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Presented to the 

LffiRARY of the 





Copyright, 1907 

The Inland Printer Company 




Instructor in Drawing and 
Painting. Lecturer on the 
Drawing and Construction 
of the Human Figure, Art 
Institute of Chicago 










nUCCESSFULLY to build up the human figure 
O in a drawing, painting or statue, either from 
imagination or from a model, the artist or sculp- 
tor must be possessed of a keen sense of construc- 

The human body, with its varied beauty of 
construction, character and action, is so complex 
that it is essential for the student, artist and 
sculptor not only to have a clear knowledge of its 
intricate forms, but a comprehensive understand- 
ing and a habit of simple treatment in order to 
apply this knowledge to its artistic end. 

The artist is immediately concerned with the 
external and the apparent. He views nature as 
color, tone, texture and light and shade, but back 
of his immediate concern, whether he be figure 
painter or illustrator, in order to render the 
human form with success, he stands in need of 
skill in the use of his knowledge of structure, of 
his understanding of action and of his insight into 
character. These things require a period of pro- 
found academic study. 

When we consider the infinite variety of ac- 
tion of the human form, its suppleness, grace and 
strength of movement in the expression of the 
fleeting action, and farther consider that the sur- 
face of the body is enveloped in effects of light 
and shade, iridescent color and delicate tone, it is 
not to be wondered at that the student's eye is 
readily blinded to the hidden construction of the 

At this stage of the student's advancement a 
careful study of artistic anatomy, as elucidated 
by Richter, Marshall or Duval, familiarizing him 
with the bony structure of the skeleton, and the 



location, attachment and function of the muscles, 
will not only be helpful in furthering his own 
research, but will enable him the more readily to 
understand the theory of construction of the 
human body as presented in this book. 

The theory of construction of the human figure 
here presented is based on the pictorial means 
usual in the expression of the solid, that is, the 
expression of the three dimensions — length, 
breadth and thickness — by means of planes. In 
the simple drawing the boundaries of these planes 
may be indicated by lines of varying weight, and 
in a tone drawing by the varying depth of the 
values. It is the discovery or search for the rela- 
tive position, character and value of these planes 
that will engross our attention in the ensuing 

In the making of a thorough drawing of the 
human body, involving a sustained effort on the 
part of the student, whether in line, light and 
shade, or tone, the student goes through two 
stages of mental activity: first, the period of 
research, in which he analyzes the figure in all the 
large qualities of character, action and construc- 
tion. In this analysis he acquires an intimacy 
with the vital facts, and this leads, as the work 
progresses, to a profound conviction. When thus 
impressed the student enters upon the second 
period, which deals with the representation of the 
effect dependent upon light and shade. Impressed 
with the facts in regard to the character of the 
model, understanding the action and construction, 
his appreciation enhanced by research, his lines 
become firm and assertive. 

In the first period the student's mind is en- 
grossed with the search for the relative place the 
part shall occupy in conveying the impression of 
the whole; having secured the position of the 
part, the second period is occupied in turning the 
place for the part into its actual form. 

The artist's or illustrator's final objective is 
the pictorial, and he uses any and all technical 
means and mediums to that end. He studies the- 





ories of color, perspective, effect of light and 
shade, values, tone, and composition; all may be 
studied separately and exhaustively so that he 
may learn the full import of each — so, too, the 
matter of form should be studied for its own sake. 
Every stroke of the artist's brush should prove 
his understanding of the form of the subject- 
matter depicted; this includes insight into the 
character of the model, understanding of his ac- 
tion, and how the form is put together. 

A figure posed in a full light, with its multi- 
tudinous variety of high lights, half-tones and 
shadowed accents, does not disclose its structural 
nature to the uninitiated student; it does not 
appeal to him as he stands dazed before it, for 
there is so little of shadow to go out from. Pref- 
erably he chooses a position where the effect of 
light and shade is strong, not because the con- 
struction is more evident, for the figure may have 
been posed only incidentally to that end, but be- 
cause the strong effect appeals to him for his work 
with black charcoal upon white paper. In order 
that the student may the more readily understand 
the construction of the figure, as analyzed in the 
accompanying drawings, its parts and the whole 
have been so lighted as to show, through the 
effects produced, the separation of the planes that 
mark the breadth, front or back, of ttie form from 
its thickness. In this illumination the great masses 
or planes that mark the breadth relative to thick- 
ness of the human form are made plainly visible. 
Such illumination divides the planes that envelop 
the body into great masses of form which upon 
analysis disclose its structural formation. 

The student must learn early to form a vivid 
mental picture of his model, and the first period 
of the development of his drawing is but a means 
to enhance this mental picture through profound 
research. This mental picture must include the 
figure in its entirety, so that no matter what 
minor form the eye may be attracted to or what 
line the hand may trace upon the paper, the na- 




ture of the relationship of the part to the whole 
may first be established. 

An exhaustive line drawing made upon con- 
structive principles, including understood action 
and strong characterization, will give added qual- 
ity to the tone and light and shade of the student's 
work. It might well be suggested in the develop- 
ment of the student's skill as a draftsman that 
he vary the means according to the end required. 
Besides the outline drawing suggested above, he 
might venture into tone by smudging the paper 
with a value of charcoal and removing it for the 
masses of light with the fingers or kneaded rub- 
ber. Again a period may be spent in swinging in 
the action, proportions, and construction of the fig- 
ure with long lines, and also in making quick ten 
or fifteen minute sketches. These efforts in con- 
nection with sustained work requiring a number 
of days for completion, which means the carrying 
forward of a drawing from the blocking-in stage 
to the complete effort, including tone, are com- 
mended to students. 

Great skill in draftsmanship is highly desir- 
able, but the student should be warned not to give 
it his sole attention for too long a period. He 
should test his skill and knowledge by memory 
drawing and by applying them to composition. 

Chicago, III., June, 1907. 




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Dedication 4 

Drawing the Human Figure — Author's Preface and 
Advice to the Student 5 

The Eyes 19 


The Nose 31 

Student's Notes 35, 36, 37 


The Mouth and Chin 39 

Student's Notes 45 

The Ear 47 


The Head 49 

Student's Notes 62 


The Bony Structure of the Trunk 65 

Student's Notes 68 

The Study of the Trunk 69 


Trunk — Front and Back 83 

Student's Notes 86, 87 


Trunk — Back and Hips 89 

Student's Notes 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98 




Neck, Throat and Shoulders 101 

Student's Notes 104, 105 

The Shoulders and Chest 107 


The Shoulder and Arm Ill 

Student's Notes 114 

The Arm, Wrist and Hand 117 


The Hand and Wrist 121 

Student's Notes 124, 125 


The Leg 127 

Student's Notes 133, 134, 135 


The Foot 137 

Student's Notes 139, 140, 141 


The Figure as a Whole 143 

Student's Notes 150, 151, 152, 153, 154 



Frontispiece — Plate I — Pencil Drawing of Female 
Figure by J. H. Vanderpoel. 

Sketches Torse — Student's Notes 6, 8, 10, 12 

Plate II — Pencil Drawing of Sleeping Child, by J. H. 
Vanderpoel 18 

Plate III — Construction of Eye 23 

Plate IV — Construction of Eye 24 

Plate V — Construction of Nose 30 

Plate VI — Construction of Mouth 38 

Plate VII — Construction of Mouth and Ear 46 

Plate VIII — Pencil Drawing of Young Woman in 
Profile, by J. H. Vanderpoel 49 

Plate IX — Construction of Head 51 

Plate X — Construction of Head 52 

Plate XI — Charcoal Drawing of Woman, from Life, 
by Abigail Holman 55 

Plate XII — Pencil Drawing of Young Woman, by 
J. H. Vanderpoel 56 

Plate XIII — Charcoal Drawing of Woman, from 
Life, by Isabel Temple 59 

Plate XIV — Charcoal Drawing of Young Girl, on 
Toned Paper, by J. H. Vanderpoel 60 

Plate XV — Charcoal Drawing of Man, from Life, 
By Waldo Bowser 63 

Plate XVI — Charcoal Drawing of Young Girl, from 
Life, by Mary Orr 64 

Plate XVII — Trunk in Profile: Bones, Outline and 
Dimensions 70 

Plate XVIII — Front View : Bones of Trunk and 
Dimensions 72 

Plate XIX — Back View: Bones of Trunk and 
Dimensions 74 



Plate XX — Three-Quarter View : Bones of Trunk 
and Dimensions — Outline and Shading 76 

Plate XXI — Three-Quarter View: Bones of Trunk 
and Dimensions — Outline and Shading 77 

Plate XXII — Sections — Male 79 

Plate XXIII — Sections — Female 81 

Plate XXIV — Construction of Shoulders — Front 
and Back 82 

Plate XXV — Construction of Torse — Front and 
Back 88 

Plate XXVI — Construction of Neck 99 

Plate XXVII — Construction of Neck 100 

Plate XXVIII — Construction of Neck and Shoulders 106 

Plate XXIX — Construction of Arm 110 

Plate XXX — Construction of Arm 115 

Plate XXXI — Construction of Arm and Hand 116 

Plate XXXII — Construction of Hand 122 

Plate XXXIII — Construction of Leg 126 

Plate XXXI V — Construction of Leg and Foot 130 

Plate XXXV — Construction of Foot 136 

Plate XXXVI — Charcoal Drawing of Female Fig- 
ure, by J. H. Vanderpoel 142 

Plate XXXVII — Charcoal Drawing of Male Torse, 
Showing Wedge Formation, by J. H. Vanderpoel . . 145 

Plate XXXVIII — Charcoal Drawing of Female 
Torse, Separating Front from Side Through 
Strong Light and Shade, by J. H. Vanderpoel 146 

Plate XXXIX — Charcoal Drawing of Female Torse, 
Showing Wedge Formation and Supporting But- 
tress, by J. H. Vanderpoel 148 

Plate XL — Tone Drawing in Charcoal of Female 
Figure, by J. H. Vanderpoel 149 

Plate XLI — Charcoal Drawing of Female Figure, 
from Life, by Ned Hadley 155 

Plate XLII — Charcoal Drawing of Male Figure, 
from Life, by Elizabeth Lane 156 



Plate XLIII — Charcoal Drawing of Male Figure, 
from Life, by Emil A. Johnson 157 

Plate XLIV — Charcoal Drawing of Male Figure, 
from Life, by N. P. W. Swanson 158 

Plate XLV — Charcoal Drawing of Female Figure, 
from Life, by Belle Silveira 159 

Plate XLVI — Charcoal Drawing of Female Torse, 
from Life, by Louise Perrett 160 

Plate XLVII — Oil Study of Male Torse, from Life, 
by Percy Bewley 161 

Plate XLVIII — Pencil Drawing of Female Torse, 
Showing Front of Wedge and Buttress in Shadow, 
by J. H. Vanderpoel 162 

Plate XLIX — Pencil Drawing of Reclining Figures, 
by J. H. Vanderpoel ' 163 

Plates L, LI, Lll, LIU, LIV — Charcoal Drawings 
for Mural Painting, " The Vintage Festival," by 
J. H. Vanderpoel 164, 165, 166, 167, 168 


I— I 




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BEFORE taking up the study of the planes 
which form the structural solidity of the 
head, the features and their environment may 
well be analyzed separately. However, the stu- 
dent must fully realize that no matter how inti- 
mate his knowledge of a part may be, it is only of 
value when it coexists with an appreciation of its 
relation to the entire structure. 

The eye, or any part of the human figure, no 
matter how well understood, must, to be of any 
value to the whole, be truly placed and bear a true 
relation to the larger planes. A child in all inno- 
cence may draw a mouth, nose and eyes, and sur- L^ i^^^ 
round them with a circle, thinking he has drawn ^0^^ 
a head, but a mere collection of features, unstruc- 
turally related, does not make a head. A degree 
of knowledge of the inner construction of a part is 
absolutely essential, but this knowledge becomes 
significant only as its effect on the external form 
is made manifest in truthful relation to other 

The eyeballs enveloped by the lids protrude 
partially from their bony orbits. The plane of 
the orbits or sockets slopes inward from the 
frontal bone as it descends, making a decided ^HfiL , *,lr 
angle with the plane of the forehead and cheek, ^ •>•'; ' 

giving the effect of the forehead being a step in 
advance of the plane of the cheek. The sockets 
are somewhat rectangular in form, and descend 
slightly from the nose outward; this drooping 
effect in the skull is counteracted in the living 



model by the eyebrows as they rise from their 
origin to the outside of the socket. 

From this orbit or concavity, the convex or 
spherical form of the eyeball, with its enveloping 
lids, presses outward, but rarely extends suffi- 
ciently to disturb the inward slope of the plane in 
which it is contained. 

Open or closed, every part of the eye, and its 
immediate surroundings, tends to the preserva- 
tion of this plane ; the eyebrow protrudes beyond 
the orbicular muscle below it, which in turn over- 
hangs the upper lid ; the upper lid, in virtue of its 
thickness, projects from the cornea, the exposed 
portion of which slopes slightly downward, and 
this slope is greatly increased when the eye looks 
downward ; the lower lid, thinner than the upper, 
terminates the orbital plane in its contact with 
the cheek. (Note section of profile as well as 
complete drawing, Plate III. 

A plane formed not unlike a keystone, facing 
slightly downward and similar in direction to the 
orbital plane, descends from the center of the 
frontal bone, connecting the forehead with the 
nose and separating the eye sockets. 

The eyebrows originate at the sides of this 
keystone, and together mark the lower boundary 
of the plane of the forehead. Rising, in part from 
underneath the frontal bone and where it is 
heaviest, the eyebrow travels outward and a trifle 
upward, diminishing in width until at the 
approach of the temple it turns upon the outside 
of the bone, following the arch along the temporal 
border of the orbit to its termination. In describ- 
ing the arch of the orbit the eyebrow makes a 
half turn upon itself like a spiral curve. (Note 
effect of same in views as illustrated in Plate III.) 

Having studied the orbital plane and the man- 
ner in which it affects its contents, the eye itself 
may be further considered. Directly below the 
eyebrow, from the point where it turns to the 
outer surface of the bone, is found the orbicular 
muscle, filling the space between the eyebrow and 
the upper eyelid, leaving the inner portion of the 



orbit depressed. This is indicated by a triangular 
shape of shadow on each side of the junction with 
the nose, when the head is fairly lighted from 
above. (Fig. 1, Plate IV.) 

Below these retreating forms, that is, below 
the deep bony depression just above the inner cor- 
ner of the eye and the convex muscle immediately 
above it, the eyeball, enveloped by the lids, presses 
slightly forward. The eyeballs being considerably 
smaller than the cup from which they protrude, 
cause the corners of the eye to set well within the 
border of the orbit, so that the outer corner is 
found, steplike, well inside the plane of the tem- 
ple ; the outer corners also retire more deeply than 
the inner. 

Starting at the base of the nasal bone, the eye- 
lids have their origin at the inner corner. The 
corner itself, located between the ball and the 
nose, is in the plane of the face, being unaffected 
by the convexity of the ball. The upper lid rises 
abruptly from the inner corner, and sweeps with 
graceful curve over the spherical form of the eye- 
ball to the outer corner, while the lower lid starts 
continuously with the direction of the lower 
border of the corner, curving but slightly until it 
sweeps upward to the upper lid, which overlaps 
it. The inner corner of the eye is farther forward 
than the outer, so that a section of the exposed 
portion of the eyeball from corner to corner would 
slope backward from the center of the face; this 
enables the eyes to swing sidewise for observa- 
tion without turning the head. The outer corner 
also is somewhat higher than the inner. 

The upper lid folds upon itself so strongly that 
it becomes a distinct form when the eye is open, 
widening from the corners to the middle and 
extending beyond the ball a distance equal to its 
thickness, which is greatest in the center. The 
lower lid, being capable of but little movement, is 
more softly defined as it comes in contact with the 
cheek. The upper lid is thicker than the lower, as 
it must be to support the heavy lashes as a pro- 
tection and screen to the eye. The thickness of 






the upper lid and weight of lashes have much to 
do with giving depth and mystery to the eye 
through their shading. 

When working in masses of light and shade 
and tone, the eye, as enclosed by the lids contain- 
ing the pupils, iris and white of the eye, had 
better be kept well in tone, from which the value 
of the white of the eye should be lifted, care being 
taken not to make it too white, and also the catch- 
light on the cornea of the iris should be lifted in 
the same way. In section the lids are slightly but 
reversely beveled from front to rear, and fit snugly 
in contact with the ball. 

The eye possesses free rotary movement, and 
as each change signifies a readjustment of the 
lids over the ball, an intimate structural knowl- 
edge is necessary in interpreting varied action. 
The iris is covered by the cornea, which is raised 
from the ball, forming part of a smaller sphere, 
and as the iris in ordinary vision is lapped over 
well-nigh a third of its diameter, the cornea 
affects the form of the upper lid delicately, rais- 
ing it slightly in whatever direction the cornea is 
turned. The circular form of the pupil found in 
the center of the iris is rich and dark in tone, 
being greatly affected in life by its dilation or 

The draftsman's problem in conveying a picto- 
rial representation of a living form lies in his 
understanding of the structural form depicted. 
The drawing of a symmetrical inanimate form in 
a simple view presents difficulties of its own, but 
when we change symmetry to diversity, trans- 
form the inanimate to the living in action, and 
add the complications that come through choosing 
a point of view which involves foreshortening, 
the artist's structural knowledge is keenly taxed. 
In truth, strength of draftsmanship lies in the 
degree in which structural form is understood. 

Study the drawing in Plates III and IV and 
note how parts of various forms become portions 
of planes in which they are contained, Vaking their 
place in larger masses than themselves. This is 



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readily demonstrated in a simple lighting of the 
head. For instance, in Fig. 3, Plate IV, the lateral 
portion of the orbicular muscle or space between 
the eye and brow, and the outer corner of the eye 
including portions of the lids and the ball, are 
nearly enough parallel to the temporal plane to 
be absorbed by it as represented by a shadow, 
leaving the remainder of the eye more nearly par- 
allel to the front exposure of the face in the light. 
In strong illumination, it is readily seen what por- 
tion of a form belongs to one plane and what 
belongs to another, at least as far as the big 
planes which are at right angles are concerned. 

In this three-quarter view of the eye-socket 
and eyes, see how every form sets back of the 
plane of the orbit. The eyebrows come well from 
underneath the frontal bone and rise to the out- 
side at the approach of the temple. Observe the 
fullness of the orbicular muscle as it overhangs 
the eyelid, and the eyelid as it projects beyond 
the ball. 

Note the variety of curvature in the lids not 
only because of their own character but also as 
expressed in the three-quarter view, emphasized 
by the eyes looking out of the corners. Note the 
apparent difference in the outer corners as the 
lids come together, the corner of the nearer eye 
being quite angular, whereas in the corner of the 
farther eye, the lids together describe the con- 
vexity of the ball perfectly. Note, too, the ten- 
dency of the cornea to raise that part of the upper 
lid under which it rests. 

The great thickness of the upper lid fringed 
with its heavy lashes shades the upper part of the 
iris and gives added depth and beauty to it. 

In this three-quarter view of the eyes the irises 
are raised above the level, showing an amount of 
the white of the eyeball below them. The iris in 
the three-quarter view becomes oval, and when 
the eye is raised slopes in an opposite direction to 
the plane of the orbit. 

In this view of the eye the spiral turn of the 
lids upon the ball is particularly noticeable in the 





upper lid ; the full breadth of its fold as it leaves 
the nearer corner of each eye is visible until it 
reaches the iris; here the lower line of the fold, 
the edge which holds the lashes, fuses with the 
upper line of the fold and, following the contour 
of the ball, descends until it reaches the opposite 
corner ; as the breadth of the fold disappears, its 
thickness comes into evidence, showing plainly 
the inner line of the thickness of the lid in its con- 
tact with the ball and the slightly increased curva- 
ture caused by the greater convexity of the iris. 
The beauty and grace of the curvature of the 
lines in the eye are not exceeded by any other 
form in nature. In the farther eye the outer 
corner is not visible. Observe how beautifully 
the inner line of both lids, as they reach around 
the ball to the hidden corner, describes the full- 
ness of the ball. Note also the drawing of the 
farther eyebrow, as it goes around the angle of 
forehead and temple. 

The lighting in this drawing shows in similar 
shadows the plane of the temple and the small 
plane parallel in direction, the side of the nose 
opposite and close to the inner corner of the eye, 
and the mass around the outer corner of the 
nearer eye. This illumination gathers together 
the parts of each form that belong to the big 
planes of this part of the head, and discloses 
what part of the eye belongs to the front exposure 
of the head as against other portions that belong 
or are parallel to the side surface. There remain 
then the projecting parts, such as the raised sur- 
faces of the lids and the eyebrow, which are in 
shadow or light according to their exposure to the 
particular illumination. 

The outline of the shadow which marks the 
moment or angle of transition from light to dark 
also marks the separation from plane to plane in 
a large way. The plane that marks the side of the 
head in this region approaches the eye by means 
of the temple and includes the temporal portion 
of the orbicular muscle and that part of the lids 
and the corner of the eye which is parallel to it. 




An outline of the angle of separation of the front 
from the side of the face, as indicated by the out- 
line of the shadow, if well constructed, will repeat 
through the foreshortening the exact form of the 
opposite side of the face. 

In this action of the eye, looking down, every 
portion of the contents of the orbital plane 
intensifies its definition and direction. The upper 
lid unfolds as it descends over the ball and deli- 
cately discloses its convex form underneath and 
separates itself but slightly from the orbicular 
muscle above. 

The lower lid, beyond a slight capacity for 
lateral and downward contraction, plays but a 
slight part in recording the movements of the eye, 
while the upper lid responds and accommodates 
itself to every action and consequently is a great 
factor in its expression. 

Though the outer corners of the eyes are 
slightly higher than the inner, the effect of the tri- 
angular mass of shadow under the upper lid, when 
the eyes look down, suggests a downward slope 
from the inner corner outward. In this drawing 
of the eyes, the inward step or slope from the 
temple to the outer corner of the eye is very 

This drawing represents the eye looking up, 
with the folded upper lid pressing upon the 
orbicular muscle in its endeavor to keep the vision 
clear. At the same time it represents the fore- 
shortening due to the head being tipped back and 
away from the observer, which accounts for the 
elevation of the outer corner. 

In this view of the action, the lower lid appar- 
ently flattens and in effect describes a reversed 
curve from corner to corner very delicately, 
whereas the upper lid describes the curvature of 
the ball with all its fullness. 

In this drawing the foreshortening is less and 
the eye looks out from the opposite corner, giving 
the effect of greater curvature to the upper lid 
above the cornea. 

In the eye looking down, as the accompanying 





drawing indicates, the slope of the orbital plane is 
least disturbed, the lower lid contracting so that 
the upper lid overhangs it considerably. The con- 
vexity of the ball under the unfolded upper lid is 
delicately suggested. As the line of the profile of 
the eye approaches the rim of its lid it turns out- 
ward slightly, providing the greater thickness 
which enables it to hold the long sweeping lashes, 
which in this view well-nigh rest upon the cheek. 

In this drawing we have the eye looking up, 
seen in profile. At first glance it would seem as 
if the slope of the orbital plane had been consid- 
erably disturbed. This is due to the direction of 
the iris being thrown into an opposite direction to 
that of the plane; but this is more seeming than 
real. True, the lower lid is pressed outward a 
little, but it is the hard pressure of the folded 
upper lid against the orbicular muscle that 
accounts for the slight diversion in the plane. 

The front view of the eye looking down appar- 
ently causes a flattening out of the upper lid, the 
lower lid describing more fully the curvature of 
the ball but with a much smaller arc, as is evi- 
denced by the upper lid when the eye looks up. 
The massing of the lashes quite hide the outer 





THE eye is suggestive of the cup-and-ball forma- 
tion, a spherical form partially protruding 
from its cuplike mold. The nose on the other 
hand stands out well from the face with four sur- 
faces exposed. 

Considered in a large way, the nose is com- 
posed of four subdivided surfaces. The upper 
surface or breadth of the nose, containing the 
bridge, increases in width from the point of 
attachment, to the end; the two sides, beginning 
within the orbits, also widen to the end and con- 
tain the wing of the nostril ; and the base, much 
wider at the attachment to the face than the end, 
is subdivided by the middle cartilage, the septum 
of the nose, flanked by the planes containing the 

The nasal bone, which forms the origin of the 
nose in its attachment to the head, fuses into the 
frontal bone, by which it is overhung, by means of 
the keystone shape which separates the orbits. It 
extends less than half the length of the nose, the 
remainder being cartilage. From its origin 
between the brows the nose stands out boldly from 
the plane of the middle portion of the face upon 
which it rests, being deeper as well as broader 
at the base or end than at the brow. This should 
be well considered or it will look flattened and 
shallow, as if pressing into the face. 

Departing from this conventionalization, the 
various subdivisions of these planes should be 
entered into. The upper surface containing the 
bridge has its origin at the base of the keystone 
between the orbits ; its general surface is rounded, 





though it is a little flatter and more angular at 
the bridge than elsewhere; at the bridge too the 
form is raised, the height of the projection 
depending greatly upon the type of nose ; passing 
the bridge the bone ceases, giving way to a carti- 
lage of which the remainder of the nose is formed. 
This cartilage diminishes in width from the 
bridge and penetrates wedgelike the broad upper 
surface of the more bulbous part of the nose, the 

Continuing, the cartilage makes a sudden turn 
downward, forming the upper and more conspicu- 
ous angle of the end; it now begins to diminish 
in width, and making another turn enclosing the 
breadth of the end of the nose it becomes very 
narrow and makes directly for the upper lip, to 
which it is attached with a little downward curve. 
On either side of this narrow cartilage or septum 
of the nose are the cavities of the nostrils, which 
in turn are flanked by the wings of the nostrils 
and, buttresslike, support the base of the nose. 

All of these incidents or minor planes below 
the end belong to the under surface of the nose. 
The nostrils have their origin in the end of the 
nose, the cavity widening as it approaches the 
wing of the nostril, which marks its termination 
and completes the depth of the nose. The junction 
of lip with nose is about half of the depth. The 
septum or middle cartilage under the nose hangs 
so much lower than the wings of the nostrils that 
it subdivides the under surface into three general 
planes: first, the breadth of the septum, and on 
either side the planes that contain the cavities. 
The details of the under surface must be thor- 
oughly understood or they will not remain in 
place; this will be particularly evidenced in a 
three-quarter view, in accounting for the fore- 
shortening in the farther nostril. When the nose 
is lighted from above or at an angle of forty-five 
degrees, the details of the under surface remain 
undisturbed in its mass and its contents are only 
made known by the reflected light entering it. 

The sides of the nose up above are precipitous 



and terminate quite abruptly near the eye, but a 
little lower slope outward more and fuse quite 
softly into the cheek. The height of the wing of 
the nostrils begins quite delicately a little way 
back along the sides of the end of the nose and 
terminate their dilated form sharply upon the 
cheek. The upper or more convex parts of the nos- 
tril belong to the sides of the nose — while the 
thickness of its walls belong rather to the under 

There are many types of noses and an infinite 
variation from each type. The character of the 
type of nose may be readily understood by the 
establishment of the relations of the three parts, 
namely, the relation of the bridge to the end, and 
of the end to the broadest part of the wing of the 
nostrils in its contact with the cheek. By way of 
illustration, draw two noses in profile, making the 
two alike, including the bridge, which should be 
fairly prominent. Now in the one case make or 
add a depressed end that will fall inside of or 
below the bridge, and then to the other an end. 
that will rise or stand out beyond the bridge; 
now add to the first a wing of the nostril placed 
high in relation to the end and connected with it 
by a line that separates the under from the side 
surface. Do the same with the other, only place 
the nostril low, and note how much relationship 
of the parts has to do with suggesting the type 
and character of the nose. The parts in them- 
selves in both drawings are about the same, the 
difference in the main lies in their altered rela- 

In the Greek type — the straight nose — in 
which the bridge and the end are but slightly felt 
as deviation from the general direction, the line 
of direction from end to wing of the nostril is 
quite horizontal; in the Roman, and particularly 
in the hook nose, an exaggerated type, the end is 
depressed, the wing of the nostril high and the 
bridge prominent ; on the contrary, in a pert nose 
we find a depressed bridge, the end pointing for- 
ward or upward and the nostril low. 




Beware of getting the top of the nose too flat 
when drawing other than the profile. In the pro- 
file the form of the contour of the nose from the 
frontal bone to the lip is distinctly seen and read- 
ily understood, but not so in the other views ; the 
rising and falling of the parts in connection with 
their increasing and decreasing widths requires 
the most patient study in order that all the planes 
may be understood and then expressed. 

The two drawings below represent the nose in 
varied degrees of foreshortening, the rising and 
falling of the parts being readily discerned 
through it, and showing plainly the aquiline type. 

This view too shows how the base of the nos- 
trils rests upon the sides of the lip and that the 
junction of nose and lip is well forward of them, 
giving at the same time a hint of the convexity of 
the upper jaw and teeth, whose direction the lip 

The lower drawing shows the subdivision of 
the near side of the under surface of the nose in 
the light as against its opposite in shadow, prov- 
ing how low the septum is in relation to the 

When the head leans forward, the end of the 
nose drooping down well below the wing of the 
nostrils, if the action be excessive, there will be no 
cavity visible, so that in this view we see but the 
tops and sides, one or both, depending upon 
whether it be a front or three-quarter view. The 
contour of the nose from the nostrils forward in 
this view is exactly the same on the two sides, 
only the reverse of the shape of the under surface 
when in shadow and seen from below. Note also 
how the wings of the nostrils slope toward the 
body of the nose from their base, where they are 








Ji?* ^ 




HAVING noted the eye as a partly depressed 
form and the nose as a projecting one, we 
find the mouth peculiarly a part of its immediate 
environment, that is, a part of the muscular for- 
mation, though in the mass slightly raised from 
the plane of the face, the only attachment of the 
lips to the bone being at the base of the nose 
above, and half-way down to the chin below. 

The mouth, too, like the eye, is capable of 
great movement, and in unison with it forms the 
means of the infinite variety of expression which 
plays in quick succession over the human counte- 
nance. Because of this mobility of expression 
and the softness in texture of the lips, care should 
be taken not to detach the parts one from the 
other, beyond accentuating the separation at the 
middle and corners. 

The red or mucous surfaces of the mouth cor- 
respond to the thickness of the lips. The variety 
of their thickness and relative fullness is consid- 
erable, though both are thicker in the middle, 
tapering to the corners, but manifesting their 
thickness very differently. 

Beginning with the front view, note first the 
convexity of the mass of the mouth as affected by 
the teeth ; this means that, as the corners are far- 
ther back than the middle, the curvature of both 
lips in their approach to the corners involves fore- 
shortening. Irrespective of the view or action, 
first establish the relation of the corners to the 
middle. This is exceedingly important, as it 
involves symmetry both in construction and 
action, as well as expression and character. 



Though the mouth is convex in the mass and 
raised slightly from the general plane of the face 
(except at the corners, where the lips dip into a 
depression), the convexity is differently expressed 
in each lip. The mucous portion of the upper lip 
is divided into two equal parts or planes, of great- 
est width where they come together in the middle 
of the mouth, retreating with diminishing thick- 
ness with a downward curve to the depressed 
corners. The lower lip, on the other hand, con- 
tains three planes, the central one with a depres- 
sion in the middle, into which the central 
mound of the upper lip fits, extending well on 
either side of the middle of the upper lip, and 
flanked by a minor one on each side. The planes 
of the upper lip are comparatively flat and angu- 
lar, while those of the lower are very convex and 

The space between the nose and the upper lip 
is concave vertically, and has its origin at the 
middle cartilage of the nose in the form of a 
depression, which widens as it descends and ter- 
minates in the delicate angle of the middle of the 
upper lip ; the center of this angle forms the most 
forward part of the mouth. This angle is 
repeated in the contact of the upper lip with the 
lower immediately below this point, though the 
angle is more obtuse and a little flattened, show- 
ing how the upper lip clasps the lower as it over- 
hangs it. The lower lip rolls outward, and is apt 
to be full and convex, in proportion to the depth 
of the concavity below it. This depression or 
length of the lower lip divides perceptibly and 
forms at its base the upper border of the chin 
which protrudes from its depth. 

Through the study of the profile, which is 
equivalent to the vertical section, these facts are 
more readily understood. Note first the back- 
ward sloping plane from the nose to the base of 
the chin and in it find a series of steps, the upper 
lip overhanging the lower and the lower lip the 
chin. Note the concavity in the vertical line of 
both lips and the convexity of their thickness or 



mucous portion, greater in the lower — at least 
more rolling — all subtly connected with adjacent 
parts of the face, particularly in the soft play at 
the corners. The separation of the thickness, or 
mucous portion, from the cutaneous, of the upper 
lip from the portion of the face above it, due to 
its angularity, is sharper than in the lower lip, 
excepting in the center of the latter at its lower 

The thickness of the walls of the mouth, mani- 
fested variously in the changes of formation of 
the lips, is disclosed when the mouth is slightly 
opened. You will notice the thickness of the cen- 
ter of the upper lip ; its planes are clean cut and 
angular. On the other hand, the fullness of the 
lower lip is rounded, lacking in decided angu- 

You should also pay attention to the thickness 
of the walls of the mouth at the corners in the 
front and three-quarter views (Plate VII). In this 
action of opening the mouth, as in laughter, the 
lips press gently against the teeth, sliding upon 
them as the action increases. The arch of the 
teeth is followed by the shape of the lips until the 
corners of the mouth are reached, the corners 
sharing the direction of the plane of the cheeks, 
and when the corners are pulled back, in the act 
of smiling, a little space is left between the cor- 
ners and the teeth, marked by deep shadows. 

It will be observed that in the action referred 
to, in the front view, the detail of the line that 
marks the base of the upper lip is horizontal, 
while the general form of the upper line of the 
lower lip against the teeth appears concave, 
approaching the upper lip at an acute angle at the 
ends, but melting into it with a graceful turn at 
the corners. The lower lip, too, flattens out con- 
siderably and becomes more angular. This may 
be readily seen in the decrease of the concavity 
below the under lip, this depression becoming 
much less marked. 

The angularity of the horizontal planes of the 
lips is made the more evident in the smiling 




mouth (see Plate VII, three-quarter view, slightly 
foreshortened), showing the two planes in the 
thickness of the upper lip and the three in the 
lower, the large middle surface being pressed 
against the teeth. 

The opening of the mouth is due to the action 
of the lower jaw, and though the lower lip may 
be slightly contracted, the teeth show but little 
except in decided laughter. On the other hand, 
the upper jaw being stationary, the teeth show 
below the upper lip, and the least expression that 
pulls back the corners of the mouth, contracting 
the upper lip, shows them more fully. 

The mass of the chin envelopes the front plane 
of the lower jaw and is angular or rounded 
accordingly as the sitter is youthful and plump or 
old and attenuated. 

Its form, as seen in the profile, depends greatly 
upon the development of character and racial 
type. It may protrude beyond the lower lip with 
considerable decision or fall back of it in a retir- 
ing manner. In the more normal type it falls 
about underneath the lower lip. 

The lower border of the chin is straight across, 
containing a slight depression in the center. The 
lateral borders are quite round and stand away 
slightly from the walls of the jaw; the upper sur- 
face, which marks the depth of the chin as it pro- 
trudes from the face, is convex and enters the 
center of the length of the lower lip. 

The breadth of the chin becomes the base of 
an elongated triangle, made by two lines descend- 
ing from the septum of the nose at its apex. The 
lateral borders of this triangle pass through or 
touch upon the borders of the groove above the 
upper lip, continuing through the angles at its 
mucous borders and finally through the fullest 
part of the lower lip to the chin. 

In the mouth of the child it will be noticed 

that in the pressure between the cheeks the mid- 

. die of the upper lip is pushed forward greatly, the 

sides of the lip being at quite an angle to one 

another ; as the pressure is removed with increase 



of years, the angle diminishes and the mouth 
becomes flatter and wider. The lower lip, how- 
ever, falls back snugly between the cheeks, so that 
in the profile of a child the upper lip and chin only 
are visible. In old age, the lack of the teeth 
throws the lower jaw forward to such an extent 
that though the lower lip falls back locally as well 
as the upper lip, it is apt to protrude beyond the 
upper lip because of the projecting jaw. 

In a larger way, as well as in detail, we find 
the forms about the mouth quite opposite to one 
another in the extremes of age; in the child we 
find the mouth contained in a vertical groove 
between the rounded cheeks, into which the lower 
lip sinks, and from which the upper lip protrudes ; 
in old age, the teeth and fullness of cheeks have 
fallen away so that the groove now is horizontal 
along the line of the lips, into which the upper lip 
dips and the lower protrudes. 

The length of the upper lip (meaning the 
space between nose and mouth) at its origin 
should leave the septum of the nose with a slight 
curve, not a sharp angle; its vertical line in the 
center is concave, and at the separation of the 
mucous part or thickness from its length we find 
a decided angle both vertically and horizontally; 
this marks the most forward part of the mouth. 

The " length " of the upper lip is used in this 
discussion for convenience to indicate the central 
space from the- nose to the mouth, the region 
referred to when we say " a man has a long upper 

The middle portion of the length of the upper 
lip is parallel to the front plane of the face and is 
marked by a delicate groove which widens in its 
descent to the thickness where it terminates with 
a projecting obtuse angle forming the apex of the 
upper lip. 

It is a common error to draw the line of the 
upper border of the red part of the lips, in the 
profile, direct to the apex mentioned. In the pro- 
file, the two borders of the groove in the length of 
the upper lip merge into one and find a continua- 



tion in the merged lines of the projecting angle 
forming the apex of the lip, so that in the profile 
the length of the upper lip extends to the apex 
and the upper border of the thickness of the wing 
of the lip enters the length above the apex, by a 
space equal in height to the depth of the project- 
ing angle. 








n^^HE ear, being entirely cartilaginous, might be 
-L described as a bowl with elongated brim 
along its upper and lower extremities, with the 
base of the bowl and one side fastened to the side 
of the head, leaving the outer rim and the 
extremities free and giving a slight outer direc- 
tion to the ear in its angle to the side of the face. 
It has its origin just back of the articulation of 
the lower jaw, about in the middle of the head, as 
seen in the profile, separating the face from the 
back of the head, and running parallel with the 
upper angle of the jaw. This means that the 
lower part of the ear is nearer the face than the 

At the location of the ear the jaw stands away 
a step from the back of the head, and this inter- 
val is filled by the bowl of the ear, giving the inner 
rim contact with the head and leaving the outer 

On the face side of the ear, the bowl or shell 
is protected by a small raised form or flap which 
shields the orifice, and is connected below to the 
cartilage that forms the immediate rim around 
the bowl. The cartilage that surrounds the bowl 
and by which means it is attached to the head is 
the most firm portion of the ear, while the lobe is 
the softest. 

In the front view the ears slope inward from 
above and conform to the planes that mark the 
decreasing width of the head from the cheek- 
bones down. 

From within the bowl and behind the little 
flap rises the external cartilage or outer rim of 



the ear. It continues upward, completing the 
length, turns backward, and forming the upper 
border descends to the greatest breadth, which is 
about a third of the way down, or about opposite 
the upper rim of the bowl ; continuing its descent, 
it approaches the front border somewhat, to the 
level of the lower rim of the bowl, representing 
another third ; in its detour this outer rim begins 
with a fold well turned upon itself, but at the 
approach to the greatest width of the ear this 
depth diminishes, and opposite the lower part of 
the bowl the rim is but separated by a groove, 
which is entirely dissipated as the rim enters the 
soft and somewhat flattened lobe. 

The ear is apt to be neglected by artists, proba- 
bly first, because of its retired location; second, 
because it is often hidden by the hair and head- 
dress, and finally, because of its taking no part in 
the expression or action of the head. The drafts- 
man, however, is readily betrayed through his 
neglect and it is in just such forms as the ear that 
he shows his skill and knowledge, and the beauty 
and delicacy as well as strength of its intricate 
forms are worthy of his most careful attention. 





IN the head of the lower animal there are cer- 
tain structural characteristics that obtain 
equally in the human head, and which, once appre- 
ciated, enable the student the more readily to 
understand the relationship of the planes that 
bound it. We find the same skeleton or bony 
structure upon which to build, the cranium or 
rounded receptacle enclosing the brain, the orbits, 
the cheek bones, the nasal bone and the jaw. The 
great difference is not found in kind but in degree. 
However, irrespective of the difference there may 
be between one animal and another, the difference 
between them collectively and the human being is 
so great, the gap so wide, that superficially con- 
sidered, all trace of the lower animal is lost. 

There are two radical structural differences to 
be mentioned: first, the relative position and the 
proportion of the lower to the upper part of the 
skull, and second, the relative position of the head 
to the body. The head of the animal is carried in 
a nearly horizontal position, whereas man carries 
it in a vertical position. 

Taking the eye and ear as a median line from 
which to depart, their relative position being the 
same in man and animal, it will be noticed that 
above the line, the brain development in man 
makes for an upward enlargement of the top of 
the skull and a forward pressure of the frontal 
bone, placing the frontal bone at right angles, or 
nearly so, to the top of the head. Below the 
median line it will be observed that the large 
muzzle of the animal projects strongly from the 
skull with the nose well flattened upon it, placing 
the muzzle at right angles to the jaw, the lower 



jaw and embryo chin extending proportionately 
from the throat. 

In proportion, then, the upper part of the 
human head is large above the median line and 
the head of the animal large below the median 

The change in proportions brings with it a 
change in the relative position of the parts. A 
line drawn through the length of the animal's 
head runs diagonally through the median line, 
whereas in man it crosses it nearly at right 
angles; as the brain develops it rises vertically, 
and with its development the lower part of the 
head retires and falls directly under it. 

In the face of man, the differences are mani- 
fested in the well-nigh vertical and overhanging 
frontal bone, the chiseled, projecting nose, and the 
highly developed chin; in the animal these same 
forms are reduced to the low sloping head, the 
flat, fused nose and rudimentary chin. 

It is in the middle and lower part of the 
human head that traces of the animal nature 
manifest themselves, even in the highly developed 
man. The plane upon which the nose rests par- 
takes of the projecting muzzle in the animal and, 
as in the animal, the lower part of the face has a 
tendency to retire, but this tendency is modified 
by the developed and projecting chin. 

Having studied the component parts of the 
head in the shape of the features, and looked into 
the comparative form of the head in the animal 
and man, the next step will be the study of the 
construction of the head as a whole, through an 
analysis of the larger planes, as they bound and 
give it substance. 

A pupil must learn early in the study of draw- 
ing to appreciate mentally all the planes that 
encompass the head, though to the physical eye 
from a given point of view only certain ones may 
be visible. This consciousness and understanding 
of the planes will enable the student the more 
readily to approach and comprehend the three 
essentials that characterize a strong drawing: 





first, the carriage of the head, or its action ; sec- 
ond, its construction; third, the character and 
personality of the sitter. With thorough appre- 
ciation of the three requirements, accompanied by 
a simplicity of expression through a practiced 
hand, the student is well on the way to draftsman- 

The head is composed of six planes, five of 
which are visible, while the sixth (the under sur- 
face) is mainly hidden by the entrance of neck 
and throat, leaving the under surface of the jaw 
the only portion of this plane intact. The other 
surfaces comprise the face or front plane, the 
back, the top of the head, and the two sides; the 
latter notably are the only ones that are alike. 

Fully to realize the existence of these planes, 
imagine a cube with all its corners and edges 
rounded. This will keep the sense of a solid and 
its planes before the mind's eye. Further, take 
up a skull, and with a bit of chalk mark the 
detachment of these surfaces one from the other, 
and though at first in the living model the subtle 
curvature and fusing of one plane into the other 
will be puzzling, they can in this manner be 
placed, so that no matter what the student's ocu- 
lar point of view may be when drawing from the 
model he can not miss them. 

When seen in profile the lines that define the 
proportions of the head, breadth to length, should 
first be placed ; the breadth of the top first ; next 
a long line for the front or face; another along 
the back and a fourth placed quite diagonally 
from base of skull along the jaw to end of chin. 
This diagram, somewhat of a diamond shape, 
though it gives the angles of the planes, pretends 
to do no more than to give the general propor- 
tions and location of the big planes. Each plane 
may now be subdivided so as to locate crown of 
head in the upper surface; the fullness of the 
back of the head as it projects beyond the neck; 
in the face separating brow or frontal bone from 
lower half of head; and in the under surface 




introducing the neck, which is placed well back of 
the center of the skull. 

It will be observed now that the greatest 
breadth is across the brow to the fullest part of 
the back of head. This division marks the sepa- 
ration of the upper from the lower part of the 
head, each portion in its ascent and descent 
decreasing in width to its termination. The upper 
portion is shorter in the front of the head, while 
the lower part is shorter in the back. 

In order that the planes and their boundaries 
may be more readily understood in these construc- 
tive drawings of the human head and figure, the 
effect of light and shade has been very simply 
used, with the purpose of giving the third dimen- 
sion through the marked transition of the sur- 
faces under the strong illumination. 

For the purpose of study the student should 
illumine the head with a narrow and single source 
of light. By pulling down the shades of other 
windows than the one to be used and closing the 
lower half of that, a stream of light enters the 
room at an angle of about forty-five degrees. 
Now if we place the sitter at such an angle to the 
light as will throw the side and back of the head 
in shadow, the source of light being above the 
level of the sitter, the top of the head and front of 
the face will be in the light, and all overhanging 
and projecting parts will be in shadow with the 
side and back. Great care should be taken to turn 
the head so as to locate through the edge of shadow 
the points or ridge of separation of side from 
front. A cube similarly placed will show the upper 
and one side surface the side equivalent to the 
face, in the light and the side nearest the student 
in shadow. 

With such simple illumination, and the shad- 
ows kept quiet through lack of diffused and 
reflected light, the relative location of planes and 
their demarcation become luminous to the stu- 
dent's mind as well as eye. 

The two sides of the head are symmetrical 
structurally. This is theoretically true of the 








details as well as the larger forms; but in actual 
character there are many deviations from the 
regular; the eyebrows are not exactly alike, nor 
are the corners of the mouth ; one may be higher 
than the other or deeper, there may be discrep- 
ancies in many ways; but one should reflect 
before recognizing these slight differences too 
early, for what proves to be but a slight deviation 
from the regular may become a deformity. In 
principle the two sides of the head are in perfect 
symmetry. Any variation that relates to the 
character of a head should be so carefully ren- 
dered as not to destroy the balance of the parts. 

In the front view, as in the profile, the great- 
est width of the head is found just above the ears ; 
it is the location of the greatest width at this 
point that suggests the egg shape as a convention- 
alized form for the head. 

In locating the planes in the front view, find 
first the top of the head terminating with the fore- 
head, marking the upper boundary of the face; 
next, the sides of the head enclosing the forehead 
by means of the temples; and third, the lower 
part of the face ; next, the sides of the cheeks to 
the chin. Below, forming the lower border of the 
face, is the under surface of the jaw. Here, too, 
the greatest width is above the center, resulting 
in the same oval form for the face as the head. 

Conceive in the drawing of the face, first, the 
vertical plane of the forehead bounded at its lat- 
eral borders by the planes of the temples, which 
depart from one another as far as the cheek- 
bones, locating the widest part of the face ; next, 
a plane combining the eye-sockets sloping inward 
at an obtuse angle with the forehead; below this 
find the largest plane of the face, the plane of the 
cheeks, bisected by the nose. It is bounded above 
by the eye-sockets, and extends slightly beyond 
them at the base of the temples, forming the 
greatest width of the face at the cheek-bones. As 
it descends, the plane decreases more rapidly in 
width than the face and terminates like an 
inverted triangle at the apex of the upper lip. 



The two sides of this triangular plane are bor- 
dered by the sides of the face, from the cheek- 
bones down, whose planes slightly approach one 
another as they descend from the cheek-bones, 
marking the tapering of the face from its greatest 
width to the jaws. 

The chiseling of these planes is more mani- 
fest in the thin face than the fleshy one, and it is 
the knowledge of them that has such significant 
value to the painter, as the planes in the face 
denote more intrinsically the character of the 
head than the mere features. 

The drawing of a three-quarter view means 
the foreshortening of the face between the sides of 
the head and the nearer side between the back of 
head and the face. In such foreshortening the far- 
ther half of the face becomes narrow in ratio as 
the nearer half of the head widens, and the ratio 
must be kept with exactness or the farther half of 
the face will look out of proportion, as the ten- 
dency is to make it too broad. 

When the head tips back or leans forward and 
is seen three-quarter view, the foreshortening 
becomes double and therefore greatly complicates 
the relative position of the planes. When the 
head leans forward, the amount seen of the top 
of the head is greatly increased, as if we were 
looking down upon it. The ears, which are on a 
line with the base of the nose and eyebrows, are 
now found to be high, the inner end of the eye- 
brows are placed low in relation to the outer, the 
outer corners of the eyes are higher than the 
inner, the wings of the nostrils are higher than 
the end of the nose, and the corners of the mouth 
higher than the middle; but when the head leans 
back, all these relationships are reversed. We 
see none of the top of the head but we look into 
the under surface of the jaw and chin, the under 
surfaces of the lips and nose, and the overhang- 
ing surface of the orbits. All these are the 
obvious, though minor manifestations of fore- 
shortening. The large planes in which the fea- 
tures are contained, or of which they are a part, 







should receive the first consideration, for the 
features, howeve' ]iZniportant in themselves in the 
early stages of the development of a draw^ing, 
should be subordinated to the larger planes of 
which they are but a part. 

In the head leaning forward the forehead is 
but slightly affected, the orbits, however, in pro- 
portion as they are deep, become shallow in the 
foreshortening; on the contrary, the plane of the 
central ^tion of the face upon which the nose 
rests is seen to the full, in turn the lower part of 
the face from the mouth down becomes appar- 
ently much shorter. When the head tips back, 
these relations become reversed. 

The drawing of a head well foreshortened is 
indeed a test of an artist's structural sense. Such 
an achievement bespeaks a familiarity with its 
planes irrespective of position or point of view. 












THE thigh-bones or femurs with projecting 
heads, support a backward-sloping, bowl-like 
platform (the pelvis) composed of the two iliac 
bones, between which, firmly wedged and key- 
stone in shape, rests the sacrum, so fused with 
the pelvis as to make a common mass. 

While the pelvis leans forward, the sacrum 
receives the weight of the thorax through the 
spinal column, and is located immediately above 
the head of the femur to which it is transmitted. 

The sacrum terminates with the coccyx, 
which, with the sacrum, determines the outward 
slope of the lower part of the back, this slope 
deviating more from the vertical in the female 
than the male. 

The spinal column, including the sacrum and 
coccyx, which are in reality fused vertebrae, 
describes a double reverse curve with a forward 
and backward movement. It tapers delicately 
from the sacrum up and is made of disks which 
permit of lateral and forward and backward 
movements according to location. The lumbar 
vertebrae in the region of the small of the back 
permit of lateral and backward movement; on the 
other hand, the dorsal vertebrae, to which jbhe ribs 
are attached, permit of forward movement, but 
partake little in the lateral, and do not enter at all 
into a backward action; the cervical vertebrae 
enter into any of these actions, being the most 
free in construction of all. 

The spinal column terminates above the atlas 
bone, the mechanism of which permits of a con- 
siderable degree of rotation of the head, which 
rests upon it. 



The ribs are attached to the spinal column in 
the dorsal region. As they leave the spine their 
direction is somewhat downward and backward, 
causing the body of the spine to appear embedded 
deeply between them, the downward direction 
increasing in the lower ribs, and the length of the 
backward direction being greater at the bottom 
of the thorax than at the top, causing the groove 
of which the spine is the center to grow wider as 
it descends. The ribs now make a forward sweep 
at the sides and rise by means of a cartilage to 
the sternum or breast-bone, to which the seven 
upper ribs are attached; three, called false ribs, 
are attached cartilaginously to one another and 
finally, by means of the sixth rib, to the sternum ; 
while the two lowest ribs, diminishing in length 
as they descend, are free from any connection but 
the spine and are called floating ribs. 

The sternum or breast-bone runs parallel to 
the lower dorsal vertebrae, beginning at the level 
of the second dorsal vertebrse. It has a broad 
head upon whose sides the clavicles rest and a 
blade to which the ribs are attached. 

The formation of the false ribs in their 
attachment to one another and their rise to the 
sternum produces the thoracic arch, which marks 
the boundary line between the thorax and the 
abdominal cavity, separating the upper from the 
central mass of the body, though by means of the 
arch the masses pass one another and interlace. 

The form of the mass of ribs is slightly coni- 
cal. At its greatest width, about the seventh rib 
down, it is a trifle narrower than the measure- 
ment across the heads of the femurs or hips, 
showing that the more solid part of the body 
tapers upward, the superficial taper from above 
down in the living figure being due to the added 
mass of the shoulder on either side of the upper 
part of the thorax. 

The clavicle, on each side describing a reverse 
curve from the sternum outward, produces the 
shape of the convexity of the forward surface of 
the thorax, and reversing its curvature sends out 



its extremity to meet the flattened acromion proc- 
ess of the scapula, which comes from behind. 

The scapula is a flat, triangular bone, exhibit- 
ing a slight convexity, very thin, but strength- 
ened by its projecting spine. Its only bony 
attachment to the skeleton is by means of the 
clavicle's hinge upon the head of the sternum, so 
that the whole mass of the shoulders may be 
raised, giving the appearance of the neck being 
depressed between them. Just below the junc- 
ture of clavicle and scapula, and at the upper end 
of the outer border of the latter, is the cuplike 
socket which makes the receptacle for the head 
of the humerus or upper bone of the arm. 





BEFORE entering upon the study of the com- 
ponent parts of the body, it is of the highest 
importance that the large planes of which the 
minor forms are a part should be thoroughly 
understood. A mental grasp of them in the large 
is essential to strong draftsmanship. 

The accompanying plates should be an aid and 
should facilitate the student's conception of the 
great planes of the body, representing as they do 
the elimination of all minor forms, and disclosing, 
in so doing, the simple elemental planes which 
encompass the body. 

These drawings are but diagrams, conven- 
tionalizing the human form to the last analysis, 
and should be treated as such, for their object is 
only to enable the student readily to locate the 
angles of transition from plane to plane. 

The body or trunk may be divided into three 
vertical masses, two of which are alike in struc- 
ture. First, the shoulders, thorax, small of the 
back and abdominal region, form between them a 
shape like an elongated, irregular pyramid or 
wedge, the shoulders forming the base and the 
lowest point of the abdomen the apex. Second, 
flanking this wedge on either side and rising from 
the greatest width of the thigh as a base, the mass 
of the hips and pelvis, buttresslike, support the 
lower part of the wedge or abdominal region, to 
the height of the waist. 

The wedging in of the lower part of the body 
between the buttresslike hips forms the most 
notable instance of the interrelation of parts 
which is so universal in the human organism. 
From this region all the important actions that 

I— 1 







the human body is capable of emanate, for the 
hip and pelvis form the point of transmission, 
from lower to upper part of the body, of all the 
power that controls great movements. 

To understand the human form it must be 
drawn from many points of view. This will ena- 
ble the student to see form as the sculptor does, 
so that he will see around his view, and conceive 
the idea of solidity without a sacrifice of sil- 

In silhouette the back and front views are 
alike, as are the right and left profiles, but in solid 
representation, though the profiles are alike, the 
front and back view are in many ways materially 
unlike; for the front of the body, from the head 
of the sternum to the base of the abdomen, is 
convex, while the back (longer than the front) is 
comprised of a double reverse curve, which is 
most concave in the small of the back, opposite 
the fullest part of the front, and convex at the 
shoulder-blade above, opposite the sternum, and 
again convex at the base of the back, opposite the 
lowest part of the abdomen. 

Irrespective of the point of view and of action, 
the difference between front and back and the 
basic form of wedge and buttress may readily be 
traced in the human trunk. 

In the profile or vertical section the body may 
be divided into three horizontal sections, the 
upper containing the cage of ribs, the central con- 
taining the abdominal mass, located between the 
false ribs and the crest of the pelvis, and the 
lower containing the pelvis, the lower portion of 
the abdomen and the extremity of the back. 

The upper and lower masses are remarkable 
for their bony character. The upper, like a cage 
made of the ribs, the sternum, the clavicles and 
the scapula, all supported by the spine, encloses 
the vital organs. The muscles that clothe this 
form are greatly affected by this bony cage in the 
production of the planes. The only bony form in 
the central mass is the column of vertebrae in the 
small of the back. In the lower mass the bones 








are heavy and deep-seated instead of external, 
only coming to the surface at the crest of the 
pelvis, the coccyx, and the head of the femur or 
hip bone; aside from the crest of the pelvis and 
head of the femur, which form the two bony 
points in the buttresslike form on each side, the 
bones affect the external form less than above. 
The muscles producing the external planes come 
from a deeper origin in consequence, and are less 
affected externally by the bones within. 

In establishing this division of three masses 
in the body we must fix lines or planes to locate 
their demarcation. 

The upper mass is bounded above by the line at 
the base of the neck marking the thickness of 
this region, from the pit of the throat to the ver- 
tebral prominence. This plane slopes upward 
from front to back. In the back the form is 
bounded from above down by the outward slope 
of the trapezius, the shoulder-blade, and the latis- 
simus dorsi, as far as the upper angle of the small 
of the back. In the front is found the plane of 
the chest, made by the pectoral muscles and the 
cartilaginous form of the false ribs, which in the 
erect figure extends beyond the chest, forming 
the highest projection along the profile of the 
front of the figure. The base, then, of this upper 
mass extends diagonally downward along the 
arch of the false ribs to the upper angle of the 
small of the back. It will be noted that the direc- 
tion of this mass from the diagonal line of the 
false ribs up is controlled by the backward slope 
of the chest in front, and its parallel, the latissi- 
mus, in the back, so that a line drawn through 
the center of the mass, from the false ribs 
upward, passing through the vertebral promi- 
nence, slopes backward decidedly, parallel to the 
dorsal vertebrae. 

The central mass, wedged between the upper 
and lower, is fleshy except for the spine, and only 
the processes of the vertebrae are visible in the 
groove along its course in the small of the back. 
The upper boundary of this mass is marked by 


I— t 


the diagonal line of the false ribs; the front 
boundary by the abdominal wall (which slopes 
inward slightly) beginning with the highest point 
of the false ribs and terminating at a point a 
little below the navel, where the abdominal wall 
takes a deeper inward turn; and the lower 
boundary is marked by a line drawn from the 
angle made by the upper and lower parts of the 
abdomen diagonally upward and backward 
through the crest of the ilium to the angle at the 
base of the small of the back. This line, in accord 
with the crest of the ilium, is opposite in direc- 
tion to the line of the false ribs. The small of 
the back marks the boundary in the back, and 
being nearly parallel to the abdominal wall in 
front, with it controls the direction of this mass. 
A line drawn through its axis or center discloses a 
slight forward leaning. 

The lower mass is bounded above by the pelvic 
slope ; in front by the lower part of the abdomen, 
which slopes inward between the thighs; along 
the back by the under portion of the buttock as 
far as its attachment to the thigh. This attach- 
ment is so much lower than the point where the 
abdomen goes between the thighs that the line 
marking the base of the body slopes in the opposite 
direction to that which marks the attachment of 
neck to body. The direction of the lower mass 
being controlled by the position of the gluteus 
maximus muscle, the lower part of the back, and 
its parallel, the lower part of the abdomen — 
slopes decidedly backward and downward and is 
opposed in position and in the direction of all its 
boundaries to the upper mass. 

The trunk should be studied and drawn at 
least from five points of view; the profile, the 
front and back views, and two three-quarter 
views, one of three-quarter front and the other 
of three-quarter back view. 

As remarked above, the front and back views, 
though different in relief, are alike in silhouette, 
and this is equally true of the three-quarter views 










O o 


of front and back, that is, on condition that they 
are seen from the same elevation and angle. 

That the third dimension, the dimension of 
solidity, becomes an important factor, may read- 
ily be understood and made interesting by observ- 
ing that two drawings may be alike in the sil- 
houette, the first and second dimensions, but in 
the nature of their relief or manifestation of the 
third dimension may be entirely different. 

Having studied the vertical section of the pro- 
file of the trunk, giving the relation of three 
divisions that comprise it, and before going into 
the formation of its projecting planes, the front 
and back views should be considered to that end. 

The irregular and inverted pyramid that rep- 
resents the conventionalized form* of the body 
contains the grand planes of which the body is 
composed. In the front of the body is found the 
great plane of the chest, with its outward slope 
tapering as it descends fiom the great width 
across the clavicles at the shoulders to its base 
across the nipples, separating the chest nearly at 
right angles from the side of the body. Immedi- 
ately below is the great abdominal plane, sloping 
inward a little and tapering slightly as it descends 
to the angle just below the navel, which separates 
it from the lower abdominal plane forming the 
apex of the pyramid. The planes of the sides are 
at a slight obtuse angle to the front, making the 
back somewhat wider than the front. Thus the 
wedge in the back is wider and shorter in appear- 
ance than the front, because it penetrates in the 
lower part of the body at a higher elevation than 
in front. 

In the back the plane of the shoulder-blades 
is nearly perpendicular and placed opposite the 
chest, though not so long. Immediately below, 
this vertical plane of the back slopes in rapidly, 
and tapering, is inserted just below the small of 
the back between the subdivisions of the buttock. 
The plane of the buttock slopes outward, dimin- 
ishing in width to the base, and turns inward 
abruptly to the back of the thighs. The flat 







planes of the sides of the body first widen to the 
greatest width from the nipples to the shoulder- 
blades, and then diminish in width in their 
inward slope to the waist. 

Against the lower termination of the sides 
and a little back of the center of the waist, the 
buttress form of the pelvis and hip asserts itself, 
becoming wider and deeper in its outward and 
backward slope until it reaches the diagonal slope 
of the crest of the pelvis, from which it descends 
in greater width and thickness to the hip at the 
side, the thigh in front, and the fullness of the 
buttock behind. The lower part of the side of the 
body, from the head of the femur or hip-bone 
back, slopes in an opposite direction to the plane 
of the upper part of the side of the body, that is, 
the plane of the upper part slopes outward and 
backward, while the plane of the lower part 
slopes inward and backward. 

In drawing the profile, front, or back view, 
the student has of necessity some difficulty in 
appreciating the third dimension, particularly if 
the illumination is not of the kind to make it 
obvious; but in the three-quarter view the third 
dimension becomes an equal factor with the first 
and second in testing the student's knowledge. 
In the front view it seems all breadth, in the pro- 
file all thickness, but in the three-quarter view he 
may readily see the relative breadth to thickness 
of any part of the body, and note the great 
changes of thickness relatively to breadth, and 
the nature of each, as the forms change from 
shoulder to the lowest part of the body. If, in 
addition to a three-quarter view, the figure be 
seen in a position somewhat above the level of the 
eye, the nature of the shape of the grand divisions 
may be more readily discerned. A study and 
comprehension of the horizontal sections of the 
big masses is one of the most important factors 
in the drawing of the nude. It enables the stu- 
dent to understand a form as a solid and suggests 
the other side of what he sees. 










THE neck issues from the upper plane of the 
body comprised within the shoulder girdle, 
the shoulder girdle being composed of the head of 
the sternum or breast-bone, the clavicles or collar- 
bones, and the scapulas or shoulder-blades. A 
horizontal section of this region embracing all 
the minor forms becomes an irregular oval. The 
greatest variation in the back lies in the depres- 
sion between the shoulder-blades containing the 
backbone, and in the front in the falling back, 
steplike, of the front plane of the shoulders 
from the breadth of the chest. 

Descending from the shoulder girdle to the 
level of the arm-pit a great change takes place in 
the nature of the horizontal section or shape of 
the mass. 

The cagelike form of the ribs becomes more 
square as it descends, and this angularity is 
greatly increased by the cushionlike form of the 
pectoral muscles in front and the latissimus dorsi 
in the back, so that the section becomes most 
nearly square in the thorax in the region just 
above the nipples, being somewhat wider in the 
back than across the chest. This should be dis- 
tinctly kept in mind, for it causes the sides of the 
body to face forward slightly. 

The pectoral muscles have their origin along 
the length of the sternum or breast-bone. Increas- 
ing in thickness until they reach a line from the 
nipple to the arm-pit, they become like a heavy 
cushion. In proportion as the pectorals are thick 
and marked, so is the chest apt to be square in 
horizontal section. 




The line from the nipple to the arm-pit forms 
the angle separating the chest from the side of 
the body. This line slopes back diagonally as it 
rises to the front plane of the shoulder. The 
plane of the side of the thorax parts from the 
plane of the chest at a slightly obtuse angle. It 
contains the arm-pit, formed by the thickness of 
the pectoral in front and by the raised latissimus 
dorsi behind. 

The latissimus dorsi, a great triangular sheet 
of muscle, rises from the lower central part of 
the spine and runs diagonally to the arm-pit, rest- 
ing with its base on the back and its apex 
attached near the upper end of the upper bone of 
the arm near the side of the body. The horizon- 
tal section of the back, on a line with the nipples, 
is not unlike the back of the shoulder girdle, 
except that the depression between the shoulder 
blades is deeper. The region of the chest is the 
most angular section or plane in the body, and the 
angularity becomes emphasized when the lungs 
are strongly inflated. 

In Plate XXV the body of the erect female fig- 
ure is lighted to show the course of the angle that 
separates the front from the side planes, as it 
travels its length down the body. Beginning with 
the apex of the shoulders, imagine lines descend- 
ing to the nipples ; these with lines from shoulder 
to shoulder and nipple to nipple enclose the gen- 
eral plane of the chest. This plane, when the 
body is erect and lungs well inflated, slopes 
strongly outward. It is wider at the shoulders 
than at the nipples and contains the front sur- 
face of the shoulder, the steplike rise to the chest 
formed by the pectorals. A slight depression or 
groove runs over the length of the sternum, 
developing into a little diamond shape at its base, 
and this slight groove continues all the way to 
the navel, separating the two halves of the body. 

In the female, the upper part of the breasts 
should be included in the plane of the chest, the 
nipple forming the apex of the protruding breast, 
tending to give a stronger outward direction to 


the plane of the chest in the female than the male. 
From the nipples, the line of demarcation sepa- 
rating front from side descends to the highest 
projection of the arch made by the false ribs, 
namely, the point where the first false rib joins 
its cartilage. The thoracic arch is visible in the 
living model between these points. Below the 
arch the general front plane is continuous with 
the abdominal to a point just below the navel, and 
the direction of this plane is a trifle inward. 
From the point below the navel, the plane dimin- 
ishes rapidly in width and slopes decidedly 
inward between the thighs. 

The breast of the female is like a half sphere 
with a slight tendency to the conical, due to the 
raised nipple. The breast does not lie upon the 
front of the body, but in a measure upon both 
side and front horizontally, and upon the ribs ver- 
tically, so that being placed upon the region of 
transition from front to side the female breasts 
point away from one another. 

The base of the breast thus conforms to the 
contour of the form upon which it rests. When 
the figure is foreshortened this is particularly 




/ '■■ 

,:■''. '■ y^. 


' / 





THE depression that runs from the pit of the 
neck down the length of the sternum and 
abdomen to the navel, separating the two halves 
of the body, disturbs the big planes in the front 
but slightly. In the back, however, the subdi- 
vision is much more marked. The spine of the 
backbone, being subcutaneous, is visible all the 
way and marks the dividing line between the two 

The scapulas, embedded in a deep mass of 
muscle, add fullness to the back of the shoulders 
on either side of the spine, giving the appearance 
of the backbone being quite depressed. 

In the region of the small of the back, 
approached by the tapering form of the back of 
the thorax, the mass of muscle of either side of 
the spine collectively considered and carrying out 
the wedge shape in the back, stands out a step 
from the hips or buttress form on each side, the 
apex of the wedge disappearing between the two 
masses that constitute the buttock. The plane of 
the buttock has its origin in the sides of the but- 
tress form of the hips that flank the wedge- 
shaped body, the difference between front and 
rear being, that in front the wedge is visible all 
the way, while in the back the buttresses, after 
leaving the crest of the pelvis, become one, the 
surface over the sacrum being but slightly raised 
from the flat surface of the back. At the base of 
the wedge the buttock becomes subdivided into 
two rounded masses formed by the gluteus maxi- 
mus muscles. 

The masses of the hips or buttresses that flank 
the sides of the lower part of the body have their 



origin at the narrowest part of the body, the 
waist, beginning with the outward slope of the 
great oblique muscles. These muscles terminate 
with the crest of the pelvis, but the thickness of 
the muscles causes the spine or crest of the pelvis 
to be depressed, so that the angle of separation 
of the planes of the upper parts of the buttresses 
from the lower is above the crest of the pelvis. 
This angle marks the first stage in the widening 
of the body in the region of the hip, and from 
here on the planes descend by means of the 
gluteus medius, parting less abruptly from one 
another, due to roundness of the mass, than the 
above to a point just above the great trochanter 
or head of the femur. 

Over the trochanter again the bone in the liv- 
ing model is marked by a depression, so that the 
plane of the side of the thigh is not determined by 
the angle that the bone makes in the skeleton, but 
by the fullness of the muscle just before its inser- 
tion into the aponeurosis, or fascia lata, to which 
the muscles of the main portion of the buttress are 

The rectus is the forward plane or thickness, 
the gluteus medius the breadth over the hip, and 
the gluteus maximus the thickness of the back. 
The plane of the buttress at its greatest width, just 
below the hip, is not at right angles to the front 
of the body, but slopes inward toward the back, 
the breadth of the buttock not being as great as 
the breadth across the hips. A horizontal section 
here is a direct contrast to the section across the 
chest at the nipples. In the latter section, the 
sides of the body face forward in proportion as 
the body is broader across the back at the base of 
the shoulder blades than at the chest, whereas 
across the hips the breadth across the two thighs 
is greater than across the buttock. This accounts 
for the side of the buttock being in shadow when 
the figure is illuminated directly from the front, 
with the side of the thorax in the light. 

In the front of the body the buttresses fall 
back a step from the abdominal plane, suggesting 



that, as the abdominal wall stands out in advance 
of the side of the buttress at its upper end, and 
the lower part of the buttress behind protrudes 
beyond the small of the back, the buttress itself 
must slope forward from below up. So that the 
sections of the two parts are by no means directly 
above one another and the center of a section just 
below the crest of the pelvis will fall back con- 
siderably behind a section across the waist. 





















LEAVING the conventionalized diagrams of the 
body, and having through their use discov- 
ered the nature of the great planes which encom- 
pass it and give substance to the forms, we will 
now consider the component parts or contents of 
these planes in detail. 

The neck and throat too often receive but 
slight consideration on the part of the student, 
being treated as if they were other than a distinct 
form like the arm, leg, etc. The firm attachment 
of the neck to the body at the back is no doubt 
the occasion of this, the trapezius rising high 
upon it, so that the neck proper is much shorter 
in the back than in front. 

The carriage and action of the head is con- 
trolled by and depends upon the neck, and it is so 
constructed that the utmost freedom and variety 
of movement is possible. It should therefore be 
kept in mind that the bony structure of the neck 
is a continuation of the vertebral column and par- 
takes of its supple character, so that the neck 
partakes in a greater or lesser degree of what- 
ever action is conveyed by the head. A certain 
type of individual may hold the neck rigid with 
the body and nod the head in greeting, so that all 
the action will be confined to the junction of head 
and neck, and such an action may be in character 
with the man, but it is not common. 

The male neck is short, thick and firm, rising 
almost vertically from the body, while, on the 
contrary, in the female the neck is long, slender 
and graceful, leaving the body with a greater 
forward direction. 



In a general way the form of the neck is cylin- 
drical, though it manifests more or less angular- 
ity of plane, particularly in the male. It tapers 
like a column from the base up, with a slight 
swelling in the center of the sides, caused by the 
fullness of the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, and 
in front by the Adam's apple. 

As the base of the skull is higher at the back 
than at the chin and jaw, and the pit of the throat 
above the head of the sternum is lower than the 
base of the neck at the back (the vertebra promi- 
nens), it is discovered that the plane of contact of 
the neck with the head is parallel to that of its 
contact with the body, both sloping diagonally, 
not quite at right angles with the direction of 
the neck. 

In the front view the sides of the neck are 
symmetrical structurally. When in action, such 
as throwing the head back, to one side, or turned 
upon the neck, though the evidence of structural 
symmetry remains, the lines enclosing the form 
are radically different. In the profile the lines 
that enclose the front and back vary greatly. 
The front line is convex in the region of the 
Adam's apple, while diagonally opposite is the 
deepest part of the concavity of the back, giving 
to the whole form a suppleness so characteristic 
of a well-formed neck. The body of the neck is 
shorter in the back than in the front, and at its 
connection with both body and head flares out- 
ward, making its connection the more complete. 

The trapezius, or the great neck and shoulder 
muscles, produce at their junction at the base of 
the skull the flat plane of the neck containing a 
slight gully. In contrast to this depression and at 
the base of the back of the neck is found the last 
cervical vertebra — the vertebra prominens. 

The trapezius rising diagonally from the spine 
of the scapula or shoulder blade immediately 
opposite the attachment of the deltoid, supports 
the neck at its sides with its buttresslike forms, 
giving it an appearance of great strength and 
power and connecting it intimately with the body. 



The sterno-cleido-mastoid, the muscle that 
pulls the head sidewise and turns it upon the 
body, produces the fullness upon the sides of the 
neck, as it descends diagonally from the side of 
the base of the skull, back of the ear, to the 
sternum or breast-bone and clavicle (for it sub- 
divides, a tendon going to each bone) . A gully is 
formed in the otherwise full formation of the 
neck at the sides between the trapezius and the 
mastoid, which deepens into quite a hollow upon 
reaching the clavicle, where the bone makes a 
reverse curve to meet the shoulder-blade, and this 
depression continues below the clavicle and marks 
the separation between the deltoid, the mass of 
muscle that surrounds the shoulder, and the 
pectoral or muscle of the chest. 

In front, at the base, the cords of the mastoid 
muscles become very evident, walling in between 
them the pit of the neck, out of which rises the 
mass of the Adam's apple. 

A section of the neck across its upper half 
will disclose the convex projection of the Adam's 
apple in front and a depression in the nape of the 
neck behind, while in the lower half we find a 
depression in the form of the pit of the neck in 
front and a projection made by the vertebra 
prominens behind, a reversal of incidents. 

In the region of the pit of the neck are found 
three kinds of forms in close conjunction, the 
muscular, tendinous and bony, to the drawing 
and rendering of which careful attention should 
be given. If too bony, the forms will look hard 
and attenuated ; if too soft they will appear char- 
acterless. Note the outward flare all around its 
base at the entrance of throat into body, which 
gives it a sense of attachment, suggestive of a 
tree that grows from the ground rather than a 
pole that punctures it. 






WE now come to the first articulation of the 
body proper, that of the shoulder. The 
junction of the humerus, the bone of the arm, 
with the scapula, and scapula with clavicle, should 
be carefully studied to enable the student to com- 
prehend the planes presented in the living model. 
Parts of these bones come well to the surface, and 
to be interpreted must be well understood. The 
clavicle is visible along its whole length, particu- 
larly at the reverse curve approaching the outer 
end. Below it at this point is a depression which 
marks the separation of deltoid or shoulder 
muscle from the pectoral or muscle of the chest. 
The junction of the clavicle and scapula too is 
quite visible, and the head of the humerus, which 
forms the apex of the shoulder, asserts itself 
beneath the deltoid muscle. 

The clavicles and scapulas nearly encircle the 
region of the shoulders, enclosing between them 
the thickness of the upper extremity of the body, 
the plane from out of which the neck emerges. 
This plane rather eludes observation because of 
its diversified nature. Its surface faces upward 
and somewhat forward, higher at the back than 
in front, in keeping with the direction of the base 
of the neck. The plane is broken by a triangular 
hollow bounded by the lateral base of the neck, in 
front by the inner border of the clavicle as the 
latter turns from the chest to the shoulder and at 
the back by the trapezius, which acts as a buttress 
on either side of the neck as it descends to the 
shoulder. This hollow is the gully referred to in 
the preceding chapter. The plane is flat and 
nearly horizontal at the shoulder, but the remain- 



der slopes decidedly, rising from the pit of the 
neck to the juncture of back of neck and trapezius, 
its direction being about at right angles to the 
axis of the neck. 

The cone of the thorax or cage of ribs punc- 
tures the shoulder girdle, the ribs of this conelike 
shape appearing above it. It is the direction of 
the first rib, leaving the head of the sternum or 
breast-bone just below the clavicle and rising to 
the vertebra prominens, that gives decided direc- 
tion to the upper plane of the body. The con- 
tour of this upper plane of the thorax is greatly 
affected by the bones of the shoulder girdle and 
assumes greater singularity where they come to 
the surface. The clavicle describes a reverse 
curve; combined and in position they follow the 
convexity of the cone of the thorax. 

Combined, the clavicles form a Cupid's bow. 
Leaving the plane of the chest the clavicle curves 
backward, following the ribs for a short distance, 
and then reversing its curvature extends laterally 
from the body and joins the scapula and humerus 
articulations which form between them the mass 
of the shoulder. The scapula is triangular and is 
slightly convex, having a spine diagonally across 
its upper part which extends beyond it and curves 
around the outer end of the clavicle, to which it is 
attached. The two scapulae repose upon the ribs 
at the turning point from back to side, in such 
position that a wide space is left between them, in 
the center of which is found the spine. 

Beginning with the neck as an elongation of 
the cone of the thorax, its section is circular, with 
flattened sides. At the entrance of neck into 
body we come upon the buttress form of the 
trapezius, changing the form of the section by a 
broadening at the base of the neck. Descending 
to the region of the shoulder girdle, the section 
includes the shoulders, giving it much greater 
breadth in proportion to depth. The coming 
together of the clavicle and the spine of the 
scapula makes the projecting or epaulet form of 
the shoulder, which at the same time marks the 



beginning of the length of the arm, through its 
attachment to the body by means of the mass of 
the deltoid. 

'When standing erect, chest out, the plane of 
the shoulder or epaulet form is set well back of 
the chest; on the other hand, the posterior plane 
becomes quite continuous with the plane of the 
scapula. We find then that the chest, from the mid- 
dle region of the shoulder girdle to the nipples at 
the base of the chest, makes a great plane broken 
by the retiring shoulder, placed steplike but par- 
allel, back of the plane of the chest ; that is, the 
center of the shoulder is set back of the center of 
the body. On the other hand, in the back, the 
great breadth of the shoulders is smooth at the 
extremities and broken in the center by the 
sunken spine between the inner borders of the 
scapulae and immediately opposite the simple 
plane of the chest. 

In the erect figure, the length of the scapula, 
as seen in the profile, is well-nigh vertical, sloping 
only slightly outward and downward. On the 
contrary, the chest slopes well outward, its direc- 
tion corresponding to the position of the dorsal 
vertebrae, which make a decided forward sweep to 
the small of the back. The squareness of the 
shoulders is common in the male, whereas sloping 
shoulders are more characteristic of the female. 





THE deltoid clothes the articulation of the shoul- 
der and forms, with the pectoral and long 
portion of the triceps, the main attachment of 
the arm to the body. Imagine the deltoid 
detached and flattened, and it resembles an 
inverted arrowhead with its apex inserted a third 
of the way down the length of the humerus on its 
out^r surface, between the biceps and the triceps ; 
the barbs rising, and enclosing between them the 
juncture of clavicle and scapula, to whose outer 
borders they are attached. This attachment occurs 
immediately opposite to that of the trapezius frpm 

The pressure of the head of the humerus 
under the deltoid, just below the junction of 
scapula and clavicle, forms the outermost point of 
the shoulders, and the breadth of the shoulders 
proper lies between these points. 

In comparing the proportions of the sexes, it 
is stated rather inaccurately that the body of the 
male is broader at the shoulders than at the hips, 
and that in the female this relationship of breadth 
is reversed. From this we may infer that the 
mass of the deltoids enclosing the shoulder may 
be considered as a part of the body, inasmuch as 
they establish its breadth. Unlike the other parts 
of the trunk, the shoulder is. not rigid with it, but, 
on the contrary, is capable of great movement, 
and may be raised and lowered, or thrown back- 
ward and forward. In fact, it is only in repose 
that we feel the shoulders' close relation to the 
body; but upon the least sign of action in the 
arm, the mass of the shoulder immediately par- 



ticipates in it and becomes in turn a part of the 
length of the arm. 

The mass of the deltoid and its bony structure 
within plays the double function of belonging to 
the body in establishing its length, the head of 
the humerus forming the angle where the length 
of the arm begins and breadth of the shoulders 

In the drawing of the arm, after noting its 
general proportion, that is, its average thickness 
in proportion to length, and the mass of the del- 
toid located at its highest point, which point is on 
a line with the arm-pit, observe the degree of 
taper that extends from the greatest thickness at 
the shoulders to the wrist. The tapering in a 
fleshy arm is more rapid than in the slight one, 
because the adipose is not distributed equally 
along its length, the thickness of the wrist vary- 
ing but little with the accretion. In the arm of a 
slight youth this tapering is most subtle and 
taxes the utmost skill of the trained artist. 

Having noted the tapering form of the arm as 
a whole, it will be discovered that each part of 
the arm in turn tapers from above down, thus 
producing the general taper in the arm as a 
whole. In detail, irrespective of point of view, 
the upper arm from the apex of the shoulder 
attains its greatest width or thickness in the 
fleshy region of the deltoid. In the strongly 
developed arm the form is firmly marked ; in the 
slight one it is only delicately marked by an out- 
ward direction from the apex of the shoulder to 
the most prominent point of the deltoid, the 
beginning of the length of the arm. 

From the detachment of the arm from the 
body, at the arm-pit, just opposite its greatest 
fullness at the deltoid, the arm diminishes gradu- 
ally in width to the elbow; this, however, is more 
noticeable in the profile than in the front view. 
The fleshy mass of the forearm near the elbow 
widens in excess of the breadth of the upper arm 
and in turn diminishes in width to the wrist. In 
the well developed and hardened arm the planes 



become very evident, m fact more so than in any 
other fleshy part of the body. 

The interlacing or dovetailing of the parts in 
the arm is one of its most interesting features. 
It has been noted that the barbs of the deltoid 
flank the front and back of the shoulders. Its 
heavy outside mass, which projects beyond the 
flat surface of the upper arm, terminating in a 
point, descends and is inserted between the biceps 
and triceps, and these muscles, in turn, rise above 
the insertion of the deltoid and pass underneath 
its triangular borders. Again the biceps descends 
and is inserted mainly into the forearm between 
the two cushiony forms of the supinators and 
pronators, which pass it in their upper attach- 
ment, particularly the supinator longus, which 
rises above the articulation and is inserted on the 
outside of the humerus on a line below the deltoid 

In the horizontal section of the region of the 
shoulders the three exposed surfaces or planes 
form a square with rounded corners. Across the 
region of the biceps the section is less deep than 
it is broad, that is, the thickness of the arm here 
is less than the breadth from biceps to triceps, but 
the thickness in the back exceeds that in front or 
across the biceps. At the elbow and immediately 
below, where the forearm is the heaviest, the 
thickness in proportion to breadth is reversed, 
and the two forms, of the upper and lower arm, 
by means of the biceps in front and the supinator 
longus on the outside, dovetail into one another. 
At the wrist the breadth, parallel to the back of 
the hand, is greater than its thickness. The 
change from the greatest fleshy breadth and 
width of the forearm to the tendinous form two- 
thirds of the way down to the bony and angular 
wrist, is characteristic of both the forearm and 
the lower leg. 






THE forearm is heaviest immediately below the 
elbow. The mass is convex at the back and 
concave in its front plane when the arm is 
straight ; a slight depression locates the insertion 
of the tendon of the biceps between the lateral 
masses of muscle, composed on the outside of the 
supinator longus and radial extensors, and on the 
inside of the round pronator and palmar muscles. 
About half way down the length of the forearm, 
these with many other muscles, terminate in ten- 
dons, which closely hug the arm bones and pass 
under the ligament at the wrist, which holds the 
tendons firmly as they go into the hand. 

The transition from muscle to long tendons 
accounts for the graceful tapering of the forearm. 
At the wrist the bones coming close to the surface 
makes for greater angularity of form, the wrist 
being nearly twice as broad as it is thick in the 
muscular arm. The carpal bones form the bony 
structure of the wrist proper, placed between the 
bones of the arm and the metacarpus, which is 
made up of bones of the body of the hand. 

The common error of the youthful draftsman 
in forming the arm lies in drawing the parts too 
detached, giving the appearance of its being hung 
on at the shoulders, as on a doll, and as if broken 
at the elbow when the arm is bent ; same with the 
wrist, if considered at all, for too often the hand 
hangs from an arm minus a wrist. 

It will be noticed in the front view of the arm, 
when in repose at the side of body, that the del- 
toid in its fullness slopes outward from the apex 
of the shoulder. This slope exceeds that of the 
arm, irrespective of its position, and helps greatly 



to give the feeling of attachment. In supination 
the forearm is at an obtuse angle to the upper, and 
the forearm is thrown slightly away from the 
body. With the arm in that position, front view, 
note the direction of the principal masses. 

As observed above, at the shoulder the deltoid 
slopes outward in excess of the upper arm. Just 
before its insertion it makes a return curve, and 
this inward slope is repeated by the upper and 
inner part of the triceps, which forms the inner 
mass of the arm and fills, as it were, the arm-pit. 
The mass of the shoulder projects like a ledge 
beyond the body, with the arm inserted into its 
under surface, and the center of the point of 
attachment comes a trifle inside of the center of 
the shoulder. 

The student's intention should be to convey in 
his drawing the great masses of form; in the 
arm, he should look- for long lines that will convey 
the true proportions of the dimensions as affected 
by action. It is difficult at first not to stop at the 
elbow in drawing the above, the supinated posi- 
tion of the arm ; therefore, instead of stopping at 
the inner condyle, draw a line from the arm-pit to 
the greatest fullness in the forearm well below the 
elbow. Give this line a slight convexity, its great- 
est curvature touching upon the condyle. 

The subdivisions along the outer border are 
more numerous, and no difficulty will be found in 
conveying the location of the elbow joint if these 
masses and subdivisions are truly related. Con- 
tinuing along the outer border from the inward 
direction of the deltoid, the line runs nearly par- 
allel with the inner line, the two lines enclosing 
between them the shaft of the upper arm ; but the 
outer, differing from the inner line, falls short of 
the elbow, and is intercepted by the raised form 
of the supinator longus. The supinator rises 
from the shaft as the deltoid falls to it; the 
depressed border, the outer edge of the triceps, 
between them gives appearance of a concavity in 
the outer form of the arm in contrast to the con- 
vexity of the inner. 



It will be noticed also that the most prominent 
point of the deltoid is a little lower than the arm- 
pit and that the fullest point of the supinator is 
higher than the greatest fullness of the inner 
border below the elbow. Lines drawn through 
these points will be found to cross the central 
direction or axis of the arm nearly at right angles. 
From the fullest point along the inner border the 
line runs quite smoothly to the wrist, but along the 
outer the decrease of the thickness of the supina- 
tor must be noted before reaching the line of the 

The arm holding scroll gives a good idea of the 
sweep that runs through the center of it, intensi- 
fied by the action. 

Again, in the profile the mass of the deltoid, 
the direction of which may be marked by a line 
drawn from the center of the shoulder above to 
the central point at level with the arm-pit, leans 
forward slightly, in accord with the forward 
movement of the mass that rises above the scapula 
as it melts into the neck. The line that marks 
the junction with body is a little higher at the 
back than at the front, being at right angles to 
the direction of the deltoid or shoulder. This 
gives the appearance of firmly attaching the arm 
to the body. 

The shaft of the upper arm, that portion of 
the arm containing the biceps and triceps, located 
between the deltoid and supinators (the fleshy 
fullness over the outside of elbow-joint) falls in 
from the shoulder, that is, its center is not imme- 
diately under the center of the shoulder. 

When in action the many parts of the arm 
show their intimate interrelation to one another. 
An artist's arm may almost be in repose, only the 
finger tips being used in executing some deft touch, 
but the next moment the action includes the whole 
length of the fingers, the wrist, elbow, including 
the act of pronation or supination, and finally 
the shoulder. He may make a master stroke 
requiring a sweep from the shoulder, but each 
joint, each set of muscles to the sensitive finger 





tips, lends its aid to give to the supple movement 
of his stroke the desired character and quality. So 
in a drawing, every part of the hand and arm 
must be in character both in form and action. 
No matter how definitely the forms may be dis- 
tinguished, by name, location, shape and propor- 
tions, they must in practice interrelate under the 
surface of the continuous skin, sometimes par- 
tially lost through a connecting curve, sometimes 
accented by abrupt angularity, but always con- 

The arm must never look as if pinioned, sug- 
gesting that it can only move parallel to the side 
of the body. The elbow in the flexed arm should 
not suggest through its irregularity that the arm 
has been broken in order to locate it. The 
olecranon, or point of the elbow, should be found 
under the center of the shaft of the upper arm 
when the forearm is flexed upon the upper, and 
not on a line with the back of the arm. This con- 
tinues the sense of connection. 



THE hand, equally with the head, should receive 
special attention, for the reason, first, that it 
is generally seen ; second, because of its character 
and the part it plays in expressing an emotion or 
action; and thirdly, because of its intricacy and 
the difficulty, due to its numerous parts, of han- 
dling it in masses and planes, except when the 
hand is closed. 

The double row of carpal bones is the means 
of attachment of hand to arm and may well be 
named a universal joint, for it permits of an 
up-and-down, side-to-side, and rotary motion, and, 
in conjunction with the supination and pronation 
of the forearm, permits the hand to partake of 
any action desired. But it also enters into the 
large movements of the arm, giving grace and 
suppleness, or vigor and power, as the action is 
transmitted by means of the wrist to the hand. 

When the hand, palm down, and the arm rests 
upon a table or flat arm of a chair, the wrist does 
not touch the surface — the mass of the wrist 
rises from the hand at an obtuse angle to the arm, 
meaning that the center of the body of the hand 
is a step below the center of the body of the arm 
at the place of attachment. This is the relative 
position of hand to arm when held in continuous 
direction with the arm. When the hand is raised 
the wrist takes an upward turn or sweep, and 
when lowered a downward one, and a graceful 
curve connects the two no matter what the posi- 

The body of the hand is larger on the side of 
the thumb than on the side of the little finger, the 
palm is longer than the back, broader at fingers 




than near the wrist, and thicker at the wrist than 
near the fingers. 

The back of the hand is quite flat except when 
the hand is clenched, though it assumes consid- 
erable convexity upon connection with wrist; the 
palm, on the contrary, is like a shallow bowl with 
squared sides, well cushioned on both sides near 
the wrist. 

Collectively the fingers taper, and the tip of 
the middle finger, the longest, forms the apex of 
the mass. Each finger tapers in itself with a ten- 
dency to converge toward the middle finger, 
though when the hand is in action the middle and 
third fingers are inclined to go together. In the 
act of clenching the hand the finger ends point to 
a common center. 

The length of the first joint of the fingers is 
equal to the two remaining ones, but the palm 
extends half way up the length of the first joint, 
giving the appearance on the inside of the fingers 
of all the joints being of equal length. 

The whole length of the thumb is equal to the 
length of the middle finger, measured outside, and 
reaches to the midle joint of the first finger. The 
body of the thumb is much heavier than that of 
the fingers, and unlike them does not taper, except 
the last joint. 

The sections of the fingers are more square 
than would seem, though the last joint, containing 
the nail, is quite triangular, the nail with the 
flesh on either side forming the base and the sensi- 
tive cushion on the underside the apex. From 
the fact that the hand contains so many parts and 
is capable of an infinite variety of actions, and is 
so varied in character (for hands are no more 
alike than faces) the student will readily see the 
importance of being familiar with its construe 









THE degree of taper in the leg as compared with 
the arm, is greater, as the leg at the thigh is 
heavier, compared with the ankle, than the upper 
arm compared with the wrist. In a general way, 
the changes that mark the diminishing widths are 
not dissimilar. The arm tapers slightly to the 
elbow; the leg, in proportion as it is heavier, 
tapers more rapidly to the knee ; the mass of the 
calf more rapidly, in proportion as the calves are 
heavier than the muscles of the forearm. In the 
leg, too, the alternation of flesh and bone are more 
noticeable than in the arm. 

It will be observed that when the leg receives 
the weight of the body, the knee is pulled back. 
A reverse curve runs through its entire length, 
from trunk to ankle, the knee forming the point 
of reversal. The femur or bone of the upper leg 
describes a curve with its convex side directed 
forward; this convex curve is intensified by the 
great mass of the rectus femoris muscle in front 
and by the corresponding concavity at the back, 
jnade by the overhanging of the buttock (the 
gluteus maximus) above, and the projecting calf 
below ; there is a local fullness on the back of the 
thigh made by the biceps, but in no way so con- 
spicuous as to interfere with this generalization. 

The bony mass of the knee is the pivot upon 
which the curve reverses. If the convex curve of 
the thigh is described from its attachment to the 
level of the base of the knee, so the concave 
reverse curve of the lower leg begins on a level 
with the top of the knee and descends with a for- 
ward sweep into the instep. In the outline of the 
front of the lower part of the leg, which corre- 




h : 



sponds to the reverse curve described, there is a 
local fullness made by the crest of the tibia over- 
lapped by the tibialis anticus muscle; but care 
should be taken not to make it over-conspicuous, 
or the concave effect made by the overhanging 
knee and the forward sweep of the ankle will be 
lost. Naturally, the convexity of the calf opposite 
the deepest part of the forward line completes the 
spirit of the reverse curve. 

The interlacing of the parts of the leg is well 
illustrated in the forward part of the thigh 
descending to the lower part of the leg by means 
of the knee-pan and terminating with the kneel- 
ing point; on the other hand, on the back the 
mass of the calves enters the upper part of the 
leg on a level with the upper border of the knee- 
pan. As these structural masses interlace, so do 
the planes that come into existence through them. 

In the front view, the attachment of the legs 
to the body is marked by diagonal division lines 
descending on each side from the crest of the iliac 
or pelvic bone to the pubic arch, wedging between 
them the lower abdominal mass. The inner bor- 
der of the leg is broken by minor forms which 
deviate but slightly from a straight line. It is in 
the outer border that the large changes are found, 
beginning with the long line from the head of the 
femur to the knee, continuing with the line to the 
widest part of the calf, and thence with the line 
to the foot. Such simple lines enclose the great 
masses and mark the degree of taper. 

In detail, the thigh, as it descends, tends 
slightly inward to about two-thirds its length, 
when it makes a greater inward turn to the knee. 
The mass of the knee takes an opposite direction, 
diminishing slightly in width, as it also does in 

The crest of the tibia coming well to the sur- 
face descends from the kneeling point, making an 
inward sweep as it forms the inner ankle. Partly 
in front of the fibula (the outer bone of the lower 
part of the leg) the mass of the calves envelopes 
the sides and back of the bones, widening rapidly 



from the knee to about a third of the length 
between knee and ankle, the outer calf being 
higher than the inner. The inner calf terminates 
with abrupt fullness upon entering the shaft of 
the leg, whereas the outer calf turns into it more 
smoothly. The tapering shaft turns gracefully 
inward as it enters the foot. 

The planes composing the mass of thigh are 
well rounded, but upon approaching the mass of 
the knee they become more angular and defined, 
the planes at the sides from knee-pan back being 
quite flat. This is the case when the leg is 
extended. When the knee is bent, the knee-pan 
sinking, discloses a broader bony surface across 
the front. 

The backs of the calves are quite convex, 
rounding as they enter the flat surfaces on either 
side of the crest of the tibia. The shaft of the leg 
just above the ankle is quite round, changing into 
more angular surfaces at the ankle and entrance 
into the foot. 

When the leg is standing on the ball of the 
foot, or advanced with extended toes, the instep, 
though slightly convex, becomes continuous with 
the front line of the leg and marks an intensifica- 
tion of the reverse curve along its length to the 
great toe. 

This long curvature is but delicately broken by 
the knee, though in the male it is more ruggedly 
marked than in the female. Along the back, how- 
ever, the accents are retained and in the case of 
the heel at the junction of leg, the heel being 
flexed on it, the angle is greatly emphasized. 

In fact, whereas in the front all the parts melt 
into one another, the line remaining simple in 
expression, the big form at the back the length 
of each part of the leg is designated by an angu- 
lar separation, alternately going in and out, 
diminishing in width in stages to the toes; the 
line of the back of the thigh approaches the front 
line, going in ; the length of the calf is made by a 
line sloping outward; the shaft of the lower leg 
is made by line from the calf to the heel, tapering 


< f 





greatly to the ankle; then follows the angle of the 
uplifted heel to the sole of the foot and from there 
the line tapers to the toes. 

When the lower leg is flexed upon the upper, 
the bony mass of the knee becomes much more 
evident, the lower end or condyles of the femur 
showing plainly on each side of the patella or 
knee-cap ; the latter, though visible because the 
skin is tautly stretched over it, sinks partially into 
the groove of the lower end or condyles of the 
femur. Both condyles are in evidence, as well as 
the head of the fibula, which shows very plainly 
just below the outer condyle. 

In the profile both the upper and lower leg 
retain their convex and concave curvature irre- 
spective of the action, though the sinking of the 
kneepan makes the convexity of the upper part of 
the tibia somewhat conspicuous. This reversal of 
the arched form of the parts of the leg should be 
given special attention, for, unless the quality of 
suppleness of movement be appreciated, the forms 
will be made stiff and rigid. The parts fuse so 
gracefully into one another that any stiffness of 
action immediately suggests ossification of the 
part. For instance, it has been seen that the 
thigh curves with its convex side forward; the 
lower leg on the contrary has its convex side at its 
fullest in the calf at the back. 

The controlling movement of the leg is marked 
by the simple front line. It is most convex a little 
above the center of the thigh and most concave a 
trifle below the kneeling point, when the leg is 

The back surface of the thigh is sunken 
between the lower part of the back and the calf, 
and hence combined with them describes a con- 
cavity as opposed to the convexity of the front, 
keeping the spirit of action intact. However, this 
does not signify that the local fullness in back of 
thigh should remain unnoticed; on the contrary, 
it should be insisted upon; but remember it is 
only a local form, and does not compete in impor- 
tance with the fullness in front. In the lower leg 



the reverse of the thigh curvature controls; the 
fullness on the tibia should not compete with the 
much greater fullness of the calf at the back, for 
if it does, it inevitably results in stiffness. 

Again, the entrance of leg into the foot by 
means of the ankle deserves much attention. In 
the profile, it will be noted that the rounded form 
of the ankle enters the foot well back of its center 
and at a slightly obtuse rather than a right angle. 
In a word, the main direction of the leg upon its 
entrance into the foot is forward or outward, 
thereby throwing the weight of the body rather 
upon the arch than the heel alone. Springiness 
and suppleness are the great characteristics of this 
part of the body, for it is this articulation that 
permits of the most graceful as well as the most 
vigorous action in the body, and if the least stiff- 
ness prevails it can not but affect the whole action. 
In the front view, too, the leg does not set 
squarely above the foot, but rather a little to the 
outside of the center of it, and enters it gracefully 
by means of the ankle. 


133 \m 


1:1 '^^^{'tnilii^ 



/// ,^0' 







THE main body of the foot is formed in the 
shape of an arch, the ball and heel answering 
to the piers on which it rests. It is broadest 
across the ball, tapering forward into the mass 
of the toes; the second toe, being the longest, 
forms the apex of the group. From the ball back- 
ward the width diminishes gradually to the 
rounded surface of the heel. 

The inner surface of the foot is nearly vertical 
as it rises to the ankle; broken below by the hol- 
low of the arch of the foot and above by the pro- 
truding bone of the ankle. The outer surface is 
less flat and slopes decidedly toward the ankle in 
its rise. Here, too, the ankle protrudes, but is on 
a lower level than the inner one. 

At the base of the inner surface, the rim of the 
ball of the foot and heel only touch the ground, 
while the rim along the outer surface touches all 
the way. When the full weight of the body is 
thrown upon the foot, it shows considerable 
spread at the ball and heel ; the toes also have this 
tendency, aiding greatly in giving equipoise to the 
body. If a line be drawn through the center of 
the sole of the foot, it will be noted that the direc- 
tion of the ball crosses it diagonally, the inner 
part of the ball, containing the origin of the great 
toe, being well in advance of the outer. 

A study of the sole of the foot plainly shows 
the points of contact with the ground; first, the 
rounded heel, the outer rim connecting it with the 
ball; then the ball itself, which is subdivided, the 
inner portion being the larger; and, last, the 
under-surface of the end of each toe. 

The top of the foot or instep, extending from 




the entrance of leg into foot to the toes, is in the 
main triangular; its inner border rounding 
rather abruptly into the side of the foot, its base 
line slopes backward in degree as the little toe is 
set back of the big toe. The outer surface slopes 
in rapidly from the base toward the ankle and 
outer edge of the upper surface, the two surfaces 
melting into one another near the little toe. 

There now remains the surface of the back of 
the heel. This plane is widest at its base, taper- 
ing slightly upward and more rapidly as the heel 
is joined to the Achilles cord, which connects the 
heel with the leg. The location of the entrance of 
the leg into the foot, as seen in the profile, is note- 
worthy, in that it is well back of the center of the 
arch; second, when the foot receives the weight 
of the body, the leg does not enter it at right 
angles to the sole. A sense of flexibility and elas- 
ticity should characterize the articulation of the 
ankle, otherwise the form will appear stiff and 

A line drawn through the center of the leg as 
it enters the foot should lead the eye into the for- 
ward part of the foot at an obtuse angle, follow- 
ing the curve of the ankle as it enters the instep. 
This appearance throws the weight of the body 
upon the curve of the arch, just back of the cen- 
ter, throwing the pressure to the ball of the foot 
diagonally across the arch, rather than to the 
heel. In jumping, the ball of the foot receives the 
impact, not the heel. In the extended foot, when 
seen in profile, the arch of the instep becomes con- 
tinuous with the forward line of the leg, leaving 
it with a delicate reverse curve. In this action, 
the angle of the heel to the leg is the more pro- 
nounced in proportion. In such an action the ball 
of the foot, aided by the mass of the toes, receives 
the entire weight of the body. 













IN the beginning of a drawing of the entire 
figure, it is interesting to note how secondary 
the component parts become in their relation to 
the whole. Not that their value, beauty, delicacy 
or strength have diminished, but relatively they 
now assume a less imposing aspect; they now 
truly take their place as subordinate to that vital 
quality which holds our first attention when we 
behold a beautiful figure in action. 

In the infinite variety of action of which the 
human figure is capable, the minor parts fuse into 
the greater in the most subtle manner, leaving us 
in doubt as to the moment of separation or as to 
which is the more important for pictorial use. So 
the lines that encompass the smaller parts melt 
into the larger and become part of them. This is 
true of every degree of form, from the minutest 
detail to the largest mass; each form becomes a 
part of something larger than itself. Even a 
form, than which locally none is more important, 
may be so submerged in a strong action as to lose 
all or a great part of its importance. 

The detail of the under line of an upraised 
arm may be dominated by its becoming continu- 
ous with the line of the side of the body ; the line 
of the back of the neck when the head leans 
slightly forward continues with the plane of the 
shoulder and becomes one with it. In this man- 
ner planes and lines, no matter what the action, 
or the direction of the illumination, are extended 
from the trunk or body to the arms, legs and neck. 

The profile of a simple figure standing erect, 
hands behind the back, or hanging at the side, 
chin down, head and shoulders back, chest out. 




stomach in and heels together, is an attitude and 
view interesting to study; note the relation of 
parts, as the masses rise one above the other from 
the feet up. In such a pose, the head and neck are 
on a line, having a slightly forward tendency ; the 
thorax or upper part of trunk from the false ribs 
up slopes backward, while the lower part of the 
trunk and legs collectively are on a line which 
leans well forward, from the feet up. This sub- 
divides the figure into three masses — the upper 
terminates at the plane of the shoulders, the sec- 
ond at the diagonal line of the false ribs, the 
remainder, and by far the largest, terminates 
with the feet. These three masses are so disposed 
in their diagonal relation to one another as to pro- 
duce perfect equilibrium, the straight line which 
rises vertically from the instep, touches the knee- 
cap, passes just behind the head of the femur, 
through the pit of the neck and thence through 
the center of the head. The bony angle of the 
false ribs as seen in the profile just below the 
chest marks the most advanced part of the figure, 
and overhangs all the lower part when standing. 
In the female, the apex of the breast, however, 
extends beyond it. 

The male figure is widest at the deltoid across 
the shoulders, and tapers gently to the feet. As 
in the arm and leg, the body, too, tapers in sec- 
tions. From the greatest width across the shoul- 
ders, the upper part of the body or thorax dimin- 
ishes in width from the shoulders to the waist 
only to widen again, first to the crest of the pelvis 
and then to the head of the femur, from thence 
the legs collectively taper rapidly to the knees, 
here the form widens to the calves and diminishes 
again rapidly to the ankles. 

It is well to recall here that the two sides of 
the body are symmetrical, and one of the greatest 
charms in the study of drawing lies in tracing this 
symmetry through all kinds of actions and fore- 

The study Of relations and its significance in 
arriving at proportions should be given the first 









attention, in seeking the place for the part before 
the part itself shall occupy his attention. Do 
not draw the part perfectly until its proper place 
and relative proportions have been secured; its 
length, breadth and thickness should first be 
determined in their relation to the whole figure. 

An understanding of the use and location of 
joints, marking as they do the separation of 
important parts, is apt to disturb the beginner 
greatly; the temptation is to halt at a joint, as if 
it were a half-way house from which to prepare 
for another form. 

If in the drawing of a part it is sufficient that 
the location of a joint be conveyed on one side 
only, it is equally sufficient in the early stages of 
building up a figure as a whole to mark the local 
form or action on one side, and convey through 
the opposite line the big swing or movement that 
characterizes the pose. 

As in the matter of minor forms or planes 
being submerged in larger ones, so must the 
movement of minor parts be absorbed temporarily 
in the great action that expresses the spirit of the 

The pose, proportions and construction of the 
figure should receive our first attention, and be 
placed to a hair's-breadth, as it were, though in a 
sketchy way, before the parts themselves are 

In composing and working from memory or 
imagination as well as from life, with a vivid 
mental picture in our vision, it seems almost 
impossible that other than the salient lines that 
emphasize the movement and the great planes that 
envelop the substance should be our first object 
in beginning the drawing, but only the expe- 
rienced know the danger and fascination of being 
lured into the expression of insignificant detail. 

















€ Kr 























































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