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KEYS TO THE DICOT 
GENERA IN NEPAL 


PaRT I 
( Polypetalae ) 


His Majesty's Government of Nepal, 
Ministry of Fcrests, 
Department of Medicinal Plants, 
Kathmandu, Nepal. 


HONS 7 


KEYS TO THE DICOT 
GENERA IN NEPAL 


PART I 
( Polypetalae) 


Published by 
His Majesty's Government of Nepal, 
Ministry of Forests, 
Department of Medicinal Plants, 
Kathmandu, Nepal. 


1967 


Ist. Edition 1000 Copies 


April 1967 


Copyright reserved by 
Department of Medicinal Plants. 


Price — 


Printed at H M G Press, in Nepal 


PREFACE 


Generally speaking there are three stages in the growth 
of understanding about the plants of a region. First comes 
the period of exploration, identification and discovery, 
second is the compilation and preparation of lists and 
writing the descriptive floras, and the third will be the 
studies on the total composition, origin and re‘ationships 
of plant population. Some, however, prefer to adda 
fourth stage namely studies on photogeography. At present 
the Botanical Survey Section of this Department is 
engaged in the first type of work viz. exploration, identi- 
fication and discovery of plants. 


This booklet is the first of the series of keys to the 
identification of Nepal Plants and is our first venture 
which could be carried out only under the able guidance 
of Dr. M. L. Banerji, advisor to the Botanical Survey 
Section of this Department from the Indian Co-operation 
Mission under the Colombo Plan. I sincerely hope this 
booklet wiil be helpful in identifying the plants both in the 
field and in the herbarium. 

I thank all of my colleagues particularly Mr. T. B. 
Shrestha, Mrs. P. Pradhan, Miss. R. Thapa and others 
who have helped me to bring out this booklet into 
publication. 

P. R. Pande. 
Senior Botanist. 


Department of Medicinal Plants, 
H. M. G. of Nepal, 
Thapathali, Kathmandu. 


April 2, 1967, 


INTRODUCTION 


To follow Bentham & Hooker’s system; even 
in its modified form as has been done in recent times by 
authorities on taxonomy by regrouping genera or by 
constituting new families or by elevating certain tribes to 
family status, needs an explaination, particularly in the 
face of the International Association for Plant Taxo- 
nomist’s decession to follow the systems as outlined by 
Engler and Prantl, for aJl modern floras. 


Firstly: this little work is not a flora, but an aid 
to identify the genera from the study of external mor- 
phological characters of plants occuring in an area which 
is so far botanically very poorly known. 


Secondly: are the Magnoliales primitive or the 
‘‘Amentiferae least specialised”? It is too well known that 
according to Hallier, Bessey and Hutchinson, the Ma- 
gnoliales are primitive and on the basis of wood anatomy 
there is much to recommend this. Also according to these 
authorities the bisexual, polypetalous flower with spiral 
arrangement of parts is considered as primitive. Evidence 
from living plants supports the view that apocarpous 
gynoecia are primitive and syncarpous gynoecia are 
advanced. 


Eichler, Engler, Wettstein, Rendle and others 
consider the unisexual apetalous cyclic flower to be pri- 
mitive. Evidence has accumulated from various sources 
that the Salicaceae, Urticales, Betulaceae, Juglandaceae, 
and Platanaceae are highly specialised and having under- 
gone extreme reduction. The fact that “‘Amentiferae’’ 
produce ovaries with two or more united carpels is an 
additional argument in favour of their reduced and deri- 
ved nature,and against the primitive nature of these plants. 


vi Introduction 


In some apetalous flowers as in Salicaceae, Juglandaceae, 
Urticaceae etc. vestigial vascular systems are present. 
From the stand-point of wood anatomy also the ‘““Amen- 
tiferae’”’ are highly specialised. There is, thus, little to 
support that the “‘Amentiferae” are a primitive group of 
Angiosperms. 

Based on the characters that have been selected 
to be most primitive; Flacourtiaceae, Annonaceae, 
Magnoliaceae, Myristicaceae and Euphorbiaceae have 
been concluded as primitive dicotyledonous families 
while Labiatae, Valerianaceae, Dipsacaceae, Phy- 
rmaceae as the most advanced; and the amentiferous 
familes are scattered in between. (See Sporne, Proc. 
Linn. Soc. (Lond.) 160, 1948 & New Phytol. 48,1949) 

It will be quite pertinent to recall that hypogyny 
is regarded primitive in contrast to epigyny; so also poly- 
petaly to sympetaly and actinomorphic to zygomorphic. 
Keeping all these in mind, the system of Bentham & 
Hooker answers fairly well to these requirements, and if 
there is effected the exchange of position of the Hetero- 
merae and the Inferae, as was proposed earlier by Bessey, 
things will improve considerably. 

Thirdly: Bentham & Hooker set forth a system 
in their “Genera Plantarum” a work published in parts 
from 1862 to 1883; and the system of theirs is not now 
the latest. The system of Engler and Prantl in “Die 
Naturelichen Pflanzenfamilien” is now well known, and 
this no doubt nresents the best system for the present, 
till it is surpassed. In Engler and Prantl’s system the 
plants are arranged as far as possible in the order in which 
the various families probably have made their appear- 
ence on the earth's surface, or at all everts in accordance 
with the from simple to complex. Perhaps this system of 
Engler and Prantl is better adapted for showing relation- 
ships or likeness, while that of Bentham & Hooker js 
well adapted to bring out the differences. The system 
used by Bentham & Hooker is still a standard 


Introduction vii 


authority in descriptive botany. This, then furnishes 
an additional reason for the use of Bentham & 
Hooker’s system although in its modified form, in 
the present work. 

Fourthly; Avoiding injury to the feelings of those 
taxonomists who have strong prediliction for any other 
system, the selection of Bentham & Hooker’s system in 
broad outlines and with all the modern readjustments of 
family limits becomes a necessity as long as in most 
English herbaria and in the English speaking countries 
this system is still followed unless the tenets of the Hut- 
chinson system are accepted; also so long as Hooker’s 
Flora British India continues to be the chief reference 
book available for plants of the neighbouring areas. 

The sequence adopted here in the following pages 
is after Metcalf & Chalk’s treatment in ‘Anatomy of 
the Dicotyledons’, except for the Rosaceae. It is earne- 
stly hoped that these ideas will meet the approval of the 
kind readers. The genera listed here are based on the pu- 
blished papers. There may be some genera that may have 
been collected but so far no publication records it. It is 
quite possible that these genera have not been accounted 
for in this work, and in the course of further botanical 
explorations some additions may have to be made. This 
being a preliminary work, there is bound to be many 
shortcomings and ommissions. The plan of this work is, 
firstly there is a key for the families which is followed by 
detailed account of the characteristics of the family and 
the key to the genera so far recorded from the different 
parts of the country. This is the first part and covers all 
the families failing under Polypetalae. 


KEY TO THE FAMILIES 


Polypetalae- Calyx and corolla both present, the latter 
of separate petals. 


Thalamifiorac- Calyx mostly inserted under the ovary; 
petals often in 2 or more series, some- 
times 1 serie; stamens indefinite or 
definite, inserted on the often small or 
raised or stipitate receptacle, which is 
not developed into glandular disk; 
ovary very generally free. 


RANALES- Stamens indefinite or if definite then the 
parienth in 3- oc series; carpels 1 or 
more, usually distinct, rarely united 
(see exceptions in Saxifragaceae, also 
hypogynous in ‘Leguminosae’) 


Sepals 5 or few or 0; petals in about 1 series- 


Seeds not arillate; sepals decidious, usually co- 
loured. Herbs or shrubs- RANUNCULACEAE. 


Seeds arillate; sepals persistent, herbaceous. Shrubs 
and trces- DILIENIACEAE, 


Sepals or petals in 2 or oc series, rarely wanting- 
Plants not aquatic. Perianth present- 
Petals and stamens usually oc; ovules 1-oc- 


Flowers bisexual; feaves stipulate, without 
pellucid dots. Woody trees-MAGNOLIACEAE 


Flowers unisexual; leaves exstipulate, with 
pellucid dots. Twinning-SCHISANDRACEAE. 


N 


Key To The Families 


Petals and stamens mostly multiples of 3 or 2- 


Stamens and carpels usually numerous; ovules 
1-oc; Flowers bisexual; sepals 3; petals 6. 
Shrubs or trees- ANNONACEAE. 


Stamens usually 6; carpels 3; ovules solitary, 
Flowers dioecious; sepals and petals usually 
6. Mostly climbers- MENISPERMACEAE. 


Stamens 4, 6, or 9, anthers opening by 2 lids, 
rarely birimose; carpels 1,ovules 2-oc; flowers 
bisexual.Herbs or shrubs-BERBERIDACEAE 


Stamens usually 6, anthers birimose; carpels 
mostly 3, ovules many; flowers unisexual. 
Vines or erect, woody-LARDIZABALACEAE. 


Petals 5; stamens 10; carpels 5 - 10, ovules 
solitary; Leaves opposite- See Coriariaceae. 


Plants aquatic- NYMPHAEACEAE. 


PARIETALES.- Stamens definite or indefinite; ovary 
1-celled or several celled by false 
partitions; carpels several; placentae 
parietal (some Ranunculaceae and 
Berberidaceae) 


Embryo minute near the base of the fleshy endosperm 
Petals all alike or nearly so. PAPAVERACEAE. 


Petals in two series, the inner unlike the outer— 
FUMARIACEAE. 


Embryo curved, endosperm absent- 


Stamens 6, tetradynamous, rarely 4— 
CRUCIFERAE, 


Key To The Families 3 


Stamens indefinite or if few not tetradynamous— 
CAPPARIDACEAE. 


Embryo not curved, rather large, radicle very near 
hilum; ovule anatropous or amphitropous— 


Anthers dehisce introsely; mostly herbs— 


VIOLACEAE 
Anthers dehisce by apical pores or cracks; receptacle 
enlarged; woody — FLACOURTIACEAE 


Anthers versatile, dehiscing by longitudinal fissures; 
woody— (Sce Stachyuraceae) 


POLYGALALES- Stamens as many as or _ twice 
as petals; Carpels 2, ovary usually 
perfectly or imperfectly 2-celled, 
usually compressed. 


Flowers regular or slightly oblique. Stamens 5, as 
many as sepals or petals; woody— 
PITTOSPORACEAE 
Flowers irregular; stamens united; herbaceous— 
POLYGALACEAE 


CARYOPHYLLALES- Stamens definite, rarely in- 
definite; Ovary 1I-celled or 
imperfectly septate, placenta 
central, rarely parietal; em- 
bryo curyed or coiled, rarely 
straight. 


Sepals of same number as petals; placenta 1, central; 
herbs with cymose inflorescence— 


CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

Sepals of same number as petals; placenta several; 
mostly woody with flowers spicate or racemose— 

TAMARICACEAE, 


Key To The Families 


Sepals less than petals; placenta basal; succulent 
herbs with entire leayes haying scaly or hairy nodal 
appendages— PORTULACACEAE. 


GUTTIFERALES Stamens usually indefinite; sepals 
imbricate; Ovary septate, pla- 
centae on the inner angles of 
the cell -axile (exceptions with 
disk absent in Linaceae, Gera- 
niaceae etc.) 


Leaves opposite or whoricd, coriaceous; flowers 
cymose or panicicd, unisexual—GUTTIFERAF. 
Leaves alternate, coriaceous; fiowers mostly rece- 
mose— 


Cells of the ovary 2-10; stamens numerous; flowers 
5 merous— 


Petals free or slightly connate; stamens free or in 
5 bundlcs, attached to the base of the petals. 
Flowers showy (Unisexual and plants dioecious 
in EURYA); trees or shrubs— THEACEAE. 


Petals free or slightly connate, much twisted; 
sepal lohes enlarged and wing-like; stamens nu- 
merous. Flowers bisexual; Trees— 

DIPTEROCARPACEAE. 

Petals shortly connate at the base; stamens 
adnate to the base of the petals. Flowers bisexual ; 
Trees— SAURAUIACEAE. 


Petals free; flowers unisexual; plants dioecious. 
Lianous— ACTINIDACEAE, 


Cells of ovary 4; stamens 8; flowers 4-merous— 
STACHYURACEAE. 


MALVALES Stamens usually indefinite or mon- 
adelaphous; sepals valvate ; ovary septatc 
placentac axile. 


Ue 


Key To The Families 


Anthers 1-celled, pollen grains rough; herbs or woedy— 
MALVACEAE. 


Anthers 1-to severa! celled. pollen grains smooth; 
woody plants— BOMBACACEAE. 


Anthers 2-cel!cd, flowers with staminodia and stamen- 
tube; woody plants— STERCULIACEAE. 


Anthers 2-celled; stamens nearly free, no staminodia; 
ovules pendulous— 


Petals ordinary; herbs or woody— TILIACEAE. 


Petals firm, ofter hairy or incised; woody plants— 
ELEOCARPACEAE. 


Anomalous group— Stamens indefinite; free; sepals 
valvate; carpel 1, ovary1-celled; 
flowers regular. Leaves compound; 
herbs or woody—MIMOSACEAE 


Disciflorae— Calyx usually inserted under the ovary: 
petals in 1 series; stamens usually 
definite, inserted within or upon or 
around the receptacle which is usually 
expanded as a disk with the calyx; 
ovary usually free or imbedded in the 
disk. (See Flacourtiaceae). 


GERANIALES— Disk usually a ring between stamens 
or adnate to stamina] tube or reduced 
to glands alternating with the petals, 
rarely absent. Ovary commonly 
lobed, rarely entire or subapocarpous;: 
ovules 1-2 in each cell, pendulous; 
raphae towards axis. 


Ovary more or less grooved or lobed— 


Anthers elongated; disk enlarged in fruit— 
OCHNACEAE. 


Key To The Families 


Anthers normal— 


Calyx-lobes 5, all or mostly with 2 glands outside. 
Carpels usually 3; fruit indehiscent often winged. 
Woody— MALPIGHIACEAE. 


Calyx-lobes not biglandular— 
Foliage glandular-dotted; carpels sometimes 
seperate— RUTACEAE. 

Foliage not gland-dotted— 


Disk well developed, regular; petals regular; 
Ovary closed. Woody plants— 
SIMARUBACEAE. 


Disk indistinct, otherwise as in previous. Her- 
baceous plants— 


Ovules solitary; stamens 6-10, connate at 
base; fruit dehiscent. Flowers regular- 
Leaves stipulate— GERANIACEAE. 


Ovules several; fruit dehiscent. Leaves 
exstipulate— 


Stamens 10; flowers regular. Leaves 
compound — OXALIDACEAE. 


Stamens 5: flowers irregular. Leaves 
simple— BALSAMINACAEE 


Ovary entire; stamens monadelaphous, atleast below. 
Woody plants 


Stamen-tube stipitate; disk various— MELIACEAE. 


Stamen-tube sessile; disk absent; petals not appen- 
daged; fruit a capsule— LINACEAE. 


OLACALES- Disk cup-shaped or ring-shaped, free 
or bearing the stamens and petals on 
its edges. Ovary 1 to indefinite celled, 


Key To The Families 7 


entire; ovules solitary, pendulous: ra- 
phae away from the axis. 


Petals or corolla-lobes usually valvate; woody— 
OLACACEAE. 


Petals or corolla-lobes usually imbricate or convolute— 


Ovary 3 or more locular; fruit drupaceous, 3 or more 
seeded. Woody— AQUIFOLIACEAE: 


Ovary 1 rarely 3-5 locular; fruit drupaceous, 1 
seeded. Woody— ICACINACEAE. 


CELASTRALES.- Disk tumid or adnate to the calyx 
or covering its base; stamens in- 
serted around the disk or affixed 
to its margin; ovary usually entire; 
ovules usually 2 in each cell, 
erect; raphae turned towards axis, 
Leaves simple or rarely compound. 


Calyx valvate; petals small,concave; stamens opposite 
the petals Woody— RHAMNACEAE, 


Calyx imbricate— 


Stamens alternate with the petals,the later spreading 
and imbricate. Woody— CELASTRACEAE. 


Stamens opposite the petals, the later valvate and 
dropping off early; woody and herbaceous— 
VITACEAE, 


SAPINDALES- Disk various; stamens variously 
inserted on the disk; ovary entire or 
more often lobed or subapocarpous, 
ovules commonly 1-2 in each cell, 
ascending with raphe towards the 
axis or reversed or solitary and 
pendulous from ascending funicle, 


Key To The Families 


rarely oc and horizontal. Leaves 
pinnate, simple or digitate. 


Carples 2, fruit a samara— ACERACEAE. 
Carpels 2-3, fruit a drupe, 1-seeded— SABIACEAE. 
Carpels 3-5 , fruit rarely samaroid— 


Bark containing resin; disk intrastaminal; fruit 
usually a drupe— ANACARDIACEAE. 


Bark not resinous — 


Endosperm abundant; embryo straight; disk intra- 
staminal: carpels 3— STAPHYLEACEAE. 


Endosperm sparse or wanting; embryo curved— 


Leaves opposite, palmately compound; large 
flowered thyrse. Capsule leathery; cotyledons 
large, fused— HIPPOCASTANACEAE. 


Leaves alternate, variously compound or simple; 
flowers small in recemose or  paniculate 
unilateral cymes; unilateral stamina] disk. 
Fruit very variable. Lianous genera with coiled 
tendrils— SAPINDACEAE, 


Anomalous family- Disk absent; sepals and petals 5 
each; stamens 10; carpels 5-10 
distinct; ovules one in each lo- 
culus, pendulous. Fruit a pseudo- 
drupe because of the fleshy and 
persistent petals which become 
enlarged and adhere to the fruiting 
carpels— CORIARIACEAE. 

(Gundersen places this family under— RUTALES). 


Calyciflorae- Petals in 1 series; stamens oc or 
definite, inserted with the petals and 
sepals on the edge the cup-shaped 
receptacle (hypanthium) or on the 


Key To The Families 9 


disk lining the latter; ovary often 
adnate to this receptacle and therefore 
inferior. 


LEGUMINALES. Carpel one, developing into 
legume (rarely indehiscent); flo- 
wers of most species zygomorphic, 
stamens usually definite, 10 or 5, 
sometimes oc. 


Flowers zygomorphic, perianth segments predomina- 
tingly imbricate in bud— 


Corolla caesalpinnaceous, aestivation imbricate- 

ascending, posterior petal innermost, _ petals 

typically 5 and distinct — 
CAESALPINIACEAE. 


Corolla papilionaceae, aestivation imbricate- 
descending, posterior petal outermost, the two 
anterior petals often connate forming the keel — 

FABACEAE. 


Flowers actinomorphic, calyx and corolla valvate 
in bud; inflorescence dense, flowers small; stamens 
many, filaments long — MIMOSACEAE, 

(also see under Thalamifloreae-anomalous group.) 


ROSALES Carpels superior, solitary or free or 
united only at base, sometimes to the 
apex and then rarely inferior styles dis- 
tinct, rarely united in a column and easily 
seperated or rarely connate (as in some 
Saxifragaceae). 


Endosperm rare. Fruit either a follicle, drupe, pome, 
achene or aggregate; leaves simple or compound, 
with-out pulvinus. Calyx cupshaped, 5 or 4 parted; 
petals 5; stamens oc in several whorls- ROSACEAE, 


10 Key To The Families 


Endosperm moderate or copious— 


Plants insectivorous. Leaves bearing tantacies 
tipped with capitate viscid glands. Herbs— 
DROSERACEAE. 


Plants not insectivorous— 


Carpels 5 rarely 3 or more, seperate with a scale 
at the base of each, superior, ovules many. Suc- 
culent herbs or small shrubs— 

CRASSULACEAE. 


Carpels 2 to several, rarely seperate, no scale at 
the base.Plants not conspiciously succulent— 


Ovary usually 2 celled, usually inferior; ovules 
oc, placentae usually axile. Fruit a capsule 
or a berry— 


Trees or shruhs; leaves alternate, rarely 
otherwise, mostly with gland-tipped teeth. 
Stamens 5 rarely 4 or 6, sometimes alterna- 
ting with staminodes. Ovary inferior or 
half superior; placentae parietal; fruit a 
capsule or a berry— ESCALLONIACEAE. 


Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, 
pubescence stellate. Flowers bisexual or 
sometimes the outer flowers sterile with large 
petal-like sepals; stamens 5 or 10 or oc; 
ovary inferior to half inferior, 6-3 locules, 
placentae axile. Fruit a capsule— 

HY DRANGEACEAE, 


Shrubs, scandent often armed with spines; 
leayes alternate, usually palmately lobed. 
Flowers unisexual: stamans 5; ovary inferior, 
unilocular, placentae parietal Fruit a 
pulpy berry crowned by the persistent 
calyx— GROSSULARIACEAE, 


Key To The Families 11 


Herbs; leaves mostly alternate or basal. 
Flowers bisexual; disk nectariferous; ovary 
1-3 locular free or adnate to the tubular 
receptacle, placentae axile and swollen; 
styles free. Fruit a capsule 

SAXIFRAGACEAE, 





Ovary 2 celled, inferior or rarely superior; 
oyules 1-oc pendulous or axile; fruit a 2- 
valved woedy capsule with a seperating inner 
layer of different texture. Trees or shrubs with 
scellate indumentum; flowers hermaphrodite 
or unisexual— HAMAMELIDACEAE. 


Ovary 1-4 celled, usually inferior; ovules pen- 


dulous fruit indehiscent. Herbs or under- 
shrubs; flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual; 


stamens 2-8, rarely 1— 
HALORRHAGACEAE., 


The family Rosaceae is now seperated on the 
characters of the axis, ovary, and fruit; and a 
key to the now recognised families is as— 


Ovary superior—— 
Fiuit aggregate, follicular, of achenes, 


seperate drupelets or otherwise Carpels 
usually seperate— ROSACEAE. 


Fruit a drupe (not aggregate of drupelets). 
Carpel single— AMY GDALACEAE, 
(Drupaceae). 


Ovary inferior: fruit a pome— 
MALACKAE (Pomaceae) 


MYRTALES— Ovary syncarpous, inferior orjinclosed 
in a cupshaped receptacle, usually 
divided into cells; styles undivided; 
oyules 2-oc in the cells. 


12 Key To The Families 


Ovules pendulous from the apex of cell; ovary I- 
celled; plants woody— COMBRETACEAE. 


Ovules affixed to the inner angles of the cells or to 
basilar placentae, ascending, horizontal or pendulous— 


Stamens oc, rarely definite; oil glands in foliage; 
plants woody (Seive tubes in pith rays)— 
MYRTACEAE. 


Stamens definite, rarely oc— 


Calyx-tube usually imbricate or open; anthers 
curved usually opening by pores at the apex; 
connectives usually appendaged or thickened— 

MELASTOMATACEAE. 


Calyx-tube usually valvate; anthers normal, not 
appendaged, opening bongitudinally— 

Ovary superior— 

Herbs rarely shrubs. Petals corrugated; 


stamens 4-8, rarely more, filaments usua!ly 
inflexed in bud— LYTHRACEAE. 


Trees. Petals 4-8, sma)l; stamens oc, fila- 
ments long— SONNERATIACEAE. 


Ovary inferior or half inferior— 


Carpels in 1 whorl; petals convolute— 
ONAGRACEAE. 


Carpels in stories, superimposed; petals 
corrugated— PUNICACEAE, 


PASSIFLORALES—Ovary syncarpous, inferior or 
semi-inferior; 1-celled with par- 
ietal placentation or divided 
into cells; ovules 1-oc. styles 
united or distinct from the base, 


Key To The Families 13 


Corona of 1 or more rows of thread-like filaments or 
scales or annular, Herbaceous climbers; leaves often 
with glands on the petioles; ovary superior, sometimes 
with a gynophore— PASSIFLORACEAE. 


Corona absent; ovary inferior— 


Stamens usually 3; ovary 1-celled with 3 parietal 
placentae. Climbers with tendrils— 
CUCURBITACEAE, 


Stamens oc; ovary 2-3 celled, usually sharply 
angled and winged. Undershrubs or herbs— 
BEGONIACEAE. 


Stamens numerous io few; ovary I-celled; petals 
free, small or absent. Trees or (herbs.)— 
DATISCACEAE. 


FICOIDALES Ovary syncarpous, inferior or superior, 
divided into cells with sub-basilar pla- 
centae, or rarely 1 celled with parietal 
placentae; ovules 1-oc; styles distinct 
or united to near apex; embryo curved 
or excentric. 


Calyx-lobes, petals and stamens usually oc; ovary 
1-celled— CACTACEAE. 


Calyx-lobes usually 4-5; petals absent; ovary 2- oc 
celled— AIZOACEAE.* 


*No member belonging to this family is so far 
recorded, but it is expected to be present in the 
area, particularly in dry places. 


UMBELLALES Ovary syncarpous, inferior, crowned 
by the disk, divided into cells or 
1-carpelled; styles distinct or united 


14 


Key To The Families 


part way; ovules solitary and pen- 
dulous in the cells. 


Fruit longitudinally seperating into 2 dry indehiscent 
one seeded mericarps; sty!cpouium prominent; leaves 
sheathing- (Umbelliferae) APIACEAE 


Fruit usually drupaceous, the stones distinct but not 
seperating naturally-- 


Leaves simple, pinnately yeined-- 


Flowers in cymes; corolia villous within: ovary 
1-2 celled; leaves alternate. Trees or shrubs-- 
ALANGIACEAE 


Flowers in heads or cymes; ovary 1-5 celled; 
leaves opposite or alternate. Woody or sub- 
ligneous_ plants- CORNACEAE 


Leaves compound or simple and palmately veined, 
stipules present, hairs stellate; stylopodium absent- 
ARALIACEAE 


EXCEPTIONAL FLORAL STRUCTURES 


Trimerous flowers in Annonaceae, Menisper- 
maceae, Berberidaceae and some others. 


Flowers with petals more or less connate at the 
base occur in Annonaceae, Menispermaceae, 
Theaceae, Saurauiaceae, Malvaceae, Aquifolia- 
ceae, Crassulaceae, Myrtaceae, Cucurbitaceae 
and also in Oxalidaceae, and Mimosaceae. 


Besides, there are some genera in some of the 
families that have exceptional characters e. g. 


RANUNCULACEAE- 


Anemone, Caltha, Clematis and 
Thalictrum haye a petaloid calyx 
and no corolla, 
In Aconitum and Delphinium the 
sepals and petals are peculiarly 
formed so it is difficult to make out 
which belongs to the former and 
which to the latter series. 
Actaea differs from the others in 
haying a berry fruit. In Nigella the 
carpels are connate except at the 
tip. 

DILLENIACEAE- 


Ovary apparently syncarpous in 
Dillenia. 


MAGNOLIACEAE- 


The receptaele or axis on which 
the carpels are seated elongates 
in the fruiting condition and has 


16 


Exceptional Floral Structures 


the appearance of being the axis 
of a raceme of flowers each con- 
taining a single carpel. 


NYMPHEACEAE- 
Ovary apparently syncarpous in 
Nympheae. 

PAPAVERACEAE- 


The sepals fall off very early so 
that the opened flower consists of 
petals, enclosing the stamens and 
pistil. 


POLYGALACEAE- 


Two of the sepals are like petals, 
and the lowest of the three petals 
is much larger than the others and 
crested. 


BALSAMINACEAE- 


In Jmpatiens, the lower three sepals 
are combined and largest. They are 
the most showy part of the flower. 


RHAMNACEAE- 
In Helinus the ovary is inferior. 
FABACEAE- 


Lower two petals united to form 
the keel which enclosed the stamens 
and the carpel. 


CORNACEAE- 


The bracts of the inyolucre are 
white, and resemble the sepals 
of Clematis. 


THALAMIFLO RAE 


RANUNCULACEAE 


Annual or perennial herbs with radical and alternate 
leaves, or shrubs or climbers with opposite often compound 
leaves, mostly exstipulate. Flowers typically bi-sexual 
rarely dioecious, actinomorphic or medianly zygomorphic, 
inflorescence solitary or racemose to paniculate. Perianth 
biseriate and differentiated into calyx and corolla or not so, 
sepals sometimes petaloid, rarely spurred at the base; 
petals many to few, often 5, showy or much reduced or eyen 
absent, then sepais often petaloid. Stamens usually many, 
spirally arranged, hypogynous; gynoecium of 3 to many 
carpels, rarely 1, distinct, spirally arranged, simple pistils 
or muiticarpe!late and syncarpous, ovary superior, placenta- 
tion parietal along ventral suture. Fruit an eterio of achenes 
or follicles, rarely a berry or a capsule. (see exceptions). 

(15 Genera). 


Analysis of the genera— 


Climbing shrubs— 
Petals absent; tendrils absent, but petioles and petiolules 
twinning— CLEMATIS. 


Petals present, linear; terminal leaflet modified into a 
tendril— NARAVELIA. 
Herbs with leaves alternate or radical— 
Fruit an eterio of achenes— 
Sepals petaloid— 
Petals absent— 
Inyolucre present— ANEMONE 


18 Thalamifiorae 


Involucre absent— THALICTRUM 
Petals 5-15, with nectaries— CALLIANTHEMUM 


Sepals herbaceous— 


Sepals 3-5, decidious; petals 5-8— 
RANUNCUL US* 


Sepals 5, persistant; petals 10-15— 
OXYGRAPHIS 
Fruit an eterio of follicles or  follicle— 
Flowers solitary or panicled— 
Flowers solitary or panicled— 
Petals absent— CALTHA 


Petals sma’; carpels sessile— 
Leaves palmate— TROLLIUS 


Leaves not so, decompound— 


Carpels usually about 5, mostly erect in 
fruit. Plants caespitose— 


PARAQUILEGIA 
Carpels 2 (rarely 3), divaricate in fruit. 
Plants perennial— ISOPYRUM § 


Flowers in racemes— 


Flowers irregular— 
Posterior sepal spurred— DELPHINIUM 


Posterior sepal vauited— ACONITUM 





* Rydberg segregated Ranunculus into Batrachium, 
Halerpestes, Cyrtorhyncha, Beckwithia and 
Coptidium besides Ranunculus. Cook (Watsonia, 
1963) treats Batrachium as a subgenus of 
Ranunculus. 

§ Drummond & Hutchinson have seperated Para- 
quilegia & Asteropyrum from Isopyrum ( Kew 
Bull 1920). 


Thalamiflorae 19 


Flowers regular— 


Sepals & Petals 5-7, no clear distinction 
between them; carpels 2-5; fruit an eterio of 
foliick s— CIMICIFUGA 


Sepais & Petals 4 each, petals shorter than 
sepals; carpel solitary; fruit a berry— 
ACTAEA 


DILLENIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, (rarely herbaceous). Leaves alternate, 
simple, veination seemingly parallc!, stipules absent or 
caducous. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, often large and 
showy, actinomorphic; sepals 5, in:bricate, persistent; 
petals 5 or fewer, imbricate, decidious, often crumpled in 
bud. Stamens numerous, distinct or variously basally fas- 
ciculate, hypogynous, usually persistent. Gynoecium us- 
ually of several distinct carpels cohering in the axis, ovary 
superior; styles as many as pistils, free. Fruit a follicle or 
berry-like, sceds with copious fleshy endosperm, 

(1 Genus), 


Analysis of the genus- 


Trees; leaves large, simple, parallel-nerved from the 
mid-rib; stipules absent. Flowers large; stamens oc; 
carpels 5-20, coherent in the centre. Fruit globose, composed 
of an accrescent calyx- DILLENIA 


MAGNOLIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, decidious or evergreen. Leayes alter- 
nate, simple, mostly entire; stipules usually present and then 
enclosing the young bud, early decidious and leaving a 
Jarge scar. Flowers terminal] or axillary, usually solitary, 
bisexual, actinomorphic, large and showy. Sepals often 
3; petals 6 to many; stamens numerous, hypogynous, spira- 


20 Thalamifiorae 


ally disposed on the basal portion of the floral axis- andro- 
phore. Gynoecium sessile or on a gynophore, of many 
pistils spirally arranged on an elongated axis. Fruit an 
eterio of berries or of follicles. (3 Genera), 


Analysis of the genera 


Flowers terminal; gynophore absent- 
Carpels with two ovules- MAGNOLIA 
Carpels with 4 or more ovules- MANGLIETIA 
Flowers axillary; gynophore present- MICHELIA 


SC HISANDRACEAE 


Climbing or trailing glabrous shrubs; leaves exstipu- 
late, simple, alternate and often pellucid- dotted. Flowers 
unisexual, small, white. yellow or reddish; axillary or in the 
axils of scales near the base of short lateral leafy ranches. 
Sepals and petals 9-15, scarcely differentiated one from the 
other. Male flowers with 5-15 or more stamens, spirally 
arranged on an ovoid fleshy cushion. Female flowers with 
numerous distinct carpels; 2-3 ovules in each carpel. Fruit 
baccate composed of a highly modified torus. (2 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera-, 
Carpels scattered on an elongated axis after flowering. 


Fruit with a slender § spike- SCHISANDRA 

Carpels remaining crowded in a head after flowering 

Fruit with a globose head- KADSURA. 
ANNONACEAE 


Trees or shrubs often climbing, with aromatic wood 
and foliage. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire 
and penninerved. Flowers mostly bisexual rarely unisexual, 
actinomorphic, hypogynous, perianth usually  triseriate. 
Sepals 3 or rarely 2, basally connate or distinct, valvate; 


Thalamiflorae 21 


petals 6, usually hiseriate, fleshy, hypogynous. Stamens 
numerous, distinct, spirally arranged and closely packed on 
the torus, filaments short or absent, anthers often overtop- 
ped by the truncate enlarged connective; carpels numerous 
or few, apocarpous rarely syncarpous, superior. Fruit a 
berry or the maturing pistils becoming connate and adnate 
to the floral axis to form a single fleshy aggregate fruit. 

(2 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Carpels free or if slightly so, then always quite free in 
fruit; fruit moniliform, with several seeds in a single 
row. Flowers trimerous; sepals 3; petals 3 & 3- 

DES\MOS 


Carpels united into a fleshy mass espccially in fruit, 
surface covered with knobs, bulges etc. Flowers extra- 
axillary; sepals 3; petals 6 or inner whorl yery small 
or absent- ANNONA. 


MENISPERMACEAE 


Climbing or twining shrubs, rarely erect. Leaves 
alternate, exstipulatc, simple or rarely compound, mostly 
entire or occasionally palmately lobed and palmately veined, 
petioled. Flowers unisexual, small, solitary, fascicled, 
capitate or cymose or frequently racemed or panicled, 
sometimes bracteate, occasionally 3 bracteoleate. Sepals 
6 in 2 whorls, rarely fewer or numerous in 3-4 whorls, 
petals 6 or fewer, free or connate. Male flowers with stamens 
usually as many as petals or indefinite when petals few, 
antipetalous, filaments free or connate; rudimentary 
carpel present or absent. Female flowers with staminodes 
6 or 0; carpels 3 or rarely more, simple or divided, style 
sear becoming basilar by the curvature of the ovary. Fruit 
a drupe. (6 Genera.) 


22 Thalamiflorae 


Analysis of the genera- 
Male specimens. 
Stamens free- 
Stem without bark; leaves not peltate or cordate; 
anthers bursting transyersely- COCCULUS, 
Stem with bark; leaves cordate; anthers bursting 
obliquely- TINOSPORA. 
Stamens united into a column. Leaves peltate or cordate, 


glabrous- 

Flowers in axillary dichotomous cymes. Branches 
pubescent with milky juice. Sepals 6; petals 3, very 
small; stamens 6- PARABAENA. 


Flowers in axillary panicles. Branches glabrous, no 
milky juice. Sepals 6; petals 6; stamens 6- 


TILACORA. 
Flowers in solitary umbellate heads. Sepals 6-10; 
petals 3-5; stamens 6- STEPHANIA. 


Flowers in cymes or clustered in the axils of orbicular 
bracts. Sepals and petals 4 each; Stamens 4- 
CISSAMPELOS. 


Female specimens- 


Ovary solitary; staminodes 0- 
Flowers in a small raceme of small cymes. Drupes 


hirsute- CISSAMPELOS. 
Flowers in umbellate heads or in solitary condensed 
cymes. STEPHANIA. 


Ovaries 3 or many; staminodes 6- 


Flowers in short erect panicles or sub-solitary. Drupes 


pisiform- COCCULUS. 
Flowers in axillary panicles. Drupes obovoid- 
TILACORA, 


Flowers in axillary dichotomous cymes. Drupes 
ovoid- PARABAENA. 


Thalamifiorae 23 


Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. 
Drupes dorsally convex, ventrally concave- 
TINOSPORA. 


LARDIZABALACEAE 


Twining or erect shrubs. Leaves alternate, digitately 
compound or rarely pinnate, petiolules swollen at the base. 
Flowers mostly unisexual or rarely bisexual, actinomor- 
phic, racemose or solitary. Sepals 3 or 6, imbricate or the 
outer valvate, often petaloid; petals 6, smaller than the sepals 
or absent. Male flowers with stamens 6 free or basally 
connate, connectives often produced. Female flowers with 
staminodes 6 or absent; carpels 3 or more, free, soon di- 
vergent; stigmas oblique, subsessile. Fruit a berry. 

(3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera- 


Erect shrubs. Leaves unequally pinnate, with several 
pairs of opposite leaflets. Flowers bisexual; petals 0; 
stamens free; fruit of 3 spreading fleshy many seeded 
follicles- DECAISNEA. 


Climbing shrubs. Leaves digitate, pinnately 3-foliate- 


Sepals 6; petals 6; minute; stamens free- 
HOLBOELLIA. 


Sepals 3; petals absent; stamens united- 
STAUNTONIA. 


BERBERIDACEAE 


Perennial undershrubs or shrubs or herbs, fleshy root- 
stocks, sometimes creeping rhizomes. Leaves alternate, 1- 
many foliate, mostly exstipulate and petioles basally diala- 
ted. Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, axillary, solitary or 
in simple or compound racemes, usually yellow. Sepals 3- 
9 in 1-3 whorls, often petaloid, imbricate or outer rarely 


24 Thalamiflorae 


yalvate; petals equal in number to the sepals or twice as 
many and like them, caducous, nectariferous at the base. 
Stamens 4-6 rarely8, opposite the petals, free, hypogynous, 
anthers adnate; carpel 1, style short, stigma large and 
dialated. Fruit usually a berry. (3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera. 


Shrubs or undershrubs, wood yellow. Flowers yellow- 


Leaves of long shoots transformed into thorns, those of 
short shoots simple, often decidious; inflorescence 
terminating short shoots, arising in the axils of 
leafthorns- BERBERIS. 


Leaves of long shoots compound, evergreen ;inflorescence 
arising from the axils of scales of winter-buds whieh 
terminate long shoots- MAHONIA. 


Perennial herbs with fleshy root-stocks; leaves peltate, 
palmately lobed. Flowers large, solitary, white- 
PODOPHYLLUMI. 


NYMPHAEACEAE 


Aquatic herbs. Leaves on long petioles, floating, 
peltate or cordate. Flowers bisexual, solitary, large and 
showy. Sepals 4-6, free or adnate to the torus; petals 
numerous, hypogynous or perigynous, sometimes gradually 
passing into the stamens; stamens indefinite; carpels 8 or 
more, sunk in the enlarged torus or ovary syncarpous. 
Fruit formed of the connate carpels or of seperate and 
individual carpels or the enlarged turbinate flat-topped disk. 

(1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Carpels or ovary morc or less immersed in the torus; 
sepals and petals subhypogynous; stamens epigynous. 
Leayes with a basal sinus- NYMPHAEA. 


Thalamiflorae 25 
PAPAVERACEAE 


Annual or perennial herbs, juice coloured. Leaves 
alternate, pinnatifid, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regu- 
lar; sepals 2 or 3, falling off as the flower opens; petals 
4 or 6 in 2 series, often crumpled, hypogynous, free, and 
soon falling off; stamens indefinite, free, anthers 2-celled; 
ovary syncarpous, superior, 1- celled; stigma sessile; ovules 
numerous on parietal] placentae. Fruit a capsule opening by 
pores or by valves. (4 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Capsule usually short, opening by short valves or pores- 


Leaves not spinous; flowers red- PAPAVER. 


Leaves spinous; flowers generally yellow or purple- 


Stigmas 4-6, radiating from the top of a depressed 
style- ARGEMONE. 


Stigmas 4-6, decurrent on the top of the style- 
: MECONOPSIS. 


Capsule long dehiscing throughout its length; stigmas 
2-4, persistent- STYLOPHORUM. 


FUMARIACEAE 


Glabrous herbs with brittle stems, rootstock usually 
perennial; juice watery. Leaves alternate, rarely sub- 
opposite, pinnately divided; stipules none. Flowers bisexual, 
zygomorphic, corymbose or racemed. Sepals 2, small, 
scale-like; petals 4, tips conniving, two outer large, one or 
both gibbous or spurred, the two inner narrower and coherant 
at the apex; stamens 4, free and antipetalous or 6 in 2 
bundles: ovary superior, 1-celled, two parietal placentae, 
ovules several or one, style thread-like, stigma often 2- 
lobed. Fruit a 2 valved capsule. (4 Genera.) 


26 Thalamiflorae 


Analysis of the genera 
Stamens 6, diade!phous- 
Outer petals both spurred; leaf-stalk ending into a 
tendril- DICENTRA. 
One outer petal spurred; tendrils absent- 


Fruit a capsule, many seeded: spur about half the 


length of the petals- CORYDALIS. 

Fruit indehiscent, 1 seeded; spur about 1/3 rd the 

length of the peta! or less- FUMARIA. 

Stamens 4, free- HYPECOU NI. 
CRUCIFERAE 


Annuator perennial herbs, some shrubby, juice watery 
and often pungent, indumentum of simple, medifixed or 
stellate hairs; leaves usually alternate rarely opposite, 
exstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic rarely: 
bracteate, in termina] racemes or corymbs. Sepals 4 free, 
the lateral often larger than others, dialated or saccate: 
petals 4, mostly equal, free, placed crosswise; glands mostly 
present on the torus; stamens 6, free, 2 opposite the lateral 
sepals short, 4 opposite the anterio-posterior sepals, large 
and in pairs; ovary 2-celled, man} ovules on parietal pla- 
centac, a spurious membranous septum present. Fruit 
a siliqua or a silicula; seeds usually folded, cotyledons 
accumbent, incumbent or folded. ( 18 Genera. ) 


Analysis of the genera— 
Pods long or short, dehiscing throughout their length, terete, 
4-angled or compressed dorsally ( parallel to the septum.) 
Pods narrow, long, Seeds usually 1-seriate; cotyle- 
dons accumbent 
Sepals spreading, seeds 2-seriate, minute. Flowers 
usually yellow NASTURTIUM 


Thalamifiorae 27 


Sepals not saccate. Pods 4-angled, seeds 1-seriate,. 
Flowers yellow BARBAREA. 


Sepals erect, not saccate. Pods flat, strongly nerved. 
seeds flattened. Flowers white or rose ARABIS. 


Sepals erect; seeds I-seriate, Hattencd. Flowers 
white or purpie: Icaves gencrally pinnatisect 
CARDAMINE. 


Pods short, broad. Seeds usually 2-scriate; cotyledons 
accumbent 


Leaves entire; herbs with stellate pubescence (coty- 
ledons rarcly ineumbent) DRABA. 


Leaves divided; glabrous herbs with a covering of 
simple hairs— 


Single gland on each side of the short stamen. Fruit 
valve convex COCHLEARIA. 


Lateral glands horse-shoe shaped or lunate. Fruit 
valyes sometimes keeled. The six stamens equal in 
size LIGNARIELLA. 


Pods usually sessile, long and narrow, Sceds usually 
l-seriate, but 2-seriate in EUTREMA; cotyledons 
straight, flat, incumbent- 


Sepals erect or spreading: pods many seeded, valves 
1-3 nerved, seeds usually 1-seriate. Hairy plants— 


Valves of pods 3-nerved, siliqua 1”° or more in length. 
Leaves undivided or pinnately lobed. Hairs 
simple SISYMBRIUM. 


Valves of pods 1-nerved— 


Flowers ebracteate; sepals not saccate. Leaves 
twice or thrice pinnatisect, glanduar hairs 
consisting of a multicellular stalk anda head of 1 
or more cells. Siliqua small, 1’? and straight 

DESCURAINIA, 


28 Thalamiflorae 


Flowers bracteate; sepals saccate. Leaves 
lyrate-pinnate pinnatifid, hairs stellate. Siliqua 
less than 1/2’? and bent backwards, always 
curved MICROSISY MBRIUM. 


Sepals short, erect; pods terete, valves J-nerved, 
seeds usually 2- seriate. Glabrous herbs- 
EUTREMA. 


Sepals erect; pods compressed or terete, valves 1- 
nerved, keeled. Herbs with spreading forked hairs- 
ERYSIUM. 


Pods short, valves conyex, 1- nerved, seeds few, large, 
2- seriate cotyledons flat, incumbent. Tufted glabrous 
or hoary pubescent herbs (compare from DRABA)- 

BRAYA. 


Pods short or long, seeds 1- seriate; cotyledons longi- 
tudinally folded or deeply grooved. Stigma truncate 
or 2- lobed. Flowers in long racemes- BRASSICA. 


Pods short, dehiscing throughout their length, com- 
pressed laterally - i.e. at right angles to the septum- 


Cotyledons incumbent; straight, curved or longitudi- 
nally folded- 


Pods many seeded, valves not winged. Seeds nume- 
rous, 2- seriate, narrowly margined- CAPSELLA. 


Pods few-seeded, valves keeled or winged. Seeds 1 
in each cell- LEPIDIUM. 


Cotyledons accumbent, straight- 


Pods compressed not notched; valves winged or 
keeled. Sepals erect and equal at the base- 
THLASPI. 


“ Pods elliptic or oblong, valves keeled. Sepals erect, 
lateral saccate at the base- IBERIDELLA. 


Thalamiflorae 29 
CAPPARIDACEAE 


Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate , simple or digitately 
compound, stipules when present minute or spiny. Flowers 
regular, hermaphrodite, hypogynous, solitary or in race- 
mes. Sepal 4, free; petals 4, free, imbricate; torus elongated 
or short; stamens numerous, free, at the base of or on a long 
or short gynophore, ovary sessile or stalked, 1-zelled, 
ovules many on parietal placentae. Fruit a linear or ovoid 
capsule. ( 2 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera- 


Herbs; glandular pubescent; leaves 3-7 foliate; gynan- 
drophore present; stamens 6; fruit a capsule- 
(GYNANDROPSIS.) 


Climbing shrubs or small tree; leaves simple or absent, 
stipules spinescent; gynophore present; stamens inde- 
finite; fruit a berry- CAPPARIS. 


VIOLACEAE 


Herbs with leaves alternate rarely opposite, entire, 
stipulate, stipules small or leafy. Flowers zygomorphic, 
hermaphrodite, 2 bracteoles. Sepals 5, persistent, equal or 
unequal; petals 5, erect or spreading, mostly unequal, 
lower largest, saccate or spurred; stamens 5, hypogynous, 
more or less connivent in a ring around the ovary, filaments 
short and broad; ovary sessile, 1-celled, ovules many on 
parietal placentae, style simple, stigma capitate. Fruit 
a 3 valved capsule. ( 1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus- 


Corolla irregular; sepal produced at the base, lower petal 
dissimilar; anthers connate, staminode nil; fruit a 3- 
yalved capsule- VIOLA, 


30 Thalamifiorae 


FLACOURTIACEAE 
(including Samydaceae) 


Trees and shrubs; leaves simple, alternate and in 2 
ranks, sometimes pellucid-dotted, stipules caducous. 
Flowers often dioecious, floral structure varies, regular, 
mostly in lateral or terminal cymose inflorescence. Sepals 
2-15, sometimes not distinguishable from the petals; 
petals none or equal to sepals, sometimes not in regular 
relation to sepals; stamens numerous, hypogynous or 
perigynous, receptacle enlarged and yariousiy modified, 
free or in bundies; ovary 1-celled, carpels 2-10, superior, 
rarely half inferior or even inferior, placentae parictal, 
ovules 2 or more, styles and stigmas as many as placen- 
tae. Fruit indehiscent berry or rareiy a capsule. 

( 5 Genera. ) 


Analysis of the genera- 


Flowers bisexual; petals present- 


Leaves with two distinct glands at the base of the blade 
or apex of petiole. Stamens indefinite; ovary 1-celled; 
fruit a berry- SCOLOPIA. 


Leaves without 2 distinct basal glands. Stamens solitary 
or in fascicles of 1-7, opposite the petals; ovary half- 
superior, 1-celled. Fruit a capsule- HOMALIUM., 


Flowers unisexual; petals absent- 


Leaves alternate, distichous, with pellucid dots. Ovary 
1-celled, perigynous; style simple; stigma capitate or 
3-fid- CASEARIA. 


Leaves glabrous, oblong-lanceolate, 3-5 nerved at the 
base. Ovary 1-celled; style 1; fruit a berry- XYLOSMA 


Leayes pubescent, ovate; ovary apparently 2-8 celled; 
style 2 or more- FLACOURTIA. 


Thalamiflorae 31 
PITTOSPORACEAE 


Trees (rarely shrubs or woody climbers); leaves simple, 
alternate or whorled, leathery. Flowers bi-sexual, mostly 
dioecious, actinomorphic, solitary, cymose or paniculate. 
Sepals 5, free or connate; petals 5, sometimes connate; 
stamens 5, hypogynous, no disk at the base; carpels 2, 
rarely 3-5, ovary 2-5 loculed, ovules numerous on parietal 
placentae, style 1, stigmas usually as many as carpels. 
Fruit a capsule or a berry with numerous seeds immersed 
in a pulpy juice. ( 1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus- 


Erect trees or large shrubs. Sepals 5, free or connate; 
petals 5, erect, conniving or connate at the base; stamens 
5, opposite the petals; ovary incompletely 2-3 celled; 
parietal placentae; fruit capsular or indehiscent- 
PITTOSPORUM. 


POLYGALACEAE 


Herbs, a few shrubs (or climbers and small trees). 
Leayes usually alternate, sometimes opposite or whorled, 
simple, exstipulate or with small stipular gland. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, pedicel articulating. Sepals 
generally 5, free, persistent, commonly 3 inner small 
and greenish, 2 larger, wing-like and often coloured; 
petals rarely 5, generally 3 more or less forming a tube, 
or united with the stamens, lower petal crested; stamens 
8 in two whorls (4 & 4) forming a tube open on the dorsal 
side, rarely 5 or 4, anthers dehiscing by terminal pores 
or slits, pollen grains characteristic; ovary superior, car- 
pels and locules usually 2 (rarely 1, 3 or 5), axile placen- 
tation, style 1 dialated above, stigmas as many as carpels. 
Fruit usually a loculicidal capsule (rarely a drupe), seeds 
with a conspicious micropylar aril- strophiole. 

( 2 Genera. ) 


32 Thalamiflorae 


Analysis of the genera- 


Herbs or rarely shrubs. Sepals 2 inner larger, alaeform; 
stamens 8, united- POLYGALA. 


Leafy diffuse herbs. Sepals nearly equal or 2 anterior 
somewhat large; stamens 4-5, united- SALMONIA. 


CARYOPHYLLACEAE 


Herbs and undershrubs, annual or perennial, stem 
characteristically with swollen nodes. Leaves opposite, 
simple entire, mostly linear to lanceolate. Flowers bisexual 
rarely unisexual, regular in simple to complex dichasial 
inflorescence or solitary and terminal. Sepals 5, free or 
united, persistent as a tube; petals 5, rarely wanting; sta- 
mens as many as petals or upto 10, rarely fewer, hypogynous 
or perigynous, sometimes raised on a short androgynophore; 
carpels 3-5, ovary superior, I-celled, with free central 
placentation or basally 3-5 loculed with axile placentation 
but free central above, styles and stigmas 2-5. Fruit a 
capsule opening by valves at apex or indehiscent, rarely a 
berry. (12 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 
Calyx gamosepalous, 4-5 lobed; petals clawed and stamens 
inserted on an elongated gynophore- 
Styles 2; calyx bell-shaped, 5 nerved; petals white, 
notched- GYPSOPHYLA. 
Styles 5; calyx 10 neryed; petals fringed- LYCHNIS. 
Styles 3- 
Calyx cylindric or ovoid and inflated, [0-0 nerved; 
petals pink, margin jagged- SILENE. 
Calyx bell-shaped. Fruit berry-like- CUCUBALUS. 
Sepals free or connate at the base only. Petals subsessile 


and stamens inserted on an annular disc. Leaves opposite; 
stipules none:- 


Thalamifiorae 33 


Petals notched or entire. Capsule cylindric or conic, 
8-10 valved; style 3-5 opposite the sepals. Seeds many 
CERASTIUM. 


Petals 2-fid. Capsule globose, ovoid or oblong. Style 
3-5. Seeds few or many- STELLARIA. 


Petals entire. Capsule depressed and 1-seeded; styles 
2- BRACHYSTEMMA. 


Petals entire or lacerated. Capsule globose, ovoid or 
oblong. Styles usually 3. Seed many Leaves flat, 
bases not united- ARENARIA. 


Petals entire, minute or absent. Capsule 4-5 valved. 
Stamens and styles 4-5, opposite the sepals. Leaves 
terete, bases united into a scarious sheath- SAGINA. 


Sepals free. Petals subsessile and stamens inserted on an 
annular disc. Leaves in opposite clusters; stipules scarious- 


Sepals not keeled- 
Petals 2-6 fid. Leaves opposite, flat DRYMARIA. 


Petals entire. Leaves opposite with leafy buds in 
their axils hence apparently whorled- SPERGULA. 


Sepals keeled. Petals entire. Leayes appearing whorled 
due to the axillary fascicles of leaves) POLYCARPON. 


PORTULACACEAE 


Herbs or undershrubs, often succulent; leaves alternate 
or opposite with setose stipular appendages. Flowers ac- 
tinomorphic bisexual, solitary or variously cymose or race- 
mose. Sepals 2, imbricate, free or united at the base: 
petals 4-6, imbricate or connate at the base, falling off 
soon; stamens as many as _ petals, antipetalous or 
numerous; superior or half-inferior, 1-locular, ovules 1 or 
many on a basal placentum, style divided. Fruit a capsule 
usually a pyxidium, - (1 Genus.) 


34 Thalamiflorae 


Analysis of the genus 


Herbs or undershrubs with succulent stems and flat leaves. 
Flowers laxly paniculate; sepals free, decidious. Ovary 
superior; style 3-fid- TALINUM. 


TAMARICACEAE 


Shrubs or small trees with slender flexuous branches. 
Leaves small or needle-like or scale-like, alternate, stipules 
absent. Flowers minute, bisexual, actinomorphic, ebrac- 
teate in dense spike-like racemes. Sepals 4-6, free; petals 
5, free, withering and drying, persistent, disk present; 
stamens 5-10, free or connate at base, inserted on a more 
or less evident disk; ovary superior, unilocular, usually 
3-4 carpelled, placentation parietal or reduced to a basal- 
parietal position, ovules many, styles 3-4, or stigmas 
sessile. Fruit a capsule, seeds with a tuft of hairs at apex. 

(2 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Bushes or small trees. Stamens free or slightly united at the 


base; styles 3- TAMARIX. 

Fastigate shrubs. Stamens connate and more or less 

monadelphous; stigmas 3, sessile- MYRICARIA. 
HYPERICACEAE 


Herbaceous or woody plants, sap resinous. Leaves 
opposite or whorled, simple, often pellucid- or black- 
punctate, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regular, cymose, 
showy, yellow. Sepals 4-5, often basaly connate, the outer 
smaller; petals as many as sepals, sessile or clawed, claw 
when present with nectary pit or groove; stamens numerous, 
hypogynous, usually in 3-5 bundles, members of which are 
more or less connate, rarely monadelphous; ovary superior, 
3-5 carpelled and ocular, rarely unilocular, placentation 


Thalamifiorae 35 


axile, rarely parietal, ovules numerous, style 3-5, distinct 
or basally connate. Fruit a capsule. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus. 


Shrubs or perennial herbs; leaves usualiy sessile. Sepals 
and petals 5 each: stamens numerous; ovary 1-celled with 
parietal placentae or 3-5 celled and axile placentae- 

HYPERICUM. 

(Some taxonomists recognise two other genera-Sarothra 

and Norysca besides Hypericum.) 


GUTTIFERAE 


Shrubs or trees with resinous sap, oil glands present. 
Leaves opposite (or whorled) rarely altcriate, simple 
cxstipulate. Flowers usually uniscxual, sometimes bisexual 
on the same plant and functionally polygamodioecious, 
actinomorphic. Sepals 6-2, decussate or imbricate, outer 
smaller than the inner ones; petals 6-2, usually imbricate; 
stamens mostly numerous, distinct or variously united, 
pistillode often present in male flower; ovary superior, 3-5 
carpels, as many locules or 1, ovules } or many on axile 
or parietal placentac, styles as many as carpels and usually 
connate, stigmas aS many as carpels, sometimes shield- 
shaped peltate or radiating. Fruit often capsular, 
sometimes a berry or drupaccous, seed with large embryo 
often arillate. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Trees with white or yellow juice in the bark. Leaves nar- 
rowly oblong-elliptic or narrowly elliptic, glaucous, white 
below. Style 1; stigma peltate- MESUA. 


THEACEAE 


Tree or shrubs; leaves alternate, simple, mostly ever- 
green, exstipulate. Flowers mostly solitary, showy, ac- 
tinomorphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual. Sepals 5, free 


36 Thalamifioraé 


or slightly connate at the base; petals 5, free or slightly 
connate at the base; stamens numerous, hypogynous, 
free or slightly connate and adnate to the base of the 
petals; ovary superior, 3-5 locular, placentation axile, 


ovules 2 to many in each loculus. Fruit usually a capsule. 
(4 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Peduncles 1-flowered; stamens adherant to the base of the 
corolla; anthers basifixed. Fruit indehiscent- 
Flowers hermaphrodite; stamens many; ovary 2-3 cclled. 
Bracts minute or absent- CLEYERA. 
Flowers dioceious; stamens 15 or less; ovary 3-celled. 
Bracteoles persistent- EURYA. 


Peduncles 1-flowered; anthers versatile. Fruit dehiscent- 


Trees. Petals large, outer concave; stainens many. 
Seeds dorsally winged- SCHIMA. 


Shrubs. Sepals 5-6, gradually grading from the bracts 
towards the petals; stamens many, slightly or wholly 
monadelphous. Seeds wingless- CAMELLIA. 


ACTINIDIACEAE 


Trailing or climbing shrub; leayes alternate, simple, 
exstipulate, hairs simple or stellate. Flowers small in 
axillary cymes, hermaphrodite, polygamous or dioccious. 
Sepals 5, petals 5, deciduous; stamens hypogyncus, 10 
or more, inflexcd in bud; ovary 3 or mcre locular, placen- 
tation axile, style 5, united at the apex, usually persistent. 
Fruit a berry (or a capsule.) (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Shrubby climbers. Peduncles many flowered. Sepals slightly 
sub-connate at the base, stamens numerous, ovary many 
celled; styles as many. Fruit a berry- ACTINIDIA. 


Thalamifioraé 37 
SAL RAUIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, branches usually brown with whitish 
tubercular dots. Leaves usually at the ends of the branches, 
alternate, simple, mostly scrrate with strong parallel lateral 
veins as in Dilleniaceae, often roughly hairy or scaly, 
exstipulate. Flowers mostly hermaphroditc, hy pogynous, 
in small axillary or lateral panicles, bracts small and far 
away from calyx. Sepals 5, free, imbricate; petals 5, con- 
nate into a short tube at the base, imbricate; stamens nu- 
merous, adnate to the base of the petals, anthers smal] and 
opening by an apical porc; ovary superior, 3-5 locular, 
placentation axile, ovules many in each loculus, styles 
3-5 free or united. Fruit a berry, rarely somewhat dry 
and slightly dehiscent (subdehiscent.) (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Trees or shrubs. Peduncles many flowered. Bracts small 
and remote from the sepals; anthers dehiscing by pores; 
ovary 3-5 celled; styles 3-5, distinct or connate- 

SAURAUCIA. 
(Saurauja). 


STACHYURACEAE 


Glabrous shrubs or small trees with straggling branches. 
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, serrate, membranous. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, small in pendulous axillary racemes 
or spikes, yellow; bracteoles 2 which are connate at the base. 
Sepals 4, imbricate; petals 4, free imbricate; stamens 8 
free; ovary superior, syncarpous, 4 locular by the intrusion 
of the large parietal placentae thus appearing axile, ovules 
numerous in each loculus, style simple, stigma 4 lobed 
or capitate. Fruit a berry, berries cf the size of a small 
pea. (i Genus.) 


38 Thalamifiorae 


Analysis of the genus 


Glabrous shrubs or small trees. Flowers in axillary pen- 
dulous spikes or racemes; tetramerous; stamens 8; 
ovary 4-ceiled- STACHYURUS. 


DIPTEROCARPACEAE 


Trees (a few shrubs) with resinous wood. Leaves 
alternate, simple, coriaceous, indumentum of stellate hair 
or peitate scales, stipuies smali or large, caducous. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, large, fragrant in axillary 
panicies. Calyx gamcsepatous, 5 lobed, calyx-tube free or 
adnate to the ovary, persistent, enlarged and winglike 
in fruit; petals 5, twisted, free or slightly connate often 
hairy; stamens numerous, hypogynous or slightly perigy- 
nous, connectives produced, ovary syncarpous, superior, 3 
locular, ovules usually pendulcus, style 3 lobed or entire. 
Fruit indehiscent mostly 1 seeded, enclosed in the accres- 
cent calyx-tube. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Larger resinous tree. Flowers in axillary or terminal lax 
panicles Calyx-tube short, adnate to the receptacle; fruit 
coriaceous, indehiscent, usually 1-seeded closely surrounded 
by the base of the accrescent calyx-segments- SHOREA. 


MALVACEAE 


Mostly herbs and shrubs, rarely small trees, often with 
fibrous stems, mucilage present, indumentum — usually 
Stellate or lepidote. Leaves alternate entire or variously 
lobed mostly palmately nerved, stipulate, stipules free 
sometimes caducous. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphro- 
dite rarely dioecious or polygamous, mostly large, inflores- 
cence various. Sepals 3-5, more or less united, yalvate, 
persistent, Sometimes subtended by an involucre or brac- 
teoles, 3 or more (epicalyx); petals 5, free from each other 


Thalamiflorae 39 


but often adnate at the base to the staminal-column, con- 
torted or imbricate; stamens indefinite, hypogynous, 
monadelphous, staminal-column divided at the apex, an- 
thers reniform, monothecous, pollen grains characteristi- 
cally spiny; ovary usually 5 locular but sometimes 2- 
locular, placentation axile, ovules many or 1 in each 
loculus, style branched. Fruit dry breaking up into mericarps 
(Carcerulus.) (5 Genera.) 


Analysis of the gencra 


Herbs or shrubs. Ripe carpels seperating from the axis- 
Styles as many as carpels; carpels without spinous 
projections- 
Bracteoles 3; styles stigmatic along their free ends- 
MALVA. 


Bracteoles none; stigmas _ capitate- SIDA. 


Styles twice as many as the carpels; carpels beset with 
spines- URENA. 


Herbs or shrubs. Fruit capsular. Sepals leafy- 


Stigmas spreading; stamens numerous; bracteoles 5 
or more- HIBISCUS. 


Stigmas connate; staminal-tube 5-toothed at the apex; 
bracteoles 5, minute, deciduous- THESPESIA. 


BOMBACACEAE 


Trees often with swollen trunks; leaves alternate 
simple or digitate, pubescence stellate or scrufy, stipules 
decidious. | Flowers hermaphrodite, large and showy. 
Calyx 5 lobed or cup-shaped, closed and valvate in bud, 
leathery; petals 5, often elongated, sometimes absent, 
twisted in bud; stamens indefinite, free or lower part united 
into a tube, anthers reniform, monothecous, sometimes 
bithecous, pollen grains smooth, staminodes often present; 
ovary superior, 2-5 locular, placentation axile, ovules 2 or 


40 Thalamiflorae 


more in each loculus, style simple, capitate or lobed. Fruit a 
capsule, valves rarely falling away. (2 Genera). 


Analysis of the genera 
Leaves simple; bracteoles 4-6; capsule 3 valved- KYDIA. 


Leaves digitate; bracteoles absent; capsule 5 valved- 
BOMBAX. 


STERCULIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs with mostly soft wood, rarely herbs, 
mucilage present, indumentum often stellate. Leaves 
alternate rarely subopposite, simple or digitately compound, 
stipules usually present and caducous. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite or unisexual, actinomorphic, variously arranged. 
Sepals 3-5 more or less united at the base, valvate; petals 
5 or absent, hypogynous, free or adnate at the base, to the 
staminal tube; stamens often connate into a tube with as 
many staminodes, anthers bithecous; ovary superior, 4-5 
celled, placentation axile, ovules many in each loculus, 
styles 4-5, free or connate, Fruit usually dry. (5 Genera): 


Analysis of the genera 
Flowers polygamous; petals absent- STERCULIA. 
Flowers all bisexual; petals 5- 


Petals deciduous; staminal-tube antheriferous throughout; 


staminodes absent- ERIOLENA. 
Petals persistent; staminal-tube short, stamens 5: 
staminodes absent- MELOCHIA, 


Petals deciduous, with a concaye dialated claw: fertile 
stamens in groups of threes or solitary between the 
staminodes- 
Stamens in groups between the staminodes- 
ABROMA. 
Stamens solitary between the staminodes- 
BUETTINERIA, 


Thafamiflorae 41 
TILIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs rarely herbs, mucilage present in cells, 
cavities or even in canals in the cortex; leaves alternate, 
rarely opposite, simple, entire or variously lobed, stipules 
present and often caducous or absent. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, cymose; sepals 
5, valvate; petals as many as sepals or rarely absent, some- 
times like the sepals, imbricate, valvate or contorted; 
stamens numerous, free or slightly connate at the base or 
in 5-10 bundles, staminodes sometimes present, anthers 
bithecous, opening by slits; ovary superior, sessile, 2-10 
locular, placentation axile, ovules 1 to many in each 
loculus, style usually simple but divided at the apex, 
rarely stigmas sessile. Fruit usually 2-10 locular rarely 1 
locular by abortion, baccate or drupaceous. (3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Petals glandular at the base. Fruit globose or ovoid- 


Stamens numerous. Fruit a smooth drupe- GREWIA. 
Stamens about 10. Fruit a prickly capsule-eTRIUMFETTA. 


Petals not glandular at the base. Fruit a long narrow 
glabrous capsule- CORCHORUS. 


ELAEOCARPACEAE 


Trees or shrubs with entire alternate or opposite leaves 
without slime-cells. Flowers usually bisexual, regular, 
usually in axillary racemes ; sepals 4-5, free or connate, 
usually valvate; petals 4-5 or absent, free or slightly connate, 
usually valyate, often incised; stamens many, hypogynous, 
intra-staminal disk present, anthers opening by a terminal 
pore; ovary superior 2-many celled rarely 1 celled, ovules 
many in each loculus, style 1, Fruit capsular or drupaceous. 

(1 Genus.) 


42 Thalamiflorae 


Analysis of the genus 


Trees with simple leaves. Petals 5, usually lacinate at the 
apex; stamens numerous arising from a glandular raised 
torus; oyary 2-5 celled. Fruit a drupe-ELAEOCARPLS., 


DISCIFLORAE 


LINACEAE 


Herbs, shrubs or (rarely trees); leaves simple, alter- 
nate or opposite rarely whorled, stipules present or absent, 
sometimes gland-like. Flowers hermaphrodite, actino- 
morphic, inflorescence usually a dichasial cyme; sepals 
4-5, free or partially united, imbricate, persistent; petals 
4-5, free, fugacious, often clawed, claws sometimes crested, 
contorted; stamens the same number as petals and alter- 
nating with them, sometimes alternating with small sta- 
minodes, filaments connate at the base, glands 5, entire 
or bilobed, adnate to the staminal ring; ovary superior 
3-5 locular, loculi often again subdivided nearly to the 
placentae, ovules 2 in each loculus, styles 3-5 , filiform, 
free or united. Fruit a septicidal capsule enclosed in the 
persistent calyx. (3 Genera.) 


Analvsis of the gencru- 


Herbs-- 
Perennial herbs. Calyx setose; styics 3; capsule 1-celled, 
1-seeded-- ANISADENIA. 
Annual herb, 4-10°°. Calyx glabrous or pubescent; 
styles 5; capsule 5-celled-- LINUM. 
Shrubs. 2-3 ft.; calyx glabrous; styles usually 3-4; capsule 
3-4 celled-- REINWARDTIA. 

MALPIGHIACEAE 


Trees, shrubs or climbers with often appressed medi- 
fixed hairs; leaves mostly opposite, simple, glands 
often present either on the petiole or on the lower surface 


44 Disciflorae 


of the leayes, stipules present or absent, sometimes large 
and connate, petioles jointed. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
rarely polygamous, usually obliquely irregular, showy, 
variously arranged; sepals 5, imbricate or rarely valvate, 
some biglandular rarely eglandular; petals 5, unequal, 
free, clawed, convolute, fringed or toothed; disk small; 
stamens mostly 10, hypogynous, filaments often connate 
at the base, some staminodes, outer opposite the petals; 
ovary superior, 3 rarely 2 or 4, more or less united into 2 
3-locular ovary, onc ovule in each loculus. Fruit of one or 
more winged samaras. (2 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Flowers irregular; calycine gland 1, large, adnate to the 
pedicel; petals clawed, unequal; style 1-- HIPTAGE. 


Flowers small, regular; calycine gland none; petals not 
clawed, equal; styles 3-- ASPIDOPTERYS. 


GERANIACEAE 


Annual herbs or undershrubs, stem often fleshy; leaves 
alternate or opposite, mostly simple, lobulate and dissected 
or compound, stipules often paired. Flowers often hand- 
some, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or (slight!; zygo- 
morphic), axillary, solitary, or subumbellate; sepals 4-5, 
free or connate to the middle, imbricate or rarely valyate, 
(the dorsal one sometimes spurred), persistent; petals 5 
rarely 4,(very rarely absent) ,-hypogynous or subperigynous, 
imbricate rarely contorted; stamens 2-3 times the number 
of sepals, the outer whorl opposite the petals, sometimes 
a few without anthers. filaments mostly more or less 
connate at the base, often glandular at the base, glands 
alternate with petals, anthers 2-locular, opening lengthwise; 
ovary 3-5 lobed, ovules 1-2 in each loculus, superposed, 
rarely more than 2. Fruit a lobed capsule, lobes 1 seeded, 
rarely more seeded (capsule septicidal or loculicidal). 

(1 Genus) 


Disciflorae 45 


Analysis of the. genus-- 


Petals imbricate, alternating with the glands of the disc; 
stamens 10, distinct; fruit of 5 cocci-- GERANIUM. 


BALSAMINACEAE 


Succulent herbs rarely shrubby at the base; leaves 
alternate or opposite, simple, stipules absent or with sti- 
pular glands at the base of the petiole. Flowers zygomorphic, 
hermaphrodite, brightly coloured, solitary to subumbellate, 
resupinate; sepals 3, rarely 5 often coloured, anterior two 
when present minute, unequal, the lowermost (posterior) 
elongated into a tubular spur; petals 5, the upper one 
exterior, usually erect, concave, the lateral ones united 
or free,; stamens 5, filaments short and broad, connate 
towards the top, disk absent, anthers 2-locular , connate 
around the ovary; ovary superior, 5-locular, placentation 
axile, ovules numerous, stigmas {-5, more or less sessile. 
Fruit a succulent capsule opening elastically by 5 twisted 
valves. (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus-- 


Herbs; leaves simple; flowers irregular, posticous sepal 
spurred, lateral petals connate in pairs; stamens5. 
Fruit a capsule-- IMPATIENS. 


OXALIDACEAE 


Herbaceous (cr suffrutesccent) often producing fleshy 
rhizomes or bulbils; leaves alternate or radical, digitate 
or pinnately compound, sometimes simple by supppression 
of the leaflets, leaflets spirally coiled when young, folded 
in bud and at night, stipules absent. Flowers hermaphrodite, 
actinomorphic, sometimes of two kinds, some perfect and 
others minute and apetalous (cleistogamous), solitary or 
umbellate, rarely racemose or cymose; calyx 5-fid or 
partite, imbricate; petals 5, shortly clawed, free or shortly 
connate at the base, contorted, glands of the disk absent; 


46 Disciflorae 


stamens 10, hypogynous, connate at the base, outer whorl 
opposite the petals, filaments of the outer whorl shorter, 
sometimes 5 without anthers, anthers 2-locular, opening 
lengthwise; ovary superior, 5-locular, placentation axile, 
ovules | or more in each loculus, styles 5, free, persistent, 
stigmas capitate or shortly divided. Fruit a capsule. 
(2 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Leaves 3-foliate; fruit a Joculicidal capsule, valves cohe- 


ring with the axis-- OXALIS. 

Leaves pinnate; fruit a loculicidal capsule, valves deta- 

ching from the axis-- BIOPHYTUMI. 
RUTACEAE 


Shrubs or trees, very rarely herbs, glandular punctate 
and strongly smelling; leaves alternate or opposite, simple 
or compound, sometimes reduced to spines, mostly gland- 
dotted, stipules absent. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely 
unisexual, actinomorphic rarely zygomorphic, inflorescence 
various but never spiked; sepals 4-5 , imbricate, free or 
connate; petals imbricate, rarely valvate, mostly free, 
hypogynous or perigynous; stamens same as or double 
the number of the petals, inserted at the base of a thick 
disk, free or rarely united, anthers 2-locular, introse, open- 
ning lengthwise, connectives often glandular at the apex, 
disk usually present; ovary superior, syncarpous, often 4-5 
locular or sometimes the carpels free towards the base or 
tarely altogether free, usually placentation axile, ovules 
1-many in each loculus, styles as many, free or variously 
united, stigmas entire or lobed. Fruit usually baccate, 
drupaceous, or coriaceous, rarely capsular. (11 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 
Herbs-- 


Petals 4; stamens 6-8; ovary pedicelled- 
BOENNINGHAUSENIA, 


Disciflorae 47 


Petals 4-5; stamens 8-10; ovary sessile-- RUTA. 
Shrubs or small trees-- 


Flowers 1-sexual (polygamous); fruit usually coria- 
ceous, seeds albuminous-- 


Plants unarmed; leaves compound, opposite; stamens 


4-5; ovules 2 in each cell-- EVODIA. 
Plants armed; leaves compound, alternate; stamens 
3-5; ovules 2 in each cell-- ZANTHOXYLUM. 
Plants usually armed; leayes compound; stamens 
2-5; ovule 1 in each cell-- TODDALIA. 
Plants unarmed; leayes simple, oblong-lanceolate; 
ovule 1 in each cell-- SKIMMIA. 


Flowers hermaphrodite; fruit usually a berry; seed 
exalbuminous-- 


Unarmed; leaves pinnate with leaflets alternate-- 
Petals imbricate-- 


Petals thick; stamens 10, filaments linear- 
subulate-- MURRAYA. 


Petals membraneous; stamens 8-10, filaments 
dialated below-- CLAUSENIA. 


Petals valvate, thick; stamens 10, filaments linear- 
subulate-- MICROMELUM. 


Armed with axillary spines. Leayes foliate-- 


Leaves 3-foliolate; ovary 8 or more locular; rind 


of fruit woody-- AEGLE. 

Leaves 1-foliolate; ovary many celled, rind of fruit 

leathery-- CITRUS. 
SIMAROUBACEAE 


Trees or shrubs sometimes with a very bitter bark; 
leaves alternate, rarely opposite, pinnate (rarely simple), 
very large, without oil glands, stipules absent. Flowers 


48 Disciflorae 


small, unisexual or polygamous rarely hermaphrodite; 
calyx-lobes 3-5; petals 3-5, free, imbricate or valvate, 
rarely united into a tube or absent, disk present’and pro- 
minent; stamens same as or double the number of petals, 
rarely numerous, free, inserted at the base of the disk, 
anthers 2-locular; ovary mostly 2-5 lobed, 1-5 locular, 
rarely carpels quite free, placentation axile, ovule solitary 
in each loculus, rarely more, styles 2-5. Fruit usually 
indehiscent sometimes samaroid. (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus-- 


Trees or shrubs with bitter properties; leaves very large, 
unequal, pinnate. Flowers polygamous in axillary pani- 
cles. Petals and stamens 4-5; ovary 3-5 partite, styles 
connate-- PICRASMA. 


OCHNACEAE 


Trees or shrubs with watery juice, (rarely herbs); 
leaves alternate, simple very rarely pinnate, often with 
numerous pinnate nerves, stipules present, coriaceous, 
Flowers hermaphrodite actinomorphic, bracteate, race- 
mose or paniculate; sepals 4-5 rarely 10, free, imbricate 
rarely contorted; petals 4-10, free, contorted or imbricate, 
disk enlarging after flowering, sometimes absent; stamens 
few to many, free, staminodes sometimes present, subulate 
or petaloid, sometimes connate into a tube, hypogynous, 
filaments persistent, anthers linear; ovary 1-10 locular, 
entire or deeply lobed, placentation axile or parietal, 
ovules 1 to many in each loculus, style simple or divided 
at the apex,. Fruiting carpels often becoming quite separate 
on the enlarged torus, drupaceous (drupes seated on the 
broad disk.) (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus-- 


Undershrubs; leaves simple. Flowers large; sepals 5, per- 
sistent; petals 5-10, disk thick and lobed; stamens oc, 


Disciflorae 49 


shorter than the petals; ovary deeply 3-10 lobed. Fruit 
of 3-10 drupes with reticulate epicarp-- OCHNA. 


MELIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs mostly with hard scented wood; leaves 
alternate, mostly pinnate, sometimes bipinnate (rarely 
simple), lacking pellucid dots, exstipulate. Flowers mostly 
hermaphrodite, actinomorphic often in cymose pani- 
cles; calyx small, usually partly connate, imbricate, rarely 
valvate; petals free or partly connate or adnate to the 
staminal-tube, disk sometimes present; stamens mostly 
8 or 10 or rarely numerous, filaments connate and anthers 
sessile in the tube, anthers bithecous; ovary superior 3-5 
locular, placentation axile, ovules mostly 2 in each loculus, 
stigmas disciform or capitate. Fruit baccate, capsular or 
even a drupe. (6 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Stamens united into a tube-- 
Leaflets toothed-- 
Staminal-tube cylindrical, dialated at the base and 
apex, 10 or 12 striate. Drupe smooth-- MELIA. 


Staminal-tube deeply 10-lobed, adnate to the base. 
Drupe _ribbed-- CIPADESSA., 


Leaflets entire-- 
Anthers included in the staminal-tube, staminal-tube 
globular; fruit a 3 celled capsule-- AMOORA. 
Anthers exserted or filaments free-- 
Leaves 1-5 foliate; filaments connate half-way or 
more, free at the apex. Fruit a berry-- WALSURA. 


Leayes 5-11 foliate; staminal-tube 8-10 fid, lobes 
linear, bidentate, Fruit a loculicidal capsule-- 
HEYNEA, 


50 Disciflorac 


Stamens distinct, 5, filaments free. Capsule septicidally 
5 valved; seeds winged either at the upper end or at the 
both ends-- TOONA* 


OLACACEAE 


Trees, shrubs or climbers; leaves alternate rarely 
opposite, simple or lobed, exstipulate. Flowers usually 
hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, small in cymes; calyx- 
lobes imbricate, sometimes accrescent, free or adherent to 
the ovary; petals free or variously connate, yalvate, disk 
often annular; stamens free, the same number as and 
opposite to the petals, sometimes fewer or more numerous, 
some often without anthers; ovary superior or slightly 
immersed in the annular disk, 1-3 locular, sometimes 
imperfectly so, ovules 1-5 on a central placentum when 
ovary unilocular or pendulous from the inner angles of 
the loculii, style simple, stigma 2-5 lobed. Fruit often 
drupaceous. (3 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Fertile stamens anisomerous or twice or thrice the number 
of the petals. Leaves alternate. Fertile stamens 3-5, 
Staminodes 5-6; calyx accrescent. Trees and shrubs-- 

OLAX. 


Fertile stamens isomerous with and opposite the petals-- 


Staminodes 5, stamens 5: ovary 1-celled- Climbing 
shrubs with tendrils axillary. 
ERTHYROPALUM. 


Staminodes absent, stamens 4-5, epipetalous; ovary 3- 
celled. Small trees- SCHOEPFIA. 





(*The genus CEDRELA is American and is distingished 
from TOONA in having seeds winged at the lower end 
only. In Indian floras CEDRELA is given.) 


Disciflorae 51 


ICACINACEAE 


Trees and shrubs; leaves mostly alternate, simple, 
exstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite cr rarely unisexual 
by abortion, actinomorphic; calyx-lobes 4-5, small 
inferior, imbricate; petals 4-5, free or united, valvate; 
stamens the same number as the petals and alternating 
with them, disk rarely present; ovary 1-locular, rarely 
3-5 locular, ovules pendulous, usually 2, style short. 
Fruit drupaceous. (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus-- 


A climbing shrub; flowers diocious. Stamens isomerous, 
alternate with the petals, staminodes 5; ovary 1-2 celled-- 
NATSIATUM. 


AQUIFOLIACEAE (llicaccae) 


Trees or shrubs, mostly evergreen; leaves alternate or 
opposite, simple, coriaceous, eyergreen, stipules very small 
or absent. Flowe-s hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomor- 
phic, usually fasciculate; calyx 3-6, more or less connate, 
imbricate, persistent; petals 4-5, free or connate at the base, 
imbricate or valvate; disk absent; stamens 4-5, rarely more, 
free or adhering to the bases of the petals; ovary superior, 
3 or more locular, ovules 1-2 in each loculus, pendulous, 
style terminal or absent. Fruit drupaceous of 3 or more 
1-seeded pyrenes. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the gents 


Evergreen shrubs or trees; leaves alternate, simple, usually 
toothed, Flowers in cymes, small, white, 1 or 2 sexual; 
calyx 4-partite, persistent; petals 4, imbricate, connate at 
the base; stamens 4; ovary globose, 5-4 (8-7) celled; 
fruit a drupe- ILEX. 


52 Discifiorae 
CELASTRACEAE 


Trees, shrubs or climbers, branches sometimes spine- 
cent; leaves alternate or opposite, petioled or subsessile, 
simple, coriaceous, stipules small and caducous or absent. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, small, greenish; 
calyx-lobes 4-5, imbricate ; petals 5, rarely absent, imbricate 
or rarely valvate;disk usually present, fleshy and flat, ining 
the bottom of calyx; stamens 4-5, rarely more, inserted 
on the margin of the disk; ovary superior, 1-5 locular,free 
or adherent to the disk, axile placentation, ovules mostly 
2 in each loculus, style short and lobed. Fruit various- 
capsular, baccate, drupaceous or samaroid. (4 Genera.) 


Analvsis of the genera 

Leaves opposite. Stamens inserted on the margin of the 
disk; ovary sunk in the disk. Fruit a winged, angled or 
prickly capsule. ‘Trees or shrubs- EUONYMUS. 


Leaves opposite or sub-opposite. Ovary confluent with the 
disc. Fruit drupe or dry. Trees or shrubs- 
ELAEODENDRON*. 


Leaves alternate- 
A scandent shrub. Flowers in terminal or axillary pani- 
cles. Stamens inserted on the margin of the disk; 
fruit a globose capsule- CELASTRUS. 


An erect shrub, often spinous. Flowers in axillary di- 
chotomous cymes; stamens inserted underneath the 
disk. Fruit a 3-angled capsule GYMNOSPORIA. 


RHAMNACEAE 


Trees, shrubs rarely herbs, sometimes scandent; leaves 
alternate or opposite or even subopposite, simple, mostly 
stipulate, stipules decidious or modified into prickles, 








(* This genus has been reported from e\treme west of 
Nepal only.) 


Discifiorae 53 


cirrhose in Gouania. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely 
unisexual, small in cymes calyx tubular, 4-5, lobed, lobes 
ereet or recurved; petals 4-5 or absent, small; disk mostly 
present, intrastaminal, somctimes lining the calyx-tube; 
stamens 4-5, opposite the petals and often enclosed within 
their folds; ovary superior, rarely inferior, 2-4 locular, 
free or sunk in the disk, ovules solitary in each loculus, 
style shortly lobed. Fruit usually drupaceous. (7 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Shrubs or trees- 
Disk filling the calyx-tube; ovary superior- 


Leaves prominently 3-5 neryed from the base- 


ZIZYPHUS. 

Leaves penninerved- BERCHEMIA. 
Disk lining or filling the calyx-tube- 

Disk thin, linning the calyx-tube- RHAMNUS. 


Disk fleshy, filling the calyx-tube- 


Leaves alternate, unequal. Unarmed trees- 
HOVENIA. 


Leaves opposite or sub-equal. Spinous shrubs- 
SAGERETIA. 


Unarmed climbing shrubs. Rachis often cirrhose. Ovary 
inferior, crowned with persistent sepals-~ 
Flowers fascieled; stamens enfolded by petals- 
GOUANIA. 


Flowers umbellate; stamens equaling the petals- 
HELINUS*. 





(* The genus HELINUS is reported from extreme west of 
Nepal only.) 


54 Disciflorae 
VITACEAE (Anmpelidaceae) 


Mostly climbing shrubs with tendrils (or small trees 
and shrubs destitute of tendrils) stem angled, compressed 
or cylindrical, growth sympodial, nodose or jointed branches 
modified into tendrils, often with watery juice; leaves alter- 
nate or lower ones opposite, simple or compound, digitately 
or pedately 3-9 foliolate, often pellucid-puncate, stipules 
petiolar or absent. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 
actinomorphic, small in leaf-opposed spikes, racemes 
or cymes, peduncles often cirrhose; calyx small, entire 
or 4-5 toothed or lobed; petals 4-5 free or united, 
caducous, valvate; stamens 4-5 opposite the petals, 
inserted at the base of the disk or between its lobes, 
anthers free or connate, 2-locular, opening 
lengthwise, disk intra-staminal, usually very distinct, an- 
nular or variously expanded; ovary superior, 2-6 locular, 
axile placentation, 1-2 ovules in each loculus, style short, 
stigma capitate or dscoid. Fruit baccate, often watery 1-6 
locular, seeds with copious endosperm. (6 Genera.) 


Analvsis of the genera 
Flowers polygamous-dioecious- 
Petals 5; stigmas obtuse; seeds pyriform, 2-furrowed on 


the face and 1-furrowed on the back- VITIS.(s.s.) 


Petals 4; stigmas 4-lobed; seeds globose, oblong or 
pyriform, 2-furrowed on the face- TETRASTIGMA. 


Flowers polygamous-monoecious; petals 4-5; stigmas small 
discoid; seeds oblong or obovoid concave on the back, 
2-furrowed on the face. Tendrils on the peduncles. Leaves 
simple or lobed, sometimes digitate or pedate- 

AMPELOCISSUS. 


Flowers hermaphrodite; petals 4. ‘fendrils leaf opposed- 


Leaves trifoliate. Petals 5, spreading; seeds globose, 
smooth- PARTHENOCISSUS. 


Disciflorae 55 


Leaves usually simple, sometimes 3-foliate or digitate; 
berry I-seeded, seeds ellipsoid or pyriform, smooth or 


pitted- CISSUS. 


Leaves trifoliate or pedate or digitate; berry 2-4 seedcd, 
seeds hemispheric with deep pits- CAYRATIA. 


SAPINDACEAE 


Trees, shrubs, undershrubs or climbers; leaves usually 
alternate or very rarely opposite, simple or commonly 
compound, stipules present in climbing species. Flowers 
actinomorphic or zygomorphic, often much reduced and 
usually polygamo-dioecious (really unisexual but apparently 
polygamo-dioecious), variously arranged; sepals 5 usually 
free, unequal or variously connate, imbricate or rarely 
valvate, petals 3-5, rarely more, often absent equal or 
unequal, often with scaly or hair-tufted nectaries in lower 
side, imbricate; disk usually present, sometimes unilateral; 
stamens hypogyonus, often 8 in two whorls or variabte 
number, inserted within the disk or unilateral, filaments 
free, subulate, often hairy, anthers 2-locular; ovary superior, 
entire, lobed or divided nearly to the base, 3-locular occas- 
ionally 1-4 locular, style terminal or between the lobes 
rarely 2-4,simple or divided, ovule 1-2 or rarely many in each 
loculus, axile placentation rarely parietal. Fruit various- 
capsule, nut, berry or drupe, frequently winged, seeds 
without endosperm. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the gents 


A climbing herb; leaves alternate, ternately pinnate, 3- 
leaflets on division. Capsule membraneous and inflated- 
CARDIOSPERMUMI. 


ACERACEAE 


Trees (or shrubs) with perulate buds; leaves opposite, 
simple usually with palmate veination or palmately lobed 


56 Disciflorae 


(or pinnately foliolate). Flowers in fascicles, racemes or 
corymbs, actinomorphic, andromonoecious or dioecious; 
sepals 4-5, distinct or basally connate, imbricate; petals 
4-5, rarely absent, distinct, imbricate; disk annular or 
lobed or reduced to teeth, rarely absent either outside or 
within the stamens (extrastaminal or intrastaminal); 
stamens 4-10, often 8, hypogynous or perigynous or in 
the male flowers central, filaments free, rudimentary ovary 
often present in the male flowers; ovary superior, 2-locular 
compressed contrary to the septum, ovules 2 in each loculus 
attached to the central axis or one erect from the base 
as in Dobinea, styles 2, free or connate at the base. Fruit 
a samaroid schizocarp, splitting into 2 one-winged meri- 
carps (double samara). (2 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Tree with simple or palmately lobed leaves. Ovary 2-celled. 
Fruit a double samara, fruit lobes connate with the wings 
only on the upper side-- ACER. 


A shrub with terete virgate branches; leaves undivided. 
Ovary 1-celled. Fruit indehiscent. Female bracts adnate. 
to the pedicel, persistent and membranous - reticulate in 
fruit-- DOBINEA* 


HIPPOCASTANACEAE 
(Aesculaceae) 


Trees (and shrubs), winter buds often sticky; leaves 
Opposite, digitately 5-9 foliolate, leaflets serrate or entire, 
pinnately nerved, stipules absent. Flowers polygamous, 


somewhat zygomorphic in terminal panicles or racemes, 


(*This genus appears in Hook f. Fl. Brit. Ind. under 
Sapindaceae; in Brandis, Indian Trees under Ana- 
cardiaceae; in Bor’s Manual of Indian Forest Botany 
under Aceraceae; while some place it under a seperate 
family- Podoaceae.) 


Disciflorae 57 


white, red or yellow; sepals 5, imbricate or tubular and 5-fid; 
petals 5-4, unequal, clawed, imbricate; disk entire, annular 
or unilateral; stamens 8-5; inserted within the disk, fila- 
ments free; ovary sessile, superior, 3-locular or by abor- 
tion 2-1 locular, placentation axile, ovules 2 in each loculus, 
style elongated, stigma simple. Fruit usually a 1-loculed, 
1-seeded leathery capsule, smooth or echinate, seed solitary 
by abortion, subglobose, testa coriaceous, cotyledons 
thick. (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus-- 


Tree; leave opposite, digitately compound, leaflets 5-9. 
Flowers large, irregular; sepals united in a tube; stamens 
5-9; fruit a leathery, smooth capsule. Cotyledons large 
and fused-- AESCULUS. 


STAPHYLEACEAE 


Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate or opposite, tri- 
foliolate or pinnate, stipules paired. Flowers hermaphrodite 
or unisexual, actinomorphic in drooping racemes or panic- 
les; sepals 5, imbricate; petals imbricate, inserted on or 
below the large cup-shaped disk; stamens 5 inserted with 
the petals and alternate with them, free, anthers 2-locular ; 
ovary superior, 2-3 more or less united, 2-3 locular and 
lobed, placentation axile, ovules numerous, style free or 
coherant, at length free. Fruit a capsule membranous and 
inflated, opening at the top or indehiscent. (2 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Branches smooth; leaflets usually 6. Flowers small; ovary 

3-lobed, completely united, disk large,  collar-like; 

fruit coriaceous, dry to softly fleshy, indehiscent-- 
TURPINIA, 


Branches with spotted bark; leaflets usually 3. Flowers 
1/2?’ long; ovary 2-3 parted, united in the lower third; 


58 Disciflorae 


fruit with « thin skin, more or less bladdery the ripe car- 
pels united in their lower half and opening along the 
inner suture of the free part-- STAPHYLEA. 


SABIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, some climbing or sarmentose; leaves 
alternate, simple or pinnate, exstipulate. Flowers herma- 
phrodite or polygamo-dioecious, zygomorpbic, sma!) often 
paniculate; calyx 4-5 partite, imbricate; petals 4-5, imbri- 
cate, opposite or alternate with the sepals; disk small, 
annular; stamens 4-5, opposite the petals, free or adherent 
to the petals, sometimes only 2 fertile, anthers 2-locular, 
connective usually thick; ovary sessile, superior, 2-3 locular, 
axile placentation, ovules 1-2 in each loculus, styles more 
or less united. Fruit dry or drupaceous, seeds with very 
thin endosperm or none at all. (2 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Erect trees; leaves toothed simple or old-pinnate. Flowers 
minute; inner petals large, outer much smaller; stamens 


5, 2 fertile, very unequal- MELIOSMA. 

Climbing shrubs; leaves simple entire. Flowers 3/4’’ in 

diam.; stamens 4-5, equal and all fertile-- SABIA. 
ANACARDIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, usually with resinous bark; leaves 
alternate, simple or compound, stipules absent very rarely 
present but obseure. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, 
mostly actinomorphic, small in racemes, fascicles, spikes 
or panicles; calyx 3-5, variously divided, sometimes semi- 
superior in fruit; petals 3-7 or absent. free or rarely connate 
and adnate to the torus: disk present: stamens often double 
the number of petals, rarely equal as in Rhus or numerous, 
filaments free, filiform, anthers 2-locular, versatile; ovary 
superior and 3- carpelled but functionally 1-carpelled, 


Disciflorae 59 


rarely 2-5 locular or very rarely carpels free, ovules soli- 
tary, pendulous or adnate to the wall of the ovary, styles 
1-3, widely seperated. Fruit a drupe, seed without endos- 


perm. (6 Genera) 
Analysis of the genera-- 
Carpels combined into a t-celled ovary: Icaves simple or 
compound-- 
Leaves compound; 


Leaves 3-foliate. Sterile flowers many on long hairy 
pedicels; calyx 4-5 partite; petals 4-6; stamens 
4-10; ovary superior, styles 3-4-- RHUS* 


Leaves pinnate; flowers apetaliferous, calyx 5 partite; 
petals 0; stamens 3-4; styles 3-- PISTACIA§ 


Leaves odd-pinnate; flowers petaliferous, calyx 5 
partite, persistent; petals 5; stamens 10; styles 
4-5-- TAPIRIA. 
Leaves simple; 
Petals 5; stamens 5 all fertile; styles 3-4 -- 
SEMECARPUS. 


Petals 4-5; stamens 5 but only one fertile; style single 
and lateral-- NANGIFERA. 


Carpels combined into a 5-celled ovary; stamens 10. Leaves 
odd-pinnatc-- SPONDIAS. 


CORIARIACEAE 


Glabrous shrubs with angular branchlets; leaycs opposite 
or verticillate, simple, entire, exstipulate. Flowers herma- 


* Rhus cotinus has simple leaves, and this species is present 
in the Western Himalays. It has not been so far 
reported from West Nepal. 

§ This genus is so far reported from West Nepal only 


60 Discifforae 


phrodite or polygamous, small, green, axillary or racemose; 
sepals 5, imbricate; petals 5, shorter than the 
sepals, keeled inside, fleshy; persistent and enlarged in 
fruit; stamens 10, hypogynous, free or those opposite the 
petals adnate to the keel, anthers large, exserted; ovary 
superior, 5-10, free , unilocular, ovules solitary in each 
carpel ,pendulous from the top, styles free, long, Fruit 
of five or ten compressed dry nuts enclosed in the enlarged 
fleshy, persistent petals- a pseudodrupe. (1 Genus. ) 


Analysis of the genus 


Usually glabrous shrub with 4-angled branches. Leaves 
opposite or rarely 3-nately whorled, sessile or sub-sessile, 
3-7 nerved. Petals smaller than the sepals, fleshy. Carpels 
5-10, free, fruit of 5-10 small dry nuts closely embraced 
by the fleshy petals- CORIARIA. 


CALYCIFLORAE 


MIMOSACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, unarined or thorny, erect or scandent, 
very rarely herbs; leaves mostly bipinnate, rarely simply 
pinnate (or reduced,) stipules free, caducous, sometimes 
persistent and spinescent. Flowers hermaphrodite, actino- 
morphic, small, spicate, racemose or capitate, 3-6 usually 
5 merous; calyx tubular, 5-lobed or toothed, yalvate or very 
rarcly imbricate; petals valvate, free or connate into a short 
tube, mostly hypogynous; stamens equal in number to the 
sepals or more usually more numerous, free or monadel- 
phous, anthers small often with a gland at the apex; ovary 
superior, 1- locular. Fruit a legume or indehiscent, seeds 
with scanty or no endosperm. (5 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera-- 


Stamens definite - 


Inflorescence elongated. Stamens usually 10 anthers 
crowned with a gland. Pods very long and wide. 
Large tendril-bearing climbers-- ENTADA. 


Inflorescence a globose head. Stamens usually 10. 
anthers not gland-crested. Pods jointed. Plants 
prickly and sensitive— MIMOSA. 


Inflorescence a_ cylindrical spike. Pods dehiscent. 
A tree armed with conical spines— PIPTADENTA 
Stamens indefinite - 


Stamens free. Usually spiny or prickly tree or shrub-- 
ACACIA. 


62 Calycifiorae 


Stamens monadelphous. Usually unarmed tree-- 
ALBIZZIA. 


CAESALPINIACEAE 


Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs; leaves pinnate or bi- 
pinnate, rarely simple or unifoliolate, stipels mostly absent. 
Flowers mostly showy, racemose, spicate or rarely cymose, 
zygomorphic rarely subactinomorphic; sepals 5 or the 2 
upper ones connate, mostly free, imbricate or rarely yal- 
vate; petals 5 or fewer or absent, the adaxial one inside 
the adjacent lateral petals, the others variously imbricate 
often clawed; stamens usually 10, very rarely numerous 
often few or aborted, often free or variously connate, 
anthers various, sometimes opening by terminal pores; 
ovary superior, 1-locular. Fruit a legume or indehiscert, 
often winged. (4 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 
Leaves 2-pinnate - 


Trees and shrubs, often scandent. Leaves abruptly 
bi-pinnate. Hypanthium not oblique and not very 
deep. Upper suture of pod not or scarcely winged-- 

CAESALPINIA. 


Prickly shrubs. Leaves ample, abruptly bipinnate. 
Hypanthium very oblique and deep. Upper suture 
of pod winged-- MEZONEURON, 


Leaves simple pinnate or 1-foliolate (Bahuinia) - 


Leaves simple pinnate. Calyx tube short, 5-partite; disk 
subbasal; anthers mostly dehiscing by apical pores. 
Trees anf shrubs-- CASSIA. 


Leaves simple, deeply 2-lobed. Calyx-tube with the disk 
produced to the top. Trees-- BAUHINIA. 


Calyciflorae 63 


FABACEAE (Papilionaceac) 


Trees , shrubs and herbs; leaves simple or compound, 
alternate or opposite, often terminating in tendrils, some- 
times absent. Flowers zygomorphic, mostly hermaphrodite; 
sepals usually 5 or more or less, connate into a tube, some- 
times bi-labiate, petals 5, imbricate, free , the upper (ad- 
axial) exterior to the adjacent lateral petals (wings) and 
forming the standard, the lower two interior and connate 
by their lower margins into a keel; stamens perigynous, 
inserted with the petals on the disk, often 10, monadel- 
phous or diadelphous sometimes all free mostly all perfect, 
anthers opening lengthwise; ovary sessile or stipitate, 
superior, 1-locular, usually severa] ovuled. Fruit usually 
a legume or indehiscent, sometimes jointed and breaking 
up into 1-seeded segments. (52 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera-- 
(This key is adapted from Hooker’s FI. Brit. Ind.) 


Tribe Podalyrieae -- Stamens free. Pod dehiscent. Leaves 
digitate. 


Shrub with connate stipules -- PIPTANTHUS. 


Herb with free stipules -- THERMOPSIS. 


Tribe Genisteae - Stamens monadelphous. Pods dehiscent, 
jointed. Leaves simple or digitately 3-foliate. 


Flowers in terminal racemes. Pods flattened-- 
PRIOTROPIS. 


Flowers in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes. 
Pods turgid -- CROTOLARIA. 


Tribe Trifoliaee -- Stamens diadelphous. Pods usually 
dehiscent not jointed. Leaves digitately or pinnately 
3-foliate, leaflets usually toothed. 


64 Calyciflorae 


Le es digitately 3-foliate - 


“Petals persistent, adnate to the staminal 
tube -- TRIFOLIUM. 


Petals caducous, free from the stamina] 
tube -- PAROCHETUS, 


Leaves pinnately 3--foliate - 


Pods elongated, straight or recurved. Stigma 
terminal -- TRIGONELLA. 


Pods falcate or spiral. Stigma  oblique- 
MEDICAGO. 


Tribe Loteae -- Stamens diadelphous. Pods dehiscent, not 
jointed. Leaves pinnately 5-foliate, leaflets entire. 
LOTUS. 


Tribe Galegeae--Stamens usually diadelphous. Pods dehis- 
cent not jointed. Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets 
entire. 


Anthers apiculate. Hairs fixed by the centre. 
Stamens diadelphous -- INDIGOFERA. 


Anthers obtuse. Hairs basifixed - 
Pods few or many seeded, usually sub- 
dehiscent - 
Pods very firm or woody- MILLETIA. 


Pods membranous and _ inflated 
COLUTEA. 


Pods many seeded and some dehiscing (linear 

or oblong not seperate) 
Calyx very oblique. Low undershrub; 
leaf rachis usually spine tipped -- 
CARAGANA, 


Calyciflorae 65 


Calyx not oblique - 
Keel very short, obtuse. Spineless 
perennials-GULDENSTAEDTIA. 


Keel long, obtuse. Herbs or under- 
shrubs with pinnate leaves, leaf 
rachis terminating in a leaflet 
or a spine-- ASTRAGALUS. 


Keel long, appendiculate. Herb- 
aceous perennials with odd- 
pinnate leaves -- OXYTROPIS. 


Tribe Hedysareae-- Stamens diadelphous or monoadelphous. 
Pods jointed if more than I-seeded. Leaves 
odd-pinnate. Leaves exstipellate - 


Stamens monadelphous; anthers uniform. 
Leaflets 4-- GEISSAPSIS. 
Stamens diadelphous; anthers unifrom - 
Ovules solitary. Pod 1-jointed -- 
LESPEDEZA. 
Ovules few - 
Spiny shrubs with simple leaves -- 


ALHAGI. 


Herbs. Pods distinctly jointed- 
HEDYSARUM. 


Herbs. Pods marked by faint lines- 
STRACHEYA. 
Leaves stipellate - 
Pods distinctly jointed, twisted. Calyx not 
accrescent, teeth setaceous -- URARIA. 
Pods not twisted - 
Joints turgid -- ALYSICARPUS, 


66 Calycifiorae 


Joints flattened -- 


Racemes in fascicles from the old 
wood. Trees -- OUGENIA* 


Racemes simple or panicled from the 
year’s shoot. Shrubs and herbs -- 
DESMODIUM § 


Tribe Jicieae -- Stamens diadelphous. Pods dehiscent, not 
jointed. Leaves equally pinnate, petiole ending ina 
tendril or hristle. 


Stamens 10, diadelphous - 


Wings free from the keel; leaflets toothed-- 
CICER. 


Wings attached to the keel - 
Staminal tube with oblique mouth - 
Style longitudinally bearded with 


minute hairs on the inner 
surface -- LENS. 


Apex of the style dorsally bearded by 
a bunch of hairs or pilose al] around- 
VICIA. 


Staminal tube truncate at the mouth - 


Style flattened at the apex; leaflets 
entire -- LATHYRUS. 


Style dialated from the base upwards; 
leaflets obscurely dentate -- PISUM. 


* This genus has been reported from West Nepal only. 


§ Genus CODARIOCALY.N was seperated from Genus 
DESMODIUM by Hassak (Flora 25, Beibl. 2 : 48, 
1848) but Knapp-van Meeuwen has again merged 
the genus with DESMODIUM (Reinwardtia 6(3) : 
239-276, 1962). 


Calyciflorae 67 


Tenth stamen absent. Climbers with bright po- 
lished seeds -- ABRUS. 


Tribe Phaseoleae 


-- Stamens monadelphous or diadelphous. 


Pods dehiscent, not jointed. Climbing, rarely ercct 
herbs or shrubs with pinnate 3-foliate leaves. 


Subtribe 


Subtribe 


Subtribe 


Glycineae -- Leaves not gland-dotted; 
leaflets stipellate. Nodes of racemes not 
tumid. Flowers small; petals about equal 
in length; style beardless. 


Stamens diadelphous. Stipules and bracts 
conspicious, persistent- 


Style filiform. Standard not spur- 
red; calyx tecth distinct -- 
SHUTERIA. 


Style flattened upwards. Calyx 
truncate -- DUMASIA. 


Stamens monadelphous. Stipules and 
bracts minute and caducous. Anthers 
all fertile -- GLYCINE. 


Erythrineae -- Leaves not gland-dotted; 
leaflets stipellate. Nodes of racemes 
tumid. Flowers conspicious; petals very 
unequal; style beardless. 


Keel exceeding the standard and wings - 


Anthers dimorphic MUCUNA. 
Anthers uniform -- APIOS. 


Standard exceeding the keel and wings -- 
ERYTHRINA. 


Galactieae -- Leaves not  gland-dotted. 
Leaflets stipellate. Nodes of racemes 
tumid. Petals equal; style beardless. 


68 Calyciflorae 


Stamens diadelphous - 


Herbs. Upper two calyx-teeth 
fused into one; keel semicircular.- 
COCHLIANTHUS. 


Shrubs - 


Flowers small, panicled - 
SPANTHOLOBUS. 


Flowers large, racemose - 
BUTEA. 


Stamens monadelphous. Pods many 
seeded, flat, linear - PUERARIA. 


Subtribe Cajaneae -- Leaves gland-dotted below; 
stipels often abortive. Nodes of racemes 
not tumid. Styles not bearded. 


Ovules (later seeds) 3 or more. Pod 
with depressed line between each 
seed -- ATYLOSIA. 


Ovules (later seeds) 1 - 2 -- 


Pods oblong, turgid, 1-2 seeded, 
densely pubescent - ERIOSEMA. 


Pods turgid, usually 2 seeded. 
Shrubs rarely herbs. Leaves di- 
gitately 3-foliate - FLEMINGIA. 


Subtribe Euphaseoleae -- Leaves not gland-dotted. 
Stamens diadelphous. Style bearded 
below the stigma. 


Stigma oblique - 


Keel and style spirally twisted -- 
PHASEOLUS. 


Calyciflorae 69 


Keel not spirally twisted (keel 
and style much less curved and 
lengthened out) -- VIGNA. 


Stigma (erminal; keel obtuse or ros- 
trate -- DOLICHOS. 


Tribe Dalbergicae -- Stamens monadelphous or diadelp- 
hous. Pods continous, indehiscent. Leaves 
odd-pinnate. 


Leaflets distinctly alternate. Flowers small, white 
or reddish -- DALBERGIA. 


Leaflets opposite - 


Pods flat, almost woody, wingless -- 
PONGAMIA. 


Pods flat, thin, winged down one or both 
sutures -- DERRIS. 


Tribe Sophoreac -- Stamens free. Pods not jointed. 
Leaves oddpinnate. 


Stigma oblique. Pod thick and turgid; seeds 3-4 -- 
ORMOSIA. 


Stigma terminal. Pod moniliform-- SOPHORA. 


ROSACEAE (6s. r.) 


Trees, shrubs and herbs; often thorny, sometimes 
climbing; leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or 
compound, stipules mostly present and paired, sometimes 
caducous or adnate to the petiole, rarely absent as in 
Spiraea. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite rarely 
unisexual as in Aruncus, variously arranged, perigynous, 
basal portion of perianth adnate into an hypanthium; calyx 
free (or adnate to the ovary), lobes mostly 5, imbricate, 
the fifth lobe adaxial, occasionally with an epicalyx; 


70 Calyciflorae 


petals the same number as the calyx-lobes, rarely absent, 
white, red or yellow, usually equalling each other, imbricate 
arising from the rim of the hypanthium; the hypanthium 
often bearing a nectiferous glandular rim; stamens nume- 
rous sometimes definite and then usually 5 or 10 and in 1- 
several whorls, filaments free rarely connate, bent in- 
wards; ovary 1- numerous carpels, free, superior, usually 
situated on a carpophore. Fruit various, dry or fleshy, often 
an aggregate of achenes or drupe or follicles, sometimes 
on an enlarged fleshy torus. (13 Genera) 


Key to the tribes :-- 
Fruit follicular, dehiscent -- SPIRAEA tribe. 


Fruit not follicular, indehiscent or carpels growing into 
drupelets - 


Pistils borne on a flat, hemispherical or conyex recep- 
tacle subtended by a cup-shaped portion of the recep- 
tacle (hypanthium) - 


Carpels becoming dry achenes, many; ovules 1. 
Calyx usually with bractlets alternating with the 
lobes of the calyx -- POTENTILLA tribe. 


Carpels becoming drupelets; ovules 2 but seed soli- 
tary -- RUBUS tribe. 


Pistils enclosed in the tubular or urn-shaped receptacle 
(hypanthium) - 


Number of pistils 1 or 4; hypanthium urceolate, com- 
pletely enclosing the 1-4 achenes. Sepals usually 
4. (Herbs or shrubs) - SANGUISORBA tribe. 


Number of pistils many. Calyx-tube becoming fleshy. 
Shrubs with odd pinnate leaves -- ROSA tribe. 


Calyciflorae 71 
Analysis of the genera 
SPIRAEA tribe 
Pistils opposite to the petals, less than 5 -- 
Leaves simple, entire or lobed; flowers bisexual -- 


Stipules present, large, caducous; leaves doubly 
serrate. Staminal disk wanting. Follicles dehiscent 
along one suture, several shinning seeds. Flowers 
in elongated racemes -- NEILLIA. 


Stipules wanting; leaves usually serrate or dentate. 
Flowers in panicles, corymbs or umbel-like racemes. 
Carpels free; ovules 2 many. Petals orbicular or 
obovate -- SPIRAEA. 


Leaves 2 - 3 pinnate; flowers unisexual in ample panicles 
composed of slender spikes. Herbs, dioecious -- 
ARUNCUS. 


Pistils opposite to the sepals -- 


Leaves pinnate, leaflets coarsely serrate. Petals rounded, 
imbricate in bud. Carpels connate at the base. Follicles 
dehiscent on the ventral suture. Shrubs -- SORBARIA. 


POTENTILLA tribe 


Styles deciduous - 


Receptacle in fruit much enlarged, coloured - 


Flowers white. Receptacle pulpy, juicy - FRAGARIA. 
Flowers yellow. Receptacle dry -- DUCHESNEA. 


Receptacle not fleshy even in fruit - 
Pistils 1 - 12; stamens 5; petals minute -SIBBALDIA. 


Pistils numerous; petals white or yellow, obtuse or 
emarginate -- POTENTILLA. 


72 Calyciflorae 


Styles elongated after anthesis - 


Flowers 5 merous; sepals valvate; hypanthium flat. Herbs 


with leaves pinnate or pinnatifid -- GEUM. 
RUBUS tribe 
Drupelets pulpy; no epicalyx -- RUBUS. 
SANGUISORBA tribe 
Calyx with 5 - 6 bractlets, each with setose limb. Petals 
4-5. Leaves interrupted pinnate -- AGRIMONIA. 
Calyx without bractlets, imbricate; petals 0; stamens oc; 
carpels 2. Leaves pinnate -- POTERIUM. 
ROSA tribe 


Pistil enclosed in the hypanthium; pistils many; calyx- 
tube becoming fleshy. Shrubs usually prickly, with odd- 
pinnate leaves; stipules large, adnate -- ROSA. 


AMYGDALACEAE 
(Drupaceae or Prunaceae) 


Trees or shrubs, branches with axillary spines as in 
Prinsepia; leaves alternate, simple, stipules when present 
small or two glands on the petiole. Flowers regular, her- 
maphrodite, solitary, fascicled, corymbose or racemed, 
calyx cup-shaped; petals 5; stamens numerous or 10, peri- 
gynous, inserted in the mouth of calyx-tube; carpel 1, 
superior, ovules pendulous, style terminal. Fruit a drupe, 
usually 1-seeded by the abortion of one of the 2 ovules. 

(8 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera -- 


Leaves usually serrate; pith of branches solid. Style ter- 
minal -- PRUNUS. 


Leaves entire; pith of branches lamellate. Style lateral- 
PRINSEPIA. 


Calycifiorae 73 


The genus Prunus is now seperated into a number of 
genera, and a key for the now receognised genera is as 
follows : 


Flowers sulcate, usually bloomy, sometimes pubescent; 
leaves conyolute or conduplicate-- 


Axillary buds solitary, terminal bud wanting-- 
Ovary and fruit glabrous; stone sculptured or 


smooth. Flowers 1-3, pedicellate. Leaves conyolute 
or conduplicate-- PRUNUS. 


Ovary and fruit pubescent. Flowers sessile. Leaves 
convolute-- ARMENIACA. 


Axillary buds 3, the lateral ones flower buds; termina] 
bud present. Flowers 1-2, sessile, rarely stalked. 


Ovary and fruit pubescent, rarely glabrous. Leaves 
conduplicate-- AMYGDALUS. 


Flowers not sulcate, not bloomy; stones turgid. Leaves 
conduplicate. Terminal bud present-- 
Flowers solitary or few, sometimes in short few flo- 


wered racemes, usually with conspicious bracts-- 
CERASUS. 


Flowers in elongated racemes of 12 or more flowers; 
bracts small-- 
Leaves deciduous; peduncles usually leafy- PADUS. 


Leaves persistent; peduncles _leafless- 
LAUROCERASUS. 


MALACEAE (Pomaceae) 


Small trees and large shrubs; leaves simple or pinnate, 
stipulate. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite; calyx 
§ partite; petals 5 as in Rosaceae; stamens usually in 
three whorls outer of 10, middle of 5 or 10 and inner of 5, 


74 Calyciflorae 


epigynous; ovary interior, 5-2 carpels, syncarpous, united 
with the cup-shaped floral axis, rarely ripe carpels seperate 
in Stranvaesia, two ovules in each loculus but only one 
maturing. Fruit a pome. (11 Genera.) 
Analysis of the genera 
Carpels bony at maturity, fruit hence with 1-5 stones-- 
Pistils with 2 fertile ovules-- 
Leaves entire; spineless shrubs. Styles 2-5. Fruit red 
or black-- COTONEASTER. 


Leaves crenulate, persistent: spiny shrubs. Styles 5. 
Fruit red or orange-- PYRACANTHA. 


Pistils with only 1 fertile ovule; carpels 1-5 more or less 
distinct at the ventral suture and free at the top; styles 
1-5. Stem with spines-- CRATAEGUS. 


Carpels with leathery or papery walls at maturity, hence 
fruit 1-5 celled, each cell with 1 or 2 seeds-- 
Flowers in compound corymbs-- 
Styles 1-5, distinct or connate. Carpels partly free-- 


Fruit solid and pointed at the top. Leayes simple or 
pinnate compound; deciduous-- 


Sepals deciduous: sytles 2-3. Leaves simple, 

serrate with excurrent veins-- \VITCROMELES, 
Sepals persistent— 

Styles usually, 2, rarely 3 or 5. Leaves pinnate, 


rarely simple, serrate or lobed with excurrent 
veins, deciduous- SORBUS. 


Styles 3-5. Leaves evergreen no glands on the 
midrib-- STRANVAESIA. 


Fruit hollow and rounded at the top, small, 1-2 
seeded. Styles usually 2. Leaves simple, deciduous 
or evergreen, with curving veins-- PHOTINIA. 


Calycifiorae 75 


Styles 5, distinct; carpels wholly connate; fruit 
pearshaped. Leaves cvergreen with excurrent veins.- 
ERIOBOTRYA. 


Flowers in umbcls-- 
Carpels {-2 seeded-- 


Styles connate at base; fruit usually ‘apple’ shaped, 
fleshy, without or with few grit cells (flesh mealy) 
MALUS. 


Styles free; fruit usually pear-shaped, its flesh with 
numerous grit cells-- PYRUS. 


Carpels 4 to many; styles free. Fruit subglobose, 
fleshy intruded at the base and apex-- CYDONIA. 


SAXIFRAGACEAE 


Herbs not or slightly succulent; leaves alternate, ex- 
stipulate. Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, rarely 
solitary; sepals usually, 5, imbricate or valvate; petals 5, 
alternate with the sepals or absent, often clawed, perigy- 
nous rarely epigynous; stamens inserted with the petals, 
5-10 , free, anthers 2-locular, dehiscing longitudinally; 
ovary 1-3 locular, free or adnate to the tubular receptacles, 
axile placentation, ovules numerous, styles usually free. 
Fruit a capsule. (5 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genvra 
Stamens 5-- 


Leaves compound, bi-pinnate. Petals none. Herbs- 
ASTILBE 

Leaves simple, sometimes lobed. Petals 5-- 
Herbs. Flowers solitary, terminal on erect scapes. 


Staminodes prominent. Placentae _parietal- 
PARNASSIA.* 


* Some taxonomists place this genus in a seperate family- 
Parnassiaceae. 


76 Calycifiorae 


Herbs. Flowers racemose. Petals minute. Placentae 
nearly basal.-- TIARELLA. 


Stamens more than, 5, usually 10-- 


Leaves simple, usually crenate. Petals none. Ovary 
1-celled. Usually delicate small plants-- 
CHRYSOPLENIUM. 


Leaves simple. Petals 5. Ovary 2-celled-- SAXIFRAGA. 
ESCALLONIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, leaves simple rarely subopposite or 
subverticillate, mostly with gland-tipped teeth, stipulate. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, rarely dioecious or 
polygamous mostly in racemes; sepals mostly united in 
the lower part, rarely free, imbricate or valvate often persis- 
tent; petals free or rarely connate into a short tube, im- 
bricate or valvate; disk-lobes alternating with the stamens; 
Stamens 5, rarely 4 or 5, sometimes alternating with stami- 
nodes, perigynous, free; ovary superior to quite inferior, 
syncarpous (rarely apocarpous), 1-6 locular, placentation 
parietal] in the 1-locular ovaries otherwise central, ovules 
numerous. Fruit a capsule or a berry. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 

Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, glandular dentate. 
Racemes axillary and terminal, many flowered. Calyx- 
tube adnate to the base of the ovary. Petals 5, stamens 5; 
styles divisible into two;ovary 3/4 superior (adnate at the 
base), two loculed-- 1TEA*. 


GROSSULARIACEAE 


Woody shrubs often armed with spines; leayes often 
fasciculate or alternate, simple, plicate or convolute in bud, 








* Some taxonomists place the genus in a seperate family- 
Iteaceae. 


Calyciflorae 77 


stipules absent or adnate to the petiole. Flowers often uni- 
sexual by abortion, racemose or subsolitary; calyx-tube 
adnate to the ovary, lobes imbricate or subvalvate; petals 
4-5, mostly small or scale-like, stamens 4-5, alternate with 
the petals, anthers didymous or subglobose; ovary inferior, 
\-locular with 2 parietal placentas, ovules few or many, 
styles 2, free or connate with undivided stigmas. Fruit 2 
pulpy berry crowned by the persistent calyx. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Prickly or unarmed shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple. 
Flowers racemose or subsolitary. Ovary t-celled- RIBES. 


HYDRANGEACEAE 


Herbs or softly wooded undershrubs, rarely climber 
leaves alternate or opposite, simple, exstipulate Flowers 
hermaphrodite or sometimes the outer flowers sterile and 
with large petal-like sepals, cymose or corymbose; calyx- 
tube more or less adnate to the ovary, 5-lobed or toothed, 
lobes imbricate; petals 5-4, free, contorted or valvate, disk 
absent; stamens numerous and in several series or 10 or 8, 
anthers linear to very short; ovary half-inferior to inferior, 
6-3 locular or incompletely so, placentation axile or intrusive 
parietal, ovules numerous, styles as many as the loculi, 
free or partly connate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, seeds 
small, sometimes winged and reticulate. (4 Genera.) 


Analysis of the gencra 
Stamens less than 12-- 


Flowers in compound corymbs, some of the outer ones 
much larger than the others. Filaments thread-like-- 
HYDRANGEA. 


Flowers in spreading corymbs, all alike, white. Fila- 
ments flattened, 3-pointed. Ovary 3-5 celled- DEUTZIA. 


Flowers in terminal panicles, all alike, blue or purplish. 
Ovary 1I-celled. Berry blue-- DICHROA. 


78 Calycifiorae 


Stamens 20-40. Petals 4; ovary 4-celled. Capsule opening 
by 4-valves. Shrubs.-- PHILADELPHUS, 


CRASSULACEAE 


Herbs and undershrubs, usually succulent; leaves 
opposite or alternate, exstipulate. Flowers actinomorphic, 
hermaphrodite, usually in cymes; sepals free or united 
into a tube, 4 or 5; petals the same number as the sepals, 
free or variously connate, hypogynous; stamens as many 
as or twice as many as tbe petals, if few then alternate 
with the petals, slightly perigynous, scales present within 
the stamens; ovary superior, the same number as the petals, 
free or united at the base. 1-locular, ovules usually many, 
style short or elongated. Fruit follicular often surrounded 
by the persistent membranous corolla. (3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 
Petals connate-- 
Calyx tubular, 4-toothed-- BRYOPHYLLUM 


Calyx4-lobed to the base; carpels adnate to the base of 
the corolla tube-- KALANCHOE, 


Petals free. Calyx of 4-5 sepals-- SEDUM. 
DROSERACEAE 


Herbs often stemless (rarely subshrubs), with rosette 
of leaves, leaves often circinate in bud, both surfaces 
generally covered with viscid stalked glands responsible for 
trapping small insects. Flowers actinomorphic, herma- 
phrodite, hypogynous, in usually simple circinate cymes: 
sepals 5-4 more or less connate basally, imbricate, persis- 
tent; petals 5, hypogynous, (very rarely perigynous), 
stamens 4-20 often 5, hypogynous, free or rarely united at 
the base, extrose; ovary superior, 1-locular, placentation 
parietal (or subbasal); ovules many, styles 3-5, mostly 
free. Fruit a loculicidal capsule (1 Genus.) 


Calyciflorae 79 
Analysis of the genus 


Herbs, terrestial, catching inse.is by means of glandular 
sticky hairs on the leaves-- DROSERA. 


HAMAMELIDACEAE 


Trees or shrubs often with stellate indumentum; leaves 
alternate, rarely opposite, decidious or evergreen, simple, 
glandular-toothed to palmately lobed, stipulate, stipules 
often persistent, fleshy and large. Flowers small, sometimes 
precocious (hermaphrodite or) unisexual, actinomorphic 
or zygomorphic in dense heads or catkins; calyx-tube more 
or less adnate to the ovary, lobes imbricate or valvate; 
petals 4 or more, rarely absent, perigynous or epigynous, 
imbricate or valvate, rarely circinate; stamens 4 or more, 
perigynous, 1-seriate, filaments free, connectives often 
produced, disk absent or of seperate glands between the 
stamens and ovary; ovary inferior or nearly so, carpels 2 
often free at the apex, ovule (J or ) more in each loculus, 
pendulous from axile placentas; styles subulate, free often 
recurved. Fruit a woody capsule. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the Genus 


Trees with leaves cordate-ovate, entire. Petals linear- 
spathulate, fleshy in hermaphrodite flowers but rudi- 
mentary in female flowers. Ovary half inferior, ovules 
several in each cell. Fruit a capsule, woody; the fertile 
seeds winged-- SYMINGTONIA. 


HALORAGACEAE (Halorrhagaceae) 


Herbs (or undershrubs), often aquatic; leaves (alternate 
or Opposite) or verticillate, sometimes very large, the sub- 
merged ones pectinate, exstipulate or stipules scale-like or 
ochreate. Flowers usually unisexual or hermaphrodite, 
actinomorphic, solitary, paniculate or corymbose, very 
small, subtended by 2 bracteoles; calyx- tube adnate to the 


80 Calyciflorae 


ovary, lobes 2- 4 or absent; petals (2-4 or) absent, when 
present free and slightly larger then the calyx-lobes, valyate 
or slightly imbricate; stamens (2-8) rarely 1, large, anthers 
basifixed; ovary inferior, 1 (-4) locular, ovules (4-) 1, 
pendulous from the apex of the loculus, styles 1 (-4). Fruit 
small, a nut or drupe, sometimes winged. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 
A glabrous water plant; leaves whorled. Flowers minute 


and solitary. Calyx truncate; stamen 1; ovary 1-loculed-- 
HIPPURIS.* 


COMBRETACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, often lianous, spinescent in some; 
leaves alternate or opposite, simple, coriaceous, exstipulate. 
Flowers actinomorphic rarely zygomorphic, hermaphrodite 
rarely unisexual, mostly small in spikes or racemes;calyx- 
tube adnate to the ovary, 4-8 fid or lobed, lobes valvate, 
persistent; petals 4-6 or absent, rarely many, small, im- 
bricate or valvate; stamens 2-5 or twice as many as petals, 
rarely numerous, epigynous, filaments inflexed in bud, 
anthers versatile; disk epigynous; ovary inferior, rarely half 
inferior, 1-locular sometimes with as many ribs or angles 
as calyx-lobes, sometimes crowned by a fleshy disk, ovules 
2-6, pendulous from the apex of the ovary, style long, fili- 
form. Fruit leathery and drupaceous, 1-seeded, 2-5 angled, 
the angles forming broad wings, as in Terminalia. 


(3 Genera.) 
Analysis of the genera 
Petals absent; calyx-limb deciduous-- 
Flowers spiked or racemed.-- TERMINALIA. 
Flowers capitate-- ANOGEISUS. 


a a 8 
(* Some taxonomists segreagrate this genus and place it 


under a seperate family--Hippuridaceae.) 


-Calycifiorae 81 


Petals 5-4. Calyx-limb deciduous, calyx-tube constricted 
above the ovary and less than haif inch. long-- 
COMBRETUM. 


MYRTACEAE 


Trees or shrubs; leaves usually opposite rarely alternate 
as in Eucalyptus simple, mostly entire, glandular-punctate, 
stipules absent or rarely very small. Flowers actinomor- 
phic hermaphrodite or polygamous by abortion, generally 
cymose rarely racemose; calyx-tube more or less adnate to 
the ovary, lobes usually 5, mostly inconspicious, imbri- 
cate or valvate or irregularly splitting; petals 4-5, rarely 6 
or absent, inserted on the margin of the disk lining the calyx- 
tube, imbricate or connivent into a cap or operculum; sta- 
mens numerous rarely few, sometimes in fascicles, insertcd 
with the petals on the margin of the disk lining the calyx- 
tube, 1 or more seriate, infilexcd in bud or twice folded 
or rarely straight, filaments filiform, free or connate at 
the base into a short tube or in bundles opposite the petals, 
anthers small, opening by slits or by apical pores, con- 
nectives often tipped by a gland; ovary inferior, syncarpous, 
1-many locular, placentation usually axile rarely parietal, 
ovules few. Fruit usually fleshy or a capsule loculicidal or 
indehiscent. (3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Embryo apparently undivided. Seed coat smooth and often 
free from the pericarp; embryo apparently homogenous 
within. Inflorescence of 1-flowered pedicels, solitary or 
clustered or in a short raceme. Anther-sacs parallel, 
opening longitudinally-- EUGENIA. 


Embryo divided i.e. with distinct cotyledons; seed-coat 
roughish, loosely or closely adhering to the pericarp. 
Anther-sacs parallel, opening longitudinally-- 


82 Calycifiorae 


Calyx not calyptrate, lobes distinct both in the bud and 
in the flower-- SYZYGIUM. 


Calyx calyptrate i.e. not at all lobed, the entire upper 
part circumscissile and falling as a more or less indura- 
ted lid or calyptra-- CLEISTOCALYX. 


Features of identification for C/eistocalyx are heing 
given in the key because there is a lot of confusion, and 
difficulty is often experienced to identify Eugenia and 
Syzygium. There is no record of Cleistocalyx from Nepal. 


MELASTOMATACEAE 


Herbs, Shrubs (or trees), branches opposite; leaves 
opposite and decussate, one of a pair often smaller than 
the other or verticillate, simple, sometimes spotted or veri- 
gated as in Sonerila, 3-9 parallel longitudinal veins united 
by parallel transverse veins rarely pinnately veined, exsti- 
pulate. Flowers actinomorophic slightly zygomorphic as to 
androecium, hermaphrodite, mostly very showy, terminal 
solitary, cymes, panicles or umbellate cymes; calyx tubu- 
lar, free or adnate to the ovary, sometimes by septa-like 
connections, lobes imbricate or rarely valvate; petals free, 
very rarely united at the base, brightly coloured, imbricate; 
corona usually present between the petals and stamens; 
stamens the same number as or double the number of 
the petals, sometimes all fertile and equal, sometimes 
those opposite the petals sterile, filaments free often 
geniculate and inflexed, anthers basifixed, opening by a 
single pore rarely by 2 pores or slits, connectives often 
appendaged; inferior 2-many locular (rarely 1-locular), 
placentation basal or parietal, ovules numerous, style 
simple. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or baccate. (5 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 


Seeds curved through half 4 circle, minutely punctate-- 


Stamens all alike, connectives not produced at the base. 
Fruit a capsule-- OSBECKIA, 


Calyciflorae 83 


Stamens very unequal, longer stamens with connectives 
produced at the base. Fruit somewhat berry-like, burst- 
ing irregularly-- MELASTOMA. 


Seeds falcate. Inflorescence terminal, panicle large and 

showy Ovary with vertex usually free and conical-- 
OXYSPORA. 

Seeds straight. Ovary flattened or depressed at the vertex-- 


Petals 3; Stamens 3; Ovary 3- celled. Inflorescence scor- 


poid-- SONERILA. 

Petals 4; stamens 8; Ovary 4-celled. Flowers nearly 

sessile-- SARCOPYRAMIS. 
LYTHRACEAE 


Herbs rarely shrubs or trees; leaves usually opposite or 
whorled, rarely alternate, stipules absent or very small. 
Flowers usually actinomorphic rarely zygomorphic as in 
Cuphea, hermaphrodite,solitary or paniculate; sepals uni- 
ted into a tube, valvate often with appendages between the 
lobes; petals present or absent, inserted towards the top 
of the calyx-tube, crumpled in bud; stamens usually 4 or 8 
or rarely more, inserted below the petals, filaments vari- 
able in length, usually inflexed in bud; ovary superior, 
sessile or shortly stipitate, completely or incompletely 1-6 
locular, rarely 1-locular, placentation axile, sometimes not 
reaching the top of the ovary, ovules many. Fruit 
capsular. (4 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 
Low or aquatic herbs with small or minute flowers. Calyx 
membraneous. Stamens 8-- 


Capsule septicidally dehiscent; capsule walls horizon- 
tally striate, but faintly-- ROTALA. 


Capsules indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent; capsule 
walls not striated-- AMMANNIA, 


84 Calycifiorae 


Trees or shrubs. Calyx herbaceous or coriaceous. Petals 
very often Jarge and wrink!ed-- 


Calyx curved, red, half inch long. Stamens 12-- 


WOODFORDIA. 

Calyx straight. Flowers 6-fd. Stamens very many. 

Seeds winged-- LAGERSTROEMIA 
PUNICACEAE 


Woody shrubs or small trees, sometimes spiny, twigs 
sometimes 4-winged; leaves mostly opposite, subopposite or 
fascicled simple not glandular, membraneous, exstipulate. 
Flowers hermaphrodite large, coloured, terminal solitary or 
clustered; calyx coloured, tubular, adnate to the ovary, tur- 
binate 5-7 lobed, lobes valvate; petals 5-7, imbricate and 
crumpled in the bud; stamens numerous, many seriate 
emerging from within upper half or more of hypanthium, 
epigynous, filaments free, slender; ovary inferior, many 
locular, loculi superimposed in two series, lower with axile 
and upper with parietal placentation, ovules numerous on 
each placenta, style slender. Fruit a spherical berry crowned 
by the calyx-limb, with a thick coriaceousrind. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Flowers epigynous. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary. Sta- 
mens in several rows. Fruit with coriaceous pericarp; 
seeds pulpy-- PUNICA. 


SONNERATIACEAE 


Trees with long pendent branches; leaves opposite, simple, 
entire, coriaceous, exstipulate. Flowers actinomorphic, 
hermaphrodite, large,showy,smelling of sour milk, solitary 
or in clusters of 3, axillary or terminal; calyx-tube cam- 
panulate, thick and leathery, lobes 4-8, valvate; petals 4-8, 
small or absent; stamens numerous, inserted on the calyx in 
many series, filaments free, reflexed, anthers reniform, 


Calyciflorae 85 


versatile; ovary adnate at the base to the calyx-tube or free, 
many-4 locular, septa thin, placenta axile and thick, ovules 
many, style long. Fruit a capsule (or berry). (1 Genus.) 


Analvsis of the genus 


Large glabrous tree sometimes even 100 ft. high. Leaves 
opposite, usually 10°’ by 3°5’’, shortly petioled. Flowers 
large on terminal panicles, 4-8 fid. Stamens many-- 

DUABANGA. 


ONAGRACEAE 


Mostly herbs rarely shrubs, often aquatic leaves simple, 
oppoite or alternate, stipules mostly absent or decidious. 
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic (rarely zygomorphic), 
tetramerous, often solitary; calyx adnate to the ovary, 
lobes 4-5,valvate, persistent; petals 4-5, free, contorted or 
imbricate, rarely absent; stamens as many or twice as many 
as the calyx-lobes; ovary inferior to rarely semi-superior, 
2-6 locular, rarely incompletely locular, axile placentation, 
ovules 1 to many. Fruit a capsule, berry or nut. (3 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera 
Ovary 1-2 celled; cells l-ovuled. Fruit nutlike--CIRCAEA. 


Ovary 2-6 celled; cells many ovuled. Fruit a capsule-- 


Stamens 4-8, rarely 3. Seeds bearded-- EPILOBIUM*. 





* Some taxonomists recognise a genus- CHAMAENE- 
RION seperate from EPILOBIUM. In Raven’s view 
(Bull. Brit. Muse. N.H. 2 (12): 327-382, 1962) 
“nothing is to be gained by recognising a number of 
small genera peripherial to Epilobium” However 
CHAMAENERION has slightly zygomorphic flowers, 
alternate leaves, very short hypanthium, entire petals 
and pollen grains falling individually, in contrast to 
EPILOBIUM which has actinomorphic flowers, 
opposite lower leaves, well developed hypanthium, 
emarginate petals and pollen grains falling as tetrads. 


86 Calyciflorae 


Stamens 8-13, Seeds not bearded or winged--LUDWIGIA. 


PASSIFLORACEAE 


(Shrubs or ) herbaceous often lianous climbers with 
tendrils; leaves alternate, (entire or) lobed, often with glands 
on the petiole, stipulate, stipules small and deciduous, tend- 
rils opposite the leaves. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual ; 
sepals 5, free or partially united, often fleshy, persistent, 
imbricate; petals 5, rarely absent, free or shortly united, 
imbricate; corona of one or more rows of thread-like 
filaments or scales, fleshy, usually concave to cup-shaped; 
stamens 3 or more, hypogynous to perigynous, shortly 
united or in bundles, usually opposite the petals, sometimes 
arising from a gynophore; ovary superior, sometimes situa- 
ted on a gynophore (more commonly an androgynophore). 
1-locular, 3 or 4 or 5 parietal placentas, ovules numerous, 
styles free or united, stigmas 3-5, often capitate. Fruit 
capsule, berry or indehiscent, seeds surrounded by a pulpy 
aril. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Herbaceous climbers with tendrils; leaves alternate. 
Hypanthium short; petals 4-5: corona of many rows of 
short threads; stamens 4-5-- PASSIFLORA. 


CUCURBITACEAE 


Climbing or prostrate herbs rarely undershrubs, with 
watery juice, often scabrid, stem often 5-angled, tendrils 
present and spirally coiled, simple or divided, situated at the 
upper side of the petiole base; leaves alternate, petioled, 
frequently cordate, simple, lobed or pedately divided, exsti- 
pulate. Flowers unisexual, monoecious or dioecious (very 
rarely hermaphrodite), very variable in structure, actino- 
morphic, yellow or white, solitary or in racemes. Male 
fiowers— calyx tubular, 5-lobed, lobes imbricate; corolla 
gamopetalous (rarely polypetalous), campanulate or rotate 


Caly ciflorae 87 


or salverform, imbricate of induplicate-valvate; stamens 
free or variously united, mostly 3 rarely 1-5, usually highly 
modified, curvcd, flexuous or conduplicate, connectives often 
produced; female flowers— calyx-tube adnate to the ovary and 
often produced beyond; petals similar as in male flower; 
staminodes usually not present; inferior syncarpous, usually 
3 carpellary (very rarely free), 1-locular, placentae often 
3, parietal but meeting in the middle, ovules numerous 
rarely few arranged towards the walls of the ovary, style 
simple or rarely 3 free, stigmas thick. Fruit generally a 
pepo, seeds often flattened. (12 Gencra.) 


Analysis of the genera 
This key is adapted after Chakravarty (Rec. Bot. 
Surv. Ind. XVII (1), 1959.) 
Key to the tribes-- 
Ovules horizontal (except in //erpetospermumn). Female 


flowers usually solitary, never panicled. Stamens 2 in 
male flowers. Leaves undivided-- CUCUMERINAE. 


Ovules pendulous. Flowers small usually in panicles. 
Stamens 5 in male flowers-- ZANONIEAE. 


Tribe Cucumerinae 
Anther cells flexuous or conduplicate-- 


Corolla rotate or if campanulate 5-partite to the base 
or petals free-- 


Petals fimbriate at their margins. Ovules and seeds 
numerous. Calyx-tube less than 7 cm. long-- 
TRICHOSANTHES. 


Petals cntire-- 


Calyx-tube of the male flower elongate; stamens 
inserted within and included in the calyx-tube 
or nearly so. Petiole eglandular, tendril 2- 
fid; fruit fibrous, deeply 3-valyed, dry, seeds 
numerous, pendulous-- HERPETOSPERMUM,. 


88 Calycifiorae 


Calyx-tube of the male flower short-- 

Stamens inserted at the mouth of the calyx- 
tube; filaments exserted, anthers free. Fruit 
dry, endocarp fiberous, dehiscent usually by 
stopple-- LUFFA. 


Stamens inserted below the mouth of the calyx- 
tube; anthers more or less cohering-- 
Calyx with 2-3 scales at its base: male 
flowers with large enveloping bracts-- 
MOMORDICA. 


Calyx without scales at the base; no bracts. 
Tendrils simple-- CUCUMIIS. 


Corolla campanulate, divided not more than half way 
down. Flowers white. Tendrils simple-- COCCINIA. 


Anther cells straight or curved, not conduplicate-- 


Flowers large (10-15 mm. long), bright yellow; male 
racemes stout. Calyx-tube elongate (1.5-2cm); seeds 
3-9-- EDGARIA. 


Flowers small (5-10 mm.), greenish yellow. in racemes 
or fascicles, not stout-- 
Male flowers in racemes, monoecious: corolla sub- 


rotate-- BRYONIA. 


Male flowers in fascicles, dioecious; corolla cam- 
panulate-- BRYONOPSIS. 


Flowers small (1-5 mm.), yellow, dull corymbose, 
umbellate or racemed. Stylar disc cup-shaped. Fruit 
not circumcised-- . MELOTHRIA. 


Tribe Zanonieae 
Fruit trigonous, obovoid. Tendril 2-fid-- 
GOMPHOGYNE. 
Fruit pea-like. Tendril simple-- GYNOSTEMMA. 


Calyciflorae 89 


The genus ZEHNERIA Benth. et Hook. f. is a synonym 
of MELOTHRIA, so also the genus MUKIA Benth. et 
Hook. f. 


BEGONIACEAE 


Mostly erect, creeping or acauliscent succulent herbs 
rarely low shrubs, stem jointed; leaves alternate, simple, 
mostly palmately nerved, often unequal-sided or oblique, 
stipulate, stipules free, caducous or decidious. Flowers mon- 
oecious zygomorphic or actinomorphic, mosily in axillary 
cymes, showy. Male flowers- sepals 2 rarely 5, petaloid, 
opposite, yalvate; petals 2 or 5, imbricate cr absent; stamens 
numerous, filaments free or connate, anthers continuous 
with the filaments; female flower-sepals and petals more or 
less as in the male flower or undifferentiated into sepals and 
petals; staminodes absent or very small; ovary inferior 
syncarpous (or free at the apex), 2-4 (rarely 1 ) locular, 
mostly angled and winged, placentation axile, simple or 
lobed, ovules many, styles 2-5, free or connate, stigmas 
often twisted and strongly papillose all over. Fruit a capsule 
or berry. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Succulent herbs with rootstock tuberous. Flowers pink, 
1-sexual in axillary stalked bracteate cymes. Sepals 3-5 
in two series, unequal, coloured. Petals none. Male 
flowers with numerous stamens while female flowers with 
inferior 3-celled ovary-- BEGONIA. 


DATISCACEAE 


Perennial herbs or trees, sometimes lepidote; leaves 
alternate (simple or) pitmate, compound, exstipulate. Flo- 
wers unisexual, dioecious (rarely hermaphrodite), actino- 
morphic, small, spicate or racemose. Male flowers-calyx- 
lobes 3-9, short; petals (8- or) absent, small; stamens 4-25, 
rudimentary ovary sometimes present; female and bisexual! 


96 Calyciflorae 


fowers-calyx—tube adnate to the ovary, petals absent; stam- 
ens similar to the male flower or reduced to staminodes; 
ovary inferior, 1-locular, carpels 3, placentas parietal, 
ovules numerous, styles 3, free, simple or branched. Fruit a 
capsule crowned by calyx-lobes and styles, opening at the 
top. (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Herbs with trisected or pinnate leaves, uppermost undivided. 
Flower dioecious; petals absent; arthers elongated, fila- 
ments short; style filiform, 2-partite-- DATISCA. 


CACTACEAE 


Succulent herbs and shrubs of diverse habit, often very 
spiny and usually with much reduced leaves. Flowers her- 
maphrodite, solitary, actinomorphic sometimes zygomor- 
phic by the curvature of the perianth tube; calyx generally 
petaloid, superior; petals in several series, the innermost 
largest, sometimes coherent at the base, epigynous; stamens 
numerous, inserted at and free or adnate to the base of the 
petals; ovary inferior, syncarpous, 1-locular, placentas 3, 
ovules many, stigmas spreading or close. Fruit a berry often 
spiny and bristly, seeds immersed in the pulp (1 Genus.) 


Analysis of the genus 


Flowers large, flower-tube wanting. Petals spreading; 
filaments much shorter than the petals. Leaves wanting or 
minute and caducous. Plants very spiny-- OPUNTIA. 


UMBELLIFERAE (Apiaceae) 


Herbaceous biennial or perennial, very rarely some- 
what woody, stems furrowed, pith soft; leaves alternate, 
mostly much divided sometimes heteromophic, sheathing 
at the base. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, actino- 
morphic, in simple or compound umbels or rarely capitate; 
calyx adnate to the ovary, 5 lobed, often reduced; petals 
5 usually apically reflexed, valvate or slightly imbricate, 


Calycifiorae 91 


epigynous, free soon falling off; stamens 5, filaments mostly 
prominently ribbed and often with parallel resinous canals 
(vittae), ovules solitary in each loculus, pendulous, styles 
2, thickened at the base and capping the ovary--stylopo- 
dium. Fruit schizocarpic, dividing into 2 mericarps. 

(20 Genera.) 


Analysis of the genera— 
Umbels simple or irregularly compound. Vittae 0— 


Leaves undivided, Stipulate, Fruit laterally compressed— 
HYDROCOTYLE.* 


Leaves spinous-toothed. Fruit ellipsoid, cylindric 
ERYANGIUM. 
Leaves compound. Fruit covered with spines or hooked 


bristles, ovoid or slightly compressed laterally. Um- 
bels subcorymbose SANICULA. 


Umbels compound. Secondary ridges of the fruit 
inconspicious— 
Fruit laterally compressed or at least constricted at the 


commissure, not or very obscurely winged 


Carpels in outline ovate or oblong, not distinctly 
narrowed upwards, plane on the inner face— 





* There is a certain amount of confusion between 
HYDROCOTYLE and CENTELLA, and in the 
published literature about Nepal Plants, it is the 
the genus HYDROCOTYLE which is mentioned. 
However, a key to distinguish the two genera is 
given -- 

Mericarps with 3 ridges, the commisural one 
obscure; flowers white; pericarp of seed thin-- 

HYDROCOTYLE. 
Mericarps with 7-9 ridges, the primary and se- 
condary ones being similar; flowers red; pericarp 
thick -- CENTELLA, 


92 Calyciflorae 


Leaves entire. Flowers lurid or yellow. Primary 
ridges distinct, secondary 0; vittae usually 3 be- 
tween the primary ridges BUPLEURUM. 


Leavs pinnate. Flowers white. Primary ridges 
slender, vittae 1 CARUM. 


Leaves pinnate or decompound. Flowers white or 
yellow; primary ridges slender; vittae 2—3 
PIMPINELLA 


Carpels in outline ovate or oblong, not distinctly narrowed 
upwards, excavated or concave on the inner face; seed 
grooved or concave on the inner face— 


Bracteoles simple, linear VICATIA. 
Bracteoles lobed or pinnate TRACHYDIUM 


Carpels in outline elongate oblong, seed in horizontal 
section nearly circular— 


Fruit attenuate at base, brist!y, bristles scattered 
and minute OSMORRHIZA. 


Fruit oblong, narrowed upwards distinctly glabrous 
CHAEROPHYLLUM. 


Fruit widest at commusure, in horizontal section cir- 
cular or somewhat dorsally compressed -- 


Primary ridges of the fruit more or less distinct; 
fruit not winged, but all the ridges equal. Calyx- 
teeth lanceolate, acute -- OENANTHE. 


Primary ridges of the fruit more or less excurrent. 
Fruit winged -- 


Tall and stout plants. Leaves pinnately decompound. 
Ridges of the fruit all winged -- SELINUM. 


Stemless or short. Ultimate leaf segments linear. 
Fruit much compressed dorsally, lateral ridges 
winged -- CORTIA, 


Calyciflorae 93 


Perennial or biennial herbs. Seeds grooved or con- 
cave on the inner face; primary ridges winged-- 
PLEUROSPERMUM. 


Fruit much dorsally compressed, dorsal ridges slightly 
excurrent, lateral winged, wings of the opposite carpel 
closely applied face to face -- 


Ovary pubescent; stylopodium conical. Dorsal ribs 
of the fruit small or absent. Plants stout, biennial 
or perennial -- HERACLEUM. 


Ovary glabrous; stylopodium flat or wanting. Dorsal 
ribs of the fruit filiform. Plants slender- ANETHUM. 


Umbels compound. Secondary ridges of the fruit promi- 
nent, primary less prominent -- 


Fruit glabrous -- 
Flowers white. Fruit ovoid -- CORIANDRUM. 


Flowers yellow. Fruit oblong -- FOENICULUM. 


Fruit hirsute or setose; bracts linear; seed grooved on the 
inner face -- 


Calyx-teeth not persistent. Involucre 0 or 1-2, leafy, 
involucel 3-8, lanceolate, spreading - CAUCALIS. 


Calyx-teeth persistent. Involucre 1-5, leafy, invo- 
jucel 5-8, lanceolate, hairy -- TORILIS. 


ARALIACEAE 


Mostly woody trees and shrubs, rarely herbs, sometimes 
climbing by means of aerial roots or epiphytic; leaves 
alternate (or rarely opposite), simple commonly pinnate 
or digitate, petioles enlarged and thickened at the base, 
often with stellate indumentum, stipules either adnate to 
and scarcely distinguishable from the base of the _ petiole 
or intrapetiolar or rarely absent. Flowers hermaphrodite 
but commonly unisexual and polygamous or dioecious, 


94 Calyciflorae 


actinomorphic, racemose, umbellate or capitate; calyx 
superior, small, entire or toothed or lobed, 5, usually 
inconsplcious; petals 3 or more often 5, free or united, 
valvate or slightly imbricate; stamens free, mostly the same 
number of as petals or many; disk on the top of the ovary; 
ovary inferior, 1 or more locular, ovules solitary in each 
Toculus, pendulous, styles free or connate. Fruit a berry or 
drupe, (9 Genera) 


Analysis of the genera -- 


Petals imbricate in the bud -- 


Trees or large scandent shrubs. Leaves 1 pinnate. Flowers 
racemose or umbellate. Ovary 5 (7-8); styles 5, more 
or less united -- PENTAPANAX. 


Herbs. Leaves digitately compound. Ovary 2 (3) celled; 
styles 2-3, distinct -- PANAX. 


Herbs (or small decidious trees). Leaves pinnate com- 
pound. Ovary 2-5 celled; styles 2-3, free ARALIA. 


Petals yalvate in the bud -- 
Ovary 4-12 celled -- 


Leaves simple or pinnately compound -- 


Shrub or small tree. Flowers 8-12 merous- 


TREVESIA. 
Woody vines, climbing by means of serial roots. 
Flowers 5 merous -- HEDERA. 


Leaves digitately compound -- 
Unarmed. Ovary 5-7 celled; styles united into a 
column or stigmas sessile -- SCHEFFLERA. 


Prickly. Ovary 2 (3-5) celled; styles 2-5, distinct 
or connate at the base-- ACANTHOPANAX* 





(* The genus ACANTHOPANA X falls under two heads.) 


Calyciflorae 95 


Ovary 1-2 celled, seldom 3 celled -- 


Leaves simple or palmately lobed or digitately com- 
pound -- 


Armed or unarmed trecs or shrubs. Umbels in jiarge 
compound panicles. Flowers mostly polygamous. 
Styles united into a column. Endosperm rumi- 
nate or uniform-- BRASSAIOPSIS. 


Umbels solitary or few together or forming lare. 
terminal panicles. Flowers perfect or polygamous 
Style distinct or connate at the base only. Endos- 
perm uniform -- ACANTHOPANA}* 


Leaves pinnately compound or decompound -- 
HETEROPANAX 


CORNACEAE 


Trees (shrubs or rarely perennial herbs); leaves opposite 
or alternate, simple, entire, angular-lobed or seperate, 
exstipulate. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual then 
plants monoecious or dioecious, actinomorphic, small, 
white or yellow or lurid, in dichotomous or racemose pani- 
cles or in heads., sometimes with large showy bracts; 
calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, 4-5 lobed or subtruncate; 
petals 4-5, free rarely absent, valvate or imbricate; stamens 
the same number as the petals; disk fleshy, cushion-shaped, 
centrally situated in the male flowers and epigypous in the 
female flowers; ovary inferior, 1-4 locular, ovules solitary 
and pendulous in each loculus, style simple or lobed. Fruit 
a drupe or berry. (2 Genera) 
Analysis of the genera -- 

Trees or shrubs; leaves opposite. Flowers small, bisexual, 
arranged in umbels or capitate within 4 herbaceous 


petaloid involucral bracts. Petals 4; stamens 4; ovary 2 
(or 3) celled -- CORNUS. 





(* The genus ACANTHOPANAX falls under two heads.) 


96 Calyciflorae 


Small tree. Flowers unisexual in large panicles; 5 merous; 
Stamens 5; ovary 4 celled -- TORICELLIA. 


ALANGIACEAE 


Trees or shrubs, sometimes spiny; leaves alter- 
nate, simple, entire or lobed, unequal at the base, exsti- 
pulate. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, white or 
yellowish-white, pedicels articulating, axillary cymes; 
calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, truncate or with 4-10 
teeth; petals 4-10, mostly strap-shaped, free sometimes 
coherent at the base, valvate but at length recurved ; stamens 
the same number as the petals or 2-4 times as many, 
filaments free or slightly connate at the base, more or less 
villous inside; disk cushion-like on the ovary; ovary inferior, 
J-2 locular, ovule solitary, pendulous, style simple or lobed. 
Fruit drupaceous, 1-seeded, crowned by the calyx and 
disk. (1 Genus) 


Analysis of the genus -- 

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite; calyx truncate; petals narrow and much elongated; 
stamens twice or thrice the petals; ovary inferior, 1-celled; 
ovule 1, pendulous. Cotyledons crumpled - ALANGIUM. 


ADDENDA 


(page 4, 12th. line) 


Leaves opposite or whorled; flowers cymose, 
bisexual. HYPERICACEAE. 
(page 20.) 


TETRACENTRACEAE. 


Tree with long and alternate short shoots. Leaves 
simple, alternate, deciduous, leaf-base broad and sheathing 
the bud. Inflorescence a slender catkin-like spike, shortly 
peadunculate. Flowers small, bisexual in clusters of 4, 
the clusters alternate. Calyx of 4 sepals in 2 series persistent 
in fruit. Ccrotla abscnt. Stamens 4, opposite the sepals, 
anthers with 4 pollen chambers, basifixed. Carples 4, 
alternate with sepals, coalescent, ovary superior, each 
carpel unilocular with 2 placentas, ovules several attached 
near the middle of the loculi, 4, styles connivent at 
first. Fruit composed of 4 laterally coalescent carpels. 

(1 genus) 


Analysis of the genus 
Charecters of the family....... TETRACENTRON. 
(page 21, 10th. line) 


Carpels free, ripe carpels many, dry or berried. 
Petals bisesiate UVARIA. 


(page 55, 6th linc) 


Flowers hermaphrodite; petals 4; ovary 3-6- 
celled, each cell 1-ovuled. Tendrils absent LEEA, 


(page 55, 30th line) 


(98) Addenda 


Trees. Leaves pinnate. Flowers regular. Capsule 
pyriform, marked with 3-4 ribs, glabrate red. 


MISCHOCARPUS. 


Trees. Leaves pinnate. Flowers regular. Fruit 
indehiscent, smooth, fishy or coriaceous. SAPINDUS. 


(page 74, 7th line) 


Pistils with 3 fertile ovules, ovary 5-celled, styles 
5-celled, connate and woolly below the middle. DOCYNIA. 


(page 95, 4th line) 


Unarmed small trees. Flowers polygamous pedicels 
jointed (continuous in Brassaivpsis) styles combined. 
MACROPANAX. 
(page 95, 28th line) 


Undershrubs. Flowers unisexual in umbels, bracts 
absent. Petals valvate; stamens 3-5; ovary 3-4 celled. 
HELWINGIA, 


A 


Abroma 
Abrus 
Acacia 
Acanthopanax 
Aceraceae 
Acer 
Aconitum 
Actaeae 
Actinidiacae 
Actinidia 
Aegle 
Aesculus 
Agrimonia 
Aizoaceae 
Alangiaceae 
Alangium 
Albizzia 
Abhagi 
Alysicarpus 
Ammiania 
Amora 
Ampelocissus 
Amygdalaceae 
Amygdalus 
Anacardiaceae 
Anemone 
Anethum 
Anisadenia 
Annoniaceae 
Annona 


iNDEX 


Page 


94,95 
8,55 


4,36 


(b) 


A 
Anogeisus 
Apiaceae 
Apios 
Aquifoliaceae 
Arabis 
Araliaceae 
Aralia 

Arenaria 
Argemone 
Armeniaca 
Aruncus 
Aspidoptrys 

Astilbe 
Astragalus 
B 


Balsaminaceae 
Barbarea 
Bauhinia 
Berberidaceae 
Berberis 
Berchemia 
Begoniaceac 
Begonia 
Biophytum 
Boenninzhausenia 
Bombacaceae 
Bombax 
Brachystimma 
Brassaiopsis 
Brassica 
Braya 

Bryonia 
Bryonopsis 
Bryophyllum 
Buettineria 
Bupleurum 


Index 


Page 


7,51 
27 
14,93. 


Page 
6,45 


2,23 
13,89 


5,39 


33 


Cc 


Cactaceae 

Caesalpiniaceae 
Caesalpinia 
Calliumthemum 
Caltha 
Calyciflorae 
Camellia 
Capparidaceae 
Capparis 
Capsella 
Cargana 
Cardamine 
Cardiospermum 
Caryophyllaceae 
Caryophyllus 
Carum 
Casearia 
Cassia 
Caucalis 
Cayvatia 
Cerassus 
Celastraceae 
Celastrus 
Cerastium 
Chaerophyllum 
Chrysoplenium 
Cicer 
Cimicifuga 
Cipadessa 
Cissampelos 
Cissus 

Circaea 

Citrus 
Clausenia 
Cleistocalya 


Index 


Page 
13,90 


8,61 


13,29 


(d) 
Cc 


Clematis 
Cleyera 
Coccinea 
Cocculus 
Cochlearia 
Cochlyanthus 
Colutea 
Combretaceae 
Combretum 
Corchorus 
Coriandrum 
Coriariaceae 
Coriaria 
Cornaceae 
Cornus 
Cortia 
Corydalis 
Cotoneaster 
Crassulaceae 
Crataegus 
Crotolaria 
Cruciferae 
Cucubalus 
Cucumerinae 
Cucumis 
Cucurbitaceae 
Cydonia 


D 
Dalbergia 
Datiseaceac 
Datisca 
Decaisna 
Delphinium 
Derris 
Descurainia 


Index 


D 


Desmodium 
Desmos 
Deuitzia 
Dicentra 
Dichroa 
Dipterocarpaceae 
Dilleniaceae 
Dillenia 
Disciflorae 
Dobinea 
Docinea 
Dolichos 
Draba 
Droseraceae 
Drosera 
Drupacea 
Drymeria 
Duabanga 
Duchesnia 
Dumasia 


E 
Edagaria 
Elaeocarpaceae 
Elaeocarpus 
Elaeodendron 
Entada 
Epilobium 
Eriobotrya 
Eriolena 
Eriosema 
Erthropalum 
Eryangium 
Erysium 
Erythrina 
Escalloniaceae 


Index 


(e) 


page 


10, 78 


page 


10, 76 


(f) 


E 


Eugenia 
Buonymus 
Eurya 
Eutrema 
Evodia 

F 


Fabaceae 
Ficiodales 
Flacourtiaceae 
Flacourtia 
Flemingia 
Foeniculum 


Fragaria 
Fumariaceae 


Fumaria 

G 
Geissapsis 
Geraniaceae 
Geranaiales 
Geranium 
Geum 
Glycine 
Gomphogyne 
Gouania 
Grossulariaceae 
Guldenstaedtia 
Guttiferae 
Guttiferales 
Gymnosporia 
Gynandropsis 
Gynostemma 
Gypsophyla 

H 
Haloragaceae 
Hamamelidaceac 


Index 


page 


page 


11, 79 
11, 79 


H 


Hedera 
Fedysarum 
Helinus 
Helwingia 
Heracleum 
Herpetospermum 
Heteropanax 
Heynea 
Hibiscus 
Hippocastanaceae 
Hippuris 
Hiptage 
Holboellia 
Homalium 
Hovenia 
Hydrangeaceae 
Hydrangea 
Hydrocotyle 
Hypecoum 
Hypericaceae 
Hypericum 


I 


Iberidella 
Tsacinaceae 
Tlex 
Impatiens 
Indigofera 
Isopyrum 
{lea 


iN 
Kadsura 


Kalancho2 


Ke cia 


Index 


(g) 


page 


(h) Index 
L 


Lagerstroemia 
Lardizabalaceae 
Lathyrus 
Laurocerasus 
Leea 
Leguminales 
Lens 
Lepidium 
Lespedeza 
Linaceae 
Linum 
Lotus 
Ludwigia 
Luffa 
Lychnis 
Lythraceae 

M 
Macropanax 
Magnoliaceae 
Magnolia 
Mahonia 
Malaceae 
Malpighiaceae 
Malus 
Malvaceae 
Malva 
Malvales 
Mangifera 
Manglietia 
Meconopsis 
Medicago 
Melastomataceae 
Melastome 
Meliaceae 
Melia 


Index 


M 
Meliaceae 
Meliosma 
Melochia 
Melothria 
Menispermaceae 
Mesua 

Mezoneuron 
Michelia 
Micromeles 
Micromelum 
Microsisymbrium 
Milletia 
Mimosaceae 
Mimosa 
Mischocarpuc 
Momordica 
Mucuna 
Murraya 
Myricaria 
Myrtaceae 
Myrtales 


N 
Naravelia 


Nasturtium 
Natsiatum 
Neillia 
Nymphaeaceac 
Nymphaea 


oO 
Ochna 


Ochnaceac 
Oenentha 
Olacaccac 
Olacales 
Olax 
Onagraceae 


5, 9, 61 


6, 50 


qd) Index 


(e) page 
Opuntia 90 
Oromosia 69 
Osbekia 82 
Osmorrhiza 92 
Ougenia 66 
Oxalidaceae 6, 45 
Oxalis 46 
Oxyegraphis 18 
Oxyvtropis 65 

P page 
Padus 73 
Panax 94 
Papavaraceae 2, 16, 25 
Papaver 25 
Parabaena 22 
Paraquilegia 18 
Parnassia 75 
Parochetus 64 
Parthenocissus 54 
Passifloraceae 13, 86 
Pasiflora 86 
Passiflorae 12 
Pentapanax 94 
Phaseolus 68 
Philadelphus 78 
Photinia 74 
Picrasma 48 
Pimpinella 92 
Piptadenia 61 
Piptanthus 63 
Pistacia 59 
Pisum 66 
Pittosporaceae a.at 
Pittosporum 31 


Pleurospermum 93 


P 
Podophyllum 
Polycarpon 
Polygalaceae 
Polygala 
Polygalales 
Polygonales 
Polypetalae 
Pomaceae 
Pongamia 
Portulacae 
Poientilla 
Poterium 
Prinsepia 
Priotropis 
Prunus 
Pueraria 
Punicaceae 
Punica 
Pyracantha 
Pyrus 

R 


Ranales 
Ranunculaceae 
Ranunculus 
Reinwardtia 
Rhamnaceae 
Rhamnus 
Rhus 

Ribes 
Rosaceae 


Rosa 
Rosales 


Rotala 
Rubus 


Rutaceae 
Ruta 
Rutales 


Index 


(a) Index 


i) page 
Sabiaceae 8, 58 
Sabia 58 
Sagina 33 
Sageretia 53 
Salmonia 32 
Sanguisorba 70, 72 
Sanicula 91 
Sapindaceae 8, 55 
Sapindales 7 
Sapindus 98 
Sarcopyramis 83 
Saurauriaceae 4, 37 
Saurauia 37 
Saxifragaceac 11, 75 
Saxifraga 76 
Schefflera 94 
Schima 36 
Schisandraceae 1, 20 
Schisandra 20 
Schoepfia 50 
Scolopia 30 
Sdum 78 
Selinum 92 
Semecarpus 59 
Shorea 38 
Shuteria 67 
Sibbaldia 71 
Sida 39 
Silene 32 
Simarubaceae 6, 47 
Sisymbrium 27 
Skimmia 47 
Soncrila 83 
Sonneratiaceae 12, 84 


Sophora 69 


Index 


Ss 


Sorbaria 
Sorbus 
Spantholobus 
Spergula 
Spiraea 
Spondias 
Stachyuraceae 
Stachyrus 
Staphyleaceae 
Staphylea 
Stauntonia 
Stellaria 
Stephania 
Sterculiacea 
Sterculia 
Stracheya 
Stranvaesia 
Stylophorum 
Symingtonia 
Syzygium 

T 
Talinum 
Tamaricaceae 
Tamarix 
Tapiria 
Tinospora 
Terminalia 
Tetracentraceae 
Tetracentron 
Tetrastigma 
Thalamiflorae 
Thalictrum 
Theaceae 
Thermopsis 
Thespesia 


(m) 


page 


(n) 


T 


Thiapsi 
Tiarella 
Tilacora 
Tiliaceae 
Tinospora 
Toddalia 
Toona 
Toricellia 
Torilis 
Trachydium 
Trevesia 
Trichosanthes 
Trifolium 
Trigonella 
Triumfetta 
Trollius 
Turpinia 

U 
Umbelliferae 
Uraria 
Urena 
Uvaria 

Vv 
Vicatia 
Vicia 
Vigna 
Violaceae 
Viola 
Vitaceae 
Vitis 

Ww 
Walsura 
Woodfordia 


x 
Xylosma 


Index 


page 
28 
716 
20 
5,41 
23 
47 
50 
96 
93 
92 
94 
87 
64 
64 
41 
18 
57 
page 
14, 90 
65 
39 
97 
page 
92 
66 
69 
3, 21 
29 
7,54 
54 
page 
49 
84 
page 
3, 92 


Zz 


Zanonieae 
Zanthoxylum 
Zizyphus 


Index 


(0) 


page 
87 
47 
53 


ERRATA 


The letters oc in this book should be read as the 


sign for indefinite 


Page line 
Pre- 
face 8 
Iatro- 
duc- 
tion 5 
” 7 
vii 6 
” 26 
4 12 
5 10 
§ 11 
6 22 
6 23 
9 15 
9 31 
10 30 
12 12 
12 #14 
1864 
19 13 
19 28 
20 14 


(oc). 
incorrect 


photogeography 


explaination 
decession 
prediliction 
ommissions 
recemose 
ofter 
EAEOCARPACEAE 
BALSAMINACAEE 
monadelaphous 
papilionaceae 
with-out 
stamans 
MELASTOMATA- 
CEAE 
bongitudinally 
decidious 

2? 

3° 
ranches 
TILACORA 


correct 


phytogeography 


explanation 
decission 
predilection 
omissions 
racemose 

often 
ELAEOCARPACEAE 
BALSAMINACEAE 
monadelphous 
papilionaceous 
without 
stamens 
MELASTOMACEAE 


longitudinally 
deciduous 


ae 
branches 
TILIACORA 


ii 


Page 


line 
9 
13 


incorrect 


decidious 

whieh 

coherant 

dialated 
conspicious 
decidious 

basaly 

dioceio.s 

decidious 
SIM4ROUBACEAE 
ERTHYROPALUM 
diocious 

Flowes 

ining 

decidious 

equaling 

puncate 

dscoid 

leave 

coherant 

anf 
CROTOLARIA 
Lees 
monoadelphous 
Leaves exstipellate 


OUGENIA 
Conspicious 

” 
SPANTHOLOBUS 
continous 
rcceognised 
conspicious 
at 


correct 


deciduous 

which 

coherent 

dilated 

conspicuous 
deciduous 

basally 

dioecious 

deciduous 
SIMARUBACEAE 
ERYTHROPALUM 
dioecious 

Flowers 

lining 

deciduous 

equalling 

punctate 

discoid 

leaves 

coherent 

and 
CROTALARIA 
Leaves 
monadelphous 

Tais saould be 14ta 
line. i.e. Fresh para 


OUGEINIA 
Conspicuous 
SPATHOLOBLS 
continuous 
recognised 
conspicuous 
to 


Page 


Tudex 
(b) 
(c) 
(c) 
(c) 
(d) 
@ 
@ 
(e) 
©) 
(e) 
(e) 
(e) 
f) 


line 


incorrect 
terrestial 
decidious 


segreagrate 
inconspicious 


MELASTOMATA- 


CEAE 


scorpoid 

6-fd 

decidious 
fiberous 
decidious 
heteromophic 
ERYANGIUM 
inconspicious 
commusure 
inconspicious 
decidious 
bisesiate 
28th. 

Actaeae 
Amora 
Brachystimma 
13, 29 
Caryophyllus 
Cayvatia 
74,11 
Crotolaria 
Decaisna 
Docinea 
Drupacea 
Drymeria 
Erthropalum 
Eryangium 
Ficiodales 


correct 


terrestrial 

dedciduous 

segregate 
inconspicuous 
MELASTOMACEAE 


scorpioid 

6-fid 
deciduous 
fibrous 
deciduous 
heteromorphic 
ERYNGIUM 
inconspicuous 
commissure 
inconspicuous 
deciduous 
biseriate 

29th. 

Actaea 
Amoora 
Brachystemma 
3,29 
Caryophyliales 
Cayratia 

74 

Crotalaria 
Decaisnea 
Docynia 
Drupaceae 
Drymaria 
Erythropalum 
Eryngium 
Ficoidales 


iv 


Page 
(f) 
(g) 
(h) 
(h) 
(h) 
(h) 


(i) 
(i) 
(i) 
@ 
@ 
i) 
i) 
(k) 


(k) 
(k) 
@) 

(m) 
(m) 
(m) 


(n) 
(n) 
(n) 
(n) 
(n) 


line 
20 
25 
26 
33 
34 
35 


incorrect 
Geranaiales 
7,57 

§,11,38 
Melastomataceae 
Melastome 
Meliaceae 
97 

Oenentha 
6,50 
Oromosia 
Osbekia 
Ougenia 
Passiflorae 
Polygonales 


Portulacae 

33,72 

Sdum 
Spantholobus 
Sterculiacea 
Tinospora 


Thiapsi 
Tilacora 
20 

3,21 
3,92 


correct - 
Geraniales 
7,51 


5,38 


Melastomaceae 
Melastoma 

This line should be 
omitted. 

98 

Oenanthe 

7,50 

Ormosia 

Osbeckia 
Ougeinia 
Passiflorales 

This line should be 
omitted. 
Portulacaceae 

72 

Sedum 
Spatholobus 
Sterculiaceae 
This line should be 
omitted. 

Thiaspi 

Tiliacora 

22 

3,29 

30 





Printed at His Majesty's Government Press, in Nepal