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FIRST SERIES NO. 43 



FEBRUARY 15, 1921 



UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 
STUDIES 






STUDIES IN NATURAL 
HISTORY 



VOLUME IX 



NUMBER 



QL 
561 

H5L75 

1921 

ENT 



¥ 



THE HESPERIOIDEA OF 

AMERICA NORTH 

OF MEXICO 

by 
ARTHUR WARD LINDSEY 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, IOWA CITY 



Issued monthly throughout the year. Entered at the post offire at Iowa City, Iowa. 

as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rates of postage provided 

for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917. authorized on July 3, 1918. 




Ak 










PLATE I 

Atrytonopsis python Edw., 

Hesperia centaureae Ramb., ? 

Xenophanes Iryxns Cr., cf 

Hesperia ericetorum Boisd., 

Chioides zilpa Bull. *, under surface 

Hesperia ericetorum Boisd., $ 

Hesperia philetas Edw., " 

Eantis thraso Hbn., Y 

Pamphila nevada Scud, V- under surface 
ro. Melanthes brunnea U.S.. f 

11. Pamphila comma, race Colorado Scud.. V. under surface 
12 Pamphila viridis Edw., ,-■*, under surface 
13. Pamphila comma, rate oregonia Edw., ?, under surface 



QL 

UNIVERSITY OF IOWA STUDIES 
,_ ; ' IN NATURAL HISTORY 

L?/)fl Professor Charles Cleveland Nutting, M.A., Editor 



CONTINUATION OF BULLETIN FROM THE LABORATORIES OF NATURAL HISTORY 
OF THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA 



VOLUME IX NUMBER 



THE HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 
NORTH OF MEXICO 

A Generic Revision and Synopsis of the Species 

by 
ARTHUR WARD LINDSEY, Ph.D. 



iJ- 




PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY, IOWA CITY 



THE HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 
NORTH OF MEXICO 

Since the time of the early writers who were satisfied to place 
their skippers in the two genera, Pampkila and Hesperia, the 
classification of these insects has been in a more or less chaotic 
state. The two old genera can readily be subdivided, but the 
structures of the skippers which are useful in their classification 
are of a peculiarly unstable character and have therefore proven 
a stumbling block to those who have attempted such subdivision. 
This is due to the fact that very few of our species are struo- 
turally identical, as a result of which one division has led to 
another until we have reached the deplorable state where, to be 
consistent, we must either lump extensively or split still more 
finely, with most lepidopterists in favor of the former. In the 
following pages I have attempted to rearrange our species and 
reorganize our genera to eliminate the confusion which has at- 
tended the group in North America, while bearing in mind both 
the convenience of the classification and the opinions of the 
learned authors of many genera for which I have been unable to 
see any necessity. Undoubtedly I have erred in some points, 
especially in the case of the numerous species found in the south- 
west which belong to genera more typical of the Central Ameri- 
can fauna, but I believe that the examination of a more complete 
collection of exotic species will clear up many obscure points for 
which I have been able to offer only a tentative solution. 

In the course of my work I have had occasion to ask informa- 
tion of Prof. H. F. Wickham, Dr. J. McDunnough, and Dr. 
Henry Skinner. Dr. Skinner has also supplied me with a num- 
ber of specimens which I could not otherwise obtain, and Prof. 
Wickham has lent a number of books from his private library. 
Dr. Barnes of Decatur, 111., has very generously allowed me the 
freedom of his fine collection and library, and also supplied me 
with many specimens for study. Mr. R. A. Leussler of Omaha 

(3) 



4 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

has given me specimens of several species which I had been un- 
able to secure, and Mr. Nathan Banks has kindly examined the 
collection at Cambridge for certain material and furnished 
transcripts of several necessary descriptions not in my posses- 
sion. Mr. Gerhard of the Field Museum made it possible for 
me to spend several profitable hours in the examination of the 
Strecker collection in that institution. To all of these men I 
wish to express my gratitude for their valuable assistance. 

The first step toward a rational classification of the skippers 
was made by Scudder in 1874 x when he proposed the division of 
the family, as he regarded it, into two tribes, the Hesperides and 
Astyci. These represented approximately the genera Thymele 
and Pamphila of Fabricius' classification in Illiger's Magazine 
in 1807. Scudder based his tribes on the secondary sexual char- 
acters of the males and characters found in the early stages. 

This paper was followed in 1878 by Mabille's work on the 
Hesperiidae in the Brussels museum. 2 Mabille adopted the tribes 
proposed by Scudder but subdivided them into several minor 
groups each. Scudder later expressed his approval of these 
divisions for the Hesperidi but reserved his judgment of the 
Astyci. 3 Many of Mabille's groups are not represented in our 
fauna; the others have been the subject of very little dispute. 

In the same year there appeared a paper by Burmeister 4 in 
which the family is divided into four tribes. I am familiar with 
this paper only through the remarks of Scudder in the Butter- 
fles of New England, but these are quite sufficient to show that 
none but historic interest attaches to the rather remarkable ar- 
rangement proposed. 

A year after this Speyer produced a brief work 5 in Germany 
wherein we find the first suggestion of the systematic importance 
of the position of vein five of the primaries. This suggestion 
furnished the necessary complement to Scudder 's foundation for 
the major subdivisions of the skippers, which are still in use. 

Nothing further of importance was done in the systematic 

1 Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Hist. I, 195, 1874. 

2 Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxi, 12, 1878. 

3 Butt. New Eng. n, 1372, 18. 

4 Desc. Phys. Rep. Arg., Lep. 245, 1878. 
6 Stett. ent. Zeit. XL, 477, 1879. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 5 

study of these insects until 1893, when Watson published 6 his 
"Proposed Classification of the Hesperiidae," which is prac- 
tically the classification now in use. Watson divided the family 
into three subfamilies, the Pyrrhopyginae, Hesperiinae and 
Pamphilinae, equivalent to the Pyrrhopygini of Mabille and the 
two tribes of Scudder. He further subdivided the Hesperiinae 
into two groups and the Pamphilinae into three. Group C of 
the Pamphilinae is wholly oriental and African. The others 
correspond to the similar divisions of Scudder in part. As Wat- 
son was working on the collection in the British Museum where 
Megathymus was placed in the Heterocera, he merely mentioned 
the genus to indicate that if placed in the Hesperiidae it would 
form an additional subfamily. 

At this time Godman and Salvin had been publishing for six 
years parts of the three volumes on Rhopalocera of the Biologia 
Centrali-Americana. The first signature on the skippers ap- 
peared a few months before Watson 7 s revision, but the work was 
not completed until 1901. The subfamilies are those of Watson 
and the Hesperiinae are divided as in his classification, but the 
Pamphilinae, worked up by Godman after Salvin 's death, are 
divided into eight groups. These are not wholly acceptable, but 
they suggest an improvement over the two groups of other writ- 
ers. The chief systematic interest of the Biologia. lies in the 
number of genera described, the excellent plates, and the great 
value of the work for specific identifications. 

But one other paper, Mabille 's monumental "Famille Hes- 
peridae, ' ' 7 has been written on the Hesperioid fauna of the 
world since the earliest times. In this work Mabille uses the 
same arrangement as that of Watson, excepting the establish- 
ment of the subfamily Ismeninae to take the place of Watson "s 
Group C of the Pamphilinae, and the definite placing of Me- 
gathymus in the subfamily Megathyminae. 

There remains to be mentioned Dyar's "Review of the Hes- 
periidae of the United States." 8 This brief paper is the only 
one ever published on the skippers of this country, and in spite 
of omissions and commissions of an unusual nature it has filled a 

«Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, 3-132, pi. i-iii. 

7 Genera Insectorum xvu, 1903-4. 

8 Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xni, 111-141, 1905. 



6 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

great need of systematic lepidopterists. It was intended, as the 
name implies, merely as a synopsis of the genera and species and 
follows the "Famille Hesperidae" with comparatively few 
changes. 

These works are the foundation of our present system of class- 
ification. Many others with a wider range have contributed to 
our knowledge of the skippers but in none of these is any work 
of importance on the gross classification attempted. 

It will be noted in the preceding sketch of the history of the 
skippers that they have been treated as the family Hesperiidae, 
equivalent to the several families of butterfles with which they 
have been associated. This position is the only one to which 
they have been widely assigned, though a number of writers have 
given them superfamily rank. E. Reuter carries this a step 
further and proposes a distinct suborder under the name Grypo- 
cera, 9 equivalent to the Rhopalocera and Heterocera, while 
Spuler does likewise, but applies the name Netrocera. 10 This re- 
opens the question of suborders, for if we accept Comstock's 
Frenatae and Jugatae the two older groups can no longer occupy 
this rank and must be either reduced or discarded. I regard 
them as natural groups though I am inclined to agree with Com- 
stock's subdivision. The Rhopalocera and Heterocera may con- 
veniently be designated as series. In this arrangement I cannot 
accept Reuter 's Grypocera as indicative of the true relations of 
the skippers, but the name is still given some use in Europe. 
There are many points, however, in which the skippers show 
more primitive development or peculiar uniform specialization 
which distinguish them from the true butterflies, and the most 
natural arrangement appears to be that of Comstock " in which 
they are made a superfamily equivalent to the butterflies proper, 
According to our present nomenclature this superfamily should 
be known as the Hesperioidea. The following synopsis indicates 
the foundation of this classification for the suborder Frenatae. 

Frenatae 

Series Heterocera. Antennae rarely clavate. When clavate 
usually more or less pectinate or ciliate. Hind tibiae usual- 

9 Act. Soc. Faun. Flor. Fenn. xxn. 

10 Spuler, Die Schmetterlinge Europas I, 70, 1908. 

11 Manual 364, 1895. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 7 

ly with two pairs of spurs; front legs normal. Frenulum 
present in many families. Venation of primaries general- 
ized or characteristically specialized. Pupa loose in cocoon, 
earthen cell or plant tissues. Superfamilies Sphingoidea, 
Saturnioidea, Bombycoidea and Tineoidea. 
Series Rhopalocera. Antennae usually strongly clavate ; nev- 
er pectinate or ciliate. 

Superfamily Hesperioidea : Pupa suspended in a slight 
cocoon. Hind tibiae rarely with less than two pairs of 
spurs; front legs normal. Frenulum absent. Primaries 
with twelve veins, all free. (All five branches of radius 
present and from cell according to Comstock's system.) 
Superfamily Papilionoidea : Pupa naked, usually suspend- 
ed from silken attachments and specialized for conceal- 
ment. Hind tibiae with only the terminal pair of spurs; 
front legs in higher families greatly reduced. Frenulum 
absent. Primaries with less than twelve veins or with 
some stalked. 
In the Hesperioidea we have two families, the Hesperiidae and 
Megathymidae. The second includes only the genera Megathy- 
mus and Aegiale, and is equivalent to the subfamily of other 
writers. The first includes all other skippers. The Megathymi- 
dae are very closely related to the Pamphilinae, and some stu- 
dents regard them as a highly specialized branch from the same 
parent stock. The fact that the boring habit of the larvae is 
apparently acquired lends color to this opinion, but I cannot 
regard the small head as a necessary accompaniment of the bor- 
ing habit. Rather than assume an elaborate process of evolution 
for the reduction of such a specialization as the large head, I 
regard the Megathymidae as a line separated from the parent 
stock of the Pamphilinae before the increase in size of the head, 
and proceeding by parallel development to a point of higher 
specialization of similar structures. 

The three subfamilies of Hesperiidae are easily distinguished, 
apparently natural groups. The only question regarding them 
is that of relative position, and the present arrangement of the 
Hesperiinae between the Pamphilinae and Papilionoidea is favor- 
ed by most of the evidence, though in the structure of the imago 



8 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

they are more primitive than the Pamphilinae. The close rela- 
tionship of the Pyrrhopyginae with the Hesperiinae and of the 
Megathymidae with the Pamphilinae leads to their being placed 
at the beginning and end of the superfamily respectively. The 
result is a linear series which is not entirely satisfactory, but 
since no linear series can represent true phylogenetic relations 
this must be accepted as the best possible, and it does, at least, 
correctly indicate the general relations of the several major 
divisions. 

The separation of genera has been the most troublesome phase 
of the study of skippers since Hubner's classification was first 
amplified. I have come to the conclusion that the intermediate 
position of the group, together with the apparently transitional 
state of many of the structures, is accompanied by a greater 
blending of forms than has been recognized in the past, and that 
the normal genus may present a wide variation of structure, 
provided that a transition between the extremes be present in the 
included species. This is nicely illustrated by Thanaos, Hesperia 
and Poanes (sensu B. & McD., Check List). In Thanaos we 
have a group of insects of very similar habitus which no one has 
ever divided, but within the genus are to be found differences 
in structure which have been made to separate three genera in 
other cases. The neuration, shape of the wings, palpi and sec- 
ondary sexual characters very nearly run the gamut of variation 
found in Group B of the Hesperiinae. Hesperia is similar but 
shows an even greater range of variation in the antennal club, 
shape of the wings, and in the palpi. In fact this variation is so 
great as to occasion some doubt of its unity, but it is impossible 
to divide the genus without separating some species whose rela- 
tionship is apparent. 

The matter of secondary sexual characters as a basis for the 
separation of genera is the greatest bugbear of systematists in 
this family. Godman and Salvin and Mabille have contributed 
abundantly to the confusion of genera so based, and in many 
cases these genera cannot be separated by other means. As far 
as I am aware the only definite stand taken upon the question is 
that expressed by Watson in his revision.* He says: "With 

* Since writing this I have found a quotation from Dr. P. L. Sclater by Col. C. 
Swinhoe in defense of genera based on secondary sexual characters (Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist, (vn), in, 108, 1899). 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 9 

regard to the vexed question of the generic importance of male 
secondary sexual characters, the conclusion which has been 
forced upon me is that, in any particular genus in which male 
secondary sexual characters are found, the particular male char- 
acter (be it costal fold, discal stigma, or tuft of hairs) may be 
either present or absent in different species of that same genus, 
but is never replaced by a character of different structure." 
This seems by far the most satisfactory attitude to adopt, 
though it is necessary to understand that in cases such as 
Thanaos and Hesperia two or three such characters may be pres- 
ent or absent in various combinations in the several species. In 
my work, rather than carry the splitting of genera further, I 
have unhesitatingly followed Watson's conclusion. This has re- 
sulted in the dropping of a number of familiar genera, but I 
think that once we are accustomed to the change it will render 
our classification more convenient and more useful, as well as 
more natural. Some change is demanded for the sake of con- 
sistency, and since our genera have already been carried beyond 
the point of usefulness, "lumping" is the only desirable change. 
The structures of systematic value in the Hesperioidea are 
found in all parts of the body. The size of the head serves to 
distinguish the two families, and its appendages, the palpi and 
antennae, offer a means of separating many genera. The palpi 
vary in length and position and the relative size of the second 
and third joints is useful, but it is necessary to look at all of 
these things in a general way. For example, in Pholisora as 
here treated we find great variation in the vestiture of the palpi 
and in the relative length of the third joint, but throughout the 
genus long palpi with smooth deep scaly vestiture, an oblique 
second joint and a porrect third joint with long scales are pres- 
ent. Thanaos has palpi of a similar form but with shaggy vesti- 
ture. The third joint in some genera is long, slender and ver- 
tical. 

The antennae have a characteristic slender tip which has been 
aptly termed the apiculus. This varies from the tiny point 
found in Pamphila to the long one of Goniurm, and has been 
entirely lost in some genera. This modification has apparently 
taken place by two distinct lines of evolution, first the loss of the 
apiculus by gradual reduction and second by the thickening and 



10 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

fusion of the structure with the club. The first has apparently 
taken place in the Pamphilinae and the second in the Hesper- 
iinae. The relation of the length of the apiculus to the thickness 
of the club has been used extensively to separate certain genera 
of the Pamphilinae but I find that its value is limited. It is 
variable in most species, and only where extremely short or ex- 
tremely long is this variation negligible. In such species as 
verna the apiculus is sometimes longer and sometimes shorter 
than the thickness of the club and is always difficult to measure 
with satisfactory accuracy. The length of the entire antennae 
measured in proportion to some other part of the insect is useful 
to distinguish a few genera of our fauna. 

The legs offer three important characters, viz., the presence or 
absence of the epiphysis on the front tibiae, the presence or ab- 
sence of spines on the mid tibiae and to a certain extent their 
form, and the number of pairs of spurs on the hind tibiae. The 
epiphysis does not concern us in a study of the North American 
fauna and the spurs on the hind tibiae characterize only one 
genus, but the spinulation of the mid tibiae is useful in several 
cases and in spite of some evidence to the contrary, I believe that 
it is a good character, at least to the extent used in this paper. 

The wings vary greatly in shape, sometimes in a striking way, 
as in Eantis, Systasea and Goniunis. In certain others, as Atry- 
tonopsis, they have a distinctive form which is less useful because 
less pronounced in the female and difficult to characterize. The 
neuration is of comparatively little use beyond a few conspicuous 
features, for it is impossible to pick a reasonably long series of 
related species without finding some transition in all of the 
salient features. In spite of this I have made use of the position 
of vein 11 of the primaries to separate Chiomara from Thanaos, 
but in this case there seem to be other grounds, and the one vein 
furnishes a convenient and apparently reliable corollary. The 
distance between the bases of veins 6 and 7 of the primaries of 
Pholisora is greater than in most other genera. The relation of 
vein 5 to 4 and 6 in the primaries distinguishes the Megathy- 
midae and most Pamphilinae from the other skippers, and helps 
to separate some genera. The position of veins 2 and 3 of the 
primaries is another character which must be used with caution, 
for these veins vary in closely related species and can be depend- 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 11 

ed upon only in extreme cases. The neuration of the second- 
aries is scarcely worthy of notice, though some exotic genera are 
characterized by the presence of vein 5, which is usually absent 
or very weak. 

The abdomen is of little service, though it aids in distinguish- 
ing the genera of group A of the Pamphilinae from certan Hes- 
periinae in that it projects beyond the secondaries in the former 
and scarcely reaches their anal angle in the latter. 

The male secondary sexual characters in the Hesperiinae con- 
sist of the costal fold on the primaries, tuft (always proximal 
in our species) on the hind tibiae, tuft on the upper surface of 
the secondaries and the two lobes found at the base of the abdo- 
men on its ventral surface in Hesperia. In the Pamphilinae the 
only form found in the North American fauna is the brand or 
stigma on the disk of the primaries. While I agree with Wat- 
son's treatment of these characters I believe that the great dif- 
ference in form between some of the stigmata indicates suffi- 
ciently different development of the species possessing them to 
warrant their generic separation. Fortunately in our fauna this 
character can be supplemented by others. It is necessary to 
guard agains splitting on this basis, for many stigmata which 
are superficially different may easily be seen to follow in their 
fundamental structure a single type. 

The genitalia, especially of the males, are of great value in 
making specific determinations, and similarity of genitalia often 
affords an index of generic relationship. I have found several 
apparent contradictions to the latter statement, and am there- 
fore inclined to use it very cautiously until more is known about 
the skippers, but still I hesitate to include in the same genus 
species whose genitalia are of widely different forms. 

In attempting to work out the phylogeny of our existing 
speces I have come to the conclusion that the subfamily Ismeni- 
nae, made up entirely of old world species, represents the most 
primitive existing form. The entire subfamily is characterized 
by the upturned, appressed second joint of the palpi, very sim- 
ilar to that of the Hesperiinae of group A, and the long, porrect 
third joint which is unique. The antennae have a short shaft 
and a long, moderately thick club with a long apiculus which 



12 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

is never sharply recurved. The hind tibiae of the males are 
provided with a tuft attached at the proximal end and lying 
along the upper edge of the joint in a groove formed of strong 
scales. Vein five of the primaries is intermediate between veins 
four and six. From these structures we may assume that the 
immediate ancestors of the skippers had antennae enlarged at 
some distance proximad of the distal end, leaving the terminal 
portion slender, and that vein five of the primaries in these 
insects had not yet formed a definite connection with either of 
the adjacent veins. From such forms evolution has proceeded 
with the permanent reflection of the apiculus by either a curve 
or a sharp bend. (I can construe the reflexed club of the Pyr- 
rhopyginae only as a further development of the Hesperiid an- 
tenna, though this does not seem a satisfactory explanation), 
[n addition the apiculus has been reduced as already mentioned 
and various slight specializations have taken place. The wings 
of the Hesperiinae have changed only in the variably complete 
loss of vein five of the secondaries and the lengthening of the 
cell in group A, while in the Pamphilinae vein five" of the pri- 
maries, has formed a definite connection with the median stem 
(English system; cubitus of Comstock and Needham), as also is 
the case with the Megathymidae. Following these lines I have 
drawn up the following diagram which I believe will indicate 
better than a written discussion the relations and phylogeny of 
the genera used in this work. The arrangement undoubtedly 
has its faults, but I believe that it corrects a number of features 
of former arrangements which were more or less unnatural. In 
the main it adheres to the order of genera, which has been in 
common use. 

Superfamily HESPERIOIDEA 
Antennae clavate, in a few genera with the club very slender. 
Club usually with a slender tip called the apiculus. Palpi 
variable, usually relatively large and thick, upturned to porrect. 
Head wide, eyes large and far apart, lashed. Insertion of an- 
tennae near eyes. Body stout, slender in a few genera. Wings 
relatively smaller than in the Papilionoidea and with very strong 
venation in most genera, Primaries with twelve veins, all free; 
cell open or weakly closed. One anal. Secondaries with eight 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



13 



■Pyrrhopyginae 



1 



O 



> 



O 



cd 



— Phocides 
— Polygonus 
— Naseus 
— Proteides 
— Epargyreus 
— Goniurus 
— Chioides 
— Codatractus 
— Telegonus 
— Achalarus 
— Cecropterus 
— Thorybea 
— Cabares 
— Phoedinus 
— Cogia 
■ — Plestia 

-Timochares 

-Grais 

-Thanaos 

-Chiomara 

-Melanthes 

-Xenophanes 

-Eantis 

-Systasea 

-Pholisora 

-Hesperia 



-Carterocephalus 
— Butleria 



A 



a 



— Ancyloxypha 

Oarisma 
— Adopaea 
— Copaeodes 

Chaerephon 
— Pamphila 
— Hylephila 
— Atalopedes 
— Augiades 
— Polites 
— Catia 
— Poanes 
— Atrytone 
— Atrytonopsis 
— Oligoria 
— Ijerema 
— Mastor 
— Amblyscirtes 
— Epiphyes 
— Lerodea 

— Thespieus 
— Calpodes 
— Prenes 



■MEGATHYMIDAE 



14 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

or nine veins, five usually absent ; cell open. Two anals. Front 
legs normal, tibiae usually with the epiphysis present (in all 
North American genera). Middle legs with: one pair of spurs 
on the tibiae and with or without spines. Hind legs with two 
pairs of spurs, or with only the distal pair in some genera. 
The two families are based on the following characters: 
Family HESPERIIDAE : Head nearly as wide to wider than 
thorax. Hind tibiae usually with two pairs of spurs. Pal- 
pi moderate to large. Larvae external plant feeders. 
Family MEGATHYMIDAE : Head narrower than thorax. 
Hind tibiae with one pair of spurs. Palpi rather small. 
Larvae borers in plant stems. Imagines larger than most 
Hesperiidae, heavy bodied and strong of flight. 

Family HESPERIIDAE 
Characters of the superfamily, distinguished from the Me- 
gatJiynvidae as shown in the preceding synopsis. The North 
American species fall into three subfamilies which may be sep- 
arated by the following key, which also deals with the groups 
into which the subfamilies are divided. 

Key to subfamilies and groups 

1. Club of antennae large, entirely reflexed. . . . pybrhopyginae 
Club variable, never entirely reflexed 2 

2. Vein 5 of primaries not curved at base, usually about inter- 
mediate between 4 and 6. Mid tibiae without spines 

HESPERIINAE 3 

Vein 5 curved at base, arising nearer to 4, or with the mid 
tibiae spined pamphilinae 4 

3. Cell of primaries more than two-thirds as long as wing or 
antennae with a slender reflexed or recurved apiclus 

Group A 

Cell two-thirds or less. Club curved, blunt or fusiform, but 
never with a slender apiculus Group B 

4. Vein 5 intermediate, straight. Club blunt. Palpi porrect 

Group A 

Vein 5 curved at base, nearer to 4. Palpi not porreclt. 
Group B of authors 5 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 15 

5. Third joint of palpi long slender and vertical Antennae 

short with the club blunt Group B 

Third joint small or antennae with a slender apiculus 

Group C 

Cell of primaries two-thirds as long as wing, usually with a 
recurrent vein or a vestige of it Group D 

Subfamily PYRRHOPYGINAE 

This subfamily includes a large number of South and Central 
American species of which only one, araxes, occurs within our 
territory. The large antennal club, bent back along the shaft 
or recurved, is typical of all the species. In other respects their 
structure agrees to a great extent with that found in group A 
of the Hesperiinae. The cell of the primaries is apically pro- 
duced with the discocellulars outwardly concave, and is about 
two-thirds as long as the wing. The discocellulars are weak, but 
clearly traceable. Vein 5 is approximately intermediate in the 
primaries, and absent in the secondaries, though found in a few 
exotic genera. 

Araxes has been included in the genus Pyrrlwpyge by all writ- 
ers with whose works I am familiar, but the difference in habitus 
and the form of the secondaries have led me to remove it. Wat- 
son's diagnosis of his genus Microceris (P. Z. S. 1893, 15) dif- 
fers m only a few points from the structures of araxes, but the 
type, variicolor, judging by the original description and figure, 
is not at all closely related. I am therefore basing a new genus 
on the points of difference between araxes and Watson's de- 
scription of Microceris. 

Genus APYRROTHRIX gen. nov. 
Similar to Pyrrlwpyge. Differs from that genus in the more 
gently curved costa and more prominent apex of the primaries 
and the form of the secondaries. In Pyrrlwpyge these appear 
to be longer through the cell than along the inner margin, and 
the outer margin is even or slightly concave between veins 2 and 
7. The abdomen usually equals or surpasses the anal angle of 
the secondaries. In araxes the secondaries are broad and full, 
and surpass the abdomen. The outer margin is deeply crenu- 
late, produced between veins 2 and 4 in the male and conspicu- 



16 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 




Fig. 1. Apyrrothrix araxes 

Hew. a. Club of antenna, b. 

Neuration 



ously so in the female. According to 
Watson veins 7 and 8 of the primaries 
of variicolor are short stalked, while in 
araxes they are free. Watson 's figure of 
the neuration of his genus differs in a 
few points in the secondaries also, and on 
the whole the relationship seems to be 
rather with the typical species of Pyrr- 
hopyge than with araxes. Fig.l. 
Type: Erycides araxes Hew. 

1. APYRROTHRIX ARAXES 

Erycides araxes Hewitson, Desc. Hesp. 2, 1867. 
Pyrrhopyga eyrillus Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit, XL, 

529, 1879. 
Biologia Cent.-Am., Rhop. n , 252, pi. 73, ff 14, 

15, 16, 1893. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 319, pi. xlv, f. 9, 

1898. 

Mexico. I have two bred specimens 
from southern Arizona which are very 

close to araxes but the typical form is not known to occur north 
of the boundary. 

la. race ARIZONAE 

Pyrrhopyge araxes, form arizonae G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 253, 

1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 201, pi. x, 1911. 

Dark marks on under surface of secondaries not well defined, suffused 
with ochreous. Outer margin of ochreous area diffuse. 

Arizonae occurs in Arizona in August and September. 

Subfamily HESPERIINAE 
Structure very diverse but always showing the characters 
mentioned in the key. Antennae varying in length, club flat- 
tened oval to extremely long and slender, with the distal half 
or less reflexed or recurved. Palpi with the second joint closely 
appressed and the third minute to long, large and porrect. Neu- 
ration fairly constant. Branches of radius variable in position. 
Vein 5 straight and about intermediate between 4 and 6, 2 varia- 
ble. Secondaries with position of 7 variable and vein 5 absent 
to weakly tubular at its outer end (Thanaos, some specimens), 



HESPERIOIDEA OP AMERICA 17 

usually marked by a fold. Mid tibiae without spines. Two 
pairs of spurs present on the hind tibiae in our genera. Sec- 
ondary sexual characters of the males: costal fold, tibial tuft, 
tuft on secondaries, and basal lobes on under surface of abdo- 
men. 

GROUP A 
Group A is more widely represented in South and Central 
America, and a number of our species are merely strays from 
more southern localities. The genera have been very incon- 
sistently treated in the past, and I am lumping a few of them 
which show a complete lack of constant structural differences 
with the exception of the costal fold. Several such as Cecrop- 
terns and Tlwrybes are very closely related but because of the 
very distinct form of the male genitalia I am retaining them, 
based on such characters as will serve for their separation. The 
group is distinguished by the length of the cell and the form 
of the antennal club. 

Key to the genera 

1. L. D. C. of primaries very long and curved Phocides 

L. D. C. normal 2 

2. Apiculus of antennae longer than rest of club, straight and 

sharply bent at base Nascus 

Apiculus otherwise 3 

3. Primaries with a tubular, or at least well marked, recurrent 

vein in cell 4 

Recurrent vein scarcely traceable or absent 9 

4. Antennae with a distinct, slender, reflexed apiculus 5 

Antennal club fusiform, more or less elongate ; arcuate or 
with a well rounded bend at middle 7 

5. Secondaries tailed Goniurus 

Secondaries not tailed 6 

6. Apiculus sharply bent; primaries apically produced 

Proti idi s 

Apiculus recurved; apex of primaries modera,te..E pargijn us 

7. Recurrent vein nearer vein 4 than vein 3 8 

Recurrent vein nearer 3 Chwides 



18 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

8. Outer margin of secondaries slightly crenulate. .Codatractus 
Outer margin even Telegonus 

9. Club of antennae large, fusiform Plestia 

Club more slender, with a distinct apiculus 10 

10. Apiculus much shorter than rest of club, bent at about a 

right angle H 

Apiculus about as long as rest of club, usually sharply re- 
flexed or recurved 13 

11. Secondaries lobed Polygowus 

Secondaries broadly rounded or merely produced at anal 
angle 12 

12. $ with a tuft of scales on upper surface of hind wings; 

palpi moderate Cogia 

No tuft. Palpi exceeding front by about length of head 
Phoedinus 

13. Vein la of secondaries about two-thirds as long as lb. Pri- 
maries with a broad yellow band Cecropterus 

Vein la longer. Primaries with spots or a broken yellow 
band 14 

14. Outer margin of secondaries broadly rounded; of primaries 

slightly and almost evenly convex Thorybes 

Outer margin of secondaries more or less produced and 

angled at lb; of primaries slightly sinuate Achalarus 

Out or margin of secondaries with a slight truncate lobe 
between veins 3 and 4 Cabaret 

Genus PHOCIDES Hiibner 
Phocides Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 103, 1820. Type PapiUo 

palemon Cr. 
Ery rides Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett, 110, 1820. Type Papilw 

pygmalion Cr. 
Bysenius Scudder, Syst. Rev. 46 (67), 1872. Type Ery tides 

albicilla H. S. 
Palpi oblique, vestiture smooth, deep and scaly; third joint 
small. Antennae with club rather long, moderately thick; api- 
culus not more than one-half as long as rest of club, very slender 
and abruptly bent. Primaries shaped as in Goniuriis, with a 




HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 19 

costal fold in the male. Cell over two-thirds as 
long as wing. Vein 5 nearer to 6 than to 4 ; L. 
D. C. long and strongly curved. Vein 3 near 
end of cell and 2 well toward base of wing. Re- 
current vein faint, at base of vein 4. Secondaries 
produced toward anal angle with outer margin 
sharply bent at lb but not lobed. Outer margin 
only slightly irregular. Phocides is easily rec- 
ognized by the general habitus of the species 
when once seen. Fig. 2. 

The action of former writers in combining 
these three genera was undoubtedly correct, 
though some slight differences of structure exist 
between the species occurring in our country. Fig 2 Phocides ba . 

tabano Lucas. 
Key to the Species Neuration. 

Primaries immaculate, black batabano 

Primaries with a red spot above lilea 

Primaries with hyaline white spots urania 

1. PHOCIDES BATABANO 

Eudamus batabano Lucas, Sagra, Hist. Cuba, vn, 624, 1857. 
Erycides mancinus H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Eegensb. xvi, 143, 1862. 
Erycides okeechobee Worthington, Papilio i, 133, 1881. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 199, pi. x, 1911. 
Florida, March and April. 

2. PHOCIDES LILEA 

Erycides lilea Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 339. 
Erycides albicilla H. S., Corr-Blatt Regensb. xxm, 169, 1869. 
Erycides socius Butl. & Druce, Cist. Ent. I, 112, 1872. 
Dy senilis cruentu-s Seud., Syst. Rev. 46(67), 1872. 
Erycides sanguinea Scud., Syst. Rev. 47(68), 1872. 
Erycides decolor Mab., Bull. Soc. Ent. France 1880, xlvi. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 296, pi. 76, ff. 23, 24, 1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 199, 1911. 

The only specimen which I have seen bears the label ' ' Colima, 
Mex." Skinner lists a Texas record by Capt. Pope in the Mex- 
ican Boundary Survey. 

3. PHOCIDES URANIA 

Erycides urania Westw. & Hew., Gen. Diurn. Lep. 510, pi. 79, f. 1, 1852. 
Erycides texana Scud., Syst. Rev. 47(68), 1872. 




20 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Skinner, Ent. News I, 23, 1890, and it, 101, pi. 1, 1891. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 198, 1911. 
Texas, Arizona and southward. 

Genus NASCUS Watson 

Naseus Watson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, 28, Type Pa- 
pilio phocus Cr. 
Watson characterized this genus as follows : ' ' Antennae : 
club rather robust, bent into a hook, terminal portion very 

slender and rather longer than rest 
of club. Palpi upturned, third joint 
almost concealed. Fore wing : outer 
margin very much longer than inner 
margin, the apex being very conspicu- 
ously produced ; cell more than two- 
thirds the length of costa; male with 
a^b 3 of A aXfna"T s oS V e of a costal f old ; discocellulars very 
primary oblique, the lower one slightly the 

longer ; vein 3 shortly before end of cell ; vein 2 close to base of 
wing. Hind wing anally produced, and with an inconspicuous 
tooth at vein lb ; vein 7 close to end of cell ; discocellulars and 
vein 5 barely traceable ; vein 3 immediately before the end of the 
cell; vein 2 considerably nearer to end of cell than to base of 
wing. Hind tibiae with a long fringe of coarse hairs and with 
two pairs of spurs. ' ' In our fauna the very long apiculus sepa- 
rates this genus from all others. Fig. 3. 

1. NASCUS HESUS 

Telegonus hesus Westw. & Hew., Gen. Diurn. Lep. II, pi. 78, f. 5, 1852. 
? Papilio nidas Fab., Mant. Ins. II, 86, 1787. 
? Eudamus etias Hew., Desc. Hesp. 13, 1867. 
Aaron, Ent. News i, 25, 1890 and n, 101, pi. 1, 1891. 

Eudamus euribates Skinner (not Cramer) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 
191, pi. x, 1911. 
Mexico to Brazil; Skinner includes Texas, following Aaron, presumably. 

I have compared Cramer's, Westwood and Hewitson's and 
Skinner's figures, and find that the two latter agree very well, 
but that, even allowing for the poor quality of Cramer's figure, 
they can hardly be euribates Cramer. I have no data on the 
occurrence of the species in this country. 




HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 21 

Genus POLYGONUS Hiibner 
Polygonus Hbn., Samral. exot. Schmett. n, t. 144, 1822-6. Type 

Polygon us lividus Hbn. 
Acolastus Scud., Syst. Rev. 50, 1872. Type Hesperia savigwy 

Latr. 
Nennius Kirby, Wytsman's Hubner 105, 1902. New name for 

Polygonus and Acolastus. 
Second joint of palpi appressed, densely scaled ; third porrect, 
small. Reflexed apiculus abruptly constricted, about one-half 
as long as rest of club. Head slightly 
wider than thorax. Primaries narrow, 
costa evenly curved, inner margin nearly 
straight and outer sharply curved oppo- 
site cell; no fold in male. Cell three- 
quarters as long as wing; vein 5 about Pig. 4. Polygonus amyntas 
^ . ' . Fab. a. Club of antenna, b. 

equidistant between 4 and b ; spur vein Neuration of primary 
scarcely traceable, nearer to 3. Second- 
aries broadly rounded, lobed at anal angle. Fig. 4. 

According to Scudder (Hist. Sk. 253) Polygonus was pre- 
occupied by Polygona in the Mollusea. Acolastus was preoccu- 
pied in the Coleoptera, a fact which was overlooked for many 
years, and Kirby offered Nennius to replace it, According to 
the current international rules of zoological nomenclature a dif- 
ference of one letter is sufficient to validate a generic name, so 
Polygonus cannot be regarded as preoccupied, and therefore 
must be retained for amyntas. 

1. POLYGONUS AMYNTAS 
Papilio amyntas Fab., Syst. Ent. 533, 1775. 

Polygonus lividus Hbn., Samml. exot. Schmett. n, t. 144, 1822-26. 
Hesperia savigny, Latr., Enc. Meth. ix, 741, 1823. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 200, pi. X, 1911. 

The typical form is very dark. It occurs in Florida in Aug. and Sept. 

la. race ARIZONENSIS 

Erycides amyntas arizonensis Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 209, 
pi. x, 1911. 
The western race of amyntas is paler than the typical form, 
both above and below, and the pale transverse bands of the sec- 
ondaries are faintly visible on the upper surface. Texas and 
Arizona, September. 



22 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



Genus PROTEIDES Hiibner 
Proteides Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 104, 1820. Type Papilio 

idas Cr. 
Dicranaspes Mab., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxi, 24, 1878. Type 

Papilio idas Cramer. 
Proteides is very close to Epargyreus, and I think that with a 
large series of the tropical species the two genera will be found 
to be scarcely worthy of separation. In our fauna, however, the 
sharply constricted and reflexed apiculus and the narrow, apic- 
ally produced primaries of Proteides are very distinctive. The 
male has no costal fold. Fig. 5. 

1. PROTEIDES IDAS 

Papilio idas Cramer, Pap. Exot. in, 118, p. cclix, A, B, 1779-80. 
Papilio mercurius Fab., Mant. Ins. n, 86, 1787. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Ehop. II, 301, pi. 77, f. 5, gen., 1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 194, 1911. 

Occurs in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. I have no further data. 

Genus EPARGYREUS Hiibner 
Epargyreus Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett. 105, 1820. Type Pa- 
pilio tityrus Fab. 
Second joint of palpi closely appressed, densely clothed with 
scales in which the small third joint is almost concealed. An- 
tennae about one-half as long as the 
primaries, club more or less sharply 
curved at the middle. Head not quite 
as wide as thorax. Primaries elong- 
ate, rather narrow ; outer and inner 
margins about equal in length, outer 
slightly more oblique but otherwise 
similar to Goniurus. Costal fold pres- 
ent. Cell three-quarters as long as 
wing ; vein 5 slightly nearer to 4 than 
to 6. Recurrent vein nearer to vein 
3. Vein 1 strongly sinuate. Secon- 
daries rounded, lobed at anal angle. 
Fig. 5. 

The primaries are longer and nar- 
rower in exadeus than in zestos and tityrus, and the apiculus of 




Fig. 5. a. Club of antenna of E. 

zestos Greyer, b. Club of antenna 

of P. idas Cramer, c. Neuration 

of E. tityrus Fab. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 23 

the antennae shows a tendency to be more slender and more 
sharply bent. This has led me to the conclusion stated under 
Proteides that the two genera are possibly not distinct. 

Key to the species 

1. Under surface of secondaries with a silky white patch 2 

No silky white on secondaires zestos 

2. Spots of primaries deep yellow and usually broadly contiguous. tityrus 
Spots small and widely separated, or if larger, very pale yellow . exadeus 

1. EPARGYREUS ZESTOS 

Proteides zestos Geyer, Zutr. exot. Schmett. IV, 9, t. 106, ff. 615, 616, 1832. 
Eudamus oberon Worthington, Papilio I, 132, 1881. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 193, 1911. 
Florida, August and September. 

2. EPARGYREUS TITYRUS 

Papilio tityrus Fab., Syst. Ent. 532, 1775. 

Papilio clarus Cramer, Pap. Exot. i, 66, pi. xli, E, F, 1775. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 323, pi. xliii, f. 5, 1898. 

Smyth, Ent. News XIX, 191, pi. X, 1908. 

Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 192, 1911. 

Ranges throughout the United States and into southern Can- 
ada and South America. June to August. 

ab. OBLITERATUS 

Epargyreus tityrus obliteratus Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1402, 1889. 

Only three small, rounded spots in place of the discal band, and only one 
small preapical spot. Silver on under surface of secondaries more exten- 
sive than usual. 

3. EPARGYREUS EXADEUS 

Papilio exadeus Cramer, Pap. Exot. in, 118, pi. cclx, C, 1779-80. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 299, pi. 77, f. 1, gem, 1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 194, pi. x, 1911. 
Southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, March. 

Genus GONIURUS Hiibner 
Gomurus Hiibner, Verz. bek. Schmett, 104, 1820. Type Papilio 

simplicius Stoll. 
Eudamus Swainson, Zool. 111. (2), n, 48, 1831-2. Type Papilio 

proteus Linn. 
? Pohjthrix Watson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, 19. Type 

Eudamus metallescens Mabille. 



24 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 




Second joint of palpi closely appressed, third porrect, small. 
Antennae a little over one-half as long as primaries, club slender, 
apiculus shorter and distinctly more slender than remainder. 
Primaries broad and short; outer margin evenly rounded to 

slightly sinuate, about as long as 
inner; costa evenly rounded, rela- 
tively short, without fold in one 
///2^\ species. Cell two-thirds as long as 
wing; vein 5 slightly nearer to 4 
than to 6. Secondaries with anal 
angle produced into a long tail; 
outer margin slightly excavated op- 
posite cell and before tail, some- 
times slightly crenulate. Fig. 6. 

The above description is taken 
from simplicius and eurycles. Pro- 
teus has a longer cell as shown in 
the figure and both proteus and 
Pig. 6. Goniwus. a. Palpus of sim- dorantes have relatively shorter 

plicius Stoll. b. Club of antennae of 

simpiiciMs stoii. c. Neuration of pro- antennae. It may prove desirable 

teus Linn 

to use Eudamus for these two 
species, but without knowing more of the related Central Amer- 
ican fauna I cannot make a satisfactory decision on this point. 
Of the other three North American species which I here remove 
from Goniurus I feel that albofasciatus and zilpa warrant the 
establishment of a new genus, and that the relationship of alceus 
to melon, in spite of its tailed secondaries, is too close to be dis- 
regarded. 

Key to the species 

1. Upper surface with shining green hairs proteus 

Without green hairs 2 

2. Fringes checkered; spots not united to form a straight band, .dor antes 
Fringes not checkered ; band usually present 3 

3. Band always present; no costal fold in male; outer margin of primar- 
ies slightly sinuate eurycles 

Band sometimes broken or even absent; male with fold; outer margin 
slightly convex simplicius 

1. GONIURUS PROTEUS 

Papilio proteus Linn., Syst. Nat. I, 484, 1758. 

Seudder, Butt . New Eng., n, 1386, 1889. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Bhop. II, 277, pi. 75, f. 5, gen., 1893. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 25 

Holland, Butterfly Book 321, pi. xlv, f. 6, 1898. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 194, 1911. 

Florida and Georgia, August to October. Arizona and Texas, 
June and July. Dr. Skinner gives the range as New York to 
the Gulf and southward through Mexico and Central America. 

2. GOXIURUS DOR ANTES 

Papilio dorantes Stoll, Pap. Exot., Supp., 172, pi. xxxix, f. 9, 1790. 
Eudamus amisus Hew., Desc. Hesp. 5, 1867. 

Eudamus protillus H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xxm, 171, 1869. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Rhop. n, 278, pi. 75, f. 7, $ gen., 1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 197, 1911. 
Southern California, Mexico. 

2a. race BAUTERBERGI 
Eudamus protillus var. rauterbergi Skinner, Ent. News vi, 113, 1895. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 197, 1911. 

Skinner says that this form is ' ' smaller and very much darker 
than protillus; the fringes are far less marked, and the tails 
lack the admixture of light hairs." 

Texas, Arizona and southward ; July and September. 

3. GONIURUS SIMPLICIUS 

Papilio simplieius Stoll, Pap. Exot., Supp., 171, pi. xxxix, f. 6, 1790. 
Biol. Cent.-Am. Rhop. n, 270, pi. 75, f. 1, $ gen., 1893. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 196, 1911. 

Some females can scarcely be told from eurycles, but usually 
the obsolescence of the hyaline marks of the primaries and the 
slightly different shape of the wings enable one to recognize 
the species. The males are readily identified by the costal fold. 

Texas, March and October. 

4. GONIURUS EURYCLES 

Eesperia eurycles Latr., Enc. Meth. ix, 730, 1823. 

Skinner, Ent. News xn, 171, 1901. 

Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 197, pi. X, 1911. 

I have eurycles from Guatemala, taken in April, and from 
Colombia taken in November, but aside from Dr. Skinner's note 
in the Entomological News I have seen no records of its occur- 
rence north of Mexico. 

Genus CHIOIDES gen. nov. 

Palpi large, porrect; second joint deeply scaled, third strong, 



26 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

conspicuous. Antennae less than one-half as long as primaries, 
club relatively smaller and thicker than in Goniurus, and more 
broadly curved, with the apiculus less distinct. Primaries with 
the apex subtruneate, outer margin concave below apex. Cell 
about three-fourths as long as wing; recurrent vein nearer to 
vein 3 than to vein 4 ; bases of 3 and 4 much farther apart than 
K. D. C. and L. D. C. combined. Costal fold present in our 
species. Fig. 7. 

Type: Eudamus albofascmtus Hewitson. 

Catillus, a Central American species, and albofasciahis are 
very closely related, and agree in the form of the male genitalia. 
.Zilpa differs somewhat in the form of the wings and the male 
genitalia, but on the whole it is apparently related to the other 
species, and with them distinct from Goniu-rus. The difference 
is scarcely greater than between proteus and simplicius. 

1. CHIOIDES ALBOFASCIATUS 

Eudamus albofasciatus Hew., Desc. Hesp. 3, 1867. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 280, pi. 75, f. 11, $ gen., 1893. 

Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 197, 1911. 

Texas, March. Arizona, July and September. Distinguished from zilpa 
by the long narrow white band on the under surface of the secondaries. 

2. CHIOIDES ZILPA (Plate I, Fig. 5) 

Goniurus zilpa Butler, Lep. Exot. 109, t. XL, f.. 2, 1872. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Bhop. II, 279, pi. 75, f 8, $ gen., 1893. 
Patagonia Mts., Arizona, May. Kerrville, Tex., September. 

Genus CODATRACTUS nom. nov. 
Heteropia Mabille, Le Nat. 1889, 68. Type Heteropia imitatrix 

Mab. Preoccupied in sponges by 

Heteropia Carter, Ann. &Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (5), xvm, 47, 1886. 

Structure in general similar to 
Chioides but with veins 3 and 4 of the 
primaries not so far apart at their 
bases as the combined length of the 
two discocellulars and the recurrent 
vein nearer to 4 than to 3. The an- 

Fig. 7. Chioides zilpa Butler, a. , i 1 1 ■ j? • c 

Detail of neuration end of cell of temial Club IS IUSlIOrm, more Or leSS 

primaries, c. Club of antenna, e. i i ■, .-, •■,-,-,■, 

Paipus. codatractus ulceus Hew. sharply bent near the middle but with 

b. Detail of neuration, end of cell xl -i • , i ,■ -i • n> , . -, 

of primary, d. club of antenna, the distal portion not differentiated. 







HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 27 

Outer margin of primaries slightly sinuate ; no costal fold in male 
of melon; I have not seen a male of alcaeus. Fig. 7. 

To place such a strongly tailed species as alcaeus with a species 
in which the secondaries are merely angled is radical, but a study 
of related Central American species has led me to believe that 
in this case, at least, it is justified. Alcaeus agrees with melon 
very closely in structure, and the male genitalia of the two 
species are very similar. 

1. CODATRACTUS ALCAEUS 

Eudamus alcaeus Hew., Desc. Hesp. 3, 1867. 
Skinner, Ent. News xn, 171, 1901. 

My only specimen is a female from Mexico, and I have seen 
no others. The reference to the Entomological News is the only 
record of its occurrence in the United States with which I am 
familiar. 

2. CODATRACTUS MELON 
Heteropia melon Godman & Salvin, Biol. Cent.-Am., Khop. n, 297, pi. lxxvt, 
g. 26, 27, 1893. 
The typical form of melon is not known to occur north of Mexico. 

2a. race ABIZONENSIS 
Heteropia melon var. arizonensis Skinner, Ent. News xvi, 232, 1905. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvil, 186, pi. X, 1911. 

Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., July. 

Differs from true melon in the whiter marginal area of the secondaries 
below. 

Genus TELEGONUS Hubner 
Telegonus Hubner, Verz. bek. Sehmett. 104, 1820, Type Papilio 
anaphus Cramer. 
Palpi oblique, third joint distinct. Antennae with a long 
slender tapering club, not sharply bent but curved at the middle. 
Primaries broad, outer margin equal to inner; costa slightly 
curved, without a fold in the male ; outer margin very slightly 
sinuate. Secondaries produced and angled at lb ; outer margin 
straight from vein 7 to the anal angle. Cell of primaries about 
two-thirds as long as wing, discocellulars very oblique; vein 5 
slightly nearer to vein 4 than to vein 6 ; recurrent vein near 4 ; 
vein 2 over one-half as far from base of wing as from 3. 



28 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

1. TELEGONUS HAHNELI 

Aethilla hahneli Staud., Exot. Tagf. i, 291, n, pi. 98, 1888. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 306, pi. 77, ff. 13, 14, 1893. 
Skinner, Ent. News xn, 171, 1901. 

Staudinger 's figure does not agree at all with that of Godman 
and Salvin, which represents the species recorded from North 
America, Since the latter authors state, however, that they had 
specimens from Dr. Staudinger himself, the best thing that we 
can do is retain the name in its present usage until the types 
can be examined. 

Arizona (Skinner). 

I have a specimen from Dr. Skinner labelled "Jamaica." Be- 
yond his record in the Entomological News I have no knowledge 
of the occurrence of the species within our country. 

Genus PLESTIA Mabille 
Plestia Mab., Le Nat. (2), n, 146, 1888. Type Plestia staudin- 
geri Mab. 

Palpi porrect, exceeding front by 
length of head; second joint with 
shaggy vestiture of scales and hair, 
third conical, moderately large. An- 
tennae with the club fusiform and 
pointed, almost as long as the shaft. 
Primaries trigonate, outer margin 
bent opposite cell ; costal fold present 
Fijr. 8. pustia dorus Edw. a. in male. Cell over two-thirds as long 

Club of antenna, e. Neuration • . , T _ . _ 

of wings as wing, recurrent vein absent. Vein 5 

nearer 6 than 4. Secondaries trigonate, prominently lobed at 
anal angle. Legs and under surface of thorax very hairy. 
Fig. 8. 

1. PLESTIA DORUS 

Eudamus dorm Edwards, Papilio II, 140, 1882. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 290, pi. 76, ff. 8, 9, 1893. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, 322, pi. xlv, f. 11, 1898. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvir, 187, 1911. 
Arizona, May, June and July. New Mexico, May. 

Genus AOHALARUS Scudder 
Achalarus Scudder, Syst, Rev. 50 (71), 1872. Type Papilio 
lycidas, Abbot and Smith. 




HESPEMOIDEA OF AMERICA 29 

Murgaria Watson, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1893, 37. Type 
Telegonus albociliatus Mabille. 
Palpi porrect ; second joint closely and roughly scaled ; third 
small, almost concealed in vestiture of second. Antennae about 
one-half as long as primaries; club slender, tapering gradually 
into the reflexed tip, which is not quite as long as the rest of the 
club. Primaries moderately broad ; costa slightly rounded, with 
or without the fold in the male ; outer margin slightly sinuate in 
the male, more evenly rounded in the female ; cell slightly over 
two-thirds as long as wing; spur vein very faintly indicated, 
near vein 4 ; 5 slightly nearer to 4. Secondaries angled at lb in 
the male, more rounded in the female. In epigona this char- 
acter is very variable, some specimens having the angle acute 
and others obtuse. Vein 5 is not present, as stated by Watson 
(P. Z. S. 1893, 34) but is indicated by a slight fold. 

Although it seems very radical to combine these genera, a 
careful consideration of their structures has failed to disclose any 
basis for their separation. Epigona, formerly placed in Phou- 
dinus, is obviously congeneric with albociUatus, and hence un- 
der the old arrangement would fall into Murgaria, while both 
dffer from lycidas only in the absence of the costal fold in the 
males. Some specimens of the white fringed species have the 
anal angles of the secondaries much more acute than in lycidas, 
and therefore look much different, but as I have stated, this 
character is very variable. The male genitalia are similar and 
of a peculiar form. 

Key to the species 

1. Primaries with yellow spots lycidas 

Primaries with or without white spots 2 

2. Primaries with well defined whitish hyaline spots epigona 

Primaries with an obscure dark band, rarely with a few white spots 

albociUatus 

1. ACHALARUS LYCIDAS 

Papilio lycidas Abbot and Smith, Lep. Ins. Ga. I, 39, pi. 20, 1797. 
Proteides lyciades Geyer, Zutr. ex. Schmett. iv, 10, ff. 621, 622, 1832. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent, Soc. xxxvn, 188, 1911. 

New York and Pennsylvania, August, and south to the gulf, where it 
is taken in May and June. 



30 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

2. ACHALARUS EPIGONA 

Myscelus epigona H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Kegensb. xxm, 167, 1869. 
Eudamus epigena Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1870, 493. 
Eudamus orestes Edw., (Lintner Ms.), Cat. Diurn. Lep. N. A. 58, 1877. 
Biol. Cent, Am., Bhop. u, 332, pi. 80, ff. 9-11, 1893. 
Arizona, June and August. 

3. ACHALARUS ALBOCILIATUS 

Telegonus albociliatus Mab., Pet. Nouv. Ent. u, 162, 1877. 
Eudamus coyote Skinner, Can. Ent. xxiv, 164, 1892. 

Texas and Arizona. We have been confusing two species under this 
name, but at present I am unable to correct the error with certainty. 

Genus CECROPTERUS Herrich-Schaffer 
Cecrops Hbn., Zutr. Exot. Schmett, t. 32, ff. 183, 184, 1818. Type 

Cecrops zarex Hbn. Preoccupied in Crustacea. 
Cecropterus H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xxm, 131, 1869. For 

Cecrops Hbn. 
Rhabdoides Scud., Butt, New Eng. in, p. 1854, 1889. Type 
Eudamus cellus Boisd. & Lee. 

Palpi larger than in Achalarus; second joint 
oblique, roughly scaled; third porrect, moderate, 
not concealed by vestiture of second. Antennae 
about one-half as long as primaries; club slender, 
tapering, bent near middle, with the apiculus 
scarcely more slender than the basal portion. Pri- 
maries similar to Achalarus 9 and Thorybes ; cell 
slightly over two-thirds as long as wing ; recurrent 
vein faint but indicated at base of vein 4 ; 5 slight- 
Fig. 9. cecrop- W nearer to 4 than to 6 ; discocellulars less oblique 

terus cellus 

Bd. and Lee. than in Achalarus, more as mThorybes ; costal fold 

a. Club of an- ' . „ , . 

tenna. b. De- not present in male. Outer margin of secondaries 

tail of neura- . 

tion ; anai area rounded, apex broadly rounded ; Vein la about two- 

of secondary . 

thirds as long as lb. Fig. 9. 
Cellus resembles TJwrybes very closely in most of its struc- 
tures, but I hardly think that the species belongs there. I do not 
see anything to separate it from the genus Cecropterus, however, 
and so am placing it for the present with the other species whose 
banded primaries give them a close superficial resemblance. 
Pseudocellus appears to be closer to Achalarus but I have not 
had material for dissection and so prefer to leave it with cellus. 




HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



31 



1. CECROPTERUS CELLUS 

Eudamus cellus Bd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. t. 73, 1833. 
Cecrops festus Geyer, Zutr. exot. Schmett. v, 21, ff. 907, 908, 1837 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Rhop. u, 331, pi. 80, f. 8, $ gen., 1894. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 326, pi. xlv, f. 12, 1898. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 189, 1911. 

Pennsylvania, July. Virginia and West Virginia, May and June. Texas 
and Arizona, April and August. 

2. CECROPTERUS PSEUDOCELLUS 

Aehalarus pseudoeellus Coolidge and Clemence, Ent. News xxn, 3, 1911. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 190, 1911. 

Arizona, June to September inclusive. This species is smaller 
and darker than cellus, lacks the terminal pale area on the under 
surface of the secondaries and has a pale ring at the base of the 
antennal club. I have examined a long series in the Barnes 
collection without finding any specimen in which the pale ring 
could not be seen. 

Genus THORYBES Scudder 
Thoryles Scud., Syst. Rev. 50 (71), 1872. Type Papilio bathijl- 

lus A. & S. 
Hntneria Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1877, 57. 

Papilio dmmus Cramer. 
Cocceius G. & S., Biol. Cent,-Am., Rhop. n, 336, 1900. 

Eudamus pylades Scud. 
Palpi with the second joint appressed, x^ 05 ^ 
densely scaled ; third small, porrect, partly & 
concealed by scales of second. Club of an- ' 
tennae moderate, tapering into a slender 
apiculus which is slightly shorter than the 
rest of the club. In specimens the apiculus 
varies from sharply reflexed to slightly re- 
curved. Primaries rather short and broad 
with the costa and outer margin convex; 
cell slightly over two-thirds as long as 
wing ; recurrent vein barely indicated near 
vein 4 ; 5 equidistant between 4 and 6 ; 2 Fig. 10. a. ciub of an- 

, „ . ,, <-» o j tenna of Cogia hippalus 

nearer base ot wing than to o. feeconclar- Edw. b. iNeuration of 

, .,, l i i xi i e Thorybes pylades Scud. 

ies broadly rounded, length along vein b c . Truncate lobe on out- 

. . ,-, 1 -, T er margin of secondary 

about equal to or greater than along lb ; f cabares potriuo Lucas 



Type 
Type 




32 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

anal angle sometimes very slightly prominent. Costal fold pres- 
ent in pylades and drusius but not in the other species. Fig. 10. 
In establishing Cocceius Godman and Salvin state that it dif- 
fers from Thorybes in the presence of the costal fold and that 
this indicates that its relationship is rather with Achalarus. It 
is related in many more points, however, to Thorybes, and the 
costal fold does not seem adequate to separate the two groups as 
genera. The male gentalia of the species are similar. 

Key to the species 

1. Fringes of secondaries white, at least in middle of outer margin . drusius 
Fringes not white 2 

2. Under surface of secondaries transversely strigate 3 

Under surface not strigate 4 

3. Hyaline spots moderate to small, without dark outlines; ground color 

dark mexicanus 

Hyaline spots large with dark outlines ; ground color pale 

mexicanus, race nevada 

4. Spots usually large, extending from vein to vein ; palpi usually pale 

below bathyllus 

Spots usually small; palpi usually concolorous with body below, .pylades 
Spots absent pylades, ab. immaculata 

1. THORYBES DRUSIUS 

Eudamus drusius Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 211, 1883. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 336, 1894. 

Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 185, pi. x, 1911. 

Arizona, June, July and August. Western Nebraska, Leussler. 

2. THORYBES PYLADES 

Eudamus bathyllus Harris (not A. & S.), Ins. Inj. Veg. 3rd ed., 312, 1862. 
Eudamus pylades Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xni, 207, 1870. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 336, pi. 80, f. 23, 1894. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 324, pi. xlviii, f. 6, 1898. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 176, 1911. 

Occurs throughout the United States and most of Canada. In Florida 
and Texas it has been taken as early as April and as late as October; far- 
ther north it flies from May to August. 

ab. IMMACULATA 

Eudamus pylades immaculata Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 177, 
1911. 
This is a rather uncommon form in which the hyaline spots of the pri- 
maries are entirely absent. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 33 

3. THORYBES DAUNUS 

Papilio damns Cramer, Pap. Exot. n, 44, pi. oxxvi, F, 1777. 
Papilio bathyllus Abbot & Smith, Lep. Ins. Ga. I, 43, pi. xxn, 1797. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 325, pi. xlviii, f. 5, 1898. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 178, 1911. 

Some females of pylades and bathyllus are difficult to sepa- 
rate but as a rule the size of the spots and color of the palpi in 
this species are characteristic. The males of this and the fol- 
lowing species are easily separated from the others by the absence 
of the costal fold. 

Florida north and west to Pennsylvania, Iowa, Nebraska and 
Texas. I have seen southern specimens dated May and August, 
while farther north the species occurs from June to September. 

4. THORYBES MEXICAN A 

Eudamus mexicana H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xxm, 198, 1869. 
Eudamus ananius Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliii, 99, 1882. 
Biologia Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 334, pi. 80, ff. 15, 16, 17, 1894. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. xxxvn, 180, 1911. 

Specimens in the Barnes collection which agree with those in the British 
museum are similar to pylades above but faintly strigate below, and rather 
darker than normal specimens of pylades. 

Arizona, June and July. Colorado, July. 

4a. race NEVADA 
Thorybes nevada Scud., Syst. Rev. 50 (71), 1872. 
Eudamus aemilea Skinner, Ent. News rv, 64, 1893. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 325, pi. xlvi, f. 39, 1898 (type). 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 254, pi. xxxn, f. 478, 1905. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 182, 1911. 

Ground color rather pale, with, a fine terminal line and margins of spots 
darker. Spots large. Strigation of under surface usually heavy. 

California and Oregon, June and July. 8000 ft. 

Genus C ABA RES Godman & Salvin 
Cabares G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 337, 1894. Type 
Thanaos potrillo Lucas. 
"Antennae with a gradually tapering club, curved in the 
middle into a crook. Palpi porrect, the third joint rather 
prominent. Primaries with the cell more than two-thirds the 
length of the costa, the second, third, and fourth subcostal seg- 
ments subequal; lower discocellular rather shorter than the 
middle, the two forming an oblique line at a large acute angle to 



34 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

the axis of the wing; third median segment less than half the 
second, and rather shorter than the first; a curved recurrent 
nervule starts from the end of the cell. Secondaries with the 
discocellulars very slender; third median segment very short; 
second subcostal segment also short. Primaries short, slight- 
ly truncate at the tip; no costal fold in the male; second- 
aries with a projection in the middle of the outer margin from 
the end of the median nervure. Hind tibiae with two pairs of 
spurs. ' ' 

"Type Thanaos potrillo Lucas." (Original description). 

This appears to be a good genus, and the one species which 
occurs in our fauna can easily be placed by the peculiar lobe on 
the outer margin of the secondaries. Fig. 10. 

1. CABARES POTRILLO 

Thanaos potrillo Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba vn, 641, 1857. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 337, pi. 80, ff. 24, 25, 26, 1894. 
The species is occasionally taken in Texas. 

Genus COGIA Butler 
Cogia Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1870, 508. Type Cogia 
hassan Butler. 
Palpi porrect; second joint heavily clothed with scales; third 
small but not concealed. Antennae about one-half as long as 
primaries; club moderately thick, tapering into the short, re- 
flexed apiculus. This is about half as long as the rest of the 
club and is usually bent at about a right angle. Shape of wings 
similar to Thorybes but costa of primaries less strongly curved 
and secondaries a little more produced anally. Cell of primaries 
about two-thirds as long as wing; vein 5 intermediate between 
4 and 6 ; recurrent vein faintly indicated, nearer to 4 than to 3. 
Primaries of male without costal fold but secondaries with a 
short tuft of scales lying in the fold along vein lb near the base 
of the wing. Fig. 10. 

Key to the species 

1. Fringes fuscous 2 

Fringes white hippalus 

2. Subapical spots indistinct; those between veins 2 and 4 usually lack- 
ing ; color dark calchas 

Subapical spots clear; those between 2 and 4 usually present; color 
pale fuscous otitis 



HESPERIOIDEA OP AMERICA 35 

1. COGIA CALCHAS 
Eudanius calchas H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb xxm, 188, 1869. 
Spathilepia terranea Butler, Lep. Exot. Ill, t. xl, f. 8, 1872. 
Biol. Ccnt.-Am., Rhop. n, 340, pi. 81, f. 6, $ gen., 1894. 

Texas, October. Most specimens can be distinguished from outis by the 
dark color and limited maeulation. 

2. COGIA OUTIS 

Eudamus outis Skinner, Ent. News v, 332, 1894. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 184, pi. x, 1911. 

Texas, August. Ground color pale fuscous, as in Mppalus. The primaries 
usually have the two hyaline spots between veins 2 and 4 but I have seen 
specimens in which these were lacking or greatly reduced. 

3. COGIA HIPP ALUS 

Eudamus hippalus Edw., Papilio n, 27, 1882. 
Eesperia gila Plbtz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xlvii, 91, 1886. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 340, pi. 80, ff. 29-31, 1894. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 184, 1911. 

Southern Arizona and New Mexico, June, July and August. 

Genus PHOEDINTJS Godman & Salvin 
Phoedimis G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 335, 1894. Type 
Eudamus caicus H.-S. 

I was inclined for a time to unite this genus with Cogia, dis- 
regarding the tufted secondaries, but the large palpi with their 
conspicuous third joint serve to distinguish it so easily that it 
seems better to retain it. The spur vein is very faintly indicated 
near vein 4. There are no secondary sexual structures in the 
male. 

1. PHOEDINUS MYSIE 
Thoryoes mysie Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xn, 40, 1904. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 181, 1911. 

This species is not represented in the Barnes or Strecker collections, and 
I have seen nothing which answers the description. Apparently it is a 
Phoedinus with fuscous fringes and more spots on the primaries than 
caicus. It was described from the Patagonia Mts., Arizona. 

2. PHOEDINUS CAICUS 

Eudamus caicus H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xxm, 188, 1869. 
Eudamus scMefferi Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliii, 99, 1882. 
Eudamus moschus Edw., Papilio n, 141, 1882. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 335, pi. 80, ff. 18-20, 1894. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 183, 1911. 



36 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

The fringes of the secondaries of this species are pure white, save at the 
apex and anal angle. 

Arizona, July and August. 

GROUP B 

The second group of the subfamily Hesperiinae is distin- 
guished from group A by the short cell of the primaries, the 
form of the antermal club, and the palpi. The cell Is never over 
two-thirds as long as the wing, and is usually a little less; the 
antennal club is ovate or fusiform, usually somewhat flattened 
and more or less curved, but never bent as in most of the genera 
of group A and never with a distinct apiculus; the palpi are 
porrect or oblique, either large or with hairy vestiture or both. 
The only similar palpi in group A are found in the genus Plestia. 

The genera of this group appear to be very poorly denned, 
owing to the structural variation of the species. If we split to 
the extent reached by some lepidopterists we can make a genus 
for practically every species, so the opposite course seems ad- 
visable, and I have therefore lumped a number of familiar genera 
to group species which appear to be related. This has resulted, 
especially in Pholisora, in the association of species which can 
easily be separated by structural differences, but in all cases 
these characters show a transition through the several species 
which causes me to regard them as unreliable for the separation 
of genera. 

Key to the genera 

1. Secondaries irregular, excavated opposite end of cell and 
before anal angle ; not trigonate. Vein 2 of primaries near- 
er base of cell than to vein 3 Systasea 

Not such insects 2 

2. Club of antennae long, slender, not distinctly flattened, and 

scarcely exceeding twice the diameter of the shaft 3 

Club thicker in at least one direction 4 

3. Primaries slightly excavated below apex; humeral angle 

prominent, rounded Eantis 

Apex rectangular; humeral angle normal Xenophanes 

4. Palpi large; third joint conspicuous; vestiture not roughly 

hairy Pholisora 

Palpi moderate to large ; third joint not conspicuous or ves- 
titure hairy 5 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 37 

5. Club of antennae elongate-ovate, flattened, blunt; species 

largely white or checkered Hespcna 

Club more or less fusiform and pointed 6 

6. Outer margin of primaries evenly rounded or nearly so. . .7 
Apex of primaries subtruncate or rectangular 8 

7. Vein 11 of primaries arising just beyond middle of cell and 

reaching costa before end of cell Chwmara 

Vein 11 arising at or beyond outer third of cell and ending 
in costa beyond end of cell Thanaos 

8. Anal angle of primaries broadly rounded; outer and inner 

margins about equal Melanthes 

Anal angle sharply rounded ; outer margin distinctly shorter 
than inner " 

9. Cell narrow, about equal to distance between cell and costa 

Grais 

Cell normal, much wider than this distance Timochares 

Genus HESPERIA Fabricius 
Eesperia Fab., Ent. Syst. in, (i), 258, 1793. Type Papilio 

malvae Linn. 
Pyrgus Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett, 109, 1820. Type Papilio 

syrichtus Fab. 
Heliopetes Billberg, Enum. Ins. 81, 1820. Type Papilio arsalte 

Linn. 
Syrichtus Boisd., Icones 230, 1833. Type Papilio proto Esp. 
Scelothrix Ramb. Cat. Lep. Andal. i, 63, 1858. Type Papilio 

carthami Hbn. 
Leucoscirtes Scud., Syst. Rev. 52 (73), 1872. Type Syrichtus 

ericetorum Boisd. 
Muschampia Tutt, Brit. Butterflies, i, 218, 1906. Type Papilio 

proto Esp. 
Sloperia Tutt, Brit. Butterflies i, 218, 1906. Type Hesperia 

poggei Led. 
Powellia Tutt, Brit. Butterflies i, 218, 1906. Type Papilio sao 

Berg. 
Favrm Tutt, Brit. Butterflies i, 218, 1906. Type, Hesperia cri- 

brellum Eversman. 
Bremeria Tutt, Brit, Butterflies i, 296, 1906. Type Syrichtus 

bieti Obth. 



38 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



Palpi porrect; second joint with shaggy vestiture in some 
species, smooth in others, and of mixed scales and hair. Anten- 
nae slightly less than one-half as long as primaries ; club elongate 
oval, flattened, blunt. Costa of primaries more or less flattened ; 
outer margin rounded, sometimes evenly and sometimes more 
strongly toward the apex. Cell less than two-thirds as long as 
wing; vein 5 slightly nearer to 6 than to 4; position of 2 and 
3 very variable. Secondaries broadly rounded with a slight in- 
dication of an anal lobe, to sub-trigonate with the outer margin 




Fig. 11. Hesperia. Antennal clubs: a. nivella, b. ericetorun^c. 
and d. tessellata, two views, e. syrichtus, i. maeaira, g. Neuration 
of tessellata, h. Outer margin of secondary of syrichtus, i. Outer 
margin of secondary of nivella, j. Costal margin and apex of pri- 
mary of nivella, k. same of syrichtus, 1. Detail of neuration, pos- 
terior margin of cell of centaureae, m. Same of nivella 

slightly wavy. Secondary sexual characters of males the costal 
fold, tibial tuft, and abdominal lobes; one or more of these 
characters may be absent. Fig. 11. 

The North American species have hitherto been placed in three 
genera, based chiefly on secondary sexual characters. Barnes 
and McDunnough made a step in advance by avoiding these 
characters in their Contributions in, pp. 121-2, where they re- 
mark: "A better means of separation of Vyrgus [including 
syrichtus, montivaga and philetas] from Hesperia {Scelothrix) 
than that given by Dyar, and one that would include both sexes 
appears to be found in the palpi; in Pyrgus they are only 
slightly upturned and the clothing under a strong lens is seen 
to be rather even and composed largely of scales with a few hairs 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 39 

of equal length intermingled ; in Hesperia the palpi are strongly 
upturned and very heavily and roughly clothed underneath with 
long hairs, the scales being confined to the lateral basal portion." 

It is quite true that this furnishes a good basis for the sep- 
aration of our species, and the general habitus of each group 
is also distinctive, but I have unidentified species of the genus 
from South America which have the habitus of Hesperia (sensu 
B. & McD.) and the palpi of Pyrgus. It seems that the only 
conclusion which will give a well founded classification is to 
adopt the genus Hesperia of many European writers. 

I cannot expect unanimous approval of the sinking of Helio- 
petes, but after examining all of the species carefully and com- 
paring them with those of Hesperia I am unable to point out 
any structure which does not find either its counterpart or a 
similar tendency in the latter genus. The pattern of Hesperia 
is easily traceable in ericetorum and domicella, both above and 
below; in nivella, laviana and macmra the under surface is 
puzzling, but the brown pattern may easily be a modification of 
a superficial vestiture such as that found in syrichtus, while the 
black marks are so scanty as to afford no comparison. 

Key to the species 

1. Upper surface of primaries with a broad white discal band or mostly 

white 8 

Band narrow and macular or not evident 2 

2. Spots of primaries subquadrate, well separated 3 

Spots crowded, slender; with an additional row of spots beyond cell. .6 

3. Primaries with a triangular white spot in the angle of vein 2 and the 

cell 4 

This spot absent centaureae 

4. Male with fold; subterminal spots on under surface of secondaries 
deeply crescentic in most specimens, even when reduced in size . . ruralis 
Male without fold; subterminal spots never deeply crescentic, usually 
poorly defined 

5. Under surface of secondaries without distinct contrasts, whitish ; mark- 
ings of upper surface usually reduced; a pale, glossy species, .scriptura 
Under surface with contrasting markings; upper surface with macula- 
tion rarely reduced; darker species xanthus, macdunnoughi 

6. Under surface of secondaries with two small submarginal lunules be- 
tween veins 4 and 6 

These vague, fused with a marginal white patch or with each other 

tessellata 



40 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

7. Under surface of secondaries very pale, without sharp contrasts . philetas 
Maculation of under surface contrasting; under surface often pow- 
dered with brown scales syrichtus 

8. Basal third of wings dark 9 

This area not more than slightly dark shaded 10 

9. Secondaries with a subterminal esries of large white crescents 

ericeteorum $ 

These crescents much reduced domicella 

10. Cell of secondaries below clear white nivella 

Cell more or less brown 11 

11. Secondaries with broad smooth brown shades below 12 

With a definite yellowish brown pattern, no broad shades . . ericetorum $ 

12. Inside of outer shade oblique, almost straight. ., laviana 

Inside of outer shade curved with outer margin of wing maeaira 

1. HESPERIA CENTAUREAE (Plate I, Figure 2) 
Eesperia centaureae Bambur, Faun. Ent. Andal. n, 315, pi. 8, f. 10, 1840. 
Eesperia wyandot Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, u, 21, pi. 5, f. 4, 1863. 
Seudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1542, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 327, pi. xlvii, f. 13, 1898. 

N. Europe; Labrador, June and July. Ontario, Canada, May, July. 
New Jersey and Virginia, April and May. North Carolina, April. Colo- 
rado, August, 13000 ft. Male with costal fold and tibial tuft. 

2. HESPERIA RURALI8 

Syrichtus ruralis Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 311, 1852. 
Syrichtus caespitalis Boisd., op. cit., p. 312. 

Eesperia ricara Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, iv, 203, pi. I, f. 2, 1865. 
Syrichtus petrems Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. hi, 215, 1871. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 328, pi. xlvii, f. 14, 1898. 
Wright, Butterflies of the West Coast No. 458, pi. xxxi, 1905. 
Oberthiir, Etudesde Lep. Comp. vr, 339, pi. cxxxvii, ff, 1204, 1205, 1212, 
1912 (types of caespitalis and ruralis). 

Western North America from Texas to Alberta, April to July. 

A smaller, darker species than the preceding. Male with fold and tuft. 

3. HESPERIA XANTHUS 

Pyrgus xanthus Edw., Field and Forest in, 142, 1878. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 328, pi. xlvh, 15, 1898. 

Colorado, July. Xanthus very closely resembles ruralis but most speci- 
mens have the subterminal maculation of the secondaries poorly defined 
and reduced as noted in the key, and the males lack the costal fold. 

4. HESPERIA MACDUNNOUGHI 

Syrichtus macdunnoughi Oberthiir, Etudes ix, (2), 86, pi. cclxiv, f. 2205, 

1913. 
B. & MeD., Contributions m, (2), 122, pi. x, f. 14, 1916. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 41 

There are fiv)e specimens from Arizona in the Barnes collection under 
this name. Four I am unable to distinguish from xanthus; the remaining 
one has the secondaries pale below, as in scriptura. 

5. HESPERIA SCRIPTURA 

Syrichtus scriptura Boisd. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (2), x, 312, 1852. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 328, pi. xlvii, f. 12, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 251, pi. XXXI, 459, 1905. 

Oberthiir, Etudes de Lep. Comp. vi, 339, pi. cxxxvn, p. 1206, 1207, 1912 
(type f. 1206). 
New Mexico, California, Colorado, April to June. This species is read- 
ily distinguished by the color of the under surface, its glossy appearance, 
and as a rule by the reduction of the maculation of the secondaries. As 
in the two preceding, the male has the tibial tuft but no costal fold. 

6. HESPERIA SYRICHTUS 

Papilio syrichtus Fab., Syst. Ent. 534, 1775. 

Pyrgus montivagus Keakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 334. 

Skinner, Ent. News xvii, 277, pi. xn, 1906. 

Texas and Florida, June and July. 

I hjave seen the type of montivagus in the Strecker collection 
and it is syrichtus, not tessellata as treated by many writers. I 
have a long series from Florida in which the under surface of the 
secondaries has a heavy superficial vestiture of brown scales in 
both sexes. Male with both costal fold and tibial tuft. 

7. HESPERIA PHI LET AS (Plate I, Fig. 7) 
Pyrgus philetas Edw., Papilio I, 46, 1881. 
Arizona and Texas, June to October. 

8. HESPERIA TESSELLATA 

Eesperia tessellata Scud., Syst. Eev. 52, (73), 1872. 

Syricthus communis Grote, Can. Ent. rv, 69, 1872. 

H. montivaga Scud., (not Reakirt) Butt. New Eng. n, 1536, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 327, pi. xlvii, f. 18, 1898. 

Wright, Butt. W. Coast 250, pi. XXXI, 457, 1905. 

Occurs from coast to coast and from the Gulf to northern Canada, April 
to October. 

8a. Bace OCCIDENTALS 
Pyrgus occidentalis Skinner, Ent. News xvn, 96, 1906. 
Skinner, Ent. News xvn, 277, pi. xn, 1906. 

California, Arizona and Texas. This form is scarcely worthy of a name, 
but may be regarded as a pale southwestern geographical race. I have not 
looked for differences in the genitalia. 



42 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

9. HESPERIA DOMICELLA 

Syrichtus domicella Erichson, Schomb., Reise. n. Guiana in, 604, 1848. 
Pyrgus nearchus Edw., Papilio u, 26, 1882. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 327, pi. xlvii, f. 19, 1898. 

Arizona, August and September. 

This and the four following species, formerly placed in Eeliopetes, have 
both the costal fold and tibial tuft in the males. 

10. HESPERIA ERICETORUM (Plate I, Fig. 4^,6$) 

Syrichtus ericetorum Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2)| X, 313, 1852. 
Syrichtus alba Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, vi, 206, 1866. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 250 pi. xxxi, f. 456, 1905. 

Oberthiir, Etudes de Lep. Comp. vi, 339, pi. clxxxvn, f. 1210, 1912 (type). 
California, April to August. Arizona, July. 

11. HESPERIA MAC AIR A 

Pyrgus macaira Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 334. 
Syrichtus oceanus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 213, 1871. 
Leuoochitonea locutia Hew., Exot. Butt., Leuch. t. 2, ff. 19, 20, 1875. 
Brownsville, Texas; June. 

12. HESPERIA LAV I AN A 

Leucochitonea laviana Hew., Desc. Hesp. 48, 186$. 
Leucochitonea pastor Felder, Verh. z.-b. Ges. "Wien xix, 476, 1869. 
Pyrgus leca Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1870, 510. 
Texas, June and July. 

13. HESPERIA NIVELLA 

Leucoscvrtes nivea Scud, (not niveus Cr.), Syst. Rev. 52 (73), 1872. 
Leucoseirtes nivella Mab., Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxvii, lv, 1883. 
Leucochitonea orbigera Mab., Le Nat. X, 242, 1888. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 446, pi. 90, ff. 22-24, 1897. 
Brownsville, Texas; June. 

Genus SYSTASEA Butler 
Systasea Butler, Edw., Can. Ent. ix, 120, 1877. Type, Leucoch- 
itonea pulverulenta Folder. 
Celotes G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 452, 1899. Type 
Pholisora nessus Edw. 
Palpi porrect, moderate; second joint slightly hairy; third 
slightly drooping in dried specimens. Antennae about one-half 
as long as primaries; club moderate, curved, fusiform, rather 
blunt. Primaries with a costal fold in the male; costa slightly 
curved ; outer margin curved, with a shallow excavation before 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



43 




anal angle; inner margin slightly concave, scarcely longer than 
outer; U. D. C. short, M. D. C. and L. D. C. about equal. Vein 
2 twice as far from 3 as from base of cell. 
Secondaries very irregular with emargina- 
tions opposite cell and before anal angle. As a 
rule the antennal club of nessus is slightly 
larger in proportion to the shaft than that of 
pulverulent a but it varies in each species. In 
spite of the difference in appearance of the 
two species I can find nothing to warrant 
placing them in different genera. It may be 
that tropical species exist which will fill in 
the gap between them. Fig. 12. 

Key to the species 

Terminal portion of wings with brown dashes 

Fig. 12. Neuration of 

Systasea pulverulenta nessus 

Feld This area without dashes pulverulenta 

1. SYSTASEA NESSUS 

Pholisora nessus Edw., Can. Ent. rx, 192, 1877. 
Spilothyrus notabilis Strecker, Lep. Rhop. 131, 1878. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 452, pi. 91, ff. 27, 28, 29, 1899. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 329, pi. xlvii, f. 17, 1898. 
Texas and Arizona, April to August. 

2. SYSTASEA PULVERULENTA 

Leucochitonea pulverulenta Feld., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien xix, 478, 1869. 
Eesperia zampa Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. V, 207, 1876. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 413, pi. 87, ff. 24, 25, 1895. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 329, pi. xlvt, f. 1, 1898. 

Arizona, July and August. Texas, April and October. 

Genus PHOLISORA Scudder 
Pholisora Scud., Syst. Rev. 51, (72), 1872. Type Papilio catul- 

lus Fab. 
Staphylus G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop, n, 429, 1896. Type 

Helias ascalaphus Staud. 
Bolla Mabille, Gen. Ins. xvn, 72, 1903. Tj-pe — pullata Mab. 
Hesperopsis Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent, Soc. xin, 118, 1905. Type 
Thanaos alpheus Edw. 
The species grouped in this genus offer a troublesome problem 



44 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



in generic distinctions. Bolla was separated from Pholisora by 
Mabille on the basis of the more pointed club of the antennae. 
Dyar associates Hesperopsis in his description with Hesperia 
instead of Pholisora and calls attention to the long palpi, es- 
pecially the long third joint, and the absence of the costal fold. 
I have bleached and mounted structures of alpheus, Hoy a, catul- 
lus, ceos and hayhurstii and have found the following things to 
be true : In alpheus the third joint of the palpi is about three- 
fifths as long as the second and both are slender; the vestiture 
of the third joint makes it appear about twice as long as it really 




Fig. 13. Pholisora. Palpi: a. alpheus, b. libya, c. catullus, d. ceos, e. hay- 
hurstii. Antennal clubs: f. libya, g. catullus, h. ceos, i. hayhurstii,* j. Neur- 
ation of hayhurstii, k. and 1. Outer margins of wings of ceos and catullus 

is. Libya, associated with alpheus, has the third joint relative- 
ly shorter, both second and third thicker, the vestiture of the 
third similar and that of the second deeper. The entire ap- 
pendage looks more like the palpus of catullus than alpheus. 
The eleventh vein of the primaries of alpheus arises well before 
the middle of the cell, while in all of the other species it arises 
near the middle, usually slightly beyond. Ceos differs from 
catullus in the relatively longer third palpal point and thicker 
second, and in the short vestiture of the third. In the shape of 
the wings it is intermediate between catullus and Jiayhurstn and 
farthest removed from alpheus. The antennal club is thickest in 
alpheus and most slender in ceos, but if the same aspect be com- 
pared the species are seen to differ but slightly. From this it 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 45 

appears that there is no closer bond between alpheus and libya 
than between libya and catulliis, while ceos varies in the opposite 
direction from cat nil us but in the structure of the palpi shows 
some affinity with the first two species. For these reasons I 
prefer to regard the group as one genus with a wide range of 
structural variation. In this sense Pholisora may be character- 
ized as follows: 

Palpi exceeding the front by the length of the head or more ; 
second joint oblique, rather long, with moderate scaly vestiture ; 
third porrect, slender, long. Antennae about one-half as long 
as primaries; club more or less tapered and blunt. Wings 
rounded; secondaries w T ith or without a slight indention in the 
outer margin at the end of the cell and sometimes with a slight 
lobe at the anal angle. Neuration variable ; vein 11 of primaries 
never much beyond middle of cell and vein 2 about the same 
distance from base of cell and vein 3 ; U. D. C. long, over half 
the length of M. D. C. Male with or without costal fold, never 
with tibial tuft. Fig. 13. 

Key to the species 

1. Primaries with a transverse series of dark dashes alpheus 

Primaries without dark dashes 2 

2. Secondaries with white spots below 3 

Secondaries immaculate 4 

3. Under surface pale, yellowish; upper surface of primaries with trans- 
verse row of spots complete lena 

Under surface usually less pale and with numerous white spots when 
upper surface is heavily spotted; possibly not distinct from the pre- 
ceding lib y a 

4. Head and palpi ochreous ceos 

Head and palpi dark, concolorous with body 5 

5. Upper surface of an even shade 6 

With faint, dark, transverse bands 7 

6. Undersurface brownish black catullus 

Under surface grayish glaucous mejteawus 

7. Primaries with hyaline subapical spots Imyhurstii 

No such spots brennm 

1. PHOLISORA ALPHEUS 

Thanaos alpheus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. v, 206, 1876. 
Pholisora oricus Edw., Can. Ent. xi, 51, 1879. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 442, pi. 90, f. 15, 1897. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 331, pi. xlv, f. 2, 1898. 



46 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Wright, Butt. W. Coast 235, pi. xxx, f. 407, 1905. 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado, March to July. 

2. PHOLISORA LIBYA 

Eeteropterus libya Scud., Bull. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, 258, 1878. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 331, pi. xlviii, f. 14, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 234, pi. xxx, f. 406, 1905. 

California, June and October. Utah, July. Arizona, April. 

3. PHOLISORA LENA 

Ancyloxypha lena Edw., Can. Ent. xrv, 5, 1882. 

There is one specimen in the Barnes collection which appears to be lena 
and is possibly a good species. It is rather pale in color, but this may be 
due to fading. On the upper surface it resembles a heavily maculate speci- 
men of libya while below it has only a few spots. Libya, when heavily 
spotted above, is also well marked below. The one specimen is from Miles 
City, Montana, the type locality. 

4. PHOLISORA CATULLUS 

Hesperia catullus Fab., Ent. Syst. hi, (i), 348, 1793. 
Scud., Butt. New Eng. n, 1519, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, 330, pi. xlv, f. 4, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 234, pi. xxx, f. 403, 1905. 

United States and Southern Canada, April to October. 

5. PHOLISORA MEJICANUS 

Nisoniades mejicanus Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 334, 1866. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Ehop. n, 441, pi. 90, ff. 11, 12, 1897. 

Las Vegas, N. M. 

The upper surface is practically the same as catullus but the glaucous 
gray appearance of the lower surface is unmistakable. 

6. PHOLISORA CEOS 

Pholisora ceos Edwards, Papilio n, 140, 1882. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 432, pi. 89, ff. 7, 8, 1896. 
Arizona, July. 

7. PHOLISORA HAYHURSTII 

Hesperia hayhurstii Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 22, 1870. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. in, p. 1857, 1889. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 433, pi. 89, f. 16, gen., 1896. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, 331, pi. xlviii, f. 16, 1898. 

Florida, north and west to Minnesota and Texas, March to October. 
Some specimens have merely a trace of the subapical spots. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



47 



8. PHOLISORA BRENNUS 

Nisoniades brennus G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 434, pi. 89, f. 23, 

gen., 1896. (Mabille in litt.). 
Skinner, Ent. News XII, 171, 1901. 

I do not know this species. It is said to occur in our country along the 
Mexican border. 

Genus EANTIS Boisduval 
Eantis Boisd., Spec. Gen. pi. 13, f. 6, 

1836. Type Vrbanus vetus 

thraso Hiibner. 
Palpi porrect; second joint rath- 
er large, densely and smoothly 
scaled; third small, distinct. Ant- 
ennae about one-half as long as pri- 
maries ; club extremely slender and 
long, the tip curved. Costa of pri- 
maries rounded in basal half and al- 
most straight to apex ; outer margin 
excavated below apex, thence well 
rounded to anal angle; cell about 
three-fifths as long as wing; vein 5 
intermediate between 4 and 6. Sec- Fig. 
ondaries roughly quadrate; costa 
and inner margin curved, outer bent to an obtuse angle between 
3 and 4 and produced between 6 and 7. Fig. 14. 

1. EANTIS THRASO (Plate I, Fig. 8) 
Vrbanus vetus thraso Hbn., Sanunl. exot. 

Schmett, I, t. 151 ff. 1-4, 1807-16. 
Hesperia tamenund Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 

in, 215, 1871. 
Biologia Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 405, pi. 87, f. 7, 

$ gen., 1895. . 

Texas, May and July. 

Genus XENOPHANES Godman & 
Salvin 

Xenophanes G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., 
Rhop. ii, 387, 1895. Type Papilio 

Fig. 15. Xenophanes tryxus tryXUS Cramer. 

Cramer, a. Club of antenna. t> i • i_v j.i_ • j • • a j i. 

b. outline of wings Palpi oblique ; third joint moderate, 




14. Eantis thraso Hbn. a 
Club of antennae, b. Neuration 




48 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

conical, not concealed. Club of antennae very slender, curved. 
Costa of primaries slightly curved; apex rectangular; inner 
margin nearly straight, outer slightly convex between apex and 
vein 2, thence nearly straight to anal angle. Costal fold absent. 
Cell less than two-thirds as long as wing ; vein 5 intermediate ; 
2 slightly nearer to base of wing than to 3. Secondaries broadly 
rounded ; inner margin nearly straight, anal angle sub-rectangu- 
lar; outer margin slightly concave between veins 4 and 6 and 
very slightly between lb and 2. Vein 5 present, very weak; 2 
about as near to base of wing as to 3. Fig. 15 

1. XENOPHANES TBYXUS (Plate I, Fig. 3) 
Papilio tryxus Cramer, Pap. Exot. rv, 87, pi. ccaxxxrv, G, H, 1781. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Ehop. H, 387, pi. 85, f. 18, $ gen., 1895. 

Brownsville, Texas, July. 

The species is easy to recognize in our fauna by the many hyaline spots 
in the discal area of both wings. 

s0SH2t^ Geneus MELANTHES Mabille 

^* Melanthes Mab., Gen. Ins. xvn, 80, 1904. Type 

Nisoniades hrunnea H.-S. 
In general structure this genus is close to Than- 
aos but the secondaries are relatively a little larger 
the outer margin of the primaries longer and more 
oblkpie, the apex more produced and rectangular 
and the anal angle more broadly rounded. The 
antennae are moderate and the club fusiform, 
sharply pointed and evenly curved. Fig. 16. 

Fig. i6. Helen- 1. MELANTHES BRUNNEA (Plate I, Fig. 10) 

S. a. Club of an- Nisoniades bmnnea H.-S., Corr.-Blatt. Regensb. xviii, 172, 
tenna. b. Outline 1864 
of wings 

Skinner, Ent. News XIV, 110, 1903. 

I have this species from Cuba but Dr. Skinner's record, Sugar Loaf Key, 
Fla., is the only one which has reached me concerning its occurrence in the 
United States. The even brown shade of the wings, with a few hyaline 
points on the primaries, is characteristic. 

Genus CHIOMARA Godman & Salvin 
Chiomara G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 453, 1899. Type. 
Aclilyodes mithrax Mosehler. 
Similar to Thanms ; outer margin of primaries only two-thirds 




HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



49 



as long as inner, strongly curved; vein 11 arising just beyond 
middle of cell and reaching costa before end of cell. Male 
with tibial tuft but no costal fold. Fig. 17. 

Gesta appears to belong in Thanaos; 
the figure of the genitalia in the Biologia 
is distinctly of the Thanaos type. 




Fig. 17. Chiomara a-sychia 
Cramer. Neuration of primary 



1. CHIOMARA ASYCHIS 

Papilio asychis Cramer, Pap. Exot. iv, 87, pi 

ocoxxxiv, E, F, 1781. 
Pyrgus georgina Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci 

Phil. 1868, 88 (fide G. & S.). 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 453, pi. 91, ff. 1, 2, 3, 1899 ; p. 741, 1901. 

Texas, Arizona, October. I have one specimen from Corumba, Brazil, 
taken in March. 

Genus THANAOS Boisduval 
Thanaos Boisd., Icones 240, 1832-3. Type Hesperia juvenalis 

Fab. 
Scudder and Burgess, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xm, 282-306, 

pi. 1870. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xl, 195-221, 1914. 

Palpi large, exceeding front 
by about length of head; vesti- 
ture shaggy; third joint stout 
and roughly scaled. Antennae 
moderate ; club fusiform, curv- 
ed. Costa of primaries slightly 
convex, flattened along fold ; out- 
er margin in most species evenly 
rounded, in some more strongly 
curved opposite cell; relative 
width of primaries variable. Cell 
scarcely two-thirds as long as 
wing; vein 5 intermediate, 7 to 
11 in the distal third of the 
cell, 11 ending beyond end of cell 
U. D. C. less than half as long 
.. Neuration of ■/ ..- as M. D. C. Secondaries vari- 

alis, b. Outer margms of wings of aWe ^ gize ^ shape> br()ad out . 




50 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

er margin rounded to wavy ; costal fold present except in gesta. 
Hind tibiae of male with tufts in a few species. Fig. 18. 

A key to the species of Thanaos based on superficial characters 
is of comparatively little use, for the species are closely related 
and there are few which do not intergrade with others. The fol- 
lowing key is based on fairly typical specimens, but in a long 
series I have found many which could not be definitely placed 
by it, so I have thought it w^se to speak a word of caution re- 
garding its use. The genitalia of the males offer the ultimate 
means of determination, and since they can usually be examined 
fairly well by brushing away the scales from the tip of the 
abdomen and using a hand lens or binocular, their use in class- 
ification of the species should be practiced. 

Key to the species 

1. Fringes of hind wings white 13 

Fringes never white 2 

2. Primaries without distinct hyaline spots, sometimes with one or two 

clouded spots next to costa 3 

Primaries with at least a subapical row of hyaline spots (or with very 
dark wings, terentkts $) 5 

3. Expanse under thirty mm ; $ with tibial tuft ; apex of primaries rather 

sharply angled icelus 

Expanse usually over thirty mm ; no tuft in male ; apex of primaries 
more obtuse and outer margin more rounded 4 

4. Gray powdering heavier toward apex of primaries; distribution gen- 
eral brizo 

Primaries usually evenly powdered with gray scales; inner part of 
median band usually obsolete or broken; Southwestern and Calif ornian 

species bwrgessi, lactistra 

Powdering scant or absent; dark marks of primaries united to form 
broad bands; under surface without distinct spots; $ with tuft but 
no fold ; southwestern species gesta 

5. Under surface of secondaries with two pale subapical spots, or at least 

a trace of them 6 

No subapical spots 7 

6. Gray vestiture mostly of fine hairs properties 

Gray vestiture scaly juvenalis 

7. Hyaline spots large, at least a trace of one in end of cell; dark mark- 
ings of primaries contrasting (9)» or spots' lacking; primaries with 

little or no gray vestiture ( $ ) horatius 

Spots small, color very dark, or gray powdering conspicuous 8 

8. Very dark, sometimes with a brownish patch at end of cell; macula- 

tion obscure; $ with tibial tuft terentius 

Tuft absent; marks more or less contrasting 9 




PLATE II 
MALE GENITALIA OP THANA06 
The figures are mere outlines of the claspers viewed from the outside 
spines and other vestiture. 



■ft drawings of each figure 



omitting 
Hi.' right 



The right and 

"5 1 %£X£n&?U^-2. Thanaos brizo Bd. ,i Lee , Thanaos burg. 
Skinner 4 Thanaos lacustra Wright. 5. Thanaos persius Scudder. 6. than 
aos martialis Scudder. 7. Thanaos juvenalis Fab. Thanaos propertms Scud 

Burg. 9. Thanaos horatius Send. & Burg. I' 1 
11. Thanaos pacuvius Lint. 12. Thana 
litus Edw. 14. Thanaos tristis Boisd. I 



& 

Burs. 



Thanaos terentius Send. & 

cudderi Skinner. 13. Than 

Thanaos funeralis Scud. & Burg 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 51 

9. Dark marks conspicuous, secondaries checkered; fresh specimens with 

a purplish lustre martialis 

Not such insects 10 

10. Larger, marks more or less obscured toward base of primaries. . . . 

persius, pernigra 

Usually smaller, marks more evenly distinct over entire wing 11 

11. Fringes usually evenly colored 12 

Fringes pale tipped; western form persius, race afranius 

12. Secondaries with pale spots below clear cut lucilius 

Spots absent or diffuse; western species eallidus 

13. Tufts of dark scales in base of white fringe all along outer margin 

scudderi, pacuvvus 

Earely with a suggestion of such tufts 14 

14. Primaries narrower than normal; $ with tibial tuft funeralis 

Primaries normal, no tuft tristis, clitus 

Under surface of secondaries with some white inside of fringe. .. . 
tristis, var. tatms 

1. THANAOS ICELUS 

Nisoniades icelus Scudder & Burgess, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xiii, 288, 

1870. 
Lintner, 23rd Ann. Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Hist. 162, pi. 7, ff. 5, 6, 1872. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1507, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 333, pi. xlviii, 17, 1898. 

Arizona, Colorado, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and southern Canada; 
May to July. Athabaska and Mackenzie, June (Cary). North Carolina, 
April (Brimley & Sherman). 

2. THANAOS BRIZO 

Tlvanaos brizo, Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 66, 1833. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng., n, 1500, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 332, pi. xlv, f. 7, 1898. 

Atlantic coast to Rocky Mountains, Gulf to Southern Canada; April to 
July. Eastern specimens of this species are easy to identify, but it is 
difficult to separate burgessi, lacustra and brizo when all are from the 
same locality. 

2a. race SOMNUS 
Nisoniades somnus Lintner, Papilio i, 73, 1881. 

Florida, February and April. This is merely a very dark form of brizo. 

3. THANAOS BURGESSI 

Thanaos burgessi Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XL, 203, 1914. 
Arizona and New Mexico; March, April and August. 

4. THANAOS LACUSTRA 

Nisoniades lacustra Wright, Butt. W. Coast 253, pi. xxxn, 480, 1905. 

California, June. This is not a form of brizo, as has been stated, but is 



52 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

more nearly related to burgessi, though the genitalia differ enough to war- 
rant regarding it as a distinct species. 

5. THANAOS GESTA 

Thanaos gesta H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xvn, 142, 1863. 
Thanaos invisus Butler & Druce, Cist. Ent. I, 114, 1872. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 455, pi. xci, ff. 7, 8, 9, 1899. 
Nisoniades llano Dodge, Can. Ent. xxxv, 78, 1903. 
Texas and Arizona; July. 

6. THANAOS PERSIUS 

Nisoniades persius Scudder, Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 170, 1863. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. u, 1468, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 334, pi. xlviii, f. 1, 1898. 

The typical form has an expanse of about thirty-five millimeters and is 
dark and obscurely marked, especially on the basal half of the wings. It 
occurs throughout the United States and north into Alaska; May to August. 

6a. race PEBNIGBA 
Thanaos pernigra Grinnell, Ent. News xvi, 34, 1905. 
California, July. A very dark Pacific Coast race. 

6b. race AFBANIUS 
Nisoniades afranius Lintner, 30th Rep. N. Y. Mus. Nat. Hist. 175, 1877. 

California, Utah, Colorado, Arizona; May, July and August. Afranius 
does not exceed thirty millimeters and is rather distinctly marked and gray 
powdered; the fringes are pale, sometimes almost white, at their tips. 

6c. race LUCILIUS 
Nisoniades lucilius Scudder & Burgess, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xm, 

287, 1870. 
Lint., 23rd Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist. 164, pi. 7, ff. 1, 2, 1872. 
Seudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1458, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 333, pi. xlviii, f. 10, 1898. 

Northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, April and May. 
Dr. W. T. M. Forbes has kindly identified slides of genitalia in my possession 
as lucilius, which he regards as a species. I am unable to agree with this 
and follow Skinner in placing it as a race of persius, though a careful 
study of the early stages may show it to be distinct. It is usually smaller 
than persius and more distinctly marked. 

7. THANAOS CALLIDUS 

Thanaos callidus Grinnell, Ent. News XV, 114, 1904. 
MeDunnough, Ent. News xxvin, 232, 1917. 

After an eventful and troublesome career callidus has at last been run 
down by Dr. MeDunnough. It proves to be a good species, treated as 
lilius Dyar by Skinner in his "Studies in the Genus Thanaos." The two 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 53 

names may apply to the same thing, but in that case callidus has priority. 
The genitalia resemble those of pacuvius. California, June and July. 

8. THANAOS MARTIALIS 

Nisoniades martialis Scudder, Trans. Chi. Acad. Sci. i, 335, 1869. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1493, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 335, pi. xlviii, f. 4, 1898. 

New York, west to Colorado and north into Canada; May, July, August. 

Dr. Forbes tells me that eastern specimens of this species have a brassy 
lustre, but all which I have seen from the middle west were decidedly pur- 
plish. The unusually bright, contrasting pattern is the most reliable char- 
acteristic. 

ab. AUSONIUS 
Niso7iiades ausonius Lint., 23rd Eep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist. 166, pi. 7, 

ff, 11, 12, 1872. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1498, 1889. 

Ausonius lacks the subapical hyaline spots and has the transverse series 
of dark dashes unusually prominent. It was described from a single speci- 
men taken at Center, N. Y., on May 12, 1871, and has never been taken 
since. 

9. THANAOS JUVENALIS 

Eesperia juvenalis Fab., Ent. Syst. in, (i), 339, 1793. 
Nisoniades juvenis Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 108, 1820. 
Nisoniades costalis Westw. & Hew., Gen. Diurn. Lep. n, 519, pi. 79, f. 3, 

1852. 
Nisoniades ennius Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xin, 296, f. 

9, 1870. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1476, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 335, pi. xlviii, f. 11, 1898. 

Wright, Butt. W. Coast 252, pi. xxxn, 462 9, 469 $ (not 9 tristis), 1905. 
Atlantic coast to Eockies, Gulf to Northern Canada; May to August. 

10. THANAOS PROPERTIUS 

Nisoniades propertius Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xin, 298, 

f. 11, 1870. 
Nisoniades tibullus Scud. & Burg., op. cit., p. 299, f. 12. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 252, pi. xxxn, f. 463, 1905. 

Texas, Arizona, California and north into Canada; June, July and Au- 
gust. The abundance of hairy gray vestiture in specimens which have not 
been badly rubbed is very characteristic. 

10a. race BOBEALIS 
Tlianaos propertius, var. borealis Cary, Proc. U. S. N. M. xxxi, 455, 1906. 
Type one male from North Nahanni Eiver, Mackenzie, June 4, 1904. Ap- 
parently this is a dark race with the pale maculation greatly reduced. 



54 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

11. THANAOS HORATIUS 

Nisoniades horatius Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soe. Nat. Hist, xm, 301 f. 

13, 1870. 
Nisoniades virgilius Scud. & Burg., op. cit. p. 302, f. 14. 
Nisoniades petronius Lint., Papilio I, 70, 1881. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1486, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 336, pi. xlviii, f. 15, 1898. 

Florida and Texas, north to Colorado and Minnesota; May, July, Au- 
gust, October. The females are conspicuously marked but the males resem- 
ble juvenaUs closely. 

12. THANAOS TERENTIUS 

Nisoniades terentius Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi.ii, 292, 

f. 6, 1870. 
Nisoniades ovidius Scud. & Burg., op. cit. 295, f. 8. 
Nisoniades naevius Lintner, Papilio I, 69, 1881. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. II, 1490, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 336, pi. xlviii, f. 3, 1898. 

Florida, April, May and July. South Carolina, May. Mississippi, Au- 
gust. The very dark, even color of this species is easy to recognize, and as 
a rule the brown patch on the primaries is conspicuous. 

13. THANAOS PACUVIUS 

Nisoniades pacuvms Lint., 30th Eep. N. Y. Mus. Nat. Hist. 172, 1878. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 336, pi. xlviii, f. 9, 1898. 

California, Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado; March, May, June and 

August. 

14. THANAOS SCUDDERI 

Thanaos scudderi Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XL, 215, 1914. 
Thanaos pacuvvus G. & S. (not Lintner), Biol. Cent. -Am., Ehop. n, 458, pi. 
91, ff. 16, 17, 1899. 
Texas and Arizona, July and August. I am unable to separate this 
species from pacuvius except by the structure of the male genitalia. Skin- 
ner points out a slight difference in the hyaline spots. 

15. THANAOS CLITUS 

Thanaos clitus Edw., Papilio n, 180, 1882. 

Thanaos maestus G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 457, t. 91, f. 18, $ gen., 

1899. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 336, pi. xlv, f. 8, 1898. 
Arizona, May to August; California and Colorado. 

16. THANAOS TRISTIS 

Thanaos tristis Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 311, 1852. 
Oberthiir, Etudes ix, (1), pi. COXL, f. 2081, 1913, figure of type. 
California, June and August. Arizona. 



HESPERIOIDEA OP AMERICA 55 

form TATIUS 
Tlianaos tatius Edw., Papilio n, 179, 1882. 
Arizona, April, June, July, September. 

17. THANAOS FUNERALIS 

Nisoniades funeralis Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soe. Nat. Hist, xm, 293, 

f. 7, 1870. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 336, pi. xi.viii, f. 12, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 253, pi. xxxn, f. 468 and 464 (not clitus), 1905. 

California, June. Arizona, Texas and Colorado, June and July. March 
in the far south. The rather narrow primaries, of a dull, brownish color, 
and the broad secondaries are unlike the other species of the genus. 

The two following species cannot be fixed at present to any known form: 

18. THANAOS PLAUTU8 

Nisoniades plautus Scud. & Burg., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xm, 304, 
f. 16, 1870. 
Described from Florida. The figure of the genitalia has some points of 
similarity with the genitalia of juvenalis. 

19. THANAOS LILIUS 

Thanaos lilius Dyar, Proc. U. S. N. M. xxvn, 788, 1904. 

Dyar states (Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xm, 122) that the genitalia 
of lilius are similar to those of tibidlus (=propertius) , while 
Skinner's description of them in his "Studies" suggests those of 
callidus, which was not correctly fixed at the time when his paper 
was written. Apparently lilius will fall before one of these two 
species, but an examination of the genitalia of the type will be 
necessary to settle the matter. I am greatly indebted to Dr. 
McDunnough for his notes on these species, for all data which 
I am able to give here are based on his researches. 

Genus TIMOCHARES Godman & Salvin 
Timochares G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 417, 1896. Type 
LeucocMtonea trifascmta Hew. 
Palpi moderately large, much as in Thanaos, with a hairy 
second joint and a stout, conical third joint, Antennae less 
than one-half as long as primaries; club moderate, fusiform, 
curved. Costa of primaries convex, with a long fold in the 
male; apex rectangular, subtruncate; outer margin rounded 
from vein 6 to anal angle. Secondaries trigonate; inner margin 
about as long as wing measured through cell; outer margih 



56 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

wavy. Neuration practically as in T. juvenalis. T. funeraMs 
is structurally very close to this genus, but the apex of the pri- 
maries is never distinctly subtruncate and the anal angle is 
much more broadly rounded. 

1. TIMOCHARES RUPTIFASCIATUS 

Antigonus ruptifasciatus Plotz, Jahrb. Nass. Ver. xxxvn, 27, 1884. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 418, pi. 88, pp. 1, 2, 1896. 

I have seen one male from Brownsville, Texas, in the Barnes collection. 

Genus GRAIS Godman & Salvin 
Grais G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 381, 1894. Type An- 
astrus stigmaticus Mab. 
The structure of this genus is very similar to that of the pre- 
ceding, but the cell of the primaries is of almost equal width 
throughout, and is approximately equal to the distance between 
cell and costa. The male has neither costal fold nor tibial tuft. 

1. GRAIS STIGMATICUS 

Anastrus stigmaticus Mab., Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxvi, liv, 1883. 
Antigonus fumosus Plotz, Jahrb. Nass. Ver. xxxvn, 26, 1884. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. II, 381, pi. 84, ff. 24, 25, 26, 1894. 
Kerrville, Texas; September. 

Subfamily PAMPHILINAE 

Palpi usually upturned; in a few genera porrect. Antennae 
very variable in length ; club usually short and stout with a very 
slender apiculus but sometimes longer ; apiculus sometimes thick 
or absent. Primaries more or less trigonate; secondaries tri- 
(gonate to rounded and lobed. Neuration as in the Hesperiinae 
but with the L. D. C. usually tubular and vein 5 curved toward 
the base in the primaries, arising nearer to 4 than to 6. Front 
tibiae usually with the epiphysis; middle tibiae usually with 
conspicuous spines; hind tibiae usually with two pairs of spurs 
and never with a tuft. In the species of group A the spinula- 
tion of the mid tibiae furnishes a convenient means for separat- 
ing the insects from the Hesperiinae. Males often with stigma 
on primaries. 

The loss of the apiculus in the Pamphilinae seems to have been 
brought about by its gradual reduction, a process of evolution 
which is nicely illustrated by the transition from Oligoria to 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 57 

Chaereplwn in Group B. I regard this as furnishing the phylo- 
genetic basis for the separation of Group A from the Hesper- 
iinae, which makes it necessary to explain their resemblance by 
parallel or convergent evolution. 

In place of the two groups into which the Pamphilinae have 
commonly been divided I believe that a modification of the sys- 
tem used in the Biologia will be of greater convenience. I have 
therefore divided our fauna into four groups which are char- 
acterized as follows: 

Group A. Palpi porrect. Vein 5 of primaries straight, in- 
termediate between 4 and 6 ; cell less than two-thirds as long as 
wing. Club of antennae blunt. Carterocephalus and Butleria. 

Group B. Palpi upturned ; third joint long and slender. An- 
tennae short ; club blunt. Vein 5 of primaries curved slightly 
toward 4 at base. Cell less than two-thirds as long as wing. 
Ancyloxypha, Oarisma, Adopaea and Copaeodes. 

Group C. Palpi appressed or oblique; third joint moderate 
or small, long in Amblyscirtes. Antennae with a slender api- 
culus in most genera. Vein 5 of primaries curved at base, us- 
ually arising much nearer to 4 than to 6. Cell less than two- 
thirds as long as wing. All North American genera not includ- 
ed in A, B and D. 

Group D. Palpi closely appressed, smoothly and deeply 
scaled; third joint small. Club of antennae stout, with a fine, 
abruptly constricted apiculus. Vein 5 arising much nearer to 
4; cell about two-thirds as long as wing and with at least a rudi- 
ment of a recurrent vein. Thespieus, Calpodes and Prenes. 

GROUP A 

Key to the genera 

Hind tibiae with one pair of spurs Carterocephalus 

Hind tibiae with two pairs of spurs Butleria 

Genus CARTEROCEPHALUS Lederer 
Carterocephalus Led., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien n, 26, 49, 1852. 

Type : Papilio palaemon Pallas. 

Second joint of palpi oblique, loosely clothed with long hairs ; 
third slender, moderately long, enveloped by hairs of second. 
Antennae less than one-half as long as primaries; club large, 



58 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



jmmM 




Fig. 19. Butleria pirus Edw. a. Club of 
antenna, b. Hind tibia, c. Neueration, d. 



elongate ovate, flattened on its posterior surface, blunt. Pri- 
maries trigonate with the outer margin rounded, rather narrow. 

Vein 5 intermediate between 4 
and 6; L. D. C. not tubular, 
faint. Secondaries rounded ; 
apex prominent and anal angle 
slightly produced. Hind tibiae 
with one pair of spurs; mid- 
dle tibiae spined. Males with- 
out secondary sexual struc- 
tures. Fig. 19. 

1. CARTEROCEPHALUS 
PALAEMON 

Papilio palaemon Pallas, Reise I, 

471, 1771. 
Papilio paniscus Fab., Syst. Ent. 

531, 1775. 
Hind tibia of Carterocephalus palaemon p apiKo Ironies Denn. & Schiff. 

Wien Verz. 160, 1776. 
Hesperia mandan Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 20, pi. v, f. 1, 1863. 
Hesperia mesapano Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 383, 1868. 
Cyclopides skada Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 196, 1870. 
Stereoptes skada Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 214, 1871. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1569, 1889. 
Elwes & Edwards, Rev. Or. Hesp. 167, 1897. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 342, xlvii, f. 1, 1898. 

Canada, Mountains of New England and Rocky Mountains; June. Cal- 
ifornia, Montana. Europe and Asia. Fort Providence, Mackenzie, July 
(Cary). Yukon Territory (Winn). 

Genus BUTLERIA Kirby 
Butleria Kirby, Syn. Cat. 624, 1871. Type Carterooeplwlus 

exornatus Felder. 
Dalla Mab., Gen. Ins. xvii, 107, 1904. Type Cyclopides eryonas 
Hew. 
Very similar in structure to Carterocephalus but with two 
pairs of spurs on the hind tibiae. Fig. 19. 

Butleria was first characterized by Watson (P. Z. S. 1893, 79) 
but according to Mabille his description does not fit the geno- 
type. Mabille in turn characterized the genus to correspond 
with the typical species in vol. xvii of the Genera Insectorum, 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 59 

page 106, at the same time dividing it and naming one part 
Dalla. Such differences as he mentions between the two seem 
to be slight and transitional through the series of species in- 
cluded, and I therefore sink Dalla. The description of Dalla 
does not apply to our species as well as Mabille's diagnosis of 
Butleria, so if the genera be separated again there is a possi- 
bility that Butleria, and not Dalla will still be applicable in 
our region. 

Key to the species 

Under surface of secondaries immaculate pirus 

With a number of small pale spots microsticta 

With a few large spots polingi 

1. BUTLERIA PIRUS 

Pholisora pirus Edw., Field and Forest in, 119, 1878. 
Colorado, Utah, Arizona; June, July. 

2. BUTLERIA MICROSTICTA 
Butleria microsticta G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 464, pi. 92, ff, 1, 
2, 3, 1900. 
I have seen no specimens; the species is said to occur near the Mexican 

border. 

3. BUTLERIA POLINGI 

Pyrgus polingi Barnes, Can. Ent. xxxn, 44, 1900. 
Arizona, June and July. 

GROUP B 
Key to the genera 

1. Wings broadly rounded Ancyloxijpha, 

Wings more or less trigonate 2 

2. All wings trigonate; male without stigma; club of antennae 

about as long as shaft • • • Oarisma 

Males with stigma; secondaries, at least, rounded; club not 
as long as shaft ^ 

3. Secondaries rounded, primaries trigonate; club small 

Copaeodes 

Outer margin of primaries more oblique and rounded ; club 
large, relatively long Adopaea 



60 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



^£SS^ 



Genus ANCYLOXYPHA Felder 
Ancyloxypha Feld., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien xn, 477, 1862. Type 
Hesperia monitor Fab. 
Palpi upturned; second joint normal, deeply scaled; third 
slender, pointed, almost as long as second. Antennae much less 

than one-half as long as primar- 
ies ; club blunt, moderately large. 
Costa of primaries rounded at 
base, less so in outer half ; outer 
margin broadly rounded, cell 
slightly less than three-fifths as 
long as wing ; vein 5 nearer to 4 
than to 6; 2 and 3 near end of 
cell. Secondaries rather long 
through cell, rounded; outer 

margin slightly emarginate be- 
ing, zu. Ancyloxypha numitor i'ab. a. t A i n hit i m 

Club of antenna, b. Section of paipus; tween veins 4 and 6. Male with- 

outer line shows limit of vestiture, c. Pal- , • -n- r./-> 

pus, d. Neuration OUt Stigma. Fig. 20. 




Fig. 20. Ancyloxypha numitor Fab. 



1. ANCYLOXYPHA NUMITOR 

Hesperia numitor Fab., Ent. Syst. in, (i), 324, 1793. 
Thymelicus puer Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 113, 1820. 
Heteropterus marginatus Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg., 3rd ed., 308, 1862. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1558, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 345, pi. xlvii, f. 2, 1898. 

Atlantic coast west to Texas, north into Canada; May to August. 

The disk of the primaries is black below, while that of the following 
species is ruddy fulvous. 

ab. LONGLEYI 
Ancyloxypha longleyi French, Can. Ent. xxix, 80, 1897. 

Described from Illinois. A form in which the primaries are glossy 
black above. 

2. ANCYLOXYPHA ARENE 

Heteropterus arene Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. in, 214, 1871. 

Copaeodes myrtis Edw., Papilio H, 26, 1882. 

Apaustus leporina Plotz, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xlv, 166, 1884, (fide G. & S.). 

Holland, Butterfly Book 346, pi. xlvii, f. 11, 1898. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 472, pi. 92, ff. 35-38, 1900. 

Arizona, August. Differs from numitor in the absence of black from 
the under surface of the primaries. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 61 

Genus OARISMA Scudder 
Oarisma Scudder, Syst. Rev. 54, (75), 1872. Type Hesperia 

powesheik Parker. 
Paradopaea G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 469, footnote, 1900. 

Palpi as in Ancyloxypha. Anten- 
nae much less than one-half as long as 
primaries; club enlongate obovoid, 
blunt, as long or nearly as long as 
shaft. Costa of primaries straight ex- 
cept at base and apex ; outer margin 
curved only opposite cell ; entire wing 
trigonate; cell about three-fifths as 
long as wing ; vein 5 near 4 at base ; 
3 near end of cell ; 2 about as far from 
3 as from base of wing, variable. Sec- 
ondaries trigonate, all margins slight- 
ly rounded and anal angle very 
slightly lobed. Male without stigma. 

rig. £iX. j,.^ 21 Oarigma garita Reakirt : 

a. "Club of antenna, d. Neuration. 
Keif to the Species Jopaeodes aurantia-ca Hew. b. Club 

J l of antenna, c. Palpus 

1. Under surface of secondaries with white 

veins on a dark ground before vein lb poivesheik 

Veins not much paler than ground color 2 

2. Upper surface bright yellow-fulvous edwardsi 

Upper surface fuscous, variably powdered with yellow-fulvous .. garita 

1. OARISMA GARITA 

Hesperia garita Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, vi, 150, 1866. 
Thymelicus hylax Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 274, 1871. 
Paradopaea calega G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, pi. 92, ff. 26-29, 1900. 
Paradopaea garita G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, pi. 92, ff. 23-24, 1900. 
Oarisma powesheik G. & S., (not Parker) Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 469, 

1900. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 343, pi. xlvii, f. 3, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast pi. xxx, f. 408, 1905 (not lena Edw.) 
Manitoba, Montana, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona; July. 
Calega G. & S. looks in the figure as if it might be a good species but in 
the text the authors refer it to garita. They also erroneously refer their 
figures of garita to powesheik. 

2. OARISMA EDWARDSI 
Thymelicus edwardsi Barnes, Can. Ent. xxix, 42, 1897. 




62 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Paradopaea garita G. & S. (not Reakirt) Biol. Cent.-Am. Rhop. in, pi. 92, 
f. 25 $ genitalia, 1900. 

Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico; June and July. 

I have seen the type of this species and the pale upper surface is very 
different from garita. 

3. OARISMA POWE SHEIK 

Hesperia powesheik Parker, Am. Ent. & Bot. n, 271, 1870. 
Thymelicus garita Plotz (not Eeakirt), Stett. Ent. Zeit. xlv, 287, 1884. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. in, 1859, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 343, pi. xlvii, f. 4, 1898. 

Described from thirty-one males and two females taken June 21, 1870, 
at Grinnell, Iowa. It has also been taken in Colorado and South Dakota, 
•and I have observed it personally so near to the Minnesota line in Iowa 
that it probably enters that state. Michigan (Wolcott). 

Genus ADOPAEA Billberg 
Adopaea Billb., Enurn. Ins. 81, 1820. Type Papilio thaumas 
Hufn. 

Similar to Copacodes but with the antennal club larger and 
relatively longer, and with a rudiment of the apieulus. The 
outer margin of the primaries is more oblique, relatively shorter, 
and more deeply sinuate. The stigma of the male is similar. 

This genus has been incorrectly used in the past in our fauna 
for eunus and wrighti; it is represented only by an introduced 
species. 

1. ADOPAEA LINE OLA 
Papilio lineola Ochs., Schmett. Eur. i, (2), 230, 1808. 
Morris, British Butterflies, 153, pi. 70, 1890. 
Spuler, Schmett. Eur. t. 18, ff. 6a, 6b, 1910. 
47th Eep. Ent. Soc. Ont. 142, 1917. 

Introduced from Europe. The reference in the report of the Entomolog- 
ical Society of Ontario records its capture at London, Ontario, on July 1, 
1910, and every year from then until the date of the publication. 

Genus COPAEODES Speyer 
Copaeodes Speyer, Edw. Cat. Lep. 49, 64, 1877. Type Heterop- 
terus procris Edw. 
Palpi upturned ; second joint densely scaled ; third fine, point- 
ed, not quite as long as in Ancyloxyplia. Antennae scarcely 
two-fifths as long as primaries; club rather small, stout, blunt. 
Primaries trigonate; costa straight except at base and apex; 
outer margin slightly sinuate; anal angle almost rectangular. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 63 

Secondaries rounded, slightly lobed at anal angle. Wings more 
elongate in female. Primaries of male with a slender, longi- 
tudinal stigma. Cell of primaries about three-fifths as long as 
wing; vein 5 arising much nearer to 4 than to 6. Fig. 21. 

1. COPAEODES AURANTIACA 

Ancyloxypha aurantiaca Hew., Desc. Hesp. 45, 1868. 

Hesperia waco Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. II, 122, 1868. 

Heteropterus minima Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 196, 1870. 

Hesperia procris Edw., op. cit. 215. 

Thymelicus macra Plotz, Strett. Ent. Zeit. xlv, 284, 1884. 

Copaeodes Candida Wright, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), in, 34, 1890. 

Copaeodes nanus Watson, (not H.-S.), Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, 98 

(fide G. & S.). 
Holland, Butterfly Book 345, pi. xlvii, f. 9, 1898. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Rhop. II, 473, pi. 92, ff. 39-42, 1900. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 236, pi. xxxi, ff. 409, 411, 1905. 
Skinner, Ent. News xxix, 150, 1918. 

Arizona, May, July, August and September. Texas, California, March, 
May, August. 

I cannot agree with Dr. Skinner that this and the following are but one 
species, but as he suggests, rayata may fall before the female of procris, 
in which case the latter name might be restricted to the female type and 
retained as a species. 

2. COPAEODES RAYATA 

Copaeodes rayata B. & McD., Contributions n, (3), 100, pi. m, ff. 1, 2, 1913. 

San Benito, Texas; June and July. 

I have seen the types of this species and it is abundantly distinct from 
aurantiaca. The pale ray is variably distinct, but the veins are darker 
than the ground color and of a somewhat rusty shade on the lower surface 
of the secondaries. The size is smaller than aurantiaca. 

GROUP C 

Key to the genera 

1. Club of antennae blunt or with a rudiment of the apiculus 

Chaerephon 

Club of antennae with a sharp apiculus, sometimes very- 
short 2 

2. Vein 5 of primaries well curved toward base, arising con- 
spicuously nearer to 4 than to 6 3 

Vein 5 but slightly curved, only a little nearer to vein 4 at 
base ; L. D. C. weak 11 



64 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

3. Antennae scarcely longer than width of thorax. .HylephUa 
Antennae distinctly longer 4 

4. Mid tibiae with spines 5 

Mid tibiae without spines Atrytone 

5. Apiculus of antennae shorter than thickness of club or not 

abruptly constricted 6 

Apiculus at least equal to thickness of club, slender; either 
abruptly constricted or distinctly longer than thickness of 
club 9 

6. Primaries apically produced and secondaries lobed ; apiculus 

very short 7 

Primaries and secondaries moderate; apiculus usually mod- 
erately long 8 

7. Male stigma slender; wings of female moderate. . . .Pamphila 
Male stigma a large blotch ; wings of female similar to those 
of male Atalopedes 

8. Vein 2 of primaries slightly nearer to base of wing than to 
vein 3. Secondaries well marked with yellow fulvous; see 

description Augiades 

Vein 2 variably nearer to 3 ; when doubtful, secondaries with 
little fulvous, at the most a transverse band; see descrip- 
tion Polites 

Vein 2 immaterial. Club of antennae very stout, with a 
fine apiculus, or moderate with a thick apiculus Poanes 

9. Apiculus slender, about twice thickness of club .... Oligoria 
Apiculus shorter or thick 10 

10. Apiculus slender ; male stigma large, with large gray scales ; 

under surface fuscous Catia 

Apiculus tapered, not abruptly constricted; male without 

stigma ; under surface not fuscous Poanes 

Apiculus slender, variable, male stigma variable. Under 
surface gray powdered to dark brown Atrytonopsis 

11. Male stigma large; maculation yellow Epiphyses 

Stigma not large; maculation not pale yellow 12 

12. Apiculus fine; shorter than thickness of club Lerodea 

Apiculus longer, or wings immaculate 13 

13. Third joint of palpi long (ex. nanno) ■ fringes checkered 

Amblyscirtes 

Third joint short; fringes not checkered 14 



HESPERIOIDEA OP AMERICA 



65 



14. Vein 5 almost intermediate between 4 and 6 ; under surface 

with purplish lustre Lerema 

Vein 5 considerably nearer to 4; under surface otherwise 
Mast or 

Genus CHAEREPHON Godman & Salvin 
Chaerephon G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 474, 1900. Type 
Pamphila citrus Mab. 
Second joint of palpi upturned, 
deeply scaled; third small, oblique, 
smooth. Antennae less than one-half 
as long as primaries ; club large, obo- 
void, subacute but without a reflexed 
apiculus. Costa of primaries straight 
except at base ; apex produced, round- 
ed acute in males, less sharp in fe- /" --^ ^ 
males ; outer margin rounded in cen- J^~— v^-— — ^\ /ffi 
ter and straighter nearer apex and 
anal angle,though almost evenly 
rounded in some females. Secondar- 
ies rounded, lobed at anal angle in 
male, slightly so in female. Both 
wings appear shorter and broader in &J!" oWb. 8 p~ 3 
the male than in the female. Pri- ""&,£ ^t^TTtunut 
maries of male with a faint stigma 

composed of an oblique bar above vein 2 followed by two small 
round patches in line below the vein. Fig. 22. 

Key to the species 

1. Wings yellow-fulvous eunus, wrighti 

Wings mostly fuscous 2 

2. Under surface gray powdery simius 

Under surface more or less yellowish 3 

3. Yellow of under surface of secondaries interspersed with dark patches; 

maculation distinct rhesus 

Yellow pale, dull, even; maculation obscure carus 

1. CHAEEEPHON EUNUS 
Copaeodes eunus Edw., Papilio i, 47, 1881. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, pi. xlvii, f. 10, 1898 (as wrighti). 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 237, pi. xxxi, ff. 412, 414, 1905. 
California, June. 




66 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



2. CHAEREPHON WRIGHTI 

Copaeodes ivrighti Edw., Can. Ent. xiv, 152, 1882. 

Wrighti is probably a synonym of eunus; the original description fits 
eunus, the type localities are in the same part of California, and we do not 
know of two species of these general characteristics. Both of these have 
been erroneously placed in Adopaea in the past, whereas Adopaea is close- 
ly related to Copaeodes and eunus is not at all similar in structure. 

3. CHAEREPHON RHESUS 

Pamphila rhesus Edw., Field and Forest in, 116, 1878. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Bhop. n, 475, pi. 93, ff. 5-7, 1900. 
Skinner, Ent. News XI, pi. n, ff. 19, 20, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, ff. 19, 20, 1904. 
Colorado, Arizona. 

4. CHAEREPHON CARUS 

Pamphila carus Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 34, 1883. 
Texas and Arizona, May, July and September. 

5. CHAEREPHON SIMIUS 

Amolyscirtes simius Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 6, 1881. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 341, pi. xlvii, f. 8, 1898. 
Colorado; Sioux County, Nebraska, July. 
This is one of our rarer species. I am indebted to Mr. Leussler for a 
specimen taken in Sioux County, Nebraska, the only one in my possession. 

Genus PAMPHILA Fabricius 
Pamphila Fab., 111. Mag. vi, 287, 1807. Type Papilio comma 
Linn. 

55, (76), 1872. 



Ocytes Scud., Syst. Rev. 

Scud. 
Anthoniaster Scud., Syst. 

leonardus Harris. 



Rev. 57, (78). 



Type Erynms metea 
1872. Type Hesperia 






Fig. 23. Pamphila and Auc/iades, a. Palpus of 
A. sno-wi, b. Club of antenna cf P. viridis $, 
c. Same, female, d. Palpus of P. viridis, e. 
Same, denunded, f. Section of palpus of A. 
sylvanus; outer line shows limit of vestiture, 
g. Palpus of A. napa 



Palpi upturned ; second 
joint with a smooth vesti- 
ture of scales and some 
hairs; third about one-half 
as long as second but part- 
ly concealed. Antennae 
less than one-half as long 
as primaries; club large 
with a very small apiculus 
which is a little longer in 
the female. Costa slightly 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA G7 

emarginate to slightly convex ; outer margin slightly sinuate to 
evenly rounded, usually more rounded in the female. Secondaries 
rounded, slightly lobed at anal angle. In all of the species the 
wings of the females are longer and more rounded than those of 
the males. Vein 5 of primaries arising very near to 4 ; 3 near 
end of cell ; 2 about intermediate between 3 and base of wing ; 
cell slightly over three-fifths as long as wing. Vein 7 of second- 
aries slightly nearer to end of cell than to 8. Mid tibiae spiny. 
Male stigma slender, strong, extending from base of vein 3 to 
basal third of vein 1 and made up of a long piece in front of 
vein 2 and a shorter piece behind 2 which is set just outside of 
the first but is continuous with it. Fig. 23. 

Key to the species 
This key is not to be regarded as a means of ultimate identification; in 
Pamphila no key can be sufficient in itself, for many of our species and 
forms intergrade to such an extent that only a practiced eye can even sort 
them properly. The key to the forms of comma included here is based 
on specimens in the Barnes collection which have been compared with the 
types, and so may be relied on for typical specimens. It will not, how- 
ever, suffice for the placing of the multitude of intermediate forms which 
occur in large series. 

1. Under surface of secondaries with alternating greenish and fuscous 

areas ; veins white on disk uncos 

Under surface evenly colored; veins not white 2 

2. Upper surface fuscous with reduced, poorly defined, pale spots; under 

surface of secondaries with a pale band metea 

Upper surface more or less fulvous or with well defined spots, or lower 
surface with separate spots 3 

3. Under surface of secondaries with a pale ray in the cell morrisoni 

With or without a pale spot in cell 4 

4. Under surface of secondaries yellow to brown with an oblique band 
of uniform, confluent white spots posterior to vein 6; sometimes with 

a single spot before this band Columbia 

Spots making up band, when present, not confluent, unequal, irregular- 
ly placed or with more than one spot before vein 6. Under surface 
usually greenish in forms which are likely to confuse 5 

5. Under surface of secondaries with sharply defined white spots or yel- 
lowish to greenish with the bent macular band traceable 6 

Under surface without sharply defined white spots; immaculate or with 
traces of separate spots, usually poorly defined or not white 13 

6. Under surface of primaries fuscous; spots on secondaries small and 

rounded seminole 

Under surface of primaries with some fulvous or spots on secondaries 
otherwise 7 



68 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

7. Spot on under surface of secondaries just behind vein 2 nearer base 
of wing than rest of band or absent. Band sometimes too much mod- 
ified to show this difference 8 

This spot on a line with rest of band or outside of it ; band well marked, 
white viridis 

8. Spots not confluent, their size variable; under surface usually dark 

with sparse over-scaling woodgatei 

Spots usually confluent or over-scaling dense 9 

9. Upper surface bright with sharp contrasts; costal area of primaries 

fulvous; white spots of lower surface very large and bright juba 

Upper surface with a variable diffusion of fuscous; when maculation 
is sharp, the other characters differ. Spots below moderate to greatly 
reduced, white or yellowish 10 

10. Maculation below yellow but not reduced sassacus 12 

Maculation white or greatly reduced 11 

11. Macular band with one spot before vein 7, one behind vein 2 followed 
by a trace of a second; band irregular; superficial vestiture gray- 



green 



.nevada 



Band equally contrasting but more regular and abbreviated, usually 
with no spot before 7 and only one reduced spot behind 2 ; superficial 

vestiture green Colorado 

Spots dull white; superficial vestiture golden brown manitoba 

Under surface of secondaries very smooth in appearance, yellow; spots 

white idaho 

Spots greatly reduced, white assiniboia 

Spots greatly reduced, yellowish oregonia 

12. Under surface of secondaries pale; maculation faint sassacus 

Under surface dark; maculation contrasting . sassacus, race manitoboides 

13. Under surface of secondaries dark red-brown with pale, cream-white 

spots leonardus 

Under surface otherwise 14 

14. Pale maculation above very diffuse; pale area in end of cell of pri- 
maries showing two pale nuclei, always vague, .sassacus, race dacotae 
Cell of primaries with two sharply defined spots in end, or with these 
indistinguishably fused 15 

15. Disk of secondaries above with fulvous spots ( $ ) ; under surface very 

dark ( $ ) attains, race seminole 

Disk more or less broadly fulvous ($); under surface pale ($)... .16 

16. Under surface of secondaries yellow-fulvous, with or without vague 

traces of large spots meskei 

Under surface of a lighter shade, more or less yellow; spots small 
or absent 17 

17. Southern species, Florida, Texas, Ohio? attains 

Prairie species, Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, Montana, and California 
ottoe, pawnee, pawnee race montana 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 69 

1. P AM PHI LA UNCAS 

Hesperia uncas Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 19, pi. v, f. 3, 1863. 
Hesperia ridingsi Reakirt, Proe. Ent. Soc. Phil, vi, 151, 1866. 
Hesperia axius Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 213, 1883. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. in, 1862, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 349, pi. xlvii, ff. 27, 28, 1898. 
Colorado and Arizona, June and July. 

2. P AM PHI LA LASUS 

Pamphila lasus Edw., Papilio iv, 54, 1884. 

Described from Arizona. I do not know the species. 

3. PAMPHILA LICINUS 

Pamphila licinus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 275, 1871. 
I do not know this species. 

4. PAMPHILA ME TEA 

Hesperia metea Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 177, 1862. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1650, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 348, pi. xlvii, ff. 33, 34, 1898. 

New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Isl- 
and; May and June. This species is readily distinguished by its dark 
color, vague, whitish maculation and the tendency of the macular band on 
the under surface of the secondaries to be produced along the veins. The 
spots making up this band are neither separate nor very bright as in the 
other dark colored species. 

5. PAMPHILA MORRISONI 

Pamphila morrisoni Edw., Field and Forest in, 116, 1878. 
Hesperia morissoni Plbtz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 215, 1883. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 478, pi. 93, ff. 9, 10, 1900. 

Colorado, May. 

This is a small, bright species which is readily recognked by the elonga- 
tion of the white mark in the cell of the secondaries below. 

6. PAMPHILA COLUMBIA 

Pamphila Columbia Scud., Syst. Rev. 56, (77), 1872. 

Pamphila sylvatwides Scud., (not Boisd.) Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 

(3), 351, pi. x, f. 22 (type), pi. xi, pp. 15, 17, 1874. 
Pamphila California Wright, Butt. W. Coast 241, pi. xxxi, 423, 1905. 
Thymelicus erynnioides Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xv, 50, 1907. 

California, April and October. 

All of the specimens in the Barnes collection have the band very even, 
as mentioned in the key; in Wright's figure it appears to be somewhat re- 
duced toward the anal angle, but the color of the under surface of the 
secondary is characteristic. 



70 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

7. PAMPHILA NEVADA (Plato I, Fig. 9) 
Pamph/ila nevada Scud., Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, u, 347, pi. x, ff. 1-4, pi. 

xi, ff. 3, 4, 1874. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 240, pi. xxx, pp. 418, c, 419, b, c, 421, b, c, 1905. 

I follow Dr. McDunnough in making this species distinct from comma. 
There is some difference in the male genitalia and if we restrict nevada 
to the typical form the under surface differs as noted in the key. Arizona 
to Northern Canada. 

8. PAMPHILA COMMA 

PampMla comma Linn., Syst. Nat. 484, 1758. 

Comma is a European species and does not occur in its typical form in 
this country. 

8a. race COLORADO PI. I, fig. 11 
Pamphila Colorado Scud., Mem. Bbst. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 349, pi. x, ff. 16, 
17, 18, pi. xi, ff. 1, 2, 1874. 
Arizona north to Washington, California. 

In the typical form the under surface of the secondaries is bright green 
with the band pure white, short, rather even, and the basal marks united 
to form a U. 

8b. race MANITOBA 
Pamphila ma7iitoba Scud., Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 351, pi. X, ff. 8- 

11, pi. xi, ff. 7, 8, 1874. 
Scud., Butt. New Eng. II, 1646, 1889. 

Pamphila manitoba, var. laurentina Lyman, Can. Ent. xxrv, 57, 1892. 
Northwestern United States and Western Canada. 
The typical form is golden brown beneath with whitish maculation. 

8c. race IDAHO 
Pamphila Colorado, var. idalw Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 148, 1883. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 241, pi. xxxi, f. 422, 1905. 

California, Oregon, north into Canada. 

The smooth, yellow appearance of the under surface of the secondaries 
is characteristic. 

8d. race ASSINIBOIA 
Pamphila manitoba, var. assiniboia Lyman, Can. Ent. xxrv, 57, 1892. 
Begina, Canada. 

8e. race OBEGONIA Plate i, fig. 13 
Pamphila oregonia Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 150, 1883. 

Nevada, west to the coast and north into Canada. 

The maculation of the under surface is similar to that of assiniboia but 
yellowish instead of white. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 71 

9. PAMPHILA RU RICO LA 

Hesperia ruricola Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 315, 1852. 

Described from California. 

Many things have been referred to this species, which may be one of the 
forms of comma. I know nothing of the type nor of authentic specimens. 

10. PAMPHILA JUBA 

Hesperia comma Boisd. (not Linn.), Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 313, 

1852. 
Pamplvila juba Scud., Syst. Rev. 5G, (77), 1872. 
Scudder, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 349, pi. x, ff. 19, 20, pi. xi, ff. 5, 

6, 1874. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 239, pi. xxx, ff. 417, 418b $ (not viridis $ ), 1905. 
Oberthiir, Etudes ix, (1), p. 43, pi. coxl, f. 2082 (comma Bdv.). 
Utah, Colorado, Nevada, California; May and June. 

11. PAMPHILA WOOD GAT EI 

Pamphila icoodgatei Williams, Ent. News xxv, 266, 1914. 

Arizona, Texas and New Mexico; September and October. 

This has been placed as a variety of juba but I believe that it is dis- 
tinct. I have had no males for dissection. 

12. PAMPHILA VIRIDIS (Plate I, Fig. 12) 
Pamphila juba var. viridis Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 147, 1883. 

Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas; June and September. 

The form of the macular band in this species is unique and apparently 
constant. 

13. PAMPHILA LEONARDUS 

Hesperia leonardus Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg., 3rd ed., 314, f. 138, 1862. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1673, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 349, pi. xlvii, ff. 35, 36, 1898. 

New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, west to the Mississippi; occa- 
sional in eastern Iowa; August and September. Scudder records it from 
Ontario and Florida, the latter in March and April (Butt. New Eng. n, 
1676-7). 

14. PAMPHILA CABELUS 

Pamphila cabelus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 4, 1881. 

Described from Nevada. 

This is another of our lost species of Pamphila. Apparently it belongs in 
the ottoe group. 

15. PAMPHILA HARPALUS 

Pamphila harpalus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 3, 1881. 
Described from Nevada. 
The same may be said of this as of the preceding. 



72 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

16. PAMPHILA AT TALUS 

PampMla attains Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 276, 1871. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. H, 1653, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Bbok 349, pi. xlvii, f. 23, 1898. 

Florida, Texas. In the Barnes collection several specimens are labelled 
Ohio, and Scudder (Butt. New Eng. n, 1655) mentions records from Wis- 
consin, Iowa and New Jersey. I think that the middle western records 
are more likely to be pawnee or ottoe. Southern specimens of attalus are 
darker than these two species, and have the spots of the upper surface dark- 
er and more reddish. 

16a. race SEMINOLE 
Ocytes seminole Scud., Syst. Eev. 55, (76), 1872. 
Erynnis attalus quaiapen Scud., Butt. New Eng. 1655, 1889. 
PampMla slossonae Skinner, Ent. Amer. vi, 138, 1890. 

Florida, April to June, October. 

Seminole is very dark both above and below. The maculation is re- 
stricted in the male, and the under surface of the primaries very slightly 
marked with fulvous, while in the female all spots are whitish and the 
under surface is not marked with fulvous. Scudder describes quaiapen as 
a female form of attalus. 

17. PAMPHILA MESKEI 

PampMla meslcei Edw., Can. Ent. ix, 58, 1877. 
PampMla straton Edw., Papilio, i, 78, 1881. 

Florida and Texas. 

I have seen only three males in the Barnes collection. These resemble 
attalus above; beneath the secondaries are yellow-fulvous, immaculate in 
one of the three specimens and with traces of large, diffuse, pale spots in 
the other two. 

18. PAMPHILA OTTOE 

Hesperia ottoe Edw., Proc. Ent. Soe. Phil, vr, 207, 1866. 
Scudder, Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 348, pi. x, f. 6, pi. xi, f. 13, 1874. 
In the typical form the males are tawny above with a very narrow ter- 
minal border of fuscous, and compared specimens' in the Barnes collec- 
tion have the under surface bright yellow. I have taken a species at Sioux 
City, Iowa, in late July and early August which I have placed as ottoe 
and which is distinguished by the ochraceous under surface and the exten- 
sion of the pale area of the upper surface along the veins into the moder- 
ately broad fuscous terminal border. True pawnee occurs in this locality 
at a different season. Specimens in the Barnes collection are from Mon- 
tana. 

19. PAMPHILA PAWNEE 

Hesperia pawnee Dodge, Can. Ent. vi, 44, 1874. 

Montana, July. Colorado, September. Omaha, Neb., June. South Da- 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 73 

kota, Sioux City, Iowa, late June and early July, late August and early 
September. Described from Dodge County, Neb. 

The under surface is usually immaculate yellow, in the female sometimes 
grayish and usually with small pale spots. The spots on the upper surface 
of the primaries in the female are very pale, and this sex closely resembles 
attalus. The males of this species may be distinguished by the more ex- 
tensive pale areas of the upper surface and their lighter shade. 

19a. race MONTANA 
Pamphila pawnee subsp. montana Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 413, 1911. 

California, Colorado, Montana. 

A specimen in the Barnes collection which has been compared with the 
type is much darker than normal pawnee, both above and below. 

20. PAMPHILA SASSACUS 
Hesperia sassacus Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg., 3rd ed., 315, 1862. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1641, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 348, pi. xlvi, f. 13, 1898. 
Holland, Butterfly Book pi. xlvii, f. 44, 1898, (not sylvanoides) . 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. x, f. 5, 1904. 

New Jersey, New York and Connecticut, westward into Iowa; June, 
July, August. 

20a. race MANITOBOIDES 
Pamphila manitoboides Fletcher, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1888, p. 85, 1889. 

Ontario, Canada. 

Dr. W. T. M. Forbes has called my attention to this relationship of 
manitoboides, which seems so close that I am adopting his arrangement. 
Formerly it has been called a distinct species or a form of comma, but 
it is identical with sassacus except in the darker color and greater contrast 
of the markings of the lower surface. 

20b. race DACOTAE 
Pamphila sassacus, subsp. dacotae Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 412, 1911. 

South Dakota, June. Sioux City, Iowa. 

I have seen paratypes of both sexes in the Barnes collection, and in the 
males the only difference which I can formulate between this form and 
sassacus is a general darkness of color and obscureness of the under sur- 
face. The females have the markings of the upper surface greatly reduced 
and diffuse, and the lower surface grayish with small, indefinite spots. 

21. PAMPHILA HORUS 

Hesperia horus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 277, 1871. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Contributions IV, (2), 80, 1918. 

Type locality Dallas, Texas. Apparently this species belongs in Pam- 
phila, but I know nothing of it except from the description and Barnes and 
McDunnough 's note. 



74 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



Genus HYLEPHILA Billberg 

Hylephila Billb., Enum. Ins. 81, 1820. Type Papilio phylaeus 

Drury. 
Euthymus Scud., Syst. Rev. 56, (77), 1872. Type P. phylaeus 

Drury. 
This genus closely resembles Pamphila in structure but dif- 
fers in the very short antennae and the straighter stigma. The 
female, as in Atalopedes, does not differ much in general struc- 
ture from the male; some are almost indistinguishable from 
campestris, but they never have hyaline spots on the primaries. 
We have but one species of Hylephila. 

1. HYLEPHILA PHYLAEUS 

Papilio phylaeus Drury, 111. Ex. Ent. I, 25, pi. xm, ff. 4, 5, 1770 and II, 

app., 1773. 
Pherniades augias Hiibner, (not Linn.), Zutr. exot. Schmett. n, 10, pi. 531, 

ff. 227, 228, 1821-23. 
Pamphila bucephalus Steph., 111. Brit. Ent. Haust. I, 102, pi. 10, ff. 1, 2, 

1828. 
9 Pamphila Mia Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1870, 504, (fide G. & 

S.). 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1631, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, 354, pi. xlvii, f. 40, (not brettus$), pi. xlvi, ff. 

18, 19, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast pi. xxxi, f. 437 (not brettus $ ), 138 $ , b and c $ 
(not brettoides), 1905. 

Pennsylvania, August; Illinois, April and 
October. Southern United States from Flor- 
ida to Arizona, April to October. Califor- 
nia, June and July. 

Genus ATALOPEDES Scudder 
Atalopedes Scudder, Syst. Rev. 57, 
(78), 1872. Type Hesperia Hur- 
on Edw. 
Pansydia Scud., Syst. Rev. 60, (81), 
1872. Type Hesperia mesogram- 
ma Poey. 
Apiculus of antennae longer than in 
Pamphila, over one-half thickness of 
Fig. 24. AM^edes campcsMs club ^ female. Stigma a large, black 

Boisd, a^CluW antenna, b. Pal- blotch? SQ great l y developed aS to 




IIESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 75 

cause distortion of the posterior margin of the cell so that oppo- 
site the stigma the width of the cell is less than its distance from 
the margin. Base of vein 3 strongly curved; apical angle of 
cell more produced than in Pamphila; vein 7 of secondaries near- 
er to 8 than to end of cell in male. There is much less differ- 
ence in structure between the sexes in this genus than in Pam- 
phila. Fig. 24. 

1. ATALOPEDES CAMPESTRIS 

Hesperia campestris Boisd., Ann. Soe. Ent. France (2), x, 316, 1852. 
$ Hesperia sylvanoides Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 313, 1852. 
Hesperia huron Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 16, pi. i, ff, 1, 2, 1863. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1661, 1884. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 352, pi. xlvi, ff, 4, 5, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 245, pi. xxxi, f. 435, 1905. 

Oberthiir, Etudes IX, (1), pi. coxl, ff. 2082, $ type; 2085, $ type of syl- 
vanoides, 1905. 

Atlantic to Pacific, Gulf to northern Iowa and Illinois; March to Octo- 
ber. 

The large stigma of the male and the hyaline spots on the primaries of 
the female furnish a convenient means for the identification of this species. 

Genus AUGIADES Hiibner 
Augiades Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 112, 1820. Type Papilio 

sylvanus Esper. 
Ochlodes Scud., Syst. Rev. 57, (78), 1872. Type Hesperia ne- 
morum Boisd. 

Palpi upturned; third joint oblique, very small, without its 
vestiture about one-quarter as long as the second. Apiculus of 
antennae variable but never longer than diameter of club. Costa 
of primaries flattened; outer margin more strongly curved to- 
ward apex; cell about three-fifths as long as wing; vein 5 curv- 
ing slightly toward 4; discocellulars very oblique. Secondaries 
rounded, slightly lobed at anal angle. Stigma straight, moder- 
ately heavy, extending from base of vein 3 to basal two-fifths 
of 1, broken on 2. Mid tibiae weakly spined. Fig. 23. 

I group this rather varied lot of species because of the ex- 
tremely short third joint of their palpi. This is not readily 
seen except when bleached or denuded, but I have carefully ex- 
amined sylvanus, sylvanoides, agricola, and snowi and find that 
they agree, while the others can readily be associated on super- 
ficial resemblance. Other structures are rather variable. 



76 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Key to the species 

1. Spots of primaries shaply defined, often hyaline or subhyaline 2 

Spots more or less ill defined, never hyaline 3 

2. Expanse over one inch; fulvous spots restricted snowi 

Less than one inch; fulvous of secondaries a diffused discal patch 
milo, agricola 

3. Large; wings pale, tawny, with a little fuscous along the outer mar- 
gin yuma 

Smaller ; wings not broadly tawny 4 

4. Under surface of secondaries with a variably distinct pale transverse 

band ; ground color not pure pale yellowish sylvanoides, napa 

Under surface without a pale band, yellow. nemorum, pratvncola 

1. AUGIADES SYLVANOIDES 

Eesperia sylvanoides Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 313, 1852. 
9 Eesperia pratmcola Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 315, 1852. 
Eesperia agricola Plotz, (not Boisd.), Stett, ent. Zeit. xuv, 219, 1883. 
Eesperia francisea Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 220, 1883. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 243, pi. xxxi, ff. 430, c, 432, 433, b, c, 1905. 
Oberthur, Etudes ix, (1), pi. ccxl, ff. 2083, 2084, 2089, 1913. 

California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia; June to August. 

la. race NAPA 
Eesperia napa Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, iv, 202, pi. i, ff. 3, 4, 1864. 

Colorado, August. 

This is practically the same in appearance as sylvanoides but is larger 
and the under surface of the secondaries is less variable. 

2. AUGIADES NEMORUM 

Eesperia nemorum Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 314, 1852. 
PampMla verus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 4, 1881. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast, pi. xxxi, ff. 430b, 431, 431c?, 1905. 
Oberthur, Etudes ix, (1), pi. OCXL, f. 2086, 1913 (type). 

California, June. 

2a. race PEATINCOLA 
Eesperia pratincola Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 315, 1852. 
Oberthur, Etudes ix, (1), pi. ccxl, f. 2088, 1913 (type). 

I follow Barnes and McDunnough 's Check List in placing this form. 
The insect is not represented in the Barnes collection, but Oberthur 's ex- 
cellent figure looks like a specimen of nemorum with the fuscous marginal 
areas of the upper surface greatly reduced. 

3. AUGIADES AGRICOLA 

Eesperia agricola Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 314, 1852. 
Eesperia yreka Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, vi, 207, 1866. 
PampMla milo Edw., Can. Ent. xv, 34, 1883. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 77 

Pamphila nemorum Skinner (not Boisd.), Ent. News xi, pi. n, f. 21, 1900. 

Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. IX, f. 21, 1904. 

Oberthiir, Etudes IX, (1), pi. coxl, f. 2087, 1913 (type). 

California, May to July. 

Edward's description states that milo has hyaline spots in the primaries 
and agricola none; Oberthiir 's figure proves that they are present in the 
type of agricola, hence milo is probably merely a synonym. 

4. AUGIADES SNOWI 

Pamphila snowi Edw., Can. Ent. ix, 29, 1877. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 350, pi. xlvii, ff. 29, 30, 1898. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 483, pi, 93, ff. 19-23, 1900. 
Arizona and Colorado, June and July. 

5. AUGIADES YUMA 

Hesperia yuma Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. iv, 346, 1873. 
Pamphila scudderi Skinner, Ent. News x, 111, 1899. 
Skinner, Ent. News XI, pi. n, ff. 9, 10, 1900. 
California, June. Utah and Arizona, July. 

Genus POLITE S Scudder 
Polites Scud., Syst. Rev. 57, (78), 1872. Type Hesperia peckius 

Kirby. 
Hedone Scud., op. cit. 58, (79), Type Hesperia brettus Bd. & 

Lee. 
Lhnochores Scud., op. cit. 59, (80). Type Hesperia manataaqua 

Scud. 
Pyrrhosidia Scud., Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, n, 346, 1874. 

Type Hesperia mystic Edw. 
Palpi upturned ; third joint about one-half as long as second, 
slender, distinct. Antennae shorter than in Augiades, varying 
from two-fifths as long as the primaries in some females to one- 
half in some males; club rather large, usually longer in the 
female and occasionally almost as long as the shaft; apiculus 
abruptly constricted and reflexed, shorter than thickness of club 
though variable in length. Wings variable; costa of primaries 
usually straight except at base and apex but sometimes slightly 
emarginate or convex; outer margin very slightly sinuate to 
evenly rounded, more rounded in the female. Primaries often 
apically produced in the male, less so in the female. Second- 
aries broadly rounded, very slightly lobed at the anal angle. 
Cell of primaries about three-fifths as long as wing ; vein 5 much 



78 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



nearer to 4 than to 6 at base ; 2 always arising nearer to 3 than 
to base of wing but variable ; discocellulars moderately oblique. 

Mid tibiae with promi- 
nent spines. Stigma of 
male in its most com- 
plex form made up of 
an outer oblique black 
line, a black dash from 
end of cell to vein 2 
and a black spot above 
the basal third of vein 
1, the enclosed space 
filled with gray scales, 
and the entire stigma 
followed by a patch of 
raised gray scales. In 
many of the species the 
stigma is much sim- 
pler. Fig. 25. 

I believe that the ac- 
tion of Barnes and Mc- 
Dunnough with refer- 
ence to this group of 
species ( Contributions 
in, 130) is the best 
possible treatment. It 
may be possible to split 
3ff Limochores but I 
find such a complete 
transition in the structures that I hesitate to do so. I place verna 
here because its relation to manataaqua seems to me much closer 
than with the species of Atrytonopsis, where Barnes and McDun- 
nough place it, The gentitalia of the male are closer to deva, but 
those of the two genera are of a very similar type. The apiculus 
of the antennae is usually longer than in Polites, but I have found 
it variable, and in some specimens fairly short. 
Key to the species 

1. Under surface of secondaries immaculate or with a transverse band of 
pale spots, never sharply bent opposite cell nor with spot at this point 

much the largest 2 

Secondaries otherwise below 7 




Fig. 25. Polites. Antenna] clubs : a. verna, b. man- 
ataaqua f; , c. manataaqua Q. Palpi: d. verna, e. 
verna. denuded, dorsal aspect, f. manataaqua, g. 
brettus, denuded. Neuration and details: h. peekius A , 
i. Posterior margin of cell of primaries of peekius , 
j. Same, taumas ^ , k. Same, mystic Q, 1. Same, 
sonora ^ , m. Same, manataaqua Q, n. Middle leg 
of verna 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 79 

2. Upper surface of secondaries immaculate or with a few very vague 

spots 

Upper surface always with the transverse row of spots, more or less 
suffused; usually with a spot in cell 5 

3. Small Florida species. Stigma of male very small, female usually 
with a few powdery whitish spots on the under surface of the sec- 
ondaries baracoa 

Usually moderate to large. Stigma large. Spots, when present, not 
superficial and powdery, and usually showing slightly on upper sur- 
face 

4. Smaller; male stigma with several velvety black areas; female with 
maculation of primaries tinged with fulvous, costa and cell often part- 
ly fulvous cernes 

Larger; stigma of male continuous or broken only on vein 2; macula- 
tion of female pale, whitish, rarely with a little pale fulvous in cell 

manataaqua 

5. Under surface of secondaries powdered with yellowish to green scales; 

macular band slender sonora 

Color straw yellow to brown ; band broader 6 

6. Male stigma slender, broken on vein 2; female usually with much yel- 
low-fulvous above; in western specimens pale below and well marked 

above m V stic 

Male stigma with three black areas; female with hazy transverse rows 
of spots on all wings and some fulvous in cell, not extensively marked ; 
dark below, powdered with yellow. Western species mardon 

7. Pale areas on under surface extending in pale lines along the veins 

sabuleti 

Pale areas at most angulate on veins 8 

8. All spots of macular band large, but not equal, that between 4 and 6 

largest ; color yellow peckius 

Spots small except the one between 4 and 6 ; color white or whitish 

draco 

Pale area covering entire wing except a few dark patches, not divided 
into separate spots and rarely defined as a band ; secondaries sometimes 
entirely yellow below. Female with yellow areas heavily powdered with 
dark scales ; secondaries immaculate above 9 

9. Male stigma very broad stigma 

Male stigma moderate brettus, chuska ( ?) 

1. POLITE S VEEN A 
Pamphila verna Edw., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1862, 57. 
Pamphila pottawattomie Worth., Can. Ent. xn, 50, 1880. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1742, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 360, pi. xlvi, f. 32, 1898. 
Eastern United States, west to Colorado, July. 



80 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

2. POLITE 8 MANATAAQUA 

Hesperia cern-es Harris, (not Boisd.), Ins. Inj. Veg., 3rd ed., 316, 1862. 
Hesperia manataaqua Scudder, Proc. Ess. Inst, ill, 175, 1863. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1720, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 357, pi. xlvi, f. 30, 1898. 

Northeastern United States west into Nebraska and South Dakota; June 
and July. 

Holland's figure looks like a dark female of taumas. Manataaqua is 
readily distinguished from taumas in the female sex by its darker color, 
paler maculation and larger size, though the difference is difficult to explain 
in a key. 

2a. race EHENA 
Pamphila rhena Edw., Field and Forest in, 115, 1878. 
PampMla alcina Skinner, Ent. News IV, 212, 1893. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, 414, pi. n, f. 25, 1900 (type of alcina). 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, f. 25, 1904 (type of alcina). 

Although retained for many years as a species this is apparently only the 
western race of manataaqua. It is distinguished from the typical form by 
its paler color, more extensive markings and the larger amount of pale 
tawny or yellow fulvous which marks the upper surface. Colorado. 

3. POLITE S TAUMAS 

Papilio taumas Fab., Mant. Ins. n, 84, 1787. 

Hesperia thaumas Fab. (not Hufn.), Ent. Syst. in, (i), 327, 1793. 

Hesperia phocion Fab., Ent. Syst., Supp. 431, 1798. 

Hesperia cernes Bd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 76, ff. 1, 2, 1833. 

Hesperia ahaton Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 3rd ed., 317, f. 140, 1862. 

Butler, Cat, Fab. Diurn. Lep. B. M., 277, pi. 2, f. 14; pi. 3, f. 9, 1869. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1725, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 357, pi. xlvii, f. 20, 1898. 

United States and Canada, April to August. 

I see no reason to doubt that Fabricius ' name applies to this species. 

4. POLITES BARACOA 

Hesperia baracoa Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba vn, 650, 1857. 
Pamphila amadis H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Begensb. xvn, 142, 1863. 
Pamphila myus French, Can. Ent. xvn, 33, 1885. 

Florida, February to April, July, September. I have seen one record of 
its occurrence at Toronto, Canada (A List of Butterflies taken at Toronto, 
Gibson, Ont. Nat. Sci. Bull. No. 6, 1910, 35-44. Baracoa det, Skinner) but 
the only specimens which I have seen came from Florida. 

The species is smaller and darker than taumas and the males are easily 
distinguished by the small stigma. Some females of taumas run very 
close, but in most specimens of baracoa the powdery spots mentioned in 
the key are present. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 81 

5. POLITE 8 MARDON 

Pamphila mardon Edw., Papilio i, 47, 1881. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 354, pi. xlvii, f. 26, 1898. 
Washington, Oregon. 

6. POLITES PECKIUS 

Hesperia peclcius Kirby, Faun. Bor. Am. iv, 300, pi. 4, ff. 2, 3, 1837. 
Resperia wamsutta Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 3rd ed., 318, f. 141, 1862. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1683, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book, 353, pi. xlvii, ff. 24, 25, 1898. 

Atlantic coast to Texas and Arizona, southern Canada; May to July. 

It requires more imagination than I possess to see pecl'ius in Cramer's 
figure of coras. 

7. POLITES 8 ABU LET I 

Hesperia sabuleti Boisd., Ann. Soc. France (2), x, 316, 1852. 
Hesperia genoa Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 207, 1883. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 246, pi. xxxi, 440, 1905. 
Oberthiir, Etudes IX, (1), pi. cdXL, ff. 2091, 2092, 1913. 

California, April, July to September. 

The pale marks of the lower surface are yellowish on a background of 
darker yellowish color. 

7a. race TECUMSEH 
Pamphila sabuleti, var. tecumseh Grinnell, Ent. News xiv, 11, 1903. 
Pamphila chispa Wright, Butt. W. Coast 247, pi. xxxi, f. 441, 1905. 

California, June to August. 

Tecumseh is smaller than typical sabuleti and has the fulvous areas of 
the upper surface more restricted. The under surface has a greenish-gray 
tone and the pale spots are smaller. 

8. POLITES DRACO 

Pamphila draco Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 274, 1871. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. n, f. 23, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, f. 23, 1904. 

California, Utah and Colorado, June to August. 

9. POLITES SONORA 

Ochlodes sonora Scud., Syst. Rev. 57, (78), 1872. 

Pamphila siris Edw., Papilio I, 47, 1881. 

Pamphila sylvanoides Skinner, Syn. Cat. N. Am. Rhop. 84, 1898. 

Wright, Butt. W. Coast 242, pi. xxxi, f. 425, 426 (not Columbia), 1905. 

Washington, Oregon, California; May, June, July and August. 

The only difference which I can see between this and Skinner's variety 
in the series in the Barnes collection is the more yellow color of the under 
surface of its secondaries. 



82 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

9a. race UTAHENSIS 
PampMla sylvanoides, subsp. utahensis Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 413, 1911. 

Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah; July and August. 

I would apply this name to the specimens of sylvanoides which are green 
below. 

10. POLITES MYSTIC 
Hesperia mystio Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, ni, 172, 1863. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 351, pi. xlvi, ff. 22, 23, 1898. 

New Jersey, north into Canada and west beyond the Missouri Biver; 
May to July. 

Most specimens from the western limits of the range are of the race 
dacotah, but I have typical mystic from Sioux City, Iowa. In this form 
the under surface of the secondaries is fairly dark with a contrasting pale 
band. 

10a. race DACOTAH 
Hesperia dacotah Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Ill, 277, 1871. 
PampMla mystio, subsp. pallida Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 412, 1911. 

Colorado, June; eastward into Iowa. South Dakota. 

The under surface of the secondaries is yellow, scarcely darker than the 
pale transverse band in extreme specimens. 

ab. WEETAMOO 
Thymelicus mystic weetamoo Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1707, 1889. 

A dark brown melanic aberration occurring in the female sex. Ordinary 
maculation much reduced, of separate spots. 

ab. NUBS 
Thymelicus mystic nubs Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1707, 1889. 
Also a female aberration; dark areas suffused with tawny scales. 

11. POLITES BRETTUS 

Hesperia brettus Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 75, ff. 3-5, 1833. 

Hesperia wingina Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 173, 1863. 

Hesperia unna Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 204, 1883. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1701, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 351, pi. xlvii, f. 41, 1898. 

Gibson, Ont. Nat. Sci. Bull. No. 6, 42, 1910. 

Florida, north to Virginia, west to Texas; April, July, August and Octo- 
ber. Gibson lists one specimen from Toronto, Canada, determined by Dr. 
Skinner. 

11a. race BBETTOIDES 

PampMla brettoides Edw., Papilio in, 71, 1883. 

Western Texas and Arizona. 

Brettoides has very narrow dark outer margins on the upper surface in 
the male, with no more than a trace of the patch at the end of the stigma; 
the under surface is likewise broadly tawny yellow. I do not know the 
female. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 83 

12. P0LITE8 STIGMA 

Pamphila stigma Skinner, Can. Ent. xxviii, 188, 1896. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. n, f. 15, 16, 1900 (15 Co-type). 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, ff. 15, 16, 1904 (15 Cotype). 

Texas, New Mexico. 

I have seen the type of stigma in the Strecker collection, and it is sim- 
ilar to brettus but dark, heavily marked above, and has a very large stigma. 
Fib ex is intermediate between it and brettus but at present I am not pre- 
pared to agree with Dyar's suggestion that they are all the same species 
(Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soe. xin, 128, 1905). Godman and Salvin make stigma 
synonymous with vibex (Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 480, 1900). 

13. POLITE8 CHUSKA 

Hesperia chuslca Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. IV, 346, 1873. 

I know nothing of this species. It is placed between sabuleti and draco 
in Barnes and McDunnough 's Check List, but this was done merely with 
a knowledge of the description. The type locality is Arizona. 

Genus CATIA Godman & Salvin 

Catia G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. h, 481, 1900. Type Hes- 
peria druryi Latreille. 

Catia is structurally similar to Polites 
but differs in the long slender apiculus 
of the antennae, which always exceeds 
the diameter of the club, and in the form 
of the male stigma. The stigma is com- 
posed of a velvety black patch below the 
end of the cell and a similar patch above 
the inner third of the anal vein, with F i g . 26. cat™ otho a. & s. a. 
large, silky, gray scales between. In the Club of ant€nnae ' b ' Neuraticn 
bleached wing it appears as two similar oval spots, one on each 
side of vein 1. Fig. 26. 

In describing Catia Godman and Salvin say of the peculiar 
structure of the stigma that it ' ' is so remarkable that we think 
it of sufficient importance to put the species possessing this char- 
acter into a separate genus." Otho is closely related to the 
species now included in Polites and was formerly associated with 
some of them in Thymelicus, but the form of the apiculus sep- 
arates them, and no fundamental or superficial similarity can 
be traced in the stigmata. 




84 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

1. CAT I A OTHO 

Papilio otho A. & S., Lep. Ins. Ga. i, 31, pi. 16, 1797. 

Hesperia drury Latr., Enc. Meth. ix, 767, 1823. 

Thymelicus pustula Geyer, Zutr. exot. Schmett. iv, ff. 625, 626, 1832. 

Redone aetna Scud, (not Boisd.), Syst. Bev. 58, (79), 1872. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1696, 1889. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Bhop. II, 482, pi. 93, f. 18, $ gen., 1900. 

Florida and Texas, May and June. 

The southern specimens which I refer to otho tend to a reddish shade 
on the under surface; on the upper surface of the secondaries there are 
some discal spots, while the primaries have fulvous on the basal half of 
the costa, a complete series of subapical spots, and sometimes other ful- 
vous marks in addition to those found in egeremet. 

la. race EGEREMET 
Hesperia egeremet Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 174, 1863. 
Pamphila ursa Worth., Can. Ent. xn, 49, 1880. 
Hesperia cinna Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 58, 1883. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1696, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 351, pi. xlvi, ff. 28, 29, 1898. 

United States and southern Canada, west to the Eocky Mountains; July. 
Texas in October. 

Under surface pale fuscous, sometimes tinged with brown; secondaries 
rarely with a trace of discal marks above, and pale spots of primaries lim- 
ited to three or less beyond the stigma and one or two subapical points. 

The females of otho and egeremet have the same pale marks as the males. 

^gSSBfoi^ G enus POANES Scudder 

Poanes Scudder, Syst. Rev., 55, (76), 1872. 
^^^ Type Hesperia massasoit Scud. 

^$$7^ Phycanassa Scud., op. cit. 56, (77). Type Hes- 
peria viator Edw. 
Paratrytone Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xiii, 136, 
1905. Type Pamphila howardi Skinner. 

Palpi oblique; second joint shaggy, third 
small, not long though sometimes rendered 
prominent by its vestiture. Antennae about 
one-half as long as primaries; club large, api- 
culus varying from rather slender and slightly 
shorter than thickness of club to long, thick, 
Fig. 27. Antennai tapering and not well reflexed. Primaries 
vMor\ P ?Z e /asou, trigonate ; costa slightly convex; outer margin 
c. hobomok^taxiies, lightly to prominently rounded ; apex rather 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 85 

prominent. Secondaries broadly rounded, slightly lobed at anal 
angle. Cell of primaries well over one-half as long as wing ; vein 
5 moderately curved in basal half, arising nearer to 4 than to 6 ; 
2 nearer to 3 than to base of wing. Cell of secondaries less than 
one-half as long as wing. Mid tibiae with a few long spines. 
Fig 27. 

Hobomok, zabidon, taxiles, and melane were first placed in 
Poanes by Barnes and McDunnough (Contributions in, 132, 
1916). Although melane is rather anomalous, it apparently 
belongs with the other species, whose relation to massasoit 
through hobomok is obvious. Owing to the great range of varia- 
tion thus introduced into the genus in the structure of the an- 
tennae, palpi, and wings, I have added also viator, which differs 
somewhat in wing form, and the species placed by recent writers 
in Paratrytone. These last possess the stigma in the male but 
it is so variable that I regard it as in the process of development. 
In howardi, aaroni, and streckeri it is very slender, sometimes 
scarcely visible but often well marked, and in yehl it is heavier 
but very variable. In one of the types it is slender, while in the 
other it is as heavy as in some specimens of conspicu-a. Includ- 
ing all of these species Poanes becomes such a complex genus that 
I have drawn up the following diagram to show the apparent 
relations of the several groups: 

howardi 

\ 

aaroni 

\ 

yehl streckeri 

\ / 

\ »/ 

\ / 
massasoit 

/ \ 

hobomok \ 

/ \ 

zabulon \ 

/ \ 

taxdes viator 

/ 
melane 



86 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Key to the species 

1. Under surface of secondaries with bright yellow marks 2 

No clear yellow on under surface 4 

2. Yellow a broad transverse band crossed by a broad ray through cell . . 3 
Yellow much more extensive sabulon 

3. Wings broadly yellow-fulvous with narrow fuscous margins; yellow of 

under surface rather dull taxiles 

Wings less broadly fulvous and more or less fuscous within outer mar- 
gin; yellow of under surface of secondaries very bright hobomok 

Wings dark, with or without small pale spots massasoit 

4. Upper surface of secondaries with pale markings indefinite, or faint; 

sometimes immaculate 5 

This surface with a bright yellow-fulvous patch 8 

5. Pale spot in cell of primaries at least faintly indicated .... pocahontas 
No trace of this spot 6 

6. Wings immaculate above massasoit form suffusa 

Wings with pale spots 7 

7. Under surface with some bluish irroration sabulon 9 

Without bluish irroration melane 

8. Primaries with definite spots or a dark stigma 9 

Spots diffuse, extended, or discal area broadly yellow -f ulvous ; male 
stigma pale, slender 10 

9. $ with stigma; 9 with three small, round, pale spots on under surface 
of secondaries yehl 

$ without stigma; 9 without such spots viator 

10. Under surface of secondaries with a vague, pale dash through cell 

howardi, aaroni 

Under surface partly greenish-fuscous with contrasting pale veins 
strecJceri 

1. POANES VIATOR 

Hesperia viator Edw., Proc. Ent. Soe, Phil, rv, 202, pi. i, f. 5, 1865. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1604, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 362, pi. xlvi, f. 15, 1898. 

New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Southeastern Canada, Omaha, Neb., 
(Leussler) ; June to August. 

2. POANES MASSASOIT 

Hesperia massasoit Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 171, 1863. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1597, .1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 361, pi. xlvi, ff. 21, 22, 1898. 

New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Iowa, July. Skinner (Cat. p. 80) 
records it westward and southward to Texas and Colorado. 

The male is either immaculate blackish brown above or with a few small 
yellow-fulvous spots, while the female frequently has the spots of large size 
an . a very pale shade. 



IIESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 87 

Form SUFFUSA 
Pamphila massasoit, var. suffusa Laurent, Ent. News in, 15, 1892. 
Skinner, Ent. News XI, pi. II, f. 22, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. IX, f. 22, 1904. 

New Jersey, New York; June and July. 

The pale area of the under surface of the secondaries of this form is 
heavily powdered with rusty brown scales. 

3. POANES HOBOMOK 

Hesperia hobomoJc Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 3rd ed., 313, f. 137, 1862. 
Atrytone zabulon Scud., (not Bd. & Lee), Butt. New Eng. n, 1617, 1889. 
Atrytone zabulon Holland (not Bd. & Lee), Butterfly Book 364, pi. xlvii, 
ff. 37, 38, 1898. 
West Virginia north into Canada and west into Nebraska; May and June. 

$ form POCAHONTAS 
Hesperia pocahontas Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, ni, 171, 1863. 
Hesperia quadaquina Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 381, 1868. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng., n, 1617, 1889. 
Skinner, Ent. News XI, pi. II, ff. 3, 4, 1900 (not normal hobomok $). 

Northeastern United States, Quebec; June. 

Pocahontas differs from the normal female in the pale shade and greater 
restriction of the spots on the upper surface, and the brown powdering of 
the secondaries below. 

4. POANES ZABULON 

Hesperia zabulon Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 76, ff. 6, 7, 1833. 
Hesperia zabulon, form pocahontas Holland (not Scudder), Butterfly Book 
364, pi. xlvii, f. 39, 1898, 

Illinois, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, North Carolina; May and August. 

Holland's figure looks much more like the true female of zabulon than 
like pocahontas, though it is impossible to identify a figure of the upper 
surface accurately. The under surface of the secondaries of the male of 
zabulon is bright yellow with a few marks of brown. In the female the 
brown areas are more extensive and the entire wing is so heavily powdered 
with rusty scales that it is difficult to trace the pale areas at all. 

5. POANES TAX1LES 

Pamphila taxiles Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 5, 1881. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 365, pi. xlvii, ff. 31, 32, 1898, 
Colorado and Arizona, June and July. Nevada, N. M. 

6. POANES MELANE 

Hesperia melane Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. n, 312, 1869. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Rhop. n, 494, pi. 94, ff. 30-34, 1900. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 365, pi. xlvi, ff. 7, 8, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 249, pi. xxxi, f. 453, 1905. 



88 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

California, south into Mexico; May. 

Melane and the female of taxiles are similar but they are not difficult to 
separate; usually the locality from which the specimens come is sufficient. 

7. POANES HOWARDI 

Pamphila howardi Skinner, Can. Ent. xxviii, 187, 1896. 
Phycanassa viator Holland, (not Edwards), Butterfly Book pi. xlvi, f. 14, 
1898. Op. cit. pi. xlvi, f. 38. 

Florida. 

The expanse of specimens which I have seen runs between thirty-two and 
thirty-six millimeters. Aside from this and its darker color the species 
does not differ superficially from aaroni. 

8. POANES AARONI 

Pamphila aaroni Skinner, Ent. News I, 6, 1890. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 363, pi. xlvi, f. 37, 1898. 

New Jersey, June and August. I have seen specimens only from Angle- 
sea and Atlantic City. 

Aaroni expands twenty-seven to thirty-three millimeters and is paler, 
more yellowish, than howardi. Howardi may yet prove to be a southern 
race of aaroni. 

9. POANES YEHL 

Pamphila yehl Skinner, Ent. News iv, 212, 1893. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 359, pi. xlvi, f. 40, 1898. 

Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi; August and September. 

Superficially this species looks more like a relative of A. conspicua but 
the mid tibiae are spined. The white spots on the under surface of the 
secondaries in the female are unique. 

10. POANES RADIANS 

Hesperia radians Lucas, Sagra's Hist. Cuba vu, 650, 1857. 
Pamphila streckeri Skinner, Ent. News iv, 211, 1893. 
Skinner, Ent. News xxviii, 82, 1917. 

Florida. 

The only specimen which I have seen is the type of streckeri and since 
it lacks the middle legs it is impossible to place the species definitely. 
Barnes and McDunnough place it in the genus Euphyes in the eheck list, 
but without specimens at hand. Its superficial resemblance is rather with 
aaroni. 

Genus ATRYTONE Scudder 
Atrytone Scud., Syst, Rev. 56, (77), 1872. Type Hesperia iowa 

Scud. 
Euphyes Scud., Syst. Rev. 59, (80), 1872. Type Hesperia meta- 

comet Harris. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 89 

Anatrytone Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xm, 140, 1905. Type 
Hesperia delaware Edwards. 

Palpi upturned; second joint closely appressed, smoothly and 
deeply scaled; third moderate, oblique. Antennae about one- 
half as long as primaries ; club long, moderately thick ; apiculus 
about as long as thickness of club, sometimes a little shorter. 
Costa of primaries flattened or very slightly convex; outer mar- 
gin moderately and almost evenly rounded; apex usually prom- 
inent. Secondaries rather small, rounded, slightly lobed at anal 
angle; a little more apically elongate in the females. Cell of 
primaries normal; discocellulars oblique, weak; vein 5 curved, 
nearer to 4 than to 6 ; 2 about intermediate between 3 and base 
of wing. Stigma present or absent, composed of two similar, 
slender, elliptic pieces placed end to end on opposite sides of 
vein 1. Mid tibiae without spines. 

The long antennal club and spineless mid tibiae make this a 
very distinct genus as used here, but no characters are available 
for the separation of Atrytone and Euphyes of other writers 
except the male stigma, which is present only in the species 
formerly placed in Euphyes. The types of the two do not re- 
semble each other, but in the species congeneric with them we 
find an excellent connecting series, in which arpa and byssus 
differ very slightly except in the stigma. 

Key to the species 

1. Under surface of secondaries immaculate or with a faint, pale, trans- 
verse band on disk 2 

Under surface of secondaries with two pale rays dion 

Under surface with a few diffuse spots forming a curved transverse 
row conspiciM 

2. Fringe of inner margin of secondaries white bimaoula 

Fringe of this margin not white 3 

3. Wings immaculate fuscous above and below or with a few small pale 

spots on primaries ($) vestris 

Wings with more pale markings 4 

4. Wings mostly dark brownish-gray below palatla 

Wings tinged with yellow or red below 5 

5. Stigma present arpa $ 

Stigma absent 6 

6. Upper surface of secondaries fuscous 7 

Secondaries with fulvous discal marks 8 



90 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

7. Primaries with a transverse row of fulvous spots arpa 9 

With diffuse pale fulvous areas arogos $ 

8. Veins black 9 

Veins not black arogos 

9. Wings usually broadly yellow-fulvous with a terminal fuscous band 

above; immaculate yellow or brownish yellow below logan 

Wings with the fulvous definitely limited; under surface of second- 
aries in most specimens with a faint pale transverse band, never clear 
yellow byssus 

1. ATRYTONE AROGOS 

Papilio vitellius A. & S., (not Fab.), Lep. Ins. Ga. 1, 33, pi. xvii, 1797. 
Hesperia arogos Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 76, ff. 3, 4, 5, 1833. 
Hesperia iowa Scud., Proe. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 401, 1868. 
Hesperia mutius Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 199, 1883. 
Atrytone vitellius Holland (not Fab.), Butterfly Book 364, pi. xlvi, f. 
6, 1898. 

Florida, August and September. Nebraska and Iowa, June and July. 
Ocean County, N. J., July (Davis). 

The pale tawny wings with their broad, even, fuscous borders distinguish 
the male; the female is readily associated with the male, but the fuscous 
is more extensive, encroaching upon the discal area and often almost oblit- 
erating the tawny color. 

2. ATRYTONE LOGAN.. 

Hesperia logan Edw., Proe. Ent. Soc. Phil. 11, 18, pi. 1, f. 5, 1863. 

Hesperia delaware Edw., op. cit. p. 19, pi. 5, f. 2. 

Seudder, Butt. New Eng. 11, 1614, 1889. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. 11, 490, pi. 94, ff. 4-6, 1900. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 365, pi. xlvi, f. 24, 25, 1898. 

Florida to Texas, north to Montana and Illinois; July and August. 

2a. race LAGUS 
Pamphila lagus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. ix, 5, 1881. 

I regard this as scarcely worth separating from logan. It is the western 
race, and in extreme forms has the fuscous terminal borders reduced to 
very slender lines and the under surface very pale. 

3. ATRYTONE BYSSUS 
? Hesperia bulenta Bd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 67, ff. 1-5, 1833. 
Pamphila byssus Edw., Can. Ent. xn, 224, 1880. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 358, pi. xlvi, f. 20, 1898. 

Florida, August. Skinner includes Texas (Cat. p. 89). 

Dr. McDunnough places bulenta tentatively as a synonym of byssus. 
The figure is a striking thing, unlike any known species of North America, 
but it does bear a remote resemblance to this species. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 91 

4. ATRYTONE ARPA 

Hesperia arpa Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 68, 1833. 

Florida, June, September and October. 

The stigma is present in the males of this and all of the following 
species, which make up the former genus Euphyes. 

5. ATRYTONE PALATKA 

Hesperia palatka Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. I, 287, 1867. 
Hesperia floridensis Plotz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 196, 1883. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. in, 1863, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 358, pi. xlvi, f. 21, 1898. 

Florida, May, August to October. Skinner gives its range as "Gulf 
States, Neb." (Cat. p. 89). 

In the original description the name of this species was spelled pilatka 
but this was amended by Edwards himself in his later writings. It is the 
largest species of the genus. 

6. ATRYTONE DION 

Pamphila dion Edw., Can. Ent. xr, 238, 1879. 

New York, Ohio, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois and Omaha, Neb. (Leuss- 
ler) ; June and July. St. Louis, Mo. (Knetzger). 

The pale dashes on the under surface of the secondaries are unique in 
this genus. 

7. ATRYTONE CONSPICUA 

Hesperia conspicua Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 17, pi. 5, f. 5, 1863. 

$ Hesperia pontine Edw., op. cit. 17, pi. xi, f. 5. 

Hedone orono Scud., Syst. Rev. 58, (79) 1872. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1732, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 358, pi. xlvi, ff. 16, 17, 1898. 

New Jersey north to Massachusetts and west into Nebraska; July. 

8. ATRYTONE BIMACULA 

Hesperia bimacula G. & R., Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. vm, 433, 1867. 
Hesperia acanootus Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 381, 1868. 
Hesperia illiiwis Dodge, Can. Ent. rv, 217, 1872. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. II, 1718, 1889. 

Ontario, New Jersey, New York, Iowa; July. Skinner lists Nebraska 
(Cat. p. 88). I have taken one specimen at Sioux City, Iowa. 

The under surface of the secondaries is usually pale with the veins 
marked in white. The upper surface has a little yellow-fulvous on each 
side of the stigma in the male, and only two or three small extradiscal 
spots in the female which are of a very pale color. 

9. ATRYTONE VESTRIS 

Hesperia vestris Boisd., Ann. Soc. Ent. France (2), x, 317, 1852. 
Hesperia metacomet Harris, Ins. Inj. Veg. 3rd ed., 317, 1862. 



92 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



Pamphila rurea Edw., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1862, 58. 
Eesperia Jciowah Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. \n, 150, 1866. 
Hesperia osylca Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. I, 288, 1867. 
Pamphila osceola Lint., 30th Rep. N. Y. Mus. Nat. Hist. 170, 1878. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1739 and in, 1865, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 360, pi. xlvt, f. 31, 1898. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 247, pi. xxxi, f. 442, 1905. 
Oberthiir, Etudes ix, (1), pi. ccxl, f. 2093, 1913 (type). 
United States and Southern Canada; May to July. 

$ form IHMACULATUS 
Pamphila vestris, var. immaculatus Williams, Ent. News xxv, 267, 1914. 

Described from the Jemez Mts., New Mexico. I have seen it from the 
White Mts., Arizona, but not from more northern localities. As the name 
implies, it lacks the whitish spots usually found on the primaries of the 
female. 

Genus ATRYTONOPSIS Godman & Salvin 
Atrytonopsis G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 497, 1900. Type 
Hesperia deva Edw. 

Palpi upturned ; 
third joint moderate, 
oblique, not concealed 
in vestiture of second. 
Antennae slightly less 
than one-half as long 
as primaries ; club 
moderate, longer in 
female than male ; 
apiculus shorter than 
thickness of club in 
male, equal to it or 
longer in female. Pri- 
maries of male apic- 
ally produced; costa 
nearly straight; outer margin slightly rounded; apex rounded- 
acute. Secondaries rounded; outer margin flattened at end of 
cell; anal angle slightly lobed; length from humeral angle to 
anal angle greater than through cell in male and less in female. 
Cell of primaries three-fifths as long as wing; vein 5 curved at 
base, nearer to vein 4 than to 6; L. D. C. almost transverse; 
M. D. C. scarcely visible, very oblique; vein 2 almost inter- 




SS^ 




Pig. 28. Antenna] clubs: a. Atrytonopsis deva Edw., 
b. A pittacus Edw., c. A. edicardsi B. & McL)., f. 
Oligoria maculata Edw. h. Lerodea eufala Edw., Pal- 
pi, d. A. deva Edw., g. Mastor bellus Edw., i. Le- 
rodea eufala Edw., e. Detail of neuration : end of cell 
of primaries, Lerema accius S. & A. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 93 

mediate between 3 and base of cell. Stigma rudimentary, con- 
sisting of a few modified scales faintly indicating the position 
of the structure ; well developed in a few species, where it is sim- 
ilar to that of Atrytone but more slender. Mid tibiae spiny. 
Fig. 28. 

The absence of yellow-fulvous, frequent occurrence of gray 
scales on the under surface of the wings, and the acute apices of 
the primaries in the males of most of the species give this genus 
a very distinctive habitus. 

Key to the species 

1. Fringes not checkered 2 

Fringes checkered 7 

2. Under surface of secondaries with a transverse row and three subasal 

white spots ; not heavily gray -powdered loammi 

Spots partly obsolete or hyaline 3 

3. Secondaries with hyaline spots pittacus 

Secondaries without hyaline spots 4 

4. Fringes of secondaries white or whitish 5 

Fringes concolorous with wings or slightly paler 6 

5. Fringes dirty white, usually dark at anal angle lunus 

Fringes pure white, rarely intermixed with dark scales, usually not 
very dark at anal angle de '" 

6. Wings very dark Manna 

Wings pale vierecki 

7. Under surface marbled with purplish; spots semi-hyaline cestus 

Under surface heavily gray powdered 8 

8. Spots yellowish, opaque or nearly so pytlwn 

Spots white, subhyaline edwardsi 

1. ATRYTONOPSIS LOAMMI 

Lerema loammi Whitney, Can. Ent. vm, 76, 1876. 
Pamphila regulus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. ix, 5, 1881. 
Skinner, Ent. News XI, pi. II, f. 24, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, f. 24, 1904. 

Florida, March and October. North Carolina, July. 

The dark brown ground color and the pure white, opaque spots on the 
under surface of the secondaries separate loammi readily from the rest 
of the genus. 

2. ATRYTONOPSIS HI ANN A 
Eesperia hianna Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 382, 1868. 
Hesperia grotei Plotz, Stett, ent. Zeit. xliv, 54, 1883. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1771, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book, 366, pi. xlvi, ff. 9, 10, 1898. 

Northeastern United States westward into Nebraska, Manitoba; June. 



94 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

3. ATRYTONOPSIS LUNUS 

Pamphila lunus Edwards, Papilio IV, 56, 1884, 

Arizona, June to August. 

Similar to deva but larger and darker, and with the white areas not so 
pure as in deva. 

4. ATRYTONOPSIS DEVA 

Hesperia deva Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. v, 292, 1876. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 498, pi. 95, ff. 6-10, 1900. 

Arizona and Utah. Skinner lists southern Colorado (Cat. p. 87). 

5. ATRYTONOPSIS VIERECKI 

Pamphila vierecki Skinner, Ent. News xin, 213, 1902. 

Ft. Wingate, New Mexico, June ; two males, one compared with the 
type, in the Barnes collection are all that I have seen. 

Vierecki is similar to deva but smaller, paler and more grayish, with 
two spots in the end of the cell of the primaries, sometimes connected, and 
a well marked stigma in the male. 

6. ATRYTONOPSIS PITTACUS 

Pamphila pittacus Edw., Papilio II, 138, 1882. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 498, pi. 95, ff. 11-13, and 14, 15 (not python 

Edw.), 1900. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. n, ff. 17, 18, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, ff. 17, 18, 1904. 

Arizona, July. 

The straight row of hyaline spots on the secondaries characterizes pitta- 
cus among our species. 

7. ATRYTONOPSIS PYTHON (Plate I, Fig. 1) 
Pamphila python Edw., Papilio II, 139, 1882. 
Arizona, May and June. 

Python is the only one of our species in which the spots are distinctly 
yellowish. 

7a. race MARGARITA 
Pamphila margarita Skinner, Can. Ent. xlv, 426, 1913. 
Described from Jemez Springs, New Mexico. 
I am not familiar with this form. 

8. ATRYTONOPSIS CESTUS 

Pamphila cestus Edw., Papilio iv, 57, 1884. 

Southern Arizona. I am not familiar with this species. 

9. ATRYTONOPSIS EDWARD SI 

Atrytonopsis edwardsi B. & McD., Contributions in, (2), 135, pi. vm, ff. 
9, 10, 1916. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 95 

Pamphila cestus Wright, (not Edw.), Butt. W. Coast 249, pi. xxxn, f. 
482, 1905. 

Arizona. 

This species was described to correct a common misconception of cestus 
and the types are undoubtedly distinct from the species on which the de- 
scription of cestus was based. I believe that the name will fall before 
Hesperia ovinia Hew., illustrated in the Biologia (PI. 97, ff. 1, 2, 1900) un- 
der the name Thespieus ovinia. The type of ovi7iia in the British Museum 
will have to be examined to settle the matter definitely, but even from the 
figures it is easy to see that the species can hardly belong in Thespiew. 

Genus OLIGORIA Scudder 
Oligoria Scud., Syst. Rev. 61, (82), 1872. Type Hesperia ma- 
culata Edw. 

Structure not much different from Atrytonopsis. Male pri- 
maries less apically prolonged and without stigma. Vein 5 near- 
er to 4 than in the preceding genus. Middle tibiae with a few 
long spines. Apiculus of antennae abruptly constricted, sharp- 
ly reflexed, very slender and usually about twice as long as 
thickness of club. 

Dyar remarks (Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xm, 137, 1905) that he 
is unable to separate this genus from Lerodea and therefore 
places maculata in the latter. He is followed in this by Barnes 
and McDunnough in the Check List, but the differences between 
maculata and eufala are so striking that they must be separated. 
Since maculata agrees with no other genus known to me, I retain 
Oligoria for the one species. Fig. 28. 

1. OLIGORIA MACULATA 

Eesperia maculata Edw., Proc Ent. Soc. Phil, iv, 202, pi. i, f. 6, 1865. 
Hesperia norus Plbtz, Stett. ent. Zeit. xliv, 36, 1883. 
Scudder, Butt, New Eng. n, 1761, 1883. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 361, pi. xlvi, f. 35, 1898. 

Florida, May to July. Skinner gives its range as the Gulf States and 
occasionally New York. (Cat. p. 87). 

Genus LEREMA Scudder 

Lerema Scud., Syst. Rev. 61, (82), 1872. Type Papilio accius 

A. & S. 

Palpi oblique ; third joint moderate, partly concealed by ves- 

titure of second. Antennae about one-half as long as primaries ; 

club moderate ; apiculus slender, longer than thickness of club. 



96 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Primaries rather long; costa flattened in middle; outer margin 
curved, flattened before anal angle; apex rounded-rectangular. 
Secondaries lobed slightly at anal angle, otherwise rounded. Cell 
of primaries over three-fifths as long as wing ; discocellulars weak, 
slightly oblique ; vein 5 arising a little nearer to 4 than to 6, al- 
most straight. Male with a slender, well developed stigma run- 
ning from the base of vein 3 to just within the middle of vein 1. 
Middle tibiae with a few long spines. Fig. 28. 

1. LEREMA AC CIVS 

Papilio accms A. & S., Lep. Ins. Ga. i, 45, pi. 23, 1797. 

Hesperia monoco Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 178, 1863. 

Hesperia punctella G. & R., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. I, 1, 1867. 

Hesperia nortonii Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. i, 287, 1867. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1768, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 366, pi. xlviii, f. 8, 1898. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 554, pi. 99, f. 44, 1900. 

Southern half of United States east of Rockies; May, July, August, Octo- 
ber, November. Skinner (Cat. p. 87) mentions a record by Aaron from 
Eastern Pennsylvania. 

Genus EPIPHYES Dyar 
Epiphyes Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xm, 132, 1905. Type 
Pamphila Carolina Skinner. 
I have seen but one poor specimen of the female of Carolina. 
From it nothing can be told except that vein 5 is but slightly 
curved and not much nearer to 4 than to 6. It therefore belongs 
with Lerema and allied genera, and according to Dyar's descrip- 
tion of the male stigma it should constitute a good genus. The 
original description of Epiphyes is as follows: "Antennal club 
cylindrical, the point rather obtuse and about equal to the diam- 
eter of the club. Palpi with the third joint moderate, rather 
slender ; wings normal, vein 2 arising at the middle of the cell, 
3 before the end. Mid tibiae spiny. Male stigma a large, ill 
defined blotch. Type Pamphila Carolina Skinner." 

1. EPIPHYES CAROLINA 

Pamphila Carolina Skinner, Ent. News in, 222, 1892. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 367, pi. xlvi, f. 36, 1898 (type). 

North Carolina. 

The species is easily recognized by the well defined, pale yellow macula- 
tion and the form of vein 5 of the primaries. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 97 

Genus MASTOR Godman & Salvin 
Mastor G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 567, 1900. Type Mas- 
tor anubis G. & S. 
? Megistias G. & S., op. cit. 571. Type Hesperia tripunctata 
Latr. 

Palpi upturned; third joint small. Antennae slightly more 
than one-half as long as primaries in male, less in female ; apieu- 
lus shorter than thickness of club and variously reflexed; club 
short, rather stout. Costa of primaries flattened; outer margin 
slightly rounded ; apex somewhat produced. Secondaries broad- 
ly rounded, relatively small ; in the female the primaries are less 
produced and the apex of the secondaries more prominent than 
in the male, much as in Atrytone. The male possesses a small 
stigma made up of a dot of scales below vein 2 and a longer) 
patch above, variably developed in different specimens. It is 
much larger in bellus than in phylace, very small in oslari and 
absent in fusca. Cell of primaries normal ; vein 5 slightly 
curved, arising a little nearer to 4 than to 6. Mid tibiae with a 
few spines. Fig. 28. 

I believe that oslari is more closely related to A. nanno than 
to bellus, and am placing fusca in this genus rather doubtfully. 
Unfortunately I have not had sufficient material for dissection 
in this group and have therefore been unable to make a careful 
study of the anatomy of the doubtful species. I am unable to 
find a good basis of separation for fusca, which Godman and 
Salvin say belongs in Megistias, but I am not familiar with 
tripunctata so Megistias may not fall before Mastor. 

Key to the species 

1. Vestiture of head and fringes golden bellus 

Head golden ; fringes whitish phylace 

Without golden vestiture 2 

2. Under surface powdery gray oslari 

More or less yellowish below, never powdery gray fusca 

1. MASTOR FUSCA 

Hesperia fusca G. & E., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. I, 2, 1867. 

Southern United States, New Jersey, Pennsylvania; April to July. St. 
Louis, Mo., (Knetzger). 

Fusca is usually immaculate grayish fuscous above and slightly tinged 
with yellowish below, especially on the veins of the secondaries. Occasion- 



98 



IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 



al specimens show a faint trace of spots on the upper surface of the pri- 
maries, and frequently the ground color is darker. 

2. MASTOR BELLUS 

Pamphila oellus Edw., Papilio iv, 57, 1884. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 568, pi. 100, f. 36, $ gen., 1900. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. II, ff. 11, 12, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, ff. 11, 12, 1904. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 247, pi. xxxi, f. 443, 1905. 
Arizona, May to July. 

3. MASTOR PHYLACE 

Pamphila phylace Edw., Field and Forest in, 117, 1878. 
Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico; June. 

4. MASTOR OSLARI 

Pamphila oslari Skinner, Ent. News x, 112, 1899. 

New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado; April, June to August. 

Oslari is usually pale fuscous above, but occasionally a series will show 
some yellow fulvous scales on the disk of the primaries and a faint trace 
of indefinite spots such as are always present in A\ nanno. Such speci- 
mens may be separated from nanno by the gray under surface of the sec- 
ondaries with vague pale spots instead of small sharp ones. 

Genus AMBLYSCIRTES Scudder 
Amblyscirtes Scud., Syst. Rev. 54, (75), 1872. Type Hesperia 

vialis. Edw. 
Stomyles Scud., op. cit. 55 (76). Type Pyrgus textor Hbn. 

Palpi large, upturned; second 
joint with shaggy vestiture ; third 
slender, smooth, vertical; almost as 
long as second except in nanno. An- 
tennae moderate ; club large ; apicu- 
lus longer than thickness of club. 
Primaries in most species similar in 
the two sexes, less apically produced 
than in the related genera; costa 
flattened ; apex rounded-rectangu- 
lar; outer margin strongly rounded 
except toward anal angle ; cell about 
three-fifths as long as wing ; discocel- 
iaiis Edw. a. lulars very weak and only slightly 

Club of ante„na >ti b. Palpus, c. oWique . vein 5 wea kly Curved 




IIESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 99 

toward base, a little nearer to 4 than to 6 ; secondaries rounded, 
in most of the species longer through the cell than in the related 
genera. Male stigma small, sometimes scarcely visible, composed 
of a short, oblique dash above the base of vein 2 and a smaller 
longitudinal dash below it. Middle tibiae spiny. Fig. 29. 

The checkered fringes of this genus are a convenient super- 
ficial character, and indeed the only one by which naamo can 
readily be placed. The other species are readily referred to the 
genus by the long third joint of the palpi, taken with the api- 
culus of the antennae. Whether nanno should be left in Ambly- 
scirtes is a question which I have been unable to settle ; its sim- 
ilar habitus would cause me to hesitate to remove it. 

Key to the species 

1. Vestiture of under surface of secondaries with no suggestion of green. 2 
Under surface of secondaries more or less greenish 9 

2. Spots on under surface of secondaries connected by pale lines on 

veins textor 

No such lines 3 

3. Under surface of secondaries with diffused pale spots or immaculate. .4 

With well defined pale spots 8 

With a brown patch in the middle nysa 

4. All maculation above yellow-fulvous cassiis 

Subapical spots of primaries, at least, whitish 5 

5. Secondaries without pale spots below vialis 

With a transverse row of powdery pale spots 6 

6. Maculation of upper surface tinged with yellow-fulvous aenus 

No trace of yellow-fulvous 7 

7. Irroration of under surface smooth, fine altemata 

Irroration with a rough appearance celia 

8. Under surface dark, irroration sparse; spots small and powdery but 

sharply contrasting nanno, elissa 

Under surface finely and smoothly grayish-irrorate; spots very sharply 
defined, moderate comus 

9. Under surface pale greenish-gray ; primaries with spots between veins 

4 and 6 above ; southwestern species .nereus 

Darker greenish -gray; very bright in fresh specimens; spots at end of 
cell of primaries usually lacking ; eastern species hegon 

1. AMBLYSCIRTES NANNO 

Amblyscirtes nanno Edw., Papilio n, 142, 1882. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Ehop. n, 504, pi. 95, ff. 31-34, 1900. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast 250, pi. xxxi, f. 455, 1905. 
Arizona, July. 



100 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

The primaries of nanno are more apically produced and the secondaries 
relatively smaller and more rounded than in the normal species of Ambly- 
scirtes. 

2. AMBLYSCIRTES ELISSA 

Amblyscirtes elissa G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 505, pi. 95, ff. 40, 

41, 1900. 
Skinner, Ent. News XV, 344, 1904. 

I have not seen this species. Apparently it is very similar to nanno. 
Skinner reports it from Cochise County, Arizona. 

3. AMBLYSCIRTES AENUS 

Amblyscirtes aenus Edw., Field and Forest in, 118, 1878. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 341, pi. xlvii, f. 7, 1898. 
Colorado, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico; May to July. 

4. AMBLYSCIRTES CASSUS 
Amblyscirtes cassus Edw., Papilio in, 72, 1883. 

Amblyscirtes simius Wright, (not Edw.), Butt. W. Coast pi. XXXI, f. 454, 
1905. 

Arizona; June, July and September. 

The under surface of the secondaries of cassus is heavily irrorate with 
pale gray scales which give these wings a roughened appearance. The 
spots are large and distinct but vaguely defined. 

5. AMBLYSCIRTES CELIA 

Amblyscirtes celia Skinner, Ent. News vi, 113, 1895. 

Texas, March, April and July. 

There is a specimen in the Barnes collection which has been compared 
with the type, and from which I have noted that the under surface of the 
secondaries is finely but rather sparsely and roughly powdered with gray; 
6pots small but not clear-cut. 

6. AMBLYSCIRTES VIALIS 

Eesperia vialis Edw., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1862, 58, 1862. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1582, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 340, pi. xlvii, f. 5, 1898. 

United States and Southern Canada; May, June, July, August. 

7. AMBLYSCIRTES HEGON 

Hesperia hegon Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst. Ill, 176, 1863. 

Hesperia samoset Scud., op. cit. 176. 

Hesperia nemoris Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc Phil, n, 507, 1864. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1589, 1889. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 340, pi. xlvii, f. 6, 1898. 

Georgia north into Canada and west to central Iowa; May and June; 
August in the north. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 101 

Hegon is more commonly known as samoset. It is similar to nereus but 
the transverse row of spots on the primaries is usually less complete and 
fresh specimens are much more greenish below. The distribution is suffi- 
cient to separate specimens which bear locality labels. 

8. AMBLYSCIRTES NEREUS 

Hesperia nereus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. v, 207, 1876. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. II, 502, pi. 95, ff. 27-30, 1900. 
Arizona, June to August. 

9. AMBLYSCIRTES ALTERNATA 

Hesperia altemata G. & R., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. i, 3, 1867. 
Hesperia eos Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 276, 1871. 
Amblyscirtes meridionalis Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xni, 135, 1905. 

Georgia; Skinner lists cos from Texas, Georgia and Florida. 

A specimen which Dr. McDunnough placed as altemata in the Barnes 
collection proved to be the same as Dyar's types of meridionalis in the 
Strecker collection, and the descriptions of all of the species lead me to 
believe that they are synonyms. The primaries are apically produced, so 
that the outer margin is longer than in vialis, and the fringes are an un- 
usually pure white, as in nysa. The under surface has a transverse row of 
faint, powdery spots on the secondaries and is otherwise similar to vialis. 

10. AMBLYSCIRTES NYSA 

Amblyscirtes nysa Edw., Can. Ent. ix, 191, 1877. 
Pamplitta similis Strecker, Lep. Rhop. & Het. 131, 1878. 

Texas and Arizona, March to June. 

The under surface of the secondaries is distinctive and the fringes are a 
clearer white than in any other species than altemata. The upper surface 
of nysa is very similar to that of altemata in all particulars. 

11. AMBLYSCIRTES COMUS 

Hesperia comus Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. v, 206, 1876. 
Amblyscirtes nilus Edw., Field and Forest III, 118, 1878. 
Pamphila quinquemacula Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 413, 1911. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. II, 502, pi. 95, ff. 25, 26, 1900. 

Texas and Arizona, August. 

From a specimen in the Barnes collection compared with Edward's mate- 
rial I have noted that the under surface is finely and smoothly grayish 
irrorate and the spots small, white, sharply denned and not crowded to- 
gether. 

12. AMBLYSCIRTES TEXTOR 

Pyrgus textor, Hiibner, Zutr. exot. Schmett. pi. 89, ff. 515, 516, 1825. 
Hesperia oneko Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 176, 1863. 
Hesperia wakulla Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. II, 311, 1869. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 341, pi. xlvii, f. 16, 1898. 



102 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

North Carolina and Kentucky to Texas; August. 

The under side of the secondaries is very strikingly different from any 
other species, but I see no structural basis for Stomyles, of which textor 
is the type. 

Genus LERODEA Scudder 
Lerodea Scud., Syst. Rev. 59, 1872. Type Hesperia eufala Edw. 
Palpi upturned, very smoothly sealed ; third joint about half 
as long as second but buried in vestiture of second almost to its 
tip. Antennae much less than one half as long as primaries; 
apiculus slender, shorter than thickness of club. Primaries api- 
cally produced; costa slightly emarginate or straight except at 
apex and humeral angle; outer margin slightly sinuate, convex 
from apex to vein 2. Secondaries rounded, lobed at anal angle. 
Both primaries and secondaries longer and more rounded in the 
female than in the male. Cell of primaries about three-fifths 
as long as wing; discocellulars weak, scarcely oblique; vein 5 
almost straight, about two-thirds as far from 4 as from 6 ; 2 much 
nearer to 3 than to base of wing in both sexes. Male without 
stigma. Mid tibiae spined. Fig. 28. 

1. LERODEA ARABUS 

Pamphila ambus Edw., Papilio n, 26, 1882. 

Arizona, April. 

Differs from eufala in the presence of a dark brown discal shade on the 
under surface of the secondaries. 

2. LERODEA EUFALA 

Hesperia eufala Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. n, 311, 1869. 
Pamphila ftoridae Mab, Bull. Soc. Ent. France (5), vi, p. ix, 1876. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 356, pi. xlvi, f. 33, 1898. 
Biol. Cent. -Am., Rhop. II, 500, pi. 95, ff. 16-18, 1900. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast pi. xxxi, f. 445a, b, 1905 (as nereus). 
Florida, Texas, Arizona; April to July, October and November. 

GROUP D 
Key to the genera 

1. Middle tibiae without spines .Prenes 

Middle tibiae spined 2 

2. Male with stigma ; under surface of secondaries mottled with 

several shades Thespieus 

Male without stigma ; under surface of secondaries uniform- 
ly colored Calpodes 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 



103 



Genus THESPIEUS Godman & Salvin 
Thespieus G. & S., Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 519, 1900. Type 
Hesperia dalmani Latr. 
This genus is very close to Calpodes and the male genitalia of 
the two illustrated by Godman and Salvin are similar, but I 
have very little material of Thespieus and have not seen the 
typical species, so I hesitate to sink it. 

1. THESPIEUS MACAREUS 

Goniloba macareus H.-S., Corr. Blatt Eegensb. xxm, 192, 1869. 
Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 520, pi. 96, ff. 41-43, 1900. 
Skinner, Ent. News xm, 183, 1902. 

Macareus has been recorded from the southwestern part of our country 
and Marco Id., Fla. ; I have not seen the species. 

Genus CALPODES Hiibner 
Calpodes Hbn., Verz. bek. Schmett. 
107, 1820. Type Papilio eth- 
lius Cr. 
Palpi upturned, closely ap- 
pressed; third joint small, almost 
entirely concealed. The palpi re- 
semble those of most species of 
Group A of the Hesperiinae. An- 
tennae less than one-half as long as 
primaries ; club stout, apiculus ex- 
ceeding thickness of club, sharply 
reflexed. Primaries with the apex 
produced and subtruncate, longer 
in the female than in the male; 
secondaries strongly lobed at the 
anal angle, broader and more 

rounded in the female than in the male. Neuration as in Prenes. 
Mid tibiae with short prostrate spines on the inner surface. 
Fig. 30. 

1. CALPODES ETHLIUS 
Papilio ethlius Cramer, Pap. Exot, iv, 212, pi. cccxcn, ff. A, B, 1782. 
Hesperia cliemnis Fab., Ent. Syst. in, (i), 331, 1793. 
Eudamus olynthus Bd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 75, ff. 1, 2, 1833. 
Scudder, Butt. New Eng. n, 1750, 1889. 
Holland, Butterfly Book 355, pi. xlv, f. 3, 1898. 




Fig. 30. Prenes and Calpodes. a. 

Club of antenna of P. ocola Edw., 

b. Neuration of ocola, c. Club of 

antenna of C. ethlius Cramer 



104 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. II, 507, pi. 95, ff. 45, 46, 1900. 

Florida to Texas, June. Skinner lists it as occasional in New York, 
(Cat. p. 88). St. Louis, Mo., (Knetzger). 

Ethlius is readily distinguished by its large size, the long cell of the 
primaries, the form of the palpi and the presence of hyaline spots on the 
secondaries. 

2. CALPODES COSCINIA 

Goniloba coscinia H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Begensb. XIX, 54, 1865. 
? Hesperia ares Feld., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien xn, 477, 1862. 

Brownsville and San Antonio, Texas, May. 

Barnes and McDunnough list ares as a doubtful synonym of coscinia 
while Godman and Salvin in the Biologia make it a synonym without qual- 
ification. If the two names refer to the same species, ares snould be used; 
I know of nothing which will settle the matter at present. Coscinia differs 
from ethlius and T. macareus in the absence of hyaline spots from the 
secondaries. 

Genus PRENES Scudder 
Prenes Scud., Syst. Rev. 60, (81), 1872. Type Hesperia pano- 
quin Scud. 

Similar to Calpodes but with the wings more angular and the 
mid tibiae without spines. Fig. 30. 

Prenes is very close to the Old World genus Pamara and may 
fall before it. Dr. W. T. M. Forbes tells me that he is unable to 
separate the two, and from a superficial study of the genotypes 
I have found nothing which will differentiate them. I prefer to 
retain Prenes, however, until I can make dissections of the type 
of Pamara for more accurate study. 

Key to the species 

1. Secondaries with a few pale spots below 2 

Secondaries immaculate below or with pale dashes or very faint traces 
of spots 4 

2. Upper surface powdered with yellowish scales panoquinoides 

Upper surface without yellowish scales 3 

3. A pale spot in end of cell of primaries; spots on under surface 

bluish riero 

No spot in cell ; spots below not bluish errans 

4. Two pale dashes on under surface of secondaries panoquin 

Usually immaculate; never with dashes ocola 

1. PRENES NERO 

Hesperia nero Fab., Ent. Syst., Supp. 433, 1798. 
Hesperia nyctelius Latr., Enc. Meth. ix, 746, 1823. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 105 

Gonilooa corruptee H.-S., Corr.-Blatt Regensb. xix, 54, 1865. 

Goniloba sylvicola H.-S., op. cit., p. 55. 

Hesperia fusina Hew., Desc. Hesp. 30, 1868. 

Hesperia fufidia Hew., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), xix, 81, 1877. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Ehop. n, 509, pi. 96, ff. 4-7, 1900. 

Florida. 

Differs from ocola in the presence of a pale spot in the end of the cell 
of the primaries and a transverse row of faint, bluish spots on the under 
surface of the secondaries. The synonymy is that of Godman and Salvin. 

2. PRENES PANOQUIN 

Hesperia panoquin Scud., Proc. Ess. Inst, in, 178, 1863. 
Hesperia ophis Edw., Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. in, 216, 1871. 
Seudder, Butt. New Eng. in, 1867, 1889. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. n, ff. 13, 14, 1900. 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, ff. 13, 14, 1904. 
Florida, New Jersey; April, May, August. 

3. PRENES PANOQUINOIDES 

Pamphila panoquinoides Skinner, Ent. News n, 175, 1891. 
Skinner, Ent. News xi, pi. n, f. 26, 1900 (type). 
Kellogg, Am. Ins. pi. ix, f. 26, 1904 (type). 

Florida. This species is slightly powdered with yellowish scales above 
but less heavily than panoquin, from which it differs also in the absence of 
the large dashes of the under surface. 

4. PRENES ERRANS 

Pamphila errans Skinner, Ent. News in, 174, 1892. 
Wright, Butt. W. Coast pi. xxxi, f. 445, 1905 (as nereus). 

California, July and August. 

Differs from ocola, which it closely resembles, in the presence of a trans- 
verse row of pale spots on the under side of the secondaries, which are not 
bluish as in nero. 

5. PRENES OCOLA 

Hesperia ocola Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 20, pi. xi, f. 4, 1863. 

Prenes hecebolus Scud., Syst. Eev. 60, (81), 1872. 

Pamphila ortygia Moschl., Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien xxxn, 328, 1882. 

Seudder, Butt. New Eng. in, 1866, 1889. 

Pamphila parilis Mab., Comp. Eend. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxv, clxxi, 1891. 

Holland, Butterfly Book 355, pi. xlvi, f. 34, 1898. 

Biol. Cent.-Am., Rhop. n, 511, pi. 96, ff. 13-15, 1900. 

Kentucky, Florida, Mississippi and Texas; May, July to October. Skin- 
ner (Cat. p. 88) adds Indiana and Eastern Pennsylvania. 

Ocola is usually immaculate below but some specimens show a trace of 
the spots which mark errans, though they are not, as a rule, sufficiently 
well marked as to cause difficulty in separating the species. They never 



106 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

have the marked blue shade found in nero. In the synonymy of ocola I 
follow Godman and Salvin (Biol. 511), who say that they have seen the 
types of all three synonyms and find them to ' ' show no tangible difference. ' ' 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES AND GENERA 
Genus POTANTHUS Scudder 
Potanthus Scud., Syst. Rev. 54, (75), 1872. Type Hesperia 
omalia Edw. 

1. POTANTHUS OMAHA . . 

Hesperia omalia Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, n, 21, 1863. 

Hesperia mingo Edw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, vi, 207, 1866. 

Potanthus calif ornica Scud., Syst. Bev. 54, (75), 1872. 

Scudder, Butt. New Eng. m, 1861, 1889. 

Potanthus dara Dyar (Kollar?), Bull. 52, U. S. N. M., p. 48, 1902. 

The early literature gives the range of this species as West Virginia, 
Colorado and California. Edwards places the species next to palaemon in 
his catalogue (Cat. Diurn. Lep. 48, 1877), and Dyar regards it as the 
Oriental species, Padraona dara Kollar. It is very difficult to say what it 
may be from the scanty evidence available. 

2. ATRYTONE KUMSKAKA 

Hesperia conspicua Scud, (not Edw.), Trans. Chi. Acad. Sci. I, 336, 1869. 
Atrytone Jcumslcaka Scud., Can. Ent. XIX, 45, 1887. 

According to the description this is a true Atrytone which Scudder has 
mistaken for the female; of conspicua. Dr. McDunnough tells me that 
Scudder 's figure of the male genitalia resembles those of byssus, but it 
seems to me that the description itself suggests a dark female of hobomoTc. 
The type locality is Dennison, Iowa, but I have never taken anything in 
western Iowa which might be the species. 

3. THANAOS RUTILIUS (nomen nudum) 
Nisoniades rutilius Mead, U. S. Geog. Surv. W. 100th Merid. v, 787, 1875. 
The reference reads as follows: "One individual, now in Mr. Scudder 's 
hands for description, was taken June 23, at Turkey Creek Junction. ' ' The 
specimen was probably placed by Scudder with another species. 

Family MEGATHYMIDAE 
Barnes and McDunnough, Contributions i, number m, 1912, Re- 
vision of the Megathymidae. 
Head small, much narrower than the thorax. Palpi rather 
small, oblique. Antennae moderate; club large, stout and pyri- 
form to more cylindrical with a rudimentary apiculus. Venation 
much as in the Pamphilinae ; vein 3 of the primaries varying in 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 107 

position between the sexes of several species. Larvae borers in 
stems of plants. Fig. 31. 

Barnes and McDunnough's revision of this family is so satis- 
factory that I am going into very little detail in 
treating it. I have worked out the following key 
to the North American species of Megathymus Fig. 31. Megathy- 

.,.,.„ ii .• i mvs streckeri Skin 

from the material in the Barnes collection, and ner . ciub of an- 
believe that it will suffice for the determination of 
most of the material likely to fall into the hands of collectors ; 
those who are deeply interested in the family will doubtless ob- 
tain the few articles which are useful to students who make these 
insects a hobby. Only one genus is represented in our fauna. 

Genus MEGATHYMUS Scudder 
Megathymus Scud., Syst. Rev. 62, (83), 1872. Type Eudamus 
yuccae Boisd. & Lee. 
Characters of the family. 

Key to the species 

1. Under surface with a large white patch contiguous to vein 8 of the 
secondaries, or this spot the largest on the wing; no more than a trace 

of extra-median pale spots on secondaries yuccae 2 

Under surface of secondaries with a more or less complete transverse 
row of pale spots and with larger spot on vein 8 outward 3 

2. Size large, 55 to 75 mm. Spots of upper surface bright yellow. Under 

surface of secondaries gray at margins yuccae 

Size smaller, seldom over 55 mm. Spots pale yellow. Outer margin 

of secondaries narrowly or not at all pale race coloradensis 

Size similar to coloradensis. Spots yellowish to white. Secondaries 
with a broad pale outer border race navajo 

3. Size very large, 65 to 90 mm. Spots of primaries bright yellow. Sec- 
ondaries without discal spots above and with at most a slender, linear 

pale margin ursus 

Size smaller, not over 70 mm. Secondaries with discal spots, a erenu- 
late marginal band or with pale areas not bright yellow 4 

4. Under surface of secondaries smooth, powdered with blue-gray scales 

at outer margin cofaqui 

Under surface of shaggy appearance, washed with gray scales and hairs 
over entire surface, sometimes most evidently between transverse row 
of spots and outer margin 5 

5. Upper surface of primaries with a pale basal area contiguous to vein 
1; spots yellow to yellowish-fulvous, or with a transverse sub-basal 

row of spots on the under surface of the secondaries 6 

This area seldom present, if so powdery and not contiguous to vein 1 



108 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

and with maeulation not bright yellow. No transverse row of spots 
near base of secondaries below 7 

6. Expanse 40 to 50 mm. Larger specimens females with pale spots of 

primaries broadly confluent and veins concolorous polingi 

Expanse 50 to 70 mm., smaller specimens males with spots separated 

by dark veins or by broader dark areas aryxna, neumoegeni 

Expanse 50 mm. or slightly over. Spots small, rounded and whitish. 
Southern California race stephensi 

7. Spots yellowish white to pale yellow; at least one extra-discal spot on 

under surface of secondaries and rarely some above streckeri 

Spots deeper yellow; extra-discal spots obsolete, not more than one or 

two fine points present, or with discal spots above race texana 

Spots greatly reduced, yellowish; extra-discal band on under surface 
of secondaries evenly curved but irregular. Spot in end of cell of 
primaries linear, bent, in apical angle smithii 

1. MEGATHYMUS YUCCAE 

Eudamus yuccae Boisd. & Lee, Lep. Am. Sept. pi. 70, 1833. 
Riley, 8th Rep. St. Ent. Mo., 169-182, 1876 (Biol.). 
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina; April and May. 

la. race COLOBADENSIS 
M. yuccae, var. coloradensis Eiley, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis in, 567, 1877. 
Colorado, April. 

lb. race NAVAJO 
M. yuccae, var. navajo Skinner, Ent. News xxn, 300, 1911. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 209, pi. x, 1911. 

Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, S. California; April to June. 

2. MEGATHYMUS URSUS 

Megathymus ursus Poling, Ent. News xin, 97, pi. 4, 1902. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 205, 1911. 
Pima County, Arizona; August. 

3. MEGATHYMUS COFAQUI 

AegiaJe cofaqui Strecker, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 148, 1876. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 203, 1911. 

Georgia, Florida; March. 

The male type is a form of streckeri to which Barnes and McDunnough 
have given the name texana. The female type represents cofaqui. This 
sex may be distinguished by the slightly emarginate outer margin of the 
primaries and the resultant sharpness of the apex. 

4. MEGATHYMUS STRECKERI 

Aegiale streckeri Skinner, Can. Ent. xxvn, 179, 1895. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvti, 204, 1911. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 109 

Southwestern Colorado, New Mexico, Cherry County, Nebraska (Leus- 
sler) ; May and June. 

race TEXAN A 
M. streckeri, subsp. texana B. & McD., Contr. i, no. in, 39, pi. n, f. 9, 1912. 
Southern Texas. 

5. MEGATHYMUS SMITHI 

Megathymus smithi Druce, Biol. Cent.-Am., Het. n, 320, pi. 69, f. 5, 1896. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 205, 1911. 

I have seen one specimen from Corpus Christi, Texas, in the Barnes 
Collection. 

6. MEGATHYMUS NEUMOEGENI 

Megathymus neumoegeni Edw., Papilio n, 27, 1882. 

Megathymus aryxna Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xin, 141, 1905 (partim) ; 

(fide B. & McD.). 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvir, 206, 1911. 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvii, 207, 1911 (fide B. & McD.). 

Arizona, September. 

According to Barnes and McDunnough's revision the females can read- 
ily be separated from aryxna. They say : "in every instance the $ could 
be separated at once on wing pattern, the yellow band on primaries being 
much broader and either touching or broadly coalescing with the costal 
spot at end of cell. ' ' Of the male they say that neumoegeni is usually 
a smaller and slighter species, and give the following points of difference: 

"(1) in neumoegeni the spots are often small, well separated, irregu- 
larly rounded; when forming a more or less coalescent band spot 2 from 
anal angle is usually almost square and its inner margin is not prominent- 
ly wedge-shaped as in aryxna. 

"(2) The fulvous hairing at base of both wings is much more extended 
in neumoegeni, covering on the secondaries most of the area between the 
subterminal spots and the base of wing. The presence or size of yellow 
spots in the basal area beneath the fulvous hairs we have found of no 
specific value. 

"(3) The underside of secondaries of neumoegeni is usually distinctly 
paler in color, due to a greater sprinkling of white scales (compare Figs. 
2 and 7). The whitish subterminal band is very variable in both species, 
in both distinctness and extent, and of no value for purposes of separa- 
tion. ' ' 

In spite of this great similarity of the two species, the form of the male 
genitalia verifies their distinctness. 

6a. race STEPHENSI 
Megathymus neumoegeni Wright (not Edw.), Butt. W. Coast 255, pi. xxxn, 
f. 483, 1905. 



110 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

Hegatliymus neumoegeni subsp. Stephens! Skinner, Ent. News xxm, 126, 

1912. 
Barnes & McDunnough, Contributions I, (5), 44, 1912. 
Southern California, Texas. 

7. MEGATHYMUS ARYXNA 

Hegatliymus aryxna Dyar, Jn. N. Y. Ent. Soc. xm, 141, 1905. 
Arizona; July, September and October. 

8. MEGATHYMVS POL1NGI 

Megatliymus polingi Skinner, Ent. News xvi, 232, 1905 ( 5 only, fide B. & 

McD.). 
Skinner, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxvn, 207, 1911. 
Arizona, September. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Part one includes all separate works and articles bearing particularly on 
the Hesperioidea. Part two contains a list of the periodicals consulted. 
Keferences occurring in all of the works listed have been verified; others 
are copied from the best available authorities. 

PART I 

Abbott & Smith, The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects 
of Georgia, two volumes, London, 1797. 

Banks,, N. and Caudell, A. N., The Entomological Code, Washington, 
D.C., 1912. 

Barnes, Wm. and McDtjnnough, J., Revision of the Megathymidae, De- 
catur, 111., 1912. 

Check List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America, Decatur, 111., 1917. 

Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North 

America, I, 1911-12. 

Boisdtjval, J. A., Icones Historique des Lepidopteres d 'Europe, Paris, 
1832-43. 

and LeConte, J. L., Histoire Generale et Iconographie des Lepidop- 
teres et des Chenilles de L'Amerique Septentrionale, Paris, 1829-33. 

Butler, A. G., Lepidoptera Exotica, London, 1869-74. 

Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera Described by Fabricius in the 

Collection of the British Museum, London, 1869. 

Comstock, J. H. and A. B., Manual for the Study of Insects, Ithaca, N. 

Y., 1895. 
Cramer, P., Papillons Exotiques des trois parties du Monde, l'Asie, l'Afri- 

que at l'Amerique, Amsterdam, I, 1775 to IV, 1782, and supplement 

by Stoll, 1787-1796. 
Doubleday, E., Westwood, J. O. and Hewitson, W. C, The Genera of 

Diurnal Lepidoptera, London, I, 1846; II, 1850. 
Drury, D., Illustrations of Exotic Entomology, London, three vol., 1770- 

1775. 
Dyar, H. G., A List of the North American Lepidoptera and Key to the 

Literature of this order of Insects, Bulletin 52, U. S. N. M., Wash- 
ington, D.C., 1902. 

A Review of the Hesperiidae of the United States, Jn. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc. xin, 111-142, 1905. 

Edwards, W. H., Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mex- 
ico, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. vi, 1-68, 1877. 

Elwes, H. J., and Edwards, James, A Revision of the Oriental Hesperiidae, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London xiv, pt. IV, number 1, 1897. 



112 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

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ber iv, 1874. 



HESPERIOIDEA OF AMERICA 113 

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PART II 
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Papilio, New York, I, 1881-IV, 1884. 



114 IOWA STUDIES IN NATURAL HISTORY 

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