  sixteen  days' 
investigation,  indict  Martin  Burke,  John 
F.  Beggs,  Daniel  Coughlin,  Patrick  O'Sul- 
livan, Frank  Woodruff,  Patrick  Cooney, 
and  John  Kunz,  with  others  unknown,  of 
conspiracy  and  of  the  murder  of  Patrick 
Henry  Cronin June  29,  1889 

Coughlin,  Burke,  O'Sullivan,  Kunz,  and 
Beggs,  for  murder  of  Cronin  in  Chicago, 
May  6;  trial  begins  Aug.  30;  the  first 
three  are  sentenced  to  imprisonment  for 
life,  Kunz  for  three  years,  and  Beggs  dis- 
charged  Dee.  16,  1889 

[Second  trial  of  Daniel  Coughlin  began 
Nov.  3,  1893;  acquitted  by  jury,  March  8, 

Commander  B.  H.  McCalla,  of  United 
States  steamship  Enterprise,  by  court- 
martial  for  malfeasance  and  cruelty,  April 
22,  on  finding  of  a  court  of  inquiry  held  in 
Brooklyn  navy-yard,  March  11,  suspended 
from  rank  and  duty  for  three  years,  sen- 
tence approved  by  Secretary  Tracy 

May  15,   1890 

Dr.  T.  Thacher  Graves,  for  murder  of 
Mrs.  Josephine  Barnaby,  of  Providence, 
R.  I.,  by  poison,  at  Denver,  Col 1891 

[While  awaiting  his  second  trial  he  com- 
mitted suicide  in  the  covmty  jail  at  Den- 
ver,  Sept.   3,    1893.] 

Rev.  Charles  A.  Briggs,  charged  by  the 
presbytery  of  New  York,  Oct.  5,  1891, 
with  teaching  doctrines  "which  conflict 
irreconcilably  with,  and  are  contrary  to, 
the  cardinal  doctrines  taught  in  the  Holy 
Scriptures,"  in  an  address  at  the  Union 
Theological  Seminary  in  New  York,  Jan. 
20,  1891 :  case  dismissed,  Nov.  4;  prosecut- 
ing commiitee  appeal  to  the  general  as- 
sembly, Nov.  13;  judgment  reversed  and 
case  remanded  to  the  presbytery  of  New 


fork  for  new  trial,  May  30,  1892;  Pro- 
fessor Briggs  acquitted  after  a  trial  of 
nineteen  days Dec.  30,  1892 

John  Y.  McKane,  Gravesend,  L.  I.,  for 
election  frauds;  convicted  and  sentenced 
to  Sing  Sing  for  six  years.  .  .Feb.  19,  1894 

Miss  Madeline  V.  Pollard,  for  breach  of 
promise,  against  Representative  W.  C.  P. 
Breckinridge,  of  Kentucky;  damages,  $50,- 
000;  trial  begun  March  8,  1894,  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C;  verdict  of  $15,000  for  Miss 
Pollard,  Saturday April  14,  1894 

Patrick  Eugene  Prendergast,  for  the 
murder  of  Carter  Harrison,  mayor  of  Chi- 
cago, Oct.  28,  1893;  plea  of  defence,  in- 
sanity; jury  find  him  sane  and  he  is 
hanged July   13,    1894 

Eugene  V.  Debs,  president  American 
Railroad  Union,  charged  with  conspiracy 
in  directing  great  strike  on  the  Western 
railroads,  and  acquitted 1894 

[He  was  sentenced  to  six  months'  im- 
prisonment for  contempt  of  court  in  vio- 
lating its  injunction  in  1895.] 

William  R.  Laidlaw,  Jr.,  v.  Russell 
Sage,  for  personal  injuries  at  time  of 
bomb  explosion  in  the  latter's  office,  Dec, 
4,  1891;  suit  brought  soon  afterwards; 
plaintiff  awarded  heavy  damages  by 
jury:  defendant  appealed;  case  still  in  the 

Leon  Czolgosz  indicted  in  Buffalo  for 
murder  of  President  McKinley,  Sept.  16, 
1901;  tried  Sept.  23-24;  found  guilty  on 
second  day;  executed  in  Auburn  (N,  Y.) 
prison Oct.    29,    1901 

Trimble,  Allen,  statesma,n;  born  in 
Augusta  county,  Va.,  Nov.  24,  1783;  re- 
moved to  Lexington,  Ky.,  in  1784;  and 
later  settled  in  Highland  county,  0.,  where 
he  was  clerk  of  the  courts  and  recorder 
in  1 809-1 G;  was  in  command  of  a  mount- 
ed regiment  under  Gen.  William  Henry 
Harrison  in  1812-13;  served  in  both 
branches  of  the  State  legislature  in  1816- 
26;  was  acting  governor  of  Ohio  in  1821- 
22;  governor  in  1826-30;  and  president  of 
the  first  State  board  of  agriculture  in 
1846-48.  He  died  in  Hillsboro,  0.,  Feb. 
2,   1870. 

Trimble,  Isaac  Ridgeway,  military 
officer;  born  in  Culpeper  county,  Va..  May 
15,  1802;  graduated  at  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  in  1822,  and  was  as- 
signed the  duty  of  surveying  the  military 
road  from  Washington  to  the  Ohio  River; 


resigned  in  1832  and  became  a  civil  en- 
gineer; was  with  various  railroads  as 
chief  engineer  till  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 
War,  when  he  took  command  of  the  non- 
uniformed  volunteers  recruited  to  defend 
Baltimore  from  Northern  soldiers.  In 
the  same  year  he  was  made  colonel  of 
engineers  in  Virginia  and  directed  the 
construction  of  the  field  works  and  forts 
at  Norfolk;  was  promoted  brigadier-gen- 
eral on  finishing  that  work,  and  then  took 
charge  of  the  location  and  construction 
of  the  batteries  at  Evansport  on  the 
Potomac  River.  With  these  batteries  he 
blockaded  the  river  against  United  States 
vessels  during  the  winter  of  1861-62. 
He  also  participated  and  won  distinc- 
tion in  various  battles,  including  Gaines's 
Mills,  Slaughter's  Mountain,  Second  Bull 
Run,  Chancellorsville,  etc. ;  was  promoted 
major-general  for  gallantry  and  merito- 
rious services  April  23,  1863.  During  the 
third  day  of  the  action  at  Gettysburg  he  • 
lost  a  leg,  was  captured,  and  held  a  pris- 
oner at  Johnson's  Island  for  twenty-one 
months  before  being  exchanged.  After 
the  war  he  settled  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  where 
he  died,  Jan.  2,   1888. 

Trimble,  Robert,  jurist;  born  in  Berke- 
ley county,  Va.,  in  1777;  removed  with 
his  parents  to  Kentucky  in  1780;  studied 
law  and  began  practice  in  1803;  appointed 
second  judge  of  the  court  of  appeals  in 
1808;  and  chief-justice  of  Kentucky  in 
1810;  was  United  States  judge  for  Ken- 
tucky in  1816-26,  and  was  then  appointed 
a  justice  of  the  United  States  Supreme 
Court.     He  died  Aug.  25,  1828. 

Trimble,  William  A.,  legislator;  born 
in  Woodford,  Ky.,  April  4,  1786;  grad- 
uated at  Transylvania  College;  admitted 
to  the  bar  and  began  practice  in  High- 
land, 0.,  in  1811;  was  adjutant  of  his 
brother  Allen's  regiment  in  the  campaign 
against  the  Pottawattomie  Indians  in 
1812;  became  major  of  Ohio  volunteers  in 
1812,  and  major  of  the  26th  United  States 
Infantry  in  1813;  brevetted  lieutenant- 
colonel  in  1814  for  gallantry  in  the  en- 
gagement at  Fort  Erie;  was  transferred 
to  the  8th  Infantry  in  1815 ;  and  resigned 
March  1,  1819.  He  was  United  States 
Senator  from  1819  till  his  death  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Dec.  13,  1821. 

Tri-mountain,  the  name  first  given  to 
Boston,  Mass. 


Trinity  Church.  The  first  Episcopal  ranean.  His  flag-ship  was  the  President. 
church  organized  in  the  province  of  New  He  sailed  from  Hampton  Roads,  reached 
York  was  called  in  its  charter  (1697)  Gibraltar  July  1,  and  soon  after  the  Bey 
"  The  Parish  of  Trinity  Church."  The  had  declared  war  he  appeared  before 
wardens  and  vestrymen  first  chosen  in-  Tripoli,  having  captured  a  Tripolitan 
eluded  several  members  of  the  King's  corsair  on  the  way.  The  Bey  was  aston- 
council.  The  following  are  the  names  of  ished,  and  the  little  American  squadron 
the  first  officers  of  the  church:  Bishop  cruising  in  the  Mediterranean  made  the 
of  London,  rector;  Thomas  Wenham  and  Barbary  States  more  circumspect.  Recog- 
Robert  Lurting,  wardens;  Caleb  Heath-  nizing  the  existence  of  war  with  Tripoli, 
cote,  William  Merret,  John  Tudor,  James  the  United  States  government  ordered  a 
Emott,  William  Morris,  Thomas  Clarke,  squadron,  under  Commodore  Richard  V. 
Ebenezer  Wilson,  Samuel  Burt,  James  Morris,  to  relieve  Dale.  The  Chesapeake 
Evets,  Nathaniel  INIarston,  Michael  How-  was  the  commodore's  flag-ship.  The  ves- 
den,  John  Crooke,  William  Sharpas,  Law-  sels  did  not  go  in  a  body,  but  proceeded 
rence  Read.  David  Jamison,  William  one  after  another,  between  February 
Hudleston,  Gabriel  Ludlow,  Thomas  Bur-  (1801)  and  September.  Early  in  May, 
roughs,  John  Merret,  and  William  Jane-  the  Boston,  after  taking  the  United  States 
way,  vestrymen.  In  1705  a  tract  of  land  minister  (R.  R.  Livingston)  to  France, 
known  as  "The  Queen's  Farm"  extended  blockaded  the  port  of  Tripoli.  There  she 
(on  the  west  side  of  Broadway)  from  St.  was  joined  by  the  frigate  Constellation, 
Paul's  Chapel  (Vesey  Street  and  Broad-  while  the  Essex  blockaded  two  Tripolitan 
way)  along  the  river  to  Skinner  Road,  now  corsairs  at  Gibraltar.  The  Constellation, 
Christopher  Street.  This  farm  was  then  left  alone,  had  a  severe  contest  not  long 
totally  improductive.  Money  was  col-  afterwards  with  seventeen  Tripolitan  gun- 
lected  for  the  building  of  the  church.  It  boats  and  some  land  batteries,  which  were 
was   a    small    square   edifice   then   on   the    severely  handled. 

banks  of  the  Hudson  River.  It  was  en-  Another  naval  expedition  was  sent  to 
larged  in  17.37  to  148  feet  in  length,  in-  the  Mediterranean  in  1803,  under  the  com- 
cluding  the  tower  and  chancel,  aud  to  72  mand  of  Com.  Edward  Preble,  whose  flag- 
feet  in  width.  The  steeple,  which  was  not  ship  was  the  Constitution.  The  other  ves- 
completed  until  1772,  was  175  feet  in  sels  were  the  Philadelphia,  Argus,  Siren, 
height.  The  building  was  consumed  in  the  Nautilus,  Vixen,  and  Enterprise.  The 
great  flre  of  1776.  It  was  rebuilt  in  1788,  Philadelphia,  Captain  Bainbridge,  sailed  in 
taken  down  in  1839,  and  on  May  21,  1846,  July,  and  captured  a  Moorish  corsair  off 
the  present  edifice  was  consecrated.  The  Tangier,  holding  an  American  merchant 
corporation  of  Trinity  Church  still  holds  a  vessel.  Preble  arrived  in  August,  and, 
portion  of  the  land  of  the  Queen's  Farm,  going  to  Tangier,  demanded  an  explana- 
from  which  a  large  income  is  derived,  tion  of  the  Emperor  of  Morocco,  who  dis- 
That  corporation  has  contributed  gener-  claimed  the  act  and  made  a  suitable  apol- 
ously  towards  the  building  and  support-  ogy.  Then  he  proceeded  to  bring  Tripoli  to 
ing  of  churches  in  various  parts  of  the  terms.  Soon  afterwards  the  Philadelphia 
country  and  carrying  on  Christian  work  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Tripolitans. 
of  various  kinds.  Little  further   of  much   interest  occurred 

Tripoli,  War  with.  In  the  autumn  of  until  early  in  1804,  when  the  boldness  of 
1800,  the  ruler  of  Tripoli,  learning  that  the  Americans  in  destroying  the  Phila- 
the  United  States  had  paid  larger  gross  delphia  in  the  harbor  of  Tripoli  greatly 
sums  to  his  neighbors  (see  Algiers)  than  alarmed  the  Bey  (see  Philadelphia, 
to  himself,  demanded  an  annual  tribute.  The).  For  a  while  Preble  blockaded  his 
and  threatened  war  in  case  it  was  refused,  port;  and  in  July,  1804,  he  entered  the 
In  May,  1801,  he  caused  the  flag-staff  of  harbor  (whose  protection  lay  in  heavy 
the  American  consulate  to  be  cut  down,  batteries  mounting  115  guns)  with  his 
and  proclaimed  war  June  10.  In  antici-  squadron.  The  Tripolitans  also  had  in 
pation  of  this  event,  the  American  gov-  the  harbor  nineteen  gunboats,  a  brig,  two 
ernment  had  sent  Commodore  Richard  schooners,  and  some  galleys,  with  25,000 
Dale   with    a    squadron    to   the   Mediter-    soldiers  on  the  land.     A  sheltering  reef 



afforded  further  protection.     These  formi-  gunboat     Number    Four)     alongside    tha 

dable  obstacles  did  not  dismay  Preble.    On  largest  of  those  of  the  enemy,  and  boarded 

Aug.  3  he  opened  a  heavy  cannonade  and  and  captured  her  after  a  fierce  struggle, 
bombardment    from    his    gunboats,    which        After  the  Americans  had  sunk  or  capt- 

ui(  <1  -ix  ol  11i(  Tii- 
])oli1  in  \t  -<-(  1-    ind 
iiidii )(  d      I     li(  ivy 
loss  of  life  on  the 
enemy,   they   with- 
drew, but  resumed 
the      attack      four 
days  later   (Aug.  7).   After  the 
loss  of  a  gunboat  and  ten  men, 
the  Americans  again  withdrew; 
but  renewed  the  attack  on  the 
24th,    without    any    important 
result.     A    fourth    attack    was 
made  on  the  28th,  and,  after  a 
sharp    conflict,     the    American 
alone  could  get  near  enough  for  effective    squadron    again    withdrew,    and    lay    at 
service.     A  severe  conflict  ensued.    Finally,    anchor  off  the  harbor  until  Sept.  2,  when 
Lieutenant  Decatur  laid  his  vessel    (the   a  fifth  attack  was  made.    A  floating  mine. 




sent  to  blow  up  the  Tripolitan  vessels  in  personal  friend  and  the  private  secretary 

the  harbor,  exploded  prematurely,  appar-  of   President  Jackson.     He  died  in  Alex- 

ently,    and    destroyed    all    of    the    Ameri-  andria,  Va.,  Feb.  11,  1874. 

cans  in  charge  of  it  (see  Intrepid,  The).  Trollope,     Frances    Milton,    author; 

The    stormy    season    approaching,    Preble  born    in    Heckfield,    Hampshire,    England, 

Avithdrew    from    the    dangerous    Barbary  about    1780;    came   to   the   United   States 

coast,   leaving   a   small  force   to   blockade  and  settled  in  Cincinnati,  O.,  in  1829.    She 

the  harbor  of  Tripoli.     Com.  Samuel  Bar-  returned  to  England  in  1831,  and  publish- 

ron  was  sent  to  relieve  Preble,  who,  with  ed   Domestic   Manners   of   the  Americans, 

a    large    squadron,    overawed    the    Moors  She  died  in  Florence,  Italy,  Oct.  6,  1863. 

and  kept  up  the  blockade.  Troup,    Robert,   military   officer;    born 

Meanwhile  a  movement  under  Capt.  in  New  York  City  in  1757;  graduated  at 
William  Eaton,  American  consul  at  Tunis,  King's  College  in  1774;  studied  law  under 
soon  brought  the  war  to  a  close.  He  John  Jay;  and  joined  the  army  on  Long 
joined  Hamet  Caramelli,  the  rightful  Island  as  lieutenant  in  the  summer  of 
Bey  of  Tunis,  in  an  effort  to  recover  his  1776.  He  became  aide  to  General  Wood- 
rights.  Hamet  had  taken  refuge  with  hull ;  was  taken  prisoner  at  the  battle  of 
the  Viceroy  of  Egypt.  There  Eaton  join-  Long  Island;  and  was  for  some  time  in 
ed  him  Avith  a  few  troops  composed  of  the  prison-ship  Jersey  and  the  provost  jail 
men  of  all  nations,  and,  marching  west-  at  New  York.  Exchanged  in  the  spring  of 
ward  across  Northern  Africa  1,000  miles,  1777,  he  joined  the  Northern  army,  and 
with  transportation  consisting  of  190  participated  in  the  capture  of  Burgoyne. 
camels,  on  April  27,  1805,  captured  the  In  1778  he  was  secretary  of  the  board  of 
Tripolitan  seaport  town  of  Derne.  They  war.  After  the  war  he  was  made  judge 
fought  their  way  successfully  towards  of  the  United  States  district  court  of 
the  capital,  their  followers  continually  in-  New  York,  holding  that  office  several 
creasing,  when,  to  the  mortification  of  years.  Colonel  Troup  was  the  warm  per- 
Eaton  and  the  extinguishment  of  the  hopes  sonal  and  political  friend  of  Alexander 
of  Caramelli,  they  found  that  Tobias  Lear,  Hamilton.  He  died  in  New  York  City, 
the  American  consul-general,  had  made  a  Jan.    14,    1832. 

treaty  of  peace  (June  4,  1805)  with  the  Truman,  Benjamin  Cuimmings,  jour- 
terrified  ruler  of  Tripoli.  So  ended  the  wai\  nalist;  born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  Oct.  25, 
The  ruler  of  Tunis  was  yet  insolent,  but  1835;  received  a  public  school  education; 
his  pride  was  suddenly  humbled  by  the  ap-  was  a  compositor  and  proof-reader  on  the 
pearance  of  a  squadron  of  thirteen  vessels  New  York  Times  in  1854-00;  served  in 
under  Commodore  Rodgers,  who  succeed-  the  Civil  War  as  staff-officer;  has  been  on 
ed  Barron,  and  he  sent  an  ambassador  to  government  missions  to  China,  Japan, 
the  United  States.  The  Barbary  States  Hawaii,  Alaska,  and  several  times  to 
now  all  feared  the  power  of  the  Americans,  Europe.  He  is  the  author  of  The  South 
and  commerce  in  the  Mediterranean  Sea  During  the  War;  Semi  -  Tropical  Call- 
was  relieved  of  great  peril.  Pope  Pius  fornia;  From  the  Crescent  City  to  the 
VII.  declared  that  the  Americans  had  done  Golden  Gate;  The  Field  of  Honor;  His- 
more  for  Christendom  against  the  North  torij  of  the  World's  Fair  in  Chicago,  etc. 
African  pirates  than  all  the  powers  of  Trumbull,  Benjamin,  historian;  born 
Europe  united.  in   Hebron,    Conn.,   Dec.    19,    1735;    grad- 

Trist,    Nicholas    Philip,    diplomatist;  uated  at  Yale  College  in  1759,  and  studied 

born  in  Charlottesville,  Va.,  June  2,  1800;  theology    under    Rev.    Eleazer    Wheelock; 

educated    at    West    Point,    where    he   was  pastor   in  North  Haven   for  nearly  sixty 

acting  professor  in   1819-20.     In   1845  he  years.      His   publications   include   General 

was  chief  clerk  of  the  State  Department,  History  of  the  United  States  of  America; 

and  was  United  States  commissioner  with  Complete    History    of    Connecticut    from 

the  army  under  General   Scott  in  Mexico  1630  till  1713    (2  volumes).     He  died  in 

authorized   to   treat   for   peace,    which   he  North  Haven,  Conn.,  Feb.  2,  1820. 

accomplished    at    Guadalupe  -  Hidalgo    in  Trumbull,    James    Hammond,    philolo- 

January,  1848.     He  was  afterwards  Unit-  gist;  born  in  Stonington,  Conn.,  Dec.  20, 

ed  States  consul  at  Havana.     He  was  a  1821;   educated  at  Yale  College;   settled 



In  Hartford  in  1847,  and  held  political 
offices  till  1864;  librarian  of  the  Watkin- 
»on  library  of  reference  in  Hartford  in 
1863-91.  He  was  the  author  of  The  Col- 
onial Records  of  Connecticut  (3  volumes)  ; 
Historical  Notes  on  Some  Provisions  of 
the  Connecticut  Statutes;  The  Defence  of 
Stonington  against  a  British  Squadron, 
August,  1814/  Historical  Notes  on  the 
Constitution  of  Connecticut;  Notes  on 
Forty  Algonquin  Versions  of  the  Lord's 
Prayer;  The  Blue  Laws  of  Connecticut  and 
the  False  Blue  Laws  invented  by  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Peters;  Indian  Names  of  Places 
in  and  on  the  Borders  of  the  Connecticut, 
with  Interpretations,  etc.  He  died  in 
Hartford,  Conn.,  Aug.  5,  1897. 

Trumbull,  John,  poet;  born  in  West- 
bury  (si«ce  Watertown),  Conn.,  April  24, 
1750;  graduated  at  Yale  College  in  1767, 
having  been  admitted  to  the  college  at 
the  age  of  seven  years,  such  was  his  pre- 
cocity in  acquiring  learning;  but  he  did 
not  reside  there  until  1763,  on  account  of 
delicate  health.  In  1773  he  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar,  having  been  two  years 
a  tutor  in  Yale  College.  During  that 
time  he  wrote  his  first  considerable  poem. 
The  Progress  of  Dulness.  He  was  a  warm 
and  active  patriot.  In  1775  the  first  canto 
of  his  famous  poem,  McFingal,  was  pub- 
lished in  Philadelphia.  The  whole  work, 
in  four  cantos,  was  published  in  Hartford 
in  1782.  It  is  a  burlesque  epic,  in  the 
style  of  Hudibras,  directed  against  the 
Tories  and  other  enemies  of  liberty  in 
America.  This  famous  poem  has  passed 
through  many  editions.  After  the  war, 
Trumbull,  with  Humphreys,  Barlow,  and 
Lemuel  Hopkins,  wrote  a  series  of  poetic 
essays  entitled  American  Antiquities,  pre- 
tended extracts  from  a  poem  which  they 
styled  The  Anarchiad.  It  was  designed 
to  check  the  spirit  of  anarchy  then  pre- 
vailing in  the  feeble  Union.  From  1789 
to  1795  Mr.  Trumbull  was  State  attor- 
ney for  Hartford;  and  in  1792  and  1800 
he  was  a  member  of  the  legislature.  He 
was  a  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  for 
eighteen  years  (1801-19),  and  judge  of 
the  court  of  errors  in  1808.  In  1825 
he  removed  to  Detroit,  Mich.,  where  he 
died.  May  10,  1831. 

Trumbull,  Jonisr,  artist;  born  in  Leba- 
non, Conn.,  June  6,  1756;  son  of  Gov. 
Jonathan    Trumbull;    graduated   at   Har- 

vard College  in  1773.  Having  made  an  ac- 
curate sketch  of  the  works  around  Boston 
in  1775,  he  attracted  the  attention  of 
Washington,  who,  in  August  of  that  year, 
made  him  one  of  his  aides-de-camp.  He 
became  a  major  of  brigade,  and  in  1776 
deputy  adjutant-general  of  the  Northern 
Department,  with  the  rank  of  colonel.  In 
February,  1777,  he  retired  from  the  army, 
and  went  to  London  to  study  painting 
under  West.  On  the  execution  of  Major 
AndrS  (October,  1780),  he  was  seized  and 
cast  into  prison,  where  he  remained  eight 
months.  In  1786  he  painted  his  Battle  of 
Bunker  Hill.  From  1789  to  1793  he  was 
in  the  United  States,  painting  portraits 
for  his  historical  pictures  (now  in  the 
rotunda  of  the  national  Capitol)  — The 
Declaration  of  Independence ;  The  Surren- 
der of  Burgoyne ;  The  Surrender  of  Corn- 
icallis;  and  the  Resignation  of  Washing- 
ton at  Annapolis.  In  1794  Trumbull 
was  secretary  to  Jay's  mission  to  Lon- 
don,  and   was   appointed  a   commissioner 


(1796)  to  carry  the  treaty  into  execution. 
He  returned  to  the  United  States  in  1804, 
and  went  back  to  England  in  1808,  when 
everything  American  was  so  impopular 
that  he  found  little  employment.  He  came 
back,  settled  in  New  York,  and  assisted 
in  founding  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts 
there,  of  which  he  was  president  in  1816- 



25.     Mr.  Trumbull  painted  a  large  num-   tion  and  other   supplies,   and  this  want 

ber  of  pictures  of  events  in  American  his-    continued,  more  or  less,  for  months.  Trum- 

tory.     In  consideration  of  receiving  from   bull   was    then   governor    of    Connecticut. 

Yale    College    $1,000    a    year    during   his 

life,   Colonel   Trumbull   presented   to   that 

institution    fifty  -  seven    of    his    pictures, 

which     form     the     "Trumbull     Gallery" 

there.    The  profits  of  the  exhibition,  after 

his    death,    were    to    be    applied    towards 

the  education  of  needy  students.     He  died 

in  New  York  City,  Nov.  10,  1843. 

Trumbull,  Jonathan,  patriot;  born  in 
Lebanon,  Conn.,  Oct.  12,  1710;  gradu- 
ated at  Harvard  College  in  1727;  preached 
a   few  years;    studied    law;    and   became 

THK    TRUMBULL   HOUSE.    1850. 

On  one  occasion,  at  a  council  of  war,  when 
there  seemed  to  be  no  way  to  make  pro- 
vision against  an  expected  attack  of  the 
enemy,  the  commander-in-chief  said,  "  We 
must  consult  Brother  Jonathan  on  the 
subject."  He  did  so,  and  the  governor 
was  successful  in  supplying  many  of  the 
wants  of  the  army.  When  the  army  was 
afterwards  spread  over  the  country  and 
difficulties  arose,  it  was  a  common  saying 
among  the  officers,  as  a  by-word,  "  We 
must  consult  Brother  Jonathan."  The 
origin  of  these  words  were  soon  lost  sight 



a  member  of  Assembly  at  the  age  of  twen- 
ty-three. He  was  chosen  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor in  17G6,  and  became  ex-officio  chief- 
justice  of  the  Superior  Court.  In  1768 
he  boldly  refused  to  take  the  oath  en- 
joined on  officers  of  the  crown,  and  in 
1769  be  was  chosen  governor.  He  was  the 
only  conlonial  governor  who  espoused  the 
cause  of  the  people  in  their  struggle 
for  justice  and  freedom.  In  the  absence 
in  Congress  of  the  Adamses  and  Hancock 

from  New  England,  Trumbull  was  consid-  of,  and  "  Brother  Jonathan  "  became  the 
ered  the  Whig  leader  in  that  region,  and  title  of  our  nationality,  like  that  of  "  John 
Washington  always  placed  implicit  re-  Bull "  of  England.  He  died  in  Lebanon, 
iiance    upon    his    patriotism    and    energy    Conn.,  Aug.  17,  1785. 

for  support.  When  Washington  took  Trumbull,  Jonathan,  legislator;  born 
command  of  the  Continental  army  at  Cam-  in  Lebanon,  Conn.,  March  26,  1740;  son 
bridge,  he  found  it  in  want  of  ammuni-   of  Governor  Trumbull;  graduated  at  Har- 




card  College  in  1759.     When  the  Eevolu-  1872,   and   joined   the   Populists  in   1894. 

tionary  War  broke  out,  he  was  an  active  He  died  in  Chicajfo,  111.,  June  25,  1896. 
member  of  the  Connecticut  Assembly,  and       Trust,  a  combination  of  manufacturers 

its  speaker.     From   1775  to   1778  he  was  or   business   corporations    who    pool    their 

pajTnaster  of  the  Northern  army;   and  in  interests,   accepting   in   lieu   thereof   stock 

1780   he  was   secretary  and   first  aide   to  in  the  trust.     Trusts  claim  that  business 

Washington,    remaining    in    the    military  can  be  conducted  more  cheaply  this  way, 

family  of  the  commander-in-chief  until  the  and    that   people    are    therefore    benefited, 

close  of  the   war.     He  was   a   member   of  On    the    other    hand,    it    is    claimed    that 

Congress  from  1789  to  1795;- speaker  from  trusts  ruin  business  by  driving  out  compe- 

1791    to    1795;    United   States   Senator   in  tition.      A    small    dealer    who    refuses    to 

1795-96;   lieutenant-governor  of  Connecti-  join  the  trust  finds  the  trust  selling  his 

cut  in  1796;  and  governor  from  1797  until  line  of  goods  in  his  neighborhood  at  prices 

his  death  in  Lebanon,  Aug.  7,  1809.  below      cost.        Legislatures     of     various 

Trumbull,  Jonathan,   librarian;    born  States    have    tried    to    devise    a   law   that 

in    Norwich,    Conn.,    Jan.    23,    1844;    re-  will   protect  the  rights  of  the  capitalists 

ceived  an  academic  education;  member  of  in  the  trusts  and  also  the  rights  of  small 

the  Connecticut  Historical  Society;  presi-  dealers.     The  Standard  Oil  Company  was 

dent    of    the    Connecticut    Society    of    the  the  first  of  the  great  trusts.   The  attempts 

Sons  of  the  American  Revolution.     He  is  of  the  sugar  trust  to  influence  legislation 

the   author   of   The  Lebanon   War  Office;  at    Washington    gave    rise    to    a    national 

The    Defamation    of    Revolutionary     Pa-  scandal   in   1894,  when  each   Senator   was 

t riots:    a    Vindication    of    General   Israel  asked   to   make   a   declaration  whether  he 

Putnam;    Joseph    Trumbull,    First    Com-  had  dealt  in  sugar  stock  during  the  tariff 

missary-General  of  the  Continental  Army ;  debate.     The  greatest  of  all  combinations 

The  Share  of  Connecticut  in  the  Revolu-  was  organized  as  the  United  States  Steel 

tion,  etc.  Corporation,  in  March,  1901,  with  $1,100,- 

Trumbull,     Joseph,     military    officer;  000,000  capital.     On  March  10.  1902,  the 

born  in  Lebanon,  Conn.,  March  11,  1737;  United  States  Supreme  Court  decided  the 

another  son  of  Governor  Trumbull ;  gradu-  Illinois   anti-trust   law   to   be   xmconstitu- 

ated    at    Harvard    College    in    1756;    was  tional.     Similar  laws  in  Georgia,  Indiana, 

made   commissary  -  general   of   the    Conti-  Louisiana,     Michigan,     Mississippi,     Mon- 

nental  army  in  July,  1775.     In  November,  tana,    Nebraska,    North    Carolina,    South 

1777,    he    was    made    a    commissioner    of  Dakota,  Tennessee,  Texas,  and  Wisconsin 

the  board  of  war,  which  office  he  resigned  were  afTected  by  this  decision.     The  seven 

in   April,   1778,   on   account   of   ill-health,  great   industrial    trusts    and    311    smaller 

He  died  in  Lebanon,  Conn.,  July  23,  1778.  trusts,  none  having  a  capital  of  less  than 

Trumbull,  Lyman,  legislator;   born  in  $2,000,000,  had  5,288  plants  in  1905,  with 

Colchester,   Conn.,   Oct.    12,    1813;    taught  a    total    capital    of    $7,246,342,533.      The 

when  sixteen  years  of  age;  studied  law  at  111  franchise  trusts  and   16  railroad  and 

the  Academy  of  Georgia,  and  was  admitted  allied  trusts  were  capitalized  at  $13,132,- 

to  the  bar  in  1837;  removed  to  Belleville,  819,978.      The   total    capitalization   of   all 

111.;  was  secretary  of  state  in  1841;  a  jus-  United  States  trusts  is  $23,000,000,000. 
tiee  of  the  State  Supreme  Court  in  1848;        Truxtun,  Thomas,  naval  officer;   born 

Democratic    member    of    the    State    legis-  in  Jamaica,  L.  I.,  Feb.  17,  1755;  went  to 

lature  in  1854 :  and  elected  a  United  States  sea  when  he  was  twelve  years  of  age,  and 

Senator  in  1855,  1861,  and  in  1867,  serving  for  a  short  time  was  impressed  on  board 

for    eighteen    years.      He    abandoned    the  a  British  man-of-war.     Lieutenant  of  the 

Democratic  party  on   account  of  his  op-  privateer    Congress    in    1776,    he   brought 

position  to  the  extension  of  slavery,  and  one  of  her  prizes  to  New  Bedford ;  and  in 

labored  with  the  anti-slavery  workers.    He  June,  1777,  commanding  the  Independence, 

voted  against  the  impeachment  of  Presi-  owned  by  himself  and  Isaac  Sears  (q.v.), 

dent  Johnson  and  afterwards  acted  with  the  he  captured  three  valuable  prizes  off  the 

Democratic  party,  and  was  its  candidate  Azores.      Truxtun   performed   other   brave 

for  governor  of  Illinois  in  1880.     He  sup-  exploits    during    the    Revolutionary    War, 

ported   Horace   Greeley  for   President   in  and  was  afterwards  extensively  engaged  in 
IX.— I                                                         129 


the  East  India  trade  in  Philadelphia.  In  modore  on  the  Guadeloupe  Station,  with 
1794  he  was  appointed  captain  of  the  new  ten  sail  under  his  command  at  one  time, 
frigate  Constellation,  and  in  1798-99  lie  In  1802  he  was  appointed  to  command  an 
made  two  notable  captures  of  French  expedition  against  Tripoli,  was  denied  a 
vessels  of  superior  size — L'l^i- 
surgente,  of  forty  guns  and 
409  men,  and  La  Vengeance, 
of  fifty-four  guns  and  400  men. 
The  former  was  a  famous 
frigate,  and  the  engagement 
with  her,  which  lasted  one 
hour  and  a  quarter,  was  very 
severe.  L'Insurgente  lost 
seventy  men  killed  and  wound- 
ed, the  Constellation  only  three 
men  wounded.  The  action  with 
La  Vengeance  was  equally  se- 
vere. The  vessels  were  fought 
at  pistol-shot  distance,  the  en- 
gagement lasting  till  1  a.m. 
La  Vengeance,  much  crippled, 
escaped  before  daylight,  and 
Truxtun  lost  his  prize.  This 
second  victory  gave  him  great 
popularity,  and  Congress  voted 
him  the  thanks  of  the  nation 
and  a  gold  medal.  These  vic- 
tories, at  that  critical  time, 
made  the  navy  very  popular, 
and    "  The    Navy "    became    a 

popular  toast  at  all  banquets.  Pictures  captain  for  his  flag-ship,  and  declined  the 
of  naval  battles  and  naval  songs  filled  the  appointment.  His  protest  was  treated  as 
shop-windows,  and  some  earthen  pitchers,    a  resignation,  and  he  was  allowed  to  leave 


of  different  sizes,  were  made  in  Liverpool 
for    an    American    crockery    merchant    in 


the  service.  In  1816-19  he  was  high- 
sheriff  of  Philadelphia.  He  died  in  Phila- 
delphia, May  5,  1822.  His  remains  were 
buried  in  Christ  Church-yard,  in  that 
city,  and  his  grave  is  marked  by  an  up- 
right slab  of  white  marble. 

Tryon,  William,  royal  governor;  born 
in  Ireland  about  1725;  became  an  officer 
in  the  British  army,  and  married  Miss 
Wake,  a  beautiful  and  accomplished  kins- 
woman of  the  Earl  of  Hillsborough,  the 
secretary  of  state  for  the  colonies, 
Through  him  Tryon  procured  the  office  of 
lieutenant-governor  of  North  Carolina  in 
1764,  and  on  the  death  of  Governor  Dobbs, 
in  1765,  he  was  appointed  governor.  He 
was  fond  of  ostentatious  display,  and  built 
a  palace  at  Newberne  at  an  expense  to  the 
colony  of  $25,000.  To  gain  this  appro- 
priation. Lady  Tryon  and  her  beautiful 
sister,   Esther   Wake,  gave  brilliant  balls 

commemoration    of    the    American    navy. 
The    engraving    shows   the   appearance    of 
one  of  these.     In  1801  Truxtun  was  trans-    and  dinner-parties  to  the  members  of  the 
ferred    to    the    President,    and    was    com-    legislature,  and  used  every  blandishment 



they  possessed.  The  taxes  on  account  of 
this  palace  added  greatly  to  the  burdens 
of  the  people,  and  brought  about  the 
'■  Regulator "  movement  in  the  western 
counties.  The  history  of  Tryon's  admin- 
istration in  North  Carolina  is  a  record 
of  folly,  extortion,  and  crime,  and  he 
gained  the  name  of  "  The  Wolf  of  North 
Carolina."'  He  was  governor  of  New  York 
when  the  Revolu- 
tionary War  broke 
out,  and  he  was 
the  last  governor 
of  that  province 
appointed  by  the 
crown.  Compelled 
to  take  refuge 
from  the  Sons  of 
Liberty  on  board  a 
vessel  in  New  York 
Harbor,  it  proved 
to  be  a  permanent 
abdication.  He  en- 
tered the  British 
military    service, 

and  engaged  in  several  disreputable  ma- 
rauding expeditions.  His  property  in 
North  Carolina  was  confiscated.  He  went 
to  England  in   1780,  and  became  lieuten- 

and  published  several  tracts  on  the  dis- 
pute between  Great  Britain  and  the 
American  colonies,  which  attracted  much 

The  British  ministry  knew  more  of  the 
differences  of  opinion  in  the  Continental 
Congress  than  did  the  Americans,  for  Gal- 
loway had  let  out  the  secret  to  friends  of 
the    crown.       This    fact   encouraged   Lord 

C^:^e^  t^a^i^^^a<y 


North  and  his  colleagues  to  believe  that  a 
little  firmness  on  the  part  of  Great  Brit- 
ain would  shake  the  resolution  and  break 
up  the  apparent  union  of  the  colonists, 
ant-general  in  1782.     He  died  in  London,    It  was  known  that  a  large  portion  of  the 

England,  Feb.  27,  1788. 

Tucker,  George,  author;  born  in  Ber- 
muda in  1775;  graduated  at  William 
and  Mary  College  in  1797;  admitted  to 
the  bar  and  practised  in  Lynchburg; 
elected    to    Congress    in    1819,    1821,    and 

most  respectable  and  influential  of  the  in- 
habitants of  the  colonies  were  warmly  at- 
tached to  the  mother-country.  In  several 
colonies  there  was  a  strong  prejudice  felt 
towards  New  England,  where  the  most 
violent    proceedings    had    occurred.       The 

1823;  Professor  of  Moral  Philosophy  and  Quakers,  as  a  body,  were  opposed  to  vio- 
Political  Economy  at  the  University  of  lent  measures.  The  governor  of  Pennsyl- 
Virginia  for  twenty  years.  His  publi-  vania  was  indifi"erent,  and  Scotch  High- 
cations  include  Letters  on  the  Conspiracy  landers  settled  in  New  York,  and  the  Caro- 
of  Slaves  in  Virginia;  Letters  on  the  linas  and  Georgia  were  very  loyal.  Even 
Roanoke  Navigation;  The  Valley  of  Shen-  should  the  union  remain  perfect,  it  wae 
andoah;  Life  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  with  believed  the  limited  resources  of  the  colo- 
Farts  of  his  Correspondence ;  Progress  of  nists  would  be  wholly  inadequate  to  anj 
the  United  States  in  Population  and  obstinate  or  lengthened  resistance.  Mili- 
Wealth  in  Fifty  Tears;  History  of  the  tary  oflScers  boasted  that,  at  the  head  of 
United  States  from  their  Colonization  to  a  few  regiments,  they  would  "  march  from 
the  End  of  the  Twenty-sixth  Congress  in  one  end  of  America  to  the  other."  All 
ISJfl,    etc.     He    died    in    Sherwood,    Va.,  British    writers    and    speakers    exercised 

April   10,  1861. 

Tucker,  Josiah,  clergyman;  born  in 
Laugharne,  Wales,  in  1711;  educated  at 
Oxford,  he  took  orders,  and  was  for  many 
vear«  a  rector  in  Bristol;  in  1758  he  was 
Dean  of  Gloucester;  he  was  a  prolific 
writer  on  political  and  religious  subjects. 

their  pens  and  tongues  in  the  same  strain. 
Only  one  had  the  good  sense  to  recom- 
mend a  peaceful  separation.  That  was 
Dean  Tucker.  He  proposed  that  Par- 
liament, by  a  solemn  act  declaring  them 
to  have  forfeited  all  the  privileges  of 
British  subjects  by  sea  and  land,  should 



cut  off  the  rebellious  provinces  from  the 
British  Empire;  with  provision,  however, 
for  granting  pardon  and  restoration  to 
either  or  all  of  them  on  their  humble  peti- 
tion to  that  effect.  Had  this  proposition 
been  then  adopted.  Great  Britain  would 
have  still  retained  a  large  and  influential 
party  in  the  colonies,  the  hatreds  engen- 
dered by  war  would  have  been  avoided, 
and,  at  the  worst,  the  colonies  would  have 
been  lost  to  Great  Britain,  as  they  finally 
were,  without  the  expenditure  of  blood 
and  treasure  on  both  sides  which  the  war 
caused.  But  vulgar  expedients  were  pre- 
ferred, and  this  proposition  was  denounced 
as  the  height  of  folly,  and  even  the  wise 
Burke  called  it  "  childish."  Dean  Tucker 
died  in  Gloucester,  England,  Nov.  4,  1799. 

Tucker,  Nathaniel  Bevekly,  lavryer; 
born  in  Williamsburg,  Va.,  Sept.  6,  17S4; 
graduated  at  William  and  Mary  College 
in  1801;  admitted  to  the  bar  and  prac- 
tised in  his  native  State  till  1815,  when 
he  removed  to  Mississippi,  serving  there 
as  judge  in  the  circuit  court  till  1830. 
Returning  to  Virginia  he  was  Professor 
of  Law  at  William  and  Mary  College  in 
1834-51.  He  was  the  author  of  A  Key  to 
the  Disunion  Conspiracy ;  Discourse  on 
the  Dangers  that  Threaten  the  Free  Insti- 
tutions of  the  United  States;  Lectures 
Intended  to  Prepare  the  Student  for  the 
Study  of  the.  Constitution  of  the  United 
States,  etc.  He  died  in  Winchester,  Va., 
Aug.   26,   1851. 

Tucker,  Samuel,  naval  officer;  born  in 
Marblehead,  Mass.,  Nov.  1,  1747;  was  a 
captain  in  the  merchant  service,  sailing 
between  Boston  and  London,  before  the 
Eevolution.  In  March,  1777,  he  was  com- 
missioned a  captain  in  the  Continental 
navy,  and,  in  command  of  the  Boston, 
he  took  John  Adams  to  France  as  Ameri- 
can minister  in  February,  1778.  During 
1779  he  took  many  prizes.  In  1780  he 
helped  in  the  defence  of  Charleston;  was 
made  prisoner;  and  was  released  in  June, 
1781,  when  he  took  command  of  the 
Thome,  and  made  many  prizes,  receiving, 
at  the  close  of  the  war,  the  thanks  of 
Congress.  He  settled  in  Bristol,  Me.,  in 
1792;  and  during  the  War  of  1812  he 
captured,  by  a  trick,  a  British  vessel 
which  had  greatly  annoyed  the  shipping 
in  that  vicinity.  He  was  several  times  in 
the  legislatures  of  Maine  and  Massachu- 

setts.   He  died  in  Bremen,  Me.,  March  10, 

Tucker,  St.  George,  jurist;  born  in 
Port  Royal,  Bermuda,  July  10,  1752; 
graduated  at  the  College  of  William  and 
Mary  in  1772;  studied  law,  but  entered 
the  public  service  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Revolutionary  War,  planning  and  assist- 
ing personally  in  the  seizure  of  a  large 
amount  of  stores  in  a  fortification  at 
Bermuda.  He  commanded  a  regiment  at 
the  siege  of  Yorktown,  where  he  was 
severely  wounded.  After  the  war  he  be- 
came a  Virginia  legislator,  a  reviser  and 
digester  of  the  laws  of  Virginia,  professor 
in  the  College  of  William  and  Mary,  and 
member  of  the  convention  at  Annapolis  in 
1786  which  led  to  that  of  1787  that 
framed  the  national  Constitution.  He  was 
a  judge  in  the  State  courts  nearly  fifty 
years,  and  of  the  court  of  appeals  from 
1803  to  1811.  In  1813  he  was  made  a 
judge  of  the  United  States  district  court. 
Judge  Tucker  was  possessed  of  fine  liter- 
ary taste  and  keen  wit,  and  he  was  a  poet 
of  no  ordinary  ability.  He  wrote  some 
poetical  satires  under  the  name  of  Peter 
Pindar;  also  some  political  tracts;  and 
in  1803  published  an  annotated  edition  of 
Blackstone.  He  died  in  Edgewood,  Nelson 
CO.,  Va.,  Nov.  10,  1828. 

Tuckerman,  Bayard,  author;  born  in 
New  York,  July  2,  1855;  graduated  at 
Harvard  College  in  1878 ;  and  wrote  Life 
of  Lafayette ;  Peter  Stuyvesant ;  William 
Jay  and  the  Abolition  of  Slavery,  etc. 

Tuckerman,  Henry  Theodore,  author; 
born  in  Boston,  Mass.,  April  20,  1813; 
received  an  academic  education ;  and  went 
to  Europe  in  1833  and  1837.  He  returned 
to  the  United  States  in  1839;  became  con- 
tributor to  periodicals;  and  wrote  Artist 
Life,  or  Sketches  of  American  Painters; 
Memorial  of  Horatio  Greenough;  Essay  on 
Washington ;  America  and  Her  Commenta- 
tors, etc.  He  died  in  New  York  City,  Dec. 
17.  1871. 

Tudor,  William,  diplomatist;  born  in 
Boston,  Mass.,  Jan.  28,  1779;  graduated 
at  Harvard  College  in  1796;  travelled 
in  Europe ;  founded  the  Anthology  Club 
and  contributed  to  its  journal,  the  Monthly 
Anthology ;  founded  the  North  American 
Remeio  in  1815;  published  Letters  on  the 
Eastern  States;  was  consul  at  Lima  in 
1823;     charge    d'affaires    in     Brazil,     in 



1827;     and    was    the    originator    of    the  Tunkers.     See  Dunkards. 

Bunker  Hill  monument.     He  died  in  Rio  Tupper,    Benjamin,    military    officer; 

de  Janeiro,  Brazil,  ]\larcli  9,  1830.  born    in    Stoughton,    Mass.,    in    August, 

Tulane,   Paul,  philanthropist;   born  in  1738;    was   a   soldier   in   the   French   and 

Cherry  Valley,  N.  J.,  in  May,  1801;  made  Indian  War,  and  afterwards  taught  school 

a  tour  of  the  Southwest  in  1818;  settled  in  in    Easton.      He   was    very   active   in   the 

New  Orleans  in  1822,  where  he  engaged  in  siege    of    Boston,    and    was    colonel    of    a 

business    till    1856,    when    he    transferred  Massachusetts    regiment    early    in    1776. 

part  of  his  estate  to  the  North,  and  later  In  August  of  that  year  he  commanded  the 

permanently  removed  to  Princeton,  N.  J.  gunboats  and  galleys  in  the  Hudson  River ; 

He  retired  with  a  large  fortune  in   1867.  served  under  Gates  in  the  Northern  army 

He  assisted  several  charitable  institutions;  in   1777;   was  in  the  battle  of  Monmouth 

and  gave  about  $1,100,000  towards  promot-  the  next  year;   and  before  the  end  of  the 

ing  the  higher  education  of  white  youth  war  was  made  a  brigadier-general.     Tup- 

of   Louisiana,   which   was   used    to    found  per  was  one  of  the  originators  of  the  Ohio 

Tulane   University   in   New   Orleans.      He  Land   Company,   and   was   appointed   sur- 

died  in  Princeton,  N.  J.,  March  27,  1877.  veyor  of  Ohio  lands  in  178.5.     In  suppress- 

Tulane  TJniversity,  an  educational  in-  ing  Siiays's  Insurrection   {q.  v.)  he  was 

stitution    in    New   Orleans,   La.,    formerly  distinguished.     He  settled  at  Marietta  in 

known  as  the  University  of  Louisiana,  and  1787,  and  became  judge  in  1788.     He  died 

reorganized   in    1884   after   Paul   Tulane  in  Marietta,  O.,  in  June,  1792. 

iq.  V.)   had  set  apart  a  considerable  fort-  Turnbull,  Robert  James,  author;  born 

une   for   the   superior   education   of   white  in  New  Smyrna,  Fla.,  in  January,   1775; 

youth    in   the   South,   which   money   came  was   taken  by  his   parents  to   Charleston, 

into  the  possession  of  the  university,  the  S.    C,    during    the    Revolutionary    War; 

name  of  which  was  changed  in  honor  of  studied   law   and   practised   in   Charleston 

the    donor.      The    university    has    colleges  till  1810,  when  he  retired  to  a  plantation 

of  medicine,  law,  art,  sciences,  and  tech-  in  the  country.    He  was  a  stanch  supporter 

nology;     the     university     department     of  of  the  nullification  movement,  and  claimed 

philosophy     and     science ;      and     the     H-  that  "  each  State  has  the  unquestionable 

Sophie    Newcomb    Memorial    College    for  right  to   judge   of   the   infractions   of   the 

Women,    founded    on    a    separate    endow-  Constitution,   and   to   interpose   its   sover- 

ment  of  $500,000  by  Mrs.   Joseph  Louise  eign   power   to   arrest   their   progi'ess   and 

Newcomb.     In   1903   it  reported:    Profess-  to   protect  its  citizens."     After   President 

ors  and  instructors,   86;    students,   1,223;  Jackson  issued  his  nullification  proclama- 

volumes  in  the  librai-y,  45,000;  productive  tion     (see    Jackson,    Andrew)     Turnbull 

funds,  $1,230,000;   grounds  and  buildings  was   the   first   one   to   enlist  when   volun- 

valued   at  $830,000;    scientific   apparatus,  teers    were    called    to    resist    the    federal 

$106,000;     income,    $128,940;    number    of  government.      He    was    the    author    of    a 

graduates,     4,923;     president,     Edwin    A.  Visit    to    the    Philadelphia    Penitentiary; 

Alderman,  LL.D.  The  Tribunal  of  Dernier  Bessort;  numer- 

Tullahoma  Campaign.    The  Confeder-  ous     newspaper     and    magazine    articles, 

ate  commander  Bragg,  after  the  battle  of  etc.     He  died   in   Charleston,   S.   C,  June 

MuRFREESBORO  {q.  V.) ,  retreated  to  Shelby-  15,   1833. 

ville,  about  25  miles  south  from  Murfrees-  Turner,    Nat,    insurgent;    born    of    ne- 

boro,  taking  part  of  his  army  to  Tullahoma,  gro  slave  parents  in  Virginia  about  1800. 

somewhat  farther  away.    Here  he  intrench-  In  1831  he  confided  to  six  men  his  belief 

ed  to  resist  the  Federal  advance.     It  was  that    God    had    chosen    him    to    lead    the 

not    until    June  24,    1863,    that    General  slaves    to    liberty,    and    laid    out    a    plan 

Rosecrans    advanced    from    Murfreesboro,  to  kill  every  white  person  and  incite  the 

and  in   a  short  campaign  of  fifteen  days  whole    slave    popiilation    to    insurrection. 

(June  24-July  7),  without  severe  fighting.  His  party  started  out  from  Turner's  own 

compelled  Bragg  to  evacuate  middle  Ten-  house,   where  his  master  was  killed,   and 

nessee   and   retreat   across   the   Tennessee  then     a     movement     was     made     against 

River.     See    Chickamauga,    Battle    of;  neighboring      plantations,     where      other 

RosKCBANS,  William  Starke.  slaves   joined   the   party.     In   forty-eight 



hours  the  pai'ty  numbered  sixty  and  had 
killed  fifty-five  white  persons.  The  in- 
surgents then  made  their  way  towards 
Jerusalem,  Va.,  where  they  expected  to  in- 
crease their  number  and  be  supplied  with 
fire-arms,  but  they  divided  and  were  at- 
tacked by  two  bodies  of  .bite  men. 
Turner  escaped  to  the  woods,  where,  after 
living  for  two  months,  he  was  captured, 
tried,  and  hanged  in  Jerusalem,  Va.,  Nov. 
11,  1831.  About  the  same  time  fifty- three 
other  negroes  were  tried,  seventeen  of 
whom  were  hanged,  while  many  others 
who  were  thought  to  be  implicated  were 
tortured,  mutilated,  shot,  and  burned. 

Turner,  Thomas,  naval  officer;  born 
in  Wasliington,  D.  C,  Dec.  23,  1808; 
entered  the  na.yj  in  April,  1825;  was 
actively  engaged  in  the  war  with  Mexico. 
In  command  of  the  sloop-of-war  Saratoga, 
he  captured  two  Spanish  steamers  in  the 
harbor  of  San  Antonio,  March  6,  1860. 
In  the  attack  on  the  forts  in  Charleston 
Harbor,  in  April,  1863,  he  commanded  the 
New  Ij-onsidcs.  In  1869-70  he  commanded 
the  Pacific  Squadron.  In  May,  1868,  he 
was  made  rear-admiral,  and  in  1870  re- 
tired. He  died  in  Glen,  Mills,  Pa.,  March 
24,  1883. 

Turner's  Falls,  ENGAGEME^"T  at 
Around  the  falls  in  the  Connecticut  River 
known  as  Turner's  a  sharp  action  occurred 
in  May,  1676.  A  large  body  of  Indians,  who 
had  desolated  Deerfield,  were  encamped 
here.  Captain  Turner  was  then  in  command 
of  the  English  troops  in  the  valley,  and, 
taking  120  mounted  men,  started  on  a 
night  ride  through  Hadley  and  Deerfield 
in  search  of  Indians.  He  found  them  fast 
asleep  in  their  camp,  and  surprised  them. 
Many  fied  to  their  canoes,  but,  leaving 
their  paddles  behind,  went  over  the  falls. 
Others  hid  away  among  the  rocks,  and 
were  killed,  and  others  were  shot  while 
crossing  the  river.  After  the  battle  the 
bodies  of  100  Indians  were  found  dead  at 
their  camp,  and  140  who  went  over  the 
falls  perished.  About  300  Indians  were 
destroyed.  Turner  lost  only  one  man. 
Another  party  of  Indians  were  soon 
on  his  track,  and  a  panic  seized  the 
troops  when  it  was  rumored  that  King 
Philip,  with  1,000  men,  was  in  pursuit. 
A  running  fight  occurred.  Turner  was 
killed,  many  of  his  men  were  slain,  and 
Captain  Holyoke,  who  took  command  of 


the  whole,  died  not  long  afterwards  from 
the  effects  of  the  excitement  and  fatigue 
of  the  eventful  May  10,  1676.  It  was  a 
severe  blow  to  King  Philip. 

Turpentine  State,  a  popular  name  of 
Xortli  Carolina  because  of  the  immense 
quantities  of  turpentine  exported  there- 

Tuscarora  Indians,  a  tribe  of  the  Iro- 
quois Confederacy,  who  were  separated 
from  their  kindred  at  an  early  day,  and 
were  seated  in  North  Carolina  when  the 
Europeans  came.  They  were  divided  into 
seven  clans,  and  at  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century  occupied  fifteen  Til- 
lages and  had  1,200  warriors.  They  at- 
tempted to  exterminate  the  white  people 
in  North  Carolina  in  1711,  but  troops 
that  came  to  the  aid  of  the  assailed  from 
South  Carolina  chastised  them  in  a  battle 
fought  near  the  Neuse  (Jan.  28,  1712), 
killing  and  wounding  400  of  them.  They 
made  peace,  but  soon  broke  it.  At  war 
again  in  1713,  they  were  subdued  by 
Colonel  Moore,  of  South  Carolina,  at  their 
fort  near  Snow-hill  (March  20),  who 
captured  800  of  them.  The  remaining 
Tuscaroras  fled  northward,  and  joined 
their  kindred  of  the  Iroquois  Confeder- 
acy, constituting  the  sixth  nation  of  that 
league.  In  1899  there  were  388  Tusca- 
roras at  the  New  York  agency. 

Tutuila.     See  Samoan  Islands. 

Twain,  Mark.  See  Clemens,  Samuel 

Tweed,  William  ]\Iarcy,  politician; 
born  in  New  York  City,  April  3,  1823; 
was  brought  up  in  the  trade  of  chair- 
making,  but  finally  studied  law  and  was 
admitted  to  the  bar.  At  different  times 
from  1850  to  1870  he  filled  several  public 
offices,  municipal,  State,  and  national, 
being  a  member  of  Congress  in  1853-55, 
and  a  State  Senator  in  1867.  Being  ap- 
jjointed  commissioner  of  public  works  for 
the  city  of  New  York  in  1870,  he  suc- 
ceeded, in  connection  with  a  "  ring,"  of 
which  he  was  the  leader,  in  appropriating 
vast  sums  of  public  money  to  his  own  use. 
He  was  arrested  on  charges  of  malfea- 
sance in  office,  but  gave  bail  in  $1,000,000, 
and  was  released.  Soon  afterwards  he  was 
re-elected  State  Senator,  but  did  not  take 
his  seat.  In  1873  he  was  found  guilty  of 
fraud,  fined  $12,550,  and  sentenced  to 
twelve  years'   imprisonment.      In   1875   a 


suit  was  brought 

against  him  by  the 

people    of    New 

York  to  recover 

$6,000,000    which 

lie  had  fraudulent- 
ly     appropriated ; 

but  on  June  15,  in 

the  same  year,  the 

court     of     appeals 

decided  that  his 

imprisonment  was 

illegal,  becavise  the 

court  below  had  ex- 
ceeded   its    powers 

in    pronouncing    a 

cumulative  sen- 
tence against  him. 

Being     released 

from   jail,   he  was 

at  once  ordered  to 

find    bail    for    $3,- 

000,000  in  the  civil 

suits  then  pending 

against    him,    and, 

failing  to  secure  it, 

he     was     sent     to 

Ludlow  Street  jail. 

On    Dec.    4,    in 

charge  of  two  keep- 

ers,  he  was  per- 
mitted to  visit  his 

home,  and  while 
there  he  escaped 
from    custody,  and 

made  his  way  to  Spain.  His  liberty,  how- 
ever was  of  short  duration;  he  was  ar- 
rested by  order  of  the  Spanish  govern- 
ment, and  delivered  to  the  officers  of  the 
United  States.  Being  returned  to  New 
York,  he  was  again  imprisoned  in  Lud- 
low Street  jail,  and  there  he  died  April 
12,  1878.  The  operations  of  Tweed  and 
his  associates — known  as  the  Tweed  Ring 
— during  their  five  years'  domination  in 
New  York  added  over  $100,000,000  to  the 
bonded  debt  of  the  city,  doubled  its  an- 
nual expenditures,  and  cost  tax-payers 
the  enormous  sum  of  $160,000,000. 

Twicbell,     Joseph     Hopkins, 


Church  at  Hartford,  Conn.,  since  1865. 
He  wrote  Life  of  John  Witithrop;  Some 
Puritan  Love-Letters,  etc. 

Twiggs,  David  Emanuel,  military 
ofiicer;  born  in  Richmond  county,  Ga.,  in 
1790;  entered  the  United  States  military 
service  as  captain  in  the  spring  of  1812, 
and  became  major  of  infantry  in  1814.  In 
1836  he  became  colonel  of  dragoons,  and 
as  commander  of  a  brigade  he  distin- 
guished himself  in  the  battles  of  Palo 
Alto  and  Resaca  de  la  Palma  ( qq.  v. ) . 
He  was  made  brigadier  -  general  June  30, 
1846,  and  was  brevetted  major-general  for 
clergy-  gallantry  at  Monterey  {q.  v.).  Twiggs 
born  in  Southington,  Conn. ;  grad-  commanded  a  division  in  Scott's  cam- 
uated  at  Yale  in  1859;  and  later  stud-  paign  in  Mexico  in  1847,  and  in  1848  he 
led  at  the  Union  Theological  and  Andover  was  made  civil  and  military  governor  of 
Theological  seminaries;  served  through  Vera  Cruz.  Early  in  1861  he  was  in  com- 
the  Civil  War  as  chaplain;  has  been  mand  of  United  States  troops  in  Texas, 
pastor  of  the  Asylum  Hill  Congregational        General  Twiggs  had  served  his  country 



honorably  in  its  armies  for  forty  years,  general  with  the  keen  eye  of  suspicion, 
but  the  virus  which  corrupted  so  many  foiled  them.  He  duplicated  the  orders, 
noble  characters  did  not  spare  him.  He  and  sent  two  couriers  with  them,  by  differ- 
was  a  native  of  Georgia,  and  seems  to  ent  roiites.  One  of  them  reached  Waite 
have  been  under  the  complete  control  of  Feb.  17;  but  the  dreaded  mischief  had 
the  Confederate  leaders.  He  was  placed  been  accomplished.  Twiggs  had  been  cau- 
in  command  of  the  Department  of  Texas  tious.  He  did  not  commit  himself  in 
only  a  few  weeks  before  the  act  about  writing ;  he  always  said,  "  I  will  give  up 
to  be  recorded.  A  State  convention  in  everything."  He  was  now  allowed  to 
Texas  appointed  a  committee  of  safety,  temporize  no  longer.  He  had  to  find  an 
who  sent  two  of  their  number  (Devine  excuse  for  surrendering  his  troops,  con- 
and  Maverick)  to  treat  with  Twiggs  for  sisting  of  two  skeleton  corps.  It  was 
the  surrender  of  United  States  troops  and  readily  found.  Ben  McCulloch,  the  famous 
property  into  the  hands  of  the  Texas  Texan  ranger,  was  not  far  off  with  1,000 
Confederates.  Twiggs  had  already  shown  men.  He  approached  San  Antonio  at  2 
signs  of  disloyalty.  These  had  been  re-  a.m.  on  Feb.  10.  He  had  been  joined  by 
ported  to  the  War  Department,  when  armed  Knights  of  the  Golden  Circle 
Secretary  Holt,  in  a  general  order  (Jan.  (q.  v.)  near  the  town.  With  a  consider- 
able body  of  followers,  he  rushed 
into  the  town  with  yells  and  took 
possession.  Twiggs  pretending  to  be 
surprised,  met  McCulloch  in  the 
Main  Plaza,  and  there,  at  noon, 
Feb.  16,  a  negotiation  for  surrender 
(begun  by  the  commissioners  as  early 
as  the  7th)  was  consummated.  He 
gave  up  to  the  Confederate  authori- 
ties of  Texas  all  the  National  forces 
in  that  State,  about  2,500  in  num- 
ber, and  with  them  all  the  stores 
and  munitions  of  war,  valued,  at 
their  cost,  at  $1,200,000.  He  sur- 
rendered all  the  forts  in  his  depart- 
ment. By  this  act  Twiggs  deprived 
the  government  of  the  most  effective 
portion  of  the  regular  army.  When 
the  government  heard  of  it,  an  order 
was  issued  (March  1)  for  his  dis- 
missal "  from  the  army  of  the  Unit- 
ed States  for  treachery  to  the  flag 
of  his  country."  Twiggs  threaten- 
ed, in  a  letter  to  the  ex-President,  to 
visit  Buchanan  in  person,  to  call 
him  to  account  for  officially  calling 
him  a  "  traitor."  Tlie  betrayed 
troops,  who,  with  most  of  their  offi- 
cers, remained  loyal,  were  allowed 
to  leave  Texas,  and  went  to  the 
18),  relieved  him  from  the  command  in  North,  taking  quarters  in  Fort  Hamilton, 
Texas,  and  gave  it  to  Col.  Charles  A.  at  the  entrance  to  New  York  Harbor. 
Waite.  When  Devine  and  Maverick  heard  General  Twiggs  was  then  given  an  ira- 
of  the  arrival  of  the  order  in  San  Antonio,  portant  position  in  the  Confederate  army, 
they  took  measures  to  prevent  its  reach-  and  was  for  a  short  time  in  command  at 
ing  Colonel  Waite,  who  was  60  miles  dis-  New  Orleans,  resigning  towards  the  close 
tant;  but  the  vigilant  Colonel  Nichols,  of  1861.  He  died  in  Augusta,  Ga.,  Sept. 
who  had   watched   the   movements   of   the    1.5,  1862. 




Twightwees.     See  Miami  Indians. 

Twining,  William  Johnson,  military 
officer;  born  in  Indiana,  Aug.  2,  1839; 
graduated  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy,  and  was  commissioned  a  first 
lieutenantof  engineers  in  1863;  and  served 
through  the  remainder  of  the  Civil  War 
as  assistant  engineer  in  the  Department 
of  the  Cumberland  and  as  chief  engineer 
of  the  Department  of  the  Ohio.  He  was 
engaged  in  the  invasion  of  Georgia,  in 
the  operations  against  General  Hood's 
army  in  Tennessee,  in  the  battles  at 
Franklin  and  Nashville,  and  in  the  oper- 
ations in  North  Carolina;  was  made  cap- 
tain of  engineers  in  1868;  major  in  1877; 
and  was  brevetted  major  and  lieutenant- 
colonel  of  volunteers  for  gallantry  during 
the  war.  After  the  war  he  served  as 
assistant  Professor  of  Engineering  at 
the  United  States  Military  Academy  in 
1865-67 ;  chief  engineer  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Dakota,  commissioner  for  the 
survey  of  the  United  States  boundary- 
line  in  1872-76,  and  as  commissioner  of 
the  District  of  Columbia  in  1878-82. 
He  died  in  Washington,  D.  C,  March  5, 

Tybee  Island,  an  island  off  the  en- 
trance to  the  Savannah  River,  belonging 
to  Chatham  county,  Ga.;  noted  as  the 
place  where  Gen.  Quincy  A.  Gillmore 
{q.  V.)  erected  the  batteries  with  which 
he  breached  Fort  Pulaski  on  Cockspur 
Island,  on  April  11,  1862. 

Tyler,  Daniel,  military  officer;  born 
in  Brooklyn,  Conn.,  Jan.  7,  1799;  gradu- 
ated at  West  Point  in  1819.  In  1828-29 
he  visited  France  to  study  improvements 
in  artillery;  and  in  May,  1834,  he  re- 
signed and  practised  civil  engineering. 
At  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  War  he 
became  colonel  of  the  1st  Connecticut 
Volunteers,  and  soon  afterwards  briga- 
dier-general of  three  months'  troops.  Next 
in  rank  to  General  McDowell,  he  was 
second  in  command  in  the  battle  of  Bull 
Run.  In  March,  1862,  he  was  ordered  to 
the  West,  and  commanded  a  division  of 
the  Army  of  the  Mississippi.  Afterwards 
he  was  employed  in  guarding  the  Upper 
Potomac.  When  the  Confederate  army  in- 
vaded Maryland,  in  1863,  he  was  in  com- 
mand at  Harper's  Ferry.  General  Tyler 
resigned  April  6,  1864.  He  died  in  New 
York  City,  Nov.  30,  1882. 


Tyler,  John,  tenth  President  of  the 
United  States,  from  April  4,  1841,  to  March 
•t,  1845;  Whig;  born  in  Charles  City 
covmty,  Va.,  March  29,  1790;  graduated  at 
the  College  of  William  and  Mary  in  1807; 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1809.  Two  years 
afterwards  he  was  elected  to  the  Virginia 
legislature,  and  was  re-elected  for  five 
successive  years.  In  1816  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  fill  a  vacancy  in  Congress — and 
was  twice  re-elected — in  which  he  op- 
posed all  internal  improvements  by  the 
general  government,  the  United  States 
Bank,  a  protective  tariff,  and  all  restric- 
tions on  slavery.  He  was  afterwards  in 
the    State   legislature,    and    in    December, 

by  them  Vice-President  of  the  United 
States  in  1840.  On  the  death  of  Presi- 
dent Harrison  he  became  President  (see 
Cabinet,  President's).  He  lost  the  con- 
fidence of  both  parties  by  his  acts  during 
his  administration,  and  was  succeeded  in 
the  Presidential  office  by  James  K.  Polk, 
in  1845.  All  of  his  cabinet  excepting  Mr. 
Webster,  resigned  in  1841,  and  he  left  it 
after  an  important  treaty  had  been  con- 
cluded and  ratified  (August,  1842),  when 
Hugh  S.  Legare  succeeded  him.  The  last 
important  act  of  Tyler's  administration 
was  signing  the  act  for  the  annexation  of 
Texas.  He  had  been  nominated  for  the 
Presidency  by  a  convention  of  office-hold- 

1825,  was  chosen  governor  of  Virginia  by  ers  in  May,  1844,  but  in  August,  perceiv- 
the  legislature,  to  fill  a  vacancy.  In  1827  ing  that  he  had  no  popular  support,  he 
he  became  a  United  States  Senator,  and  withdrew  from  the  contest.  In  February, 
was  re-elected  in  1833,  when  he  was  a  1861,  he  was  president  of  the  peace  con- 
firm supporter  of  the  doctrine  of  State  vention  held  at  Washington,  D.  C.  He 
supremacy,  and  avowed  his  sympathy  died  in  Richmond,  Va.,  Jan.  18,  1862. 
with  the  South  Carolina  Nullifiers.  He  Negotiations  tcith  Great  Britain. — In 
joined  the  Whig  party,  and  was  elected  the   following    special    message    President 



Tyler  details  the  results  of  several  im- 
portant negotiations  with  the  British 
minister  in  Washington: 

Washington,  Aug.  11,  1842. 

To  the  Senate  of  the  United  States, — 
I  have  the  saisfaction  to  communicate 
to  the  Senate  the  results  of  the  negotia- 
tions recently  had  in  this  city  with  the 
British  minister,  special  and  extraordi- 

These  results  comprise: 

First.  A  treaty  to  settle  and  define 
the  boundaries  between  the  territories 
of  the  United  States  and  the  possessions 
of  her  Britannic  Majesty  in  North 
America,  for  the  suppression  of  the  Afri- 
can slave-trade,  and  the  surrender  of  crim- 
inals fugitive  from  justice  in  certain 

Second.  A  correspondence  on  the  sul> 
ject  of  the  interference  of  the  colonial  au- 
thorities of  the  British  West  Indies  with 
American  merchant  vessels  driven  by 
stress  of  weather  or  carried  by  violence 
into  the  ports  of  those  colonies. 

Third.  A  correspondence  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  the  attack  and  destruction  of  the 
steamboat  Caroline. 

Fourth.  A  correspondence  on  the  sub- 
ject of  impressment. 

If  this  treaty  shall  receive  the  ap- 
probation of  the  Senate,  it  will  terminate 
a  difference  respecting  boundary  which 
has  long  subsisted  between  the  two  gov- 
ernments, has  been  the  subject  of  several 
ineffectual  attempts  at  settlement,  and  has 
sometimes  led  to  great  irritation,  not 
without  danger  of  disturbing  the  exist- 
ing peace.  Both  the  United  States  and 
the  States  more  immediately  concerned 
have  entertained  no  doubt  of  the  valid- 
ity of  the  American  title  to  all  the  ter- 
ritory which  has  been  in  dispute,  but 
that  title  was  controverted,  and  the  gov- 
ci-nment  of  the  United  States  had  agreed 
to  make  the  dispute  a  subject  of  arbitra- 
tion. One  arbitration  had  been  actu- 
ally had,  but  had  failed  to  settle  the 
controversy,  and  it  was  found  at  the  com- 
mencement of  last  year  that  a  corre- 
spondence had  been  in  progress  between 
the  two  governments  for  a  joint  com- 
mission, with  an  ultimate  reference  to 
an  empire  or  arbitrator  with  authority 
to    make    a    final    decision.      That    corre- 

spondence, however,  had  been  retarded  by 
various  occurrences,  and  had  come  to  no 
definite  result  when  the  special  mission  of 
Lord  Ashburton  was  announced.  This 
movement  on  the  part  of  England  af- 
forded in  the  judgment  of  the  executive 
a  favorable  opportunity  for  making  an 
attempt  to  settle  this  long-existing  con- 
troversy by  some  agreement  or  treaty 
without  further  reference  to  arbitration. 

It  seemed  entirely  proper  that  if  this 
purpose  were  entertained  consultation 
should  be  had  with  the  authorities  of  the 
States  of  Maine  and  Massachusetts.  Let- 
ters, therefore,  of  which  copies  are  here- 
with communicated,  were  addressed  to  the 
governors  of  those  States,  suggesting  that 
commissioners  should  be  appointed  by 
each  of  them,  respectively,  to  repair  to  this 
city  and  confer  with  the  authorities  of 
this  government  on  a  line  by  agreement 
or  compromise,  with  its  equivalents  and 
compensations.  This  suggestion  was  met 
by  both  States  in  a  spirit  of  candor  and 
patriotism,  and  promptly  complied  with. 
Four  commissioners  on  the  part  of  Maine, 
and  three  on  the  part  of  Massachusetts, 
all  persons  of  distinction  and  high  charac- 
ter, were  duly  appointed  and  commis- 
sioned, and  lost  no  time  in  presenting 
themselves  at  the  seat  of  the  government 
of  the  United  States.  These  commis- 
sioners have  been  in  correspondence  with 
this  government  during  the  period  of  the 
discussions;  have  enjoyed  its  confidence 
and  freest  communications;  have  aided 
the  general  object  with  their  counsel  and 
advice,  and  in  the  end  have  unanimously 
signified  their  assent  to  the  line  proposed 
in  the  treaty. 

Ordinarily  it  would  be  no  easy  task 
to  reconcile  and  bring  together  stich  a  va- 
riety of  interests  in  a  matter  in  itself 
difficult  and  perplexed,  but  the  efforts  of 
the  government  in  attempting  to  accom- 
plish this  desirable  object  have  been 
seconded  and  sustained  by  a  spirit  of  ac- 
commodation and  conciliation  on  the  part 
of  the  States  concerned,  to  which  much  of 
the  success  of  these  efforts  is  to  be  as- 

Connected  with  the  settlement  of  the 
line  of  the  northeastern  boundary,  so  far 
as  it  respects  the  States  of  Maine  and 
Massachusetts,  is  the  continuation  of  that 
line   along   the   highlands    to    the    north 


TYLER,    JOHl. 

westernmost  head  of  the  Connecticut 
River.  Which  of  the  sources  of  that 
stream  is  entitled  to  this  character  has 
been  matter  of  controversy  and  of  some 
interest  to  the  State  of  New  Hampshire. 
The  King  of  the  Netherlands  decided  the 
main  branch  to  be  the  northwesternmost 
head  of  the  Connecticut.  This  did  not 
satisfy  the  claim  of  New  Hampshire. 
The  line  agreed  to  in  the  present  treaty 
follows  the  highlands  to  the  head  of  Hall's 
Stream,  and  thence  down  that  river,  em- 
bracing the  whole  claim  of  New  Hamp- 
shire, and  establishing  her  title  to  100,000 
acres  of  territory  more  than  she  would 
have  had  by  the  decision  of  the  King  of 
the  Netherlands. 

By  the  treaty  of  1783  the  line  is  to 
proceed  down  the  Connecticut  River  to 
the  forty-fifth  degree  of  north  latitude, 
and  thence  west  by  that  parallel  till  it 
strikes  the  St.  Lawrence.  Recent  ex- 
aminations having  ascertained  that  the 
line  heretofore  received  as  the  true  line  of 
latitude  between  those  points  was  er- 
roneous, and  that  the  correction  of  this 
error  would  not  only  leave  on  the  British 
side  a  considerable  tract  of  territory  here- 
tofore supposed  to  belong  to  the  States  of 
Vermont  and  New  York,  but  also  Rouse's 
Point,  the  site  of  a  military  work  of  the 
United  States,  it  has  been  regarded  as 
an  object  of  importance  not  only  to  es- 
tablish the  rights  and  jurisdiction  of 
those  States  up  to  the  line  to  which  they 
have  been  considered  to  extend,  but  also 
to  comprehend  Rouse's  Point  within  the 
territory  of  the  United  States.  The  re- 
linquishment by  the  British  government 
of  all  the  territory  south  of  the  line  here- 
tofore considered  to  be  the  true  line  has 
been  obtained,  and  the  consideration  for 
this  relinquishment  is  to  inure  by  the 
provisions  of  the  treaty  to  the  States  of 
Maine  and  Massachusetts. 

The  line  of  boundary,  then,  from  the 
source  of  the  St.  Croix  to  the  St.  Law- 
rence, so  far  as  Maine  and  Massachusetts 
are  concerned,  is  fixed  by  their  own  con- 
sent and  for  considerations  satisfactory  to 
them,  the  chief  of  these  considerations 
being  the  privilege  of  transporting  the 
lumber  and  agricultural  products  grown 
and  raised  in  Maine  on  the  waters  of  the 
St.  John  and  its  tributaries  down  that 
rirer  to  the  ocean  free  from  imposition  or 

disability.  The  importance  of  this  privi- 
lege, perpetual  in  its  terms,  to  a  country 
covered  at  present  by  pine  forests  of  great 
value,  and  much  of  it  capable  hereafter 
of  agricultural  improvement,  is  not  a 
matter  upon  which  the  opinion  of  intelli* 
gent  men  is  likely  to  be  divided.  So  far 
as  New  Hampshire  is  concerned,  the  treaty 
secures  all  that  she  requires,  and  New 
York  and  Vermont  are  quieted  to  the  ex- 
tent of  their  claim  and  occupation.  The 
diflference  which  would  be  made  in  the 
northern  boundary  of  these  two  States  by 
correcting  the  parallel  of  latitude  may  be 
seen  on  Tanner's  maps  (1836),  new  atlas, 
maps  Nos.  6  and  9. 

From  the  intersection  of  the  forty-fifth 
degree  of  north  latitude  with  the  St.  Law- 
rence and  along  that  river  and  the  lakes 
to  the  water  communication  between  Lake 
Huron  and  Lake  Superior  the  line  was 
definitely  agreed  on  by  the  commissioners 
of  the  two  governments  under  the  sixth 
article  of  the  treaty  of  Ghent;  but  be- 
tween this  last-mentioned  point  and  tha 
Lake  of  the  Woods  the  commissioners, 
acting  under  the  seventh  article  of  that 
treaty,  found  several  matters  of  disagree- 
ment, and  therefore  made  no  joint  reporl 
to  their  respective  governments.  The  first 
of  these  was  Sugar  Island,  or  St.  George 
Island,  lying  in  St.  Mary's  River,  or  the 
water  communication  between  Lakes  Hu- 
ron and  Superior.  By  the  present  treaty 
this  island  is  embraced  in  the  territories 
of  the  United  States.  Both  from  soil  and 
position  it  is  regarded  as  of  much  value. 

Another  matter  of  difference  was  the 
manner  of  extending  the  line  from  the 
point  at  which  the  commissioners  arrived, 
north  of  Isle  Royale,  in  Lake  Superior,  to 
the  Lake  of  the  Woods.  The  British  com- 
missioner insisted  on  proceeding  to  Fond 
du  Lac,  at  the  southwest  angle  of  the  lake, 
and  thence  by  the  river  St.  Louis  to  the 
Rainy  Lake.  The  American  commissioner 
supposed  the  true  course  to  be  to  proceed 
by  way  of  the  Dog  River.  Attempts  were 
made  to  conipromise  this  difference,  but 
without  success.  The  details  of  these  pro- 
ceedings are  found  at  length  in  the  printed 
separate  reports  of  the  commissioners. 

From  the  imperfect  knowledge  of  this 
remote  country  at  the  date  of  the  treaty  of 
peace,  some  of  the  descriptions  in  that 
treaty  do  not  harmonize  with  its  natural 



features  as  now  ascertained.  "  Long 
Lake  "  is  nowhere  to  be  found  under  that 
name.  There  is  reason  for  supposing,  how- 
ever, that  the  sheet  of  water  intended  by 
that  name  is  tlie  estuary  at  the  mouth  of 
Pigeon  River.  The  present  treaty  there- 
fore adopts  that  estuary  and  river,  and 
afterwards  pursues  the  usual  route  across 
the  height  of  land  by  the  various  port- 
ages and  small  lakes  till  the  line  reaches 
Rainy  Lake,  from  which  the  commissioners 
agreed  on  the  extension  of  it  to  its  ter- 
mination in  the  northwest  angle  of  the 
Lake  of  the  Woods.  The  region  of  coimtry 
on  and  near  the  shore  of  the  lake  between 
Pigeon  River  on  the  north  and  Fond 
du  Lac  and  the  river  St.  Louis  on  the 
south  and  west,  considered  valuable  as  a 
mineral  region,  is  thus  included  within 
the  United  States.  It  embraces  a  terri- 
tory of  4,000,000  acres  northward  of  the 
claim  set  up  by  the  British  commissioners 
under  the  treaty  of  Ghent.  From  the 
height  of  land  at  the  head  of  Pigeon  River 
westerly  to  the  Rainy  Lake  the  country  is 
understood  to  be  of  little  value,  being  de- 
scribed by  surveyors  and  marked  on  the 
map  as  a  region  of  rock  and  water. 

From  the  northwest  angle  of  the  Lake 
of  the  Woods,  which  is  found  to  be  in 
latitude  45°  23'  55"  north,  existing  treaties 
require  the  line  to  be  run  due  south  to  its 
intersection  with  the  forty-fifth  parallel, 
and  thence  along  that  parallel  to  the 
Rocky  Mountains. 

After  sundry  informal  communications 
with  the  British  minister  upon  the  sub- 
ject of  the  claims  of  the  two  countries  to 
territory  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
so  little  probability  was  found  to  exist  of 
coming  to  any  agreement  on  that  subject 
at  present  that  it  was  not  thought  expe- 
dient to  make  it  one  of  the  subjects  of 
formal  negotiation  to  be  entered  upon  be- 
tween this  government  and  the  British 
minister  as  part  of  his  duties  under  his 
special  mission. 

By  the  treaty  of  178.3  the  line  of  divis- 
ion along  rivers  and  lakes  from  the  place 
where  the  forty-fifth  parallel  of  north 
latitude  strikes  the  St.  Lawrence  to  the 
outlet  of  Lake  Siiperior  is  invariably  to 
be  drawn  through  the  middle  of  such 
waters,  and  not  through  the  middle  of 
their  main  channels.  Such  a  line,  if  ex- 
tended  according  to  the   literal   terms   of 

the  treaty,  would,  it  is  obvious,  occasion' 
ally  intersect  islands.  The  manner  in 
which  the  commissioners  of  the  two  gov- 
ernments dealt  with  this  difficult  subject 
may  be  seen  in  their  reports.  But  where 
the  line  thus  following  the  middle  of  the 
river  or  watercourse  did  not  meet  with 
islands,  yet  it  was  liable  sometimes  to 
leave  the  only  practicable  navigable  chan- 
nel altogether  on  one  side.  The  treaty 
made  no  provision  for  the  common  use  of 
the  waters  by  the  citizens  and  subjects  of 
both  countries. 

It  has  happened,  therefore,  in  a  few 
instances  that  the  use  of  the  river  in  par- 
ticular places  would  be  greatly  diminished 
to  one  party  or  the  other  if  in  fact  there 
was  not  a  choice  in  the  use  of  channels 
and  passages.  Thus  at  the  Long  Sault,  in 
the  St.  Lawrence,  a  dangerous  passage, 
practicable  only  for  boats,  the  only  safe  run 
is  between  the  Long  Sault  Islands  and 
Barnhardt's  Island  (all  of  which  belong 
to  the  United  States)  on  one  side  and  the 
American  shore  on  the  other.  On  the  one 
hand,  by  far  the  best  passage  for  vessels 
of  any  depth  of  water  from  Lake  Erie  into 
the  Detroit  River  is  between  Bois  Blanc,  a 
British  island,  and  the  Canadian  shore. 
So,  again,  there  are  several  channels  or 
passages  of  different  degrees  of  facility 
and  usefulness  between  the  several  islands 
in  the  river  St.  Clair  at  or  near  its  entry 
into  the  lake  of  that  name.  In  these  three 
cases  the  treaty  provides  that  all  the  sev- 
eral passages  and  channels  shall  be  free 
and  open  to  the  'use  of  the  citizens  and 
subjects  of  both  parties. 

The  treaty  obligations  subsisting  be- 
tween the  two  countries  for  the  suppreS' 
sion  of  the  African  slave-trade,  and  the 
complaints  made  to  this  government  with- 
in the  last  three  or  four  years,  many  of 
them  but  too  well  founded,  of  the  visita- 
tion, seizure,  and  detention  of  American 
vessels  on  that  coast  by  British  cruisers 
could  not  but  form  a  delicate  and  highly 
important  part  of  the  negotiations  which 
have  now  been  held. 

The  early  and  prominent  part  which 
the  government  of  the  United  States  has 
taken  for  the  abolition  of  this  unlawful 
and  inhuman  traffic  is  well  known.  By 
the  tenth  article  of  the  treaty  of  Ghent 
it  is  declared  that  the  traffic  in  slaves  is 
irreconcilable  with  the  principles  of  hu- 



manity    and    justice,    and    that    both    his  and  dignity  of  the  country  that  it  should 

Majesty    and    the    United    States    are    de-  execute    its    own    laws    and    perform    its 

sirous  of  continuing  their  efforts  to  pro-  own  obligations  by  its  own  means  and  its 

mote  its  entire  abolition ;  and  it  is  thereby  own  power, 

agreed  that  both  the  contracting  parties  The  examination  or  visitation  of  the 
shall  use  their  best  endeavors  to  accom-  merchant  vessels  of  one  nation  by  the 
plish  so  desirable  an  object.  The  govern-  cruisers  of  another  for  any  purpose  ex- 
raent  of  the  United  States  has  by  law  de-  cept  those  kno\vn  and  acknowledged  by 
clared  the  African  slave-trade  piracy,  and  the  law  of  nations,  under  whatever  re- 
at  its  suggestion  other  nations  have  made  straints  or  regulations  it  may  take  place, 
similar  enactments.  It  has  not  been  want-  may  lead  to  dangerous  results.  It  is  far 
ing  in  honest  and  zealous  efforts  made  better  by  other  means  to  supersede  any 
in  conformity  with  the  wishes  of  the  supposed  necessity  or  any  motive  for  such 
whole  country,  to  accomplish  the  entire  examination  or  visit.  Interference  with  a 
abolition  of  the  traffic  in  slaves  upon  the  merchant  vessel  by  an  armed  cruiser  is 
African  coast,  but  these  efforts  and  those  always  a  delicate  proceeding,  apt  to  touch 
of  other  countries  directed  to  the  same  the  point  of  national  honor  as  well  as  to 
end  have  proved  to  a  considerable  degree  effect  the  interests  of  individuals.  It  has 
unsuccessful.  Treaties  are  known  to  have  been  thought,  therefore,  expedient,  not 
been  entered  into  some  years  ago  between  only  in  accordance  with  the  stipulations 
England  and  France  by  which  the  former  of  the  treaty  of  Ghent,  but  at  the  same 
power,  which  usually  maintains  a  large  time  as  removing  all  pretext  on  the  part 
naval  force  on  the  African  Station,  was  of  others  for  violating  the  immunities  of 
authorized  to  seize  and  bring  in  for  ad-  the  American  flag  upon  the  seas,  as  they 
judication  vessels  found  engaged  in  the  exist  and  are  defined  by  the  law  of  na- 
slave-trade  vmder  the  French  flag.  tions,  to  enter  into  the  articles  now  sub- 
It  is  kno^vn  that  in  December  last  a  mitted  to  the  Senate, 
treaty  was  signed  in  London  by  the  repre-  The  treaty  which  I  now  submit  to  you 
sentatives  of  England,  France,  Russia,  proposes  no  alteration,  mitigation,  or  mod- 
Prussia,  and  Austria,  having  for  its  pro-  ification  of  the  rules  of  the  law  of  na- 
fessed  object  a  strong  and  united  effort  tions.  It  provides  simply  that  each  of 
of  the  five  powers  to  put  an  end  to  the  the  two  governments  shall  maintain  on 
traffic.  This  treaty  was  not  officially  com-  the  coast  of  Africa  a  sufficient  squadron 
municated  to  the  government  of  the  United  to  enforce  separately  and  respectively  the 
States,  but  its  provisions  and  stipula-  laws,  rights,  and  obligations  of  the  two 
tions  are  supposed  to  be  accurately  kno^vn  countries  for  the  suppression  of  the  slave- 
to    the    public.      It    is    understood    to    be  trade. 

not  yet  ratified  on  the  part  of  France.  Another  consideration  of  great  impor- 
No  application  or  request  has  been  made  tance  has  recommended  this  mode  of  ful- 
to  this  government  to  become  party  to  filling  the  duties  and  obligations  of  the 
this  treaty,  but  the  course  it  might  take  country.  Our  commerce  along  the  west- 
in  regard  to  it  has  excited  no  small  de-  ern  coast  of  Africa  is  extensive,  and  sup- 
gree  of  attention  and  discussion  in  Eu-  posed  to  be  increasing.  There  is  reason 
rope,  as  the  principle  upon  which  it  is  to  think  that  in  many  cases  those  en- 
founded  and  the  stipulations  which  it  con-  gaged  in  it  have  met  with  interruptions 
tains  have  caused  w^arm  animadversions  and  annoyances  caused  by  the  jealousy 
and  great  political  excitement.  and  instigation  of  rivals  engaged  in  the 
In  my  message  at  the  commencement  same  trade.  Many  complaints  on  this  sub- 
of  the  present  session  of  Congress,  I  en-  ject  have  reached  the  government.  A 
deavored  to  state  the  principles  which  this  respectable  naval  force  on  the  coast  is 
government  supports  respecting  the  right  the  natural  resort  and  security  against 
of  search  and  the  immunity  of  flags.  De-  further  occurrences  of  this  kind, 
sirous  of  maintaining  those  principles  The  surrender  to  justice  of  persons  who, 
fully,  at  the  same  time  that  existing  having  committed  high  crimes,  seek  an 
obligations  should  be  fulfilled,  I  have  asylum  in  the  territories  of  a  neighboring 
thought  it  most  consistent  with  the  honor  nation  would  seem  to  be  an  act  due  to  the 



cause  of  general  justice  and  properly  be-  the  occurrence  had  ceased  tu  be  fresh  and 
longing  to  the  present  state  of  civiliza-  recent,  not  to  omit  attention  to  it  on  the 
tion  and  intercourse.  The  British  prov-  present  occasion.  It  has  only  been  so 
inces  of  North  America  are  separated  from  far  discussed  in  the  correspondence  now 
the  States  of  the  Union  by  a  line  of  sev-  submitted,  as  it  was  accomplished  by  a 
eral  thousand  miles,  and  along  portions  of  violation  of  the  territory  of  the  United 
this  line  the  amount  of  population  on  States.  The  letter  of  the  British  minister, 
either  side  is  quite  considerable,  while  the  while  he  attempts  to  justify  that  viola- 
passage  of  the  boundary  is  always  easy.  tion  upon   the  ground  of  a  pressing  and 

Offenders   against   the   law   on   the   one  overruling  necessity,   admitting,  neverthe- 

side    transfer    themselves    to    the    other,  less,   that   even   if    justifiable   an   apology 

Sometimes  with  great  difficulty  they  are  wap    due    for    it,    and    accompanying   this 

brought   to   justice,   but   very   often    they  acknowledgment    with    assurances    of    the 

wholly    escape.     A    consciousness    of    im-  sacred  regard   of  his  government  for  the 

munity  from  the  power  of  avoiding  jus-  inviolability    of    national    territory,    has 

tice    in    this    way    instigates    the    unprin-  seemed   to   me    sufficient   to   warrant   for- 

cipled  and  reckless  to  the  commission  of  bearance   from   any   further   remonstrance 

offences,   and   the   peace   and   good   neigh-  against  what  took  place  as  an  aggression 

borhood    of    the    border    are    consequently  on  the  soil  and  territory  of  the  country, 

often  disturbed.  On  the  subject  of  the  interference  of  the 

In    the    case    of   offenders    fleeing   from  British  authorities  in  the  West  Indies,  a 

Canada   into  the  United   States,   the  gov-  confident  hope  is  entertained  that  the  cor- 

ernors  of  States  are  often  applied  to  for  r^spondence  which  has  taken  place,  show- 

their  surrender,   and  questions  of  a  very  ing  the  grounds  taken  by  this  government, 

embarrassing  nature  arise  from  these  ap-  and  the  engagements  entered  into  by  the 

plications.      It   has    been    thought   highly  British  minister,  will  be  found  such  as  to 

important,    therefore,    to   provide    for   the  satisfy  the  just  expectation  of  the  people 

whole  case  by  a  proper  treaty  stipulation,  of  the  United  States. 

The  article  on  the  subject  in  the  pro-  The  impressment  of  seamen  from  mer- 
posed  treaty  is  carefully  confined  to  such  chant  vessels  of  this  country  by  British 
offences  as  all  mankind  agree  to  regard  cruisers,  although  not  practised  in  time  of 
as  heinous  and  destructive  of  the  secur-  peace,  and  therefore  not  at  present  a  pro- 
ity  of  life  and  property.  In  this  careful  ductive  cause  of  difference  and  irritation, 
and  specified  enumeration  of  crimes  the  has,  nevertheless,  hitherto  been  so  promi- 
object  has  been  to  exclude  all  political  nent  a  topic  of  controversy,  and  is  so  like- 
offences  or  criminal  charges  arising  from  ]y  to  bring  on  renewed  contentions  at 
wars  or  intestine  commotions.  Treason,  the  first  breaking  out  of  a  European  war, 
misprision  of  treason,  libels,  desertion  from  that  it  has  been  thought  the  part  of 
military  service,  and  other  offences  of  simi-  wisdom  now  to  take  it  into  serious  and 
lar  character  are  excluded.  earnest  consideration.    The  letter  from  the 

And  lest  some  unforeseen  inconvenience  Secretary  of  State  to  the  British  minister 

or  unexpected  abuse  should  arise  from  the  explains  the  ground  which  the  government 

stipulation    rendering   its    continuance    in  has  assumed  and  the  principles  which  it 

the  opinion  of  one  or  both  of  the  parties  means  to  uphold.    For  the  defence  of  these 

not  longer  desirable,  it  is  left  in  the  power  grounds  and  the  maintenance  of  these  prin- 

of  either  to  put  an  end  to  it  at  will.  ciples  the  most  perfect  reliance  is  placed 

The  destruction  of  the  steamboat  Caro-  on  the  intelligence  of  the  American  peo- 
line  at  Schlosser  four  or  five  years  ago  pie  and  on  their  firmness  and  patriot- 
occasioned  no  small  degree  of  excitement  ism  in  whatever  touches  the  honor  of  the 
at  the  time,  and  became  the  subject  of  country  or  its  great  and  essential  in- 
correspondence    between    the    two    govern-  terests. 

ments.  That  correspondence,  having  been  The  Treaty  toith  Texas. — On  April  22, 
suspended  for  a  considerable  period,  was  1844,  President  Tyler  sent  the  following 
renewed  in  the  spring  of  the  last  year,  special  message  to  the  Congress  concern- 
but  no  satisfactory  result  having  been  ing  the  treaty  between  the  United  States 
arrived  at,  it  was  thought  proper,  though  and  Texas: 



Washington,  April  22,  1844- 
To  the  Senate  of  the  United  States, — 
I  transmit  herewith,  for  your  approval 
and  ratification,  a  treaty  which  I  have 
caused  to  be  negotiated  between  the  Unit- 
ed States  and  Texas,  whereby  the  latter, 
on  the  conditions  herein  set  forth,  has 
transferred  and  conveyed  all  its  right  of 
separate  and  independent  sovereignty  and 
jurisdiction  to  the  United  States.  In 
taking  so  important  a  step  I  have  been 
influenced  by  what  appeared  to  me  to  be 
the  most  controlling  considerations  of 
public  policy  and  the  general  good,  and 
in  having  accomplished  it,  should  it  meet 
your  approval,  the  government  will  have 
succeeded  in  reclaiming  a  territory  which 
formerly  constituted  a  portion,  as  it  is 
confidently  believed,  of  its  domain  under 
the  treaty  of  cession  of  1803  by  France 
to  the  United  States. 

The  country  thus  proposed  to  be  an- 
nexed has  been  settled  principally  by  per- 
sons from  the  United  States,  who  emi- 
grated on  the  invitation  of  both  Spain  and 
INfexico,  and  who  carried  with  them  into 
the  wilderness  which  they  have  par- 
tially reclaimed  the  laws,  customs,  and 
political  and  domestic  institutions  of 
their  native  land.  They  are  deeply  in- 
doctrinated in  all  the  principles  of  civil 
liberty,  and  will  bring  along  with  them 
in  the  act  of  reassociation  devotion  to 
our  Union  and  a  firm  and  inflexible  reso- 
lution to  assist  in  maintaining  the  pub- 
lic liberty  unimpaired — a  consideration 
which,  as  it  appears  to  me,  is  to  be  re- 
garded as  of  no  small  moment.  The  coun- 
try itself  thus  obtained  is  of  incalculable 
value  in  an  agricultural  and  commercial 
point  of  view.  To  a  soil  of  inexhavis- 
tible  fertility  it  unites  a  genial  and 
healthy  climate,  and  is  destined  at  a  day 
not  distant  to  make  large  contributions 
to  the  commerce  of  the  world.  Its  ter- 
ritory is  separated  from  the  United  States 
in  part  by  an  imaginary  line,  and  by  the 
river  Sabine  for  a  distance  of  310  miles, 
and  its  productions  are  the  same  with 
those  of  many  of  the  contiguous  States 
of  the  Union.  Such  is  the  country,  such 
are  its  inhabitants,  and  such  its  capaci- 
ties to  add  to  the  general  wealth  of  the 
Union.  As  to  the  latter,  it  may  be  safely 
asserted  that  in  the  magnitude  of  its  pro- 
ductions  it   will   equal   in   a   short  time, 


under  the  protecting  care  of  this  govern- 
ment, if  it  does  not  surpass,  the  combined 
production  of  many  of  the  States  of  the 
confederacy.  A  new  and  powerful  impulse 
will  tlius  be  given  to  the  navigating  in- 
terest of  the  country,  which  will  be  chief- 
ly engrossed  by  our  fellow-citizens  of 
the  Eastern  and  Middle  States,  who  have 
already  attained  a  remarkable  degree  of 
prosperity  by  the  partial  monopoly  they 
have  enjoyed  of  the  carrying-trade  of  the 
Union,  particularly  the  coastwise  trade, 
which  this  new  acquisition  is  destined  in 
time,  and  that  not  distant,  to  swell  to  a 
magnitude  which  cannot  easily  be  com- 
puted; while  the  addition  made  to  the 
boundaries  of  the  home  market  thus  secured 
to  their  mining,  manufacturing,  and  me- 
chanical skill  and  industry  will  be  of  a 
character  the  most  commanding  and  im- 
portant. Such  are  some  of  the  many  ad- 
vantages which  will  accrue  to  the  Eastern 
and  Middle  States  by  the  ratification  of 
the  treaty  —  advantages  the  extent  of 
which  it  is  impossible  to  estimate  with 
accuracy  or  properly  to  appreciate.  Tex- 
as, being  adapted  to  the  culture  of  cot- 
ton, sugar,  and  rice,  and  devoting  most  of 
her  energies  to  the  raising  of  these  pro- 
ductions, will  open  an  extensive  market 
to  the  Western  States  in  the  important 
articles  of  beef,  pork,  horses,  mules,  etc., 
as  well  as  in  breadstuflfs.  At  the  same 
time,  the  Southern  and  Southeastern 
States  will  find  in  the  fact  of  annexation 
protection  and  security  to  their  peace  and 
tranquillity,  as  well  against  all  domestic 
as  foreign  eflforts  to  disturb  them,  thus 
consecrating  anew  the  union  of  the  States 
and  holding  out  the  promise  of  its  perpet- 
ual duration.  Thus  at  the  same  time  that 
the  tide  of  public  prosperity  is  greatly 
swollen,  an  appeal  of  what  appears  to  the 
executive  to  be  of  an  imposing,  if  not  of 
a  resistless,  character  is  made  to  the 
interests  of  every  portion  of  the  country. 
Agriculture,  which  would  have  a  new  and 
extensive  market  opened  for  its  produce; 
commerce,  whose  ships  would  be  freighted 
with  the  rich  productions  of  an  extensive 
and  fertile  region;  and  the  mechanical 
arts,  in  all  their  various  ramifications, 
would  seem  to  unite  in  one  universal  de- 
mand for  the  ratification  of  the  treaty. 
But  important  as  these  considerations 
may  appear,  they  are  to  be  regarded  ae 


but  secondary  to  others.  Texas,  for  rea-  more  wisdom  to  their  own  interests, 
sous  deemed  sufficient  by  herself,  threw  would,  it  is  fairly  to  be  presumed,  readily 
off  her  dependence  on  Mexico  as  far  back  adopt  such  expedients ;  or  she  would  hold 
as  1S36,  and  consummated  her  indepen-  out  the  profi'er  of  discriminating  duties 
dence  by  the  battle  of  San  Jacinto  in  the  in  trade  and  commerce  in  order  to  se- 
same year,  since  which  period  Mexico  has  cure  the  necessary  assistance.  Whatever 
attempted  no  serious  invasion  of  her  ter-  step  she  might  adopt  looking  to  this  ob- 
ritory.  but  the  contest  has  assumed  feat-  ject  would  prove  disastrous  in  the  high- 
ures  of  a  mere  border  war,  characterized  est  degree  to  the  interests  of  the  whole 
by  acts  revolting  to  hvimanity.  In  the  Union.  To  say  nothing  of  the  impolicy 
year  1836  Texas  adopted  her  constitution,  of  our  permitting  the  carrying-trade  and 
under  which  she  has  existed  as  a  sovereign  home  market  of  such  a  country  to  pass  out 
power  ever  since,  having  been  recognized  of  our  hands  into  those  of  a  commercial 
as  such  by  many  of  the  principal  powers  rival,  the  government,  in  the  first  place, 
of  the  world;  and  contemporaneously  with  would  be  certain  to  suli'er  most  disas- 
its  adoption,  by  a  solemn  vote  of  her  peo-  trously  in  its  revenue  by  the  introduction 
pie,  embracing  all  her  population  but  of  a  system  of  smuggling  upon  an  exten- 
ninety-three  pe/sons,  declared  her  anxious  sive  scale,  which  an  army  of  custom-house 
desire  to  be  admitted  into  association  with  officers  could  not  prevent,  and  which  would 
the  United  States  as  a  portion  of  their  operate  to  affect  injuriously  the  inter- 
territory.  This  vote,  thus  solemnly  taken,  ests  of  all  the  industrial  classes  of  this 
has  never  been  reversed,  and  now  by  the  country.  Hence  would  arise  constant  col- 
action  of  her  constituted  authorities,  sus-  lisions  between  the  inhabitants  of  the  two 
tained  as  it  is  by  popular  sentiment,  she  countries,  which  would  evermore  endan- 
reaffirms  her  desire  for  annexation.  This  gcr  their  peace.  A  large  increase  of  the 
course  has  been  adopted  by  her  without  military  force  of  the  United  States  would 
the  employment  of  any  sinister  measures  inevitably  follow,  thus  devolving  upon  the 
on  the  part  of  this  government.  No  in-  people  new  and  extraordinary  burdens  in 
trigue  has  been  set  on  foot  to  accomplish  order  not  only  to  protect  them  from  the 
it.  Texas  herself  wills  it,  and  the  execu-  danger  of  daily  collision  with  Texas  her- 
tive  of  the  United  States,  concurring  with  self,  but  to  guard  their  border  inhabitants 
her,  has  seen  no  sufficient  reason  to  avoid  against  hostile  inroads,  so  easily  excited 
the  consummation  of  an  act  esteemed  to  on  the  part  of  the  namerous  and  warlike 
be  so  desirable  by  both.  It  cannot  be  tribes  of  Indians  dwelling  in  their  neigh- 
denied  that  Texas  is  gi'eatly  depressed  in  borhood.  Texas  would  undoubtedly  be  un- 
her  energies  by  her  long-protracted  war  able  for  many  years  to  come,  if  at  any 
with  Mexico.  Under  these  circumstances  time,  to  resist  unaided  and  alone  the  mil- 
it  is  but  natural  that  she  should  seek  itary  power  of  the  United  States;  but  it 
for  safety  and  repose  under  the  protection  is  not  extravagant  to  suppose  that  nations 
of  some  stronger  power,  and  it  is  equally  reaping  a  rich  harvest  from  her  trade, 
so  that  her  people  should  turn  to  the  secured  to  them  by  the  advantageous 
United  States,  the  land  of  their  birth,  treaties,  would  be  induced  to  take  part 
in  the  first  instance,  in  the  pursuit  with  her  in  any  conflict  with  us,  from  the 
of  such  protection.  She  has  often  strongest  considerations  of  public  policy, 
before  made  known  her  wishes,  but  her  Such  a  state  of  things  might  subject 
advances  have  to  this  time  been  repelled,  to  devastation  the  territory  of  contigu- 
The  executive  of  the  United  States  sees  ous  States,  and  would  cost  the  country 
no  longer  any  cause  for  pursuing  such  a  in  a  sipgle  campaign  more  treasure, 
course.  The  hazard  of  now  defeating  her  thrice  told  over,  than  is  stipulated'  to  be 
wishes  may  be  of  the  most  fatal  tendency,  paid  and  reimbursed  by  the  treaty  now 
It  might  lead,  and  most  probably  would,  proposed  for  ratification.  I  will  not  per- 
to  such  an  entire  alienation  of  sentiment  mit  myself  to  dwell  on  this  view  of  the 
and  feeling  as  would  inevitably  induce  her  subject.  Consequences  of  a  fatal  charac- 
to  look  elsewhere  for  aid,  and  force  her  ter  to  the  peace  of  the  Union,  and  even 
either  to  enter  into  dangerous  alliances  to  the  preservation  of  the  Union  itself, 
with    other    nations,    who,    looking    with  might    be    dwelt    upon.      They    will    not, 



however,  fail  to  occur  to  the  mind  of  the  we  cUxim  the  right  to  exercise  a  due  regard 

Senate  and  of  the  country.     Nor  do  I  in-  to  our  own.     This  government  cannot  con- 

dulge    in    any    vague    conjectures    of    the  sistently  with  its  honor  permit  any  sucii 

future.     The   documents   now  transmitted  interference.     With  equal,  if  not  greater, 

along  with  the  treaty  lead  to  the  conclu-  propriety  might  the  United  States  demand 

sion,  as  inevitable,  that  if  the  boon  now  of   other   governments   to   surrender   their 

tendered  be   rejected   Texas  will   seek  for  numerous  and  valuable  acquisitions  made 

the  friendship  of  others.    In  contemplating  in  past  time  at  numberless  places  on  the 

such    a    contingency    it    cannot    be    over-  surface  of   the  globe,   whereby   they   have 

looked  that  the  United  States  are  already  added   to  their  power  and  enlarged  their 

almost   surrounded   by  the   possessions   of  resources. 

European  powers.  The  Canadas,  New  To  Mexico  the  executive  is  disposed 
Brunswick,  and  Nova  Scotia,  the  islands  to  pursue  a  course  conciliatory  in  its  char- 
in  the  American  seas,  with  Texas  tram-  acter,  and  at  the  same  time  to  render  her 
melled  by  treaties  of  alliance  or  of  a  the  most  ample  justice  by  conventions  and 
commercial  character  differing  in  policy  stipulations  not  inconsistent  with  the 
from  that  of  the  United  States,  would  rights  and  dignity  of  the  government.  It 
complete  the  circle.  Texas  voluntarily  is  actuated  by  no  spirit  of  unjust  ag- 
steps  forth,  upon  terms  of  perfect  honor  grandizement,  but  looks  only  to  its  own 
and  good  faith  to  all  nations,  to  ask  to  security.  It  has  made  known  to  Mexico 
be  annexed  to  the  Union.  As  an  inde-  at  several  periods  its  extreme  anxiety  to 
pendent  sovereignty  her  right  to  do  this  witness  the  termination  of  hostilities  be- 
is  unquestionable.  In  doing  so  she  gives  tween  that  country  and  Texas.  Its  wishes, 
no  cause  of  umbrage  to  any  other  power;  however,  have  been  entirely  disregarded, 
her  people  desire  it,  and  there  is  no  slav-  It  has  ever  been  ready  to  urge  an  ad- 
ish  transfer  of  her  sovereignty  and  inde-  justment  of  the  dispute  upon  terms  mut- 
pendence.  She  has  for  eight  years  main-  ually  advantageous  to  both.  It  will  be 
tained  her  independence  against  all  ef-  ready  at  all  times  to  hear  and  discuss  any 
forts  to  subdue  her.  She  has  been  rec-  claims  Mexico  may  think  she  has  on  the 
ognized  as  independent  by  many  of  the  justice  of  the  United  States,  and  to  ad- 
most  prominent  of  the  family  of  nations,  just  any  that  may  be  deemed  to  be  so  on 
and  that  recognition,  so  far  as  they  are  the  most  liberal  terms.  There  is  no  de- 
concerned,  places  her  in  a  position,  with-  sire  on  the  part  of  the  executive  to 
out  giving  any  just  cause  of  umbrage  to  wound  her  pride  or  affect  injuriously  her 
them,  to  surrender  her  sovereignty  at  her  interest,  but  at  the  same  time  it  can- 
own  will  and  pleasure.  The  United  States,  not  compromise  by  any  delay  in  its  action 
actuated  evermore  by  a  spirit  of  justice,  the  essential  interests  of  the  United  States. 
has  desired  by  the  stipulations  of  the  Mexico  has  no  right  to  ask  or  expect  this 
treaty  to  render  justice  to  all.  They  have  of  us;  we  deal  rightfully  with  Texas  as 
made  provision  for  the  payment  of  the  an  independent  power.  The  war  which 
public  debt  of ^  Texas.  We  look  to  her  am-  has  been  waged  for  eight  years  has  re- 
ple  and  fertile  domain  as  the  certain  suited  only  in  the  conviction  with  all 
means  of  accomplishing  this ;  but  this  is  others  than  herself  that  Texas  cannot 
a  matter  between  the  United  States  and  be  reconquered.  I  cannot  but  repeat 
Texas,  and  with  which  other  governments  the  opinion  expressed  in  my  message  at 
have  nothing  to  do.  Our  right  to  receive  the  opening  of  Congress  that  it  is  time 
the  rich  grant  tendered  by  Texas  is  per-  it  had  ceased.  The  executive,  while  it 
feet,  and  this  government  should  not,  hav-  could  not  look  upon  its  longer  continu- 
ing due  respect  either  to  its  own  honor  ance  without  the  greatest  uneasiness,  has. 
or  its  own  interests,  permit  its  course  nevertheless,  for  all  past  time  preserved 
of  policy  to  be  interrupted  by  the  inter-  a  course  of  strict  neutrality.  It  could  not 
fercnce  of  other  powers,  even  if  such  in-  be  ignorant  of  the  fact  of  the  exhaustion 
terference  were  threatened.  The  question  which  a  war  of  so  long  duration  had 
is  one  purely  American.  In  the  acquisi-  produced.  Least  of  all  was  it  ignorant 
tion,  while  we  abstain  most  carefully  from  of  the  anxiety  of  other  powers  to  inducj 
all  that  could  interrupt  the  public  peace,  Mexico  to  enter  into  terms  of  reconcilia* 
IX. — K                                                        145 


tion  AAith  Texas,  which,  affecting  the  do- 
mestic institutions  of  Texas,  would  oper- 
ate most  injuriously  upon  the  United 
States,  and  might  most  seriously  threaten 
the  existence  of  this  happy  Union.  Nor 
could  it  be  unacquainted  with  the  fact 
that  although  foreign  governments  might 
disavow  all  design  to  disturb  the  rela- 
tions which  exist  under  the  Constitution 
between  these  States,  yet  that  one  the 
most  powerful  among  them  had  not  fail- 
ed to  declare  its  marked  and  decided 
hostility  to  the  chief  feature  in  those  rela- 
tions and  its  purpose  on  all  suitable  oc- 
casions to  urge  upon  Mexico  the  adoption 
of  such  a  course  in  negotiating  with  Texas 
as  to  produce  the  obliteration  of  that  feat- 
ure from  her  domestic  policy  as  one  of 
the  conditions  of  her  recognition  by  Mex- 
ico as  an  independent  State.  The  execu- 
tive was  also  aware  of  the  fact  that  for- 
midable associations  of  persons,  the  sub- 
jects of  foreign  powers,  existed,  who  were 
directing  their  utmost  efforts  to  the  ac- 
complishment of  this  object.  To  these 
conclusions  it  was  inevitably  brought  by 
the  docimients  now  submitted  to  the  Sen- 
ate. I  repeat,  the  executive  saw  Texas  in 
a  state  of  almost  hopeless  exhaustion,  and 
the  question  was  narrowed  down  to  the 
simple  proposition  whether  the  United 
States  should  accept  the  boon  of  annexa- 
tion upon  fair  and  even  liberal  terms, 
or,  by  refusing  to  do  so,  force  Texas 
to  seek  refuge  in  the  arms  of  some 
other  power,  either  through  a  treaty 
of  alliance,  offensive  and  defensive,  or  the 
adoption  of  some  other  expedient  which 
might  virtually  make  her  tributary  to 
such  powre,  and  dependent  upon  it  for 
all  future  time.  The  executive  has  full 
reason  to  believe  that  such  would  have 
been  the  result  without  its  interposition, 
and  that  such  will  be  the  result  in  the 
event  either  of  unnecessary  delay  in  the 
ratification  or  of  the  rejection  of  the  pro- 
posed  treaty. 

In  full  view,  then,  of  the  highest  public 
duty,  and  as  a  measure  of  security  against 
rvils  incalculably  great,  the  executive  has 
entered  into  the  negotiation,  the  fruits  of 
which  are  now  submitted  to  the  Senate. 
Independent  of  the  urgent  reasons  which 
existed  for  the  step  it  has  taken,  it  mi*ht 
safely  invoke  the  fact  (which  it  confi- 
dently believes)  that  there  exists  no  civil- 


ized  government  on  earth  having  a  volun- 
tary tender  made  it  of  a  domain  so  rich 
and  fertile,  so  replete  with  all  that  can 
add  to  national  greatness  and  wealth,  and 
so  necessary  to  its  peace  and  safety,  that  it 
would  reject  the  offer.  Nor  are  other 
powers,  Mexico  inclusive,  likely  in  any 
degree  to  be  injuriously  affected  by  thfc 
ratification  of  the  treaty.  The  prosperity 
of  Texas  will  be  equally  interesting  to  all;  • 
in  the  increase  of  the  general  commerce 
of  the  world  that  prosperity  will  be  se- 
cured by  annexation. 

But  one  view  of  the  subject  remains  to 
be  presented.  It  grows  out  of  the  pro- 
posed enlargement  of  our  territory.  From 
this,  I  am  free  to  confess,  I  see  no  dan- 
ger. The  federative  system  is  susceptible 
of  the  greatest  extension  compatible  with 
the  ability  of  the  representation  of  the 
most  distant  State  or  Territory  to  reach  the 
seat  of  government  in  time  to  participate 
in  the  functions  of  legislation  and  to  make 
known  the  wants  of  the  constituent  body. 
Our  confederated  republic  consisted  orig- 
inally of  thirteen  members.  It  now  con- 
sists of  twice  that  number,  while  applica- 
tions are  before  Congress  to  permit  other 
additions.  This  addition  of  new  States 
has  served  to  strengthen  rather  than  to 
weaken  the  Union.  New  interests  have 
sprung  up,  which  require  the  united  power 
of  all,  through  the  action  of  the  common 
government,  to  protect  and  defend  upon 
the  high  seas  and  in  foreign  parts.  Each 
State  commits  with  perfect  security  to 
that  common  government  those  great  in- 
terests growing  out  of  our  relations  with 
other  nations  of  the  world,  and  which 
equally  involve  the  good  of  all  the  States. 
Its  domestic  concerns  are  left  to  its  own 
exclusive  management.  But  if  there  were 
any  force  in  the  objection  it  would  seem 
to  require  an  immediate  abandonment  of 
territorial  possessions  which  lie  in  the 
distance  and  stretch  to  a  far-off  sea,  and 
yet  no  one  would  be  foimd,  it  is  believed, 
ready  to  recommend  such  an  abandonment. 
Texas  lies  at  our  very  doors  and  in  our 
immediate  vicinity. 

Under  every  view  which  I  have  been 
able  to  take  of  the  subject,  I  think  that 
the  interests  of  our  common  constituents, 
the  people  of  all  the  States,  and  a  love  of 
the  Union  left  the  executive  no  other  al- 
ternative than  to  negotiate  the  treaty.  The 


high  and  solemn  duty  of  ratifying  or  re-  eral  of  volunteers  in  November,  1862; 
jecting  it  is  wisely  devolved  on  the  Sen-  and  distinguished  himself  at  Fredericks- 
ate  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  burg,  Chancellorsville,  Gettysburg,  Spott- 
States.  sylvania,  and  Cold  Harbor.    He  was  bre- 

Tyler,  Lyon  Gardiner,  educator;  born  vetted  major-general  of  volunteers  and  ma- 
in Charles  City  county,  Va.,  in  August,  jor-general.  United  States  army,  in  18G5. 
1853;  son  of  President  John  Tyler;  After  the  war  he  was  assigned  to  duty  in 
graduated  at  the  University  of  Vir-  the  Quartermaster's  Department  at  New 
ginia  in  1875;  Professor  of  Belles-Let-  York  City,  San  Francisco,  Louisville, 
tres  at  William  and  Mary  College  in  Charleston,  and  Boston.  He  died  in  Bos- 
1877-78;  practised  law  in  Richmond,  ton,  Mass.,  Dec.  1,  1874. 
^'a.,  in  1882-88;  elected  president  of  Tyndale,  Hector,  military  officer; 
William  and  Mary  College  in  1888.  He  born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  March  24,  1821. 
is  the  author  of  The  Letters  and  Times  He  was  not  opposed  to  slavery  and  had  no 
of  the  Tylers;  Parties  and  Patronage  in  sympathy  with  the  expedition  of  John 
the  United  States;  Cradle  of  the  Republic;  Brown;  but  when  Mrs.  Brown  was  about 
The  Contribution  of  William  and  Mary  to  pass  through  Philadelphia  on  her  way 
to  the  Making  of  the  Union,  etc.  to   claim   the   body  of   her   husband   after 

Tyler,  Moses  Coit,  clergyman;  born  in  his  execution,  Tyndale  took  the  risk  of 
Griswold,  Conn.,  Aug.  2,  1835;  graduated  escorting  her,  and  not  only  became  the 
at  Yale  College  in  1857;  studied  theology  object  of  insults  and  threats,  but  was  shot 
at  Yale  and  Andover;  Professor  of  English  at  by  an  unseen  person.  A  number  of 
at  the  University  of  Michigan  in  1867-  Southern  newspapers  declared  that  the  re- 
81 ;  ordained  in  the  Protestant  Episcopal  mains  of  John  Brown  would  never  be  re- 
Church  in  1883 ;  Professor  of  American  turned  to  his  friends,  but  a  "  nigger's " 
History  at  Cornell  University  from  1881  body  would  be  substituted.  When  the  au- 
till  his  death.  His  publications  include  thorities  offered  the  coffin  to  Tyndale  he 
History  of  American  Literature  during  declined  to  accept  it  till  it  was  opened 
the  Colonial  Period;  Manual  of  English  and  the  remains  identified.  When  the 
Literature;  Life  of  Patrick  Henry;  Three  Civil  War  broke  out  Tyndale  was  made 
Men  of  Letters;  The  Literary  History  of  major  of  the  28th  Pennsylvania  Volun- 
the  American  Revolution;  and  Glimpses  teers,  with  which  he  participated  in 
of  England,  Social,  Political,  and  Literary,  thirty-three  different  engagements.  He 
He  died  in  Ithaca,  N,  Y.,  Dec.  28,  1900.        was  promoted  brigadier-general  of  volun- 

Tyler,  Ransom  Hebbard,  author;  born  teers  in  November,  18&2,  and  brevetted 
in  Leyden,  Mass.,  Nov.  18,  1813.  He  was  major-general  of  volunteers  in  1865. 
district  attorney  and  county  judge  for  Tyner,  James  Noble,  lawyer;  born  in 
Oswego  county,  and  editor  of  the  Oswego  Brookville,  Ind.,  Jan.  17,  1826;  received 
Gazette.  In  addition  to  numerous  books  an  academic  education;  admitted  to  the 
and  articles  on  legal  subjects  he  wrote  a  bar  in  1857,  and  practised  in  Peru,  Ind.; 
series  of  sketches  of  the  early  settlers  member  of  Congress,  1869-75;  assistant 
in  Oswego  county.  He  died  at  Fulton,  Postmaster-General  and  Postmaster-Gen- 
N.  Y.,  Nov.  27,  1881.  eral  in  1875-82;  assistant  attorney-general 

Tyler,  Robert  Ogden,  military  officer;  for  the  Post-office  Department  in  1889- 
born  in  Greene  county,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  22,  93  and  1897-1903;  and  delegate  to  the 
1831;  graduated  at  the  United  States  postal  congress  in  1878  and  in  1897. 
Military  Academy  in  1853;  and  was  as-  Tyng,  Edward,  naval  officer;  born  in 
signed  to  frontier  duty.  In  April,  1861,  Massachusetts  about  1683 ;  commanded  the 
he  accompanied  the  expedition  for  the  re-  Massachusetts  in  the  Cai)e  Breton  expedi- 
lief  of  Fort  Sumter  and  was  present  dur-  tion  in  1745,  and  captured  the  French 
ing  its  bombardment  on  May  17.  In  man-of-war  Vigilante  of  sixty-four  guns. 
August  of  that  year  he  organized  the  4th  He  died  in  Boston,  Mass.,  Sept.  8,  1755. 
Connecticut  Volunteers,  and  was  made  its  Tyrker,  the  German  foster-father  of 
colonel.  Under  his  leadership  it  became  Leif  the  Scandinavian,  whom  he  accom- 
one  of  the  most  efficient  regiments  in  the  panied  in  the  expedition  from  Iceland  to 
army.     He   was    appointed   brigadier-gen-    the  land  south  of  Greenland  in  the  year 



1000.  While  exploring  the  neighborhood 
T}Tker  reported  the  discovery  of  vines 
loaded  with  grapes,  which  caused  Leif  to 
call  the  country  Vinland. 

Tyson,  Jacob,  legislator;  member  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  from  New  York, 
1823  to  1825,  and  member  of  the  New 
York  State  Senate  from  Richmond  county 
in  1828. 

Tyson,  Job  Roberts,  lawyer;  born  in 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Feb.  8,  1803;  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1855-57.  He  was  the  au- 
thor of  Essay  on  the  Penal  Laios  of 
Pennsylvania ;  The  Lottery  System  of  the 
United  States;  Social  and  Intellectual 
State    of    the    Colony    of    Pennsylvania 

prior  to  lUS;  Discourse  on  the  200th 
Anniversary  of  the  Birth  of  William 
Penn;  Report  on  the  Arctic  Explora- 
tions of  Dr.  Elisha  K.  Kane,  etc.  He 
died  in  Montgomery  county,  Pa.,  June  27, 

Tytler,  Patrick  Feaser,  historian; 
born  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  Aug.  30, 
1791;  was  educated  at  the  University  of 
Edinburgh;  admitted  to  the  bar  in  Scot- 
land, but  devoted  himself  to  biographical 
and  historical  researches ;  and  wrote  Sir 
Walter  Raleigh;  An  Historical  Vieio  of 
the  Progress  of  Discovery  on  the  North- 
ern Coasts  of  America,  etc.  He  died  in 
Great  Malvern,  England,  Dec.  24,  1849. 


TTchee  Indians,  a  diminutive  nation, 
seated  in  the  beautiful  country,  in  Georgia, 
extending  from  the  Savannah  River  at 
Augusta  to  Milledgeville  and  along  the 
banks  of  the  Oconee  and  the  headwaters 
of  the  Ogeechee  and  Chattahoochee.  They 
were  once  a  powerful  nation,  and  claimed 
to  be  the  oldest  on  the  continent.  Their 
language  was  harsh,  and  unlike  that  of 
any  other;  and  they  had  no  tradition  of 
their  origin,  or  of  their  ever  having  occu-. 
pied  any  other  territory  than  the  domain 
on  which  tbey  were  found.  They  have 
been  driven  beyond  the  Mississippi  by  the 
pressure  of  civilization,  and  have  become 
partially  absorbed  by  the  Creeks.  Their 
language  is  almost  forgotten,  and  the 
Uchees  are,  practically,  one  of  the  extinct 

TJhl,  Edwin  F.,  lawyer;  born  in  Avon 
Springs,  N.  Y.,  in  1841;  taken  to  Michi- 
gan by  his  parents  in  1846;  graduated 
at  the  University  of  Michigan  in  1861 ; 
began  the  practice  of  law  in  1866;  ap- 
pointed assistant  Secretary  of  State  in 
1893;  was  ambassador  to  Germany  in 
1896-97.  He  died  in  Grand  Rapids,  Mich., 
May  17,   1901. 

TJlke,  Heney,  portrait-painter;  born  in 
Frankenstein,  Prussia,  Jan.  29,  1821; 
studied  under  Professor  Wach,  in  Berlin, 
in  1842-46;  employed  in  fresco-painting 
in  the  Royal  Museum,  Berlin,  in  1846-48; 
came  to  the  United  States  in  1851 ;  settled 
in  Washington  in  1857.  His  works  include 
portraits  of  General  Grant,  James  G. 
Blaine,  Gen.  John  Sherman,  Charles 
Sumner,  Secretary  Edwin  M.  Stanton,  At- 
torney-General Garland,  etc.,  for  the  Unit- 
ed States  government. 

TJlloa,  Antonio  de,  naval  officer;  born 
in  Seville,  Jan.  12,  1716;  entered  the 
Spanish  navy  in  173.3  and  became  lieu- 
tenant in  1735;  came  to  the  United  States 
as  governor  of  Louisiana  in  1766,  but  was 
forced  to  leave  because  he  failed  to  win 

over  the  colonists  to  Spain.  He  had  com- 
mand of  a  fleet  which  was  sent  to  the 
Azores,  with  sealed  orders  to  proceed  to 
Havana  and  join  an  expedition  against 
Florida.  He  neglected  to  open  his  orders 
and  was  tried  by  court-martial  in  1780. 
and  acquitted.  He  died  on  the  island  of 
Leon,  July  3,  1795. 

Ulloa,  Francisco  de,  explorer;  born 
in  Spain;  became  a  lieutenant  of  Cortez 
in  his  explorations  in  America,  and  was 
left  by  him.  in  1535,  in  charge  of  the 
colony  of  Santa  Cruz.  In  1539-40  he  com- 
manded the  expedition  that  explored  Cali- 
fornia, giving  to  the  gulf  the  name  of 
Sea  of  Cortes,  and  discovered  that  south- 
ern California  was  a  peninsula.  He  died 
on  the  Pacific  coast  in  1540. 

ITnalaska,  or  Ounalaska,  an  island 
and  district  in  the  Aleutian  group,  at  the 
extremity  of  the  Alaska  peninsula;  for 
many  years  a  base  of  supplies  for 

TJncas,  Mohegan  chief;  born  in  the 
Pequot  Settlement,  Conn.,  about  1588; 
was  originally  a  Pequot  sachem,  but  about 
1635    he    revolted    against    Sassacus    and 




gathered  a  band  of  Indians  who  were 
known  by  the  name  of  Mohegans,  the 
ancient  title  of  his  nation.  He  joined  the 
English  in  their  war  with  the  Pcquots  in 
1637,  and  received  for  his  services  a  por- 
tion of  the  Peqiiot  territory.  When  the 
war  was  over,  Uncas  shielded  many  of 
the  Pequots  from  the  wrath  of  the  Eng- 
lish, and  incurred  the  enmity  of  the 
colonists  for  a  time;  but  the  white  people 
soon  gave  him  their  confidence,  and  treated 
him  with  so  much  distinction  that  jealous 
Indians  tried  to  assassinate  him.  For 
this  treacheiy  Uncas  conquered  one  of  the 
sachems  in  Connecticut,  and  in  1643  he 
overpowered  the  Narragansets  and  took 
Miantonomoh  prisoner.  He  died  in  what 
is  now  Norwich,  Conn.,  in  1682.  See 
Miantonomoh  ;  Pequot. 

Uncle  Sam,  a  popular  name  of  the 
government  of  the  United  States.  Its 
origin  was  as  follows:  Samuel  Wil- 
son, commonly  called  "  Uncle  Sam," 
was  an  inspector  of  beef  and  pork, 
in  Troy,  N.  Y.,  purchased  for  the  govern- 
ment after  the  declaration  of  war  against 
England  in  1812.  A  contractor  named 
Elbert  Anderson  purchased  a  quantity  of 
provisions,  and  the  barrels  were  marked 
"  E.  A.,"  the  initials  of  his  name,  and 
"U.  S.,"  for  United  States.  The  latter 
initials  were  not  familiar  to  Wilson's 
workmen,  who  inquired  what  they  meant. 
A  facetious  fellow  answered,  "  I  don't 
now,  unless  they  mean  '  Uncle  Sam.' " 
A  vast  amount  of  property  afterwards 
passed  through  Wilson's  , hands,  marked 
in  the  same  way,  and  he  was  rallied  on 
the  extent  of  his  possessions.  The  joke 
spread,  and  it  was  not  long  before  the 
initials  of  the  United  States  were  re- 
garded as  "  Uncle  Sam,"  which  name  has 
been  in  popular  pai'lance  ever  since.  The 
song  says: 

"Uiiclf^  Sam  is  rich  enough  to  give  us  all  a  farm." 

Uncle  Tom's  Cabin,  Harriet  Beecher 
Stowe's  novel,  first  published  as  a  serial 
in  the  National  Era,  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  in  18.50,  and  completed  in  Boston 
in  18.52.  The  Rev.  Josiah  Henson,  who 
died  in  Dresden,  Ontario,  Canada,  May 
5,  1883,  at  the  age  of  ninety-three,  was 
the  original  of  Uncle  Tom.  He  was  a 
.olave  who  was  permitted  to  go  freely 
from   Kentucky   to    Ohio   on   his   master's 


business,  because  he  had  given  a  promise 
that  he  would  not  attempt  to  escape,  on 
a  pledge  of  freedom  at  a  certain  time ; 
but  his  master  died  before  the  appointed 
time  and  Henson  was  sold  as  a  slave. 

Underground  Railroad,  a  popular  des- 
ignation of  the  secret  means  by  which 
slaves,  fleeing  from  the  slave-labor  States 
for  their  liberty,  escaped  through  the 
Northern  States  into  Canada  during  the 
operation  of  the  fugitive  slave  law. 
These  secret  means  were  various  kinds  of 
aid  given  to  the  slaves  by  their  Northern 
friends.     See  Fugitive  Slave  Law. 

Underhill,  John,  colonist;  born  in 
Warwickshire,  England;  was  a  soldier 
on  the  Continent;  came  to  New  Eng- 
land with  Winthrop  in  1630;  repre- 
sented Boston  in  the  General  Court; 
favored  Mrs.  Hutchinson  (see  Hutchin- 
sonian  Controversy),  and  was  associated 
with  Captain  Mason,  in  command  of 
forces  in  the  Pequot  War,  in  1637.  Ban- 
ished from  Boston  as  a  heretic,  he  went  to 
England,  and  there  published  a  history 
of  the  Pequot  War,  entitled  News  from 
America.  Dover,  N.  H.,  regarded  as  a 
place  of  refuge  for  the  persecuted,  re- 
ceived Underbill,  and  he  was  chosen  gov- 
ernor. It  was  discovered  that  it  lay  with- 
in the  chartered  limits  of  Massachusetts, 
and  the  latter  claimed  political  jurisdic- 
tion over  it.  Underbill  treated  the  claim 
with  contempt  at  first,  but,  being  accused 
of  gross  immorality,  he  became  alarmed, 
and  not  only  yielded  his  power,  but  urged 
the  people  to  submit  to  Massachusetts. 
He  went  before  the  General  Court  and 
made  the  most  abject  confession  of  the 
truth  of  the  charges.  He  did  the  same 
publicly  in  the  church,  and  was  excom- 
municated. He  afterwards  lived  at  Stam- 
ford, Conn.,  and  in  1646  went  to  Flush- 
ing, L.  I.  In  the  war  between  the  Dutch 
and  Indians  he  commanded  troops,  and  in 
1655  he  represented  Oyster  Bay  in  the 
assembly  at  Hempstead.  He  died  in 
Oyster  Bay,  L.  I.,  about  1672.  His  de- 
scendants still  possess  lands  given  to  him 
by  Indians  on  Long  Island.     See  Pequot. 

Underwood,  Francis  Henry,  author; 
born  in  Enfield,  Mass.;  educated  in  Am- 
herst; taught  in  Kentucky;  and  was  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar;  returned  to  Massa- 
chusetts in  1850,  and  was  active  in  the 
anti-slavery  cause:  was  clerk  of  the  State 


Senate  in  1852,  assisted  in  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Atlantic  Monthly  for  two 
years;  clerk  of  the  Superior  Court  of 
Boston  for  eleven  years;  United  States 
consul  to  Glasgow  in  1885;  and  wrote 
Hand-book  of  American  Literature ; 
(biographical  sketches  of  Longfellow, 
Whittier,  Lowell,  etc.  He  died  in  Edin- 
burgh, Scotland,  Aug.  7,  1894. 

Underwood,  John  Cox,  engineer;  born 
'in  Georgetown,  D.  C,  Sept.  12,  1840; 
graduated  at  Rensselaer  Polytechnic  In- 
stitute in  1862;  served  in  the  Confeder- 
ate army  as  military  engineer  in  Vir- 
ginia, but  was  taken  prisoner  in  1863 
and  confined  in  Fort  Warren  till  the 
close  of  the  war.  He  was  mayor  of  Bowl- 
ing Green,  Ky.,  in  1870-72;  city,  county, 
and  (consulting)  State  engineer  in  1866- 
75;  lieutenant-governor  of  Kentucky  in 
1875-79;  major-general  of  the  United 
Confederate  Veterans  in  1891-95;  and 
superintendent  and  secretary  of  the  Con- 
federate Memorial  Association  in  1896. 
He  published  various  documents;  estab- 
lished the  Kentucky  Intelligencer ;  or- 
ganized a  publishing  company  in  Cincin- 
nati, O.,  in  1881 ;  and  issued  the  Daili/ 
News,  of  which  he  was  managing  editor. 

Uniforms  of  the  American  Army. 
The  American  provincial  troops  serving 
with  British  regulars  in  the  colonial  wars 
were  generally  without  imiforms;  but 
there  were  exceptions.  The  New  Jersey 
infantry,  under  Colonel  Schuyler,  were 
clad  in  blue  cloth,  and  obtained  the  name 
of  "  The  Jersey  Blues."  Their  coats  were 
blue  faced  with  red,  gray  stockings,  and 
buckskin  breeches.  The  portrait  of  Wash- 
ington, painted  by  Charles  Wilson  Peale  in 
1772,  shows  his  dress  as  a  Virginia  colonel 
of  infantry  to  be  a  blue  coat  faced  with 
buff,  and  buff  waistcoat  and  breeches. 
This  was  his  uniform  during  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  in  it  he  appeared  at  the  session 
of  the  second  Continental  Congress  { 1775 ) , 
indicating,  as  Mr.  Adams  construed  it, 
his  readiness  for  the  field  in  any  station. 
In  this  costume  he  appeared  when,  early 
in  July,  1775,  he  took  command  of  the 
army  at  Cambridge. 

There  is  a  political  significance  in  the 
blue-and-buff-colored  uniform.  The  coats 
of  the  soldiers  of  William  of  Orange  who 
invaded  Ireland  in  1689  were  blue  faced 
•with  orange  or  buff,  and  this  Holland  in- 


signia  became  that  of  the  English  Whigs, 
or  champions  of  constitutional  liberty. 
The  American  Whigs  naturally  adopted 
these  colors  for  a  military  uniform.  In 
the  battle  of  Bunker  (Breed's)  Hill  there 
were  no  uniformed  companies.  Washing- 
ton prescribed  a  uniform  for  his  officers 
on  his  arrival  soon  afterwards.  Their 
coats  were  blue  faced  with  buff,  and  the 
generals  each  wore  a  ribbon  across  the 
breast — each  grade  of  a  separate  color 
Field-officers  wore  different-colored  cock 
ades  to  distinguish  their  rank.  Browi 
being  then  the  color  most  convenient  tc 
be  procured,  Washington  prescribed  for 
the  field-officers  brown  coats,  the  distinc 
tion  between  regiments  to  be  marked  bj 
the  facings.  He  also  recommended  tlu 
general  adoption  by  the  rank  and  file  of 
the  hunting-shirt,  with  trousers  buttoned 
at  the  ankle.  This  was  always  the  cos- 
tume of  the  riflemen  or  sharp-shooters; 
and  Washington  remarked  that  "  it  is  a 
dress  jiistly  supposed  to  carry  no  small 
terror  to  the  enemy,  who  think  every 
such  person  a  complete  marksman."  These 
hunting-shirts  were  black,  white,  or  of 
neutral  colors.  The  uniform  of  Washing- 
ton's Life-guard,  organized  early  in  the 
war,  was  a  blue  coat  faced  with  buff,  red 
waistcoat,  buckskin  breeches,  and  black 
felt  hat  bound  with  white  tape. 

The  different  colonies  had  uniformed 
companies  in  the  earlier  period  of  the 
struggle.  The  prevailing  color  of  their 
coats  was  blue,  with  buff  or  white  facings. 
For  a  long  time  the  artillery  were  not 
uniformed,  but  in  1777  their  regulation 
costume  was  "  a  dark-blue  or  black  coat 
reaching  to  the  knee  and  full-trimmed, 
the  lapels  fastened  back,  with  ten  open- 
worked  buttonholes  in  yellow  silk  on  the 
breast  of  each  lapel,  and  ten  large  regi- 
mental yellow  buttons  at  equal  distances 
on  each  side,  three  large  yellow  regimental 
buttons  on  each  cuff,  and  a  like  number 
on  each  pocket-flap;  the  skirts  to  hook 
back,  showing  the  red  lining;  bottom  of 
coat  cut  square;  red  lapels,  cuff-linings,, 
and  standing  capes ;  single-breasted  white 
waistcoat  with  twelve  small  regimental 
buttons;  white  breeches,  black  half- 
gaiters,  white  stock,  ruffled  bosoms  and 
wristlets,  and  black  cocked  hat  bound 
with  yellow:  red  plume  and  black  cock- 
ade; gilt-handled  small-sword,  and  gilt 


epaulets."  For  the  naAy  officers,  blue 
coats  with  red  facings,  red  waistcoats, 
blue  breeches,  and  yellow  buttons;  and  for 
its  marine  officers,  a  green  coat  with  white 
facings,  white  breeches  edged  with  green, 
white  waistcoat,  white  buttons,  silver 
epaulets,  and  black  gaiters. 

The  distress  of  the  American  soldiers 
for  want  of  clothing  was  at  its  height 
during  their  winter  encampment  at  Valley 
Forge.  Baron  Steuben  wrote :  "  The  de- 
scription of  the  dress  is  most  easily  given. 
The  men  were  literally  naked  —  some  of 
them  in  the  fullest  extent  of  the  word. 
The  officers  who  had  coats  had  them  of 
every  color  and  make.  I  saw  an  officer  at 
a  grand  parade  at  Valley  Forge  mounting 
guard  in  a  sort  of  dressing-gown  made  of 
an  old  blanket  or  woollen  bed-cover." 

The  uniform  of  the  Continental  army 
was  prescribed  by  a  general  order  issued 
in  October,  1779,  by  the  commander-in- 
chief.  The  coat  was  to  be  blue,  and  the 
facings  for  infantry  varied — white,  buff, 
red,  and  blue.  Those  of  the  artillery  and 
artificers  were  faced  with  scarlet,  with 
scarlet  linings,  and  of  the  light  dragoons 
faced  with  white;  white  buttons  and 
linings.  Until  this  time  the  uniforms  of 
the  Continental  army  had  been  variegated. 
In  the  summer  of  1780  Washington  pre- 
scribed the  uniforms  of  the  general  officers, 
and  of  the  staff  generally.  The  coats  and 
facings  were  the  same  as  those  already 
prescribed — blue,  buff,  and  white.  The 
major-generals  to  wear  two  epaulets,  with 
two  stars  upon  each,  and  a  black  and 
white  feather  in  the  hat;  the  brigadiers 
a  single  star  and  a  white  feather;  the 
colonels,  two  epaulets;  the  captains,  an 
epaulet  on  the  right  shoulder;  the  sub- 
alterns, an  epaulet  on  the  left  shoulder; 
the  aides-de-camp,  the  uniform  of  their 
rank  and  corps;  those  of  the  major-gen- 
erals and  brigadier-generals  to  have  a 
green  feather  in  the  hat;  those  of  the 
commander  -  in  -  chief,  a  white  feather. 
Cockades  were  to  be  worn  in  the  hat  by 
all  military  men.  In  the  field,  such  of  the 
regiments  as  had  hunting-shirts  were  re- 
quired to  wear  them. 

In  the  .summer  of  1782  the  uniform  of 
the  infantry  and  cavalry  were  prescribed 
a.g  follows:  "Blue  ground,  with  red 
facings  and  white  linings,  and  buttoned," 
the  artillery  and   sappers  and  miners  to 

retain  their  uniforms.  The  cavalry  had 
brass  helmets,  with  white  horse-hair.  It 
was  found  difficult  to  procure  the  pre- 
scribed color  for  clothing,  and  the  order 
was  only  partially  complied  with.  White 
facings  were  generally  used;  the  buff 
rarely,  excepting  by  the  general  officers. 
At  the  close  of  the  Revolution  some  of  the 
colonels  of  infantry  wore  black,  round 
hats,  with  black  and  red  feathers.  During 
the  period  of  the  Confederation  the  troops 
retained  substantially  the  uniform  of  the 
Continental  army.  In  1787  the  shoulder- 
strap  of  dark  blue  edged  with  red  first 
made  its  appearance.  In  1792  bear-skin- 
covered  knapsacks,  instead  of  linen  painted 
ones,  were  first  issued  to  the  troops.  In 
1796  the  infantry  had  dark-blue  coats 
reaching  to  the  knee  and  full-trimmed, 
scarlet  lapels,  cuffs,  and  standing  capes, 
retaining  white  buttons,  white  trimmings, 
and  white  under-dress,  black  stocks,  and 
cocked  hats  with  white  binding.  Black 
top-boots  now  replaced  the  shoe  and  black 
half-gaiter.  In  1794  the  artillery  wore 
helmets  with  red  plumes.  The  coats  of 
the  musicians  were  red,  with  pale-blue 
facings,  blue  waistcoats  and  breeches,  and 
a  silk  epaulet  for  the  chief  musician.  This 
was  the  uniform  of  the  drummers  in  the 
royal  regiments  of  the  British  army  at 
an  early  period,  it  being  the  royal  livery. 
The  red  coat  was  the  uniform  of  the 
drummers  in  the  American  army  until 
1857.  In  1799  the  white  plume  was  pre- 
scribed for  the  infantry.  The  cavalry  had 
green  coats  and  white  facings,  white 
vests  and  breeches,  top-boots,  and  leather 
helmet  with  black  horse-hair.  In  Jeffer- 
son's administration  the  infantry  wore 
round  ("stove-pipe")  hats,  with  brim 
three  inches  wide,  and  with  a  strip  of 
bear-skin  across  the  crown.  Artillery  offi- 
cers had  gold  epaulets.  The  infantry  wore 
a  white  belt  over  the  shoulder  and  across 
the  breast,  with  an  oval  breastplate  three 
by  two  and  a  half  inches,  ornamented  with 
an  eagle.  In  1810  high  standing  collars 
for  the  coats  were  prescribed,  and  in  1812 
they  were  ordered  to  "  reach  the  tip  of  the 
ear,  and  in  front  as  high  as  the  chin  would 
permit  in  turning  the  head."  At  that  time 
many  changes  were  made  in  the  uniform. 
Officers  of  the  general  staff  wore  cocked 
hats  without  feathers ;  single-breasted  blue 
coats    with    ten    gilt    buttons;    vest    and 



breeches,  or  pantaloons,  white  or  buflf; 
/ligh  military  boots  and  gilt  spurs;  and 
waist-belts  of  black  leather,  but  no  sashes. 
The  rank  and  file  were  put  into  blue  coat- 
ees, or  jackets.  The  medical  officers,  whose 
coats  had  been  dark  blue  from  1787,  were 
put  into  black  coats  in  1812.  In  1814  a 
portion  of  the  army  on  the  Niagara  fron- 
tier were  compelled  by  circumstances  to 
change  from  blue  to  gray.  In  the  army 
regulations  in  1821  dark  blue  was  declared 
to  be  the  national  color.  President  Jack- 
son, in  1832,  tried  to  restore  the 
'■  facings  "  which  were  worn  in  the  Revo- 
lution, but  was  only  partially  success- 
ful. When  the  Civil  War  broke  out  in 
1861  some  of  the  volunteer  troops  were 
dressed  in  gray.  As  the  Confederates 
adopted  the  same  color  for  their  regulars, 
and  butternut  brown  for  their  militia,  the 
United  States  troops  were  clad  in  blue, 
with  black  felt  hats  and  feathers  and  gilt 
epaulets  for  officers.  After  the  close  of 
the  war  the  infantry  coats  had  white 
edgings,  stripes,  and  facings,  and  plumes 
of  the  Revolution;  and  the  artillery  the 
red  plume,  red  facings,  and  yellow  buttons 
of  the  same  period.  General  officers  alone 
retained  buff  sashes  and  buff-colored  body- 

During  the  war  between  the  United 
States  and  Spain  (1898),  and  in  the  sub- 
sequent militaiy  operations  consequent 
thereon  the  soldiers  were  provided  with 
stiff-brim  soft  hats,  leather  leggings,  and 
jackets  and  pantaloons  made  of  khaki,  a 
clay-colored  linen  cloth  first  used  for  mili- 
tary purposes  by  the  British  army  in 

Union,  American.  The  first  official 
intimation  that  the  English-American 
colonies  were  politically  united  was  in 
the  following  resolution  adopted  by  the 
second  Continental  Congress,  June  7, 
1775:  "On  motion,  resolved,  that  Thurs- 
day, .ne  20th  ot  July  next,  be  observed 
throughout  the  Twelve  United  Colonies 
as  a  day  of  humiliation,  fasting,  and 
prayer."  After  that  the  term  "  United 
Colonies  "  was  frequently  used;  and  in  the 
Declaration  of  Independence  the  term 
"  United  States  "  was  first  used.  Georgia 
not  having  sent  delegates  to  the  first  and 
second  congresses,  only  "  twelve "  were 
alluded  to  in  the  expression,  The  inhabi- 
tants of  St.  John's  parisr,    ip  Georgia,  had 

chosen  Lyman  Hall  (March  21,  1775)  to 
represent  them  in  the  Congress,  and  he 
took  his  seat  on  the  third  day  of  the  ses- 
sion, but  without  the  privilege  of  voting. 
The  movements  in  St.  John's  soon  led  to 
the  accession  of  Georgia  to  the  Continental 
Union,  making  the  number  of  colonies 
that  carried  on  the  war  thirteen. 

In  the  second  petition  of  the  Continental 
Congress  to  the  King  (July,  1775),  writ- 
ten by  John  Dickinson,  negotiation  was 
thus  proffered,  according  to  Duane's  prop- 
osition: "We  beseech  your  Majesty  to 
direct  some  mode  by  wh'ch  the  united 
applications  of  your  faithful  colonists  to 
the  throne  may  be  improved  into  a  happy 
and  permanent  reconciliation;  and  that 
in  the  mean  time  measures  may  be  taken 
for  preventing  the  further  destruction  of 
the  lives  of  your  Majesty's  subjects,  and 
that  such  statutes  as  more  immediately 
distress  any  of  your  Majesty's  colonies 
may  be  repealed."  This  was  the  first  offi- 
cial announcement  to  the  King  of  the 
union  of  the  colonies,  and  their  refusal  to 
treat  separately  confirmed  it.  It  was  a 
great  step  towards  independence.  The 
King  could  not  consistently  receive  a  docu- 
ment from  a  congress  whose  legality  he 
denied.  They  thought  to  have  it  received 
if  the  members  individually  signed  it. 
Dickinson  believed  it  would  be  received. 
He  deplored  one  word  in  it — Congress — 
and  that  proved  fatal  to  it.  "  It  is  the 
only  word  which  I  wish  altered,"  he  said. 
"  It  is  the  only  word  I  wish  to  retain,"  was 
the  reply  of  the  stanch  patriot  Benjamin 
Harrison,  of  Virginia.  Richard  Penn,  a 
proprietary  of  Pennsylvania  and  recently 
its  governor — a  loyal  Englishman — was 
selected  to  bear  this  second  petition  to  the 

Union  College,  an  institution  of 
learning  in  Schenectady,  N.  Y. ;  estab- 
lished by  several  Christian  sects  in  1795, 
owing  to  which  fact  it  received  its  cor- 
porate name.  It  was  the  first  non-sec- 
tarian college  founded  in  the  United 
States.  In  1873  the  Dudley  Observatory, 
the  Albany  Medical  College,  and  the  Al- 
bany Law  School  were  united  to  the  col- 
lege, which  was  then  renamed  Union  Uni- 

Union  Devices.  When  the  quarrel  be- 
tween the  British  Parliament  and  the  Eng- 
lish-American colonies  became  warm,  the 



patriotic  newspapers  in  America,  as  well 
as  handbills,  bore  devices  emblematic  of 
union.  One  was  especially  a  favorite — 
namely,  a  snake,  disjointed,  each  separate 
part  representing  one  of  the  thirteen  Eng- 
lish-American   colonies,    with    the    words 

ifflffiMwawwiwiWiiwiiiiiwiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiifffiwwiiifiiiffimiiHiiiiiiHiiiiiiii^ 

I  "unite  or  die    I 

^■^^'^""" II iiiiir' 'lllilllliriiillllll'i ' " 'iiiiiiiimm 

warfare,  and  symbolizing  union  by  grasp- 
ing an  endless  chain.  These  arms  all 
came  out  of  the  clouds,  indicating  that 
their  strength  was  from  above.  Within 
the  chain  was  a  radiant  heart,  and  within 
the  heart  a  lighted  candle,  denoting  the 
sincerity,  truth,  rectitude, 
and  divine  emotions  of  those 
whose  hearts  were  engaged 
in  the  cause.  Above  this 
device  was  a  balance  equi- 
poised, with  a  naked  sword, 
held  in  the  paw  of  a  lion 
couchant.  The  lion  symbol- 
ized British  power;  the 
sword,  in  that  connection, 
British  valor  ;  and  the 
balance,  British  justice. 
These  the  Americans,  who 
were  yet  a  part  of  the  Brit- 
ish   nation,    invoked   in   aid 


"  Unite  or  die."  This  snake  device  first 
appeared  when  the  Stamp  Act  excitement 
was  at  its  height.  John  Holt,  the  patriotic 
publisher  of  the  New  York  Journal,  varied 
it  after  the  adjournment  of  the  first  Con- 
tinental Congress  in  1774.  He  had  a 
column  standing  upon  Magna  Charta,  and 
firmly  grasped,  as  a  pillar  indicating  in- 
alienable rights,  by 
twelve  hands, 
representing  the 
twelve  colonies 
(Georgia  not  hav- 
ing had  a  repre- 
sentative in  that 
Congress)  .  The 
hands  belonging  to 
bare  arms  coming 
out  of  the  clouds, 
denoting  heavenly 
strength.  The  whole  was  surrounded  by 
a  large  serpent,  perfect,  and  in  two  coils, 
on  whose  body  were  the  following  words: 

"UnUed,  now,  alive  and  free, 
Firm  on  this  basis  Liberty  sliall  stand. 
And,  thus  supported,  ever  bless  our  land, 
Till  lime  becomes  eternity." 

After  the  Declaration  of  Independence 
a  print  appeared  in  London  with  a  device 
combining  a  part  of  Holt's  (the  hands, 
thirteen  of  them),  but  instead  of  bare 
arms  they  were  heavily  mailed,  denoting 



of  their  cause.  A  noon-day 
sun,  shining  near,  indicated 
that  the  Americans  stood  manfully,  in 
broad  daylight,  before  the  world  in  de- 
fence of  their  rights,  and  invited  the 
closest  scrutiny  of  their  conduct. 

Union-Jack.  The  original  flag  of  Eng- 
land was  the  banner  of  St.  George — i.  e., 
white  with  a  red  cross,  which,  April  12, 
1606  (three  years  after  James  I.  ascended 
the  throne),  was  incorporated  with  the 
banner  of  Scotland — i.  e.,  blue  with  a 
white  diagonal  cross.  This  combination 
obtained  the  name  of  "  Union-Jack,"  in 
allusion  to  the  union  with  Scotland;  and 
the  word  jack  is  considered  a  corruption 
of  the  word  Jacobus,  Jacques,  or  James. 
This  arrangement  continued  until  the 
union  with  Ireland,  Jan.  1,  1801,  when  the 
banner  of  St.  Patrick — i.  e.,  white  with 
a  diagonal  red  cross,  was  amalgamated 
with  it,  and  forms  the  present  British 
union  flag.  The  union-jack  of  the  United 
States, or  American  jack,  is  a  blue  field  with 
white  stars,  denoting  the  union  of  the 
States.  It  is  without  the  fly,  which  is  the 
part  composed  of  alternate  stripes  of 
white  and  red. 

Union  League,  a  patriotic  organiza- 
tion of  clubs  established  in  the  principal 
Northern  cities  during  the  Civil  War.  Any 
person  who  had  the  right  to  vote  and 
could  aflirm  "  absolute  and  unqualified 
loyalty  to  the  government  of  the  United 
States,"  was  eligible  to  membership. 


Unitarians,    frequently    termed    Socin-  In  1904  the  official  reports  showed :  Minis- 

ians  from  Lselius  Socinus,  who  founded  a  ters,    437;    churches,    895;    members,    31,- 

seet    in    Italy    about    1546.      In    America  236. 

Dr.  James  Freeman,  of  King's  Chapel,  Bos-  United    Colonies,    The.       The    second 
ton,    in    1783,    removed   from    the    Prayer  Continental  Congress  assembled  at  Phila- 
Book    of    Common    Prayers    all    reference  delphia  on  May  10,  1775.    The  harmony  of 
to   the  Trinity   or   Deity   and   worship   of  action    in   that   body,    and   the   important 
Christ;  his  church  became  distinctly  Uni-  events  in  the  various  colonies  which  had 
tarian   in    1787.      In    1801    the   Plymouth  been  pressed  upon  their  notice,  made  the 
Church     declared     itself     Unitarian.     Dr.  representatives    feel    that   the    union   was 
William  Ellery  Channing  (1780-1842)  was  complete,    notwithstanding    Georgia    had 
the  acknowledged  head  of  this  church  until  not  yet  sent  a  delegate  to  the   Congress, 
his   death.      The   American   Unitarian   as-  Recognizing    this    fact,    the    Congress,    on 
sociation  was  formed  May  24,  1825;  head-  June    7,    in    ordering   a    fast,    "Resolved, 
quarters   at  Boston,  Mass.     The  Western  that  Thursday,  July  20  next,  be  observed 
conference  organized   1852,  and  a  nation-  throughout    the    Twelve    United    Colonies 
al  Unitarian  conference  at  New  York  City,  as    a    day    of    humiliation, .  fasting,    and 
April  5,  1805.     Reports  for  1903  showed:  prayer."     When,  exactly  one  year  later-,  a 
540   ministers,   452    churches,   and   71,000  resolution   declaring   these   colonies   "  free 
members.  and  independent  States  "  was  adopted,  the 
United  American  Mechanics,  JuxiOR  committee  to  draft  a  declaration  to  that 
Order  of,  a  fraternal  organization  in  the  effect    entitled   the    new   government   The 
United  States,  founded  in  1853;   reported  United  States  of  America, 
in   1903,  State  councils,  33;   sub-councils.  United    Colonies    of    New    England. 
1,382;     members,     110,106;     benefits    dis-  In   May,    1643,    delegates    from    Connecti- 
bursed     since     organization,     $4,695,265;  cut,  New  Haven,  and  Plymouth,  and  the 
benefits  disbursed  in  1903,  $400,345.  General  Court  of  Massachusetts,  assembled 
United   American   Mechanics,  -Order  at   Boston   to   consider   measures   against 
OF,  a  fraternal  organization  in  the  United  the   common    danger   from    the   Dutch   in 
States,  founded  in  1845;  reported  in  1903,  Manhattan    and    the    Indians.      Delegates 
State    councils,     15;     sub  -  councils,    603;  were  not  invited  from  Rhode  Island,  for 
members,    43,582;    benefits   disbursed   last  that  colony  was  considered  "schismatic" 
fiscal  year,  $121,086.  and  an  intruder.     When  it  asked  for  ad- 
United  Brethren  in  Christ,  a  religious  mission,   it  was  refused,   unless   it  would 
sect  established   in   the   United   States  by  acknowledge      allegiance      to      Plymouth. 
William    Otterbein,    a    missionary   of    the  Then    it   applied    for    a    charter,    and   ob- 
German    Reformed    Church,    and    Martin  tained  it  in  1644   (see  Rhode  Island).    A 
Btihm.      The    first    meeting    was    held    in  confederacy  was  formed  imder  the  above 
1789   in   Baltimore,   Md.,   but   it   was   not  title,  and  continued  for  more  than  forty 
known  by  its  present  name  till  1800.     The  years    (1643-1686),  while  the  government 
first  general  conference  was  held  in  1815,  of  Efigland  was  changed  three  times  dur- 
when   rules  of   order  and  a  confession  of  ing  that  period.     It  was  a  confederacy  of 
faith    were    adopted.      The    principal    ad-  States  like  our  early  union   (see  Articles 
ditions  have   been   made   in   Pennsylvania  of    Confederation),    and    local    supreme 
and  in  the  Northwest.    In  1903  the  official  jurisdiction    was    jealously    reserved    by 
report  showed:  Ministers,  1,931;  churches,  each  colony.     Thus  early  was  the  doctrine 
3.966;  members,  248,878.  of  State  supremacy  developed    (see  State 
United  Brethren  in  Christ,  Old  Con-  Sovereignty).     The    general    aflfairs    of 
STITUTION,    a    religious    body    formerly    a  the     confederacy     were     managed     by     a 
part  of  the  United  Brethren  in  Christ  board  of  commissioners  consisting  of  two 
iq.  v.),  but  owing  to  an  act  of  the  general  church    members    from    each    colony,   who 
conference  in   1885  appointing  a  commis-  were  to  meet  in  a  congress  annually,  or 
sion    to    revise    the    Confession    of    Faith,  oftener   if   required.      Their   duty  was   to 
Bishop    Milton    Wright    and    eleven    dele-  consider     circumstances     and     recommend 
gates  who  opposed  the  measure  withdrew  measures  for  the  general  good.    They  had 
and  formed  an  independent  organization,  no    executive    power,    nor    supreme    legis- 



lative  power.  Their  propositions  were  re- 
ferred to  and  finally  acted  upon  by  the 
several  colonies,  each  assuming  an  inde- 
pendent sovereignty.  But  war  was  not 
to  be  declared  by  one  colony  without 
the  consent  of  this  congress  of  com- 
missioners, to  whose  province  Indian 
affairs  and  foreign  relations  were  espe- 
cially consigned.  The  commissioners  of 
Massachusetts,  representing  by  far  the 
most  powerful  colony  of  the  league,  and 
assuming  to  be  a  "  perfect  republic," 
claimed  precedence,  which  the  others  read- 
ily conceded.  Xew  Haven  was  the  weak- 
est member  of  the  league,  Plymouth  next. 
Fort  Saybrook,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Con- 
necticut River,  was  yet  an  indei^endent 
settlement.     See  Saybrook.  Fort. 

United  Empire  Loyalists,  the  name 
assumed  by  societies  of  British  loyalists 
who.  after  the  Eevolutionary  War,  were 
banished  from  the  United  States  and  had 
their  estates  confiscated.  Tliey  were  be- 
lieved to  number  over  30,000,  and  many 
of  them  settled  in  Canada,  Nova  Scotia, 
and  Xew  Brunswick. 

United  Labor  Party,  a  political  or- 
ganization in  the  United  States  which 
grew  out  of  several  labor  societies  w^hich 
had  actively  entered  political  life.  From 
the  same  source  was  also  developed  the 
National  Union  Labor  party.  Many 
members  of  these  two  parties  were  for- 
merly identified  with  the  Greenback-Labor 
party.  In  the  Presidential  campaign  of 
1888  the  United  Labor  party  nominated 
E.  H.  Cowdry  (111.)  for  President  and 
W.  H.  T.  Wakefield  (Kan.)  for  Vice- 
President,  and  this  ticket  received  2,808 
popular  votes.  The  National  Union  Labor 
party  nominated  Alson  J.  Streeter  (111.) 
for  President  and  C.  E.  Cunningham  (Ark.) 
for  Vice-President,  and  this  ticket  re- 
ceived 148,105  popular  votes,  both  parties 
receiving  support  from  the  same  source, 
showing  want  of  harmony.  In  the  Presi- 
dential campaigns  of  1892,  1896,  and  1900, 
neither  of  these  parties  appeared  under 
their  former  names,  but  in  each  year  a 
Social  Labor  party  made  nominations 
and  received  popular  votes  of  21,164, 
36,274,   and   .30. .5.37   respectively. 

United  Presbyterians.  Tlie  United 
Presbyterian  Church  of  North  America  was 
formed  in  May,  18.58,  by  the  union  of  the 
Associated  Presbyterian  Church   and    As- 

sociate Reformed  Presbyterian  Church,  and 
their  first  general  assembly  met  at  Xenia, 
O..  in  May,  1859.  Reports  for  1903  show- 
ed: 039  ministers,  919  churches,  and  118,- 
734    members 

United  States,  Constitution  and 
Government  of  the.   See  Caxhoun,  John 


United  States,  Great  Seax  of  the. 
See  Seal  of  the  United  States,  Great. 

United  States,  Suffrage  Laws  in 
the.     See  ELECTI^•E  Suffrage. 

United  States,  The,  a  frigate  of  the 
American  navy,  built  in  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
in  1797.  On"^  Oct  10,  1812,  Commodore 
Rodgers  sailed  from  Boston  in  the  Presi- 
dent, accompanied  by  the  United  States, 
forty-four  guns.  Captain  Decatur,  and  the 
Argus,  sixteen  guns.  Lieutenant  -  com- 
mandant Sinclair,  leaving  the  Hornet  in 
port.  The  President  parted  company  with 
her  companions  on  Oct.  12,  and  on  the 
17th  captured  a  British  packet.  The 
United  States  and  Argus  also  parted  com- 
pany, the  former  sailing  to  the  southward 
and  eastward  in  search  of  British  West 
Indiamen.  At  dawn,  on  Sunday  morning, 
the  25th,  the  watch  at  the  maintop  of  the 
United  States  discovered  a  sail  to  wind- 
ward—  an  English  ship-of-war.  Decatur 
spread  all  his  sails  and  gave  chase,  and, 
as  the  United  States  drew  nearer  and 
nearer  the  British  ship,  such  loud  shouts 
went  up  from  her  decks  that  they  were 
heard  on  board  the  vessel  of  the  enemy. 
At  about  9  A.M.  Decatur  had  got  se  near 
that  he  opened  a  broadside  upon  the 
strange  vessel,  with  much  effect.  It  was 
responded  to  in  kind,  both  vessels  being 
on  the  same  tack.  They  continued  the 
fight  by  a  hea\^  and  steady  cannonade 
with  the  long  guns  of  each,  the  distance 
being  so  great  that  carronades  and  mus- 
kets were  of  no  avail. 

In  the  course  of  half  an  hour  the  Brit- 
ish vessel  was  fearfully  injured,  and  her 
commander,  perceiving  that  her  only  safe- 
ty from  destruction  was  to  engage  in  close 
action,  drew  up  to  the  United  States  for 
that  purpose.  The  latter,  with  splendid 
gunnery,  sent  shots  which  cut  her  enemy's 
mizzen-mast  so  that  it  fell  overboard. 
Very  soon  her  main  and  fore  top-masts 
were  gone  and  her  fore-mast  was  tottering. 
No  colors  were  seen  floating  over  her  deck. 
Iler    main-mast    was    severely    damaged, 



while  the  United  States  remained  almost 
unhurt.  Decatur  bore  away  for  a  while, 
and  his  antagonist,  supposing  his  vessel, 
badly  crippled,  was  withdrawing,  set  up 
an  exulting  shout.  To  their  astonishment 
the  United  States  tacked  and  brought  up 
in  a  position  of  greater  advantage  than 
before.  The  British  commander,  perceiv- 
ing that  longer  resistance  would  be  use- 
less, struck  his  colors  and  surrendered. 

The  captured  vessel  was  the  British 
frigate  Macedonian,  thirty-eight  guns, 
Capt.  J.  S.  Garden.  She  had  received  no 
less  than  100  round-shot  in  her  hull,  many 
of  them  between  wind  and  water,  and  she 
had  nothing  standing  but  her  fore  and 
main  masts  and  fore-yard.  All  Ler  boats 
were    rendered    useless    but   one.     Of    her 

York,  where  she  was  greeted  as  "  a  New» 
year's  gift."  "  She  comes  with  the  com- 
pliments of  the  season  from  old  Neptune," 
said  one  of  the  newspapers.  The  boys 
in  the  streets  were  singing  snatches  of  a 

"  Then    quickly    met    our    nation's    eyes, 
The  noblest  sight  in  nature, 
A  flrst-rate  frigate  as  a  prize, 
Brought  home  by  brave  Decatur." 

Legislatures  of  States  gave  Decatur 
thanks,  and  two  of  them  each  gave  him 
a  sword.  So,  also,  did  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia. The  authorities  of  New  York,  in 
addition  to  a  splendid  banquet  to  Hull, 
Jones,  and  Decatur  (Jan.  7,  1813),  gave 
the  latter  the  freedom  of  the  city  and  re- 


officers  and  men — 300  in  number — thirty- 
six  were  killed  and  sixty-eight  were 
wounded.  The  loss  of  the  United  States 
was  five  killed  and  six  wounded.  The 
Macedonian  was  a  new  ship,  and  though 
rated  at  thirty-eight,  carried  forty-four 
guns.  The  action  occurred  not  far  from 
the  island  of  Madeira.  After  the  contest 
Decatur  returned  to  the  United  States,  ar- 
riving off  New  London  Dec.  4,  1812.  The 
Macedonian,  in  charge  of  Lieutenant 
Allen,  arrived  at  Ne^vport  Harbor  at  about 
the  same  time.  At  the  close  of  the  month 
both  vessels  passed  through  Long  Island 
Sound,  and,  on  Jan.  1,  1813,  the  Macedo- 
nian was  anchored  in  the  harbor  of  New 


quested  his  portrait  for  the  City  Hall. 
The  national  Congress  thanked  him  and 
gave  him  a  gold  medal. 

United  States  Bank.  See  Banks  of 
THE  United  States. 

United  States  Christian  Commission. 
See  Christian  Commission,  United 

United  States  Engineer  Corps,  a 
technical  body  under  command  of  the 
chief  of  engineers  and  attached  to  the 
War  Department.  The  corps  is  charged 
with  all  duties  relating  to  construction 
and  repair  of  fortifications,  whether  per- 
manent or  temporary;  with  torpedoes  for 
coast  defence;  with  all  works  of  defence; 


with  all  military  roads  and  bridges,  and 
with  such  surveys  as  may  be  required  for 
these  objects,  or  the  movement  of  armies 
in  the  field.  It  is  also  charged  with  the 
river  and  harbor  improvements,  with  mili- 
tary and  geographical  explorations  and 
surveys,  with  the  survey  of  the  lakes,  and 
with  any  other  engineer  work  specially  as- 
signed to  the  corps  by  acts  of  Congress 
or  orders  of  the  Secretary  of  War. 

United  States  Homestead  Legisla- 
tion. See  Exemptions  from  Taxation; 
Homestead  Laws. 

United  States  House  of  Representa- 
tives, one  of  the  branches  of  the  Congress 
knoA^Ti  as  the  Lower  House  and  the  Popu- 
lar House.  The  members  of  this  branch 
are  elected  directly  by  popular  vote.  In 
it  is  vested  by  the  national  Constitution 
the  sole  right  to  originate  laws  concern- 
ing the  finances  of  the  country.  The 
committee  on  ways  and  means  of  the 
House  is  the  original  source  of  all  tariff 
legislation,  and  all  bills  providing  for 
the  raising  or  expenditure  of  public 
moneys  have  their  origin  in  the  House. 
In  each  of  these  two  forms  of  legislation 
the  House  has  the  limited  co-operation  of 
the  Senate — viz. :  the  Senate  may  amend 
a  tariff  bill  or  resolution  appropriating 
public  moneys  in  the  line  either  of  in- 
creasing or  decreasing  specific  amounts. 
The  House  has  the  privilege  of  passing 
upon  these  Senate  amendments,  and  if  it 
declines  to  accept  any  part  of  such 
changes,  it  is  customary  to  appoint  a  con- 
ference committee  consisting  of  an  equal 
number  of  members  from  the  House  and 
Senate,  to  whom  the  disputed  subject  of 
legislation  is  referred,  and  the  report  of 

this  committee  is  generally  accepted  in 
the  light  of  a  compromise  by  both  Houses. 
The  membership  of  the  House  is  based  on 
the  population  of  the  country  as  ascer- 
tained decennially  by  the  census,  and 
therefore  changes  every  ten  years.  In 
the  Fifty-seventh  Congress  (March  4, 
1901-March  4,  1903)  there  are  357  Kepre- 
sentatives,  of  whom  198  are  Republicans. 
151  Democrats,  and  eight  Populists  and 
Silver  men.  See  Congress,  National 
{The  Fifty-seventh  Congress)  ;  Speaker 
of  the  House. 

United  States  Military  Academj- 
See  Military  Academy,  United  States. 

United  States  Mints.  A  mint  of  the 
United  States  was  established  in  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.,  by  act  of  Congress  in  April, 
1792,  and  began  to  coin  money  the  next 
year,  but  it  was  not  until  January,  1795, 
that  it  was  put  into  full  operation.  It 
was  the  only  mint  until  1835,  when  other 
mints  were  established  at  Charlotte, 
N.  C,  Dahlonega,  Ga.,  and  New  Orleans, 
La.  In  1854  another  was  located  at  San 
Francisco,  Cal.,  and  in  1870  at  Carson 
City,  Nev.,  and  shortly  after  at  Denver, 
Col.,  although  no  minting  has  ever  been 
done  at  the  latter  place,  only  assay- 
ing. The  mints  at  Charlotte,  N.  C,  and 
Dahlonega,  Ga.,  were  discontinued  in 
1861.  See  Coinage;  Mint,  First  Amer- 

United  States  Naval  Academy.  See 
Naval  Academy,  United  States. 

United  States  Naval  Ships.  See 
Naval  Ships. 

United  States  Nominating  Conven- 
tions. See  Nominating  Conventions, 


United  States  of  America.  The  name 
given  to  the  thirteen  English-American 
colonies  in  the  Declaration  of  Indepen- 
dence, July  4,  177G.  In  1901  their  num- 
ber had  increased  to  forty-five  States  (see 
table  on  opposite  page)  and  seven  Ter- 
ritories (Alaska,  Arizona,  District  of 
Columbia,  Hawaii,  Indian  Territory,  New 
Mexico,  and  Oklahoma)  with  the  Pliilip- 
pine  Islands,  Porto  Piico,  Guam,  Wake, 
Samoa,  and  Isle  of  Pines,  etc.  For  de- 
tails of  population  in   1900  see  Census. 

progress  in  population. 


Date  of 



of  the 














61!,  949 


















136,. 591 

















































Date  of 

Where  first  Settled. 

By  whom  Settled. 

Date  of 

Area  in 














































New  York 

New  York 




New  Hampshire 



Khoiie  Island   ..          ... 




St.  Mary's 






North  Carolina 

New  Jersey 















*'                                  ... 






it                        J 























It                          , 



<(                  , 
























St    Pa'il 

Americans. . .  








West  Virginia 
















Sioux  Falls    










Fort  Hali 









Salt  Lake  City 



On  Sept.  9,  1776,  the  Continental  Con-  miles.     In  longitude  it  extends  from  the 

gress    resolved    "  that    in    all    continental  most  easterly  point  of  Maine,  66°  48'  W., 

commissions   where   heretofore   the   words  to    125°    20'   W.,   and   if   Atoo,   the   most 

*  United  Colonies '  have  been  used,  the  style  westerly  of  the  Aleutian  Islands,  be  taken 

be  altered   for   the   future   to   the   United  for   its  western  limits,  it  extends  to  the 

States."    This  domain  now  numbers  forty-  174th   meridian.      The   population   of   the 

five  States,  six  Territories,  and  one  Dis-  United  States  in  1890  was  63,069.756,  and 

trict,  and  various  "  possessions,"  Hawaii,  in  1900  had  increased  to  76,295,220.    This 

Porto    Rico,    Philippine    Islands,    Guam,  is    exclusive    of    the    Philippine    Islands, 

Wake,  and  Samoan  Islands,  etc.    The  area  Hawaii,    Porto    Rico,    Guam,    Wake,    and 

of  the  States  is  2,718,780  square  miles;  of  Samoan    Islands.      The   government    is    a 

the  Territories,  883,490;   and  of  the  Dis-  representative  democracy.    Each  State  has 

trict,    seventy;    in    all,    3,602,340    square  an    independent    legislature    for    its    local 

miles.    In   latitude    it   extends    from    Key  afi'airs,  but  all  are  legislated  for,  in  na- 

West,  its  most  southerly  point,  24°  33'  N.,  tional  matters,  by  two  Houses  of  Congress; 

to  the  forty-ninth  parallel   of  north  lati-  the  Senate,  whose  members  are  elected  for 

tnde.     From  this  latitude,  on  the  Pacific  six   years   by   the   State   legislatures,   and 

coast,    the    territory    belongs    to    Canada  the  House  of  Representatives,  elected  for 

to     54°  40',    where     Alaska    begins,     ex-  two  years  by  the  people  of  the  diflferent 

tending    to    the    Arctic    Ocean    and    em-  States.    Representation  in  the  Senate  is  by 

bracing  an  area   of  over   577,000   square  States,  without  regard  to  population;   in 



the  House  of  Representatives  the  represen-  toral  votes  as  it  has  Senators  and  Repre- 

tation  is  in  proportion  to  population.    The  sentatives   in   Congress.      For  the  general 

President  of  the  United  States  is  elected  history,    administration,   etc.,   of   the   col- 

every  fourth  year  by  electors  chosen  by  the  onies   and   States   see   under   their  proper 

people,  each  State  having  as  many  elec-  heads. 


Buddhist   priests   risit    Fu    Sang,    sup-  and  IGO  persons  (five  of  them  young  mar- 
posed  to  be  America 458  ried  women )    from  Greenland  to  establish 

Hui    Shen's    account    of    the    Buddhist   a  colony 1007 

mission  referred  to  in  the  Chinese  annals  [Landing  in  Rhode  Island,  he  remains 

for 499  in  Vinland  three  years,  where  he  has  a  son, 

Iceland  discovered  by  Nadodd,  a  Norse  Snorri,    ancestor    of    xMbert    Thorwaldsen, 

rover 861  the  Danish  sculptor.] 

First   settlement   by   Norsemen....   875  Icelandic  manuscripts  mention  a  bishop 

Grumbiorn  sights  a  western  land .  .    876  in    Vinland    in    1121,    and    other    voyages 

Land  discovered  by  Eric  the  Red,   and    there  in   1125,  1135  and 1147 

named    Greenland 982  Madoe,   Prince   of   Wales,   according   to 

Second  voyage   from  Iceland  to   Green-  tradition,  sails  westward,  and  reports  the 

land   by   Erie 985  discovery  of  a  "  pleasant  country.".  .  1170 

Bjarni    sails    from    Iceland    for    Green-  [The   tradition   is    further   that   he   re- 
land,  but  is  driven  south  by  a  storm  and  turns   to   this   western    country  .with   ten 
sights   land   at   Cape    Cod   or   Nantucket,  ships,  but  is  never  heard  of  again.] 
also    at    Newfoundland,    and    returns    to  [The    fullest    relation    of    these   discov- 
Greenland 985  eries    is    the    Codex    Flatoiensis,    written 

Voyage  of  Lief,   son   of   Eric  the   Red.  1387-95,   now   preserved   in   the   royal   li- 
He  sails  in  one  ship  with  thirty-five  men  brary  at  Copenhagen,  found  in  a,  monas- 
in  search  of  the  land  seen  by  Bjarni.  .1000  tery  on  the  island  of  Flato,  on  the  west- 
Touching  the  Labrador  coast,  stops  near  ern  coast  of  Iceland.] 

Boston,  Mass.,   or   farther   south,   for   the        Eskimos  appear  in  Greenland 1349 

winter.     He  loads  his  vessel  with  timber;  Pizigani's  map  of  the  Atlantic.  .13(57-73 

he  returns  to  Greenland  in  the  spring  of  Nicolo  Zeno  with  three  ships  belonging 

1001  to  Sir  Henry  Sinclair,  Earl  of  the  Orkney 

[He    calls    the    land   Vinland,    from   its  Islands,     visits    Greenland    and    possibly 

grapes.]  Vinland    1394 

Thorwald,  Lief's  brother,  visits  Vinland  Communication  with   Greenland   ceases 

in   1002,   and  winters   near   Mount   Hope   about    1400 

Bay,  R.  I.     In  the  spring  of  1003  he  sent  a  Berthancourt  settles  the  Canary  islands 

party   of   his    men    to   explore    the    coast,  1402 

perhaps  as  far  south  as  Cape  May.  Madeira    Islands    rediscovered    by    the 

Thorwald   explores   the   coast   eastward,    Portuguese    1418-20 

and  is  killed  in  a  skirmish  with  the  natives  These   islands  previously  discovered  by 

fskraelings)  somewhere  near  Boston,  1004    Machan,  an  Englishman 1327-78 

His  companions  return  to  Greenland  The  "  Claudius  Clavus  "  map,  giving  the 

1005  earliest  delineation  of  any  part  of  America 

Thorfinn  Karlsefne  sails  with  three  ships    ( Greenland )    1427 


Columbus  bom 14.3.5-30 (  ?)    1445        Marco  Polo's  travels  first  printed.  .1477 

Visits  England  and  Iceland  prior  to  Columbus     in     Spain.     Announces     liis 

1470    views  to  Ferdinand  and  Isabella.  .1485-81 

Columbus    in    Portugal 1470-84        The  views  of  Columbus  referred  to  a 





junto  of  ecclesiastics,  which  dechxres  them  He  discovcis  Jamaica,  May  3;  and  Evan- 
vain  and  impracticable 1487-90  gelista   (now  Isle  of  Pines)   June  13;  war 

Columbus  leaves  Spain  for  France  with  the  natives  of  Hispaniola 1494 

January,  1492  Visits  various   isles   and  explores   their 

[But  is  recalled  while  on  his  journey.]       coasts    1495-96 

Ferdinand    and    Isabella    arrange    with  Returns    to    Spain    to    meet    charges; 

Columbus April   17,   1492    reaches  Cadiz June  11,   1490 

Columbus  sailed  on  his  first  expedition  Patent  from  Henry  VII.  of  England  to 

from  Palos  in  Andalusia  on  Friday,  with  John  Cabot  and  his  three  sons 

three  vessels  supplied  by  the  sovereigns  of  March  5,  1495-9(? 

Spain — the  Santa  Maria,  a  decked  vessel  John  Cabot  discovers  the  North  Ameri- 

with  a  crew  of  fifty  men,  with  Columbus    can  continent June  24,  149'/ 

in  command,  and  two  caravels — the  Pinta  Columbus   sails   with   six   ships   on   hit 

with    thirty    men,    under    Martin    Alonso  third  voyage.  May  30;  discovers  Trinidad, 

Pinzon,    and    the    Niila   with    twenty-four  July    31:    lands    on    terra   firma   without 

men,  under  Vicente  Yatiez  Pinzon,  brother  l-cnowing  it  to  be  a  new  continent,  naming 

of  Martin Aug.  3,  1492    it  Isla   Santa Aug.   1,   1498 

Leaves  the  Canary  Islands.. Sept.  6,  1492  Discovers  the  mouth  of  the  Orinoco 

Influenced    by    Pinzon,    he    changes    his  August,   1498 

course  from  due  west  to  southwest  Alonso    de     Ojeda    discovers     Surinam, 

Oct.  7,  1492  June;   and  the  Gulf  of  Venezuela.     Ame- 

[The  original  course  would  have  struck  rigo    Vespucci    accompanies    liim    on    this 

the  coast  of  Florida.]  voyage    , 1499 

Rodrigo  de  Triana,  a  sailor  on  the  Niiia,  Amerigo  Vespucci's  first  voyage.  .  .1499 

discovers  land  at  2  a.m.  Friday  Vicente  Yaiiez  Pinzon  discovers  Brazil, 

Oct.  12,  1492  Jan. 20,  and  the  river  Amazon.  Jan. 26, 1500 

Columbus   lands   on   Guanahani,   one   of  Pedro   Alvarez   de   Cabral,   of   Portugal, 

the    Bahamas;     takes    possession    in    the  discovers  Brazil,  April  22,  and  takes  pos- 

name  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  of  Castile,  session  of  for  the  King  of  Portugal 

and  names  it  San  Salvador .  Oct.   12,   1492  May,  1500 

He   discovers   Cuba,   Oct.   28 ;    and   His-  Gasper     Cortereal,     in     the     service    oi 

paniola   (now   Haiti),  where   he   builds    a    Portugal,    discovers    Labrador 1500 

fort,  La  Navidad .Dec.  6,  1492  Francisco   de   Bobadilla   appointed   gov- 
Columbus  sails  for  Spain  in  the  Nina,  eruor  of  Hispaniola  and  leaves   Spain 
the  Santa  Maria  having  been  abandoned  July,  1500 

Jan.  4,  1493  Bobadilla  arrests  Columbus   on  his   ar- 

Eeaches  Palos March  15,  1493  rival  at  Hispaniola  and  sends  him  to  Spain 

Received   with   distinguished   honors   by  in   irons.      He   is   received   with   honor   at 

the  Spanish  Court  at  Barcelona.April,  1493  Court  and  the  charges  dismissed  without 

Bull  of  demarcation  between  Spain  and    inquiry Dec.  17,  1500 

Portugal  issued  by  Pope  Alexander  VI.,  The   first   map   to   show   "  America  "   is 

May  3-4,  1493    Las   Casas's 1500 

The  letter  of  Columbus  to  Ferdinand  and  Columbus  sails  on  his  fourth  and  last 

Isabella  describing  his  voyage  firist  printed  voyage   with   four   caravels   and    150   men 

in  Latin 1493    from  Cadiz May  9,  1502 

He  sails  from  Cadiz  on  his  second  ex-  Discovers  the  island  of  Martinique 

pedition Sept.  25,  1493  June  13,  1502 

His  fleet  consisted  of  three  galleons  and  Discovers  various   islands  on  the  coast 

fourteen  caravels,  with  1,500  men,  besides  of  Honduras  and  explores  the  coast  of  the 

animals    and    material    for    colonization;    Isthmus July,    1502 

discovers    the    Caribbee   Isles  —  Dominica,  Amerigo  Vespucci  on  the  South  Ameri- 

Nov.    3 ;    Guadaloupe,    Nov.    4 ;    Antigua,    can    coast 1501-3 

Nov.   10;    finding  his   previous   settlement  Columbus  finally  leaves  the  New  World 

destroyed  and  colony  dispersed,  he  founds    for   Spain Sept.    12,    1504 

Isabella  in  Hispaniola,  the  first  Christian  Queen  Isabella  of  Spain  dies 

city  in  the  New  World December,  1493  Nov.   26,    1504 

IX.— L  161 


Columbus   dies  at  Valladolid  First  letter   of  Cortez  on  the  conquest 

May  20,   1506  of  Mexico  to  Charles  V.  of  Spain 

Juan  Diaz  de  Solis  and  Vicente  Yaiiez  July  10,  1519 

Pinzon    are    on    the    southeast    coast    of  Panama    founded    by    Pedrariap,..    15J9 

Tucalan    1506  Montezuma,   emperor   of   the  Mexicans, 

[De    Cordova,     1517;     Grijalva,     1518;    dies June    30,    1520 

Cortez,  1519.]  Magellan    discovers    the    straits    which 

Waldseemiiller's     or     the     "  Admiral's  "  bear  his  name,  and  passes  into  the  Pacific 

map    probably    1507    Ocean Oct.   21-Nov.   27,    1520 

First    English    publication    to    mention  Cortez    accomplishes    the    conquest    of 

America   1509   Mexico   1521 

Francisco  Pizarro  reaches  Darien.  .1509  Pizarro   sails   from   Panama   for   Peru, 

Alonso  de  Ojeda  founds  San  Sebastian,  but  returns  for  supplies  and  repairs 

the  first  colony  in  South  America.  .1510  Nov.  14,  1524 

Diego   Velasquez   subjugates   Cuba   and  Francis   de  Hoces,   in  command   of  one 

founds    Havana 1511  of   the   ships   of   Loyasas,   discovers   Cape 

Juan  Ponce  de  Leon  discovers  Florida    Horn     1525 

March  27,  1512  Narvaez's  expedition  to  the  upper  Gulf 

Vespucci    dies   at    Seville,    Spain,   aged   of  California 1527 

sixty-one    years . .  o 1512  Pizarro   enters   Peru   and   destroys   the 

Vasco     Nuiiez     Balboa,     crossing     the   government    1531-33 

isthmus  of   Darien,   discovers   the   Pacific  Jacques  Cartier  enters  the  Gulf  of  St. 

and  takes  possession  of  it  for  the  King  Lawrence  and  sails  to  the  present  site  of 

of  Spain,  calling  it  the  "  South  Sea  "  Montreal    1534-35 

Sept.  25,  1513  Ferdinand     de     Grijalva's     expedition 

Juan   Diaz   de    Solis   discovers   the   La  equipped   by   Cortez,   discovers   California 

Plata January,    1516  1534 

[He  is  killed  by  natives  in  an  attempt  Antonio  de  Mendoza  appointed  viceroy 

to  land.     This  river  named  in  1527  from  of  Mexico,  the  first  in  the  New  World 

silver  plate  possessed  by  natives.]  1535-50 

Spaniards   at   Darien  hear  of   the  em-  Francisco    Orellana    explores    eastward 

pire  of  the  Incas 1512-17  from   Peru,  down   the   Amazon,   reaching 

Las  Casas  made  "Universal   Protector  the  ocean  (voyage  of  seven  months) 

of  the  Indians" 1516  August,  1541 

Francisco    Fernandez    de    Cordova    dis-  Don  Pedro  de  Valdivia  invades  and  con- 
covers  Mexico 1517    quers  Chile : 1541 

Vasco  Nunez  Balboa  executed  at  Darien  Cortez  returns  to  Spain,  1540;  and  dies 

1517    there,  aged  sixty-two 1547 

Grijalva    at    Cozumel    and    Vera    Cruz,       Las  Casas  returns  to  Spain 1547 

penetrates    Yucatan    and    names    it    New  Davis  discovers  the  strait  that  bears  his 

Spain    1518   name    1585 

Hernando    Cortez   sails    from   Cuba   to  Falkland  Islands  discovered  by  Davis 

conquer  Mexico Feb.  18,  1519  1592 


Columbus,  Christopher,  born   in  Genoa  voyage    of    Columbus.     Attempts    to    de- 

in  143.5-45   (  ?)  ;  died  in  Valladolid,  Spain,  prive  Columbus  of  the  discovery,  is  bafifled 

May  20,  1506.     The  discoverer  of  the  New  and  disgraced.] 

Vforld    (America) 1492-98       Cabot,  John,  Venetian,  date  of  birth  and 

Pinzon,    Martin    Alonso,    Spanish    navi-  death  unknown.     In  the  service  of  Henry 

^ator,   born    in    Spain    in    1441;    died    in  VII.  of  England,  discovers  the  mainland 

Spain    1493  of    North    America     (supposed    coast    of 

/Commander  of  the  Pinta  in  the  first  Labrador) June  24,  149? 



Oabot,  Sebastian,  son  of  John,  born  in  Accompanies  Columbus  to  America,  1493. 

Venice  in  1475   (?),  died  in  London  about  and   during   the   next   fifty  years   crosses 

1557;  discoverer  of  Newfoundland  and  ex-  the  Atlantic  fourteen  times  in  the  interest 

plorer  of  North  American  coast.1498-1517  of  the  natives.     Made  "  Universal  Protec- 

Vespucci,  Amerigo,  born  in  Florence  in  tor  of  the  Indians  "  by  the  Spanish  gov- 

1451 ;   died  iu  Spain,  Feb.   12,   1512.     Ex-   ernment   1516 

plorer  of  the  South  American  coast  Cordova,  Francisco  Fernandez  de,  died 

1499-1504  in   Cuba   in    1518;    discovers   Mexico   and 

Cabral,    Pedro    Alvarez   de,    Portuguese   explores  the  coast  of  Yucatan. . . 1517 

navigator,  died  about  1526;  the  discoverer  Grijalva,  Juan  de,  born  in  Spain;  died 

of  Brazil April  22,  1500  in    Nicaragua,    Jan.    21,    1527.      Explores 

Cortereal,     Gasper,     Portuguese     navi-  Yucatan  and  hears  of  Mexico  and  Mon- 

gator,  born  in  Lisbon died  1501   tezuma  1518 

[Sails  along  the  coast  of  North  America  Cortez,   Hernando,  Spanish  adventurer, 

and   names   Labrador;    returns   to   Lisbon  born  in  Spain  in  1485;  died  in  Spain,  Dec. 

and  sails  on  his  second  voyage,  1501,  but    2,  1547;  conqueror  of  Mexico 1519-21 

never  returns.]  Magellan,    Fernando,    Portuguese    navi- 

Bobadilla,  Francisco,  born  in  Spain,  sent  gator,  born  in  1470.     Discovers  the  S-trait 

to  Santo  Domingo  to  relieve  Columbus,  sent  of    Magellan,    which    he    enters    Oct.    21, 

Columbus  and  his  brother  Diego  back  to  1520,  and  names,  passing  through  into  the 

Spain  in  chains.    He  loses  his  life  by  ship-  ocean,  Nov.  27,  1520,  to  which  he  gave  the 

wreck  on  his  return  voyage.. June  29,  1502  name  Pacific.   He  was  killed  at  one  of  the 

Pinzon,     Vicente     Yanez;     brother     of  Philippine  Islands,  by  the  natives,  April  17, 

Alonso;   born  in   Spain  in   1460;    died   in  1521.  Only  one  of  his  ships,  under  Sebastian 

Spain  in   1524.     Commands  the  Hina  in  del  Cano,  reached  Seville  (the  first  ship  to 

Columbus's  first  voyage.     Discovers  Cape  circumnavigate  the  globe )...  Sept.  8,  1522 

St.  Augustine,  Brazil,  Jan.  20,   1500,  and  Verazzano,      Giovanni      de,      Florentine 

the  mouth  of  the  Amazon,  Jan.  26.     Ex-  navigator;    born   near   Florence   in    1470; 

plores  the  east  coast  of  Yucatan 1506  died    either    at    Newfoundland    or    Puerto 

The  western  continent  is  named  for  him  del   Rico   in    1527.      Explores    for    France 

by  Martin  Waldseemiiller,  a  German  ge-  the  North  American  coast  as  far  north  as 

ographer,  in  a  book  printed  in 1507    New  York  and  Narraganset  bays 1524 

Ojeda.  Alonso  de,  Spanish  adventurer,  Gomez,  Esteban,  Spanish  navigator, 
born  in  Spain  in  1465;  died  in  Hispaniola  born  in  Spain  in  1478  (  ?)  ;  died  at  sea  in 
in  1515.  Accompanies  Columbus  on  his  1530  (?);  explores  the  eastern  coast  per- 
second  voyage.  With  Amerigo  Vespucci  haps  as  far  north  as  Connecticut. ...  1525 
he  explored  the  northern  coast  of  South  Ayllon,  Lucas  Vasquez  de,  Spanish  ex- 
America  in  1499,  and  established  a  settle-    plorer,  died  in  Virginia Oct.  18,  1526 

ment  at  San  Sebastian 1510  [Sailing,  with  three  vessels  and  600  per- 

Ponce  de  Leon,  Juan,  Spanish  soldier;  sons,   with    supplies   for   a   colony,   along 

born  in  1460    (?)  ;  died  in  Cuba  in  1521.  the  coast,  he  enters  Chesapeake  Bay  and 

The  discoA'erer  of  Florida,  March  27,  1512;  attempts    a    settlement    near    Jamestown, 

landing  at  St.  Augustine ....  April  2,  1512  Avhere  he  died.     His  colonists  returned  to 

Balboa  Vasco  Nunez,  Spanish  adventurer,  Santo  Domingo  in  the  spring  of  1527.] 

born  in  Spain,  1475;   executed  at  Darien  Pizarro,  Francisco,  Spanish  adventurer; 

on  a  charge  of  treason,  1517;  the  discover-  born  in  Spain  about  1471;  assassinated  at 

er  of  the  Pacific  Ocean. ..  .Sept.  25,  1513  Lima,  Peru,  Jan.  26,  1541.    The  destroyer 

Solis,  Juan  Diaz  de,  Spanish  navigator;    of  the  Pei'uvian  government 1531-33 

born    in    Spain    in    1471 ;    died    in    South  Cartier,    Jacques,    born    in    St.    Malo, 

America  in   1516.     Reputed  the  most  ex-  France,    1494,   died   about   1555;    the   dis- 

perienced  navigator  of  his  time.    Discovers  coverer  of  the  river  St.  Lawrence.  .1534-35 

the  river  La  Plata,  South  America,  Almagro,  Diego  de,  Spanish  adventurer, 

January,  1516  born  in  Spain  in  1463  f  ?)  with  Pizarro  in 

[Killed  by  Indians  on  that  river.]  Peru;  put  to  death  by  Pizarro.  .July,  1538 

Las  Casas,  Bartholomew,  born  in  Seville,  De   Soto,   Fernando,   born   in   Spain   in 

Spain,  in  1474;  died  in  Spain,  July,  1566.  1496   (?)  ;  died  on  the  banks  of  the  Mis> 



sissippi,  June,  1542;  explorer  of  the  south- 
ern United  States;  discoverer  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi     1540-42 

Coronado,  Francesco  Vasquez  de,  died  in 
1542;  explorer  of  the  territory  north  of 
Mexico,  now  New  Mexico,  Arizona,  and 
Colorado    1540-42 

Frobisher,  Sir  Martin,  born  in  England 
in  1536;  died  in  Plymouth,  England,  Nov. 
7,  1594;  discovers  Frobisher's  Strait 

July  21,  1576 

Drake,  Sir  Francis,  born  in  England  in 
1537    ( ?)  ;  died  in  Puerto  Bello,  Dec.  27, 

1595;  explores  the  coast  o£  California  in 
1578-79 :  first  Englishman  to  sail  around 
the  globe,  reaching  England 1580 

Davis,  John,  born  in  England  in  1550; 
died  on  the  coast  of  Malacca  in  1605;  dis- 
coverer of  Davis's  Strait  in  1585;  of  the 
Falkland  Islands 1592 

Hudson,  Henry,  born  in  England;  dis- 
coverer and  explorer  of  the  Hudson  Eiver 
in  the  interests  of  the  Dutch,  September, 
1609,  and  Hudson  Bay  in  1611.  Sent 
adrift  in  an  open  boat  by  his  crew  and 
never  heard  of  afterwards 1611 

COyiGRESS— Continued. 


For  previous  history  of  the  Colonies  aod  Stales  see  each  State  and  Territory  separately, 

Pursuant  to  arrangements  made  by  com- 
mittees appointed  in  the  colonies  to  con- 
fer regarding  the  interests  and  safety  of 
the  colonies,  and  termed  "  committees  of 
correspondence,"  delegates  were  chosen  for 
the  first  Continental  Congress,  to  meet  at 
Philadelphia  about  Sept.  1,  1774. 


State  Represented. 

21.  Jame«;  Kinsey 

22.  JoLn  De  Hart 

23.  Richard  Smith 

24.  William  Livingston... 

25.  Stei)heu  Crane 

26.  Hon.  Joseph  Galloway. 

27.  Samuel  Rhodes 

28.  Thomas  MiQin 

29.  John  Morton. 

First    Continental    Congress    meets    at 
Carpenter's  Hall,  Philadelphia   (forty-four    30.  Charles  Humphreys 
,   ,  .  J.-  n      j.i,„     31.  Edward  Biddle. 

delegates  present,  representing  all  the  32.  George  Ross .. . 
States  except  Georgia  and  North  Caro-  33.  John  Dickinson 
lina;  see  below)  ..  .Monday,  Sept.  5,  1774 

[Peyton  Randolph,  of  Virginia,  presi- 
dent; Charles  Ihomson,  secretary.  Mr. 
Thomson  remained  secretary  of  the  Con-  37.  Robert  Goldsborough. 
tinental  Congress  from  its  beginning  to  ga  SeTchaTe :::::::: 
its  close,  1774-89.] 

34.  Hon.  Caesar  Rodney . 

35.  Thomas  McKean  . 

36.  George  Read 



1.  Maj.  John  Sullivan... 

2.  Col.  Nathaniel  Folsora 

3.  Hon.  Thomas  Gushing 

4.  John  Adams 

5.  Samuel  Adams. ...... 

6.  Robert  Treat  Paine. . . 

7.  Hon.  Stephen  Hopkins 

8.  Hon.  Samuel  Ward.., 

9.  Hon.  Eliphalet  Dyer. 

10.  Hon.  Roger  Sherman, 

11.  Silas  Deane , 

12.  J-imes  Duane -. 

13.  Philip  Livingston 

14.  John  Jay 

Ih.  Isaac  Low 

16.  John  AIsop 

17.  John  HwTing 

18  Simon  P.oortira 

19.  Henry  Wi.suer 

state  Represented. 

iO.  CoL William noyd. 

(New  HampO 
shire j 

1  Massachu-  \ 
f     setts  Bay. ) 

I  Rhodelsland  1 
!  and  Provi-  1 
f  dence  Plan-  f 
j    tations  . ...  j 

>■  Connecticut. . . 

City     and 

county  o  f 
New  York, 
and  oilior 
counties  in 
province  of 
New  York. 

County  of 
Suffolk  in 
province  of 
New  York.. 


>  Virginia . 

40.  Thomas  Johnson... 

41.  Matthew  Tilghman. 

42.  Hon.  Peyton  Randolph 

43.  Patrick  Henry 

44.  Benjamin  Harrison. 
4.^.  George  Washington. 

46.  Richard  Bland 

47.  Edmund  Pendleton. 
July  21, 1774    48.  Richard  Henry  Lee. 

49.  Henry  Middleton... 

50.  Chri.s'toiiher  Gadsden. 
June  17, 1774    51.  Edward  Rutledge 

52.  John  Rutledge  ... 

53.  Thomas  Lynch.., 

54.  Richard  Caswell.. 
Aug.  10, 1774    55.  Joseph  Hewes... 

56.  William  Hooper. . 

Delegates  mentioned  above  not  present  at  first 
day  of  me«tirig. 


ew  Jersey . 

1  Pennsyl- 
f     vania. , 


\  New  Castle, 
I    Kent,     and 
}•  Sussex     on  !■ 
]    the      Dela-  [ 
J    ware J 

■  Maryland. 

i South  Caro-\ 
lina / 

}  North  Caro- 
(      lina 

July  13, 1774 

July  28, 1774 

July  28, 1774 


Richard  Henry  I^e. 
Thomas  .Johnson  . . 
Matthew  Tilghman 

Henry  Wisner 

John  Alsop 

George  Ross 

Jofioph  Hewes 

William  Hooper. . . . 

Richard  Caswell  . . 

John  Dickinson  ... 

John  Herring 

Simon  Boerum. ... 




I  New  York. ... 

Pennsylvania . 
\  North'  C^ro 

)      lina 

T_  North    Caro 
\       lina 


New  York   . . 

New  York . . . 

July  23, 1771 

July  22. 177* 

Aug.  1, 1774 

Jane  22, 1774 

Aug.  5,  1774 

July  6, 1771 

Aug.  25,  mt 

Date  of 


Seiit.  6,  1774 

Sept.  12,  " 
SepL  14,   " 

Sept  17, 

•p-    Of 
(HA.  1, 


Congress  resolves  "  that  in  determining 
questions,  eaeli  colony  or  province  shall 
liave  one  vote  " Sept.  G,   1774 

Rev.  Jacob  Duche  opens  Congress  with 
prayer Sept.  7,   1774 

Resolution  of  Suffolk,  Mass.,  convention 
(Sept.  6),  "that  no  obedience  is  due  to 
any  part  of  the  recent  acts  of  Parlia- 
ment," approved  by  Congress 

Sept.  10,  1774 

Congress  rejects  a  plan  for  union  with 
Great  Britain,  proposed  by  Joseph  Gallo- 
way, of  Pennsylvania,  as  intended  to  per- 
petuate dependence Sept.  28,  1774 

Battle  of  Point  Pleasant,  west  Vir- 
ginia  Oct.  10,  1774 

Congress  adopts  a  "  Declaration  of 
Colonial  Rights,"  claiming  self-government 

Oct.  14,  1774 

American  Association,  denouncing  for- 
eign slave-trade,  and  pledging  the  signers 
to  non-consumption  and  to  non-intercourse 
with  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  and  the 
British  West  Indies,  signed  by  fifty-two 
members  of  Congress Oct.  20,  1774 

''Address  to  the  People  of  Great  Brit- 
ain," prepared  by  John  Jay,  approved  by 
Congress Oct.   21,   1774 

Congress  adopts  a  "  Memorial  to  the 
Several   Anglo-American  Colonies  " 

Oct.  21,  1774 

A  letter  to  the  unrepresented  colonies  of 
St.  John,  N.  S.,  Georgia,  and  east  and 
west  Florida,  despatched  by  Congress 

Oct.  22,  1774 

Randolph  resigning  on  account  of  in- 
disposition, Henry  Middleton,  of  South 
Carolina,  succeeds  him  as  president  of 
Congress Oct.  22,  1774 

"  Petition  to  the  King  "  drawn  by  John 
Dickinson,  ordered  sent  to  colonial  agents 
in  London  by  Congress Oct.  25,  1774 

Congress  adopts  "  An  Address  to  the 
People  of  Quebec,"  drawn  by  Dickinson 

Oct.  26,  1774 

First  Continental  Congress  dissolved; 
fifty-two  days'  session  (actual  session 
thirty-one  days) Oct.  26,   1774 

[Proceedings  of  first  Continental  Con- 
gress endorsed  by  the  colonies:  Connecti- 
cut, November,  1774;  Massachusetts,  Dec. 
.5,  1774;  Maryland,  Dec.  8,  1774;  Rhode 
Island,  Dec.  8,  1774;  Pennsylvania,  Dec. 
10,  1774;  South  Carolina,  Jan.  11,  1775; 
New  Hampshire,  Jan.  25,  1775;  Delaware, 
March  15,  1775;  Virginia,  March  20,  1775; 

North    Carolina,     April     7,     1775;     New 
Jersey,  May  26,  1775.] 

Rhode  Island  colonists  seize  forty-four 
pieces   of   ordnance   at   Newport 

Dec.  6,  1774 

Maryland  convention  enrolls  the  militia 
and  votes  £10,000  to  purchase  arms 

Dec.  8-12,  1774 

New  Hampshire  freemen  seize  100  bar- 
rels of  powder  and  some  ordnance  at  Ports- 
mouth  Dec.  11,  1774 

Benjamin  Franklin  returns  from  Eng- 
land  April,    1775 

Delegates  from  Georgia  to  Congress  by 
letter  express  loyalty,  and  explain  inabil- 
ity to  attend April  8,  1775 

First  anti-slavery  society  in  the  United 
States  formed  by  Quakers  of  Philadel- 
phia  April  14,  1775 

Battle  of  Lexington,  Mass.,  at  dawn  of 
April  19,  1775 

[For  the  chronological  record  of  the  war 
for  independence  see  Revolutionary  War, 
in  vol.  vii.] 

Letters  from  England  to  public  officials 
in  America,  expressing  determination  of 
England  to  coerce  the  colonies,  intercept- 
ed at  Charleston,  S.  C April  19,  1775 

Second   Continental   Congress   meets   at 
Independence   Hall,    Philadelphia 

May  10,   1775 

[Peyton    Randolph,    president;    Charles 
Thomson,  secretary.] 

Colonies  Represented. 


Whet  Chosen. 



Nov.  3,  1774 


Dec.    5     ■' 


Dec.    8,    " 

Dec.  l.")     " 

New  Jersey 

Jan.  24,  1775 

Feb.  3,      " 


March  16   " 


March  20,  " 

North  Carolina '. ... 

April    5,     " 

April  22,    " 

May  6,    '« 

May  7,    " 

Pennsylvania  (additional).. 
Rhode  Island 

Articles  of  Union  and  Confederation 
agreed  upon  in  Congress.  .  .  .May  20,  1775 

Mecklenburg  declaration  of  indepen- 
dence signed May  20,  1775 

John  Hancock,  otf  Massachusetts,  chosen 
president  of  Congress May  24,  1775 

[Randolph  having  resigned  on  account 
of  ill-health.] 

Congress  adopts  an  "  Address  to  the 
Inhabitants  of  Canada" May  29,  1775 



Congress  adopts  a  second  petition  to  the  Henry     Laurens,     of     South     Carolina, 

King July   8,   1775  chosen    president   of    Congress    to    succeed 

Congress  organizes  a  systematic  super-  Hancock,  resigned  on  account  of  ill-health 

intendence  of  Indian  afl'airs.  .July  12,  1775  Nov.  1,  1777 

Benjamin    Franklin,    first    postmaster-  Gen.  John  Cadwallader  seriously  wounds 

general,  establishes  posts  from  Falmouth,  General  Conway  in  a  duel... Feb.  5,  1778 

Me.,  to  Savannah,  Ga July  26,  1775  Congress  prescribes  an  oath  for  officers 

Congress    adopts    an    "  Address    to    the    of  the  army February,  1778 

People  of  Ireland" July  28,   1775  Count  Pulaski  raises  a  legion  in  Mary- 
Resolved   by    Congress,    "  That   Michael    land    1778 

Hillegas    and    George    Clymer,    Esqs.,    be  Sixth    Continental    Congress    adjourns, 

joint  treasurers  of  the  United  Colonies  "       272  days'  session June  27,  1778 

July  29,  1775 

Peyton  Eandolph  died  at  Philadelphia  Seventh  Continental  Congress  meets  at 

Oct.  22,  1775    Philadelphia July  2,   1778 

Thomas  Paine  publishes  Common  Sense  [Henry  Laurens,  president.] 

Jan.  8,  1776  Francis  Hopkinson  elected  treasurer  of 

General   Thomas   died   of   small-pox   at   loans  by  Congress July  27,  1778 

Chambly June   2,    1776  Territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  oecu- 

Committee    appointed    by    Congress    to  pied  for  Virginia  by  ISIajor  Clarke,  is  con- 
draw  up  a  Declaration  of  Independence  stituted  a  county  of  Virginia  by  the  As- 

June  11,  1776  sembly,  and  named  Illinois.  .October,  1778 

Engrossed   declaration   signed   by   fifty-  Congress  advises  the   several   States  to 

four  delegates Aug.  2,  1776  take  measures  for  the  suppressing  of  "  the- 

First  society  of  Shakers  in  the  United  atrical  entertainments,  horse-racing,  gam- 
Colonies  reach  New  York,  1774,  and  settle  ing,  and  such  other  diversions  as  are  pro- 
at  Watervliet,  N.  Y September,  1776  ductive  of  idleness,  dissipation,  and  gen- 
Second    Continental    Congress     (Phila-  eral  depravity  of  principles  and  manners  " 
delphia)   adjourns;  582  days'  session  Oct.  12,  1778 

Dec.  12,  1776  Delegates    from    New    Jersey    sign    the 

Articles  of  Confederation.  .Nov.   26,   1778 

Third    Continental    Congress    meets    at  John  Jay,  of  New  York,  chosen  presi- 

Baltimore,  Md Dec.  20,  1776    dent  of  Congress Dec.   10,   1778 

[John  Hancock,  president.]  Thomas   Hutchins,   of   New   Jersey,   ap- 

Voted  in  Congress  "  that  an  authentic  pointed  "  geographer-general  of  the  United 

copy,   with   names   of   the   signers   of   the  States "  by  act  of   Congress,  which   office 

Declaration   of   Independence,   be   sent    to  he    holds    until    his    death    at    Pittsburg, 

each  of  the  United  States  " . .  Jan.  20,  1777    April  28,  1789 1778 

Third  Continental  Congress  (Baltimore)  Articles     of     Confederation     signed    by 

adjourns;    seventy-five    days'    session  Thomas   McKean,    of    Delaware,    Feb.    12, 

March  4,  1777  and  by  John  Dickinson,  of  Delaware 

May  5,  1779 

Fourth   Continental   Congress  meets   at  Samuel     Huntington,     of     Connecticut, 

Philadelphia March  4,  1777  chosen  president  of  Congress. Sept. 28, 1779 

[John  Hancock,  president.]  Legislature  of  New  York  empowers  its 

Fourth  Continental   Congress  adjourns,  delegates   to   cede   to   Congress   a   portion 

199  days'  session Sept.  18,  1777  of  its  western  territory  for  the  common 

benefit Feb.  19,  1780 

Fifth    Continental    Congress    meets    at  Bank  of  Pennsylvania,  the  first  in  the 

Lancaster,  Pa.,  and   adjourns;    one  day's  Unite''    States,   chartered   and   located   at 

session Sept.  27,  1777    Philadelphia March   1,   1780 

[Hancock,  president.]  "  Dark  Day  "  in  New  England 

May  19,  1780 

Sixth    Continental    Congress    meets    at  Congress    advises    States    to    surrender 

York,  Pa Sept.  30,  1777  their   territorial   claims   to   Western   land 

[Hancock,  president.]  for  the  general  benefit Sept.  6,  1780 



Congress  sends  the  ministers  to  France  newspaper  in  America,  issued  at  Philadel- 
and  Spain  a  statement  of  the  claims  of  phia  by  Benjamin  Franklin  Bache..l784 
the  United  States  to  lands  as  far  as  the  Fiscal  aflairs  of  the  United  States 
Mississippi  Eiver Oct.  17,  1780  placed  in  the  hands  of  three  commission- 
Robert  Morris  appointed  superintendent  ers  appointed  to  succeed  Robert  Morris 
of  finances  by  Congress Feb.  20,  1781  1784 

Delegates  from  Maryland  sign  the  Ar-  John  Jay  appointed  secretary  of  foreign 

tides  of  Confederation March   1,   1781  aflairs  in  place  of  Livingston,  resigned 

Thomas   McKean,   of   Delaware,   elected  March,  1784 

president  of  the  Continental  Congress  Ninth    Continental    Congress   adjourns; 

July  10,  1781    189  days'  session June  3,  1784 

John  Hanson,  of  Maryland,  chosen  presi-  General    Assembly    of    North    Carolina 

dent  of  Continental  Congress.  ..Nov.  5,  1781  cedes    her    western    lands    to    the    United 

Lafayette  sails  for  France  from  Boston  States  on  condition  of  acceptance  within 

in  th«  Alliance Dec.  22,   1781  two  years,  April,  1784,  but  repeals  the  act 

Congress    adopts   a   great    seal    for    the  Oct.  22,  1784 

United  States June  20,  1782  Washington  makes  a  tour  of  the  west- 

Elias  Boudinot,  of  New  Je  sey,  chosen  ern  country  to  ascertain  by  Avhat  means 

president  of  the  Continental  Congress  it  could  be  most  eflfectually  bound  to  the 

Nov.  4,  1782    Union 1784 

Constitution  for  the  Society  of  the  Cin-  

einnati   formed   at  the  army  quarters  on  Tenth    Continental    Congress    meets    at 

the  Hudson  River May  13,  1783    Trenton,  N.  J Nov.  1,  1784 

Washington  writes  on  the  situation  to  Richard  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  chosen 

each  of  the  State  governors.  .June  8,  1783  president  of  Continental  Congress 

Seventh  Continental  Congress  adjourns;  Nov.  30,  1784 

session,   1,816  days June  21,   1783  Tenth    Continental    Congress   adjourns; 

[The   longest   session  ever   held   in   the  fifty-four   days'   session. ..  .Dec.   24,    1784 

United  States.]  

Eleventh  Continental  Congress  meets  at 

Eighth   Continental   Congress  meets  at    New  York Jan.   11,    1785 

Princeton Jvme   30,   1783  [Richard  H.  Lee,  president.] 

[Elias  Boudinot,  president.]  Gen.   Henry   Knox   appointed   Secretary 

Thomas  Mifflin,  of  Pennsylvania,  chosen  of  War  with  added  duties  of  Secretary  of 

president  of  the  Continental  Congress  Navy March   8,   1785 

Nov.  3,  1783  Franklin,    minister    to    France,    obtains 

Eighth  Continental  Congress  adjourns;  leare  to  return;  Jefferson  is  appointed 

127  days'  session Nov.  4,  1783  March  10,  1785 

Dispute  between  the  United  States  and 

"Ninth    Continental    Congress    meets    at  Spain    on    navigation    of    the    Mississippi 

Annapolis,  Md Nov.   26,   1783  River  and  the  boundaries  of  the  Floridas 

[Thomas  MiSlin,  president.]  1785 

General    Washington    bids    farewell    to  Massachusetts     cedes     to     the     United 

his    officers    at   Fraunce's    Tavern,    corner  States   her   claims   to   lands   west   of   the 

Pearl  and  Broad  streets.  New  York  City  Niagara  River,  in  accordance  with  an  act 

Dec.  4,  1783  of  legislature  of  Nov.   13,   1784 

Washington   resigns  his   commission   as  April  19,  1785 

commander-in-chief     at     the     State-house,  John   Adams   appointed   minister   pleni- 

Annapolis,    Md.,    and    retires    to    Mount  potentiary  to  Great  Britain.  Feb.  24,  and 

Vernon Dec.    23,     1783  received  at  the  Court  of  George  III. 

Congress    ratifies    the    definitive    treaty  June   1,   1785 

of    peace Jan.    14,    1784  Don     Diego    Gardoqui,    minister     from 

Congress   accepts   cession   of   Northwest  Spain  to  the  United  States,  recognized  by 

Territory   by    Virginia;    deeds    signed    by    Congress July  2,  1785 

Virginia   delegates March    1,    1784  Treaty    of    amity    and    commerce    con- 

Amcrican  Daily  Advertiser,  first  daily  eluded  between  the  King  of  Prussia  and 



the  United  States,  and  signed  by  Thomas 
Jefferson  at  Paris,  July  28,  Benjamin 
Franklin  at  Passy,  July  9,  and  J.  Adams 
at  London Aug.  5,  1785 

Franklin  returns  to  Philadelphia  from 
France,  after  an  absence  of  nine  years, 
landing Sept.  13,  1785 

State  of  Frankland  formed  from  western 
lands  of  North  Carolina ..  November,  1785 

Eleventh  Continental  Congress  ad- 
journs; 298  days'  session. ..  .Nov.  4,  1785 

Ordinance  establisiiing  a  United  States 
mint  passed  by  Congress. ..  .Oct.  16,  1786 

Twelfth  Continental  Congress  adjourns; 
362  days'  session Nov.  3,  1786 

Ticelfth  Continental  Congress  meets  at 
New  York Nov.  7,  1785 

John  Hancock,  of  Massachusetts,  chosen 
president  of  the  Continental  Congress 

Nov.  23,   1785 
[Did  not  serve  owing  to  illness.] 

James  Rumsey  succeeds  in  propelling  a 
boat  by  steam  and  machinery  on  the  Po- 
tomac."^ March,    1786 

First  spinning-jenny  in  the  United 
States  put  in  operation  by  Daniel  Jackson, 
of  Providence,  R.  1 1786 

Nathaniel  Gorham  chosen  president  of 
the  Continental  Congress ....  June  6,  1786 

Gen.  Nathanael  Greene  dies  at  Mulberry 
Grove,  Ga June   19,   1786 

Ordinance  establishing  the  coinage  pass- 
ed  August,  1786 

Delegates  from  Virginia,  Pennsylvania, 
Delaware,  New  Jersey,  and  New  York,  at 
Annapolis,  Md.,  consider  the  condition  of 
the  nation,  and  request  all  the  States  to 
send  delegates  to  a  convention  at  Phila- 
delphia in  May  folloAving.  .Sept.   11,   1786 

Connecticut  makes  a  qualified  cession  to 
the  United  States  of  all  territory  south  of 
41°  N.  lat.,  and  west  of  a  line  120  miles 
west  of  Pennsylvania Sept.  14,  1786 

Shays's  Rebellion  in  Massachusetts 


Thirteenth  Continental  Congress  meets 
at  New  York Nov.  6,  1786 

Arthur  St.  Clair,  of  Pennsylvania, 
chosen  president  of  Congress.  .Feb.  2,  1787 

Congress  advises  the  States  to  send  del- 
egates to  a  convention  in  Philadelphia  to 
revise  the  Articles  of  Confederation,  to 
meet  May  14 Feb.  21,  1787 

Congress  by  ordinance  provides  govern- 
ment for  the  territory  northwest  of  the 
Ohio  (now  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michi- 
gan, and  Wisconsin) July  13,  1787 

Treaty  between  the  United  States  and 
Morocco  ratified July  18,  1787 

South  Carolina  cedes  to  the  United 
States  her  claims  to  a  strip  12  miles 
wide  west  of  a  line  from  the  head  of  the 
Tugaloo  River  to  the  North  Carolina  bor- 
der  Aug.  9,  1787 

Delegates  to  the  convention  sign  the  Con- 
stitution   Sept.  17,  1787 

Thirteenth  Continental  Congress  ad- 
journs; 359  days'  session Oct.  30,  1787 

Fourteenth  Continental  Congress  meets 
at  New  York Nov.  5,   1787 

Spanish  intrigues  in  Kentucky. ...  1788 

Cyrus  Griffin,  of  Virginia,  chosen  pres- 
ident of  Continental  Congress. Jan.  22,  1788 

Method  for  putting  the  new  government 
into  operation  reported  by  the  committee 
adopted  by  Congress Sept.  13,  1788 

Fourteenth  and  last  Continental  Congress 
adjourns;  353  days'  session.  .Oct.  21,  1788 

Electors  in  the  several  States  vote  for 
President  and  Vice-President 

February,  1789 


First   Administration — Federal. 

March  4,   1789,  to  March   3,   1793. 
Seat  of  Government,  New  York  City, 
1789,  and  Philadelphia  from  Dec.  6,  1790. 
George  Washington,  Virginia,  President. 
John  Adams,  Massachusetts,  Vice-Presi- 

First     Congress,     first     session,     moots, 

New  York April  6,  1789 


Speaker  of  the  House,  F.  A.  Muhlenberg. 

Electoral  vote  coimted.  George  Wash- 
ington, of  Virginia,  receives  the  entire 
olcctoral  vote,  69,  and  is  chosen  Presi- 
dent; and  John  Adams,  of  Massachusetts, 
rocoives  34  votes  and  becomes  Vice-Presi- 
dent  April  6,  1789 

President  takes  the  oath  of  office,  New 
York April    30,    1789 

First  tariff  biU  passes. ..  .July  4,  1789 




Department  of  Foreign  Affairs  organ- 
ized  July  27,  1789 

Act  organizing  the  War  (and  Navy) 
Department Aug.    7,    1789 

Gen.  Arthur  St.  Clair  appointed  governor 
of  the  Northwest  Territory.  .  .Aug.  7,  1789 

Treasury  Department  organized 

Sept.  2,  1789 

This  name  is  changed  to  State  Depart- 
ment  Sept.  15,  1789 

Post-office  Department  temporarily  es- 
tablished  Sept.    22,    1789 

Office  of  Attorney-General  organized 

Sept.  24,  1789 

Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  es- 
tablished, with  John  Jay,  of  New  York, 
as  chief -justice September,  1789 

Twelve  Amendments  to  the  Constitution 
submitted  to  the  States  for  ratification 

Sept.  25,  1789 

[Ten  of  these  ratified,  taking  effect 
Dec.  15,  1791.] 

Thomas  Jefferson,  of  Virginia,  the  min- 
ister to  France,  appointed  Secretary  of 
State Sept.   26,    1789 

First  session  adjourns. .  .Sept.  29,  1789 

President  visits  Northern  and  Eastern 
States Oct.    15,    1789 

North  Carolina  ratifies  the  Constitu- 
tion  Nov.  21,  1789 

Second  session  meets.  New  York 

Jan.  4,  1790 

First  annual  message  from  the  Presi- 
dent  Jan.   4,    1790 

Secretary  Hamilton  reports  on  the  pub- 
lic debt Jan.  14,  1790 

[He  proposed  that  the  government — 
First,  Fund  and  pay  the  foreign  debt  of 
'ihe  Confederation  ($12,000,000)  ;  second, 
Fimd  and  pay  the  domestic  debt  ($40,- 
000,000)  ;  third,  Assume  and  pay  the  un- 
paid war  debt  ($21,500,000)  of  the  States. 
The  last  proposition  was  strongly  op- 
.posed,  but  was  finally  carried:  Senate,  14 
to  12;  House,  34  to  28.] 

North  Carolina  cedes  her  western  ter- 
?itory  to  the  United  States.  .Feb.  25,  1790 

An  act  ordering  a  census  passed 

March  1,  1790 

Franklin  dies  at  Philadelphia,  aged 
eighty-four April   17,  1790 

Act  of  Congress  for  the  government  of 
the  Southwest  Territory. .  .May  26,   1790 

Rhode  Island  ratifies  the  Constitution 

May  29.  1790 
[The  last  of  the  thirteen  colonies.] 

An  act  passed  by  32  to  29 — House — au* 
thorizing  the  acquisition  of  the  District 
of  Columbia  for  the  seat  of  government 

July  10,  1790 

First  national  census  begun;  popula- 
tion enumerated  as  of Aug.  1,  1790 

Treaty  with  the  Creek  Indians 

Aug.  7,  1790 

Tariff  bill  amended  by  increasing  duties 
Aug.   10,   1790 

Second  session  adjourns.  .Aug.  12,  1790 

General  Harmar's  and  Colonel  Hardin's 
expedition  against  the  Indians  defeated 
in  northwestern  Ohio.... Oct.  17-20,  1790 

Third  session,  Philadelphia,  opens 

Dec.  6,  1790 

Vermont,  the  fourteenth  State,  ad- 
mitted   Jan.    18,    1791 

Act  incorporating  Bank  of  the  United 
States Feb.  8,  1791 

[Bank  to  be  at  Philadelphia;  might 
establish  branches ;  chartered  for  twenty 
years;   capital,  $10,060,000.] 

An  act  taxing  imported  spirits,  with 
new  duty  on  domestic  spirits 1791 

First  Congress  adjourns.  .March  3,  1791 

[An  able  Congresc-.  In  two  years  it 
provided  a  competent  revenue,  funded  the 
public  debt,  and  gave  the  young  nation 
a  respectable  standing  in  the  world.] 

Great  Britain  appoints  her  first  minis- 
ter, George  Hammond,  to  the  United 
States Aug.  7,  1791 

Second  Congress,  first  session,  opens 
at  Philadelphia Oct.   24,   1791 

Speaker  of  the  House,  Jonathan  Trum- 
bull,  of   Connecticut. 

Gen.  Arthur  St.  Clair's  expedition 
against  the  Indians  of  Ohio  surprised  and 
routed ' Nov.    4,    1791 

Congress  grants  a  bounty  for  fishing- 
vessels Feb.   16,   1792 

Post-office  department  reorganized 

Feb.  20,  1792 

United    States   mint   established 

April  2,  1792 

Tariff   amended May   2,    1792 

Laws  organizing  the  militia .  .May  8,  1792 

First  session  adjourns May  8,  1792 

Capt.  Robert  Gray,  in  the  Columbia, 
discovers  the  mouth  (lat.  46°  10'  N.)  of 
the  river  Columbia May  11,  1792 

Kentucky  admitted  (the  fifteenth  State) 
June    1,    1792 

Second   session   opens   at   Philadelphia 
Nov.    5,    1702 



Second  Presidential  election  Nor.  6,  1792  nation,  under  penalty  of  forfeiture  of  the 
President's  salary  fixed  at  $25,000  vessel  and  fine  of  $2,000.  .March  22,  1794 
Feb.  8,  1793        In  retaliation  against  England,  an  em- 
Electoral  count Feb.  13,  1793  bargo   is   laid   on  all   shipping,   continued 

[George    Washington,    of    Virginia,    re-  for   sixty  days March   26,    1794 

eeived    132    electoral    votes     (all)  ;    John        Senate  ceases  to  sit  with  closed  doors 

Adams,   of  Massachusetts,   77   votes;    and  March  27,  1794 

George  Clinton,  opposition,  50.]  President  nominates  John  Jay  as  envoy 

Second  Congress  adjourns  extraordinary  to  England.  .April  16,  1794 

March  2,  1793        Gouverneur  Morris  recalled  as  minister 

.„  to  France,  and  James  Monroe  appointed. 

Second  Administration — Federal.  -^      27    1794 

March  4,   1793,  to  March  3,   1797.  An  act  relating  to  neutrality  passed 

Seat  OF  Go^TiRNMENT,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  June  5,  1794 

George  Washington,  Virginia,  Presi-  Posfc-office  Department  permanently  es- 
dent.  tablished 1794 

John  Adams,  Massachusetts,  Vice-  Tariff  act  of  1792  further  amended  by 
President.  increasing  the  ad  valorem  rates  of  duty 

"Citizen"  Genet  of  France,  as  minister  June  7,  1794 

to  the  United  States,  arrives  at  Charles-        First    session    adjourns.  .June    9,    1794 
ton,   S.   C. ;    warmly   received  Whiskey  insurrection  in  western  Penn- 

Aprjl   9,   1793    sylvania July-November,  1794 

Eli  Whitney  invents  the  cotton-gin;  Gen.  Anthony  W^ayne  defeats  the  Ind- 
marked   effect   on   slavery 1793    ians  near  Maumee  Eapids,  in  Ohio 

President  issues  his  celebrated  procla-  Aug.  20,  1794 
mation  of  neutrality  (severely  criticised  French  minister  Fanchet's  despatch  sup- 
by  the  opposition).! April  22,  1793    posed   to   compromise   Edmund   Randolph, 

French  government  directs  the  seizure  Secretary  of  State,  intercepted  by  the 
of  vessels  carrying  supplies  to  an  enemy's  British,  and  shown  to  the  United  States 
port May  9,   1793    government;  Eandolph  resigns 1794 

Great    Britain    orders    her    ships-of-war        Second    session    opens    at    Philadelphia, 

to  stop  all  vessels  laden  with  French  sup-    Pa Nov.  3,   1794 

plies  and  turn  them  into  British  ports  Draft  of  treaty  with  England  agreed  to 

June   8,   1793    by  John  Jay,  special  envoy.. Nov.  19,  1794 

Minister  Genet's  recall  asked  for  by  Stringent  naturalization  law  passed,  re- 
the  government August,   1793    quiring  renunciation  of  titles  of  nobility 

Corner-stone  of  the  United  States  Cap-  Jan.  29,  1795 

itol  laid  by  Washington. .  .Sept,   18,  1793        Act  passed   for  gradual   redemption  of 

Followers  of  Jefferson  begin  to  assume   public  debt 1795 

the   name    of    Pvcpublicans,    in    opposition        Hamilton,    Secretary   of    the    Treasury, 

to    the    Federalists,    under    leadership    of   resigns January,   1795 

Alexander  Hamilton 1793        Third  Congress  adjourns.  .March  3,  1793 

Third  Congress,  first  session,  opens  at  President  calls  the  Senate  together  to 
Philadelphia,'  Pa Dec.  2,  1793    consider  the  Jay  treaty  with  England 

Thomas  Jefferson  retires  from  State  De-  June  8,  1795 

partm-nt December,    1793        General  Wayne's  treaty  with  the  Ohio 

An    amendment    (the    eleventh)    to   the    Indians    at   Greenville;    they   cede   25,000 

Constitution  approved  by  Congress,  secur-    square  miles Aug.  3,  1795 

ing    States   against   suits   in    the   United        Washington  signs  the  Jay  treaty 

States  courts March  5,   1794  Aug.  14,  1795 

[Declared  in  force,  Jan.  8,  1798.]  Treaty  with  Algiers  to  ransom  prisoners 

Act  authorizing  the  construction  of  six    taken  by  corsairs,  and  to  pay  annual  trib- 

ehips-of-war,  the  foundation  of  the  Unit-    ute  of  $23,000  to  the  Dey Sept.  5,  17p5 

ed  States  navy March  11,  1794        Treaty   with    Spain,    opening   the   Mis- 

An  act  is  passed  forbidding  any  Ameri-    sissippi  and  establishing  boundaries 
can    vessel    to    supply    slaves    to    another  Oct.  20,  1795 



Fourth  Congress,  first  session,  opens  at  consider    the    threatening    relations    with 

Philadelphia,  Pa Dec.  7,  1795    France March  25,  1797 

Proclamation  of  the  Jay  treaty  Fifth    Con<jrcss,    first    session     (extra), 

Marcli    1,   1796  assembles  at  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

House  demands  the  papers  relating  to  May  15,  1797 

the  Jay  treaty March   24,   1796  Speaker  of  the  House,  Jonathan  Dayton, 

[President  declined,  the  House  being  no  of  New  Jersey,  Federalist, 

part  of  the  treaty-making  power.]  Congress   subjects  to  a  fine  of  $10,000 

Jefferson    writes    the    famous    "  Mazzei  and  ten  years'  imprisonment  any  citizen 

lettar,"   about April   21,    1796  concerned  in  privateering  against  a  friend- 

[The  publication  of  this  letter,  about  a    ly  nation June  14,  1797 

year  later,  severs  all  friendly  relations  be-  Congress    authorizes    the    President    to 

tween  Washington  and  Jefferson.]  raise  80,000  militia  for  three  months — the 

Fisher  Ames's  speech  before  the  House  quota   from  Tennessee,   the   smallest,   806, 

on  the  Jay  treaty  with  England  and  Massachusetts,  the  largest,  11,836 

April  28,  1796  June  24,  1797 

House  agrees  to  sustain  Jay's  treaty  President    empowered    to    employ    the 

April  30,  1796  frigates    Constitution,    Constellation,    and 

Tennessee      admitted       (the      sixteenth  United  States  (see  1794)  ...  .July  1,  1797 

State) June  1,  1796  Duties    on    stamped    vellum    parchment 

First  session  adjourns.  ..  .June  1,  1796  and  paper,  receipts,  bonds,  bills,  insurance 

New  treaty  with  the  Creek  Indians  policies,  certificates,  etc.,  by  act  of 

June  29,  1796  July  6,  1797 

Washington's    "  Farewell    Address"    is-        A  duty  on  salt  levied July  8,  1797 

sued,  refusing  to  accept  ofiice  again  Senate  expels  William  Blount,  of  Ten- 
Sept.  19,  1796    nessee July  9,  1797 

Charles    C.    Pinckney    succeeds    James  First  session  adjourns.  ..  .July  10,  1797 

Monroe  as  minister  to  France  President    appoints    John    Marshall,    oi 

September,    1796  Virginia,   and   Elbridge  Gerry,   of   Massa- 

Third  Presidential  election. Nov,  8,  1796  chusetts,  with  C.  C.  Pinckney,  as  commis- 

Second    session    opens    at    Philadelphia,  sioners  to  treat  with  France;   they  meet 

Pa Dec.   6,    1796    at  Paris Oct.  4,  1797 

Congress  assembles  in  the  House  for  the  [Commissioners  asked  to  bribe  members 

purpose  of  counting  the  electoral  vote  of  French  Directory,  but  indignantly  re- 

Feb.  8,  1797  fuse.     Talleyrand,  the  French  Minister  of 

[At   this    time   was    illustrated   one   of  Foreign    Affairs,    implicated.      Mr.    Mar- 

the  great  faults  in  the  Constitution  rela-  shall   and   Mr.    Pinckney  ordered   out   of 

tive  to  the  election  of  President  and  Vice-  France.     C.  C.  Pinckney  declared  that  the 

President    prior    to    the    Twelfth    Amend-  United  States  had  "  millions  for  defence, 

ment — Adams,  a  strong  Federalist,  Presi-  but  not  one  cent  for  tribute."] 

dent,   and  Jefferson,   in   direct  opposition  Second    session    assembles    at    Philadel- 

to  that  party,  Vice-President.]  phia.  Pa Nov.  13,  1797 

Charles  C.  Pinckney,  United  States  min-  First    personal    encounter    in    Congress 

ister,  not  received  by  the  French  govern-  between  Matthew  Lyon,  of  Vermont,  and 

ment,  leaves  France February,   1797  Roger     Griswold,     of     Connecticut;      the 

Fourth  Congress  adjourns  House  fails  to  censure  or  punish 

March  3,  1797  Feb.  12-15,  1798 

^            .  Mississippi  Territory  organized 

Third  Administration — Federal.  April  3   1798 

March  4,  1797,  to  March  3,  1801.  Congress  makes  provision  for  the  gov- 

Seat  of  Government,  Philadelphia,  un-  ernment  of   the  Territory   of   Mississippi 

til  1800,  then  transferred  to  Washington.  April  7,   1798 

John  Adams,  Massachusetts,  President.  Navy  Department  organized 

Thomas  Jefferson,  Virginia,  Vice-Presi-  April  30,  1798 

dent.  Secretary  of  the  Navy  appointed 

Special    session   of   Congress    called    to  May  3,  1798 



Harper's  Ferry  selected  as  site  for  a 
government  armory  and  manufactory 

May  4,  1798 

Congress  authorizes  a  provisional  army, 
and  empowers  tlie  President,  in  case  of  an 
actual  declaration  of  war  or  invasion,  to 
enlist,  for  three  years,  10,000  men 

May    28,    1798 

Congress  authorizes  the  President  to  in- 
struct commanders  of  ships-of-war  to  seize 
French  armed  vessels  attacking  American 
merchantmen  or  hovering  about  the  coast 
for  that  purpose May  28,  1798 

Song  "  Hail,  Columbia!"  first  sung 

May,  1798 

Imprisonment  for  debt  abolished 

June  6,  1798 

Commercial  intercourse  with  France 
suspended June  12,  1798 

Washington  accepts  appointment  as 
commander-in-chief,  with  rank  of  lieii- 
tenant-general , .  June  17,  1798 

Uniform  rule  of  naturalization  adopted 
June  18,  1798 

President  announces  the  failure  of  the 
commission  sent  to  France  to  make  peace 

June    21,    1798 

Alien  act  passed  (alien  and  sedition 
laws) June  25,  1798 

All  French  treaties  declared  void 

July  6,  1798 

[The  tenor  of  judicial  opinion  has  been 
that  France  and  the  United  States  were 
not  at  war,  although  naval  engagements 
took  place.] 

Marine  corps  first  organized  by  act  of 

July  11,   1798 

Sedition  laws  passed  (alien  and  sedi- 
tion laws) July  14,  1798 

Second  session  adjourns.  .July  16,  1798 

By  treaty  the  Cherokees  allow  a  free 
passage  through  their  lands  in  Tennessee 
to  all  travellers  on  the  road  to  Kentucky 
passing  through  Cumberland  Gap 

Oct.   2,   1798 

Trial  of  Matthew  Lyon,  of  Vermont, 
before  Judge  Patterson,  under  the  sedition 
law Oct.  7,   1798 

Third  session  assembles  at  Philadelphia, 
Pa Dec.  3,  1798 

United  States  frigate  Constellation, 
Com.  Thomas  Truxtun,  captures  the 
French  ship-of-war  I/Insurgente  off  the 
island  of  St.  Kitts Feb.  9,  1799 

General  Post-ofTice  established  by  act  of 
March  2,  1799 

Act  to  regulate  the  collection  of  duties 
and  tonnage,  and  to  establish  ports  of 
entry March  2,  1799 

Estimates  for  the  year  amount  to  over 
$13,000,000    1799 

Fifth  Congress  adjourns.  .March  3,  1799 

Upon  assurance  from  France  that  a 
representative  from  the  United  States  will 
be  received  with  the  "  respect  due  a  power- 
ful nation,"  President  nominates  William 
Van  Murray  as  minister  to  France,  and 
associates  with  him  Chief-Justice  Ells- 
worth, of  Connecticut,  and  Governor 
Davie,  of  North  Carolina;  all  are  received 
by  Napoleon,  first  consul.  .March  30,  1799 

Sixth  Congress,  first  session,  assembles 
at  Philadelphia,  Pa Dec.  2,  1799 

Speaker  of  the  House,  Theodore  Sedg- 
wick, Massachusetts. 

George  Washington  dies.. Dec.  14,  1799 

Eulogy  before  Congress  by  Henry  Lee,  of 
Virginia,  calling  him  "  First  in  war,  first 
in  peace,  and  first  in  the  hearts  of  his 
countrymen  " Dec.  26,   1799 

United  States  frigate  Constellation, 
Com.  Thomas  Truxtun,  defeats  the  French 
frigate  La  Vengeance Feb.  1,  1800 

General  banki'uptcy  act.  .  .  .April  4,  1800 

Territory   of    Indiana   organized 

May  7,  1800 

Stricter  law  against  the  slave-trade 

May  10,  1800 

Congress  establishes  four  land  oSices  for 
the  sale  of  public  lands  in  the  North- 
west Territory  (Ohio)  .....  .May  10,  1800 

Connecticut  resigns  jurisdiction  over 
the  Western  Reserve May  13,   1800 

First  session  (last  meeting  in  Phila- 
delphia)  adjourns May  14,  1800 

President  Adams  removes  Timothy 
Pickering,  Secretary  of  State,  and  James 
McHenry,  Secretary  of  War May,  1800 

United  States  government  removes  from 
Philadelphia  to  the  new  capital,  Wash- 
ington  July,   1800 

Frigate  George  Washington,  Capt.  Will- 
iam Bainbridge,  carries  to  Algiers  the 
Dey's  tribute-money,  and  is  required  to 
carry  the  Dey's  ambassador  to  Con- 
stantinople  September,    1800 

Envoys  to  France  negotiate  a  convention 
for  eight  years,  preventing  open  war 

Sept.  30,  1800 

[Ratified  by  France,  July  31,  1801,  and 
by  the  United  States,  Dec.  19,  1801.  Un- 
der this  treaty  the  claims  for  indemnity, 



known  as  the  "  French  Spoliation  Claims,"  establishment    of    17'JG — one    regiment    of 

have  been  the  subject  of  frequent  reports  artillery  and  two  of  infantry — and  orgJin- 

and  discussions  in  Congress,  with  no  result  izes  a  military  academy  at  West  Point 

until   referred   to   the   court  of  claims  by  March  16,  1802 

th«  act  of  Jan.  20,   1885.]  Excise  tax  repealed.  ..  .March   16,   1802 

Spanish  government  cedes  Louisiana  to  Naturalization   laws   of    1798   repealed; 

France  by  the  secret  treaty  of   St.   Ilde-    those  of  1795  restored April  14,  1802 

fonso Oct.  1,  1800  Georgia   cedes  her  western  territory  to 

Fourth  Presidential  election  the  United  States April  24,   1802 

Nov.  11,  1800  Library    of    Congress    catalogued,    con- 
Second  session   (first  meeting  in  Wash-  taining  964  volumes  and  9  maps 

ington,  D.   C.) Nov.   17,   1800  April,  1802 

Capitol  building  burned  at  Washington  First  session  adjourns May  3,  1802 

Jan.  19,  1801  Washington  incorporated  as  a  city 

John  Marshall  appointed  chief-justice  May,  1802 

Jan.  20,  1801  Ohio  adopts  a  State  constitution 
Electoral  votes  counted.  .  .  .Feb.  11,  1801  Nov.  29,  1802 
Congress  assumes  jurisdiction  over  the  Second  session  convenes. ..  .Dec.  6,  1802 
District  of  Columbia Feb.  27,  1801  Ohio   admitted   as   a  State    (the   seven- 
Navy  reduced   to   thirteen   vessels;    the    teenth) Feb.   19,   1803 

rest  to  be  disarmed  and  sold  Seventh   Congress   adjourns 

March   3,   1801  March  3,  1803 
[Among  those  reserved  were  the  frigates  Treaty  with  France :   the  United  States 
United     States,     Constitution,     President,  purchases   Louisiana   for   $15,000,000 
Chesapeake,    Philadelphia,    Constellation,  April  30,  1803 
Congress.]  Eighth     Congress,     first     session,     con- 
Sixth  Congress  adjourns.  .March  3,  1801    venes Oct.    17,    1803 

T-,                .                                 T>.  Speaker  of  the  House,  Nathaniel  Macon, 

Fourth  Administeation — Democratic-  -vr    fi    p    ,  i- 

Republican,  March  4,  1801,  to  March  3,  „       i.         i.-^'     ^i      ^      ^        -xi    -r. 

-.Qf,^  Senate   ratines  the  treaty  with   France 

by  vote  of  24  to  7 Oct.  20,  1803 

Seat  of  Government,  at  Washington.  President    authorized    by    Congress    to 

Thomas  Jefferson,  Virginia,  President.  take  possession  of  Louisiana.  .Oct  30,  1803 

Aaron  Burr,  New  York,  Vice-President.  Frigate  Philadelphia,   forty  -  four  guns. 

Three  frigates  and  one  sloop-of-war  sent  Captain    Bainbridge,    pursuing   Tripolitan 

to  the  Barbary  coast  to  protect  our  com-  ship-of-war,  strikes  a  rock  in  the  harbor 

merce,  commanded  by  Com.  Richard  Dale  of  Tripoli  and  is  captvired.  .  .  .Oct.  31,  1803 

May  20,  1801  Independence  of  Haiti  proclaimed 

Tripoli  declares  war  against  the  United  Nov.  29,  1803 

States June  10,  1801  Twelfth    Amendment    to    the    Constitu- 

Seventh    Congress,    first    session,     con-  tion,    relative    to    electing    the    President 

venes Dec.  7,  1801  and  Vice-President,  passed  by  the  Senate, 

Speaker  of  the  House,  Nathaniel  Macon,    22   to   10 Dec.   2,    1803 

North  Carolina.  Same  passed  by  the  House — 83  to  42 

[President    Jefferson    sends    a    written  Dec.   12,  1803 

message  to   Congress  and  announces  that  New    Orleans    delivered    to    the    UniteA. 

no  answer  is  expected.     No  President  has    States Dec.   20,   1803 

since  addressed  Congress  orally.]  Lieut.  Stephen  Decatur,  with  the  ketch 

Congress  appoints  John  Beekley,  of  Vir-  Intrepid,  destroys  the  Philadelphia  in  the 

ginia,  librarian,  with  a  room  of  the  Capitol  harbor  of  Tripoli   under  the  guns  of  the 

for  the  library Jan.  26,  1802  castle,  without  losing  a  man,  night  of 

Congress  recognizes  the  war  with  Tripoli  Feb.   16,  1804 

Feb.   6,   1802  Impeachment    of    Samuel    Chase,    Asso- 

Repeal  of  the  new  circuit  act  ciate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  trkil 

March  8,  1802    begun February,    1804 

Congress  reduces  the  army  to  the  peace  [Acquitted  March,  1805.] 



Louisiana    Purchase    divided    into    the    off    Sandy    Hook,    and    kills    the    helms- 
territory  of  New  Orleans  and  the  District   man April  25,  1806 

of   Louisiana March   26,    1804        Great     Britain     issues    an     "Order     in 

Council "    declaring    the    whole    coast    of 
Europe,  from  the  Elbe  to  Brest,  in  France, 

under  blockade May   16,   1806 

Napoleon  issues  the  Berlin  Decree 

Nov.  21,  1800 
Second  session  convenes.  .Dec.  1,  1806 
Treaty    with    Great    Britain    signed    by 

First  session  adjourns.  .March  27,  1804 
Capt.  INleriwether  Lewis,  of  the  1st  In- 
fantry, and  Lieut.  William  Clark,  ap- 
pointed to  explore  the  Missouri  River  and 
seek  water  communication  with  the  Pacific 
coast,    enter   the   Missouri   River 

May  14,  1804 

Burr,   Vice-President,   mortally   wounds    commissioners,  but  the  President  did  not 

Alexander    Hamilton    in    a    duel   at    Wee- 
hawken,  N.  J.,  Hamilton  having  fired  in 

the  air July   11,   1804 

Twelfth  Amendment  being  accepted  by 
two-thirds  of  the  States — Massachusetts, 
Connecticut,    and   Delaware   only    dissent- 

even  send  it  to  the  Senate.. Dec.  3,   1806 
Aaron   Burr's   supposed   conspiracy  cul- 
minates     1806 

Burr    arrested    by    Lieutenant    Gaines, 

near    Fort    Stoddart,    Ala.. Feb.    19,    1807 

Act  to  prohibit  import  of   slaves   from 

ing— is  declared  ratified Sept.  25,  1804    Jan.    1,    1808,   passes   the   House,   Feb.    7, 

Second  session  convenes Nov.  4,  1804    1807,  by  113  to  5;  approved 

Fifth   Presidential   election 

Nov.  13,  1804 
Territory     of     Michigan     formed     from 

Indiana Jan.   11,  1805 

Electoral  vote  counted Feb.  13,  1805 

Twenty-five    gunboats    ordered    for    the 
protection  of  ports  and  harbors 

March  2,  1805 

March  2,  1807 
Duty  on  salt  repealed.  .March  3,  1807 
Ninth  Congress  adjourns.. March  3,  1807 
Burr  brought  to  Richmond,  Va.,  early  in 
March,  1807 
His  trial  for  treason  begins  there 

May  22,   1807 
British     frigate     Leopard,     fifty     guns, 

[This  measure  was  urged  by  President  Captain  Humphreys,  fires  into  the  United 

Jefferson,  but  proved  to  be  useless.]  States     frigate     Chesapeake,     Commodore 

Genesee  and  Buffalo  Creek,  N.  Y.,  made  Barron,  off  Chesapeake  Bay,  killing  three 

ports  of  entry March  3,   1805  and  wounding  eight,  and  takes  four   sea- 

Eighth  Congress  ad jovirns. March  3,  1805 
[With  this  Congress  closes  the  political 
life  of  Aaron  Burr.] 

Fifth  Administration  —  Democratic- 
Republican,  March  4,  1805,  to  March  3, 

Thomas  Jefferson,  Virginia,  President. 

George  Clinton,  New  York,  Vice-Presi- 

Treaty  of  peace  with  Tripoli 

June  3,  1805 

Abiel  Holmes's  American  Annals  first 
published    1805 

'Ninth  Congress,  first  session,  convenes 

Dec.    2,    1805 

Speaker  of  the  House,  Nathaniel  Macon, 
North  Carolina. 

Commission    authorized    to    lay    out    a    her   allies   except  under   tribute   to   Great 

national    road   from   Cumberland,  Md.,   to    Britain Nov.   11,   1807 

the  Ohio  River March   29,   1800        Napoleon's   Milan    decree   forbids   trade 

First  session   adjourns.  .April   21,   1806    with    England    or   her    colonies,    and    con- 

Leander,    a    British    naval    vessel,    fires    fiscates  any  vessel  paying  tribute  or  sub- 
into   an    American    coaster,    the    Richard,    mitting  to  English  search.  ..  .Dec.  17,  1807 


men,  claiming  them  as  British  subjects 

June  22,   1807 

[Barron  was  suspended  by  a  court- 
martial  for  five  years  without  pay  and 
emoluments,  for  making  no  resistance  and 
surrendering  his  ship.] 

American  ports  closed  to  the  British, 
and  British  ships  ordered  from  American 
waters July,  1807 

First    steamboat,    the    Clermont     (Ful- 
ton's ) ,  starts  from  New  York  for  Albany 
Sept.   14,   1807 

Aaron    Burr    acquitted.  .Sept.    15,    1807 

Tenth  Congress,  first  session,  convenes 

Oct.  26,  1807 

Speaker  of  the  House,  Joseph  B.  Var- 
num,    Massachusetts. 

A  British  "  Order  in  Council  "  forbids 
neutral   nations  to   trade  with   France  or 


Congress  authorizes  the  building  of  188  to   take  measures   for   their   liberation,   if 

gunboats,  at  a  cost  ot  not  over  $852,000  satisfied   that   they  are   entitled   to   it,    is 

Dec.  18,  1807  offered   in   the   House;    it   is   lost    ^61    to 

Embargo    act     prohibits     foreign     com-  61)   by  the  speaker's  casting  vote 

merce Dec.  22.  1807  June   14,   180D 

Second     and     more     stringent    embargo  First  session   (extra) adjourns 

act    (commonly    called,    reading    the    title  June  28,   1809 

backward,  the  "  O  grab  me  act  ")  Great    Britain    not    revoking   her    "  Or- 

Jan.  9,  1808  ^^^^   i"   Council  "   of   1807,   the   President 

Embargo    modified;    the    President    au  pioclaims  the  Non-intercourse  act  still  in 

thorized    to    permit    vessels    to    transport  force  towards  that  country ..  Aug.  9,  1809 

American     property    home    from     foreign  David   M.   Erskine,   British  minister   to 

ports March  12,  1808  the  United   States,   recalled,   and   Francis 

Army    raised    to    five    regiments    of    in-  J-  Jackson  appointed;  arrives 

fantry,   one  of   riflemen,   one   of   light   ar-  September,   1809 

tillery   and   one   of   light   dragoons,   to   be  [British    minister    F.    J.    Jackson    left 

enlisted  for  five  years April  12.  1808  Washington,   and   from   New   York   asked 

First  session  adjourns.  .  .April  25.  1808  for  his  passport.  His  relations  with  this 
Second  session  convenes Nov.  7.  1808  government  being  unsatisfactory,  his  re- 
Sixth  Presidential  election .  Nov.  8,  1808  call  was  asked  for.] 

Territory  of  Illinois  established  Second  session  convenes ..  Nov.  27,  1809 

Feb.   3,   1809  Committee  appointed  by  the  House  to 

Electoral  vote  counted  in  the  House  inquire    into    the    charge    that    Brig.-Gen. 

Feb.  8.  1809  James    Wilkinson    had    received    a    bribe 

Embargo  act  repealed March  1.  1809  from  the  Spanish  government;  or  was  an 

Non-intercourse  act  forbids  commercial  accomplice,  or  in  any  way  concerned  with 

intercourse    with    Great    Britain.    France,  the  agent  of  any  foreign  power,  or  with 

and  their  dependencies  after  May  20  Aaron  Burr April  3,   1810 

March  1.  1809  General  post-office  established  at  Wash- 
Tenth  Congress  adjourns. March  3.  1809  ington  under  the  Postmaster-General 

April  30,  1810 

British    and   French   armed   vessels   ex- 

SixTH    Administration  —  Democratic-  eluded  from  American  waters  by  act  ap- 

PvEPUBLiCAN,  March  4,  1809,  to  March  3,  proved                                            May  1    1810 

^^ ,  •                 .         ^^.     .   .                ,  Second  session  adjourns. ..  .May  1,  1810 

James  Madison,  Virginia,  President.     _  Napoleon's    Rambouillet    decree,    dated 

^George  Clinton,  New  York,   Vice-Presi-    ^^^^^^  23,   issued May,   1810 

[Ordered  the  sale  of  132  American  ves- 

President  proclaims  that  both  England  sels  captured;   worth,  with  their  cargoes, 

and  France  have   revoked  their   edicts   as  $8,000,000.] 

to   neutrals,   and   terminates   the   Non-in-  France  proclaims  the  revocation  of  the 

tercourse  act April  19,  1809  Berlin   and   Milan   decrees,   to   take   efi'ect 

Eleventh    Congress,    first    session     (ex-    after    Nov.   1,   1810 

tra),  convenes May  22,  1809        Third  session  convenes Dec.   3,   1810 

Francisco  Miranda,  a  native  of  South  Recharter   of   the   United    States   Bank 

America,   aiming  to  overthrow  the   Span-  passed  by  the  House,   65   to   64;    fails   in 

ish  power  in  Caracas,  South  America,  en-  the  Senate,  17  to  17,  by  the  casting  vote 

gages  a  vessel,  the  Leander,  and  with  about  of    the    president    of    the    Senate.    George 

250  men  sails  from  New  York,  February,    Clinton Feb.   20,   1811 

1806.  Although  reinforced  by  some  other  Eleventh  Congress  adjourns 
vessels,  and  gaining  some  advantages,  the  March  3,  1811 
expedition  results  in  failure.  The  Ameri-  President,  United  States  frigate,  forty- 
cans  of  the  expedition  captured  by  the  four  guns,  Com.  John  Rodgers  command- 
Spaniards,  while  confined  at  Carthagena,  ing,  meets  the  British  sloop-of-war  Little 
petition  their  government  for  relief,  June  Belt  in  lat.  37°,  about  40  miles  oflf  Cape 

9.     A  resolution  requesting  the  President    Charles May  16,   1811 



Twelfth     Congress,    first    session,     con-  Army  raised  to  twenty-five  regiments  of 

venes Nov.    4,    1811  infantry,  four  regiments  of  artillery,  two 

Gen.  \YiIliam  H.  Harrison  defeats  the  regiments  of  dragoons,  and  one  of  rifle- 
Indians  under  the  Prophet  at  Tippecanoe,  men;  total,  36,700  on  paper .  .June  26,  1812 
within  the  present  State  of  Indiana  [For  a  chronological  record  of  the  chief 

Nov.  7,  1811  battles  and  naval  engagements  between  the 

Brig.-Gen.  James  Wilkinson  is  tried  by  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  see  War 

n     general     court-martial,     convened     at  of  1812.] 

Fredericktown,     Md.,     Sept.     2,     and     ac-  Duties  on  imports  doubled.  July  1,  1812 

quitted Dec.    25,    1811        First  session  adjourns July  6,  1812 

Theatre  at  Richmond  burned;   the  gov-  [This  Congress  had  passed  138  acts  in 

evnor   and   many   eminent   citizens   perish  a    session    of    245    days.      In    the    House 

(Virginia) December,    181 1  Josiah  Quincy,  of  Massachusetts,  and  John 

Case   of   John   Henry  and  the   Federal-  Randolph,   of   Roanoke,   were   the   leaders 

ists  of  New  England;   papers  laid  before  in  the  opposition  to  the  war;  Henry  Clay, 

theSenateby  the  President.  .March  9,  1812  of    Kentucky,    and   John    C.    Calhoun,    of 

President    requested    to    lay   before   the  South  Carolina,  in  favor  of  it.] 
Senate    any    information,    which    may    be  Office  of  the  Federal  Republican  at  Bal- 
communicated    without    prejudice    to    the  timore,  Md.,   attacked  by  a  mob,  for   de- 
public    interest,    bearing    on    the    case    of  nouncing  the  declaration  of  war  with  Eng- 
John  Henry March  10,   1812    land June  12  and  July  27,  1812 

Embargo"^  on   all   vessels   in   the   United  On  promise  of  protection  by  the  mili- 

States  for  ninety  days April  4,   1812  tary,  the  defenders  of  the  office  surrender 

Louisiana    admitted    as    the    eighteenth  and  are  taken  to  jail.     The  mob  reassem- 

State,  to  date  from  April  30;  approved  ble  and  break  open  the  jail;  kill  General 

April  8,  1812  Lingan,  an  officer  of  the  Revolution,  and 

That  part  of  west  Florida  west  of  Pearl  mangle    eleven    others,    leaving    eight    for 

River   is   annexed   to   Louisiana  dead July  28,  1812 

April  14,  1812  [Arrests   were   made,    but    no   one   was 

George  Clinton,  Vice-President,  dies  at  punished.] 

Washington,  aged  seventy-three  Great  meeting  in  opposition  to  the  war 

April  20,  1812  in  New  York  City;  John  Jay,  Rufus  King, 

President    Madison    renominated  Gouverneur  Morris,  and  other  prominent 

May  18,   1812    citizens  in  attendance Aug.  19,  1812 

[Madison  is  renominated  by  the  Demo-  Second  session  convenes.  .  .  .Nov.  2,  1812 

cratic-Republican  party  under  promise  of        Presidential  election Nov.  10,  1812 

a  declaration  of  war  with  England.]  Congress     appropriates     $2,500,000     to 

President  sends  a  war  message  to  Con-  build   four    74-gun   ships   and    six   44-gun 

gress June  1,  1812    ships Jan.  2,  1813 

Report  of  the  minority  against  the  war  Electoral    vote    counted    in    the    Senate 

presented   to   the   House June   3,    1812    chamber Feb.  10,  1813 

]\Iotion  to  make  the  debate  public  lost  Total  strength  of  the  army,  limited  by 
June  3,  1812  Congress,    58,000;     according    to    the    re- 
Territory   of   Missouri   established  turns  of  adjutant-general,  including  staff 
June  4,   1812  and  regimental  officers,  18,945 

Cartel    ship   from   Great   Britain,    with  Feb.  16,  1813 

the   survivors    (two)    of  the   four   seamen  A  proclamation  and  circular  letter  from 

taken   by   force   from   the   Chesapeake   by  the   governor   of   Bermuda   is   laid   before 

the   Leopard  in    1807,   arrives   at   Boston.  Congress  by  the  President,  which  recites 

and  delivers  the  men  to  the  United  States  a  "  British  Order  in  Council,"  providing 

June  12,  1812  for    colonial    trade,    with    instructions    to 

"  Orders     in     Council "     abandoned     by  colonial   governors  to  show  special   privi- 

England June  17,   1812  leges  to  the  Eastern  (New  England)  States 

War    declared    against    Graat    Britain  Feb.  24,  1813 

(vote    in    the    Senate,    19    to    13;    in    the  Congress    passes    an    act    to    encourage 

House,  79  to  49) June  18,  1812    vaccination Feb.  27,  1813 



President  vested  witli  the  power  of  re-        Henry   Clay   resigns   as   Speaker   of   the 

taliation  on  British  subjects,  soldiers,  or    House Jan.  19,  1814 

Indians March  3,  1813 

Twelfth  Congress  adjourns 

March   3,   1813 

[He  was  appointed  one  of  the  peace 
commissioners,   to  meet  at  Ghent.] 

Langdon  Cheves,  of  South  Ca  'olina, 
elected  Speaker Jan.   19,  1814 

Resolution  tabled  in  Congress  for  a  com- 

Seventh     Administration    — ■    Demo- 
cratic-Republican,   March    4,    1813,    to    ^ittee  to  investigate  the  Blue  Lights 

March    3,    1817. 

James  Madison,  Virginia,  President. 

Elbridge  Gerry,  Massachusetts,  Vice- 

Russia  offers  mediation  between  the 
United  States  and  Great  Britain 

Jan.  24,  1814 
President  transmits  to  the  House  a  re- 
port from  the  Secretary  of  War  explain- 
ing the  failure  of  the  army  on  the  north- 
ern frontier Feb.   2,   1814 

Massachusetts  forbids  the  confinement  in 
her  jails  of  persons  not  committed  by  her 

March,  1813    judicial  authorities Feb.  7,  1814 

United  States  divided  into  nine  military  [The  object  was  to  free  herself  from  con- 
districts March  19,  1813    fining  British  captives.] 

William  H.  Ci'awford,  Geoi'gia,  appoint-  Loan  of  $25,000,000  and  an  issue  of 
ed  to  succeed  Joel  Barlow    (dies  Dec.  26,    treasury  notes  for  $10,000,000  authorized 

1812)   as  minister  to  France.  .April,  1813    by  Congress March  24,  1814 

General   Wilkinson   takes   possession   of        Brig.-Gen.  Wm.  Hull  is  found  guilty  on 
the  Spanish  fort  at  Mobile.  .April  15,  1813    the    second    and    third    charges,    and    sen- 
Albert      Gallatin,      Pennsylvania,      and    tenced  to  be  shot   (see  Jan.  3,  1814) 
James  A.  Bayard,  Maryland,  appointed  as  March  26,  1814 

peace    commissioners    with    John    Quincy        [This    sentence    was    approved    by  the 
Adams  at  the  Russian  court  to  negotiate    President,  but  the  execution  remitted.] 

a  peace;  they  sail May  9,  1813        Repeal  of  the  embargo.  .  .April  14,  1814 

Thirteenth   Congress,   first   session    (ex-        Congress  authorizes  the  purchase  of  the 

tra ),  convenes May  24,  1813    British    vessels    captured    on    Lake    Erie, 

Legislature  of  Massachusetts  remon-  Sept.  10,  1813,  for  $255,000,  to  be  distrib- 
strates  against  the  continuance  of  the  war    uted   as   prize-money  among  the   captors; 

July  15,  1813    Com.   Oliver  H.   Perry  to  be  paid   $5,000 

Congress  authorizes  the  loan  of  $7,500-    in    addition April    18,    1814 

000 Aug.  2,   1813        Congress   authorizes   the   collection   and 

Congress  lays  a  direct  tax  of  $3,000,000 ;  preservation  of  flags,  standards,  and  col- 
number  of  States,  eighteen;  New  York  as-    ors  captured  by  the  land  or  naval  forces 

sessed  the  most,  being  $430,141.62;    Lou-    of  the  United  States April  18,   1814 

isiana  the  least,  $28,295.11 .  .Aug.  2,  1813        Second  session  adjourns April,   1814 

First  session   (extra)   adjourns  American  commissioners  to  negotiate  a 

Aug.  2,  1813    peace   with   Great   Britain:    John   Quincy 

Second  session  convenes Dec.  6,  1813    Adams     and     Jonathan     Russell,     Massa- 

Embargo  established  by  Congress  until    chusetts;    Albert   Gallatin,   Pennsylvania; 

Jan.  1,  1815 Dec.  17,  1813    James  A.   Bayard,  Delaware;    and  Henry 

President  Madison  orders  a  general  Clay,  Kentucky.  These  commissioners 
court-martial  at  Albany,  K  Y.,  upon  Brig.-  meet  Admiral  Lord  Gambier,  Henry  Goul- 
Gen.  Wm.  Hull  for  the  surrender  of  De-    bourn,  and  William  Adams,  British  com- 

troit Jan.    3,    1814    missioners,  at  Ghent,  Belgium 

An  English  vessel,  the  Bramble,  under                                                          Aug.  8,   1814 
a  flag  of  truce,  arrives  at  Annapolis,  Md.,       Creek   Indians,  by  treaty,   surrender   a 
with  offers  of  peace Jan.  6,  1814   great  part  of  their  territory  to  the  Unit- 
Congress  authorizes  increasing  the  army   ed  States Aug.  9,  1814 

to   63,000  regular  troops,  and  five  years'        Banks  in  the  District  of  Columbia  sus- 

service January,  1814    pend Aug.    27,    1814 

Daniel  Webster's  first  speech  in  the  John  Armstrong,  Secretary  of  War,  re- 
House  on  the  enlistment  bill. Jan.  14,  1814    signs Sept.  3,  1814 

IX. — M  177 


[He    was    blamed    for    tlie    capture    of  General    Jackson,    at    New    Orleans,    is 

Washington.]  fined  $1,000  for  contempt  of  court 

Third"  session  convenes ...  Sept.  19,  1814  March  31,  1815 

A   resort   of   pirates   and    smugglers   at  American  prisoners  of  war  at  Dartmoor, 

Barataria  Bay  broken  up,  without  resist-  England,  are  fired  upon  by  prison  guards; 

ance,   by   Commodore   Patterson  five  killed  and  thirty-three  wounded,  two 

Oct.  16,  1814    mortally .April  6,  1815 

"  The  Star-Spangled  Banner  "  first  sung  Commodore    Decatur    sails    from    New 

at    the    Holliday    Street    Theatre,    Balti-  York  for  Algiers  with  the  frigates  Guer- 

more October,    1814  riere,  Macedonian,  and  Constellation,  one 

General  Jackson  occupies  Pensacola  sloop-of-war,  four  brigs,  and  two  schooners 

Nov.  6,   1814  May  19,  181.5 

Elbridge  Gerry,  of  Massachusetts,  fifth  Guerriere  captures  an  Algerian  frigate 

Vice-President  of  the  United  States,  dies  of  forty-four  guns   off  Gibraltar 

at  Washington,  D.  C,  aged  seventy  June  17,  1815 

Nov.  23,   1814  Dey,  in  a  treaty  of  peace,  renounces  all 

Hartford  Convention  meets  at  Hartford,  claims  to  tribute,  or  presents,  or  to  hold 

Conn Dec.    15,    1814  prisoners  of  war  as  slaves.  .June  30,  1815 

Martial  law  proclaimed  in  New  Orleans  At  a  grand  Indian  council   at  Detroit, 

by  General  Jackson Dec.   15,   1814  Mich.,  a  treaty  is  made  with  eight  of  the 

Treaty  of  peace  signed  by  the  commis-  principal  tribes  east  of  the  Mississippi 

sioners  at  Ghent Dec.  24,  1814  Sept.   1,   1815 

Congress  levies  a  direct  tax  of  $6,000,-  Total  debt  of  the  United  States,  $119,- 

000  (number  of  States,  eighteen)  600,000 Sept.  30,  1815 

Jan.  9,  1815  [Estimated  cost  of  the  war,  $85,500,000.] 

[The  largest   assessment,   that   of   New  Fourteenth  Congress,  first  session,  con- 
York  State,  was  $864,283.24;  the  smallest,    venes Dec.   4,   1815 

of  Delaware,  $64,092.50.]  North  American  Review  starts  in  Bos- 
Congress    imposes   duties   on   household  ton,  Mass.,  William  Tudor,  editor. .. .    1815 
furniture  and  on  gold  and  silver  watches  Repeal  of  the  act  of  Jan.  18,  1815,  tax- 
Jan.  18,  1815  ing  household  furniture,  watches,  etc. 

United   States   purchases  Jefferson's  li-  April  9,  1816 

brary,  consisting  of  about  7,000  volumes,  United  States  Bank,  capital  $35,000,000, 

for  the  use  of  Congress,  for  $23,000  chartered  by  Congress  for  twenty  years 

Jan.  26,  1815  April  10,  1816 

Bill    to    incorporate    the    Bank    of    the  Indiana  authorized  by  Congress  to  form 

United  States  is  vetoed  by  President  Madi-  a  constitution  and  State  government 

son Jan.  30,  1815  April  19,  1816 

Treaty  of  peace  reaches  New  York  in  An  act  for  the  relief  of  the  relatives  and 

the  British  sloop-of-war  i'^atJori/e representatives  of  the  crew  of  the  sloop- 

Feb.  11,  1815  of -war  Wasp,  believed  to  be  lost,  passed 

It  is  ratified Feb.  17,  1815  April  24,  1816 

Army    reduced    to    a    peace    footing    of  Act  passed  regulating  duties  on  imports 

10,000  men,  two  major-generals,  and  four  April  27,  1816 

brigadier-generals March  3,  1815  Congress  appropriates  $1,000,000  a  year 

[The  major-generals  were  Jacob  Brown  for  eight  years  to  increase  the  naA'y 

and   Andrew   Jackson;    the   brigadier-gen-  April  29,  1816 

erals  were  Winfield  Scott,  Edmund  Gaines,  First  session  adjourns.  .  .  .April  30,  1816 

Alexander  Macomb,  and  Eleazar  W.  Rip-  Presidential  election  held.  .Nov.  12,  1816 

ley.]  Second  session  convenes.  .  .  .Dec.  2,  1816 

Non-intercourse     and     non-importation  Indiana  admitted  into  the  Union    (the 

acts  repealed March  3,  1815    nineteenth  State) Dec.  11,  1816 

United  States  declares  war  against  Al-  American    Colonization    Society   formed 

giers March  3,  1815    in  Wasliington,  D.  C December.  1816 

Thirteenth  Congress  adjourns  United  States  Bank  begins  operations 

March  3,  1815  January,  1817 


Congress  authorizes  the  President  to  em-        General    Jackson    takes    possession    of 

ploy   John   Trumbull,   of    Connecticut,    to    Pensacola .May  24,  1818 

paint  four  scenes  of  the  Revolution  for  the        Captures  the  fortress  at  Barrancas 

Capitol Feb.  6,   1817  May  27,  1818 

[These  paintings  are  The  Declaration  of        Centre    foundation    of    the    Capitol    at 

Independence;  Surrender  of  Burgoyne  at    Washington   laid Aug.   24,    1818 

Saratoga;   Surrender  of  CornwalUs;  and        Indians    of   Ohio    cede   their    remaining 
the    Resignation    of    Washington    at    An-    lands    (about  4,000,000  acres),  mostly   in 

napolis.]  the  Maumee  Valley Sept.  27,  1818 

Electoral  vote  counted ....  Feb.  12,  1817        Chickasaw    Indians    cede    all    land    be- 
Act  dividing  the  Mississippi  territory      tween  the  Mississippi  River  and  the  north- 
March  1,  1817    ern  course   of  the  Tennessee   River..  181 8 
Fourteenth  Congress  adjourns  Tteaty  with  England  made.  .Oct.  20,1818 

March  3,  1817        Second  session  convenes ..  Nov.  IG,  1818 
Illinois      admitted       (the      twenty-first 

Eighth  Administration — Democratic-   State) Dec.    3,    1818 

Republican,  March  4,  1817,  to  March  3,       Memorial    from    the   Territory   of   ]\Iis- 
jg2i  souri,  asking  permission  to  frame  a  State 

.     .   .  .  T     ,  government,   and    for   admission    into   the 

James  Monroe,  Virginia,  President.  Union  Dec    18     1818 

Daniel  D.   Tompkins,  New  York,  Vice-        Committee"of  '  five"appointe'd    by    the 
President.  Senate  to  inquire  into  the  course  of  Gen- 

Indians  attack  a  boat  on  the  Apalachi-    eral  Jackson  in  taking  possession  of  Fort 
cola     River,     Florida,     containing     forty    St.    Marks    and    Pensacola,    and    in    exe- 
men,  with  women  and  children,  killing  all    outing   Arbuthnot    and   Ambrister 
but   six   men   and   one  woman  Dec.  18,  1818 

Nov.  30,  1817        Bill    introduced    for    the    admission    of 

Fifteenth    Congress,    first    session,    con-    Missouri Feb.   13,   1819 

venes Dec.   1,   1817        Bill   introduced   to   organize   the   Terri- 

Mississippi    (the   twentieth    State)    ad-    tory  of  Arkansas Feb.   16,   1819 

mitted  into  the  Union Dec.  10,  1817        Bill  for  admission  of  Missouri  taken  up 

General  Jackson  takes  the  field  against    by  the  House Feb.  16,  1819 

the  Florida  Indians... Feb.   19,  1818        James    Tallmadge,    Jr.,    of    New    York, 

Pensions  granted,  $20  a  month  to  ofil-  moves  an  amendment,  declaring  free  all 
cers  and  $8  a  month  to  privates  who  had  children  born  in  Missouri  after  admission 
served  nine  months  or  more  in  the  Con-  into  the  Union,  and  providing  for  the 
tinental  army  or  navy,  on  proof  of  need  gradual  emancipation  of  the  slaves.  This 
March  18,  1818  is  modified  to  declare  all  slave  children 
Act  establishing  the  flag  of  the  United  born  in  the  State  after  its  admission  free 
States:  thirteen  horizontal  stripes,  repre-  at  the  age  of  twenty-five.  The  bill  so 
senting  the  original  States,  alternately  amended  passes  the  House,  87  to  76 
red  and  white,  with  a  white  star  in  a  blue  Feb.  17,  1819 

field,  for  each  State;  approved  Treaty  with  Spain  concluded 

April  4,  1818  Feb.  22,  1819 

General  Jackson   captures  the   Spanish        Approved  by  the  President. Feb.  25,  1819 

fort  of  St.  Marks,  Fla April  7,  1818        [By    this    treaty    Spain    ceded    to    the 

An  act  to  enable  the  people  of  Illinois    United    States    all    territory    east    of    the 

to  form  a  State  government,  and  for  the    Mississippi  called  east  and  west  Florida, 

admission  of  such  State;   approved  with  adjacent  islands,  for  $.5,000,000.    Not 

April  18,  1818    ratified  by  Spain  until  October,  1820.] 

First  session  adjourns.  .April   20,   1818        Senate  rejects  the  proviso  of  the  House 

At  the  capture  of  the  Spanish   fort  of    on  the  admission  of  Missouri,  31  to  7 

St.  Marks,  Jackson  secures  Alexander  Ar-  Feb.  27,  1819 

buthnot    and    Robert    C.    Ambrister,    and        Senate    returns    the    bill    with    amend- 

hangs  them  under  sentence  of  a  military    ments.     House  adheres,  78  to  76,  and  the 

court April   30,   1818    bill    fails March    2,    1819 



Alabama    authorized    to    form    a    State  slavery,  90  to  84,  and  inserts  the  ''  Thomas 

government  and  to  be  admitted   into  the    jiroviso,"  134  to  42 March  2,  1820 

Union March   2,   1819  Maine  admitted  (the  twenty- third  State) 

Arkansas  organized  as  a  Territory  by  act  of  Congress  approved 

March  2,  1819  March  3,  1820 

Congress    authorizes    the    President    to  Congress  authorizes  the  people  of  Mis- 

Occupy  east  and  west  Florida  souri  to  form  a   State  government 

March  3,  1819  March   6,   1820 

Fifteenth  Congress  adjourns  Duel  between  Com.  Stephen  Decatur  and 

March  3,  1819  Com.     James     Barron     at     Bladensburg, 

Side-wheel  steamer  Savannah  leaves  Sa-   Md March  22,  1820 

vannah,   Ga.,   for   Liverpool,   England  Congress    abolishes    the    sale    of   public 

May  24,  1819    lands  on  credit April  24,  1820 

[ShearrivesatLiverpool,  June  20,  1819.]  Congress  organizes   the  first  committee 

Maine  separated  from  Massachusetts  by   on  agriculture May  3,  1820 

the  Massachusetts  legislature  Congress  authorizes  a  loan  of  $3,000,000 

June  19,  1819  May  15,  1820 

Com.  Oliver  Hazard  Perry  dies  at  Trin-        First  session  adjourns May  15,  1820 

idad,  West  Indies,  of  yellow  fever  Daniel    Boone    dies    at    Charrette,    Mo., 

Aug.  23,  1819    aged    eighty-five Sept.    26,    1820 

Sixteenth   Congress,   first   session,    con-  Spain     ratifies     her     treaty    with    the 

venes Dec.  6,  1819  United  States,  whereby  she  cedes  Florida 

Henry  Clay,  speaker  of  the  House.  Oct.  20,  1820 

Memorial    from    the    people    of    Maine,  Second  session  convenes ..  Nov.  13,  1820 

praying    for    admission    into    the    Union,  Heniy    Clay    resigns    the    speakership; 

presented Dec.   7,   1819  John  W.  Taylor  of  New  York  elected  on 

Memorial  from  Missouri,  asking  for  ad-  the    twenty-second    ballot    by   a    majority 

mission,  again  presented  in  the  House  of  one Nov.  14,  1820 

Dec.  7,  1819  Presidential  election  held. Nov.  14,  1820 

Alabama  admitted    (the  twenty  -  second  Missouri,   in  her   constitution,   requires 

State) Dec.   14,   1819  her    legislature    to    prohibit    free    colored 

Bill  for  the  admission  of  Maine  passes  persons  from  settling  in  the  State.  The 
the  House Jan.  3,  1820  Senate  adds  a  proviso  that  nothing  con- 
Senate  adds  to  the  bill  admitting  Maine  tained  in  the  constitution  shall  be  con- 
a  clause  for  the  admission  of  Missouri  and  strued  as  conflicting  with  that  clause  in 
an  amendment  proposed  by  Senator  Thom-  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
as,  Illinois,  prohibiting  the  introduction  which  declares  "the  citizens  of  each 
of  slaves  into  Louisiana  north  of  the  Ar-  State  shall  be  entitled  to  all  the  privi- 
kansas  boundary,  36°  30',  except  in  Mis-  leges  and  immunities  of  citizens  in  the 
souri.  Thomas  proviso  passes  the  Senate,  several  States."  The  bill  admitting  Mis- 
30  to  10,  and  the  bill  as  amended  passes  souri,  with  her  constitution  as  amended, 
the  Senate,  24  to  20 Feb.  18,  1820  passes  the  Senate,  26  to  IS.  .Dec.  11,  1820 

House  rejects  the  amendments;    Senate  Electoral  votes  counted.  .Feb.   14,   1821 

asks  for  a  committee  of  conference;  House  House   not   agreeing   with    the    Senate, 

passes  Missouri  bill  with  a  clause  prohibit-  Feb.     22,    on    the    Missouri    bill,    Henry 

ing  the  further  introduction  of  slaves,  93  Clay,  of  Kentucky,  moves  a  committee  to 

to  84 Feb.  29,  1820  act  with  a  committee  of  the  Senate  "  to 

Senate    returns    the    Missouri    bill    to  consider  whether  it  is  expedient  to  admit 

the  House  with  slavery  clause  struck  out  Missouri  into  the  Union,  and  for  the  due 

and     Senator     Thomas's     territorial     pro-  execution  of  the  laws  of  the  United  States, 

viso  inserted March  2,  1820  and   if   not,   whether   any   other   or   what 

Committee  of  conference  advises  the  Sen-  provision  should  be  made."  The  joint 
ate  to  recede  from  its  amendment  to  the  committee  consists  of  seven  Senators  and 
Maine  bill,  and  the  House  to  pass  the  twenty-three  Representatives.  Clay  re- 
Senate  Missouri   bill ;    House  strikes  out  ports   a   joint   resolution   from   the   com- 

from  the  Missouri  bill  the  prohibition  of    mittee Feb.  26,  1821 



Passes  the  House,  87  to  81                           by  a  voyage  to  the  north,  and  that  Cap- 
Feb.  26,  1821    tain   Symmes  be  intrusted   witli   the  con- 
Senate  concurs,  26  to  15.  .Feb.  27,  1821    duct  of  the  expedition Jan.  27,  1823 

Resolution    passed   by    Congress    admit-        Stephen  F.  Austin  obtains  from  Mexico 
ting  Missouri  into  the  Union  (the  twenty-    a  grant  of  land  in  Texas  for  colonization 
fourth  State)   approved March  2,  1821  February,  1823 

Congress   authorizes   a   loan   of  $5,000,-        Seventeenth    Congress   adjourns 
000 March  3,  1821  March  3,  1823 

Sixteenth  Congress  adjourns                           Eighteenth  Congress,  first  session,  con- 
March  3,  1821    venes Dee.   1,   1823 

President  Monroe,  in  his  message,  pro- 

NiNTH     Administration — Democratic-   claims  the  "  Monroe  Doctrine  " 
Republican,  March  5,  1821,  to  March  3,  Dec.  2,  1823 

1825.  A  resolution  authorizing  an  embassy  to 

Greece    offered    in    the    House    by   Daniel 

James  Monroe,  Virginia,  President.  Webster,  of  Massachusetts.  .  .  .Dec.  8,  1823 

Daniel  D.  Tompkins,  New  York,  Vice-  [This  resolution  was  defeated  Jan.  26, 
President.  1824,    although    ably   supported   by   Clay, 

President  appoints  Gen.  Andrew  Jack-  Webster,  and  others.  John  Randolph  op- 
son  goA'ernor  of  Florida April,  1821    posed  it  in  speeches  full  of  sense  and  sar- 

General    Jackson    takes    possession    of    casm.] 
Florida July    1,    1821        Tariff    (protective)    bill  brought  before 

President  Monroe  proclaims  the  admis-    the  House Jan.  9,  1824 

sion    of    Missouri    as    the    twenty  -  fourth        [Clay  and  Buchanan  supported  the  bill, 
State Aug.    10,    1821    while  Webster  opposed  it.] 

Seventeenth  Congress,  first  session,  con-  Congress  by  resolution  offers  the  Mar- 
venes Dec.   3,   1821    quis  de  Lafayette  a  ship  to  bring  him  to 

Thomas  H.  Benton  enters  the  Senate  the  United  States,  approved.  .Feb.  4,  1824 
from  Missouri Dec.  6,   1821        Act    to    survey   routes    for    canals    and 

William    Pinkney,    of    Maryland,    dies,    roads    February,    1824 

aged  fifty-eight Feb.  25,  1822        Ninian  Edwards  presents  an  address  to 

Apportionment  bill  passed  the  House  bringing  charges  against  Sec- 

March  1,  1822    rctary  Crawford.     This  is  known  as  the 

President,  by  message,  recommends  the    A.  B.  Plot April  19,  1824 

recognition    of    the    independence    of    the        Tariff  bill  approved May  22,  1824 

South  American  states  and  Mexico  [37  per  cent,  was  the  average  rate  of 

March  8,   1822    duty.] 

Bankrupt  bill  defeated  in  the  House  by  Report  of  committee  exonerating  Sec- 
a  vote  of  72  to  99 March  12,  1822    retary  Crawford  from  the  charges  of  Mr. 

Resolution  recognizing  the  independence    Edwards    May    25,    1824 

of  the  American  provinces  of  Spain  pass-        First  session  adjourns. .  .May  27,   1824 
ed  by  the  House,  167  to  1.  .March  28,  1822        Lafayette,  with  his  son,  arrives  at  New 

[Mr.  Garnett,  of  Virginia,  voted  against    York Aug.    15,    1824 

the  measure.]  Tenth  Presidential  election 

Territorial    government    established    in  Nov.  9,  1824 

Florida March  30,  1822        Second  session  convenes Dec.  6,  1824 

President  vetoes  an  appropriation  of  Lafayette  welcomed  to  the  House  of 
$9,000  for  preserving  and  repairing  the  Representatives,  in  an  address  by  the 
Cumberland   Road May  4,   1822    speaker,  Mr.  Clay Dec.  10,  1824 

President  submits  to  Congress  his  ob-  Congress  (the  House  by  166  to  26,  the 
jection  to  national  appropriations  for  in-  Senate  unanimously)  votes  to  Lafayette 
ternal  improvements May  4,   1822    $200,000  and  a   township  of  land  in  any 

First  session  adjourns. ..  .May  8,   1822    part  of  the  United   States  he  might   se- 

Second  session  convenes.  .  ..Dec.  2,  1822    lect  that  is  now  unoccupied.  .Dec.  22,  1824 

A  petition  to  Congiess  asks  that  Capt.        Treaty  with  Russia  ratified 
John  Cleves  Symmes's  theory  be  verified  Jan.  11,  1825 



[Establishing  the  boundary-line  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  Russia  at 
54°  40'  N.  lat.] 

Electoral  votes  counted Feb.  9,  1825 

Treaty  with  the  Creek  Indians,  termed 
the  "  Indian  Spring  Treaty  " 

Feb.  12,  1825 

[This  treaty  was  signed  by  their  chief 
Mcintosh,  and  provided  for  the  cession 
of  all  the  Creek  territory  in  Georgia  and 
several  million  acres  in  Alabama  for  $400,- 
000.  The  Indians  repudiated  the  cession 
and  killed  Mcintosh,  about  April  30.] 

An  act  appropriating  $150,000  to  ex- 
tend the  Cumberland  road  from  Canton, 
on  the  Ohio,  opposite  Wheeling,  to  Zanes- 
ville,  O.,  approved March   3,   1825 

An  act  of  Congress  for  strengthening 
the  laws  of  the  United  States  approved 

March  3,  1825 

Eighteenth  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  1825 

Tenth  Administration — ^Democbatic- 
Eepublican  (coalition),  March  4,  1825, 
to  March  3,  1829. 

John  Quincy  Adams,  Massachusetts, 

John  G.  Calhoun,  South  Carolina,  Vice- 

Corner-stone  oi  Bunker  Hill  monument 
laid June  17,  1825 

[Lafayette  was  present,  and  Daniel 
Webstc  delivered  tht  oration.] 

Lafajette  leaves  Washington  for  France 
in  the  new  frigate  Brandywine,  furnished 
him  by  the  government.  ..  .Sept.   7,   1825 

Mordecai  M.  Noah  selects  Grand  Island, 
in  the  Niagara  Paver,  as  a  site  for  a  city 
of  refuge  for  the  Jews,  to  be  called  Ararat 

Sept.  17,  1825 

Com.  David  Porter,  while  cruising, 
lands  a  force  at  Porto  Rico  and  exacts 
an  apology  for  an  insult  to  the  American 
(lag.  He  is  recalled  and  suspended  for  six 
months 1825 

Erie  Canal  finished Oct.  26,   1825 

Nineteenth  Congress,  first  session,  con- 
venes  Dec.  5,   1825 

Dispute  between  the  State  of  Georgia 
and  the  United  States  upon  the  removal 
of  the  Creek  Indians 1825-29 

John  Gaillard,  United  States  Senator 
from  South  Carolina  from  1804  to  1826, 
and  from  April  14,  1814,  to  March  9,  1825, 


president  pro  tern,  of  the  Senate,  dies  at 
Washington Feb.    26,    1826 

South  American  states  call  a  general 
congress,  to  meet  at  Panama  in  June, 
1826,  and  to  consider  the  rights  of  those 
states,  and  invites  delegates  from  the 
United  States.  Congress  appropriates 
$40,000,  and  appoints  Richard  C.  Ander- 
son, minister  to  Colombia,  and  John  Sar- 
geant,  of  Philadelphia,  delegates 

March  14,  1826 

During  the  debate  on  the  "  Panama  con- 
gress "  in  the  Senate,  John  Randolph 
refers  to  the  coalition  of  Adams  and  Clay 
as  that  of  the  "  Puritan  and  the  black- 
leg." A  duel  followed  between  Clay  and 
Randolph April   8,    1826 

First  session  adjourns.  .  .  .May  22,  1826 

John  Adams,  born  in  Braintree,  Mass., 
Oct.  19,  1735,  and  Thomas  Jefferson,  born 
in  Monticello,  Ya.,  April  2,  1743,  die  on 
the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  American  inde- 
pendence  July    4,    1826 

Abduction  of  William  Morgan  from 
Canandaigua,  N.  Y Sept,  12,  1826 

[Gave  rise  to  a  political  party — the 
anti-Masonic — that  became  national  in  im- 
portance, though  short-lived,] 

Convention  with  Great  Britain  concern- 
ing indemnities  for  the  War  of  1812-14 

Nov,  13,  1826 

Second  session  convenes ...  Dec.  4,  1826 

Congress  makes  an  appropriation  for 
the  payment  of  Revolutionary  and  other 
pensions „ Jan.   29,   1827 

Nineteenth  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  1827 

General  Gaines  ordered  into  the  Creek 
Indian    covmtry 1827 

Protectionists  hold  a  convention  at 
Harrisburg,  Pa,,  and  demand  a  higher 
tariff July  30,  1827 

United  States  and  Great  Britain  by 
treaty  agree  to  extend  or  renew  the  com- 
mercial agreements  of  1818,  and  the  Ore- 
gon boundary  to  continue  indefinitely 

Aug.  6.  1827 

First  railroad  in  the  United  States,  run- 
ning from  Quincy,  Mass.,  to  the  Neponset 
River,  3  miles,  commenced  1826;  com- 
pleted   (operated  by  horse-power)  ,,.  1827 

Boundary  differences  between  the  Unit- 
ed States  and  the  British  possessions  to 
be  referred  to  an  arbiter Sept.  29,  1827 

Tioentieth  Congress,  first  session,  con- 
venes  Dec.  3,  1827 



By  another  treaty  Creek  Indians  cede 
their  remaining  lands  in  Georgia  for  $47,- 
491.     Ratified January,  1828 

Ma j. -Gen.  Jacob  Brown  dies  at  Wash- 
ington   Feb.   24,   1828 

Debate  on  the  tarifif  bill  begun  in  the 
House March  4,  1828 

Debate  in  the  Senate... May  5-14,  1828 

Tariff  bill  passed  by  the  House 

May  15,  1828 

Approved ;  known  as  the  "  Tariff  of 
Abominations" May  19,  1828 

Congress  by  resolution  grants  Charles 
Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  only  surviving 
signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
the  franking  privilege May  23,  1828 

First  session  adjourns.  .  .  .May  26,  1828 

Second  railroad  in  the  United  States, 
from  Mauch  Chunk,  Pa.,  to  the  Lehigh 
River,  9  miles,  commenced  1827,  and 
finished    1828 

Eleventh  Presidential  election 

Nov.  11,  1828 

Second    ession  convenes ....  Dec.  1,  1828 

Electoral  votes  counted  in  the  House 

Feb.  11,  1829 

Twentieth  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  1829 

Eleventh  Administration  —  Demo- 
cratic, March  4,  1829,  to  March  3,  1833. 

Andrew  Jackson,  Tennessee,  President. 

John  G.  Calhoun,  South  Carolina,  Vice- 

John  Jay,  statesman,  dies  at  Bedford, 
N.  Y May  19,  1829 

James  L.  M.  Smithson,  founder  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution,  dies  in  Genoa, 
Italy June    27,    1829 

"  Stourbridge  Lion,"  the  first  locomotive 
run  in  the  United  States,  is  purchased  in 
England  and  arrives  in  New  York  in  June, 
1829;  shipped  to  Carbondale,  and  tried 
on  the  track  at  Honesdale.  .  .Aug.  8,  1829 

William  Lloyd  Garrison  publishes  the 
Gc7iiiis  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  advocating  im- 
mediate   emancipation 1829 

Tioenty-first  Congress,  first  session, 
convenes Dec.   7,   1829 

Robert  Y.  Hayne's  (South  Carolina) 
great  speech  in  defence  of  State  rights. in 
the  Senate  on  "  the  Foote  resolution," 
limiting  the  sale  of  public  lands 

Jan.  25,  1830 

Daniel  Webster's  reply  defending  the 
Constitution Jan.  26-27,  1830 

Bill  before  the  House  for  a  national  road 
from  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  to  New  Orleans,  La., 
via  Washington '.March  23,   1830 

Treaty  with  Denmark;  indemnity  claims 
March  28,  1830 

President  Jackson  at  a  public  dinner  in 
Washington  on  Jefferson's  birthday  gi^'ss 
this  toast,  "  Our  Federal  Union,  it  must 
be  preserved."  Vice-President  Calhoun 
responded:  "Liberty  dearer  than  Union" 
April  13,  1830 

Bill  for  a  national  road  from  Buffalo, 
N.  Y.,  to  New  Orleans,  La.,  rejected  in 
House  by  88  to  105 April  14,  1830 

Treaty  with  the  Ottoman  empire 

May  7,  1830 

Final  rupture  between  Jackson  and 
Calhoun May,  1830 

Duties  on  coffee,  tea,  and  cocoa  re- 
duced  May  20,  1830 

President  vetoes  the  Mayville  and  Lex- 
ington, Ky.,  road  bill May  27,  1830 

Massachusetts  obtains  from  the  United 
States  $430,748.26  for  services  of  her  mili- 
tia, 1812-14 May  31,  1830 

First  session  adjourns.  .  .  .May  31,  1830 

John  Randolph  sails  as  minister  to 
Russia June,  1830 

Anti-Mason  party  hold  the  first  national 
convention  in  the  United  States  at  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.,  Francis  Granger,  of  New 
York,  presiding September,  1830 

Second  session  convenes.  .  .  .Dec.  6,  1830 

Senate  rejects  the  award  of  the  King  of 
the  Netherlands  as  arbitrator  of  the  boun- 
dary between  Maine  and  Great  Britain 

Jan.  10,  1831 

First  locomotive  built  in  the  United 
States,  "The  Best  Friend,"  at  the  West 
Point  foundry  shops  in  New  York  City; 
first  trip  on  the  South  Carolina  Railroad 

Jan.  15,  1831 

Twenty-first  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  1831 

John  H.  Eaton,  Secretary  of  War,  re- 
signs  April  7,  1831 

Martin  Van  Bur  en.  Secretary  of  State, 
resigns April  7,  1831 

Ex-President  James  Monroe  dies  in  New 
York,  aged  seventy- three.  ..  .July  4,   1831 

Negro  insurrection  led  by  Nat  Turner, 
in  Southampton  county August,  1831 

President  Jackson  reforms  his  cabinet 


Anti-Masonic  party  hold  a  national  con- 
vention at  Baltimore,  Md.,  and  nominate 



William  Wirt,  of  Virginia,  for  President,    olutionary     soldier,     dies     near     Camden, 
and  Amos  Ellmaker,  of  Pennsylvania,  for    S.  C,  aged  ninety-eight 
Vice-President;   number  of  delegates,   112  June  1,  1832 

Sept.  26,  1831        Bill    reehartering    the    National    Bank 
Free    trade    convention    held    at    Phila-    passes  the  Senate,  28  to  20.  .June  11, 1832 

delphia Oct.  5,  1831        And  the  House,  107  to  85.  .July  3,  1832 

High  tariff  convention  held  at  New  York        Commissioner  of  Indian  affairs  first  ap- 

Oct.  26,  1831    pointed July  9,   1832 

Copyright  law  radically  amended,  mak-        President  vetoes  the  bank  bill 
ing  the  term  twenty-eight  years   instead  July  10,  1832 

of    fourteen,    with    renewal    of    fourteen        Senate  fails  to   pass   the   bank   charter 

years  more,  and  wife  and  children  of  au-    over  the  President's  veto July  13,  1832 

thor,  in  case  of  his  death,  entitled  to  a        Source  of  the  Mississippi  discovered  by 
renewal 1831    an  exploring  party  under  Henry  R. -School- 
William  Lloyd  Garrison  begins  the  pub-    craft July   13,    1832- 

lication  of  the  Liberator  at  Boston..  1831        Partial  repeal  of  the  tariff  measures  of 

Tioenty-second    Congress,    first    session,.   1828 July  14,  1832 

convenes Dec.  5,  1831         First  session  adjourns. . .  .July  16,  1832 

National  Republican  party  hold  a  na-        Cholera    first    appears    in    the    United 

tional  convention  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  and    States  1832 

nominate   Henry   Clay,   of   Kentucky,    for        Treaty    with    the    two    Sicilies,    indem- 

President,    and   John    Sergeant,    of   Penn-    nity Oct.    14,    1832 

sylvania,    for   Vice-President;    number    of        Presidential  election Nov.  13,  1832 

delegates,  155 Dec.  12,  1831        Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  Md.,  last 

[This  party  advocated  higher  tariff  and    surviving  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  In- 
internal  improvements.]                                       dependence,  dies  at  Baltimore,  aged  ninety- 
Memorial  for  the  renewal  of  the  charter    five .Nov.  14,  1832 

of  the  National  Bank  presented  to  Con-        Convention  is  held  at  Columbus,  S.  C, 

gress Jan.  9,  1832    which  by  ordinance  declares  the  tariff  acts 

William  L.  Marcy,  of  New  York,  while    of  1828  and  1832  null  and  void 
urging  the  Senate  to  confirm  Martin  Van  Nov.  19,  1832 

Buren  as  minister  to  England,  says,  "  Tliey  [The  term  "  nullification  "  was  borrow- 
see  nothing  wrong  in  the  rule  that  to  the  ed  from  the  Virginia  and  Kentucky  reso- 
victors  belong  the  spoils  of  the  enemy  "        lutions  ot  1?98.] 

Jan.  25,  1832        Second  session  convenes. . .  .Dee.  3,  1832 

Henry   Clay   advocates   the   "  American       President  Jackson  issues  a  proclamation 

system  "  of  protection  in  the  Senate,  sup-    to  the  people  of  South  Carolina 

ported   by   the    Senators    from   Delaware,  Dec.  10,  1832 

Maine,  Massachusetts,  New  Jersey,  Ohio,       John    C.    Calhoun,    Vice-President,    re< 

Pennsylvania,  and  Rhode  Island  signs Dec.  28,  1832 

January-February,  1832        President  Jackson,  by  message,  informs 

Democratic     (first    so-called)     National    Congress  of  the  proceedings  of  South  Caro- 

Convention  meets  in  Baltimore  lina,  and  asks  power  to  enforce  the  collec- 

May  21,  1832    tion  of  the  revenue Jan.  16,  1833 

[Nominated  Jackson  for  President,  and  John  C.  Calhoun,  now  a  Senator  from 
Martin  Van  Buren,  of  New  York,  for  Vice-  South  Carolina,  introduces  resolutions: 
President,  he  having  been  rejected  as  min-  that  the  theory  that  the  people  of  the 
ister  to  England  in  the  Senate  by  the  United  States  are  now  or  ever  have  been 
vote  of  Vice-President  Calhoun.     In  this    united  in  one  nation  is  erroneous,  false  in 

convention    it    was    resolved    "that    two-    history  and   reason Jan.   22,   1833 

thirds  of  the  whole  number  of  votes  in  the  Henry  Clay  introduces  the  "  compromise 
convention  shall  be  necessary  to  consti-  tariff"  in  the  Senate  as  a  solution  of  all 
tute  a  choice."  This  was  the  origin  of  the  pending  troubles  between  the  manufact- 
famous    two-thirds    rule.]  uring  States  and  the  South 

Black  Hawk  War May-August,  1832  Feb.   12,   1833 

Gen.  Thomas  Sumter,  distinguished  Rev-        Electoral  votes  counted. .  .  .Feb.  13, 1833 



"  Compromise  tariff  "  passes  the  House,  Mr.   Clay  offers   a   resolution,   Dec.    10, 

119  to  85 Feb.  26,  1833  inquiring  of  the  President  whether  a  paper 

And  the  Senate,  29  to  16.  .March  1,  1833  read  to  heads  of  departments  under  date 

Becomes  a  law March  3,  1833  of  Sept.  18,  1833,  relative  to  the  deposits 

[This  law  scaled  down  all  duties  so  that  of  the  public  money,  was  genuine,  and  re- 

20  per  cent,  should  be  the  standard  duty  questing   that   said   paper   be   laid   before 

in  1842.]  the   Senate.      This   resolution   passes   the 

Twenty-second  Congress  adjourns  Senate,  23  to  18 Dec.  11,  1833 

March  3,  1833  Senate  appoints  a  committee  to  investi- 
gate the  National  Bank Feb.  4,  1834 

Twelfth    Administration — ^Democrat-  Treaty  with  Spain,  indemnity 

ic,  March  4,  1833,  to  March  3,  1837.  _               _                        Feb.  17,  1834 

William     Wirt,     orator,     lawyer,     and 

Andrew  Jaclcson,  Tennessee,  President.  author,   dies  at  Washington,   D.   C,   aged 

Martin    Van    Buren,    New    York,    Vice-    gixty-two Feb    18    1834 

President.  Senate    resolves   that    in    removing    the 

South  Carolina  repeals  the  ordinance  of  deposits   the   President   had   assumed   au- 

nullification  in  a  convention  held  thority  not  conferred  by  the  Constitution 

March  16,  1833    and  the  laws March  28,  1834 

John    Randolph,    of    Virginia,    dies    in  House  resolves  that  the  National  Bank 

Philadelphia,  aged  sixty May  24,  1833  shall  not  be  rechartered  nor  the  deposits 

President  Jackson  lays  near  Fredericks-    restored April  4,  1834 

burg,  Va.,  the  corner-stone  of  a  monument  President   protests    against   the   resolu- 

to  Washington's  mother,  Mary  Washing-  tion  of  March  28,  but  the  Senate  refuses 

ton ,  -May,  1833  to  enter  the  protest  in  its  minutes 

President  Jackson  makes  a  tour  of  the  April   15,   1834 

Eastern  States  as  far  as  Concord,  N.  H.,  General  Lafayette  dies  in  France 

returning  to  Washington July  3,  1833  May  20,  1834 

President  removes  W.  J.  Duane,  Secre-  Senate,     by     resolution,     censures     the 

tary  of   Treasury,   for   refusing  to  with-  President  for  removing  the  deposits 

draw  the  deposits  from  the  National  Bank,  •   June,   1834 

and  appoints  Roger  B.  Taney,  of  Mary-  Coinage  of  the  United  States  changed 

land,  in  his  place Sept.  23,  1833  June  28,  1834 

President  Jackson  directs  the  Secretary  Indian    Territory    established    by    Con- 

of  the  Treasury  to  withdraw  the  deposits,    gress June    30,    1834 

about  $10,000,000,  from  the  National  Bank  First   session   adjourns.  .June   30,    1834 

Sept.  26,  1833  "Whig"    party    [first    so    called,    New 

Indian     chief    Black    Hawk    is     taken    York,   1832]    fully  organized 1834 

through  the  principal  Eastern  cities  Treaty  is  made  with  the  Seminole  Ind- 

autumn  of  1833  ians   at   Payne's   Landing,   May   9,    1833, 

Bank    deposits    removed    from    the    Na-  and  an  additional  treaty  at  Fort  Gibson, 

tional  Bank Oct.  1,  1833  March  28,  1834,  for  their  removal  to  the 

Anti-slavery   Society  organized   in   New  Indian     Territory;     Indians     reject     the 

York  City Oct.  2,  1833  treaty  of  their  chiefs.    General  Thompson 

First    severe    railway  accident    in    the  sent  by  the  United  States  to  insist  on  its 

United    States    on    the    Aniboy    and    Bor-    execution Oct.  28,  1834 

dentown  Railroad;   several  killed  [Seminole  War  waged  1835-42.] 

Oct.  8,  1833  Second  session  convenes ....  Dec.  1,  1834 

Great  display  of  shooting-stars  John  Bell,  of  Tennessee,  speaker  in  the 

morning  of  Nov.  13,  1833  place    of    Andrew    Stevenson,     resigned; 

Twenty-third     Congress,     first     session,  John      Hubbard,      of      New      Hampshire, 

convenes Dec.  2,  1833  speaker  pro  tern,  during  this  session. 

American  Anti-slavery  Society  organized  Over    500    local    banks    in    the    United 

at  Philadelphia ;   Beriah  Green  president,    States 1834 

and  John  G.   Whittier  one  of  the  secre-  ["  The   government    revenues    were    de- 

taries Dec.  6,  1833  posited  in  banks  selected  by  the  treasury, 



N"either  these  nor  their  unselected  rivals  The  President,  in  his  message,  suggesto 

v«re  under  any  sort  of  supervision  by  the  laws  to  prohibit  the   circulation  of  anti- 

f^tate    which    chartered    them    or    by    the  slavery  documents  through  the  mails, 

lederal  government,  and  no  bank-note  had  Great  fire  in  New  York  City 

iny   certainty   of   value." — yarrative  and  Dec.  16-17,  1835 

Critical  History  of  America,  vol.  vii.,  p.  General  Thompson,  Lieut.  C.  Smith,  and 

•289.]  others  massacred  by  the  Seminole  Indians 

President  in  his  message  announces  the  at  Fort  King,  GO  miles  southwest  of  St. 

extinguishment   of   the   national   debt  Augustine,  Fla Dec.   28,   1833 

December,  1831  [Osceola,  whom  General  Thompson  had 

John     Quincy     Adams,     member     from  shortly  before  put  in  irons  for  a  day,  led 

Massachusetts,     delivers     an     oration     on  this  war-party.] 

Lafayette  before  Congress.  .Dec.   13,   1834  Maj.  F.  L.  Dade,  with  100  men,  moving 

Attempted    assassination    of    President  from   Fort   Brooke   to   the   relief   of   Gen. 

Jackson  at  the  Capitol  by  Pichard  Law-  Clinch,   is   waylaid   and   the   entire   party 

rence Jan.   30,   1835  killed  except  four,  who  afterwards  die  of 

[Lawrence    tried    in   April,   but   proved    injuries  there  received Dec.   28,   183-5 

insane.]  Treaty   with    the    Cherokee    Indians    in 

Congress  awards   a  gold  medal  to   Col.  Georgia;  they  cede  all  their  territory  east 

George  Croghan  for  his  gallant  defence  of  of  the  Mississippi  for  $5,000,000 

Fort  Stephenson  twenty-two  years  before  Dec.  29,  1835 

Feb.  13,  1835  Memorial   presented   to   Congress   pray- 

Senate  appoints  a  committee  of  five  to  ing  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  within  the 

inquire    into    the    alleged    complicity    of    District  of  Columbia, Jan.  11,  1836 

Senator  Poindexter,  of  Mississippi,  in  the  Texas   declares   her   independence 

attempt  to  assassinate  the  President  March  2,  1836 

Feb.   22,   1835  Mexicans  under  Santa  Ana  capture  the 

[Investigation     showed     Senator     Poin-  Alamo,   San  Antonio,  Tex.,   and  massacre 

dexter  innocent.]  the  garrison.     David  Crockett  killed  here 

Congress    establishes    branch    mints    at  March  6,  1836 

New  Orleans,  La.,  Charlotte,  N.   C,  and  Battle  of  San  Jacinto,  defeat  of  Santa 

Dahlonega,   Ga March   3,    1835    Ana April  21,  1830 

Twenty-third    Congress    adjourns  Mexico    acknowledges    independence    of 

March  3,  1835    Texas May  14,  1836 

National      Democratic      convention      at  House  resolves,  by  a  vote  of  117  to  68, 

Baltimore,  Md May,  1835  that  everything  presented  to  that  body  in 

[^lartin    Van    Buren,    of    New    York,  any  way  relating  to  slavery  or  its  aboli- 

nominated     for     President;     Richard     M.  tion    shall   be   laid   on   the   table   without 

Johnson,    of    Kentucky,    for    Vice-Presi-  further  action  or  notice.  ..  .May  26,  1836 

dent.]  [This  was  the  first  of  the  "gag  rules" 

Anti-slavery  documents  taken  from  the  of  Congress.] 

mail  and  burned  at  Charleston,  S.  C.  Arkansas  admitted  as  the  twenty-fifth 

August,  1835    State June  15,  1836 

Name  "  Loco-focos "  first  applied  to  the  Act    authorizing    the    different    States 

Democratic    party 1835  to   become   depositories,   in   proportion   to 

Gen.    William    H.    Harrison,    of    Ohio,  their  respective  representation,  of  the  sur- 

nominated    for    President,    with    Francis  plus  funds  in  the  United  States  treasury 

Granger,    of    New    York,    for    Vice-Presi-  over   .$5,000,000.      This   money   subject  to 

dent,  by  a  State  Whig  Convention  at  Har-  recall   by    the  United  States  treasurer   at 

risburg,    Pa 1835  any  time,  out  not  in  sums  of  over  $10,000 

SamuftI     Colt     patents     a     "  revolving  per    month        Money   to   be   paid    to    tho 

pistol  " 1835  States  quarterly,  viz.,  Jan.  1,  April  1,  July 

Twenty-fourth    Congress,    first    session,  1,    Oct.     1,     1837.     Although    but    three 

convenes Dec.  2,   1835  instalments     were     paid,     it     aggregslefi 

Speaker  of  the  House,  James  K.  Polk,  $28,000,000.        Phis     money     had     never 

of  Tennessee.  been  recalled,   '-ncl  is  carried  on  the  treas* 



urer's  report  as  unavailable   funds.     Ap-  "  Patriot  War  "  in  Canada  commences 

proved June  23,  1836  1837 

James  Madison  dies  at  Montpelier,  Va.,  First   session    (extra)    adjourns 

aged    eighty-five June    28,    1836  Oct.  16,  1837 

Territory  of  Wisconsin  organized.  .  1836  Osceola,     the    Seminole    chief,    with    a 

First  session  adjourns July  4,  1836  party  of  seventy  warriors,  visits  the  camp 

Treasury  issues  a  "  specie  circular,"  re-  of    General    Jesup    under    stipulations    of 

quiring   collectors    of   tlie    public   revenue  safety,  and  is  detailed  as  prisoner 

to  receive  only  gold  and  silver  Oct.  21,  1837 

July  11,  1836  [He    was    confined    in    Fort    Moultrie, 

[This  proceeding  hastened  the  panic  of  Charleston,  S,  C,  where  he  died,  Jan.  31, 

1837.]  1838.] 

Aaron  Burr  dies  at  Staten  Island,  aged  Many    citizens    of    the    United    States 

eighty Sept.  14,  1836  along  the  borders  of  Canada  join  the  in- 

Samuel  Houston  elected  first  President  surgents   in   the   Patriot  War  during  the 

of  the  republic  of  Texas Oct.  22,  1836    autumn     1837 

Presidential  election Nov.  8,   1836  Elijah  P.  Lovejoy  shot  while  defending 

Second  session  convenes. .  .  .Dec.  5,  1836  his  printing-press  and  paper  at  Alton,  HI., 

Resolution   of   Senate,  June,    1834,   cen-  from  the  attack  of  a  pro-slavery  mob 

suring    President    Jackson    for    removing  Nov.  7,  1837 

the  public  money  from  the  National  Bank.  Second  session  assembles.  .  .Dec.  4,  1837 

Expunged  from  the  records.  .Jan.  16,  1837  Wendell     Phillips's     first     "abolition" 

Coinage    of    the    United    States    again  speech  in  Faneuil  Hall,  Boston,  to  protest 

changed Jan.    18,    1837  against  the  murder  of  Elijah  P.  Lovejoy 

Michigan  admitted  into  the  Union,  the  Dec.  8,  1837 
twenty-sixth  State  in  order.. Jan.  26,  1837  Col.   Zachary  Taylor   defeats   the   Semi- 
Electoral  vote  counted Feb.  8,  1837  nole  Indians  at  Okeechobee  Swamp,  Fla. 

Twenty-fourth  Congress  adjourns  Dec.  25,  1837 

March  3,  1837  American  steamer  Caroline  is  attacked 

and  burned  by  Canadian  troops  at  Schlos- 

Thirteenth    Administration  — Demo-  g^^'s  Landing,  above  Niagara  Falls,  on  the 

CRATic,  March  4,  1837,  to  March  3,  1841.       American  side Dec.  29,   1837 

Martin   Van  Buren,   New  York,   Presi-  President  issues  a  proclamation  of  neu- 

dent.  trality  as  regards  the  disturbance  in  Can- 

Richard    M.   Johnson,   Kentucky,   Vice-    ada Jan.  5,   1838 

President.  Duel    between    William    J.    Graves,    of 

Great  commercial   panic  begins   by   the  Kentucky,   and   Jonathan   Cilley,   of   New 

failure    of    Herman    Briggs    &    Co.,    New  Hampshire,  members  of  the  House 

Orleans,   La March,    1837  Feb.  24,  1838 

[This  panic  reached  its  height  in  May.]  [Fought  with  rifles;  Cilley  killed  at  the 

All   the  banks   in   New  York   City  sus-  third  shot.] 

pend  specie  payment May  10,  1837  First  regular  passage  by  steamer  across 

[Banks    in    Boston,    Philadelphia,    and  the  Atlantic  completed  by  the  Great  West- 

Baltimore  followed.]  em    and    Sirius.      Sirius    seventeen    days 

An  extra  session  of  Congress  called  to  from  London,   and   Great   Western  fifteen 

meet  first  Monday  in  September  days  from  Bristol.     Both  arrive  at  New 

May  15,  1837    York  City April  23,  1838 

Twenty-fifth  Congress,  first  session   (ex-  Banks  in  New  England  and  New  York 

tra),  assembles Sept.  4,  1837  resume  specie  payments. ..  .May  10,  1838 

President's  message  advocates  the  sub-  Iowa  receives  a  territorial  government 

treasury.     First  sub-treasury  bill  reported  June  12,  1838 

in  the  Senate Sept.   14,   1837  Second  session  adjourns. .  .July  9,  1838 

Passes  the  Senate  by  a  small  majority  United    States    exploring   expedition    to 

Oct.  4,  1837  the   Antarctic    and   Pacific   oceans,   under 

Defeated    in    the   House    (see    Aug.    6,  command  of  Lieut.  Charles  Wilkes,  sails 

1846) Oct.  14,   1837    from  Hampton  Roads Aug.  18,  1838 



riiiid  session  assembles.  ..  .Dec.  3,  1838  Washingtonian       Temperance       Society 

Charles    G.    Atherton,    of    New    Hamp-    founded  in  Baltimore 1840 

shire,    introduces     a     resolution     in     the  Democratic  National  Convention  at  Bal- 

House.  known  as  the  "Atherton  gag,"  to  timore,    Md.      Martin    Van    Buren    nomi- 

prevent  the  discussion  of  slavery.    It  pass-  nated    for    President,    leaving    the    States 

es  by  a  vote  of  127  to  78. . .  .Dec.  11,  1838  to  nominate  for  Vice-President 

Loss  of  steamboats  on  the  Western  riv-  May  5,  1840 

ers:  Mississippi,  fifty-five;  Ohio,  thirteen;  Sub -treasury   or    independent   treasury 

Missouri,    two;    Illinois,    two;    Arkansas,    bill  passed  and  approved July  4,  1840 

one:    Eed,    one;    and   four    others    during  Britannia,     the     first     regular     steam- 

the  year  CSiles's  Register,  \o\.W\\., -p.  Z'2)  packet    of    the    Cunard    line,    arrives    at 

1838  Boston,    fourteen    days    and    eight    hours 

Unsettled  boundary  between  Maine  and    from  Liverpool July  19,  1840 

the     British     provinces     results     in     the  First  session  adjourns.  ..  .July  21,  1840 

"Aroostook   War  "..February-March,  1839  "Log-cabin"    and    "Hard-cider"    cam- 

Eev.    Zerah    Colburn    died    at   Norwich,  paign,  in  the  interest  of  William  Henry 

Vt.,  aged  thirty-five March  2,  1839    Harrison,    begins July,    1840 

[A  mathematical  prodigy.]  [Modern  methods  of  conducting  a  Presi- 

Twenty-fifth   Congress   adjourns  dential  campaign  were  now  introduced.] 

March  3,  1839  Steamship    Arcadia    arrives    at    Boston 

L'Amistad   ("Friendship")    is  captured  from  Liverpool  in  twelve  days  and  twelve 

off  Montauk  Point  by  the  United   States  hours,    the    shortest    passage   up    to    that 

brig  Washington,  Lieutenant  Ceding  com-    time Oct.   17,   1840 

mariding Aug.  29,  1839  Alexander  McLeod  arrested  in  the  State 

Daguerreotypes  first  taken 'in  the  Unit-  of   New   York    for    complicity   in   the   de- 
ed States  by  Prof.  J.  W.  Draper.  ...  1839  struction    of    the    steamer    Caroline,    Deo. 

Liberty   party,    in    convention    at   War-    29,    1837 November,   1840 

saw,   N.   Y.,   nominates   James   G.   Birney  [Tried  and  acquitted  Oct.   12,   1841.] 

for  President  and  Thomas  Earle,  of  Penn-  Log  -  cabin,    a    Whig    campaign    paper, 

gylvania,  for  Vice-President. Nov.  13,  1839  edited  by  Horace  Greeley,  reaches  a  circu- 

[This  was  the  first  appearance  of  a  na-  lation  of  80,000  during  the  autumn..  1840 

tional    anti-slavery    party,    and    although  Fourteenth    Presidential    election 

Mr.    Birney    declined    the   nomination,    it  Nov.   10,  1840 

polled  over  7,000  votes.]  Treaty  of  commerce  between  Texas  and 

Tv:enty-sixth  Congress,  first  session,  as-    Great  Britain  made Nov.  14,  1840 

sembles Dec.  2-16,  1839  Second  session  assembles.  .  .Dec.  7,  1840 

Robert  M.  T.  Hunter,  of  Virginia,  Whig,  Electoral  votes  counted.  .  .Feb.  19,  1841 

elected  speaker  of  the  House  on  the  elev-  Twenty-sixth  Congress  adjourns 

enth    ballot,    receiving    119    votes    out    of  March  3,   1841 

mig  National    Convention   at   Harris-  ./Tf^  oT!'  /TT^^'c'?^  ~  ^'''''' 

burg.  Pa Dec.  4,  1839  March  4,  1841,  to  March  3,  1845. 

[First     ballot,     Clay,     103;     Harrison,  William  Henry   Harrison,   Ohio,   Presi- 

94;  and  Scott,  57.     Fifth  ballot,  Clay,  90;  dent. 

Harrison,  148;  and  Scott,  16.     The  nomi-  Jo/in.  Ti/^e^r,  Virginia,  Vice-President, 

nation  of  Harrison  was  made  unanimous,  Corner-stone  of  the  Mormon  temple  at 

and  John  Tyler  nominated  for  Vice-Pres-    Nauvoo,  111.,  laid April  6,   1841 

ident.]  Ticenty-seventh    Congress,    first    session 

Steamer  Lexington  burned  on  Long  Isl-    (extra),  assembles May  31,  1841 

and  Sound,  between  New  York  and  Ston-  Samuel  L.  Southard,  New  Jersey,  presi- 

ington,  140  lives  lost Jan.  13,  1840  dent  pro   tern,   of   the   Senate   and  acting 

Lieut.  Charles  Wilkes  discovers  the  ant-  Vice-President  of  the  United  States  until 

arctic  continent,  60°  20'  S.  lat.,   154°   18'  his  death,  May  22,  1842. 

E.  long Jan.  19,  1840  W.  P.  Mangum,  North  Carolina,  presi- 

[He  coasted  westward  along  this  land  dent  pro   tern,  of  the  Senate  and  acting 

70  degrees.]  Vice-President  of  the  United  States  from 



May   31,    1842,   to   the   end   of   President 
Tyler's  term. 

Act  to  appropriate  the  proceeds  of  the 
public  lands  and  pre-emptive  rights 
granted,   passed July   6,    1841 

United  States  sloop-of-war  Peacock,  of 
the  Wilkes  United  States  exploring  expedi- 
tion, is  lost  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia 
River,    Oregon July    18,    1841 

Sub  -  treasury  or  independent  treasury 
act  repealed Aug.  9,  1841 

President  Tyler  vetoes  the  bill  to  incor- 
porate the  Fiscal  Bank  of  the  United 
States Aug.  16,  1841 

Bankruptcy  bill  passed. .  .  .Aug.  19,  1841 

President  Tyler  vetoes  the  Fiscal  Cor- 
poration bill Sept.  9,  1841 

Party  of  British  volunteers  from  Can- 
ada carry  off  Colonel  Grogan 

Sept.  9,  1841 

[This  seizure  was  unauthorized  by  the 
British  government,  and  Grogan  was 
promptly  released.  The  seizure,  however, 
caused  great  excitement.] 

Cabinet  resigns,  except  the  Secretary  of 
State Sept.  11,  1841 

[Because  of  the  veto  of  the  Fiscal  Cor- 
^ration  bill.] 

First  session    (extra)    adjourns 

Sept.  13,  1841 

President's  proclamation  forbids  Ameri- 
can citizens  to  invade  British  possessions 

Sept.  25,  1841 

Failure  of  the  United  States  Bank  under 
the  Pennsylvania  charter.  .  .  .Oct.  11,  1841 

Brig  Creole,  Ensor,  master,  sails  from 
Richmond,  Va.,  for  New  Orleans  with 
merchandise  and  135  slaves;  some  of  the 
slaves  attack  the  captain  and  crew,  and 
capture  the  vessel Nov.  7,  1841 

Second  session  assembles. .  .Dec.  6,  1841 

Joshua  R.  Giddings,  member  from  Ohio, 
presents  resolutions  concerning  the  brig 
Creole  and  adverse  to  slavery 

March  21,  1842 

Henry  Clay  resigns  from  the  Senate 

March  31,   1842 

Influenza,  called  "  la  grippe,"  widely 
prevalent 1842 

Col.  John  C.  Fremont's  first  exploring 
expedition  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  com- 
mences   May  2,  1842 

United  States  exploring  expedition  under 
Lieut.  Charles  Wilkes  after  a  voyage  of 
four  years  and  over  90,000  miles,  returns 
to  New  York June  10,  1842 


Dorr's  Rebellion  in  Rhode  Island, 
caused  by  the  disagreement  between  the 
Charter  and  Suffrage  parties 

May-June,  1842 

Statue  of  Washington,  by  Horatio 
Greenough,    placed    in    the    Capitol.  .  1842 

Charles  Dickens  visits  the  United  States 


Earliest  actual  finding  of  gold  in  Cali- 
fornia in  Los  Angeles  district 1842 

"  Ashburton  treaty "  with  England  for 
settling  the  boundaries  between  Maine  and 
the  British  provinces,  also  for  suppressing 
the  slave-trade  and  extradition,  negotiat- 
ed at  Washington  between  Lord  Ashbur- 
ton, special  minister  of  Great  Britain,  and 
Daniel  Webster,  Secretary  of  State,  and 
signed Aug.  9,  1842 

End  of  the  Indian  war  in  Florida  pro- 
claimed  Aug.  14,  1842 

Ashburton  treaty  ratified  by  the  Senate, 
39  to  9 Aug.  20,  1842 

Beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  changed 
from  Jan.   1  to  July  1  by  law  of 

Aug.  28,  1842 

After  vetoing  two  tariff  bills,  President- 
Tyler  signs  the  third Aug.  30,  1812 

[The  prevailing  rate  of  this  tariff  was 
20  per  cent.] 

Second  session  adjourns.  .Aug.  31,  1842 

[It  passed  ninety  -  five  acts,  thirteen 
joint  resolutions,  and  189  private  bills, 
sitting  269  days — the  longest  session  since 
the  beginning  of  Congress.] 

William  Ellery  Channing,  Unitarian 
minister,  dies  at  Bennington,  Vt.,  aged 
sixty-two Oct.  2,  1842 

Alexander  Slidell  Mackenzie,  command- 
ing the  United  States  brig  Somers,  while 
on  a  short  cruise,  hangs  at  the  yard-arm 
Philip  Spencer,  a  midshipman  and  son 
of  John  C.  Spencer,  then  Secretary  of 
War;  Samuel  Cromwell,  a  boatswain's 
mate;  and  Elijah  H.  Small,  for  an  al- 
leged conspiracy Dee.  1,  1842 

Third  session  assembles. ..  .Dec.  5,  1842 

Samuel  Woodworth  (author  of  the  Old 
Oaken  Bucket)  dies  at  New  York  City, 
aged  fifty-seven Dec.  9.  1842 

Resolutions  offered  by  John  M.  Botts  of 
Virginia,  for  the  impeachment  of  President 
Tyler  for  gross  usurpation  of  power, 
wicked  and  corrupt  abuse  of  the  power  of 
appointments,  high  crimes  and  misde- 
meanors, etc Jan.  10,  1843 

[Rejected  by  a  vote  of  83  to  127.] 


Francis  S.  Key,  author  of  Star  -  Span- 
gled Banner,  dies  at  Baltimore,  Md.,  aged 
sixty-four Jan.   11,   1843 

Com.  Isaac  Hull  dies  at  Philadelphia. 
Pa.,  aged  sixty-eight Feb.  13,  1843 

Dr.  Marcus  Whitman,  learning  of  the 
intention  of  the  British  government  tc 
permanently  occupy  the  Oregon  "territory, 
and  desirous  of  a  personal  interview  with 
the  United  States  government,  to  give 
warning  and  also  to  announce  the  prac- 
ticability of  overland  emigration  to  that 
region,  leaves  Walla  Walla,  October, 
1842,  ahd  reaches  Washington,  D.  C. 

March  3,  1843 

Bankruptcv  act  of  1841  repealed 

March  3,  1843 

Congress  appropriates  .$30,000  to  build 
Morse's  electric  telegraph  from  Wash- 
ington  to  Baltimore March   3,   1843 

Twenty-seventh  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  184? 

John  Armstrong,  Secretary  of  War, 
1812,  dies  at  Eed  Hook,  N,  \ .,  aged 
eighty-five Apii»  1,  1843 

Col.  John  C.  Fremont  starts  on  his  sec- 
ond exploring  expedition  with  thirty-nine 
men May,  1843 

[Reached  Salt  Lake.  Sept.  6,  and  the 
Pacific  coast,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Co- 
lumbia Rivet;  J^ov.  10;  returned  July, 

Bunker  Hill  monument  completed  and 
dedicated June  17,  1843 

[President  Tyler  was  present,  and  Daniel 
Webster  delivered  the  address.] 

National  Liberty  party,  in  convention 
at  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  nominates  James  G. 
Blrney  for  President,  and  Thomas  Morris, 
of  Ohio,  for  Vice-President.  .Aug.  30,  1843 

Ticenty-eighth  Congress,  first  session, 
convenes Dec.  4,  1843 

John  W.  Jones,  of  Virginia,  elected 

Explosion  of  a  large  gun,  "  the  Peace- 
maker," on  the  United  States  war-steamer 
Princeton,  on  the  Potomac,  carrying,  with 
many  excursionists,  the  President  and  sev- 
eral of  his  cabinet;  kills  Mr.  Upshur,  Sec- 
retary of  State,  Mr.  Gilmer,  Secretary 
of  Navy,  David  Gardiner,  and  others,  be- 
sides wounding  twelve  of  the  crew 

Feb.  28,  1844 

Treaty  of  annexation  with  Texas  signed 

April  12,  1844 

[Rejected  by  the  Senate,  35  to  IG.] 

National  vVhig  Convention  at  Balti« 
irore. May   1,   1844 

l^llenry  Clay,  of  Kentucky,  nominat- 
ed for  President,  and  Theodore  Freling- 
huysen,  of  New  Jersey,  for  Vice-Presi- 

Riots  in  Philadelphia  between  native 
Americans  and  the  Irish... May  6-6,  1844 

National  Democratic  convention  at  Bal- 
timore, Md May  27,  1844 

[Martin  Van  Buren,  of  New  York,  re- 
ceived on  the  first  Ijallot  146  out  of  26G 
votes,  but  failed  to  get  the  required  two- 
thirds  vote;  h:G  name  was  withdrawn  on 
the  eighth  ballot,  and  James  K.  Polk,  of 
Tennessee,  v»as  nominated  on  the  ninth; 
Silas  Wright,  of  N  w  York,  was  nomi- 
nated for  Vice-President,  but  declined,  and 
George  M.  Dallas,  of  Pennsylvania,  was 

First  telegraphic  communications  in  the 
United  States  during  this  convention,  on 
the  experimental  line  erected  by  the  gov- 
ernment between  Baltimore  and  Washing- 
ton  May    27,    1844 

First  session  adjourns June  17,  1844 

"  Joe "  Smith,  the  Mormon  prophet, 
with  his  brother  Hiram,  murdered  by  a 
mob  at  the  jail  in  Carthage,  111. 

June  27,  1844 

Treaty  with  China,  of  peace,  amity,  and 
commerce July  3,  1844 

Henry  Clay's  Alabama  letter,  publish- 
ed in  the  North  Alabamian,  alienates  the 
Northern  Whigs Aug.  16,  1844 

Fifteenth    Presidential    election 

Nov.  12,  1844 

Second  session  assembles ..  Dec.  2,  1844 

On  motion  of  John  Quincy  Adams  the 
"  gag  rule,''  prohibiting  the  presentation 
of  abolition  petitions,  is  rescinded,  108  to 
88 Dec.  3,  1844 

Samuel  Hoar,  sent  by  Massachusetts  to 
South  Carolina  in  aid  of  the  Massachu- 
setts colored  citizens  imprisoned  at 
Charleston,  S.  C,  is  expelled  from  Charles- 
ton by  citizens Dee.  5,  1844 

Congress  appoints  the  Tuesday  follow- 
ing the  first  Monday  in  November  for  the 
national  election  day.; Jan.  23,  1845 

Electoral   votes  counted ..  Feb.   12,   1845 

President  Tyler  vetoes  a  bill  forbidding 
the  building  of  any  steam-vessel  for  the 
revenue  service  unless  by  special  appro- 
priation  Feb.  20,  1845 

[This  bill  passed  both  branches  of  Con- 



gress  over  the  veto,  the  first  veto  over-  ed   States  troops   captured  by  the  Mexi- 

ruled  by  Congress.]  cans April  25,  1840 

Texas  annexed  by  a  joint  resolution  Battle  of  Palo  Alto May  8,  1846 

Feb.  28,  1845  Battle  of  Resaca  de  la  Palma 

Which  the  President  approves  May  9,  184fi 

March  1,  1845  President   Polk,   hy   special    message   to 

Florida  admitted  as  the  twenty-seventh  Congress,    announces   that   war    exists   by 

State March   3,    1845    the  act  of  Mexico May  11,  1846 

Congress  reduces  postage  on  letters  to  Congress    authorizes    the    President    to 

5    cents   within    300   miles,   and    10    cents  raise  50,000  men  and  $10,000,000  for  the 

for  gi-eater  distances March  3,  1845    war May  13,  1846 

Twenty-eighth    Congress    adjourns  Treaty   with   Great   Britain    signed,   es- 

March  3,  1845  tablishing    the    boundaries    west    of    the 

Fifteenth      Administratiox  —  Demo-  ^J'^^y  Mountains  on  the  49th  parallel  of 

CRATio,  March  4,  1845,  to  March  3,  1849.  ^.'J^t'   f,            "^   settling   the   "Oregon 

'  difficulty  " June   15,   1846 

James    Knox    Polk,    Tennessee,    Presi-  Com.    John    D.    Sloat,    of    the    Pacific 

^^^^'  Squadron,    occupies    Monterey,    Cal.,    and 

Georffe     Mifflin     Dallas,   Pennsylvania,  proclaims    the    country    annexed    to    the 

Vice-President.  United  States July  6,  1846 

Mexican  minister  demands  his  passport  Congress  recedes  to  Virginia  the  south- 
March  6,  1845  ^^^  P^i"*  of  the  District  of  Columbia 

Andrew  Jackson,  seventh  President,  dies  July  9j  1846 

nt  the  Hermitage,  near  Nashville,  Tenn.,  TarifT  of   1842  repealed,  and  a  revenue 

aged  seventy-eight June  8,  1845  tariff  passed  (in  the  Senate  by  the  casting 

By  an  act  of  amnesty  the  Rhode  Island  vote  of  Vice-President  George  M.  Dallas) 

legislature  releases  Thomas  W.  Dorr,  who  approved  July  30,  1846 

was  under  a  life  sentence  for  treason  "Warehouse     system"     established     by 

June  27,  1845    Congress Aug.  6,  1846 

Naval   school   established  at  Annapolis,  Independent  treasury  system  re-enacted 

Md.,  while  George  Bancroft  is  Secretary  Aug.  6,  1846 

of  Navy  1845  Wisconsin  authorized  to  form  a  consti- 

Annexation  ratified  by  Texas  in  conven-  tution  and  State  government .  Aug.  6,  1846 

tion July  4,   1845  Bill  v,'ith  the  "  Wilmot  proviso  "  attach- 

Texas  in  convention  adopts  a  constitu-  ed  passes  the  House  by  85  to  79   (no  vote 

tion Aug.  27,  1845    in  the  Senate) Aug.  8,  1846 

Gov.  Silas  Wright,  of   New  York,  pro-  Act  establishing  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 

claims    Delaware    county    in    a    state    of    tution  approved Aug.  10,  1846 

insurrection  from  anti-rent  difficulties  First  session  adjourns Aug.  10,  1846 

Aug.  27,  1845  Brigadier-General   Kearny   takes   peace- 
Joseph    Story,    associate    judge    of    the  able  possession  of  Santa  Fe.  .Aug.  18,  1846 
United    States    Supreme    Court,    dies    at  Gen.  Zachary  Taylor  captures  Monterey, 
Cambridge,  Mass.,  aged  sixty-six  Mexico,  after  a  three  days'  battle  or  siege 

Sept.  10,  1845  Sept.  24,  1846 

Texas  State  constitution  ratified  by  the  Second  session  assembles.  .Dec.  7,   1846 

people Oct.    13,    1845  Iowa    admitted    as    the    twenty -ninth 

Ticenty  -  ninth    Congress,    first    session.    State Dec.  28,   1846 

assembles Dec.   1,   1845  Battle  of  San  Gabriel,  Cal.,  fought 

Texas   admitted   as  the  twenty  -  eighth  Jan.  8,  1847 

State Dec.   29,   1845  Congress  authorizes  ten  additional  regi- 

American     army     of     occupation,     Gen.  ments  for  the  regular  army.  .Feb.  11,  1847 

Zachary  Taylor,  3,500  strong,  reaches  the  Battle  of  Buena  Vista.  .Feb.  22-23,  1847 

Rio  Grande,  and  takes  post  opposite  Mat-        Battle  of  Sacramento Feb.  28,  1847 

amoras March    28,    1846  Congress  resolves  to  light  with  gas  the 

Hostilities   begun   between    Mexico    and  Capitol  and  Capitol  grounds 

the  United  States;  a  small  force  of  Unit-  March  3,  1847 



Twenty-ninth    Congress    adjourns  Wisconsin    admitted    as    the    thirtietls 

March  3,   1847    State  by  act  approved May  29,  1848 

General  Scott  lands  at  Vera  Cruz,  Mex-  Congress    appropriates    $25,000    to    buy 

ico.  with  13,000  men March  9,  1847  the   unpublished    papers   of   James   Madi- 

Vera  Cruz  surrenders  after  a  bombard-    son May  31,  1848 

ment  of  nine  days March  29,  1847  Whig  National  Convention  at  Indepen- 

Arniy   moves   from   Vera   Cruz   towards  dence    Hall,    Philadelphia,    on   the    fourth 

the  city  of  Mexico  under  General  Twiggs  ballot  nominates  Ma j. -Gen.  Zachary  Tay- 

April  8,  1847  lor,  of  Louisiana,  for  President;   Millard 

Battle  of  Cerro  Gordo.. April   18,   1847  Fillmore,  of  New  York,  for  Vice-President 

Army  enters  Puebla May  15,  1847  June  7-8,  1848 

President  Polk  visits  the  Eastern  States  Corner-stone  of  the  Washington  monu- 

as   far   as   Augusta,   Me.,   and   returns   to  ment  laid  at  Washington,  D.   C. 

Washington July  7,  1847  July  4,   1848 

Battles  of  Contreras  and  Churubusco  Free-soil   National    Convention   at   Buf- 

Aug.  20,  1847  falo,  N.  Y.,  nominates  Martin  Van  Buren. 

Armistice  granted  the  Mexicans  by  Gen-  of  New  York,  for  President,  and  Charles 

eral  Scott,  .from  Aug.  21  to  Sept.  7,  1847  Francis    Adams,    of    Massachusetts,     for 

Salt   Lake    City    founded    by    the    Mor-    Vice-President Aug.  9-10,  1848 

mons 1847  So    much    of    the   Cumberland    road    as 

Battle    of    El    Molino    del    Key    ( "  Tlie  lies    in    Indiana    is    surrendered    to    that 

King's  Mill ") Sept.  8,  1847    State  by  act  approved Aug.  11,  1848 

Fortress     of     Chapultepec     carried     by  Territorial    government    established    in 

storm,   and   the   city   of   Mexico   occupied    Oregon  by  act  approved Aug.  14,1848 

by  the  L^nited  States  troops. Sept.  13,  1847  First  session  adjourns. .  .  .Aug.  14,  1848 

Gen.  Zachary  Taylor  returns  to  the  Unit-  Sixteenth  Presidential  election 

ed  States November,  1847  Nov.  7,  1848 

Thirtieth    Congress,    first    session,    as-  Second  session  assembles.  .Dec.  4,   184S 

sembles Dec.   6,    1847  First    gold    from    California     (1,804.59 

By   resolution    Congress   authorizes   the  ounces    troy,    average    value    per    ounce, 

erection   on   public   gi'ounds   in   Washing-  $18,051/,)    deposited  at  the  United  States 

ton   of  a  monument  to   George   Washing-    mint  by  David  Carter Dec.  8,  1843 

ton Jan.  31,   1848  Postal  treaty  with  Great  Britain 

Treaty     of     peace,     friendship,     limits,  Dec.  15,  1848 

claims,    etc.,    between    the    United    States  Electoral  votes  counted ...  Feb.  14,  1849 

and  Mexico  signed  at  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  Act  granting  swamp  lands  to  the  State 

Feb.  2,  1848  of  Louisiana,  approved   (see  March,  1857) 

John    Quincy    Adams,    sixth    President,  LLirch   2,    1849 

dies  at  Washington,  aged  eighty-one  Territorial     government    of    INIinnesota 

Feb.  23,   1848  established  by  act  approved . March  3,  1849 

[Was   in   his   seat   in   the   House   when  Coinage  of  the  gold  dollar  and  double- 
stricken  with  apoplexy,  Feb.  21.]                      eagle  authorized March   3.   1849 

John   Jacob   Astor   dies   in   New   York,  Department  of  Interior  created  by  act 

aged  eighty- five March  29,  1848    approved March  3,'  1849 

Congress  authorizes  a  loan  of  $16,000,-  Work  of  census  office,  previously  under 

000 March  31,  1848  Secretary  of  State,  transferred  to  the  In- 

By  resolution  Congress  tenders  the  con-    terior  by  act March  3,  1849 

gratulations  of  the  people  of  the  United  Thirtieth  Congress  adjourns 

States  to  the  French  people  on  becoming  March  3,  1849 

a  republic April  13,  1848 

Democratic  National  Convention  at  Bal-  Sixteenth     Administration  —  Wma, 

timore  nominates  upon  the  fourth  ballot,  March  5,  1849,  to  March  3,  1853. 
under  the  two-thirds  rule,  Lewis  Cass,  of 

^Michigan,  for  President,  and  William   O.  Zachary  Taylor,  Louisiana,  President. 

Butler,  of  Kentucky,  for  Vice-President  Millard  Fillmore,  New  York,  Vice-Preai- 

May  22-26,  1848  dent. 


Gen.  William  J.  Worth,  U.  S.  A.,  dies  Collins  line  of  steamers  between  Great 
at  San  Antonio,  Tex.,  aged  fifty-five  Britain  and  the  United  States  goes  into 

May   7,    1849    operation April  27,  1850 

Gen.  Edmund  P.  Gaines  dies  at  New  Committee  on  the  compromise  resolu- 
Orleans,   aged   seventy-two.  .June   G,    1849    tions  submits  an  elaborate  series  of  bills 

James  K.  Polk,  eleventh  President,  dies    embodying  the  substance  of  the  resolutions 

at  Nashville,  Tenn.,  aged  fifty-four  of  Jan.  29 May  8,  1850 

June  15,  1849        [These  several  bills  are  known  as  the 

President  Taylor  issues  a  proclamation  compromise  or  "omnibus"  bill;  the  last 
against   filibustering  expeditions   to   Cuba    passed  Sept.  20.] 

under  Lopez Aug.  11,  1849        Narcisso  Lopez,  a  South  American  ad- 
Albert    Gallatin,    distinguished    states-    venturer,    makes    a    filibustering    expedi- 
man,  dies  at  Astoria,  L.  I... Aug.  12,  1849    tion  to   Cuba   from  New   Orleans  in  the 

Thirty-first  Congress,  first  session,  as-  steamer  Creole,  and  lands  at  Cardenas, 
sembles Dec.  3,  1849    May  19,  with  about  600  men;  is  repulsed 

Senate  strongly  Democratic,  and  in  the  and  retires  to  the  steamer  with  a  loss  of 
House  the  Free-soilers  hold  the  balance  thirty  killed  and  wounded;  is  pursued 
of  power  between  the  Democrats  and  by  the  Spanish  war-steamer  Pizarro  to 
Whigs.  After  sixty-three  ballots  for  Key  West,  where  he  escapes. .May  21, 1850 
speaker,  Dec.  22,  Howell  Cobb,  of  Georgia,  Advance,  140  tons,  and  Rescue,  90  tons, 
chosen  by  a  plurality  of  102  to  99  for  equipped  by  Henry  Grinnell,  of  New  York, 
Robert  C.  Winthrop,  of  Massachusetts,  to  search  for  Sir  John  Franklin,  sail  from 
Organization  of  the  House  not  completed  New  York  City,  under  Lieut.  E.  J.  De 
until Jan.    11,    1850    Haven,   with   Dr.    Elisha   Kent   Kane   as 

Henry   Clay   introduces   six  resolutions    surgeon May  23,  1850 

as  a  basis  for  compromise  of  the  slavery        President   Taylor   dies   at   Washington, 
controversy Jan.    29,    1850    aged  sixty-six July  9,   1850 

[These    resolutions    related    to — First,        Vice-President  Fillmore  takes  the  oath 

admission  of  California  as  a  free   State;    of  office  as  President July  10,  1850 

second,   territorial  governments   for   Utah        William  R.  King,  of  Alabama,  president 

and  New  Mexico  without  conditions  as  to    pro  tern,  of  the  Senate July  11,  1850 

slavery;     third,     boundaries     of     Texas;        Treaty  between  the  United  States  and 
fourth,  payment  of  Texas  debt;  fifth,  sup-    the  Hawaiian  or  Sandwich  Islands,  signed 

pression  of  the  slave-trade  in  the  District    Dec.  20,  1849;  ratified Aug.  24,  1850 

of  Columbia;   sixth,  fugitive  slave  laws.]        Territory   of   Utah   created,   and   terri- 

Clay   advocates   his   resolutions   in   the    torial  government  established 
Senate Feb.  5-6,  1850  Sept.  9,  1850 

Resolution  of  Congress  for  purchasing       Territorial    government    established    in 

the  manuscript  of  Washington's  Farewell    New  Mexico Sept.  9,  1850 

Address Feb.  12,   1850        California   admitted   as   the   thirty-first 

Abolitionists  attacked  by  Daniel  Web-    State,  her  constitution  excluding  slavery 
ster  in  debating  the  compromise  bill  Sept.  9,  1850 

March  7,  1850        Northern    and    western    boundaries    of 
[This  speech  much  weakened  Webster's    Texas  established.     Texas  cedes  all  claim 
influence  at  the  North.]  to  territory  beyond  this  boundary,  and  re- 

John  C.  Calhoun,  statesman  and  member  linquishes  all  claim  for  debt,  compensa- 
of  the  Senate,  dies  at  Washington,   aged    tion,  or  indemnity  for  the  surrender  of  all 

sixty-eight March   31,   1850    United  States  property;  $10,000,000  to  be 

Bulwer-Clayton  treaty  with  Great  paid  by  the  United  States  government  in 
Britain,  for  a  joint  occupancy  of  the  pro-  stocks  bearing  5  per  cent,  interest,  and  re- 
posed ship-canal  through  Central  America,    deemable  at  the  end  of  fourteen  years 

signed April    19,   1850  Sept.  9,  1850 

After  a  debate  of  over  two  months.  Amendments  of  great  stringency  to  the 
Clay's  compromise  resolutions  arc  referred  fugitive  slave  laws  of  Feb.  12,  1793,  pass 
to  a  committee  of  thirteen,  with  Clay  as    the  House  by  109  to  75,  Sept.  12,  1850; 

chairman April  19,  1850    approved Sept.   18,  1850 

DC.— N  193 


Slave-trade    suppressed    from    Jan.     1,  [At  this  time  it  was  decided  that  Con- 

J851,  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  by  act  gress  expires  at  noon  on  the  fourth  day 

^pp^oTed Sept.   20,   1850  of  March.] 

Flogging  abolished  in  the  yislyj  and  on  Com.    James    Barron    dies    at    Norfolk, 

vessels  of  commerce  by  act  approved  Va.,  aged  eighty-three April  21,  1851 

Sept.  28,  1850  President   Fillmore   issues   a   proclama- 

Act  granting  swamp  lands  to  Arkansas  tion   against   the   promoters   of   a    second 

and  other  States,  approved   (see  March  3,  expedition    against    Cuba,    and    the    ship 

1857) Sept.  28,   1850  Cleopatra,  with  military  supplies  for  that 

First  session    (302  days)    adjourns  island,  is  seized April  25,   1851 

Sept.  30,  1850  First  train  on  the  Erie  Railway,  New 

[This    session    the    longest    up    to    this    York  to  Dunkirk April  28,  29,  1851 

time.]  Extension  of  the  United  States  Capitol; 

City  council  of  Chicago  passes  a   reso-  corner-stone   laid   by   the   President;    ora- 

lution   nullifying   the   fugitive   slave   law,    tion  by  Daniel  Webster July  4,  1851 

and  releasing  the  police  from  obedience  to  [Extension  finished,  November,  1867.] 

it Oct.    22,    1850  General      Lopez's      second      expedition 

[They  subsequently  reconsidered  it.]  against  Cuba Aug.  3,  1851 

Second  session  assembles.  .  .Dec.  2,  1850  Louis  Kossuth  and  suite  received  on  the 

British  consul  at  Charleston,  S.  C,  in  a  United  States  war  steamer  Mississippi  at 

communication  to  the  governor,  calls  at-    the   Dardanelles Sept.    10,    1851 

tention  to   the   State  law  under  which   a  James    Fenimore    Cooper,    author,    dies 

class   (negroes)  of  her  Majesty's  subjects,  at  Cooperstown,  N.  Y.,  aged  sixty- two 

entering  the  ports  of   South   Carolina  on  Sept.  14,  1851 

the    guarantee    of    a    national    treaty,    in  Hudson    River    Railroad    opened    from 

trading  vessels   or   in   distress,   are   taken    New  York  to  Albany Oct.  8,  1851 

from   the   protection    of   the    British    flag  Kossuth  leaves  the  Mississippi  at  Gib- 

and  imprisoned,  and  hopes  that  the  State  raltar    and    embarks    on    the    Madrid,    an 

will  abrogate  such  portion  of  the  law  as  English  passenger  steamer,  for  Southamp- 

applies  to  British  subjects.  .Dec.  14,  1850    ton,  England Oct.  15,  1851 

John     James     Audubon,     distinguished  President   Fillmore    issues   a   proclama- 

ornithologist,   dies   near   New   York   City,  tion  forbidding  military  expeditions  into 

aged  seventy-one Jan.  27,  1851    Mexico Oct.  22,  1851 

President   Fillmore   issues   a   proclama-  Grinnell  expedition,  sent  out  in  search 

tion  relative  to  the  rescue  of  Shadrach,  a  of  Sir  John  Franklin,  May,  1850,  returns 

negro,    at    Boston,    Mass.,    who    had   been    to   New   York October,    1851 

arrested  as  a  fugitive  slave,  Feb.  15,  1851,  Thirty-second    Congress,     first     session, 

calling  on  all  officers  and  citizens  to  aid    assembles Dec.    1,   1851 

in  recapturing  him,  and  commanding  the  Speaker   of  the   House,   Linn   Boyd,   of 

arrest  of  all  persons  aiding  in  his  escape  Kentucky. 

Feb.  18,  1851  Kossuth    arrives    at    New    York    from 

Letter   postage   reduced   to   3   cents   for    England Dec.  5,  1851 

3,000    miles    or    less,    if    prepaid,    and    5  Resolution  of  welcome  to  Louis  Kossuth 

cents  if  not;  over  3,000  miles  double  rate,    by  Congi-ess  approved Dec.   15,  1851 

Coinage   of    3-cent   pieces   authorized  Henry  Clay  resigns  his  seat  in  the  Sen- 
March  3,   1851  ate    (to  take  effect  September,  1852) 

Congress    authorizes    the    President    to  Dec.  17,  1851 

employ  a  public  vessel,   then   cruising  in  A   fire   in   the   library   of   Congress   de- 

the     Mediterranean,     to     convey     to     the  stroys  35,000  of  its  55,000  volumes 

United  States  Louis  Kossuth  and  his  asso-  Dec.  24,  1851 

ciates  in  captivity,   if  they  wish   to   emi-  Kossuth  arrives  at  Washington,  D.  C, 

grate   to   the   United    States,    and    if   the  on   the   invitation   of   Congress 

Sultan  of  Turkey  will  consent  Dec.  30,  1851 

March  3,  1851  A    memorial    presented    to    the    Senate 

Thirty-first  Congress  adjourns  from  citizens  of  the  United  States   (about 

Mjirch  3,  1851  160  in  number),  captured  by  the  Spanish 


government  in  Cuba  while  engaged  in  the 
expedition  of  Lopez,  sent  to  Spain  as  pris- 
oners, and  there  liberated  by  Queen  Isa- 
bella II.,  asking  Congress  for  transporta- 
tion to  the  United  States.  .  .  .Jan.  7,  18.52 
Congress  appropriates  $6,000  to  return 
them  to  the  United  States.. Feb.  10,  18.52 
Congress  appropriates  $72,500  for  the 
repair  of  the  Congressional  Library 

March   19,  1852 
Democratic  National  Convention  held  at 
Baltimore,  the  two-thirds  rule  governing 

June  1,  1852 

[Four  principal  candidates  for  the 
Presidency  at  this  convention  were  Gen. 
Lewis  Cass,  Michigan ;  James  Buchanan, 
Pennsylvania;  ex-Gov.  William  L.  Marcy, 
New  York,  and  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  Illi- 
nois. On  the  thirty-fifth  ballot  the  name 
of  Franklin  Pierce,  of  New  Hampshire, 
was  first  presented  and  received  15  votes, 
and  on  the  forty-ninth  ballot  he  was  nom- 
inated, receiving  282  votes.  William  R. 
King,  of  Alabama,  nominated  for  Vice- 

Whig  National  Presidential  Convention 
meets  at  Baltimore June  16,  1852 

[Candidates  for  the  Presidency  were 
Millard  Fillmoi-e,  New  York;  Gen.  Win- 
field  Scott,  Virginia;  and  Daniel  Webster, 
Massachusetts.  On  the  first  ballot  Fill- 
more had  1.33  votes,  Scott  131,  and  Web- 
ster ■  29 ;  these  proportions  were  main- 
tained very  steadily  until  the  fifty-third 
ballot,  when  General  Scott  received  159 
votes  to  112  for  Fillmore,  and  21  for  Web- 
ster. William  A.  Graham,  North  Carolina, 
was  on  the  second  ballot  nominated  for 

Henry  Clay  dies  at  Washington,  D.  C, 
aged  seventy-five June  29,   1852 

Branch  of  the  United  States  mint  es- 
tablished at  San  Francisco,  Cal. 

July  3,  1852 

Free-soil  convention  at  Pittsburg,  Pa. 

Aug.  11,  1852 

[Named  John  P.  Hale,  New  Hampshire, 
for  President,  and  George  W.  Julian, 
Indiana,  for  Vice-President.] 

First  session  adjourns  (after  a  session 
of  275  days) Aug.  31,  1852 

Daniel  Webster  dies  at  Marshfield, 
Mass.,   aged   seventy Oct.    24,    1852 

Seventeenth  Presidential  election  takes 
place Nov.  2,   1852 

Second  session  assembles. .  .Dec.  6,  1852 

Caloric  ship  Ericsson  makes  a  trial-trip 
from  New  York  to  the   Potomac 

Jan.  11,  1853 

Congress  transfers  all  that  portion  of 
the  Cumberland  road  which  lies  between 
Springfield,  O.,  and  the  western  boundary 
of  that  State  to  Ohio,  by  act  approved 

Jan.  20,  1853 

Electoral  vote  counted Feb.   9,   1853 

Coinage  of  $3  gold  pieces  authorized, 
and  the  weight  of  the  half-dollar  fixed  at 
192  gr.,  and  the  quarter-dollar,  the  dime, 
and  half-dime  at  proportionate  amounts, 
by  act  approved Feb.  21,  1853 

Territory  of  Washington  formed  by  act 
approved March  2,   1853 

Congress  authorizes  a  survey  for  a  rail- 
way from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Pacific 

March  3,   1853 

Thirty-second   Congress   adjourns 

March  3,  1853 

Seventeenth:  Administration — Demo- 
cratic, March  4,  1853,  to  March  3,  1857. 

Franklin  Pierce,  New  Hampshire,  Presi- 

William  R.  King,  Alabama,  Vice-Presi- 

Oath  of  office  is  administered  to  the 
Vice-President-elect  by  United  States 
Consul  Sharkey,  at  Cumbre,  near  Matan- 
zas,  on  the  island  of  Cuba.  .March  24,  1853 

[A  special  act  of  Congress  authorized 
Mr.  Sharkey  to  do  this.] 

Wm.  R.  King,  thirteenth  Vice-President 
of  the  United  States,  dies  at  Cahawba, 
Ala.,  aged  sixty-seven April  18,  1853 

Kane  sails  from  New  York  in  the  brig 
Advance,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Unit- 
ed States  navy,  in  search  of  Sir  John 
Franklin May   30,    1853 

Koszta  afi'air,  at  Smyrna,  Turkey 

June  21,   1853 

Com.  M.  C.  Perry,  a  brother  of  Oliver 
Hazard  Perry,  with  a  fleet  of  seven  ves- 
sels, proceeds  to  Japan  with  a  letter  from 
President  Fillmore  to  the  tycoon,  solicit- 
ing a  treaty.  Commodore  Perry  arrives 
at  the  bay  of  Yedo July  14,  1853 

World's  Fair,  Crystal  Palace,  opening 
at  New  York  City;  President  Pierce  pres- 
ent  July  14,  1853 

William  Walker's  filibustering  expedi- 
tion to  Sonora.  Mexico July,  1853 

Thirty-third  Congress,  first  session,  as- 
sembles  Dec.   5,   1853 



James  Gadsden,  of  South  Carolina,  min-  Treaty  with  Great  Britain,  reciprocity; 

ister  to  Mexico,  by  treaty  purchases  her  the  fishery  difficulty  settled.  .June  5,  1854 

territory   south    of    the    Gila    River,    now  George   N.    Hollins,    commander    of   the 

known   as   the   "  Gadsden   purchase,"   and  ship    Cyane,    bombards    and    destroys    the 

included    in    Arizona,    containing    45,535  small  town  of  Greytown  on  the  Mosquito 

square  miles,  for  $10,000,000.    Treaty  and    coast.  Central  America June  13,  1854 

purchase   approved Dec.    30,    1853  [This    was    an    attempt    to    obtain    re- 
Stephen   A.   Douglas,   of   Illinois,   intro-  dress  for  a  personal  insult  to  one  of  the 
duces  a  bill  in  the  Senate,  organizing  the  officers  of  the  government,  and  to  enforce 
Territory  of  Nebraska Jan.  4,  1854  a  claim  of  $24,000  indemnity.] 

A.    Dixon,    of    Kentucky,    gives    notice  Merrimac,   a  new   steam  war  -  frigate, 

of  an  amendment  exempting  the  Territory  launched  at  the  Charleston  navy-yard 

from    the   Missouri    compromise    prohibit-  June  14,  1854 

ing  slavery Jan.   16,  1854  [This  was  one  of  the  vessels  seized  by 

Proclamation  of  President  Pierce  against  the    Confederates    at    the    Norfolk    navy- 

the    invasion    of    Mexico     (called    out    by  yard,  April,  1861.] 

Walker's  expedition  into  Sonora  and  Low-  Medal   presented  to  Captain  Ingraham, 

er   California) Jan.    18,    1854  U.  S.  N.,  by  a  resolution  of  Congress,  as 

Senator  Douglas,  of  Illinois,  reports  a  a  testimonial  of  the  high  sense  entertain- 

bill  creating  two  Territories,  Kansas  and  ed   of.  his   gallant   and   judicious   conduct 

Nebraska,    of    the   same   territory   as   the  on    July    2,     1853,     in    rescuing    Martin 

former  Nebraska  bill,  with  a  section  vir-  Koszta  from  illegal  seizure  and  imprison- 

tually  repealing  the  compromise  of  1820  ment  on  board  the  Austrian  brig  Euzzar, 

Jan.  23,  1854    approved Aug.   4,    1854 

United    States    steamer   Black   Warrior  First  session  adjourns. ..  .Aug.  7,  1854 

seized  by  the  Cuban  authorities  at  Havana  Ostend  manifesto  issued..  Oct.  18,  1854 

Feb.  28,  1854  Andrew    H.    Reeder,    of    Pennsylvania, 

Kansas  -  Nebraska  bill  passes  the  Sen-  appointed  governor  of  Kansas  by   Presi- 

ate,  37  to  14 March  3,  1854   dent  Pierce 1854 

First  treaty  between  the  United  States  Second  session  assembles.  .Dec.  4,  1854 

and    Japan,    of    peace,    amity,    and    com-  Jesse    D.    Bright,    of    Indiana,    elected 

merce,  concluded  and  signed  at  Kanawaga,  president  pro  tern,  of  the  Senate 

Japan March  31,  1854  Dec.  5,  1854 

[Two  ports  of  entry  opened  to  the  Unit-  Congress    assents    to    the    cession    by 

cd  States,  Hakodadi  and  Simoda.]  Massachusetts  to  New  York  of  "  Boston 

Massachusetts  Emigrant  Aid  Society  or-  Corner,"     the     southwesterly     corner     of 

ganized  by  Eli  Thayer,   and  incorporated  Berkshire  county,  approved ..  Jan.  3,  1855 

(to  aid  emigration  to  Kansas)  Annexation  of  the  Sandwich  Islands  dis- 

April  20,  1854  cussed  in  Congress    (strongly  opposed  by 

Kansas-Nebraska  bill   taken   up   in   the   England) January,    1855 

House May  8,  1854  Panama  Railroad  completed;  first  train 

Bill   passes   the   House   as    an   original    from  ocean  to  ocean Jan.  28,  1855 

measure,  by  112  to  99 May  24,  1854  Rights  of  citizenship  secured  to  children 

It  passes  the  Senate,  35  to  13,  and  ap-  of  citizens  born  in  foreign  territory  by  an 

proved May  30,   1854    act  approved Feb.   10,   1855 

[The  Missouri  Compromise  measures  of  Grade    of   lieutenant-general    by   brevet 

1820  repealed  by  section   14  of  this  act.]  revived  by  a  resolution  approved 

President     Pierce     issues     a    proclama-  Feb.    15,    1855 

tion  against  the  invasion  of  Cuba  [This   rank  was   immediately   conferred 

May  31,  1854  upon  Maj.-Gen.  Winfield  Scott.] 

Anthony  Burns,  arrested  as  a  slave  at  Right  of  way  granted  to  Hiram  0. 
Boston,  Mass.,  is  taken  by  the  revenue  Alden  and  James  Eddy  for  a  line  of  tele- 
cutter  Morrin,  by  order  of  President  Pierce,  graph  from  the  Mississippi  River  to  the 
conveyed  to  Norfolk,  Va.,  and  delivered  Pacific  by  an  act  approved ..  Feb.  17,  1855 
to  his  alleged  master,  a  Mr.  Suttle  Thirty-third    Congress    adjourns 

June  2,  1854  March  3,  1855 


Governor  Reeder,  of  Kansas,  removed  by  Democratic   National   Convention   meets 

President    Pierce;     Wilson    Shannon,    of    at  Cincinnati,  O June  3,  1856 

Ohio,  appointed  in  his  place  [James     Buchanan,     of     Pennsylvania, 

July  28,  1855  nominated    for    President    on    the    seven- 
William    Walker    lands    in    Nicaragua  teenth  ballot,  and  John  C.  Breckinridge, 
with  160  men Sept.  3,  1855  of  Kentucky,  for  Vice-President.    Franklin 

Col.   Henry   L.   Kinney   made   civil   and  Pierce  and  Stephen  A.  Douglas  were  also 

military  governor  of  Greytown,  Nicaragua,  candidates   for   the   Presidency,   but   were 

by  citizens Sept.  12,  1855  withdrawn  on  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 

Expedition     in     search     of     Dr.     Kane,  ballots.] 

under     Lieutenant     Hartstene,  U.  S.  N.,  First   Republican   National    Convention 

finds    at    the    Isle    of    Disco,  ■  Greenland,    held   at  Philadelphia June   17,   1856 

Kane  and   his   companions,  who   had   left  [On  the  first  formal  ballot  John  Charles 

the  ship  in  the  ice,  May  17,  and  reached  Fremont,    of    California,    was    nominated 

Disco,   Aug.   8 Sept.    13,   1855  for  President,  329  votes  to  37  for  McLean, 

This  expedition  returns  to  New  York  of  Ohio,  and  one  for  W.  H.  Seward;  Will- 
City Oct.  11,  1855  iam  L.  Dayton,  of  New  Jersey,  was  nomi- 

Thirty-fourth  Congress,  first  session,  as-  nated  for  Vice-President.] 

sembles Dee.  3,   1855  John   W.   Geary,   of   Pennsylvania,   ap- 

After  a  contest  of  nine  weeks,  on  the  pointed  governor  of  Kansas,  in  place  of 

133d  ballot,  Nathaniel  P.  Banks,  of  Massa-    Shannon July  1,  1856 

cliusetts,  is  elected  (Feb.  2,  1856)   speaker  Committee    appointed    by    the     House, 

by  a  plurality  of  three  votes  over  William  March  19,  1856,  consisting  of  John  Sher- 

Aiken,   of   South   Carolina.  man,    of    Ohio;    William   A.    Howard,    of 

[This    session   was    the    stormiest   ever  Michigan,  and  M.  Oliver,  of  Missouri,  to 

held.]  inquire  into  the  Kansas  troubles,  reports: 

Proclamation      of      President      Pierce  First,  that  the  election  held  by  the  free- 

against  the  invasion  of  Nicaragua  State  party  was  not  illegal;  second,  that 

Dec,  8,  1855  the  elections  under  the  alleged  territorial 

President  Pierce,  in  special  message,  laws  were  carried  by  invaders  from  Mis- 
recognizes  the  pro-slavery  legislature  of  souri ;  third,  that  the  alleged  territorial 
the  Territory  of  Kansas,  and  calls  the  at-  legislature  was  illegal;  fourth,  that  its 
tempt  to  establish  a  free-State  govern-  acts  were  intended  for  unlawful  ends ;  fifth 
ment  an  act  of  rebellion. ..  .Jan.  24,  1856  that  neither  of  the  delegates  to  Congress 

President  Pierce  by  proclamation  warns  was  entitled  to  a  seat;  sixth,  that  no  elec- 

all  persons  against  unlawful  combinations  tion  could  be  held  without  a  new  census,  a 

against     the     constituted     authorities     of  stringent    election    law,    im^partial    judges 

Kansas Feb.    11,    1856  of  election,   and  United   States   troops  at 

American  National  Convention  at  Phila-  every  polling  place ;  seventh,  that  the  con- 
delphia.  Pa.,  on  the  first  formal  ballot  stitution  framed  by  the  convention  em- 
nominates  Millard  Fillmore,  of  New  York,  bodies  the  will  of  the  majority  of  the  peo- 

for  President,  and  Andrew  J.  Donelson,  of    pie July  1,  1856 

Tennessee,  for  Vice-President  [Mr.  Oliver,  of  Missouri,  made  a  minor- 

Feb.  22,  1856  ity  report.] 

Capture   and   sack   of  Lawrence,   Kan.,  Grand     jury     at     Washington     indicts 

by  the  pro-slavery  party. . .  .May  21,  1856  Preston  S.  Brooks  for  assault  and  battery 

Charles      Sumner,      of      Massachusetts,  upon  Charles  Sumner,  June  22;   on  trial 

beaten   dowTi   in  the   Senate   chamber   by  Brooks  admits  the  facts,  and  is  fined  $300 

Preston  S.  Brooks,  of  South  Carolina,  be-  July  8,  1856 

cause  of  his  speech,  "The  Crime  against  Preston  S.  Brooks  challenges  to  a  duel 

Kansas " May  22,  1856  Anson   Burlingame,  member  from  Massa- 

House    committee   recommends    the    ex-  chusetts.    Mr.  Burlingame  in  reply  agrees 

pulsion  of  Brooks  and  censure  of  Keitt,  to  meet  him  at  the  Clifton  House,  Niag- 

but  the  resolution  fails,   121   to  95    (two-  ara  Falls,  on  July  26,  at  noon,  when  dif- 

thirds   required)  ;    Brooks   and   Keitt   re-  ferences   between   them   can    be   adjusted, 

sign . , June  2,  1856  Burlingame    leaves    Washington    for    the 



rendezvous;  Brooks  declines  to  pursue  the  Chief -Justice    Taney,    of    the    Supreme 

matter  further July  21,  1856  Court,  delivers  his  decision   in  the  Dred 

Preston  S.  Brooks  and  L.  M.  Keitt  are    Scott  case March  6,  1857 

returned  to  Congress  from  South  Carolina  Eobert    J.    Walker,   of   Mississippi,    ap- 

July  28,  1856  pointed  governor   of   Kansas,   in   place  of 

First   session   adjourns.  .Aug.    18,    1856  Geary,  of  Pennsylvania,  resigned 

Army  appropriation  bill  failing  to  pass,  April,   1857 

owing  to  a  proviso  that  the  army  be  not  Second   treaty   with   Japan;    the   third 

used  to  aid  the  pro-slavery  legislature  of  port,    Nagasaki,    opened    to    the    United 

Kansas,   an   extra   session   of   Congress   is    States June  17,  1857 

called  for  Aug.   21 Aug.   19,   1856  Shore    end    of    the    Atlantic    submarine 

Second  session  (extra)  convenes  telegraph    cable    is    fixed    by    the    United 

Aug.  21,  1856  States  steam-frigate  'Niagara  at  Valencia 

Governor  of  Kansas  proclaims  the  Ter-    Bay,  Ireland Aug.  5,  1857 

ritory  in  insurrection Aug.  25,  1856  Cable  breaks  after  paying  out  335  miles 

Army  appropriation  bill  passes  without  Aug.  11,  1857 

the  proviso Aug.  30,  1856  [It     was     abandoned     until     the     next 

Second  session    (ten  days)    adjourns  year.] 

Aug.   30,   1856  Brigham  Young,  governor  of  Utah,  by 

[The  shortest  session  of  any  Congress.]  proclamation     forbids     any    armed     force 

Whig    National    Convention    meets    at  coming   into   Salt   Lake   City,   and   orders 

Baltimore Sept.   17,  1856  the  troops  in  readiness  to  repel  such  in- 

[It  adopted  the  nominees  of  the  Ameri-  vasion  and  declares  martial  law 

can    party    for    President,    Fillmore    and  Sept.   15,   1857 

Donelson.     Last  appearance  of  the  Whig  Mountain  Meadow   (Utah)   massacre 

party   in   politics.]  Sept.  18,  1857 

Eighteenth  Presidential  election  held  Mormons  attack  the  government  trains 

Nov.  4,  1856  and  destroy  seventy-eight  wagons 

Third  session  convenes.  ..  .Dec.   1,   1856  Oct.  5,  1857 

Dispersion  of  the  free-State  legislature  Great  financial  distress;  banks  in  New 

at  Topeka,  Kansas,  by  Federal  troops  York  City  and  Boston  suspend 

Jan.  6,  1857  Oct.    13-14,    1857 

Electoral  votes  counted ..  Feb.   11,   1857  President    Buchanan    removes    Brigham 

Death  of  Elisha  Kent  Kane   (arctic  ex-  Young,  and  appoints  Alfred  Cumming,  of 

plorer),  at  Havana,  Cuba,  aged  thirty-five  the  United  States  army,  as  governor  of 

Feb.  16,  1857    Utah 1857 

Act  to  confirm  to  the  several  States  the  William  Walker  makes  his  third  filibus- 

swamp  and  overflowed  lands  selected  un-  tering  expedition  to  Nicaragua  from  New 

der  act  of  March  2,   1849,  which  granted    Orleans Nov.  11,  1857 

to  the  State  of  Louisiana  all   such  lands  Lands  on  the  Nicaraguan  coast  with  400 

found  unfit  for  cultivation,  and  under  act    men Nov.  25,   1857 

of    Sept.    28,    1850,    which    made    similar  Commodore    Paulding,    of    the    United 

grants  to  Arkansas  and  other  States;  ap-  States  navy,  arrests  Walker  at  Greytown, 

proved March  3,  1857  Nicaragua,  and  he  is  taken  to  New  York 

Act  passed  materially  reducing  duties       as   prisoner Dec.   3,   1857 

March  3,  1857  Thirty-fifth   Congress,   first   session,   as- 

Thirty-fourth  Congress  adjourns  sembles Dec.   7,   1857 

March  3,  1857  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  of  Illinois,  in  the 
Senate    opposes    forcing    the    Lecompton 

Eighteenth  Administration  —  Demo-    constitution  on  Kansas Dec.  9,  1857 

CBATic,  March  4,  1857,  to  March  3,  1861.  [He    thus    parted    from    the    Southern 


James  Buchanan,   Pennsylvania,   Presi-  Eobert  J.  Walker,  governor  of  Kansas, 

dent.  resigns Dec.    15,    1857 

John  (j.  Breckinridge,  Kentucky,  Vice-  The  House  of  Kepresentatives  meet  for 

President.  the  first  time  in  the  new  hall  of  repre- 



sentatives  in  the  south  wing  of  the  ex- 
tension  Dec.  16,  1857 

[By  an  act  approved  July  2,  1864,  the 
old  hall  of  representatives  was  set  apart 
as  a  national  statuary  hall,  and  each  State 
invited  to  furnish  in  marble  or  bronze 
statues  of  two  of  its  most  distinguished 

James  H.  Hammond,  of  South  Caro- 
lina, makes  a  "  memorable  speech  "  in  the 
Senate  in  reply  to  W.  H.  Seward 

March  4,   18.58 

[In  this  speech  originated  the  term 
"  mud-sills  of  society."] 

President  Buchanan  issues  a  proclama- 
tion respecting  the  Mormon  rebellion  in 
Utah April   6,    18.58 

Thomas  H.  Benton  dies  at  Washington, 
aged  seventy-six April   10,   1858 

An  act  to  admit  Kansas  under  the  Le- 
compton   constitution May   4,    1858 

Minnesota  admitted  as  the  thirty-second 
State May  11,   1858 

Congress  authorizes  a  loan  of  $20,000,- 
000 June   14,   1858 

First  session  adjourns.  .  .  .June  14,  1858 

Second  treaty  with  China  of  peace, 
amity,  and  commerce June  18,  1858 

Debates  in  the  senatorial  contest  in 
Illinois  between  Abraham  Lincoln  and 
Stephen  A.  Douglas  during 

June  and  July,  1858 

Remains  of  James  Monroe,  fifth  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States,  buried  at  New 
York,  1831,  taken  up  and  conveyed  to 
Virginia July    2,    1858 

Lecorapton  constitution  for  Kansas  re- 
jected by  the  people  of  Kansas,  11,088  to 
1,788 Aug.    2,    1858 

Atlantic  submarine  telegraph  com- 
pleted   Aug.    5,    1858 

First  message  from  Queen  Victoria  to 
President  Buchanan Aug.   16,   1858 

[After  twenty-three  days,  400  mes- 
sages having  been  transmitted,  the  cable 
lost  its  conducting  power.] 

Seizure  of  the  Echo,  a  slaver,  with  318 
slaves,  by  the  United  States  brig  Dolphin, 
Lieut.  John  H.  Maffit  commanding 

Aug.  21,  1858 

Fifteen  hundred  United  States  troops 
leave  Fort  Laramie  for  the  suppression  of 
Mormon  troubles  in  Utah 

September,   1858 

Crystal  Palace  burned  in  New  York 

Oct.  5,  1858 

First  mail  overland  from  San  Francisco 
reaches  St.  Louis,  twenty-four  days  eigh- 
teen hours  in  transit Oct.  9,  1858 

Donati's  comet,  first  appearing  in  June, 
attains    its   greatest    brilliancy 

Oct  9,   1858 

President  Buchanan  issues  a  proclama- 
tion respecting  an  apprehended  invasion 
of   Nicaragua Oct.    30,    1858 

Grand  Jury  of  Columbia,  S.  C,  refuses 
to  indict  the  crew  of  the  slaver  Echo 

Nov.  30,   1858 

Second  session  assembles.  .Dec.   6,   1858 

Senate  leaves  the  old  to  occupy  the  new 
Senate  chamber  in  the  north  wing  of  the 
extension Jan.    4,    1859 

A  bill  presented  in  the  Senate  giving 
the  President  $30,000,000  to  purchase  Cuba 

Jan.  24,  1859 

William  H.  Prescott,  author,  dies  at 
Boston,  Mass.,  aged  sixty-three 

Jan.  28,  1859 

Oregon  admitted  as  the  thirty-third 
State Feb.   14,   18.59 

Daniel  E.  Sickles,  Congressman  from 
New  York,  kills  Philip  Barton  Key  at 
Washington  for  adultery  with  his  wife 

Feb.  27,  1859 

Thirty-fifth  Congress  adjourns 

March  3,  1859 

Trial  of  Daniel  E.  Sickles  begun  at 
Washington,  D.   C April  4,   1859 

[It  lasted  eighteen  days  and  resulted  in 
his  acquittal.] 

A  rich  gold  mine  opened  in  Colorado, 
on  the  north  fork  of  Clear  Creek,  by  John 
H.   Gregory May   10,   1859 

Unexampled  frost  prevails  throughout 
the  northern  United  States  night  of 

June  4,  1859 

M.  Blondin  for  the  first  time  crosses  the 
Niagara  River  just  below  the  falls  on  a 
tight-rope June    30,    1859 

San  Juan  islands  occupied  by  General 
Harney,  U.  S.  A.  (though  claimed  by 
Great  Britain  as  belonging  to  Vancouver 
Island) July  9,   1859 

Little  John,  a  negro,  arrested  at  Ober- 
lin,  O.,  as  a  slave,  and  rescued  at  Welling- 
ton   Sept.   13,   1859 

Senator  David  C.  Broderick,  of  Cali- 
fornia, mortally  wounded  in  a  duel  with 
Judge  Terry  near  Lake  Merced,  Cal.,  Sept. 
13,  dies .  .  .' Sept.   16,   1859 

United  States  steamship  Niagara  sails 
from  Charleston,  S.  C,  for  Liberia,  Africa, 



with   the  negroes  taken   from  the   slaver  and  specific;  it  passed  the  Senate  nfter  the 

Echo;  271  are  returned  out  of  318  Southern    members    withdrew;     approved 

Sept.  20,  1850  March  2,  1861.] 

JeflFerson    Davis    addresses    the    Demo-  Japanese   embassy,    numbering   seventy- 

cratic  State  Convention  of  Mississippi  in  two,    of    all    grades,    arrive    at    Hampton 

behalf    of    slavery    and    the    extension    of  Roads,  and  reaches  Washington 

slave    territory October,    1859  May  14,  1860 

Brown's  insurrection  at  Harper's  Ferry,  National   Republican   Convention   meets 

W.  Va Oct.  16-18,  1859    at  Chicago May  16,   1860 

Gen.  Winfield  Scott  is  ordered  to  the  [All  the  free  States  were  strongly  rep- 
Pacific  coast  in  view  of  the  British  claims  resented,  besides  delegates  from  Delaware, 
to  San  Juan;  he  arrives  at  Portland,  Or.  JMaryland,    Virginia,   Kentucky,   Missouri, 

Oct.  29,  1859  District   of   Columbia,   and   Territories   of 

Washington  Irving  dies   at   Tarrytown,  Kansas  and  Nebraska.    George  Ashmun,  of 
N.  Y.,  aged  seventy-six Nov.  28,  1859  Massachusetts,  was  chosen  president;  con- 
John     Brown     hanged     at     Charleston,  vention  decided  that  a  majority  nominate; 
W.   Va Dec.    2,    1859  platform   protested  against   the  indefinite 

Thirty-sixth  Congress,  first  session,  as-  extension  of  slavery  in  the  Territories,  but 

sembles Dec.   5,   1859  proposed   no    interference   with    it   in   the 

Green,     Copeland,     Cook,     and    Coppoc,  States.      Balloting    began    May    18,    with 

Harper's   Ferry   insurgents,   hanged  465  delegates;  necessary  to  a  choice,  233. 

Dec.  16,  1859  Candidates  were  Abraham  Lincoln,  of  II- 

Mr.    Clark,    of    Missouri,    introduces    a  linois;  William  H.  Seward,  of  New  York; 

resolution    in     the    House    that    no    one  Simon   Cameron,   of   Pennsylvania    (with- 

who  has  approved  Helper's  r/ie  7??ipe?jdwi5f  drew   after    the   first   ballot),    Salmon   P. 

Crisis  was  fit  to  be  speaker  Chase,    of    Ohio,    and    Edward    Bates,    of 

December,  1859  Maryland.      Mr.    Seward   received   on   the 

House  adopts  resolutions  offered  by  John  first   ballot    173i/o    votes;    second,    184%; 

Covode,  of  Pennsylvania,  for  a  committee  third,   180;   Mr.  Lincoln,  first  ballot,   102 

to   investigate   the   conduct   of   the   Presi-  votes;   second,  181;  third,  231%;   changes 

dent March  5,   1860  then   made   gave   Mr.    Lincoln    354   votes. 

A.     C.     Stephens     and    Albert    Hazlett  Hannibal    Hamlin,    of   Maine,    was   nomi- 

hanged  at  Charlestown,  W.  Va.  nated    for   Vice-President    on    the    second 

March  16,  1860  ballot] 

[These   were   the  last   of   the   prisoners  Southern   seceders  from   the   Charleston 

captured  at  Harper's   Ferry  in  the  John  Democratic  Convention  meet  at  Richmond, 

Brown  insurrection.]  Va.,    and    adjourn    to   await   the   decision 

National   Democratic   Convention   meets  of  the  Baltimore  Convention.  June  11,  1860 

in  Charlestown,  S.  C April  23,  1860  Seceders,    with    the    rejected    delegates. 

After  much  discord  the  Southern  mem-    meet  at  Baltimore June  18,  1860 

bers    secede,    and    the    convention,    after  [Twenty-one  States  were  represented  by 

fifty-seven  ballotings  without  nominating,  105   delegates.     John   C.   Breckinridge,   of 

adjourns  to  meet  at  Baltimore  June  18  Kentucky,   was   nominated    for   President, 

May  3,  1860  and    Joseph    Lane,    of    Oregon,    for    Vice- 
Constitutional     Union     party     holds     a  President.  June  23.] 
national  convention  in  Baltimore  National  Democratic  Convention  assem- 

May   9,    18G0  bles    at   Baltimore   pursuant   to    adjourn- 

[John   Bell,   of   Tennessee,    and    Samuel    ment June  18,   1860 

Houston,  of  Texas,  were  the  candidates  for  After  some  days  of  debate  over  creden- 

nomination ;  on  the  second  ballot  Bell  re-  tials   of   delegates,    many   delegates   with- 

ceived  138  votes  and  Houston  69.    Edward  draw,   and   the  chairman,   Caleb  Gushing, 

Everett,    of    Massachusetts,    unan-imously  of  Massachusetts,  resigns.     David  Tod,  of 

nominated  for  Vice-President.]  Ohio,    is   chosen   chairman,    and   balloting 

Morrill  tariff  bill  passes  the  House  begins June  22,  1860 

May  10,  1860  [On  the  second  ballot  Stephen  A.  Doug- 

[It  was  protective,  the  duties  being  high  las,  of  Illinois,  received  181%  votes.    Ben- 



jamin  Fitzpatiick,  of  Alabama,  was  nomi-  A    loan    of    $10,000,000    authorized    by 

nated  for  Vice-President,  but  declined,  and    Congress Dec.   17,   1800 

the  national  committee  nominated  Herschel  Senate  appoints  a  committee  of  thirteen 

V.  Johnson,  of  Georgia.]  upon  the  condition  of  the  country,  and  to 

A  loan  of  $21,000,000  authorized  by  Con-  report  a  plan  on  adjusting  the  difficulty 

gress June  22,  1860  Dec.  18,  1800 

Homestead  bill  vetoed  by  the  President  [On  Dec.  31  the  chairman  reported  that 

June  22,  1860  the  committee  were  unable  to  agree.] 

[Senate  fails  to   pass   it  over   the  veto  John  J.  Crittenden,  of  Kentucky,  speaks 

by  three  votes.]  for  union  in  the  Senate,  and  offers  reso- 

First  session  adjourns. ..  .June  25,  1860  lutions  for  amending  the  Constitution 

Steamship    Great    Eastern    sails    from  Dec.    18,    1860 

England,  June  17,  reaching  New  York  in  [These  resolutions,  known  as  the  Crit- 

eleven  days,  two  hours June  28,  1860  tenden    compromise    measure    of    1860-61, 

Kansas    elects    a    convention    to    draft  proposed    to    restore    the    compromise    of 

a  second  constitution ;  it  meets  1820,    and    strengthen    the    fugitive    slave 

July  5,  1860  law  of  1850.     They  were  rejected  after  a 

[Under    this,    the    Wyandotte    constitu-  continued   debate  by   19   to   20,   March   2. 

tion,  prohibiting  slavery,  Kansas  was  af-  1861.] 

terwards  admitted.]  State    of    South    Carolina   unanimously 

Lady  Elr/in,  a  steamer  on  Lake  Michi-  passes  the  ordinance  of  secession 

gan,  sunk  by  collision  with  the  schooner  Dec.  20,  1860 

Augusta morning    of    Sept.    8,    1860  Robert  W.  Barnwell,  James  H.  Adams, 

[Out  of  385  persons  on  board,  287  were  and  James  L.  Orr,  appointed  commission- 
lost.]  ers  by  South  Carolina  to  treat  for  the  pos- 

William  Walker,  Nicaraguan  filibuster,  session  of  United  States  property  within 

captured  and  shot  at  Truxillo,  Nicaragua  the  limits  of  South  Carolina .  .Dec.  21,  1860 

Sept.  12,  1860  [On   their   arrival   at  Washington   they 

Prince    of    Wales    arrives    at    Detroit,  addressed  a  diplomatic  letter  to  the  Presi- 

Mich.,  from  Canada Sept.  21,  1860  dent,  Dec.  28.    The  President  replied,  Dec. 

After  visiting  Chicago,  St.  Louis,  Cin-  30,    but    persistently    refused    to    receive 

cinnati,     Washington,     Baltimore,     Phila-  them  officially.] 

delphia,   New   York,   and   Boston,   he   em-  Maj.  Robert  Anderson,  in  command  at 

barks  for  England  from  Portland,  Me.  Fort  Moultrie,  Charleston  Harbor,   South 

Oct.  20,  1860  Carolina,  abandons  that  fort  and,  with  its 

Nineteenth  Presidential  election  held  garrison,  consisting  of  seven  officers,  sixty- 

Nov.  6,  1860  one  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates. 

Second  session  assembles. .  .Dec.  3,  1860  and    thirteen    musicians,     occupies    Fort 

President's   message    contends    that   the    Sumter night  of  Dec.  26,  1860 

South   has  no   legal   right  to   secede,   and  Ralph    Farnham,    last    survivor    of    the 

the  government  no  power  to  prevent  se-  battle    of    Bunker    Hill,    dies    at    Acton, 

cession Dec.  4,  1860   N.  H.,  aged  1041/2 Dec.  27,  1860 

A  special  committee  of  thirty-three,  one  Castle     Pinckney     and     Fort     Moultrie 

from  each  State,  appointed  by  the  House  seized  by  South  Carolina  State  troops 

upon  the  condition  of  the  coimtry  Dec.  27,  1860 

Dec.  4,  1860  United     States     arsenal,     with     75,000 

[This  committee  submitted  five  proposi-  stands    of    arms,    seized    by    South    Caro- 

tions,   Jan.   14,   1861 ;    but  one,   that  pro-  lina  State  troops  at  Charleston 

posing  a  Constitutional  amendment,  ever  Dec.  30,  1860 

reached   the   Senate.]  Edward   D.   Baker,  of   Oregon,   answers 

Howell   Cobb,  of  Georgia,   Secretary  of  the  plea  of  Judali  P.  Benjamin,  of  Louisi- 

Treasury,  resigns Dec.   10,   1860  ana,  in  the  Senate  for  the  right  of  seces- 

Lewis   Cass,   of  Michigan,   Secretary  of    sion Jan.    2,    1861 

State,    resigns   because   the   President   re-  Fort  Pulaski,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Sa- 

fuged  to  reinforce  Major  Anderson  at  Fort  vannah  River,  Ga.,  seized  by  Georgia  State 

Moultrie,  S.   C Dec.   14,   1860    troops Jan.    3,    1861 



United   States  arsenal  seized  at  Mount    li.  Yulee,  of  Florida,  withdraw  from  the 

Vernon,     Ala.,     by    the     Alabama     State 
troops Jan.   4,    18G1 

Forts  Morgan  and  Gaines,  at  the  en- 
trance of  Mobile  Bay,  seized  by  the  Ala- 
bama State  troops Jan.   5,   1801 

Fernando  Wood,  mayor  of  New  York, 
recommends  secession  to  the  common  coun- 
cil  Jan.    6,    1861 

United  States  arsenal  at  Apalachicola, 
Fla.,  seized  by  the  Florida  State  troops 

Jan.  6,  1861 

Fort  Marion  and  Fort  St.  Augustine, 
Fla.,  seized  by  Florida  State  troops 

Jan.  7,  1861 

Robert  Toombs,  Senator  from  Georgia, 
delivers  his  last  speech  in  the  Senate 

Jan.  7,  1861 

Star  of  the  West,  sent  by  the  United 
States  government  to  reinforce  Fort 
Sumter  with  200  men  under  Lieut.  Chai'les 
R.  Wood  of  the  9th  Infantry,  is  tired  on 
from  Morris  Island  and  forced  to  retire 

Jan.  9,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Mississippi 
adopted  in  convention,  84  to  15 

Jan.  9,  1861 

Fort  Johnston  seized  by  citizens  of 
Smithville,  N.  C Jan.  9,  1861 

Fort  Caswell  seized  by  citizens  of  Smith- 
ville and  Wilmington,  N.  C.  .Jan.  10,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Florida 
adopted  in  convention,  62  to  7 

Jan.  10,  1861 

United  States  arsenal  and  barracks  at 
Eaton  Rouge,  La.,  seized  by  Louisiana 
State  troops Jan.  10,  1861 

Fort  Jackson  and  Fort  Philips,  below 
New  Orleans,  seized  by  Louisiana  State 
troops Jan.  11,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Alabama 
adopted  in  convention,  61  to  39 

Jan.  11,  1861 

Florida  demands  the  surrender  of  Fort 
Pickens,  at  the  entrance  of  Pensacola  Bay, 
Florida,  with  the  garrison  of  eighty-one 
men,  under  Lieutenant  Slemmer;   refused 

Jan.  12,  1861 

Fort  Taylor,  Key  West,  garrisoned  by 
United  States  troops Jan.  14,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Georgia  adopt- 
ed in  convention,  208  to  89.  .Jan.  19,  1861 

United  States  Senators  Clement  C.  Clay, 
of  Alabama,  Thomas  L.  Clingman,  of 
North  Carolina,  Jefferson  Davis,  of  Mis- 
sisgippi,    Stephen    R.    Mallory   and    David 

Senate  with  speeches  of  defiance 

Jan.  21,  1861 

United  States  arsenal  at  Augusta,  Ga., 
seized  by  Georgia  troops. .  .  .Jan.  24,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Louisiana 
adopted  in  convention,  113  to  17 

Jan.  26,  1861 

Alfred  Iverson,  of  Georgia,  withdraws 
from  the  Senate  in  a  speech  of  defiance 

Jan.  28,  1861 

Kansas  admitted  as  the  thirty-fourth 
State Jan.  29,   1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  Texas  adopted 
in  convention,  166  to  7 Feb.  1,  1861 

Peace  conference  held  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  at  the  request  of  the  legislature  of 
Virginia Feb.   4,   1861 

[Twenty-one  States  represented;  ex- 
President  Tyler  chosen  president.  It  ad- 
journed Feb.  27,  after  proposing  amend- 
ments to  the  Constitution,  which  were 
offered  in  the  Senate  March  2,  and  re- 
jected by  a  A'ote  of  3  to  34.] 

United  States  Senators  Judah  P.  Ben- 
jamin and  John  Slidell,  of  Louisiana, 
withdraw  from  the  Senate  with  speeches 

Feb.  4,  1861 

Confederate  Congress  meets  at  Mont- 
gomery, Ala Feb.  4,  1861 

Choctaw  nation  adheres  to  the  Con- 
federate States Feb.  7,   1861 

Congress  authorizes  a  loan  of  $25,000,- 
000 Feb.  8,  1861 

United  States  arsenal  seized  at  Little 
Rock,  Ark.,  by  the  State  troops 

Feb.  8,  1861 

Jefferson  Davis,  of  Mississippi,  chosen 
President,  and  Alexander  H.  Stephens,  of 
Georgia,  Vice-President,  by  the  Confed- 
erate Congress Feb.  9,  1861 

Electoral  vote  counted Feb.  13,  1861 

United  States  arsenal  and  barracks 
seized  at  San  Antonio  by  the  Texas  State 
troops Feb.    16,    1861 

United  States  military  posts  in  Texas 
surrendered  to  the  State  by  General 
Twiggs,  U.  S.  A Feb.  18,  1861 

Jefferson  Davis  inaugurated  President 
of  the  Confederacy Feb.  18,  1861 

Territorial  government  established  in 
Colorado Feb.   28,   1861 

Gen.  D.  E.  Twiggs  dismissed  from  the 
army March   1,  1861 

Territorial  government  established  in 
Dakota  and  Nevada March  2,  1861 



[No   restrictions   as   to    slavery   in   the  United     States     armory     at     Harper's 

acts  establishing  these  governments.]  Ferry,  W.  Va.,  abandoned  and  burned  by 

Gen.  VVinfield  Scott,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.    its  garrison April  18,  1801 

Seward,    submits    four    plans    of    dealing  United  States  arsenal  seized  at  Liberty, 

with   the   seceding   States:    First,   by  con-    Mo.,  by  State  troops April   18,   1861 

ciliation,   as   proposed   by  Mr.   Crittenden  Conflict  between  the  6th  Massachusetts 

or    the   peace   convention;    second,    collect  and  mob  in  Baltimore,  Md..  .April  19,  1861 

duties  on  foreign  goods  outside  the  ports  President  proclaims  the  blockade  of  all 

of  the  seceding  States  and  blockade  them;  ports  of  the  seceding  States 

third,  conquer  the  seceding  States   (which  April   19,   1861 

will  take  300,000  men)   and  hold  them  as  Gen.  Benjamin  F.  Butler's  command  ar- 

conquered    provinces;    or,    fourth,    say   to    rives  at  Annapolis,  Md April  20,  1861 

the  seceding  States,  "  Wayward  sisters,  go  United    States    officers    seized    at    San 

in  peace  " March  3,   1861  Antonio,  Tex.,  as  prisoners  of  war 

Thirty-sixth  Congress  adjourns  April  23,   1861 

March  4,  1861  Governor  of  Arkansas  refuses  to  furnish 

quota  of  militia   (one  regiment)    to  Unit- 

NiNETEENTH  ADMINISTRATION  —  Repub-    ^^  States April  23,  1861 

LiCAN,  March  4,  1861,  to  March  3,  1865.  Jo^i"   ^-    Campbell,   of   Alabama,   asso- 
ciate   justice    of    the    Supreme    Court    of 

Abraham  Lincoln,  Illinois    President.  ^  ^j^g  United  States,  resigns  about 

Hannibal    Hamlin,    Maine,    Vice-Presi-  May  1    1861 

^^°'--  [Campbell  alone  of  the  three  Southern 

State  of  Louisiana  seizes  the  bullion  in  justices   joined   the   Confederacy.     He  be- 

the  New  Orleans  mint,  $536,000,   for  the  came   assistant   Secretary   of   War  of   the 

Confederate  government ....  March  7,  1861  Confederate  States;   died  1889.] 

John  Forsyth,  of  Alabama,  and  Martin  President  Lincoln  calls  for  42,034  volun- 

J.   Crawford,   of   Georgia,   present  creden-  teers    for    three    years,    and    adds    22,714 

tials  as  commissioners  of  the  Confederate  men  to  the  regular   army  and    18,000   to 

States  to  the  Secretary  of  State  the  navy May  3,  1861 

March  12,  1861  United  States  ordnance  stores  seized  at 

He    declines    official     intercourse    with    Kansas  City May  4,  1861 

them March  15,  1861  Ordinance     of     secession     of    Arkansas 

Gen.    P.    T.    G.    Beauregard    summons  adopted  in  convention  by  69  to  1 

Fort  Sumter  to  surrender.  .April  11,  1861  May  6,  1861 

Fire    opened    on    Fort    Sumter    on    the  President    proclaims    martial    law    and 

morning  of April  12,  1861  suspends  the  habeas  corpus  in  Key  West, 

[First  gun   fired  by  Edmund   Ruffin,   a  the  Tortugas,   and   Santa  Rosa 

Virginian,  seventy-five  years  of  age.]  May  10,  1861 

Fort  Sumter  surrenders  on  Baltimore,     Md.,     occupied     by     United 

Sunday,  April  14,  1861    States  troops May  13,  1861 

President    by    proclamation     calls     for  Gen.   Geo.   B.   McClellan,   U.   S.   A.,   as- 

75,000  troops,  and  convenes  Congress  for  sumes  command  of  the  Department  of  the 

July  4 April  15,  1861  Ohio,   embracing  a   portion   of  West  Vir- 

Governor  of  North  Carolina  refuses  to   ginia May   13,    1861 

furnish  quota  of  militia    (two  regiments)  Engagement  at  Sewell's  Point,  Va. 

to  the  United  States April  15,  1861  May   18-19,    1861 

Forts   Caswell   and  Johnston,  of  North  Ordinance  of   secession  of  North   Caro- 

Carolina,    taken    possession    of    by    State  lina    adopted    in    convention,    vote    unani- 

troops April    16,   1861    mous May   21,    1861 

■  Ordinance     of     secession     of     Virginia,  United  States  troops  advance  into  Vir- 

adopted  in  convention  by  88  to  55  ginia   and  occupy  Arlington  Heights   and 

April  17,  1861    Alexandria May  24,  1861 

Governor  of  Missouri  refuses  to  furnish  Col.  E.  E.  Ellsworth,  of  the  New  York 

quota  of  militia   (four  regiments)    to  the  Fire  Zouaves,  shot  at  Alexandria,  Va. 

United  States April  17,  1861  May  24,  1861 



Gen.  Irwin  McDowell,  U.  S.  A.,  as- 
sumes command  of  the  Department  of 
Northeastern  Virginia May  28,  1861 

Grafton,  W.  Va.,  occupied  by  United 
States  troops May  30,  1861 

Ordinance  of  secession  of  the  State  of 
Tennessee  adopted  by  the  legislature 

June  8,  1861 

Virginia  State  troops  transferred  to  the 
Confederate  government June  8,  1861 

Engagement  at  Big  Bethel,  Va. 

June   10,    1861 

Governor  of  Missouri  calls  for  50,000 
State  militia  to  repel  invasion 

June   12,   1861 

Harper's  Ferry  abandoned  by  the  Con- 
federates  June    15,     1861 

General  Banks  arrests  George  P.  Kane, 
chief  of  police,  at  Baltimore 

June  27,  1861 

And  police  commissioners.  .July  1,  1861 

Western  Department  constituted 

July  3,   1861 

Thirty  -  seventh  Congress,  first  session 
(extra) ,  assembles July  4,  1861 

Galusha  A.  Grow,  of  Pennsylvania, 
elected  speaker  of  the  House. 

[States  not  represented  in  the  Thirty- 
seventh  Congress:  Alabama,  Arkansas, 
Florida,  Georgia,  Mississippi,  North  Caro- 
lina, South  Carolina,  Texas;  from  Lou- 
isiana two  Eepresentatives  were  present 
from  February,  1863;  Tennessee  was  rep- 
resented in  the  Senate  by  Andrew  John- 
son, and  in  the  House  by  three  members, 
two  of  them  from  February,   1863.] 

President's  first  message  to  Congress 

July   4,    1861 

Engagement  at  Carthage,  Mo.,  between 
the  Federals  under  Col.  Franz  Sigel  and 
Confederates  under  General  Jackson; 
Sigel  retreats July  5,   1861 

Senate,  by  vote  of  32  to  10,  expels  Mason 
and  Hunter,  of  Virginia;  Clingman  and 
Bragg,  of  North  Carolina;  Chestnut,  of 
South  Carolina;  Nicholson,  of  Tennessee; 
Sebastian  and  Mitchell,  of  Arkansas, 
Hemphill   and   Wigfall,   of   Texas 

July  11,  1861 

[These  Senators  had  vacated  their  seats 
at  the  previous  session.] 

Congress  authorizes  a  loan  of  $250,- 
000,000 July  17,  1861 

Battle  of  Bull  Run July  21,  1861 

Gen.  George  B.  MeClellan  ordered  to 
Washington July  22,  1861 

Congress  authorizes  the  enlistment  of 
500,000  men July  22,  1861 

Gen.  William  S.  Rosecrans  assumes  com- 
mand of  the  Department  of  the  Ohio 

July  23,  1861 

Gen.  John  C.  Fremont  assumes  command 
of  the  Western  Department.  .July  25,  1861 

Gen.  George  B.  MeClellan  assumes  com- 
mand of  the  Division  of  the  Potomac 

July  27,  1861 

State  troops  of  Tennessee  ti-ansferred 
to  the  Confederate  government 

July  31,  1861 

First  (extra)  session  (thirty-four  days) 
adjourns Aug.  6,  1861 

An  act  confiscating  the  property,  in- 
cluding slaves,  of  enemies  of  the  United 
States Aug.  6,  1861 

Gen.  U.  S.  Grant  assumes  command  of 
the  District  of  Ironton,  Mo.  .Aug.  8,  1861 

Battle  of  Springfield,  or  Wilson's  Creek, 
Mo.,  and  death  of  General  Lyon 

Aug.  10,  1861 

Kentucky  and  Tennessee  constituted  the 
Department  of  the  Cumberland,  under 
command   of   Gen.   Robert   Anderson 

Aug.  15,  1861 

President  by  proclamation  forbids  com- 
mercial intercourse  with  seceding  States 
Aug.    16,    1861 

General  Butler  captures  Forts  Hatteras 
and  Clark,  at  the  entrance  of  Hatteras 
Inlet,  with  715  prisoners,  and  twenty- 
five  guns Aug.  29,  1861 

General  Fremont  proclaims  martial 
law  in  Missouri,  with  freedom  to  the  slaves 
of  active  rebels Aug.  31,  1861 

[This  act  was  disapproved  by  the  Presi- 

General  Grant  assumes  command  of 
southeastern  Missouri Sept.   1,   1861 

Advance  of  the  Confederates  into  Ken- 
tucky, and  capture  of  Columbus 

Sept.  3-12,  1861 

Paducah,  Ky.,  occupied  by  General 
Grant Sept.   6,    1861 

Gen.  George  H.  Thomas  assigned  to  com- 
mand at  camp  "  Dick  Robinson,"  east 
Kentucky Sept.  10,  1861 

Siege  and  surrender  of  Lexington,  Mo. 
Sept.  11-20,  1861 

Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  occupied  by  the 
Confederates Sept.  18,  1861 

Gen.  O.  M.  Mitchel  assumes  command  of 
the  Department  of  the  Ohio.  .Sept  21,  1861 

Gen.    William    T.    Sherman    supersedes 



General   Anderson   in   the   Department   of  Committee  convenes;   Mr.   Wade,  chair* 

the  Cumberland Oct  8,   1861     man Dec.  20,   18G1 

Gen.  O.  M.  Mitchel  organizes  an  expe-  Affair  at  Dranesville,  Va.  .Dec.  20,  1861 

dition  for  the  occupation  of  east  Tennes-  Government  suspends  specie  payment 

see Oct.  10,  1861  Jan.  1,  1862 

James    M.    Mason,    of    Virginia,    John  Department    of    North    Carolina   estab- 

Slidell,  of  Louisiana,   Confederate  envoys  lished.  Gen.  A.  E.  Burnside  commander 

to    Great    Britain    and    France,    run    the  Jan.  7,  1862 

blockade  of  Charleston  Harbor,   S.   C,   in  Burnside's    expedition    arrives    at    Hat- 

the  steamship   Theodora,  on  the  night  of    teras  Inlet,  N.  C Jan.  13,  1862 

Oct.  12,  1861  Engagement    at    Logan's    Cross    Roads, 

Battle  of  Ball's  Bluff,  Va.  .Oct.  21,  1861    or  Mill  Spring,  Ky Jan.  19,  1862 

General  Scott  retires,  aged  seventy-five  Jesse    D.    Bright,    of    Indiana,    expelled 

Nov.  1,  1861  from  the  Senate  on  a  charge  of  disloyalty. 

Gen.   David   Hunter,   U.   S.   A.,   relieves    by  32  to  14 Jan.  20,   1862 

General  Fremont  at  St.  Louis,  Mo.  Capture  of  Fort  Henry,  Tenn.,  by  forces 

Nov.  2,  1861  under     General     Grant     and     Commodore 

Battle  of  Belmont,  Mo Nov.  7,  1861    Foote Feb.    6,    1862 

British  royal  mail-contract  packet  Trent  Battle    of    Roanoke    Island,    by    troops 

leaves  Havana,  Cuba,  for  England,  Nov.  7,  under  command  of  General  Burnside 

with  Mason  and  Slidell  on  board;    she  is  Feb.  8,  1862 

stopped  by  the  United  States  war  steamer  General    Grant    assigned    to    command 

San    Jacinto,    Captain    Wilkes,    and    the  of  District  of  West  Tennessee 

envoys  taken  from  her Nov.  8,  1861  Feb.  14,  1862 

Depai'tment  of  Missouri  constituted  Surrender   of   Fort  Donelson,   Tenn.,   to 

Nov.  9,  1861  federal   forces  under   General   Grant 

Department  of  the  Ohio  reorganized  to  Feb.  16,  1862 

include  Kentucky  and  Tennessee,  Nov.  9;  Nashville,    Tenn.,    occupied    by    federal 

Gen.  Don  Carlos  Buell  assumes  command    forces Feb.   25,   1862 

Nov.  15,  1861  Congress  authorizes  $150,000,000  United 

General    Halleck   assumes    command    of  States  notes,  the  legal-tender  bill 

the  Department  of  Missouri  Feb.  25,  1862 

Nov.  19,  1861  Battle  of  Pea  Ridge,  Ark. 

Second  session  assembles.  .  .Dec.  2,  1861  March  6-8,  1862 

President    Lincoln's    first    annual    nies-  Naval   engagement  at   Hampton   Roads, 

sage  to  Congress Dec.   3,   1861  Va.,  and  destruction  of  the  United  States 

John    C.    Breckinridge,    Kentucky,    ex-  frigate  Congress  and  sloop-of-war  Cumber- 

pelled  from  the  Senate Dec.  4,   1861  land    by    the    Confederate    iron-clad    Vir- 

[He  had  remained  in  the   Senate  until  ginia,  formerly  the  United  States  frigate 

the  end  of  the  previous  session.]  Merrimac March  8,  1862 

Senate  resolves  that  a  joint  committee  Fight  between  the  Merrimac  and  Moni- 

of   three    members    from   the    Senate   and  tor;  the  Merrimac  retires.  .March  9,1862 

four  from  the  House  be  appointed  to  in-  Advance  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac 

quire  into  the  conduct  of  the  war,  with  to  Manassas  Junction,  Va. 

power  to  send  for  persons  and  papers,  and  March  7-11,  1802 

to   sit  during  the   session    (33   yeas   to   3  General    McClellan   relieved    from    ccrm- 

nays) Dec.    9,    1861  mand-in-chief,  retaining  the  Army  of  the 

House  concurs Dec.  10,  1861    Potomac March   11,    1862 

This  committee  consists  of  Senators  Departments  of  Kansas,  of  Missouri, 
Benjamin  F.  Wade,  of  Ohio;  Zachariah  and  part  of  Ohio  merged  into  the  de- 
Chandler,  of  Michigan;  and  Andrew  John-  partment  of  the  Mississippi  under  Major- 
son,  of  Tennessee,  Dec.  17;  and  Congress-    General  Halleck March  11,  1862 

men  Daniel  W.  Gooch,  of  Massachusetts ;  All  persons  in  the  service  forbidden  to 

John  Covode,  of  Pennsylvania ;  George  W.  return     escaped     slaves     to     Confederate 

Julian,  of  Indiana ;   and  Moses  F.  Odell,  owners,  by  a  new  article  of  war 

war  Democrat,  of  New  York.. Dec.  19,  1861  March  13,  1862 



Newbern,  N.  C,  occupied  by  the  Unit-  inond  to  co-operate  with  General  McClel- 

ed  States  forces March  14,  1862    Ian May    17,    1862 

Embarkation   of   the   Army   of   the   Po-  President  approves  the  homestead  act 

tomac    for    the    Peninsula    commenced    at  May  20,  1S62 

Alexandria March   17,   1862  Education  of  colored  children  provided 

Battle  of  Kernstown,or  Winchester,  Va. ;  for  in  the  District  of  Columbia  by  act  of 

^rig.-Gen.  James  Shields  defeats  "  Stone-  May  21,  1862 

wall"   Jackson March   23,    1862  Battle  of  Hanover  Court-house,  Va. 

Siege  of  Yorktown,  Va.,  commenced  by  May  24,  1862 
General    McClellan April    5,    1862  Corinth,   Miss.,   evacuated   by   the   Con- 
Battle  of   Pittsburg  Landing,   Tenn.  federates,    and    occupied    by    the    United 
April  6-7,  1862  States  forces  under  Major-General  Halleck 

Island  Number  Ten,  in  the  Mississippi,  May  30,  1862 

evacuated  by  the  Confederates  Battle   of   Seven   Pines,   or   Fair    Oaks, 

April  7,  1862  near  Richmond,  Va..May  31-June  1,  1862 

Huntsville,  Ala.,  occupied  by  the  Unit-  Maj.-Gen.   Eobert   E.    Lee    assigned    to 

ed  States  forces  under  Gen.  O.  M.  Mitchel  command    the    Confederate    forces    about 

April  11,  1862    Richmond June    3,     1862 

Bill   abolishing  slavery  in   the  District  President   authorized   to   appoint   diplo- 

of   Columbia   passes   the    Senate   April    3,  matic     representatives     to     the     republics 

29  to  14,  and  the  House  April   11,  92  to    of  Haiti  and  Liberia June  5,  1862 

39;    approved April    16,    1862  Treaty  with  Great  Britain  for  the  sup- 

[The  average  compensation  paid  by  the  pression  of  the  African  slave-trade 

government  for  each  slave  was  $300.]  June  7,  1862 

Admiral  Farragut  with  his  fleet  passes  General    Butler    hangs    William    Mum- 
Forts    Jackson    and    St.    Philip,    the    two    ford   at   New   Orleans June   7,    1862 

forts  guarding  the  Mississippi  below  New  Battle  of  Cross  Keys,  Va..June  8,  1862 

Orleans April  24,  1862  Battle  of  Port  Republic,  Va. 

Admiral  Farragut  occupies  New  Orleans  June  9,  1862 

April  25,  1862  Confederate   cavalry,    1,500  men,   under 

Gen.    B.    F.    Butler    occupies    New    Or-  Gen.  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  pass  around  Army 

leans  with  his  troops May  1,  1862    of  the  Potomac June  12-13,  1862 

General  Magruder  evacuates  Yorktown,  Slavery  forever   prohibited   in   the  Ter- 

Va May  4,   1862    ritories June    19,    1862 

Battle  of  Williamsburg,  Va.. May  5,  1862  Army   of   Virginia    formed    and    placed 

Gen.    David    Hunter    proclaims    eman-  under  command  of  Maj.-Gen.  John  Pope 

cipation  of  slaves,  and  authorizes  arming  June  26,  1862 

all  able-bodied  negroes  in  FloridA,  Georgia,  Seven  days'  fighting  and  retreat  of  the 

and    South    Carolina May  9,  1862  Army  of  the  Potomac  from  before  Rich- 

[These  orders  were  not  approved  by  the  mond  to  Harrison's  Landing  on  the  James 

President.]  River June   26-July   2,    1862 

Norfolk,  Va.,  occupied  by  United  States  [Battles    fought:    Mechanicsville,    June 

forces  under  General  Wool.. May  10,  1862  26;    Gaines's  Mill,  June  27;    Savage  Sta- 

Merrimac   blown    up    by   the    Confeder-  tion,   June   29;    Glendale,   June   30;    Fra- 

ates May   11,   1862  zier's  Farm,  or  White  Oak  Swamp,  June 

Department  of   Agriculture   established  30;   Malvern  Hill,  July  1.] 

May  15,  1862  Vicksburg    canal    begun;    designed    by 

General  Butler  issues  General  Order  No.  Gen.    Thomas    Williams    to    change    the 

28  at  New  Orleans  regarding  the  conduct  course    of    the    Mississippi    and    isolate 

of  the  women  of  that  city.  .May  15,  1862    Vicksburg June   27,   1862 

[This  order   produced  great  excitement  [General    Grant   recommenced   work   on 

in  the  South,  and,  with  other  acts  of  the  this   canal,  Jan.   22,   1863,   but  it  proved 

general,  called  forth  a  proclamation  from  a  failure.] 

the    President    of    the    Confederacy.      See  Act   for   a   railroad   and   telegraph   line 

Dec.  23,  1862.]  from    the   Missouri    River   to   the   Pacific 

General  McDowell  moves  towards  Rich-    Ocean;    approved July    1,    1862 



Office  of  commissioner  of  internal  rev-  vance  of  General  Lee's  army  and  General 

enue    created July    1,   1862    Pope Aug.  29,   1862 

President  Lincoln  calls  for  300,000  vol-  Battle    of    Manassas,    or    "  second    Bull 

unteers  for  three  years July  2,  1862  Run,"  a  continuation  of  Groveton 

General  McClellan's  letter  to  President  Aug.  30,  1862 
Lincoln  from  Harrison's  Landing,  Va.,  Kirby  Smith,  with  Bragg's  right,  ad- 
giving  advice  on  the  policy  of  the  gov-  vances  on  Richmond,  Ky.,  and  defeats  the 
ernment July    7,     1862    Union  forces Aug.  30,   1862 

Major  -  General    Halleck    commander-in  Battle  of  Chantilly,  Va.  ..Sept.   1,   1862 

chief , July  11,  1862  General  Pope  asks  to  be  relieved  from 

By   resolution    Congress   provides   2,000  his    command   of   the   Army   of   Virginia, 

"  medals    of    honor "    for    distribution    to  and  transferred  to  the  Department  of  the 

non-commissioned    officers    and    privates    Northwest Sept.    3,    1862 

who   shall   distinguish   themselves  Joseph    Holt,    of    Kentucky,    appointed 

July  12,  1862  judge  -  advocate  -  general    of    the    United 

Maj.-Gen.  John  Pope  takes  command  of    States Sept.  3,  1862 

the  Army  of  Virginia July  14,  1862  Confederate    forces    cross    the    Potomac 

Congress  authorizes  the  enrolment  of  and  occupy  Frederick  City,  Md. 
the  militia  between  eighteen  and  forty- five ;  Sept.  4-5,  1862 
the  appointment  of  a  judge-advocate-gen-  Department  of  the  Northwest  created 
eral;  the  President  to  organize  army  of  Iowa,  Minnesota,  Wisconsin,  and  the 
corps  at  his  discretion ;  persons  of  African  Territories  of  Dakota  and  Nebraska ;  Gen- 
descent  to  be  admitted  to  the  army;   act    eral  Pope  commanding Sept.  6,  1862 

approved July  17,  1862  General  Lee   issues   a  proclamation  on 

Congress    authorizes    the    seizure    and    entering   Maryland Sept.    8,    1862 

confiscation  of  rebel  property  Capture   of   Munfordville,   Ky.,   by   the 

July  17,  1862  Confederate  forces  under  Bragg 

Second  session  adjourns. .  .July  17,  1862  Sept.  14-16,  1862 

Ex-President    Martin    Van    Buren    dies  Harper's   Ferry   surrenders   to   "  Stone- 

at  Lindenwold,  N.  Y.,  aged  eighty  wall  "  Jackson Sept.  15,  1862 

July  24,  1862  Battles  of  South  Mountain,  Md. 

President  Lincoln  calls  for  300,000  nine-  Sept.  15,  1862 

months'   militia Aug.   4,    1862  Advance  of   Gen.  Kirby  Smith   appears 

[A  special  draft  ordered  in  States  whose  before    Covington,    Ky.,    but    immediately 

quotas  are  not  filled  by  Aug.  15.]  retires Sept.  15,  1862 

Battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.  Battle  of  Antietam Sept.  16-17,  1862 

Aug.  9,  1862  Confederate    army    retreat    across    the 

Property    in    Louisiana    belonging    to  Potomac  on  the  night  of 
John  Slidell,  Confederate  commissioner  to  Sept.  18-19,  1862 
France,    confiscated   by   order   of   General  Battle   of   luka,   Miss.;    General    Rose- 
Butler Aug.    11,    1862  crans    forces    Confederate    General    Price 

Army  of  the  Potomac  evacuates   Har-    to  retreat Sept.  19-20,  1862 

rison's  Landing Aug.  16,  1862  Preliminary  proclamation  of  President 

Sioux  Indians   attack  the  frontier   set-  Lincoln  announcing  that  in  territory  still 

tlements  of  Minnesota Aug.  19,  1862  in   rebellion   on   Jan.    1,    1863,   the   slaves 

Confederates,  under  Gen.  Braxton  Bragg,  will  be  declared  forever  free 

invade  Kentucky,   crossing  the  Tennessee  Sept.  22,  1862 

River  at  Harrison  above  Chattanooga  Convention  of  governors  from  fourteen 

Aug.  21-24,   1862  loyal    States,    with    proxies    from    three 

Secretary  of  War  directs  the  military  others,    meet    at    Altoona,    Pa.,    and    ap- 

governor   of   the   coast   islands   of    South  prove  the  emancipation  proclamation 

Carolina  to  enlist  5,000  volunteers  of  Afri-  Sept.  24,  1862 

can  descent Aug.   25,   1862  General    Buell   with   the   United   States 

[The  first  permission  by  the  government  forces   arrives  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  in   ad- 

to  employ  negroes  as  soldiers.]  vance  of  the  Confederate  forces 

Battle  of  Groveton,  Va.,  between  the  ad-  Sept.  25,  1862 



Office  of  provost-marshal-general  created  Third  session  convenes ....  Dec.  1,  1862 

by  the  Secretary  of  War.. Sept.  26,   1862  [The    President's    message    recommends 

Brig.-Gen.  JetT.  C.  Davis,  U.  S.  A.,  shoots  a     plan    of    emancipation    in    the    loyal 

and   mortally  wounds   Gen.   William   Nel-  States:  first,  any  State  abolishing  slavery 

son  at  the  Gait  House,  Louisville,  Ky.  prior  to  Jan.  1,  1900,  should  receive  com- 

Sept.  29,  1862  pensation;  second,  slaves  made  free  by  the 

[Xo  notice  was  ever  taken  of  this  affair  war  to  be  forever  free,  loyal  owners  to  be 

by  the  government.]  compensated.] 

'Battle  of  Corinth,  Miss.. Oct.  3-4,  1862  Battle  of  Prairie  Grove,  Ark. 

Battle  of  Perryville,  Ky Oct.  8,  1862  Dec,  7,  1862 

Eighteen  hundred   Confederate  cavalry,  General    Burnside   moves   the   Army   of 

with  four  pieces  of  artillery,  under  Gen.  the    Potomac    to    the    Rappahannock,   op- 

J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  cross  the  Potomac  for  a    posite  Fredericksburg Dec.  10,  1862 

raid   into   Pennsylvania ....  Oct.    10,    1862  Army  crosses  the  river.  .Dec.  11-12,  1862 

They  reach  and  occupy  Chambersburg,  Battle  of  Fredericksburg.  .Dec.  13,  1862 
Pa.,  on  Oct.  11,  and  return  to  Virginia  Gen.  N.  P.  Banks  assumes  command 
through  Maryland,  crossing  the  Potomac  of  the  Department  of  the  Gulf,  establish- 
at  White's  Ford,  without  the  loss  of  a  ing  his  headquarters  at  New  Orleans 
man  killed,  and  having  secured  1,000  Dec.  16,  1862 
horses. Oct.  12,  1862  General  Grant  expels  Jews  from  his  de- 
Ten  Confederate  prisoners  at  Palmyra,    partment Dec.  17,  1862 

Mo.,  shot  by  order  of  General  McNiel  President  Davis  proclaims  Gen.  Benj.  F. 

Oct.  18,  1862  Entler  a  felon,  outlaw,  and  common  ene- 

G«neral    McClellan   assumes   the   offen-  my  of  mankind,  directing  that  if  captured 

sive,  and  crosses  the  Potomac  from  Mary-  he  be  hanged   immediately  without  trial, 

land Oct.   26,   1862  and  all  his  commissioned  officers  or  others 

Rear    of    the    Confederate    army    under  serving  with  armed  slaves,  if  captured,  be 

General    Bragg    passes    through    Cumber-    reserved  for  execution Dec.  23,  1862 

land  Gap  on  its  retreat  from  Kentucky  Thirty-eight    Indians    hanged    at    Man- 

Oct.  26,  1862  kato,  Minn.,  for  participation  in  the  mas- 
Death  of  Gen.  O.  M.  Mitchel,  U.  S.  A.,    sacres Dec.  26,  1862 

at  Beaufort,  S.  C,  aged  fifty-two  Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman,  aided  by  Admiral 

Oct.  30,  1862  Porter,  assaults  Vicksburg  on  the  north 

Major-General  Buell,  commanding  Army    sacres Dec.  26,  1862 

of  the  Ohio,  superseded  by  Major-General  [Known   as   the  battle   of   "  Chickasaw 

Rosecrans .Oct.   30,   1862  Bayou."] 

Large  Democratic  gains  in  elections  in  Monitor  founders  off  Cape  Hatteras  in 

Northern  States Nov.  4,  1862  a    storm,   with   a   loss   of   sixteen   of   her 

[Horatio    Seymour,    Democrat,    elected    crew,  night  of Dec.  30,  1862 

governor  of  New  York.]  Act   admitting  West  Virginia,   to   date 

General  McClellan  relieved  of  command  from     June     20,     1863     (the     thirty-fifth 

of  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  ordered  to    State),  approved Dec.  31,  18G2 

Trenton,    N.    J.;    General    Burnside    ap-  Battle  of  Murfreesboro,  or  Stone  River 

pointed Nov.  5,  1862  Dec.  31,  1862-Jan.  2,  1863 

General  Porter  ordered  to  Washington  President   Lincoln   proclaims   all   slaves 

to  answer  charges  of  General  Pope  free  in  the  seceding  States. . .  .Jan.  1,  1863 

Nov.  8,  1862  Absent   from   duty   in   the   array,   8,987 

Gen.    B.   F.   Butler   relieved   from   com-  officers  and  280,073  enlisted  men 

raand  of  New  Orleans Nov.  9,  1862  Jan.    1,   1863 

Lord    Lyons,    British    minister    to    the  Galveston,   Tex.,   captured  by  the  Con- 
United  States,  reports  to  his  government    federates Jan.  1,  1863 

upon    the   prospects   of   the   Confederates,  Gold  at  New  York  133^4  to  13378 

the  intentions  of  the  conservative   (Demo-  Jan.  2,  1863 

era  tic)   party,  and  the  probability  of  sue-  M.  Drouyn  de  I'Huys,  French  minister 

cess  of  mediation  by  foreign  governments  of   foreign   affairs,   addresses  M.   Merrier. 

in  the  war Nov.  17,  1862  French  minister  at  Washington,  concern- 



Ing  mediation  between  the  United  States  Congress  authorizes  loans  of  $300,000, 

government  and  Confederate.  .Jan.  9,  1863  000  for  1863,  and  $600,000,000  for  1864 

Arkansas  post  captured  by  the  United  March  3,  1863 

States  forces  under  W.  T.   Sherman  and  Thirty-seventh   Congress   adjourns 

McCIernand,  with  a  fleet  of  gun-boats  under  March  4,  1863 

Admiral  Porter Jan.  11,  1863  Proclamation  of  the  President  relative 

General   Burnside   resumes  active  oper-  to  desertions  in  the  army.  .March  IC,  1863 

ations,  but  is  foiled  by  storms  Major-General       Burnside       supersedes 

Jan.  20-24,  1863  Maj.-Gen.   H.   G.   Wright   in   the   Depart- 

Gen.  Fitz-John  Porter  cashiered  and  dis-    ment  of  the  Ohio March  25,  1863 

missed    from    the    service    of    the    United  Admiral  Farragut  passes  the  Confederate 

States  under  the  Ninth  and  Fifty-second  batteries  at  Grand  Gulf,  Miss.,  with  three 

Articles  of  War Jan.  21,  1863    gun-boats April    1,    1863 

Organization  of  the  1st  South  Carolina  Raid    of    mounted    infantry    from    Tus- 

Colored  Loyal  Volunteers,  Col.  T.  W.  Hig-  cumbia,   Ala.,   towards   Rome,    Ga.      The 

ginson,  commander Jan.  25,  1863  entire  force,   1,700  men,  with   Col.  A.   D. 

Major-General  Burnside  relieved  by  Ma-  Streight,  captured  by  the  Confederates 

jor-General  Hooker Jan.  25,  1863  April  7-May  3,  1863 

A.  D.  Boileau,  proprietor  of  the  Phila-  Major-General     Burnside     orders     that 

delphia    Evening    Journal,    arrested    and  death  shall  be  the  penalty  for  aiding  the 

taken  to  Washington Jan.  27,  1863  Confederates,  sympathizers  with  rebellion 

Secretary  Seward  replies  to  the  French  to  be  sent  into  the  Confederate  lines 

government  upon  mediation  (see  Jan.  9)  April  13,  1863 

Feb.  6,  1863  Admiral    Porter,   with    eight   gun-boats 

Commissary-general  of  subsistence  first  and  three  steam  transports,  passes  (down) 

appointed,  with  the  rank  of  brigadier-gen-  the  Confederate  batteries  at  Vicksburg 

eral Feb.  9,   1863  April  16,   1863 

Territorial    government    established    in  Major-General  Hooker  crosses  the  Rap- 
Arizona  Feb.  24,  1863  pahannock  at  Kelly's  Ford 

Congress   provides   a   national   currency  April  28-29,  1863 

secured  by  United  States  bonds  General   Grant   crosses   the   Mississippi 

approved  Feb.  25,  1863  at  Bruinsburg,  below  Vicksburg 

[Vote  in  the  Senate,  23  to  21;  House,  April  30,  1863 

78  to  64.]  Battle  of  Chancellorsville,  Va. 

Destruction    of    the    Confederate    war-  May  2-4,  1863 

steamer  NasTwille  by  the  Montauk,  in  the  ["Stonewall"     Jackson      (Confederate 

Ogeechee  River,  Ga Feb.  28,  1863  general)     mortally    wounded    on    the    2d, 

Congress    authorizes,    besides    the    four  dies  on  the  10th.] 

major-generals  and  nine  brigadier-generals  Grand    Gulf,    below    Vicksburg,    aban- 

for  the  regvilar  army,  forty  major-generals  doned  by  the  Confederates. .  .May  3,  1863 

and    200    brigadier-generals    for    the    vol-  Clement   L.    Vallandigham    arrested    at 

unteer   service;    there    may   be   appointed  Dayton,  O.,  for  treasonable  utterances,  by 

thirty    major-generals    and    seventy  -  five  orders  from  General  Burnside.  .May  4, 1863 

brigadier-generals  for  the  volunteers  General    Hooker    recrosses    the    Rappa- 

March  2,  1863    hannock May    5,    1863 

Congress  resolves  that  it  is  the  unalter-  General  Grant  occupies  Jackson,  Miss, 

able    purpose    of    the    United    States    to  May  14,  186* 

prosecute  the  war  vigorously  until  the  re-  C.  L.  Vallandighari  convicted  by  court- 

bell  ion  is  suppressed.    .    .    .    That  any  at-  martial   at   Cincinnati    of   disloyal    utter- 

tempt  at  mediation   will   prolong  instead  ances,  and  sentenced  to  close  confinement 

of  shortening  the  war.    .    .   .   That  the  re-  during  the   war   in   some   fortress   of  the 

bellion   is  now  sustained  by  the  hope   of  United  States.   General  Burnside  approves, 

such    intervention March    3,    1863  and  designates  Fort  Warren,  Boston 

Congress    empowers    the    President    to  May  16,  1863 

suspend  the  writ  of  liabeas  corpus  Battle  of  Champion  Hills,  Miss. 

March  3,  1863  May  16,  1863 
IX. — o                                                       209 


Battle  of  Big  Black  River,  Miss.  niancL  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  and 

May  17,  1863  Maj.-Gen.  George  G.  Meade  succeeds 

Confederates  retire  within  the  defences  June  27,  1863 

of  Vicksburg,  and  the  siege  begins  United    States    and    Confederate    forces 

May  18,  1863  concentrating   at   Gettysburg,    Pa.,   battle 

United  States  forces  assault  the  works  of  Gettysburg  begins  July  1,  and  continues 

at  Vicksburg  without  success  with  the  defeat  of  Confederates 

May  21-22,  1863  July   2-3,   1863 

President    rescinds    General    Burnside's  Franklin    Pierce,    ex-President    of    the 

order  concerning  C.  L.  Vallandigham,  and  United    States,    addresses    a    Democratic 

sends  him  into  the  Confederacy  mass-meeting  at  Concord,  N.  H.,  alluding 

May  22,  1863  to  Vallandigham  as  a  martyr  of  free  speech 

Major-General     Banks,     investing     the  July  4,  1863 

Confederate   works   at   Port   Hudson,    as-  Vicksburg  surrenders  to  General  Grant 

saults  them  without  success.  .May  27,  1863  July  4,  1863 

Fifty-fourth    Massachusetts     (colored),  Four  thousand  Confederate  raiders,  with 

the    first   negro    regiment    sent   from   the  ten   guns,   under   John   H.   Morgan,   cross 

North,  departs  for  Hilton  Head,  S.  C.  the  Ohio  River  at  Brandenburg,  Ky.,  into 

May  28,  1863    Indiana July  7,  1863 

General   Lee  begins   his  movement   for  Port    Hudson    surrenders    to    General 

the  invasion  of  the  North.. June  3,  1863    Banks , July  8,  1863 

Cavalry  battle  at  Beverly's  Ford,   Va.,  Confederate    army    recrosses    the    Poto- 

between  Generals  Pleasanton,  Buford,  and  mac  at  Williamsport  during  the  night  of 

Gregg,  and  the  Confederate  Gen.  J.  E.  B.  July  13,  1863 

Stuart June   9,    1863  Draft  riot  in  New  York  City 

C.  L.  Vallandigham  nominated  for  gov-  July  13-16,  1863 

ernor  by  the  Ohio  Democratic  Convention  Repulse  of  the  United  States  troops  in 

June  11,  1863  their    assault    on    Fort    Wagner,    Morris 

General    Hooker    begins    the    movement    Island,  S.  C July  18,  1863 

of  his  army  northward  from  the  Rappa-  Samuel    Houston    dies    at   Huntersville, 

bannock June    13-15,    1863    Tex.,  aged  seventy July  25,  1863 

Battle    of    Winchester,    Va.;     General  John  J.   Crittenden  dies  at  Frankfort, 

Ewell    defeats   the    United    States   troops    Ky.,  aged  seventy-seven July  26,  1863 

under  General  Milroy.  .June   14-15,   1863  President  Lincoln  proclaims  protection 

President  Lincoln  calls  for  100,000  men  of  colored  soldiers  against  retaliation  by 

for  six  months  to  resist  the  invasion  of    the  Confederates July  30,   1863 

Pennsylvania June    15,    1863  Governor    Seymour,   of   New   York,   re- 

[Maryland   to   furnish    10,000,   Pennsyl-  quests   President  Lincoln   to   suspend  the 

vania   50,000,   West  Virginia   10,000,   and  draft    for   troops    in   that    State 

Ohio  30.000.    These  men  were  not  used.]  Aug.  3,  1863 

Chambersburg,  Pa.,  raided  by  Confeder-  John  B.  Floyd,  ex-Secretary  of  War  and 

ate    cavalry June    15,    1863  Confederate  brigadier-general,  dies  at  Ab- 

Confederate  army  crosses  the  Potomac      ingdon,  Va Aug.  26,  1863 

June  24-25,  1863  Army    of   the    Cumberland    crosses    the 

General    Rosecrans    finishes    the    Tulla-  Tennessee  in  pursuit  of  General  Bragg 

homa    campaign,    Tennessee,    forcing    the  Aug.  29-Sept.  3,  1863 

Confederates     across     the     Tennessee     at  Advance  of  General  Burnside's  command 

Bridgeport,  Ala June  24-July  7,  1863  occupies  Knoxville,  E.  Tenn.  .Sept.  4,  1863 

General  Rosecrans  advances  from  Mur-  Confederates  evacuate  Fort  Wagner  on 

freesboro   against   General   Bragg  at  Tul-    the  night  of Sept.  7,  1863 

lahoraa,  Term June  24,  1863  General    Wood's    division    of    the    21st 

Army  of  the  Potomac  crosses  the  Poto-  Corps,  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  occupies 

mac June  26,  1803    Chattanooga,  Tenn Sept.  9,  1863 

Confederates  advance  to  vt'ithin  thirteen  President  Lincoln  suspends  the  writ  of 

miles  of  Harrisburg,  Pa June  27,  1863  habeas  corpus  by  proclamation 

Major-General  Hooker  relieved  of  com-  Sept.  15,  1863 



Battle  of  Chickamauga .  Sept.  19-20,1863  maining  in  northeastern  Tennessee  during 

Eleventh  and   12th  Corps,  Army  of  the  the  winter;    in   the  spring  he  joins  Gen- 
Potomac,   Major-General   Hooker,   ordered    eral  Lee  at  Richmond Dec.  1-4,  18G3 

to  middle  Tennessee  to  reinforce  the  Army  General    Sherman's    command    and    the 
of  the  Cumberland Sept.  23,  1863  4th  Corps,  Army  of  the  Cumberland,  rein- 
Engagement    at    Bristow    Station,    Va.,  force  Knoxville  from  Chattanooga 
between  the  rear  of  the  Army  of  the  Po-  Dec.  3-6,  1863 
tomac  and  A.  P.  Hill Oct.  14,  1863  Thirty  -  eighth    Congress,    first    session, 

Maj.-Gen.  U.  S.  Grant  appointed  to  the    convenes Dec.  7,  1863 

Division  of  the  Mississippi,  including  the  President  Lincoln  proclaims  amnesty  to 

departments    of    the    Tennessee,    Cumber-  all  Confederates  on  returning  to  their  al- 

land,    and    Ohio;    Maj.-Gen.    William    S.    legiance Dec.  8,  1863 

Rosecrans    relieved    of    command    of    the  Total   debt  of  Confederacy,  $1,220,866,- 

Army  of  the  Cumberland,   and  Maj.-Gen.    042.50 Jan.  1,  1864 

George   H.   Thomas   succeeds,   by   General  Isaac  Murphy   inaugurated   provisional 

Order  No.  337,  War  Department  governor  of  Arkansas Jan.  22,  1864 

Oct.  16,  1863  President    calls    for    500,000    men    for 

President  Lincoln  calls  for  300,000  men    three  years Feb.  1,  1864 

for  three  years Oct.  17,  1863  Sherman's    Meridian    expedition    leaves 

Regulations  issued  for  the  re-enlistment    Vicksburg,  Miss Feb.   3,    1864 

of  soldiers  in  the  field  in  "  veteran  volun-  More    than    100    Union    prisoners,    in- 

teer   regiments  " Oct.   23,    1863  eluding  Col.  Thomas  E.  Rose  and  Colonel 

General  Hooker  crosses  the  Tennessee  at  Streight,     escape     from      Libby     prison, 

Bridgeport,   Ala.,    Oct.    23,    and    advances  Richmond,  Va.,  by  tunnelling  under   the 

to  the  Wauhatchie  Valley  at  the  foot  of    walls. Feb.   9,   1864 

Lookout  Mountain,  on  the  west  First     Federal     prisoners     received     at 

Oct.  27,   1863    Andersonville  prison,  Ga Feb.  15,  1864 

Pontoon  bridge  thrown  across  the  Ten-  Second   Confederate  Congress   meets   at 

nessee    at    Brown's    Ferry,    below    Chat-    Richmond.' Feb.    19,    1864 

tanooga Oct.  27,  1863        Battle  of  Olustee,  Fla Feb.  20,  1864 

Battle  of  Wauhatchie Oct.  27,  1863  Battle  of  Tunnel  Hill,  Ga. 

General   Longstreet,  detached  from  the  Feb.  22-25,  1864 

Confederate     army     before     Chattanooga,  Congress  votes  to  every  Union  master 

advances  towards  Knoxville,  E.  Tenn.  whose  slave  enlists  in  the  Federal  army 

Nov.  4,  1863  a   compensation   not   exceeding  $300,   the 

Engagement   at   Rappahannock    Station    volunteer  to  be  free Feb.  24,  1864 

and  Kelly's  Ford,  Va.     The  Army  of  the  Congress    revives    grade    of    lieutenant- 
Potomac    succeeds    in    crossing    the    Rap-    general  in  the  army Feb.  29,  1864 

pahannock,  Lee  retiring  to  the  line  of  the  Secretary    of    the    Treasury    authorized 

Rapidan Nov.  7,  1863  to  borrow  $200,000,000  upon  "  5.40  bonds  " 

Confederate  forces  under  General  Long-  March  3,  1864 

etreet  before  Knoxville Nov.  19,  1863  Kilpatrick  attempts  in  vain  to  release 

Battle  of  Lookout  Mountain  Union    prisoners    at    Libby    prison,    Feb. 

Nov.   24,   1863  28.     Colonel  Dahlgren  loses  his  life  in  a 

Battle   of   Chattanooga,    or   Missionary    raid March    4,    1864 

Ridge Nov.  25,  1863  Ulysses    S.    Grant    commissioned    lieu- 

At    Mine    Run,    Orange    eo.,    Va.,    the  tenant-general,  March  9;  takes  chief  com- 

advance    of    the    Army    of    the    Potomac    mand March    10,    1864 

under   General   Meade   meets   the   Confed-  Draft  for  200,000  men  for  the  navy  and 

erates  under  General  Lee.     Attacks  desul-  the  reserve  ordered   for  April    15   by  the 

tory;    Meade   retires Nov.    27-30,    1863    President March  14,  1864 

General  Longstreet  assaults  the  defences  Governor      Michael      Hahn      appointed 

of    Knox\'ille,    especially    Fort    Sanders;  military  governor  of  Louisiana 

repulsed  with  heavy  loss.  .  .  .Nov.  29,  1863  March  15,  1864 

General   Longstreet  raises   the   siege   of  Enabling  act  for  admission  of  Nevada 

Knoxville,  retreats  towards  Virginia,  re-    and  Colorado March  21,  1864 



New  York  Sanitary  Commission  fair 
(receipts  $1,200,000)  opened .  April  4,  1864 

Battles  of  Sabine  Cross-roads,  Pleasant 
Grove,   and  Pleasant  Hill,  La. 

April  8-9,  1864 

Fort  Pillow,  Tenn.,  captured  by  Confed- 
erates under  Forrest,  and  colored  garri- 
son  slaughtered April    12,    1864 

Enabling  act  to  admit  Nebraska  ap- 
proved  April   19,   1864 

Motto  "  In  God  We  Trust  "  first  stamped 
upon  the  bronze  2-cent  coins  authorized 
by  act x\pril  22,   1864 

Hon.  Daniel  Clark,  of  New  Hampshire, 
elected  president  of  the  Senate  pro  tern. 
April   26,    1864 

Army  of  the  Potomac,  130,000  strong, 
crosses  the  Eapidan May  4,  1864 

Sherman  advances  southward  from  Chat- 
tanooga   May  4,  1864 

Sassacus  defeats  the  Confederate  ram 
Albemarle  in  Albemarle  Sound 

May  5,  1864 

Battle  of  the  Wilderness,   Virginia 

May  5-6,  1864 

Battle  of  Spottsylvania  Court  -  house, 
Va May  10,  1864 

Battle  at  New  Market,  Va. ;  Sigel  re- 
pulsed by  Confederates May  15,   1864 

Confederates  under  Johnston  evacuate 
Eesaca,  Ga May  15,  1864 

Act  for  a  postal  money-order  system 

May  17,  1864 

Offices  of  the  New  York  Journal  of  Com- 
merce and  World,  which  had  published 
a  forged  proclamation  of  the  President, 
calling  for  400,000  troops,  seized  and  held 
several  days  by  order  of  the  Secretary  of 
War May  19,  1864 

[On  July  1  Gen.  John  A.  Dix  and  others 
were  arrested,  in  accordance  with  a  letter 
from  Governor  Seymour  to  District  At- 
torney A.  Oakey  Hall,  for  seizing  these 

Nathaniel  Hawthorne  dies  at  Plymouth, 
N.  H.,  aged  sixty May  19,  1864 

Battles  near  Dallas,  Ga. 

May  2.5-28,  1864 

Act  creating  Montana  Territory  out  of 
part  of  Idaho  approved.  ..  .May  26,   1864 

Convention  of  radicals  at  Cleveland,  O., 
protests  against  the  government's  policy, 
and  nominates  Gen.  John  C.  Fremont  for 
President,  and  Gen.  John  Cochrane  for 
Vice-President,  by  acclamation 

May  31,  1864 

Morgan  raids  Kentucky June,  1864 

Battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  Va. 

June  1-3,  1864 

Currency  bureau  of  the  treasury  estab- 
lished, with  a  comptroller  of  the  currency, 
appointed  by  President  by  act.  June  3,  1864 

Philadeljihia  sanitary  fair  (receipts, 
$1,080,000)   opens June  7,  1864 

Union  National  Convention  meets  at  Bal- 
timore, Md.,  on  call  of  the  national  execu- 
tive committee,  Feb.  22;  appoints  Hon. 
William  Dennison,  of  Ohio,  president;  ad- 
mits delegates  from  Virginia  and  Florida 
to  seats  without  votes,  and  rejects  dele- 
gates from  South  Carolina.  .Jvme  7,  1864 

National  Republican  Convention  meets 
at  Chicago June  7,  1864 

[On  the  first  ballot  for  President,  Lin- 
coln received  all  the  votes  except  those  of 
Missouri  for  Grant,  which  were  changed 
to  Lincoln  before  the  result  was  an- 
nounced. First  ballot  for  Vice-President, 
Andrew  Johnson  200,  D.  S.  Dickinson  108, 
H.  Hamlin  150,  scattering  61;  after  many 
changes  the  vote  was  announced:  Johnson 
494,  Dickinson   17,  Hamlin  9.] 

Vallandigham  returns  to  Dayton,  0., 
from  Canada June   15,  1864 

General  assault  of  Federals  on  Peters- 
burg, Va June  16-18,  1864 

Confederate  cruiser  Alabama  fights  the 
United  States  ship  Kearsarge  off  Clier- 
bourg,  France,  and  surrenders  in  a  sink- 
ing condition June  19,  1864 

Battle  of  Weldon  Eailroad,  Va. 

June  21-22,  1864 

Lincoln  accepts  the  renomination  by  let- 
ter, dated  Washington June  27,  1864 

Battle  of  Kenesaw  Mountain,  Ga. 

June  27,  1864 

Repeal  of  fugitive  slave  law  of  1850  ap- 
proved  June   28,    1864 

Act  authorizing  the  issue  of  bonds  not 
to  exceed  $400,000,000,  or  treasury  notes 
not  to  exceed  $200,000,000  and  bonds  for 
same  amount June  30,  1864 

Congress  grants  Yosemite  Valley  and 
Mariposa  Big  Tree  grove  to  California  for 
a  public  park June  30,  1864 

Secretary  Chase  resigns  June  30;  Will- 
iam P.  Fessenden  appointed.  .July  1,  1864 

Confederates  evacuate  Marietta,  Ga. 

July  1,  1864 

Act  prohibiting  the  coastwise  slave- 
trade  forever  approved July  8,  1864 

First  session  adjourns. ..  .July  2,  1864 



President    suspends    the    habeas    corpus  Englisli-built   cruiser    Georgia   captured 

in  Kentucky,  and  proclaims  martial  law       at  sea  by  tlie  Niagara Aug.  15,  18G4 

July  5,   18G4  General  Grant  seizes  the  Weldon  Rail- 
President,  under  resolution  of  Congress,    road Aug.  18,  1864 

appoints    the    first    Thursday    of    August  Democratic  Nati