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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) 

Volume 4 Issue 1, December 2019 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 - 6470 

> ♦ 

Study on use of Red Mud with RBI Grade 81 in Black Cotton 
Soil to Enhancing the Properties of Sub Grade & 

Base Layer of Re Wall and Semi Rigid Pavement 

Abhisbek Kumar Thakur^, Prof. Nitesh Kushwaha^ 

iM. Tech. Scholar, ^Professor 

I'^Department of Civil Engineering, Millennium Institute of Technology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 


ABSTRACT 


Soil is very important in civil engineering constructions. The poor 
engineering properties of the local soils may present many difficulties for 
construction and therefore need to improve their engineering properties. 
Stabilization techniques can be used to improve the properties of soil. 
Soil stabilization improves various engineering properties e.g. bearing 
capacity, compressibility, strength, and various other properties of soil. In 
this study the impact of Red Mud to improve the strength of soil. 

An effective stabilizer i.e. RBI Grade-81(polymer] used as an chemical 
additive and can also be used in sub grade, sub base and base layer. 

The industrial waste like Fly Ash, Stone Dust, Red Mud etc. can be used 
with RBI Grade-81 as stabilizer to reduce the cost. 

The strength has been compared on the basis of GBR for virgin soil and 
soil with red mud with RBI grade un-soaked and soaked conditions. 

The result implies that when sub-grade is reinforced with Red mud & RBI 
grade-81 its GBR increases as for virgin soil and it increases for un-soaked 
& Soked condition. 

Red Mud & RBI grade-81 has a good potential to reduce the cost of 
pavement layers if weak sub- grade is encountered on the alignment. 


How to cite this paper: Abhishek Kumar 
Thakur | Prof. Nitesh Kushwaha "Study on 
use of Red Mud with RBI Grade 81 in 
Black Cotton Soil to Enhancing the 
Properties of Sub Grade & Base Layer of 
Re Wall and Semi Rigid Pavement" 
Published in 

International Journal 
of Trend in Scientific 
Research and 

Development 
[ijtsrd], ISSN: 2456- 
6470, Volume-4 | 
lssue-1, December 
2019, pp.278-281, URL: 

https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd29 
542.pdf 

Copyright © 2019 by author(s] and 
International Journal of Trend in Scientific 
Research and Development Journal. This 
is an Open Access article distributed 
under the terms of 



\Si 

IJTSRD29542 




INRODUCTION 

Soil is basic and important element in Civil Engineering field. 
Stability of every structure depends on the type and 
characteristics of foundation which in turn depends on the 
type of soil. Many problems irrupt if expansive soil. Natural 
soil is to be used in foundation, because of its shrinkage and 
swelling properties. There are many methods to make 
natural soil stable for various constructions. Natural soil is 
comfortable for road work, compared to other types of soil. 

LITERATURE REVIEW 

"Feasibility Study on the Use of RBI Grade-81 
Cementation Material in Road Construction, year 2007" 
by Central Road Research Institute (CRRl) New Delhi, 

In the study four type of soil classified as gravely, sandy, silty 
and clayey are combined with different dosage of RBI Grade- 
81 varying from 2% to 12% to test for GBR, UCS and 
Durability. The test were conducted as per prevailing IS and 
ASTM codes. The GBR of gravely soil improved from 30% to 
234% at dosage of 6%, in case of silty soil the improvement 
at 6% RBI Grade-81 increased to 268% from 8%. The Clay 
and sand GBR improved from respective 4% and 22% to 
129% and 79% at 12% RBI Grade-81. Gravel and silt soils 
sample also passed the durability test at 6 and 4% 


the Creative 

Commons Attribution 
License (CC BY 4.0] 

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by 
/4.0] 

respectively, this dosage is recommended for construction of 
sub base and base. 

"Laboratory Studies on Properties of Soil Treated with 
RBI Grade-81 Stabilizer" Done at RASTA, Center for Road 
Technology, under Prof. C.E.G Justo[2008]. The involved 
four different kind of soils namely, black cotton, red loamy, 
silty sand and gravely soil. The study involved plasticity 
characteristics, GBR and UCS. The black cotton soil showed 
an improvement of 47% at 4 % when tested for PL GBR 
increased by 1100% at 6% RBI Grade-81 and the UCS value 
raised by 353% with 4% RBI Grade-81. Similar and even 
better trends are observed with other three types of soils. 

Objective 

> The experimental work is to find the increase in 
strength of the natural soil by using of red mud with RBI 
grade by enhancing the property of sub grade & base 
layer of re wall with semi-rigid pavement. 

Methodology 

There are various test performed in laboratory as per IS 
code standards like: 


@ IJTSRD I Unique Paper ID - 1JTSRD29542 | Volume - 4 | Issue - 1 | November-December 2019 Page 278 













International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development [IJTSRD] @ www.ijtsrd.com elSSN: 2456-6470 


> Grain Size Distribution 

> Liquid Limit 

> Plastic Limit 

> Plasticity Index 


> Specific Gravity 

> Optimum Moisture Content [OMC] 

> Maximum Dry Density (MDDJ 

> California Bearing Ratio (CBRJ 


Table-01 Tests conducted for Prepared Samples 


S. No. 

Material 

Tests conducted 

1 

Natural Soil 


2 

Natural soil + 3 % Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 

Grain size Analysis- (mechanical Method], 

3 

Natural soil + 6 % Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 

Specific Gravity 

4 

Natural soil + 9% Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 

Consistency Indices (L.L., P.L., P.L] 

5 

Natural soil +12% Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 

Compaction Test (Light Compaction] 

6 

Natural soil + 15 % Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 

CBR Test (Soaked & Un-soaked] 

7 

Natural soil + 18 % Red Mud+ 2% RBI Grade-81 



RESULT 

CBR Test for Natural Soil with varying percentages of Red Mud 

California Bearing Ratio [CBR] tests were executed out to determine CBR Value for sub-grade soil and for soil that may be 
stabilized with altered percentages of Red Mud, California Bearing Ratio (CBR] Unsoaked and Soaked tests were executed on 
Natural Soil (B.C Soil] first by mixing with altered percentage of Red Mud to stabilize Natural soil and then altered percent of 
Red Mud at which maximum CBR is gained is chosen for further experimental work. 


CBR (Un Soaked) 



Orade - SI Orade - 31 Grade -Bl RBI Grade - RBI Grade - 

SL SL 

Figures.10 Variation in Un Soaked CBR Value of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of Red Mud with 2% 

RBI 


CBR {UN-Soaked) 


"O 


cc 

m 

U 


14- 


12- 

IJO- 


e 



Lfc i h 
11111 
11111 


■ CBR (UNTSoahedl 2.5 mm 

■ CBR[UN-Saakied| S mm 


Natural 100 % NS 3% NS -6% NS NS 12 % NS 1S% 
Sail RM RMH- RM+ RIVU- RMi- Rl\*- 
2% RBI 2% RBI 2% RBI 2% RBI 2% RBI 
G rade - G rade - G rade - G rade - G rade - 
SL 81 81 81 SI 


Figure 5.11 Bar Chart Un Soaked CBR Value of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of Red Mud with 2% RBI 


@ IJTSRD I Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD29542 | Volume - 4 | Issue - 1 | November-December 2019 Page 279 





















































International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development [IJTSRD] @ www.ijtsrd.com elSSN: 2456-6470 


CBR(Soaked) 



Natural 100%RM NS 3% NS NS 12 % NS 15% 

Soil RIVH- 2% RMf 1 % RIVH- 2% RM+ 2^ RIVH 2% 

RBI Grade -RBI Grade -RBI Grade -RBI Grade -RBI Grade - 
SI BL SI B1 SL 

Figure 5.12 Variation in Soaked CBR Value of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of Red Mud with 2% RBI 


CBR (Soaked) 



Figure 5.13 Bar Chart Soaked CBR Value of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of Red Mud with 2% RBI 



Figure 5.14 Comparison of Un Soaked & Soaked CBR of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of Red Mud 

with 2% RBI 


@ IJTSRD I Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD29542 | Volume - 4 | Issue - 1 | November-December 2019 Page 280 



































































































International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development [IJTSRD] @ www.ijtsrd.com elSSN: 2456-6470 


UN Soked & Soked CBR in % 


dS 

q: 

an 

u 


14 

12 

10 

e 


CBR(UN- 
SoaVedj 1L47 



6 

4 

2 

0 




Natural 100 % RM NS 3% N5 6% N5 9% NS 12 % N5 15-% 
Sail RN4f2% R:M+2% RM+2% RNH-2% RMH-2% 

RBI Grada RBI Grade RBI Grade RBI Grade RBI Grade 
-SI -SI -SI -SI -SI 


Figure 5.15 Bar Chart Comparison of Un Soaked & Soaked CBR of Natural Soil and Natural soil + varying %age of 

Red Mud with 2% RBI 


CONCLUSION 

The Unsoaked CBR value of the raw soil is 5.42 % and after 
mixing of Red Mud with RBI Grade-81 in the soil, there i s 
remarkable chang e i n CB R value from 5.42 to 13.19%. 
when Red Mud is increased from 0 to 15% with 2% RBI 
Grade 81 is effective beyond also there is a decrease in CBR 
of soil from 13.19 to 11.47% when Red Mud is increased 
from 15% to 18% The soaked CBR value of the raw soil is 
2.53 % and after mixing of Red Mud with RBI Grade-81 in 
the soil, there is remarkable change in CBR value, increasing 
from 2.83 to 8.98% when Red is increased from 0 to 16% 
with 2% RBI Grade-81 is effective beyond also there is a 
decrease in CBR of soil from 8.98 to 7.42% when Red Mud 
is increased from 15% to 18%. 

Future Scope of work 

The suitability of using waste material like demolition waste, 
all types of slag, marble, granite, stone dust, fly ash, etc. to be 
stabilized with this RBI Grade-81 technology along with soil 
and used in road construction. 

REFERENCES 

[1] A-Rawas, A. A., Taha, R., Nelson, J. D., Al-Shab, B. T. and 
Al-Siyabi, H., 2002. A comparative evaluation of various 
additives used in the stabilization of expansive soils. 
Geotechnical Testing Journal, 25(2], pp.199-209. 

[2] Arora K. R, “Soil mechanics and Foundation 
Engineering". Indian Road Congress (IRC-37-2012]. 

[3] Defeat S., Sahoo T. what's more. Das S. K.. Utility of Red 
Mud as an Embankment Material. Bury National 
Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. ISSN 0974- 
5904, Volume 05, No.06,1645-165, (2012]. 


[4] pyrophyllite. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 
19(6], 420-426, (2012]. 

[5] KR, A., Ashalatha, R. and Johnson, A.S., 2010. Effects of 
RBI Grade 81 on Different Types of Subgrade Soil. 

[6] Land Transport Authority Singapore, LTA PS-13-16, 
Project Tender Specification, and Transportation 
Authority (LTA] Singapore (March 2009] Code of 
Practice for Works on Public Streets Revision 2 Section 
9.6, pp 59-61, Singapore. 

[7] Lekha, B. M. and Shankar, A. R., 2014. Laboratory 
performance of RBI 81 stabilized soil for pavements. 
International Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 
ISSN, pp.2278- 3652. 

[8] Mahto, B. and Duggal, A. K., 2015. Improvement of 
subgrade by RBI Grade 81 and pond ash. International 
Research Journal OF Engineering and Technology, 2(5], 
pp.lOlO- 1020. 

[9] Mamta, Mallikarjun. Honna (2014] “A comparative 
studies of black cotton soil and lateritic soil using rbi 
grade 81". IJRET: International Journal of Research in 
Engineering and Technology elSSN: 2319-1163 | 
pISSN: 2321-7308, Volume: 03 Special Issue: 03, May- 
2014, NCRIET-2014. 

[10] Naseem, A. K. A., Damir, R. M. and Hake, S. L., 2014. 
Effect of fly ash and RBI Grade 81 on the black cotton 
soil as a subgrade for flexible pavements. International 
Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology, 
4(l],pp.l24-130. 


@ IJTSRD I Unique Paper ID - IJTSRD29542 | Volume - 4 | Issue - 1 | November-December 2019 Page 281