Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Crawford County, Pennsylvania : containing a history of the county; its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania; statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc., etc"

See other formats




\  y^ 



4<^>«f'»  :V 





i-  -/i^ 

•  ?ti^-^:^- V , 


/  ^ 
(J   " 




Containing  A  History  of  the  County;  its  Townships,  Towns, 

Villages,  Schools,  Churches,  Industries,  etc.;  Portraits  of 

Early  Settlers  and  Prominent  Men;  Biographies; 

History  of  Pennsylvania;  Statistical  and 

Miscellaneous  Matter,  etc..  etc. 


WARNER,    BEERS    &    CO 


F  1  5  ^/ 


THE  material  that  comes  within  the  legitimate  scope  of  a  history  of 
Crawford  County  may  appear  commonplace  when  compared  with  that 
which  is  embodied  in  national  history;  nevertheless  the  faithful  gathering 
and  the  truthful  narration  of  facts  relating  to  its  aboriginal  and  pre-Amer- 
ican  period,  the  coming  of  the  white  race  to  occupy  its  soil,  and  the 
dangers,  hardships  and  privations  encountered  by  its  pioneers  while 
engaged  in  advancing  the  standards  of  civilization,  together  with  its  sub- 
sequent moral  and  material  growth  and  development,  is  a  work  of  no  small 

The  first  settlers  who  acted  so  important  a  part  in  this  portion  oE  the 
State,  and  who  heretofore  have  been  the  sole  custodians  of  much  historical 
knowledge  essential  for  such  a  work  as  this  have  all  passed  away,  but  for- 
tunately a  few  of  the  men  who  bore  the  burdens  of  the  pioneer,  left  to 
their  children  a  written  record  of  early  days  in  Crawford  County,  thus  pre- 
serving for  fnfciire  generations  the  history  of  the  first  American  settlement 
in  the  Valley  of  French  Creek.  In  connection  with  these  records  the 
descendants  of  the  pioneers  in  every  part  of  the  county  have  been  inter- 
viewed, and  their  recollections  given  due  weight  in  the  compilation  of  its 

For  the  convenience  of  its  readers  the  book  has  been  divided  into  parts. 
The  outline  history  of  the  State  was  prepared  expressly  for  us  by  Prof. 
Samuel  P.  Bates,  a  well  known  author  of  Meadville.  The  history  of  Craw- 
ford County  and  the  City  of  Meadville  was  written  by  Mr.  R.  C.  Brown,  of 
Chicago  111. ;  while  the  history  of  the  City  of  Titusville  and  the  several 
townships  of  the  county  was  compiled  by  Mr.  J.  B.  Mansfield,  of  Ashland, 
Ohio.  The  biographical  sketches  which  appear  in  the  latter  part  of  the  book 
are  purely  complimentary,  and  a  proof  of  each  sketch  was  submitted  by 
mail  to  the  subject  for  correction. 

The  most  authentic  publications  bearing  on  early  events  in  Northwestern 
Pennsylvania  have  been  consulted,  and  the  State  and  county  records  have 
also  been  freely  utilized  as  reliable -sources  of  information.  The  scarcity 
in  many  instances  of  authentic  local  data,  has  been  overcome  by  a  system- 
atic and  careful  research  of  family  manuscripts  and  the  old  newspaper 
tiles,  dating  back  to  1805,  from  which  were  gathered  many  of  the  most 
important  local  events  that  have  transpired  during  the  past  three -equarters 
of  a  century.  The  private  papers  of  Gen.  David  Mead,  "  Reminiscences 
of  the  Olden  Time,"  by  the  late  John  Reynolds,  Esq.,  the  recollections  of  the 


late  John  Dick,  Esq.,  the  autobiography  of  Cornelius  Van  Home,  Esq., 
Mr.  Alfred  Huidekoper's  "Incidents  in  the  Early  History  of  Crawford 
County,  Penn.,"  and  the  address  of  William  H.  Davis,  Esq.,  on  the  history 
of  the  county,  delivered  in  1848,  before  the  Meadville  Literary  Union, 
were  all  of  invaluable  aid  to  the  county  historian. 

The  series  of  articles  contributed  to  the  press  by  the  late  Thomas  Kus- 
ton  Kennedy,  Esq. ,  were,  too,  of  great  assistance  to  the  same  writer,  which 
can  also  be  said  of  live  lectures  on  the  Holland  and  Pennsylvania  Population 
Land  Companies,  the  churches,  schools,  agriculture  and  internal  improve- 
ments of  the  county,  which  were  respectively  prepared  and  delivered  in 
Meadville,  by  Alfred  Huidekoper,  Esq.,  Eev.  Eichard  Craighead,  Prof.  Sam- 
uel P.  Bates,  Joshua  Douglass,  Esq.,  and  Hon.  William  Reynolds,  each  of 
whom  extended  to  Mr.  Brown  kindly  advice  and  generous  sympathy  from 
the  inception  until  the  close  of  his  labors. 

Among  others  whose  assistance  we  desire  to  acknowledge,  are  the  late 
Judge  David  Derickson,  Hon.  Hiram  L.  Richmond,  Rev.  J.  V.  Reynolds 
Hon.  G.  B.  Delamater,  Col.  Alexander  Power,  David  M.  Farrelly,  Esq., 
Joseph  Dickson,  Esq.,  Dr.  Edward  Ellis  and  Mrs.  Jane  Bemus,  while  the 
county  ofiBcials  and  the  leading  members  of  every  profession  and  calling 
throughout  the  county  were  always  willing  to  lend  a  helping  hand  in  fur- 
thering the  labors  of  the  historians.  Special  acknowledgments  are  due  to 
Francis  C.  Waid,  Esq.,  of  Woodcock  Township,  for  his  generous  and 
munificent  patronage  to  the  work,  and  the  unqualified  interest  he  has  dis- 
played in  its  welfare.  The  publishers  avail  themselves  of  this  opportunity 
to  thank  all  who  have  thus  aided  in  the  preparation  of  the  work;  for  what- 
ever of  merit  the  history  of  Crawford  County  contains  is  due,  in  a  large 
measure,  to  their  assistance. 

We  undertook  the  publication  of  a  history  of  this  county,  upon  the  advice 
and  encouragement  of  a  goodly  number  of  the  leading  members  of  the 
"Historical  Society  of  Crawford  County,"  and  after  more  than  a  year  of 
unceasing  toil  we  present  the  book  to  our  many  hundred  patrons,  with  the 
belief  that  we  have  fulfilled  every  promise  made  in  our  prospectus,  and 
with  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  we  bring  what  we  guaranteed. 






CHAPTER  I.— Introductory 15-23 

Cornelis  Jacobson  Mey,  1624-25.  William 
Van  Hulst,  1625-26.  Peter  Minuit,  1626-33. 
David  Petersen  de  Vries,  1632-33.  Wouter 
Van  Twiller,  1633-38. 


Sir  William  Keift,  1638-47.  Peter  Minuit, 
1638-41.  Peter  Hollandaer,  1641-43.  John 
Printz,  1643-53.  Peter  Stuyvesant,  1647-64. 
John  Pappagoya,  1653-54.  John  Claude 
Rysingh,  1654-55. 


John  Paul  Jacquet,  1655-57.  Jacob  Alrichs, 
1657-59.  Goeran  Van  Dyck,  1657-58.  Will- 
iam Beekman,  1658-63.  Alex.  D'Hinoyossa, 

CHAPTER  IV 35-41 

Richard  Nichols,  1664-67.  Robert  Need- 
ham,  1664-68.  Francis  Lovelace,  1667-73. 
John  Carr,  1668-73.  Anthony  Colve,  1673-74. 
Peter  Alrichs,  1673-74. 

CHAPTER  V 41-50 

Sir  Edmund  Andros,  1674-81.  Edmund 
Cantwell,  1674-76.  John  Collier,  1676-77. 
Christopher  Billop,  1677-81. 

CHAPTER  VI 51-61 

William  Markham,  1681-82.  William  Penn, 


Thomas  Lloyd,  1684-86.  Five  Commis- 
sioners, 1686-88.  John  Blackwell,  1688-90. 
Thomas  Lloyd,  1690-91.  William  Markham, 
1691-93.  Benjamin  Fletcher,  1693-95.  Will- 
iam Markham,  1693-99 



William  Penn,  1699-1701.  Andrew  Hamil- 
ton, 1701-03.  Edward  Shippen,  1703-04.  John 
Evans,  1704-09.    Charles  Gooken,  1709-17. 


Sir  William  Keith,  1717-26.  Patrick  Gor- 
don, 1726-36.  James  Logan,  1736-38.  George 
Thomas,  1738-47.  Anthony  Palmer,  1747-48. 
Jam  es  Hamilton,  1748-54. 


Robert  H.  Morris,  1754-56.  William  Den- 
ny, 1756-59.    James  Hamilton,  1759-63. 

CHAPTER  XI 98-104 

John  Penn,  1763-71.  James  Hamilton, 
1771.  Richard  Penn,  1771-73.  John  Penn, 

CHAPTER  XII 104-114 

Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  1777-78.  George 
Bryan,  1778.  Joseph  Reed,  1778-81.  William 
Moore,  1781-82.  John  Dickinson,  1782-85. 
Benjamin  Franklin,  178.5-88. 

CHAPTER  XIII 114-121 

Thomas  Mifflin,  1788-99.  Thomas  Mc- 
Kean,  1799-1808.  Simon  Snvder,  1808-17. 
William  Findlay,  1817-20.  Joseph  Heister, 
1820-23.  John  A,  Shulze,  1823-29.  George 
Wolfe,  1829-.30.    Joseph  Ritner,  1835-39. 

CHAPTER  XIV 122-131 

David  R.  Porter,  1839-45.  Francis  R. 
Shunk,  1845-48.  William  F.  Johnstone,  184R- 
52.  William  Bigler,  1852-55.  John  Pollock, 
1855-58.  William  F.  Packer,  1858-61.  An- 
drew G.  Curtin,  1861-67.  John  W.  Geary, 
1867-73.  John  F.  Hartranft,  1873-78.  Henry 
F.  Hoyt,  1878-82.    Robert  E.  Pattison,  1882. 

Gubernatorial  Table 1.32 



CHAPTER  I.— Archeology 137-142 

The  Mound  Builders — Evidences  of  a  Van- 
ished Race — Delaware  Tradition  of  the  Al- 
legewi — Pre-historic  Remains  in  Crawford 
County— Stone  Mound.  Near  Oil  Creek- 
Old  Meadows  on  French  Creek  and  Indian 
Tradition  Regarding  Them— Circular  Forts 
and  Mounds  Below  Meadville  —  Indian 
Graves  and  Relics — Description  of  a  Large 
Fort  near  Pymatuning  Swamp— Numerous 
Artificial  Oil  Pits  Found  by  the  Pioneers  in 
the  Vicinity  of  Titusville — Mounds  in  Other 
Portions  of  the  County  —  Archaeological 
Conclusions  Regarding  These  Monuments 
of  Antiquity. 

CHAPTER  IL— Indian  History 142-153 

The  Eries  Occupy  the  Southern  Shore  of 

Lake  Erie— They  are  Conquered  and  Dis- 
persed by  the  Iroquois— Catholic  Missiona- 
ries who  have  Written  of  the  Eries — Defini- 
tion of  Their  Name— Mention  of  the  Eries 
on  Two  Old  French  Maps  at  Harrisburg— 
Seneca  Tradition  Regarding  the  War  of 
Extermination— The  Senecas  Occupy  the 
Conquered  Territory— War  Between  the 
Senecas  and  Massassaugas — ^Indian  Villages 
in  Crawford  County— Friendly  Indians  and 
White  Prisoners  Found  Here  by  the  First 
Settlers— Neighboring  Indian  Towns— Biog- 
raphy of  Corn-planter— Ancient  Indian 
Trace — Delegations  of  Wyandots  and  Sene- 
cas Pass  Through  Meadville  in  1808— Coun- 
cil at  Jennesedaga  Between  Citizens  of 
Crawford  County  and  the  Senecas— The  Lat- 
ter Join  the  Americans  in  the  War  of 



CHAPTER  III.— French  Navigators,  Etc.154-169 
Cartier  discovers  the  St.  Lawrence— 
Champlain  Founds  Quebec  and  Montreal- 
French  Explorations— Catholic  Missionaries 
Visit  the  Fries  and  Iroquois— Joncaire— 
French  and  English  Traders— Conflicting 
Claims— Celeron's  Expedition— The  French 
Take  Possession  of  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio 
Valleys  and  Build  Forts  Presque  Isle,  Le 
Boeuf,  Machault  and  DuQuense— Catholic 
Church  Erected  at  Presque  Isle— Eng- 
lish Resistance  to  the  Claims  of  France- 
Washington's  Mission  to  the  French  Com- 
mandant of  LeBceuf— War  Between  the 
Two  Nations— Old  French  Road  Through 
Crawford  County— French  Fort  at  Site  of 
Meadville— Evacuation  of  the  Country  by 
the  French,  and  English  Occupancy— Forts 
Presque  Isle  and  LeBa?uf  Repaired  and 
Venango  and  Pitt  Erected— Indian  Dissatis- 
faction—Pontiac's  Conspiracy  and  Capture 
of  Forts  Venango,  LeBauf  and  Presque 
Isle— Revolutionary  War  and  American 
Possession— Indian  Treaties— Erection  of 
Fort  Franklin— Soldiers  Stationed  at  Mead's 
Block-house— French  Creek  Settlers  Organ- 
ize for  Protection— English  and  Indian  C)p- 
position  to  American  Occupation — Wayne's 
Victory  and  Final  Peace. 

CHAPTER  IV.— Pioneers  of  French  Creek 


David  and  John  Mead  Visit  the  Valley  in 
1787— Appearance  of  the  Country  at  that 
Time— First  Settlement  Made  in  May,  1788, 
by  David,  John  and  Joseph  Mead,  Thomas 
Martin,  John  Watson,  James  Fitz  Randolph, 
Thomas  Grant,  Cornelius  Van  Home  and 
Christopher  Snyder — They  Plow  and  Plant  a 
Field  of  Corn  in  the  Bottom  West  of  French 
Creek— Selections  of  Lands— David  and 
John  Mead  Bring  Out  Their  Families— Ar- 
rival of  Darius  Mead,  Robert  Fitz  Randolph 
and  Frederick  Baum — First  Birth  in  the 
Settlement — Biographies  of  David  Mead, 
John  Mead,  Cornelius  Van  Home,  Robert 
Fitz  Randolph  and  Edward  Fitz  Randolph 
—The  Heritage  They  Left  to  Their  De- 

CHAPTER  v.— Indian  Depredations 181-191 

Friendly  Indians — The  Settlers  Leave  the 
Valley  in  April,  1791— Return  of  Cornelius 
Van  Home,  Thomas  Ray  and  William  Uregg 
— Capture  of  Van  Home  by  the  Indians  and 
his  Subsequent  Escape — He  Meets  Ensign 
Jeffers  at  Mead's  Block-house  and  goes  to 
Fort  Franklin — Ray  Captured  and  Gregg 
Killed  by  the  Savages— The  Former  taken 
to  Detroit,  but  Finally  Gains  his  Freedom — 
Capture  and  Death  of  Darius  Mead— Un- 
settled State  of  French  Creek  Valley  — 
Mead's  Block-house  CJarrisoned  by  Ensign 
Bond  —  Indians  Attack  James  Dickson— 
Cornelius  Van  Home  raises  a  Company  of 
Volunteers  to  Protect  the  Settlement— The 
Settlers  Erect  a  Blockhouse  at  Meadville — 
Fearless  Character  of  the  Pioneers — Findlay 
and  iMcCormick  Killed  by  the  Indians- 
Raid  on  William  Power's  Camp  by  the  Same 
Band  and  Capture  of  James  Thompson- 
Closing  Events  of  Indian  Hostility. 

CHAPTER  VI.— Northwestern  Pennsylva- 
nia  191-205 

Formation  of  Counties  —  Territory  Em- 
braced in  Allegheny  County — Erection  of 
Crawford  County  and  Location  of  the  Seat 
of  Justice  at  Meadville — Surrounding  Coun- 
ties Erected  and  Temporarily  Attached  to 
Crawford  for  Judicial  Purposes— The  Mer- 
cer and  Erie  County  Boundary  Lines  Estab- 
lished—Biography  of  Col.  William  Crawford, 
After  Whom  the  County  was  Named— His 
Useful  Career  and  Cruel  Death — Location 
and  Boundaries  of  Crawford  County— Town- 
8hips,Size,  Area  and  General    Appearance 


—  Population  Statistics  —  French  Creek— 
The  Stream  as  a  Highway  of  Navigation- 
New  Channel  at  Meadville— Its  Tributaries 
— Cussewago  and  Other  Streams— Oil  Creek 
— Conneaut  Creek — Shenango  and  Crooked 
Creek— Lake  Conneaut— Oil  Creek  Lake- 
Sugar  Lake. 

CHAPTER    VII.— Topographical    Features 

OF  Crawford  County 205-225 

Elevations,  Surface  Dip  and  Physical 
Phenomena  of  Streams ,  Lakes  and  Swamps — 
Drainage  of  Conneaut  Marsh — Pymatun- 
ing  Swamp— Geological  Series— Drift— Bur- 
ied Valleys  —  Pottsville  Conglomerate  — 
Homewood  Sandstone,  Mercer  Group,  Cono- 
quenssing  and  Sharon — Sub-conglomerate 
Formations — Shenango,  Meadville  and  Oil 
Lake  Groups— Venango  Oil  Sand  Group- 
Venango  Upper  Sandstone,  Upper  Shales, 
Middle  Sandstone,  Lower  Shales  and  Lower 

CHAPTER  VIII.-Lands 226-2::!5 

Land  Provision  made  for  Pennsylvania 
Soldiers  of  the  Revolution  by  the  Act  of 
1780— Depreciation  Certificates— Act  of  17«<3 
— Depreciation  Lands  —  Donation  Lands — 
Survey  and  Distribution  of  Military  Lauds 
West  of  the  Allegheny  River— tJnseated 
Lands — Act  of  1792 — Prevention  Clause  in 
said  Act,  and  the  Litigation  and  Troubles 
Arising  Therefrom— Organization  of  Land 
Companies  —  Holland  Land  Company  — 
Pennsylvania  Population  Company — North 
American  Land  Company— John  Reynolds' 
Reminiscences  of  the  Conflict  Between  the 
Settlers  and  Land  Companies  and  the  In- 
jury Thereby  Inflicted  on  the  Settlement 
and  Prosperity  of  the  County. 

CHAPTER  IX.    Agriculture 2.36-246 

First  Land  Cultivated  by  the  Pioneers  in 
the  Valley  of  French  Creek,  and  First  Corn 
Crop  Planted— Pioneer  Nursery — Introduc- 
tion of  Potatoes.  Wheat,  Rye,  Buckwheat, 
Oats,  Barley,  Etc.— Rapid  Increase  of  the 
Cereals— Horses  and  Cattle^ — Merino  Sheep 
brought  into  the  County — Anecdote  of  a 
Sheep  Speculation— Swine  of  the  Past  and 
the  Present — Stock  and  Land  in  1826 — Wool 
Production — Leading  Fine  Stock  Breeders, 
Dealers  and  Importers— Agricultural  Socie- 
ties of  Crawford  County— Agricultural  Im- 
plements, their  Changes  and  Wonderful  Im- 
provements during  the  Past  Century— Pio- 
neer Mode  of  Farming — Dairy  Interests- 
First  Cheese  Factories  Erected  in  the 
County— Their  Rapid  Increase  and  Present 
Prosperity  of  the  Business — Dairymen's  As- 
sociation—  Dairymen's  Board  of  Trade. 

CHAPTER    X.— Primitive    Appearance   of 

Crawford  County 249-262 

Timber  and  Fruit  Bearing  Trees  and 
Vines— Roots  and  Herbage— Pioneer  Days 
and  Trials — Habitations  of  the  First  Settlers 
— Furniture,  Food  and  Medicines — Habits, 
Labor  and  Dress— Early  Manners  and  Cus- 
toms— "Bees"  and  Weddings — The  Hom- 
iny Block  and  Pioneer  Mills — Store  Cioods 
and  Produce— Old  Cash  Book  at  Fort  Frank- 
lin—Mode of  Living— Churches  and  Schools 
—Period  of  1812-15— Alfred  Huidekoper's 
List  of  Wild  Animals,  Birds  and  Reptiles— 
An  Old  Settler— Game— The  Inhabitants  of 
Northwestern  Pennsylvania  Petition  the 
Legislature  to  Enact  a  Law  for  the  Destruc- 
tion of  Squirrels— Hunts  Inaugurated— 
Pheasants,  Pigeons,  Bees  and  Fish— Wolves- 
Premium  on  Wolf  and  Fox  Scalps— Bears- 
Panther  —  Fur  Bearing  Animals  —  The 
Rattle-snake  and  other  Pests  of  Early 

CHAPTER  XL— Internal  Improvements..263-286 
Early  Roads  and  Navigation— Salt  Trade 


— Discovery  and  Manufacture  of  Salt  in 
Crawford  County— Freightage  of  Salt  Be- 
tween Erie  and  Pittsburgh  —  Turnpike 
Roads — State  Appropriations  for  Navigation 
and  Roads— Old  State  Road— County  Ex- 
penditures for  Roads  and  Bridges  from  1804 
to  1834— Mode  of  Travel  in  Pioneer  Days- 
Plank  Roads— First  Bridges  Built  Across 
French  Creek — Stage  Lines  and  Mail  Routes 
— Boating  and  Navigation  on  French  Creek 
— Canals  and  Canal  Building — French  Creek 
Feeder  and  the  Beaver  and  Erie  Canal — 
Introduction  of  Steamboats  on  the  Alle-' 
gheny,  and  Slack-water  Navigation  on 
French  Creek — Completion  of  the  Beaver 
and  Erie  Canal — Railroads  of  Crawford 

CHAPTER  XII.— The  Burr  Conspiracy,  etc. 


One  of  Burr's  Agents  Visits  Meadville  and 
Enlists  Men  for  the  Expedition — Capture  of 
Boats  on  the  Ohio— The  Democracy  of  Craw- 
ford County  Hold  a  Celebration  at  Mead- 
ville to  Rejoice  Over  the  Failure  of  the  Con- 
spiracy— Suggestive  Toasts  Drank  on  the 
Occasion — The  Federalists  Take  Ottense.and 
attempt  Retaliation — Partisan  Strife  Be- 
comes Bitter,  but  Finally  Dies  out  and 
Peace  Prevails — Religious  Phenomena  of 
Pioneer  Days^-Strange  Actions  of  Those 
Affected- Vivid  Descriptions  of  the  Excite- 
ment— Early  Murders — Killingcif  a  Squaw  in 
Meadville — Murder  of  Hugh  Fitzpatrick  by 
Van  Holland— Arrest,  Trial  and  Execution 
of  the  Murderer — Hanging  of  Lamphier  for 
Killing  Constable  Smith — Charles  Higgen- 
bottom  Killed  by  George  Gosnell — The  Lat- 
ter Sent  to  the  Penitentiary— Slavery  in 
Crawford  County — John  Brown  of  Ossawa- 

CHAPTER  XIIL— Judiciary 295-311 

Pioneer  Courthouses,  Their  Simplicity 
and  Many  Uses— First  Buildings  Used  for 
County  Purposes  in  Crawford  County — 
First  Term  of  Court  and  Amusing  Incident 
Connected  Therewith— Second  Session  and 
First  (hand  Jury  Impaneled— Indictments 
Found  by  This  Jury— Pioneer  Mode  of  Set- 
tling Disagreements — Anecdote  of  Judge 
Mead— Second  Grand  Jury — First  Jury 
Trial  in  Crawford  County — Early  Practice 
and  Practitioners — The  Bench  and  Bar — 
President,  District  and  Additional  Law 
Judges — Associate  Judges — Deputy  Attor- 
ney-Generals and  District  Attorneys — 
United  States  Courts— The  IVIen  Who  Organ- 
ized the  First  Court  at  Meadville — Brief 
Biographies  of  Leading  Members  of  the 
Bench  and  Bar— Present  Bar  of  the  County 
— Resident  Attorneys  out  of  Practice — De- 
ceased Attorneys. 

CHAPTER  XIV.— Official  Roster 311-320 

Members  of  Congress — State  Senators — 
State  Representatives  —  Prothonotaries  — 
Clerks— Registers  and  Recorders — Sheriffs — 
Commissioners  —  Treasurers  —  Surveyors  — 

Coroners— County    Buildings     and    County 
Farm— The  Old  State  Arsenal. 

CHAPTER  XV.— Education,  etc 321-.3.30 

The  Old  Block-house  Wherein  the  First 
School  in  Crawford  County  Was  Taught— 
The  Act  Erecting  the  County  Provides  for  a 
Seminary  of  Learning  at  the  County  Seat — 
Pioneer  Schoolhouses— School  Law  of  1809 — 
Free  Schools  Established  in  1834— Nationality 
and  Educational  Characteristics  of  the  Early 
Settlers — Teachers  of  Pioneer  Days — Organ- 
ization of  the  Crawford  County  Teachers' 
Institute — Its  Growth  and  Progress  and  the 
Work  It  has  Accomplished — School  Law  of 
1854 — Office  of  County  Superintendent 
Created — Establishment  of  Normal  Schools — 
Superintendents  Since  1854 — Present  Con- 
dition of  the  Schools— Crawford  County 
Medical  Society  —  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society  of  Crawford  County  —  Crawford 
County  INIutual  Insurance  Company— Farm- 
ers' Mutual  Fire  Insurance  of  Crawford 

CHAPTER  XVI,— Military  History !..331-.343 

English  Intrigue  and  Indian  Hostility 
— Tecumseh  and  the  Battle  of  Tippecanoe — 
War  of  1812-1.5— Preparing  for  the  Conflict 
—Organization  of  the  Militia— Gen.  David 
Mead  and  Brigade-Inspector  William  Clark 
Engaged  in  the  Work— Military  Camp  Es- 
tablished at  Meadville  by  Gen.  Tannehill's 
Brigade— Political  Trouble  Between  the  Sol- 
»  iers  While  in  Camp — The  Comruaud  Leaves 
irthe  Front— Excitement  Caused  by  Hull's 
cflrjTender — Patriotism  of  the  Pioneers- 
Tanaehill's  Brigade  Disband — Testimonial 
to  Maj.  James  Herriott— Recruiting  OfiBce 
at  Meadville— Building  of  Perry's  Fleet — 
Gen.  Mead's  Stirring  Appeal  to  the  People 
—Perry's  Letter  of  Thanks  to  Gen.  Mead- 
Battle  of  Lake  Erie — Second  Letter  from 
Perry  to  Mead — Mead's  Troops  Stationed  at 
Erie  in  1813-14— Capt.  Morris  Recruiting  at 
Meadville — List  of  Officers — Peace  Pro- 
claimed— Brief  Review  of  the  War — Mexi- 
can War. 

CHAPTER   XVII.— Crawford    County    in    the 

War  of  the  Rebellion 344-365 

Patriotic  Feeling  Among  its  People — Meet- 
ing Held  to  I)enounce  Treason  and  Uphold 
the  Government— First  Volunteers  Sent  to 
the  Front— Erie  Regiment— Thirty-eighth 
Regiment,  Ninth  Reserve— Thirty-ninth 
Regiment,  Tenth  Reserve— Fifty-seventh 
Regiment— Fifty-ninth  Regiment,  Second 
Cavalry  —  Eighty-third  Regiment  —  One 
Hundred  and  Eleventh  Regiment  — One 
Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Regiment,  Twelfth 
Cavalry— One  Hundred  and  Thirty-sixth 
Regiment  — One  Hundred  and  Thirty- 
seventh  Regiment— One  Hundred  and  For- 
ty-fifth Regiment— One  Hundred  and  Fif- 
tieth Regiment — One  Hundred  and  Sixty- 
third  Regiment,  Eighteenth  Cavalry— One 
Hundred  and  Ninetieth  and  Ninety-first 
Regiment — Two  Hundred  and  Eleventh 
Regiment— Close  of  the  War. 



CHAPTER   I.— Meadville.. 

Appearance  and  Topography  of  the  City 
—The  Town  Laid  Out  by  David  Mead— First 
Sales  of  Lots  and  the  Purchasers — Anecdote 
of  the  First  Survey — Pioneers — Resurvey 
and  Enlargement  of  the  Town  Plat— Brief 
Sketches  of  Those  Who  Located  Perma- 
nently in  Meadville  Prior  to  1805— Early 


Physicians — Natural  Phenomena  of  Pio- 
neer Days— Strange  Psychological  Phenome- 
non —  Visit  of  LaFayette  —  Meadville  in 
1830— Business  Men  Then  Residing  Here- 
Old  Houses  Yet  Remaining— The  Changes 
Which  Fifty-four  Years  Have  Wrought  in 
the  Town. 



CHAPTER  II.— Religious  History 389-403 

First  Presbyterian  Church— Second  Pres- 
byterian Church— Cumberland  Presbyterian 
and  United  Presbyterian  Churches— First 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church— State  Street 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church— African  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  Church— Christ  Protestant 
Episcopal  Church — Independent  Congrega- 
tional Church— First  Baptist  Church— Lu- 
theran Evangelical  Trinity  Church — St. 
Paul's  Reformed  Church— St.  Agatha's  Cath- 
olic Church— St.  Bridget's  Catholic  Church 
— Meadville  Hebrew  Society— First  Evan- 
gelical Protestant  Church— Park  Avenue 
Congregational  Church. 

CHAPTER  III.— Schools  of  Me.\dville..404-426 
The  Old  Block-house  Remodeled  by  David 
Mead  for  School  Purposes — First  School 
Opened  in  the  Town— Night  School- Mead- 
ville Academy  Founded  by  the  Legislature 
— Original  Subscribers  to  the  Fund  for  Its 
Establishment— The  Academy  Opened  Un- 
der Rev.  Joseph  Stockton — Its  Early  Teach- 
ers and  Future  Progress — Free  Schools — 
Growth  of  Exiucation  in  Jleadville  and 
Present  Condition  of  the  Schools — Alle- 
gheny College— History  of  the  Institution 
from  Its  Inception  to  the  Present  Time — 
Meadville  Theological  School— Meadville 
Business  College. 

CHAPTER  IV.— Newspapers,  etc 426-443 

Crawford  Weekly  Messenger — Allegheny 
Magazine  —  Western  Standard  —  Meadvitfi 
Gazette — Unitarian  Essayist — Western  f««^>' 
— Meadville  Courier— Crawford  DemofrahX- 
Statesman — American  Citizen — Democratic 
Republican — Meadville  Gazette — Crawford 
Journal— Pennsylvania  Sentinel- Cussewa- 

go  Chronicle— Spirit  of  the  Age— Meadville 
Republican  —  Meadville  Index  —  Crawford 
County  Post— Meadville  Reporter— Demo- 
cratic Messenger— Messenger  Democrat- 
Morning  News— National  Vindicator— Chau- 
tauquan— Chautauqua  Assembly  Herald- 
Pennsylvania  Farmer— Meadville  Tribune 
—Past  and  Present  Manufacturing  Inter- 
ests of  the  City.  • 

CHAPTER  v.— Meadville,  Concluded 443-462 

Incorporation  of  Meadville  as  a  Borough 
-First  Election  of  Otficers— Meadville  Be- 
comes a  City— Population  of  the  Town  by 
Decades  Since  1800-Burgesses— Mavors— 
Postmasters— The  Old  Cemetery— (jreen- 
dale  Cemetery— City  Hall— Market  House— 
St.  .Joseph's  Hospital— Meadville  City  Hos- 
pital—Fire Department— Meadville  (ias  and 
Water  Company —Electric  Light— Meadville 
Water  Company — Telegraph,  Telephone  and 
ExpressCompanies—Bauks— Hotels— Secret 
and  Other  Societies— Pioneer  Shows  and 
Public  Halls— Public  Library— Parks— Con- 

CHAPTER  VI.— Titusville 462-475 

Historical  —  Early  Settlements  —  First 
Things— Lumbering  Industry— Discovery  of 
Petroleum — Oil  Companies  Organized— Oil 
Wells— Refineries— Great  Oil  Fire— Oil  Ex- 
change— Industries. 

CHAPTER  VII.— Titusville,  Concluded...476-4'J1 
Incorporation— City  Hall — Water  Works 
— Gas  and  Water  Company — Fire  Compa- 
nies—Sewers—Banking—Library Associa- 
tion— Agricultural  Association — The  Press — 
Schools — Churches  —  Cemeteries  —  Societies 
— Miscellaneous. 



CHAPTER  I.— Athens  Township 495-501 

Boundary  —  Lands  —  Early  Settlements- 
Organization — Population— Streams  —  Rail- 
roads— Topography — Timber  —  Industries — 
Schools— Post  Offices— Little  Cooley— First 
Settlers — Industries,  etc. — Churches. 

CHAPTER  II— Beaver  Township 502-505 

Erection — Boundaries — Physical  Features 
—Industries  —  Land  Titles  —  Settlements- 
Salt  Industry — Mills — Schools  —Beaver  Cen- 
ter— Churches. 

CHAPTER  III  — Bloompield  Township  and 

Borough  of  Riceville 505-513 

Organization— Boundaries— Physical  Fea- 
tures —  Lands  —  Early  Settlers  —  Thomas 
Bloomfield— Richard  Shreve— Other  Settlers 
—Money— Schools— Lincolnville— Churches 
— Chapman ville  — Bloomfield  —  Cheese  Fac- 
tories— Mills. 

Borough  of  Riceville 511 

Incorporation— Officers—  Early  Settlers — 
Schools— Industries— Churches— Societies. 

CHAPTER   IV.— Cambridge   Township    and 

Borough  of  Cambridgeboro 513-521 

Formation  —  Location  —  Name— Physical 
Features— Early  Settlers— Drake's  Mills- 

Borough  of  Cambridgeboro 516 

Location  —  Population  —  Settlement- 
Growth— Business— The  Rail  road— Present 

Industries— Incorporation— Officers— News- 
paper —  Churches  —  Societies  —  The  Con- 
servatory  of  Music — Schools. 

CHAPTER  v.— Conneaut  Township 522-526 

Organization— Boundaries— Name— Phys- 
ical Features — Area  and  Population — Land 
Companies — First  Purchasers — Early  Set- 
tlers— Mills — Schools — Friends — Churches — 
Summit — Penn  Line — Steamburg. 

CHAPTER  VI.— CussEWAGO  Township 526-532 

Formation  and  Boundaries — Name — 
Streams — Soil — Population — I^irst  Owners- 
Pioneer  Life — Early  Settlers— Mills — Cheese 
Factories— Schools —  Mosiertown- Crossing- 
ville — Churches. 

CHAPTER  VII.— East  Fairfield  Township 

and  Borough  of  Cochranton 533-540 

Petition — Election — Physical  Features  — 
Titles— Trials  of  Pioneers— First  Settlers- 
Early  School  Teachers — Shaw's  Landing — 
Pettis  Postoffice-Stitzerville— Churches. 

Borough    of  Cochranton 535 

Petition  —  Election  —  Officers  — Name  — 
Population  and  Present  Industries— School 
— Press — Churches — Societies — Cemetery. 

CHAPTER  VIII.— East  Fallowfield  Town- 
ship  541-545 

Fallowfield  and  Boundaries— Division  of 
the  Original  Township — Physical  Features — 



Population  Company  Contracts— First  Set- 
tlers—Other Settlers— Early  ifchools— Lost 
Child  —  Mills  —  Atlantic  —  Societies  — 

CHAPTKR  IX.— F.4IKF1ELD  To-\v>-ship 546-552 

Boundaries— Location— Physical  Features 
— Population — First  Settlers — Lands — Later 
Settlements  —  Conscription  —  State  Road — 
Library  Association— Schools— Great  Snow 
— Mill — Calvin's  Corners — Churches. 

CHAPTER    X.— Greenwood  Township    and 

Borough  of  Geneva 552-559 

Location— Area  —  Population  —  Physical 
Features— Field's  Claim— Early  Settlers- 
Early  Mills — Distilleries— Early  Teachers — 
Glendale  —  West  Greenwood  —  Mills — 

Borough  of  Geneva 556 

Population — Incorporation —  Election^ — Offi- 
cers-Early Residents— Schools— Churches 

CHAPTER  XL— Hayfield  Township 559-564 

Organization — Area — Physical  Features — 
Population — Early  Settlers — Land  Titles — 
Pioneer  Trials — Mills — Schools — Churches — 
Hayfield— Coon's  Corners.— Norrisville. 

CHAPTER  XII.— Mead  Township 5G4-575 

Formation — Size^Valuation^Population 
— Boundaries — Rev.Timothy  Alden,  on  Mead 
Township — Early  Settlers — Titles  from  the 
Holland  Land  Company— Other  Settlers — 
Mills — Wayland —  Frenchtown  —  Bousson — 
Schools — Churches. 

CHAPTER    XIII.— North  Shenango  Town- 
ship  576-579 

Original  Township — Subdivision — Popula- 
tion— Physical  Features — Mounds  —  Espy- 
ville  Station— Espyville  Postofflce— Churches 
—Land  Titles— Early  Settlers— Mills— Dis- 
tilleries— Early  Teachers. 

CHAPTER  XIV —Oil  Creek  Township  and 

Borough  of  Hydetown 579-585 

Erection — Boundaries — Physical  Features 
—Land  Titles— Early  Settlers— Early  Mer- 
chants— Postoffice— Slills  —  Distilleries — Oil 
Wells  —  Early  Teachers  —  Religion  — 
Churches-Kerr's  Hill. 

Borough  of  Hydetown 584 

First  Settlers — Early  Business  Interests — 
School— Present  Business— Incorporation 
— Officers — Churches — The  Equitable  Aid 
Union — Literary  Society. 

CHAPTER  XV.— Pine  Township  and  Borough 

of    Linesville —586-595 

Population— Organization— Name— Physi- 
cal Features— Land  Companies — Deeds — 
Early  Settlers— Colt's  New  Station. 

Borough  of  Linesvili.e 591 

Location — Origin^Plat  Recorded — Post- 
office— Early  Settlers— Mill— Press— School 
— Churches — Societies — Police  Company — 
Incorporation — Business — Professions. 

CHAITER  XVI.— Randolph  Township 595-601 

Location — Organization — Lands — Popula- 
tion —  Physical  Features  ■ —  Settlements  — 
Land  Titles— Pioneers— Soldiers'  Titles- 
Later  Settlers— Mills— Schools— Guy's  Mills 
—Societies— Churches. 

CHAPTER  XVII.— Richmond  Township... 601-605 
Boundaries — Physical  Features — Dona- 
tion Lands— Soldiers'  Claims— Pioneers— 
Tannery— Mills— Cheese  Factories— Early 
Schools — New  Richmond — Lyona —  Ceme- 
teries— Churches. 

CHAPTER  XVIII.— Rockdale  Township...605-612 
Original  Boundaries — Present  Limits — 
Population— Physical  Features— Early  Mills 
—Land  Titles— Early  Settlers— Other  Mills 
—First  Schools— Roads— Miller's  Station— 
Church— Cemetery— Brown  Hill. 

CHAPTER      XIX.— Rome      Township     and 

BoROU(iH  OF   Centreville 612-620 

Organization— Boundaries— Area  —Popu- 
lation—Physical Features— Land  Titles— 
Pioneers— Early  Tax  Payers— Mills— Early 
School  Teachers — Churches. 

Borough  of  Centreville gig 

Incorporation— Election  —  Officers— Early 
Settlement-  Present  Business  Interests- 
School— Cemeterv—t  hurches— Societies. 

CHAPTER    XX.— Sadsbury    Township    and 

Borough  of   Evansbufg 620-625 

Original  Boundaries — Present  Area — Pop- 
ulation—Canal— Railroads— Conneaut  Lake- 
Physical  Features — Land  Companies — Early 
Settlers—  Distilleries  —  Early  Teachers  — 
Shermanville—Aldenia— Stony  I'oint  Post- 

Borough  of  Evansburg 623 

Location— Incorporation  —  Hotels— Popu- 
lation— Business — Religious  Organizations 
—Societies— The  Fouudei  — Early  Settleis 
and  Business  Pursuits. 

CHAPTER   XXL— South    Shenango    Town- 
ship  625-630 

Erection— Population—  Physical  P'eatures 
— Westford — Marshall's  Corners — McLean's 
Corners— Population  Company  f'ontracts — 
Early  Settlers— Indians— First  Teachers- 
Religious  Organizations. 

CHAPTER     XXIL— Sparta    Township   and 

Borough  of  Spartansburg 

Boundaries  —  Erection  —  Population  — 

Physical  Features— Mills— Land  Companies 

—Early      Pioneers— Early     Justice— Early 

School  Teachers. 

Borough  of  Spartansburg 633 

Location  —  Business  —  Early      Settlers — 

First    Name  —  Incorporation  —  Officers — 

Religious  Organization — Societies. 

CHAPTER  XXIIL  — Spring   Township  and 

Boroughs     of     Conneautville     and 
Spring 635-652 

Name — Physical  Features — Population- 
Land  Titles— Early  Settlers— Adventures  of 
Pioneers— Early  Mills— Lumbering  — Early 
Schools — Teachers — Religious  Organizations 
— Rundel's  Postoffice. 
BOROUGHOF  Conneautville 642 

Incorporation  —  Election  —  Officers— Fire 
Department  —  Population  —  Canal  Days- 
Present  Industries— Mercantile  Pursuits- 
Alexander  Power  —  Original  Plat  —  First 
Settlers— Press— Bank— Cemetery— Agricul- 
tural Societies  —  Schools— Churches— Socie- 
Borough  of  Spring 650 

Location  —  Population  —  Business— First 
Settlers  —  Postofflce — Incorporation  — Elec- 
tion— Officers — School — Churches — Societies. 

CHAPTER  XXIV.- Steuben   Township  and 

Borough  of  Townville 6.53-6.58 

Erection  —  Boundaries  —  Lands  —  Early 
Settlers — Lumbering — Early  Mills — Tryon- 
ville  —  Proposed  Railroad  —  Clappville  — 
Tryonville  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 

Borough  of  Townville 6.56 

Incorporation  —  Officers  —  Population  — 
Business  Interests— Name— Early  Residents 
Schools— Press— Religious  Organizations- 

CHAPTER  XXV  —SuMMERHiLL  Township  658-662 
Boundaries— Organization— Physical  Fea- 
tures—Pioneers—Land Titles— Distilleries— 
Mills— Early  School  —  Dick,sonburg  —  Reli- 
gious Organizations — Society. 



CHAPTER  XXVI.— Summit  Township ...662-667 

Boundaries  —  Formation  —  Population — 
Physical  Features  —  First  Settlements- 
Land  Titles  — Pioneers  — Conneaut  Lake— 
Cemeteries— Early  Methodist  Organization 
—Canal— Peat  and  Marl— Mills— Religious 
Organizations  —  Harmonsburg- Churches- 

CHAPTER  XXVII.— Troy  Township ...668-672 

Boundaries  —  Organization  —  Election — 
Population  —  Physical  Features  —  Land 
Tracts—  Troubles  of  Early  Settlers  —  Pio- 
neers—Early Deaths  and  Burials — Mills — 
Schools— Troy  Center— Newtontown— Reli- 
gious Organizations. 

CHAPTER  XXVIIL— Union  Township 672-67.5 

Petition  —  Proposed  Bounds— Election- 
Physical  Features — Population — Early  Set- 
tlements—Killing by  Indians- Early  Deeds 
— Other  Pioneers — Religious  Organization 

CHAPTER  XXIX— Venango  Township  and 

Borough  OF  Venango 675-680 

Organization  —  Boundaries  —  Physical 
Features— Name — Early  Settlers— Distillery 
— Mills — Religious  Societies. 

Borough  of  Venango 678 

First  Settlement — Industries  —  Incorpor- 
ation —  Officers  —  Population —  Business — 
Schools— Religious  Organizations— Societies. 

CHAPTER    XXX.— Vernon    Township    and 

Borough  of  Vallonia 680-685 

Organization — Population  —  Physical  Feat- 
ures —  Industries— First  Settlers— Holland 
Company  Titles  —  Kerrtown  —  Fredericks- 
burg or  Stringtown — Religious  Organiza- 

Borough  of  Vallonia 684 

Location — Incorporation — Election — Popu- 
lation— Growth — First  Residents — Distillery 
— Postoffice — School — Mission  Chapel. 

CHAPTER  XXXI.— Wayne  Township 685-688 

Formation — Limits — Population  —  Physi- 
cal Features— Sugar  Lake— Indians— Rattle- 


Deer  —  Wild  Animals  —  Titles- 
Early  Settlers— Mills— Schools— Decardville 
Religious  Oganizations. 

CHAPTER  XXXII.  —  West  Fallowfield 
Township  and  Borough  of  Harts- 
town 689-( 

Formation  —  Population — Physical  Fea- 
tures—Pennsylvania Population  Land  Ti- 
tles-Early Settlers  —  Early  Presbyterian 
Congregation  —  Adamsville  —  Religious 
Organizations — Schools. 

Borough  of  Hartstown 

Incorporation  —  Officers— Location  —Pop- 
ulation—Business  Houses— Name— Churches 
—A.  O.  U.  W. 

CHAPTER  XXXIII.— West  Shenango  Town- 

Petition— Elections  —  Population— Physi- 
cal Features— Penn  Population  Company 
Titles— Early  Settlers— Early  Mills— Cheese 
Factory— Early  Teachers  —  Turnersville— 
Religious  Organizations. 

CHAPTER     XXXIV.— Woodcock     Township 
AND  boroughs  of  Blooming  Valley 

Saegertown  and  Woodcock 695-705 

Boundaries— Erection— Population— Phys- 
ical Features — Early  Settlements  and  Settlers 
Holland  Land  Company  Tit  es— Actual  Set- 
tlers— Other  Pioneers — Schools — Taverns — 
Gravevards — Mills — Cheese  Factory — Paper 

Borough  of  Blooming  Valley- 699 

Location  —  Population — Name — Postoffice 
—Village  Plat— Business  Interests— Schools 
— Press — Incorporation — Election — Officers — 
— Religious  Organizations — Societies. 

Borough  of  Saegertown 801 

Location — Population  —  The  Founder — 
Early  Business  —  Incorporation — Officers — 
Present  Business  —  Cemetery  —  Schools- 
Churches — Societies. 

Borough  of  Woodcock 803 

Location  —  Population  — Rockville — Kep- 
lertown — First  Settlers — Incorporation — Offi- 
cers—Present  Business— Societies— Churches 
— Grange— Fairs. 



Meadville 709 

Athens  Township 776 

Beaver  Township 788 

Bloomfield  Township 791 

Cambridge  Township 800 

Conneaut  Township 819 

Cussewago  Township 841 

East  Fairfi^d  Township 857 

East  Fallowfield  Township 863 

Fairfield  Township 864 

Greenwood  Township 869 

Hayfield  Township 871 

Mead  Township • 891 

North  Shenango  Township 904 

Oil  Creek  Township 913 

Pine  Township 919 

Randolph  Township 925 

Richmond  Township 943 

Rockdale  Township 962 

Rome  Township 970 

Sadsbury  Township 985 

South  Shenango  Township 993 

Sparta  Township 999 

Spring  Township lOlO 

Steuben  Township IO66 

Summerhill  Township 1055 

Summit  Township 1080 

Titusville 1088 

Troy  Township lioi 

Union  Township 1107 

Venango  Township 1112 

Vernon  Township 1123 

Wayne  Township 1137 

West  Fallowfield  Township 1139 

West  Shenango  Township 1141 

Woodcock  Township 1143 

Jamestown,  Mercer  County 1184 



Bemus  Dr.,  Daniel,  Meadville 46 

Brawley  Francis,  Mead  Township 187 

Britton  A.  T.,  Randolph  Township 267 

Brown  Gideon,  Vernon  Township 547 

Birchard  D.  D.,  Cambridge  Township 167 

Chamberlain  E.,  Richmond  Township 367 

Culbertson  J.  H.,  Cambridfje  Township 218 

Cutshall  G.  W.,  Randolph  Township 378 

Davis  Wm.,  Jr.,  Meadville 134 

Davis  James  H.,  Mead  Township 178 

Dick  John,  Meadville 79 

Doane  I.  S.,  Mead  Township 307 

Gamble  W.  J.,  Cussewago  Township 348 

Gamble  Mrs.  Esther  Jane,  C'nssewago  Township..  349 

Gamble  H.  M.,  South  Shenango  Township 387 

Gibson  Dr.  William,  Jamestown,  Mercer  County.  207 

Herrington  Edward,  Union  Township 158 

Hotchkiss  Mrs.  Elizabeth,  Cussewago  Township..  607 

Humes  John  M.,  Woodcock  Township 407 

Johnson  Dr.  Wm.  M.,  Venango  Township 438 

Johnson  R.  C,  Fairfield  Township 227 

Kean  John  S.,  Sadsbury  Township 527 

Kepler  S.  W.,  Meadville 538 

Mclvav  Neal,  Randolph  Township 278 

Miller" Robert  P.,  Pine  Township 447 

Morse  William,  Richmond  Township 298 


Pettis  S.  Newton,  Meadville 487 

Reitz  C,  Union  Township 458 

Richmond  H.  L.,  Meadville 197 

Richmond  A.  B.,  Meadville 247 

Ross  A.  B.,  Cambridge  Township 258 

Ryan  Geo.  P.,  Woodcock  Township 497 

Sperry  Isaac,  Spring  Township 398 

Virtue  J.  C,  Randolph  Township 558 

Waid  John,  Steuben  Township 427 

Waid  Ira  C,  Woodcock  Township 147 

Waid  Mrs.  Elizabeth  P.,  Woodcock  Township...  148 

Waid  Francis  C,  Woodcock  Township 328 

Waid  Mrs.  Eliza  C,  Woodcock  Township 329 

Waid  Robert  L.,  Woodcock  Township 507 

Waid  George  N.,  Woodcock  Township 518 

Waid  Franklin  I,,  Woodcock  Township 568 

Waid  Mrs.  Maggie  E.,  Woodcock  Township 569 

Waid  Guiunip  P.,  Woodcock  Township 588 

Waid  Mrs.  Anna  M.,  Woodcock  Township 589 

Waid  Fred  F.,  Woodcock  Township 618 

Warner  William,  Randolph  Township 287 

Wilcox  George,  Rockdale  Township 468 

Wilcox  Mrs.  Sarah,  Rockdale  Township 469 

Williams  F„  Spring  Township 418 

Wilson  Jacob,  Randolph  Township 238 

Wing  D.  0.,  Rockdale  Township 318 


Map  of  Crawford  County between  12  and  13 

Map  Showing  Various  Purchases  from  the  Indians 113 

Diagram  Showing  Proportionate  Annual  Production  of  Anthracite  Coal  since  1820 118 

Table  Showing  Amount  of  Anthracite  Coal  Produced  in  Each  Region  Since  1820 119 

I  Jam  estovi/zv 





"God,  that  has  given  it  xne  through  n^iany  difficulties,  "Will,  I  believe, 
bless  and  niake  it  the  seed  of  a  nation.  I  shall  have  a  tender  care  to  the 
government  that  it  be  vv^ell  laid  at  first.  -----  I  do,  therefore, 
desire  the  Lord's  -wisdom  to  guide  me,  and  those  that  may  be  concerned 
■with  me,  that  "we  may  do  the  thing  that  is  truly  -wise  and  just." 




Introductory  —  Cornelis  Jacobson  Mey,  1624-25— William  Yan  Hulst,  1625- 
36— Peter  Minuit,  1626-33— David  Petersen  de  Vries,  1632-33— Wouter 
Van  Twiller,  1633-38. 

IN  the  early  colonization  upon  the  American  continent,  two  motives  were 
principally  operative.  One  was  the  desire  of  amassing  sudden  wealth 
without  great  labor,  which  tempted  adventurous  spirits  to  go  in  search  of  gold, 
to  trade  valueless  trinkets  to  the  simple  natives  for  rich  furs  and  skins,  and  even 
to  seek,  amidst  the  wilds  of  a  tropical  forest,  for  the  fountain  whose  healing 
waters  could  restore  to  man  perpetual  youth.  The  other  was  the  cherished 
purpose  of  escaping  the  unjust  restrictions  of  Government,  and  the  hated  ban 
of  society  against  the  worship  of  the  Supreme  Being  according  to  the  honest 
dictates  of  conscience,  which  incited  the  humble  devotees  of  Christianity  to 
forego  the  comforts  of  home,  in  the  midst  of  the  best  civilization  of  the  age, 
and  make  for  themselves  a  habitation  on  the  shores  of  a  new  world,  where  they 
might  erect  altars  and  do  homage  to  their  God  in  such  habiliments  as  they 
preferred,  and  utter  praises  in  such  note  as  seemed  to  them  good.  This  pur- 
pose was  also  incited  by  a  certain  romantic  temper,  common  to  the  race,  es- 
pecially noticeable  in  youth,  that  invites  to  some  uninhabited  j  spot,  and  Ras- 
selas  and  Robinson  Crusoe- like  to  begin  life  anew. 

William  Penn,  the  founder  of  Pennsylvania,  had  felt  the  heavy  hand  of 
persecution  for  religious  opinion's  sake.  As  a  gentleman  commoner  at  Ox- 
ford, he  had  been  fined,  and  finally  expelled  from  that  venerable  seat  of  learn- 
ing for  non-comf  ormity  to  the  established  worship.  At  home,  he  was  whipped 
and  turned  out  of  doors  by  a  father  who  thought  to  reclaim  the  son  to  the 
more  certain  path  of  advancement  at  a  licentious  court.  He  was  sent  to  prison 
by  the  Mayor  of  Cork.  For  seven  months  he  languished  in  the  tower  of  Lon- 
don, and,  finally,  to  complete  his  disgrace,  he  was  cast  into  Newgate  with  com- 
mon felons.  Upon  the  accession  of  James  II,  to  the  throne  of  England,  over 
fourteen  hundred  persons  of  the  Quaker  faith  were  immured  in  prisons  for  a 
conscientious  adherence  to  their  religious  convictions.  To  escape  this  harassing 
persecution,  and  find  peace  and  quietude  from  this  sore  proscription,  was  the 
moving  cause  which  led  Penn  and  his  followers  to  emigrate  to  America. 

Of  all  those  who  have  been  founders  of  States  in  near  or  distant  ages,  none 
have  manifested  so  sincere  and  disinterested  a  spirit,  nor  have  been  so  fair  ex- 
emplars of  the  golden  rule,  and  of  the  Redeemer's  sermon  on  the  mount,  as 
William  Penn.  In  his  preface  to  the  frame  of  government  of  his  colony,  he 
says:  "  The  end  of  government  is  first  to  terrify  evil-doers;  secondly,  to  cher- 
ish those  who  do  well,  which  gives  government  a  life  beyond  corruption,   and 


makes  it  as  durable  in  the  world,  as  good  men  shall  be.  So  that  government 
seems  to  be  a  part  of  religion  itself,  a  thing  sacred  in  its  institution  and  end. 
For,  if  it  does  not  directly  remove  the  cause,  it  crushes  the  effects  of  evil,  and 
is  an  emanation  of  the  same  Divine  power,  that  is  both  author  and  object  of 
pure  religion,  the  difference  lying  here,  that  the  one  is  more  free  and  mental, 
the  other  more  corporal  and  compulsive  in  its  operations;  but  that  is  only  to 
evil-doers,  government  itself  being  otherwise  as  capable  of  kindness,  goodness 
and  charity,  as  a  more  private  society.  They  weakly  err,  who  think  there  is  no 
other  use  of  government  than  correction,  which  is  the  coarsest  part  of  it. 
Daily  experience  tells  us,  that  the  care  and  regulation  of  many  other  affairs 
more  soft,  and  daily  necessary,  make  up  much  the  greatest  part  of  government. 
Governments,  like  clocks,  go  from  the  motion  men  give  them,  and  as  govern- 
ments are  made  and  moved  by  men,  so  by  them  are  they  ruined,  too.  Where- 
fore, governments  rather  depend  upon  men,  than  men  upon  governments.  Let 
men  be  good,  and  the  government  cannot  be  bad.  If  it  be  ill,  they  will  cure 
it.  But  if  men  be  bad,  let  the  government  be  never  so  good,  they  will  endeavor 
to  warp  and  spoil  to  their  turn.  *  *  *  That,  therefore,  which  makes  a  good 
constitution,  must  keep  it,  men  of  wisdom  and  virtue,  qualities,  that  because  they 
descend  not  with  worldly  inheritances,  must  be  carefully  propagated  by  a  vir- 
tuous education  of  youth,  for  which,  after  ages  will  owe  more  to  the  care  and 
prudence  of  founders  and  the  successive  magistracy,  than  to  their  parents  for 
their  private  patrimonies.  *  *  *  We  have,  therefore,  with  reverence  to  God, 
and  good  conscience  to  men,  to  the  best  of  our  skill,  contrived  and  composed  the 
Frame  and  Laws  of  this  government,  viz. :  To  support  power  in  reverence 
with  the  people,  and  to  secure  the  people  from  the  abuse  of  power,  that  they 
may  be  free  by  their  just  obedience,  and  the  magistrates  honorable  for  their 
just  administration.  For  liberty  without  obedience  is  confusion,  and  obedi- 
ence without  liberty  is  slavery." 

Though  born  amidst  the  seductive  arts  of  the  great  city,  Penn's  tastes  were 
rural.  He  hated  the  manners  of  the  corrupt  court,  and  delighted  in  the  homely 
labors  and  innocent  employments  of  the  farm.  '*  The  country,"  he  said,  '*i3 
the  philosopher's  garden  and  library,  in  which  he  reads  and  contemplates  the 
power,  wisdom  and  goodness  of  God.  It  is  his  food  as  well  as  study,  and  gives 
him  life  as  well  as  learning."  And  to  his  wife  he  said  upon  taking  leave  of 
her  in  their  parting  interview:  "  Let  my  children  be  husbandmen,  and  house- 
wives. It  is  industrious,  healthy,  honest,  and  of  good  report.  This  leads  to 
consider  the  works  of  God,  and  diverts  the  mind  from  being  taken  up  with  vain 
arts  and  inventions  of  a  luxurious  world.  Of  cities  and  towns  of  concourse, 
beware.  The  world  is  apt  to  stick  close  to  those  who  have  lived  and  got  wealth 
there.     A  country  life  and  estate  I  love  best  for  my  children." 

Having  thus  given  some  account  at  the  outset  of  the  spirit  and  purposes  of 
the  founder,  and  the  motive  which  drew  him  to  these  shores,  it  will  be  in 
place,  before  proceeding  with  the  details  of  the  acquisition  of  territory,  and 
the  coming  ftf  emigrants  for  the  actual  settlement  under  the  name  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, to  say  something  of  the  aborigines  who  were  found  in  possession  of  the 
soil  when  first  visited  by  Europeans,  of  the  condition  of  the  surface  of  the 
country,  and  of  the  previous  attempts  at  settlements  before  the  coming  of  Penn. 

The  surface  of  what  is  now  known  as  Pennsylvania  was,  at  the  time  of  the 
coming  of  the  white  men,  one  vast  forest  of  hemlock,  and  pine,  and  beech, 
and  oak,  unbroken,  except  by  an  occasional  rocky  barren  upon  the  precipitous 
mountain  side,  or  by  a  few  patches  of  prairie,  which  had  been  reclaimed  by 
annual  burnings,  and  was  used  by  the  indolent  and  simple-minded  natives  for 
the  culture  of  a  little  maize  and  a  few  vegetables.     The  soil,  by  the  annual 


accumulations  of  leaves  and  abundant  growths  of  forest  vegetation,  was  luxu- 
rious, and  the  trees  stood  close,  and  of  gigantic  size.  The  streams  swarmed 
with  fish,  and  the  forest  abounded  with  game.  Where  now  are  cities  and 
hamlets  filled  with  busy  populations  intent  upon  the  accumulation  of  wealth, 
the  mastery  of  knowledge,  the  pursuits  of  pleasure,  the  deer  browsed  and 
sipped  at  the  water's  edge,  and  the  pheasant  drummed  his  monotonous  note. 
Where  now  is  the  glowing  furnace  from  which  day  and  night  tongues  of  fiame 
are  bursting,  and  the  busy  water  wheel  sends  the  shuttle  flashing  through  the 
loom,  half-naked,  dusky  warriors  fashioned  their  spears  with  rude  implements 
of  stone,  and  made  themselves  hooks  out  of  the  bones  of  animals  for  alluring 
the  finny  tribe.  Where  now  are  fertile  fields,  upon  which  the  thrifty  farmer 
turns  his  furrow,  which  his  neighbor  takes  up  and  runs  on  until  it  reaches 
from  one  end  of  the  broad  State  to  the  other,  and  where  are  flocks  and  herds, 
rejoicing  in  rich  meadows,  gladdeaed  by  abundant  fountains,  or  reposing  at  the 
heated  noontide  beneath  ample  shade,  not  a  blow  had  been  struck  against  the 
giants  of  the  forest,  the  soil  rested  in  virgin  purity,  the  streams  glided  on  in 
majesty,  un vexed  by  wheel  and  unchoked  by  device  of  man. 

Where  now  the  long  train  rushes  on  with  the  speed  of  the  wind  over 
plain  and  mead,  across  streams  and  under  mountains,  awakening  the  echoes  of 
the  hills  the  long  day  through,  and  at  the  midnight  hour  screaming  out  its 
shrill  whistle  in  fiery  defiance,  the  wild  native,  with  a  fox  skin  wrapped  about 
his  loins  and  a  few  feathers  stuck  in  his  hair,  issuing  from  his  rude  hut,  trot- 
ted on  in  his  forest  path,  followed  by  his  squaw  with  her  infant  peering  forth 
from  the  rough  sling  at  her  back,  pointed  his  canoe,  fashioned  from  the  barks 
of  the  trees,  across  the  deep  river,  knowing  the  progress  of  time  only  by  the 
riding  and  setting  sun,  troubled  by  no  meridians  for  its  index,  starting  on  his 
way  when  his  nap  was  ended,  and  stopping  for  rest  when  a  spot  was  I'eached 
that  pleased  his  fancy.  Where  now  a  swarthy  population  toils  ceaselessly  deep 
down  in  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  shut  out  trom  the  light  of  day  in  cutting  out 
the  material  that  feeds  the  fires  upon  the  forge,  and  gives  genial  warmth  to  the 
lovers  as  they  chat  merrily  in  the  luxurious  drawing  room,  not  a  mine  had 
been  opened,  and  the  vast  beds  of  the  black  diamond  rested  unsunned  beneath 
the  superincumbent  mountains,  where  they  had  been  fashioned  by  the  Creator's 
hand.  Rivers  of  oil  seethed  through  the  impatient  and  uneasy  gases  and  vast 
pools  and  lakes  of  this  pungent,  parti -colored  fluid,  hidden  away  from  the 
coveting  eye  of  man,  guarded  well  their  own  secrets.  Not  a  derrick  protruded 
its  well-balanced  form  in  the  air.  Not  a  drill,  with  its  eager  eating  tooth  de- 
scended into  the  flinty  rock.  No  pipe  lino  diverted  the  oily  tide  in  a  silent, 
ceaseless  current  to  the  ocean's  brink.  The  cities  of  iron  tanks,  filled  to  burst- 
ing, had  no  place  amidst  the  forest  solitudes.  Oil  exchanges,  with  their  vex- 
ing puts  and  calls,  shorts  and  longs,  bulls  and  bears,  had  not  yet  come  to  dis- 
turb the  equanimity  of  the  red  man,  as  he  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  at  the 
council  fire.  Had  he  once  seen  the  smoke  and  soot  of  the  new  Birmingham  of 
the  West,  or  snuffed  the  odors  of  an  oil  refinery,  he  would  willingly  have  for- 
feited his  goodly  heritage  by  the  forest  stream  or  the  deep  flowing  river,  and 
sought  for  himself  new  hunting  grounds  in  less  favored  regions. 

It  was  an  unfortunate  circumstance  that  at  the  coming  of  Europeans  the 
territory  now  known  as  Pennsylvania  was  occupied  by  some  of  the  most  bloody 
and  revengeful  of  the  savage  tribes.  They  were  known  as  the  Lenni  Lenapes, 
and  held  sway  from  the  Hudson  to  the  Potomac.  A  tradition  was  preserved 
among  them,  that  in  a  remote  age  their  ancestors  had  emigrated  eastward  from 
beyond  the  Mississippi,  exterminating  as  they  came  the  more  civilized  and 
peaceful  peoples,  the  Mound-Builders  of  Ohio  and  adjacent    States,  and  who 


were  held  among  the  tribes  by  whom  they  were  surrounded  as  the  progenitors, 
the  grandfathers  or  oldest  people.  They  came  to  be  known  by  Europeans  as 
the  Delawares,  after  the  name  of  the  river  and  its  numerous  branches  along 
which  they  principally  dwelt.  The  Monseys  or  Wolves,  another  tribe  of  the 
Lenapes,  dwelt  upon  the  Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries,  and,  by  their  war- 
like disposition,  won  the  credit  of  being  the  fiercest  of  their  nation,  and  the 
guardians  of  the  door  to  their  council  house  from  the  North. 

Occupying  the  greater  part  of  the  teritory  now  known  as  New  York,  were 
the  five  nations — the  Senacas,  the  Mohawks,  the  Oneidas,  the  Cayugas,  and 
the  Onondagas,  which,  from  their  hearty  union,  acquired  great  strength  and 
came  to  exercise  a  commanding  influence.  Obtaining  firearms  of  the  Dutch 
at  Albany,  they  repelled  the  advances  of  the  French  from  Canada,  and  by 
their  superiority  in  numbers  and  organization,  had  overcome  the  Lenapes, 
and  held  them  for  awhile  in  vassalage.  The  Tuscaroras,  a  tribe  which  had 
been  expelled  from  their  home  in  North  Carolina,  were  adopted  by  the  Five  Na- 
tions in  1712,  and  from  this  time  forward  these  tribes  were  known  to  the  English 
as  the  Six  Nations,  called  by  the  Lenapes,  Mingoes,  and  by  the  French,  Iroquois. 
There  was,  therefore,  properly  a  United  States  before  the  thirteen  colonies 
achieved  their  independence.  The  person  and  character  of  these  tribes  were 
marked.  They  were  above  the  ordinary  stature,  erect,  bold,  and  commanding, 
of  great  decorum  in  council,  and  when  aroused  showing  native  eloquence.  In 
warfare,  they  exhibited  all  the  bloodthirsty,  revengeful,  cruel  instincts  of  the 
savage,  and  for  the  attainment  of  their  purposes  were  treacherous  and  crafty. 

The  Indian  character,  as  developed  by  intercourse  with  Europeans,  exhibits 
some  traits  that  are  peculiar  While  coveting  what  they  saw  that  pleased 
them,  and  thievish  to  the  last  degree,  they  were  nevertheless  generous.  This 
may  be  accounted  for  by  their  habits.  "  They  h  eld  that  the  game  of  the  for- 
est, the  fish  of  the  rivers,  and  the  grass  of  the  field  were  a  common  heritage, 
and  free  to  all  who  would  take  the  trouble  to  gather  them,  and  ridiculed  the 
idea  of  fencing  in  a  meadow."  Bancroft  says:  "  The  hospitality  of  the  Indian 
has  rarely  been  questioned.  The  stranger  enters  his  cabin,  by  day  or  by 
night,  without  asking  leave,  and  is  entertained  as  freely  as  a  thrush  or  a 
blackbird,  that  regales  himself  on  the  luxuries  of  the  fruitful  grove.  He 
will  take  his  own  rest  abroad,  that  he  may  give  up  his  own  skin  or  mat  of 
sedge  to  his  guest.  Nor  is  the  traveler  questioned  as  to  the  purpose  of  his 
visit.  He  chooses  his  own  time  freely  to  deliver  his  message."  Penn,  who, 
from  frequent  intercourse  came  to  know  them  well,  in  his  letter  to  the  society 
of  Free  Traders,  says  of  them:  "In  liberality  they  excel;  nothing  is  too  good 
for  their  friend.  Give  them  a  fine  gun,  coat  or  other  thing,  it  may  pass 
twenty  hands  before  it  sticks;  light  of  heart,  strong  afl'ections,  but  soon  spent. 
The  most  merry  creatures  that  live;  feast  and  dance  perpetually.  They  never 
have  much  nor  want  much.  Wealth  circulateth  like  the  blood.  All  parts 
partake;  and  though  none  shall  want  what  another  hath,  yet  exact  observers 
of  property.  Some  Kings  have  sold,  others  presented  me  with  several  parcels 
of  laud.  The  pay  or  presents  I  made  them,  were  not  hoarded  by  the  particu- 
lar owners,  but  the  neighboring  Kings  and  elans  being  present  when  the 
goods  were  brought  out.  the  parties  chiefly  concerned  consulted  what  and  to 
whom  they  should  give  them.  To  every  King,  then,  by  the  hands  of  a  per- 
son for  that  work  appointed  is  a  proportion  sent,  so  sorted  and  folded,  and 
with  th  at  gravity  that  is  admirable.  Then  that  King  subdivideth  it  in  like  man- 
ner among  his  dependents,  they  hardly  leaving  themselves  an  equal  share 
with  one  of  their  subjects,  and  be  it  on  such  occasions  as  festivals,  or  at  their 
common  meals,  the  Kings  distribute,  and  to  themselves  last.      They  care  for 


little  because  they  want  but  little,  and  the  reason  is  a  little  contents  them.  In 
this  they  are  sufficiently  revenged  on  us.  They  are  also  free  from  our  pains. 
They  are  not  disquieted  with  bills  of  lading  and  exchange,  nor  perplexed 
with  chancery  suits  and  exchequer  reckonings.  "We  sweat  and  toil  to  live; 
their  pleasure  feeds  them;  I  mean  their  hunting,  fishing  and  fowling,  and 
this  table  is  spread  everywhere.  They  eat  twice  a  day,  morning  and  evening. 
Their  Heats  and  table  are  the  ground.  Since  the  Europeans  came  into  these 
parts  they  are  grown  great  lovers  of  strong  liquors,  rum  especially,  and  for  it 
exchange  the  richest  of  their  skins  and  furs.  If  they  are  heated  with  liquors, 
they  are  restless  till  they  have  enough  to  sleep.  That  is  their  cry,  '  Some 
more  and  I  will  go  to  sleep; '  but  when  drunk  one  of  the  most  wretched  spec- 
tacles in  the  world." 

On  the  28th  of  August,  1609,  a  little  more  than  a  century  from  the  time 
of  the  first  discovery  of  the  New  World  by  Columbus,  Hendrick  Hudson,  an 
English  navigator,  then  in  the  employ  of  the  Dutch  East  India  Company,  hav- 
ing 'been  sent  out  in  search  of  a  northwestern  passage  to  the  Indies,  discovered 
the  mouth  of  a  great  bay,  since  known  as  Delaware  Bay,  which  he  entered  and 
partially  explored.  But  finding  the  waters  shallow,  and  being  satisfied  that 
this  was  only  an  arm  of  the  sea  which  received  the  waters  of  a  great  river, 
and  not  a  passage  to  the  western  ocean,  he  retired,  and,  turning  the  prow  of 
his  little  craft  northward,  on  the  2d  of  September,  he  discovered  the  river 
which  bears  his  name,  the  Hudson,  and  gave  several  days  to  its  examination. 
Not  finding  a  passage  to  the  West,  which  was  the  object  of  his  search,  he  returned 
to  Holland,  bearing  the  evidences  of  his  adventures,  and  made  a  full  report  of 
his  discoveries  in  which  he  says,  "  Of  all  lands  on  which  I  ever  set  my  foot, 
this  is  the  best  for  tillage." 

A  proposition  had  been  made  in  the  States  General  of  Holland  to  form  a 
West  India  Company  with  purposes  similar  to  those  of  the  East  India  Com- 
pany; but  the  conservative  element  in  the  Dutch  Congress  prevailed,  and  while 
the  Government  was  unwilling  to  undertake  the  risks  of  an  enterprise  for 
which  it  would  be  responsible,  it  was  not  unwilling  to  foster  private  enter- 
prise, and  on  the  27th  of  March,  1614,  an  edict  was  passed,  granting  the 
privileges  of  trade,  in  any  of  its  possessions  in  the  New  World,  during  four 
voyages,  founding  its  right  to  the  territory  drained  by  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  upon  the  discoveries  by  Hudson.  Five  vessels  were  accordingly 
fitted  by  a  company  composed  of  enterprising  merchants  of  the  cities  of  Am- 
sterdam  and  Hoorn,  which  made  speedy  and  prosperous  voyages  under  com- 
mand of  Cornells  Jacobson  Mey,  bringing  back  with  them  fine  furs  and  rich 
woods,  which  so  excited  cupidity  that  the  States  General  was  induced  on  the 
14th  of  October,  1614,  to  authorize  exclusive  trade,  for  four  voyages,  extend- 
ing through  three  years,  in  the  newly  acquired  possessions,  the  edict  designat- 
ing them  as  New  Netherlands. 

One  of  the  party  of  this  first  enterprise,  Cornelis  Hendrickson,  was  left 
behind  with  a  vessel  called  the  Unrest,  which  had  been  built  to  supply  the 
place  of  one  accidentally  burned,  in  which  he  proceeded  to  explore  more  fully 
the  bay  and  river  Delaware,  of  which  he  made  report  that  was  read  before  the 
States  General  on  the  19th  of  August,  1616.  This  report  is  curious  as  dis- 
closing the  opinions  of  the  first  actual  explorer  in  an  official  capacity:  "He 
hath  discovered  for  his  aforesaid  masters  and  directoi-s  certain  lands,  a  bay, 
and  three  rivers,  situate  between  thirty-eight  and  forty  degrees,  and  did  their 
trade  with  the  inhabitants,  said  trade  consisting  of  sables,  furs,  robes  and 
other  skins.  He  hath  found  the  said  country  full  of  trees,  to  wit,  oaks,  hick- 
ory and  pines,  which  trees  were,  in  some  places,  covered  with  vines.     He  hath 


seen  in  said  country  bucks  and  does,  turkeys  and  partridges.  He  hath  found 
the  climate  of  said  country  very  temperate,  judging  it  to  be  as  temperate  as 
this  country,  Holland,  He  also  traded  for  and  bought  from  the  inhabitants, 
the  Minquas,  three  persons,  being  people  belonging  to  this  company,  which 
three  persons  were  employed  in  the  service  of  the  Mohawks  and  Machicans, 
giving  fur  them  kettles,  beads,  and  merchandise," 

This  second  charter  of  privileges  expired  in  January,  1618,  and  during  its 
continuance  the  knowledge  acquired  of  the  country  and  its  resources  promised 
so  much  of  success  that  the  States  General  was  ready  to  grant  broader  privi- 
leges, and  on  the  3d  of  June,  1621,  the  Dutch  West  India  Company  was  in- 
corporated, to  extend  for  a  period  of  twenty-four  years,  with  the  right  of 
renewal,  the  capital  stock  to  be  open  to  subscription  by  all  nations,  and 
"privileged  to  trade  and  plant  colonies  in  Africa,  from  the  tropic  of  Cancer 
to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  in  America  from  the  Straits  of  Magellan  to  the 
remotest  north!"  The  past  glories  of  Holland,  though  occupying  but  an  in- 
significant patch  of  Europe,  emboldened  its  Government  to  pass  edicts  for  the 
colonizing  and  carrying  on  an  exclusive  trade  with  a  full  half  of  the  entire 
world,  an  example  of  the  biting  off  of  more  than  could  be  well  chewed.  But 
the  light  of  this  enterprising  people  was  beginning  to  pale  before  the  rising 
glories  of  the  stern  race  in  their  sea  girt  isle  across  the  channel.  Dissensions 
were  arising  among  the  able  statesmen  who  had  heretofore  guided  its  afiairs, 
and  before  the  periods  promised  in  the  original  charter  of  this  colonizing  com- 
pany had  expired,  its  supremacy  of  the  sea  was  successfully  resisted,  and  its 
exclusive  rights  and  privileges  in  the  New  World  had   to  be  relinquished. 

The  principal  object  in  establishing  this  West  India  Company  was  to 
secure  a  good  dividend  upon  the  capital  stock,  which  was  subscribed  to  by  the 
rich  old  burgomasters.  The  fine  furs  and  products  of  the  forests,  which  had 
been  taken  back  to  Holland,  had  proved  profitable.  But  it  was  seen  that  if 
this  trade  was  to  be  permanently  secured,  in  face  of  the  active  competition  of 
other  nations,  and  these  commodities  steadily  depended  upon,  permanent  set- 
tlements must  bo  provided  for.  Accordingly,  in  1623,  a  colony  of  about  forty 
families,  embracing  a  party  of  Walloons,  protestant  fugitives  from  Belgium, 
sailed  for  the  new  province,  under  the  leadership  of  Cornells  Jacobson  Mey  and 
Joriz  Tienpont.  Soon  after  their  arrival,  Mey,  who  had  been  invested  with 
the  power  of  Director  General  of  all  the  territory  claimed  by  the  Dutch,  see- 
ing, no  doubt,  the  evidences  of  some  permanence  on  the  Hudson,  determined 
to  take  these  honest  minded  and  devoted  Walloons  to  the  South  River,  or  Del- 
aware, that  he  might  also  gain  for  his  country  a  foothold  there.  The  testi- 
mony of  one  of  the  women,  Catalina  Tricho,  who  was  of  the  party,  is 
curious,  and  sheds  some  light  upon  this  point.  "  That  she  came  to  this  prov 
ince  either  in  the  year  1623  or  1624,  and  that  four  women  came  along  wHh 
her  in  the  same  ship,  in  which  Gov.  Arien  Jorissen  came  also  over,  which  four 
women  were  married  at  sea,  and  that  they  and  their  husbands  stayed  about 
three  weeks  at  this  place  (Manhattan)  and  then  they  with  eight  seamen  more, 
went  in  a  vessel  by  orders  of  the  Dutch  Governor  to  Delaware  River,  and 
there  settled."  Ascending  tlie  Delaware  some  fifty  miles,  Mey  landed 
on  the  eastern  shore  near  where  now  is  the  town  of  Gloucester,  and  built  a 
fort  which  he  called  Nassau.  Having  duly  installed  his  little  colony,  he  re- 
turned to  Manhattan;  but  beyond  the  building  of  the  fort,  which  served  as  a 
trading  post,  this  attempt  to  plant  a  colony  was  futile;  for  these  religious 
zealots,  tiring  of  the  solitude  in  which  they  were  left,  after  a  few  months 
abandoned  it,  and  returned  to  their  associates  whom  they  had  left  upon  the 
Hudson.     Though  not  successful  in  establishing  a  permanent  colony  upon  the 


Delaware,  ships  plied  regularly  between  the  fort  and  Manhattan,  and  this 
became  the  rallying  point  for  the  Indians,  who  brought  thither  their  commodi- 
ties for  trade.  At  about  this  time,  1626,  the  island  of  Manhattan  estimated 
to  contain  22,000  acres,  on  which  now  stands  the  city  of  New  York  with  its 
busy  population,  surrounded  by  its  forests  of  masts,  was  bought  for  the  insig- 
nificant sum  of  sixty  guilders,  about  $24,  what  would  now  pay  for  scarcely  a 
square  inch  of  some  of  that  very  soil.  As  an  evidence  of  the  thrift  which  had 
begun  to  mark  the  progress  of  the  colony,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  good  ship 
"  The  Arms  of  Amsterdam,"  which  bore  the  intelligence  of  this  fortunate  pur- 
chase to  the  assembly  of  the  XIX  in  Holland,  bore  also  in  the  language  of 
O'Calaghan,  the  historian  of  New  Netherland,  the  "  information  that  the  col- 
ony was  in  a  most  prosperous  state,  and  that  the  women  and  the  soil  were 
both  fruitful.  To  prove  the  latter  fact,  samples  of  the  recent  harvest,  consist- 
ing of  wheat,  rye,  barley,  oats,  buckwheat,  canary  seed,  were  sent  forward, 
together  with  8,130  beaver  skins,  valued  at  over  45,000  guilders,  or  nearly 
$19,000."  It  is  accorded  by  another  his!  orian  that  this  same  ship  bore  also 
"  853^  otter  skins,  eighty-one  mink  skins,  thirty-six  wild  cat  skins  and  thirty-four 
rat  skins,  with  a  quantity  of  oak  and  hickory  timber."  From  this  it  may  be 
seen  what  the  commodities  were  which  formed  the  subjects  of  trade.  Doubt- 
less of  wharf  rats  Holland  had  enough  at  home,  but  the  oak  and  hickory  tim- 
ber came  at  a  time  when  there  was  sore  need  of  it. 

Finding  that  the  charter  of  privileges,  enacted  in  1621,  did  not  give  suffi- 
cient encouragement  and  promise  of  security  to  actual  settlers,  further  con- 
cessions were  made  in  1629,  whereby  "  all  such  persons  as  shall  appear  and 
desire  the  same  from  the  company,  shall  be  acknowledged  as  Patroons  [a  sort 
of  feudal  lord]  of  New  Netherland,  who  shall,  within  the  space  of  four  years 
next  after  they  have  given  notice  to  any  of  the  chambers  of  the  company  here, 
or  to  the  Commander  or  Council  there,  undertake  to  plant  a  colony  there  of 
fifty  souls,  upward  of  fifteen  years  old;  one- fourth  part  within  one  year,  and 
within  three  years  after  sending  the  first,  making  together  four  yfears,  the  re- 
mainder, to  the  full  number  of  fifty  persons,  to  be  shipped  from  hence,  on  pain, 
in  case  of  willful  neglect,  of  being  deprived  of  the  privileges  obtained."  *  * 
"  The  Patroons,  by  virtue  of  their  power,  shall  be  permitted,  at  such  places  as  they 
shall  settle  their  colonies,  to  extend  their  limits  four  miles  along  the  shore,  or 
two  miles  on  each  side  of  a  river,  and  so  far  into  the  country  as  the  situation 
of  the  occupiers  will  permit." 

Stimulated  by  these  flattering  promises,  Goodyn  and  Bloemmaert,  two 
wealthy  and  influential  citizens,  through  their  agents — Heyser  and  Coster — 
secured  by  purchase  from  the  Indians  a  tract  of  iand  on  the  western  shore, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Delaware,  sixteen  miles  in  length  along  the  bay  front,  and 
extending  sixteen  miles  back  into  the  country,  giving  a  square  of  256  miles. 
Goodyn  immediately  gave  notice  to  the  company  of  their  intention  to  plant  a 
colony  on  their  newly  acquired  territory  as  j>atroons.  They  were  joined  by  an 
experienced  navigator,  De  Vries,  and  on  the  12th  of  December,  1630,  a  vessel, 
the  Walrus,  under  command  of  De  Vries,  was  dispatched  with  a  company  of 
settlers  and  a  stock  of  cattle  and  farm  implements,  which  arrived  safely  in 
the  Delaware.  De  Vries  landed  about  three  leagues  within  the  capes,  "  near 
the  entrance  of  a  fine  navigable  stream,  called  the  Hoarkill,"  where  he  pro- 
ceeded to  build  a  house,  well  surrounded  with  cedar  palisades,  which  served 
the  purpose  of  fort,  lodging  house,  and  trading  post.  The  little  settlement, 
which  consisted  of  about  thirty  persons,  was  christened  by  the  high  sounding 
title  of  Zwanendal — Valley  of  Swans.  In  the  spring  they  prepared  their  fields 
and  planted  them,  and  De  Vries  returned  to  Holland,  to  make  report  of  his 


But  a  sad  fate  awaited  the  little  colony  at  Zwanendal.  In  accordance  with 
the  custom  of  European  nations,  the  commandant,  on  taking  possession  of  the 
new  purchase,  erected  a  pust,  and  affixed  thereto  a  piece  of  tin  on  which  was 
traced  the  arms  of  Holland  and  a  legend  of  occupancy.  An  Indian  chieftain, 
passing  that  way,  attracted  by  the  shining  metal,  and  not  understanding  the 
object  of  the  inscription,  and  not  having  the  fear  of  their  high  mightinesses, 
the  States  General  of  Holland  before  his  eyes,  tore  it  down  and  proceeded  to 
make  for  himself  a  tobacco  pipe,  considering  it  valuable  both  by  way  of  orna- 
ment and  use.  When  this  act  of  trespass  was  discovered,  it  was  regarded  by 
the  doughty  Dutchman  as  a  direct  insult  to  the  great  State  of  Holland,  and 
so  great  an  ado  was  raised  over  it  that  the  simple  minded  natives  became 
frightened,  believing  that  their  chief  had  committed  a  mortal  offense,  and  in 
the  strength  and  sincerity  of  their  friendship  immediately  proceeded  to  dis- 
patch the  offending  chieftain,  and  brought  the  bloody  emblems  of  their  deed  to 
the  head  of  the  colony.  This  act  excited  the  anger  of  the  relatives  of  the  mur- 
dered man,  and  in  accordance  with  Indian  law,  they  awaited  the  chance  to 
take  revenge.  O'Calaghan  gives  the  following  account  of  this  bloody  massa- 
cre which  ensued:  "The  colony  at  Zwanendal  consisted  at  this  time  of  thirty- 
four  persons.  Of  these,  thirty- two  were  one  day  at  work  in  the  fields,  while 
Commissary  Hosset  remained  in  charge  of  the  house,  where  another  of  the  set- 
tlers lay  sick  abed.  A  large  bull  dog  was  chained  out  of  doors.  On  pretence 
of  selling  some  furs,  three  savages  entered  the  house  and  murdered  Hosset 
and  the  sick  man.  They  found  it  not  so  easy  to  dispatch  the  mastiff.  It  was 
not  until  they  had  pierced  him  with  at  least  twenty-five  arrows  that  he  was 
destroyed.  The  men  in  the  fields  were  then  set  on,  in  an  equally  treacherous 
manner,  under  the  guise  of  friendship,  and  every  man  of  them  slain."  Thus 
was  a  worthless  bit  of  tin  the  cause  of  the  cutting  off  and  utter  extermination 
of  the  infant  colony. 

De  Vries  was  upon  the  point  of  returning  to  Zwanendal  when  he  received 
intimation  of  disaster  to  the  settlers.  With  a  large  vessel  and  a  yacht,  he  set 
sail  on  the  24th  of  May,  1632,  to  carry  succor,  provided  with  the  means  of 
prosecuting  the  whale  fishery  which  he  had  been  led  to  believe  might  be  made 
very  profitable,  and  of  pushing  the  production  of  grain  and  tobacco.  On  ar- 
riving in  the  Delaware,  he  fired  a  signal  gun  to  give  notice  of  his  approach. 
The  report  echoed  through  the  forest,  but,  alas!  the  ears  which  would  have 
been  gladened  with  the  sound  were  heavy,  and  no  answering  salute  came  from 
the  shore.  On  landing,  he  found  his  house  destroyed,  the  palisades  burned, 
and  the  skulls  and  bones  of  his  murdered  countrymen  bestrewing  the  earth, 
sad  relics  of  the  little  settlement,  which  had  promised  so  fairly,  and  warning 
tokens  of  the  barbarism  of  the  natives. 

De  Yries  knew  that  he  was  in  no  position  to  attempt  to  punish  the  guilty 
parties,  and  hence  determined  to  pursue  an  entirely  pacific  policy.  At  his 
invitation,  the  Indians  gathered  in  with  their  chief  for  a  conference.  Sitting 
down  in  a  circle  beneath  the  shadows  of  the  somber  forest,  their  Sachem  in 
the  centre,  De  Vries,  without  alluding  to  their  previous  acts  of  savagery, 
concluded  with  them  a  treaty  of  peace  and  friendship,  and  presented  them  in 
token  of  ratification,  "some  duffels,  bullets,  axes  and  Nuremburg  trinkets." 

In  place  of  finding  his  colony  with  plenty  of  provisions  for  the  immediate 
needs  of  his  party,  he  could  get  nothing,  and  began  to  be  in  want.  He  accord- 
ingly sailed  up  the  river  in  quest  of  food.  The  natives  were  ready  with 
their  furs  for  barter,  but  they  had  no  supplies  of  food  with  which  they  wished 
to  part.  Game,  however,  was  plenty,  and  wild  turkeys  were  brought  in  weigh- 
ing over  thirty  pounds.     One  morning  after  a  frosty  night,  while   the  little 


craft  was  up  the  stream,  the  party  was  astonished  to  find  the  waters  frozen 
over,  and  their  ship  fast  in  the  ice.  Judging  by  the  mild  climate  of  their  own 
country,  Holland,  they  did  not  suppose  this  possible.  For  several  weeks  they 
were  held  fast  without  the  power  to  move  their  floating  home.  Being  in  need 
of  a  better  variety  of  food  than  he  found  it  possible  to  obtain,  De  Vries  sailed 
away  with  a  part  of  his  followers  to  Virginia,  where  he  was  hospitably  enter- 
tained by  the  Governor,  who  sent  a  present  of  goats  as  a  token  of  friendship  to 
the  Dutch  Governor  at  Manhattan.  Upon  his  return  to  the  Delaware,  De 
Vries  found  that  the  party  he  had  left  behind  to  prosecute  the  whale  fishery 
had  only  taken  a  few  small  ones,  and  these  so  poor  that  the  amount  of  oil  ob- 
tained was  insignificant.  He  had  been  induced  to  embark  in  the  enterprise  of 
a  settlement  here  by  the  glittering  prospect  of  prosecuting  the  whale  fishery 
along  the  shore  at  a  great  profit.  Judging  by  this  experience  that  the  hope 
of  great  gains  from  this  source  was  groundless,  and  doubtless  haunted  by  a 
superstitious  dread  of  making  their  homes  amid  the  relics  of  the  settlers  of  the 
previous  year,  and  of  plowing  fields  enriched  by  their  blood  who  had  been 
so  utterly  cut  off,  and  a  horror  of  dwelling  amongst  a  people  so  revengeful  and 
savage,  De  Vries  gathered  all  together,  and  taking  his  entire  party  with  him 
sailed  away  to  Manhattan  and  thence  home  to  Holland,  abandoning  utterly  the 

The  Dutch  still  however  sought  to  maintain  a  foothold  upon  the  Dela- 
ware, and  a  fierce  contention  having  sprung  up  between  the  powerful  patroons 
and  the  Director  General,  and  they  having  agreed  to  settle  differences  by 
the  company  authorizing  the  purchase  of  the  claims  of  the  patroons,  those  upon 
the  Delaware  were  sold  for  15,600  guilders.  Fort  Nassau  was  accordingly  re-oc- 
cupied and  manned  with  a  small  military  force,  and  when  a  party  from  Con- 
necticut Colony  came,  under  one  Holmes  to  make  a  settlement  upon  the  Dela- 
ware, the  Dutch  at  Nassau  were  found  too  sti'ong  to  be  subdued,  and  Holmes 
and  his  party  were  compelled  to  surrender,  and  were  sent  as  prisoners  of  war 
to  Manhattan. 

CHAPTER    11. 

Sm  William  Keift,  1638-47— Peter  Minuit,  1638-41— Peter  Hollandaer,  1641-43— 
John  Printz,  1648-53— Peter  Stuyvesant,  1647-64— John  Pappagota,  1653-54— 
John  Claude  Rysingh,  1654-55. 

AT  this  period,  the  throne  of  Sweden  was  occupied  by  Gustavus  Adolphus, 
a  monarch  of  the  most  enlightened  views  and  heroic  valor.  Seeing  the 
activity  of  surrounding  nations  in  sending  out  colonies,  he  proposed  to  his 
people  to  found  a  commonwealth  in  the  New  World;  not  for  the  mere  purpose 
of  gain  by  trade,  but  to  set  up  a  refuge  for  the  oppressed,  a  place  of  religious 
liberty  and  happy  homes  that  should  prove  of  advantage  to  "  all  oppressed 
Christendom."  Accordingly,  a  company  with  ample  privileges  was  incorpo- 
rated by  the  Swedish  Government,  to  which  the  King  himself  pledged  $400,000 
of  the  royal  treasui-e,  and  men  of  every  rank  and  nationality  were  invited  to 
join  in  the  enterprise.  Gustavus  desired  not  that  his  colony  should  depend 
upon  serfs  or  slaves  to  do  the  rough  work.  "  Slaves  cost  a  great  deal,  labor 
with  reluctance,  and  soon  perish  from  hard  usage.  The  Swedish  nation  is 
laborious  and  intelligent,  and  surely  we  shall  gain  more  by  a  free  people  with 
wives  and  children." 


In  the  meantime,  the  fruits  of  the  reformation  in  Germany  were  menaced, 
and  the  Swedish  monarch  determined  to  unsheath  his  sword  and  lead  his 
people  to  the  aid  of  Protestant  faith  in  the  land  where  its  standard  had  been 
successfully  raised.  At  the  battle  of  Ltitzen,  where  for  the  cause  which  he  had 
espoused,  a  signal  victory  was  gained,  the  illustrious  monai-ch,  in  the  flower 
of  life,  received  a  mortal  wound.  Previous  to  the  battle,  and  while  engaged  in 
active  preparations  for  the  great  struggle,  he  remembered  the  interests  of  his 
contemplated  colony  in  America,  and  in  a  most  earnest  manner  commended 
the  enterprise  to  the  people  of  Germany. 

Oxenstiern,  the  minister  of  Gustavus,  upon  whom  the  weight  of  govern- 
ment devolved  during  the  minority  of  the  young  daughter,  Christina,  declared 
that  he  was  but  the  executor  of  the  will  of  the  fallen  King,  and  exerted  him- 
self to  further  the  interests  of  a  colony  which  he  believed  would  be  favorable  to 
"  all  Christendom,  to  Europe,  to  the  whole  world. "  Four  years  however 
elapsed  before  the  project  was  brought  to  a  successful  issue.  Peter  Minuit, 
who  had  for  a  time  been  Governor  of  New  Netherlands,  having  been  displaced, 
sought  employment  in  the  Swedish  company,  and  was  given  the  command  of 
the  first  colony.  Two  vessels,  the  Key  of  Calmar  and  the  Griffin,  early  in  the 
year  1638,  with  a  company  of  Swedes  and  Fins,  made  their  way  across  the 
stormy  Atlantic  and  arrived  safely  in  the  Delaware.  They  purchased  of  the 
Indians  the  lands  from  the  ocean  to  the  falls  of  Trenton,  and  at  the  mouth  of 
Christina  Creek  erected  a  fort  which  they  called  Christina,  after  the  name  of 
the  youthful  Queen  of  Sweden.  The  soil  was  fruitful,  the  climate  mild,  and 
the  scenery  picturesque.  Compared  with  many  parts  of  Finland  and  Sweden, 
it  was  a  Paradise,  a  name  which  had  been  given  the  point  at  the  entrance  of 
the  bay.  As  tidings  of  the  satisfaction  of  the  first  emigrants  were  borne  back 
to  the  fatherland,  the  desire  to  seek  a  home  in  the  new  country  spread  rap- 
idly, and  the  ships  sailing  were  unable  to  take  the  many  families  seeking  pas- 

The  Dutch  were  in  actual  possession  of  Fort  Nassau  when  the  Swedes 
first  arrived,  and  though  they  continued  to  hold  it  and  to  seek  the  trade  of  the 
Indians,  yet  the  artful  Minuit  was  more  than  a  match  for  them  in  Indian  bar- 
ter. William  Keift,  the  Governor  of  New  Netherland,  entered  a  vigorous 
protest  against  the  encroachments  of  the  Swedes  upon  Dutch  territory,  in 
which  he  said  "  this  has  been  our  property  for  many  years,  occupied  with 
forts  and  sealed  by  our  blood,  which  also  was  done  when  thou  wast  in  the 
service  of  New  Netherland,  and  is  therefore  well  known  to  thee."  But  Minuit 
pushed  forward  the  work  upon  his  fort,  regardless  of  protest,  trusting  to  the 
respect  which  the  flag  of  Sweden  had  inspired  in  the  hands  of  Banner  and 
Torstensen.  For  more  than  a  year  no  tidings  were  had  from  Sweden,  and  no 
supplies  from  any  source  were  obtained;  and  while  the  fruits  of  their  labors 
were  abundant  there  were  many  articles  of  diet,  medicines  and  apparel,  the 
lack  of  which  they  began  to  sorely  feel.  So  pressing  had  the  want  become, 
that  application  had  been  made  to  the  authorities  at  Manhattan  for  permission 
to  remove  thither  with  all  their  effects.  But  on  the  very  day  before  that  on 
which  they  were  to  embark,  a  ship  from  Sweden  richly  laden  with  provisions, 
cattle,  seeds  and  merchandise  for  barter  with  the  natives  came  joyfully  to  their 
relief,  and  this,  the  first  permanent  settlement  on  soil  where  now  are  the  States 
of  Delaware  and  Pennsylvania,  was  spared.  The  success  and  prosperity  of  the 
colony  during  the  first  few  years  of.  its  existence  was  largely  due  to  the  skill 
and  policy  of  Minuit,  who  preserved  the  friendship  of  the  natives,  avoided  an 
open  conflict  with  the  Dutch,  and  so  prosecuted  trade  that  the  Dutch  Governor 
reported  to  his  government  that  trade  had  fallen  off  30,000  beavers.     Minuit 


was  at  the  head  of  the  colony  for  about  three  years,  and  died  in  the  midst 
of  the  people  whom  he  had  led 

Minuit  was  succeeded  in  the  government  by  Peter  Hollandaer,  who  had 
previously  gone  in  charge  of  a  company  of  emigrants,  and  who  was  now,  in 
1641,  commissioned.  The  goodly  lands  upon  the  Delaware  were  a  constant 
attraction  to  the  eye  of  the  adventurer;  a  party  from  Connecticut,  under  the  lead- 
ership of  Robert  Cogswell,  came,  and  squatted  without  authority  upon  the  site 
of  the  present  town  of  Salem,  N.  J.  Another  company  had  proceeded  up  the 
river,  and,  entering  the  Schuylkill,  had  planted  themselves  upon  its  banks. 
The  settlement  of  the  Swedes,  backed  as  it  was  by  one  of  the  most  powerful 
nations  of  Europe,  the  Governor  of  New  Netherland  was  not  disposed  to 
molest;  but  when  these  irresponsible  wandering  adventurers  came  sailing  past 
their  forts  and  boldly  planted  themselves  upon  the  most  eligible  sites  and  fer- 
tile lands  in  their  territory,  the  Dutch  determined  to  assume  a  hostile  front, 
and  to  drive  them  away.  Accordingly,  Gen.  Jan  Jansen  Van  Ilpendam— his 
very  name  was  enough  to  frighten  away  the  emigrants — was  sent  with  two 
vessels  and  a  military  force,  who  routed  the  party  upon  the  Schuylkill,  destroy- 
ing their  fort  and  giving  them  a  taste  of  the  punishment  that  was  likely  to  be 
meted  out  to  them,  if  this  experiment  of  trespass  was  repeated.  The  Swedes 
joined  the  Dutch  in  breaking  up  the  settlement  at  Salem  and  driving  away  the 
New  England  intruders. 

In  1642,  Hollandaer  was  succeeded  in  the  government  of  the  Swedish 
Colony  by  John  Printz,  whose  instructions  for  the  management  of  affairs  were 
drawn  with  much  care  by  the  officers  of  the  company  in  Stockholm.  "  He  was, 
first  of  all,  to  maiutain  friendly  relations  with  the  Indians,  and  by  the  advan- 
tage of  low  prices  hold  their  'rade.  His  next  care  was  to  cultivate  enough 
grain  for  the  wants  of  the  colonists,  and  when  this  was  insured,  turn  his  atten- 
tion lo  the  culture  of  tobacco,  the  raising  of  cattle  and  sheep  of  a  good  species, 
the  culture  of  the  grape,  and  the  raising  of  silk  worms.  The  manufacture  of 
salt  by  evaporation,  and  the  search  for  metals  and  minerals  were  to  be  prose- 
cuted, and  inquiry  into  the  establishment  of  fisheries,  with  a  view  to  profit, 
especially  the  whale  fishery,  was  to  be  made."  It  will  be  seen  from  these  in- 
structions that  the  far-sighted  Swedish  statesmen  had  formed  an  exalted  con- 
ception of  the  resources  of  the  new  country,  and  had  figured  to  themselves 
great  possibilities  from  its  future  development.  Visions  of  rich  silk  products, 
of  the  precious  metals  and  gems  from  its  mines,  flocks  upon  a  thousand  hills 
that  should  rival  in  the  softness  of  their  downy  fleeces  the  best  products  of  the 
Indian  looms,  and  the  luscious  clusters  of  the  vine  that  could  make  glad  the 
palate  of  the  epicui'e  filled  their  imaginations. 

With  two  vessels,  the  Stoork  and  Kenown,  Printz  set  sail,  and  arrived  at 
Fort  Christina  on  the  15th  of  February,  1643.  He  was  bred  to  the  profession 
of  arms,  and  was  doubtless  selected  with  an  eye  to  his  ability  to  holding  posses- 
sion of  the  land  against  the  conflict  that  was  likoly  to  arise.  He  had  been  a 
Lieutenant  of  cavalry,  and  was  withal  a  man  of  prodigious  proportions,  "  who 
weighed,"  according  to  De  Vries,  "  upward  of  400  pounds,  and  drank  three 
drinks  at  every  meal."  He  entertained  exalted  notions  of  his  dignity  as  Govern- 
or of  the  colony,  and  prepared  to  establish  himself  in  his  new  dominions  with 
some  degree  of  magnificence.  He  brought  with  him  from  Sweden  the  bricks 
to  be  used  for  the  construction  of  his  royal  dwelling.  Upon  an  inspection  of 
the  settlement,  he  detected  the  inherent  weakness  of  the  location  of  Fort 
Christina  for  commanding  the  navigation  of  the  river,  and  selected  the  island 
of  Tiuacum  for  the  site  of  a  new  fort,  called  New  Gottenburg,  which  was 
speedily  erected  and  made  strong  with  huge  hemlock  logs.     In  the  midst  of 


the  island,  he  built  hie  royal  residence,  which  was  surrounded  with  trees  and 
shubbery.  He  erected  another  fort  near  the  mouth  of  Salem  Creek, 
called  Elsinborg,  which  he  mounted  with  eight  brass  twelve-pounders, 
and  garrisoned.  Here  all  ships  ascending  the  river  were  brought  to, 
and  required  to  await  a  permit  from  the  Governor  before  proceeding 
to  their  destination.  Gen.  Yan  Ilpendam,  who  had  been  sent  to  drive 
away  the  intruders  from  New  England,  had  remained  after  executing 
his  commission  as  commandant  at  Fort  Nassau;  but  having  incurred  the  dis- 
pleasure of  Director  Keift,  be  had  been  displaced,  and  was  succeeded  by  An- 
dreas Hudde,  a  crafty  and  politic  agent  of  the  Dutch  Governor,  who  had  no 
sooner  arrived  and  become  settled  in  his  place  than  a  conflict  of  authority 
sprang  up  between  himself  and  the  Swedish  Governor.  Dutch  settlers  secured 
a  grant  of  land  on  the  west  bank  of  Delaware,  and  obtained  possession  by  pur- 
chase from  the  Indians.  This  procedure  kindled  the  wrath  of  Printz,  who 
tore  down  the  ensign  of  the  company  which  had  been  erected  in  token  of 
the  power  of  Holland,  and  declared  that  he  would  have  pulled  down  the 
colors  of  their  High  Mightinesses  had  they  been  erected  on  this  the  Swed- 
ish soil.  That  there  might  be  no  mistake  about  his  claim  to  authority,  the 
testy  Governor  issued  a  manifesto  to  his  rival  on  the  opposite  bank,  in  which 
were  these  explicit  declarations: 

"  Andreas  Hudde!  I  remind  you  again,  by  this  written  warning,  to  discon- 
tinue the  injuries  of  which  you  have  been  guilty  against  the  Royal  Majesty 
of  Sweden,  my  most  gracious  Queen;  against  Her  Royal  Majesty's  rights,  pre- 
tensions, soil  and  land,  without  showing  the  least  respect  to  the  Royal  Majes- 
ty's magnificence,  reputation  and  dignity;  and  to  do  so  no  more,  considering 
how  little  it  would  be  becoming  Her  Royal  Majesty  to  bear  such  gross  violence, 
and  what  great  disasters  might  originate  from  it,  yea,  might  be  expected.  * 
*  *  All  this  I  can  freely  bring  forward  in  my  own  defense,  to  exculpate  me 
from  all  future  calamities,  of  which  we  give  you  a  warning,  and  place  it  at 
your  account.     Dated  New  Gothenburg,  3d  September,  stil,  veteri  1646." 

It  will  be  noted  from  the  repetition  of  the  high  sounding  epithets  applied 
to^  the  Queen,  that  Printz  had  a  very  exalted  idea  of  his  own  position  as  the 
Vicegerent  of  the  Swedish  monarch.  Hudde  responded,  saying  in  reply:  "  The 
place  we  possess  we  hold  in  just  deed,  perhaps  before  the  name  of  South  River 
was  heard  of  in  Sweden."  This  paper,  upon  its  presentation,  Printz  flung  to 
the  ground  in  contempt,  and  when  the  messenger,  who  bore  it,  demanded  an 
answer,  Printz  unceremoniously  threw  him  out  doors,  and  seizing  a  gun  would 
have  dispatched  the  Dutchman  had  he  not  been  arrested;  and  whenever  any  of 
Hudde's  men  visited  Tinicum  they  were  sure  to  be  abused,  and  frequently  came 
back  "  bloody  and  bruised. "  Hudde  urged  rights  acquired  by  prior  posses- 
sion, but  Printz  answered:  "  The  devil  was  the  oldest  possessor  in  hell,  yet  he, 
notwithstanding,  would  sometimes  admit  a  younger  one."  A  vessel  which  had 
come  to  the  Delaware  from  Manhattan  with  goods  to  barter  to  the  Indians,  was 
brought  to,  and  ordered  away.  In  vain  did  Hudde  plead  the  rights  acquired 
by  previous  possession,  and  finally  treaty  obligations  existing  between  the 
two  nations.  Printz  was  inexorable,  and  peremptorily  ordered  the  skipper 
away,  and  as  his  ship  was  not  provided  with  the  means  of  fighting  its  way  up 
past  the  frowning  battlements  of  Fort  Elsinborg,  his  only  alternative  was  to 
return  to  Manhattan  and  report  the  result  to  his  employers. 

Peter  Stuyvesant,  a  man  of  a  good  share  of  native  talent  and  force  of  char- 
acter, succeeded  to  the  chief  authority  over  New  Netherland  in  May,  1647. 
The  affairs  of  his  colony  were  not  in  an  encouraging  condition.  The  New 
England  colonies  were  crowding  upon  him  from  the  north  and  east,  and  the 


Swedes  upon  the  South  River  were  occupying  the  territory  which  the  Dutch 
for  many  years  previous  to  the  coming  of  Christina's  colony  had  claimed. 
Amid  the  thickening  complications,  Stuyvesant  had  need  of  all  his  power  of 
argument  and  executive  skill.  He  entered  into  negotiations  with  the  New  En- 
gland colonies  for  a  peaceful  settlement  of  their  difficulties,  getting  the  very 
best  terms  he  could,  without  resorting  to  force;  for,  said  his  superiors,  the 
officers  of  the  company  in  Holland,  who  had  an  eye  to  dividends,  "  War  can- 
not be  for  our  advantage;  the  New  England  people  are  too  powerful  for  us." 
A  pacific  policy  was  also  preserved  toward  the  Swedes.  Hudde  was  retained 
at  the  head  of  Dutch  affairs  upon  the  Delaware,  and  he  was  required  to  make 
full  reports  of  everything  that  was  transpiring  there  in  order  that  a  clear  in- 
sight might  be  gained  of  the  policy  likely  to  be  pursued.  Stuyvesant  was  en- 
tirely too  shrewd  a  politician  for  the  choleric  Printz.  He  recommended  to  the 
company  to  plant  a  Dutch  colony  on  the  site  of  Zwanendal  at  the  mouth  of 
the  river,  another  on  the  opposite  bank,  which,  if  effectually  done,  would  com- 
mand its  navigation;  and  a  third  on  the  upper  waters  at  Beversreede,  which 
would  intercept  the  intercourse  of  the  native  population.  By  this  course  of 
active  colonizing,  Stuyvesant  rightly  calculated  that  the  Swedish  power  would 
be  circumscribed,  and  finally,  upon  a  favorable  occasion,  be  crushed  out. 

Stuyvesant,  that  he  might  ascertain  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  Swedish 
claims  to  the  country,  and  examine  into  the  complaints  that  were  pouring  in 
upon  him  of  wrongs  and  indignities  suffered  by  the  Dutch  at  the  hands  of  the 
Swedish  power,  in  1651  determined  to  visit  the  Delaware  in  his  official  capac- 
ity. He  evidently  went  in  some  state,  and  Printz,  who  was  doubtless  impressed 
with  the  condecension  of  the  Governor  of  all  New  Netherland  in  thus  coming, 
was  put  upon  his  good  behavior.  Stuyvesant,  by  his  address,  got  completely 
on  the  blind  side  of  the  Swedish  chief,  maintaining  the  garb  of  friendship 
and  brotherly  good-will,  and  insisting  that  the  discussion  of  rights  should  be 
carried  on  in  a  peaceful  and  friendly  manner,  for  we  are  informed  that  they 
mutually  promised  "  not  to  commit  any  hostile  or  vexatious  acts  against  one 
another,  but  to  maintain  together  all  neighborly  friendship  and  correspond- 
ence, as  good  friends  and  allies  aro  bound  to  do. ' '  Printz  was  thus,  by  this 
agreement,  entirely  disarmed  and  placed  at  a  disadvantage;  for  the  Dutch 
Governor  took  advantage  of  the  armistice  to  acquire  lands  below  Fort  Chris- 
tina, where  he  proceeded  to  erect  a  fort  only  five  miles  away,  which  he  named 
Fort  Casimir.  This  gave  the  Dutch  a  foothold  upon  the  south  bank,  and  in 
nearer  proximity  to  the  ocean  than  Fort  Christina.  Fort  Nassau  was  dis- 
mantled and  destroyed,  as  being  no  longer  of  use.  In  a  conference  with  the 
Swedish  Governor,  Stuyvesant  demanded  to  see  documental  proof  of  his  right 
to  exercise  authority  upon  he  Delaware,  and  the  compass  of  the  lands  to 
which  the  Swedish  Government  laid  claim,  Printz  prepared  a  statement  in 
which  he  set  out  the  "Swedish  limits  wide  enough."  But  Stuyvesant  de- 
manded the  documents,  under  the  seal  of  the  company,  and  characterized  this 
writing  as  a  "subterfuge,"  maintaining  by  documentary  evidence,  on  his  part, 
the  Dutch  West  India  Company's  right  to  the  soil. 

Printz  was  great  as  a  blusterer,  and  preserver  of  authority  when  personal 
abuse  and  kicks  and  cuffs  could  be  resorted  to  with(jut  the  fear  of  retaliation; 
but  no  match  in  statecraft  for  the  wily  Stuyvesant.  To  the  plea  of  pre-occu- 
pancy  he  had  nothing  to  answer  more  than  he  had  already  done  to  Hudde's 
messenger  respecting  the  government  of  Hades,  and  herein  was  the  cause  of 
the  Swedes  inherently  weak.  In  numbers,  too,  the  Swedes  were  feeble  com- 
pared with  the  Dutch,  who  had  ten  times  the  population.  But  in  diplomacy 
he  had  been  entirely  overreached.     Fort    Casimir,  by  its  location,  rendered 


the  rival  Fort  Elsinborg  powerless,  and  under  plea  that  the  mosquitoes  had  be- 
come troublesome  there,  it  was  abandoned.  Discovering,  doubtless,  that  a  cloud 
of  complications  was  thickening  over  him,  which  he  would  be  unable  with  the 
forces  at  his  command  to  successfully  withstand,  he  asked  to  be  relieved,  and, 
without  awaiting  an  answer  to  his  application,  departed  for  Sweden,  leaving 
his  son-in-law,  John  Pappegoya,  who  had  previously  received  marks  of  the 
royal  favor,  and  been  invested  with  the  dignity  of  Lieutenant  Governor,  in 
supreme  authority. 

The  Swedish  company  had  by  this  time,  no  doubt,  discovered  that  forcible 
opposition  to  Swedish  occupancy  of  the  soil  upon  Delaware  was  destined  soon 
to  come,  and  accordingly,  as  a  precautionary  measure,  in  November,  1653,  the 
College  of  Commerce  sent  John  Amundson  Besch,  with  the  commission  of 
Captain  in  the  Navy,  to  superintend  the  construction  of  vessels.  Upon  his 
arrival,  he  acquired  lands  suitable  for  the  purpose  of  ship-building,  and  set 
about  laying  his  keels.  He  was  to  have  supreme  authority  over  the  naval  force, 
and  was  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  Governor  in  protecting  the  interests  of 
the  colony,  but  in  such  a  manner  that  neither  should  decide  anything  without 
consulting  the  other. 

On  receiving  the  application  of  Printz  to  be  relieved,  the  company  ap- 
pointed John  Claude  Rysingh,  then  Secretary  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce, 
as  Vice  Director  of  New  Sweden.  He  was  instructed  to  fortify  and  extend 
the  Swedish  possessions,  but  without  interrupting  the  friendship  existing 
with  the  English  or  Dutch.  He  was  to  use  his  power  of  persuasion  in  induc- 
ing the  latter  to  give  up  Fort  Casimir,  which  was  regarded  as  an  intrusion 
upon  Swedish  possessions,  but  without  resorting  to  hostilities,  as  it  was  better 
to  allow  the  Dutch  to  occupy  it  than  to  have  it  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  En- 
glish, ' '  who  are  the  more  powerful,  and,  of  course,  the  most  dangerous  in  that 
country."  Thus  early  was  the  prowess  of  England  foreshadowed.  Gov. 
Rysingh  arrived  in  the  Delaware,  on  the  last  day  of  May,  1654,  and  immediately 
demanded  the  surrender  of  Fort  Casimir.  Adriaen  Van  Tienhoven,  an  aide- 
de-camp  on  the  staflf  of  the  Dutch  commandant  of  the  forfc,  was  sent  on  board 
the  vessel  to  demand  of  Gov.  Rysingh  by  what  right  he  claimed  to  dis- 
possess the  rightful  occupants;  but  the  Governor  was  not  disposed  to  discuss 
the  matter,  and  immediately  landed  a  party  and  took  possession  without  more 
opposition  than  wordy  protests,  the  Dutch  Governor  saying,  when  called  on  to 
make  defense,  "What  can  I  do?  there  is  no  powder."  Rysingh,  however,  in 
justification  of  his  course,  stated  to  Teinhoven,  after  he  had  gained  possession 
of  the  fort,  that  he  was  acting  under  orders  from  the  crown  of  Sweden,  whose 
embassador  at  the  Dutch  Court,  when  remonstrating  agaiiDst  the  action  of  Gov. 
Stuyvesant  in  erecting  and  mauning  Fort  Casimir  had  been  assured,  by 
the  State's  General  and  the  offices  of  the  West  India  Company,  that  they  had 
not  authorized  the  erection  of  this  fort  on  Swedish  soil,  saying,  "  if  our  people 
are  in  your  Excellency's  way,  drive  them  off."  "Thereupon  the  Swedish 
Governor  slapped  Van  Teinhoven  on  the  breast,  and  said,  '  Go!  tell  your  Gov- 
ernor that.'"  As  the  capture  was  made  on  Trinity  Sunday,  the  name  was 
changed  from  Fort  Casimir  to  Fort  Trinity. 

Thus  were  the  instructions  of  the  new  Governor,  not  to  resort  to  force,  but 
to  secure  possession  of  the  fort  by  negotiation,  complied  with,  but  by  a  forced 
interpretation.  For,  although  he  had  not  actually  come  to  battle,  for  the  very 
good  reason  that  the  Dutch  had  no  powder,  and  were  not  disposed  to  use 
their  lists  against  fire  arms,  which  the  Swedes  brandished  freely,  yet,  in  mak- 
ing his  demand  for  the  fort,  he  had  put  on  the  stern  aspect  of  war. 

Stuyvesant,  on  learning  of  the  loss  of  Fort  Casimir,  sent  a  messenger  to  the 


Delaware  to  invite  Gov.  Rysingh  to  come  to  Mant  attan  to  hold  friendly  confer- 
ence upon  the  subject  of  their  difficulties.  This  Rysingh  refused  to  do,  and  the 
Dutch  Governor,  probably  desiring  instructions  from  the  home  GovernmeLit  be- 
fore proceeding  to  extremities,  made  a  voyage  to  the  West  Indies  for  the  purpose 
of  arranging  favorable  regulations  of  trade  with  the  colonies,  though  without 
the  instructions,  or  even  the  knowledge  of  the  States  General.  Cromwell, 
who  was  now  at  the  head  of  the  English  nation,  by  the  policy  of  his  agents, 
rendered  this  embassy  of  Stuyvesant  abortive. 

As  soon  as  information  of  the  conduct  of  Eysingh  at  Zwanendal  was 
known  in  Holland,  the  company  lost  no  time  in  disclaiming  the  representa- 
tions which  he  had  made  of  its  willingness  to  have  the  fort  turned  over  to  the 
Swedes,  and  immediately  took  measures  for  restoring  it  and  wholly  dispossess- 
ing the  Swedes  of  lands  upon  the  Delaware.  On  the  16th  of  Novembei',  1655, 
the  company  ordered  Stuyvesant  "  to  exert  every  nerve  to  avenge  the  insult, 
by  not  only  replacing  matters  on  the  Delaware  in  their  former  position,  but 
by  driving  the  Swedes  from  every  side  of  the  river,"  though  they  subsequent- 
ly modified  this  order  in  such  manner  as  to  allow  the  Swedes,  after  Fort  Casi- 
mir  had  been  taken,  "to  hold  the  land  on  which  Fort  Christina  is  built,"  with 
a  garden  to  cultivate  tobacco,  because  it  appears  that  they  had  made  the  pur- 
chase with  the  previous  knowledge  of  the  company,  thus  manifesting  a  disin- 
clination to  involve  Holland  in  a  war  with  Sweden.  "Two  armed  ships  were 
forthwith  commissioned;  'the  drum  was  beaten  daily  for  volunteers '  in  the 
streets  of  Amsterdam;  authority  was  sent  out  to  arm  and  equip,  and  if  neces- 
sary to  press  into  the  company's  service  a  sufficient  number  of  ships  for  the 
expedition."  In  the  meantime,  Gov.  Rysingh,  who  had  inaugurated  his 
reign  by  so  bold  a  stroke  of  policy,  determined  to  ingratiate  himself  into  the 
favor  of  the  Indians,  who  had  been  soured  in  disposition  by  the  arbi- 
trary conduct  of  the  passionate  Printz.  He  accordingly  sent  out  on  all  sides 
an  invitation  to  the  native  tribes  to  assemble  on  a  certain  day,  by  their  chiefs 
and  principal  men,  at  the  seat  of  government  on  Tinicum  Island,  to  brighten 
the  chain  of  friendship  and  renew  their  pledges  of  faith  and  good  neighbor- 

On  the  morning  of  the  appointed  day,  ten  grand  sachems  with  their  at- 
tendants came,  and  with  the  formality  characteristic  of  these  native  tribes,  the 
council  opened.  Many  and  bitter  were  the  complaints  made  against  the  Swedes 
for  wrongs  suffered  at  their  hands,  "  chief  among  which  was  that  many  of 
their  number  had  died,  plainly  pointing,  though  not  explicitly  saying  it,  to  the 
giving  of  spirituous  liquors  as  the  cause."  The  new  Governor  had  no  answer 
to  make  to  these  complaints,  being  convinced,  probably,  that  they  were  but  too 
true.  Without  attempting  to  excuse  or  extenuate  the  past,  Rysingh  brought 
forward  the  numerous  presents  which  he  had  taken  with  him  from  Sweden  for 
the  purpose.  The  sight  of  the  piled  up  goods  produced  a  prof ound  impression 
upon  the  minds  of  the  native  chieftains.  They  sat  apart  for  conference  before 
making  any  expression  of  their  feelings,  Naaman,  the  fast  friend  of  the  white 
man,  and  the  most  consequential  of  the  warriors,  according  to  Campanius, 
spoke:  "  Look,"  said  he,  "and  see  what  they  have  brought  to  us."  So  say- 
ing, he  stroked  himself  three  times  down  the  arm,  which,  among  the  Indians, 
was  a  token  of  friendship;  afterward  he  thanked  the  Swedes  on  behalf  of  his 
people  for  the  presents  they  had  received,  and  said  that  friendship  should  be 
observed  more  strictly  between  them  than  ever  before;  that  the  Swedes  and 
the  Indians  in  Gov.  Printz's  time  were  as  one  body  and  one  heart,  striking  his 
breast  as  he  spoke,  and  that  thenceforward  they  should  be  as  one  head;  in 
token  of  which  he  took  hold  of  his  head  with  both  hands,  and  made  a  motion 



as  if  he  were  tying  a  knot,  and  then  he  made  this  comparison:  "  That,  as  the 
calabash  was  round,  without  any  crack,  so  they  should  be  a  compact  body  with- 
out any  fissure;  and  that  if  any  should  attempt  to  do  any  harm  to  the  Indians, 
the  Swedes  should  immediately  inform  them  of  it;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
Indians  would  give  immediate  notice  to  the  Christians,  even  if  it  were  in  the 
middle  of  the  night."  On  this  they  were  answered  that  that  would  be  indeed 
a  true  and  lasting  friendship,  if  every  one  would  agree  to  it;  on  which  they 
gave  a  general  shout  in  token  of  consent.  Immediately  on  this  the  great  guns 
were  fired,  which  pleased  them  extremely,  and  they  said,  ^'Poo,  hoo,  hoo; 
mokerick picon,'^  that  is  to  say  "Hear  and  believe;  the  great  guns  are  fired." 
Rysingh  then  produced  all  the  treaties  which  had  ever  been  concluded  between 
them  and  the  Swedes,  which  were  again  solemnly  confirmed.  "  When  those 
who  had  signed  the  deeds  heard  their  names,  they  appeared  to  rejoice,  but, 
when  the  names  were  read  of  those  who  were  dead,  they  hung  their  heads  in 

After  the  first  ebulition  of  feeling  had  subsided  on  the  part  of  the  Dutch 
Company  at  Amsterdam,  the  winter  passed  without  anything  further  being 
done  than  issuing  the  order  to  Stuyvesant  to  proceed  against  the  Swedes.  In 
the  spring,  however,  a  thirty- six-gun  brig  was  obtained  from  the  burgomasters 
of  Amsterdam,  which,  with  four  other  crafts  of  varying  sizes,  was  prepared  for 
duty,  and  the  little  fleet  set  sail  for  New  Netherland.  Orders  were  given  for 
immediate  action,  though  Director  General  Stuyvesant  had  not  returned  from 
the  West  Indies.  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  vessels  at  Manhattan,  it  was  an- 
nounced that  "  if  any  lovers  of  the  prosperity  and  security  of  the  province  of 
New  Netherland  were  inclined  to  volunteer,  or  to  serve  for  reasonable  wages, 
they  should  come  forward,"  and  whoever  should  lose  a  limb,  or  be  maimed,  was 
assured  of  a  decent  compensation.  The  merchantmen  were  ordered  to  furnish 
two  of  their  crews,  and  the  river  boatmen  were  to  be  impressed.  At  this  junct- 
ure a  grave  question  arose:  "Shall  the  Jews  be  enlisted?"  It  was  decided 
in  the  negative;  but  in  lieu  of  service,  adult  male  Jews  were  taxed  sixty-five 
stivers  a  head  per  month,  to  be  levied  by  execution  in  case  of  refusal. 

Stuyvesant  had  now  arrived  from  his  commercial  trip,  and  made  ready  for 
opening  the  campaign  in  earnest.  A  day  of  prayer  and  thanksgiving  was  held 
to  beseech  the  favor  of  Heaven  upon  the  enterprise,  and  on  the  5th  of  Septem- 
ber, 1655,  with  a  fleet  of  seven  vessels  and  some  600  men,  Stuyvesant  hoisted 
sail  and  steered  for  the  Delaware.  Arrived  before  Fort  Trinity  (Casimir),  the 
Director  sent  Capt.  Smith  and  a  drummer  to  summon  the  fort,  and  ordered  a 
flank  movement  by  a  party  of  fifty  picked  men  to  cut  ofl"  commiinication  with 
Fort  Christina  and  the  headquarters  of  Gov.  Rysingh.  Swen  Schute,  the  com- 
mandant of  the  garrison,  asked  permission  to  communicate  with  Rysingh, 
which  was  denied,  and  he  was  called  on  to  prevent  bloodshed.  An  interview 
in  the  valley  midway  between  the  fort  and  the  Dutch  batteries  was  held,  when 
Schute  asked  to  send  an  open  letter  to  Rysingh.  This  was  denied,  and  for  a 
third  time  the  fort  was  summoned.  Impatient  of  delay,  and  in  no  temper  for 
parley,  the  great  guns  were  landed  and  the  Dutch  force  ordered  to  advance. 
Schute  again  asked  for  a  delay  until  morning,  which  was  granted,  as  the  day 
was  now  well  spent  and  the  Dutch  would  be  unable  to  make  the  necessary 
preparations  to  open  before  morning.  Early  on  the  following  day,  Schute  went 
on  board  the  Dutch  flag-ship,  the  iJalance,  and  agreed  to  terms  of  surrender 
very  honorable  to  his  flag.  He  was  "permitted  to  send  to  Sweden,  by  the  first 
opportunity,  the  cannon,  nine  in  number,  belonging  to  the  crown  of  Sweden, 
to  march  out  of  the  fort  with  twelve  men,  as  his  body  guard,  fully  accoutered, 
and  colors  flying;  the  common  soldiers  to  wear  their  side  arms.     The  com- 


mandant  and  other  officers  were  to  retain  their  private  property,  the  muskets 
belonging  to  the  crown  were  to  be  held  until  sent  for,  and  finally  the  fort  was 
to  be  surrendered,  with  all  the  cannon,  ammunition,  materials  and  other  goods 
belonging  to  the  West  India  Company.  The  Dutch  entered  the  fort  at  noon 
with  all  the  formality  and  glorious  circumstance  of  war,  and  Dominie  Megap- 
olensis,  Chaplain  of  the  expedition,  preached  a  sermon  of  thanksgiving  on  the 
following  Sunday  in  honor  of  the  great  triumph. 

While  these  signal  events  were  transpiring  at  Casimir,  Gov.  Rysing,  at  his 
royal  residence  on  Tinicum,  was  in  utter  ignorance  that  he  was  being  desjxjiled 
of  his  power.  A  detachment  of  nine  men  had  been  sent  by  the  Governor  to 
Casimir  to  re-enforce  the  garrison,  which  came  unawares  upon  the  Dutch  lines, 
and  after  a  brief  skirmish  all  but  two  were  captured.  Upon  learning  that  the 
fort  was  invested,  Factor  Ellswyck  was  sent  with  a  Hag  to  inquire  of  the  in- 
vaders the  purpose  of  their  coming.  The  answer  was  returned  "  To  recover 
and  retain  our  property."  Rysingh  then  communicated  the  hope  that  they 
would  therewith  rest  content,  and  not  encroach  further  upon  Swedish  territory, 
having,  doubtless,  ascertained  by  this  time  that  the  Dutch  were  too  strong  for 
him  to  make  any  efifectual  resistance.  Stuyvesant  returned  an  evasive  answer, 
but  made  ready  to  march  upon  Fort  Christina.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
by  the  terms  of  the  modified  orders  given  for  the  reduction  of  the  Swedes, 
Fort  Christina  was  not  to  be  disturbed.  But  the  Dutch  Governor's  blood  was 
now  up,  and  he  determined  to  make  clean  work  while  the  means  were  in  his 
hands.  Discovering  that  the  Dutch  were  advancing,  Rysingh  spent  the  whole 
night  in  strengthening  the  defenses  and  putting  the  garrison  in  position  to 
make  a  stout  resistance.  Early  on  the  following  day  the  invaders  made  their 
appearance  on  the  opposite  bank  of  Christina  Creek,  where  they  threw  up  de- 
fenses and  planted  their  cannon.  Forces  were  landed  above  the  fort,  and  the 
place  was  soon  invested  on  all  sides,  the  vessels,  in  the  meantime,  having  been 
brought  into  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  their  cannon  planted  west  of  the  fort  and 
on  Timber  Island.  Having  thus  securely  shut  up  the  Governor  and  his  garri- 
son, Stuyvesant  summmoned  him  to  sun-ender.  Eysingh  could  not  in  honor 
tamely  submit,  and  at  a  council  of  war  it  was  resolved  to  make  a  defense  and 
"  leave  the  consequence  to  be  redressed  by  our  gracious  superiors."  But  their 
supply  of  powder  barely  sufficed  for  one  round,  and  his  force  consisted  of  only 
thirty  men.  In  the  meantime,  the  Dutch  soldiery  made  free  with  the  property 
of  the  Swedes  without  the  fort,  killing  their  cattle  and  invading  their  homes. 
"At  length  the  Swedish  garrison  itself  showed  symptoms  of  mutiny.  The 
men  were  harassed  with  constant  watching,  provisions  began  to  fail,  many 
were  sick,  several  had  deserted,  and  Stuyvesant  threatened,  that,  if  they  held 
out  much  longer,  to  give  no  quarter."  A  conference  was  held  which  ended 
by  the  return  of  Rysingh  to  the  fort  more  resolute  than  ever  for  defense. 
Finally  Stuyvesant  sent  in  his  ultimatum  and  gave  twenty-four  hours  for  a 
final  answer,  the  generous  extent  of  time  for  consideration  evincing  the  humane 
disposition  of  the  commander  of  the  invading  army,  or  what  is  perhaps  more 
probable  his  own  lack  of  stomach  for  carnage.  Before  the  expiration  of  the 
time  allowed,  the  garrison  capitulated,  "  after  a  siege  of  fourteen  days,  dur- 
ing which,  very  fortunately,  there  was  a  great  deal  more  talking  than  cannon- 
ading, and  no  blood  shed,  except  those  of  the  goats,  poultry  and  swine,  which 
the  Dutch  troops  laid  their  hands  on.  The  twenty  or  thirty  Swedes  then 
marched  out  with  their  arms;  colors  flying,  matches  lighted,  drums  beating, 
and  fifes  playing,  and  the  Dutch  took  possession  of  the  fort,  hauled  down  the 
Swedish  flag  and  hoisted  their  own." 

By  the  terms  of  capitulation,  the  Swedes,  who  wished  to  remain  in  the 


country,  were  permitted  to  do  so,  od  taking  the  oath  of  allegiance,  and  rights 
of  property  were  to  be  respected  under  the  sway  of  Dutch  law.  Gov.  Ry- 
singh,  and  all  others  who  desired  to  return  to  Europe,  were  furnished  passage, 
and  by  a  secret  provision,  a  loan  of  £300  Flemish  was  made  to  Rysingh,  to  be 
refunded  on  bis  arrival  in  Sweden,  the  cannon  and  other  property  belonging 
to  the  crown  remaining  in  the  hands  of  the  Dutch  until  the  loan  was  paid. 
Before  withdrawing  Stuyvesant  offered  to  deliver  over  Fort  Christina  and  the 
lands  immediately  about  it  to  Rysingh,  but  this  ofier  was  declined  with  dig- 
nity, as  the  matter  had  now  passed  for  arbitrament  to  the  courts  of  the  two  na- 

The  terms  of  the  capitulation  were  honorable  and  liberal  enough,  but  the 
Dutch  authorities  seem  to  have  exercised  little  care  in  carrying  out  its  provis- 
ions, or  else  the  discipline  in  the  service  must  have  been  very  lax.  For  Ry- 
singh had  no  sooner  arrived  at  Manhattan,  than  he  entered  most  vigorous  pro- 
tests against  the  violations  of  the  provisions  of  the  capitulation  to  Gov.  Stuy- 
vesant. He  asserted  that  the  property  belonging  to  the  Swedish  crown  had 
been  left  without  guard  or  protection  from  pillage,  and  that  he  himself  had 
not  been  assigned  quarters  suited  to  his  dignity.  He  accused  the  Dutch 
with  having  broken  open  the  church,  and  taken  away  all  the  cordage  and  saila 
of  a  new  vessel,  with  having  plundered  the  villages,  Tinnakong,  Uplandt,  Fin- 
land, Printzdorp  and  other  places.  "  In  Christina,  the  women  were  violently 
torn  from  their  houses;  whole  buildings  were  destroyed;  yea,  oxen,  cows,  hogs 
and  other  creatures  were  butchered  day  after  day;  even  the  horses  were  not 
spared,  but  wantonly  shot;  the  plantations  destroyed,  and  the  whole  country 
so  desolated  that  scarce  any  means  were  left  for  the  subsistence  of  the  inhab- 
itants." "Your  men  carried  off  even  my  own  property, "  said  Rysingh, 
"  with  that  of  my  family,  and  we  were  left  like  sheep  doomed  to  the  knife, 
without  means  of  defense  against  the  wild  barbarians." 

Thus  the  colony  of  Swedes  and  Fins  on  the  South  River,  which  had  been 
planned  by  and  had  been  the  object  of  solicitude  to  the  great  monarch  himself, 
and  had  received  the  fostering  care  of  the  Swedish  Government,  came  to  an 
end  after  an  existence  of  a  little  more  than  seventeen  years — 1638-1655.  But 
though  it  no  longer  existed  ao  a  colony  under  the  government  of  the  crown  of 
Sweden,  many  of  the  colonists  remained  and  became  the  most  intelligent  and 
law-abiding  citizens,  and  constituted  a  vigorous  element  in  the  future  growth 
of  the  State.  Some  of  the  best  blood  of  Europe  at  this  period  flowed  in  the 
veins  of  the  Swedes.  "A  love  foK  Sweden,"  says  Bancroft,  "their  dear 
mother  country,  the  abiding  sentiment  of  loyalty  toward  its  sovereign,  con- 
tinued to  distinguish  the  little  band.  At  Stockholm,  they  remained  for  a 
century  the  objects  of  disinterested  and  generous  regard;  affection  united  them 
in  the  New  World;  and  a  part  of  their  descendants  still  preserve  their  altar 
and  their  dwellings  around  the  graves  of  their  fathers." 

This  campaign  of  Stuyvesant,  for  the  dispossessing  of  the  Swedes  of  terri- 
tory upon  the  Delaware,  furnishes  Washington  Irving  subject  for  some  of  the 
most  inimitable  chapters  of  broad  humor,  in  his  Knickerbocker's  New  York,  to 
be  found  in  the  English  language.  And  yet,  in  the  midst  of  his  side-splitting 
paragraphs,  he  indulges  in  a  reflection  which  is  worthy  of  remembrance. 
"He  who  reads  attentively  will  discover  the  threads  of  gold  which  run 
throughout  the  web  of  history,  and  are  invisible  to  the  dull  eye  of  ignorance. 
*  *  *  By  the  treacherous  surprisal  of  Fort  Casimir,  then,  did  the  crafty 
Swedes  enjoy  a  transient  triumph,  but  drew  upon  their  heads  the  vengeance 
of  Peier  Stuyvesant,  who  wrested  all  New  Sweden  from  their  hands.  By  the 
conquest  of  New  Sweden,  Peter  Stuyvesant  aroused  the  claims  of  Lord  Balti- 


more,  who  appealed  to  the  cabinet  of  Great  Britain,  who  subdued  the  whole 
province  of  New  Netherlands.  By  this  great  achievement,  the  whole  extent  of 
North  America,  from  Nova  Scotia  to  the  Floridas,  was  rendered  one  entire 
dependency  upon  the  British  crown.  But  mark  the  consequence:  The  hith- 
erto scattered  colonies  being  thus  consolidated  and  having  no  rival  colonies  to 
check  or  keep  them  in  awe,  waxed  great  and  powerful,  and  fiaally  becoming 
too  strong  for  the  mother  country,  were  enabled  to  shake  off  its  bonds.  But 
the  chain  of  effects  stopped  not  here;  the  successful  revolution  in  America  pro- 
duced the  sanguinary  revolution  in  France,  which  produced  the  puissant 
Bonaparte,  who  produced  the  French  despotism." 

In  March,  1656,  the  ship  "Mercury,"  with  130  emigrants,  arrived,  the 
government  at  Stockholm  having  had  no  intimation  of  the  Dutch  conquest. 
An  attempt  was  made  to  prevent  a  landing,  and  the  vessel  was  ordered  to 
report  to  Stuyvesant  at  Manhattan,  but  the  order  was  disregarded  and  the  col- 
onists debarked  and  acquired  lands.  The  Swedish  Government  was  not  dis- 
posed to  submit  to  these  high-handed  proceedings  of  the  Dutch,  and  the  min- 
inters  of  the  two  courts  maintained  a  heated  discussion  of  their  differences. 
Finding  the  Dutch  disposed  to  hold  by  force  their  conquests,  the  government 
of  Sweden  allowed  the  claim  to  rest  until  1664.  In  that  year,  vigorous  meas- 
ures were  planned  to  regain  its  claims  upon  the  Delaware,  and  a  fleet  bearing 
a  military  force  was  dispatched  for  the  purpose.  But,  having  been  obliged  to 
put  back  on  account  of  stress  of  weather,  the  enterprise  was  abandoned. 


John  Paul  Jacquet,  1655-57— Jacob  Alrichs,  1657-59— Goeran  Yan  Dyck,  1657 
-58— William  Beekmax,  1658-63— Alexander  D'Hinoyossa.  1659-64. 

^T^HE  colonies  upon  the  Delaware  being  now  under  exclusive  control  of  the 
_L  Dutch,  John  Paul  Jaqaet  was  appointed  in  November,  1655,  as  Vice 
Director,  Derek  Smidt  having  exercised  authority  after  the  departure  of  Stuy- 
vesant. The  expense  of  fitting  out  the  expedition  for  the  reduction  of  the 
Swedes  was  sorely  felt  by  the  West  India  Company,  which  had  been  obliged 
to  borrow  money  for  the  purpose  of  t^e  city  of  Amsterdam.  In  payment  of 
this  loan,  the  company  sold  to  the  city  all  the  lands  upon  the  south  bank  of 
the  Delaware,  from  the  ocean  to  Christina  Creek,  reaching  back  to  the  lands 
of  the  Minquas.  which  was  designated  Nieur  Amstel.  Again  was  there  di- 
vided authority  upon  the  Delaware.  The  government  of  the  new  possession 
was  vested  in  a  commission  of  forty  residents  of  Amsterdam,  who  appointed 
Jacob  Alrichs  as  Director,  and  sent  him  with  a  force  of  forty  soldiers  and  1 50 
colonists,  in  three  vessels,  to  assume  the  government,  whereupon  Jaquet  relin- 
quished authority  over  this  portion  of  his  territory.  The  company  in  commu- 
nicating with  Stuyvesant  upon  the  subject  of  his  course  in  dispossessing  the 
Swedes,  after  duly  considering  all  the  complaints  and  remonstrances  of  the 
Swedish  government,  approved  his  conduct,  "  though  they  would  not  have  been 
displeased  had  such  a  formal  capitulation  not  taken  place,"  adding  as  a  paren- 
thetical explanation  of  the  word  formal  "  what  is  written  is  to6  long  preserved, 
and  may  be  produced  when  not  desired,  whereas  words  not  recorded  are,  in  the 
lapse  of  time,  forgotten,  or  may  be  explained  away." 


Stuyvesant  still  remained  in  supreme  control  over  both  the  colony  of  the 
city  and  the  colony  of  the  company,  to  the  immediate  governorship  of  the  lat- 
ter of  which,  Goeran  Van  Dyck  was  appointed.  But  though  settlements  in 
the  management  of  affairs  were  frequently  made,  they  would  not  remain  set- 
tled. There  was  conflict  of  authority  between  Alrichs  and  Van  Dyck.  The 
companies  soon  found  that  a  grievous  system  of  smuggling  had  sprung  up. 
After  a  searching  examination  into  the  iri'egularities  by  Stuyvesant,  who  vis- 
ited the  Delaware  for  the  purpose,  he  recommended  the  appointment  of  one 
general  agent  who  should  have  charge  of  all  the  revenues  of  both  colonies, 
and  "William  Beekman  was  accordingly  appointed.  The  company  of  the  city 
seems  not  to  have  been  satisfied  with  the  profits  of  their  investment,  and  ac- 
cordingly made  new  regulations  to  govern  settlement,  by  which  larger  returns 
would  accrue.  This  action  created  discontent  among  the  settlers,  and  many 
who  were  meditating  the  purchase  of  lands  and  the  acquisition  of  homes,  de- 
termined to  go  over  into  Maryland  where  Lord  Baltimore  was  offering  far  more 
liberal  terms  of  settlement.  To  add  to  the  discomforts  of  the  settlers,  "  the 
miasms  which  the  low  alluvial  soil  and  the  rank  and  decomposed  vegetation 
of  a  new  country  engenders, ' '  produced  wasting  sicknesses.  When  the  planting 
was  completed,  and  the  new  soil,  for  ages  undisturbed,  had  been  thorousrhly 
stirred,  the  rains  set  in  which  descended  almost  continuously,  producing  fever 
and  ague  and  dysentery.  Scarcely  a  family  escaped  the  epidemic.  Six  in 
the  family  of  Director  Alrichs  were  attacked,  and  his  wife  died.  New  colo- 
nists came  without  provisions,  which  only  added  to  the  distress.  "  Scarcity  of 
provisions,"  says  O'Calaghan,  "naturally  followed  the  failure  of  the  crops; 
900  schepels  of  grain  had  been  sown  in  the  spring.  They  produced  scarcely 
600  at  harvest.  Rye  rose  to  three  guilders  the  bushel;  peas  to  eight  guilders 
the  sack;  salt  was  twelve  guilders  the  bushel  at  New  Amsterdam;  cheese  and 
butter  were  not  to  be  had,  and  when  a  man  journeys  he  can  get  nothing  but 
dry  bread,  or  he  must  take  a  pot  or  kettle  along  with  him  to  cook  his  victuals." 
"  The  place  had  now  got  so  bad  a  name  that  the  whole  river  could  not  wash  it 
clean."  The  exactions  of  the  city  company  upon  its  colony,  not  only  did  not 
bring  increased  revenue,  but  by  dispersing  the  honest  colonists,  served  to 
notify  Lord  Baltimore — who  had  laid  claim  to  the  lands  upon  Delaware,  on 
account  of  original  discovery  by  Lord  De  la  War,  from  whom  the  river  takes 
its  name,  and  from  subsequent  charter  of  the  British  crown,  covering  territory 
from  the  38th  to  the  40th  degree  of  latitude — of  the  weakness  of  the  colonies, 
and  persuade  him  that  now  was  a  favorable  opportunity  to  enforce  his  claims. 
Accordingly,  Col.  Utie,  with  a  number  of  delegates,  was  dispatched  to  demand 
that  the  Dutch  should  quit  the  place,  or  declare  themselves  subjects  of  Lord 
Baltimore,  adding,  "  that  if  they  hesitated,  they  should  be  responsible  for 
whatever  innocent  blood  might  be  shed." 

Excited  discussions  ensued  between  the  Dutch  authorities  and  the  agents 
of  the  Maryland  government,  and  it  was  finally  agreed  to  refer  the  matter  to 
Gov.  Stuyvesant,  who  immediately  sent  Commissioners  to  the  Chesapeake  to 
settle  differences,  and  enter  into  treaty  regulations  for  the  mutual  return  of 
fugitives,  and  dispatched  sixty  soldiers  to  the  Delaware  to  assist  in  preserving 
order,  and  resisting  the  English,  should  an  attempt  be  made  to  dispossess  the 

Upon  the  death  of  Alrichs,  which  occurred  in  1659,  Alexander  D'Hinoyossa 
was  appointed  Governor  of  the  city  colony.  The  new  Governor  was  a  man  of 
good  business  capacity,  and  sought  to  administer  the  affairs  of  his  colony  for 
the  best  interests  of  the  settlers,  and  for  increasing  the  revenues  of  the  com- 
pany.     To  further  the  general  prosperity,  the  company  negotiated  a  new  loan 


with  which  to  strengthen  and  improve  its  resources.  This  liberal  policy  had 
the  desired  effect.  The  Swedes,  who  had  settled  above  on  the  river,  moved 
down,  and  acquired  homes  on  the  lands  of  the  city  colony.  The  Fins  and  dis- 
contented Dutch,  who  had  gone  to  Maryland,  returned  and  brought  with  them 
some  of  the  English  settlers. 

Discouraged  by  the  harassing  conflicts  of  authority  which  seemed  inter- 
minable, the  West  India  Company  transferred  all  its  interests  on  the  east  side 
of  the  river  to  the  colony  of  the  city,  and  upon  the  visit  of  D'Hinoyossa  to 
Holland  in  1663,  he  secured  for  himself  the  entire  and  exclusive  government 
of  the  colonies  upon  the  Delaware,  being  no  longer  subject  to  the  authority  of 

Encouraged  by  liberal  terms  of  settlement,  and  there  being  now  a  prospect 
of  stable  government,  emigrants  were  attracted  thither.  A  Mennonite  commu- 
nity came  in  a  body.  "  Clergymen  were  not  allowed  to  join  them,  nor  any 
'  intractable  people  such  as  those  in  communion  with  the  Roman  See,  usurious 
Jews,  English  stiff-necked  Quakers,  Puritans,  foolhardy  believers  in  the  mil- 
lennium, and  obstinate  modern  pretenders  to  revelation.'  "  They  were  obliged 
to  take  an  oath  never  to  seek  for  an  ofiSce;  Magistrates  were  to  receive  no  com- 
pensation, "  not  even  a  stiver."  The  soiJ  and  climate  were  regarded  as  excel- 
lent, and  when  sufficiently  peopled,  the  country  would  be  the  "  finest  on  the 
face  of  the  globe." 


Richard   Nichols,    1664-67— Robert   Neelham,   1664-68— Francis  Lovelace, 
1667-73— John  Carr,   1668-73— Anthony   Colve,    1673-74— Peter   Alrichs, 


AFFAIRS  were  scarcely  arranged  upon  the  Delaware,  and  the  dawning  of 
a  better  day  for  the  colonists  ushered  in,  before  new  complications 
began  to  threaten  the  subversion  of  the  whole  Dutch  power  in  America.  The 
English  had  always  claimed  the  entire  Atlantic  seaboard.  Under  Cromwell, 
the  Navigation  act  was  aimed  at  Dutch  interests  in  the  New  World.  Captain 
John  Scott,  who  had  been  an  officer  in  the  army  of  Charles  I,  having 
obtained  some  show  of  authority  from  the  Governor  of  Connecticut,  had  visited 
the  towns  upon  the  west  end  of  Long  Island,  where  was  a  mixed  population  of 
Dutch  and  English,  and  where  he  claimed  to  have  purchased  large  tracts  of 
land,  and  had  persuaded  them  to  unite  under  his  authority  in  setting  up  a 
government  of  their  own.  He  visited  England  and  "  petitioned  the  King  to  be 
invested  with  the  government  of  Long  Island,  or  that  the  people  thereof  be 
allowed  to  choose  yearly  a  Governor  and  Assistants."  By  his  representation, 
an  inquiry  was  instituted  by  the  King's  council,  "as  to  his  majesty's  title  to  the 
premises;  the  intrusions  of  the  Dutch;  their  deportment;  management  of  the 
country;  strength,  trade  and  government;  and  lastly,  of  the  means  necessary 
to  induce  or  force  them  to  acknowledge  the  King,  or  if  necessary,  to  expel 
them  together  from  the  country. "  The  visit  of  Scott,  and  his  prayer  to  the 
King  for  a  grant  of  Long  Island,  was  the  occasioh  of  inaugurating  a  policy, 
which  resulted  in  the  overthrow  of  Dutch  rule  in  America.  But  the  attention 
of  English  statesmen  had  for  some  time  been  turned  to  the  importance  of  the 
territory  which  the  Dutch  colonies  had  occupied,  and  a  belief  that  Dutch  trade 
in  the  New  World  was  yielding  great  returns,   stimulated  inquiry.     James, 


Duke  of  York,  brother  of  the  King,  who  afterward  himself  became  King,  was 
probably  at  this  time  the  power  behind  the  throne  that  was  urging  on  action 
looking  to  the  dispossession  of  the  Dutch.  The  motive  which  seemed  to  actuate 
him  was  the  acquisition  of  personal  wealth  and  power.  He  saw,  as  he 
thought,  a  company  of  merchants  in  Amsterdam  accumulating  great  wealth  out 
of  these  colonies,  and  he  meditated  the  transfer  of  this  wealth  to  himself.  He 
was  seconded  in  this  project  by  the  powerful  influence  of  Sir  George  Downing, 
who  had  been  Envoy  at  The  Hague,  under  Cromwell,  and  was  now  under  Charles 
II.  "Keen,  bold,  subtle,  active,  and  observant,  but  imperious  and  unscrupulous, 
disliking  and  distrusting  the  Dutch,''  he  had  watched  every  movement  of  the 
company's  granted  privileges  by  the  States  General,  and  had  reported  every- 
thing to  his  superiors  at  home.  "The  whole  bent,"  says  O'Calaghan,''  of  this 
man's  mind  was  cc>n8tantly  to  hold  up  before  the  eyes  of  his  countrymen  the 
growing  power  of  Holland  and  her  commercial  companies,  their  immense 
wealth  and  ambition,  and  the  danger  to  England  of  permitting  these  to  pro- 
gress OQward  unchecked.'" 

After  giving  his  testimony  before  the  council,  Scott  returned  to  America 
with  a  letter  from  the  King  recommending  his  interests  to  the  co-operation  and 
protection  of  the  New  England  colonies.  On  arriving  in  Connecticut,  he  was 
commissioned  by  the  Governor  of  that  colony  to  incorporate  Long  Island  under 
Connecticut  jurisdiction.  But  the  Baptists,  Quakers  andMenuonites,who  formed 
a  considerable  part  of  the  population, "  dreaded  falling  into  the  hands  of  the 
Puritans."  In  a  quaint  document  commencing,  '"In  the  behalf e  of  sum  hun- 
dreds of  English  here  planted  on  the  west  end  of  Long  Island  wee  address," 
etc. , "  they  besought  Scott  to  come  and  settle  their  difficulties.  On  his  arrival 
he  acquainted  them  with  the  fact,  till  then  unknown,  that  King  Charles  had 
granted  the  island  to  the  Duke  of  York,  who  would  soon  assert  his  rights. 
Whereupon  the  towns  of  Hemstede,  Newwarke,  Crafford,  Hastings,  Folestone 
and  Gravesend,  entered  into  a  "combination"  as  they  termed  it,  resolved  to 
elect  deputies  to  draw  up  laws,  choose  magistrates,  and  empowered  Scott  to 
act  as  their  President;  in  short  set  up  the  first  independent  State  in  America. 
Scott  immediately  set  out  at  the  head  of  150  men,  horse  and  foot,  to  subdue 
the  island. 

On  the  22d  of  March,  1664,  Charles  II  made  a  grant  of  the  whole  of  Long 
Island,  and  all  the  adjoining  country  at  the  time  in  possession  of  the  Dutch, 
to  the  Duke  of  York.  Borrowing  four  men-of-war  of  the  king,  James  sent 
them  in  command  of  Col.  Richard  Nicholls,  an  old  officer,  with  whom  was  as- 
sociated Sir  Robert  Carr,  Sir  George  Cartwright,  and  Samuel  Maverick,  Esq., 
and  a  force  of  450  men,  to  dispossess  the  Dutch.  To  insure  the  success  of  the 
expedition,  letters  were  addressed  to  each  of  the  Governors  of  the  New  England 
colonies,  enjoining  upon  them  to  unite  in  giving  aid  by  men  and  material  to 
Nicholls.  The  fleet  sailed  directly  for  Boston,  where  it  was  expected,  and 
whence,  through  one  Lord,  the  Dutch  were  notified  of  its  coming.  The  great- 
est consternation  was  aroused  upon  the  receipt  of  this  intelligence,  and  the 
most  active  preparations  were  making  for  defense.  But  in  the  midst  of  these 
preparations,  notice  was  received  from  the  Chambers  at  Amsterdam,  doiibtless 
inspired  by  the  English,  that  "  no  apprehension  of  any  public  enemy  or  dan- 
ger from  England  need  be  entertained.  That  the  King  was  only  desirous  to 
reduce  the  colonies  to  uniformity  in  church  and  state,  and  with  this  view  was 
dispatching  some  Commissioners  with  two  or  three  frigates  to  New  England  to 
introduce  Episcopacy  in  that  quarter. "  Thrown  completely  off  his  guard  by 
this  announcement,  the  Director  General,  Stuyvesant  abandoned  all  preparations 
for  resistance,  and  indulged  in  no  anticipations  of  a  hostile  visitation.      Thus 


were  three  full  weeks  lost  in  which  the  colonies  might  have  been  put  in  a  ver}- 
good  state  of  defense. 

Nicholls  on  arriving  in  American  waters,  touched  at  Boston  and  Connecti- 
cut, v/here  some  aid  was  received,  and  then  hastened  foward  to  Manhattan. 
Stuyvesant  had  but  a  day  or  two  before  learned  of  the  arrival,  and  of  the  hos- 
tile intent.  Scarcely  had  he  issued  ordei-s  for  bringing  out  his  forces  and  for 
fortifying  before  Nicholls  scattered  proclamations  through  the  colony  promis- 
ing to  protect  all  who  submitted  to  his  Brittanic  majesty  in  the  undisturbed 
possession  of  their  property,  and  made  a  formal  summons  upon  Stuyvesant  to 
surrender  the  country  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain.  The  Director  found  that 
he  had  an  entirely  different  enemy  to  treat  with  from  Rysingh,  and  a  few  half- 
armed  Swedes  and  Fins  upon  the  Delaware.  Wordy  war  ensued  between  the 
Commissioners  and  the  Director,  and  the  English  Governor  finding  that  Stuy- 
vesant not  in  the  temper  to  yield,  landed  a  body  of  his  soldiers  upon  the  lower  end 
of  the  island,  and  ordered  Hyde,  the  commander  of  the  fleet,  to  lay  the  frigates 
broadside  before  the  city.  It  was  a  critical  moment.  Stuyvesant  was  stand- 
ing on  one  of  the  points  of  the  fort  when  he  saw  the  frigates  approaching. 
The  gunner  stood  by  with  burning  match,  prepared  to  fire  on  the  fleet,  and 
Stuyvesant  seemed  on  the  point  of  giving  the  order.  But  he  was  restrained, 
and  a  further  communication  was  sent  to  Nicholls,  who  would  listen  to  nothing 
short  of  the  full  execution  of  his  mission.  Still  Stuyvesant  held  out.  The 
inhabitants  implored,  but  rather  than  surrender  "  he  would  be  carried  a  corpse 
to  his  grave."  The  town  was,  however,  in  no  condition  to  stand  a  siege.  The 
powder  at  the  fort  would  only  suffice  for  one  day  of  active  operations.  Pro- 
visions were  scarce.  The  inhabitants  were  not  disposed  to  be  sacrificed,  and 
the  disaffection  among  them  spread  to  the  soldiers.  They  were  overheard  mut- 
tering, "  Now  we  hope  to  pepper  those  devilish  traders  who  have  so  long 
salted  us;  we  know  where  booty  is  to  be  found,  and  where  the  young  women 
live  who  wear  gold  chains." 

The  Rev.  Jannes  Myapoleuses  seems  to  have  been  active  in  negotiations  and 
opposed  to  the  shedding  of  blood.  A  remonstrance  drawn  by  him  was  finally 
adopted  and  signed  by  the  principal  men,  and  presented  to  the  Director  Gen- 
eral, in  which  the  utter  hopelessness  of  resistance  was  set  forth,  and  Stuyve- 
sant finally  consented  to  capitulate.  Favorable  terms  were  arranged,  and 
Nicholls  promised  that  if  it  should  be  finally  agreed  between  the  English  and 
Dutch  governments  that  the  province  should  be  given  over  to  Dutch  rule,  he 
would  peacefully  yield  his  authority.  Thus  without  a  gun  being  fired,  the  En- 
glish made  conquest  of  the  Manhattoes. 

Sir  Robert  Carr,  with  two  frigates  and  an  ample  force,  was  dispatched  to 
the  Delaware  to  reduce  the  settlements  there  to  English  rule.  The  planters, 
whether  Dutch  or  Swedes,  were  to  be  insured  in  the  peaceable  possession  of 
their  property,  and  the  magistrates  were  to  be  continued  in  office. 

Sailing  past  the  fort,  he  disseminated  among  the  settlers  the  news  of  the 
surrender  of  Stuyvesant,  and  the  promises  of  protection  which  Nicholls  had 
made  use  of.  But  Gov.  D'Hinoyossa  was  not  disposed  to  heed  the  demand 
for  surrender  without  a  struggle.  "Whereupon  Carr  landed  his  forces  and 
stormed  the  place.  After  a  fruitless  but  heroic  resistance,  in  which  ten  were 
wounded  and  three  were  killed,  the  Governor  was  forced  to  surrender.  Thus 
was  the  complete  subversion  of  the  State's  General  in  America  consummated, 
and  the  name  of  New  Amsterdam  gave  place  to  that  of  New  York,  from  the 
name  of  the  English  proprietor,  James,  Duke  of  York. 

The  resistance  offered  by  D'Hinoyossa  formed  a  pretext  for  shameless 
plunder.      Carr,  in  his  report  which  shows  him  to  have  been   a  lawless  fel- 


low,  says,  "  Ye  soldiers  never  stoping  iintill  they  stormed  ye  fort,  and  sae  con- 
sequently to  plundering;  the  seamen,  noe  less  given  to  that  sport,  were  quickly 
within,  and  have  gotton  good  store  of  booty."  Carr  seized  the  farm  of 
D'Hinoyossa,  hi-  brother,  John  Carr,  that  of  Sheriff  Sweringen,  and  Ensign 
Stock  that  of  Peter  Alrichs.  The  produce  of  the  land  for  that  year  was  seized, 
together  with  a  cargo  of  goods  that  was  unsold.  "  Even  the  inoffensive  Men- 
nonists,  though  non-combatant  from  principle,  did  not  escape  the  sack  and 
plunder  to  which  the  whole  river  was  subjected  by  Carr  and  his  marauders. 
A  boat  was  dispatched  to  their  settlement,  which  was  stripped  of  everything, 
to  a  very  naile." 

Nicholls,  on  hearing  of  the  rapacious  conduct  of  his  subordinate,  visited 
the  Delaware,  removed  Carr,  and  placed  Robert  Needham  in  command.  Pre- 
vious to  diripatching  his  fleet  to  America,  in  June,  1664,  the  Duke  of  York  had 
granted  to  John,  Lord  Berkeley,  Baron  of  Stratton,  and  Sir  George  Carteret, 
of  Saltnun  in  Devon,  the  territory  of  New  Jersey,  bounded  substantially  as  the 
present  State,  and  this,  though  but  little  settled  by  the  Dutch,  had  been  in- 
cluded in  the  terms  of  sui-render  secmred  by  Nicholls.  In  many  ways,  he 
showed  himself  a  man  of  ability  and  discretion.  He  drew  up  with  signal 
success  a  body  of  laws,  embracing  most  of  the  provisions  which  had  been  in 
force  in  the  English  colonies,  which  were  designated  the  Duke's  Laws. 

In  May,  1667,  Col.  Francis  Lovelace  was  appointed  Governor  in  place  of 
Nicholls,  and  soon  after  taking  charge  of  affairs,  drew  up  regulations  for  the 
government  of  the  territory  upon  the  Delaware,  and  dispatched  Capt.  John 
Carr  to  act  there  as  his  Deputy  Governor.  It  was  provided  that  whenever 
complaint  duly  sworn  to  was  made,  the  Governor  was  to  summon  "  the  schout, 
Hans  Block,  Israel  Helm,  Peter  Rambo,  Peter  Cock  and  Peter  Alrichs,  or  any 
two  of  them,  as  counsellors,  to  advise  him,  and  determine  by  the  major  vote 
what  is  just,  equitable  and  necessary  in  the  case  in  question."  It  was  further 
provided  that  all  men  should  be  punished  in  an  exemplary  manner,  though 
with  moderation;  that  the  laws  should  be  frequently  communicated  to  the 
counsellors,  and  that  in  cases  of  difficulty  recourse  should  be  had  to  the  Gov- 
ernor and  Council  at  New  York. 

In  1668,  two  murders  were  perpetrated  by  Indians,  which  caused  consider- 
able disturbance  and  alarm  throughout  the  settlements.  These  capital  crimes 
appear  to  have  been  committed  while  the  guilty  parties  were  maddened  by 
liquor.  So  impressed  were  the  sachems  and  leading  warriors  of  the  baneful 
effects  of  strong  drink,  that  they  appeared  before  the  Council  and  besought  its 
authority  to  utterly  prohibit  the  sale  of  it  to  any  of  their  tribes.  These  re- 
quests were  repeated,  and  finally,  upon  the  advice  of  Peter  Alrichs,  "  the 
Governor  (Lovelace)  prohibited,  on  pain  of  death,  the  selling  of  powder,  shot 
and  strong  liquors  to  the  Indians,  and  writ  to  Carr  on  the  occasion  to  use  the 
utmost  vigilance  and  caution." 

The  native  murderers  were  not  apprehended,  as  it  was  difficult  to  trace 
them;  but  the  Indians  themselves  were  determined  to  ferret  them  out.  One 
was  taken  and  shot  to  death,  who  was  the  chief  offender,  but  the  other  escaped 
and  was  never  after  heard  of.  The  chiefs  summoned  their  young  men,  and  in 
presence  of  the  English  warned  them  that  such  would  be  the  fate  of  all  offend- 
ers. Proud  justly  remarks:  "This,  at  a  time  when  the  Indians  were  numer- 
ous and  strong  and  the  Europeans  few  and  weak,  was  a  memorable  act  of  jus- 
tice, and  a  proof  of  true  friendship  to  the  English,  greatly  alleviating  the 
fear,  for  which  they  had  so  much  reason  among  savages,  in  this  then  wilder- 
ness country." 

In  1669,  a  reputed  son  of  the  distinguished  Swedish  General,  Connings- 


marke,  commonly  called  the  Long  Fin,  with  another  of  his  nationality,  Henry 
Coleman,  a  man  of  property,  and  familiar  with  the  language  and  habits  of  the 
Indians,  endeavored  to  incite  an  insurrection  to  throw  oflf  the  English  rule  and 
establish  the  Swedish  supremacy.  The  Long  Fin  was  apprehended,  and  was 
condemned  to  die;  but  upon  reconsideration  his  sentence  was  commuted  to 
whipping  and  to  branding  with  the  letter  R.  He  was  brought  in  chains  to 
New  York,  where  he  was  incarcerated  in  the  Stadt-house  for  a  year,  and  was 
then  transported  to  Barbadoes  to  be  sold.  Improvements  in  the  modes  of 
administering  justice  were  from  time  to  time  introduced.  New  Castle  was 
made  a  corporation,  to  be  governed  by  a  Bailiff  and  six  associates.  Duties  on 
importations  were  laid,  and  Capt.  Martin  Pringer  was  appointed  to  collect  and 
make  due  returns  of  them  to  Gov.  Lovelace. 

In  1673,  the  French  monarch,  Louis  XFV,  declared  war  against  the  Neth- 
erlands, and  with  an  army  of  over  200,000  men  moved  down  upon  that  de- 
voted country.  In  conjunction  with  the  land  force,  the  English,  with  a  power- 
ful armament,  descended  upon  the  Dutch  waters.  The  aged  Du  Ruyter  and 
the  youthful  Van  Tromp  put  boldly  to  sea  to  meet  the  invaders.  Three  great 
naval  battles  were  fought  upon  the  Dutch  coast  on  the  7th  and  14th  of  June, 
and  the  6th  of  August,  in  which  the  English  forces  were  finally  repulsed  and 
driven  from  the  coast.  In  the  meantime,  the  inhabitants,  abandoning  their 
homes,  cut  the  dikes  which  held  back  the  sea,  and  invited  inundation.  Deem 
ing  this  a  favorable  opportunity  to  regain  their  possessions  wrenched  from  them 
in  the  New  World,  the  Dutch  sent  a  small  fleet  under  Commodores  Cornelius 
Evertse  and  Jacobus  Benkes,  to  New  York,  to  demand  the  surrender  of  all 
their  previous  possessions.  Gov.  Lovelace  happened  to  be  absent,  and  his 
representative,  Capt.  John  Manning,  8urrendered  with  but  brief  resistance, 
and  the  magistrates  from  Albany,  Esopus,  East  Jersey  and  Long  Island,  on 
being  summoned  to  New  York,  swore  fealty  to  the  returning  Dutch  power. 
Anthony  Colve,  as  Governor,  was  sent  to  Delaware,  where  the  magistrates 
hastened  to  meet  him  and  submit  themselves  to  his  authority.  Property  in 
the  English  Government  was  confiscated;  Gov.  Lovelace  returned  to  England, 
and  many  of  the  soldiers  were  carried  prisoners  to  Holland.  Before  their  de- 
parture. Commodores  Evertse  and  Benkes,  who  styled  themselves  "The  honora- 
ble and  awful  council  of  war,  for  their  high  mightinesses,  the  State's  General 
of  the  United  Netherlands,  and  his  Serene  Highness,  the  Prince  of  Orange," 
commissioned  Anthony  Colve,  a  Captain  of  foot,  on  the  12th  of  August,  1673, 
to  be  Governor  General  of  "New  Netherlands,  with  all  its  appendences," 
and  on  the  19th  of  September  following,  Peter  Alrichs,  who  had  manifested 
his  subserviency  and  his  pleasure  at  the  return  of  Dutch  ascendancy,  was  ap- 
pointed by  Colve  Deputy  Governor  upon  the  Delaware.  A  body  of  laws  was 
drawn  up  for  his  instruction,  and  three  courts  of  justice  were  established,  at 
New  Castle,  Chester  and  Lewistown.  Capt.  Manning  on  his  return  to  En- 
gland was  charged  with  treachery  for  delivering  up  the  fort  at  New  York  with- 
out resistance,  and  was  sentenced  by  a  court  martial  "to  have  his  sword  broken 
over  his  head  in  public,  before  the  city  hall,  and  himself  rendered  incapable 
of  wearing  a  sword  and  of  serving  his  Majesty  for  the  future  in  any  public 
trust  in  the  Government. " 

But  the  revolution  which  had  been  affected  so  easily  was  of  short  duration. 
On  the  9th  of  February,  1674,  peace  was  concluded  between  England  and 
Holland,  and  in  the  articles  of  pacification  it  was  provided  "that  whatsoever 
countries,  islands,  towns,  ports,  castles  or  forts,  have  or  shall  be  taken,  on  both 
sides,  since  the  time  that  the  late  unhappy  war  broke  out,  either  in  Europe,  or 
elsewhere,  shall  be  restored  to  the  former  lord  and  proprietor,  in  the  same  con- 


dition  they  shall  be  in  when  the  peace  itself  shall  bo  proclaimed,  after  which 
time  there  shall  be  no  spoil  nor  plunder  of  the  inhabitants,  no  demolition 
of  fortilications,  nor  carrying  away  of  guns,  powder,  or  other  military  stores 
which  belonged  to  any  castle  or  port  at  the  time  when  it  was  taken. ' '  This 
left  no  room  for  controversy  about  possession.  But  that  there  might  be  no  legal 
bar  nor  loophole  for  question  of  absolute  right  to  his  possessions,  the  Duke  of 
York  secured  from  the  Kiug  on  the  29tb  of  June  following,  a  new  patent  cov- 
ering the  former  grant,  and  two  days  thereafter  sent  Sir  Edmund  Andros,  to 
possess  and  govern  the  country.  He  arrived  at  New  York  and  took  peaceable 
possession  on  the  31st  of  October,  and  two  days  thereafter  it  was  resolved  in 
council  to  reinstate  all  the  officers  upon  Delaware  as  they  were  at  the  surrender 
to  the  Dutch,  except  Peter  Alrichs,  who  for  his  forwardness  in  yielding  his 
power  was  relieved.  Capt.  Edmund  Cantwell  and  William  Tom  were  sent  to 
occupy  the  fort  at  New  Castle,  in  the  capacities  of  Deputy  Governor  and  Sec- 
retary. In  May,  3675,  Gov.  Andros  visited  the  Delaware,  and  held  court  at 
New  Castle  "  in  which  orders  were  made  relative  to  the  opening  of  roads,  th»» 
regulation  of  church  property  and  the  support  of  preaching,  the  prohibition 
of  the  sale  of  liquors  to  the  Indians,  and  the  distillation  thereof  by  the  inhab- 
itants." On  the  23d  of  September,  1676,  Cantwell  was  superseded  by  John 
Collier,  as  Vice  Governor,  when  Ephraim  Hermans  became  Secretary. 

As  was  previously  observed,  Gov.  Nicholls,  in  1664,  made  a  complete  di- 
gest of  all  the  laws  and  usages  in  furce  in  the  English-speaking  colonies  in 
America,  which  were  known  as  the  Duke's  Laws.  That  these  might  now  be 
made  the  basis  of  j  udicature  throughout  the  Duke's  possessions,  they  were,  on 
the  25th  of  September,  1676,  formally  proclaimed  and  published  by  Gov. 
Lovelace,  with  a  suitable  ordinance  introducing  them.  It  may  here  be  ob- 
served, that,  in  the  administration  of  Gov.  Hartranft,  by  act  of  the  Legislature 
of  June  12,  1878,  the  Duke's  Laws  were  published  in  a  handsome  volume,  to- 
gether with  the  Charter  and  Laws  instituted  by  Penn,  and  historical  notes 
covering  the  early  history  of  the  State,  under  the  direction  of  John  B.  Linn, 
Secretary  of  the  commonwealth,  edited  by  Staughton  George,  Benjamin  M. 
Nead,  and  Thomas  McCarnant,  from  an  old  copy  preserved  among  the  town  rec- 
ords of  Hempstead,  Long  Island,  the  seat  of  the  independent  State  which 
had  been  set  up  there  by  John  Scott  before  the  coming  of  Nicholls.  The  num- 
ber of  taxable  male  inhabitants  between  th(^  ages  of  sixteen  and  sixty  years, 
in  1677,  for  Uplandt  and  New  Castle,  was  443,  which  by  the  usual  estimate  of 
seven  to  one  would  give  the  population  3,101  for  this  district.  Gov.  Collier 
having  exceeded  his  authority  by  exercising  judicial  functions,  was  deposed 
by  Andros,  and  Capt.  Christopher  Billop  was  appointed  to  succeed  him.  But 
the  change  resulted  in  little  benefit  to  the  colony;  for  Billup  was  charged 
with  many  in-egularities,  "  taking  possession  of  the  fort  and  turning  it  into 
a  stable,  and  the  court  room  above  into  a  hay  and  fodder  loft;  debarring  the 
court  from  sitting  in  its  usual  place  in  the  fort,  and  making  use  of  soldiers  for 
his  own  private  purposes. " 

The  hand  of  the  Euglish  Government  bore  heavily  upon  the  denomination 
of  Christians  called  Friends  or  Quakers,  and  the  earnest-minded,  conscientious 
worshipers,  uncompromising  in  their  faith,  were  eager  for  homes  in  a  land 
where  they  should  be  absolutely  free  to  worship  the  Supreme  Being.  Berke- 
ley and  Carteret,  who  had  bought  New  Jersey,  were  Friends,  and  the  settle- 
ments made  in  their  territory  were  largely  of  that  faith.  In  1675,  Lord  Ber- 
keley sold  his  undivided  half  of  the  province  to  John  Fenwicke,  in  trust  for 
Edward  Byllinge,  also  Quakers,  and  Fenwicke  sailed  in  the  Griffith,  with  a 
company  of  Friends  who  settled  at  Salem,  in  West  Jersey.      Byllinge,  having 


become  involved  in  debt,  made  an  assignment  'of  bis  interest  for  the  benefit  of 
his  creditors,  and  William  Penn  was  induced  to  become  trustee  jointly  with 
Gowen  Lawrie  and  Nicholas  Lucas.  Penn  was  a  devoted  Quaker,  and  he  was 
of  that  earnest  nature  that  the  interests  of  his  friends  and  Christian  devotees 
were  like  his  own  personal  interests.  Hence  he  became  zealous  in  promoting 
the  welfare  of  the  colony.  For  its  orderly  government,  and  that  settlers  might 
have  assurance  of  stability  in  the  management  of  affairs,  Penn  drew  up  "  Con- 
cessions and  agreements  of  the  proprietors,  freeholders  and  inhabitants  of  West 
New  Jersey  in  America"  in  forty- four  chapters.  Foreseeing  difficulty  from 
divided  authority,  Penn  secured  a  division  of  the  province  by  "  a  line  of  par- 
tition from  the  east  side  of  Little  Egg  Hai'bor,  straight  north,  through  the 
country  to  the  utmost  branch  of  the  Delaware  River."  Penn's  half  was  called 
New  West  Jersey,  along  the  Delaware  side,  Carteret's  New  East  Jersey  along  the 
ocean  shore.  Penn's  purposes  and  disposition  toward  the  settlers,  as  the 
founder  of  a  State,  are  disclosed  by  a  letter  which  he  wrote  at  this  time  to  a 
Friend,  Richard  Hartshorn,  then  in  Amei'ica:  "We  lay  a  foundation  for 
after  ages  to  understand  their  liberty,  as  men  and  Christians;  that  they  may 
not  be  brought  into  bondage,  but  by  their  own  consent;  for  we  put  the  power 
in  the  people.  *  *  So  every  man  is  capable  to  choose  or  to  be  chosen ;  no  man 
to  be  arrested,  condemned,  or  molested,  in  his  estate,  or  liberty,  but  by  twelve 
men  of  the  neighborhood;  no  man  to  lie  in  prison  for  debt,  but  that  his  estate 
satisfy,  as  far  as  it  will  go,  and  he  be  set  at  liberty  to  work;  no  man  to  be 
called  in  question,  or  molested  for  his  conscience."  Lest  any  should  be  in- 
duced to  leave  home  and  embark  in  the  enterprise  of  settlement  unadvisedly, 
Penn  wrote  and  published  a  letter  of  caution,  "  That  in  whomsoever  adesire  to 
be  concerned  in  this  intended  plantation,  such  would  weigh  the  thing  before 
the  Lord,  and  not  headily,  or  rashly,  conclude  on  any  such  remove,  and  that 
they  do  not  offer  violence  to  the  tender  love  of  their  near  kindred  and  relations, 
but  soberly,  and  conscientiously  endeavor  to  obtain  their  good  wills;  that 
whether  they  go  or  stay,  it  may  be  of  good  savor  before  the  Lord  and  good 


Sir  Edmund  Andros,  1674-81— Edmund  Cantwell,  1674-76— John  Collier,  1676- 
77— Christopher  Billop,  1677-81. 

WILLIAM  PENN,  as  Trustee,  and  finally  as  part  owner  of  New  Jersey, 
became  much  interested  in  the  subject  of  colonization  in  America. 
Many  of  his  people  had  gone  thither,  and  he  had  given  much  prayerful  study 
and  meditation  to  the  amelioration  of  their  condition  by  securing  just  laws  for 
their  government.  His  imagination  pictured  the  fortunate  condition  of  a 
State  where  the  law-giver  should  alone  study  the  happiness  of  his  subjects,  and 
his  subjects  should  be  chiefly  intent  on  rendering  implicit,  obedience  to 
just  laws.  From  his  experience  in  the  management  of  the  Jerseys,  he  had 
doubtless  discovered  that  if  he  would  carry  out  his  ideas  of  government  suc- 
cessfully, he  must  have  a  province  where  his  voice  would  be  potential  and  his 
will  supreme.  He  accordingly  cast  about  for  the  acquirement  of  such  a  land  in 
the  New  World. 

Penn  had  doubtless  been  stimulated  in  his  desires  by  the  very  roseate  ac- 
counts of  the  beauty  and  excellence  of  the  country,  its  salubrity  of  climate,  its 


balmy  airs,  the  fertility  of  its  soil,  and  the  abundance  of  the  native  fish,  flesh 
and  fowl.  In  1680,  one  Malhon  Stacy  wrote  a  letter  which  was  largely  circu- 
lated in  England,  in  which  he  says:  "  It  is  a  country  that  produceth  all  things 
for  the  support  and  furtherance  of  man,  in  a  plentiful  manner.  *  *  *  i 
have  seen  orchards  laden  with  fruit  to  admiration;  their  very  limbs  torn  to 
pieces  with  weight,  most  delicious  to  the  taste,  and  lovely  to  behold.  I  have 
seen  an  apple  tree,  from  a  pippin- kernel,  yield  a  barrel  of  curious  cider;  and 
peaches  in  such  plenty  that  some  people  took  their  carts  a  peach  gathering;  I 
could  not  but  smile  at  the  conceit  of  it;  they  are  very  delicious  fruit,  and  hang 
almost  like  our  onions,  that  are  tied  on  ropes.  I  have  seen  and  know,  this 
summer,  forty  bushels  of  bold  wheat  of  one  bushel  sown.  From  May  till 
Michaelmas,  great  store  of  very  good  wild  fruits  as  strawberries,  cranberries 
and  hurtleberries,  which  are  like  our  billberries  in  England,  only  far  sweeter; 
the  cranberries,  much  like  cherries  for  color  and  bigness,  which  may  be 
kept  till  frnit  comes  again;  an  excellent  sauce  is  made  of  them  for  venison, 
turkeys,  and  other  great  fowl,  and  they  are  better  to  make  tarts  of  than  either 
goosoDerries  or  cherries;  we  have  them  brought  to  our  houses  by  the  Indians 
in  great  plenty.  My  brother  Robert  had  as  many  cherries  this  year  as  would 
have  loaded  several  carts.  As  for  venison  and  fowls,  we  have  great  plenty; 
we  have  brought  home  to  our  countries  by  the  Indians,  seven  or  eight  fat  bucks 
in  a  day.  We  went  into  the  river  to  catch  herrings  after  the  Indian  fashion. 
*  *  *  We  could  have  filled  a  three-bushel  sack  of  as  good  large  herrings 
as  ever  I  saw.  And  as  to  beef  and  pork,  here  is  great  plenty  of  it,  and  good 
sheep.  .The  common  grass  of  this  country  fpeds  beef  very  fat.  Indeed,  the 
couatry,  take  it  as  a  wilderness,  is  a  brave  country." 

The  father  of  William  Penn  had  arisen  to  distinction  in  tne  British  Navy. 
He  was  sent  in  Cromwell's  time,  with  a  considerable  sea  and  land  force,  to  the 
West  Indies,  where  he  reduced  the  Island  of  Jamaica  under  English  rule.  At 
the  restoration,  he  gave  in  his  adhesion  to  the  royal  cause.  Under  James, 
Duke  of  York,  Admiral  Penn  commanded  the  English  fleet  which  descended 
upon  the  Dutch  coast,  and  gained  a  great  victory  over  the  combined  naval 
forces  led  by  Van  Opdam.  For  this  great  service  to  his  country,  Penn  was 
knighted,  and  became  a  favorite  at  court,  the  King  and  his  brothor,  the  Duke, 
holding  him  in  cherished  remembrance.  At  his  death,  there  was  due  him 
from  the  crown  the  sum  of  £16,000,  a  portion  of  which  he  himself  had  ad- 
vanced for  the  sea  service.  Filled  with  the  romantic  idea  of  colonization,  and 
enamored  with  the  sacred  cause  of  his  people,  the  son,  who  had  come  to  be  re- 
garded with  favor  for  his  great  father's  sake,  petitioned  King  Charles  II  to 
grant  him,  in  liquidation  of  this  debt,  "  a  tract  of  land  in  America,  lying 
north  of  Maryland,  bounded  east  by  the  Delaware  River,  on  the  west  limited 
as  Maryland,  and  northward  to  extend  as  far  as  plantable."  There  were  con- 
flicting interests  at  this  time  which  were  being  warily  watched  at  court.  The 
petition  was  submitted  to  the  Privy  Council,  and  afterwai-d  to  the  Lords  of 
the  committee  of  plantations.  The  Duke  of  York  already  held  the  counties  of 
New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex.  Lord  Baltimore  held  a  grant  upon  the  south, 
with  an  indefinite  northern  limit,  and  the  agents  of  both  these  territories 
viewed  with  a  jealous  eye  any  new  grant  that  should  in  any  way  trench  upon 
their  rights.  These  claims  were  fully  debated  and  heard  by  the  Lords,  and, 
being  a  matter  in  which  the  King  manifested  special  interest,  the  Lord  Chief 
Justice,  North,  and  the  Attorney  General,  Sir  William  Jones,  were  consulted 
both  as  to  the  grant  itself,  and  the  form  or  manner  of  making  it.  Finally, 
after  a  careful  study  of  the  whole  subject,  it  was  determined  by  the  highest 
authority  in  the  Government  to  grant  to  Penn  a  larger  tract  than  he  had  asked 


for,  and  the  charter  was  drawn  with  unexampled  liberality,  in  unequivocal 
terms  of  gift  and  perpetuity  of  holding,  and  with  remarkable  minuteness  of 
detail,  and  t'hat  Penn  should  have  the  advantage  of  any  double  meaning  con- 
veyed in  the  instrument,  the  twenty-third  and  last  section  provides:  "And, 
if  perchance  hereafter  any  doubt  or  question  should  arise  concerning  the  true 
sense  and  meaning  of  any  word,  clause  or  sentence  contained  in  this  our  present 
charter,  we  will  ordain  and  command  that  at  all  times  and  in  all  things  such 
interpretation  be  made  thereof,  and  allowed  in  any  of  our  courts  whatsoever 
as  shall  be  adjudged  most  advantageous  and  favorable  unto  the  said  William 
Penn,  his  heirs  and  assigns." 

It  was  a  joyful  day  for  Penn  when  he  finally  reached  the  consummation  of 
his  wishes,  and  saw  himself  invested  with  almost  dictatorial  power  over  a 
country  as  large  as  England  itself,  destined  to  become  a  populous  empire. 
But  his  exultation  was  tempered  with  the  most  devout  Christian  spirit,  fearful 
lest  in  the  exercise  of  his  great  power  he  might  be  led  to  do  something  that 
should  be  displeasing  to  God.  To  his  dear  friend,  Robert  Turner,  he  writes 
in  a  modest  way:  "  My  true  love  in  the  Lord  salutes  thee  and  dear  friends 
that  love  the  Lord's  precious  truth  in  those  parts.  Thine  I  have,  and  for  my 
business  here  know  that  after  many  waitings,  watchings,  solicitings  and  dis- 
putes in  council,  this  day  my  country  was  confirmed  to  me  under  the  great  seal 
of  England,  with  large  powers  and  privileges,  by  the  name  of  Pennsylvania,  a 
name  the  King  would  give  it  in  honor  of  my  father.  I  chose  New  "Wales,  be- 
ing, as  this,  a  pretty  hilly  country;  but  Penn  being  Welsh  for  a  head,  as  Pen- 
manmoire  in  Wales,  and  Penrith  in  Cumberland,  and  Penn  in  Buckingham- 
shire, the  highest  land  in  England,  called  this  Pennsylvania,  which  is  the  high 
or  head  woodlands;  for  I  proposed,  when  the  Secretary,  a  Welshman,  refused 
to  have  it  called  New  Wales,  Sylvania,  and  they  added  Penn  to  it;  and  though 
I  much  opposed  it,  and  went  to  the  King  to  have  it  struck  out  and  altered,  he 
said  it  was  past,  and  would  take  it  upon  him;  nor  could  twenty  guineas  move 
the  Under  Secretary  to  vary  the  name ;  for  I  feared  lest  it  should  be  looked  on 
as  a  vanity  in  me,  and  not  as  a  respect  in  the  King,  as  it  truly  was  to  my 
father,  whom  he  often  mentions  with  praise.  Thou  mayest  communicate  my 
grant  to  Friends,  and  expect  shortly  my  proposals.  It  is  a  clear  and  just 
thing,  and  my  God,  that  has  given  it  me  through  many  difficulties,  will,  I  be- 
lieve, bless  and  make  it  the  seed  of  a  nation.  I  shall  have  a  tender  care  to  the 
government,  that  it  be  well  laid  at  first." 

Penn  had  asked  that  the  western  boundary  should  be  the  same  as  that  of 
Maryland;  but  the  King  made  the  width  from  east  to  west  five  full  degrees. 
The  charter  limits  were  "  all  that  tract,  or  part,  of  land,  in  America,  with  the 
islands  therein  contained  as  the  same  is  bounded,  on  the  east  by  Delaware 
River,  from  twelve  miles  distance  northwards  of  New  Castle  town,  unto  the 
three  and  fortieth  degree  of  northern  latitude.  *  *  *         * 

The  said  land  to  extend  westward  five  degrees  in  longitude,  to  be  computed 
from  the  said  eastern  bounds;  and  the  said  lands  to  be  bounded  on  the  north 
by  the  beginning  of  the  three  and  fortieth  degree  of  northern  latitude,  and, 
on  the  south,  by  a  circle  drawn  at  twelve  miles  distance  from  New  Castle 
northward  and  westward  unto  the  beginning  of  the  fortieth  degree  of  northern 
latitude;  and  then  by  a  straight  line  westward  to  the  limits  of  longitude  above 

It  is  evident  that  tne  royal  secretaries  did  not  well  understand  the  geo^a- 
phy  of  this  section,  for  by  reference  to  a  map  it  will  be  seen  that  the  begin- 
ning of  the  fortieth  degree,  that  is,  the  end  of  the  thirty-ninth,  cuts  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  hence  Baltimore,  and  the  greater  part  of  Maryland 


and  a  good  slice  of  Virginia  would  have  been  included  in  the  clear  terms  of 
the  chartered  limits  of  Pennsylvania.  But  the  charters  of  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia antedated  this  of  Pennsylvania.  Still,  the  terms  of  the  Penn  charter 
were  distinct,  the  beginning  of  the  fortieth  degree,  whereas  those  of  Maryland 
were  ambiguous,  the  northern  limi  fc  being  fixed  at  the  fortieth  degree ;  but  whether 
at  the  beginning  or  at  the  ending  of  the  fortieth  was  not  stated.  Penn 
claimed  three  full  degrees  of  latitude,  and  when  it  was  found  that  a  contro- 
versy was  likely  to  ensue,  the  King,  by  the  hand  of  his  royal  minister,  Con- 
way, issued  a  fui'ther  declaration,  dated  at  Whitehall,  April  2,  1681,  in  which 
the  wording  of  the  original  chartered  limits  fixed  for  Pennsylvania  were 
quoted  verbatim,  and  his  royal  pleasure  declared  that  these  limits  should  be 
respected  "  as  they  tender  his  majesty's  displeasure."  This  was  supposed  to 
settle  the  matter.  But  Lord  Baltimore  still  pressed  his  claim,  and  the  ques- 
tion of  southern  boundary  remained  an  open  one,  causing  much  disquietude 
to  Penn,  requiring  watchful  care  at  court  for  more  than  half  a  century,  and 
until  after  the  proprietor's  death. 

We  gather  from  the  terms  of  the  charter  itself  that  the  King,  in  making 
the  grant,  was  influenced  "by  the  commendable  desire  of  Penn  to  enlarge  our 
British  Empire,  and  promote  such  useful  commodities  as  may  be  of  benefit 
to  us  and  our  dominions,  as  also  to  reduce  savage  nations  by  just  and  gentle 
manners,  to  the  k>ve  of  civil  society  and  Christian  religion,"  and  out  of  "re- 
gard to  the  memory  and  merits  of  his  late  father,  in  divers  services,  and  par- 
ticularly to  his  conduct,  courage  and  discretion,  under  our  dearest  brother, 
James,  Duke  of  York,  in  the  signal  battle  and  victory,  fought  and  obtained, 
against  the  Dutch  fleet,  commanded  by  the  Herr  Van  Opdam  in  16G5." 

The  motive  for  obtaining  it  on  the  part  of  Penn  may  be  gathered  from  the 
following  extract  of  a  letter  to  a  friend:  •'  For  my  country  I  eyed  the  Lord  in 
obtaining  it;  and  more  was  I  drawn  inward  to  look  to  Him,  and  to  owe  it  to  His 
hand  and  power  than  to  any  other  way.  I  have  so  obtained  and  desire  to  keep 
it,  that  I  may  be  unworthy  of  His  love,  but  do  that  which  may  answer  His 
kind  providence  and  people." 

The  charter  of  King  Charles  II  was  dated  April  2,  1681.  Itest  any 
trouble  might  arise  in  the  future  from  claims  founded  on  the  grant  previously 
made  to  the  Duke  of  York,  of  "Long  Island  and  adjacent  territories  occupied 
by  the  Dutch,"  the  prudent  forethought  of  Penn  induced  him  to  obtain  a  deed, 
dated  August  31,  1682,  of  the  Duke,  for  Pennsylvania,  substantially  in  the 
terms  of  the  royal  charter.  But  Penn  was  still  not  satisfied.  He  was  cut  oflf 
from  the  ocean  except  by  the  uncertain  navigation  of  one  narrow  stream.  He 
therefore  obtained  from  the  Duke  a  grant  of  New  Castle  and  a  district  of 
twelve  miles  around  it,  dated  on  the  24th  of  August,  1682,  and  on  the  same 
day  a  further  grant  from  the  Duke  of  a  tract  extending  to  Cape  Henlopen, 
embracing  the  two  counties  of  Kent  and  Sussex,  the  two  grants  comprising 
what  were  known  as  the  territories,  or  the  three  lower  counties,  which  were 
for  many  years  a  part  of  Pennsylvania,  but  subsequently  constituted  the  State 
of  Delaware. 

Being  now  satisfied  with  his  province,  and  that  his  titles  were  secure,  Penn 
drew  up  such  a  description  of  the  country  as  from  his  knowledge  he  was  able 
to  give,  which,  together  with  the  royal  charter  and  proclamation,  terms  of 
settlement,  and  other  papers  pertaining  thereto,  he  published  and  spread 
broadcast  through  the  kingdom,  taking  special  pains  doubtless  to  have  the 
documents  reach  the  Friends.  The  terms  of  sale  of  lands  were  40  shillings  for 
100  acres,  and  1  shilling  per  acre  rental.  The  question  has  been  raised,  why 
exact  the  annual  payment  of  one  shilling  per  acre.    The  terms  of  the  grant  by 

MantJui  uixmcu 


the  royal  charter  to  Penn  were  made  absolute  on  the  "  payment  therefor  to  us, 
our  heirs  and  successors,  two  beaver  skins,  to  be  delivered  at  our  castle  in 
Windsor,  on  the  1st  day  of  January  in  every  year,"  and  contingent  payment 
of  one-fifth  part  of  all  gold  and  silver  which  shall  from  time  to  time  happen 
to  be  found  clear  of  all  charges."  Penn,  therefore,  held  his  title  only  upon 
the  payment  of  quit-rents.  He  could  consequently  give  a  valid  title  only  by 
the  exacting  of  quit-rents. 

Having  now  a  great  province  of  his  own  to  manage,  Penn  was  obliged  to 
relinquish  his  share  in  "West  New  Jersey.  He  had  given  largely  of  his  time  and 
energies  to  its  settlement;  he  had  sent  1,400  emigrants,  many  of  them  people 
of  high  character;  had  seen  farms  reclaimed  from  the  forest,  the  town  of 
Burlington  built,  meeting  houses  erected  in  place  of  tents  for  worship,  good 
Government  established,  and  the  savage  Indians  turned  to  peaceful  ways. 
With  satisfaction,  therefore,  he  could  now  give  himself  to  reclaiming  and  set- 
tling his  own  province.  He  had  of  course  in  his  published  account  of  the 
country  made  it  appear  a  desirable  place  for  habitation.  But  lest  any  should 
regret  having  gone  thither  when  it  was  too  late,  he  added  to  his  description  a 
caution,  "  to  consider  seriously  the  premises,  as  well  the  inconveniency  as 
future  ease  and  plenty;  that  so  none  may  move  rashly  or  from  a  fickle,  but  from 
a  solid  mind,  having  above  all  things  an  eye  to  the  providence  of  God  in  the 
disposing  of  themselves."  Nothing  more  surely  points  to  the  goodness  of 
heart  of  William  Penn,  the  great  founder  of  our  State,  than  this  extreme 
solicitude,  lest  he  might  induce  any  to  go  to  the  new  country  who  should  af- 
terward regret  having  gone. 

The  publication  of  the  royal  charter  and  his  description  of  the  country 
attracted  attention,  and  many  purchases  of  land  were  made  of  Penn  before 
leaving  England.  That  these  purchasers  might  have  something  binding  to 
rely  upon,  Penn  drew  up  what  he  termed  "  conditions  or  concessions  "  between 
himself  as  proprietor  and  purchasers  in  the  province.  These  related  to  the 
settling  the  country,  laying  out  towns,  and  especially  to  the  treatment  of  the 
Indians,  who  were  to  have  the  same  rights  and  privileges,  and  careful  regard 
as  the  Europeans.  And  what  is  perhaps  a  remarkable  instance  of  provident 
forethought,  the  eighteenth  article  provides  "  That,  in  clearing  the  ground, 
care  be  taken  to  leave  one  acre  of  trees  for  every  five  acres  cleared,  especially 
to  preserve  oak  and  mulberries,  for  silk  and  shipping."  It  could  be  desired 
that  such  a  provision  might  have  remained  operative  in  the  State  for  all 

Encouraged  by  the  manner  in  which  his  proposals  for  settlement  were 
received,  Penn  now  drew  up  a  frame  of  government,  consisting  of  twenty- 
four  articles  and  forty  laws.  These  were  drawn  in  a  spirit  of  unexampled 
fairness  and  liberality,  introduced  by  an  elaborate  essay  on  the  just  rights  of 
government  and  governed,  and  with  such  conditions  and  concessions  that  it 
should  never  be  in  the  power  of  an  unjust  Governor  to  take  advantage  of  the 
people  and  practice  injustice.  "  For  the  matter  of  liberty  and  privilege,  I  pur- 
pose that  which  is  extraordinary,  and  leave  myself  and  successors  no  power  of 
doing  mischief,  that  the  will  of  one  man  may  not  hinder  that  of  a  whole  coun- 
try. This  frame  gave  impress  to  the  character  of  the  early  government.  It  im- 
planted in  the  breasts  of  the  people  a  deep  sense  of  duty,  of  right,  and  of  obli- 
gation in  all  public  affairs,  and  the  relations  of  man  with  man,  and  formed  a 
framework  for  the  future  constitution.  Penn  himself  had  felt  the  heavy  hand 
of  government  for  religious  opinions  and  practice'  sake.  He  determined,  for 
the  matter  of  religion,  to  leave  all  free  to  hold  such  opinions  as  they  might 
elect,  and  hence  enacted  for  his  State   that  all  who  "  hold  themselves  obliged 


in  conseience,  to  live  peaceably  and  justly  in  civil  society,  shall,  in  no  ways,, 
be  molested,  nor  prejudiced,  for  their  religious  persuasion,  or  practice,  in  mat- 
ters of  faith  and  worship,  nor  shall  they  be  compelled,  at  any  time,  to  fre- 
quent, or  maintain,  any  religious  worship,  place,  or  ministry  whatever. "  At 
this  period,  such  govermental  liberality  in  matters  of  religion  was  almost  un- 
kaown,  though  Koger  Williams  in  the  colony  of  Ehode  Island  had  previously, 
under  similar  circumstances,  and  having  just  escaped  a  like  persecution,  pro- 
claimed it,  as  had  likewise  Lord  Baltimore  in  the  Catholic  colony  of  Mary- 

The  mind  of  Penn  was  constantly  exercised  upon  the  affairs  of  his  settlement 
Indeed,  to  plant  a  colony  in  a  new  country  had  been  a  thought  of  his  boyhood, 
for  he  says  in  one  of  his  letters:  "I  had  an  opening  of  .joy  as  to  these  parts  in 
the  year  1651,  at  Oxford,  twenty  years  since."  Not  being  in  readiness  to  go 
to  his  province  during  the  first  year,  he  dispatched  three  ship  loads  of  set- 
tlers, and  with  them  sent  his  cousin,  William  Markham,  to  take  formal  pos- 
session of  the  country  and  act  as  Deputy  Governor  Markham  sailed  for  New 
York,  and  upon  his  arrival  there  exhibited  his  commission,  bearing  date  March 
6, 1681,  and  the  King's  charter  and  proclamation.  In  the  absence  of  Gov.  An- 
dros,  who,  on  having  been  called  to  account  for  some  complaint  made  against 
him,  had  gone  to  England,  Capt.  Anthony  Brockholls,  Acting  Governor,  re- 
ceived Markham's  papers,  and  gave  him  a  letter  addressed  to  the  civil  officers 
on  the  Delaware,  informing  them  that  Markham's  authority  as  Governor  had 
been  examined,  and  an  official  record  made  of  it  at  New  York,  thanking  them 
for  their  fidelity,  and  requesting  them  to  submit  themselves  to  the  new  author- 
ity. Armed  with  this  letter,  which  was  dated  June  21,  1681,  Markham  pro- 
ceeded to  the  Delaware,  where,  on  exhibiting  his  papers,  he  was  kindly  re- 
ceived, and  allegiance  was  cheerfully  transferred  to  the  new  government.  In- 
deed so  frequently  had  the  power  changed  hands  that  it  had  become  quite  a 
matter  of  habit  to  transfer  obedience  from  one  authority  to  another,  and  they 
had  scarcely  laid  their  heads  to  rest  at  night  but  with  the  consciousness  that 
the  morning  light  might  bring  new  codes  and  new  officers. 

Markham  was  empowered  to  call  a  council  of  nine  citizens  to  assist  him  in 
the  government,  and  over  whom  he  was  to  preside.  He  brought  a  letter  ad- 
dressed to  Lord  Baltimore,  touching  the  boundary  between  the  two  grants,  and 
exhibiting  the  terms  of  the  charter  for  Pennsylvania.  On  receipt  of  this  let- 
ter. Lord  Baltimore  came  to  Upland  to  confer  with  Markham.  An  observation 
fixing  the  exact  latitude  of  Upland  showed  that  it  was  twelve  miles  south  of 
the  forty-first  degree,  to  which  Baltimore  claimed,  and  that  the  beginning  of 
the  fortieth  degree,  which  the  royal  charter  explicitly  fixed  for  the  southern 
boundary  of  Pennsylvania,  would  include  nearly  the  entire  State  of  Maryland, 
and  cut  the  limits  of  the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Washington.  "If  this  be 
allowed,"  was  significantly  asked  by  Baltimore,  "where  is  my  province?" 
He  returned  to  his  colony,  and  from  this  time  forward  an  active  contention 
was  begun  before  the  authorities  in  England  for  possession  of  the  disputed 
territory,  which  required  all  the  arts  and  diplomatic  skill  of  Penn. 

Markham  was  accompanied  to  the  province  by  four  Commissioners  sent 
out  by  Penn — William  Crispin,  John  Bezer,  William  Haige  and  Nathaniel 
Allen.  The  first  named  had  been  designated  as  Surveyor  General,  but  he 
having  died  on  the  passage,  Thomas  Holme  was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 
These  Commissioners,  in  conjunction  with  the  Governor,  had  two  chief  duties 
assigned  them.  The  first  was  to  meet  and  preserve  friendly  relations  with  the 
Indians  and  acquire  lands  by  actual  purchase,  and  the  second  was  to  select  the 
site  of  a  great  city  and  make  the  necessary  surveys.     That  they  might  have  a 


suitable  introduction  to  the  natives  from  him,  Penn  addressed  to  them  a  dec- 
laration of  his  purposes,  conceived  in  a  spirit  of  brotherly  love,  and  expressed 
in  such  simple  terms  that  these  children  of  the  forest,  unschooled  in  book 
learning,  would  have  no  difficulty  in  apprehending  his  meaning.  The  refer- 
ring the  source  of  alljpower  to  the  Creator  was  fitted  to  produce  a  strong  im- 
pression upon  their  naturally  superstitious  habits  of  thought.  "  There  is  a 
great  God  and  power,  that  hath  made  the  world,  and  all  things  therein,  to 
whom  you  and  I,  and  all  people  owe  their  being,  and  well  being;  and  to  whom 
you  and  I  must  one  day  give  an  account  for  all  that  we  do  iu  the  world.  This 
great  God  hath  written  His  law  in  our  hearts,  by  which  we  are  taught  and  com- 
manded to  love,  and  help,  and  do  good  to  one  another.  Now  this  great  God  hath 
been  pleased  to  make  me  concerned  in  your  part  of  the  world,  and  the  King 
of  the  country  where  I  live  hath  given  me  a  great  province  therein;  but  I  de- 
sire to  enjoy  it  with  your  love  and  consent,  that  we  may  always  live  together, 
as  neighbors  and  friends;  else  what  would  the  great  God  do  to  us,  who  hath 
made  us,  not  to  devour  and  destroy  one  another,  but  to  live  soberly  and  kindly 
together  in  the  world  ?  Now  I  would  have  you  well  observe  that  I  am  very 
sensible  of  the  unkindness  and  injustice  that  have  been  too  much  exercised 
toward  you  by  the  people  of  these  parts  of  the  world,  who  have  sought  them- 
selves, and  to  make  great  advantages  by  you,  rather  than  to  be  examples  of 
goodness  and  patience  unto  you,  which  I  hear  hath  been  a  matter  of  trouble 
to  you,  and  caused  great  grudging  and  animosities,  sometimes  to  the  shedding 
of  blood,  which  hath  made  the  great  God  angry.  But  I  am  not  such  a  man, 
as  is  well  known  in  my  own  country.  I  have  great  love  and  regard  toward 
you,  and  desire  to  gain  your  love  and  friendship  by  a  kind,  just  and  peaceable 
life,  and  the  people  I  send  are  of  the  same  mind,  and  shall  in  all  things  be- 
have themselves  accordingly;  and  if  in  anything  any  shall  ofiend  you  or 
your  people,  you  shall  have  a  full  and  speedy  satisfaction  for  the  same  by  an 
equal  number  of  just  men  on  both  sides  that  by  no  means  you  may  have  just 
occasion  of  being  offended  against  them.  I  shall  shortly  come  to  you  myself, 
at  which  time  we  may  more  largely  and  freely  confer  and  discourse  of  these 
matters.  In  the  meantime,  I  have  sent  my  Commissioners  to  treat  with  you 
about  land,  and  form  a  league  of  peace.  Let  me  desire  you  to  be  kind  to 
them  and  their  people,  and  receive  these  presents  and  tokens  which  I  have  sent 
you  as  a  testimony  of  my  good  will  to  you,  and  my  resolution  to  live  justly, 
peaceably  and  friendly  with  you." 

In  this  plain  but  sublime  statement  is  embraced  the  whole  theory  of  Will 
iam  Penn's  treatment  of  the  Indians,  It  was  the  doctrine  which  the  Savior 
of  mankind  came  upon  earth  to  promulgate — the  estimable  worth  of  every 
human  soul.  And  when  Penn  came  to  prupose  his  laws,  one  was  adopted' 
which  forbade  private  trade  with  the  natives  in  which  they  might  be  overreached; 
but  it  was  required  that  the  valuable  skins  and  furs  they  had  to  sell  should  bo 
hung  up  in  the  market  place  where  all  could  see  them  and  enter  into  compe- 
tition for  their  purchase.  Penn  was  offered  £6,000  for  a  monopoly  of  trade. 
But  he  well  knew  the  injustice  to  which  this  would  subject  the  simple-minded 
natives,  and  he  refused  it  saying:  "As  the  Lord  gave  it  me  over  all  ana 
great  opposition,  I  would  not  abuse  His  love,  nor  act  unworthy  of  His  provi.r 
dence,  and  so  defile  what  came  to  me  clean  " — a  sentiment  worthy  to  be  treas- 
ured with  the  best  thoughts  of  the  sages  of  old.  And  to  his  Commissioners  fce 
gave  a  letter  of  instructions,  in  which  he  says:  "Be  impartially  just  to  all; 
that  is  both  pleasing  to  the  Lord,  and  wise  in  itself.  Be  tender  of  offending 
the  Indians,  and  let  them  know  that  you  come  to  sit  down  lovingly  among 
them.     Let  my  letter  and  conditions  be  read  in  their  tongue,  that  they  may  see 


we  have  their  good  in  our  eye.  Be  grave,  they  love  not  to  be  smiled  on." 
Acting  upon  these  wise  and  just  considerations,  the  Commissioners  had  no  diffi- 
culty in  making  large  pm'chases  of  the  Indians  of  lands  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Delaware  and  above  the  mouth  of  the  Schuylkill. 

But  they  found  greater  difficulty  in  settling  the  piace  for  the  new  city. 
Penn  had  given  very  minute  instructions  about  this,  and  it  was  not  easy 
to  find  a  tract  which  answered  all  the  conditions.  For  seven  weeks  they  kept 
up  their  search.  Penn  had  written,  "  be  sure  to  make  your  choice  where  it  is 
most  navigable,  high,  dry  and  healthy;  that  is,  where  most  ships  may  bestride, 
of  deepest  draught  of  water,  if  possible  to  load  and  unload  at  the  bank  or 
key's  side  without  boating  and  lightening  of  it.  It  would  do  well  if  the  river 
coming  into  that  creek  be  navigable,  at  least  for  boats  up  into  the  country, 
and  that  the  situation  be  high,  at  least  dry  and  sound  and  not  swampy,  which 
is  best  known  by  digging  up  two  or  three  earths  and  seeing  the  bottom."  By 
his  instructions,  the  site  of  the  city  was  to  be  between  two  navigable  streams, 
and  embrace  10,000  acres  in  one  block.  "  Be  sure  to  settle  the  figure  of  the 
town  so  that  the  streets  hereafter  may  be  uniform  down  to  the  water  from  the 
country  bounds.  Let  every  house  be  placed,  if  the  person  pleases,  in  the 
middle  of  its  plat,  as  to  the  breadth  way  of  it,  that  so  there  may  be  ground  on 
each  side  for  gardens  or  orchards  or  fields,  that  it  may  be  a  green  country  town, 
which  will  never  be  burnt  and  always  wholesome."  The  soil  was  examined, 
the  streams  were  sounded,  deep  pits  were  dug  that  a  location  might  be  found 
which  should  gratify  the  desires  of  Penn.  All  the  eligible  sites  were  inspected 
from  the  ocean  far  up  into  the  country.  Penn  himself  had  anticipated  that 
Chester  or  Upland  would  be  adopted  from  all  that  he  could  learn  of  it;  but 
this  was  rejected,  as  was  also  the  ground  upon  Poquessing  Creek  and  that  at 
Pennsbury  Manor  above  Bristol  which  had  been  carefully  considered,  and  the 
present  site  of  Philadelphia  was  finally  adopted  as  coming  nearest  to  the 
requirements  of  the  proprietor.  It  had  not  10,000  acres  in  a  solid  square,  but 
it  was  between  two  navigable  streams,  and  the  soil  was  high  and  dry,  being  for 
the  most  part  a  vast  bed  of  gravel,  excellent  for  drainage  and  likely  to  prove 
healthful.  The  streets  were  laid  out  regularly  and  crossed  each  other  at 
right  angles.  As  the  ground  was  only  gently  rolling,  the  grading  was  easily 
accomplished.  One  broad  street,  Market,  extends  from  river  to  river  through 
the  midst  of  it,  which  is  crossed  at  right  angles  at  its  middle  point  by  Broad 
:Btreet  of  equal  width.  It  is  120  miles  from  the  ocean  by  the  course  of  the 
.fiver,  and  only  sixty  in  a  direct  line,  eighty-seven  miles  from  New  York, 
ninety-five  from  Baltimore,  136  from  Washington,  100  from  Harrisburg  and 
300  from  Pittsburgh,  and  lies  in  north  latitude  39^  56'  54",  and  longitude  75° 
'8'  45"  west  from  Greenwich  The  name  Philadelphia  (brotherly  love),  was 
ojie  that  Penn  had  before  selected,  as  this  founding  a  city  was  a  project  which 
he  had  long  dreamed  of  and  contemplated  with  never-ceasing  interest. 



William  Markham,  1681-82— AVilliam  Penn,  1682-84. 

HAVING  now  made  necessary  preparations  and  settled  hia  affairs  in  En- 
gland, Penn  embarked  on  board  the  ship  Welcome,  in  August,  1682,  in 
company  with  about  a  hundred  planters,  mostly  from  his  native  town  of  Sussex, 
and  set  his  prow  for  the  New  World.  Before  leaving  the  Downs,  he  addressed 
a  farewell  letter  to  his  friends  whom  ho  left  behind,  and  another  to  his  wife 
and  children,  giving  them  much  excellent  advice,  and  sketching  the  way  of 
life  he  wished  them  to  lead.  With  remarkable  care  and  minuteness,  he  points 
out  the  way  in  which  he  would  have  his  children  bred,  and  educated,  married, 
and  live.  A  single  passage  from  this  remarkable  document  will  indicate  its 
general  tenor.  "  Be  sure  to  observe,"  in  educating  his  children,  "  their  genius, 
and  do  not  cross  it  as  to  learning  ;  let  them  not  dwell  too  long  on  one  thing  ; 
but  let  their  change  be  agreeable,  and  let  all  their  diversions  have  some  little 
bodily  labor  in  them.  When  grown  big,  have  most  care  for  them  ;  for  then 
there  are  more  snares  both  within  and  without.  When  marriageable,  see  that 
they  have  worthy  persons  in  their  eye  ;  of  good  life  and  good  fame  for  piety 
and  understanding.  I  need  no  wealth  but  sufficiency  ;  and  be  sure  their  love 
be  dear,  fervent  and  mutual,  that  it  may  be  happy  for  them."  And  to  his 
children  he  said,  "  Betake  yourselves  to  some  honest,  industrious  course  of 
life,  and  that  not  of  sordid  covetousness,  but  for  example  and  to  avoid  idle- 
ness. *****  Love  not  money  nor  the  world  ;  use  them  only, 
and  they  will  serve  you  ;  but  if  you  love  them  you  serve  them,  which  will 
debase  your  spirits  as  well  as  offend  the  Lord.  *****  Watch 
against  anger,  neither  speak  nor  act  in  it ;  for,  like  drunkenness,  it  makes  a 
man  a  beast,  and  throws  people  into  dcKperate  inconveniences."  The  entire 
letters  are  so  full  of  excellent  counsel  that  they  might  with  great  profit  be 
committed  to  memory,  and  treasured  in  the  heart. 

The  voyage  of  nearly  six  weeks  was  prosperous  ;  but  they  had  not  been 
long  on  the  ocean  before  that  loathed  disease — the  virulent  small-pox — broke 
out,  of  which  thirty  died,  nearly  a  third  of  the  whole  company.  This,  added 
to  the  usual  discomforts  and  terrors  of  the  ocean,  to  most  of  whom  this  was 
probably  their  first  experience,  made  the  voyage  a  dismal  one.  And  here  was 
seen  the  nobility  of  Penn.  "For  his  good  conversation"  says  one  of  them, 
"  was  very  advantageous  to  all  the  company.  His  singular  care  was  manifested 
in  contributing  to  the  necessities  of  many  who  were  sick  with  the  small-pox 
then  on  board." 

His  arrival  upon  the  coast  and  passage  up  the  river  was  hailed  with  dem- 
onstrations of  joy  by  all  classes,  English,  Dutch,  Swedes,  and  especially  by  his 
own  devoted  followers.  He  landed  at  New  Castle  on  the  24th  of  October,  1682, 
and  on  the  following  day  summoned  the  people  to  the  court  house,  where  pos- 
session of  the  country  was  formally  made  over  .-o  him,  and  he  renewed  the 
commissions  of  the  magistrates,  to  whom  and  to  the  assembled  people  he  an- 
nounced the  design  of  his  coming,  explained  the  nature  and  end  of  truly  good 
government,  assuring  them  that  their  religious  and  civil  rights  should  be  re- 
spected, and  recommended  them  to  live  in  sobriety  and  peace.       He  then  pro- 


ceeded  to  Upland,  hencefoward  known  as  Chester,  where,  on  the  4th  of  Novem- 
ber, he  called  an  assembly  of  the  people,  in  which  an  equal  number  of  votes 
was  allowed  to  the  province  and  the  territories.  Nicholas  Moore,  President  of 
the  Free  Society  of  Traders,  was  chosen  speaker.  As  at  New  Castle,  Penn 
addressed  the  assembly,  giving  them  assurances  of  his  beneficent  intentions, 
for  which  they  returned  their  grateful  acknowledgments,  the  Swedes  being 
especially  demonstrative,  deputing  one  of  their  number,  Lacy  Cock,  to  say 
"  That  they  would  love,  sei-ve  and  obey  him  with  all  they  had,  and  that  this 
was  the  best  day  they  ever  saw. "  We  can  well  understand  with  what  satisfac- 
tion the  settlers  upon  the  Delaware  hailed  the  prospect  of  a  stable  government 
established  in  their  own  midst,  after  having  been  so  long  at  the  mercy  of  the 
government  in  New  York,  with  allegience  trembling  between  the  courts  of 
Sweden,  Holland  and  Britain. 

The  proceedings  of  this  first  assembly  were  conducted  with  great  decorum, 
and  after  the  usages  of  the  English  Parliament.  On  the  7th  of  December, 
1682,  the  three  lower  counties,  what  is  now  Delaware,  which  had  previoiisly 
been  under  the  government  of  the  Duke  of  York,  were  formerly  annexed  to  the 
province,  and  became  an  integral  part  of  Pennsylvania.  The  frame  of  govern- 
ment, which  had  been  drawn  with  much  deliberation,  was  submitted  to  the 
assembly,  and,  after  some  alterations  and  amendments,  was  adopted,  and  be- 
came the  fundamental  law  of  the  State.  The  assembly  was  in  session  only 
three  days,  but  the  work  they  accomplished,  how  vast  and  far-reaching  in  its 
influence ! 

The  Dutch,  Swedes  and  other  foreigners  were  then  naturalized,  and  the 
government  was  launched  in  fair  running  order:  That  some  idea  may  be  had 
of  its  character,  the  subjects  treated  are  here  given:  1,  Liberty  of  conscience; 
2,  Qualification  of  officers;  3,  Swearing  by  God,  Christ  or  Jesus;  4,  Swearing 
by  any  other  thing  or  name;  5,  Profanity;  6,  Cursing;  7,  Fornication;  8,  In- 
cest; 9,  Sodomy;  10,  Eape;  11,  Bigamy;  12,  Drunkenness;  13,  Suffering 
drunkenness;  14,  Healths  drinking;  15,  Selling  liquor  to  Indians;  16,  Arson; 
17,  Burglary;  18,  Stolen  goods;  19,  Forcible  entry;  20,  Eiots;  21,  Assaulting 
parents:  22,  Assaulting  Magistrates;  23,  Assaulting  masters;'  24,  Assault  and 
battery;  25,  Duels;  26,  Riotous  sports,  as  plays;  27,  Gambling  and  lotteries; 
28,  Sedition;  29,  Contempt;  30,  Libel;  31,  Common  scolds;  32,  Charities; 
33,  Prices  of  beer  and  ale;  34,  Weights  and  measures;  35,  Names  of  days  and 
months;  36,  Perjury;  37,  Court  proceedings  in  English;  88,  Civil  and  crim- 
inal trials;  39,  Fees,  salaries,  bribery  and  extortion;  40,  Moderation  of  fines; 
41,  Suits  avoidable;  42,  Foreign  arrest;  43,  Contracts;  44,  Charters,  gifts, 
grants,  conveyances,  bills,  bonds  and  deeds,  when  recorded;  45,  Wills;  46, 
Wills  of  non  compos  mentis;  47,  Registry  of  Wills;  48,  Registry  for  servants; 
49,  Factors;  50,  Defacers,  corruptors  and.  embezzlers  of  charters,  conveyances 
and  records;  51,  Lands  and  goods  to  pay  debts;  52,  Bailable  offenses;  53, 
Jails  and  jailers;  54,  Prisons  to  be  workhouses;  55,  False  imprisonment;  56, 
Magistrates  may  elect  between  fine  or  imprisonment;  57,  Freemen;  58,  Elec- 
tions; 59,  No  money  levied  but  in  pursuance  of  law;  60,  Laws  shall  be  printed 
and  taught  in  schools;  61,  All  other  things,  not  provided  for  herein,  are  re- 
ferred to  the  Governor  and  freemen  from  time  to  time. 

Very  soon  after  his  arrival  io  the  colony,  after  the  precept  had  been  issued, 
but  before  the  convening  of  the  Assembly,  Penn,  that  he  might  not  be  wanting 
in  respect  to  the  Duke  of  York,  made  a  visit  to  New  York,  where  he  was  kind- 
ly received,  and  also  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Assembly,  journeyed  to  Mary- 
land, where  he  was  entertained  by  Lord  Baltimore  with  great  ceremony.  The 
settlement  of  the  disputed  boundaries  was  made  the  subject  of  formal  confer- 


*  ence.  But  after  two  days  spent  in  fruitless  discussion,  the  weather  becoming 
severely  cold,  and  thus  precluding  the  possibility  of  taking  observations  or 
making  the  necessary  surveys,  it  was  agreed  to  adjourn  further  consideration 
of  the  subject  until  the  milder  weather  of  the  spring.  We  may  imagine  that 
the  two  Governors  were  taking  the  measure  of  each  other,  and  of  gaining  all 
possible  knowledge  of  each  other's  claims  and  rights,  preparatory  to  that 
struggle  for  possession  of  this  disputed  fortieth  degree  of  latitude,  which  was 
destined  to  come  before  the  home  government. 

With  all  his  cares  in  founding  a  State  and  providing  a  government  over  a 
new  people,  Penn  did  not  forget  to  preach  the  "blessed  Gospel,"  and  wherever 
he  went  he  was  intent  upon  his  "  Master's  business."  On  his  return  from 
Maryland,  Lord  Baltimore  accompanied  him  several  miles  to  the  house  of 
William  Richardson,  and  thence  to  Thomas  Hooker's,  where  was  a  religious 
meeting,  as  was  also  one  held  at  Choptauk.  Penn  himself  says:  "Ihave 
been  also  at  New  York,  Long  Island,  East  Jersey  and  Maryland,  in  which  I 
have  had  good  and  eminent  service  for  the  Lord."  And  again  he  says:  "As  to 
outward  things,  we  are  satisfied — the  land  good,  the  air  clear  and  sweet,  the 
springs  plentiful,  and  provisions  good  and  easy  to  come  at,  an  innumerable 
quantity  of  wild  fowl  and  fish;  in  tine,  here  is  what  an  Abraham,  Isaac  and 
Jacob  would  be  well  contented  with,  and  service  enough  for  God;  for  the 
fields  are  here  white  for  the  harvest.  O,  how  sweet  is  the  quiet  of  these  parts, 
freed  from  the  anxious  and  troublesome  solicitations,  hurries  and  perplexities 
of  woeful  Europe!  *  *  *  Blessed  be  the  Lord,  that  of  twenty-three  ships, 
none  miscarried;  only  two  nr  three  had  the  small-pox;  else  healthy  and  swift 
passages,  generally  such  as  have  not  been  known;  some  but  twenty-eight  days, 
and  few  longer  than  six  weeks.  Blessed  be  God  for  it;  my  soul  fervently 
breathes  that  in  His  heavenly  guiding  wisdom,  we  may  be  kept,  that  we  may 
serve  Him  in  our  day,  and  lay  down  our  heads  in  peace."  And  then,  as  if  re- 
proached for  not  having  mentioned  another  subject  of  thankfulness,  he  adds  in 
a  postscript,  "Many  women,  in  divers  of  the  ships,  brought  to  bed;  they  and 
their  children  do  well." 

Penn  made  it  his  first  care  to  take  formal  possession  of  his  province,  and 
adopt  a  frame  of  government.  When  this  was  done,  his  chief  concern  was 
to  look  to  the  establishment  of  his  proposed  new  city,  the  site  of  which  had 
already  been  determined  on  by  his  Commissioners.  Accordingly,  early  in 
November,  at  a  season  when,  in  this  section,  the  days  are  golden,  Penn  em- 
barked in  an  open  barge  with  a  number  of  his  friends,  and  was  wafted 
leisurely  up  the  Delaware  to  the  present  site  of  the  city  of  Philadel- 
phia, which  the  natives  called .Coaquannock.  Along  the  river  was  a  bold  shore, 
fringed  with  lofty  pines,  which  grew  close  down  to  the  water's  edge,  so  much 
so  that  when  the  first  ship  passing  up  with  settlers  for  West  Jersey  had  brushed 
against  the  branches,  the  passengers  remarked  that  this  would  be  a  good  place 
for  a  city.  It  was  then  in  a  wild  state,  the  deer  browsing  along  the  shore  and 
sipping  the  stream,  and  the  coneys  burrowing  in  the  banks.  The  scattered 
settlers  had  gathered  in  to  see  and  welcome  the  new  Governor,  and  when  he 
stepped  upon  the  shore,  they  extended  a  helping  hand  in  assisting  him  up  the 
rugged  bluff.  Three  Swedes  had  already  taken  up  tracts  within  the  limits  of 
the  block  of  land  chosen  for  the  city.  But  they  were  given  lands  in  exchange, 
and  readily  relinquished  their  claims.  The  location  was  pleasing  to  Penn,  and 
was  adopted  without  further  search,  though  little  could  be  seen  of  this  then 
forest-encumbered  country,  where  now  is  the  home  of  countless  industries,  the 
busy  mart,  the  river  bearing  upon  its  bosom  the  commerce  of  many  climes, 
and  the  abiding  place  of  nearly  a  million  of  people.     But  Penn  did  not  con- 


aider  that  he  had  as  yet  any  just  title  to  the  soil,  holding  that  the  Indians 
were  its  only  rightful  possessors,  and  until  it  was  fairly  acquired  by  purchase 
from  them,  his  own  title  was  entirely  void. 

Hence,  he  sought  an  early  opportunity  to  meet  the  chiefs  of  the  tribes  and 
cultivate  friendly  relations  with  them.  Tradition  fixes  the  first  great  treaty 
or  conference  at  about  this  time,  probably  in  November,  and  the  place  under 
the  elm  tree,  known  as  the  "  Treaty  Tree,"  at  Kensington.  It  was  at  a  sea- 
son when  the  leaves  would  still  be  upon  the  trees,  and  the  assembly  was  called 
beneath  the  ample  shade  of  the  wide-sweeping  branches,  which  was  pleasing 
to  the  Indians,  as  it  was  their  custom  to  hold  all  their  great  deliberations  and 
smoke  the  pipe  of  peace  in  the  open  air.  The  letter  which  Penn  had  sent  had 
prepared  the  minds  of  these  simple-hearted  inhabitants  of  the  forest  to  regard 
him  with  awe  and  reverence,  little  less  than  that  inspired  by  a  descended  god. 
His  coming  had  for  a  long  time  been  awaited,  and  it  is  probable  that  it  had 
been  heralded  and  talked  over  by  the  wigwam  fire  throughout  the  remotest 
bounds  of  the  tribes.  And  when  at  length  the  day  came,  the  whole  popula- 
tion far  around  had  assembled. 

It  is  known  that  three  tribes  at  least  were  represented — the  Lenni  Lenape, 
living  along  the  Delaware;  the  Shawnees,  a  tribe  that  had  come  up  from  the 
South,  and  were  seated  along  the  Lower  Susquehanna;  and  the  Mingoes, 
sprung  from  the  Six  Nations,  and  inhabiting  along  the  Conestoga.  Penn  was 
probably  accompanied  by  the  several  officers  of  his  Government  and  his  most 
trusted  friends.  There  were  no  implements  of  warfare,  for  peace  was  a  cardi- 
nal feature  of  the  Quaker  creed. 

No  veritable  account  of  this,  the  great  treaty,  is  known  to  have  been  made; 
but  from  the  fact  that  Penn  not  long  after,  in  an  elaborate  treatise  upon  the 
country,  the  inhabitants  and  the  natives,  has  given  the  account  of  the  manner 
in  which  the  ladians  demean  themselves  in  conference,  we  may  infer  that  he 
had  this  one  in  mind,  and  hence  we  may  adopt  it  as  his  own  description  of  the 

"  Their  order  is  thus:  The  King  sits  in  the  middle  of  a  half  moon,  and 
hath  his  council,  the  old  and  wise,  on  each  hand;  behind  them,  or  at  a  little 
distance,  sit  the  younger  fry  in  the  same  figure.  Having  consulted  and  i-e- 
solved  their  business,  the  King  ordered  one  of  them  to  speak  to  me.  He  stood 
up,  came  to  me,  and,  in  the  name  of  the  King,  saluted  me;  then  took  me  by 
th#  hand  and  told  me  he  was  ordered  by  the  King  to  speak  to  me;  and  now  it 
was  not  he,  but  the  King  that  spoke,  because  what  he  would  say  was  the 
King's  mind.  *  *  *  *  During  the  time  that  this  person  spoke,  not 
a  man  of  them  was  observed  to  whisper  or  smile;  the  old  grave,  the  young 
reverant,  in  their  deportment.  They  speak  little,  but  fervently,  and  with  ele- 

In  response  to  the  salutation  from  the  Indians,  Penn  makes  a  reply  in 
suitable  terms:  "The  Great  Spirit,  who  made  me  and  you,  who  rules  the 
heavens  and  the  earth,  and  who  knows  the  innermost  thoughts  of  men,  knows 
that  I  and  my  friends  have  a  hearty  desire  to  live  in  peace  and  friendship 
with  you,  and  to  serve  you  to  the  uttermost  of  our  power.  It  is  not  our  custom 
to  use  hostile  weapons  against  our  fellow-creatures,  for  which  reason  we  have 
come  unarmed.  Our  object  is  not  to  do  injury,  and  thus  provoke  the  Great 
Spirit,  but  to  do  good.  We  are  met  on  the  broad  pathway  of  good  faith  and 
good  will,  so  that  no  advantage  is  to  be  taken  on  either  side;  but  all  to  be  open- 
ness, brotherhood  and  love."  Having  unrolled  his  parchment,  he  explains  to 
them  through  an  interpreter,  article  by  article,  the  nature  of  the  business,  and 
laying  it  upon  the  ground,  observes  that  the  ground  shall  be  for  the  use  of 


both  people.  "  I  "will  not  do  as  the  Marylanders  did,  call  you  children,  or 
brothers  only;  for  parents  are  apt  to  whip  their  children  too  severely,  and 
brothers  sometimes  will  differ;  neither  will  I  compare  the  friendship  between 
US  to  a  chain,  for  the  rain  may  rust  it,  or  a  tree  may  fall  and  break  it;  but  I 
will  consider  you  as  the  same  flesh  and  blood  with  the  Christians,  and  the  same 
as  if  one  man's  body  were  to  be  divided  into  two  parts."  Having  ended  his 
business,  the  speaker  for  the  King  comes  forward  and  makes  great  promises 
"of  kindness  and  good  neighborhood,  and  that  the  Indians  and  English  must 
live  in  love  as  long  as  the  sun  gave  light."  This  ended,  another  Indian  makes 
a  speech  to  his  own  people,  first  to  explain  to  them  what  had  been  agreed  on, 
and  ihento  exhort  them  "to  love  the  Christians,  and  particularly  live  in  peace 
with  me  and  the  people  under  my  government,  that  many  Grovernors  had  been 
in  the  river,  but  that  no  Governor  had  come  himself  to  live  and  stay  here  be- 
fore, and  having  now  such  an  one,  that  had  treated  them  well,  they  should  never 
do  him  nor  his  any  wrong."  At  every  sentence  they  shouted,  as  much  as  to 
say,  amen. 

The  Indians  had  no  system  of  writing  by  which  they  could  record  their 
dealings,  but  their  memory  of  events  and  agreements  was  almost  miraculous. 
Heckewelder  records  that  in  after  years,  they  were  accustomed,  by  means  of 
strings,  or  belts  of  wampum,  to  preserve  the  recollection  of  their  pleasant  in- 
terviews with  Penn,  after  he  had  departed  for  England.  He  says,  "  They  fre- 
quently assembled  together  in  the  woods,  in  some  shady  spot,  as  nearly  as  pos- 
sible similar  to  those  where  they  used  to  meet  their  brother  Miquon  (Penn),  and 
there  lay  all  his  words  and  speeches,  with  those  of  his  descendants,  on  a 
blanket,  or  clean  piece  of  bark,  and  with  great  satisfaction  go  successively 
over  the  whole.  This  practice,  which  I  have  repeatedly  witnessed,  continued 
until  the  year  1780,  when  disturbances  which  took  place  put  an  end  to  it, 
probably  forever." 

The  memory  of  this,  the  "Great  Treaty,"  was  long  preserved  by  the  na- 
tives, and  the  novel  spectacle  was  reproduced  upon  canvas  by  the  genius  of 
Benjamin  West.  In  this  picture,  Penn  is  represented  as  a  corpulent  old  man, 
whereas  he  was  at  this  time  but  thirty-eight  years  of  age,  and  in  the  very 
height  of  manly  activity.  The  Treaty  Tree  was  preserved  and  guarded  from 
injury  with  an  almost  superstitious  care.  During  the  Revolution,  when  Phila- 
delphia was  occupied  by  the  British,  and  their  parties  were  scouring  the  coun- 
try for  firewood.  Gen.  Simcoe  had  a  sentinel  placed  at  this  tree  to  protect  it 
from  mutilation.  It  stood  until  1810,  when  it  was  blown  down,  and  it  was 
ascertained  by  its  annual  concentric  accretions  to  be  283  years  old,  and  was, 
consequently,  155  at  the  time  of  making  the  treaty.  The  Penn  Society  erected 
a  substantial  monument  on  the  spot  where  it  stood. 

Penn  drew  up  his  deeds  for  lands  in  legal  form,  and  had  them  duly  exe- 
cuted and  made  of  record,  that,  in  the  dispute  possible  to  arise  in  after  times, 
there  might  be  proof  definite  and  positive  of  the  purchase.  Of  these  purchases 
there  are  two  deeds  on  record  executed  in  1683.  One  is  for  land  near  Nesha- 
miny  Creek,  and  thence  to  Penypack,  and  the  other  for  lands  lying  between 
Schuylkill  and  Chester  Rivers,  the  first  bearing  the  signature  of  the  great 
chieftain,  Taminend.  In  one  of  these  purchases  it  is  provided  that  the  tract 
"  shall  extend  back  as  far  as  a  man  could  walk  in  three  days. "  Tradition 
runs  that  Penn  himself,  with  a  number  of  his  friends,  walked  dut  the  half  this 
purchase  with  the  Indians,  that  no  advantage  should  be  taken  of  them  by  mak- 
ing H  great  walk,  and  to  show  his  consideration  for  them,  and  that  he  was  not 
above  the  toils  and  fatigues  of  such  a  duty."  They  began  to  walk  out  this 
land  at  the  mouth  of  the  Neshaminy,  and  walked  up  the  Delaware ;  in  one  day 


and  a  half  they  got  to  a  spruce  tree  near  the  mouth  of  Baker's  Creek,  when 
Penn,  concluding  that  this  would  include  as  much  land  as  he  would  want  at 
present,  a  line  was  run  and  marked  from  the  spruce  tree  to  Neshaminy,  and 
the  remainder  left  to  be  walked  when  it  should  be  wanted.  They  proceed- 
ed after  the  Indian  manner,  walking  leisurely,  sitting  down  sometimes  to 
smoke  their  pipes,  eat  biscuit  and  cheese,  and  drink  a  bottle  of  wine.  In  the 
day  and  a  half  they  walked  a  little  less  than  thirty  miles.  The  balance  of  the 
purchase  was  not  walked  until  September  20,  17b3,  when  the  then  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania  offered  a  prize  of  500  acres  of  land  and  £o  for  the  man  who 
would  walk  the  farthest.  A  distance  of  eighty-six  miles  was  covered,  in 
marked  contrast  with  the  kind  consideration  of  Penn. 

During  the  first  year,  the  country  upon  the  Delaware,  from  the  falls  of 
Trenton  as  far  as  Chester,  a  distance  of  nearly  sixty  miles,  w^s  rapidly  taken  up 
and  peopled.  The  large  proportion  of  these  were  Quakers,  and  devotedly  attached 
to  their  religion  and  its  proper  observances.  They  were,  hence,  morally,  of  the 
best  classes,  and  though  they  were  not  generally  of  the  aristocracy,  yet  many 
of  them  were  in  comfortable  circumstances,  had  valuable  properties,  were  of 
respectable  families,  educated,  and  had  the  resources  within  themselves  to  live 
contented  and  happy.  They  were  provident,  industrious,  and  had  come  hither 
with  no  fickle  purpose.  Many  brought  servants' with  them,  and  well  supplied 
wardrobes,  and  all  necessary  articles  which  they  wisely  judged  would  be  got 
in  a  new  country  with  difficulty. 

Their  religious  principles  were  so  peaceful  and  generous,  and  the  govern- 
ment rested  so  lightly,  that  the  fame  of  the  colony  and  the  desirableness  of 
settlement  therein  spread  rapidly,  and  the  numbers  coming  hither  were  unpar- 
alleled in  the  history  of  colonization,  especially  when  we  consider  that  a  broad 
ocean  was  to  be  crossed  and  a  voyage  of  several  weeks  was  to  be  endui-ed.  In 
a  brief  period,  ships  with  passengers  came  from  London,  Bristol,  Ireland, 
Wales,  Cheshire,  Lancashire,  Holland,  Germany,  to  the  number  of  about  fifty. 
Among  others  came  a  company  of  German  Quakers,  from  Krisheim,  near 
Worms,  in  the  Palatinate.  These  people  regarded  their  lot  as  particularly 
fortunate,  in  which  they  recognized  the  direct  interposition  and  hand  of  Provi- 
dence. For,  not  long  afterward,  the  Palatinate  was  laid  waste  by  the  Preach 
army,  and  many  of  their  kindred  whom  they  had  left  behind  were  despoiled  of 
their  possessions  and  reduced  to  penury.  There  came  also  from  Wales  a  com- 
pany of  the  stock  of  aacient  Britons. 

So  large  an  influx  of  population,  coming  in  many  cases  without  due  pro- 
vision for  variety  of  diet,  caused  a  scarcity  in  many  kinds  of  food,  especially 
of  meats.  Time  was  required  to  bring  forward  flocks  and  herds,  more  than 
for  producing  grains.  But  Providence  seemed  to  have  graciously  considered 
their  necessities,  and  have  miraculously  provided  for  them,  as  of  old  was  pro 
vision  made  for  the  chosen  people.  For  it  is  recorded  that  the  "wild  pigeons 
came  in  such  great  numbers  that  the  sky  was  sometimes  darkened  by  their 
flight,  and,  flying  low,  they  were  frequently  knocked  down  as  they  flew,  in 
great  quantities,  by  those  who  had  no  other  means  to  take  them,  whereby  the} 
supplied  themselves,  and,  having  salted  those  which  they  could  not  immedi- 
ately use,  they  preserved  them,  both  for  bread  and  meat."  The  Indians  were 
kind,  and  often  furnished  them  with  game,  for  which  they  would  receive  no 

Their  first  care  on  landing  was  to  bring  their  household  goods  to  a  place 
of  safety,  often  to  the  simple  protection  of  a  tree.  For  some,  this  was  their 
only  shelter,  lumber  being  scarce,  and  in  many  places  impossible  to  obtain. 


Some  made  for  themselves  caves  in  the  earth  until  better  habitations  could  be 

John  Key,  who  was  said  to  have  been  the  first  child  born  of  English  par- 
ents in  Philadelphia,  and  that  in  recognition  of  which  William  Penn  gave 
him  a  lot  of  ground,  died  at  Kennet,  in  Chester  County,  on  July  5,  1768, 
in  the  eighty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  was  born  in  one  of  these  caves  upon 
the  river  bank,  long  afterward  known  by  the  name  of  Penny-pot,  near  Sassa- 
fras street.  About  six  years  before  his  death,  he  walked  from  Kennet  to  the 
city,  about  thirty  miles,  in  one  day.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  went 
under  the  name  of  i'irst  Born. 

The  contrasts  between  the  comforts  and  conveniences  of  an  old  settled 
country  and  this,  where  the  heavy  forests  must  be  cleared  away  and  severe  la- 
bors must  be  endured  before  the  sun  could  be  let  in  sufficiently  to  produce 
anything,  must  have  been  very  marked,  and  caused  repining.  But  they  had 
generally  come  with  meek  and  humble  hearts,  and  they  willingly  endured 
hardship  and  privation,  and  labored  on  earnestly  for  the  spiritual  comfort 
which  they  enjoyed.  Thomas  Makin,  in  some  Latin  verses  upon  the  early  set- 
tlement, says  (we  quote  the  metrical  translation): 

"Its  fame  to  distant  countries  far  has  spread, 
And  some  for  peace,  and  some  for  profit  led; 
Born  in  remotest  climes,  to  settle  here 
They  leave  their  native  soil  and  all  that's  dear, 
And  still  will  flock  from  far,  here  to  be  free, 
Such  powerful  charms  has  lovely  liberty." 

But  for  their  many  privations  and  sufferings  there  were  some  compensat- 
ing conditions.  The  soil  was  fertile,  the  air  mostly  clear  and  healthy,  the 
streams  of  water  were  good  and  plentiful,  wood  for  fire  and  building  unlimit- 
ed, and  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  game  in  the  forest  was  abundant.  Rich- 
ard Townsend,  a  settler  at  Germantown,  who  came  over  in  the  ship  with  Penn, 
in  writing  to  his  friends  in  England  of  his  first  year  in  America,  says:  "I, 
with  Joshua  Tittery,  made  a  net,  and  caught  great  quantities  of  fish,  so  that, 
notwithstanding  it  was  thought  near  three  thousand  persons  came  in  the  first 
year,  we  were  so  providentially  provided  for  that  we  could  buy  a  deer  for 
about  two  shillings,  and  a  large  turkey  for  about  one  shilling,  and  Indian  corn 
for  about  two  shillings  sixpence  a  bushel." 

In  the  same  letter,  the  writer  mentions  that  a  young  deer  came  out  of  the 
forest  into  the  meadow  where  he  was  mowing,  and  looked  at  him,  and  when 
he  went  toward  it  would  retreat;  and,  as  he  resumed  his  mowing,  would  come 
back  to  gaze  upon  him,  and  finally  ran  forcibly  against  a  tree,  which  so 
stunned  it  that  he  was  able  to  overmaster  it  and  bear  it  away  to  his  home,  and 
as  this  was  at  a  time  when  he  was  sufiering  for  the  lack  of  meat,  he  believed 
it  a  direct  interposition  of  Providence. 

In  the  spring  of  1688,  there  was  great  activity  throughout  the  colony,  and 
especially  in  the  new  city,  in  selecting  lands  and  erecting  dwellings,  the  Sur- 
veyor General,  Thomas  Holme,  laying  out  and  marking  the  streets.  In  the 
center  of  the  city  was  a  public  square  of  ten  acres,  and  in  each  of  the  four 
quarters  one  of  eight  acres.  A  large  mansion,  which  had  been  undertaken  be- 
fore his  arrival,  was  built  for  Penn,  at  a  point  twenty-six  miles  up  the  river, 
called  Pennsbury  Manor,  where  ho  sometimes  resided,  and  where  he  often  met 
the  Indian  sachems.  At  this  time,  Penn  divided  the  colony  into  counties, 
three  for  the  province  (Bucks,  Philadelphia  and  Chester)  and  three  for  the 
Territories  (New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex).  Having  appointed  Sheriffs  and 
other  proper  officers,  he  issued  writs  fof  the  election  of  members  of  a  General 


Assembly,  three  from  each  county  for  the  Council  or  Upper  House,  and  nine 
from  each  county  for  the  Assembly  or  Lower  House.* 

This  Assembly  convened  and  organized  for  business  on  the  10th  of  Jan- 
uary, 1683,  at  Philadelphia.  One  of  the  first  subjects  considered  was  the 
revising  some  provisions  of  the  frame  of  government  which  was  effected,  re- 
ducing the  number  of  members  of  both  Houses,  the  Council  to  18  the  As- 
sembly to  36,  and  otherwise  amending  in  unimportant  particulars.  In 
an  assembly  thus  convened,  and  where  few,  if  any,  had  had  any  experience  in 
serving  in  a  deliberative  body,  we  may  reasonably  suppose  that  many  crude 
and  impracticable  propositions  would  be  presented.  As  an  example  of  these 
the  following  may  be  cited  as  specimens:  That  young  men  should  be  obliged 
to  marry  at,  or  before,  a  certain  age;  that  two  sorts  of  clothes  only  shall  be 
worn,  one  for  winter  and  the  other  for  summer.  The  session  lasted  twenty  two 

The  first  grand  jury  in  Pennsylvania  was  summoned  for  the  2d  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1683,  to  inquire  into  the  cases  of  some  persons  accused  of  issuing 
counterfeit  money.  The  Governor  and  Council  sat  as  a  court.  One  Picker- 
ing was  convicted,  and  the  sentence  was  significant  of  the  kind  and  patriarchal 
nature  of  the  government,  "that  he  should  make  full  satisfaction,  in  good 
and  current  pay,  to  every  person  who  should,  within  the  space  of  one  month, 
bring  in  any  of  this  false,  base  and  counterfeit  coin,  and  that  the  money 
brought  in  should  be  melted  down  before  it  was  returned  to  him,  and  that  he 
should  pay  a  fine  of  forty  pounds  toward  the  building  a  court  house,  stand 
committed  till  the  same  was  paid,  and  afterward  find  security  for  his  good 

The  Assembly  and  courts  having  now  adjourned,  Penn  gave  his  attention 
to  the  grading  and  improving  the  streets  of  the  new  city,  and  the  managing 
the  affairs  of  his  land  oflEice,  suddenly  grown  to  great  importance.  For  every 
section  of  land  taken  up  in  the  wilderness,  the  purchaser  was  entitled  to  a 
certain  plot  in  the  new  city.  The  Kiver  Delaware  at  this  time  was  nearly  a 
mile  broad  opposite  the  city,  and  navigable  for  ships  of  the  largest  tonnage. 
The  tide  rises  about  six  feet  at  this  point,  and  flows  back'  to  the  falls  of 
Trenton,  a  distance  of  thirty  miles.  The  tide  in  the  Schuylkill  flows  only 
about  five  miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Delaware.  The  river  bank  along 
the  Delaware  was  intended  by  Penn  as  a  common  or  public  resort.  But  in 
his  time  the  owners  of  lots  above  Front  street  pressed  him  to  allow  them  to 
construct  warehouses  upon  it,  opposite  their  properties,  which  importunity  in- 
duced him  to  make  the  following  declaration  concerning  it;  ''The  bank  is  a 
top  common,  from  end  to  end;  the  rest  next  the  water  belongs  to  front-lot 
men  no  moi'e  than  back- lot  men.  The  way  bounds  them;  they  may  build  stairs, 
and  the  top  of  the  bank  a  common  exchange,  or  wall,  and  against  the  street, 
common  wharfs  may  be  built  freely;  but  into  the  water,  and  the  shore  is  no 
purchaser's."  But  in  future  time,  this  liberal  desire  of  the  founder  was  dis- 
regarded, and  the  bank  has  been  covered  with  immense  warehouses. 

*It  may  be  a  matter  of  curiosity  to  know  the  names  of  the  members  of  this  first  regularly  elected  Legis- 
lature in  Pennsylvania,  and  they  are  accordingly  appended  as  given  in  official  records: 

Council :  William  Markham,  Christopher  Taylor,  Thomas  Holme.  Lacy  Cock,  William  Haige,  John  Moll, 
Ralph  Withers,  John  Simcock,  Edward  Cantwell,  William  Clayton,  William  Biles,  James  Harrison,  William 
Clark,  Francis  Whitewell,  John  Richardson,  John  Hillyard. 

Assembly:  From  Bucks,  William  Yardly,  Samuel  Darke,  Robert  Lucas,  Nicholas  Walne,  John  Wood,  John 
Clowes,  Thomas  Fitzwater,  Robert  Hall,  James  Bovden  ;  from  Philadelphia,  John  Longhurst,  John  Hart,  Wal- 
ter King,  Andros  Binkson,  John  Moon,  Thomas  Wynne  (Speaker),  Griffith  Jones,  William  Warner,  Swan  Swan- 
«on,  from  Chester,  John  Hoskins,  Robert  Wade,  George  Wood,  J<5hn  Blunston,  Dennis  Rochford,  Thomas 
Bracy,  John  Bezer,  John  Harding,  Joseph  Phipps ;  from  New  Castle,  John  Cann,  John  Darby,  Valentine  Holl- 
ingsworth,  Gasparus  Herman,  John  Dchoaef,  James  Williams,  William  Guest,  Peter  Alrich,  Henrick  Williams; 
from  Kent,  John  Biggs,  Simon  Irons,  Thomas  Hatfold  John  Curtis,  Robert  Bedwell,  William  Windsmore,  John 
Brinkloe,  Daniel  Brown,  Benony  Bishop;  from  Sussex,  Luke  Watson,  Alexander  Draper,  William  Futcher, 
Henry  Bowman,  Alexander  Moleston,  John  Hill,  Robert  Bracy,  John  Kipshaven,  Cornelius  Verhoof. 


Seeing  now  his  plans  of  government  and  settlement  fairly  in  operation,  as 
autumn  approached,  Penn  wrote  a  letter  to  the  Free  Society  of  Traders  in 
London,  which  had  been  formed  to  promote  settlement  in  his  colony,  in  which 
he  touched  upon  a  great  variety  of  topics  regarding  his  enterprise,  extending  to 
quite  a  complete  treatise.  The  great  interest  attaching  to  the  subjects  dis- 
cussed, and  the  ability  with  which  it  was  drawn,  makes  it  desirable  to  insert 
the  document  entire;  but  its  great  length  makes  its  use  incompatible  with  the 
plan  of  this  work.  A  few  extracts  and  a  general  plan  of  the  letter  is  all  that 
can  be  given.  He  first  notices  the  injurious  reports  put  in  circulation  in  En- 
gland during  his  absence:  "  Some  persons  have  had  so  little  wit  and  so  much 
malice  as  to  report  my  death,  and,  to  mend  the  matter,  dead  a  Jesuit,  too. 
One  might  have  reasonably  hoped  that  this  distance,  like  death,  would  have 
been  a  protection  against  spite  and  envy.  *  *  *  However,  to  the  great  sorrow 
and  shame  of  the  inventors,  I  am  still  alive  and  no  Jesuit,  and,  I  thank  God, 
very  well."  Of  the  air  and  waters  he  says:  "  The  air  is  sweet  and  clear,  the 
heavens  serene,  like  the  south  parts  of  France,  rarely  overcast.  The  waters 
are  generally  good,  for  the  rivers  and  brooks  have  mostly  gravel  and  stony  bot- 
toms, and  in  number  hardly  credible.  We  also  have  mineral  waters  that 
operate  in  the  same  manner  with  Barnet  and  North  Hall,  not  two  miles  from 
Philadelphia. "  He  then  treats  at  length  of  the  four  seasons,  of  trees,  fruits, 
grapes,  peaches, grains, garden  produce:  of  animals,beasts,bii'ds,  fish,  whale  fish- 
ery, horses  and  cattle,  medicinal  plants,  flowers  of  the  woods;  of  the  Indians 
and  their  persons.  Of  their  language  he  says:  "It  is  lofty,  yet  narrow;  but, 
like  the  Hebrew,  in  signification,  full,  imperfect  in  their  tenses,  wanting  in  their 
moods,  participles,  adverbs,  conjunctions,  interjections.  I  have  made  it  my  busi- 
ness to  understand  it,  and  I  must  say  that  I  know  not  a  language  spoken  in  Europe 
that  hath  words  of  more  sweetness  or  greatness  in  accent  and  emphasis  than 
theirs."  Of  their  customs  and  their  children:  "  The  children  will  go  very  young, 
at  nine  months,  commonly;  if  boys,  they  go  a  fishing,  till  ripe  for  the  woods,  which 
is  about  fifteen;  then  they  hunt,  and,  after  having  given  some  proofs  of  their 
manhood  by  a  good  return  of  skins,  they  may  marry,  else  it  is  a  shame  to  think 
of  a  wife.  The  girls  stay  with  their  mother  and  help  to  hoe  the  ground,  plant 
corn  and  carry  burdens.  When  the  young  women  are  fit  for  marriage,  they 
wear  something  upon  their  heads  as  an  advertisment;  but  so,  as  their  faces  hardly 
to  be  seen,  but  when  they  please.  The  age  they  marry  at,  if  women,  is  about 
thirteen  and  fourteen;  if  men,  seventeen  and  eighteen;  they  ai'e  rarely  elder." 
In  a  romantic  vein  he  speaks  of  their  houses,  diet,  hospitality,  revengefulness 
and  concealment  of  resentment,  great  liberality,  free  manner  of  life  and 
customs,  late  love  of  strong  liquor,  behavior  in  sickness  and  death,  tlieir  re- 
ligion, their  feastings,  their  government,  their  mode  of  doing  business,  their 
manner  of  administering  justice,  of  agreement  for  settling  difficulties  entered  into 
with  the  pen,  their  susceptibility  to  improvement,  of  the  origin  of  the  Indian  race 
their  resemblance  to  the  Jews.  Of  the  Dutch  and  Swedes  whom  he  found  set- 
tled here  when  he  came,  he  says:  "  The  Dutch  applied  themselves  to  traffick, 
the  Swedes  and  Finns  to  husbandry.  The  Dutch  mostly  inhabit  those  parts 
that  lie  upon  the  bay,  and  the  Swedes  the  freshes  of  the  Delaware.  They  are 
a  plain,  strong,  industrious  people;  yet  have  made  no  great  progress  in  culture 
or  propagation  of  fruit  trees.  They  are  a  people  proper,  and  strong  of  body, 
so  they  have  fine  children,  and  almost  every  house  full;  rare  to  find  one  of  them 
without  three  or  four  boys  and  as  many  girls — some,  six,  seven  and  eight  sons, 
and  I  must  do  them  that  right,  I  see  few  young  men  more  sober  and  laborious." 
After  speaking  at  length  of  the  organization  of  the  colony  and  its  manner  of 
government,  he  concludes  with  his  own  opinion  of  the  country:      "I  say  little 


of  the  town  itself;  but  this  I  will  say,  for  the  good  providence  of  God,  that 
of  all  the  many  places  I  have  seen  in  the  world,  I  remember  not  one  better 
seated,  so  that  it  seems  to  me  to  have  been  appointed  for  a  town,  whether  we 
regard  the  rivers  or  the  convenieney  of  the  coves,  docks,  springs,  the  loftiness 
and  soundness  of  the  land  and  the  air,  held  by  the  people  of  these  parts  to  be 
very  good.  It  is  advanced  within  less  than  a  year  to  about  fourscore  bouses 
and  cottages,  where  merchants  and  handicrafts  are  following  their  vocations 
as  fast  as  they  can,  while  the  countrymen  are  close  at  their  farms.  *  *  *  I 
bless  God  I  am  fully  satisfied  with  the  country  and  entertainment  I  got  in  it; 
for  I  find  that  particular  content,  which  hath  always  attended  me,  where  God  in 
His  providence  hath  made  it  my  place  and  service  to  reside." 

As  we  have  seen,  the  visit  of  Penn  to  Lord  Baltimore  soon  after  his  arrival 
in  America,  for  the  purpose  of  settling  the  boundaries  of  the  two  provinces,  after 
a  two  days'  confereace,  proved  fruitless,  and  an  adjournment  was  had  for  the 
winter,  when  the  efforts  for  settlement  were  to  be  resumed.  Early  in  the 
spring,  an  attempt  was  made  on  the  part  of  Peun,  but  was  prevented  till  May, 
when  a  meeting  was  held  at  New  Castle.  Penn  proposed  to  confer  by  the  aid 
of  counselors  and  in  writing.  But  to  this  Baltimore  objected,  and,  complain- 
ing of  the  sultryness  of  the  weather,  the  conference  was  broken  up.  In  the 
meantime,  it  had  come  to  the  knowledge  of  Penn  that  Lord  Baltimore  had 
issued  a  proclamation  offering  settlers  more  land,  and  at  cheaper  rates  than 
Penn  had  done,  in  portions  of  the  lower  counties  which  Penn  had  secured 
from  the  Duke  of  York,  but  which  Baltimore  now  claimed.  Besides,  it  was 
ascertained  that  an  agent  of  his  had  taken  an  observation,  and  determined  the 
latitude  without  the  knowledge  of  Penn,  and  had  secretly  made  an  ex  parte 
statement  of  the  case  before  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  Plantations  in  En- 
gland, and  was  pressing  for  arbitrament.  This  state  of  the  case  created  much 
uneasiness  in  the  mind  of  Penn,  especially  as  the  proclamation  of  Lord  Balti- 
more was  likely  to  bring  the  two  governments  into  conflict  on  territory  mutu- 
ally claimed.  But  Lord  Baltimore  was  not  disposed  to  be  content  with  diplo- 
macy. He  determined  to  pursue  an  aggressive  policy.  He  accordingly  com- 
missioned his  agent,  Col.  George  Talbot,  under  date  of  September  17,  1683, 
to  go  to  Schuylkill,  at  Delaware,  and  demand  of  William  Penn  "  all  that  part 
of  the  land  on  the  west  side  of  the  said  river  that  lyeth  to  the  southward  of 
the  fortieth  degree."  This  bold  demand  would  have  embraced  the  entire  colony, 
both  the  lower  counties,  and  the  three  counties  in  the  province,  as  the  fortieth 
degree  reaches  a  considerable  distance  above  Philadelphia.  Penn  was  absent 
at  the  time  in  New  York,  and  Talbot  made  his  demand  upon  Nicholas  Moore, 
the  deputy  of  Penn.  Upon  his  return,  the  proprietor  made  a  dignified  but 
earnest  rejoinder.  While  he  felt  that  the  demand  could  not  be  justly  sus- 
tained, yet  the  fact  that  a  controversy  for  the  settlement  of  the  boundary  wa& 
likely  to  arise,  gave  him  disquietude,  and  though  he  was  gratified  with  the 
success  of  his  plans  for  acquiring  lands  of  the  Indians  and  establishing  friendly 
relations  with  them,  the  laying-out  of  his  new  city  and  settling  it,  the  adop- 
tion of  a  stable  government  and  putting  it  in  successful  operation,  and,  more 
than  all,  the  drawing  thither  the  large  number  of  settlers,  chiefly  of  his  own 
religious  faith,  and  seeing  them  contented  and  happy  in  the  new  State,  he 
plainly  foresaw  that  his  skill  and  tact  would  be  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  defend 
and  hold  his  claim  before  the  English  court.  If  the  demand  of  Lord  Balti- 
more were  to  prevail,  all  that  he  had  done  would  be  lost,  as  his  entire  colony 
would  be  swallowed  up  by  Maryland. 

The  anxiety  of  Penn  to  hold  from  the  beginniog  of  the  40°  of  latitude  was 
not  to  increase  thereby  his  territory  by  so  much,  for  two  degrees  which  he 


securely  had,  so  far  as  aroount  of  land  was  concerned,  would  have  entirely 
satisfied  him;  but  he  wanted  this  degree  chiefly  that  he  might  have  the  free 
navigation  of  Delaware  Bay  and  River,  and  thus  open  communication  with  the 
ocean.  BJe  desired  also  to  hold  the  lower  counties,  which  were  now  well 
settled,  as  well  as  his  own  counties  rapidly  being  peopled,  and  his  new  city  of 
Philadelphia,  which  he  regarded  as  the  apple  of  his  eye.  So  anxious  was  he 
to  hold  the  land  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Delaware  to  the  open  ocean,  that  at 
his  second  meeting,  he  asked  Lord  Baltimore  to  set  a  price  per  square  mile  on 
this  disputed  ground,  and  though  he  had  purchased  it  once  of  the  crown  and 
held  the  King's  charter  for  it,  and  the  Duke  of  York's  deed,  yet  rather  than 
have  any  further  wrangle  over  it,  he  was  willing  to  pay  for  it  again.  But  this 
Lord  Baltimore  refused  to  do. 

Bent  upon  bringing  matters  to  a  crisis,  and  to  force  possession  of  his 
claim,  early  in  the  year  1684  a  party  from  Maryland  made  forcible  entry 
upon  the  plantations  in  the  lower  counties  and  drove  off  the  owners.  The 
Governor  and  Council  at  Philadelphia  sent  thither  a  copy  of  the  answer  of 
Penn  to  Baltimore's  demand  for  the  land  south  of  the  Delaware,  with  orders 
to  William  Welch,  Sheriff  at  New  Castle,  to  use  his  influence  to  reinstate  the 
lawful  owners,  and  issued  a  declaration  succinctly  stating  the  claim  of  Penn, 
for  the  purpose  of  preventing  such  unlawful  incursions  in  future. 

The  season  opened  favorably  for  the  continued  prosperity  of  the  young 
colony.  Agriculture  was  being  prosecuted  as  never  before.  Goodly  flocks 
and  herds  gladdened  the  eyes  of  the  settlers.  An  intelligent,  moral  and  in- 
dustrious yeomanry  was  springing  into  existence.  Emigrants  were  pouring 
into  the  Delaware  from  many  lands.  The  Government  was  becoming  settled 
in  its  operations  and  popular  with  the  people.  The  proprietor  had  leisure  to 
attend  to  the  interests  of  his  religious  society,  not  only  in  his  own  dominions, 
but  in  the  Jerseys  and  in  New  York. 


Thomas  Lloyd,  1684-86— Five  Commissioners,  1686-88— John  Blackwell,  1688 
-90— Thomas  Lloyd,  1690-91— William  Markham,  1691-93— Benjamin 
Fletcher,  1693-95— William  Markham,  1693-99. 

BUT  the  indications,  constantly  thickening,  that  a  struggle  was  likely  soon 
to  be  precipitated  before  the  crown  for  possession  of  the  disputed  terri- 
tory, decided  Penn  early  in  the  summer  to  quit  the  colony  and  return  to  En- 
gland to  defend  his  imperiled  interests.  There  is  no  doubt  that  he  took  this 
step  with  unfeigned  regret,  as  he  was  contented  and  happy  in  his  new  country, 
and  was  most  usefully  employed.  There  were,  however,  other  inducements 
which  were  leading  him  back  to  England.  The  hand  of  persecution  was  at 
this  time  laid  heavily  upon  the  Quakers.  Over  1,400  of  these  pious  and  in- 
offensive people  were  now,  and  some  of  them  had  been  for  years,  languishing^ 
in  the  prisons  of  England,  for  no  other  offense  than  their  manner  of  worship. 
By  his  friendship  with  James,  and  his  acquaintance  with  the  King,  he  might 
do  something  lo  soften  the  lot  of  these  unfortunate  victims  of  bigotry. 

He  accordingly  empowered  the  Provincial  Council,  of  which  Thomas 
Lloyd  was  President,  to  act  in  his  stead,  commissioned  Nicholas  Moore,  Will- 
iam Welch,  William   Wood,   Robert   Turner   and   John   Eckley,  Provincial 


Judges  for  two  years;  appointed  Thomas  Lloyd,  James  Claypole  and  Robert 
Turner  to  sign  land  patents  and  warrants,  and  William  Clark  as  Justice  of 
the  Peace  for  all  the  counties;  and  on  the  6th  of  June,  1684,  sailed  for  Europe. 
His  feelings  on  leaving  his  colony  are  exnibited  by  a  farewell  address  which 
he  issued  from  on  board  the  vessel  to  his  people,  of  which  the  following  are 
brief  extracts:  "My  love  and  my  life  is  to  you,  and  with  you,  and  no  water 
can  quench  ii,  nor  distance  wear  it  out,  nor  bring  it  to  an  end.  I  have  been 
with  you,  cared  over  you  and  served  over  you  with  unfeigned  love,  and  you 
are  beloved  of  me,  and  near  to  me,  beyond  utterance.  I  bless  you  in  the 
name  and  power  of  the  Lord,  and  may  God  bless  you  with  His  righteousness, 
peace  and  plenty  all  the  land  over.  *  *  *  Oh!  now  are  you  come  to  a 
quiet  land;  provoke  not  the  Lord  to  trouble  it.  And  now  liberty  and  author- 
ity are  with  you,  and  in  your  hands.  Let  the  government  be  upon  His 
shoulders,  in  all  your  spirits,  that  you  may  rule  for  Him,  under  whom  the 
princes  of  this  world  will,  one  day,  esteem  their  honor  to  govern  and  serve  in 
their  places  *  *  *  And  thou,  Philadelphia,  the  virgin  settlement  of 
this  province,  named  before  thou  wert  born,  what  love,  what  care,  what  serv- 
ice and  what  travail  has  there  been,  to  bring  thee  forth,  and  preserve  thee  from 
such  as  would  abuse  and  defile  thee!  *  *  *  go,  dear  friends,  my  love 
again  salutes  you  all,  wishing  that  grace,  mercy  and  peace,  with  all  temporal 
blessings,  may  abound  richly  among  you — so  says,  so  prays,  your  friend  and 
lover  in  the  truth.  William  Penn." 

On  the  6th  of  December  of  this  same  year,  1684,  Charles  II  died,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  brother  James,  Duke  of  York,  under  the  title  of  James  II. 
James  was  a  professed  Catholic,  and  the  people  were  greatly  excited  all  over 
the  kingdom  lest  the  reign  of  Bloody  Mary  should  be  repeated,  and  that  the 
Catholic  should  become  the  established  religion.  He  had  less  ability  than 
his  brother,  the  deceased  King,  but  great  discipline  and  industry.  Penn  en- 
joyed the  friendship  and  intimacy  of  the  new  King,  and  he  determined  to  use 
his  advantage  for  the  relief  of  his  suffering  countrymen,  not  only  of  his  sect, 
the  Quakers,  but  of  all,  and  especially  for  the  furtherance  of  universal  liberty. 
But  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  at  this  time  meditated  a  speedy  return  to  his 
province,  for  he  writes:  "Keep  up  the  peoples'  hearts  and  loves;  I  hope  to  be 
with  them  next  fall,  if  the  Lord  prevent  not.  I  long  to  be  with  you.  No 
temptations  prevail  to  fix  me  here.  The  Lord  send  us  a  good  meeting."  By 
authority  of  Penn,  dated  18th  of  January,  1685,  William  Markham,  Penn's 
cousin,  was  commissioned  Secretary  of  the  province,  and  the  proprietor's  Sec- 

That  he  might  be  fixed  near  to  court  for  the  furtherance  of  his  private  as 
well  as  public  business,  he  secured  lodgings  for  himself  and  family,  in  1685,  at 
Kensington,  near  London,  and  cultivated  a  daily  intimacy  with  the  King,  who, 
no  doubt,  found  in  the  strong  native  sense  of  his  Quaker  friend,  a  valued  ad- 
viser upon  many  questions  of  difficulty.  His  first  and  chief  care  was  the  set- 
tlement of  his  disagreement  with  Lord  Baltimore  touching  the  boundaries  of 
their  provinces.  This  was  settled  in  November,  1685,  by  a  compromise,  by 
which  the  land  lying  between  the  Delaware  and  Chesepeake  Bays  was  divided 
into  two  equal  parts — that  upon  the  Delaware  was  adjudged  to  Penn,  and  that 
upon  the  Chesapeake  to  Lord  Baltimore.  This  settled  the  matter  in  theory; 
but  when  the  attempt  was  made  to  run  the  lines  according  to  the  language  of 
the  Royal  Act,  it  was  found  that  the  royal  secretaries  did  not  understand  the 
geography  of  the  country,  and  that  the  line  which  their  language  described  was 
an  impossible  one.  Consequently  the  boundary  remained  undetermined  till 
1732.     The  account  of  its  location  will  be  given  in  its  proper  place. 


Having  secured  this  important  decision  to  his  satisfaction,  Penn  applied 
himself  with  renewed  zeal,  not  only  to  secure  the  release  of  his  people,  who 
were  languishing  in  prisons,  but  to  procure  for  all  Englishmen,  everywhere, 
enlarged  liberty  and  freedom  of  conscience.  His  relations  with  the  King  fa- 
vored his  designs.  The  King  had  said  to  Penn  before  he  ascended  the  throne 
that  he  was  opposed  to  persecution  for  religion.  On  the  first  day  of  his  reign, 
he  made  an  address,  in  which  he  proclaimed  himself  opposed  to  all  arbitrary 
principles  in  government,  'and  promised  protection  to  the  Church  of  England. 
Early  in  the  year  1686,  in  consequence  of  the  King's  proclamation  for  a  gen- 
eral pardon,  over  thirteen  hundred  Quakers  were  set  at  liberty,  and  in  April, 
1687,  the  King  issued  a  declaration  for  entire  liberty  of  conscience,  and  sus- 
pending the  penal  laws  in  matters  ecclesiastical.  This  was  a  great  step  in  ad- 
vance, and  one  that  must  ever  throw  a  luster  over  the  brief  reign  of  this  un- 
fortunate monarch.  Penn,  though  holding  no  official  position,  doubtless  did 
as  much  toward  securing  the  issue  of  this  liberal  measure  as  any  Englishman. 

Upon  the  issue  of  these  edicts,  the  Quakers,  at  their  next  annual  meeting, 
presented  an  address  of  acknowledgment  to  the  Ring,  which  opened  in  these 
words:  "We  cannot  but  bless  and  praise  the  name  of  Almighty  God,  who 
hath  the  hearts  of  princes  in  His  hands,  that  He  hath  inclined  the  King  to  hear 
the  cries  of  his  suffering  subjects  for  conscience'  sake,  and  we  rejoice  that  he 
hath  given  us  so  eminent  an  occasion  to  present  him  our  thanks."  This  ad- 
dress was  presented  by  Penn  in  a  few  well-chosen  words,  and  the  King  re- 
plied in  the  following,  though  brief,  yet  most  expressive,  language:  "Gentle- 
men— I  thank  you  heartily  for  your  address.  Some  of  you  know  (I  am  sure 
you  do  Mr.  Penn),  that  it  was  always  my  principle,  that  conscience  ought  not 
to  be  forced,  and  that  all  men  ought  to  have  the  liberty  of  their  consciences. 
And  what  I  have  promised  in  my  declaration,  I  will  continue  to  perform  so 
long  as  I  live.  And  I  hope,  before  I  die,  to  settle  it  so  that  after  ages  shall 
have  no  reason  to  alter  it." 

It  would  have  been  supposed  that  such  noble  sentiments  as  these  from  a 
sovereign  would  have  been  hailed  with  delight  by  the  English  people.  But 
they  were  not.  The  aristocracy  of  Britain  at  this  time  did  not  want  liberty  of 
conscience.  They  wanted  comformity  to  the  established  church,  and  bitter 
persecution  against  all  others,  as  in  the  reign  of  Charles,  which  filled  the 
prisons  with  Quakers.  The  warm  congi-atulations  to  James,  and  fervent  prayers 
for  his  welfare,  were  regarded  by  them  with  an  evil  eye.  Bitter  reproaches 
were  heaped  upon  Penn,  who  was  looked  upon  as  the  power  behind  the  throne 
that  was  moving  the  King  to  the  enforcing  of  these  principles.  He  was  ac- 
cused of  having  been  educated  at  St.  Omer's,  a  Catholic  college,  a  place  which 
he  never  saw  in  his  life,  of  having  taken  orders  as  a  priest  in  the  Catholic 
Church,  of  having  obtained  dispensation  to  marry,  and  of  being  not  only  a 
Catholic,  but  a  Jesuit  in  disguise,  all  of  which  were  pure  fabrications.  But  in 
the  excited  state  of  the  public  mind  they  were  believed,  and  caused  him  to  be 
regarded  with  bitter  hatred.  The  King,  too,  fell  rapidly  into  disfavor,  and  so 
completely  had  the  minds  of  his  people  become  alienated  from  him,  that  upon 
the  coming  of  the  Prince  of  Orange  and  his  wife  Mary,  in  1688,  James  was 
obliged  to  flee  to  France  for  safety,  and  they  were  received  as  the  rulers  of 

But  while  the  interests  of  the  colony  were  thus  prospering  at  court,  they 
were  not  so  cloudless  in  the  new  country.  There  was  needed  the  strong  hand 
of  Penn  to  check  abuses  and  guide  the  course  of  legislation  in  proper  chan- 
nels. He  had  labored  to  place  the  government  entirely  in  tlie  hands  of  the 
people — an  idea,  in  the  abstract,  most  attractive,  and  one  which,  were  the  entire 



population  wise  and  just,  would  result  fortunately:  yet,  in  practice,  he  found 
to  his  sorrow  the  results  most  vexatious.  The  proprietor  had  not  long  been 
gone  before  troubles  arose  between  the  two  Houses  of  the  Legislatiu-e  relative 
to  promulgating  the  laws  as  not  being  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of 
the  charter  Nicholas  Moore,  the  Chief  Justice,  was  impeached  for  irregular- 
ities in  imposing  fines  and  in  other  ways  abusing  his  high  trust.  But  though 
formally  arraigned  and  directed  to  desist  from  exercising  his  functions,  he  suc- 
cessfully resisted  the  proceedings,  and  a  final  judgment  was  never  obtained. 
Patrick  Robinson,  Clerk  of  the  court,  for  refusing  to  produce  the  records  in  the 
trial  of  Moore,  was  voted  a  public  enemy.  These  troubles  in  the  government 
were  the  occasion  of  much  grief  to  Penn,  who  wrote,  naming  a  number  of  the 
most  influential  men  in  the  colony,  and  beseeching  them  to  unite  in  an  endeavor 
to  check  further  irregularities,  declaring  that  they  disgraced  the  province, 
"  that  their  conduct  had  struck  back  hundreds,  and  was  £10,000  out  of  his 
way,  and  £100,000  out  of  the  country." 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1686,  seeing  that  the  whole  Council  was  too 
unwieldy  a  body  to  exercise  executive  power,  Penn  determined  to  contract  the 
number,  and  accordingly  appointed  Thomas  Lloyd,  Nicholas  Moore,  James 
Claypole,  Robert  Turner  and  John  Eckley,  any  three  of  whom  should  consti- 
tute a  quorum,  to  be  Commissioners  of  State  to  act  for  the  proprietor.  In 
place  of  Moore  and  Claypule,  Ai-thur  Cook  and  John  Simcock  were  appointed. 
They  were  to  compel  the  attendance  of  the  Council;  see  that  the  two  Houses 
admit  of  no  parley;  to  abrogate  nil  laws  except  the  fundamentals;  to  dismiss 
the  Assembly  and  call  a  new  one,  and  finally  he  solemnly  admonishes  them, 
"Be  most  just,  as  in  the  sight  of  the  all-seeing,  all-searching  God."  In  a 
letter  to  these  Commissioiicrs,  he  says:  "  Three  things  occur  to  me  eminently: 
First,  that  you  be  watchful  that  none  abuse  the  King,  etc. ;  secondly,  that  you 
get  the  custom  act  revived  as  being  the  equalest  and  least  offensive  way  to 
support  the  government;  thirdly,  that  you  retrieve  the  dignity  of  courts  and 

In  a  letter  to  James  Harrison,  his  confidential  agent  at  Pennsbury  Manor, 
he  unbosoms  himself  more  freely  respecting  his  employment  in  London  than 
in  any  of  his  State  papers  or  more  public  communications,  and  from  it  can  be 
seen  how  important  were  his  labors  with  the  head  of  the  English  nation.  "  I 
am  engaged  in  the  public  business  of  the  nation  and  Friends,  and  those  in  au- 
thority would  have  me  see  the  establishment  of  the  liberty,  that  I  was  a  small 
instrument  to  begin  in  the  land.  The  Lord  has  given  me  great  entrance  and 
interest  with  the  King,  though  not  so  much  as  is  said;  and  I  confess  I  should 
rejoice  to  see  poor  old  England  fixed,  the  penal  laws  repealed,  that  are  now 
suspended,  and  if  it  goes  well  with  England,  it  cannot  go  ill  with  Pennsyl- 
vania, as  unkindly  used  as  I  am;  and  no  poor  slave  in  Turkey  desires  more 
earnestly,  I  believe,  for  deliverance,  than  I  do  to  be  with  you."  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1687,  Penn  was  in  company  with  the  King  in  a  progress  through  the 
counties  of  Berkshire,  Glocestershire,  Worcestershire,  Shropshire,  Cheshire, 
Staffordshire,  Warwickshire,  Oxfordshire  and  Hampshire,  during  which  he 
held  several  religious  meetings  with  his  people,  in  some  of  which  the  King  ap- 
pears to  have  been  present,  particularly  in  Chester. 

Since  the  departure  of  Penn,  Thomas  Lloyd  had  acted  as  President  of 
the  Council,  and  later  of  the  Commissioners  of  State.  He  had  been  in  effect 
Governor,  and  held  responsible  for  the  success  of  the  government,  while  pos- 
sessing only  one  voice  in  the  disposing  of  affairs.  Tiring  of  this  anomalous 
position,  Lloyd  applied  to  be  relieved.  It  was  difficult  to  find  a  person  of 
sufficient  ability  to  fill  the  place:    but  Penn  decided  to  relieve  him,  though 


showing  his  entire  confidence  by  notifying  him  that  he  intended  soon  to  ap- 
point him  absolute  Governor.  In  his  place,  he  indicated  Samuel  Carpenter, 
or  if  he  was  unwilling  to  serve,  then  Thomas  Ellis,  but  not  to  be  President,  his 
will  being  that  each  should  preside  a  month  in  turn,  or  that  the  oldest  mem- 
ber should  be  chosen. 

Penn  foresaw  that  the  executive  power,  to  be  efficient,  must  be  lodged  in 
the  hands  of  one  man  of  ability,  such  as  to  command  the  respect  of  his  people. 
Those  whom  he  most  trusted  in  the  colony  had  been  so  mixed  up  in  the  wran- 
gles of  the  executive  and  legislative  departments  of  the  government  that  he 
deemed  it  advisable  to  appoint  a  person  who  had  not  before  been  in  the  col- 
ony and  not  a  Quaker.  He  accordingly  commissioned  John  Blackwell,  July 
27,  1688,  to  be  Lieutenant  Governor,  who  was  at  this  time  in  New  England, 
and  who  had  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  Penn.  With  the  commission,  the 
proprietor  sent  full  instructions,  chiefly  by  way  of  caution,  the  last  one  being: 
"  Eule  the  meek  meekly;  and  those  that  will  not  be  ruled,  rule  with  avithority." 
Though  Lloyd  had  been  relieved  of  power,  he  still  remained  in  the  Council, 
probably  because  neither  of  the  persens  designated  were  willing  to  serve. 
Having  seen  the  evils  of  a  many-headed  executive,  he  had  recommended  the 
appointment  of  one  person  to  exercise  executive  authority.  It  was  in  con 
formity  with  this  advice  that  Blackwell  was  appointed.  He  met  the  Assembly 
in  March,  1689;  but  either  his  conceptions  of  business  were  arbitrary  and  im- 
perious, or  the  Assembly  had  become  accustomed  to  great  latitude  and  lax 
discipline;  for  the  business  had  not  proceeded  far  before  the  several  branches 
of  the  government  were  at  variance.  Lloyd  refused  to  give  up  the  great  seal, 
alleging  that  it  had  been  given  him  for  life.  The  Governor,  arbitra- 
rily and  without  warrant  of  law,  imprisoned  officers  of  high  rank,  denied  the 
validity  of  all  laws  passed  by  the  Assembly  previous  to  his  administration,  and 
set  on  foot  a  project  for  organizing  and  equipping  the  militia,  under  the  plea 
of  threatened  hostility  of  France.  The  Assembly  attempted  to  arrest  his 
proceedings,  but  he  shrewdly  evaded  their  intents  by  organizing  a  party 
among  the  members^  who  persistently  absented  themselves.  His  reign 
was  short,  for  in  January,  1690,  he  left  the  colony  and  sailed  away  for  En- 
gland, whereupon  the  government  again  devolved  upon  the  Council,  Thomas 
Lloyd,  President.  Penn  had  a  high  estimation  of  the  talents  and  integrity 
of  Blackwell,  and  adds,  "  He  is  in  England  and  Ireland  of  great  repute  for 
ability,  integrity  and  virtue. " 

Three  forms  of  administering  the  executive  department  of  the  government 
had  now  been  tried,  by  a  Council  consisting  of  eighteen  members,  a  commission  of 
five  members,  and  a  Lieutenant  Governor.  Desirous  of  leaving  the  government 
as  far  as  possible  in  the  hands  of  the  people  who  were  the  sources  of  all 
power,  Penn  left  it  to  the  Council  to  decide  which  form  should  be  adopted. 
The  majority  decided  for  a  Deputy  Governor.  This  was  opposed  by  the  mem- 
bers from  the  provinces,  who  preferred  a  Council,  and  who,  finding  themselves 
outvoted,  decided  to  withdraw,  and  determined  for  themselves  to  govern  the 
lower  counties  until  Penn  should  come.  This  obstinacy  and  falling  out  be- 
tween the  councilors  from  the  lower  counties  and  those  from  the  province 
was  the  beginning  of  a  controversy  which  eventuated  in  a  separation,  and 
finally  in  the  formation  of  Delaware  as  a  separate  commonwealth.  A  deputa- 
tion from  the  Council  was  sent  to  New  Castle  to  induce  the  seceding  members 
to  return,  but  without  success.  They  had  never  regarded  with  favor  the  re- 
moval of  the  sittings  of  the  Council  from  New  Castle,  the  first  seat  of  gov- 
ernment, to  Philadelphia,  and  they  were  now  determined  to  set  up  a  govern- 
ment for  themselves. 


In  1689,  the  Friends  Public  School  in  Philadelphia  was  first  incorporated, 
confirmed  by  a  patent  from  Pean  in  1701,  and  another  in  1708,  and  finally, 
with  greatly  enlarged  powers,  from  Penn  personally,  November  29,  1711.  The 
preamble  to  the  charter  recites  that  as  "the  prosperity  and  welfare  of  any 
people  depend,  in  great  measure,  upon  the  good  education  of  youth,  and  their 
early  introduction  in  the  principles  of  true  religion  and  virtue,  and  qualifying 
them  to  serve  their  country  and  themselves,  by  breeding  them  in  reading, 
writing,  and  learning  of  languages  and  useful  arts  and  sciences  suitable  to 
their  sex,  age  and  degree,  which  cannot  be  efi'ected  in  any  manner  so  well  as 
by  erecting  public  schools,"  etc.  George  Keith  was  employed  as  the  first  mas- 
ter of  this  school.  He  was  a  native  of  Aberdeen,  Scotland,  a  man  of  learning, 
and  had  emigrated  to  East  Jersey  some  years  previous,  where  he  was  Surveyor 
General,'  and  had  surveyed  and  marked  the  line  between  East  and  West  New 
Jersey.  He  only  remained  at  the  head  of  the  school  one  year,  when  he  was 
succeeded  by  his  usher,  Thomas  Makin.  This  was  a  school  of  considerable 
merit  and  pretension,  where  the  higher  mathematics  and  the  ancient  lan- 
guages were  taught,  and  was  the  first  of  this  high  grade.  A  school  of  a  pri- 
mary grade  had  been  established  as  early  as  1683,  in  Philadelphia,  when 
Enoch  Flower  taught  on  the  following  terms:  "To  learn  to  read  English, 
four  shillings  by  the  quarter;  to  write,  six  shillings  by  ditto;  to  read,  write  and 
cast  accounts,  eight  shillings  by  the  quarter;  boarding  a  scholar,  that  is  to 
say,  diet,  lodging,  washing  and  schooling,  £10  for  one  whole  year,"  from  which 
it  will  be  seen  that  although  learning  might  be  highly  prized,  its  cost  in 
hard  cash  was  not  exorbitant. 

Penn's  favor  at  court  during  the  reign  of  James  II  caused  him  to  be  sus- 
pected of  disloyalty  to  the  government  when  William  and  Mary  had  come  to 
the  throne.  Accordingly  on  the  10th  of  December,  1688,  while  walking  in 
White  Hall,  he  was  summoned  before  the  Lords  of  the  Council,  and  though 
nothing  was  found  against  him,  was  compelled  to  give  security  for  his  appear- 
ance at  the  next  term,  to  answer  any  charge  that  might  be  made.  At  the  sec- 
ond sitting  of  the  Council  nothing  having  been  found  against  him,  he  was 
cleared  in  open  court.  In  1690,  he  was  again  brought  before  the  Lords  on 
the  charge  of  having  been  in  correspondence  with  the  late  King.  He  ap- 
pealed to  King  William,  who,  after  a  hearing  of  two  hours,  was  disposed  to 
release  him,  but  the  Lords  decided  to  hold  him  until  the  Trinity  term,  when 
he  was  again  discharged.  A  third  time  he  was  arraigned,  and  this  time  with 
eighteen  others,  charged  with  adhering  to  the  kingdom's  enemies,  but  was 
cleared  by  order  of  the  King's  Bench.  Being  now  at  liberty,  and  these  vexa- 
tious suits  ai)parently  at  an  end,  he  set  about  leading  a  large  party  of  settlers 
to  his  cherished  Pennsylvania.  Proposals  were  published,  and  the  Govern- 
ment, regarding  the  enterprise  of  so  much  importance,  had  ordered  an  armed 
convoy,  when  he  was  again  met  by  another  accusation,  and  now,  backed  by 
the  false  oath  of  one  William  Fuller,  whom  the  Parliament  subsequently  de- 
clared a  "cheat  and  an  imposter."  Seeing  that  he  must  prepare  again  for  his 
defense,  he  abandoned  his  voyage  to  America,  after  having  made  expensive 
preparations,  and  convinced  that  his  enemies  were  determined  to  prevent  his 
attention  to  public  or  private  affairs,  whether  in  England  or  America,  he  with- 
drew himself  during  the  ensuing  two  or  three  years  from  the  public  eye. 

But  though  not  participating  in  business,  which  was  calling  loudly  for  his 
attention,  his  mind  was  busy,  and  several  important  treatises  upon  religious 
and  civil  matters  were  produced  that  had  great  influence  upon  the  turn  of 
public  affairs,  which  would  never  have  been  written  but  for  this  forced  retire- 
ment.    In  his  address  to  the  yearly  meeting  of  Friends  in  London,  he  says: 



"  My  enemies  are  yours.  My  privacy  is  not  because  men  have  sworn  truly, 
but  falsely  against  me. " 

His  personal  grievances  in  England  were  the  least  which  he  sufifered.  For 
lack  of  guiding  influence,  bitter  dissensions  had  sprung  up  in  his  colony, 
which  threatened  the  loss  of  all.  Desiring  to  secure  peace,  he  had  commis- 
sioned Thomas  Lloyd  Deputy  Governor  of  the  province,  and  William  Mark- 
ham  Deputy  Governor  of  the  lower  counties.  Penn's  grief  on  account  of  this 
division  is  disclosed  in  a  letter  to  a  friend  in  the  province:  "I  left  it  to  them, 
to  choose  either  the  government  of  the  Council,  five  Commissioners  or  a  deputy. 
What  could  be  tenderer?  Now  I  perceive  Thomas  Lloyd  is  chosen  by  the 
three  upper^  but  not  the  three  lower  counties,  and  sits  down  with  this  broken 
choice.  This  has  grieved  and  wounded  me  and  mine,  I  fear  to  the  hazard  of 
allj  «  *  *  for  else  the  Governor  of  New  York  is  like  to  have  all,  if  he 
has  it  not  already." 

But  the  troubles  of  Penn  in  America  were  not  confined  to  civil  affairs. 
His  religious  society  was  torn  with  dissension.  George  Keith,  a  man  of  con- 
siderable power  in  argumentation,  but  of  overweaning  self-conceit,  attacked  the 
Friends  for  the  laxity  of  their  discipline,  and  drew  ofi"  some  followers.  So 
venomous  did  he  become  that  on  the  20th  of  April,  1692,  a  testimony  of  de- 
nial was  drawn  up  against  him  at  a  meeting  of  ministers,  wherein  he  and  his 
conduct  were  publicly  disowned.  This  was  confirmed  at  the  next  yearly  meet- 
ing. He  drew  off  large  numbers  and  set  up  an  independent  society,  who 
termed  themselves  Christian  Quakers.  Keith  appealed  from  this  action  of  the 
American  Church  to  the  yearly  meeting  in  London,  but  was  so  intemperate  in 
speech  that  the  action  of  the  American  Church  was  confirmed.  Whereupon 
he  became  the  bitter  enemy  of  the  Quakers,  and,  uniting  with  the  Church  of 
England,  was  ordained  a  Vicar  by  the  Bishop  of  London.  He  afterward  re- 
turned to  America  where  he  wrote  against  his  former  associates,  but  was  final- 
ly fixed  in  a  benefice  in  Sussex,  England.  On  his  death  bed,  he  said,  "  I  wish 
I  had  died  when  I  was  a  Quaker,  for  then  I  am  sure  it  would  have  been  well 
with  my  soul." 

But  Keith  had  not  been  satisfied  with  attacking  the  principles  and  prac- 
tices of  his  church.  He  mercilessly  lampooned  the  Lieutenant  Governor,  say- 
ing that  'He  was  not  fit  to  be  a  Governor,  and  his  name  would  stink,"  and  of 
the  Council,  that  "  He  hoped  to  God  he  should  shortly  see  their  power  taken 
from  them."  On  another  occasion,  he  said  of  Thomas  Lloyd,  who  was  reputed 
a  mild-tempered  man,  and  had  befriended  Keith,  that  he  was  "  an  impu- 
dent man  and  a  pitiful  Governor,"  and  asked  him  "why  he  did  not  send  him 
to  jail,"  saying  that  "his  back  (Keith's)  had  long  itched  for  a  whipping,  and 
that  he  would  print  and  expose  them  all  over  America,  if  not  over  Europe." 
So  abusive  had  he  finally  become  that  the  Council  was  obliged  to  take  notice 
of  his  conduct  and  to  warn  him  to  desist. 

Penn,  as  has  been  shown,  was  silenced  and  thrown  into  retirement  in  En- 
gland, It  can  be  readily  seen  what  an  excellent  opportunity  those  troubles 
in  America,  the  separation  in  the  government,  and  the  schism  in  the  church, 
gave  his  enemies  to  attack  him.  They  represented  that  he  had  neglected  his 
colony  by  remaining  in  England  and  meddling  with  matters  in  which  he  had 
no  business-,  that  the  colony  in  consequence  had  fallen  into  great  disorder, 
and  that  he  should  be  deprived  of  his  proprietary  rights.  These  complaints 
had  so  much  weight  with  William  and  Mary,  that,  on  the  21st  of  October,  1692, 
they  commissioned  Benjamin  Fletcher,  Governor  of  New  York,  to  take  the 
province  and  territories  under  his  government.  There  was  another  motive 
operating  at  this  time,  more  potent  than  those  mentioned  above,  to  induce  the 


King  and  Queen  to  put  the  government  of  Pennsylvania  under  the  Governor 
of  New  York.  The  French  and  Indians  from  the  north  were  threatening  the 
English.  Already  the  expense  for  defense  had  become  burdensome  to  New 
York.  It  was  believed  that  to  ask  aid  for  the  common  defense  from  Penn, 
with  his  peace  principles,  would  be  fruitless,  but  that  through  the  influence  of 
Gov.  Fletcher,  as  executive,  an  appropriation  might  be  secured. 

Upon  receiving  his  commission,  Gov.  Fletcher  sent  a  note,  dated  April  19, 
1693,  to  Deputy  Gov.  Lloyd,  informing  him  of  the  grant  of  the  royal  commis- 
sion and  of  his  intention  to  visit  the  colony  and  assume  authority  on  the  29th 
inst.  He  accordingly  came  with  great  pomp  and  splendor,  attended  by  a 
numerous  retinue,  and  soon  after  his  arrival,  submission  to  him  having  been 
accorded  without  question,  summoned  the  Assembly.  Some  differences  having 
arisen  between  the  Governor  and  the  Assembly  about  the  manner  of  calling  and 
electing  the  Representatives,  certain  members  united  in  an  address  to  the  Gov- 
ernor, claiming  that  the  constitution  and  laws  were  still  in  full  force  and 
must  be  administered  until  altered  or  repealed;  that  Pennsylvania  had  just  as 
good  a  right  to  be  governed  according  lo  the  usages  of  Pennsylvania  as  New 
York  had  to  be  governed  according  to  the  usages  of  that  province.  The  Leg- 
islature being  finally  organized.  Gov.  Fletcher  presented  a  letter  from  the 
Queen,  setting  forth  that  the  expense  for  the  preservation  and  defense  of  Albany 
against  the  French  was  intolerable  to  the  inhabitants  there,  and  that  as  this 
was  a  frontier  to  other  colonies,  it  was  thought  but  just  that  they  should  help 
bear  the  burden.  The  Legislature,  in  firm  but  respectful  terms,  maintained 
that  the  constitution  and  laws  enacted  under  them  were  in  full  force,  and 
when  he,  having  flatly  denied  this,  attempted  to  intimidate  them  by  the  threat 
of  annexing  Pennsylvania  to  New  York,  they  mildly  but  firmly  requested  that 
if  the  Governor  had  objections  to  the  bill  which  they  had  passed  and  would 
communicate  them,  they  would  try  to  remove  them.  The  business  was  now 
amicably  adjusted,  and  he  in  compliance  with  their  wish  dissolved  the  Assembly, 
and  after  appointing  William  Markham  Lieutenant  Governor,  departed  to  his 
government  in  New  York,  doubtless  well  satisfied  that  a  Quaker,  though  usu- 
ally mild  mannered,  is  not  easily  frightened  or  coerced. 

Gov.  Fletcher  met  the  Assembly  again  in  March,  1694,  and  dui-ing  this 
session,  having  apparently  failed  in  his  previous  endeavors  to  induce  the  Assem- 
bly to  vote  money  for  the  common  defense,  sent  a  communication  setting  forth 
the  dangers  to  be  apprehended  from  the  French  and  Indians,  and  concluding  in 
these  words :  "That  he  considered  their  principles ;  that  they  could  not  carry  arms 
nor  levy  money  to  make  war,  though  for  their  own  defense,  yet  he  hoped  that 
they  would  not  refuse  to  feed  the  hungry  and  clothe  the  naked;  that  was  to 
supply  the  Indian  nations  with  such  necessaries  as  may  influence  their  contin- 
ued friendship  to  their  provinces. "  But  notwithstanding  the  adroit  sugar- 
coating  of  the  pill,  it  was  not  acceptable  and  no  money  was  voted.  This  and  a 
brief  session  in  September  cloaed  the  Governorship  of  Pennsylvania  by 
Fletcher.  It  would  appear  from  a  letter  written  by  Penn,  after  hearing  of 
the  neglect  of  the  Legislature  to  vote  money  for  the  purpose  indicated,  that 
he  took  an  entirely  different  view  of  the  subject  from  that  which  was  antici- 
pated; for  he  blamed  the  colony  for  refusing  to  send  money  to  New  York  for 
what  he  calls  the  common  defense. 

Through  the  kind  offices  of  Lords  Rochestei ,  Raaelagh,  Sidney  and  Somers, 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham  and  Sir  John  Trenchard,  the  king  was  asked  to 
hear  the  case  of  William  Penn,  against  whom  no  charge  was  proven,  and  who 
would  two  years  before  have  gone  to  his  colony  had  he  not  supposed  that  he 
would  have  been  thought  to  go  in  defiance  of  the  government.     King  William 


answered  that  William  Penn  was  his  old  acquaintance  as  well  as  theirs,  that 
he  might  follow  his  business  as  freely  as  ever,  and  that  he  had  nothing  to  say 
to  him.  Penn  was  accordingly  reinstated  in  his  government  by  letters  patent 
dated  on  the  20th  of  August,  1694,  whereupon  he  commissioned  William  Mark- 
ham  Lieutenant  Governor. 

When  Markham  called  the  Assembly,  he  disregarded  the  provisions  of  the 
charter,  assuming  that  the  removal  of  Penn  had  annulled  the  grant.  The 
Assembly  made  no  objection  to  this  action,  as  there  were  provisions  in  the  old 
charter  that  they  desired  to  have  changed.  Accordingly,  when  the  appropria- 
tion bill  was  considered,  a  new  constitution  was  attached  to  it  and  passed. 
This  was  approved  by  Markham  and  became  the  organic  law,  the  third  consti- 
tution adopted  under  the  charter  of  King  Charles.  By  the  provisions  of  this 
instrument,  the  Council  was  composed  of  twelve  members,  and  the  Assembly 
of  twenty-four.  During  the  war  between  France  and  England,  the  ocean 
swarmed  with  the  privateers  of  the  former.  When  peace  was  declared,  many  of 
these  crafts,  which  had  richly  profited  by  privateering,  were  disposed  to  con- 
tinue their  irregular  practices,  which  was  now  piracy.  Judging  that  the  peace 
principles  of  the  Quakers  would  shield  them  from  forcible  seizure,  they  were 
accustomed  to  run  into  the  Delaware  for  safe  harbor.  Complaints  coming 
of  the  depredations  of  these  parties,  a  proclamation  was  issued  calling  on 
magistrates  and  citizens  to  unite  in  breaking  up  practices  so  damaging  to  the 
good  name  of  the  colony.  It  was  charged  in  England  that  evil-disposed  per- 
sons in  the  province  were  privy  to  these  practices,  if  not  parties  to  it,  and  that 
the  failure  of  the  Government  to  break  it  up  was  a  proof  of  its  inefiiciency, 
and  of  a  radical  defect  of  the  principles  on  which  it  was  based.  Penn  was 
much  exercised  by  these  charges,  and  in  his  letters  to  the  Lieutenant  Governor 
and  to  his  friends  in  the  Assembly,  urged  ceaseless  vigilance  to  effect  reform. 


William    Penn,    1699-1701— Andrew     Hamilton.    1701-3— Edward    Shippen 
1703^— John  Evans,  1704-9— Charles  Gookin,  1709-17. 

BEING  free  from  harassing  persecutions,  and  in  favor  at  court,  Penn  de- 
termined to  remove  with  his  family  to  Pennsylvania,  and  now  with  the  ex- 
pectation of  living  and  dying  here.  Accordingly,  in  July,  1699,  he  set  sail, 
and,  on  account  of  adverse  winds,  was  three  months  tossed  about  upon  the 
ocean.  Just  before  his  arrival  in  his  colony,  the  yellow  fever  raged  there  with 
great  virulence,  having  been  brought  thither  from  the  West  Indies,  but  had 
been  checked  by  the  biting  frosts  of  autumn,  and  had  now  disappeared.  An 
observant  traveler,  who  witnessed  the  effects  of  this  scourge,  writes  thus  of  it 
in  his  journal:  "  Great  was  the  majesty  and  hand  of  the  Lord.  Great  was 
the  fear  that  fell  upon  all  flesh.  I  saw  no  lofty  nor  airy  countenance,  nor 
heard  any  vain  jesting  to  move  men  to  laughter,  nor  witty  repartee  to  raise 
mirth,  nor  extravagant  feasting  to  excite  the  lusts  and  desires  of  the  flesh 
above  measure;  but  every  face  gathered  paleness,  and  many  hearts  were  hum- 
bled, and  countenances  fallen  and  sunk,  as  such  that  waited  every  moment  to 
be  summoned  to  the  bar  and  numbered  to  the  grave. " 

Great  joy  was  everywhere  manifested  throughout  the  province  at  the  arriv- 


al  of  the  proprietor  and  his  family,  fondly  believing  that  he  had  now  come  to 
stay.  He  met  the  Assembly  soon  after  landing,  but,  it  being  an  inclement 
season,  he  only  detained  them  long  enough  to  pass  two  measures  aimed  against 
piracy  and  illicit  trade,  exaggerated  reports  of  which,  having  been  spread 
broadcast  through  the  kingdom,  had  caused  him  great  uneasiness  and  vexation. 
At  the  first  monthly  meeting  of  Friends  in  1700,  he  laid  before  them  his 
concern,  which  was  for  the  welfare  of  Indians  and  Negroes,  and  steps  were 
taken  to  instruct  them  and  provide  stated  meetings  for  them  where  they  could 
hear  the  Word.  It  is  more  than  probable  that  he  had  fears  from  the  first  that 
his  enemies  in  England  would  interfere  in  his  affairs  to  such  a  degree  as  to  re- 
quire his  early  return,  though  he  had  declared  to  his  friends  there  that  he 
never  expected  to  meet  them  again.  His  greatest  solicitude,  consequently, 
was  to  give  a  charter  to  his  colony,  and  also  one  to  his  city,  the  very  best  that 
human  ingenuity  could  devise.  An  experience  of  now  nearly  twenty  years 
would  be  likely  to  develop  the  weaknesses  and  impracticable  provisions  of  the 
first  constitutions,  so  that  a  frame  now  drawn  with  all  the  light  of  the  past, 
and  by  the  aid  and  suggestion  of  the  men  who  had  been  employed  in  admin- 
istering it,  would  be  likely  to  be  enduring,  and  though  he  might  be  called 
hence,  or  be  removed  by  death,  their  work  would  live  on  from  generation  to 
generation  and  age  to  age,  and  exert  a  benign  and  preserving  influence  while 
the  State  should  exist. 

In  February,  1701,  Penn  met  the  most  renowned  and  powerful  of  the  In- 
dian chieftains, reaching  out  to  the  Potomac, the  Susquehanna  and  to  the  Ononda- 
goes  of  the  Five  Nations,  some  forty  in  number,  at  Philadelphia,  where  he 
renewed  with  them  pledges  of  peace  and  entered  into  a  formal  treaty  of  active 
friendship,  binding  them  to  disclose  any  hostile  intent,  confirm  sale  of  lands, 
be  governed  by  colonial  law,  all  of  which  was  confirmed  on  the  part  of  the  In- 
dians "by  five  parcels  of  skins;"  and  on  the  part  of  Penn  by  "  several  English 
goods  and  merchandises." 

Several  sessions  of  the  Legislature  were  held  in  which  great  harmony  pre- 
vailed, and  much  attention  was  giving  to  revising  and  recomposing  the  consti- 
tution. Biit  in  the  midst  of  their  labors  for  the  improvement  of  the  oi-ganic 
law,  intelligence  was  brought  to  Penn  that  a  bill  had  been  introduced  in  the 
House  of  Lords  for  reducing  all  the  proprietary  governments  in  America  to 
regal  ones,  under  pretence  of  advancing  the  prerogative  of  the  crown,  and 
the  national  advantage.  Such  of  the  owners  of  land  in  Pennsylvania  as  hap- 
pened to  be  in  England,  remonstrated  against  action  upon  the  bill  until  Penn 
could  return  and  be  heard,  and  wrote  to  him  urging  his  immediate  coming 
hither.  Though  much  to  his  disappointment  and  sorrow,  he  determined  to 
go  immediately  thither.  He  promptly  called  a  session  of  the  Assembly,  and 
in  his  message  to  the  two  Houses  said,  "I  cannot  think  of  such  a  voyage 
without  great  reluetancy  of  mind,  having  promised  myself  the  quietness  of  a 
wilderness.  For  my  heart  is  among  you,  and  no  disappointment  shall  ever  be 
able  to  alter  my  love  to  the  country,  and  resolution  to  return,  and  settle  my 
family  and  posterity  in  it.  *  *  Think  therefore  (since  all  men  are  mortal), 
of  some  suitable  expedient  and  provision  for  youi'  safety  as  well  in  your  privi- 
leges as  property.  Review  again  your  laws,  propose  new  ones,  and  you  will 
find  me  ready  to  comply  with  whatsoever  may  render  us  happy,  by  a  nearer 
union  of  our  interests."  The  Assembly  returned  a  suitable  response,  and  then 
proceeded  to  draw  up  twenty-one  articles.  The  first  related  to  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  Lieutenant  Governor.  Penn  proposed  that  the  Assembly  should 
choose  one.  But  this  they  declined,  preferring  that  he  should  appoint  one. 
Little  trouble  was  experienced  in  settling  everything  broached,  except   the 


union  of  the  province  and  lower  counties.  Penn  used  his  best  endeavors  to 
reconcile  them  to  the  union,  but  without  avail.  The  new  constitation  was 
adopted  on  the  28th  of  October,  1701.  The  instrument  provided  for  the 
union,  but  in  a  supplementary  article,  evidently  granted  with  great  reluctance, 
it  was  provided  that  the  province  and  the  territories  might  be  separated  at  any 
time  within  three  years.  As  his  last  act  before  leaving,  he  presented  the  city 
of  Philadelphia,  now  grown  to  be  a  considerable  place,  and  always  an  object 
of  his  affectionate  regard,  with  a  charter  of  privileges.  As  his  Deputy,  he  ap- 
pointed Andrew  Hamilton,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  East  New  Jersey,  and 
sometime  Governor  of  both  East  and  West  Jersey,  and  for  Secretary  of  the 
province  and^  Clerk  of  the  Council,  he  selected  James  Logan,  a  man  of  sin- 
gular urbanity  and  strength  of  mind,  and  withal  a  scholar. 

Penn  set  sail  for  Europe  on  the  1st  of  November,  1701.  Soon  after  his 
arrival,  on  the  18th  of  January,  1702,  King  William  died,  and  Anne  of  Den- 
mark succeeded  him.  He  now  found  himself  in  favor  at  court,  and  that  he 
might  be  convenient  to  the  royal  resideuce,  he  again  took  lodgings  at  Kensing- 
ton. The  bill  which  had  been  pending  before  Parliament,  that  had  given  him 
so  much  uneasiness,  was  at  the  succeeding  session  dropped  entirely,  and  was 
never  again  called  up.  During  his  leisure  hours,  he  now  busied  himself  in 
writing    "several  useful  and   excellent  treatises  on  divers  subjects." 

Gov.  Hamilton's  administration  continued  only  till  December,  1702,  when 
he  died.  He  was  earnest  in  his  endeavors  to  induce  the  territories  to  unite 
with  the  province,  they  having  as  yet  not  accepted  the  new  charter,  alleging 
that  they  had  three  years  in  which  to  make  their  decision,  but  without  success. 
He  also  organized  a  military  force,  of  which  George  Lowther  was  commander, 
for  the  safety  of  the  colony. 

The  executive  authority  now  devolved  upon  the  Council,  of  which  Edward 
Shippen  was  President.  Conflict  of  authority,  and  contention  over  the  due  in- 
terpretation of  some  provisions  of  the  new  charter,  prevented  the  accomplish- 
ment of  much,  by  way  of  legislation,  in  the  Assembly  which  convened  in  1703; 
though  in  this  body  it  was  finally  determined  that  the  lower  counties  should 
thereafter  act  separately  in  a  legislative  capacity.  This  separation  proved 
final,  the  two  bodies  never  again  meeting  in  common. 

Though  the  bill  to  govern  the  American  Colonies  by  regal  authority  failed, 
yet  the  clamor  of  those  opposed  to  the  proprietary  Governors  was  so  strong 
that  an  act  was  finally  passed  requiring  the  selection  of  deputies  to  have  the 
royal  assent.  Hence,  in  choosing  a  successor  to  Hamilton,  he  was  obliged  to 
consider  the  Queen's  wishes.  John  Evans,  a  man  of  parts,  of  Welsh  extrac- 
tion, only  twenty-six  years  old,  a  member  of  the  Queen's  household,  and  not  a 
Quaker,  nor  even  of  exemplary  morals,  was  appointed,  who  arrived  in  the  col- 
ony in  December,  1703.  He  was  accompanied  by  William  Penn,  Jr.,  who  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Council,  the  number  having  been  increased  by  author- 
ity of  the  Governor,  probably  with  a  view  to  his  election. 

The  first  care  of  Evans  was  to  unite  the  province  and  lower  counties, 
though  the  final  separation  had  been  agreed  to.  He  presented  the  matter  so 
well  that  the  lower  counties,  from  which  the  difficulty  had  always  come,  were 
willing  to  return  to  a  firm  union.  But  now  the  provincial  Assembly,  having 
become  impatient  of  the  obstacles  thrown  in  the  way  of  legislation  by  the  dele- 
gates from  these  counties,  was  unwilling  to  receive  them.  They  henceforward 
remained  separate  in  a  legislative  capacity,  though  still  a  part  of  Pennsylvania, 
under  the  claim  of  Penn,  and  ruled  by  the  same  Governor,  and  thus  the}-  con- 
tinued until  the  20th  of  September,  1776,  when  a  constitution  was  adopted, 
and   they  were   proclaimed  a   separate    State  under  the  name  of   Delaware. 


During  two  years  of  the  government  of  Evans,  there  was  ceaseless  discord  be- 
tween the  Council,  headed  by  the  Governor  and  Secretary  Logan  on  the  one 
side,  and  the  Assembly  led  by  David  Lloyd,  its  Speaker,  on  the  other,  and 
little  legislation  was  effected. 

Realizing  the  defenseless  condition  of  the  colony,  Evans  determined  to 
organize  the  militia,  and  accordingly  issued  his  proclamation.  ' '  In  obedience 
to  her  Majesty's  royal  command,  and  to  the  end  that  the  inhabitants  of  this 
government  may  be  in  a  posture  of  defense  and  readiness  to  withstand  and 
repel  all  acts  of  hostility,  I  do  hereby  strictly  command  and  require  all  per- 
sons residing  in  this  government,  whose  persuasions  will,  on  any  account,  per- 
mit them  to  take  up  arms  in  their  own  defense,  that  forthwith  they  do  pro- 
vide themselves  with  a  good  firelock  and  ammunition,  in  order  to  enlist  them- 
selves in  the  militia,  which  I  am  now  settling  in  this  government. "  The  Gov- 
ernor evidently  issued  this  proclamation  io  good  faith,  and  with  a  pure  pur- 
pose. The  French  and  Indians  had  assumed  a  threatening  aspect  upon  the  north, 
and  while  the  other  colonies  had  assisted  New  York  liberally,  Pennsylvania  had 
done  little  or  nothing  for  the  common  defense.  But  his  call  fell  stillborn. 
The  "  fire-locks"  were  not  brought  out,  and  none  enlisted. 

Disappointed  at  this  lack  of  spirit,  and  embittered  by  the  factious  temper  of 
the  Assembly,  Evans,  who  seems  not  to  have  had  faith  in  the  religious  prin- 
ciples of  the  Quakers,  and  to  have  entirely  mistook  the  nature  of  their  Christian 
zeal,  formed  a  wild  scheme  to  test  their  steadfastness  under  the  pressure  of 
threatened  danger.  In  conjunction  with  his  gay  associates  in  revel,  he  agreed 
to  have  a  false  alarm  spread  of  the  approach  of  a  hostile  force  in  the  river, 
whereupon  he  was  to  raise  the  alarm  in  the  city.  Accordingly,  on  the  day  of 
the  fair  in  Philadelphia,  16th  of  March,  1706,  a  messenger  came,  post  haste 
from  New  Castle,  bringing  the  startling  intelligence  that  an  armed  fleet  of  the 
enemy  was  already  in  the  river,  and  making  their  way  rapidly  toward  the  city. 
Whereupon  Evans  acted  his  part  to  a  nicety.  He  sent  emissaries  through  the 
town  proclaiming  the  dread  tale,  while  he  mounted  his  horse,  and  in  an  ex- 
cited manner,  and  with  a  drawn  sword,  rode  through  the  streets,  calling  upon  all 
good  men  and  true  to  rush  to  arms  for  the  defense  of  their  homes,  their  wives 
and  children,  and  all  they  held  dear.  The  ruse  was  so  well  played  that  it 
had  an  immense  effect.  "  The  suddenness  of  the  surprise,''  says  Proud,  "  with 
the  noise  of  precipitation  consequent  thereon,  threw  many  of  the  people  into 
very  great  fright  and  consternation,  insomuch  that  it  is  said  some  threw  their 
plate  and  most  valuable  effects  down  their  wells  and  little  houses;  that  others 
hid  themselves,  in  the  best  manner  they  could,  while  many  retired  further  up 
the  river,  with  what  they  could  most  readily  carry  off;  so  that  some  of  the 
creeks  seemed  full  of  boats  and  small  craft;  those  of  a  larger  size  running  as 
far  as  Burlington,  and  some  higher  up  the  river;  several  women  are  said  to 
have  miscarried  by  the  fright  and  terror  into  which  they  were  thrown,  and 
much  mischief  ensued." 

The  more  thoughtful  of  the  people  are  said  to  have  understood  the 
deceit  from  the  first,  and  labored  to  allay  the  excitement;  but  the  seeming 
earnestness  of  the  Governor  and  the  zeal  of  his  emissaries  so  worked  upon  the 
more  inconsiderate  of  the  population  that  the  consternation  and  commotion 
was  almost  past  belief.  In  an  almanac  published  at  Philadelphia  for  the  next 
year  opposite  this  date  was  this  distich: 

"Wise  men  wonder,  good  men  grieve, 
Knaves  invent  and  fools  believe." 

Though  this  ruse  was  played  upon  all  classes  alike,  yet  it  was  generally 
believed  to  have  been  aimed  chiefly  at  the  Quakers,  to  try  the  force  of  thoir 


principles,  and  see  if  they  would  not  rush  to  arms  when  danger  should  really 
appear.  But  in  this  the  Governor  was  disappointed.  For  it  is  said  that  only 
four  out  of  the  entire  population  of  this  religious  creed  showed  any  disposition 
to  falsify  their  faith.  It  was  the  day  of  their  weekly  meeting,  and  regardless 
of  the  dismay  and  consternation  which  were  everywhere  manifest  about  them, 
they  assembled  in  their  accustomed  places  of  worship,  and  engao-ed  in  their 
devotions  as  though  nothing  unusual  was  transpiring  without,  manifesting 
such  unshaken  faith,  as  Whittier  has  exemplified  in  verse  by  his  Abraham 
Davenport,  on  the  occasion  of  the  Dark  Day: 

',  Meanwhile  in  the  old  State  House,  dim  as  ghosts. 
Sat  the  law-givers  of  Connecticut, 
Trembling  beneath  their  legislative  robes. 
'It  is  the  Lord's  2:reat  day!  Let  us  adjourn,' 
Some  said;  and  then,  as  with  one  accord, 
All  eyes  were  turned  on  Abraham  Davenport. 
He  rose,  slow,  cleaving  with  his  steady  voice 
The  intolerable  hush.     '  This  well  may  be 
The  Day  of  Judgment  which  the  world  awaits; 
But  be  it  so  or  not,  I  only  know 
My  present  duty,  and  my  Lord's  command 
To  occupy  till  He  come.     So  at  the  post, 
"Where  He  hath  set  me  in  His  Providence, 
I  choose,  for  one,  to  meet  Him  face  to  face. 
No  faithless  servant  frightened  from  my  task. 
But  ready  when  the  Lord  of  the  harvest  calls; 
And  therefore,  with  all  reverence,  I  would  say, 
Let  God  do  His  work,  we  will  see  to  ours. 
Bring  in  the  candles.'     And  they  brought  them  in." 

In  conjunction  with  the  Legislature  of  the  lower  counties,  Evans  was  in- 
strumental in  having  a  law  passed  for  the  imposition  of  a  tax  on  the  tonnage 
of  the  river,  and  the  erection  of  a  fort  near  the  town  of  New  Castle  for  com- 
pelling obedience.  This  was  in  direct  violation  of  the  fundamental  compact, 
and  vexatious  to  commerce.  It  was  at  length  forcibly  resisted,  and  its  impo- 
sition abandoned.  His  administration  was  anything  but  efficient  or  peaceful, 
a  series  of  contentions,  of  charges  and  counter-charges  having  been  kept  up 
between  the  leaders  of  the  two  factions,  Lloyd  and  Logan,  which  he  was  pow- 
erless to  properly  direct  or  control.  "  He  was  relieved  in  1709.  Possessed  of 
a  good  degree  of  learning  and  refinement,  and  accustomed  to  the  gay  society 
of  the  British  metropolis,  he  found  in  the  grave  and  serious  habits  of  the 
Friends  a  type  of  life  and  character  which  he  failed  to  comprehend,  and  with 
which  he  could,  consequently,  have  little  sympathy.  How  widely  he  mistook 
the  Quaker  character  is  seen  in  the  result  of  his  wild  and  hair-brained  experi- 
ment to  test  their  faith.  His  general  tenor  of  life  seems  to  have  been  of  a 
piece  with  this.  Watson  says:  'The  Indians  of  Connestoga  complained  of 
him  when  there  as  misbehaving  to  their  women,  and  that,  in  1709,  Solomon 
Cresson,  going  his  rounds  at  night,  entered  a  tavern  to  suppress  a  riotous  as- 
sembly, and  found  there  John  Evans,  Esq. ,  the  Governor,  who  fell  to  beat- 
ing Cresson.' " 

The  youth  and  levity  of  Gov.  Evans  induced  the  proprietor  to  seek  for  a 
successor  of  a  more  sober  and  sedate  character.  He  had  thought  of  proposing 
his  son,  but  finally  settled  upon  Col.  Charles  Gookin,  who  was  reputed  to  be  a 
man  of  wisdom  and  prudence,  though  as  was  afterward  learned,  to  the  sorrow 
of  the  colony,  he  was  subject  to  fits  of  derangement,  which  toward  the  close  of 
his  term  were  exhibited  in  the  most  extravagant  acts.  He  had  scarcely  ar- 
rived in  the  colony  before  charges  were  preferred  against  the  late  Governor, 
and  he  was  asked  to  institute  criminal  proceedings,  which  he  declined.     This 


was  the  occasion  of  a  renewal  of  contentions  between  the  Governor  and  his 
Council  and  the  Assembly,  which  continued  during  the  greater  part  of  his  ad- 
ministration. In  the  midst  of  them,  Logan,  who  was  at  the  head  of  the  Coun- 
cil, having  demanded  a  trial  of  the  charges  against  him,  and  failed  to  secure 
one,  sailed  for  Europe,  where  he  presented  the  difficulties  experienced  in  ad- 
ministering the  government  so  strongly,  that  Penn  was  seriously  inclined  to 
sell  his  interest  in  the  colony.  He  had  already  greatly  crippled  his  estate  by 
expenses  he  had  incurred  in  making  costly  presents  to  the  natives,  and  in  set- 
tling his  colony,  for  which  he  had  received  small  return.  In  the  year  1707, 
he  had  become  involved  in  a  suit  in  chancery  with  the  executors  of  his  former 
steward,  in  the  course  of  which  he  was  contined  in  the  Old  Baily  during  this 
and  a  part  of  the  following  year,  when  he  was  obliged  to  mortgage  his  colony 
in  the  sum  of  £6,600  to  relieve  himself.  Foreseeing  the  great  consequence 
it  would  be  to  the  crown  to  buy  the  rights  of  the  proprietors  of  the  several 
English  colonies  in  America  before  they  would  grow  too  powerful,  negotia- 
tions had  been  entered  into  early  in  the  reign  of  William  and  Mary  for  their 
purchase,  especially  the  "fine  province  of  Mr.  Penn."  Borne  down  by  these 
troubles,  and  by  debts  and  litigations  at  home,  Penn  seriously  entertained  the 
proposition  to  sell  in  1712,  and  ofiered  it  for  £20,000.  The  sum  of  £12,000 
was  offered  on  the  part  of  the  crown,  which  was  agreed  upon,  but  before  the 
necessary  papers  were  executed,  he  was  stricken  down  with  apoplexy,  by  which 
he  was  incapacitated  for  transacting  any  business,  and  a  stay  was  put  to  fur- 
ther proceedings  until  the  Queen  should  order  an  act  of  Parliament  for  con- 
summating the  purchase. 

^  It  is  a  mournful  spectacle  to  behold  the  great  mind  and  the  great  heart  of 
Penn  reduced  now  in  his  declining  years,  by  the  troubles  of  government  and 
by  debts  incurred  in  the  bettering  of  his  colony,  to  this  enfeebled  condition. 
He  was  at  the  moment  writing  to  Logan  on  public  affairs,  when  his  hand  was 
suddenly  seized  by  lethargy  in  the  beginning  of  a  sentence,  which  he  never 
finished.  His  mind  was  touched  by  the  disease,  which  he  never  recovered, 
and  after  lingering  for  six  years,  he  died  on  the  30th  of  May,  1718,  in  the 
seventy- fourth  year  of  his  age.  With  great  power  of  intellect,  and  a  religious 
devotion  scarcely  matched  in  all  Christendom,  he  gave  himself  to  the  welfare 
of  mankind,  by  securing  civil  and  religious  liberty  through  the  operations  of 
organic  law.  Though  not  a  lawyer  by  profession,  he  drew  frames  of  govern- 
ment and  bodies  of  laws  which  have  been  the  admiration  of  succeeding  gener- 
ations, and  are  destined  to  exert  a  benign  influence  in  all  future  time,  and  by 
his  discussions  with  Lord  Baltimore  and  before  the  Lords  in  Council,  he 
showed  himself  familiar  with  the  abstruse  principles  of  law.  Though  but  a 
private  person  and  of  a  despised  sect,  he  was  received  as  the  friend  and  confi- 
dential advisee  of  the  ruling  sovereigns  of  England,  and  some  of  the  princi- 
ples which  give  luster  to  British  law  were  engrafted  there  through  the  influ- 
ence of  the  powerful  intellect  and  benignant  heart  of  Penn.  He  sought  to 
know  no  philosophy  but  that  promulgated  by  Christ  and  His  disciples,  and 
this  he  had  sounded  to  its  depths,  and  in  it  were  anchored  his  ideas  of  public 
law  and  private  and  social  living.  The  untamed  savage  of  the  forest  bowed  in 
meek  and  loving  simplicity  to  his  mild  and  resistless  sway,  and  the  members 
of  the  Society  of  Friends  all  over  Europe  flocked  to  his  City  of  Brotherly  Love. 
His  prayers  for  the  welfare  of  his  people  are  the  beginning  and  ending  of  all 
his  public  and  private  correspondence,  and  who  will  say  that  they  have  not 
been  answered  in  the  blessings  which  have  attended  the  commonwealth  of  his 
founding?  And  will  not  the  day  of  its  greatness  be  when  the  inhabitants 
throughout  all   its  borders  shall  return  to  the  peaceful  and  loving  spirit  of 


Penn  ?  In  the  midst  of  a  licentioiis  court,  and  with  every  prospect  of  advance- 
ment in  its  sunshine  and  favor,  inheriting  a  gi-eat  name  and  an  independent 
patrimony,  he  turned  aside  from  this  brilliant  track  to  make  common  lot  with 
a  poor  sect  under  the  ban  of  Government;  endured  stripes  and  imprisonment 
and  loss  of  property,  banished  himself  to  the  wilds  of  the  American  continent 
that  he  might  secure  to  his  people  those  devotions  which  seemed  to  them  re- 
quired by  their  Maker,  and  has  won  for  himself  a  name  by  the  simple  deeds  of 
love  and  humble  obedience  to  Christian  mandates  which  shall  never  perish. 
Many  have  won  renown  by  deeds  of  blood,  but  fadeless  glory  has  come  to 
William  Penn  by  charity. 


Sir  William  Keith,  1717-23— Patrick  Gordon,  1726-36— James  Logan,  1736-38 
—George  Thomas,  1738-47— Anthony  Palmer,  1747-48— James  Hamilton, 

IN  1712,  Penn  had  made  a  will,  by  which  he  devised  to  his  only  surviving 
son,  William,  by  his  first  marriage,  all  his  estates  in  England,  amounting 
to  some  twenty  thousand  pounds.  By  his  first  wife,  Gulielma  Maria  Springett, 
he  had  issue  of  three  sons — William,  Springett  and  William,  and  four  daugh- 
ters— Gulielma,  Margaret,  Gulielma  and  Letitia;  and  by  his  second  wife, 
Hannah  Callowhill,  of  four  sons — John,  Thomas,  Richard  and  Dennis.  To 
his  wife  Hannah,  who  survived  him,  and  whom  he  made  the  sole  executrix  of 
his  will,  he  gave,  for  the  equal  benefit  of  herself  and  her  childi-en,  all  his 
personal  estate  in  Pennsylvania  and  elsewhere,  after  paying  all  debts,  and 
alloting  ten  thousand  acres  of  land  in  the  Province  to  his  daughter  Letitia,  by 
his  first  marriage,  and  each  of  the  three  children  of  his  son  William. 

Doubts  having  arisen  as  to  the  force  of  the  provisions  of  this  will,  it  was 
finally  determined  to  institute  a  suit  in  chancery  for  its  determination.  Before 
a  decision  was  reached,  in  March,  1720,  William  Penn,  Jr.,  died,  and  while 
still  pending,  his  son  Springett  died  also.  During  the  long  pendency  of  this 
litigation  for  nine  years,  Hannah  Penn,  as  executrix  of  the  will,  assumed  the 
proprietary  powers,  issued  instructions  to  her  Lieutenant  Governors,  heard 
complaints  and  settled  difiiculties  with  the  skill  aud  the  assurance  of  a  veteran 
diplomatist.  In  1727,  a  decision  was  reached  that,  upon  the  death  of  William 
Penn,  Jr.,  and  his  son  Springett,  the  proprietary  rights  in  Pennsylvania  de- 
scended to  the  three  surviving  sons — John,  Thomas  and  Richard — issue  by  the 
second  marriage;  and  that  the  proprietors  bargain  to  sell  his  province  to  the 
crown  for  twelve  thousand  pounds,  made  in  1712,  and  on  which  one  thousand 
pounds  had  been  paid  at  the  confirmation  of  the  sale,  was  void.  Whereupon 
the  three  sons  became  the  joint  proprietors. 

A  year  before  the  death  of  Penn,  the  lunacy  of  Gov.  Gookin  having  be- 
come troublesome,  he  was  succeeded  in  the  Government  by  Sir  William  Keith, 
a  Scotchman  who  had  served  as  Surveyor  of  Customs  to  the  English  Govern 
ment,  m  which  capacity  he  had  visited  Pennsylvania  pi-eviously,  and  knew 
something  of  its  condition.  He  was  a  man  of  dignified  and  commanding 
bearing,  endowed  with  cunning,  of  an  accommdating  policy,  full  of  faithful 
promises,  and  usually  found  upon  the  stronger  side.  Hence,  upon  his 
arrival    in   the   colony,    he   did    not   summon    the    Assembly     immediately, 


assigning  as  a  reason  in  his  first  message  that  he  did  not  wish  to  inconvenience 
the  country  members  by  calling  them  in  harvest  time.  The  disposition  thus 
manifested  to  favor  the  people,  and  his  advocacy  of  popular  rights  on  several 
occasions  in  opposition  to  the  claims  of  the  proprietor,  gave  great  satisfaction 
to  the  popular  branch  of  the  Legislature  which  manifested  its  appreciation  of 
his  conduct  by  voting  him  liberal  salaries,  which  had  often  been  withheld  from 
his  less  accommodating  predecessors.  By  his  artful  and  insinuating  policy, 
he  induced  the  Assembly  to  pass  two  acts  which  had  previously  met  with  un- 
compromising opposition — one  to  establish  a  Court  of  Equity,  with  himself  as 
Chancellor,  the  want  of  which  had  been  seriously  felt;  and  another,  for  organ- 
izing the  militia.  Though  the  soil  was  fruitful  and  produce  was  plentiful, 
yet,  for  lack  of  good  markets,  and  on  account  of  the  meagerness  of  the  cir- 
culating medium,  prices  were  very  low,  the  toil  and  sweat  of  the  husbandman 
being  little  rewarded,  and  the  taxes  and  payments  on  land  were  met  with  great 
difficulty.  Accordingly,  arrangements  were  made  for  the  appointment  of  in- 
spectors of  provisions,  who,  from  a  conscientious  discharge  of  duty,  soon 
■caused  the  Pennsylvania  brands  of  best  products  to  be  much  sought  for,  and 
to  command  ready  sale  at  highest  prices  in  the  West  Indies,  whither  most  of 
the  surplus  produce  was  exported.  A  provision  was  also  made  for  the  issue  <jf 
a  limited  amount  of  paper  money,  on  the  establishment  of  ample  securities, 
which  tended  to  raise  the  value  of  the  products  of  the  soil  and  of  manufact- 
ures, and  encourage  industry.    . 

By  the  repeated  notices  of  the  Governors  in  their  messages  to  the  Legis- 
lature previous  to  this  time,  it  is  evident  that  Indian  hostilities  had  for  some- 
time been  threatened.  The  Potomac  was  the  dividing  line  between  the 
Northern  and  Southern  Indians.  But  the  young  men  on  either  side,  when  out 
in  pursuit  of  game,  often  crossed  the  line  of  the  river  into  the  territory  of  the 
other,  when  fierce  altercations  ensued.  This  trouble  had  become  so 
violent  in  1719  as  to  threaten  a  great  Indian  war,  in  which  the  pow- 
erful confederation,  known  as  the  Five  Nations,  would  take  a  hand. 
To  avert  this  danger,  which  it  was  foreseen  would  inevitably  involve 
the  defenseless  familes  upon  the  frontier,  and  perhaps  the  entire  colony, 
Gov.  Keith  determined  to  use  his  best  exertions.  He  accordingly  made 
a  toilsome  journey  in  the  spring  of  1721  to  confer  with  the  Governor  of 
Virginia  and  endeavor  to  employ  by  concert  of  action  such  means  as  would 
allay  further  cause  of  contention.  His  policy  was  well  devised,  and  enlisted 
the  favor  of  the  Governor.  Soon  after  his  return,  he  summoned  a  council  of 
Indian  Chieftains  to  meet  him  at  Conestoga,  a  point  about  seventy  miles  west 
of  Philadelphia,  He  went  in  considerable  pomp,  attended  by  some  seventy 
or  eighty  horsemen,  gaily  caparisoned,  and  many  of  them  armed,  arriving 
about  noon,  on  the  4th  of  July,  not  then  a  day  of  more  note  than  other  days. 
He  went  immediately  to  Capt.  Civility's  cabin,  where  were  assembled  four 
deputies  of  the  Five  Nations  and  representatives  of  other  tribes.  The  Gov- 
ernor said  that  he  had  come  a  long  distance  from  home  to  see  and  speak  to 
representatives  of  the  Five  Nations,  who  had  never  met  the  Governor  of  Penn- 
sylvania. They  said  in  reply  that  they  had  heard  much  of  the  Governor,  and 
would  have  come  sooner  to  pay  him  their  respects,  but  that  the  wild  conduct  of 
some  of  their  young  men  had  made  them  ashamed  to  show  their  faces.  In  the 
formal  meeting  in  the  morning,  Ghesaont,  chief  of  the  Senecas,  spoke  for  all 
the  Five  Nations.  He  said  that  they  now  felt  that  they  were  speaking  to  the 
same  effect  that  they  would  were  William  Penn  before  them,  that  they  had  not 
forgotten  Penn,  nor  the  treaties  made  with  him,  and  the  good  advice  he  gave 
them;  that  though  they  could  not  write  as  do  the  English,  yet  they  could  keep 


all  these  transactions  fresh  in  their  memories.  After  laying  down  a  belt  of 
"wampum  upon  the  table  as  if  by  way  of  emphasis,  he  began  again,  declaring 
that  "all  their  disorders  arose  from  the  use  of  rum  and  strong  spirits,  which 
took  away  their  sense  and  memory,  that  they  had  no  such  liquors,''  and  desired 
that  no  more  be  sent  among  them.  Here  he  produced  a  bundle  of  dressed 
skins,  by  which  he  would  say,  ' '  you  see  how  much  in  earnest  we  are  upon  this 
matter  of  furnishing  fiery  liquors  to  us."  Then  he  proceeds,  declaring  that 
the  Five  Nations  remember  all  their  ancient  treaties,  and  they  now  desire  that 
the  chain  of  friendship  may  be  made  so  strong  that  none  of  the  links  may 
ever  be  broken,  This  may  have  been  a  hint  that  they  wanted  high-piled 
and  valuable  presents;  for  the  Quakers  had  made  a  reputation  of  brightening 
and  strengthening  the  chain  of  friendship  by  valuable  presents  which  had 
reached  so  far  away  as  the  Five  Nations.  He  then  produces  a  bundle  of  raw 
skins,  and  observes  ' '  that  a  chain  may  contract  rust  with  laying  and  become 
weaker;  wherefore,  he  desires  it  may  now  be  so  well  cleaned  as  to  remain 
brighter  and  stronger  than  ever  it  was  before."  Here  he  presents  another  par- 
cel of  skins,  and  continues,  "that  as  in  the  firmament,  all  clouds  and  dark- 
ness are  removed  from  the  face  of  the  sun,  so  they  desire  that  all  misunder- 
standings may  be  fully  done  away,  so  that  when  they,  who  are  now  here,  shall 
be  dead  and  gone,  their  whole  people,  with  their  children  and  posterity,  may  en- 
joy the  clear  sunshine  with  us  forever."  Presenting  another  bundle  of  skins, 
he  says,  "that,  looking  upon  the  Governor  as  if  William  Penn  were  present, 
they  desire,  that,  in  case  any  disorders  should  hereafter  happen  between  their 
young  people  and  ours,  we  would  not  be  too  hasty  in  resenting  any  such  acci- 
dent, until  their  Council  and  ours  can  have  some  opportunity  to  treat  amicably 
upon  it,  and  so  to  adjust  all  matters,  as  that  the  friendship  between  us  may 
still  be  inviolably  preserved."  Here  he  produces  a  small  parcel  of  dressed 
skins,  and  concludes  by  saying  "  that  we  may  aow  be  together  as  one  people, 
treating  one  another's  children  kindly  and  afi'ectionately,  that  they  are  fully 
empowered  to  speak  for  the  Five  Nations,  and  they  look  upon  the  Governor  as 
the  representative  of  the  Great  King  of  England,  and  therefore  they  expect 
that  everything  now  stipulated  will  be  made  absolutely  firm  and  good  on  both 
sides."  And  now  he  presents  a  different  style  of  present  and  pulls  out  a 
bundle  of  bear  skins,  and  proceeds  to  put  in  an  item  of  complaint,  that  ' '  they 
get  too  little  for  their  skins  and  furs,  so  that  they  cannot  live  by  hunting  ; 
they  desire  us,  therefore,  to  take  compassion  on  them,  and  contrive  some  way 
to  help  them  in  that  particular.  Then  producing  a  few  furs,  he  speaks  only 
for  himself,  "to  acquaint  the  Governor,  that  the  Five  Nations  having  heard 
that  the  Governor  of  Virginia  wanted  to  speak  with  them,  he  himself,  with 
some  of  his  company  intended  to  proceed  to  Virginia,  but  do  not  know  the 
way  how  to  get  safe  thither." 

To  this  formal  and  adroitly  conceived  speech  of  the  Seneca  chief,  Gov. 
Keith,  after  having  brought  in  the  present  of  stroud  match  coats,  gunpowder, 
lead,  biscuit,  pipes  and  tobacco,  adjourned  the  council  till  the  following  day, 
when,  being  assembled  at  Conestoga,  he  answered  at  length  the  items  of  the 
chieftain's  speech.  His  most  earnest  appeal,  however,  was  made  in  favor  of 
peace.  "  I  have  persuaded  all  my  [Indian]  brethren,  in  these  parts,  to  con- 
sider what  is  for  their  good,  and  not  to  go  out  any  more  to  war  ;  but  your 
young  men  [Five  Nations]  as  they  come  this  way,  endeavor  to  force  them  ; 
and,  because  they  incline  to  the  counsels  of  peace,  and  ihe  good  advice  of  their 
true  friends,  your  people  use  them  ill,  and  often  prevail  with  them  to  go  out 
to  their  own  destruction.  Thus  it  was  that  their  town  of  Conestoga  lost  their 
good  king  not  long  ago.     Their  young  children   are  left  without  parents  ; 


their  wives  without  husbands  ;  the  old  men,  contrary  to  the  course  of  nature, 
mourn  the  death  of  their  young  ;  the  people  decay  and  grow  weak  ;  we  lose 
our  dear  friends  and  are  afflicted.  Surely  you  cannot  propose  to  get  either 
riches,  or  possessions,  by  going  thus  out  to  war  ;  for  when  you  kill  a  deer,  you 
have  the  flesh  to  eat,  and  the  skin  to  sell  ;  but  when  you  return  from  war,  you 
bring  nothing  home,  but  the  scalp  of  a  dead  man,  who  perhaps  was  husband 
to  a  kind  wife,  and  father  to  tender  children,  who  never  wronged  you,  though, 
by  losing  him,  you  have  robbed  them  of  their  help  and  protection,  and  at  the 
same  time  got  nothing  by  it.  If  I  were  not  your  friend,  I  would  not  take  the 
trouble  to  say  all  these  things  to  you."  When  the  Governor  had  concluded 
his  address,  he  called  the  Senaca  chieftain  (Ghesaont)  to  him,  and  presented  a 
gold  coronation  medal  of  King  George  I,  which  he  requested  should  be  taken 
to  the  monarch  of  the  Five  Nations,  "  Kannygooah,"  to  be  laid  up  and  kept  as 
a  token  to  our  children's  children,  that  an  entire  and  lasting  friendship  is  now 
established  forever  betwewn  the  English  in  this  country  and  the  great  Five 
Nations."  Upon  the  return  of  the  Governor,  he  was  met  at  the  upper  ferry  of 
the  Schuylkill,  by  the  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of  the  city,  with  about  two  hun- 
dred horse,  and  conducted  through  the  streets  after  the  manner  of  a  conqueror 
of  old  returning  from  the  scenes  of  his  triumphs. 

Gov.  Keith  gave  diligent  study  to  the  subject  of  finance,  regulating  the 
currency  in  such  a  way  that  the  planter  should  have  it  in  his  power  to  dis- 
charge promptly  his  indebtedness  to  the  merchant,  that  their  mutual  interests 
might  thus  be  subserved.  He  even  proposed  to  establish  a  considerable  settle- 
ment on  his  own  account  in  the  colony,  in  order  to  carry  on  manufactures,  and 
thus  consume  the  grain,  of  which  there  was  at  this  time  abundance,  and  no 
profitable  market  abroad. 

In  the  spring  of  1722,  an  Indian  was  barbarously  murdered  within  the 
limits  of  the  colony,  which  gave  the  Governor  great  concern.  After  having 
cautioned  red  men  so  strongly  about  keeping  the  peace,  he  felt  that  the  honor 
of  himself  and  all  his  people  was  compromised  by  this  vile  act.  He  immedi- 
ately commissioned  James  Logan  and  John  French  to  go  to  the  scene  of  the 
iQurder  above  Conestoga,  and  inquire  into  the  facts  of  the  case,  quickly  appre- 
hended the  supposed  murderers,  sent  a  fast  Indian  runner  (Satcheecho),  to 
acquaint  the  Five  Nations  with  his  sorrow  for  the  act,  and  of  his  determination 
to  bring  the  guilty  parties  to  justice,  and  himself  set  out  with  three  of  his 
Council  (Hill,  Norris  and  Hamilton),  for  Albany,  where  he  had  been  invited 
by  the  Indians  for  a  conference  with  the  Governors  of  all  the  colonies,  and 
where  he  met  the  chiefs  of  the  Five  Nations,  and  treated  with  them  upon  the 
subject  of  the  murder,  besides  making  presents  to  the  Indians.  It  was  on  this 
occasion  that  the  grand  sachem  of  this  great  confederacy  made  that  noble, 
and  generous,  and  touching  response,  so  dijfferent  from  the  spirit  of  revenge 
generally  attributed  to  the  Indian  character.  It  is  a  notable  example  of  love 
that  begets  love,  and  of  the  mild  answer  that  turneth  away  wrath.  He  said  : 
"  The  great  king  of  the  Five  Nations  is  sorry  for  the  death  of  the  Indian 
that  was  killed,  for  he  was  of  his  own  flesh  and  blood.  He  believes  that  the 
Governor  is  also  sorry ;  but,  now  that  it  is  done,  there  is  no  help  for  it,  and 
he  desires  that  Cartlidge  [the  murderer]  may  not  be  put  to  death,  nor  that  he 
should  be  spared  for  a  time,  and  afterward  executed  ;  one  life  is  enough  to  be 
lost ;  there  should  not  two  die.  The  King's  heart  is  good  to  the  Governor  and 
all  the  English." 

Though  Gov.  Keith,  during  the  early  part  of  his  term,  pursued  a  pacific 
policy,  yet  the  interminable  quarrels  which  had  been  kept  up  between  the  As- 
sembly and  Council  during  previous  administrations,  at  length  broke  out  with 




more  virulence  than  ever,  and  he  who  in  the  first  flush  of  power  had  declared 
"That  he  should  pass  no  laws,  nor  transact  anything  of  moment  relating  to 
the  public  affairs  without  the  advice  and  approbation  of  the  Council,"  took  it 
upon  himself  finally  to  act  independently  of  the  Council,  and  even  went  so 
far  as  to  dismiss  the  able  and  trusted  representative  of  the  proprietary  inter- 
ests, James  Logan,  President  of  the  Council  and  Secretary  of  the  Province, 
from  the  duties  of  his  high  office,  and  even  refused  the  request  of  Hannah 
Penn,  the  real  Governor  of  the  province,  to  re-instate  him.  This  unwarranta- 
ble conduct  cost  him  his  dismissal  from  office  in  July,  1726.  Why  he  should 
have  assumed  so  headstrong  and  imwarrantable  a  course,  who  had  promised  at 
the  first  so  mild  and  considerate  a  policy,  it  is  difficult  to  understand,  unless  it 
be  the  fact  that  he  found  that  the  Council  was  blocking,  by  its  obstinacy, 
wholesome  legislation,  which  he  considered  of  vital  importance  to  the  pros- 
perity of  the  colony,  and  if,  as  he  alleges,  he  found  that  the  new  constitution 
only  gave  the  Council  advisory  and  not  a  voice  in  executive  power. 

The  administration  of  Gov.  Keith  was  eminently  successful,  as  he  did  not 
hesitate  to  grapple  with  important  questions  of  judicature,  finance,  trade, 
commerce,  and  the  many  vexing  relations  with  the  native  tribes,  and  right 
manfully,  and  judiciously  did  he  efiect  their  solution.  It  was  at  a  time  when 
the  colony  was  filling  up  rapidly,  and  the  laws  and  regulations  which  had  been 
found  ample  for  the  management  of  a  few  hundred  families  struggling  for  a 
foothold  in  the  forest,  and  when  the  only  traffic  was  a  few  skins,  were  entirely 
inadequate  for  securing  protection  and  prosperity  to  a  seething  and  jostling 
population  intent  on  trade  and  commerce,  and  the  conflicting  interests  which 
required  wise  legislation  and  prudent  management.  No  colony  on  the  Ameri- 
can coast  made  such  progress  in  numbers  and  improvement  as  did  Pennsylvania 
during  the  nine  years  in  which  William  Keith  exercised  the  Gubernatorial 
office.  Though  not  himself  a  Quaker,  he  had  secured  the  passage  of  an  act  of 
Assembly,  and  its  royal  affirmation  for  allowing  the  members  of  the  Quaker 
sect  to  wear  their  hats  in  court,  and  give  testimony  under  affirmation  instead 
of  oath,  which  in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Queen  Anne  had  been  with- 
held from  them.  After  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office,  he  was  immedi- 
ately elected  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  and  was  intent  on  being  elected 
Speaker,  "  and  had  his  support  out- doors  in  a  cavalcade  of  eighty  mounted 
horsemen  and  the  resounding  of  many  guns  fired;"  yet  David  Lloyd  was 
elected  with  only  three  dissenting  voices,  the  out- door  business  having  perhaps 
been  overdone. 

Upon  the  recommendation  of  Springett  Penn,  who  was  now  the  prospective 
heir  to  Pennsylvania,  Patrick  Gordon  was  appointed  and  confirmed  Lieutenant 
Governor  in  place  of  Keith,  and  arrived  in  the  colony  and  assumed  authority 
in  July,  1726.  He  had  served  in  the  army,  and  in  his  first  address  to  the 
Assembly,  which  he  met  in  August,  he  said  that  as  he  had  been  a  soldier,  he 
knew  nothing  of  the  crooked  ways  of  professed  politicians,  and  must  rely  on  a 
straightforward  manner  of  transacting  the  duties  devolving  upon  him.  George 
I  died  in  June,  1727,  and  the  Assembly  at  its  meeting  in  October  prepared 
and  forwarded  a  congratulatory  address  to  his  successor,  George  II.  By  the 
decision  of  the  Court  of  Chancery  in  1727,  Hannah  Penn's  authority  over  the 
colony  was  at  an  end,  the  proprietary  interests  having  descended  to  John, 
Richard  and  Thomas  Penn,  the  only  surviving  sons  of  William  Penn,  Sr. 
This  period,  from  the  death  of  Penn  in  1718  to  1727,  one  of  the  most  pros- 
perous in  the  history  of  the  colony,  was  familiarly  known  as  the  "  Reign  of 
Hannah  and  the  Boys." 

Gov.  Gordon  found  the  Indian  troubles  claiming  a  considerable  part  of  his 


attention.  In  1728,  worthless  bands,  who  had  strayed  away  from  their  proper 
tribes,  incited  by  strong  drink,  bad  become  implicated  in  disgraceful  broils,  in 
which  several  were  killed  and  wounded.  The  guilty  parties  were  apprehended, 
but  it  was  found  difficult  to  punish  Indian  offenders  without  incurring  the 
wrath  of  their  relatives.  Treaties  were  frequently  renewed,  on  which  occa- 
sions the  chiefs  expected  that  the  chain  of  friendship  would  be  polished  "  with 
English  blankets,  broadcloths  and  metals."  The  Indians  found  that  this 
"brightening  the  chain"  was  a  profitable  business,  which  some  have  been  un- 
charitable enough  to  believe  was  the  moving  cause  of  many  of  the  Indian  diffi- 

As  early  as  1732,  the  French,  who  were  claiming  all  the  territory  drained 
by  the  IMississippi  and  its  tributaries,  on  the  ground  of  priority  of  discovery 
of  its  mouth  and  exploration  of  its  channel,  commenced  erecting  trading  posts 
in  Pennsylvania,  along  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio  Rivers,  and  invited  the  Indians 
living  on  these  streams  to  a  council  for  concluding  treaties  with  them  at  Mon- 
treal, Canada.  To  neutralize  the  influence  of  the  French,  these  Indians  were 
summoned  to  meet  in  council  at  Philadelphia,  to  renew  treaties  of  friendship, 
and  they  were  invited  to  remove  farther  east.  But  this  they  were  unwill- 
ing to  do.  A  treaty  was  also  concluded  with  the  Six  Nations,  in  which  they 
pledged  lasting  friendship  for  the  English. 

Hannah  Penn  died  in  1733,  when  the  Assembly,  supposing  that  the  pro- 
prietary power  was  still  in  her  hands,  refused  to  recognize  the  power  of  Gov.  Gor- 
don. But  the  three  sons,  to  whom  the  proprietary  possessions  had  descended, 
in  1727,  upon  the  decision  of  the  Chancery  case,  joined  in  issuing  a  new  com- 
mission to  Gordon.  In  approving  this  commission  the  King  directed  a  clause 
to  be  inserted,  expressly  reserving  to  himself  the  government  of  the  lower 
counties.  This  act  of  the  King  was  the  beginning  of  those  series  of  encroach- 
ments which  finally  culminated  in  the  independence  of  the  States  of  America. 
The  Judiciary  act  of  1727  was  annulled,  and  this  was  followed  by  an  attempt 
to  pass  an  act  requiring  the  laws  of  all  the  colonies  to  be  submitted  to  the 
Crown  for  approval  before  they  should  become  valid,  and  that  a  copy  of  all 
laws  previously  enacted  should  be  submitted  for  approval  or  veto.  The  agent 
of  the  Assembly,  Mr.  Paris,  with  the  agents  of  other  colonies,  made  so  vigor- 
ous a  defense,  that  action  was  for  the  time  stayed. 

In  1732,  Thomas  Penn,  the  youngest  son,  and  two  years  later,  John  Penn, 
the  eldest,  and  the  only  American  born,  arrived  in  the  Province,  and  were  re- 
ceived with  every  mark  of  respect  and  satisfaction.  Soon  after  the  arrival  of 
the  latter,  news  was  brought  that  Lord  Baltimore  had  made  application  to  have 
the  Provinces  transferred  to  his  colony.  A  vigorous  protest  was  made  against 
this  by  Quakers  in  England,  headed  by  Richard  Penn;  but  lest  this  protest 
might  prove  ineffectual,  John  Penn  very  soon  went  to  England  to  defend  the 
proprietary  rights  at  court,  and  never  again  returned,  he  having  died  a  bach- 
elor in  1746.  In  August,  1736,  Gov.  Gordon  died,  deeply  lamented,  as  an 
honest,  upright  and  straightforward  executive,  a  character  which  he  expressed 
the  hope  he  would  be  able  to  maintain  when  he  assumed  authority.  His  term 
had  been  one  of  prosperity,  and  the  colony  had  grown  rapidly  in  numbers, 
trade,  commerce  and  manufactures,  ship-building  especially  having  assumed  ex- 
tensive proportions. 

James  Logan  was  President  of  the  Council  and  in  effect  Governor,  during 
the  two  years  which  elapsed  between  the  death  of  Gordon  and  the  arrival  of 
his  successor.  The  Legislature  met  regularly,  but  no  laws  were  passed  for 
lack  of  an  executive.  It  was  during  this  period  that  serious  trouble  broke  out 
near  the   Maryland   border,  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  then   Lancaster,  now 


"Sork  County,  A  number  of  settlers,  in  order  to  evade  the  payment  of  taxes, 
had  secured  titles  to  their  lands  from  Maryland,  and  afterward  sought  to  be 
reinstated  in  their  rights  under  Pennsylvania  authority,  and  plead  protection 
from  the  latter.  The  Sheriff  of  the  adjoining  Maryland  County,  with  300 
followers,  advanced  to  drive  these  settlers  from  their  homes.  On  hearing  of 
this  movement,  Samuel  Smith,  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  County,  with  a  hastily  sum- 
moned posse,  advanced  to  protect  the  citizens  in  their  rights.  Without  a  con- 
flict, an  agreement  was  entered  into  by  both  parties  to  retire.  Soon  afterward, 
however,  a  band  of  fifty  P»Iary landers  again  entered  the  State  with  the  design 
of  driving  out  the  settlers  and  each  securing  for  himself  200  acres  of  land. 
They  were  led  by  one  Cressap.  The  settlers  made  resistance,  and  in  an  en- 
counter, one  of  them  by  the  name  of  Knowles  was  killed.  The  Sheriff  of 
Lancaster  again  advanced  with  a  posse,  and  in  a  skirmish  which  ensued  one 
of  the  invaders  was  killed,  and  the  leader  Cressap  was  wounded  and  taken 
prisoner.  The  Governor  of  Maryland  sent  a  commission  to  Philadelphia  to 
demand  the  release  of  the  prisoner.  Not  succeeding  in  this,  he  seized  four  of 
the  settlers  and  incarcerated  them  in  the  jail  at  Baltimore.  Still  determined 
to  effect  their  purpose,  a  party  of  Marylanders,  under  the  leadership  of  one 
Higginbotham,  advanced  into  Pennsylvania  and  began  a  warfare  upon  the 
settlers.  Again  the  Sheriff  of  Lancaster  appeared  upon  the  scene,  and  drove 
out  the  invaders.  So  stubbornly  were  these  invasions  pushed  and  resented 
that  the  season  passed  without  planting  or  securing  the  usual  crops.  Finally 
a  party  of  sixteen  Marylanders,  led  by  Richard  Lowden,  broke  into  the  Lan- 
caster jail  and  liberated  the  Maryland  prisoners.  Learning  of  th^se  disturb- 
ances, the  King  in  Council  issued  an  order  restraining  both  parties  from  fur- 
ther acts  of  violence,  and  afterward  adopted  a  plan  of  settlement  of  the  vexed 
boundary  question. 

Though  not  legally  Governor,  Logan  managed  the  affairs  of  the  colony 
with  great  prudence  and  judgment,  as  he  had  done  and  continued  to  do  for  a 
period  of  nearly  a  half  century.  He  was  a  scholar  well  versed  in  the  ancient 
languages  and  the  sciences,  and  published  several  learned  works  in  the  Latin 
tongue.  His  Experimenta  Meletemata  de  plantariim  generatione,  written  in 
Latin,  was  published  at  Leyden  in  1739,  and  afterward,  in  1747,  republished 
in  London,  with  an  English  version  on  the  opposite  page  byDr,  J,  Fothergill. 
Another  work  of  his  in  Latin  was  also  published  at  Leyden,  entitled,  Canonum 
pro  inveniendis  refractionum,  turn  simplicium  turn  in  lentihus  duplicmn  focis, 
demonstrationis  geometricae.  After  retiring  from  public  business,  he  lived  at 
his  country-seat  at  Stenton,  near  Germantown,  where  he  spent  his  time  among 
his  books  and  in  correspondence  with  the  literati  of  Europe,  In  his  old  age 
he  made  an  English  translation  of  Cicero's  De  Senectute,  which  was  printed  at 
Philadelphia  in  1744  with  a  preface  by  Benjamin  Franklin,  then  rising  into 
notice,  Logan  was  a  Quaker,  of  Scotch  descent,  though  born  in  Ireland,  and 
came  to  America  in  the  ship  with  William  Penn,  in  his  second  visit  in  1699, 
when  about  twenty-five  years  old,  and  died  at  seventy- seven.  He  had  held  the 
offices  of  Chief  Commissioner  of  property.  Agent  for  the  purchase  and  sale  of 
lands.  Receiver  General,  Member  of  Council,  President  of  Council  and  Chief 
Justice,  He  was  the  Confidential  Agent  of  Penn,  having  charge  of  all  his  vast 
estates,  making  sales  of  lands,  executing  conveyances,  and  making  collections. 
Amidst  all  the  great  cares  of  business  so  pressing  as  to  make  him  exclaim,  "  I 
know  not  what  any  of  the  comforts  of  life  are,"  he  found  time  to  devote  to  the 
delights  of  learning,  and  collected  a  large  library  of  standard  works,  which  he 
bequeathed,  at  his  death,  to  the  people  of  Pennsylvania,  and  is  known  as  the 
Loganian  Library, 


George  Thomas,  a  planter  from  the  West  Indies,  was  appointed  Governor 
in  1737,  but  did  not  arrive  in  the  colony  till  the  following  year.  His  first  care 
was  to  settle  the  disorders  in  the  Cumberland  Valley,  and  it  was  finally  agreed 
that  settlers  from  either  colony  should  owe  allegiance  to  the  Governor  of  that 
colony  wherever  settled,  until  the  division  line  which  had  been  provided  for 
was  surveyed  and  marked.  War  was  declared  on  the  23d  of  October,  1739, 
between  Great  Britain  and  Spain.  Seeing  that  his  colony  was  liable  to  be 
encroached  upon  by  the  enemies  of  his  government,  he  endeavored  to  organ- 
ize the  militia,  but  the  majority  of  the  Assembly  was  of  the  peace  element,  and 
it  could  not  be  induced  to  vote  money.  Finally  he  was  ordered  by  the  home 
government  to  call  for  volunteers,  and  eight  companies  were  quickly  formed, 
and  sent  down  for  the  coast  defense.  Many  of  these  proved  to  be  servants  for 
whom  pay  was  demanded  and  finally  obtained.  In  1740,  the  great  evangelist, 
Whitefield,  visited  the  colony,  and  created  a  deep  religious  interest  among  all 
denominations.  In  his  first  intercourse  with  the  Assembly,  Gov.  Thomas  en- 
deavored to  coerce  it  to  his  views.  But  a  more  stubborn  set  of  men  never  met 
in  a  deliberative  body  than  were  gathered  in  this  Assembly  at  this  time. 
Finding  that  he  could  not  compel  action  to  his  mind,  he  yielded  and  con- 
sulted their  views  and  decisions.  The  Assembly,  not  to  be  outdone  in  mag- 
nanimity, voted  him  £1,500  arrearages  of  salary,  which  had  been  withheld  be- 
cause he  would  not  approve  their  legislation,  asserting  that  public  acts  should 
take  precedence  of  appropriations  for  their  own  pay.  In  March,  1744,  war 
was  declared  between  Great  Britain  and  France.  Volunteers  were  called 
for,  and  10,000  men  were  rapidly  enlisted  and  armed  at  their  own  expense. 
Franklin,  recognizing  the  defenseless  condition  of  the  colony,  issued  a  pamph- 
let entitled  Plain  Truth,  in  which  he  cogently  urged  the  necessity  of  organ- 
ized preparation  for  defense.  Franklin  was  elected  Colonel  of  one  of  the 
regiments,  but  resigned  in  favor  of  Alderman  Lawrence.  On  the  5th  of  May, 
1747,  the  Governor  communicated  intelligence  of  the  death  of  John  Penn,  the 
eldest  of  the  proprietors,  to  the  Assembly,  and  his  own  intention  to  retire  from 
the  duties  of  his  ofl&ce  on  account  of  declining  health. 

Anthony  Palmer  was  President  of  the  Council  at  the  time  of  the  with- 
drawal of  Gordon,  and  became  the  Acting  Governor.  The  peace  party  in  the  As- 
sembly held  that  it  was  the  duty  of  the  crown  of  England  to  protect  the  colony, 
and  that  for  the  colony  to  call  out  volunteers  and  become  responsible  for  their 
payment  was  burdening  the  people  with  an  expense  which  did  not  belong  to 
them,  and  which  the  crown  was  willing  to  assume.  The  French  were  now 
deeply  intent  on  securing  firm  possession  of  the  Mississippi  Valley  and  the  en- 
tire basin,  even  to  the  summits  of  the  AUeghanies  in  Pennsylvania,  and  were 
busy  establishing  trading  posts  along  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny  Eivers.  They 
employed  the  most  artful  means  to  win  the  simple  natives  to  their  interests, 
giving  showy  presents  and  laboring  to  convince  them  of  their  great  value. 
Pennsylvania  had  won  a  reputation  among  the  Indians  of  making  presents  of 
substantial  worth.  Not  knowing  the  difference  between  steel  and  iron,  the 
French  distributed  immense  numbers  of  worthless  iron  hatchets,  which  the 
natives  supposed  were  the  equal  of  the  best  English  steel  axes.  The  Indians, 
however,  soon  came  to  distinguish  between  the  good  and  the  valueless.  Un- 
derstanding the  Pennsylvania  methods  of  securing  peace  and  friendship,  the 
the  natives  became  very  artful  in  drawing  out  "  well  piled  up  "  presents.  The 
government  at  this  time  was  alive  to  the  dangers  which  threatened  from  the 
insinuating  methods  of  the  French.  A  trusty  messenger,  Conrad  Weiser,  was 
sent  among  the  Indians  in  the  western  part  of  the  province  to  observe  the 
plans  of  the  French,  ascertain  the  temper  of  the  natives,  and  especially  to 


magnify  the  power  of  the  English,  and  the  disposition  of  Pennsylvania  to  give 
great  presents.  This  latter  policy  had  the  desired  effect,  and  worthless  and 
wandering  bands,  which  had  no  right  to  speak  for  the  tribe,  came  teeming  in, 
desirous  of  scouring  the  chain  of  friendship,  intimating  that  the  French  were 
making  great  offers,  in  order  to  induce  the  government  to  large  liberality, 
until  this  "  brightening  the  chain,"  became  an  intolerable  nuisance.  At  a  sin- 
gle council  held  at  Albany,  in  1747,  Pennsylvania  distributed  goods  to  the 
value  of  £1,000,  and  of  such  a  character  as  should  be  most  serviceable  to  the 
recipients,  not  worthless  gew-gaws,  but  such  as  would  contribute  to  their  last- 
ing comfort  and  well  being,  a  protection  to  the  person  against  the  bitter  frosts 
of  winter,  and  sustenance  that  should  minister  to  the  steady  wants  of  the 
body  and  alleviation  of  pain  in  time  of  sickness.  The  treaty  of  Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle,  which  was  concluded  on  the  1st  of  October,  1748,  secured  peace  between 
Great  Britain  and  France,  and  should  have  put  an  end  to  all  hostile  encoun- 
ters between  their  representatives  on  the  American  continent.  Palmer  re- 
mained at  the  head  of  the  government  for  a  little  more  than  two  years.  He 
was  a  retired  merchant  from  the  West  Indies,  a  man  of  wealth,  and  had  come 
into  the  colony  in  1708.  He  lived  in  a  style  suited  to  a  gentleman,  kept  a 
coach  and  a  pleasure  barge. 

On  the  23d  of  November,  1748,  James  Hamilton  arrived  in  the  colony  from 
England,  bearing  the  commission  of  Lieutenant  Governor.  He  was  born  in 
America,  son  of  Andrew  Hamilton,  who  had  for  many  years  been  Speaker  of 
the  Assembly.  The  Indians  west  of  the  Susquehanna  had  complained  that  set- 
tlers had  come  upon  their  best  lands,  and  were  acquiring  titles  to  them,  where- 
as the  proprietors  had  never  purchased  these  lands  of  them,  and  had  no  claim 
to  them.  •  The  first  care  of  Hamilton  was  to  settle  these  disputes,  and  allay  the 
rising  excitement  of  the  natives.  Richard  Peters,  Secretary  of  the  colony,  a 
man  of  great  prudence  and  ability,  was  sent  in  company  with  the  Indian  in- 
terpreter, Conrad  Weiser,  to  remove  the  intruders.  It  was  firmly  and  fear- 
lessly done,  the  settlers  giving  up  their  tracts  and  the  cabins  which  they  had 
built,  and  accepting  lauds  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  The  hardship  was  in 
many  cases  great,  but  when  they  were  in  actual  need,  the  Secretary  gave 
money  and  placed  them  upon  lands  of  his  own,  having  secured  a  tract  of 
2,000,000  of  acres. 

But  these  troubles  were  of  small  consequence  compared  with  those  that 
were  threatening  from  the  West.  Though  the  treaty  of  Aix  was  supposed  to 
have  settled  all  difficulties  between  the  two  courts,  the  French  were  determined 
to  occupy  the  whole  territory  drained  by  the  Mississippi,  which  they  claimed 
by  priority  of  discovery  by  La  Salle.  The  British  Ambassador  at  Paris  entered 
complaints  before  the  French  Court  that  encroachments  were  being  made  by 
the  French  upon  English  soil  in  America,  which  were  politely  heard,  and 
promises  made  of  restraining  the  French  in  Canada  from  encroaching  upon 
English  territory.  Formal  orders  were  sent  out  from  the  home  government  to 
this  effect;  but  at  the  same  time  secret  intimations  were  conveyed  to  them  that 
their  conduct  in  endeavoring  to  secure  and  hold  the  territory  in  dispute  was 
not  displeasing  to  the  government,  and  that  disobedience  of  these  orders  would 
not  incur  its  displeasure.  The  French  deemed  it  necessary,  in  order  to  estab- 
lish a  legal  claim  to  the  country,  to  take  formal  possession  of  it.  Accordingly, 
the  Marquis  de  la  Galissoniere,  who  was  at  this  time  Governor  General  of 
Canada,  dispatched  Capt.  Bienville  de  Celeron  with  a  party  of  215  French  and 
fifty-five  Indians,  to  publicly  proclaim  possession,  and  bury  at  prominent 
points  plates  of  lead  bearing  inscriptions  declaring  occupation  in  the  name  of 
the  French  King.     Celeron  started  on  the  15th  of  June,  1749,  from  La  Chine, 


following  the  southern  shores  of  Lakes  Ontario  and  Erie,  until  he  reached  a 
point  opposite  Lake  Chautauqua,  where  the  boats  were  drawn  up  and  were  taken 
bodily  over  the  dividing  ridge,  a  distance  of  ten  miles,  with  all  the  impedimenta 
of  the  expedition,  the  pioneers  having-  first  opened  a  road.  Following  on  down 
the  lake  and  the  Conewango  Creek,  they  arrived  at  Warren  near  the  confluence 
of  the  creek  with  the  Allegheny  River,  Here  the  first  plate  was  buried. 
These  plates  were  eleven  inches  long,  seven  and  a  half  wide,  and  one-eighth 
of  an  inch  thick.  The  inscription  was  in  French,  and  in  the  following  terms, 
as  fairly  translated  into  English:  "In  the  year  1749,  of  the  reign  of  Louis 
XIV,  King  of  France,  We  Celeron,  commander  of  a  detachment  sent  by 
Monsieur  the  Marquis  de  la  Galissoni^re,  Governor  General  of  New  France, 
to  re-establish  tranquillity  in  some  Indian  villages  of  these  cantons,  have 
buried  this  plate  of  lead  at  the  confluence  of  the  Ohio  with  the  Chautauqua, 
this  29th  day  of  July,  near  the  River  Ohio,  otherwise  Belle  Riviere,  as  a  mon- 
ument of  the  renewal  of  the  possession  we  have  taken  of  the  said  River  Ohio, 
and  of  all  those  which  empty  into  it,  and  of  all  the  lands  on  both  sides  as  far 
as  the  sources  of  the  said  river,  as  enjoyed  or  ought  to  have  been  enjoyed  by 
the  King  of  France  preceding,  and  as  they  has'e  there  maintained  themselves 
by  arms'  and  by  treaties,  especially  those  of  Ryswick,  U.trecht  and  Aix-la- 
Chapelle."  The  burying  of  this  plate  was  attended  with  much  form  and  cer- 
emony. All  the  men  and  officers  of  the  expedition  were  drawn  up  in  battle 
array,  when  the  Commander,  Celeron,  proclaimed  in  a  loud  voice,  ''  Vive  le 
Roi,"  and  declared  that  possession  of  the  country  was  now  taken  in  the  name 
of  the  King.  A  plate  on  which  was  inscribed  the  arms  of  France  was  affixed 
to  the  nearest  tree. 

The  same  formality  was  observed  in  planting  each  of  the  other  plates,  the 
second  at  the  rock  known  as  the  "Indian  God,"  on  which  are  ancient  and  un- 
known inscriptions,  a  few  miles  below  Franklin,  a  third  at  the  mouth  of 
Wheeling  Creek;  a  fourth  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum;  a  fifth  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Kanawha,  and  the  sixth  and  last  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami. 
Toilsomely  ascending  the  Miami  to  its  head- waters,  the  party  burned  their 
canoes,  and  obtained  ponies  for  the  march  across  the  portage  to  the  head-waters 
of  the  Maumee,  down  which  and  by  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario  they  returned 
to  Fort  Frontenac,  arriving  on  the  6th  of  November.  It  appears  that  the  In- 
dians through  whose  territory  they  passed  viewed  this  planting  of  plates  with 
great  suspicion,  By  some  means  they  got  possession  of  one  of  them,  gener- 
ally supposed  to  have  been  stolen  from  the  party  at  the  very  commencement  of 
their  journey  from  the  mouth  of  the  Chautauqua  Creek. 

Mr.  O.  H.  Marshall,  in  an  excellent  monograph  upon  this  expedition,  made 
up  from  the  original  manuscript  journal  of  Celeron  and  the  diary  of  Father 
Bonnecamps,  found  in  the  Department  de  la  Marine,  in  Paris,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  this  stolen  plate: 

"  The  first  of  the  leaden  plates  was  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  public 
by  Gov.  (xeorge  Clinton  to  the  Lords  of  Trade  in  London,  dated  New  York, 
December  19,  1750,  in  which  he  states  that  be  would  send  to  their  Lordships 
in  two  or  three  weeks  a  plate  of  lead  full  of  writing,  which  some  of  the  upper 
nations  of  Indians  stole  from  Jean  Coeur,  the  French  interpreter  at  Niagara, 
on  his  way  to  the  River  Ohio,  which  river,  and  all  the  lands  thereabouts,  the 
French  claim,  as  will  appear  by  said  writing.  He  further  states  'that  the  lead 
plate  gave  the  Indians  so  much  uneasiness  that  they  immediately  dispatched 
some  of  the  Cayuga  chiefs  to  him  with  it,  saying  that  their  only  reliance  was 
on  him,  and  earnestly  begged  he  would  communicate  the  contents  to  them, 
which  he  had  done,  much  to  their  satisfaction  and  the  interests  of  the  English.' 


The  Governor  concludes  by  saying  that  '  the  contents  of  the  plate  may  be  of 
great  importance  in  clearing  up  the  encroachments  which  the  French  have 
made  on  the  British  Empire  in  America.'  The  plate  vt'as  delivered  to  Colonel, 
afterward  Sir  William  Johnson,  on  the  4th  of  December,  1750,  at  his  resi- 
dence on  the  Mohawk,  by  a  Cayuga  sachem,  who  accompanied  it  by  the  follow- 
ing speech: 

"' Brother  Corlear  and  War-ragh-i-ya-ghey!  I  am  sent  here  by  the  Five 
Nations  with  a  piece  of  writing  which  the  Senecas,  our  brethren,  got  by  some 
artifice  from  Jean  Coeur,  earnestly  beseeching  you  will  let  us  know  what  it 
means,  and  as  we  put  all  our  confidence  in  you,  we  hope  you  will  explain  it 
ingeniously  to  us.' 

"  Col.  Johnson  replied  to  the  sachem,  and  through  him  to  the  Five  Na- 
tions, returning  a  belt  of  wampum,  and  explaining  the  inscription  on  the 
plate.  He  told  them  that  'it  was  a  matter  of  the  greatest  consequence,  involv- 
ing the  possession  of  their  lands  and  hunting  grounds,  and  that  Jean  Coeur 
and  the  French  ought  immediately  to  be  expelled  from  the  Ohio  and  Niagara.' 
In  reply,  the  sachem  said  that  '  he  had  heard  with  great  attention  and  surprise 
the  substance  of  the  "devilish  writing"  he  had  brought,  and  that  Col.  Johnson's 
remarks  were  fully  approved.'  He  promised  that  belts  from  each  of  the  Five 
Nations  should  be  sent  from  the  Seneca's  castle  to  the  Indians  at  the  Ohio,  to 
warn  and  strengthen  them  against  the  French  encroachments  in  that  direc- 
tion." On  the  29th  of  January,  1751,  Clinton  sent  a  copy  of  this  inscription 
to  Gov.  Hamilton,  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  French  followed  up  this  formal  act  of  possession  by  laying  out  a  line 
of  military  posts,  on  substantially  the  same  line  as  that  pursued  by  the  Cele- 
ron expedition;  but  instead  of  crossing  over  to  Lake  Chautauqua,  they  kept 
on  down  to  Presque  Isle  (now  Erie),  where  was  a  good  harbor,  where  a  fort 
was  established,  and  thence  up  to  Le  Boeuf  (now  Waterford),  where  another 
post  was  placed;  thence  down  the  Venango  River  (French  Creek)  to  its  month 
at  Franklin,  eptablishing  Fort  Venango  there;  thence  by  the  Allegheny  to 
Pittsburgh,  where  Fort  Du  Quesne  was  seated,  and  so  on  down  the  Ohio. 

To  counteract  this  activity  of  the  French,  the  Ohio  Company  was  char- 
tered, and  a  half  million  of  acres  was  granted  by  the  crown,  to  be  selected 
mainly  on  the  south  side  of  the  Ohio,  between  the  Monongalia  and  Kanawha 
Rivers,  and  the  condition  made  that  settlements  (100  families  within  seven 
years),  protected  by  a  fort,  should  he  made.  The  company  consisted  of  a 
number  of  Virginia  and  Maryland  gentlemen,  of  whom  Lawrence  Washington 
was  one,  and  Thomas  Hanbury,  of  London. 

In  1752,  a  treaty  was  entered  into  with  the  Indians,  securing  the  right  of 
occupancy,  and  twelve  families,  headed  by  Capt.  Gist,  established  themselves 
upon  the  Monongalia,  and  subsequently  commenced  the  erection  of  a  fort, 
where  the  city  of  Pittsburgh  now  is.  Apprised  of  this  intrusion  into  the 
very  heart  of  the  territory  which  they  were  claiming,  the  French  built  a  fort 
at  Le  Boeuf,  and  strengthened  the  post  at  Franklin. 

These  proceedings  having  been  promptly  reported  to  Lieut.  Gov.  Dinwid- 
dle, of  Virginia,  where  the  greater  number  of  the  stockholders  of  the  Ohio 
Company  resided,  he  determined  to  send  an  official  communication — protesting 
against  the  forcible  interference  with  their  chartered  rights,  granted  by  the 
crown  of  Britain,  and  pointing  to  the  late  treaties  of  peace  entered  into  be- 
tween the  English  and  French,  whereby  it  was  agreed  that  each  should  respect 
the  colonial  possessions  of  the  other — to  the  Commandant  of  the  French,  who 
had  his  headquarters  at  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  fifteen  miles  inland  from  the  present 
site  of  the  city  of  Erie. 


But  who  should  be  the  messenger  to  execute  this  delicate  and  responsible 
duty?  It  was  winter,  and  the  distance  to  be  traversed  was  some  500  miles, 
through  an  unbroken  wilderness,  cut  by  rugged  mountain  chains  and  deep  and 
rapid  streams.  It  was  proposed  to  several,  who  declined,  and  was  finally 
accepted  by  George  Washington,  a  youth  barely  twenty-one  years  old.  On 
the  last  day  of  November,  1753,  he  bade  adieu  to  civilization,  and  pushing  on 
through  the  forest  to  the  settlements  on  the  Monongalia,  where  he  was  joined 
by  Capt.  Gist,  followed  up  the  Allegheny  to  Fort  Venango  (now  Franklin) ; 
thence  up  the  Venango  to  its  head-waters  at  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  where  he  held 
formal  conference  with  the  French  Commandant,  St.  Pierre.  The  French 
officer  had  been  ordered  to  hold  this  territory  on  the  score  of  the  dis- 
covery of  the  Mississippi  by  La  Salle,  and  he  had  no  discretion  but  to  execute 
his  orders,  and  referred  Washington  to  his  superior,  the  Governor  General  of 
Canada.  Making  careful  notes  of  the  location  and  strength  of  the  post  and 
those  encountered  on  the  way,  the  young  embassador  returned,  being  twice 
fired  at  on  his  journey  by  hostile  Indians,  and  near  losing  his  life  by  being 
thrown  into  the  freezing  waters  of  the  Allegheny.  Upon  his  arrival,  he  made 
a  full  report  of  the  embassage,  which  was  widely  published  in  this  country 
and  in  England,  and  was  doubtless  the  basis  upon  which  action  was  predicted 
that  eventuated  in  a  long  and  sanguinary  war,  which  finally  resulted  in  the 
expulsion  of  the  power  of  France  from  this  continent. 

Satisfied  that  the  French  were  determined  to  hold  the  territory  upon  the 
Ohio  by  force  of  arms,  a  body  of  150  men,  of  which  Washington  was  second 
in  command,  was  sent  to  the  support  of  the  settlers.  But  the  French,  having 
the  Allegheny  River  at  flood-tide  on  which  to  move,  and  Washington,  without 
means  of  transportation,  having  a  rugged  and  mountainous  country  to  over- 
come, the  former  first  reached  the  point  of  destination.  Contracoeur,  the 
French  commander,  with  1,000  men  and  field  pieces  on  a  fleet  of  sixty  boats  and 
300  canoes,  dropped  down  the  Allegheny  and  easily  seized  the  fort  then  being 
constructed  by  the  Ohio  Company  at  its  mouth,  and  proceeded  to  erect  there 
an  elaborate  work  which  he  called  Fort  Du  Quesne,  after  the  Governor  Gen- 
eral. Informed  of  this  proceeding,  Washington  pushed  forward,  and  finding 
that  a  detachment  of  the  French  was  in  his  immediate  neighborhood,  he  made 
a  forced  march  by  night,  and  coming  upon  them  unawares  killed  and  captured 
the  entire  party  save  one.  Ten  of  the  French,  including  their  commander, 
Jumonville,  were  killed,  and  twenty-one  made  prisoners.  Col.  Fry,  the  com- 
mander of  the  Americans,  died  at  Will's  Creek,  where  the  command  devolved 
on  Washington.  Though  re -enforcements  had  been  dispatched  from  the  sev- 
eral colonies  in  response  to  the  urgent  appeals  of  Washington,  none  reached 
him  but  one  company  of  100  men  under  Capt.  Maokay  from  South  Carolina. 
Knowing  that  he  was  confronting  a  vastly  superior  force  of  the  French,  well 
supplied  with  artillery,  he  threw  up  works  at  a  point  called  the  Great 
Meadows,  which  he  characterizes  as  a  "  charming  field  for  an  encounter, "  nam- 
ing his  hastily  built  fortification  Fort  Necessity.  Stung  by  the  loss  of  their 
leader,  the  French  came  out  in  strong  force  and  soon  invested  the  place.  Unfor- 
tunately one  part  of  Washington's  position  was  easily  commanded  by  the  artil- 
lery of  the  French,  which  they  were  not  slow  in  taking  advantage  of.  The  ac- 
tion opened  on  the  3d  of  July,  and  was  contmued  till  late  at  night.  A  capit- 
ulation was  proposed  by  the  French  commander,  which  Washington  reluctantly 
accepted,  seeing  all  hope  of  re- enforcements  reaching  him,  cut  ofif,  and  on  the 
4th  of  July  marched  out  with  honors  of  war  and  fell  back  to  Fort  Cumberland. 

Gov.  Hamilton  had  strongly  recommended, before  hostilities  opened,  that  the 
Assembly  should  provide  for  defense  and  establish  a  line  of  block-houses  along 


the  frontier.  But  the  Assembly,  while  Tvilling  to  vote  money  for  buying  peace 
from  the  Indians,  and  contributions  to  the  British  crown,  from  which  protec- 
tion was  claimed,  was  unwilling  to  contribute  directly  for  even  defensive  war- 
fare. In  a  single  year,  £8,000  were  voted  for  Indian  gratuities.  The  proprie- 
tors were  appealed  to  to  aid  in  bearing  this  burden.  But  while  they  were 
willing  to  contribute  liberally  for  defense,  they  would  give  nothing  for  Indian 
gratuities.     They  sent  to  the  colony  cannon  to  the  value  of  £400. 

In  February,  1753,  John  Penn,  grandson  of  the  founder,  son  of  Eichard, 
arrived  in  the  colony,  and  as  a  mark  of  respect  was  immediately  chosen  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Council  and  made  its  President.  In  consequence  of  the  defeat  of 
Washington  at  Fort  Necessity,  Gov.  Hamilton  convened  the  Assembly  in  extra 
session  on  the  6th  of  August,  at  which  money  was  freely  voted;  but  owing  to 
the  instructions  given  by  the  proprietors  to  their  Deputy  Governor  not  to  sign 
any  money  bill  that  did  not  place  the  whole  of  the  interest  at  their  disposal, 
this  action  of  the  Assembly  was  abortive. 

The  English  and  French  nations  made  strenuous  exertions  to  strengtnen 
their  forces  in  America  for  the  campaigns  sure  to  be  undertaken  in  1754.  The 
French,  by  being  under  the  supreme  authority  of  one  governing  power,  the 
Governor  General  of  Canada,  were  able  to  concentrate  and  bring  all  their 
power  of  men  and  resources  to  bear  at  the  threatened  point  with  more  celerity 
and  certainty  than  the  English,  who  were  dependent  upon  colonies  scattered 
along  all  the  sea  board,  and  upon  Legislatures  penny-wise  in  voting  money. 
To  remedy  these  inconveniences,  the  English  Government  recommended  a  con- 
gress of  all  the  colonies,  together  with  the  Six  Nations,  for  the  purpose  of  con- 
certing plans  for  efficient  defense.  This  Congress  met  on  the  19th  of  June, 
1754,  the  first  ever  convened  in  America.  The  Representatives  from  Pennsyl- 
vania were  John  Penn  and  Richard  Peters  for  the  Council,  and  Isaac  Norris 
and  Benjamin  Franklin  for  the  Assembly.  The  influence  of  the  powerful 
mind  of  Franklin  was  already  beginning  to  be  felt,  he  having  been  Clerk  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Assembly  since  1736,  and  since  1750  had  been  a  member. 
Heartily  sympathizing  with  the  movers  in  the  purposes  of  this  Congress,  he 
came  to  Albany  with  a  scheme  of  union  prepared,  which,  having  been  pre- 
sented and  debated,  was,  on  the  10th  of  July,  adopted  substantially  as  it  came 
from  his  hands.  It  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  President  General  by 
the  Crown,  and  an  Assembly  of  forty- eight  members  to  be  chosen  by  the  sev- 
eral Colonial  Assemblies.  The  plan  was  rejected  by  both  parties  in  interest, 
the  King  considering  the  power  vested  in  the  representatives  of  the  people  too 
great,  and  every  colony  rejecting  it  because  the  President  General  was  given 
"  an  influence  greater  than  appeared  to  them  proper  in  a  plan  of  government 
intended  for  freemen." 


Robert  H.  Morris,  1754^56— William  Denny,  1756-59— James  Hamilton.  1759-63. 

FINDING  himself  in  a  false  position  by  the  repugnant  instructions  of  the 
proprietors.  Gov.  Hamilton  had  given  notice  in  1753,  that,  at  the  end  oi 
twelve  months  from  its  reception,  he  would  resign.  Accordingly  in  October, 
1754,  he  was  succeeded  by  Robert  Hunter  Morris,  son  oi  Lewis  Morris,  Chief 
Justice  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey,  and  Governor  of  New  Jersey.     The  son 


was  bred  a  lawyer,  and  was  for  twenty-six  years  Councilor,  and  twenty  Chief 
Justice  of  New  Jersey.  The  Assembly,  at  its  first  session,  voted  a  money  bill, 
for  £40,000,  but  not  having  the  proviso  required  by  the  proprietors,  it  was 
vetoed.  Determined  to  push  military  operations,  the  British  Government  had 
called  early  in  the  year  for  3,000  volunteers  from  Pennsylvania,  with  subsis- 
tance,  camp  equipage  and  transportation,  and  had  sent  two  regiments  of  the 
line,  under  Gen.  Braddock,  from  Cork,  Ireland.  Landing  at  Alexandria, 
Va.,  he  marched  to  Frederick,  Md.,  where,  finding  no  supplies  of 
transportation,  he  halted.  The  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania  had  voted  to  borrow 
£5,000,  on  its  own  account,  for  the  use  of  the  crown  in  prosecuting  the  cam- 
paign, and  had  sent  Franklin,  who  was  then  Postmaster  General  for  the  colo- 
nies, to  Braddock  to  aid  in  prosecuting  the  expedition.  Finding  that  the  army 
was  stopped  for  lack  of  transportation,  Franklin  returned  into  Pennsylvania, 
and  by  his  commanding  influence  soon  secured  the  necessary  wagons  and  beasts 
of  burden. 

Braddock  had  formed  extravagant  plans  for  his  campaign.  He  would 
march  forward  and  reduce  Fort  Du  Quesne,  thence  proceed  against  Fort  Ni- 
agara, which  having  conquered  he  would  close  a  season  of  triumphs  by  the 
capture  of  Fort  Frontignace.  But  this  is  not  the  first  time  in  warfare  that 
the  result  of  a  campaign  has  failed  to  realize  the  promises  of  the  manifesto. 
The  orders  brought  by  Braddock  giving  precedence  of  ofiicers  of  the  line  over 
provincials  gave  offense,  and  Washington  among  others  threw  up  his  commis- 
sion; but  enamored  of  the  profession  of  arms,  he  accepted  a  position  ofiered 
him  by  Braddock  as  Aide-de-camp.  Accustomed  to  the  discipline  of  military 
establishments  in  old,  long-settled  countries,  Braddock  had  little  conception  of 
making  war  in  a  wilderness  with  only  Indian  trails  to  move  upon,  and  against 
wily  savages.  Washington  had  advised  to  push  forward  with  pack  horses,  and, 
by  rapidity  of  movement,  forestall  ample  preparation.  But  Braddock  had  but 
one  way  of  soldiering,  and  where  roads  did  not  exist  for  wagons  he  stopped  to 
fell  the  forest  and  construct  bridges  over  streams.  The  French,  who  were 
kept  advised  of  every  movement,  made  ample  preparations  to  receive  him.  In 
the  meantime,  Washington  fell  sick;  but  intent  on  being  up  for  the  battle,  he 
hastened  forward  as  soon  as  sufficiently  recovered,  and  only  joined  the  army 
on  the  day  before  the  fatal  engagement.  He  had  never  seen  much  of  the  pride 
and  circumstance  of  war,  and  when,  on  the  morning  of  the  9th  of  July,  the 
army  of  Braddock  marched  on  across  the  Monongahela,  with  gay  colors  flying 
and  martial  music  awakening  the  echoes  of  the  forest,  he  was  accustomed  in 
after  years  to  speak  of  it  as  the  "most  magnificent  spectacle"  that  he  had  ever 
beheld.  But  the  gay  pageant  was  destined  to  be  of  short  duration;  for  the 
army  had  only  marched  a  little  distance  before  it  fell  into  an  ambuscade  skill- 
fully laid  by  the  French  and  Indians,  and  the  forest  resounded  with  the  un- 
earthly whoop  of  the  Indians,  and  the  continuous  roar  of  musketry.  The 
advance  was  checked  and  thrown  into  confusion  by  the  French  from  their  well- 
chosen  position,  and  every  tree  upon  the  flanks  of  the  long  drawn  out  line  con- 
cealed a  murderous  foe,  who  with  unerring  aim  picked  off  the  officers.  A  res- 
olute defense  was  made,  and  the  battle  raged  with  great  fury  for  three  hours; 
but  the  fire  of  the  English  was  ineffectual  because  directed  against  an  invisi- 
ble foe.  Finally,  the  mounted  officers  having  all  fallen,  killed  or  wounded, 
except  Washington,  being  left  without  leaders,  panic  seized  the  survivors  and 
"they  ran,"  says  Washington,  "before  the  French  and  English  like  sheep  be- 
fore dogs."  Of  1,460,  in  Braddock's  army,  456  were  killed,  and  421  wounded, 
a  greater  mortality,  in  proportion  to  the  number  engaged,  than  has  ever  oc- 
curred in  the  annals  of  modern  warfare.     Sir  Peter  Halkett  was  killed,  and 



Braddock  mortally  wounded  and  brought  off  the  field  only  with  the  greatest 
difficulty.  When  Orme  and  Morris,  the  other  aids,  fell,  Washington  acted 
alone  with  the  greatest  gallantry.  In  writing  to  his  brother, he  said:  "I  have 
been  protected  beyond  all  human  probability  or  expectation;  for  I  had  four 
bullets  through  my  coat,  and  two  horses  shot  under  me;  yet  I  escaped  unhurt, 
though  death  was  leveling  my  companions  on  every  side."  In  after  years, 
when  Washington  visited  the  Great  Kanawha  country,  he  was  approached  by 
an  Indian  chieftain  who  said  that  in  this  battle  he  had  fired  his  rifle  many 
times  at  Washington  and  had  told  his  young  men  to  do  the  same;  but  when  he 
saw  that  his  bullets  had  no  apparent  effect,  he  had  bidden  them  to  desist,  be- 
lieving that  the  Great  Spirit  was  protecting  him. 

The  panic  among  the  survivors  of  the  English  carried  them  back  upon  the 
reserve,  commanded  by  Gen.  Dunbar,  who  seems  himself  to  have  been  seized 
with  it,  and  without  attempting  to  renew  the  campaign  and  return  to  the  en- 
counter, he  joined  in  the  flight  which  was  not  stayed  until  Fort  Cumberland 
was  reached.  The  French  were  anticipating  a  renewal  of  the  struggle;  but 
when  they  found  that  the  English  had  fled  leaving  the  frontier  all  unprotected, 
they  left  no  stone  unturned  in  whetting  the  minds  of  the  savages  for  the 
work  of  plunder  and  blood,  and  in  organizing  relentless  bands  to  range  at 
will  along  all  the  wide  frontier.  The  Indians  could  not  be  induced  to  pursue 
the  retreating  English,  but  fell  to  plundering  the  field.  Nearly  everything 
was  lost,  even  to  the  camp  chest  of  Braddock.  The  wounded  General  was 
taken  back  to  the  summit  of  Laurel  Hill,  where,  four  days  after,  he  breathed 
his  last  He  was  buried  in  the  middle  of  the  road,  and  the  arm}'  marched 
over  his  grave  that  it  might  not  be  discovered  or  molested  by  the  natives. 
The  ea^y  victory,  won  chiefly  by  the  savages,  served  to  encourage  them  in 
their  fell  work,  in  which,  when  their  passions  were  aroused,  no  known  people 
on  earth  were  less  touched  by  pity.  The  unprotected  settler  in  his  wilder- 
ness home  was  the  easy  prey  of  the  torch  and  the  scalping  knife,  and  the  burn- 
ing cabin  lit  up  the  somber  forests  by  their  continuous  blaze,  and  the  shrieks 
of  women  and  children  resounded  from  the  Hudson  to  the  far  Potomac  Be- 
fore the  defeat  of  Braddock,  there  were  3,000  men  capable  of  bearing  arms 
west  of  the  Susquehanna.     In  six  months  after,  there  were  scarcely  100. 

Gov.  Morris  made  an  earnest  appeal  to  the  Assembly  for  money  to  ward  off 
the  impending  enemy  and  protect  the  settlers,  in  response  to  which  the  As- 
sembly voted  £50,000;  but  having  no  exemption  of  the  proprietor's  estates, 
it  was  rejected  by  the  Governor,  in  accordance  with  his  original  instructions. 
Expeditions  undertaken  against  Nova  Scotia  and  at  Crown  Point  were  more  fortu- 
nate than  that  before  Du  Quesne,  andtheAssemblyvoted  £15,000  in  billsof  credit 
to  aid  in  defraying  the  expense.  The  proprietors  sent  £5,000  as  a  gratuity, 
not  as  any  part  of  expense  that  could  of  right  be  claimed  of  them. 

In  this  hour  of  extremity,  the  Indians  for  the  most  part  showed  themselves 
a  treacherous  race,  ever  ready  to  take  up  on  the  stronger  side.  Even  the  Shaw- 
anese  and  Delawares,  who  had  been  loudest  in  their  protestations  of  friendship 
for  the  English  and  readiness  to  fight  for  them,  no  sooner  saw  the  French  vic- 
torious than  they  gave  ready  ear  to  their  advice  to  strike  for  the  recovery  of 
the  lands  which  they  had  sold  to  the  English. 

In  this  pressing  emergency,  while  the  Governor  and  Assembly  were  waging 
a  fruitless  war  of  words  over  money  bills,  the  pen  of  Franklin  was  busy  in  in- 
fusing a  wholesome  sentiment  in  the  minds  of  the  people.  In  a  pamphlet 
that  he  issued,  which  he  put  in  the  familiar  form  of  a  dialogue,  he  answered  the 
objections  which  had  been  urged  to  a  legalized  militia,  and  willing  to  show 
his  devotion  by  deeds   as  well  as  words,  he  accepted  the  command  upon  the 


frontier.  By  his  exertions,  a  respectable  force  was  raised,  and  though  in  the 
dead  of  winter,  he  commenced  the  erection  of  a  line  of  forts  and  block-houses 
aloag  the  whole  range  of  the  Kittatinny  Hills,  from  the  Delaware  to  the  Po- 
tomac, and  had  them  completed  and  garrisoned  with  a  body  sufficient  to  with- 
stand any  force  not  provided  with  artillery.  In  the  spring,  he  turned  over  the 
command  to  Col.  Clapham,  and  returning  to  Philadelphia  took  his  seat  in  the 
Assembly.  The  Governor  now  declared  war  against  the  Indians,  who  had  es- 
tablished their  headquarters  thirty  miles  above  Harris'  Ferry,  on  the  Susque- 
hanna, and  were  busy  in  their  work  of  robbery  and  devastation,  having  se- 
cured the  greater  portion  of  the  crops  of  the  previous  season  of  the  settlers 
whom  they  had  killed  or  driven  out.  The  peace  party  strongly  objected  to  the 
course  of  the  Governor,  and  voluntarily  going  among  the  Indians  induced 
them  to  bury  the  hatchet.  The  Assembly  which  met  in  May,  1756,  prepared  a 
bill  with  the  old  claase  for  taxing  the  proprietors,  as  any  other  citizens,  which 
the  Governor  was  forbidden  to  approve  by  his  instructions,  "and  the  two 
parties  were  sharpening  their  wits  for  another  wrangle  over  it,"  when  Gov. 
Morris  was  superseded  by  William  Denny,  who  arrived  in  the  colony  and  as- 
sumed authority  on  the  20th  of  August,  1756.  He  was  joyfully  and  cordially 
received,  escorted  through  the  streets  by  the  regiments  of  Franklin  and  Duch6, 
and  royally  feasted  at  the  State  House. 

But  the  promise  of  efficient  legislation  was  broken  by  an  exhibition  of  the 
new  Governor's  instructions,  which  provided  that  every  bill  for  the  emission  of 
money  must  place  the  proceeds  at  the  joint  disposal  of  the  Governor  and  As- 
sembly; paper  currency  could  not  be  issued  in  excess  of  £40,000,  nor  could  ex- 
isting issues  be  confirmed  unless  proprietary  rents  were  paid  in  sterling 
money  ;  proprietary  lands  were  permitted  to  be  taxed  which  had  been  actually 
leased,  provided  that  the  taxes  were  paid  out  of  the  rents,  but  the  tax  could 
not  become  a  lien  upon  the  land.  In  the  first  Assembly,  the  contention  be- 
came as  acrimonious  as  ever. 

Previous  to  the  departure  of  Gov.  Morris,  as  a  retaliatory  act  he  had 
issued  a  proclamation  against  the  hostile  Indians,  providing  for  the  payment 
of  bounties:  For  every  male  Indian  enemy  above  twelve  years  old,  who  shall 
be  taken  prisoner  and  delivered  at  any  forts,  garrisoned  by  troops  in  pay 
of  this  province,  or  to  any  of  the  county  towns  to  the  keepers  of  the  common 
jails  there,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  Spanish  dollars  or  pieces  of  eight; 
for  the  scalp  of  every  male  Indian  above  the  age  of  twelve  years,  produced  as 
evidence  of  their  being  killed,  the  sum  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  pieces  of 
eight;  for  every  female  Indian  taken  prisoner  and  brought  in  as  aforesaid, 
and  for  every  male  Indian  under  the  age  of  twelve  years,  taken  and  brought 
in,  one  hundred  and  thirty  pieces  of  eight;  for  the  scalp  of  every  Indian 
woman  produced  as  evidence  of  their  being  killed,  the  sum  of  fifty  pieces  of 
eight."  Liberal  bounties  were  also  offered  for  the  delivering  up  of  settlers  who 
had  been  carried  away  captive. 

But  the  operation  which  had  the  most  wholesome  and  pacifying  effect  upon 
the  savages,  and  caused  them  to  stop  in  their  mad  career  and  consider  the 
chances  of  war  and  the  punishment  they  were  calling  down  upon  their  own 
heads,  though  executed  under  the  rule  of  Gov.  Denny,  was  planned  and 
provided  for,  and  was  really  a  part  of  the  aggressive  and  vigorous  policy  of 
Gov.  Morris.  In  response  to  the  act  of  Assembly,  providing  for  the  calling 
out  and  organizing  the  militia,  twenty- five  companies  were  recruited,  and  had 
been  stationed  along  the  line  of  posts  that  had  been  established  for  the  defense 
of  the  frontiers.  At  Kittanning,  on  the  Allegheny  River,  the  Indians  had  one 
of  the  largest  of  their  towns  in  the  State,  and  was  a  recruiting  station  and 


rallying  point  for  sending  out  their  murderous  bauds.  The  plan  proposed  and 
adopted  by  Gov.  Morris,  and  approved  and  accepted  by  Gov.  Denny, 
was  to  send  out  a  strong  detachment  from  the  militia  for  the  reduction  of  this 
stronghold.  Accordingly,  in  August,  1756,  Col.  Armstrong,  with  a  force  of 
three  hundred  men,  made  a  forced  march,  and,  arriving  unperceived  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  town,  sent  the  main  body  by  a  wide  detour  from  above,  to  come 
in  upon  the  river  a  few  hundred  yards  below.  At  3  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
the  7th  of  September,  the  troops  had  gained  their  position  undiscovered,  and 
at  dawn  the  attack  was  made.  Shielded  from  view  by  the  tall  corn  which  cov- 
ered all  the  flats,  the  troops  were  able  to  reach  in  close  proximity  to  the  cabins 
unobserved.  Jacobs,  the  chief,  sounded  the  war-whoop,  and  made  a  stout  re- 
sistance, keeping  up  a  rapid  fire  from  the  loop  holes  in  his  cabin.  Not  desir- 
ing to  push  his  advantage  to  the  issue  of  no  quarter,  Armstrong  called  on  the 
savages  to  surrender:  but  this  they  refused  to  do,  declaring  that  they  were 
men  and  would  never  be  prisoners.  Finding  that  they  would  not  yield,  and 
that  they  were  determined  to  sell  their  lives  at  the  dearest  rate,  he  gave  orders 
to  fire  the  huts,  and  the  whole  town  was  soon  wrapt  in  flames.  As  the  heat 
began  to  reach  the  warriors,  some  sung,  while  wrung  with  the  death  agonies; 
■  others  broke  for  the  river  and  were  shot  down  as  they  fled.  Jacobs,  in  attempt- 
ing to  climb  through  a  window,  was  killed.  All  calls  for  surrender  were  re- 
ceived with  derision,  one  declaring  that  he  did  not  care  for  death,  and  that  he 
could  kill  four  or  five  before  he  died.  Gunpowder,  small  arms  and  valuable 
goods  which  had  been  distributed  to  them  only  the  day  before  by  the  French, 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  victors.  The  triumph  was  complete,  few  if  any 
escaping  to  tell  the  sad  tale.  Col.  Armstrong's  celerity  of  movement  and 
well  conceived  and  executed  plan  of  action  were  publicly  acknowledged,  and 
he  was  voted  a  medal  and  plate  by  the  city  of  Philadelphia. 

The  finances  of  the  colony,  on  account  of  the  repeated  failures  of  the 
money  bills,  were  in  a  deplorable  condition.  Military  operations  could  not 
be  carried  on  and  vigorous  campaigns  prosecuted  without  ready  money.  Ac- 
cordingly, in  the  first  meeting  of  the  Assembly  after  the  arrival  of  the  new 
Governor,  a  bill  was  passed  levying  £100,000  on  all  property  alike,  real  and 
personal,  private  and  proprietary.  This  Gov.  Denny  vetoed.  Seeing  that 
money  must  be  had,  the  Assembly  finally  passed  a  bill  exempting  the  proprie- 
tary estates,  but  determined  to  lay  their  grievances  before  the  Crown.  To 
this  end,  two  Commissioners  were  appointed,  Isaac  Norris  and  Benjamin 
Franklin,  to  proceed  to  England  and  beg  the  interference  of  the  royal  Gov- 
ernment in  their  behalf.  Failing  health  and  business  engagements  of  Norris 
prevented  his  acceptance,  and  Franklin  proceeded  alone.  He  had  so  often  de- 
fended the  Assembly  in  public  and  in  drawing  remonstrances  that  the  whole 
subject  was  at  his  fingers'  ends. 

Military  operations  throughout  the  colonies,  during  the  year  1757,  con- 
ducted under  the  command  of  the  Earl  of  Loudoun  were  sluggish,  and  resulted 
only  in  disaster  and  disgrace.  The  Indians  were  active  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
kept  the  settlers  throughout  nearly  all  the  colonies  in  a  continual  fermeut, 
hostile  bands  stealing  in  upon  the  defenseless  inhabitants  as  they  went  to 
their  plantings  and  sowings,  and  greatly  interfering  with  or  preventing  alto- 
gether the  raising  of  the  ordinary  crops.  In  1758,  Loudoun  was  recalled, 
and  Gen.  Abercrombie  was  given  chief  command,  with  Wolfe,  Amherst  and 
Forbes  as  his  subordinates.  It  was  determined  to  direct  operations  simul- 
taneously upon  three  points — Fort  Du  Quesne,  Louisburg  and  the  forts  upon 
the  great  lakes.  Gen.  Forbes  commanded  the  forces  sent  against  Fort  Du 
Quesne,     With  a  detachment  of  royal  troops,  and  militia  from  Pennsylvania 


and  Virginia,  under  command  of  Cols.  Bouquet  and  Washington,  his  column 
moved  in  July,  1758.  The  French  were  well  ordered  for  receiving  the  attack, 
and  the  battle  in  front  of  the  fort  raged  with  great  fury,  but  they  were  finally 
driven,  and  the  fort,  with  its  munitions,  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  victors,  and 
was  garrisoned  by  400  Pennsylvanians.  Returning,  Forbes  placed  his  remain- 
ing forces  in  barracks  at  Lancaster. 

Franklin,  upon  his  arrival  in  England,  presented  the  grievances  before  the 
proprietors,  and,  that  he  might  get  his  case  before  the  royal  advisers  and  the 
British  public,  wrote  frequent  articles  for  the  press,  and  issued  a  pamphlet 
entitled  "  Historical  Review  of  the  Constitution  and  Government  of  Pennsyl- 
vania." The  dispute  was  adroitly  managed  by  Franklin  before  the  Privy 
Council,  and  was  finally  decided  substantially  in  the  interest  of  the  Assem- 
bly. It  was  provided  that  the  proprietors'  estates  should  be  taxed,  but  that 
their  located  uncultivated  lands  should  be  assessed  as  low  as  the  lowest  uncul- 
tivated lands  of  the  settlers,  that  bills  issued  by  the  Assembly  should  be  re- 
ceivable in  payment  of  quit  rents,  and  that  the  Deputy  Governor  should  have 
a  voice  in  disposing  of  the  revenues.  Thus  was  a  vexed  question  of  loDg 
standing  finally  put  to  rest.  So  successfully  had  Franklin  managed  this  con- 
troversy that  the  colonies  of  Massachusetts,  Maryland  and  Georgia  appointed 
him  their  agent  in  England. 

In  October,  1759,  James  Hamilton  was  again  appointed  Governor,  in  place 
of  Gov.  Denny,  who  had  by  stress  of  circumstances  transcended  his  instruc- 
tions. The  British  Government,  considering  that  the  colonies  had  borne  more 
than  their  proportionate  expense  in  carrying  on  the  war  against  the  French 
and  Indians,  voted  £200,000  for  five  years,  to  be  divided  among  the  colonies, 
the  share  falling  to  Pennsylvania  being  £26,000.  On  the  25th  of  October, 
1760,  George  II  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  grandson,  George  III.  Early 
in  1762,  war  was  declared  between  Great  Britain  and  Spain,  but  was  of  short 
continuance,  peace  having  been  declared  in  November  following,  by  which 
Spain  and  France  relinquished  to  the  English  substantially  the  territory  east 
of  the  Mississippi.  The  wise  men  of  the  various  Indian  nations  inhabiting 
this  wide  territory  viewed  with  concei'n  this  sudden  expansion  of  English 
power,  fearing  that  they  would  eventually  be  pushed  from  their  hunting 
grounds  and  pleasant  haunts  by  the  rapidly  multiplying  pale  faces.  The  In- 
dians have  ever  been  noted  for  proceeding  against  an  enemy  secretly  and 
treacherously.  Believing  that  by  concerted  action  the  English  might  be  cut 
off  and  utterly  exterminated,  a  secret  league  was  entered  into  by  the  Shawa- 
nese  and  the  tribes  dwelling  along  the  Ohio  River,  under  the  leadership  of  a 
powerful  chieftain,  Pontiac,  by  which  swift  destruction  was  everywhere  to  be 
meted  out  to  the  white  man  upon  an  hour  of  an  appointed  day.  The  plan  was 
thoroughly  understood  by  the  red  men,  and  heartily  entered  into.  The  day 
dawned  and  the  blow  fell  in  May,  1763.  The  forts  at  Presque  Isle,  Le  Boeuf, 
Venango,  La  Ray,  St.  Joseph's,  Miamis,  Onaethtanon,  Sandusky  and  Michili- 
mackinack,  all  fell  before  the  unanticipated  attacks  of  the  savages  who  were 
making  protestations  of  frieadship,  and  the  garrisons  were  put  to  the  slaugh- 
ter. Fort  Pitt  (Du  Quesne),  Niagara  and  Detroit  alone,  of  all  this  line  of 
forts,  held  out.  Pontiac  in  person  conducted  the  siege  of  Detroit,  which  he 
vigorously  pushed  from  May  until  October,  paying  his  waiTiors  with  promises 
written  on  bits  of  birch  bark,  which  he  subsequently  religiously  redeemed.  It  is 
an  evidence  of  his  great  power  that  he  could  unite  his  people  in  so  gen- 
eral and  secretly  kept  a  compact,  and  that  in  this  siege  of  Detroit  he  was  able 
to  hold  his  warriors  up  to  the  work  so  long  and  so  vigorously  even  after  all  hope 
of  success  must  have  reasonably  been  abandoned.     The  attack  fell  with  great 


severity  upon  the  Pennsylvania  settlers,  and  they  continued  to  be  driven  in 
until  Shippensbung,  in  Cumberland  County,  became  the  extreme  outpost  of 
civilization.  The  savages  stole  unawares  upon  the  laborers  in  the  fields,  or 
came  stealthily  in  at  the  midnight  hour  and  spared  neither  trembling  age  nor 
helpless  infancy,  firing  houses,  barns,  crops  and  everything  combustible. 
The  suffering  of  the  frontiersmen  in  this  fatal  year  can  scarcely  be  conceived. 

Col.  Armstrong  with  a  hastily  collected  force  advanced  upon  their  towns 
and  forts  at  Muncy  and  Great  Island,  which  he  destroyed;  but  the  Indians 
escaped  and  withdrew  before  him.  He  sent  a  detachment  under  Col.  Bouquet 
to  the  relief  of  Fort  Pitt,  which  still  held  out,  though  closely  invested  by  the 
dusky  warriors.  At  Fort  Ligonier,  Bouquet  halted  and  sent  forward  thirty 
men,  who  stealthily  pushed  past  the  Indians  under  cover  of  night,  and  reached 
the  fort,  carrying  intelligence  that  succor  was  at  hand.  Discovering  that  a 
force  was  advancing  upon  them,  the  Indians  turned  upon  the  troops  of  Bou- 
quet, and  before  he  was  aware  that  an  enemy  was  near,  he  found  himself  sur- 
rounded and  all  means  of  escape  apparently  cut  ofif.  By  a  skillfully  laid 
ambuscade,  Bouquet,  sending  a  small  detachment  to  steal  away  as  if  in  retreat, 
induced  the  Indians  to  follow,  and  when  stretched  out  in  pursuit,  the  main 
body  in  concealment  fell  upon  the  unsuspecting  savages,  and  routed  them  with 
immense  slaughter,  when  he  advanced  to  the  relief  of  the  fort  unchecked. 

As  we  have  already  seen,  the  boimdary  line  between  Maryland  and  Penn- 
sylvania had  long  been  in  dispute,  and  had  occasioned  serious  disturbances 
among  the  settlers  in  the  lifetime  of  Penn,  and  repeatedly  since.  It  was  not 
definitely  settled  till  1760,  when  a  beginning  was  made  of  a  final  adjustment, 
though  so  intricate  were  the  conditions  that  the  work  was  prosecuted  for  seven 
years  by  a  large  force  of  surveyors,  axmen  and  pioneers.  The  charter  of  Lord 
Baltimore  made  the  northern  boundary  of  Maryland  the  40th  degree  of  lati- 
tude; but  whether  the  beginning  or  end  of  the  40th  was  not  specified.  The 
charter  of  Penn,  which  was  subsequent,  made  his  southern  boundary  the 
beginning  of  the  40th  parallel.  If,  as  Lord  Baltimore  claimed,  his  northern 
boundary  was  the  end  of  the  40th,  then  the  city  of  Philadelphia  and  all  the 
settled  parts  of  Pennsylvania  would  have  been  included  in  Maryland.  If,  as 
Penn  claimed  by  express  terms  of  his  charter,  his  southern  line  was  the  begin- 
ning of  the  40th,  then  the  city  of  Baltimore,  and  even  a  part  of  the  District  of 
Columbia,  including  nearly  the  whole  of  Maryland  would  have  been  swal- 
lowed up  by  Pennsylvania.  It  was  evident  to  the  royal  Council  that  neither 
claim  could  be  rightfully  allowed,  and  nence  resort  was  had  to  compromise. 
Penn  insisted  upon  retaining  free  communication  with  the  open  ocean  by  the 
Delaware  Bay.  Accordingly,  it  was  decided  that  beginning  at  Cape  Henlopen, 
which  by  mistake  in  marking  the  maps  was  fifteen  miles  below  the  present 
location,  opposite  Cape  May,  a  line  should  be  run  due  west  to  a  point  half  way 
between  this  cape  and  the  shore  of  Chesapeake  Bay;  from  this  point  "  a  line 
was  to  be  run  northerly  in  such  direction  that  it  should  be  tangent  on  the  west 
side  to  a  circle  with  a  radius  of  twelve  miles,  whose  center  was  the  center  of 
the  court  house  at  New  Castle.  From  the  exact  tangent  point,  a  line  was  to  be 
run  due  north  until  it  should  reach  a  point  fifteen  miles  south  on  the  parallel 
of  latitude  of  the  most  southern  point  in  the  boundary  of  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia, and  this  point  when  accurately  found  by  horizontal  measurement,  was 
to  be  the  corner  bound  between  Maryland  and  Pennsylvania,  and  subsequently, 
when  Delaware  was  set  off  from  Pennsylvania,  was  the  boundary  of  the  three 
States.  From  this  bound  a  line  was  to  be  run  due  west  five  degrees  of  longi- 
tude from  the  Delaware,  which  was  to  be  the  western  limit  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  the  line  thus  ascertained  was  to  mark  the  division  between  Maryland  and 


Pennsylvania,  and  forever  settle  the  vexed  question.  If  the  due  north  line 
should  cut  any  part  of  the  circle  about  New  Castle,  the  slice  so  cut  should  be- 
long to  New  Castle.  Such  a  segment  was  cut.  This  plan  of  settlement  was 
entered  into  on  the  10th  of  May,  1732,  between  Thomas  and  Richard,  sons  of 
William  Penn,  on  the  one  part,  and  Charles,  Lord  Baltimore,  great  grandson 
of  the  patentee.  But  the  actual  marking  of  the  boundaries  was  still  deferred, 
and  as  the  settlers  were  taking  out  patents  for  their  lands,  it  was  necessary 
that  it  should  be  definitely  known  in  which  State  the  lands  lay.  Accordingly, 
in  1739,  in  obedience  to  a  decree  in  Council,  a  temporary  line  was  run  upon  a 
new  basis,  which  now  often  appears  in  litigations  to  plague  the  brain  of  the 

Commissioners  were  again  appointed  in  1751,  who  made  a  few  of  the 
measurements,  but  owing  to  objections  raised  on  the  part  of  Maryland,  the 
work  was  abandoned.  Finally,  the  proprietors,  Thomas  and  Kichard  Penn, 
and  Frederic,  Lord  Baltimore,  entered  into  an  agreement  for  the  executing  of 
the  survey,  and  John  Lukens  and  Archibald  McLean  on  the  part  of  the  Penns, 
and  Thomas  Garnett  and  Jonathan  Hall  on  the  part  of  Lord  Baltimore,  were 
appointed  with  a  suitable  corps  of  assistants  to  lay  off  the  lines.  After  these 
surveyors  had  been  three  years  at  work,  the  proprietors  in  England,  thinking 
that  there  was  not  enough  energy  and  practical  and  scientific  knowledge  mani- 
fested by  these  surveyors,  appointed  Charles  Mason  and  Jeremiah  Dixon,  two 
mathematicians  and  surveyors,  to  proceed  to  America  and  take  charge  of  the 
work.  They  brought  with  them  the  most  perfect  and  best  constructed  instru- 
ments known  to  science,  arriving  in  Philadelphia  on  the  15th  of  November, 
1763,  and,  assisted  by  some  of  the  old  surveyors,  entered  upon  their  work.  By 
the  4th  of  June,  1766,  they  had  reached  the  summit  of  the  Little  Allegheny, 
when  the  Indians  began  to  be  troublesome.  They  looked  with  an  evil  eye  on 
the  mathematical  and  astronomical  instruments,  and  felt  a  secret  dread  and 
fear  of  the  consequences  of  the  frequent  and  long  continued  peering  into  the 
heavens.  The  Six  Nations  were  understood  to  be  inimical  to  the  further  prog- 
ress of  the  survey.  But  through  the  influence  of  Sir  William  Johnson  a 
treaty  was  concluded,  providing  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work  unmolested, 
and  a  number  of  chieftains  were  sent  to  accompany  the  surveying  party. 
Mason  and  Dixon  now  had  with  them  thirty  surveyors,  fifteen  axmen,  and  fif- 
teen Indians  of  consequence.  Again  the  attitude  of  the  Indians  gave  cause  of 
fear,  and  on  the  29th  of  September,  twenty-six  of  the  surveyors  abandoned  the 
expedition  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  Having  reached  a  point  244  miles 
from  the  Delaware,  and  within  thirty- six  miles  of  the  western  limit  of  the 
State,  in  the  bottom  of  a  deep,  dark  valley,  they  came  upon  a  well-worn 
Indian  path,  and  here  the  Indians  gave  notice  that  it  was  the  will  of  the  Six 
Nations  that  this  survey  proceed  no  further.  There  was  no  questioning  this 
authority,  and  no  means  at  command  for  resisting,  and  accordingly  the  party 
broke  up  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  And  this  was  the  end  of  the  labors  of 
Mdson  and  Dixon  upon  this  boundary.  From  the  fact  that  this  was  subse- 
quently the  mark  of  division  between  the  Free  and  Slave  States,  Mason  and 
Dixon's  line  became  familiar  m  American  politics.  The  line  was  marked  by 
stones  which  were  quarried  and  engraved  in  England,  on  one  side  having  the 
arms  of  Penn,  and  on  the  opposite  those  of  Lord  Baltimore.  These  stones 
were  firmly  set  every  five  miles.  At  the  end  of  each  intermediate  mile  a 
smaller  stone  was  placed,  having  on  one  side  engraved  the  letter  P.,  and  on  the 
opposite  side  the  letter  M.  The  remainder  of  the  line  was  finished  and  marked 
in  1782-84  by  other  surveyors.  A  vista  was  cut  through  the  forest  eight  yards  in 
width  the  whole  distance,  which  seemed  in  looking  back  through  it  to  come  to  a 


point  at  the  distance  of  two  miles.  In  1849,  the  stone  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  Maryland  having  been  removed,  a  resurvey  of  the  line  was  ordered,  and 
suryeyors  were  appointed  by  the  three  States  of  Pennsylvania,  Delaware  and 
Maryland,  who  called  to  their  aid  Col.  James  D.  Graham.  Some  few  erroi's 
were  discovered  in  the  old  survey,  but  in  the  main  it  was  found  to  be  accurate. 
John  Penn,  grandson  of  the  founder,  and  son  of  Richard,  had  come  to  the 
colony  in  1753,  and,  having  acted  as  President  of  the  Council,  was,  in  1763, 
commissioned  Governor  in  place  of  Hamilton.  The  conspira'cy  of  Pontiac, 
though  abortive  in  the  results  contemplated,  left  the  minds  of  the  Indians  in 
a  raost  dangerous  state.  The  more  resolute,  who  had  entered  heartily  into  the 
views  of  their  leader,  still  felt  that  his  purposes  were  patriotic,  and  hence 
sought,  by  every  means  possible,  to  ravage  and  destroy  the  English  settlements. 
The  Moravian  Indians  at  Nain  and  Wichetunk,  though  regarded  as  friendly, 
were  suspected  of  indirectly  aiding  in  the  savage  warfare  by  trading  firearms 
and  ammunition.  They  were  accordingly  removed  to  Philadelphia  that  they 
might  be  out  of  the  way  of  temptation.  At  the  old  Indian  town  of  Conestoga 
there  lived  some  score  of  natives.  Many  heartless  murders  had  been  com- 
mitted along  the  frontier,  and  the  perpetrators  had  been  traced  to  this  Con- 
estoga town  ;  and  while  the  Conestoga  band  were  not  known  to  be  impli- 
cated in  these  outrages,  their  town  was  regarded  as  the  lurking  place  of  roving 
savages  who  were.  For  protection,  the  settlers  in  the  neighboring  districts  of 
Paxton  and  Donegal,  had  organized  a  band  known  as  the  Paxton  boys.  Earnest 
requests  were  made  by  Rev.  John  Elder  and  John  Harris  to  the  Government 
to  remove  this  band  at  Conestoga  ;  but  as  nothing  was  done,  and  fearful 
depredations  and  slaughter  continued,  a  party  of  these  Paxton  rangers  attacked 
the  town  and  put  the  savages  to  the  sword.  Some  few  escaped,  among  them  a 
known  bloodthirsty  savage,  who  were  taken  into  the  jail  at  Lancaster  for  pro- 
tection ;  but  the  rangers,  following  them,  overpowered  the  jailer,  and  breaking 
into  the  jail  murdered  the  fugitives.  Intense  excitement  was  occasioned  by 
this  outbreak,  and  Gov.  Penn  issued  his  proclamation  offering  rewards  for  the 
apprehension  of  the  perpetrators.  Some  few  were  taken  ;  but  so  excellent  was 
their  character  and  standing,  and  such  were  the  provocations,  that  no  convic- 
tions followed.  Apprehensions  for  the  safety  of  the  Moravian  Indians  induced 
the  Government  to  remove  them  to  Province  Island,  and,  feeling  insecure 
there,  they  asked  to  be  sent  to  England.  For  safety,  they  were  sent  to  New 
York,  but  the  Governor  of  that  province  refused  them  permission  to  laud,  as 
did  also  the  Governor  of  New  Jersey,  and  they  were  brought  back  to  Philadel- 
phia and  put  in  barracks  under  strong  guard.  The  Paxton  boys,  in  a  consider- 
able body,  were  at  that  time  at  Germantown  interceding  for  their  brethren, 
who  were  then  in  durance  and  threatened  with  trial.  Franklin  was  sent  out 
to  confer  with  them  on  the  part  of  the  Government.  In  defending  their  course, 
they  said  :  "  Whilst  more  than  a  thousand  families,  reduced  to  extreme  dis- 
tress, during  the  last  and  present  war,  by  the  attacks  of  skulking  parties  of 
Indians  upon  the  frontier,  were  destitute,  and  were  suffered  by  the  public  to 
depend  on  private  charity,  a  hundred  and  twenty  of  the  perpetrators  of  the 
most  horrid  barbarities  were  supported  by  the  province,  and  protected  from 
the  fury  of  the  brave  relatives  of  the  murdered. "  Influenced  by  the  persua- 
sions of  Franklin,  they  consented  to  return  to  their  homes,  leaving  only 
Matthew  Smith  and  James  Gibson  to  represent  them  before  the  courts. 



John  Penn,  1763-71— James  Hamilton,  1771— Eichard  Penn,  1771-73— John 

Penn,  1773-76. 

A  DIFFERENCE  having  arisen  between  the  Governor  and  Assembly  on  the 
vexed  question  of  levying  money,  the  Assembly  passed  a  series  of  reso- 
lutions advocating  that  the  "  powers  of  government  ought  to  be  separated  from 
the  power  attending  the  immense  proprietary  property,  and  lodged  in  the 
bands  of  the  King."  After  an  interval  of  fifty  days — that  time  for  reflection 
and  discussion  might  be  given — the  Assembly  again  convened,  and  adopted  a 
petition  praying  the  King  to  assume  the  direct  government  of  the  province, 
though  this  policy  was  strongly  opposed  by  some  of  the  ablest  members,  as 
Isaac  Norris  and  John  Dickinson.  The  Quaker  element  was  generally  in 
favor  of  the  change. 

Indian  barbarities  still  continuing  along  the  frontier,  Gov.  Penn  declared 
war  against  the  Shawanese  and  Delawares  in  July,  1765,  and  sent  Col.  Bouquet 
with  a  body  of  Pennsylvania  troops  against  them.  By  the  3d  of  October,  he 
had  come  up  to  the  Muskingum,  in  the  heart  of  the  most  thickly  peopled 
Indian  territory.  So  rapid  had  been  the  movement  of  Bouquet  that  the  savages 
had  no  intelligence  of  his  advance  until  he  was  upon  them  with  no  preparations 
for  defense.  They  sued  for  peace,  and  a  treaty  was  entered  into  by  which  the 
savages  agreed  to  abstain  from  further  hostilities  until  a  general  treaty  could 
be  concluded  with  Sir  William  Johnson,  the  general  agent  for  Indian  afifairs 
for  all  the  colonies,  and  to  deliver  up  all  English  captives  who  had  been  carried 
away  during  the  years  of  trouble.  Two  hundred  and  eight  were  quickly 
gathered  up  and  brought  in,  and  many  others  were  to  follow,  who  were  now 
widely  scattered.  The  relatives  of  many  of  these  captives  had  proceeded  with 
the  train  of  Bouquet,  intent  on  reclaiming  those  who  had  been  dear  to  them. 
Some  were  joyfully  received,  while  others  who  had  been  borne  off  in  youth  had 
become  attached  to  their  captors,  and  force  was  necessary  to  bring  them  away. 
"  On  the  return  of  the  army,  some  of  the  Indians  obtained  leave  to  accompany 
their  former  captives  to  Fort  Pitt,  and  employed  themselves  in  hunting  and 
carrying  provisions  for  them  on  the  road. " 

The  great  struggle  for  the  independence  of  the  colonies  of  the  British 
crown  was  now  close  at  hand,  and  the  first  sounds  of  the  controversy  were  be- 
ginning to  be  heard.  Sir  William  Keith,  that  enterprising  Governor  whose 
head  seemed  to  have  been  full  of  new  projects,  as  early  as  1739  had  proposed 
to  lay  a  uniform  tax  on  stamped  paper  in  all  the  colonies,  to  realize  funds  for 
the  common  defense.  Acting  upon  this  hint,  Grenville,  the  British  Minister, 
notified  the  colonists  in  1763  of  his  purpose  to  impose  such  a  tax.  Against 
this  they  remonstrated.  Instead  of  this,  a  tax  on  imports,  to  be  paid  in  coin, 
was  adopted.  This  was  even  more  distasteful.  The  Assembly  of  Rhode 
Island,  in  October,  1765,  submitted  a  paper  to  all  the  colonial  assemblies,  with 
a  view  to  uniting  in  a  common  petition  to  the  King  against  parliamentary 
taxation.  This  was  favorably  acted  on  by  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
Franklin  was  appointed  agent  to  represent  their  cause  before  the  British  Par- 
liament. The  Stamp  Act  had  been  passed  on  the  22d  of  March,  1765.  Its 
passage  excited  bittec  opposition,  and  a  resolution,  asserting  that  the  Colonial 


Assemblies  had  the  exclusive  right  to  levy  taxes,  was  passed  by  the  Virginia 
Assembly,  and  concurred  in  by  all  the  others.  The  Massachusetts  Assembly 
proposed  a  meeting  of  delegates  in  New  York  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  October, 
1765,  to  confer  upon  the  subject.  The  Pennsylvania  Assembly  adopted  the 
suggestion,  and  appointed  Messrs.  Fox,  Morton,  Bryan  and  Dickenson  as  dele- 
gates. This  Congress  met  according  to  the  call  and  adopted  a  respectful  pe- 
tition to  the  King,  and  a  memorial  to  Parliament,  which  were  signed  by  all 
the  members  and  forwarded  for  presentation  by  the  Colonial  Agents  m  En- 
gland. The  Stamp  Act  was  to  go  into  effect  on  the  1st  of  November.  On  the 
last  day  of  October,  the  newspapers  were  dressed  in  mourning,  and  suspended 
publication.  The  publishers  agreed  not  to  use  the  stamped  paper.  The 
people,  as  with  one  mind,  determined  to  dress  in  homespun,  resolved  not  to 
use  imported  goods,  and,  to  stimulate  the  production  of  wool  the  colonists  cov- 
enanted not  to  eat  lamb  for  the  space  of  one  year.  The  result  of  this  policy 
was  soon  felt  by  British  manufacturers  who  became  clamorous  for  repeal  of 
the  obnoxious  measures,  and  it  was  accordingly  repealed  on  the  18th  of  March, 

Determined  in  some  form  to  draw  a  revenue  from  the  colonies,  an  act  was 
passed  in  1767,  to  lay  a  duty  on  tea,  paper,  printers'  colors,  and  glass.  The  As- 
sembly of  Pennsylvania  passed  a  resolution  on  the  20th  of  February,  1768, 
instructing  its  agent  in  London  to  urge  its  repeal,  and  at  the  session  in  May 
received  and  entered  upon  its  minutes  a  circular  letter  from  the  Massachusetts 
Assembly,  setting  forth  the  grounds  on  which  objection  to  the  act  should  be 
urged.  This  circular  occasioned  hostile  feeling  among  the  ministry,  and  the 
Secretary  for  foreign  affairs  wrote  to  Gov.  Penn  to  urge  the  Assembly  to 
take  no  notice  of  it;  but  if  they  approved  its  sentiments,  to  prorogue  their 
sittings.  This  letter  was  transmitted  to  the  Assembly,  and  soon  after  one 
from  the  Virginia  Assembly  was  presented,  urging  union  of  all  the  colonies 
in  opposing  the  several  schemes  of  taxation.  This  recommendation  was 
adopted,  and  committees  appointed  to  draw  a  petition  to  the  King  and  to  each 
of  the  Houses  of  Parliament.  To  lead  public  sentiment,  and  have  it  well 
grounded  in  the  arguments  used  against  taxation,  John  Dickinson,  one  of  the 
ablest  of  the  Pennsylvania  legislators  at  this  time,  published  a  number  of 
articles  purporting  to  come  from  a  plain  farmer,  under  the  title  of  the  Farmer^ s 
Letters,  which  became  popular,  the  idea  that  they  were  the  work  of  one  in 
humble  life,  helping  to  swell  the  tide  of  popularity.  They  were  republished 
in  all  the  colonies,  and  exerted  a  commanding  influence.  Alarmed  at  the 
unanimity  of  feeling  against  the  proposed  schemes,  and  supposing  that  it  was 
the  amount  of  the  tax  that  gave  offense,  Parliament  reduced  the  rate  in  1769 
to  one  sixth  of  the  original  sum,  and  in  1770  abolished  it  altogether,  except 
three  pence  a  pound  on  tea  But  it  was  the  principle,  and  not  the  amount 
that  was  objected  to,  and  at  the  next  session  of  the  Assembly  in  Pennsylvania, 
their  agent  in  London  was  directed  to  urge  its  repeal  altogether. 

It  would  seem  incredible  that  the  colony  of  Connecticut  should  lay  claim 
to  any  part  of  the  territory  of  Pennsylvania,  but  so  it  was.  The  New  En- 
gland charters  gave  limitless  extent  westward  even  to  the  shores  of  the  Pacific 
Ocean,  and  south  to  the  northern  limits  of  the  tract  ceded  to  Lord  Baltimore — 
the  territory  between  the  40th  and  46th  degrees  of  north  latitude,  and  from 
ocean  to  ocean.  To  encroach  upon  New  York  with  its  teaming  popu- 
lation was  not  calculated  to  tempt  the  enterprise  of  the  settler;  but 
the  rich  virgin  soil,  and  agreeable  climate  of  the  wide  Wyoming  Val- 
ley, as  yet  unappropriated,  was  likely  to  attract  the  eye  of  the  explorer^ 
Accordingly,    at  the    general    conference   with  the   Indians   held   at  Albany 


in  1754,  the  Connecticut  delegates  made  a  purchase  of  a  large  tract  in 
this  valley;  a  company,  known  as  the  Susquehanna  Company,  was  formed  in 
Connecticut  to  promote  the  settlement  of  these  lands,  and  a  considerable  im- 
migration commenced.  The  proprietors  of  Pennsylvania  had  also  made  pur- 
chase of  the  Indians  of  these  identical  lands,  and  the  royal  charters  of  Charles 
and  James  covered  this  ground.  But  the  Plymouth  Charter  antedated  Penn's. 
Kemonstrancos  were  made  to  the  Governor  of  Connecticut  against  encroach- 
ments upon  the  territory  of  Pennsylvania.  The  answer  returned  was  under- 
stood to  disclaim  any  control  over  the  company  by  the  Connecticut  authorities; 
but  it  subsequently  appeared  that  the  Government  was  determined  to  defend 
the  settlers  in  the  possession  of  their  lands.  In  1768,  the  proprietors  of  Penn- 
sylvania entered  into  treaty  stipulations  with  the  Indians  for  all  this  tract  cov- 
ered by  the  claim  of  the  Susquehanna  Company.  Pennsylvania  settlers, 
attracted  by  the  beauty  of  the  place,  gradually  acquired  lands  under  Penn- 
sylvania patents,  and  the  two  parties  began  to  infringe  on  each  other's  claims. 
Forts  and  block-houses  were  erected  for  the  protection  of  either  party,  and  a 
petty  warfare  was  kept  up,  which  resulted  in  some  loss  of  life.  Butler,  the 
leader  of  the  Connecticut  party,  proposed  to  settle  their  differences  by  per- 
sonal combat  of  thirty  picked  men  on  each  side.  In  order  to  assert  more  direct 
legal  control  over  the  settlers,  a  new  county  was  formed  which  was  called 
Northumberland,  that  embraced  all  the  disputed  lands.  But  the  Sheriff,  even 
with  the  aid  of  the  militia,  which  he  called  to  his  assistance,  was  unable  to 
execute  his  processes,  and  exercise  legal  control,  the  New  Englanders,  proving 
a  resolute  set,  determined  to  hold  the  splendid  farms  which  they  had  marked 
out  for  themselves,  and  were  bringing  rapidly  under  cultivation.  To  the  re- 
monstrances of  Gov.  Penn,  Gov.  Trumbull  responded  that  the  Susquehanna  Com- 
pany was  proceeding  in  good  faith  under  provisions  secured  by  the  charter  of 
the  Plymouth  Colony,  and  proposed  that  the  question  be  submitted  to  a  com- 
petent tribunal  for  arbitrament.  An  ex  parte  statement  was  submitted  to 
Council  in  London  by  the  Connecticut  party,  and  an  opinion  was  rendered 
favorable  to  its  claims.  In  September,  1775,  the  matter  was  submitted  to  the 
Continental  Congress,  and  a  committee  of  that  body,  to  whom  it  was  referred, 
reported  in  favor  of  the  Connecticut  claim,  apportioning  a  tract  out  of  the 
very  bowels  of  Pennsylvania  nearly  as  large  as  the  whole  State  of  Connecticut. 
This  action  was  promptly  rejected  by  the  Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  and  a 
final  decision  was  not  reached  until  1802,  when  Congress  decided  in  favor  of 
the  integrity  of  the  .chartered  rights  of  Penn, 

Richard  Penn,  son  of  the  founder,  died  in  1771,  whereupon  Gov.  John 
Penn  returned  to  England,  leaving  the  President  of  the  Council,  James  Ham- 
ilton, at  the  head  of  the  Government.  John  Penn,  eldest  son  of  Richard,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  proprietary  interests  of  his  father,  which  he  held  in  conjunction 
with  his  uncle,  Thomas,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year,  Richard,  the  second 
son,  was  commissioned  Governor.  He  held  the  office  but  about  two  years,  and 
in  that  time  won  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  the  people,  and  so  much  attached 
was  he  to  the  popular  cause,  that  upon  his  return  to  England,  in  1775,  he  was 
intrusted  by  Congress  with  the  last  petition  of  the  colonies  ever  presented  to 
the  King.  In  August,  1773,  John  Penn  returned  with  the  commission  of 
Governor,  superseding  his  brother  Richard.  Soon  after  his  arrival,  the  Gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  Lord  Dunmore,  isHued  his  proclamation,  laying  claim  to  a 
vast  territory  in  the  Monongalia  Valley,  including  the  site  of  the  present 
city  of  Pittsburgh,  and  upon  the  withdrawal  of  the  British  garrison,  one  Con- 
nolly had  taken  possession  of  it  in  the  name  of  Virginia.  Gov.  Penn  issued  a 
counter-proclamation,  calling  on  all  good  citizens  within  the  borders  of  Penn- 


sylvania,  to  preserve  their  allegiance  to  his  Govornraent,  seized  and  imprisoned 
Connolly,  and  sent  Commissioners  to  Virginia  to  effect  an  amicable  settlement. 
These,  Dunmore  refused  to  hear,  and  was  preparing  to  assert  his  authority  by 
force;  but  his  Council  refused  to  vote  him  money  for  this  purpose. 

To  encourage  the  sale  of  tea  in  the  colonies,  and  establish  the  principle  of 
taxation,  the  export  duty  was  removed.  The  colonies  took  the  alarm.  At  a 
public  meeting  called  in  Philadelphia  to  consider  the  subject,  on  the  18th  of 
October,  1773,  resolutions  were  adopted  in  which  it  was  declared  :  "  That  the 
disposal  of  their  own  property  is  the  inherent  right  of  freemen;  that  there  can 
be  no  property  in  that  which  another  can,  of  right,  take  from  us  without  our 
consent;  that  the  claim  of  Parliament  to  tax  America,  is,  in  other  words,  a  claim 
of  right  to  levy  contributions  on  us  at  pleasure.''  The  East  India  Company 
now  made  preparations  for  sending  large  importations  of  tea  into  the  colonies. 
The  ships  destined  for  Philadelphia  and  New  York,  on  approaching  port,  and 
being  advised  of  the  exasperated  state  of  public  feeling,  returned  to  England 
with  their  cargoes.  Those  sent  to  Boston  came  into  the  harbor;  but  at  night  a 
party  disguised  as  Mohawk  Indians  boarded  the  vessels,  and  breaking  open 
the  packages,  emptied  300  chests  into  the  sea.  The  ministry,  on  being  apprised 
of  this  act,  closed  the  port  of  Boston,  and  subverted  the  colonial  charter. 
Early  in  the  year,  committees  of  correspondence  had  been  established  in  all 
the  colonies,  by  means  of  which  the  temper  and  feeling  in  each  was  well  un- 
derstood by  the  others,  and  concert  of  action  was  secured.  The  hard  condi- 
tions imposed  on  the  town  of  Boston  and  the  colony  of  Massachusetts  Bay, 
aroused  the  sympathy  of  all ;  for,  they  argued,  we  know  not  how  soon  the  heavy 
hand  of  oppression  may  be  felt  by  any  of  us.  Philadelphia  declared  at  a  pub- 
lic meeting  that  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  would  continue  firmly  to  adhere 
to  the  cause  of  American  liberty,  and  urged  the  calling  of  a  Congress  of  dele- 
gates to  consider  the  general  interests. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  Philadelphia  on  the  18th  of  June,  1774,  at  which 
nearly  8,000  people  were  convened,  it  was  decided  that  a  Continental  Congress 
ought  to  be  held,  and  appointed  a  committee  of  correspondence  to  communi- 
cate with  similar  committees  in  the  several  counties  of  Pennsylvania  and  in  the 
several  colonies.  On  the  15th  of  July,  1774,  delegates  from  all  the  counties, 
summoned  by  this  committee,  assembled  in  Philadelphia,  and  declared  tbat 
there  existed  an  absolute  necessity  for  a  Colonial  Congress.  They  accordingly 
recommended  that  the  Assembly  appoint  delegates  to  such  a  Congress  to 
represent  Pennsylvania,  and  Joseph  Galloway,  Samuel  Rhoads,  George  Ross, 
Edward  Biddle,  John  Dickinson,  Charles  Humphries  and  Thomas  Mifflin  were 

On  the  4th  of  Septemoer,  1774,  the  first  Continental  Congress  assembled  m 
Philadelphia.  Peyton  Randolph,  of  Virginia,  was  called  to  preside,  and 
Charles  Thomson,  of  Pennsylvania,  was  appointed  Secretary.  It  was  resolved 
that  no  more  goods  be  imported  from  England,  and  that  unless  a  pacification 
was  effected  previously,  no  more  Colonial  produce  of  the  soil  be  exported 
thither  after  September  10,  1775.  A  declaration  of  rights  was  adopted,  and 
addresses  to  the  King,  the  people  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  British  America 
were  agreed  to,  after  which  the  Congress  adjourned  to  meet  again  on  the  10th 
of  May,  1775. 

In  January,  1775,  another  meeting  of  the  county  delegates  was  held  in 
Philadelphia,  at  which  the  action  of  the  Colonial  Congress  was  approved,  and 
while  a  restoration  of  harmony  with  the  mother  country  was  desired,  yet  if 
the  arbitiary  acts  of  Parliament  were  persisted  in,  they  would  at  every  hazard 
defend  the  "  rights  and  liberties  of  America."     The  delegates  appointed  to 


represent  the  colony  in  the  Second  Congress  were  Mifflin,  Humphries,  Biddle, 
Dickinson,  Morton,  FranJilin,  Wilson  and  Willing. 

The  government  of  Great  Britain  had  determined  with  a  strong  hand  to 
compel  obedience  to  its  behests.  On  the  19th  of  April,  1775,  was  fought  the 
battle  of  Lexington,  and  the  crimson  fountain  was  opened.  That  blow  was 
felt  alike  through  all  the  colonies.  The  cause  of  one  was  the  cause  of  all. 
A  public  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  at  which  it  was  resolved  to  organize 
military  companies  in  all  the  counties.  The  Assembly  heartily  seconded  these 
views,  and  engaged  to  provide  for  the  pay  of  the  militia  while  in  service. 
The  Second  Congress,  which  met  in  May,  provided  for  organizing  a  continental 
army,  fixing  the  quota  for  Pennsylvania  at  4,300  men.  The  Assembly  adopted 
the  recommendation  of  Congress,  provided  for  arming,  disciplining  and  pay- 
ing the  militia,  recommended  the  organizing  minutemen  for  service  in  an 
emergency,  made  appropriations  for  the  defense  of  the  city,  and  offered  a  pre- 
mium on  the  production  of  salt  peter.  Complications  hourly  thickened.  Ticon- 
deroga  was  captured  on  the  10th  of  May,  and  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill  was 
fought  on  the  17th  of  June.  On  the  15th  of  June,  George  Washington  was 
appointed  Commander-in-chief  of  the  Continental  Army,  supported  by  four 
Major  Generals  and  eight  Brigadiers. 

The  royal  Governors  were  now  an  incumbrance  greatly  in  the  way  of  the 
popular  movement,  as  were  also  the  Assemblies  where  they  refused  to  represent 
the  popular  will.  Accordingly,  Congress  recommended  that  the  several  col- 
onies should  adopt  such  government  as  should  "  best  conduce  to  the  happiness 
and  safety  of  their  constituents  in  particular  and  America  in  general."  This 
meant  that  each  colony  should  set  up  a  government  for  itself  independent  of 
the  Crown.  Accordingly,  a  public  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  at 
which  it  was  resolved  that  the  present  Assembly  is  "  not  competent  to  the  pres- 
ent exigencies  of  affairs,"  and  that  a  new  form  of  government  ought  to  be 
adopted  as  recommended  by  Congress.  The  city  committee  of  correspondence 
called  on  the  county  committees  to  secure  the  election  of  delegates  to  a  colonial 
meeting  for  the  purpose  of  considering  this  subject.  On  the  18th  of  June, 
the  meeting  was  held  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  organized  by  electing  Thomas 
McKean  President.  It  resolved  to  call  a  convention  to  frame  a  new  con- 
stitution, provided  the  legal  forms  to  be  observed,  and  issued  an  address  to 
the  people. 

Having  thus  by  frequent  argumentation  grown  familiar  with  the  declara- 
tion of  the  inherent  rights  of  every  citizen,  and  with  flatly  declaring  to  the 
government  of  Great  Britain  that  it  had  no  right  to  pursue  this  policy  or  that, 
and  the  several  States  having  been  recommended  to  absolve  themselves  from 
allegience  to  the  royal  governments,  and  set  up  independent  colonial  govern- 
ments of  their  own,  it  was  a  natural  inference,  and  but  a  step  further,  to  de- 
clare the  colonies  entirely  independent  of  the  British  Government,  and  to  or- 
ganize for  themselves  a  general  continental  government  to  hold  the  place  of  King 
and  Parliament.  The  idea  of  independence  had  been  seriously  proposed,  and 
several  Colonial  Assemblies  had  passed  resolutions  strongly  recommending  it. 
And  yet  there  were  those  of  age  and  experience  who  had  supported  independ- 
ent principles  in  the  stages  of  argumentation,  before  action  was  demanded, 
when  they  approached  the  brink  of  the  fatal  chasm,  and  had  to  decide 
whether  to  take  the  leap,  hesitated.  There  were  those  in  the  Assembly  of 
Pennsylvania  who  were  reluctant  to  advise  independence;  but  the  majority 
voted  to  recommend  its  delegates  to  unite  with  the  other  colonies  for  the  com- 
mon good.  The  convention  which  had  provided  for  holding  a  meeting  of  del- 
egates to  frame  a  new  constitution,  voted  in  favor  of  independence,  and  au- 
thorized the  raising  of  G,000  militia. 


On  the  7th  of  June,  1776,  Richard  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  introduced  in 
Congress  the  proposition  that,  "the  United  Colonies  are,  and  of  right  ought  to 
be,  free  and  independent  States,  and  that  all  political  connection  between 
them  cind  the  State  of  Great  Britain  is,  and  ought  to  be,  totally  dissolved." 
It  was  impossible  to  mistake  or  misinterpret  the  meaning  of  this  language. 
The  issue  was  fairly  made  up.  It  was  warmly  discussed.  John  Dickinson, 
one  of  the  Pennsylvania  delegates,  and  one  who  had  been  foremost  in  speak- 
ing and  writing  on  the  popular  side,  was  not  ready  to  cut  off  all  hope  of  rec- 
onciliation, and  depicted  the  disorganized  condition  in  which  the  colonies 
would  be  left  if  the  power  and  protection  of  Britain  were  thus  suddenly  re- 
moved. The  vote  upon  the  resolution  was  taken  on  the  2d  of  July,  and  re- 
sulted in  the  affirmative  vote  of  all  the  States  except  Pennsylvania  and 
Delaware,  the  delegates  from  these  States  being  divided.  A  committee  con- 
sisting of  Adams,  Franklin,  Jefferson,  Livingston  and  Sherman  had  been,  some 
time  previous,  appointed  to  draw  a  formal  statement  of  the  Declaration,  and 
the  reasons  "out  of  a  decent  respect  to  the  opinions  of  mankind,"  which  led 
to  so  important  an  act.  The  work  was  intrusted  to  a  sub-committee  consisting  of 
Adams  and  Jefferson,  and  its  composition  was  the  work  of  Mr.  Jefferson,  though 
many  of  the  ideas,  and  even  the  forms  of  expression,  had  been  used  again  and 
again  in  the  previous  resolutions  and  prouunciamentoes  of  the  Colonial  Assem- 
blies and  public  meetings.  It  had  been  reported  on  the  28th  of  June,  and  was 
sharply  considered  in  all  its  parts,  many  verbal  alterations  having  been  made  in 
the  committee  of  five;  but  after  the  passage  of  the  preliminary  resolution,  the 
result  was  a  foregone  conclusion,  and  on  the  4th  of  Jaly  it  was  finally  adopted 
and  proclaimed  to  the  world.  Of  the  Pennsylvania  delegation,  Franklin, 
Wilson  and  Morton  voted  for  it,  and  Willing  and  Humphrey  against,  Dickin- 
son being  absent.  The  colonial  convention  of  Pennsylvania,  being  in  session 
at  the  time,  on  receiving  intelligence  that  a  majority  of  its  delegates  in  Con- 
gress had  voted  against  the  preliminary  resolution,  named  a  new  delegation, 
omitting  the  names  of  Dickinson,  Willing  and  Humphrey,  and  adding  others 
which  made  it  thus  constituted — Franklin,  Wilson,  Morton,  Morris,  Clymer, 
Smith,  Taylor  and  Ross.  An  engrossed  copy  of  the  Declaration  was  made, 
which  was  signed  by  all  the  members  on  the  2d  of  August  following,  on 
which  are  found  the  names  from  Pennsylvania  above  recited. 

The  convention  for  framing  a  new  constitution  for  the  colony  met  on  the 
15th  of  July,  and  was  organized  by  electing  Franklin  President,  and  on  the 
28th  of  September  completed  its  labors,  having  framed  a  new  organic  law 
and  made  all  necessary  provisions  for  putting  it  into  operation.  In  the  mean- 
lime  the  old  proprietary  Assembly  adjourned  on  the  14th  of  June  to  the  26fch 
of  August.  But  a  quorum  failed  to  appear,  and  an  adjournment  was  had  to 
the  23d  of  September,  when  some  routine  business  was  attended  to,  chiefly 
providing  for  the  payment  of  salaries  and  necessary  bills,  and  on  the  28th  of 
September,  after  a  stormy  existence  of  nearly  a  century,  this  Assembly,  the 
creature  of  Penn,  adjourned  never  to  meet  again.  With  the  ending  of  the  As- 
sembly ended  the  power  of  Gov.  Penn.  It  is  a  singular  circumstance,  much 
noted  by  the  believers  in  signs,  that  on  the  day  of  his  arrival  in  America, 
which  was  Sunday,  the  earth  in  that  locality  was  rocked  by  an  earthquake, 
which  was  intei-preted  as  an  evil  omen  to  his  administration.  He  married  the 
daaghte^  of  William  Allen,  Chief  Justice  of  the  colony,  and,  though  at  times 
falling  under  suspicion  of  favoring  the  royal  cause,  yet,  as  was  believed,  not 
with  reason,  he  remained  a  quiet  spectator  of  the  great  struggle,  living  at  his 
country  seat  in  Bucks  County,  where  he  died  in  February,  1795. 

The  titles  of  the  proprietors  to  landed  estates  were  suspended  by  the  action 


of  the  convention,  and  on  the  27th  of  November,  1779,  the  Legislature  passed 
an  act  vesting  these  estates  in  the  commonwealth,  but  paying  the  proprietors  a 
gratuity  of  £130,000,  "in  remembrance  of  the  enterprising  spirit  of  the 
Founder."  This  act  did  not  touch  the  private  estates  of  the  proprietors,  nor 
the  tenths  of  manors.  The  British  Government,  in  1790,  in  consideration  of 
the  fact  that  it  had  been  unable  to  vindicate  its  authority  over  the  colony,  and 
afford  protection  to  the  proprietors  in  the  enjoyment  of  their  chartered  rights, 
voted  an  annuity  of  £4,000  to  the  heirs  and  descendants  of  Penn.  This  annuity 
has  been  regularly  paid  to  the  present  time,  1884, 


Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  1777-78— George  Bryan,  1778— Joseph  Eeed,  1778-81— 
William  Moore,  1781-82— John  Dickinson,  1783-85— Benjamin  Franklin, 


THE  convention  which  framed  the  constitution  appointed  a  Commit-tee  of 
Safety,  consisting  of  twenty-five  members,  to  whom  was  intrusted  the 
government  of  the  colony  until  the  proposed  constitution  should  be  framed  and 
put  in  operation.  Thomas  Rittenhouse  was  chosen  President  of  this  body, 
who  was  consequently  in  effect  Governor.  The  new  constitution,  which  was 
unanimously  adopted  on  the  28th  of  September,  was  to  take  effect  from  its 
passage.  It  provided  for  an  Assembly  to  be  elected  annually;  a  Supreme  Ex- 
ecutive Council  of  twelve  members  to  be  elected  for  a  term  of  three  years;  As- 
semblymen to  be  eligible  but  four  years  out  of  seven,  and  Councilmen  but 
one  term  in  seven  years.  Members  of  Congress  were  chosen  by  the  Assembly. 
The  constitution  could  not  be  changed  for  seven  years.  It  provide<l  for  the 
election  of  censors  every  seven  years,  who  were  to  decide  whether  there  was 
a  demand  for  its  revision.  If  so,  they  were  to  call  a  convention  for  the  pur- 
pose. On  the  6th  of  August,  1776,  Thomas  Wharton,  Jr.,  was  chosen  Presi- 
dent of  the  Council  of  Safety. 

The  struggle  with  the  parent  country  was  now  fully  inaugui'sted.  The 
British  Parliament  had  declared  the  colonists  rebels,  had  voted  a  force  of 
55,000  men,  and  in  addition  had  hired  17,000  Hessian  soldiers,  to  subdue  them. 
The  Congress  on  its  part  had  declared  the  objects  for  which  arms  had  been 
taken  up,  and  had  issued  bills  of  credit  to  the  amount  of  $6,000,000.  Par- 
liament had  resolved  upon  a  vigorous  campaign,  to  strike  heavy  and  rapid 
blows,  and  quickly  end  the  war.  The  first  campaign  had  been  conducted  in 
Massachusetts,  and  by  the  efficient  conduct  of  Washington,  Gen.  Howe,  the 
leader  of  the  British,  was  compelled  to  capitulate  and  withdraw  to  Halifax  ill 
March,  1776.  On  the  28th  of  June,  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  with  a  strong  detach- 
ment, in  conjunction  with  Sir  Peter  Parker  of  the  navy,  made  a  combined 
land  and  naval  attack  upon  the  defenses  of  Charleston  Harbor,  where  he  was 
met  by  Gen.  William  Moultrie,  with  the  Carolina  Militia,  and  after  a  severe 
battle,  in  which  the  British  fleet  was  roughly  handled,  Clinton  >;ithdrew  and 
returned  to  New  York,  whither  the  main  body  of  the  British  Army,  under  Gen. 
Howe,  had  come,  and  where  Admiral  Lord  Howe,  with  a  large' fleet  directly 
from  England,  joined  them.  To  this  formidable  power  led  by  the  best  talent 
in  the  British  Army,  Washington  could  muster  no  adequate  force  to  oppose, 
and  he  was  obliged   to  withdraw   from  Long  Island,  from  New  York,  from 


Harlem,  from  White  Plains,  to  cross  into  New  Jersey,  and  abandon  position 
after  position,  until  he  had  reached  the  right  bank  of  the  Delaware  on  Penn- 
sylvania soil.  A  heavy  detachment  under  Cornwallis  followed,  and  would 
have  crossed  the  Delaware  in  pursuit,  but  advised  to  a  cautious  policy  by 
Howe,  he  waited  for  ice  to  form  on  the  waters  of  the  Delaware  before  passing 
over.  The  fall  of  Philadelphia  now  seemed  imminent.  Washington  had  not 
sufficient  force  to  face  the  whole  power  of  the  British  A.rmy.  On  the  2d  of 
December,  the  Supreme  Council  ordered  all  places  of  business  in  the  cit}'  to 
be  closed,  the  schools  to  be  dismissed,  and  advised  preparation  for  removing 
the  women  and  children  and  valuables.  On  the  12th,  the  Congress  which  was 
in  session  here  adjourned  to  meet  in  Baltimore,  taking  with  them  all  papers 
and  public  records,  and  leaving  a  committee,  of  which  Robert  Morris  was 
Chairman,  to  act  in  conjunction  with  Washington  for  the  safety  of  the  place. 
Gen.  Putnam  was  dispatched  on  the  same  day  with  a  detachment  of  soldiers 
to  take  command  in  the  city. 

In  this  emergency  the  Council  issued  a  stirring  address:  "If  you  wish 
to  live  in  fi-eedom,  and  are  determined  to  maintain  that  best  boon  of  heaven, 
you  have  no  time  to  deliberate.  A  manly  resistance  will  secure  every  bless- 
ing, inactivity  and  sloth  will  bring  horror  and  destruction.  *  *  *  M.a,j 
heaven,  which  has  bestowed  the  blessings  of  liberty  upon  you,  awaken  you  to 
a  proper  sense  of  your  danger  and  arouse  that  manly  spirit  of  virtuous  resolu- 
tion which  has  ever  bidden  defiance  to  the  efforts  of  tyranny.  May  you  ever 
have  the  glorious  prize  of  liberty  in  view,  and  bear  with  a  becoming  fortitude 
the  fatigues  and  severities  of  a  winter  campaign.  That,  and  that  only,  will 
entitle  you  to  the  superlative  distinction  of  being  deemed,  under  God,  the 
deliverers  of  your  country."  Such  were  the  arguments  which  our  fathers 
made  use  of  in  conducting  the  struggle  against  the  British  Empire. 

Washington,  who  had,  from  the  opening  of  the  campaign  before  New 
York,  been  obliged  for  the  most  part  to  act  upon  the  defensive,  formed  the 
plan  to  suddenly  turn  upon  his  pursuers  and  offer  battle.  Accordingly,  on 
the  night  of  the  25th  of  December,  taking  a  picked  body  of  men,  he  moved  up 
several  miles  to  Taylorsville,  where  he  crossed  the  river,  though  at  flood  tide 
and  filled  with  floating  ice,  and  moving  down  to  Trenton,  where  a  detachment 
of  the  British  Army  was  posted,  made  a  bold  and  vigorous  attack.  Taken  by 
surprise,  though  now  after  sunrise,  the  battle  was  soon  decided  in  favor  of 
the  Americans.  Some  fifty  of  the  enemy  were  slain  and  over  a  thousand 
taken  prisoners,  with  quantities  of  arms,  ammunition  and  stores  captured.  A 
triumphal  entry  was  made  at  Philadelphia,  when  the  prisoners  and  the  spoils 
of  war  moved  through  the  streets  under  guard  of  the  victorious  troojDS,  and 
were  marched  away  to  the  prison  camp  at  Lancaster.  Washington,  who  was 
smarting  under  a  forced  inactivity,  by  reason  of  paucity  of  numbers  and  lack 
of  arms  and  material,  and  who  had  been  forced  constantly  to  retire  before  a 
defiant  foe,  now  took  courage.  His  name  was  upon  every  tongue,  and  foreign 
Governments  were  disposed  to  give  the  States  a  fair  chance  in  their  struggle 
for  nationality.  The  lukewarm  were  encouraged  to  enlist  under  the  banner  of 
freedom.  It  had  great  strategic  value.  The  British  had  intended  to  push 
forward  and  occupy  Philadelphia  at  once,  which,  being  now  virtually  the  cap- 
ital of  the  new  nation,  had  it  been  captured  at  this  juncture,  would  have  given 
them  the  occasion  for  claiming  a  triumphal  ending  of  the  war.  But  this  ad. 
vantage,  though  gained  by  a  detachment  small  in  numbers  yet  great  in  cour- 
age, caused  the  commander  of  a  powerful  and  well  appointed  army  to  give  up 
all  intention  o-f  attempting  to  capture  the  Pennsylvania  metropolis  in  this 
campaign,  and  retiring   into  winter  cantonments  upon  the  Baritan  to  await 


the  settled  weather  of  the  spring  for  an  entirely  new  cast  of  operations. 
Washington,  emboldened  by  his  success,  led  all  his  forces  into  New  Jersey, 
and  pushing  past  Trenton,  where  Cornwallis,  the  royal  leader,  had  brought 
his  main  body  by  a  forced  march,  under  cover  of  darkness,  attacked  the 
British  reserves  at  Princeton.  But  now  the  enemy  had  become  wary  and  vig- 
ilant, and,  summoned  by  the  booming  of  cannon,  Cornwallis  hastened  back  to 
the  relief  of  his  hard  pressed  colum'ns.  Washington,  finding  that  the  enemy's 
whole  army  was  within  easy  call  and  knowing  that  he  had  no  hope  of  success 
with  his  weak  army,  withdrew.  Washington  now  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Morristown,  and  by  constant  vigilance  was  able  to  gather  marauding  parties 
of  the  British  who  ventured  far  away  from  their  works. 

Putnam  commenced  fortifications  at  a  point  below  Philadelphia  upon  the 
Delaware,  and  at  commanding  positions  upon  the  outskirts,  and  on  being 
summoned  to  the  army  was  succeeded  by  Gen.  Irvine,  and  he  by  Gen.  Gates. 
On  the  4th  of  March,  1777,  the  two  Houses  of  the  Legislature,  elected  under 
the  new  constitution,  assembled,  and  in  joint  convention  chose  Thomas 
Wharton,  Jr.,  President,  and  George  Bryan  Vice  President.  Penn  had  expressed 
the  idea  that  power  was  preserved  the  better  by  due  formality  and  ceremony, 
and,  accordingly,  this  event  was  celebrated  with  much  pomp,  the  result  being 
declai-ed  in  a  loud  voice  from  the  court  house,  amid  the  shouts  of  the  gathered 
throngs  and  the  booming  of  the  captured  cannon  brought  from  the  field  of 
Trenton.  The  title  bestowed  upon  the  new  chief  officer  of  the  State  was  fitted 
by  its  length  and  high-sounding  epithets  to  inspire  the  multitude  with  awe  and 
reverence:  "His  Excellency,  Thomas  Wharton,  Junior,  Esquire,  President  of 
the  Supreme  Executive  Council  of  Pennsylvania,  Captain  General,  and  Com- 
mander-in-chief in  and  over  the  same." 

While  the  enemy  was  disposed  to  be  cautious  after  the  New  Jersey  cam- 
paign so  humiliating  to  the  native  pride  of  the  Britain,  yet  he  was  determined 
to  bring  all  available  forces  into  the  field  for  the  campaign  of  1777,  and  to 
strike  a  decisive  blow.  Early  in  April,  great  activity  was  observed  among  the 
shipping  in  New  York  Harbor,  and  Washington  communicated  to  Congress  his 
opinion  that  Philadelphia  was  the  object  against  which  the  blow  would  be 
aimed.  This  announcement  of  probable  peril  induced  the  Council  to  issue  a 
proclamation  urging  enlistments,  and  Congress  ordered  the  opening  of  a  camp 
for  di'illing  recruits  in  Pennsylvania,  and  Benedict  Arnold,  who  was  at  this 
time  a  trusted  General,  was  ordered  to  the  command  of  it.  So  many  new  ves- 
sels and  transports  of  all  classes  had  been  discovered  to  have  come  into  New 
York  Harbor,  probably  forwarded  from  England,  that  Washington  sent  Gen. 
Mifflin,  on  the  10th  of  June,  to  Congress,  bearing  a  letter  in  which  he  ex- 
pressed the  settled  conviction  that  the  enemy  meditated  an  immediate  descent 
upon  some  part  of  Pennsylvania.  Gen.  Mifflin  proceeded  to  examine  the  de- 
fensive works  of  the  city  which  had  been  begun  on  the  previous  advance  of 
the  British,  and  recommended  such  changes  and  new  works  as  seemed  best 
adapted  for  its  protection.  The  preparations  for  defense  were  vigorously  pros- 
ecuted. The  militia  were  called  out  and  placed  in  two  camps,  one  afc  Chester 
and  the  other  at  Downington.  Fire  ships  were  held  in  readiness  to  be  used 
against  vessels  attempting  the  ascent  of  the  river. 

Lord  Howe,  being  determined  not  to  move  until  ample  preparations  were 
completed,  allowed  the  greater  part  of  the  summer  to  wear  away  before  he 
advanced.  Finally,  having  embarked  a  force  of  19,500  men  on  a  fleet  of  300 
transports,  he  sailed  southward.  Washington  promptly  made  a  corresponding 
march  overland,  passing  through  Philadelphia  on  the  24th  of  August.  Howe, 
suspecting  that  preparations  would  be  made  for  impeding  the  passage  of  the 


Delaware,  sailed  past  its  mouth,  and  moving  up  the  Chesapeake  instead,  de- 
barked fifty-four  miles  from  Philadelphia  and  commenced  the  march  north- 
ward. Great  activity  was  now  manifested  in  the  city.  The  water-spouts  were 
melted  to  furnish  bullets,  fair  hands  were  busied  in  rolling  cartidges,  power- 
ful chevaux-de-frise  were  planted  to  impede  the  navigation  of  the  river,  and 
the  last  division  of  the  militia  of  the  city,  which  had  been  divided  into  three 
classes,  was  called  out.  Washington,  who  had  crossed  the  Brandywine,  soon 
confronted  the  advance  of  Howe,  and  brisk  skirmishing  at  once  opened.  See- 
ing that  he  was  likely  to  have  the  right  of  his  position  at  Red  Clay  Creek, 
where  he  had  intended  to  give  battle,  turned  by  the  largely  superior  force  of 
the  enemy,  under  cover  of  darkness  on  the  night  of  the  8th  of  September,  he 
withdrew  across  the  Brandywine  at  Chad's  Ford,  and  posting  Armstrong  with 
the  militia  upon  the  left,  at  Pyle's  Ford,  where  the  banks  were  rugged  and  pre- 
cipitous, and  Sullivan,  who  was  second  in  command,  upon  the  right  at  Brin- 
ton's  Ford  under  cover  of  forest,  he  himself  took  post  with  three  divisions, 
Sterling's,  Stephens',  and  his  own,  in  front  of  the  main  avenue  of  approach  at 
Chad's.  Howe,  discovering  that  Washington  was  well  posted,  determined  to 
flank  him.  Accordingly,  on  the  11th,  sending  Knyphausen  with  a  division  of 
Hessians  to  make  vigorous  demonstrations  upou  Washington's  front  at  Chad's, 
he,  with  the  corps  of  Cornwallis,  in  light  marching  order,  moved  up  the  Brandy- 
wine, far  past  the  right  flank  of  Washington,  crossed  the  Brandywine  at  the 
fords  of  Trumbull  and  Jeffrey  unopposed,  and,  moving  down  came  upon 
Washington's  right,  held  by  Sullivan,  all  unsuspecting  and  unprepared  to  re- 
ceive him.  Though  Howe  was  favored  by  a  dense  fog  which  on  that  morning 
hung  on  all  the  valley,  yet  it  had  hardly  been  commenced  before  Washingtou 
discovered  the  move  and  divined  its  purpose.  His  resolution  was  instantly 
taken.  He  ordered  Sullivan  to  cross  the  stream  at  Brinton's,  and  resolutely 
turn  the  left  flank  of  Knyphausen,  when  he  himself  with  the  main  body  would 
move  over  and  crush  the  British  Army  in  detail.  Is  was  a  brilliant  conception, 
was  feasible,  and  promised  the  moet  complete  success.  But  what  chagrin  and 
mortiti(!ation,  to  receive,  at  the  moment  when  he  expected  to  hear  the  music  of 
Sullivan's  guns  doubling  up  the  left  of  the  enemy,  and  giving  notice  to  him 
to  commence  the  passage,  a  message  from  that  officer  advising  him  that  he  had 
disobeyed  his  orders  to  cross,  having  received  intelligence  that  the  enemy  were 
not  moving  northward,  and  that  he  was  still  in  position  at  the  ford.  Thus 
balked,  Washington  had  no  alternative  but  to  remain  in  position,  and  it  was  not 
long  before  the  guns  of  Howe  were  heard  moving  in  upon  his  all  unguaj'ded 
right  flank.  The  best  dispositions  were  made  which  time  would  permit.  His 
main  body  with  the  force  of  Sullivan  took  position  along  the  brow  of  the  hill 
on  which  stands  the  Birmingham  meeting  house,  and  the  battle  opened  and 
was  pushed  with  vigor  the  whole  day.  Overborne  by  numbers,  and  weakened 
by  losses,  Washington  was  obliged  to  retire,  leaving  the  enemy  in  possession 
of  the  field.  The  young  French  nobleman,  Lafayette,  was  wounded  while  gal- 
lantly serving  in  this  fight.  The  wounded  were  carried  into  the  Birmingham 
meeting  house,  where  the  blood  stains  are  visible  to  this  day,  enterprising 
relic  hunters  for  many  generations  having  been  busy  in  loosening  small  slivers 
with  the  points  of  their  knives. 

The  British  now  moved  cautiously  toward  Philadelphia.  On  the  16th  of 
September,  at  a  point  some  twenty  miles  west  of  Philadelphia,  Washington 
again  made  a  stand,  and  a  battle  opened  with  brisk  skirmishing,  but  a  heavy 
rain  storm  coming  on  the  powder  of  the  patriot  soldiers  was  completely  ruined  on 
account  of  their  defective  cartridge  boxes.  On  the  night  of  the  20th,  Gen. 
Anthony  Wayne,  who  had  been  hanging  on  the  rear  of  the  enemy   with  his 


detachment,  was  surprised  by  Gen.  Gray  with  a  heavy  colamn,  who  fell  sud- 
denly upon  the  Americans  in  bivouac  and  put  them  to  the  sword,  giving  no 
quarter.  This  disgraceful  slaughter  which  brought  a  stigma  and  an  indelible 
stain  upon  the  British  arms  is  known  as  the  Paoli  Massacre.  Fifty-three  of 
the  victims  of  the  black  flag  were  buried  in  one  grave.  A  neat  monument 
of  white  marble  was  erected  forty  years  afterward  over  their  moldering 
remains  by  the  Republican  Artillerists  of  Chester  County,  which  vandal  hands 
have  not  spared  in  their  mania  for  relics. 

Congress  remained  in  Philadelphia  while  these  military  operations  were 
cooing  on  at  its  very  doors;  but  on  the  18th  of  September  adjoui-ned  to  meet 
at  Lancaster,  though  subsequently,  on  the  30th,  removed  across  the  Susque- 
hanna to  York,  where  it  remained  in  session  till  after  the  evacuation  in 
the  following  simimer.  The  Council  remained  until  two  days  before  the  fall 
of  the  city,  when  having  dispatched  the  records  of  the  loan  office  and  the  more 
valuable  papers  to  Easton,  it  adjourned  to  Lancaster.  On  the  26th,  the  British 
Army  entered  the  city.  Deborah  Logan  in  her  memoir  says :  "  The  army 
marched  in  and  took  possession  in  the  city  in  the  morning.  We  were  up-stairs 
and  saw  them  pass  the  State  House.  They  looked  well,  clean  and  well  clad, 
and  the  contrast  between  them  and  our  own  poor,  bare-footed,  ragged  troops 
was  very  great  and  caused  a  feeling  of  despair.  *  *  *  *  Early 
in  the  afternoon.  Lord  Cornwallis'  suite  arrived  and  took  possession  of 
my  mother's  house. "  But  though  now  holding  undisputed  possession  of  the 
American  capital,  Howe  found  his  position  an  uncomfortable  one,  for  his  fleet 
was  in  the  Chesapeake,  and  the  Delaware  and  all  its  defenses  were  in  posses- 
sion of  the  Americans,  and  Washington  had  manned  the  forts  with  some  of 
his  most  resolute  troops.  Varnum's  brigade,  led  by  Cols.  Angell  and  Greene, 
Ehode  Island  troops,  were  at  Fort  Mercer,  at  Red  Bank,  and  this  the  enemy 
determined  to  attack.  On  the  21st  of  October,  with  a  force  of  2,500  men,  led 
by  Count  Donop,  the  attack  was  made.  In  two  colums  they  moved  as  to  an 
easy  victory.  But  the  steady  tire  of  the  defenders  when  come  in  easy  range, 
swept  them  down  with  deadly  effect,  and,  retiring  with  a  loss  of  over  400  and 
their  ]ea,der  mortally  wounded,  they  did  not  renew  the  fight.  Its  reduction  was 
of  prime  importance,  and  powerful  works  were  built  and  equipped  to  bear  upon 
the  devoted  fort  on  all  sides,  and  the  heavy  guns  of  the  fleet  were  brought  up 
to  aid  in  overpowering  it.  For  six  long  days  the  greatest  weight  of  metal  was 
poured  upon  it  from  the  land  and  the  naval  force,  but  without  effect,  the 
sides  of  the  fort  successfully  withstanding  the  plunging  of  their  powerful 
missiles.  As  a  last  resort,  the  great  vessels  were  run  suddenly  in  close  under 
the  walls,  and  manning  the  yard-arms  with  sharp-shooters,  so  effectually 
silenced  and  drove  away  the  gunners  that  the  fort  fell  easily  into  the  Brit- 
ish hands  and  the  river  was  opened  to  navigation.  The  army  of  Washing- 
ton, after  being  recruited  and  put  in  light  marching  order,  was  led  to  German- 
town  where,  on  the  morning  of  the  8d  of  October  the  enemy  was  met.  A 
heavy  fog  that  morning  had  obscured  friend  and  foe  alike,  occasioning  con- 
fusion in  the  ranks,  and  though  the  opening  promised  well,  and  some  progress 
was  made,  yet  the  enemy  was  too  strong  to  be  moved,  and  the  American  leader 
was  forced  to  retire  to  his  camp  at  White  Marsh.  Though  the  river  had  now 
been  opened  and  the  city  was  thoroughly  fortified  for  resisting  attack,  yet 
Howe  felt  not  quite  easy  in  having  the  American  Army  quartered  in  so  close 
striking  distance,  and  accordingly,  on  the  4th  of  December,  with  nearly  his 
entire  army,  moved  out,  intending  to  take  Washington  at  White  Marsh,  sixteen 
miles  away,  by  surprise,  and  by  rapidity  of  action  gain  an  easy  victory.  But 
by  the  heroism  and  fidelity  of  Lydia  Darrah,  who,  as  she  had  often  done  before 


passed  the  guards  to  go  to  the  mill  for  flour,  the  news  of  the  coming  of  Howe 

wap  cnmrnunicated  to  Washington,  who  was  prepared  to  receive  him.  Finding 
that  he  could  efiect  nothing,  Howe  returned  to  the  city,  having  had  th,e  weari- 
some march  at  this  wintry  season  without  e£fect. 

Washington  now  crossed  the  Schuylkill  and  went  into  winter  quarters  at 
Valley  Forge.  The  cold  of  that  winter  was  intense;  the  troops,  half  clad  and 
indifferently  fed,  suffered  severely,  the  prints  of  their  naked  feet  in  frost  and 
snow  being  often  tinted  with  patriot  blood.  Grown  impatient  of  the  small 
results  from  the  immensely  expensive  campaigns  carried  on  across  the  ocean, 
the  Ministry  relieved  Lord  Howe,  and  appointed  Sir  Henry  Clinton  to  the 
chief  command. 

The  Commissioners  whom  Congress  had  sent  to  France  early  in  the  fall  of 
1776 — Franklin,  Dean  and  Lee  had  been  busy  in  making  interest  for  the 
united  colonies  at  the  French  Court,  and  so  successful  were  they,  that  arms  and 
ammunition  and  loans  of  money  were  procured  from  time  to  time.  Lideed,  so 
persuasive  had  they  become  that  it  was  a  saying  current  at  court  that,  ' '  It  was 
fortunate  for  the  King  that  Franklin  did  not  take  it  into  his  head  to  ask  to 
have  the  palace  at  Versailles  stripped  of  its  furniture  to  send  to  his  dear 
Americans,  for  his  majesty  would  have  been  unable  to  deny  him."  Finally, 
a  convention  was  concluded,  by  which  France  agreed  to  use  the  royal  army  and 
navy  as  faithful  allies  of  the  Americans  against  the  English.  Accordingly,  a 
fleet  of  four  powerful  frigates,  and  twelve  ships  were  dispatched  under  com- 
mand of  the  Count  D'Estaing  to  shut  up  the  British  fleet  in  the  Dela.ware.  The 
plan  was  ingenious,  particularly  worthy  of  the  long  head  of  Franklin.  But 
by  some  means,  intelligence  of  the  sailing  of  the  French  fleet  reached  0he 
English  cabinet,  who  immediately  ordered  the  evacuation  of  the  Delaware, 
whereupon  the  Admiral  weighed  anchor  and  sailed  away  with  his  entire  fleet  to 
New  York,  and  D'Estaing,  upon  his  arrival  at  the  mouth  of  the  Delaware,  found 
that  the  bird  had  flown. 

Clinton  evacuated  Philadelphia  and  moved  across  New  Jersey  in  the  direc- 
tion of  New  York.  Washington  closely  followed  and  came  up  with  the  enemy 
on  the  plains  of  Monmouth,  on  the  28th  of  June,  1778,  where  a  sanguin- 
ary battle  was  fought  which  lasted  th8  whole  day,  resulting  in  the  triumph  of 
the  American  arms,  and  Pennsylvania  was  rid  of  British  troops. 

The  enemy  was  no  suoner  well  away  from  the  city  than  Congress  returned 
from  York  and  resumed  its  sittings  in  its  former  quarters,  June  24,  1778,  and 
on  the  following  day,  the  Colonial  Legislature  returned  from  Lancaster.  Gen 
Arnold,  who  was  disabled  by  a  wound  received  at  Saratoga,  from  held  duty, 
was  given  command  in  the  city  and  marched  in  with  a  regiment  on  the  day 
following  the  evacuation.  On  the  23d  of  May,  1778,  President  Wharton  died 
suddenly  of  quinsy,  while  in  attendance  upon  the  Council  at  Lancaster,  when 
George  Bryan,  the  Vice  President,  became  the  Acting  President.  Bryan  was  a 
philanthropist  in  deed  as  well  as  word.  Up  to  this  time,  African  slavery  had 
been  tolerated  in  the  colony.  In  his  message  of  the  9th  of  November,  he  said: 
' '  This  or  some  better  scheme,  would  tend  to  abrogate  slavery — the  approbrium 
of  America — from  among  us.  *  *  *  In  divesting  the  State  of  slaves,  you 
will  equally  serve  the  cause  of  humanity  and  policy,  and  ofier  to  God  one  of 
the  most  proper  and  best  returns  of  gratitude  for  His  great  deliverance  of  us 
and  our  posterity  from  thraldom;  you  will  also  sej  your  character  for  justice 
and  benevolence  in  the  true  point  of  view  to  Europe,  who  are  astonished  to  see 
a  people  eager  for  liberty  holding  negroes  in  bondage."  He  perfected  a  bill 
for  the  extinguishment  of  claims  to  slaves  which  was  passed  by  the  Assembly, 
March  1,  1780,  by  a  vote  of  thirty-four  to  eighteen,  providing  that  no   child 


of  slave  parents  born  after  that  date  should  be  a  slave,  but  a  servant  till  the 
age  of  twenty-eight  years,  when  all  claim  for  service  should  end.  Thus  by  a 
simple  enactment  resolutely  pressed  by  Bryan,  was  slavery  forever  rooted  out 
of  Pennsylvania. 

In  the  summer  of  1778,  a  force  of  savages  and  sour- faced  tories  to  the  num- 
ber of  some  1,200,  under  the  leadership  of  one  Col.  John  Butler,  a  cruel  and  in- 
human wretch,  descending  from  the  north,  broke  into  the  Wyoming  Valley  on 
the  2d  of  July.  The  strong  men  were  in  the  army  of  Washington,  and  the 
only  defenders  were  old  men,  beardless  boys  and  resolute  women.  These,  to 
the  number  of  about  400,  under  Zebulon  Butler,  a  brave  soldier  who  had  won 
distinction  in  the  old  French  war,  and  who  happened  to  be  present,  moved 
resolutely  out  to  meet  the  invaders.  Overborne  by  numbers,  the  inhabitants 
were  beaten  and  put  to  the  sword,  the  few  who  escaped  retreating  to  Forty 
Fort,  whither  the  helpless,  up  and  down  the  valley,  had  sought  safety.  Here 
humane  terms  of  surrender  were  agreed  to,  and  the  families  returned  to 
their  homes,  supposing  all  danger  to  be  past.  But  the  savages  had 
tasted  blood,  and  perhaps  confiscated  liquor,  and  were  little  mindful  of  capitu- 
lations. The  night  of  the  5th  was  given  to  indiscriminate  massacre.  The 
cries  of  the  helpless  rang  out  upon  the  night  air,  and  the  heavens  along  all 
the  valley  were  lighted  up  with  the  flames  of  burning  cottages;  "  and  when  the 
moon  arose,  the  terrified  inhabitants  were  fleeing  to  the  Wilkesbarre  Mount- 
ains,  and  the  dark  morasses  of  the  Pocono  Mountain  beyond. "  Most  of  these 
were  emigrants  from  Connecticut,  and  they  made  their  way  homeward  as  fast 
as  their  feet  would  carry  them,  many  of  them  crossing  the  Hudson  at  Pough- 
keepsie,  where  they  told  their  tales  of  woe. 

In  February,  1778,  Parliament,  grown  tired  of  this  long  and  wasting  war^ 
abolished  taxes  of  which  the  Americans  had  complained,  and  a  committee, 
composed  of  Earl  Carlisle,  George  Johnstone  and  William  Eden,  were  sent 
empowered  to  forgive  past  offenses,  and  to  conclude  peace  with  the  colonies, 
upon  submission  to  the  British  crown.  Congi'ess  would  not  listen  to  their 
proposal?,  maintaining  that  the  people  of  America  had  done  nothing  that 
needed  forgiveness,  and  that  no  conference  could  be  accorded  so  long  as  the 
English  Armies  remained  on  American  soil.  Finding  that  negotiations  could 
not  be  entered  upon  with  the  government,  they  sought  to  worm  their  way  by 
base  bribes.  Johnstone  proposed  to  Gen.  Reed  that  if  he  would  lend  his  aid 
to  bring  about  terms  of  pacification,  10,000  guineas  and  the  best  office  in  the 
country  should  be  his.  The  answer  of  the  stern  General  was  a  type  of  the 
feeling  which  swayed  every  patriot:  "My  influence  is  but  small,  but  were  it 
as  great  as  Gov.  Johntone  would  insinuate,  the  King  of  Great  Britain  has  noth- 
ing in  his  gift  that  would  tempt  me." 

At  the  election  held  for  President,  the  choice  f eH  upon  Joseph  Reed,  with 
George  Bryan  Vice  President,  subsequently  Matthew  Smith,  and  finally  Will- 
iam Moore.  Reed  was  an  erudite  lawyer,  and  had  held  the  positions  of  Pri- 
vate Secretary  to  Washington,  and  subsequently  Adjutant  General  of  the 
army.  He  was  inaugurated  on  the  1st  of  December,  1778.  Upon  the  return 
of  the  patriots  to  Philadelphia,  after  the  departure  of  the  British,  a  bitter 
feeling  existed  between  them  and  the  tories  who  had  remained  at  their  homes, 
and  had  largely  profited  by  the  British  occupancy.  The  soldiers  became  dem- 
onstrative, especially  against  those  lawyers  who  had  defended  the  tories  in 
court.  Some  of  those  most  obnoxious  took  refuge  in  the  house  of  James  Wil- 
son, a  signer  of  the  Declaration.  Private  soldiers,  in  passing,  fired  upon  it, 
and  shots  were  returned  whereby  one  was  killed  and  several  wounded.  The 
President    on  being  informed  of  these  proceedings,  rode  at  the  head  of  the 


city  troop,  and  dispersed  the  assailants,  capturing  the  leaders.  The  Academy 
and  College  of  Philadelphia  required  by  its  charter  an  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  King  of  Great  Britain.  An  act  was  passed  November  27,  1779,  abrogating 
the  former  charter,  and  vesting  its  property  in  a  new  board.  An  endowment 
from  confiscated  estates  was  settled  upon  it  of  £15,000  annually.  The  name 
of  the  institution  was  changed  to  the  "  University  of  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 

France  was  now  aiding  the  American  cause  with  money  and  large  land 
and  naval  forces.  While  some  of  the  patriots  remained  steadfast  and  were 
disposed  to  sacrifice  and  endure  all  for  the  success  of  the  struggle,  many,  who 
should  have  been  in  the  ranks  rallying  around  Washington,  had  grown  luke- 
warm. The  General  was  mortified  that  the  French  should  come  across  the 
ocean  and  make  great  sacrifices  to  help  us,  and  should  find  so  much  indiffer- 
ence prevailing  among  the  citizens  of  many  of  the  States,  and  so  few  coming 
forward  to  fill  up  the  decimated  ranks.  At  the  request  of  Washington,  Presi- 
dent Eeed  was  invested  with  extraordinary  powers,  in  1780,  which  were  used 
prudently  but  effectively.  During  the  winter  of  this  year,  some  of  the  veteran 
soldiers  of  the  Pennsylvania  line  mutinied  and  commenced  the  march  on 
Philadelphia  with  arms  in  their  hands.  Some  of  them  had  just  cause.  They 
had  enlisted  for  "three  years  or  the  war,"  meaning  for  three  years  unless 
the  war  closed  sooner.  But  the  authorities  had  interpreted  it  to  mean,  three 
years,  or  as  much  longer  as  the  war  should  last.  President  Reed  immediately 
rode  out  to  meet  the  mutineers,  heard  their  cause,  and  pledged  if  all  would  re- 
turn to  camp,  to  have  those  who  had  honorably  served  out  the  full  term  of 
three  years  discharged,  which  was  agreed  to.  Before  the  arrival  of  the  Presi- 
dent, two  emissaries  from  the  enemy  who  had  heard  of  the  disaffection,  came 
into  camp,  offering  strong  inducements  for  them  to  continue  the  revolt.  But 
the  mutineers  spurned  the  offer,  and  delivered  them  over  to  the  officers,  by 
whom  they  were  tried  and  executed  as  spies.  The  soldiers  who  had  so  patriot- 
ically arrested  and  handed  over  these  messengers  were  offered  a  reward  of  fifty 
guineas;  but  they  refused  it  on  the  plea  that  they  were  acting  under  authority 
of  the  Board  of  Sergeants,  under  whose  order  the  mutiny  was  being  conducted. 
Accordingly,  a  hundred  guineas  were  offered  to  this  board  for  their  fidelity. 
Their  answer  showed  how  conscifintious  even  mutineers  can  be:  "It  was  not 
for  the  sake,  or  through  any  expectation  of  reward;  but  for  the  love  of  our 
country,  that  we  sent  the  spies  immediately  to  Gen.  Wayne;  we  therefore 
do  not  consider  ourselves  entitled  to  any  other  reward  but  the  love  of  our 
country,  and  do  jointly  agree  to  accept  of  no  other." 

William  Moore  was  elected  President  to  succeed  Joseph  Reed,  from  No- 
vember 14,  1781,  but  held  the  office  less  than  one  year,  the  term  of  three  years 
for  which  he  had  been  a  Councilman  having  expired,  which  was  the  limit  of 
service.  James  Potter  was  chosen  Vice  President.  On  account  of  the  hostile 
attitude  of  the  Ohio  Indians,  it  was  decided  to  call  out  a  body  of  volunteers, 
numbering  some  400  from  the  counties  of  Washington  and  Westmoreland, 
where  the  outrages  upon  the  settlers  had  been  most  sorely  felt,  who  chose  for 
their  commander  Col.  William  Crawford,  of  Westmoreland.  The  expedition 
met  a  most  unfortunate  fate.  It  was  defeated  and  cut  to  pieces,  and  the 
leader  taken  captive  and  burned  at  the  stake.  Crawford  County,  which  was 
settled  very  soon  afterward,  was  named  in  honor  of  this  unfortunate  soldier. 
In  the  month  of  November,  intelligence  was  communicated  to  the  Legislature 
that  Pennsylvania  soldiers,  confined  as  prisoners  of  war  on  board  of  the  Jer- 
sey, an  old  hulk  Ijing  in  the  New  York  Harbor,  were  in  a  starving  condition, 
receiving  at  the  hands  of  the  enemy  the  most  barbarous  and  inhuman  treat- 


ment.  Fifty  barrels  of  flour  and  300  bushels  of  potatoes  were  immediately 
sent  to  them. 

In  the  State  election  of  1782,  contested  with  great  violence,  John  Dickin- 
son was  chosen  President,  and  James  Ewing  Vice  President.  On  the  12th  of 
March,  1783,  intelligence  was  first  received  of  the  signing  of  the  preliminary 
treaty  in  which  independence  was  acknowledged,  and  on  the  11th  of  April 
Congress  sent  forth  the  joyful  proclamation  ordering  a  cessation  of  hostilities. 
The  soldiers  of  Burgoyne,  who  had  been  confined  in  the  prison  camp  at  Lan- 
caster, were  put  upon  the  march  for  New  York,  passing  through  Philadelphia 
on  the  way.  Everywhere  was  joy  unspeakable.  The  obstructions  were  re- 
moved from  the  Delaware,  and  the  white  wings  of  commerce  again  came  flut- 
tering on  every  breeze.  In  June,  Pennsylvania  soldiers,  exasperated  by  delay 
in  receiving  their  pay  and  their  discharge,  and  impatient  to  return  to  their 
homes,  to  a  considerable  number  marched  from  their  camp  at  Lancaster,  and 
arriving  at  Philadelphia  sent  a  committee  with  arms  in  their  hands  to  the 
State  House  door  with  a  remonstrance  asking  permission  to  elect  officers  to 
command  them  for  the  redress  of  their  grievances,  their  own  having  left  them, 
and  employing  threats  in  case  of  refusal.  These  demands  the  Council  rejected. 
The  President  of  Congress,  hearing  of  these  proceedings,  called  a  special  ses- 
sion, which  resolved  to  demand  that  the  militia  of  the  State  should  be  called 
out  to  quell  the  insurgents.  The  Council  refused  to  resort  to  this  extreme 
measure,  when  Congress,  watchful  of  its  dignity  and  of  its  supposed  supreme 
authority,  left  Philadelphia  and  established  itself  in  Princeton,  N.  J.,  and 
though  invited  to  return  at  its  next  session,  it  refused,  and  met  at  Annapolis. 

In  October,  1784,  the  last  treaty  was  concluded  with  the  Indians  at  Fort 
Stanwix.  The  Commissioners  at  this  conference  purchased  from  the  natives 
all  the  land  to  the  north  of  the  Ohio  Kiver,  and  the  line  of  Pine  Creek,  which 
completed  the  entire  limits  of  the  State  with  the  exception  of  the  triangle  at 
Erie,  which  was  acquired  from  the  United  States  in  1792.  This  purchase 
was  confirmed  by  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares  at  Fort  Mcintosh  January  21, 
1785,  and  the  grant  was  made  secure. 

In  September,  1785,  after  a  long  absence  in  the  service  of  his  country 
abroad,  perfecting  treaties,  and  otherwise  establishing  just  relations  with  other 
nations,  the  venerable  Benjamin  Franklin,  then  nearly  eighty  years  old,  feel- 
ing the  infirmities  of  age  coming  upon  him,  asked  to  be  relieved  of  the  duties 
of  Minister  at  the  Court  of  France,  and  returned  to  Philadelphia.  Soon  after 
his  arrival,  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Council.  Charles  Biddle  was 
elected  Vice  President.  It  was  at  this  period  that  a  citizen  of  Pennsylvania, 
John  Fitch,  secured  a  patent  on  his  invention  for  propelling  boats  by  steam. 
In  May,  1787,  the  convention  to  frame  a  constitution  for  the  United  States 
met  in  Philadelphia.  The  delegation  from  Pennsylvania  was  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin, Robert  Morris,  Thomas  Mifflin,  George  Clymer,  Thomas  Fitzsimons,  Jared 
Ingeraoll,  James  Wilson  and  Gouverneur  Morris.  Upon  the  completion  of 
their  work,  the  instrument  was  submitted  to  the  several  States  for  adoption.  A 
convention  was  called  in  Pennsylvania,  which  met  on  the  21st  of  November,  and 
though  encountering  resolute  opposition,  it  was  finally  adopted  on  the  12th  of  De- 
cember. On  the  following  day,  the  convention,  the  Supreme  Council  and  offi- 
cers of  the  State  and  city  government,  moved  in  procession  to  the  old  court 
house,  where  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  was  formally  proclaimed  amidst 
the  booming  of  cannon  and  the  ringing  of  bells. 

On  the  5th  of  November,  1788,  Thomas  Mifflin  was  elected  President,  and 
George  Ross  Vice  President.  The  constitution  of  the  State,  framed  in  and 
adapted  to  the  exigencies  of  an  emergency,  was  ill  suited  to  the  needs  of  State 


in  its  relations  to  the  new  nation.  Accordingly,  a  convention  assembled  for 
the  purpose  of  preparing  a  new  constitution  in  November,  1789,  which  was 
finally  adopted  on  September  2,  1790.  By  the  provisions  of  this  instrument, 
the  Executive  Council  was  abolished,  and  the  executive  duties  were  vested  in 
the  hands  of  a  Governor.  Legislation  was  intrusted  to  an  Assembly  and  a 
Senate.  The  judicial  system  was  continued,  the  terms  of  the  Judges  extend- 
ing through  good  behavior. 


Thomas  Mifflin,  1788-99— Thomas  McKean,  1799-1808— Simon  Snyder,  1808-17— 
William  Findlay,  1817-20— Joseph  Heister,  1820-23— John  A.  Shulze,  1823 
-29— George  Wolfe,  1829-35— Joseph  Ritner.  1835-39. 

THE  first  election  under  the  new  Constitution  resulted  in  the  choice  of 
Thomas  Mifflin,  who  was  re-elected  for  three  successive  terms,  giving  him 
the  distinction  of  having  been  longer  in  the  executive  chair  than  any  other 
person,  a  period  of  eleven  years.  A  system  of  internal  improvements  was  now 
commenced,  by  which  vast  water  communications  were  undertaken,  and  a  moun- 
tain of  debt  was  accumulated,  a  portion  of  which  hangs  over  the  State  to  this 
day.  In  1793,  the  Bank  of  Pennsylvania  was  chartered,  one-third  of  the  cap- 
ital stock  of  which  was  subscribed  for  by  the  State.  Branches  were  established 
at  Lancaster,  Harrisburg,  Reading,  Easton  and  Pittsburgh.  The  branches 
were  discontinued  in  1810;  in  1843,  the  stock  held  by  the  State  was  sold,  and 
in  1857,  it  ceased  to  exist.  In  1793,  the  yellow  fever  visited  Phila- 
delphia. It  was  deadly  in  its  effects  and  produced  a  panic  unparalleled. 
Gov.  Mifflin,  and  Alexander  Hamilton,  Secretary  of  the  United  States  Treasury, 
were  attacked.  "  Men  of  affluent  fortunes,  who  gave  daily  employment  and 
subsistence  to  hundreds,  were  abandoned  to  the  care  of  a  negro  after  their 
wives,  children,  friends,  clerks  and  servants  had  fled  away  and  left  them  to 
their  fate.  In  some  cases,  at  the  commencement  of  the  disorder,  no  money 
could  procure  proper  attendance.  Many  of  the  poor  perished  without  a  hu- 
man being  to  hand  them  a  drink  of  water,  to  administer  medicines,  or  to  per- 
form any  charit^.l/ie  office  for  them.  Nearly  5,000  perished  bv  this  wasting 
pestilence. " 

The  whisky  insurrection  in  some  of  the  western  counties  of  the  State, 
which  occurred  in  1794,  excited,  by  its  lawlessness  and  wide  extent,  general 
interest.  An  act  of  Congress,  of  March  3,  1791,  laid  a  tax  on  distilled  spirits 
of  four  pence  per  gallon.  The  then  counties  of  Washington,  Westmoreland, 
Allegheny  and  Fayette,  comprising  the  southwestern  quarter  of  the  State^ 
were  almost  exclusively  engaged  in  the  production  of  grain.  Being  far  re- 
moved from  any  market,  the  product  of  their  fa)"ms  brought  them  scarcely  any 
returns.  The  consequence  was  that  a  large  proportion  of  the  surplus  grain 
was  turned  into  distilled  spirits,  and  nearly  every  other  farmer  was  a  distiller. 
This  tax  was  seen  to  bear  heavily  upon  them,  from  which  a  non-producer  of 
spirits  was  relieved.  A  rash  determination  was  formed  to  resist  its  collection, 
and  a  belief  entertained,  if  all  were  united  in  resisting,  it  would  be  taken  oflt. 
Frequent  altercations  occurred  between  the  persons  appointed  CJnited  States 
Collectors  and  these  resisting  citizens.     As  an  example,  on  the  5th  of  Septem- 


ber,  1791,  a  party  in  disguise  set  upon  Robert  Johnson,  a  Collector  fur  Alle- 
gheny and  Washington,  tarred  and  feathered  him,  cut  off  his  hair,  took  away 
his  horse,  and  left  him  in  this  plight  to  proceed.  Writs  for  the  arrest  of  the 
perpetrators  were  issued,  but  none  dared  to  venture  into  the  territory  to  serve 
them.  On  May  8,  1792,  the  law  was  modified,  and  the  tax  reduced.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1792,  President  Washington  issued  his  proclamation  commanding  all  per- 
sons to  submit  to  the  law,  and  to  forbear  from  further  opposition.  But  these  meas- 
ures had  no  effect,  and  the  insurgents  began  to  organize  for  forcible  resist- 
ance. One  Maj.  Macfarlane,  who  in  command  of  a  party  of  insurrectionists, 
was  killed  in  an  encounter  with  United  States  soldiers  at  the  house  uf  Gen. 
Neville.  The  feeling  now  ran  very  high,  and  it  was  hardly  safe  for  any  per- 
son to  breathe  a  whisper  against  the  insurgents  throughout  all  this  district. 
"  A  breath,"  says  Brackenridge,  "  in  favor  of  the  law,  was  sufficient  to  ruin 
any  man.  A  clergyman  was  not  thought  orthodox  in  the  pulpit  unless  against 
the  law.  A  physician  was  not  capable  of  administering  medicine,  unless  his 
principles  were  right  in  this  respect.  A  lawyer  could  get  no  practice,  nor 
a  merchant  at  a  country  store  get  custom  if  for  the  law.  On  the  contrary,  to 
talk  against  the  law  was  the  way  to  office  and  emolument.  To  go  to  the 
Legislature  or  to  Congress  you  must  make  a  noise  against  it.  It  was  the  Shib- 
boleth of  safety  and  the  ladder  of  ambition  "  One  Bradford  had,  of  his  own 
notion,  issued  a  circular  letter  to  the  Colonels  of  regiments  to  assemble  with 
their  commands  at  Braddock's  field  on  the  1st  of  August,  where  they  appoint- 
ed officers  and  moved  on  to  Pittsburgh.  After  having  burned  a  barn,  and 
made  some  noisy  demonstrations,  they  were  induced  by  some  cool  heads  to  re- 
turn. These  turbulent  proceedings  coming  to  the  ears  of  the  State  and  Na- 
tional authorities  at  Philadelphia,  measures  were  concerted  to  promptly  and 
effectually  check  them.  Gov.  Mifflin  appointed  Chief  Justice  McKean,  and 
Gen.  William  Irvine  to  proceed  to  the  disaffected  district,  ascertain  the  facts, 
and  try  to  bring  the  leaders  to  justice.  President  Washington  issued  a  proc- 
lamation commanding  all  persons  in  arms  to  disperse  to  their  homes  on  or  be 
fore  the  Ist  of  September,  proximo,  and  called  out  the  militia  of  four  States 
— Pennsylvania,  New  Jersey,  Maryland  and  Virginia — to  the  number  of  13,000 
men,  to  enforce  his  commands.  The  quota  of  Pennsylvania  was  4,500  infan- 
try, 500  cavalry,  200  artillery,  and  Gov,  Mifflin  took  command  in  person. 
Gov.  Richard  Howell,  of  New  Jersey,  Gov.  Thomas  S.  Lee,  of  Maryland,  and 
Gen.  Daniel  Morgan,  of  Virginia,  commanded  the  forces  from  their  States, 
and  Gov.  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  was  placed  in  chief  command.  President 
Washington,  accompanied  by  Gen.  Knox,  Secretary  of  War,  Alexander  Hamil- 
ton, Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  and  Richard  Peters,  of  the  United  States  Dis- 
trict Court,  set  out  on  the  1st  of  October,  for  the  seat  of  the  disturbance.  On 
Friday,  the  President  reached  Harrisburg,  and  on  Saturday  Carlisle,  whither 
the  army  had  preceded  him.  In  the  meantime  a  committee,  coneisting  of 
James  Ross,  Jasper  Yeates  and  William  Bradford,  was  appointed  by  President 
Washington  to  proceed  to  the  disaffected  district,  and  endeavor  to  persuade 
misguided  citizens  to  return  to  their  allegiance. 

A  meeting  of  260  delegates  from  the  four  counties  was  held  at  Parkinson's 
Ferry  on  the  14th  of  August,  at  which  the  state  of  their  cause  was  considered, 
resolutions  adopted,  and  a  committee  of  sixty,  one  from  each  county,  was  ap- 
pointed, and  a  sub-committee  of  twelve  was  named  to  confer  with  the  United 
States  Commissioners,  McKean  and  Irvine,  These  conferences  with  the  State 
and  National  Committees  were  successful  in  arranging  preliminary  conditions 
of  settlement.  On  the  2d  of  October,  the  Committee  of  Safety  of  the  insur- 
gents met  at  Parkinson's  Ferry,  and  having  now  learned  that  a  well-organized 


army,  with  Washington  at  its  head,  was  marching  westward  for  enforcing 
obedience  to  the  laws,  appointed  a  committee  of  two,  William  Findley  and 
David  Reddick,  to  meet  the  President,  and  assure  him  that  the  disaffected  were 
disposed  to  return  to  their  duty.  They  met  Washington  at  Carlisle,  and  sev- 
eral conferences  were  held,  and  assurances  given  of  implicit  obedience;  but 
the  President  said  that  as  the  troops  had  been  called  out,  the  orders  for  the 
march  would  not  be  countermanded.  The  President  proceeded  forward  on  the 
11th  of  October  to  Chambersburg,  reached  Williamsport  on  the  13th  and  Fort 
Cumberland  on  the  14th,  where  he  reviewed  the  Virginia  and  Maryland  forces, 
and  arrived  at  Bedford  on  the  19th.  Remaining  a  few  days,  and  being  satis- 
fied that  the  sentiment  of  the  people  had  changed,  he  returned  to  Philadel- 
phia,  arriving  on  the  28th,  leaving  Gen.  Lee  to  meet  the  Commissioners  and 
make  such  conditions  of  pacification  as  should  seem  just.  Another  meeting  of 
the  Committee  of  Safety  was  held  at  Parkinson's  Ferry  on  the  24th,  at  which 
assurances  of  abandonment  of  opposition  to  the  laws  were  received,  and  the 
same  committee,  with  the  addition  of  Thomas  Morton  and  Ephriam  Douglass, 
was  directed  to  return  to  headquarters  and  give  assurance  of  this  disposition. 
They  did  not  reach  Bedford  until  after  the  departure  of  Washington.  But  at 
Uniontown  they  met  Gen.  Lee,  with  whom  it  was  agreed  that  the  citizens 
of  these  four  counties  should  subscribe  to  an  oath  to  support  the  Constitution 
and  obey  the  laws.  Justices  of  the  Peace  issued  notices  that  books  were  opened 
for  subscribing  to  the  oath,  and  Gen.  Lee  issued  a  judicious  address  urging 
ready  obedience.  Seeing  that  all  requirments  were  being  faithfully  carried 
out,  an  order  was  issued  on  the  17th  of  November  for  the  return  of  the  army 
and  its  disbandment.  A  number  of  arrests  were  made  and  trials  and  convic- 
tions were  had,  but  all  were  ultimately  pardoned. 

With  the  exception  of  a  slight  ebulition  at  the  prospect  of  a  war  with  France 
in  1797,  and  a  resistance  to  the  operation  of  the  "  Homestead  Tax  "  in  Lehigh, 
Berks  and  Northampton  Counties,  when  the  militia  was  called  out,  the  re- 
mainder of  the  term  of  Gov.  Mifflin  passed  in  comparative  quiet.  By  an  act 
of  the  Legislature  of  the  8d  of  April,  1799,  the  capital  of  the  State  was  re- 
moved to  Lancaster,  and  soon  after  the  capital  of  the  United  States  to  Wash- 
ington, the  house  on  Ninth  street,  which  had  been  built  for  the  residence  of  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  passing  to  the  use  of  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 

During  the  administrations  of  Thomas  McKean,  who  was  elected  Governor 
in  1799,  and  Simon  Snyder  in  1808,  little  beyond  heated  political  contests 
marked  the  even  tenor  of  the  government,  until  the  breaking-out  of  the  troub- 
les which  eventuated  in  the  war  of  1812.  The  blockade  of  the  coast  of  France 
in  1806,  and  the  retaliatory  measures  of  Napoleon  in  his  Berlin  decree,  swept 
American  commerce,  which  had  hitherto  preserved  a  neutral  attitude  and  prof- 
ited by  European  wars,  from  the  seas.  The  haughty  conduct  of  Great  Britain 
in  boarding  American  vessels  for  suspected  deserters  from  the  British  Navy, 
under  cover  of  which  the  grossest  outrages  were  committed,  American  seaman 
being  dragged  from  the  decks  of  their  vessels  and  impressed  into  the  English 
service,  induced  President  Jefferson,  in  July,  1807,  to  issue  his  proclamation 
ordering  all  British  armed  vessels  to  leave  the  waters  of  the  United  States,  and 
forbidding  any  to  enter,  until  satisfaction  for  the  past  and  security  for  the 
future  should  be  provided  for.  Upon  the  meeting  of  Congress  in  December, 
an  embargo  was  laid,  detaining  all  vessels,  American  and  foreign,  then  in 
American  waters,  and  ordering  home  all  vessels  abroad.  Negotiations  were 
conducted  between  the  two  countries,  but  no  definite  results  were  reached,  and 
in  the  meantime  causes  of  irritation  multiplied  until  1812,  when  President 


Madison  declared  war  against  Great  Britain,  known  as  the  war  of  1812. 
Pennsylvania  promptly  seconded  the  National  Government,  +he  message  of 
Gov.  Snyder  on  the  occasion  ringing  like  a  silver  clarion.  The  national  call 
for  100,000  men  required  14,000  from  this  State,  but  so  great  was  the  enthu- 
siasm, that  several  times  this  number  tendered  their  services.  The  State  force 
was  organized  in  two  divisions,  to  the  command  of  the  first  of  which  Maj 
Gen.  Isaac  Morrell  was  appointed,  and  to  the  second  Maj.  Gen.  AdamsonTan- 
nehill.  Gunboats  and  privateers  were  built  in  the  harbor  of  Erie  and  on  the 
Delaware,  and  the  defenses  upon  the  latter  were  put  in  order  and  suitable 
armaments  provided.  At  Tippecanoe,  at  Detroit,  at  Queenstown  Heights,  at 
the  Kiver  Eaisin,  at  Fort  Stephenson,  and  at  the  Eiver  Thames,  the  war  was 
waged  with  varying  success.  Upon  the  water,  Commodores  Decatur,  Hull, 
Jones,  Perry,  Lawrence,  Porter  and  McDonough  made  a  bright  chapter  in 
American  history,  as  was  to  be  wished,  inasmuch  as  the  war  had  been  under- 
taken to  vindicate  the  honor  and  integrity  of  that  branch  of  the  service.  Napo- 
leon, having  met  with  disaster,  and  his  power  having  been  broken,  14,000  of 
Wellington's  veterans  were  sent  to  Canada,  and  the  campaign  of  the  next  year 
was  opened  with  vigor.  But  at  the  battles  of  Oswego,  Chippewa,  Lundy's 
Lane,  Fort  Erie  and  Plattsburg,  the  tide  was  turned  against  the  enemy,  and 
the  country  saved  from  invasion.  The  act  which  created  most  alarm  to 
Pennsylvania  was  one  of  vandalism  scarcely  matched  in  the  annals  of  war- 
fare. In  August,  1814,  Gen.  Ross,  with  6,000  men  in  a  flotilla  of  sixty  sails, 
moved  up  Chesapeake  Bay,  fired  the  capitol,  President's  house  and  the  various 
offices  of  cabinet  ministers,  and  these  costly  and  substantial  buildings,  the  nation- 
al library  and  ail  the  records  of  the  Government  from  its  foundation  were  utterly 
destroyed.  Shortly  afterward,  Ross  appeared  before  Baltimore  with  the  design 
of  multiplying  his  barbarisms,  but  he  was  met  by  a  force  hastily  collected  under 
Gen.  Samuel  Smith,  a  Pennsylvania  veteran  of  the  Revolution,  and  in  the  brief 
engagement  which  ensued  Ross  was  killed.  In  the  severe  battle  with  the 
corps  of  Gen  Strieker,  the  British  lost  some  300  men.  The  fleet  in  the  mean- 
time opened  a  tierce  bombardment  of  Fort  McHenry,  and  during  the  day  and 
ensuing  night  1,500  bombshells  were  thrown,  but  all  to  no  purpose,  the  gal- 
lant defense  of  Maj.  Armistead  proving  successful.  It  was  during  this  awful 
night  that  Maj.  Key,  who  was  a  prisoner  on  board  the  fleet,  wrote  the  song  of 
the  Star  Spangled  Banner,  which  became  the  national  lyric.  It  was  in  the  ad- 
ministration of  Gov.  Snydei  in  February,  1810,  that  an  act  was  passed  making 
Harrisburg  the  seat  of  government,  and  a  commission  raised  for  erecting  public 
buildings,  the  sessions  of  the  Legislature  being  held  in  the  court  house  at  Har- 
risburg from  1812  to  1821. 

The  administrations  of  William  Findley,  elected  in  1817,  Joseph  Heister, 
in  1820,  and  John  Andrew  Schulz  in  1823,  followed  without  marked  events. 
Parties  became  very  warm  in  their  discussions  and  in  their  management  of  po- 
litical campaigns.  The  charters  for  the  forty  banks  which  had  been  passed  in 
a  fit  of  frenzy  over  the  veto  of  Gov.  Snyder  set  a  flood  of  paper  money  afloat. 
The  public  improvements,  principally  in  openiQg  lines  of  canal,  were  prose- 
cuted, and  vast  debts  incurred.  These  lines  of  conveyances  were  vitally  need- 
ful to  move  the  immense  products  and  vast  resources  of  the  State 

Previous  tc  the  year  1820,  little  use  was  made  of  stone  coal.  Judge 
Obediah  Gore,  a  blacksmith,  used  it  upon  his  forge  as  early  as  1769,  and 
found  the  heat  stronger  and  more  enduring  than  that  produced  by  charcoal. 
In  1791,  Phillip  Ginter,  of  Carbon  County,  a  hunter  by  profession,  having  on 
one  occasion  been  out  all  day  without  discovering  any  game,  was  returning  at 
night  discouraged  and  worn  out,  across  the  Mauch  Chunk  Mountain,  when,  in 













































































Total  Tons. 





.   .    1 

1  073 
























































6  221,934 








3  720 




11  108 






63  434 































































































176  820 




487  748 


376  636 




879  441 









1  263  598 



1  630  850 


2  344  005 



2  882  309 

1848        .... 

9  652  391 



















20  828  179 




















the  gathering  shades  he  stumbled  upon  something  which  seemed  to  have  a 
glistening  appearance,  that  he  was  induced  to  pick  up  and  carry  home.  This 
specimen  was  takea  to  Philadelphia,  where  an  analysis  showed  it  to  be  a  good 
quality  of  anthracite  coal.  But,  though  coal  was  known  to  exist,  no  one  knew 
how  to  use  it.  In  1812,  Col.  George  Shoemaker,  of  Schuylkill  County,  took 
nine  wagon  loads  to  Philadelphia.  But  he  was  looked  upon  as  an  imposter 
for  attempting  to  sell  worthless  stone  for  coal.  He  finally  sold  two  loads  for 
the  cost  of  transportation,  the  remaining  seven  proving  a  complete  loss.  In 
1812,  White  &  Hazard,  manufacturers  of  wire  at  the  Falls  of  Schuylkill,  in- 
duced an  application  to  be  made  to  the  Legislature  to  incorporate  a  com 
pany  for  the  improvement  of  the  Schuylkill,  urging  as  an  inducement  the  im- 
portance it  would  have  for  transporting  coal;  whereupon,  the  Senator  from 
that  district,  in  his  place,  with  an  air  of  knowledge,  asserted  "  that  there  was 
no  coal  there,  that  there  was  a  kind  of  black  stone  which  was  called  coal,  but 
that  it  would  not  burn." 

White  &  Hazard  procured  a  cart  load  of  Lehigh  coal  that  cost  them  $1  a 
bushel,  which  was  all  wasted  in  a  vain  attempt  to  make  it  ignite.  Another 
cart  load  was  obtained,  and  a  whole  night  spent  in  endeavoring  to  make  a  fire 
in  the  furnace,  when  the  hands  shut  the  furnace  door  and  left  the  mill  in  de- 
spair. "Fortunately  one  of  them  left  his  jacket  in  the  mill,  and  returning  for 
it  in  about  half  an  hour,  noticed  that  the  door  was  red  hot,  and  upon  opening 
it,  was  surprised  at  finding  the  whole  furnace  at  a  glowing  white  heat.  The 
other  hands  were  summoned,  and  four  separate  parcels  of  iron  were  heated 
and  rolled  by  the  same  fire  before  it  required  renewing.  The  furnace  was 
replenished,  and  as  letting  it  alone  had  succeeded  so  well,  it  was  concluded  to 
try  it  again,  and  the  experiment  was  repeated  with  the  same  result.  The 
Lehigh  Navigation  Company  and  the  Lehigh  Coal  Company  were  incorporated 
in  1818,  which  companies  became  the  basis  of  the  Lehigh  Coal  and  Naviga- 
tion Company,  incorporated  in  1822.  In  1820,  coal  was  sent  to  Philadelphia 
by  artificial  navigation,  but  365  tons  glutted  the  market."  In  1825,  there 
were  brought  by  the  Schuylkill  5,378  tons.  In  1826,  by  the  Schuylkill, 
16,265  tons,  and  by  the  Lehigh  31,280  tons.  The  stage  of  water  being  in- 
sufficient, dams  and  sluices  were  constructed  near  Mauch  Chunk,  in  1819,  by 
which  the  navigation  was  improved.  The  coal  boats  used  were  great  square 
arks,  16  to  18  feet  wide,  and  20  to  25  feet  long.  At  first,  two  of  these  were 
joined  together  by  hinges,  to  allow  them  to  yield  up  and  down  in  passing  over 
the  dams.  Finally,  as  the  boatmen  became  skilled  in  the  navigation,  several 
were  joined,  attaining  a  length  of  180  feet.  Machinery  was  used  for  jointing 
the  planks,  and  so  expert  had  the  men  become  that  five  would  build  an  ark 
and  launch  it  in  forty-five  minutes.  After  reaching  Philadelphia,  these  boats 
were  taken  to  pieces,  the  plank  sold,  and  the  hinges  sent  back  for  constructing 
others.  Such  were  the  crude  methods  adopted  in  the  early  days  for  bringing 
coal  to  a  market.  In  1827,  a  railroad  was  commenced,  which  was  completed 
in  three  months,  nine  miles  in  length.  This,  with  the  exception  of  one  at 
Quincy,  Mass.,  of  four  miles,  built  in  1826,  was  the  first  constructed  in  the 
United  States.  The  descent  was  100  feet  per  mile,  and  the  coal  descended  by 
gravity  in  a  half  hour,  and  the  cars  were  drawn  back  by  mules,  which  rode 
down  with  the  coal.  "The  mules  cut  a  most  grotesque  figure,  standing  three 
or  four  together,  in  their  cars,  with  their  feeding  troughs  before  them,  appar- 
ently surveying  with  delight  the  scenery  of  the  mountain;  and  though  they 
preserve  the  most  profound  gravity,  it  is  utterly  impossible  for  the  spectator 
to  maintain  his.  It  is  said  that  the  mules,  having  once  experienced  the  com- 
fort of  riding  down,  regard  it  as  a  right,  and  neither  mild  nor  severe  measures 


will  induce  them  to  descend  in  any  other  way."  Bituminous  coal  was  discov- 
ered and  its  qualities  utilized  not  much  earlier  than  the  anthracite.  A  tract 
of  coal  land  was  taken  up  in  Clearfield  County  in  1785,  by  Mr.  S.  Boyd,  and 
in  1804  he  sent  an  ark  down  the  Susquehanna  to  Columbia,  which  caused 
much  surprise  to  the  inhabitants  that  "  an  article  with  which  they  were  wholly 
unacquainted  should  be  brought  to  their  own  doors." 

During  the  administrations  of  George  Wolf,  elected  in  1829,  and  Joseph 
Eitner,  elected  in  1835,  a  measure  of  great  beneficence  to  the  State  was  passed 
and  brought  into  a  good  degree  of  successful  operation — nothing  less  than  a 
ibroad  system  of  public  education.  Schools  had  been  early  established  in 
Philadelphia,  and  parochial  schools  in  the  more  populous  portions  of  the 
State  from  the  time  of  early  settlement.  In  1749,  through  the  influence  of 
Dr.  Franklin,  a  charter  was  obtained  for  a  "college,  academy,  and  charity 
school  of  Pennsylvania,"  and  from  this  time  to  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century,  the  friends  of  education  were  earnest  in  establishing  colleges,  the 
Colonial  Government,  and  afterward  the  Legislature,  making  liberal  grants 
from  the  revenues  accruing  from  the  sale  of  lands  for  their  support,  the  uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania  being  chartered  in  1752,  Dickinson  College  in  1783, 
Franklin  and  Marshall  College  in  1787,  and  Jefferson  College  in  1802.  Com- 
mencing near  the  beginning  of  this  century,  and  continuing  for  over  a  period 
of  thirty  years,  vigorous  exertions  were  put  forth  to  establish  county  acad- 
emies. Charters  were  granted  for  these  institutions  at  the  county  seats  of 
forty-one  counties,  and  appropriations  were  made  of  money,  varying  from 
$2,000  to  $6,000,  and  in  several  instances  of  quite  extensive  land  grants.  In 
1809,  an  act  was  passed  for  the  education  of  the  "poor,  gratis."  The  Asses- 
sors in  their  annual  rounds  were  to  make  a  record  of  all  such  as  were  indi- 
gent, and  pay  for  their  education  in  the  most  convenient  schools.  But  few 
were  found  among  the  spirited  inhabitants  of  the  commonwealth  willing  to 
admit  that   they  were  so  poor  as  to  be  objects  of  charity. 

By  the  act  of  April  1,  1834,  a  general  system  of  education  by  common 
schools  was  established.  Unfortunately  it  was  complex  and  unwieldy.  At  the 
next  session  an  attempt  was  made  to  repeal  it,  and  substitute  the  old  law  of 
1809  for  educating  the  "poor,  gratis,"  the  repeal  having  been  carried  in  the 
Senate.  But  through  the  appeals  of  Thaddeus  Stevens,  a  man  always  in  the 
van  in  every  movement  for  the  elevation  of  mankind,  this  was  defeated.  At 
the  next  session,  1836,  an  entirely  new  bill,  discarding  the  objectionable  feat- 
ures of  the  old  one,  was  prepared  by  Dr.  George  Smith,  of  Delaware  County, 
and  adopted,  and  from  this  time  forward  has  been  in  efiicient  operation.  It  may 
seem  strange  that  so  long  a  time  should  have  elapsed  before  a  general  system  of 
education  should  have  been  secured.  But  the  diversity  of  origin  and  lan- 
guage, the  antagonism  of  religious  seats,  the  very  great  sparseness  of  popula- 
tion in  many  parts,  made  it  impossible  at  an  earlier  day  to  establish  schools. 
In  1854,  the  system  was  improved  by  engrafting  upon  it  the  feature  of  the 
County  Superintendency,  and  in  1859  by  providing  for  the  establishment  of 
twelve  Normal  Schools,  in  as  many  districts  into  which  the  State  was  divided, 
for  the  professional  training  of  teachers. 



David  R.  Porter,  1839-45— Francis  R.  Shcnk,  1845-48— "William  F.  Johnstone 
1848-52— William  Bigler,  1852-55— James  Pollock,  1855-58— William  F. 
Packer,  1858-61— Andrew  G.  Curtin,  1861-67— John  W.  Geary,  1867-73— 
John  F.  Hartranft,    1873-78— Henry  F.  Hoyt,  1878-82— Robert  E.  Pat- 

TISON,  1882. 

IN  1837,  a  convention  assembled  in  Harrisburg,  and  subsequently  in  Philadel- 
phia,  for  revising  the  constitution,  which  revision  was  adopted  by  a  vote  of 
the  people.  One  of  the  chief  objects  of  the  change  was  the  breaking  up  of 
what  was  known  as  "omnibus  legislation,"  each  bill  being  required  to  have 
but  one  distinct  subject,  to  be  definitely  stated  in  the  title.  Much  of  the  pat- 
ronage of  the  Governor  was  taken  from  him,  and  he  was  allowed  but  two  terms 
of  three  years  in  any  nine  years.  The  Senator's  term  was  fixed  at  three  years. 
The  terms  of  Supreme  Court  Judges  were  limited  to  fifteen  years,  Common 
Pleas  Judges  to  ten,  and  Associate  Judges  to  five.  A  step  backward  was  taken 
in  limiting  suffrage  to  white  male  citizens  twenty-one  years  old,  it  having  pre- 
viously been  extended  to  citizens  irrespective  of  color.  Amendments  could  be 
proposed  once  in  five  years,  and  if  adopted  by  two  successive  Legislatures, 
and  approved  by  a  vote  of  the  people,  they  became  a  part  of  the  organic  law. 
At  the  opening  of  the  gubernatorial  term  of  David  R.  Porter,  who  was 
chosen  in  October,  1838,  a  civil  commotion  occurred  known  as  the  Buckshot 
War  which  at  one  time  threatened  a  sanguinary  result.  By  the  returns, 
Porter  had  some  5,000  majority  over  Ritner,  but  the  latter,  who  was  the  in- 
cumbent, alleged  frauds,  and  proposed  an  investigation  and  revision  of  the 
returns.  Thomas  H.  Burrows  was  Secretary  of  State,  and  Chairman  of  the 
State  Committee  of  the  Anti-Masonic  party,  and  in  an  elaborate  address  to  the 
people  setting  forth  the  grievance,  he  closed  with  the  expression  "  let  us  treat 
the  election  as  if  we  had  not  been  defeated. ''  This  expression  gave  great 
offense  to  the  opposing  party,  the  Democratic,  and  public  feeling  ran  high 
before  the  meeting  of  the  Legislature.  Whether  an  investigation  could  be  had 
would  depend  upon  the  political  complexion  of  that  body.  The  Senate  was 
clearly  Anti-Masonic,  and  the  House  would  depend  upon  the  Representatives  of 
a  certain  district  in  Philadelphia,  which  embraced  the  Northern  Liberties. 
The  returning  board  of  this  district  had  a  majority  of  Democrats,  who  pro- 
ceeded to  throw  out  the  entire  vote  of  Northern  Liberties,  for  some  alleged 
irregularities,  and  gave  the  certificate  to  Democrats.  Whereupon,  the  minor- 
ity of  the  board  assembled,  and  counted  the  votes  of  the  Northern  Liberties, 
which  gave  the  election  to  the  Anti-Masonic  candidates,  and  sent  certificates 
accordingly.  By  right  and  justice,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Anti- Masons 
were  fairly  elected.  But  the  majority  of  a  returning  board  alone  have 
authority  to  make  returns,  and  the  Democrats  had  the  certificates  which  bore 
prima  facie  evidence  of  being  correct,  and  should  have  been  received  and 
transmitted  to  the  House,  where  alone  rested  the  authority  to  go  behind  the 
returns  and  investigate  their  correctness.  But  upon  the  meeting  of  the  House 
the  Secretary  of  the  Commonwealth  sent  in  the  certificates  of  the  minority  of 
the  returninty  board  of  the  Northern  Liberties  district,  which  gave  the  major- 
ity to  the  Anti-Masons.     But  the  Democrats  were  not  disposed  to  submit,  and 


the  consequence  was  that  two  delegations  from  the  disputed  district  appeared, 
demanding  seats,  and  upon  the  organization,  two  Speakers  were  elected  and 
took  the  platform — Thomas  S.  Cunningham  for  the  Anti-Masons,  and  Will- 
iam Hopkins  for  the  Democrats.  At  this  stage  of  the  game,  an  infui'iated 
lobby,  collected  from  Philadelphia  and  surrounding  cities,  broke  into  the 
two  Houses,  and,  interrupting  all  business,  threatened  the  lives  of  members, 
and  compelled  them  to  seek  safety  in  flight,  when  they  took  uncontrolled  pos- 
session of  the  chambers  and  indulged  in  noisy  and  impassioned  harangues. 
From  the  capitol,  the  mob  proceeded  to  the  court  house,  where  a  ' '  committee 
of  safety ' '  was  appointed.  For  several  days  the  members  dared  not  enter 
either  House,  and  when  one  of  the  parties  of  the  House  attempted  to  assemble, 
the  person  who  had  been  appointed  to  act  as  Speaker  was  forcibly  ejected.  All 
business  was  at  an  end,  and  the  Executive  and  State  Departments  were  closed. 
At  this  juncture,  Gov.  Ritner  ordered  out  the  militia,  and  at  the  same  time 
called  on  the  United  States  authorities  for  help.  The  militia,  under  Gens. 
Pattison  and  Alexander,  came  promptly  to  the  rescue,  but  the  President  refused 
to  furnish  the  National  troops,  though  the  United  States  storekeeper  at  the 
Frankf  ord  Arsenal  turned  over  a  liberal  supply  of  ball  and  buckshot  cartridges. 
The  arrival  of  the  militia  only  served  to  fire  the  spirit  of  the  lobby,  and  they 
immediately  commenced  drilling  and  organizing,  supplying  themselves  with 
arms  and  fixed  ammunition.  The  militia  authorities  were,  however,  able  to 
clear  the  capitol,  when  the  two  Houses  assembled,  and  the  Senate  signified  the 
willingness  to  recognize  that  branch  of  the  House  preside(i  over  by  Mr.  Hop- 
kins.    This  ended  the  difficulty,  and  Gov.  Porter  was  duly  inaugurated. 

Francis  R,  Shunk  was  chosen  Governor  in  1845,  and  during  his  term  of 
office  the  war  with  Mexico  occurred.  Two  volunteer  regiments,  one  under 
command  of  Col.  Wynkoop,  and  the  other  under  Col.  Roberts,  subsequently 
Col.  John  W.  Geary,  were  sent  to  the  field,  while  the  services  of  a  much 
larger  number  were  offered,  but  could  not  be  received.  Toward  the  close  of 
his  first  term,  having  been  reduced  by  sickness,  and  feeling  his  end  approach- 
ing. Gov.  Shunk  resigned,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Speaker  of  the  Senate, 
William  F.  Johnston,  who  was  duly  chosen  at  the  next  annual  election.  Dur- 
ing the  administrations  of  William  Bigler,  elected  in  1851,  James  Pollock  in 
1854,  and  William  F.  Packer  in  1857,  little  beyond  the  ordinary  course  of 
events  marked  the  history  of  the  State.  The  lines  of  public  works  undertaken 
at  the  expense  of  the  State  were  completed.  Their  cost  had  been  enormous, 
and  a  debt  was  piled  up  against  it  of  over  $40,000,000.  These  works,  vastly 
expensive,  were  still  to  operate  and  keep  in  repair,  and  the  revenues  therefrom 
failing  to  meet  expectations,  it  was  determined  in  the  administration  of  Gov. 
Pollock  to  sell  them  to  the  highest  bidder,  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Com- 
pany purchasing  them  for  the  sum  of  $7,500,000. 

In  the  administration  of  Gov.  Packer,  petroleum  was  first  discovered  in 
quantities  in  this  country  by  boring  into  the  bowels  of  the  earth.  From  the 
earliest  settlement  of  the  country  it  was  known  to  exist.  As  early  as  July  18, 
1627,  a  French  missionary,  Joseph  Delaroche  Daillon,  of  the  order  of  Recol- 
lets,  described  it  in  a  letter  published  in  1632,  in  Segard's  L'Histoire  du 
Canada,  and  this  description  is  confirmed  by  the  journal  of  Charlevois,  1721. 
Fathers  Dollier  and  Galinee,  missionaries  of  the  order  of  St.  Sulpice,  made  a 
map  of  this  section  of  country,  which  they  sent  to  Jean  Talon,  Intendent  of 
Canada,  on  the  10th  of  November,  1670,  on  which  was  marked  at  about  the 
point  where  is  now  the  town  of  Cuba,  N.  Y. ,  "Fontaine  de  Bitume."  The 
Earl  of  Belmont,  Governor  of  New  York,  instructed  his  chief  engineer, 
Wolfgang  W.  Romer,  on  September  3,  1700,   in  his  visit  to  the  Six  Nations, 


"  To  go  and  view  a  well  or  spring  which  is  eight  miles  beyond  the  Seneks* 
farthest  castle,  which  they  have  told  me  blazes  up  in  a  flame,  when  a  lighted 
coale  or  firebrand  is  put  into  it;  you  will  do  well  to  taste  the  said  water,  and 
give  me  your  opinion  thereof,  and  bring  with  you  some  of  it."  Thomas  Cha- 
bert  de  Joncaire,  who  died  in  September,  1740,  is  mentiooed  in  the  journal  of 
Charlevoix  of  1721  as  authority  for  the  existence  of  oil  at  the  place  mentioned 
above,  and  at  points  further  south,  probably  on  Oil  Creek.  The  following 
account  of  an  event  occurring  during  the  occupancy  of  this  part  of  the  State 
by  the  French  is  given  as  an  example  of  the  religious  uses  made  of  oil  by  the 
Indians,  as  these  fire  dances  are  understood  to  have  been  annually  celebrated: 
"While  descending  the  Allegheny,  fifteen  leagues  below  the  mouth  of  the 
Connewango  (Warren)  and  three  above  Fort  Venango  (Oil  City),  we  were 
invited  by  the  chief  of  the  Senecas  to  attend  a  religious  ceremony  of  his  tribe. 
We  landed  and  drew  up  our  canoes  on  a  point  where  a  small  stream  entered 
the  river.  The  tribe  appeared  unusually  solemn.  We  marched  up  the  stream 
about  a  half  a  league,  where  the  company,  a  large  band  it  appeared,  had 
arrived  some  days  before  us.  Gigantic  hills  begirt  us  on  every  side.  The 
scene  was  really  sublime.  The  great  chief  then  recited  the  conquests  and 
heroisms  of  their  ancestors.  The  surface  of  the  stream  was  covered  with  a 
thick  scum,  which  burst  into  a  complete  conflagration.  The  oil  had  been 
gathered  and  lighted  with  a  torch.  At  sight  of  the  flames,  the  Indians  gave 
forth  a  triumphant  shout,  and  made  the  hills  and  valley  re-echo  again." 

In  nearly  all  geographies  and  notes  of  travel  published  during  the  early 
period  of  settlement,  this  oil  is  referred  to,  and  on  several  maps  the  word  petro- 
leum appears  opposite  the  mouth  of  Oil  Creek.  Gen.  Washington,  in  his  will, 
in  speaking  of  his  lands  on  the  Great  Kanawha,  says:  "  The  tract  of  which  the 

125  acres  is  a  moiety,  was  taken  up  by  Gen.  Andrew  Lewis  and  myself,  for  and 
on  account  of  a  bituminous  spring  which  it  contains  of  so  inflammable  a  nat- 
ure as  to  burn  as  freely  as  spirits,  and  is  as  nearly  difiicult  to  extinguish." 
Mr.  Jeflferson,  in  his  Notes  on  Virginia,  also  gives  an  account  of  a  burning 
spring  on  the  lower  grounds  of  the  Great  Kanawha.  This  oil  not  only  seems 
to  have  been  known,  but  to  have  been  systematically  gathered  in  very  early 
times.  Upon  the  flats  a  mile  or  so  below  the  c'  y  of  Titusville  are  many  acres 
of  cradle  holes  dug  out  and  lined  with  split  logs,  evidently  constructed  for 
the  purpose  of  gathering  it.  The  fact  that  the  earliest  inhabitants  could 
never  discover  any  stumps  from  which  these  logs  were  cut,  and  the  further  fact 
that  trees  are  growing  of  giant  size  in  the  midst  of  these  cradles,  are  evidences 
that  they  must  have  been  operated  long  ago.  It  could  not  have  been  the  work 
of  any  of  the  nomadic  Indian  tribes  found  here  at  the  coming  of  the  white 
man,  for  they  were  never  known  to  undertake  any  enterprise  involving  so 
much  labor,  and  what  could  they  do  with  the  oil  when  obtained. 

The  French  could  hardly  have  done  the  work,  for  we  have  no  account  of 
the  oil  having  been  obtained  in  quantities,  or  of  its  being  transported  to 
France.  May  this  not  have  been  the  work  of  the  Mound-Builders,  or  of  colo- 
nies from  Central  America?  When  the  writer  first  visited  these  pits,  in  1855, 
he  found  a  spring  some  distance  below  Titusville,  on  Oil  Creek,  where  the 
water  was  conducted  into  a  trough,  from  which,  daily,  the  oil,  floating  on  its 
surface,  was  taken  off  by  throwing  a  woolen  blanket  upon  it,  and  then  wring- 
ing it  into  a  tub,  the  clean  wool  absorbing  the  oil  and  rejecting  the  water,  and 
in  this  way  a  considerable  quantity  was  obtained. 

In  1859,  Mr,  E.  L.  Drake,  at  first  representing  a  company  in  New  York, 
commenced  drilling  near  the  spot  where  this  tub  was  located,  and  when  the 
company  would  give  him  no  more  money,  straining  his  own  resources,  and  his 


credit  with  his  friends  almost  to  the  breaking  point,  and  when  about  to  give 
up  in  despair,  finally  struck  a  powerful  current  of  pure  oil.  From  this  time 
forward,  the  territory  down  the  valley  of  Oil  Creek  and  up  all  its  tributaries 
was  rapidly  acquired  and  developed  for  oil  land.  In  some  places,  the  oil  was 
sent  up  with  immense  force,  at  the  rate  of  thousands  of  barrels  each  day,  and 
great  trouble  was  experienced  in  bringing  it  under  control  and  storing  it.  In 
some  cases,  the  force  of  the  gas  was  so  powerful  on  being  accidentally  fired, 
as  to  defy  all  approach  for  many  days,  and  lighted  up  the  forests  at  night 
with  billows  of  light. 

The  oil  has  been  found  in  paying  quantities  in  McKean,  Warren,  Forest, 
Crawford,  Venango,  Clarion,  Butler  and  Armstrong  Counties,  chiefly  along 
the  upper  waters  of  the  Allegheny  River  and  its  tributary,  the  Oil  Creek.  It 
was  first  transported  in  barrels,  and  teams  were  kept  busy  from  the  first  dawn 
until  far  into  the  night.  As  soon  as  practicable,  lines  of  railway  were  con- 
structed from  nearly  all  the  trunk  lines.  Finally  barrels  gave  place  to  im- 
mense iron  tanks  riveted  upon  cars,  provided  for  the  escape  of  the  gases,  and 
later  great  pipe  lines  were  extended  from  the  wells  to  the  seaboard,  and  to  the 
Great  Lakes,  through  which  the  fluid  is  forced  by  steam  to  its  distant  destina- 
tions Its  principal  uses  are  for  illumination  and  lubricating,  though  many 
of  its  products  are  employed  in  the  mechanic  arts,  notably  for  dyeing,  mixing 
of  paints,  and  in  the  practice  of  medicine.  Its  production  has  grown  to  be 
enormous,  and  seems  as  yet  to  show  no  sign  of  diminution.  We  give  an  ex- 
hibit of  the  annual  production  since  its  discovery,  compiled  for  this  work  by 
William  II.  Siviter,  editor  of  the  Oil  City  Derrick,  which  is  the  acknowledged 
authority  on  oil  matters: 

Production  of  the  Pennsylvania  Oil  Fields,  compiled  from  the  Derrick^s 
Hand-book,   December,  1883: 

Barrels,  B^rels. 

1859 82,000  1873 9,849,508 

1860 500,000  1874 11,102,114 

1861 2,113,000  1875 8,948,749 

1862 3,056,606  1876 9.142,940 

1863 2.611,399  1877 13,052,713 

1864 3,116,182  1878 15,011,425 

1865 ^..497,712  1879 20,085,716 

1866 3,597,512  1880 24,788.950 

1867 3.347,306  1881 29,674,458 

1868 3,715,741  1882 31,789,190 

1869 4,186,475  1883 , 24,385,966 

1870 5,308,046 

1871 5,278,076      A  grand  total  of 243,749,558 

1872 6,505,774 

In  the  fall  of  1860,  Andrew  G.  Curtin  was  elected  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  Abraham  Lincoln  President  of  the  United  States.  An  organized 
rebellion,  under  the  specious  name  of  secession,  was  thereupon  undertaken, 
embracing  parts  of  fifteen  States,  commonly  designated  the  Slave  States,  and 
a  government  established  under  the  name  of  the  Confederate  States  of  America, 
with  an  Executive  and  Congress,  which  commenced  the  raising  of  troops  for 

On  the  12th  of  April,  an  attack  was  made  upon  a  small  garrison  of  United 
States  troops  shut  up  in  Fort  Sumter.  This  was  rightly  interpreted  as  the 
first  act  in  a  great  drama.  On  the  15th,  the  President  summoned  75,000  vol- 
unteers  to  vindicate  the  national  authority,  calling  for  sixteen  regiments  from 
Pennsylvania,  and  urging  that  two  be  sent  forward  immediately,  as  the  capital 
was  without  defenders. 

The  people  of  the  State,  having  no  idea  that  war  could  be  possible,  had  no 


preparation  for  the  event,  There  chanced  at  the  time  to  be  five  companies  in 
a  tolerable  state  of  organization.  These  vs^ere  the  Ringold  Light  Artillery, 
Capt.  McKnight,  of  Reading;  the  Logan  Guards,  Capt.  Selheimer,  of  Lewis- 
tov?n;  the  Washington  Artillery,  Capt.  Wren,  and  the  National  Light  Infan- 
try, Capt.  McDonald,  of  Pottsville;  and  the  Allen  Rifles,  Capt.  Yeager,  of 

On  the  18th,  in  conjunction  with  a  company  of  fifty  regulars,  on  their  way 
from  the  West  to  Fort  McHenry,  under  command  of  Capt.  Pemberton,  after- 
ward Lieut.  Gen.  Pemberton.  of  the  rebel  army,  these  troops  moved  by  rail 
for  Washington.  At  Baltimore,  they  were  obliged  to  march  two  milesthrough 
a  jeering  and  insulting  crowd.  At  the  center  of  the  city,  the  regulars  filed 
off  toward  Fort  McHenry,  leaving  the  volunteers  to  pursue  their  way  alone, 
when  the  crowd  of  maddened  people  were  excited  to  redoubled  insults.  In  the 
whole  battalion  there  was  not  a  charge  of  powder;  but  a  member  of  the  Logan 
Guards,  who  chanced  to  have  a  box  of  percussion  caps  in  his  pocket,  had  dis- 
tributed them  to  his  comrades,  who  carried  their  pieces  capped  and  half 
cocked,  creating  the  impression  that  they  were  loaded  and  ready  for  service. 
This  ruse  undoubtedly  saved  the  battalion  from  the  murderous  assault  made 
upon  the  Massachusetts  Sixth  on  the  following  day.  Before  leaving,  they  were 
pelted  with  stones  and  billets  of  wood  while  boarding  the  cars;  but,  fortu- 
nately, none  were  seriously  injured,  and  the  train  finally  moved  away  and 
reached  Washington  in  safety,  the  first  troops  to  come  to  the  unguarded  and 
imperiled  capital. 

Instead  of  sixteen,  twenty-five  regiments  were  organized  for  the  three  months' 
service  from  Pennsylvania.  Judging  from  the  threatening  attitude  assumed 
by  the  rebels  across  the  Potomac  that  the  southern  frontier  would  be  con- 
stantly menaced,  Gov.  Curtin  sought  pei-mission  to  organize  a  select  corps, 
to  consist  of  thirteen  regiments  of  infantry,  one  of  cavalry,  and  one  of  artillery, 
and  to  be  known  as  the  Pennsylvania  Reserve  Corps,  which  the  Legislature,  in 
special  session,  granted.  This  corps  of  15,000  men  was  speedily  raised,  and  the 
intention  of  the  State  authorities  was  to  keep  this  body  permamently  within 
the  limits  of  the  Commonwealth  for  defonse.  But  at  the  time  of  the  First 
Bull  Run  disaster  in  July,  1861,  the  National  Government  found  itself  with- 
out troops  to  even  defend  the  capital,  the  time  of  the  three  months'  men  being 
now  about  to  expire,  and  at  its  urgent  call  this  fine  body  was  sent  forward  and 
never  again  returned  for  the  execution  of  the  duty  for  which  it  was  formed, 
having  borne  the  brunt  of  the  fighting  on  many  a  hard-fought  field  during  the 
three  years  of  its  service. 

In  addition  to  the  volunteer  troops  furnished  in  response  to  the  several 
calls  of  the  President,  upon  the  occasion  of  the  rebel  invasion  of  Maryland  in 
September,  1862,  Gov.  Curtin  called  50,000  men  for  the  emergency,  aod 
though  the  time  was  very  brief,  25,000  came,  were  organized  under  command 
of  Gen.  John  F.  Reynolds,  and  were  marched  to  the  border.  But  the  battle  of 
Antietam,  fought  on  the  17th  of  September,  caused  the  enemy  to  beat  a  hasty 
retreat,  and  the  border  was  relieved  when  the  emergency  troops  were  dis- 
banded and  returned  to  their  hom^s.  On  the  19th  of  October,  Gen.  J.  E.  B. 
Stewart,  of  the  rebel  army,  with  1,800  horsemen  under  command  of  Hampton, 
Lee  and  Jones,  crossed  the  Potomac  and  made  directly  for  Chambersburg, 
arriving  after  dark.  Not  waiting  for  morning  to  attack,  he  sent  in  a  flag  of 
truce  demanding  the  surrender  of  the  town.  There  were  275  Union  soldiers  in 
hospital,  whom  he  paroled.  During  the  night,  the  troopers  were  busy  picking 
up  horses — swapping  horses  perhaps  it  should  be  called — and  the  morning  saw 
them  early  on  the  move.          The  rear  guard  gave  notice  before  leaving  to  re- 


move  all  families  from  the  neighborhood  of  the  public  buildings,  as  they  in- 
tended to  fire  them.  There  was  a  large  amount  of  fixed  ammunition  in  them, 
which  had  been  captured  from  Longstreet's  train,  besides  Government  stores 
of  shoes,  clothing  and  muskets.  At  11  o'clock  the  station  house,  round  house, 
railroad  machine  shops  and  warehouses  were  fired  and  consigned  to 
destruction.  The  fire  department  was  promptly  out;  but  it  was  dangerous  to 
approach  the  burning  buildings  on  account  of  the  ammunition,  and  all 

The  year  1862  was  one  of  intense  excitement  and  activity.  From  about  the 
Istof  May,  1861,  to  the  end  of  1862,  there  were  recruited  in  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania, one  hundred  and  eleven  regiments,  including  eleven  of  cavalry  and 
three  of  artillery,  for  three  years' service;  twenty-five  regiments  for  three  months; 
seventeen  for  nine  months;  fifteen  of  drafted  militia;  and  twenty-five  called  out 
for  the  emergency,  an  aggregate  of  one  hundred  and  ninety-three  regiments — a 
grand  total  of  over  200,000  men — a  great  army  in  itself. 

In  June,  1863,  Gen.  ttobert  E.  Lee,  with  his  entire  army  of  Northern  Vir- 
ginia, invaded  Pennsylvania.  The  Army  of  the  Potomac,  under  Gen.  Joseph 
Hooker,  followed.  The  latter  was  superseded  on  the  28th  of  June  by  Gen.  George 
G.  Meade.  The  vanguards  of  the  army  met  a  mile  or  so  out  of  Gettysburg  on  the 
Chambersburg  pike  on  the  morning  of  the  1st  of  July.  Hill's  corps  of  the 
rebel  army  was  held  in  check  by  the  sturdy  fighting  of  a  small  division  of 
cavalry  under  Gen.  Buford  until  10  o'clock,  when  Gen.  Reynolds  came  to  his 
relief  with  the  First  Corps.  While  bringing  his  forces  into  action,  Reynolds 
was  killed,  and  the  command  devolved  on  Gen.  Abner  Doubleday,  and  the 
fighting  became  terrible,  the  Union  forces  being  greatly  outnumbered.  At  2 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  the  Eleventh  Corps,  Gen.  O.  O.  Howard,  came  to  the 
support  of  the  First.  But  now  the  corps  of  Ewell  had  joined  hands  with  Hill, 
and  a  full  two-thirds  of  the  entire  rebel  army  was  on  the  field,  opposed  by 
only  the  two  weak  Union  corps,  in  an  inferior  position.  A  sturdy  fight  was 
however  maintained  until  5  o'clock,  when  the  Union  forces  withdrew  through 
the  town,  and  took  position  upon  rising  ground  covering  the  Baltimore  pike. 
During  the  night  the  entire  Union  army  came  up,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Sixth  Corps,  and  took  position,  and  at  2  o'clock  in  the  morning  Gen.  Meade 
and  staff  came  on  the  field.  During  the  morning  hours,  and  until  4  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  the  two  armies  were  getting  into  position  for  the  desperate 
struggle.  The  Third  Corps,  Gen.  Sicldes,  occupied  the  extreme  left,  his  corps 
abutting  on  the  Little  Round  Top  at  the  Devil's  Den,  and  reaching,  en  echelon, 
through  the  rugged  ground  to  the  Peach  Orchard,  and  thence  along  the  Em- 
mettsburg  pike,  where  it  joined  the  Second  Corps,  Gen.  Hancock,  reaching 
over  Cemetery  Hill,  the  Eleventh  Corps,  Gen.  Howard,  the  First,  Gen.  Double- 
day,  and  the  Twelfth,  Gen.  Slocum,  reaching  across  Culp's  Hill — the  whole 
crescent  shape.  To  this  formation  the  rebel  army  conformed,  Longstreet  op- 
posite the  Union  left.  Hill  opposite  the  center,  and  Ewell  opposite  the  Union 
right.  At  4  P.  M.  the  battle  was  opened  by  Longstreet,  on  the  extreme  left  of 
Sickles,  and  the  fighting  became  terrific,  the  rebels  making  strenuous  efforts 
to  gain  Little  Round  Top.  But  at  the  opportune  moment  a  part  of  the  Fifth 
Corps,  Gen.  Sykes,  was  brought  upon  that  key  position,  and  it  was  saved  to 
the  Union  side.  The  slaughter  in  front  of  Round  Top  at  the  wheat-field  and 
the  Peach  Orchard  was  fearful.  The  Third  Corps  was  driven  back  from  its 
advanced  position,  and  its  commander.  Gen.  Sickles,  was  wounded,  losing  a 
leg.  In  a  more  contracted  position,  the  Union  line  was  made  secure,  where  it 
rested  for  the  night.  Just  at  dusk,  the  Louisiana  Tigers,  some  1,800  men, 
made  a  desperate  charge  on  Cemetery  Hill,  emerging  suddenly  from  a  hillock 


just  back  of  the  town.  The  struggle  was  desperate,  but  the  Tigers  being 
weakened  by  the  fire  of  the  artillery,  and  by  the  infantry  crouching  behind  the 
stone  wall,  the  onset  was  checked,  and  Carroll's  brigade,  of  the  Second  Corps, 
coming  to  the  rescue,  they  were  finally  beaten  back,  terribly  decimated.  At 
about  the  same  time,  a  portion  of  Ewell's  corps  made  an  advance  on  the  ex- 
treme Union  right,  at  a  point  where  the  troops  had  been  withdrawn  to  send  to 
the  support  of  Sickles,  and  unopposed,  gained  the  extremity  of  Gulp's  Hill, 
pushing  through  nearly  to  the  Baltimore  pike,  in  dangerous  proximity  to  the 
reserve  artillery  and  trains,  and  even  the  headquarters  of  the  Union  com- 
mander. But  in  their  attempt  to  roll  up  the  Union  right  they  were  met  by 
Green's  brigade  of  the  Twelfth  Corps,  and  by  desperate  fighting  their  further 
progress  was  stayed.  Thus  ended  the  battle  of  the  second  day.  The  Union  left 
and  right  had  been  sorely  jammed  and  pushed  back. 

At  4  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  3d  of  July,  Gen.  Geary,  who  had  been 
ordered  away  to  the  support  of  Sickles,  having  returned  during  the  night  and 
taken  position  on  the  right  of  Green,  opened  the  battle  for  the  recovery  of  his 
lost  breastworks  on  the  right  of  Culp's  Hill.  Until  10  o'clock,  the  battle  raged 
with  unabated  fury.  The  heat  was  intolerable,  and  the  sulphurous  vapor 
hung  like  a  pall  over  the  combatants,  shutting  out  the  light  of  day.  The 
fighting  was  in  the  midst  of  the  forest,  and  the  echoes  resounded  with  fearful 
distinctness.  The  Twelfth  Corps  was  supported  by  portions  of  the  Sixth, 
which  had  now  come  up.  At  length  the  enemy,  weakened  and  finding  them- 
selves overborne  on  all  sides,  gave  way,  and  the  Union  breastworks  were  re- 
occupied  and  the  Union  right  made  entirely  secure.  Comparative  quiet  now 
reigned  on  either  side  until  2  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  in  the  meantime  both 
sides  bringing  up  fresh  troops  and  repairing  damages.  The  rebel  leader  hav- 
ing brought  his  best  available  artillery  in  upon  his  right  center,  suddenly 
opened  with  150  pieces  a  concentric  fire  upon  the  devoted  Union  left  center, 
where  stood  the  troops  of  Hancock  and  Doubleday  and  Sickles.  The  shock 
was  terrible.  Rarely  has  such  a  cannonade  been  known  on  any  field.  For 
nearly  two  hours  it  was  continued.  Thinking  that  the  Union  line  had  been 
broken  and  demoralized  by  this  fire,  Longstreet  brought  out  a  fresh  corps  of 
some  18,000  men,  under  Pickett,  and  charged  full  upon  the  point  which  had 
been  the  mark  for  the  cannonade.  As  soon  as  this  charging  column  came  into 
view,  the  Union  artillery  opened  upon  it  from  right  and  left  and  center,  and 
rent  it  with  fearful  effect.  When  come  within  muske.t  range,  the  Union 
troops,  who  had  been  crouching  behind  slight  pits  and  a  low  stone  wall, 
poured  in  a  most  murderous  fire.  Still  the  rebels  pushed  forward  with  a  bold 
face,  and  actually  crossed  the  Union  lines  and  had  their  hands  on  the  Union 
guns.  But  the  slaughter  was  too  terrible  to  withstand.  The  killed  and 
wounded  lay  scattered  over  all  the  plain.  Many  were  gathered  in  as  prisoners. 
Finally,  the  remnant  staggered  back,  and  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  was  at  an 

Gathering  all  in  upon  his  fortified  line,  the  rebel  chieftain  fell  to  strength- 
ening it,  which  he  held  with  a  firm  hand.  At  night-fall,  he  put  his  trains 
with  the  wounded  upon  the  retreat.  During  the  4th,  great  activity  in  build- 
ing works  was  manifest,  and  a  heavy  skirmish  line  was  kept  well  out,  which 
resolutely  met  any  advance  of  Union  forces.  The  entire  fighting  force  of  the 
rebel  army  remained  in  position  behind  their  breastworks  on  Oak  Ridge,  until 
nightfall  of  the  4th,  when,  under  cover  of  darkness,  it  was  withdrawn,  and 
before  morning  was  well  on  its  way  to  Williamsport.  The  losses  on  the  Union 
side  were  2,834  killed,  13,709  wounded,  and  6,643  missing,  an  aggregate  of 
23, 186.     Of  the  losses  of  the  enemy,  no  adequate  returns  were  made.     Meade 


reports  13,621  prisoners  taken,  and  the  losses  by  killed  and  wounded  must 
have  l)een  greater  than  on  the  Union  side.  On  the  rebel  side,  Maj.  Gens. 
Hood,  Pender,  Trimble  and  Heth  were  wounded,  Pender  mortally.  Brig. 
Gens.  Barksdale  and  Garnett  were  killed,  anl  Semms  mortally  wounded. 
Brig.  Gens.  Kemper,  Armistead,  Scales,  G.  T.  Anderson,  Hampton,  J.  M. 
Jones  and  Jenkins  were  wounded;  Archer  was  taken  prisoner  and  Pettigrew 
was  wounded  and  subsequently  killed  at  Falling  Waters.  In  the  Union  army, 
Maj.  Gen.  Reynolds  and  Brig.  Gens.  Vincent,  Weed,  Willard  and  Zook  were 
killed.  Maj.  Gens.  Sickles,  Hancock,  Doubleday,  Gibbon,  Barlow,  Warren 
and  Butterfield,  and  Brig.  Gens.  Graham,  Paul,  Stone,  Barnes  and  Brooke 
were  wounded.  A  National  Cemetery  was  secured  on  the  center  of  the  field, 
where,  as  soon  as  the  weather  would  permit,  the  dead  were  gathered  and  care- 
fully interred.  Of  the  enlire  number  interred,  3,512,  Maine  had  104;  New 
Hampshire,  49;  Vermont,  61;  Massachusetts,  159;  Rhode  Island,  12;  Con- 
necticut, 22;  New  York,  867;  New  Jersey,  78;  Pennsylvania,  534;  Delaware, 
15;  Maryland,  22;  West  Virginia,  11;  Ohio,  131;  Indiana,  80;  Illinois,  6; 
Michigan,  171;  Wisconsin,  73;  Minnesota,  52;  United  States  Regulars,  138; 
unknown,  979.  In  the  center  of  the  field,  a  noble  monument  has  been  erect- 
ed, and  on  the  19th  of  November,  1864,  the  ground  was  formally  dedicated, 
when  the  eminent  orator,  Edward  Everett,  delivered  an  oration,  and  President 
Lincoln  delivered  the  following  dedicatory  address: 

"  Fourscore  and  seven  years  ago,  our  fathers  brought  forth  upon  this  conti- 
nent a  new  nation,  conceived  in  liberty,  and  dedicated  to  the  proposition  that 
all  men  are  created  equal.  Now  we  are  engaged  in  a  great  civil  war,  testing 
whether  that  nation  or  any  nation  so  conceived  and  so  dedicated,  can  long  en- 
dure. We  are  met  on  a  great  battle  field  of  that  war.  We  are  met  to  dedi- 
cate a  portion  of  it  as  the  final  resting  place  of  those  who  here  gave  their 
lives  that  this  nation  might  live.  It  is  altogether  fitting  and  proper  that  we 
should  do  this.  But  in  a  larger  sense  we  cannot  dedicate,  we  cannot  conse- 
crate, we  cannot  hallow  this  ground.  The  brave  men,  living  and  dead,  who 
struggled  here  have  consecrated  it  far  above  our  power  to  add  or  detract. 
The  world  will  little  note  nor  long  remember  what  we  say  here,  but  it  can 
never  forget  what  they  did  here.  It  is  for  us,  the  living,  rather  to  be  dedi- 
cated here  to  the  unfinished  work  that  they  have  thus  far  so  nobly  carried  on. 
It  is  rather  for  us  to  be  here  dedicated  to  the  great  task  remaining  before  us — 
that  from  these  honored  dead  we  take  increased  devotion  to  the  cause  for  which 
they  here  gave  the  last  full  measure  of  devotion — that  we  here  highly  resolve 
that  the  dead  shall  not  have  died  in  vain;  that  the  nation  shall,  under  God, 
have  a  new  birth  of  freedom,  and  that  the  government  of  the  peotple,  by  the 
people,  and  for  the  people  shall  not  perish  from  the  earth.'' 

So  soon  as  indications  pointed  to  a  possible  invasion  of  the  North  by  the 
rebel  army  under  Gen.  Lee,  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  was  organized  in  two 
military  departments,  that  of  the  Susquehanna,  to  the  command  of  which 
Darius  N.  Couch  was  assigned,  with  headquarters  at  Harrisburg,  and  that  of 
the  Monongahela,  under  W.  T.  H.  Brooks,  with  headquarters  at  Pittsburgh. 
Urgent  calls  for  the  militia  were  made,  and  large  numbers  in  regiments,  in 
companies,  in  squadrons  came  promptly  at  the  call  to  the  number  of  over  36,- 
000  men,  who  were  organized  for  a  period  of  ninety  days.  Fortifications 
were  thrown  up  to  cover  Harrisburg  and  Pittsburgh,  and  the  troops  were  moved 
to  threatened  points.  But  before  they  could  be  brought  into  action,  the  great 
decisive  conflict  had  been  fought,  and  the  enemy  driven  from  northern  soil. 
Four  regiments  under  Gen.  Brooks  were  moved  into  Ohio  to  aid  in  arresting  a 
raid  undertaken  by  John  Morgan,  who,  with  2,000  horse  and  four  guns,  had 
crossed  the  Ohio  River  for  a  diversion  in  favor  of  Lee.  s 


In  the  beginning  of  Jnly,  1864,  Gen.  Early  invaded  Maryland,  and  made 
his  way  to  the  threshold  of  Washington.  Fearing  another  invasion  of  the 
State,  Gov.  Curtin  called  for  volunteers  to  serve  for  100  days.  Gen.  Conch 
■was  still  at  the  head  of  the  department  of  the  Susquehanna,  and  six  regiments 
and  six  companies  were  organized,  but  as  fast  as  organized  they  were  called  to 
the  front,  the  last  regiment  leaving  the  State  on  the  29th  of  July.  On  the 
evening  of  this  day.  Gens.  McCausland,  Bradley  Johnson  and  Harry  Gilmore, 
with  3,000  mounted  men  and  six  guns,  crossed  the  Potomac,  and  made  their 
way  to  Chambersburg.  Another  column  of  3,000,  under  Vaughn  and  Jackson 
advanced  to  Hagerstown,  and  a  third  to  Leitersbru-g.  Averell,  with  a  small 
force,  was  at  Hagerstown,  but  finding  himself  over-matched  withdrew  through 
Greencastle  to  Mount  Hope.  Lieut.  McLean,  with  fifty  men  in  front  of  Mc- 
Causland, gallantly  kept  his  face  to  the  foe,  and  checked  the  advance  at  every 
favorable  point.  On  being  apprised  of  their  coming,  the  public  stores  at  Cham- 
bersburg were  moved  northward.  At  six  A.  M. ,  McCausland  opened  his  bat- 
teries upon  the  town,  but,  finding  it  unprotected,  took  possession.  Ringing  the 
court  house  bell  to  call  the  people  together,  Capt.  Fitzhugh  read  an  order  to 
the  assembly,  signed  by  Gen.  Jubal  Early,  directing  the  command  to  proceed 
to  Chambersburg  and  demand  $100,000  in  gold,  or  $500,000  in  greenbacks, 
and,  if  not  paid,  to  burn  the  town.  While  this  parley  was  in  progress,  hats, 
caps,  boots,  watches,  clothing  and  valuables  were  unceremoniously  appropriated^ 
and  purses  demanded  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet.  As  money  was  not  in  hand 
to  meet  so  unexpected  a  draft,  the  torch  was  lighted.  In  less  than  a  quarter 
of  an  hour  from  the  time  the  first  match  was  applied,  the  whole  business  part 
of  the  town  was  in  flames.  No  notice  was  given  for  removing  the  women  and 
children  and  sick.  Burning  parties  were  sent  into  each  quarter  of  the  town, 
which  made  thorough  work.  With  the  exception  of  a  few  houses  upon  the 
outskirts,  the  whole  was  laid  in  ruins.  Retiring  rapidly,  the  entire  rebel 
command  recrossed  the  Potomac  before  any  adequate  force  could  be  gathered 
to  check  its  progress. 

The  whole  number  of  soldiers  recruited  under  the  various  calls  for  troops 
from  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  was  366,000.  By  authority  of  the  common- 
wealth, in  1866,  the  commencement  was  made  of  the  publication  of  a  history 
of  these  volunteer  organizations,  embracing  a  brief  historical  account  of  the 
part  taken  by  each  regiment  and  independent  body  in  every  battle  in  which  it 
was  engaged,  with  the  name,  rank,  date  of  muster,  period  for  which  he  en- 
listed, casualties,  and  fate  of  every  officer  and  private.  This  work  was  com- 
pleted in  1872,  in  five  imperial  octavo  volumes  of  over  1,400  pages  each. 

In  May,  1861,  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnati  of  Pennsylvania,  an  organiza- 
tion of  the  officers  of  the  Revolutionary  war  and  their  descendants,  donated 
1500  toward  arming  and  equipping  troops.  By  order  of  the  Legislature, 
this  sum  was  devoted  to  procuring  flags  for  the  regiments,  and  each  organiza- 
tion that  went  forth,  was  provided  with  one  emblazoned  with  the  arms  of  the 
commonwealth.  These  flags,  seamed  and  battle  stained,  were  returned  at  the 
close  of  the  war,  and  are  now  preserved  in  a  room  devoted  to  the  purpose  in 
the  State  capitol — precious  emblems  of  the  daring  and  suffering  of  that  great 
army  that  went  forth  to  uphold  and  maintain  the  integrity  of  the  nation. 

When  the  war  was  over,  the  State  undertook  the  charge  of  providing  for 
all  soldiers'  orphans  in  schools  located  in  different  parts  of  its  territory,  fur- 
nishing food,  clothing,  instruction  and  care,  until  they  should  be  grown  to 
manhood  and  womanhood.  The  number  thus  gathered  and  cared  for  has  been 
some  7,500  annually,  for  a  period  of  nineteen  years,  at  an  average  annual  ex- 
pense of  some  $600,000. 


At  the  election  in  1866,  John  W.  Geary,  a  veteran  General  of  the  late  war, 
was  chosen  Governor.  During  his  administration,  settlements  were  made  with 
the  General  Government,  extraordinary  debts  incurred  during  the  war  were 
paid,  and  a  large  reduction  of  the  old  debt  of  $40,000,000  inherited  from  the 
construction  of  the  canals,  was  made.  A  convention  for  a  revision  of  the  con- 
stitution  was  ordered  by  act  of  April  11,  1872.  This  convention  assembled  in 
Harrisburg  November  13,  and  adjourned  to  meet  in  Philadelphia,  where  it 
convened  on  the  7th  of  January,  1873,  and  the  instrument  framed  was  adopted 
on  the  18th  of  December,  1873.  By  its  provisions,  the  number  of  Senators 
was  increased  from  thirty-three  to  fifty,  and  Representatives  from  100  to  201, 
subject  to  further  increase  in  proportion  to  increase  of  population;  biennial, 
in  place  of  annual  sessions;  making  the  term  of  Supreme  Court  Judges  twenty- 
one  in  place  of  fifteen  years;  remanding  a  large  class  of  legislation  to  the  ac- 
tion of  the  courts;  making  the  term  of  Governor  four  years  in  place  of  three, 
and  prohibiting  special  legislation,  were  some  of  the  changes  provided  for. 

In  January,  1873,  John  F.  Hartranft  became  Governor,  and  at  the  election 
in  1878,  Henry  F.  Hoyt  was  chosen  Governor,  both  soldiers  of  the  late  war. 
In  the  summer  of  1877,  by  concert  of  action  of  the  employes  on  the  several 
lines  of  railway  in  the  State,  trains  were  stopped  and  travel  and  traffic  were  in- 
terrupted for  several  days  together.  At  Pittsburgh,  conflicts  occurred  between 
the  railroad  men  and  the  militia,  and  a  vast  amount  of  property  was  destroyed. 
The  opposition  to  the  local  military  was  too  powerful  to  be  controlled,  and 
the  National  Government  was  appealed  to  for  aid.  A  force  of  regulars  was 
promptly  ordered  out,  and  the  rioters  finally  quelled.  Unfortunately,  Gov. 
Hartranft  was  absent  from  the  State  at  the  time  of  the  troubles. 

At  the  election  in  1882,  Robert  E.  Pattison  was  chosen  Governor,  who  is  the 
present  incumbent.  The  Legislature,  which  met  at  the  opening  of  I883,having 
adjourned  after  a  session  of  156  days,  without  passing  a  Congressional  appor- 
tionment bill,  as  was  required,  was  immediately  reconvened  in  extra  session  by 
the  Governor,  and  remained  in  session  until  near  the  close  of  the  year,  from 
June  1  to  December  5,  without  coming  to  an  agreement  upon  a  bill,  and 
finally  adjourned  without  having  passed  one.  This  protracted  sitting  is  in 
marked  contrast  to  the  session  of  that  early  Assembly  in  which  an  entire  con- 
stitution and  laws  of  the  province  were  framed  and  adopted  in  the  space  of 
three  days. 





Thomas  Mifflin 27,725 

Arthur  St.  Clair 2,802 


Thomas  Mifflin 13,590 

F.  A.  Muhlenberg 10,706 

Thomas  Mifflin 30,020 

F.  A.  Muhlenberg 1,011 


Thomas  McKean 38,036 

James  Ross 32,641 


Thomas  McKean 47,879 

James  Ross,  of  Pittsburgh 9,499 

James  Ross 7,538 


Simon  Snyder 67,975 

James  Ross 39,575 

John  Spayd 4,006 

W.  Shields 2 

Charles  Nice 1 

Jack  Ross 2 

W.  Tilghman 1 


Simon  Snyder 52,319 

William  Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt'ring,no  record  for  whom    1,675 


Simon  Snyder 51,099 

Isaac  Wayne 29,566 

G.  Lattimer 910 

J.  R.  Rust 4 


William  Findlay 66,331 

Joseph  Hiester 59,272 

Moses  Palmer 1 

Aaron  Hanson 1 

John  Seffer 1 

Seth  Thomas 1 

Nicholas  Wiseman 3 

Benjamin  R.  Morgan 2 

William  Tilghman 1 

Andrew  Gregg 1 


Joseph  Hiester 67,905 

William  Findlay 66,300 

Scattering  (no  record) 21 


J.  Andrew  Shulze 81,751 

Andrew  Gregg 64,151 

Andrew  Shulze 112 

John  Andrew  Shulze 7,311 

Andrew  Gragg 53 

Andrew  Greg 1 

John  A.  Shulze 754 

Nathaniel  B.  Boileau 3 

Capt.  Glosseader 3 

John  Gassender 1 

Isaac  Wayne 1 

George  Bryan 1 


J.  Andrew  Shulze 72,710 

John  Sergeant 1,175 

Scattering  (no  record) 1,174 


George  Wolf 78,219 

Joseph  Ritner 51,776 

George  E.  Baum 6 

Frank  R.  Williams 3 


George  Wolf. 91,335 

Joseph  Ritner 88,165 


Joseph  Ritner 94,023 

Goorge  Wolf. 65,804 

Henry  A.  Muhlenberg 40,586 


David  R.  Porter 127,827 

Joseph  Ritner 122,321 


David  R.  Porter 136,504 

John  Banks 113,473 

T.J.  Lemoyne 763 

George  F.  Horton 18 

Samuel  L.  Carpenter 4 

Ellis  Lewis 1 


Francis  R.  Shunk 160,322 

Joseph  Markle 156,040 

Julius  J.  Lemoyne 10 

John  Haney 2 

James  Page 1 


Francis  R.  Shunk 146,081 

James  Irvin 128,148 

Emanuel  C.  Reigart 11,247 

F.  J.  Lemoyne 1,861 

George  M.  Keim 1 

Abljah  Morrison 3 


William  F.  Johnston 168,522 

Morris  Longstreth 168,225 

E.  B.  Gazzam 48 

Scattering  (no  record) 24 


William  Bigler 186,489 

William  F.  Johnston 178,034 

Kimber  Cleaver 1,850 


James  Pollock 203,822 

WiUiam  Bigler 166,991 

B.  Rush  Bradford 2,194 


William  F.  Packer 188,846 

David  Wilmot 149,139 

Isaac  Hazleturst 28,168 

James  Pollock 1 

George  R.  Barret 1 

William  Steel 1 

F.  P.  Swartz 1 

Samuel  McFarland 1 

George  F.  Horton 7 


Andrew  G.  Curtin 262,346 

Henry  D.  Foster 230,239 


A.  G.  Curtin 269,506 

George  W.  Woodward 254,171 

John  Hickman 1 

Thomas  M.  Howe 1 


John  W.Geary 

Hiester  Clymer 


290  097 

Giles  Lewis          


John  W.  Geary 


W.  D.  Kelly 



John  F.  Hartranft 

Charles  R.  Buckalen 

S.  B.  Chase 

William  P.  Sehell 


John  F.  Hartranft 

Cyrus  L.  Pershing 

R.  Audley  Brown 

James  S.  Negley 

Phillip  Wendle 

J.  W.  Brown 

G.  F.  Reinhard 












James  Staples 1 

Richard  Vaux 1 

Francis  W  Hughes 1 

Henry  C.Tyler 

W.D.  Brown 

George  V.  Lawrence 

A.  L.Brown 


H.  M.  Hoyt 

Andrew  H.  Dill 







Franklin  H.  Lane 




R.L.  Miller 

J.  H.  Hopkins 

A  G.  Williams 



.,..-          1 


John  Fertig 

Silas  M.Baily 

A  S  Post 



C.  A.  Cornen 


Edward  E   Or  vis  .  .  . 



Robert  E.  Pattison 

James  A.  Beaver 

John  .Stewart 

Thomas  A.  Armstrong.... 

Alfred  C.  Pettit 

E.  E.  Pattison 







J  H  Hopkins 


W.  H.  Hope 

R.  H.  Patterson 



J.  A.  Brown 1 

—  Cameron 1 

James  McNalis 1 

T.  A.  Armstrong 


William  N.  Drake 

John  McCleery 

::::::     I 

G.  A,  Grow 





BY    -:R.    O.    BI^OAATl^. 

History  of  Crawford  County, 


Archeology— The  Mound  Builders— Evidences  of  a  Vanished  Race— Del- 
aware Tradition  of  the  Allegewi— Pre-historic  Remains  in  Crawford 
County— Stone  Mound  Near  Oil  Creek— Old  Meadows  on  French 
Creek,  and  Indian  Tradition  Regarding  Them— Circular  Forts  and 
Mounds  Below  Meadville— Indian  Graves  and  Relics— Description  of 
A  Large  Fort  Near  Pymatuning  Swamp— Numerous  Artificial  Oil  Pits 
Found  by  the  Pioneers  in  the  Vicinity  of  Titusville— Mounds  in  Other 
Portions  of  the  County— Arch.^^ological  Conclusions  Regarding 
These  Monuments  of  Antiquity. 

ONLY  tlie  earth  monuments  enclosing  a  few  relics  of  rude  art,  and  the  last 
lingering  remains  of  mortality — crumbling  skeletons  which  literally  turn 
to  dust  as  the  places  of  their  sepulture  are  invaded — have  endured  to  silently 
attest  in  the  nineteenth  century,  the  existence  of  a  vast  and  vanished  race,  a 
people  whose  origin,  nature,  progress  and  ultimate  destiny  are  shrouded  in  a 
gloom  that  cannot  be  dispelled,  and  only  feebly  pierced  by  a  few  faint  rays  of 
light.  Strive  as  we  may  by  what  little  there  is  of  the  accumulated  light  of 
study,  we  can  know  but  little  of  the  people  who  occupied  this  continent  prior 
to  the  age  at  which  its  written  history  begins. 

The  race  to  which  we  ascribe  the  name  of  Mound  Builders  is  one  of  which 
no  chapter  of  history  can  be  produced.  No  record  has  been  left;  no  misty 
legends  or  traditions  have  been  handed  down  to  give  us  an  idea  of  the  char- 
acter and  condition  of  this  ancient  race.  We  can  only  gain  an  uncertain  and 
unsatisfying  glance  behind  the  great  black  curtain  of  oblivion,  but  upon  the 
vastest  questioDs  concerning  the  people  can  obtain  no  absolute  knowledge. 
We  may  search  the  silent  monuments  that  stud  a  thousand  landscapes  lying 
between  the  Alleghenies  and  the  Mississippi,  and  stretching  from  the  great 
lakes  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  deduce  conclusions  from  the  facts  discovered, 
in  regard  to  the  Mound  Builders,  and  to  some  extent  of  their  degree  of  civil- 
ization; but  as  to  the  great  questions,  whence  did  they  come?  and  whither  did 
they  go?  we  can  only  indulge  in  speculations,  fanciful,  fascinating  and  futile. 

It  is  certainly  a  matter  of  gratulation  to  archseologists,  that  so  many  way- 
marks  and  traces  of  this  lost  race  yet  remain,  but  which,  it  is  to  be  regretted, 
are,  to  a  large  extent,  in  a  state  of  mutilation  and  partial  ruin,  and  rapidly 
tending  to  utter  extinction  through  iconoclastic  wantonness  and  the  operations 
of  the  agriculturist;  also  from  the  devastating  effects  of  the  elements,  and  the 
destructive  tendencies  of  the  great  destroyer — Time. 

When  the  whites  first  came  in  contact  with  the  Lenni  Lenape  tribe  of  In- 
dians, a  tradition  existed  among  them  of  their  having  migrated  from  the  far 
West,  and  on  reaching  the  Mississippi  discovered  that  the  country  east  of  that 
river  was  inhabited  by  a  powerful  race,  whom  they  called  "Tallegawe  "  or 


"Allegewi."  The  tradition  stated  that  the  Allegewi  were  living  in  large  towns 
situated  along  the  principal  streams,  and  protected  by  fortifications.  They  at 
first  refused  to  allow  the  Lenapes  to  cross  the  Mississippi,  but  finally  consent- 
ed, on  condition  that  they  would  proceed  to  the  country  east  of  that  then  oc- 
cupied by  the  Allegewi.  On  seeing  the  great  strength  of  the  Lenapes,  the 
Allegewi  became  alarmed,  and  attacked  and  killed  those  that  had  crossed  over, 
warning  the  others  to  remain  west  of  the  river.  The  Lenapes  sought  the  as- 
sistance of  the  Mengwe,  a  tribe  living  northwest  of  the  Mississippi,  and  the 
two  nations  agreed  to  conquer  and  divide  the  country  between  them.  A  long 
and  bloody  war  ensued,  lasting  many  years,  but  at  length  the  Allegewi  were 
conquered,  the  survivors  driven  far  toward  the  south,  and  finally  lost  sight  of 
among  the  southern  nations.  The  Lenapes  and  Mengwe  gradually  moved 
eastward,  conquering  as  they  went.  The  former  became  known  on  the  discov- 
ery of  America  as  the  Delawares,  and  the  latter  as  the  Mingoes,  or  Iroquois, 
but  each  was  divided  into  several  branches  or  tribes,  which  assumed  different 
names.  Some  writers  have  advanced  the  proposition  that  the  Allegewi  are  the 
vanished  race  called  Mound  Builders,  yet  all  the  evidence  we  have  of  the  ex- 
istence of  either  are  the  fortifications  and  earth  monuments  of  the  latter,  and 
the  Delaware  tradition  concerning  the  conquest  of  the  former. 

Many  evidences  of  the  pre-historic  age  existed  in  various  portions  of  Craw- 
ford County  for  years  after  the  first  settlers  built  their  cabins  along  its  beauti- 
ful streams.  A  tradition  was  extant  among  the  Indians,  who  temporarily 
occupied  the  valley  of  French  Creek  when  these  settlements  were  made,  that 
those  traces  of  a  higher  civilization  were  the  works  of  another  and  totally 
different  race  of  people  to  them.  In  1830  the  New  York  Journal  of  Commerce 
published  the  following  notice  of  a  mound  located  in  the  southeastern  part  of 
the  county: 

"  On  an  extensive  plain  near  Oil  Creek,  there  is  a  vast  mound  of  stones,  contain- 
ing many  hundred  thousand  cart  loads.  This  pyramid  has  stood  through  so  many 
ages  that  it  is  now  covered  with  soil,  and  from  its  top  rises  a  noble  pine  tree, 
the  roots  of  which,  running  down  the  sides,  fasten  themselves  in  the  earth 
below.  The  stones  are,  many  of  them,  so  large  that  two  men  can  scarcely  move 
them,  and  are  unlike  any  in  the  neighborhood  ;  nor  are  there  quarries  near, 
from  which  so  large  a  quantity  could  be  taken.  The  stones  were,  perhaps, 
collected  from  the  surface,  and  the  mound  one  of  the  many  that  have  been 
raised  by  the  ancient  race  which  preceded  the  Indians,  whom  the  Europeans 
have  not  known.  These  monuments  are  numerous  further  north  and  east,  and 
in  the  south  and  west  are  far  greater,  more  artificial  and  imposing." 

In  1846,  Alfred  Huidekoper,  Esq.  of  Meadville,  wrote  an  article  for  the 
Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania,  entitled  "Incidents  in  the  Early  History 
of  Crawford  County,  Pennsylvania,"  which  was  published  in  1850,  among 
other  memoirs  of  the  society,  and  a  copy  presented  to  Mr.  Huidekoper.  Hfe 
has  kindly  and  freely  given  the  use  of  this  valuable  work,  and  from  his 
article  we  take  the  following  extracts  relative  to  the  pre-historic  occupancy  of 
this  county  : 

"  When  first  visited  by  the  whites  in  1787,  in  the  valley  of  French  Creek, 
were  old  meadows  destitute  of  trees,  aQd  covered  with  long,  wild  grass  and 
herbage  resembling  the  prairies  ;  but  by  whom  those  lands  were  originally 
cleared,  will  probably  forever  remain  a  matter  of  uncertainty. 

"  The  Indians  alleged  that  the  work  had  not  been  done  by  them  ;  but  a  tra- 
dition among  them  attributed  it  to  a  larger  and  more  powerful  race  of  inhab- 
itants, who  had  preoccupied  the  country.  Whether  some  far-straying  French- 
man, or  straggling  Spaniard,  whose  wanderings  have  been  unrecorded,   made 


his  lirst  opening  in  the  primeval  forest,  or  whether  some  semi-civilized  tribe 
of  Indians  from  the  central  regions  of  America,  leaving  the  sunny  south, 
pushed  their  canoes  up  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny,  and  settling  in  the  western 
regions  of  Pennsylvania,  were  finally  subdued  and  destroyed  by  the  fiercer 
and  more  warlike  tribes  of  the  North,  may  be  an  interesting  subject  for  spec- 
ulation ;  but  the  records  are  too  ambiguous  and  indistinct  to  solve  the  questions 
which  they  raise." 

Further  on  in  the  same  article  he  says:  "There  were  originally  two 
circular  forts  about  a  mile  below  the  present  village  of  Meadville:  the  one 
in  the  valley,  on  the  farm  of  Mr.  Taylor  Randolph,  and  the  other  a  quarter  of 
a  mile  below,  on  the  bluif  point  of  a  high  knoll,  where  a  small  stream  puts 
into  the  creek,  or  now  into  the  canal.  The  plow  and  annual  tillage  of  the 
soil  have  now  destroyed  them.  There  was  also  a  mound  still  to  be  seen  a 
short  distance  above  the  fort,  which  stood  in  the  plain.  It  is  now  nothing  but 
a  smooth  eminence,  some  two  or  three  feet  high,  and  extending  from  north  to 
south  some  fifteen  or  twenty  feet,  and  about  twice  as  much  from  east  to  west. 
It  is  described,  however,  by  Mr.  Esaac  Randolph,  one  of  the  oldest  settlers,  on 
whose  farm  it  stands,  as  having  been  composed  originally  of  two  mounds  con- 
nected by  a  narrow  neck  between  them.  The  material  of  one  of  the  mounds 
he  represents  as  having  been  of  gravel,  and  the  other  of  alluvial  earth.  The 
ground  around  the  mound  is  alluvial,  without  stone,  and  it  is  evident  the 
material  was  carried  some  distance  to  construct  the  mound,  as  there  was  no 
ditch  or  excavation  near  it  from  which  it  could  have  been  taken.  The  mound 
stands  some  thirty  rods  from  the  stream,  where  gravel  is  abundant. 

"  The  fields  in  the  neighborhood  abound  with  small  pieces  of  Indian  crock- 
ery, resembling  common  earthenware,  except  that  it  is  not  glazed  or  so  well 

"  In  plowing  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  above  mound  some  years  ago  an 
Indian  grave  was  discovered,  covered  with  a  large  stone,  under  which,  among 
the  bones,  were  found  some  interesting  relics.  Among  the  rest,  some  sharp 
instruments  of  agate  or  other  hard  stone,  shaped  in  the  form  of  the  segment 
of  a  circle,  from  three  to  five  inches  long,  and  having  one  edge,  and  the  points 
very  sharp;  they  were  probably  used  either  for  surgical  instruments  or  for  tat- 
tooing, etc.  Indian  arrow-heads  of  flint,  and  axes  of  greenstone,  are  frequently 
found  in  the  flats  along  the  creek,  and  occasionally  the  remains  of  pipes  for 
smoking  carved  out  of  stone.  A  small  idol,  carved  in  the  form  of  an  owl,  out 
of  soapstone,  was  found  a  few  years  since  and  is  now  in  the  cabinet  of  IVIi'. 
Frederick  Huidekoper,  in  Meadville.  A  small  turtle,  either  a  petrifaction  or 
a  relic  of  Indian  sculpture,  has  lately  been  discovered  in  excavating  for  a  fur- 
nace on  the  Big  Sugar  Creek;  it  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  J.  Russell, 
at  Russellville,  in  Venango  County.  The  fossil  is  a  siliceous  stone,  and  was 
unfortunately  and  wantonly  broken  by  the  laborers  who  exhumed  it;  the 
pieces,  however,  have  been  obtained  and  preserved  by  Mr.  Russell.  The  head 
and  front  part  of  the  body  are  entire;  the  head  a  little  distorted,  but  very  dis- 
tinct. From  a  hasty  inspection  I  had  of  it  in  passing  Mr.  Russell's,  a  few 
days  since,  I  should  be  inclined  to  believe  it  a  specimen  of  Indian  sculpture, 
and  an  idol  of  the  Delaware,  or  some  other  tribe  of  Indians,  who  regarded  the 
turtle  as  sacred. 

"  The  most  perfect  of  the  Indian  fortifications  in  the  county  is  a  circular 
fort,  still  in  a  tolerable  state  of  preservation,  which  stands  on  a  point  of  land 
projecting  into  the  Pymatuning  Swamp,  in  North  Shenango  Township.  The 
area  of  the  fort  includes  some  two  acres  of  ground,  now  covered  with  large 
timber.      The  breastwork  is  about  three  feet  high,  and  the  fosse  from  two  to 


three  feet  deep;  there  are  from  four  to  five  places  of  egress  from  the  fort, 
where  there  are  intervals  in  the  ditch.  The  breastwork  has  probably  originally 
been  fortified  with  a  stockade,  and  the  portals  occupied  with  gates.  On  the 
land  side,  or  the  side  opposite  to  the  swamp,  is  another  breastwork,  some 
twenty  or  thirty  yards  from  the  fort,  and  now  less  distinct. 

"  In  the  interior  of  the  fort  there  are  a  great  number  of  places  where  there 
is  a  slight  depression  in  the  surface,  as  though  a  hole  had  been  dug  some  two 
feet  in  diameter.  In  excavating  in  these  places  the  ground  has  a  burnt  look, 
and  among  the  earth  are  small  pieces  of  charcoal,  indicating  that  these  holes 
have  been  receptacles  for  fire,  and  were  probably  made  use  of  in  cooking.  On 
the  top  of  the  breastwork  trees  are  now  growing,  one  of  which,  a  white  oak, 
measured  more  than  ten  feet  in  circumference.  In  the  neighborhood  of  the 
fort  are  Indian  graves  and  remains  that  have  not  yet  been  explored." 

On  the  I8th  of  February,  1848,  a  lecture  was  delivered  before  the  Meadville 
Literary  Union,  by  William  H.  Davis,  on  ''Crawford  County  and  Its  History," 
which  at  the  time  of  its  delivery  attracted  wide  attention.  In  referring  to  the 
prehistoric  race  that  once  lived  and  flourished  throughout  the  land,  he  says: 
"  When  and  by  whom  our  county  was  first  inhabited  it  is  now  impossible  to 
determine,  but  there  is  abundant  evidence  to  be  found  in  the  landmarks  visible 
in  various  parts  of  it  that  it  was  at  one  time  occupied  by  a  race  totally  differ- 
ent from  the  North  American  Indians  who  were  in  possession  when  the  white 
men  first  trod  upon  its  soil.  It  is  generally  supposed,  however,  that  this 
people  were  of  the  same  race  who  ei'ected  the  mounds  and  fortifications  which 
are  so  numerous  throughout  the  whole  Valley  of  the  Mississippi — and  perhaps 
are  identical  with  the  same  nations  who  were  found  by  Hernando  Cortez  in  the 
Valley  of  Mexico,  so  far  advanced  in  civilization.  Whether  they  were  the 
same  or  not,  it  is  certain  that  the  mounds,  fortifications,  ruins,  towns,  etc., 
prove  that  they  were  a  people  far  above  the  red  man  of  the  North  in  all  that 
could  make  a  people  great  or  happy.  As  an  evidence  of  their  knowledge,  and 
to  prove  that  such  a  race  once  inhabited  Crawford  County,  I  will  refer  to  some 
of  the  marks  now  to  be  seen  on  the  ground. 

"  A  short  distance  from  Titusville  in  this  county,  and  on  the  west  side  of 
Oil  Creek,  there  are  perhaps  about  2,000  pits,  scattered  over  a  level  plain 
not  exceeding  500  acres.  Some  of  these  are  very  close  together,  as  close 
as  the  vats  in  a  tan-yard,  which  they  somewhat  resemble,  each  having  been 
about  seven  or  eight  feet  long,  four  wide  and  six  deep.  These  pits  or  vats 
had  all  been  nearly  filled,  some  of  them  entirely  so,  by  vegetable  deposit, 
perhaps  the  accumulation  of  ages.  The  mounds  raised  at  the  side  of  each 
pit  by  the  excavation  of  the  earth  from  it  are  distinctly  visible.  Close  upon 
the  margin  of  many  of  them  and  upon  the  very  mounds  made  of  the  earth, 
trees  whose  size  indicate  an  age  of  two  or  three  hundred  years,  are  found 
growing.  Those  trees  could  not  have  existed  at  the  time  those  vats  were  made, 
for  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  those  engaged  in  making  those  pits  would 
either  have  commenced  their  labor  so  far  from  the  standing  timber  that  they 
would  not  be  obstructed  by  the  roots,  or  would  have  cut  the  timber  down. 
Another  thing  affording  an  index  to  the  time  when  these  vats  may  have  been 
made,  is  the  fact  that  the  inhabitants  now  in  their  vicinity  first  discovered  the 
pits  from  their  regularity  in  size,  and  the  order  of  their  location,  and  indenta- 
tions of  the  surface  and  the  general  appearance  of  the  mounds  ;  they  were 
indaced  to  open  them.  On  doing  so  they  discovered  that  each  pit  was  of  the 
size  before  mentioned,  and  walled  with  logs  regularly  cut  and  halved  at  the 
ends  so  that  they  could  lie  close  together,  thus  preventing  the  caving  in  of  the 
earth.     Now  there  are  no  evidences  on  the  ground  showing  where  the  logs  used 


in  walling  the  pit  were  cut.  And  although  the  whole  flat  is  to  this  day  cov- 
ered with  standing  timber,  not  a  stump  remains  to  show  that  the  axe-man  had 
ever  been  there  prior  to  the  visitation  by  the  whites. 

"Many  of  these  pits  have  recently  been  opened,  and  all  were  found  to  be 
about  the  same  depth,  fashioned  and  walled  nearly  exactly  alike.  Whether  it 
was  curiosity  or  cupidity  which  led  to  this  investigation  I  am  unable  to  deter- 
mine— but  certain  it  is  that  when  excavated  to  the  bottom  of  the  log  wall  it 
was  found  that  water  rose  in  the  pit  to  the  depth  of  four  or  five  inches.  On 
visiting  the  pits  a  day  or  two  after  the  excavation,  it  was  ascertained  that  the 
water  in  them  was  covered  with  oil  to  the  depth  of  one-third  or  one-half  an 
inch.  This  at  once  demonstrated  the  use  to  which  they  had  been  applied. 
They  had  been  used  for  gathering  what  we  now  call  'Seneca  Oil '  (petroleum), 
and  the  number  of  the  pits  shows  clearly  that  whoever  engaged  in  it,  had,  to 
use  a  modern  expression,  'gone  into  a  wholesale  business.'  It  also  proves 
that  those  pits  were  not  made  by  the  Indians.  Their  regularity,  their  num- 
ber, their  having  been  walled  with  cut  logs,  halved  at  the  end,  the  averse- 
ness  of  the  Indian  to  labor,  all  forbid  the  idea  that  he  could  have  been  their 
creator.  Besides  this,  the  Indians,  I  have  been  informed,  have  no  traditions 
respecting  them,  at  least  none  more  satisfactory  than  they  have  of  the  mounds 
and  fortifications  found  throughout  the  West. 

' '  Nor  could  these  evidences  of  former  occupancy  have  been  made  by  the 
French.  The  number  of  the  pits  prove  that  many  persons  must  have  been 
employed  in  collecting  the  Seneca  Oil.  The  French  were  an  enterprising, 
intelligent  and  warlike  people.  Had  they  been  the  operators,  here  we  would 
have  found,  perhaps,  an  old  fort  or  the  ruins  of  a  village.  They  would  not  have 
been  in  such  numbers  and  for  such  a  length  of  time,  in  a  particular  district 
of  the  country,  as  the  work  indicated  they  must  have  remained  without  the 
means  of  protecting  themselves  from  the  red  men  of  the  forest.  In  addition 
to  this,  the  French  did  not  take  possession  of  our  country  till  the  year  1753, 
while  the  trees,  mounds  and  pits  indicate  a  much  greater  age  than  would  be 
allowed  them  by  assigning  that  period  for  their  construction.  It  is  well  known 
that  their  occupation  of  this  country  was  a  military  occupation.  And  by  the 
rules  of  their  military  code,  everything  of  note  in  which  a  portion  of  the  army 
was  engaged,  would  have  been  reported,  and  would  be  now  on  file  in  the  war 
department  of  France.  Is  it  probable  that  so  many  soldiers  of  the  French 
army  as  must  necessarily  have  been  engaged  in  this  business,  for  the  requisite 
length  of  time,  could  fail  to  have  been  reported  to  the  department,  especially 
in  a  matter  which  must  have  greatly  excited  their  curiosity,  as  well  as  their 
desire  for  gain?  They  were  not  made  by  the  French;  they  were  not  made  by 
the  North  American  Indians;  but  in  all  probability  they  were  made  by  that 
people  who  erected  the  other  mounds  and  fortifications,  towns  and  cities  in  the 
valley  of  the  Mississippi.  Their  appearance  bears  the  same  age,  and  justifies 
this  conclusion. 

"  Other  evidences  might  be  referred  to  to  show  that  our  county  was 
inhabited  by  another  race  of  people  than  those  who  were  found  to  be  its  occu- 
pants by  the  French.  I  refer  to  the  mounds,  which  now  exist  in  various  parts 
of  the  county.  Some  are  found  on  Crooked  Creek,  some  on  Shenango,  some 
on  Conneaut  Creek,  some  on  French  Creek,  and  one  near  Meadville,  on  the 
land  of  the  late  Cornelius  Van  Home,  Esq.  Some  of  these  have  been  opened, 
and  found  to  contain  human  skeletons,  and  are  considered  to  be  receptacles  for 
the  dead.  Now  it  is  not  the  custom  of  any  of  the  present  Indian  tribes  to  erect 
mounds  over  their  dead,  at  least  no  instance  of  the  kind  has  been  noticed  since 
they  have  come  in  contact  with  the  white  race." 


Day  after  day  and  year  after  year,  since  the  present  race  pushed  westward 
across  the  Alleghenies,  the  plowshare  has  uncovered  remains  which  had  well- 
nigh  returned  to  the  dust  whence  they  came.  So  common  has  been  the  occur- 
rence of  unearthing  human  remains  in  some  parts  of  the  country,  that  the 
discovery  scarcely  elicits  remark.  The  wasting  banks  of  the  rivers  occasionally 
display  vast  cemeteries,  and  names  have  been  given  to  several  localities  from 
such  exposures.  Extensive  ancient  burial  places  have  been  discovered  at  vari^ 
ous  places,  where  thousands  of  graves  are  found  in  ranges  parallel  with  each 
other.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  when  the  bones  in  the  mounds  have  so 
nearly  crumbled  into  shapeless  fragments,  those  buried  in  the  common  plain, 
and  which  are  necessarily  less  protected  from  moisture,  should  in  many  cases 
have  passed  to  that  condition  nearly  or  quite  indistinguishable  from  the  mold 
that  surrounds  them. 

A  people  so  numerous  as  the  Mound  Builders  must  have  been,  and  living 
in  the  country,  as  there  is  evidence  they  did,  for  a  long  period,  must  have  had 
vast  cemeteries.  The  conclusion  to  which  all  archaeologists  have  come  in  regard 
to  this  matter  is,  that  only  the  illustrious  chieftains  of  the  race  were  honored 
by  the  rearing  of  mounds  over  their  places  of  sepulture,  and  that  the  balance 
were  buried  by  the  simple  process  of  interment.  There  are,  doubtless,  grand 
depositories  of  the  dead  who  thronged  our  valleys  and  raised  the  silent  monu- 
ments of  their  toil  all  about  us.  We  know  not  when  we  tread  the  earth  of  our 
village  streets  or  the  green  turf  of  the  fields,  but  that  we  walk  over  the  remains 
of  thousands  of  forms,  which  in  ages  that  are  past  were  pregnant  with  the  same 
life  and  spirit  of  which  we  are  possessed. 


Indian  History— The  Eries  Occupy  the  Southern  Shore  of  Lake  Erie— 
They  are  Conquered  and  Dispersed  by  the  Iroquois— Catholic  Mission- 
aries Who  Have  Written  of  the  Eries— Definition  of  Their  ]S"ame— 
Mention  of  the  Eries  on  Two  Old  French  Maps  at  Harrisburg— Seneca 
Tradition  Kegarding  the  War  of  Extermination— The  Senegas  Occupy 
the  Conquered  Territory— War  Between  the  Senegas  and  Massassau- 
GAs— Indian  Villages  in  Crawford  County  —  Friendly  Indians  and 
White  Prisoners  Found  Here  by  the  First  Settlers  —  Neighboring 
Indian  Towns— Biography  of  Cornplanter— Ancient  Indian  Trace — 
Delegations  of  Wyandots  and  Senegas  Pass  Through  Meadville  in  1808 
—Council  at  Jennesedaga  Between  Citizens  of  Crawford  County  and 
THE  Senecas— The  Latter  Join  the  Americans  in  the  War  of  1812-15. 

^T^HE  next  race  of  men  who  dwelt  in  our  land  after  the  disappearance  of 
-I  the  semi -civilized  population  that  reared  the  countless  earth  memorials 
of  their  existence,  were  the  North  American  Indians.  The  southern  shore  of 
Lake  Erie,  together  with  the  territory  contiguous  thereto,  was  once  occupied 
by  an  Indian  nation  historically  known  as  Eries,  a  fierce  and  warlike  tribe  of 
whom  no  trace  but  the  name  remains.  It  is  generally  admitted  by  historians 
that  the  Eries  were  conquered  and  dispersed  by  the  Iroquois  about  1650-55. 
In  a  lecture  delivered  at  Erie  by  Henry  L.  Harvey  about  1840,  he  says:  "The 
Iroquois,  after  attacking  the  Algonquins,  commenced  upon  the  Eries  or 
Irrironons,  a  powerful  and  warlike  race  inhabiting  the  south  side  of  the  beau- 
tiful lake  which  still  bears  their  name — almost  the  only  memento  that  such  a 


nation  ever  existed — a  name  signifying  eats,  which  they  had  adopted  as  char- 
acteristic of  their  tribe.  After  a  somewhat  severe  contest,  the  assailants  suc- 
ceeded; 700  of  them  attacked  and  carried  the  main  fortress,  though  it  was 
defended  by  2,000;  and  the  survivors  were  either  incorporated  with  the  victors 
or  fled  to  remote  regions."  Mr.  Harvey  claimed  that  a  Seneca  chief  informed 
him  that  this  stronghold  of  the  Eries  was  situated  in  the  vicinity  of  the  mouth 
of  French  Creek. 

In  the  Jesuit  Relations  a  tribe  called  "Eries,  or  Cats"  are  located  on  the 
southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie;  and  the  illustrious  Catholic  missionaries,  Fathers 
Marquette,  Hennepin,  Perot,  Membre  and  Gravier,  all  speak  of  this  Indian 
nation  as  having  dwelt  along  Lake  Erie  ere  its  defeat  and  dispersion  by  the 
Iroquois.  Father  Hennepin,  in  his  work  published  in  1684,  in  speaking  of 
certain  Catholic  priests,  thus  alludes  to  the  Eries:  "These  good  fathers  were 
great  friends  of  the  Hurons  (Wyandots)  who  told  them  that  the  Iroquois  went 
to  war  beyond  Virginia,  or  New  Sweden,  near  a  lake  which  they  called  'Erige,' 
or  'Ericke,'  which  signifies  'the  cat,'  or  'nation  of  the  cat;'  and  because  these 
savages  brought  captives  from  the  nation  of  the  cat  in  returning  to  their  can- 
tons along  this  lake,  the  Hurons  named  it  in  their  language  'Erige,'  or 
'Ericke,'  'the  lake  of  the  cat,'  and  which  our  Canadians  in  softening  the  word, 
have  called  'Lake  Erie.'  " 

In  the  State  Library  at  Harrisburg,  there  are  two  old  French  maps,  one 
printed  in  1763,  and  the  other  in  1768,  in  which  rude  attempts  are  made  to 
show  the  leading  geographical  features  of  portions  of  the  United  States  and 
Canada.  Both  represent  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Erie  as  having  been  peopled 
by  a  tribe  or  nation  of  Indians  known  as  the  "  Eriez."  A  note  on  the  margin 
of  each  reads  as  follows:  "  The  ancient  Eriez  were  exterminated  by  the  Iro- 
quois upward  of  100  years  ago,  ever  since  which  time  they  have  been  in  pos- 
session of  Lake  Erie."  On  the  earliest  of  the  maps  the  following  is  printed 
at  a  point  along  the  lake  between  Cleveland  and  Sandusky:  "The  seat  of 
war,  the  mart  of  trade,  and  chief  hunting-grounds  of  the  Six  Nations  on  the 
lakes  and  the  Ohio."  The  foregoing  information  in  regard  to  the  Eries  is 
corroborated  in  a  French  book  printed  in  1703,  describing  the  voyage  of  Le 
BaroQ  de  Lahonton,  an  adventurous  Frenchman,  who  spent  ten  years  among 
the  Indians,  commencing  in  1683.  "The  shores  of  Lake  Erie,"  he  says,  "are 
frequented  by  the  Iroquois,  the  Illinois,  the  Oumanies,  etc.,  who  are  so  savage 
that  it  is  a  risk  to  stop  with  them.  The  Errieronons  and  the  Andestiguerons, 
who  formerly  inhabited  the  borders  of  the  lake,  were  exterminated  by  the  Iro- 
quois." Incidentally  it  may  be  added,  he  refers  to  the  Massassaugas  as  a  tribe 
living  somewhere  near  the  western  end  of  the  lake.  The  latter  are  also 
alluded  to  in  a  memoir  on  the  "Western  Indians,  prepared  by  M.  DuChisneau, 
at  Quebec,  in  1681. 

It  is  claimed  by  most  historians,  that  the  word  "Erie"  was  the  Indian 
expression  for  wild-cat,  but  a  recent  writer  contends  that  this  is  a  mistake, 
that  it  does  not  mean  wild-cat,  but  raccoon.  The  latter  were  abundant  upon 
the  lake  shore,  while  the  former  were  rarely  seen.  A  French  memoir,  written 
in  1718,  relates  that  one  island  in  the  upper  part  of  the  lake  was  infested  to 
so  great  an  extent  by  wild-cats,  that  "the  Indians  killed  as  many  as  9(X)  of 
them  in  a  very  short  time."  It  is  possible  that  the  French  explorers,  from 
whom  the  supposed  meaning  of  the  word  has  descended  to  us,  mistook  the  rac- 
coons for  wild- cats. 

Records  are  in  existence  which  show  that  the  Eries  were  visited  by  French 
Catholic  missionaries  as  early  as  1626.  They  were  found  to  be  living  on  terms 
of  amity  with  the  surrounding  warlike  tribes,  and  were  governed  by  a  queen, 


called  in  their  own  language,  Yagowania,  and  in  the  Seneca  tongue,  Gegosasa, 
who  was  regarded  as  "  the  mother  of  nations,"  and  whose  office  was  that  of 
"  keeper  of  the  symbolic  house  of  peace."  The  chief  warrior  of  the  tribe  was 
Ragnotha,  who  had  his  principal  location  at  Te-osah-wa  or  ' '  Place  of  Bass- 
wood,"  now  Buffalo.  In  1634  a  bloody  dissension  broke  out  between  the  sev- 
eral branches  of  the  Iroquois  family.  During  its  progress  two  Seneca  war- 
riors appeared  at  Gegosasa' s  lodge  and  were  hospitably  received.  They  were 
preparing  to  smoke  the  pipe  of  peace  when  a  deputation  of  Massassaugas  was 
announced,  who  demanded  vengeance  for  the  murder  of  their  chief's  son  at 
the  hands  of  the  Seneca  tribe.  This  the  queen,  in  her  mediatorial  capacity, 
was  prompt  to  grant.  She  even  set  out  with  a  large  body  of  warriors  to  en- 
force her  decree,  and  dispatched  messengers  to  Ragnotha  to  command  his  assist- 
ance. The  visiting  Senecas  flew  to  their  friends  to  notify  them  of  the  queen's 
course,  and  a  body  of  fighting  men  was  hastily  gathered  in  ambush  on  the 
road  which  her  army  was  obliged  to  travel.  The  Eries  had  no  anticipation  of 
trouble  at  that  point,  and  the  first  they  knew  of  the  presence  of  the  Senecas 
was  when  they  heard  their  dreadful  war-whoop.  The  contest  that  ensued  was 
one  of  desperation.  At  first  the  queen's  forces  gained  the  advantage,  but  the 
Senecas  rallied  and  compelled  the  Eries  to  flee,  leaving  600  dead  upon  the  field 
of  battle.  No  accounts  have  been  preserved  of  any  further  hostilities  at  that 
time,  and  it  is  probable  that  a  peace  was  effected,  and  amicable  relations  for 
the  time  restored. 

The  war  of  extermination  between  the  Eries  and  the  Iroquois  occurred 
about  1650-55,  and  was  one  of  the  most  cruel  in  aboriginal  history.  From 
the  opening  it  was  understood  by  both  sides  to  mean  the  utter  ruin  of  one 
tribe  or  the  other.  The  Eries  organized  a  powerful  body  of  warriors  and  sought 
to  surprise  their  enemies  in  their  own  country.  Their  plans  were  thwarted  by 
a  faithless  woman  who  secretly  gave  the  Iroquois  warning.  The  latter  raised 
a  force  and  marched  out  to  meet  the  invaders.  The  engagement  resulted  in  a 
complete  victory  for  the  Iroquois.  Seven  times  the  Eries  crossed  the  stream 
dividing  the  hostile  lines  and  they  were  as  often  driven  back  with  terrible  loss. 
On  another  occasion  several  hundred  Iroquois  attacked  nearly  three  times  their 
number  of  Eries,  encamped  near  the  mouth  of  French  Creek,  dispersed  them, 
took  many  prisoners,  and  compelled  the  balance  to  fly  to  remote  regions.  In 
a  battle  near  the  site  of  the  Cattaraugus  Indian  mission  house,  on  the  Alle- 
gheny River,  the  loss  of  the  Eries  was  enormous.  Finally  a  pestilence  broke 
out  among  the  Eries,  which  "swept  away  greater  numbers  even  than  the  club 
and  arrow."  The  Iroquois  took  advantage  of  their  opportunity  to  end  all  fear 
of  future  trouble  from  the  ill-fated  Eries.  Those  who  had  been  taken  cap- 
tive were,  with  rare  exceptions,  remorselessly  butchered,  and  their  wives  and 
children  were  distributed  among  the  Iroquois  villages,  never  again  to  be  restored 
to  their  husbands  and  brothers.  The  few  survivors  "  fled  to  distant  regions  in 
the  West  and  South,  and  were  followed  by  the  undying  hatred  of  the  Iroquois. 
*  *  *  Their  council  fire  was  put  out,  and  their  name  and  language  as  a 
tribe  lost." 

Traces  of  the  tribe  were  occasionally  found  by  the  French  Catholic  mission- 
aries during  their  labors  in  the  western  wilderness.  A  number  were  living  as 
slaves  among  the  Onondagas,  and  appealed  to  the  missionaries  to  aid  them  in 
securing  their  freedom,  but  abandoned  all  hope  on  finding  that  these  zealous 
priests  were  powerless  to  help  them.  An  early  French  writer,  describing  the 
Christian  village  of  La  Prairie,  says  a  portion  of  the  settlement  was  made  up 
of  fugitive  Eries.  Students  of  Indian  history  are  generally  of  the  belief  that 
the  tribe  was  at  one  time  considerably  aliead  of  the  other  aborigines  of  North 


America  in  progress  and  intelligence;  but  whether  the  survivors  of  this  once 
powerful  nation  were  wholly  absorbed  by  other  tribes,  or  their  name  grad- 
ually changed  and  thus  lost  sight  of,  will,  doubtless,  forever  remain  a  subject 
of  speculation,  as  no  certain  trace  is  left  to  guide  us  in  arriving  at  a  reliable 

After  the  expulsion  of  the  Eries  from  this  region  of  territory,  the. victors 
claimed  the  soil  by  right  of  conquest.  In  1712  the  Tuscaroras,  being  driven 
from  the  Carolinas,  joined  their  fortunes  with  the  conquerors  of  the  Eries, 
since  which  time  the  Iroquois  have  been  known  as  the  Six  Nations.  This 
powerful  confederacy  was  composed  of  the  Cayugas,  Mohawks,  Oneidas, 
Onondagas,  Senecas  and  Tuscaroras.  The  Senecas  guarded  the  western  door 
of  the  Iroquois  "long  council  house,"  as  they  styled  their  dominions,  and 
were  by  far  the  most  numerous  and  warlike  of  the  Six  Nations.  According 
to  Rev.  Timothy  Alden,  the  Senecas  called  themselves  Nun-du-waw-gauh  or 
"the  men  of  the  hills,"  and  had  many  traditions  of  the  prowess  and  exploits 
of  their  ancestors.  They  dwelt  originally  among  the  hills  south  of  the  small 
lakes  in  northern  New  York,  and  along  the  Genesee  River,  and  always  claimed 
that  the  Iroquois  nation  were  the  first  to  obtain  the  knowledge  and  use  of 

The  Massassaugas,  supposed  by  some  writers  to  have  been  a  remnant  or 
tribal  branch  of  the  Eries,  had  villages  at  different  points  along  the  south- 
western shore  of  Lake  Erie.  The  Seneca  tradition  states  that  between  them 
and  the  Massassaugas  there  arose  frequent  misunderstandings,  which  finally  re- 
sulted in  a  band  of  the  latter  invading  the  Seneca  country.  A  battle  took 
place  on  the  Genesee  River,  but  the  rude  bows  and  arows  of  the  invaders  were 
of  little  avail  against  an  enemy  armed  with  guns,  and  the  Massassaugas  were 
annihilated.  The  tradition  says  that  the  Senecas  cut  off  the  arms  and  legs  of 
their  dead  foes,  and  suspended  them  on  poles,  reaching  entirely  across  the 
river,  and  supported  by  crotchets  driven  into  the  ground.  This  triumph,  how- 
ever, did  not  last  long,  as  the  tradition  adds  that  the  Massassaugas  subse- 
quently procured  fire-arms  of  the  French,  and  after  learning  the  use  of  them 
gained  a  victory  over  the  Senecas;  whereupon  a  treaty  was  formed,  the  toma- 
hawk buried,  intermarriages  took  place  and  the  two  tribes  became  as  one 

In  the  "  Historical  Collections  of  Pennsylvania  "  we  find  the  following  trib- 
ute to  the  prowess  of  the  Iroquois  nation:  "  The  peculiar  location  of  the  Iro- 
quois gave  them  an  immense  advantage.  On  the  great  channels  of  water 
communication  to  which  their  territories  were  contiguous,  they  were  enabled  in 
all  directions  to  carry  war  and  devastation  to  the  neighboring  or  to  the  more 
distant  nations.  Nature  had  endowed  them  with  height,  strength  and  symme- 
try of  person  which  distinguished  them  at  a  glance  among  the  individuals  of 
other  tribes.  They  were  brave  as  they  were  strong,  but  ferocious  and  cruel 
when  excited  in  savage  warfare;  crafty,  treacherous  and  overreaching  when 
these  qualities  best  suited  their  purposes.  The  proceedings  of  their  Grand 
Council  were  marked  with  great  decorum  and  solemnity.  In  eloquence,  in 
dignity  and  profound  policy  their  speakex's  might  well  bear  comparison  with 
the  statesmen  of  civilized  assemblies.  By  an  early  alliance  with  the  Dutch 
on  the  Hudson  they  secured  the  use  of  fire-arms,  and  were  thus  enabled  not 
only  to  repel  the  encroachments  of  the  French  but  also  to  exterminate  or 
reduce  to  a  state  of  vassalage  many  Indian  nations.  From  these  they  exacted 
an  annual  tribute  or  acknowledgment  of  fealty,  permitting  them,  however,  on 
that  condition,  to  occupy  their  former  hunting-grounds.  The  humiliation  of 
tributary  nations  was,  however,  tempered  with  a  paternal  regard  for  their 


interests  in  all  negotiations  with  the  whites,  and  care  was  taken  that  no  tres- 
pass should  be  committed  on  their  rights,  and  that  they  should  be  justly  dealt 

On  the  west  bank  of  French  Creek,  a  short  distance  above  the  mouth  of 
Conneaut  Outlet,  was  located  the  Indian  town  of  Mahusquechikoken.  In  the 
summer  of  1779  Col.  Daniel  Brodhead  commr^nded  an  expedition  against  the 
Indians  of  northwestern  Pennsylvania,  and  in  his  report  to  Gen.  Washington, 
dated  September  16,  1779,  says:  "On  my  return  I  prefei'red  the  Venango 
road,  the  old  towns  of  Conawango  and  Buchloons,  and  Mahusquechikoken, 
about  twenty  miles  above  Venango  on  French  Creek,  consisting  of  thirty-iive 
large  houses,  were  likewise  burnt."  "When  John  Huling  located  on  the  farm 
now  owned  by  William  H.  Harrington,  about  1794,  the  remains  of  this  Indian 
village  were  plainly  visible,  and  might  still  be  traced  for  many  years  afterward. 

It  is  also  believed  that  there  was  once  a  small  Indian  village  on  French 
Creek,  near  the  mouth  of  Cussewago,  as  a  town  called  "  Cassewago"  is  located 
on  the  Historical  Map  of  Pennsylvania,  between  twenty  and  thirty  miles  above 
the  mouth  of  French  Creek,  on  that  stream.  John  Frazier,  the  Indian  trader, 
calls  the  village  '•  Caseoago,"  and  the  State  Archives  uses  the  same  orthography, 
but  all  locate  the  town  about  the  vicinity  of  Meadville,  not  far  from  the 
mouth  of  Cussewago  Creek.  Frazier  in  a  letter  to  his  partner,  Young,  bear- 
ing date  August  27,  1753,  says:  "The  French  had  a  fort  some  distance  north- 
west of  Venango  at  a  place  called  Caseoago,  up  French  Creek. " 

Within  the  period  of  American  possession,  the  territory  embraced  in  Craw- 
ford County  appears  to  have  been  a  sort  of  neutral  ground  between  the  eastern 
and  western  tribes  of  Indians.  Though  the  Senecas  were  recognized  as  its 
nominal  owners,  it  was  utilized  as  a  general  hunting-ground,  and  occupied 
principally  by  nomadic  bands  who  lived  by  hunting,  and  some  Indian  families 
who  had  erected  a  few  rude  cabins  on  French  Creek.  When  the  j&rst  perma- 
nent settlement  was  made  at  Meadville,  in  1788,  Stripe  Neck,  an  aged  Mohawk 
chief,  friendly  to  the  whites,  was  found  dwelling  on  the  west  bank  of  French 
Creek,  near  where  the  Mercer  Street  bridge  now  spans  that  stream.  W^ith  his 
numerous  family  he  occupied  three  small  cabins,  and  a  few  years  afterward 
when  the  old  chief  died,  he  was  buried  by  his  people,  assisted  by  the  white 
settlers,  on  the  bank  oE  the  creek.  This  mark  of  attention  did  much  to  secure 
the  good  will  of  many  Indians  residing  in  this  vicinity,  who  subsequently 
proved  firm  friends  of  the  harassed  pioneers.  Here  the  bones  of  Stripe  Neck 
remained  until  some  excavations  were  being  made  near  the  bank  of  the  stream, 
when  the  grave  was  dug  away  and  his  resting-place  obliterated. 

The  pioneers  found  living  with  the  Indians  in  this  vicinity  several  white 
prisoners,  who  had  been  captured  during  the  previous  Indian  wars.  Among 
them  were  Lashly  Malone,  captured  at  Bald  Eagle,  below  Milesburg;  Peter 
Krause  (a  German  by  birth),  on  Duncan's  Creek,  near  the  head  of  the  Monon- 
gahela  River  in  Virginia;  Elijah  Mathews,  on  Grave  Creek,  Ohio;  Nicholas 
Rosencrantz,  the  son  of  a  minister,  and  Nicholas  Tanewood,  taken  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Mohawk  River.  Krause,  Mathews  and  Rosencrantz  were  mar- 
ried to  squaws,  and  when  the  first  settlers  came  to  the  site  of  Meadville,  the 
two  former  had  children  eight  or  ten  years  of  age.  These  men  having  lived 
from  boyhood  with  their  captors,  were  thoroughly  weaned  from  the  habits  of 
civilization,  and  when  the  Indians  left  the  valley,  they  went  with  them. 
Rev.  Timothy  Alden,  while  on  a  visit  to  Cornplanter,  in  the  fall  of  1816,  staid 
over  night  at  the  cabin  of  Peter  Krause,  on  the  banks  of  the  Allegheny,  where 
he  was  then  living  with  his  Indian  wife  and  family. 

The  nearest  villages  of  the  western  Indians  who  were  hostile  to  the  whites, 

En^hi-EGWilliamsiBra  Rv 






were  on  the  Cuyahoga  and  Sandusky  Rivers.  A  small  band  of  friendly 
Indians  dwelt  at  the  mouth  of  the  Conneaut  Creek,  in  the  northwestern  corner 
of  Ohio,  and  between  twenty  and  thirty  families  of  Senecas,  near  the  western 
end  of  Presque  Isle  Bay,  now  known  as  "  The  Head,"  some  four  miles  west  of 
Erie.  These  Indians  were  living  at  the  above  points  as  late  as  the  beginning 
of  the  present  century,  and  cultivated  extensive  corn-fields  in  the  vicinity  of 
their  villages.  The  pioneer  records  of  Erie  County,  Penn.,  and  Ashtabula 
County,  Ohio,  speak  in  terms  of  praise  of  these  Indians,  who,  upon  the 
occupancy  of  their  lands  by  the  whites,  removed  elsewhere,  though  often  return- 
ing to  camp  in  the  beautiful  forest  bordering  the  bay  and  lake.  Among  the 
Indians  living  near  the  mouth  of  Conneaut  Creek,  was  a  Chief  named  Cana- 
daughta,  with  his  three  sons:  Big  Sun,  Standing  Stone  and  Flying  Cloud,  also 
an  Indian  called  Wire  Ears,  who  extended  their  friendly  protection  to  the 
pioneers  of  French  Creek  Valley. 

In  a  rich  bottom  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Allegheny  River,  in  what  is  now 
the  northeast  corner  of  Warren  County,  Penn.,  was  located  Jen-ne-sa-da- 
ga  or  Tin-nes-hau-ta-go,  which  means  "burnt  houses,"'*  the  village  of  the 
celebrated  Seneca  Chief,  Cornplanter,  and  the  nearest  Indian  settlement  on 
the  east.  This  noted  Chief  was  the  stanch  friend  of  the  white  settlers,  as 
was  also  his  half-brother,  Halftown,  of  whose  fidelity  the  pioneers  always 
spoke  in  the  most  emphatic  language.  According  to  Mr.  Alden,  Cornplant- 
er's  Indian  names  were  as  follows:  Ki-end-twoh-ke,  or  "  The  Planter,"  and 
No-nuh,  or  "  The  Contemplative;"  but  they  usually  addressed  him  as  Shin-ne- 
wau-nah,  or  "The  Gentleman."  From  Day's  "Historical  Collections  of 
Pennsylvania,"  we  select  the  following  sketch  of  the  distinguished  Chief, 
whose  life  was  so  closely  associated  with  the  Indian  history  of  the  northwest- 
ern portion  of  the  State: 

"  Few  names  are  more  distinguished  in  the  frontier  history  of  Pennsylva- 
nia than  that  of  Cornplanter.  He  was  born  at  Conewaugus,  on  the  Genesee 
River,  being  a  half-breed,  the  son  of  a  white  man  named  John  O'Bail,  a  trader 
from  the  Mohawk  Valley.  In  a  letter  written  in  later  years  to  the  Governor  of 
Pennsylvania  he  thus  speaks  of  his  early  youth:  'When  I  was  a  child  I 
played  with  the  butterfly,  the  grasshopper  and  frogs;  and  as  I  grew  up  I  began 
to  pay  some  attention  and  play  with  the  Indian  boys  in  the  neighborhood,  and 
they  took  notice  of  my  skin  being  of  a  different  color  from  theirs,  and  spoke 
about  it;  I  inquired  from  my  mother  the  cause,  and  she  told  me  my  father  was 
a  resident  of  Albany.  I  still  ate  my  victuals  out  of  a  bark  dish.  I  grew  up 
to  be  a  young  man  and  married  me  a  wife,  and  I  had  no  kettle  or  gun.  I  then 
knew  where  my  father  lived,  and  went  to  see  him,  and  found  he  was  a  white 
man  and  spoke  the  English  language.  He  gave  me  victuals  while  I  was  at  his 
house,  but  when  I  started  to  return  home  he  gave  me  no  provision  t()  eat  on  the 
way.     He  gave  me  neither  kettle  nor  gun.'  ***** 

"Little  further  is  known  of  his  early  life  beyond  the  fact  that  he  was 
allied  with  the  French  in  the  engagement  against  Gen.  Braddock  in  July, 
1755.  He  was  probably  at  that  time  at  least  twenty  years  old.  During  the 
Revolution  he  was  a  war  chief  of  high  rank,  in  the  full  vigor  of  manhood, 
active,  sagacious,  eloquent,  brave,  and  he  most  probably  participated  in  the 
principal  Indian  engagements  against  the  United  States  during  the  war.  He 
is  supposed  to  have  been  present  at  the  cruelties  of  Wyoming  and  Cherry  Val- 
ley, in  which  the  Senecas  took  a  prominent  part.  He  was  on  the  war-path 
with  Brandt  during  Gen.  Sullivan's  campaign  in  1779;  and  in  the  following 
year,  under  Brandt  and  Sir  John  Johnson,   he  led  the  Senecas  in  sweeping 

*  One  of  the  towns  destroyed  by  Col.  Brodhead,  1779. 


through  the  Schoharie  Kill  and  the  IMohawk.  On  this  occasion  he  took  his 
father  a  prisoner,  but  with  such  caution  as  to  avoid  an  immediate  recognition. 
After  marching  the  old  man  some  ten  or  twelve  miles  he  stepped  before  him, 
faced  about  and  addressed  him  in  the  following  terms: 

"  •  My  name  is  John  O'Bail,  commonly  called  Cornplanter.  I  am  your  son  ! 
You  are  my  father  I  You  are  now  my  prisoner,  and  subject  to  the  customs  of 
Indian  warfare,  but  you  shall  not  be  harmed.  You  need  not  fear  !  I  am  a 
warrior  !  Many  are  the  scalps  which  I  have  taken  !  Many  prisoners  I  have 
tortured  to  death  !  I  am  your  son.  I  was  anxious  to  see  you,  and  greet  you 
in  friendship^  I  went  to  your  cabin,  and  took  you  by  force  ;  but  your  life 
shall  be  spared.  Indians  love  their  friends  and  their  kindred,  and  treat  them 
with  kindness.  If  now  you  choose  to  follow  the  fortunes  of  your  yellow  son, 
and  to  live  with  our  people,  I  will  cherish  your  old  age  with  plenty  of  venison 
and  you  shall  live  easy.  But  if  it  is  your  choice  to  return  to  yoar  fields  and 
live  with  your  white  children,  I  will  send  a  partj-^  of  my  trusty  young  men  to 
conduct  you  back  in  safety.  I  respect  you,  my  father.  You  have  been 
friendly  to  Indians,  and  they  are  your  friends.'  The  elder  O'Bail  preferred 
his  white  children  and  green  fields  to  his  yellow  offspring  and  the  wild  woods, 
and  chose  to  return. 

"  Notwithstanding  his  bitter  hostility  while  the  war  continued,  he  became 
the  fast  friend  of  the  United  States  when  once  the  hatchet  was  buried.  His 
sagacious  intellect  comprehended  at  a  glance  the  growing  power  of  this  coun- 
try and  the  abandonment  with  which  England  had  requited  the  fidelity  of  the 
Senecas.  He  therefore  threw  all  his  influence  at  the  treaties  of  Fort  Stanwix 
and  Fort  Harmer,  in  favor  of  peace;  and  notwithstanding  the  vast  concessions 
which  he  saw  his  people  were  necessitated  to  make,  still,  by  his  energy  and 
prudence  in  the  negotiation,  he  retained  for  them  an  ample  and  beautiful  res- 
ervation. For  the  course  which  he  took  on  those  occasions,  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania granted  him  the  fine  reservation  upon  which  he  resided,  on  the  Alle- 
gheny. The  Senecas,  however,  were  never  well  satisfied  with  his  course  in 
relation  to  these  treaties  ;  and  Red  Jacket,  more  artful  and  eloquent  than  his 
elder  rival,  but  less  frank  and  honest,  seized  upon  this  circumstance  to  pro- 
mote his  own  popularity  at  the  expense  of  Cornplanter. 

"Having  buried  the  hatchet.  Cornplanter  sought  to  make  his  talents  useful 
to  his  people  by  conciliating  the  good  will  of  the  whites,  and  securing  from 
further  encroachment  the  little  remnant  of  his  national  domain.  On  more 
than  one  occasion,  when  some  reckless  and  bloodthirsty  whites  on  the  frontier 
had  massacred  unoffending  Indians  in  cold  blood,  did  Cornplanter  interfere  to 
restrain  the  vengeance  of  his  people.  During  all  the  Indian  wars  from  1790 
to  1794,  which  terminated  with  Wayne's  treaty,  Cornplanter  pledged  himself 
that  the  Senecas  should  remain  friendly  to  the  United  States.  He  often  gave 
notice  to  the  garrison  at  Fort  Franklin  of  intended  attacks  from  hostile  par- 
ties, and  even  hazarded  his  life  on  a  mediatorial  mission  to  the  Western  tribes. 
He  ever  entertained  a  high  respect  and  personal  friendship  for  Washington, 
'the  great  councillor  of  the  Thirteen  Fires,'  and  often  visited  him,  during 
his  presidency,  on  the  business  of  his  tribe.  His  speeches  on  these  occasions 
exhibit  both  his  talent  in  composition  and  his  adroitness  in  diplomacy.  Wash- 
ington fully  reciprocated  his  respect  and  friendship.  They  had  fought  against 
each  other  on  the  disastrous  day  of  Braddock's  field.  Both  were  then  young 
men.  More  than  forty  years  afterwards,  when  Washington  was  about  to  retire 
from  the  Presidency,  Cornplanter  made  a  special  visit  to  Philadelphia  to  take 
an  affectionate  leave  of  the  great  benefactor  of  the  white  man  and  the  red. 

"  After  peace  was  permanently  established  between  the  Indians  and  the 


United  Slates,  Cornplanter  retired  from  public  life  and  devoted  his  laborH  to 
his  own  people.  He  deplored  the  evils  of  intemperance,  and  exerted  himself 
to  suppress  it.  The  benevolent  efforts  of  missionaries  among  his  tribe 
always  received  his  encouragement,  and  at  one  time  his  own  heart  seemed  to 
be  softened  by  the  words  of  truth;  yet  he  preserved,  in  his  later  years,  many  of 
the  peculiar  notions  of  the  Indian  faith." 

Cornplanter  appears  to  have  taken  no  active  part  in  the  war  of  181 2]  5, 
but  the  Senecas  took  up  the  hatchet  in  alliance  with  the  United  States;  and 
his  son,  Major  Henry  O'Bail,  and  his  half-brother,  Halftown,  were  conspicu- 
ous in  that  struggle  against  English  tyranny. 

In  September,  1816,  Rev.  Timothy  Alden,  founder  of  Alleghany  College, 
went  on  a  brief  missionary  tour  among  the  Indians,  and  spent  some  days  at 
the  village  of  this  venerable  chief.  On  his  return  to  Meadville  he  wrote  a 
letter  to  Rev.  Joseph  McKean,  of  Harvard  University,  giving  an  account  of 
his  labors,  from  which  we  quote  a  few  passages.  He  says:  "Cornplanter,  as 
soon  as  apprised  of  our  ai'rival,  came  over  to  see  us,  and  immediately  took 
chai'g^  of  our  horses.  Though  the  chief  Sachem  of  his  tribe,  and  having  many 
around  him  to  obey  his  commands,  yet,  in  the  ancient  patriarchial  style,  he 
chose  to  serve  himself,  and  actually  went  into  the  field,  cut  the  oats,  and  faith- 
fully fed  our  beasts  from  time  to  time,  while  we  continued  in  the  place,  in 
ipsa  persona  propria.       ******* 

"Cornplanter  has  been  the  greatest  warrior  the  Senecas  have  ever  had;  yet 
he  has  always  been  remarkable  for  his  humane  treatment  of  the  women  and 
children  of  his  enemies,  who  at  any  time  have  fallen  into  his  hands.  He  is  a 
man  of  strong  mind  and  masterly  eloquence.  At  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix, 
he  greatly  distinguished  himself  by  his  talents  and  address,  insomuch  that  by 
general  suffrage,  he  has  ever  since  held  the  first  place  of  power  among  the 
chiefs  of  his  nation. 

"  He  appears  to  be  about  sixty- eight  years  of  age,*  and  five  feet  ten  inches 
in  height.  His  countenance  is  strongly  marked  with  the  lines  of  intelligence 
and  reflection.  Contrary  to  the  aboriginal  custom,  his  chin  is  covered  with  a 
beard  three  or  four  inches  iti  length,  and  upon  his  head  are  many  of  the  blos- 
soms of  age.  His  house  is  of  princely  dimensions  compared  with  the  gener- 
ality of  Indian  huts, , and  has  a  piazza  in  front.  He  is  owner  of  1,300  acres 
of  excellent  land,  600  of  whicl^  encircle  the  ground- plot  of  his  little  town. 
From  the  United  States  he  receives,  annually,  according  to  stipulation,  $250, 
besides  his  proportion  of  $9,000  equally  divided,  one-half  in  goods  and  one- 
half  in  money,  among  those  of  every  age  and  condition  in  the  tribe." 

In  a  published  account  of  a  trip  of  the  steamboat  Alleghany  from  Pittsburgh 
to  Clean,  in  May,  1830,  we  find  the  following  reference  to  this  noted  chieftain. 
"  On  the  evening  of  the  20th  of  May,  we  departed  from  Warren  for  Oleah,  in 
the  State  of  New  York,  seventy-five  miles  above  (by  water),  with  freight  and 
passengers  from  Pittsburgh.  At  9  o'clock  next  daywe  arrived  opposite  the  In- 
dian village  of  Cornplanter,  seventeen  miles  up.  Here  a  deputation  of  gentle- 
men waited  on  the  well-known  Indian  king  or  chief,  and  invited  him  on  board 
this  new  and,  to  him,  wonderful  visitor,  a  steamboat.  We  found  him  in  all 
his  native  simplicity  of  dress  and  manner  of  living,  lying  on  his  couch,  made 
of  rough  pine  boards,  and  covered  with  deer  skins  and  blankets.  His  habita- 
tion, a  two-story  log-house,  is  in  a  state  of  decay,  without  furniture,  except  a 
few  benches  and  wooden  spoons  and  bowls  to  eat  out  of,  which  convinced  us 
of  his  determination  to  retain  old  habits  and  customs.     This  venerable  chief 

*Mr.  Alden  was  mistaken  as  to  Cornplanter's  age.  He  was  born  about  1732,  and  in  1816  was  eighty-four 
years  old. 


was  a  lad  in  the  first  French  war,  and  is  now  nearly  one  hundred  years  of  age. 
He  is  a  smart,  active  man,  seemingly  possessed  of  all  his  strength  of  mind, 
and  in  perfect  health,  and  retains  among  his  nation  all  the  uncontrolled  in- 
fluence of  by-gone  days.  He  with  his  son  Charles,  who  is  sixty  years  of  age, 
and  his  son-in-law,  came  on  board  and  remained  until  the  boat  passed  six 
miles  up,  and  then  after  expressing  great  pleasure  with  their  novel  ride,  re- 
turned home  in  their  own  canoe.  His  domain  is  a  delightful  bottom  of  rich 
laud  two  miles  square,  nearly  adjoining  the  line  between  Pennsylvania  and 
New  York.  On  this  his  own  family,  about  fifty  in  number,  reside  in  eight  or 
ten  houses." 

This  celebrated  chief  died  at  his  residence  on  the  7th  of  March,  1836,  at 
the  age  of  about  one  hundred  and  four  years.  After  nearly  half  a  century 
passed  in  strife  and  danger,  bravely  battling  for  the  heritage  of  his  people, 
the  declining  years  of  his  eventful  life  were  peacefully  spent  on  the  banks 
of  his  own  beloved  Allegheny,  where  at  last  he  was  laid  to  rest.  Notwithstand- 
ing his  profession  of  Christianity,  Cornplanter  was  very  superstitious,  and 
whether  at  the  time  of  his  death  he  expected  to  go  to  the  happy  hunting- 
ground  of  the  Indian  or  to  the  heaven  of  the  Christian,  is  not  positively 
known.  "  Not  long  before  his  death,"  says  Mr.  Foote  of  Chautauqua  County, 
N.  Y.,  "he  said  the  Good  Spirit  had  told  him  not  to  have  anything  to  do  with 
the  white  people,  or  even  to  preserve  any  mementoes  or  relics  that  had  been 
given  to  him  from  time  to  time,  by  the  pale-faces,  whereupon,  among  other 
things,  he  burned  up  his  belt  and  broke  his  elegant  sword."  Thus  closed  the 
life  of  Cornplanter,  a  name  so  closely  associated  with  the  pioneer  annals  of 
northwestern  Pennsylvania,  that  a  history  of  Crawford  County  would  be  im- 
perfect without  a  fitting  mention  of  his  career.  In  1866  the  Pennsylvania 
Legislature  appropriated  $500  to  erect  a  suitable  monument  at  Jennesedaga, 
to  the  memory  of  Cornplanter,  which  was  completed  and  dedicated  on  the  18th 
of  October,  1867. 

The  ancient  Indian  trace  from  Franklin  ran  along  the  east  bank  of  French 
Creek,  following  the  site  of  Water  Street  in  Meadville;  thence  crossed  the 
stream  to  the  island,  continuing  up  the  west  bank  of  the  creek  for  several 
miles,  when  it  re-crossed  to  the  east  bank,  and  thence  up  the  stream  to  its 
head  waters.  Washington,  in  his  journey  from  Venango  (Franklin)  to  Fort 
Le  Boeuf  in  1753,  kept  the  eastern  bank  the  whole  distance,  as  the  high  water 
prevented  a  crossing  at  the  regular  ford.  The  Indians  living  on  the  head 
waters  of  the  Allegheny  usually  came  through  Meadville  on  their  way  to  visit 
the  Western  tribes,  while  the  latter  followed  the  same  general  course  in  com- 
ing from  the  Sandusky  Kiver,  thus  placing  Crawford  County  in  the  direct 
route  between  those  two  great  Indian  confederacies. 

On  the  6th  of  June,  1808,  a  delegation  of  thirteen  Wyandots  and  Senecas 
from  Sandusky  Kiver  passed  through  Meadville,  going  to  a  council  with  the 
Seneca  Nation.  They  were  bringing  a  friendly  message  from  the  Ohio  tribes, 
to  allay  any  fears  of  an  Indian  outbreak  in  that  locality.  During  the  summer 
some  twenty  or  thirty  Senecas,  from  their  reservation  on  the  Allegheny,  went 
to,  where  a  council  was  held  with  the  Western  tribes.  They  passed 
through  Meadville  going  and  returning,  and  it  was  learned  that  the  council's 
deliberations  related  principally  to  the  existing  differences  between  the  United 
States  and  England,  and  in  the  event  of  a  war  they  had  decided  to  observe  a 
strict  neutrality.  This  decision,  however,  proved  of  very  little  stability,  as  the 
Senecas  sided  with  the  United  States,  while  most  of  the  Western  Indians, 
through  the  influence  of  Tecumseh,  assisted  by  English  gold,  went  with 


When  thQ  war  of  1812-15  broke  out,  a  want  of  confidence  began  to  be 
manifested  between  the  inhabitants  of  western  Pennsylvania  and  the  Indians 
on  the  Allegheny  River,  which  excited  some  uneasiness,  lest  disagreeable  con- 
sequences might  result  from  it.  To  quiet  all  apprehensions  in  this  locality, 
the  citizens  of  Meadville  held  a  meeting,  and  deputized  Gen.  David  Mead, 
Col.  Joseph  Hackney  and  Maj.  Patrick  Farrelly  to  visit  the  Indians  and  ascer- 
tain their  disposition  in  the  coming  war  with  England;  also  to  make  what 
explanations  might  be  deemed  necessary  to  continue  the  good  understanding 
that  had  hitherto  existed  with  these  tribes.  A  council  was  held  with  the  In- 
dians at  Jennesedaga,  on  the  Allegheny,  at  which  were  present  a  number  of 
chiefs  and  Indians  of  the  Seneca  Nation,  among  whom  were  Cornplanter,  Sil- 
verheels,  the  old  prophet  who  was  the  brother  of  Cornplanter,  Joseph  Beads, 
John  Purfer,  Henry  O'Bail  and  Charles  O'Bail,  sons  of  Cornplanter.  When 
the  council  assembled  Cornplanter  welcomed  the  delegates  and  wished  to  hear 
from  them.  Maj.  Patrick  Farrelly,  explained  the  object  of  their  mission,  viz., 
to  preserve  the  peace  and  friendship  heretofore  existing  between  the  whites 
and  Indians.  After  a  short  consultation  with  the  other  chiefs,  Cornplanter 
replied,  reciprocating  the  sentiments  expressed  by  Maj.  Farrelly,  whereupon 
the  council  broke  up  with  the  best  of  feelings. 

At  this  period  a  ti'eaty  existed  between  the  Senecas  and  the  United  States 
Government,  which  provided  that  if  a  white  man  should  kill  an  Indian  or, 
vice-versa,  the  culprit  would  have  to  pay  $200  to  the  friends  or  heirs  of  the 
murdered  man.  Though  this  might  now  be  regarded  as  very  questionable 
justice,  yet  it  helped  to  establish  a  feeling  of  confidence  among  the  Senecas, 
which  made  them  the  allies  of  this  nation  in  the  war  of  1812-15,  though  every 
eflfort  was  made  by  the  agents  of  the  English  Government  to  seduce  them  from 
their  allegiance  to  the  American  cautse.  To  Cornplanter' s  influence  was  due 
this  happy  result,  as  after  the  Revolutionary  war  he  was  always  the  friend  of  the 
young  Republic  in  her  struggle  against  English  arrogance,  which  was  exhibited 
on  every  occasion,  until  the  war  of  1812-15  taught  her  to  respect  the  rights  of 
American  fi'eemen. 



French  Navigators— Caktier  Discovers  the  St.  Lawrence— Champlain 
Founds  Quebec  and  Montreal— French  Explorations — Catholic  Mis- 
sionaries Visit  the  Fries  and  Iroquois— Joncaire— French  and  English 
Traders— Conflicting  Claims— Celeron's  Expedition— The  French  Take 
Possession  of  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio  Valleys,  and  Build  Forts  Presque 
Isle,  Le  Bc/tf,  Machault  and  DuQuesne— Catholic  Church  Erected  at 
Presque  Isle— English  Resistance  to  the  Claims  of  France— Washing- 
ton's Mission  to  the  French  Commandant  at  Le  Bceuf— War  Between  the 
Two  Nations- Old  French  Road  Through  Crawford  County— French 
Fort  at  Site  of  Meadville— Evacuation  of  the  Country  by  the  French, 
AND  English  Occupancy— Forts  Presque  Isle  and  Le  Bceuf  Repaired,  and 
Venango  and  Pitt  Erected — Indian  Dissatisfaction — Pontiac's  Con- 
spiracy and  Capture  of  Forts  Venango,  Le  Bceuf  and  Presque  Isle- 
Revolutionary  War  and  American  Possession— Indian  Treaties- 
Erection  of  Fort  Franklin— Soldiers  Stationed  at  Mead's  Block- 
house—French Creek  Settlers  Organize  for  Protection— English  and 
Indian  Opposition  to  American  Occupation— Wayne's  Victory  and  Final 

IN  1534  Jacques  Cartier,  a  skilled  French  navigator,  left  the  shores  of  his 
native  land,  and,  crossing  the  Atlantic  in  search  of  a  more  direct  route  to 
India,  discovered,  on  the  feast  of  St.  Lawrence,  the  beautiful  river  connect- 
ing Lake  Ontario  with  the  ocean.  The  following  year  he  made  a  second  voy- 
age with  the  same  object  in  view,  and  on  reaching  the  mouth  of  that  magnifi- 
cent stream  named  it  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  honor  of  the  day  of  its  discovery. 
He  passed  up  the  river  to  the  sites  of  Quebec  and  Montreal,  and  found  at 
each  place  a  flourishing  Indian  village.  Not  knowing  the  climate  or  heeding 
the  flight  of  time,  the  rigors  of  a  Northern  winter  were  upon  him  ere  he  re- 
alized their  terrors,  and  midst  untold  sufferings  these  hardy  but  unprepared 
seamen  were  compelled  to  remain  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  their  ship  being  ice- 
bound, until  spring  navigation  opened,  when  the  survivors  returned  to  France. 
Six  years  later  Cartier  made  another  trip  across  the  Atlantic,  for  the  purpose 
of  founding  a  permanent  colony  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  but  the  experiment  did 
not  succeed.  Subsequent  attempts  at  colonizing  were  made  by  other  navigat- 
ors, but  nearly  a  century  passed  away  before  Samuel  de  Champlain,  on  the 
3d  of  July,  1608,  planted  the  white  flag  of  France  on  the  site  of  Quebec,  and 
three  years  later  on  that  of  Montreal.  For  150  years  succeeding  the  founding 
of  Quebec,  by  Champlain,  the  devoted  missionaries  and  fearless  explorers  of 
France,  were  unremitting  in  their  efforts  to  spread  the  Catholic  faith  and 
extend  the  French  dominions  throughout  the  vast  region  around  the  great 
lakes,  and  down  the  valleys  of  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi. 

The  French  were  the  first  white  men  who  made  explorations  in  the  vicinity 
of  Lake  Erie.  As  early  as  1611-12,  Champlain  ascended  the  chain  of  lakes 
as  far  as  Lake  Huron,  and  from  that  time  forward  the  Indians  were  visited 
by  numerous  French  Catholic  priests  on  the  double  mission  of  spreading  the 
gospel  and  promoting  the  interests  of  their  king  and  nation.  In  1626  the 
Eries  were  visited  by  these  missionary  fathers,  and  as  early  as  1657  the  Jesuit 
Missions  had  been  extended  among  the  Senecas  on  the  Genesee.  In  1676-77,  we 
find  Father  Hennepin  visiting  the  Indian  villages  along  the  Allegheny,  trav- 


eling  as  far  south  as  the  uiouth  of  Venaago  River  or  French  Creek,  while  two 
years  later  La  Salle  launched  the  Griffin  in  Niagara  River,  and  sailed  with 
a  picked  body  of  men  to  Green  Bay  in  Lake  Michigan.  Thus,  the  work  of 
Christianizing  the  Indians,  and  exploring  the  great  West  was  carried  forward 
at  the  same  time,  but  many  of  these  heroic  and  zealous  priests  yielded  up 
their  lives  at  the  hands  of  those  to  whom  they  came  to  teach  the  great  truths 
of  the  gospel. 

When  the  French  and  English  began  to  extend  their  settlements  westward, 
the  lake  region  was  under  the  full  dominion  of  the  Iroquois,  with  the  Senecas 
as  the  immediate  possessors  of  the  soil.  Both  nations  appreciated  the  import- 
ance of  having  the  good-will  of  the  Indians,  but  the  adroit  French  were  more 
successful  in  winning  their  friendship  than  their  blunt  and  less  politic  com- 
petitors. As  far  back  as  1730,  the  French  Indian  agent,  Jean  Coeur  or 
Joncaire,  penetrated  this  section,  adopted  the  habits  of  the  natives,  became 
one  of  their  number,  and  won  them  over  to  the  French  interest.  "  Among 
the  public  officers  of  the  French  "  says  Bancroft,  "who  gained  influence  over 
the  red  men  by  adapting  themselves,  with  happy  facility,  to  life  in  the  wilder- 
ness, was  the  Indian  agent  Joncaire.  For  twenty  years  he  had  been  success- 
fully negotiating  with  the  Senecas.  He  had  become  by  adoption  one  of  their 
own  citizens  and  sons,  and  to  the  culture  of  the  Frenchman  added  the  fluent 
eloquence  of  an  Iroquois  warrior.  '  I  liave  no  happiness,'  said  he  in  council, 
'like  that  of  living  with  my  brothers' — and  he  asked  leave  to  build  himself  a 
dwelling.  'He  is  one  of  our  childi-en,'  they  replied  'he  may  build  where  he 
will.' " 

The  dominion  of  the  country  west  of  the  Alleghenies  was  almost  wholly 
given  over  to  the  French,  who  established  trading- posts  along  the  streams  and 
did  a  large  trade  with  the  Indians  by  exchanging  beads,  goods,  provisions, 
guns  and  ammunition  for  furs,  which  were  shipped  to  Europe  and  sold  at  an 
immense  profit.  Although  their  possession  was  undisturbed,  it  must  not  be 
inferred  that  it  was  quietly  acquiesced  in  by  the  English.  They  viewed  the 
projects  of  the  French  with  mingled  jealousy  and  alarm,  sent  out  numerous 
agents,  and  succeeded  in  some  quarters  in  estranging  the  Indians  from  their 
rivals,  but  not  to  any  extended  degree.  Some  of  their  traders  were  located  at 
Venango  (Franklin)  and  Le  Boeuf  (Waterford),  when  the  advance  troops  of 
the  French  reached  those  points  in  1753.  John  Frazier,  a  Scotchman,  had 
established  himself  at  bhe  former  place  about  1745,  where  he  carried  on  a 
gunsmith  shop,  and  traded  with  the  Indians  until  driven  away  by  Joncaire, 
who  also  captured  at  Venango  the  traders  John  Trotter  and  James  McLaugh- 
lin, and  sent  them  as  prisoners  to  Montreal. 

The  French  claimed  that  their  discovery  of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the  Mis- 
sissippi entitled  them  to  the  ownership  of  the  territory  bordering  upon  those 
streams  and  their  tributaries.  The  English  claim  was  based  upon  a  grant  by 
King  James  I,  in  160&,  to  "divers of  his  subjects,  of  all  the  countries  between 
north  latitude  48°  and  34°,  and  westward  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  South 
Sea,"  and  also  upon  purchases  of  Western  lands  made  from  the  Six  Nations 
by  Commissioners  from  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia,  representing 
the  mother  country.  A  long  and  sometimes  acrimonious  controversy  was  waged 
between  the  foreign  departments  of  the  two  nations  over  the  question,  and  the 
leading  officers  in  America  on  both  sides  looked  upon  it  as  certain  to  eventu- 
ally result  in  war. 

Prior  to  1749  the  French  had  done  nothing  of  an  official  nature  looking  to 
the  occupation  of  the  country  between  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio.  Their  dis- 
coverers had  taken  possession  of  it  long  before  in  the  name  of  the  King,  and 


from  that  time  it  had  been  a  sort  of  common  tramping  ground  for  adventurous 
traders  of  both  nations,  without  being  directly  subject  to  the  control  of  either. 
In  the  year  named  Capt.  Celoron,  with  a  detachment  of  300  men,  was  sent  by 
the  Captain-General  of  Canada  to  "renew  the  French  possession"  of  the  Ohio 
and  its  tributaries.  He  came  up  Lake  Erie  to  the  mouth  of  Chautauqua 
Creek,  from  which  point  he  crossed  over  to  the  Allegheny  by  way  of  Chautau- 
qua Lake  and  the  Conewango.  Descending  the  Allegheny  and  the  Ohio  he 
deposited  leaden  plates  at  the  mouths  of  some  of  the  most  important  streams, 
also  at  the  "Indian  God  Rock"  on  the  Allegheny,  as  a  "monument  of  renewal 
of  possession,"  and  as  a  mark  for  the  guidance  of  those  who  might  follow 
him.  Hev.  Father  Bonnecamps,  a  Jesuit  priest  and  mathematician,  accom- 
panied Celoron  and  made  a  map  of  the  territory  lying  between  Lake  Erie  and 
the  Ohio  River,  whereon  he  marked  the  location  of  the  buried  plates,  and  also 
gave  the  sites  of  the  many  Indian  villages  upon  the  Allegheny,  which  how- 
ever, was  then  regarded  as  a  part  of  the  Ohio  River,  the  La  Belle  Riviere  of 
the  French.  The  expedition  caused  much  alarm  among  the  Indians,  who 
regarded  it  as  the  beginning  of  a  scheme  to  "steal  their  country"  from  them, 
and  also  created  much  commotion  throughout  the  English  colonies,  whose  offi- 
cials saw  in  it  a  purpose  to  maintain  by  force  what  the  Freoch  had  before 
contented  themselves  with  claiming  in  argument. 

In  1751  a  French  expedition  was  organized  in  Canada  to  proceed  to  the 
"  Beautiful "  or  Ohio  River,  and  in  May  of  that  year  a  part  of  the  force  was 
reported  to  have  passed  Oswego  in  thirty  canoes.  For  some  reason  the  venture 
was  abandoned,  but  warlike  threats  and  preparations  continued  for  two  years. 
Finally,  in  the  spring  of  1753,  the  long- threatened  occupation  began.  Quite 
a  full  account  of  the  expedition  is  given  in  a  letter  preserved  among  the  Penn- 
sylvania archives,  from  M.  DuQuesne,  General-in-chief  at  Montreal,  to  the 
French  minister  at  Paris.  It  was  in  charge  of  Sieur  Marin,  and  consisted  of 
250  men.  The  little  army  marched  up  Lake  Erie  by  land  and  ice  to  Presque 
Isle,  where  it  was  decided  to  build  a  fort  and  establish  a  base  of  supplies. 
The  reasons  which  prompted  the  selection  of  Presque  Isle  were  the  short  port- 
age to  Lake  Le  Boeuf  and  the  facility  with  which  canoes  could  be  floated 
down  French  Creek  from  the  latter  to  the  Allegheny.  On  the  third  of  August 
the  fort  at  Presque  Isle  and  the  portage  road  were  finished,  and  Fort  Le  Bceuf 
was  built  soon  afterward.  A  French  post  had  previously  been  established 
near  the  mouth  of  French  Creek,  by  Joncaire,  in  a  house  whence  he  had 
expelled  John  Frazier,  the  Indian  trader  and  gunsmith.  Here  Fort  Machault 
was  built  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Allegheny,  about  sixty  rods  below  the 
mouth  of  French  Creek,  being  finished  in  April,  1754.  The  chain  was  com- 
pleted the  same  spring  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  "Forks  of  the  Ohio,"  by  the 
erection  of  Fort  Du  Quesne,  subsequently  known  as  Fort  Pitt. 

When  the  French  army  penetrated  this  section  in  1753,  they  were  accom- 
panied by  several  Catholic  priests,  who  served  in  the  double  capacity  of  chap- 
lains and  missionaries.  They  erected  a  small  log  chapel  at  Presque  Isle,  on 
the  right  side  of  Mill  Creek,  near  its  mouth,  and  others  within  the  walls  of 
Forts  Le  Boeuf,  Machault  and  Du  Quesne,  in  which  the  solemn  rites  of  the 
mother  church  were  regularly  administered  until  the  departure  of  the  invad- 
ing forces  in  1759.  A  prisoner  who  escaped  from  the  Indians  in  1756,  gave 
the  following  information  to  the  English:  "  Fort  Le  Boeuf  is  garrisoned  with 
150  men,  and  a  few  straggling  Indians.  Presque  Isle  is  built  of  square  logs 
filled  up  with  earth  ;  the  barracks  are  within  the  fort,  and  garrisoned  with  150 
men,  supported  chiefly  from  a  French  settlement  begun  near  it.  The  settle- 
ment consists  of  about  100  families.     The  Indian  families  about  the  settle- 

,^,s^.       -''*.. 



ment  are  numerous;  they  have  a  priest  and  a  school-master,  and  some  grist- 
mills  ia  the  settlement."  The  village,  here  referred  to,  stood  on  the  east  bank 
of  Mill  Creek,  a  short  distance  back  from  the  lake  shore. 

Friendly  as  the  Six  Nations  were  toward  the  French  in  a  commercial  sense, 
they  did  not  take  kindly  at  first  to  the  occupation  of  their  country  by  armed 
bodies  of  the  latter.  The  expedition  of  Sieur  Marin,  in  1758,  and  the  erec- 
tion of  forts  at  Presque  Isle  and  Le  BoeuE,  worked  them  up  to  a  spirit  of  bit- 
ter resentment.  A  delegation  of  Senecas  waited  upon  that  officer  at  LeBoeuf 
to  inquire  of  him  "  by  a  belt"  whether  he  "  was  marching  with  a  banner  up- 
lifted or  to  establish  tranquility."  He  answered  that  his  purpose  was  to  sup- 
port and  assist  them  in  their  necessities,  and  to  drive  away  the  evil  spirits  that 
encompassed  them  and  distiu'bed  the  earth,  meaning  the  English.  His  man- 
ner and  conduct  appeased  them,  so  that  the  Allegheny  Kiver  Senecas  went  to 
zealously  assisting  the  French  with  hoi'ses  and  provisions.  During  the  fall  of 
the  year,  the  chiefs  of  the  several  tribes  bordering  on  the  lake  and  the  Alle- 
gheny River  were  called  together  at  Le  Boeuf,  and  told  by  the  French  com- 
mander that  he  could  advance  no  further  on  account  of  the  winter,  but  would 
be  on  hand  in  the  spring  with  a  strong  force,  and  threatened  vengeance  if 
they  took  sides  with  the  English. 

In  the  fall  of  1753,  Sieur  Marin  died  at  Fort  Le  Bceuf,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Com.  St.  Pierre,  Capt.  Riparti  being  in  charge  of  the  fort  at  Presque  Isle, 
and  Capt.  Joncaire  of  the  post  at  the  mouth  of  French  Creek.  In  December, 
1753,  St.  Pierre  was  officially  visited  by  a  young  man  who  afterward  rose  to 
the  proud  position  of  being  designated  as  the  "Father  of  his  Country." 
George  Washington,  a  youthful  surveyor  about  twenty-one  years  of  age  was 
dispatched  on  a  diplomatic  mission,  by  Governor  Dinwiddie,  of  Virginia,  to 
inquire  into  the  designs  of  the  French  in  the  Ohio  Valley.  Washington  was 
accompanied  from  Williamsburg,  Va.,  by  Christopher  Gist,  an  experienced 
frontiersman,  John  Davidson,  an  Indian  interpreter,  Jacob  Vanbraam,  a 
French  interpreter,  and  Henry  Stewart,  William  Jenkins,  Barnaby  Curran 
and  John  McGuire,  assistants,  the  two  latter  being  Irishmen  and  well  known 
Indian  traders.  He  traveled  directly  to  Logstown,  where  he  was  joined  by  four 
Indian  Chiefs,  thence  taking  a  northerly  course,  arrived  at  the  mouth  of 
French  Creek,  December  4,  where  he  saw  the  French  colors  floating  over  the 
headquarters  of  Capt.  Joncaire,  upon  whom  he  immediately  called  and  made 
known  his  mission.  That  officer  treated  Washington  with  courtesy,  but 
informed  him  that  he  would  have  to  apply  to  his  superior  at  Le  Boeuf  for  an 
answer  to  his  inquiries.  W^ashington  remained  at  that  post  until  December  7, 
when  M.  LaForce,  French  Commissary  and  three  soldiers  were  detailed  by 
Joncaire  to  accompany  him  and  his  party  to  Le  Boeuf.  They  took  the  Indian 
trail  up  the  east  bank  of  French  Creek,  but  on  reaching  the  fording  place 
near  the  site  of  Meadville,  found  the  water  so  high  and  rapid  as  to  render  a 
crossing  by  fording  or  rafting  impossible,  and  therefore  continued  up  the  east 
bank  of  the  stream  to  Fort  Le  Boeuf.  "We  passed  over  much  good  land,"  says 
Washington  in  his  journal,  "  since  we  left  Venango  (Franklin)  and  through 
several  extensive  and  very  rich  meadows,  one  of  which  I  believe  was  nearly 
four  miles  in  length,  and  considerably  wide  in  some  places."  The  largest 
bottom  here  referred  to  is,  doubtless,  that  whereon  Meadville  is  built,  as  it  is 
the  only  one  between  Franklin  and  W^aterford,  corresponding  with  Washing- 
ton's description. 

On  account  of  excessive  rains,  snows  and  general  bad  weather,  he  did 
not  reach  Le  Boeuf  until  the  11th  of  December,  and  remained  till  the  16th, 
during  which  time  Capt.  Riparti  was  called  over  from  Presque  Isle  to  confer 


with  Washington  and  St.  Pierre.  Washington's  treatment,  though  formal, 
was  coiirteous  and  kind,  and  he  has  left  on  record  in  his  journal  a  warm  com- 
pliment to  the  gentlemanly  character  of  the  French  officers.  The  object  and 
result  of  Washington's  mission  are  given  in  the  following  letters,  the  first 
being  the  one  he  was  charged  with  delivering  to  the  Commander-in-chief  of 
the  French  forces  by  Gov.  Dinwiddie,  of  Virginia,  and  the  second  the  reply 
of  St.  Pierre: 

October  31,  1753. 
Sir: — The  lands  upon  the  River  Ohio,  in  the  western  part  of  the  colony  of  Virginia, 
are  so  notoriously  known  to  be  the  property  of  the  crown  of  Great  Britain  that  it  is  a 
matter  of  equal  concern  and  surprise  to  me  to  hear  that  a  body  of  French  forces  are  erect- 
ing fortresses  and  making  settlements  upon  that  river  within  His  Majesty's  dominions. 
The  many  and  repeated  complaints  I  have  received  of  these  acts  of  hostility  lay  me  under 
the  necessity  of  sending  in  the  name  of  the  King,  my  master,  the  bearer  hereof,  George 
Washington,  Esq.,  one  of  the  Adjutants  General  of  the  forces  of  this  dominion,  to  com- 
plain to  you  of  the  encroachments  thus  made,  and  of  the  injuries  done  to  the  subjects  of 
Great  Britain  in  violation  of  the  law  of  nations  and  the  treaties  subsisting  between  the 
two  crowns.  If  these  facts  are  true  and  you  think  fit  to  justify  your  proceedings,  I  must 
desire  you  to  acquaint  me  by  whose  authority  and  instructions  you  have  lately  marched 
from  Canada  with  an  armed  force  and  invaded  the  King  of  Great  Britain's  territory  in 
the  manner  complained  of;  that,  according  to  the  purport  and  resolution  of  your  answer, 
I  may  act  agreeably  to  the  commission  I  am  honored  with  from  the  King,  mj--  master. 
However,  sir,  in  obedience  to  my  instructions,  it  becomes  my  duty  to  require  your  peace- 
able departure;  and  that  you  would  forbear  prosecuting  a  purpose  so  interruptive  of  the 
harmony  and  good  understanding  which  His  Majesty  is  desirous  to  continue  and  cultivate 
with  the  most'Christian  King,  etc.  Robert  Dinwiddie. 

From  the  Fort  ox  the  River  au  Bceuf,  December  15,  1753. 
Sir: — As  I  have  the  honor  of  commanding  here  as  chief,  Mr.  Washington  delivered  to 
me  the  letter  which  you  wrote  to  the  commander  of  the  French  troops.  I  should  have 
been  glad  that  you  had  given  him  orders,  or  that  he  had  been  inclined  to  proceed  to 
Canada  to  see  our  General,  to  whom  it  better  belongs  than  to  me  to  set  forth  the  evidence 
and  the  reality  of  the  rights  of  the  King,  my  master,  to  the  lands  situate  along  the  River 
Ohio,  and  to  contest  the  pretensions  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain  thereto.  I  shall  trans- 
mit your  letter  to  the  Marquis  Du  Quesne.  His  answer  will  be  a  law  to  me.  And  if  he 
shall  order  me  to  communicate  it  to  you,  sir,  you  may  be  assured  I  shall  not  fail  to  dis- 
patch it  forthwith  to  you.  As  to  the  summons  you  send  me  to  retire,  I  do  not  think  my- 
self obliged  to  obey  it.  Whatever  may  be  your  intentions,  I  arn  here  by  virtue  of  the 
orders  of  my  General,  and  I  entreat  you,  sir,  not  to  doubt  one  moment  but  that  I  am 
determined  to  conform  myself  to  them  with  all  the  exactness  and  resolution  which  can  be 
expected  from  tlie  best  oificer.  I  do  not  know  that  in  the  progress  of  this  campaign  any- 
thing has  passed  which  can  be  reputed  an  act  of  hostility,  or  that  is  contrary  to  the  treat- 
ies which  subsist  between  the  two  crowns,  the  continuance  whereof  interests  and  pleases 
us  as  much  as  it  does  the  English.  Had  you  been  pleased,  sir,  to  descend  to  particularize 
the  facts  which  occasioned  your  complaint,  I  should  have  had  the  honor  of  answering  you 
in  the  fullest,  and  I  am  persuaded  the  most  satisfactory  manner,  etc. 

Legardeur  de  St.  Pierre. 

Washington  did  not  extend  his  journey  to  Presqae  Isle,  feeling,  perhaps, 
that  duty  compelled  him  to  report  the  French  answer  as  speedily  as  possible. 
On  the  16th  of  December,  having  previously  sent  his  horses  ahead  in  charge  of 
his  men,  he  started  on  the  return  trip  down  French  Creek  in  a  canoe,  and  thus 
comments  on  the  journey:  "We  had  a  tedious  and  very  fatiguing  passage 
down  the  creek.  Several  times  we  had  like  to  have  been  staved  against  rocks, 
and  many  times  all  hands  were  obliged  to  get  (?ut  and  remain  in  the  water  half 
an  hour  or  more,  getting  over  the  shoals.  At  one  place  the  ice  had  lodged 
and  made  it  impassable  by  water;  we  were,  therefore,  obliged  to  carry  our 
canoe  across  the  neck  of  land,  a  quarter  of  a  mile  over.  We  did  not  reach 
Venango  (Franklin)  until  the  22d,  where  we  met  with  our  horses.  This  creek 
is  extremely  crooked.  I  dare  say  the  distance  between  the  fort  (Le  Boeuf)  and 
Venango  cannot  be  less  than  130  miles  to  follow  the  meanders."  From 
Venango  Washington  continued  his  journey  along  the  trail  usually  taken  by 
the  Indians,  but  after  three  days  of  very  slow  progress  he  concluded  to  leave 


his  party  in  charge  of  Vanbraam,  and  with  Christopher  Gist  as  his  sole  com- 
panion take  the  nearest  route  through  the  woods  on  foot.  Traveling  day  and 
night  through  the  snow-covered,  trackless  forest,  tired  at  by  a  prowling  savage, 
a  band  of  whom  had  lain  in  wait  with  murderous  intent,  they  finally  arrived 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Allegheny,  and  having  but  one  small  hatchet  were  com- 
pelled to  spend  a  whole  day  in  building  a  raft.  In  attempting  to  cross  the 
river  on  this  rude  contrivance,  Washington  was  thrown  into  the  water,  and 
both  had  to  quit  the  raft  and  swim  through  the  floating  ice  to  an  island  in  the 
middle  of  the  stream.  Here  they  passed  the  night,  suffering  intensely  from 
the  extreme  cold,  which  froze  their  wet  clothes  into  a  sheet  of  ice,  Gist  having 
his  hands  and  feet  badly  frost  bitten.  In  the  morning  the  river  was  frozen 
over  and  they  crossed  on  the  ice  to  the  southern  bank.  On  the  16th  of 
January,  1754,  Washington  arrived  in  safety  at  Williamsburg,  made  a  full 
report  in  person  to  Gov.  Dinwiddle,  and  thus  closed  the  first  important  mis- 
sion of  his  glorious  career. 

Each  nation  now  began  active  preparations  for  the  coming  struggle,  and  as 
soon  as  the  weather  would  permit  in  the  spring  of  1754  troops  were  moved  by 
both  sides  in  the  direction  of  the  Ohio.  The  first  French  detachment  to  reach 
Pittsburgh,  then  known  as  the  "  Forks  of  the  Ohio,"  was  on  the  17th  of  April. 
It  was  commanded  by  Contrecoeur,  and  consisted  of  1,000  French  and  Indians, 
with  eighteen  cannon.  Their  voyage  from  Le  Boeuf  down  French  Creek  and 
the  Allegheny  was  made  in  sixty  batteaux  and  300  canoes.  The  English  had 
put  up  a  stockade  at  the  Forks  during  the  spring,  which  was  unfinished  and 
guarded  only  by  an  ensign  and  forty-one  men.  This  small  body,  seeing  the 
hopelessness  of  defense,  immediately  surrendered,  and  the  French  began  at 
once  the  erection  of  Fort  DuQuesne.  The  French  seem  to  have  been  uniformly 
successful  in  the  campaign  of  1754.  Deserters  from  their  ranks  reported  that 
the  number  of  French  and  Indians  in  the  country  during  the  year  was  about 
2,000,  of  whom  five  or  six  hundred  had  become  unfit  for  duty.  The  boats  used 
in  transporting  troops  and  munitions  of  war  down  French  Creek  were  built  at 
Fort  Le  Boeuf,  and  M.  Du  Quesne,  in  a  letter  from  Quebec  to  the  home  gov- 
ernment dated  July  6,  1755,  says:  "The  quantity  of  pirogues  constructed  on 
the  River  Au  Boeuf  has  exhausted  all  the  large  trees  in  the  neighborhood. "  It 
was  on  the  9th  of  July  of  this  year  that  Braddock's  defeat  took  place  near 
Pittsburgh,  an  event  which  raised  the  French  hopes  to  a  pitch  of  the  utmost 
exultation,  and  seemed  for  the  time  to  destroy  all  prospect  of  English  ascen- 
dency in  the  West. 

Though  we  have  been  unable  to  find  any  special  record  of  a  military  road 
having  been  constructed  by  the  French  through  Crawford  County,  nevertheless 
it  is  our  opinion  that  such  a  highway  existed.  Many  of  the  oldest  pioneers 
living  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county  positively  assert  that  the  line  of  the 
"French  Road"  was  still  visible  for  some  years  after  the  first  settlement  of 
that  locality.  Early  in  1759  an  Indian  spy  named  Thomas  Bull  was  sent  up 
the  Allegheny  by  the  English  to  watch  the  movements  of  the  French.  He 
reported  the  results  of  his  mission  to  Col.  Hugh  Mercer  at  Pittsburgh,  who 
transcribed  the  report  in  his  journal  under  date  of  March  17,  1759,  and  which 
may  be  found  in  full  in  Volume  VIII  of  the  Colonial  Records.  The  following 
passage  occurs  in  this  repoi't:  "  The  road  is  trod  and  good  from  Venango  to 
Le  Boeuf,  and  from  thence  to  Presque  Isle,  about  half  a  day's  journey,  is  very 
low  and  swampy,  and  bridged  almost  all  the  way."  This  clearly  indicates 
that  there  was  a  road  from  Le  Boeuf  (Waterford)  to  Venango  (Franklin), 
besides  the  mere  Indian  trace  down  French  Creek.  According  to  the  recollec- 
tions of  pioneers  now  living  this  road  struck  the  north   line  of   Crawford 


County,  some  distance  east  of  French  Creek,  in  the  northeast  corner  of  what 
is  now  the  Township  of  Rockdale,  thence  taking  a  southeastern  course  entered 
the  northwest  corner  of  Athens  Township,  and  passing  through  the  eastern 
portions  of  Athens,  Steuben  and  Troy  Townships  left  the  county  near  the 
southwest  corner  of  the  latter  subdivision,  a  little  east  of  Sugar  Creek.  This 
was  the  shortest  route  between  the  forts,  the  distance  being  many  miles  less 
than  to  follow  the  meanderings  of  French  Creek. 

The  French  had  also  a  kind  of  fort  on  the  site  of  Meadville.     William  H. 
Davis,  in  his  sketch  of  Crawford  County,  written  in   1848,  speaking  of  the 
French,  says:   "They  erected  no  forts,  with  perhaps  one  exception,  and  made 
\\no  particular  location  in  this  county,  merely  using  our  beautiful  stream  as  a 
l\highway  to  transport  their  troops  and  munitions  of  war.     From  this  circum- 
stance French  Creek  took   its   name.     It  was  called   by  the  Indians  Venango 
River.     The  exception  to  which  I  have  referred,  if  it  may  be  called  one,  was  a 
fortified  place  of  deposit  for  goods  and  other  articles,  located  on  what  is  called 
Dock  Street  in  Meadville.     Formerly  there  were   distinct   marks  of  a   trench 
enclosing  nearly  a  half  an  acre.     At^this  day  there  are  visible  the  remains  of  a 
canal  dug  from  the  creek  to  this  fort  or  place  of  deposit.     The  late  Richard 
Patch  said,  in  his  life-time,  that  when  he  first  ascended  the  waters  of  French 
I    Creek,  this  canal  was  sufiiciently  capacious  to  have  admitted  the  passage  of  a 
boat  to  the  very  walls  of  the  fort,  which  was  in  ruins." 

In  a  letter  written  by  the  trader,  John  Frazier,  August  27,  1753,  to  his 
partner.  Young,  who  gave  it  to  Edward  Shippen,  Prothonotary  of  Lancaster 
County,  and  forwarded  by  him  to  Gov.  Hamilton,  in  speaking  of  the  capture 
of  John  Trotter  and  James  McLaughlin  at  Venango  by  the  Delaware  Chief, 
Custologa,  Frazier  says:  "He  delivered  John  Trotter  and  his  man  (McLaughlin) 
to  the  French,  who  tied  them  fast  and  carried  them  away  to  their  new  fort 
that  they  made  a  little  from  Weningo,  at  a  place  called  Caseoago,  up  French 
Creek. "  Mr.  Shippen  in  forwarding  this  letter  to  the  Governor,  enclosed  one 
from  himself,  bearing  date  September  9,  1753,  in  which  we  find  the  following 
explanation  of  Frazier's  letter:  "Weningo  is  the  name  of  an  Indian  town  on 
the  Ohio,  where  Mr.  Frazier  has  had  a  gunsmith  shop  for  many  years;  it  is  situ- 
ated eighty  miles  up  the  said  river  beyond  Logstown,  and  Cassewago  is  twenty 
miles  above  Weningo."  The  first  mentioned  place  was  first  spelled  "  Wenin- 
go," then  "Wenango,"  "  Vinango  "  and  finally  "Venango"  by  Washington 
in  his  journal,  and  the  word  has  since  remained  as  he  gave  it.  As  previously 
mentioned  in  this  chapter,  the  Allegheny  was  considered  a  part  of  the  Ohio  by 
the  Indians  and  French,  as  well  as  by  many  of  the  English  officials,  and  was 
evidently  so  regarded  by  Mr.  Shippen,  as  Venango  was  on  the  site  of  Frank- 
\  lin.  On  the  Historical  Map  of  Pennsylvania,  a  small  Indian  village  called 
I  "  Cassewago,"  is  located  on  French  Creek,  between  twenty  and  thirty  miles 
/  above  its  confluence  with  the  Allegheny.  In  the  State  archives  the  name  of 
I  this  village  is  spelled  "  Caseoago.' '  Andrew  Ellicott  and  other  early  surveyors 
call  the  stream  emptying  into  French  Creek  opposite  Meadville  "  Cassewago," 
and  the  settlement  at  the  same  point,  "  Cassewago  settlement."  The  fact  of 
this  French  post  being  called  "Caseoago"  and  "Cassewago,"  by  Mr.  Frazier 
and  Mr.  Shippen  respectively,  and  its  distance  up  French  Creek  from  Venango 
fixed  at  between  twenty  and  thirty  miles,  clearly  establishes  its  location  at 
this  Indian  village,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Cussewago  Creek.  Therefore  the 
fort  on  Dock  Street,  in  Meadville,  the  ruins  of  which,  Mr.  Davis  says,  were 
plainly  visible  during  the  earlier  years  of  the  county's  history,  was  doubtless 
the  one  referred  to  by  Messrs.  Frazier  and  Shippen. 

In  1757  the  English  seem  to  have  won  some  of  the  tribes  over  to  their  side, 


for  we  learn  from  the  Pennsylvania  archives  that  the  French  kept  "  100  men 
in  garrison  at  Presque  Isle,  being  apprehensive  that  the  English  and  the 
Indians  might  attack  them  there."  During  the  year  1758  the  English  made 
sufficient  progress  in  the  direction  of  the  Ohio,  to  compel  the  French  to  evacu- 
ate Fort  DuQuesne,  on  the  22d  of  November  blowing  up  and  destroying  their 
fortifications,  stores,  etc.,  ere  quitting  the  post.  About  100  men  with  the 
artillery  were  sent  down  the  Ohio,  while  about  300  retreated  up  the  Allegheny 
by  land  and  water,  to  Venango,  where  Gov.  M.  de  Lignery,  with  a  detach- 
ment of  200  men,  took  charge  of  Fort  Machault,  the  balance  proceeding  to 
Fort  Le  Boeuf.  A  letter  dated  Montreal,  March  30,  1759,  announces  that  the 
French  troops  at  Detroit  had  been  ordered  to  rendezvous  at  Presque  Isle,  in 
order  to  be  ready  to  aid  Fort  Machault  if  necessary,  the  commander  at  the  lat- 
ter being  required,  if  too  hard  pressed,  to  fall  back  on  Le  Boeuf.  The  Indians, 
by  this  time,  had  lost  confidence  in  the  triumph  of  the  French  ;  many  were 
either  siding  with  the  English  or  pretending  to  be  neutral,  while  the  majority 
had  reached  the  conclusion  that  they  could  very  well  dispense  with  the  pres- 
ence of  both  nations.  M.  de  Vaudreuil,  writing  from  Montreal,  on  the  31st  of 
March,  1759,  says:  "There  is  reason  to  presume  that  the  Indians  would 
wish  there  were  neither  French  nor  English  at  the  beautiful  river  (the  Alle- 
gheny), and  that  they  are  heartily  tired  of  the  war,"  a  wish  that  is  not  surpris- 
ing, as  they  were  the  greatest  sufferers. 

The  tide  of  battle  continued  to  favor  the  English,  and  they  finally  besieged 
Fort  Niagara  below  Buffalo,  compelling  the  French  to  withdraw  1,200  men 
from  Detroit,  Presque  Isle,  Le  Boiuf  and  Machault  for  its  defense.  Its  cap- 
ture by  the  English  astonished  and  terrified  the  French  in  this  section.  A 
messenger  reached  Presque  Isle  from  Sir  William  Johnson,  the  victorious 
English  commander,  notifying  the  oflScer  in  charge  that  the  other  posts  must 
surrender  in  a  few  days.  The  French  knew  that  their  force  was  too  small  to 
cope  with  the  enemy,  and  began  making  hasty  preparations  for  departure. 
Their  stores  at  Presque  Isle  were  sent  up  the  lake  on  the  13th  of  August, 
1759,  and  the  garrison  waited  a  brief  time  for  their  comrades  at  Le  Boeuf  and 
Machault,  when  the  entire  army  left  in  batteaux  for  Detroit.  An  Indian  who 
arrived  at  DuQuesne  soon  after,  reported  that  they  had  burned  all  of  the  forts, 
but  this  is  questioned  by  some  of  the  authorities  we  have  consulted.  Upon 
taking  their  departure  they  told  the  Indians  that  they  had  been  driven  away 
by  superior  numbers,  but  would  return  in  sufficient  force  to  hold  the  country 
permanently.  In  this,  however,  they  were  too  sanguine,  as  they  were  never 
destined  to  again  occupy  this  territory. 

The  English  did  not  take  formal  possession  of  the  forts  in  Northwestern 
Pennsylvania  until  1760,  when  Maj.  Eobert  Kogers  was  sent  out  at  the  head 
of  200  rangers  for  that  purpose,  and  though  hostilities  still  continued  between 
the  two  nations,  the  bloody  wave  of  war  did  not  again  reach  this  locality. 
The  forts  at  Presque  Isle  and  Le  Boeuf  were  repaired  and  gairisoned  by  the 
English  in  1760,  Fort  Machault  having  been  destroyed  by  the  French  at  the 
time  of  its  evacuation,  the  English  built  Fort  Venango,  in  1760,  forty  rods 
higher  up  the  Allegheny  than  the  site  of  the  old  fort ;  while  new  works  were 
also  constructed  on  the  site  of  Fort  DuQuesne,  and  named  Fort  Pitt.  The 
struggle  finally  closed  with  the  signing  of  the  Treaty  of  Paris,  February  10, 
1763,  and  by  its  sweeping  provisions  France  lost  her  entire  possessions  in  the 
New  World. 

The  Indians  did  not  take  kindly  to  the  English,  for  no  sooner  were  the 
latter  in  complete  possession  of  the  country,  than  they  began  by  neglect  and 
ill-treatment  to  excite  the  dormant  passions  of  the  red   men.     The    Indians 


admired  and  loved  the  French,  by  whona  they  were  generally  well  treated  ; 
but  it  was  not  long  until  they  hated  the  English  with  all  the  ferocity  of  their 
savage  nature.  Mutterings  of  the  coming  storm  began  to  be  heard,  and  in 
June,  1763,  the  great  Indian  uprising,  known  as  "Pontiac's  Conspiracy," 
occurred,  resulting  in  the  capture  and  destruction  of  all  but  four  of  the  fron- 
tier posts,  Forts  Venango,  Le  Bceuf  and  Presque  Isle  being  among  those  that 
fell  before  the  fierce  onslaught  of  the  savages. 

Throao-hout  the  Revolutionary  war  the  English  had  control  of  the  Western 
posts,  but  little  is  known  of  their  movements  in  this  vicinity,  though,  doubt- 
less, they  had  a  small  garrison  stationed  at  Presque  Isle  during  a  portion  of 
that  momentous  period.  The  independence  of  the  United  States  was  acknowl- 
edged by  Great  Britain,  in  1783,  and  by  the  treaty  of  peace  England  reluc- 
tantly abandoned  all  claims  to  the  Western  country,  agreeing  to  withdraw  her 
troops  and  yield  up  possession  of  the  forts,  block-houses  and  other  military 
structures.  Her  officers,  however,  still  retained  a  hope  of  the  ultimate  return 
of  the  colonies  to  the  protection  of  the  British  crown.  The  English  had,  by 
this  date,  won  the  confidence  of  the  Indians,  who  were  kept  hostile  to  the 
Americans  by  representations  that  England  would  yet  resume  possession  of 
the  country.  As  late  as  1785,  Mr.  Adams,  our  at  London,  com- 
plained to  the  English  Secretary  of  State,  that  though  two  years  had  elapsed 
since  the  definite  treaty,  the  forts  on  the  northern  frontier  were  still  held  by 
British  garrisons. 

On  the  22d  of  October,  1784,  a  treaty  was  consummated  at  Fort  Stanwix 
with  the  Six  Nations,  by  which  they  relinquished  to  Pennsylvania  all  of  their 
claims  to  the  northwest  portion  of  the  State,  to  a  line  parallel  with  the  south- 
ern boundary  of  New  York.  This  treaty  was  ratified  in  January,  1785,  at 
Fort  Mcintosh,  by  representatives  of  the  Ohio  tribes.  Thus  did  the  territory, 
of  which  Crawford  County  forms  a  part,  come  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Americans,  and  in  1785  surveyors  were  sent  by  the  State  into  the  newly 
acquired  country  to  survey  and  divide  the  lands  for  the  purpose  of  appro- 
priating a  portion  of  them  among  the  Pennsylvania  veterans  of  the  Revolution. 
The  first  military  occupation  of  northwestern  Pennsylvania  by  the  Ameri- 
cans occurred  in  the  spring  of  1787,  when  a  company  of  United  States  troops, 
amounting  in  all  to  eighty- seven  men,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Jonathan 
Hart,  arrived  from  Pittsburgh  at  the  mouth  of  French  Creek.  Not  liking  the 
location  of  the  old  forts,  Machault  and  Venango,  Capt.  Hart  selected  a  site 
on  the  south  bank  of  French  Creek,  about  half  a  mile  above  its  confluence 
with  the  Allegheny,  whereon  he  built  Fort  Franklin.  Samuel  Lord,  Luke 
Hill  and  John  Wentworth,  three  well-remembered  pioneers  of  Crawford 
County,  were  soldiers  in  Capt.  Hart's  Company,  while  about  a  dozen  hardy 
frontiersmen  accompanied  the  corps  with  the  intention  of  settling  in  the 
I  vicinity  of  the  fort.  A  garrison  of  about  100  men  was  kept  at  Fort  Frank- 
i  lin  until  1796,  when  a  strong,  wooden  building,  known  as  the  "Old  Garrison," 
'  was  erected  close  to  the  mouth  of  French  Creek  for  better  convenience  in 
receiving  provisions,  munitions,  etc.,  brought  by  boats  and  canoes  from  Pitts- 
burgh. The  troops  removed  from  the  fort  to  this  building,  which  they  con- 
f  tinned  to  occupy  until  1803,  when,  their  presence  becoming  unnecessary,  they 
were  withdrawn  from  Franklin  altogether.  The  fort  soon  went  entirely  to 
ruin,  but  the  garrison  building  remained  for  more  than  twenty  years,  being 
utilized  as  a  county  jail  fi'om  1805  to  1819.  Its  site  is  now  the  center  of 
French  Creek,  which  has  gradually  washed  away  the  southern  bank,  until  its 
bed  occupies  the  spot  whereon  the  "  Old  Garrison  "  stood. 

During  the  Indian  troubles  from  1791  to  1794,  the  troops  stationed  at 


Fort  Frauklin  rendered  important  service  to  the  Cussewago  settlement,  while 
the  settlers  were  several  times  compelled  to  leave  their  cabins  and  remove  to 
the  fort  to  escape  the  vengeance  of  the  savages.  In  the  spring  of  1791, 
Ensign  John  Jefiers,  of  the  First  Pennsylvania  Kegiment,  at  the  head  of 
thirty  men  and  three  Indians,  retm-ned  from  Lake  Erie,  where  he  had  been 
hunting  for  some  free  traders  whom  he  had  been  told  were  trading  with  the  r 
Indians  of  the  lake  region.  Ensign  Jeffers  arrived  at  "Mead's  block-house"  ' 
the  very  day  that  some  hostile  Indians  had  attacked  Cornelius  Van  Home,  \ 
Thomas  Ray  and  William  Gregg,  while  working  in  a  field  between  the  Cusse- 
wago and  French  Creeks,  killing  Gregg  and  capturing  Van  Home  and  Ray, 
both  of  whom  subsequently  escaped.  In  the  fall  and  winter  of  1791,  a  Ser-/^ 
geant  with  fifteen  men  guarded  the  settlement,  but  in  January,  1792,  this 
small  force  was  ordered  back  to  Fort  Franklin.  During  a  part  of  1793, 
Ensign  Lewis  Bond,  with  a  detachment  of  twenty- four  men,  was  stationed  at 
"  Mead's  block-house."  The  same  fall  Gen.  Wilkins  ordered  Cornelius  Van 
Home  to  raise  a  force  of  fifteen  men  for  guard  duty,  which  served  under  Mr. 
Van  Home  until  the  close  of  the  year.  The  following  year  Gen.  Gibson 
sent  Mr.  Van  Home  an  Ensign's  commission,  with  instructions  to  enlist  a  com- 
pany of  forty  or  fifty  men.  Most  of  the  settlers  joined  this  company,  which 
served  from  August  4  till  December  31  of  that  year,  and  a  regular  block-house 
was  erected  a  short  distance  southeast  of  "Mead's  block-house."  On  the  r2th 
of  August,  1794,  a  small  force  of  seven  men  was  sent  from  Fort  LeBoeuf  to 
assist  in  protecting  the  Mead  settlement  from  the  bands  of  Indians  then 
infesting  the  country. 

A  serious  misunderstanding  arose  between  the  State  and  the  Six  Nations 
over  the  acquisition  of  the  northern  part  of  Erie  County,  known  as  the  "  Tri- 
angle," which  was  not  indeed  in  the  territory  ceded  by  the  treaties  of  1784 
and  1785.  By  a  treaty  made  on  the  9th  of  January,  1789,  with  a  party  only 
of  the  Six  Nations,  they  acknowledged  "the  right  of  soil  and  jurisdiction  to 
and  over  "  the  Triangle  "to  be  vested  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania."  Some 
dissatisfaction  having  arisen  among  the  Seneca  tribe  in  consequence  of  this 
act,  the  Legislature  empowered  the  Governor  to  draw  a  warrant  for  $800  in 
favor  of  Cornplanter,  Halftown  and  Big  Tree,  in  trust  for  the  use  of  the  tribe 
and  in  full  satisfaction  of  all  demands,  in  consideration  of  which  the  said 
chiefs,  on  the  3d  of  February,  1791,  signed  a  release  of  all  claims  against  the 
State  for  themselves  and  their  people  forever.  On  the  3d  of  March,  1792, 
the  Triangle  was  purchased  from  the  United  States  by  the  Commonwealth,  for 
$151,640.25,  and  a  month  later  an  act  of  Assembly  was  passed  to  encourage 
its  settlement  by  white  people. 

Boats  and  canoes  left  Pittsburgh  on  the  16th  of  April,  by  way  of  the  Alle- 
gheny River,  the  stores  and  provisions  having  been  sent  in  advance.  By  the 
25th  of  April,  three  officers  and  seventy-seven  men  had  reached  Fort  Franklin. 
On  the  same  date  a  report  reached  headquarters  at  Pittsburgh  that  the  Indi- 
ans, incited  by  English  agents,  were  "meditating  an  opposition  to  the  de- 
signs of  the  Government  respecting  Presque  Isle,"  and  a  week  later  Capt. 
Ebenezer  Denny  wrote  to  the  Governor  his  apprehensions  that  "a  council 
holding  at  the  mouth  of  Buffalo  Creek  between  the  chiefs  of  the  Six  Nations 
and  the  British  may  terminate  unfavorably  to  our  establishment."  On  the  1st 
of  May,  a  Munsee  Indian  was  killed  at  Franklin  in  a  drunken  row  by  a  white 
man  named  Robertson.  This  added  greatly  to  the  feeling  among  the  aborig- 
ines. The  affair  was  settled  by  the  party  at  Franklin  raising  a  purse  of  $100 
and  paying  it  to  the  relatives  of  the  dead  man,  in  satisfaction  of  their  wrong, 
according  to  an  old  custom  among  the  Indians. 


The  troops  took  possession  of  the  forks  of  French  Creek,  about  two  miles 
below  the  old  post  of  Le  Boeuf,  on  or  near  the  11th  of  May,  where  they  built 
a  small  block-house,  pending  the  cutting  out  of  the  logs  which  obstructed  the 
navigation  of  the  stream.  From  this  point,  Gen.  John  Wilkins,  of  Pittsburgh, 
who  accompanied  the  expedition,  wrote  on  the  day  of  their  arrival  that  "  the 
British  are  determined  to  oppose  the  progress  of  the  State  troops  from  Lo  Bceuf 
to  Presquelsle,  by  sending  a  number  of  Indians  and  English  to  cut  them  off." 
In  a  few  days  more  the  detachment  reached  Le  Boeuf,  where  they  immediately 
ei-ected  two  small  picketed  blook-houses,  which,  Wilkins  reported,  "will  make 
them  safficiently  strong  until  the  re- enforcement  arrives  under  Capt.  Denny." 
The  latter  event  did  not  occur  until  the  24th  of  June.  It  was  the  intention 
to  establish  a  post  at  Presqne  Isle  forthwith,  but  Indian  opposition  delayed 
the  enterprise  until  the  spring  of  1795. 

On  the  4fch  of  July,  1794,  Capt.  Denny  reported  to  the  Governor  as  follows: 
"  Have  been  busy  erecting  a  stockade  post.  Moved  the  detachment  in  yester- 
day. Am  now  beyond  the  power  of  any  body  of  hostile  Indians.  None  have 
been  around  since  the  party  on  the  24th.  Hear  firing  almost  daily,  but  whether 
friends  or  foes  is  uncertain."  Andrew  Ellicott,  one  of  the  Commissioners 
appointed  by  the  State  to  lay  out  the  towns  of  Erie,  Waterford,  Franklin  and 
Warren,  wrote  from  Le  Boeuf  on  the  1st  of  August: 

"The  Indians  consider  themselves  as  our  enemies  and  that  we  are  theirs. 
From  this  consideration  they  never  come  near  the  garrison  except  as  spies, 
and  then  escape  as  soon  as  discovered."  Denny  notified  the  Governor  on  the 
same  date  that  they  had  four  block-houses  at  Le  Boeuf,  on  two  of  which  a  six- 
pounder  was  mounted,  the  others  not  being  calculated  for  cannon.  Over  each 
gate  was  a  swivel.  The  officers  occupied  their  tents  in  the  absence  of  more 
agi-eeable  quarters.  The  situation  he  regarded  as  excellent,  except  that  there 
was  a  hollow  way  parallel  with  the  rear  of  the  works  and  within  gunshot,  that 
would  "cover  any  number  of  Indians."  This  was  examined  every  morning 
before  the  gates  wei-e  thrown  open.  A  few  days  previous  two  or  three  Indians 
were  seen  "reviewing  the  plan,"  and  who  seemed  disappointed  when  a  white 
flag  was  hoisted.  The  troops  at  the  post  numbered  110,  inclusive  of  officers. 
Ellicott  regarded  the  garrison  as  being  "in  excellent  order,"  and  that  it  could, 
"if  supplied  with  provisions,  safely  bid  defiance  to  all  the  Indians  between  the 
Genesee  and  Mississippi  Rivers." 

The  treaties  and  deed  previously  referred  to  were  distasteful  to  a  large  ele- 
ment of  the  Six  Nations,  and  even  some  of  the  Senecas  refused  to  acquiesce 
in  them,  charging  that  Cornplanter  and  the  other  chiefs  had  been  bribed  to 
give  the  documents  their  signatures.  The  Indians  regarded  the  presence  of 
the  State  troops  with  great  disfavor,  and  determined  if  possible  to  prevent  the 
settlement  of  the  territory.  They  were  incited  to  this  course  by  English  emis- 
saries, who  hoped  that  by  a  rising  of  the  Indian  tribes  they  might  cripple  the 
infant  government  of  the  Union,  and  perhaps  I'estore  the  western  territory  to 
England.  To  placate  the  Indians  who  continued  sullen  and  threatening,  a 
council  was  held  at  the  Seneca  village,  on  the  site  of  Buffalo,  June  18,  1794, 
another  at  Fort  Le  Boeuf  June  24,  and  a  third  at  the  former  place  July  4,  of 
the  same  year,  at  all  of  which  the  savages  reiterated  their  determination  of 
preventing  a  garrison  being  stationed  at  Presque  Isle. 

Among  the  most  hostile  to  the  progress  of  the  Americans  was  the  celebrated 
Brandt,  head  of  the  Mohawk  tribe,  who  still  cherished  the  idea,  originated  by 
Pontiac,  of  building  up  a  great  Indian  confederacy  and  restricting  the  control 
of  the  Union  to  the  country  east  of  the  Allegheny.  The  following  letter, 
written  by  him  on  the  19th  of  July,  1794,  to  Gov.  Simcoe,  of  Upper  Canada, 

^  y^ 

%  s 



shows  in  a  clearer  light  the  aid  extended  to  the  hostile  Indians  by  the  English 

''In  regard  to  the  Presque  Isle  business,  should  we  not  get  an  answer  at 
the  time  limited,  it  is  our  business  to  push  those  fellows  hard.  *  *  Should 
those  fellows  (the  Americans)  not  go  off,  and  O'Bail  (Cornplanter)  continue  in 
the  same  opinion,  an  expedition  against  those  Yankees  must  of  consequence 
take  place.  His  Excellency  has  been  so  good  as  to  furnish  us  with  a  100  weight 
of  powder,  and  ball  in  proportion,  which  is  now  at  Fort  Erie,  opposite  Buftalo; 
but,  in  the  event  of  an  attack  upon  Le  Boeuf  people,  I  could  wish,  if  consist- 
ent, that  his  Excellency  in  addition  would  order  a  like  quantity  in  addition,  to 
be  at  Fort  Erie  in  order  to  be  in  readiness;  likewise,  I  would  hope  for  a  little 
assistance  in  provisions." 

It  may  be  stated  here  that  the  Six  Nations  were  dissuaded  from  joining  the 
confederacy  of  Western  Indians  to  oppose  the  Americans  chiefly  by  the  influ- 
ence of  Cornplanter.  His  course  cost  him  the  confidence  of  his  people,  but 
he  was  rewarded  by  the  thanks  of  the  State  and  United  States  Governments, 
and  received  liberal  donation.s  of  land  from  Pennsylvania  for  his  unwavering 
friendship  to  the  American  cause. 

On  the  10th  of  October,  1794,  Gen.  Wilkins  wrote  to  Gov.  Mifflin,  giving 
very  favorable  reports  of  affairs  at  Forts  Franklin  and  Le  Boeuf.  He  stated 
that  the  English  influence  over  the  Six  Nations  had  been  greatly  weakened  by 
the  defeat  of  the  Western  tribes  at  the  battle  of  "Fallen  Timbers,"  the  previ- 
ous August.  Some  of  the  Six  Nation  Indians  participated  in  that  battle,  and 
on  getting  back  told  the  most  terrifying  stories  of  Wayne's  skill  and  bravery. 
In  fact,  they  were  so  humbled  by  the  crushing  defeat  of  their  Western  breth- 
ren, that  they  readily  accepted  Cornplanter's  advice,  and  exhibited  no  further 
opposition  to  the  State's  plans  for  settling  the  territory  west  of  the  Allegheny 
River.  The  treaties  of  August  3  and  November  9,  1795,  with  the  Western 
tribes  and  Six  Nations  respectively,  resulted  in  a  permanent  peace,  and  from 
that  period  this  portion  of  the  State  began  to  improve  rapidly.  Repose  smiled 
vapon  the  West,  and  no  barrier  any  longer  presented  itself  to  the  occupancy  of 
the  country  by  that  hardy  class  of  men,  who  coming  from  the  older  settlements 
of  the  United  States,  or  escaping  from  the  tyrannical  laws  and  grinding  oppres- 
sion of  European  Governments,  became  here  on  easy  terms  proprietors  of  the 
soil,  and  found  among  the  hills  and  valleys  of  the  West  abundance  of  room 
and  a  peaceful  home  for  themselves  and  families. 




Pioneers  or  Fkench  Creek— David  and  John  Mead  Visit  the  Valley  in  1787 
—Appearance  of  the  Country  at  that  Time— First  Settlement  Made 
IN  May,  1788,  by  David,  John  and  Joseph  Mead,  Thomas  Martin,  John 
Watson,  James  Fitz  Kandolph,  Thomas  Grant,  Cornelius  Van  Horne  and 
Christopher  Snyder— They  Plow  and  Plant  a  Field  of  Corn  in  the 
Bottom  West  of  French  Creek— Selection  of  Lands— David  and  John 
Mead  Bring  out  Their  Families— Arrival  of  Darius  Mead,  Robert  Fitz 
Randolph  and  Frederick  Baum— First  Birth  in  the  Settlement- 
Biographies  OF  David  Mead,  John  Mead,  Cornelius  Van  Horne,  Robert 
Fitz  Randolph  and  Edward  Fitz  Randolph— The  Heritage  They  Left 
TO  Their  Descendants. 

IN  nearly  all  great  and  thoroughly  organized  armies  there  is  a  corps  of  act- 
ive, brave  men,  usually  volunteers,  whose  self-imposed  duty  it  is  to  go 
ahead  and  prepare  the  way  with  ax,  mattock  and  pick  for  the  advance  of  the 
fighting  rank  and  file.  They  are  called  pioneers,  and  are  armed  with  guns, 
as  well  as  implements  of  labor,  for  their  position  and  their  work  is  a  danger- 
ous one.  They  are  obliged  to  keep  a  constant  lookout  for  an  ambush,  in 
momentary  fear  of  a  sudden  attack,  for  the  enemy,  with  a  better  knowledge  of 
the  country,  is  liable  any  instant  to  hem  them  in  and  overpower  them  with  a 
superior  force.  The  men  who  pushed  their  way  into  the  wilderness  west  of 
the  Allegheny  Kiver,  along  French  Creek  and  its  tributaries,  and  all  those 
earlier  settlers  of  "Western  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio  from  the  river  to  the  lake 
were  the  pioneers  of  one  of  the  grandest  armies  that  earth  ever  knew.  It  was 
the  army  of  peace  and  civilization  that  came,  not  to  conquer  an  enemy  by 
blood,  carnage  and  ruin,  but  to  subdue  a  wilderness  by  patient  toil ;  to  make 
the  wild  valley  blossom  as  the  rose;  to  sweep  away  the  forest,  till  the  soil, 
make  fertile  fields  out  of  the  wooded  slopes,  and  build  houses,  which  were  to 
become  the  abodes  of  happiness  and  plenty.  The  pioneers  were  the  reliant 
vanguard  of  such  an  army  as  this. 

The  first  band  of  hardy  and  resolute  men  who  penetrated  the  valley  of 
French  Creek  with  the  intention  of  permanent  settlement,  wending  their  way 
up  that  stream  from  the  Allegheny,  found  a  land  fertile  as  heart  could  wish, 
fair  to  look  upon,  and  fragrant  with  the  thousand  fresh  odors  of  the  woods  in 
early  spring.  The  long,  cool  aisles  of  the  forest  led  away  into  mazes  of  ver- 
nal green,  where  the  swift  deer  bounded  by  unmolested,  and  as  yet  unscarred 
by  the  sound  of  the  woodman's  ax  or  the  sharp  ring  of  his  rifle.  They  looked 
upon  the  timbered  hills  and  the  tall  grass  of  the  rich  bottoms,  jeweled  with 
strange  and  brilliant  flowers,  where  once  the  Indian  had  his  fields  of  corn. 
All  about  them  were  displayed  the  lavish  bounties  of  Nature.  The  luxuriant 
growth  of  forest  and  wild  fruit-bearing  shrubs  and  vines,  gave  evidence  of  the 
strength  of  the  virgin  soil  and  the  kindness  of  the  climate. 

Such  were  the  scenes  that  everywhere  met  the  eye  of  David  and  John 
Mead,  who  in  the  summer  of  1787,  left  their  homes  in  Northumberland  County, 
Penn. ,  and  traveling  westward  until  they  reached  the  valley  of  French  Creek, 
explored  it  with  the  intention  of  making  it  their  future  abode.  These  men  had 
become  disgusted  with  the  difficulties  they  had  encountered  in  the  conflicting 
claims  of  Pennsylvania  and  Connecticut  to  the  lands  previously  settled  by  them 


in  the  Wyoming  Valley,  and  prepossessed  with  the  appearance  of  the  teri'itory 
now  embraced  in  Crawford  County,  on  their  return  to  Sunbury,  gave  a  glowing 
account  of  its  beauties  and  the  richness  of  its  soil.  In  the  spring  of  1788,  a 
company  was  formed  consisting  of  David  Mead,  John  Mead,  Joseph  Mead, 
Thomas  Martin,  John  Watson,  James  Fitz  Randolph  and  Thomas  Grant,  who 
were  also  joined  by  Cornelius  Van  Home  and  Christopher  Snyder,  who  ai-rived 
at  Sunbury,  from  New  Jersey,  about  the  time  the  party  was  ready  to  start  for 
French  Creek  Valley.  These  nine  persons  were  the  first  settlers  in  what  is 
now  the  county  of  Crawford. 

According  to  the  reminiscences  of  Cornelius  Van  Home,  the  party  reached 
French  Creek  on  the  12th  of  May  1788,  though  Rev.  Timothy  Alden,  in  a  biog- 
raphy of  Gen.  Mead,  published  in  the  Allegheny  Magazine  for  September,  1816, 
gives  1789  as  the  year  of  their  arrival,  but  the  former  is,  doubtless,  the  correct 
date.  They  encamped  and  passed  the  first  night  under  the  spreading  branches 
of  a  large  cherry  tree  that  stood  near  the  site  of  the  east  end  of  Mercer  Street 
bridge  in  the  south  part  of  Meadville,  and  spent  the  following  day  exploring 
the  lands  in  this  vicinity.  They  then  erected  a  temporary  dwelling  on  the  east 
bank  of  French  Creek,  which  they  crossed  above  the  mouth  of  Cussewago,  and 
commenced  plowing  in  one  of  the  fields  that  bore  evidences  of  pre-historic 
occupancy.  Four  horses  were  hitched  to  the  plow,  which  was  held  by  David 
Mead,  while  Cornelius  Van  Home  rode  one  of  the  horses  and  thus  drove  the 
team.  They  plowed  some  eight  or  ten  acres,  which  they  planted  in  corn, 
but  the  June  freshet  in  the  creek  destroyed  the  growing  crop.  As  soon  as  the 
water  subsided,  the  field  was  replanted,  and  though  not  fully  matured  on  ac- 
count of  the  lateness  of  the  season,  it  yet  yielded  sufficiently  to  allay  all  fears  of 
want  in  that  direction.  Thus  was  a  permanent  settlement  effected  in  Crawford 
County,  and  the  little  band  of  hardy  pioneers,  the  nucleus  around  which  subse- 
quent settlers  gathered,  were  venturing  farther  into  the  dence  forest  then  cover- 
ing the  land. 

Of  the  nine  persons  forming  the  original  pioneer  band  to  the  valley  of 
French  Creek,  but  four,  David  Mead,  John  Mead,  James  Fitz  Randolph  and 
Cornelius  Van  Home,  became  permanent  settlers  of  the  county.  Soon  after 
reaching  their  destination,  a  selection  of  land  took  place,  David  Mead  choos- 
ing a  tract  on  the  west  bank  of  French  Creek,  immediately  north  of  the  island, 
while  John  Mead's  selection  adjoined  his  brothers'  on  the  north.  James  Fitz 
Randolph's  choice  was  a  tract  lying  about  two  miles  south  of  the  site  of  Mead- 
ville, and  east  of  the  creek,  Thomas  Grant  selected  the  land  whereon  Meadville 
was  subsequently  laid  out,  and  Cornelius  Van  Home  chose  a  farm  about  a  mile 
and  a  half  south  of  Grant,  but  on  the  west  side  of  French  Creek,  Early  in 
the  fall  of  the  same  year,  Thomas  Grant,  weary  of  the  trials  and  dangers  of 
frontier  life,  abandoned  his  land  and  returned  to  Northumberland  County. 
David  Mead  at  once  took  up  the  Grant  tract  and  built  a  large  log  house,  sub- 
sequently known  as  "Mead's  Block-house,"  near  the  site  of  James  E.  McFar- 
land's  residence  on  Water  Street,  in  Meadville.  He  was  the  owner  of  three 
tracts  of  land,  called  in  the  patents  " Meadville,"  "Mill  Tract"  and  "  Cusse- 
wago Island."  Joseph  Mead,  Thomas  Martin,  John  Watson  and  Christopher 
Snyder  are  not  known  to  have  made  any  selections,  and  remained  only  a  brief 
period  in  this  locality. 

In  the  autumn  of  1788,  David  and  John  Mead  went  back  to  Northumber- 
land County  for  their  families,  and  brought  them  to  their  respective  cabins, 
which  they  had  previously  erected,  and  these  were  the  first  homes  of  civiliza- 
tion established  on  French  Creek,  The  following  year  (1789),  Darius  Mead, 
the  fatLer  of  David  and   John  Mead,   Robert  Fitz  Randolph  and  Frederick 


Baiim  brought  out  their  families,  adding  considerable  in  strength  and  numbers 
to  the  little  colony.  The  first-mentioned  made  his  son  David's  house  his 
home  until  the  breaking-out  of  Indian -hostilities.  Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  settled 
some  two  miles  south  of  "Mead's  Block-house,"  on  land  selected  the  previous 
year  by  his  son,  James,  while  Mr.  Baum  located  about  a  mile  further  down 
French  Creek,  both  being  within  the  present  limits  of  Mead  Township. 

In  1789  occurred  the  first  birth  in  the  settlement,  viz.,  Sarah,  daughter  of 
David  and  Agnes  (Wilson)  Mead,  who  was  the  first  white  child  born  within 
the  territory  now  comprising  Crawford  County,  and  doubtless  the  first  (except- 
ing the  French)  in  northwestern  Pennsylvania  west  of  the  xlllegheny  River. 
She  here  grew  to  womanhood,  and  in  September,  1816,  was  married  to  Rev. 
James  Satterfield,  of  Mercer  County,  Penn. ,  where  she  resided  until  her  death. 

These  families  were  soon  joined  by  others,  who  had  heard  of  the  vacant 
lands  and  the  fertility  of  the  soil  along  French  Creek;  and  thus,  in  process  of 
time,  each  one  adding  something  to  the  wealth  of  the  settlement,  they  became 
surrounded  with  some  of  the  comforts  of  civilized  life.  But  it  must  not  be 
supposed  that  this  desired  end  was  attained  without  enduring  much  toil  and 
privation  and  encountering  great  danger.  It  is  perhaps  impossible  for  us 
after  the  lapse  of  nearly  one  hundred  years  to  appreciate  fully  the  extent  of 
these  privations,  toils  and  dangers.  Yet  we  can  form  some  idea  of  them  when 
we  reflect  that  at  first  it  was  a  struggle  for  life,  as  all  provisions  necessary  for 
their  support  had  to  be  transported  from  Pittsburgh  or  the  Susquehanna  set- 
tlements. They  were  in  the  heart  of  the  wilderness,  far  from  the  scenes  of 
their  earlier  years,  surrounded  by  a  savage  foe,  and  knew  not  at  what  hour 
they  might  be  summoned  to  deadly  strife.  Nevertheless,  having  come  to  stay, 
they  remained  in  possession  of  their  lands,  except  when  driven  therefrom  by 
the  Indian  raids  of  1791-92  and  1793,  and  many  of  them  when  laid  beneath 
the  sod  left  their  possessions  as  a  rich  legacy  to  their  children. 

David  Mead  was  born  at  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  January  17,  1752,  and  was  the 
eldest  son  of  Darius  and  Ruth  (Curtis)  Mead,  natives  of  Connecticut,  who 
purchased  a  farm  and  removed  to  Hudson  immediately  after  their  marriage. 
Here  the  family  lived  until  David  arrived. at  the  years  of  manhood,  when  the 
homestead  was  sold  and  some  valuable  land  obtained  in  Wyoming  Valley, 
under  a  Pennsylvania  title,  but  in  consequence  of  adverse  claims  under  Con- 
necticut titles,  the  Meads  left  their  land  and  took  up  their  residence  about 
six  miles  above  the  town  of  Northumberland,  on  the  west  bank  of  the  North 
Branch  of  the  Susquehanna  River.  About  1774  our  subject  married  Agnes 
Wilson,  a  daughter  of  John  and  Janet  Wilson,  pioneers  of  Northumberland 
County,  who  bore  him  nine  childi-en,  five  of  whom  lived  to  maturity,  as  fol- 
lows: William,  Darius,  Elizabeth,  Sarah  and  Margaret.  At  an  early  period 
in  the  Revolutionary  war  the  Indians  began  their  savage  onslaughts  upon  the 
defenseless  frontier  settlements  of  Pennsylvania,  and  during  one  of  those 
raids,  Asahel,  the  second  eldest  son  of  Darius  Mead,  fell  a  victim  to  Indian 
barbarity.  The  subject  of  this  sketch  removed  his  family  to  Sunbury,  Penn., 
where  he  engaged  in  keeping  a  tavern,  also  erected  and  operated  a  distillery. 
By  the  close  of  the  war  he  had  accumulated  a  handsome  property,  and  soon 
after  the  dawn  of  peace  returned  to  his  land  in  Wyoming  Valley,  supposing 
that  the  conflicting  claims,  as  to  title,  were  settled.  In  this,  however,  he  was 
doomed  to  disappointment,  for  after  expending  considerable  money  in  improve- 
ments, and  undergoing  much  vexation  in  trying  to  obtain  a  clear  title  to  his 
land,  he  was,  at  the  end  of  three  years,  compelled  to  hastily  collect  a  small 
portion  of  his  household  effects  and  with  his  family  fly  for  safety  to  Sunbury. 
Here  he  immediately  renewed  his  former  pursuits,  but  destitute  of  capital,  and 


a  change  in  the  times  rendering  business  not  very  hicvative,  his  utmost  efforts 
could  effect  little  more  than  a  bare  support  for  his  family. 

In  the  meantime  he  had  heard  of  the  rich  lands  coming  into  market 
west  of  the  Allegheny  River,  and  in  the  summer  of  17S7,  accompanied  by  his 
brother  John,  he  visited  the  valley  of  French  Creek.  The  following  spring 
(1788)  they  were  joined  at  Sunbury  by  seven  others — all  of  whom  came  to 
the  vicinity  of  Meadville.  In  the  fall  of  1788  General  Mead,  having  erected 
a  substantial  log  house  near  the  site  of  James  E.  McFarland's  residence,  on 
Water  Street,  in  Meadville,  returned  for  his  family,  and  was  soon  comfortably 
settled  on  the  banks  of  French  Creek.  One  of  his  first  enterprises  was  the 
erection  of  a  saw-mill  in  1789-90,  on  the  east  bank  of  French  Creek,  just 
south  of  where  the  "  Red  Mill,"  now  stands.  It  was  operated  by  water  power, 
a  race  being  built  across  from  Mill  Run,  which  furnished  the  power.  To  this 
was  afterward  added  a  grist-mill,  which  he  also  carried  on  for  some  years. 
Three  years  passed  away  peacefully,  when  the  little  settlement  was  tempora- 
rily broken  up  by  Indian  incursions,  which  continued  off  and  on  for  the  suc- 
ceeding four  years,  the  settlers  being  forced  to  leave  their  improvements 
several  times  and  go  to  the  fort  at  Franklin  for  safety.  Before  this  period 
Gen.  Mead  had  carried  on  an  extensive  correspondence  with  the  Pennsylvania 
authorities  relative  to  contending  claims  to  the  Wyoming  lands,  and  sometime 
after  settling  on  French  Creek,  he  obtained  from  the  State  a  remuneration  in 
land,  to  the"  amount  of  an  official  valuation  of  those  of  which  he  had  been 
dispossessed  in  Wyoming  Valley.  His  father  was  killed  by  the  Indians  in 
1791,  and  his  mother  died  at  Meadville  during  the  summer  of  1794,  being  the 
first  death  which  occurred  from  natural  causes  among  the  white  settlers  of 
Crawford  County. 

In  1795  Gen.  Mead's  wife  died,  and  the  following  year  he  was  married  to 
Jennett  Finney,  a  daughter  of  Robert  Finney,  to  whom  were  born  six  children: 
five,  Robert,  Alexander,  Catherine,  Jane  and  Maria  growing  to  maturity. 
Of  his  children  by  both  marriages,  William  removed  to  the  West  and  there 
died;  Darius  spent  his  life 'in  Crawford  and  Venango  Counties,  but  his  latter 
days  were  passed  in  Venango  Township,  in  the  northern  part  of  Crawford; 
Elizabeth  married  the  Hon.  Patrick  Farrelly,  and  died  in  Meadville,  August 
24,  1811;  Sarah  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  James  Satterfield,  of  Mercer  County, 
Penn.,  and  there  died;  Margaret  married  William  Moore,  and  died  in  Venango 
County,  Penn. ;  Robert  and  Alexander  removed  to  the  West,  and  spent  their  lives 
on  the  frontier;  Catherine  married  Lot  Dunham,  and  died  in  Meadville;  Jane 
became  the  wife  of  the  Rev.  William  Hutchinson,  a  Presbyterian  preacher 
who  located  at  Bucyrus,  Ohio,  where  she  died;  and  Maria  married  William 
Gill,  and  resided  until  her  death  in  Meadville. 

Prior  to  his  coming  to  French  Creek,  Gen.  Mead  held  the  office  of  Justice 
of  the  Peace,  and  on  the  31st  of  March,  1790,  he  and  Thomas  Rees,  of  Erie, 
were  appointed  by  Gov.  Mifflin,  Justices  of  the  Peace  for  the  district  consist- 
ing of  "the  Township  of  Mead  in  the  county  of  Allegheny,"  the  official  term 
being  " so  long  as  he  shall  live  and  behave  himself  well."  Mead  Township 
then  embraced  the  whole  of  what  is  now  Crawford  and  Erie  Counties,  while 
the  block-house  erected  in  1794  was  one  of  the  places  designated  for  holding 
elections.  Upon  the  organization  of  Crawford  County,  March  12.  ISOO,  be 
was  appointed  one  of  the  Associate  Judges,  but  resigned  the  following  Decem- 
ber. In  September,  1803.  he  was  again  appointed,  and  served  continuously 
on  the  bench  until  the  time  of  his  death.  He  was  a])pointed  Major-General  of 
the  Fourteenth,  and  afterward  of  the  Sixteenth  Division  Pennsylvania  Militia, 
by  Gov.  McKean,  and  re-appointed  by  Gov.    Snyder,  and   during  the  war  of 


1812-15,  rendered  important  services  to  Commodore  Perry,  in  promptly 
marching  with  his  corps  to  the  defense  of  Erie,  in  the  summer  of  1813,  when 
the  fleet  then  in  process  of  construction  in  Presque  Isle  Bay  was  threatened 
with  destruction  by  the  enemy.  Gen.  Mead  continued  to  discharge  the  duties 
of  this  position  until  a  law  was  enacted  annulling  all  commissions  in  the 

In  1797,  Gen.  Mead  built  a  frame  residence  at  the  head  of  Water  Street, 
now  the  home  of  Dr.  Edward  Ellis,  and  here  he  died  August  23,  1816,  in  the 
sixty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  His  appearance  was  striking,  being  six  feet  three 
and  a  half  inches  in  height,  and  built  in  proportion,  and  he  was  also  a  man 
of  great  bodily  strength.  His  features  were  large,  regular  and  strongly 
marked  with  the  lines  indicative  of  reflection  ;  and  though  generally  sedate 
and  grave,  he  was  always  aifable,  easy  of  access,  and  a  total  stranger  to  every- 
thing savoring  of  ostentation.  He  was  a  kind  and  faithful  husband,  an 
affectionate  father,  a  stanch  friend  and  a  patriotic  citizen,  while  his  home  was 
noted  for  the  generous  hospitality  extended  to  all  who  came  within  its  pre- 
cincts. He  possessed  but  a  limited  education,  as  he  was  entii'ely  indebted  to  his 
mother  for  whatever  instruction  he  had  received  during  his  childhood  days. 
Highly  appreciating  the  advantages  of  an  education,  he  had  fitted  up  at  his 
own  expense  the  block-house,  which  stood  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Water 
Street  and  Steer's  Alley  for  school  purposes,  and  here  the  first  school  in  Craw- 
ford County  was  opened  in  1798-99.  He  subseqiiently  presented  this  prop- 
erty to  the  Meadville  Female  Seminary.  In  1800  he  was  mainly  instrumental 
in  raising  the  $4,000  to  build  and  establish  the  Meadville  Academy,  and  was 
also  one  of  the  charter  members  in  founding  Allegheny  College,  as  well  as 
one  of  its  most  generous  benefactors. 

General  Mead  was  a  man  of  strong  passions,  and  was  sometimes  very  irrita- 
ble, yet  his  principal  characteristics  were  persevering  patience  and  unrelaxing 
application  to  whatever  he  undertook  or  considered  his  duty.  His  vigorous 
mind  was  ever  active,  and  constantly  occupied  with,  the  affairs  of  life,  and  had 
he  been  favored  with  a  liberal  education,  his  talents  would  have  entitled  him 
to  the  first  positions  in  the  gift  of  his  adopted  State.  He  was  the  leading 
spirit  of  the  pioneer  band,  who  first  settled  the  valley  of  French  Creek,  and 
while  his  name  will  forever  be  perpetuated  in  the  city  of  Meadville,  which  he 
founded  and  fostered  during  the  first  years  of  its  existence,  his  memory  will 
be  gratefully  cherished  as  one  of  the  pioneer  fathers,  who  laid  the  foundation 
of  one  of  the  wealthiest  and  most  flourishing  counties  in  western  Pennsyl- 

John  Mead  was  born  at  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  July  22,  1756,  and  removed  with 
his  parents  to  Wyoming,  thence  to  the  north  branch  of  the  Susquehanna.  He 
was  married  in  Northumberland  County,  and  in  1787,  accompanied  David  to 
the  valley  of  French  Creek,  being  also  one  of  the  original  nine  who  made 
the  first  permanent  settlement  in  this  county,  in  the  spring  of  1788.  In  the 
fall  of  the  latter  year  he  returned  with  his  brother  to  Sunbury,  and  brought 
out  his  family.  His  land  was  the  tract  immediately  above  Vallonia,  and  his 
cabin  stood  on  the  west  bank  of  French  Creek,  just  east  of  the  fair  grounds, 
and  between  the  stream  and  the  ravine.  Here  he  lived  with  his  family, 
excepting  during  the  dangerous  period,  from  1791  to  1894  inclusive,  which  he 
spent  near  the  block-house  of  his  brother,  or  at  Franklin,  working  on  his  farm 
whenever  the  state  of  the  tiriies  would  allow  him  to  prosecute  his  labors. 
With  the  close  of  Indian  hostilities,  Mr.  Mead  was  enabled  to  devote  all  his 
energy  to  the  improvement  of  his  land,  and  being  a  very  quiet,  retiring  man 
we  hear  nothing  of  him  in  connection  with  public  afairs.     He  died  in  June, 


1819,  leaving  five  sons  and  one  daughter,  viz:  John,  William,  Joseph,  Asahel, 
Chambers  and  Polly.  The  three  first  mentioned  removed  to  Warren  County, 
Penn.,  and  there  died.  Asahel  went  to  Missouri,  and  died  in  that  State;  Polly 
married  John  Camp,  who,  with  his  family  removed  to  Missouri;  and  Chambers 
resided  until  his  death  on  the  old  homestead  in  Vernon  Township,  leaving 
four  sons  and  one  daughter,  all  of  whom  live  in  this  county. 

Cornelius  Van  Home  was  born  in  Huntington  County,  N.  J.,  December 
16,  1750,  and  was  a  son  of  Thomas  and  Jane  (Ten  Eyck)  Van  Home,  natives 
of  New  Jersey,  of  Holland  descent.  Cornelius  was  the'eldest  in  a  family  of 
eight  children — five  sons  and  three  daughters — and  in  1757  removed  with  his 
parents  to  Sussex  County,  in  the  same  State,  where  he  grew  up,  receiving  in 
his  boyhood  but  three  months'  schooling.  His  father  was  twice  elected  to  the 
Provincial  Legislature  of  New  Jersey,  dying  during  his  second  term,  and  was 
also  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  an  Associate  Judge  of  Sussex  County.  He 
was  the  owner  of  a  mill,  and  here  Cornelius  learned  the  milling  business, 
which  in  after  years  proved  of  great  advantage  to  him.  Our  subject  served 
in  the  Kevolutionary  war,  and  upon  the  death  of  his  father  inherited  several 
hundred  acres  of  land  in  the  Wyoming  Valley.  This  land  was  located  in 
Northampton  County,  and  held  by  him  under  a  Pennsylvania  title,  being  a 
part  of  the  territory  over  which  so  much  trouble  arose  between  Pennsylvania 
and  Connecticut  claimants.  In  1784  he  removed  from  Sussex  County,  N.  J. , 
to  his  land  in  Wyoming  Valley,  but  in  the  fall  of  that  year  he  with  the  other 
Pennsylvanians  were  driven  off  their  lands  by  the  claimants  from  Connecticut. 
Throughout  this  conflict  Mr.  Van  Home  took  a  leading  part  on  behalf  of  the 
Pennsylvania  claimants,  whose  titles  were  subsequently  confirmed  by  the 
courts,  but  it  was  not  till  long  afterward  that  they  received  any  compensation 
for  the  lands  of  which  they  had  been  dispossessed  by  Connecticut  intruders. 

During  these  troubles  Mr.  Van  Home  had  heard  of  the  new  lands  just 
opened  for  settlement  west  of  the  Allegheny  River,  and  concluded  to  explore 
them.  In  the  spring  of  1788  he  and  Christopher  Snyder  left  New  Jersey 
in  a  cart  with  two  horses  and  a  cow,  and  upon  reaching  Sunbury,  Penn., 
joined  the  Meads,  who  were  about  starting  West  to  settle  in  French  Creek 
Valley,  which  they  had  visited  the  previous  year.  The  party  arrived  at  their 
destination  on  the  12th  of  May,  1788,  and  Van  Home  selected  a  homestead 
west  of  French  Creek,  about  a  mile  and  a-half  south  of  the  confluence  of  the 
Cussewago  with  that  stream,  upon  which  was  standing  an  unoccupied  Indian 
hut.  The  plowing  and  planting  of  a  fleld  of  corn  by  the  little  band  of 
pioneers  above  the  junction  of  Cussewago  with  French  Creek  has  been  pre* 
viously  related  in  this  chapter.  David  Mead  and  Mr.  Van  Home  were  the 
leading  spirits  in  this  first  attempt  at  agriculture  by  the  white  settlers. 

In  October,  1788,  his  brother,  Jacob  Van  Home,  and  brother-in-law,  Arch- 
ibald Davison,  with  Davison's  father,  came  out  from  New  Jersey  to  see  the 
country,  and  after  a  brief  visit  returned  home  taking  our  subject  with  them. 
He  remained  in  New  Jersey  until  the  fall  of  1789,  when  he  came  back  to  the 
settlement,  but  about  Christmas  again  returned  to  his  native  State.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1790,  he  made  his  third  trip  from  the  East,  accompanied  by  Thomas 
Lansing  and  Peter  and  Mathias  Colscher,  with  a  wagon  and  team,  but  on 
reaching  Pittsburgh  and  finding  no  road  thence  to  the  Cussewago  settlement, 
he  sold  his  wagon  and  left  his  horses  for  the  winter  close  to  Pittsburgh,  whence 
he  journeyed  in  a  canoe  up  the  Allegheny  and  French  Creek  to  the  site  of 
Meadville.  The  story  of  the  abandonment  of  the  valley  in  the  spring  of 
1791,  by  the  few  hardy  pioneers  then  living  here,  the  svibsequent  return  of 
Van  Home  and  two  companions,  William  Grregg  and  Thomas  Ray,   together 


with  the  killing  of  Gregg  by  the  Indians,  and  the  capture  and  subsequent 
escape  of  Van  Home  and  Ray,  will  be  found  in  the  succeeding  chapter,  to  which 
we  refer  the  reader  for  a  full  account  of  the  thrilling  iocidents  connected 

Soon  after  Van  Home  reached  Fort  Franklin,  upon  his  escape  from  the 
Indians,  he  returned  to  New  Jersey,  but  in  the  fall  again  came  to  French 
Creek,  where  he  found  a  Sergeant  and  fifteen  men  guarding  the  settlement. 
He  and  Mathew  Wilson  were  engaged  by  David  Mead  to  operate  his  saw-mill, 
which  stood  just  south  of  the  "  Red  Mill "  site  on  Water  Street,  in  Meadville. 
They  continued  in  Mead's  employ  until  January,  1792,  when  the  mill  was 
closed  on  account  of  the  stream  which  furnished  the  power  freezing  solid. 
The  soldiers  were  withdrawn  to  Fort  Franklin  about  the  same  time,  and  all 
j  of  the  settlers,  excepting  Van  Home  and  Wilson,  removed  to  the  fort;  but 
I  these  two  frontiersmen  with  four  friendly  Indians,  remained  throughout  the 
I  winter  and  spring  at  "Mead's  Block-house."  They  purchased  two  young 
panthers  from  the  Indians,  and  in  the  summer  of  1792,  traveled  East  with 
the  animals,  exhibiting  at  Pittsburgh,  Philadelphia,  New  York  and  scores  of 
smaller  towns  on  their  route.  Wilson,  who  was  a  dark,  swarthy  man,  dressed 
in  the  skins  of  wild  beasts,  and  while  exhibiting  the  panthers  danced  and  sang 
Indian  songs,  and  told  in  a  swaggering  manner  blood-curdling  stories  of 
hair-breadth  escapes  from  the  savages  of  the  West,  as  well  as  of  the  many  per- 
sons he  had  rescued  from  Indian  captivity,  all  of  which  was  pure  fiction,  yet 
brought  in  the  dimes  and  pleased  their  audiences.  The  partnership  was 
finally  dissolved,  each  taking  one  of  the  panthers  and  dividing  the  profits. 
Van  Home  soon  disposed  of  his  pet,  and  went  on  a  visit  to  his  mother,  in  New 
Jersey,  thence  returned  to  the  Mead  settlement. 

The  fall  of  1793  found  the  French  Greek  Valley  almost  abandoned  for  the 
more  safe  proximity  of  Fort  Franklin.     In  October  Gen.  Wilkins  wrote  Van 
Home  to  raise  a  Sergeant's  command  of  fifteen  men  for  guard  duty,  which  he 
jdid,  and  continued  in  service  until  the  close  of  the  year.     In  the  summer  of 
|l794.  Gen.  Gibson  sent  him  an  Ensign's  commission  with  instructions  to  enlist 
/forty  or  fifty  men  for  frontier  duty.      This  company,  to  which  nearly  all  of  the 
/  settlers  on  French  Creek  belonged,  erected  a  block-house  that  year  on   the 
northeast  corner  of  Water  Street  and  Steer's  Alley.     The  command  was  in  act- 
ive service,  though  stationed  at  Meadville  from  the  4th  of  August  until  Decem- 
Uber  31,  1794,  scouting  through  the  surrounding  forests  and  guarding  against 
jlndian  surprise.     In  1795,   Gen.  Gibson  forwarded  to  him  a  Captain's  com- 
/ mission  with  orders  to  raise  a  company  which  was  to  assist  in  protecting  the 
1  surveyors  and  workmen  then  engaged  in  laying  out  and  building  a  road  from 
;  Waterford  to  Erie.     This  company  was  on    duty  in  that  capacity  from    June 
until  the  close  of  the  year.      Upon  the  expiration  of  his  last  term  of  military 
service  he  settled  permanently  on  his  farm  of  over  400  acres  below  Meadville. 
where  he  spent  the  remaining  years  of  his  life. 

Mr.  Van  Home  was  married  September  27,  1798,  to  Sarah  Dunn,  a 
daughter  of  James  and  Priscilla  Dunn,  natives  of  New  Jersey,  who  settled  in 
Crawford  County  in  1794.  Mrs.  Van  Horne  was  born  in  New  Jersey,  April 
12,  1773,  and  bore  him  the  following  children  :  Jane,  July  10,  1799,  married 
George  Anderson  and  died  in  this  county  ;  James,  April  22,  1801,  died  in  this 
county;  Priscilla,  December  10,  1803,  married  T.  J.  Fox,  Alden,  and  died  in 
Pittsburgh  ;  Harriet,  June  9,  1805,  died  unmarried  in  this  county  ;  Thomas, 
July  26,  1809,  still  residing  on  the  old  homestead,  settled  by  his  father  ;  Cor- 
nelius, March  3,  1812,  died  in  this  county.  Mr.  Van  Horne  was  a  short,  stout, 
rugged  man,  possessing  great  muscular  power,  and  was  regarded  a  model  fron- 

f^  ^^fe-^ 


(2^^^7^<i^-u^   y^  0^  ^'^^-<^^^(-^ 


tiersman.  He  lived  to  nearly  ninety-six  years  of  age,  but  both  body  and  mind 
had  become  frail  ere  he  Avas  called  from  the  scenes  of  life.  He  died  July  24, 
1846,  and  his  widow  followed  him  the  succeeding  March,  after  a  wedded  life 
of  nearly  half  a  century.  Mr.  Van  Home  was  of  a  quiet,  peaceable  disposition, 
a  kind  hu-sband  and  father,  a  faithful  citizen  and  an  honest  man. 

Robert  Fitz  Randolph  died  at  his  farm  south  of  Meadville  July  16,  1830, 
in  the  eighty-ninth  year  of  his  age.  He  was  born  in  Essex  County,  N.  J., 
about  1741,  and  came  of  Scotch  ancestry.  He  married  when-  quite  young, 
and  in  1771  removed  with  his  family  to  Northampton,  now  Lehigh 
County,  Penn.;  thence  in  1773  to  Northumberland  County,  then  the  western 
frontier  of  the  State.  In  1776  the  Indians  swooped  down  iTpon  the  settlers  of 
that  locality,  killing  many  and  driving  the  balance  from  their  homes.  Mr. 
Fitz  Randolph  lied  with  his  family  to  Berks  County,  but  the  following  year 
returned  to  his  deserted  home,  and  soon  after  joined  Col.  William  Cook's 
regiment,  and  fought  in  the  battle  of  Germantown  October  8,  1777.  He 
served  only  a  brief  period  when  he  was  discharged  and  returned  to  his  home 
on  the  Susquehanna.  Another  raid  was  made  upon  the  settlement  by  the 
cruel  and  unrelenting  savages,  who  murdered  and  pillaged  along  the  whole 
frontier.  Finding  no  prospect  of  peace  or  safety  for  his  family,  he  went  back 
to  his  native  State  where  they  would  at  least  be  secure  from  the  terrors  of  the 
scalping-knife.  He  then  re-entered  the  army  and  served  until  the  close  of  the 
war.  Upon  the  dawn  of  a  glorious  peace,  in  1 783,  Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  returned 
to  Northumberland  County,  Penn,,  and  settled  on  Shamokin  Creek,  where  he 
resided  until  1789,  when  he  came  with  his  family  to  the  valley  of  French 
Creek,  arriving  at  the  site  of  Meadville  on  the  6th  of  July.  As  previously 
related  in  this  chapter,  his  son,  James  Fitz  Randolph,  was  one  of  the  nine  who 
came  out  in  1788,  and  upon  the  land  selected  by  James,  some  two  miles  south 
of  the  site  of  Meadville,  in  what  is  now  Mead  Township,  his  father  settled 
and  resided  until  his  death. 

Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  was  in  his  seventy-second  year  when  the  war  of  1812- 
15  broke  out,  and  on  the  first  call  for  volunteers  he  started  for  Erie,  with  four 
of  his  sons  and  two  grandsons  to  offer  his  services  to  his  country.  Upon 
arriving  at  Lake  Conneauttee,  in  Erie  County,  he  was  persuaded  by  some 
friends  to  return  home,  nevertheless  the  prompt  action  demonstrates  the  fiery 
patriotism  with  which  this  old  pioneer  was  imbued.  He  was  the  father  of 
five  sons  and  two  daughters,  viz. :  Esaac,  died  in  this  county  in  September, 
1854;  James,  the  first  of  the  family  to  come  to  this  valley,  died  on  his  farm 
in  Mead  Township  in  September,  1835;  Edward,  removed  to  the  West  and 
there  died;  Robert,  died  in  this  county;  Taylor,  also  spent  his  life  here;  Sarah, 
married  Kennard  Hamilton,  and  moved  to  Iowa,  and  Margaret  married  Will- 
iam Jones,  of  Mead  Township.  Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  was  a  man  who  mingled 
little  in  the  controversies  and  cares  of  public  life.  He  cultivated  by  precept, 
as  well  as  by  example  peace  on  earth  and  good  will  toward  men.  The  friend 
who  visited  his  home  was  sure  to  receive  a  cordial  welcome,  while  the  stranger 
or  unfortunate  were  never  sent  away  empty-handed.  Old  and  full  of  days  he 
went  down  to  the  grave  without  leaving  behind  him  a  single  enemy. 

Of  his  children,  Edward  Fitz  Randolph  took  the  most  prominent  part  in 
the  early  events  of  this  region.  He  was  born  in  what  is  now  Lehigh  County, 
Penn.,  March  1,  1772,  and  was  in  his  eighteenth  year  when  the  family  removed 
to  the  valley  of  French  Creek.  He  served  as  a  volunteer  in  1791,  doing  duty 
at  Fort  Franklin  from  April  1  until  July,  when  he  went  to  Pittsburgh,  and  in 
the  spring  of  1792  entered  the  Government  employ  in  transporting  provisions 
from  that  point  to  Fort  Franklin.     During  the  year  1792  he  and  Daniel  Ran- 


8om  were  sent  to  build  a  mill  for  Coraplanter,  at  his  village  on  the  Allegheny 

\  Eiver.  Ransom,  who  was  the  millwright,  did  not,  for  some  reason  begin  the 
work,  and  after  remaining  at  Cornplanter's  village  about  four  months,  Mr. 

I      Fitz  Randolph  returned  to  his  former  occupation  of  transporting  provisions. 

/      A  part  of  the  season  of  1793  he  supplied  Ensign  Bond's  command,  then  sta- 

/       tioned  at  "  Mead's  Block-house."     In  September  of  that  year  he  was  employed 

by  Maj.  Isaac  Craig,  the  Government  Quartermaster  at  Pittsburgh,  to  go  down 

the  Ohio  with  Col.  Clark  in  charge  of  a  boat  loaded  with  ammunition  for  Gen. 

Wayne's  army,  then  organizing  at  Fort  Washington  (Cincinnati).      Mr.  Fitz 

\  Randolph  returned  to  Pittsburgh  in  December,  thence  to  the  Mead  settlement. 
In  May,  1794,  he  with  several  other  pioneers  of  French  Creek  took  a  lumber 
raft  fron^  David  Mead's  mill  down  the  stream  to  the  Allegheny,  thence  to  Pitts- 
burgh. He  was  there  engaged  by  Gen.  John  Wilkins  to  pilot  Capt.  Ebenezer 
Denny  through  the  forest  to  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  but  on  arriving  at  Meadville  Mr. 
Fitz  Randolph  was  taken  sick,  and  his  brother,  James,  conducted  the  officers 
the  remaining  distance. 

Upon  his  convalescence  he  again  went  to  Pittsburgh,  and  in  July,  1794, 
joined  Capt.  John  Heath  on  his  way  to  Fort  Franklin,  with  a  re-enforcemeat 
for  that  garrison,  whence  he  came  to  Meadville.  About  the  first  of  August,  a 
soldier  having  been  killed  by  the  Indians  near  Fort  Franklin,  Capt.  Heath 
wrote  to  Robert  Fitz  Randolph  for  some  men  competent  to  act  as  scouts  or 
spies,  and  Luke  Hill,  John  Wentworth,  John  Baum  and  Edward  Fitz  Ran- 
dolph were  recommended  for  the  work.  Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  was  engaged  in 
this  dangerous  service,  and  in  carrying  expresses  from  Pittsburgh  to  Fort  Le 
Boeuf  throughout  the  month  of  August,  traversing  the  Indian  trails  by  day, 
and  sleeping  at  night  in  his  blanket  beneath  the  protecting  branches  of  the 
forest.  In  the  spring  of  1795  Capt.  Russell  Bissell  began  the  erection  of  a 
fort  at  Erie,  and  in  August,  Edward  and  Taylor  Fitz  Randolph  were  employed 
by  Maj.  Craig  to  go  to  Erie  as  teamsters,  and  assist  in  the  construction  of  the 
.1  fort.  Their  father  furnished  three  yoke  of  oxen  and  Cornelius  Van  Horne 
I  one  yoke  for  the  purpose.  They  worked  at  Erie  until  November,  then  returned 
/  to  Meadville.  Edward  Fitz  Randolph  was  married  in  1797,  to  Elizabeth  Wil- 
son, a  daughter  of  Benjamin  Wilson,  and  settled  on  a  farm  in  what  is  now 
Vernon  Township,  where  he  resided  until  his  removal  to  the  West.  For  a 
brief  period  during  the  war  of  1812-15,  he  was  at  Erie,  thence  went  to  Buffalo 
as  a  teamster  for  the  Commissary  Department. 

It  was  from  Edward  Fitz  Randolph  that  Mr.  Alfred  Huidekoper,  in  1846, 
obtained  most  of  his  facts  relating  to  the  first  settlement  of  the  county.  He 
says:  "  Though  young  at  the  time,  Mr.  Fitz  Randolph  took  a  prominent  part  in 
the  first  settlement  of  the  county,  was  occasionally  employed  by  the  officials  of 
the  Government,  and  had  otherwise  an  opportunity  of  becoming  well  informed 
about  its  early  history.  For  fifty-seven  years  he  has  lived  in  this  county, 
forty- nine  of  which  have  been  spent  upon  the  farm  where  he  now  resides, 
about  two  miles  west  of  Meadville.  Tall,  erect,  venerable  and  active,  his  vigor 
at  the  age  of  seventy- four  adds  another  to  the  many  instances  of  a  hardy  con- 
stitution, acquired  by  exposure  in  youth  to  the  vicissitudes  of  a  border  life. 
When  I  called  upon  him  I  found  him  at  work  alone  in  his  sugar-camp,  and 
while  seated  on  a  log  in  front  of  his  boiling  kettles,  recounting  his  reminis- 
cences of  past  events,  he  seemed  indeed  an  appropriate  historian  of  times  when 
men's  homes  were  the  open  air,  and  their  whole  stock  of  furniture  an  iron  ves- 
sel like  the  one  before  us." 

None  of  the  first  settlers  of  this  county  are  now  living,  and  but  few  of  their 
children  who  yet  survive  have  minds  that  have  stood  the  wear  of  time  and  the 


infirmities  of  age,  or  whose  memories  go  back  sufficiently  to  retain  and  describe 
with  satisfactory  clearness  the  events  which  transpired  on  the  banks  of  French 
Creek  during  the  last  decade  o£  the  eighteenth  century.  When  the  first  band 
of  hai'dy  pioneers  came  to  this  valley  there  were  none  to  disDute  their  ricrht 
but  the  tawny  sons  of  the  forest,  from  whose  pitiless  hands  they  had  suti'ered 
much  in  the  past.  But  their  spirit  of  enterprise  and  determination  to  secure 
a  permanent  abode  cheered  them  in  their  herculean  task,  and  sustained  them 
under  every  privation,  danger  and  difficulty  incident  to  a  home  in  the  wilder- 
ness. The  comforts  and  advantages  which  their  children  subsequently  en- 
joyed were  procured  by  privations  and  sufferings,  from  the  undergoing  of 
which  the  most  daring  frontiersman  well  might  shrink.  Yet  their  descendants 
are  now  in  possession  of  the  soil  obtained  and  prepared  for  them  by  these 
brave  pioneers,  and  while  viewing  the  beautiful  hills  and  valleys  thickly  dotted 
with  homes  of  civilization,  can  truly  say  with  the  poet: 

' '  This  is  the  land  our  fathers  loved, 
The  homestead  which  they  toiled  to  win; 
This  is  the  ground  whereon  they  moved, 
And  these  the  graves  they  slum"ber  in, 
And  we  the  sons  by  whom  are  borne 
The  mantles  which  the  dead  have  worn." 


Indian  Depredations— Friendly  Indians— The  Settlers  Leave  the  Val- 
ley IN  April,  1791— Return  of  Cornelius  Van  Horne.  Thomas  Ray 
AND  William  Gregg— Capture  of  Van  Horne  by  the  Indians  and  His 
Subsequent  Escape — He  Meets  Ensign  Jeffers  at  Mead's  Block- 
House  AND  Goes  to  Fort  Franklin — Ray  Captured  and  Gregg  Killed 
BY  the  Savages— The  Former  Taken  to  Detroit,  but  Finally  Gains 
His  Freedom— Capture  and  Death  of  Darius  Mead— Unsettled  State 
OF  French  Creek  Valley— Mead's  Block-House  Garrisoned  by  Ensign 
Bond— Indians  Attack  James  Dickson— Cornelius  Van  Horne  Raises  a 
Company  of  Volunteers  to  Protect  the  Settlement— The  Settlers 
Erect  a  Block-House  at  Meadville— Fearless  Character  of  the  Pio- 
neers—Findlay  AND  McCormick  Killed  by  Indians— Raid  on  William 
Power's  Camp  by  the  Same  Band,  and  Capture  of  James  Thompson- 
Closing  Events  of  indian  Hostility. 

THE  last  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century  witnessed  the  advent  of  many 
settlers  into  the  beautiful  valley  of  French  Creek.  The  rich  bottoms 
along  the  navigable  streams  were  the  first  choice  of  the  average  pioneer,  and 
as  no  roads  then  existed  in  this  locality,  the  water-ways  were  the  principal 
means  of  transportation.  All  north  and  west  of  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio 
Rivers  was  a  vast  wilderness  over  which  the  Indian  hunters  roamed  in  pursuit 
of  game.  It  was  natural  that  they  would  look  with  jealousy  upon  the  infiux 
of  white  men,  and  as  a  result  could  not  at  all  times  restrain  their  malevolent 
feelings.  They  could  illy  brook  the  sure  prospect  of  the  conversion  of  their 
beautiful  hunting  grounds  into  peaceful  farms  of  ancient  foes.  The  charms 
of  war  and  the  chase,  even  with  civilized  man,  are  rarely  dissolved  when  they 
mingle  with  the  memories  of  youth,  but  they  were  all  of  life  to  the  Indian 
warrior,  therefore  the  aged  Indians  were  tacitui'n  and  sullen  over  the  loss  of 
the  hills  and  valleys  dotted  with  the  graves  of  their  forefathers.      They  had 


been  ofttimes  engaged  in  mortal  combat  with  the  hated  pale  faces,  and  often 
victorious,  so  that  their  final  defeat  by  Gen.  Wayne  was  not  preventive  of 
many  acts  of  treachery  and  murder. 

It  is  true  that  not  all  of  the  red  men  in  this  vicinity  were  the  enemies  of 
the  whites.  The  Six  Nations  were  held  in  check  by  the  powerful  influence  of 
Cornplanter;  and  the  settlers  had  succeeded  in  winning  the  friendship  of  some 
of  their  dusky  neighbors,  who  subsequently  rendered  them  eminent  services. 
Among  these  were  a  chief  named  Canadaughta  and  his  three  sons,  Flying  Cloud, 
Standing  Stone  and  Big  Sun,  whose  wigwams  were  pitched  near  the  mouth  of 
Conneaut  Creek,  in  Northeastern  Ohio,  and  to  whom  the  settlers  on  French 
Creek  were  indebted  for  many  acts  of  friendship.  There  was  also  a  Seneca 
chief  named  Halftown,  an  old  Mohawk  chief  named  Stripe  Neck,  and  an 
Indian  called  Wire  Ears,  who  deserve  the  highest  praise  for  their  unswerving 
fidelity  to  the  pioneers. 

Though  the  first  band  of  hardy  settlers  who  located  on  the  rich  bottom 
lands  of  French  Creek  often  feared  for  their  safety,  yet  they  dwelt  in  compara- 
tive repose  until  about  the  1st  of  April,  1791,  when  Flying  Cloud  warned  them 
of  a  contemplated  attack  by  Western  Indians.  The  truth  of  Flying  Cloud's 
statement  was  fully  confirmed,  when  William  Gregg  came  to  "Mead's  Block- 
house" with  the  information  that  he  had  seen  eleven  hostile  Indians  the  same 
morning  some  four  miles  northwest  of  the  settlement.  They  at  once  sent  their 
families  down  French  Creek  in  canoes  to  Fort  Franklin,  twelve  friendly  Indians, 
six  on  each  side  of  the  stream,  guarding  them  on  the  journey  until  they  arrived 
in  safety  at  the  fort.  These  Indians  belonged  to  Halftown's  band,  being  de- 
tailed by  him  for  that  purpose,  and  his  conduct  on  this  occasion  deserves  the 
highest  commendation.  On  the  departure  of  the  women  and  children.  Half- 
town  with  the  balance  of  his  warriors,  some  fifteen  in  number,  joined  the  white 
settlers  and  repaired  to  the  fording-place,  now  the  site  of  Mercer  Street  bridge, 
in  the  south  part  of  Meadville,  for  the  purpose  of  defending  the  settlement 
against  the  expected  attack.  After  spending  the  day  at  that  point  without 
getting  a  glimpse  of  the  hostile  band,  they  returned  to  "Mead's  Block-house," 
where  they  passed  the  night.  The  following  day  the  settlers  collected  their 
horses,  cattle  and  movable  effects,  and  on  the  4th  of  April,  reached  Fort 
Franklin,  Halftown  at  the  head  of  his  warriors  helping  to  guard  them  the 
whole  distance. 

Soon  the  monotonous  life  at  the  fort  became  irksome  to  these  fearless 
frontiersmen,  and  four  of  the  most  venturesome  concluded  to  return  and  attend 
to  the  planting  of  their  spring  crops.  These  were  Cornelius  Van  Home, 
Thomas  Ray,  William  Gregg  and  Christopher  Lansing.  After  reaching  this 
decision,  Van  Home,  having  left  his  horses  the  previous  fall  near  Pittsburgh,  on 
his  return  from  New  Jersey,  whither  he  had  been  on  a  visit,  went  down  the 
Allegheny  in  a  canoe  to  get  them.  He  started  back  alone  through  the  dense, 
lonely  forest,  and  the  first  night  encamped  in  a  deep  ravine  close  to  Slippery 
Rock  Creek.  Turning  out  his  horses  to  graze,  he  kindled  a  fire,  eat  a  lunch  of 
bread  and  butter,  then  rolling  himself  in  his  blanket  laid  down  to  sleep.  He 
suddenly  awoke  in  the  night  to  find  that  the  fire  had  spread  among  the  dry 
leaves  about  him,  destroying  some  butter  he  had  purchased  in  Pittsburgh,  and 
doing  considerable  damage  to  his  harness.  In  trying  to  save  his  butter,  his 
hands  were  so  badly  burned  that  he  could  not  sleep  the  balance  of  the  night. 
To  add  to  his  troubles  his  horses  strayed  away  during  the  night,  and  it  was 
10  o'clock  the  following  morning  ere  he  found  the  missing  animals. 

In  the  manuscript  autobiography  written  by  Mr.  Van  Home  a  few  years 
prior  to  his  death,  a  revised  copy  of  which   is  now  in  possession  of  his  son 


Hon.  Thomas  Van  Home,  who  resides  on  the  old  homestead  in  Vernon  Town- 
ship, he  tells  in  his  own  homely  way  the  following  story  of  the  rest  of  his 
journey:  "  At  length  I  started  ;  went  as  far  as  White  Oak  Swamp  ;  two  paths; 
I  took  the  right  hand  one  ;  went  on  a  piece  ;  I  saw  some  person  to  my  left  ;  I 
stopped  my  horses  until  he  went  past  ;  I  started  on  at  length;  I  heard  a  shout 
behind  ;  I  had  many  thoughts  what  to  do;  to  leave  my  horses,  that  I  thought 
would  not  do,  to  ride  on  and  lose  my  load,  that  I  could  not  agree  to.  The 
shouts  still  continued.  At  length  I  saw  an  Indian  (Thick  Leg  or  McKee)  on 
the  run  after  me.  I  got  ofif  the  horse,  set  my  gun  down  by  my  side  and  was 
righting  the  load  on  my  horse.  The  Indian  came  near,  set  his  gun  against  a 
tree,  his  tomaliawk  in  his  hand.  He  said,  '  How  do  brudder  ! '  I  said, 
'How  do!'  also.  He  said,  'Where  you  come  from?'  I  said,  '  From  Pitts- 
burgh ! '  He  .said,  'Anybody  killed?'  I  said  'No!'  I  then  asked  him 
where  he  came  from.  He  said  '  Nango '  (Fort  Franklin),  and  was  going  to 
Slippery  Kock  to  get  deer  meat.  I  asked  him  if  he  would  take  a  dram.  He 
said  '  Yes  ! '  I  out  with  my  bottle,  we  drank  each  a  dram.  I  asked  him 
would  he  take  some  bread.  He  said,  '  Yes  ! '  I  gave  him  half  a  loaf  and  we 
parted.  I  went  on;  crossed  Sandy  Creek;  it  became  dark  ;  I  lost  the  path,  tied 
up  my  horses  and  laid  down  to  sleep.  In  the  morning  the  turkeys  awoke  me 
with  their  gobbling.  I  then  got  up  and  went  to  Franklin.  The  officer  with 
about  twenty-five  or  thirty  men,  was  on  the  start  to  Lake  Erie  ;  I  had  then  to 
repair  my  burned  harness,  which  took  me  two  or  three  days." 

Mr.  Van  Home,  together  with  Thomas  Ray  and  William  Gregg,  leaving 
Lansing  sick  at  Fort  Franklin,  came  on  to  the  Mead  settlement,  staying  one 
night  on  the  way  at  the  cabin  of  the  last  mentioned  pioneer,  where  they 
shelled  a  sack  full  of  Gregg's  corn,  which  they  ground  the  following  day  in 
David  Mead's  mill,  on  French  Creek.  On  the  5th  day  of  May,  1791,  Van 
Home,  Ray  and  Gregg  took  their  guns  and  went  to  plant  corn  in  a  field  on  a 
point  of  land  above  the  confluence  of  the  Cussewago  with  French  Creek,  and 
lying  between  those  streams.  The  morning  passed  without  incident,  and  on 
the  approach  of  noon,  Van  Home  concluded  to  continue  plowing,  while  Ray 
and  Gregg  went  to  the  block- ht)US8  for  dinner,  they  agreeing  to  fetch  his  meal 
to  the  field.  Shortly  after  they  left  him,  his  horses  exhibited  symptoms  of  un- 
easiness, and  looking  about  to  ascertain  the  cause,  discovered  two  Indians  run- 
ning toward  him  with  hostile  intent.  Before  he  could  escape,  the  foremost 
one  had  thrown  down  the  bow  and  arrows  which  he  carried,  and  with  uplifted 
tomahawk  rushed  upon  him.  Van  Home  grabbed  the  weapon,  and  by  superior 
strength  and  agility  prevented  the  savage  from  striking.  By  this  time  the 
other  Indian  had  reached  the  scene  of  action,  and  laying  down  his  gun 
attempted  to  strike  Van  Home  with  his  tomahawk,  but  the  latter  used  the  first 
savage  as  a  sheld  and  thus  gave  him  no  opportunity  for  a  blow.  The  Indian 
then  picked  up  his  gun  to  shoot  Van  Home,  when  the  latter  pleaded  for  his 
life,  which  the  savages  promised  to  spare  if  he  would  go  with  them  and  stop 
hallooing  for  help.  He  gladly  agreed  to  the  proposition  and  assisted  the  In- 
dians to  unhitch  the  horses,  each  of  whom  mounted  one  of  the  animals  and 
rode  off,  while  the  prisoner  ran  between  them.  They  crossed  the  Cussewago, 
near  where  Shryock's  mill-dam  now  stands,  and  passed  west  up  the  ravine  ; 
thence  ascended  the  hill  where  they  met  two  more  Indians.  Here  Van  Home 
surrendered  his  knife  and  powder  horn  to  the  Indian  who  fii'st  attacked  him, 
and,  after  binding  their  captive  securely,  they  qustioned  him  as  to  the  number 
of  his  comrades  and  obtained  the  facts.  Leaving  him  in  charge  of  the  oldest 
Indian,  the  other  three  returned  to  the  field  where  Van  Home  was  captured. 

After  waiting  for  his  companions  nearly  an  hour,  Van  Home's  guard  bade 


him  mount  one  of  the  horses  while  he  mounted  the  other,  and  thus  rode  off  in 
the  direction  of  Conneaut  Lake.  In  due  time  they  came  to  that  beautiful 
sheet  of  water,  which  Van  Home  had  never  seen  before,  and  crossing  the  out- 
let dismounted  about  where  the  borough  of  Evansburg  now  stands.  The 
Indian  tied  Van  Home,  in  a  sitting  posture,  to  a  sapling,  his  arms  having 
remained  bound  during  the  entire  journey.  Here  the  prisoner  was  left  by  the 
Indian  as  he  supposed  securely  bound,  while  he  retraced  his  steps  to  see  if 
his  comrades  were  coming.  Van  Home  made  iip  his  mind  to  try  and  escape,  so 
taking  out  a  small,  dull  knife,  picked  up  the  day  previous  near  Mead's  mill, 
and  which  had  lain  concealed  in  his  pocket,  he  tried  to  sharpen  it  on  the  key 
of  his  chest,  which  the  Indians  had  left  in  his  possession.  Eising  to  his  feet 
he  managed  to  cut  the  cord  that  fastened  him  to  the  sapling,  and  recrossing 
the  outlet,  ran  down  that  stream  until  he  came  to  a  path  which  led  him  to  the 
site  of  Mercer  Street  bridge  on  French  Creek,  where  he  had  a  small  nursery 
planted  in  the  bottom.  Strange  to  say,  instead  of  seeking  a  place  of  safety  by 
further  flight,  he  deliberately  began  pulling  the  weeds  from  around  his  trees, 
for  fear  tire  would  get  into  the  flats  and  destroy  them.  While  engaged  at  this 
work  he  heard  some  one  from  the  opposite  side  of  French  Creek  calling  him, 
but  feared  to  reply.  A  second  call,  however,  made  the  voice  familiar  and  it 
proved  to  be  John  Fredebaugh,  a  soldier  in  Ensign  John  Jeffers'  company, 
who  with  thirty  men  and  three  Indians  had  come  from  Lake  Erie  that  day, 
where  he  had  been  in  search  of  some  Indian  traders,  who,  in  violation  of  the 
law,  he  learned  were  doing  business  in  that  vicinity.  Van  Home  got  across 
the  creek  with  much  difficulty,  and  with  Fredebaugh  repaired  to  "  Mead's 
Block-house,"  where  he  met  Ensign  Jeflfers,  to  whom  he  related  the  story  of 
his  capture  and  escape,  while  in  the  meantime  the  thongs  binding  his  arms 
were  cut  and  he  was  once  more  free. 

The  officer  ordered  out  sentries  and  sent  men  over  to  the  island  to  bring  in 
the  horses,  and  started  the  same  evening  for  Fort  Franklin.  He  tried  to  per- 
suade Van  Home  to  go  with  them,  bat  the  latter  was  determined  to  learn  the 
fate  of  his  companions,  and  collect  a  few  articles  he  wanted  before  going. 
He  induced  the  officer  to  leave  two  of  the  friendly  Indians,  Thick  Leg  and 
George  Gelway  with  him,  and  they  passed  the  night  under  some  oak  trees  in 
what  is  now  the  eastern  part  of  Meadville.  In  the  morniog  Van  Home  and 
the  two  Indians  went  to  the  tield  where  he  had  been  captured  the  previous 
day,  and  found  the  dinner  brought  him  by  Ray  and  Gregg,  out  of  which  he 
made  his  breakfast,  but  could  find  no  trace  of  his  companions  of  the  previous 
day.  Putting  his  few  goods  into  a  canoe,  Van  Home  and  Thick  Leg  paddled 
down  to  Fort  Franklin.  Gelway  took  charge  of  one  of  Ensign  Jeffers'  horses, 
that  could  not  be  found  the  previous  evening,  and  putting  Van  Home's  saddle 
on  the  animal,  agreed  to  ride  to  the  fort,  but  the  temptation  was  too  strong 
for  his  Indian  cupidity  ;  he  went  to  the  west,  and  Gelway  or  the  horse  was 
never  seen  again  in  this  region.  In  about  a  week's  time  Van  Home  returned 
in  a  canoe  to  Mead's  grist-mill,  accompanied  by  an  Indian  and  squaw,  for  the 
purpose  of  grinding  some  eight  or  ten  bushels  of  corn  stored  in  that  building 
belonging  to  David  Mead,  and  took  the  meal  back  to  the  fort. 

A  short  time  after  the  capture  of  Van  Home,  his  partners,  Thomas  Ray  and 
William  Gregg,  returned  to  the  tield  with  his  dinner  and  two  additional  horses, 
but  could  see  no  sign  of  Van  Home  or  his  team.  On  looking  around  they 
discovered  three  Indians,  and  dropping  the  dinner-pail  started  on  the  run  for 
"  Mead's  Block-house,"  with  the  savages  in  close  pursuit,  but  just  after  cross- 
ing the  Cussewago,  a  short  distance  above  its  confluence  with  French  Creek, 
the  Indians  fired,  and  Gregg  was  shot  through  the  thigh.     Finding  himself 


unable  to  retreat  any  farther,  he  sat  down  on  a  log  by  the  edge  of  the  stream, 
and  called  upon  Kay  for  assistance,  who  being  unwilling  to  abandon  his 
friend,  returned  to  his  side.  Both  seem  to  have  become  panic-stricken,  or 
they  might  easily  have  defended  themselves  against  the  savages.  One  of  the 
Indians  on  coming  up  and  seeing  Gregg  wounded,  took  from  him  his  loaded 
gun  and  shot  him  through  the  head  with  the  weapon.  The  savage  then 
scalped  his  victim,  and  leaving  the  body  where  it  fell,  the  three  bound  Ray, 
mounted  him  on  one  of  the  horses  aud  retraced  their  steps,  following  the 
trail  taken  by  Van  Home  and  his  guard,  but  on  meeting  the  latter  were 
informed  that  the  prisoner  had  escaped.  It  is  a  singular  fact  that  Van 
Home's  escape  was  the  means  of  saving  Ray's  life,  for  his  captors  told  Ray 
that  from  the  smallness  of  their  party  they  could  not  be  incumbered  with  more 
than  one  prisoner,  and  as  they  had  promised  to  spare  Van  Home's  life,  had 
intended  to  destroy  his  ;  but  now  as  their  first  captive  had  escaped,  he  should 
be  their  prisoner. 

Ray  was  taken  to  the  Indian  towns  on  the  Sandusky  River  ;  thence  to 
Detroit  where  there  was  a  garrison  of  English  soldiers,  and  whence  the  agents 
of  that  government  carried  on  their  devilish  intrigues  with  the  Western  tribes, 
distributing  whisky  and  food  supplies,  also  munitions  of  war  to  be  used  against 
the  American  forces  and  the  struggling  settlers  scattered  throughout  the  terri- 
tory lying  northwest  of  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio  Rivers.  Having  arrived  at 
this  post,  and  while  sitting  bound  within  the  fort  among  a  number  of  other 
captives,  Ray  fancied  that  he  recognized,  wearing  the  uniform  of  an  English 
officer,  a  companion  of  his  youthful  days.  In  speaking  of  this  event  afterward 
he  used  to  say  :  "I  spoke  his  name  half  by  random,  half  from  memory,  when 
the  officer  looked  at  me,  but  said  nothing."  After  the  Indians  had  left  the 
prisoners,  the  officer  approached  Ray  and  it  turned  out  that  his  surmises  were 
correct,  and  that  he  and  the  officer,  Capt.  "White,  were  schoolmates  in  Scotland, 
their  native  land,  but  had  not  seen  each  other  for  many  years.  The  Captain 
purchased  the  prisoner  from  the  Indians  for  two  gallons  of  whisky,  furnished 
him  with  money  aud  shipped  him  on  a  schooner  to  Buffalo.  There  he  met 
Stripe  Neck,  the  old  Mohawk  chief,  who  piloted  him  safely  to  Fort  Franklin, 
but  his  wife  and  family  having  removed  to  Pittsbm-gh,  he  joined  them  there  and 
was  received  with  great  joy,  for  they  had  given  up  all  hope  of  ever  seeing  him 
again.  Ray  and  family  subsequently  returned  to  Crawford  County,  and  com- 
pleted his  settlement  on  the  east  bank  of  French  Creek,  in  the  northwest  corner 
of  Mead  Township,  dying  upon  the  soil  to  secure  which  he  had  passed  through 
so  much. 

The  same  season  (1791)  Darius  Mead,  father  of  David  and  John  Mead,  was 
captured  by  two  Indians,  while  plowing  in  a  field  close  to  Fort  Franklin, 
whither  the  settlers  of  French  Creek  had  taken  refuge  during  those  perilous 
days.  His  body  and  that  of  Capt.  Bull,  a  Delaware  chief,  were  found  the  next 
day  near  Shenango  Creek,  in  Mercer  County,  by  Conewyando,  a  friendly  Seneca 
chief,  who  sent  his  daughter  to  the  fort  to  notify  the  dead  man's  friends  of  the 
event.  Bull  professed  to  be  a  friendly  Indian,  though  the  whites  suspected 
his  fidelity.  From  appearances  it  was  conjectured  that  Mead,  in  an  efibrt  to 
escape,  had  got  possession  of  Bull's  knife  sometime  during  the  night  and  killed 
him  with  it,  but  after  a  fierce  struggle  was  in  turn  killed  by  the  other  Indian. 
It  was,  however,  deemed  probable  that  the  latter  was  very  severely  wounded, 
from  the  fact  of  him  leaving  Bull  unburied  ;  and  it  was  subsequently  reported 
that  he  too  had  died  from  the  wounds  received  in  the  fight  with  the  brave  old 
pioneer.  Two  soldiers,  John  Ray  and  Luke  Hill,  were  sent  by  the  officer  at 
Fort  Franklin  to  bury  the  victims,  and  on  reaching  the  spot  found  the  bodies 
of  Mead  and  the  Indian  side  by  side,  and  buried  them  where  they  fell. 


The  foregoing  account  of  this  event  was  taken  principally  from  Mr.  Alfred 
Huidekoper's  ''  Incidents  in  the  Early  History  of  Crawford  County."  In  the 
Van  Home  manuscript  a  somewhat  different  account  is  given.  It  says  that 
John  Wentworth  and  Samuel  Lord  followed  the  trail  of  Darius  Mead  and 
the  Indians  from  near  Forth  Franklin  to  the  vicinity  of  Conneaut  Lake,  where 
they  found  the  bodies  of  Mead  and  one  of  the  savages.  They  continued  on  the 
trail  of  the  remaining  Indian  whom  they  discovered  in  a  dense  thicket  badly 
wounded.  On  seeing  the  two  scouts  the  savage  uttered  a  cry  of  despau-. 
Wentworth  deliberately  drew  his  keen  hunting  knife,  and  approaching  the 
Indian  stabbed  him  to  the  heart,  thus  avenging  the  killing  of  Mead. 

The  years  1790  and  1791  are  memorable  in  the  annals  of  Western  warfare 
for  the  defeat  by  the  Indians,  of  two  American  armies,  the  first  under  Gen. 
Harmar,  in  October,  1790,  and  the  second  under  Gov.  St.  Clair,  in  November, 
1791,  the  latter  being  nearly  annihilated.  These  defeats  left  almost  the  entire 
territory  west  of  the  Allegheny  River  to  the  dominion  of  the  savage.  Conse- 
quently, during  the  greater  part  of  1791  and  1792,  the  settlements  on  French 
Creek  were  nearly  abandoned.  No  one  resided  here  permanently  except  in  the 
fall  and  winter  of  1791,  when  a  Sergeant  with  fifteen  men  from  Fort  Frank- 
lin did  guard  duty,  while  few  visited  the  region,  except  surveyors  and  occa 
sional  scouting  parties.  Late  in  1792,  and  early  in  the  following  year,  many 
of  the  settlers,  whose  fears  had  somewhat  subsided,  returned  to  their  lands,  and 
were  soon  joined  by  about  twenty  others  from  the  Susquehanna  ;  but  in  the 
spring  of  1793,  the  faithful  Flying  Cloud  again  warned  them  of  a  proposed 
attack,  and  once  more  the  settlers  abandoned  the  valley  for  the  more  secure 
neighborhood  of  Fort  Franklin. 

In  the  meantime  the  settlers  had  again  applied  to  the  Government  for  pro- 
tection, and  Ensign  Lewis  Bond,  with  a  company  of  twenty-four  men,  was 
detailed  in  the  spring  of  1793  for  that  purpose.  Their  quarters  were  at  the 
house  of  David  Mead,  which  stood  near  the  site  of  James  E.  McFarland's 
residence,  on  Water  Street,  Meadville.  This  building,  known  as  "Mead's 
Block-house,"  consisted  of  a  double  log  dwelling  house,  surrounded  by  a 
stockade,  and  so  enfiladed  as  to  be  capable  of  defense  against  the  Indians.  It 
faced  down  Water  Street,  the  line  of  the  old  Indian  trace  to  Franklin,  while  a 
cannon  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  enclosure  pointed  noi'thward,  thus  com- 
manding French  Creek  and  the  approaches  from  that  direction.  Ensign 
Bond's  company  was  soon  required  to  join  the  main  army,  then  organizing 
under  Gen.  Wayne  at  Fort  Washington  (Cincinnati)  ;  and  having  no  protec- 
tion, and  every  effort  of  the  settlers  to  cultivate  their  lands  being  absolutely 
at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  prudence  would  seem  to  require  them  to  remain  at 
Fort  Franklin.  But  so  uncompromising  was  the  determination  of  many  of 
the  more  resolute  not  to  abandon  their  homes,  that  in  defiance  of  the  dangers 
which  beset  them,  they  again  returned,  and  in  small  bands  remained  clearing 
and  tilling  their  farms.  A  company  of  fifteen  volunteers,  under  Cornelius  Van 
Home,  was  raised  by  order  of  Gen.  Wilkins,  and  assisted  in  protecting  the 
settlement  from  October  until  the  end  of  December,  1793.  Such,  however, 
was  the  almost  constant  dread  for  the  safety  of  the  women  and  children  that 
they  were  all  instructed  to  remain  inside  or  in  the  vicinity  of  the  stockade, 
which  enclosed  two  or  three  log  cabins,  besides  ''  Mead's  Block-house."  Sub- 
sequent events  proved  the  wisdom  of  these  precautions  against  a  wily  and 
treacherous  foe. 

On  the  10th  of  August,  1794,  James  Dickson,  a  native  of  Scotland  (famil- 
iarly known  as  "Scotch  Jimmy"),  and  a  pioneer  to  French  Creek,  was  passing 
along  the  path  that  ran  up  the  east  bank  of  the  stream  in  search  of  his  cows. 

-    ';^^-»»,  •«;?='"?■ 





and  upon  reaching  the  spot  near  where  the  barn  of  Hon.  William  Reynolds 
now  stands,  heard  a  noise  in  the  bushes,  and  thinking  it  was  a  deer,  and  being 
armed  with  his  trusty  rifle,  he  stood  still  so  as  to  secure  a  good  shot  as  soon  as 
the  animal  should  appear.  While  thus  waiting  three  guns  were  discharged  at 
him,  one  ball  struck  him  in  the  left  hip,  one  in  the  right  shoulder,  and  a  third 
passed  through  his  left  hand.  Discovering  the  barrel  of  another  rifle  pointed 
from  the  bushes,  he  instantly  leveled  his  gun  to  shoot,  but  at  that  moment  his 
hidden  foe  tired,  the  ball  passing  through  Dickson's  hat  and  grazing  the  top 
of  his  head.  The  brave  Scot  stood  his  ground  and  shouted  to  the  savages: 
"  Come  out  you  cowai'dly  dogs  and  fight  me  fair."  Two  Indians,  tomahawk 
in  hand,  immediately  sprang  from  their  hiding  place,  but  the  fear  of  the 
Scotchman's  rifle  soon  caused  them  to  seek  protection  behind  trees,  one  to  his 
right  and  the  other  to  his  left,  thus  intending  to  attack  him  from  both  quar- 
ters at  once,  and  get  between  him  and  the  village.  Dickson  concluded  to 
reserve  his  tire  knowing  that  therein  lay  his  only  safety,  and  by  menacing  each 
in  turn  he  managed  to  keep  them  at  bay,  one  of  whom,  however,  had  in  the 
meantime  loaded  his  gun  and  again  tired  at  the  Scotchman,  but  missed.  The 
Indians  fearing  a  rescue  party  from  "  Mead's  Blockhouse,"  soon  gave  up  the 
battle  and  disappeared  in  the  forest,  leaving  the  hardy  pioneer  victor  of  the 
field.  He  at  once  started  for  the  village,  but  ere  reaching  the  little  cluster  of 
cabins  which  then  comprised  Meadville,  he  met  Samuel  Lord,  John  Went- 
worth,  Luke  Hill  and  Flying  Cloud,  coming  to  his  assistance.  This  party 
pursued  the  savages,  but  the  latter  had  made  good  their  escape,  and  were  not 
overtaken.  Mr.  Dickson,  wounded  and  bleeding,  reached  the  cabin  where  his 
wife  and  children  were  living,  and  after  washing  off  the  blood  that  covered 
him,  was  with  difficulty  restrained  by  his  wife  and  friends  from  joining  in  the 
pursuit,  as  he  said:  "  I  want  revenge  on  the  bloody  rascals."  His  son,  now  the 
venerable  Joseph  Dickson,  still  living  in  Meadville,  was  then  only  four  years 
old,  and  he  says:  "  I  well  remember  seeing  my  father  coming  into  the  cabin,  his 
clothes  covered  with  blood,  which  streamed  from  his  wounds,  and  I  also 
remember  how  much  trouble  my  mother  had  to  keep  him  from  following  the 
Indians."  Mr.  Dickson  when  speaking  of  the  fight  always  claimed  that  at 
one  time  when  about  to  fire  at  the  Indians,  he  distinctly  heard  a  voice  saying: 
"Dinna  shoot!  Dinna  shoot!  Dinna  be  afraid,  they  canna  kill  ye."  The  bullet 
received  in  his  shoulder  during  this  conflict,  remained  in  his  body  until  his 
death,  some  thirty  years  afterward. 

The  day  following  the  wounding  of  James  Dickson,  Flying  Cloud  offered 
his  son  to  carry  a  message  to  Fort  Le  Boeuf  (Waterford)  asking  for  a  guard. 
The  Indian  lad  left  after  sunrise  and  was  back  before  dark.  The  next  day 
seven  soldiers  arrived  from  the  fort,  all  that  could  be  spared  from  that  point, 
and  took  up  their  quarters  at  "Mead's  Block-house."  They  did  not  remain 
long,  however,  as  it  was  believed  they  were  more  badly  needed  at  Fort  Le  Bceuf. 

By  the  summer  of  1794,  most  of  the  old  settlers  had  returned,  and  new 
ones  had  arrived  to  re  enforce  the  struggling  colonists.  Many  improvements 
began  to  make  their  appearance  and  the  pioneers,  by  orders  of  Gen.  Gibson, 
were  organized  into  a  military  company  of  which  Cornelius  Van  Home  was 
commissioned  Ensign.  This  company  served  from  August  4  until  December 
31,  and  gave  to  the  settlement  the  appearance  of  a  military  post.  Not  to  be 
dependent  upon  uncertain  aid  from  the  army,  they  determined  to  protect  them- 
selves, and  in  order  to  more  effectually  secure  the  object  in  view,  they  carried 
out  the  previous  recommendation  of  Andrew  Ellicott  to  the  State  government 
by  erecting  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Water  Street  and  Steer's  Alley,  in  Mead- 
ville, a  regularly  constructed  block-house  with  the  upper  story  projecting,  as 


was  the  style  of  those  primitive  defenses.  A  look-out  or  sentry  box  was  built 
on  the  top  to  provide  against  surprise,  and  in  the  upper  story  of  the  building 
a  cannon  was  mounted,  while  in  each  side  of  the  structure  in  this  story  a  trap 
door  for  port  holes  was  constracted,  so  that  the  cannon  could  be  wheeled  to 
each  and  thus  command  the  approaches  from  every  direction.  All  these  things 
go  to  show  that  the  settlers  began  to  feel  their  strength,  and  that  they  were 
becoming  more  permanently  fixed  in  their  new  homes. 

Nearly  all  of  the  earliest  settlers  were  true  backwoodsmen,  and  were  ever 
ready  to  undertake  the  most  dangerous  missions.  About  the  1st  of  August, 
1794,  a  soldier  having  been  killed  by  the  Indians  near  Fort  Franklin,  Capt. 
Heath  wrote  to  Robert  Fitz  Randolph  for  some  men  competent  to  act  as  spies. 
The  latter  recommended  Luke  Hill,  John  Wentworth,  John  Baum  and  his  son 
Edward  Fitz  Randolph,  all  of  whom  were  pioneers  of  Crawford  County.  Ed- 
ward Fitz  Randolph  engaged  in  this  dangerous  service,  and  served  from  the 
beginning  of  August  to  the  beginning  of  September  of  1794.  So  these  men 
were  fully  competent  to  defend  their  homes  against  the  wily  savage,  and 
feared  no  foe  of  equal  numbers. 

The  crushing  defeat  inflicted  on  the  Western  Indians  by  Gen.  Wayne 
August  20,  1794,  completely  crippled  their  power  and  left  the  settlers  of  west- 
ern Pennsylvania  in  comparative  quiet.  But  though  beaten  and  utterly 
demoralized,  they  did  not  entirely  desist  from  their  marauding  expeditions.  In 
small  bands  they  kept  prowling  through  the  forests  attacking  the  frontier  set- 
tlements of  the  whites,  and  they  seldom  failed  to  leave  bloody  marks  of  the 
tomahawk  and  scalpingknife.  The  last  depredation  committed  by  them  within 
the  present  limits  of  Crawford  County,  which  resulted  in  the  loss  of  life, 
occurred  on  the  3d  of  June,  1795.  On  that  day  James  Findlay  and  Barnabas 
McCormick  were  engaged  in  making  rails  about  six  miles  south  of  Meadville, 
on  the  west  side  of  French  Creek,  near  the  mouth  of  Conneaut  Outlet;  and 
shots  having  been  heard  in  that  direction  by  some  settlers,  search  was  made 
for  the  cause,  when  the  bodies  of  Findlay  and  McCormick  were  found  close 
to  the  scene  of  their  labors.  The  Indians  had  surprised  them  while  at  work, 
and  after  shooting  and  scalping  the  unfortunate  men,  cut  two  human  figiu'es 
with  other  characters  in  the  bark  of  a  tree  which  stood  close  to  the  spot,  to 
illustrate  their  victory  over  the  pale  faces.  The  bodies  were  brought  to  town, 
placed  in  one  coffin  and  interred  in  Meadville  Cemetery. 

Two  days  after  committing  this  deed,  the  same  band  plundered  the  camp 
of  William  Power,  one  of  the  pioneer  surveyors  of  Crawford  County.  He  was 
then  engaged  in  surveying  lands  located  in  what  is  now  South  Shenango  Town- 
ship, and  had  left  James  Thompson,  one  of  his  assistants,  in  charge  of  the 
camp.  On  the  5th  of  June,  1795,  the  Indians  suddenly  appeared,  made  a 
prisoner  of  Thompson,  and  scattered  the  provisions,  etc. ,  of  the  camp  in  every 
direction.  While  a  prisoner,  Thompson  saw  the  scalps  of  Findlay  and  Mc- 
Cormick in  possession  of  the  savages,  recognizing  these  ghastly  trophies  of 
Indian  warfare  by  the  color  of  the  hair.  Thompson  was  taken  to  Detroit, 
where  he  remained  a  prisoner  until  after  the  treaty  of  Greenville,  which  was 
ratified  August  3,  1795,  when  he  was  released,  and  subsequently  settled  north 
of  Cochranton,  in  East  Fairfield  Township.  For  many  years  the  site  of  Pow- 
er's camp  was  known  to  the  settlers  as  the  "White  Thorn  Corner." 

The  foregoing  were  the  principal  depredations  committed  by  the  Indians  in 
this  county  or  on  citizens  thereof;  but  the  killing  of  Connelly  and  Wallace  on 
Sandy  Creek,  in  Venango  County,  while  driving  cattle  to  Pittsbui'gh,  and  that 
of  Ralph  Rutledge  and  his  sixteen-year-old  son  on  the  site  of  Erie,  in  the 
spring  of  1795,  demonstrates  that  scattered  bands  of  savages  were  roaming  all 


over  northwestern  Pennsylvania,  seeking  revenge  for  tiieir  terrible  defeat  the 
previous  autumn.  All  of  those  murders  were  committed  by  Indians  belono-ing 
to  the  Ohio  tribes,  as  was  fully  proven  by  their  own  boasting  to  the  English 
soldiers,  in  the  presence  of  some  American  captives,  after  arriving  at  Detroit 
Avith  the  scalps  of  their  victims.  The  power  of  the  Indian  confederacy  in  Ohio 
was,  however,  broken,  and  though  in  later  years  alarms  were  often  sounded, 
they  proved  groundless.  New  emigrants  were  constantly  arriving  to  occupy 
and  clear  up  lands,  and  the  county  progressed  rapidly  in  wealth  and  popula- 


BRACED IN  Allegheny  County^- Erection  of  Crawford  County,  and 
Location  of  the  Seat  or  Justice  at  Meadville— Surrounding  Coun- 
ties Erectp:d  and  Temporarily  Attached  to  Crawford  for  Judicial 
Purposes— The  Mercer  and  Erie  County  Boundary  Lines  Established 
— Biography  of  Col.  William  Crawford  after  Whom  the  County 
WAS  Named— His  Useful  Career  and  Cruel  Death— Location  and 
Boundaries  of  Crawford  County— Townships-Size,  Area  and  Gen- 
eral Appearance— Population  Statistics— French  Creek— The  Stream 

UTARIES—CuSSEWAGO  AND  Other  Streams— Oil  Creek— Connex\.ut  Creek 
— Shenango  and  Crooked  Creek — Lake  Conneaut— Oil  Creek  Lake — 
Sugar  Lake. 

THE  territory  embraced  in  northwestern  Pennsylvania  was  nominally 
attached  to  Bedford  County,  which  was  formed  from  Cumberland,  March 
9,  1771,  until  the  erection  of  Westmoreland  from  the  former,  February  26, 
1873,  toward  which  county  said  territory  afterward  held  the  same  relation  ; 
but,  upon  its  acquisition  from  the  Indians  by  the  treaties  of  Forts  Stanwix 
and  Mcintosh,  it  was  legally  attached  to  Wetmoreland  County  by  the  act  of 
April  8,  1785,  being  described  in  said  act  as  "a  part  of  the  late  purchase 
from  the  Indians."  On  the  28th  of  March,  1781,  Washington  County  was 
created  out  of  a  part  of  Westmoreland  ;  and  September  24,  1788,  Allegheny 
County  was  erected  from  portions  of  Westmoreland  and  Washington,  and  its 
boundaries  defined  as  follows  : 

Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Flaherty's  Run,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Ohio  River; 
from  thence  by  a  straight  line  to  the  plantation  on  which  Joseph  Scott,  Esq.,  now  lives 
on  Montour's  Run,  to  include  the  same;  from  thence  by  a  straight  line  to  the  mouth  of 
Miller's  Run,  on  Chartier's  Creek;  thence  by  a  straight  "line  to  the  mouth  of  Perry's  Mill 
Run,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Monongahela  River;  thence  up  the  said  river  to  the  mouth  of 
Becket's  Run;  thence  by  a  straight  line  to  the  mouth  of  Sewickly  Creek,  on  Youghiogheny 
River;  thence  down  the  said  river  to  the  mouth  of  Crawford's  Run;  thence  by  a  straight 
line  to  the  mouth  of  Brush  Creek,  on  Turtle  Creek;  thence  up  Turtle  Creek  to  the  main 
fork  thereof;  thence  by  a  northerly  line  until  it  strikes  Puckety's  Creek;  thence  down  the 
said  creek  to  the  Allegheny  River;  thence  up  the  Allegheny  River  to  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  State;  thence  along  the  same  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  State;  thence  south 
along  the  same  to  the  River  Ohio;  and  thence  up  the  same  to  the  place  of  beginning:  to 
be  henceforth  known  and  bv  the  name  of  Allegheny  County. 

On  the  12th  of  March,  1800,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  erecting  the 
Counties  of  Beaver,  Butler,  Mercer,  Crawford,  Erie,  Wai-ren,  Venango  and 
Armstrong,  from  territory  previously  embraced  in  Allegheny,  W^estmoreland, 
Washington    and    Lycoming   Counties.     The   territory  composing   Crawford 


County  was  taken  from  Allegheny,  andthe  following  boundary  lines  estab- 
lished : 

Beginning  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Mercer  Countj^  (which  is  the  north  line  of  Fifth 
Donation  District),  thence  upon  a  course  north  forty-live  degrees  east  till  it  intersects  the 
north  line  of  the  Sixth  Donation  District;  thence  eastwardly  along  the  said  line  ten  miles; 
thence  at  a  right  angle  to  the  said  line  northerly  to  the  north  line  of  the  Eighth  Donation 
District;  thence  westwardly  along  the  said  line  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  State; 
thence  southerly  along  the  said  boundary  to  the  northwest  corner  of  Mercer  County; 
thence  eastwardly  along  the  north  line  of  Mercer  County  to  the  place  of  beginning,  shall 
be  and  the  same  is  hereby  erected  into  a  separate  county  to  be  henceforth  called  Crawford 
County,  and  the  place  of  holding  the  courts  of  justice  in  and  for  the  said  county  shall  be 
atMeadville:  Provided  the  inhabitants  or  proprietors  of  Meadville  and  its  vicinity  sub- 
scribe and  secure  the  payment  of  $4,000  to  the  trustees  of  the  county,  either  in  specie  or 
land  at  a  reasonable  valuation,  within  four  months  of  the  passing  of  this  act  for  the  use 
of  a  seminary  of  learning  within  said  county;  and  in  case  of  neglect  or  refusal  the 
trustees  shall,  and  they  are  hereby  authorized  to  fix  on  the  seat  of  justice  at  any  place 
within  four  miles  of  Meadville.  And  the  Governor  shall,  and  he  is  hereby  empowered  to 
appoint  three  Commissioners,  any  two  of  which  shall  run  and  ascertain  and  plainly  mark 
the  boundary  lines  of  the  said  county  of  Crawford,  and  shall  receive  as  a  full  compensa- 
tion for  their  services  therein  the  sum  of  f  3  for  every  mile  so  run  and  marked,  to  be  paid 
out  of  the  moneys  which  shall  be  raised  for  the  county  uses  within  the  county  of  Craw- 

By  the  same  act  Armstrong  County  was,  for  judicial  purposes,  provision- 
ally attached  to  Westmoreland;  Butler  and  Beaver  were  placed  under  the  juris- 
diction of  Allegheny;  "  and  the  counties  of  Crawford,  Mercer,  Venango,  War- 
ren and  Erie  shall  form  one  county  under  the  name  of  Crawford  County." 
The  sparsely  settled  condition  of  northwestern  Pennsylvania  at  that  period 
rendered  this  course  necessary  for  the  government  of  these  counties  until  such 
time  as  the  population  had  sufficiently  increased  to  justify  separate  organiza- 
tions. Three  trustees  were  appointed  by  the  act  for  each  of  the  newly 
erected  counties,  those  for  Crawford  being  David  Mead,  Frederick  Haymaker  and 
James  Gibson.  On  the  2d  of  April,  1803,  Erie  and  Mercer  were  organized  as 
separate  and  distinct  counties,  Venango  April  1,  1805,  and  Warren  March  16, 

A  part  of  the  line  between  Crawford  and  Mercer  Counties  was  slightly 
changed,  by  an  act  passed  March  28,  1808,  for  the  convenience  of  certain  citi- 
zens living  on  said  line  who  petitioned  the  General  Assembly  for  that  purpose, 
and  in  compliance  with  said  petition  the  following  line  was  run: 

Beginning  at  the  northwest  corner  of  a  certain  tract  of  donation  land,  known  by  its 
No.  1078,  situated  on  the  northwest  corner  of  a  section  of  the  Fifth  Donation  District; 
thence  southwardly  by  a  tract  of  land  on  which  Joseph  Burson  now  resides,  154  perches  to 
a  birch  tree,  the  southeast  corner  of  the  said  tract;  thence  by  the  same  westwardly  to  an 
ironwood  tree,  the  southeast  corner  of  a  tract  of  land  on  which  Alexander  Caldwell  now 
resides;  and  thence  in  the  same  direction  from  the  southeast  corner  of  one  tract  to  the 
southeast  corner  of  the  next,  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  State,  anything  in  any  other 
law  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

The  true  boundary  line  between  Crawford  and  Erie  Counties  was  long  a 
subject  of  dispute,  and  to  settle  the  question  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  at 
the  session  of  1849-50,  providing  for  three  Commissioners  to  run  a  new  line. 
This  board  was  given  full  power  to  act,  and  its  decision  was  to  be  final.  In 
1850  Humphrey  A.  Hills,  of  Albion,  was  appointed  Commissioner  for  Erie 
County,  An<lrew  Ryan,  for  Crawford  County,  and  these  two  selected  H.  P. 
Kinnear,  of  Warren  County,  as  the  third  member  of  the  board.  Wilson  King 
and  Mr.  Jagger  were  chosen  as  surveyors,  the  former  on  behalf  of  Erie  County, 
and  the  latter  of  Crawford,  but  David  Wilson,  as  deputy  for  King,  did  most  of 
the  work.  The  Commissioners  experienced  some  difficulty  in  finding  a  start- 
ing poiot,  but  after  this  was  agreed  upon,  the  survey  was  completed  in  about 
six  weeks.     A  perfectly  straight    line  was  run   from  east  to  west,  and  marked 


by  stones  set  two  miles  apart.  When  the  survey  was  finished,  a  number  of  cit- 
izens who  supposed  they  resided  in  Crawford  County,  found  themselves  in 
Erie,  while  some  who  thought  they  lived  in  the  latter  county  were  thrown  into 
Crawford.  This  caused  a  little  dissatisfaction  among  a  few  of  the  settlers  thus 
affected,  but  the  feeling  soon  subsided,  as  all  were  compelled  to  accept  the 
result  accomplished  under  the  law. 

As  this  county  was  named  in  honor  of  Col.  William  Crawford,  the  friend  of 
Washington,  and  one  of  the  most  distinguished  frontiersmen  of  Western 
Pennsylvania,  it  will  be  but  proper  that  a  brief  biography  of  him  should 
appear  in  the  pages  of  this  work.  He  was  born  in  1732,  in  Orange  (now 
Berkeley)  County,  Va.,  his  parents  being  of  Irish  extraction.  His  father,  a 
respectable  farmer,  died  when  William  was  four  years  old,  leaving  another  son, 
Valentine,  younger  than  our  subject.  His  mother,  Onora,  was  a  woman  of 
uncommon  energy  of  character,  possessed  of  great  physical  strength,  and  kind 
and  attentive  to  her  children.  She  married  for  her  second  husband  Richard 
Stephenson,  to  whom  she  bore  five  boys  and  one  girl:  John,  Hugh,  Richard, 
James,  Marcus,  and  Elizabeth,  the  last  mentioned  dying  young.  The  seven 
boys  were  all  remarkable  for  their  size  and  physical  prowess.  In  1749  the 
youthful  George  Washington  became  acquainted  with  the  family,  and  it  was 
while  surveying  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley  that  his  acquaintance  with  William 
Crawford  ripened  into  a  friendship  that  lasted  until  the  cruel  death  of  the 
latter  more  than  thirty  years  afterward.  Oar  subject  learned  surveying  from 
Washington,  which  in  connection  with  farming  he  followed  until  1755,  when 
he  received  an  Ensign's  commission  in  a  company  of  Virginia  riflemen,  and 
served  with  Washington  imder  Gen.  Braddock,  in  the  ill-fated  and  disastrous 
battle  with  the  French  near  Fort  DuQuesne,  on  the  9th  of  July,  1755.  For 
gallantry  aod  meritorious  conduct  on  this  occasion  Ensign  Crawford  was  pro- 
moted to  a  lieutenancy. 

In  1758,  Washington,  the  Commander-in-chief  of  the  Virginia  forces, 
obtained  for  Lieut.  Crawford  a  Captain's  commission,  and  thereupon  he  recruited 
a  company  of  hardy  frontiersmen  for  AVashington's  regiment,  and  was  with 
the  command  at  the  occupation  of  Fort  DuQiiesne,  November  25,  1758,  the 
French  having  evacuated  the  post  on  the  approach  of  the  army  under  Gen. 
Forbes.  Capt.  Crawford  remained  in  the  service  of  Virginia  three  years,  then 
returned  to  his  home  in  the  valley  of  the  Shenandoah,  where  he  was  engaged 
in  farming  for  the  succeeding  six  years. 

Early  in  1767,  he  started  out  to  find  a  new  location,  and  having  selected 
land  on  the  south  side  of  the  Youghiogheny  River,  built  a  log  cabin  where 
the  village  of  New  Haven  now  stands,  in  the  northern  part  of  Fayette  County, 
Penn.,  which  was  at  that  time  on  the  extreme  frontier,  all  around  being  one 
vast  wilderness.  He  had  previously  married  Hannah  Vance,  and  was  the 
father  of  three  children — Sarah,  John  and  Eflfie,  who  with  their  mother  re- 
mained behind  in  Virginia.  His  half  brother,  Hugh,  who  was  also  married, 
soon  joined  him.  but  it  was  not  till  1769  that  the  In-others  were  enabled  to 
bring  their  families  to  their  new  homes  on  the  banks  of  the  Youghiogheny. 
Here  Capt.  Crawford  resided,  except  when  in  the  service  of  his  country,  until 
the  campaign  against  Sandusky,  which  ended  in  his  death.  His  home  was 
known  among  the  pioneers  far  and  wide  as  "Crawford's  Place,"  being  a  famous 
tarrying-place  for  new  comers  to  the  valley.  The  site  of  his  homestead  was 
also  called  "Stewart's  Crossings,"  from  the  fact  of  there  having  been  located 
here  in  1753-54,  the  Indian  trading  post  of  William  Stewart,  who  left  upon 
the  coming  of  the  French  in  the  spring  of  the  latter  j-ear. 

With  the  growth  of   the  settlement,  Capt.  Crawford  fell  into   his  natural 


place  as  a  leader  in  the  public  affairs  of  the  community.  At  the  request  of 
Washington  he  selected  and  surveyed  a  tract  of  land  for  him,  some  twelve 
miles  from  his  own,  and  on  the  13th  of  October,  1770,  Washington  visited 
Capt.  Crawford's  home,  and  remained  three  days  exploring  the  siUTOunding 
country.  In  company  with  a  party  of  friends  they  then  went  to  Fort  Pitt; 
thence  desceoded  the  Ohio  in  a  large  canoe,  as  far  as  the  Great  Kanawha 
River,  visiting  the  Indian  village  at  Mingo  Bottom,  on  the  route  going  and 
returning.  Horses  having  been  brought  from  Capt.  Crawford's  home  to  Mingo 
Bottom,  the  party  returned  by  land  from  that  point.  During  the  whole 
journey  Washington  and  Crawford  were  inseparable  companions.  On  the 
25th  of  November,  Washington  took  his  final  departure  for  Mount  Vernon, 
and  never  again  visited  the  home  of  his  friend  on  the  Youghiogheny. 

In  1771,  Capt.  Crawford  was  appointed  by  Gov.  Penn,  a  Justice  of  the 
Peace  for  Bedford  County,  and  upon  the  erection  of  Westmoreland,  in  1773, 
he  was  made  Presiding  Justice  of  the  courts  of  that  county.  He  took  an 
active  part  in  "Dunmore's  war,"  in  1774,  received  a  Captain's  commission 
from  Lord  Dunmore,  Governor  of  Virginia,  and  raising  a  company  to  fight 
against  the  Indians,  marched  to  Fort  Pitt,  which  had  been  seized  from  Penn- 
sylvania the  previous  year,  by  the  Virginia  troops,  and  named  Fort  Dunmore. 
Though  a  prominent  actor  in  "  Dunmore's  war,"  Capt.  Crawford  was  not 
present  at  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasaot,  his  operations  being  devoted  to  the 
protection  of  the  frontier  settlements.  For  the  part  he  took  in  this  war,  and 
his  siding  with  Virginia  against  the  peace  policy  of  Gov.  Penn,  he  was  re- 
moved from  all  public  positions  held  by  him  in  Westmoreland  County.  Capt. 
Crawford  now  fally  transferred  his  allegiance  to  his  native  State,  and  never 
again  held  office  by  Pennsylvania  authority.  He  played  a  leading  part  on 
behalf  of  Virginia,  in  the  boundary  troubles  which  arose  between  these  colo- 
nies, and  from  1776  to  the  beginning  of  1780,  held  the  position  of  Deputy 
Surveyor  and  Land -officer,  in  Youghiogheny  County,  Va.,  being  also  one  of  the 
Justices  of  that  county  at  intervals  during  the  same  period. 

In  the  meantime  a  momentous  event  occurred,  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence had  been  sent  forth  to  the  world,  and  from  the  first  Capt.  Crawford 
was  one  of  the  foremost  in  advocating  the  rights  and  liberties  of  America. 
He  tendered  to  Virginia  his  services,  in  the  fall  of  1775,  to  raise  a  regiment 
for  the  defense  of  the  colonies.  His  offer  was  accepted,  and  the  regiment 
raised,  but  Congress  having  decided  to  accept  only  six  Virginia  regiments  into 
pay  on  the  continental  eiitablishment,  and  in  the  organization  and  consoli- 
dation of  the  several  regiments,  Capt.  Crawford  failed  to  obtain  a  colonelcy, 
which  his  patriotism  and  abilities  merited.  On  the  r2th  of  January,  1776,  he 
was  commissioned  Lieutenant-Colonel  of  the  Fifth  Virginia  Regiment,  and 
on  the  11th  of  October  following,  Colonel  of  the  Seventh  Regiment  of  the 
Virginia  battalion.  He  participated  in  the  Long  Island  campaign,  and  the 
famous  retreat  through  New  Jersey;  crossed  the  Delaware  with  Washington, 
and  commanded  his  regiment  at  the  battles  of  Trenton  and  Princeton.  He 
served  continuously  under  Washington  up  to  the  fall  of  1777,  rendering 
important  services  while  in  command  of  a  picked  detachment  of  scouts  detailed 
to  watch  the  movements  of  the  enemy  during  Howe's  advance  upon  Philadel- 

Col.  Crawford  having  expressed  his  fears  to  Washington  of  an  Indian 
attack  upon  the  settlements  around  Fort  Pitt,  these  representations  were  commu- 
nicated by  the  latter  to  Congress,  and  two  regiments  were  ordered  to  be  raised 
on  the  frontiers  of  Pennsylvauia  and  Virginia  for  their  defense,  the  latter  State 
responding  with  a  full  regiment,  and  the  former  with  several   companies.     In 


November,  1777,  Congress  requested  Washington  to  send  Col.  William  Craw 
ford  to  Pittsburgh  to  take  command,  under  Brig.  -Gen.  Hand,  of  the  continental 
troops  and  militia  in  the  Western  Department;  whereupon  Col.  Crawford 
repaired  to  York,  Penn.,  where  Congress  was  then  in  session,  received  his 
instructions  and  soon  after  departed  for  his  new  field  of  operations.  In  May, 
1778,  he  took  command  of  the  Virginia  regiment  under  Brig. -Gen.  Mcintosh, 
the  successor  of  Hand,  and  his  first  active  service  was  the  erection  of  Fort 
Crawford,  a  stockade  fort  on  the  south  side  of  the  Allegheny  River,  a  short 
distance  above  the  mouth  of  Puckety  Creek,  where  he  commanded  at  intervals 
for  some  three  years.  Col.  Crawford  was  second  in  command  under  Gen.  Mc- 
intosh in  the  proposed  expedition  against  Detroit,  in  the  fall  of  1778,  which 
only  resulted  in  the  erection  of  Forts  Mcintosh  and  Laurens,  both  of  which 
he  occasionally  visited  on  official  business  until  their  abandonment  late  in  the 
following  summer.  Before  the  close  of  the  year  1779,  Col.  Crawford  had  led 
several  small  parties  into  the  wilderness  in  pursuit  of  the  bands  of  Indian 
depredators  infesting  the  whole  region,  and  in  these  expeditions  he  was  usually 

In  all  future  operations!  against  the  savage  foe,  up  to  the  time  of  his  death, 
Col.  Crawford  was  a  leading  spirit,  and  in  raising  volunteers  and  giving  advice 
his  services  were  invaluable.  He  visited  Congress  in  1780  to  urge  upon  that 
body  a  more  effectual  and  energetic  defense  of  the  frontiers.  He  had  often 
expressed  himself  in  favor  of  an  expedition  against  the  Indian  town  of  San- 
dusky, located  in  what  is  now  Wyandot  County,  Ohio;  and  had  tried  to  raise 
a  force  for  its  destruction,  but  failed  for  the  want  of  supplies. 

Col.  Crawford  was  placed  upon  the  retired  list  in  the  Continental  line  in 
the  fall  of  1781,  and  returned  to  his  home  on  the  Youghiogheny,  with  the  hope 
of  spending  the  balance  of  his  life  in  peaceful  avocations.  His  three  children 
were  married  and  living  in  the  vicinity  of  the  old  homestead.  Sarah,  the  eld- 
est, was  the  wife  of  Maj.  William  Harrison,  a  man  of  great  spirit  and  consid- 
erable distinction  among  the  pioneers  of  the  valley;  John,  the  only  son,  was 
the  idol  of  his  father,  "a  young  man,"  wrote  Hugh  H.  Brackenridge,  in  1782, 
"greatly  and  deservedly  esteemed  as  a  soldier  and  citizen;"  and  Effie,  the 
youngest,  was  married  to  W^illiam  McCormick. 

Hostilities  still  continued  between  the  frontiersmen  and  the  western  In- 
dians, and  a  spirit  of  bitter  retaliation  was  the  predominant  feeling  on  both 
sides.  In  the  spring  of  1782,  Col.  Crawford,  who  yet  held  his  commission  in 
the  regular  army,  was  earnestly  urged  by  many  leading  men  to  take  command 
of  the  expedition  then  organizing  against  Sandusky,  and  together  with  his 
son,  John,  and  son-in-law,  Maj.  Harrison,  volunteered  to  go.  He  left  his 
home  on  the  18th  of  May,  and  after  a  consultation  with  Gen.  Irvine  at  Pitta- 
burgh,  proceeded  down  the  river  to  the  Mingo  Bottom,  the  place  of  rendezvous. 
On  the  24th  of  May,  Col.  Crawford  was  chosen  by  the  volunteers  as  the  Com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  expedition,  and  on  the  following  morning  the  whole 
command,  consisting  of  480  mounted  men,  began  its  march  from  the  Mingo 
Bottom,  located  in  what  is  now  Jefferson  County,  Ohio.  Passing  through  the 
territory  now  embraced  in  the  counties  of  Jefferson,  Harrison,  Tuscarawas, 
Holmes,  Ashland,  Richland  and  Crawford,  to  the  center  of  Wyandot,  the  com- 
mand reached  a  point  on  the  Sandusky  Plains,  some  three  miles  and  a  half 
northeast  of  the  present  town  of  Upper  Sandusky,  where  in  and  around  a 
grove,  since  well  known  as  "Battle  Island,"  Col.  Crawford  was  furiously  at- 
tacted  by  the  Indians  on  the  afternoon  of  June  4.  1782.  As  night  came  on 
the  advantage  remained  with  the  Americans,  the  Indians  being  beaten  at  every 
point.      The  next  day   desultory  firing  was   indulged  in  by  both  sides,  but  no 


general  engagement  ensued.  As  the  afternoon  advanced,  the  Indians  were 
re-enforced  by  a  detachment  of  an  English  mounted  regiment  called  "  Butler's 
Rangers,"  while  bands  of  savages  were  constantly  arriving  to  swell  the  num- 
bers of  the  enemy. 

Upon  discovering  that  his  small  force  was  greatly  outnumbered.  Col. 
Crawford  called  a  council  of  his  officers,  which  decided  to  retreat  during  the 
night,  but  no  sooner  had  the  retrograde  movement  commenced, than  it  was  dis- 
covered by  the  Indians,  who  at  once  opened  a  hot  fire.  The  retreat,  however, 
continued,  with  the  enemy  in  close  pursuit,  and,  on  the  afternoon  of  June  6, 
another  battle  was  fought,  which  again  resulted  in  favor  of  the  Americans. 
The  British  Light-horse  and  mounted  Indians  hung  on  the  Americans'  rear, 
firing  occasionally,  until  the  morning  of  the  7th,  when  the  pursuit  was  aban- 
doned, the  last  hostile  shot  being  fired  near  where  the  village  of  Crestline  now 
stands.  The  little  army  thence  made  its  way  to  the  Mingo  Bottom  without 
further  molestation,  arriving  at  that  place  on  the  13th  of  June.  It  immedi- 
ately crossed  the  Ohio  River,  where  the  tired  troops  went  into  camp,  and  on 
the  following  day  were  discharged. 

In  the  darkness  and  confusion  attending  the  beginning  of  the  retreat,  sev- 
eral small  parties  became  separated  from  the  main  body  of  the  troops,  and  the 
soldiers  composing  these  were,  with  a  rare  exception,  killed  or  captured  by  the 
savages,  who  scattered  through  the  forest  for  the  purpose  of  cutting  ofif  strag- 
glers. All  of  the  captured  were  put  to  death  excepting  Dr.  John  Knight,  and 
John  Slover,  the  guide,  both  of  whom  escaped  after  being  condemned  to  be 
burnt  at  the  stake.  Among  the  many  who  thus  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  sav- 
ages were  Col.  Crawford,  his  son-in-law,  Maj.  Harrison,  and  his  nephew  Wil- 
liam Crawford.  The  two  last  mentioned  were  taken  by  the  Shawnees  to 
Wapatomica,  one  of  their  towns  on  Mad  River,  in  what  is  now  Logan  County, 
Ohio,  andsquibbed  to  death  with  powder.  But  all  the  punishment  that  savage 
hate  and  devilish  malignity  could  invent  was  reserved  for  the  unfortunate 
leader  of  the  expedition.  Col.  Crawford  was  captured  by  the  Delawares,  whose 
principal  chiefs,  Capt.  Pipe  and  Wingenund,  decided  to  burn  him  at  the  stake. 
He  was  taken  to  a  spot  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the  Delaware  village  on 
the  east  bank  of  Tymochtee  Creek,  some  eight  miles  northwest  of  where 
now  stands  the  county  seat  of  Wyandot  County,  Ohio.  Here  on  the  11th  of 
June,  1782,  the  victim  was  stripped  naked,  his  hands  bound  behind  his  back, 
and  a  rope  fastened — one  end  to  the  ligature  between  his  wrist,  and  the  other 
to  the  foot  of  a  post  about  fifteen  feet  high.  The  rope  was  long  enough  to 
allow  him  to  walk  around  the  post  twice  and  back  again,  the  fire  being  built  in 
a  circle  around  the  post,  leaving  an  open  space  between  them. 

According  to  the  testimony  of  Dr.  Knight,  who  was  an  unwilling  spectator 
of  the  terrible  scene,  having  been  captured  with  Col.  Crawford,  the  Indians 
began  the  torture  about  4  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  first  discharging  about 
seventy  loads  of  powder  into  the  victim's  body,  and  then  cut  off  his  ears.  After 
this  the  faggots  were  lighted,  and  for  more  than  three  hours  the  unfortunate 
man  walked  around  the  stake  within  the  circle  of  fire.  Burning  sticks  were 
continually  applied  to  his  naked  flesh  already  burnt  black  with  powder,  and 
which  ever  way  he  turned  the  same  fate  met  him.  Live  coals  and  hot  embers 
were  thrown  upon  him  by  the  sqiaaws,  until  the  space  in  which  he  walked  was 
one  bed  of  fire  and  scorching  ashes.  In  the  midst  of  his  awful  sufferings 
CoJ.  Crawford  begged  of  Simon  Girty,  the  Tory  renegade,  who  was  present  at 
the  execution,  to  shoot  him,  but  that  white  savage  laughed  at  his  misery.  At 
last  the  victim's  strength  gave  out  and  he  laid  down,  when  an  Indian  ran  in 
and  scalped  him,  and  an  old  squaw  threw  coals  of  fire  upon  his  bleeding  head. 

yJ^  l^n^Ch^iy^^      L.     (Y  u  (yU^^-^  iTPt  (\^ 


After  Col.  Crawford  expired,  the  burning  faggots  were  piled  together  and  his 
body  placed  upon  them,  and  around  his  charred  remains  danced  the  delighted 
savages  for  hours. 

When  the  news  of  the  event  reached  the  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  settle- 
ments, a  gloom  was  spread  on  every  countenance,  and  Col.  Crawford's  melan- 
choly end  was  lamented  by  all  who  knew  him;  while  heart-rending  was  the 
anguish  of  the  widow,  m  the  lonely  cabin  on  the  bank  of  the  Youghiogheny. 
The  language  of  Washington,  upon  this  occasion,  in  a  letter  to  Gov. 
Moore,  of  Pennsylvania,  shown  the  depth  of  his  feeling  toward  his  friend:  "It 
is  with  the  greatest  sorrow  and  concern,"  said  he,  "that  1  have  learned  the 
melancholy  tidings  of  Col.  Crawford's  death.  He  was  known  to  me  as  an 
officer  of  much  care  and  prudence-,  brave,  experienced  and  active.  The  manner 
of  his  death  was  shocking  to  me;  and  I  have  this  day  communicated  to  the 
Honorable,  the  Congress,  such  papers  as  I  have  regarding  it."  There  was  no 
man  on  the  frontier  at  that  time,  whose  loss  could  have  been  more  sensibly  felt 
or  more  keenly  deplored. 

Crawford  is  one  of  the  northwest  counties  of  Pennsylvania,  and  is  bounded 
on  the  north  by  Erie  County,  on  the  east  by  Warren  and  Venango,  on 
the  south  by  Mercer  and  Venango,  and  on  the  west  by  the  State  of  Ohio.  It 
is  divided  into  thirty-four  townships  as  follows:  Athens,  Beaver,  Bloomtield, 
Cambridge,  Conneaut,  Cussewago,  East  Fairfield,  East  Fallowfield,  Fairfield, 
Greenwood,  Hayfield,  Mead,  North  Shenango,  Oil  Creek,  Pine,  Kandolph, 
Richmond,  Rockdale,  Rome,  Sadsbury,  South  Shenango,  Sparta,  Spring,  Steu- 
ben, Summerhill,  Summit,  Troy,  Union,  Venango,  Vernon.  Wayne,  West  Fallow- 
field,  West  Shenango  and  Woodcock,  all  of  which  will  be  found  fully  spoken 
of  under  their  respective  and  proper  headings  in  this  work.  The  county  is 
46  miles  long  from  east  to  west  on  its  northern  boundary;  is  24  miles 
south  along  the  Ohio  line;  thence  due  east,  with  one  slight  jog,  25^  miles,  to 
a  point  a  short  distance  east  of  French  Creek;  thence  northeast  by  a  series  of 
nine  jogs,  11|- miles  in  an  air  line;  thence  east  11  miles  to  the  Warren  County 
line;  thence  due  north  15  miles  to  the  line  of  Erie  County.  It  contains, 
according  to  Johnson's  Encyclopedia,  975  square  miles,  or  624,000  acres;  while 
other  authorities  give  1,005  square  miles  of  territory,  or  643,200  acres.  It  is 
abundantly  supplied  with  excellent  water,  and  its  streams  have  always  afforded 
admirable  sites  for  all  classes  of  mills.  Crawford  originally  possessed  as  great 
a  variety  of  large  and  valuable  timber  as  perhaps  any  other  county  in  the  State. 
Along  its  streams  are  rich  and  productive  valleys,  which  were  covered  with 
stately  trees  when  the  pioneers  first  penetrated  its  forest  depths.  The  surface  is 
interspersed  by  hill  and  valley,  with  very  little  untillable  land,  excepting  the 
marshes,  in  the  county,  and  while  its  soil  is  adapted  for  cereals,  stock-raising 
and  dairying  have,  doubtless,  proven  the  most  profitable. 

The  growth  of  population  and  wealth  has  been  steady  and  substantial, 
which  without  doubt  is  largely  owing  to  the  beauty  of  its  natural  scenery  and 
the  fertility  of  its  soil.  In  1800  the  county  contained  a  population  of  2,346; 
1810,6,178;  1820,  9,379;  1830,  16,030;  1840,  31,724;  1850,  37,849;  1860, 
48,755;  1870,  63,832;  1880,  68,607.  The  following  official  census  table  of  the 
townships,  boi'ough,  and  cities  will  more  thoroughly  illustrate  the  growth  of 
every  portion  of  the  county.  The  reader  will  bear  in  mind,  however,  that  the 
apparent  decrease  in  the  population  of  some  of  the  townships  during  the 
several  decades  since  1850,  was  caused  by  the  erection  of  new  townships  or 
boroughs,  and  that  there  has  been  no  real  decrease  except  in  a  few  of  the 
smaller  towns. 




Athens  Township 

Beaver  Township 

Bloomfield  Township 

Blooming  Valley  Borough. . . 

Cambridge  Township 

Cambridge  Borough . , 

Centerville  Borough 

Cochranton  Borough 

Conneaut  Township 

Conneautville  Borough 

Cussewago  Township 

East  Fallowfield  Township. . 

East  Fairfield  Township 

Evansburg  Borough 

Fairfield  Township 

Geneva  Borough 

Greenwood  Township 

Hartstown  Borough 

Hayfield  Township 

Hydetown  Borough 

Linesville  Borough 

Mead  Township 


First  Ward 

Second  Ward 

Third  Ward 

Fourth  Ward 

North  Shenango  Township. . 

Oil  Creek  Township 

Pine  Township 

Randolph  Township 

Riceville  Borough 

Richmond  Township 

Rockdale  Township 

Rome  Township 

Sadsbury  Township 

Saegertown  Borough 

South  Shenango  Township  . . 

Sparta  Township 

Spartansburg  Borough 

Spring  Township 

Spring  Borough 

Steuben  Township 

Summerhill  Township 

Summit  Township 


First  Ward  

Second  Ward 

Third  Ward 

Fourth  Ward 

Townville  Borough 

Troy  Township 

Turuersville  Borough 

Union  Township 

Vallonia  Borough 

Venango  Township 

Venango  Borough 

Vernon  Township 

Wayne  Township 

West  Fallowfield  Township. 
West  Shenango  Township. . 

Woodcock  Township 

Woodcock  Borough 


1,193  1,317 
1,090  1,177 
1,356  !  1,263 













































1,739   1,783 

135  I    188 

1,867  I  1,834 

























The  population  of  the  following  villages  is  included  in  the  townships  in 
whitih  they  are  located:  Adamsville,  in  West  Fallowfield  Township,  137; 
Guy's  Mills,  in  Randolph,  150;  Kerrtown,  in  Vernon,  120;  Lincolnville,  in 
Bloomfield,  107;  and  Penn  Line,  in  Conneaut,  75;  while  the  population  of  the 
remaining  villages  of  Crawford  County  is  not  given  in  the  census  reports. 

French  Creek  is  a  beautiful,  transparent,  rapid  stream,  and  its  ramifications 
are  numerous  and  overspread  a  large  extent  of  territory.  The  French  origi- 
nally called  it  the  River  Aux  Boeufs,  on  account  of  the  large  number  of  cattle 
owned  by  the  Indians  which  they  found  grazing  in  its  valley  meadows  when 
they  first  came  to  the  country ;  but  changed  the  name  to  the  River  Venango,  a 
corruption  of  the  Indian  word  In-nun-ga-ch,  given  it  by  the  Senecas  in  conse- 
quence of  finding,  on  first  taking  possession  of  the  country  after  conquering 
the  Eries,  "a  rude  and  indecent  figure  carved  upon  a  tree"  which  gx-ew  near 
its  banJis.  When  the  Americans  occupied  this  territory,  they  discarded  both 
the  Indian  and  French  names,  and  gave  the  stream  the  plain  appellation  of 
French  Creek.  The  main  stream  is  created  by  the  junction  of  the  East  and 
West  Branches,  just  south  of  the  limiLs  of  Wattsburg,  Erie  County.  The  East 
Branch  takes  its  rise  near  the  village  of  Sherman,  in  Chautauqua  County, 
N.  Y. ;  and  the  head  of  the  West  Branch  is  usually  said  to  be  Findley's  Lake, 
about  two  miles  over  the  New  York  line,  in  the  same  county.  These  streams  are 
each  more  than  twenty  miles  in  length,  and  were  navigable  in  the  beginning 
of  the  century  for  canoes  and  rafts  to  the  north  line  of  the  State,  but  the  erec- 
tion of  dams,  and  the  drying  up  of  the  water  made  Wattsburg  in  later  years 
the  practical  head  of  navigation.  South  of  Waterford  the  main  stream  is 
joined  by  the  South  Branch  and  Le  Boeuf  Creek.  The  French  regarded  the 
latter  as  a  portion  of  the  main  stream,  and  therefore  erected  their  fort  upon  it. 
French  Creek  enters  Crawford  County  on  the  north  lino  of  Rockdale  Town- 
ship, and  passing  through  the  whole  width  of  the  central  portion  of  the  county 
from  north  to  south,  leaves  its  territory  near  the  southwest  corner  of  Wayne 
Township.  After  watering  the  northeast  corner  of  Mercer  County  and  a  large 
portion  of  Venango,  it  unites  with  the  Allegheny  at  Franklin.  By  the  time  it 
reaches  the  Allegheny,  it  has  become  a  good-sized  stream,  which  deserves  the 
title  of  river  better  than  many  that  figure  more  prominently  on  the  maps. 
From  its  head  waters  in  New  York  State  to  its  mouth,  the  general  course  of 
French  Creek,  though  in  some  parts  vefy  crooked,  is  almost  a  semi  circle.  Its 
length  from  Wattsburg,  where  the  main  stream  may  be  said  to  begin,  to  Frank- 
lin, cannot  be  less  than  100  miles,  though  Washington  thought  it  was  130 
miles  from  its  mouth  to  Fort  Le  Bceuf,  which  stood  near  the  site  of  Water- 
ford,  on  Le  Boeuf  Creek.  In  the  summer  seasons,  the  stream  is  usually  very 
shallow,  but  during  the  spring  and  winter  freshets  it  spreads  out  to  a  majestic 
width,  covering  the  bottom  lands  in  every  direction,  and  inundating  a  large 
portion  of  the  lower  sections  of  Meadville. 

Boats  of  twenty  tons  burden  have  navigated  its  waters  and  those  of  Le 
Boeuf  Creek,  as  far  north  as  Waterford  ;  and  during  the  Fi-ench  occupation, 
as  well  as  in  early  pioneer  days,  French  Creek  was  the  principal  highway  to 
the  Allegheny.  Before  the  building  of  good  roads  it  was  the  chief  avenue  for 
bringing  goods  and  provisions  into  the  county.  There  has  been  no  boating  or 
rafting  on  the  upper  branches  of  French  Creek  for  forty  years,  while  the  prin- 
cipal business  on  the  main  stream  may  be  said  to  have  suspended  about  1862, 
though  occasional  boats  have  since  descended  the  creek.  All  of  the  streams  in 
the  county  were  formerly  much  larger  and  more  reliable  than  now,  and 
abounded  in  trout  and  other  fish.  Cutting  off  the  timber  and  the  clearing  of 
the  land  has  had  an  alarming  effect  in  drying-up  the  streams,  and  the  seasons 


of  high  water,  which  were  once  of  two  or  three  weeks'  duration,  now  last  only 
a  few  days.  There  being  no  forests  to  retain  the  rain,  the  water  runs  off  very 
rapidly,  causing  floods  that  sometimes  do  considerable  damage. 

Immediately  above  Race  Street  bridge,  which  crosses  the  stream  from 
Meadville  to  Vallonia,  the  waters  of  French  Creek  originally  divided,  the 
main  branch  making  a  handsome  serpentine  bend  toward  the  east,  while  the 
west  branch  takes  a  semi-circular  sweep  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  unites 
with  the  main  stream  just  north  of  the  Dock  Street  bridge,  enclosing  an  island 
of  about  sixty  acres  of  rich  bottom  land.  The  creek  at  Meadville  is  492  feet 
above  Lake  Erie  level.  The  eastern  branch  was  the  main  channel  until  the  con- 
struction of  the  New  York,  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Railroad  in  1862,  when  a 
straight  channel  was  cut  throxigh  the  island  into  which  the  main  stream  was 
diverted,  and  the  railroad  bed  built  across  the  upper  end  of  the  eastern  branch. 
The  latter  has  since  served  the  purpose  of  conveying  the  waste  water  of  the 
canal  into  the  main  stream  ;  but  no  material  change  has  occurred  in  the  loca- 
tion of  the  western  branch  since  the  coming  of  the  first  settlers  nearly 
one  hundred  years  ago.  French  Creek  will  always  be  an  interesting  object  to 
the  thoughtful  traveler,  not  only  on  account  of  the  delightful  scenery  which 
everywhere  abounds  in  its  vicinity,  but  because  it  was  the  line  of  the  chain  of 
forts  erected  by  the  French  to  hold  the  western  country,  and  from  the  circum- 
stance that  it  bore  upon  its  waters  the  then  youthful  Washington,  when 
engaged  on  the  first  distinguished  mission  of  his  life. 

Proceeding  up  French  Creek  from  its  mouth,  in  addition  to  many  small 
streams,  its  largest  feeders  are  :  Big  Sugar  Creek,  Little  Sugar  Creek,  Mill 
Run,  Woodcock  Run,  and  Muddy  Creek  on  the  east  ;  and  on  the  west  Deer 
Creek,  Conneaut  Outlet,  Cussewago  Creek,  Big  Conneauttee  Creek,  and  Le 
Boeuf  Creek.  The  last-mentioned  stream  is  in  Erie  County,  and  Deer  Creek  in 
Mercer,  while  Big  Sugar  Creek,  though  rising  in  Crawford,  is  principally  loca- 
ted in  Venango  Count}'^. 

The  Cussewago  takes  its  rise  in  Spring  and  Cussewago  Townships,  flowing 
south  through  the  latter  subdivision;  thence  passing  in  a  southeasterly  direc- 
tion through  Hayfield  Township,  from  north  to  south  it  crosses  the  northeast 
corner  of  Vernon,  and  after  traversing  some  eighteen  miles  empties  into  the 
west  branch  of  French  Creek  a  short  distance  above  its  junction  with  the  main 
channel.  It  is  a  very  crooked  stream,  and  drains  an  excellent  body  of  land. 
Rev.  Timothy  Alden  gives  the  following  tradition  regarding  its  name,  which 
he  says  he  obtained  from  Cornplanter:  A  wandering  band  of  Senecas  on  first 
coming  to  the  creek,  discovered  a  large  black  snake,  with  a  white  ring  around 
its  neck,  reposing  in  the  limbs  of  a  tree  growing  upon  the  banks  of  the  stream. 
Their  attention  was  arrested  by  a  protuberance  on  the  reptile,  as  though  it 
had  swallowed  an  animal  as  large  as  a  rabbit,  and  they  at  once  exclaimed  Kos- 
se-waus-ga!  literally  meaning  "  big  belly."  This  name  was  retained  by  the 
French,  though  it  has  since  become  somewhat  Americanized.  Mr.  Alfred 
Huidekoper  thinks  that  Cussewago  means  "  big  snake,"  and  was  so  called  by 
the  Indians  on  account  of  the  sinuosity  of  its  coui'se,  which  much  resembles  a 
snake  when  crawling.  His  definition  seems  to  us  the  most  plausible,  and  we 
are  inclined  to  accept  it  as  the  correct  one. 

Conneaut  Outlet  is  the  outlet  of  Conneaut  Lake,  from  which  it  takes  its 
name.  It  flows  southeast  through  Sadsbury  Township,  and  divides  Vernon 
and  Union  Townships,  from  Greenwood  and  Fairfield,  striking  French  Creek 
at  the  southeast  corner  of  Union  Township.  Its  principle  tributary  is  Wat- 
son's Run,  a  local  stream  which  drains  the  west  part  of  Vernon  Township. 
Big   Conneaut  Creek    rises  in  Erie  County,    and  flowing  through  Lake 


Conneaut,  after  which  it  is  named,  enters  Crawford  County  on  the  line 
between  Venango  and  Cambridge  Townships,  and  joins  French  Creek  where 
the  latter  strikes  the  dividing  line  of  those  townships,  some  distance  northwest 
of  Cambridgeboro. 

The  head  waters  of  Muddy  Creek  are  located  in  Richmond,  Steuben  and 
Athens  Townships;  thence  flowing  from  the  latter  northwestwardly  across  the 
northeast  corner  of  Richmond  Township,  passes  onward  into  Rockdale,  and 
unites  with  French  Creek  a  little  south  of  Miller's  Station. 

Woodcock  Run  rises  in  Randolph  Township,  crosses  the  southwest  corner 
of  Richmond,  and  passing  through  the  entire  Township  of  Woodcock,  empties 
into  Fi'ench  Creek  south  of  Saegertown. 

Mill  Run  meanders  northwest  through  Mead  Township,  and  after  passing 
through  Meadville  discharges  its  waters  into  the  same  stream. 

Little  Sugar  Creek  has  its  source  in  the  southern  part  of  Mead  Township, 
crosses  the  northeast  corner  of  East  Fairfield  Township  into  Wayne,  and  after 
describing  almost  a  semi-circle,  passes  back  into  East  Fairfield,  emptying  into 
French  Creek  at  Cochranton. 

Several  branches  of  Big  Sugar  Creek  take  their  rise  in  Troy,  Randolph  and 
Wayne  Townships,  thence  passing  into  Venango  County  unite  and  form  the 
main  stream,  which  flowing  southward  joins  French  Creek  a  few  miles  above 
its  mouth. 

Oil  Creek  drains  the  whole  eastern  part  of  Crawford  County.  Its  head- 
watei's  are  located  in  Bloomtield  and  Sparta  Townships,  whence  it  takes  a 
southward  course.  Oil  Creek  Lake  in  Bloomtield  Township  may  be  regarded 
as  its  principal  source  of  supply,  though  the  East  Branch,  which  rises  in  Sparta 
Township  and  joins  the  main  stream  near  Centerville,  adds  much  to  its  size 
and  volume.  Soon  after  passing  Tryonville,  the  stream  bears  off  to  the  south 
east,  and  upon  reaching  the  county  line  at  Titusville,  takes  a  southern  course, 
soon  verging  a  little  to  the  west,  and  unites  with  the  Allegheny  at  Oil  City. 
Its  name  is  derived  from  the  oil  springs  which  exist  along  its  banks,  the  pro- 
duct of  which  was  gathered  at  the  surface  in  small  quantities  and  sold  at  an 
early  day  under  the  name  of  Seneca  Oil,  which  was  supposed  to  possess  valua- 
ble curative  properties.  Oil  Creek  is  thus  described  in  1789,  under  the  head 
of  "Mineral  Water,"  by  Jededi ah  Morse,  of  Charlestown,  Mass.,  in  The  Amer- 
ican Universal  Geography :  "Oil  Creek,  in  Allegheny  County,  one  hundred 
miles  above  Pittsburgh,  issues  from  a  remarkable  spring,  which  boils  like  the 
waters  of  Hell  Gate,  near  New  York.  On  the  top  of  the  water  floats  an  oil 
similar  to  that  called  Barbadoes  tar.  Several  gallons  may  be  gathered  in  a 
day.  It  is  found  very  serviceable  in  rheumatism,  in  restoring  weakness  in  the 
stomach,  and  in  curing  bruises  and  sore  breasts.  When  drank,  the  water  of 
the  spring  operates  as  a  gentle  cathartic.  It  is  gathered  by  the  country  people 
and  Indians,  boiled  and  brought  to  market  in  bottles,  and  is  deemed  a  most 
valuable  family  medicine."  Its  principal  tributaries  are  Little  Oil  Creek, 
which,  rising  in  Rome  Township,  flows  south  and  empties  into  the  main 
stream  south  of  Hydetown;  and  Pine  Creek,  which  (jrosses  the  southeast  cor- 
ner from  Venango  County,  ard  joins  Oil  Creek  in  the  southeastern  limits  of 

The  western  portion  of  the  county  is  principally  drained  by  Conneaut 
Creek,  Shenango  Creek  and  Crooked  Creek.  The  first  mentioned  rises  iTume- 
diately  north  of  Conneaut  Lake,  in  Summit  Township,  and  flowing  northwest 
through  Summerhill  Township,  passes  through  the  borough  of  Conneautville; 
thence  onward  in  the  same  general  direction  till  it  leaves  the  count}^  near  the 
northwest  corner  of  Spring  Township.   After  continuing  a  northerly  coiu-se  about 


half  way  across  Erie  County,  it  turns  abruptly  westward,  and  flows  through 
Ohio  for  several  miles.  It  then  makes  a  turn  and  flows  northeast,  emptying 
into  Lake  Erie,  where  its  mouth  forms  Conneaut  Harbor.  Conneaut  Creek  is 
a  very  crooked  stream,  and  following  its  meanders  from  head  to  mouth  it  is 
fully  eighty  miles  in  length,  while  the  distance  by  an  air  line  is  not  more  than 
twenty-five.  Its  principal  tributary,  which  touches  this  county,  is  the  East 
Branch,  a  small  stream  rising  near  the  Erie  County  line,  and  joining  the  main 
creek  a  short  distance  northeast  of  the  borough  of  Albion. 

Shenango  Creek  takes  its  rise  in  Pymatuning  Swamp  near  the  southwest 
corner  of  Sadsbury  Township,  and  the  northern  part  of  West  Fallowfield,  and 
flowing  northwestwardly  forms  the  boundary  line  between  North  Shenango  and 
Pine  Townships.  Near  the  southwest  corner  of  Pine,  it  turns  southward,  and 
passing  through  the  western  part  of  North  Shenango  to  the  southern  limits  of 
that  township,  it  becomes  the  dividing  line  between  Soa  h  and  West  Shenango, 
and  flowing  southeast  leaves  the  county  at  Jamestown,  and  unites  with  the 
Ohio  River  at  Beaver. 

Crooked  Creek  is  a  tributary  of  Shenango,  and  rising  in  Pymatuning 
Swamp  along  the  northern  sections  of  East  and  West  Fallowfield,  forms  the 
boundary  line  between  those  townships.  It  flows  due  south  and  strikes  She- 
nango Creek,  a  few  miles  below  the  Crawford  County  line.  The  foregoing 
embraces  all  the  streams  of  any  note  in  Crawford  County.  Some  of  these 
have  local  tributaries  that  water  the  different  sections  of  the  townships  in 
which  they  are  located  ;  but  little  is  known  of  them  outside  of  their  own 
immediate  localities. 

Some  eight  miles  southwest  of  Meadville  lies  Lake  Conneaut,  a  beautiful 
sheet  of  water,  some  three  miles  in  length,  and  varying  from  half  a  mile  to  a 
mile  in  width,  covering  an  area  of  about  1,200  acres.  In  depth  it  ranges  from 
a  few  feet  to  nearly  one  hundred  feet,  though  the  average  will  fall  far  below 
the  latter  figure.  The  Senecas  called  the  lake  "Kon-ne-yaut,"  or  the  "Snow- 
place,"  from  the  fact  that  the  snow  remained  on  the  ice  of  the  lake  for  some 
time  after  it  had  disappeared  from  the  surrounding  lands.  It  is  the  largest 
inland  lakes  in  Pennsylvania;  is  497  feet  above  Lake  Erie  level;  abounds  in 
fish,  and  is  also  much  frequented  by  sportsmen  for  the  wild  game  that  light  upon 
its  waters.  It  is  nearly  oval  in  shape,  and  lies  almost  wholly  within  Sadbury 
Township,  a  small  point  jutting  into  Summit.  Conneaut  Lake  was  used  as  a 
reservoir  for  the  Beaver  and  Erie  Canal,  from  the  date  of  its  construction 
until  its  abandonment.  The  surface  of  the  lake  was  raised  about  ten  feet  by 
building  a  dam  across  the  outlet,  but  when  the  canal  was  abandoned  the  dam 
was  torn  away,  and  the  water  receded  to  its  original  level.  The  lake  is  also 
quite  a  pleasure  resort  during  the  summer  season,  the  great  regatta  of  July  15, 
1884,  giving  it  a  wide  reputation.  Four  little  steamers  ply  its  waters,  which 
flow  from  springs,  and  row  and  sail-boats,  filled  with  pleasure  seekers,  skim 
along  its  surface,  passing  to  and  fro  between  Evansburg,  Conneaut  Lake  Park, 
Oakland  Beach,  Fair  Point,  and  Lynce's  Landing,  at  all  of  which  will  be 
found  ample  accommodation  for  picnickers  and  pleasure  parties.  There  is  a 
large  hotel  at  Fair  Point,  owned  and  operated  by  Mr.  Johnson;  and  the  rail- 
road company  has  recently  erected  a  Hotel  at  Conneaut  Lake  Park,  which  is 
conducted  by  Andrews  Bros.,  of  the  Commercial  Hotel,  Meadville.  Evansburg 
is  amply  supplied  with  hotels,  and  nothing  is  wanting  to  assist  in  whiling  away 
a  few  happy  hours. 

Oil  Creek  Lake,  near  the  center  of  Bloomfield  Township,  is  two  miles  long 
and  three-fourths  of  a  mile  wide,  covers  an  area  of  several  hundred  acres,  and 
has  an  average  depth  of  about  thirty  feet.    It  was  originally  called  Washington 


Lake,  which  name,  however,  was  dropped,  and  the  present,  one  came  into  gen- 
eral use.  Fish  of  many  kinds  abound  in  its  clear  depths,  and  one  small 
steamer  plys  iipon  its  bosom,  while  a  new  hotel  on  the  lakeside  supplies  the 
visitors  with  comfortable  accommodations.  Oil  Creek  Lake  has  an  altitude  of 
816  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  being  the  highest  of  the  Crawford  County  lakes. 

Sugar  Lake  is  located  in  the  northeast  part  of  Wayne  Township,  on  one 
of  the  branches  of  Big  Sugar  Creek,  and  is  surrounded  by  low  hills.  It  is  a 
mile  long  by  half  a  mile  wide,  and  when  the  white  settlers  first  came  to  this 
county  had  a  depth  of  more  than  thirty  feet,  While  to-day  it  does  not  measure 
more  than  sixteen  to  eighteen.  It  is  fed  by  Sugar  Lake  Inlet,  and  is  704  feet 
above  Lake  Erie.  Like  the  other  lakes  and  streams  of  Crawford  County,  it 
abounded  in  fish  of  many  species,  which  yet  remain,  though  in  much  lesser 
numbers  than  of  yore.  It  was  also  a  favorite  hunting  place  for  both  Indians 
and  white  men  for  some  years  after  the  first  settlement  was  made  in  that  vicin- 
ity. Game  of  all  sorts  was  plenty,  and  these  beautiful  little  lakes  seem  to 
have  been  more  frequented  by  the  wild  denizens  of  the  forest  than  other  por- 
tions of  the  county,  so  that  they  became  noted  resorts  for  the  backwoods  sports- 
man, who  from  his  canoe  would  often  kill  several  deer  in  one  evening.  But 
those  days  have  gradually  passed  away,  and  in  their  sfead  have  come  progress 
and  civilization. 


Topographical  Features  of  Crawford  County— Elevations,  Surface 
Dip,  and  Physical  Phenomena  of  Streams,  Lakes  and  Swamps- 

—Drift— Buried  Valleys— Pottsville  Conglomerate— Homewood  Sand 
STONE,  Mercer  Group,  Conoquenessing  and  Sharon— Subconglomerate 
Formations— Shenango,  Meadville  and  Oil  Lake  Groups— Venango 
Oil  Sand  Group— Venango  Upper  Sandstone,  Upper  Shales,  Middle 
Sandstone,  Lower  Shales  and  Lower  Sandstone. 

THE  general  level  of  the  upland  in  Crawford  County  is  given  by  the  State 
Road  which  enters  it  near  the  northeast  corner  and  runs  in  nearly  a  straight 
line  for  fifty-two  miles  parallel  to  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  and  about  thirty 
miles  south  of  it.  The  following  list  of  elevations  along  this  road,  above  the 
ocean  and  Lake  Erie  levels,  were  taken  by  Prof.  John  F.  Carll  some  four 
years  ago  : 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Warren  County  line 1,653  1,080 

Divide 1,690  1, 117 

Divide 1, 797  1, 824 

Oil  Creek  Railroad 1,430  857 

Divide 1,605  1,032 

Britain  Run 1,360  787 

Divide 1 ,  621  1 ,  048 

Riceville 1,315  742 

Union  &  Titusville  Raihoad 1.369  796 

Divide 1,611  1,038 

Cross  Roads 1 ,  602  1 ,  029 

Divide 1,617  1,044 

Little  Cooley 1,210  637 

Divide 1, 428  855 

New  Richmond 1,312  739 


Divide 1,581  1,008 

Woodcock  Creek 1,247  674 

Divide 1.435  862 

Divide 1,361  788 

Brancli  of  Woodcock  Creek 1,397  824 

Divide 1,550  977 

Meadville 1,080  507 

Miller's  Quarry 1,303  780 

Evansburg  Depot 1,284  711 

Mushrush  Coal  Bank 1,324  751 

McEntire  Coal  Hill 1,338  765 

Unger  Hill 1,348  775 

Run 1,240  667 

McLanahan  Quarry 1,315  742 

Run 1,277  704 

Hazen's  Hill 1,443  870 

Turnersville 1,060  487 

Crooked  Creek  near  Adamsville 996  423 

Snodgrass  Ore  Bankbetween  Adamsville  and  Jamestown.  1,360  787 

Jamestown 987  414 

It  is  plainly  evident  from  this  table  that  the  highest  land  along  the  State 
Road  is  at  the  eastern  end  of  Crawford  County,  and  that  the  general  level 
fails  oflF  westward.  This  expresses  the  topography  of  the  region:  a  steady 
decline  in  the  height  of  the  uplands  from  the  State  of  New  York  through 
Pennsylvania  into  Ohio.  The  same  law  is  exhibited  by  the  drainage,  the  flow 
of  French  Creek  being  down  the  dip  of  the  measures  from  north  southward, 
and  down  the  general  slope  of  the  surface  from  northeast  southwestward.  At 
Meadville  the  stream  turns  and  cuts  down  through  the  upper  measures  (with 
the  dip)  southeastward.  The  level  of  the  valley  bed  in  which  French  Creek 
flows  is  shown  in  the  following  table  of  elevations  of  the  New  York,  Pennsyl- 
vania &  Ohio  Railroad,  and  its  Franklin  Branch: 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Miller's  Station 1,169  596 

Cambridge  Station 1,163  590 

Venango  Station 1,163  590 

Saegertown  Station 1,116  543 

Meadville  Station 1,080  507 

Franklin  Branch  Junction 1,074  501 

Shaw's  Landing  Station 1,092  519 

Cochranton  Station 1,064  491 

Carlton  (Evans  Bridge) 1,047  474 

From  the  junction  westward  the  New  York,  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Railroad 
crosses  the  divide  to  the  Shenango,  its  levels  in  this  county  being  as  follows: 

Oceau.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Meadville  Junction 1,074  501 

Geneva  (Sutton's) 1,069  496 

Evansburg 1,284  711 

Atlantic 1,148  575 

The  descent  of  the  waters  of  Oil  Creek  from  the  high  divide  of  Crawford 
County  south  of  French  Creek,  with  the  dip,  is  illustrated  by  the  following 
tables  of  levels,  on  the  Union  &  Titusville,  and  the  Oil  Creek  &  Allegheny 
Valley  Railroads: 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Near  Summit 1,458  885 

Lakeville 1,412  839 

Lincolnville 1,382  809 

Riceville 1,369  796 

Nobles 1,298  725 

Tryonville  Junction 1,320  747 

Titusville  • 1,194  621 




Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Koet. 

Summit 1,646^  1,073^ 

Spartansburg 1,453^  880^ 

Trj'onville  Junction 1,320  747 

Titusville 1,194  C21 

Although  Oil  Creek  waters  now  flow  southward  into  the  Allegheny  River 
at  Oil  City,  Prof.  Carll  believes  that  there  was  a  time,  previous  to  the  great 
change  in  the  surface  of  the  region  made  by  the  northern  ice,  when  it 
turned  at  Tryonville  westward  and  used  what  is  now  the  valley  of  Muddy 
Creek,  joining  French  Creek  near  Miller's  Station.  This  is  the  route  of  the 
proposed  Pennsylvania  &  Petroleum  Railroad,  now  abandoned,  the  roadbed  of 
which  shows  the  following  levels  : 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Titusville 1,181  608 

Newton's  Mills 1,258  685 

Athen's  Mills 1,268  693 

Little  Cooley 1,203  630 

Teepletown 1,204  631 

Cambridge,  on  French  Creek    1,158  585 

According  to  Prof.  Carll,  French  Creek  in  pre- glacial  times — before  its 
lower  water  course  was  filled  with  drift,  and  its  waters,  first  spreading  out  into 
a  great  upland  lake  over  northern  Crawford  and  southern  Erie  Counties,  cut 
for  themselves  a  new  channel  southward  through  the  barrier  above  Franklin — 
turned  sharply  westward  below  Meadville  up  Conneaut  Lake  Creek  into  Lake 
Erie.  Prof.  I.  C.  White  in  his  report  on  Crawford  and  Erie  counties,  does 
not  accept  Prof.  Carll's  conclusions;  but  holds  the  opinion  that  French  Creek 
has  always  drained  southward  into  the  Ohio  River.  No  railway  line  follows 
this  route  the  entire  distance,  but  some  of  its  features  are  illustrated  by  the 
levels  of  the  Erie  &  Pittsburgh  road.  By  this  route  the  Grand  Divide  is  crossed 
at  an  elevation  of  568  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  at  a  point  about  twenty-five  miles 
south  of  the  lake  shore,  while  the  different  levels  along  the  line  within  Craw- 
ford county  are  as  follows  : 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Spring 961  388 

Conneautville 1,066  493 

Summit  Station,  on  the  Grand  Divide 1,141  568 

Linesville 1,033  460 

Espyville 1,088  515 

Kasson's 1,111  538 

Jamestown 979  406 

From  the  brow  of  the  Lake  Erie  sand -bluff  terrace,  there  is  an  upward  slope 
to  a  line  which  may  be  drawn  on  the  map  from  the  northeast  corner  of  Green- 
field TownsLip,  Erie  County,  on  the  New  York  State  line,  eleven  miles  south 
of  the  lake  shore,  to  the  northwest  corner  of  Conneaut  Township,  Crawford 
County,  on  the  Ohio  State  line,  twenty  three  miles  south  of  the  lake  shore. 
Down  this  slope  flow  mauy  small  streams  which  empty  into  Lake  Erie,  the  long 
streams  descending  from  the  divide  to  the  lake  being  all  west  of  Erie,  while 
the  short,  rapid  creeks  flowing  into  the  lake  are  located  east  of  that  city. 

The  waters  of  French  Creek  flowing  south  from  the  divide  present  a  wholly 
different  topographical  phenomenon  ;  its  several  branches  in  Erie  County, 
together  with  Little  and  Big  Conneaut,  Cussewago,  Lake  Conneaut,  Conneaut 
Outlet  and  their  many  feeders  and  branches  in  Crawford  drain  the  whole  rain 
fall  of  the  Great  Divide  southward,  through  flat  valleys,  one  and  even  two 
miles  wide,  bordered  by  low  and  gently  rounded  hill  slopes,  and  separated  by 



low,  flat  table- lands.     The  fall  of  French  Creek  is  gentle,  as  will  be  seen  by 
the  following  table  of  elevations  : 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Great  Divide 1,500  927 

Greenfield 1,400  827 

Wattsburg 1,315  742 

Mouth  of  Doolittle's  Run 1,310  737 

Waterford  Line 1,235  662 

Mouth  of  South  Branch 1,200  627 

Carrol's  Quarries 1,190  617 

Mill  Village  Bridge 1,165  592 

Opposite  Miller's  Station 1,135  562 

Cambridge  (water) 1,130  557 

Venango  (water) 1,115  542 

Saegertown  (water) 1,100  527 

Meadville  (water) 1.065  492 

Cochranton  (water) 1,050  477 

Crawford,  Venango  Line  (water) 1,045  472 

Utica  (water) 1,020  447 

Franklin  (water) 970  397 

Cussewago  Creek  is  a  sluggish  stream  meandering  along  a  wide,  shallow, 
drift-filled  valley,  the  side  hills  of  which,  however,  often  rise  abruptly  from  the 
plain  ;  showing  thus,  incidentally,  how  deep  the  drift  must  be  in  this  pre- 
glacial  valley  bed. 

Crooked  Creek  and  the  Shenango  drain  Pymatuning  Swamp  in  two  opposite 
directions,  but  all  the  waters  finding  their  way  southward,  emphasize  the  same 
style  of  topography  in  the  southwest  corner  of  Crawford  County.  The  Shenango 
drains  out  the  north  end  of  the  swamp,  but  the  amount  of  water  leaving  the 
county  by  this  channel  is  small.  Crooked  Creek  drains  the  south  end  of  the 
swamp,  and  is  a  sluggish,  meandering  stream,  its  valley  being  wide  and  fiat, 
and  filled  to  a  great  depth  with  drift. 

Lakes  and  swamps  are,  of  course,  numerous  in  such  a  country,  so  flat,  and 
80  entirely  covered  with  the  great  boulder  clay  and  gravel  deposit  of  the  north- 
ern ice  drift.  Oil  Creek  Lake  and  Conneaut  Lake  lie  on  a  parallel  line  drawn 
diagonally  across  Crawford  County,  with  Lakes  Pleasant,  Le  Boeuf  and  Con- 
neauttee  in  Erie;  while  Sugar  Lake  lies  near  the  Venango  County  line  in 
Wayne  Township.  Conneaut  Lake  is  located  on  the  low  divide  between  the 
French  Creek,  Conneaut  and  Shenango  waters.  A  natural  embankment  or  mo- 
raine of  drift,  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  high,  lies  across  the  valley  at  Glendale, 
and  forms  a  natural  dam  to  the  marsh,  which  extends  up  to  the  foot  of  the  lake. 
Marshes  extend  three  miles  north  of  the  head  of  Lake  Conneaut.  The  ancient 
lake  behind  the  moraine  was,  therefore,  at  least  fourteen  miles  long,^of  about 
the  size  of  Lake  Chautauqua,  in  New  York  State.  Under  the  present  peatbogs 
of  the  swamps  lie  old  deposits  of  fresh- water  shell- marl.  When  the  lake  was 
the  reservoir  for  the  Beaver  &  Erie  Canal,  its  surface  level  was  1,082  feet  above 
the  ocean,  and  509  feet  above  Lake  Erie;  but  since  the  tearing  away  of  the 
dam  across  its  mouth,  and  the  deepening  of  Conneaut  Outlet,  its  level  has 
been  lowered  twelve  feet,  leaving  it  now  1,070  and  497  feet  respectively  above 
the  ocean  and  lake.  The  outlet  drains  the  lake  southeastward  sluggishly 
through  a  marsh  to  French  Creek. 

Conneaut  Marsh  represents  the  former  extension  southward  of  Lake  Con- 
neaut when  it  was  much  larger  than  at  present,  as  is  shown  also  by  swamps  at 
the  northern  end  of  the  lake.  It  stretches  along  Conneaut  Outlet  to  within 
two  miles  and  a  half  of  its  junction  with  French  Creek,  and  was  estimated  by 
the  State  Surveyor- General  at  5,000  acres.  The  natural  vegetation  of  the 
marsh  consists  of  swamp  willow,  tamarack,  black  alder,  witch  hazel,  poison  su- 


mach,  and  the  side  saddle  flower;  while  in  the  standing  water-pools  nothiuf 
grows  but  the  broad  leaf  flag.  On  the  14th  of  April,  1868,  the  Legislature 
passed  an  act  providing  for  the  drainage  of  the  marsh.  W.  W.  Andrews  of 
Vernon  Township,  AVilliam  Porter,  of  Fairfield,  and  Dr.  A.  B.  Cushman,  of 
Greenwood,  were  authorized  to  hold  an  election  the  first  Monday  in  May,  for 
the  purpose  of  electing  three  commissioners  to  serve  one,  two  and  three  years 
respectively,  one  to  be  elected  annually  thereafter  to  till  the  place  of  the  retir- 
ing member.  These  commissioners  were  elected  by  the  male  owners  of  the 
marsh  lands,  and  were  empowered  to  assess  said  lands  up  to  50  cents  per  acre 
for  drainage  purposes.  A  8U.rveyor  was  appointed  to  survey  the  lands  within 
the  limits  of  the  marsh,  which  were  exempted  from  taxation  until  the  work  was 
completed.  A  steam  dredging  machine  was  purchased  and  the  work  commenced 
at  the  oiitlet  of  Conneaut  Lake.  The  channel  of  the  outlet  was  made  eight 
feet  deep  and  sixteen  feet  wide  most  of  the  way  from  the  lake  to  within  two 
miles  and  a  half  of  French  Creek,  at  an  average  cost  of  $1,000  per  mile.  The 
work  was  prosecuted  vigorously  until  its  completion  a  couple  of  years  ago.  Side 
ditches  were  cut  emptying  into  the  main  channel,  and  the  improvement  so 
drained  the  marsh  that  in  a  short  time  cattle  could  graze  along  the  banks  of 
the  outlet.  The  larger  part  of  these  lands,  which  a  few  years  ago  were  unfit 
for  cultivation,  are  to-day  regarded  as  among  the  most  valuable  in  the  county. 
The  soil  is  rich  and  almost  inexhaustible,  and  immense  crops  of  corn  have 
been  raised  where  water  once  stood  the  year  round. 

Pymatuning  Swamp  represents  a  large  lake  which  formerly  existed  in  the 
southwest  corner  of  Crawford  County.  It  extends  from  the  head  of  Crooked 
Creek,  near  Hartstown,  along  the  Shenango,  fifteen  miles,  to  the  Ohio  State 
line,  and  when  surveyed  by  Col.  Worrall  in  1868,  had  an  area  of  9,000  acres, 
which  has  since  been  considerably  reduced  by  judicious  ditching.  It  lies 
1,025  feet  above  tide,  or  452  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  In  the  swamp  is  a  some- 
what extensive  deposit  of  shell  marl,  similar  to  that  found  around  Conneaut 
Lake.  Alfred  Huidekoper,  Esq.,  in  his  "Incidents  in  the  Early  History  of 
Crawford  County,"  wi-itten  in  1846,  thus  refers  to  Pymatuning  Swamp:  "It 
has  every  appearance  of  having  once  been  a  lake  whose  bed  had  been  gradually 
tilled  up  with  accumulated  vegetable  matter.  Covered  with  the  cranberry 
vine,  with  occasional  clumps  of  alders,  and  islands  of  larch  and  other  timber, 
the  subsoil  is  so  loose  that  a  pole  can  be  thrust  into  it  from  ten  to  twenty  feet. 
Ditches  that  have  been  cut  through  it  for  the  purpose  of  draining,  exhibit 
fallen  timber  below  ground,  and  the  dead  stumps  of  trees  still  standino-  in 
place,  show,  by  the  divergence  of  their  roots,  that  the  serf  ace  of  the  soil  is 
now  from  two  to  three  feet  higher  than  it  was  when  the  trees  were  growing. ' ' 

Another  large  swamp  stretches  along  the  southern  and  eastern  portions  of 
Randolph  Township;  and  others  exist  in  Troy,  Athens  and  Bloomtield  Town- 
ships, thus  making  a  considerable  area  of  swamp  or  marsh  lands  in  Crawford 

Conneaut  Creek  heads  on  the  drift-tilled  low  divide  of  Summit  Township, 
which  is  the  northern  extension  of  the  Conneaut  Lake  basin.  The  stream 
flows  north  between  low  banks  of  quicksand  and  gravel,  upon  a  drift-tilling 
sometimes  180  feet  deep.  It  only  remains  to  note  the  topography  of  the  county 
east  of  French  Creek. 

Muddy  Creek  flows  in  an  ancient  valley  of  erosion,  now  tilled  deep  with 
drift.  The  stream  meanders  sluggishly  northwestward,  between  banks  of 
quicksand  and  gravel,  and  discharges  its  waters  into  French  Creek. 

The  west  branch  of  Sugar  Creek,  according  to  Prof.  Carll,  probably  flowed 
northwestward  in  pre-glacial  times,  through  the  flat  divide  along  the  present 


channel  of  Woodcock  Run.  When  this  channel  was  filled  by  the  ice  with 
drift,  a  lake  was  formed  and  a  new  outlet  was  cut  southward  in  the  direction 
of  Franklin  and  the  Allegheny  River.  The  greatest  quantity  of  drift  was 
dumped  into  the  valley  about  Guy's  Mills,  where  the  surface  is  now  forty  feet 
higher  than  the  streams.  The  water  plain  of  the  valley  is  a  mile  wide;  and 
the  bordering  hill- slopes  rise  abruptly  from  it  to  a  height  of  200  feet.  Six 
miles  lower  down,  the  stream  spreads  out  into  the  handsome  piece  of  water 
known  as  Sugar  Lake,  which  was  formerly  much  deeper  than  at  present,  as 
the  clearing  of  the  upland  slopes  is  rapidly  filling  it  with  sand  and  mud.  The 
east  branch  of  Sugar  Creek  heads  in  like  manner  in  the  drift-filled  valley 
plain  around  Townville,  and  possibly  once  poured  its  waters  northward  down 
the  channel  of  Muddy  Creek,  The  head  waters  of  Little  Sugar  are  located  in 
drift-plain  valleys  on  a  level  with  the  heads  of  Mill  and  Woodcock  Runs, 
which  flow  respectively  toward  Meadville  and  Saegertown. 

Oil  Creek  drains  all  of  eastern  Crawford,  southward  into  the  Allegheny 
River.  Prof.  Carll  holds  the  opinion  that  in  pre-glacial  times,  before  the  rock- 
gate  at  Titusville  was  opened,  all  the  Pine  Creek  waters  of  Warren  and 
Venango  Counties  flowed  past  Titusville  northwestwardly  along  the  present 
channel  of  Oil  Creek,  and  being  joined  at  Hydetown  by  Little  Oil  Creek  and 
Thompson's  Run,  and  near  Tryonville  by  the  East  and  West  Branches  of  Oil 
Creek,  poured  along  the  channel  of  Muddy  into  French  Creek  ;  the  present 
water-shed  west  of  Tryonville  being  merely  a  slight  elevation  in  the  drift- 
plain  of  the  ancient  valley.  The  northern  feeders  of  Oil  Creek  descend  south- 
ward from  the  Concord-Sparta-Bloomfield  highlands  with  its  maximum  hill- 
tops of  1,850  feet  above  tide  water,  or  1,277  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  Near  the 
head  of  the  West  Branch  lies  Oil  Creek  Lake,  fed  by  two  runs  from  the  high- 
lands, and  numerous  springs  which  rise  from  its  bottom  and  sides.  The  val- 
ley of  Oil  Creek  is  wide  and  flat,  and  the  hills  rise  abruptly  and  often  with 
cliffs  from  its  flood-plain,  showing  that  its  ancient  bed  lies  far  beneath  the 
present  surface.  The  following  levels  of  Oil  Creek  will  show  its  present  rate 
of  descent  : 

Ocean.  Lake  Erie. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Oil  Creek  Lake , 1,389  816 

RiceviUe  (water) 1,325  752 

Centerville  (water) 1,275  702 

Tryonville  (water) 1,260  687 

Road  northeast  corner  Troy  Township 1,250  675 

Hydetown  (water) 1,230  657 

Titusville  (water) 1,160  '    587 

Oil  City  (water) 985  413 

Geological  Series. — The  soils  of  Crawford,  while  they  often  yield  bounti- 
ful crops,  are  eminentlji  adapted  to  grazing,  and  can  be  most  successfully 
employed  for  such  purposes.  There  are  two  principal  classes  of  soils  ;  one, 
derived  from  the  decomposition  of  drift  material  ;  the  other,  originating  in  the 
decay  of  vegetable  matter  in  the  vicinity  of  bogs  and  land  reclaimed  from 
swamps.  From  the  drift  there  generally  results  a  strong,  clayey  or  sometimes 
gravelly  soil,  rich  in  fertilizing  elements;  but  owing  to  the  impervious  bed  of 
clay,  which  so  often  accompanies  the  drift,  this  soil  is  generally  inclined  to 
be  cold  and  wet,  so  that  the  land  has  to  be  thoroughly  under-drained 
before  first-class  crops  can  be  raised.  The  swamp  lands,  when  properly 
drained  and  cleared  up,  possess  almost  inexhaustible  resources.  The  deep 
covering  of  decayed  vegetable  mold  found  in  such  large  quantities  in  every 
bog  within  the  county,  would  make  an  excellent  top-dressing  for  the  colder 
clay  soils  derived  from  drift  ;  and  the  attention  of  farmers  cannot  be  too  strongly 


called  to  this  valuable  source  of  manure  for  their  lands,  procurable  in  vast 
quantities  and  at   a  slight  cost. 

Drift. — There  is  no  land  within  the  county  that  has  not  been  affected  by 
the  great  ice  sheet,  which  in  glacial  times  moved  southwestward  over  this  en- 
tire region.  At  Meadville,  Prof.  White  found  glacial  scratches  upon  the 
upper  surface  of  the  Sharon  Conglomerate  which  forms  the  top  of  College 
Hill,  1,550  feet  above  tide,  1,177  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  and  500  feet  above  the 
present  bed  of  French  Creek,  which  is,  he  thinks,  at  least  300  feet  above  its 
old  water-course  beneath  the  drift.  On  the  supposition  that  the  old  buried 
channel  of  the  stream  at  Meadville  was  already  that  deep  previous  to  the 
glacial  invasion,  the  ice-sheet  must  have  been  at  least  800  feet  thick  here.  The 
direction  of  the  ice-grooves  examined  by  Prof.  White  on  thirty  or  forty  sum- 
mits in  Erie  and  Crawford  Counties  was  uniformly  about  S.  30*^  E.,  or 
south -south  east.  The  greatest  thickness  of  the  ice-sheet,  thus  moving  from 
the  north-northwest,  must  have  been  over  the  low-lying  western  townships,  and 
its  .thin  melting  edge  over  the  eastern  townships,  around  and  between  hills 
formed  or  capped  by  harder  rocks  than  those  of  the  lower  lands. 

The  varied  cliaracter  of  the  northern  drift  deposits  can  be  well  studied 
along  the  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  towards  the  Ohio  State  line,  where  they  consti- 
tute a  terrace  bluff,  from  iifty  to  eighty  feet  high.  Stratified  rocks  are 
scarcely  anywhere  exposed  along  the  shore  west  of  Erie,  except  at  the  mouths 
and  in  the  beds  of  inflowing  streams.  The  matrix  is  a  bluish-white  tough  clay 
imbedding  fragments,  mostly  angular,  of  all  kinds  of  crystaline  rocks,  with 
sandstone,  shale,  black  slate  and  limestone;  and  occasionally  a  large  bowlder 
of  granite  or  gneiss  is  seen  protruding  from  the  mass. 

Quicksand  is  abundant  in  the  drift  deposits  of  the  region  back  from  Lake 
Erie,  and  especially  along  the  summit  level  of  the  old  Beaver  &  Erie  Canal. 
A  bed  of  it  two  feet  thick  was  found  in  cutting  the  channel  for  the  canal;  and 
for  a  mile  and  a  half  the  sides  and  bottom  of  the  canal  had  to  be  timbered 
and  boarded.  Along  the  depression  of  Conneaut  Lake  the  drift  is  probably 
very  deep,  and  the  valley  of  Conneaut  Creek  is  heaped  with  drift  from  the 
summit  down  to  the  great  bend  in  Erie  County.  Mr.-  Schotield,  of  Conneaut- 
ville,  gave  Prof.  White  the  following  record  of  a  drillhole  which  he  put  down 
near  that  borough: 


Gravel,  bowlders,  clay,  etc 11^ 

Shale  and  sand  layers 30 

Quicksand '. 45 

After  drilling  through  thirty  feet  of  what  he  then  supposed  to  be  bed  rock, 
the  tools  dropped,  and,  says  Mr.  Scholield,  "quicksand  boiled  up  like  mush." 
The  drive  pipe  had  to  be  extended  to  ]87  feet  ere  striking  bedrock. 

The  drift  in  French  Creek  valley  is  very  deep.  About  four  miles  below 
Meadville,  a  drive  pipe  was  put  down  285  feet  without  touching  bottom  rock  ; 
all  the  way  through  quicksand  and  bowlders.  The  drift  on  Oil  Creek  is  shown 
by  well  borings  to  be  from  100  to  200  feet  deep.  On  Muddy  Creek  the  water 
wells  are  dug  in  quicksand,  and  heaps  of  drift  are  to  be  seen  everywhere  on  the 
surface.  But  on  the  high  lands  there  seems  to  be  but  a  thin  coating  of  drift, 
and  often  nothing  but  scattered  bowlders,  with  scratches  and  furrows  on  the 
rock  surfaces.  Glacial  scratches  are  abundant  on  the  surfaces  of  the  harder 
sandstone  outcrops,  especially  in  Mead,  Fairfield,  Greenwood,  East  Fallowfield, 
Randolph,  Wayne,  East  Fairfield,  Union  and  South  Shenango  Townships. 
The  scratched  rocks  nearly  always  belong  to  the  Sharon  conglomerate.  Erratics, 
are  abundant,  and  some  may  be  found  ten  feet  in  diameter  ;  but  they  are  not 
anything  like  so  numerous  in  Crawford,  as  in  the  counties  further  south.     The 


erratics  were  not  brought  by  icebergs,  but  by  glacial  ice,  and  they  naturally 
increase  in  number  southward  in  the  direction  of  the  motion  of  the  Great  Beaver 
Valley  glacier,  on  the  principle  of  a  terminal  moraine. 

Buried  Valleys. — The  present  water-courses  of  the  county  meander  along 
the  upper  surfaces  of  drift  deposits  which  fill  up  the  ancient  valleys  to  various 
heio-hts  above  the  old  rock  beds,  even  in  some  places  where  no  living  stream 
now  flows.  The  285- foot  drive-pipe  of  the  Smith  well,  sunk  in  the  valley  of 
French  Creek,  about  four  miles  below  Meadville,  serves  to  indicate  the  depth 
of  the  old  valley  floor.  The  hole  was  commenced  on  the  plain,  twenty  feet 
above  French  Creek,  or  482  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  The  bottom  of  the  pipe  was 
therefore  197  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  Bed-rocks  are  frequently  seen  along 
French  Creek,  but  the  flood  plain  being  two  miles  wide,  there  is  ample  space 
for  a  buried  valley  between  the  two  wall  slopes,  though  none  has  been  reported, 
as  oil  borings  are  not  numerous.  The  buried  valley  of  Conneaut  Lake  and 
marsh  is  fully  spoken  of  in  the  typography  of  the  county.  Its  side-hills  are 
300  feet  above  the  present  plain  ;  but  the  depth  of  the  old  rock  floor  is 
unknown.  No  rocks  in  place  are  seen  along  the  Cussewago  from  Meadville  up 
to  near  its  head.  The  stream  winds  along  between  low  banks  of  sand  and  gla- 
cial debris,  which  probably  fill  an  ancient  and  now  deeply-buried  valley-bed. 
Similar  appearances,  and  the  putting  down  of  drive-pipes  indicate  bm-ied  val- 
leys along  Muddy,  Woodcock,  Sugar  and  Little  Sugar,  Oil,  Crooked,  Shenango 
and  Conneaut  Creeks.  Bed-rock  was  struck  on  Mr.  Allen's  farm  above  Sugar 
Lake  at  eighty  feet.  Near  the  south  line  of  Troy  Township,  on  Sugar  Creek, 
John  Armstrong's  drive-pipe  measured  130  feet.  On  Oil  Creek,  just  above 
Hydetown  on  the  Reed  estate,  drift  190  feet  deep  was  found.  Below  Tryon- 
ville,  on  the  Preston  farm  bed,  rock  was  reached  at  200  feet;  and  just  west  of 
this  Mr.  Gray's  pipe  touched  rock  at  160  feet.  A  drive-pipe  reached  rock  at 
160  feet  on  each  side  of  the  stream  below  the  Tryonville  bridge  ;  while  a  mile 
above  Centerville,  bed-rock  was  found  at  ninety  and  100  feet.  We  have  pre- 
viously mentioned  the  depth  of  the  drift  on  Conneaut  Creek,  found  by  Mr. 
Schofield  to  be  187  feet  near  Conneautville. 

The  most  remarkable  of  these  buried  valleys  are  those  through  which  two 
streams  now  flow  in  opposite  directions  from  a  common  divide,  scarcely  more 
elevated  than  other  parts  of  the  flood  plain.  Two  fine  examples  of  this  phe- 
nomenon exist  in  Mead  Township:  Mill  and  Mud  Runs,  both  of  which  have 
their  heads  together  in  a  swamp  located  in  a  common  wide  and  deep  land  val- 
ley, Mill  Run  flowing  north  and  Mud  Run  south.  The  two  valley  walls  slope 
gradually  upward  to  a  height  of  350  feet.  Prof.  White  holds  the  opinion  that 
there  must  be  an  older  and  deeper  valley  bed  buried  beneath  this  swamp  and 
these  two  streams;  and  that  along  this  ancient  rock-bed  a  single  stream  must 
have  flowed  in  one  or  the  other  direction.  Another  example  is  Little  Sugar 
Creek,  (east  branch)  which  flows  southward  past  Mead's  Corners,  in  a  similar 
drift-filled,  ancient  valley,  out  from  an  imperceptible  divide  in  Mead  Town- 
ship, from  which  another  stream  flows  north  into  Woodcock  Run.  The  hill 
walls  are  here  200  feet  bigh.  Woodcock  Run  and  the  West  Branch  of  Sugar 
Creek  head  together  at  Guy's  Mills  on  the  flat  floor  of  a  through-cut  valley  bound- 
ed by  hills  200  feet  high,  and  flow  in  opposite  directions'.  The  south  fork  of 
Muddy  Creek  and  the  north  branch  of  Sugar  Creek  head  together  at  Town- 
ville,  in  a  through-cut  valley,  the  walls  of  which  rise  very  high.  The  streams 
are  separated  by  a  ridge  of  drift  forty  feet  high  which  crosses  the  valley  floor 
at  this  point. 

Prof.  White's  theory  regarding  these  ancient  buried  valleys,  is  that  they 
were  excavated  by  ancient  rivers  flowing  from  one  to  f oi;r  hundred  feet  beneath 


the  present  valley  drift  floors;  or  they  were  cut  by  the  gi'eat  southward  Cana- 
dian ice  sheet,  which  as  it  retreated  tilled  them  up  again  with  the  debris  which 
it  carried;  or  they  were  first  excavated  by  pre-glacial  rivers,  then  deepened  and 
widened  more  or  less,  and  grooved  and  scratched  and  polished  by  the  ice,  and 
filled  with  its  moraine  matter  to  the  present  levels.  His  conviction  is,  how- 
ever, that  these  buried  water-ways  must  have  owed  their  origin  to  the  flowing 
power  of  ice. 

Pottsville  Conglomerate. — This  great  formation  is  represented  along 
the  southern  border  of  Crawford  County,  by  four  more  or  less  massive  and 
sometimes  pebbly  sandstone  deposits  separated  by  softer  shaly  layers,  and 
known  under  the  general  title  of  Homewood  Sandstone,  50  feet;  Mercer  Group, 
30  feet;  Conoquenessing,  120  feet;  and  Sharon,  98  feet.  The  few  fragments 
of  Homewood  Sandstone  which  i-emain  in  this  county,  are  concealed  beneath 
a  covering  of  northern  drift.  Where  Fairfield-Greenwood  Township  line 
strikes  Mercer  County,  a  coal-boring  on  a  small  hill-top  went  through  50  feet  of 
sandstone,  probably  the  Homewood,  which  is  always  found  in  the  highest  sum- 
mits. In  Wayne  Township,  south  of  Sugar  Lake,  near  the  county  line  a  drift- 
covered  hill-top,  rising  325  feet  above  the  Shenango  sandstone,  ought  to  hold 

The  Mercer  Group  appears  along  the  southern  edge  of  the  county  as  sandy 
shales,  everywhere  concealed  by  the  drift;  but  a  drift-hole,  near  the  southwest 
corner  of  Fairfield  Township,  reported  a  few  inches  of  coaly  substance  iu 
30  feet  of  shales. 

The  Conoquenessing  has  three  formations:  upper  sandstone,  Quakertown 
beds,  and  lower  sandstone.  The  upper  sandstone  caps  a  number  of  the  high- 
est knobs.  On  Culver  and  Dyce's  knob,  in  the  center  of  Greenwood  Town- 
ship, 1,400  feet  above  tide,*  large  masses  of  grayish- white  pebbly  sandstone 
lie  130  feet  above  the  Sharon  coal,  opened  in  the  flats  below.  John  Shepard's 
knob,  in  east  Fallowfield,  1,420  feet  above  tide,  is  capped  with  massive  white 
sandstone,  125  feet  above  the  Sharon  coal.  Several  hills  in  Fairfield,  toward 
French  Creek  and  Conneaut  Lake,  are  capped  by  it.  Voi son's  quarry,  on  the 
south  side  of  a  high  ridge  in  Randolph  Township,  shows  thirty  feet  of  very 
hard,  white,  tolerably  coarse-grained  sandstone.  The  top  of  the  rock  is  about 
1,550  feet  above  tide.  The  upper  surface  of  the  white,  coarse  sandstone  in 
McCartney's  ledge,  near  Randolph  Fostoffice,  is  scored  with  glacial  furrows. 
The  top  of  the  rock  is  1,650  feet  above  tide,  and  the  southern  dip  to  Voison's 
quarry,  five  miles  south,  is  twenty  feet  per  mile.  Power's  knob,  two  miles 
east  and  a  little  north  of  McCartney's  ledge,  at  the  southern  edge  of  Rich- 
mond, is  capped  with  white  sandstone.  Thirty  feet  of  the  rock  are  visible,  the 
top  of  which  is  1,650  feet  above  tide. 

In  Troy  and  Steuben  Townships,  where  the  hills  often  rise  above  the  hori- 
zon of  this  stratum,  there  are  often  found  great  numbers  of  small  bowlders 
of  a  sandstone,  which  is  pitted  with  small  cavities  in  such  a  manner  as  to  give 
it  a  rude  resemblance  to  a  honey-comb,  or  more  accurately,  to  a  hornet's  nest. 
The  small  cavities  seem  to  be  tilled  with  a  ferruginous  clayey  material,  which 
readily  crumbles  and  falls  out  when  it  is  exposed  by  fracture,  and  thus  leaves 
the  sandstone  punctured  with  numerous  small  holes  one-fourth  to  three-eights 
of  an  inch  in  diameter. 

The  Quakertown  coal  exists  iu  the  Voison  knob  in  Randolph  Township; 
since  lumps  of  outcrop  coal  are  found  in  the  large  spring  under  the  quarried 
sandstone.  Elsewhere  its  outcrop  is  always  concealed  by  sandstone  fragments 
fallen  from  above. 

*  Lake  Erie  is  573  feet  lower  than  tide  level. 


The  lower  sandstone  is  seen  at  several  localities  along  the  southex'n  portion 
of  the  county,  and  is  nearly  always  a  very  hard,  coarse,  sometimes  pebbly, 
often  micaceous,  grayish  brown  sandstone,  with  occasionally  a  tinge  of  buff. 
On  Miller's  land,  on  the  south  line  of  east  Fallowfield,  it  overlies  the  Sharon 
coal  fifteen  feet,  and  is  forty  feet  thick,  disintegrating  on  exposure  to  the 
weather.  At  McEntire'e,  further  north  in  the  same  township,  only  ten  feet 
of  it  remain,  broken  into  large  and  small  fragments,  perhaps  by  the  passage  of 
the  northern  ice.  At  the  top  of  Pine  knoll,  west  part  of  Wayne,  it  overlies  a 
worked  coal  bed,  and  is  crushed  to  fragments.  On  Wentworth's  and  other 
farms  south  of  Sugar  Lake  it  is  plainly  visible.  This  sandstone  is  sometimes 
itself  divided  into  two  layers,  separated  by  twenty  or  thirty  feet  of  shale,  its 
lower  sandy  mass  then  forming  the  roof  of  the  Sharon  coal  bed. 

Sharon  has  four  formations:  Upper  iron  shales,  coal,  lower  shales,  and 
conglomerate.  Owing  to  the  very  limited  extent  of  the  Sharon  coal  in  this 
district,  the  usual  iron-bearing  shales,  so  often  seen  above  it,  in  the  Shenango 
and  Mahoning  Valleys,  are  but  seldom  exposed,  and  have  yielded  iron  ore  only 
in  two  instances.  At  James  M.  Snodgrass',  near  Jamestown,  in  South  She- 
nango Township,  a  bed  of  solid  iron  ore  two  feet  thick,  covered  by  four  feet 
of  blue  shale,  was  stripped  from  the  hill  top,  and  sent  to  Greenville  and  Mid- 
dlesex Furnaces.  The  ore  lying  in  dish-shaped  depressions  frequently  ran 
out.  A  thin  coal  bed  underlies  the  ore,  and  may  represent  a  rider  of  the 
Sharon  coal,  as  often  happens  in  Mercer  County.  It  lies  140  feet  above  the 
base  of  the  Shenango  sandstone  in  the  hollow  to  the  west.  At  McDaniels',  on 
Sugar  Creek,  and  the  Yenango  County  line,  a  rich  carbonate  iron  ore-bed,  one 
foot  thick,  has  been  stripped  and  drifted  into  for  Liberty  Furnace.  The  shales 
above  it  hold  much  kidney  ore  which  was  also  mined.  The  Sharon  coal  lies 
twenty  feet  under  it.  This  iron  ore  horizon  might,  doubtless,  be  found 
workable  at  other  places  along  the  southern  edge  of  the  county. 

The  Sharon  coal  bed  is  thin  and  poor,  and  appears  only  at  intervals  around 
the  edges  of  the  high  isolated  acres  of  conglomerate,  in  Crawford  County. 
Except  in  a  few  knobs  which  catch  it  in  their  summits  further  north,  it  is  con- 
fined to  the  southern  tier  of  townships;  and  as  a  workable  bed  it  is  almost 
confined  to  East  Fallowfield,  through  the  hills  of  which  it  spreads  pretty  gen- 
erally and  regularly.  At  O.  K.  Miller's  Mine,  near  the  county  line,  where 
several  hundred  tons  were  taken  out  before  bad  drainage  spoiled  the  workings, 
the  bed  varies  from  three  feet  to  a  few  inches,  and  in  some  directions  to  noth- 
ing. It  is  somewhat  slaty,  but  a  genuine  "  block  coal,"  and  lies  in  twenty- 
five  feet  of  shales.  Fifteen  feet  over  it  is  seen  the  base  of  forty  feet  of  Con- 
oquenessing  lower  sandstone,  and  ten  feet  under  it  the  top  of  the  massive  Sharon 
conglomerate,  here  very  pebbly.  The  McEntire  settlement,  two  miles  north  of 
Miller's  Mine,  furnished  coal  at  an  early  day,  which  was  hauled  to  Meadville. 
James  M.  McEntire  described  his  coal  bed  to  Prof.  White  as  six  feet  of  impure 
cannel,  overlying  four  feet  of  block  coal,  making  a  total  thickness  of  ten  feet. 
The  upper  bench  was  really  a  bituminous  shale,  although  it  could  be  burned; 
and  both  layers  were  very  variable,  often  running  down  to  nothing.  The  coal 
on  Jesse  McEntire's  land  was  chiefly  stripped;  but  these  McEntire  Mines  were 
long  ago  exhausted. 

In  Greenwood  Township  several  borings  have  reported  the  Sharon  coal. 
In  Union  Township  Huber  &  Klippel  stripped  a  few  tons  from  the  steep  slope 
of  Dutch  Hill,  a  high  knob  half  a  mile  from  French  Creek.  On  the  opposite 
slopes  of  French  Creek  Valley,  near  the  north  line  of  East  Fairfield,  a  Byhm's 
shaft  was  sunk  in  1878.  Under  fifty-five  feet  of  drift  it  reached  the  coal  bed, 
where  the  glacial  movement  had  crushed  it  into  an  unminable  condition.     In 



Mead  three  or  four  water-wells  report  the  coal  bed  always  under  drift,  and  in 
a  broken-xip  state.  In  Wright's  well,  two  miles  and  a  half  due  east  of  Moad- 
ville,  the  coal  bed  was  struck  after  passing  through  twenty-five  feet  of  drift. 
On  the  summit  of  Pine  Knoll,  in  Wayne  Township,  whore  coal  has  been  worked 
on  a  small  scale  for  a  long  time,  the  bed  is  only  one  foot  thick.  In  the  Went- 
worth  oil-boring,  southeast  edge  of  Wayne,  the  Sharon  coal  bod  was  reported 
at  a  depth  of  fifty-five  feet,  as  follows  :  Coal,  upper  bench,  one  foot  ;  cannel 
slate  parting,  five  feet  ;  coal,  lower  bench,  two  feet.  Both  top  and  bottom 
benches  looked  like  "block  coal,"  free  from  sulphur,  and  the  slaty  parting 
could  be  burned.  In  Troy  and  Steuben  Townships  numerous  highlands  have 
sufficient  elevation  to  catch  the  Sharon  coal,  but  it  has  not  been  found,  and 
very  little  efi"ort  has  been  made  to  see  if  it  existed. 

The  Sharon  lower  shales  are  covei'ed  by  tire-clay,  which  underlies  the  Sha- 
ron coal  bed;  and  these  shales  sometimes  graduate  downward  into  the  Sharon 
conglomerate  series.  The  interval  between  the  bottom  of  the  coal  and  the  top 
of  the  solid  sandstone  varies  from  five  to  fifteen  feet. 

The  Sharon  conglomerate  is  a  widespread  deposit  of  sand  and  pebbles  of 
quartz,  and  has  been  surveyed  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  the  western  and 
northern  counties  of  Pennsylvania.  In  Crawford  County  it  is  exhibited  in  a 
remarkably  satisfactory  and  complete  manner,  by  the  Meadville  quarries  on 
College  Hill.  Here  building-stone  layers,  with  an  occasional  pebble,  occupy 
the  upper  thirty-five  feet  ;  and  the  lower  ten  feet  is  a  conglomerated  mass  of 
quartz  pebbles.  The  upper  beds  are  of  a  rather  hard,  coarse,  dull  gray  sandstone 
(often  reddish  when  first  quarried),  containing  an  occasional  pebble  of  quartz  ; 
but  building-stone  free  from  pebbles  can  usually  be  got  by  not  quarrying 
down  too  low.  The  building  material  obtained  from  it  is  quite  durable  when 
nothing  but  the  homogeneous  sandstone  is  used;  but  toward  the  lower  portion, 
where  the  pebbles  increase  in  number  and  begin  to  be  scattered  through  the 
matrix,  the  sand  grains  become  quite  coarse  and  seem  to  have  little  power  of 
coherence,  since  they  rapidly  break  loose  from  each  other  on  exposure,  and  the 
sandstone  soon  decays.  Great  care  should  be  taken  in  putting  up  a  stone 
structure  from  this  rock,  that  no  pebbles  enter  into  the  composition  of  any 
material  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  weather.  In  some  of  the  quarries  at 
Meadville,  thirty  feet  of  this  upper  division  is  taken  out.  The  lower  division, 
as  seen  along  the  by-road  passing  up  to  the  quarries,  is  a  perfect  mass  of 
quartz  pebbles,  varying  in  size  from  a  pea  to  a  hen's  egg,  and  always  egg- 
shaped,  never  flattened  or  worn  into  thin  forms,  such  as  we  often  see  in  the 
conglomerates  which  come  in  the  series  below  this  horizon.  The  matrix  of 
these  pebbles  is  a  coarse,  greenish-grey  sand,  which  disintegrates  very  readily 
and  lets  the  imbedded  pebbles  drop  out  in  a  loose  heap  around  the  outcrop 

A  peculiar  lithology,  different  from  that  of  any  other  rock  in  the  conglom- 
erate series,  distinguishes  the  Sharon  conglomerate,  so  that  a  person  who  has 
once  learned  to  know  it  can  rarely  fail  to  recognize  it  even  in  scattered  frag- 
ments. The  size  of  the  pebbles  seems  to  increase  going  east;  for  while  the 
largest  seen  in  Crawford  County  by  Prof.  White  was  not  larger  than  a  hen's 
egg,  they  are  found  along  the  Allegheny  River  as  large  as  a  goose's  egg.  The 
areas,  surrounded  by  local  outcrops  of  Sharon  conglomerate  in  this  county, 
are  largest  and  longest  west  of  the  meridian  of  Little  Cooley  and  Townville. 
Between  that  meridian  and  the  Warren  County  line,  in  the  upper  Oil  Creek 
country,  only  small  isolated  patches  of  the  rock  have  been  left.  These  variations 
of  erosion  are  mostly  due  to  variations  in  the  lithological  constitution  of  the 
formation;  for,  instead  of  being  as  thick  and  massive  everywhere  as  it  is  at 
Meadville,  it  changes  in  many  places  to  a  series  of  thin  bedded,  fine  grained 


sandstones,  hardly  less  capable  of  resisting  erosion  than  the  formations  under- 
neath it.  It  is  not  unfrequently  current-bedded;  as.  for  example  at  Henry's 
quarry  in  East  Fallowfield  Township.  And  here  also  the  top  layer  is  honey- 
combed, apparently  from  the  decomposition  of  the  erect  stems  of  a  seaweed 
(fucoid);  and  it  also  contains  fragments  of  the  scales  and  bones  of  fish.  The 
general  northern  outcrop  of  the  Sharon  conglomerate  as  a  formation,  or  the 
line  along  the  northern  ends  of  all  its  separate  areas,  crosses  Crawford  County 
from  its  southwest  to  its  northeast  corner,  and  the  elevations  above  tide  along 
this  line  increase  in  that  direction. 

Subconglomerate  Formations. — This  term  is  applied  by  Prof.  White,  to  a 
series  of  deposits  underlying  the  Sharon  conglomerate  in  this  region,  and 
resting  on  the  Venango  Oil  Land  group.  They  make  most  of  the  uplands  of 
Crawford  County,  while  the  valleys  between  are  occupied  by  the  Venango  Oil 
Land  group.  The  series  may  be  divided  into  three  groups  thus:  Shenango 
group,  75  feet;  Meadville  group,  205  feet;  Oil  Lake  group,  162  feet.  A 
reference  to  the  stratification  in  the  vicinity  of  Meadville,  will  tend  to  convey 
a  tolerably  exact  conception  of  the  nature  of  the  beds  of  rock  which  occupy 
the  400  feet  of  depth  below  the  base  of  the  conglomerate  stratum  which  there 
caps  the  hills  forming  part  of  the  general  margin  of  the  coal  field.  These 
hills  on  the  north  and  south  of  Meadville  are  at  their  greatest  elevation  488 
feet  above  the  bottom  of  the  old  French  Creek  canal  feeder,  and  expose  the 
upper  strata  especially  with  some  degree  of  distinctness.  The  lower  strata 
are  not  so  continuously  exposed  to  view,  making  it  more  difficult  to  determine 
their  true  order  of  succession.  Near  the  level  of  the  canal,  the  beds  are  of 
brown  slate  and  sandstone,  and  over  this, we  find  a  thin  bed  of  clayey  shale, 
then  a  sandstone  repeated,  and  then  another  layer  of  red  and  gray  shale  two 
or  three  feet  thick.  At  a  higher  level  are  seen  thin  beds  of  calcareous  shale, 
some  of  which  abound  in  fossil  shells  and  other  organic  remains.  From  this 
shale  to  a  height  of  150  feet  occur  alternations  of  coarse  brown  sandstone  and 
thinly  laminated  bluish  slates  and  flaggy  olive  sandstones  and  olive  slates. 
At  that  height  we  meet  a  bed  of  blue  shale  four  feet  thick,  and  over  it  a  brown 
sandstone  and  olive  slate,  until  we  reach  235  feet  above  the  bottom  of  the 
canal,  where  we  encounter  a  bed  of  sandy  limestone.  Under  the  limestone, 
in  a  massive  bluish  sandstone,  we  find  thin  layers  of  an  impure  iron  ore. 
Ascending  from  the  limestone,  we  pass  thick  beds  of  brown  bluish  sandstone 
(some  of  the  latter  being  slightly  calcareous),  thin  beds  of  fossiliferous  and 
calcareous  slate,  succeeded  by  others  of  brown  and  blue  shale.  At  the  height 
of  412  feet  we  arrive  at  the  base  of  the  great  bed  of  Sharon  conglomerate, 
which  is  also  seen  at  the  height  of  450  feet. 

The  Shenango  Group  embraces  the  Shenango  shales  and  Shenango  sand- 
stone formations.  The  Shenango  shale,  under  the  Sharon  conglomerate  in 
Crawford  County,  generally  consists  entirely  of  blue,  gray  and  brown  clay 
shales,  but  frequently  contains  thin  flaggy  sandstone  layers,  which  in  one  lo- 
cality examined  by  Prof.  White  merged  into  a  solid  sandstone  ten  feet  thick. 
A  streak  of  iron  ore  is  nearly  always  found  at  the  base  of  the  shales  in  Crawford 
County,  an  irregular  layer  of  clay  ironstone  balls.  Fossils  rarely  appear  in 
the  Shenango  shale,  biit  when  found,  are  of  sub- carboniferous  types.  Plant 
remains  are  found  in  the  upper  part  of  the  Shenango  shale  at  the  Snodgrass 
quarry,  near  Jamestown.  The  average  thickness  of  this  shale  through  Craw- 
ford County  may  be  called  fifty  feet,  being  nowhere  less  than  thirty-six,  nor 
more  than  sixty. 

The  Shenango  sandstone  in  this  county  is  tolerably  coarse  grained,  yellow- 
ish brown  or  sometimes  a  dull  gray  in  color,  crowded  with  balls  of    iron  ore 


from  six  inches  to  one  foot  in  diametei-,  or  even  lai'ger.  Fish-bones,  teeth, 
scales  and  spines  are  everywhere  found  in  it,  while  small  rounded  pebbles  of 
shale  or  fine  sandstone  are  also  common.  The  remains  of  plants  and  shells 
may  be  found  in  most  of  its  exposed  outcrops.  As  a  building  stone  it  is  very 
valuable,  far  superior  to  the  Sharon  conglomerate  above  it,  in  resistance  to 
weather,  being  composed  of  nearly  a  pure  quartz  sand,  the  grains  cemented 
by  peroxide  of  iron.  Its  ore-balls,  hovs^ever,  are  so  numerous,  that  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  dress  up  the  blocks,  which  are  therefore  rejected  for  ornamental 
uses,  and  used  almost  only  for  bridge  abutments,  piers  and  other  strong 
structures.  It  was  used  in  the  locks  of  the  Beaver  &  Erie  Canal,  where  it  is 
to-day  as  sound  as  when  quarried.  Jackson's  quarry,  between  Atlantic  and 
Evansburg,  has  furnished  most  of  the  bridge  stone,  etc.,  along  the  New  York, 
Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Railroad. 

The  outcrop  enters  Crawford  County  on  the  east  bank  of  Shenango  Creek, 
runs  to  the  center  of  South  Shenango  Township,  then  east  through  West  Fal- 
lowtield  and  returns  back  of  Adamsville,  250  feet  above  the  level  of  Crooked 
Creek.  It  runs  north  and  south  through  East  Fallowfield,  overlooking  the 
railroad;  circles  at  Stony  Point  through  Sadsbury,  back  into  East  Fallowfield, 
and  so  follows  the  south  hills  of  Conneaut  Outlet  through  Greenwood  and 
Fairfield,  and  down  French  Creek  Valley  into  Venango  County.  It  encircles 
the  high  lands  in  Vernon  and  Union,  about  250  feet  above  the  level  of  Con- 
neaut Outlet.  It  runs  along  the  Meadville  Hills,  at  about  375  feet  above  the 
level  of  French  Creek;  and  looks  down  from  the  south  and  west  upon  the  great 
bend  of  Woodcock  Run,  along  the  north  and  west  lines  of  Randolph.  It 
stretches  from  around  the  hill-tops  of  New  Richmond  southward  through  Troy 
Township  into  Venango  County,  and  occupies  the  high  summit  of  northern 
Athens  west  of  Riceville  on  Oil  Creek,  of  western  Sparta,  and  east  of  Oil 
Creek  Lake,  thence  enters  Warren  County.  The  rise  from  the  Snodgrass  quarry 
near  Jamestown,  which  is  1,190  feet  above  tide  to  the  highest  knob  in  the 
southeast  corner  of  Erie  County,  forty-six  miles  distant,  and  1,860  feet  above 
tide,  is  670  feet  or  fourteen  and  one-half  feet  per  mile.  The  thickness  of  the 
Shenango  sandstone  in  Crawford  County  varies  from  fifteen  to  thirty-five  feet. 
Natural  exposures  of  considerable  beauty  may  be  found  in  two  localities.  In 
Greenwood  Township,  half  a  mile  south  of  Custard's  Postoffice,  fine  cliffs  enclose 
a  deep  and  narrow  gorge,  with  a  waterfall  thirty  feet  high.  Here  immense 
quantities  of  ore-balls  may  be  seen,  many  of  them  larger  than  ostrich  eggs; 
base  of  rock  1,270  feet  above  tide.  Grassy  Run,  in  Wayne  Township,  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  above  its  mouth,  cuts  a  chasm  through  the  rocks,  with  cliffs  thirty- 
five  feet  high;  base  of  rock  1,315  above  tide.  Hundreds  of  other  inferior 
outcrops  might  be  enumerated.  As  this  sandstone  is  followed  eastward  it 
becomes  coarser  and  more  massive,  for  while  its  bottom  layers  only  begin  to 
be  pebbly  at  Meadville,  at  Warren  the  pebble-rock  is  from  forty  to  forty-five 
feet  thick,  and  at  Franklin  is  extensively  quarried  120  feet  above  the  water  in 
French  Creek. 

The  Meadville  Group  consists  of  the  Meadville  upper  shales,  Meadville 
upper  limestone,  Meadville  lower  shales,  Sharpsville  upper  sandstone, 
Meadville  lower  limestone,  Sharpsville  lower  limestone  and  Orangeville 
shales.  The  Meadville  upper  shales  are  bluish-gray,  or  ashen  gray  in  color, 
argillaceous  at  the  top,  sandy  lower  down,  sometimes  flaggy,  but  never  massive. 
Where  well  exposed  at  the  head  of  the  Cemetery  Branch  of  Mill  Run,  near 
Meadville,  they  are  15  feet  thick;  one  mile  east  of  this  30  feet;  on  Grassy  Run^ 
in  Wayne  Township,  36^  feet;  at  Custard's  Postoffice,  30  feet;  at  Jamestown,  25 
feet;  near    Dutch  Hill,^  in  Union  Township,  40   feet,  and  in  East  Fallowfield, 


where  the  road  crosses  Unger's  Run,  15  feet,     Fucoids,  or  sea- weeds,  are  numer- 
ous in  these  shales. 

The  Meadville  upper  limestone  is  exposed  in  many  places  across  Crawford 
County.  Its  thickness  seldom  exceeds  one  foot,  often  not  six  inches,  and  never 
more  than  one  foot  six  inches.  Fish  scales,  teeth,  bones,  plates,  and  spines, 
are  so  crowded  into  it,  that  at  many  localities  it  might  be  called  a  fishbone  con- 
glomerate, in  which  it  is  difficult  to  detect  any  other  materials.  There  are 
many  novelties  in  the  Meadville  upper  limestone,  and  materials  for  its  study 
are  abundant  and  easily  accessible.  Rounded  pebbles  of  shale  and  fine  sand- 
stone are  nearly  always  to  be  found  in  it;  usually  of  a  dark  color,  and  derived 
from  older  strata  of  the  series.  In  some  places  these  pebbles  are  very  numer- 
ous, and  are  usually  flat,  or  lenticular,  sometimes  worn  oval,  and  tapering  to  a 
blunt  point.  The  Limestone  matrix  is  not  a  pure  carbonate  of  lime;  but  con- 
tains much  silicia,  etc.,  and  often  resembles  a  sandstone  weathered.  The  rock 
has  the  peculiar  sub-carboniferous-limestone  fracture  of  this  region,  the  broken 
surface  being  covered  with  many  small  elliptical,  glassy,  sparkling  spots  (which 
look  like  small  shells  until  they  are  closely  examined)  due  to  asemi-crystilliza- 
tion  of  the  carbonate  of  lime.  The  best  places  to  study  this  rock  and  to  collect 
its  fossils  are  as  follows :  The  gorge  south  of  Custard's  Postoffice ;  the  ravines  east 
of  Meadville  leading  to  Mill  Run;  the  ravines  two  and  a  half  miles  east  of 
Meadville,  descending  to  Woodcock  Creek;  Grassy  Run,  in  Wayne  Township; 
the  ravine  at  Jamestown;  and  at  McElhenny's,  two  miles  north  of  Jamestown. 
Good  exposures  can  be  found  on  the  many  small  streams  descending  to  Crooked 
Creek,  near  Adamsville;  but  fish  remains  can  be  found  almost  anywhere  on  the 
lines  of  outcrop. 

The  Meadvillelower  shales  are,  like  the  upper,  generally  ash-gray  and  blu- 
ish, sandy,  alternating  with  sandy  flags,  increasing  in  number  toward  the  bot- 
tom. The  thickness  may  be  said  to  average  about  forty  feet,  althoagh  it  some- 
times reaches  sixty.  The  outcrop  extends  little  beyond  that  of  the  Shenango 
sandstone,  because  the  latter  was  its  only  protection  from  erosion.  Fucoids  and 
badly  preserved  shells  are  numerous  in  the  lower  shales. 

The  Sharpsville  upper  sandstone  underlies  the  shales  at  Meadville  ;  and  in 
some  places  the  increase  of  muddy  material  upward  is  the  only  limiting  cir- 
cumstance. Layers  of  tine  bluish-gray  or  grayish-brown  flagstone,  from  one  to 
two  feet  thick,  alternate  with  thin  layers  of  grayish  shale.  Rarely  the  shale 
amounts  to  one-third  of  the  mass  ;  often  to  so  little  that  the  flags  are  almost  a 
solid  series.  Quarried  in  districts  destitute  of  better  stone,  this  deposit  affords 
building  materials  for  cellar  walls  and  other  rough  work.  Good  building 
stone  is  got  from  a  layer  three  feet  thick,  just  south  of  Atlantic  Station  ;  also 
near  Jamestown,  at  the  county  line,  and  at  Miller's,  two  miles  northwest  of 
Jamestown,  but  its  somber  hue  is  disliked  for  building  purposes.  Poorly  pre- 
served shells  are  usually  found  in  this  stone,  and  sometimes  fish  remains.  The 
Sharpsville  upper  sandstone  mass  in  Crawford  County  is  about  fifty  feet  thick. 
Its  outcrop  ranges  considerably  north  of  that  of  the  Shenango  sandstone  ;  but 
except  a  few  isolated  knobs  in  the  eastern  part  of  Erie  County,  it  does  not 
stretch  north  of  the  Crawford  County  line. 

The  Meadville  lower  limestone  is  a  thin  bed  of  impure  limestone,  which 
at  Meadville  lies  235  feet  above  the  canal  bottom.  It  is  wedged  in  between 
the  Sharpsville  upper  and  lower  sandstones,  weathering  like  them,  and  cov- 
ered by  their  fragments.  Seldom  more  than  two  feet  thick,  and  often  only 
one  foot,  it  is  nevertheless  so  persistent  that  it  may  be  found  in  every  part  of 
Crawford  County.  From  the  base  of  the  Sharon  conglomerate  down  to  the 
Meadville  lower  limestone,  Prof,  White  found  the  interval  in  this  county  never 


less  than  190  feet.  This  limestone  is  very  hard  and  flinty,  breaking  with  the 
same  peculiar  fracture  mentiooed  already  in  the  description  of  the  Meadville 
upper  limestone.  The  hardness  of  these  limestone  beds  compared  with  that  of 
the  measures  enclosing  them,  causes  little  water-falls  in  the  beds  of  the  stream- 
lets, descending  the  hill  slopes  ;  and  in  some  places  the  water  flows  over  the 
limestone  stratum  for  a  considerable  distance  above  such  a  cascade.  Non-fos 
siliferous  in  Crawford  County,  as  a  rule,  this  lower  Meadville  limestone  differs 
in  a  striking  manner  from  the  upper  one,  and  only  at  one  or  two  localities  in 
this  county  did  Prof.  White  find  any  fish  scales  or  shells.  A  very  good  and 
nearly  pure  white  lime  has  been  made  from  this  stone  in  certain  exceptional 
localities  in  Crawford  County.  On  Deckard's  Run  it  was  once  quarried  to  a  con- 
siderable extent  by  Mr.  Shaey  and  burned  into  plastering  lime  ;  but  at  other 
points  the  attempt  resulted  in  failure,  as  the  excess  of  sand  in  the  rock  pro- 
duced in  the  lime  a  slag  which  rendered  it  almost  worthless.  Outcrops  excel 
lent  for  study,  may  be  found  in  this  county,  near  Jamestown  ;  in  the  hollow 
down  from  the  bridge  below  the  Snodgrass  quarry  ;  near  Meadville,  in  the 
cemetery  grounds;  at  the  hydraulic  ram  on  Mill  Ran;  at  Geneva  in  the  bed  of 
the  run  just  west  of  the  railroad  station;  and  at  the  heads  of  the  ravines  on 
the  west  branch  of  Cussewago  Creek,  in  Hayfield  Township. 

The  Sharpsville  lower  sandstone  is  a  series  of  six-inch  and  two  foot  flags, 
exactly  like  the  upper  sandstone.  Its  usual  thickness  is  from  ten  to  twelve 
feet,  though  in  one  place  it  measures  thirty  feet. 

The  Orangeville  shales  are  genei'ally  of  a  dark  bluish  coloi*,  often  holding 
small  lenticular  nodules  of  clay-iron  stone,  but  more  commonly  weatherino- 
brown  from  disseminated  iron.  A  few  thin  layers  of  sand  are  found  scattered 
through  the  shales,  which,  in  Crawford  County,  range  from  less  than  60  to  120 
feet  in  thickness,  reaching  the  latter  figure  on  Cussewago  Creek,  though  the 
usual  thickness  throughout  the  county  may  bo  estimated  at  100  feet.  Shells 
and  fish  remains  are  distributed  from  top  to  bottom,  and  are  its  only  fossils. 
The  best  fossil  localities  of  the  Orangeville  shales  in  this  county  are  as  fol- 
lows: the  ravines  of  Hayfield  Township,  right  bank  of  Cussewago  Creek;  the 
ravines  of  Mead  and  East  Fairfield  Township,  left  bank  of  French  Creek,  and 
the  banks  of  the  Shenango  at  Jamestown,  where  the  Gibson  well  starts  at  the 
top  of  the  shales.  Good  exposures  are  also  frequent  in  the  common  road 
cuttings  of  Richmond,  Randolph,  Woodcock,  Vernon,  Sadsbury,  Summit  and 
Summerhill  Townships. 

The  Oil  Lake  Group  is  composed  of  the  Corry  sandstone,  the  Cussewago  lime- 
stone, shales,  and  sandstone,  and  the  Riceville  shale.  In  the  Gibson  well  at  James- 
town, the  record  gives  thirty  feet  fine  blue  sand,  sixty-five  blue  slate,  and  five 
feet  of  coarse  light  colored  sand;  total,  100  feet.  At  Oil  Creek  Lake  the  whole 
thickness  is  130  feet.  The  Corry  sandstone  presents  similar  features  in  all  of 
the  numerous  quarries  of  this  region.  It  rises  from  the  bed  of  Oil  Creek,  near 
Titusville;  is  finely  exposed  along  Pine  Creek;  and  identified  along  Thompson's 
run  with  the  third  mountain  sand  of  the  Pleasantville  wells,  in  Venango  County. 
North  of  Titusville,  just  below  Kerr's  mill-dam,  on  Thompson's  run,  is  a  fine 
massive  ledge  of  it;  and  from  here  up,  both  sides  of  Oil  Creek,  it  can  be  stud- 
ied at  Hydetown,  Centerville,  Riceville,  and  at  Dobbins'  quariy  on  Oil  Creek 
Lake.  Along  French  Creek  it  shows  itself  in  many  ravines,  and  was  once 
quarried  in  the  bluff  opposite  Meadville.  On  Cussewago  Creek,  at  Little's 
Corners,  and  on  the  run  a  mile  above,  a  considerable  amount  of  Corry  sand- 
stone has  been  taken  out.  At  Mr.  Montgomery's  extensive  quarries,  in  Sum- 
merhill Township,  two  and  a  half  miles  south-east  of  Conneautville,  it  is  ten 
feet  thick.  In  Pine  Township,  just  north  of  Linesville,  and  also  in  the  hills 
one  mile  east  of  the  Erie  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad  station  at  Linesville,  arequar- 


ries  from  which  much  thin  stone  has  been  taken  for  well  work,  etc.  Near 
the  northwest  corner  of  North  Shenango  Township,  its  outcrop  passes  into 
Ohio.  Its  rise  northward  up  Oil  Creek  Valley  shoots  it  over  all  of  Erie 
County  except  a  few  of  the  highest  hills  in  the  southeastern  portion. 

The  Cussewago  limestone  greatly  resembles  the  Meadville  upper  and  lower 
limestones,  and  shows  the  same  glassy  fracture,  but  is  a  better  limestone.  It 
underlies  the  Meadville  lower  limestone  from  120  to  130  feet,  and  no  fossils 
have  been  discovered  in  it  in  this  county.  In  Cussewago  valley  it  may  be 
seen  in  several  ravines;  and  it  is  finely  exposed  on  Mr.  Line's  farm,  a  mile 
and  a  half  below  Little's  Corners.  One  mile  west  of  Venango,  in  Venango 
Township,  in  Kleckner's  ravine,  it  is  two  feet  thick;  and  blocks  of  it  strewn 
along  the  run  have  made  tolerably  good  lime.  Here  it  underlies  the  top  of 
the  Corry  sandstone  by  twenty  feet. 

The  Cussewago  shales  separate  the  Corry  sandstone  above  from  the  Cusse- 
wago sandstone  below,  and  hold  (near  the  top)  the  Cussewago  limestone.  In 
some  places  the  interval  between  the  two  sandstones  is  filled,  not  with  shales 
(with  the  limestone),  but  with  sandy  flags  (without  the  limestone):  and  this 
accounts  for  the  great  thickness  of  the  whole  sandstone  mass.  The  prevailing 
color  of  these  shales  is  a  bluish  or  ashen  gray,  and  their  average  thickness  is 
about  thirty -five  feet. 

The  Cussewago  sandstone  as  it  exhibits  itself  along  the  Cussewago  valley 
is  a  very  coarse  rock,  commonly  of  a  bluish-brown  color,  and  in  many  places 
contains  pebbles;  but  its  sand  grains  cohere  so  loosely,  that  the  seemingly 
massive  rock  crumbles  after  a  short  exposure  to  a  bed  of  sand.  Where  it  crops 
out  on  the  roadside  near  Summit  Station  in  Conneaut  Township  it  can  be 
shoveled  like  beach  sand.  Manganese  oxide  (Wad)  fills  the  crevices  of  the  rock 
as  exposed  just  west  of  Little's  Corners,  and  is  the  probable  agent  in  black- 
ening the  top  of  the  formation  elsewhere.  At  Meadville  it  lies  in  the  hill- 
sides 140  feet  above  French  Creek.  From  French  Creek  to  the  Ohio  line  it 
can  generally  be  traced  by  the  sand  along  its  disintegrated  outcrop;  but  from 
French  Creek  eastward,  it  seems  to  become  harder  and  more  compact.  On 
Oil  Creek,  it  is  a  veiy  hard  sandstone,  thirty  feet  thick.  Its  color  is  not 
always  buff- brown;  occasionally  it  is  a  dark  green,  or  greenish  blue.  Frag- 
ments of  wood  are  sometimes  imbedded  in  it  as  at  Bartholomew's  in  Hayfield 
Township;  while  flat  quartz  pebbles  are  seen  in  it  at  many  localities. 

The  Riceville  shale  lies  beneath  the  Cussewago  sandstone  and  down  to 
the  first  oil  sand  of  the  Venango  group,  a  distance  of  about  eighty  feet.  It  is 
a  series  of  very  fossiliferous  drab,  bluish  and  gray,  sandy  shales,  sometimes 
shaly  sandstones.  On  Oil  Creek  this  series  is  well  exposed  in  the  bluff  just 
west  of  Riceville.  On  the  right  bank  of  French  Creek,  near  the  southern 
edge  of  Hayfield  Township  these  shales  may  be  seen  under  the  Cussewago 
sandstone  seventy-five  feet  thick.  Fossils  may  be  found  abundantly  at  many 
places  fifteen  feet  or  more  beneath  the  outcrop  of  the  Cussewago  sandstone. 
On  Cussewago  Creek,  in  a  ravine  just  south  of  Little's  Corners,  a  few  thin 
layers  of  bituminous  slate  scattered  through  two  or  three  feet  of  shale,  twenty- 
five  feet  under  the  Cussewago  sandstones  (that  is,  fifty  feet  beneath  its  top  line) 
were  opened  for  cannel  coal.  The  chippings  would  burn,  but  were  mostly 
ashes;  and  the  streaks  never  came  together  to  form  a  bed. 

Venango  Oil  Sand  Group. — This  group  is  divided  into  the  Venango  upper 
sandstone  or  first  oil  sand,  upper  shales,  middle  sandstone  or  second  oil  sand, 
lower  shales,  and  lower  sandstone  or  third  oil  sand.  It  must  be  distinctly 
understood  that  the  first  and  second  oil  sands  are  of  no  account  in  Crawford 
County.  But  the  Venango  group,  as  such,  is  traceable  through  this  region,  not 
only  by  its  relation  to  the  Corry  and  Cussewago  sandstone  zone  above  it,   and 


its  persistent  thickness  of  from  250  to  350  feet  ;  but  also,  and  especially,  by  a 
massive  sand  and  sometimes  gravel  deposit  at  its  base,  which  can  be  nothing 
else  than  the  third  oil  sand,  beneath  which  there  are  nothing  but  shales  for 
hundreds  of  feet.  Some  radical  changes  of  constitution  take  place  in  the 
Venango  oil  group  toward  its  outcrop  in  Crawford  County.  The  most  practi- 
cally important  of  these  changes  was  discovered  in  the  early  years  of  the  oil 
excitement,  when  a  sufficient  number  of  holes  had  been  drilled  northwest  of 
Titusville  to  prove  the  absence  of  the  oil  sands  as  oil-bearing  sands  in  all  the 
country  between  the  oil  belt,  which  crosses  lower  Oil  Creek  and  Lake  Erie. 
A  coarse  sandstone  is  the  only  reservoir  of  free  petroleum  ;  and  a  loose,  gravelly 
sandstone  is  the  only  kind  of  "sand"  from  which  an  oil-producer  expects  a 
free  flow  of  petroleum  in  large  quantities  at  a  time.  The  deposits  of  coarse, 
gravelly  sand  in  the  Venango  group  are  confined  to  two  narrow  belts  of  country 
that  do  not  touch  Crawford  County. 

The  Venango  Upper  Sandstone  at  Meadville  is  from  twenty  to  twenty -five 
feet  thick.  It  rises  out  of  the  bed  of  French  Creek  and  runs  along  the  west 
bank  of  the  stream,  and  is  easily  traceable  by  frequent  exposures  northward. 
Two  miles  north  of  Saegertown  the  upper  sandstone  flags  form  a  fine  blufi"  on 
the  east  bank  of  French  Creek,  where  twenty  feet  of  coarse  dark-brownish 
sandstone  layers,  one  to  two  feet  thick,  are  cut  through  by  the  railroad. 

The  Venango  Upper  Shale  is  of  a  pale-blue  color  and  underlies  the  first  oil 
sand  from  ninety  to  100  feet  thick.  Occasional  thin  sandy  layers  are  seen, 
and  these  sometimes  thicken  into  sandy  flags.  Fossil  shells  are  quite  abun- 
dant in  most  places  where  the  shales  appear. 

The  Venango  Middle  Sandstone  follows  the  upper  shales  and  is  exposed 
along  some  of  the  streams  in  Erie  County,  and  its  presence  is  indicated  in 
Crawford  by  the  shape  of  the  ground,  and  borings  along  Oil  Creek  and  other 

The  Venango  Lower  Shales  form  the  interval  of  from  100  to  125  feet 
between  the  Venango  middle  and  lower  sandstones,  and  are  composed  of  blue, 
gray  and  brown  shales,  very  fossiliferous.  Sometimes  the  whole  interval 
wears  a  dark  colored  aspect.  The  rock  when  broken  is  as  hard  as  flint  ;  but  of 
its  old  exposed  surfaces  nothing  is  left  but  the  soft,  earthy,  darkened  matrix, 
all  the  line  of  the  fossils  having  been  dissolved,  the  decomposition  often  pene- 
trating to  the  depth  of  a  foot.  Many  of  the  scattered  blocks  yet  retain  a  core 
of  the  hard  rock. 

The  Venango  Lower  Sandstone  is  the  famous  "third  oil  sand"  of  the  old 
oil  region,  and  borings  between  Titusville  and  Lake  Erie  enabled  Prof.  White 
to  establish  its  existence  in  different  portions  of  Crawford  County.  The  out- 
crop encloses  Conneaut  Creek  for  four  miles  above  and  below  Spring  Borough, 
in  Spring  Township,  which  is  the  only  place  that  Prof.  White  found  it  exposed 
in  this  county.  Its  varying  depths  place  it  750  feet  beneath  the  Sharon  con- 
glomerate; and  its  exposures  always  show  it  charged  with  petroleum,  even 
where  it  is  sand  and  not  gravel  rock.  Its  lower  layers  yield  excellent  building 
stone  nearly  everywhere;  and  it  is  the  principal  quarry  rock  of  Erie  County. 
In  Crawford  a  number  of  bore-holes  have  struck  the  Venango  lower  sandstone 
at  various  depths,  and  at  some  of  these  holes  it  contains  more  or  less  petro- 
leum. Its  frequent  exhibitions  have  been  a  fruitful  source  of  vain  hope  and 
bootless  enterprise  to  explorers.  The  quantity  of  petroleum  which  the  deposit 
originally  held  cannot  now  be  estimated.  For  ages  the  oil  has  been  seeping 
away  from  it  in  springs,  and  escaping  through  its  surface  outcroppings.  The 
whole  deposit  in  Crawford  County  seems  to  be  now  practically  voided,  as  the 
dry  holes  show  but  a  residuum  of  oil,  lowered  in  gravity  and  partly  oxidized 
still  remains. 



Land  Provision  Made  fou  Pennsylvania  Soldiers  of  the  Revolution  by 
THE  Act  of  1780— Depreciation  Certificates— Act  of  1783— Deprecia- 
tion Lands— Donation  l,ands— Survey  and. Distribution  of  Military 
J.ANDS  West  of  the  Allegheny  River— Unseated  Lands— Act  of 
1792— Prevention  Clause  in  Said  Act,  and  the  Litigation  and 
Troubles  Arising  Therefrom— Organization  of  Land  Companies- 
Holland  Land  Company— Pennsylvania  Population  Company— North 
American  Land  Company— John  Reynolds'  Reminiscences  of  the  Con- 
flict Between  the  Settlers  and  Land  Companies,  and  the  Injury 
Thereby  inflicted  on  the  Settlement  and  Prosperity  of  the  County. 

THE  beginning  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  the  subsequent  difficulties 
occasioned  by  a  patriotic  people  struggling  for  liberty,  without  the  means 
of  sapporting  an  army,  led  to  considerations  which  eventually  resulted  in  a 
resolution  to  give  to  the  soldier  a  permanent  reward  for  his  sacrifices,  while 
engaged  in  freeing  the  country  from  the  tyrannical  oppression  of  English  rule. 
The  rapid  depreciation  of  Continental  currency,  and  the  consequent  rise  in 
articles  of  necessity,  from  1777  to  1781,  rendered  it  essential  that  some  addi- 
tional provisions  should  be  made  toward  remunerating  those  who  bore  the 
heat  and  burden  of  the  day;  those  who  had  left  their  homes  and  families  to 
fight  the  battle  of  freedom.  Impressed  with  a  deep  sense  of  indispensable 
duty,  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  passed  a  law,  on  the  7th  of  March,  1780, 
declaratory  of  their  intentions  that  the  officers  and  soldiers  of  this  State|in  the 
service  of  the  United  States,  who  should  serve  during  the  war  or  die  in  the  ser- 
vice, should  have  lands  granted  to  them  or  their  heirs  at  the  end  of  the  war,  as 
a  gift  or  donation,  to  remunerate  them  in  some  degree  for  services  rendered, 
for  the  payment  of  which  the  Continental  wages  were  so  inadequate. 

During  the  Revolution,  the  value  of  the  "  bills  of  credit"  issued  by  the 
State,  as  well  as  those  issued  by  Congress,  gradually  depreciated  from  one 
to  almost  one  hun4red  per  cent. ;  and  it  was  found  very  difficult  to  decide 
the  amount  of  depreciation  to  be  deducted  in  the  payment  of  debts  contracted 
during  this  period.  To  obviate  this  difficulty  the  Legislature  passed  a  law, 
on  the  3d  of  April,  1781,  fixing  a  scale  of  depreciation,  from  one  and  one- 
half  to  seventy-five  per  cent,  varying  for  each  month  between  January,  1777, 
and  February,  1781,  according  to  which  all  debts  should  be  settled.  ^  For 
the  indebtedness  of  the  Commonwealth  to  Pennsylvania  troops  serving  in  the 
United  States  Army,  certificates  were  given  in  conformity  with  this  scale, 
and  these,  called  "  Depreciation  Certificates,"  were  receivable  in  payment  for 
all  new  lands  sold  by  the  State.  Though  the  lands  lying  northwest  of  the 
Ohio  and  Allegheny  Rivers  were  not  purchased  from  the  Six  Nations  until 
the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix,  in  October,  1784,  which  sale  was  confirmed  by 
some  of  the  Western  tribes  at  Fort  Mcintosh,  in  January,  1785,  yet  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania  passed  an  act  on  the  12th  of  March,  1783,  the 
more  effectually  to  provide  for  the  redemption  of  the  depreciation  certificates, 
ordering  to  be  surveyed  and  laid  off  in  lots  of  not  less  than  200,  nor  more 
than  350  acres,  the  territory  bounded  by  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny  on  the  south- 
east, as  far  up  the  latter  as  the  mouth  of  the  Mahoning  Creek;  thence  by  a  line 
due  west  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  State,  and  thence  south  to  the  Ohio. 


f  '  '1 

iWi  J^ 



These  lands,  kaown  as  "Depreciation  Lands,"  were  to  be  sold  at  such  times 
and  under  such  regulations  as  the  Executive  Council  might  direct;  but  a  tract 
of  3,000  acres  opposite  Pittsburgh  and  3,000  acres  at  Fort  Mcintosh  (Beaver) 
were  reserved  for  public  uses. 

In  fulfillment  of  the  promise  made  by  the  act  of  1780,  the  act  passed 
March  12,  1783,  also  ordered  to  be  laid  o£f  another  tract  north  of  the  depreci- 
ation lands,  and  bounded  as  follows:  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mahon- 
ing Creek,  on  the  Allegheny  River,  thence  up  that  river  to  the  mouth  of  Con- 
ewango  Creek;  thence  up  that  creek  to  the  southern  boundary  of  the  State  of 
New  York;  thence  west  along  that  line  to  the  northwest  corner  of  Pennsylva- 
nia; thence  south  along  the  western  boundary  of  the  State  last  mentioned,  to 
a  point  due  west  of  the  mouth  of  Mahoning  Creek;  and  thence  east  along  the 
northern  boundary  of  depreciation  lands,  to  the  place  of  beginning.  These 
were  called  "  Donation  Lands,"  and  divided  into  districts  from  No.  1  to  No. 
10.  A  part  of  the  6th  district,  all  of  the  7th  and  nearly  all  of  the  8th  are 
within  Crawford  County.  On  the  24:th  of  March,  1785,  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  Legislature  providing  for  the  appointment  of  Deputy  Surveyors,  each 
deputy  being  enjoined  by  law  and  directed  by  the  Surveyor- Greneral  to  com- 
plete the  work  committed  to  his  care,  on  or  before  the  1st  of  February,  1786. 
Under  this  act  Deputy  Surveyor  William  Power,  with  his  company  of  intrepid 
assistants,  laid  off  the  6th  and  7th  districts,  and  Deputy  Surveyor  Alexander 
McDowell  the  8th  district  of  donation  lands,  though  the  work  was  prosecuted 
at  the  peril  of  their  lives,  as  the  prowling  bands  of  Indians  that  infested  the 
country  looked  with  jealous  eye  upon  this  first  step  toward  the  occupancy  of 
their  hunting-grounds. 

The  lands  were  surveyed  into  lots  of  from  200  to  500  acres  each,  and  under 
the  law  a  Major-General  was  entitled  to  2,000  acres;  a  Brigadier-General, 
1,500;  a  Colonel,  1,000;  a  Lieut. -Colonel,  750;  aSurgeon,  Chaplain  and  Major. 
600  each;  a  Captain,  500;  a  Lieutenant,  400;  an  Ensign  and  Surgeon's  mate, 
300  each;  h  Quartermaster- Sergeant,  Sergeant-Major  and  Sergeant,  250  each; 
while  each  Corporal,  Private,  Drummer  and  Fifer  was  entitled  to  200  acres. 
The  eastern  part  of  district  No.  2,  having  been  reported  by  Gen.  William 
Irvine,  the  State  Agent,  as  being  generally  unfit  for  cultivation,  the  tickets  with 
the  numbers  of  lots  located  therein  were  taken  out  of  the  wheel  ere  the  draw- 
ing began,  the  selections  being  decided  by  lottery,  and  provision  was  made  else- 
where for  such  ofiQcers  and  soldiers  as  were  thus  cut  off'.  The  territory  thus 
respected  was  called  the  "Struck  District."  Various  regulations  and  restric 
tions  were  established  regarding  the  mode  of  survey,  entry,  transfer  of  title, 
and  limit  of  time  for  perfecting  the  soldiers'  titles  to  their  lands;  and  the  limit 
was  extended  from  time  to  time  by  subsequent  laws  passed  for  the  purpose  of 
affording  the  veterans  of  the  Revolution  every  facility  to  acquire  a  home.  To 
fulfill  the  object  of  the  depreciation  and  donation  laws,  it  did  not  by  any  means 
require  all  the  lands  in  Pennsylvania  north  and  west  of  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny 
Rivers,  and  the  remainder,  the  "  struck  district  "  included,  reverted  to  the  Com- 
monwealth, to  be  disposed  of  to  other  settlers. 

The  vast  territory  acquired  by  the  treaties  of  Forts  Stanwix  and  Mcintosh, 
though  purchased,  could  not  be  entered  upon  with  safety  for  ten  years  after- 
ward. Every  creek  that  was  explored,  every  line  that  was  run.  was  at  the  risk 
of  life  from  the  savage  Indians,  whose  courage  and  perseverance  were  only 
equaled  by  the  indomitable  energy  of  the  whites  in  pushing  forward  their  set- 
tlements The  price  of  blood,  as  usual,  was  paid  for  it,  for  the  Western  tribes 
carried  on  a  ferocious  warfare  against  the  hardy  frontiersman,  as  he  advanced 
farther  and  farther  into  the  dense  forest  then  covering  the  whole  region 
between  the  Ohio  and  Lake  Erie.  '•* 


By  the  act  of  1783  some  six  or  seven  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land  in 
northwestern  Pennsylvania,  were  isolated  under  circumstances  very  unfavorable 
to  the  settlement  of  the  region.  The  title  was  absolute,  without  condition  of 
settlement  or  improvement;  and  no  one  was  willing  to  venture  into  so  vast  a 
wilderness,  not  knowing  if  in  his  life-time  he  would  have  a  neighbor  or  road 
dn  his  vicinity.  Many  of  these  lots  were  disposed  of  by  the  soldiers  soon  after 
they  were  drawn  and  the  patent  received,  and  thus  became  the  property  of 
speculators  at  small  cost.  But  when  alienated  by  the  soldiers,  these  lands  were 
subject  to  taxation,  and  in  the  course  of  years,  either  by  inadvertence,  or  a 
belief  that  the  land  was  not  worth  the  expenditure,  the  owner  permitted  the 
sale  in  default  of  payment  of  taxes;  and  being  sold  at  the  county  seat  of  each 
county  in  which  the  lands  were  located,  many  of  the  lots  were  purchased  by 
residents  of  the  county,  and  inroads  of  settlement  began  at  once  to  be  made 
upon  them. 

With  a  view  of  bringing  into  market  the  unseated  lands,  as  well  as  to 
encourage  an  increase  of  population  on  the  western  frontier  of  the  State,  and 
thus  place  a  barrier  between  the  Six  Nations  and  the  Western  tribes  of  Indians, 
the  Legislature  passed  a  law  April  8,  1792,  throwing  open  for  sale  all  the 
vacant  lands  of  the  State  included  in  the  purchase  of  1768  and  previously,  at 
the  price  of  £2  10s.  (Pennsylvania  currency)  per  100  acres  ;  lands  in  the  pur- 
chase of  1784-85,  east  of  the  Allegheny  and  Conewango,  at  £5  per  100  acres  ; 
and  the  lands  north  and  west  of  the  Ohio  and  Allegheny  Rivers  and  Cone- 
wango Creek,  except  the  donation  and  depreciation  lots,  at  £7  10s.  per  100 
acres.  No  condition  of  settlement  was  attached  to  the  lands  east  of  the  Alle- 
gheny; but  those  northwest  of  that  river  were  only  offered  for  sale  "toper- 
sons  who  will  cultivate,  improve  and  settle  the  same,  or  cause  the  same  to  be 
ciiltivated,  improved  and  settled,"  etc.,  at  the  price  previously  named,  "with 
an  allowance  of  six  per  cent  for  roads  and  highways."  Any  person  intending 
thus  to  settle  was  entitled,  on  application  and  payment,  with  a  proper  descrip- 
tion of  the  land,  to  receive  from  the  land-office  a  warrant  ordering  a  survey  of 
the  tract,  not  exceeding  400  acres.  Surveys  could  not  be  made  on  lands  actu- 
ally settled  previous  to  the  entry  of  the  warrant,  except  for  such  actual  settler 
himself.  The  most  important  portion  of  this  celebrated  law,  and  that  which 
caused  all  the  trouble  during  the  pioneer  days  in  northwestern  Pennsylvania, 
reads  as  follows  : 

Section  9.  That  no  warrant  or  survey,  to  be  issued  or  made  in  pursuance  of  this  act, 
for  lands  lying  north  and  west  of  the  rivers  Ohio  and  Allegheny,  and  Conewango  Creek, 
shall  vest  any  title  in  or  to  the  lands  therein  mentioned,  unless  the  grantee  has,  prior  to 
the  dale  of  such  warrant,  made,  or  caused  to  be  made,  or  shall,  within  the  space  of  two 
years  next  after  the  date  of  the  same,  make,  or  cause  to  be  made,  an  actual  settlement 
thereon,  by  clearing,  fencing  and  cultivating  at  least  two  acres  for  every  100  acres  contained 
in  one  survey,  erecting  thereon  a  messuage  for  the  habitation  of  man,  and  residing  or, 
causing  a  family  to  reside  thereon,  for  the  space  of  five  years  next  following  his  first  set- 
tling of  the  same,  if  he  or  she  shall  so  long  live  ;  and  that  in  default  of  such  actual  settle- 
ment and  residence,  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  to  and  for  this  Commonwealth  to  issue 
new  warrants  to  other  actual  settlers  for  the  said  lands,  or  any  part  thereof,  reciting  the 
original  warrants,  and  that  actual  settlements  and  residence  have  not  been  made  in  pur- 
suance thereof,  and  so  as  often  as  defaults  shall  be  made,  for  the  time  and  in  the  manner 
aforesaid,  which  new  grants  shall  be  under  and  subject  to  all  and  every  regulation  con- 
tained in  this  act  :  Provided,  always  nevertheless:  That  if  any  such  actual  settler,  or  any 
grantee  in  any  such  original  or  succeeding  warrant,  shall,  by  force  of  arms  of  the  enemies 
of  the  United  States,  be  prevented  from  making  such  actual  settlement,  or  be  driven  there- 
from, and  shall  persist  in  his  endeavors  to  make  such  actual  settlement  as  aforesaid,  then, 
in  either  case,  he  and  his  heirs  shall  be  entitled  to  have  and  to  hold  the  said  lands,  in  the 
same  manner  as  if  the  actual  settlement  had  been  made  and  continued. 

For  more  than  twenty  years  this  proviso  in  the  ninth  section  of  the  act  of 
1792  was    the  cause  of  serious   and  bitter   litigation  before  the  highest  courts 


of  the  State  and  Nation,  the  most  distinguished  lawyers  and  judges  holding 
conflicting  opinions  upon  the  points  at  issue.  The  main  question  was  settled 
in  1805,  by  a  decision  delivered  by  Chief  Justice  Marshall,  of  the  United 
States  Supreme  Court,  though  this  decision  left  open  many  secondary  ques- 
tions, which  still  continued  to  agitate  the  courts  for  years,  and  some  of  which 
were  finally  settled  only  by  special  legislation.  In  considering  this  subject 
it  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  the  disturbed  state  of  the  Western  frontier  at 
the  time,  and  for  three  years  after  the  passage  of  this  law.  "  Though  the  great 
theater  of  the  war,"  says  Judge  Washington,  "  lay  far  to  the  northwest  of  the 
land  in  dispute,  yet  it  is  clearly  proved  that  this  country  during  this  period 
was  exposed  to  the  repeated  iri'uptions  of  the  enemy,  killing  and  plundering 
such  of  the  whites  as  they  met  with  in  defenseless  situations.  We  find  the 
settlers  sometimes  working  out  in  the  day-time,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 
forts,  and  returning  at  night  within  their  walls  for  protection;  sometimes  giv- 
ing up  the  pursuit  in  despair,  and  returning  to  the  settled  parts  of  the  coun- 
try, then  returning  to  the  country,  and  again  abandoning  it.  We  sometimes 
meet  with  a  few  men  daring  and  hardy  enough  to  attempt  the  cultivation  of 
their  lands;  associating  implements  of  husbandry  with  the  instruments  of  war 
^the  character  of  the  husbandman  with  that  of  the  soldier — and  yet  I  do  not 
recollect  any  instance  in  which,  with  this  enterprising,  daring  spirit,  a  single, 
individual  was  able  to  make  such  a  settlement  as  the  law  required." 

As  roads,  mills  and  provisions  were  of  immediate  necessity,  and  individual 
settlers  had  not  means  sufficient  to  provide  them,  a  liberal  construction  was 
given  to  the  law,  and  land  companies  were  organized  whose  combined  efforts 
could  accomplish  all  the  law  contemplated.  Money  was  paid  into  the  State 
Treasury,  and  warrants  issued,  sufficient  to  cover  all  the  unappropriated  lands. 
The  Holland  Land  Company  and  the  Pennsylvania  Population  Company  were 
the  most  prominent,  and  composed  of  men  of  wealth  and  intelligence.  The 
North  American  Land  Company  took  up  lands  in  the  western  and  northeastern 
parts  of  Crawford  County,  but  though  recognized,  with  the  others,  in  certain 
legislative  provisions,  little  further  is  known  of  its  origin  or  history.  Stephen 
Barlow  came  to  Meadville  about  1820,  as  the  first  agent  of  the  North  American 
Land  Company,  and  at  his  death  was  succeeded  by  Arthur  Cullum,  who  sub- 
sequently purchased  the  company's  lands.  These  companies  selected  men  of 
business  habits  to  superintend  the  opening  of  roads,  building  mills  and  form- 
ing depots  of  provisions,  etc.,  for  the  convenience  of  settlers;  also  to  act  as 
attorneys  in  making  contracts  for  the  fulfillment  of  the  law,  by  improvement 
and  residence.  Thus  in  the  last  years  of  the  eighteenth  century  a  beginning 
was  made  toward  converting  the  wilderness  west  of  the  Allegheny  River  into 
a  fruitful  field. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolution  the  United  States  owed  a  large  sum  of  money 
to  a  syndicate  of  Dutch  merchants,  who  had  loaned  it  to  Robert  Morris,  the 
distinguished  financier  of  that  period  to  assist  in  carrying  on  the  war.  These 
capitalists  consisted  of  Wilhem  Willink,  and  eleven  associates,  among  whom 
were  Nicholas  Van  Staphorst,  Peter  Stadnitski,  Christian  Van  Eeghen,  Hon- 
drick  Vollenhoven,  and  Rutger  Jan  Schimmelpenninck  of  the  city  of  Amster- 
dam. Preferring  to  keep  this  money  invested  in  this  country,  they  formed 
themselves  into  a  corporation  called  "The  Holland  Land  Company."  and  pur- 
chased under  the  law  of  1792,  about  900,000  acres  of  land  in  Pennsylvania, 
besides  a  much  greater  amount  in  the  State  of  New  York.  On  the  21st  of 
August  1793,  the  company,  through  its  agents,  Herman  Leroy  and  William 
Bayard,  merchants  of  New  York  City,  paid  to  Hon.  James  Wilson  of  Philadel- 
phia, one  of  the  Supreme  Judges  of  the  United  States,  the  sum  of  £34,860  in 


specie,   being  the  purchase  money  for  464,800  acres   of  land  lying  north  and 
west  of  the  rivers  Ohio  and  Allegheny,  and  Conewango  Creek. 

The  contract  was  for  the  sale  and  purchase  of  499,660  acres  of  land  between 
French  Creek  and  the  Allegheny  River.  It  was  stipulated  that  this  land  should 
consist  partly  of  912  tracts  of  430  acres  each,  with  allowance  for  roads  and 
highways,  which  Mr.  John  Adhim,  by  a  contract  dated  April  26,  1793,  had 
engaged  to  secure  to  the  said  Judge  Wilson  ;  and  250  tracts  of  430  acres  each 
were  to  be  taken  from  lands  entered  for  Judge  Wilson  by  Mr.  James  Chapman, 
convenient  to  the  first-named  lands  in  point  of  location,  the  Holland  Land 
Company  having  the  right,  if  not  satisfied  with  the  latter  tracts,  to  substitute 
other  lands  east  of  French  Creek.  The  price  to  be  paid  for  the  land  was  to  be 
three  shillings  and  fourpence  per  acre,  the  six  per  cent  of  allowauce  for  roads 
not  to  be  included  in  the  estimate,  and  the  money  to  be  paid  as  fast  as  required; 
with  a  provision  in  the  conract  that  out  of  the  money  advanced,  the  company 
should  hold  £4,067  for  fees  and  expenses  of  surveying  ;  £3,892  14s.  for  fees  of 
patenting  the  tracts  ;  £2.614  10s.  to  pay  the  Receiver  General  of  the  land  office, 
for  thirty  acres  of  overplus  land  in  each  warrant  ;  and  £978  for  interest  on  the 
purchase  money  to  the  State  since  the  day  of  application. 

'"The  Holland  Land  Company,"  said  Judge  Yeates,  during  one  of  the 
cases  tried  before  him,  "  have  paid  to  the  State  the  consideration  money  of 
1,162  warrants,  and  the  surveying  fees  on  1,048  tracts  of  land  (generally  400 
acres  each),  besides  making  very  considerable  expenditures  by  their  exertions, 
honorable  to  themselves,  and  useful  to  the  community,  in  order  to  effect  settle- 
ments. Computing  the  sums  advanced,  the  lost  tracts  by  prior  improvements 
and  interferences,  and  the  quantity  of  100  acres  granted  to  each  individual 
for  making  an  actual  settlement  on  their  lands,  it  is  said  that,  averaging  the 
whole,  between  $230  and  $240  have  been  expended  by  the  company  on  each 
tract."  The  surveys  and  patents  for  most  of  the  tracts  were  made  prior  to 

In  1795  a  general  agent  had  been  appointed  to  superintend  its  affairs,  a 
large  store  erected  at  Meadville,  and  more  than  $5,000  disbursed.  The  follow- 
ing year  settlers  were  invited  to  locate  on  the  lands,  supply  depots  of  provis- 
ions, implements  and  utensils  established,  and  the  funds  for  bringing  families 
into  the  country  liberally  advanced.  A  bounty  of  100  acres  was  also  given  for 
improving  and  settling  each  400  acre  tract  in  compliance  with  the  law  of  1792, 
with  the  privilege  of  purchasing  more  at  $1.50  per  acre.  This  gratuity, 
however,  was  abolished  after  1805.  About  $22,000  were  paid  out  during 
1796,  and  $60,000  in  1797.  In  1798  mills  were  erected,  roads  were  opened 
through  the  wilderness,  and  other  exertions  made  toward  settling  these  lands, 
at  an  expenditure  of  about  $30,000;  and  in  1799  more  than  $40,000  were  dis- 
bursed in  the  same  direction.  By  the  close  of  1880,  about  $400,000  had  been 
expended  by  the  Holland  Land  Company  in  the  purchase  and  efforts  to  settle 
its  lands  lying  in  this  State. 

The  general  agent  of  the  company  had  his  office  in  Philadelphia,  and 
Theophilus  Cazenove  filled  the  position  from  the  organization  of  the  company 
until  1799,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  Paul  Busti,  who  served  until  July  23, 
1824.  his  successor  being  John  J.  Vanderkemp,  who  held  the  position  until 
1836,  when  the  affairs  of  the  company  were  wound  up.  The  headquarters  of 
the  local  agent  for  the  counties  of  Crawford,  Erie,  Warren  and  Venango  were 
at  Meadville.  Samuel  B.  and  Alexander  Foster,  jointly,  filled  the  position 
throughout  1796-97-98  and  a  part  of  1799.  Maj.  Roger  Alden  took  charge 
in  1799  and  served  until  the  close  of  1804.  On  the  Ist  of  January,  1805,  H. 
J.  Huidekoper  began   hi.-^  duties,  which   lasted   until   the   31st   of  December, 


1836,  when  he  purchased  from  the  company  its  remaining  lands  in  Crawford, 
Erie,  Warren  and  Venango  Counties;  also  some  small  interests  in  Otsego  and 
Chenango  Counties,  New  York  and  Berkshire  County,  Mass.,  for  the  sum  of 
$178,400,  the  final  conveyance  being  made  to  Mr.  Huidekoper,  December  23, 

The  company's  lands  in  Crawford  County  were  located  in  the  Holland  Land 
Districts,  Nos.  2  and  7.  All  of  the  tracts  in  the  former  district,  numbering 
from  1  to  236,  are  in  this  county;  but  only  a  portion  of  those  in  District  No.  7 
are  in  Crawford,  the  balance  lying  in  Warren  and  Venango  Counties.  The 
Holland  Land  Company  always  required  the  purchaser  of  its  lands  to  erect  a 
house  within  one  year  from  date  of  purchase,  besides  clearing  ten  acres  of  land 
within  two  years  of  the  same  date.  These  requirements  materially  assisted  in 
the  development  of  the  country.  It  gave  long  credit,  generally  eight  years  for 
the  payment  of  the  purchase  money,  and  the  time  was  often  extended  to  six- 
teen and  twenty  years,  though  the  interest  was  always  expected  to  be  paid. 
AVhen  times  were  hai'd  the  agent  accepted  cattle  at  local  prices,  and  these  had 
to  be  driven  to  market  over  the  mountains  to  Philadelphia. 

"Few  enterprises,"  says  Mr.  O.  Turner  in  his  history  of  the  Holland  Land 
Company  in  the  State  of  New  York,  "  have  ever  been  conducted  on  more  hon- 
orable principles  than  was  that  which  embraced  the  purchase,  sale  and  settle- 
ment of  the  Holland  purchase.  In  all  the  instructions  of  the  general  to  the 
local  agents,  the  interest  of  the  settlers  and  the  prosperity  of  the  country  were 
made  secondary  in  but  a  slight  degree  to  their  securing  to  their  principals  a 
fair  and  reasonable  return  for  their  investments.  In  the  entire  history  of  set- 
tlement and  improvement  of  our  widely  extended  country,  large  tracts  of  the 
wilderness  have  nowhere  fallen  into  the  hands  of  individuals  and  become  subject 
to  private  or  associate  cupidity,  where  the  aggregate  result  has  been  more  favor- 
able or  advantageous  to  the  settlers." 

In  a  lecture  delivered  by  Mr.  Alfred  Huidekoper  before  the  Meadville 
Literary  Union,  in  1876,  on  the  Holland  Land  Company,  he  says:  "The  his- 
tory of  the  company  is  but  a  repetition,  perhaps,  of  a  common  experience  in 
life.  It  was  encouraged  at  first  to  purchase  a  wilderness  and  put  its  money 
into  the  State  treasury;  this  was  an  acceptable  thing  to  do;  when  it  sought 
re-imbursementout  of  the  property  so  acquired,  it  incurred  both  professional 
and  popular  opposition,  as  large  associations  are  apt  to  do.  Keeping  the  even 
tenor  of  its  way  with  fairness  of  purpose  and  integrity  of  action,  it  can  safely 
entrust  its  record  to  the  hands  of  the  historian.'' 

The  Pennsylvania  Population  Company  was  an  association  of  capitalists 
organized  before  the,  Holland  Land  Company,  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring 
lands  under  the  act  of  1792.  The  subscriptions  for  stock  were  opened  in  May, 
1792,  and  closed  December  22  of  the  same  year.  The  original  subscribers 
were:  P.  Stadnitski,  300  shares  ;  P.  C.  Van  Eeghen,  150  shares  ;  J.  H.  Vol- 
lenhoven,  150  shares  ;  T.  Tazenove,  200  shares;  Nicholas  Van  Staphorst,  100 
shares  ;  John  Nicholson,  535  shares  ;  Walter  Stewart,  150  shares  ;  George 
Meade,  50  shares  ;  Tench  Francis,  10  shares  ;  A.  Gibson,  4  shares  ;  James 
Wilson,  20  shares  ;  Robert  Morris,  100  shares  ;  T.  Kitland,  80  shares  ;  J.  Kit- 
land,  21  shares  :  Ebenezer  Denny,  2  shares  ;  Robert  Bowne,  100  shares  ;  Aaron 
Burr,  524  shares  ;  J.  Ashton,  3  shares  ;  C.  Gau,  1  share.  Total,  2,500  shares. 
The  following  gentlemen  were  the  first  officers  :  John  Nicholson,  President  ; 
William  Irvine,  John  Hoge,  Daniel  Leet,  Gen.  Walter  Stewart,  George  Meade 
and  Theophilus  Cazenove,  Managers  ;  Tench  Francis,  Cashier. 

This  company,  early  in  1792,  located  390  warrants  in  the  "  Triangle,"  in 
what  is  now  Erie  County,  and  250  warrants  more  on  the  waters  of  Beaver  and 


Shenango  Creeks,  amounting  in  all  to  about  260,000  acres.  It  subsequently 
took  up  500  warrants  more  in  Crawford  and  Erie  Counties,  all  of  which  it 
paid  for.  Its  tracts  in  Crawford  County  number  from  682  to  843.  The  title 
to  its  lands  was  vested  in  the  President  and  Board  of  Managers,  to  be  held  in 
common,  and  the  proceeds  divided  pro  rata  among  the  stockholders.  Ai^  one 
transferring  to  the  company  a  donation  tract  of  200  acres,  was  entitled  to  one 
share  of  the  stock.  The  President  and  Board  of  Managers  were  empowered  to 
convey  150  acres  gratis  to  each  of  the  first  fifty  families  who  should  pui'chase 
and  actually  settle  on  the  lands  of  the  company  under  the  law  of  1792  ;  and 
to  the  next  100  families  a  similar  grant  of  100  acres  each  was  donated. 

This  company  also  established  supply  depots  convenient  to  its  lands, 
opened  roads  and  erected  mills.  Its  first  operations  in  Crawford  and  Erie 
Counties,  beginning  with  1795,  were  success  fully  carried  on  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  local  agent,  Thomas  Reea,  of  Erie,  who  about  1802  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Judah  and  Jabez  Colt,  the  latter  having  his  office  at  Meadville,  and 
the  former  at  Erie.  In  June,  1812,  the  company  wound  up  its  affairs.  The 
remaining  stock  was  sold  at  public  auction,  at  Philadelphia,  for  the  sum  of 
$70,739,  the  proceeds  distributed  among  the  shareholders,  and  the  lands  con- 
veyed to  the  respective  purchasers.  Though  these  companies  purchased  their 
lands  at  prices  open  to  all  and  sold  at  local  figures,  nevertheless  they  were 
regarded  by  the  majority  of  the  early  settlers  with  great  disfavor.  In  fact, 
so  deep  did  this  feeling  take  root,  that  many  good  citizens  at  this  late  day 
look  upon  them  as  grasping,  soulless  corporations,  whose  ownership  of  such 
large  bodies  of  lands  retarded  the  settlement  and  growth  of  western  Penn- 
sylvania for  many  years. 

In  1867  John  Reynolds,  Esq.,  a  leading  pioneer  of  Meadville,  contributed 
a  series  of  articles  to  the  Meadville  Republican,  under  the  caption  of  "Remin- 
iscences of  the  Olden  Time,"  in  which  we  find  the  following  important  infor- 
mation on  the  land  troubles:  "  The  prevention  clause  in  the  act  of  Assembly 
of  1792,"  says  Mr.  Reynolds,  "was  productive  of  much  dissension  in  the  first 
years  of  the  century.  The  opinion  was  industriously  circulated  by  Deputy 
Surveyors,  and  other  interested  persons,  that  every  tract  of  400  acres  without 
a  settlement  commenced  and  continued,  was  open  to  the  entry  and  occupancy 
of  the  first  bona  fide  settler,  without  regard  to  the  previous  warrant.  Settlers 
who  had  entered  into  contract  with  the  several  land  companies  to  fulfill  the 
terms  of  settlement  for  a  part  of  the  land,  were  disposed  to  claim  the  whole, 
under  the  plea  that  the  companies  had  incurred  forfeiture  of  the  land,  and- 
therefore  the  contract  was  obtained  by  misrepresentation  and  was  void. 

"  The  warrantee  was  thus  brought  into  conflict  with  the  intruder  upon  his 
land.  The  latter  relying  on  the  legal  correctness  of  the  opinion  so  universally 
promulgated,  took  possession  of  the  first  and  best  vacant  tract  he  could  find, 
built  his  cabin,  and  commenced  to  clear  and  cultivate  his  farm;  thus  speedily 
the  county  was  filled  with  a  population  known  as  '  actual  settlers.' 

"  The  companies  that  claimed  the  land  by  warrant,  purchased  from  the 
State,  were  not  disposed  to  submit  quietly  to  the  intrusion;  they  appealed  to 
the  courts  of  law  and  many  writs  of  ejectment  were  served;  the  settlers  held 
conventions,  employed  counsel,  and  prepared  for  an  arduous  contest.  Lawful ' 
and  unlawful  measures  were  canvassed  and  approved  by  many,  during  the 
excitement  of  the  time;  unscrupulous  and  desperate  men  were  leaders  in  the 
controversy,  who  contended  that  all  means  were  morally  right  which  would  pro- 
tect them  in  the  possession  of  their  land.  Hence,  in  the  beat  of  the  excitement 
a  plot  was  formed  to  destroy  evidence  in  the  county  records  and  the  offices  of 
the  land  companies. 


"A  veritable  gunpowder  plot  was  projected  to  blow  up  the  Prothonotary's 
office  and  the  several  land  offices  in  Meadville  and  Erie.  .When  on  the  eve  of 
accomplishment,  one  of  the  conspirators  relented,  and  with  praiseworthy  energy, 
prevented  the  catastrophe,  by  visiting  and  remonstrating  with  the  principal 

"  The  question  at  issue  between  the  warrantee  and  settler  turned  upon  the 
fact  of  prevention,  and  if  proved,  the  obligation  of  persistence  afterward  in 
fulfilling  the  conditions  of  settlement  and  residence  specified  in  the  act.  The 
companies  claimed  that  a  prevention  operated  in  discharge  of  said  obligation, 
and  the  title  in  the  warrantee  was  perfected.  By  agreement,  a  case  stated 
was  put  at  issue,  and  argued  before  Judge  Washington,  of  the  United  States 
Supreme  Court,  at  Sunbury,  Penn.,  and  a  decision  on  the  above  points  given 
in  favor  of  the  warrantee.  This  settled,  as  between  the  warrantee  and  the 
intruder,  the  legal  status  of  the  dispute. 

"  Subordinate  questions  continued  to  agitate  and  produce  discord,  and 
conflicts  between  settlers  arising  from  an  entry  upon  an  improved  tract  during 
a  temporary  absence  of  the  first  occupants,  were  frequent.  Such  a  case  is  the  ^ 
following:  A  man  without  family  would  select  his  tract,  build  his  cabin,  and 
make  some  improvements,  and  in  the  autumn  revisit  the  settlements  to  find 
winter  employment,  and  upon  his  return  in  the  spring  find  another  in  posses- 
sion. Personal  conflicts  sometimes  decided  the  question  of  ownership  rather 
than  await  expensive  litigation  in  court;  while  some,  more  wisely,  canvassed 
the  matter  and  settled  by  an  amicable  adjustment  and  payment  of  a  reason- 
able compensation  by  one  party  to  the  other. 

"  That  a  wide-spread  excitement,  involving  vested  rights  so  dear  to  the 
claimants,  and  intensified  in  asperity  by  a  commingling  therewith  the  partizan 
politics  of  the  day,  should  have  been  settled,  and  finally  disappeared  with  so 
little  of  actual  conflict,  is  in  the  review,  very  wonderful,  and  may,  I  think,  be 
largely  attributed  to  the  overpowering  religious  excitement  concurrent  there- 
with, which  tended  to  restrain  and  moderate  the  angry  passions. 

"Only  one  man,  I  think,  was  killed  during  all  the  years  of  conflict:  that 
was  the  Sheriff  or  his  deputy  of  Beaver  County,  who  was  proceeding  with  a 
warrant  to  dispossess  a  determined  intruder,  and  was  waylaid  and  shot  as  he 
approached  the  premises. 

"  The  land  disputes  were  very  injurious  to  the  prosperity  of  the  country, 
and  retarded  its  settlement  many  years.  Men  who  had  made  large  improve- 
ments abandoned  all  and  went  into  what  was  known  as  the  'New  State,'  viz.: 
Ohio.  A  public  prejudice  unfavorable  to  this  region,  operated  extensively, 
preventing  emigration,  while  the  contiguous  parts  of  Ohio  and  New  York 
were  filling  with  an  industrious  and  intelligent  population." 



Agkiculture— First  Land  Cultivated  by  the  Pioneers  in  the  Vallev 
OF  French  Creek  and  First  Corn  Crop  Planted— Pioneer  Nursery— 
Introduction  of  Potatoes,  Wheat,  Rye,  Buckwheat,  Oats,  Barley, 
etc.— Rapid  Increase  of  the  Cereals— Horses  and  Cattle— Merino 
Sheep  Brought  into  the  County — Anecdote  of  a  Sheep  Speculation 
—Swine  of  the  Past  and  Present— Stock  and  Land  in  1826— Wool  Pro- 
duction—Leading Fine  Stock  Breeders,  Dealers  and  Importers- 
Agricultural  Societies  of  Crawford  County— Agricultural  Imple- 
ments, their  Changes  and  Wonderful  Improvement  During  the  Past 
Century— Pioneer  Mode  of  Farming— Dairy  Interests— First  Cheese 
Factories  Erected  in  the  County— Their  Rapid  Increase,  and  Present 
Prosperity  of  the  Business— Dairyman's  Association — Dairyman's 
Board  of  Trade. 

IT  was  well  understood  by  the  people  of  the  eastern  and  central  portions  of 
Pennsylvania,  as  well  as  by  those  in  adjoining  States,  that  the  lands  west 
of  the  Allegheny  River  were  very  fertile,  and  only  three  years  elapsed  after 
the  treaties  of  1784-85,  before  the  first  attempt  at  a  settlement  was  made  by 
a  hardy  band  of  pioneers,  four  of  whom :  David  Mead,  John  Mead,  Cornelius 
Van  Home  and  James  Fitz  Randolph,  located  permanently  in  the  valley  of 
French  Creek.  In  May,  1788,  these  men,  together  with  their  five  companions, 
Joseph  Mead,  Thomas  Martin,  John  Watson,  Thomas  Grant  and  Christopher 
Snyder,  having  selected  the  rich  bottom  near  where  Vallonia  now  stands  as  a 
suitable  field  for  agricultural  enterprise,  plowed  about  ten  acres  of  ground, 
which  they  planted  in  Indian  corn.  A  subsequent  freshet  in  the  creek 
destroyed  the  growing  crop,  and  they  were  compelled  to  replant  it,  but  the 
lateness  of  the  season  rendered  the  yield  not  very  satisfactory.  This  then 
was  the  beginning  of  agricultui'e  in  Crawford  County,  and  for  several  years 
the  cultivation  of  the  soil  was  carried  on  under  great  difficulties  on  account  of 
Indian  hostility.  Small  patches  of  ground  in  the  vicinity  of  "Mead's  Block- 
house" were  tilled  in  common,  and  it  was  not  until  1794-95,  that  the  settlers 
could  with  any  degree  of  safety  locate  on  their  respective  homesteads,  and 
even  then  there  was  imminent  danger  from  the  prowling  bands  of  savages 
still  infesting  the  forests  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio. 

Soon  after  coming,  Cornelius  Van  Home  planted  some  apple-seeds  near  the 
site  of  the  west  end  of  Mercer  Street  bridge,  and  the  trees  grown  from  these 
seeds  obtained  a  fine  growth,  and  were  the  foundation  of  the  first  orchards  in 
French  Creek  Valley. 

The  potato  was  introduced  prior  to  1791,  and  was  grown  very  successfully 
by  the  pioneers.  It  has  continued  from  that  time  to  the  present  to  be  an 
invaluable  product  of  the  county.  The  rich  alluvial  soil  of  the  flats  produced 
enormous  crops  of  corn  and  potatoes,  so  that  the  early  settlers  had  no  fears  of 
want,  for  the  forest  was  alive  with  game,  the  streams  abounded  in  fish,  and  the 
virgin  soil  yielded  plentifully. 

We  do  not  learn  that  there  was  any  wheat  grown  in  the  county  prior  to 
1797,  when  Dr.  Thomas  R.  Kennedy,  the  pioneer  physician  of  northwestern 
Pennsylvania,  brought  a  few  quarts  of  excellent  wheat  in  his  saddle-bags,  which 
he  distributed  among  the  farmers,  who  in  a  few  years  increased  the  amount 


to  thousands  of  bushels.  The  newly  cleared  land  was  admirably  adapted  to 
the  growth  of  wheat,  and  it  is  said  that  the  farmer  often  obtained  as  high  as 
thirty  bushels  of  first-class  wheat  from  one  acre  of  ground. 

In  a  short  time  rye  was  introduced  and  grown  in  considerable  quantities, 
being  largely  used  in  the  manufacture  of  whisky, while  buckwheat,  oats,  bar- 
ley and  other  grains  had  also  made  their  appearance.  The  supply  soon  became 
greater  than  the  demand  for  home  consumption,  and  the  prices  of  the  cereals 
were  generally  very  low  from  1800  to  1830.  All  this  was  favorable  to  the  sub- 
stantial comfort  of  the  people  and  the  rapid  settlement  of  the  county.  Very 
little  grain  excepting  buckwheat  has  been  shipped  from  Crawford  County. 
This  favored  article  was  introduced  at  an  early  date,  and  the  soil  in  many 
parts  of  the  county  was  found  well  adapted  to  its  production,  both  as  to  quality 
and  quantity,  which  are  not  excelled  by  any  other  county  in  the  State.  The 
excellent  quality  of  the  buckwheat  grown  in  this  county  early  attracted  the 
attention  of  dealers,  and  considerable  quantities  of  the  flour  are  shipped  every 
winter  to  the  larger  cities. 

Horses  and  cattle  were  brought  in  by  the  very  first  settlers,  though  the 
former  were  ordinary  farm-horses,  and  the  latter  milch  cows.  The  progressive 
farmer  soon  discovered  that  the  soil  of  Crawford  County  generally  was  better 
adapted  to  grass  than  grain,  and  attention  was  early  directed  to  stock-raising 
and  feeding.  In  1810  we  find  in  the  county  2,142  horses,  5,389  head  of  cattle, 
and  4. 120  sheep. 

In  1817  H.  J.  Huidekoper,  Esq.,  in  co-operation  with  Judge  Griffith  of  New 
Jersey,  brought  several  hundred  Merino  sheep  into  the  county.  They  were 
kept  on  Mr.  Huidekoper's  premises,  until  the  herding  of  so  many  together  gen- 
erated diseases  which  carried  them  otf  rapidly,  and  as  a  last  resort,  those 
remaining  were  distributed  in  small  lots  among  the  farmers  to  be  cared  for  on 
shares  as  to  increase.  This  proved  a  fortunate  move,  for  they  soon  became 
healthy  and  multiplied  rapidly,  but  were  finally  sold  without  further  collective 

The  leading  pioneers  were  always  anxious  to  improve  their  stock,  and  when- 
ever they  possessed  the  means  to  purchase  a  well-bred  animal  rarely  missed  the 
opportunity  of  doing  so.  The  following  anecdote  regarding  a  sheep  specula- 
tion in  Crawford  County  may  be  found  in  the  Crawford  Weekly  Messenger,  on 
file  in  the  Public  Library:  A  stranger  called  at  the  tavern  of  Thomas  Fuller- 
ton,  in  what  is  now  Cambridge  Township,  in  the  fall  of  1812,  driving  a  fine- 
looking  ram  ;  he  asked  for  some  oats  with  which  to  feed  the  animal,  giving  the 
landlord  to  understand  that  he  was  the  only  one  left  out  of  a  drove  of  "  Meri- 
nos" he  had  brought  from  the  East.  Anxious  to  possess  one  of  that  valuable 
breed,  Mr.  Fullerton  made  an  offer  to  purchase  him,  but  candidly  confessed 
that  $20  was  all  the  money  he  had  in  the  house.  This  sum  was  not  deemed 
sufficient  by  the  owner,  but  as  he  had  disposed  of  all  the  others  and  was  tired 
driving  him,  he  expressed  his  willingness  to  take  less  for  the  ram  than  his 
actual  value,  finally  agreeing  to  let  Mr.  Fullerton  have  him  for  $20  in  cash,  a 
cow  and  a  rifle,  which  ofifer  the  latter  eagerly  accepted.  The  fellow  soon 
departed,  leaving  the  landlord  well  pleased  with  his  '  'Merino;"  but  shortly  after- 
ward a  neighbor  called,  and  observing  the  animal,  said,  "Fullerton,  where  did 
you  get  my  ram ?"  "Your  ram!"  exclaimed  the  surprised  landlord.  "Yes," 
continued  the  neighbor,  "I  sold  him  to  a  Yankee  a  few  days  ago  for  12  shill- 
ings." On  examining  the  ram,  the  duped  and  now  thoroughly  disgusted  land- 
lord soon  discovered  that  he  was  of  the  common  breed,  but  his  wool  had  been 
very  artfully  combed  in  order  to  give  him  a  Merino  appearance. 

The  swine  of  the  early  settlers,  compared  with  those  of  1884,  would  pre- 


sent  a  very  wide  contrast,  for  whatever  the  breed  may  have  been  called  running 
wild  as  was  customary,  the  special  breed  was  soon  lost  in  the  mixed  swine  of 
the  country.  They  were  long  and  slim,  long-snouted  and  long-legged,  with 
an  arched  back,  and  bristles  erect  from  the  back  of  the  head  to  the  tail,  slab- 
sided,  active  and  healthy;  the  "sapling-splitter"  or  "razor  back,"  as  he  was 
called,  was  ever  in  the  search  of  food,  and  quick  to  take  alarm.  He  was  capa- 
ble of  making  a  heavy  hog,  but  required  two  or  more  years  to  mature,  and  until 
a  short  time  before  butchering  or  marketing  was  suffered  to  run  at  large,  sub- 
sisting mainly  as  a  forager,  and  in  the  fall  fattening  on  the  "mast"  of  the  for- 
est. Yet  this  was  the  hog  for  a  new  country,  whose  nearest  and  best  markets 
were  Pittsburgh  and  Philadelphia,  to  which  points  they  were  driven  on  foot. 
Almost  every  farmer  raised  a  few  hogs  for  market,  which  were  gathered  up  by 
drovers  and  dealers  during- the  fall  and  winter  seasons.  In  no  stock  of  the 
farm  have  greater  changes  been  effected  than  in  the  hog.  From  the  long-legged, 
long-snouted,  slab-sided,  roach-backed,  tall,  long,  active,  wild,  fierce  and  mus- 
cular, it  has  been  bred  to  be  almost  as  square  as  a  store-box  and  quiet  as  a 
sheep,  taking  on  250  pounds  of  flesh  in  ten  months.  They  are  now  ranked 
into  distinctive  breeds,  the  Berkshire  and  Chester  White  being  more  extensively 
bred  in  Crawford  County  than  any  other  kind. 

With  the  passing  years  every  sort  of  stock  gradually  increased  in  numbers, 
and  by  1826  the  county  contained  2,970  horses,  18,081  head  of  cattle,  and 
18,999  sheep,  while  the  number  of  hogs  was  unknown,  as  many  thousands 
roamed  the  forest  like  wild  animals.  Unimproved  land  sold  from  $3  to  $4  per 
acre,  and  improved  farms  from  $5  to  ^8  per  acre.  There  was  in  that  year  51,322 
acres  of  land  under  cultivation,  of  which  12,169  acres  were  in  meadow,  or 
nearly  one-quarter  of  the  whole  amount  of  cleared  land  devoted  to  grazing  pur- 
poses. The  result  has  been  that  the  business  of  stock-raising  became  a  spe- 
cialty with  many  of  the  best  farmers,  and  a  large  amount  of  stock,  principally 
cattle  and  horses,  has  been  annually  shipped  from  Crawford  County  to  other 
and  loss  favored  portions  of  the  country.  In  1850  the  county  produced  more 
than  1,000,000  pounds  of  wool,  and  had  attained  a  notoriety  as  a  wool-growing 
district, but  the  growth  of  sheep  gradually  fell  offuntil,in  1875,  the  wool  product 
did  not  exceed  200,000  pounds. 

The  Logan  Brothers,  of  South  Shenango  Township,  were  for  many  years 
leading  importers  of  draft  horses,  and  did  a  great  deal  toward  improving 
that  class  of  stock  in  this  portion  of  the  State.  Ambro  Whipple,  of  Saegers- 
town,  has  been  breeding  roadsters  for  some  years.  Denny  Brothers,  of  Hay- 
field  Township,  breed  draft  horses  and  roadsters,  also  Shropshire  sheep  and 
short-horn  cattle;  Alt  Stratton,  of  Evansburg,  roadsters  and  trotting  stock, 
and  C.  G.  Dempsey,  of  Conneautville,  thoroughbred  racers. 

"Shadeland,"  the  great  stock  farm  of  the  Powell  Brothers,  is  located  about 
one  mile  north  of  Spring  Borough,  in  Spring  Township.  It  is  not  the  crea- 
ture of  a  day,  but  has  grown  up  to  its  present  proportions  as  the  result  of  many 
years  of  careful  and  unusually  intelligent  effort  and  experiment,  until  to-day 
the  estate  comprises  over  one  thousand  acres  of  choice  land,  improved  by  a 
handsome  residence,  and  half  a  hundred  substantial  and  capacious  barns,  sta- 
bles and  out-buildings,  admirably  adapted  to  the  various  uses  and  purposes  of 
the  business,  the  whole  with  its  magnificent  aggregation  of  stock  representing 
an  investment  of  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars.  The  business  em- 
braces the  extensive  importation  and  breeding  of  pure-bred  live  stock  of  various 
classes,  notably  the  celebrated  Clydesdale  draft  horses  from  Scotland,  the 
English  draft  horses  from  England,  the  Percheron-Norman  draft  horses  from  the 
best  breeding  districts  of  France,  American  trotting-bred  roadsters,  imported 


coach ers,  and  Shetland  ponies;  also  Holstein  and  Devon  cattle,  and  Highland 
black-faced  sheep,  said  to  be  among  the  finest  mutton  sheep  known.  The 
Clydesdale  Stud  book  of  Groat  Britain  shows  more  animals  registered  by  Powell 
Bros,  than  any  other  live  firms  in  the  world  combined.  This  book  is  published 
under  the  direction  of  the  "Clydesdale  Horse  Society"  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland,  and  hence  is  absolutely  authentic,  and  indeed  the  ultimate  authority  on 
this  subject.  The  sales  at  the  farm  of  ten  aggregate  several  thousand  dollars  a 
day,  the  purchasers  representing  nearly  every  State  and  Territory  in  the 
Union,  sometimes  a  score  or  more  of  them  being  there  at  once.  They  have 
also  made  various  shipments  of  their  trotting-bred  roadsters  to  Europe.  As  an 
evidence  of  the  national  repute  of  the  establishment  it  may  be  mentioned,  that 
not  long  since  the  firm  received  a  communication  from  Dr.  Loring,  United 
States  Commissioner  of  Agriculture  at  Washington,  stating  that  a  citizen  of 
Japan  was  visiting  this  country  for  the^purpose  of  collecting  for  his  Govern- 
ment information  concerning  our  agricultural  and  other  industrial  methods, 
and  asking  that  he  might  be  pei*mitted  to  spend  a  "few  days  at  Shadeland,  as  a 
means  of  posting  himself  as  to  Araericau  stock-breeding.  While  draft  horses 
are  the  special  feature  there,  all  classes  of  their  stock  receive  equal  attention, 
and  only  the  very  finest  of  each  are  imported  and  bred.  The  gentlemen  com- 
posing the  firm  are  Watkin  G.,  Will  B.,  and  James  Lintner  Powell,  all  of  whom 
are  natives  of  Shadeland,  having  been  born  on  the  estate,  which  they  have 
always  occupied,  and  with  which  their  names  are  so  indissolubly  linked. 

Mr.  Edgar  Huidekoper,  of  Meadville,  is  the  most  extensive  importer  and 
breeder  of  the  celebrated  Holstein  cattle  in  this  portion  of  the  Commonwealth. 
He  began  in  March,  1878,  by  importing  from  Holland  two  bulls  and  ten  cows,  and 
later  in  the  same  year  brought  over  eight  more.  He  increased  his  importations 
from  time  to  time,  until  they  might  be  numbered  by  the  hundred.  His  stock 
farm  of  several  hundred  acres  lies  just  across  French  Creek  from  Meadville,  in 
Vernon  Township.  Mr.  Huidekoper  has  on  hand  usually  from  200  to  250 
Holsteins,  and  his  sales  extend  to  every  part  of  the  United  States. 

Among  other  smaller  breeders  of  fine  stock  may  be  mentioned  William 
Skelton,  of  Mead  Township,  a  Canadian,  who,  for  some  six  or  eight  years, 
bred  short-horns  of  the  celebrated  New  York  Mills  stock;  J.  B.  Cochran,  also  of 
Mead,  was  a  breeder  of  Durhams  for  a  few  years;  J.  W.  Cutshall,  of  Ran- 
dolph Township,  has  been  breeding  short-horns  about  ten  years;  John  Bell 
and  David  Gill,  of  Woodcock  Township,  have  been  in  the  short-horn  business 
about  five  years;  and  G.  W.  Watson,  of  Hayfield  Township,  has  been  quite  a 
large  breeder  of  Merino  sheep  for  some  years,  and  though  still  in  the  business 
does  not  carry  it  on  so  extensively  as  formerly. 

The  many  fairs  held  under  the  auspices  of  the  several  agricultural  societies 
of  Crawford"  County  have,  doubtless,  accomplished  more  towards  building  up 
its  stock  interests  than  all  the  other  agencies  combined.  In  1852  the  Craw- 
ford County  Agricultural  Society  was  organized  at  Conneautville,  and  held  its 
first  fair  in  that  town  the  same  year.  Annual  exhibitions  have  since  been 
held,  which  have  increased  in  patronage  and  importance  until  now  these  fairs 
are  among  the  best  and  most  flourishing  in  Pennsylvania.  The  grounds  are 
located  near  the  southeast  corner  of  Conneautville,  and  are  both  spacious  and 
well  improved. 

The  Crawford  County  Central  Agricultural  Association  was  organized  at 
Meadville  in  1856,  with  David  Derickson,  President,  and  J.  J.  Shryock,  Treas- 
urer. About  sixteen  acres  of  land  were  purchased  on  the  "Island,"  where  the 
depot  now  stands,  fitted  up  with  appropriate  buildings,  and  the  first  fair  held 
in  the  fall  of  1856.      From   that  time  until   1861,  inclusive,  very  successful 


annual  fairs  were  held  on  these  grounds,  but  in  the  latter  year  the  site  was 
sold  to  the  Atlantic  &  Great  Western  Railroad  C(5mpHny,  and  some  ten  acres 
purchased  in  Kerrtown.  Here  fairs  continued  to  be  held  for  five  years,  with 
varying  success,  the  patronage  having  gradually  fallen  off  from  the  time  the 
old  grounds  were  disposed  of.  The  Kerrtown  site  proving  too  small  was  laid 
off  into  lots,  and  subsequently  sold  at  Sheriff's  sale.  Forty  acres  of  land  were 
leased  near  Vallonia,  and  annual  fairs  kept  up  for  about  five  years,  when  the 
project  was  abandoned,  and  the  association  dissolved.  Some  of  the  members 
of  the  old  society  then  formed  the  "  Farmers'  and  Stock  Breeders'  Association," 
which  held  exhibitions  in  1873-74-75  and  1876,  when  it  too  ceased  to  exist. 
In  1879  "The  Crawford  County  Central  Agricultural  Association"  was 
re-organized,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year  held  a  fair  on  the  Vallonia  grounds. 
Another  fair  was  given  the  following  year,  which  was  the  last,  as  the  prospect 
fell  throiigh  for  want  of  pati'onage.  The  grounds  have  since  been  utilized  for 
annual  spring  races,  though  the  land  is  mostly  under  cultivation. 

The  Oil  Creek  Valley  Agricultural  Association  was  organized  and  held  its 
first  fair  in  the  fall  of  1875.  Its  capacious  groiinds  are  located  on  the  north- 
western suburbs  of  Titusville,  and  since  its  organization  annual  fairs  have  been 
held  with  increasing  attendance  and  success. 

In  the  fall  of  1876  the  farmers  of  Woodcock  Township  and  vicinity  held  a 
fair  at  Grange  Hall,  in  the  village  of  Woodcock,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Woodcock  Grange.  These  exhibitions  were  continued  for  a  few  years,  but 
finally  abandoned.  A  stock  company  was  then  formed,  and  the  Woodcock  Fair 
Association  organized.  Grounds  were  leased  in  the  western  suburbs  of  Wood- 
cock Village,  where  fairs  were  held  in  the  fall  of  1882  and  1883.  The  society 
is  now  a  permanent  institution,  and  the  exhibitions  of  1882  and  1883  were 
successful  beyond  the  most  sanguine  expectations  of  their  projectors. 

The  French  Creek  Valley  Agricultural  Society  was  organized  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1877,  and  the  first  fair  held  at  Cochranton,  October  9,  10  and  11  of 
that  year.  Annual  fairs  have  been  held  since  that  time,  and  have  been  largely 
attended  and  proven  a  gratifying  success.  The  grounds  contain  about  twenty- 
five  acres,  a  half-mile  track  and  good  buildings,  while  the  society  is  one  of  the 
most  flourishing  in  the  county. 

The  agricultural  implements  in  use  by  the  early  settlers  were  very  simple 
and  rude.  The  plow  was  made  entirely  of  wood,  except  the  share,  clevis  and 
draft-rods,  which  were  of  iron,  and  had  to  be  for  a  number  of  years  transported 
from  Pittsburgh,  as  there  were  no  iron  works  in  the  county  where  the  plowshares 
could  be  forged,  until  about  1800.  The  wooden  plow  was  a  very  awkward 
implement,  very  difficult  to  hold  and  hard  for  the  team  to  draw.  It  was 
however,  very  generally  used  until  the  fall  of  1824,  when  the  cast-iron  plow, 
patented  by  Jethro  Wood,  was  first  brought  into  the  county,  though  it  did  not 
gain  popular  favor  very  rapidly.  The  farmer  looked  at  it  and  was  sure  it 
would  break  the  first  time  it  struck  a  stone  or  a  root,  and  then  how  should  he 
replace  it?  The  wooden  mould-board  would  not  break,  and  when  it  wore  out  he 
could  take  his  ax  and  hew  another  out  of  a  piece  of  a  tree.  In  no  one  agricul- 
tural implement  has  there  been  more  marked  improvement  than  in  the  plow — 
now  made  of  beautifully  polished  cast-steel  except  the  beam  and  handles,  while 
in  Canada  and  some  portions  of  the  United  States  these,  too,  are  manufact- 
ured of  iron.  The  cast-steel  plow  of  the  present  manufacture,  in  its  several 
sizes,  styles  and  adaptations  to  the  various  soils  and  forms  of  land,  including 
the  sulky  or  riding  plow  of  the  Western  prairies,  is  among  agricultural  imple- 
ments the  most  perfect  in  use. 

Plows   possessing   some   of    Wood's  improvements  were  manufactured  in 


Birmingham,  near  Pittsburgh,  and  brought  to  this  county  in  considorable  num- 
bers from  1824  to  1830,  and  probably  some  were  made  here  prior  to  the  last 
named  date.  About  this  time  Wood's  agents,  or  the  assignees  of  the  patents, 
were  traveling  over  the  county  collecting  royalties  from  the  farmers  for  using 
their  patents.  This  continued  to  be  a  burden  upon  many  in  this  county  until 
1848^9,  when  Hon.  John  W.  Farrelly,  an  eminent  lawyer  of  Meadville,  and 
Member  of  Congress  from  this  district,  succeeded  in  defeating  a  bill  introduced 
in  the  House  for  the  extension  of  Wood's  patents  on  the  plow.  The  manufactur- 
ers of  Birmingham,  Penn. ,  to  show  their  appreciation  of  Mr.  Farrelly' s  efforts 
to  relieve  them  of  this  load,  made  and  sent  to  him,  in  1849,  a  plow  made 
entirely  of  metal,  beautifully  polished.  This  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
complete  iron  plow  manufactured  in  this  country,  and  was  on  exhibition  at 
the  store  of   John  McFarland  in  Meadville  for  several  months. 

The  pioneer  harrow  was  simply  the  fork  of  a  tree,  with  the  branches  on  one 
side  cut  close  and  on  the  other  left  about  a  foot  long  to  serve  the  purpose  of 
teeth.  In  some  instances  a  number  of  holes  were  bored  through  the  beams 
and  dry  wooden  pins  driven  into  them.  It  was  not  until  about  1825  that  iron 
or  steel  harrow  teeth  were  introduced  into  Crawford  County. 

The  axes,  hoes,  shovels  and  picks  were  rude  and  clumsy,  and  of  inferior 
utility.  The  sickle  and  scythe  were  at  first  used  to  harvest  the  grain  and  hay, 
but  the  former  gave  way  early  to  the  cradle,  with  which  better  results  could  be 
attained  with  less  labor.  The  scythe  and  cradle,  have  been  replaced  by  the 
mower  and  reaper  to  a  great  extent,  though  both  are  still  used  considerably  in 
this  county  because  of  the  hilly  and  rolling  surface  of  the  country,  as  well 
as  the  great  numbers  of  stumps  yet  remaining  in  the  newer  clearings. 

The  ordinary  wooden  flail  was  used  to  thresh  grain  until  about  1830,  when 
the  horse-power  thresher  was  largely  substituted.  The  method  of  cleaning 
the  chaff  from  the  grain  by  the  early  settlers  was  by  a  blanket  handled  by  two 
persons.  The  grain  and  the  chaff  were  placed  on  the  blanket,  which  was  then 
tossed  up  and  down,  the  wind  separating  a  certain  amount  of  the  chaff  from 
the  grain  during  the  operation.  Fanning-mills  were  introduced  about  1820, 
but  the  first  of  these  were  very  rude  and  little  better  than  the  primitive 
blanket.  Improvements  have  been  made  from  time  to  time  until  an  almost 
perfect  separator  is  now  connected  with  every  threshing  machine,  and  the 
work  of  ten  men  for  a  whole  season  is  done  more  completely  by  two  or  three 
men,  as  many  horses,  and  a  patent  separator,  in  one  day.  In  fact,  it  is  difii- 
cult  to  fix  limitations  upon  improvements  in  agricultural  machinery  within 
the  last  fifty  years.  It  is,  however,  safe  to  say  that  they  have  enabled  the 
farmer  to  accomplish  more  than  triple  the  amount  of  work  with  the  same  force 
in  the  same  time,  and  do  his  work  better  than  before.  It  has  been  stated  on 
competent  authority  that  the  saving  effected  by  new  and  improved  implements 
within  the  last  twenty  years  has  been  not  less  than  one-half  on  all  kinds  of 
farm  labor. 

The  greatest  triumphs  of  mechanical  skill  in  its  application  to  agriculture 
are  witnessed  in  the  plow,  planter,  reaper  and  separator,  as  well  as  in  many 
other  implements  adapted  to  the  tillage,  harvesting  and  subsequent  handling 
of  the  immense  crops  of  the  country.  The  rude  and  cumbrous  implements 
of  the  pioneers  have  been  superseded  by  improved  and  apparently  perfect 
machinery  of  all  classes,  so  that  the  calling  of  the  farmer  is  no  longer  synony- 
mous with  laborious  toil,  but  pleasant  recreation. 

The  farmers  of  Crawford  County  are  not  behind  their  neighbors  in  the 
employment  of  improved  methods  in  the  use  of  the  best  machinery.  It  is  true 
that  in  many  cases  they  were  slow  to  change,  but  mixch   allowance  should  be 


made  for  surrounding  circumstances.  The  pioneers  of  this  county  had  to  con- 
tend against  innumerable  obstacles — with  the  wildness  of  nature  outlined  in 
towering  hills  "rock-ribbed  and  ancient  as  the  sun,"  with  the  jealous  hostility 
of  the  Indiana,  the  immense  growth  of  timber,  the  depredations  of  wild  beasts 
and  the  annoyance  of  the  swarming  insect  life,  as  well  as  the  great  difficulty 
and  expense  of  procuring  seeds  and  farming  implements.  These  various  diffi- 
culties were  quite  sufficient  to  explain  the  slow  progress  made  in  the  first  years 
of  settlement.  Improvements  were  not  encouraged,  while  much  of  the  topog- 
raphy of  the  county  renders  the  use  of  certain  kinds  of  improved  machinery 
impossible.  The  people  generally  rejected  book-farming  as  unimportant  and 
useless,  and  knew  little  of  the  chemistry  of  agriculture.  The  farmer  who  ven- 
tured to  make  experiments,  to  stake  out  new  paths  of  practice,  or  to  adopt  new 
modes  of  culture,  subjected  himself  to  the  ridicule  of  the  whole  neighborhood. 
For  many  years  the  same  methods  of  farming  were  observed,  the  son  planted 
just  as  many  acres  of  corn  as  his  father  did,  and  in  the  same  old  phases  of  the 
moon.  All  their  practices  were  merely  traditional;  but  within  the  last  twenty- 
five  years  most  remarkable  changes  have  occurred  in  all  the  conditions  of 
agriculture  in  this  county. 

It  is  not,  however,  in  grain-growing  that  Crawford  County  has  made  its 
most  material  progress.  The  natural  adaptation  of  the  soil  to  grass  and  the 
abundant  supply  of  pure  water  have  attracted  the  attention  of  farmers  to  the 
raising  of  stock,  and  the  manufacture  of  butter  and  cheese,  especially  the  lat- 
ter, which  industry  has  increased  until  it  has  become  the  leading  agri- 
cultural pursuit,  exceeding  all  other  branches  of  farming  in  its  magnitude 
and  importance,  and  promising  to  be  the  source  of  still  greater  prosperity  and 
wealth  to  the  whole  community.  Milch  cows  were  introduced  into  this  county 
as  early  as  1789,  and  have  been  raised  here  ever  since.  Butter  and  cheese  had 
been  manufactured  in  a  small  way,  and  about  sufficient  to  supply  the  home 
demand  until  1849,  when  the  first  attempt  was  made  at  factory  cheese-making, 
by  Clark  &  Stebbins  at  Mosiertown,  Cussewago  Township,  where  they  turned 
out  what  was  called  "  English  Dairy  Cheese,"  weighing  about  sixteen  pounds 
each  and  selling  for  3  cents  per  pound.  Another  factory  was  built  in  the 
same  village  by  Hosier  &  McFarland,  in  1850,  which  continued  in  operation 
some  three  years,  when  the  parties  engaged  in  other  business,  and  this  system 
of  factory  cheese-making  came  to  an  end.  In  subsequent  years  many  large 
dairies  existed  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county.  From  1850  to  1862,  cheese 
sold  from  5  to  8  cents  per  pound  ;  and  from  1862  to  1867,  at  an  average  of 
13  cents. 

The  first  factory  under  the  present  system  of  cheese- making  was  erected  by 
George  Thomas,  at  Cambridgeboro,  in  1867,  and  received  the  milk  from  250 
cows  the  first  year,  600  the  third,  and  820  the  sixth  year.  The  average  price 
of  cheese  in  those  years  was  about  1 2  cents  per  pound.  The  second  factory, 
known  as  the  "Woodcock  First  Premium,"  was  built  at  Woodcock  in  1868,  by 
D.  H.  Gibson  &  Co.,  and  made  the  first  year  27,000  pounds  of  cheese,  the 
second  year  68,000  pounds,  and  in  1878,  145,000  pounds.  Another  early 
factory  was  built  by  Charles  Cummings,  on  Gravel  Run,  in  Woodcock  Town- 
ship, which  is  now  owned  by  Mr.  Magaw.  It  was  operated  very  successfully 
by  Mr.  Cummings  until  his  death.  In  1870  we  find  eight  cheese  factories  in 
operation  in  Crawford  County,  which  by  1875  had  increased  to  sixty  eight, 
with  a  combined  annual  product  of  6,310,000  pounds  of  cheese.  In  1878  but 
sixty-one  factories  were  running,  manufacturing  5,650,347  pounds  of  cheese 
during  that  season.  This  netted  the  producer  a  little  over  10  cents  per  pound, 
or  a  total  of  $566,034  more  revenue  from  cheese  than  all  the  rest  of  the 
State  obtained  during  the  same  time  from  that  product. 


By  1879  many  cheese  factories  in  Crawford  County  had  become  unremuner- 
ative.  In  this  year  Mr.  L.  C.  Magaw,  of  Meadville,  entered  the  business  by 
purchasing  one  factory,  and  has  added  to  this  from  time  to  time  until  he  has 
now  in  operation  seven  factories  in  Crawford  County,  and  two  in  Erie,  besides 
controlling  and  handling  the  product  of  four  others.  These  factories  are 
located  in  different  parts  of  the  county,  viz. :  Two  in  Woodcock  Township, 
one  each  in  Hayfield,  Cambridge,  Eichmond  and  Randolph;  two  in  Cussewago,' 
and  one  each  in  Spring,  Summit  and  Sadsbury.  The  factories  located  in 
Spring,  Cussewago  and  Haylield  Townships  are  not  owned  by  Mr.  Mac^aw,  but 
their  product  is  manufactured  on  his  plan,  stamped  with  his  brand,  and  han- 
dled by  him.  His  trade  extends  throughout  the  United  States,  the  demand 
always  being  equal  to  the  production.  He  manufactures  and  controls  only  the 
celebrated  brand  known  as  "Crawford's  Favorite,"  and  his  product  always 
commands  a  price  equal  to  the  best  New  York  State  cheese. 

There  are  twenty-two  other  cheese  factories  in  Crawford  County,  located  as 
follows  :  Three  in  Conneaut  Township,  one  each  in  Spring,  Pine,  South  She- 
nango  and  Cussewago,  two  in  Venango,  one  in  Cambridge,  three  in  Rockdale, 
two  in  Richmond,  one  in  Mead,  two  in  Randolph  and  one  each  in  Troy,  Rome, 
Bloomfield  and  Sparta.  There  is  also  a  Switzer  cheese  factory  in  Mead  Town- 
ship, which  does  a  flourishing  business  in  that  product.  Most  of  these  fac- 
tories are  connected  with  the  Dairyman's  Board  of  Trade,  and  manufacture 
solely  for  export,  their  product  being  consigned  to  New  York  agents.  It  is 
estimated  that  the  thirty-three  cheese  factories,  now  in  operation  in  Crawford 
County,  will  each  average  100,000  pounds  annually,  or  a  total  of  3,300,000 
pounds,  which  at  the  market  price  of  10  cents  per  pound,  adds  $330,000  to  the 
annual  wealth  of  the  county.  It  might  also  be  stated  here  that  each  factory  con- 
sumes the  milk  of  500  cows,  making  a  total  of  16,500  cows  to  the  thirty -three 
factories.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  cheese  product  of  Crawford  County,  in 
1884,  is  only  about  half  as  large  as  it  was  in  1875,  having  never  since  reached 
the  amount  produced  that  year.  There  can,  however,  be  little  doubt  that  the 
cheese  now  manufactured  is  much  superior  to  the  article  turned  out  in  past 
years,  and  that  the  quality  makes  up  in  a  great  measure  for  the  falling  off  in 
production.  The  value  of  the  butter  trade  of  this  county  cannot  easily  be 
estimated,  but  though  small  in  comparison  with  the  cheese  interests,  it  too 
is  in  a  flourishing  condition. 

No  other  part  of  the  State  offers  such  favorable  inducements  to  persons 
desirous  of  engaging  in  the  dairy  business  as  Crawford  County.  Its  cheap 
lands,  rich  and  n^^tritious  grasses  and  abundant  supply  of  pure  soft  water 
combine  to  make  it  attractive  to  many  who  would  engage  in  healthy  and  remu- 
nerative employment.  Since  1867,  about  two-thirds  of  the  entire  product  of 
cheese  in  Crawford  County  have  been  exported  at  an  average  valuation  of 
about  10  cents  per  pound.  This  has  added  largely  to  her  material  prosperity 
in  every  department  of  business,  and  it  is  impossible  to  fully  realize  without 
a  thorough  study  of  the  subject  the  great  advantages  derived  from  this  most 
important  branch  of  her  industries. 

One  of  the  leading  factors  in  building  up  the  present  flourishing  dairy 
industries  of  northwestern  Pennsylvania  was  the  Dairyman's  Association.  On 
the  15th  of  April,  1871,  the  dairymen  of  Crawford  and  Erie  Counties  met  at 
Venango  and  organized  the  "  Crawford  County  Dairyman's  Association,"  with 
the  following  officers:  Joseph  Blystone,  President;  H.  C.  Greene,  J.  H.  Bly- 
stone  and  Thomas  Van  Home,  Vice-Presidents;  D.  H.  Gibson,  Secretary;  J. 
H.  Marcy,  Treasurer.  The  gentlemen  present  who  organized  the  association 
were:  Joseph  Blystone,   Thomas  Van  Home,  Cornelius  Van  Home,  William 


Morse,  D.  C.  Eoot.  D.  H.  Gibson,  E.  Chamberlain,  George  Thomas,  J.  H. 
Blystone.  William  Nash,  D.  M.  Crouch.  G.  W.  Cutshall,  J.  T.  Cook,  J.  H. 
Marcy,  G.  N.  Kleckner,  H.  C.  Greene,  Darius  Coulter.  G.  W.  Brown,  Adam 
Shei-red,  L.  E.  Townley,  J.  M.  Bigger  and  S.  F.  Harned.  This  society  accom- 
plished but  little,  and  June  2,  1875,  was  re-organized  as  the  "Pennsylvania 
.State  Dairyman's  Association,"  with  A.  M.  Fuller,  of  Meadville,  as  Presi- 
dent. At  that  time  there  were  in  western  Pennsylvania  about  100  cheese 
factories.  Owing  to  the  fact  that  the  association  was  then  supported  wholly 
by  membership  fees,  it  was  unable  to  extend  its  work  beyond  the  confines  of 
the  northwestern  counties.  In  1879  the  proceedings  of  the  association  were 
published  in  the  State  Agricultural  Report,  for  which  it  received  from  the 
State  Agricultural  Society  the  sum  of  $100.  In  1880  the  association  secured 
an  annual  appropriation  from  the  State  of  $350,  and  500  copies  of  the  report, 
with  the  privilege  of  using  100  pages  of  the  report  every  year.  Two  meet- 
ings have  been  held  annually  since  1875,  at  which  addresses  have  been  deliv- 
ered by  almost  every  prominent  dairyman  in  the  country.  These  meetings 
have  been  well  attended,  and  not  a  single  failure  has  occurred,  while  on  some 
occasions  over  500  persons  were  present. 

The  last  annual  meeting  of  the  association  was  held  at  Meadville  February 
6  and  7,  1884.  The  association  held  a  dairy  fair  in  Meadville  October  23, 
24,  25,  1877,  the  first  of  the  sort  held  in  the  United  States.  Large  exhibi- 
tions of  cheese  have  been  made  by  the  association  at  all  the  recent  fairs  of  the 
State  Agricultural  Society,  and  it  participated  in  the  first  international  dairy 
fair  held  in  New  York  City.  "As  to  the  good  accomplished  during  these 
years,"  says  Mr.  A.  M.  Fuller,  "I  can  state  that  I  believe  dairying  as  a  busi- 
ness in  the  western  part  of  the  State  owes  its  success  mainly  to  this  organiza  - 
tion;  and  while  we  believe  we  have  been  directly  benefitted  by  this  organiza- 
tion in  western  Pennsylvania,  we  trust  that  the  publication  of  our  report 
annually  in  25,600  copies  of  the  State  Agricultural  Report  for  the  past  five 
years  has  proved  of  advantage  to  the  dairy  interests  in  every  portion  of  the 
Commonwealth. ' ' 

The  Dairyman's  Board  of  Trade  was  organized  at  Meadville,  January  3, 
1872,  its  charter  members  being  T.  H.  McCalmont,  E.  F.  Stountz,  Joseph 
Blystone,  D.  C  Root,  R.  L.  Stebbins,  Thomas  Van  Home,  H.  C.  Greene,  D.  H. 
Gibson,  J.  H.  Marcy,  William  Morse  and  J.  H.  Blystone.  It  had  a  lingering 
existence  until  the  re-organization  of  the  Dairyman's  Association  in  1875.  when 
the  following  officers  were  chosen:  L.  C.  Magaw,  President  of  the  board;  H. 
C.  Greene,  Secretary,  and  S.  B.  Dick,  Treasurer.  In  1882  the  headquarters 
of  the  Board  of  Trade  were  removed  from  Meadville  to  Cambridgeboro,  which 
is  a  more  central  point  for  the  factories  now  belonging  to  it.  The  dairy  inter- 
ests of  Crawford  County  are  looked  upon  with  pride  by  her  citizens,  as  well 
they  might  be,  for  there  is  a  larger  amount  of  cheese  manufactured  within  her 
limits  than  in  all  the  balance  of  the  State  combined. 

j4.  l3 .  ^^^Xvv.^^^— 



Primitive  Appearancp:  of  Crawford  County— Timber,  and  Fruit-bearing 
Trees  and  Vines— Roots  and  Herbage— Pioneer  Days  and  Trials— Hab- 
itations OF  THE  First  Settlers— Furniture— Food  and  Medicine— 
Habits,Labor  and  Dress— Early  Manners  and  Customs— "Bees"  and  Wed- 
dings—The  Hominy  Block  and  Pioneer  Mills— Store  Goods  and  Prod- 
uce—Old Cash  Book  at  Fort  Franklin— Mode  of  Living— Churches 
and  Schools — Period  of  1812-15— Alfred  Huidekoper's  List  of  Wild  Ani- 
mals, Birds  and  Reptiles— An  Old  Settler— Game— The  Inhabitants  of 
Northwestern  Pennsy'lvania  Petition  the  Legislature  to  Enact  a 
Law  for  the  Destruction  of  Squirrels— Hunts  Inaugurated— Php:as- 
ANTS,  Pigeons,  Bees  and  Fish— Wolves— Premiums  on  Wolf  and  Fox 
Scalps— Bears— Panthers— Fur-bearing  Animals— The  Rattlesnake 
and  other  Pests  of  Early  Times. 

ERE  the  woodman's  ax  resounded,  sombre  and  silent  was  the  ancient  forest 
which,  during  untold  centuries,  had  overshadowed  the  hills  and  valleys 
of  this  region.  Beauty  and  variety  marked  the  plants  which  grew  and 
bloomed  beneath  the  leafy  canopy  of  the  gigantic  trees; 

"Full  many  a  flower  was  born  to  blush  unseen, 
And  waste  its  sweetness  on  the  desert  air." 

Hill,  dale  and  streamlet,  with  all  the  families  of  plants,  from  the  lofty 
pine  to  the  creeping  ivy,  gave  to  the  landscape  variety  and  picturesque  beauty. 
An  unchanged  progression  of  periodical  decay,  had,  from  time  immemorial, 
been  forming  a  I'ich  vegetable  soil,  in  preparation  for  the  era  when  civilized 
man  should  take  possession  and.  become  its  cultivator.  Oak  of  several  varie- 
ties, chestnut  and  hickory  in  all  its  species,  were  the  principal  growth  on  the 
dry  gravelly  lands;  red  and  white  beech,  maple  or  sugar  tree,  linden  or  bass- 
wood,  sumach,  white-ash,  cucumber,  poplar,  white,  red  and  slippery  elm,  wal- 
nut, iron  wood,  dogwood,  sassafras  and  cherry,  on  the  rich,  loamy  soil;  and  on 
the  wet  land  bordering  the  streams,  hemlock,  black-ash,  sycamore,  soft  maple 
and  birch;  extensive  groves  of  white  pine  skirted  many  of  the  water- courses, 
affording  ample  provision  for  the  building  wants  of  several  generations;  while 
a  varying  undergrowth  of  fruit-bearing  trees  and  vines  such  as  the  plum, 
crab- apple,  white,  red  and  black  haw,  alder,  whortleberry,  blackberry,  raspberry, 
serviceberry,  gooseberry,  currant,  cranberry  and  strawberry,  also  nuts  of  sev- 
eral varieties;  hops,  ginseng,  bloodroot,  chocolate  root,  together  with  innumer- 
able kinds  of  other  roots  and  herbage  of  valuable  properties  were  the  sponta- 
neous growth  of  Crawford  County. 

But  the  pioneers  came  not  to  enjoy  a  life  of  lotus-eating  and  ease.  They 
could  admire  the  pristine  beauty  of  the  scenes  that  unveiled  before  them;  they 
could  enjoy  the  vernal  green  of  the  great  forest,  and  the  loveliness  of  all  the 
works  of  nature.  They  could  look  forward  with  happy  anticipation  to  the 
life  they  were  to  lead  in  the  midst  of  all  this  beauty,  and  to  the  rich  reward 
that  would  be  theirs  from  the  cultivation  of  the  mellow,  fertile  soil;  but  they 
had  first  to  work. 

The  dangers,  also,  that  these  pioneers  were  exposed  to,  were  serious  ones. 
The  Indians  could  not  be  trusted,  and  the  many  stories  of  their  outrages  in 


the  earlier  Eastern  settlements  made  the  pioneers  of  French  Creek  country 
apprehensive  of  trouble.  The  larger  wild  beasts  were  a  cause  of  much  dread, 
and  the  smaller  ones  a  source  of  great  annoyance.  Added  to  this  was  the 
liability  of  sickness  which  always  exists  in  a  new  country.  In  the  midst  of 
all  the  loveliness  of  the  surroundings,  there  was  a  sense  of  loneliness  that 
could  not  be  dispelled,  and  this  was  a  far  greater  trial  to  the  men  and  women 
who  first  dwelt  in  the  Western  country  than  is  generally  imagined.  The  deep- 
seated,  constantly-recurring  feeling  of  isolation  made  many  stout  hearts  turn 
back  to  the  older  settlements  and  the  abodes  of  comfort,  the  companionship 
and  sociability  they  had  abandoned  in  their  early  homes,  to  take  up  a  new  life 
in  the  wilderness. 

The  pioneers  making  the  tedious  journey  from  the  East  and  South  by  the 
rude  trails,  arrived  at  the  places  of  their  destination  with  but  very  little  with 
which  to  begin  the  battle  of  life.  They  had  brave  hearts  and  strong  arms, 
however,  and  they  were  possessed  of  invincible  determination.  Frequently 
they  came  on  without  their  families  to  make  a  beginning,  and  this  having 
been  accomplished,  would  return  to  their  old  homes  for  their  wives  and  chil- 
dren. The  first  thing  done,  after  a  temporary  shelter  from  the  rain  had  been 
provided,  was  to  prepare  a  little  spot  of  ground  for  some  crop,  usually  corn. 
This  was  done  by  girding  the  trees,  clearing  away  the  underbrush,  if  there 
chanced  to  be  any,  and  sweeping  the  surface  with  fire.  Five,  ten  or  even  fif- 
teen acres  of  land  might  thus  be  prepared  and  planted  the  first  season.  In 
the  autumn  the  crop  would  be  carefully  gathered  and  garnered  with  the  least 
possible  waste,  for  it  was  the  food  supply  of  the  pioneer  and  his  family,  and 
life  itself  depended,  in  part,  upon  its  safe  preservation.  While  the  first  crop 
was  oTowing  the  pioneer  had  busied  himself  with  the  building  of  his  cabin, 
which  must  answer  as  a  shelter  from  the  storms  of  the  coming  winter,  a  pro- 
tection from  the  ravages  of  wild  animals,  and,  possibly,  a  place  of  refuge  from 
the  red  man. 

If  a  pioneer  was  completely  isolated  from  his  fellow-men,  his  position  was 
certainly  a  hard  one;  for  without  assistance  he  could  construct  only  a  poor 
habitation.  In  such  cases  the  cabin  was  generally  made  of  light  logs  or  poles, 
and  was  laid  up  roughly,  only  to  answer  the  temporary  purpose  of  shelter,  until 
other  settlers  had  come  into  the  vicinity,  by  whose  help  a  more  solid  structure 
could  be  built.  Usually  a  number  of  men  came  into  the  cou^try  together,  and 
located  within  such  distance  of  each  other  as  enabled  them  to  perform  many 
friendly  and  neighborly  of&ces.  Assistance  was  always  readily  given  one 
pioneer  by  all  the  scattered  residents  of  the  forest  within  a  radius  of  several 
miles.  The  commonly  followed  plan  of  erecting  a  log  cabin  was  through  a 
union  of  labor.  The  site  of  the  cabin  home  was  generally  selected  with  refer- 
ence to  a  good  water  supply,  often  by  a  never-failing  spring  of  pure  water,  or 
if  such  could  not  be  found,  it  was  not  uncommon  to  first  dig  a  well.  When  the 
cabin  was  to  be  built  the  few  neighbors  gathered  at  the  site,  and  first  cut  down, 
within  as  close  proximity  as  possible,  a  number  of  trees  as  nearly  of  a  size  as 
could  be  found,  but  ranging  from  a  foot  to  twenty  inches  in  diameter.  Logs 
were  chopped  from  these  and  rolled  to  a  common  center.  This  work,  and 
that  of  preparing  the  foundation,  would  consume  the  greater  part  of  the  day, 
in  most  cases,  and  the  entire  labor  would  most  commonly  occupy  two  or  three 
days — sometimes  four.  The  logs  were  raised  to  their  places  with  handspikes 
and  "  skid  poles,"  and  men  standing  at  the  cornei's  with  axes  notched  them  as 
fast  as  they  were  laid  in  position.  Soon  the  cabin  would  be  built  several  logs 
high,  and  the  work  would  become  more  difficult.  The  gables  were  formed  by 
beveling  the  logs,  and  making  them  shorter  and  shorter,  as  each  additional  one 


was  laid  in  place.  These  logs  in  the  gables  were  held  in  place  by  polos, 
which  extended  across  the  cabin  from  end  to  end,  and  which  served  also  as 
rafters  upon  which  to  lay  the  rived  "  clapboard  "  roof.  The  so-called  "  clap- 
boards "  were  live  or  six  feet  in  length,  and  were  split  from  oak  or  ash  logs, 
and  made  as  smooth  and  flat  as  possible.  They  were  laid  side  by  side,  and 
other  pieces  of  split  stuff  laid  over  the  cracks  so  as  to  effectually  keep  out  the 
rain.  Upon  th