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Full text of "A journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar, performed under the orders of the most noble the Marquis Wellesley, governor general of India, for the express purpose of investigating the state of agriculture, arts, and commerce; the religion, manners, and customs; the history natural and civil, and antiquities, in the dominions of the rajah of Mysore, and the countries acquired by the Honourable East India company"

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A 

JOURNEY   FROM   MADRAS 

THROUGH   THE    COUNTRIES  OF 

MYSORE,  CANARA,   AND    MALABAR, 

PERFORMED  UNDER  THE  ORDERS   OF 

THE  MOST  NOBLE  THE  MARQUIS  WELLESLEY, 

GOVERNOR  GENERAL  OF  INDIA, 

lOR.  THE  EXPRESS  PURPOSE  OF  INVESTIGATINtt  THE  STATE   OF 

AGRICULTURE,  ARTS,  AND  COMMERCE ;  THE  RELIGION,  MANNERS,  AND 
CUSTOMS  ;  THE  HISTORY  NATURAL  AND  CIVIL,  AND  ANTIQUITIES, 

IN   THE  DOMINIONS  OF 

THE    RAJAH    OF    MYSORE, 

AND  THE  COUNTRIES   ACQUIRED    BY 

THE    HONOURABLE   EAST    INDIA   COMPANY, 

IN  THE  LATE  AND  FORMER  WARS,  FROM  TIPPOO  SULTAUN. 


BY  FRANCIS  BUCHANAN,  M.  D. 

FELLOW  OF  THE  ROYAL  SOCIETY,  AND   OV    THE  SOCIETY  OF   ANTIQUARIES    OP   LONDON;, 

FELLOW  OF  THE   ASIATIC   SOCIETY  OF  CALCUTTA  ;    AND   IN  THE   MEDICAL  SERVICE 

OF  THE   HONOURABLE  COMPANY   ON   THE    BENGAL  ESTABLISHMENT. 


PUBLISHED  UNDER  THE  AUTHORITY   AND   PATRONAGE  OF 

THE  HONOURABLE  THE  DIRECTORS  OF  THE  EAST  INDIA  COMPANY. 

ILLUSTRATED   RY   A   MAP  AND   NUMEROUS   OTHER   ENGRAVINGS. 


IN  THREE  VOLUMES. 
VOL.  III. 

LONDON: 


PRINTED  FOR  T.  CADELL  AND  W.  DAVIES  (BOOKSELLERS  TOTHE  ASIATIC  SOCIETY), 
IN  THE  strand;  AND  BLACK,  PARRY,  AND  KINGSBURY  (BOOKSELLERS  T« 
THE     EAST  INDIA    COMPANY),  IN  LEADENHALL  STREET; 

BT  W,  BULMER   AND  CO.  CLEVELAND  ROWj  ST.  JAMES'k. 

1807, 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

Journey  through  the  Southern  Parts  of  Canara,  _  -        _  page      i 

CHAPTER  XV. 
Journey  from  Mangalore  to  Beiduru,  -  -  -  -  6i 

CHAPTER  XVI. 

Journey  through  the  Northern  Parts  of  Canara,  -  -  _  130 

CHAPTER  XVII. 

Journey  from  the  Entrance  into  Karnata  to  Hyder-nagara,  through  the  Principalities 
of  Soonda  and  Ikeri,  -  -  -  -  -  201 

CHAPTER  XVIII. 

Journey  from  Hyder-nagara  to  Heriuru,  through  the  Principalities  of  Ikeri  and 
Chatrakal,  -_----_  283 

CHAPTER  XIX. 

Journey  from  Heriuru  to  Seringapatam,  through  the  Western  and  middle  Parts  of 
the  Mysore  Dominions,  _  -  ■  -  _  ^jjg 

CHAPTER  XX. 

Journey  from  Seringapatam  to  Madras,  -  -  -  -  41^ 


APPENDIX. 

Report  of  the  Productions,  Commerce,  and  Manufactures,  of  the 
Southern  Districts  in  Malkam  (Malayalam),  framed  by  the  Resi- 
dent at  Calicut,  agreeably  to  the  Instructions  of  the  Commis- 
sioners appointed  to  inspect  the  Countries  ceded  by  Tippoo  Sultan 
on  the  Malabar  Coast;  and  comprised  under  the  following 
Heads,  viz. 

I.  Account  of  the  several  Articles  of  Commerce  produced  or  manufactured,  and 
which  are  also  consumed  in  the  Country,  -  -  -  page     i 

II.  Account  of  Goods  exported,  and  to  what  Places,  -  -  iii 

III.  Account  of  Goods  imported,  -  _  -  .  _  y 


;5 


CONTENTS. 


An  Abstract  of  the  Goods  imported  and  exported  by  Sea,  for  the  different  years, 

taken  from  the  Custom-house  Account  of  Tellichery  Circle,  page     vii 

Total  Qi^iantity  of  different  Articles  exported  by   Sea  from  Bettutanada,  in   the 

years  974  and  975,  -  .  -  _  _  _  xiii 

Total  Quantity  of  different  Articles  imported  by  Sea,  in  Bettutanada,  in  the  years 

974  and  975,  »_-.---  xiv 

Total  Quantity  of  Articles  exported  by  Sea  from  Parupa-nada,  in  the  years  974, 

and  975,  .  _  -  -  -  ib. 

Total  Qiiantity  of  Articles  imported  by  Sea  in  Parupa-nada,  for  the  years  974  and 

975. '  ^^ 

Total  Quantity  of  Articles  exported  by  Land  from  Manar-ghat,  in  the  years  974 

and  975,  __._---  lb. 

Total  Quantity  of  Articles  imported  by  Land  to  Manar-ghat,  in  the  years  974  and 

975.  -  -  -    _  -  -  -  ''^' 

An  Account  of  the  Goods  exported  and  imported  by  the  Tamarachery  Ghat,  for  the 

Malabar  year  975,  _.___-  xvii 

An  Account  of  the  Exports  and  Imports  of  the  various  Articles  into  the  Pye-nada 

xviii 

ib. 

xxii 

XXV 

xxvii 

-xxix 

xxxi 


District,  for  the  Malabar  year  975.  .  _  . 

Abstract  of  Goods  imported  by  Sea,  from  rst.  Jan.  to  31st.  Dec.  1799 
Abstract  of  Goods  imported  by  Sea,  from  ist.  Jan.  to  31st.  Dec.  1800, 
Abstract  of  Goods  exported  by  Sea,  from  ist.  Jan.  to  31st.  Dec.  1799, 
Abstract  of  Goods  exported  by  Sea,  from  ist.  Jan.  to  31st.  Dec.  1800, 
AbstractofGoodsexportedby  Land.from  1st.  Jan.  to3ist.  Dec.  1799, 
Abstract  of  Goods  exported  by  Land,  fromi  st.  Jan  to  3  ist.  Dec.  1800, 


Page. 

25, 

25, 

26, 

33, 

35, 

41, 

139, 

284, 

398, 

463, 


ERRATA  TO  VOL.  III. 

Line. 

5,  for  BaJifidary,  read  Tiahadury. 
11,12, 16,  7    j.^j.  jj^^^g^  read  Hanas. 

\6,  ior  Inams,   read  Enonw. 
23,  for  1  x^o>  read  1  JgV- 
second  marginal  note,  for  grams,  read  grains. 
9,  for  Is,  read  /. 

first  marginal  note,  omit  Manday  Gudday, 
second  marginal  note,  for  abour,  read  labour. 
second   marginal  note,  there  should  be  no  point  at 
Jnavun. 


JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS,  &c. 

CHAPTER    XIV. 

JOURNEY  THROUGH  THE  SOUTHERN  PARTS  OF  CANARA. 

"DEFORE  I  proceed  to  give  an  account  of  my  journey  through   CHAPTER 
the  province  oiCanara,  I  shall  prepare  my  reader,  by  detailing     x^^,..^^^ 
the  answers  which  were  sent  to  my  queries  by  Mr.  Ravenshaw,  the  Jan.  15. 

■^   ^  ''  J  Mr,  Raven. 

collector  of  the  southern  division ;  a  young  gentleman  who  does  thaw's  an- 
credit  to   the  school  of  Colonel  Read,  and  to  Mr.  Hurdis,  under  ^^^j;^^*"  ™y 
whom  he  was  formed  to  business. 

Query  1st.  What  proportion  of  your  district  consists  of  land  that 
has  always  been  uncultivated  ?  Of  this,  what  part  might,  with  proper 
management,  be  converted  into  rice-ground  ?  what  part  into  coco- 
nut or  Betel-nut  gardens  ?  What  proportion  of  this  waste  land  is  now 
cleared  for  grass,  what  is  under  forest,  and  what  is  enclosed  for 
plantations  of  timber  trees,  firewood,  &c. 

Answer.  No  account  of  the  extent  of  jungles  (forests)  has  ever 
been  taken.  All  the  surveys  that  have  been  made  only  went  to 
ascertain  the  cultivated  lands,  and  those  capable  of  culture,  but  not 
at  present  cultivated,  and  which  are  \\\,^Q5\  Morays.  Of  this, 
24, 18 1  Morays  are  cleared  for  grass,  ZjOiS  have  a  capability  of  being 
converted  into  rice  ground,   and   1,789  are  fit  for  gardens.    No 

Vol.  III.  '  B 


2  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPriR  account  is  kept  of  the  quantity  enclosed  for  timber,   but  all  the 
•^^^-       remainder  Nvould  answer  for  the  purpose.  N.  B.  The  average  Moray 
Jan.  15.         is  45  Guntas,   each  5'i  feet  square,    or  49,005    square  feet,   and  is 
therefore  nearly  ly^  acre. 

Q.  2d.  What  proportion  of  your  district  consists  of  rice-land? 
Of  this,  what  proportion  has  been  cultivated  last  year,  what  has 
been  waste  or  unoccupied  ? 

A.  247,218  Morays ;  of  which  225,782  were  cultivated,  and  the 
remainder  was  waste,  owing  to  a  want  of  tenants.  Of  that  which 
was  cultivated,  1,591  Morays  were  overflowed,  and  the  crops 
destroyed. 

Q.  3d.  What  proportion  of  your  district  consists  of  garden 
grounds  ?  In  these,  how  many  coco-nut  or  Betel-nut  trees,  and 
trees  for  supporting  pepper  vines,  are  planted  ?  Is  the  estimate 
of  these  founded  on  any  recent  survey,  or  from  an  old  valua- 
tion ? 

A.  The  number  of  trees  contained  in  the  gardens,  according  to 
the  public  accompts,  are,  coco-nut  695,060,  Betel-mit  1,155,850, 
Mangos  59,772,  sundries  54,362,  pepper  vines  368,828.  This  esti- 
mate is  formed  from  an  old  survey  made  in  the  year  179t-  The 
number  of  trees,  of  each  description,  is  at  least  double  of  what  is 
here  mentioned. 

Q.  4th.  How  many  ploughs  are  there  in  your  district  ? 

A.  71,716. 

Q.  5th.   How  many  slaves  of  all  ages,  and  both  sexes  ? 

A.  7924. 

Q.  6th.   How  many  houses  ? 

A.  71,856. 

Q.  7th.   Of  these,  how  many  are  inhabited  by  Christians  ? 

A.  %5^5. 

Q.  8th.  How  many  by  Mussulmans,  including  Moplays  ? 

A.  5,223. 

Q.  9th.  How  many  by  Brahmans,  including  Namburis  ? 


Jan.  15. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  3 

J.  7,187,  exclusive  of  Kankdnies,  the  Brahmans  of  which  nation    CHAPTER 

XIV. 

are  confounded  with  the  other  casts.  ,  ^-^^^j-*^ 

Q.  10th.  How  many  by  Jain  ? 

A.  2,700. 

Q.  1 1th.  How  many  by  those  who  wear  the  L'mgaju  ? 

A.   880. 

Q,  J<2th.  How  many  by  Nairs? 

A.  788. 

Q.  13th.  How  many  by  Massady  Buntars  f 

A.  7,123. 

Q.  14th,  How  many  hy  Jain  Buntars  ? 

A.  1,060. 

Q.  15th.   How  many  by  Kankdnies? 

A.  2,434. 

Q.  I6th.  How  many  animals  of  the  cow  kind  are  there  in  your 
district  ? 

A.  Cows  62,130,  males  98,860,  calves  59,109. 

Q.  17th.  How  many  animals  of  the  Buffalo  kind  ? 

A.  Females  12,129,  males  43,596,  calves  6,882. 

Q.  18th.  What  quantity  of  seed  rice  is  sown  annually?  As  the 
Hany  differs  in  different  districts,  it  will  be  necessary  to  state  this 
in  Morays  of  Mangalore,  or  at  least  to  state  the  proportion  which 
the  Hany  of  each  district  has  to  that  measure. 

-  A.  2,36,374  Morays  of  60  Mangalore  Hanies.  N.  B.  This  Moray 
contains  3,847t  cubical  inches;  the  seed  therefore  is  about  423,000 
bushels. 

Q.  19th.  What  goods  are  exported  by  the  sea  from  your  portion 
of  Canara,  and  to  what  annual  amount  ? 

Q.  20th.  What  goods  are  imported  by  sea,  and  to  what  annual 
amount  ? 

Q.  21st.  What  goods  are  exported  from  your  division  of  Canara 
by  land,  and  to  what  annual  amount^ 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Q.  22d.  What  goods  are  imported  by  land,  and  to  what  annual 
amount? 

-A.  Annexed  are  statements  of  the  exports  and  imports  by  sea, 
from  the  revenue  accompts,  for  two  years  during  the  government 
of  the  Sultan  ;  and  for  one  year,  since  the  country  has  come  under 
the  government  of  the  Company. 

The  particulars  of  this  commerce  will  be  seen  by  consulting 
commerce  by  these:  I  shall,  however,  state  the  general  result. 

Account  of  the  exports  and  imports  into  Mangalore  Taluc  (district) 
by  sea. 


Jan.  15. 


General 
statement  of 


Fusly  or  revenue  year  1203 
Ditto  -  -  -  -  1205 
Ditto    -     -     -     -   1210 


Imports. 


Pagodas  Tans.  Anas. 

39,118  5  14f 
13,641  6  2 
84,461  7  19 


Exports. 


Pagodas  Fans.  Anas. 
58,581     4     2i 
66,903     0     3 
1,72,427     2   10 


Commerce 
by  land. 


From  this  will  be  evident,  the  immense  benefit  that  the  country 
has  received  by  a  change  of  government. 

No  custom-house  'accompt  has  been  forwarded  of  the  exports 
and  imports  by  land  ;  but  Mr.  Ravenshaw  states  the  former  to  con- 
sist chiefly  of  salt,  salt-fish.  Betel-nut,  ginger,  coco-nuts,  coco-nut 
oil,  and  raw-silk,  to  the  annual  amount  of  20, 3SS  Pagodas.  The 
imports  are  chiefly  cloths,  cotton,  thread,  blankets,  tobacco,  and 
black  cattle,  with  a  small  quantity  of  pepper,  and  sandal  wood,  to 
the  amount  of  37,4-55  Pagodas.  The  balance,  in  favour  of  the  di- 
vision of  the  province  under  Mr.  Ravenshaw,  is  therefore  70,899 
Pagodas,  each  worth  at  the  mint  price  very  nearly  8s.  O^d. 

Along  with  these  answers  to  my  queries,  Mr.  Ravenshaw  most 
obligingly  sent  me  some  valuable  statements  relative  to  the  quan- 
tity of  seed  required  for  rice  lands,  and  to  the  quantity  of  produce. 


[To  face  page  4. 

ACCOUNT  of  si^  Talook  of  Mangalore. 


No. 


10 

11 

12 

13 

Ji' 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 


SPORTED. 


ARTICLES. 


1  Chaivl,  or  Rice    

2  Suparee,  or  Betle-Nut 

Neshpani/  Dagah,  or  Silk  Thread 

Chinni  Sacar,  or  Sugar 

Kahdy  Sacar,  or  Sugar  Candy. 
Ilachy,  or  Kisiness,  or  Plums     . . . 

Gundagum,  or  Brimstone 

Jeera,  or  Cummin   Seed    

ffing,  or  Asafoetida 

Badam,  or  Almonds 

Kansoo  Catha 

Ganja,  or  Flowers  of  Hemp. . . . 
Cajure,  or  Dates 

/^.,-Dj;-,-  J>~». 

Cagath  Regnee,  or  Paper  Reams 

Jarick  Ranaraj/,  Goat     

Chapetty,  or  Tea  in  Boxes 

Minqurry  Cutt,  or  Fish  Fins. . . . 

Adody,  or  Leather 

Banath,  or  Sackcloth 

Cirkah  Pitty,  or  Vinegar  Pipes 

Coodveh,  or  clean  Riy:e  Bags. . . . 

Maikug,  or  Salt  Fish,  (1)8  Bundles)  . . 

Cutclia  Siifeth  Rumall,  or  Handkerchiefs 

Kunghi,  or  Combs 

Kengany  Ricab,  China  Ware 

Lakly  Kinarah  Babut  Hyna,    or  Looking 

Hynuck,  Spectacles    

Mushooru,  Topi 

.Pitlalka  Tarnss 

IQgll^irrannah,  or  Fans    

1  JO  Sltally  Wallah 


111 

112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
^17 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 


Suhi,  or  Needles    

Chamdcke  Baldy,  or  Leather  Pots. . . . 
Chapli  Joddah,  or  Malabar  Shoes. . . . 

Path  Cothaday 

Panush,  or  Lanterns 

Bilawaru  Sishaw    

Taftha  Chattery,  or  Silk  Umbrellas  . . 
Pingany  Kattora  Chotti,  and  Badda  . . 
Anchorage  Duties  for  Boats  ~\ 

Ditto  for   Sibadey   . 

Ditto  for  Boats    . . 

Ditto  Mundioes  . . 

Ditto  Sahvaddy  . . . 

Ditto  Chanbuk     . . 

Ditto  Balla     

Ditto  Manjee   .... 

Ditto  Pattamars . . 

Ditto  Magh  Herry. 

Ditto  Doncy.  ,  .  . 


> 


>^ 


Vol.  in. 


Price. 


56677 
781 


46 


Customs. 


11142 
302 


Total  Customs. 


58581    4  2i    11400   3   6    14200 


11164 

303 

19 

102 

25 
21 
17 
17 

5 
22 

6 

19 

110 


3 
1 
7 

2 
5 
9 
4 
4 
4 
2 
7 

10 
5 

12 
8 

11 

2 

2 

8 
11 

8 
14 

9 

3 
13 

3 
15 

4 

I 

4 
12 

6 
15 
15 

6 

4 

2 

2 

6 

4 

H 
4 
4 

8 
8 
2 
6 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XIV. 

Jan.  15. 


Q.  22d.  What  goods  are  imported  by  land,  and  to  what  annual 
amount  ? 

A.  Annexed  are  statements  of  the  exports  and  imports  by  sea, 
from  the  revenue  accompts,  for  two  years  during  the  government 
of  the  Sultan  ;  and  for  one  year,  since  the  country  has  come  under 
the  government  of  the  Company. 

The  particulars  of  this  commerce  will  be  seen  by  consulting 
commerce  by  these  :  I  shall,  however,  state  the  general  result. 

Account  of  the  exports  and  imports  into  Mangalore  Taluc  (district) 
by  sea. 


Exports 


General 

statement  of 


Commerce 
by  land. 


Fusly  or  revenue  year  1203 
Ditto  -  -  -  -  1205 
Ditto    -     -     -     -   1210 


Pagodas  Fans.  Anas, 
58,581     4     2i 
68,903     0     3 
1,72,427     2  10 


From  this  will  be  evident,  the  immense  benefit  that  the  country 
has  received  by  a  change  of  government. 

No  custom-house  'accompt  has  been  forwarded  of  the  exports 
and  imports  by  land  ;  but  Mr.  Ravenshaw  states  the  former  to  con- 
sist chiefly  of  salt,  salt-fish,  Betel-nut,  ginger,  coco-nuts,  coco-nut 
oil,  and  raw-silk,  to  the  annual  amount  of  20, 3?,S  Pagodas.  The 
imports  are  chiefly  cloths,  cotton,  thread,  blankets,  tobacco,  and 
black  cattle,  with  a  small  quantity  of  pepper,  and  sandal  M'ood,  to 
the  amount  of  37,A55  Pagodas.  The  balance,  in  favour  of  the  di- 
vision of  the  province  under  Mr.  Ravenshaw,  is  therefore  70,899 
Pagodas,  each  worth  at  the  mint  price  very  nearly  8*.  O^d. 

Along  with  these  ansM-ers  to  my  queries,  Mr.  Ravenshaw  most 
obligingly  sent  me  some  valuable  statements  relative  to  the  quan- 
tity of  seed  required  for  rice  lands,  and  to  the  quantity  of  produce. 


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Am!.             1 

ACCOUNT  of3  Tallook  of  Mangalore. 


No, 


RTED. 


ARTICLES. 


Biam,  01'  Rice    

Suparee,  or  Beetle-nut 

Reshiitany  Daga,  Silk  Tliiead 
Chinni  Saccar,  or  Sugar   . . . . 

Chathila,  or  Tutenague 

Sisa,  or  Lead     

Aridalla 

Karpura,  or  Camphor 

Lobauni,  or  Incense 


Price.  Customs. 


67-JS9 
344 


10200 
99 


Total  Customs. 


10200 
122 


7 
10 


S5Sg2 

«»xx 

33:1 

SS22 

^2; 

55 

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ACCOUNT  oK^^'^^  ^^  Mangalore. 


- 

T 

ARTICLES. 

ED. 

otal  Customs. 

A 

.s 

■§ 
0 

491 
61 
16 

8^ 

Corgc,  or 
Score  by 
Nuniber. 

Price. 

Customs. 

No. 

1 

^ 

"^ 

i    1 

'^    ft. 

1 
s 



141605 

15200 

1739 

6 

1 
39 

■! 

7 
5 

5 

6 
4 
V> 

10 

6 

14178 

1007 

390 

2 

7- 
5 
3 
2 

-  14204 
2      1024 
2        396 
8          46 

-  1 

-  10 

-  1 

13  18 

14  2 

8  2 

1  2 
5        4 

5  8 

2  5 

6  15 
4      12 

9  6 

7  14 
6      10 

1( 

2( 
3, 

7alli  Mirchy,  or  Black  Pepper   .... 

4y 
5( 

dascky,  or  Sugar  Candy 

^uththa 

6; 

71 

8j 

'eerah,  or  Cummin  Seeds 

Vowasacar,  or  Ti  n 

9i 

90 

Pittambur  Suddy           ditto 

Pittambur  Doputtur       ditto 

Roshmany  Sucy  lllacky,  ditto 

Coothney,                         ditto 

Naviabby,                       ditto 

Reshmany  Rwiiallo,       ditto 

niachy  Sucy,                  ditto 

Kntchey  Chittoo,            ditto 

Palampous,                     ditto 

Manapaut  Cutchey,       ditto 

Porkally  ShiUah,           ditto 

Dohattus,                       ditto 

Caa«^i,                          ditto 

Nankins,                        ditto 

Muscat  Lungy,              ditto 

iVatuor  Undah,              ditto 

5z{^«/i  Chillah,              ditto ." 

Ditto  Piigdey,  or  Turbans 

Ditto  Baughthaw,        Cloth 

CAi>i<  Pachady,               ditto 

Cauthey,                           ditto 

Paundey  Mundaragueray,  ditto  . . . . 
'5'"««i'.                             ditto 

Dahuby,                           ditto 

Kaurruy,                         ditto 

Zarukanaray  Rumaul,  ditto 

Shawls 

X 

1 

I 

2 

-  17 

_         I 

-  31- 

—  221- 

—  5 

INT  W  C( 

1           23 

2 
—             7 

6     ■: 

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Anas. 

No 


125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 


214 
215 
216 

217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 


ARTICLES. 


Rajapudy  Nagpiidi/  Sahdy,  Cloth . 
Bengallj/  Dattariy  Charkana,  ditto. 
Sagcth  Pathut,  ditto. 

Soothy  Kins,  ditto. 

Coliliy  Pachody,  ditto. 

Mercoly  Pachody,  ditto. 

Shuttrunjee,  Carpets 

Tevassy,  Cloth 

Cachika  L'.irhotay,  ditto 

Ruhi  Coddry,  ditto 

Hynah,  or  Looking  Glasses. 


"irl3 St'ohes"loi'grinding  bamfal' 


Soorat  Pans 

Ditto,  Mutiy  qui  Dubby    . 

Plantains 

Sooma  Gudah     

Goa  Buchingahi  Tabu   .  . . 

Mooskaty  Tokray 

Goa  Bringnlts 

Chilhey  Denuss 

Luckdybabuth  Cungsy     .  , , 

Miinjal,  or  Saffron 

Uthdruck   

Mucky  If  Gurry,  Bundles. 
Adohdy 


227  Choodveh. 


ACCOUNT   (contine  Tallook  of  Mangalore, 


ED. 


Gorge,  or 
Score  by 
Number. 


24 


Price.  Customs. 


228  Gunmy  Bindeh  

229  IVhhulla 

230  Churudahy  ■ 

231  Nimmuck,  or  Salt 

232  Chop,  or  Marksupon  Cloths 

233  Daw  Dunghie, Duties  on  Anchorage 

234  Long  Boat ditto 

235  Pattamars,  Boats ditto 

236  Munjee   ditto 

237  Chambauk ditto 

238  Toney,  Canoes ditto 

239  Small  Boats , , ditto 

240  Sebadah ditto 

241  Coondry ditto 

242  Munchill ditto 

243  Koolky   ditto 

244  Sowdey    ditto 

245  Navaddy    ditto 

246  Mahigherry    ditto 

247  Malcaly  Bellah ditto 

Vol.  III. 


414 


25 

5 

20 

63 

9339 


Total  Customs. 


123 

23 


172427  9  10 


4 
622 


13 


11 

14 

1 

5 

10 

2 


1 

188' 

845 

115! 

7 

232 

12 

239 

114 

II 

58 

7 

9 

10 

14 

21 

5 


3760 


10 

15 
8 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 

14 
2 

13 


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6 
3 

13 


12 
14 


14 
9 

13 

14 
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14 

14 


JOHN  G.  RAVElSbHAV/. 


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MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


of  which  I  shall  hereafter  avail  myself.  He  also  favoured  me  with 
a  statement  of  the  population  made  up  about  this  time  ;  and  reliance 
may  be  placed  on  its  accuracy  with  respect  to  numbers.  I  have 
taken  the  liberty  of  altering  the  orthography,  to  make  it  conform- 
able to  the  other  parts  of  my  account.  The  different  casts  are  de- 
tailed in  the  usual  confused  manner,  with  which  they  are  spoken  of 
by  the  native  officers  of  revenue. 

Kaneh  Shumareh,  or  statement  of  Casts,  Men,  Boys,  Women,  and  Girls  in 
the  ten  Talucs  or  districts  of  the  Southern  division  of  the  province  of 
Canara. 


Jan.  15. 
Population. 


No. 

Casts  or  Trades. 

Houses. 

Men. 

Boys. 

Women, 

Girls. 

total. 

1 

Brihmans.     Nearly  all   but  that  of  holding  the 

plough          -._---- 

6s67 

12677 

6932 

13192 

4080 

36s  81 

52 

Coochastully .    The  same             .         .         .         . 

320 

762 

450 

799 

275 

2286 

3 

Kankdnies.    Bankers,  iihopkeepers,  and  traders 

2434 

4724 

2419 

4495 

1436 

13074. 

4 

Pennecar  a  2d  sort.    Same,  but  in  a  lower  line 

152 

242 

112 

281 

82 

717 

5 

Novaisgar.    Cultivators,  and  shopkeepers     - 

277 

544 

269 

542 

140 

1501 

6 

Stanicas.     Employed    in   low   offices  at    heathen 

temples           _             .             -             .             - 

880 

1466 

744. 

1396 

450 

4029 

7 

Giijjer.    Merchants  from  Gvjjerat 

4 

38 

— 

8 

5 

51 

8 

Hurry  Chitties.    Merchants         -              -              - 

l6l 

293 

129 

291 

83 

796 

9 

Lingabantar.    Merchants,  usually  called  Banijigar 

328 

573 

205 

535 

151 

1464 

10 

Rajputs.    Messengers,  soldiers,  and  robbers 

47 

91 

38 

79 

23 

231 

11 

Satanies.    Adorn  the  idol  Vishnu         .         .         - 

6 

10 

3 

9 

4 

26 

12 

Daseris.    Religious  mendicants 

114 

181 

67 

154 

74 

476 

13 

Vairdgis.     Ditto             .             .             -             - 

6 

11 

4 

7 

5 

27 

14 

Jainas.    Cultivators              -              .             -         . 

2700 

5108 

2307 

4763 

1914 

14092 

J5 

Bnnts.    Ditto              .              -                .                . 

S1S3 

19349 

7775 

19041 

6654 

52819 

16 

Davadygar  (Devagaka).    Musicians 

1583 

2893 

1079 

2968 

91s 

7853 

17 

Nairs.    Farmers              _              -              -              . 

788 

1718 

748 

1800 

620 

4886 

18 

Moplays,    Farmers  and  merchants 

3835 

6383 

3402 

6776 

2582 

19143 

19 

Moylar.    Similar  to  the  Stanka,  No.  6.     - 

160 

206 

111 

318 

87 

722 

20 

Carwar.    Generally  seamen         .              .              - 

28 

33 

8 

36 

5 

82 

21 

Mussulmans.    Exclusive  oS Moplays,  and  artists 

13SS 

2276 

1200 

2377 

832 

6685 

22 

Cunians.    Fortune-tellers,  exorcists 

145 

234 

118 

233 

83 

66s 

23 

C/niplygur.    Day  labourers  (a  Blussulman  word) 

43 

72 

24 

73 

20 

189 

24 

Pomtbuf„    Attendants  on  the  idols  of  destructive 

spirits             .              .              .              .              - 

224 

414 

147 

367 

124 

1052 

25 

Coilaury.    Cultivators,  and  servants 

523 

1037 

410 

1052 

417 

2916 

26 

Carda  Kankdnies.     Ditto              .              -              _ 

719 

1385 

59s 

1336 

399 

37I8 

27 

Kankdny  Wafkygar.    Messengers,  &c. 

275 

511 

205 

517 

125 

1358 

28 

Chvptagar.    Carpenters,  woodcutters,  5:c. 

259 

406 

176 

439 

126 

1147 

A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XIV. 


Ne. 

Casts  or  Trades. 

Houses. 

Men. 

Boys. 

Women. 

GirU. 

Total. 

29 

Pjuat,    Persons  employed  by  the  great  to  sing  their 

praises              .              .              .              .            . 

8 

16 

11 

17 

12 

56 

30 

Gaitda  Barla  Wocul.    Cultivators 

3271 

6218 

3587 

6264 

27O8 

18777 

31 

Bihiaras.     I'eople  who  extract  the  juice  of  palms 

11397 

20222 

8087 

19376 

6079 

53764. 

32 

Marattahs  (Sudras  of  that  Desa).    Cultivators 

1943 

3298 

16S9 

3152 

1285 

9424 

33 

Bcdor.    A  savage  race,  who   eat  cats,  and  with 

great  propriety  aie  called  muidcrers 

l6 

29 

13 

23 

14 

79 

34 

Kshatrii/as  (pretcnderb  to  the  2d.  cast).    Messen- 

gers, robbers,  &c.        -              -             -              . 

289 

657 

295 

640 

170 

1762 

35 

Mogai/ar.    Fishermen,  boatmen 

2410 

4017 

1530 

4166 

1349 

11062 

36 

Parsis.    Merchants         .              .              -              - 

1 

8 

— 

— 

— 

8 

H 

Talics.    Oil-makers              -              .             .         - 

755 

1266 

553 

1283 

506 

36O8 

38 

Garludda  Kankunks.    Gardeners,  and  cultivators 

114 

193 

65 

167 

40 

465 

39 

Christians.     Cultivators,  merchants,  &c. 

2545 

3701 

1968 

3603 

1605 

10877 

40 

Coneget/er.    Cultivators                -               -          .    - 

63 

89 

58 

97 

31 

275 

41 

Cabbadi.    Sellers  of  butter,  and  milk 

23 

31 

12 

33 

16 

92 

42 

Currcy  Cudemdaer.    A  low  cast  of  cultivators 

206 

437 

261 

393 

182 

1273 

43 

Mulaijala  Biluaras.     (Tiars)  Todd)-sellers 

128 

219 

83 

219 

62 

583 

44 

Mar,  Marattahs.    Cultivators 

41 

74 

55 

69 

22 

220 

45 

Malay-cudis.    Cultivators  living  on  the  hills 

^79 

885 

404 

863 

247 

2399 

46 

Hola  Da-caru  (Hatypecas?).    Cultivators 

155 

330 

150 

334 

124 

938 

47 

Bhyru.     Day  labourers              .                .               - 

265 

402 

190 

377 

175 

1144 

48 

Cundlagar.    Farmers                  -                -              - 

57 

106 

71 

102 

38 

317 

49 

Upar.    Pioneers               .              .              .              . 

6 

9 

3 

6 

— 

18 

50 

Garwady.    Snake-catchers              .              .            . 

1 

4 

2 

1 

— 

7 

£1 

Goiflj/o-ar  (natives  of  Goa).    IVIerchants 

46 

115 

77 

94 

44 

330 

52 

Autgar.      A   sort   of  actors,  who   represent  the 

ancient  wars  of  India               .              .             . 

3 

7 

1 

5 

2 

15 

53 

Conchittigar.    Farmers              .                .               - 

18 

21 

IS 

21 

10 

70 

54 

Comutty  (Vaisyas).     Merchants  of  the  3d  pure 

cast               -              .             .             .             - 

12 

18 

6 

27 

5 

56 

55 

Pacanat.    Collectors,  and  venders  of  drugs 

12 

17 

18 

17 

8 

60 

56 

Dumbar.    Tumblers.              .                  .                 . 

5 

20 

10 

25 

8 

63 

57 

Bardsegar.    Labourers,  and  cultivators 

31 

40' 

26 

50 

38 

160 

58 

Baylall.    Farmers            -              -              -              - 

18 

47 

11 

52 

19 

129 

59 

Rachewar.    Messengers,  soldiers,  robbers 

5 

8 

0 

8 

3 

21 

60 

Gursor.    A  set  of  people  living  in  forests,  oa  what 

they  can  procure  wild  there 

6 

6 

— 

6 

2 

U 

61 

Raniey.    Day  labourers               .              .              - 

14 

18 

7 

14 

5 

44 

62 

Barsagur.  Farmers         -              .              .              - 

24 

54 

35 

56 

18 

163 

63 

Mar  Daerd  (JV/ialliani?J.     Day  labourers,  Mes- 

sengers, &C.               -                 .                .              - 

1198 

1634 

833 

1594 

603 

4664 

64 

Cundacar.    Land  measurers              -              -         - 

5 

12 

9 

10 

2 

83 

65 

Buy.     Palanquin-bearers               .             .             - 

171 

284 

134 

278 

98 

79^ 

66 

Mally  Buy.     Fishermen              .               .                - 

7 

11 

8 

10 

4 

33 

67 

Coomaru  Marattahs.    Farmers 

,0 

13 

3 

10 

8 

34 

68 

Tc/inga  Bulgcwars.  Traders,  and  labourers.  Tdiga 

Banijigaru  of  Karnata              .             -              - 

32 

48 

30 

55 

22 

155 

69 

Ciinabi.    Farmers  of  pure  Sudra  descent 

179 

447 

200 

361 

136 

1144 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


No. 

Casis  or  Trades. 

Houses. 

Men. 

Boys. 

Women. 

Girls 

Total. 

70 

Mocarey  (Mogayar  No.  35,).    Bonlmen 

135 

218 

124 

247 

98 

687 

71 

Gollurs.     Vhuous  services              _              -              - 

173 

299 

146 

291 

106 

842 

72 

Jogies.    Relifiious  mendicants           -             -         - 

200 

332 

160 

319 

102 

913 

73 

Bundarey.    Shopkeepeis,  servants 

112 

229 

89 

213 

67 

698 

74 

Citrubaru.    Cattle-drivers,  and  dealers 

49 

68 

24 

70 

21 

18 

75 

BusLe  (Banwa).     Prostitutes  of  the  sect  who  wor- 

ship the  Linga              .... 

33 

16 

14 

71 

16 

117 

76 

Jofygtir,  Gardeners             -             -             -         - 

75 

166 

83 

148 

38 

435 

77 

Neckar  (buccal).    Jugglers,  &c. 

16 

21 

7 

23 

4 

55 

78 

Buda  Budiky.    Beggars             .               -              - 

15 

21 

25 

30 

11 

87 

79 

Li/igawer.     Ditto              .             .             .             _ 

12 

14 

7 

13 

10 

44 

80 

Telingas.    Mercliants  from  Telingana 

19 

34 

30 

35 

15 

114 

81 

Pdut.    Cultivators          .              -             -              - 

48 

83 

37 

92 

25 

237 

82 

Savunts.    Ditto 

o 

4 

2 

3 

1 

10 

83 

Carady.    Various  services             .             .             - 

18 

33 

10 

34 

9 

36 

84 

Mooshgey.    Farmers              .                  _                  - 

6 

8 

3 

7 

8 

26 

85 

Ambigor.    Boatmen              -             -             -         - 

12 

22 

16 

22 

6 

66 

86 

Dttckey.    Beggars,  worshippers  of  Buddha 

11 

15 

5 

17 

5 

42 

87 

Seddar.    Ditto              -                .               ■             - 

36 

66 

17 

66 

14 

163 

88 

Veor     Ditto         _                  .                  .                 - 

14 

23 

9 

24 

13 

69 

89 

Mistries.    Head  carpenters              -             -           - 

14 

26 

13 

23 

4 

66 

90 

Chowdeky.     Beggars               .                  -                  - 

1 

1 

2 

2 

— 

5 

91 

Ruddi.     Farmers             _              .             -              - 

7 

14 

2 

13 

— 

29 

92 

Mallewar.    Farmers,  who  wear  the  Lingam 

689 

1376 

623 

1257 

472 

3728 

93 

Puroo.    Merchants'  servants        -              .             - 

16 

28 

13 

23 

9 

73 

94 

Cunnucungal.    Day  labourers              -          -         - 

1 

4 

3 

4 

3 

14 

95 

Sopucoragur  (Corar).    Ditto 

158 

267 

118 

258 

106 

749 

96 

Dcrcrd  (IVhalliaruj.     Slaves   employed  in  culti- 

vation             -             _              _             .             . 

12278 

16751 

7528 

16633 

6446 

47358 

97 

Dobe,     Washermen                -                  .                  - 

517 

912 

352 

855 

284 

2403 

98 

Hujam.    Barbers 

517 

912 

352 

855 

284 

2403 

99 

Chummar.    Workers  in  leather 

193 

386 

187 

378 

149 

1100 

100 

Sungtrash.    Stone-cutters              -             -             . 

27 

48 

16 

42 

16 

122 

101 

Sunar.     Gold  aiid  silver  smiths 

1329 

2714 

1194 

2640 

1017 

7565 

102 

Cansar.    AVoikers  in  brass              -             •            - 

127 

234 

95 

223 

73 

625 

103 

Lu/iar.    Blacksmiths             -                  .                  . 

127 

210 

101 

201 

95 

607 

104 

Julai.    Weavers               -              .              -              . 

847 

1367 

707 

1335 

543 

3952 

105 

Cunara  Kvmbhara.    Pot-makers 

2188 

3892 

1570 

S646 

1350 

10458 

106 

Buddai.    Carpenters              -              -            _         . 

602 

986 

529 

1027 

382 

2924 

107 

Hungary.     Dyers             .             _              .             . 

1 

4 

— 

2 

— 

6 

108 

Borudir.    ]Mat -makers              .                .                - 

65 

111 

55 

106 

59 

311 

109 

'I'amhutgars.    Coppersmiths    ^         -             -         - 

5 

lo 

9 

12 

5 

39 

110 

CJutrigar.    Painters              .                  .                  . 

5 

9 

5 

9 

4 

27 

111 

Viiijar.     Cotton-cleaners              »              ,              . 

16 

27 

12 

28 

4 

71 

112 

Slmuldars.    Cutlers              .                  _                  . 

10 

26 

6 

23 

7 

62 

113 

Zeettdar.    Saddlers                  _                  .                . 

32 

62 

26 

62 

25 

175 

114 

Dirzi.    Tajlois                .             .              .              - 

125 

252 

119 

245 

87 

703 

115 

Tuip/ia,    Dancers  and  musicians 

156 

140 

96 

345 

142 

723 

ii6 

Jetiy.    Wrestlers             -             .             .             - 

2 

5 

3 

4 

] 

13 

CHAPTER 
XIV. 

Jan.  15. 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XIV. 

Jan.  Id. 


No. 

Casts  or  Trades. 

Houses. 

Men. 

Boys. 

Women. 

Girls. 

Total. 

1)7 

118 
119 

120 
121 
122 

Killabiind.     Architects,   literally  constructoi-s  of 
forls               .               .              .              .              . 
Tapegar.    Jewellers                  -                  -              - 
Jilligar.    People  who  search  wells,  and  tanks  for 
lost  money                  -              -              _             . 
Mouthatcy.            -              -              .              .           . 
Adagathur  Mogayar.    Boatmen  and  fishermen     - 
Corc/iey.    Day  labourers              .             .             . 

Grand  total 

4 

1 

5 
26 
31 

3 

3 

2 

7 
35 
51 
11 

2 

5 

21 

18 

4 

7 
2 

4 
27 
61 

7 

4 

1 

2 
24 
14 
11 

14 

7 

18 
107 
144 

33 

79856 

141681 

64952 

140302 

49737396672 

Polygamy 
not  owing  to 
an  e.\cess  of 
females. 


Jan.  16. 
State  of  the 
country. 


The  general  result  is,  that  in  the  southern  division  of  Canara 
there  are  79,856  houses,  inhabited  by  396,672  persons;  of  whom 

Males,  Men      -     141,681 

Boys      -       64,952 

206,633 

Females,  Women  140,302 
Girls     -    4-9,737 

190,039 

This  excess  of  males  above  the  female  population,  which  also  has 
been  found  to  prevail  in  the  Bara-rmhal,  and  other  parts  of  the 
peninsula  where  an  accurate  census  has  been  taken,  entirely  over- 
throws the  doctrine  upon  which  some  ingenious  reasoners  have 
attempted  to  account  for  the  prevalence  of  polygamy  in  warm 
climates. 

16th  January,  1801. — I  went  about  two  miles,  said  to  be  two  cosses 
and  a  half,  to  a  place  called  Urigara,  or  the  bank.  Immediately 
beyond  Cavai  1  was  ferried  over  a  very  wide  inlet  of  the  sea,  which 
separates  ti)e  province  of  Malabar  from  that  of  Canara;  but  the 
country  called  Malayala  by  the  natives  extends  a  considerable  way 
farther  north.  My  road  all  the  way  led  along  a  narrow  bank  of 
sand,  between  the  sea  and  the  inlet.  The  surf,  although  larger 
than  any  that  I  have  seen  on  this  coast,  is  by  no  means  so  violent 


Toi.m.p.  :is. 


FL.rn:  x\ir. 


voi.m.p.s3. 


flate  xmi. 


a  J  65 


ly  6g. 


liihdh     ,11    I  ',ii-:-(iflii     in     (hii.nxi . 


B-,1.  hi. 


VrlJE-r-Joil. 


7?// ._/</<    ,>/'  S,)iiA;i/'u(CjjNitiuy'iii,i    ,it   /..III/;,! 


PL.4TE  X\7r. 


TolJII.p.j.4-f- 


FlATE  -irF 


Fii/  o\l. 


voi.m.p.-iSo. 


Plate  M]'] 


i:'/Jir.,>:h7 


TLATE  JJVR. 


.^//i/i//    /III//  /iir  i/iiiiiiiiii    r,i//ii/i  III    1 1, in -li, in 


Fin.  8X 


roi.M.p.3z2. 


I'LATM  IXJUL. 


TolJR.ji.342. 


PLATE  JUX. 


YolJE.p.34^. 


PL.1TE  jzr. 


n 


2 


'FolM.p.34.].. 


PL^TE  TTT7 


roiJKp.j.^5. 


Plate  tjtjj 


^ 


Toijn.p.ii-jo. 


PL^iTE  jxxm. 


'/:,.„,.,    ,..,■  ,/„■  u;„./. 


ybiJK.p.]io 


FZATE   XXXTT 


Fin  fi4. 


Co7ii/soJ   muu/i-    lit  Mniniii  Bi'/,pda . 


I'LjLTE  SXXVJl. 


MOIZ     1T]D    BEJEK, 


yrco/u/  i^/7rti//?Mtl'y  C^on'  of  '^^y./AJhoc^  QMi/tarU? 


Yol.I.p.  74- 


PLATE  m. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MAI-ABAR.  9 

as  at  Madras ;  and  small  fishing  canoes  go  through  it  with  ease.  CHAPTER 
At  UniJ;ara  the  sand  bank  increases  in  width,  and  admits  of  some  ,  *•  , 
rice  fields,  and  plantations  of  coco-nut  trees.  There  is  here  no  Jan.  16. 
village  ;  but  there  are  a  few  huts  inhabited  by  Moplays,  who  now 
possess  the  sea-coast  of  this  part  of  Malayala,  as  the  Nairs  do  the 
•  interior.  On  the  side  of  the  inlet,  opposite  from  Urigara,  is  Nile- 
swara,  now  a  Moplay  village,  but  formerly  the  residence  of  a  Raja, 
who  derived  his  title  from  the  place,  which  is  called  after  one  of 
the  names  of  the  god  Siva.  Although  the  Nairs  are  still  more  nu- 
merous than  the  Moplays,  yet  during  Tippoo's  authority,  while  not 
protected  by  government,  the  Hindus  were  forced  to  skulk  in  the 
woods,  and  all  such  as  could  be  caught  were  circumcised.  It  must 
be  observed,  that  however  involuntary  this  conversion  may  be,  it 
is  perfectly  eifectual,  and  the  convert  immediately  becomes  a  good 
Mussulman,  as  otherwise  he  would  have  no  cast  at  all ;  and,  al- 
though the  doctrine  of  cast  be  no  part  of  the  faith  of  Muhammed, 
it  has  in  India  been  fully  adopted  by  the  low  ranks  of  Mussulmans. 
On  entering  Canara,  an  immediate  change  in  the  police  takes  place. 
No  person  is  here  permitted  to  swagger  about  with  arms  :  these 
may  be  kept  in  the  house  for  protection  against  thieves;  but 
they  must  not  be  brought  into  public,  for  the  encouragement  of 
assassination. 

17tli  January. — I  went  about  ten  miles  to  Hosso-durga,  or  Pungal-  jan,  i^. 

cotaii ;  both  of  which  siornify  the  new  fort,  the  former  in  the  dialect  Appearance 
/      ,  .  ofthecoun- 

of  Karnata,  and  the  latter  in  the  Malayala  language.    The  country  try. 

near  the  sea,  most  of  the  way  that  I  came  to-day,  is  low  and  sandy ; 

but   much    of  it    is    rice-land,'  intermixed    with  which  is    much 

sandy  land,  too  poor,  the  natives  say,  to  produce  coco-nut  palms. 

The  whole    appears   to  be  much  neglected,   owing  to]  a   want  of 

inhabitants. 

Towards  Hosso-durga,  the  dry-field  rises  into  gentle  swells  ;  yet 
it  is  too  hard  and  dry  for  plantations.  It  is  now  waste  ;  but,  Avhen 
there  were  plenty  of  people,  it  was  cultivated  for  Ragy  (Cynosurus 

Vol.  III.  C 


10  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  corocanus),  Horse-gram  (Dolichos  biflorus),  Sesannt7n,  and  different 
V.     pulses.  The  hill-rice  is  here  unknown  ;  the  soil,  however,  is  exactly 

Jan.  17.         the  same  as  that  which  is  used  to  the  southward  for  this  grain. 

Hosso-durga.  The  fort  is  large,  and  well  built  of  the  Laierite  common  all  over 
Malayala.  The  bastions  being  round,  it  is  more  capable  of  defence 
than  the  native  forts  in  general,  in  which  the  defences  are  usually 
square.  It  occupies  a  tine  rising  ground,  looks  well  at  a  distance, 
and  commands  a  noble  prospect.  The  only  inhabitants  are  a  few 
Puttar  Bruhmans,  who  serve  a  temple,  and  whose  ancestors  were 
placed  there  by  the  Ikeri  Raja,  who  built  the  fort. 

History  of  According  to  the  report  of  the  Nairs  here,  all  this  part  of  the 

Rdjds.  country  originally  belonged  to  Colata-nada ;  but  from  the  river  of 

Canai  to  that  near  Be'dcul  had  been  long  alienated,  from  the  house 
of  Colastri,  to  the  Nileswara  Raja,  a  chief  of  the  Tamuri  family.  In 
the  year  905  {A.  D.  n\^),  Rama  Varma  Raja  of  Nileswara  was  in- 
vaded by  the  Ikeri  Rdju,  who  in  the  following  year  bi/ilt  the  fort. 
After  a  struggle  of  twelve  years,  the  Nair  prince  was  compelled  to 
become  tributary.  His  country  was  divided  into  three  Nadas,  or 
districts,  for  each  of  Avhich  he  agreed  to  pay  annually  530  Ikeri 
Pagodas,  or  £13/.  12*.  3d.  On  paying  this  sum  the  Rdjds  were 
allowed  to  retain  the  entire  management  of  their  country',  and  seem 
at  least  so  early  to  have  established  a  regular  land-tax  in  lieu  of 
their  claims  on  the  moveable  property  of  all  persons  dying  in  their 
territory.  These  claims  they  entirely  relinquished,  and  took  one 
half  of  the  landloi'd's  (Jenmcar's)  profit  on  rice-lands,  and  one  fifth 
of  his  profit  on  gardens.  On  the  destruction  of  the  Ikeri  family, 
Hyder  took  possession  of  this  country,  and  increased  the  tribute  to 
1500  Pagodas  for  each  district ;  but  allowed  the  Rdjd,  as  collector, 
an  establishment  of  650  Pagodas  a  year;  so  that,  in  fact,  each  dis- 
trict paid  \'2.'63\  Pagodas,  or  517/.  2*.  4:\d.  Some  time  afterwards, 
some  landlords  (Jenmcars)  having  made  complaints  of  violent  op- 
pression against  the  Rdjd,  he  resisted  the  people  sent  by  Hyder  to 
investigate  the  matter,  and  a  war  ensued,   which  ended    in  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  11 

Rt'iici's  being  forced  to  an  exile  in  Travancore.  Hyder  then  took  the  CHAPTER 

XIV. 
country  under  his  own  management,  and  increased  the  rate  of  the     v.^-,^^^ 

land-tax ;  but,  as  usual,  he  made  this  more  palatable  by  granting  *"' 
considerable  allowances  to  the  temples  and  BrdJinians.  As  soon  as 
Tippoo  obtained  authority  in  the  country,  these  were  stopped ;  but, 
since  the  province  was  conquered  by  the  Company,  a  part  of  the 
allowances  have  been  given  to  the  priests  (Pujdris)  who  officiate 
in  the  temples.  When  Genera!  Mathews  took  Ba?igalo7'e,' the  Raja 
came  back  from  Travancore,  and  seized  on  the  country.  After  the 
Sultan  had  triumphantly  made  the  peace  o^  Mangalore,  he  was  op- 
posed with  such  success  by  this  petty  Rdjd,  that  he  was  forced  to 
consent  that  the  Raja  should  manage  the  country,  and  pay  only  the 
same  tribute  which  had  been  exacted  by  Hyder.  In  the  year  96I 
{A.  D.  178-f),  the  Rqjd,  having  been  lulled  into  security,  was  in- 
veigled, by  repeated  promises  of  safety  and  friendship,  to  visit 
Budr' uz  Zamdnkhdn,  governor  of  Be'dcul,  who  hanged  him  instantly, 
and,  having  marched  all  his  forces  into  the  country,  before  any 
measure  could  be  taken  to  resist  him,  reduced  the  whole  to  the 
obedience  of  his  master.  The  younger  brother  of  Rama  Varmd 
made  his  escape  to  TVaTyawcore,  and  remained  there  until  Lord  Corn- 
wallis  invaded  Seringapatam.  He  then  came  to  Tellkhery,  fi'om 
Avhence  he  received  supplies  of  arms.  In  the  year  966  (^A.  D.  179f), 
he  returned  with  these  to  Niliswara,  raised  an  insurrection,  and 
compelled  the  Sultan  to  allow  him  the  management  of  the  country, 
on  condition  of  paying  the  former  tribute.  After  the  fall  of  ^nw- 
gapatam,  when  Major  Monro  arrived  to  take  charge  of  Canara  as 
collector,  the  R('/jd  Avas  sick,  but  sent  his  sister's  son,  or  heir,  to 
wait  on  that  gentleman;  who  very  prudently  told  the  Rdjd,  that 
his  case  would  be  laid  before  the  government  for  their  decision. 
In  the  mean  while,  the  country  was  put  entirely  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Tahsildars,  exactly  on  the  plan  introduced  by  Colonel  Read, 
tinder  whom  Major  Monro  had  been  instructed  in  civil  affairs.  The 
Rdjd  has  thus  been  deprived  of  all  power ;  and  the  favourable  time 


12  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  was  chosen,  when  the  terror  inspired  by  the  fall  of  Seringapatam 
,,^1^  rendered  this  easy  to  be  done.  The  Raja  has  been  allowed,  for  his 
Jan.  17.  support,  a  remission  of  the  land-tax  on  all  his  Chericcil  lands,  or 
private  estate.  The  Nahs,  however,  complain  of  a  want  of  good 
faith  in  the  British  officers.  They  allege,  that  General  Hartley,  on 
his  return  from  Sa^ingapatam,  promised  the  Raja  that  he  should  be 
continued  in  the  management  of  the  country. 

The  dominions  of  the  Niltswara  Rc'ijd  extended  from  the  sea  to 
the  Ghats ;  and,  according  to  the  report  of  the  same  Nairs,  are 
exceedingly  depopulated  by  war,  and  by  a  famine  that  ensued  while 
they  were  forced  to  retire  into  the  woods  to  avoid  circumcision. 
The  inner  parts  of  the  country  are  much  overgrown  with  woods, 
and  are  very  thinly  inhabited.  Like  the  other  parts  of  Malayala, 
they  consist  of  alternate  low  hills  and  narrow  vallies.  In  cultivation, 
more  slaves  than  free  men  are  employed, 
jau.  IS.  \'6\\\  Januarxf. — I  went  an  easy  stage  to  Be'dcul.     Trom  Pmigal- 

oFtheconn-    ^^^^11^  ^^  ^  river  bounding  the  country  of  the  Nileswara  Raja  to  the 
ti^'.  north,  the  road  leads  along  a  ridge,  sloping  very  gently  towards 

the  sea,  and  rather  steeper  towards  a  narrow  valley  now  covered 
with  the  second  crop  of  rice.  Beyond  this  are  low  hills.  The  soil 
of  the  ridge  is  extremely  sandy,  and  the  country  is  very  bare. 
The  river  is  not  wide,  and  has  at  its  nioutli  some  low  land  well 
planted  with  coco-nut  trees. 

Between  the  river  and  Be'dcul  the  low  hills  come  close  down  to 
the  sea  side,  and  are  very  little  intermixed  with  rice  land.  In  the 
whole  way  I  crossed  only  one  narrow  field.  The  hills,  however,  are 
not  steep,  and  seem  all  to  be  capable  of  being  laboured  by  the 
plough  ;  but  no  traces  of  cultivation  are  visible. 
Bedcul.  Be'dcul  is  a  strong  native  fort,  placed,  like  Cananore,  on  a  high 

point  projecting  into  the  sea  towards  the  south,  and  having  within 
it  a  bay.  The  town  stands  north  from  the  fort,  and  contains  forty 
or  fifty  houses  scattered  about  in  great  confusion.  The  inhabitants 
are  chiefly  Moplays  and  Mucuas,  with  a  few  Tiars,  and  people  of 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  13 

Kankana,  who  have  been  lono-  settled  in  Canara  as  shop-keepers,   CHAPTER 

XIV 
The  country  extending  between  the  river  south  from  Be'dcul,  and     s.^-^^ 

that  near  Chandra -giri,  was   divided  into  two  districts    (Nadas),  Jan.  18. 

which  continued  subject  to   tlie  Cheincal  Rdjds,  as  representatives 

of  the  house    of  Colastri,  until    the  invasion  by  the  Ilceri  Rdjd. 

Beggars  begin  to  swarm  here,  as  is  the  case  almost  every  where 

in  India  in  which  I  have  been,  except  Malabar,  Avhere  I  scarcely 

met  with  one. 

The  Tahsildar  (collector)  says,  that  in  the  part  oi Malay ala  which.  Produce  o£ 
is  contained  in  Canara,  the  rice-lands  near  the  sea  produce  annually  grounds^ 
only  one  crop,  and  yield  from  5  to  10  seeds,  or  from  12^  to  £5  bushels 
an  acre.  In  the  vallies  of  the  inland  country  the  produce  is  greater ; 
the  land  that  produces  one  crop  only  gives  from  12  to  15  seeds,  or 
from  24  to  37^  bushels  an  acre ;  that  which  gives  two  crops,  pro- 
duces the  same  quantity  in  the  first,  and  from  S  to  10  seeds  in  the 
second,  or  from  20  to  25  bushels  an  acre.  More  grain  is  raised  in 
the  country  than  the  small  number  of  inhabitants  can  consume. 
The  people  are  accused  by  the  Tahsildar  of  excessive  indolence, 
and  of  drunkenness ;  vices  which  he  attributes  to  the  constant 
troubles  that  prevailed  during  the  government  of  the  Sultan, 

Trimula  Row,  tlie  Tahsildar,  says,  that  the  nominal  value  of  this  Revenue;. 
part  of  Malayala  which  is  contained  in  Canara,  according  to  the 
revenue  accompts  of  Tippoos  officers,  was  8000  Rahddary  Vardhas, 
or  32,000  Rupees.  Although  Major  Monro  did  not  make  any  formal 
remission  of  this  rent,  he  only  levied  6000  Pagodas,  or  24',000  Ru- 
pees, and  did  not  keep  the  remainder  as  a  balance  against  the  culti- 
vators, which  would  have  depressed  their  spirits.  He  took  from 
each  man,  what  in  his  present  circumstances  he  could  afford  to  pay, 
and  did  not,  for  the  sake,  of  a  nominal  revenue  on  paper,  preven*; 
all  exertion  in  the  cultivator,  by  holding  over  his  head  the  terror 
of  a  balance  which  he  could  never  hope  to  clear.  The  rice  grouna 
now  is  not  taxed  by  any  share  of  the  Varwn,  or  neat  rent;  but  each 
field  pays  so  much,  according  to  its  supposed  value  ;  and  this  tax 


14 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Nilhwaia 
Rajd. 


CHAPTER   is  alleged  to  consume  the  whole  rent.    Very  few  of  the  landlords 
\..j^^-^    (Jenmcars)   remain,   and   even   the  mortgagees   (Canmncars)   are 

Jan.  18.  willing  to  give  up  all  the  land,  which  they  cannot  cultivate  with 
their  own  stock,  to  any  one  who  will  pay  the  land-tax.  The  gar- 
dens here  pay  not  only  a  tax  on  the  trees,  as  in  Malabar,  but  also 
a  tax  on  the  extent  of  ground  which  they  occupy  ;  yet  by  Trimula 
Row  they  are  reckoned  by  far  the  most  profitable  heritage  for  the 
cultivators.  He  thinks  that  the  taxes  on  the  cultivator  are  heavier 
here  than  those  in  Aixot.  I  must  observe,  that  with  all  these  com- 
plaints there  is  little  of  the  rice-land  Avaste;  while  there  is  no  tax 
on  the  cultivation  of  dry  grains,  and  very  little  of  them  is  sown. 

Trimula  Row  says,  that  Poduga  and  Ca'oi,  the  two  cFistricts  for- 
merly belonging  to  Cherical,  had  been  entirely  subdued ;  but  that 
the  NilSszvara  R/ijds  had  constantly  disputed  the  authority  of  7V/>/?oo. 
They  frequently  were  able  to  retain  the  management,  on  condition 
of  paying  tribute,  and  then  again  were  frequently  driven  into  exile. 
The  Rdju  asked  nothing  more,  from  Major  Monro,  than  a  remission 
-of  the  taxes  ou  the  Cherical  lands,  which  was  last  year  granted; 
but  it  is  uncertain  whether  or  not  this  favour  will  be  continued. 
19th  January. — I  went  to  a  temple  dedicated  to  Iswara,  at  a  place 

^ih^^min  called  Bulla.  The  first  part  of  my  journey  was  over  a  sandy  spit, 
separating  a  salt  water  lake  from  the  sea.  Beyond  this,  the  country 
rises  into  open  rising  lands,  all  the  way  to  Chandra-giri  river,  which 
is  the  northern  boundary  of  Malayala,  This  rising  land  is  in  very 
few  places  too  steep  for  the  plough,  and  these  places  are  in  general 
rocky.  The  whole  of  this  land  is  totally  waste,  and  looks  very  ill, 
being  covered  with  long  withered  grass.  There  are  traces  of  its 
having  been  formerly  cultivated ;  and,  no  doubt,  with  manure  it 
would  be  productive  of  dry  grains.  For  the  cultivation  of  rice, 
tanks  or  reservoirs  might  easily  be  constructed ;  but,  with  the 
present  paucity  of  inhabitants,  it  would  be  madness  to  cultivate 
any  thing,  except  the  richest  spots.  Intermixed  with  this  rising 
land  are  a  few  plots  of  rice-ground,  surrounded  by  palm  gardens 


Jan.  1.9. 


of  the  coun 
try 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  15 

and  the  houses  of  the  Nairs ;    but  the  proportion  of  this  rich  land   CHAPTER 

does  not  seem  to  be  above  a  hundredth  part  of  the  country.  s^%Z^ 

Chandra-giri  is  a  large  square  fort,  situated  high  above  the  river  Jan.  19. 

1  11         -r  i-iT.  1  1  f  1     c-  Chandra-siri, 

on  Its  southern  bank.  It  was  built,  like  the  other  torts  berore- 
mentioned,  by  Sivuppa  Ndyalca,  the  first  prince  of  the  house  of 
Ikeri  that  established  his  authority  in  this  part  ofCanara. 

At  low  water  the  river  is  shallow,  but  very  wide.  The  country  South  boun- 
on  its  north  side  is  by  the  Hindus  called  Tulwva,  and  resembles  that  \gll^ 
through  which  I  passed  on  the  south  side  of  the  river.  I  left  to 
my  right  another  fort  named  Casselgoda,  which  also  was  built  by 
Sivuppa,  when  he  subjected  the  petty  Rajas  of  Tulava.  Pulla, 
■where  I  stopped,  is  on  the  banks  of  a  salt  water  lake,  communicating 
both  with  the  sea  and  with  the  Chandra-giri  river. 

20th  January. — I  went  about  ten  miles  to  Kanya-pura,  and  about  Jan.  20. 
half  way  crossed  a  river  of  considerable  width  ;  yet  at  low  water  it  country. 
is  shallow.  The  country  through  which  I  passed  resembles  much 
the  part  of  Tulavathdit  I  saw  yesterday,  but  the  plantations  of  coco- 
nuts were  rather  more  numerous.  The  rice  grounds  are  more 
neatly  cultivated  than  those  in  Malayala,  and  the  water  for  the 
second  crop  is  conducted  to  them  with  great  care.  In  many  places, 
where  the  ground  is  too  high  to  give  a  second  crop  of  rice,  a  crop 
of  Ricinus,  or  of  sweet  potatoes  (Convolvulus),  is  taken.  Near  the 
sea,  sugar-cane  is  cultivated.  Many  traces  of  former  gardens  are 
to  be  seen  from  the  road,  which  shows  that  this  kind  of  cultivation 
may  be  greatly  extended. 

Kanya-pura  is  seated  on  the  south  bank  of  a  river  which  sur-  Kanya-pura,. 
rounds  the  fort  and  town  of  Cumly.  This  is  situated  on  a  high  ^"  ""*-^' 
peninsula  in  a  salt  water  lake,  which  is  separated  from  the  sea  by  a 
spit  of  sand.  Two  rivers  fall  into  this  kind  of  lake,  and  contain 
between  them  the  peninsula  on  which  Cumly  stands.  By  far  the 
greater  part  of  the  coast  is  occupied  by  a  chain  of  salt  water  lakes; 
but  the  necks  of  land  interposed  render  them  of  little  use  for  an 
inland  navigation.     Kanya-pura   contains  about  200  houses,  and 


16  A  JOURNEY  FROM  ^lADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  Cumli)  about   150.     The  inhabitants  are  chiefly  Moplays,  Muciias, 

^^^^^  Mogayers,  and  Kankanies.    The  interior  parts  are  chiefly  occupied 

Jan.  20.  by  the  Br/i/unans  of  Tulava,  and  the  Bunts,  or  Buntar. 

Brd/imans  of  The  TuUtva  Bmhmans  Tcscmhle  the  Na77iburis,  and  consider  them- 

Tulava. 

selves  as  the  proper  lords  of  the  country. 

Masmh  fhe  Buiitarzxt  the  hi2:hest  rank  ofSudras  in  Tula-ca,  and  resemble 

Bunts,  .  ^        . 

the  Nairs  of  Malayala.     Having  assembled  some  reputable  persons 

of  this  cast,  they  gave  me  the  following  account  of  their  customs. 
They  are  of  three  kinds  :  Massadi  Bunts,  or  Buntar  properly  so 
called  ;  Jain  ;  and  Parivarada  Buntar.  The  Massadi  Bunts  are  those 
whom  I  here  examined.  They  can  eat  and  drink  with  the  Nairs ; 
but  the  two  casts  have  no  sexual  intercourse.  They  do  not  pretend 
to  be  by  birth  soldiers  ;  their  proper  duty  is  the  cultivation  of  the 
land.  They  can  keep  accompts,  but  are  not  admitted  to  any  higher 
kind  of  learning.  They  have  head-men,  called  Mocustas,  one  for 
€very  district.  The  office  is  hereditary  in  the  males  by  the  female 
line;  the  same  mode  of  succession  prevailing  here,  as  in  Malayala. 
At  present,  this  office  merely  confers  dignity ;  the  officers  of  go- 
vernment having  assumed  all  the  jurisdiction  that  formerly  belonged 
to  the  Alocustas,  who  settled  disputes  not  only  relative  to  casts,  but 
also  concerning  property.  In  general,  all  the  brothers  and  unmar- 
ried sisters  of  a  family  live  together  in  the  same  house.  All  the 
property  belonging  to  the  family  is  considered  as  common,  and  is 
managed,  for  the  good  of  the  M'hole,  by  the  oldest  male.  A  man's 
own  children  are  not  his  heirs.  During  his  life-time  be  may  give 
them  money  ;  but  all  of  which  he  dies  possessed  goes  to  liis  sisters, 
and  to  their  children.  If  a  man  has  a  mother's-brother's-daughter, 
he  must  marry  her;  but  he  may  take  two  or  three  wives  beside. 
The  ceremony  is  performed  by  the  gui's  father,  or  other  near 
kinsman.  When  a  man  marries  several  wives,  none  of  them  can 
leave  him  without  his  consent;  but  when  discord  runs  high,  he  in 
general  sends  one  of  the  disputants  back  to  her  brother's  house; 
and  then  she  is  at  liberty  to  marry  again,    A  man  at  any  time,  if  he 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  17 

dislikes  his  wife,  may  send  her  hack  to  her  brother's  house ;  and  CHAPTER 
he  can  do  no  more  if  she  lias  committed  adultery.  In  all  these  v^^^-^ 
cases,  or  when  a  widow  returns  to  her  brother's  house  on  her  hus-  Ja,!!.  20. 
band's  death,  she  is  accompanied  by  her  children,  and  may  marry 
again,  unless  she  has  committed  adultery  with  a  person  of  low  cast; 
but  if  that  crime  has  been  committed  with  a  Brahman,  Kshatri,  - 
Vaisya,  or  Bimt,  she  is  well  received,  her  children  become  her 
brother's  heirs,  and  no  man  will  have  any  objection  to  marry  her. 
The  Buntar  are  permitted  to  eat  animal  food,  and  to  drink  spiri- 
tuous liquors.  They  burn  the  dead.  They  seem  to  be  entirely 
ignorant  of  a  state  of  future  existence ;  only  they  believe,  that 
such  men  as  die  accidental  deaths  become  Pysdchi,  or  evil  spirits, 
and  are  exceedingly  troublesome,  by  making  extraordinary  noises 
in  families,  and  occasioning  fits,  and  other  diseases,  especially  in 
women.  To  expel  these,  the  Buntar  apply  to  the  Nucaru,  who  are 
a  class  similar  to  the  Cuniano?  Malay ala,  and  who  pretend  by  means 
of  incantations  ( Mantrams)  to  have  a  power  over  the  spirits.  For 
the  same  purpose,  sacrifices  are  offered  to  various  Saktis,  which 
differ  in  almost  every  different  village.  Those  worshipped  here 
are  Dumawutty,  Iberahita,  or  the  twin  devils,  and  Birnala.  Besides 
the  sacrifices  offered  to-  these  idols,  to  free  the  people  from  the 
attacks  of  the  Pysachi,  Iberabuta  and  Birnala  must  be  appeased  by 
an  annual,  and  Dumawutty  by  a  monthly  sacrifice.  If  these  are 
omitted,  the  enraged  devils  kill  both  man  and  beast,  Siva,  however, 
is  the  proper  deity  of  the  cast ;  yet  the  Buntar  pray  also  to  Vishnu. 
They  call  the  Tulava  Brdhmans  their  Purohitas  ;  but  on  no  occasion 
do  these  read  Mantrams  for  their  followers.  All  that  they  can  do 
is  to  receive  Dharma,  or  charity,  and  to  bestow  consecrated  ashes 
and  holy  Avater. 

All  this  south  part  o^  Tulava  formerly  belonged   to   the  Cumly  Cumfv  Rdjd." 
Rdjd,  who  pretends  to  be  a  Kshatri  from  the  north  of  India.    The 
manners  of  his  family  are  the  same  with  tliose  of  the  Rajas  of  Ma- 
layala.    All  the  males  keep  Nair  girls  ;  but  their  children,  who  are 

Vol.  III.  D 


IS 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Jan,  20. 


Invasion  by 
the  Coorg 
Rdjd. 


State  of  the 
natives  in 
Tulava, 


called  Tmnbans,  have  no  right  to  the  succession.  The  eldest  daughter 
in  the  female  line  cohabits  with  ^.Tulava  Brahman ;  her  sons  become 
Rajas,  and  her  eldest  daughter  continues  the  line  of  the  family. 
Whenever  she  pleases,  she  changes  her  BrdJnnan.  The  younger 
daughters  also  cohabit  with  Brahmans,  and  produce  a  race  of  people 
called  Bayllal,  who  have  no  right  to  the  succession.  The  dominions 
of  this  family  extended  from  the  Chandra-giri  river  to  that  on  the 
north  side  of  Cumly,  and  produced  an  annual  revenue  of  15,000 
Ikeri  Pagodas,  or  6044/.  2)S.  Aid.  The  RajdWve^  now  in  the  country  ; 
but  he  has  neither  lands  nor  authority.  Before  the  last  war  he  lived 
at  Tellichery,  on  a  pension  from  the  Company ;  which  has  been 
doubled  since  we  got  possession  of  the  country  of  his  ancestors. 

The  interior  parts  are  said  to  be  naturally  very  fertile  in  rice, 
but  they  suffered  much  in  the  last  war.  The  Coorg  Rajci,  during 
the  siege  of  Seringapatam,  under  pretence  of  assisting  the  English, 
made  an  incursion  into  the  country,  and  swept  away  all  the  inha- 
bitants that  he  could  seize.  He  has  given  them  possessions  in  his 
own  country;  but  they  are  very  desirous  of  returning  home, 
although  I  do  not  hear  that  he  uses  them  ill. 

The  people  of  Tulava,  although  longer  subjected  to  a  foreign 
yoke  than  those  oi  ]\Ialabar,  never  have  been  so  entirely  subdued 
as  the  greater  part  of  the  Hindus,  and  have  always  been  able  suc- 
cessfully to  resist  the  pretensions  of  their  governors  to  be  pro- 
prietors of  the  soil.  Their  native  chiefs  have,  indeed,  been  in 
general  able  to  retain  more  or  less  of  the  management  of  the 
country;  and  on  the  fall  o?  Seringapatam,  I  am  here  informed,  were 
very  much  disposed  to  try  how  far  they  could  assert  their  inde- 
pendence. Two  months  are  said  to  have  elapsed,  after  the  arrival 
of  Major  Monro  in  the  country,  before  that  gentleman  could  induce 
the  people  to  meet  him  for  the  purpose  of  settling  the  revenue;  but 
the  decisive  measures  adopted  to  punish  all  those  who  presumed  to 
disturb  the  peace,  an  assumed  severity  of  manner  to  prevent  the 
hopes  of  success    from   cajolery,  and  -a   strict  forbearance   from 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  19 

making  promises  or  concessions  for  the  sake  of  a  temporary  sub-   CHAPTER 
mission,  have  saved  Canara  from  anarchy,  and  destructive,  though    \^^^/ 
petty  warfare. 

21st  January. — I  ferried  over  the  lake  to  the  peninsula  on  which  Jan.  21. 

^  1       •    •        1  T'  Appearance 

Cumly  stands,  and  Avhich  was  formerly  jomed  to  Aaiiya-pura  by  a  ofthecouu- 
bridge.  The  situation  of  the  fort  is  very  fine,  and  the  town  has  ^'^^• 
formerly  been  pretty  considerable.  The  two  rivers  leave  a  narrow 
isthmus  of  rice-fields.  At  present,  both  the  rivers  and  the  lake  are 
salt;  but  in  the  rainy  season  they  ai'e  quite  fresh,  and  at  that  time, 
when  no  boats  can  venture  to  sea,  might  afford  a  fine  supply  of  fish : 
this,  however,  is  an  article  of  food  which,  except  by  pei'sons  of 
very  low  cast,  is  seldom  used.  Having  crossed  the  north  branch,  I 
went  along  the  sea-beach,  having  on  my  right  high  sandy  downs, 
Avhich  prevented  me  from  seeing  the  country,  until  I  arrived  at  the 
banks  of  a  wide  but  fordable  river.  On  the  north  side  of  this  is  a 
large  straggling  town,  called  Alanjeswara.  It  contains  many  good 
houses,  chiefly  inhabited  by  Moplays,  Buntar,  and  Biluars.  Having 
crossed  the  plain  on  which  Manjeswara  stands,  and  forded  a  small 
river,  I  took  up  my  quarters  at  a  town  named  Hosso-betta,  or  the 
new-strength,  which  is  situated  on  a  steep  bank  that  overhangs  the 
last  mentioned  river. 

Immediately  after  crossing  the  northern  branch  of  the  Cumly  Byrasu  IFo- 
river,  you  enter  a  country  that  formerly  belonged  to  a  Jain  family  famny*   "*" 
called  Byrasu  JVodear,  Avhich  resided  at  Carculla.     The  Jain  here 
say,  that  this  family  were  overthrown  by  Sivuppa  Ndyaka  of  Ikeri, 
who  divided  the  country  into  small  districts,  each  producing  an 
annual  revenue  of  from  one  to  three  thousand  Pagodas.    Over  each  Petty  Rdjiis 
of  these  was  placed  a  petty  Rdjd  of  the  Jai?i  religion.    Ever  since,  °     ""'"''' 
the  country  has  been  constantly  on  the  decline,  having  been  con- 
tinually in  a  state  of  insurrection  or  confusion. 

The  dominions  of  the  first  of  these  Jain  chiefs  that  I  entered  BungsrRdjd. 
were  those  of  the  Bungar  Raja.    Tippoo  hanged  the  last  person  who 


40  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   possessed  this  dignity ;  and  his   children  cultivate  some  land  at 

K^^^.^     Na7idavara,  a  village  in  the  territory  of  the  family. 

Jan  21.  Hosso-betta  is  also  frequently  called  Vitly  Manicswara,  from  its 

RdJdofViily.  .  .         .  ,.,  . 

having  belonged  to  another  Jain  chief  named  Hcgady  Raja  of  Vitly. 

By  the  intervention  of  other  districts  it  is  however  entirely  sepa- 
rated from  the  other  territory  which  belonged  to  the  Vitly  Rajas, 
the  last  of  whom  was  hanged  here  about  three  months  ago.  Before 
the  war,  he  had  lived  at  Tellichery,  and  received  from  the  Company 
a  monthly  pension  of  200  Rupees.  When  the  army  of  General 
Harris  approached  Seringapatam,  the  Raja  came  here,  and,  having 
collected  a  rabble,  plundered  the  country  with  great  success,  and 
then  returned  to  Tellichery.  After  Caiiara  became  subject  to  the 
Company,  the  people,  who  had  been  thus  wantonly  plundered,  ap- 
plied for  redress,  and  Hegadyy\'a.s  required  to  restore  their  property. 
This  he  refused,  and,  having  procured  800  muskets,  it  is  said  from 
Moiisa,  he  returned  to  Jitly,  dressed  up  some  ruffians  like  Sepoys, 
and  assumed  the  authority  of  a  sovereign  prince.  For  almost  a 
year  he  was  able  to  skulk  about  the  woods,  and  support  himself  by 
plunder;  but  having  been  then  taken,  he  was  immediately  hanged, 
ever  since  which  tlie  country  has  been  perfectly  quiet. 
KanMnies  The  principal  inhabitants  o^  Hosso-betta,  and  indeed  of  many  of 

expe  e  rora  ^j^^  towns  in  Tulava,  are  Kankdnies,  or  people  descended  from  natives 
of  Kankdna.  They  say,  that  they  fled  hither,  to  avoid  a  persecution 
atGovay  (GoaJ,  their  native  country.  An  order  arrived  from  the 
king  of  Portugal  to  convert  all  the  natives.  The  vicei-oy,  when 
this  order  arrived,  was,  they  say,  a  very  lenient  good  man,  and 
permitted  all  the  natives  who  chose  to  retire  to  carry  their  effects 
with  them,  and  allowed  them  fifteen  days  to  arrange  their  affairs. 
Accordingly,  all  the  rich  peo])le,  Brdhmans  and  Sudras,  retired  to 
Tulava,  with  such  of  their  property  as  they  could  in  that  time 
realise,  and  they  now  chiefly  subsist  by  trade.  Both  Brdh7}ians  and . 
Sudras  are  called  by  the  national  appellation  of  Kankdnies,  and  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  21 

other  Brdhmans  will  have  n6  communion  with  these  exiles.     They   CHAPTER 
are,  however,  in  flourishing  circumstances  ;  and  I  saw  some  of  their    ^^^^]^ 
marriage  processions  passing  to-day,  attended  by  a  number  of  ex-  Jan.  21. 
ceedingly  well  dressed  people,  and  very  handsome  girls.    The  poor 
Kankdnies  who  remained  behind  at  Goa  were,   of  course,  all  con- 
verted to  what  was  called  Christianity. 

22d  January. — I  went  a  short  stage  to  Ulala,  a  large  town  on  the  Jan.  22. 
south  side  of  the  lake  of  Mangalore,  and  formerly  the  residence  of 
a  petty  prince.  I  first  passed  through  Harawurry  Mavjhwara,  Haraam-ry 
which  is  immediately  north  from  the  Alaiijesxvai-a  that  belonged  to 
the  Vitly  Rdjd  ;  but  it  is  situated  in  the  district  surrounding  Man- 
galore,  which  was  not  divided  among  the  petty  Rajas,  but  was  im- 
mediately under  the  government  of  the  lieutenant  of  the  Ikeri  Rdjd 
who  commanded  at  Mangalore. 

I  afterwards  crossed  over  the  lake  to  the  town,  where  I  remained  Harbour  of 
until  the  29th.  The  lake  is  a  fine  body  of  saltwater,  separated  ""S^^ore. 
from  the  sea  by  a  beach  of  sand.  In  this,  formerly,  there  was  one 
opening  ;  the  depth  of  water  in  which  was  such,  that  ships  of  a  con- 
siderable burthen,  after  their  cargo  had  been  removed,  could  enter 
the  lake.  Last  year  a  new  opening  formed  in  the  beach,  which  has 
proved  very  injurious  to  the  harbour.  The  depth  of  the  old  opening 
has  diminished,  and  that  of  the  new  one  has  never  become  great ; 
so  that  now,  even  at  high  water,  and  in  easy  weathei',  vessels  draw- 
ing more  than  ten  feet  cannot  enter. 

For  a  native  place  of  strength,  the  fort  of  Mangalore  was  well  Mangalore. 
constructed  ;  but  was  destroyed  by  Tippoo,  after  he  had  found  how 
little  his  fortresses  were  calculated  to  resist  European  soldiers,  and 
with  what  difficulty  he  could  retake  any  of  them,  that  were  gar- 
risoned by  a  few  British  troops.  The  town,  called  also  Codeal 
Bundar,  is  large,  and  is  built  round  the  sides  of  the  peninsula,  in  the 
elevated  center  of  which  the  fort  was  placed.  The  lake,  by  which 
the  peninsula  is  formed,  is  a  most  beautiful  piece  of  salt  water.  The 


22  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   boats  that  ply  on  it  are  execrable  ;  and  the  fishermen  by  whom  they 

^^^-        are  managed  are  a  very  indolent  drunken  race. 
Jan. 22.  These  fishermen  are  called  Mogayer,  and  are  a  cast  of  Tulava 

the Alo^aiiei-  •5i"'S"'"-  •^'^'^y  resemble  the  Alucuas  of  Malayala,  but  the  one  cast 
will  have  no  communion  with  the  other.  The  Mogayer  are  boat- 
men, fishermen,  porters,  and  palanquin  bearers.  All  of  this  cast  can 
eat  and  intermarry  together.  They  pretend  to  be  Sudras  of  a  pure 
descent,  which  is  rather  doubtful ;  and  assume  a  superiority  over 
the  Halcpecas,  one  of  the  most  common  casts  of  cultivators  in  7m- 
lava;  but  they  acknowledge  themselves  greatly  inferior  to  the 
Sunts.  They  have  head-men  called  Gurucaras,  whose  office  is 
hereditary  in  the  males  by  the  female  line.  With  the  assistance  of 
a  council,  the  head-man  settles  disputes,  and  punishes  all  transgres- 
sions against  the  rules  of  cast.  The  only  fault  that  is  punishable 
with  excommunication  is  when  a  woman  commits  fornication  with 
a  person  of  a  lower  cast ;  but  for  adultery  with  either  a  man  of  the 
cast,  or  of  one  that  is  higher,  a  woman  is  seldom  turned  away  by 
her  husband  ;  and  even  if  she  be,  she  is  by  no  means  disgraced, 
but  returns  to  her  brother's  house,  and  may  be  married  again  when- 
ever she  finds  a  new  lover.  The  men  may  take  several  wives,  and 
the  whole  ceremony  of  marriage  consists  in  giving  the  girl  some 
ornaments.  After  accepting  these,  she  must  live  in  his  house,  nor 
can  she  leave  it  without  her  husband's  consent ;  but,  whenever  he 
pleases,  he  may  send  her  back  to  her  brother.  The  children  always 
follow  the  mother,  and  are  the  heirs  to  her  brothers,  and  not  to 
their  father.  If  a  man's  sister  be  living  in  the  house,  she  has  the 
entire  management  of  it,  and  bis  wives  have  no  authority.  The 
Mogayer  are  permitted  to  eat  animal  food,  and  to  drink  intoxicatmg 
liquors.  Some  few  of  them  can  read,  and  write  accompts.  Those 
of  them  who  are  rich  burn,  those  who  are  poor  bury  their  dead. 
The  spirits  of  good  men  go  to  Moesha,  which,  according  to  the 
Brdhmans,  is  the  heaven  where  Vishnu  resides;   but  the  Alogayer 


MYSORE,,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  ^3 

know  of  no  other.    After  death,  bad  men  are  supposed  to  be  taken   CHAPTER 

X'V. 
hy  "Eimna  Dhar7na  Raja,  the  judge  of  the  infernal  regions.     Some     s^^r^./-^ 

of  the  Mogayers  pray  to  Vi>hnu,  and  some  to  Siva;  but  the  proper  Jan.  22. 
deity  of  the  cast  is  a  goddess  named  Resiali  Mahastumma,  who  is 
represented  by  an  image  in  the  form  of  a  woman.  The  priest 
(Piijari)  is  a  Biluar,  whose  office  is  hereditary  in  the  males  of  the 
female  line.  The  women  of  this  family  live  with  laymen,  and  the 
daughters  of  these  are  kept  by  the  priest.  This  is  the  only  kind  of 
priest  that  these  people  have.  The  Brahmans  indeed  accept  Dharma 
(duty)  from  them  ;  but  they  do  not  attend  at  any  of  their  ceremo- 
nies, to  read  Mantrams.  The  goddess  has  other  worshippers,  Bimtar, 
and  oil-makers.  She  never  occasions  any  trouble  to  her  votaries, 
if  they  pray  and  offer  sacrifices ;  but,  if  these  are  neglected,  she 
inflicts  sickness  on  the  impious  persons.  Men  who  have  incurred 
her  displeasure,  and  who  in  consequence  have  become  sick,  make 
a  vow  to  suspend  themselves  by  hooks  passed  through  the  skin  of 
their  backs,  and  thus  to  be  swung  round  before  her  temple.  This 
expiation  is  performed  at  the  Jdtram,  or  great  annual  feast,  when 
many  bloody  sacrifices  are  offered.  Women  who  suppose  that  the 
goddess  has  inflicted  on  them  barrenness,  or  other  great  infirmity, 
vow  to  walk  barefooted  on  red-hot  coals  before  the  temple.  If 
the  goddess  hears  their  prayers,  she  prevents  the  coals  from  burn- 
ing their  feet.  My  informants  impudently  assert,  that  the  ceremony 
is  frequently  performed.  A  quantity  of  red-hot  coals  are  spread 
before  the  temple ;  and  the  woman,  after  having  fasted  a  whole 
day,  walks  three  times  slowly  with  bare  feet  over  the  fire.  The 
Mogayers  suppose  themselves  liable  to  various  diseases  from  the 
influence  of  evil  spirits,  called  Jacny,  and  Teiteno,  which  resemble 
those  called  Paisdchi.  These  are  not  to  be  expelled  by  sacrifices; 
but  the  Mogayer  apply  to  some  Bilicaras,  and  Mussulmans,  who 
possess  invocations  (Mantrams)  fit  for  the  purpose. 

The  princes  of  the  house  of /Aeri  had  given  great  encouragement  Kankdna 
to  the  Christians,  and  had  induced  80,000  of  them  to  settle  in  ^^^^^^^^ 


21  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER    Tidava.  They  are  all  of  Kankdna  descent,  and  retained  the  language, 
^^'^^^     dress,  and  manners  of  the  people  of  that  country.     The  clergy,  it 
Jan.  se.  is  true,  adopted  the  dress  of  the  order  to  which  they  belonged  ;  but 

they  are   all  natives   descended   from  Kankdna  families,  and  were 
purposely  educated  in  a  seminary  at  Goa,  where  they  were  instructed 
in   the  Portuguese  and  Latin  languages,   and   in  the  doctrines  of 
the  Church  of  Rome.     In  Tulava  they  had  27  churches,  each  pro- 
vided with  a  vicar,  and   the  whole  under  the  control   of  a  vicar- 
general,  subject  to  the  authority  of  the  archbishop  of  Goa.     Tippoo 
threw  the  priests  into  dungeons,  forcibly  converted  to  Isldmisvi  the 
laity,    and  destroyed    all  the  churches.    As  the  Christian  religion 
does  not  prevent  the  readmission  into  the  church  of  such  delin- 
quents, these   involuntary  Mussulmans  have  in  general  reconciled 
themselves  with  the  clergy,  who  now  of  course  are  at  liberty,  and 
15,000  have  already  returned  to  Mangalore  and  its  vicinity  ;  10,000 
made  their  escape  to  Malabar,  from  whence  tliey  are   returning 
home  as  quickly  as  their  poverty  will  admit.    The  clergy  are  now 
busy  with  their  flocks,  whose  poverty,  however,  has  hitherto  pre- 
vented them  from  rebuilding  any  of  their  churches.     During  the 
government  of  Hyder,  these  Christians  were  possessed  of  consider- 
able estates   in  land,  all  of  which  were  confiscated  by  Tippoo,    and 
immediately   bestowed   on  persons  of  other  casts,  from  whom   it 
would  be  difficult  to  resume  them.    These  poor  people  have  none 
of   the   vices    usually  attributed  to  the  native  Portuguese;    and 
their  superior  industry  is  more  readily  acknowledged  by  the  neigh- 
bouring Hindus,  than  avowed  by  themselves.    The  vicar-general 
was  long   confined  in  Jamdl-dhdd.     He   speaks  Latin   neither  cor- 
rectly nor  with  fluency,  and  seems  very  desirous  of  obtaining  what 
he  calls  a  domineering  power  over  the  sect,  that  his  authority  may 
be  equal  to  that  of  the  native  Gurus;  so  as  to   keep  his  flock  in 
good    order,   not    only  by   the    spiritual    means    of   excommuni- 
cation,   but  also  by  the  temporal  expedients  of  fine  and   corporal 
punishment. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  25 

The  coins  in  common  currency  here  are,  CHAPTER 

XIV. 

Gold.  Jan,  22. 

,-       .  Coin. 

The  Ikeri  Varaha,  or  Pagoda  struck  by  the  princes  of  Ikeri,  ex- 
changes for  -  -  -  -  -        Rupees  4 

The  Bahadary  Varaha,  or  Pagoda  struck  by  Hyder  -  4 

The  Sultany  ditto,  Pagoda  coined  by  Tippoo  -  -  4 

The  Krishna  Raja  ditto.  Pagoda  coined  by  the  present  Mysore 
Raja  -  -  -  -  -  -  -4 

The  PtiU  Varaha,  star  Pagoda  of  Madras  -  -  3|- 

The  Feringy  Petta  Varaha,  or  Porto-novo  Pagoda  -         -         3 

The  Sultany,  Canter' -Raya,  or  /A-e;'«  Hunas  or  Fanams  -  f 

The  Vir'-Raya  Huna,  or  Fanam  coined  by  the  Coor^'  iJa/a       -         5- 

Silver. 

Siirdti  Rupiya,  the  Rupee  coined  at  Surat,  worth     silver  Fanams  54 

Company  Rupiya,  tlie  Madras  Rupee  lately  introduced,     ditto     5\ 

Bily  Huna,  the  same  silver  Fanam  that  is  current  in  Malabar.    In 

the  Bazar  it  exchanges  for  10  Dudus,  or  Dubs,  but  in  revenue  is 

taken  for  14. 

Copper. 

Both  the  Any  Dudus,  or  Tippoo' s  copper  Dubs,  and  the  Bombay 
■  Paisa,  coined  in  England,  are  current  here;  and  these  with  their 
fractions,  \,  \,  and  ^,  are  the  only  small  coin  in  use.  Cowries,  or 
small  shells,  are  not  in  circulation. 

In  payment  for  goods,  or  debts,  every  person  must  receive  these 
coins  at  the  above  rate  of  exchange.  The  money-changej-s  give 
silver  for  gold  at  the  regulated  price;  but  they  take  a  small  Batta, 
or  exchange,  when  they  give  gold  for  silver.  They  give  copper  for 
silver  at  the  regulated  price;  but  demand  10^  Dubs  for  the  silver 
Fanam. 

Merchants   accompts  are   commonly  kept  in  Sultany  Pagodas,  Accompts. 
Vol.  III.  E 


326  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   Rupees,   and  Anas,  ox  fractions   of  16  parts;  others  are   kept  in 
^^^^^.^     Pagodas,  a  nominal  Huna  of  10  to  the  Pagoda,  and  Anas,  or  16  parts 
Jan,  22.         ^f  these  Hunas. 

I  shall  make  my  alculations  by  reducing  all  sums  to  Sultany 
Pagodas,  and  taking  these  at  their  mint  value  of  a  little  more 
than  8,y. 

TVeights. 

Weights.  The  Seer  (Sida)  used  for  weighing  ought  to  equal  24  Bombay 

Rupees,  those  in  common  currency  having  from  178  to  179  grains. 
I  weighed  a  Seer  in  common  use  in  the  market  (Bazar),  and  found, 
that  it  contained  4297  grains,  which  is  more  than  the  standard  of 
24  Rupees,  The  Seer  is  divided  into  halves,  quarters,  eighths,  and 
sixteenths. 

The  Maund  (Mana)  by  which  goods  are  sold  in  the  market, 
contains  46  Seers,  or  28-j-V'o  lb. 

The  Maund  hy  which  the  merchants  purchase  weighs  1 6  Rupees 
more,  or  is  28^^  lb.  This  is  the  weight  by  which  the  Company 
buys  and  sells. 

Jagory  is  both  bought  and  sold  by  a  Maund  of  40  Seers,  or 
24-jVo  lb. 

The  Candy  (Baru)  contains  20  Mau7ids,  and  varies,  accordingly, 
from  571  lb.  to  489y  lb.  These  calculations  are  founded  on  the 
weight  of  the  Rupee.  If  the  Seer  that  I  weighed  were  taken  as  a 
standard,  we  must  to  the  above  mentioned  weights  add  about  one- 
third  per  cent. 

Grain  Measures. 

Dry-mea-  These  differ  not  only  in  every  village,  but  also  as  they  are  used 

for  retailing  grain  in  the  market,  for  purchasing  grain  from  the 
farmer,  or  for  sowing  the  seed.  These  difterences  have,  no  doubt, 
been  introduced  in  order  to  confuse  the  officers  of  revenue. 

For  retailing  in  the  market  here,  the  Seer  (Sida)  is  formed  by 
mixing  equal  quantities  of  salt  and  of  the  nine  most  common  grains; 


sure 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


27 


and  then,  by  taking  of  the  mixture  84  Bombay  Rupees  weight.    CHAPTER 
This  quantity,  when  heaped,   fills  a  Seer  measure,  and  is  73-^o'od    ^,^^/-0 
cubical  inches.    The  Moray,  or  Mudi,  contains  :J8  Seers,  or  about  •'^"'  ^2' 
1^  bushel. 

The  grain  measure  by  which  the  farmers  sell  their  crops  is  thus 
formed : 

64-iVo^o  cubical  inches  =  1  Hany. 
14  Hanies        -         -    =  1  CuUishigay. 
3  Cullishigays        -     =  1  Mudi  or  Moray,  or  iVoSVo  bushel. 
Grain,  salt,  and  sometimes  pepper,  are  sold  by  measure.     Of  this 
last  a  Pucka  Seer,  or  7 3-^%' Jo  cubical  inches,  is  reckoned  to  weigh 
51 -I-  Bombay  Rupees. 

In  Tuhiva  the  era  of  Sdlivdhanam  is  in  use,  and  at  Mangalore  this  Calendar. 
is  reckoned  the  year  17^2  ;  but  in  the  north  it  is  reckoned  the  year 
1723,  and  the  people  there  are  certainly  the  most  learned.  The 
year  of  Tulava  is  solar.  I  here  give  an  almanack  for  the  current 
year,  according  to  the  Brahmans  of  Carculla,  who  agree  with  those 
above  the  Ghats  concernino:  the  time  of  the  era. 


Tulava  Months. 

European  Months. 

Tulava  Months. 

European  Mouths; 

Era  ofS<l/.  1723 

A.  D.  1800. 

Eraof5a/.1723 

A.D.  ISOO. 

Sughi     -     - 

1 

13 

March. 

Sugki     -     . 

18 

30 

March. 

2 

14 

19 

31 

3 

15 

20 

1 

April. 

4 

\6 

21 

2 

5 

17 

22 

3 

6 

18 

23 

4 

7 

19 

24 

5 

8 

20 

25 

6 

9 

21 

26 

7 

10 

22 

27 

8 

11 

23 

28 

9 

12 

24 

29 

10 

13 

25 

30 

11 

14 

26 

31 

12 

15 

27 

Puggu     -    • 

1 

13 

16 

28 

2 

14 

17 

29 

3 

15 

2d 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Jan.  22. 


Tulava  Momhs. 

European  Months. 

Tulava  Months, 

European  Months. 

Eraof5(5/.1723 

A.  D.  1800. 

Era  of Sii/.  1723 

A.  D.  1800, 

Puggu     -     - 

4 

16 

April. 

Baysha   -     - 

21 

3 

June. 

5 

17 

22 

4 

6 

18 

23 

5 

7 

19 

24 

6 

8 

20 

25 

7 

9 

21 

26 

8 

10 

22 

27 

9 

11 

23 

28 

10 

12 

24 

29 

11 

13 

25 

30 

12 

14 

26 

31 

13 

15 

27 

32 

14 

16 

28 

Catialu   -     - 

1 

15 

17 

29 

2 

16 

18 

30 

3 

17 

19 

1 

May. 

4 

18 

20 

2 

5 

19 

21 

3 

6 

20 

^ 

22 

4 

- 

7 

21 

23 

5 

8 

22 

24 

6 

9 

23 

25 

7 

10 

24 

26 

8 

11 

25 

27 

9 

12 

26 

28 

10 

13 

27 

29 

11 

14 

28 

30 

12 

15 

29 

31 

13 

16 

30 

Baysha   -     - 

1 

14 

17 

1 

July. 

2 

15 

18 

2 

3 

16 

19 

3 

4 

17 

20 

4 

5 

18 

21 

5 

6 

19 

22 

6 

, 

7 

20 

2a 

7 

8 

21 

24 

8 

9 

22 

25 

9 

10 

23 

26 

10 

11 

24 

27 

11 

12 

25 

28 

12 

13 

26 

29 

13 

14 

27 

30 

14 

15 

28 

31 

15 

16 

29 

32 

16 

17 

30 

Ati    -    -     - 

1 

17 

18 

31 

2 

18 

19 

1 

June. 

3 

19 

20 

2 

4 

20 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


29 


Tulava  Months. 

European  Months. 

Tulava  Months. 

European  Months. 

Era  ofS(^/.1723 

A.  D.  1800. 

Era  of5(f/.  1723 

A.  D.  1800. 

Ati    -     -    - 

5 

21 

July. 

Sonay      -     - 

22 

7 

September, 

6 

22 

23 

8 

7 

23 

24 

9 

8 

24 

25 

10 

9 

25 

26 

11 

10 

26 

27 

12 

11 

27 

28 

13 

12 

28 

29 

14 

13 

29 

30 

15 

14. 

30 

Cannay   -    - 

1 

16 

15 

31 

2 

17 

9 

16 

1 

August, 

3 

18 

J7 

2 

4 

19 

18 

3 

5 

20 

19 

4 

6 

21 

20 

5 

7 

22 

21 

6 

8 

23 

22 

7 

9 

24 

23 

8 

10 

25 

24 

9 

11 

26 

25 

10 

12 

27 

26 

11 

13 

28 

27 

12 

14 

29 

28 

13 

15 

30 

29 

14 

16 

1 

October. 

30 

15 

17 

2 

31 

16 

18 

3 

Sonatf     -     - 

1 

17 

19 

4 

2 

18 

20 

5 

3 

19 

21 

6 

4 

20 

22 

7 

5 

21 

23 

8 

6 

22 

24 

9 

7 

23 

25 

10 

8 

24 

26 

11 

9 

25 

27 

12 

10 

26 

28 

13 

11 

27 

29 

14 

12 

28 

30 

"  U 

13 

29 

Buntddu 

1 

16 

14 

30 

2 

17 

15 

31 

3 

18 

16 

1 

September. 

4 

19 

17 

2 

5 

20 

18 

3 

6 

21 

19 

4 

7 

22 

20 

5 

8 

23 

21 

6 

. 

9 

24 

Jan.  22, 


so 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XIV. 


Jan.  22. 


Tulava  Months. 

European  Months. 

Tulava  Months. 

EuropeaQ  Montht. 

Era  of S(f/.  172s 

A.  D. 1800. 

lira  of  SifZ.  1723 

J.  D.  1800. 

Buntdela 

10 

25 

October. 

Jarday    -     - 

29 

12 

December. 

11 

26 

30 

13 

12 

27 

Perarday     - 

1 

14 

13 

28 

2 

15 

14 

29 

3 

16 

15 

30 

4 

17 

16 

31 

5 

18 

17 

1 

November. 

6 

19 

18 

2 

7 

20 

19 

3 

8 

21 

20 

4 

9 

22 

21 

5 

10 

23 

22 

6 

11 

24 

23 

7 

^ 

12 

25 

24 

8 

13 

26 

25 

9 

14 

27 

26 

10 

15 

28 

27 

11 

16 

29 

28 

12 

17 

30 

29 

13 

18 

31 

Jarday   -     - 

1 

14 

19 

1 

January  1801. 

2 

15 

20 

2 

3 

16 

21 

3 

4 

17 

22 

4 

5 

18 

23 

5 

6 

19 

24 

6 

7 

2» 

25 

7 

8 

21 

26 

8 

9 

22 

27 

9 

10 

23 

28 

10 

11 

24 

29 

11 

12 

25 

Pointnh 

1 

12 

13 

26 

2 

13 

14 

27 

3 

14 

15 

28 

4 

15 

16 

29 

5 

16 

17 

30 

6 

17 

18 

1 

December. 

7 

18 

19 

2 

8 

19 

20 

3 

9 

20 

21 

4 

10 

21 

22 

5 

Jl 

22 

23 

6 

12 

23 

24 

7 

13 

24 

25 

8 

14 

25 

26 

9 

15 

26 

27 

10 

16 

27 

28 

11 

17 

28 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


3i 


7"a/aM  Months. 

Eu 

ropean  Months. 

Tiilava  Months. 

European  Months. 

Eraof&(J/.1723 

— 

A.D.  1801, 

Era  of  Sii/.  1723 

J.  D.  1801. 

Pointalu 

18 

29 

January. 

Mahi      -     - 

10 

20 

February. 

19 

30 

11 

21 

20 

31 

12 

22 

21 

1 

February. 

13 

23 

22 

2 

14 

24 

23 

3 

15 

25 

24 

4 

16 

26 

25 

5 

17 

27 

26 

6 

18 

28 

27 

7 

19 

1 

Marck. 

28 

8 

20 

2 

29 

9 

21 

3 

30 

10 

22 

4 

Maid      •     . 

1 

11 

23 

5 

2 

12 

24 

6 

3 

13 

25 

7 

4 

14 

26 

8 

5 

15 

27 

9 

6 

16" 

28 

10 

7 

17 

29 

11 

8 

18 

30 

12 

9 

19 

Jan.  22. 


The  Brahnans  of  Tulava,  like  the  Namhuris,  pretend,   that  the  Pretensions 

of  the  Tula 
Brdhmans. 


country  was  created  expressly  for  their  use  by  Parasu-rdma,  and  of 'neratoo 


that  they  are  the  only  persons  entitled  to  be  called  Baliky,  or  pro- 
prietors of  the  soil.  It  would  not  appear,  however,  that  in  Tulava 
this  story  was  ever  so  successful  as  it  has  been  in  Malayala.  The 
Brdhmans  indeed  say,  that  they  did  not  like  the  country,  and  were 
always  running  away  to  a  city  named  Ahichaytra,  which  seems  to 
be  in  Tdlngdna.  At  length  a  prince,  named  Myuru  Varmd,  made 
all  those  here  adopt  some  new  customs ;  after  which  the  Panch- 
Drdvida  Brdhmans  o?  Ahichaytra,  and  they,  could  no  longer  live  in 
communion.  They  allege,  that  Myuru  Varmd  reinstated  them  again 
in  the  whole  property  of  Tulava. 

'At  present,  however,  the  greater  part  of  the  country  belongs  to  Actual  te- 
£unts,  and  other  Sudras,  who  style  themselves  proprietors  (Balikies),  ^^'"^^• 
although  the  Bi'dhmans  are  willing  only  to  give  them  the  title  of 


32 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XIV. 

Jan.  22. 

Mulacaras, 
Bal ikies,  or 
proprietors. 


Aiuvacaras, 
or  mort- 
gagees. 


GnynicaraSf 
or  tenants. 


Mulacaras,  or  tenants.  The  property,  if  ever  it  belonged  to  the 
Brahmans,  has  been  entirely  alienated  ;  nor  is  there  even  a  pretence 
set  up,  of  the  Brahmans  having  a  power  of  redemption. 

The  Balikies,  Mulacaras,  or  proprietors,  are  answerable  for  the 
land-tax,  called  here  Shista,  and  by  the  Mussulmans  Shist.  The 
estate  is  always  called  by  the  Buliki  or  proprietor's  name,  although 
it  is  often  mortgaged  to  its  full  value. 

The  mortgagee  is  here  called  Aduvacara,  from  Aduva,  a  mort- 
gage. The  mortgagee  pays  the  amount  of  the  land-tax  to  the 
landlord  (Baliky),  who  gives  it  to  government.  The  remainder  of 
the  profit  is  retained  by  the  mortgagee  for  the  interest  of  the 
money  that  he  has  advanced,  which  is  in  general  at  the  rate  of  12f 
per  cent,  per  annum :  in  some  places,  however,  it  is  only  10  per  cent. 
Land  is  never  mortgaged  without  a  regular  writing,  wherein  is 
mentioned  the  sum  for  which  the  estate  is  mortgaged.  It  may  be 
resumed,  by  paying  up  this  sum,  whenever  the  landlord  pleases ; 
but,  if  the  mortgagee  has  planted  any  trees,  he  must  be  paid  for 
them  at  a  certain  fixed  rate,  which  is  known  to  be  equal  to  the  ex- 
pense that  he  must  have  incurred.  Many  of  the  landlords  retain 
their  own  estates,  and  cultivate  much  of  them  with  their  own 
stock;  but  about  an  eighth  of  the  country  has  been  mortgaged. 
Some  landlords  have  mortgaged  the  whole  of  their  estates,  and, 
having  had  no  hopes  of  being  able  to  redeem  them,  have  entirely 
left  the  country.  The  estates  still,  however,  go  by  their  names, 
and  the  tax  is  paid  in  their  names  by  the  mortgagees. 

Both  proprietors  and  mortgagees  let  part  of  their  lands  to  te- 
nants, or  Gai/nicaras.  In  this  district,  the  tenant  gives  a  writing, 
obliging  himself  to  pay  a  cettain  rent,  but  receives  no  lease  in 
return;  and,  whenever  the  land-holder  pleases,  may  be  ejected  from 
his  farm.  In  other  districts,  however,  especially  that  of  Barcuru, 
the  tenant  has  a  lease  in  perpetuity,  of  which  he  can  only  be  de- 
prived by  his,  or  his  heirs,  failing  to  pay  the  stipulated  rent.  Some 
of  this  rent  is  paid  in  rice,  and  some  in  mone^'. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  33 

When  a  tenant  undertakes  to  plant  a  garden,  he  obtains  a  writinj;  CHAPTER 

from  the  landlord,  by  which  he  is  ensured  of  the  payment  of  the  yJ^!^J^ 

expenses  incurred,  should  the  garden  be  resumed  ;  and  he  pays  no  Jan.  22. 

rent  (Gayni)  for  a  number  of  years  sufficient  to  allow  the  garden  to  racnt  given  to 

become   productive.     The  amount  of  the  expenses  to  be  paid  is  'mprovc- 

*  '■  ment. 

settled  by  arbitration.     When  rice-land  has  been  waste,  the  tenant 

for  two  or  three  years  pays  nothing,  except  the  tax.    This  is  the 

account  given  by  the  landlords. 

The  tenants  ought,  on  rice-lands,  to  have  one-half  of  the  pro- 
duce ;  so,  at  least,  the  proprietors  say.  The  proprietors  let  very 
few  of  their  gardens,  this  being  a  profitable  kind  of  farming. 

In  this  district  (Taluc)  there  are  no  waste  lands  ;  but  some  fields, 
actually  cultivated,  were  by  Major  Monro  allowed  to  be  considered 
as  waste,  on  account  of  the  clamours  made  by  the  natives  of  their 
poverty. 

Although  all  the  Inams,  or  charity  lands,  were  ordered  by  Tippoo  Hindu  wov- 
to  be  resumed,  vet  some  belongins:  to  temples  have  been  concealed,  ^^'P'  ^°^^, 

'  -^  &     o  1  '    supported. 

as  is  acknowleged  both  by  the  lahsildar  and  by  the  Hindu  land- 
lords. This  has  not  been  disturbed  by  Major  Monro,  nor  his  suc- 
cessor Mr.  Ravenshaw;  and  an  allowance  is  made  by  the  govern- 
ment to  both  heathen  temples  and  mosques.  The  principal  Hindtc 
temple  here  receives  annually  120  Pagodas,  and  its  lands  produce 
360,  in  all  480  Pagodas,  or  193/.  8*.  5d.  The  people  are  very 
anxious  for  its  being  restored  to  its  former  splendour.  Major 
Monro  seems  to  have  thought  that  very  moderate  expenses  should 
be  incurred  in  supporting  the  religious  ceremonies  of  the  natives, 
the  allowances  that  he  has  made  for  the  temples  being  in  general 
very  small.  I  do  not  find  that  this  economy  has  had  any  bad 
eftect ;  and  it  is  impossible  for  a  European  to  be  more  respected 
by  Hindus,  than  Major  Monro  is  by  those  who  were  lately  under 
his  authority.  All  the  lands 

of  Tuiava  are 

In  Tulaxm  the  state  has  no  lands ;  the  whole  is  private  property,  private  pro- 
All  the  land-taxis  now  paid   in  money  j  but  before  the  conquest  plya'land- 

VOL.  III.  F  ta.>;. 


34 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER    part  of  it  was  demanded  in  rice,  and  other  articles  of  consumption 
for  the  troops,   at  a  low  rate,  which  was  fixed   hy  the  officers  of 


Jan.  22. 


Circum- 
stances of 
the  cultiva- 
tor. 


government.  The  accompts  contain  solely  the  tax  which  each 
proprietor  ought  to  pay.  When  a  man  alienates  part  of  his  lands, 
he  agrees  with  the  purchaser  to  take  a  part  of  the  tax,  and  then  the 
revenue  of  the  new  proprietor  is  entered  in  the  public  accompts 
under  his  name.  The  sum  which  he  is  to  pay  is  always  mentioned 
in  the  title  deeds ;  and  the  government  has  a  right  to  prevent  any 
ilivision,  that  is  not  in  proportion  to  the  value  of  the  lands  alienated ; 
otherwise  the  revenue  might  suffer  greatly.  The  proprietors  allege, 
that  the  tax  amounts  to  more  than  the  rent,  and  that  they  are 
obliged  to  borrow  money,  or  to  give  part  of  the  profit  from  the 
lands  cultivated  with  their  own  stock,  to  enable  them  to  satisfy 
the  claims  of  government.  Those  whom  I  had  assembled  to  give 
me  information,  and  most  of  whom  Avere  as  fat  as  pigs,  gravely  told 
me,  that  they  were  reduced  to  live  upon  Kanji,  or  rice-soup.  From 
what  they  say,  therefore,  no  estimate  can  be  formed  of  the  share 
of  the  rent  which  they  pay  to  government.  Every  one  thinks  him- 
self bound  to  conceal  the  truth,  and  none  more  so  than  the  native 
officers  of  revenue.  Every  step,  indeed,  seems  to  have  been  taken, 
by  a  chaos  of  weights  and  measures,  and  by  plausible  but  false 
accompts,  to  keep  the  state  of  the  country  a  profound  mystery. 

To  judge  from  appearances,  the  occupiers  of  land  in  Tulava  are 
richer  than  even  those  of  Malabar,  who  are,  no  doubt,  in  easier 
circumstances  than  those  in  Coimbetore,  or  those  above  the  Ghats. 
The  universal  cry  of  poverty,  however,  that  prevails  in  every  part 
of  India,  and  the  care,  owing  to  long  oppression,  with  M'hich  every 
thing  is  concealed,  render  it  very  dilhcult  to  know  the  real  cir- 
cumstances of  the  cultivator.  We  may  safely  however  conclude, 
from  the  violent  contest  for  landed  property  of  every  kind  in  Ca- 
nara,  that  each  occupant  has  still  a  considerable  interest  in  the 
soil,  besides  the  reward  due  to  him  for  cultivating  whatever  his 
stock  enables  him  to  do,     It  is  indeed  sincerely  to  be  wished, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  35 

that  this  property  may  long  continue  unmolested  ;  as  no  country  can   CHAPTER 
thrive  where  the  absolute  property  of  the  soil  is  vested  in  the  state.     ^,,^^,.^ 

Cultivators  who  are  rich  keep  from  twenty  to  twenty-five  ploughs,  J^"-  22- 
but  at  least  one  half  of  the  actual  farmers  have  only  one.  Those  stock. 
who  keep  two,  three,  and  four  ploughs,  are  common.  Near  the  sea 
there  are  many  plantations,  and  some  cultivators  take  care  of  these 
only ;  but,  in  general,  each  cultivator  has  some  rice-ground,  and 
some  gardens.  In  the  interior  parts  of  the  country  very  few  have 
gardens.  A  farmer  with  four  ploughs  requires  constantly  six  men, 
four  women,  and  eight  oxen.  To  transplant  his  rice,  he  must  also 
hire  women ;  ten  are  required  to  plant  in  two  days  a  Moray  land. 
The  wages  of  these  ten  for  two  days  is  said  to  amount  to  40  Ha- 
nies,  or  alniost  the  value  of  the  seed;  which  seems  to  be  exaggerated. 
A  farm,  thus  stocked,  ought  to  contain  8  Morays  sowing.  Some 
people  cultivate  10  Morays,  but  they  do  it  imperfectly.  The  land, 
either  for  rice  or  pulse,  it  must  be  observed,  is  cultivated  twice  a 
year.  I  made  many  measurements  to  endeavour  to  satisfy  myself 
with  respect  to  the  extent  of  what  is  called  a  Moray,  or  Mudi 
sowing ;  but,  owing  to  some  artifices  of  the  natives,  the  results  dif- 
fered so  essentially,  that  I  can  place  no  reliance  on  my  own  mea- 
surements, and  am  inclined  to  think  the  extent  very  indefinite. 
The  average  Moray,  according  to  Mr.  Ravenshaw's  answer  to  my 
queries,  is  IyMo-  acre.  At  this  rate,  the  eight  Morays  cultivated 
by  four  ploughs  would  amount  to  little  more  than  9  acres,  which  is 
absurd.  The  least  that  can  be  allowed  for  a  plough  is,  I  am  per- 
suaded, six  or  seven  acres. 

The  cultivation  is  chiefly  carried  on  by  Culialu,  or  hired  servants;  Price  of  la- 
but  there  are  also  some  Muladalu,  bought  men,  or  slaves.    A  hired  q^iI'^j^^  ^j, 
man  gets  daily  2  i/a«ie*  of  clean  rice,  or  annually  21f  bushels,  toge-  hired  ser- 
ther  with  \\  Rupee's  worth  of  cloth,  a  Pagoda  in  cash,  and  a  house. 
A  hired  woman  gets  l-f-  Rupee  for  cloth,  and  f  of  the  man's  allow- 
ance of  grain.    In  planting  season,  the  women  hired  by  the  day  get 
two  ifamei  of  rice,  or  128^  cubical  inphes.    These  wages  are  very 


3<5  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  high,  and  may  enable  the  hired  servants  to  keep  a  family  in  the 
v,^-/-^  greatest  abundance.  It  is  evident  from  hence,  that  the  stock  re- 
an,  22.  quired  to  cultivate  eight  3Iorays  of  hnd  was  excessively  exagge- 

rated by  the  proprietors.  The  wages,  in  grain  alone,  would  amount 
to  156i  Mo7'ays  of  rice  for  8  Morays  sowing;  so  that,  to  pay  even 
them,  would  require  at  least  40  seeds.  We  may  safely  allow  six 
Morays  for  each  plough  fully  wrought;  but  the  number  of  ploughs 
in  the  whole  district  amount  to  rather  less  than  one  to  3  Morays  of 
rice  ground  in  actual  cultivation,  according  to  the  revenue  ac- 
compts;  owing,  probably,  to  a  want  of  cattle  and  other  stock.  At 
the  end  of  the  year,  the  hired  servant  may  change  his  service,  if 
he  be  free  from  debt;  but  that  is  seldom  the  case.  When  he  gets 
deeply  involved,  his  master  may  sell  his  sisters'  children  to  dis- 
charge the  amount,  and  his  services  may  be  transferred  to  any 
other  man  who  chooses  to  take  him  and  pay  his  debts  to  his  master. 
In  fact,  he  differs  little  from  a  slave,  only  his  allowance  is  larger, 
but  then  the  master  is  not  obliged  to  provide  for  him  in  sickness 
nor  in  old  age. 

Slaves.  .  A  male  slave  is  allowed  daily  1^  Hany  of  rice,  or  three-fourths 

of  the  allowance  for  a  hired  servant ;  a  woman  receives  one  Hany. 
The  man  gets  \\  Rupee's  worth  of  cloth,  and  2  Rupees  in  cash  ;  the 
Avoman  is  allowed  only  the  cloth.  They  receive  also  a  trifling  allow- 
ance of  oil,  salt,  and  other  seasonings.  A  small  allowance  is  given 
to  children  and  old  people.  When  a  slave  wishes  to  marry,  he  re- 
ceives 5  Pagodas  (2  guineas)  to  defray  the  expense.  The  M'ife 
works  with  the  husband's  master.  On  the  husband's  death,  if  the 
wife  was  a  slave,  all  the  children  belong  to  her  mother's  master; 
but,  if  st^e  was  formerly  free,  she  and  all  her  children  belong  to 
her  husband's  master.  A  good  slave  sells  for  10  Pagodas,  or  about 
4  guineas.  If  he  has  a  wife  Avho  was  formerly  free,  and  two  or 
three  children,  the  value  is  doubled.  The  slave  may  be  hired  out; 
and  the  renter  both  exacts  his  labour,  and  finds  him  in  subsistence. 
Slaves  are  also  mortgaged ;  but  the  mortgager  is  not  obliged  to 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  37 

supply  the  place  of  a  slave  that  dies  ;  and  in  case  of  accidents,  the   CHAPTER 
debt  becomes  extinguished  ;  which  is  an  excellent  regulation.    Free     y^^L^ 
men  of  low  cast,  if  they  are  in  debt  or  trouble,  sometimes  sell  their  Jan.  22. 
sister's  children,  who  are  their  heirs.    They  have  no  authority  over 
their  own  children,  who  belong  to  their  maternal  uncles. 

In  this  country  the  hill  ground  is  never  cultivated,  except  for 
gardens;  the  whole  may  therefore  be  divided  into  rice-land  and 
garden  ground. 

The  rice  land  is  of  three  kinds;  Bi/lu,  Jllajelu,  and  Betta.  Bylu  Rice-lanH  of 
ground  is  that  in  the  lower  part  of  vallies  which  are  watered  by 
small  streams,  from  whence  canals  are  dug  to  convey  the  water  to 
the  fields,  which  by  this  irrigation  are  able  to  give  annually  two 
crops.  The  Majelu  land  is  higher  than  the  Bylu,  and  is  provided, 
with  small  reservoirs,  which  ensure  one  crop,  even  when  the  rains 
last  only  two  or  three  months.  From  some  of  these  reservoirs, 
the  water  is  let  out  by  a  sluice.  It  is  raised  from  others  by  means 
of  the  Yatam,  or  by  a  basket  suspended  between  ropes.  The  Betta 
land  is  the  highest  part  of  the  rice  ground,  and  is  provided  with 
neither  streams  nor  reservoir ;  so  that  the  crop  depends  entirely 
on  the  rain.  In  some  places  there  is  another  kind  of  rice  ground 
called  Potla.  During  the  rainy  season,  it  is  so  inundated,  that  it 
cannot  then  be  cultivated ;  and,  as  the  water  dries,  the  rice  is 
transplanted. 

On  the  B\)lu  land  there  are  three  crops  in  the  year,  1st.  Yenalu,  Bi/hnce- 
2d.  Sughi,  and  3d  Colakij.      This  last  is  only   produced   by  a  few  'f"'^P™''"ces 

\  .  »<     r  J  three  crops 

spots  particularly  favoured  with  water.     The  accompanying  table  annually, 
will  explain  several  particulars  relative  to  the  cultivation  of  rice. 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Table  explaining  the  Cultivation  of  Rice  at  Mangalore. 


Jan.  22. 


T3 

1   • 

Crop  for 

■S  S- 

tUJ-o 

c  3 

Kind. 

Quality. 

Soil. 

which  it 

3    0 

Manner  of 

s  \^ 

O    bQ-^ 

is  used. 

c 

cultivation. 

M      ^ 

3    o    3 

■ 

1 

- 

£3- 

Bily  Ayki       -     - 

White  and  small  - 

Bylu 

Yenalu 

5 

transplanted 

20 

25 

Ditto     -     -     - 

Ditto       -     -     - 

ditto 

Colaky 

3 

sprouted  seed 

5 

6'i 

Ditto     -     -     - 

Ditto       -     -     - 

Majelii 

Yenalu 

5 

ditto 

12 

15 

Jirigay  Salij  -     - 

Very  small      -     - 

Bylu 

ditto 

5 

transplanted 

15 

18i 

Amutty     -     -     - 

Large  and  black  - 

ditto 

ditto 

5 

sprouted  seed 

20 

25 

Cagi  Ayki      -     - 

Ditto       -    -    - 

ditto 

ditto 

5 

ditto 

15 

18i 

Ditto     -     -     - 

Ditto      -     -     - 

ditto 

Colnkyt 

3 

ditto 

5 

6i 

Attkar&ya      -     - 

Red  and  low  priced 

ditto 

Sughi 

3-^ 

ditto 

10 

12i 

Kiny  Vtttu    -     - 

. 

Majelu 

Yenalu 

3 

ditto 

10 

12f 

Ditto     -     -     - 

- 

Bettu 

ditto 

3 

ditto 

8 

10 

Sampa  Saly   -     - 

- 

Majelu 

ditto 

3f 

ditto 

10 

121 

Soma  Saly 

-         -         - 

ditto 

ditto 

•Jf 

ditto 

10 

12i 

Ditto     -     -     - 

.         .         -          . 

Bettu 

ditto 

H 

ditto 

8 

10 

Tungalu    -     -     - 

.         .         .         . 

ditto 

ditto 

3 

ditto 

8 

10 

Attiganj   -     -     - 

.... 

Potla 

"     " 

5 

transplanted 

10 

12i 

Fena^M  crop  The  kinds  of  rice  that  are  transplanted  for  the  Yenaki  crop  on  Byho 
tiansplanted.  -^^^^  ^j.g  cultivated  as  follows.  Between  the  14th  of  May  and  the 
14th  of  June,  water  the  ground  intended  for  raising  the  seedlings 
for  two  days,  and  then  plough  it  twice ;  all  the  water,  except  two 
inches  in  depth,  being  let  off  at  each  ploughing.  The  two  plough- 
ings  must  be  repeated  every  other  day,  until  the  eighth  time.  The 
field,  before  the  last  ploughing,  is  manured  with  ashes,  and  Avith 
dung,  in  which,  while  in  the  cow-house,  the  leaves  of  every  kind 
of  bush  and  tree  have  been  mixed.  The  mud  is  then  smoothed 
Avith  the  Mutu  Pallay,  or  plank  drawn  by  oxen  (Plate  XXII.  Fig,  58.). 
The  seed,  prepared  by  causing  it  to  sprout,  is  then  sown  very  thick, 
the  water  being  three  inches  deep.  Next  day  the  water  is  let  off. 
On  the  fifth  day,  when  the  shoots  come  up,  they  get  as  much  Avater 
as  covers  the  half  next  the  ground ;  and  every  day,  as  the  plants 


.MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  3i> 

arow,  the  quantity  of  water  is  increased.     On  the  ninth  day  the   CHAPTER 
water  is  let  entirely  off,  and  is  not  given  again  until  the  eleventh    ^^^.^ 
day.    If  worms  affect  the  plants,  about  the  end  of  the  third  week  Jan.  22. 
the  water  is  again  let  off  for  three  days,  and  some  ashes  are  sprinkled 
over  the  field  to  kill  these  destructive  animals.    The  seedlings  must 
be  transplanted  between  the  30th  and  3.5th  days. 

On  the  day  that  the  seed  is  sown,  the  ground  for  receiving  the 
seedlings  when  transplanted  begins  to  be  ploughed,  and  in  the 
course  of  the  month  gets  four  double  ploughings.  The  plough  in 
use  here  (Plate  XXII.  Fig.  60.)  is  neater  than  usual  in  India,  but 
is  an  implement  equally  wretched.  In  the  intervals  between  the 
ploughings,  the  field  is  kept  inundated.  At  the  time  of  ploughing, 
two  or  three  inches  only  of  water  are  allowed  to  remain.  After 
every  ploughing,  the  soil  is  smoothed  with  the  plank  drawn  by 
oxen.  Between  the  4th  and  15th  of  July  all  the  water  except  one 
inch  is  let  off,  and  the  seedlings  are  ti'ansplanted.  On  the  third  day 
the  field  is  drained ;  and  for  two  days  it  is  alloM'ed  to  dry.  On  the 
sixth  it  receives  2  inches  of  water,  and  then  is  continued  inundated 
until  the  crop  ripens.  Between  the  5th  and  l6th  of  August  the 
weeds  are  removed  by  the  hand.  In  October,  or  at  the  beginning 
of  November,  the  straw  is  cut  with  the  grain,  and,  till  it  be  dry,  is 
allowed  to  lie  on  the  ground.  In  Figure  61,  the  sickle  is  delineated. 
The  rice  is  thrashed  by  beating  handfuUs  of  the  straw  against  a 
grating  of  Bamboos,  which  is  placed  sloping  from  a  stone  to  the 
ground  :  the  grain  falls  through  the  grating.  This  operation  is 
performed  in  the  square  surrounded  by  the  farm-houses ;  for  here, 
SiS  well  as  in  most  parts  of  India,  there  are  no  barns.  The  rough 
rice  is  dried  in  the  sun,  and  much  attention  is  paid  to  this  opera- 
tion with  what  is  intended  for  seed.  The  straw  is  spread  out  to  the 
sun  as  much  as  possible;  but,  owing  to  the  rain,  is  seldom  got  in 
well.  The  seed  is  kept  in  Morays,  or  straw  bags,  which  are  hung 
up  in  the  smoke  of  the  kitchen.  The  rice  intended  for  consump- 
tion is  put  up  in  heaps,  placed  on  straw,  and  covered  with  thatcli. 


40  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   The  husks  are  heaten  off  in  the  course  of  two  or  three  months,  and 

-XIV.  .  . 

'^.^^r-^w'     immediately  sold.      The   rough  rice   is  put  into  large  pots,  over- 

Jun.  22.  night,  with  so  much  water  as  will  cover  it.     In  the  morning   it  is 

boiled  until  tlie  husks  begin  to  open.  It  is  then  dried  in  the  sun, 
and  beaten  in  a  small  hole  in  the  ground,  or  in  a  stone  with  a  long 
pestle,  the  end  of  which  is  covered  with  iron.  For  the  use  of  Brdh- 
niaus,  a  little  is  beaten  without  having  been  boiled  ;  but  it  does  not 
preserve  long. 

Ycnalu  crop  The  riccs  that  are  cultivated  as  sprouted  seed  for  the  Yenalu  crop 
on  Jjj//«  land  are  thus  managed.  The  ploughings  and  manure  are 
conducted  exactly  in  the  same  manner  as  in  the  field  on  which  the 
seedlings  are  raised;  but,  in  order  to  gain  time,  they  are  made 
fifteen  days  later.  The  seed  is  prepared  by  putting  the  Moray,  or 
straw  bag,  in  which  it  has  been  kept,  into  water  from  the  evening 
until  next  day  at  noon.  The  bag  is  then  removed  into  the  house, 
and  in  the  morning  of  the  fourth  day  is  opened,  the  seed  is  sprinkled 
Avith  dung  and  water,  and  immediately  sown.  After  having  been 
sown,  it  is  managed  like  the  seedlings  ;  but  the  weeds  are  removed 
about  the  26th  of  July.  The  quantity  of  seed  required  on  the 
same  ground  for  the  sprouted  seed  cultivation,  is  to  that  required 
for  transplantation,  as  two  to  three. 

Sughi  crop.  In  the  Siighi  crop  on  Bylii  land  the  rice  is  mostly  cultivated  as 
sprouted  seed.  It  is  inferior  in  quality  to  the  rice  of  the  Yenalu 
crop,  and  is  chiefly  reserved  for  home  consumption.  Being  reaped 
in  the  hot  and  dry  season,  the  straw,  though  short,  is  well  dried,  and 
is  a  valuable  supply  of  fodder.  The  sprouted  seed  for  this  crop  is 
thus  cultivated.  Between  the  l6th  of  October  and  the  14th  of  No- 
vember, immediately  after  the  Yenalu  crop  has  been  reaped,  the 
ploughings  commence ;  and  are  carried  on  exactly  as  before  de- 
scribed ;  only  in  place  of  one  man's  standing  on  the  plank  drawn  by 
oxen,  the  ground  being  now  harder,  three  or  four  men  must  stand 
on  this  instrument ;  a  most  barbarous  and  expensive  manner  of 
adding  weight ;  but  in  India  it  is  seldom  that  an  attempt  is  made 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  41 

to  accomplish  any  thing  by  machinery,  that  can  be  performed  by   CHAPTER 
human  labour.    The  quantity  of  manure  required  for  this  crop  is    v.^v-^^^' 
larger  than  that  which  is  given  to  the  first.    If  this  crop  be  trans-  ■^^"'  ^^' 
planted,  it  only  produces  six  seeds. 

The  seed  of  the  rices  that  are  cultivated  for  the  Colaky  crop  is  CoMy  crop 
sown  sprouted.  Between  the  12th  of  January  and  the  10th  of  Fe-  ''^"^^' 
bruary,  immediately  after  having  cut  the  Sughi  crop,  the  ploughing 
for  the  Colaky  commences,  and  the  field  is  managed  exactly  as  in 
the  Sughi  crop.  In  most  places  the  water  must  be  raised  by  the 
Yatam,  called  here  the  Panay,  or  by  the  instrument  called  Cai- 
dumbay  (Plate  XXV.  Fig.  62),  which  makes  the  cultivation  very 
expensive.  The  Cai-dumbay  cannot  raise  water  more  than  three 
feet,  and  is  a  means  of  irrigation  very  inferior  to  the  basket  sus- 
pended by  ropes  and  wrought  by  two  men.  This  crop  requires  a 
great  deal  of  manure,  otherwise  it  injures  the  following  crop  called 
Yennlu. 

In  place  of  this  third  crop  of  rice,  where  the  quantity  of  water  Cohhy  crop 
is  too  small,  a  crop  of  Urudu  (Phaseolus  minimoo  Roxb:  MSS.),  Pa-  "  "'  ^^ 
dingi  (Phaseolus  Mungo),  or  Cudu  (Dolichos  biflorus),  is  taken  from 
the  Bylu  land.  In  some  villages,  but  not  in  this  immediate  neigh- 
bourhood, a  crop  of  Enama  (Sesamum)  is  taken.  For  the  three 
leguminous  plants  the  ground  in  five  days  gets  five  double  plough- 
ings,  and  after  each  is  smoothed  with  the  plank  drawn  by  oxen. 
It  is  then  manured  with  dung  and  ashes,  and  the  seed  is  sown  broad- 
cast, and  covered  by  the  plough ;  after  which  the  soil  is  again 
smoothed  with  the  plank  drawn  by  oxen.  Then,  if  the  field  be  not 
sufficiently  moist,  it  must  be  divided  into  small  plots  surrounded 
by  little  banks,  and  once  in  fifteen  days  it  must  receive  water.  The 
quantity  of  the  seed  required  for  these  pulses,  is  one-fourth  of  that 
required  for  rice  in  the  sprouted  seed  cultivation,  or  about  five- 
sixteenths  of  a  bushel  an  acre.  The  produce  is  about  8  seeds,  or 
Si  bushels  an  acre. 
Vol.  III.  G 


4g  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

In  order  to  prevent  the  torrents  of  water,  which  in  the  rainy- 
season  run  clown  from  the  hills,  from  injuring  the  Bylu  land,  a 

Jan.  22.  strong  mound  is  formed  round  the  bottom  of  the  hills ;  and  a 
channel  above  this  mound  conveys  all  the  superfluous  water  into 
the  sea,  or  into  rivers.  Coco-nut  trees  are  frequently  planted  under 
the  bank,  or  mound,  in  order  to  give  it  strength. 

Majeluhni\.  All  the  rices  cultivated  on  the  second  sort  of  rice  land,  called 
Majtlii,  are  sown  sprouted ;  only,  any  seedlings,  that  may  happen 
to  remain  after  planting  the  Bylu  fields  are  put  into  the  Majdu. 
The  cultivation  on  this  is  exactly  the  same,  and  at  the  same  season, 
as  the  Yenalu,  or  first  crop  on  Bylu  land.  The  water,  in  case  of  a 
deficiency  of  rain,  is  supplied  from  small  tanks,  which  reserve  a 
supply  for  fourteen  or  fifteen  days  after  the  rains  are  over.  The 
seed  required  for  this  kind  of  land  is  said  to  be  one  third  more,  thaa 
that  required  for  the  same  extent  of  Bylu;  but,  on  actual  me^asure- 
ment,  I  found  that  a  Moray  of  seed  required  considerably  more 
Majelu  than  it  did  of  Bylu.  On  a  small  portion  of  Majelu  land,  a 
second  crop  of  Cudu  (Dolichos  biflorus)  is  taken.  It  is  sown  be- 
tween the  l6th  of  October  and  the  13th  of  November,  and  its 
produce  is  nearly  the  same  as  when  cultivated  on  Bylu  land. 

Betta  land  The  third  sort  of  rice  land,  called  Betta,   is  the  same  with  the 

rice.  lower  Parum,  or  hill-land  of  Malayala,  which  is  there  chiefly  used 

for  gardens.  The  rice  cultivated  on  this  is  always  sown  sprouted, 
exactly  in  the  same  manner  as  the  Yenalu,  or  first  crop ;  only  it 
requires  two  more  ploughings,  and  a  greater  quantity  of  manure. 
The  seed  ought  to  be  1^  of  that  which  is  required  for  the  same 
extent  of  Bylu  ;  but  this  also,  I  found,  was  not  confirmed  by  actual 
measurement.  This  rice  is  kept  for  home  consumption ;  for  that  of 
the  Yenalu,  or  first  crop  from  Bylu,  or  the  lowest  land,  is  the  kind 
commonly  exported. 

Sugar-cane.  It  is  upon  this  kind  of  ground  that  sugar-cane  is  cultivated ;  but 
very  small  quantities  only  are  raised,  and  that  entirely  by  the  native 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  *3 

Christians.  Their  method  is  as  follows.  Between  the  14th  of  De-  CHAPTER 
cember  and  the  11th  of  January  the  ground,  for  four  successive  ^.^^^^^ 
days,  has  a  double  ploughing,  and,  after  each,  is  smoothed  with  the 
plank  drawn  by  oxen.  Then,  with  a  hoe,  called  Haray  (Plate  XXI. 
Fig.  56),  parallel  channels  are  formed,  at  the  distance  rtf  every  8 
or  10  cubits.  At  right  angles  to  these,  and  contiguous  to  each 
other,  are  formed  trenches  three  quarters  of  a  cubit  deep,  half  a 
cubit  wide  at  the  bottom,  and  one  cubit  and  a  half  at  the  top.  The 
field  is  then  manured  with  dung  and  straw  ;  which,  after  they  have 
been  spread  on  the  field,  are  burned ;  so  that,  in  fact,  the  manure 
is  ashes.  The  canes  for  seed  are  then  cut  into  pieces,  from  half  to 
three  quarters  of  a  cubit  long ;  and  these  are  soaked  in  water  as 
wbole  day  and  a  night.  On  the  day  after  the  manure  has  been 
burned  on  the  field,  the  soil  in  the  bottom  of  the  trenches  is 
loosened  with  the  hoe,  and  mixed  with  the  ashes ;  and  with  these 
united  the  joints  of  the  cane  are  slightly  covered.  They  are  placed 
horizontally,  two  and  two,  in  lines  parallel  to  the  trenches ;  and 
the  ends  of  one  pair  touch  the  ends  of  the  two  adjacent  pairs.  The 
field  is  then  watered,  the  channels  being  filled  from  a  tank,  or  well, 
by  means  of  the  machine  called  Yatam.  Except  when  there  is 
rain,  it  must  be  watered  every  fourth  day,  speaking  as  a  medical 
man;  that  is  to  say,  if  it  be  watered  on  the  1st  day  of  a  month,  it 
will  be  watered  again  on  the  4th,  7th,  10th,  and  so  forth.  A  com- 
post having  been  formed  of  rich  mould,  dung,  and  dry  grass,  it  is' 
burned;  and  on  the  15th  day  from  planting  the  ashes  are  spread 
over  the  field.  At  the  end  of  the  moiith,  the  weeds  are  removed 
by  the  hand,  and  with  a  small  instrument  named  Sulingy.  At  the 
same  time,  the  young  canes  are  again  manured  with  the  burnt  com- 
post. At  the  end  of  the  second  month,  if  the  cane  has  a  sickly 
colour,  it  is  again  manured.  The  rains  commence  about  that  time, 
and  then  the  earth  from  the  intermediate  ridges  is  gathered  up 
round  the  young  canes  ;  which  thus,  in  place  of  being  in  trenches, 
stand  on  the  top  of  ridges.    The  field  must  then  be  well  fenced^ 


44  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  The  dried  leaves  must  be  removed  by  the  hand,  which  is  all  tlie 
^^J^Jl,    farther  trouble  required,  no  watering   being  necessary  after   the 

Jan.  22.  rainy  season  is  over.  Jackalls  eat  the  cane,  and  must  be  carefully 
watched.  The  cane  is  fit  for  cutting  in  11  or  12  months.  There 
'  are  two  kinds;  the  Bily,  and  Cari  Cabbu ;  or  white,  and  black 
canes.  The  former  is  the  Restali,  and  the  latter  the  Putta  Putty 
of  the  country  above  the  Ghats.  The  same  ground  will  not  pro- 
duce sugar-cane  every  year;  between  every  two  crops  of  cane 
there  must  be  two  crops  of  rice,  A  piece  of  land  that  sows  one 
Moray  of  rice,  Avill  produce  4000  canes,  which  are  about  six  feet 
long,  and  sell  to  the  Jfl^on/ boilers  at  from  half  to  one  Rupee  a  hun- 
dred. The  Moray  sowingof  J5c«a  land  is  here  about  30,000  square 
feet;  so  that,  according  to  the  price  of  sugar  cane,  the  acre  pro- 
duces from  about  58  to  29  Rupees,  or  from  about  51.  17*.  to 
2/.  18*.  6d.  The  land-tax  is  the  same  as  when  the  field  is  cultivated 
for  rice.  The  want  of  firewood  is  the  greatest  obstacle  to  this  cul- 
••  tivation  ;  the  trash,  or  expressed  stems,  is  not  sufficient  to  boil  the 
juice  into  Jagory,  while  that  operation  is  performed  in  earthen  pots 
placed  over  an  open  fire.  If  all  the  land  in  Codeal  Taluc  (district) 
that  is  fit  for  the  purpose,  were  employed  to  raise  sugar-cane,  it 
Avould  yearly  produce  1000  Pagodas  worth  of  cane;  that  is  to  say, 
there  are  about  1125  Mudis  sowing  of  land,  that  once  in  three  years 
might  be  cultivated.  The  quantity  in  the  neighbouring  district 
on  the  south  side  of  the  river  is  much  greater.  The  Jagory  made 
here  is  hard,  but  black,  and  of  a  bad  quality.  It  sells  at  3  Maunds 
for  the  Pagoda,  or  at  l^iii*.  3^6?.  a  hundred- weight. 

Kitchen-  Between  the  rows  of  sugar-cane  are  raised  some  cucurbitaceous 

plants,  and  some  kitchen  stuffs,  that  soon  come  to  maturity. 

On  Betta,  or  the  highest  of  rice-land,  where  the  water  may  be 
had  by  digging  to  a  little  depth,  some  people,  chiefly  Christians, 
cultivate  capsicum,  and  Banguns  (Solatium  Melongena),  as  a  second 
crop  after  rice.  In  good  soils,  these  require  to  be  watered  once  in 
three  days;  in  bad  soils,  they  must  be  allowed  water  every  other  day. 


atufls. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  45 

The  kind  of  land  called  Potla,   or  Mojarii,  is  situated  in  deep   CHAPTER 
places  near  the  bank's  of  rivers  ;  and  is  so  much  overflowed  in  the     v,,^^,^^ 
rainy  season,  that,  until  the  violence  of  this  is  over,  it  cannot  be  Jan.  22. 
cultivated.  Even  m  the  dry  season,  it  would  m  general  be  overflowed 
by  the  tide  at  high  water;  so  that  it  is  necessary  to  make  banks  to 
exclude  the  sea.    The  rice  which  it  produces  is  always  transplanted. 
Between  the  17th  of  August  and  the  I5th  of  September  the  seed  is 
sown,  and  is  managed  in  the  same  manner  as  the  transplanted  rice 
on  Bylu  land  ;  only  the  season  is  different.    The  same  quantity  of 
seed  is  required  for  the  same  extent  ofBi/lu  ground ;  that  is,  one-half 
more  than  would  be  required  for  sowing  broad-cast.  This  is  a  very 
precarious  crop,  being  subject  to  be  totally  ruined  by  either  too 
little  or  too  much  rain. 

Poor  land  of  every  denomination  requires  more  seed  than  richer 
land  of  the  same  kind. 

The  leaves  of  every  kind  of  tree  and  bush,  except  such  as  are  Manure, 
prickly,  are  used  for  manure.  The  cattle  are  kept  in  the  house  all 
night,  and  their  dung  is  collected  for  the  same  use.  It  is  kept  in 
pits,  and  every  day's  collection  is  covered  with  leaves;  the  whole 
dunghill  thus  forming  alternate  strata  of  dung  and  leaves,  which 
soon  rot.  The  ashes  and  sweepings  of  the  family  are  kept  in  a 
separate  pit.    The  soil  of  towns  is  never  used  as  manure. 

In  Tulava  the  coco-nut  and  Betel-nut  are  the  only  productions  of  Paim  gar- 

the  gardens  that  are  taxed.  The  sjardens  are  formed  on  hilly  ground  ^^"*' ^°''  S* 
•=  o  -^  °  for  them. 

Avhich  has  a  red  soil ;  but,  as  the  trees  require  to  be  watered,  such 
places  only  are  considered  fit  for  the  purpose,  as  afJbrd  water  by 
digging  wells  to  no  great  depth,  or  as  can  be  watered  by  forming 
reservoirs.  The  water  of  the  wells  is  raised  by  the  machine  called 
Yatam ;  but  the  gardens  thus  supplied,  although  requiring  a  great 
deal  of  trouble,  are  equally  valuable  with  those  watered  from  tanks; 
for  as  these  sometimes  fail  in  the  hot  season,  the  crop  for  that  year 
is  lost,  although  the  trees  do  not  perish.  Cultivation 

Here  the  Areca  or  Betel-nut  palm  forms   separate  plantations,  "f'^e^ma 


46  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  which  are  surrounded  by  some  rows  of  the  coco-nut  tree,  and'  is 
not  scattered  about  the  gardens,  as  in  Malabar.  The  following  is 
the  manner  of  making  one  of  these  plantations,  as  described  by  the 
proprietors.  Between  the  17th  of  December,  and  the  13th  of  Fe- 
bruary, the  seed  must  be  collected  from  trees  that  are  at  least  fifty 
years  old.  Having  been  kept  four  days  in  the  house,  it  is  tied  up 
in  a  Moral/,  or  straw-bag,  and  is  immersed  for  25  days  in  the  water 
of  a  well.  In  the  mean  time  a  small  plot  of  rice  ground  is  repeatedly 
ploughed  until  it  be  reduced  to  a  fine  mud,  and  is  well  manured 
with  dung  and  ashes.  In  this  mud  the  nuts  are  placed  close  to  one 
another,  with  their  eyes  uppermost,  and  one  half  of  them  above  the 
earth.  Then  the  plot  is  covered  with  straw,  and  is  watered  once  a 
day  for  a  month.  A  piece  of  dry  ground  is  then  dug  up  with  the 
hoe,  and  manured  with  dung  and  ashes.  Into  this  the  nuts,  which 
have  now  sprouted,  are  transplanted  at  half  a  cubit's  distance  from 
each  other.  The  nuts  only  are  covered,  and  the  sprouts  arc  left  pro- 
jecting. For  two  months,  if  the  soil  be  moist,  it  must  be  watered 
once  in  four  days ;  if  it  be  dry,  once  in  three  days  is  sufficient. 
Another  piece  of  ground  is  in  the  mean  time  prepared  ;  and  at  the 
end  of  the  two  months  the  young  seedlings  are  removed  thither, 
and  placed  at  the  distance  of  one  cubit  from  each  other.  In  this 
nursery  they  remain  eight  months ;  and  once  in  four  days,  when 
there  is  no  rain,  they  are  watered.  In  the  mean  while  the  garden 
is  prepared  by  inclosing  it  with  a  dry  hedge  of  prickly  bushes^ 
Within  the  hedge  a  row  of  coco-nut  palms  is  planted,  each  being 
24  cubits  from  the  other.  Within  these,  at  10  cubits  distance  from 
each  other,  are  formed  pits,  two  cubits  in  diameter,  and  two  cubits 
deep.  In  the  bottom  of  each  of  these  is  put  a  young  Areca;  all  its 
roots  are  covered  with  fine  mould,  and  it  is  manured  with  a  little 
dung.  This  is  between  the  19th  of  October  and  the  l6th  of  No- 
vember, at  the  close  of  the  rainy  season.  Every  fourth  day  the  pits- 
must  be  watered,  while  the  sun  is  excluded  liy  branches  and  leave* 
At  the  end  of  si.\  months  some  dung  must  be  given,  and  the  weeds 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  47 

removed  by  the  hand.  Whenever  there  is  no  rain  the  waterings  CHAPTER 
are  to  be  continued;  and  twice  a  year  the  trees  must  be  manured,  k^^^^-^ 
and  the  weeds  ought  to  be  removed  from  near  their  roots.  In  two  •^^"-  22. 
years  the  pits  are  filled  up  with  the  manure.  At  the  end  of  five 
years  another  set  of  pits  is  made,  one  between  every  two  of  the  old 
ones ;  and  in  these  is  placed  another  set  of  young  plants,  and  ma- 
naged as  the  first  set.  At  this  second  planting  some  plantain  trees 
(Musas)  are  set  in  the  garden,  but  not  above  forty  for  the  hundred 
Arecas.  Near  the  hedge,  in  a  line  with  the  coco-nut  palms,  are  also 
put  some  Jack  ( Artocarpus  integrifolia)  and  Mango  ( Mangifera  in- 
dica)  trees.  When  ten  years  old,  the  ^reca  begins  to  produce  fruit; 
but  until  the  fifteenth  year  does  not  arrive  at  perfection.  For 
thirty-five  years  it  continues  in  full  bearing.  From  its  50th  year 
until  its  death,  which  happens  in  from  its  70th  to  its  100th  year, 
the  quantity  of  fruit  gradually  diminishes,  but  its  quality  rather 
improves.  The  trees  in  full  fruit  produce  annually  three  bunches, 
which  ripen  in  succession  between  the  19th  of  October  and  the 
l6th  of  December.  Each  bunch  contains  from  30  to  100  nuts;  so 
that,  according  to  the  natives,  200  nuts  may  be  taken  as  the  average 
produce  of  an  Areca  when  it  is  in  vigour.  When  the  Mmigo  and 
Jack  trees  have  grown  up,  the  pepper  vines  are  usually  put  round 
them.  Some  people  plant  them  also  against  the  Ai'eca,  but  they 
diminish  its  produce.  Vams  (Dioscoreas)  are  planted  near  the  hedge. 

The  Betel-nut  is  collected  by  a  set  of  people  called  Devadigas,  Manner  of 
■who  are  sometimes  kept  as  servants,  and  sometimes  hired  for  the  collecting 

and  preserv- 

crop  season,  at  1;^  silver  Fanam  a  day  (5^d.),  part  of  which  is  paid  iagiheBetd- 
in  rice.  A  Devadiga  in  the  forenoon  cuts  25  bunches,  and  in  the  ""^' 
afternoon  assists  the  family  to  prepare  the  nuts.  If  the  season  pro- 
mise to  be  favoui'able,  that  is  to  say,  not  too  rainy,  when  the  nuts 
are  three  quarters  ripe,  they  are  cut  for  fVan'-Adiky,  or  dry-betel. 
Immediately  after  they  are  cut,  the  husk  is  separated,  and  the 
nuts  are  then  put  into  a  pot,  with  as  much  water  as  will  cover  them, 
and  boiled  until  the  eyes  (CorcuUa)  fall  out.    They  are  then  cut 


48  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   into  eight  pieces,  and  dried  in  the  sun  four  days,  being  removed 
x^Xlj    Jiito  the  house  at  night,  or  on  the  appearance  of  rain.    It  is  of  great 
Jan,  22.         advantage  to  the  Betel  to  be  dried  on  a  gray  granite  rock  (Bilt/ 
Cullu);  but  where  that  cannot  be  procured,  it  is  dried  on  a  piece 
of  ground  that  is  purposely  made  hard  and  smooth.  For  this  opera- 
tion, the  Devadiga  rt(\\x\res,  the  assistance  of  four  people,  generally 
the  women  of  the  house  ;  and  they  prepare  daily  12  &£/•*  measure 
of  fVan'-Adiky  (\^^^  peck).    When  the  weather  threatens  to  be 
rainy,  the  nuts  are  allowed  to  ripen  on  the  tree  for  Nir'-Adiky,  or 
wet-betel,  which  is  thus  prepared.    The  nuts,  with  the  husk  on,  just 
as  they  are  taken  from  the  bunch,  are  put  into  large  jars  full  of 
water,  and  the  mouths  of  these  are  closely  shut.    In  this  state  they 
cannot  be  preserved  longer  than  four  or  five  months,  and  are  there- 
fore taken   for  immediate  consumption.    A  quantity  adequate  to 
supply  the  demand  is  daily  taken  out  of  the  jar,  and  skinned  as 
wanted.    The  knives  used  in  preparing  Betel-nut  are  delineated  in 
Plate  XXII.  Fig.  63,  64. 
Expense  of         A  garden  of  300  Arecas,  which  is  one  of  a  middling  size,  if  it  be 
watered  by  a  well,  requires  the  labour  of  six  people,   but  of  three 
only  if  it  be  watered  by  a  tank.    In  the  rainy  season,  however, 
while  the  cultivation  of  rice  is  chiefly  carried  on,  the  three  mea 
who  are  employed  to  raise  the  water  have  nothing  to  do  in  the 
garden,  and  are  employed  on  the  rice  ground  ;  even  the  three  other 
men  may  be  a  few  hours  daily  employed  at  any  other  kind  of  work. 
In  fact,  I  suspect  that  the  men,  who  spoke  of  six  servants  and  four 
ploughs  being  requisite  to  cultivate  8  Morays  of  rice-land,  ought 
to  have  added  to  the  account  an  Areca  garden  of  300  trees.    These 
men  get  \\  Pagoda  a  year  in  money,  2  Rupees  worth  of  cloth,  and 
eat  three  times  a  day  in  their  master's  house. 
Blackpepper.      The  pepper  is  managed  as  follows.     Between  the  24'th  of  May 
and  the  22d  of  June,  the  ground  near  the  tree  upon  which  it  is  to 
be  trained  is  dug  with  a  hoe.    Then  two,  three,  or  four  cuttings  of 
the  pepper  vine,  each  a  cubit  long,  are  put  in  the  ground,  one  end 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  45 

them  being  allowed  to  project.  They  are  then  covered  with  grass. 
This  is  done  when  the  rainy  season  commences.  A  month  afterwards 
they  get  a  little  dung.  As  the  vines  shoot,  they  are  tied  to  the  tree.  ^*"-  ^^* 
When  the  dry  season  commences,  they  must  be  watered  every  se- 
cond day,  until  a  year  old,  after  which  they  require  water  once  in 
four  days.  Twice  a  year  also  they  must  get  manure  of  dung  and 
leaves  ;  and  long  grass,  or  bushes,  must  be  prevented  from  growing 
near  their  roots ;  but  there  is  no  occasion  to  dig  or  plough  the 
whole  ground.  They  begin  to  bear  in  the  fifth  year;  but  are  not 
in  full  crop  until  the  eighth.  If  the  worms  attack  the  vine,  they 
die  in  twelve  or  fifteen  years  ;  but  otherwise  they  live  twenty-five, 
and  all  the  while  produce  good  crops.  When  any  vine  dies,  a  new 
one  is  planted  in  its  stead.  Here  they  are  trained  upon  the  Pongary 
or  Hongary  (Erythrina),  the  Nuriga  ( Moringa),  Jack  (Artocarpus), 
Mango  (Mangifera),  Areca,  coco-nut,  and  tamarind.  The  first  is, 
however,  most  commonl}'  employed,  and  in  this  country  lives  fifty 
years.  It  is  not  customary  here  to  prune  the  trees  upon  which  the 
pepper  is  trained.  Each  tree,  according  to  the  number  of  vines 
that  it  can  support,  produces  from  two  to  ionx  Pucka  •S'eer^  measure, 
or  from  -^Wo^  parts  to  l,-,VoVo  of  a  Winchester  gallon,  which  will 
weigh  from  2,^Vo  lb.  to  5,-j-Vo  lb.  When  one  or  two  berries  begin 
to  appear  red,  the  whole  are  collected  by  pinching  off  the  amenta. 
A  man,  in  one  day,  can  take  the  fruit  from  three  trees,  that  is  to 
say,  can  cure  about  12  pounds  of  pepper.  It  is  kept  all  night  in  the 
house.  Next  day  the  berries  are  rubbed  off  Avith  the  hands,  and 
picked  clean.  They  are  then  dried  three  days  on  mats,  or  on  a 
piece  of  smooth  hard  ground,  and  every  night  are  taken  into  the 
house.  The  pepper  is  then  fit  for  sale,  and  the  common  price  is 
one  Vir'-Raya  Fanam  for  the  Seer,  which  is  at  the  rate  of  106-i-  Ru- 
pees a.  Candy  of  560  lb.  the  weight  here  in  use;  or  at  the  rate  of 
120  Rupees  nearly  for  the  Candy  of  640  lb.  Avhich  the  cultivators  in 
Malabar  employ.  The  export  price  is  on  an  average  136 Rupees' 
Vol.  IIL  H 


50  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   for  the  small  Candy;  but  in  this  the  merchants  profit  and  the  customs 

^^^-       are  included. 
Jan.  22.  The  crop  season  is  between  the  loth  of  January  and  the  13th  of 

pepper.  February.    Some  people  take  advances  ;  but  the  practice  does  not 

seem  to  be  so  prevalent  as  in  Malabar,  and  the  terms  are  somewhat 
more  reasonable,  although  abundantly  severe  on  the  imprudent 
cultivator.  If  the  advance  be  made  six  months  before  the  time  of 
delivery,  the  borrower  gets  three  fourths  of  the  value  of  the  pepper; 
so  that  the  lender  has  a  profit  of  one  Rupee  for  every  three  advanced, 
or  33^ per  cent.  If,  however,  there  is  a  delivery  short  of  the  sti- 
pulated quantity,  the  merchant  gets  Ijack  only  a  proportional 
part  of  the  advance,  with  interest  at  the  rate  of  three  fourths  of  a 
Rupee  for  the  Pagoda  per  annum,  that  is  to  say,  I85  per  cent. 
Coco-nut  Although  I  examined  both  the  cultivators  and  extractors  of  palm 

palliations,  ^^jj^g  concerning  the  plantations  of  coco-nut  trees,  the  account  that 
I  can  give  of  them  is  not  at  all  satisfactory  ;  what  they  said  being 
in  some  places  evidently  false,  and  in  others  contradictory. 
Account  of  The  cultivators  say,  that  the  seed  must  be  allowed  one  whole 
proprietors^  y^^"*  ^^  *'^^  ^""^^  ^"  ripeu,  and  must  be  the  produce  of  a  palm  above 
who  cultivate  fifty  years  old.     After  being  plucked,  it  is  kept  four  months  in  a 

their  own  .  ... 

gardens.  place  which  is  sheltered  from  the  sun  and  rain.  Then  it  is  put 
in  a  well,  and  kept  a  month  under  water.  A  small  plot  of  dry  ground 
is  then  dug,  and  manured  with  dung  and  ashes.  In  this  the  coco- 
nuts are  placed,  at  one  cubit's  distance  from  each  other,  and  buried 
so  as  just  to  be  covered  above  the  eyes,  which  are  placed  uppermost. 
The  plot  must  be  near  a  tank  or  rivulet,  from  Avhich  with  a  wooden 
scoop,  Tay-pallay  (Plate  XXV.  Fig.  68.),  the  water  is  thrown  into  it 
every  other  day  when  there  is  no  rain.  If  there  be  rain,  pains  must 
be  taken  to  prevent  too  much  from  lodging  on  the  plot.  Tiiese  ope- 
rations may  be  performed  at  any^ season  ;  so  that  the  young  plants, 
after  remaining  in  the  plot  from  12  to  15  months,  may  be  fit  for 
transplanting  between  the  22d  of  July  and  the  20th  of  August.    In 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  51 

this  month  square  pits  two  cubits  in  width,  two  cubits  deep,  and  at   CHAPTEU 
24  cubits  distance,  are  dug ;  and  in  the  bottom  of  each  is  placed  a    \^^^^ 
coco-nut  with  its  young  shoot,  which  then  is  about  three  feet  high.  J^"-  22. 
Round  it  are  placed  a  Seer  of  salt,  some  ashes,  and  as  much  fine 
mould  as  will  rise  four  inclies  above  the  nut  and  roots.     The  young- 
plant  must   be  watered  every  other  day,  until  the  second   leaves 
expand,  which  will  be  in  about  six  weeks.    In  dry  weather  they 
must,  for  at  least  five  years,  be  watered  once  in  four  days.    In  low 
grounds  near  the  sea  or  inlets,  the  trees  after  this  age  require  no 
watering :  but  on  high  ground,  during  the  dry  season,   they  must 
be  watered  as  long  as  they  live.    In  both  situations  the  trees  must 
be  manured  twice  a  year  with  ashes,  dung,  and  leaves;  and,  if  at  a 
distance  from  the  sea- water,  they  must  at  the  same  time  get  a  little 
salt.    When  the  first  set  are  from  five  to  ten  years  old,  another  set 
is  planted  in  the  spaces  between  them.    They  arrive  at  full  perfec- 
tion in  twelve  years,  and  continue  in  vigour  until  sixty.    Those 
in  plantations  near  the  sea  die  at  this  age.     These  require  no 
trouble ;  but  after  five  years  of  age  to  be  manured  once  in  six 
months  ;  and  here  no  plantation  is  hoed  or  ploughed.  Every  second 
year,  in  the  rainy  season,  between  the  24th  of  May  and  the  l6th  of 
November,  those  trees  Avhich  grow  in  low  places  near  the  sea  are  let 
for  six  months  to  the  people  who  extract  the  juice.    During  this 
time,  owing  to  the  quantity  of  rain,  the  nuts  in  such  situations  do 
not  ripen.    In  the  year  in  which  juice  is  extracted,  the  tree  gives 
four  bunches  of  nuts  ;  in  the  intermediate  year  it  gives  six  bunches. 
According  to  the  farmers,  a  garden  on  high  ground,  that  contains 
500  trees,  if  watered  by  a  tank,  requires  twenty  men  to  work  it ;  if 
watered  by  a  well,  it  requires  thirty  men  in  the  rainy,  and  forty  in 
the  dry  season.  This,  however,  must  be  an  excessive  exaggeration. 
In  the  dry  season  these  trees  may  once  in  three  years  be  let  for 
extracting  juice  ;  but  the  practice  is  not  common.  Each  tree,  while 
in  vigour,  ought  annually  to  produce  fifty  nuts.    Those  on  the  low 
ground  produce  more,  but  on  the  high-land  they  live  much  longer. 


52 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Jan.  22. 
Account 
given  by  the 
Biluaras, 
who  extract 
the  juice. 


Customs  of 
this  cast. 


They  there  continue  in  full  vigour  until  sixty  years  old,  and  for 
about  ninety  more  gradually  decay. 

The  men  who  extract  the  juice  in  general  hire  the  trees  when 
these  are  fit  for  their  purpose.  The  rate  that  they  give  seems  very 
low,  being  only  one  fourth  of  a  Rupee  for  three  trees  near  the 
salt-water,  and  one  fourth  of  a  Rupee  for  four  or  five  trees  growing  on 
hill-land ;  and  there  must  be  some  mistake,  as  both  to  the  north  and 
south  the  rate  for  each  tree  is  half  a  Rupee.  It  is  true,  that  here 
the  trees  are  never  exhausted,  and,  even  in  the  year  in  which  juice 
is  taken,  produce  a  crop  of  nuts.  According  to  the  Biluaras  the 
trees  near  the  sea  can  at  all  times  yield  juice,  those  growing  on 
hills  produce  it  only  in  the  rainy  season  ;  which  is  directly  contrary 
to  the  assertion  of  the  cultivators.  The  juice  is  partly  sold,  for 
drink,  while  fermenting ;  partly  distilled  into  a  liquor  called  Gun- 
gasir ;  and  partly  boiled  into  Jagory. 

The  people  who  follow  the  business  of  extracting  juice  from  palm 
trees,  in  their  native  language  oi  Tulava,  are  called  Biluaras ;  but 
in  that  of  Kar?iata,  which  the  people  of  rank  here  commonly  use, 
they  are  called  Halepeca  Davaru.  Their  proper  business  is  to  extract 
juice  from  palm  trees,  to  boil  it  down  to  Jagory,  or  to  distil  it  into 
spirituous  liquor;  but  many  of  them  also  cultivate  the  ground,  a 
few  as  masters,  but  many  more  as  Culialu,  or  hired  servants.  Some 
of  this  cast  have  now  settled  above  the  Ghats.  These  will  marry 
the  daughters  of  the  people  remaining  in  Tulava ;  but  those  here 
will  not  marry  a  girl  from  Karnata,  because  the  property  there  goes 
to  a  man's  children,  but  here  it  goes  to  the  children  of  his  sisters ; 
and,  if  he  married  a  girl  from  Karnata,  her  brothers  would  not 
receive  the  children.  The  Biluaras  pretend  to  be  Sudras,  but  ac- 
knowledge their  inferiority  to  the  Bunts.  The  business  of  the  cast 
is  settled  by  a  person  called  Guricara,  who  is  appointed  for  the  pur- 
pose by  the  government,  and  who,  with  the  assistance  of  a  council 
of  elders,  has  the  power  of  excommunication,  and  of  inflicting  cor- 
poral punishment.    None  of  this  cast  can  read.  They  are  permitted 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  53 

to  eat  animal  food,  but  ought  not  to  drink  intoxicating  liquor.    CHAPTER 
The  men  are  allowed  a  plurality  of  women,  who  live  in  their  houses;        ^^^* 
but  on  the  husband's  death  the  widows,  with  their  children,  return  Jau.  22. 
to  their  brother's  houses,  and  the  eldest  son  of  the  eldest  sister  of 
the  deceased  person  becomes  master  of  his  house  and  property.    If 
a  man  fall  into  poverty,  his  children  go   to  their  uncle's  house,  be- 
fore their  father's  death.    Girls  continue  to  be  marriageable  after 
the  age  of  puberty  ;  and  a  M'idow,  or  divorced  woman,  may  marry 
again.     A  man   may   turn  away  his  wife  when  he   pleases;  but  a 
woman  cannot  leave  her  husband  without  his  consent.    This  how- 
ever, by  committing  adultery  with  any  person  of  the  cast,  she  can 
in  general  procure ;  for  few  husbands  retain  tlieir  wives  when  un- 
faithful ;  and  she  is  not  disgraced,  but  may  get  another  husband, 
or  at  any  rate  she  can  live  with  her  brother.    Those  who  are  in  easy- 
circumstances  burn  their  dead  ;  those  who  die  poor  are  buried.  The 
spirits  of  good  men  are  supposed  to  go  to  a  heaven  called  Sorgum, 
those  of  bad  men  are  sent  to  a  place  of  punishment  called  Nuraka. 
They  seem  to  have  no  idea  of  transmigration.    A  few  of  them  wor- 
ship Vishnu ;  the  greater  part,  however,  never  pray  to  any  of  the 
great  gods,    but  content  themselves   with  an  annual  sacrifice  to 
Marima,  and  the  other  Saktis,  by  which  they  hope  to  avert  the  evils 
that  are   occasioned  by  these  agents  of  Siva,    Their  women  are 
liable  to  disoixlers  that  are  attributed  to  the  influence  of  Paisdchi, 
or  evil   spirits.     These  are  not  appeased  by  sacrifices ;  but  the 
Biluaras  apply  to  the  Cunian,  whose  Mantrams,  they  fancy,  are  ca- 
pable of  casting  out  these  devils.    None  of  the  Biluaras  have  Puro- 
hitas  to  read  Maiitrams  or  Sdstrams  on  occasion  of  any  ceremony, 
such  as  marriage,  or  the  commemoration  of  their  deceased  parents; 
nor  have  those  who  confine  their  worship  to  the  Saktis  any  Guru  ; 
but  those  who  pray  to  Fishnu  are  subject  to  the  Sri  Vaishnavam 
Brdhmans,  who  accept  of  their  Dharma,  or  duty,  and  bestow  on  them, 
Upadesa,  Chaki'dntikam,  holy- water,  and  the  like. 


54 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


cnAPri:R 

XIV. 

Account  of 
the  coco-nut 
plantations 
by  the  te- 
nants. 


Betel-leaf. 


But  to  returu  to  tlie  gardens.  The  tenants  (Gaynigaras)  not  only 
diflfcr  i'roni  the  Biluaras,  but  also  give  a  diffevent  accountfrom  the 
YXo^YXttor^  ( Muli(caras).  They  say,  that  when  they  are  disposed  to 
plant  a  garden,  they  agree  with  a  proprietor  for  a  piece  of  ground 
suited  to  the  purpose.  They  agree  to  give  him  a  fixed  annual  rent 
in  money  ;  and  so  long  as  they  pay  this,  the  garden  cannot  on  any 
pretence  he  resumed.  In  case  of  a  deficiency  of  rent,  the  proprietor 
may  resume  the  garden  ;  but  he  must  pay  the  tenant  for  all  im- 
provements made  by  planting.  The  value  of  each  kind  of  tree  is 
fixed,  and  is  not  left  to  arbitration,  as  was  alleged  by  the  proprietors. 
For  coco-nut  palms  the  value  differs,  according  to  their  age,  from 
one  to  three  Rupees.  A  Betel-?iut  palm  is  valued  at  one  fourth  of  a 
Rupee  ;  ten  or  twelve  fruit  trees  at  one  Rupee  j  a  tree  covered  with, 
pepper  vines  one  Rupee.  The  expense  of  rearing  all  these  must  be 
as  great  here  as  in  Malabar ;  and  wie  may  safely  conclude,  that 
these  values  at  least  equal  the  expense  incurred.  A  tenant  cannot 
sell  his  garden ;  but  he  may  at  any  time  go  to  the  proprietor  and 
compel  him  to  take  it  off  his  hands,  and  to  pay  the  value  of  the 
trees.  The  tenants  sometimes  hire  gardens  that  have  been  brought 
to  maturity.  In  this  case,  they  pay  a  certain  sum  for  each  palm, 
but  nothing  for  any  of  the  other  articles  that  are  reared  in  the 
garden.  The  proprietor  continues  to  cultivate  the  garden,  and  to 
keep  up  the  number  of  the  trees.  This  seems  to  be  a  reason  for  the 
low  state  at  which  the  cultivation  of  pepper  is  in  Tulava ;  as  the 
proprietor  is  not  at  all  interested  in  increasing  the  number  of  vines. 
Betel- leaf  (Pipei^  Bet le)  is  here  cultivated  in  separate  gardens, 
as  is  the  case  in  most  parts  of  India,  except  in  Malabar.  For  this 
purpose,  a  red  stony  soil  on  the  side  of  a  rising  ground  is  preferred. 
Some  of  the  gardens  are  watered  from  tanks ;  others,  by  means  of 
the  Yatam,  from  wells,  in  which  the  water  stands  from  12  to  24  feet 
under  the  surface.  Between  the  23d  of  April  and  the  23d  of  May 
the  ground   is  first  dug,  and  is  then  formed  into  beds  six  cubits 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  55 

wide,  Avhich  are  separated  by  trenches  three  fourths  of  a  cubit  CHAPTEEl 
broad,  and  half  a  cubit  deep.  In  the  centre  of  each  trench,  at  four  x.^v-w' 
finger-breadths  from  each  otlier,  are  planted,  in  a -row,  cuttings  of  J^in- 22. 
the  Betel-vine,  each  a  cubit  in  length.  If  there  is  no  rain,  they 
must  be  slightly  watered  five  times  a  day,  and  then  covered  with 
branches  to  keep  off  the  sun.  At  the  end  of  the  first  and  second 
months,  a  little  fresh  red  soil,  mixed  with  small  stones,  are  put  in 
the  bottoms  of  the  trenches.  At  the  end  of  the  third  month  a  row 
of  branches,  at  six  or  eight  cubits  from  each  other,  is  planted  on 
each  side  of  every  trench.  The  branches  are  intended  to  grow  up 
to  trees  as  supports  to  the  vines.  Those  chosen  are  the  Pongary 
(Erythrina),  the  Nuriga  (Moringa),  and  the  Agashay  (Mschyno- 
meiie  grandiflora).  At  the  same  time,  a  little  more  earth  and  some 
dung  are  put  into  the  trenches. ^  In  the  sixth  month  more  earth 
and  dung  is  given  ;  and.  Bamboos  having  been  tied  horizontally 
along  the  rows  of  branches,  the  young  Betel-vines  are  tied  up  to 
these.  At  the  same  time,  in  the  middle  of  every  second  bed,  a 
channel  is  formed,  which  every  other  day  is  filled  with  water;  and 
from  thence,  by  means  of  the  Tay-pallay  (Plate  XXV.  Fig.  &8  ),  the 
water  must  be  thrown  on  the  plants.  Every  month,  a  little  dung 
and  red  earth  is  put  to  the  roots  of  the  vines,  and  these  are  tied  up 
to  the  Bamboos  and  trees.  When  a  year  old,  the  garden  begins  to 
produce  leaves  for  sale  ;  after  which,  once  in  two  months,  it  requires 
to  be  manured,  and  in  dry  weather  to  be  watered  once  in  two  days. 
In  the  centre  of  each  of  the  beds  that  have  no  channels,  is  then  put 
a  row  of  plantain  trees.  The  garden  is  generally  surrounded  l)y  a 
quickset  hedge,  at  other  times  by  a  dead  hedge  of  prickly  bushes, 
and  in  the  interval  between  the  fence  and  vines  are  planted  Cap- 
sicums, and  other  kitchen  stuffs.  Every  four  years  the  Betel-vines 
die  ;  but  in  their  stead  others  are  immediately  planted,  a  new  trench 
being  dug  in  the  situation  of  each  old  one.  In  eighteen  or  twenty 
years,  the  soil  having  been  exhausted,  all  that  is  near  the  trees  is 
removed,  and  in  its  place  fresh  red  earth  is  brought  into  the  garden. 


56^  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  The  trees  last  for  fifty  or  sixty  years;  but  when,  by  accident,  one 
y]^\li    dies  sooner,  a  fresh  branch  is  planted  to  supply  its  loss.    These 

Jan.  22,  substitutes,  however,  do  not  thrive.  When,  from  old  age,  the  whole 
trees  begin  to  decay,  the  garden  is  abandoned,  and  a  new  one  is 
formed  in  another  place.  If  the  garden  receive  its  supply  of  water 
from  a  reservoir,  the  cultivator,  each  time  that  he  plants,  pays  to  the 
proprietor  10  gold  Fanams,  or  2^  Rupees  for  every  1000  vines,  la 
the  three  intermediate  years  he  pays  nothing.  If  the  water  be 
supplied  from  a  well,  the  rent  is  only  half  of  the  above  mentioned 
sum. 

Cattle  and  The  cattle  employed  in  labour  here  are  chiefly  bred  in  the  inland 

fodder.  districts  about  Subhi^a-mani,  and  are  no  larger  than  those  oi  Malabar. 

From  the  month  of  January,  until  the  commencement  of  the  rainy 
season,  they  are  supported  on  fodder.  Between  the  17th  of  No- 
vember and  the  l6th  of  December  a  bad  hay  is  made  of  the  long 
grass  which  grows  naturally  on  some  hills  that  are  purposely  kept 
clear  of  bushes.  This  hay  is  chopped,  and  is  boiled  with  rice  husks 
for  three  hours ;  of  this  the  oxen  are  allowed  a  quantity  morning 
and  evening  ;  half  a  il/awwrf  ( 1 4  lb.),  the  people  say,  would  be  a  good 
allowance.  At  night  they  get  rice  straw  to  the  amount  of  about 
three  fourths  of  a  Maund  (21  lb.),  as  the  people  whom  I  consulted 
conjecture;  but,  from  the  appearance  of  the  cattle,  the  quantity 
allowed  cannot  be  near  so  much.  The  people  indeed  merely  spoke 
by  guess,  no  Hindu,  so  far  as  ever  I  heard,  having  thought  of 
weighing  fodder.  At  the  end  of  the  dry  season  the  cattle,  as  usual 
in  India,  become  very  poor;  but  in  the  rainy  season  those  here  are 
fat,  and  the  cows  are  entirely  supported  by  pasturing  on  the  hills : 
at  night  the  working  cattle  are  allowed  rice  straw.  An  ox  is  wrought 
from  sun  rise  until  noon  only,  and  is  allowed  the  afternoon  to  pas- 
ture. Epidemic  diseases  are  sometimes  very  destructive,  and  are 
attributed  to  a  contagion  which  is  supposed  always  to  originate 
above  the  Ghats.  An  old  man  says,  that  he  remembers  twenty  times 
the  jrevalence  of  this  epidemic ;  but  that  seems  to  be  speaking  in 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  51 

round  numbers :  for  the  five  last  years  there  has  been  no  disease  of  CHAPTER 
the  kind.    A  good  cow  gives  twice  a  day  half  a  Seer  of  milk.     For     ^3!^^ 
this  purpose  few  female  buffaloes  are  kept,  but  a  great  many  males  Jan.  22. 
are  employed  in  the  plough.    Swine  are  kept  by  some  of  the  low 
casts  ;  but  the  pork  of  tame  swine  is  an  abomination  with  the  Bunts, 
as  with  all  the  higher  ranks  of  Hindus,  although  many  of  them  are 
fond  of  the  meat  of  the  wild  hog.    No  horses,   sheep,  goats,  nor 
asses  are  bred  in  Tulava  ;  nor  have  its  inhabitants  any  carts. 

Salt  is  made  on  -this  coast  by  a  process  similar  to  that  used  in  Salt. 
Malabar  ;  but  the  quantity  manufactured  is  very  inadequate  to  the 
demand  of  the  country.  A  low  piece  of  ground  covered  by  the 
flood,  but  dry  at  low  water,  is  chosen,  and  surrounded  by  a  bank 
that  is  capable  of  excluding  the  tide.  By  means  of  a  tunnel  passing 
through  the  bank,  and  formed  of  a  hollow  coco-nut  tree,  the  salt 
"Water  can  at  pleasure  be  admitted.  A  sufficient  quantity  having 
been  received,  the  tunnel  is  shut ;  and,  when  the  water  has  eva- 
porated, the  soil  is  very  strongly  impregnated  with  salt.  Brine  is 
formed,  as  usual  in  India,  by  filtering  salt  water  through  this  saline 
earth.  The  brine  is  exposed  to  the  sun  in  small  plots,  levelled,  and 
rendered  impenetrable  to  water  by  a  coating  of  clay  and  sand  well 
beaten  together,  and  rubbed  smooth  with  a  stone.  To  form  the 
salt  requires  28  hours  evaporation;  and  it  can  be  made  only  be- 
tween the  26th  of  March  and  the  23d  of  May.  The  man  who  makes  ■ 
it  gets  from  the  government  an  advance  of  five  Pagodas  in  cash, 
and  of  rice  to  the  same  amount.  He  repays  the  money,  but  not  the 
rice,  and  pays  on  an  average  a  tax  of  43  Pagodas ;  so  that,  in  fact, 
government  gets  from  him  38  Pagodas  (15 1.  l6s.  3d.)  for  an  ordi- 
nary salt-field.  Larger  or  smaller  ones  pay  in  proportion.  The 
manufacturer  sells  his  salt  as  he  pleases.  It  is  mixed  with  a  con- 
siderable quantity  of  earthy  impurities,  but  not  with  more  than  the 
common  salt  of  Bengal  contains.  The  grains  are  large  and  cubical, 
and  often  adhere  together  in  large  porous  masses.    It  seems  to  be 

Vol.  in.  I    , 


58 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CIlAl'TER   very  deliquescent.  The  cominou  price  is  1120  Seers  for  the  Pagoda. 
•       Tlie  Seer  measures  76\  cubical  inches ;  the  bushel  therefore,  in 
dueling  the  duties,  costs  less  than  Q.\d. 

No  iron  is  made  in  the  province  of  Canara. 
Commerce.  Having  assembled  the  principal  traders  of  this  place,  they  say, 
not  only  that  the  trade  of  the  place  has  decayed  greatly  since  the 
time  of  Hi/der,  which  may  possibly  be  true;  but  they  also  assert, 
contrary  to  the  evidence  of  the  custom-house  accompts,  that  since 
the  fall  of  Tippoo  the  imports  have  diminished  greatly.  They  ac- 
knowledge, however,  that  under  this  prince  the  merchants  suf- 
fered terrible  oppressions,  and  that  under  his  government  the 
greater  part  of  them  were  ruined.  Hyder  had  collected  them  toge- 
ther with  great  pains,  and  he  always  allowed  a  Lac  of  Rupees 
(10,073/.  12*.  9.\d.)  to  be  in  advance  to  honest  and  industrious, 
Ijut  poor  men  ;  by  which  means  such  valuable  persons  were  induced 
to  come  from  great  distances,  and  to  settle  at  this  place.  The  prin- 
cipal merchants  in  Hydefs  time  were  Moplays  and  Kankdnies  ;  a  few 
came  from  Guzzerat.  Since  the  Company  has  acquired  the  govern- 
ment of  the  country,  many  men  of  substance  have  come  from  Siwat, 
Cutch,  Bombay,  and  other  places  to  the  north.  These  men  are 
chiefly  of  the  Vaisya  cast,  but  a  good  many  Parsis  are  among  them. 
The  shopkeepers  are  still  mostly  Moplays  and  Kankdnies.  The  Bunts 
are  now  beginning  to  pursue  commerce.  The  vessels  employed  in 
trade  chiefly  belong  to  other  ports. 
Expoits.  Rice  is  the  grand  article  of  export.  It  is  sent  to  Muscat,  Bombay, 

Goa,  and  Malabar.  The  duties  on  its  exportation  were  lowered  by 
Major  Monro  ;  but  that  has  made  no  material  difference  in  the 
price,  and  the  cultivators  are  not  sensible  of  any  benefit  from  this 
measure.  The  average  price,  including  duties  and  shipping  charges, 
varies,  according  to  its  quantity,  from  24  to  18-^  Pagodas  a.  Corgeof 
42  Morays.  This  makes  the  price  from  almost  3s.  6\d.  to  2*.  8;i</. 
a  bushel.     The  cultivators,  of  course,  sell  it  lower;  about  2  Morays 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  59 

for  a  Pagoda  may  he  the  average  price  that  they  get  for  good  rice,    CHAPTER 
which  is  3*.  Irf.  a  bushel.    The  coarser  kinds  9,relQwer  in  proportion,     ^.^^-.-^.y 

Next  to  rice,  Supari  or  Betel-nut  is  the  chief  export.     It  is  sent  ^^""  ^~* 
to  Surat,  Bombay,  and  Cutch.    The  export  price  of  the  raw  nut  is  14 
Pagodas  a  Candy,  or   \l.  2  s.  A^d.  a  hundred-weight.    That  of  the 
boiled  nut  is  15  Pagodas,  or  1/.  Ss.  Hid.  a  hundred-weight. 

Black-pepper  the  merchants  reckon  the  next  greatest  article  of 
export;  but,  to  judge  from  the  custom-house  accompts,  it  would 
seem  to  be  more  considerable.  Its  average  price  is  3i  Pagodas  a 
Candy,  or  3 1.  I  s.  I  d.  a  hundred-weight.  The  customs  on  pepper  are 
lower  here  than  in  Malabar,  and  no  rent  nor  tax  is  exacted  ft-om  the 
cultivator;  yet  the  price  at  J/rt«^a/o7'e  is  higher  than  at  TellicJioy, 
and  the  cultivation  is  more  neglected. 

Sandal  wood  is  sent  to  Bombay  ;  but  it  is  all  the  produce  of  the 
country  above  the  Ghats. 

Cassia,  called  here  DhdV -China,  or  cinnamon,  is  sent  to  Muscat, 
Cutch,  Surat,  and  Bombay  ;  and  is  exported  at  9  Pagodas  the  Candy, 
or  14*.  ^\d.  the  hundred-weight.  The  buds  of  this  tree  are  called 
Cabob  China,  which  seems  to  be  the  origin  of  the  European  word 
Cubeb.    They  are  exported  to  the  same  places. 

Turmeric  grows  in  the  country,  and  is  exported  to  Muscat,  Cutch, 
Surat,  and  Bombay,  at  the  rate  of  8  Pagodas  a  Candy,  or  12  j,  9\d. 
a  hundred-weight. 

The  chief  imports,  according  to  these  merchants,  are  blue  cotton  Import,*. 
cloths  from  Surat,  Cutch,  and  Madras.    The  Surat  cloth  is  the  most 
common.    It  is  36  cubits  long,  two  broad,  and  of  a  very  dark  colour, 
and  sells  for  from  18  to  50  Pagodas  a  Corge,  or  from  3^  to  10  Rupees 
a  piece. 

Coarse  white  cotton  cloth  from  Cutch,  Bavanagur,  and  other 
places  north  from  Bombay. 

Salt  from  Bombay  and  Goa.  The  former  sells  at  70  Pagodas  a 
Cumbu,  and  the  latter  at  50  Pagodas :  the  former  is  a  little  more 
than  3i:d.  and  the  latter  than  9,\d.  a  bushel. 


60  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Raw-silk,  for  tlie  use  of  the  manufacturers  above  the  Ghats,  is 
imported  from  CAw«  and  Bengal ;  and  from  Muscat  a  kind  of  red 
Jan.  22.         dye,  called  Munjisht,  which  I  believe  is  a  species  of  madder. 

Sugar  is  imported  from  Bengal  dund  China,  and  oil  and  Ghee  (boiled 
butter)  from  Surat. 

Much  of  the  cloth  used  in  the  country  is  brought  from  above  the 
Ghats;  partly  by  the  merchants  of  this  place,  and  partly  by  those 
of  Bangalore  and  Cuddapa. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  6l 


CHAPTER    XV. 


JOURNEY  FROM  MANGALORE  TO  BEIDURU. 


JANUARY  29th. — I  went  about  ten  miles  to  Areola,  which  is  also   CHAPTER 
,  XV. 

called  Feringy-petta,  having  formerly  been  chiefly  inhabited  by     \,^-v-^ 

the  Christians  of  Kankana,  invited  to  reside  here  by  the  princes  of  •^^"•.  ^^' 

'  ./J.  teriiigy* 

the  house  of  Ikeri.  Its  situation,  on  the  northern  bank  of  the  sou-  petta. 
thern  Mangalore  river,  is  very  fine,  and  it  was  formerly  a  large  town. 
After  Tippoo  had  taken  General  Mathews,  he  destroyed  the  town, 
and  carried  away  its  inhabitants.  One  end  only  of  the  church  re- 
mains, which  however  shows  that  it  has  been  a  neat  building.  Its 
situation  is  remarkably  fine. 

Even  now  the  river  contains  a  great  deal  of  water,  and  in  the  Mangalore 
rainy  season  it  is  very  large.     Its  banks,  like  those  of  the  Panyani  Appearance 
river,  are  very  beautiful  and  rich.     Indeed  the  whole  country  en-  ofthecoun- 
tirely  resembles  Malabar,  only  the  sides  of  the  hills  have  been 
formed  into  terraces  with  less  industry.  As  no  hill-rice  is  cultivated 
in  this  vicinity,  the  terraces  are  formed  at  the  roots  of  the  hills 
only,  where  the  gardens  in  Malabar  axe  situated.    According  to  the 
report  of  the  natives,  not  one  fourth  part  of  the  ground  fit  for  gar- 
dens is  now  planted.    They  say,  that  7)J6|poo,  in  order  to  remove 
every  inducement  for  Europeans  to  frequent  the  country,  destroyed 
all  the  pepper  vines,  and  all  the  trees  on  which  these  were  supported. 
Much  of  the  rice  land  is  so  well  watered  by  springs  and  rivulets, 
that  it  produces  a  constant  succession  of  crops  of  that  grain ;  one 
crop  being  sown  as  soon  as  the  preceding  one  has  been  cut.    Al- 
though here  the  steep  sides  of  the  hills  are  not  formed  into  terraces, 


6& 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Jan.  29. 


Jan.  30. 
Stupid  guides, 


Jan.  31. 
Appearance 
•jf  the  coun- 
try. 


Biiitltcala. 


Nctrawati 
liver. 


as  in  Malabar,  yet  the  gently  sloping  lands  are  formed  into  rice- 
fields  that  are  cultivated  once  a  year.  In  Alalabar  they  would  be 
either  planted,  or  reserved  for  the  cultivation  of  hill-rice,  Scsamum, 
or  the  like;  and  would  yield  a  crop  once  only  in  three  years. 

30th  January. — Yesterday  a  considerable  part  of  my  baggage 
lost  its  way;  and  although  accompanied  by  two  guides,  and  tra- 
velling on  the  most  public  road  in  Canara,  I  did  not  discover  my 
tents  until  two  o'clock  this  morning.  The  guides  and  attendants, 
in  excuse  for  their  stupidity,  alleged,  that  they  were  misled  by  the 
reports  of  the  natives,  who  had  informed  them  of  my  having  passed 
places  which  I  never  had  been  near.  The  cattle  were  so  much 
fatigued  that  I  would  not  proceed ;  so  I  employed  the  day  in  col- 
lecting plants. 

31st  January. — In  the  morning  I  went  ihre^  Sultariy  cosses  to  Na- 
gara  Agrarum.  The  road  in  general  is  bad  even  for  oxen.  The 
country  is  similar  to  that  between  Mangalore  and  Ai'cola.  Most  of 
the  hills  are  clear;  but  many  palms  of  the  Borassus  kind  are  scat- 
tered throughout  the  country,  and  the  little  vallies  are  finely 
watered  with  clear  perennial  rivulets.  These  are  confined  by 
dams ;  so  that  it  is  said,  that  about  one  fourth  part  of  all  the  low 
rice  land  in  Buntwala  district  (Taluc)  produces  annually  three 
crops  of  rice. 

About  a  coss  from  Nagara  I  passed  tlirough  an  open  town  named 
Buntwala,  which  at  present  contains  about  200  houses.  In  the  last 
war  the  Coorg  RAja  destroyed  about  200  houses,  and  carried  away 
one  half  of  the  inhabitants.  Many  new  houses  are  building;  and, 
as  I  passed  through,  I  observed,  tliat  the  people  were  deeply  en- 
gaged in  the  bustle  of  commerce,  and  from  their  appearance  were 
in  good  circumstances.  They  carry  on  a  great  trade  between  il/a«- 
galore  on  the  one  hand,  and  Hasina,  Bailuru,  IVostara,  Sanga-purO' 
petta,  Narasingha-pura,  and  Attigupa  on  the  other.  From  the  neighr 
bouring  country  they  also  collect  much  rice  for  exportation. 

The  town  is  situated  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river  passing 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  6S 

Areola,  and  which  is  named  the  Netraivati.    Since  I  left  Animalaya,   CHAPTER 
this' is  the  first  river  that  I  have  found  possessing  a  name.    The     v^^.^^^ 
tide  flows  no  higher  than  Areola;  but  canoes  carrying  100  Morays,  Jan. 31. 
or  about  130  bushels  of  rice,  can  at  all  seasons  ascend  five  or  six 
cosses  above  Nagara.    The  channel  is  very  wide,  and  full  of  rocks, 
which  in  the  dry  season  form  many  islands,  among  which  the  river 
winds  with  a  gentle  current.  In  the  rainy  season,  canoes  can  ascend 
six  cosses  farther   than   they  can   do  at  present.    There  are  two 
branches  of  the  river,  which  join  five  cosses  above  Nagara.    The 
northern  branch  is  the  largest,  and  comes  from  the  same  place  that 
gives  rise  to  the  Tunga  and  Bhadra  rivers. 

All  the  way  I  observed  many  iron  guns  lying  near  the  road  ;  and 
was  told  that  Tippoo,  when  he  destroyed  Mangalore  fort,  ordered 
all  the  guns  to  be  transported  to  Seringapdtam  ;  but  the  people  en- 
trusted with  performing  this  duty  were  bought  off  by  the  labourers, 
and  found  out  various  pretexts  for  leaving  most  of  the  guns  on  the 
road.    By  the  natives  they  are  considered  as  totally  useless. 

Nagara  Agrarum,  as  its  name  implies,  is  a  village,  inhabited  by  Nagara 
Brdhmans,  of  whose  houses  it  at  present  contains  thirty.  They  were 
brought  here  70  or  80  years  ago,  and  land  was  assigned  for  their 
support  by  Colala  Vcneatashya,  a  Brahman  in  the  service  of  Somase- 
hara  Nuyaka,  the  son  of  Sivuppa  Ndyaka,  the  first  prince  of  the  house 
0/  IlierL  The  Tahsilddr  of  Buntzvala  resides  here ;  for,  being  a 
Brahman,  he  naturally  prefers  the  society  of  Nagara  to  that  of  the 
traders  of  Bimtwala.  His  district  Y^^/mcJ  contains  four  Rajdships ; 
Choutar,  Bungar,  Ajelar,  and  Mular.  These  Rcijds  were  all  Jam. 
The  families  are  still  extant,  but  have  neither  authority  nor  public 
revenue.    They  support  themselves  by  their  private  estates. 

The  soil  of  Tulava  gradually  grows  worse  for  grain,  as  it  is  distant  Soil  of  Tu- 
from  the  sea.    The  best  in  quality  extends  from  Mangalore  to  Bunt- 
wala;  the  next  from  thence  to  Punjalcutta;  and  the  worst  from 
thence  again  to  the  hills.    There  the  rains  are  so   excessive,  that 
they  injure  the  crops  of  rice,  as  indeed  happens  in  Malabar  ;  but  it 


64  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   is  allowed,  that  this  inland  portion  of  the  country  is  very  favourable 
^^''        for  plantations. 

1st  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Cavila-cutty,  The  hills  are 
much  higher  than  those  to  the  westward,  and  some  of  them  are 
covered  with  tall  thick  forests,  in  which  are  found  Teak  (Theka) 
and  Avild  Mango  (Mangifera)  trees,  and  the  palm  which  Linnaeus 
called  Caryota.  These  hills  abound  with  tigers,  which  have  of  late 
killed  several  passengers.  The  road  all  the  way  is  tolerably  well 
formed,  but  the  engineer  has  paid  no  attention  to  avoid  hills  :  some 
parts  of  it  are  excessively  steep.  I  passed  many  oxen,  loaded  with 
salt,  going  to  the  Mysore  dominions,  and  met  many  coming  from 
thence  loaded  with  iron. 

Irn'^ation.  The  road,  part  of  the  way,  led  along  the  south  side  of  a  small  river 

called  Bambilu,    A  dam  has   been  formed  on  it,  which  confines  a 
great  body  of  water,  so  that  it  serves  also  as  a  reservoir. 

Cavila-Cuifi/.  My  halting-place  was  at  a  small  temple  dedicated  to  Culimanatia, 
one  of  the  Saktis.  Near  it  is  a  small  temple  belonging  to  the  Jain, 
and  a  tree,  which  is  surrounded  by  a  terrace  for  the  repose  of  pas- 
sengers. Such  a  tree,  in  the  languages  of  Karnuta  and  Tulava,  is 
'  called  a  Cutty;  and  the  names  of  many  places  in  both  countries 
have  this  word  for  their  termination.  The  tree  here  is  named 
Cavila-Cutty  from  its  standing  in  Cavila,  a  district  that  belonged 
formerly  to  the  Mular  Raja.  The  representative  of  the  family 
lives  at  Bylaiigudy,  on  the  road  between  Jamal-abdd and  Sublirumani. 

Depredations      In  the  last  war  this  vicinity  was  plundered  by  the  Coorg  liajd;. 

n/^f  ^""'^  ^"^^'  ^i^0"&  others,  the  house  of  the  Jain  priest  was  destroyed.  The 
Raja  whhtc]  to  replenish  hi:-  dominions  with  inhabitants;  many  of 
his  subjects  having  perished  in  his  wars  with  Tippou.  From  most 
villageshe  contented  himself  with  levying  a  contribution  of  four- 
teen or  fifteen  persons  ;  but  he  carried  off  a  much  larger  ))roportion 
of  tlie  Bruhmans  from  the  Agrarums,  or  villages  granted  to  tj;cm  in 
charity.  This  did  not  proceed  from  any  partiality  that  the  Raja 
has  for  the  sacred  order,  as  he  is  supposed  rather  to  be  averse  ta 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  65 

the  whole  cast,  and  at  any  rate  does  not  reverence  them  as  his   CHAPTER 
Gurus,  for  he  is  a  Sivabhaktar.    His  severity,  which  the  Bi^dhmans    v^,^^ 
consider  as  worse  than  ordinary  impiety,  arose  from  their  obstinacy.  ^^^-  ^• 
Relying  on  the  sacred  nature  of  their  cast,  the  Brdhmans  would 
come  to  no  composition,  and  the  Coorg  officers  carried  away  every 
one  of  them  whom  they  could  seize.    In  Tulava  their  loss  will  not 
be  severely  felt ;  for  there  the  Agraram  Brdhmans  possess  none  of 
the  industry  that  distinguishes   those  of  Pali-ghat,   and  in  Coorg 
necessity  will  probably  induce   them  to  follow  some  useful  em- 
ployment. 

In  the  temples  oi  Tulava  there  prevails  a  very  singular  custom.  Singular  cus- 
which  has  given  origin  to  a  cast  named  Moylar.  Any  woman  of  the  ^^j^i^^  ^  ^ 
four  pure  casts,  Brahman,  Kshatri,  Vaisya,  or  Sudra,  who  is  tired  of 
her  husband,  or  who  (being  a  widow,  and  consequently  incapable 
of  marriage,)  is  tired  of  a  life  of  celibacy,  goes  to  a  temple,  and 
eats  some  of  the  rice  that  is  offered  to  the  idol.  She  is  then  taken 
before  the  officers  of  government,  who  assemble  some  people  of  her 
cast  to  inquire  into  the  cause  of  her  resolution;  and,  if  she  be  of 
the  Brahman  cast,  to  give  her  an  option,  of  living  either  in  the 
temple  or  out  of  its  precincts.  If  she  choose  the  former,  she  gets  a 
daily  allowance  of  rice,  and  annually  a  piece  of  cloth.  She  must 
sweep  the  temple,  fan  the  idol  with  a  Tibet  cow's  tail  fBos  gruiensj, 
and  confine  her  amours  to  the  Brdhmans.  In  fact,  she  generally 
becomes  a  concubine  to  some  officer  of  revenue,  who  gives  her  a 
trifle  in  addition  to  her  public  allowance,  and  who  will  flog  her 
severely  if  she  grant  favours  to  any  other  person.  The  male  chil- 
dren of  these  women  are  called  Moylar,  but  are  fond  of  assuming 
the  t\l\e,  o?  Stdnika,  and  wear  the  Brdhmanical  thread.  As  many  of 
them  as  can  procure  employment  live  about  the  temples,  sweep  the 
areas,  sprinkle  them  with  an  infusion  of  cow-dung,  carry  flambeaus 
before  the  gods,  and  perform  other  similar  low  offices.  I'he  others 
are  reduced  to  betake  themselves  to  agriculture,  or  some  honest 
employment.     The  daughters  are  partly  brought  up  to  live  like 

Vol.  III.  K 


66  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   their  mothers,  and   the  remaiuder  are   sriven  in  marriage  to  the 

XV.  ,  t3  D 

v^^K^^.,^    Stumkas. 

1.  -pi^g  Brahmany  \romen  who  do  not  choose  to  live  in  the  temple, 

and  the  women  of  the  three  lower  casts,  cohabit  with  any  man  of 
pure  descent  that  they  please ;  but  they  must  pay  annually  to  the 
temple  from  one  sixteenth  to  half  a  Pagoda.  Their  children  also 
are  called  Moylar ;  those  descended  from  Brahmany  women  can 
marry  the  daughters  of  the  J/oj/for  who  live  in  the  temples ;  but 
neither  of  them  ever  intermarry  with  persons  descended  from  a 
woman  of  inferior  cast.  It  is  remarkable  in  this  cast,  where,  from 
the  corrupt  example  of  their  mothers,  the  chastity  of  the  women 
might  be  considered  as  doubtful,  that  a  man's  children  are  his  heirs; 
while  in  most  other  casts  the  custom  of  Tulava  requires  a  man's 
sister's  children,  by  way  of  securing  the  succession  in  the  family. 
The  Moylar  diifer  much  in  their  customs,  each  endeavouring  to 
follow  those  of  the  cast  from  which  his  mother  derived  her  origin. 
Thus  the  descendants  of  a  Brahmany  prostitute  wear  the  thread, 
eat  no  animal  food,  drink  no  spirituous  liquors,  and  make  marks  on 
their  faces  and  bodies  similar  to  those  which  are  used  by  the  sacred 
cast.  They  are  not,  however,  permitted  to  read  the  Vcdas,  nor  the 
eighteen  Puranas.  Indeed  but  very  of  them  learn  to  keep  accompts, 
r>r  to  read  songs  written  in  the  vulgar  language.  Contrary  to  the 
custom  of  the  Brahmans,  a  widow  is  permitted  to  marry.  They  burn 
the  dead,  and  believe  in  the  transmigration  of  souls,  but  seem  to 
have  very  crude  notions  on  this  subject.  They  are,  indeed,  very 
iguorAnt  of  the  doctrine  of  the  Brahmans,  who  uttei'ly  despise  them, 
and  will  not  act  as  their  G»r«*  to  give  them  Upadesa.  They  will 
attend,  however,  at  the  ceremonies  of  the  Moylar,  and  read  the 
services  proper  oh  the  occasion,  and  will  accept  from  them  both 
Dhana  and  Dharma. 
Strata  o(  The  Strata  oi'Talava,  near  the  sea-coast,  resemble  entirely  those 

"  "'"'         of  Malayala,  and  consist  of  Laterite  or  brickstone,  with  a  very  few 
rocks  of  granite  interspersed.    This  granite  is  covered  with  a  dark 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  67 

black  crust,  and  is  totally  free  from  veins  of  quartz,  or  of  felspar.   CHAPTER 

•  T  •  XV 

In  many  places  large  masses  of  the  granite  immersed  in  the  Laterite    ^^^.^^^J^^ 
are  in  a  state  of  decay ;  the  black  mica  has  entirely  disappeared,  Feb.  1. 
and  the  \vhite  felspar  has  crumbled  into  powder,  leaving  the  quartz 
in  angular  masses.    These  sometimes  form  so  large  a  share  of  the 
whole  rock,  that,  after  the  decay  of  the  other  component  parts  of 
the  granite,  they  firmly  adhere. 

On  arriving  in  the  Cavila  district,  the  granite  shows  itself  more 
abundantly ;  and  among  that  which,  as  usual,  has  no  strata,  I  ob- 
served some  disposed  in  strata  running  east  and  west,  and  which 
were  truncated  at  the  end,  like  much  of  that  which  is  found  above 
the  Ghats.    Even  this  was  free  from  veins  of  quartz. 

QA  February. — I  Avent  three  Sidtany  cosses  to  Bellata  Angady,  or  Feb.  2. 
the  Avhite  market ;  a  place  very  improperly  named,  as  it  contains  / ,^^'^'^0^0! 
only  one  shop,  and  in  that  nothing  but  Betel  is  sold.  The  country  try. 
is  not  so  steep  as  that  through  which  I  came  yesterday  ;  but  it  con- 
tains much  less  rice-land,  which  is  the  only  part  of  this  country 
that  is  considered  as  of  any  value.  I  am  persuaded,  however,  that 
for  cotton  or  dry  crops  much  of  it  might  be  cultivated  by  the 
plough ;  but  the  population  at  present  is  too  small  to  admit  of  all 
the  rice-land  being  cultivated  ;  and,  while  that  continues  to  be  the 
case,  it  would  be  madness  to  attempt  any  other.  On  the  hills  many 
trees  have  now  grown  up ;  but  it  would  appear,  that  formerly  they 
had  been  all  cleared  ;  and  to  keep  the  bushes  down,  and  to  destroy 
vermin,  the  grass  is  still  annually  burned.  To-day  many  buffaloes 
and  sheep  have  passed,  coming  for  sale  from  the  dominions  of  My- 
sore;  and  many  oxen  have  passed  from  the  same  quarter,  laden  with 
iron,  cloth,  and  grain. 

At  no  great  distance  from  the  shop  near  which  I  encamped,  is  a  Bungar 
Matam  belonging  to  the  Sivabhaktar ;   and  from  thence    a  town     ""^  ** 
formerly  extended,  almost  two  miles  west,  to  a  temple  of  the  Jaiw. 
Midway  is  a  ruinous  fort,  formerly  the  residence  of  the  But/gar 
Rajas,  to  whom  much  of  the  neighbouring  country  belonged.    The 


68 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Teh.  2. 


Irrigation. 


Feb.  3. 
Appearance 
of  the  coun- 
try. 


History  of 
JamiUb&d, 
or  Narasin- 
gha  Angady. 


fort  and  city  were  destroyed  by  Sivuppa  Nayaha,  the  first  prince  of 
tlie  house  of  Ikei-i  who  established  his  power  in  Tulava.  From  this 
it  is  clear,  that  the  petty  Jain  Rc'tjh  existed  before  the  time  of  that 
conqueror;  and  so  indeed  do  the  people  of  this  place  say,  in  con- 
tradiction to  the  story  which  those  of  Hosso-betta  told.  The  tradi- 
tion here  is,  that  the  petty  Jain  Rujds  existed  long  before  the  time 
of  Sivuppa  Niiyaka,  and  were  entirely  independent  of  each  other. 
Under  the  Ikeri  Rajas  they  paid  no  tax  of  any  kind  for  their  Um- 
blica  lands,  or  private  estates.  For  at  least  a  portion  of  these  Hyder 
continued  to  allow  an  exemption  from  taxes;  but  the  Sultan  taxed 
their  whole  lands  at  the  same  rate  as  the  rest  of  the  province,  and 
this  tax  they  continue  to  pay.  During  the  siege  of  Seringapatam, 
the  commandant  of  Jamdl-dbud  hanged  the  Bungar  Rcijd,  as  he  was 
suspected  of  an  inclination  to  favour  the  English.  His  children  live 
z.t  Nandavanram,  south  from  Buntwala,  and  cultivate  their  lands  in 
that  neighbourhood. 

On  the  river  at  Bdlata  Angady  is  a  dam,  which  is  rebuilt  every 
year,  at  the  commencement  of  the  dry  season,  and  is  formed  of 
piles,  stones,  and  earth.  It  sends  off  a  large  stream  of  water,  the 
whole  of  which  is  wasted  on  one  small  Betel-nut  garden. 

3d  February. — I  went  a  short  journey  to  Jamdl-dbdd,  which  ori- 
ginally was  called  Narasingha  Angady.  The  country  through  which 
I  passed  to-day  is  almost  entirely  covered  with  wood  ;  but  much  of 
it  has  a  good  soil,  and  might  be  watered  by  means  of  the  small 
river  which  we  twice  crossed.    The  road  is  very  good. 

The  tradition  here  is,  that  a  Brd/iman  ucimed  Narasi?igha  Rdyd, 
the  founder  of  a  dynasty  who  governed  the  whole  of  Tulava  imme- 
diately after  that  of  Myura  Varmd  became  extinct,  built  a  town 
on  the  banks  of  the  river  here,  and  called  it  Naraaingha  Angady 
after  his  own  name.  Toward  the  foot  of  the  rock,  at  present  occu- 
pied by  the  fortress,  he  erected  a  citadel ;  and  this  was  the  residence 
of  the  family,  of  which  I  have  found  no  traces  in  any  other  place. 
From  the  extinction  of  this  family,    which  must  have  happened 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  IVIALABAR.         .  69 

many  ages  ago,  the  place  continued  totally  unoccupied,  until  7l!/;/^oo   CHAPTER 
was  returning  in  triumph,  after  the  peace  which  he  granted  to  the        ^^'* 
English  at  Mangalore.  As  he  encamped  where  the  tOM'n  novv^  stands,  Feb,  3. 
he  observed  the  immense  rock  placed  to  the  westward  ;  and  havnng 
sent  two  officers  (Hirkaras)  to  survey  it,  he  determined  to  build  a 
fortress  on  its  summit.      Money  was   transmitted   from  the  capital 
insmedf-ately  on  his  arrival  there,  and  the  woi"k  having  been  com- 
pleted, a  number  of  people  were  collected  and  sent  to  inhabit  the 
town,  which  was  called  Jamdl-dbdd.  The  Sultan  afterwards  destroyed 
the  fort  at  Mangalore,  as  being  too  accessible  for  Europeans,  and 
made  his  new  town  the  residence  of  an  Asoph,  who  governed   the 
province  of  Canara.    In  the  fort  was  placed  a  Kkiladar,  or  comman- 
dant, with  a  garrison  of  400  men.    In  the  town   there  were   then 
about  1000  houses,  and  it  enjoyed  a  considerable  trade.     On  the 
late  invasion  of  Mysore,  the  Coorg  Rdjd  destrayed  the  town,  and 
carried  away  one  half  of  its  inhabitants.  The  remainder  made  their 
escape  into  the  woods,  and  only  about  20  houses  have  been  rebuilt; 
for  the  former  irthabitants,  having  been  mostly  collected  by  force 
from  diiferent  places,  when  dispersed  by  the  Coorg  Rdjd,  returned 
to  their  native  villages.  The  immense  rock  on  which  the  fort  stands 
is  wholly  inaccessible,   except  by  one  narrow  way,    and  may   be 
deemed  impregnable.    The  nature  of  the  access  to   it,  however, 
renders  the  descent,  in  face  of  an  enemy,  nearly  as  difficult  as  the 
ascent;  so  that  a  very  small  body  of  men,  with  artillery,  are  ade-- 
quate  to  blockade  a  strong  garrison ;  which  renders  the  place  of. 
little  use,  except  as  a  safeguard  for  treasure  or  records.    After  the 
fall  of  Seri>2gapatam,  a  party  of  British  troops  summoned  the  place 
to  surrender;  and  informed  the  commandant,  that  if  he  submitted 
immediately,  the  whole  arrears  of  the  garrison  should  be  paid;  but 
that  no  quarter  would  be  given,  should   the   garrison,  by  a  useless 
resistance,  occasion  a  wanton  effusion  of  blood.    The  garrison,  how- 
ever, continued  obstinate  for  about  a  month  and  a  half,  until  some 
mortars  were  brought  up.      After  three  days   bombardment,   the 


70  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  soldiers  ran  off,  the  commandant  poisoned  himself,  and  the  prin- 
XV.         cipal  officers  who   submitted  to  be  taken  were  hanged.    Sometime 

rebTs.  afterwards,  a  person   named  Thnma  Ndyaka,  who  had  been  a  petty 

military  officer  at  Be'dcul,  and  who,  by  promising  to  procure  recruits 
for  the  Bombay  army,  had  been  admitted  into  the  Company's  ser- 
vice, persuaded  about  200  of  the  recruits  to  desert,  and  with  them 
went  to  join  an  insurgent  of  the  name  of  Suba  Row.  This  was  a 
Brahman,  who  had  been  a  clerk  (Sarislitadai^)  at  Coimbetoix ;  and 
who,  with  a  view  of  raising  a  disturbance,  had  set  up  a  pretended 
Futty  Hyder.  The  man  that  pretended  to  be  Futty  Hyder,  who  is  a 
natural  son  of  the  late  Sultan,  remained  at  a  temple  near  Byl- 
angudy,  a  town  on  the  Ghats  towards  Subhramani ;  while  the  Brah- 
man occupied  a  cave  at  no  great  distance,  and  detached  Timma 
Ndyaka  with  his  recruits  to  surprise  Jamdl-dbdd.  In  this  they  suc- 
ceeded. A  young  officer  had  relieved  the  garrison,  and  was  sleeping 
that  night  in  a  house  at  the  foot  of  the  rock,  with  all  his  men, 
except  a  native  corporal's  (Nuyaka's)  party,  intending  probably 
next  day  to  march  into  the  fort ;  but  Timma  Ndyaka  came  upon 
them  unawares,  and  put  the  whole  party  to  death ;  after  which  he 
persuaded  the  corporal  to  give  up  the  gate,  and  took  possession 
without  loss.  While  the  neighbourhood  was  awed  by  their  success, 
Suba  Rozo,  with  his  pretended  Futty  Hyder,  descended  from  their 
hills,  and  plundered  several  villages.  They  then  advanced  to  Bunt' 
wala,  where  they  defeated  the  Tahsilddr,  who,  to  oppose  their  ravages, 
had  collected  some  armed  messengers  (Peons).  Elated  with  this 
advantage,  they  attacked  a  person  called  Rdjd  Ilegadaoi  Dharmas- 
iulla,  Avhora  they  wounded  at  a  place  called  Potur  ;  but  two  of  the 
neighbouring  Tahsilddrs,  having  procured  tiiirty  regular  Sepoys, 
soon  came  up,  and  immediately  dispersed  the  rabble.  The  two 
leaders,  however,  made  their  escape  to  the  mountains,  where  they 
are  still  skulking.  A  military  force  was  sent  from  Mangalore,  that 
a  proper  example  might  be  made  of  Timma  Ndyaka  and  his  party, 
and  two  attempts  were  in  vain  made  by  Europeans  to  take  the  fort 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  71 

■by  assault.  The  place  was  then  blockaded  for  three  months  ;  wlien, ,  chapter 
all  the  provisions  having  been  exhausted,  the  people  in  the  fort  ^J^J,,. 
contrived  to  let  themselves  down  the  back  of  the  rock  by  means  of  Feb.  3. 
chains,  ropes,  blankets,  and  the  like.  They  immediately  dispersed; 
but  many  of  them  were  secured  by  the  country  people,  and  hanged. 
For  some  time  Timma  Ndyaka  concealed  himself  in  disguise  ;  but  at 
length  he  was  recognised  by  an  old  friend,  a  Nair,  at  Be'dcul.  This 
man,  under  pretence  of  cutting  a  Bamboo,  borrowed  Timma' s  sword, 
without  seeming  to  know  him,  but  addressing  him  as  a  stranger. 
No  sooner  had  he  disarmed  his  old  acquaintance,  than  he  rushed  on 
him,  and  threatened  him  with  instant  death,  unless  he  followed 
quietly.  The  culprit  was  thus  delivered  ovfir  to  justice,  and  the 
Nair  as  a  reward  received  500  Rupees.  The  fellow  has  the  impu- 
dence to  complain  of  its  insufficiency,  and  has  persuaded  some 
gentlemen  to  support  his  demands  for  rnqre,  by  pretending  that,  in 
attacking  so  desperate  a  man,  lie  has  performed  extraordinary  deeds 
of  valour.  The  fort,  in  order  to  prevent  it  from  falling  into  the 
hands  of  ruffians,  is  now  garrisoned  ;  for,  as  I  have  said  before,  in 
a  military  point  of  view  it  is  of  little  use. 

In  this  neighbourhood,   the  hills  that  are  cultivated  after  the  Malayur  and 
Cotiicadu  or  Ciimri  manner  are  all  private  property.  The  Mulucaras,  t*ieir  manner 

i  i^      r        J  '   of  cultiviitiiig 

or  proprietors,  have  alienated  the  whole  right  of  cultivating  them  the  hills. 
to  a  rude  tribe,  called  Malayar,  or  Malay-cudics.  The  Malayar,  who 
dwells  on  any  hill  of  this  kind  has  the  exclusive  hereditary  right  of 
cultivating  it;  but,  while  not  occupied  by  this  labour,  he  and  his 
family  must  work  for  the  proprietor  (JMulacara),  at  the  allowance 
of  pi'ovisions  usually  given  to  slaves.  The  Malayar  may  give  up  his 
possession  when  he  pleases,  which  secures  him  from  being  ill  used 
by  the  proprietor ;  for  such  people  on  an  estate  add  greatly  to  its 
value.  They  work  for  their  master  ten  months  in  the  year;  but, 
having  six  or  seven  mijes  to  come  and  go  from  their  hills  to  their 
master's  fields,  they  labour  only  six  hours  in  the  day.  In  this  neigh- 
bourhood  no  tax   is  imposed  on   this  kind  of  land;  but  in  some 


72  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   districts  the  Malayar  pay  annually  a  small  sum  to  government  for 
v..^^,-0     each  hill. 

Feb.  3.  -pi^g  following  is  the  manner  in  which  this  sort  of  cultivation, 

called  Cumri,  is  performed.  In  the  beginning  of  the  dry  season, 
the  Malayar  cuts  down  all  the  trees  and  bushes  from  a  certain  space 
of  ground,  and  before  the  rains  set  in  he  burns  them.  The  ground 
is  then  dug  with  a  sharp  Bamboo,  and  sown  with  Sliamay  (Paiiicum 
vuUare),  Ragy  (Cynosurus  Corocanus),  rice,  and  various  cucurbita- 
ceous  plants.  The  grains  are  sown  separately ;  but  seeds  of  the 
cucurbitaceous  fruits  are  mixed  with  all  the  farinaceous  crops. 
With  the  Ragy  are  also  mixed  the  seed  of  Hibary  (Cytisus  Cajan), 
and  of  Abary  ( DoUchos  Lahlab ) ,  Next  year  another  piece  of  ground 
must  be  cleared,  the  former  not  being  fit  for  cultivation  in  less  than 
twelve  years.  In  Tulava,  this  is  the  only  kind  of  cultivation  of  dry 
grains,  although  much  of  the  gi^ound  seems  fit  for  the  purpose ;  but 
the  natives  have  a  notion,  that  no  high  ground  can  produce  any 
•thing  unless  a  great  deal  of  timber  has  been  burned  on  it. 
Hills  of  Tti-  They  therefore  consider  the  greater  part  of  the  country  as  totally 
/araconsi-  useless,  except  for  pasture  or  hay,  and  very  little  of  it  produces  the 
useless.  proper  grass.     One  kind  of  grass  only  that  is  produced  iw  Tulava  is 

^^'  eatable  ;  and  when  I  proposed  to  the  natives  to  destroy  the  bad 

kinds,  and  sow  the  seed  of  the  good,  they  were  filled  with  asto- 
nishment at  what  they  considered  as  the  extravagance  of  the  pro- 
ject. Where  the  hills  are  not  too  steep  for  the  plough,  I  am  per- 
suaded that  this  might  be  done  to  great  advantage;  and  the  quantity 
of  live  stock  and  manure  might  be  thus  quadrupled.  The  hay  at 
present  is  very  bad,  and  sapless;  for  the  grass,  in  its  natural  state, 
withers  from  maturity,  before  the  rainy  season  is  over;  and  before 
that  period  the  hay  could  not  be  preserved.  This,  however,  might 
be  easily  remedied,  by  cutting  the  grass  while  young,  and  allowing 
a  second  crop  to  come  up,  so  as  to  be  in  juice  at  the  commencement 
of  the  fair  wcalher.  The  first  crop  would  make  good  manure.  This 
project  the  natives  consider  as  equally  extravagant  with  the  former; 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  73 

nor  indeed  can  it  be  expected,  that  in  their  circumstances  they   CHAPTER 
should  attempt  arty  innovation  of  the  kind,  until  convinced,  by  an     ^^XiL^ 
experiment  made  before  their  eyes,  that  it  would  succeed.  Feb.  4. 

4th  February. — I  returned  by  the  same  road  to  the  Jain  temple  Appearance 
at  Bellata  Avgady,  and  then  turned  towards  the  north,  and  came  to  of'l'ccoiiu- 
Padanguddy  in  a  district  named  Majura,  which  formerly  belonged 
to  the  Bungar  Rajas.  The  country  through  which  I  came  from 
Bellata  Angady  is  clear,  and  the  road  good ;  the  hills  being  low, 
and  of  gentle  declivity.  The  quantity  of  rice  ground  is  inconsider- 
able, and  by  the  way  I  saw  hardly  any  gardens.  Near  tlie  temple  is 
a  very  fine  reservoir,  made,  exactly  like  those  above  the  Ghats,  by 
building  a  mound  of  stone  across  the  head  of  a  narrow  valley,  which 
it  supplies  with  water.  The  value  of  the  rice  ground,  from  its  small 
extent,  seems  not  to  have  been  a  sufficient  inducement  with  them 
to  construct  such  a  work;  whichtwas  made,  probably  from  ostenta- 
tion, by  a  Linga  Banijigar,  named  Luddi  Guruvaia. 

5th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Sopina  Angady.    From  Pa-  Feb.  5. 
danguddy,  to  the  banks  of  the  northern    branch  of  the  Mangalore 
river  at  Einuru,  the  country  is   much    like  what  I  saw  yesterday,, 
but  more  woody.     Between  the  river  ^nA  Sopina  Angady,  the  hills 
are  steeper,  and  consequently  the  road  is  very  bad. 

Einuru  is  a  small  town,  containing  eight  temples  belonging  to  /aw. 
the  Jain,  and  one  to  the  Siva  Brdkmans.  The  former  have  an  annual 
allowance  of  14  Pagodas,  and  the  latter  one  of  10  Pagodas.  As  in 
this  country  the  worshippers  o^  Jain  are  more  numerous  than  those 
of  Siva,  the  temples  of  the  former  ought  to  have  the  best  endow-- 
nients ;  but  while  the  native  officers  of  government  are  mostly 
Brdhmans,  pretences  will  never  be  wanting  for  depressing  these 
heretical  temples. 

At  Einuru  is  an  immense  colossal  image  of  one  of  the  gods  wor- 
shipped by  the  Jain.  It  is  formed  of  one  solid  piece  of  granite 
and  stands  in  the  open  air. 

Vol.  III.  L 


74  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER       Sophia  Angady  has  only  three  shops ;  but  the  houses  of  the  pro- 
\,^^,-'-^j     prietors  are  very  large,  and  the  occupants  seem   to  be  in  easy  cir- 
'r\r,\f'  cumstances.    Here  is  a  Jain  temple,  with  an  excellent  house  for  the 

priest  (Pujciri).  The  place  was  formerly  much  infested  with  tigers ; 
but  a  year  ago  the  inhabitants  collected,  and  cleared  away  so  much 
of  the  wood,  that  they  now  have  no  trouble  from  these  animals. 
They  clear  the  country  by  cutting  down  the  brush-wood,  and  burn- 
ing it  when  it  has  dried.  If  this  be  repeated  two  or  three  years 
successively,  the  large  trees  also  decay.  The  country  is  afterwards, 
preserved  clear  by  annually  burning  the  grass.  A  few  bushes  always 
spring  up,  but  not  more  than  is  sufficient  to  supply  the  farmers 
"with  leaves  for  manure. 
Feb.  6.  6th  February. — I  went  two  cosses  to  Miidu,  or  East  Biddery,  and 

ofthecoun-    ^7  ^^6  way  crossed  a  branch  of  the  northern  Mangalore  river,  which 
""J^'  descends  from  the  Ghats.    On  the  way,  two  tigers  were  seen   by 

some  of  my  people.     Although  the  country  is  well  cleared,  it  con- 
tains very  little  rice   ground ;  and,  as  the  hills   are  considered  as 
totally  useless,  this  is  in  fact  one  of  the  poorest  countries  that  I 
have  ever  seen. 
Chbutar  Miidii  Biddery  was  formerly  subject  to  the  Choutar  Rajas,  and 

'^  **  their  descendants  have  still  a  house  in  the   place.     The  tradition, 

as  given  me  here  by  a  Brahman  native  officer,  and  apparently  a  well 
informed  man,  is,  that  the  Jain  Rajas  of  Tulava  were  independent  of 
each  other,  and  of  all  other  powers,  and  were  descended  from  the 
kings  of  Vijaya-nagara  by  Jain  women.  They  derived  their  terri- 
tories from  their  parents,  as  appanages  free  from  all  claims  of  tri- 
bute. I  think  it  probable,  that  the  Brahman  confounds  the  Baylala 
Rdyas,  who  w  ere  sovereigns  of  Karndta,  and  who  were  Jain,  with 
the  family  who  afterwards  founded  Vijaya-yiagar,  who  governed  the 
same  dominions,  and  who  were  worshippers  of  Vishnu. 

About   150  years  ago,  when  under  the  Choutar  Rdjds,  the  place 
contained  18  Busties  or  temples  of  the  Jaiii,  and  a  throne  occupied 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  7S 

by  one  of  the  chief  Gurus  of  this  sect  of  Brahmans.    It  also  con-  CHAPTER 

,  XV. 

tained  6  Gudies,  or  temples  belonging  to  the  B7'dh7?ians  who  follow    ^^^^,.-^j 

the  Puranas,  and  700  houses,  mostly  occupied  by  Brahmans  of  the  ^^^' 
two  sects.  At  that  time,  a  dissension  happening  between  the  Rdjds 
o£  Ca7xulla  and  Choutar,  the  Siva-Bhaktar  were  called  in,  and  sub- 
jected the  country  in  the  name  of  the  kings  of  Vijaya-nagara  ;  but 
in  fact  it  continued  subject  to  the  princes  of  Ikeri,  until  these  were 
overthrown  by  Hyder.  Ever  since  the  overthrow  of  t\\Q  Choutai', 
the  place  has  been  on  the  decline,  and  the  allowances  formerly 
granted  to  the  Guru  have  been  stopped.  The  temples  still,  how- 
ever, continued  to  enjoy  their  land;  and  in  the  government  of 
Hyder,  those  of  the  Jain  had  possessions  to  the  amount  of  360  Pa- 
godas a  year.  These  were  entirely  resumed  by  Tippoo,  who  gave,  in 
place  of  them,  an  annual  pension  of  90  Pagodas  ;  but  he  destroyed 
most  of  the  Brahmans  houses,  and  now  the  whole  place  contains 
only  a  hundred  families.  Major  Monro  increased  the  pension  of  the 
Jizm  temples  to  ^107  Pagodas;  but  Mr.  Ravenshaw  has  reduced  it 
to  what  Tippoo  allowed,  and  it  is  to  be  collected  in  the  same  manner, 
that  is  to  say,  by  a  small  tax  levied  on  the  farmers.  As  this  is  to  be 
done  by  officers  who  abhor  the  Jain  as  detestable  heretics,  very 
little  of  the  pension  will  reach  their  hands.  The  free  lands  formerly 
occupied  by  the  Jain  have  been  totally  resumed,  and  they  have  not 
been  allowed  to  cultivate  it  on  payment  of  the  land-tax,  as  all  the 
other  persons  holding  land  of  this  kind  have  been  permitted  to  do. 
This  is  owing  to  the  ill  will  of  those  Bruhnians  who  act  as  revenue 
officers. 

Having  invited  Pandita  Acharya  Swum'i,  the  Guru  of  the  Jain,  to  Account  of 
visit  me,  he  came,  attended  by  his  most  intellio-ent  disciples,  and  '^°  •{'""'  o"" 
gave  me  the  following  account  of  his  sect. 

The  proper  name  of  the  sect  is  Arhita  (worthy);  and  they  ac- 
knowledge, that  they  are  one  of  the  twenty-one  sects  who  were 
considered  by  Sankara  Acharya  as  heretical.  Like  other  Hindus, 
they  are  divided  into  Brahman,  Kshatri,  Vaisya,  and  Sudra,    These 


76  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER    casts  cannot  intermarry;  but,  provided  she  be  of  pure  descent,  a 
K^^^,J^     man  ofa  high  cast  is  not  disgraced   by  having  connection  with  a 

Feb,  6,  M'oman  of  inferior  birth.     A  similar  indulgence  is  not  granted  to 

the  women  of  the  higher  casts.  The  men  are  allowed  a  plurality  of 
Avives,  which  they  must  marry  before  the  age  of  puberty.  The  man 
and  woman  must  not  be  of  the  same  family  in  the  male  line. 
Widows  ought  not  to  burn  themselves  with  the  bodies  of  their 
husbands;  but  it  is  those  of  the  Sudras  only  that  are  permitted  to 
lake  a  second  husband.  The  Brdhmans  and  Vaisyas  in  Tulava,  and 
every  cast  above  the  Ghats,  consider  their  own  children  as  their 
heirs;  but  the  Rajus  and  Sudras  o^ Tulava,  being  possessors  of  land, 
follow  the  custom  of  the  country,  and  their  sisters'  children  are 
their  heirs.  Even  the  Sudras  are  not  permitted  to  eat  animal  food, 
nor  to  drink  spirituous  liquors  ;  nor,  except  for  the  Kshatriyas 
when  engaged  in  war,  is  it  lawful  for  any  one  to  kill  an  animal. 
They  all  burn  the  dead. 

Opinions  of        The  VMas,  and  the  eighteen  Puranas  of  the  other  Brdhmans,  the 

^Y/?'"'.-^'  Arhita  reject  as  heretical.  They  say,  that  these  books  were  com- 
posed by  a  saint  (Rishi)  named  Vyasa,  whom  the  other  Brdhmans 
consider  as  an  incarnation  of  the  deity.  The  chief  book  of  which 
the  doctrine  is  followed  by  the  Arhita  is  named  Voga.  It  is  written 
in  the  Sanskrit  language,  and  character  of  Karndta,  and  is  explained 
by  24  Purdnas,  all  written  by  its  author,  who  was  named  Vrishava 
Sayana,  a  saint  (Rishi),  who  by  long  continued  prayer  had  obtained 
a  knowledge  of  divine  things.  They  admit,  that  all  Brdhmans  are 
by  birth  of  equal  rank,  and  are  willing  to  show  their  books  to  the 
Brdhmans  who  heretically  follow  the  doctrine  of  the  Vedas ;  but 
they  will  not  allow  any  of  the  lower  classes  to  inspect  their  sacred 
writings. 

The  gods  of  the  Arhita  are  the  spirits  of  perfect  men,  who,  owing 
to  their  great  virtue,  have  become  exempt  from  all  change  and 
misfortune,  and  are  all  of  equal  rank  and  power.  They  are  collec- 
tively called  by  various  titles ;  such  as  Jin^swara,  (the  lord  Jina), 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  77 

Arhita  (the  worthy),  and  Siddha  (the  holy) ;  but  each  is  called  by  CHAPTi-ll 
a  particidar  name,  or  •.•  ■  mcs,  for  many  of  them  have  above  1000  ap-     v_^^],,^ 
pella  ions.    These  Siddha  reside  in  a  heaven  called  Moesha ;  and  it  Feb.  G. 
is  by  their  worship  only,  that  future  happiness  can   be  obtained. 
The  first  person  who  by  his  virtue  arrived  at  this  elevated  station 
Avas  Adi Parameswara  (the  first  supreme  being);  and  by  worshipping 
him,  the  favour  of  all  the  Siddha  may  ht  procured    He  has  1008 
names,  the  most  common  of  which  among  his  adorers  is  Jimswara, 
the  god  Jina. 

The  servants  of  the  Siddha  are  Dbvatas,  or  the  spirits  of  good  and 
great  men,  who,  although  not  so  perfect  as  to  obtain  an  exemption 
from  all  future  change,  yet  live  in  an  Inferior  heaven  called  Swar- 
gam;  where  for  a  certain  length  of  time  they  enjoy  great  power 
and  happiness,  according  to  the  merit  of  the  good  works  which  they 
performed  when  living  as  men.  Swargam  is  situated  higher  in  the 
regions  of  the  air  than  the  summit  of  Mount  Meru  (the  north  pole)  ; 
and  men  ought  to  worship  its  inhabitants,  as  they  possess  the  power 
of  bestowing  temporal  blessings.  Concet'ning  the  great  gods  of 
the  eighteen  Purdnas  and  VSdas,  the  Arhita  say,  that  Vishnu  was  a 
R&ja,  who,  having  performed  certain  good  works,  was  again  born  a 
2?«;«  named  Rama.  At  first,  he  was  a  great  hero  and  conqueror; 
but  afterwards  he  retired  from  the  pleasures  of  the  world,  became 
a  Sannyasi,  and  lived  a  life  of  such  purity  that  he  obtained  Siddha 
under  the  name  oi  Jina,  which  he  had  assumed  when  he  gave  up 
his  earthly  kingdom.  Maheswara,  or  Siva^  and  Brahma  are  at  pre- 
sent Dbvatas  ;  but  are  inferior  in  rank  and  power  to  Indra,  who  is 
the  chief  of  all  the  happy  beings  that  reside  in  Sitargam.  In  this 
heaven  are  sixteen  stages,  containing  so  many  different  kinds  of 
Devatas,  who  live  in  a  degree  of  bliss  in  proportion  to  their  eleva- 
tion. An  inferior  kind  of  Devatas,  called  Ventaru,  live  on  mount 
Meru;  but  their  power  and  happiness  are  greatly  inferior  to  those 
of  the  Devatas  of  Swargam.      Marimd,  Putalimd,  and   the   other 


Feb.  6. 


78  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER.   Sakiis,  are  V^ntarus  living  on  Mahd  Miru;  but  they  are  of  a  male- 
volent disposition. 

Below  Maha  Mtru  and  the  earth,  is  situated  Bhuvaua,  or  hell, 
the  residence  of  the  spirits  of  wicked  men.  These  a  izWtARak- 
shas  a.nd  Asuras ;  and,  although  endowed  with  great  power,  they 
are  miserable.  Bhuvana  is  divided  into  ten  places  of  punishment, 
which  are  severe  in  proportion  to  the  crimes  of  their  respective 
inhabitants. 

The  heaven  and  earth  in  general,  including  Mahd  Alcru,  and 
Bhurana,  are  supposed  never  to  have  been  created,  and  to  be  eter- 
nal ;  but  this  portion  (Khanda)  of  the  earth  called  Arya,  or  Bhu' 
rata,  is  liable  to  destruction  and  re-production.  It  is  destroyed  by 
a  poisonous  wind  that  kills  every  thing;  after  which  a  shower  of 
fire  consumes  the  whole  Khanda.  It  is  again  restored  by  a  shower 
of  butter  (Ghee),  followed  by  one  of  milk,  and  that  by  one  of  the 
juice  of  sugar-cane.  Men  and  animals  then  come  from  the  other 
five  portions  (Khandas)  of  the  earth,  and  inhabit  the  new  Arya  or 
Bharata-khanda.  The  books  of  the  Ai-hita  mention  many  Dxcipas, 
islands  or  continents,  surrounding  Mahd  Meru,  of  which  the  one 
that  we  inhabit  is  called  Jambu-dwipa.  People,  from  this,  can  go  as 
far  as  Manushotra,  a  mountain  in  P ushkarara-dwipa,  between  which 
and  Jambu-dwipa  are  two  seas,  and  an  island  named  Daticy  shunda. 
Jambu-dwipa  is  divided  into  six  Khandas,  and  not  into  nine,  as  is 
done  by  the  Brdhmans  who  follow  the  Vedas.  The  inhabitants  of 
five  of  these  portions  are  called  Mlechas,  or  barbarians.  Arya  or 
Bharata  is  divided  into  56  Desas,  or  nations,  as  is  done  by  the  other 
Brdhmans.  As  Arabia  and  China  are  two  of  these  nations,  Arya 
would  seem  to  include  all  the  world  that  was  tolerably  known  to 
the  Arhita  who  composed  the  books  of  this  sect. 

Every  animal,  from  Indra  down  to  the  meanest  insect,  or  the  most 
wicked  Ruksha,  has  existed  from  all  eternity ;  and,  according  to 
the  nature  of  its  actions,  will  continue  to  undergo  changes  from  a 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  79 

higher  to  a  lower  rank,  or  from  a  lower  to  a  higher  dignity,  until  CHAPTER 
at  length  it  becomes  perfect,  and  obtains  a  place  among  the  Siddha.     ^^^.^^.^ 
Before  a  Sudra  can  hope  for  this  exemption  from  evil,  he  must  be  Feb.  (J. 
born  as  one  of  the  three  higher  casts ;  but,  in  order  to  become  a 
BTahman,  it  is  not  necessary  that  be  should  be  purified  by  being' 
born  of  a  cow,  as  many  of  the   followers  of  Vyasa  pretend.     The 
Arhita  however  allow,  that   to  kill  an  animal  of  the  cow  kind  is 
equally  sinful  as  the  murder  of  the  human  species.    The  death  of 
any  other  animal,  although  a  crime,  is  not  of  so  atrocious  a  nature. 
The  Arhita,  of  course,  never  offer  sacrifices,  but  worship  the  gods 
and  Devatas  by  prayer,  and  offerings  of  flowers,  fruits,  and  incense. 

'Qy  t\\Q  Brdhmans  who  follow  the  doctrine  of  Vi/dsa,  the  Arhita  TheSaugaia 

r  1  fii-iio  1-  n  ^"'^  J'li'ia  not 

are  trequently  confounded  with  the  baugata,  or  worshippers  or  thesamesect. 
Buddha ;  but  this  arises  from  ignorance.  So  far  are  the  Arhita 
from  acknowledging  Buddha  as  their  teacher,  that  they  do  not  think 
that  he  is  now  even  aDevata;  but  allege,  that,  as  a  punishment 
for  his  errors,  he  is  undergoing  various  low  metamorphoses.  Their 
doctrine  however,  it  must  be  observed,  has  in  many  points  a  strong 
resemblance  to  that  v/hich  is  taught  in  Ava  by  the  followers  of 
Buddha. 

The  JainBrdhmans  abstain  from  lay  affairs,  and  dress  like  those  who 
follow  the  doctrine  of  Vydsa.  They  have  Gurus,  who  are  all  Sannydsis;  - 
that  is  to  say,  have  relinquished  the  world,  and  all  carnal  pleasures, 
These  Gurus  in  general  acknowledge  as  their  superior,  the  one  who 
lives  at  Sravana  Belgula,  near  Seringapatam ;  but  Pandita  Achdrya 
Swdmi  pretends  to  be  at  least  his  equal.  In  each  Matam,  or  con- 
vent, there  is  only  one  Sannydsi,  who,  when  death  approaches,  gives 
the  proper  UpadSsa  to  one  of  his  followers,  who  must  relinquish  the 
world  and^iU  it^  enjoyments,  except  perhaps  an  indulgence  in  the 
pride  of  devotion.  The  office  is  not  confined  to  the  Brdhmans ; 
none  but  the  6'M6?rfl'.?  are  excluded  from  this  highest  of  dignities  ; 
for  all  the  Sannydsis,  after  death,  are  supposed  to  become  Siddha, 
and  of  course  do  not  worship  the  Devatas,  who  are  greatly  their 


so  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CifAP'iER  inferiors.  The  Samiyasis  never  shave,  but  pull  out  all  their  hair  by 
\...,0^ -^^  the  roots.  They  never  wear  a  turban,  and  are  allowed  to  eat  and 
eb.  6.  drink  but  once  a  day.     In  fact,  they  are  very  abstemious  ;  and  the 

old  Swami,  who,  from  his  infirmities,  expected  daily  to  become  a 
god,  mortified  the  flesh  exceedingly.  The  Gurus  have  the  power 
of  fining  all  their  followers  who  cheat  or  lie,  or  who  commit  murder 
and  adultery.  The  fines  are  given  to  the  gods,  that  is,  to  his  priest 
(Pujari).  These  Gurus  excommunicate  all  those  who  eat  animal 
food,  or  fornicate  with  persons  that  are  not  Jain  ;  which,  of  course, 
are  looked  upon  as  greater  crimes  than  those  which  are  only  pu- 
nished b)'  fine.  The  married  Brahmans  act  as  Pujaris  for  the  gods, 
and  as  Purohitas  for  the  inferior  casts.  The  follower  may  choose 
for  his  Purohita  any  Brahman  that  he  pleases.  The  Brahman  re- 
ceives Dhana,  and  on  this  occasion  reads  prayers  ( Mantrams);  a& 
he  does  also  at  the  marriages,  funerals,  and  commemorations  of  the 
deceased  ancestors  of  his  followers. 

The  Jain  extend  throughout  India;  but  at  present,  except  in 
Tulata,  they  are  not  any  where  numerous.  They  allege,  that  formerly' 
they  extenued  over  the  whole  oi'  Arya  or  Bharata-khanda ;  and  that 
all  those  M'ho  ever  had  any  just  pretensions  to  be  of  A'^^fl/W  descent, 
were  of  their  sect.  It,  no  doubt,  appears  clear,  that,  until  the  time 
of  Rama  Amija  Acharxja  many  powerful  princes  in  the  south  of 
India  were  their  followers.  They  say,  that  formerly  they  were  very 
numerous  in  Arabia;  but  that  about  Q.'JOO  years  ago  a  terrible  persecu- 
tion took  place  at  Mecca,  by  order  of  a  king  named  Parsua  Battaraka, 
which  forced  great  numbers  to  come  to  this  country.  Their  ideas  of 
history  and  chronology,  however,  as  usual  with  Brahma)}^,  are  so 
very  confused,  that  they  suppose  Parsua  Battdraka  to  have  been 
the  lounder  of  the  Mussulman  faith.  None  of  them  have  the 
smallest  trace  of  the  Arabian  features,  but  are  in  every  respect 
complete  Hindus. 

tab.  7- 

^^ppea^ance        7th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  CarcuUa.  The  first  part  of  the 
try."^ """"    road  led  through  atolerably  level  country ;  but,  as  usual,  nothing  more 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  81 

was  cultivated  than  low  places,  which  wind  through  among  the   CHAPTER 
swelling  lands,  and   are  very  narrow.    The  higher  part,  which  is    v,,,..^-^ 
bare,  seems  to  be  capable  of  cultivation  for  cotton  or  dry  grains.  Feb.  7. 
Nearer  Caixulla  the  hills  are  steep  and  rocky,  and  some  of  them  are 
overgrown  with  trees.    The  road  is  wide,  and  has  a  fine  row  of  trees 
on  each  side.    In  this  part  of  the  country  are  many  traces  of  inclo- 
sures ;  and  it  is  said,  that  formerly  there  were  here  several  villages, 
which  have  been  deserted  ever  since  Hyder  raised  the  taxes. 

Carculla  is  an  open  town,  containing  about  200  houses,  which  Byrasu  Wo. 
mostly  belong  to  shopkeepers.    Near  it  are  the  ruins  of  the  palace  the  Jam 
of  the  Byrasu  JFodears,  the  most  powerful  of  the  Jain  Rdjds  of  Tu-  R^j^^- 
lava.    The  Jain,  who  are  the  chief  inhabitants  of  the  place,  do  not 
pretend  that  their  prince  had  any  authority  over  the  Rajas  of  the 
south ;  the  whole  tradition,  therefore,  at  Hosso-betta  seems  to  be 
erroneous.    That  place,  however,  may  have  belonged  to  the  Byrasu 
IVodears  ;  as  the  territories  of  the  Rajas  oi  Tulava  were  probably  as 
much  intermixed  as  those  of  the  chiefs  of  Malaydla.    The  reve- 
nues of  this  family,   it  is  said,   amounted  to  17,000  Pagodas,   or 
6850/.  45.  7|^. 

The  Jain  altogether  deny  the  creation  of  Tulava  by  ParasuRama,  Doctrines  of 
or  any  gift  of  it  made  by  that  personage  to  the  Brahmans.  From  a.  th^ir'iii'i,,ry. 
book  called  Amonoro  Charitra,  which  gives  an  account  of  Jenadutta 
Raya,  the  ancestor  of  the  Byrasu  JFodears,  they  say  that  he  was  born 
at  Uttara  Madura  (the  Matra  of  Major  Rennell),  near  the  Jamuna 
river.  He  was  of  the  family  of  the  sun  ;  and,  having  incurred  the 
displeasure  of  the  Raja  his  father,  in  order  to  avoid  being  put  to 
death,  was  obliged  to  fly.  Having  come  to  a  village  near  Nagara, 
he  founded  a  city  named  Homhucha,  and  soon  after  conquered  a 
place  called  Culislia.  He  afterwards  descended  to  Sisila,  near  Subhra- 
mani,  and  finally  established  himself  at  Carculla.  His  son  was 
the  first  Byrasu  TVodear,  and  all  his  descendants  assumed  that  title. 
The  book  gives  no  account  of  the  time  when  these  events  hap- 
pened, nor  of  the  princes  who  were  previously  in  the  country.     In 

Vol.  III.  M 


82  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  one  of  the  temples  here  there  is  an  inscription  on  stone,  in  the  lan- 
guage and  old  character  of  Karnuta,  of  which  a  copy  in  the  modern 
character  has  been  delivered  to  the  government  of  Bengal  (MSS. 
Inscriptions  No.  1.).  From  this  it  would  appear,  that  the  protected 
hy  Padmawati  (a  title  by  which,  it  is  well  known,  Jenadutta  is  meant) 
reigned  at  Carculla  in  the  year  oi  Salivahanam  1256  {A.  D.  133:|-). 
From  this  it  would  seem  probable,  that  in  the  beginning  of  the  four- 
teenth century  a  Raja  of  the  Jain  religion  governed  Matra,  now 
one  of  the  chief  seats  of  the  followers  oiihtVedas.  The  latest  in- 
scription here  belonging  to  this  family  is  on  a  colossal  image.  A 
copy  (Iso.  2.),  in  the  old  character,  has  been  also  delivered  to  the 
Bengal  government.  It  is  dated  in  the  year  of  Sallvahanam  1353 
(^A.  D.  1431).  The  family  were  overthrown  by  Sivuppa  Nayaka  of 
Ikei'i,  and  have  since  become  extinct..  The  tradition  is,  that  before 
the  arrival  o^  Jenadutta  there  were  many  Rc'ijds  of  the  Kshatri  cast, 
and  who,  of  course,  according  to  th^  Jain,  were  of  their  religion. 
These,  they  say,  were  all  tributaries,  or  Polygars,  under  the  kings  of 
Vijaya-nagara.  These  Jain  say,  that  the  Tulava  Brahmans  who  follow 
the  Vedas  were  first  introduced  by  Myuru  Vannma,  who  was  a  Jain 
prince  that  lived  about  a  thousand  years  ago  at  Barcuru,  and  go- 
verned all  Tulava  without  any  superior ;  but  of  this  prince  the  Jain 
have  no  written  account. 

Among  the  Jain  there  are  two  kinds  of  temples ;  one  covered 
with  a  roof,  and  ca\\e.d.  Busty ;  the  other  an  open  area,  surrounded 
by  a  wall,  and  called  Betta,  which  signifies  a  hill.  The  temples  of 
Siva  and  Vishnu,  the  great  gods  of  the  followers  of  the  Vedas,  are 
here  called  Gudies.  In  the  Busties  are  worshij:ped  the  images  of 
24  persons,  who  have  obtained  Siddharu,  or  become  gods.  These 
images  are  all  naked,  and  exactly  of  the  same  form  ;  but  they  are 
called  by  different  names,  according  to  the  Siddharu  which  they  are 
designed  to  represent.  These  idols  are  in  the  form  of  a  man  sitting. 
In  the  temples  called  Betta  the  only  image  of  a  Siddha  is  that  of  a 
person  called  Gomuta  Raya,  who  while  on  earth  was  a  powerful  king. 


Feb.  7. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  8^^ 

The  images  of  Gomuta  Raya  are  naked,  and  always  of  a  colossal  size.  CHAPTER 
That  here,  of  which  two  views  are  given  (Plate  XXIII.  Fig.  65,  66.), 
is  made  of  one  piece  of  granite,  the  extreme  dimensions  of  which, 
above  ground,  are  38  feet  in  height,  10^  feet  in  breadth,  and  10 
feet  in  thickness.  How  much  is  below  ground  I  cannot  say  ;  but 
it  is  probably  sunk  at  least  three  feet,  as  it  has  no  lateral  support. 
According  to  an  inscription  on  the  stone  itself,  it  was  made  by 
Vira  Fandia,  son  of  Bhairata-Indra,  369  years  ago.  A  copy  of  this 
inscription  has  been  delivered  to  the  government  of  Bengal. 

The  Jain  deny  the  creation  of  man,  as  well  as  of  the  world.  They 
allow,  that  Brahma  was  the  son  of  a  king,  and  that  he  is  a  Dtvata, 
and  the  favourite  servant  o? Gomuta  Raya;  but  they  altogether 
deny  his  creative  power.  Brahma  and  the  other  Devafas  are  wor- 
shipped, as  I  have  said,  by  the  Jain,  who  have  not  become  Sanny- 
asis ;  but  all  the  images  of  these  supposed  beings  that  are  to  be 
found  in  the  great  temples  of  the  Jain  (Busties,  or  Btttas),  are 
represented  in  a  posture  of  adoraftion,  as  worshipping  die  Siddha  to 
whom  the  temple  is  dedicated.  These  images,  however,  of  the 
Divatas  are  not  objects  of  worship,  but  merely  ornamental ;  and 
the  deity  has  not  been  induced  to  reside  in  the  stone  by  the  power- 
ful invocations  of  a  Brahman.  When  a  Jain  wishes  to  adore  one  of 
these  inferior  spirits,  he  goes  to  the  temple  that  is  dedicated  to  its 
peculiar -worship.  Jai7i  or  Rama  is  never  represented  by  an  idol  in 
-a  temple  of  the  kind  called  Busty,  although  he  is  acknowledged  to 
hea.  Siddha;  and  although  Ganesa und  Hanuma?ita  are  acknowledged 
to  be  Devatas,  these  favourites  of  the  follo\vers  of  Vydsa  have  no 
images  in  the  temples  of  the  Arhita. 

The  Jain  have  no  tradition  concerning  a  great  deluge  that  de- 
stroyed a  large  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth  ;  but  they 
believe,  that  occasionally  most  of  the  people  o?  Arya  are  destroyed 
by  a  shower  of  fire.  Some  have  always  escaped  to  the  other  por- 
tions of  the  earth,  and  have  returned  to  repeople  their  native 
country,  after  it  has  been  renovated  by  showers  of  butter,  milk. 


M  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  and  of  the  juice  of  the  sugar-cane.  The  accounts  of  the  world,  and 
of  the  various  changes  which  the  Jain  suppose  it  to  have  undergone, 
are  contained  in  a  book  called  Loka  Szvarupa.  An  account  of  Go- 
muta  Raya  is  given  in  a  book  called  Gomuta  Raya  Charitra.  The 
Camunda  Raya  Parana  contains  a  history  of  the  24  Siddhdru  M'hich 
are  worshipped  in  the  temples  called  Bustles.  These  books  may  be 
read  by  any  person;  and  the  Jain  of  CarcuUa  entered  into  an  agree- 
ment with  me  to  copy  them  for  my  use.  I  paid  them  the  price,  but 
I  have  not  yet  received  the  books. 
Feb.  8,  8th  February. — I  remained  at  CarcuUa  in  order  to  investigate 

some  matters  relative  to  agriculture. 
Divisions  of  Here  the  distinctions  of  rice  ground  differ  somewhat  from  those 
lice  ground,  jj^  ^j^g  south.  Bylu  is  that  which  receives  from  rivulets  a  supply  of 
water  sufficient  to  ensure  two  crops.  Majelu  has  one  crop  ensured 
by  the  same  means.  Small  reservoirs,  in  case  of  a  scarcity  of  rain, 
secure  one  crop  from  Betta  land.  Bana  Betta  is  that  which  depends 
on  the  rains  alone;  so  that,  if  these  give  over  early,  the  crop  is 
entirely  lost.  Potla  is  land  overflowed  by  rivers.  The  .sprouted 
seed  is  here  by  far  the  most  common  cultivation  in  both  crops,  and 
in  all  soils,  except  in  some  called  Nunjinay  Gudday,  in  which  worms 
abound.  In  this  the  seed  is  sown  broad-cast  without  preparation. 
Scarcely  any  rice  is  here  transplanted,  and  sprouted  seed  is  sown 
even  on  Potla  land.  The  quantity  of  seed  required  for  the  same 
extent  of  ground,  of  whatever  kind,  is  nearly  the  same ;  only  Bylu 
land  requires  a  little  more,  as  part  of  the  seed  is  choaked  by  sinking 
too  deep  in  the  mud.  This  is  directly  contrary  to  the  assertion  of 
the  people  at  Man  galore  ;  but  the  farmers  here  say,  that  the  infor- 
mation given  at  that  place  was  correct ;  and  that  near  the  sea  the 
Bylu  land  requires  the  least  seed,  while  in  inland  places  it  requires 
more  than  the  Majelu  or  Betta. 

If  the  rains  continue  late,  a  crop  of  pulse  or  Sesamuin  may  be  pro- 
cured from  both  kinds  o? Betta  land  ;  but,  if  the  dry  weather  com- 
mences early,  they  can  only  be  obtained  from  Majelu,  the  others 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  85 

being  too  dry.    On  the  Majelu  land  here  a  very  small  quantity  of  CHAPTER 
sugar-cane  is  raised  ;  but  the  whole  of  this  is  of  very  small  extent.     \,^^^L^ 
At  the  head  of  a  Bylu  field  here,  there  is  a  large  reservoir ;  but  very  Feb.  8. 
little  use  is  made  of  its  water,  at  least  for  the  purpose  of  agriculture. 
The  people  say,  that  they  do  not  make  reservoirs,  because  the  rains 
are  so  heavy  that  they  would  break  the  mounds,  and  that  the  soil 
soaks  up  the  water  so  fast,  that,  very  soon  after  the  rainy  season  is 
over,  they  would  become  dry.    The  farmers  of  Carculla  seem  to  be 
an  obstinate  and  ignorant  set  of  men. 

The  Betel-leaf  h  raised  on  the  Areca,  and  this  is  planted  in  sepa-  tv^e/gardens. 
rate  gardens.  It  does  not  injure  the  produce  of  the  tree.  These 
gardens  are  made  both  on  the  low  grounds,  and  on  hills  where  there 
is  a  command  of  water.  They  are  allowed  much  manure;  but,  if  on 
hilly  ground,  require  no  red  earth.  They  are  always  watered,  as  at 
Mangalore ;  their  cultivation  must  be  therefore  much  more  expen- 
sive than  in  Malabar,  where  they  are  only  watered  when  young. 
All  the  gardens  belong  to  the  landlords,  who  occasionally  mortgage 
them,  but  very  rarely  let  them  out  for  rent.  The  revenue,  although 
nominally  raised  by  so  much  a  tree,  has  nothing  to  do  with  the 
Jtctual  number.  It  is  levied  by  an  old  valuation ;  in  making  of 
■which  three  trees  were  called  one ;  and,  if  double  the  original  num- 
ber has  been  planted,  no  additional  taxis  paid.  A  thousand  nominal 
trees  on  good  land  were  rated  at  so  much,  and  those  on  worse  soils 
are  rated  lower  in  proportion. 

In  the  Hitelii,  or  back-yard  of  the  house,  are  cultivated  turmeric,  Turmwio 
ginger,  Capsicum,  greens,  roots,  and  other  things  called  Tarkdri  ^"^  g"'5"=-'' 
The  quantity  of  turmeric  and  ginger  raised  in  the  neighbourhood 
is  considerable.  The  soil  proper  for  these  plants  is  Betta  land 
which  is  free  from  stones.  Between  the  i24th  of  May  and  the  22d 
of  June  the  ground  is  ploughed  four  times,  and  smoothed  with  a 
hoe.  The  whole  is  then  divided  by  trenches,  one  cubit  wide,  half  a 
cubit  deep,  and  one  cubit  distant;  and  the  earth  which  is  taken 
from  the  trenches  is  thrown  on  the  ridges.    Then  bits  of  the  roots, 


85  A  JOURNEY  FROM  ^lADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   racli  containiii":  an  eye,  are  planted  in  tlie  riduces  at  half  a  cubit'9 

XV  .  .  r,  . 

.^^^^.^     distance  from  each  other.  These  are  then  covered  with  Casara  Sopu, 

Feb.  8.  or  tlie  small  branches  and  leaves  of  the  S/ri/c/inos  Nilv  vojnica,  which 

is  the  most  common  tree  on  the  hills  of  Tulaxa.    At  the    end  of 

a  month,  the  leaves  having  rotted,  the  small  sticks  are  removed. 

Ehing  is  then  put  over  the  plants,  and  a  little  more  earth  is  thrown 

up  from  the  trenches.    In  the  month  preceding  the  winter  solstice, 

the  roots  are  fit  for  taking  up.    The  large   roots,  containing  eyes, 

are  kept  for  seed  ;  and,  being  tied  up  in  a  straw  bag,  are  hung  upon 

a  tree  until  the  next  season  for  planting.    The  smaller  roots  are  fit 

for  sale.    The  turmeric  and   ginger  are  cultivated  exactly  in  the 

same  manner.    The  roots  of  the  turmeric  intended   for  sale  are 

boiled  for  twelve  hours,  and  afterwards  dried  fifteen  days  in  the 

sun. 

Betel-mt  About  250  years  ago  a  ATarattah  Brahman  came  here,  and  ob- 

kvge  mwii-     scrved  that  many  hills  were  quite  waste,  which  might  be  cultivated 

titits  by         for  Belel-Hut  by  making  reservoirs  at  the  head  of  a  valley  ;  so  that 

BMmans.  •    , "    i  i    i  •       ■  i  i         •  i 

the  water  might  be  preserved,  and  distributed  upon  the  sides  of  the 
hills.  He  applied  to  Byrasu  JVodear,  then  sovereign  of  the  country, 
for  some  of  these  hills ;  and  having  obtained  a  grant  of  them,  he 
began  his  plantations  with  great  success.  By  degrees  this  man's 
descendants  increased  to  fifty  families ;  and  these  were  joined  by 
many  of  the  same  sect  and  country,  who  all  betook  themselves  to 
this  kind  of  cultivation  ;  so  that  between  Subhramani  and  Gaukarna 
they  amounted  to  seven  hundred  families.  In  their  plantations 
Betel-nut  was  the  great  article  ;  but  they  also  contained  many  coco- 
nut palms,  and  some  black  pepper,  and  Mango  and  Jack  trees.  Each 
of  the  last  produces  from  two  to  three  hundred  fruit;  and  these  are 
so  little  in  demand,  that  they  are  given  to  the  cattle.  They  are  not 
palatable  to  the  ox  ;  but  at  the  season.in  which  they  ripen,  any  thing 
will  be  devoured,  as  the  cattle  are  then  starving.  The  prohibition 
against  exporting  Betel-nut  by  sea,  which  the  late  Sultan  issued, 
reduced  the  price  so  much,  that  many  of  the   plantations  were 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  87 

allowed  to  gb  to  ruin  ;  and   the  number   of  Br dlwians  was  reduced   CHAPTER 
to  four  hundred    families.    The  markets  being  now  open,  and  a    ^.^0^^^^,^ 
brisk  trade  carried  on  between  the   coast   and  .Madras,  and  Goa,  ^^^-  ^• 
which  are  the  principal  markets  for  the  nut,  the  B7-ahmafisare  with 
great  spirit  returning  to  this  object  of  industry.    The  influence  of 
Mousa  and  his  Moplays  does  not  extend  this  length.    The  principal 
merchant  is  Murtur  Sangaia,  a  Banijigar,  \\A\o  lives  at  Hara-punya- 
hully,  but  has  factories  in  every  part  of  the  pcninsula.- 

The  most  judicious  old  men  that  I  could  find  here  gave  me  the  Weather  in 
folio-wing  account  of  the  weather.  Between  the  13th  of  March  and  ^"''^"'"'■ 
the  13th  of  May  they  have  slight  showers,  lasting  three  or  four 
hours  a  day.  These  come  three  or  four  days  successively,  with 
equal  intervals  of  dry  weather,  and  accompany  easterly  winds.  In 
the  first  month  the  winds  night  and  day  are  easterly;  in  the  latter 
part  of  this  time  the  winds  ai'e  from  the  southward,  and  iu  the  west 
there  is  much  thunder.  Between  the  14th  of  May  and  the  16th  of 
August  there  came  from  the  west  strong  winds,  and  heavy  rains. 
The  land  winds  are  not  at  all  perceptible.  Between  the  IJth  of 
August  and  the  15th  of  October  there  are  gentle  showers  from  the 
eastward.  Except  when  it  rains,  the  winds  are  westerly.  From  the 
l6th  of  October  to  the  13th  of  November  there  are  slight  showers 
from  the  eastward.  The  rain  is  sometimes,  however,  so  heavy  as  to 
injure  the  crops.  Except  when  it  rains,  the  winds  are  variable.  In 
the  four  following  months  there  is  no  rain,  and  the  air  is  reckoned 
cold  by  the  natives.  At  present,  the  days  are  hot  and  the  nights 
cool.  The  Avinds  in  the  day  come  from  the  sea,  and  in  the  night 
from  the  land. 

9th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Beiluru,  a  place  where  there  Feb.  9. 
were  a  few  houses  of  cultivators,  but  no  shops  nor  market.    There  ofthe^coun! 
is  a  small  temple  of  Siva  there,  with  an  annual  allowance  to  the  ^'T' 
Pujdri  of  six  Pagodas.    The  country  is  rather  woody,  and  little  rice, 
ground  can  be  seen  from  the  road.   The  granite  rocks  make  a  con- 
spicuous figure  on  the  high  lands. 


88  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER       Although  the  guides  were  natives  of  the  place,  and  the  road  was 
^^-         M'cU  marked,  yet  they  contrived   to  make  a  part  of  my  baggage 
Feb.  9.  wander  about  from  four  in  the  morning,  until  two  in  the  afternoon. 

jjjgVuides.  °   Occasionally  I  meet  with  such  accidents ;  from  what  other  principle 
but  obstinacy  in  the  guides,  I  cannot  say.    This  place  is  in  the 
district  of  Barcuru,  which  formerly  gave  a  title  to  one  of  the  Jain 
Rajas  of  Tulaxa. 
Feb.  10.  10th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Haryadika.    The  country 

of  cukiva-  ^  ^^  similar  to  that  through  which  I  came  yesterday.    The  farmers 
tion.  here  say,  that  all  the  hills,  wherever  the  soil  is  free  from  rock, 

might  be  converted  into  Betta-land.  The  quantity  of  such  grounds, 
they  say,  is  very  considerable ;  at  least  three  times  as  much  as  is 
cultivated;  but,  they  add,  the  expense  is  great,  and  the  returns 
are  small.  About  a  fourth  part  of  what  was  formerly  cultivated  is 
now  waste,  for  want  of  people  and  stock.  Until  that  be  fully  occu- 
pied, no  experiments  on  new  land  would  be  proper.  The  people 
say,  that  they  would  be  willing  to  bring  this  new  land  into  cultiva- 
tion on  the  following  conditions.  The  whole  expense  attending  the 
various  operations  being  collected  into  a  sum,  they  should  pay  no 
revenue  to  government  until  that  was  reimbursed  by  the  usual 
amount  of  the  land-tax,  which  is  from  one  to  three  Sultany  Fanams 
for  a  Moray  sowing,  or  from  rather  more  than  6\d.  to  almost 
1  *.  \\d.  an  acre. 
Tenures, pro-  The  proprietors  here  say,  that  they  let  their  rice  lands  to  tenants 
rent  o^rice-  (Gaynicaras),  and  are  obliged  to  advance  stock  to  a  new  man.  In 
land.  the  course  of  four  years  the  value  of  the  stock  is  repaid  by  instal- 

ments. The  rent  is  paid  in  rice,  so  much  for  each  Moray  sowing. 
The  best  Bylu-land  pays  4  Morays  of  rice  for  both  crops ;  the 
next  in  quality  pays  3  Morays;  and  the  worst  2.  The  best 
Majelu  pays  2j  Morays ;  the  second  quality  1^;  and  the  third  1 
Moray.  The  best  Betta  land  pays  2  Morays;  the  second  l|; 
the  third  1 ;  and  the  fourth  f  a  Moray.  The  Moray  of  rice, 
if  of  the  coarsest  quality,  is  at  present  worth  2a  S^rrf.;  and  each 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  89 

Moray  of  rent,  for  a  Moray's  sowing,  is  at  the  rate  of  about  9.S.  k\d>   CHAPTER 
an  acre.  The  tenant,  according  to  these  people's  account,  has  about     \^^^j^^^ 
one  half  of  the  produce ;  which  therefore,  in  the  worst  Betta  land,  Feb.  lo. 
must  be  three  seeds,  or  S-^VoV  bushels  an  acre.    These  people  say, 
that  when  the  rice  is  cheap  the  whole  rent  is  not  equal  to  the  land- 
tax.    At  present,  they  acknowledge  that  they  have  a  little  profit. 
Taking  the  statement  which  they  give  as  fair,  their  present  profit 
will  be  evident,  even  allowing  their  whole  rice  to  be  of  the  coarsest 
kind.    The  worst  jBe^^a  land  pays  6>\d.  tax  an  acre,  and  the  rent  is  . 
l,y.  ^\d.\  so  that  the  tax  does  not  amount  to  half  the  rent;  and  I 
am  inclined  to  think,  that  the  average  price  of  all  the  kinds  of  rice 
is  never  lower  than  the  present  value  of  the  coarsest. 

At  Haryadika  there  is  only  one  shop;  and  on  the  approach  of  my  Haryadikd. 
people  the  owner  ran  away.  There  is  a  large  temple  of  one  of  the 
Saktis ;  this  is  attended  by  one  of  the  Tulava  Brdhmans  as  Pujdi'i, 
on  which  account  no  bloody  sacrifices  are  performed.  There  was 
formerly  a  Jain  temple  here  of  the  kind  called  Busty,  but  it  has 
gone  to  ruin,  and  the  number  of  the  Jain  is  daily  diminishing.  The 
image  in  the  temple  was  of  copper.  With  many  other  similar  idols 
from  diiferent  parts  of  the  country,  it  was  carried  to  Jamul-dbad. 
By  orders  from  the  late  Sultan,  some  of  them  were  converted  into 
money,  and  others  cast  into  guns. 

Wth.  February. — In  the   morning  I  went  three  cosses  to  Udipu.  Feb.  n. 
The  country,  to  the  vicinity  of  this  place,  is  similar  to  that  which  oi'the'^couD- 
I  passed  through  on  the  two  preceding  days.  The  strata  of  granite,  ^n- 
however,  are  mostly  covered  by  the  Laterite.    The  roads  are  exe- 
crable; but,  like  many  of  those  in  Canara,  are  shaded  by  fine  rows 
of  trees,  especially  of  the  Vateria  indica;  which,  being  now  in  full 
blossom,  makes  the  most  beautiful  avenues  that  I  have  ever  seen. 

On  getting  within  sight  of  the  sea  near  Udipu,  the  country  be- 
comes more  level;  and  round  the  town  it  is  finely  cultivated,  and 
the  rice  fields  are  beautifully  intermixed  with  palm  gardens.     Such 

Vol.  III.  N 


90  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   a  delightful  situation  has  been  chosen  as  the  chief  seat  of  the  Tulava 
XV.       Bn'ihinans  of  the  Madual  sect. 

Having  assembled  the  men  who,  among  the  followers  of  Madiia 
Adiarya  in  Tulava,  were  reckoned  the  most  eminent  for  their  know- 
ledge, they  gave  me  the  following  information.  The  Tulava  Bra/i- 
mans  belong  to  the  Punch  Dravida  division  of  the  sacred  tribe,  and 
are  a  mixture  composed  of  emigrants  from  each  of  the  nations  or 
tongues  that  compose  this  division.  These  are,  Amlray,  or  the  na- 
tions speaking  the  Tclinga,  or  Andrai)  language,  which  occupy  the 
north-eastern  parts  of  the  peninsula;  A'«r««/«Crt,  those  Avho  speak 
the  language  which  we  call  Canarese,  and  who  inhabit  the  country 
south  from  the  Krishna  river,  and  above  the  Ghat  mountains;  Ma- 
harashtra, who  speak  the  Maruttah  language,  and  occupy  the  north- 
Avestern  parts  of  the  peninsula;  Gurjara,  or  Carjura,  or  the  Brdh- 
mans  of  Guzerat,  who  also  have  a  peculiar  dialect,  very  different 
from  the  language  of  the  Marattahs ;  and  Dravida,  or  those  who 
speak  the  Tarnul  language,  and  occupy  the  southern  parts  of  the 
peninsula  below  the  Ghats.  D)'dvida  proper,  or  the  Dhamso  called, 
is  confined  to  the  country  between  Madras  and  the  mountains  ;  but 
the  name  is  extended,  first  to  all  the  country  occupied  by  people 
who  speak  the  Tamul  language,  and  then  to  the  whole  of  the  Brdh- 
mans  of  this  division.  Although  the  whole  of  the  Tulava  Brdhmans 
form  a  kind  of  separate  nation,  yet  each  subdivision  confines  its 
marriages  to  its  own  original  nation;  and,  contrary  to  the  custom 
of  the  Namburis,  a,  Karndtaca  Tulava  Brahman  has  no  objection  to 
marry  the  daughter  of  a  Brahman  of  Karndta  who  never  has  left  his 
own  country. 
Origin  oi' the  They  allege,  that  originally  they  were  assembled  herefrom  all 
"  "'"  ""'  their  native  countries  by  Parasu  Rdtna,  who  created  Tulava  for  their 
use,  in  the  same  manner  as  he  created  Malaydla  for  the  Namburis. 
The  language  of  Tulava  has  a  strong  resemblance  to  that  of  Mala- 
ydla, and  the  written  characters  are  the  same;  but  in  the  language 


7UUilS. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  91 

of  Tulava  there  is  a  very  sreat  admixture  of  words  from  all  the    CHAPTER 

XV. 
countries  containing  the  five  southern  nations  of  India.  \,^^-~^^ 

Originally,  the  Tulava  Brdhmans  were  followers  o^BattaAchdri/a,  ^jf"'-^^' 
who  flourished  at  Ahichaytra,  on  the  banks  of  the  Goddvery.  An  AMiya. 
account  of  his  life,  which  they  of  course  consider  as  prophetical,  is 
to  be  found  in  the  Skandha  Purdna,  one  of  the  eighteen  books 
written  by  Vydsa.  Batta  Achdrya  had  great  success  against  18  of 
the  21  heretical  sects,  some  of  which  admitted,  and  others  denied, 
the  authority  of  the  Vedas. 

Afterwards  Saiikara  Achdrya  disputed  with  tlie  followers  oi Batta,  Sankam 
and,  having  convicted  them  of  numerous  errors,  gained  many  pro-  ■^'^''">'H"- 
selytes ;  and  many  of  the  T'w/rtWi!  Brdhmans  continue  to  follow  his 
doctrines,  and  receive  the  Sringa-giri  Swamalu  as  th&ir  Guru,  and  as 
the  successor  of  Sankara  Achdrya.  In  th\s  Yugam,  or  age,  there  have 
been  three  appearances  of  Sankara  Achdrya.  First,  he  was  born  at 
Sivuli,  in  Tulava,  about  1500  years  ago,  and  established  the  Matam 
or  college  at  Sringa-giri.  His  next  appearance  was  some  hundreds 
of  years  afterwards ;  when  he  was  born  in  Malaydla,  and  lived  at 
Sri  Rangam,  near  Tritchenopoly.  Lastly,  he  \vas  born  about  600 
years  ago  at  Paducachaytra,  in  Tulava.  In  the  Skandha  Purdna,  com- 
posed, as  my  informants  imagine,  many  myriads  of  millions  of  years 
ago,  an  account  of  all  his  transactions  in  these  three  incarnations  is 
to  be  found,  and  also  an  account  of  the  great  success  which  he  had 
against  the  heretical  sects. 

Madua  Achdrya  was  last  born  at  Paducachaytra,  in  the  year  of  this  Madua. 
KaU-yugani  4300,  or  601  years  ago.  In  the  time  of  the  five  sons  of 
Pandd,  he  had  appeared  as  one  of  these  brothers,  named  Bhima  ;  in 
the  UmQof  Rama  he  had  hten  Hanumanta ;  and  in  the  Kali-yugam 
preceding  this  (for  the  Brdhmans  suppose  a  constant  succession  of 
t\ie  foixx  Yugams)  he  had  appeared  as  t\\t  Madua  Achdrya  of  that 
degenerate  age.  When  he  appeared  last,  he  not  only  confuted  the 
heretical  sects,  but  obtained  a  great  victory  in  dispute  over  Sankara 
Achdrya,  who  had  forced  all  the  Madual  Brdhmans  OMUy^xAly  to  adopt 


92  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   his  opinions;  and  lie  thus  restored  his  sect  to  its  proper  splendour. 
kJ^^^^    '^'^^  Hindus  will  seldom  allow  their  own  sect  to  have  had  any  origin; 

Feb.  i:.  but  insist  rather,  that  it  has  existed  from  all  eternity,  or  at  the  very 
least  from  the  first  origin  of  things.  The  Maduals  say,  that  all  the 
different  sects  were  created  in  the  beginning  by  Ndrdyana,  and 
have  continued  ever  since,  sometimes  one  prevailing  and  sometimes 
another;  and  the  prevailing  sect  has  always  forced  the  others,  at 
least  in  appearance,  to  comply  with  their  doctrine. 

Doctrine  of        The  Aladual  allege,  that  there  is  one  supreme  God,  Ndrdyana  or 

the  Maduat.  j/igj,^^^  j^js  son  is  Brahmd,  who  is  the  father  of  Siva.  Both  of  these 
ought  to  be  worshipped,  but  Brahmd  only  mentally  ;  as  temples  and 
regular  forms  of  prayer  to  that  deity  are  not  lawful.  They  look 
Avith  abhorrence  upon  the  doctrine  of  the  spirits  of  good  men  being 
absorbed  into  the  deity,  in  which  they  differ  from  both  Smartal  and 
Sri  Vaishnavam.  Moesha  they  consider  as  the  highest  heaven  ;  and 
men  who,  by  their  piety,  obtain  a  place  there,  are  ever  afterwards 
exempted  from  change;  but  still  they  are  greatly  inferior  to  Ndrd- 
yana, or  the  other  great  gods  ;  and,  according  to  their  merit,  enjoy 
different  ranks.  The  Madual  pray  to  the  Devatas  who  reside  in 
Swargham,  which  they  say  is  the  same  with  Mahd  Meru  ;  and  when 
they  are  sick  they  pray  to  the  destructive  spirits,  such  as  Alarimd, 
Putalimd,  and  Kalimd.  These  are  not  considered  to  be  different 
names  for  the  wife  o?  Siva,  as  the  Smartal  allege,  but  beings  that 
live  in  the  «tars,  clouds,  and  lower  regions  of  the  heavens.  The 
Madual  Brdhmans  of  Tulava  act  as  Piijdris  in  the  temples  of  these 
spirits,  and  offer  sacrifices  of  paste  made  in  the  form  of  animals,  but 
will  not  consent  to  the  shedding  of  blood.  In  this  country  there 
are  eight  Santiydsis,  each  of  whom  has  a  Matam  at  Udipu,  and  each 
has  a  disciple  who  from  his  infancy  is  brought  up  to  celibacy  and 
other  mortifications,  and  is  destined  to  be  his  successor.  These 
eight  Sannydsis  are  the  Gurus  of  the  whole  stct  m  Tulava  ;  and  each 
maintains  a  number  of  disciples,  who  are  permitted  to  marry,  but 
who  are  men  of  great  Indian  learning,  and  who  read,  and  perform 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  93 

all  manner  of  services  for  their  master.     These  Sannydsis  are  not   CHAPTER 

XV. 
conceived  to  be  any  portion  of  the  deity  ;  nor  is  it  even  believed,     v,,,.^.-^ 

that  in  general  they  obtain  after  death  a  seat  in  Moesha.  To  attain  ^^^-  ^^• 
this,  a  Brahmaii  must  completely  adhere  to  every  rule  of  his  order, 
which  is  attended  with  so  much  difficulty,  that  human  nature  is 
seldom  adequate  to  the  task.  No  other  cast  has  any  kind  of  chance 
to  procure  a  place  so  near  the  gods;  and  my  informants  seem  to 
doubt,  whether  it  be  even  possible  for  any  person  of  low  rank  ever 
to  be  born  a  Brahman.  Temporal  blessings  they  consider  as  those 
which  the  three  lower  casts  ought  chiefly  to  expect ;  and,  by  means 
of  chanty  given  to  their  superiors,  they  may  have  an  abundance  of 
these  low  pleasures. 

The  eight  Gurus,  each  in  his  turn  for  two  years,  act  as  priests  Government. 
(Pujaris)  in  the  temple  of  Krishna  at  Udipu.  During  this  time  the 
officiating  Sannydsi  must  not  only  defray  the  expenses  of  worship, 
but  must  feed  all  his  disciples,  and  every  Brahman  that  comes  to 
the  place.  To  do  this  handsomely,  will  require  above  20,000  Pa- 
godas (8054/.  14*.  %\d.);  and  the  very  least,  for  which  it  can  be 
done,  is  13,000  Pagodas  (5238/.  4*.  8|</.).  In  order  to  raise  such 
great  sums,  each  Sannydsi,  with  his  disciples,  during  the  fourteen  . 
years  that  he  is  out  of  office,  wanders  about  the  country,  and, 
wherever  he  goes,  levies  contributions  under  the  name  of  Bhiksha, 
or  begging.  Out  of  these  alms  he  not  only  supports  a  considerable 
equipage,  and  feeds  all  his  disciples,  but  can  save  a  sum  sufficient 
to  defray  the  expense  which  he  must  incur  during  the  two  years 
that  he  performs  the  office  of  Ptijdri.  Except  in  Tulava,  these  San- 
nydsis have  no  authority  as  Gurus ;  for  above  the  Ghats  there  are 
three  Matams,  whose  Sannydsis  possess  the  sole  authority  of  bestow- 
ing Chakrdntikam  and  UpadSsa,  and  of  punishing  transgressions 
against  the  rule  of  cast.  Each  Sannydsi  of  Tulava  has  certain  fami- 
lies, who  are  hereditarily  annexed  to  his  Matam,  as  to  that  of  their 
Guru.   As,  however,  the  officiating  Pujdri  never  goes  out  of  the 


94  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  temple,  and  as  the  others  are  generally  absent,  begging,  the  eight 
-^^-        have  mutually  appointed  two  persons  to  act  as  judges.    These  have 
Feb.  11.         the  power  of  excommunication,  which  implies  the  whole  wealth  ot 
the  sect  being  at  their  mercy.    They  also  levy  fines,  and  cleanse 
sinners  by   prayers    (Mantrams),   cow's  urine,   and    other  things 
esteemed  pure.     The  Gurus  reserve  to  themselves  the  exclusive 
right  of  bestowing-  Cliakr/intikam  and  Upad&sa.    They  never,  at  any 
ceremony,  read  Mcuitrams,  that  office  being  reserved  for  the  mar- 
ried Bruhmans ;  and  each  man  by  hereditary  right  belongs  to  some 
Bralimai},  who  is  his  Purohita.    The  Sannydsis  do  not  require  a  Pu- 
rohita  ;  for  they  are  considered  as  sufficiently  holy  to  be  exempted 
from  all  the  ceremonies  and  customs  usually  observed  by  Brcihmans. 
They  do  not  wear  the  thread  ;  all  meats  become  to  them  indifferent; 
and  they  do  not  celebrate  the  ceremonies  in  honour  of  their  de- 
ceased parents.    A  Purohita  may  sell  or  mortgage  the  families  that 
belong  to  him,  and  may  give  them  to  a  Brahman  of  any  sect;  for 
the  prayers  (Mantrams)  and  portions  of  scripture  (Sastrams)  read 
by  any  person  of  the  sacred  order,  whatever  his  theological  opinions 
may  be,  are  considered  as  equally  efficacious.     This  does  not  pro- 
ceed from  any  gentleness  or  facility  of  temper  among  the  Brdhmans, 
who  abound  in  the  Odium  theologicum.    It  is,  however,  between  the 
Madual  and  Sri  Vaishnavam,  although  both  are  worshippers  of  Vishnu, 
that  the  most  violent  antipathy  prevails.    The  Smartal,  although 
followers  of  Siva,   agree  much   better  with   the  Madual ;  and,    in 
Tulava  and  Malaydla  especially,  these  two  live  on  tolerable  terms. 
In  Tulava,  indeed,   it  is  not  unusual  for  one  temple  to  be  common 
to  both  gods  ;  and  in  most  places  there  the  temples  of  Vishnu  and  of 
Siva  are  built  near  each  other,  and  the  same  Rath,  or  chariot,  serves 
for  the  Jdtram,  or  procession,  of  both  idols. 

To  the  east  of  the  Ghats,  the  Madual  Brdhrnans  scorn  to  serve  as 
Pujdris,  even  in  the  temples  of  Vishnu,  and  are  the  proudest  of  the 
whole  sacred  order.    This  scorn,  however,  is  perhaps  affected ;  as 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  95 

when  Madua  Acharya  appeared,  tlie  Sri  Vaishncwam  were  in  possession  CHAPTER 
of  the  temples,  and  have  always  been  favourites  with  the  persons  in  ^^^^ 
authority.  F«^-  n- 

The  Brahmans  o?  Tiilava  are  allowed  a  plurality  of  wives,  which  Customs. 
must  be  of  the  same  nation  with  themselves,  but  of  a  different  G6- 
tram,  or  family,  and  which  must  be  married  before  the  signs  of 
puberty  appear.  Their  widows  cannot  marry,  but  may  become 
Moylar,  as  already  described.  It  is  looked  upon  as  disreputable  for 
a  Brahman  to  keep  a  woman  of  this  kind,  and  he  would  lose  cast  by 
having  a  connection  with  a  dancing  girl,  or  with  a  Moylar,  that 
did  not  belong  to  a  temple ;  but  all  such  women  as  are  consecrated 
to  the  gods  cohabit  with  some  Brahman  or  other.  The  Brdhmans 
of  Tulava  burn  the  dead,  and  their  widows  ought  to  be  burned  along 
with  them;  but  this  practice  has  gone  entirely  into  disuse.  They 
can  neither  eat  animal  food,  nor  drink  spirituous  liquors.  A  man's 
own  children,  even  in  landed  property,  are  his  heirs. 

I  next  questioned  these  Brdhmans  concerning  the  history  of  the  History  of 
country;  and   they  produced   a  book  called  Grama  Paditti,  which  ^"^"^"• 
they  say  is  historical.    It  is  written  in  Sanskrit,  and  is  presumed  to 
have  been  composed  by  Vishnu,  who  assumed  a  human  form,  under 
the  name  of  Vedi  Vydsa,  and  promulgated  the  Vedas,  the  eighteen 
Puranas,  the  Grama  Paditti,  and  other  sacred  writings-    From  this 
work  the  Brdhmans  say,  that  Tulava  was  created,  and  given  entirely 
to  them,  1  Arbuda,  95  Crowds,   58  Lacs,   and  80  thousand  of  years, 
before  the  extinction  of  the  Pdndu  family.    The  last  of  these  ended, 
his  reign  in  the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  1036, 
or        -         -         -         -         -     3,865  years  ago. 
Add  80  thousand         -         -      80,000 
5%- Lacs         -         -        5,800,000 
95  Crowds  -         9.^0,000,000 

1  Arbuta        -      1,000,000,000 


.1,955,883,865  years  since  the  creation  of 


96  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  Tulava,  according  to  the  Grama  Paditti.  The  candid  reader  will  not 
^^-         expect,  that  in  a  work  comprehending  the  accounts  of  such  a  long 

Feb.  u.  duration  of  time  a  few  thousand  years,  earlier  or  later,  in  the  chro- 
nology of  these  degenerate  times  can  be  considered  as  of  any  con- 
sequence. This  having  been  premised,  and  the  accounts  of  the 
Hindu  gods  and  heroes  having  been  left  in  becoming  obscurity,  we 
find  from  the  Grama  Paditti,  that  1115  years  after  the  family  of  the 
Pandus  became  extinct,  Ajianda  Raya  governed  Tulava.  He  and  his 
eight  brothers  (or  rather  kinsmen  in  the  male  line)  reigned  200 
years,  or  until  the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  2351.  Vakia  Raja  and  his 
ten  sons  (descendants)  reigned  112  years,  till  Kali-yugam  2463. 
Maursushy  and  his  ten  sons  governed  137  years,  till  Kali-yugam 
2600.  Cadumba  Raya  45  years,  till  Kali-yugam  2645.  Myuru  Varmd, 
10  years,  till  Kali-yugam  ^655.  Hubushica,  chief  of  the  savages 
called  Coragoru,  or  Corar,  governed  12  years,  till  Kali-yugam  2657. 
Lucdditya  Raya,  son  oi  Myuru  Varma,  expelled  the  Coi^agoru,  and 
governed  Tulava,  Malayala,  and  Haiga  21  years,  till  Kali-yugam 
2678.  After  his  death,  eighty-one  of  his  cousins,  among  whom  the 
chief  was  Cadumba  Raya  of  JVudia-nagara,  governed  24  years,  till 
Kali-yugam  2702.  Balhica  Raya,  and  twenty-nine  other  petty 
princes,  governed  46  years,  till  the  Kali-yugam  2748.  Abhiri,  and 
ten  Rajas  governed  99  years,  till  Kali-yugam  2847.  The  descen- 
dants of  Mona  Raja  then  reigned  200  years,  till  Kali-yugam  3047,  or 
till  53  years  before  the  birth  of  Christ.  At  this  time  Mahummud 
Surtala,  a  Mlecha,  who  was  a  spy,  visited  the  whole  country  as  far 
as  Rdmexwara.  It  must  be  observed,  that,  according  to  these  Brah' 
mans,  Mlecha  properly  means  an  Arab,  Turc  a  Tartar,  and  Yavana  an 
European  ;  but  all  the  three  terms  are  frequently  applied  to  the 
nations  living  toward  the  north  and  west  of  Hindustan,  without  dis- 
tinction of  country  or  religion.  Nine  Belalla  Rdyas  governed  6 
years,  till  Kali-yugam  3053,  or  47  years  before  the  birth  of  Christ. 
The  Turc  then  returned,  took  Anagundi,  and  governed  540  years, 
till  the  Kali-yugam  3593,  or  A,  D.  493.     The  fcJllowers  of  Vyasa 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  97 

here,  it  must  be  observed,  cut  short  the  government  of  the  Belalla  CHAPTER 
family,  who  are  more  detestable  than  Mlichas,  as  having  been  fol-  vJiX^ 
lowers  of  the  Arhita  or  Jain  Brdhmam.  Campi  Rciya  of  Penu-conda  Feb.  ii. 
drove  out  the  MUchas,  and  governed  13  years  over  the  whole 
country  south  of  the  Krishna,  till  the  year  Kali-yugam  3606,  or 
A,  D.  506.  This  prince  sent  an  officer  named  Sankara  Deva  Raya 
to  visit  Tulava.  In  his  train  was  a  messenger  (Peon)  named  Huca- 
biica,  a  Citruba  by  cast.  This  fellow,  having  received  assistance 
from  the  Yavanas,  took  Anagu?idi,  and  having  built  a  city  near  it, 
which  he  called  Vijaya-nagara,  or  the  city  of  victory,  he  assumed 
the  title  of  Hari-hara  Rdya.  This  account  of  the  origin  of  the  fa- 
mily of  F«;V7j/a-?*fl^artt  may  be  attributed  to  the  following  circum- 
stance. The  Brahmans  of  Tulava  had  hitherto  been  exempted  from 
taxes;  but  Hari-hara,  on  the  conquest  of  the  country,  imposed  an 
annual  tax  upon  them,  to  the  amount  of  12,000  Morays  of  rice. 
Deva  Szei'mii,  a  tributary  prince,  was  ordered  to  collect  this  tax ; 
but,  his  conscience  having  revolted  at  the  thoughts  of  exacting 
tribute  from  the  Bra/wmns,  he  was  dismissed,  and  their  tax  was 
increased  to  257 S  Pagodas  in  money.  The  history  of  the  Grama 
Paditti  ends  with  this  grievous  event ;  but  the  Brahmans  say,  that 
thirteen  princes  of  the  family  oi  Hari-hara  governed  for  about  150 
years,  or  from  A.  D.  493  to  643.  Unfortunately  for  the  exactness 
of  this  chronology,  many  inscriptions  on  stone,  made  in  the  reigns 
of  these  princes,  are  scattered  throughout  their  dominions.  Copies 
of  five  of  these  have  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  government. 
The  date  of  the  first  is  in  the  era  oi Salivahanam  1297,  or  A.  D.  1575, 
and  of  the  latest  E.  S.  1400,  or  A.  D.  1478.  With  this  correction 
of  about  eight  centuries  and  a  half,  Muhammad  Surutala  may  have 
been  a  Mussulman,  and  probably  some  of  the  followers  of  Mu- 
hammad Ghizni.  The  Ycrvana  dynasty  of  Anagwidi  is,  however,  a 
matter  of  great  curiosity,  and  not  yet  well  understood. 

These  Brahmans   say,   that   the  celebrated  Krishna  Rayalu,    of  Krhhm 
Vijaya-nagara,  was  not  of  the  family  of  Hari-hara,  but  governed  the     "^''  "' 

Vol.  III.  O 


S8 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Jain  Riijds, 
or  Voli/gars. 


Possessions 
of  the  Briih- 
mans. 


CHAPTER   same  dominions  aftei-  the  overthrow  of  the  former  dynasty.     He 

s^^L.     was  descended  from   the  nurse  of  one  of  the  five  princes  called 

Feb.  11.         Pandus,  who  lived  at  the  commencement  of  the  present  A'a/i-j/wo^awz. 

Dharma  Rdya,  the  last  of  these  five  brothers,  died  in  the  year  36 

of  that  era,  or  4865  years  ago. 

The  country  oi'  Tulava  was  first  subject  to  the  kings  of  Anagutidi, 
and  then  to  the  princes  of //ten';  by  whom,  these  ^r«A;«a«*  suppose, 
the  Jain  Polygars  were  appointed  ;  but  they  pretend  an  almost  total 
ignorance  of  these  chiefs,  and  a  sovereign  contempt  for  their  sect. 

They  allege,  although  there  were  Jain  Rajas  in  many  parts  of 
Tulava,  that  there  never  was  one  at  Barcuru ;  but  that  it,  and  all 
the  Gramas  in  Tulava,  were  governed  by  Brulwians  immediately 
dependent  on  the  sovereign,  and  over  whom  these  infidel  chiefs 
had  no  control.  The  thoughts  of  being  subject  to  a  Jain  are  indeed 
horrible  to  a  follower  of  Vycisa  ;  nor  will  it  ever  be  acknowledged, 
Avhere  there  is  a  possibility  of  denial.    When  pushed  to  account  for 
the  introduction  of  so  many  Jain  into  a  country  made  expressly  for 
the  Brdhmans  who  follow  the  true  doctrine  of  Vydsa,  they  say,  that 
Hubashica  drove  all  the  Brdhmans  out  of  the  country ;  and  that, 
when  Lokdditya  regained  his  paternal  dominions,  he  only  brought  a 
few  Brdhmans  from  Ahichaytra,  where  he  resided  during  his  exile, 
and  gave  them  the  32  Grdmus,  Avhich  they  enjoyed  without  moles- 
tation till  Hari-hara  imposed  the  illegal  tax.    I  think  it  probable, 
that  Lokdditya,  in  order  to  procure  assistance  to  regain  his  throne, 
changed  the  religion  which  he   inherited  from  his  father  Myuru 
Varmd   who,  according  to  the  Jain  of  Mudu  Bidery,  was  of  their 
sect ;  and  having  become  a  follower  of  Batta  Achdrya,  then  teaching 
the  doctrine  of  Vyasa  with  great  success  on  the  banks  of  the  06- 
davery,  he  brought  with  him  the  first  colony  oi  Tulava  Brdhmans, 
and  gave  them  a  gift  (Enam)  of  thirty-two  villages.    In  imitation 
of  the  Namburis,  they  afterwards  set  up  the  story  oi'  Parasu  Rdma  ; 
but  it  does  not  seem  to  have  succeeded  so  well  with  them  as  with 
their  southern  neiijhbours. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  99 

Udipu  is  a  town  M'hich  contains  about  200  houses,  and  stands  about   CHAPTER 

/         /      /        •  XV. 

a  coss  from  the  sea  near  a  small  river  called  the  Pdpa-iiasan't,  which     v,^-^-*,^ 

comes  from  a  Tank  at  Carcidla,  passes  about  two  miles  to  the  south  ^r'^/'^j 

of  the  town,  and  falls  into  the  sea  at  a  fort  named  Din'ia  Bahudar.  its  history. 

Near  Udipu  is  a  small  fort,  which  formerly  was  the  residence  of 

Chittupadi  Baylala,  the  chief  B^rihman  of  the  town  (Grama).    Each 

of  the  sa  Gramas  belonging  to  the  Tulava  Brdhmans  was  governed 

and  defended  by  an  hereditary  chief  of  their  own  sect,  who  was  in 

every  respect,  but  the  name,  a  Polygar,  or  petty  chief;  some  of 

them  assumed  the  title  of  Baylala ;  others  that  of  Hegada,  which 

signifies  mighty. 

At  Udipu   are  three  Gudies,  or  temples,  which  are  placed  in  a 

common  square,  and  surrounded  by  14  Matams,  or  convents,  be- 

lo'nging  to  an  equal  number  o? Sannydsis,  who  are  Gurus  to  diifei^ent 

sects  of  Brdhmans.    Eight  of  these  Matams  belong  to   the  eight 

Madual Samiydsis,  who  in  their  turn  officiate  as  priests  in  the  temple 

of  Krishna,  Avhich  is  one  of  the  three  that  stand  in  the  square.    Two 

other  Matams  belong  to  Sannydsis  of  the  same  sect ;  each  of  the 

predecessors  of  whom,  as  well  as  the  eight  others,  received  an  image 

from  Madua  Acharya ;  but  they  have   few  followers,  and  are  not 

entitled  to  officiate  at  the  temple.    Three  other  Matams  belong  to 

the  three  Sannydsis,  who  are  the  Gurus  of  all  the  Madual  Brdhmans 

to  the  eastward  of  the  mountains.     The  fourteenth  Matam  belongs 

to  the  Sringa-giri  Swdmi.    These  Matams  are  large  buildings  ;  and, 

considered   as  houses   belonging  to  Hindus,  improved  by  neither 

Mussulman  nor  European  arts,  they  are  stately  edifices.  Some  pains 

have  even  been  taken  to  admit  air,  as  they  have  many  windows. 

Apertures  indeed  "  for  the  purpose  of  intromitting  air  and  light," 

although  scarcely  deserving  the  appellation  of  windows,  are  more 

common  in  the  houses  of  Tulava,  than  I  have  any  where  else  seen 

among  the  mere  natives  of  Hindustdn.    The  Matams  are  designed 

chiefly  as   storehouses,   in  which   the    Sannyasis  may  deposit  the 

produce  of  their  begging  till  they  want  it  for  consumption.  Being 


100  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   too  expensive  guests,  they  very  seldom  reside  in  one  place  more 
than  a  few  days.  The  temples,  as  usual,  are  but  poor  buildings,  and, 
like  almost  all  those  of  Malayala   and  Tulava,   have  pent  roofs. 
Those  here  are  roofed,  with  copper,  which  must  have  cost  much 
'  money;  but,  being  very  rudely  wrought,  it  makes  no  show. 
Customs  of         Having  assembled  some  of  the  Corar,  or  Corawar,  who  under 
tljeCo/ar.      \\^q\x  chief  Hubashka  are  said  to  have  once  been  masters  of  Tulava, 
I  found,  that  they  are  now  all  slaves,  and  have  lost  every  tradition 
of  their  former  power.     Their  language  difters  considerably  from 
that  of  any  other  tribe  in  the  peninsula.  When  their  masters  choose 
to  employ  them,  they  get  one  meal  of  victuals,  and  the  men  have 
daily  one  Hany  of  rice,  and  the  women  three  quarters  of  a  Hany. 
This  is  a  very  good  allowance  ;  but,  when  the  master  has  no  use  for 
their  labour,  they  must  support  themselves  as  well  as  they  can. 
This  they  endeavour  to  do  by  making  Coir,  or  rope  from  coco-nut 
husks,  various  kinds  of  baskets  from  Ratam  and  climbing  plants, 
and  mud  walls.  They  pick  up  the  scraps  and  offals  of  other  people's 
meals,  and  skin  dead  oxen,  and  dress  the  hides.    They  build  their 
huts  near  towns  or  villages.  Their  dress  is  very  simple,  and  consists 
in  general  of  a  girdle,  in  which  they  stick  a  bunch  of  grass  before, 
and  another  behind.    Some  of  the  men  have  a  fragment  of  cloth 
round  their  Avaist;  but  very  few  of  the  women  ever  procure  this 
covering.    They  are  not,    however,  without  many  ornaments  of 
beads,  and  the  like ;  and,  even  when  possessed  of  some  wealth,  do 
not  alter  their  rude  dress.    Some  few  of  them  are  permitted  to  rent 
lands  as  Gay7iigaras.    In  spite  of  this  wretched  life,  they  are  a  good 
looking  people,  and   therefore  probably  are  abundantly  fed.    They 
have  no  hereditary  chiefs,  and  disputes  among  them  are  settled  by 
assemblies  of  the  people.    If  they  can  get  them,  they  take  several 
■wives ;  and  the  women  are  marriageable  both  before  and  after  pu- 
berty, and  during  widowhood.    They  will  not  marry  a  woman  of 
any  other  cast ;  and  they  are  considered  of  so  base  an  origin,  tiiat 
a  man  of  any  other  cast,  who  cohabits  with  one  of  their  women,  ig 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  10! 

inevitably  excommunicated,  and  afterwards  not  even  a  Corar  will   CHAPTER 

admit  his  society.    The  marriages  are  indissoluble,  and  a  woman     N.^iv-s^ 

who  commits  adultery  is  only  flogged.    Her  paramour,  if  he  be  a  Feb.  ii. 

Corar,  is  fined.  The  master  pa3'S  the  expense  of  the  marriage  feast. 

When  a  man  dies,  his  wives,  with  all  their  children,  return  to  the 

huts  of  their  respective  mothers  and  brothers,  and  belong  to  their 

masters.    They  will  eat  the  offals  of  any  other  cast,  and  can  eat 

beef,  carrion,  tigers,  crows,  and  other  impure  things;  they  reject 

however  dogs  and  snakes.    They  can  lawfully  drink   intoxicating 

liquors.    They  burn  the  dead,  and  seem  to  know  nothing  of  a  state 

of  future  existence,  nor  do  they  believe  in  Paisachi,  or  evil  spirits^ 

Their  deity  is  called  Buta,  and  is  represented  by  a  stone,  which  is 

kept  in  a  square  surrounded  by  a  wall.    To  this  stone,  in  all  cases 

of  sickness,  they  sacrifice  fowls,  or  make  oflferings  of  fruit  or  grain, 

and  every  man  offei's  his  own  worship  (Pujd);  so  that  they  have 

no  officiating  priest,  and  they  acknowledge  the  authority  of  no 

Guru.    They  follow  all  the  oxen  and  buft'aloes  of  the  village,  as  so 

much  of  the  livestock,  when  these  are  driven  in  procession  at  a 

great  festival  which  the  farmers  annually  celebrate. 

12th  Februart/.^-l  went  three  cosses  to  Brahma^wara.    The  rice  Feb.  12. 
grounds  extend  from  Udipu  to  the  sea;  their  extent  towards  the  „/'{he''coun- 
uorth  and  south  is  not  considerable.     I  soon  came  to  gently  rising  try. 
hills,  free  of  woods  ;  but  the  road  was  finely  sheltered  by  avenues 
of  the  beautiful  Vateria  iiidica,  called  here  Dupada  Maram,  or  the 
resin  tree.  I  passed  first  through  Kalyana-pura,  which  M'as  formerly 
a  large  place ;  but  during  Tippoo's  government  it  has  been  almost 
intirely  ruined.     I  then  crossed  a  veiy  wide,  but  shallow  river, 
named  the  Suvarna.    Its  source  is  from  a  lake  or  tank  near  Carculla; 
but  it  owes  its  magnitude  entirely  to  the  water  of  the  sea.    Near 
the  Suvarna  are  many  fine  plantations  of  coco-nut  palms,  and  also 
some  rice  grounds.     Barcuru  is  near  Brahmci'Wara  ;  but  for  a  long 
time,  even  previous  to  the  irruption  of  Sivuppa  Nayaka,  it  has  been 
ruined.     The  fortress  was    erected   by  liafi-hara,   first  king  of 


102  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  Vijaya-nagara.  It  still  gives  its  name  to  the  district  (Taluc),  the 
\,^-sr^^    Tahsihlar  of  wliich  resides  at  Braluuu-wara.    This  is  a  small  place 

Feb.  12.  containing  only  about  60  houses,  but  in  its  neighbourhood  there  is 
much  rice  ground. 

Cultivation         I  have  received  much  information  relative  to  the  produce  of  the 

o" riceTsnds.  ^'^^^  grounds  in  this  neighbourhood  ;  partly  from  Mr.  Ravenshaw, 
and  partly  from  the  people  employed  to  measure  and  value  the 
district.  In  the  annexed  Tables  I  give  some  of  this  information, 
with  the  measures  reduced  to  the  English  standards.  It  must  be 
observed,  that  the  Gunta,  or  chain  used  by  the  surveyors,  ought 
to  have  been  33  English  feet  in  length  ;  but,  owing  to  the  rudeness 
of  the  workmanship,  it  had  stretched  to  53  feet  10^  inches  :  by  the 
standard,  the  acre  would  be  equal  to  40  Guntas ;  but,  by  the  actual 
chain,  it  would  be  equal  to  only  37-f^  Guntas.  I  calculate,  how- 
ever, by  the  standard  measure.  The  Mudi,  or  Moray  in  use  here, 
is  that  of  the  market  oi  Mangalore ;  but  is  divided,  when  speak- 
ing of  seed,  into  60  Hanies  ;  and,  when  speaking  of  produce,  into 
40  Hanies ;  but  the  produce  is  in  general  estimated  in  rice,  after 
deducting  the  expense  of  beating  and  cleaning.  It  would  appear 
from  all  circumstances,  that  the  quantity  of  seed  which  is  sown  on 
the  same  extent  of  ground,  even  of  the  same  kind,  differs  much. 
Whether  this  proceed  from  the  natives  having  found  by  experience, 
that  such  or  such  a  field  gives  most  profits  when  sown  with  a  cer- 
tain quantity  of  seed;  or  whether  it  arises  from  a  want  of  precision 
and  economy  that  attends  all  rude  states  of  agriculture,  I  cannot 
take  upon  myself  to  affirm ;  but  the  latter  cause  seems  the  most 
probable.  The  seed  is  here  sown  much  thinner  than  in  Malabar ; 
which,  although  a  kind  of  saving  that  is  common  in  every  part  of 
India,  seems  to  be  very  injudicious  :  the  crops  in  general  appear  to 
me  to  be  proportionably  scanty.  Of  the  gross  produce  of  estates,^ 
one  half  is  here,  as  in  most  parts  of  India,  considered  as  a  proper 
reward  for  the  labour  of  the  cultivator,  and  the  use  of  his  stock; 
and  is  perhaps  sufficient,  considering  that  his  cattle  pay  nothing, 


[To  face  p.  102. 

two  Rice  Estates  in  Seroor  Village 
ors.     The  materials  furnished  by 


102 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER    Vijaya-7iagarci 

^^J^y    Tahs'ildar  of  which  resides  at  Brahmu-wara. 


Feb.  12. 


Cultivation 
and  produce 
of  rice  lands. 


It  still  gives  its  name  to  the  district  (Taluc),  the 

This  is  a  small  place 
containing  only  about  60  houses,  but  in  its  neighbourhood  there  is 
much  rice  ground. 

I  have  received  much  information  relative  to  the  produce  of  the 
rice  grounds  in  this  neighbourhood  ;  partly  from  Mr.  Ravenshaw, 
and  partly  from  the  people  employed  to  measure  and  value  the 
district.  In  the  annexed  Tables  I  give  some  of  this  information, 
with  the  measures  reduced  to  the  English  standards.  It  must  be 
observed,  that  the  Gunta,  or  chain  used  by  the  surveyors,  ought 
to  have  been  53  English  feet  in  length  ;  but,  owing  to  the  rudeness 
of  the  workmanship,  it  had  stretched  to  33  feet  10^  inches:  by  the 
standard,  the  acre  would  be  equal  to  40  Guntas ;  but,  by  the  actual 
chain,  it  would  be  equal  to  only  37yVo  Guntas.  I  calculate,  how- 
ever, by  the  standard  measure.  The  Mudi,  or  Moray  in  use  here, 
is  that  of  the  market  o^  Mangalore ;  but  is  divided,  when  speak- 
ing of  seed,  into  60  Hanies  ;  and,  when  speaking  of  produce,  into 
40  Hanies ;  but  the  produce  is  in  general  estimated  in  rice,  after 
deducting  the  expense  of  beating  and  cleaning.  It  would  appear 
from  all  circumstances,  that  the  quantity  of  seed  which  is  sown  on 
the  same  extent  of  ground,  even  of  the  same  kind,  differs  much. 
Whether  this  proceed  from  the  natives  having  found  by  experience, 
that  such  or  such  a  field  gives  most  profits  when  sown  with  a  cer- 
tain quantity  of  seed;  or  whether  it  arises  from  a  want  of  precision 
and  economy  that  attends  all  rude  states  of  agriculture,  I  cannot 
take  upon  myself  to  affirm ;  but  the  latter  cause  seems  the  most 
probable.  The  seed  is  here  sown  much  thinner  than  in  Malabar ; 
which,  although  a  kind  of  saving  that  is  common  in  every  part  of 
India,  seems  to  be  very  injudicious  :  the  crops  in  general  appear  to 
me  to  be  proportionably  scanty.  Of  the  gross  produce  of  estates,, 
one  half  is  here,  as  in  most  parts  of  India,  considered  as  a  proper 
reward  for  the  labour  of  the  cultivator,  and  the  use  of  his  stock ; 
and  is  perhaps  sufficient,  considering  that  his  cattle  pay  nothing. 


[Tof^cp.  102. 

A  Statement,  showing  the  quantity  of  Seed  required,  and  the  Produce,  both  in  respect  to  quantity  and  value,  of  two  Rice  Estates  in  Seroor  Village 
o(  Tombretta  Maugany ;  the  grain  having  been  cut  down,  beaten,  and  measured,  in  presence  of  the  Valuators.  The  materials  furnished  by 
Mr.  Ravenshaw. 


..... 

s„a. 

c...,P,.a.„. 

if 

Ave„g,p.d.ee.lnneA.,e.     | 

""'"'"'"• 

Sj^rtoVi^clSra! 

P„P„».. 

0,„..1.,„. 

Clcin  Rice,  deducting  the  expense  oF  beating  jnd 
cleaning. 

a«ant,t,.. 

preceding 

Rongh 

ii? 

Ifrntoi 

Engl.ih 

One  Mujf 

°°;f™; 

Q.antt.y 

^""".'i, 

Pdgodi^  for 

Bceia  Pundari/  Landlord. 

1  sort    Bylu  land 

2  ditto  Mtigetu  land 

3  ditto  Bella  or  Macketj  laud 

Total         - 

Ante  Tolar  Landlord. 

1  sort    B>,lu  land 

2  ditto  Mai-kcy  land     - 

Total 

General  Total 

182  1» 
209     6 

4,5-2 
1,324 
5,234 

6    0 

5,9115 
2,95725 
7,813* 

37   10 

1,2936 
li4928 

109    0 

141,945 

32,99 
30,086 

46     0 
11    25  J 

9  19 

59,928 
12^339 

Ng.R.p.F.. 

3     2     2i 
2     3     3i 

f-     i.      J, 

5    15    Ui 

1     7     7J 

iiil 

3H 

31,06 
25,665 
5,896 

11^46 
2,357 

£...      A 
1   13     0 
0     5   U 

4«     3i 

11,130 

12  30 

16,68515 

3S     0 

1,6731 

158  32 

206,021 

67    41 

87,421 

20     3     »f 

10     7     5J 

■2U 

18,51 

7,854 

1      0     3 

400   10 

4,931 

7  35 

5,371625 

47   12 
50  12 

lilt 

s,s, 

167S746 

108  36 

141,813 
67,1 

\t     I     % 

13  14  3 
699 

64 

16H 

69,713 

22,843 
6,699 

SIL^ 

597   11 

14,945 

12     0 

15,626725 

49  12 

1,0465 

392  321 

511,531 

160  17 

208,913 

32^1 

34,225 

13,89 

1    14  111 

1„«     ,1 

2G,or6 

24  30 

32,311875 

1,24 

551   24. 

717,552 

227  21 1 

296,334 

7,     0     n 

30   11      5'    "li 

11,36 

1     8     71 

A  Statement,  showing  the  Seed  required  for  Rice-grouml,  aud  its  Produce,  in  seven  Estates  of  five 
diifereut  Villages  in  Tombretly  Man^auny  of  Barcuni  Tahtc.  The  materials  furnished  by 
Mr.  Ravenshaw. 


VilUgci. 

r..d,„d,. 

P,,a„e„.R,c.,ded.c„ng.l,ee.p„.enrb..,tt,g. 

Meatncc^.nt. 

C,n... 

rnta,. 

ll.J,,.wn. 

auan,„y. 

Value. 

Heggualu     - 
Ooloor    -     - 
Hulkky 
Hemmunu    - 

Retardy  -  i 

Sankara  Nuraijana 
Mmjcc  Shitttj     - 

Allies  suns  -   - 

Shambcrcii      -     ■ 
Tunmy  ihbba      - 

Total    -     - 

19928     10 
1062       4 
1507     14 

'479     13 
272     13 

131,0727 
493,2333 
26,5564 
37,6727 
61,0243 
11,9055 

13"6     27l 
357     221 
26     171 
33     15 
62     17} 

5     321 

B    h  dec 

B    h  d  c 

JIW  Hj     1  B    1    d  c 

M.J.  «,. 

7       5 

7     22 
9     — 
7       S 

9,795 
9,983 

9,747 

lo'zs- 

£.  :      J. 

0  IS     7 

1  \l   itl 
0    19     4 

0  18   10 

1  2   101 
1     0  lOJ 

178, 

465,63 
34,4276 
43,462 
81,308 

7;5091 

o!93*5 
1,2964 
1,153 
1.332 

967     20  1259,911 
3330     20  4988,125 
199     30     260,123 
289     —    376,35 
456     30     594,8 
109     —     141,945 
56     20|      73,576 

30932     — 

773,4 

640     25 

834,4 

1,07s 

5909     —7694,833 

9       8 

9,955 

0  19     2 

Measurement  and  Valuation  of  tivo  Villages  in  Barcurii  Taluc,  furnislied  by  Yessamint  Rov,  the  Appraiser  employed  by  Government. 


.„.,..d, 

«u,.,and,. 

.,„u,rucu..„„„  and  „«<,-,  iand.. 

T»„lR,ce,.nd,. 

S:tn.t,n„. 

Meatntenaent. 

Secd„ngb„c. 

"■'InTtl'tre'x'J^n^'oVc'Snl^g.""" 

Mea.u,e„e„t. 

Seed  rou,h  ,i,e. 

'"^^r^^:;:^'::^:,^:^- 

Mcutcent. 

S„d.nug„„ce. 

'"t:£'^^s^:'ix:^t- 

— '• 

Seed,nugb.iee. 

"1:r:;::^^si^^:r- 

Gtci. 

ret  Ace. 

Gtn... 

0,™. 

,e,A„e. 

248       0 

255       0 
32     20 

Pe,Ae,e.           | 

Vdiage. 

Lindlo,d. 

Oto„. 

C,n... 

,e,.„e. 

C..,.. 

Per  Acre. 

C,n.,. 

0,704 
0,769 
0,646 
0,706 

oi820 

a«a.tii,,. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Quanlity. 

Bu>h.  dee 
9.537 
9,866 
9,42 
9.792 
9,25 

Value. 

Coligajf    • 
Ihmana    - 

Ram  Chandra  Nai/aka 
Lwf^a  fla</lu/a     -     - 
Siltram  Vluru    -     - 
UmpuCh.tl:,      .     . 
Krhhiia  r.diala  ■     - 
Du^upa  Bagauata  - 

Tola!     -     - 
Rat^gma  -     .     .     . 

513'    13 
668    1 1 
338     15 

12,846 
16,679 
8,474 
19,349 
2,151 
0,393 

7  0 

8  0 
4     25 

1     20 
0     10 

Bu.h  dee, 
0,70963 
0,625 

o'749 
0,929 

126     20 
126     SO 
76     20 
186    20 

12,825' 

12,687 

11,709 

12,552 
13,012 
13.229 

fi^l 
1     4     6| 

1     5    7 

3S7     9 
232     2 
244     6 
34     6 

Il'vJ?"' 
9,6S 

6,09 
0,85 

3       5 

0^505 
0,839 
0,757 

69'    20 
67       0 

44     10 
6       0 

9,001 
9,158 
9.427 
9,092 

'o-17     „1 
0   17     5 
0  17     SI 
0  18     2J 
0   17     7 

256      1 
62     9 

5.71 

3.i 
S.45 

3     10' 
1     30 

Bu.b.d.c. 
1,01 
0.832 
0.733 
0,635 
0.832 

is'  I'o 
18     20 
18     10 

C 
8 

1153'  11 
1312       5 

695  5 
13.S6      7 

183  < 
15     12 

32,739 
17,383 
33,912 
4,575 
0.393 

IS     15 

^'19  H 
0  19  11 

0  18  IIJ 
0  17  101 

2397       3 

59.98 

32     20  1  0,811 

577    20 

12,548 

1     4     31 

1309     9 

32,66 

18     20 

0,657 

227     30 

9,036 

0  17    6J 

1009  10 

~~ 

14     221 

0753 

71      10 

3,684 

0    7     li 

4716       8 

117,91 

65     221 

0.724 

876    20!  9,6s 

0  18     81 

1027      7 

25,687 

21     10 

1,077 

256       0 

12,979 

1     5     IJ 

342     5 

8,56 

7       0 

1,065 

58       0 

8„S25 

•>  17    OJ 

643   14 

.8  13 
21   13 

16,1 
9,599 
0,22 
0,55 

10     30 

0,809 
0.677 

0^895 

44     30 
28       0 

2       0 

3,62 
3.795 
3,955 
4,776 

0    7    0 

074 

0     5     81 

2013     10 

50,342 
9.5.99 
3,289 

3,578 

39     0 

2     35 
2     20 

1,007 
0,677 
1,13S 
0,910 

28        0    3)795 

31  0  12,272 

32  0  11,647 

0  17   UJ 

Ilk 

Madua  lime        -     - 
Tuial       .     - 
General  tola! 

I"       5 

3,077 
3,022 

o!912 

30     20 

12,802 
^12,881 

1     4    9 

1271      13 

31.79 

25     95 

1,06 

316    20 

12,962 

1     5     01 

342     5 

8,56 

7       0 

1,063 

5S       0  1    8,825 

0   17     01 

1058  12 

26,47     1   16     20 

0.811 

75    10 

3,689 

072 

2672     14 

66,82 

49     15 

0.962 

449     30J    8,766 

0  16  11} 

)C69     _ 

91,728 

58     15 

0,829 

894     0 

12,692 

1     4     61 

41,22 

25     20 

0,804 

285     30  ]    9,009 

0   17     5 

2058     6 

51,7       |31        2; 

0,782 

146     20 

3,793 

0     7     li 

7389       6 

184,74 

114     37I 

0,81 

1326     10!    9.48 

0  18     1 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  103 

that  his  other  stock  is  of  little  or  no  value,  and  that  the  quantity  of  CHAPTER 
seed  is  very  small.  Owing  to  the  present  great  want  of  people  and  ^^^.^^^ 
stock,  the  cultivators,  however,  do  not  in  general  pay  so  much ;  Feb.  12. 
and,  according  to  the  valuation  of  five  villages  in  this  neighbour- 
hood, I  find,  that  out  of  20-i8  Pagodas,  the  gross  value  of  their  pro- 
duce, the  cultivators  retain  1295  Pagodas.  The  share  of  the  govern- 
ment amounts  in  general  to  one  quarter  of  the  gross  produce ;  and 
in  these  villages  is  671  Pagodas,  of  which  37  are  alienated  in  Enam, 
or  charity  lands,  as  they  are  called.  What  remains  to  the  landlord 
is  82  Pagodas  ;  but  part  of  their  lands  are  waste,  and  the  Enams  are 
nominally  higher  than  what  is  here  stated ;  so  that,  apparently, 
some  of  the  landlords,  who  are  supposed  to  pay  these  charities,  are 
losers  by  their  estates.  At  present,  they  are  all  cultivators ;  and, 
"when  the  country  is  repeopled,  there  can  be  little  doubt,  that, 
should  they  not  encumber  themselves  with  mortgages,  they  will 
enjoy  one  fourth  of  the  gross  produce  of  their  estates;  for  a  part 
of  the  present  great  share  of  the  cultivators  arises  from  the  interest 
of  money  which  they  have  advanced  on  their  farms  ;  and  this  also 
should  be  considered  as  a  part  of  the  profits  of  the  landlord. 

13th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Hirtitty,  one  of  the  four-  Feb.  13. 
teen  small  villages  that  are  called  by  the  common  name  of  Cotta.  andf||hlbi- 
The  whole  of  this  almost  is  occupied  by  Brahmans,  who  pretend  to  '^n''- 
\\e  of  Parasu  Rama's  colony,   although  almost  the  only  language 
spoken  by  them  is  that  of  Kai^ndta.    Very  few  of  them  understand 
the  peculiar  dialect  of  Tulava.    It  must  be  observed,  however,  that, 
this  country  having  been  long  subject  to  princes  residing  above 
the  Ghats,  all  persons  of  rank  speak  the  language  of  Karnata  ;  and 
from  having  been  subject  to  these  princes,  and  from  its  having  been 
the  place  where  all  intei'course  between  them  and  Europeans  was 
conducted,  the  province  has  got  the  name  of  the  coast  of  Canara,  a 
corruption  of  Karnata.     In  the  towns  on  the  sea-coast  the  Mussul- 
man language  is  more  commonly  understood,  than  in  any  other  part 
of  the  peninsula  that  I  have  visited. 


104 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  14. 
Mr.  Read': 
district. 


Face  of  the 
country. 


Feb.  15. 
Kunda-pniti. 


The  road  from  Brahmd-tvara  to  Hirtitty  for  the  most  part  passes 
along  a  low  sandy  ridge,  on  either  side  of  which  are  extensive 
rice-grounds ;  for  the  Brdhmafis,  as  usual,  have  appropriated  to 
themselves  the  finest  parts  ofTulava.  The  country  looks  well ;  for 
even  the  greater  part  of  the  sandy  height  is  inclosed,  and  planted 
for  timber  and  fewel.  Except  where  the  cattle  were  forced  to  sM'in\ 
over  a  very  wide  river,  called  MabucuUu,  the  road  Mas  compara- 
tively excellent.  This  river  descends  from  the  Ghats,  and  in  the 
rainy  season  brings  down  a  great  body  of  fresh  water;  but,  where 
the  road  crosses,  it  is  at  this  season  quite  salt.  The  tide  goes  up 
from  the  sea  about  three  Cosses  ;  and  canoes,  in  the  rainy  season,  can 
ascend  six  cosses  from  the  mouth.  The  banks  are  m'cU  planted  with 
coco-nut  trees,  which  in  Tulava  seem  confined  chiefly  to  such  places. 

14th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Kunda-purs,  where  I  en- 
tered the  northern  division  of  Conara,  which  is  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Mr.  Read,  a  young  gentleman  brought  up  in  the  same 
school  with  Mr.  Ravenshaw.  I  had  not  the  good  fortune  to  mfeet 
Avith  him;  but  he  was  so  obliging  as  to  send  me  very  satisfactory 
answers  to  the  queries  tliat  I  proposed  in  writing,  of  which  I  shall 
avail  myself  in  the  following  account.  The  country  between  Hiv' 
titty  and  Kunda-pura  resembles  that  between  Bvahmd-rvara  and 
Hirtitty  ;  only  there  is  by  the  way  neither  river  nor  coco-nut  plan- 
tations ;  and,  in  proportion,  the  extent  of  rice-ground  is  smaller. 
The  whole  road  is  excellent,  and  fit  for  any  kind  of  carriage,  except 
in  one  place,  where,  in  the  descents  to  a  low  narrow  valley,  stairs 
have  been  formed.  By  the  natives  these  are  considered  as  an  ex- 
cellent improvement  on  a  road,  although  they  are  very  inconvenient 
even  for  cattle  that  are  carrying  back-loads. 

15th  February. — I  was  detained  at  Kunda-pura,  as  being  the  only 
place  v,>here  I  could  get  a  supply  of  necessaries,  till  I  reached 
Nagara :  and  also  in  expectation  of  meeting  ^  BrAhman  named 
Raitiupptt  Varmica,  wlio  is  said  to  be  the  most  intelligent  person  in 
the  country  concerning  its  former  state. 


MYSORE,  CANAUA,  AND  MALABAR.  105 

Kunda-lmra  is  situated  on  the  south  side  of  a  river,  which  in  dif-   CHAPTER 
.  ...  XV. 

ferent  places,  according  to  the  villages  Avhich  it  passes,  is  called  by    \,^^,J^,^^ 

diiferent  names.  This  river  is  in  general  the  boundary  between  ^'^^-  ^''• 
the  northern  and  southern  divisions  o^  Canara  ;  but  Kiinda-pura  is 
under  the  collector  of  the  northern  division.  The  villages  or  towns 
on  the  banks  of  this  river  are  the  places  where  all  the  goods  coming 
from,  or  going  to  Nagara  are  shipped,  and  landed.  The  custom- 
house is  at  Kunda-pura ;  but  the  principal  shipping  place  is  farther 
up  the  river  at  Bassururu.  On  the  north  side  of  the  river  the 
Sultan  had  a  dock  ;  but  the  water  on  the  bar,  even  at  spring  tides, 
does  not  exceed  9  cubits,  or  13^  feet.  The  river,  or  rather  lake, 
at  Kunda-pura  has  only  one  opening  into  the  sea.  It  is  very  ex- 
tensive, and  the  only  ferry-boats  on  it  are  wretched  canoes.  Five 
fresh  water  rivers  come  from  the  hills,  and,  meeting  the  tide  in  this 
lake,  intersect  the  whole  level  ground,  and  form  a  number  of  islands. 
I  have  not  seen  a  more  beautiful  country  than  this;  and  an  old 
fort,  situated  a  little  higher  up  than  the  town,  commands  one  of 
the  finest  prospects  that  I  ever  beheld.  The  people  here  seem  to 
have  no  knowledge  of  any  thing  that  happened  before  the  conquest 
by  Sivuppa  Nayaka  ;  since  which  it  is,  that  the  place  has  risen  into 
any  kind  of  consequence.  The  origin  of  its  rise  was  probably  a  small 
fort  built  by  the  Portuguese.  Round  this  General  Mathews  drew 
lines,  as  a  defence  for  his  stores,  when  he  went  up  to  Nagara.  These 
were  afterwards  somewhat  strengthened  by  Tippoo,  but  were  always 
poor  defences.  The  town  contains  about  250  houses,  and  is  never  re- 
membered to  have  been  larger.  It  is  the  head  quarters  of  a  battalion 
of  Bombay  Sepoi/s,  by  the  officers  of  which  I  was  most  kindly  received. 

Colonel  Williamson  informed  me,  that  at  no  great  distance  there  Hn-minu,  or 
was  a  tank  of  fresh  water,  in  which  was  a  kind  of  fish  that  the 
Sultan  reserved  for  his  own  use,  and  which  by  the  natives  was  named 
Hu-minu,  or  the  flower-fish.  It  is  a  large  fish,  full  of  blood,  and 
very  fat,  but  is  only  fit  for  use  when  salted.  For  this  purpose  it  is 
excellent,  a  circumstance  very  rare  with  fresh-water  fish ;  so  that 

Vol.  III.  P 


106  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER    the  propagating  of  this  species  in  different  parts  of  the  country 

^^\;;^^     would  seem  to  be  an  object  worthy  of  attention.     j\Iy  time  would 

Feb.  15,        not  admit  of  seeing  any  of  them  taken,  as  the  fishery  cannot  be 

carried  on  without  some  days  preparation. 
Customs  of         In  the  northern  parts  ofTnlava  are  two  casts,  called  Bacadaru  and 
and  Bala-    '   Butudaru,  both  of  whom  are  slaves  ;  both  speak  no  other  language 
'''"■"•  than  that  of  Karndta,  and  both  follow  exactly  the  same  customs. 

Each  disputes  for  a  pre-eminence  of  rank,  and  they  will  not  eat 
nor  intermarry  with  one  another,  except  in  certain  cases  of  adul- 
tery, when,  a  ceremony  of  purification  having  been  undergone,  a 
slave  of  the  one  cast  may  marry  a  female  of  the  other. 

Although  they  do  not  use  leaves  to  cover  their  nudities,  they 
seem  to  be  poorer  and  worse  looking  than  the  Cora?;  whom  I  lately 
described.  Their  masters  give  annually  to  each  slave,  male  or  fe- 
male, one  piece  of  cloth  worth  a  Rupee,  together  with  a  knife.  Each 
family  has  a  house,  and  10  Hanies  sowing  of  rice-land,  or  about  a 
quai'ter  of  an  acre.  At  marriages  they  get  one  Mudy  of  rice 
(^  bushel),  worth  about  2  J.,  and  half  a  Pagoda,  or  As.  in  money. 
When  their  master  has  no  occasion  for  their  work,  they  get  no 
wages,  but  hire  themselves  out  as  labourers  in  the  best  manner  they 
can  ;  for  they  have  not  the  resource  of  basket-making,  nor  of  the 
other  little  arts  which  the  Corar  practise.  The  master  is  bound, 
however,  to  prevent  the  aged  or  infirm  from  perishing  of  want. 
When  they  work  for  their  master,  a  man  gets  daily  1-f  Hany  of  rice 
to  carry  home,  with  \  a  Hany  ready  dressed,  in  all  'i  Hanies,  or  rather 
more  than  one-sixteenth  of  a  bushel;  a  woman  gets  1^:  Hany  of 
rice  to  carry  home,  and  4-  Hany  ready  dressed ;  and  a  boy  gets 
1  Hany  of  rice. 

These  casts  have  no  hereditary  chiefs ;  but  quarrels  are  amicably 
settled  by  eight  or  ten  prudent  men,  who  assemble  the  j^arties,  and, 
with  the  assistance  of  a  little  drink,  discuss  the  business.  They 
never  expel  any  one  from  the  cast;  even  women  who  commit  for- 
nication with  strange  men  are  not  subjected  to  this  diii^iace.     If 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  107 

the  seducer  has  been  a  Siuira,  or  man  of  pure  birth,  the  husband  is   CHAPTER, 

...  .  XV. 

■not  at  all  offended  at  the  preference  which  his  Avife  has  given  to  a   y,^^^-^ 

superior.    If  he  be  a  slave,  the  husband  turns  her  away  ;  but  then  ^^^'  ^^' 
she  is  taken  to  wife  by  her  paramour,  even  though  he  be  of  a  dif- 
ferent cast.    In  order  to  purify  her  for  this  purpose,  the  paramour 
builds  a  small  hut  of  straw,  and,  having  put  the  woman  into  it,  sets 
it  on  fire.    She  makes  her  escape,  as  fast  as  she  can,  to  another  vil- 
lage, where  the  same  ceremony  is  again  repeated,  till  she  has  been 
burned  out  eight  times  ;  she  is  then  considered  as  an  honest  woman. 
The  men  may  lawfully  keep  several  wives,  but  either  party  may  at 
pleasure  give  up  the  connection.     Girls  after  the  age  of  puberty, 
Avidows,  and  divorced  women,  are  all  allowed  to  marry.  These  casts 
can  eat  goats,  sheep,  fowls,  and  fish;  but  no  other  kind  of  animal 
food.    They  may  lawfully  intoxicate  themselves.    None  of  them 
can  read,   nor  have  they   any  kind  of  Guru,  or  priest.     In  every 
house  is  a  stone  representing  the  Penates  called  Buta,  which,  ac- 
cording to  the  Brdhmans,  means  a  devil,  or  evil  spirit.  Two  or  thi'ee 
times  a  year  the  family  perform  Avorship  (Pujci)  to  this  stone,  by 
oilina;  it,  and  covering;  it  with  flowers.    Fowls  are  also  sacrificed  to 
Buta,  whose  Avorship  generally  costs  the  family  from  two  to  three 
Pagodas  a  year  ;  but  the  sacrifices  are  the  most  expensive  part,  and 
these  the  votary  eats.    It  must  be  observed,  that  the  Hindus  of  pure 
descent  seldom  eat  animal  food,  except  such  as  has  been  sacrificed 
to  the  gods;  a  custom  that  seems  to  have  also  prevailed  among 
-  the  Grecians,   in  Avhose  language  the  same  Avord  UfHov  signifies  a 
sacrifice,  and  an  animal  Avhose  flesh  is  fit  for  eating.    When  the 
annual  worship  of  Buta  is  neglected,  he  is  supposed  to  occasion 
sickness  and  trouble.    The  spirits  of  the  dead,  both  of  those  who 
have  been  good  or  bad,  and  of  those  Avho  died  naturally  or  by  acci- 
dent, are  supposed  to  become  Pysachi,  and  are  troublcvsome,  unless 
a  sacrifice  is  made  to  Buta,  Avho  takes  the  spirit  to  himself,  and  then 
it  gives  the  living  no  more  trouble. 


10*  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  l(5th  February. — I  M'as  obliged  to  set  out  without  seeing  Rumiippa 
XV'.  Varm'iku;  and,  after  having  crossed  the  lake,  I  went  three  cosses  to 
Feb.  U).  Kira-viamswara,  a  temple  dedicated  to  Siva.  I  passed  first  between 
of  the'coun-  ^'^^  ^^^  ^"*^'  ^  branch  of  the  Kunda-pura  lake,  and  afterwards  my 
iry.  road  led  along  a  rising  ground  near  the  sea.     I  saw  many  planta- 

tions of  coco-nut  trees;  but,  owing  to  the  want  of  inhabitants,  they 
are  very  poor.  About  fifty  years  ago  an  epidemic  fever  raged  in 
the  country,  and  carried  off  a  great  number  of  the  people.  A  few 
months  ago  the  same  complaint  again  destroyed  many.  The  natives 
say,  that  before  the  third  day  it  resembled  a  common  fever;  then 
the  patient  became  delirious,  and  on  the  fifth  day  died.  About  ten 
years  ago  a  predatoiy  band  of  Maraitahs,  under  the  command  of 
Balii  Row,  came  this  way,  destroyed  entirely  the  Agrarum  at  Kira- 
muneszcara ;  and  the  inhabitants,  who  remained  after  the  epidemic, 
were  swept  away  from  all  the  neighbouring  country. 
Face  of  ihc  The  quantity  of  rice  ground  is  small,  and  a  great  part  of  the 
country.  country  is  covered  with  low  woods,  in  which  are  to  be  seen  the 
enclosures  of  former  gardens.  The  road  is  good,  but  is  not  orna- 
mented with  rows  of  trees,  as  usual  to  the  southward.  The  sea-coast, 
like  that  between  Mangalore  and  Kunda-pura,  is  chiefly  occupied 
by  villages  of  i5rtt/iw?a«5;  the  interior  parts  of  the  country  belong 
to  Buntar.  This  is  a  part  ofTulava,  but  the  language  oi  Karnata 
is  that  in  most  common  use.  The  water  in  M-ells  is  no  M'here  at  any 
great  depth  from  the  surface.  The  temple  here  is  a  sorry  building. 
It  had  formerly  lauds  to  the  yearly  value  of  100  Pagodas,  or  of 
about  40  guineas.  Last  year  it  received  in  money  an  allowance  of 
5  Pagodas. 
Feb.  17.  17th  February. — Early  in  the  morning  I  was  joined  by  the  learned 

Appearance    j5,yJ/27h««  Ramuppa  Vuniiika,  who  accompanied  me  to  Beiduru,  three 

«fthecoun-  ^^  '  _ 

try.  cosses  distant.  By  the  way  we  crossed  three  rivers  ;  the  first,  called 

the  Edamavanxj,  is  the  most  considerable ;  the  second  also  is  not 

fordable,  and  is  called  Angaru ;  the  third  is  small,  and  joins  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  109 

second  at  some  distance  to  the  westward.     Its  channel  is  in  many    CIIAPTEIl 
places  shut  up,  and  converted  into  places  for  making  salt ;  for  tlie        ^^'• 
tide  in  all  the  three  rivers,  reaches  a  considerable  way  into  the  Feb.  17. 
country.    On  this  day's  route  there  is  much  rice  ground,  and  the 
crops  look  well. 

Beiduru  is  an  open  village,  containing  about  120  houses.  It  had  Bciduru. 
once  a  fort,  and  was  then  a  large  place,  which  belonged  to  a  Jain 
princess,  named  Bi/ra  DSvi.  This  family  was  destroyed  by  the 
Siva-b/iaktars,  and  the  place  has  ever  since  been  on  the  decline.  The 
cultivators  now  are  BraJiJuans,  and  Nudavar,  who  are  a  kind  of 
Bunts,  but  they  do  not  speak  the  language  of  Tuluva.  The  Jainar 
are  quite  extinct.  One  temple  of  the  kind  called  Busty  continued  . 
until  the  time  oi  Hyder ;  when  the  Pujdri,  being  no  longer  able  to 
procure  a  subsistence,  left  the  place. 

The  temple  at  present  here  is  one  dedicated  to  Siva.    There  are  Inscriptions 
about  it  several  inscriptions  on  stone,  that  contain  the   o-rants  of  ^r  c.'""^'^ 

O  01  OiSDfl. 

lands  with  which  the  temple  was  endowed.  One,  which  was  a  good 
deal  defaced,  so  as  not  to  be  wholly  legible,  is  dated  in  the  year  of 
Salwahanam  1445  (A.  D.  ]52f),  in  the  time  of  Devarasu  JVodear, 
Raja  of  Sanghita-pura ;  and  son  of  Saiiga-raya  Wodear,  who  held 
his  Rdyada  oi  Krishna  Raya,  the  chief  of  Rdjds  in  wealth,  a  Rdjd 
equal  to  Parameswara,  a  hero  greater  than  the  Trivira,  See.  &c. 
Sanghita-pura,  in  the  vulgar  language  called  Hadwully,  is  four 
cosses  east  from  Batuculla,  and  was  formerly  the  residence  of  a  go- 
vernor appointed  by  the  kings  of  Vijaya-nagara.  Devarasu  JVodear 
must  either  have  been  one  of  these,  or  an  ancestor  of  Byra  Divi. 
Krishna  Ray  a  \s,  no  doubt,  the  celebrated  i?«3^6r/M  of  that  name. 

In  another  inscription,  of  which  a  copy  has  been  presented  to 
the  Bengal  government,  it  is  stated,  that  in  the  year  of  Salivahanam 
1429  (A.  D.  150f ),  and  in  the  reign  of  Jebila  Narasingha  Rdya, 
the  great  king  of  Fijaya-tiagara,  Kcdaly  Baswappa  Arsa  JVodear 
having  been  appointed  to  the  Rdyada  of  Barcm^u,  with  orders  to 
restore  the  lands  of  the  god,  and  of  the  Brdhmans,  certain  merchants 


Il6  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  0?  BiJeriiru  (Nagara)  founded  an  inn  for  the  accommodation  of  six 
travelling  Bruhmans,  and  for  this  purpose  purchased  certain  lands, 
which  are  specified  in  the  inscription. 

Ramvppa  Ramiippa  Varmika  says,  that  his  family  have  been  hereditary  Sha- 

Vannika,  a.  ,  ^        f  -rt  ^■        ■  •  i         •  i- 

Joarncd  vaoogas,  ov  accomptauts  ot  Barcuru  district,  ever  since  the  time  or 

Brulimair.       ^]jg  Beldlia  R/ii/as ;  which  dynasty,  according  to  him,  commenced. 

their   reign   here  in  the  year  637   of  Salivahajmm  or  A.  D.  Tlr- 

Ramuppa,  however,  possesses  no  revenue  accompts  previous  to  the 

conquest  of  the  country  by  Hari-hara  Rayalu,  in  the  year  of  Sal. 

1258  (A.  D.  133-I-). 

His  account        Ramiippii  ha.s  a  book  in  Sanskrit,   called  Vidiarayana  Sicca;  and 

who  have"'*  from  thence,  and  his  family  papers,  he  has  made  out  a  Rm/a  Paditti, 

governed        or  succession   of  the  Rajas  who  have  governed  Tulava.    Of  this  I 

Tulava,  .  . 

here  give  a  translation,  with  observations,  partly  made  by  himself, 

and  partly  from  what  I  could  collect  from  inscriptions.  From  these 
it  will  appear,  that  not  much  dependence  can  be  placed  on  some 
of  his  dates.  Great  difficulty  occurs  in  comparing  the  native  ac- 
counts with  those  of  the  Mussulman  Avriters,  wiio  corrupt  the  Hindu 
names  most  extravagantly,  and  hold  all  knowledge  of  the  infidels 
in  so  much  contempt,  that  very  little  can  be  gathered  from  what 

they  say. 

"  Sri." 

"  Succession  of  Rajas." 

"  The  reign  of  the  Yudishtira  family  commenced  on  Friday,  the 
6th  day  of  the  moon,  in  the  month  Chaitra,  in  Primdi,  the  1st  of  the 
Kali-yugam." 

"  After  this,  Parikshitta  Raya  was  king  here." 

Then  follows  a  Slokam  on  his  Putapesheca,  which  is  a  ceremony 
somewhat  similar  to  our  coronation  and  anointing. 

"  From  Parikshitta  Rdya  to  Nanda  Raya's  coronation,  there  had 
elapsed  of  the  Kali-yugam  11 15  years,"  B.  C.  198f. 

"  After  this,  under  Nanda  Rdya  and  his  family,  in  all  nine  princes, 
there  passed  200  years," 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  Ill 

"^  After  that,  under  ten  princes  of  the  Vahanicula  family,  passed   CHAPTER 
112  years."  v_^^A^ 

"  After  that,  under  ten  princes  of  the  Moviuan  Navaiada  family,  ^''^^'  ^*' 
passed  137  years." 

"  After  that,  one  Cadumha  Raya  had  45  years  possession,  till  the 
year  of  the  Kali-yugam  160.9,"  B.  C.  \^9\- 

"  After  that,  in  the  year  Vicruti,  of  the  Kali-yugam  1631  (B.  C. 
I47i)  Myiiru  Varmd  brought  the  Brahmans  from  Ahichaytra,  or 
Eichetra,  and  gave  them  18  Gramas  or  villages.  In  this  22  years 
were  employed,  till  the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  1631." 

"  After  that,  Myuru  Varma  possessed  the  kingdom  for  10  years." 

"  After  that,  Trinetra  Kadumba  Raya,  son  of  Myuru  Varmd,  sat 
on  the  throne  of  the  kingdom  for  12  years." 

"  After  that,  from  the  year  Virodicrutu  Myuru  Varma  governed 
with  his  son  for  10  years,  till  1663  years  of  the  Kali-yugam  had 
elapsed,"  (B.  C.  143^V)- 

"  After  that,  Myuru  Varmd  gave  Cadumha  Rdya's  sister  in  mar- 
riage to  Lokdditya  a.tGaukar?ia,  and  destroyed  the  Hubashica  family. 
This  occupied  15  years." 

"  After  this,  the  countries  of  Parasu  Rama  being  without  Brdh- 
maiis,  Cadumha  Rdya  and  Lokdditya  brought  good  Brdhmans,  and 
kept  them  in  the  country  in  the  ytzx Sarxajitu,  being  of  the  Kali- 
yugam  1689,"  (B.  C.  1413). 

"  After  this,  under  twenty-one  Jeantri  Cadumba  Rdyas,  there 
passed  242  years," 

From  an  inscription  from  Bellagami,  which  has  been  presented  to 
the  government  of  Bengal,  it  would  appear,  that  a  Trinetra  Ca- 
dumha was  sovereign  prince  in  the  year  of  Sal.  90  {A.  D.  l6j),  or  ^ 
1579  years  after  the  time  assigned  for  Trinetra  Cadumba  in  this 
Raya  F adit ti.  These  princes,  however,  were  probably  the  same; 
and  in  order  to  make  the  time  of  the  possessions  of  the  Brdhmans 
in  Tulava  much  more  ancient  than  it  really  is,  the  succession  of 
dynasties  has  either  been  altered ;  or  a  number  of  families,  that 


112  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTEIl  never  existed,  have  been  introduced  to  fill  up  the  space  between 
v^,-^  the  Cadumba  Raj/m  and  the  Belalla  family,  of  whom  many  traces 
leb.  17.  remain.  In  the  northern  parts  of  Karm'ita  the  Cadumba  family  seem 
long  to  have  retained  considerable  power,  as  I  procured  two  in- 
scriptions, belonging  to  them,  after  the  time  0?  Trinttra  Cadumba. 
The  one  is  a  grant  of  land  to  the  Kudali  Swamalu  in  the  reign  of 
Purandara  Raya  of  the  Cadumba  family,  who  governed  at  Banav:asi 
in  the  year  of  Sal.  101-3,  or  J.  D.  1  l£fi-.  The  other  is  from  a  temple 
near  Suvamcru  in  the  reign  of  a  Cadumba  Raya,  and  in  the  year  of 
Sal.  1130,  or  ^.  D.  120f.  Copies  of  these  inscriptions  have  been 
delivered  to  the  Bengal  government. 

"  After  the  Cadumba  Rayas  there  elapsed,  under  thirty-two  Ban- 
hica  Ray  as,  456  years." 

"  After  that,  under  Rajas  of  the  Jbhira  family,  there  passed  ]  199 
•^  years." 

"  After  that,    the  Monayer  family  possessed  the  kingdom  200 
years." 

'*  3786  years  of  the  Kali-yugam  had  now  elapsed  ;  of  which  the 
particulars  are, 

3044  years  of  the  Yudishtira  era. 
135  years  of  the  Vikrama  era. 
607  years  of  the  era  of  Sal'wahanam. 


3786  total  of  Kali-yugam,"  A.  D.  68f-. 

Belalla  fa-  "  From  the  year  607  of  Salivahanam,  Belalla  Rayaru,  and  persons 

™^'  of  the  same  family,  being  in  all  nine  princes,  governed  209  years. 

Above  and  below  the  Ghats  they  governed  98  years,  and  below  the 
Ghats  they  continued  to  govern  111  years  more." 
"  Above  the  Ghats  were  the  following  princes  :" 
"  The  Yavanas  at  Anagundi  possessed  the  kingdom  for  54  years." 
;  Who  were  these  Yavanas?  This  word  properly  signifies  an  Euro- 

pean ;  but  as  the  Hindus  speak  Avith  great  confusion  concerning 
the  northern  and  western  nations,  it  is  often  confounded  witli  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  113 

Mdenchas  and  Turcs,  or  Arabs  and  Tartars  :  and  all  the  three  terms   CHAPTER 

XV. 
are  frequently  applied   to  the  Mussulmans.     But  the  Yavanas  of    \.,^^^^^^ 

Anagundi  could  not  be  Mussulmans,  as  their  government  by  this  ^^^-  ^7- 
account  lasted  from  A.  D.  782  till  836 ;  and  there  is  strong  reason 
to  believe,  that  Ramuppa  is  not  essentially  mistaken  in  the  time  at 
which  the  Belalla  Rayas  lived.  Although  he  says  that  they  only 
governed  98  years  above  the  Ghats,  this  must  not  be  understood 
literally.  Afiagundi,  where  Vijaya-nagara  was  afterwards  built,  was 
probably  their  first  seat  of  government ;  and  after  their  being  ex- 
pelled by  the  Yavanas,  according  to  the  accounts  given  verbally  by 
Ramuppa,  they  retired  to  HuUy-bedu,  or  Goni-bedu,  a  town  situated 
above  the  Ghats.  They  governed  Tulava  by  officers  called  Rayaru, 
who  resided  at  Barcuru,  and  were  also  masters  of  all  the  southern 
parts  of  Karnata.  They  were  of  Andray  or  Telinga  descent,  and 
originally  of  the  Jain  religion.  One  of  them  having  been  killed  by 
the  Mussulmans,  who  then  were  making  predatory  excursions  into 
the  Deccan,  his  son  removed  the  seat  of  government  to  Tonuru, 
near  Seringapatam  ;  and  soon  after  this  period  Tulava  seems  to  have 
withdrawn  its  allegiance,  instigated  perhaps  to  rebellion  by  his 
having  thrown  aside  the  religion  of  his  fathers,  and  adopted  that 
taught  by  Rama  Anuja,  as  I  have  related  in  the  seventh  Chap- 
ter. After  this  conversion  he  resided  at  Bailuru;  and  from  an 
inscription  there,  it  would  appear,  that  he  rebuilt  the  temple  of 
Cayshava  Permal  there,  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1039,  or  A.  D.  11  If; 
while,  from  the  inscription  No.  13,  it  would  appear,  that  his  son, 
Hoisela  Narasingha  Raya,  continued  to  govern  in  the  year  of  Sal. 
1095,  or  A  D.  11  7t-  The  government  of  the  Yavanas  o^  Anagundi, 
and  of  the  Hindu  princes  Avho  followed  them,  must  have  been  con- 
fined to  the  northern  and  eastern  parts  of  the  peninsula:  for  we 
have  already  seen,  that  the  Cadamba  Rdyas  continued  to  have  pos- 
sessions in  the  north-west  of  Karnata. 

"  After  the  Yavanas,  the  Campina  Rama  Rayas  had  the  kingdom 
30  years." 

Vol.  III.  Q 


114 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  17. 


Kings  of  Vi- 
jaya-nagara, 
who  rose  on 


"  Then  Daria  Soructa  cut  off  the  head  of  Campina  Comora  Rdma- 
natha  in  the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  3951."  (A.  D.  8-H). 

"  After  that,  Boji  Rtiya  possessed  the  kingdom  6B,  years ;  and 
under  nine  princes  of  his  family  were  passed  145  years.  Total  of 
the  reigns  of  the  ten  princes  of  this  family  213  years."  (A.  D.  106^). 

"  After  that,  under  eighteen  princes  of  Andray  descent,  the  an- 
cestors of  Pratdpa  Rudra,  there  passed  211  years." 

"  After  this,  Pratapa  Rudra  possessed  the  kingdom  54  years,  till 
the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  4429,"  (A.  D.  132^)  "then  the  king- 
doms of  Aiidray  were  in  the  possession  of  the  Mlecha,  who,  in- 
creasing in  power,  seized  on  the  dominions  of  Pratapa  Rudra.  Tbey 
took  his  towns,  and  gained  his  kingdom,  wealth,  and  umbrella. 
Then  Hiicca  and  Buca,  both  the  Bundara  Cavilas'"  (guards  of  the 
treasury)  "  o(  Pratapa  Rudra,  came  to  Sri  Malia  Vidydra7jya  Malta 
the  ruins  of    Szoanii"  (who  according  to  Ramuppa  was  Guru  to   the  late  king, 

ihe  Andray.  ^  *  n  c  a 

and  the  eleventh  successor  of  Sankara  Achdrya  on  the  throne  of 
Sringa-giri),  "  and  solicited  his  favour.  The  Mahd  Sivdmi  visited 
God,  and  acted  according  to  his  orders.  He  built  Vijaya-na- 
gara  city"  (Pattana).  "  In  seven  years  the  whole  city  Avas  fully 
built.  In  the  yea.r  Data,  being  1258  of  the  era  of  Salivahanatn" 
(A.  D.  133-f ),  "  in  the  7th  day  of  the  moon  in  Vaisdkha,  being  Wed- 
nesday, under  the  constellation  Mocca,  in  Abijun  Muhurta"  (Mu- 
hurta  is  a  division  of  the  day  containing  3^  Hindu  hours),  "  and  in 
Singha  Laghana''  (Laghana  is  a  space  of  time  equal  to  4  a  Pahar,  or 
:|:  of  a  natural  day),  "  he  took  both  Hucca  and  Buca,  the  guards  of 
the  treasury  of  Pratdpa  Rudra.  To  the  man  Hucca  he  gave  Putta- 
vuncutty"  (a  ceremony  like  our  coronation),  "  and  gave  him  the 
name  of.Hari-hara  Rdyaru.  The  whole  kingdom  was  given  to  him 
in  the  year  of  the  Kali-yugam  4437,"  or  A.  D.  133f. 

There  is  reason  to  believe,  that  in  the  reigns  of  Pratdpa  Rudra 
and  his  ancestors  the  seat  of  government  was  JVoragulla  (If'arancul 
of  the  Mussulmans),  the  chief  place  in  Andray  or  Telinga/ia.  In 
many  accounts,  the  last  of  the  family  is  called  JVoraguUa. Pratdpa 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  115 

Raya,  He  probably  governed  Telingana,  or  the  country  of  warriors,  CHAPTER 
and  the  northern  parts  of  Karnata  which  were  not  subject  to  the  ^^^,.■^ 
Belalla  family.  We  learn  from  Scot's  translation  of  Ferishta's  his-  ^^^'  ^^' 
tory  of  the  Deccan,  that  in  the  year  1309  ^la  ad  Dien,  Mussulman 
king  o?  Dhely,  sent  MalJ,ek  Naib  to  invade  Telingana,  and  obliged 
Ludder  Deo,  Raja  oi  JVarancul,  to  become  tributary.  In  1310  Mallek 
Naib  advanced  into  Carnatic,  and  took  Raja  Bellaul Deo  prisoner; 
and  in  1312  he  again  over-run  these  countries,  and  ohUged  Telingana 
and  Carfiatic  to  become  tributary  to  the  throne  of  Dhely.  This 
chronology  agrees  very  well  with  that  of  the  Rdya  Faditti,  which 
makes  the  final  overthrow  of  the  kingdoms  of  Jndray  hy  the  Alle- 
chas  to  have  happened  in  1327,  or  13  years  after  this  last  expe- 
dition of  il/a/ZeA- iVai^,  who  had  then  rendered  them  tributary.  It 
must  be  observed,  that  the  Belalla  family  still  continued  to  be  in 
1312  the  principal  rulers  in  Karnata;  but  the  Raya  Faditti  con- 
siders them  also  as  of  Andray,  as  they  originally  came  from  thab 
country.  It  is  true,  that  Frafdpa  Rudra  is  not  mentioned  by  Fe- 
rishta,  by  whom  the  Raja  of  IFarancul  is  called  Ludder  Deo ;  but 
for  this  we  may  account,  either  from  the  sovereign  contempt  in 
■which  these  infidel  princes  were  held  by  the  Mussulmans,  who 
rarely  gave  themselves  the  trouble  to  inquire  about  their  true 
names  or  customs ;  or  Ludder  Deo  may  be  a  corruption  of  some  of 
the  numerous  titles,  which,  like  all  Hindus  of  his  rank,  this  prince 
assumed. 

Soon  after  this,  we  learn  from  Ferishta,  that  the  government  of 
Dhely  declined  into  the  usual  debility  of  an  Indian  dynasty  that 
has  been  established  for  any  length  of  time;  and  many  chiefs  de- 
clared themselves  independent  of  the  king's  authority.  Among 
these,  the  most  remarkable  was  the  founder  of  a  dynasty,  who  go- 
verned the  Mussulman  conquests  in  the  Deccan,  and  who  were 
called  the  Bhaminee  Sultans.  This  enterprising  man,  in  the  year 
1347,  was  able  to  throw  oft'  all  appearance  of  submission,  and  as- 
sumed at  Beder  all  the  insignia  of  sovereign  authority.     He  was  of 


116  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   course  obliged  to  manage  with  discretion  the  neighbouring  Hindus; 

y^'  and  Hucca  and  Buca,  two  of  the  principal  officers  of  Pratapa  RudrOy 
leb.  17.  took  tliis  opportunity  of  establishing  a  kingdom  in  the  southern 
parts  of  the  countries  which  formerly  belonged  to  princes  of  An- 
^raj/ descent;  and  to  the  southern  provinces  of  Pratapa  Rudra, 
they  added  those  of  the  latter  Belalla  Rayas.  Ruynuppa  says,  that 
after  the  overthrow  of  their  master,  these  two  men  undertook  a  pil- 
grimage to  Rc'nnhwara  ;  and,  while  on  their  way,  met  the  Guru  of 
the  late  king  at  Humpay,  a  village  on  tlie  opposite  side  of  the  river 
from  Anagundi,  where  afterwards  Vijaya-nagara  was  built.  Having 
conferred  with  this  mighty  Brd/inian,  he  retired  into  a  celebrated 
temple  of  Siva,  who  is  worshipped  at  Humpay  under  the  name  of 
V'tra-pacsha.  Here  the  god  was  consulted  ;  and  the  Brulinutn  de- 
clared, that  he  was  ordered  by  tlie  deity  to  crown  Hucca,  and  to 
build  tlie  city  Vijaya-nagara,  or  the  city  of  victory.  This  name  the 
-Mussulmans  corrupt  into  Beejanuggur ;  and  Ferishta  gravely  tells 
us,  that  it  derives  its  name  from  Beeja,  a  Hindu  prince;  and  that 
it  had  been  founded  by  the  family  who  governed  it  in  1365,  about 
700  years  previous  to  that  time.  Of  his  judgment  in  antiquities 
an  opinion  may  be  drawn  from  his  also  gravely  relating,  that  Deccan 
(that  is  the  south  country)  derives  its  name  from  Deccan,  the  son 
of  Hind,  the  son  of  Ham,  the  son  of  Noah.  In  this  author  we  need 
not  wonder  at  any  corruptions  of  names;  for  he  changes  the  name 
of  the  river  on  which  Vijaya-nagara  stands,  from  Tunga-bliadra,  or 
contractedly  Tung'bJiadra,  into  Tummedra ;  and  he  corrupts  the 
celebrated  Vikramdditya  into  Bickermajeet. 

The  Raya  Paditti,  having  detailed  the  princes  who  governed  the 
country  above  the  Ghats,  returns  to  mention  those  who  governed 
the  sea-coast,  while  it  was  separated  from  Karndta. 

"  Here  below  the  Ghats  Belalla  Rdya  entered  upon  the  govern- 
ment in  the  year  of  Salivahanajn  637"  (A.  D.  71t)-  "  He  and  his 
descendants,  nine  princes,  and  eleven  persons  of  the  same  family, 
from  Pratdpa  Rudra  to  Viruppa  JVodearu,  in  all  twenty  princes, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  117 

occupied   tlie  country  for  46 i  years,  till  the  year  of  Salivahanam  CHAPTER 
1068."  (A.  D.  1145).  J^^^ 

N.  B.  This  Pratapa  Rudra  is  evidently  a  very  different  personage  Feb.  17. 
from  the  prince  destroyed  by  the  Mlhhas  in  132j. 

"  Then  in  the  intermediate  time  between  the  year  oi Salivahanam 
1068,  and  the  year  Paradavi  1175  (A.  D.  li^5f),  for  a  space  of  107 
years,  there  was  no  person  in  the  possession  of  the  kingdom.  Some 
of  the  servants  of  the  Bellala  Rayas  strengthened  themselves,  and 
this  intcr'Tegniim  was  passed  in  one  person's  plundering  another." 

"In  the  year  of  Salivahanam  1175,  being  Paridavi,  the  devils 
(Butagallu)  brought  Panda  Raya  to  the  government  of  Baracuvu 
kingdom,  and  gave  him  Putiuvuncutty,  calling  him  by  the  name  of 
Buta  Paiida  Rdya.  He  alone  possessed  the  kingdom  42  years.  Of 
the  same  family  Vira  Pratapa  Raya  governed  I9  years,  and  Deva 
Rdya  2 1  y  ars.    1  otal  three  princes  82  years." 

"  There  had  then  passed  of  the  era  of  Salivahanam  1257  years." 
A.  D.  133f. 

I  have  already  mentioned  the  probable  cause  of  the  overthrow  of 
the  Belalla  family's  authority  in  Tulava.  These  servants  of  the 
king,  who  strengthened  themselves,  were  according  to  Ramuppa 
the  ancestors  of  the  Jain  Rdjds,  such  as  the  Choutar,  Bungar,  By- 
rasu  JVodears,  &c.  &c.  who  have  in  this  journal  been  often  men- 
tioned; and  of  the  truth  of  tliis,  I  think,  there  can  be  little  doubt. 
When  the  king  changed  his  religion,  and  assumed  the  name  of 
Vishfiu  VaiWiana  Rdya,  as  I  have  already  related,  tliese  petty  Jain 
Rdjds  refused  to  submit  to  his  authority,  or  to  pay  any  tribute. 
Many  idle  stories  are  told  concerning  the  manner  in  which  the 
Butagailn,  -or  devils,  introduced  Panda  Rdya,  and  rendered  all  the 
Jain  princes  subject  to  his  authority.  It  would  appear,  that  he  came 
from  Pandava,  the  district  contiguous  to  Cape  Comorin ;  and  he  is 
said  to  have  introduced  from  tlience  tlie  singular  mode  of  succession 
that  prevails  in  Tulava,  as  well  as  in  Malaydla.  The  Rdya  Paditti 
then  proceeds  thus. 


118 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XV. 

Feb.  17. 


Family  of 
llaii-hara. 


"  In  this  manner  in  the  year  of  Salivahanam  1257,  being  the  year 
Yuva,  Deva  Rdya  Maha  Raya,  of  the  family  of  Biita  Panda  Raya, 
comv[\2i\\*\tA~, Baracuru  kingdom.  In  the  year  Dat'/ni,  by  the  favour 
of  Sri  Vidyaranya  Maha  Sxcam'i,  t\\t  founder  of  lljaya-nagara  city, 
and  the  crowner  of  Hari-hara  Raya,  Deva  Rayani  delivered  Bara- 
curu  kingdom  to  Hari-hara  Rdya.  There  had  then  elapsed  of  the 
era  of  Salivahanam  1G.58  years. 

"  From  the  year  of  Salivahafiam  1258,  being  the  year  Dhatu,  on 
Wednesday  the  7th  of  the  moon,  in  Vaisdkha,  after  Hari-hara  Rdya, 
were  the  following  Rdyarii.'" 

In  the  original  here  follows  a  Slokani,  containing  the  first  letter 
of  every  Raja's  name,  as  the  commencement  of  a  word.  It  must  be 
observed,  that  each  of  these  princes  is  spoken  of  by  the  title  of 
Rdyaru,  tlie  Karndtaka  plural  of  Rdya.  This  is  the  same  word  with 
the  Rylu,  or  Ray alic  of  the  Telingas,  contracted  by  Mussulmans  inta 
Ryl,  and  commonly  applied  exclusively  to  the  kings  of  Vijaya- 
nagara.  In  the  south,  however,  every  person  of  very  high  rank  is 
spoken  of  in  the  plural  number ;  and  the  princes  of  all  the  great 
dynasties  that  have  governed  Karndta  are  commonly  called  Rdyaru 
by  its  native  inhabitants. 

*    "  In  this  manner  \^  Rdyaru -^xmcts  possessed  the  kingdom  for 
150  years." 


Until  the 

Until  the 

"  Particulars. 

aera  of 

year  of 

Sal. 

Christ. 

15  years 

Hari-hara  Rdya        .         .         - 

1273 

135f 

22 

Buca  Rdya          -             -             . 

1295 

137i 

31 

Hari-hara  Rdya         .         -         - 

1326 

140i 

4 

Virapaksha  Rdya         -         -         - 

1330 

UOi 

1 

Buca  Rdya             -          - 

1331 

UOi 

7 

Deva  Rdya  and  R&ma  Rdya 

1338 

141i 

11 

Virapaksha  Rdya        -         -         . 

1349 

142-I- 

28 

Deva  Rdya  and  Virapaksha  Rdya 

1377 

145f 

4 

Maruppa  Rdya         -             -       - 

1381 

1454 

27 

Rdma  Rdya  and  Virapaksha  Rdya 

1408 

I48i 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  rig 

"  Total  thirteen  princes  governed  till  the  year  Crodi  for   150  CHAPTER 
years.    It  was  then  of  the  era.  of  Salivalianam  1407."  -4.  D.  148-f-.  v.^^^^ 

Although  this  is  detailed  with  great  minuteness,  little  reliance  Feb,  17. 
call  be  placed  on  its  exactitude.  From  an  inscription,  a  copy  of 
which  I  presented  to  the  Bengal  government,  we  learn,  that  Buca 
Raya  was  king  m  Salivahatiam  1297,  ^.  D.  1377-'  two  years  after  the 
end  of  his  reign  according  to  the  Rdi/a  Paditti.  Another  inscrip- 
tion, also  presented  to  government,  is  in  the  reign  of  D^va  Rdya, 
and  is  dated  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1332,  A.  Z).  14f|-,  which  agrees  with 
the  chronology  of  the  Rdya  Paditti.  ■'  In  this  last  Rama  Rdya  is 
stated  to  have  reigned  conjointly  with  Deva ;  but  it  is  evident  from 
the  inscription,  that  he  had  not  been  admitted  to  partake  in  the 
royal  dignity  for  some  time  after  the  other's  accession.  Another 
inscription,  also  procured  by  me,  is  dated  in  the  yG&v  Sal.  1352, 
A.  D.  14H-  in  the  reign  of  Pratdpa  Deva  Rdya,  son  of  Vijaya  Rdya, 
This  also  agrees  with  the  chronology  of  the  Rdya  Paditti.  This 
prince's  father  was  never  sovereign.  Another  inscription  is  dated 
in  the  year  of  Sal.  1400,  A.  D.  147-I-,  in  the  reign  of  Virapaksha 
Mahd  Rdyaru.  This  also  agrees  Avith  the  chronology  of  the  Rdya 
Paditti ;  but  that  mentions  a  Rdma  Rdya,  as  governing  along  with 
Virapaksha,  which  is  not  countenanced  by  the  inscription.  It  must, 
however,  be  observed,  that  these  inscriptions  seem  to  be  among  the 
Hindus,  what  the  legends  on  the  coins  are  among  the  Mussulmans ; 
and  so  long  as  a  nominal  king  is  retained,  all  inscriptions  and  le- 
gends are  made  in  his  name  ;  but  the  historian  or  chronologermust 
also  mention  the  person  actually  possessed  of  the  power  of  govern- 
ment; and  Rdma  Rdya  was  perhaps  a  minister,  like  the  Peshwa  at 
the  Poonah,  who  confuies  his  sovereign,  the  descendant  of  Sevqjee, 
and  governs  the  Marattah  states  with  absolute  authority.  The 
general  agreement  between  these  inscriptions,  collected  in  parts  of 
the  country  very  remote  from  the  residence  of  Ramuppa,  confirms 
beyond  a  doubt  his  account  of  the  dynasty  of  Vijaya-nagara  ;  and 
the  accounts  given  of  the  great  antiq^uity  of  that  city  by  Ferishta 


120  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Chapter   must  be  looked  upon  as  entirely  fabulous.    Of  the  actions  which 
v^,-^     the  princes  of  this  dynasty  performed,  we  have  in  that  author's 
Feb.  17.         history  of  the  Deccaii   several  accounts,  apparently  strongly  tinc- 
tured by  zeal  for  the  Mussulman  doctrines.    Owing  to  his  corrup- 
tions of  names,  and  probably  owing  to  his  frequently  mistaking  the 
general  or  minister  for  the  sovereign  (for  Raya  is  a  title  applied  to 
all  Hindus  of  distinction,  as  well  as  to  kings)  we  very  seldom  can 
reconcile  his  names  with  those  of  the  Raya  Paditti,  or  of  inscrip- 
tions.   He  says,  that  in  the  year  1365  Roy  Kishen  Roy  was  king  of 
Beejanuggur,  and  his  ancestors  had  possessed  the  kingdom  for  700 
years.    This  was  in  the  reign  of  Buca  Roy  a,  son  of  the  founder  of 
the  dynasty  and  of  the  city.     From  the  year  139$  to  the  year  1420 
Dcccal  Roy  of  Beeja?niggur  is  frequently  mentioned.  This  may  have 
been  Deva  Raya  the  First,  who  may  have  been  employed  as  a  ge- 
neral long  before  his  accession  in  1408.     Deo  Roy  of  Beejanuggur 
is  mentioned  in  1437  and  1443,  and  is  no  doubt  Deva  Rdya  the  Se- 
cond, who  during  these  times  was  sovereign. 
Usurpers  who       As  the  two  dynasties  of  the  Bhajninee  Sultans,  and  the  Rdyarus  of 
/z/-^'^"!   **'     Vijaya-nagara  commenced  nearly  about  the  same  time,  their  fall 
nagara.  also  happened  at  the  same  period.     From  Fer^ishta  we  have  the  fol- 

lowing account  of  the  manner  in  which  the  servants  of  the  Hindu 
princes  usurped  their  authority.  Hemraje,  or  as  he  in  one  place  is 
called  Ram  Raje,  was  minister  of  Beejanuggu?'.  He  was  a  man  of 
abilities,  and  gained  some  advantages  over  the  declining  power  of 
the  Bhaminee  Sultans.  In  order  to  protract  his  authority,  he  poi- 
soned the  young  prince,  son  of  Sheo  Roy,  and  placed  on  the  throne 
a  younger  brother.  In  making  an  excursion  into  the  Mussulman 
territories,  in  the  year  1492,  he  was  met  by  Adil  Shah,  founder  of 
the  dynasty  of  Bee;V?/>oor  (Vijaya-pura),  and  defeated.  In  this  en- 
gagement the  young  Raja  was  killed,  and  Hemraje  assumed  sove- 
reign power.  It  must  be  observed,  that  Sheo  Roy  is  a  manner  of 
writing  Siva  Raya;  and  Virapaksha  is  one  of  the  names  of  the  god 
^iva.  Virapaksha  Raya,  the  last  of  the  thirteen  Rayaru,  may  therefore 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


121 


be  meant  hy  Sheo  Roy ;  and  Hemraje,  or  Ratn  Raye,  the' usurping   CHAPTER 
minister,  may  be  the  Rama  Raya  mentioned  in  the  Raya  Paditti  as     ^.^rsr,^ 
conjoined  in  authority  with  Viriipacsha.    The  dates  agree  very  well.  Feb.  17. 
On  his  usurping  sovereign  authority,  it  is  likely,  that,  as  usual  in 
India,  he  assumed  some  new  name,  and  was  called  Proitwuda  Raya, 
the  name  by  which  the  first  usurper  is  known  among  the  Hindus. 
Of  these  the  Raya  Paditti  gives  the  following  account. 

"  From  the  year  Visua  Vasu  oi  Salivdhanam  1408  (A.  D.  1485), 
the  servants  (Cadatvaru)  of  the  Rciyaru,  being  seven  men,  pos- 
sessed the  kingdom  103  years. 


Till 

Till 

Particulars. 

year  of 

vear  of 

Sal. 

Christ. 

1 2  years  Prouwuda  Raya      -         -         - 

1420 

149-i- 

10  ditto  Vira  Narasingha  Raya 

1420 

150-1- 

12  ditto  Solva  Narasingha  Raya 

1442 

^5H 

43  ditto  Achuta  Raya,  and  Krishna  Raya 

1485 

\56\ 

26  ditto  Saddsiva  Raya,  and  Rama  Raya 

1511 

I58-I- 

"  Total  7  men  and  103  years." 

Here,  in  the  original,  follows  a  Slokam,  or  Anagram  on  these 
seven  princes.  Among  a  set  of  usurpers  struggling  for  authority,  we 
cannot  expect  much  regularity  ;  and  it  is  hardly  possible,  that  two 
of  them  could  unite  exactly  at  the  same  time,  reign  together  for 
43  years,  and  then  die  together  ;  but  to  a  Hindu  chronologist  such 
difficulties  do  not  present  themselves  as  extraordinary.  Several 
of  these  princes  were  men  of  abilities,  and  Krishna  Rdyaru  was  by 
far  the  greatest  Hindu  monarch  that  has  appeared  in  modern  times. 
Of  this  we  need  not  require  a  stronger  proof,  than  his  living  in 
the  immediate  frontier  of  the  countries  whose  history  Ferishta  is 
writing,  and  yet  his  never  being  mentioned  by  that  author.  In  his 
reign  no  victories  over  the  idolaters  were  to  be  celebrated;  and  it 
would  have  been  unbecoming  a  Mussulman  to  disclose  the  disasters 
of  the  faithful. 

Vol.  III.  R 


122 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


The  account  given  orally  by  Ramuppa  of  the  manner  in  which 
this  country  was  governed  by  the  kings  of  Vijaya-nagara  is  as 
follows.  Hucca  and  Buca  were  of  the  Curuba  cast,  the  customs  of 
which  low  tribe  I  have  already  described.  They  were  of  Tel'mga 
extraction  ;  all  the  officers  of  their  court  were  of  the  same  nation  ; 
and  the  remaining  i?<7yV/5  o^  Anagundi  still  retain  that  language. 
When  Hucca  had  assumed  the  name  of  Hari-hara,  and  became  very 
powerful,  the  Raja  of  Tulava  made  a  submission,  in  appearance  vo- 
luntary, and  did  not  attempt  any  resistance.  It  is  not  known  what 
has  become  of  his  descendants;  but  they  seem  to  have  been  en- 
tirely deprived  of  power;  and  Hari-hara  appointed  three  deputies 
to  command  the  military  force,  and  to  collect  the  revenue  from  the 
Ja'm  Rajas,  and  other  tributaries.  The  deputy,  who  resided  at  the 
former  capital,  Barcuru,  or  Baracuru,  had  the  title  of  Rayaru  ;  the 
one  who  governed  MatJgaluru  was  styled  JFodear ;  and  an  inferior 
person  governed  the  small  district  belonging  to  Bagxcady.  These 
offices  were  not  hereditary.  The  Jam  Rajas  were  confirmed  in  the 
hereditary  possession  of  their  territories,  and  Avere  allowed  for 
their  support  certain  estates,  called  Umbli  lands,  free  from  revenue. 
They  collected  the  revenues  of  the  other  parts  of  their  territories, 
and  paid  them  in  to  the  deputy  under  whom  they  lived;  and  over 
all  persons  living  within  their  respective  territories  they  possessed 
most  ample  authority.  Each  supported  a  certain  number  of  troops, 
with  which  in  time  of  war  he  was  bound  to  assist  his  liege  lord. 
Their  common  title  was  Manatana  Devaru.  The  Manatana,  how- 
ever, were  not  allowed  to  exercise  any  authority  over  the  32 
GrAmas  which  Cadumba  Raya  had  bestowed  on  the  Brdhmans.  The 
revenues  of  Cotta  and  Shivuli,  two  of  these,  were  collected  by  the 
officers  of  the  deputies.  The  remaining  thirty  were  under  the  go- 
vernment of  an  equal  number  of  Bi-uhmans,  who  held  their  offices 
by  hereditary  right.  These  were  called  Hegadas,  or  Baylalas,  and  , 
also  enjoyed  Umbli  lands;  but  their  jurisdiction  was  much  less 
extensive   than  that  of  the   Jain  Rajas,    They   could   not  inflict 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  125 

capital  punishment,  nor  confiscate  a  man's  property,  nor  erase  his   CHAPTER 
house.  K^^^ 

It  would  appear,  that  before  the  time  of  Hari-hara  no  land-tax  ^^^-  ^'^• 
existed  in  Tulava ;  and  this  country,  after  its  rebellion  from  the 
Belalla  Rdyas,  M^as  probably  in  a  state  of  anarchy  and  confusion  ■ 
similar  to  that  o'i  Malay  Ida  after  its  division  among  the  captains  of 
Cheruman  Permal.  The  settlement  and  valuation  made  by  Havi- 
hara  is  said  to  be  still  extant,  and  Ramuppa  gives  the  following 
account  of  the  plan  adopted  by  that  prince.  The  Avhole  produce 
having  been  estimated,  out  of  every  thirty  measures  the  govern- 
ment took  5,  the  Brdhmans  got  1|,  the  gods  1,  the  proprietors  7|; 
and  15,  or  one-half,  was  allowed  to  the  cultivator.  The  whole  lands 
of  the  Brdhmans  were  valued  in  the  same  manner  as  the  others; 
but  the  revenue  was  remitted  on  such  part  of  them  as  was  dedi- 
cated to  the  support  of  the  temples,  or  of  public  worship.  This 
system  of  revenue  continues  to  the  present  day  ;  only  the  shares  of 
the  god  and  the  Brdhmans  are  supposed  to  have  been  taken  by  the 
government,  who  grant  annual  sums  for  the  support  of  public  wor- 
ship ;  and  the  Umbli  lands  are  now  taxed,  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
others. 

Concerning  the  usurpers  of  the  throne  of  Vijaya-nagara  I  col- 
lected from  inscriptions,  copies  of  which  I  presented  to  the  govern- 
ment of  Bengal,  the  following  information.  From  that  which  I 
procured  at  Beidura,  it  would  appear  tliat  Jeb'da  Narasiiigha  Rdya 
was  king  in  the  year  of  Sal.  lA-QQ-  This  is  probably  the  Vira  Nara- 
singha  of  the  Rdya  Paditti,  whose  reign  ended  in  the  following  year. 
In  another  inscription,  Achuta  Rdya  Narasingha  Rdya,  and  Krishna 
Rdya  are  mentioned  as  sovereigns  conjunctly.  The  copyist  has 
made  the  date  1337,  but  he  evidently  ought  to  have  made  it  1437. 
From  this  it  would  appear,  that  Achuta  and  Krishna  had  been  con- 
joined with  their  predecessor,  Solva  Narasingha,  so  early  as  the 
seventh  year  of  his  reign,  although  the  Rdya  Paditti  does  not  make 
their  government  commence  until  his  terminated.    In  an  inscription 


124  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  at  this  place,  of  which  I  have  no  copy,  Krishna  Raya  is  mentioned 
v^^~v-v^  as  sovereign  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1445,  or  ^.  D.  1.52^.  In  another 
*  •  ^^'  inscription,  Vira  Pratapa  Achiita  Raya  is  sovereign  in  the  year  of 
Sal.  1452,  or  A.  D.  15^;  and  in  another  Achuta  Raya  and  Krishna 
Raya  are  joint  sovereigns  in  the  year  oi Sal.  1454,  or  A.  D.  \5i\. 
In  another  still,  Achuta  Raya  is  mentioned  alone  in  the  intermediate 
year  1453.  With  the  long  and  glorious  reign  of  these  two  princes 
the  fortune  of  Fijaya-?iagara  departed.  In  another  inscription  at 
Banawdsi,  is  mentioned  &Vencatadri  Deva  as  sovereign  in  the  year 
of  Sal.  1474,  or  A.  D.  1551.  This  name  is  not  to  be  found  in  the 
Rtiya  Paditti ;  and  Vencatadri  was  cither  some  person  struggling  for 
the  supreme  authority,  or  some  tributary  who  had  entirely  thrown 
off  his  allegiance.  In  another  inscription  Vira  Pratapa  Saddsira 
Deva  Maha  Raya  is  mentioned  as  king  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1477,  or 
A.  T).  155-f ;  and  he  is  again  mentioned  in  another  inscription  as 
king,  and  as  son  of  Achuta  Raya.  The  date  to  this  inscription  is 
Sal.  1412;  but  that  is  an  evident  error  in  the  copyist,  and  it  must 
be  in  the  original  1512.  This,  it  is  true,  according  to  the  Raya 
Paditti,  is  one  year  after  the  death  of  his  colleague  Rama  Raya,  and 
the  destruction  of  Vijaya-nagara ;  but  the  representatives  of  this 
family  still  exist,  and  for  a  long  time  their  rebellious  Polygars  con- 
tinued to  show  an  external  deference  for  their  dignitj^  although 
they  refused  a^'  submission  to  their  authority.  Upon  the  whole, 
from  these  two  inscriptions  it  would  appear,  that  although  Achuta 
and  Krishna  are  mentioned  as  joint  sovereigns,  whose  reign  did 
not  terminate  till  Sal.  1485;  yet  Achuta  died  earlier,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Saddsira,  so  early  at  least  as  Sal.  1477 ;  but  his 
name  was  obscured,  by  the  lustre  of  his  first  colleague's  reputation, 
till  the  death  of  this  celebrated  prince. 

Probably  owing  to  the  reason  which  I  have  before  mentioned, 
the  account  of  these  princes  in  Ferishta  is  extremely  imperfect. 
He  makes  the  first  usurper  to  be  succeeded  by  his  son  Ram  Rdye, 
against  whom  three  of  the  Mussulman  princes  united  in  1564,  and 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR,  125 

killed  him  in  the  first  engagement.    After  which  the  capital  city  CHAPTER 
was  destroyed,  and  each  of  the  Zemcendars  (Polygars)  assumed  in     i^^-^i 
his  own  district  an  independant  power.    This  account  makes  the  Feb.  17. 
destruction  of  Fi/rtj/«-«fl^«ra  24  years  earlier  than   the  end  of  the 
reign  of  Rama  Rdya  according  to  the  Rdya  Paditti.    Which  is  in 
the  right,  I  cannot  say  ;  but  the  matter  may  probably  be  decided 
by  means  of  some  of  the  numerous  inscriptions  that  are  to  be  found 
in  the  country.    It  does  not  appear  clear,  whether  or  not  the  line 
of  Hari-hara  has  become  extinct,  nor  whether  the  present  Raja  of 
Anagundi  be  descended  from  him,  or  from  one  of  the  usurpers  who 
seized  on  Vijaya-7iagara,  but  who  still  continued  to  govern  in  the 
name  of  the  royal  family,  as  their  servants. 

Ramuppa  now  takes  leave  of  the  family  of  the  Rayaru,  and  pro-  R6j6s  o{ Ki- 
ceeds  to  give  an  account  of  one  of  the  chief  Polygars,  who  on  the  '  ""^  ■'"■""'• 
decline  of  Vijaya-?iagara  assumed  independence. 

"  Until  the  year  Dhatu  of  Salivahanain  1510  (A.  D.  158|-)  Saddsiva 
Rdya,  and  Rdma  Rdya  possessed  the  kingdom,  as  servants  of  the 
Rdyaru.  In  the  mean  while  Saddsiva  Rdya  gave  to  Saddsiva  Gauda, 
son  of  Baswuppa,  the  Gauda  of  Kilidi,  a  government  (Subayena)  in 
Karndtaka  Desa,  namely  Guty,  Baracuru,  and  Mangaluru.  These 
three  towns  were  given  into  the  possession  of  Saddsiva  Gauda,  and 
his  name  was  changed  into  Saddsiva  Rdya  Ndyaka,  after  the  name  of 
the  Rdyaru  who  gave  him  the  power  Suluntra  (of  governing  by  a 
deputy),  and  put  it  into  his  possession.  From  the  year  Durmuti 
1482  (A.  D.  15-B-),  to  the  year  Chitrabanu  16S5  (A.  D.  176^),  six- 
teen persons,  styling  themselves  Rdjds  of  Kilidi  or  Ikeri,  possessed 
the  government  203  years.     Particulars." 

"  Seven  persons  governed  77  years,  styling  themselves  servants 
(Cadaevaru)  of  Vijaya-nagara.    Particulars." 
"  16  years  Saddsiva  Ndyaka  ;''  began  to  reign  1482.    A.  D.  1559. 
"    9  years  his  younger  brother  Bhadruppa Ndyaka ;"  began  to  govern 
1498.    A.  D.  \57i. 


126  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   "  1 1  years  Doda  (great)   Simkana  Nayaka,  the  son   of  Sadaska  Nd- 
K,^^^  yaka's  first  wife."    He  began  to  govern  1507.    ■^-  D.  158f. 

Feb.  17.         "    7  y^3iV&  Chka  {).\t\\t)  Sunknna  Nayaka,   the  son  oi  Sadasiva's   se- 
cond wife."    He  began  to  reign  in  1518,  A.  D.  \59h 
"     1  year  Siduppa  Ndyaka,  son  of  Cliica Sunkana  Ndyaka."  He  begaa 

to  reign  in  1525.  A.  D.  \59h 
"  22  years  Vencatuppa  Ndyaka,  son  of  Doda  Sunkana  Ndyaka.'"  He 
began  to  govern  in  1526,  A.  D.  1594. 
"  This  Vencatuppa'' s  son,  Bhadruppa  Ndyaka,  and  his  son  Bha- 
druppa  Ndyaka,  governed  for  23  years  nominally  as  servants  of  the 
Rdyaru,  and  12  years  as  sovereign  princes.  They  began  to  reign 
in  1548,  A.D.  iSS-f. 

"  In  all,  as  servants  of  the  Rdyaru,  7  princes  governed  77  years." 
"  After  this,  from  the  year  Dhatu  1559  (A.  D.  163^),  till  the 
yea.r  C/iiirabanu  \6S3  (A.D.  176f),  nine  R('ijds  governed  in  their 
own  name  126  years.    Particulars." 

"  The  above  mentioned  Bhadruppa  Ndyakas  23  years ;  but,  de- 
ducting 11  years  before  they  governed  independently,  they  reigned 
in  their  own  name 

"  12  years."    This  began  in  1559,  A.  D.  l63-|-. 
"  22  years  Sivuppa  Ndyaka,  son  of  C/iica  Sunkana  Ndyaka."      He 

began  to  reign  1571.  A.  D.  164- f. 
*'  10  years  his  eldest  son  Bhadruppa  Ndyaka."    He  began  to  reign 

1593.  A.  D.  lC7f. 
"    5  years  Hutso  (Mad)  Somasikhara  Ndyaka,  younger  son  of  Si' 

vuppa  Ndyaka."    He  began  to  reign  in  l603.  A.  D.  l68f. 
"  12  Doda  Chinna  Magi,  wife  of  Somasikhara  Ndyaka."    She  began 

to  govern  in  I6O8.  A.  D.  I68f. 
"  16  years  Baszcuppa  Ndyaka,  her  adopted  son."    He  began  to  reign 

1620.  A.  D.  \69i. 
"  26  years  Somasikhara  Ndyaka,  his  eldest  son."    He  began  to  reign 
1636.  A.  D.  1714. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  127 

"31  years  Budi  {wise)  Baswiippa  Nayaka,  son  oi  Virabhadra,  younger  CHAPTER 
brother  o^  Somasikhara.'"  He  began  to  govern  1662,  A.  D.  v„^-v-^/ 
17i  .  ^'^-  ^''^ 

"  2  years  Chinna  (little)  Baswuppa  Nayaka,  adopted  son  of  Viru 
Magi,  widow  of  Budi  Baszimppa."  He  began  to  govern  in 
1675.  J.  D.  175f. 
"  8  years  Somasikhara  Nayaka,  another  adopted  son  of  Viru  3fagL" 
He  began  to  govern  in  1677.  A.  D.  175-f. 
"  In  all,  ten  independent  princes  of  Kilidi  governed  126  years." 
Ramuppa  says,  that  Doda  Sunkana  Nayaka  resigned  his  govern- 
ment to  his  younger  brother,  and  undertook  a  pilgrimage  to  Khi, 
or  Benares.  From  thence  he  went  to  Dhely,  where  he  encountered 
and  killed  Ancusha^Klidn,  a  celebrated  prize-fighter.  On  account 
of  his  gallantry  he  received  many  honours  and  lands  from  the  king. 
The  whole  of  these  lands  he  gave  in  charity  to  the  Bruhmans,  and 
returned  home,  where  he  lived  in  retirement,  without  making  any 
attempt  to  resume  his  authority.  His  younger  brother,  in  return, 
left  the  government  to  his  nephew.  This  nephew  Vencatuppa,  and 
his  son  and  grandson,  the  two  Bhadruppa  Ndyakas,  being  weak  men, 
and  mere  cyphers,  the  whole  business  of  the  country  was  managed 
by  their  cousin  Sivuppa,  who  acted  as  Dalawai,  or  minister.  On 
their  death  without  children,  he  succeeded  to  the  sovereignty  as 
lawfuHheir,  and  seems  to  have  been  the  greatest  prince  of  the  house.  ..^ 
It  was  he  who  finally  reduced  the  Jain  Rajas  of  Tulava,  and  added 
to  the  family  dominions  the  whole  province  of  Canara ;  for,  on  the 
overthrow  of  Fijaya-nagara,  the  Jaiti  Polygars  had  assumed  inde- 
pendence. His  successor,  Somasikhara,  was  mad,  and  during  the 
paroxysms  of  his  disease  committed  great  enormities.  He  ripped 
up  pregnant  women  with  his  own  hands,  and  for  the  gratification  of 
his  lust  seized  every  beautiful  girl  that  he  met.  At  length  he  was 
assassinated  by  a  Brahman  named  Saumya,  who  was  one  of  his 
servants.  The  rank  of  the  assassin  did  not  save  him,  and  he  was 
put  to  death  by  the -^<»fl^/wc^«rj,  who  were  much  attached  to  this 


128 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XV. 

Feb.  17. 


Mussulman 
conquest. 


British  go- 
vernment. 


family  of  princes,  as  being  of  their  own  sect,  and  which  by  this 
murder  seems  to  have  become  extinct.  Doda  Cliiima  Magi,  the 
M'idow  of  Somasik/iara,  assumed  the  government ;  but  having  no 
children,  she  adopted  Baszcuppa,  the  son  oi  MarcupaChitty,  a  Bani- 
jiga  merchant  of  Bideruru  (Bednoi^e),  where  the  seat  of  government 
then  was.  The  male  descendants  of  this  adopted  son  also  ended  in 
Budi  Basiciippa,  who  left  two  widows,  Chinna  Magi,  and  Viva  Magi. 
The  latter,  although  inferior  in  rank,  being  a  bold  woman,  put  her 
superior  in  confinement ;  and,  having  adopted  a  young  man  named 
Chinna  Baswuppa,  she  governed  in  his  name,  and  was  called  Rani. 
The  publicity  of  her  amorous  inti-igues  was  so  scandalous,  that  the 
young  Raja  ventured  to  remonstrate  with  her  concerning  this  part 
of  her  conduct.  He  was  immediately  removed  by  a  violent  death, 
and  a  boy  was  adopted  in  his  stead,  and  called  Somasikhara,  Hyder, 
taking  advantage  of  the  disgust  occasioned  by  her  immoral  con- 
duct, subjected  to  his  own  authority  the  dominions  of  the  Sivabhac- 
tars  of  Ikcri,  and  shut  up  the  Rmi  and  her  adopted  sou  in  the  fort 
of  Madhu-giri.  From  thence  they  were  taken  by  the  Marattahs, 
but  died  before  the  purpose  for  which  the,  Marat tahs  intended  them 
could  be  carried  into  execution.     The /?cya  P^a'iV/i  proceeds  thus. 

"  In  the  year  Chitrabami,  of  Saliva Ita nam  16S5  (J.  D.  176^),  on 
the  3d  of  tlie  moon  in  Maga,  on  Friday  at  the  18th  hour,  the  Nabob 
Hyder  Aly  Khari's  troops  took  possession  of  Bideruru  city ;  from 
which  time  this  name  was  lost,  and  the  place  was  called  Hyder  Na- 
gara.  This  Nabob  Hyder  AH  Klian  governed  (that  is  to  say  the 
dominions  of  Ikeri)  from  Chitrubanu,  of  Salivahanam  1685,  till  the 
3d  of  the  moon  in  Paushya  of  the  year  Shobacrutii,  Salivahanam  1706 
(A.D.  178-I-),  20years  and  11  months." 

"  From  the  same  year  Shobacrutu,  till  Saturday  the  last  of  the 
moon  in  Chailra,  of  the  year  Sidarti,  of  Sal.  1722  (A.  D.  liH)) 
governed  Tip  pooSultan  \6  years  3  months,  and  28  days. 

"  On  ]\Iond;iy  the.  Amavasya  mChaitra,  in  the  same  yta.\  Sidarty, 
1722,  the  Company's  forces  took  possession  of  6>ii?««o"a'Pa//a/?a," 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  1S9 

It  must  be  observed,  that  Saturday  is  the  real  date ;  but,  that  CHAPTER 
being  an  unlucky  day,  the  Brahman  changes  the  day  of  taking  pos-       '^^* 
session  into  Monday.    In  order,  however,  to  show  that  it  was  on  Feb.  17. 
the  same  day  with  the  fall  of  Tippoo,  he  tells  us,  that  the  one  event 
happened  on  the  last  day  of  the  month,  and  the  other  on  the  Ama- 
<vasya,  which  is  the  same  thing.     Such  discordances  therefore  in 
Hindu  chronology  must  not  be  considered  by  the  antiquary  as  any 
proof  of  either  error  or  ignorance. 


Voi.  III. 


130  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER    XVI. 

JOURNEY  THROUGH  THE  NORTHERN   PARTS  OF  CANARA. 

CHAPTER  "C'EBRUARY  ISth. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Batuculla,  which  means 
XVI.        -*•     tiie  round  town.    A  very  steep   barren  ridge  separates  Beiduru 

Feb.  18.  from  a  fine  level,  which  is  watered  by  the  Combaru,  a  small  slow- 
running  stream,  that  in  several  places  is  dammed  up  for  the  irri- 
gation of  the  fields.  Here  was  formerly  a  market  (Bazar)  named 
Hosso-petta,  which  General  Mathews  destroyed.  After  passing  this 
level,  I  came  to  a  very  barren  country,  but  not  remarkably  hilly. 
It  is  covered  with  stunted  trees,  and  intersected  by  a  small  rapid 
stream,  the  Sancada-gonda,  and  farther  on  by  a  narrow  cultivated 
valley.  Batuculla  stands  on  the  north  bank  of  a  small  river,  the 
Sancada-holay,  which  waters  a  very  beautiful  valley  surrounded  on 
every  side  by  hills,  and  in  an  excellent  state  of  cultivation.  At  the 
public  expense  eight  dams  are  yearly  made  in  order  to  water  the 
rice  grounds.  They  are  constructed  of  earth,  and  are  only  intended 
to  collect  the  stream  in  the  dry  season.  In  the  rains  they  would 
be  of  no  use,  and  the  violence  of  the  stream  would  then  sweep 
away  the  strongest  works.  The  dams  are  repaired  between  the 
17th  of  November  and  the  l6th  of  December,  and  are  carried  away 
in  the  two  months  which  precede  the  summer  solstice.  There  are 
here  many  coco-nut  gardens,  and  these  in  the  best  condition  of 
any  that  I  have  seen  in  Canara.  They  are  well  inclosed  with  stone 
walls.  Their  produce  is  partly  shipped  for  Mangalore,  or  Raja-pura, 
and  partly  sent  to  the  country  above  the  Ghats. 

Batuculla.  Batuculla  is  a  large  open  town  containing  500  houses.    It  has  two 

mosques  ;  one  of  which  receives  from  the  Company  an  allowance  ©f 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  131 

100  Pagodas,  and  the  otlier  half  as  mucli.    These  places  of  worship   CHAPTER 
are   situated   in  a  quarter  of  the  town  inhabited   by  Mussulmans    k^^-^j 
alone.    Many  of  these  are  wealthy,  and  go  on  commercial  specula-  ^^^'  ^^• 
tions  to  different  parts  of  the  coast ;  but  this  is  their  home,  and 
here  they  leave  their  families.    In  this  part  of  the  country  there 
are  no  Buntar,  nor  does  the  language  of  Tulava  extend  so  far  to  the 
north.     In  fact,  Batuculla  is  properly  in  a  country  called  Haiga ;  '^'^^^'^\^'J  . 
and  the  most  common   farmers  are  a  kind   of  Brdhmans,  named 
Haiga  after  the  country,  and  a  low  cast  of  Hindus  called  Halepecas. 
There  are  here  76  Gudies,  or  temples  belonging  to  the  followers  of 
thtVydsa.    Last  year  the  officers  of  revenue,  htm^  dlX  Brahmans,  Money  levied 
began  by  their  own   authority  to  levy  money,  under  pretence  of  p^^t  of  pub- 
applying  it  to  the  support  of  these  places  of  worship ;  but  some  of  '"=  worship, 
them  having  been  flogged,  and  dismissed  from  the   service,  a  stop 
■was  put  to  this  dangerous  practice,  and  the  priests  (Piijdris)  must 
content  themselves  with  voluntary  contributions.     Major  Monro 
does  not  seem  to  have  thought  it  necessary  to  be  so  liberal  to  the 
temples,  as  Major  Macleod  and  Mr.  Hurdis  have  been.    I  do  not 
perceive  that  his  economy  has  been  attended  with  any  bad  effect ; 
and  his   conduct,  on  the  whole,  seems  to  have  gained   the  good 
opinion  of  every  honest    industrious   man  that   lived  under  his 
authority. 

Thinking  to   obtain  some  information  from  the  i3rrt/«m«;w  in  a  Account  of 
place  where  they  were  so  numerous,  I  sent  for  some  of  them.  They  \,y  the  Biuh- 
denied  having  ever  been  subject   to  the  Jain,  and  said,  that  this  '"""*• 
and  four  other  districts  were  each  govei'ned   by  an  independent 
officer,  sent  immediately  from  Nagara,  meaning  the  capital  above 
the  Ghats  ;  for  the  present  Nagara  is  a  name  of  very  recent  origin.     ' 
These  four  territories  wereShirali/,  Chindawera,  Garsopa,  and  Mirzee, 
and  each  occupied  the  whole  country  from  the  sea  to   the  Ghats. 
They  afterwards  confessed,  however,  that  this  was  only  during  the 
government  of  the  Sivabhactars ;  and  that  Batuculla  formerly  be- 
longed to  Byra  Devi,  a  Jain  princess,   whose  dominions  extended 


132  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

aluiost  to  Barcuru,  which  belonged  to  a  Jaiii  Raja  of  the  name  of 
Budarsu.    Tliese  Brahmans  having  told  me  that  at  all  their  temples 

Feb.  18.  I  should  find  inscriptions,  I  set  out  in  search  of  them,  and  was  a 
good  deal  disappointed  to  find  none  at  the  two  c\nt^  Gudies ;  and  I 
inquired  at  several  others,  but  was  informed  that  they  had  no  such 

Account  by  thing.  In  the  course  of  my  walk  I  met  Avith  two  Jain  temples  of 
the  kind  called  Bustics,  the  only  remains  of  sixty-eight  that  were 
formerly  in  the  place.  The  one  had  an  inscription  dated  in  the 
yearof&/.  \A6'$,  A.  D.  154|,  in  the  reign  of  Riwga-rcii/a.  He  is 
not  mentioned  in  the  Rdifa  Paditti,  but  in  the  inscription  is  said  to 
have  been  brother's  son  of  Ki'ishna  Rdya,  by  whom  he  was  probably 
employed  as  a  deputy.  The  date  is  toward  the  end  of  the  time 
assigned  by  Ramuppa  for  the  reign  of  Krishna  Rliya.  At  the  other 
Busty  is  an  inscription,  dated  Sal.  1479,  A.  D.  155-f-,  in  the  reign 
of  Sri  Viva  Sadasiva  Rdya.  A  copy  of  this  has  been  delivered  to 
the  Bengal  government.  From  the  Pujdri  of  the  Busty,  one  of 
the  few  Jain  now  remaining  in  the  place,  I  obtained  the  following 
account. 

All  the  country  between  Carcul  and  Ciimty  belonged  to  a  family 
of  Jain  Rdjds,  called  by  the  common  name  of  By rasii  JVodears ;  but 
each  had  a  particular  name,  several  of  which  the  Pujdri  mentioned. 
The  founder  of  this  family,  as  we  have  already  seen,  was  Jenaditta, 
a  fugitive  prince  from  the  north  of  India.  The  last  of  these  TVo- 
dears  having  no  son,  the  greater  part  of  his  dominions  was  divided 
among  his  seven  daughters,  all  of  whom  were  called  Byra  Devi ; 
and  it  is  concerning  them,  that  Ferishta  has  related  an  absurd  fable. 
From  these  ladies  Barcuru  was  taken  by  a  Jain  prince,  whom  the 
Brahmans  called  Budarsu.  The  Byra  Devi  of  this  place  built  a  fort, 
the  ruins  of  which  may  still  be  traced.  In  her  time  the  town  was 
very  large.  During  the  war  conducted  by  Lord  Cornwallis  it  suf- 
fered much  from  a  plundering  band  of  Marattahs,  but  is  again 
recovering  fast.  The  Pujdri  showed  me  the  ruins  of  a  Busty  built 
by  one  of  the  JVodears.  The  workmanship  of  the  pillars  and  carving 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  133 

is  superior  to  any  thing  that  I  have  seen  in  India,  probably  owing   CHAPTER 
to  the  nature  of  the  stone,  which  cuts  better  tlian  the  granite  in    v^.^ 
common  use,  and  preserves  its  angles  better  than  the  common  pot-  ''^'?'  '^• 

.  'A  line  stone. 

stone,  of  which  many  temples  are  constructed.    The  quarry  is  four 

cosses  to  the  eastward.  The  stone  is  what  Mr.  Kirwan  calls  Sknite 
in  a  slaty  form,  and  consists  of  hornblende  slate,  v.ith  layers  of 
white  quartz,  and  a  littlte  felspar  interposed.  In  some  pieces  these 
are  occasionally  wanting,  and  the  plates  of  hornblende  are  con- 
nected only  by  fibres  of  the  same  nature  crossing  the  interstices 
between  plate  and  plate.  In  some  places  again,  the  plates  are 
waved,  somewhat  like  the  layers  of  timber  at  a  knot,  and  there 
the  quantity  of  quartz  and  felspar  generally  exceeds  that  of  the 
hornblende. 

As  the  Brdhmans  err  in  denying  their  former  dependance  onthe  Eirors  in  the 
Xain,  and  endeavour  as  much  as  possible  to  conceal  the  former  theB/u/Lsan* 
existence  of  such  odious  infidels ;  on  the  other  side  the  Jain  go  ^""^  •^'^^^' 
into  the  contrary  extreme,  and  deny  altogether  the  dependance  of 
their  Rajas  om  the  kings  of  Vijaya-nagara,  which  from  many  inscrip- 
tions, and  other  circumstances,  is  quite  indubitable.  The  Belalla 
family,  who,  till  the  time  of  Vishnu  Verdana  Rayd's  conversion, 
were  undoubtedly  Jain,  probably  governed  their  dominions,  like 
other  Hindu  princes,  by  chiefs  paying  tribute,  and  holding  their 
lands  by  military  tenure.  We  have  seen  that,  when  their  sovereigir 
changed  his  religion,  these  chiefs  threw  off  their  allegiance,  and 
continued  in  an  independent  anarchy,  till  subjected  by  ButaPandOy 
and  soon  after  by  Hari-hara.  The  princes  of  the  throne  of  Vijaya- 
nagara,  although  favourers  of  the  Brdhmans  who  follow  Vydsa,  did 
not  venture  to  dispossess  the  Jain  Rdjds,  but  employed  them  as 
their  vassals,  both  in  the  civil  and  military  government  of  the 
country.  When  the  government  at  Vijaya-nagara  became  weak 
under  Saddsiva,  and  fell  into  utter  contempt  by  the  death  of  Rama 
Rdya,  the  Jain  Rdjds  again  asserted  their  independence ;  and  in  the 
inscription  here,  dated  in  the  year  IJof,  the  Byra  Devi  no  longer 


134  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  acknowledges  any  superior.    It  was  at  this  time  that  Sadusiva  N/i- 
^^^'       yaka  of  Killidi  obtained  a  grant  of  Tulava  from  the   king ;  and, 

Feb.  18.  taking  advantage  of  tlie  weakness  of  a  female  reign,  he  attacked 
the  Jain  without  mercy.  It  must  be  observed,  that  the  Jain  are 
extremely  obnoxious  to  the  Sivabhactars,  as  they  altogether  deny 
the  divinity  of  Iswara ;  but  the  B?'d/imans  who  serve  as  priests 
(Pujuris)  in  his  temples  are  favourites,  although  among  the  Siva- 
bhactars they  are  not  the  order  dedicated  to  the  care  of  religin. 
In  this  part  of  the  country  the  princes  oflkeri  seem  to  have  almost 
extirpated  the  Jain  ;  but  toward  the  south  theymet  with  a  more 
obstinate  resistance,  and  made  no  considerable  conquests  there, 
until  the  government  of  Sivuppa,  who  reigned  from  1642  till  I67O, 
and  had  the  management  of  public  affairs  from  about  the  year  l625. 
Even  he  was  obliged  to  permit  the  Jain  Rdjdsof  the  south  to  retain 
their  authority  as  his  vassals ;  and  until  the  more  vigorous  govern- 
ment of  Hyder  they  continued  in  power. 

Feb.  19.  19th  February. — Ho7iawera  being  too   far  distant  for  two  days 

country  journey  with  my  cattle,  I  went  a  short  stage  of  one  coss  and  a  half 
to  Shiraly.  The  country,  after  ascending  the  little  hill  above  Batii- 
culla,  is  not  steep  ;  but  much  of  the  soil  is  very  poor,  in  many  places 
the  Laterite  being  almost  entirely  naked.  In  some  other  places  the 
soil  is  very  good ;  and,  although  not  level,  a  part  of  it  has  been 
formed  into  Betta  land  for  the  cultivation  of  rice  ;  which  coufirms 
the  account  given  by  the  people  of  Haryadikd,  concerning  the  pos- 
sibility of  rendering  all  the  hiils  oi' Canara  arable.  In  general, 
however,  they  are  considered  as  not  fit  for  this  purpose.  At  Shiraly 
is  a  river  called  Shiraly-tari,  which  comes  from  a  temple  on  the 
Ghats  that  is  named  Bhimesroara.  The  tide  comes  up  to  Shiraly,  a 
mile  from  the  sea,  and  forces  the  traveller  to  swim  his  cattle.  The 
banks  at  the  ferry  are  rather  stony  ;  but  round  the  village,  there  is 
much  rice  land,  and  good  plaqtatious  of  coco-nut  trees.  A  great 
quantity  of  salt  is  made  in  the  neighbourhood.  Shiraly  is  a  poor 
village,  with  three  or  four  shops. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  ^55 

9,0th  February. — I  went   three  cosses  to  Beiluru,  which  signifies   CHAPTER 
the  cleared  place,  and  is  a  common  name  in  countries  where  the     v_^.^^^ 
dialect  of  Karnata  prevails.    My  tents  were,  however,  pitched  in  a  Feb.  20. 

1  •    1     •        !,•  loon,  or 

very  stately  grove  of  the  Calophyllum  inophyllum,  which  in  this  part  Pu„a,  the 
of  the  country  is  much  planted  near  the  villages.  It  grows  to  a  l'^''[^-^"'^'^^ 
large  size,  especially  in  sandy  places  near  the  sea.  The  common 
lamp  oil  of  the  country  is  expressed  from  its  seed,  by  means  of  a 
mill  turned  by  oxen.  It  is  here  called  Hoingay,  the  name  by  which 
above  the  Ghats  the  Robinia  mitis  is  known.  In  Tulava  and  Malayala 
it  is  called  Puna,  by  us  commonly  written  Poon.  I  suspect  that  the 
Poon  of  the  eastern  islands  is  different. 

From  Shiraly  to  Beiluru  the  plain,  between  the  sea  and  the  low  Appearance 
hills,  varies  in  breadth  from  half  a  mile  to  a  mile  and  a  half.  Its  try. 
soil  is  in  general  good,  and  almost  the  whole  of  it  is  cultivated  for 
rice ;  but  few  parts  yield  two  crops  annually.  The  sea-shore  is 
skirted  with  groves  of  coco-nut  palms,  and  the  view  is  very  beau- 
tiful. This  plain  is  only  watered  by  two  small  streams,  the  one  of 
■which  is  a  branch  of  the  Shiraly.  Among  the  low  hills  are  said  to 
be,  as  usual,  many  narrow  rice  vallies.  About  three-quarters  of  a 
coss  from  Beiluru  is  Murodesxmra,  a  temple  standing  on  a  lofty  pro- 
montory that  has  been  fortified,  and  at  high  water  is  insulated  by 
a  narrow  channel.  To  the  south  of  the  promontory  is  a  small  bay 
sheltered  by  some  rocks,  which  appear  above  the  water,  and  afford 
protection  to  boats.  Near  this  is  a  small  village  containing  shops 
(Bazars).  South-west  from  the  promontory  is  a  peaked  island, 
which  I  suppose  is  what  our  seamen  call  Hog  Island  :  the  natives 
call  it  Jaliconda.  In  the  offing  from  Murodeswara  is  a  very  large 
rock ;  and  still  farther  west  an  island,  which  I  suppose  is  what  the 
seamen  call  Pigeon  Island.  It  seems  to  be  five  or  six  leagues  from 
the  continent,  and  is  pretty  high,  with  a  flat  top.  By  the  natives  it 
is  called  Naytrany  Guda,  which  last  word  signifies  a  hill.  They  say, 
that  it  has  trees,  with  a  small  stream  of  fresh  water,  and  good  land- 
ing on  its  Avestern  side.    Its  caves  are  fr£quented  by  many  wild 


136  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

pigeons,  whence  the  European  name  is  probably  derived.  It  is  fre- 
quented also  by  boats  for  coral,  with  which  its  shores  abound  ;  and 

Feb.  20.  they  likewise  supply  all  the  neighbouring  continent  with  quick 
lime. 

Worship  of  To  this  island  many  people  also  go  to  pray,  offer  coco-nuts,  and 
^  '°'^'  sacrifice  to  a  stone  pillar  called  Jetiga,  which  represents  a  Buta,  or 

male  devil.  As  this  spirit  is  supposed  to  destroy  the  boats  of  those 
who  neglect  him,  he  is  chiefly  worshipped  by  traders  and  fishermen. 
On  the  continent  there  is  another  pillar  called  Jetiga ;  but  as  this 
devil  is  less  troublesome  than  the  one  on  the  island,  he  receives 
fewer  marks  of  attention. 

race  of  the  At  Beiluru  the  inhabitants,  living  in  scattered  houses  unprotected 
by  forts,  suffered  much  in  the  Marattah  invasion ;  and  there  is  not 
remaining  above  one  half  of  the  people  that  would  be  requisite  to 
cultivate  the  ground.  Owing  to  this  cause,  a  great  part  of  the 
coco-nut  palms  have  died.  A  good  tree  is  reckoned  to  produce 
annually  50  nuts.  The  rice  lands  near  the  sea,  contrary  to  the 
common  rule  in  Malayala,  are  reckoned  more  productive  than  those 
inland ;  but  the  soil  here  near  the  sea  is  not  so  sandy  as  that  to  the 
south,  and  the  beach  is  quite  firm  ;  whereas  to  the  south  it  is  very 
heavy.  The  roads  here  are  in  general  good ;  but  that  is  entirely 
owing  to  the  nature  of  the  country,  no  pains  having  been  bestowed 
on  them  by  the  natives.  Every  now  and  then  the  traveller  comes 
to  a  river,  hill,  or  rock  totally  impracticable  for  a  carriage  of  any 
kind,  and  very  difficult  even  for  cattle  that  are  carrying  back 
loads. 

Feb.  21.  21st  February. — I  went  four  cosses  to  the  south  side  of  the  Hona- 

wera  lake,  and  encamped  in  a  coco-nut  grove  close  by  the  ferry, 
which  is  above  a  mile  wide,  and  without  previous  notice  it  is  im- 
possible to  procure  a  conveyance  capable  of  transporting  cattle. 
The  country  from  Beiluru  to  Cassergoda,  about  two  miles  from  the 
ferry,  is  one  of  the  most  barren  that  I  ever  saw.  It  consists  of  low 
hills  oi  Laterite,  which  extend  down  to   the  sea,  and  are  almost 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  137 

destitute  of  soil.    In  some  places  a  few  stunted  trees  may  be  seen;   CHAPTER 
but  in  general  the  rock  is  thinly  scattered  with  tufts  of  grass,  or  of    yl^h, 
thorny  plants.     On  the  whole  route  there  are  only  two  narrow  val-  Fob.  21. 
lies.  In  these  there  are  a  few  inhabitants,  and  a  little  good  rice-land. 
On  descending   to  Cassergoda  the  traveller  enters  a  plain,  which, 
after  having  been  in  the  desert,  looks  well;  but  its  soil  is  very, 
poor,  and  it  wants  cultivators,  especially  to  plant  coco-nut  palms, 
for  which  it  is  best  fitted. 

The  lake  is  of  great  extent,  and,  like  that  at  Kunda-pura,  con-  Lake  of  F* 
tains  many  islands,  some  of  which  are  cultivated.  It  reaches  almost 
to  the  Ghats,  and  in  the  dry  season  is  quite  salt ;  but  it  receives 
many  small  streams,  which  during  the  rainy  monsoon  become  tor- 
rents, and  render  the  whole  fresh.  By  the  natives  it  is  commonly 
called  a  river,  but  lake  is  a  more  proper  term.  The  lake  abounds 
with  fish ;  but  many  more  are  taken  in  the  sea,  and,  when  salted, 
form  a  considerable  article  of  commerce  with  the  inland  country. 
Each  fishing-boat  pays  annually  to  government  from  four  to  six 
Rupees. 

Garsopa  is  a  district  including  all  the  lands  on  the  south  side  of  Garsopa. 
the  lake,  and  part  of  those  on  the  north.  The  chief  town,  of  the 
same  name,  stood  at  the  extremity  of  the  lake  on  its  south  side. 
This  is  now  in  ruins,  and  ought  to  be  distinguished  from  a  fort  of 
the  same  name  above  the  Ghats,  which  is  laid  down  by  Major 
Rennell. 

Honawera,  or  Onore,  as  we  call  it,  was  totally  demolished  by  Hona-wera,,oji 
Tippoo  after  he  had  recovered  it  by  the  treaty  of  Mangalore.  It  was  "«'"■''• 
formerly  a  place  of  great  commerce,  and  Hyder  had  established  at 
it  a  dock  for  building  ships  of  war.  In  the  lake  remain  the  wrecks 
of  some  which  were  sunk  by  our  troops,  after  the  fort  was  taken  by 
assault.  There  is  now  a  custom-house  at  the  place,  and  some  poor 
people  have  made  offers  of  rebuilding  the  town  if  government  would 
assist  them.  Five  shops  only  have  been  rebuilt,  and  these  are  not 
in  the  situation  of  the  former  town.    Boats  now  come  from  Gofland 

Vol.  III.  T 


13«  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   Raja-pura ;  and  from  merchants  who  live  scattered  near  the  bank 
^^^^     of  the  lake,  they  purchase  rice,  pepper,  coco-nuts.  Betel-nuts,  salt- 
fish,  &c. 

The  piratical  boats  from  the  Marattah  coast  are  a  great  impedi- 
ment to  commerce ;  they  hover  especially  round  Pigeon  Island, 
and  have  even  the  impudence  to  enter  the  rivers  and  inlets  of  the 
coast.  Eight  days  ago  they  cut  out  from  this  place  two  boats  ;  fif- 
teen days  ago  one  boat  from  Manky  ;  and  five  days  previous  to  that 
a  fourth  from  Bataculla. 

Fortified  A  little  way  north  from  the  entrance  into  Honawera  lake  is  Baswa 

Rasa  Diirga,  called  by  us  Fortified  Island.  Its  works  were  erected 
by  Sivuppa  Nat/aha  of  Ikeri,  and  it  contains  coco-nut  palms  and 
plantain  trees,  with  abundance  of  fresh  water.  Boats  can  occa- 
sionally go  to  it  in  the  south-west  monsoon;  I  imagine  that  vessels 
might  even  then  find  shelter  in  the  channel  between  it  and  the 
continent.  It  produces  the  best  quality  of  Cavi,  or  reddle,  which 
is  used  by  the  natives  for  painting  their  houses. 

The  country       AH  the  country,  as  far  as  Gaukarna  inclusive,  is  called  Haiga,  and 

calecl    mga,  gggj^^g  formerly  to  have  been  under  the  influence  of  Rdvana,  kins: 

or  nana,  •'  '  o 

formerly  be-    of  Lama,  or  Ccrjlon.     Tritchenopoly  is  said  to  have  been  the  station 

lonsinn  to  „  ,    .  ,  .  ,  ■    ^  r-     ^  •  i 

Havana.  0^  his  most  northern  garrison  on  the  eastern  side  or  the  peninsula. 
It  is  probable,  that  on  the  west  side  his  dominions  extended  much 
farther.  Although  a  king  governing  the  Racshasa,  or  devils,  he 
seems  to  have  been  a  pious  Hindu  ;  and  four  temples,  dedicated  to 
Siva  in  Haiga,  are  said  to  have  been  erected  by  him.  Their  names 
are  Maliaboleswara  at  Gaukarna  ;  Murodhwara,  which  I  passed  yes- 
terday ;  Shumbeswara,  on  the  south  side  of  the  lake;  and  Dareswara, 
half  a  coss  from  Hulledy-pura.  He  also  built  Sujeswara,  which  is  in 
Kankana. 
Feb.  22.  22d  February. — I  crossed  the  inlet  or  lake,  and  went  two  cosses 

ofihecoun-    ^^  Hulledy-pura,  where  the  Tahsildar  of  Honazcera  resides.  The  road 
^^y-  leads  over  a  plain   of  rice-ground.      The  soil  is  poor,  and  much 

intersected    and    spoiled  by  creeks    containing    salt-M'ater;    this, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  139 

however,  might  be  easily  excluded  by  dams.    Hulledy-pura  is  an   CHAPTER 
open  town  containing  352  houses,  and  is   situated  east  from  a  con-     v,rf»-.,-*»^ 
siderable  creek  that  runs  through  the  plain.    Its  present  name,    '^  ■^'■^' 
signifying  turmeric-town,  was  given  to  it  by  Hyder ;  for  its  origi- 
nal appellation,  Handy-pura,  signifying  hog-town,  was  an  abomina- 
tion to  the  Mussulman. 

23d  February. — I  remained  at  Hulledy-piira,  with  a  view  of  taking  Feb.  23. 
an  account  of  the  agriculture  of  the  country,  as  an  example  of  that 
Avhich  prevails  in  Haiga.  Is  found  most  of  the  cultivators  to  be 
Brahmans,  cunning  as  foxes,  and  much  alarmed  concerning  my  in- 
tentions in  questioning  them  on  such  subjects.  Great  reliance, 
therefore,  cannot  be  placed  on  what  they  said,  especially  as  their 
answers  Avere  very  contradictory. 

Most  of  the  cultivated  lands  in  Haiga  are  private  property  ;  but  Tenures. 
the  hills  and  forests  belong  to  the  government.  Every  man  pays  a 
certain  Shistu,  Caicagada,  or  land-tax,  for  the  whole  of  his  property 
in  cumulo,  and  cultivates  it  in  whatever  manner  he  pleases.  This 
prevents  a  traveller  from  being  able  to  ascertain  how  far  the  tax  is 
reasonable  or  oppressive.  The  proprietors  are  called  Mulugaras, 
and  are  chiefly -Bra/m2««i'.  Most  of  them  cultivate  their  lands  on 
their  own  account;  but  some  let  a  part  out  to  Gaynigaras,  or 
renters  ;  for  Gayrii  signifies  rent.  Very  few  are  encumbered  with 
mortgages ;  the  Brahmans  of  Haiga,  like  most  Hindus,  being  in 
many  respects  good  economists. 

Those  who  keep  twenty  ploughs  are  reckoned  very  wealthy;  men  Size  of  farms,, 
in  moderate  circumstances  have  from  four  to  six  ;  but  a  very  great  of  stock"^'*^ 
number  possess  only  one  plough.  The  Brahmans  perform  no  labour 
with  their  own  hands.  One  of  them  says,  that  he  has  four  ploughs, 
■with  eight  oxen,  and  keeps  four  male  and  four  female  servants. 
The  extra  expenses  of  harvest  and  weeding  amount  to  20  Morays 
of  rough  rice.  He  sows  20  Morays  on  low  land,  and  2  Colagas  oa 
hill  land,  and  has  a  coco-nut  garden  containing  200  trees. 


340  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

In  the  farms  of  the  Brdltmans  most  of  the  labour  is  performed  by 
slaves.  These  people  get  daily  \~  Hany  of  rice  :  a  woman  receives 
1  Hany.  Each  gets  yearly  2|-  Rupees  Avorth  of  cloth,  and  they  are 
allowed  time  to  build  a  hut  for  themselves  in  the  coco-nut  garden. 
They  have  no  other  allowance,  and  out  of  this  pittance  must  support 
their  infants  and  aged  people.  The  woman's  share  is  nearly  15 
bushels  a  year,  worth  rather  less  than  I45:  Rupees  ;  to  this  if  we  add 
her  allowance  for  clothes,  she  gets  I65  Rupees  a  year,  equal  to 
1/.  165.  Q\d.  The  man's  allowance  is  22|- bushels,  ox  ^S%  Rupees, 
or  <-Il.  3*.  0\d. 
Wages  office  A  male  free  servant,  hired  by  the  day,  gets  2  Hatiies  of  rice. 
Both  work  from  seven  in  the  morning  until  five  in  the  evening ; 
but  at  noon  they  are  allowed  half  an  hour  to  eat  some  victuals  that 
are  dressed  in  the  family  as  part  of  their  allowance  ;  and  every  cast 
can  eat  the  food  which  a  Brahman  has  prepared. 
Leases,  rent,  The  leases  granted  to  tenants  (Gaynigaras)  are  in  general  for 
and  and-tax.  £^qj^  fQ^,.  ^q  ^^^  years.  For  each  crop  of  rice  they  pay,  for  every 
Moray  sown,  2  Morays  of  rice  for  land  of  the  first  quality  ;  \~  for 
middling  land ;  and  1  Moray  of  rice  for  the  worst  land :  out  of 
this  the  proprietor  pays  the  taxes.  The  proprietor  ought  to  find 
security  for  the  payment  of  the  land-tax.  If  he  does  not,  a  revenue 
officer  is  sent  to  superintend  the  harvest,  to  sell  the  produce,  and 
to  deduct  the  revenue  from  the  proceeds.  This  is  a  miserable 
system,  and  one  of  a  true  liindustany  invention  ;  as  the  person  sent 
to  collect  the  harvest  received  an  allowance  from  the  farmer;  and 
thus  one  of  the  idle  tatterdemalions  that  formed  part  of  the  clamo- 
rous suite  of  some  great  man  had  for  a  while  the  cravings  of  his 
appetite  satisfied.  If  a  man  has  given  security,  and  fails  in  payment, 
on  the  third  day  after  the  term  the  security  is  called  upon,  and  con- 
fined until  the  revenue  is  paid.  The  estate  is  never  sold  on  account 
of  arrears;  and  where  the  crop  has  failed  from  bad  seasons,  or  other 
unavoidable  causes,  a  deduction  from  the  rent  is  generally  allowed. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  14  r 

Estates  that  pay  20  Pagodas  as  land-tax,  sell  for  about  100  Pa-  CHAPTER 
godas.  The  same  quantity  of  land  may  be  mortgaged  for  50  Pagodas.  v,^-v-v^ 
The  lender  gets  the  whole  profits  of  the  estate  for  interest;  but,  Feb, 23. 

.  T     ,  Value  of 

Avhenever  the  borrower  pleases  to  repay  the  debt,  he  may  resume  estates, 
his  land. 

Both  these  circumstances,  of  estates  being  saleable,  and  capable 
of  being  let  on  mortgage,  show,  that  they  are  of  more  value  to  the 
proprietors  than  what  might  be  esteemed  as  an  adequate  reward  for 
the  labour  and  expense  of  cultivation.  This  is  also  evinced  by  the 
number  of  disputes  that  happen  concerning  succession.  These,  in 
the  first  instance,  are  determined  by  the  Tahsildar,  with  the  assis- 
tance of  a  Panchaity,  or  assembly  of  respectable  neighbours.  The 
decision  is  sent  to  the  collector,  who,  as  he  sees  reason,  either  con- 
firms it  finally,  or  investigates  farther  into  the  matter.  Here  a 
man's  sons  generally  divide  the  estate  equally  among  them  ;  but 
the  eldest  manages  the  whole,  and  they  live  all  together.  When  it 
comes  to  be  divided  among  a  number  of  cousins,  owing  to  more 
than  one  brother  of  a  family  having  children,  the  estate  is  commonly 
let,  and  the  rent  divided. 

I  measured  three  fields.  The  first  containing  76,280  square  feet,  Quantity  of 
was  rated  in  the  public  accompts  at  3^  Morays  sowing,  which  would  foranl''""^'' 
make  the  seed  at  the  rate  of  2,yVoV  bushels  an  acre.  The  next  plot 
measured  10,135  square  feet,  and  was  said  to  sow  8  Hanies,  which  is 
at  the  rate  of  l,^^  bushel  an  acre.  The  third  plot  measured  21,356 
square  feet,  and  was  said  to  requii'e  20  Hanies  of  seed,  which  is  at 
the  rate  of  liy'^y^- bushel  an  acre.  These  agree  so  ill,  that  much 
dependance  cannot  be  placed  on  the  estimate;  but,  having  no  better 
grounds  to  proceed  upon,  I  must  take  the  average,  or  9,-~i-^  bushel 
as  the  seed  required  for  one  acre.  This  is  nearly  the  same  quantity 
•with  that  used  in  the  southern  parts  of  Malabar  ;  but  much  greater 
than  would  appear  to  be  the  case  in  Mr.  Ravenshaw's  district. 

In  this  neighbourhood  there  are  three   kinds  of  rice-ground;  Divisions  of 
Mackey,  Bylu,  and  Caru.    The  first  is  the  higher  ground,  Avhich  "ce-giounds. 


142 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER  gives  only  one  crop  in  the  year.  The  Bylu  ground  gives  either 
two  crops  of  rice,  or  one  of  rice  and  one  of  pulse.  The  Cam  in  the 
rainy  season  is  so  deeply  inundated,  that  it  cannot  then  be  culti- 
vated;  and  in  the  dry  season  gives  one  crop.  The  crop  of  rice 
produced  in  the  rains  is  called  Caiica  j  that  which  grows  in  the  dry 
season  is  called  Sughi. 

In  the  accompanying  Table,  several  particulars,  relative  to  the 
cultivation  of  rice  are  detailed.  The  rice  raised  on  Mackey  ground 
is  of  a  very  inferior  quality  to  that  raised  on  the  lower  fields,  and 
is  that  which  is  given  to  slaves  and  day  labourers.  Its  average 
price  is  12  Pagodas  a  Gorge,  or  21|:  pence  a  bushel;  while  that  of 
the  other  is  20  Pagodas  a  Gorge,  or  35|-  pence  a  bushel. 

Table  explaining  the  cultivation  of  Rice  at  Hulledy-pura. 


XVI 

Feb.  2J 


Quality  and 
price  of 
different 
rices. 


On  Mackie 
land. 


Soils  for  which 

Crop  in 
which 

Prod 

uce  after  deducting  Seed. 

Of  one  Moray 

sown. 

Of  one  Acre. 

each  is  fined. 

each  is 

sown. 

5  "^ 

to     O 

a* 

bo 

■^  -• 

"5    • 

-a    • 

-5   . 

c 

o    Cu 

-C    G. 

o  ^ 

o  a. 

o    °^ 

o  o 

■-    O 

O    0 

"^  o* 

s 

O  5 

s  s 

a.  5 

O  0 

S  5 

a<  S 

Mtrays 

Merays 

Moray! 

Bushels 

Bushels 

Bushels 

Hani/  Samy 

Mackey    -     - 

Catica 

*2 

6- 

4 

o 

lyi 

13f 

6i 

Coc/iiga 

Mackey    -     - 

Catica 

~Z 

6" 

4 

2 

m 

13| 

6i 

Aria     -     - 

Bylu  -     -     - 

Catica 

"i 

JO 

8 

8 

33 

26i 

13| 

Hidluga 

Bylu   -     -     - 

Catica 

5 

10 

S 

8 

33 

26i 

13i 

Cansu  Suriti/ 

Bylu  and  Caru 

Sughi 

4 

12 

9 

9 

3()i 

'^91: 

16? 

L'ldtiica 

Bylu  and  Caru 

Sughi 

4 

9 

6 

6 

•29\ 

m 

13i 

The  only  mode  of  cultivation  used  here  for  Mackey  land  is  that 
called  Mola,  or  sprouted-seed.  In  the  month  preceding,  and  that 
following  the  summer  solstice,  when  the  rains  commence,  the  field 
is  ploughed  five  times  in  the  course  of  fifteen  days,  and  all  the 
while  the  water  is  confined.  Before  the  last  ploughing  it  is  ma- 
nured with  dung  from  the  cow-house.  After  the  ploughings  the 
field  is  smoothed  with  the  Noli-haligay,  or  plank  drawn  by  oxen 
(Plate  XXII.  Fig.  58.).     It  is  then  harrowed  with  the  Haligny, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  143 

which  is  the  same  with  the  Ilalivai/  of  Seringapatam  (Plate  IV. 
Fig.  .9-);  3.nd  at  the  same  time  roots  and  Aveeds  are  pulled  out  by 
the  hand.  The  water  is  then  allowed  to  run  off,  and  the  prepared  ^^^-  ~^- 
seed  is  sown  broad-cast.  If  in  three  days  any  rain  fall,  the  seed  is 
lost,  and  the  field  must  be  sown  again.  For  a  month  the  water  is 
allowed  to  run  off  as  fast  as  it  falls,  after  which  it  is  confined  on  the 
rice  until  the  crop  is  ripe.  At  the  end  of  one  moon  and  a  half  the 
weeds  are  removed  by  the  hand. 

The  straw  is  cut  witli  the  grain.  That  intended  for  seed  is  imme-  Management 
diately  thrashed,  and  dried  seven  days  in  the  sun.  That  intended  °  ^S^^'"' 
for  eating  is  put  in  heaps  for  eight  days,  and  defended  from  the 
rain  by  thatch.  The  grain  is  then  either  beaten  off  with  a  stick,  or 
trodden  by  oxen ;  and  for  three  days  is  dried  in  the  sun.  The 
whole  is  preserved  in  Morai/s  or  straw  bags,  and  kept  in  the  house, 
till  it  can  be  boiled,  and  cleaned  from  the  husks ;  for  the  farmer 
here  never  sells  rough  rice  (Paddy).  All  the  grain  that  is  cut  in 
the  rainy  season  is  boiled,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  separation  of  the 
husks. 

The  Ca/ic«  crop  on  Bylu  land  is  mostly  sown  sprouted-seed  :  a  Ca^ica  crop 

1-     1  1      •  1       n^i  -  of  rice  on 

very  little  only  is  transplanted.  The  manner  ot  preparing  the  seed  ByluVdnd. 
here  is,  to  steep  the  straw  bag  containing  it  in  water  for  an  hour 
twice  a  day.  In  the  intervals  it  is  placed  on  a  flat  stone  which 
stands  in  the  house,  and  it  is  pressed  down  by  another.  The  large- 
grained  seeds  require  three  days  of  this  treatment,  and  are  sown  on 
the  fourth  day.  The  small-grained  seeds  are  steeped  two  days,  and 
sown  on  the  third.  For  the  Catica  crop  on  Bylu  land  the  five 
ploughings  are  given  at  the  same  season  as  for  that  owMackey  land. 
After  the  fifth  ploughing  the  field  in  the  course  of  five  days  is  ma- 
nured, and  ploughed  again  twice,  having  all  the  while  had  the  Avater 
confined  on  it.  The  mud  is  then  smoothed  with  the  rake  drawn  by 
oxen ;  the  water  is  let  off,  and  the  prepared  seed  is  sown  broad- 
cast. It  is  managed  afterwards  exactly  like  the  crop  on  Mackie 
land ;  and,  as  it  ripens  toward  the  end  of  the  rainy  season,  the  straw 


144  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  is  in  general  well  preserved.  The  rice  however,  to  enable  the  husks 
^^\^^     to  be  easily  removed,  must  be  always  boiled. 
Feb.  23.  The  Sug/ii  crop  on  Bi/lu  land  is  entirely  sown  sprouted-seed.    In 

Tici on b'uIu    the   two    months    following   the  autumnal    equinox,    the    field   is 
land.  ploughed  eight  times,  then  manured  with  cow-house  dung,   and 

ploughed  a  ninth  time.     It  is  then   smoothed  with  the  rake  drawn 
by  oxen,  having  been  all  the  while  inundated.    The  water  is  then 
drawn  off  by  an  instrument  named  Cainully  (Plate  XXV.  Fig.  70.), 
which  is  wrought  by  a  man  like  a  rake.     Small   furrows  are  then 
made  in  the  mud,  to  allow  the  water  to  drain  off  thoroughly,  which 
is  done  by  a  small  wooden  instrument  named  Shirula  (Plate  XXV. 
Fig.  69.).     In  the  month  preceding  the  winter  solstice  the  seed   is 
sown.    On  the  ninth  day  a  little  water  is  given  ;  and,  as  the  rice 
grows,  the  quantity  is  gradually  increased.    Till  the  end  of  the  first 
month,  the  rain  water  in  general  is  not  expended ;  afterwards,  by 
means  of  the  machine  called  VatatJi,  the  fields  are  supplied  from 
small  reservoirs  and  wells,  or  still  more  commonly  from  rivulets  or 
springs,  the  water  of  which  is  raised  by  dams,  and  spread  over  the 
fields.    These  dams  are  very  simple,  consisting  of  earth  and  the 
branches  of  trees,  with  a  few  stones  intermixed.    The  government 
in  general  is  at  the  expense  of  making  the  reservoirs  and  dams. 
Cultivation  of      In  the  rainy  season  the  Caru  land  is  covered  with  water  to  the 
riceonCarii    depth  of  from  three  to  six  feet;  and  on  that  account  cannot  be 
then  cultivated.    Afterwards  it  is  cultivated  exactly  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  Bylu  land  for  the  Sughi  crop  ;  and,  although  it  yields 
only  one  crop  in  the  year,  the  produce  is  not  greater. 
Cultivation  of      Upon  some  of  the  Bt/lu  land,  where  there  is  not  a  supply  of 
Bylula.nd.°^  water  for  two  crops  of  rice,  a  crop  of  some  of  the  dry  grains  is 
taken   in   the  Sughi  season.      The  quantity   of  seed  for  all  the 
kinds  is  the  same,  2  Colagas  for  a  Moray  land,  or  0,^V^  bushel 
an  acre. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  145 

Of  the  grains  cultivated, 

Ellu,  or  Sesamum  produces  10  Colagas,  or  1,-^^^  bushel  an  acre. 
Udu,  Phaseolus  minimoo  R:  produces  12  Colagas,  or  Ij^^o  bushel  an  acre.  '^^"'  ^'^' 

Hessaru  Bily  (white)  Phaseolus  mungo,  produces  14  Colagas,  or  2,  "oVo  bushels  an  acre. 
Pachy  (green)  produces  10  Colagas,  or  1,t^^  bushel  an  acre. 

For  all  these,  the  ground  is  ploughed  five  times  in  the  month 
which  precedes  the  shortest  day ;  but  the  Hessaru  is  sown  fifteen 
days  later  than  the  Ellu,  and  the  Udu  fifteen  days  later  than  the 
Hessaru.  Before  the  last  ploughing,  the  field  is  manured  with  ashes. 
The  seed  is  sown  broad-cast,  and  covered  with  the  rake  drawn  by 
oxen.  A  month  after  seed  time,  the  weeds  are  removed  by  the 
hand.  Cattle  will  eat  the  straw  of  all  the  three  pulses,  but  it  is 
reckoned  a  worse  fodder  than  the  straw  of  rice. 

Sugar-cane  is  raised  on  Mackey  land  ;  but  four  years  must  inter-  Sugar-cane. 
vene  between  every  two  crops ;  and  for  the  first  two  years  after 
cane,  the  rice  does  not  thrive.  The  kind  of  cane  used  here  is  called 
Bily-cabo,  which  above  the  Ghats  is  called  Mara-cabo.  Inland  they 
cultivate  the  Cari-cabo,  which  above  the  Ghats  is  called  Puttaputty. 
In  the  month  preceding  the  vernal  equinox,  the  field  is  dug  to  the 
depth  often  inches  with  the  hoe  called  Cutari.  It  is  then  ploughed 
five  times,  and  smoothed  with  the  rake  drawn  by  oxen.  Channels 
for  conveying  the  water  are  then  made,  parallel  to  each  other,  and 
at  the  distance  of  three  cubits.  They  are  about  nine  inches  wide, 
as  much  deep,  and  raised  a  little  above  the  surface,  the  field  being 
level.  The  intermediate  beds  are  formetl  into  ridges  perpendicular 
to  the  channels,  and  resembling  those  of  a  potatoe  field  when  it  has 
been  horse-hoed.  The  field  is  then  covered  with  bushes,  grass,  dry 
cow-dung,  and  especially  with  dried  parasitical  plants,  such  as  Epi- 
dendra,  Limodora,  &c.  and  the  whole  of  these  are  burned  to  ashes  as, 
a  manure.  On  the  third  day  after  this  the  canes  intended  for  plant- 
ing ai-e  cut  into  pieces,  each  containing  three  joints,  and  these  are 
soaked  in  water  for  two  days.  Then  in  each  furrow  between  two 
ridges  are  placed  longitudinally  two  rows  of  these  cuttings.     Eacli 

Vol.  III.  U 


146  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   piece  leaves  an  interval  of  four  inches  between  it  and  the  next  piece 
^J^yiL,    of  the  same  row.    The  rows  are  placed  near  the  bottom  of  the  fur- 

Feb.  23,  rows,  and  are  slightly  covered  with  earth ;  and  the  furrows  arc 
then  filled  with  water.  All  this  must  be  performed  before  the  new 
year  commences  at  the  equinox.  Next  day  the  furrows  are  again 
watered,  and  this  is  repeated  on  the  eighth  day,  and  afterwards 
once  every  four  days.  Two  months  after  planting  the  field  is 
weeded,  and  the  ridges  are  repaired  with  a  small  hoe  called  Halu- 
catay.  The  field  is  then  manured  with  ashes,  and  with  mud  taken 
out  of  places  where  water  lies  deep.  After  this  the  watering  is  re- 
peated once  in  four  days  till  the  commencement  of  the  rainy  season, 
when  the  ridges  are  thrown  down,  and  nev/  ones  formed  at  the  roots 
of  each  row  of  canes.  In  nine  months  these  ripen  without  farther 
trouble.  The  Avater  is  in  general  raised,  by  the  machine  called 
Yatam,  from  wells  in  which  it  is  found  at  the  depth  of  from  three 
to  twelve  feet  from  the  surface.  Three  men  are  required  to  water 
and  cultivate  one  Moray  land,  of  which  Ij^Vo  s^re  equal  to  an  acre  ; 
but  at  the  time  they  are  so  employed  the  farm  requires  little  other 
work.  The  canes  are  very  small,  being  from  2  to  2|^  cubits  long, 
and  about  the  thickness  of  a  man's  thumb.  The  juice  is  expressed 
by  a  mill,  which  consists  of  three  cylinders  moved  by  a  perpetual 
screw.  The  force  is  applied  to  the  centre  cylinder  by  two  capstan 
bars,  wrought  by  six  or  eight  men  ;  and  the  whole  machine  is  ex- 
tremely rude.  A  Moray  land  produces  10  Maunds  ofjagory,  worth 
in  all  5  Pagodas.  This  is  at  the  rate  of  4,^5^  hundred-weight  an 
acre,  worth  about  3 1.  10*.  My  informants  seem  to  have  greatly 
•      under-rated  the  quantity  of  Jagory. 

In  the  very  satisfactory  answers  which  Mr.  Read,  the  collector, 
has  been  so  good  as  to  send  to  my  queries,  he  observes  as  follows : 
"As  the  land  on  which  the  sugar-cane  is  reared  is  all  rice-ground, 
its  cultivation  might  be  increased  to  a  very  considerable  extent ; 
but  not  without  lessening  the  quantity  of  rice,  because,  the  market 
for  sugar  being  neither  so  extensive  nor  so  profitable,  by  any  means, 


Feb.  23. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  ANI>  MALABAR.  147 

as  that  for  rice,  few  fai-mers  would  be  at  the  expense  of  levelling  CHAPTER 

and  preparing  ground  for  sugar-cane  only..   They,  probably,  even 

now  plant  as   much  of  their  grounds  with  the  sugar-cane  as  they 

think  they  can  readily  sell;  but  I  do  not  think  this  cultivation  will 

be  ever  much  increased,  because  the  late  reduction  in  the  export 

duties  on  rice,  together  with  the  increased  demand  for  that  article, 

make  its  cultivation  of  still  more  importance  to  the  farmer  than  it 

was  heretofore." 

In  this  Grdmam  o?  Hulledy-pura  there  are  144  Mulagaras,  or  pro- 
prietors, whose  estates  in  the  revenue  accompts  are  said  to  amount 
to  1443-I-  Morays  sowing,  or  8051  acres.  They  have  besides,  by 
actual  enumeration,  7499  coco-nut  palms,  and  226  Arecas,  young 

5- 

and  old.    The  Shistu,  or  land-tax,  is  1084-^  Bahadury  Pagodas,  or 
436/.  16*.  Ud. 

The  land  called  here  Betta,  or  HacJcelu,  like  the  Parum  of  Ma-  Betta,ox\i\\\- 
labar,  is  formed  into  terraces;  but  on  these  rice  is  not  cultivated. 
The  only  crops  that  it  produces  are  Sesamum  and  Udu  (Phaseolus 
minimoo  Roxb:).  On  this  kind  of  ground,  after  the  soil  has  been 
ploughed  three  times,  and  manured  with  ashes,  these  grains  are 
sown  broad-cast  in  the  second  month  after  the  summer  solstice. 
The  seed  is  covered  Avith  a  hoe  called  Ella-kiidalL  The  produce  is 
much  the  same  as  on  Bylu  land  ;  but  there  are  no  means  by  which 
the  extent  of  Betta  ground  can  be  estimated. 

In  the  hilly  parts  of  the  country,  many  people  of  a  Marattah  ex-  Cumri q.\A<\- 
traction  use  the  Cumri,  or  Cotu-cadu  cultivation.  In  the  first  season,  ^^  '""* 
after  burning  the  woods,  they  sow  Ragy  (Cynosurus),  Tovary  (Cy- 
iisus  cajan),  and  Harulii  (Ricinus).  Next  year  they  have  from  the 
same  ground  a  crop  of  Shamay  {Panicum  miliare  Lamarck.).  These 
hills  are  not  private  property,  and  pay  no  land-tax  ;  but  those  who 
sow  them  pay,  for  the  right  of  cultivation,  a  poll-tax  of  half  a 
Pagoda,  or  nearly  4>s.  On  account  of  poverty,  many  of  them  at 
present  are  exempted  from  this  tax. 


148 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  23. 

Implements 
and  cattle. 


I\Ianure. 


I  could  here  procure  no  satisfactory  account  of  the  garden  culti- 
vation, and  shall  not  state  what  was  said  on  the  subject;  but  shall 
defer  describing  the  gardens  of  Haiga  until  another  opportunity. 

The  only  cattle  in  Haiga  are  buffaloes  and  oxen,  about  an  equal 
number  of  each  of  which  are  used  in  the  plough.  This  implement 
is  here  of  the  same  form  as  that  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Sej-in- 
gapatam.  In  Haiga  they  have  no  carts.  Many  of  the  cattle  are 
imported  from  the  countries  adjacent  to  the  Ghats  near  Nagara, 
and  even  these  are  of  the  poorest  kind,  nor  are  they  larger  than 
those  of  Malayala  or  Tulava.  In  the  dry  season,  although  fed  with 
hay  and  straw,  they  are  scarcely  able  to  crawl.  In  the  rainy  season 
they  grow  fat,  and  strong,  on  the  natural  grass  of  the  hills.  Work- 
ing oxen  get  the  powder  which  separates  from  rice  while  it  is 
beaten;  buffaloes  get  the  cake  which  is  left  after  squeezing  the 
oil  from  coco-nut  kernels.  The  natives  are  ignorant  that  the  cake 
which  is  formed  in  the  same  manner  from  Sesamum  seed  could  be 
given  to  their  cattle.  Milk,  and  butter,  or  Ghee,  are  very  dear, 
owing  to  the  small  number  of  com's,  and  their  wretched  condition. 

At  night  the  cattle  in  every  part  of  Haiga  are  kept  in  the  house, 
where  they  are  daily  well  littered  with  fresh  materials.  The  litter 
and  dung  are  carefully  reserved,  as  a  manure  for  rice-land  ;  and  the 
manure  that  is  made  from  each  kind  of  litter  is  kept  in  a  separate 
dunghill.  In  the  two  months  preceding,  and  in  that  following  the 
winter  solstice,  the  litter  is  dry  gi'ass,  and  the  manure  formed  with 
it  is  called  Caradada  Goh'a.  Dry  leaves  of  every  kind  of  tree, 
except  those  that  are  prickly,  and  those  of  the  Govay  (Goa)  or 
Anacardium  occidentale  Lin:  are  used  as  litter  in  the  three  following 
sionths,  and  form  a  manure  which  is  called  Daryghena  Gobra. 
During  the  six  remaining  months,  mostly  of  wet  weather,  the  fresh 
leaves  of  trees  are  used  for  litter,  and  make  a  dung  called  Hudi 
Gobra,  which  is  esteemed  the  best.  The  ashes  of  the  family  are 
Jcept  in  a  separate  pit,  and  are  applied  to  different  purposes.    The 


IMYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  149 

cakes  made  of  cow-dung  are  little  used  as  fewel  iu  this  part  of  the  CHAPTER 
country ;  but,  to  increase  the  quantity  of  manure,  the  women  and  ,iiX^ 
boys  follow  the  cattle  while  at  pasture,  and  pick  up  the  dung.  Feb.  23. 

The  Seer  weight  at  Hulledy-pura  is  the  same  with  that  of  Man-  Weights. 
galore.    It  ought  to  weigh  24  Bombay  Rupees ;  but,  these  being  a 
scarce  article  Avith  the  shopkeepers,  in  their  stead  Dubs,  or  Dudus, 
are  commonly  used,  and  are  somewhat  heavier. 

The  Maund  for  the  common  articles  in  the 

market  (Bazar)=.^0  Seers,  or  24yVo  ll>' 
The  Jiawwi^  of  pepper  -  -      =42  do.     or  9.6-^\h. 

of  Betel-nut        -  -         =45|  do.  or  27-i^  lb. 

of  dry  coco-nut  kernels        =48  do.     or  29^Vo  lb. 
of  Jagory  -         -  =44  do.     or  9.6^^  lb. 

There  are  in  use  here  two  kinds  of  grain  measure  ;  one  for  the  Dry-mea- 
farmers,   and  one  for  the  merchants.    The  basis  of  the  farmer's  ^^^^' 
measure  is  the  Hany,  containing  87t  cubical  inches. 

2    Hanies  =:\  Colaga  ...       =  Bushel  0,08163 

20    Colagas=l  Moray  or  Mudy  for  common  use  =:Bushel  1,632 
Q^\  Colagas=i\  Moray  ^ox  ssXe  -         -  =  Bushel  1,8136 

15    Colagas=\  Moray  for  seed         -  -  =  Bushel  1,224 

The  basis  of  the  measure  by  which  merchants  deal  is  the  Sida  of 
32§  cubical  inches. 

6  Sidas      =1  Colaga        -         =  Bushel    0,-f^-^ 
20  Colagas  =1  Moray,  or  Mudi  =  Bushel    1,-iV^ 
30  Morays  =1  Gorge         -         =  Bushel  54,-j^^^ 

The  market  (Bazar)  Mudy,  or  Moray,  and  that  of  the  farmers  for 
sale,  ought  to  be  the  same ;  but  they  differ  y|^  parts  of  a  bushel. 
Any  exact  coincidence,  however,  cannot  be  expected  from  the  rude 
implements  Avhich  the  Hindus  employ  in  forming  their  measures. 
The  different  quantities  that  are  called  by  the  same  denomination, 
when  used  for  different  purposes,  seem  to  have  been  contrived 


150  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  with  a  view  of  increasing  the  difficulty  of  the  government  m 
^VI.        acquiring  a  knowledge  of  the  real  state  of  the  country. 

Feb.  23.  The  common  currency  here  consists  of  Ikeri,  Sultany,  and  Bahu' 

°"^^'  duty  Varahas,  Hoons,  or  Pagodas ;  Surat  and  Madras  Rupees,  which 
are  considered  as  of  equal  value,  and  pass  for  one  quarter  of  a  Pa- 
goda ;  Silver  Fanams,  of  the  same  kind  as  are  current  in  Malabar, 
but  here  five  and  a  half  are  only  equal  to  one  Rupee  ;  and  the  Arty 
Dudu,  or  elephant  Dubs,  coined  by  Tippoo,  ten  of  which  pass  for  one 
Fanam.  The  revenue  is  collected  in  a  much  greater  variety  of 
coins,  according  to  a  rate  fixed  by  the  collector,  which  private 
people  also  have  adopted  in  their  dealings;  in  forming  it,  therefore, 
due  regard  to  justice  has  been  observed. 

Commerce.  Having  assembled  the  principal  traders  from  the  neighbourhood, 
they  said,  that  in  the  government  of  Hyder  the  trade  of  Honawera 
was  very  considerable. 

Pepper.  The  Company  had  established  a  factory,   where  they  annually 

procured  from  above  the  Ghats  about  750  Candies  (520  lb.)  of  pepper, 
and  150  Candies  the  produce  of  the  low  country.  The  greater  part 
of  the  pepper  from  above  the  Ghats  was  sold  directly  by  Hyder. 
The  chief  of  the  factory  conti'acted  with  individuals  for  the  pro- 
duce of  Billighy,  and  of  the  low  country,  and  advanced  sometimes 
one-half,  and  at  others  the  whole  of  the  price,  which  varied  from 
110  to  120  Rupees  a  Candy  of  520  lb.  The  merchants  again  began 
to  make  advances  to  the  cultivators  in  the  month  after  the  autumnal 
equinox,  which  is  about  four  months  before  crop  season.  These 
advances  were  always  less  in  amount  than  what  the  merchant  re- 
ceived from  the  Company;  and  the  use  of  the  balance,  and  two 
Rupees  on  each  Candy,  are  alleged  to  have  been  all  the  profit  which 
he  received.  The  advances  were  not  made  to  individuals;  but  the 
merchant  gave  a  certain  sum  into  the  hands  of  some  respectable 
Gauda,  or  chief  of  a  village,  who  contracted  to  deliver  a  certain 
quantity  of  pepper  at  Honawera,  at  two  Rupees  ti  Candy  less  than  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  151 

Company's  price.  What  profits  these  Gaudashad,  the  merchants  do  CHAPTER 
not  know.  There  were  no  export  duties;  and  nobody,  except  the  ^^^Li 
Company,  exported  pepper.  Feb.  23, 

Hyder  sold  to  the  Company  the  whole  of  the  sandal  wood.  None  Sandal-wood, 
of  it  is  produced  below  the  Ghats  ;  and  the  quantity  then  brought 
annually  to  Honawera  was  from   two  to  three  hundred  Candies  of 
600  lb. 

No  cardamoms  ever  came  this  way.  Cardamoms. 

All  the  Betel-nut  exported  from  Honawera  was  the  produce  of  Betel-nut,  or 
the  low  country  between  Batuculla  and  Mirzee,  and  amounted  an- 
nually to  1000  Candies  of  560  lb.  worth  10,000  Pagodas  (4034/.  19*. 
7d.):  of  this  the  Company  took  a  considerable  quantity,  both 
raw  and  boiled;  and,  for  whatever  they  wanted,  they  had  always 
a  preference. 

The  trade  in  coco-nuts,  both  whole,  and  in  the  state  called  Copra,  Coco-nuts. 
or  dried  kernels,  was  in  the  hands  of  individuals.  The  value  an- 
nually exported  was  about  12,000  Rupees  (1206/.  1*.  Ijd.).  Owing 
to  the  great  number  of  inhabitants,  rice  Av^as  then  imported;  at  pre- 
sent it  is  the  chief  article  of  export.  There  never  Avere  in  this 
country  any  manufactures.  The  oppressions  of  the  late  Sultan  soon 
destroyed  the  whole  trade;  and  the  merchants  are  now  just  begin- 
ning to  appear  from  their  lurking-places,  or  to  return  from  the 
countries  to  which  they  had  fled.  The  exports  at  present,  besides 
rice,  are  a  little  pepper.  Betel-nut,  and  coco-nut;  Avhich  are  pur- 
chased by  boats  from  Goa,  Bombay,  and  Raja-pura.  The  Marattah 
pirates  are  a  great  obstacle  to  the  inhabitants  building  boats  for  the 
exportation  of  goods. 

The  present  price  of  staple  articles  here  is :  x 

Rice  for  slaves  per  Gorge  Pagodas  -         13 

coarse            -            -            -  15 

fine                 _             -             .  ggl 

Betel-nut  boiled,  per  Candy            -  15 


152 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  23. 


Betel-nut  raw  per  Candy,  Pagodas      -  1 1 

Coco-nut  Cop7'a         -             -            -  10 

whole  per  1000         .          .  Q 

Black-pepper,  per  Candy       -          -  30 

Jagory  of  sugar-cane,  Mounds  2|-        -  1 


Feb.  24. 
Appearance 
of  the  couQ- 
tn-. 


24th  Februai^y. — I  went  a  long  journey,  called  four  cosses,  and 
encamped  on  the  south  side. of  a  river  opposite  to  Mirzee.  About 
two  cosses  from  Hulledy-pura,  I  came  to  a  town  named  Cumty.  It 
seems  to  have  been  formerly  a  place  of  some  note.  Its  lanes  are 
straight,  and  fenced  with  stone  walls,  and  it  has  many  coco-nut 
gardens.  Twice  it  had  the  misfortune  of  having  Tippoo's  army  en- 
camped in  its  vicinity;  and  on  both  occasions  it  was  burned  down 
by  some  of  the  irregulars.  On  its  south  side  is  a  plain,  intersected 
by  a  salt-water  creek,  which  allows  much  salt  to  be  made.  The  soil 
of  the  plain,  which  extends  all  the  Avay  from  Hulledy-pura,  is  very 
sandy.  For  a  coss  north  from  Cumty,  the  ground  is  high,  with  very- 
little  cultivation ;  but  a  great  part  of  it  seems  to  be  fit  for  being 
formed  into  Mackey,  or  at  least  into  Betta  land.  Between  this  and 
the  river  is  a  very  fine  plain,  called  Hegada,  from  a  small  town  near 
which  I  encamped.  The  low  lands  here  are  subject  to  being  inun- 
dated by  the  swelling  of  the  river,  which  frequently  spoils  the 
Catica  crop  of  rice  when  the  farmers  attempt  to  cultivate  it.  The 
appearance  of  the  farm-houses  at  Hegada  denotes  that  the  inhabi- 
tants are  in  a  much  more  comfortable  situation  than  is  usual  in  India. 
The  river  is  called  Tari-holay,  and  abounds  with  fine  oysters.  At  this 
place,  which  is  three  cosses  from  the  sea,  it  is  at  this  season  about 
600  yards  wide.  The  tide  and  salt-water  go  up  about  three  cosses 
farther.  Its  northern  bank  is  high,  and  was  formerly  occupied  by  a 
fort  and  town  called  Midijay,  corrupted  by  the  Mussulmans  into 
Mirzee,  Merzee,  and  Merjawn.  This  place  suffered  much  in  a  siege 
which  it  stood  against  i/j/(/er ;  and  in  the  oppressive  government 
of  his  son  it  was  entirely  deserted.    The  river  formed  the  northern 


Mysore,  canara,  and  MALABAk  153 

boundary  of  the  dominions  of  a  Jain  family,  who  resided  at  Cumiy,   CHAPTER 
and  possessed  the  country  as  far  south  as  Honaxvera.  v^^^-O 

There  being  in  this  neighbourhood  many  palm  gardens,  I  as-  pf'^'.^^^ 
sembled  the  cultivators,  and  obtained  from  them  the  following 
account : 

in  this  part  of  the  country  the  sandy  downs  near  the  sea  are  not  Coco-nuti, 
much  esteemed  for  the  cultivation  of  the  coco-nut.  Here  the  far- 
mers prefer  the  banks  of  salt-water  inlets ;  and  near  these  the  rising 
grounds  are  generally  planted,  and  the  houses  are  built  in  the  gar- 
dens. About  towns,  many  gardens  are  enclosed  with  stone  walls ; 
in  villages,  the  proprietors  are  contented  with  fences  of  earth,  like 
those  in  Malabar.  Once  in  two  years  the  whole  garden  is  dug,  and 
fresh  earth  at  the  same  time  is  spread  throughout,  by  the  indus- 
trious, to  the  depth  of  two  inches ;  but  lazy  people  allow  only  a 
little  to  the  roots  of  each  tree.  The  garden  gets  no  other  manure, 
except  some  salt  to  the  young  seedlings  when  these  are  trans- 
pl'anted.  For  six  months  in  the  year  they  must  be  watered  once  in 
four  days.  A  young  tree,  fit  for  transplanting,  costs  two  Dubs 
(about  a  penny),  and  is  set  in  place  of  an  old  one  which  has  died  ; 
so  that  the  garden  is  never  suffered  to  decay.  In  a  good  soil,  the 
trees  when  ten  years  old  begin  to  produce  fruit,  but  in  bad  soils 
they  are  much  later.  Common  reckoning  says,  that  a  coco-nut 
palm  lives  100  years ;  but  some  die  at  20,  and  many  at  all  inter- 
mediate ages.  At  all  times  plantains  and  Yams  (Dioscorea)  are 
raised  in  the  coco-nut  gardens.  Rich  people  never  draw  juice  from 
their  coco-nut  trees,  except  in  one  year  when  they  are  young.  For 
some  years  before  the  young  palms  can  bring  the  fruit  to  maturity, 
they  produce  flowers;  but,  by  extracting  juice  for  one  year,  their 
coming  to  perfection  is  hastened.  If  any  disease  happen  to  the 
tree,  rich  men,  to  give  relief  to  the  sickly  plant,  do  not  extract 
juice,  as  is  usual  in  some  places,  but  with  a  sharp  iron  they  bore  a 
hole  into  the  pith  above  the  diseased  part.  Poor  people,  not  being- 
able  to  raise  money  to  pay  the  wages  of  their  workmen,  give  them 

Vol.  III.  X 


154  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  annually  a  certain  number  of  trees  for  extracting  juice,  with  which 
K^llj    they  can  procure  a  daily  subsistence.    This  compels  the  poor  man, 

Feb,  24.  once  in  four  or  five  years,  to  take  juice  from  his  trees.  Besides, 
although  this  practice  soon  kills  the  tree,  it  gives  much  more  imme- 
diate profit,  especially  in  poor  soils.  In  good  soils,  the  nuts  are  of 
equal  value  with  the  juice;  as  a  good  tree  in  such  a  situation  gives 
on  an  average,  80  full  grown  nuts,  worth  25  Rupees  a  thousand ; 
and  100  trees  in  such  a  soil,  good  and  bad,  young  and  old,  produce 
3000  nuts,  which  is  at  the  rate  of  three  quarters  of  a  Rupee  for  each. 
In  an  inditFereut  soil  the  same  number  of  trees  produce  only  1000 
nuts,  which  is  only  at  the  rate  of  a  quarter  of  a  Rupee  for  each  ; 
but  the  coco-nut  trees,  good  and  bad,  produce  each  a  Rupee  worth 
of  juice,  one-half  of  which  goes  to  the  extractor,  and  one-half  is 
clear  profit  to  the  proprietor.  One  man  can  collect  the  juice  of 
forty  trees,  and  his  share  of  the  produce,  being  20  Rupees  (2/.  Os. 
Z\d,),  is  reckoned  a  suthcient  maintenance  for  a  man,  his  wife  and 
children;  for  the  people  who  extract  the  juice  of  palms  are  of  a 
very  low  cast. 
Betel-nut, ot  The  Betel-nut  gardens  are  cultivated,  at  a  distance  from  the 
banks  of  rivers,  in  the  upper  ends  of  narrow  vallies,  which  contain 
Bylu  land.  The  best  soil  is  red,  and  contains  shining  particles, 
which  I  take  to  be  mica.  This  soil  is  called  C&gadala.  Next  in 
value  to  this  is  Gujiny,  which  is  a  black  loose  earth.  The  worst 
soil  is  called  Betta,  and  is  a  hard  earth  composed  of  decayed  or 
broken  Laterite.  The  Cagadala  is  found  in  the  bottoms  of  the  val- 
lies at  their  upper  end,  and  is  watered  from  a  small  reservoir, 
whence  the  water  sometimes  runs  off  by  sluices,  and  sometimes  is 
raised  into  the  channels  by  the  machine  called  Yatatn.  1h.t  Gujiny 
is  found  very  low  and  level,  where  the  hills  forming  the  valley 
begin  to  recede  a  little  from  each  other.  In  such  land  the  water  at 
all  seasons  of  the  year  stands  in  the  ditches,  but  is  of  a  quality  per- 
nicious to  the  Areca,  which  must  be  watered  from. springs  or  rivu- 
lets.   The  Betta  land  forms  the  upper  parts  of  the  declivities  of  the 


Areca. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  155 

hills,  and  must  be  irrigated,  by  the  hand,  with  water  drawn  from   CHAPTER 

XVI 

wells  that  are  dug  in  the  valley  below.  The  garden  must  be  fenced  »^^^-.^ 
with  a  wall  of  stone  or  mud,  on  the  upper  side  of  which  a  deep  ^^^-  24- 
drain  must  be  formed  to  carry  off  the  water,  which  during  the  rainy 
season  descends  from  the  hills  in  torrents.  In  this  respect  the 
Cagadala  requires  most  trouble,  and  its  watering  is  more  expensive 
than  that  of  the  Gujiny  ;  yet,  owing  to  its  being  more  productive, 
it  is  more  profitable.  The  produce  of  the  Beita  land  is  still  smaller 
than  that  of  the  Gujiny,  and  its  cultivation  is  attended  with  much 
more  trouble  ;  yet  it  is  worth  while  to  plant  the  whole  that  is  near 
a  man's  house ;  for  to  a  certain  extent  the  family  can  perform  the 
watering  without  great  inconvenience. 

Immediately  before  the  winter  solstice,  the  nuts  for  seed  are  cut, 
and  are  exposed  three  days  to  the  sun,  and  three  nights  to  the  dew. 
In  the  mean  time,  a  plot  o^  Cagadala  soil  is  dug  for  a  seed-bed.  In 
this  the  seeds  are  placed  at  four  inches  distance,  and  are  half  im- 
mersed in  the  ground.  They  are  then  covered  with  dung ;  and, 
that  having  been  covered  with  straw,  they  are  watered  every  other 
day  until  the  second  month  after  the  vernal  equinox.  The  rainy 
season  then  commences  ;  and  a  drain  must  be  dug  to  prevent  the 
water  from  lying  upon  the  bed.  In  the  first  or  second  month  after 
the  autumnal  equinox,  another  piece  of  ground  is  hoed,  and  in  this 
are  placed  the  nuts  which  are  then  said  to  be  Mola,  as  they  have 
shoots  sprouting  from  them  a  cubit  long.  The  nuts  in  this  bed  are 
placed  at  about  the  distance  of  a  foot  from  each  other,  and  are 
buried  an  inch  under  ground.  Every  other  day,  during  the  dry 
season,  they  are  well  manured  and  watered.  In  this  bed  they  re- 
main fifteen  months;  and  in  the  month  preceding  the  winter  sol- 
stice, they  are  manured  with  dung  made  from  dry  grass-litter; 
while  in  the  month  following  the  vernal  equinox,  the  manure,  which 
they  receive,  .is  that  formed  of  dry  leaves.  During  the  month  be- 
fore and  the  month  after  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  young  palms 
are  (Sussi)  fit  for  planting. 


U6  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUG  H 

CHAPTER  The  garden  having  been  properly  inclosed,  and  secured  from 
kJ^ILj    ^^^^  torrents  of  the  rainy  season ;  and  tanks,  wells,  or  canals  for 

Feb.  24.  supplying  it  with  water,  having  been  formed  ;  the  Cagadala  soil  is 
levelled  into  terraces  like  rice-ground,  and  formed  into  beds  seven 
cubits  wide.  Between  every  two  beds  is  a  deep  channel,  to  carry 
off  the  raiu  water;  and  in  the  middle  of  each  is  a  small  channel  to 
convey  the  water  that  is  to  refresh  the  palms  ;  and  which,  as  it  runs 
along,  a  man  throws  out  on  their  roots  with  a  spatha,  that  has  fallen 
from  the  trees.  On  each  side  of  the  bed  is  planted  a  row  of  the 
Arecas,  distant  from  each  other  five  cubits,  and  between  every  two 
Arecas  is  set  a  young  plantain  tree.  The  garden  is  then  manured 
with  dung  made  from  fresh  leaves,  and  ever  afterwards  during  the 
dry  season  it  must  be  watered  once  in  two  days.  For  the  first  four 
years,  it  must  be  dug  over  in  the  month  preceding  the  autumnal 
equinox,  and  at  three  different  seasons  must  be  manured  with  the 
three  different  kinds  of  manure.  Afterwards,  it  is  manured  once  a 
year  only,  in  the  second  month  after  the  autumnal  equinox;  and 
it  is  once  in  two  years  only  that  it  requires  to  be  dug.  The  Betel- 
nut  is  improved  by  the  plantain  trees,  which  keep  the  earth  cool 
and  moist ;  and  therefore  these  are  always  continued,  except  where 

Betel-leaf ,  oT  it  is  intended  to  train  up  the  Betel-leaf  vine  upon  the  Areca,  which 
is  the  manner  wherein  that  plant  is  here  cultivated.  In  this  case, 
in  the  tenth  year,  the  plantain  trees  are  removed  ;  and  in  the  se- 
cond month  after  midsummer,  five  cuttings  of  the  Betel-vine,  each 
containing  three  joints,  are  placed  round  every  Betel-palm,  while 
one  of  their  ends  is  buried  in  the  ground.  They  are  then  manm-ed 
Avith  the  leaves  of  the  Nelli  (PhyUanthiis  emblica).  Immediately 
after  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  ground  round  the  young  vines 
must  be  hoed,  and  manured  with  dung  made  from  fresh  leaves. 
,  Ever  afterwards,  it  must  be  manured  three  times  a  year.  As  the 
vines  grow,  they  must  be  tied  up  to  the  palms.  In  eighteen  months 
they  begin  to  produce  leaves  fit  for  sale ;  in  the  third  year  they  are 
full  sized ;  two  years  they  continue  to  give  a  full  crop ;  in  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  157 

following  year  the  crop  is  bad,  and  then  the  vines  are  lifted,  and   CHAPTER 
new  ones  are  planted  in  their  stead.    The  Betel-palm,  or  A  reca,  in    ^]^^h, 
Cdgadala  soil  begins  to  ripen  fruit  in  ten  years,  is  in  full  crop  at  Feb.  24. 
fifteen,  and  continues   in  perfection  for  thirty  years.    They  then 
die  ;  and  as  the  old  ones  decay,  new  ones  are  planted.     Each  tree 
yields  two  bunches,  Avhich  ripen  at  different  times  between  the 
autumnal  equinox  and  winter  solstice.    The  produce  of  a  hundred, 
trees,  young  and  old,  is  reckoned  five  Maunds  of  boiled  nut,  or 
thirty-five  Bazar  Colagas  by  measure  of  nuts  in  the  husk,  as  they 
come  from  the  tree.  The  five  Maunds  are  one  fourth  of  a  Candy,  or 
140  lb.    The  present  price  of  boiled  ^e^e/-?2M^  is  Miten  Pagodas ; 
each  tree  therefore,  young  and  old,  produces  to  the  value  of  S-j^^g^ 
pence,  or  a  hundred  trees  produce  fifteen  Rupees.    The  cultivators  ' 

^oil  th«  Betel-nut. 

In  Gujiny  ground,  in  order  to  remove  the  water  off  the  soil,  the 
drains  between  the  beds  must  be  one  cubit  and  a  half  deep.  It  is 
irrigated  once  in  seven  days  only,  from  the  same  sources  that  supply 
the  Bylu  rice-ground.  In  this  soil,  plantains  and  Betel-leaf  grow 
in  the  same  manner  as  in  Cagadala  gardens.  A  hundred  trees, 
young  and  old,  on  Gujiny  ground,  are  reckoned  to  produce  four 
Maunds  of  boiled  Betel-nut,  Avorth  twelve  Rupees. 

On  the  Betta  land  no  drains  nor  channels  are  required ;  but 
round  the  root  of  every  palm  a  small  bank  is  formed  to  confine  the 
•water,  which  is  given  once  in  two  days.  In  such  gardens,  plantains, 
but  not  Betel-leaf,  are  reared.  The  trees  in  this  soil  do  not  come 
into  full  fruit  till  they  are  twenty  years  of  age,  and  a  hundred  pro 
duce  only  two  Maunds  and  a  half  of  boiled  nut,  worth  seven  Rupees 
and  a  half.  A  man  and  his  wife  can  manage  a  garden  of  500  trees ; 
some  of  which  will  grow  on  Betta,  and  a  proportion  on  either  Caga- 
dala, or  Gujiny,  or  on  both.  They  require  no  assistance  at  crop  sea- 
son ;  but,  unless  the  keeper  be  an  active  man,  he  will  require  some 
help  when  the  garden  is  hoed.  The  expense  of  first  planting  a  gar-  ^ 
den  is  commonly  reckoned  100  Rupees  for  every  500  trees  j  but  in 


158  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  level  situations  it  will  be  much  less,  and  in  steep  places  much  more, 
v.*-^/-^  Some  people  go  to  50  Pagodas  for  100  trees, , or  2  Rupees  for  each. 
Feb,  24.  ^Q  value  is  put  upon  the  future  expense,  which  is  merely  that  of 
the  keeper  and  his  wife,  who  get  2-^  Ha7iies  of  coarse  rice  daily,  and 
4  Rupees  a  year  for  clothing ;  that  is  to  say,  37^  bushels  of  rice, 
worth  32-jVoV  Rupees,  and  4  Rupees  in  money  ;  or  in  all  36  Rupees 
13  Anas  [3l.  14*.  3d.).  It  must  be  observed,  however,  that  after 
the  first  year  the  plantains  are  adequate  to  the  defraying  of  this 
expense,  which  is  therefore  not  charged  in  the  accompt.  The  far- 
mer has  therefore,  on  an  average,  50  Rupees  a  year,  for  an  original 
advance  of  from  one  to  two  hundred  ;  but  out  of  this  must  be  de- 
ducted the  revenue.  His  profit  is  much  larger  where  he  has  a  sale 
for  Betel-leaf.  It  appears  to  me,  that  the  gardens  here  are  formed 
with  more  care,  and  at  a  greater  expense,  than  in  Malabar,  where  a 
colony  of  Haiga  Brahmans  would  be  highly  beneficial. 
Feb.  25.  25th  February. — In  the  morning,  having  crossed  the  river,  I  took  a 

country,         circle  of  about  six  miles  into  the  country  east  from  Mirzee,  in  order 
to  see  some  forests  that  spontaneously  produce  black  pepper.     The 
whole  of  the  country  through  which  I  passed  was  hilly;  but  I  met 
with  several  narrow  valiies  well  watered,  though  not  fully  culti- 
vated, owing  to  a  want  of  inhabitants.     Many  of  the  hills  were  so 
barren,  steep,  and  rocky,  that  I  was  soon  forced  to  dismount  from 
my  horse,  and  proceed  on  foot.    These  hills  consist  entirely  of 
naked  Laterite.    Other  hills,  Avhich  were  those  I  sought  after,  were 
covered  with  stately  forests. 
Pepper  grow-      The  pcppcr-plant  (Piper  nigrum)  seems  to  grow  spontaneously 
neou^l*"'*"      ^^  '^^  sides  of  all  the  narrow  valiies  in  the  interior  o^ Haiga,  where 
I  the  soil  is  so  rjch  and  moist  as  to  produce  lofty  trees  close  to  each 

other,  by  which  a  constant  coolness  is  retained.  In  such  places 
the  pepper-vine  runs  along  the  ground  and  the  roots  of  bushes,  and 
propagates  itself  entirely  by  striking  its  roots  into  the  soil,  and 
then  again  sending  out  new  shoots.  The  natives  say,  that  without 
assistance  it  cannot  ascend  a  tree ;  and  that,  unless  it  is  exposed  in 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  159 

such  a  situation  to  sun  and  air,  it  never  produces  flowers.  In  order  CHAPTER 
to  procure  fruit  from  a  hill  which  spontaneously  produces  the  ^iiXL, 
pepper-vine,  the  proprietor  cuts  all  the  underwood  and  bushes,  and  Feb.  25. 
leaves  only  the  large  trees,  and  a  number  of  the  young  ones  suffi- 
cient to  exclude  the  violence  of  sun,  but  to  allow  of  a  free  circula- 
tion of  air.  Four  cubits  from  tree  to  tree  is  reckoned  a  proper 
distance.  The  ends  of  the  vines,  which  were  lying  on  the  ground, 
are  then  tied  up  to  the  nearest  trees.  Any  kind  of  tree  answers 
the  purpose;  but  those  of  about  eight  inches  or  a  foot  in  diameter 
are  preferred,  as  it  is  easy  to  climb  such  for  the  purpose  of  gather- 
ing the  pepper.  A  quantity  of  leaves  are  then  placed  round  the 
root  of  the  vine,  to  rot,  and  to  serve  as  a  manure.  In  the  course  of 
the  year  the  vine,  so  far  as  it  has  been  tied,  strikes  its  roots  into 
the  bark  of  the  tree;  but  the  shoots  above  that,  hang  down.  Twice 
a  year  afterwards  these  are  tied  up,  and  strike  root,  till  they  spread 
over  all  the  large  branches  of  the  tree.  In  places  where  no  vines 
have  naturally  sprung,  the  owner,  after  having  dug  a  small  spot 
round  the  tree  to  loosen  the  earth,  propagates  them  by  ^planting 
slips  near  the  roots  of  the  trees  on  which  he  wishes  them  to  climb. 
The  early  part  of  the  rainy  season  is  the  time  proper  for  this  ope- 
ration. In  five  years,  after  having  been  managed  in  this  manner, 
a  hill  begins  to  produce  fruit,  and  in  eight  years  is  in  full  bearing. 
The  vines  live  about  thirty  years ;  when  others,  that  are  found 
creeping  on  the  ground  in  their  natural  state,  are  tied  up  in  their 
stead ;  or,  where  these  happen  to  be  wanting,  shoots  or  cuttings 
are  planted  near  the  trees.  There  is  no  diff^"erence  in  the  qua- 
lity between  the  pepper  springing  spontaneously  from  the  seed,, 
and  that  growing  from  cuttings ;  nor  is  the  pepper  growing  in 
gardens  either  better  or  worse  than  that  growing  on  a  hill,  ma- 
naged as  I  am  now  describing.  These  hills  producing  pepper 
require  no  trouble,  but  the  tying  up  of  the  plants,  keeping  the 
forest  clear  of  underwood,  and  collecting  the  pepper.   They  are 


160  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  manured  in  the  following  manner.     In  the  month  succeedins:  the 

XVI  .  1 

\^^^^^     vernal  equinox,  a  hole  three  or  four  inches  above  the  ground  is 

feb.  25.  made  into  the  trunk  of  any  very  large  tree  that  is  situated  near  the 
top  of  the  hill.  Into  this  are  put  some  burning  coals,  and,  for  an 
hour,  a  fire  is  kept  up  with  fresh  fewel.  After  this,  the  tree  will  burn 
inwardly  for  two  days,  and  is  then  killed.  A  large  insect  imme- 
diately takes  possession  of  the  trunk,  and  works  its  nest  into  the 
wood.  In  the  next  rainy  season,  the  whole  falls  down  into  a  rotten 
dust,  which  the  rain  washes  away,  so  as  to  disperse  it  over  the  face 
of  the  hill  below.  The  crop  season  commences  about  the  winter 
solstice,  and  it  continues  rather  more  than  two  months.  A  man 
can  in  one  day  gather  three  Colagas,  farmer's  measure,  or  almost 
one  peck  of  the  amenta.  These  are  dried  three  days  in  the  sun,  and 
then  are  rubbed  with  the  feet  on  a  piece  of  smooth  ground,  to  se- 
parate the  grains ;  which,  having  been  cleared  from  the  husks  and 
foot-stalks,  are  again  dried  two  days  in  the  sun,  and  tied  up  for 
sale  in  straw  bags  or  Morays.  Seventy-five  Colagas  of  amenta  zre 
required  to  make  one  Bazar  Moray  (bushel  lyV)  of  dry  pepper, 
which  weighs  3  Maunds  (about  84  lb.) ;  so  that  a  man  daily  collects 
about  SW  lb.  of  dry  pepper.  These  hills  Avere  formerly  valued ; 
and,  according  to  their  extent,  each  paid  as  a  land-tax  so  many 
Maunds  of  pepper,  the  Maund  containing  60  Seers.  The  same  valua- 
tion is  now  continued  ;  but  the  Maund  is  reduced  to  40  Seers,  and 
converted  into  money,  at  the  rate  of  a  Pagoda,  which  is  in  favour  of 
the  proprietor.  Still  one  half  of  these  hills  is  waste,  owing  to  a  want 
of  hands  to  cultivate  them ;  and  on  that  account  three-fourths  of 
the  revenue  are  remitted  to  the  proprietors,  who  are  also  favoured 
by  having  all  the  rice-ground  lying  among  these  hills  free  from 
tax.  This  has  been  given  them,  on  a  supposition  that  its  produce 
was  only  adequate  to  feed  the  people  who  are  employed  in  culti- 

Produce  of     mating  the  pepper. 

the  forests.         So  far  as  I  went,  no  Teak  grows  in  these  forests;  but  I  am  told,  that 

Teak. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  l6l 

it  js  procurable  farther  inland.  The  landlords  (Malugaras)  pretend,  cHAPTEll 
that  all  the  timber  trees  are  their  property,  but  that  none  of  them  y^^l^ 
are  saleable.  Feb.  25. 

The  wild  nutmeg  and  Cassia  are  very  common.  As  the  nutmegs  Nutmeg, 
ripen,  tlie  monkies  always  eat  up  the  outer  rind,  and  mace;  so  that 
I  could  not  procure  one  in  a  perfect  state.  They  are  collected 
from  the  ground,  after  having  been  peeled  by  the  monkies,  and  are 
sold  by  some  poor  people  to  the  shopkeepers;  but  they  have  little 
flavour;  and  the  demand  for  them  is  very  small.  Although  they 
are,  doubtless,  of  a  distinct  species  from  tht  wutmeg:  of  Afnboyna, 
it  is  probable,  that  by  proper  cultivation  and  manure  their  quality 
might  be  greatly  improved;  and  that,  in  the  situations  where  they 
now  grow  spontaneously,  they  might  be  reared  as  the  supporters 
of  the  pepper  vine;  which  would  produce  copiously,  and  of  an  ex- 
cellent quality,  were  the  same  pains  bestowed  on  it  hei"e  as  is  done  in 
the  gardens  above  the  Ghats,  where  by  far  the  best  pepper  grows. 

The  C(74'«a  belongs  to  government,  and  is  in  general   given   in  LaurusCns- 
lease;  but  at  present  no  renter  can  be  procured.     Its  quality  also 
might,  no  doubt,  be  greatly  improved  ;  and  by  cutting  the  shoots, 
when  of  a  proper  size,  and  cleaning  and  rolling  up  the  bark  neatly, 
it  might  be  made  equal  to  the  Cassia  oi  China. 

On  my  return  from  the  pepper  hills  to  Alirzee,  I  passed  a  very  strata, 
fine  plantation  of  jBe/e/-nw^  palms,  belonging  to  i'our  Brdhmans,  and 
containing  many  thousand  trees.  It  was  placed  on  the  two  steep 
sides  of  a  very  narrow  valley,  well  supplied  with  water  fromsprings." 
Here  I  observed  the  first  regular  strata  since  leaving  Pali-ghati 
They  consisted  of  very  soft  pot-stone,  probably  impregnated  with 
hornblende  siate,  as  they  seem  to  be  a  continuation  of  the  quarries 
of  slaty  sienite,  from  which  the  temples  at  Batucidla  have  been 
supplied  v>'ith  stone.  I  have  already  noticed  the  affinity  that 
prevails  between  the  hornblende  and  pot-stone  rocks  in  tbe  domi- 
nions of  Mysore.  The  strata  at  this  garden  are  vertical,  and  run 
nearly  north  and  south. 

Vol.  III.  Y 


Iq3  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTF.R  Having  returned  to  Mirzee,  I  went  two  cosses  and  a  half  to  Hi^ 
..J^^^^Il.  rigutty.  Part  of  the  country  through  which  I  passed  was  very  barren, 
Feb.  25.  consisting  of  low  hills  covered  with  stunted  trees.  The  soil  of 
oVthccoun-  other  parts  was  good;  but,  owing  to  a  want  of  inhabitants,  was 
»')'•  much  ueglected.    Near  Hirigutirf,  there  is  on  the  northern  side  of 

the  river  a  remarkably  fine  plain.     It  does  not  seem  to  be  well  cul- 
tivated, and  has  suffered  lately  from  the  breaking  down  of  a  dam, 
which  has  permitted  a  great  part  of  it  to  be  inundated  with  salt- 
water. 
History  of  ^Vt  H'u'igutty,  I  collected  several  Haiga  Brahmans,  who  were  said 

conhn^^o'its  ^°  ^^  *^''*^  ^^^^  informed  men  concerning  the  history  of  the  country. 
Brahmans.  The  Slmiiaboga,  or  accomptant  of  the  temple  of  Daresxcara,  pro- 
duced a  book  called  Bahudunda,  which,  they  said,  was  written  by  a 
certain  Subahitta,  or  Brdhmany  chief,  who  will  hereafterwards  be 
mentioned.  Ou  the  authority  of  this  book  the  Shanaboga  said,  that 
Parasu  Ruma  created  Haiga  at  the  same  time  that  he  formed  7m- 
lava  and  Malaxjula,  and  he  then  also  appointed  certain  Brahmans  to 
inhabit  these  lands.  Tulava  he  gave  to  the  Mittu  Bi'dhmans^  and 
Haiga  to  those  called  Nagar  and  Mutchy,  These  people  were  not 
true  Brahman s ;  but  they  kept  possession  of  the  country  till  after 
the  commencement  of  the  Kali-yugam.  The  country  was  then 
seized  upon  by  two  casts  of  impure  origin,  the  Mogayer  and  the 
JVhaUiaru.  The  former  are  the  fishermen  of  Haiga;  the  latter  I 
have  had  frequent  occasion  to  mention  ;  and  to  this  tribe  the  Rdjd 
belonged.  At  length  a  Sannydsi,  who  had  visited  the  country,  in- 
duced Myuru  Verma  to  invade  it.  He  was  king  of  £««flai«"  and 
Gutti  in  Karnata,  and  by  cast  a  Baydar,  which  is  a  tribe  of  Telin- 
gana.  His  attack  was  successful,  and  he  conquered  Haiga,  Tulava, 
and  Kaiikdfia.  He  then  brought  a  colony  of  five  thousand  true 
Brahmans  from  Ahichaytra,  a  city  in  Telingana,  and  settled  them  in 
Haiga.  He  lirought  others  of  the  same  origin  to  Ka7ikana  and 
■^  Tulava.    A  thousand  of  these  Haiga  Brahmans  lost  cast  immediately, 

having  omitted  the  performance  of  certain  prayers   (Mantrams} 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  l63 

which  were  necessary  to  ])urify  the  country  before  they  took  pos-  CHAPTER 
session.  The  remaining  four  thousand  obtained  the  whole  lands  of  ^^^^.^ 
Haiga,  and  continued  to  enjoy  them  until  My  urn  Verma  was  obliged  Feb.  25. 
to  fly  by  Nunda,  the  son  of  Utunga,  one  of  the  TFhalliani,  who  re- 
covered the  dominions  of  his  ancestors.  This  low  fellow  seized  Qn 
the  lands  that  had  been  granted  to  the  four  thousand  Brahnians, 
and  forced  them  to  retire  to  Ahichaytra.  He  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Chanda  Sayana,  whose  mother,  being  a  dancing  girl  from  the 
temples  oi'  Kama/a,  had  educated  him  so  as  to  have  a  due  respect 
for  the  sacred  order.  Soon  after  his  accession  to  power,  he  invited 
back  the,  Brdhmans  ;  and,  having  given  up  the  whole  of  his  autho- 
rity to  their  Subahitta,  or  chief,  the  author  of  the  book,  he  made 
all  his  Whalliaru  the  slaves  of  the  sacred  order.  So  long  as  Chanda 
Sayana  lived,  he  was  called  Rqjd,  and  the  Subaldtta  continued  to 
govern  in  his  name.  On  his  death  without  children,  the  Subahitta 
was  at  a  loss  what  to  do;  as  according  to  the  laws  of  his  cast  he 
could  not  assume  the  regal  title,  and  as  there  Avas  no  Raja  under 
Avhose  authority  he  could  act.  He  therefore  invited  Solva  Krishna 
Devarasu  JVodearu  o?  Anagundi  to  take  possession  of  Haiga,  which 
had  never  before  been  subject  to  Vijaya-nagara.  This  prince  ac- 
cordingly came;  but,  far  from  allowing  the  Subahitta  to  enjoy  any 
authority,  he  imposed  a  land-tax  on  the  Brdhmans,  and  gave  all  the 
country  to  a  Jain  Polygar,  Itchtippa  JVodear  Rujd  of  Garsopa.  No 
date  is  assigned  in  the  book  for  these  extraordinary  events,  which 
nobody  but  a  Haiga  Brahman  can  possibly  believe.  In  order  to 
conceal  the  long  subjection  to  the  infidel  Jain,  in  which  the  Brdk- 
tnans  oi' Haiga  had  been  compelled  to  live,  they  bring  down  the 
time  of  Myuru  Verma  to  that  of  the  latter  prinees,  or  usurpers  of 
^^  ihxoxiG  o^  Vijaya-nagara.  Many  inscriptions  render  it  indubit- 
able, that  Haiga  belonged  to  the  kings  of  Karnata  long  before  the 
time  of  Krisfma  Rdyalu.  Copies  of  all  these,  which  I  now  quote, 
were  in  the  possession  of  the  very  Brdhmans  who  gave  me  the  fore- 
going account.    The  temple  at  Darhxcara  has  two  grants  engraved 


16'4-  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPiEll   on  copper-plates.    The  one  is  dated  Sidarti  of  Sal.  142C,  on  the 
v,^,.^     14th  of  the  moon  in  Bhddrapada,  in  the  reign  of  Deva  Raya  JVodearu 

Fib.  25.        Triloc/iia,  &c.  &c.    This  title  of  king  of  the  three  people  (Trilochia) 
is  said  to  be  peculiar  to  the  kings  of  Kijaya-nagara,  as  is  also  the 
title  of  king  of  the  three  seas.    The  title  of  Trilochia  seems  well 
enough  applied,  as  these  princes  governed  the  tribes  who  speak  the 
Telinga,  Tamul,   and    Karnataca  languages.    This  date  apparently 
does  not  agree  well  with  the  R/iya  Paditti ;  for  the  last  Deta  Raya 
which  it  mentions  ended  his  reign  in  the  year  oi  Sal.  1377-     But, 
as  we  shall  afterwards  see,  this  Dha  Raya  may  have  been  one  of 
the  names  of  the  usurper  who  reigned  in  1422.  The  other  grant  on 
copper  is  by  Solva  Krishna  Devarasu  JFodcaru  Trilochia,  Sec.  &c.  and 
is  dated  Sal.  1481,  on  the  15th  of  Ashadha,  in   the  year  Calayucti. 
This  agrees  very  well  with  the  chronology  of  Ramiippa.    A  third 
grant  to  the  same  temple  is  by  Krishna  Devarasu  IFodearu  Trilochia, 
&c.  &c.  in  the  year  Ficari  oi'  Sal.  1462,  on  the  \st  of  Kartika.    This 
also  agrees  with  the  chronology  of  Ramuppa.    Another,  in  the  time 
of  Trinetra  Solva  Narasingha  Nayaka,  king  of  the  three  seas,  and  of 
Jnagundi,  &c.  &c.  is  dated  in  Durmati  Sal.  1424,  14th  Bhadrapada. 
Among  other  strange  titles  assumed  by  this  prince,  he  is  said  to  be 
able  to  pull  all  other  potentates  by  the  whiskers.     In  it  he  com- 
mands Devarasu  JVodear,  probably  the  lieutenant  of  Haiga,  to  grant 
such  and  such  lands  to  the  Brdhmans.     It  is  clear  therefore,  that 
before   the  time   of  Ki'ishna  Rayaru   the  kings  of  Anagundi  were 
sovereigns  of  Haiga,  and  that  all  the   lands  did  not  belong  to  the 
Bruhmans.    Another  grant,  for  erecting  an  inn   for  traveliers,  is 
dated  on  the  same  day  and  year,  and  by  order  of  Solva  Dha  Riya 
JVodearu,   Raja  of  Nagara  (not  the   present  Nagara   but  Vijaya- 
nagara),  Haiga,  Tulava,  Kankana,  Sec.  Sec.    We  liere  find,  that  the 
second  Narasingha  of  the  usurping  princes  is  sometimes  called  also 
Deva ;  and  the  same  probably  was  the  case  with  the  fi*st  Narasingha, 
which  will  reconcile  the  chronology  of  the  first  grant  with  that  of 
Ramuppa.    The  inscription  on  stone  at  the  temple  of  Gvnavunti,  in 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  1^5 

Garsopa  district,  of  which  a  copy  has  been  presented  to  the  Bengal  CllAPTEll 
government,  mentions,  that  Itclmppa  JFodearu  Pritani  (Jain  Raja    v,^^^ 
6i  Garsopa)  granted  certain  lands  to  that  temple  by  order  of  Pri-  Feb.  2j. 
tupa  Deva  RayaTrilochia,  Sec.  &c.  of  the  family  of  i/c/ri-Z/ffr*?,  &c.  &c. 
in  Virodi  Sal.  1332,  on  the  10th  of  Margasirsha.    This  is  Deva  Raya 
the  First,  and  agrees  very  well  with  the  chronology  of  Ramuppa. 

A  very  intelligent  Brahman  from  Batuculla  says,  that  he  had  con-  Account 

,,,,.,  .  f  r   ■      c  '-i-i  1      from  a  book 

suited  a  book  in  the  possession  or  Sl  Jam  Miimyasi,  which  stated,  olthe./a!«. 
that  the  ByrasuWodear  family  of  Carculla  was  descended  from  the 
Belalla  Rayas,  the  supreme  kings  of  Karnata.  The  last  male  of  this 
branch  of  the  family  had  seven  daughters,  all  called  Byra  Devi. 
When  the  Raja  died,  his  country  was  divided  among  his  daughters 
in  seven  portions ;  and  Krishna  Rayarii  was  so  gallant,  as  to  remit 
the  whole  tribute  to  them,  as  being  ladies.  The  eldest  sister,  Doda 
Byra  Devi,  lived  at  Batuculla.  The  second  sister  married  the  son 
and  heir  of  Itchuppa  JVodear  of  Garsopa,  who  seems  to  have  been 
the  tributary  Rcjd  of  Haiga.  This  marriage  produced  only  one 
daughter;  and  none  of  her  aunts  having  had  children,  she  united 
again  in  her  person  the  sovereignty  of  all  the  dominions  of  Carculla. 
To  these  she  added  Haiga;  and,  during  the  weakness  of  the  princes 
of  Anagundi,  in  the  reign  of  the  last  usurper,  she  seems  to  have 
refused  all  marks  of  submission  to  their  authority.  She  lived  some- 
times at  Garsopa,  and  sometimes  at  Batuculla,  until  she  was  destroyed 
hy  \X\t  Sivabhactars  of  Ikeri,  who  were  assisted  by  an  insurrection 
of  the  Halypecas  ;  and  who,  in  conjunction  with  that  low,  barbarous 
tribe,  almost  exterminated  the  Jaiji  of  Haiga,  and  the  northern 
districts  of  Tulava.  There  is  still  a  man  living  at  Dhannastilla,  six 
cosses  distant  from  Jamal-dbdd,  who  is  named  Comara  Hegada,  and 
who  is  looked  upon  as  a  descendant  in  the  male  line  of  the  Carculla 
family,  and  legal  representative  of  the  Belalla  Rdyas,  who  began  to 
govern  Karnata  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  6'84.  This  man  may  very 
probably  be  of  the  family  of  the  Carculla  Rajas;  but,  in  fact,  these 
\yere  descended  from  Jenaditta,  a  fugitive  from  the  north  of  India; 


165 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  25. 


Teb.SG. 
Appearance 
of  the  coun- 

to-. 


Gaukarna. 


Account  of 
Haiga  by  tlie 
lir&kmans  of 
Gaukarna. 


and  a  desire  of  flattering  the  princes  of  the  Jain  sect,  who  were  the 
most  powerful  in  these  latter  days,  probably  occasioned  the  legend, 
in  the  book  of  the  Sannyasi,  to  trace  up  their  origin  to  the  Belalla 
family. 

Hirigutty,  which  has  no  market  (Bazar),  stands  on  a  fine  plain, 
about  two  miles  from  the  river;  and  at  some  distance,  toward  the 
east  and  north,  has  rugged  barren  hills. 

26th  February. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Gaukarna.  There  was  a 
thick  fog,  which  prevented  me  from  seeing  the  country;  but  near 
the  road  it  was  a  plain,  consisting  mostly  of  rice  fields  ;  many  of 
which,  by  the  breaking  down  of  the  bank,  had  been  inundated  with 
salt-water.  At  the  western  extremity  of  this  plain  is  a  ridge  of  low 
barren  hills,  which  bend  round  to  the  sea,  and  separate  the  plain  on 
the  banks  of  the  river  from  that  on  which  Gaukarna  stands,  about 
a  coss  north  from  the  mouth  of  the  river.  The  plain  of  Gaukarna 
is  well  cultivated,  and  consists  of  rice  fields  intermixed  with  coco- 
nut gardens. 

Gaukarna,  or  the  cow's  horn,  is  a  place  of  great  note  among  the 
Brahmans,  owing  to  a  celebrated  image  of  5Vi'<2  called  Mahabolisxvara. 
The  image  is  said  to  have  been  brought  from  the  mountain  Co'ila 
by  Ravana,  king  of  Lanca.  He  wished  to  carry  it  to  his  capital ; 
but  having  put  it  down  here,  the  idol  became  fixed  in  the  place, 
where  it  stands  to  this  day.  The  building,  by  which  the  idol  is  at 
present  covered,  is  very  mean.  Gaukarna  is  a  scattered  place, 
buried  among  coco-nut  palms ;  but  enjoys  some  commerce,  and 
contains  500  houses,  of  which  Brahmans  occupy  one  half. 

I  assembled  the  most  distinguished  of  these  Brdhfnans,  who  in- 
formed me,  that  the  book  produced  yesterday  by  the  Skanaboga  of 
Dareswara  is  not  considered  by  them  as  of  good  authority.  That 
every  Shanaboga  has  a  Bahudunda,  containing  the  papers  and  deeds 
belonging  to  his  ofhce,  and  which  are  generally  preceded  by  such 
an  account  of  past  times,  as  the  first  person  of  the  family  who 
enjoyed   the  office  could  obtain.     These  Bahudundas  the  Vcudika 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  16'7 

Brdhmans  hold  in  great  contempt ;  but,  as  the  o^cq  o'l  Shanaboga  CHAPTER 
has  in  numerous  instances  continued  for  man)'  generations  in  the  \.^^0 
same  family,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  from  this  source  much  ^^^-  ^°- 
historical  information  might  be  procured.  The  Brahmans  here  are 
all  Smartal,  of  true  Panch  Dravada  extraction,  and  despise  the 
Haiga  Brdhmans,  as  being  greatly  their  inferiors.  When  I  inter- 
rogated them  concerning  the  history  of  the  country,  they  said  that 
it  was  contained  in  a  book  in  their  possession,  called  Seinghadri 
Utracunda,  or  the  second  volume  of  Seinghadri,  a  Avork  composed 
by  God  in  the  form  of  Vyusa,  who  wrote  the  eighteen  Puranas. 
They  suppose,  that  this  was  done  long  before  the  creation  of  this 
part  of  the  world,  and  therefore  look  upon  all  the  historical  part  as 
entirely  prophetical.  I  found  that  none  of  them  had  ever  been  at 
paius  to  read  the  book,  and  they  therefore  spoke  of  its  contents 
merely  from  report,  or  tradition.  They  say  that  it  brings  the  his- 
tory of  Kerala,  Tulava,  Haiva  (the  Sanskrit  name  for  Haiga),  and 
Kankana,  no  lower  down  than  the  time  of  Alyuru  Fen??6f'^  grandson. 
It  is  written  in  the  character  of  Tulava,  which  is  the  same  with  that 
of  Malaydla,  and  in  the  Sanskrit  language.  It  contains  no  dates,, 
and  seems  to  be,  as  usual,  an  idle  rhapsody,  in  which  are  foretold 
the  great  deeds  of  five  princes  of  one  family,  who  were  to  be  great 
favourers  of  a  certain  stct  of  Brdhmans.  These  five  princes  are 
Trenetra  Cadumba,  Hcemanga,  Myuru  Verma,  Locadita,  and  Chanda- 
Sayana ;  which  last  the  Haiga  Brdhmans  suppose  to  have  been  a 
JVhalUaru.  The  dominion  of  these  princes  extended  all  over  the 
country  created  by  Parami  Rdma,  from  Cape  Comor'm  to  Sural.  In 
all,  this  country,  at  the  accession  of  Myuru  Verma,  there  was  no 
XxxxQ  Brahman ;  hut  for  each  division  of  it  that  prince  brought  a 
colony  from  Ahichaytrat  The  Namburis  formed  one  of  these  colo- 
nies, all  of  which  have  iiisome  measure  lost  cast,  or  at  least  have 
been  degraded,  by  a  disobedience  of  the  orders  of  Sankaru  Achdrya. 
At  that  time,  the  Rdjd  of  Ahichaytra  was  a  Jain;  but  he  favoured 
the  Brdhmans  who  followed  Vydsa„  his  wife's  mother  having  been 


IGS  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  very  intimate  with  one  of  these  persons,  and  having  educated  her 
y^^yb,  daughter  in  a  due  regard  for  the  sect.  Shortly  before  that  time, 
Fob.  q6.  this  sect  had  risen  into  considerable  reputation  in  J/uIrai/,  by  the 
efforts  of  Buta  Acharya,  and  Mas  afterwards  spread  throughout  the 
peninsula  by  the  teaching  of  the  three  great  doctors  Sankara,  Rama 
Amija,  and  Aladua.  These  Smartal  Brahmans  possessed  a  grant  of 
lands  engraved  on  a  plate  of  copper.  It  is  dated  Servajittu  of  Sah 
1450,  in  the  20th  of  Maga,  and  in  the  reign  of  Kriahna  Buya,  which 
agrees  with  the  chrbnology  of  Ramuppa.  Having  been  informed 
that  there  Avcre  here  many  inscriptions  on  stone,  I  went  out  in 
search  of  them. 

The  large  tank  is  a  very  fine  -work,  and  the  only  structure  in  the 
place  that  is  worth  notice.  Near  this,  in  the  yard  of  a  small  reli- 
gious building  called  Kamiswara  Matam,  I  found  tlie  most  ancient 
inscription.  The  stone  on  M'hich  this  is  cut  is  at  the  top  adorned 
with  emblems,  which  indicate  that  its  erectors  have  been  wor- 
shippers of  Siva.  Much  of  it  is  buried  under  ground  ;  only  thirteen 
lines  are  at  all  legible,  and  parts  of  these  are  decayed.  First  come 
the  titles  of  the  sovereign  Cadumba  Chicraverti.  These  are  quite 
different  from  those  assumed  by  the  kings  of  Vijaya-tiagara,  which 
are  known  by  almost  every  Brahman,  and  facilitate  greatly  the 
reading  of  all  the  inscriptions  that  were  made  during  their  govern- 
ment. The  titles  given  to  Cadumba  Chicraverti  seem  to  be  little 
understood.  After  the  titles,  and  a  defacement  of  half  a  line,  men- 
tion is  made  of  two  sons,  learned  and  heroic  men,  and  Rajas  hy  the 
favour  of  Rajat/a  (the  goddess  of  the  earth).  Then  follow  some 
unintelligible  words.  Then  the  date  of  the  Kali-yugam  I'JO,  being 
Vikrama,  15th  Maga,  there  l>eing  then  an  eclipse  of  the  moon. 
These  two  sons  gave  Dharma  (charity),  by  building  Kamhziwa 
Matam,  on  the  west  side  of  the  temple  of  Sankara  Narayana,  in  the 
name  of  Sri  Mahabolesrcara  ;  and  for  the  performance  of  Bunaneia 
(worship  and  charity)  in  tXns  Matam,  they  granted  ceitaiu  grounds, 
then  overset,  without  proprietors,  and  become  Haraweri  (reverted 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  169 

to  the  state)  with  the  water-courses,  house-steads,  gardens,  Betta- 
fields,  Chitta-fieXds  high  and  low,  and  the  rank  formerly  thereunto 
appertaining.  Here  the  writing  is  totally  defaced.  It  probably  Feb.  26. 
contained  the  extent,  name,  and  boundaries  of  the  lands.  From 
their  disposing  of  lands  belonging  to  the  government,  it  is  probable 
that  the  two  sons,  mentioned  in  the  inscription,  were  sons  of  the 
king.  The  first  cypher  of  the  date  is  defaced  ;  but  from  some  frag- 
ments of  it  the  Brdkmans  think  that  it  must  be  either  a  1  or  a  3 ; 
and  from  their  traditions  they  are  inclined  to  think  that  it  is  the 
former.  Cadumba  Chicraverti  is  the  ancestor  of  Myuru  Ferma.  This 
date  would  make  him  to  have  reigned  534  years  earlier  than  the 
time  assigned  for  the  commencement  of  his  reign  by  Ramuppa ; 
which,  I  have  already  said,  is  probably  much  more  early  than  the 
reality.  The  3120,  supposing  that  to  be  the  true  reading,  would 
make  Cadumba  Chicraverti  to  have  been  governing  149  years  before 
the  time  in  which  (from  an  inscription  that  I  afterwards  procured) 
I  found  that  his  descendant  Trenetra  Cadumba  actually  reigned. 
I  am  persuaded,  therefore,  that  this  is  the  proper  era  of  Myuru 
Verma,  and  the  introduction  of  the  Brdkmans  from  Ahichaytra ;  and 
that  the  Banchica,  Jbhira,  and  Monayer  families  of  Ramuppa,  are 
either  names  altogether  fabricated,  in  order  to  increase  the  anti- 
quity of  Myuru  Verma ;  or  that,  more  probably,  the  order  in  the 
succession  of  the  dynasties  has  been  altered.  This  inscription, 
copied  in  imitation  of  the  old  character,  has  been  delivered  to  the 
Bengal  government.  The  image  of  Sankara  Narayana,  mentioned 
in  this  inscription,  still  remains  in  a  small  temple,  on  the  east  side 
of  the  Matam  ;  and  is  a  strong  proof  of  the  early  prevalence  of  the 
doctrine  which  the  Smartal  now  teach,  namely,  that  ^Vaand  Vishnu 
are  different  names  for  the  same  god,  according  to  his  different 
attributes,  as  destroyer  and  preserver  of  the  world.  A  likeness  of 
it  is  given  in  Plate  XXIV.;  from  which  it  will  appear,  that,  in  order 
to  show  their  identity,  the  same  image  has  the  emblems  of  both 
Vol.  III.  Z 


170  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

gods.    The  names  do  the  same;   for  Sankara  is  one  of  the  titles  of 
Siva,  and  Narayana  one  of  the  names  of  Vishnu. 
Feb.  20.  'pjjg  next  most  ancient  inscription  that  I  found  here  was,  like  the 

others,  in  a  private  house,  and  exceedingly  neglected.  It  is  dated 
Anunda  1297,  Friday  1st  Palguna,  in  the  reign  of  Sri  Vira  Buca 
Raya,  by  the  favour  of  the  feet  of  Vtrupacsha  Devaru  (the  Siva  at 
Humpay  opposite  to  Vijaya-nagara)  king  of  the  east,  west,  and  south 
seas.  This  must  be  Buca  Raya  the  First,  who  would  therefore 
appear  to  have  reigned  at  least  two  years  later  than  the  time 
assigned  for  him  by  Ramuppa. 

Another  is  dated  in  Sal.  1308,  and  contains  a  grant  of  revenue 
for  supporting  an  inn,  by  the  sou  of  Hari'fuira  Raya;  but  his  name 
is  effaced.  A  copy  of  this  has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  govern- 
ment. 

The  last  that  I  visited  is  dated  Suabanu  Sal.  1472,  on  the  23d  of 

Si'avatia.    In  this,  Soha  Krishna  Devarasu  JVodearu,  son  of  Seddsiva 

Raya,  and  king  oi Nagara  (Vijaya-nagara),  Haiva,  Tulaxa,  Kankana, 

&c.  grants  lands  situated  in  the  Ashtd-grdrn  of  Sashisty   district 

(DesaJ,  in  Govay  Rdyada  (principality  ofGoa).    Hence  it  will  be 

evident,  that,  while  this  powerful  Hindu  pi-ince  lived,  the  Adil  Shah 

Sultans  of  Vijaya-pura  were  very  much  confined  in  their  territories 

toward  the  south-west. 

Feb.  27.  27th  February. — It  having  been  mentioned  to  me,  that  the  books 

Bah^dmda  ^  °^  *^^^  hereditary  Shanaboga  here  contained  much  curious  informa- 

or  register,     tion,  I  determined  to  stay  a  day,  and  examine  them.    I  found  that 

Iccpt  bv  the 

hereditary  he  had  a  Bahudunda  of  two  volumes.  The  first  commenced  with 
accomptant.  gQjyig  verses  on  medicine.  Then  followed  some  rules  for  the  per- 
formance of  the  ceremonies  of  religion.  Then  came  an  old  list  of 
the  names  of  all  the  principal  traders  in  Mirzee.  They  were  54  in 
number;  but  the  ants  had  eaten  up  the  date.  This  was  followed  by 
an  old  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  of  Mirzee  district  (Taluc), 
then  divided  into  three  divisions  (Maganas)  Gaukarm,  Nagara, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  171 

and  SeiganaJmlly.    Then  came  an  account,  without  date,  of  a  con- 
tribution which  a  vagrant  Brahman  had  raised  for  the  repairs  of  a 
temple.    Then  came  the  copy  of  a  grant,  originally  engraven  on   ^  "  ~''" 
stone,  dated  in  1442,  the  year  of  Sal.  1441  having  past.    By  this, 
Rutnuppa  JVodearu,  and  his  son  Vijayuppa  JVodearu,  having  been 
appointed  Rajas  of  Barcuru  by  Sri  Vira  Krishna  Rai/a  on  the  throne 
of  Vijaya-nagara,  they  granted  to  a  certain  Brahman  the  Shistii,  or 
land-tax,  arising  from  certain  grounds,  and  amounting  to  the  annual 
value  of  25  Pagodas.    This  year,  according  to  Ramuppa,  was  the 
first  of  the  reign  of  Krishna.    Next  follows  a  paper  respecting  the 
relief  granted  to  a  village  by  a  Mussulman  governor,  under  the 
Sultan  of  Vijaya-pura.     Then   comes  a  memorandum,  which  states 
that  Mahaboleswara,  the  great  Pagoda  here,  possessed  lands  to  the 
value  of  12000  Pagodas  a  year  (4835/.  7s.  2|</.),  from  the  time  of 
Madua  Raya  (probably  the  great  doctor  of  the  Bruhmanical  laws) 
in  the  year  oi  Sal.  138-I-,  until  the  time  of  By r a  Devi.    The  memo- 
randum then  details  all  the  lands,  and  appropriates  the  manner  in 
which  the  revenue  is  to  be  expended.    No  date  accompanies  this 
memorandum ;  but  it  is  looked  upon  by  the  Brdhnans  as  affording 
the  temple  a  sufficient  right  to  the  specified  lands,  and  as  a  clear 
proof  that  the  rules  for  expenditure  were  prescribed  by  Jlladua 
Rdya.    Next  follows  a  grant  of  lands  to  the  ancestors  of  the  Sha- 
naboga,  from  MahamundeUsioara  Krishna  Devarasu  JVodearu,  king  of 
Nagara,  Haiva,  Tiilava,  Kankana,  &c.  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1452,  which 
also  is  agreeable  to  Ramuppa's  chronology.    Then  comes  a  copy  of  Valuation 
a  Shist,  or  valuation,  usually  called  that  of  Krishiia  Rdyaru ;  but  have°becn " 
there  is  nothing  in  the  writing  that  shows  when  or  by  whom  it  was  "J.^'^®  ^^ 
framed.    It  extends  to  the  three  divisions  (Maganas)  of  Mirzee  Rat/a. 
already  mentioned,  and  includes  a  fourth  named  Hirtitty.     From 
this  it  would  appear,  that  those  people  who  cultivated  Cumri  land 
paid  2-I-  Fanams  a  head.    At  present  they  pay  2§  Fanams.     Gardens 
then  were  also  taxed,  and  the  government  took   one  half  of  their 
.supposed  produce.    Thus  1000  coco-nuts  paid  3  P«^Ofito*.    It  would 


172  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  appear,  that  since  that  time  the  price  of  this  article  has  not  increased, 
v,^-v-^  6  Pagodas  being  the  present  value  of  1000  coco-nuts.  This  seems 
Feb.  27-  tQ  nie  a  clear  proof  of  the  flourishing  state  of  the  country  when  the 
valuation  was  formed;  as  there  can  be  no  doubt,  that  the  value  of 
gold  has  in  general  decreased  greatly  since  the  time  of  Krishna, 
owing  to  the  great  quantities  procured  from  America.  The  differ- 
ence, therefore,  must  be  made  up  by  the  more  flourishing  state  of 
the  country,  which  introduced  wealth,  and  enhanced  the  price  of 
every  thing  valuable  :  the  present  decayed  state  of  the  country, 
notwithstanding  the  low  value  of  money,  keeps  down  the  price. 
By  this  valuation  the  pulse  sown  as  a  second  crop  was  taxed.  It 
had  been  a  custom  for  every  proprietor  of  a  garden,  at  a  certain 
festival,  to  wait  on  the  officers  of  government,  and  present  them 
"with  Ij  Pagoda.  The  valuation  directs,  that  they  should  be  ex- 
empted from  this  trouble,  and  that  the  money  should  be  paid  at 
the  same  time  Avith  their  land-tax.  The  rice  land  paid  3  Pagodas 
for  every  Ciimbum  of  produce.  The  Cumbum  is  two-thirds  of  a 
Gorge,  and  at  present  is  worth  on  an  average  about  12  Pagodas. 
Since  that  time  an  additional  tax  of  Sf  Fanams  has  been  laid  on 
each  Cumbum.  In  this  manner  each  estate  having  been  valued,  the 
land-tax  was  fixed  on  it  in  cumulo ;  and  the  same  continues  still 
to  be  taken,  with  the  addition  above  mentioned  on  the  rice-lands; 
hut  a  great  deduction  is  made  on  account  of  lands  not  occupied. 
When  the  valuation  was  formed,  there  was  no  tax  on  houses,  but 
shops  paid  a  duty  to  the  Suncha,  or  custom-house. 
Chronicle.  The  second  volume  of  the  Shanabogd's  register  commences  with  a 

kind  of  chronicle.  Killidi  Vencatuppa  Ndyaka  having  destroyed 
Byra  Devi,  information  of  the  event  was  sent  to  Ibrahim  Adil  Shah 
Padishah,  by  Sherifun  Mulk,  the  Vazir  residing  at  Ponday,  a  place 
near  Goa.  This  officer  seems  to  have  commanded  in  Kankana,  after 
the  Mussulmans  had  seized  on  it,  during  the  decline  of  the  Hindus 
of  Vijaya-nagara.  The  Padishah  then  ordered  all  the  Havildars 
(military  officers)  commanding  in  Kankana,  to  join  SheriJ  un  Mulk,. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  173 

and  to  fig\\t  with  Vencatuppa  Nayaka.  On  the  Sth  of  Alargasirsha  CHAPTER 
Sal.  159,9,  being  the  year  Parabava,  they  advanced  as  far  as  Chm-  k,^^^-^ 
daxvera,  where  they  were  entirely  defeated.  They  retreated  beyond  Feb.  27. 
the  Mirzce  river,  and,  having  there  built  a  strong  fort,  the  river 
continued  to  be  the  boundary  between  the  Sivahhactars  and  Mus- 
suhiians.  Next  year  Slier'if  im  Mulk  returned  to  Ponday,  leaving  an 
officer  (Havildar)  in  command  at  M'lrzee  to  collect  the  revenues^ 
and  remit  them  to  Ponday.  In  the  course  of  thirty-five  years,  there 
were  twelve  governors  ( Havildar s).  These  were  succeeded  by 
officers  called  Mahal  Mocasi,  of  whom  there  were  ten  at  Mirzee  in 
the  course  of  thirty  years.  A  Tanjiadar  then  governed  it  for  eigh- 
teen months.  After  which  Mammud  Khan  held  the  government  for 
a  year  and  a  quarter.  Abdul  Hassein  Havildar  then  governed  twenty- 
one  months,  another  Havildar  nine  months,  and  3furliza  Khan  a 
similar  length  of  time.  He  was  displaced  by  two  Mussulmans,  who 
rose  up,  and  put  him  in  confinement.  These  possessed  the  country 
for  eighteen  months.  After  this  Mirzee  became  subject  to  the 
Sivabhactars,  and  continued  to  be  governed  by  Karnataca  Parputties 
till  the  year  Durmutti,  fourteen  years  after  Hyder  had  reduced 
Bidderuru,  now  called  Nagara. 

Next  follows  a  valuation  (Shistu)  which  was  made  by  the  officers  Valuation  by 
t>f  Adil  Shah,  in  the  Fusly  year,  or  year  of  the  Hejira  1044,  and  in-  ^'^^''  ^'"'''" 
eludes  the  five  districts,  or  Mahals,  that  were  subject  to  Vijaya-pura, 
and  were  named  Mirzee,  Ancola,  Ponday,  Cadawada  (Carwar),  and 
Sivkwarq ;  and  which  were  probably  the  part  of  the  dominions  of 
Byra  Devi,  that  fell  to  the  share  of  the  Mussulmans.  This  is  the 
valuation  now  in  use.  Hyder  imposed  no  new  taxes,  but  resumed 
one  half  of  the  charity  lands  (Enams)  ;  Tippoo  seized  upon  the 
remainder. 

I  have  detailed  the  contents  of  these  volumes,  that  a  judgment 
may  be  formed,  of  what  may  be  usually  expected  in  such  registers, 
which  are  very  numerous  throughout  the  Peninsula. 
In  my  evening  walk  I  examined  an  inscription  on  stone.     It  is  Inscription. 


174 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Feb.  27. 


CHAPTER  dated  Sal.  1311,  1st  PhcUguna,  and  in  the  reign  of  Buca  Raya  Tri- 
^^^-  lochia,  &c.  son  of  Hari-hara  Raya,  king  of  Haiva,  Tulava,  Kankana, 
&c.  This  must  be  Buca  Raya  the  First,  and  his  reign  must  have 
continued  much  longer  than  is  mentioned  in  the  Raya  Paditti.  He 
must  also  be  the  same  prince  mentioned  in  the  inscription,  page 
170  (of  this  Volume),  which  shows  that  Hari-hara  was  not  succeeded 
by  his  former  companion  Buca,  but  that  he  named  his  son  and  heir 
after  that  friend. 

On  my  return,  I  met  with  an  itinerant  image  of  Hanumanta.  He 
•was  in  a  palanquin,  attended  by  a  Pujari,  and  many  Vaii^agis,  and 
had  tents,  flags,  Thibet-tails,  and  all  other  insignia  of  honour.  He 
was  on  an  expedition  to  collect  the  money  that  individuals  in 
distress  had  vowed  to  his  master  Vencata  Ramatiya,  the  idol  at  Tri- 
pathi ;  and  from  his  style  of  travelling  seemed  to  have  been  suc- 
cessful. Many  such  collectors  are  constantly  travelling  about  the 
Peninsula.  Out  of  the  contributions  the  Pujari  (priest)  defrays  all 
the  expenses  of  the  party,  and  pays  the  balance  into  the  treasury 
at  Tripathi,  which  is  one  of  the  richest  that  the  Hindus  now  possess. 
At  the  temples  here  dancing  girls  are  kept,  which  is  not  done 
any  where  on  the  coast  toward  the  south ;  for  in  Tulava  and  Ma- 
layala  many  of  the  finest  women  are  at  all  times  devoted  to  the 
service  of  the  Brdhmans. 

28th  February. — I  went  three  cosscs  to  Ancola.  Midway  is  the 
Gangaxvali,  an  inlet  of  salt  water  that  separates  Haiga,  or  Haiva, 
from  Kankana.  Its  mouth  toward  the  sea  is  narrow ;  but  inwards  it 
forms  a  lake,  which  is  from  one  mile  to  half  that  extent  in  width, 
except  at  the  ferry,  where  it  contracts  to  four  or  five  hundred 
yards.  Boats  of  a  considerable  size  (Patemars)  can  come  over  the 
bar,  and  ascend  the  river  for  three  cosses.  Canoes  can  go  three 
cosses  farther,  to  the  foot  of  the  Ghats,  The  boats  of  Haiga  are 
the  rudest  of  any  that  I  have  ever  seen,  and  no  where  worse  than 
on  this  river,  which  possesses  no  trade ;  and  the  country  on  its 
banks,  although  very  beautiful,  seems  rather  barren. 


Dancing 

women. 


Feb.  28. 

Gangawali 

river. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  175 

Between  Gaukarna  and  the  river,  the  country   consists  of  low   CHAPTER 
hills,  separated  by  rice  grounds  of  very  small  extent.    Where  they    ^ii^^l, 
are  of  any  considerable  size,  the  soil  is  very  sandy.     Soon  after  Feb.  28. 
leaving  the  Gangawali  I  crossed  a  smaller  salt  water  inlet,  which  by  o/theeoun- 
overflowing  it  at  high  water  injures  a  good  deal  of  land.  '^y. 

The  salt  made  in  this  part  of  the  country,  where  there  are  the  Salt. 
same  natural  advantages  as  at  Goa,  is  very  bad,  and  scarcely  sale- 
able at  any  market ;  whereas  at  Goa  vast  quantities  are  made,  and 
sent  not  only  inland,  but  all  over  the  coast.  This  seems  to  be  an 
object  that  merits  attention,  so  soon  as  the  population  shall  liave 
increased  beyond  what  is  adequate  to  cultivate  the  lands. 

The  part  of  Kankana  through  which  I  have  passed  resembles  Appearance 
Haiga.  The  quantity  of  rice-land  is  pretty  considerable.  Most  of  °  ""  '"'°* 
it  is  what  in  Malabar  would  be  called  Parum,  yet  it  produces 
annually  a  crop  of  rice,  and  much  of  it  a  second  crop  of  pulse. 
Although  this  part  of  Kankana,  which  is  subject  to  the  British 
government,  and  forms  the  district  (Taluc)  of  Ancola,  is  larger 
than  either  of  the  districts  into  which  Haiga  is  divided,  it  produces 
only  an  annual  revenue  of  29,000  Pagodas ;  while  Honawera  pro- 
duces 51,000,  and  Kunda-pura  yields  50,000.  This  is  not  attended 
with  any  advantage  to  the  inhabitants;  for  the  houses  of  the  pro- 
prietors and  cultivators  are  greatly  inferior  in  appearance  to  those 
in  Haiga,  Tulava,  and  Malayala.  The  low  revenue  is  not  therefore 
©wing  to  the  people  being  less  burthened,  nor  is  it  owing  to  an  infe- 
liority  in^'natural  riches,  but  to  a  long  unsettled  state,  which  ha» 
©ecasioned  a  wonderful  devastation.  The  officers  of  revenue  say, 
that  one-third  of  even  the  good  lands  are  now  waste.  This  devas- 
lation  has  been  owing  to  the  constant  depredations  of  Marattah 
chiefs,  and  robbers  of  two  casts  which  are  called  Comarapeca  and 
Malepeca.  A  Comarapeca  chief,  named  Ghida  Ganoji,  or  the  short 
GanSsay  having  continued  in  his  usual  practices  after  the  conquest 
by  the  English,  Major  Monro  sent  a  party  of  Sepoys,  why  shot  him  ; 
ever  since  which  the  country  has  been  quiet. 


176 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  1. 


Ancola  is  a  ruinous  fort,  with  a  small  market  (Bazar)  near  it. 
Robbers  have  frequently  burned  the  market ;  but  it  is  now  reco- 
vering, and  contains  forty  shops.  It  is  not  the  custom  here  for 
the  people  to  live  in  towns.  A  few  shops  are  collected  in  one  place  ; 
and  all  the  other  inhabitants  of  what  is  called  a  village  are  scattered 
upon  their  farms.  Most  of  the  people  here  are  of  Karnata  extrac- 
tion ;  and  few  of  Kankana  descent  remain,  except  a  particular  kind 
of  Brahmans,  who  are  all  merchants,  as  those  of  Haiga  are  all  cul- 
tivators. Being  originally  descended  from  Pansh  Gauda,  or  Brah- 
mans of  the  north  of  India,  those  of  Kankaria  are  held  iu  great 
contempt  by  the  Dravada  Brahmans,  or  division  of  the  south  ;  one 
of  the  strongest  reasons  assigned  for  which  is,  that  they  eat  fish. 

1st  March. — I  went  five  cosses  to  Chandya.  At  two  computed 
cosses  from  Ancola,  I  crossed  a  considerable  salt-water  inlet  called 
Belicary.  The  country  between  is  level,  but  very  sandy,  and  little 
cultivated.  The  banks  of  the  Belicary  are  well  planted  Avith  coco- 
nut gardens ;  and  being  broken  into  many  islands  and  points  are 
very  beautiful.  At  the  mouth,  although  it  admits  boats  of  some 
size  (Patemars),  it  is  not  above  two  hundred  yards  wide.  Small 
boats  can  ascend  two  cosses,  to  where  the  inlet  receives  from  the 
Ghats  a  stream  of  fresh  water.  A  little  north  from  its  mouth  is  a 
high  island,  called  by  the  natives  Sonaka  Guda,  which  with  a  high 
promontory,  projecting  far  to  the  west,  forms  a  large  bay,  in  which 
at  this  season  there  is  scarcely  any  surf.  Here  the  road  for  some 
way  leads  along  the  beach.  At  the  head  of  the  bay  there  is  a  fine 
plain  between  the  hills  toward  the  Ghats,  and  those  forming  the 
promontory  which  projects  into  the  sea.  The  soil  of  this  plain  is 
good,  but  in  many  places  is  spoiled  by  the  irruption  of  salt  water 
creeks.  Money  has  this  year  been  advanced  to  make  a  bank,  which 
which  will  be  a  great  improvement.  Toward  the  north  the  plain 
becomes  narrower,  and  is  overgrown  with  trees.  Part  of  this  has 
been  formerly  cultivated  ;  and,  if  there  -were  inhabitants,  the  whole 
might  be  rendered  productive.    Farther  north  the  valley  opens 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  177 

again  into  a  fine  plain,  which  faces  the  sea  on  the  north  side  of  CHAPTER 
the  promontory.    From  the  sea  on  the  south  of  this  to  that  on     v,^^/-0 
the  north,  is  computed  three  cosses,  or  about  ten  miles.    On  our  ^I*'^<="  ^• 
maps  this  part  of  the  coast  appears  to  be  very  ill  laid  down.    Chan- 
dya  is  in  the  plain  at  some  distance  from  the  sea.    At  this  place 
there  is  no  market   (Bazar),  but  there  are  many  scattered  houses, 
sheltered  by  groves  of  coco-nut  palms. 

In  this  part  of  Kankana,  a  little  Cut,  Catechu,  or  Terra  Japonica,  Catechu. 
is  made  by  some  poor  people,  who  gave  me  the  following  account 
of  the  process.  The  tree,  or  Mimosa  Catechu,  is  called  here  Keiri, 
and  grows  spontaneously  on  all  the  hills  of  Kankana,  but  no  where 
else  in  the  peninsula  that  I  observed.  It  is  felled  at  any  season  j 
and,  the  white  wood  being  removed,  the  heart  is  cut  into  small  bits, 
and  put,  with  one  half  the  quantity  of  water  by  measure,  into  a 
round-bellied  earthen  pot.  It  is  then  boiled  for  about  three  hours; 
and  when  the  decoction  has  become  ropy,  it  is  decanted.  The  same 
quantity  of  water  is  again  added,  and  boiled,  until  it  becomes  ropy  ; 
when  it  is  decanted,  and  a  third  water  also  is  given.  This  extracts 
all  the  substance  from  the  wood.  The  three  decoctions  are  then 
mixed,  and  next  morning  boiled  in  small  pots,  until  the  extract 
becomes  thick,  like  tar.  It  is  afterwards  allowed  to  remain  in  the 
pots  for  two  days,  and  then  has  become  so  hard,  that  it  will  not 
run.  Some  husks  of  rice  are  then  spread  on  the  ground,  and  the 
inspissated  juice  is  formed  into  balls,  about  the  size  of  oranges, 
which  are  placed  on  the  husks,  or  on  leaves,  and  dried  seven  days, 
in  the  sun.    For  two  months  afterwards  they  are  spread  out  in  the  ' 

shade  to  dry,  or  in  the  rainy  season  for  twice  that  length  of  time, 
and  are  then  fit  for  sale.  Merchants  who  live  above  the  Ghats 
advance  the  whole  price  four  months  before  the  time  of  delivery, 
and  give  2  Rupees  for  a  Maund  of  40  Cutcha  Seers  of  24  Rupees 
weight;  that  is,  for  a  hundred-weight  py'^  Rupees,  or  nearly  1/. 
sterling.  The  merchants  who  purchase  reside  chiefly  at  Darzoara, 
Shanore,  and  other  parts  in  that  neighbourhood,  and  are  those  wild 

Vol,  III.  A  a 


ITS  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  supply  the  greater  part  of  the  peninsula  with  this  article,  which 
among  the  natives  is  in  universal  use.  Their  greatest  supply  comes 
from  that  part  of  Kankana  which  is  subject  to  the  Marattalis.  The 
encouragement  of  this  manufacture  in  British  Kankana  seems  to 
merit  attention.  The  tree  is  exactly  the  same  with  what  I  found 
used  for  the  like  purpose  in  the  dominions  of -^»a,  and  does  not 
agree  very  well  with  the  descriptions  in  the  Supplementum  Plantarum 
of  the  younger  Linnasus,  nor  in  Dr.  Roxburgh's  manuscripts. 
March  2.  2d  March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Sedasiva-ghur.  The  road  passes 

onhrcoun-    ^^^^  '^^^  steep  ridges  of  hills,  running  out  into  two  promontories, 
*'■>'•  between  which  is  a  bay  sheltered  by  the  island  of  Angediva,  belong- 

ing to,  and  inhabited  by  the  Portuguese.  South  from  the  island 
are  two  small  hummocks,  and  off  the  southern  promontory  are  some 
high  rocks.  The  appearance  of  the  whole  from  land  renders  it 
probable,  that  shelter  might  be  found  here  for  ships,  even  during 
the  south-west  monsoon.  In  the  plain  round  this  bay  the  soil  is 
tolerably  good.  On  the  plain  north  from  the  two  ridges  it  is  very 
sandy,  and  much  spoiled  by  salt  water,  which  soaks  through  any 
such  banks  as  can  be  formed  of  the  loose  materials  that  are  pro- 
curable. The  coco-nut  is  perhaps  the  production  which  would 
thrive  best ;  but  a  great  part  of  the  plain  is  waste,  and  covered 
with  bushes  of  the  Cassuvium,  called  Govay  by  the  natives,  from  its 
having  been  introduced  from  America  by  the  Portuguese  of  Goa. 
The  river  of  Seddsiva-ghur  is  a  very  wide  and  deep  inlet  of  the  sea. 
The  passage  into  it  is  intricate,  but  at  the  height  of  the  tide  con- 
tains 25  feet  water.  It  is  sheltered  in  a  deep  bay  by  three  islands, 
one  of  which,  called  by  the  natives  Karmaguda,  is  fortified.  The 
entrance  is  commanded  by  the  fort,  which  is  situated  on  a  lofty 
hill.  Much  land  in  this  vicinity  has  fallen  into  the  hands  of  go- 
vernment, and,  owing  to  the  depredations  of  the  Comarapeca  robbers, 
has  become  waste.  One  of  their  chiefs,  named  Venja  Ndyaka,  was 
the  terror  of  the  whole  country,  and  forced  even  Brahmans  to  adopt 
his  cast.     Two  of  his  sons  were  hanged  by  Tippoo;  but,  until 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  179 

terrified  by  the  firmness  of  Major  Monro's  government,  he  conti-   CHAPTER 
nued  obstinate  in  his  evil  practices.    Soon  after  that  gentleman's    v^^v-O 
arrival,  he  made  his  submission,  and  continues  to  behave  like  a  good  March  2. 
subject.  I  found  him  very  ready  to  give  me  assistance  in  procuring 
supplies,  and  means  to  transport  my  baggage ;  and  from  the  mild- 
ness of  his  manners,  until  informed  by  the   officers  of  revenue, 
I  had  no  idea  of  his  disposition,  which  was  barbarous  in  the  ex- 
treme. 

3d  March. — I  remained  at  Seddsiva-ghur  taking  some  account  of  March  3. 

Commerce. 
the   state  of  British  Kankana,  and   making  preparations   for  my 

journey  up  the  Ghats.  The  Petta,  or  town,  here  contains  about 
twenty  very  wretched  shops  :  all  the  other  inhabitants  live  scattered 
on  their  farms.  Cadawada,  or  as  we  usually  pronounce  it  Carxvar, 
stood  about  three  miles  above  Seddsiva-ghur,  on  the  opposite  bank 
of  the  river.  It  was  formerly  a  noted  seat  of  European  commerce, 
but  during  the  Sultdn's  reign  has  gone  to  total  ruin.  There  are 
here  at  present  some  merchants  from  the  Marat t ah  dominions  above 
the  Ghats,  who  say  that  they  came  chiefly  with  a  view  of  purchasing 
salt.  They  also  procure  here  a  considerable  quantity  of  Cut,  none 
of  which  grows  above  the  Ghats.  They  purchase  it  for  ready  money 
from  the  merchants  of  the  country,  who  make  the  advances  to  the 
manufactjurers.  It  is  of  a  very  good  quality ;  and  they  cannot 
afford  to  give  more  than  10  Suit  any  Pagodas  for  the  Candaca,  or 
Candy  of  40  Maunds  of  48  Seers  each ;  that  is,  40  Rupees  for  the 
Candy  of  582flb.,  or  15*.  5d.  a  hundred -weight. 

It  would  appear,  that  at  one  time  all  the  lands  of  this  district  Tenures. 
(Taluc)  belonged  to  Jain  landlords  (Mulagars)  ;  but  all  these  have 
either  been  killed,  or  so  oppressed  that  they  have  disappeared. 
After  their  expulsion,  part  of  the  lands  were  annexed  to  the  govern- 
ment, and  part  given  to  landlords  (Mulagars)  called  Hubbu  Brdh- 
mails.  These  are  of  the  Pansh  Dravada  division;  but  are  considered 
as  having  been  degraded  by  Sankara  Achdrya,  and  are  now  reduced 
to  a  miserable  state  of  ignorance.    None  of  them  here  caa  give  any 


180  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  account  of  the  time  when  they  came  into  the  country,  who  brought 
^^^-        them,  or  whence  they  came.     They  are  the  common  Panchaiigas, 

March  3.  or  almanac-keepers  of  the  country,  and  in  some  temples  are  priests 
(Pt'ijaris) ;  but  Sujeswara,  the  most  celebrated  temple  in  the 
country,  and  one  of  those  built  by  Ravana  king  of  Lanca,  is  in  pos- 
session of  a  colony  of  Alarattah  Brahnians,  who  were  introduced  by 
Mahomed  Adil  Shah  of  Vijaya-pura.  Of  the  history  of  the  country 
these  know  nothing,  except  the  legends  concerning  the  founda- 
tion of  their  temple  that  are  to  be  found  in  the  eighteen  Puranas. 
The  lands  formerly  granted  to  the  Hubbu  Brdhmans,  and  which 
form  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  country,  are  called  Mula  lands, 
and  may  be  transferred  by  sale  whenever  the  proprietor  pleases. 
The  Hubbiis  have  indeed  alienated  a  great  part  of  it  to  Marattahs, 
Kankana  Brdhmans,  and  Comarapeca.  It  may  be  also  transferred  on 
mortgage,  resumable  at  pleasure  by  paying  the  debt.  This  tenure 
is  here  called  Adava.  The  Shist,  or  assessment,  now  in  use,  was 
made  by  Sherif  un  Miilk,  the  Vazir  of  Ponday  already  mentioned; 
and  was  formed  by  laying  so  much  on  the  land,  according  to  its 
soil,  and  the  quantity  of  rice  seed  that  it  was  supposed  capable  of 
sowing.  The  proprietor  may  cultivate  it  with  whatever  he  pleases, 
and  may  plant  it  with  palms  without  any  additional  tax.  Since  tlie 
time  of  Sherif  un  Mulk,  a  small  tax  has  been  imposed  on  every 
coco^nut  tree  ;  and  at  different  times,  by  imposing  a  per  centage 
(Pagadiputti)  on  the  amount  of  each  person's  land-tax,  an  increase 
of  revenue  has  been  made.  Major  Monro,  according  to  the  account 
of  the  revenue  officers,  considerably  reduced  the  rate  of  the  land- 
tax  ;  but  owing  to  his  care,  and  strictness  in  the  collections,  the 
revenue  which  he  raised  was  much  greater  than  was  ever  before 
realised.  The  proprietors  allege,  that  they  paid  more  to  him  than 
they  did  to  Tippoo.  The  two  accounts  are  very  reconcileable ;  as 
under  the  inspection  of  Mr.  Monro  there  was  little  room  for  the 
corrupt  practices  which  in  the  Sultan's  government  were  very  pre- 
valent.   Disputes  about  landed  property  are  very  common.     An 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  181 

estate  paying  four  Pagodas  of  revenue  can  be  mortgaged  for  a  hun-  CHAPTER 
dred  Pagodas,  and  the  mortgagee  pays  the  taxes.  The  same  estate  s^^-w^ 
will  sell  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  Pagodas.  The  government  lands  March  3. 
are  let  at  rack  rent,  which  is  of  course  higher  than  the  tax  (Shist) 
paid  by  the  proprietors  (Mulagars).  The  tenants  on  these  lands, 
or  Citxar  Cutties,  cannot  be  turned  out  of  their  farms  so  long  as 
they  pay  the  rent,  the  leases  being  in  perpetuity.  They  can  neither 
sell  nor  mortgage  their  lease ;  but  they  may  let  it  to  an  under- 
tenant. By  far  the  greater  part  of  the  cultivation  is  carried  on  by 
the  proprietors  (Mulagars)  and  tenants  of  the  public  (Citxar  Cut- 
ties), and  very  little  by  lease-holders.  The  sizes  of  the  farms  vary 
from  one  to  five  ploughs.  Two  oxen  are  required  to  each  plough, 
which  cultivates  from  five  to  seven  Candies  of  land.  In  general, 
the  family  of  the  proprietor  labours  the  farm,  but  a  few  rich  men 
employ  hired  servants.  There  are  here  no  slaves.  Men  servants 
get  yearly  from  two  to  siyi  Pagodas,  or  from  l6s.  \\d.  to  48*.  4|r/.; 
but  those,  who  get  only  the  first  sum  in  money,  have  daily  one 
meal  of  rice. 

The  cultivation  of  watered-fields,  and  of  gardens,  both  on  the  Rice, 
same  kind  of  land,  is  the  only  one  known  in  British  Kankana,  ex- 
cept the  Cumri,  or  Cotu  Cadu,  called  here  Culumbi.  There  is  no 
ground  from  which  two  crops  of  rice  in  one  year  are  taken ;  but, 
while  most  of  the  rice  grows  in  the  rainy  season,  some  land  called 
Vaingunna  is  so  low,  that  in  the  rainy  season  it  cannot  be  cultivated, 
and,  after  the  water  has  evaporated,  this  yields  a  crop.  All  the 
other  land  is  called  Surd,  and  is  mostly  what  in  Malabar  Avould  be 
called  Majelii,  and  what  the  people  of  Tulava  would  call  Betta.  In 
the  accompanying  Table  may  be  seen  several  particulars  relative  to 
the  cultivation  of  rice,  which  were  taken  from  the  accounts  of  the 
cultivators.  I  had  no  opportunity  of  ascertaining  the  quantity  of 
land  required  to  sow  one  Candaca  of  seed,  nor,  consequently,  of 
judging  how  far  the  statement  of  the  produce  is  credible. 


182 


Marsh  3. 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Table  explaining  the  cultivation  of  Rice  in  British  Kankano, 


Name. 

Ground. 

Produce  of  One  Candaca 
sown. 

Time 
required 
to  ripen. 

Quality. 

Suca-dan. 

Rice, 

1st  Soil. 

2d  Soil. 

Jlsgha 

Pandia 

Patni 

llalga 

Sanmulghi 

Wala  -     - 

Surd    -     - 

Candacas. 

6 

6 
none 

6 

8 
none 
none 

Candacas. 
5 
5 
5 

5 
6 

Candacas. 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
10 
4 

Months. 

H 

3| 
3 

3 

4 

4 

li 
-^1 

4 

Lari;e. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Middle  sized. 

Ditto. 

Smalt. 

Large  and  coarse. 

Sorutta     - 

Vaingunna 

The  Suca-dan  is,  where  the  seed  is  sown  broad-cast  without  pre- 
paration ;  and  in  this  case  one-fifth  more  seed  is  required  for  the 
same  ground,  than  when,  previous  to  its  being  sown,  the  seed  is  pre- 
pared, or  made  to  sprout,  which  is  here  called  Ran.  The  Cago  is 
cultivated  on  the  lands  impregnated  with  salt  by  inundations,  and 
is  the  only  kind  that  will  thrive  in  such  places.  The  IVala  requires 
a  clayey  soil,  and  its  produce  is  great;  but  the  quantity  of  this  soil 
is  very  small.  All  the  Surd  land  requires  manure.  The  seed  season 
for  dry-seed  is  the  month  preceding  midsummer;  and  that  for 
sprouted-seed  is  tlie  month  following.  In  Vaingunna,  or  inundated 
land,  according  as  the  water  evaporates,  the  seed  season  continues 
during  the  two  months  previous  to  and  one  month  after  the  winter 
solstice.  The  fields  are  watered  from  small  Tanks,  which  in  such 
low  situations  do  not  suddenly  dry  up,  and  contain  the  water  at 
from  one  to  two  feet  below  the  surface.  It  is  raised  by  means  of  a 
trough,  which  moves  upon  a  pivot  near  the  centre  ;  so  that  one  of 
its  ends  may  be  immersed  into  the  water,  while  its  lighter  end 
hangs  over  the  field. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


183 


Klarch  3. 


To  the  heavy  end  is  annexed  a  Yatam  wrought  by  two  men,  who 
allow  this  extremity  of  the  trough  to  sink  into  the  water,  and  to  be 
thus  filled.  They  then  raise  it  by  the  Yatam,  and  the  water  runs 
out  upon  the  field  by  the  light  end.  Two  men  with  a  basket  and 
ropes  would  throw  out  four  times  as  much  water,  but  it  would  be 
hard  work. 

Upon  good  Surd  land  may  be  procured  a  second  crop  of  the  fol-  Pulse, 
lowing  leguminous  plants : 

Udied,  Phaseolus  minimoo  Roxb:  MSS. 

Mitng,  Phaseolus  mungo. 

Cultie,  Dolichos  biflorus. 

These  are  cultivated  in  the  same  manner  as  the  pulses  in  Haiga. 

In  the  rainy  season  the  cattle  are  kept  in  the  house,  and,  to  in-  Manured 
crease  the  quantity  of  manure,  are  littered  with  fresh  leaves.  In 
the  dry  season  they  are  shut  up  at  night  in  pens,  which  are  placed 
on  the  Surd  lands,  and  are  shifted  once  in  four  days.  Every 
morning  some  dry  soil  is  mixed  with  the  foregoing  night's  dung, 
and  the  whole  is  made  smooth,  that  the  cattle  may  lie  clean.  The 
manure  collected  in  the  rainy  season  is  given  to  the  soil  of  the  first 
and  second  quality,  which  are  always  sown  with  rice  after  the  dry- 
seed  cultivation.  The  ashes  of  the  family  are  kept  separate,  but  are 
used  for  the  same  kind  of  land. 

The  cattle  here  are  of  the  same  small  kinds  that  are  to  be  found  Cattle. 
on  the  coast  to  the  southward.    A  great  many  of  them  are  brought 


184  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   from  above  the  Ghats.    At  this  season  they  are  in  a  most  wretched 
^^J^^^     condition,  and  are  supported  entirely  on  straw  ;  for  in  Kankana  no 

March  3.        liay  is  made.     In  this  part  of  the  country  few  buffaloes  are   em- 
ployed. 

Customs  of        The  Comarapeca  are  a  tribe  of  Kankana  descent,  and  seem  to  be 

jieca.  the  Sudras  of  pure  birth,  who  properly  belong  to  the  country ;  in 

the  same  manner  as  the  Nairs  are  the  pure  Sudras  o^ Malay ala.  By 
birth  they  are  all  cultivators  and  soldiers ;  and,  as  usual  with  this 
class  of  men  among  the  Hindus,  are  all  strongly  inclined  to  be 
robbers.  From  the  anarchy  which  has  long  prevailed  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood, they  had  acquired  an  extraordinary  degree  of  cruelty, 
and  had  even  compelled  many  Brdlimans  to  assume  their  customs, 
and  adopt  their  cast.  They  have  hereditary  chiefs  called  Nuyakas, 
who,  as  usual,  with  the  assistance  of  a  council,  can  expel  from  the 
cast,  and  settle  disputes  among  their  inferiors.  A  man's  own  chil- 
dren are  his  heirs.  They  can  read  poetical  legends,  and  are  per- 
mitted to  eat  meat  and  drink  spirituous  liquors.  Their  women  are 
not  marriageable  after  the  age  of  puberty.  Widows  ought  to  burn 
themselves  with  the  bodies  of  their  husbands,  but  this  barbarity  is 
no  longer  in  use.  Widows,  and  women  who  have  been  divorced 
for  adultery  with  k  Brahman  or  Comarapeca,  may  be  taken  into  a 
kind  of  left-hand  marriage ;  but  their  children  are  despised,  and 
no  person  of  a  pure  descent  will  marry  them.  A  woman  cannot  be 
divorced  for  any  other  cause  than  adultery  ;  if  the  crime  has  been 
committed  with  any  man  but  a  Brahman,  or  Comarapeca,  she  loses 
cast.  The  men  may  take  as  many  wives  as  they  please.  The  Sringa- 
giri  Swamalu  is  their  Guru.  He  receives  their  Dharma,  and  bestows 
on  them  Upadesa,  holy-water,  consecrated  ashes,  and  the  like.  The 
Panchanga,  or  astrologer  of  the  village,  is  their  PMro/«Vc,  and  reads 
prayers  (Mantrams)  at  marriages,  Namacurtia  (the  giving  a  child  its 
name),  Tit  hi,  Amdvdsya,  &c.  &c.  They  M'orship  the  great  gods, 
Siva  and  Vishnu,  in  temples  where  Kankana  Brahmans  are  Piijdris. 
Tk«y  offer  bloody  aacrifices ;  and  at  the  temples  of  the  Saktis,  or 


INIarch  3. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  3  85 

destructive  spirits,  such  as  Dava  Devaru,  and  Marca  Devi,  whose  CHAPTER 
priests  (Pujaris)  are  called  Gurus,  they  swing  suspended  by  iron 
hooks  which  are  passed  through  the  skin  of  their  backs.  The 
spirits  of  children,  whose  mothei-s  die  during  pregnancy,  are  sup- 
posed to  become  Butas,  or  devils,  and  to  occasion  much  trouble  to 
those  unfortunate  persons  into  whom  they  enter.  The  sufferers 
attempt  to  be  relieved  of  ithem  by  prayer  and  sacrifice,  and  some 
village  people  are  imagined  to  be  possessed  of  invocations  (Man- 
trams)  capable  of  expelling  these  evil  spirits.  The  Comarapecas 
suppose  that  the  spirits  of  good  men  go  to  Moesha,  a  pretence  that 
is  looked  upon  by  the  Brahmans  as  very  impudent ;  for  they  think 
that  such  a  place  is  far  beyond  the  reach  of  a  Sudra.  For  the  spirits 
of  bad  men  the  Comarapeca  do  not  know  any  place  of  punishment, 
nor  do  they  know  what  becomes  of  such  after  death. 

The  Brahmans  properly  belonging  to  Kankana,  and  who  alledge  Brahmans  of 
that  they  are  the  descendants  of  the  colony  to  whom  the  country 
was  given  by  Parasu  Rama,  are  of  the  Pansh  Gauda  division.  Goa, 
called  by  them  Govay,  seems  to  have  been  their  principal  seat. 
After  being  expelled  thence  by  the  Portuguese,  they  dispersed, 
and  have  now  mostly  become  traders.  A  few  are  still  priests  (Pu- 
jaris), and  a  very  small  number  call  themselves  Vaid'ikas.  All  those 
Avho  are  here  are  very  ignorant,  and  do  not  pretend  to  say  when 
the  Jain  and  Panch  Dravada  B?'dhmans  came  in  upoii  them. 

4th  March. — I  went  three   cosses  to  Gopi-chitty.    For  the  first  March  4. 
part  of  the  journey  the  road  led  through  a  level  country,  with  a  oftimcouu- 
few  small  hills  scattered  at  some  distance,  and  a  pretty  good  soil,  '•'y* 
It  afterwards  passed  among  low  hills  covered  with  wood.    In  many 
places  here,  the  soil  seems  good,  and  the  trees  are  tall ;  so  that 
pepper  might  probably  be  cultivated  to  advantage.    In  many  other 
places   the  hills  are  barren,   producing  nothing   but  bushes,    or 
stunted  trees  :  among  them  I  saw  no  Teak.    Gopi-chitty  is  a  village  Gopi-chitty. 
containing  eight  houses.    Owing   to  the  disturbed  state   of  the 
country,  it  had  for  twenty  years  been  entirely  deserted;  but  the 

Vol.  III.  B  b 


186 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


History  of 
the  part  of 
Kankana 
subject  to  the 
British. 


confidence  of  enjoying  security  under  Major  Monro's  authority, 
has  induced  the  present  inhabitants  to  settle  in  the  place,  and 
March  4.  they  have  already  cleared  a  considerable  extent  of  the  rice  ground, 
which  consequently  belongs  entirely  to  the  government.  The 
lower  part  of  the  valley,  toward  the  great  river,  has  been  destroyed 
by  the  breaking  down  of  the  dykes  that  kept  out  the  tide.  To 
repair  these,  would  cost  25  Pagodas,  which  is  more  than  the  tenants 
can  afford  or  choose  to  advance. 

This  part  of  Kankana,  on  the  fall  of  the  Sultans  of  Vijaya-pura, 
became  subject  to  the  Rajas  of  Sudha,  which  we  call  Soonda.  One 
of  these,  named  Sedasiva  Roxc,  built  the  fort  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river,  and  called  it  after  his  own  name.  The  dialect  of  Kankana  is 
used  by  the  natives  of  this  place  in  their  own  houses ;  but,  from 
having  been  long  subject  to  Vijaya-pura,  almost  all  of  them  can 
speak  the  Marattah  language,  which  has  a  very  strong  affinity  with 
the  Hinduy  that  is  spoken  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges. 

5th  March. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Caderi,  and  did  not  see  a  house 
the  whole  way  ;  but  the  heads  of  some  cultivated  vallies  approach 
near  the  road,  and  extend  from  thence  toward  the  river.  I  passed 
through  many  places  that  formerly  have  been  cultivated,  but  are 
now  waste,  and  through  some  places  where  the  soil  seems  fit  for 
cultivation,  but  which  probably  have  never  been  cleared.  The 
trees  in  some  places  are  of  a  good  size,  but  none  of  them  are  very 
valuable.  The  people  whom  I  took  with  me  for  the  purpose  gave 
me  the  fojlowing  account  of  such  as  I  observed  by  the  way. 
Forests.  The  most  common  is  the  prickly  Bamboo,  called  Colaki. 

Cussum,  or  the  Shaguda  of  my  MSS. 
Is  very  hard,  and  strong,  and  is  used  for  the  cylinders  of  sugar- 
mills. 

Rindela,  Chuncoa  Huliva,  Buch:  MSS. 
Is  used  only  for  the  beams  of  the  houses  of  the  natives. 

Biba,  Holigarna,  Buch:  MSS. 
This  is  the  varnish  tree  of  Chittigong,  and  I  suppose  of  Ava.    The 


March  5, 
Appearance 
of  the  coun- 
try. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  187 

natives  here  are  only  acquainted  with  the  caustic  nature  of  its  CHAPTER 
juice,  and  apply  it  to  no  use.  v,^--^^-^ 

Cadumba,  the  Naucka  purpurea  Rox:  March  s. 

A  large  tree  used  for  planks. 

Maratu,   a  Chuncoa  called   by  Dr.  Roxburgh  Terminatia  alata  ■ 
glubra, 

Grows  to  a  very  large  size,  and  is  used  for  building  boats  and 
canoes. 

Beiladu,  Vitexfoliis  ternatis. 
Of  hardly  any  use. 

Cq^erUj  Strychnos  Nux  vomica. 

Hedu,  Naucka  Daduga  Roxb:  MSS. 
A  large  tree  fit  for  planks. 

Cumbia.    The  Pelou  of  the  Hort:  Mai: 

Ticay,  Laurus  Cassia. 
People  from  above  the  Ghats  come  to  collect  both  the  bark  and  the 
buds,  which  the  natives  call  Cabob-China. 

Paynra.  Gardenia  uliginosa  Willd: 
Of  no  use.  • 

Hodogus.  Arbor  foliis  suboppositis,  esfipuldceis,  omlibus,  integerrimisi 
The  timber  is  said  to  be  very  strong  and  durable,  and  to  resist  the 
white  ants,  even  when  buried  in  the  ground. 

SisSa.  Pterocarpus  Sissoo  Roxb:  MSS. 
Is  found  in  great  plenty  near  the  river  toward  the  Ghats, 

Dilknia  pentagyna  Roxb: 
The  natives  have  no  name  for  it. 

Jambay.  Mimosa  xylocarpon  Roxb: 
It  grows  to  an  immense  size. 

Bassia  longifolia.  '  - 

Robinia  mitis. 

Myrtus  cumini. 

The  forests  are  the  property  of  the  gods  of  the  villages  in  which 
they  are  situated,  and  the  trees  ought  not  to  be  cut  without  having 


18» 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


^larch  5. 


Caderi. 
Unhealthy 
nature  of  the 
country. 


River  of  Se- 
ddsiva-ghyr. 


obtained  leave  from  the  Gauda,  or  head  man  of  the  village,  whose 
office  is  hereditary,  and  who  here  also  is  priest  (Pujdri)  to  the 
temple  of  the  village  god.  The  idol  receives  nothing  for  granting 
this  permission;  but  the  neglect  of  the  ceremony  of  asking  his 
leave  brings  his  vengeance  on  the  guilty  person.  This  seems, 
therefore,  merely  a  contrivance  to  prevent  the  government  from 
claiming  the  property.  Each  village  has  a  different  god,  some 
male,  some  female,  but  by  the  Brdhmans  they  are  all  called 
Saktis  (powers),  as  requiring  bloody  sacrifices  to  appease  their 
wrath. 

No  persons  here  collect  honey  or  wax. 

Caderi  at  present  contains  only  two  houses,  with  one  man  and  a 
lad,  besides  women.  It  was  formerly  a  place  of  note  ;  but  for  se- 
veral years  a  great  sickness  has  prevailed,  and  has  swept  oiF  nearly 
all  the  inhabitants.  This  is  attributed  to  the  vengeance  of  some 
enraged  Buta,  or  devil ;  but  may  be  accounted  for  from  the  neigh- 
bouring country  having  been  laid  waste,  and  being  over-ruu  with 
forests.  On  the  banks  of  the  river  at  Caderi  there  was  a  fort,  which 
Avas  destroyed  by  Hyder,  and  the  garrison  sent  to  occupy  the  for- 
tified island  at  the  mouth  of  the  river.  General  Mathews,  the 
natives  say,  took  possession  of  the  ruins,  erected  some  Avorks,  and 
left  a  garrison,  which  held  out  until  the  peace  of  Mangalore.  Most 
of  the  cultivators  lived  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  Those 
who  resided  near  the  fort  Avere  chiefly  traders ;  and  there  is  still  a 
weekly  fair  at  the  place,  to  Avhich  many  people  resort.  This  seems 
to  be  the  reason  Avhy  the  few  remaining  inhabitants  continue  in 
such  a  situation.  They  are  Brdhmaus ;  and  from  those  Avho  fre- 
quent the  fair  they  receive  considerable  contributions.  PatemarSy 
or  large  craft,  can  ascend  almost  to  the  fort,  and  canoes  can  go 
two  miles  above  it.  The  water  is  quite  fresh.  The  encouraging  of  a 
market  (Bazar)  here  seems  to  be  an  object  of  importance,  and  a 
mean  likely  to  bring  back  a  great  trade  to  this  river,  Avhich  by 
nature  has  many  advantages. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  189 

6th.  March. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Avila-gotna,   without  having   CHAPTER 
seen  the   smallest  trace   of  cultivation,  or  of  inhabitants.     The     ^iiX^L/ 
country  is  not,  however,  entirely  a  desert.    Small  villages  are  scat-  March  6. 
tered  through  the  forests,  and  hidden  in  its  recesses.    Formerly  the  pjessed". 
inhabitants  of  these  lived  in  a  constant  defiance  of  the  rest  of  man- 
kind, robbing  whoever  unfortunately  came  within  their  power,  and 
continually  on  the  alarm  to  defend  themselves  frojn  their  neigh- 
bours.   This  manner  of  living  has  however  been  entirely  stopped. 
Major  Monro,  by  taking  advantage  of  the  terror  inspired  by  the 
fall  of  Seringapatam,  and  by  an  instant  punishment  of  the  first 
transgressor,  has  made  every  thing  quiet ;  and  there  is  reason  to 
think    that   a   defenceless   man   may  now  traverse   these   forests 
without  danger  from  his  fellow-creatures.     Tigers  are  said  to  be 
very  numerous ;  and,  to  lessen  the  danger  to  be  apprehended  from 
them,  the  traders  who  frequent  the  road  have  cleared  many  places 
where   they  may  encamp,   and  these  are  prevented  from  being 
overgrown  by  annually  burning  the  long  grass.    On  one  of  these 
clear  places  I  halted,  having  at  no  great  distance  a  village  of 
thieves. 

The  country  through  which  I  passed  to-day  was  in  general  level,  j\ppearance 
with  hills  near  the  road  toward  the  left,  and  a  ridge  to  the  right  at  °^*^ '^^^  •^°""- 
about  four  or  five  miles  distance.  This  ridge  is  that  which  runs  out 
into  the  sea  to  form  the  southern  boundary  of  the  bay  of  Sedhlva- 
ghur.  The  trees  are  in  general  high,  Avith  many  Bamboos  inter- 
mixed. The  soil  is  apparently  good,  and  a  large  proportion  of  it  is 
sufficiently  level  for  the  plough.  Near  Avila-gotna  I  crossed  the 
rive)',  which  here  assumes  a  very  singular  appearance.  Its  channel 
is  about  half  a  mile  wide,  and  consists  of  a  confused  mass  of  rocks, 
gravel,  and  sand,  intersected  by  small  limpid  streams,  and  over- 
grown with  various  trees  and  shrubs  which  delight  in  such  situa- 
tions. In  the  rainy  season,  it  swells  into  tremendous  torrents,  but 
never  fills  the  channel  from  bank  to  bank.  It  is  then,  however, 
quite  impassable.     At  present  its  clear  streams,  M'ith  the    fresh 


190 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 

xvr. 


]March  6. 


March  ?• 


Face  of  the 
country. 


Unhealthy 
nature  of  the 
country. 


Robbers. 


verdure  of  the  plants  growing  near  them,  are  very  pleasant,  after 
having  come  through  the  forest,  M'.hose  leaves  at  this  season  drop ; 
for  all  the  juices  of  the  trees  are  dried  up  by  the  arid  heat  of  this 
climate,  in  the  same  manner  as  they  are  by  the  cold  of  an  Euro- 
pean winter.  The  nights,  however,  arer  at  present  cool,  but  the 
days  are  burning  hot.  Near  the  sea  a  more  equable  temperature 
prevails. 

7th  March. — Although  before  leaving  Seddsiva-ghur,  I  had  col- 
lected the  persons  who  were  said  to  be  best  informed  concerning 
the  road,  and  had  procured  from  them  a  list  of  stages  said  to  be 
distant  from  each  other  three  or  four  cosses,  that  is,  about  ten  or 
thirtee  <!  miles ;  yet  to-day  I  came  to  my  stage  at  Dh)a-kara^  after 
less  than  an  hour's  journey. 

The  road  passes  along  the  south  side  of  the  river;  and  toward 
the  east  the  valley  becomes  narrower,  and  more  uneven  ;  but  still 
much  of  it  is  fit  for  the  plough.  From  the  stunted  appearance  of 
the  trees,  I  conclude  that  the  soil  is  worse  than  that  on  j'esterday's 
route.  At  Dha-kara  there  is  a  good  deal  of  ground  cleared,  and 
formed  into  rice  fields  ;  but  the  people  of  eight  houses,  which  form 
the  village,  are  not  able  to  cultivate  the  whole.  Tlie  ground  that  is 
cleared  is  by  no  means  equal  either  in  soil  or  levelness,  to  much  of 
what  I  saw  waste  on  the  two  last  days'  journey  ;  but  it  is  finely  wa- 
tered by  a  stream  that  even  now  affords  a  great  supply.  The  river  at 
Deva-kara  is  a  rapid  stream  full  of  small  islands ;  but  not  so  much 
broken  as  at  Avi/a-gotna,  and  of  course  narrower,  la  the  rainy 
season  it  is  quite  impassable  ;  and  then,  although  very  rapid,  swells 
at  least  ten  feet  above  its  present  level. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  last  rainy  season,  this  village  con- 
tained twelve  houses;  but,  twenty  persons  having  died,  four  of  the 
houses  are  now  deserted.  It  is  looked  upon  as  certain  death,  for  any 
stranger  to  attempt  to  settle  in  this  place. 

Here  was  the  residence  of  a  very  notorious  robber,  who  died  in 
consequence  of  the  wounds  that  he  received  from  the  party  which 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  19I 

Major  Monro  sent  to  apprehend  him.  His  family  are  now  quiet  CHAPTER 
cultivators,  and  ever  since  his  death  safety  and  tranquillity  have  yj^h, 
been  established  in  the  country.  March  7. 

The  people  here  say,  that  their  Surd  IdLiids  produce,  from  12  to  20  Produce  of 

1  T  •    1     ■  111  1  1  ■  o    7'     rice-ground. 

seeds,  which  is  a  more  probable  account  than  that  given  at  oecia- 
siva-ghur,  unless  the  seed  there  be  sown  as  thick  as  in  Malabar. 

As  I  am  now  about  to  enter  Karnata  Disam,  where  a  new  face  of  Mr.  Read's 
things  will  present  itself,  I  shall  here  conclude  the  chapter,  by  ex-  jj,g  districts 
tractinff  from  Mr.  Read's  answers  to  my  queries  such  as  relate  to  below  the 

■  •  .  1       ^  Ghats. 

that  part  of  his  district  which  is  situated  below  the  Ghats,  and 
which  comprehends  the  districts  (Talucs)  of  Kunda-pura  and  Hona- 
•wera  in  Haiga,  and  that  of  Ancola  in  Kankana. 

In  these  districts  the  proportion  of  land  capable  of  being  cul-  Soil. 
tivated  with  the  plough,  or  of  being  converted  into  gardens,  Mr. 
Read  estimates  as  follows  : 

Capable  of  being  so.  Sterile^ 

0,08  -  0,60 

0,12  -  0,62 
0,20  -  0,59 
The  revenue,  notwithstanding  so  much  waste  land,  is  said  to  have  Revenue. 
been  greater  during^  the  first  year  of  Major  Monro's  management, 
than  it  was  ever  before  known  to  have  been.  Mr.  Read  attributes 
this  to  an  increase  of  rent  on  the  lands  actually  in  cultivation;  but 
of  this  I  have  much  doubt.  In  general,  the  natives  acknowledged 
a  remission,  which  naturally  they  would  not  have  done  had  their 
taxes  been  increased  ;  and  it  must  be  remembered,  that  Tippoo  had 
resumed  all  the  charity  lands  (Enams),  which  during  the  former 
governments  probably  amounted  to  more  than  what  is  now  waste, 
while  the  collections  remitted  to  the  treasury,  and  consequently 
brought  to  accompt,  during  the  Sultan's  government,  are  no  rule 
by  which  an  estimate  can  be  formed  of  the  taxes;  the  whole  reye-' 
nue  department  under  him  having  been  subject  to  the  most  gross 
peculation. 


Now  cultivated. 

Kunda-pura 

0,32 

Honawera 

0,26 

Ancola 

0,21 

192 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


The  produce  of  the  waste  lands  brought  to  market,  Mr.  Read 
states  as  follows. 

The  Maund  weighs  £!4yVo^b,  and  is  divided  into  40  Seers. 


Sandal 
wood 
trees. 
Total. 

Teak 
trees   cut 
annually. 

Sissa 
trees   cut 
annually. 

Annual 
produce 

of 
honey. 

Annual 

produce 

of  bees 

wax. 

A"n"=l       4,4, 
produce      Annual       Annual 
w.ldcin.'P^d^ceofiProduce 

namon.  ^"^o''  ^'•'"''-  nutmegs 

Annual 
produce 
of  wild 
pepper. 

Kunda-pura 
Honavxra  - 
Ancola  -     - 

Total     - 

8758 

1017 

315 

2059 
1124 

1582 
344 
572 

Maunds. 
8     0 

Maunds.  Maunds. 

—  8   30 

—  99  35 
2     7|    15   10 

Maunds. 
25  30 
42  32| 
50  14 

Maunds. 
12      5 

28   171 

Maunds. 

51     0 

533     0 

474  38| 

10143 

31S3 

2498 

8     0 

2     7f'l23  35 

1 

lis  36i 

40  22| 

1058  38| 

The  Cut,  and  perhaps  some  other  articles  of  less  importance, 
have  eluded  Mr.  Read's  inquiries,  probably  from  their  never  having 
been  objects  of  revenue. 
Sandal  wood.  "  All  sandal  trees,"  says  Mr.  Read,  "  growing  upon  private  lands 
are  considered  as  the  property  of  the  government ;  but  it  would  be 
ridiculous  to  suppose,  that  they  will  always  be  considered  as  such 
by  the  occupiers  of  estates,  who  undoubtedly  commit  frequent 
depredations  upon  thein.  It  would  therefore  be  for  the  benefit  of 
the  Company  to  have  the  whole  cut  down  immediately  that  are  of 
a  fit  age,  Avhich  I  am  told  is  not  till  they  are  30  years  old.  The 
whole  might  be  easily  collected  at  Onorc  (Honaxvera),  and  taken 
up  by  one  of  the  Indiamen  passing  from  Bombay  to  China.'"  Mr. 
Read  was  probably  not  aware,  that  last  year  all  the  ripe  sandal  in 
Mysore  had  been  cut,  and  a  great  danger  has  consequently  been 
incurred  of  glutting  the  market;  while  some  years  hence  it  will 
probably  be  greatly  enhanced  in  value.  I  have  already  mentioned, 
that  some  measure  should  be  adopted  for  regulating  the  cutting  of 
the  sandal  wood  ;  so  that  a  certain  supply  should  annually  be  brought 
to  market,  and  no  more  permitted  to  grow  than  can  be  disposed  of 
to  advantage ;  for  it  must  be  considered  as  a  mere  superfluous 
luxury,  the  only  proper  use  of  which  is  to  become  a  source  of  as 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAK.  ]93 

much  revenue  as  possible.    As  the  Company  and  the  Mysore  Raj&   CHAPTER 
are  iu  the  sole  possession  of  the   countries  which  produce  it,  the    \,^,-^ 
arrangement  might  be  readily  made  on  sQmewhat  like  the  follow-  March/. 
ing  plan.    An  estimate  of  the  quantity  annually  saleable,  and  of  the 
whole  produce  that  groAvs  in  both  territories,  having  been  formed, 
an  agreement  might  be  made,  that  each  party  should  furnish  the 
annual  supply  for  a  number  of  years,  in  proportion  to  the  whole 
quantity  that  grows  in  his  country.    For  instance,  the  Mysore  Raja 
might  furnish  the  supply  for  nineteen  years,  and  the  Company  for 
one,  which  I  imagine  is  somewhat  about  the  relative  proportion  of 
what  the  two  territories  produce.    The  parties,  of  course,  would  be    ' 
tied  down  to  sell  no  more  than  a  certain  weight  each  year.    Th«y 
might  improve  its  quality,  as  much  as  they  could  ;  and  public  sales, 
such  as  the  Companj^  use  in  Betigal  for  opium  and  salt,  I  am  per- 
suaded would  be  found  by  far  the  most  advantageous  manner  of 
disposing  of  this  article.    Mr.  Read  mentions  no  difference  in  the 
quality  of  the  sandal  which  grows  below  the  Ghats,  from  that  which 
grows  in  Kamata ;  but  all  the  natives  that  I  have  ever  spoken  with 
on  the  subject,  from  Pali-ghat  to  this  place,  look  upon  the  produce 
of  the  low  country  as  of  little  or  no  value,  a&  having  no  smell. 

The  wild  cinnamon  and  Cabob  China  are  rented  together  for  about  Laurua 
22  Rupees  a  year.    The  former  sells  in  the  market  (Bazar)  at  28  ''""^''• 
Rupees  a  Candy,  and  the  latter  at  32  Rupees.    The  Candy  is  equal  to 
20  Maunds. 

Mr,  Read  values  the  wild  pepper  at  one  Pagoda  a  Maund;  and  Wild  pepper, 
says,  that  it  is  of  a  quality  very  inferior  to  that  raised  in  gardens, 
which  sells  for  about  \~  Pagoda.    All  the  natives.with  whom  I  con- 
versed looked  upon  them  as  of  equal  value. 

The  number  of  people  at  present  employed  in  the  Cumri,  or  CumWculti- 
Co^?<-ca6?M  cultivation,  amounts   to  2418,  who  pay  yearly  954^  Pa- 
godas,  or  3*.  l\d.  a  head.     It  is  supposed  by  the  revenue  officers, 
that  in  this  manner  1900  more  people  might  find  employment. 

Vol.  III.  C  c 


194 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  7- 
Siigar>cane. 


Stock. 


I  have  already  mentioned  Mr.  Read's  opinion  concerning  the 
quantity  of  land  in  his  districts  below  the  Ghats  that  is  fit  for  the 
cultivation  of  rice  or  gardens.  The  quantity  of  sugar-cane  an- 
nually raised  is  estimated  at  98,19,250  canes,  and  Mr.  Read  does 
not  think  that  this  cultivation  ought  to  be  farther  encouraged,  as 
it  would  interfere  M'ith  that  of  rice,  which  is  more  valuable. 

The  stock  required  for  the  arable  lands,  according  to  Mr.  Read, 
is  as  follows. 


Ploughs  belonging  to 

Cattle. 

Landlords. 

Tenants. 

Total. 

Buffaloes 
old  and 
young. 

Cow  kind 
old  and    i 

young. 

Kimda-pura 
Hoimwera     -     - 
Ancola     -     -     - 

Total     - 

3180 

4883 
2331 

4343 

1221 

673 

7523 
6104 
3004 

5894 

8472 
2858 

23462 
22148 
11055 

10396 

6237 

16623 

17224 

55665 

Plantations.  Mr.  Read  states  it  as  Major  Monro's  opinion,  that,  had  the  land- 
tax  on  coco-nut  plantations  been  more  moderate,  double  the 
present  quantity  would  have  been  raised.  No  means  at  present 
exist  to  ascertain  the  number,  either  actually  growing,  or  that  of 
plantations  which  have  gone  to  decay. 

Mr.  Read  gives  the  following  account  of  the  population  of  these 
districts. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


195 


Houses,  of  which  the  following 

are 

Persons  of  the  fol- 

occupied by 

lowing  conditions. 

Total 

c 

e 

3 

i 

c 

o 
-p    . 

Numbers 

3 

S 

B 

1-, 

r.i 

•c 

3 

^2 

CO 

^ 

"3 

J3 

>  ^ 

CD 

Kunda-pura 

9049 

S6 

485 

1799 

115 

46 

2628 

410 

Honawera     -     - 

10554 

256 

704 

2231 

21 

39 

180 

4842 

470 

Ancola     -     -     - 
Total    - 

6130 

93 

311 

804 

11 

1 

— 

1832 

270 

25733    385 

15004834 

147 

87 

1809302 

1099 

In  the  annexed  Statement  v/ill  be  seen  the  exports  and  imports, 
by  sea,  from  these  districts  :  the  first  amounting  to  331,532  Rupees, 
and  the  latter  to  44,585  Rupees. 


March  7. 


196 


A  JOURNEY  niOM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVf. 

March  7. 


X 


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a 


ba 


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JO  'ji;.(.Y 

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^^  JO  spunvjY 

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f  t  ?  JU  s(.BjID}1 

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1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

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1^ 

il-I    JO  !>ijOJ 

-5 1  1 --  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  M  1 

< 

i 

;5 

Rice,  cleaned 
Paddy,  or  rough  rice 

Toor  Dhall  (a  pulse) 

Green  Cuddalay  (ditto) 

Wheat 

Shamay  (millet) 

Mustard              -              .            . 

IVuoduth  (a  pulse) 

Green  Grain  (ditto) 

Huivaday,  or  Allahsundy  (ditto) 

Gram  for  horses  (ditto) 

Lamp-oil  seeds  (likinus) 

Cliunam  (lime) 

Salt      -              -              -              . 

Sweet-oil  seeds  (Sesamum) 

Toor  (a  pulse) 

Lobay,  or  white  Gram  (ditto) 

Oil       - 

Ghee  (boiled  butter) 

Bctcl-nut  1st  sort 

Ditto     -  2d  ditto 

Ditto     -  3d  ditto 

Ditto     -  4tU  ditto 

Pepper              .              .              . 

Cardamoms        •             .          . 

6 

-.  C.  CO  ^  ^-O  t-cc  C-.O  -  CI  «  2  ;n  UJ  Ij-.  u.^  -  u  y  ^  u.  ^ 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


197 


r-1    -.    rji  C- 


I    I  I  r  I  I  I  I  I  I  I 


■*'*     1^         c<t->C(FH>*-*c<oy 


CO   —  'O   -*   O   <N   '-' 


I  I  I  I    I  1  I  i  I  I  I  rM  I 


O  •*  'O 

"   "  1 


O)  •*  t^  't  ■* 


<M    CO       I      rH 


March  7. 


■     —       'TO     oi  CO  :7i'o  c<  'O  -1 


C*  CO  -1         CO  o*  c< 


'O   C<     I     CO 


?>       J2  ^^^ 


CjO   ,^        2 


^  S  ^  • 


o-     oo 


'2  n  . 


1  Q  H> 


"a  "^ 

if 

►-  S  r 

•y  ^  A 

OJD  O 


2  S 


S  £  '= 


£  "S  S  2  i:  s 


5  «-n  ■ 

O  'i-;  a  ( 


to  CO  to  o 


198 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVI. 

March  7. 


'"I^Aieioj. 

oo-t                       <»oo«                  O                  »ffc< 
lii,.,,,.                                                 OOOJ                          00                    ■* 

IIII                               llll'^l         lll"*!!!^ 

1 

o 
&. 

X 

>> 

a 

i 

3 
C 
C 
01 

•S3MIJ 

JO  'p„pj/ 

o                                      to 

1  iiMi  I.I  M  1 1 1  iiiiii-itiiiiiir 

•sjiqng 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1  1  II  1 II  11 1 

■S3J03S 

JO  'Jipy 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  II  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  II  1  1  1  1  1  11 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  i  1  1  1  II  II  II 

|i||l||l||-*-*|||'*|n|||||||Ti'| 

•spunvyf  OB 

1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1  ^    1    1  ""  1    1    f '"  ,    1    1  <o   , 

ft?  JO  rfrJo;Y 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  I  n  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  II  II 

oi^i  jO  fJ^-iCJ 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

COOOCO'OOO  —  O-O               CI-*CO         OOOlOiOM         c^<OO00 

II      ''I      -"-^    1-      SI 

2 
i-> 

o 

3 

ex 

■  1 

a 

1 
< 

■SM3IJ 

JO  'fTify 

400 

•siiqno 

1    1    1    M    II    1    II    M    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1  .1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1 

•S3J03S 

JO  'iipoyi 

1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1     1    i    1    1    1    I    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1    1 

•Sixfnn  ^5  JO 

1-    r"'^|    r    1    1    1    1    I--    1    1    1    1    1    r^"l    1    1    1    1    1"   1 

i},  JO  spunvyi 

•spunvi>f  oz 
JO  .-J/z-arj 

1  1  1  1  1    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  r"  1  1  12     "  1^  1  IS  1 

f  iS  JO  fiCcJo^v 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

— 

1  1  1  11  1  t  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  I   1  M  1  1  1 

< 

1 

« 

Moy  Putt,  or  Coy 

Hing,  or  Asafatida 

Tippeelee  Moulum 

Red  paint              -             -          - 

Green  ditto              .            .          - 

Spanish  root             .          .         - 

Issvp  Koole       -             .              - 

Goornahputhay 

Sulijah             -             - 

Gum 

Jahpvll  Beez  (nutmegs) 

Gurd  pull            -             -          - 

Couchalay  Beez 

Muckah 

Ilogun               .              -              . 

Cawrff,  or  paint  (Reddle) 

Faring  Chuclca 

Fish  geeree         .              .             . 

Cutecoorogoony 

Iron                .                .               . 

Gopee  Chundenum 

Copper              .             .             . 

I5r.iss 

Cotton              .             .             . 

White  thread         .           -          - 

Twine             .              .              _ 

Cossjiniha  flower  (Carthamia) 

Silk  thread         .              -            . 

Tobacco  Malabar 

Steel 

0 

to  1^  QO   O^  O   —   (N  CO  "+  'O  O  1^  t^   '-.^  <_)   —    ■-■'  <.■>  -*   "i  O  1^  /J   Oi  O   —  c  CO  ^   'O 
<0  'O  "C  <«  tt  t^  1^  t>  t^  t^  t^  l-^  !>  t^  '*=  OO  «  «  QO  OT  CO  »0  93  00  Ci  Si  Cl  O5  O-,  Ol 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


19^ 


1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  M  1  M  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  M  1  1  1  t  1 

1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1      1  1  i  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  I  IN  1 

1  1  1  rl  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  M  1  M 

1  1  M  W  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  N 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  M  1  1  M  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  .1  1  :l  1  1  1  1 

M  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  ,1  1  1  1  i  1  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  :l  H  1  1  M 

M  1  1  1  1  I  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  n  1  1  1  ] 

1  1  1  1  1  1  [  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  I  1  -i  1  1  1 

1  1  1  M  1  1  M  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  M  H  t  1  1  1 

MrtOO         000®'OOJ^OI^OcoO»000<NCO'*^OOOooOOOt^OO-e'«osyo,itNt^.^ 

1  I  1  1^ 1  1  I  1  I  i  I  1       1  I  1  1  1  1  1  1^ 1  1  1  1  1  1  11  1  r  1-""- 

1  1  1  if"'^^^'^  r^^s?"'^"'^  ife'^  1  "'^^Tl^i  1  1  ^=^°^s!?;°^^j§  1  1  1  1  1  1 

|l||(Ci»Ort|l-H<O<»C0C^!O'HrH                 1          M               i^^O  tN|||ll|-'|||j-<«0 

^^  1  1  1  1  M  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  I  1  1  1  ^  1  1  1  1 

""""^"l  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1 

""  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  !  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  M  1  1 

i  1  1  1  t  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

i  1  1  1  1  1  1  11  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  M  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1 

Bonares) 

ths 

ee  cloths 

e  (blanket*) 
'  (ditto) 

rchiefs 

h  (umbrellas) 

cloth)          -   ■ 

cloth 

itto 

bbee  Thmin 

ckcloth 

bucks 
ttles 

March  J. 


'  =  -c 


3  rx 


S   3. SI   =  J::^ 

c^  CO  !il  s5  c«  S  c« 


O  c« 


r2  ,s 


:2     s  s 


g  a 


^^«i 


li^O 


o  -^ 
^  o   e 


^  ^ 


^Cj 


OOOOCCO'Hrtr1>-ll-lr-l»-lrtrH.-H(X(J9 


20© 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVI. 

March  7. 


•o       o  c<  o       c  o  •;'  c»  X       CO 
1^        O        'o        O  -t  <;  r-l  —         «  'o 

1    1    1    1    1  ^-  1  <§            1  =^  "           "IS 

•o 

CO 

CO 

O 

a. 

X 

W 
>> 

c 

c 

3 

,     c 

c 

.e3 

|o 

V 

< 

•S333IJ 

1   1   1   l-felS-      II"        -  1       1 

1   1    1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   II    II   II   II 

JO  'Jipo.V 

1   II   II   1   1   1   1   1   1   II   1   1   1   1   1   1 

1 II  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  II  n 

II II 1 1 1 II 1 II 1 1 II 1  r^' 

•ip>inpi\r  o5 

1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  II  ?;  1  1  1  1  II  s 

CO 

1  1  1  1  II  1  1  1  II  1  1  1  1  II  1  1  - 

Oi^l  JOfji'jOJ 

1  1  II  1  II  1  M  11  1  M  1  1  1  ! 

■*  O  O  -f        O  i^'O  ry       -r,                  — .        c  c^ 
«o  >o           c  o  cy  ^                                       «o 
'^             1  o^o                           III              1 
1   -^                  1         1     1     1         1              1 

•o 

CO 

o 

Q. 

a 
>. 

CO 

& 

3 

S 

6E 

s 

■S333I<I 

io  'F7<py 

(N'ooc*      a-,  ot^o      00               o       Oic^ 

O               0>0  ph  O         -1                     "     .          '^ 

>o            1    CO                CO     1                    1                    1 

■-I           1    o<               "O     1            III            1                  1 

•sqiqno 

0^    yPjr 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  11  II  1  II  M 

•S3J0DS 

JO  'Jifoy 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  II  II  M 

•J-«c/nj/  1-3  JO 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  II  1  1  1  1  II  1  1  1  1 

it  JO  r;7u;ip;v 

"'* 

■spunvp^oz 
JO  «!?«»:) 

1  1  M  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

S 1 J  JO  sivjioyf 

1 1 1 1 1  1  1  1  1  1  11  1  1  1  II  1  1 

Oil'l  JO  fji'joj 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

< 

i 

Salt-fish  bundles 

Ditto  by  Domes 

Coomloo  Mass  (a  fish) 

Sheep  and  goats 

Liquor  pipes         ... 

Coco-nuts              -              -          - 

Country  paper  reams 

Betet-leqf  bundles 

Sugar-cane              .           _           . 

Cadjans  (coarse  mats)  bundles 

Green  plantains 

Ba/ider  bultoo 

M  ummeeties 

Firewood  boat  loads 

Basket  bundles 

iMatts 

Buttuovah              -             -          - 

Sundry  Curry-stuff' bundles 

Sandal-wood 

Total  value  in  Rupees 

>: 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  201 


CHAPTER    XVII. 

JOURNEY  FROM  THE  ENTRANCE  INTO  KARNATA  TO  HYDER-NAGARA, 
THROUGH  THE  PRrNCIPALITIES  OF  SOONDA  AND  IKERI. 


M 


ARCH  8th,  1801. — On  leaving  Dha-kara,  the  valley  watered   CHAPTER 
by  the  Bidhdti  becomes  very  narrow,  and  you  enter  Karnata    ^rf—^,,^ 
Disam,  which  extends  below  the  Ghats,  and  occupies  all  the  defiles  March  s. 

IT  1  •  T^  1  1  1    -  Karnata 

leading  up  to  the  mountains.  Karnata  has  been  corrupted  into  Disam. 
Canara ;  and  the  coasts  of  Tulava  and  Haiga,  with  the  adjacent 
parts  of  Malayala  and  Kankana,  as  belonging  to  princes  residing  in 
Karnata,  have  been  called  the  coast  of  Canara.  The  language  and 
people  of  this  DSsam  being  called  Karnataca,  the  Mussulmans,  on 
conquering  the  peninsula,  applied  this  name,  changed  into  Carnatic, 
to  the  whole  country  subject  to  its  princes,  and  talked  of  a  Carnatic 
above  the  Ghats,  and  one  below  these  mountains  ;  although  no  part 
of  this  last  division  belonged  to  the  Karnata  of  the  Hindus.  Euro- 
peans for  a  long  time  considered  the  country  below  the  eastern 
Ghats  as  the  proper  Carnatic  ;  and,  when  going  to  leave  Dravada 
and  enter  the  real  Karnata,  they  talked  of  going  up  from  the  Car- 
natic to  Mysore. 

After  going  two  cosses  near  the  river  side,  with  stony  hills  to  my  Appearance 
rio'ht,  I  came  to  the  first  cultivated  spot  in  Karnata.    Here  a  small  ofthecoun- 

_  '  try. 

rivulet  descends  from  the  hills,  and  waters  a  narrow  valley,  which' 
in  the  bottom  is  cultivated  with  rice,  and  on  the  sides  is  planted 
with  Betel  and  coco-nut  palms.  For  half  a  coss  the  road  then  passes 
through  a  forest  of  the  kind  which  spontaneously  produces  black 
pepper.  Beyond  this  I  came  to  another  narrow  valley,  that  is 
Vol.  hi.  D  d 


20fi  A  journeV  from:  madras  through 

CHAPTER  watered  by  a  perennial  stream,  and  cultivated  like  the  former. 
XVII.       Afterwards   I  went  about  lialf  a  coss  through  a  forest,  where   the 

Match  s.  ground  is  very  level,  and  capable  of  being  converted  into  rice 
fields.  At  the  end  of  this  I  encamped  in  a  third  valley,  which  is 
called  Barabuli,  and  like  the  two  former  is  finely  watered,  planted, 
and  cultivated.  Near  it  is  another  hill  that  spontaneously  produces 
pepper;  and  there  are  many  such  in  this  part  o^ Karnata,  especially 
in  thit  Ydla-piira  avi(\  Ch'nma-piira  districts.  These  pepper-hills  are 
miserably  neglected.  The  vines  are  not  tied  up  to  one  third  part 
of  the  trees,  and  the  whole  ground  is  overgrown  with  brush-wood. 
From  their  moisture  a  delightful  freshness  prevails  in  these  places ; 
and  were  they  carefully  cultivated,  and  the  trees  manured,  I  have 
no  doubt,  but  that  the  pepper  would  be  of  a  quality  as  good  as  any 
other.  No  tree  should  be  allowed  to  grow  in  them,  but  such  as  are 
of  some  use ;  and  of  these  the  country  spontaneously  produces 
many;  namely,  two  species  o^  Artocarpus,  Teak,  blackwood,  Cassia, 
Avild  nutmegs,  Caryota  urens,  and  the  Bassia,  with  perhaps  some 
others  that  escaped  my  notice.  At  present,  however,  these  valuable 
kinds  are  not  numerous,  for  they  are  overwhelmed  by  such  as  are 
totally  useless.  By  the  natives  these  pepper  forests  are  called  May- 
nasu  Canu.  The  people  here  have  no  idea  that  any  thing  farther 
should  be  done  to  them,  than  once  in  three  years  to  cut  the  bushes, 
and  once  annually  to  tie  the  vines  to  the  young  trees ;  and  even 
these  operations  are  much  neglected.  But,  to  make  the  most  of 
such  places,  they  ought  to  be  carefully  cultivated,  no  trees  ought 
to  be  permitted  to  grow  in  them  but  such  as  are  of  use,  and  the 
vines  ought  to  be  manured  as  much  as  possible. 

2^/af/^•,  In  all  this  day's  journey,  even  where  the  soil  was  full  of  stones, 

the  forests  through  which  I  passed  were  very  stately.  The  3Iutil 
(Chuncoa  MuttiaBxich:  MSS.)  in  particular  grows  to  a  prodigious 
size.  The  natives  use  the  ashes  of  its  bark  to  eat  with  Betel,  in  the 
same  manner  as  in  other  parts  quick-lime  is  employed.    Fewer  of 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  203 

the  trees  lose  their  leaves  here  than  nearer  the' sea;  for  a  freshness  CHAPTER 
and  moisture  are  kept  up  by  the  vicinity  of  the  mountains,  which    ^^1^ 
every  morning  are  involved  in  clouds.  Mai-chs. 

The  stream  of  the  river  is  here  slow,  and  its  channel  is  filled  Bidhdti  iwci. 
■with  rocks  and  small  islands.  Owing  to  the  quantity  of  rotten 
leaves  that  it  contains,  the  water  is  dirty.  From  the  straw  and 
leaves  which  adhere  to  the  trees  high  above  the  banks,  it  is  easy  to 
perceive,  that  in  the  rainy  season  it  must  be  an  immense  stream, 
and  must  then  rise  between  eight  and  ten  feet  above  its  present 
level,  which  in  such  a  country  will  give  it  a  most  formidable 
velocity. 

The  climate  here,  although  very  pleasant,  is  reckoned  extremely  Climate, 
unhealthy, 

9th  March. — I  went  what  was  called  two  Sultany  cosses,  to  Cu-  March  9. 
taki ;  but  this  estimate  is  formed  more  from  the  difficulty  of  the  ^o''^"P''^e 
Toad  than  the  actual  distance,  which  cannot  be  above  five  or  six 
miles.  At  first  I  ascended  close  to  the  river,  with  a  high  hill  im- 
mediately on  my  right.  Soon  after  I  came  to  the  foot  of  the  Ghat, 
where  a  fine  stream  enters  from  the  south  through  some  ground  fit 
for  cultivation;  but  of  this  no  traces  can  be  observed.  I  then 
ascended  a  very  long  and  steep  hill,  sloping  up  by  the  sides  of  deep 
glens ;  and  having  gone  a  little  way  on  a  level  ridge,  I  descended  a  - 
considerable  way  into  a  valley,  where  there  is  a  fine  perennial 
stream.  On  the  banks  of  this  are  some  rice  ground,  and  a  wood 
which  spontaneously  produces  pepper,  and  which  is  totally  neg- 
lected. I  then  ascended  a  mountain,  still  longer  and  steeper  than 
the  first ;  and  after  a  very  short  descent  came  to  a  small  lake,  and 
a  building  for  the  accommodation  of  travellers.  Another  short 
ascent  brought  me  to  a  plain  country  above  the  Ghats,  and  imme- 
diately afterwards  I  came  to  Cutaki, 

The  road,  although  not  so  steep  as  that  at  Peclda  Nayakana  Durga, 
is  by  no  means  judiciously  conducted,  and  no  pains  have  been  taken 
in  its  formation.    Loaded  cattle,  however,  can  pass ;  and,  by  the 


204  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  natives  of  the  peninsula,  that  seems  to  be  considered  as  the  utmost 

XVII.  . 

^^^^,-^^    perfection  that  a  road  demands. 

!  larch  9.  Here  the  western  Ghats  assume  an  appearance  very  different  from 

aoil  and  trees  '  '  ■' 

of  the  wes-  that  at  Pedda  Nayakana  Durga,  or  Kaveri-pura.  The  hills,  although 
steep  and  stony,  are  by  no  means  rugged,  or  broken  with  rocks  :  on 
the  contrary,  the  stones  are  buried  in  a  rich  mould,  and  in  many 
places  are  not  to  be  seen  without  digging.  Instead,  therefore,  of 
the  naked,  sun-burnt,  rocky  peaks,  so  common  in  the  eastera 
Gkats,  we  here  have  fine  mountains  clothed  with  the  most  stately 
forests.  I  have  no  where  seen  finer  trees,  nor  any  Bamboos  that 
could  be  compared  with  those  which  I  this  day  observed.  The 
Bamboos  compose  a  large  part  of  the  forest,  grow  in  detached 
clumps,  with  open  spaces  between,  and  equal  in  height  the  Caryota 
tirens,  one  of  the  most  stately  palms,  of  which  also  there  is  great 
plenty.  There  is  no  underwood  nor  creepers  to  interrupt  the  tra- 
veller who  might  choose  to  wander  in  any  direction  through  these 
woods;  but  the  numerous  tigers,  and  the  unhealthiness  of  the 
climate,  would  render  any  long  stay  very  uncomfortable.  About 
midway  up  the  Ghats  the  Teak  becomes  common;  but  it  is  very 
inferior  in  size  to  the  following  trees,  Avhich  unfortunately  are  of 
less  value. 

Tari,  Myrobalanus  Taria  Buch:  MSS. 

Jamba,  Mimosa  xylocarpon  Roxb: 

Nandy,  Jbliis  oppositis,  non  stipulaceis,  integerrimis,  subtiis  iomen- 
tosis. 
This  is  reckoned  to  make  good  planks  and  beams. 

Unda  Muraga,  foli'is  oppositis,  integerrimis  stipulis  inter  folia  ut  in 
Ruhiaceis  positis. 
Also  reckoned  good  for  planks  and  beams. 

Miitti,  Chuncoa  Muttia  Buch:  MSS. 
Good  timber. 

Sampigy,  Michelia  Champaca. 
The  wood  used  for  drums. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  205 

Shaguddy.  Shaguda  Buch:  MSS. 
A  strong  timber. 

TVontay.  Artocarpus  Bengalensis  Roxb:  MSS. 
The  fruit  is  about  the  size  of  an  orange,  and  is  preserved  with  salt. 
Here  it  is  used  by  the  natives  in  place  of  tamarinds,  which  are 
mueh  employed  by  the  Hindu  cooks. 

Honnay.  Pterocarpus  santalinus  Willd: 
The  Teak  in  some  parts  of  this  district  of  Yella-pura  is  abundant, 
and  in  the  rainy  season  may  be  floated  down  the  river. 

Below  the  Ghats  the  country  consists  of  the  Laterite,  or  brick-  Strata  of 
stone,  so  often  mentioned  ;  but  it  is  much  intermixed  with  granites, 
and  talcose  argilite,  which  seems  to  be  nothing  more  than  the  pot- 
stone  impregnated  with  more  argill  than  usual,  and  assuming  a 
slaty  form. 

The  strata  on  the  Ghats  are  much  covered  with  the  soil;  so  that  Strata on\he 
it  is  in  a  few  places  only  that  they  are  to  be  seen.  Having  no  com- 
pass, I  could  not  ascertain  their  course  ;  but,  so  far  as  I  could  judge 
from  the  sun  in  a  country  so  hilly,  they  appeared  to  run  north  and 
south,  with  a  dip  to  the  east  of  about  30  degrees.  Wherever  it  ap- 
pears on  the  surface,  the  rock,  although  extremely  hard  or  tough, 
is  in  a  state  of  decay  ;  and  owing  to  this  decay,  its  stratified  nature 
is  very  evident.  The  plates,  indeed,  of  which  the  strata  consist, 
are  in  general  under  a  foot  in  thickness,  and  are  subdivided  into 
rhomboidal  fragments  by  fissures  which  have  a  smooth  surface.  It 
is  properly  an  aggregate  stone,  composed  of  quartz  impregnated 
with  hornblende.  From  this  last  it  acquires  its  great  toughness. 
In  decay,  the  hornblende  in  some  plates  seems  to  waste  faster 
than  in  others,  and  thus  leaves  the  stone  divided  into  zones,  which 
are  alternately  porous  and  white.  I  am  inclined  to  think,  that  all 
mountains  of  a  hornblende  nature  are  less  rugged  than  those  of 
granite,  owing  to  their  being  more  easily  decomposed  by  the  action 
of  the  air.  This  rock  contains  many  small  crystallized  particles, 
apparently  of  iron. 


20«  A  JOURNEY  FROAi  MADRAS  THROUGH 

From  the  summit  of  the  Ghats  to  Cutaki,  the  whole  country  is 
level  enough  for  the  plough,  and  the  soil  is  apparently  good ;  yet, 
March  9.       except  in  some  low  narrow  spaces  used  for  rice  sfround  and  Betel- 

Appeariuice  '^  '  => 

ofthecoua-  nut  gardens,  there  is  no  cultivation.  Cutaki  is  a  poor  little  village, 
with  seven  houses. 

Height  of  the  I  perceive  no  difference  in  the  temperature  of  air,  on  coming 
from  the  country  below  the  Ghats;  and,  in  fact,  do  not  think  that 
I  have  to-day  ascended  more  than  a  thousand  feet  perpendicular 
height.  This  is  perhaps  the  very  lowest  part  of  the  mountains ; 
hut  the  country  is  said  to  rise  rapidly  all  the  way  to  the  Marattah 
frontier. 

Robbers,  Almost  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  neighbourhood  are  Haiga  Bruit- 

mans,  who  are  a  very  industrious  class  of  men,  that  perform  all 
agricultural  labours  with  their  own  hands.  During  Tippoo's  go- 
vernment, thieves  were  in  this  vicinity  very  numerous  ;  and  many 
bands  of  a  set  of  scoundrels,  called  Sady  Jambuty,  >vere  then  in  the 
habit  of  coming  from  the  Marattah  country  to  plunder.  The  former 
have  been  entirely  banished;  but  the  Sady  Jamhutty  still  come  in 
bands  of  twenty  or  thirty  men,  although  not  so  commonly  as  in 
former  times.  On  Mr.  Monro's  arrival,  a  thief  of  this  country, 
finding  that  this  was  not  likely  to  be  a  convenient  place  for  his 
residence,  withdrew  to  the  Marattah  territory,  and  formed  an  al- 
liance with  Lol  Sing,  a  noted  robber.  With  their  united  forces  these 
two  ruffians  have  made  three  incui-sious  into  this  country.  In  their 
last  expedition,  about  twelve  days  ago,  both  were  taken  prisoners, 
and  are  now  in  confinement  at  Hully-halla.  When  these  robbers  make 
their  attack,  or  are  known  to  be  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  Brdh- 
mans,  and  other  peaceable  inhabitants,  retire  from  their  houses  with 
their  effects,  and  even  during  the  rainy  season  conceal  themselves 
in  the  forests ;  for  pestilence,  or  beasts  of  prey,  are  gentle  in 
comparison  with  Hindu  robbers,  who,  in  order  to  discover  con- 
cealed property,  put  to  the  torture  all  those  who  fall  into  their 
hands. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  207 

lOth  March. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Yella-pura,  The  first  part  of  CHAPTER 
the  road  led  through  a  forest  spontaneously  producing  pepper.  \^^sr*^ 
The  trees  and  soil  are  very  fine :  but  owinsr  to  a  want  of  culti-  March  lo. 

*'  '='  Appearance 

vators,  according  to  the  report  of  the  inhabitants,  not  above  one  ofthecoun- 
fourth  of  the  pepper  is  procmxd  from  it  that  ought  to  be.     This    '^* 
forest  is  intersected  by  narrow  vallies  of  rice-ground,  with  a  few 
gardens  well  supplied  with  water  from  springs  and  rivulets.    I  after- 
wards passed  through  a  very  hilly  country  ;  but  the  hills  are  of  uo 
considerable  height,  and  in  general  the   soil  is  apparently  good.  -   • 

The  trees,  however,  are  not  so  large  as  where  the  pepper  grows ; 
and  it  is  universally  agreed,  that  the  plant  will  not  thrive  in  any 
forest  but  where  it  is  found  spontaneously  growing.  Many  places 
among  these  hills  are  so  level  that  the  plough  might  be  employed; 
and  I  suppose  they  might  be  cultivated  for  Car'  Ragy,  as  is  done  in 
similar  situations  at  Priya-paitana  ;  but  the  people  say,  that  unless 
the  ground  has  been  formed  into  terraces,  the  rains  here  are  so 
heavy  as  to  sweep  away  the  seed.  The  rains  in  general  are  fully 
adequate  to  produce  one  crop  of  rice  from  any  land  properly 
levelled  ;  and  therefore  it  might  be  thought  that  by  far  the  greater 
part  of  the  country  here  might  be  cultivated  for  rice ;  but  the 
people  have  an  idea  that  no  part  of  the  country  is  fit  for  that  pur- 
pose, but  what  has  been  already  cultivated.  Even  of  this,  owing  to 
a  want  of  cultivators,  three  fourths  are  at  present  waste.  The  gar- 
dens being  more  profitable,  and  being  also  private  property,  are 
better  occupied ;  and  not  above  one  quarter  of  them  have  gone  to 
ruin. 

Yella-pura  is  the  residence  of  a  Tahsildar,  and  contains  a  hundred  Yella-pura 
houses  with  a  market  (Bazar),  which  is  tolerably  well  supplied ;  ^J.■^^^^ 
but  every  kind  of  grain  is  dearer  here  than  2A' Seringapatant. 

The  Tahsildar  gives  me  the  following  account  of  his  district. 
Near  the  Ghats  cultivation  is  confined  to  pepper  and  5e/e/" gardens, 
and  to  rice  fields,  in  which,  as  a  second  crop,  a  little  Hessaru  (Pha- 
seolus  Mungo)  is  raised,  and  occasionally  a  little  sugar-cane.     In 


208  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  the  eastern  parts  toward  Hully-halla,  Sambrany,  Aladanuru,  Miinda- 
XV'II.       godu,  and  Induru,  tlie  woods  consist  mostly  of  Tealc,  and  there  are 
March  10.      no  gardens.    The  cultivated  articles  on  low  lands  are  rice,  Carluy 
(Cicer  Arietinum),  and  Horse-gram  (Dolichos  biflorits),  and  on  the 
dry-field  Ragy  (Cy)iosurus  Corocamis),  and  Ellu  (Sesamum).    The 
soil  every  where  is  tolerably  free  from  stones.    Although  the  rains 
are  not  so  heavy  as  below  the  Ghats,  they  are  sufficient  on  level 
land  to  bring  to  maturity  one  crop  of  rice.    Little  attention  is  paid 
here  to  the  tanks ;  and  they  are  rather  dams  to  collect  the  water 
of  small  streams,  or  of  springs,  and  to  distribute  it  to  the  fields  and 
gardens,  than  reservoirs  to  collect  the  rain  water. 
Maynasu  The  Haiga  Brahmans  say,  that  all  the  forests  spontaneously  pro- 

forests  con-     ducing  pepper,  with  the  gardens  and  rice  fields  intermixed,  are  their 
taining  spoil-  private  property.    By  an  old  valuation,  a  separate  land-tax  is  affixed 

taiieous  pep-  '  r      i        .  ./ 

per.  on  each  kind  of  ground  ;  but  on  most  of  the  properties,  on  account 

of  the  depopulated  state  of  the  country,  from  one  half  to  three 
fourths  of  what  was  exacted  by  the  Rayaru  have  been  relinquished. 
To  manage  a  Maynasu  Canu  properly,  requires  the  following  labour. 
Once  a  year  the  branches  of  the  pepper  vines  must  be  tied  up  to 
the  trees,  and  these  must  be  freed  from  all  climbing  plants,  espe- 
cially the  PotJios  scandens  Lin.  and  the  Acrostichum  scandens  Buch: 
MSS.  both  of  which  climb  to  the  tops  of  the  highest  trees.  Every 
third  year  all  the  bushes  ought  to  be  cut  down  ;  and  every  fifth 
year  the  side  branches  of  the  trees  should  be  lopped,  to  render  them 
proper  supports  for  the  vine,  which  thrives  best  on  slender  straight 
trees.  Where  the  trees  are  too  distant,  a  branch  or  cutting  ought 
to  be  planted  ;  and  if  no  young  shoot  of  the  pepper  is  near,  a  cutting 
or  two  of  the  vine  should  be  put  into  the  earth  near  the  young  tree. 
The  pepper  vine  thus  managed  lives  about  ten  years ;  when  it  dies, 
another  young  shoot  must  be  trained  up  in  its  stead.  In  doing  this, 
care  must  be  taken  to  select  shoots  of  a  good  kind  ;  for,  as  the  birds 
drop  all  the  seeds  promiscuously,  shoots  of  the  three  different  kinds 
of  pepper  are  to  be  found  in  these  woods.    These  three  kinds  are 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  209 

Cariguta,  Bily  Maynasu,  and  Vocalu.  The  first  kind  is  the  best ;  not  chapter 
that  there  is  any  difference  in  the  quality  of  the  pepper,  but  the  v,^..-^ 
amenta  of  the  two  last  kinds  contain  very  few  grains.  I  have  had  March  lO. 
no  opportunity  of  determining,  whether  the  difference  consists  in 
sex,  species,  or  variety  ;  but  the  natives,  by  examining  their  leaves, 
can  distinguish  the  different  kinds.  Every  kind  of  tree  is  reckoned 
equally  fit  for  supporting  the  pepper  vine ;  but,  where  the  woods 
are  too  thin,  the  tree  commonly  planted  is  the  Bondu  Bala,  because 
it  easily  takes  root.  As  the  produce  could  not  be  secured  from  the 
monkies,  no  fruit  trees  are  planted.  When  the  trees  are  about 
three  cubits  distant  from  each  other,  and  are  of  a  middling  size, 
the  vines  thrive  best.  Very  large  trees  do  not  answer  for  the 
pepper,  but  are  said  to  be  of  advantage  by  giving  shade.  In  fact 
they  are  very  common  ;  but  I  imagine  more  owing  to  the  trouble  of 
cutting  them,  than  to  any  advantage  that  they  are  of  to  the  pepper. 
In  order  to  prevent  the  havoc  which  would  be  occasioned  by  the 
natural  decay  and  fall  of  one  of  these  immense  trees,  when  they 
observe  one  beginning  to  wither,  the  natives  cut  off  its  branches, 
and  a  circle  of  bark  from  the  bottom  of  the  stem  ;  by  this  means  it 
decays  gradually,  and  rots  without  falling  down  in  a  mass,  owing 
to  the  weight  of  its  branches.  Except  this  rotten  wood,  no  manure 
is  used.  Most  of  these  steps,  which  I  have  now  enumerated,  are  in 
general  very  much  neglected.  The  pepper  of  a  Maynasu  Canu  is 
reckoned  somewhat  inferior  to  that  raised  in  gardens,  which  I  con- 
sider as  arising  merely  from  a  want  of  proper  cultivation  and  ma- 
nure. In  a  Mayyiasu  Canu,  a  tree,  although  much  larger  than  one 
in  a  garden,  produces  only  one  Ciitcha  Seer  ;  while  the  one  in  the 
garden  usually  produces  double  that  quantity.  A  man  collects  in 
the  day  the  produce  of  twenty  trees,  or  rather  more  than  12  lb.,  ; 
and  at  the  same  time  he  ties  up  the  branches,  which  is  all  the  an- 
nual labour  required.  He  ascends  the  tree  by  means  of  a  ladder  of 
Bamboos,  some  of  which  are  forty  cubits  long. 
Vol.  III.  E  e 


210  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

]  Ith  March. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Caray  Hosso-hullj/ ;  that  is,  the 
new  village  at  the  tank.  The  whole  country,  so  far  as  I  saw,  was  totally 
uninhabited,  and  very  few  traces  of  former  cultivation  were  observ- 
able. A  few  narrow  vallies  seem  once  to  have  been  under  rice.  The 
higher  grounds,  I  suspect,  have  been  always  a  forest ;  although, 
from  the  stateliness  of  the  trees,  the  soil  would  appear  to  be  good, 
and  in  its  present  state  much  of  it  is  not  too  steep  for  the  plough, 
Avhile  no  part  seems  incapable  of  being  formed  into  terraces,  as  is 
done  below  the  Ghats.  In  a  small  portion  near  Yella-pura,  the  trees 
of  the  forest  were  stunted,  and  from  a  want  of  moisture  had  lost 
their  leaves;  but  in  the  greater  part  they  were  very  luxuriant,  and 
many  of  the  kinds  were,  to  me  at  least,  quite  unknown.  In  my  bo- 
tanical investigations,  however,  I  had  very  little  success ;  for  the 
cutting  down  one  of  these  trees  is  a  day's  work  for  four  or  five 
natives  ;  and  at  Yella-pura\  could  procure  nobody  that  would  climb 
to  bring  me  specimens.  The  vast  number  of  ants,  indeed,  that  live 
on  the  trees  in  India,  render  this  a  very  disagreeable  employment. 

Caray  Hotso-  Caray  Hosso-huUy  is  a  miserable  village  of  six  houses,  collected 
by  Major  Monro  as  a  stage  between  Yella-pura  and  Soonda;  for,  on 
his  taking  possession  of  the  country,  the  whole  way  was  through  a 
continued  waste.  The  nearest  inhabited  place  to  Hosso-hully  is  two 
cosses  distant.  The  new  settlers  are  Marattahs,  by  which  appella- 
tion in  the  south  of  India  the  Sudras  of  Maharastra  Desam  are 
known.  Since  the  conquest,  many  of  these  people  have  come  into 
this  province;  and  many  more  would  come,  were  small  advances 
made  to  enable  them  to  commence  cultivation ;  for  the  desolation 
here  has  introduced  a  wildness  equal  to  that  of  an  American  forest. 
The  huts  here  are  wretched,  but  the  people  have  already  cleared 
some  ground.  Throughout  the  forests  of  Soonda,  tigers  and  wild 
buffaloes  are  very  numerous,  but  there  are  no  elephants. 

Irrigation.  The  reservoir  here  has  been  a  very  fine  one,  and  never  becomes 

dry ;  but  it  is  now  so  filled  with  bushes  and  long  grass,  that  to  put 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  211 

it  in  proper  repair  would  require  a  thousand  Pagodas,    Its  water   CHAPTER 
never  was  employed  for  the  cultivation  of  rice,  but  was  used  only    v,^^-^^ 
to  bring  forward  the  young  shoots  of  sugar-cane,  which,  till  the  ^^'^"^  ^^• 
setting  in  of  the  rainy  season,  require  irrigation. 

About  two-thirds  of  the  way  from  Yella-pura  to  Hosso-hully,  I  BidUtimn. 
crossed  the  Bidhati-holay,  which  goes  north,  and  joins  a  river  coming 
from  Supa  to  form  the  Sedhiva-ghur  river.    Its  channel  is  wide,  and 
in  the  rainy  season  is  probably  full,  but  at  present  it  contains  very 
little  water. 

The  strata,  laid  bare  by  the  river,  are  of  the  same  nature  with  Strata. 
those  on  the  Ghats ;  but  their  dip  toward  the  east  is  greater. 

12th  March. — I   went  three  cosses   to  Sancada-gonda.       Imme-  March  12. 

diately  after  setting  out,  I  crossed  a  small  branch  of  the  Bidhdti,  ■^PP^'^^a.nce 
JO'  >   oithecoun- 

which  is  called  Baswa-holay  ;  and  still  farther  on  I  crossed  another,  try- 
named  Gudialada-holay.  The  whole  country  is  waste,  and  covered 
with  forest.  The  soil  almost  every  where  appears  to  be  excellent, 
with  more  low  vallies,  and  more  vestigesof  former  cultivation,  than 
on  the  route  of  yesterday.  This  valley  land  is  here  called  Taggic, 
and  the  rice  growing  on  it  requires  five  months  to  come  to  matu- 
rity. The  higher  lands  are  called  Mackey,  and  the  highest  arable 
land  is  called  Bisu.  The  rice  cultivated  there  requires  only  three 
months  to  come  to  maturity.  Sancada-gonda  contains  three  houses, 
with  some  pretty  rice  lands  in  a  good  state.  Not  far  from  it  are 
two  other  villages,  each  containing  four  houses,  with  some  rice- 
land  and  gardens.  These  villages  subsisted  during  all  the  trouble 
of  Tippoo's  government,  and  belong  to  the  Guru  of  all  the  Haiga 
BrdhmanSy  who  resides  at  Honawully  Matam,  in  Soonda,  pays  the 
land-tax,  and  lets  his  lands  to  some  of  his  disciples. 

\St\i March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  the  place  which  Europeans  March  13. 
and  Mussulmans  call  Soonda.     In  the  vulgar  language  of  Karnata 
it  is  called  Sudha,  which  is  a  corruption  from  Siidha-pura,  the  San- 
skrit appellation.    The  road  was  very  circuitous ;  as  I  went  first 
about  south-west,  and  afterwards  almost  east.  The  hills  are  much 


212  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  steeper  than  those  on  the  last  two  days  route,  and  of  course  are  less 
^^''"       fit  for  the  cultivation  of  rice  :  but  there  are  many  deep  and  narrow 

March  K).  vallies  fit  for  Betel-nut  gardens;  and  several  of  these,  within  or 
near  the  old  walls,  are  now  occupied,  and  filled  with  Haiga  Brah- 
mans,  who  in  this  country  are  the  sole  cultivators  of  gardens.  In 
many  places  I  observed  the  pepper  growing  spontaneously  ;  but  it 
is  entirely  neglected  ;  and  many  of  the  trees  that  would  bear  it 
are  stript  of  their  leaves  and  branches,  which  are  used  as  manure 
for  the  gardens.  All  the  rivulets  that  I  crossed  to-day  are  said  to 
be  branches  of  i[\Q  Sulamala,  which  comes  from  Sersi ;  and  ongoing 
below  the  Ghats  assumes  the  name  of  Ganguwali,  and  forms  the 
boundary  between  Haiga  and  Kankana. 

Guru  of  the        I  sent  a  message  to  the  Guru  of  the  Haiga  Brahmaus,  oflFering  to 

Hatga  Biah-  ^.j^jj.  j^j^^^     j^^^j.  ^.j^j^  j^g  declined,  and  sent  me  word,  that  he  would 

mans. 

come  to  my  tents  at  three  o'clock,  at  which  time  he  would  have 
finished  his  devotions  Avhich  then  occupied  his  time.  He  did  not 
however  arrive  until  late  in  the  evening,  when  I  was  eating;  so  that 
he  could  not  enter.  I  found,  that  in  place  of  prayer  he  had  been 
employed  in  giving  an  entertainment  to  dnoiher  Satinydsi ;  and  I 
am  uncertain  whether  he  thought  that  it  would  be  consistent  with 
his  dignity  to  keep  a  European  four  or  five  hours  in  waiting ;  or 
whether  these  persons,  who  had  relinquished  the  vanity  of  worldly 
pleasure,  were  detained  so  long  at  table  by  pious  conversation. 
Hai<'a  Brdh-  The  Haiga  Brahmans  seem  to  have  changed  countries  with  the 
mans.  Karnataca  Brahmans  of  Sudha,  who  in  Haiga  are  in  greatest  estima- 

tion, while  the  Brahmans  of  that  country  have  all  the  valuable  pro- 
perty in  Sudha,  and  their  Guru  has  taken  up  his  abode  in  its  capital, 
at  Honawully  Matam,  or  the  golden  convent.  Whatever  truth  may 
be  in  the  story  of  Myuru  Verma,  the  Haiga  Brahmans  were  cer- 
tainly the  first  of  the  Panch  Dravada  division  who  penetrated 
among  the  Jdin  of  these  parts.  It  seems  to  have  been  with  the  view 
of  depriving  them  of  their  property,  that  the  pretence  of  their 
having  lost  a  part  of  their  cast,  or  rank,  was  set  up  by  the  subsequent 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  213 

intruders,  who  followed  the  conquests  of  the  Vijaya-nagara  mo- 
narchs.  The  character  which  the  Halga  Brdhmans  use  in  writing 
books  on  science,  is  the  Grantha  o^ Khala,  which  they  say  includes  ^^l^'c'*  13. 
all  the  countries  created  by  Parasii  Rama.  The  Haiga  Brdh- 
mans, however,  consider  the  Karnataca  language  as  their  native 
tongue ;  and  all  accompts  and  inscriptions  on  stone,  whether  in 
the  vulgar  language  or  in  Sanskrit,  are  written  in  the  Kamaia 
character,  which  is  nearly  the  same  with  the  Andray,  or  old  writing 
of  Telingana. 

While  I  was  waiting  for  the  Sannydsis,  I  assembled  the  most  Account  of 
learned  men  of  the  place,  among  whom  was  the  hereditary  Gum  of  Sud/J-pula 
the  Rdjds,  who  has  a  written  account  of  the  family  of  Sudha,  with  a  ^y  their 

.  ,       _i,  Gitru. 

copy  of  each  prmce  s  seal.    These  men  said,  that  in  the  time  of  the 

father  o^  Ki-ishna  Rdyaru  this  country  belonged  to  Jain  Polygars, 

the  descendants  of  the  Cadumba  family;  which  strongly  confirms 

the  assertion  of  the  Jain  of  Haiga,  when  these  said  that  Myiiru 

Verma  was  of  their  sect.    These  Polygars  managed  the  country  as 

usual,  and  paid  tribute  to  Vencatiippati  Rdya,  the  father  of  Achuta 

and  Krishna  Rdyalu,  and  who  was  their  predecessor  on  the  throne 

of  Vijaya-nagara.    This,  however,  is  probably  a  mistake ;  as  from 

an  inscription  at  Gaukarna,  already  mentioned,  it  would  appear, 

that  the  name  of  Krishna  Rdya's  father  was  Seddsiva.     Vencatiippati, 

having  for  many  years  obtained  no  children,  promised  the  whole 

of  his  kingdom  to  his  sister's  son  Arasuppa  Ndyaka ;  but,  having 

afterwards  had  two  sons  born  to  him,  he  gave  to  the  young  prince, 

his  nephew,  the  full  sovereignty  of  Sudha.     This  warrior  governed 

from  the  year  of  Sal.  1478  (A.  D.  1551-)   till  1521  (A.  D.  159^). 

He  built  Sudha-pura  ;  and  having  destroyed  all  the  Jain  Polygars, 

and  the  priests  of  these  heretics,  he  brought  up  the  Haiga  Brdhmans 

to  occupy  the  Avaste  lands.    He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Ram 

Chandra  Nayaka,  who  governed   till   1541  (A.  D.  I6l-f).     He  was 

succeeded  by  his  son,  Ragunata  Nayaka,  who  governed  till  1561 

(A.  D.  163-I-).    His  son,  Madic  Linga  Nayaka,  became  a  follower  of 


•214  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  the  Sivabhactars,  and  governed  till  1597  (A.  D.  l67f).     He  was 
^^"*       succeeded  by  his  son,  Seddsiva  Raya,  who  governed  till  l620  (A.  D. 

March  13.  169t)>  he  by  his  son,  Baswa  Linga  Raja,  who  governed  till  1668 
(A.  D.  174-f)  ;  and  he  by  his  son,  Imody  Seddsiva  Rdjd,  who  was  ex- 
pelled by  Hyder  in  \6^5  ('176-f),  and  took  refuge  '\nGoa,  where  his 
son  is  now  living  on  a  pension  from  the  viceroy. 

During  the  govei'nment  of  these  Rdjdstht  country  is  said  to  have 
been  cultivated,  and  the  town  to  have  been  very  large.  The  space 
within  the  walls  is  said  to  extend  eacli  way  a  coss,  or  at  least  three 
miles,  and  was  fully  occupied  by  houses.  The  country,  having 
been  repeatedly  the  seat  of  war  between  Hyder  and  the  Marattahs, 
has  been  desolated,  and  the  houses  in  the  town  are  now  reduced 
to  about  fifty.  In  the  reign  of  Imody  Seddsiva,  the  town  suffered 
much  from  an  attack  of  the  Marattahs ;  but,  when  Hyder  took 
possession  of  it,  there  still,  remained  10,000  houses.  The  original 
territories  of  the  family  seein  to  have  been  the  four  districts  (Talucs) 
above  t\i& Ghats,  now  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Read;  and, 
according  to  the  Guru,  they  acknowledged  no  superior.  From  the 
Vijaya-pm^a  Sultans,  Seddsiva,  grand-father  of  the  last  Rdjd,  con- 
quered five  districts  (Pansh-malu)  in  Kaiikana.  Imody  Seddsiva,  as 
has  been  already  stated,  was  attacked  by  the.  Marattahs,  and  forced 
to  pay  tribute  fChoutiJ.  Till  he  was  able  to  collect  the  sum  de- 
manded, the  Pansh-malu  were  given  in  pledge  to  a  Marattah  chief 
named  Gopdl  Row,  who  restored  them  when  the  money  was  paid. 
On  Hyder  s  attack,  the  Rdjd  resigned  the  Pansh-malu  to  the  viceroy 
of  Goa,  who  settled  on  him  an  annual  pension  of  12000  Putlis,  or 
Venetians,  equal  to  48,000  i?«//)ee5.  This  his  son  now  enjoys;  and 
he  has  besides  some  houses,  and  gardens,  befitting  his  rank.  These 
five  districts  are  said  to  be  worth  annually  80,000  Rupees,  and  seem 
to  have  been  the  remnant  of  the  five  larger  districts,  at  one  time 
governed  by  the  Vazir  of  Ponday,  after  what  now  c»mposes  the  An- 
cola  district  (Taluc)  had  been  wrested  from  the  Mussulmans,  and 
Rajas  of  Sudha,  by  the  Sivabhactars  of  Ikeri. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  215 

Although  in  many  points  this  account  seems  to  be  true,  it  is  by  CHAPTER 
no  means  accurate,  as  I  learned  from  inscriptions  found  at  this       XVII. 
place.    Those  of  which  I  was  able  to  lake  any  account  to-day  are  March  13. 

as  follow :  Inaccuracies 

in  this  ac- 

The  most  ancient  inscription  here  is  at  a  Jai7t  temple  (Busty)  count,  shown 
dedicated  to  Adeswara,  the  first  of  the  gods  (Sidaru).  It  is  dated  tions, 
in  the  year  of  Sal.  722  (A.  D.  -f§-§-),  and  in  the  reign  of  Imodij 
Sedasiva  Rdya.  This  being  the  name  of  the  \a.?,t  Raja  of  Sudka,  it 
might  at  first  sight  be  supposed,  that  he  was  the  prince  mentioned 
in  the  inscription,  the  thousand  years  of  the  era  having  been 
omitted  in  the  date,  as  is  sometimes  done  among  the  Hindus ;  but 
this,  it  must  be  observed,  would  bring  down  the  date  to  the  year 
of  our  Lord  l^^,  and  the  donation  is  made  to  a  Jain  temple  that 
has  been  long  in  ruins,  and  to  a  sect  abhorred  by  the  last  dynasty. 
Besides,  it  is  said  that  the  titles  used  in  the  inscription  are  totally 
different  from  those  used  by  the  late  Rajas  of  Sudha,  and  are  of  a 
much  higher  nature. 

The  next  inscription  in  antiquity  is  at  a  Jain  Matam.  A  copy  of 
this,  as  of  the  preceding,  has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  govern- 
ment. It  is  dated  in  the  year  of  Sal.  727,  or  A.  D.  80f,  and  in  the 
reign  ofChamunda  Raya,  who  has  very  high  titles,  like  those  of  his 
predecessor,  and  is  styled  the  chief  of  all  the  kings  of  the  south. 
He  mentions  the  advantages  that  had  been  gained  over  the  followers 
of  Buddha  by  two  of  his  ancestors,  Sedasiva  and  Belalla.  These  two 
inscriptions,  therefore,  belong  to  the  dynasty  of  the  Belalla  Rdyas, 
monarchs  of  Karnata.  Ramuppa  Varmica  makes  the  overthrow  of 
that  dynasty,  as  supreme  monarchs,  to  have  happened  in  the  year 
of  Christ  78-f- ;  but  here  we  find  them  governing  in  the  northern 
parts  of  Karnata  22  years  afterwards.  Although  this  is  an  inac- 
curacy, yet  the  difference  is  so  small,  that  the  era  of  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Belalla  dynasty  may  be  considered  as  ascertained  to 
have  been  in  the  eighth  century  of  the  Christian  era.  The  Jain 
religion  was  then  the  predominant  one  in  the  peninsula,  and  had 


216  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  been  preceded  by  that  of  Buddha,  whose  followers  were  then  per- 
secuted by  the  Jain,  as  these  again  were  afterwards  by  the  followers 
of  Vyasa. 

The  third  inscription,  of  which  a  copy  has  also  been  delivered  to 
the  Beno-al  government,  is  placed  in  a  Jain  Matam,  and  is  dated  in 
Sal.  1121,  or  A.  D.  119-I-,  in  the  reign  of  Sedasiva  Raja  of  Sudha- 
pura;  which  shows,  that  this  town  was  not  founded  by  Arasuppa 
Nayaka,  but  had  many  centuries  before  his  time  been  the  residence 
of  a  Jain  Raja.  Sedasiva  does  not  acknowledge  any  superior,  but 
he  does  not  arrogate  to  himself  such  high  titles  as  those  used  in 
the  two  last  mentioned  inscriptions.  He  is  very  lavish  in  praise  of 
his  Guru,  Sri  Madabinava  Butta  Calanca,  who  (that  is  to  say,  his 
predecessors  in  the  same  Matam)  had  bestowed  prosperity  on  Be- 
lalla  Rai/a.  Whether  this  Sedasiva  was  a  descendant  of  the  Bclalla 
family,  as  this  would  incline  one  to  think,  or  whether  he  was  de- 
scended from  the  Cadumba  family,  as  the  Guru  here  supposes,  is 
uncertain. 

There  are  here  two  inscriptions  by  Imody  Arasuppa,  founder  of 
the  last  dynasty  of  Sudha  Rajas.  The  one  is  on  a  stone  at  Hona- 
wully  Matam.  The  whole  almost  is  in  couplets,  few  of  M'hich  are  to 
be  found  in  the  inscriptions  of  an  early  date.  The  time  of  this  in- 
scription is  involved  in  one  of  these  conceits,  of  which  I  have  not 
procured  the  explanation.  The  other  inscription  is  at  a.Mata7n  be- 
longing to  one  of  the  Udipu  Sannydsis.  It  is  dated  in  the  year  of 
Sal,  1515,  or  ^.  D.  \59\,  which  confirms  the  chronology  of  the 
family  Guru.  The  donation  contained  in  the  inscription  is  made 
by  Arasuppa  Nayaka,  Raja  of  Sud/ia;  hy  the  appointment  of  Sj'i  Vira 
Prubu  Veticatuppati,  his  superior,  who  gets  all  the  titles  usually 
bestowed  on  the  sovereigns  of  Vijaya-nagara.  This,  in  the  first 
place,  shows,  that  the  Rajas  of  Sudha. were  not  independent,  but  for 
a  time  governed,  at  least  nominally,  as  vassals  of  the  kings  of 
Vijaya-nagaj^a.  Indeed,  the  first  four  persons  of  the  family  assumed 
only  the  title  of  Nayaka,  which  is  that  usually  given  to  Polygars. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  217 

In  the  year  1674,  Seddsiva  assumed  the  title  of  Rdya,  38  years  after  CHAPTER 
the  Ikeri  family  had  thrown  off  all  form  of  respect  for  their  ancient     ^,^^.^0 
lords.    This  inscription  also  shows,  that  Vencatuppati  could  not  have  March  13. 
been  the  father  of  the  celebrated  Krishna  Rayaru  ;  as  he  lived  after 
the  reign  of  that  monarch.     In  fact,  the  date  of  this  inscription  is 
after  the  period  assigned  for  the  destruction  of  Vijaya-nagara   by 
Ramuppa;  and  Vencatuppati  was  probably  some  person  adopted  to 
support  the  falling  dynasty  after  the  death  of  Rama  Raja,  and  con- 
joined in  the  government  with  Seddsiva,   usually  reckoned  the  last 
king  of  Vijaya-nagara. 

14th  March. — I  went  four  Sultany  cosses  to  Sersi.  The  outermost  March  14. 
wall  of  Sudha  was  at  least  six  miles  from  where  I  had  encamped,  tentof5a^A«. 
and  is  said  by  the  natives  to.be  sixteen  cosses,  or  at  least  forty-eight 
miles,  in  circumference.  There  ai'e  three  lines  of  fortification  round 
the  town.  The  extent  of  the  first,  as  I  have  already  observed, 
■was  estimated  by  the  natives  at  three  miles  square,  and  the  whole 
space  that  it  contained  was  closely  occupied  by  houses.  In  the  two 
spaces  surrounded  by  the  outer  lines,  the  houses  were  foi'merly 
scattered  in  small  clumps,  with  gardens  between  them. 

From  the  outer  gate  of  Sudha,  till  I  reached  Sersi,  I  saw  neither  Appearance 
houses  nor  cultivation:  but  it  was  said,  that  there  were  villages  in  oftl^^coun- 

'  '  "  try. 

the  vicinity  of  the  road.  The  country  is  more  level  than  that 
through  which  I  came  yesterday.  In  two  places  the  trees  of  the 
forest  were  covered  with  pepper-vines ;  but  these  were  entirely 
neglected.  Sersi  is  a  small  village,  but  it  is  the  residence  of  the 
Tahsildar  under  whom  Sudha  is  placed.  It  is  not  centrical  for  the 
district,  but  is  chosen  on  account  of  its  being  a  great  thoroughfare, 
and  as  having  a  very  considerable  custom-house.  It  has  a  small  mud 
fort,  in  which  nobody  resides,  although  robbers  are  still  troublesome; 
but  to  live  in  forts  is  not  the  custom  of  Sudha.  Near  it  are  the  ruins 
of  a  fortress,  which  was  built  by  Ram  Chandra  Nayaka,  the  second 
prince  of  the  last  dynasty.  It  is  called  Chimia-pattana,  the  same 
name  with  that  of  the  city  which  we  call  Madras. 
Vol.  III.  F  f 


218 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  14. 
Former  po- 
pulation. 


The  hereditary  accomptant  (Shanahoga)  of  the  place  says,  that 
liis  brother  is  now  with  Basxva  Linga  Raja,  the  son  of  Imody  Sedasiva, 
at  Goa,  and  confirms  the  account  given  by  the  Guru.  He  says 
also,  that  an  enumeration  of  all  the  houses  of  the  country  was  taken, 
in  order  to  levy  a  tax  for  discharging  the  tribute  which  the  Ma- 
rattahs  exacted.  Sersi  then  contained  700  houses,  and  Sudha  100,000; 
but  wifh  the  amount  of  the  wliole  population  of  the  country  the 
accomptant  is  not  acquainted.  The  population  of  the  Capital  con- 
sisted of  the  court  and  army,  with  their  followers ;  for  it  would 
appear,  that  the  country  never  possessed  any  manufactures.  The 
countiy  must  have  been  then  very  well  cultivated,  and  rich,  to  be 
able  to  support  such  a  capital,  whose  inhabitants,  if  this  account  be 
true,  were  then  at  least  three  times  as  numerous  as  the  present 
people  of  the  whole  territory  :  but  the  account  is  probably  exceed- 
ingly exaggerated- 

From  a  garden  on  the  west  side  of  Sersi,  the  Salamala,  or  GangO' 
walir'wtT  takes  its  rise;  and  on  its  east  side,  from  a  Tank  called 
Aganasini,  issues  a  river  of  the  same  name,  which  in  the  lower  part 
of  its  course  is  called  the  Tari-holay. 

15th  March. — I  continued  at  Sersi,   taking  an  account  of  the 
state  of  the  country,  as  an  example  of  the  western  parts  of  Soonda, 
tern  parts  of   in  which  the  Cultivation  of  gardens  is  the  chief  object  of  the 

Soonda. 

farmer. 

In  these  gardens  are  raised  promiscuously,  Betel-nut,  and  Betel- 
leaf',  black-pepper,  cardamoms,  and  plantains.  A  great  part  of  the 
ground  formerly  planted  has  now  become  waste,  and  there  is  some 
fit  for  the  purpose  that  would  appear  never  to  have  been  cultivated; 
but  it  is  only  a  small  proportion  of  the  whole  country  that  can  be 
employed  in  this  way,  and  that  is  chiefly  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Ghats.  Toward  the  eastern  side  of  the  province  there  are  very  few 
gardens.  The  situation  required  is  a  low  narrow  valley,  with  its 
head  to  the  west,  and  opening  toward  the  east ;  so  that  the  hills 
by  which  it  is  bounded  may  defend  it  from  the  west  and  south  sun. 


Sources  of 
two  rivers. 


March  15. 
Cultivation 
in  the  wes- 


Gardens. 
Situation. 


\ 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  219 

To  add  to  the  shelter,  the  hills  in  these  directions  must  be  covered   CHAPTER 

XVII. 
with  high  trees.    The  hills  on  the  north  side  of  the  valley  must    K.^^y-^j 

also  belong  to  the  garden,  and  must  be  covered  with  trees,  which  "'^'"'^  ^  • 
are  annually  pruned  to  procure  branches  that  serve  as  manure.  At 
all  seasons  the  garden  must  command  a  supply  of  water.  This  com- 
monly is  obtained  from  springs,  which  are  numerous  in  this  country 
at  the  head  of  almost  every  little  valley.  The  water  of  these  springs 
is  collected  in  a  small  pond  or  reservoir,  from  whence  it  can  at 
pleasure  be  let  out  by  a  channel  which  is  conducted  along  the  upper 
side  of  the  garden.  Water  is  also  procured  by  forming  channels 
from  the  small  rivulets  with  which  the  country  abounds.  Some 
rich  men  fill  up  the  whole  bed  of  one  of  these  rivulets,  and  form 
their  plantation  in  the  place  where  it  was.  They  have  thus  at  its 
upper  end  a  reservoir  formed  of  the  remaining  part  of  the  old 
channel,  and  by  one  side  of  the  garden  they  draw  a  canal  to  carry 
off  the  superfluous  water.  This  incurs  a  very  considerable  expense, 
not  only  in  filling  up  the  channel,  but  in  giving  the  reservoir  and 
canal  a  strength  sufficient  to  resist  the  torrents  of  the  rainy  season. 
The  best  soil  for  these  gardens  is  the  Cagadali,  a  red  mould  con- 
taining very  small  stones.  I  observe,  however,  that  all  kinds  of 
soil  are  used.  The  prevalent  one  throughout  the  country  is  a  light- 
coloured  loam  of  great  depth. 

The  first  step  in  the  process  of  making  a  new  garden  is,  to  sur-  Formation  of 
round  it  by  a  ditch,  to  keep  off  the  torrents  which  descend  from  *"®''S^''  *"• 
the  hills.  The  garden  is  then  levelled  with  the  hoe,  and  the  whole 
is  formed  into  beds,  about  twenty  feet  wide,  by  drains,  which  are 
parallel  to  each  other,  and  run  in  the  direction  of  the  length  of  the 
valley,  or  nearly  east  and  west.  These  drains  are  intended  to  carry 
off  superfluous  moisture,  and  in  some  gardens  to  carry  away  water 
that  at  all  seasons  springs  up  from  the  soil  wherever  it  is  opened. 
The  soil  where  this  abounds  is  reckoned  by  far  the  best ;  but  the 
water  itself  is  very  pernicious,  and  nothing  would  grow  unless  it  were 
carefully  removed  -by  the  drains.    These  are  about  a  foot  broad, 


ei'o 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  15. 


Plantain 
trees. 


CHAPTER  and,  according  to  the  natural  moisture  of  the  soil,  are  from  a 
■^^"-  foot  to  eighteen  inches  deep.  At  the  same  time  must  be  formed 
the  reservoir  or  canal  for  giving  the  supply  of  water,  with  the 
channels  in  which  it  is  to  run.  The  principal  channel  runs  at  the 
head  of  the  garden,  and  crosses  the  direction  of  the  drains.  From 
this  a  small  channel  leads  between  every  two  drains,  in  the  centre 
of  each  bed.  Such  is  the  disposition  of  some  of  the  gardens  that  I 
examined  ;  but,  according  to  the  various  declivities  in  different 
gardens,  it  must  be  varied  considerably.  The  season  for  performing 
this  labour  is  during  the  two  months  which  precede  the  autumnal 
equinox. 

In  the  month  following  the  autumnal  equinox,  young  plantain 
trees  are  set  in  rows,  within  two  feet  of  each  side  of  the  drains,  and 
at  the  distance  of  twelve  feet  from  eacli  other.  If  possible,  the 
whole  garden  should  then  be  covered  with  branches  of  the  Nelli 
(Phyllanthus  Emhlica);  at  any  rate,  some  must  be  put  near  each 
young  plantain  tree ;  and  at  the  same  time  the  centre  channel  of 
each  bed  must  be  raised  a  cubit  high,  with  earth  brought  from  the 
neighbouring  hills.  When  the  rainy  season  is  over,  the  earth  is 
spread  upon  the  bed,  the  channel  is  formed  anew," and  every  fifteen 
days  water  is  given  once.  In  the  operation  of  watering,  the  channel 
is  first  filled ;  and  then,  with  a  pot  or  scoop,  some  water  is  thrown 
on  the  roots  of  the  trees. 

In  the  same  season  of  the  second  year,  a  pit,  of  a  cubit  square 
and  of  the  same  depth,  is  made  between  every  two  plantain  trees. 
In  each  pit  is  placed  a  young  Jreca,  which  is  taken  up  from  the 
seed-bed  with  much  earth  adhering  to  its  root.  The  pit  is  filled 
with  fresh  earth,  which  is  trampled  down  by  the  foot;  so  that  one 
half  of  the  pit  becomes  empty,  and  is  afterwards  filled  with  the 
leaves  of  the  Emblica.  At  the  same  period  of  every  even  year,  tliat 
is,  the  second,  fourth,  sixth,  and  so  forth,  the  clianuels  o?  every  bed 
must  be  filled  with  fresh  earth.  In  the  month  precedhig  the  winter 
solstice,  the  beds  must  be  levelled ;  and,  new  channels  having  been 


Betel-nut 
palm,  or 
Artca. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  221 

formed,  the  trees  must  be  watered  once  every  fifteen  days.     In  the   CHAPTER 

XVII 
second  month  afterwards,  the  beds  must  be  hoed,  and  each  tree     n.,^»v-^ 

manured  with  rotten  dung  taken  from  the  cow-house,  where  the  March  15. 

litter  used  has  been  either  fresh  leaves  or  dry  grass.    Above  this 

are  spread  the  small  branches  and  leaves  of  any  kind  of  trees,  and 

towards  the  root  of  every  Areca  a  quantity  of  these  is  heaped  up. 

In  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  to  prevent  the  rains 

from  washing  away  the  manure,  the  beds  are  covered  with  plantain 

leaves.    In  the  uneven,  or  intermediate  years,  nothing  is  done  in 

the  garden,  but  to  clear  the  drains  and  channels,  and  in  the  dry 

season  to  give  the  trees  water.     Each  garden  therefore  is  divided 

into  two  parts  ;  in  the  first  year  one  half  is  formed,  and  in  the  year 

following  the  other  is  planted. 

The  Betel-nut  palm,  or  Areca,  in  thirteen  years  after  it  has  been 
planted,  begins  to  produce  fruit,  and  in  five  years  more  arrives  at 
perfection :  it  lives  from  fifty  to  a  hundred  years ;  and,  when  one 
dies,  another  from  the  nursery  is  put  in  its  place.  There  is  only 
one  kind. 

The  nursery  is  managed  as  follows.  In  the  month  preceding  the 
vernal  equinox  the  seed  is  ripe.  After  having  been  cut,  it  is  kept 
eight  days  in  the  house.  In  the  mean  time  a  bed  of  ground  in  a 
shady  place  is  dug,  and  in  this  the  nuts  are  placed  nine  inches  from 
each  other,  and  with  their  eyes  uppermost.  They  must  be  covered 
with  a  finger  breadth  of  earth.  The  bed  is  then  covered  with  dry 
plantain  leaves,  and  once  in  eight  days  is  sprinkled  with  Avater.  In 
the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  the  plantain  leaves  are 
removed,  and  young  shoots  are  found  to  have  come  from  the  nuts. 
In  the  second  month  afterwards,  leaves  of  the  Emblica  are  spread 
between  the  young  plants.  In  the  month  preceding  the  vernal 
equinox,  they  get  a  little  dung.  In  the  dry  season  they  are  wa- 
tered once  in  from  four  to  eight  days,  according  to  the  nature  of 
the  soil.    They  are  not  removed  till  they  are  going  to  be  finally 


222  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  planted  in  the  garden,  which  is  done  in  their  fifth  year.  They  are 
then  estimated  worth  one  silver  Fa«a??e  a  hundred,  5 ~  Fanarns  going 
to  the  Rupee;  but  they  are  seldom  sold,  any  man  lending  to  his 
neighbour  when  he  may  be  in  want  of  a  few. 

The  crop  season  of  an  Areca  garden  continues  from  two  months 
before,  till  one  after,  the  winter  solstice.  The  bunches  are  cut  as 
they  approach  to  ripeness,  for  the  ripe  nut  is  of  no  use  except  for 
seed.  The  husk  is  removed  with  a  knife.  A  decoction  is  then 
made  with  a  few  nuts,  a  little  Chunam  (ashes  of  the  bark  of  the 
Chuncoa  Muttia  Buch:  MSS.),  and  some  bark  of  the  Honay,  or  PtC' 
rocarpus  santolinus.  These  are  bruised  together,  and  are  boiled  six 
hours  in  water.  A  quantity  of  the  nut  cleared  from  the  husk  is 
then  put  in  a  pot,  and  into  this  the  decoction  is  poured,  until  it 
rises  above  the  nuts,  which  are  then  boiled  till  the  eyes  separate. 
They  are  now  put  upon  a  strainer  of  mats  supported  on  posts,  and 
are  dried  six  days  in  the  sun.  At  night  they  are  covered  with  a  mat. 
In  this  country  the  Betel-nut  is  never  cut,  but  is  sold  entire,  and 
is  called  red  Betel.  Any  nuts  of  a  bunch,  that  have  become  too 
ripe  before  it  was  cut,  are  picked  out  and  kept  separate.  Their 
husks  are  removed,  and  they  are  dried  in  the  sun  without  boiling. 
These  are  called  raw  Betel,  and  sell  much  lower  than  the  other 
kind. 

From  the  month  preceding  the  winter  solstice,  to  that  following 
the  vernal  equinox,  the  leaves  of  the  Areca  fall  oiF.  Each  is  accom- 
panied by  its  broad,  leathery,  membraneous  petiole  ;  which,  Avhen 
they  are  young,  form  collectively  a  green  smooth  body  at  the  top 
of  the  stem.  These  membranes  are  cut  off,  and  carefully  preserved. 
They  are  about  three  feet  long,  and  a  cubit  broad ;  and,  in  the 
rainy  season,  are  used  to  make  covers  for  the  young  bunches,  or 
spadices.  In  the  month  following  the  summer  solstice,  a  man  mounts 
the  Areca,  and  above  every  branch  fixes  a  cover,  so  as  entirely  to 
keep  oiF  the  rain.    Some  of  the  trees  are  so  tall  and  slender,  that 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  223 

they  cannot  bear  the  weight  of  the  operator,  anil  thus  are  deprived  CHAPTER 
of  covers.  On  these  the  bunches  produce  only  from  five  to  a  ^..^v-O 
hundred  nuts,  while  two  hundred  nuts  are  reckoned  the  average  March  15. 
produce  of  a  covered  bunch,  and  some  bring  five  hundred  to  ma- 
turity. Each  tree  commonly,  yields  two  good  bunches,  or  three 
small  ones.  The  average  produce  is  said  to  be  1  Maund,  ox  79,  Seers 
of  boiled  nut  from  fifty  trees,  or  from  each  -jVoVo  parts  of  a  pound. 
A  particular  set  of  men  are  employed  to  cover  the  bunches,  and  cut 
down  the  fruit.  At  each  time  they  get  two  Rtipees  for  every  thou- 
sand bunches,  and  are  very  dexterous.  Round  their  ancles,  and 
under  their  soles,  they  fix  a  rope  made  of  plantain  stems,  and  thus 
unite,  their  feet,  which  are  then  placed  against  the  stem,  and  drawn 
up  together,  while  the  climber  holds  on  with  his  hands.  Having 
placed  the  rope  and  his  feet  firm  against  the  stem,  he  first  moves 
up  one  hand,  and  then  the  other,  and  afterwards  draws  up  his  feet 
again.  In  this  manner  he  reaches  the  top  of  one  tree,  where  he 
secures  himself  by  taking  around  turn  with  a  rope,  which  he  carries 
up  in  his  hand.  One  end  of  this  rope  is  tied  to  the  middle  of  a  short 
stick,  upon  Avhich  the  man  seats  himself,  and  performs  his  labour, 
drawing  up  whatever  he  wants,  from  an  attendant  below,  by  means 
of  a  line  that  he  has  fixed  to  his  girdle.  When  he  has  done  with 
one  tree,  he  unties  his  seat,  secures  it  round  his  neck,  and  swings 
the  tree  backwards  and  forwards,  till  he  can  reach  another,  upon 
which  he  then  throws  himself,  and  again  makes  fast  his  seat.  He 
thus  passes  over  the  whole  garden,  without  ever  coming  to  the 
ground.  The  trees  thai,  from  being  too  tall  and  slender,  are  un- 
abie  to  support  a  man's  weight,  have  their  fruit  gathered  by  being 
pulled  towards  a  neighbouring  tree  by  means  of  a  hook.  The  cul- 
tivators seem  to  under-rate  the  produce  very  much. 

When  the  Betel-nut  palm   is  thirteen  years  old,  the  garden  is  Blackpepper. 
planted  with  either  black  pepper,  or  Betel-leaf  vines,  which  climb 
upon  the  Areca.    The  pepper,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  is  of 


224  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  three  kinds.  The  Cart  Mayuasu  is  the  most  productive,  but  requires 
,^^^i^  a  Cagadali  soil.  In  this,  the  produce  of  a  good  tree  covered  with 
March  15.  Cari  Maynasu,  is  reckoned  five  Seers  of  cured  pepper,  or  a  small 
fraction  more  than  three  pounds.  The  Sambara  and  Arsina  giitti 
thrive  very  well  on  Arsina  Mtinnu,  or  a  light-coloured  soil ;  but 
the  first  produces  only  one  Seer,  and  the  latter  two.  The  quality 
of  all  the  kinds  is  the  same.  In  the  month  following  the  vernal 
equinox,  four  cuttings  of  the  pepper  vine,  each  a  cubit  and  a  half 
in  length,  are  taken  for  every  Areca.  One  of  their  ends  is  buried 
five  or  six  inches  in  the  ground,  the  other  is  tied  to  the  stem  of  its 
supporter.  The  vine  requires  no  farther  trouble,  but  tying  its 
branches  up  once  a  year  in  the  month  preceding  the  summer  sol- 
stice. It  bears  in  six  or  seven  years,  and  lives  about  twenty-five ; 
so  that  one  Areca  requires  three  or  four  sets  of  vines.  The  crop 
season  is  during  the  two  months  which  precede  the  vernal  equinox. 
The  fruit  is  collected  by  means  of  ladders ;  and  a  man  does  not 
collect,  and  cure,  in  a  day  more  than  five  Seers,  or  three  pounds. 
The  pepper,  as  usual,  is  gathered  when  the  grains  are  full  grown, 
but  not  ripe.  Here  the  amenta  are  gathered  into  a  heap,  which 
stands  in  the  house,  and  there  they  are  kept  three  days.  They  are 
then  rubbed  with  the  foot ;  and  the  grains,  having  been  separated 
from  all  other  matter,  are  then  fit  for  sale. 

White  pep-         A  little  white  pepper  is  made  by  allowing  the  berries  to  ripen. 

^^^'  The  bunches,  having  been  kept  three  days  in  the  house,  are  washed 

and  bruised  in  a  basket  with  the  hand,  till  all  the  amenta  and  pulp 
are  removed.  The  seed  is  then  dried  five  days,  and  is  fit  for  sale. 
It  is  twice  as  dear  as  black  pepper,  but  the  demand  for  it  is  very 
small,  for  it  is  used  only  as  a  medicine. 

Bctd-Uaf.  The  Betel-leaf  h  cultivated  exactly  like  the  pepper,  and  lives 

the  same  length  of  time.  In  this  country,  the  Nagwally,  or  female 
plant,  for  it  is  dioecious,  is  that  chiefly  used ;  but  the  Ui7ibadi, 
or  male,  may   also    be    found.     Here  both   frequently    produce 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  225 

fructification,  which  I  have  not  seen  any  where  else.    A  thousand   CHAPTEll 

XVII. 
leaves  of  the  Nagtcally  sell  for  8  Dubs,  while  the  same  number  of    k^^,^,'^^^ 

leaves  of  the  Umbadi  bring  only  one  fourth  part  of  that  sum.  ^^"'"'^   ^^' 

Whenever  the  Betel  and  pepper  vines  have  fairly  taken  root,  the 
greater  part  of  the  plantain  trees  are  removed. 

The  cardamoms  (Amomum  repens)  are  propagated  entirely  by  Cardamoms, 
cuttings  of  the  root,  and  spread  in  clumps  exactly  like  the  plantain 
tree,  or  Musa.  In  the  month  following  the  autumnal  equinox,  a 
cluster  of  from  three  to  five  stems,  with  the  roots  adhering,  are 
separated  from  a  bunch,  and  planted  in  the  same  row,  one  between 
every  two  Betel-nut  palms,  in  the  spot  from  whence  a  plantain  tree 
has  been  removed.  The  ground  around  the  cardamom  is  manured 
with  NelU  (Emblica)  leaves.  In  the  third  year,  about  the  autumnal 
equinox,  it  produces  fruit.  The  capsules  are  gathered  as  they  ripen, 
and  are  dried  four  days  on  a  mat,  which  during  the  day  is  supported 
by  four  sticks,  and  exposed  to  the  sun,  but  at  night  is  taken  into 
the  house.  They  are  then  fit  for  sale.  Whenever  the  whole  fruit 
has  been  removed,  the  plants  are  raised,  and,  all  the  superfluous 
stems  and  roots  having  been  separated,  they  are  set  again ;  but 
care  is  taken  never  to  set  a  plant  in  the  spot  from  whence  it  was 
raised,  a  change  in  this  respect  being  considered  as  necessary. 
Next  year  these  plants  give  no  fruit,  but  in  the  year  following 
yield  capsules  again,  as  at  first.  After  transplantation  the  old  stems 
die,  and  new  ones  spring  from  the  roots.  Each  cluster  produces 
from  one  quarter  to  one  Seer  weight  of  cardamoms,  or  from  -jVo  to 
yV  of a  pound. 

All  these  gardens  are  private  property,  and  all  belong  to  Haiga  Tenures. 
Brahmans.  When  a  man  wishes  to  make  a  new  one,  he  fixes  upon 
a  spot,  which  must  not  only  contain  room  for  the  trees,  but  must 
have  hills  for  shelter,  and  for  supplying  manure,  and  a  place  for  the 
house  and  kitchen  garden.  When  a  proper  situation  has  been 
found,  the  planter  purchases  the  whole  from  the  government.  The 
usual  price  has  been  ten  Pagodas,  or  forty  Rupees,  for  every  thousand 

Vol.  III.  G  s      , 


rsc 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   trees  planted.    For  twelve  years  they  pay  no  land-tax  ;  on  the  thir- 
■yJ^^L,     teenth  year,  every  thousand  trees  paid,  on  a  good  soil,  three  Pago- 

March  15.  das ;  and  every  year,  until  the  eighteenth,  an  additional  tax  of 
three  Pagodas  was  imposed.  Afterwards  the  thousand  trees,  on  a 
good  soil,  paid  yearly  twenty  Pagodas;  on  a  bad  soil,  the  tax  was 
only  ten  Pagodas  a  thousand.  Nothing  was  exacted  for  the  plan- 
tains, pepper,  Betel-leaf,  or  cardamoms.  If  the  proprietor  become 
poor,  and  be  not  able  to  cultivate  his  garden,  so  that  it  runs  to  waste, 
he  informs  the  officers  of  revenue,  who  sell  the  ground,  and  give 
him  the  price.  He  may  sell  the  garden  when  he  pleases.  This 
property  is  never  mortgaged.  Tippoo  raised  the  land-tax  ;  owing  to 
which  burthen,  and  other  troubles,  many  of  the  gardens  are  now- 
waste.  Major  Monro  reduced  the  rent  to  the  old  standard ;  but  as 
yet  no  new  gardens  have  been  formed,  and  the  people  are  expecting 
some  farther  indulgence  before  they  begin  to  plant. 
Labour,  In  this  country  a  few  slaves  are  kept ;  but  most  of  the  labour, 

even  in  the  grounds  of  the  Brdhmans,  is  performed  by  the  proprie- 
tors, or  by  hired  servants.  The  Haiga  Brdhmans  toil  on  their  own 
ground  at  every  kind  of  labour,  but  they  never  work  for  hire.  The 
hired  servants  seldom  receive  any  money  in  advance,  and  conse- 
quently at  the  end  of  the  year  are  free  to  go  away.  No  warning  is 
necessary,  either  on  the  part  of  the  master  or  of  the  servants. 
These  eat  three  times  a  day  in  their  master's  house,  and  get  an- 
nually one  blanket,  one  handkerchief,  and  in  money  6  Pagodas,  or 
48  Rupees,  or  2/.  8*.  4jd.  Their  wives  are  hired  by  the  day,  and 
get  Ij  Seer  of  rough  rice,  and  3  Dudus,  of  which  49|-  are  equal  to 
to  1  Rupee.  In  so  poor  a  country,  these  wages  are  very  high.  A 
male  slave  gets  daily  2  Pucka  Seers  of  rough  rice,  with  annually 
one  blanket,  one  handkerchief,  a  piece  of  cotton  cloth,  and  some 
oil,  tamarinds,  and  capsicum.  He  gets  no  money,  except  at  mar- 
riages; but  these  cost  16  Pagodas,  or  6/.  8*.  ll^d.,  for  the  woman 
must  be  purchased.  She,  and  all  her  children,  of  course  become 
the  property  of  her  husband's  mastei*.    The  woman  slave  gets  daily 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  227 

If  Seer  of  rough  rice,   a  blanket,  and  annually  a  piece  of  cotton   CHAPTER 
cloth,  and  a  jacket.      Children  and  old  people  get  some  ready     v,*-.^^.^^ 
dressed  victuals  at  the  house  of  the  master,  and  are  also  allowed  M^r^h  15. 
some  clothing.    The  men  work  from  sun-rise  till  sun-set,  and  at 
noon  are  allowed  one  Hindu  hour,  or  about  twenty-four  minutes, 
for  dinner.    The  women  are  allowed  till  about  eight  o'clock  in  the 
morning  to  prepare  the  dinner,  which  they  then  carry  to  the  fields, 
and  continue  to  work  there  with  the  men  until  sun-set. 

In  the  forests  here,  any  person  may  cut  whatever  trees  he  pleases,  Sandal-wood. 
except  sandal-wood,  and  such  as  grow  in  forests  producing  pepper. 
The  sandal  trees  are  numbered,  and  put  in  charge  of  the  head-man 
of  the  village.  The  custom  of  this  district  (Taluc)  is,  once  in 
twelve  years  to  cut  the  sandal.  Three  years  ago  a  man  purchased 
all  that  was  fit  for  cutting,  and  procured  about  100  Maunds  of  40 
Seers  each,  or  about  21j  hundred-weight. 

Few  or  no  merchants  reside  in  Sooiida.  Those  from  below  the  Commerce. 
Ghats  come,  and  purchase  a  little  pepper ;  but  by  far  the  greatest  ^'"P"'^- 
part  of  this  article,  and  all  the  Betel-nut  and  cardamoms,  are  brought 
up  by  the  Banijigas,  who  come  from  HubuU,  Darwara,  Hameri,  or 
Haveli,  and  Umanabady  in  the  Marattah  dominions.  They  come 
here  in  the  hot  and  dry  season,  between  March  and  June,  and, 
going  round  the  houses  of  the  cultivators,  give  cash  for  the  pro- 
duce of  the  gardens.  The  common  price  of  pepper  is  18  Ikeri 
Pagodas,  or  T-Z  Rupees,  for  the  Nija  of  12  Maunds,  each  weighing 
72  Seers  of  24  Dudus.  This  is  at  the  rate  of  Sy—o  pence  a  pound, 
or  at  about  82 j  Rupees  for  the  Candy  of  6OO  lb.,  which  is  used  by 
the  Company  in  Malabar.  The  cultivation  of  gardens  being  evi- 
dently more  expensive  here  than  in  Malabar,  we  may,  from  the 
price  given  at  this  place,  judge  of  the  practicability  of  the  Com- 
pany's taking  at  al  low  rate  all  the  pepper  of  that  country,  and, 
provided  they  removed  the  land-tax,  of  giving  a  sufficient  encou- 
ragement for  its  cultivation.  The  common  price  of  red  Betel-nut 
here  is  one  Pagoda  for  the  Maund,  or  Q^V^  pence  a  pound.     The 


2S8 


A  JOUKNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  15. 
Imports. 


Betel-nut. 


cardamoms  sell  for  7  Pagodas  the  Maund  of  40  Seers ;  so  that  a 
pound  costs  almost  2*.  Ad. 

The  Mnrattah  merchants  bring  almost  the  whole  cloth,  and  a 
great  part  of  the  grain,  that  is  used  in  the  country.  Some  they 
exchange  with  the  cultivators ;  but  the  greater  part  is  sold  for 
ready  money  to  shopkeepers,  who  again  retail  these  articles  to  the 
people  of  the  country.  The  iron  used  in  the  neighbourhood  comes 
from  Chandra- gupty,  and  other  places  in  the  dominions  of  Mysore. 
Their  salt  comes  from  Canara,  and  a  vast  quantity  passes  this  way 
to  the  Marattah  territory. 

The  Marattah  merchants,  who  are  just  now  here,  say,  that  the 
Betel-niit  of  this  place  is  greatly  inferior  to  that  of  Sira,  and  the 
neighbouring  countries;  which  is  in  direct  opposition  to  the  infor- 
mation of  the  people  of  Bangalore.  The  taste  of  the  people  in  the 
two  countries  may  be  different ;  as,  for  ihstanoe,  the  female  £e/e/- 
/cfl/"  is  here  preferred,  while  in  some  other  countries  the  male  is  in 
greater  request.  There  is  no  reason  to  doubt  the  accuracy  of  the 
price  current  given  me  at  Bangalore.  The  Marattah  merchants  s^y, 
that  they  purchase  all  that  they  can  get  at  Sira ;  but,  that  being 
totally  inadequate  to  supply  the  demand,  they  must  take  whatever 
they  can  get.  They  say,  that  none  grows  in  the  Marattah  territo- 
ries, and  from  hence  it  is  carried  to  the  most  remote  parts  of  their 
dominion. 

Cardamoms.       The  cardamoms  that  grow  here  are  of  an  inferior  quality  to  what 
they  get  at  Sringa-giri,  that  is,  to  the  produce  of  Coorg. 

Tlie  garden  pepper  of  Soonda  and  oiNagara  is  of  equal  value,  and 
is  better  than  that  which  grows  spontaneously,  by  three  Pagodas  a 
Candy,  that  is,  in  the  proportion  of  ten  to  nine.  They  say  also,  that 
merchants  and  commerce  meet  with  every  protection  and  encou- 
ragement in  the  Marattah  dominions.  Indeed,  among  the  Hindus, 
even  in  the  most  rapacious  governments,  this   class  of  people  is 

Strata  of       seldom  molested. 

Jaydi  i^  JQ^y  moist  vallies  here,  a  kind  of  white  clay,  mixed  with  small 


Pepper. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  229 

bits  of  quartz,   is  very  commonly  found  under  the  soil  of  rice-    CHAPTER 
grounds.  Its  strata  are  often  several  cubits  in  thickness,  and,  where       xvil. 
it  comes  to  the  surface,  render  the  ground  very  sterile.  It  is  called  March  15. 
Jaydi  Munnu,  and  is  used  to  white-wash  the  houses  of  the  natives. 
It  is  diffused  in  water  to  separate  the  sand  and  stones,  and  is  then 
mixed  with  a  little  Chunam,  that  is  to  say,  the  ashes  of  Miiddi  bark 
(Chimcoa  Muddia  Buch:  MSS.);  for  in  this  vicinity  there  is  no 
lime. 

The  Panchanga,  or  astrologer  of  this  place,  gives  me  the  following  Weather. 
account  of  the  weather.  In  the  month  preceding,  and  the  four 
months  following,  the  summer  solstice,  the  winds  are  westerly,  and 
very  strong,  with  excessive  rains  ;  so  that  during  these  five  months 
it  is  rarely  ever  fair  for  an  hour.  In  the  five  following  months, 
that  is,  two  months  before  and  three  months  after  the  winter  sol- 
stice, the  winds  are  easterly,  and  of  moderate  force.  The  Aveather 
is  in  general  fair ;  but  during  the  first  month  there  are  some  showers, 
and  during  the  two  next  there  are  every  morning  heavy  dews,  and 
thick  fogs.  In  the  two  months  following  the  vernal  equinox,  the 
winds  are  variable,  but  come  mostly  from  the  south.  At  first  they 
are  moderate,  but  they  increase  in  strength  toward  the  end  of 
this  period,  and  bring  on  the  commencement  of  the  rainy  season. 
At  present,  toward  the  end  of  the  second  period,  the  nights  are 
rather  cool,  with  very  heavy  fogs  in  the  morning.  The  days  are 
clear,  and  very  hot. 

The  two  most  unhealthy  seasons  are,  the  two  first  months  of  the  Unhealthy. 
rainy  season,  and  the  four  months  of  cool  weather.    At  all  times,  ^"^' 
hoAvever,  the  country  is  extremely  unhealthy  for  people  not  inured 
from  birth  to  its  dangerous  air;  and  my  servants  are  now  suffering 
considerably  from  its  baneful  influence. 

l6th  March. — Having  been  employed  all  the  15th  in  taking  the  March  i6. 
foregoing  account,  I  to-day  went  five  cosses  to  Banawdsi.    A  great  ^nhTcolm- 
deal  of  the  country  through  which  I  passed  has  been  formerly  "y- 
cleared ;  and  the  greater  part,  although  now  waste,  has  not  yet 


230  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  been  overgrown  Avith  trees.  The  woods,  being  young,  do  not  iri 
^^iil/     general  contain  tall  trees  ;  but  I  passed  through  a  stately  forest,  in 

March  16".  which  the  pepper-vine  grows  spontaneously.  In  this  there  was  some 
Teak.  The  greater  part  of  the  country  is  not  too  steep  for  the 
plough ;  but  in  many  places  the  Laterite  rises  to  the  surface. 
Where  that  is  not  the  case,  the  soil  is  apparently  good,  Banawasi, 
in  Hydefs  government,  contained  500  hoijses,  which  are  now  re- 
duced more  than  one  half.  Its  walls  are  ruinous,  and,  although  it 
has  been  a  place  of  great  celebrity,  do  not  appear  to  have  been  ever 
of  great  extent.  It  is  now  the  residence  of  a  Tahsildar.  The  Va- 
radd  river,  after  having  come  from  Ikeri,  passes  on  the  east  side  of 
the  town,  and  falls  into  the  Tiinga-bhadra.  At  present  it  is  very 
small,  and  muddy,  with  little  current ;  but  in  the  rainy  season  it  is 
no  where  fordable,  and  might  be  applied  to  the  purposes  of  com- 
merce. It  is  only  navigated,  however,  by  the  baskets  covered  with 
leather,  which  serve  for  ferry-boats. 

MaduLinga,      1  remained  at  Banuwdsi  two  days,   having  met  with  a  Brahman 

tiquary.  very  curious  in  antiquities,  who  was  named  Madu  Lviga  Butta,  and 
who  was  priest  (Pujdri)  in  the  temple  called  Madugesxvara,  to  the 
sanctity  of  which  the  celebrity  of  Banawasi  is  attributed  by  Madu 
Linga.  It  is  dedicated  to  Maducanata,  one  of  the  names  of  Isxcara, 
or  Maha  Deva,  of  whom  my  antiquary  is  a  most  devout  worshipper. 
This  temple  had  formerly  very  large  endowments  ;  and,  although  a 
very  mean  building,  is  still  in  good  repair,  and  much  frequented. 
Its  priest  was  to  me  the  most  interesting  object  about  the  place. 
Although  a  person  of  the  most  austere  and  mortified  life,  and  who 
employs  much  time  in  the  ceremonies  of  devotion,  yet  he  had  con- 
siderable curiosity,  and  had  been  at  great  pains  in  studying  and 
copying  the  ancient  inscriptions,  both  here,  and  at  some  places  of 
celebrity  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Banawhi.  Baiiawdsi,  he  says,  in  the  first  Yugam  was  called  Coumodi ;  in  the 

Traytaia-yugam  it  was  called  Jainti,  or  success ;  in  the  Duapar- 
yugam  its  name  was  changed  to  Beindivi;  and  in  this  age  it  is  called 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  231 

Vanav&si  m  the  Sanskrit,  and  Banawasi  in  the  vulgar  language,  as   CHAPTER 
being  situated  in   a  forest.    At  the  very  commencement  of  this     ,^^hj 
age,  it  was  for  some  time  the  residence  of  Dharma,  the  youngest  of  March  \Q. 
the  five  sons  of  Pandu  ;  and  here  several  princes  descended  from 
Trenetra  Cadumba  held  their  court. 

Madii  Linga  gave  me  copies  of  the  following  inscriptions,  which  Inscriptioua. 
have  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  government. 

The  most  ancient  by  far,  and,  unless  there  be  some  mistake  in 
the  matter,  which  indeed  is  almost  certain,  the  most  ancient  in- 
scription any  where  existing,  is  at  the  temple  Madughwara,  and 
contains  ^  grant  of  lands  to  the  god  Maducanata,  by  Simhimna  Bupa 
of  Yudishtara's  family,  dated  in  the  year  of  the  era  of  Yiidishtara 
168.  As  the  Christian  era,  according  to  the  usual  reckoning  of  the 
Brdhnmns,  commences  in  the  3102  jtox  oi  Yudishtara,  this  inscrip- 
tion was  made  4735  years  ago. 

Another  very  ancient  inscription,  but  following  the  other  at  a 
great  interval,  is  also  at  the  temple  of  Maducanata.  It  is  dated  in 
the  year  Jeya  of  the  era  of  Vicrama  96,  in  the  reign  of  Vicrama  Dit- 
iya.    This  answers  to  the  39th  year  of  our  Lord. 

The  next  most  ancient  inscription,  of  which  he  gave  me  a  copy, 
is  at  Balagami,  a  place  south-east  from  hence  in  the  Mysore  terri- 
tory. Yudishtara,  or  Dharma  Rdya,  dwelt  at  it  one  year ;  and  after- 
wards, during  the  reign  of  Vira  Belalla,  it  was  for  some  time  the 
capital  of  Karnata.  The  ruins  are  said  to  contain  an  immense  num- 
ber of  inscriptions.  Two  of  these  are  dated  in  the  reign  of  Yudish- 
tara ;  and  the  others  are  all  in  the  reigns  oH  Jain  princes,  Avho, 
early  in  this  Yiigam,  according  to  Madu  Linga,  expelled  the  fol- 
lowers of  the  Vedas,  and  till  the  time  of  Sankara,  and  Rani'  Anuja, 
continued  to  be  the  governing  power.  The  inscription  of  which  I 
am  now  treating  contains  a  grant  of  lands  to  the  goddess  Renuca, 
mother  of  Parasu  Rama.  Her  temple  is,  however,  situated  at  Chan- 
dra-gupty.  The  date  is  in  the  year  of  Sal.  90,  or  A.  D.  16^-,  in  the 
reign  of  Trenetra  Cadumba.    I  have  many  doubts  concerning  the 


232  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   antiquity  of  this  inscription.    It  is  said  to  mention,  that,  before  the 

XVII.         .  .     , 

v,^.^/^     time  of  this  Trenetra  Cadumba,  there  had  been  fourteen  Cadumba 

March  i(S.  R/iyas,  aud  twenty-one  of  the  family  of  the  Barbaraha ;  and  that 
after  him  there  would  be  seven  Cadumba  Rajas,  and  Vira  Bojah 
Vassundara,  a  Raja  who,  according  to  the  Brdhmans,  has  not  yet 
appeared,  but  who  is  soon  to  come,  and  who,  after  having  expelled 
all  Melenchas  and  other  infidels,  is  to  restore  the  true  worship  ia 
all  parts  of  Bharata-khanda.  When  I  stated,  that  the  inscription 
must  have  been  written  after  the  last  of  the  twenty-one  Jtantri 
Cadumba  Rdjds  mentioned  by  Ramuppa,  as  their  exact  number  is 
specified  in  the  writing,  my  doubts  by  no  means  discomposed  the 
Hindu  antiquary ;  he  said,  that  this  matter  could  have  easily  been 
ascertained  by  prophecy ;  and,  in  order  to  remove  my  doubts, 
showed  me  a  list  of  monarchs  extracted  from  the  eighteen  Puranas, 
in  which  the  Mussulman  kings  o^  Delhi  were  mentioned.  Any  reply 
to  this  could  only  have  given  offence ;  hue  the  circumstance  shows, 
that  either  these  books  usually  attributed  to  Fi/dsa  are  of  recent 
fabrication,  or  have  suffered  gross  interpolations. 

Madu  Li)}ga  was,  however,  so  far  from  looking  upon  the  power 
of  foretelling  future  events  as  a  proof  of  supernatural  authority  de- 
rived from  divine  favour,  that  he  gave  me  a  copy  of  an  inscription 
on  stone,  which  also  came  from  Balagami,  and  which  he  says  is  pro- 
phetical, and  yet  acknowledges  that  it  was  composed  by  a  Jain 
Guru,  who  by  intense  study  had  acquired  the  art  of  prophecy.  A 
copy  of  what^js  said  to  be  the  prophetical  part  of  this  inscription 
I  delivered  with  the  others;  the  rtm?i\n(\t\' JMadu  Livga  did  not 
think  worth  copying.  The  prophecy  he  applies  to  the  success  of 
the  British  arms  in  India ;  and  says,  that  before  the  year  of  Sal. 
1900,  the  English  are  to  possess  the  whole  country  from  the  snowy 
mountains,  to  Ramesxcaram.  The  author  of  the  inscription  in  ques- 
tion is  said  to  have  been  Muru  Jamadeya,  Guru  to  Maha  Sholia,  or 
S/ioluJt  Raja,  a  Jain  prince,  who  was  sovereign  king  of  tlie  five  great 
divisions  of  the  world.    He  lived  since  the  time  oi  Salivahanam-; 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  233 

and  my  antiquary  relates  many  extraordinary  things  of  tliis  infidel   CHAPTER 
prince,  and  of  his  unbelieving  Guru.  I  am  at  a  great  loss  to  account     \^y-^ 
for  this  circumstance,  as  Madu  Linga  is  apparently  a  zealous  wor-  March  i6. 
shipper  of  Siva.    I  can  only  account  for  it  by  supposing,  that  he  is 
inwardly  a  Jain,  which  does  not  prevent  him  from  worshipping  the 
Linga  as  a  representation  of  a  Devata.    However  that  may  be,  he 
gravely  relates,  that  Sholia  Rdjd  permitted  none  of  his  subjects  to 
die  till  they  were  a  hundred  years  old ;  and  also,  that  his  Guru  one 
day,  about  3  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  told  the  sun  to  stop,  and  the 
luminary  immediately  obeyed.    After  three  hours  the  Guru  allowed 
it  to  set,  which  it  accordingly  did   at   the  usual  time  by  a  sudden 
movement  to  the  west.     The  inscription  in  question  was  composed 
by  Muru  Jamadeya,  that,  when  the  prophecies  in  it  came  to  be 
fulfilled,  all  future  ages  might  have  evident  proof  of  his  learning. 

Another  inscription  is  engraven  on  a  stone  at  the  temple  of  Tala- 
leswara  in  Hanagul,  a  place  in  the  Savanuru  district  (Taluc),  which 
is  probably  the  Shanoor  of  Major  RennelL  The  date  is  involved  in 
the  conceit  of  a  couplet,  but  was  interpreted  to  be  Sal.  1  ISO,  being 
the  year  Jeya.  The  reigning  prince  is  Cadumba  Rdya,  and  must 
have  been  a  descendant  of  the  Jeantri  Cadumba  monarchs,  who 
even  then  retained  a  portion  of  their  dominions. 

The  next  inscription  is  at  a  place  called  Cupatwa,  which  lies  east 
from  Banawdsi.  It  is  dated  Anunda  Sal.  1297  (A.  D.  137 f),  in  the 
reign  of  Vira  Buca  Ruya  of  Hasinazvali,  which  is  the  Sanskrit  name 
of  Anagundi,  a  city  on  the  bank  of  the  Tunga-bhadra,  opposite  to- 
Vijaya-nagara. 

The  next  inscription  is  engraven  on  a  stone  at  a  Jain  temple 
(Busty)  in  the  same  place,  Cupatura.  It  is  dated  in  Sal.  1337, 
which,  as  I  before  mentioned,  is  probably  an  error  of  the  copyist 
for  1437 ;  as  it  is  in  the  reign  of  Achuta  Rdya,  Narasingha  Rdya, 
and  Krishna  Rdya. 

It  would  appear,  that  until  about  this  period  the  Jain  in  these 
parts  continued  numerous.    Among  other  proofs,  I  may  mention. 

Vol.111.  Hh 


Z3i 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  16'. 


CHAPTER  that  a  valuation  of  all  the  country  between  Nagara  and  Vcreda, 
^^^'-  ])oth  included,  and  said  to  have  been  made  by  the  orders  of  Krishna 
Rai/aru,  appears  to  have  been  conducted  by  a  Jain  officer,  Gopa 
Gauda.  This  valuation  is  engraved  on  stone  at  Balagami,  or  Bala- 
gavi ;  and  a  copy  of  it,  which  I  procured  from  Madii  Linga,  accom- 
panies the  other  inscriptions. 

The  next  inscription  is  in  a  temple  at  Banawasi,  and  is  dated 
Paradavi,  Sal.  1474,  in  the  reign  of  Vencatadri  Deva  Maha  Rdya. 

The  last  inscription  also  is  engraven  on  a  stone  at  Banawasi,  and 
dated  Vilumbi  of  Sal.  1501,  in  the  reign  of  Imiidy  Arasuppa  Nayaka 
oi'Sud/ia,  which  fonfirms  the  chronology  of  the  Gwn^  of  that  family 
in  the  account  which  he  gave  me  while  I  M'as  at  their  capital. 

Having  assembled  the  cultivators  in  presence  of  the  officers  of 
government,  they  gave  me  the  following  account  of  the  state  of 
agriculture ;  which  may  be  considered  as  applicable  to  the  eastern 
and  more  open  parts  of  Soonda. 

Every  village  has  a  different  measure  for  grain  :  that  in  use  here 
is  as  follows  : 

One  Candaca  contains  20  Bullas ;  1  Bullae  Seers.  The  Seer,  when 
heaped  as  usual,  contains  76j  cubical  inches.  The  Candaca,  there- 
fore, is  equal  to  2yV5%-  bushels.  By  this  Candaca,  the  farmers  esti- 
mate the  seed  and  produce ;  but  they  sell  rough  rice  by  another, 
the  Bulla  of  which  is  equal  to  80  Seers,  or  which  contains  36^ 
bushels.  The  value  of  this  at  present  is  6  Pagodas,  which  is  at  the 
rate  of  10^La_  pence  a  bushel.  Rice  again,  when  freed  from  the 
husk,  is  sold  by  a  Candaca  whose  Bulla  contains  32  Seers,  or  which 
is  equal  to  22^:  bushels.  This  at  present  sells  for  6^  Pagodas,  or  25 
„Rupees ;  which  is  at  the  rate  of  2*.  2^d.  the  bushel,  and  is  said  to 
be  higher  than  the  price  at  Seringapatam.  The  difference  of  price 
shows  the  enormous  expense  which  attends  the  operation  of  re- 
moving the  husks,  owing  to  the  ignorance  of  mechanism  among 
the  natives;  for  only  one  half  of  rough  rice  consists  of  husk. 

Here,  and  all  toward  the  east  side  oi' Soonda  Ray ada,  the  great 


State  ofapii- 
cultuio  ill  the 
open  part  of 
Huundu. 


Grain  mea' 
sures. 


MYSORE,  CANAllA,  AND  MALABAR.  235 

obrecf  of  cultivation  is  rice ;  as  toward  the  west  the  farmers  are  chiefly   CHAPTEU 

XVII. 
occupied  with  plantations.    I  measured  two  fields,  in  order,  if  pos-    <.,^,^.y-^ 

sible,  to  ascertain  the  rate  of  seed  and  produce,  but  without  getting  March  i6. 
any  thing  satisfactory.  By  measuring  a  great  extent  an  average 
may  be  struck,  as  has  been  done  by  Mr.  Ravenshaw ;  but  it  will  be 
found,  that  some  fields  are  alleged  by  the  cultivators  to  require 
one  half  less  seed  than  others  of  equal  extent.  Great  allowances 
must  be  made,  in  a  point  even  of  such  importance,  to  the  ignorance 
of  the  farmers ;  but  still  I  do  not  suppose  them  to  be  so  grossly 
inattentive,  as  to  make  such  a  difference  in  the  seed  actually  sown. 
I  rather  suppose,  that  Avhat  they  call  a  Candacd's  sowing  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  real  quantity  of  seed,  which  is  concealed  with  a  view 
of  lowering  their  burthens.  One  of  the  fields  which  I  measured 
contained  72,698  square  feet  for  the  nominal  Candaca,  -which  is  at 
the  rate  of  l-rsVo  bushel  an  acre.  The  other  field  was  at  the  rate  of 
48,749  square  feet  a  Candaca,  or  at  Sf  bushels  an  acre.  These  fields 
"were  contiguous,  and  the  drfi^erence  appeared  to  me  to  have  arisen 
from  two  plots  of  Ragy  ground  having  been  stolen  into  the  first, 
which  in  the  revenue  accompts  was  still  kept  at  its  original  rate  of 
sowing,  but  actually  required  more  seed.  As  a  foundation  for  cal- 
culation, I  therefore  prefer  the  last  measured  field. 

The  rains  are  not  so  heavy  as  to  the  westward  ;  but,  in  ordinary 
:seasons  and  a  moist  soil,  are  sufficient  to  bring  to  maturity  a  crop 
of  rice  that  requires  six  months  to  ripen.  Where  the  soil  is  very 
.absorbent,  small  tanks  are  formed,  to  keep  a  supply  for  a  few  days 
that  may  occasionally  happen  to  be  without  rAin.  A  few  of  the 
highest  fields  are  cultivated  with  a  kind  of  rice  that  ripens  in  three 
months;  but  the  natives  here  consider  as  totally  useless  much 
land  that  might  be  easily  formed  into  terraces,  like  the  Mackey 
land  of  Kankana,  and  of  which  the  soil  is  apparently  good.  The 
rice  ground  never  gives  two  crops  of  rice  in  one  year,  although,  by 
means  of  tanks,  a  constant  succession  of  crops  might  be  obtained 
from  the  lower  parts  of  the  vallies.    This  kind  of  land  is  divided 


256  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   into  two  sorts ;  the  Soru,  or  low  fields ;  and  the  Bisu,  or  higher 
^^^^'       ones.    Both  are  cultivated  in  the  same  way,  and  the  only  difference 
March  i6.      is  in  the  quantity  of  produce. 

The  six  months  rices  are  cultivated  on  the  low  fields  (Soru);  and 
on  the  best  of  the  higher  land  (Bisu);  and  are  the  following : 

Doda  Honasu. 

Sana  Honasu. 

Mulary. 

■Can  Chinna  Calli 

Sail  Butt  a. 

Mota  Hulliga. 

Sidu  Sail. 

jlsidi  Butta. 

Chinta  Punny.    All  these  are  large  grained. 

Sana  Butta,  a  small  grain,  and  rather  more  valuable  than  the 
others;  but  it  is  found  to  answer  on  very  few  soils.  Experience 
shows,  that  certain  fields  agree  best  with  certain  kinds  of  rice,  and 
each  is  of  course  sown  with  the  kind  only  that  gives  most  return. 
The  natives  have  no  rule  to  ascertain  this  a  priori ;  and  when  anew 
field  is  brought  into  cultivation,  they  must  find  it  out  by  experience. 
The  manner  of  cultivating  these  kinds  of  rice  is  as  follows.  Imme- 
diately after  harvest,  the  field  is  ploughed  lengthwise  and  across. 
(The  plough  of  this  placeis  delineated  in  Plate  XXVI.  Fig.  71).  The 
clods  are  then  broken  by  drawing  over  the  field  an  instrument 
named  Coradu,  which  is  yoked  to  a  pair  of  oxen,  and  is  represented 
in  Plate  XXIX.  Fig.  72.  The  field  is  then  allowed  to  rest  exposed 
to  the  air  until  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  or  until 
the  rains  commence,  when  its  soil  is  loosened  by  the  hoe  drawn  by 
oxen  and  called  Heg  Cuntay  (Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  75);  and  the  seed 
is  sown  without  preparation  by  means  of  a  Curigy,  or  drill  (Plate 
XXVI.  Fig.  73).  The  four  bills  of  this  implement  are  secured  by 
bolts  of  iron  passing  through  a  beam,  to  which  the  yoke-rope  is 
;fastened.    The  perforations,  for  the  seed  to  pass  through  from  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  337 

cup,  are  an  inch  in  diameter ;  so  that  the  seed  must  fall  very  thick,  chapter 
After  having  been  sown,  the  field  is  manured  with  cow-dung,  and  ^J^^,^ 
smoothed  with  the  Coradu.  The  Avater  is  allowed  to  run  off  as  it  IMardi  16'. 
falls.  Eight  days  after  having  been  sown,  the  field  is  hoed  with 
the  Cuntay,  which  kills  the  weeds  without  injuring  the  seed  that 
is  then  just  beginning  to  sprout.  Eight  days  afterwards  the  young 
rice  is  toar  inches  high,  and  the  field  is  hoed  between  the  drills 
with  a  hoe  drawn  by  oxen,  and  called  Harty,  or  Nir  Cuntay,  which 
is  delineated  in  Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  76.  This  kills  the  grass,  and 
throws  the  earth  toward  the  drills.  After  this,  a  bunch  of  prickly 
Bamboos  is  yoked  to  a  pair  of  oxen,  and  the  driver  stands  on  a 
plank  above  the  thorns,  to  give  them  weight.  This  is  drawn  over 
the  field,  and  removes  the  grass  without  injuring  the  corn.  When 
this  is  six  inches  high,  if  there  be  rain,  the  water  is  confined,  and 
the  field  is  kept  inundated  ;  but,  if  the  weather  should  be  dry,  the 
field  must  again  be  hoed  with  the  Harty  Cuntay,  and  harrowed  with 
the  bunch  of  Bamboos.  Whenever  the  field  begins  to  be  inundated, 
it  must  be  again  hoed  with  the  same  implement,  and  smoothed  with 
the  Coradu,  which  acts  in  some  measure  like  a  rolling-stone.  At 
the  end  of  the  third  month,  the  field  is  drained,  and  the  weeds  are 
removed.  The  water  is  again  confined  ;  but  in  fifteen  days,  if  more 
weeds  spring  up,  the  field  must  be  again  drained  and  cleaned  :  this, 
however,  is  not  always  necessary.  In  the  fifth  month,  a  grass,  much 
resembling  rice,  comes  up,  and  must  be  carefully  removed  with  a 
knife.  In  the  seventh  month  the  crop  is  reaped,  and  the  straw  is 
cut  close  by  the  ground.  For  three  days  it  is  allowed  to  remain  on 
the  field  in  handfulls.  It  is  then  thrown  into  loose  heaps,  and  after- 
wards tied  up  in  small  sheaves,  which  are  stacked  on  some  airy 
place;  and  in  the  course  of  three  months  it  is  trodden  out  by  the 
feet  of  oxen.  All  this  time  there  is  seldom  any  rain;  and  even 
when  any  comes,  it  seldom  injures  the  reaped  corn.  The  grain 
is  always  preserved  in  the  husk,  and  beaten  out  as  wanted  for 
use.     Any  omission  in  these  steps  of  cultivation  produces  a  great 


SS8 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  16. 


Sugar-cane. 


Sterility  of 
tiie  higher 


diminution  of  the  produce.  Ten  seeds,  the  farmers  say,  is  a  good 
crop  on  low  land,  and  7  seeds  on  the  higher  fields  called  Bisu.  At 
this  rate,  an  acre  of  the  former  produces  25j  bushels,  worth 
1/.  1*.  7id.;  and  of  the  latter,  17to  ^"shels,  worth  nearly  1.5*.  l^d. 
The  officers  of  revenue  say,  that  the  produce  is  about  a  fifth  part 
more.  Much  reliance  cannot,  however,  be  placed  upon  what  either 
party  say  ;  as  all  the  officers  have  either  lands  of  their  owii,  or  nave 
relations  who  are  deeply  interested. 

The  kind  of  rice  that  is  sown  on  the  more  elevated  parts  of  the 
(Bisu)  high  land,  and  which  ripens  in  three  months,  is  called  Va- 
rangully.  The  grain  is  of  the  same  value  with  the  others.  Its 
cultivation  is  similar,  only  it  is  sown  eight  days  later,  and  all  the 
steps  of  the  operation  must  succeed  each  other  more  rapidly.  The 
produce  is  from  five  to  seven  seeds. 

Sugar-cane  is  raised  on  the  rice-ground,  but  in  very  small  quan- 
tities, and  the  whole  is  made  into  Jagory.  The  ground  fit  for  it 
must  have  a  Tank  containing  water  enough  to  irrigate  the  field 
twice  after  it  has  been  planted,  and  once  before  the  crop  is  reaped. 
The  kiad  used  is  called  the  Hulocabo,  or  straw  cane ;  and  it  is  the 
^a.mQ  \\'\z\\  t\\t  Maracabo  o?  Bangalore.  It  is  planted  in  the  second 
month  after  the  winter  solstice,  and  is  cut  within  the  year.  1400 
canes  give  a  Maund  of  Jagory,  and  a  Candaca  of  land  will  produce 
21,000  canes,  or  15  Maunds  of  44  Seers,  tach  weighing  24  elephant 
Dubs.  The  produce  of  an  acre,  by  this  account,  is  only  about  357  lb. 
of  Jagory.  Some  people  allow  the  cane  to  grow  up  again  from  the 
roots,  and  thus  get  what  m  Jamaica '\s  called  a  crop  of  Ratoons. 
This  produces  only  half  of  the  above  mentioned  quantity  of  Jagory. 
Between  every  two  crops  of  sugar  must  intervene  two  of  ricej 
which  are  as  productive  as  usual. 

At  Banawdsi,  no  second  crop  of  any  kind  is  taken  from  the  rice 
ground. 

In  the  eastern  parts  of  Soonda,  a  very  small  quantity  of  the  grains 
called  dry  is  cultivated,  but  none  toward  the  west.  This  cultivation 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  Q3§ 

was  formerly  much  more  extensive;  but  the  rice  ground  being   CHAPTER 

jnost  profitable,  and  the  whole  even  of  that  not  being  cultivated,     vj^v-si^ 

o>ving  to  a  want  of  people  and  stock,  the  dry-field   is  of  course  March  i(J. 

much  neglected.    The  fields  used  for  dry  grains  are  not  levelled. 

I  have  already  said,  that  all  over  the  Raj/ada,  even  in  its  western 

parts,  there  is  a  great  extent  of  land  apparently  fit  for  the  purpose  ; 

but  the  natives  allege,  that  they  fiixl  by  experience,  that  the  grain 

will  thrive  only  in  particular  spots.  Experience  is  their  sole  guide  ; 

they  have  no  rule  by  which  they  can  at  sight  discriminate   the 

barren  from  the  fertile  land.    I  am  inclined  to  think,  that  this  is 

one  of  the  absurd  notions  prevalent  among  all  unskilful  farmers; 

and  that  in  a  well  watered  country,  such  as  this  is,  wherever  the  soil 

is  not  rocky,  or  the  land  too  steep,  it  will  be  found  productive. 

A  certain  field  having  been  found  by  experience  fit  for  the  cul-  Cultivation 
tivation  of  Ragy,  the  following  succession  of  err  three  years  fit  foriloo-» 

is  taken  from  it;  Huts'  Ellu,  Ragy,  fallow. 

A  month  before  or  after  midsummer,  acco  is  rain,  Huts' Elk 

the  ground  is  ploughed  three  times,  and  sm'  \the  °^.  '''^  ^'^''*«- 

Corafifw  before  mentioned.  The  month  folio  ^ai-  Roxb. 

nox,  the  seed  of  the  Huts'  Ellu  is  sown  \  o^^^*^  '"» 

and  the  field  is  then  smoothed  with  the  sam  ..  The  seed 

is  sown  twice  as  thick  as  that  of  Ragy.     It  ripens  in  two  months, 
and  produces  five  seeds. 

Next  year,  in  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  the  field  Ragy,  or  the 
is  ploughed  with  the  first  rain.  Eight  days  afterwards  it  gets  a  cwocmus 
second  ploughing.  On  or  about  the  l6th  day  it  is  smoothed  with 
the  same  implement,  and  two  or  three  days  afterwai'ds  it  is  ploughed 
a  third  time.  After  another  interval  of  two  or  three  days,  furrows, 
at  a  span's  distance,  are  drawn  throughout  the  field.  The  seed  of 
the  Ragy  is  then  mixed  with  some  cow-dung ;  and  at  a  span's  dis- 
tance from  each  other,  small  lumps  of  the  mass,  containing  from 
eight  to  twenty  seeds,  are  dropt  into  the  furrows.  The  field  is  then 
smoothed  with  the  Coradu  before  mentioned.  In  about  fifteen  days 


S40 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


afterwards,  when  the  plants  are  four  or  five  inches  high,  the  field 
is  hoed  with  the  Cuntay,  and  afterwards  harrowed  with  the  bunch 
March  16".  of  prickly  Bamboos.  About  fifteen  days  afterwards,  the  intervals 
between  the  drills  are  ploughed,  and  the  field  is  again  smoothed 
■with  the  Coradu.  In  five  months  the  Rngy  conies  to  maturity,  and 
produces  20  fold.  In  this,  the  greatest  imperfection,  besides  the 
usual  want  of  proper  implements,  is  the  neglect  of  manure.  I  mea- 
sured a  field,  said  to  sow  one  Colaga  and  a  half  of /i<7^j/,  and  found 
it  to  contain  33,516  square  feet.  An  acre  at  this  rate  sows  about 
■^^  parts  of  a  bushel,  and  produces  about  5\  bushels  of  Ragy. 
Its  produce  of  Huts'"  E/lu  is  half  that  of  Ragy,  and  the  seed  it 
double. 

By  experience,  other  fields  are  found  fit  for  the  cultivation  of 
HuruU,  or  Ho'  '-gram;  and  Handu,  or  the  Ricinns,  These  are 
cultivated  i'  nilar  rotation  of  Huridi,   Handu,   and   fallow^ 

Sometime'  s  consist  of  the  Harulu. 

For  7  'd  is  ploughed  four  times  in  the  month  pre- 

cedi'  ths  following  the  summer  solstice.    At  the 

sa:.  ootlied  with  the  Coradu  above  mentioned. 

In  the  ..  vhs  furrows  are  drawn  throughout  the  field 

atone  cul.  and  crossing  each  other  at  right  angles. 

In  each  intersection  are  placed  two  seeds,  and  the  M'hole  is  again 
smoothed  with  the  same  implement.  On  the  tenth  day  the  plants 
come  up;  on  the  fifteenth  the  intervals  between  the  rows  must  be 
hoed  Avith  the  Cuntay.  The  plant  does  not  rise  above  two  cubits 
high,  and  produces  four  seeds.  The  crop  season  continues  during 
the  two  months  preceding  the  winter  solstice.  The  oil  is  extracted 
entirely  by  boiling,  and  four  Seers  of  seed  give  one  of  oil,  but  with 
the  seed  the  measure  is  heaped.  The  oil  is  used  for  medicine  and 
for  the  lamp.    After  the  Harulu  comes  a  fallow. 

Then  in  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice  the  field  is 
ploughed  twice,  and  smoothed  with  the  Coradu.  In  the  month  pre- 
ceding the  autumnal  equinox,  the  field  is  again  ploughed,  sown 


Cultivation 
ol  (liy  field 
fit  for  Horse- 
gram. 


Harulu,  or 
Rkiims  pal- 
me  cbriiti. 


Huruli, 
Horse- ^ram, 
or  Dolk/ios 

biflOTUS. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  241 

broad-cast,  and  smoothed  with  the  same  implement.  In  three  CHAPTER 
months  the  grain  ripens,  and  three  seeds  are  reckoned  a  good  v^,,-^^ 
crop.  March  l6. 

A  field  said  to  sow  3  Seers  of  Hiiruli,  and  3j  of  Harulu,  measured  Small  value 
24,780  square  feet.  The  seed  required  for  an  acre  will  be  of  Hu-  ground. 
ruli  yVo  parts  of  a  bushel,  and  the  produce  -^^-^  parts  of  a  bushel,  or 
deducting  seed  ■^^.  Horse-gram  sells  here  at  15  Seers  for  the 
Rupee,  or  for  3s.  9^d.  a  bushel.  The  value  of  the  produce  of  an 
acre,  deducting  the  seed,  is  therefore  about  1*.  9jd.  The  seed  of 
Harulu  required  for  an  acre  Avill  be  -^Vo'o  parts  of  a  bushel,  pro-  ■ 
ducing  -,°oVq'  parts  of  a  bushel. 

The  cattle  of  ,Sbo«t?a  are  of  a  rather  larger  breed  than  those  of  Cattle. 
Kankana  or  Haiga ;  but  they  are  greatly  inferior  to  those  of  the 
country  to  the  eastward,  whence  many  are  brought  for  the  plough. 
Buffaloes  are  here  more  used  than  oxen.  There  are  in  Soonda  no 
sheep,  goats,  swine,  nor  asses,  and  very  few  horses.  In  the  dry 
season,  that  is,  from  the  month  preceding  the  shortest  day,  until 
the  summer  solstice,  the  cattle  are  fed  on  straw,  and  that  of  Ragy 
is  preferred  to  that  of  rice.  In  the  two  months  following  the  sum- 
mer solstice,  while  there  is  much  labour  going  forward,  the  cattle 
are  allowed  hay  made  of  the  soft  grass  which  grows  on  the  little 
banks  separating  the  rice-fields  :  that  of  the  hills  is  considered  as. 
totally  useless.  For  the  milch  cattle  the  hay  is  boiled,  and  mixed 
with  the  bran  of  rice.  During  the  three  remaining  months  the 
cattle  are  allowed  to  pasture. 

In  the  dry  Aveather,  the  cattle  are  folded  on  the  fields ;  in  the  Manure. 
rainy  season  they  are  taken  within  doors,  and  as  a  manure  for  the 
fields  their  dung  is  collected,  and  mixed  with  ashes,  and  the  soil 
of  the  farmer's  house.  Those  who  have  no  gardens  allow  no  litter: 
but  the  Haiga  Brdhmans,  for  the  use  of  their  gardens,  litter  the 
cattle  at  one  season  with  fresh  leaves,  and  at  another  with  dry  grass. 
The  two  manures  thus  formed  are  kept  separate,  and  applied  to 

Vol.  III.  I  i 


242  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  different  purposes.    A  Avant  of  attention  to  manure  is  a  stiiking 
^'^1'  .    feature  in  the  grain  farmers  oi  Soonda. 

All  the  arable  land  in  Soonda  is  considered  as  the  property  of  the 
govcrmnent ;  but  the  value  of  every  estate  is  fixed  ;  and  so  long 
as  a  tenant  pays  his  rent,  it  is  not  customary  to  turn  either  him  or 
his  heirs  out  of  their  possessions.  It  is  true,  that  he  cannot  transfer 
his  right  to  occupy  the  farm  by  sale,  but  he  may  transfer  it  by 
(Votay)  mortgage  to  any  person  (Aduvacara)  who  will  advance 
money.  There  are  two  kinds  of  mortgage.  In  the  one  the  Adu- 
xacara  advances  nearly  the  value  of  the  property,  cultivates  it,  and 
pays  the  taxes.  This  loan  is  made  for  a  stipulated  time  ;  and,  when 
that  expires,  the  money  must  be  repaid.  If  the  mortgagee  has  neg- 
lected the  weeding,  arbitrators  will  fix  a  certain  reduction  to  be 
made  from  the  debt,  on  account  of  the  injury  which  his  neglect  has 
done  to  the  property.  He  can  claim  nothing  on  the  score  of  im- 
provement;  indeed,  a  field,  once  regularly  brcaght  into  cultiva- 
tion with  rice,  is  supposed  to  be  incapable  of  farther  amelioration. 
The  other  mortgage  is,  where  the  tenant  borrows  money  on  his 
land,  and  gives  a  bond,  stating  that  he  has  borrowed  so  much  money 
on  such  and  such  lands  at  such  an  interest,  generally  from  Ij  to  2 
per  cent,  per  mensem,  and  that  he  will  pay  the  interest  monthly,  and 
at  such  a  period  will  repay  the  capital.  The  mortgager  in  this  case 
continues  to  cultivate  the  lands  and  to  pay  the  taxes.  If  he  cannot 
discharge  the  debt  when  it  becomes  due,  the  mortgagee  takes  the 
land,  pays  the  revenue,  and  keeps  the  profits  for  the  interest ;  but  it 
is  always  redeemable  by  the  original  tenant,  should  his  circumstances 
ever  enable  him  to  repay  the  debt. 

Land-tax.  The  revenue  is  paid  entirely  in  money,  at  from  one  to  four  TtM- 

pees  for  the  Candaca,  according  to  the  old  valuation  ;  but  in  some 
places  the  quantity  sown  is  double  of  what  is  rated  in  the  revenue 
accompts.  The  reason  assigned  for  this  is,  that  such  lands  are  poor. 
The  dry-field  pays  no  revenue  whatever;  but  a  certain  quantity  is 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  243 

annexed  to  each  estate  oF  rice-land,  as  an  encouragement  for  the  CHAPTER 
farmer.    Of  the  two  fields  that  I  measured,  one  paid  at  the  rate  of 


2  Rupees,  and  the  other  at  the  rate  of  2-/oV  Rupees  an  acre ;  the  ^^''"^•'  ^^• 
first  equal  to  4*.  0\d.,  and  the  last  to  5s.  %^d.  The  gross  produce 
I  have  already  stated,  on  the  report  of  the  farmers,  to  he  Avorth 
from  \5s.  to  1/.  1*.  an  acre.  This  calculation,  and  the  custom  of 
lending  money  on  mortgage,  are  a  clear  proof  that  the  tax  is  mo- 
derate, and  that  enough  of  the  property  remains  with  ,the  actual 
cultivator,  not  only  as  a  reward  for  his  trouble,  but  to  render  his 
land  a  valuable  property. 

A  farmer  M'ho  has  five  ploughs  is  esteemed  a  rich  man.  With  Size  of  farms. 
these  he  must  keep  six  men  and  six  women,  and  ten  labouring 
cattle;  and  at  seed-time  and  harvest  he  must  hire  additional  la- 
bourers. Farmers,  who  are  not  B?'d/imam,  unless  their  farms  be 
large,  work  the  whole  with  their  own  families  ;  but  rich  men  must 
hire  servants,  or  keep  slaves;  and,  to  hold  their  plough,  Brdhnians 
must  always  have  people  of  the  low  casts.  This  is  a  kind  of  work 
that  even  a  Halga  Brdlnnan  will  not  perform. 

A  man  slave  gets  daily  2  Seers  of  rough  rice,  or  yearly  "         Condiiion  of 

,-,,,,  „  y      the  slaves. 

about  2d  bushels  worth  -  -  £10.0-; 

A  handkerchief,  a  blanket,  and  piece  of  cloth  worth 

2  Rupees  -  -  -  -  0     4     O^- 

A  Pagoda  in  money  -       -  -  -  -  0     8     0| 

Six  C'ffWflcaj  of  roLiah  rice  at  harvest  -  0  14     6 


2     8     7| 
The  women  get  one  piece  of  cloth  annually,  and  a 
meal  of  ready  dressed  victuals  on  the  days  that  they 
work,  which  may  amount  annually  to         -         -        0     8     1 
Hired  men  get  four  Seers  of  rough  rice  a  day,  M'orth   less  than  Wa"es  of 
three  half-pence.  '^■'^s  '"^n. 

The  farmers  say,  that,  Mith  a  stock  of  six'  ploughs,  a  man  can  Quantity  of 
cultivate  thirteen  Candacas  of  land.    The  officers  of  government  vated  by  one 


"244 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER  say,  that  three  CawJacfl*  for  a  plough  is  the  common  reckoning; 
but  even  this  cannot  be  received,  unless  we  suppose  the  ground 
more  productive  than  the  farmers  confess.  For,  supposing  all  the 
eighteen  Candacas  to  be  of  a  good  quality,  and  to  produce  ten  seeds, 
the  whole  value  of  the  crop  would  be  2]  /.  \5s.  2d.;  and  the  support 
of  six  men  and  women  slaves,  not  to  mention  seed,  rent,  cattle,  &c. 
&c.  would  come  to  16/.  19*.  9d.  The  people  here  are  far  from 
taking  any  extraordinary  trouble  with  their  lands;  and,  I  should 
suppose,  cultivate  with  a  similar  stock  as  much  as  is  done  in  Bengal, 
where  about  seven  acres  may  be  considered  as  the  usual  rate  of 
work  for  one  plough.  We  may,  therefore,  allow  between  thirty  and 
forty  Candacas  at  least  for  six  ploughs,  or  double  that  which  the 
officers  of  revenue  stated. 

Being  now  about  to  enter  the  territories  of  the  Mysore  Raja,  I 
shall  conclude  what  I  have  to  say  concerning  Sooiida,  with  extracts 
from  Mr.  Read's  answers  to  my  queries,  which  have  been  collected 
with  great  precision  and  ability  from  the  reports  of  the  native 
officers. 

Mr.  Read  states  the  proportion  of  sterile  and  productive  lands, 
in  the  four  districts  (Talucs)  of  Soonda,  in  the  following  proportions, 
supposing  each  to  be  divided  into  a  hundred  parts. 

Talucs.  Land  capable  of  cultivation.         Sterile  lands. 


Mr.  Read's 
account  of 
this  part  of 
his  district. 


Soil. 


Supa 

Soonda,  or  Sttdha 

Banawasi 

Billighy 


12 
16 
£0 
SO 


88 
84- 
SO 
80 


Produce  of 
waste  lands. 


The  produce  of  the  waste  lands  Mr.  Read  states  as  follows. 
Mawid  weighs  24-iVo  'l^«  ^i^d  is  divided  into  40  Seers, 


The 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


245 


Tabic. 

Sandal 
wood 
trees. 

Teak 
Irces. 

Sissa 
trees. 

Annual 
produce 

of 
honey. 

Annual  1    Annua 
produce  prod""  of 
of  wax.     wild  cin- 
namon. 

Annual 
produce 
of  Cabob 
China. 

Annual 
produce 
of  wild 
pepper. 

Supa      -     .     .     - 
Soonda,  or  Sudha 
Banawisi    -     -     - 
Billighy       -    -    - 

Total     - 

2097 
1718 
3812 
5266 

394495 

1639 

29 

59770 

1715 

3069 

34 

Maands. 

33     23 

8       7 

11     24 

Maunds.       Maunds. 

49     6      IS     30 

29  28i      2       0 

3   13          — 

Maunds. 
5      10 
1        0 

43       0 

Maunds. 
34       8 

12893 

396113 

64588 

53     14 

72     71 

17     30 

49    10 

34       8 

March  16. 


I  know  that  wild  pepper  is  collected  in  the  Soonda  Taluc,  but  it 
has  not  been  reported  to  Mr.  Read.  The  report  of  the  Marattah 
merchants,  I  look  upon  as  decisive,  that  it  is  not  of  so  little  value 
as  interested  persons  have  endeavoured  to  represent  to  the  collector. 

The  Tahsildars  have  reported,  that  nearly  the  whole  of  the  arable 
lands  are  now  cultivated ;  which  is  in  direct  opposition  to  both 
what  I  heard  and  what  I  saw. 

The  number  of  sugar-canes  cut  annually  amount  to  6,250,400, 
which  should  produce  about  4471  Maunds,  of  about  30  lb.  each. 

Dry  grains  are  chiefly  cultivated  in  Supa;  and  about  one  twen- 
tieth part  of  the  arable  land  there  is  employed  for  that  purpose. 

The  cultivation  of  gardens  has  decreased  about  a  third  since  the 
year  1754,  when  it  is  supposed  that  they  were  in  the  greatest  pos- 
sible prosperity. 


Wild  pepper. 


Arable  land*. 


£46 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER        The  stock  employed  in  tlie  country  at  present,  according  to  Mr. 
-"^^'IJ-       Read,  is. 


Tuluc. 

Ploughs  bel 

onging  to 

Ca 

tie. 

Landlords. 

Tenants. 

Total. 

Burikloc's 
old  and 
\  oun". 

Cow  kind 
old  and 
joung. 

Supa  -     -     -     - 
Soonda     -     -     - 
Battcnvcisi      -     - 
Billighii  -     -     - 

Total     - 

2348 

1709 

804 

1407 

2043 
389 
454 
260 

4391 
2098 
1258 
1767 

8992 
3115 
3658 
1760 

19882 

12234 

7818 

7515 

6-268 

3246 

9514 

17525 

47449 

Kpulation.         Mr.  Read  gives  the  following  account  of  the  population  of  these 
districts. 


Houses,  of  which  the  following 

are 

Talua: 

occupied  by 

c 

s 

c 

g 

0 

Total 

'C 

3 

^3 

^ 

? 

0      1      <5 

1 

c? 

87 

X! 

348 

Supa  -     -     -     - 

69^9 

87 

515,1116 

780 

Soonda     -     -     - 

3396 

4 

178,2015 

417 

21 

61 

Banau'hi      -     - 

2729 

— 

57 

845 

295 

40 

— 

BiUighy  -     -     - 
Total    - 

2593 

— 

50 

69'2 

433 

14 

36 

15647 

91 

3004568 

1925 

162 

445 

Comnoiercc.  The  exports  and  imports  by  land  are  very  considerable,  as  may 
be  seen  by  the  accompanying  Statement.  The  former  amount  to 
Rupees  9,63,S33  ;  and  thejiatter  to  1,08,045.  The  Rupee  is  worth 
nearly  2  s. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


24? 


O" 


o- 


•SJJODS 

JO  '/jfcy 


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JO  'yrpi>nc 


(11CU.S) 
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(QS..E,) 

pi!U[S,UBLU^Py 


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'spumpi  9  JO 


spunt>!\'  SI 
JO  5;?;;;a- 


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r-   rl      I  C^  CO   C)   O    "-I 


I       I 


([[BUIS) 


(,3j.,) 

peOI  S.UEtU  J3J 


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33  S^U  O 


>-<CI01-*<0'Ot-.C10C50-'<M!n-*. 


248 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 

XVII. 
^^^.^^^ 
March  l6. 


- M     IS-  1-  1  1    -  1  i°-|  1  i2      T  \     w 

£ 

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a. 

W 
5 

3 

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•S0iO3<; 
JO  ':py 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1     1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1     MINI 

•snoj 
JO  *i^vppn^ 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1 1  1  1  1     1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M     1  1  1  1  1  i 

(„em.) 

1  1  1  1  "S§  1  1  1  1  1      1  M  -^^  1  1  l<&  1      1  1  1  1  1  1 

(=Sje,) 
pco|  s.ueui  jjjf 

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1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M      1  1  1  1  1  1 

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•sj/wvi^i  9  JO 
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JO  ji'f  w 

II  II  1  1  11  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1      MINI 

">I'A  l"Oi 

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•SSJOOg 
JO  ',pO}f 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  1  1--"  11  1      MINI 

•SHOJ 

1 1  1  1  1  1  n  1  1  1    1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  1  1    1  1  1 1^  1 

(iptus) 

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I  1  1  1  15§  1  1  1  1  1     "''III  2^S  i  "^      1  1  i  1  1  1 

ptO[  S.UEIU  ^JJ 

1 1 1 1  r"^"|i  1 1 1 1  3f  1 1 1 1'S'-s  1 1  1 1 1 1 II 

JO  vi/3]nj  u>js 

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1    1 1 1 1 1 1 1  t  r    1  1  1  1  1  1 

vi/y)njtJ3is 
a  JO  spunvyj 

1 1 1 1  r^ II 1 1 1 1  "-^"^  1 1 1 11 11  IS  's  1 1 1 II 

00 

•spunvff  9  JO 
peoi-nDCiina 

iiooco-i'J'o                   !oo<i2^a5-*rHO>      Oi            III 
■*        Moc^'l^olll        col         ||o>a>           o       -*!                   1 

CO   OO                                                                                      "O                          CO           (N 

•spunvp^  z\ 
JO  *^;-;yV 

1  1  t  1  1  M  1  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1      1  1  1  1  1  1 

< 

E 

Cinnamon 

Bastard  ditto  (Cassia) 

Brimstone 

Saltpetre 

Cuddakah  (a  seed) 

Sundry  Curry-stuffs 

Coco-nut 

Toddy  (palm  wine) 

Iron  bars 

Iron  pots 

Ploughshares 

Bill  hooks 

Cuir  (cordage  made  of 

coco-nut) 
White  thread 
Silk  ditto 
Silk 

Broadcloth 
Sundry  cloths 
Black  Cumlies  (blankets) 
Salt-fish 
Red  paint 
Tobacco 
Jagoru  (inspissated  juice 

of  sugar-cane) 
C/iunam  (lime) 
Sealing-wax 
Dammcr  (llesin) 
Arrack 
Sheep 

4        1 

j^oooio— 'CN=o-*>o^t^ooOi      c  —  (MOO't'-o'ot^cocy)      o-^ojeo-*! 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


249 


O    *0    -^r-i    00"--f'COO    v.OOccco^'0'OCO-*'-r 

r-t          "       'O  CO  r)  l^  ^       1^  0<     or  CO  'O  'O  'O  0» 

lllf        1      1          PH!>.—       -t-       Ooccoc/^'^O 

CO 
CO 

-g  -, 

CO     h*       (N     C?i       ^                          CO 

(111   ^-1211    -  1  1  "  1  1  hM  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

o 
o 

1  1  1  1   llllll   1  1  1  IS  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  N  1 

1  1  1  1   llllll   1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

1  1  1  1   llllll   1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II  1  1    llllll    1  *"  =^  r'  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  M 

II  1  1   1  1  1  1  S  1  2S  1  1  "  1  1  11  1  1  1  1  1!  1 

CO 

1  1  1  1    llllll    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  '^'^   t-co  1 

1 II 1  llllll  1 1 1 1 1 1  '^  1 1  r^'^'s  """"^^'^  1 

II 1 1  llllll  llllll  l^""l  1 1 1  u 

,,,,       r-l     -n    ^^     (Z     —     •* 

1  1  1  1  1  1  1  >-o  -p  'o  >n  C)  c^ 

O  r-l   •   rH      r- 

O<00CO-*'*CO(NCO       O^             O 

1- 1         0(         CO         r-(            to 

^'                  1      1            1  "   1   1   1   1  '-'!   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1   1 

0(           1    1        1    1  1  1  1  --.  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

o 

CO 

o 

2^     llllll   1  1  1  1   11^  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

f§  ■ 

o 

s 

"a 

1 

1 1 1 1    llllll    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II 1 1    1  1  1  1  1  1    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  11  1  1  1  1 

1  11  ■-  "rill    1  ^- 1  1  II  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II  r'   ^1111-^    1 5  1  1  1  II  II  1  II  1  1  1  1 

II 1 1    llllll    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II 1 1    llllll    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II  1  1    llllll    1!?1  II  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 

II  1  1    llllll    1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  II 

Mrti-cli  1 6. 


^  o  o 

III 

^   Ol  CO 


•o    ~-    ;  ^'  3  ^  -b-    3   bi 


,  ^  1-3 1"^  s  J  ji  I--S 


»o<oi^coc^       O'-';<c0"+«n       cof-coc^O-^Cfco'^'O'Ot-. 


Vol.  III. 


Kk 


250 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVll. 

March  18. 
Appearance 
of  the  coun- 
try. 

Chandra- 
giiti. 


I Sth  March. — I  entered  the  territory  of  the  Mysore  Raja,  and 
went  to  Chandra- gupti.  The  country  through  which  I  passed  is 
level,  and  would  appear  to  have  been  at  one  time  almost  entirely 
cultivated.  A  great  part  of  it  is  now  overgrown  with  trees,  which 
have  not  yet  had  time  to  arrive  at  a  great  height.  Chandra- gupti, 
or  Chandra-guti,  is  also  called  simply  Guti ;  care  must  therefore  be 
taken  to  distinguish  it  from  Gutti,  a  place  of  some  note  situated  at 
a  distance  toward  the  north.  It  formed  one  of  the  first  acqui- 
sitions of  the  house  of  Ikeri,  and  has  a  fort,  which  stands  on  a  high 
peaked  hill.  The  fable  of  the  natives  says,  that  this  hill  was 
formerly  of  an  immense  height,  and  prevented  the  moon  from 
going  round  in  her  due  course;  whence  the  name  of  the  place  is 
derived.  When  the  Racsha  Jdlasunda  had  defeated  Krishna,  that 
incarnation  of  the  deity  hid  himself  among  the  rocks  of  this  hill. 
The  enraged  demon,  not  being  able  to  discover  the  god,  consumed 
the  hill  to  its  present  size,  very  much  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
moon.  It  may  perhaps  be  thought,  that  this  fable  may  have  arisen 
from  a  tradition  of  the  hill  having  been  formerly  a  volcano.  For 
my  own  part,  I  think  that  these  stories  are  so  monstrous,  that  no- 
thing can  be  drawn  from  them,  but  a  commiseration  for  the  credu- 
lity of  mankind.  In  times  far  posterior  to  those  of  Krishna  this  was 
a  place  of  great  celebrity ;  the  town  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  having 
been  the  residence  of  H-enetra  Cadumba  Rdya,  on  the  site  of  whose 
palace  I  am  encamped.  A  well,  and  some  faint  traces  of  walls  and 
buildings,  still  mark  the  spot.  On  the  fall  of  this  dynasty  the  place 
lost  its  consequence.  About  a  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago,  it  suf- 
fered much  from  an  invasion  by  a  Mussulman  named  Seyd  Assaripha. 
In  the  time  of  Hyder,  Somashecara  Nayaka,  Polygar  of  BilUghy, 
destroyed  it.  Soon  afterwards  the  commandant  (Killadar)  betrayed 
the  fort  to  Purseram  (Parasn-Ruma)  Bhozv ;  but  seven  months 
afterwards  he  was  compelled  to  restore  it.  From  that  time  the  inha- 
bitants had  no  molestation,  until  the  troubles  occasioned  by  Dundia, 
who  held  it  almost  a  month.  It  at  present  contains  about  100  houses. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  251 

To  tlie  eastward  of  the  liill  Chandra-gupti,  although  much  of  the  CHAPTER 
country  is  waste,  it  is  in  a  better  condition  than  Soonda.    Much  of    ..^IL^ 
it  is  under  Ragy,  which  pays  no  revenue ;  and  between  every  two  March  is. 
crops  the  ground  is  allowed  three  years  fallow.    The  natives  allege  neiohbour- 
that  the  soil  is  very  poor.    I  have  never  seen  stronger  stubble,  and  ^'^°'^- 
to  all  outward  appearance  the  soil  is  rich.    I  suspect  that  the  prin- 
cipal defect  is  in  the  cultivators;  but  without  actual  experiment, 
it  would  be  rash  to  speak  decidedly  on  the  subject. 

About  a  coss  north  from  Chandra-gupti  is  a  hill  producing  iron  Iron  ore. 
ore,  which  is  wrought  to  some  extent.  It  is  found  in  veins  inter- 
mixed with  Laterite,  like  the  ore  of  Angada-puram  in  Malabar.  The 
ore  is  of  the  same  nature  with  what  is  usually  smelted  in  the  penin- 
sula ;  that  is  to  say,  it  is  a  black  sand  ore,  which  here  is  congluti- 
nated  by  clay  into  a  mass,  and  contains  less  extraneous  matter  than 
^common.  It  is  broken  into  small  pieces,  and  the  little  masses  of 
iron  are  picked  out  of  the  clay.  Every  man  employed  in  the  Avork 
pays  to  government  two  Rupees,  or  about  4*.;  and  they  all  have  an 
equal  share  of  the  produce.  There  being  no  tax  on  the  forges,  is 
perhaps  the  reason  why  none  are  mentioned  in  the  public  accompts 
of  this  Rdi/ada,  in  which  much  iron  is  smelted.  The  workmen  say, 
that  in  Billighy  and  Sudlia,  there  is  abundance  of  ore ;  but  in  these 
districts  there  are  no  people  who  understand  the  process. 

The  rock  on  which  the  fort  is  built  is  a  white  granite  without  Strata. 
observable  strata,  exactly  like  that  of  Jamal-ahad,  and  which  is 
common  throughout  Haiga.    The  nature  of  the  minerals  there  and 
here  is  indeed  quite  similar. 

In  this  district  (Taluc)  there  is  some  sandal-wood  of  a  very  good  Sandalwood. 
quality.  It  grows  on  dry  hard  ground,  where  of  course  the  forest 
trees  do  not  arrive  at  any  great  size.  It  is  never  planted,  but  grows 
from  the  seed  which  the  birds  disperse.  In  .Hj/r/er'*  government,  in 
order  to  regulate  the  market  properly,  it  was  cut  by  the  officers  of 
revenue  (Amildars);  and,  after  having  been  divided  into  proper 
billets,  was  sold  on  the  account  of  government.    Purseram  Bhoxo 


252  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   cut  all  that  he  could,  and  the  remainder  was  much  injured  b\-  rent- 
^^"'  ,    inir  it  out  to  merchants.    All  that  was  s;ood  for  any  thintr  was  cut 

Maixli  IS.  last  year;  but  three  years  hence  there  will  be  some  more  lit  for  the 
market.  The  cjuantity  procured  last  cutting  Mas  about  40  Candies, 
oi  to  Ciitcha  Maunds,  each  weighing  about  26  lb.  Its  price  is  com- 
monly about  30  Pagodas,  or  120  Rupees,  a  Candy.  The  following  is 
considered  to  be  the  pro])cr  management.  The  trees,  after  having 
been  cut,  are  allowed  to  remain  in  the  woods  for  one  mouth.  They 
are  then  taken  into  a  house  ;  the  white  M'ood  is  removed,  and  the 
sandal,  or  heart,  is  cut  into  billets,  and  stored.  The  roots  are  dug 
up,  and  oil  can  be  extracted  from  them,  as  well  as  from  the  chips, 
and  the  cuttings  of  the  stem.  A\\  the  persons  who  extract  the  oil 
are  Mussulmans. 

March  19.  19th  March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Sunticopa,   or  dry-ginger- 

village.  The  country  through  which  I  passed  is  by  nature  very 
fine;  and  the  trees,  by  which  much  of  it  is  overgrown,  are  low,  a 
proof  of  its  not  having  been  long  waste.  The  fields  have  never 
been  enclosed,  and  the  cultivation  of  dry  grains  is  not  at  all  under- 
stood, the  ground  being  cultivated  once  only  in  four  years.  The 
rice  grounds  are  tolerably  well  occupied.  It  probably  would  an- 
swer good  purposes  to  bring  here,  from  Priya-pattana,  a  colony  to 
cultivate  Car'  Ragy,  and  to  send  thither  a  colony  of  Haiga  Bruh- 
mans,  to  form  Betel-nut  plantations.  No  tanks  are  required  for  the 
rice  grounds;  but  in  this  district  of  C/;rt«r/ra-^?//i,  there  are  many 
small  ones,  for  the  use  of  gardens.  The  rice  lands  suffer  much 
from  the  inundations  of  the  Varadd,  which  frequently  sweep  away 
the  crops.  Of  course,  those  near  the  river  let  very  low,  5  Candacas, 
or  300  Seers  sowing,  being  only  taxed  at  four  Rupees.  Where  the 
inundations  do  not  reach,  the  lands  let  at  from  two  to  four  Rupees 
a  Candaca.    The  natives  acknowledge   twelve  seeds  as  the  produce 

of  land  which  is  properly  laboured  and  manured. 
MaluTani,  or  ,  r-    •    i     i  • 

Malawais,  The  most   numerous  class  or   inhabitants  are  Halcpecas,  whose 

^cnimcnt"^*  customs  I  described  while  in  Canara.  There  are  also  many  of  rather 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  2.53 

a  low  class  of  Sivabhactars,  called  Mulavaru,  or  Malaxvars.    Most  of  CHAPTER 

X  VJI 

the  Gaudasare  of  this  class  ;  and  the  father  o?  Sedasiva  Nayaka  was  vJ^.-'O 
a  Malawar,  the  Gaiida  of  Kilidi.  The  people  do  not  complain  of  the  M^rch  19. 
change  of  government  from  his  descendants  to  Hyder ;  but  they 
say,  that  not  above  a  tenth  part  of  the  inhabitants  remain.  This 
devastation  was  occasioned,  first  by  a  cruel  invasion  of  the  Marat- 
tahs  headed  by  the  Peslava,  and  afterwards  by  a  sickness  inflicted 
by  the  goddess  Havali.  This  appears  to  have  been  a  remittent 
fever,  a  disease  that  is  still  very  prevalent ;  but  of  late  its  virulence 
has  considerably  abated. 

In  this  neighbourhood  the  village  god  is  Nandi,  or  the  bull  on  Worship  of 
which  Ska  rides.     He   is   also  called   the  Baszva,  and   receives  no  the'j3ns°fl 
sacrifices,  which  are  held  in  abhorrence   by  the  Sivablutctar  chiefs  '^'■^^  "f  'l^*? 
(Gaudas).    The  Halepccas  and  IVIiaUiaru  offer  bloody  sacrifices  to 
Marima,  and  the  other  Sakiis,  but  have  no  temples.    The  votaries 
■go  to  the  side  of  some  river,  put  up  a  stone  which  represents   the 
deity,  and  offer  it  the  blood.     From  this  worship  the  Sivabhactars 
entirely  abstain  ;  and  under  their  government  tlie  temples  of  tlie 
Saktis  were  called  Butagalhi  Champadi,  or  devil's  huts,  a  name  which 
the  Mussulmans  did  not  change. 

20th  March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Kilidi.    The  greater  part  of  March  20. 
the  country  is  pretty  level;  but  the  higher  grounds  seem   to  be  o/thrcoun- 
entirely  neglected,  although  the  soil  is  in  general  apparently  good.  'O'- 
Most  of  the  trees  are  small,  owing  to  their  being  young;  but  in  places 
where  they  are  aged,  they  have  grown  to  a  large  size,  and  support 
pepper  vines.    Tippoo  prohibited  the  produce  of  these  from  being 
gathered,  and  of  course  the  woods  supporting  them  were  neglected  ; 
but  some  pains  having  last  year  been  bestowed,  there  is  now  a  toler- 
able crop.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Kilidi  are  many  gardens  o{'  Areca 
palms,  in  which  pepper  is  raised ;  but  among  the  Arecas  neither  5e/e/- 
/eo/'nor  cardamoms  are  cultivated.  The  ^rec^f*  are  planted  wherever 
there  is  a  supply  of  water,  without  regard  to  the  exposure  ;  but  they 
are  sheltered  from  the  west  and  south  by  several  rows  of  trees. 


254  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

I  here  found  a.  Brahman,  named  Bayluru  Dwuppa,  whose  ancestors 
have  been  the  hereditary  writers  of  the  chronicles  of  the  Kilidi 
March  20.  family.  He  engaged  to  give  me  the  family  book,  called  Kilidi  Raya 
thcKllidi  Paditti.  It  is  in  the  old  dialect  and  character  oi  Karnata,  and  con- 
fiimily.  tains  400  Slokams,  or  diStichs  ;  for,  like  all  the  other  works  of  any 

note  among  the  Hindus,  it  is  poetical.  He  afterwards  forwarded  a 
copy  of  the  work  to  Purnea,  who  was  so  good  as  to  add  a  translation 
into  the.  modern  language  and  character,  and  both  of  them  have 
been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  government.  The  family  of  the  his- 
toriographer enjoyed  an  Enam,  or  free  land,  to  the  amount  of  sixty 
Pagodas  a  year. 

From  some  particulars  explained  to  me  out  of  this  historical  poem 
it  would  appear,  that  its  chronology  differs  considerably  from  that 
of  Ramuppa.  The  Kilidi  family  were  originally  hereditary  chiefs 
(Gaudas)  of  five  or  six  villages  in  this  neighbourhood,  and  were 
Sivabhactars  of  the  Malavara  cast.  Bhadraconda,  the  son  of  Baszo'- 
uppa  Gauda,  entered  into  the  service  of  Krishna  Rdyaru,  tvho  gave 
him  the.  ivdime  oi  Sedasiva  Kayaka,  and  conferred  on  him  the  here- 
ditary government  of  some  districts  in  the  year  Sal.  1422,  being 
Sidarty.  Kilidi  continued  the  seat  of  government,  until  Sal.  1436 
only.  From  Ikeri  it  was  removed  to  Bidder uru,  in  Sal,  1568  (A.  D. 
164-f ).  Firu  Magi,  the  last  princess  of  the  house  of  Kilidi,  or  IktTt, 
say.s  Dwuppa,  allowed  her  adopted  sons  no  power.  She  put  the  first 
to  death  when  he  was  twenty-four  years  old,  because  he  presumed 
to  interfere  with  her  intrigues.  Soon  afterwards  JMedicarey  Ndyaka, 
Raja  of  Chatrakal,  took  a  young  man,  a  weaver  by  cast,  and  brought 
him  up  as  Basw^-uppa  Ndyaka,  the  murdered  prince.  Finding,  how- 
ever, that  he  was  not  able  to  make  any  advantage  of  the  young 
man's  claims,  he  lent  him  to  Hyder,  who  espoused  the  cause  of  the 
Aveaver  with  much  seeming  earnestness,  and  carried  him  about  with 
great  pomp.  He  accompanied,  the  pretender  through  the  whole 
country,  merely  as  an  ally ;  and,  Viru  Magi  being  detested  on  ac- 
count of  her  criminal  life,  many  of  the  commandants  of  fortresses 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  255 

were  induced  to  deliver  up  their  cliarge  to  the  ureieiuied  Basto^-   CHAPTER 

XVII 
uppa.    These  were  immediately  garrisoned  with  the  troops  of  his    \^^^.^ 

friend  Hyder.  The  princess,  conscious  of  the  detestation  in  which  March  20. 
she  was  held,  retired  v/ith  her  adopted  son  Somashecara  to  a  strong 
hold  named  Belalla  Raya  Durga,  and  left  her  capital  in  charge  of 
the  Delawai,  or  prime  minister,  named  Virapadruppa.  On  the  ap- 
proach oi Hyder  and  the  pretender,  the  people  of  Bidderuru  deserted^  • 
and  the  Mussulman  took  possession  without  trouble.  He  laid  siege 
to  Belalla  Raya  Durga,  and  after  some  time  took  the  princess 
(Rany)  and  her  adopted  son  prisoners.  Thence  he  returned  to  the 
capital,  on  which  he  bestowed  his  own  name  oi  Hyder  Nagara;  and, 
disguise  being  no  longer  necessary,  he  began  to  treat  the  pretender 
with  the  utmost  contempt,  and  at  length  induced  the  young  man 
to  quarrel  with  him,  by  taking  his  favourite  dancing  girls,  who  by 
intercourse  with  a  Mussulman  were  defiled.  Immediately  after  the 
rupture,  the  pretender,  the  princess,  and  her  adopted  son,  were  sent 
to  Madhu-giri.  Soon  afterwards  they  were  relieved  by  the  Ma- 
rattahs,  who  altogether  neglected  the  pretender,  and,  knowing  the 
weakness  of  his  claims,  dismissed  him.  The  princess  died  on  the 
road  to  Poonah  of  a  pain  in  her  bowels;  but  the  Marattahs,  with  a 
view  of  taking  advantage  of  his  claims,  carried  the  son  to  their 
capital.  The  people  here  do  not  know  what  has  been  his  fate,  and 
seem  very  little  interested  about  the  matter.  The  pretender,  being 
in  absolute  Avant,  applied  to  Hyder,  who  gave  him  free  lands  to  the 
amount  of  120  Pagodas  a  year,  or  40  Rupees  a  month.  He  left  two 
sons,  who  on  the  fall  of  Seringapatam  collected  a  rabble,  and  began 
to  plunder  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hossodary  (Wostara  of  our 
maps,  I  suppose).  They  were  soon  taken  by  a  party  of  British 
troops,  and  were  immediately  hanged  as  lawless  robbers. 

Sedas'iva  built  a  fort  at  Kilidi,  which  continued  to  be  garrisoned  KUidi,  and 
till  the  time  of  Hyder.     The  town  never  was  large,  and  the  only  Sedu\^va, 
remarkable  building  is  a  temple  of  Iswara,  which  Seddsiva  erected 


256  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

by  orders  of  the  god,  who  appeared  to  hmi  in  a  dream.  As  a  curio- 
sity, I  was  shown  the  pit  whence  Seclasiva  i\ug  out  a  treasure,  and  a 
March  20.  sword,  the  commencement  of  his  great  fortune.  To  this  he  was 
conducted  by  <iNaga,  or  hooded  serpent,  sent  for  the  purpose  by 
some  propitious  deity.  AVhile  Sedus'wa  was  asleep  in  a  field,  the 
Naga  came,  and  shaded  his  head  from  the  sun  by  raising  up  as  an 
umbrella  its  large  flat  neck.  The  young  man  was  aw^aked  by  a 
shriek  from  his  mother,  who,  in  looking  after  her  son,  found  him 
under  the  power  of  the  monster.  He  immediately  started  up  to 
escape,  but  was  opposed  by  the  serpent,  until  he  consented  to 
follow  it  quietly,  and  was  conducted  to  the  place  where  the  trea- 
sure was  hid.  Here  the  snake  began  to  bite  the  ground,  and  make 
signs.  At  length  Sedasiva,  having  dug  into  the  earth,  found  a  cave 
filled  with  treasure,  and  containing  a  sword.  Such  are  the  fables 
by  which  the  Hindu  chiefs  endeavour  to  gain  the  admiration  and 
respect  of  their  countr^'men,  whose  credulity  indeed  renders  the. 
means  very  adequate  to  the  end  proposed. 
l^larch  21.  Qlst  3Iarch. — I  went  three  cosses  to /Am,  through  a  country 
itsMm-"  entirely  like  that  which  I  saw  yesterday.  Near  IkiTi  is  a  well-built 
mcrce.  town,  named  Sugar,  which  at  present  is  the  residence  of  the  chief 

of  the  district  (Amildar).  It  stands  on  the  southern  bank  of  the 
Varadd,  which  is  here  a  very  small  stream,  as  being  near  its  source. 
Sagur  has  some  merchants  of  property,  who  export  to  a  considerable 
distance  the  produce  of  the  country.  The  exports  are  pepper, 
Betel-nut,  and  sandal  wood;  about  equal  quantities  of  which  go  to 
the  dominions  of  the  iVfl^o^  oi'  Arcot,  and  to  the  country  south  of 
the  Krishna,  lately  ceded  by  the  Nizam  to  the  Company.  The 
prices  are  highest  in  the  last  mentioned  territory  ;  but  the  expenses 
and  duties  are  in  proportion.  The  returns  from  both  countries  are 
chiefly  made  in  cloths,  there^being  no  manufactures  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood. To  Haiga  the  merchants  of  Sugar  send  pepper,  cloth, 
iron,  and  grain;  they  receive  from  thence  salt,  coco-nuts,  and  Cut, 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  257 

or  Terra  Japonica.    About  one  half  of  all  the  returns  made  to  this   CHAPTER 
country  for  its  produce  are  in  cash.    The  merchants  say,  that  the    v.^^.^^^ 
sandal  wood  of  the  Ikeri  Rayada  is  superior  to  that  of  either  the  ^^^''^  ^^* 
south  or  east.    They  acknowledge  the  inferiority  of  their  Betel-nut. 
According  to  the  report  of  the  custom-house,  the  quantity  o^ Betel- 
nut  exported   annually  from  Sdgar  is  about  8000  loads.     That  of 
pepper  is  about  500  loads.    The  load  is  about  8  Maunds,  or  \9Q~  lb. 

During  the  time  Ikeri  \va.s  the  residence  of  the  princes  descended  Ikeri, 
from  Seddsiva,  it  was  a  very  large  place,  and  by  the  natives  is  said, 
in  round  numbers,  and  with  the  usual  exaggeration,  to  have  con- 
tained 100,000  houses.  Like  Sudha,  its  walls  are  of  very  great  ex- 
tent, and  form  three  concentric  enclosures,  rather  than  fortifications. 
It  had  also  a  citadel,  but  of  no  great  strength,  which  until  eight  or 
ten  years  ago  continued  to  be  garrisoned.  Within  it  was  the  palace 
of  the  Riijd,  constructed  of  mud  and  timber,  like  those  of  Tippoo, 
and  by  no  means  a  large  building.  The  wooden  work  has  been 
neatly  carved,  and  covered  with  false  gilding.  The  temple  of  Siva, 
Avhere  the  town  stood,  is  a  large  edifice,  and  is  formed  of  stone 
brought  from  a  great  distance;  but,  as  usual,  it  is  destitute  of  either 
elegance  or  grandeur.  It  is  now  repairing,  and  workmen  have  been 
brought  from  Goa  for  the  purpose ;  even  the  Portuguese  of  India 
being  more  skilful  artists  than  any  that  can  be  procured  in  this 
country.  At  Ikeri  there  remains  no  town,  but  the  devastation  has 
not  been  occasioned  by  any  calamity.  When  the  court  removed  to 
Bidderuru,  the  inhabitants  willingly  followed.  Ikeri  continued, 
however,  to  be  the  nominal  capital ;  the  Rajas  were  called  by  its 
name,  and  the  coins  were  supposed  to  be  struck  there,  although  in 
fact  the  mint  was  removed. 

So  long  as  the  government  of  the  Sivabhactar  family  lasted,  the  Coins. 
coins  continued  to  be   called  Ikeri  Pagodas  and  Fanams.    On  the 
conquest,  the  name  was  changed,  first  by  Hyder  into  Bahadury,  and 
then  hy  Tippoo  into  Siiltany.    The  princes  of  J'J^^ore  never  coined 
Pagodas ;  but  Canterua  Narasingha  Rciya,  the  first  of  them  who 

Vol,  IIL  L  1 


258  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   acquired  considerable  power,  coined  gold  Fanams,  called  after  his 
y,^  -^     name  Canter' -rdyd  Fanams,  which  we  usually  write  Cantery.    Ten 
March  xn.      ^^  these  formed  a  nominal  Pao-orfa,  which  accomptants  commonly 
use.     On  the  fall  of  7i/>/Joo,  the  i^i^/.yo?■e  government,  having  found 
it  convenient  to  coin  Pagodas  of  the  same  value  with  those  before 
current,  struck  them  at  Mysore  and  Nagara,  but  restored  the  old 
name  of  Ikeri. 
Forestsofthe      The  Sagar  district  (Taluc)  extends  to  the  bottom  of  the  moun- 
tains, on  the  declivity  of  which  are  many  woods  that  spontaneously 
produce  pepper.    These  forests  are  said  to  be  very  unhealthy. 
Soil.  The  Amildar,  who  is  a  man  of  plain  manners  and  good  sense,  says, 

that  in  this  neighbourhood  dry  grains  have  been  often  tried,  but 
have  always  failed;  and  that  the  goodness  of  the  soil  is  merely  appa- 
rent ;  for  in  general  it  is  very  shallow,  and  placed  on  a  substratum 
oi  Later  it  e,  which  renders  the  soil  above  it  very  unproductive  of 
grain.    Even  rice  thrives  ill,  although  the  deepest  and  richest  soils 
are  reserved  for  its  cultivation.    It  must  be  observed,  that  in  all 
the  countries  where  it  is  found  the  opinion  of  the  unfitness  of  the 
soil  for  dry  grains  is  prevalent.    The  Amildar  makes  a  curious  ob- 
servation.   He  says,  that  in  the  country  to  the  eastward  the  surface 
is  covered  with  stones ;  but  under  these  there  is  a  fine  cool  earth  ; 
■while  here,  the  surface  is  earth,  but  under  that  there  is  a  dry  rock 
which  burns  up  every  thing.    It  must,  however,,  be  observed,  that 
the  forests  here  are  greatly  superior  to  those  farther  east ;  owing 
probably  to  the  roots  of  trees  being  able  to  penetrate  into  the  cre- 
vices of  the  rock,  and  to  get  at  water,  Avhich  is  here  generally 
found  at  no  great  depth  from  the  surface :  but  to  the  eastward, 
before  water  can  be  procured,  the  wells  must  be  dug  to  a  consider- 
able depth. 
Account  of        The  Amildar  says,  that  he  Avas  employed. by  the  Sultan  in  a  diplo- 
Tahsh'^ihl     "i^tic  capacity  at  Poonah  when  Seringapatam  was  tjiken.    He  would 
Amildar.        have  been  successful  in  procuring  assistance  for  his  then  master, 
had  the  dissensions  among  the  Marattah  chiefs  permitted  them  to 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  259 

act.    Scindia  was  decidedly  in  favour  of  the  Sultan  ;  but  was  quite   CHAPTER 
destitute  of  money ;  and  the  army  which  he  had  at  Poonah,  after    \,^p-.^^^ 
having  expended  all  the  means  that  they  possessed,  had  for  some  ^^^irchsi. 
time  been  subsisted  on  pjunder.    The  Ajnildar  says,  that  Tippoo's 
government,  when  compared  with  that  of  the  Marattahs,  was  excel- 
lent ;  and,  notwithstanding  all  the  evils  the  people  suifered  from 
the  extortions  of  the  Asophs,  and  the  attacks  of  invading  armies, 
they  enjoyed  a  comparatively  great  security.     The  government 
never  subsisted  by  open  plunder ;  whereas  among  the  Marattah 
chiefs  there  are  very  few  who  do  not  support  their  troops  by  avowed 
robbery. 

22d  March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Ghenasu-gulL     The  country  iMarch  22. 
all  the  way  is  hilly,  and  is  considered  by  the  natives  as  totally  use-  ofthecoun- 
less,  although  in  many  places  the  nature  of  thesoil  would  admit  of  '^^y* 
the  use  of  the  plough.    It  does  not  even  answer  for  pasture,  and 
the  coarse,  rank   grass  that  grows  upon  it  in  the  rainy  season  can- 
not be  made  into  hay.     Once  a  year,  in  order  to  keep  the  country 
clear,  it  is  burned.    This  is  probably  the  reason  of  the  stunted  ap- 
pearance of  the  trees.    On  the  whole,  no  desert  in  Africa  can  be 
less  productive  of  use  to  man.    At  Ghenasu-guli  there  is  no  market  Ghenam- 
(Bazar)  ;  but  there  is  a  small  village  of  Haiga  Brahvians,  who,  to 
judge  from  the  appearance  of  the  houses,  are  in  easy  circumstances. 
They  cultivate  some  fine  gardens,    I  here  met  with  Ram'  Row, 
chief  officer  (Subadar)  of  the  Nagara  principality  (Rayada),  a  very 
gentleman-like  person,  which  is  rather  uncommon  in  people  of  his 
cast.    He  agrees  entirely  with   the  other  natives,  in  thinking  the 
higher  lands  of  this  Rayada  totally  useless. 

^^d.  March. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Duma,  or  Dumam.  The  coun-  March  23. 
try  resembles  that  which  I  came  through  yesterday,  and  on  the  ^^'l"*  P'^PP^'"' 

"'  _  ^      J  J '  a,nd  appear- 

whole  way  I  did  not  see  the  smallest  trace  of  cultivation.    I  passed  ance  of  the 
through  a  very  long  wood  where  pepper  grows  spontaneously.  The 
trees  are  very  fine,  and  the  soil  is  apparently  good;  but  it  is  quite 
neglected  by  the  natives,  who  say  that  the  pepper  is  of  no  value 


260 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   It  is  watered  by  the  Pada-gopi,  a  rivulet  that,  after  passing  through 
^^y^^,     the  Garsopa  district,  falls  into  the  inlet  of  the  sea  at  Honawera.    At 


March  23. 


March  24. 


Fatah-petta, 


Farm  belong- 
ing to  the 
Rdids. 


Duma  there  is  only  one  house  belonging  to  a  Malazvar  Cauda  ;  but 
it  is  a  very  large  one. 

a4th  March. — Although  I  had  desired  the  guides  to  divide  the 
road  into  tolerably  equal  stages,  I  found  this  day's  journey  to  Fatah- 
petta  very  short.  It  was  called  two  Sultany  cosses.  The  country  is 
rather  opener  than  what  we  passed  through  on  the  two  preceding 
days ;  but  a  large  proportion  of  the  small  quantity  of  rice-ground 
is  waste, 

Fatah-petta,  or  the  town  of  victory,  is  usually  pronounced  Putty- 
pet.  It  was  built  by  Hyder  in  commemoration  of  an  advantage 
Avhich  he  gained  at  this  place  over  the  troops  of  the  princess  of 
Ikeri.  At  first  he  built  five  hundred  houses  ;  but  finding  that  the 
place  injured  the  trade  of  Naggar,  and  gave  a  facility  to  smuggling, 
he  reduced  the  shops  to  fifty,  and  they  have  now  decreased  to 
twenty-five.  Near  the  town  runs  a  small  stream,  commonly  called 
Ram  Chandra-pura  from  the  place  where  it  has  its  source ;  but  its 
proper  name  is  the  Sarawati.  North  from  Fatah-petta,  it  receives  a 
small  bi'anch,  and  forms  the  Pada-gopi. 

At  this  place  the  Rajas  had  a  farm,  which  an  overseer  now  culti- 
vates on  account  of  the  government.  It  produces  coco-nuts,  Arecas, 
and  rice ;  and  is  finely  supplied  with  water  by  a  canal,  which  is 
supplied  from  a  perennial  stream  as  clear  as  crystal.  No  experiment 
is  made  at  this  farm,  nor  any  attempt  at  improving  the  usual  culti- 
vation of  the  country  ;  which  is  the  only  rational  inducement  that 
could  lead  a  prince  to  farm.  On  the  contrary,  it  is  in  a  more  slo- 
venly condition  than  any  plantation  that  I  have  seen  in  the  country. 
At  this  farm  the  Rajas  had  a  Mahal,  or  palace,  consisting  of  three 
squares,  which  are  surrounded  by  low,  mean  buildings  covered  with 
tiles.  These,  however,  contained  baths,  and  all  such  conveniences 
as  a  Hindu  chief  requires.  Near  the  palace  are  stables  for  the 
cattle  of  the  farm. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  26 1 

25tli  March. — I  went  two  cosses  to  the  centre  oi  Hyckr  Nagara,    CHAPTER 
through  a  fog  so  thick  that  I  could  see  little  of  the  country.     It  is    v„^,^^^ 
extremely  hilly,  and   overgrown  with  woods,  in  which  there  are  ^J^'l*^''?*' 

•'  _  •"  °  '  Hijder  Na- 

many  fortified  defiles  and  passes,  that  are  guarded  by  armed  men  gara,  or  Bul- 
in  the  service  of  the  Mysore  Raju. 

I  remained  three  days  at  Nagara,  Avhere  I  met  with  a  kind  recep- 
tion from  Captain  Lloyd  of  the  Bombay  army,  who  commanded  the 
garrison  in  the  fort. 

Nagara  was  originally  called  Bidder-liully,  or  Bamboo-village,  and 
consisted  of  a  temple  dedicated  to  Nilcunta  (Blue-neck,  one  of  the 
titles  of  Siva),  and  surrounded  by  a  few  houses,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  a  Brahman  chief.  Sivuppa,  son  of  Chica  Suncana,  removed 
the  seat  of  government  from  Ikeri  to  this  place,  and  changed  its 
name  into  Bidderuru,  or  Bamboo-place.  Tlie  whole  revenue  of  the 
country  being  then  expended  here,  it  immediately  became  a  town 
of  great  magnitude  and  commerce.  The  situation  is  also  favourable 
for  trade,  as  the  Hosso  Angady  pass,  leading  from  Mangalore  this 
way,  is  one  of  the  best  roads  in  the  western  mountains.  The  town 
is  said  to  have  contained  20,000  houses,  besides  a  very  great  num- 
ber of  huts  ;  but,  on  account  of  the  inequality  "of  the  ground,  could 
never  have  been  closely  built.  It  was  defended  by  a  circle  of 
woods,  hills,  and  fortified  defiles,  extending  a  great  way  in  circum- 
ference, and  containing  many  Bamboos,  from  which  the  name  of 
the  place  was  derived.  The  space  within  these  defences  is  much 
larger  than  was  ever  occupied  by  the  city,  and  contained  many 
hills,  woods,  gardens,  and  rice  fields.  Toward  the  centre  stood  the 
Raja's  palace,  situated  on  a  high  hill,  and  surrounded  by  a  citadel. 
To  this  Hyder  added  some  new  works ;  but,  being  commanded  by 
seme  neighbouring  hills,  it  never  was  capable  of  much  defence. 
After  Hyder  took  the  town,  its  trade  increased  greatly  ;  for  he  made 
it  his  principal  arsenal,  and  employed  many  people  in  making  arms 
and  ammunition.  He  also  continued  %ie  mint,  and  much  money 
was  coined  there  during  his  reign.    He  gave  great  encouragement 


262 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   to   merchants,   and  endeavoured  to  introduce  the  cultivation  of 
v,,»-^.>^    mulberries  and  silk,  but  in  this  he  had  little  or  no  success.    On  the 


March  25. 


outside  of  the  fort,  he  built  a  palace,  and  resided  in  it  three  years. 
On  the  invasion  by  General  Mathews,  the  commandant  of  the  fort, 
by  way  of  showing  an  inclination  to  make  an  obstinate  defence, 
burnt  the  palace ;  and  the  whole  town  shared  the  same  fate  during 
an  engagement  which  took  place  on  Tippoo's  coming  up  with  his 
«rmy.  It  is  commonly  reported  by  our  officers,  thai  General  Ma- 
thews was  surprised  ;  and,  indeed,  from  his  infatuated  conduct,  that 
would  appear  to  have  been  the  case ;  yet  the  people  here  say,  that 
he  had  given  them  eight  days  previous  notice  of  the  probability  of 
a  siege,  and  of  consequence  they  lost  little  more  than  their  houses, 
as  they  had  time  to  remove  all  their  valuable  effects.  The  palace 
was  rebuilt  by  Tippoo,  elated  with  the  victory  of  which  he  made  so 
cruel  a  use;  but  in  the  short  time  that  has  since  intervened,  it  is 
now  almost  a  ruin  ;  for  it  is  built  entirely  of  mud  and  timber;  and 
on  these  materials  the  excessive  rains  of  this  climate  have  so  strong 
an  effect,  that  without  a  very  complete  repair  once  in  three  or  four 
years,  no  building  of  this  kind  will  stand  for  any  length  of  time. 
Tippoo  also  re-established  the  mint  and  arsenal,  and  recalled  the 
people ;  but  a  great  many  of  them  did  not  return,  being  under  sus- 
pense for  the  event  of  the  siege  of  Jlfaiigalore. 

After  the  peace  of  1783,  Tippoo  returned  to  Bidderuru,  and  imme- 
diately afterwards  his  officers  began  to  be  troublesome  to  the  mer- 
chants, and  put  a  stop  to  all  commerce  with  those  who  did  not 
belong  to  the  Sultan's  dominions.  At  his  death  the  town  contained 
between  fourteen  and  fifteen  hundred  houses,  besides  huts ;  one 
hundred  and  fifty  new  houses  have  been  since  built,  and  merchants 
are  resorting  to  it  from  all  quarters.  It  cannot  be  expected,  how- 
ever, to  arrive  at  its  former  greatness,  as  it  is  neither  the  seat  of  a 
court,  nor  of  any  public  works.  It  possesses  no  manufactures;  so 
that  its  chief  support  wm  be  its  trade,  as  being  a  convenient 
thoroughfare.     The  mint  is  maintained,  and  every  liberty  granted 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  263 

to  merchants  ;  which  seems  to  be  aJl  the  encourao;ement  that  could   CHAPTER 

■^1,  •  *     I        •  XVII. 

with  propriety  be  given.  v.^^/-^^ 

During  the  princesses  (Ranys)  government  a  hundred  families  March  25. 
o^  Kankany  Christians  had  settled  at  Bidderuru,  and  subsisted  chiefly 
by  distilling  and  selling  spirituous  liquors.  Their  condition  may 
be  estimated  by  knowing,  that  the  building  of  their  church  cost 
12  Pagodas,  or  less  than  51.  They  were,  however,  able  to  support  a 
priest,  and  to  maintain  some  form  of  worship.  In  the  reign  of 
Tippoo  they  were  all  carried  to  Seringapatam  ;  but,  since  the  fall  of 
that  place,  ten  families  have  returned,  and  are  living  in  great  po- 
verty. The  church  was  pulled  down  by  the  Cazi,  who  was  a  furious  Mussulman 
bigot,  and  delighted  in  overthrowing  what  he  called  the  temples  of  '"^°'* 
idolaters.  There  were  at  this  place  many  inscriptions  on  stone  ;  but 
they  were  all  broken  to  pieces  by  the  zealot.  With  the  ruins  of 
temples  he  built  a  handsome  mosque,  and  settled  in  it  three  priests 
(MouUahs),  with  Avhom  he  passed  his  leisure  time  in  prayer,  and 
exercises  of  religion.  When  he  saw  the  Christian  flag  displayed  on 
the  fort,  he  could  not  endure  the  abomination,  and  immediately 
withdrew  towards  Mecca.  The  three  priests  remain  in  the  mosque, 
where,  in  place  of  being  pampered  by  the  charity  of  the  Asophs, 
and  other  officers  of  distinction,  they  drag  out  an  existence  upon  an, 
annual  pension  of  2  Pagodas,  or  \6s.  Their  being  allowed  anything 
is  however  a  great  proof  of  Purnea's  moderation;  as  they  are  still 
living  in  the  spoils  of  Hindu  temples,  torn  from  the  gods  at  their 
instigation. 

During  my  stay  here  I  had  frequent  intercourse  with  the  Hujiny  Hujiny 
Swami,  one  of  the  four  great  chiefs  of  the  Sivabhactar  religion.  His  ^'^<*^^' 
predecessors  were  the  Gurus  of  the  Ikeri  family,  and  had  obtained 
from  them  free-gift  lands  to  the  yearly  amount  of  3000  Pagodas 
(1208/.  16*.  86?.).  By  Hyder  a,nd  Tippoo  the  whole  was  gradually 
taken  away,  and  no  allowance  has  been  made  to  him  since  the 
country  has  been  granted  to  the  Rqjd  oT  Mysore.  He  has,  it  is  true, 
a  village  considered  as  his  property ;  but  he  pays  rent  for  it  like 


2(^4  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   any  other  farmer.    Whether  it  be  owing  to  his  poverty  or  to  his 
^^^^^.•^    good  sense  I  know  not,  but  he  is  quite  free  from  pride  or  affec- 
March  25.      tation  ;  a  kind  of  virtue  that  I  do   not  expect  among  those  who, 
like  him,  are  considered  by  their  followers  as  incarnations  of  the 
deity. 
Remains  of         The  Swafui  says,  that  a  brother  of  Chinym  Basxv'-uppa  is  still  alive 
family.  ^^  ^^^  Marattah  territories,  and  lives  near  Savanuru.    Somashccara, 

the  last  adopted  son  of  the  princess,  died  in  the  Marattah  country 
unmarried,  but  has   left  behind  him  relations  who  are  living  with 
the  brother  of  Cliinna  Baszo'-uppa.    By  the  Szcami  this  person  is  con- 
sidered as  the  lawful  heir  of  the  family.    In  case  of  his  line  failing, 
the  relations  o^  Somashecara  M'ould  be  entitled  to  the  succession. 
Account  of         The  original  Matam  or  college  of  the  Hitjiny  Swami  was  at  Hara- 
tars  by  ihe  '  P'^^lf^'^^^^y '  but  the  Seat  was  removed  to  this  neighbourhood  in 
Sxvami.  ^]jg  time  of  Ckoudeia  Budreia,  who  founded   Ikeri.    According  to 

the  Swami,  Sivabhactar  is  the  proper  name  of  the  cast,  which  arose 
in  the  following  manner.  Iswara,  having  been  displeased  that  his 
worship  was  neglected  on  this  earth,  commanded  Baswa,  or  the 
bull  on  which  he  rides,  to  assume  a  human  form,  and  to  recall  man- 
kind to  the  true  worship.  Baszva  was  very  reluctant  to  go  among 
such  a  wicked  race  of  beings ;  but  at  last  consented,  and  took  upon 
himself  the  form  of  a  child,  and  was  born  in  the  family  of  a  Brah- 
man. Having,  while  a  boy,  performed  sundry  miracles,  and  per- 
suaded his  supposed  parents  of  his  divine  nature,  he  was  called  by 
the  name  of  Baswana.  In  the  year  Vicrama  of  the  Kali-yugam  3875 
(A.  D.  775),  he  took  with  him  his  sister,  and  went  to  Kalyan-piira, 
a  city  in  the  country  now  belonging  to  the  Nizam,  but  at  that  time 
the  residence  of  a  prince  named  Bejala,  who  was  a  Jain.  WhWc  this 
Rc'ija  was  sitting  in  his  court  surrounded  by  all  his  officers,  there 
fell  from  the  heaven  called  Coilasa  a  letter,  which  no  one  present 
could  read.  The  stranger,  who  had  already  obtained  some  reputa- 
tion, was  called,  and  read  tlie  letter,  which  informed  tlie  R//ja,  that 
is  a  certain  place  he  would  find  a  treasure  amounting  to  some 


]\IYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  a65 

millions  of  Rupees.    The  treasure  having  been  found,  Basumna  was   CHAPTER' 

made  prime  minister,  and  married  the  daughter  of  a  certain  Mo-     v,,^-^-^ 

duersa.    Basxoana's  sister   now  became  pregnant,   without   having  March  25. 

been  married.      She  alleged,   that  she  had  been  impregnated  by 

Iswara ;  and,  as  a  proof  of  her  veracity,  the  child   came  from  her 

back,  in  place  of  being  born  in  the  usual  manner.    The  child  was 

called  Chimia  Baswana.     The  Baswa  then  began  publicly  to  teach, 

that  the  only  true  worship  was  that  of  Iswara,  or  Siva  ;  and,  having 

gained  many  proselytes,  he  made  196,000  Jangamas,  some  of  whom 

were  allowed  to  marry,  and  others  were  ordained  to  be  Sannyasis. 

In  the  year  Racshasa,  of  the  Kali-yugam  39 11  (A.  D.  811)  the  time 

for  the  Basra's  remaining  on  earth  having  been  expired,  he  went 

to  Capily,  a  place  at  the  junction  of  the  Malapahari  ( Malpurga) 

with  the  Krishna.    At  that  place  was  a  celebrated  image  of  Iswara,  ■ 

which,  on  the  appearance  of  Baswana,  opened,  and   desired  him   to 

enter.     Baswana  replied,    that  nobody  would  believe   that  he  had 

entered  into  a  stone,  and  requested  that  the  god  would  assume  the 

form  of  a.  Jarigama  ;  which  he  accordingly  did,  and,  having  clasped 

Baswana  in  his  arms,  they  became  as  one  person,  and  ascended  to 

Coilasu  on  Wednesday  the  1st  of  Margasirsha,  at  21  honr^  (Gurries) 

of  the  night. 

Chinna  Baswana  succeedtd  his  uncle  as  minister,  and  three  months 
afterwards  Bejala  Raja  was  killed,  by  three  servants  of  that  per- 
sonage, named  Jagddeva,  Maleya,  and  Bumuna.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Vira  Vassuunta,  who  is  allowed  by  the  Szvami  to  have  been  also  a 
Jai7i. 

The  Sivabhactai's  are  divided  into  two  sects;  the  one  is  called 
Vira  Siva,  and  comprehends  all  the  Jangamas,  and  by  far  the  greater 
part  of  the  Banijigaru,  who  are  of  a  much  higher  rank  than  the 
artists  and  cultivators  who  wear  the  Linga  or  emblem  of  their  deity, 
and  who  compose  the  second  division  called  Samana  Sivd.  All  the 
descendants  of  Jangamas  contmne  to  be  of  that  class,  whose  proper 
profession,  like  that  of  the  Bi^ahmans,  is  to  subsist  upon  alms.     The 

Vol.  III.  M  m 


266  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  Upadisa  of  a  Jangama  may  be  given  to  any  Sivabhactar,  who  is  thus 
^^^'*       adopted  into  the  sacred  order;   but  this  practice  is  condemned  by 


March  25,  those  who  are  strict.  The  descendants,  however,  of  these  adopted 
Jangamas  enjoy  all  the  privileges  of  the  sacred  order.  This  class 
of  men  has  so  multiplied,  that  in  order  to  procure  a  subsistence 
many  of  them  are  compelled  to  pursue  the  low  occupations  of  the 
world. 

The  Swami  says,  that  Iswara  created  the  Vedas,  and  also  created 
many  sects,  some  of  which  ought  to  follow  one  part  of  the  sacred 
books,  and  some  are  bound  to  obey  other  portions  of  those  writings. 
The  Vira  Siva  ought  to  reject  the  greater  part  of  the  doctrine  of 
the  Vedas  concerning  Curma,  or  ceremonials ;  that  is  to  say,  the 
offerings  of  Yagam,  or  sacrifice,  washing  of  the  head,  Puja,  and  the 
like.  They  are,  however,  permitted  to  follow  part  of  the  Curma, 
and  to  give  Dhana  and  Dharma,  two  kinds  of  alms  bestowed  on 
religious  men.  These  ought  only  to  be  given  to  the  Jangamas; 
but  many  of  the  laity,  who  are  of  the  division  called  Samana,  have 
been  persuaded  heretically  to  give  to  the  Brcaimans  both  kinds  of 
alms.  The  Vira,  Siva  reject  altogether  the  Bruhmans,  and  never 
employ  them  at  any  ceremony  to  read  prayers  (Maulrams).  The 
doctrine  of  the  Vedas,  which  the  Sivabhactars  are  bound  to  follow,  is 
called  Gniana,  and  consists  in  an  acknowledgment  of  the  gods,  and 
in  prayer.  The  Vira  Siva  follow  in  part  only  this  doctrine,  and  con- 
fine their  worship  entirely  to  Iswara,  his  family  and  dependants : 
but  the  Samana  Siva  consider  Vishnu  and  Brahma  as  the  same  with 
Iswara,  and  Avorship  them  accordingly.  These  Samana  Siva  act  as 
Ptijdris'm  some  temples,  especially  those  of  Baswa ;  but  the  Swami 
considers  this  as  an  abominable  heresy. 

The  Swami  says,  that  the  eighteen  Puratias  were  written  by  a 
very  pious  BraA?wffw  named  Vyusa ;  and  that  ten  of  them  contain 
doctrines  which  he  considers  as  sound.  Next  in  authority  to  the 
Vedas,  however,  he  considers  twenty-eight  Agamas,  which  contain 
an  account  of  the  doctrines  taught  by  all  sects,  with  warnings  to 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  257 

Avoid  such  as  are  heretical.     Next  in  point  of  authority  to  these,    CHAPTER 
is  the  Baswa  Purana,  written  originally  in  the  Andray  language,  by     \^"v-^ 
Andray  Cavi  Somaderu,  at  the  command  of  Baswana,  who  did  not  March  25. 
deliver  any  thing  in  writing.    The  work  has  been   translated  into 
t\i&  Kai'iiataca  \a.\\^\i^^e,  hj  Bhima  Cavi ;  and   of  this  translation  a 
copy,  which  the  Szvami  gave  me,  has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal 
government.     Many  commentaries  have  been  written  by  different 
learned  Jangamas. 

At  each  Matam,  or  college,  is  a  chizi Sannydsi,  who  gives  the 
tTpadha  of  this  rank  to  several  children  that  become  his  disciples 
and  servants.  These  Sannydsis  are  of  various  ranks,  and  some  of 
them  are  even  permitted  to  marry.  They  must  be  all  children  of 
Jangamas.  From  among  these  Sannydsis,  the  chief  Guru  or  Szvami 
of  the  Matam  chooses  the  most  pious  person ;  and,  Avhen  he  is 
apprehensive  of  the  approach  of  death,  gives  him  the  Upadesa  pecu- 
liar to  his  elevated  rank,  and  delivers  over  to  him  his  book  and 
authority.    The  successor,  so  soon  as  master  of  the  Upadesa,  is  con-  ; 

sidered  as  being  the  same  with  Iswara. 

The  Guru  reprimands  his  followers  for  small  faults,  and  possesses 
the  power  of  excommunication  for  great  crimes,  such  as  eating 
animal  food,  or  drinking  spirituous  liquors.  He  also  possesses  the 
power  of  reconciling  a  man  to  his  wife,  when  she  has  committed 
adultery  with  a  man  of  the  cast.  In  such  cases,  he  reprimands  the 
woman,  but  will  seldom  permit  the  husband  to  turn  her  away.  If 
the  crime  has  been  committed  with  a  man  of  another  cast,  the  Guru 
does  not  interfere  to  prevent  divorce;  but  the  husband  is  not  under 
any  necessity  of  parting  with  his  wife  ;  for  on  paying  a  fine  for  her 
purification,  he  may  retain  her. 

The  Swami  says,  that  at  certain  periods  the  fourteen  Locums  of 
the  world  are  destroyed  by  water.  The  Baswa  stands  in  the  middle 
of  the  deluge,  which  reaches  only  half  way  up  his  thighs,  and  all 
living  creatures  are  saved  by  laying  hold  of  his  hair.  The  world  is 
afterwards  restored  by  Iswara,  who  lives  in  Coilasu,    It  is  thither 


268 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER  that  after  death  the  spirits  of  good  men  go,  and  are  united  to  the 
fJ^lLj    substance  of  God,  where  they  are  exempted  from  all  future  change. 

March 25.  There  is  no  other  heaven,  such  as  Moesha,  or  Sorghum;  but  there 
are  various  purgatories,  and  hells,  in  which  are  punished  the  spirit* 
of  wicked  men,  either  for  a  time,  or  for  eternity,  according  to  the 
nature  of  their  transgressions.  The  spirits  of  men  who  have  been 
neither  bad  nor  good  in  the  extreme  are  born  again,  some  as  men, 
others  as  animals ;  on  which  account,  except  in  battle,  the  Siva- 
bhactars  kill  no  animal.  The  crime  of  the  premeditated  death  of  an 
insect  is  quite  the  same  with  that  of  a  man,  nor  is  a  cow  more  sacred 
than  any  other  animal. 

Commerce.  Having  assembled  the  principal  merchants,  they  say,  that  since 
the  time  of  the  Rajas  and  of  Hyder,  owing  to  a  removal  of  the  court, 
and  of  extensive  public  works,  the  trade  of  the  place  has  greatly 
diminished.  It  never  was  the  seat  of  private  manufactures ;  but 
still  has  a  considerable  trade,  and  is  the  residence  of  several  wealthy 
merchants,  who  export  the  produce  of  the  country.  This  consists 
of  pepper.  Betel-nut,  sandal  wood,  and  cardamoms.  The  merchants 
cannot  state  the  quantity  of  any  of  these  articles  exported,  either 
'now,  or  at  any  former  period.  They  say,  that  advances  to  the 
cultivators  are  seldom  made;  but,  when  tlie  owner  of  a  plantation 
takes  advances  six  months  before  crop-time,  he  gets  one  half  of 
the  value  of  the  estimated  produce.  The  price  of  the  commodity 
is  not  fixed,  but  it  is  taken  at  the  common  market-price  at  the 
time  of  delivery,  deducting  ten  joer  cent,  for  the  money  advanced. 
The  greater  part  ©f  the  produce  is,  however,  bought  up  for  ready 
money,  immediately  after  crop  season,  and  mine  than  one  half  of 
it  is  purchased  by  merchants  of  the  Marattah  territory,  or  other 
distant  countries;  some  of  whom  come  hither  in  person,  and  others 
employ  agents.  Every  merchant,  whether  native  or  foreign,  has 
certain  families  with  whom  he  commonly  deals  ;  and  at  the  proper 
seasons  he  goes  round  to  their  houses,  and  collects  the  produce  of 
their  farms.    Fairs  or  markets  are  not  in  use. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  '269 

The  Marattah  merchants  purchase  pepper,  cardamoms,  and  san-    CHAPTER 

XVII. 
dal :  the  Betel  of  this  place,  being  cut,  is  not  fit  for' their  purpose.     ^^,-.0 

They  bring  for  sale  a  great  variety  of  cloths,  thread,  and  cotton-  ^^r\^^° 

wool,  most  of  which  are  again  exported   from  hence.    They  also  Marattah 

bring  wheat,  Callay  (Cicer  arietimim),  and  Danya,  a  carminative 

seed  like  anise. 

The  merchants  o^  Mangalore,  and  other  places  below  the  western  VilthTuhva, 
Ghats,  take  from  hence  pepper,  wheat,  Callay,  Danya,  tamarinds, 
capsicum,  cotton-wool,  cotton-thread,  Goni  (cloth  made  of  the 
Crotolaria  jimcea),  cotton-cloth,  blankets,  iron,  iron-work,  and 
steel.  They  bring  up  salt,  rice,  Horse-gram  ( Dolichos  biflorus), 
coco-nuts,  oil,  turmeric,  and  sandal-wood. 

From  the  ceded  provinces  south  of  the  Krishna,  the  merchants  Wiih  the 
import  cotton-cloths,   and  take  back  Betel-nut,   pepper,  and  car-  vinces. 
damoms. 

From  the  Chatrakal  principality  are   imported    buflFaloes,   sheep,  With  Cha- 
blankets.  Ghee  (boiled  butter),  and  tobacco. 

From  Gubi,  Sira,  Bangalore,  &c.  are  brought  cotton  cloths,  to-  With  Banga- 
bacco,   blankets,  Goni,   sheep,   steel,  and  iron.     The  exports  to  all 
these  places  are  pepper.  Betel-nut,  and  cardamoms. 

Merchants  from  the  dominions  of  A  root,  and  those  of  the  Com-  With  ^rco^ 
pany  below  the  eastern  Ghats,  bring  cotton  cloth,  with  European 
and  Chinese  goods ;  and  take  back  Betelnut  and  pepper.  The 
merchants  say,  that  three  quarters  of  the  whole  produce  are  pur- 
chased with  ready  money  ;  and  the  imports  brought  are  equal  only 
to  the  amount  of  the  remainder. 

The  pepper  of  Nagara  is  here  reckoned  better  than  that  of  the  Pepper, 
sea-coast ;  and  a  Parsi  merchant  says,  that  it  sells  higher  at  Bombay 
than  the  pepper  of  Malabar.  The  average  price  here  is  23  Ikeri 
Pagodas  for  every  Niza  (Nidge,  of  vulgar  English)  of  21  Maunds, 
each  weighing  40  of  the  Cucha  Seers  oMIatigaiof-e,  that  is  used  for 
Jagory ;  so  that  the  Niza  should  weigh  515f  lb,,  and  sells  for  92 
Rupees.    The  carriage  to  Mangalore  is  one  Rupee  a  Maund,  making 


270 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   the  Niza  there  worth  113  Rupees.    The  Company's  Candj/  of  600  Ih. 
^^j^     would    therefore  cost  13  U  Rupees,  beside    the   charges  of  mer- 

March  25.      chaiidize. 

Carriage.  The  roads  being  bad,  most  of  the  goods  are  carried  between  this 

and  Mangalore  Ijy  porters.  A  man's  hire  between  the  two  places  is 
3  Rupees,  or  6s.;  and  lie  carries  3  Maunds,  or  731  lb.  To  the 
country  toward  the  east  and  north,  all  goods  are  sent  on  oxen,  as 
back  loads,  each  carrying  8  Maunds,  or  \Q6\\\i.  For  each  load  the 
hire  is  4  Rupees  for  10  Gavadas,  or  days  journies  ;  the  Gavada  being 
computed  at  four  Sultany  cosses,  or  Hardaries,  or  at  about  14-i  Bri- 
tish miles  ;  so  that  the  carriage  of  one  hundred-weight  costs  almost 
1  d.  a  mile. 

Betel-nut.  The  most  important  article  of  export  from  Nagara  is  Betel-nut, 

which  is  fit  for  the  consumption  of  all  the  country  to  the  eastward 
as  far  as  Madras.  The  merchants  cannot  state  the  quantity.  In 
Tippoo's  reign  the  merchants  were  afraid  to  purchase,  knowing  that 
obstacles  would  be  put  in  their  way.  The  whole,  therefore,  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  dependants  of  the  Asophs,  at  a  low  price,  and 
was  exported  on  their  account  to  Seringapatam,  Bangalore,  and 
other  cities  in  the  6«fcm'*  dominions ;  for  the  trade  with  foreign 
countries  was  prohibited.  Owing  to  this,  the  cultivation  was  dimi- 
nished ;  but  the  merchants  think  that  this  foolish  plan  had  not 
continued  so  long  as  to  occasion  the  loss  of  many  of  the  trees;  but 
that  their  produce  was  only  diminished  from  a  want  of  due  culti- 
vation. This  year,  all  due  encouragement  having  been  given,  it  is 
expected  that  the  produce  will  equal  what  it  did  at  any  former 
period.  The  price  just  now  is  higher  than  it  was  in  Hyders  go- 
vernment, and  amounts  to  'iO  Pagodas  a  Niza,  or  Candy. 

C^idamoms.  It  is  evident  from  the  considerable  exportation  of  cardamoms 
from  hence,  all  of  Avhich  are  the  produce  of  Coorg,  that  what  was 
stated  at  TelUchery  as  the  Amount  of  cardamoms  reared  in  that 
country,  is  applicable  only  to  the  quantity  sent  down  to  Malabar. 
I  have  reason  to   believe,  that  a  much  greater  quantity  comes 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  271 

through  the  Mysore  Rajas  territories,  although  I  received  no  proper  CHAPTER 
account  of  the  specific  quantity.  1^^'^' 

The  grain  measure  in  every  village  is  different;  and  even  in  Na-  March 25. 
gara,  that  which  the  cultivators  use  is  different  from  that  by  which  ^^^^^ 
grain  is  sold  in  the  market.  The  S'lda,  or  Cucha  Seer  of  SO^V  cubical 
inches,  is  however  the  foundation  of  both. 

The  Colaga  of  the  farmers  contains  183^^  cubical  inches.  The 
Candaca  of  20  Colagas  is,  therefore,  equal  to  nearly  1^  bushel.  The 
market  measure  is  a  third  larger. 

The  climate  here  is  nearly  the  same  with  that  of  Sudha.  In  the  Climate  and 
day-time  the  winds,  at  present,  are  pretty  strong  from  the  west- 
ward. The  same  plants  that  one  month  ago  were  in  flower,  when  I 
was  at  Kunda-piira  in  the  same  latitude,  are  now  coming  into  flower 
here;  the  difference  of  elevation  making  this  climate  a  month 
later  than  that  of  the  sea- coast.  It  is  remarkable,  that  in  many 
parts  of  India,  during  March  and  April,  there  are  on  shore  strong 
winds  blowing  directly  from  the  sea;  while  in  the  offing  it  is  a 
perfect  calm.  Thus  in  Bengal  there  are,  at  that  season,  very  strong- 
southerly  winds ;  v/hile  in  the  bay  calms  prevail  until  May  or  June. 
On  the  coast  of  Malabar,  the  south-west  monsoon  does  not  com- 
mence blowing  with  strength  until  the  beginning  of  the  rainy 
season  ;  but  on  shore  there  are  strong  westerly  winds  from  about 
the  vernal  equinox. 

The  ground  levelled  for  the  cultivation  of  wet  crops  is  here  called  Lowlands* 
Gudday,  and  is  not  subdivided  into  different  kinds.  The  bottoms  of 
vallies  only  are  levelled,  and  are  chiefly  watered  by  the  rain ;  but 
there  are  also  some  small  reservoirs,  from  which  a  few  days  supply. 
can  be  obtained  in  the  rainy  season,  when  there  happens  to  be  no 
fall  for  eight  or  ten  days.  For  the  same  purpose,  the  water  of  some 
rivulets  is  turned  into  channels  by  dams ;  but  irrigation  is  much 
neglected  ;  and  although  in  many  places  the  rivulets  are  perennial, 
the  farmers  do  not  endeavour  to  take  two  crops  in  one  year.  The 
only  crops  taken  from  watered  ground  are  rice  and  sugar-cane. 


272  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER       In  order  to  give  time  to  the  cultivators,  part  of  the  rice  is    so    w 

^^^^^^^     dry  seed,  and  part  is  transplanted  ;^  the  seasons  for  these  two  modes 

March  25.      of  Cultivation  being  different.    Every  kind  of  rice  that  is  sown  here 

Difterent  .  ,  r  \  ■  ^ 

kinds  of  rice,  takes  six  montlis  to  grow;  and  they  are  or  less  variety  than  usual, 

namely,  Bi/lj/  Battu,  or  Heggai,  and  Jolaghena,  which  may  be  culti- 
vated both  wa3  s  ;  and  Ilonascna,  or  Kempa,  which  can  be  sown  only 
as  dry-seed. 
Dry-seed,  or  The  Bura-butta  cultivation  is  conducted  as  follows.  In  the  course 
cultivation,  of  the  five  months  following  the  winter  solstice,  the  field  gets  four 
'  single  ploughings.  In  the  second  month  after  the  vernal  equinox, 
it  is  manured  with  leaf  dung,  and  ploughed  once.  After  the  next 
rain,  the  seed  is  mixed  with  dry  cow-dung,  sown  broad-cast,  and 
covered  by  the  implement  called  Coradu,  which  differs  from  that 
of  Banawasi  in  having  its  section  composed  of  three  sides  of  a  square, 
as  in  Plate  XXIX.  Fig,  78,  in  place  of  being  a  segment  of  a  circle. 
A  month  after  sowing,  when  the  young  rice  is  about  four  inches 
high,  tie  field  is  turned  over  with  a  small  plough,  to  kill  the  grass, 
and  to  destroy  part  of  the  young  corn,  which  is  always  sown  too 
thick.  After  this,  the  field  is  again  smootlied  with  the  same  imple- 
ment, and  harrowed  with  a  bunch  of  thorns,  as  described  at  Bana- 
tchi.  In  the  second  month  after  the  summer  solstice,  all  the  banks 
are  repaired,  to  retain  the  water  on  the  fields,  M'hich  are  then 
ploughed  again,  and  smoothed  with  the  implement  called  Jligena 
Coradu  (Plate  XXIX.  Fig.  77-)-  A  large  rake,  called  Halacu,  is 
,  then  drawn  by  the  hand  over  the  field,  to  remove  the  weeds.  In 
the  month  preceding  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  weeds  are  removed 
hy  the  hand.  In  the  two  months  preceding  the  shortest  day,  the 
crop  is  ripe.  It  is  cut  close  by  the  ground,  and  for  four  days  is 
allowed  to  lie  loose  on  the  field.  It  is  then  stacked  in  heaps,  with 
the  ears  inward,  but  without  having  been  bound  up  in  sheaves.  In 
the  course  of  three  months,  it  is  trampled  out  by  oxen.  The  grain 
with  the  husk  is  preserved  in  store-houses,  or  straw  bags,  and  is 
only  made  into  rice  as  it  may  be  wanted  for  immediate  use. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  IMALABAR.  273 

The  process  for  transplanted  rice,  called  here  Nitty,  is  as  follows.  CllAPTEll 
In  order  to  raise  the  seedlings,  in  the  course  of  fifteen  or  twenty  v,^-"«L/ 
days  daring  the  month  following  the  vernal  equinox,  a  plot  is  in-  y-'/,'^'*^^* 
undated,  and  ploughed  four  times.  It  is  then  manured  with  any  transplanted 
kind  of  fresh  leaves,  and  Avitli  the  dung  made  by  cattle  that  have 
been  littered  Mith  dried  leaves.  These  are  ploughed  down,  and  the 
mud  is  smoothed,  first  with  the  Noli  (Plate  XXIX.  Fig.  79-),  and 
afterwards  by  the  Mara,  which  is  a  square  log  of  timber  yoked  in 
the  same  manner.  The  field  is  then  drained  so  that  three  inches  of 
water  only  remain,  In  any  of  the  three  months  between  the  vernal 
equinox  and  the  summer  solstice,  the  seed  is  sown  broad-cast.  As 
this  is  the  dry  season,  the  seedling  plot  must  be  very  low,  so  as  to 
receive  a  supply  of  water  from  some  rivulet.  On  the  fifth  day  after 
the  seed  has  been  sown,  the  whole  water  is  allowed  to  drain  from 
the  plot ;  and  for  three  days  this  is  kept  dry,  after  which  it  is  con- 
stantly inundated,  till  the  seedlings  are  fit  for  transplantation.  The 
field,  into  which  they  are  to  be  removed,  is  inundated  during  the 
two  months  following  the  summer  solstice,  and  in  the  course  of 
three  days  during  that  period  is  ploughed  four  times.  It  is  then 
manured,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  plot  was;  and  afterwards,  in  the 
course  of  two  or  three  days,  it  is  ploughed  again  three  times.  The 
mud  is  then  smoothed  with  the  Noli,  above  mentioned;  and  the 
water  having  been  let  oflf  to  the  depth  of  three  inches,  the  seed- 
lings are  transplanted  into  the  field,  which  must  be  always  kept 
underwater;  and  a  month  after  it  has  been  planted,  the  weeds 
must  be  removed  by  the  hand.  The  harvest  is  in  the  month  pre- 
ceding the  winter  solstice. 

All  the  fields  are  capable  of  both  modes  of  cultivation.  The  Produce, 
transplanting  is  reckoned  most  troublesome,  and  least  productive, 
and  requires  most  seed.  A  Candaca  of  land  is  an  extent,  that  in  the 
transplanting  cultivation  requires  one  Candaca  of  seed  ;  in  dry-seed 
cultivation,  it  requires  only  fifteen  Colagas.  The  produce  of  all  the 
three  kinds  of  rice  is  nearly  the  same,  only  the  Heggai  gives  rather 

Vol.  III.  N  n 


274 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  25. 


Seed  and 
produce  for 
an  acre. 


most.  Of  this  grain  a  Candaca  of  land  of  the  first  quality,  culti- 
vated by  transplanting,  produces  eleven  or  twelve  Camlacas ;  land 
of  the  second  quality  produces  eight  Candacas ;  and  land  of  the 
third  quality  produces  six  Candacas.  The  same  ground,  cultivated 
with  dry-seed,  would  produce  from  one  half  a  Candaca  to  one  Can- 
daca more. 

Having  taken  the  Skanaboga,  or  accomptant,  and  the  farmers  who 
gave  me  the  foregoing  account,  to  a  man's  fields,  who  was  rated  in 
the  public  books  as  possessed  of  fourteen  Candacas  of  land,  I  found 
that  they  contained  308,024  square  feet,  or  that  the  Candaca  was 
equal  nearly  to  22,000  square  feet;  so  that  the  seed  required  for 
one  acre,  in  the  transplanted  cultivation,  would  at  this  rate  be 
3_^«_  bushels,  which  in  Indian  farming  appears  to  be  an  excessive 
quantity.  The  owner  would  give  no  account  of  the  quantity  ac- 
tually sown,  nor  of  the  usual  produce;  and  I  observed  some  con- 
tiguous plots,  which  he  called  Ragt/  land,  and  which  of  course  paid 
no  land-tax  :  but  they  appeared  to  have  been  cultivated  with  rice, 
and  there  was  no  observable  difi'erence  between  their  soil  or  situa- 
tion, and  those  of  the  neighbouring  plots  of  Gudday  land.  The  ac- 
comptant pretended  ignorance ;  but  from  circumstances  I  am  in- 
clined to  believe,  that  there  was  a  collusion  between  him  and  the 
farmer  to  impose  upon  the  government.  At  present,  from  the  con- 
fused manner  in  which  all  native  accompts  are  kept,  this  is  too  much 
in  theaccomptant's  power. 

I  afterwards  sent  to  discover  some  farmer  who  would  be  more 
communicative,  and  at  length  found  a  respectable  looking  Gauda, 
who  declared  his  willingness  to  tell  me  the  real  quantity  of  seed 
required  to  sow  his  fields,  and  the  quantity  that  he  usually  reaped 
from  them.  I  first  measured  two  plots,  each  said  to  require  one 
Colaga  in  the  transplanted  cultivation,  and  two  thirds  of  a  Colaga 
when  sown  with  dry-seed ;  the  produce  in  both  cases  was  stated 
to  be  one  Candaca  and  a  half;  that  is,  30  seeds  in  the  former,  and 
45  in  the  latter.    The  first  plot  measured  3836  square  feet ;  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  275 

second  4131 :  averae-e  3983.    At  this  rate,  the  Candaca  sowing  on  a  CHAPTER 

XVII. 
good  soil  is  79,660  square  feet;  and  the  acre  in  the  transplanted     v^^^v,..^/ 

cultivation  requires  -jVo^q^  parts  of  a  bushel  of  seed ;  and  in  the  ^I"ch25. 
dry-seed  tVoVo  of  a  bushel.  The  produce  in  both  cases  is  29  bushels. 
I  then  measured  I-  Colaga  of  poor  land,  which  proportionably  re- 
quires more  seed  than  that  of  a  good  quality.  I  found,  that  it  con- 
tained 2880  square  feet ;  so  that  the  Candaca  of  poor  land  contains 
nearly  47,127  square  feet.  This  plot  produces  one  Candaca,  and 
consequently  about  l6-j2o5_  seeds ;  and  an  acre  at  this  rate  would 
require  l^^oV  bushel  of  seed,  and  would  produce  25^'o  bushels. 
From  this  it  would  appear,  that  a  Candaca  of  land  is  not  a  measure  of 
definite  extent.    I  think  that  this  man  spoke  the  truth. 

The  same  people  who  gave  me  the  account  of  the  cultivation  of  Sugar-cane. 
rice  say,  that  the  sugar-cane  cultivated  here  is  the  Maracabo,  or 
stick-cane.  The  ground  fit  for  it  is  that  which  has  a  supply  of 
water  in  the  dry  season.  Any  soil  will  do,  but  a  red  earth  is  reckoned 
the  best.  In  the  month  preceding  the  vernal  equinox,  they  plough 
four  times;  and  then  throughout  the  field,  at  the  distance  of  one 
cubit  and  a  half,  they,  form  with  a  hoe  trenches  one  cubit  wide,  and 
one  span  deep.  They  then  cover  the  field  with  straw,  dry  grass, 
and  leaves,  and  burn  them  to  serve  as  a  manure.  The  soil  in  the 
bottom  of  the  trenches  is  afterwards  loosened  with  a  hoe ;  and  a 
man,  with  his  hand,  opens  up  the  loose  earth,  puts  in  a  little  dung, 
and  upon  this  places  horizontally,  and  parallel  to  the  sides  of  the 
trench,  cuttings  of  the  cane,  each  containing  four  or  five  joints. 
These  he  covers  with  a  little  dung  and  earth.  The  cuttings  are 
placed  in  one  row,  in  each  bed,  the  end  of  the  one  being  close  to 
that  of  another.  Once  a  day,  for  a  month,  the  canes  must  be  wa- 
tered with  a  pot;  the  young  plants  are  then  about  a  cubit  high; 
and,  the  earth  round  them  having  been  previously  loosened  with  a 
sharp  pointed  stick,  a  little  dung  should  be  given  to  their  roots. 
After  this,  the  ridges  are  thrown  down,  and  the  earth  is  collected 
toward  the  rows  of  young  cane,  which  by  this  means  are  placed  on 


276 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   ridsfcs,  with  a  trench  interveninG;  between  every  two  rows.    Until 

XVII.  . 

v^^^-.^^     tlie  rains  commence,  these  trenches  must  every  other  day  be  filled 

March  2j.  ^yj(.|^  water.  In  the  month  preceding  the  autumnal  equinox,  in 
order  to  prevent  them  from  being  eaten  by  the  jackalis  and  rats 
(Bandicotes),  tlie  canes  are  tied  up  in  bundles  of  from  five  to  ten, 
and  each  of  these  is  surrounded  by  a  service  of  straw  rope.  In  ten 
months  they  are  fit  for  cutting,  and  require  no  farther  trouble. 
The  crop  season  lasts  one  month.  Five  Colagas  of  land,  or  about 
-^~  parts  of  an  acre,  form  what  is  considered  as  a  large  field  of 
sugar-cane,  and  will  produce  one  AlaumldinA  a  half  of  Jr/oory,  each 
iWcMwrf  containing  40  (Seer*  of  24  £)«</«*  weight.  At  this  rate,  an 
acre  of  cane  would  produce  only  about  80^  lb.;  but  these  people 
do  not  state  the  produce  of  their  rice  land  at  more  than  a  third  of 
the  truth  ;  and  respecting  the  sugar,  they  fall  into  at  least  an  equal 
fault.  Their  mill  consists  of  three  cylinders  moving  by  a  perpetual 
screw,  and  turned  by  a  man  with  a  capstan  bar,  which  is  fixed  to  the 
cylinder  in  the  centre.  No  addition  is  made  to  the  juice  when  it 
is  boiled  into  Jagory,  which  is  done  in  flat  iron  boilers.  The  whole 
apparatus  is  extremely  rude.  On  the  second  year  a  crop  o(  Ratoons 
is  taken,  on  the  third  year  the  roots  are  dug  up,  and  the  field  is 
again  planted  with  cane ;  so  that  it  is  never  reinvigorated  by  a 
succession  of  crops.  If  a  sugar-cane  garden  be  to  be  converted 
into  a  rice  field  it  is  allowed  a  year's  fallow  before  the  rice  is  sown. 

Dry  grains.  On  the  lower  part  of  the  hills  bordering  on  the  rice  grounds,  are 
some  small  plots  of  land  called  Hakelu,  or  Mackey,  which  are  culti- 
vated for  dry-grains.  The  whole  is  of  a  small  extent,  and  of  a  bad 
quality  :  the  Ricinus,  for  instance,  does  not  grow  more  than  two  feet 
high.  The  grains  cultivated  on  these  fields  are  Udu  (or  Phaseolus 
'  nnnimoo  Roxb:),  Huts'  Ellu  (Verbesina  satita  Roxb:),  Iliiruli  (Rici- 
nus palma  christi),  Harulu  (Dolichos  bijlorus),  Ragy  (Cynosurus 
corocanus). 

Plantations.  The  garden  cultivation  is  here  of  great  importance,  and  produces 
about  one  third  of  the  whole  revenue.    Much  of  it  is  conducted  by 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  277 

Haiga  Brdhmans ;  but  they  have  not,  as  \\\  Siidha,  tht  exclusive  CHAPTER 
possession.  The  most  favourable  situation  is  the  head  of  a  valley,  ^^^^,^^ 
where  the  two  hills  approach  each  other.  By  raising  a  bank  from  March  25. 
hill  to  hill,  a  tank  is  formed  at  the  upper  extremity  ;  and  along  the 
declivity  of  each  hill  a  canal  is  made  from  whence  all  the  interme- 
diate ground  on  the  slopes,  and  in  the  valley  below,  can  be  sup- 
plied with  water,  and  is  planted  for  a  garden.  At  the  junction  of 
the  hills,  or  lowest  part  of  the  valley,  the  water  from  both  sides  is 
again  collected,  and  carried  down  to  where  the  valley  is  wide,  and 
is  cultivated  with  rice.  A  western  exposure  is  reckoned  very  pre- 
judicial ;  but  I  see  some  very  thriving  gardens  which  face  the 
setting  sun.  They  are  sheltered  fron»  its  withering  influence  by 
tall  groves  of  forest  trees.  In  some  cool  places,  where  the  water  is 
near  the  surface,  the  trees  grow  without  irrigation  ;  but  then  they 
require  a  great  quantity  of  dung,  and  do  not  produce  much  fruit. 
Gardens  are  also  made  on  plains,  where  a  tank  or  canal  affords  a 
supply  of  water.  These  thrive  very  well.  The  Cagadali  soil  is  here 
likewise  preferred  to  all  others. 

The  seed  of  the  Areca  is  managed  in  the  same  manner  as  at  Sersi, 
In  the  month  preceding  the  autumnal  equinox  of  the  second  year, 
the  young  plants  are  removed  into  another  nursery,  where  they  are 
planted  a  cubit  distant,  and  manured  with  Nelli  (Phyllanthiis  em- 
blica)  leaves  and  dung.  This  nursery  must  be  kept  clear  of  vv^eeds, 
manured  twice  a  year,  and  in  the  dry  season  should  i"eceive  water 
once  in  eight  days.  The  seedlings  remain  in  it  two  years,  when 
they  are  fit  for  transplantation.  The  gardens  are  formed  as  at  Sersi; 
but  when  the  Arecas  are  three  years  old,  they  are  removed  into  the 
garden,  planted  close  to  the  drains  for  letting  off  the  water,  and 
remain  there  two  years,  when  they  are  finally  placed  in  the  spots 
where  they  are  to  grow.  Once  in  twenty  or  thirty  years  only  the 
watering  channels  are  filled  up  with  fresh  earth,  and  then  are  not 
allowed  water.  During  that  year,  the  garden  is  kept  moist  by  occa- 
sionally filling  the  drains.  The  water  in  these  is,  however,  reckoned 


278  '    A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  very  prejudicial,  and  is  never  thrown  upon  the  beds.  Once  in  two 
v^^^,^^  years  the  garden  is  dug  near  the  trees,  and  manured.  The  manure 
March  25.  j|g  dung,  above  which  are  placed  the  leafy  twigs  of  all  kinds  of  trees. 
When  an  Areca  dies,  a  new  one  is  planted  in  its  stead  ;  so  that  in 
an  old  garden  there  are  trees  of  all  ages.  On  this  account,  although 
a  Candaca  of  land  will  plant  300  trees,  in  the  books  of  revenue  these 
are  only  rated  as  100  taxable  Arecas.  When  the  trees  are  sixteen 
years  old  they  are  employed  to  support  pepper  vines.  Here  few  or 
no  cardamoms  are  raised.  In  some  gardens  there  are  a  few  plants, 
but  they  are  not  productive.  After  having  been  boiled,  the  Betel- 
nuts  are  cut  into  pieces.  According  to  the  report  of  the  cultivators, 
a  garden  of  a  thousand  rated  trees  in  a  good  soil  produces  twenty- 
five  Maunds  of  prepared  Betel-nut,  each  Maund  containing  60  Seers, 
of  24  Dudus  M'eight.  The  pepper  of  such  a  garden  will  be  four 
Maunds  of  the  same  weight.  The  extent  of  this  garden  is  about 
796,600  square  feet,  or  about  185^  acres.  Its  produce  of  Betel-nut 
Aveighs  920^  lb.  worth  14/.  9*-  6^.;  and  of  pepper  117  lb.  worth 
l^s.  A\d.  A  garden  rated  at  two  thousand  trees  is  reckoned  a  good 
one;  anything  less  is  small.  Five  thousand  Arecas  constitute  a 
very  great  garden.  Many  proprietors  of  gardens  have  no  rice 
ground.  For  dung,  they  must  keep  cows,  and  female  buffaloes; 
but  this  is  far  from  being  a  charge  against  the  garden,  which  in  the 
dry  season  supplies  the  cattle  abundantly  with  grass,  and  in  the 
rainy  season  they  pasture  on  the  hills  without  cost  to  the  owner, 
Avho  sells  the  males  which  he  rears.  Four  men  can  work  a  garden 
of  two  thousand  rated  trees,  and  collect  the  fruit  and  pepper.  In 
all  ordinary  situation,  to  bring  such  a  garden  to  perfection  will  cost 
about  1000  Pagodas,  or  403/.  S*.  1  \{d.,  besides  100  Pagodas  for  the 
tank;  but  of  this  the  government  advances  one  half.  The  only 
return,  until  the  garden  becomes  productive,  is  from  the  plantains. 
The  cultivators  say,  that  they  never  take  advances  for  the  pro- 
duce of  their  gardens,  but  sell  for  ready  money  when  it  is  fit  for 
market. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  279 

The  fields  here  are  called  the  property  of  the  government ;  but  CHAPTER 
the  government  cannot  legally  dispossess  any  farmer  of  his  lands  s^^-v-w 
so  long  as  he  pays  the  rent,  which  is  also  considered  as  fixed.    The  ^^arch  25. 

°  1     "^  '  1  enures  of 

Gudday,  or  rice  ground,  only  is  taxed  ;  and  each  farmer  has  annexed  corn  land, 
to  this  a  portion  of  7T/«6'Aej/,  or  dry-field.  The  whole  of  this  is  of 
little  value,  and  pays  no  tax;  but  it  gives  room  for  evil  practices; 
what  is  really  Gudday,  being  sometimes,  by  the  connivance  of  the 
accomptants,  called  Mackey.  The  pasture  land  is  common.  The 
farmer  can  neither  sell  his  land,  nor  let  it  on  ttiortgage.  If  he  be 
not  able  to  pay  his  rent,  he  goes  away ;  but,  if  either  he  or  his 
descendants  recover  stock  enough,  they  may  return,  and  claim  their 
heritage,  and  any  new  occupant  would  be  obliged  to  relinquish  the 
property.  The  rent  is  paid  in  money,  according  to  a  valuation 
made  by  Sivuppa,  of  the  Kilidi  family;  and  for  each  Candaca  of 
ground,  according  to  its  quality,  amounts  to  from  3  to  10  /A"m 
Fanams.  Allowing  that  the  land  of  the  Gauda  of  veracity  was  of  the 
best  quality,  this  rent  will  amount  to  less  than  one  sixth  of  the 
produce,  10  Fanams  being  Avorth  almost  6s.  3d.,  and  29  Candacas oi 
rough  rice,  at  one  sixth  of  an  Ikeri  Pagoda,  the  usual  price,  being 
worth  nearly  1/.  18*.  \\\d.  Upon  this  valuation,  the  princess  Fin« 
Magi  laid  a  per  centage,  or  Puggaday  Putti,  of  one  fourth,  making 
the  rent  of  the  Candaca  of  the  best  land  7s.  9\d.,  or  nearly  one  fifth 
of  the  produce.  To  this  no  addition  has  since  been  made;  but 
some  new  taxes  were  imposed  both  by  Hyder  and  Tifipoo.  The  for- 
mer, however,  put  a  stop  to  certain  exactions  that  had  formerly 
been  levied  by  the  revenue  officers ;  so  that  the  people,  on  the 
whole,  were  not  higher  taxed  than  by  their  native  princes.  The 
taxes  imposed  by  Tippoo  have  been  repealed,  and  the  revenue  put 
on  the  same  footing  as  in  Hyder's  time,  whose  example  Piirnea 
seems  most  judiciously  to  follow. 

The  plantations  of  Areca  can  be  sold  or  mortgaged  ;  on  which  Tenures  of 
account  they  are  looked  upon  as  more  the  property  of  the  cultiva-  plantations., 
tors,  than  the  rice  fields  are ;  but  this  is  a  fallacy  ;  for  a  rice  field 


280 


A  JOURNI' V  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


March  25. 


CHAPTER  is  in  fact  the  cultivator's  unalienably.  If  a  cultivator  get  into  debt, 
y^VU.  ije  must  sell  his  garden  to  satisfy  his  creditors  ;  but  he  may  relin- 
quish his  rice-land  for  a  time,  and,  whenever  his  creditors  cease 
from  molesting  him,  he  may  again  obtain  possession.  The  mortgage 
here  is  exactly  similar  to  the  wadset  of  Scotland  ;  the  lender  of  the 
money  taking  the  use  of  the  estate  for  the  interest  of  his  money. 
The  tax  on  plantations  varies,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  soil, 
from  8  to  24  Canter -Raya  Pagodas  for  every  thousand  rateable 
trees.  This  is  from  2/.  y*.  11^.  to  7 1.  9s.  9jd.  for  about  \Sj  acres 
planted ;  but  conjoined  with  this  is  always  much  ground  for  the 
house,  tank,  hills,  &c.  &c.  According  to  the  report  of  the  culti- 
vators, the  produce,  in  a  good  soil,  of  1000  rateable  trees  is  worth 
15/.  8*.  lO^d.;  so  that  the  cultivator  would  at  this  rate  pay  about 
one  half  of  the  produce.  A  garden  usually  mortgages  for  from  two 
to  three  times  the  amount  of  the  tax,  and  sells  out-right  for  twice 
the  amount  of  the  mortgage.  The  cultivators  probably  detracted 
as  much  from  the  real  produce  of  the  gardens,  as  they  did  from 
that  of  the  rice  land. 

Most  of  the  cultivation  is  carried  on  by  the  families  of  the  cul- 
tivators: there  are  very  few  hired  servants;  but  a  good  many 
slaves,  by  whom  on  the  farms  of  the  Brahmans  all  the  ploughing 
is  performed.  A  slave  gets  annually  \\  Rupee  for  a  blanket;  3  Ru- 
pees worth  of  cotton  cloth  ;  ^  Rupee  for  a  handkerchief;  6  Candacas 
of  rough  rice,  worth  4  Rupees,  to  procure  salt,  tamarinds,  &c.;  and 
daily  \\  Colaga  of  rough  rice,  or  annually  27t  Candacas  (or  almost 
49 bushels),  worth  1/.  \6s.  W^d.;  add  the  annual  allowances  17*.  7^d. 
thetotalexpenseof  maintaining  a  male  slave  one  year  is  2/.  14*.  7\d. 
A  woman  slave  gets  as  follows  :  365  Colagas  of  rough  rice,  one 
daily,  and  3  Can^^acff*  at  harvest ;  in  all,  0,1^  Candacas,  or  36^:  bushels, 
worth  14-jV  Rupees ;  2  Rupees  worth  of  cloth,  and  ^  Rupee  for  a 
jacket;  in  all,  nearly  \6\  Rupees,  or  1/.  13*.  Q.d.  The  marriage  of 
a  slave  costs  10  Pagodas,  or  about  four  guineas.  The  wife  belongs 
to  the  husband's  master.  A  master  cannot  hinder  his  slave  girl  from 


Price  of  la- 
bour, and 
condition  of 
slaves. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  281 

marryinar  the  slave  of  another  man,  nor  does  he  sret  any  price  for  CHAPTER 

.  .  XVII 

her.    The  widow  and  children,  after  a  slave's  death,  continue  with    k^^..,^..^ 

his  master.     If  a  slave  has  no  children  by  his  first  wife,  he  is  allowed  March  25. 

to  take  another. 

The  same  people  who  gave  me  an  account  of  the  cultivation  of  stock  and 
rice  say,  that  a  man  who  has  ten  ploughs  is  reckoned  a  very  great  ^'^^  " 
farmer ;  and  a  man  who  has  three  ploughs  is  thought  to  have  a 
good  stock.  These  three  ploughs  require  four  men,  and  six  oxeu. 
They  seldom  have  occasion  to  hire  additional  labourers  at  seed 
time  or  harvest,  one  man  helping  another  on  such  occasions.  The 
annual  expense  of  the  servants  amounts  to  17 1.  Us.  Id.  With  three 
ploughs  they  can  only  cultivate  15  Candacas  of  land.  The  produce 
of  these,  supposing  them  of  the  best  quality,  would  be  only  M'orth 
30/.,  and  the  rent  is  5l.  \6s,  \0\.d.;  so  that  the  farmer,  for  his 
trouble  and  stock,  would  have  only  61.  \'2.s.  Q^d.,  which  is  evi- 
dently too  little.  From  the  number  of  people  employed  to  manage 
the  three  ploughs,  it  is  indeed  probable,  that,  besides  the  fifteen 
Candacas  of  rice-land,  the  same  stock  cultivates  also  a  plantation 
of  Arecas. 

The  cattle  het*e,  like  those  of  the  country  below  the  Ghats,  are  Cattle. 
remarkably  small.  No  large  ones  are  ever  bought,  as  they  do  not 
live  long.  About  an  equal  number  of  oxen  and  buifaloes  are  em- 
ployed for  the  plough.  The  country  breeds  more  than  are  required 
for  its  cultivation,  and  a  considerable  surplus  is  annually  exported 
to  the  sea-coast.  In  this  country  there  are  neither  sheep  nor  asses. 
All  the  chief  officers  of  revenue  keep  brood  mares,  considerably 
better  than  the  common  Indian  ponies,  or  Tatoos.  The  horses,  in 
the  present  state  of  the  breed,  would  not  answer  for  our  cavalry; 
but  it  might,  no  doubt,  be  irapi'oved,  by  sending  into  the  province  a 
few  good  stallions. 

The  cattle  are  kept  all  the  year  in  the  house.     In  the  rainy  sea-  Treatment  of 
son,  they  are  littered  with  green  leaves.     Fresh  litter  is  every  day  manure  ^^" 
added,  but  the  stable  is  cleaned  only  once  a  week.    This  dung  is 

Vol,  III.  O  o 


56^  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

crtAPTER  collected  in  a  pit,  and  called  Sepina  Gobfa,  or  leaf  manure.  During 
^^'^'-       the  two  months  preceding  and  the  two  following  the  winter  solstice, 

March  25.  the  cattle  are  littered  with  hill  grass,  and  cleaned  once  in  four  days. 
This  dung  also  is  collected  in  a  separate  pit,  and  is  called  Hulu,  of 
iHoday  Gobra.  Iti  the  hot  atid  dry  season  the  cattle  are  littered  with 
dry  leaves,  and  cleaned  once  in  four  days ;  the  dung  is  generally 
spread  upon  the  hollow  roads  leading  into  the  villages,  where  it  is 
trodden  upon  by  man  and  beast,  and  is  thereby  much  improved; 
but  it  renders  the  villages  quite  loathsome.  This  is  called  Dara- 
ghitia  Gobra.  The  grass  (Hulu)  dung  is  never  used  for  rice  land ; 
but  ill  the  three  are  indiscriminately  used  for  gardens. 


MYSORE,  GANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  283 


CHAPTER    XVIII. 

JOURNEY  FROM  HYDER-NAGARA  TO  HERIURU,  THROUGH  THE  PRIN- 
CIPALITIES OF  IKERI   AND  CHATKAKAL, 


M 


ARCH  29th. — I  went  to  Cowldurga,  which  is  said  to  be  four  CHAPTER 
cosses  from  Nagara  ;.  but  the  stage  proved  very  long,  as  the     C^^^.^ 
gate  was  at  least  four  inil£s  from  where  my  tents  had  been  pitched.  March  29. 
The  road  the  whole  way  is  exceedingly  rough  and  hilly.     The  country. 
hills  are  all  covered  with  woods,  most  of  which  produce  the  wild 
pepper  vine :  but  these  are  quite  neglected ;  and  as  tl^ey  are  not 
cultivated,  although  the  village  people  collect  a  little  pepper,  they 
pay  no  revenue.    The  want  of  the  stimulus  of  rent  seems  to  pro- 
duce the  neglect.    I  passed  through  a  good  many  narrow  vallies  fit 
for  the  cultivation  of  rice,  several  of  which  were  entirely  waste. 
All  the  streams  of  these  vallies  fall  into  the  i-iver  of  Honawera. 

The  original  name  of  Cowldurga  was  Bhavana-giri,  and  it  is  a  Cowldurga, 
place  of  great  antiquity.  A  small  fort  is  said  to  have  been  erected  ^^Vf. 
on  the  hill  by  Dharma  Rdjd,  or  Yiidistara,  one  of  the  five  sons  of 
Pandu,  who  governed  India  at  the  commencement  of  this  Yugam, 
almost  5000  years  ago.  The  works  of  this  old  fortress  are  said  to 
be  still  distinguishable  by  their  solidity,  and  the  excellence  of  their 
structure.  The  fortifications  were  much  enlarged,  and  improved 
into  their  present  form  by  Seddsiva  Ndyaka,  the  founder  of  the 
Kilidi  family.  Hyder  repaired  it,  and  added  a  cavalier,  which  by  the 
Mussulmans  here  is  called  a  battery  ;  and  he  then  changed  the  name 
of  the  place  into  Cowldurga,  a  name  which  the  natives  have  retained 
out  of  respect  to  Hydefs  memory,  although  they  laugh  at  the 


2U 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER  barbarity  of  its  derivation  ;  CovCowl  is  a  Mussulman  word,  originally 
I  believe  Arabic,  and  signifies  protection  or  encouragement,  such 


March  29. 

Manday 

Gudday. 


March  30. 
State  of  the 
country. 


as  is  given  by  a  good  government  to  the  subject;  and  Durga  is  a 
Karnataca  word,  signifying  a  fort  that  is  situated  on  a  rock.  Tippoo, 
with  the  usual  zeal  of  a  Mussulman,  changed  the  Pagan  names  oi 
almost  every  town  in  his  dominions  ;  but  the  names  which  he  be- 
stowed have  already  fallen  into  disuse,  and  in  a  few  years  will  sink 
into  oblivion.  The  hill  on  which  Cowldurga  stands  is  not  very  high  ; 
but,  the  walls  being  numerous  and  lofty,  it  looks  better  than  most 
of  the  hill  forts  of  A'arwa^a,  of  which  the  buildings  are  hardly  ob- 
servable at  a  distance,  being  hidden  among  the  immense  rocks  on 
which  they  are  placed.  It  is  now  undergoing  a  complete  repair, 
and  is  garrisoned  by  the  troops  of  the  Mysore  Raja.  The  Petta 
stands  at  some  distance,  and  contains  about  a  hundred  houses, 
which  for  an  Indian  town  are  well  built.  In  the  government  of  the 
Kilidi  family,  it  contained  six  or  seven  hundred  houses ;  for  it  i» 
a  considerable  thoroughfare,  and  well  situated  for  trade.  The  road 
from  Hosso-Angady-ghat  divides  into  two  branches  at  Hydcr-ghur  : 
the  one  goes  by  Nagara ;  and  that  M'ay  the  trade  of  Bangalore, 
Ckatrakal,  and  other  places  toAvard  the  north-east,  passes ;  the 
other  branch  of  the  road  passes  through  Cowldurga,  and  is  that  by 
which  the  trade  of  Seringapatam  goes  to  Canara.  Hyder-ghur  is  a 
pass  fortified  by  a  wall  and  gate.  Near  it  there  is  no  cultivation; 
and  indeed  near  Cowldurga  there  is  very  little.  As,  however,  the 
pass  commands  one  of  the  principal  entrances  into  Karnata  Dtsam, 
it  seems  to  deserve  some  attention. 

30th  March. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Hodalla.  Near  Cowldurga 
the  country  is  covered  Avith  thick  forests.  Faitlicr  on,  the  hills 
are  tolerably  well  cleared,  and  the  intermediate  little  valiics  are 
as  usual  rice  grounds.  In  fact,  all  this  part  of  the  country  re- 
sem  bles  entirely  that  below  the  western  Ghats.  The  hills  here, 
although  apparently  well  fitted  for  this  purpose,  are  never  formed 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  285 

into  terraces,  as  in  Malabar.    The  gardens  are  not  so  numerous  as   CHAPTER 

XVIII. 
neax  Nagara,  and  infinitely  fewer  than  in  Malai/ala.  About  half  way,    v..^-^'^^ 

I  passed  through  a  village  named  Arga,  which  formerly  was  a  large  "l^fchao, 

place.     Its  inhabitants  were  removed  by  Hi/der  to  Cowldiirga,  and 

suffered  much  from  the  change  of  air;  for  Arga  is  in  a  clear  open 

country,  and  Cowldurga  is  surrounded  by  hills  and  forests.     East 

from  Arga  are  two  small  rivulets,'  the  Gopincitlia,  and  Kusawati ; 

which  join,  and  then  fall  into  the  Tic??ga.    The  natives  say,  that  at 

Galagimji/-mani,  a  hill  near  Sringa-giri,  there  is  an  image  oi'  Nara- 

singha,  the  incarnation  o^  Vishnu,  whose  head  resembles  that  of  a 

lion,    This  image  is  not  larger  than  a  man.    From  one  eye  comes  a 

small  stream,  called   the  source  of  the  Netrawati,  which  falls  into 

the  sea  at  Mangalore  ;  another  stream  comes  from  his  left  tusk,  and 

is  the  source  of  the  Tunga  ;  and  a  third  stream,   called  the  source 

of  the  Bliadra,  comes  from  the  right  tusk  of  this  image.     These 

streams  are  about  the  thickness  of  a  quill,  and,  having  united  for 

a  little  way,  run  down  a  rock,  when  they  again  separate ;  and  each, 

being  joined  by  various  springs  and  rivulets,  forms  a  river.     I  have 

heard  a  similar  story  at  several  places,  both  above  and  below  the 

Ghats  ;  and  the  account  here  given  I  took  with  care  from  a  sensible 

person  Avho  has  been  on  the  spot;  yet  there  is  probably  some  gross 

mistake  in  it,  most  of  the  people  here  being  willing  to  believe  any 

thing  extraordinary,  even  in  perfect  opposition  to  the  evidence  of 

their  senses. 

Hodalla  contains  seven  or  eight  families,  who  are  very  inadequate  Hereditary 
to  cultivate  all  the  arable  lands.  It  was  formerly  the  residence  of  ^"*^"PJ^y^'^ 
a  family  of  Polygars,  named  Coramar,  and  of  Tellnga  extraction. 
They  were  hereditary  flute-players  to  the  kings  of  Vijaya-nagara. 
By  the  first  chiefs  of  the  family  of  Kilidi  they  were  deprived  of 
their  authority,  but  were  allowed  certain  lands  free  from  taxes. 
The  family  is  now  extinct. 

A  man  here  is  just  now  forming  a  garden  that  will  plant  12000  plantations. 
Betel-nut  trees,  which  will  be  rated  in  the  public  accompts  as  4000. 


S8ff 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


The  cost,  before  it  comes  to  produce,  according  to  estimate,  will 
be  4000  Ikeri  Pagodas,    or  I6II/.    15*.  \\\d.     When  the   garden 

March  30,  begins  to  produce,  the  Amildars  (chief  oflficersj  of  three  districts 
(Tallies),  three  Sheristadars  (accomptants  of  districts),  and  two 
principal  cultivators  from  each  of  three  neighbouring  districts, 
will  form  a  kind  of  jury,  and  fix  the  revenue  according  to  the  soil 
and  local  advantages;  the  maximum  being  18  Iktri  Pagodas,  and  the 
minimum  being  5  Pagodas,  for  every  thousand  rateable  trees.  In 
every  part  of  the  country  this  is  the  practice. 

31st  March. — I  went  to  Tuduru.  The  stage  seemed  to  be  short, 
but  it  is  called  four  cosses.  The  road  passes  near  a  village  called 
Maluru,  but  on  the  whole  way  I  did  not  see  a  house.  By  far  the 
greater  part  of  the  country  is  covered  with  stunted  woods ;  and  as 
the  roads  generally  follow  the  low  hills,  these  hide  from  the  view 
of  the  traveller  the  greater  part  of  what  is  cultivated. 

On  the  banks  of  the  Tunga,  near  Maluru,  is  a  celebrated  temple 
named  Mahisi,  which  signifies  the  female  buffalo.  It  is  supposed  to 
have  been  built  by  Hanumanta,  who,  unwilling  to  accompany  Rama 
in  his  expedition  against  Lanca,  assumed  for  concealment  the  form 
of  this  animal.  At  that  time  he  built  this  temple,  and  dedicated  it 
of  course  to  Vishnu,  his  master.  It  is  said  to  possess  inscriptions  ou 
stone  of  great  antiquity,  of  which  the  Amildar  promised  to  send  me 
copies.  All  that  lias  come  to  hand,  however,  is  one  without  a  date, 
of  which  a  copy  has  been  given  to  the  Bengal  government. 

Weather.  At  Tuduru  t\\Git  is  no  village,  and  only  a  iQw  scattered  houses. 

I  pitched  my  teuts  at  a  ruinous  Jangama's  Mata,  which  stands  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Tunga.  The  stream  of  this  river  never  dries, 
but  is  not  applied  to  irrigate  the  fields.  In  the  morning  there 
were  two  very  heavy  showers  of  rain  from  the  eastward,  with  much 
thunder,  and  little  wind.  At  this  season  usually,  once  in  eight  or 
ten  days,  similar  rains  are  said  to  happen.  The  prevailing  winds 
come  from  the  west,  and  are  strong  and  dry. 

April  1.  1st  April.^^l  went  four  cosses  to  Baikshavdni  Mata.    The  road  is 


March  31. 
State  of  the 
country. 


Mahisi,  a 
temple  built 
by  Hanu- 
manta. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  287 

near  the  left  bank  of  the  Tunm.     After  leavino;  the  cultivated  CHAPTER 

XVIII. 
country  near  Tuduru,  which  is  pretty  extensive,  I  entered  a  forest    v^,^v-^ 

of  trees  and  Bamboos,  almost  equalling  in  stature  those  of  the  wes-  ^P''|  ^^^^^^^ 
tern  Glials.  Here  were  many  fine  Teak  trees,  more  indeed  than  I  and  Tunga 
have  ever  seen  in  any  one  place.  They  might  be  of  value,  could 
they  be  floated  down  the  Tunga  to  the  Krishna,  and  so  to  the  sea ; 
which  I  think  might  probably  be  done  by  supporting  the  floats  with 
Bamboos.  The  Tunga  at  all  times  contains  water ;  but  in  the  dry 
season  the  channel,  being  full  of  rocks,  will  not  admit  floats.  la 
the  rainy  season  the  river  swells  prodigiously,  and  is  said  to  be  in 
most  places  eight  or  ten  feet  higher  than  the  top  of  the  rocks.  Its 
stream  is  then  exceedingly  rapid  and  muddy,  and  filled  with  large 
trees  swept  aw&y  by.  the  flood ;  while  in  some  places  rocks  come 
very  near  the  surface.  These  circumstances  would,  no  doubt,  render 
the  navigation  in  boats  very  dangerous,  but  they  do  not  seem  to 
me  likely  to  impede  well-constructed  floats  of  timber,  strengthened 
and  buoyed  up  by  Bamboos.  If  this  should  be  found  practicable,  I 
know  of  no  place  that  would  answer  better,  for  rearing  a  Teak  foi'cst, 
than  the  banks  of  the  Tunga  near  Tuduru,  where  close  to  the  river 
there  is  much  excellent  soil,  which  is  considered  as  useless.  As  there 
are  already  on  the  spot  many  fine  Teak  trees,  all  that  would  be  re- 
quired would  be,  to  eradicate  the  trees  of  less  value,  which  I  look 
upon  as  a  necessary  step  to  procure  any  considerable  quantity  of 
Teak  in  a  well  regulated  government.  In  the  wilds  of  America,  or 
the  dominions  of  Ava,  where  a  few  inhabitants  are  buried  in  the 
recesses  of  an  immense  forest,  a  considerable  supply  of  timber  may 
without  trouble  be  procured ;  but  in  a  well  cultivated  country, 
"without  much  pains  bestowed  on  rearing  the  proper  trees,  it  is  in 
Tain  to  think  of  supplying  the  extensive  demands  of  the  ship- 
builder. 

In  this  forest  the  road  is  in  several  places  defended  by  fortifica-  Face  of  the 
tions ;  for,  although  not  hilly,  it  is  a  pass  called  UUmadi.    These  country. 
fortifications  were  erected  by   Hyder,    with  a  view  probably  of 


CS3 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVIII. 

April  1. 
Mandai) 
Gudday. 


Tuiidu 

flowers, 

dye. 


Saiidul. 


Face  of  the 
country. 


Siiahhactars, 


Want  of 
people. 


stopping  marauders.  After  leaving  this  pass,  I  came  to  an  extensive 
plain  of  rice  ground,  in  which  stands  Manday  Gudday,  a  scattered 
town  surrounding  a  ruinous  mud  fort.  It  formerly  was  consider- 
ably larger,  but  suffered  much  from  Purseram  Show's  army,  into 
the  course  of  whose  destructive  route  I  have  again  come. 

Near  the  town  I  observed  many  fine  trees  of  the  Tundu,  or  Ce- 
drella  Tuna  Roxb:  MSS.  Its  flowers,  as  I  have  mentioned  at  Ban- 
galore, are  used  for  dyeing.  It  is  said,  that  they  are  collected  by 
Mussulmans,  who  gather  them  every  morning  as  they  fall  from  the 
tree,  and  afterwards  dry  them  on  mats  exposed  to  the  sun.  The 
price  at  present  is  said  to  be  so  low,  that  none  are  collected. 

East  from  the  plain  of  Manday  Gudday,  I  passed  through  a  forest 
which  contains  much  sandal-wood,  but  no  Teak.  Indeed,  I  have 
never  seen  the  two  trees  in  the  same  place. 

On  passing  this  forest,  I  came  to  an  open  country,  in  which  is 
situated  Baikshavuni  Mata,  where  there  is  no  village;  all  the  houses 
are  scattered  on  the  different  farms,  which  is  the  usual  custom 
throughout  the  principalities  (Rayadas)  of  Sudha  and  Nagara,  as 
well  as  in  the  country  below  the  western  Ghats. 

The  Mata  belongs  to  the  Slvabhactar  Jangamas,  one  of  whom  still 
resides  in  it.  The  village  is  considered  as  his  property,  but  he  pays 
the  usual  taxes  to  government.  He  is  dependent  on  the  Umblay 
Guru,  who  lives  near  Shiva-mogay.  None  of  these  Matas  seem  to  be 
older  than  the  government  of  the  Killdi  Rajas.  Long  before  their 
accession,  it  is  true,  the  greater  part  of  the  cultivators  were  Siva- 
bhactars,  and  no  doubt  had  among  them  many  Jangamas ;  but  they 
were  probably  in  too  great  poverty  to  be  able  to  erect  religious 
buildings  of  any  consequence. 

The  people  here  say,  that  if  there  were  a  sufficient  number  of 
cultivators  the  greater  part  of  the  woods  might  be  cut,  and  the 
land,  which  these  now  occupy,  might  be  converted  into  dry  field; 
but  at  present  about  one  third  of  the  rice  land  is  unoccupied.  It 
would  not  however  appear,  that  the  country  was  ever  sufficiently 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAli,  28g 

populous  to  cultivate  more  than  the  rice  lands,  with  a  very  little   CHAPTER 
of  the  adjacent  high  ground,  and  a  few  small  plantations.    At  this     i^^^^^,,^ 
distance  from  the  Ghats,  both  Betel-nut  and  sandal-wood  become  -Ap'"'  i- 
scarce.    Great  quantities  of  the  latter  grow  in  the  low  woods  be- 
tween Hodalla  and  Tuduru. 

Here  the  quantity  of  rain  also  diminishes;  and  rice  cannot  be  Weather. 
cultivated  without  small  reservoirs,  sufficient  to  contain  a  supply  of 
water  for  two  months  after  the  cessation  of  the  rains;  for  the  rains 
last  four  montlis  only ;  and  all  the  kinds  of  rice  that  are  cultivated 
here  require  six  months  to  grow. 

2d  April. — I  went  a  long  stage,  called  five  cosses,  to  Shiva-mogay,  April  '2. 
The  first  two  cosses  of  this  road  are  in  a  forest  of  very  fine  trees,  cou'ntr'v^^* 
many  of  which  are  Teak.  On  leaving  this,  I  entered  an  open 
country  extending  very  far  to  the  eastward.  The  greater  part  of 
it  seems  to  be  fit  for  cultivation  ;  but  at  present  a  M'ant  of  inhabi- 
tants renders  the  greatest  part  of  it  a  waste.  One  coss  from  the 
forest  is  Gajunuru,  a  forf;  and  village  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Tunga. 

On  the  plain  between  this  and  Shiva-mogay  was  fought  a  battle  Baule  of 
between  Piirseram  Bhow,  and  Mahomet  Reza,  usually  called  the  ^""■^S'^- 
Binky  Nabob,  or  burning  Lord  ;  as,  from  his  activity,  he  was  usually 
employed  by  the  Sultan  to  lay  waste  any  country  that  might  be  of 
use  to  his  enemies,  Purseram  had  advanced  as  far  as  Fatah  Petta, 
hoping  that  the  garrison  of  Nagara  would  run  away,  and  leave  him 
the  spoil  of  the  city ;  but  as  they  preserved  a  countenance  which 
he  did  not  like,  he  marched  toward  his  left,  in  order  to  join  Lord 
Cornwallis  before  Seringapatcwi.  At  this  place  he  was  met  by  3Ia- 
homet  Reza,  who  had  ,5000  horse,  and  10,000  foot,  with  eight  guns. 
An  engagement  took  place,  in  which  the  Mussulman  was  defeated, 
and  compelled  to  retire  to  Nagara  with  the  loss  of  four  or  five 
hundred  men.  This  is  the  account  of  the  wSiUves  of  Shiva-ynogay, 
little  inclined  to  favour  either  party.  From  the  field  of  battle, 
Purseram  advanced  to  Shiva-mogay,  and  after  a  siege  of  two  days 

Vol.  Ill,  Pp 


290  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  took  the  fort.    His  march,  as  usual,  was  marked  by  devastation, 
^^^I^J^     famine,  and  murder.    The  town  at  that  time  contained  6000  houses, 
April  2.  the  whole  of  which  were  destroyed  ;  the  women  were  ravished,  and 

the  handsomest  carried  entirely  away.  Such  of  the  men  as  fell  into 
the  hands  of  the  Marattdhs  were  killed,  and  of  those  who  escaped 
the  sword  a  large  proportion  perished  of  hunger;  every  eatable 
thing  having  been  swept  away  by  those  whom  people  in  Europe  are 
pleased  to  call  the  gentle  Hindus.  These  ruffians  did  not  even  spare 
the  Kudali  Sxvami,  who  is  the  Guru  of  all  the  ]\Iarattah  Bruhmans  of 
the  Smartal  sect,  and  who  is  by  them  considered  as  an  actual  incar- 
nation of  the  deity.  His  Matam,  or  college,  was  plundered  and 
burnt ;  but  this  cost  the  Peshxva  dear.  The  enraged  Sxcami  held  out 
threats  of  instant  excommunication,  and  was  only  pacified  by  a 
present  of  400,000  Rupees.  Tippoo  had  the  satisfaction  of  taking- 
one  half  of  this  sum,  which  Avas  the  assessment  levied  from  the 
Swami  on  account  of  the  Nuzzur  that  Lord  Cornwallis  exacted. 
Charity  of  a  The  Szcami  is  said  to  have  been  of  great  use  in  the  famine,  and  to 
gie-At  Br6h-  have  employed  the  utmost  of  his  influence  in  collecting  money  to 
support  the  starving  wretches.  He  daily  fed  3000  Bruhmans,  and 
other  religious  mendicants ;  for,  according  to  the  Hindu  doctrine, 
it  is  the  charity  which  is  bestowed  on  religious  men  that  chiefly 
procures  favour  in  the  eyes  of  the  gods.  In  his  distributions  the 
Swami  is  said  to  have  expended  six  Lacs  of  Rupees,  or  60,441 1.  I3s. 
4d.,  most  of  which  was  collected  in  the  Marattah  states. 
Shiva-moguy,  On  the  fall  of  Seringapatam,  the  unfortunate  Shiva-mogay  became 
VT  bimugaj/.  a  prey  to  Z)«?/r/w,  who  remained  in  it  fifteen  <lays,  and  plundered 
the  inhabitants  very  completely.  Many  of  the  neighbouring  vil- 
lages he  burnt.  On  going  away,  he  put  a  garrison  in  the  fort, 
which  was  stormed  by  Colonel  Stephenson,  who  hanged  the  com- 
mandant. The  Amildar  who  gave  me  the  foregoing  account  is  said 
to  have  distinguished  his  courage  on  this  occasion.  The  town  now 
contains  about  500  houses,  and  is  increasing  fast.  Its  proper  name 
is  disputed.    In  the  public  accompts  it  is  called  SInva-mogay ;  but 


MYSORE,  CANAIIA,  AND  MALABAR.  231 

some  Brahmans  of  the  place  sav,  that  its  name  is  properly  Shimu2:Mu   CHAPTEll 
f&woo-a  of  the  English).    This  signifies  sweet-pot.     Such  an  absurd     v^,,-^ 
name  is  said  to  be  owing  to  its  having  been  the  residence  of  one  of  ^P"'  ~- 
the  saints  called  Rishis,  who  lived  entirely  on  the  roots  of  grass, 
which  he  pounded  in  a  pot,  and  called  the  mixture  his  Shimuggay. 
The  Avhole  time  that  the  Rishi  did  not  employ  in  preparing  this 
simple  diet  was  of  course  passed  in  prayer  and  other  acts  of  de- 
votion. 

From  Mangalore  Hyder  brought  to  Shiva-7jwgay  many  carpenters.  Navigation 
and  built  a  number  of  lighters  of  about  eight  tons  burthen.    They  ° 

are  strong,  and  flat-bottomed  ;  but,  as  the  greater  part  of  them  have 
been  allowed  to  remain  on  the  bank  where  they  were  built,  I  doubt 
not  that  they  were  found  very  useless.  From  the  account  of  the 
river,  which  I  have  given,  this  will  readily  be  believed;  the  at- 
tempt is  however  no  impeachment  on  the  sagacity  o^  Hyder,  who, 
having  been  educated  in  a  place  remote  from  every  kind  of  navi- 
gation, could  have  no  idea  of  what  boats  could  perform,  nor  of  what 
obstacles  would  prevent  their  utility.  The  only  object  that  could 
strike  him  was  the  immense  advantage  of  carrying  down  the  river 
the  timber,  and  bulky  produce  of  this  country ;  from  whence  even 
the  Befel-nut  and  the  pepper  require  many  cattle  to  go  loaded,  that 
must  again  return  empty.  To  attempt  dragging  any  thing  up  such 
a  torrent  as  the  Tunga,  would  be  vain  ;  but,  after  having  seen  the 
boats,  and  known  that  some  of  them  have  been  actually  navigated 
down  the  river,  I  have  no  doubt  of  its  being  practicable  to  carry 
down  floats  ;  and  on  these  perhaps  many  bulky  articles  of  commerce 
might  be  transported. 

In  this  neighbourhood  the  manufacture  of  cotton  cloth  begins  ;  for  Manufac- 
noneis  made  to  the  westwar<J.  In  all  the  villages  of  this  district  (Ta-  *"'^^'* 
luc),  very  coarse  cloths,  for  country  use,  are  made  by  the  JVhalliaru, 
and  by  a  class  of  the  Sivabhactars,  who  are  called  Bily  Muggas. 

Every  village  has  different  grain  measures.    Those  of  the  Kasha,  Grain  mea- 
or  chief  town  of  the  district  (Taliic),  are  as  follow :  ""^e. 


292  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

First,  Those  used  by  the  farmers. 

90i  cubical  inches  are  equal  to  1  Mana,  or  Seer. 
Apitl  2.  l6"  Manas  make  1  Colaga. 

20  Colagas  make  1  Candaca,  which  contains  13yV^  bushels. 
Second,  Those  used  in  the  Bazar,  or  market  for  retail : 

\^  Sultanij  Seers  m7Lk&  1  Colaga. 

20  Colagas  make  1  Candaca  ;  which  therefore,  if  the  Sultani/  Seer 
were  at  the  true  standard,  ought  to  contain  1 27*^3- bushels ;  but 
in  fact  the  two  Candacas  -dre  the  same,  and  tliis  measure  is  divided 
by  the  farmers  into  320  3Ianas,  and  by  the  shopkeepers  into  360 
Seers. 

In  the  open  country  round  Sliiva-mogay ,  according  to  the  account 
of  its  intelligent  and  obliging  Amildar,  the  hills  and  barren  ground 
do  not  occupy  more  than  a  third  of  the  surface.  Near  the  river 
the  greater  part  of  the  arable  lands  are  rice  grounds;  far  from  it 
the  dry-field  prevails.  On  the  whole,  the  quantity  of  ground  fit  for 
the  cultivation  of  rice  is  about  equal  to  that  fit  for  dry  grains.  Not 
above  one  third  of  the  whole  arable  land  is  now  under  cultivation, 
and  the  rice  ground  is  more  neglected  than  the  dry  field.  This  is 
not  owing  to  rice  being  less  profitable  to  the  cultivator,  but  to  the 
contrary  cause  ;  for  the  devastation  of  the  Marattahs  fell  heaviest 
on  the  best  parts  of  the  country  ;  while  the  inhabitants  of  the  vil- 
lages situated  among  the  dry  field  were  near  the  forests  to  make 
their  escape. 
Watered-  ^he  wet   lands  are  in    general  of  a  light  soil.     Although  the 

lands.  rains  are  less  copious  than  at  Nagara,   so  that  artificial  irrigation 

would  be  of  great  utility,  little  care  has  been  taken  with  that 
branch  of  agriculture.  The  people  here  allege,  that  the  plains  are 
so  small  as  to  render  the  construction  of  reservoirs  too  expensive. 
This  seems  to  be  one  of  the  usual  excuses  held  out  by  indolence  ;  as 
no  where  in  Karnata  have  I  seen  so  much  level  country.  No  dams 
have  been  made  on  the  JM?i^«;  and  in  fact  its  channel  is  so  wide, 
and  so  deep  under  the  level  of  the  country,  that  they  could  be  made 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  "  293 

only  at  a  great  expense;  but  then,  I  am  persuaded,  it  would  be   CHAPTER 
found  that  they  would  irrigate  a  proportionably  large  extent  of    ;J,^„^ 
ground.    The  greater  part  of  the  rice  is  raised  by  the  rain  water  April  2. 
alone,  and  of  course  there  is  only  one  crop;  so  that  during  six 
months  the  people  are  almost  wholly  idle.    A  few  farmers  have 
small  reservoirs,  which  give  a  supply  of  water  to  the  crop  when  the 
rains  are  less   regular  than  usual ;  and   where   the  reservoirs   are 
somewhat  larger,  their  water  supplies  in  the  hot  season  a  few  plan- 
tations oi  Areca  and   sugar-cane.     The  extent,   however,  of  both 
these  is  so  inconsiderable,  as  scarcely  to  deserve  notice.    The  plan- 
tations of  palm  trees  contain  only  coco-nuts  and  Arecas,  without 
pepper;  and  their  produce  is  of  so  bad  a  quality,  that  it  will  answer 
only  for  country  consumption. 

The  kinds  of  rice  cultivated  here  are,  Riee, 

Sampigy  Dala,  produce  in  a  good  crop  10  seeds. 
Betta  Candala,  -  -  12  seeds. 

Caimbutfy,  -  -  -  9  seeds. 

Sanabutty,  -  -  9  seeds. 

*A11  these  require  six  months  to  grow.  They  are  all  large  grained, 
except  the  Sanabutty,  Avhich  sells  five  per  cent,  higher  than  the 
others.  The  lowest  ground  is  used  for  -the  Sanabutty ;  the  highest 
is  used  for  the  Caimbuity.  The  Candaca  of  land  is  the  quantity  sup- 
posed to  require  a  Candaca  of  seed,  and  is  quite  indefinite  in  size; 
more  and  more  seed  being  sown  in  proportion  to  the  goodness  of 
the  soil.  This  seems  agreeable  to  reason ;  the  contrary  was,  how- 
ever, at  first  asserted  by  the  cultivators,  and  throughout  the  coun- 
try is  indeed  a  usual  cry  with  that  class  of  people  ;  but  I  was  cau- 
tioned by  the  Amildar  not  to  credit  such  assertions.  The  produce 
of  a  good  and  that  of  a  bad  field,  each  of  one  Candaca,  is  nearly  the 
same;  but  the  good  one,  being  much  smaller,  and  requiring  less 
expense  of  cultivation,  can  afford  a  higher  rent.  Accompanied  by 
the  Amildar,  I  measured  a  field  of  the  poorest  soil,  said  to  require 
eight  Colagas  of  seed,  and  found  it  to  contain  152,084  square  feet; 


cy4  A  JOURNEY  FROxM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CI1APT[  R  so  tliat  the  Candaca  in  such  a  soil  would  be  380,210  feet.  The  acre 
V  -1L/  M'ould  therefore  sow  ly^Vo  I'u^l^el.  'I'he  produce  of  this  field  last 
Apiil  2.  year,  which  was  a  favourable  season,  was  5  Condacas,  or  12j  seeds, 
or  ]f)f  bushels  an  acre.  In  the  preceding  year  the  crop  was  bad, 
and  produced  only  3  Candacas,  or  7|-  seeds,  or  1  l^V  bushels  an  acre. 
This  account  I  think  is  true,  the  Amildar  being  well  informed,  and 
apparently  inclined  to  give  me  assistance.  What  the  extent  of  a 
Candaca  land  of  the  two  superior  qualities  is  I  did  not  attempt  to 
ascertain  :  the  people  said  it  was  much  less. 

The  cultivation  of  all  soils  and  all  kinds  of  rice  is  the  same,  and 
the  unprepared  seed  is  sown  by  a  drill.  Immediately  after  harvest, 
the  ground  is  once  ploughed.  When  the  rains  commence,  during 
the  two  months  following  the  vernal  equinox  it  is  ploughed  again 
twice,  smoothed  with  the  implement  called  Coradii,  which  is  similar 
to  that  of  Banazvasi  (Plate  XXIX.  Fig.  72.),  and  then  hoed  twice 
Avith  the  Heg  Cuntay  (Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  75.),  which  is  drawn  by 
two  oxen.  This  removes  the  grass  ;  after  which  the  clods  are 
broken  by  drawing  the  Coradii  twice  over  the  field,  which  in  some 
measure  serves  as  a  rolling-stone.  The  dung  is  then  spread ;  and 
after  the  first  good  rain  the  seed  is  sown  with  the  drill  or  Curigy, 
and  covered  with  the  Coradu.  At  this  season  the  rain  comes  in 
showers,  between  which  are  considerable  intervals.  On  the  third 
day  after  having  been  sown,  the  field  is  hoed  with  the  Heg  Cuntay, 
which  here  is  called  also  Cambutigay.  On  the  twentieth  day,  when 
the  seedlings  are  nine  inches  high,  the  Coradu  is  used  again  ;  then 
the  Edday  Cuntay  (Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  76.);  then  the  Coradu,  and 
finally  the  harrow  which  is  made  of  a  bunch  of  thorny  Bamboos.  On 
the  thirtieth  day,  more  grass  having  sprung,  the  Edday  Cuntay  is 
again  used,  the  rows  of  young  corn  passing  between  the  hoes;  and 
this  must  be  repeated  as  often  as  the  grass  springs.  In  the  third 
month  the  water  is  confined,  and  then  for  the  last  time  the  Edday 
Cuntay  must  be  used.  The  mud  raised  by  this  is  smoothed  by  the 
Coradu;  but  in  this  operation,  the  same  implement  is  called  .^rawiJ. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  295 

All  these  weedines  are  not  sufficient,  and  the  remainino;  o-rass  must   CHAPTER 

.  xvill. 

be  removed  by  the  hand  and  weeding-iron.     The  rice  is  cut  with     v...^^^,-^ 

the  straw,  and  for  two  days  is  allowed  to  lie  loose  on  the  field.  It  ■'^P"'  ^• 
is  then  put  in  ricks,  without  having  been  bound  in  sheaves,  and 
remains  there  until  trodden,  which  may  be  done  any  time  in  the 
course  of  three  months.  It  is  always  preserved  in  the  husk,  and 
when  wanted  for  consumption  is  cleaned  by  a  hand  mill  of  the  usual 
form,  but  made  entirely  of  timber,  which  removes  the  outer  husk  ; 
but  the  inner  one,  or  bran,  must  be  separated  by  beating  in  a  mor- 
tar. Eight  measures  of  clean  rice,  as  usual  in  India,  are  equal  in 
value  to  twenty  of  that  which  retains  the  husk. 

In  a  few  places,  M'here  there  is  a  moist  black  soil,  the  rice-ground  Second  crop 
produces  a  second  crop  oi  Callay  (Cicer  arietinurn),  and  o?  Hessaru  °'P"'^®* 
(Phaseolus  mungo).  The  seed  for  both  is  one  fifth  of  the  quantity 
of  rice  that  is  required  to  sow  the  field;  and,  as  the  soil  is  rich, 
will  probably  be  about  half  a  bushel  the  acre.  The  Callay  produces 
five  seeds,  and  the  Hessaru  four.  For  the  former,  the  field  is 
ploughed  once  in  the  month  preceding  the  winter  solstice.  The 
seed  is  dropt  into  the  furrow  after  the  plough,  and  in  three  months 
ripens  without  farther  trouble  ;  and  this  is  no  additional  labour,  as 
the  field  must  at  any  rate  have  been  ploughed.  For  the  Hessaru, 
the  field  after  the  rice  harvest  must  be  ploughed  twice.  In  the 
month  following  the  shortest  day,  it  must  be  watered  from  a  reser- 
voir, and  smoothed  with  the  implement  called  Coradu,  As  a  mark 
for  the  sower,  furrows  are  then  drawn  through  the  whole  field,  at 
the  distance  of  four  cubits ;  and  the  seed  having  been  sown  broad- 
cast is  covered  by  the  plough.  The  field  is  then  smoothed  with  the 
Coradu,  and  in  four  months  the  crop  ripens. 

Near  Shiva-mogay  the  cultivation  of  dry  grains  begins  to  be  of  Drj-ficld. 
importance.    The  following  kinds  are  cultivated. 

Ragy,  or  the  Cynosiirus  Corocanus,  with  its  concomitants  Avaray 
(Dolichos  Lablab),  Tovary  (Cytisus  Cajan),  Funday  (Hibiscus  Can- 
^labinus),  Lin.  and  Udu  (Phaseolus  Minmoo  Roxb:  MSS.) 


2y6,  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Hiu'uli,  or  Dolic/ios  biflorics. 

Shamay,  or  Fanicum  m'diare  Lamarck. 
•'^P"'  *•  Navonay,  or  Pankiim  italicum. 

Harica,  Paspalumfriimtnt actum  Roxb:  MSS. 

Ba)'ugtf,  Pardcmn  miliaceum. 

Harulu,  Ricinus  palma  christi. 

Huts'  FAlu,  or  Verbesina  satixa  Roxb:  MSS. 

Jf'uir  Ellu,  or  Sesaminn. 

Udu,  or  Phascolus  7nimmoo  Roxb:  by  itself. 

Jola,  or  Holcus  sorghum. 

The  only  ones,  that  are  raised  in  a  quantity  deserving  much  at- 
tention, are  the  Ragy  with  its  concomitants,  and  the  Hui'uli.  About 
three  fourths  of  the  fields  are  sown  with  the  first  crop,  and  one 
fourth  with  the  last  mentioned.  In  giving  an  account  of  the  pre- 
sent state  of  the  country,  the  others  may  be  altogether  neglected. 
They  might,  however,  deserve  much  attention  from  any  person 
who  wished  to  try  experiments  for  the  improvement  of  agriculture. 
The  best  soil  is  reserved  for  Ragy.  The  Huruli  is  sown  on  poor 
soils,  or  on  the  Ragy  fields  when,  oM'ing  to  a  want  of  rain,  the  crop 
of  that  grain  has  failed.  Here  the  crop  oi  Huruli  is  not  thought  to 
injure  the  following  one  oi'  Ragy,  which  is  contrary  to  the  opinion 
that  is  commonly  received  in  most  parts  of  the  country.  In  the 
present  system  of  H'mdu  agriculture,  however,  very  many  opinions 
must  be  commonly  held,  without  any  fair  trial  having  been  made 
to  ascertain  how  far  they  are  M'ell  founded.  Both  Ragy  and  Huruli 
fields  are  sown  every  year  without  rest.  The  Huruli  is  a  very  un- 
certain crop  ;  for,  by  either  too  much  or  too  little  rain  it  is  spoiled; 
so  that,  although  very  high  priced,  it  gives  little  profit. 
Ragy.  At  Shka-mogay  there  is  only  one  kind  of  Ragy,  and  one  mode  of 

cultivation.  In  the  month  following  the  summer  solstice,  the  field  is 
ploughed  twice,  and  smoothed  with  the  Coradu.  It  is  then  ploughed 
and  smoothed  again,  and  hoed  with  the  Heg  Cuntay.  After  this,  it 
is  liai lowed  with  the  rake  drawn  by  oxen.    Eight  days  afterM'ards^ 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  297 

it  is  again  hoed  with  the  Heg  Cuntay,  and  is  allowed  to  rest  fif-   CHAPTER 

teen  days.    Then  throughout  the  field  furrows  are  drawn  at  the    J^i^ 

distance  of  about  seven  inches,  and  into  these  the  Ragy-seed,  mixed  April  2. 

with  dung,   is  placed  very  thin  with  the  hand;  a  small  quantity 

being  dropped  at  about  every  ten  inches.    In  every  seventh  furrow 

are  put  the  seeds  of  Avaray,  Tovary,  and  Punday  intermixed,  or  of 

Udu  by  itself.  The  field  is  then  smoothed  with  the  Coradu,  and  with 

the  bunch  of  prickly  Bamboos.     In  eight  days,  when  the  young 

plants  have  come  up,  the  spaces  between  the  rows  are  hoed  with 

the  Edday  Cuntay  (Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  76.),  and  again  smoothed 

with  the  Coradu  and  bunch  of  twigs.    These  operations  must  be 

repeated  twice,  Avith  an  interval  of  eight  days  between  each  time. 

After  the  third  the  field  is  harrowed  with  the  rake  drawn  by  oxen, 

and  after  another  interval  of  eight  days  this  is  again  repeated.     In 

the  fourth  month,  the   weeds  are  removed  by  the  hand :  in  five 

months  the  crop  is  ripe.    It  is  tied  up  in  sheaves ;  and  as  the  rainy 

season  is  not  then  quite  over,  it  is  dried  with  some  difficulty.  When 

the  Ragy  is  in  flower,  the  crop  is  apt  to  be  spoiled  by  heavy  rain ; 

which  may  be  a  reason  why  it  does  not  thrive  well  to  the  westward. 

The  produce  of  Ragy  in  a  good  crop  is  reckoned  to  be  ten  seeds, 

which,  unless  the  seed  is  sown  much  thicker  than  usual,  is  very  poor. 

This  is  probably  in  some  measure  the  case,  as  at  SIdva-mogay  this 

crop  is  allowed  little  or  no  manure ;  but  the  people  who  gave  me 

the  account  certainly  concealed  the  quantity  of  produce,  as  the 

rent  paid   for  the  Ragy-land  amounts  to  the  value  of  almost  ten 

seeds.    All  the  dry-field  being  at  a  distance  from  the  town,  I  had 

no  opportunity  of  ascertaining  the  extent  of  a.  Colaga  of  Ragy-land. 

For  Huruli,  the  field,  having  been  previously  manured,  is  ploughed  Huruli. 
three  times  during  the  month  which  precedes  the  autumnal  equinox, 
at  the  interval  each  time  of  three  days.    The  seed  is  sown  broad- 
cast, and  covered  with  the  Coradu,    It  ripens  in  four  months  j  four 
seeds  are  reckoned  a  good  crop,  and  three  a  middling  one. 

Vol.  III.  Q  q 


298  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER       The  greater  part  of  the  cultivation  is  carried  on  by  the  tenants, 
v,.,,^  -^    and  their  own  families.    In  agriculture,  some  hired  servants,  but  no 
\v"  ~   d      slaves,  are  employed.    The  yearly  wages  for  a  labouring  servant  are 
labour.  from  four  to  five  Ikeri  Pagodas,  one  blanket,  one  pair  of  shoes,  and 

a  handkerchief,  amounting  in  all  to  about  two  guineas.  He  finds 
his  house  and  victuals.  In  weeding  time,  women  are  hired,  at  four 
Seers  of  rough  rice  a  day.  A  man,  when  hired  by  the  da)',  gets  five 
Seers.  These  wages  are  very  high,  when  it  is  considered  that  no 
servant  works  here  more  than  six  hours.  The  labourers  gave  me 
the  following  account  of  the  manner  in  which  they  pass  their  time. 
About  eight  o'clock  of  our  day  they  rise  from  bed,  and  smoke  to- 
bacco; they  perform  their  evacuations,  and  ablutions;  and  having 
been  purified,  tlaey  worship  the  gods.  They  then  eat,  an  operation 
in  which  two  hours  are  expended.  They  then  rest  themselves  half 
an  hour,  when  they  proceed  to  the  field,  and  work  six  hours.  On 
their  return,  they  again  pray,  and  take  a  little  of  any  cold  victuals 
that  they  have  ready.  They  then  look  after  the  cattle,  and  give 
them  water  and  fodder.  The  labour  of  the  day  is  now  over ;  and 
the  workman,  having  again  washed  and  prayed,  takes  his  supper, 
and  about  seven  o'clock  goes  to  bed,  where  he  remains  thirteen 
hours.  This  is  their  employment  during  the  six  months  of  toil.  In 
the  remaining  half  of  the  year,  little  cultivation  being  carried  on, 
they  repair  their  houses,  lay  in  a  stock  of  firewood,  carry  out  dung, 
and  do  other  little  jobs  about  the  farm.  Masters,  of  course,  work 
still  less. 
Tenures.  In  this  vicinity  there  are  two  kinds  of  tenure.    The  first  com- 

prehends gardens,  and  lands  formerly  granted  in  Enam.  Both  of 
these  the  occupants  have  a  right  to  sell.  Hyder  laid  half  the  usual 
rent  upon  the  lands  held  by  Enam,  and  this  tax  was  increased  by 
the  Sultan  ;  but  Purnea  has  again  reduced  it  to  Hydefs  assessment. 
The  other  tenure  is  that  of  what  are  called  Shist,  or  valued  lands  ; 
these  are  the  absolute  property  of  the    government;    and  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  299 

occupants  may  be  turned  out  at  will.    Each  field  is  valued  at  a  cer-  CHAPTER 
tain  rent  to  be  paid  in  money,  which  was  first  determined  by  Sivuppa     xviii. 
Nayaka,    The  Rany  Vlru  Magi  added  a  half  of  the  amount,   and  April  2. 
Hyder  doubled  her  assessment;  but  no  partial  raisings  upon  any 
man's  possessions  have   been  permitted.    Rice  ground  pays  from 
four  to  eight  Sultany  Pagodas  a  Candaca;  at  this  rate,  the  field  which 
I  measm-ed,  being  of  the  worst  soil,  pays  about  3s.  8d.  an  acre  ;  its 
produce  in  a  good  crop  being   about  ten  bushels  of  clean  rice, 
which  is  reduced  to  eight  by  deducting  the  expense  of  cleaning. 
Dry-field  pays  from  sixteen  to  twelve  Pagodas  a  Candaca :  the  pro- 
duce, therefore,  must  be  much  greater  than  the  ten  seeds  stated  by 
the  cultivators ;  for  ten  Candacas  of  Ragy  are  only  worth  about 
seventeen  Pagodas. 

Four  ploughs  are  here  reckoned  a  large  stock ;  and  require  four  stock. 
men,  two  boys,  and  eight  or  ten  oxen.  These  four  ploughs  are  said 
to  be  able  to  cultivate  one  Candaca  and  a  half  of  rice  land,  with 
one  Colaga  of  dry-field ;  but,  even  allowing  for  the  extreme  indo- 
lence of  the  labourers,  this  must  be  under-rated  in  the  very  worst 
soils. 

The  breed  of  cattle,  when  compared  with  that  of  the  hilly  coun-  Cattle. 
try  to  the  west,  begins  to  improve  at  Shiva-tfiogay.  None,  however, 
that  are  bred  in  this  district,  are  fit  for  the  carriage  of  goods ;  but 
the  oxen  are  of  a  short  thick  breed,  well  adapted  for  ploughing  rice 
ground.  Some  are  exported  to  the  westward.  The  oxen  are  not 
wrought  more  than  four  or  five  hours  in  the  day.  From  about  the 
end  of  July  till  toward  the  end  of  January,  they  ai'e  fed  on  grass, 
some  of  which  is  cut,  and  at  night  is  given  to  them  in  the  house. 
During  the  remainder  of  the  year  they  ai'e  fed  on  straw,  and  husks 
oi  Huruli ;  to  which,  when  they  are  in  danger  of  perishing,  some 
of  that  grain  is  added.  Very  few  buffaloes  are  employed  in  the 
plough;  but  many  females  are  kept  for  giving  milk,  and  tiie young- 
males  are  exported.  Immediately  on  leaving  the  forests  of  the 
western  hills,  asses  become  numerous.     A  f^wf  sheep  and  goats  are 


300 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVIII. 

April  2. 


Manure. 


Strata. 


Afn\  4. 
Appearance 
■of  the  coun- 
try. 


Inhospitable 
disposition 
of  the  natives. 


to  be  seen,  but  they  are  not  bred  in  the  country  ;  very  few  indeed 
are  reared  on  the  west  side  of  the  Tunga-bhadra.  For  the  use  of 
traders,  the  public  reserves  some  pasture  land  ;  and  for  each  ht^ad 
of  cattle  they  pay  two  Dudus  a  month.  The  farmers  send  their 
cattle  to  pasture  in  the  hills  and  woods,  where  they  pay  nothing. 

The  cattle  are  never  littered  ;  and  the  only  manure  used  is  their 
dung,  collected  in  a  pit,  together  with  the  grass  and  straw  which 
they  did  not  eat  in  the  night.  To  these  are  added  the  ashes  and 
sweepings  of  the  farmer's  house. 

At  the  entrance  into  the  open  country,  the  Laterite  seems  to  stop. 
The  last  that  I  have  seen  Avas  at  Baikshavdni  Mata.  Between  that 
place  and  Shiva-mogay  the  strata  are  not  very  observable.  In  some 
places  they  appear  to  run  east  and  west,  in  others  the  rock  seems 
not  to  be  stratified.  In  one  place  only,  since  I  came  up  to  Karnata, 
have  I  observed  the  large  veins  of  quartz  so  common  to  the 
eastward ,  and  I  saw  none  in  any  place  below  the  western  Ghats. 

4th  April. — I  Avent  four  cosses  to  Kiidali.  The  country  all  the 
way  is  plain ;  but  it  contains  many  detached  hills,  some  of  Avhich, 
tOAvard  the  north,  are  pretty  high.  The  Avhole  country  is  bare,  and 
almost  entirely  Avaste. 

Mid-Avay  I  came  to  a  village,  Avhere  the  inhospitable  disposition 
of  the  natives  fully  manifested  itself.  Near  this  village,  I  overtook 
a  Sepoy  lying  in  the  utmost  agony  from  a  rupture.  Having  Avith 
some  difficulty  reduced  it,  the  pain  in  his  groin  Avas  succeeded  by  a 
violent  colic,  Avhich  contracted  his  limbs;  and,  had  any  exercise 
been  at  all  proper  for  a  man  in  his  condition,  rendered  him  totally 
unable  to  Avalk.  I  therefore  Avent  into  the  village,  in  order  to  pro- 
cure a  cot  or  bedstead,  6f  which  a  litter  could  be  readily  made.  As 
I  had  left  all  my  attendants  Avith  the  sick  man,  except  an  inter- 
preter, the  villagers  held  me  in  contempt.  I  found  the  Gauda,  his 
brother,  and  some  head  men  of  the  village,  all  Sivabkactars,  stand- 
ing in  conversation,  and  v/rapped  up  in  their  blankets.  Having 
made  knoAvn  to  them  my  case,  tlie  Gauda  replied,  that  they  had  no 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  301 

cots,  and  his  brother  talked  very  loud,  and  in  an  insolent  manner,   CHAPTER 

.  ,  XVIII. 

This  was  checked  by  the  coming  up  of  a  superior  officer  of  revenue,  ^^^^^^^^ 
who  informed  me  that  there  were  cots  in  every  house  ;  but  neither  -^P"^  •*• 
offers  of  payment,  nor  threats  of  complaint,  were  of  more  avail  than 
humanity.  In  excuse  for  these  people  it  may  however  be  said,  that 
the  Sepoy  belonged  to  the  Bombay  army,  a  detachment  of  which  had 
enabled  Purseram  Bhoxo  to  commit  all  his  cruelties.  Not  that  the 
Bombay  army  had  any  share  in  these  excesses ;  but  without  its 
assistance  he  either  would  not  have  ventured  into  the  country  at  all, 
or  would  have  been  assuredly  defeated  at  Shiva-mogay. 

About  a  coss  from  this  inhospitable  village,  I  crossed  the  Tunga, 
and  from  thence  to  Kudali  some  part  of  the  country  is  cultivated. 
The  principal  crops  are  Jola  and  cotton. 

Kudali,  or  the  Joining,  is  an  Agraram,  or  village  given  in  Enam  Kudali. 
to  the  Brahmans,  and  is  situated  between  the  Tunga  and  Bhadra 
rivers  at  their  junction,  whence  the  place  derives  its  name.  It 
was  plundered  and  burned,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  by  a 
party  of  the  Marattah  army,  who  put  all  tlie  Sudra  inhabitants  to 
the  sword,  although  the  place  is  quite  defenceless,  nor  did  the 
people  attempt  to  make  any  resistance.  After  this,  the  Brahmans 
Avent  to  complain  to  the  Bhow,  who  gave  each  of  them  one  Rupee 
as  in  duty  (Dharma)  bound. 

I  found,  that  the  Guru  or  Sicami  was  at  Hara-punya-hully,  em-  Br&hmans^ 
ployed  in  begging,  as  it  is  called.  He  had  with  him  all  his  principal 
disciples ;  so  that  the  Brahmans  Avho  remained  at  Kudali  were  not 
men  of  great  intelligence ;  but  they  gave  me  a  copy  in  the  Ma- 
rattah character,  of  the  Sankara  Acharya  Cheritra,  or  an  account  of 
the  life  and  actions  of  that  very  celebrated  personage.  It  is  esteemed 
a  book  of  great  authority,  and  has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal 
government.. 

The  Brahmans  whom  I  found  at  Kudali  said,  that  Sankara  appeared  SanJcam 
on  earth  in  that  character  only  once,  and  that  he  lived  about  two  ^.'^^"''^"'  ^"^ 

J  '  hi3  succes- 

thousand  years  ago.    At  the  time  of  his  coming,  the  sect  of  Buddha  sors> 


502  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


-T  \T- 

XVIII. 


and  other  heretics  were  very  numerous  ;  and  most  of  the  Brahmans 
who  were  then  living  had  fallen  into  the  error  of  worshipping  the 

April  4.  sun,  moon,  and  stars.  ThQ  Matam,  ox  college,  o^  Sankara  Acharya 
was  at  Sringa-giri,  and  he  appointed  one  Sanni/dsi  only  to  be  his 
successor,  and  to  occupy  his  throne.  The  Matam  of  Sringa-giri  is 
still  called  the  throne  of  Sajikara  ;  but  each  Swami  that  occupies  it 
as  his  successor  has  a  peculiar  name,  although  they  are  all  acknow- 
ledged to  be  gods,  and  incarnations  of  Iszcara.  The  successors  of 
Sankara  Acharya  have  at  difterent  times  found  it  necessary  to  ap- 
point agents  for  the  management  of  their  remote  followers;  and, 
to  render  these  agents  sufficiently  respectablCj  it  has  been  found 
necessary  to  reveal  to  them  the  Upadesa  peculiar  to  the  rank  of 
Sannyasi.  By  this  mean  a  portion  of  Istcara  is  incorporated  with 
their  bodies,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  worship  offered  to  them 
becomes  of  equal  efficacy  with  the  worship  of  that  portion  of  the 
deity  which  remains  in  heaven.  They  are  not  supposed  to  be  pos- 
sessed of  any  extraordinary  power,  Avhich  indeed  would  be  a  pre- 
tension very  difficult  to  support  with  credit  for  ages.  Several  of 
these  agents,  who  managed  their  followers  with  skill,  established 
Matams  of  t\\t\x  own,  and  appointed  successors,  who,  according  to 
their  success,  either  acknowledged  adependance  on  the  Sringa  girt 
throne,  or  have  pi-etended  to  be  equal  to  its  Sicami.  Among  these, 
the  most  conspicuous  of  whom  I  have  heard  is  the  Swami  of  Kudali. 
■  About  400  years  ago,  the  first  founder  of  this  Ifatam  was  appointed 
a  Sannyasi  by  the  Sringa-giri  Szcami,  and  was  entrusted  with  the 
management  of  all  the  Smartal  of  the  Marattah  nation.  These  all 
continue  to  consider  his  successors  as  their  Gurus ;  and  the  present 
opulence  and  power  of  the  Alarattah  Brahmans  have  raised  the 
Mata  of  Kudali  to  a  greater  splendor  than  that  of  Sringa-giri. 

Inscription.  I  procured  from  the  Brahmans  of  Kudali  a  copy  of  an  inscription 
engraven  on  a  copper-plate,  and  belonging  to  the  Swami.  It  is  dated 
Sal.  1043,  in  the  reign  of  Pur undara  Raja,  of  the  Cadumba  f-MwWy  iit 
Banawdsi;  and  a  copy  has  been  given  to  the  government  in  Bengal. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  3«!S 

At  Kudali  are  three  temples  of  the  great  a;ods,  all  reckoned  cele-   CHAPTER 

.  .  .       xvin. 

brated  by  the  Brahmans,  and  all  accompanied  by  miraculous  tradi-    \^^^y-^ 

tions.    The  buildings  are  mean,  and  have  the  appearance  of  being  ^l'"'  *•  .    ^ 

°  '  '  "^  °   Three  ancient 

ancient.    The  oldest,  according  to  tradition,  is  that  dedicated  to  temples, 

Brahmiswara,  one  of  the  names  of  Siva.    Many  Yuganis  ago,  it  rose 

spontaneously  from  the  earth.    In  the  same  manner  the   second 

sprang  up  three  Yugams  ago,  and  is  dedicated  to  Narasingha,  one  of 

the  incarnations  of  Vishnu.  At  this  there  is  an  inscription  on  stone, 

but  it  is  no  longer  legible.    The  third,  compared  with  the  others,  is 

modern,  and  was  built  by  Rama  only  a  few  hundred  thousand  years 

ago,  and  dedicated  to  Siva,  under  the  name  of  Rameswara,  in  order 

to  wash  away  the  sin  which  Rama  had  incurred  by  killing  JValli  king 

of  Kiskinda,  a  place  that  is  near  Vijnya-iwgara,  and  is  now  called, by 

the  vulgar  name  of  Humpay.    This   happened  immediately  after 

Ra7na's  return  from  Lanca,  or  Ceylon.    When  I  tell  tlie  Brahmans 

here,  that  the  English   have  now  conquered  this  celebrated  island, 

they  do  not  venture  to   call  me  a  liar;  but  what  they  think  is 

evident. 

At  the  temple  of  Rameswara  axe  four  inscriptions  on  stone,  of  Inscriptions, 
■which  one  only  is  entirely  legible.  It  is  written  in  the  Nagara  cha- 
racter, but  in  the  Karnataca  language  intermixed  with  Saiiskrit.  A 
copy  of  it  in  the  character  of  JSTarwa/a  has  been  delivered  to  the 
Bengal  government.  Another,  that  is  partly  legible,  is  also  in  the 
Nagara  character.  Two,  that  are  in  the  character  of  Karnata,  are 
only  legible  in  part.  The  one  is  dated  in  Cara  Sal.  1214,  in  the 
reign  of  Vira  Narasingha  Raya  Maha  Raya.  Who  this  prince  was  I 
cannot  say.  The  date  is  44  years  before  the  foundation  of  Vijaya- 
nagara,  according  to  Ramiippa''s  chronology.  The  other  is  in  the 
year  of  Sal.  1242;  the  Raja's  name,  however,  is  not  legible. 

5thi  April. — I  went  four  cosses  to  Sahasiva-hully.    I  recrossed  the  April  5. 
Tunga  immediately  above  its  junction  with  the  Bhadra,  Avhere  both  j.jygp_ 
rivers  are  nearly  of  an  equal  size,  and  even  at  this  season  contain 
considerable  streams.     The  united  rivers  form  the  Tungabhadra^ 


304  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   the  channel  of  which  is  very  little,  if  at  all,  wider  than  that  of  either 
XVIII.  „    ,  ,         .  .     \ 

^.^-v-^^    or  the  parent  streams :  but  its  water  is  of  course  more  copious. 

pn  4.         -pjjg  ^yater  at  this  season  is  sunk  very  deep  in  the  channel ;  so  that 
the  forming  dams  for  irrigation  would  be  very  expensive. 
Face  of  the         The  country  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  is  in  general  level,  but 
country.        j^  interspersed  with  hills.    The  whole  is  exceedingly  bare.  Near  the 
river  are  many  small  villages,  each  provided  with  a  round  tower, 
near  which  the  houses  are  crowded  for  protection.    The  cultivation 
near  these  villages  is  pretty  considerable,  and  at  present  is  confined 
almost  wholly  to  the  dry  grains,  about  two  thirds  Ragy  and  Tovary, 
and  one  third  Jola  and  Hai^ulu.    The  other  crops  are  of  little  impor- 
tance.   On  the  higher  lands,  near  the  hills,  there  is  no  cultivation. 
The  soil  in  many  places  there  is  indeed  very  poor;  but  in  others  it 
is  a  fine  red  earth,  reckoned  particularly  favourable  for  Rngy ;  and, 
if  there  were  people,  would  be   cultivated  for  that  grain.     The 
greater  part  of  the  tanks  have  gone  to  decay,  so  that  there  is  very 
little  wet  land  ;  and,  even  when  the  country  was  in  its  best  state  of 
cultivation,  irrigation  seems  to  have  been  much  neglected.     Tlie 
Kilidi  family,  to  whom   this  part  of  the    country  belonged,  from 
having  lived  in  a  district  where  artificial  watering  was  not  requi- 
site, seem  not  to  have  been  sensible  of  its  advantages.  The  Amildar 
says,  that  by  constructing  reservoirs  much  dry-field  might  be  con- 
verted  into  rice  ground.    Below  Sahasiva-hully,  the  river  taking  a 
bend  to  the  south-west,  I  crossed  it  at  the  angle,  and  ascended  the 
right  bank  to  that  village.    Its  name  signifies  Along  with  Siva,  as  it 
is  supposed  to  be  a  place  where  that  deity  resided  some  time  toge- 
ther with  his  Avife.    It  has  a  small  mud  fort,  and  about  a  Imndred 
houses.    In  this  open  part  of  the  country  there  are  very  few  fences, 
which  in  many  points  of  view  is  a  great  loss.    The  crops  here  rarely 
fail  from  want  of  rain,  and  the  epidemic  disease  among  cattle  is 
seldom  so  general  as  to  the  eastward.    Tigers  seem  to  be  more  de- 
structive here  .than  in  the  woods.    The  want  of  game  makes  them 
bold,  and  they  frequently  carry  away  the  inhabitants  from  their  beds. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  20S 

This  part  of  the  Nagara  Rdyada  entirely  resembles  the  Mysore  Chapter 
country.    The  cultivators  live  in  villages,  their  cattle  are  large  and    v^,,..^,,,^ 
white,  they  rear  sheep,  the  country  is  naked,  and  the  people  subsist  ^?"1  •^; 
chiefly  on  dry  grains.    Many  of  the  inhabitants  are  Cunsa  JVocu- 
ligas,  a  laborious  and  intelligent  class  of  farmers,  sti'ongly  contrasted 
with  the  Sivabhactars  of  the  west,  who  appeared   to  me  to   be  as 
stupid  and  lazy  a  class  of  men  as  I  have  ever  seen. 

The  hills  here,  however,  are  not  so  rugged  as  toward  Mysore  ;  Strata. 
but  the  strata  run  north  and  south,  and  contain  many  lumps  of 
quartz.  In  all  the  open  country,  where  there  is  no  Laterite,  the 
limestone  nodules  abound.  Although  the  natives  in  general  think 
that  calcareous  stone  in  the  ground  diminishes  its  fertility,  I  have  an 
idea  that  the  want  of  this  substance  in  the  countries  to  the  west- 
ward, more  than  any  absolute  sterility  in  their  soil,  may  be  the  cause 
why  the  dry  grains  do  not  thrive. 

Before  the  invasion  of  Purseram  Bhow,  this  country  was  in  a  Desolation, 
very  good  state.  After  his  destructive  march,  not  above  one  fourth 
of  the  inhabitants  remained  alive,  and  these  were  left  destitute  of 
every  thing  which  the  Marattahs  could  either  carry  away  or  destroy. 
The  wretched  remnants  of  population  had  again  begun  to  recover, 
when  Dundia  came  among  them.  He  did  not  put  any  one  to  death; 
but  he  plundered  the  houses,  and  even  burned  some  of  the  villages, 
the  inhabitants  of  wliich  he  suspected  of  concealing  their  property. 

The  dry-field  of  this  village  is  very  hard,  and  full  of  small  stones,  Dry-field, 
being  what  is  called  Darray ;  yet  it  seems  to  be  productive,  or  at 
least  the  people  seem  willing  to  acknowledge  the  real  returns  which 
they  obtain  from  its  cultivation.  Almost  every  kind  of  dry  grain 
is  raised  on  it,  without  attention  to  rotation,  or  any  idea  among  the 
farmers  that  one  grain  is  more  exhausting  than  another.  The  soil 
is  never  rested,  and  contains  limestone;  but  it  is  well  dunged.  The 
two  great  crops  are  Ragy  and  Jola.  This  has  been  a  remarkably 
favourable  year,  and  the  Ragy  produced  forty  seeds. 

Vol.  III.  R  r 


306 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 

xvm. 

April  5. 
AII.JWdDce  of 
grain  tW  a 
laboiiriag 
limn. 


A  hard   labouring   man  is  supposed  to  eat   daily   the  following 
quantities  of  the  different  kinds  of  grain  j  the  Mana  of  this  place 


Kent  and 
pioililce. 


\\  Mana  of  Ragy,  which  is  weekly 

1    Mana  .oi  Jola 

1    Mana  of  cleaned  Shaniai/ 

If  Mana  of  cleaned  rice 


Peck. 
1      6  4  a  » 

*5  1  O  O  O  O 

1        O  »   8   » 
*>  I  O  O  O  O 

1       o  »  «  »  , 

'>  I  o  o  o  o 


The  allowance  of  Jo/a  is  reckoned  the  most  nutritious. 


Pence. 


1  Jktri  Prtg-oifa  purchases  192  Manas  Ragy.  1  bushel  costs  IS^Vo 
120  ditto  Harulu  -  -  SOy^V 
120  ditto  Tovary  -  -  20,Vo 
150    ditto  Jola  -  -  15^ 

Having  ascertained  these  preliminaries,  I  went  to  the  fields  with 
the  cultivators,  and  officers  of  revenue ;  and  foijnd,  that  in  the 
public  accompts  they  were  not  valued  by  any  measurement,  nor  by 
the  quantity  of  seed  which  they  were  supposed  to  require;  but 
that  each  field  was  rated  at  a  certain  rent.  Having  fixed  on  one 
that  pays  two  Rupees,  or  half  a  Pagoda  yearly,  I  found  that  it  con- 
tained 5.5t08  square  feet.  The  soil  is  very  stony,  and  apparently 
poor.  The  rent  is  at  the  rate  of  3*.  ItWo^^-  ^.n  acre.  The  farmers 
gave  me  the  following  account  of  its  average  produce,  and  seed,  in 
four  different  kinds  of  cultivation. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR. 


307 


Crop. 

Seed. 

3  2 

Produce. 

Of  the 

field. 

Of  one  Acre. 

Of  the  Field. 

Of  an  Acre. 

Quan- 
tity. 

V.lue. 

Quantity. 

Value. 

Gross. 

Deducting 

seed  and 

rent. 

1st  Ragy 
Avaray    - 

Total   - 

Manas, 

12 

4 

Bush.  dec. 
0,3689 

0,12296 

Pence  dec. 
4,7347 
not  sold, 

20 
15 

Manas. 

240 

60 

Sul  Pag.An 

1     4 
not  sold. 

Bush.  dec. 
7,37s 
1,8445 

Pence  dec, 
94,694 
nut  sold. 

Pence  dec. 
not  sold. 

16 

0,489186 

300 

9.2225 

^» 

2d  Ragy 
Haralu    - 

Total  - 

12 
12 

0,3689 
0,3689 

4,7347 
7,5755 

20 
5 

240 
60 

1     4 
0     8 

7,378 
1,8445 

94,694 
37,8775 

24 

0,7378 

12,3292 

V 

300 

1   12 

9,2225 

132,5715 

82,3673 

3d  .Tola   -     - 
Tovary     - 

Total  - 

6 
5 

0,18445 
0,1537. 

2,8408 
2,3671 

20i 

12t 

122 
64 

0     \Z\ 

0       8A 

3,7505 
1,9675 

75,763 

30:3 

11 

0,33815 

5,2079 

186 

1       4,{\ 

5,718 

88,063 

44,9801 

4th  Hfiamay  - 

24 

0,7378 

not  sold. 

10 

240 

not  sold. 

7,378 

not  sold. 

not  sold. 

I  here  received  from  Subaia,  a  Brahman  of  Holay  Honuru,  a  short 
Rdya  Paditti,  of  which  the  chronology  is  very  different  from  that 
of  Ramuppa.  Sulmia  says,  that  the  original  was  copious,  but  was 
burnt  by  the  Marattahs.  The  present  short  extract  was  made  up 
from  books  and  memory,  and  inaccuracies  must  therefore  be  ex- 
pected. The  general  chronology  is  that  of  the  eighteen  Puranas. 
The  following  is  a  translation: 

"  The  Kali-yugam  will  contain  432,000  years.    Particulars: 


Yudishtera  era 

3,044  years 

Vicrama 

135* 

Salivahana 

-      18,000 

Naga  Arjuna 

-       400,000 

Kali  Bupaii     - 

821 

CHAPTER 
XVIII. 

April  5. 


Rdya  Pet' 
ditti,  or 
chronolo- 
gical table. 


Total-     432,000 


*  Query— 10,135  ? 


308  A  jeURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER       Of  tliis  there  have  elapsed  to  the  present  time  (being  Raudri  of 
XVIII.       5a//ra/itf«a  1722),  4901  years.    Particulars: 

April  5.  Yudishtara  era         -         .         -         S044 

Vicrama  -         -        -         -  135 

Salivahana  -  -         -       1722 


4901  years. 

Particulars  of  the  Ruyaru  family. 

Woragulla  Pritapa  Raj  a 
Son  of  Campila  Raja 
■  Son  of  Comara  Raja 

The  end  of  his  reign  was  in  the  year  of  Sal.  1150,  A.  D.  1227. 
In  the  year  Seroadavi  of  this'  Raja  Woragulla  Pritapa  Rat/a  the  house 
guards  of  the  treasury  were  Hari-hara  and  Buca  Raya.  According 
to  his  order,  these  two  men  came  to  Vijaya-nagara.  The  year  Ser- 
•vadavi  is  the  commencement  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Rayaru, 
This  year,  on  Monday  the  5th  of  Chaitra,  they  placed  the  pillar 
(-a  ceremony  similar  to  ours  of  laying  the  foundation  stone)  for 
building  Vijaya-nagara.  The  Rajas  were  placed  on  a  throne  of 
jewels. 

Here  follows  a  Slokam,  signifying,"  In  this  manner  thirteen  princes 
sat  on  the  throne,  governirig  every  cast  according  to  its  own  cus- 
toms, and  hearkening  to  the  word  of  God  with  pleasure." 
Particulars : 

1  Hari-hara  Rdya  8  Virupacsha  Raya 

2  Buca  Rdya  9  Deva  Rdya 

3  Hari-hara  Rdya  1 0  Rama  Rdjd  Rdya 
4.  Virupacsha  Rdya                    1 1  Malicarjiuia  Raya 

5  Buca  Rdya  12  Rama  Rdya 

6  Deva  Rdya  1 3  Virupacsha  Rdya 

7  Rama  Rdjd  Rdya 

Total  13  princes  reigned  S32  years,  till  the  year  of  Sal  1382, 
A.  D.  1459. 


xMYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  309 

Aftei"  that  came  the  following  kings. 

Prowicda  Raya  reigned  12  years.  He  was  a  son  adopted  from 
Penu-conda,  and  died  in  the  year  Nundina  of  Sal.  1394-,  A.  D.  147^.    "^P"'  ^• 

After  that  Kira  Narasingha  Raya  reigned  10  years.  He  died  in 
the  year  Chubucrutu  of  Sal.  1404,  A.  D.  I48f. 

After  that  Solva  Narasingha  Raya  reigned  12  years.  He  died  in 
the  year  Ammda  of  Sal.  1416,  A.  D.  149|. 

After  that  Achuta  Rdya  reigned  3  years.  He  died  in  the  year 
Pingala  of  Sal.  U\9,  A.  D.  149-f. 

After  that  for  9  months  there  was  a  Nava  Nayakara.  This  literally 
means  nine  Nayakas  or  petty  princes;  but  implies  an  anarchy, 
where  every  chief  is  contending  with  his  neighbour,  and  plunder- 
ing the  vicinity. 

After  that  came  the  following  kings. 

Krishna  Rdya  reigned  40  years.  He  died  in  the  day  time  on  the 
5th  of  the  moon  Kartika,  being  Monday,  in  the  year  Hevalumbi  of 
Sal.  1460,  A.  D.  \5^\. 

After  that  Sedasiva  Raya  reigned  2  years.  He  died  on  the  Ama- 
vasya,  or  last  day  of  Margasirsha  in  the  yea.r  Skervari  of  Sal.  1462, 
A.  D.  \5U- 

After  that,  Rama  Rdjd  reigned  24  years.  He  died  on  Wednesday 
the  14th  of  the  dark  moon  in  Mdgha,  in  the  year  Ructachi  of  Sal. 
1486  (A.  D.  1563),  and  the  city  Vijaya-nagara  was  destroyed. 

Total  seven  princes  103  years. 

Grand  total  twenty  princes  S35  years. 

The  chronology  will  be  found  totally  incompatible  with  the  in- 
scriptions. A  copy  of  the  original  has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal 
government. 

6th  April. — I  went  three  cosses   to  Baswa-pattana,  in  order  to  April  6. 
avoid  a  steep  mountainous  road,  called  a.  Ghat,  that  lies  in  the  direct  ■'^PFarance 

'  _  '  of  the  couu- 

route  between  Sahasiva-hully,  and  Hari-hara.    On  the  open  country  try. 
through  which  I  passed,  there  are  scattered  several  small  hills.    The 
soil  in  general  seems  to  be  capable  of  cultivation  j  but  in  other  parts 


310  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  the  rock  comes  to  the  surface,  and  much  of  it  is  waste.  The  farther 
xyill.      J  advanced  into  the  open  country,  I  observed  that  the  villages  are 

April  6.  more  strongly  fortified.  Tlie  country  is  very  bare,  and,  like  that 
to  the  eastward,  is  covered  with  bushes  of  the  Cassia  auriculata,  and 
Dodoncea  viscosa. 

Baswa-pattana  was  formerly  a  part  of  the  dominions  of  Kingalu 
Nuifaka,  the  Terricaray  Polj/gar.  His  successors  were  expelled  by 
Renadulla  Khan,  who  was  succeeded  by  Ddaxver  Khan,  both  Mogul 
officers.  Delawer  Khan  resided  here  twenty  years,  and  under  his 
government  the  place  seems  to  have  been  very  flourishing.  He 
■was  expelled  by  the  Marattahs,  who  held  it  for  seven  years,  when 
they  were  driven  out  by  Hydtr.  This  Mussulman  destroyed  the 
fort,  in  order  to  prevent  it  from  being  of  use  to  the  Marattahs^ 
who  in  their  next  incursion  destroyed  the  town  ;  and  till  after  the 
fall  0^  Serin gapat 0771  it  continued  waste.  The  fort  has  now  been  re- 
paired, and  about  two  hundred  houses  have  been  erected  in  the 
town.  It  has  two  reservoirs,  one  of  which  is  tolerably  large.  South 
east,  about  two  cosses  from  Basu-a-patiana,  is  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated works  of  this  kind,  which  was  erected  by  a  dancing  girl  from 
the  gains  of  her  profession.  It  is  called  Solicaray,  and  the  sheet  of 
water  is  said  to  be  three  cosses  in  length,  and  to  send  forth  a  con- 
stant considerable  stream  for  the  irrigation  of  the  fields.  It  is  built 
on  a  similar  plan  with  the  reservoir  at  Toiiui'u,  ne^ir  Seiungapatam. 
A  bank  has  been  erected  between  two  hi  Is,  and  thus  confines  the 
water  of  a  rivulet  which  had  originally  found  a  way- between  them. 

Baba  Bodetn,      Near  the  fort  is  a  mosque,  celebrated  among  the  Mussulmans  for 

lalla  RAiia  *"  being  the  first  place  where  Baba  Bodeen  took  up  his  abode.  He 
afterwards  went,  and  resided  on  a  hill  toward  the  south,  which  now 
is  called  after  his  name.  The  people  of  the  mosque  say,  that  he 
was  a  saint  of  the  greatest  reputation,  who,  although  he  performed 
a  number  of  miraculous  things,  suffered  many  persecutions  from 
Vira  Belalla,  the  infidel  king  of  this  country.  The  saint  at  length 
invited  Jan  Padisha,  a  prince  of  the  Faithful,  from  the  north,  and 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  311 

the  infidel  was  taken  prisoner.  The  saint  then  put  the  Raja  and  all  CHAPTER 
his  family  into  a  pit  under  his  hill,  and  there  they  still  continue  to  v^i*l> 
live,  suffering  the  punishment  due  to  their  want  of  faith.  April  6. 

Near  my  tent  a  farmer  was  at  work,  expressing  the  juice  from  Sugarcane, 
sugar-cane,  and  boiling  it  to  form  Jagory.  He  said  that  his  field 
contained  a  JVocula  land.  The  taxes  amounted  to  20  Pagodas:,  or 
8^.  2  5.  dd.  The  whole  expense  he  calculates  at  26  Pagodas,  or 
10/.  10*.  \\d.  The  crop  season  will  last  30  days ;  and  on  each  he 
•will  boil  three  times,  getting  2  Maunds  o^  Jagory  from  every  boil- 
ing. He  therefore  expects  to  get  ISO  Maunds,  which  sells  at  the 
rate  of  3^  Pagodas  for  '[Q  Maunds.  The  whole  produce  therefore 
will  be  63  Pagodas,  or  9.51.  \\s.  \\d.,  leaving  a  neat  profit  of  61. 
\7s.  lljrf.,  or  17  Pagodas,  or  very  nearly  9.7 per  cent,  on  the  gross 
produce.    I  did  not  measure  the  field.    The  cane  was  Maracabo. 

7th  April. — I  went  thiee  cosses  to  Malaya  Banuru.  This  last  word  ^P"!  7- 
is  a  common  termination  in  the  names  of  villages  in  this  part  of  the  country. 
country,  and  signifies  a  place  behind  any  other ;  thus  Malaya  Ba?iuru 
signifies  the  place  behind  the  hill.  On  the  left  of  the  road,  are  the 
low  bare  hills  which  form  the  Ghai  between  Sahasiva-hully  and 
Hari-hara,  and  which  render  that  road  very  bad ;  but  among  the 
hills  are  many  villages,  and  cultivated  places,  which  from  their 
situation  are  said  to  have  escaped  better  than  those  in  the  plain. 
All  to  the  right  of  this  day's  route  is  a  fine  level  country,  but  it  is 
exceedingly  bare  of  trees  and  fences.  Near  the  road  at  least  nine 
tenths  of  the  soil  appear  to  be  good  ;  but  a  very  large  proportion 
of  the  country  is  waste,  having  been  desolated  by  Purseram  Bhow. 
The  natives  say,  that  two-thirds  of  the  whole  plain  are  of  so  poor  a 
soil  as  to  be  unfit  for  cultivation.  They  are  very  unskilful  in 
making  reservoirs,  and  of  course  are  negligent  in  the  cultivatien 
of  rice,  and  never  take  a  second  crop.  On  being  asked  the  reason 
of  this,  they  say,  that  in  the  dry  season  the  soil  is  too  hot  for  cul- 
tivation. There  is,  however,  no  end  to  the  foolish  reasons  which 
unskilful  farmers  assign  for  their  conduct.    Sugar-cane  is  a  good 


312 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 

XVIII. 


April  7, 


Malaya  Ba- 
tiuru. 

Terricaray. 
Poll/gars. 


deal  cultivated,  but  the  kind  is  the  Maracabo,  which  yields  a  very 
small  quantity  of  juice,  and  that  contains  little  saccharine  matter. 
When  the  farmers  are  asked  a  reason,  why  they  do  not  cultivate 
the  Piitta-putty,  or  Restali,  they  say,  that  these  canes  are  so  sweet, 
that  it  is  impossible  to  keep  the  wild  hogs  from  devouring  them. 
Little  or  no  credit  can  therefore  be  given  to  the  reasons  assigned 
by  such  farmers  for  their  practices,  or  for  the  state  of  the  country; 
especially,  as  is  generally  the  case,  when  it  is  found,  that  no  two 
people  give  the  same  reason ;  for  the  ignorant  and  lazy  are  in  ge- 
neral abundantly  unwilling  to  confess  their  weaknesses,  and,  rather 
than  acknowledge  them,  assign  some  random  excuse  for  their 
conduct. 

Malaya  Banuru  has  a  small  fort  surrounded  by  a  Petta,  which 
contains  about  two  hundred  houses.  It  formerly  belonged  to  the 
Terricaray  Polygars,  who  were  atone  time  very  powerful;  but  their 
territory  became  a  prey  to  various  invaders.  The  Mussulmans  of 
Sira  took  Baswa-pattatia.  The  Sivabhactars  oi  Ikeri  took  from  Main- 
hully  to  Lacky-hully.  The  Mysore  Raja  took  Banawara.  When  Hyder 
seized  the^  remainder,  it  consisted  of  Terricaray,  with  the  adja- 
cent country  to  the  value  of  a  hundred  thousand  Pagodas  a  year. 
Hyder  permitted  the  family  to  remain  at  Terricaray  with  a  yearly 
allowance  of  thirty  thousand  Pagodas.  The  whole  of  this  was  stopt 
by  the  Sultan.  On  his  fall,  one  of  the  family  returned,  seized  on 
the  fort,  and  intended  to  set  himself  up  as  an  independent  prince. 
He  was,  however,  betrayed  by  some  of  his  ragamuffin  followers, 
who,  after  wounding  him,  hanged  him  by  the  orders  of  the  new 
government.  Some  of  the  family  now  remain,  but  they  have  no 
pension  nor  allowance. 
Saline  earth.  In  some  of  the  wells  here  the  water  is  saline,  and  culinary  salt  has 
formerly  been  made  at  the  place.  The  saline  earth  is  found  in  low 
moist  places.  In  this  respect  also  the  strata  here  agree  with  those 
to  the  eastward.  No  saline  earth  nor  springs  are  to  be  found  in  the 
hilly  western  tract,  nor  in  the  country  below  the  western  G/!«^*. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  313 

8th  April. — I  went  a  very  long-  stage,  called  four  cosses,  to  Hari-   chapter 
hara,   and  by  the  way  crossed   a  large  empty  water-course,   and       XVIII. 
afterwards  a  wide  channel  containing  a  considerable  stream,  which  April  8. 
comes  from  the  Solicaray,  and  is  therefore  called  the  Solicaray  holay.  of''ihrcouu- 
It  falls  into  the  Tungahhadra  immediately  above  Hari-hara,  and  try. 
never  dries,  except  in  very  extraordinary  seasons.    The  country  in 
general  near  this  day's  route  is  plain,   with  a  few  hills  scattered  at 
great  distances.    Much  of  it  is  what  the  farmers  of  Malaya  Banuric 
consider  as  totally  useless;   but  the  Tpeople  of  Hari-hara  are  of  a 
different  opinion,  and  think  that  two  thirds  of  the  whole  level 
country  is  fit  for  cultivation,  and  would  be  employed  in  that  way 
were  there  a  sufficient  number  of  inhabitants.    A  great  proportion 
of  it  has,  however,  been  long  waste;  for  far  beyond  the  reach  of 
human'  memory  the  country  has  been  a  scene  of  warfare,  and  the 
wars  of  the  natives  are  carried  on  in  a  most  barbarous  and  destruc- 
tive manner.    The  country  is  exceedingly  bare,  and  at  this  season 
is  very  ill  supplied  with  Avater. 

The  bank  of  the  Tungabhadra  opposite  to  Hari-hara  forms  a  part  Marattah 
of  the  31a rattah  dominion,  and  at  present  belongs  to  Appa  Saheb,  '""''"'y- 
the  son  of  Purseram-Bozv  :  tlie  natives  here  speak  in  raptures  of 
the  Savanuru  district,  including  Darwara,  Hiibuli,  and  Nilagunda, 
andcompare  its  air  and  fertility  to  those  of  Cashemire.  The  territory 
south  of  the  Varada,  although  fertile,  is  greatly  inferior  to  the  other. 
Both  are  fast  becoming  desert. 

I  remained  three  days  at  Hari-hara,  which  was  formerly  an  Agra-  Hari-hara. 
ram  belonging  to  the  Brdhmans  of  its  celebrated  temple  of  the  same 
name.  After  the  death  of  Ram  Raja,  and  the  destruction  of  Vijaya- 
nagura,  it  became  subject  to  the  Add  Shah  dynasty,  and  was  given 
mJaghire  to  a  Sheer  Khan,  who  built  the  fort.  On  the  conquest  of 
the  Decan,  it  was  taken  by  the  Savanurii  Nabob,  Delil Khan,  who  Avas 
an  officer  of  the  court  of  Delhi.  From  the  house  of  Timour  it  was 
taken  by  the  Ikeri  Rajas,  who  were  expelled  by  the  Marattahs;  and 
t'.iese  again,  after  fifteen  years  possession,  were  driven  out  by 
Vol.  Ill,  S  s 


S^*  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

Hijdcr.    Since  that  time  these  free-booters  have  taken  it  thrice;  the 
last  time  was  by  Purseram  Bow.    He  did  not  kill  any  of  the  people, 

Aprils.  nor  did  he  burn  the  town ;  but  he  swept  away  every  necessary  of 
life  so  completely,  that  many  of  the  inhabitants  perished  from  hun- 
ger. They  have  since  enjoyed  quiet.  The  fort  contains  the  temple, 
and  a  hundred  houses  occupied  by  Brdhmans ;  the  suburbs  contain 
three  hundred  houses  of  the  low  casts.  The  temple,  for  a  Hindu 
place  of  worship,  is  a  tolerable  building,  but  is  kept  in  the  usual 
slovenly  manner.  Many  families  live  within  its  walls,  and  the  area 
is  defiled  by  cow-dung,  mud,  broken  bricks,  straw,  dunghills,  and 
other  similar  impurities.  The  idol  resembles  that  of  &«^ffra  iVa- 
rayana  at  (?flMAw«a,  having  part  of  the  attributes  or  symbols  of 
Siva,  and  part  of  those  of  Jlshnu.  Its  name  also  implies  its  being  a 
representative  of  both  deities  ;  for  Hari  is  an  appellation  of  Vishnu, 
and  Hara  one  of  the  titles  of  Siva.  Within  the  walls  of  the  temples 
are  twenty  fine  inscriptions  on  stone. 

Manners  of  The  most  numerous  class  of  cultivators  nea.r  Hari-Iiara,  a.nd  as 
far  at  least  as  Suvanurii,  are  the  Sivabhactars.  There  are  scarcely 
any  Marattahs  among  them,  that  is  to  say,  Sudras  of  pure  origin 
belonging  to  Maharashtra  Desam.  Very  few  of  the  poorer  inhabit- 
ants marry,  the  expense  attending  the  ceremony  being  considered 
as  too  great.  They  content  themselves  with  giving  their  mistress 
a  piece  of  cloth  ;  after  which  she  lives  with  her  lover  as  a  wife,  and 
both  she  and  her  children  are  as  much  respected,  as  if  she  had 
been  married  with  the  proper  Mantrams  and  ceremonies :  very  few 
of  the  women  live  in  a  state  of  celibacy,  to  which  indeed  in  most 
parts  of  India,  I  believe,  they  are  seldom  subjected.  Few  of  the 
men  go  to  foreign  countries,  and  the  rich  have  always  more  wives 
than  one,  which  makes  up  for  the  men  who  live  as  bachelors. 

The  tenants,  I  am  told,  are  remarkably  fickle,  being  constantly 
changing  from  one  side  of  the  river  to  another,  and  of  course  at 
each  time  change  their  sovereign.  They  appear  to  me  to  be 
remarkably  stupid,  but  they  pique  themselves  on  being  superior  to 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  315 

their  northern  neighbours,  who,  they  say,  are  no  better  than  beasts-    ^  "vm^^ 
Even  the  Bra/mans  here  are  stupid,  which  is  certainly  a  defect  not    v-*|-^/-^^ 
common  in  that  sacred  order  of  men.    Out  of  the  hundred  houses,     ^ 
I  could  not  get  one  man  who  could  copy  the  inscriptions  at  their 
temple  with  tolerable  accuracy.    During  my  stay  I  employed  twelve 
Brdkmans,  and  two  Jangamas,  paying  them  whatever  the  Amildar 
judged  proper;  and  he  kept  a  man  with  them  to  rouse  their  indus- 
try; but  I  obtained  copies  of  four  inscriptions  only;  and   it  was 
necessary  to  have  these  corrected  by  my  interpreter,   although  I 
could  ill  spare  his  services. 

Of  the  inscriptions  that  I  had  copied  here,  the  most  ancient  is   inscriptions. 
dated  mSal.  1444,  according  to  t\\Q  Slokam  in  which  the  date  is 
involved. 

The  next  is  dated  Sal.  1452,  in  the  reign  of  Vira  Piitapa  Achuta 
Ruyc'i. 

The  next  is  dated  Sal.  1453,  in  the  reign  of  Achuta  Ray  a. 

The  last  is  dated  in  Sal.  1477,  in  the  reign  o^  Vira  Pritapa  Sedasiva 
Dexia  Maka  Rayd. 

All  remarks  that  have  been  suggested  by  these  inscriptions  have 
already  been  anticipated  in  my  commentary  on  the  Rdya  Paditti  of 
Ramuppa. 

This  year  the  crops  have  been  remarkably  bad,   owing  to  too  Season, 
much  rain  ;  a  circumstance  of  which  I  have  not  heard  a  complaint 
in  any  other  part  of  Kartiata. 

The  common  currency  here  being  gold  Fananis,  and  thirteen  of  Money 
these   exchanging  for  an  Ikeri  Pagoda,  this  must  be  valued  at  the 
quantity  of  pure  gold  contained  in  the  thirteen  Fanams,  Avhich  is 
somewhat  more  than  it  is  actually  worth.    The  Rupee  is  worth  one 
fourth  of  a  Pagoda. 

The  Cucha  Seer  here  weighs  24  Rupees.      The  Mauvd  of  cotton  Weights, 
contains  48  Seers,   ox  is  29roVlb.  nearly.    The  Taccady  contains  36 
(Seer*,  oris  5ily«^ lb.    This  is  the  weight  used  by  the  farmers.    The 
Bazar,  or  market  Maund,  contains  40  Seers  of  24  Rupees. 


T.16 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


Harvest  price 
of  the  pro- 
duce. 


A  Ciicha  !Scer  of  oil,  &c.  measures  Ig-'^J^U-  cubical  inches. 

The  grain  measure  is  fouiuicd  on  llie  C/iitlt/ oi'lSQi  cubical  inches  ; 
4  Cliitties  make  1  Gychia ;  ^lOGydnas  make  1  Colaga;  20  Colagas  1 
Candaca,  which  contains  1 1  S-j-'ay..  bushels. 

Land  here  is  estimated  by  Mars,  the  extent  of  which  the  natives 
have  two  metliods  of  ascertaining.  The  most  common  is,  to  call  a 
3far  that  extent  of  ground  which  requires  2|  Gydnas  of  Jola  for 
seed,  I  measured  a  field  said  to  require  twelve  Gydnas  of  seed,  and 
found  it  to  contain  ITjGTjSS^  square  feet.  According  to  this,  the 
3Iar  is  368267-t  square  feet,  or  somewhat  less  than  eight  acres  and 
a  half.  The  other  method  of  ascertaining  the  extent  of  a  Mar  is  by 
counting  the  number  of  rows  of  pulse  or  Acadies  contained  in  it, 
when  it  has  been  sown  with  Jola.  A  square  field  containing  120  of 
such  rows  is  called  a.  Mar.  If  the  rows  are  from  3  to  3t  cubits  dis- 
tant, this  extent  would  coincide  with  that  given  by  my  measure- 
ment. I  did  not  ascertain  this  to  be  the  case  at  Hari-hara,  but  I 
found  it  to  be  the  actual  distance  in  other  parts  of  the  neighbourhood. 

The  merchants  here  give  the  following  as  the  average  rate  at 
which  the  produce  of  the  country  sells  by  wholesale  immediately- 
after  harvest : 

Cotton  wool  with  the  seed  per  Maund,  -i-  Pagoda  Cwt.  62,-^  Pence 


Do. 

:leared  from  do. 

d 

0.       12 

Fan 

ams   do.     oi5,^^  do. 

Cotton  seed 

d 

0-          TO 

Pagoda  do.     18,-j^  do. 

Jagoiy 

d 

3.              4 

Fauams  do.  ISSj-j^'j  do. 

f     G ydiias  0.0  oi  Jola 

' 

"pence  l6,378  per  bushel 

do.          IS  Aiaray 

18,298 

3 

do.           12  Tuxary 

*J 

27,307 

c3 

do.          10  Ilessaru 

RJ 

32,757 

>- 

do.          20  Madiky 

"S 

1 6,37  8 

g. 

do.         20  Huruli 

V) 

l6,37S 

•§ 

do.          l6  Alasunda 

•S. 

20,473 

1         < 

do.          10  Callay 

>    % 

< 

32,757 

<5 

do.         20  Navonay 

10,378 

■C 

do.          18  Siijjat/ 

^ 

18,298 

::! 

do.         1 2  Gvr  EUu 

J 

27,307 

*©" 

do.          12  Hantlu 

^ 

27,307 

o 

do.         20  Ragy 
do.          10  Rice 
do.           9  Wheat 

1 6,37 8 
32,757 
36,396 

MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  317 

In  this  neigbouvhood  much  cotton  thread  is  spun.    The  women  of  CHAPTER 

,.,,,.  XVIII. 

the  cultivators  spin  part  of  the  produce  ot  their  husbands  farms;     \,,^-^/^>^ 

and  others  receive  the  cotton  wool  from  the  merchants,  and  spin  it  ^P"  .^"  . 
for  hire  ;  but  the  women  of  the  Brahmans  are  as  averse  from  spin-  cuuou  wuol. 
iiing,  as  their  husbands  are  from  holding  the  plough.  The  merchant 
always  purchases  the  cotton  with  the  seed,  and  employs  people  to 
clean  it.  From  four  Maunds  of  raw  cotton  he  gets  one  of  cotton 
wool,  at  the  expense  of  four  Fanams,  which  is  one  third  of  the  value 
of  the  whole  cotton  thus  cleaned.  The  instrument  is  a  small  mill, 
consisting  of  two  horizontal  cylinders  moved  by  a  perpetual  screw, 
and  turned  by  the  hand;  while  a  semi-cylindric  cavity  behind 
forces  back  the  cotton  to  the  person  who  feeds  the  mill.  (See  Plate 
XXVII.  Fig.  74.)  The  rudeness  of  the  machinery,  as  usual  in  India, 
renders  the  expense  of  the  operation  great,  in  comparison  with  the 
value  of  the  raw  material.  The  Maiind  of  cotton  wool,  in  beating 
with  a  bow,  the  manner  universally  used  in  India  and  China  for 
preparing  it  for  the  wheel,  loses  an  eighth  part,  expense  included  ; 
that  is  to  say,  the  merchant  gives  forty  Seers  of  cotton  wool  to  the 
cleaner,  who  returns  thirty-five  fit  for  spinning.  When  this  is  spun, 
the  thread  weighs  only  from  thirty  to  thirty-two  Seers,  owing  I  sup- 
pose to  its  having  been  imperfectly  cleaned.  The  coarsest  thread 
made  here  costs  8|-  Fanains  for  the  spinning  of  the  S5  Seers  of  pre- 
pared wool,  which  has  been  procured  from  40  Seers  of  raw  cotton. 
At  this  rate,  to  make  a  pound  of  cotton  wool  into  thread,  costs  a 
very  little  less  than  9.^  pence,  and  it  loses  in  the  operation  from  one 
fourth  to  tme  fifth  of  its  weight.  The  thread  is  remarkably  coarse. 
The  finest  made  here  costs  double  the  former  price.  When  a  woman 
does  no  other  work,  she  can  in  one  day  spin  three  quarters  of  a  seer 
of  the  coarsest  kind;  and  therefore  she  makes  about  l^VsV  penny 
a  day. 

From  this  part  of  the  country,  cotton  and  thread  are  the  principal  Commerce, 
exports,  and  there  are  few  traders  of  any  note.     Two  months  before 
crop  season,  the  merchants  advance  to  the  poor  cultivators,  and 


318  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  chai-jje  for  interest  half  a  Fanam  on  each  Pagoda,  or  about  234  Per 

XVIII  n        '  s   r 

K^,.^  cent,  per  aiitium.  They  say,  that  they  are  contented  with  this  profit, 
April  8.  ^j^j  when  the  crop  is  ripe  take  so  much  of  the  produce,  at  the  mar- 
ket price,  as  pays  the  advance  with  interest.  The  farmers  however 
allege,  that  when  they  receive  advances,  what  the  merchants  call 
the  market-price  is  lower  than  Avhat  a  man,  who  is  not  necessitous, 
can  get  for  his  cotton.  According  to  their  account,  the  common 
price  of  cotton  in  the  seed  is  7  Taccadies  for  the  Pagoda,  or  714-  pence 
for  the  cwt.,  which  is  a  little  lower  than  the  price  stated  by  th» 
merchants. 

The  great  cultivation  here  is  that  of  dry  grains.  The  extent  of 
land  fit  for  the  plough  is  very  great ;  but  a  small  proportion  only 
is  occupied,  and  in  the  best  of  times  much  has  always  been  waste. 
If  any  farmer,  or  even  an  intelligent  officer  of  rever.ue,  be  asked, 
why  such  or  such  a  piece  of  ground  is  not  cultivated,  he  will  im- 
mediately say  that  it  is  impracticable,  and  assign  some  reason 
for  this  being  the  case.  At  first,  I  was  inclined  to  pay  much  atten- 
tion to  these  reasons  ;  but  finding  that  two  people  seldom  gave  the 
same  reason,  and  tliat  what  two  men,  equall}'  qualified  by  experi- 
ence, alleged,  was  often  totally  contradictory,  while  no  ditFerence 
was  observable  between  the  soil  and  situation  of  the  fields  now  cul- 
tivated, and  those  that  are  condemned  as  useless,  I  began  to  doubt; 
and  after  having  questioned  many  natives,  and  having  considered 
carefully  what  they  said,  I  am  persuaded,  that  the  soil  may  be  ren- 
dered productive,  wherever  it  is  not  too  hard  or  steep  for  the 
plough.  The  natives  talk  of  one  third  of  the  land  near  the  Tunga- 
bliadra  being  useless  from  these  two  causes;  but  I  think  that  they 
over-rate  itsextent.  In  the  land  of  many  villages  the  soil  is  very  full 
of  small  stones,  especially  of  quartz ;  but  the  natives  of  these  places 
are  far  from  reckoning  these  useless;  on  the  contrary,  they  allege 
that  the  stones  are  advantageous  by  keeping  the  soil  cool,  and 
retaining  the  moisture.  In  other  places,  these  stones  are  reckoned 
a  loss,  as  is  the  case  -dtHari-kara. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALAB.iR.  319 

The  ground  here  is  divided  into  three  kinds.  The  first,  called  CHAPTER 
Eray,  consists  of  a  black  mould  containing  much  clay,  and  is  valued  v.^^^ 
in  the  rental  at  one  Pagoda  di  Mar,  or  at  IH  pence  an  acre.    The  ^^P"^  ^• 

^  ^  .  ,       Different 

second  kind  of  land,  called  Kingalu,  or  red  soil,  is  valued  at  -^  of  a  qualities  of 
Pagoda  a. Mar,  or  at  8^  pence  an  acre.  The  third  kind,  called  Cm/'  j°j'j,i'y''j."',it5 
Maradi,  or  stony  soil,  is  valued  dit  ^  Pagoda  Si  Mar,  ox  at  5-|r  pence 
an  acre.  This  was  the  account  given  me  at  my  tents  ;  but  when  I 
went  to  a  field  to  measure  it,  accompanied  by  the  owner,  the  Amil-  , 
dar,  and  the  Shanaboga  with  the  public  rental,  I  found  that  it  paid 
15  Pagodas,  or  at  the  rate  of  S-f  Pagffdas  a  Mar,  or  nearly  Ss.  an  acre. 
In  general,  it  was  of  a  fine  black  soil ;  only  about  one  acre  of  it  was 
rather  ston}^,  although  the  whole  was  reckoned  of  the  first  quality. 
The  immense  difference  in  the  rent,  as  stated  at  my  tents,  and  again 
in  the  field,  did  not  strike  me  at  the  time,  so  that  I  got  no  positive 
explanation;  but  it,  no  doubt,  arose  from  the  following  circum- 
stance. This  Shist,  or  valuation  of  the  country,  was  first  made  by 
the  Rdyariis.  It  was  increased  by  the  Savaniiru  Nabobs  in  the  pro- 
portion of  8  to  3;  and  Hyder  added  to  this  an  increase  of-|-  part. 
Both  he  and  his  son  imposed  some  new  assessments  ;  but  these  were 
not  included  in  the  rental,  and  have  been  remitted  hy  Purnea.  The 
people  at  the  tents  mentioned  the  tax  imposed  by  the  Rayarus, 
which  by  Avay  of  eminence  is  probably  called  the  Shist ;  while  at  the 
field  the  whole  land-tax  that  is  now  levied  as  brought  into  the  ac- 
compt.  The  T^/arof  landof  the  best  quality  pays  therefore  3\  Pagodas, 
or  at  the  rate  of  3i.  an  acre  ;  the,  Mar  of  the  2d  quality  pays  2-j-f 
Pagodas,  or  at  the  rate  of  25.  2d.  an  acre;  and  the  worst  paysl^Pa- 
goda  di  Mar,  or  1*.  6d.  an  acre.  Rice-ground  pays  no  higher  than 
dry  field ;  so  that  the  only  advantage  government  has  by  watered- 
land,  is  an  excise  ofthreePa^oc?«5  on  every  1000  sugar-canes  planted. 
Some  soils  here  contain  saline  matter  ;  and  if  the  water  be  allowed 
to  lodge  on  low  spots,  these  become  so  impregnated  with  salt,  as  to 
be  of  little  value  for  cultivation ;  but  with  proper  pains  this  may 
be  avoided.      In  some  of  the  clay-land,   there  is  a  kind  of  soil. 


320  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  which,  thouQ-h  it  is  black,  and  to  all  appearance  of  the  kind  called 
v^^,,,.^     Eray,  yet  it  does  not  retain   water,  and  very  soon  becomes  dry; 

April  s.  ]^,^(;^  ijy  a  proper  management  of  the  manure,  it  may  be  rendered 
productive. 

Division  of         The  three  kinds  of  ground  being  of  very  different  qualities,  every 

VI  age  ancs.  j^^^'g  sl^are  of  each  is  scattered  up  and  down  in  various  places,  in 
order  to  make  the  assessment  fall  equally;  but  hence  arises  an  inex- 
plicable obscurity  in  the  accompts,  and  a  great  hindrance  to  im- 
provement. All  the  cultivators  live  in  fortified  villages,  and  each 
man's  share  is  scattered  in  small  patches  through  the  village  lands. 
The  Gaudas,  or  chiefs  of  the  villages,  are  hereditary  ;  but  in  case 
of  their  incapacity,  the  villages  may  be  let  to  Gutigaras,  or  renters. 
These  renters  and  Gaudas  force  the  cultivators  to  labour  more 
than  they  are  willing,  which  is  a  pernicious  practice.  The  extreme 
indolence  of  the  people  in  this  neighbourhood  is,  however,  an 
excuse  that  bears  at  least  the  appearance  of  reason.  The  Amil- 
dar says,  that  without  compulsion  they  would  not  cultivate  more 
than  -|-  or  ^  of  what  they  are  able.  A  subsistence  is  all  that  they 
look  for,  and  with  little  labour  that  can  be  procured.  Super- 
fluities, or  riches,  they  have  some  reason  to  consider  as  mere  temp- 
tations to  the  plunderer:  so  long  as  a  man  cultivates  his  fields,  he 
cannot  be  deprived  of  them ;  but  they  cannot  be  mortgaged,  or 
sold,  to  pay  his  debts.  If  he  allow  his  lands  to  become  M'aste,  the 
government  can  give  them  to  any  person  who  will  undertake  their 
cultivation;  but  the  original  proprietor  may  at  any  time  resume 
them,  when  he  is  able  to  find  sufficient  stock. 

Size  of  farms.  The  greater  number  of  the  farmers  here  have  only  one  plough 
each ;  but  all  such  as  have  not  more  than  three  ploughs  are  rec- 
koned poor  men,  and  are  in  general  obliged  to  borrow  money  to  pay 
the  rent,  and  to  carry  on  the  expenses  of  cultivation.  The  crop  is 
a  security  to  the  lender,  who  is  repaid  in  produce  at  a  low  valuation. 
Farmers  who  have  4,  5,  or  6  ploughs,  are  able  to  manage  without 
borrowing,   and  live  in  ease.     Those  who  have  more  stock  are 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  3^1 

reckoned  rich  men.     Each  plouoh  requires  one  maiv  and  two  oxen,   CHAPTER 

^       >=>         ^  XVIII. 

and  can  cultivate  two  Mars  of  land,  or  about  17  acres.    In  seed  time     \^^^^,^/ 

and  harvest,  some  additional  labourers  must  be  hired.  All  the  gj'/y'^^f^ 
farmers,  and  their  children,  even  those  who  are  richest,  Brdhmans  wages. 
excepted,  work  with  their  own  hands,  and  only  hire  so  many  addi- 
tional people  as  are  necessary  to  employ  their  stock  of  cattle.  A 
servant's  wages  are  from  six  to  nine  Jimshiry  Pagodas  a  year,  toge- 
ther with  a  blanket  and  pair  of  shoes.  The  Jimshii^y  Pagoda  is  four 
Dudus  worse  than  that  of  Ikeri,  which  is  rather  less  than  li  per  cent. 
The  wages  are  therefore  from  2/.  7s.  lOd.  to  31.  lis.  Qd.  Out  of  this 
they  find  every  thing  but  the  shoes  and  blanket.  Men  labourers 
get  daily  half  a.fanam,  or  3\d,  and  women  receive  one  half  of 
this  hire,  which  is  seldom  paid  in  money,  but  is' given  in  Jo/a  at  the 
market  price.  The  man's  wages  will  purchase  daily  about  a  quarter 
of  a  bushel.  The  people  here  work  from  eight  in  the  'morning 
until  sun  set,  and  in  the  middle  of  the  day  are  allowed  twenty-four 
minutes  to  rest  and  eat.  The  cattle  work  from  eight  in  the  morn- 
ing until  noon.  They  are  then  fed  for  an  hour,  and  work  from 
one  until  about  five  o'  clock. 

Many  of  the  farmers  keep  no  cows,  but  purchase  all  their  cattle.  Cattle  and 
They,  of  course,  can  sell  at  least  one  half  of  their  straw  to  the  '"^""''^• 
Brdhmans  of  the  town,  who  in  general  keep  many  milch  cows,  and 
who  in  return  sell  the  young  oxen  and  the  manure  to  the  farmers. 
Although  tlie  cattle  are  always  kept  in  the  house,  except  during 
the  two  months  immediately  following  the  rains,  no  litter  is  used. 
Their  dung  is  collected  in  pits,  Avith  the  sweepings  and  ashes  of  the 
family,  and  sells  for  from  six  to  t\vt\vt  Dudus  for  the  load  of  a  cart 
which  is  drawn  by  eight  oxen,  but  which  does  not  appear  to  contain 
more  than  a  single-horse  cart.  The  price  is  from  about  5d.  to 
half  that  amount.  The  farmers  also  hire  flocks  of  sheep  to  ma- 
nure their  fields,  and  say,  that  for  folding  his  flocks  on  a  Mar  of 
land,  they  give  the  shepherd  one  Colaga  of  Jola;  this,  however, 
must  be  a  gross  exaggeration. 

Vol.  hi.  "  T  t 


322  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

The  most  considerable  crop  in  this  neighbourhood  is  Jola  (Holcus 
sorghum),  which  is  always  accompanied  by  one  or  more  of  the 
Jofa',  Nvi'th  its  following  articles,  Avaray  (Dolichos  Lablab),  Tovary  (Cytisus  CajanJ, 
accompany-    Hestaru  (Phuseolus  Mumo) ,  Madiku,  a  kind  of  pulse  that  seems  to 

ing  grains.  >  o   ^  ^>  r  " 

be  peculiar  to  this  part  of  the  country,  and  of  which  I  have  seen 
only  the  seed;  Huruli  (Dolichos  biftorus),  and  Alasunda  (Dolkhos 
Catsjang).  These  articles  being  intended  chiefly  for  family  use,  a 
portion  of  each  is  wanted,  and  every  man  puts  in  his  Jola  field  a 
drill  or  two  of  each  kind. 
Jflte.  Jola  thrives  best  on  black  clay,  but  is  also  sown  on  the  red  earth, 

and  even  sometimes  on  the  stony  soil.  In  Cftaiira,  the  field  is  hoed 
with  aHegCuntay  (Plate  XXVIII.  Fig.  75,)  which  requires  from  six 
to  eight  oxen  to  draw  it;  for  this  is  the  month  following  the 
vernal  equinox,  Avhen  the  soil  is  very  dry  and  hard.  In  the 
following  month  the  field  is  ploughed  once,  and  then  manured. 
In  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  the  seed  is  sown  after 
a  rain  by  means  of  the  drill ;  while  the  rows  of  the  accompanying 
grains  are  put  in  by  means  of  the  Sudiky  or  Acadi.  The  drill  here 
diff'ers  from  that  oi Banawasi,  (Plate  XXVI.  Fig.  73,)  in  wanting 
the  iron  bolts  that  connect  the  bills  with  a  wooden  bar  which  crosses 
the  beam.  The»SM^i%  is  a  ia»?3oo  with  a  sharp  point,  M'hich  is  tied 
to  the  drill,  and  through  which  the  labourer  drops  the  seed  of  the 
pulse,  as  he  follows  that  implement.  After  having  been  sown,  the 
field  is  smoothed  with  the  Bolu  Ciintay,  a  hoe  drawn  by  oxen,  and 
entirely  resembling  th&HegCuntay,  but  of  a  lighter  make.  On  the 
SOth  day  the  field  is  weeded  with  theEdday  Cuntay,  (Plate  XXVIIT. 
Fig.  76),  and  on  the  28th  day  this  is  repeated.  In  five  months  the 
Jola  ripens,  without  farther  trouble.  The  Mar  of  land  usually  pro- 
duces 7  Co/a^a*  of  Jola,  or  56  fold,  worth  7  Pagodaii ;  deduct  for 
rent  3iFagodas,  and  for  seed  ^  Pagoda,  and  there  remains  to  the 
cultivator  for  stock  and  labour  Ax  Pagodas,  or  about  6S  per  cent,  of 
the  gross  produce,  besides  the  pulse  and  straw  ;  but  this  last  must  be 
allowed  to  go  for  manure.     Besides,  in  favourable  seasons,  the 


iMYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  323 

fanner  from  the  high-rented  Jola  land  procures  a  second  crop  of  CHAPTER 

XVIII, 

Callay,  (Cicer ariet'mum)  as  follows,  ^,rf^^/-0 

If  after  harvest  there  be  any  rain,  the  field  is  ploughed  in  the  ^P"'  ^■ 
month  preceding  the  winter  solstice.  It  is  then  ploughed  across, 
and  by  means  of  the  sharp  pointed  bamboo  the  seed  is  dropt  into  the 
furrows  after  the  plough,  and  is  covered  with  the-He^  Cuntay.  The 
Mar  of  land  requires  8  Gydnas  of  seed,  and  produces  4  Colagas,  or 
10  seeds.  This,  deducting  the  seed,  is  a  neat  produce  of  72  Gydnas, 
worth  7-J-  Pagodas.  It  is  only  from  the  very  best  ground  that  this 
can  be  taken,  and  each  farmer's  share  of  this  kind  is  very  small. 

A  few  rich  spots  are  reserved  solely  for  the  cultivation  oi  Callay, 
and  these  are  cultivated  in  the  following  manner.  In  the  month 
following  the  vernal  equinox  the  field  is  ploughed  once,  then  ma- 
nured, and  in  the  following  month  is  hoed  with  the  Heg  Cuntay. 
Between  that  period  and  the  month  preceding  the  shortest  day, 
the  grass  is  ploughed  down  twice,  and  the  seed  is  sown  with  the 
sharp  bamboo  following  the  plough,  and  covered  with  thc/Teo-  Cuntay, 
as  before  described.  It  ripens  in  three  months,  and  produces  8 
Colagas ;  which,  deducting  seed,  leaves  152  Gydnas,  worth  \5\  Pa- 
godas;  from  which  if  3-|-  be  taken  for  rent,  the  cultivator  has  better 
than  12  Pagodas  for  his  trouble  and  stock. 

Cotton  is  raised  entirely  on  black  soil,  and  is  either  sown  as  a  Cotton. 
crop  by  itself,  or  drilled  in  the  rows  of  a  Navonay  field.  In  the 
former  case,  two  crops  of  cotton  cannot  follow  each  other,  but  one 
crop  of  Jola  at  least  must  intervene.  In  the  2d  month  after  the 
vernal  equinox,  the  field  is  ploughed  once,  then  manured,  then 
hoed  with  the  ^He^  Cuntay ;  and  the  grass  is  kept  down  by  occa- 
sional hoeings  with  the  Bolu  Cuntay,  until  the  sowing  season  in  the 
month  preceding  the  autumnal  equinox.  The  seed  is  sown  by  a 
drill  having  only  two  bills,  behind  each  of  which  is  fixed  a  sharp 
pointed  bamboo,  through  which  a  man  drops  the  seed ;  so  that  each 
drill  requires  the  attendance  of  three  men,  and  two  oxen.  The 
seed,  in  order  to  allow  it  to  run  through  the  bajnboo,  is  first  dipt  in 


3S4 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVIII. 

April  S. 


Navonay,  or 
Panicuin  Ita- 
licum. 


cow-dung  and  water,  and  then  mixed  with  some  earth.  Twenty 
days  after  sowing,  and  also  on  the  35th  and  50th  days,  the  field  is 
hoed  with  the  Edday  cuntay.  The  crop  season  is  during  the  month 
before,  and  that  after  the  vernal  equinox.  The  Mar  of  land  requires 
three  maunds  of  seed,  worth  ^  of  a  Pagoda.  The  produce  is  50  Tac* 
dies,  at  7  for  a  Pagoda,  and  therefore  amounts  to  7t  Pagodas.  From 
this  deduct  to  of  a  Pagoda  for  seed,  and  34-  Pagodas  for  rent,  and 
there  remains  to  the  cultivator  for  trouble  and  stock  very  little  less 
than  4  Pagodas.  When  these  weights,  measures,  and  values,  are 
reduced  to  the  English  standard,  the  produce  of  an  acre  appears  very 
small.  The  seed  is  about  lO^lb.  worth  two-pence.  The  produce 
is  about  l-ri^cwt.  worth,  according  to  the  cultivators,  82|- pence: 
deducting  56  pencefor  rent,  and  two-pence  for  the  seed,  there  will 
remain  for  the  cultivator  44j  pence,  or  about  55  per  cent,  of  the  gross 
produce. 

Next  to  Jola,  the  most  considerable  crop  in  this  neighbourhood 
is  Navonay,  Avhich  is  cultivated  on  both  the  black  and  red  soils,  but 
by  far  most  commonly  on  the  latter.  On  the  black  soil  it  is  usually 
accompanied  by  cotton  in  the  rows  between  the  drills  ;  on  red  soil, 
it  is  accompanied  by  rows  of  Jola,  Sujjay,  (Holcus  spicatus)  and 
Giir^  Ellu,  Avhich  is  the  Huts  Ellu  of  Seinngapatam  (Verbesina  sa- 
tiva  Roxb.  MSS.).  In  black  soil,  the  ploughing  commences  in  the 
month  following  the  vernal  equinox.  After  having  been  ploughed, 
the  field  is  manured,  and  in  the  following  month  is  hoed  with  the 
Heg  Cuntay,  and,  after  eight  days  rest,  with  the  Bolu  Cuutay.  In  the 
month  following  mid-summer,  the  seed  is  sown  with  the  drill,  and 
the  accompanying  grains  by  means  of  the  sharp  bamboo.  The  seed 
is  covered  by  twohoeings  Avith  the  Bohi  Cuntay,  one  lengthwise  and 
the  other  across.  On  the  20th  and  £Sth  days  the  weeds  are  removed 
by  the  Edday  Cuntay.  In  three  months  the  crop  is  ripe.  In  the  red 
soil,  the  ploughing  does  not  commence  until  the  beginning  of 
the  rainy  season;  but  the  seed  time,  and  all  the  process  of  agriculture, 
are  the  same  as  in  the  black  soiL    The  Mar. of  land  requires  for 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  325 

seed  5  Gydnas  of  Navonay,  worth  i  Pagoda;    together  Avith   one   CHAPTER 
Maund  o{  cotton  seed,  worth  -J-^  Pagoda;  or^  Gydna  of  Sola,  worth     ,J^.J^^^ 
•5?/-  Pagoda;  or  1  Chitty  of  Sujjay,  worth  ^^  part  of  a.  Pagoda;  or  1  Aprils. 
Chitty  of  Gur^  Ellu,  worth  ^V  of  a  Pagoda.  The  produce  in  a  middling 
crop  is  12  Colagas  of  Navonay,  worth  ]Q  Pagodas,  together  with  15 
Tacadies  of  cotton,  worth  2-f  Pagodas  ;  orlj  Colaga  of  Jo  la,  worth  l| 
Pagoda;    or  I  Colaga  of  Sujjay,  worth  l-f-  Pagoda;    or  1  Colaga  of 
Gz<r'  £//«,  worth  If  Pagoda.    It  must  be  evident  from  this,  that  the 
people  M'ho  gave  me  the  account  diminished  the  real  produce  of 
the  Jola,  which  would  never  be  the  common  object  of  cultivation, 
while  Navofiay  was  so  much  more  profitable. 

Sujjay  is  here  the  next  most  common  crop,  and  is  always  accom-  Sujjay,  or 
panied  by  Hiiruli,  or  Alasunda,  or  Tovary,  or  Hessaru.  This  is  the  ^^"^^'^  ^^'' 
crop  commonly  taken  from  the  red  soil,  or  that  of  the  second  qua- 
lity. In  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice,  the  fi^eld  is 
ploughed  once,  then  manured,  and  then  hoed  with  the  Heg  Cuntay, 
At  the  end  of  the  month  the  seeds  are  sown  with  the  drill,  and 
covered  with  the  Bolu  Cuntay.  On  the  20th  and  28th  days,  the  field 
is  weeded  with  the  Edday  Cuntay.  In  three  months  the  crop  is  ripe. 
^he  Mar  requires  for  seed  ^Gydna  of  Sujjay,  worth  ~  Pagoda  ;  to- 
gether with  2  Gydnas  of  Huruli,  worth  -^Pagoda ;  or  1  Gydt2a  of 
Alasunda,  worth  -^  Pagoda  ;  or  3  Gydnas  of  Tovary,  worth  ^  Pagoda; 
or  If  Gydna  of  Hessaru,  worth  ^  of  a  Pagoda.  The  average  pro- 
duce is  12  Colagas  of  Sujjay,  worth  13-f  Pagodas;  together  with  1-i 
Colaga  of  Huruli,  worth  if  Pagoda  ;  or  if  Colaga  of  Alasunda,  worth 
1-1-  of  a  Pagoda  ;  or  2  Colagas  of  Tovary,  worth  3^  Pagodas  ;  or  1  Co- 
laga of  Hessaru,  worth  2  Pagodas.  The  rent  is  about  ^^  Pagodas. 
-From  these  data,  the  share  which  the  farmer  gets  for  his  stock  and 
labour  may  readily  be  calculated.  For  instance,  the  gross  produce 
of  a  Mar  sown  with  Sujjay  and  Huruli  isl4->  Pagodas;  while  the  rent 
and  seed  are  rather  more  than  Q^  Pagodas,  or  l??-  per  cent,  of  the 
gross  produce.    This  is  another  proof,  that  the  cultivators  concealed 


326  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  the  real  produce  oiJola  and  cotton,  which  are  their  most  common 

xvin. 
v^,..^,.^^    crops. 

April  8.  HuruU,  or  what  the  English  oi Madras  call  Horse- sr am,  is  at  Hari- 

Huruh,  or  .         '  °  o  ' 

Dolic/tos bifio'  hara  the  next  most  usual  crop,  and  is  cultivated  entirely  on  the 
poorest  and  worst  soil,  which  pays  as  rent  l-^  Pagoda  for  the  Mar. 
The  field  is  ploughed  once  in  the  end  of  the  2d  month  after  the 
summer  solstice.  In  three  or  four  days  afterwards  it  is  ploughed 
again  ;  and  with  the  sharp  bamboo  the  seed  is  dropped  into  the  fur- 
row, after  the  plough,  in  rows  about  9  inches  distant  from  each 
other.  It  is  then  covered  with  the  Heg  Cuntay.  On  the  20th  and 
28th  days,  the  hoe  cdXXtAEdday  Cuntay  is  employed  to  remove  weeds, 
and  in  five  months  it  ripens  without  farther  trouble.  A  Mar  of  land 
requires  for  seed  ^vQGydnas,\\o\\\\\Fagoda ;  and  the  common 
produce  is  3  Colagas,\\oxX\\  3  Pagodas;  so  that  the  farmer  has 
here  only  \—^  Pagoda  out  of  3  of  the  gross  produce  ;  but  he  gives 
no  manure,  and  the  trouble  is  very  small,  and  performed  at  a  season 
when  little  else  is  doing. 

Harulu.  On  the  2d  quality  of  soil  some  considerable  quantity  of  Harulu, 

or  Riclnus,  is  raised.  In  the  month  preceding  the  summer  solstice, 
when  the  rainy  season  commences,  the  field  is  ploughed  once.  Fif- 
teen days  afterwards  the  seed  is  dropped  into  furrows  made  by  the 
plough,  in  rows  two  cubits  distant  from  each  other,  and  is  covered 
by  another  furrow.  At  the  end  of  a  month  from  sowing,  the  weeds 
are  removed  by  the  Edday  Cwitay ;  and  every  15  days  afterwards, 
until  the  month  preceding  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  intervals  be- 
tween the  rows  must  be  ploughed.  At  this  time  the  plants  begin 
to  flower;  and  the  fruit  ripens  at  various  times  between  the  month 
following  the  autumnal  equinox,  and  that  following  the  winter  sol- 
stice. A  Mar  of  land  requires  2|  Gydnas  of  seed,  worth  -jV  of  a 
Pagoda.  The  produce  is  six  Colagas,  worth  ttw  Pagodas.  It  is  sold 
to  the  oil-makers,  who  extract  the  oil  by  boiling,  as  is  the  usual 
practice  in  India.     The  seed  is  first  boiled  for  about  an  hour,  when 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  327 

it  bursts  a  little.    It  is  then  dried  in  the  sun  three  days,  and  beaten  CHAPTER 
.      '  ,  .  .  ,        XVIII. 

into  flour  in  a  large  mortar.     The  flour  is  then  put  into  a  pot  with    k^,^^...^^ 

a  little  water,  and  boiled  for  about  two  hours.    The  oil  floats  above  ^P"^  ^• 

the  flour,  which  forms  a  thick  mass  in  the  bottom  of  the  pot.    The 

oil  is  very  bad,  and  thick.     Two  Gydnas  of  seed  give  sixteen  6Verjr, 

Cucha  measure,  of  oil ;  so  that  a  bushel  gives  about  2  wine  gallons. 

Ragy  (Cynosurus  corocanus),  Shamay  (Panicum  miliare  E.  M.), 
Harica  (PaspalumfrumentaceumRoxh.  MSS.),  Baragu  (Panicum  mi- 
Uaceum),  WuW  Ellu  (Sesamum),  and  Udu  (Phaseolus  minimoo  Roxb. 
MSS. ),  are  also  cultivated  at  Hari-hara;  but  in  such  small  quantities, 
that  a  particular  account  of  each  will  not  be  required. 

The  usual  daily  allowance  of  grain  for  one  person's  eating,  is  ^  Allowance  o£ 
Chitty,  or  about  27  bushels,  a  year.  The  Navonay  and  Sujjay  are  ^^n. 
chiefly  consumed  by  the  Brdhmatis,  and  other  people  in  easy  circum- 
stances, as  being  a  more  light  and  delicate  food ;  while  the  labourers 
feed  upon  Jola,  or  Ragy,  purchased  from  other  districts.  Jola 
straw,  being  the  most  common,  is  reckoned  the  most  wholesome 
fodder  for  cattle. 

The  watered  lands  are  here  of  little  importance;  for  in  the  whole  VVatered 
district,  which  produces  annually  15,000  Canter''  Raya  Pagodas,  there 
are  no  dams,  and  only  six  reservoirs.  The  rains  are  quite  inadequate 
to  the  cultivation  of  rice.  Very  little  of  this  grain  is  therefore 
sown.  Orders,  however,  have  been  issued  by  Purnea  to  erect  dams 
on  the  Solicaray  Holay.  The  Amildar  says  that  there  are  three 
places  in  the  district  where  reservoirs  might  be  constructed  with 
advantage.  He  thinks  that  forming  dams  on  the  Tungabhadrawould 
be  attended  with  great  expense ;  nor  could  they  be  so  constructed 
as  to  irrigate  much  ground.  Below  Hari-hara  indeed,  towards  Ana- 
gundi,  there  are  very  fine  ones,  which  supply  with  water  rice-grounds 
worth  100,000  Pa^ofito*  a  year.  These  are  situated  partly  in  the 
territories  of  the  Nizamy  and  partly  in  those  lately  ceded  to  the 
Company. 

Sugar-cane  is  here  the  most  considerable  irrigated  crop,  as  it  Su^ar-cane. 


328  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADR.\S  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  requires  but  a  small  supply  of  water.  In  the  intervals  between  the 
v3vJ^i[l/  ^''^P^  °^  cane,  a  crop  of  rice  is  taken,  should  there  be  a  sufficient 
April  8.  supply  of  water  ;  but  that  is  seldom  the  case,  and  the  intermediate 
crop  is  commonly  some  of  the  dry  grains.  The  laud,  when  culti- 
vated for  grain,  pays  the  usual  rent ;  when  cultivated  with  sugar- 
cane, it  pays  three  Prto-ofi/a*  for  every  1000  double  cuttings  planted. 
Land  that  pays  10  Pagodas  of  rent  is  called  airocula  land,  which, 
as  it  plants  6000  double  cuttings,  pays,  when  under  sugar-cane, 
18  Pagodas,  with  two  Pagodas  for  the  use  of  the  boiler,  making  in 
all  a  rent  of  20  Pagodas  for  the  JVocula,  as  stated  by  the  man  at 
Baswapattana. 

Theaccount  that  follows  was  taken  from  a  principal  accomptant 
(Sheristadar),  who  says  that  he  is  proprietor  of  a  field,  and  is  well 
acquainted  with  the  process.  The  cane  may  be  planted  at  any  time; 
but  there  are  only  three  seasons  which  are  usually  employed.  One 
lasts  during  the  month  before  and  another  after  the  summer  solstice. 
This  is  the  most  productive  and  most  usual  season ;  but  the  cane 
requires  at  this  time  longer  to  grow,  and  more  labour,  than  in  the 
others  ;  so  that,  although  it  pays  the  same  tax  only,  it  yields  to  the 
cultivator  but  little  more  profit.  The  other  two  seasons  are  the  2d 
month  after  the  autumnal  equinox,  and  the  2d  month  after  the 
shortest  day.  Those  crops  arrive  at  maturity  within  the  year.  I 
shall  confine  myself  to  an  account  of  the  process  in  the  first  season. 
The  kind  of  cane  cultivated  is  \\\t  Maracabo,  of  which,  according 
to  the  Sheristadar,  4800  canes  are  required  to  give  one  Maund,  or 
about  24|lb.  of  Ja gory.  "When  asked  why  he  does  not  raise  a  better 
kind,  the  Sheristadar  says,  that  the  soil  is  too  poor,  and  the  climate 
too  dry  ;  both  of  which  are,  to  all  appearance,  ill  founded  excuses 
for  an  obstinate  adherence  to  old  custom.  In  the  second  month 
after  the  vernal  equinox,  the  field  must  be  watered,  and  eight  days 
afterwards  it  is  ploughed  once.  After  another  rest  of  eight  days, 
it  must  be  ploughed  again  with  a  deeper  furrow,  four  oxen  having 
been  put  into  the  yoke.     After  another  interval  of  eight  days  it  is 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  329 

ploughed,  first  lengthwise,  and  then  across,  with  a  team  of  six  oxen.  *^!^^.^?j^'^'^ 
Then,  at  the  distance  of  three,  or  three  and  a  half  cubits,  are  drawn  k^^^^^ 
over  the  whole  field  furrows,  which  cross  each  other  at  right  angles.  P" 
In  order  to  make  these  furrows  wider,  a  stick  is  put  across  the  iron 
of  the  plough.  In  the  planting  season,  two  cuttings  of  the  cane, 
each  containing  two  eyes,  are  laid  down  in  every  intersection  of  the 
furrows,  and  are  covered  slightly  with  mud.  The  furrows  are  then 
filled  with  water,  and  this  is  repeated  three  times,  with  an  interval 
of  eight  days  between  every  two  waterings.  A  little  dung  is  then 
put  into  the  furrows ;  and  when  there  happens  to  be  no  rain,  the 
waterings  once  in  the  eight  days  are  continued  for  three  months. 
When  the  canes  have  been  planted  forty  days,  the  weeds  must  be 
removed  with  a  knife,  and  the  intervals  are  hoed  with  the  hoe  drawn 
by  oxen.  This  operation  is  repealed  on  the  55th,  70th,  and  85th 
days,  and  the  earth  is  thrown  up  in  ridges  toward  the  canes.  In  the 
beginning  of  the  fourth  month,  the  field  gets  a  full  watering. 
Fifteen  days  afterwards,  the  intervals  are  ploughed  lengthwise  and 
across  ;  and  to  each  bunch  of  plants  a  basket  or  two  of  dung  is  given 
and  ploughed  in.  The  weeds  are  then  destroyed  by  a  hoe  drawn 
by  oxen  ;  after  which,  channels  must  be  formed  between  the  rows ; 
and  until  the  cane  ripens,  Avhich  varies  from  fourteen  to  seventeen 
months,  these  channels  are  filled  with  water  once  in  fifteen  days. 
The  crop  season  lasts  from  one  month  to  six  Aveeks.  The  mill  is 
excessively  rude,  being  two  cylinders  moved  by  a  perpetual  screw, 
and  turned  by  a  beam,  to  which  four  oxen  are  yoked.  The  JVocida 
land  plants  6000  double  cuttings,  and  the  bunch  springing  from  the 
two  cuttings  planted  at  each  intersection  contains  from  eight  to 
twenty  canes.  The  average  may  be  fourteen,  or  altogether  84,000. 
These,  at  4800  for  the  Maimd,  should  produce  not  quite  eighteen 
Maunds,  which  is  only  one  tenth  part  of  that  which  the  man  at  Bas- 
wa-pattana  mentioned,  and  he  may  be  considered  as  having  given  a 
true  account.  The  Sheristadar  however,  on  being  pressed,  acknow- 
leges  120  Maunds ;  but  he  is  evidently  a  liar,  and  no  dependence 
Vol.  III.  U  u 


330 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER 
XVIII. 

April  8. 


April  11. 
Appearance 
of  the  coun- 
try. 


Ddvana-gtri. 


Manufac- 
tures. 


Cumlies. 


CHii  be  placed  on  what  he  says  concerning  the  produce.  I  did  no 
get  any  satisfactory  account  concerning  the  extent  of  ground  called 
aJVocula;  but  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  any  difference  between 
the  Wocula  of  Baswa-pattana  and  that  ofHari-hara.  If  we  take  6000 
squares,  of  3^  cubits,  as  the  extent  ofalFocula,  it  will  give  3|  acres, 
which  pay  a  tax  of  20  Pagodas,  or  at  the  rate  of  2/.  2*.  9d.  an  acre. 

^pril  11th — I  went  three  cosses  to  Ddvana-giri.  Near  the  road, 
three  small  hills  excepted,  the  whole  country  is  fit  for  the  plough. 
Much  of  it  however,  even  where  the  soil  is  of  that  fine  black  mould 
called  Eray,  would  appear  never  to  have  been  cultivated,  and  is 
overgrown  with  bushes.  The  soil  of  a  very  small  proportion  indeed, 
so  far  as  I  can  judge,  appears  to  be  too  barren  for  cultivation  ;  much 
of  it,  however,  is  Marulu,  or  a  poor  stony  land,  and  some  of  it  is  a 
red  soil,  fit  for  the  cultivation  of  Ragy. 

Ddvana-giri  contains  above  500  houses,  and  a  new  Bazar  (or  street 
containing  shops)  is  now  building.  In  the  centre  of  the  town  is  a 
small  mud  fort.  Some  years  ago,  it  was  a  poor  village  ;  and  its  rise 
is  owing  to  the  encouragement  given  to  settlers  by  ApojeeRama,  a 
Marattah  chief,  who,  having  entered  into  the  service  ofHyder, 
obtained  the  place  as  a  Jaghire.  He  died  without  heirs,  but  Tippoo 
continued  to  give  encouragement  to  settlers,  and  ever  since  it  has 
been  gradually  increasing.  It  is  the  first  place  in  the  Chatrakal 
principality  (Rctyada)  towards  the  west ;  and  the  Amildar  of  the 
district  (Taluc)  usually  resides  at  it,  although  properly  it  is  not  the 
Kasha,  or  chief  town. 

At  Ddvana-giri  some  coarse  cotton  cloths  are  made ;  and  at  every 
village  of  the  district  three  or  four  looms  are  employed  in  the  ma- 
nufacture. The  staple  commodity,  however,  of  the  Chatrakal  prin- 
cipality consists  of  Cumlies,  or  a  kind  of  blankets  which  in  their 
fabric  greatly  resemble  English  camblets.  They  are  four  cubits 
broad,  by  twelve  long,  and  form  a  piece  of  dress,  which  the  natives 
of  iCflrwfl^a  almost  universally  wear.  They  are  not  dyed,  but  are 
of  the  natural  colour  of  the  wool,  which  in  the  finer  ones  is  almost 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  331 

always  a  good  black.    The  best  are  made  at  Hara-pimya-hully,  in  the    CHAPTER 
territory  lately  ceded  to  the  company,  and  at  Ddvana-giri.    Each  of    v,.,^v-.«^ 
the  blankets,  made  of  the  wool  from  the  first  shearing  of  the  sheep,  -^P"^  ^'• 
sells  for  from  two  to  twelve  P«^o(to,  or  from  16*.  Q^d,  to  4/.  I7s.4il. 
Those  at  four  Pagodas  are  the  finest  made  for  common  sale ;  and 
these,  with  all  of  an  inferior  value,  are  brought  to  weekly  markets, 
and  purchased  by  the  merchant  for  ready  money.    If  any  of  a  higher 
value  are  wanted,  advances  must  be  made.     The  great  excellence 
of  these  blankets  is  their  power  of  turning  rain  ;  and,  the  finer  they 
are,  the  better  they  do  this.     Some  have  been  made,   that  were 
valued  so  high  as  from  two  to  three  hundred  Rupees,  and  that  were 
considered  to  be  impenetrable  by  water. 

Before  the  sheep  are  shorn,  they  are  well  washed.  The  wool,  Wool. 
when  it  has  been  shorn,  is  teased  with  the  fingers,  and  then 
beaten  Avith  a  bow,  like  cotton,  and  formed  into  bundles  for  spin- 
ning. This  operation  is  performed  both  by  men  and  women,  partly 
on  the  small  Hindu  cotton  wheel,  and  partly  with  the  distaff.  Some 
tamarind-seeds  are  bruised ;  and,  after  having  been  infused  for  a 
night  in  cold  xyater,  are  boiled.  The  thread,  when  about  to  be  put 
into  the  loom,  is  sprinkled  Avith  the  cold  decoction.  The  loom  is 
of  the  same  simple  structure  with  that  usual  in  India.  The  new 
made  cloth  is  washed  by  beating  it  on  a  stone  ;  and,  when  dried,  is 
fit  for  sale.  From  this  account  of  the  process  it  Avill  be  evident, 
that  the  great  price  of  the  finer  kinds  is  owing  to  the  great  trouble 
required  in  selecting  wool  sufficiently  fine,  the  quantity  of  which 
in  any  one  fleece  is  very  small. 

Ddvana-giri  is  a  place  of  considerable  trade,  and  is  the  residence  Commerce. 
of  many  merchants,  who  keep  oxen,  and  send  goods  to  distant  ^"'*8®- 
places.  Some  of  the  merchants  hire  their  cattle  from  Sivabhactars, 
jyinssulmans,  and  Marattahs,  who  make  the  carriage  of  goods  a  pro- 
fession, and  are  called  Badigaru.  The  load  is  reckoned  8  Maunds 
of  48  Cucha  Seers,  or  about  233lb,,  and  the  hire  is  estimated  by  this 
quantity,  whatever  load  the  owner  may  choose  to  put  on  his  cattle. 


332 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


April  11. 


Customs. 


Trade  with 
j4rcut. 


Trade  with 
the  Nagara 
principality. 

Trade  with 
the  ceded 
district. 


Trail r  with 
the  Ml/ so  re 
principality. 


Trade  with 
the  Maruttah 
country. 


The  hire  for  a  load  to  any  place  near,  is  oneFatiam,  or  almost  7-|- 
pence,  for  every  Gau  or  Gavada  of  4  cosses^-M'hich  amount  upon  an 
average,  I  suppose,  to  between  12  and  14  miles;  but  to  the  great 
marts  at  a  distance  there  is  a  fixed  price ;  for  instance,  the  load 
from  Sugar,  near  Ikeri,  to  JVallaja-petta,  near  Arcet,  costs  3  Pagodas, 
or  1/.  4*.  4i£?.     The  distance  may  be  about  320  miles. 

Far  from  considering  the  customs  exacted  at  different  places  on 
the  road  as  a  burthen,  the  traders  here  consider  them  as  advantage- 
ous ;  for  the  customhouse  is  bound  to  pay  for  all  goods  that  may  be 
stolen,  or  seized  by  robbers,  within  their  respective  districts.  This 
seems  to  be  an  excellent  regulation,  which  is  in  general  use 
throughout  the  peninsula. 

The  most  valuable  trade  here  is  that  which  is  carried  on  with 
JVallaja-petta.  The  goods  carried  from  hence  are  Betel-nut  and 
pepper,  and  those  brought  back  are  3fadras  goods,  imported  from 
Europe,  China,  Bengal,  and  the  Eastern  Islands,  together  with  salt, 
and  some  of  the  manufactures  of  the  coast  of  Coromandel. 

There  is  also  a  great  trade  carried  on  between  this  and  Nagara, 
and  Sugar.  From  thence  are  brought  Betel-nut  and  pepper,  and  from 
this  are  sent  Cumlies,  salt,  and  Madras  goods. 

Next  to  these,  the  trade  with  Rai/d-durga,  and  Hara-punya-hully, 
in  the  newly-ceded  district,  is  the  most  considerable.  The  exports 
from  Davana-giri  are  coco-nuts,  Jagory,  tobacco,  turmeric.  Betel- 
nut,  pepper,  and  Capsicum.  The  returns  are,  a  little  cotton  avooI,  and 
cloth,  Cumlies,  and  a  large  proportion  of  cash. 

To  Caduru,  and  other  places  south  from  this,  are  sent  cotton,  cloth, 
a.nd  Terra  Japonica  ;  and  from  them  are  brought  coco-nuts,  tobacco, 
turmeric,  fenugreek,  garlic,  and  Danya,  a  carminative  seed.  The  ma- 
nufacturers of  this  neighbourhood  frequently  carry  their  blankets 
to  Seringapatam. 

Merchants  from  the  Ma7'aitah  territories  beyond  the  Tungabhadra 
bring  hither  silk  cloths,  cotton,  Terra  Japonica,  and  wheat;  and 
take  away  Callay  (Cicer  arietinum),  Jagory,  and  coco-nuts.  At  present 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  333 

this  trade  is  at  a  very  low  ebb ;  parties  of  the  Marattah  troops    CHAPTER 
seizing  on  whatever  they  meet.     As  these  are  not  robbers,  but  per-     K„^^y-^ 
sons  regularly  employed  by  government,  the  custom-house  is  not  -April  ii. 
held  answerable  for  their  depredations. 

From  this  it  would  appear,  that  the  trade  of  Z)«rflwa-giri  chiefly 
consists  in  exchanging  the  produce  of  one  neighbouring  country, 
for  those  of  another.  The  only  articles  of  export  produced  in  the 
neighbourhood  are  Cumlies,  Jagory  (inspissated  juice  of  sugar  cane), 
and  Callay  (Cicer  arietinum). 

April  12th. — To-day  I  was  prevented  from  advancing  by  no  less  April  12. 
than  seven  of  ray  people  having  been  seized  with  the  fever  in  the 
course  of  the  night,  and  from  its  being  impossible,  without  some 
delay,  to  provide  means  for  their  being  carried.  Fevers  have  of 
late  been  very  prevalent  among  my  servants,  although  the  country 
is  perfectly  dry  and  clear.  The  weather  is  now  very  hot  in  the  day- 
time, with  strong  irregular  blasts  of  hot  wind,  which  often  comes  in 
whirls.  The  nights  are  tolerably  cool.  Early  this  ijiorning  we  had 
a  very  heavy  rain,  with  much  thunder,  but  little  wind. 

As  I  was  detained  here,  in  order  to  save  time  I  sent  for  the  prin-  Sheep. 
cipal  sheep-breeders   in   the  neighbourhood,   and    obtained  from 
them  the  following  account.     Throughout  the  principality,  and  in 
the  neighbouring  country  of  Hara-punya-hully,  which  belongs  to 
the  Company,  sheep  are  an  object  of  great  importance,   and  are  of 
the  kind  called  Curi  in  the  language  of  Karnata.    They  are  keptby 
two  casts,  the  Curubarii,  and  Goalaru.    A  man  of  either  cast,  Avho 
possesses  a  flock  of  sheep,  is  by  the  Mussulmans  called  a  Donigar. 
The  Curubaru  are  of  two  kinds  ;  those  properly  so  called,  and  those 
named  Handy  or  Cumly  Curubaru.    The  Curubaru  proper,  and  the 
Goalaru,  are  sometimes  cultivators,  and  possess  the  largest  flocks  ; 
but  they  never  make  blankets.    The  Handy  Curubasahsta.\n  entirely, 
from  cultivation,  and  employ  themselves  in  tending  their  flocks,  and 
manufacturing  the  wool.     The  flocks  kept  by  the  two  former  casts 
contain  from  30  to  300  breeding  ewes  ;  those  of  the  Handy  Curubas. 


354,  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  contain  only  from  five  to  one  hundred  and  fifty.    All  the  shepherds 
xviir  ^  r 

v^^-^    have  besides  some  cows,  buffaloes,  ?iX\AMaycays,  or  long-legged  goats; 

Ai>iil  12.  jjyt  tijg  sheep  form  the  chief  part  of  their  stock.  They  are  pas- 
tured in  waste  places  ;  for  which  a  Hulibundu,  or  grass  renter,  is 
appointed  by  government ;  and  to  him  each  family  pays  a  certain 
rent,  fixed  by  an  old  valuation  of  their  property.  This  rent  varies 
from  -i-  a  Fanam  to  20  Fanams  a  year,  or  from  S^d.  to  12*.  5\d. 
It  is  said,  that  changes  in  the  quantity  of  a  family's  stock  are  not 
common,  and  that  it  is  rare  for  a  man  to  possess  thirty  more  or 
less  than  his  ancestor  had  at  the  time  of  the  valuation.  If  any 
man's  flock,  however,  should  increase  much  above  the  number  ori- 
ginally belonging  to  the  family, the  Hulibundu  may  increase  the  tax. 
The  office  of  Hulibundu  is  not  hereditary ;  but  there  are  certain 
families  of  shepherds  hereditarily  annexed  to  the  Hulibundu 
of  each  district ;  that  is  to  say,  they  must  pay  their  tax  into  his 
office.  They  are  at  liberty  to  pasture  their  flocks  wherever  they 
please,  even  into  the  territories  of  a  different  sovereign.  Thus  a 
shepherd  of  this  place  may  feed  his  flocks  in  Hara-piinya-hully  ;  but 
he  pays  his  rent  to  the  Hulibundu  of  Chatrakal. 

The  sheep  are  allowed  no  food  but  what  they  can  procure  in  the 
pastures,  which  are  open  uncultivated  lands  containing  a  few  scat- 
tered bushes,  but  which  are  here  called  Adaxi,  or  forests.  In  the 
rainy  season,  the  sheep  at  night  are  driven  into  folds  made  of  prickly 
bushes.  In  the  dry  season,  they  are  at  night  confined  on  the  arable 
lands,  for  the  purpose  of  manuring  them  ;  and,  as  a  reward,  the  cul- 
tivator gives  victuals  to  the  shepherds  and  their  dogs.  Four  rams 
are  reckoned  sufficient  for  a  hundred  ewes.  Owing  to  the  tempe- 
rate nature  of  the  climate,  the  females  breed  at  all  seasons  indiffer- 
ently, and  they  heal-  six  months  in  the  womb.  They  have  their 
first  lamb  at  eighteen  months  old,  and  breed  once  a  year,  but  never 
have  twins.  After  bearing  three  lambs,  the  ewe  is  sold.  If  allowed 
to  live,  she  would  breed  five  times,  but  afterwards  she  would  not 
be  saleable.     Sheep  are  never  fattened  for  the  market,  farther  than 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  335 

can  be  done  by  pasture,  with  which  in  India  a  sheep' seldom  becomes    CHAPTER 
fat ;  but  I  think  the  meat  of  those  here  is  better  than  I  have  seen    /^"'' 
any  where  else  in  India,  where  the  animal  has  not  been  stall-fed.  For  April  12. 
stall-feeding,  they  are  preferred  by  the  gentlemen  of  Madras,  Avho 
used  formerly  to  be  supplied  from  Bengal, 

The  males,  except  those  intended  for  breeding,  are  sold  by  the 
shepherds  when  under  two  years  of  age.  At  a  year  old,  the  best 
males  are  selected  for  breeding,  the  others  are  castrated.  A  female 
at  one  year  old,  sells  for  about  a  quarter  of  a  Pagoda,  or  rather  more 
than  two  shillings,  and  continues  of  the  same  value  until  after 
having  had  her  third  lamb.  A  male  of  a  year  old  is  worth  the 
same  money.  A  wether  two  years  old  is  worth  about  a  third  of  a 
Pagoda,  or  2*.  ?)\d.  A  good  ram  for  breeding  sells  for  half  a  Pagoda, 
or  rather  more  than  four  shillings. 

The  fleece  is  shorn  twice  a  year;  in  the  second  month  after  the  'Wool, 
shortest  day,  and  in  that  which  follows  the  summer  solstice.  The  first 
fleece  is  taken  when  the  sheep  is  about  six  months  old,  and  is  by  far 
the  finest  in  quality.  From  this  alone  can  Cumlies,  of  any  consider- 
able fineness,  be  made.  Every  successive  fleece  becomes  worse  and 
worse,  and  does  not  increase  in  quantity.  The  sheep  are  never 
smeared.  They  are  commonly  black ;  and  the  deeper  this  colour 
is,  the  more  valuable  the  wool  is  reckoned.  The  finer  blankets  are 
all  of  an  excellent  native  black,  without  dye.  Each  fleece  weighs 
from  1^  to  3  Seers,  or  from-yg^-  of  a  pound,  to  ly^^lb.  The  fleeces, 
as  shorn,  are  divided  into  three  qualities;  which  sell  for  13,  8,  and 
7  Fanams  the  Maund;  or  for  1/.  ll.s.  ^\d.,  \Qs.  -l^d.,  and  16^.  Q\d. 
for  the  hundred  weight. 

The  Handy  Curubaru,  or  in  the  singular  number  Curuba,  are  a  cast  Handy  Cn^ 
living  in  the  Hara-punya-hully  and  Chatrakal  districts,  and  are  of 
Karnata  descent ;  but  many  of  them  have  now  settled  on  the  banks 
of  the  upper  part  o^  tht  Krishna  river,  in  the  Maratiah  dominions. 
All  those  who  have  settled  in  that  country  being  horse-men,  they 
are  called  Handay  Ravalar,   a  name    pronounced  Rawut  by  the 


336  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTElv  Alussuhnans,  and  by  them  frequently  applied  to  every  kind  ofCuruba, 
v.,^rv^  III  this  country  they  confine  themselves  entirely  to  the  proper  duties 
April  12.  of  their  cast;  which  are,  to  rear  sheep,  and  to  work  up  wool  into 
blankets.  They  can  eat  with  the  other  tribes  of  Curubaru,  but  do 
not  intermarry  with  them.  They  are  allowed  a  plurality  of  wives, 
and  their  women  continue  to  be  marriageable  after  the  age  of  pu- 
berty. Widows  may  live  with  a  second  husband  as  left-hand  wives 
(Cutigas),  and  their  children  are  not  thereby  disgraced  ;  for  in 
this  tribe  there  is  no  inferior  Cutiga  cast.  A  woman  who  commits 
adultery  is  always  excommunicated ;  nor  can  her  paramour  take 
her  for  his  Cutiga.  The  Handy  Curubas  eat  sheep,  fish,  venison, 
and  fowls.  They  hold  pork  to  be  an  abomination,  and  look  upon 
the  eating  of  the  flesh  of  oxen,  or  of  buffaloes,  as  a  dreadful  sin. 
They  are  allowed  to  drink  spirituous  liquors.  When  a  Curuba 
dies,  his  property,  as  is  usual  with  that  of  all  Hindus  in  Karnata, 
is  divided  equally  among  his  sons;  and  his  wives  and  daughters 
areleft  entirely  at  the  discretion  of  the  males  of  his  family. 

The  Deities,  whom  this  cast  consider  as  their  peculiar  objects  of 
worship,  are  Bira  Deva,  and  his  sister  Mdyava.  Bira  is,  they  say,  the 
same  with  Iswa7'a,  and  resides  in  Coilasa,  where  he  receives  the  de- 
parted spirits  of  good  men.  Bad  men  are  punished  in  Nuraca,  or  by 
suffering  various  low  transmigrations.  There  is  only  one  temple  of 
Bira,  which  is  situated  on  Curi-betta,  or  the  sheep  hill,  on  the  banks 
of  the  Krishna,  near  the  Poonah.  There  is  also  only  one  temple 
dedicated  to  Mdyava.  It  is  near  the  Krishna,  at  a  place  named  Chin- 
sulli.  Once  in  ten  years,  every  man  of  the  cast  ought  to  go  to  these 
two  temples ;  but  a  great  many  do  not  find  leisure  for  the  perform- 
ance of  this  duty.  These  deities  do  not  receive  bloody  sacrifices, 
but  are  worshipped  by  offerings  of  fruit  and  flowers.  The  priests 
(Pujaris)  at  both  these  temples  are  Curubaru  ;  and,  as  the  office  is 
hereditary,  they  of  course  marry.  Once  in  four  or  five  years  they 
go  round,  distributing  consecrated  powderof  turmeric,  and  receiving 
charity.    Besides  the  worship  of  the  deities  proper  to  the  cast,  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  337 

Curubas  offer  sacrifices  to  some  of  the  destructive  spirits,  such  as   ^^^?J^^ 
Durgawa,  Jacani,  and  Barama  Deva.    When  sick,  or  in  distress,  they    v^.^-v"^^ 
vow  sacrifices  to  these  spirits,  provided  they  M'ill  no  longer  exert     ''" 
their  baneful  influence.     The  Curabaru  have  no  trouble  from  Pym- 
cki;  and  ordinary  Butas,  or  devils,  they  believe,  are  expelled  by 
prayer  addressed  to  the  deities  of  the  cast.     At  Hujiny,  in  the  Ha- 
ra-punya-hully  district,  resides  Ravana  Siddheswara,  the  Guru  of  this 
cast.    His  office  also  is  hereditary ;  and  he  is  able  to  read,  an  extent 
of  knowlege  to  which  no  other  person  of  the  tribe  has  pretensions. 
The  Guru  attends  at  feasts  and  sacrifices,  to  receive  his  share,  and 
punishes  transgressions  against  the  rules  of  cast  by  fine  and  excom- 
munication.    At  the  principal  ceremonies  of  the  Curabaru,  such  as 
marriages,  building  a  new  house,  or  the  like,  the  ( Panckatiga)  astrolo- 
ger of  the  village,  who  is  aBrdhma?i,  attends;  and, having  read  the  pray- 
ers fi^faH^rct^w^J  proper  on  the  occasion,  receives  theaccustomeddue. 

April  1 3th. — I  went  what  was  called  four  cosses,  but  the  stage  April  13. 
was  exceedingly  long,  and  I  halted  at  Coduganar.    Except  two  small  ^f^^^^^^^^^^ 
hills  between  which  I  passed,  all  the  country  near  this  day's  route  country. 
is  sufficiently  level  for  the  plough,  and  very  little  of  it  appears  to 
be  too  barren  for  cultivation.    Some  of  the  soil  is  black  clay,  some 
is  red  mould,  but  by  far  the  greater  part  of  it  is  poor  stony  land.    I 
saw  several  villages,  but  a  very  small  proportion  of  the  country  is 
cultivated,  and  from  time  immemorial  much  has  been  waste.    A  long 
continued  scene  of  Indian  warfare  has  prevented  by  far  the  greater 
part  from  having  been  cultivated.    The  most  severe  loss,  however, 
that  the  natives  remember,  was  what  they  suffered  in  Purseram  Bow's 
invasion,  when  the  whole  Chatrakal  principalit}'-  was   reduced  to 
nearly  a  desert.    The  Amildar  ofMahiconda,  who  met  me  at  Codu- 
ganar, says,  that  almost  the  whole  country  is  capable  of  cultivation, 
and  with  manure  will  produce  either  Ragy  or  Jola. 

In  the  forenoon  a  leopard  was  killed  by  the  people  of  the  village  Leopard,  or 
in  a  garden  near  the  town,  and  brought  to  my  tent  in  great  triumph,  ^''" 
with  every  thing  resembling  a  flag,  and  every  instrument  capable 

Vol.  III.  Xx 


338 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER   of  making  a  noise,  that  could  be  collected.    First  he  had  been  shot 
XVIII, 
v,^,.^^^     in  the  belly,  and  then  he  was  driven  to  the  banks  of  a  reservoir, 


April  13. 


April  14. 
Face  of  the 
country. 


where  he  stood  at  bay;  and,  before  he  was  killed,  wounded  three 
of  the  men  M'ho  attacked  him  with  spears  ;  one  of  whom  was  severely 
torn.  He  agreed  very  well  with  the  description  in  Ker's  translation 
of  Linnteus,  and  was  about  four  feet  from  the  snout  to  the  root  of 
the  tail.  He  had  killed  several  oxen;  and  in  this  country,  it  is  not 
unusual  for  leopards  to  attack  even  men.  Although  I  have  called 
this  animal  the  leopard,  there  is  reason  to  think  that  it  does  not 
differ  from  the  panther  of  India ;  for  I  am  persuaded  that  we  have 
no  larger  spotted  animal  of  the  feline  genus.  The  Indian  panther 
and  leopard  I  consider,  therefore,  as  two  names  for  the  same  animal. 
The  African  panther  may,  however,  be  different,  as  certainly  is  the 
hunting  leopard  of  India. 

14th  April. — I  went  a  very  long  stage,  called  four  cosses,  to  Ali- 
gutta.  For  some  way,  near  the  middle  of  this  day's  route,  the  road 
passed  among  low  hills  that  are  rather  barren.  On  both  sides  of 
these  there  is  a  great  deal  of  fine  land ;  for  much  of  the  soil  is  of 
the  fine  black  mould  called  Eray.  Almost  the  whole  is  waste,  owing 
chiefly  to  the  invasion  of  Purseram  Bow.  Many  of  the  fields,  how- 
ever, would  appear  to  have  remained  longer  uncultivated,  which  is 
attributed  to  invasions  by  the  Marattahs  that  happened  during  the 
government  oi  Hyder.  I  do  not  think  that  more  than  a  tenth  part 
of  the  arable  fields  is  now  occupied.  Ragy  and  sugar-cane  seem  to 
be  what  the  farmers  attend  to  most ;  yet  there  is  much  land  fit  for 
Jola  and  cotton.  Some  sheep  are  reared  ;  but  all  the  wool  is  sent 
to  other  places,  where  it  is  manufactured.  In  the  villages  of  this 
district  are  scattered  a  few  weavers  of  coarse  cotton  cloths.  In  the 
Chatrakal  principality  there  are  no  plantations  of  palm-trees ;  but 
there  are  many  gardens  in  which  kitchen  stuffs  (Tai^kari)  are  raised. 
Among  these,  the  carrot  thrives  remarkably  well,  and  in  flavour  is 
superior  to  any  that  I  have  seen  in  India.  Aligutta  is  a  sorry  place, 
.situated  among  some  rocky  heights  that  are  fortified.     Contiguous 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  339 

to  it  i"s  a  very  good  reservoir.     Distant  from  it  about  three  cosses   ^^^^^j^^ 
to  the  south,  is  a  reservoir,  which  in  size  almost  equals  Solicaray,  and    ^^0^"*^ 
is  named  B.'tma  Samudra,  or  the  sea  of  Bhima,  who  was  one  of  the 
five  sons  of  Pandu,  celebrated  \n  Hindu  fable. 

15th  Jpril. — I  went  a  very  long  stage,  called  also  four  cosses,  and  April  15. 
encamped  in  the  plain  near  Chitteldroog,  as  we  call  it.  Most  of  the 
country  through  which  I  passed  is  tolerably  good,  but  very  thinly 
peopled,  and  poorly  cultivated.  After  having  passed  over  a  low 
ridge  of  hills,  I  came  to  a  small  rivulet,  named  Jenigay  holay,  which 
has  its  source  from  Bhima  Samudra,  and  from  various  mountain  tor- 
rents. It  runs  towards  Giidi-cotay,  the  chief  town  of  a  district  in  this 
principality,  and  contains  water  at  all  seasons.  It  forms  some  fine 
reservoirs,  and  in  several  places  is  also  conveyed  by  canals  to  irri- 
gate the  fields  for  cultivation. 

The  plain  of  Chitteldroog  is  two  cosses  and  a  half  from  north  to  Ckltteldreog. 
south,  and  one  coss  from  east  to  west ;  the  coss  here  being  at  least 
four  miles.  It  is  every  where  surrounded  by  low,  rocky,  bare  hills, 
on  one  of  which  stands  the  Durga,  or  fort,  formerly  the  residence 
of  the  Folygars  of  this  country.  By  the  natives  it  is  called  either 
Sitala-durga,  that  is  to  say,  the  spotted  castle,  or  Chatrakal,  which 
signifies  the  umbi'ella  rock ;  for  the  Umbrella  is  one  of  the  insignia 
of  royalty.  During  the  government  of  the  iJoyan/*,  the  tributary 
Polygars  of  Chatrakal,  who  by  descent  were  hunters  (Baydaru), 
governed  a  country  valued  at  10,000  Pagodas  a  year,  or  3120/.  8*.  Ad. 
On  the  decline  of  the  royal  family  of  Vijaya-nagara,  these  enter- 
prising hunters,  by  gradually  encroaching  on  their  neighbours, 
increased  their  territories  until  they  became  worth  annually  350,000 
Pagodas,  or  109,213/.  10*.  \0d.  The  Moguls  had  no  sooner  settled 
at  Sira,  than  they  began  to  covet  the  Chatrakal  principality,  which 
being  entirely  an  open  country  ought  to  have  fallen  an  easy  prey 
to  their  cavalry.  Sida  Hilal,  Nabob  of  Sira,  made  the  attempt,  and 
besieged  the  town  for  two  years,  but  without  success.  He  then 
retired  to  ASirfl,  having  received  a  promise  of  an  annual  tribute,  the 


340  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  payment  of  which  he  probably  did  not  expect.  Hydcr,  soon  after 
^V^^'-       taking  Bidderuru,  attacked  Chatrakal.     The  first  siege  lasted  five 

April  15.  months,  and  was  unsuccessful.  After  the  second  siege  had  conti- 
nued six  months,  there  was  little  prospect  of  success,  and  Hyder  h&d 
recourse  to  corruption.  Partly  by  money,  and  partly  by  the  influ- 
ence of  a  common  faith,  he  obtained  the  treacherous  assistance  of 
a  Mussulman  officer,  to  whom  the  Ri/jd  had  given  a  high  military 
command.  At  this  time  the  town  was  very  large,  and  filled  a  great 
portion  of  the  plain ;  but  owing  to  the  removal  of  its  court  it  has 
since  gradually  decayed.  Still,  however,  it  is  a  considerable  place, 
and  seems  to  receive  particular  encouragement  from  Purnea.  It  is 
now  confined  entirely  within  the  walls,  which  are  near  the  foot  of 
the  rock.  They  were  strengthened  by  Hyder ;  and  the  town,  after 
the  peace  granted  by  Lord  Cornwallis,  having  become  a  place  near 
the  Ma7'attah  frontier,  Tippoo  had  employed  Dhowlut  Khan,  one  of 
his  slaves,  to  add  much  to  its  strength.  The  new  works  are  now 
completing,  and  will  render  it  totally  impregnable  against  such 
invaders.  Indeed,  as  it  was  before,  Purseram  Bow  made  no  attempt 
to  besiege  it,  that  kind  of  warfare  being  little  adapted  for  his  troops, 
or  indeed  for  those  of  any  native  prince  ;  for  the  walls  that  resisted 
the  two  years  siege  of  the  troops  of  the  haughty  Mogul,  were  built 
'  entirely   of  mud.     From  the    hereditary  Shanaboga  of  this  place, 

iMLxned  Shimuppa,  I  received  a  history  of  the  Polygars  of  Chatrakal, 
which  I  have  delivered  to  the  Bengal  government. 

April  16.  \6thJpril. — I  unfortunately  found,   that  the  Subadar,   or  chief 

Sickness  pre.  officer  of  the  principality,  was  absent,  and  that  his  inferiors  were 

•Valcnt  in  the  r  i         ^ '  r-      1  •    i    t  t. 

hot  weatlier,  little  disposed  to  render  me  any  assistance  ;  of  which  I  was  much 
in  want,  owing  to  the  number  of  my  people  who  were  sick,  and  who 
were  daily  attacked  with  fevers.  The  whole  neighbouring  country 
is  reckoned  exceedingly  unhealthy,  although  it  is  perfectly  dry  and 
clear ;  and  indeed,  ever  since  I  have  come  upon  the  open  country 
near  the  Tunga,  my  people  have  been  suffering  very  much.  The 
natives  say,  that  every  country  is  unhealthy  in  which  the  black  soil 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  341 

called  Eray  abounds.    In  the  neighbourhood  of  Chatrakal  there  is  CHAPTER 
also  a  deficiency  of  water.     To  reach  it,  the  wells  must  not  only  be    .^vli^^ 
very  deep,  but  all  that  is  procurable  is  of  a  bad  quality.    This  may  April  16, 
be  in  part  attributed  to  the  common  nastiness  of  the  Hindus,  who 
wash  their  clothes,  bodies,  and  cattle  in  the  very  tanks  or  wells 
from  which  they  take  their  own  drink ;  and,  wherever  the  water  is 
scanty,   it  becomes  from   this    cause  extremely   disgusting   to  a 
European. 

Finding  that  the  agriculture  of  this  country  differed  in  nothing- 
material  from  that  at  Hari-hara,  and  Ddvana-giri,  and  wishing  to 
remove  my  people  to  a  more  healthy  situation,  I  determined  to  make 
no  longer  stay  at  the  inhospitable  Chatrakal,  but  to  go  to  Heriuru, 
where  the  air  and  water  ard  reckoned  wholesome. 

17th  April. — I  went  two  cosses  to  Siddamdna-hully,  a  mud  fort  April  17. 
containing  sixty  houses.  The  first  half  of  the  Avay  led  through  the  of  ihecoun» 
plain  of  6'^«^rflA;6f/,  which  is  mostly  uncultivated,  but  consists  of  a  ^^^'' 
fine  blkck  soil.  Beyond  the  hills  surrounding  this  plain,  toward  the 
east,  is  an  extensive  level  bounded  by  Nunnivala  hills  and  fort.  The 
soil  most  common  in  this  plain  also  is  black.  The  number  of  inha- 
bitants now  in  the  country  is  not  above  a  third  part  of  what  were 
in  it  before  the  Marattah  invasion.  The  two  great  articles  of  cul- 
tivation here  are  Jb/a  (Holcus  sorghum)  znA  Nwvonay  ( Paniciim  ita- 
liciim),  of  which  about  equal  quantities  are  raised.  The  next  most 
considerable  crops  are  Siijjay  (Holcus  spicatiis)  and  cotton.  The 
quantity  of  wheat  and  Callay  (Cicer  arietinum)  is  small.  There  are 
no  reservoirs,  but  some  might  be  constructed.  Near  the  village  is 
said  to  be  a  place  where  one  might  be  built  that  would  water  as  much 
land  as  would  sow  10,000  Seers  of  rice.  The  chief  fGaudaJ  <it  Sidda- 
mdna-hully is  a  Sivabhactar,  as  indeed  is  common  in  this  principality ; 
for  since  the  overthrow  of  their  chief  by  Hyder,  the  Baydani  have 
become  almost  extinct. 

18th  April. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Imangula,  and  had  on  my  right  April  is, 
all  the  way  a  prolongation  from  the  hills  on  which  Chatrakal  stands. 


S42 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


April  is. 

Eggs  of  fishes 
very  tenaci- 
ous of  life. 


Imangula. 
Practice  of 
swinging  be- 
fore idoh. 


Singular 
manner  of 
cultivating 
the  dry  field. 


The  country  near  my  route  is  chiefly  level,  and  most  of  the  soil  is 
black ;  but  it  is  almost  entirely  M'aste,  and  has  very  few  tanks. 
i^ear  Itfianguia  is  a  small  one  t:  at  waters  some  rice  ground. 

Although  almost  ever}'  year,  before  the  commencement  of  the 
rainy  season,  this  tank  becomes  dry,  and  has  no  communication 
with  any  rivulet,  yet  it  contains  many  small  fishes,  all  ofwhich 
are  caught  whenever  it  dries.  It  would  appear,  that  their  eggs, 
although  no  doubt  they  become  dry  M'ith  the  mud  and  stones,  retain 
life,  and  are  hatched  so  soon  as  they  are  moistened  by  the  next  rain. 
This  shows  the  practicability  of  transporting  the  eggs  of  fishes  from 
one  country  to  another  with  very  little  trouble. 

Imangula  is  a  large  fort,  but  much  space  M-ithin  is  empty,  and  it 
contains  only  about  90  houses.  The  c\\it?  (Gauda)  is  hereditary, 
as  is  usual  throughout  the,  Mysoi^e  Raja's  dominions,  and  he  acts  as 
Pujiri  to  the  image  of  the  village  god.  Almost  every  village  has 
a  peculiar  deity  of  this  kind,  and  most  of  them  are  believed  to  be 
of  a  destructive  nature.  That  of  Imangula  is  Kalikantama,  a  female 
deity.  To  her  image  an  annual  feast  is  given  by  the  Gauda,  who 
offers  sacrifices,  while  her  wrath  is  appeased  by  the  people,  who 
are  swung  round  before  the  shrine,  as  they  are  suspended  from  the 
end  of  a  lever  by  a  hook  of  iron,  that  is  passed  through  the  skin  of 
their  backs.  This  cruel  worship  is  never  performed  before  the  great 
gods  ;  and  the  Brahmans  of  the  south  consider  it  as  an  abomination, 
fit  only  for  the  groveling  understandings  of  the  vulgar. 

In  the  black  soil  which  forms  a  large  portion  of  the  fine  plains 
east  from  Chairakal,  a  singular  manner  of  cultivation  prevails.  The 
plough  used  is  drawn  by  from  eight  to  sixteen  oxen,  and  is  heavy 
in  proportion.  In  Plate  XXIX.  Fig.  80,  is  represented  one  that 
Avas  drawn  by  eight  oxen,  the  iron  ofwhich  weighed  12  Seers,  or 
about  7ilb.  The  largest  is  exactly  of  the  same  shape,  but  much 
stronger,  and  its  iron  is  double  the  weight.  The  reason  of  the  num- 
ber of  cattle  which  the  farmers  here  employ  seems  to  be,  the  hard- 
ness acquired  by  the  black  soil  in  the  dry  and  hot  season  during 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  343 

which  the  labour  must  be  performed.     After  the  commencement  of  CHAPTER 

.  XVIII 

the  rains  it  becomes  so  sticky,  that  cattle  cannot  walk  on  it.     In   v,.^-^ 

many  parts  of  the  Marattah  country,  I  am  told,  the  same  mode  of  ^P"^  i^- 
cultivation  prevails,  and  that  the  plough  is  often  drawn  by  12  yoke 
of  oxen,  Avorth  each  from  sixteen  to  tAventy  Rupees.  With  the  strong 
team  in  use  here,  the  field  every  third  year  receives  two  or  three 
ploughings.  In  the  two  intermediate  years  it  is  only  hoed  with  the 
Cuntay.  It  requires  no  manure,  and  is  never  rested,  but  constantly 
gives  a  crop  oijola  (Holcus  sorghum)  or  Navonay  (Panicumitalicum), 
Avhich  are  sown  without  any  attention  to  rotation.  On  the  year  in 
which  the  field  is  ploughed,  rows  o^ Callay  (Cicer  arietinum)  accom- 
pany the  Jola  ;  but  in  the  two  intermediate  seasons  nothing  is  sown 
with  this  grain.  The  Navonay  is  always  accompanied  by  rows  of  cot- 
ton, at  the  distance  of  two  cubits  and  a  half.  Both  seeds  are  sown 
with  the  drill.  The  crop  on  the  second  year  after  ploughing  is 
reckoned  the  best.  When  the  country  becomes  inhabited  and 
acquires  a  good  system  of  agriculture,  this  part  of  the  Chatrakal 
principality,  which  consists  of  Eray,  or  black  soil,  seems  likely  to 
be  a  source  of  great  wealth  ;  but  its  present  desolation  must  for  a 
considerable  time  keep  itpoor,  and,  adding  to  the  natural  unhealthi- 
ness  of  the  climate,  will  make  the  increase  of  population  slow. 

April  19th. — I  went  three  cosses  to  Heriuru,  near  which  a  great  April  19. 
change  takes  place  in  the  appearance  of  the  country.     The  soil  is  of'Xe^coun- 
mostly  stony,  and  at  this  season  exceedingly  parched ;  so  that  there  is  '""y- 
scarcely  any  grass,  and  the  only  green  things  to  be  seen  are  a  few 
scattered  Mimosas. 

Owing  to  the  sickness  among  my  people,  and  an  accident  having  Delay  owing 
befallen  my  horse,  it  became  impossible  for  me  to  proceed  farther;  '°  5"^''"'=^*- 
and   as  I  had  found  it  impracticable,  wlien  at  Sira,   to  procure  a 
palanquin  bearer  there,  it  became  necessary  to  wait  until  some  con- 
veyance should  be  sent  from  Seringapatam.     This  delayed  me  four- 
teen days,  nor  could  a  set  of  bearers  by  any  means  be  procured  at 


S44 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


April  19. 


Climate. 


Fish. 


CHAPTER  Ser'wgapatam.  I  should  have  been  reduced  to  the  necessity  of  walk- 
XVIII.  j„„^  i,aj  not  t\\&  Dewan  obligingly  sent  a  positive  order  for  the 
bearers  of  Ara  to  enter  into  my  service.  The  common  bearers  of 
India  are  unwilling  to  enter  into  the  service  of  a  traveller,  although 
the  wages  he  gives  are  immense,  when  compared  with  what  they  get 
at  home;  for  he  takes  them  far  from  their  families,  to  places  which 
they  consider  as  another  world.  All  objects  of  enquiry  having  been 
soon  exhausted,  while  the  desert  nature  of  the  country  precluded 
any  resource  from  botany,  my  stay  at  Heriuru  proved  very  tedious. 
The  winds  in  the  day-time  were  hot,  and  came  generally  from  the 
south.  Slight  whirlwinds  from  the  same  quarter  were  common. 
At  night  the  winds  were  westerly,  and  tolerably  cool.  Tliere  were 
a  few  slight  showers  of  rain,  with  some  heavy  squalls  of  wind,  which 
changed  all  round  the  compass,  and  were  accompanied  by  a  terrible 
cloud  of  dust. 

I  procured  much  comfort  from  a  small  clear  stream,  called  the 
Vedawati,  in  which  I  cooled  myself  every  evening,  and  whence   I 
procured  the  three  species   of  Cyprinus  from  which  the  accompa- 
nying figures  (Plates  XXX.  XXXI.  XXXII.)  were   taken,  and  of 
■which  the  following  are  the  scientific  characters: 
1 .  Cyprinus  Carmuca  B. 
C.  cirrhis  duobus ;  corpore  elongato;  capite  callis  tuberculato ; 
radiis  pinnse  analis  octo,  dorsalis  undecem. 
Karmuka  Telingorum. 
Habitat  in  fluviis  Karnatce.     Piscis  aliquando  tres  pedes  longus. 

2.  Cyprinus  Ariza  B. 
C.  imberbis  cauda  bifida ;  corpore  elongato ;    maxilla  inferiore 
carinata;  radiis  pinns  alialis  septem,  dorsalis  duodecem. 
Kincla  Minu  Tamulorum 
Bangun  Batta  Bengalensium. 
Arija  Telingorum. 
Habitat  in  fluviis  Indiae   australis.     Pisces   hos  numquam  vidi 
trium  palmorum  longiores. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  345 

3.  Cyprinus  Bendelisis  B. 

C.  cirrhisduobus;  caudabiloba,  corporeelongato,  semi-fasciato; 
radiis  pinnte  dorsalis  novem,  ani  undecim.  P"    "' 

Bendelisi  Telingorum. 

Habitat  in  fluviis  Kar7iat(e.  Pisciculus  digili  longitudinem  vix 
exsuperans. 

This  fine  little  river  seldom  or  never  dries  up,  and  comes  from 
Sakra-pattana.  Its  water  is  clear,  and  is  reckoned  wholesome.  Four 
cosses  below  Heriuru  it  is  joined  by  the  Cuttay-holay,  which  comes 
from  Muga-Nayakana-Coiay  and  Hagalawadi,  and  forms  the  boundary 
between  the  Chatrakal  principality  and  Sira.  Although  this  receives 
a  small  stream  from  Sira,  yet  in  the  hot  season  it  commonly  become* 
dry.  The  natives  here  say,  that  the  Vedawdti  ]oms  the  Utara  Pina- 
kani,  or  northern  Pemiar,  after  having  received  the  Jaya-mangala 
river,  which  comes  {ron\  Nandi-durga  ;  but  this  is  a  clear  proof  of 
their  extreme  ignorance  in  topography.  The  Vedawdti  is  the  river 
which  Major  Rennell  calls  Hogree,  and  it  joins  the  Tungabhadra. 

Heriuru  signifies  "  a  head  place."  It  is  situated  on  the  east  side  Heriuru. 
of  the  Vedawdti,  and  during  the  government  of  the.  Chatrakal Ry as 
contained  £000  houses,  with  an  outer  and  inner  fort,  and  several 
temples  of  the  great  gods,  one  of  which  is  of  considerable  size. 
This  temple,  called  Gunavunti,  possesses  an  inscription  engraven  on 
stone,  dated  Sal.  1332,  in  the  reign  of  Deva  Rdya;  of  which  a  copy 
has  been  delivered  to  the  Bengal  government.  In  the  reign  of 
Hyder,  the  town  suffered  considerably  from  the  Marattahs,  and  was 
plundered  by  Purseram  Bow.  The  ravages  of  this  chief  were  fol- 
lowed by  a  dreadful  famine,  which  swept  away  all  the  inhabitants. 
When  the  British  army  arrived  last  before  Seringapatam,  about  50  or 
60  houses  had  again  been  occupied.  Some  of  the  dealers  in  grain 
that  followed  the  camp  found  their  way  even  to  this  distance,  and 
plundered  tlie  wretched  inhabitants.  At  the  same  time  Barama 
Nayaka,  a  chief  of  t\\e  Chatrakal  family,  assemWed  some  bandittii 

Vol.  III.  y  y 


54«  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  and  entered  the  territories  of  his  ancestors,  to  try  what  could  be 
K^^^j.,^    done.     He  had  constant  skirmishes  with  the  Sultan's  garrison   in 

April  19.  Cliatrakal,  and  in  each  of  these  two  or  tliree  villages  Mere  plundered 
by  one  or  other  of  the  parties.  After  the  capture  of  Seringapatatn. 
this  chief  wisely  entered  into  the  service  of  \h&  Mysore  Raja,  and  is 
now  employed  in  the  command  of  3000  men  acting  against  a  Poly  gar, 
Avho  by  us  is  called  the  Bool  Raja.  When  Colonel  Dalrymple  arrived 
■with  his  detachment,  giving  protection  to  this  part  of  the  countr}-, 
the  number  of  inhabited  houses  in  Her'iuru  was  reduced  to  seven. 
About  300  have  since  been  rebuilt,  and  the  place  is  the  chief  town 
of  a  (Taluc)  district. 

Strata.  The  *//'a^fl  at /Zer/wrM  run  nearly  north  and  south,  and  are  almost 

quite  vertical.  The  basis  of  the  country  is  somewhat  between  an 
argillite  and  schistose  hornblejide.  It  contains  no  veins  that  I  ob- 
served ;  but  in  some  places  I  saw  large  amorphous  masses  of  reddish 
fat  quartz  imbedded  in  its  substance.  When  exposed  to  the  air,  it 
readily  decays,  and  is  then  covered  with  a  cinereous  crust.  For 
building,  it  is  a  very  poor  stone  ;  at  least  what  is  near  the  surface; 
but  in  a  temple  of  Isxvara  without  the  walls  I  observed  some  pieces 
of  it  that  have  been  squared,  and  resemble  much  the  fine  horn- 
blende slate  from  Batiiculla.  It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  by 
digging  quarries  excellent  materials  for  building  might  be  pro- 
cured. Of  these,  however,  there  is  no  want  any  where  in  Karnata, 
The  only  other  common  rock  here  is  called  the  Black  stone,  and 
it  may  be  considered  as  forming  large  beds  between  the  strata  of 
the  argillaceous  hornblende  slate.  This  is  an  earthy  quartz  or  horn- 
stone,  impregnated  with  hornblende.  When  exposeil  to  the  air, 
its  masses  do  not  readily  acquire  a  crust,  but  separate  into  irregular 
quadrangular  pieces,  truncated  at  both  ends.  In  the  fissures  may 
sometimes  be  observed  yellow  shining  nodules,  which  I  take  to  be 
the  mica  aurata.  It  contains  no  other  venigenous  matter,  and  does, 
not  cut  with  the  tools  of  the  natives  j  but  froiii  the  angular  shape 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  347 

of  its  fragments,   the  smooth  surface  with  which  they  break,  and  ^^J^^'^ 
its  great  durability,  it  is  excellently  fitted  for  rough  walls,  \.^%'-v.« 

The  Seer  measure  used  in  the  market  (Bazar)  here  for  grain  con-  pP"'JJ[: 
tains  ^6l  cubical  inches  ;  72  Seers  make  one  JVocula  or  Colaga.  The  sures. 
farmers  measure  is  founded  on  another  plan  :  2  Seers  make  1  Arecal 
which  contains  176^  cubical  inches;  9.  Arecals  make  one  Gydna ; 
16  Gydnas  make  one  JVocula  ;  and  20  IFoculas,  or  Colagas,  make  one 
Candaca,  which  therefore  contains  a  little  more  than  52|-  bushels, 
The  JVocula  of  the  (Bazar)  market,  and  that  of  the  farmers,  are 
commonly  considered  as  the  same;  but  in  fact  the  former  contains 
5508  cubical  inches,  and  the  latter  5652. 

The  following  is  the  average  price  of  grain,   calculated  to  the  Price  of 
neai'est  farthing.  ® 

Canter'  Raya  Pagodas.  pen*=^ 

The  bushel  is  worth  1  \\ 

-  -       -         Hi 

-  -       -         u{ 

-  -        -  7i 

26 

_  _  _  oii 

'"*  + 

-  -         -  17i 

-  -       -         Hi 

-  -       -  Hi 

Ricecleared  fromthehusklS         -         _         _  26  . 

Cotton,  cleared  of  the  seed,  is  worth  \2,Fanamsiox  the  Maund  of 
A^  Seers,  each  weighing  22  Dudtis,  or  1/.  10^.  8-^d.  a  hundred  weight. 

In  this  neighbourhood,  the  cultivation  of  dry  field  is  the  grand  Dry  field, 
object,  and  differs  very  considerably  from  that  in  the  western  parts 
of  the  principality,  where  the  black  mould  prevails.     Here  all  the 
land  is  a  poor  stony  soil.    In  some  places  it  contains  nodules  of  lime- 
stone ;  but  these  are  considered  as  unfit  for  any  kind  of  cultivation. 

The  whole  lands  are  the  property  of  the  government.     Some  are  TciuireB. 
still  called  jEh«»?,  but  this  is  merely  in  remembrance.of  their  former 


1  Candaca  oiSujjay  worth 

8 

Huruli 

8 

Navonay     - 

8 

Harica 

5 

Wheat 

18 

Ellu 

15 

Callay  worth 

12 

Ragy 

8 

Paddy,  or  rough  rice 

8 

-'**  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   tenure;  for  the  liokler  of  the  En  am  has  no  fuller  risrht  than  any 
XVJII 
v.,^.-^    other  tenant.  No  lands  can  be  sold,  mortgaged,  or  let  to  sub-tenants. 

pri  19.        They  are  let  from  year  to  year,  and  the  possessions  are  changed 

from  man  to  man  at  the  pleasure  of  the  officers  of  revenue  ;  but  the 

rent  of  each  field  is  fixed  by  an  old  valuation.    The  cultivators  never 

at  any  time  gave  more  than  this  rent ;  and  being  at  present  few  in 

number,  considerably  less  is  exacted,  in  order  to  encourage  them 

to  cultivate  as  much  land  as  possible;  for  they  are  totally  inadequate 

to  the  cultivation  of  the  whole. 

Plough  of  The  extent  of  dry-field  is  estimated  by  the  plough,  and  all  ploughs 

are  said  to  be  of  nearly  the  same  dimensions.  I  measured  one, 
which  I  found  contained  56s2,280  square  feet,  that  is,  very  little  less 
than  13  acres.  One  plough  can  not  only  cultivate  this  extent,  but 
also  a  little  of  the  watered  land,  the  rent  of  which  is  paid  by  a 
division  of  crops.  In  doing  this,  the  officers  of  revenue  (Jmildars) 
say,  that  it  is  impossible  for  the  government  to  be  defrauded,  which 
appears  to  me  incomprehensible.  I  have  myself  no  doubt,  partly 
from  the  division  of  crops,  and  partly  from  the  power  which  they 
have  of  changing  the  cultivators  possessions,  that  the  officers  of 
revenue  have  very  lucrative  appointments.  The  rent  on  dry-field  at 
present  amounts  to  from  10  to  60  Fanams  a  plough,  or  at  from  5^  to 
34^  pence  an  acre.  That  which  I  measured  was  an  exceedingly  poor 
stony  field,  and  paid  34  Fanams  a  year,  or  18-i  pence  an  acre. 

The  Sultan's       The  rent  paid  to  Tippoo  did  not  amount  to  one  half  of  the  valua- 

nianagement    tion ;  for  all  parties  united  to  defraud  him,  each  getting  a  share. 

of  the  rcve- 

i)ue.  Although,  during  the  Sultan's  government,  the  rent  fell  thus  light 

on  the  cultivators,  they  were,  even  by  their  own  account,  much 

worse  off  than  they  are  at  present ;  for  there  was  no  end  to  the 

arbitrary  exactions  which  the  lord  lieutenants  (Asophs)   levied. 

The  most  intolerable  of  these,  however,  arose  from  the  contribution 

which  the  Sultan  demanded,  to  make  good  the  sum  that  he  was 

bound  to  pay  to  Lord  CoruM'allis  by  the   treaty  of  Seringapntam. 

Tippoo  ordered  three  millions   (crores)  to  be  collected  ;  and  the 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  S49 

people  here  say,  that  by  paying  their  share  of  this  they  would  not  CHAPTER 
have  been  distressed.     In  place  of  three  crores,  however,  ten  were     C^-v-w 
collected,  and  of  these  seven  were  embezzled  by  the  officers  of  •^P"^  19* 
revenue.    These  again  were   obliged  to  bribe  their  superiors  ;  but 
Tippoo  did  not  molest  them,  and  many  oi  t\\&  Brahmans  SiXe  said  still 
to  possess  very  considerable  sums  which  were  then  accumulated. 
Hydcr  and  his  son  acted  on  totally  different  plans.    The  father  pro- 
tected the  cultivator,  but  was  very  apt  to  squeeze  his  officers  in  an 
arbitrary  manner.     The  Sultan  seldom  molested  his  officers,  but  he 
cared  not  how  much  they  fleeced  the  people.    He,  however,  was  pro- 
bably ignorant  of  the  lengths  to  which  they  went,  especially  after 
his  unsuccessful  war  with  Lord  Cornwallis  ;  from  which  period  he 
was  almost  inaccessible  to  his  subjects,  and  continued  to  brood  over 
his  misfortunes  in  sullen  solitude. 

Four  ploughs  are  here  reckoned  a  large  stock.  Two  ploughs  are  Sizeof  farms, 
common  ;  but  by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  farmers  have  one  only; 
and  many,  as  is  indeed  usual  in  every  part  of  the  country,  are  neces- 
sitated to  unite  their  stocks  before  they  can  furnish  two  oxen,  and 
the  miserable  implements  which  are  necessary  to  accompany  one 
plough.  The  extent  of  land  cultivated  here  by  one  plough  is 
greater  than  usual  in  India;  for  it  requires  little  labour.  I  am  per- 
suaded, however,  that  in  every  part  of  Karnata  a  plough,  fully 
wrought,  is  capable  of  labouring  at  least  thirteen  acres  of  dry  field; 
from  six  to  seven  acres  may  be  taken  as  the  average  extent  of  a 
plough  of  watered-land.  Each  plough  requires  two  oxen  and  one 
man,  and  additional  women  must  be  occasionally  hired. 

At  Heriuru  there  are  no  slaves.     Most  of  the  labour  is  performed  Wages  and 
by  the  families  of  the  tenants ;  but  a  few  hire  men  servants  by  the  ^''''^^"'^- 
year,  and  in  seed  time  and  harvest  employ  women  by  the  week.    A 
man  gets  from  50  to  70  Fanams  a  year,   or  from  1/.  11*.  9.\d.  to 
9,1.  5s.  ^^d.     This  is  paid  entirely  in  money,  without  any  addition, 
except  that,  for  himself  and  family,  he  generally  obtains  room  in 


^^^  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

^xlail^^^'  '"*  master's  bouse.    Women  get  one  Fanam,  or  7H  a  w,»ek.    Ad- 
^^^-^^^    vances  to  servants  are  not  common,  and  of  course  thev  are  eutirelv 

^P""9-        free. 

Hours  of  The  hours  of  labour  in  tliis  country  are  from  eight  in  the  morn- 

lul)our»k  .  ., 

nig  until  noon,  and  from  two  o'clock  till  sunset;  in  all,  about  eight 
hours.  Tlie  labourers  get  up  about  sun  rise;  but  an  hour  is  spent 
in  their  evacuations,  in  which  all  Hindus  are  excessively  tardy;  and 
another  hour  is  spent  in  ablutions,  prayer,  marking  their  faces  with 
consecrated  ashes  or  clay,  and  in  eating  their  breakfast.  They  eat 
three  times  a  day,  their  principal  meal  being  at  noon. 
^'iiJ"!/-  The  most  common  article  of  cultivation  is  the  Holcus  spicaius  o£ 

Lintiajus,  called  by  the  natives  Sujjay,  or  Cambu.  It  is  generally 
accompanied  by //wrw// fi^o/ZcAo*  b'lflorus).  The  custom  here  is,  to 
cultivate  the  Cambu  fields  three  years,  and  then  to  give  them  a  fal- 
low of  the  same  duration  ;  and  while  thus  allowed  to  rest,  they  pay 
no  rent.  Each  man's  farm  is  therefore  divided  into  two  portions  ; 
one  of  which  is  cultivated,  and  the  other  fallow.  Other  dry  grains 
are  also  sown  on  the  Cambu  field,  and  that  without  any  attention  to 
rotation.  The  only  manure  that  is  given  is,  for  some  nights,  to  make 
a  flock  of  sheep  sleep  on  the  field.  They  are  not  folded,  but  merely 
gathered  together  by  the  shepherds  and  their  dogs.  After  tlie  first 
heavy  rain  in  the  two  months  following  the  vernal  equinox,  the 
Cambu  field  is  ploughed,  lengthwise  and  across,  with  two  oxen  in 
the  yoke.  After  the  next  rain  this  is  repeated.  It  must  be  observed, 
that  the  rain  must  be  of  considerable  duration  ;  for  in  this  arid  soil 
'^  and  season  the  heaviest  shower  produces  no  sensible  effect.    After 

the  second  ploughing,  the  field  is  hoed  with  a  Heg  Cuntay  drawn  by 
four  oxen.  When  the  rainy  season  has  fairly  conmienced,  which 
happens  about  the  summer  solstice,  the  seed  is  sown  with  the  drill, 
X\\,eCamhn  being  put  in  the  CMr?^3/,  and  the /fz/rw// in  the  SudiJci/. 
After  having  been  sown  one  month,  the  field  is  weeded  with  the 
£d(lfiy  Cuntay;  and   after  an  interval  of  eight  days  this  is  again 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  551 

repeated.     The  Camhu  in  five  months  ripens  ;  the  Huruli  is  a  month  CHAPTER 
,  ,  .  '  XVIII. 

later.     Thirty-two  ASeer^s  o^  Camhu,  and  six  Seers  oi Huruli,  are  sown    \..^f^,/^u 

on  one  plough  of  land,  and  produce  about  1280  Seers  of  the  former,  P"  "' 
and  128  of  the  latter.  The  produce  is  therefore  worth  80  i^aMfly??.? 
for  Si/Jjar/,  and  8  fov Huruli  ;  in  all,  88.  The  seed  and  rent  may  on 
an  average  amount  to  about  36  Fanams,  or  about  A-O  per  cent,  of  the 
gross  produce.  An  acre  of  ground,  at  this  rate,  Avill  produce  nearly 
four  bushels  of  C«w^w,  and -j-V  of  a  bushel  of  Huruli;  a  strong- proof 
of  a  miserable  soil  and  wretched  cultivation,  yet  the  former  is 
allowed  to  produce  40,  and  the  latter  above  21  fold;  but  I  have 
already  pointed  out  the  fallacy  of  judging,  concerning  the  produc- 
tiveness of  either  soil  or  crop,  by  means  of  the  increase  on  the  seed 
that  has  been  sown. 

In  a  few  places  of  this  district  (Taluc)  cotton  is  put  in  the  (Aca-  Cotton. 
dies)  rows  between  the  drills  of  Cambu  ;  but  it  requires  a  much  richer 
soil  than  is  to  be  usually  found,  and  is  thought  to  exhaust  the  land. 
The  quantity  raised  in  the  country  is  not  equal  to  the  consumption. 
In  a  ftw  places  Harulu,  or  Ricinus,  is  put  in  the  drills  with  Cambu. 

The  next  most  considerable  crop  is  Navonay,  or  the  Panicum  ita-  ]^avonay.. 
licum.  The  field  is  ploughed  twice  in  the  month  following  the 
summer  solstice,  and  at  the  end  of  the  month  it  is  hoed  with  the 
Heg  Cuntay.  In  the  following  month,  after  a  heavy  rain,  the  seed 
is  sown  with  the  drill ;  and  a  month  afterwards  the  weeds  are 
removed  by  the  Edday  Cuntay.  In  three  months  it  ripens,  but  is  a 
very  uncertain  crop;  for  it  is  liable  to  be  spoiled  by  either  toa 
much  or  too  little  rain.  A  farmer  who  has  a  plough,  and  sows  32 
Seers  of  Suj jay,  commonly  sows  2  Seers  of  Navonay,  and,  when  the 
season  is  favourable, will  get  3  Colagas,  or  96  seeds;  which,  after  de- 
ducting the  seed,  is  worth  1 1|-  Fanams.  This,  I  suspect,  ought  to  be 
considered  as  a  part  of  what  the  plough  of  land  produces,  and  will 
make  its  gross  amount  100 -Fa??«OT*;  from  which  is  to  be  deducted 
less  than  ZQ^Fanams  for  ?,tt(\;  and  rent.     The  gross  value  of  the 


553 


A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 


CHAPTER  produce  of  an  acre  of  poor  land,  such  as  that  I  measured,  bv  this 

XVIII  .  . 

v.,^^-^    estimate,  will  be  about  4*.  \0d.    By  the  people  here,  the  straw  of  iVa- 

Apnl  19.  xonay  is  reckoned  better  fodder  than  that  o^Cambu,  which  is  indeed 
exceedingly  coarse.  The  grain  of  the  Cambu  is  reckoned  the  most 
nourishing  food  for  labouring  men;  while  that  of  A^flt'owaj/ is  pre- 
ferred by  the  Brahmans,  and  others,  who  are  not  under  the  neces- 
sity of  performing  hard  Arork. 

With  respect  to  quantity,  the  other  crops  are  very  trifling ;  but, 
as  each  man  cultivates  some  of  them,  at  seasons  when  his  stock 
would  be  otherwise  idle,  they  are  of  importance,  as  reducing  the 
Horse-gram,  price  of  labour.    The  most  considerable  of  them  is  that  of  Huruli, 
Tifiorus   "*     '^^  Horse-gram,  which  Purnea   has   lately  encouraged,  in  order  to 
procure  a  plentiful  supply  for  the  cavalry  that  are  stationed  towards 
the  Marattah  frontier.    The  land  employed  for  the  purpose  is  the 
poorest  in  the  country,  and  gets  no  manure.    In  the  second  month 
after  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  field  is  once  ploughed.    About  the 
beginning  of  the  following  month,  it  is  ploughed  again,  and  the 
seed  is  dropped  into  the  furrows,   after  the  plough,   by  a  sharp 
pointed  bamboo  (Sudiky).     It  is  then  covered  by  a  hoeing  with  the 
Heg  Cuntay.    The  seed  is  sown  twice  as  thick  as  that  of  Cambu, 
ripens  in  three  months,  and  produces  five  folds  ;  one  half  of  Avhich 
goes  to  the  public  revenue.    The  produce  of  an  extent  of  land  equal 
to  one  plough  is  therefore  worth  t\^€.nty Fanains ;  of  which  ten  go  for 
rent,  two  for  seed,  and  eight  to  the  farmer.    The  produce  of  au 
acre  is  about  one  bushel,  and  is  worth  less  than  a  shilling. 
Harka.  On  the  same  kind  of  soil,  and  in  the  year  following  the  Horse-gram, 

is  sown  Harica,  or  the  Paspalum  frumentaceum  Roxb.  MSS.  In  the 
second  month  after  the  vernal  equinox,  the  field  is  ploughed,  and 
the  seed  is  dropped  into  the  furrow,  after  the  plough,  with  the  sharp 
bamboo,  and  covered  with  the  Bolu  Cuntay.  Three  months  after- 
wards, the  weeds  are  removed  hy  the  Edday  Cuntay.  It  requires 
much  rain,  and  eight  months  elapse  before  it  ripens.    Four  Seers 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  355 

of  seed  produce  two  IVociilas ;  but  I  do  not  know  the  extent  of  CHAPTER 
ground  required.     The  rent  is  ten  Fanams  for  the  plough  of  land,      ^^^^^^-n^ 

In  the  bottoms  of  reservoirs, when  they  are  dry,  are  sown  wheat,  ^P"'  ^^• 
Ellii,  or  Sesamum,  and  Callay,  or  Cicer  arietinum.     For  rent  the  go- 
vernment takes  one  third  part  of  the  produce. 

The  quantity  of  rice-land  in  the  Cliatrakal  principality  is  very  Rice-land, 
small.  In  this  district  (Taluc),  eight  or  ten  villages  are  partly 
employed  in  this  kind  of  agriculture  ;  and  in  favourable  years  they 
have  two  crops  from  the  same  field,  which  is  not  the  case  any  where 
to  the  westward.  There  were  formerly  five  reservoirs.  Two  of 
them  have  lately  been  put  into  repair  ;  one  is  now  undergoing  that 
operation;  and  money  has  been  allotted  for  the  two  others.  There 
are  many  places  in  which  new  ones  might  be  formed  with  great 
advantage,  were  there  stock  sufficient  to  cultivate  the  lands  which 
they  would  irrigate;  but,  in  the  present  desolate  state  of  the  country, 
all  expense  bestowed  on  erecting  new  reservoirs  would  be  fruitless. 
In  the  principality  there  are  a  few  Betel-nut  gardens,  which  are 
cultivated  in  the  same  manner  as  those  to  the  southward,  which  I 
Lave  already  described  ;  but  the  soil  here  is  little  favourable  for  the 
Aixca.  Having  formerly  given  a  full  account  of  the  cultivation  of 
rice  in  the  neighbouring  Taluc  o^ Siru,  it  would  in  this  place  be 
superfluous  to  say  any  thing  on  the  subject.  The  revenue  is  paid 
by  a  division  of  the  crop. 

The  village  cattle  during  the  whole  year  are  kept  in  the  house.  Cattle  and 
tut  are  not  littered.  Their  dung  is  collected  in  pits,  and  mixed  "'*""'''=' 
Avith  the  ashes  and  other  soil  of  the  family.  This  manure  is  reserved 
for  the  rice-land.  T4ie  dry  field  gets  nothing,  except  the  dung 
of  the  sheep,  which,  at  any  season,  are  herded  on  it  at  night.  A 
flock  of  500  in  two  nights  are  supposed  to  manure  fully  a  plouj;h  of 
land.  The  farmers  say,  that  when  they  have  not  sheep  of  th'eir  own 
they  hire  in  the  flocks  of  the  shepherds,  and  give  them  two  or 
three  Fanmns  for  mannring   tlie   plough   of  land.      But   this    is 

Vol.  hi.  Z  z 


^■"^  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTF.R  denied  by  the  shepherds,  who  allege,   that,   except  permission  to 
v3-^ilL/     ^^^^^  ^^^'''  ^°cks  on   the  fallow  lands,  they  get  nothing;  and  this, 

Apiil  J5.  I  believe,  is  true.  The  want  of  attention  to  increase  the  quantity 
of  manure  is  a  gross  defect  in  the  agriculture  o^ Heriuru,  and  may 
account  for  the  wretched  produce  of  its  field. 

Skep.  '^lie  Doiiigars  in  this  neighbourhood  keep  a  good  many  sheep. 

Some  very  rich  families  possess  1000  ewes,  and  200  Maycays.    Those 
in  middling  circumstances  have  four  or  five  hundred  ewes.    Those 
who  have  from  fifty  to  a  hundred  only,  are  reckoned  poor.     The 
wool  is  much  coarser  than  ^X,  Duvana- giri,  v\ox  will  even   the  first 
shearing  make  fine  Cumlies.    The  sheep  are  also  smaller,  and  by  the 
natives  are  reckoned  inferior  meat;  but,  whether  or  not  this  would 
coincide  with  European  taste,  I  cannot  say.    This  inferiority  of  the 
sheep  and  wool  is  attributed  to  the  difference  of  soil ;  for  all  over 
the  good  sheep  country,  especially  in  the  Harapunya-hnUy  district, 
the  Eray,  or  black  soil,  is  prevalent.    The  natives,  when  asked  how 
much  it  is  usual  for  the  meat  or  fat  of  a  good  sheep  to  weigh,  stare 
with  as  much  astonishment,  probably,  as  that  with  which  an  English 
feeder  would  behold  a  butcher  who  was  ignorant  of  what  he  consi- 
dered to  be  so  obvious  a  matter  of  enquiry.    The  sheep  here  are 
never  driven  into  a  house.     In  the  rainy  season  they  are  taken  to 
the  wastes,  and  at  night  are  secured  by  a  fence  of  dry  thorns,  to 
keep  off  the  tigers,  which  are  very  numerous  among  the  bushes ; 
for  in  the  neighbouring  forests  there  are  no  trees.    In  the  dry  sea- 
son, the  flocks  are  at  night  brought  near  the  villages,  and  kept  oa 
the  arable  lands.     Even  there,   according  to  the  account  of  the 
shepherds,  it  is  necessary  to  surround  them  with  a  fence  of  thorns. 
At  this  season  the  sheep  must  have  drink  twice  a  day,  at  noon  and 
in  the  evening.     In  the  rainy  season  they  are  never  brought  from 
the  wilds ;  but  folds  are  raised  in  the  driest  spots  that  can  be  found, 
'  and  within  the  enclosure  of  thorns  the  shepherds  erect  for  them- 

selves small  huts.    The  rent  is  on  the  same  footing,  as  at  Dcvfl^^a- 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  36S 

■giri,  and  varies  from  1  to  40  Fanains,  or  from  7j  pence  to  almost  25  CHAPTER 
shillings  a  year,  according  to  the  value  of  the  flock.  A  flock  ^^^.-O 
■containing,  young  and  old,  600  sheep  and  50  3fayca]/s,  requires  four  ^P"^  *^- 
men  and  four  dogs.  These  are  able  to  drive  away  small  animals  of 
the  feline  kind,  but  have  no  arms  that  would  enable  them  to  attack 
the  tiger  or  leopard.  In  the  rainy  season,  the  ewes  are  milked,  and 
four  of  them  give  daily  a  Seer,  which  contains  72  cubical  inches,  or 
a  little  more  than  an  ale  quart.  It  sells  for  three  Dudus  a  Seer,  or 
'i\d.  a  quart.  It  is  of  the  same  value  with  cow's  milk,  and  is  made 
in  a  similar  manner  into  Ghee,  of  which  22  Rupees  weight  requires 
eight  Seers  of  milk ;  that  is  to  say,  to  make  one  pound  of  butter, 
boiled  into  Ghee,  requires  ]4f  quarts  of  milk,  ale  measure.  Cheese, 
forwiiich  ewes  milk  is  best  fitted,  is  not  known  a.t Heriuru;  nor  any 
where,  I  believe,  in  India,  except  where  it  has  been  introduced  by 
Europeans,  The  ewes  breed  once  a  year,  but  at  all  seasons  indif- 
fereatly.  After  having  given  five  lambs,  they  are  sold,  and  then 
bring  from  2j  to  3  Fanains,  or  from  18-]^  to  22^  pence.  The  males  are 
emasculated  at  eighteen  months  old,  and  ai'e  sold  from  six  to 
eighteen  months  afterwards.  They  are  never  fattened,  except  by  the 
natural  pasture  ;  and  it  is  only  during  the  rainy  season  that  they  are 
in  tolerable  condition.  In  the  dry  season  the  fields  produce  scarcely 
a  green  herb.  A  wether  at  two  years  old  brings  tive  Fanams,  and 
one  threeyears  old  brings  six  Fanams,  or  double  the  price  of  a  ewe. 
Lamb  is  never  used.  Seven  Fanams,  or  4*.  A\d.,  is  reckoned  a  high 
price  for  a  breeding  ram  ;  which  ill-judged  oeconomy,  probably, 
contributes  to  render  the  breed  worse  than  that  oi  Chatrakal. 

In  the  wastes  of  this  part  of  the  country  someGoalas  keep  herds  Cows, 
of  breeding  cows.  Tliey  are  never  brought  near  the  villages,  and 
are  exceedingly  fierce  ;  so  that  no  dog  nor  stranger  can  with  safety 
approach  them,  and  the  males  attack  and  kill  the  tiger.  To  the 
Goalas,  however,  they  are  very  tractable,  and  follow,  like  dogs,  the 
man  who  leads  the  herd  to  pasture  ;  while  the  other  Goalas  foUoM', 


256  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADRAS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER  to  bring  up  the  young,  and  the    stragglers.     Some   of  the  cows 

Will  c        I  J  a  CO 

v^  „^  are  however  so  vicious,  that  no  milk  can  be  taken  from  them.  They 
Apnl  10.  ^,,g  ^]j  ^y,}ii(;e^  \J^^l  are  iiot  fit  for  carriage,  being  too  small.  They 
are  very  hardy  in  the  plough,  or  machine  for  raising  water  called 
Capily ;  but  are  rather  unruly,  even  after  emasculation  ;  so  that  an 
ox  of  this  breed  does  not  bring  more  than  40  Fanams,  \l.  As.  \\\d. ; 
while  the  more  tractable,  but  weaker  cattle,  bred  in  the  villages, 
sell  for  from  60  to  70  Fanams,  ov  from  1/.  17#.  5\d.  to  2/.  3.?.  8r/.  Bulls 
for  breeding  sell  for  from  50  to  SO  Fa/iams,  or  from  ]/.  lis.  £Ld.  to 
2/.  9s.  \\d.  The  forest  males  are  emasculated  when  between  two 
and  three  years  old  ;  and  are  sold  oiF  at  four,  when  they  are  fit 
for  labour.  The  cows  have  a  calf  once  in  two  years,  and  generally 
breed  five  times.  In  the  rainy  season,  a  cow  gives  daily  1^^  Seer, 
or  90  cubical  inches,  and  in  the  hot  season  i  &e/',  or  36  cubical 
inches.  The  village  cows  being  kept  in  the  house  at  night,  and 
being  fed  there,  give  about  two  &e;'5  a  day,  or  jather  more  thaii 
two  ale  quarts.  These  forest  cattle  are  always  kept  in  herds,  which 
contain  about  150  young  and  old,  male  and  female.  A  herd  of  this 
kind  requires  the  attendance  of  five  men.  One  man  carries  the  milk 
home  to  the  village,  and  brings  provisions  ;  for  the  women  dare  not 
approach.  The  other  four  men  lead  the  herd  to  pasture.  The  calves 
are  secured  in  a  fold  strongly  defended  by  thorns;  and  on  the 
otitside  of  this  the  (Goalas)  cowherds  build  a  small  hut,  in  which 
they  sleep  surrounded  by  the  cattle,  and  defended  by  theoi  from 
the  tigers.  When  water  or  grass  fail  in  one  part  of  the  country, 
they  remove  to  another,  and  are  under  the  grass  renter  (Hulu- 
biindi)  of  Chatrakal,  exactly  on  the  same  footing  with  the(Domgars) 
sliepherds. 
Buffaloes.  In  the  wastes  buffaloes  are  never  kept;  but  in  every  house  the 

"women  of  the  (Goalas)  cowherds,  and  the  people  of  the  villages, 
keep  at  least  one  or  two  female  buffaloes  ;  for  the  greater  part  of 
the  milk  used  in  the  country  is  procured  from  this  kind  of  cattle. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  55!? 

Each  female  ought  daily  to  give  three  Seers,  or  a  little  more  than   CHAPTER 

three  ale  quarts.    In  the  rainy  season,  this  sells  at  three  half  pence    y^„^^,^ 

a  quart,  in  the  dry  season  at  two-pence.    The  village  cows  and  buf-  April  19. 

faloes  are  pregnant  one  year,  and  give  milk  the  other.    During  the 

latter,  the  cow,  besides  supporting  her  calf,  should  give  30  Seers  of 

butter,  or  £2t  of  C/zee,  worth  ahout  7 \  Fanams ;  that  is,  she   gives 

iSyWlb.   of  butter,  orlSilb.  of  OAee  worth,  4*.  4^6?.     The  female 

buffalo,  besides  rearing  her  calf,  should  give  35  Seers  of  butter,  or 

24^^  of  Ghee,  worth  Sf  Fa?tatns,  or  -f  more  than  the  cow.     If  this  be 

accurate,  the  buffalo  milk  must  be  poorer  than  the  cow's,  as  she 

gives  one  half  more.    The  contrary  opinion  is  commonly  entertained. 

Although  tlfe  air  and  water  of  Heriuru  are  reckoned  salutary.  Sickness 

and  my  people  were  well  accommodated,  they  did  not  recover  their  '*™°"S'^y 
•'   '       ^  '         •'  servants. 

health,  and  all  my  stock  of  medicines  had  been  long  expended. 
My  cook  died  rather  unexpectedly.  His  fever  never  had  been 
severe ;  the  paroxysms  had  come  on  as  usual  in  the  morning,  and, 
after  it  was  over,  had  left  him  tolerably  well ;  but  in  the  evening 
he  suddenly  became  insensible,  was  convulsed,  and  died  in  abo\it 
an  hour.  He  was  a  very  thoughtless  man,  and  much  addicted  to 
intoxication;  those,  therefore,  who  fancy  that  all  spirituous  liquors 
are  pernicious,  especially  in  warm  climates,  will  have  no  difficulty 
in  accounting  for  his  death  : 

Dicunt  ah  !  iiimio  pocula  dira  mero. 
But  let  me  add, 

Vobls  si  culpa  est  hilis,  sua  quemque  scquuntur 
Fata  ;  quod  immeriti  crimen  habent  cyathi. 
For  my  own  part,  I  am  persuaded,  that  intoxication  is  much  sel- 
domer  a  cause  of  disease,  than  is  commonly  alleged ;  and  that  it 
chiefly  proves  injurious  to  the  health  of  our  seamen  and  soldiers 
in  warm  climates  by  making  them  imprudently  expose  themselves 
to  other  causes  of  sickness.  The  two  persons  in  my  service  that 
are  most  subject  to  fevers,  are  my  interpreter  and  painter,  although 


358  A  JOURNEY  FROM  MADR/VS  THROUGH 

CHAPTER   from  their  situation  in  life  they  are  exempted  from  all  hardsliips; 

XVIII 
y,^^.^     but  from  their  cast  they  ought  never  to  taste  spirituous  licjuor,  and 

April  19.  are  really  sober  men,  avoiding  not  only  liquor,  but  every  intoxi- 
cating drug.  At  the  same  time,  a  man  who  takes  care  of  my  tents, 
although  he  is  exposed  to  all  weathers,  and  at  times  to  much  fatigue, 
enjoys  perfect  health,  and  probably  keeps  off  the  fever  by  copi- 
ously drinking  spirituous  liquors,  to  the  use  of  which  he  is  exceed- 
ingly addicted. 

Superstitious       The  arrival  ofa  set  of  freshmen,  and  the  consequent  preparations 
fear  of  '.  .  , 

ghosts.  for  our  departure,  caused  great  joy  among   my  people,  notwith- 

standing their  weak  state.  "When  the  cook  was  taken  ill,  I  had 
given  orders  to  secure  his  effects  for  the  benefit  of  his  wife  and 
children  ;  but,  on  inspection  after  his  death,  no  money  could  be 
found.  Whether  he  had  been  plundered  as  soon  as  he  became 
insensible,  and  that  a  guilty  conscience  occasioned  fears  among 
his  companions,  or  whether  the  sudden  manner  of  his  death  occa- 
sioned suspicions,  I  cannot  siiy  ;  but  it  was  immediately  believed 
that  he  would  become  a  Pysacln,  and  all  my  people  were  filled  with 
terror.  The  butler  imagined,  that  the  Pysachi  appeared  to  him  at 
night  with  a  black  silk  handkerchief  tied  round  its  head,  and  gave 
him  instructions  to  take  all  the  effects  of  the  deceased  to  his  family  ; 
upon  this,  the  butler,  being  a  man  of  courage,  put  his  shoes  at  the 
right  side  of  the  door,  which  he  considered  to  be  a  sure  preventive 
ao-ainst  such  intruders.  Next  night  a  cattle-driver,  lying  in  all  the 
agonies  of  nocturnal  terror,  saw  the  appearance  of  a  dog  enter,  and 
smell  round  the  place  where  the  man  had  died  ;  when,  to  his  utter 
dismay,  the  spectre  gradually  grew  larger  and  larger,  and  at  length, 
having  assumed  the  form  of  the  cook,  vanished  with  a  shriek.  The 
poor  man  had  not  the  courage  to  use  the  slippers,  but  lay  till 
morning  in  a  kind  of  stupor.  After  this,  even  the  minds  of  the  Sepoys 
were  appalled  ;  and  when  1  happened  to  be  awake,  I  heard  the 
sentries,  by  way  of  keeping  up  their  courage,  singing  with  a  tre-r 
mulous  voice. 


MYSORE,  CANARA,  AND  MALABAR.  359 


CHAPTER    XIX. 


JOURWET    FROM    HERIURU     TO     SERINGAPATAM,      THROUGH     THE