Skip to main content

Full text of "L. K. 10.51745.najfnr. 5.11.35 42"

See other formats


2021; 5(11): | 35-42 | 


https://doi.org/10.51745/najfnr.5.11.35-42 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. 





a 


ORIGINAL ARTICLE 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 
from African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds consumed in 
Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) 


Kohi Alfred Kouamé '7 «© Koffi Maizan Jean-Paul Bouatenin', Wahauwouélé Hermann Coulibaly ', Djé Koffi 
Marcellin’ 


" Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Laboratory of Biotechnology and food Microbiology, University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire 
* Food Security Research Group, Centre Suisse de Recherche Scientifique, Abidjan, Céte d'Ivoire 


Abstract 


Background: ‘Soumbara” as well as other traditional foods of Céte d'Ivoire are produced in a traditional way. These foods may contain pathogenic and 
spoilage microorganisms. Aims: The aim of our work was to assess the sanitary quality of “Soumbara” sold in five communes of Abidjan (Céte d'Ivoire), 
in order to valorize it as a flavor enhancer. Material and Methods: A consumption survey as well as the analysis of some physico-chemical (pH, titratable 
acidity, Brix degree, moisture, and organic acids) and microbiological parameters (enumeration of MAG, Clostridium, Bacillus, Staphylococci, Salmonella, 
E. coli, and coliforms) were carried out in five (05) municipalities of Abidjan (Abobo, Yopougon, Port Bouet, Adjamé, and Treichville) on 75 samples. 
Results: The results of the survey showed that most of the respondents were familiar with “Soumbara” and often consumed it. These consumers stated that 
they did not experience any discomfort after consuming this food. Physicochemical analyses showed that the water content of the samples of “Soumbara” 
ranged from 16.50% to 19.28% and the pH varied from 6.32 + 0.01 to 7.914 0.02. “Soumbara” contained little follow-through which ranged from 0.10 
+ 0.001 to 0.27 + 0.05. “Soumbara” also contained phenolic compounds such as coumarins, hydroquinones, and caffeic acid. Microbiological analyses had 
revealed the presence of spoilage and pathogenic germs such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli at high loads exceeding the 2019/229/EC standard. 
Conclusions: However, due to the high load of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, this food eaten by sprinkling directly on the dish, without passing 


through a cooking process could expose the consumer to a risk of food poisoning. 


Keywords: Food poisoning, “Soumbara”, Pathogenic and Spoilage Microorganisms. 





Received: March 01, 2021 / Accepted: May 23, 2021 / Published: June 12, 2021 


1 Introduction 


Two billion people in the world are suffering from what the 
United Nations calls hidden hunger, or malnutrition '. Hunger 
and malnutrition affect people in developing countries where the 
notion of food security remains a luxury *. In order to ensure 
food security for the population, it would be necessary to 
increase agricultural production and valorize local products. 


Local products from the fermentation of oilseeds are culturally 
used in human food in various countries of West Africa and 
particularly in Céte d'Ivoire. They are the subject of many 
commercial transactions between different countries and are 
found in all local markets*. Among these condiments is 
“Soumbara” which is also called “Soumbala” in Burkina Faso 
and Mali, “Dawa-dawa” in Niger and Nigeria, “Nététu” in 


(<4 


Benin and Senegal *. “Soumbara” produced in Céte d'Ivoire is a 
flavoring agent used to enhance the taste of sauces and dishes, 
and is an important source of protein, lipids, carbohydrates, 
vitamins, and trace elements *. In addition, “Soumbara” in 
general is believed to have therapeutic benefits such as regulating 
blood pressure, jaundice, and preventing intestinal obstruction *. 
According to Koura er a/. °, “Soumbara”, a product resulting 
from the fermentation of African locust bean seeds, contains a 


microbial flora of biotechnological interest. However, other 


35 


pathogenic microorganisms could cohabit with microorganisms 
of biotechnological interest. The consumption of such a 
contaminated product requires cooking to preserve the health of 
consumers. The implementation of a food quality policy in the 
country is a priority in terms of public health. In addition, 
“Soumbara” is a particularly favorable environment for the 
development of microorganisms, especially sa/monella, likely to 
cause serious food poisoning 7. Thus, to ensure the health of 
consumers and enhance the value of this local product, it is 
necessary to know its microbiological quality. The aim of our 
work was to assess the sanitary quality of “Soumbara” sold in five 
communes of Abidjan (Céte d’Ivoire), in order to valorize it as a 
flavor enhancer. 


2 Material and Methods 


2.1 Material 
2.1.1 Survey form 


A survey form was developed on the system of preference and the 
frequency of consumption of “Soumbara” by the population. 


* Corresponding author: Kouamé Kohi Alfred, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, 
Laboratory of Biotechnology and food Microbiology, University of Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, 
Cote d'Ivoire. Tel: (+225) 09994291, E-mail: kohi.kouame@csrs.ci 


Kouamé et al. 


2.1.2 Biological material 


The biological material is “Soumbara” obtained from fermented 
almonds of Parkia biglobosa seeds collected from the markets of 
the five municipalities of Abidjan (Céte d'Ivoire). 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


consumers and vendors in the various districts concerned. The 
results of this pilot phase were not taken into account in the final 
result because most of these results were incorrect. The final 
questionnaire was submitted to the consumers and vendors at the 
different sites. At the sites, the questionnaire was explained point 
by point to the consumers. The questions were multiple choice 


Table 1: Titratable acidity, pH, soluble dry extract and moisture of “Soumbara” sold in Abidjan 







Physicochemical 


parameters Abobo 





Adjamé 


Municipalities 


Treichville 












Port-Bouét Means 





Yopougon 


pH 6.32 + 0.01¢ 6.86 +0 .01° 7.71 + 0.02° 7.91+ 0.02? 6.32 + 0.024 7,02 
T.A (%) 0.35 +0.005° 0.29 + 0.001° 0.13 + 0.0044 0.26 + 0.005° 0.36 + 0.004" 0,27 
ESS (Brix) 0.27 +0.05° 0.13 + 0.03" 0.10 + 0.001? 0.10 + 0.003" 0.10 + 0.002" 0,14 
Moisture (%) 19.28 + 0.01° 18.60 + 0.03° 16.91 + 0.15* 16.50+ 0.10° 18.14 + 0.08° 17,90 


For the same municipalities, on the same line, the mean values followed by different alphabetical letters are statistically different (p< 0.05) (DUNCAN multiple t-test), pH: Hydrogen Potential; TA: 


Titratable Acidity; ESS: Soluble Dry Extract. 


2.2 Methods 
2.2.1 Study site 


This study was conducted in five communes of Abidjan District 
in Céte d'Ivoire, namely Abobo, Yopougon, Port Bouet, Adjamé, 
and Treichville, from July 22 to August 7, 2019. These five 
communes were chosen because of their different social levels and 
the high density of their populations. In addition, these five 
communes are home to the main supply markets for the 
Abidjanese population. For this study, 500 people were 
interviewed, 100 per municipality. 


2.2.2 Size of individuals to be investigated 


The sample size for this study was calculated using formula (1) as 
described by Kouamé et a/. ® for a non-exhaustive independent 


sample: 


With n: the sample size, e: the margin of error, t: the margin 
coefficient deduced from the confidence rate, p: the population in 
the study area. The sample for each area was obtained using the 
probability method proportional to the size of households in each 
locality ? based on data from the general population census of Céte 
d'Ivoire *°. 


2.2.3 Data collection 


Bibliographical research and a field survey on the different sites 
where “Soumbara” are sold and with the population in five 
municipalities of the District of Abidjan in Céte d'Ivoire, namely 
Abobo, Yopougon, Port bouet, Adjamé, and Treichville were 
carried out. This one-month phase made it possible to collect 
bibliographical data, observe consumers, establish relations with 
the consuming population, female vendors of “Soumbara”, and 
design a survey questionnaire on the consumption and sale of 
“Soumbara”. This questionnaire was tested on about 100 


36 


Table 2: Organic acid detected in “Soumbara” 


Quantity (mg/kg) 





Organic acid 


Coumarin 0.0033+0.0032 
Caffeic acid 0.0 1+ 0.005 
Hydroquinone 0.74 + 0.54 


questions with the possibility of 2 to 6 proposed answers or 
questions with yes or no and true or false answers. The final 
questionnaire was structured around three (3) main points: 


- The profile of the respondent 
- Knowledge and consumption of pork by the respondent 


- Discomfort contracted by the consumer after consumption 


of the “Soumbara”. 


2.2.4 Sampling 


“Soumbara” samples were collected from sales sites in five 
communes in the city of Abidjan (Abobo d'Adjamé, Treichville, 
Port-Bouét, and Yopougon). In each commune, five (5) 
“Soumbara” women vendors were selected. This amounts to a 
total of 25 women vendors for the five communes. Three samples 
of approximately 100 grams each were taken from each vendor. A 
total of 75 samples of “Soumbara” were taken in the 5 communes. 
The collected samples were put in a cooler containing carboglaces 
and transported to the laboratory within four hours after sampling 
for the microbiological analyses. 


2.2.5 Isolation and enumeration of bacteria 


The stock solution and decimal dilutions were performed 
according to the methods of Bouatenin et a/ ''. For the analyses, 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et a/. 


ten grams (10 g) of samples were crushed and taken under sterile 
conditions created by the flame of a Bunsen burner and mixed in 
a Stomacher bag with 90 mL of buffered peptone water (AES 
Laboratoire, Combourg France) previously sterilized and used as 
diluent. Mesophilic aerobic germs (MAG) were counted on PCA 
(Plate count Agar) agar (Oxoid LTD, Basingstore, Hamsphire, 
England) after two (2) days of incubation at 30°C according to 
AFNOR Standard NF V08-051,1999. The research and counting 
of Staphylococcus aureus were done on Baird Parker agar after one 
(1) day of incubation at 30°C using Capita er a/. '* method. The 
quantitative estimation of spores of Bacillus cereus was performed 
by a standard plate-counting method. Isolations were achieved 
from heat-treated dilutions by plating on mannitol egg yolk 
polymyxin B agar *. Presumptive colonies of Bacillus cereus were 
randomly selected based on characteristic colony feature, purified 
on the same medium, and identified by morphological, cultural, 
and biochemical characteristics according to the documented 
procedures '°. Violet crystal and neutral red biliated lactose agar 
(VRBL agar) was used for coliform count, after one (1) day of 
incubation according to AFNOR Standard, NF ISO 4832 July 


1991. The isolation and enumeration of Sa2/mone//a were carried 


Table 3: Microbial load of “Soumbara” consumed in Abidjan 









Abobo 





Adjamé 





Treichville 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


milliliter of each appropriately treated dilution was used to 
inoculate the TSN agar (Bio-Rad) stored in surfusion at 45°C in 
assay tubes. After the agar had solidified, all inoculated media were 
incubated in an upright position for 24 h at 46°C. Tubes 
containing between 30 and 300 colonies were counted, and five 
colonies were picked for confirmation in the motility-nitrate 
medium. The medium used for the research and enumeration of 
Escherichia coliwas RAPID' E.coliagar (Standard NF ISO 16140, 
2003). Inoculation was done by spreading 0.1 ml of the stock 
solution or decimal dilutions on the surface of the agar previously 
poured and cooled in a Petri dish. Incubation was done at 37°C 
for 24 hours. Presumptive Escherichia coli colonies were purple to 
pink. Presumptive Escherichia coli colonies present in plates 
containing 15 to 150 colonies were counted. 


2.2.6 Biochemical analysis 


Titratable acidity and pH were determined according to the 
method described by Kouamé er a/ *. The percentage of moisture 
was determined using the Official Methods of Analysis '°. The 
total soluble solids, expressed as °Brix value was determined by 
using a hand refractometer (Atago N-20E, Japan). Organic acids 


Municipalities 









Standards 





Port-Bouét Yopougon Means 


MAG (4.34 0.2)10% (2.8+0.4)10*% (1.8+0.2)10°° (1.7+0.6)10% (1.84+0.5)10% 8.27.10° 10° 
E. coli (1+0.1)10* (2.9+0.2)10* (1.8+0.2)10%° (1.2+0.2)104° (1.5+40.7)10%°° 1.52.104 

S. aureus (2.7+0.1)10* (1.1+0.8)10” 0 (1.1+0.1)10% (4.34+4.2)10° 2.51.10° 10° 
Bacillus cereus (1.8+0.5)10%¢ (9.3+0.5)10* (2.4+0.5)10* (1.2+0.1)10*4 (5.140.4)10*% 3.96.104 
Coliforms T (1.2+0.1)10* (4.4+0.5)1074 0 (9.2+0.1)107 (7.06+1.3)107° 6.53.10? 10° 
Clostridium <l <l <| <] <l <l 

Salmonella Absence Absence Absence Absence Absence Absence 


For the same municipalities, on the same line, the mean values followed by different alphabetical letters are statistically different (P< 0.05) MAG: Mesophilic Aerobic Germs; E. colt: Escherichia coli; S. 


aureus. Staphylococcus aureus, Coliforms T : Total coliforms. 


4 method in several steps. This was 


out using Hendriksen 
achieved by pre-enrichment in a non-selective medium, followed 
by enrichment in a selective medium and culture on selective agar. 
For enrichment in non-selective or pre-enrichment media, a 
quantity of Twenty-five grams (25) g of samples was homogenized 
with 225 mL of peptone water in a sterile jar, incubated at 37°C 
for 24 h. For selective recording, one milliliter (1 mL) of the pre- 
enriched culture was transferred using a sterile pipette into 10 mL 
of previously prepared sterile Rappaport Vassiliadis. The method 
of Kouamé er a/. ® was used. The tryptone sulphite neomycin 
(TSN) agar (Bio-Rad, Marnes-La Coquette, France) was used for 
the detection of Clostridium perfringens after a thermal shock of 
the dilutions (80°C for 15 min and immediately cooled). One 


37 


of “Soumbara” samples were before extracted and then analyzed 
by high performance liquid chromatography using an ion 
exclusion ORH-801 column (300 mmx6.5 mm) (Interchrom, 
France) as achieved by '®. Running conditions were: mobile phase 
H2SO4; 40 mmol L'; flow rate, 0.8 ml min’; wavelength, 210 
nm; room temperature (25 °C). The separated components were 
detected with an UV spectrophotometric detector (SPD-G6A, 
Shimadzu Corporation, Japan). 


2.3 Statistical analysis 


Statistical package R 3.0.1, ANOVA method with Duncan's test, 


with significance level 5% were used. The program was used to 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et a/. 


calculate the means, standard deviation of microbiological, and 
physicochemical parameters. It was also used to compare the 
means of the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of 
the samples and to determine if the differences observed in the 
means of the microbiological parameters were significant at the 
5% significance level. The survey data were processed with IBM 
SPSS software (Statistics 20). 


Patients have been informed of the purpose of the study and are 
assured of the confidentiality of the data collected. Their consent 
has been given for the use of the information collected and the 
results obtained. The study has been carried out in accordance 
with the World Medical Association’s Code of Ethics for 
experiments that involved humans. The aim of the study was 
clearly explained to all of the study participants and a written 
informed consent was obtained. 


3 Results 


3.1 Level of consumption and “Soumbara” type 


Figure 1 illustrates the consumption rate of “Soumbara” in five 
municipalities of Abidjan. All respondents in the municipalities 
of Abobo, Adjamé, and Treichville consumed “Soumbara”. The 
majority of the respondents consumed néré's “Soumbara” with 
rates of 99% for the municipalities of Abobo, Adjamé, and 


Yopougon and 100% for the municipalities of Port Bouet and 
Treichville. 


3.2 Forms of “Soumbara” consumed 


Among the two forms of “Soumbara” (powder or grains), the 
powder form was the most consumed by the populations. The 
consumption rates for this form were 66% in the municipalities 
of Abobo, 91% in Adjamé, 93% in Yopougon, 85% in Port 
Bouet, and 80% in Treichville (Figure 2). 


3.3 Frequency of consumption of “Soumbara” 
by the population 


Figure 3 shows the different rates of consumption of 
“Soumbara” in five municipalities. These results show that the 
percentages of respondents who consume at least once a day vary 
from 20 to 50%, with high proportions in the municipalities of 
Abobo (53%), Adjamé (37%), Port Bouet (25%), Treichville 
(26%), and lower proportions in the municipalities of Yopougon 
(16%). In addition, the rate of respondents who consumed 
“Soumbara” twice a day ranged from 20 to 25% in five 
municipalities respectively Abobo (23%), Adjamé (20%), Port 
Bouet (25%), and Yopougon (22%). The percentages of 
respondents who consumed “Soumbara” at least three times a 
day were very low in the communes of Adjamé (1%) and Abobo 
(7%) and very high in Port Bouet (24%). As for respondents 
who consume “Soumbara” at least once a month, we recorded 
nearly (17%) Abobo, (42%) Adjamé, (55%) Yopougon, (31%) 
Port Bouet, and (48%) Treichville. 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


Abobo Adjamé Yopougon Port-Bouet Treichville 


Consumption (%) 
oOo Oo0UCODMlmUlCUCOUCOCOCOCO 


=) 


Municipalities 


mYes BNo 


Figure 1: Level Level of "Soumbara" consumption by surveyed 
populations 


3.4 Physico-chemical characteristics of 


“Soumbara” 


Table 1 presents some physicochemical characteristics of the 
samples of “Soumbara” taken in the different municipalities of 
the study. The pH of “Soumbara” samples differs significantly 
(P<0,05) from one municipality to another. The lowest pH 
came from the municipalities of Abobo (6.32 + 0.01) and the 
highest from the municipalities of Port-Bouét (7.91+ 0.02). 
Acidity varied in the opposite direction of pH. Thus, the lowest 


acidity of “Soumbara” was recorded in Port-Bouét (0.26 + 





100 

S80 

N 

= 

S 60 

= 

S40 

24 

a) 

eo) 

a 36 
0 


Abobo Adjamé Yopougon  Port-Bouet  Treichville 


Municipalities 


m= Grains m= Powder 


Figure 2: Form of “Soumbara” consumed by the surveyed 
population 


38 Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et al. 


0.005). The highest acidity level was recorded in Abobo with a 
value of (0.35 + 0.005). Concerning the soluble dry extract, the 
value varied from 0.1 + 0.001 (Treichville) to 0.27 + 0.05 
(Abobo). As for the moisture content, the results obtained 
showed that there was no significant difference (p20,05) from 
one commune to another. The moisture rate varied from 16.50 + 
0.1 (Port-Bouét) to 19.28 + 0.01 (Abobo). 


3.5 Organic acid detected in “Soumbara” 


The organic acids found in “Soumbara” are coumarin, caffeic 
acid, and hydroquinone. The amount of hydroquinone (0.74 + 
0.54 mg/kg) was highest in “Soumbara”. While coumarin 
(0.0033 + 0.0032 mg/kg) and caffeic acid (0.01+0.005 mg/kg) 


were low in “Soumbara” (Table 2). 


3.6 Microbial loads of “Soumbara” consumed 
in Abidjan 
Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens were not detected in the 
“Soumbara” samples analyzed. However, they were heavily 
contaminated with mesophilic aerobic germs, Escherichia coli, 
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus, and total coliforms. The loads 
of these microorganisms were higher than the standard 
2019/229/EC. Adjamé's samples were the most contaminated 
with £. coli, Bacillus, and S$. aureus with loadings of (2.9 + 
0.2)104 CFU/g; (9.3 + 0.5)10¢ CFU/g and (1.1 + 0.8)107 
CFU/g, 
contaminated by total coliforms with a load of (1.2 + 0.1)10° 


respectively. Those from Abobo were more 
CFU/g. Yopougon samples were more contaminated with 
mesophilic aerobic germs with a load of (1.8 + 0.5)10° CFU/g 
(Table 3). 


4 Discussion 


“Soumbara” production is a female activity and the transfer of 
know-how is carried out at the family level '’. The survey showed 
a high consumption rate in the five communes of Abidjan. This 
food is therefore ingrained in the populations’ eating habits. It is 
appreciated for its nutritional and therapeutic values and its low 
cost '*. As for the absence of discomfort during consumption, it 
could be explained by the mode of consumption. Indeed, 
“Soumbara” is consumed after cooking. According to Yaméogo et 
Konkobo ”’, they are added a lot in to sauces, rice sauces as well as 
in fatty rice. At these cooking temperatures, pathogenic 
microorganisms are destroyed. Concerning the results of 
physicochemical analysis, the pH values of the different samples 
of “Soumbara” from the five municipalities vary from 6.32 to 
7.91. These results are consistent with the results of a study 
conducted by Compaoré et a/. *° on the controlled fermentation 
of African locust bean seeds and those of Parkouda er a/. 7! during 
a study on the nutritional properties of fermented African locust 
beans seeds. These variations would be due to the differences 
observed in the production method of “Soumbara” especially at 
the stages of “Soumbara” fermentation. Indeed, the duration of 
fermentation and the variety of African locust beans varying from 
one producer to another, would also be the reason for the observed 
4 


variations In addition, the conditions of purchase and 


39 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


conservation of the product could also be responsible for this pH 
variation. The moisture content determined in this study varies 
from 16.50% to 19.28%. These moisture levels recorded for these 
“Soumbara” are higher than those determined by kouamé et al. ¢, 
which are between 6% and 8%. The high moisture content of the 
products would be explained by the fact that drying is done at 
room temperature empirically. This may also be due to the good 
water absorption and retention capacity of the néré seeds during 
the cooking and soaking phase. The moisture content of 
“Soumbara” allows us to assess the quality of drying and to predict 
its shelf life. The moisture content of “Soumbara” can promote 
the proliferation of microorganisms that can lead to its 
deterioration at the end of fermentation during packaging *. The 
Brix degree showed that there was practically no sugar in 
“Soumbara” this absence would be due to the method 
of production of “Soumbara”. Its low sugar content would be 
beneficial for a diabetic diet. Concerning organic acids, two (2) 
were detected in the analyzed “Soumbara”. These were coumarin 
and caffeic acid. In addition to these two organic acids, 
hydroquinone was also present in “Soumbara” at a high 
concentration of 0.74 + 0.54%. In fact, during the production of 
“Soumbara” a condensation reaction takes place. In this reaction, 
activated phenols and ethyl acetoacetate give polyphenols such as 
coumarins, hydroquinone, caffeic acid and by-products such as 


*2,23 etc, Polyphenols can have beneficial effects 


ethanol and water 
on consumer health especially coumarin. Indeed, coumarins 
constitute a large class of heterocycles. Most of them are endowed 
with varied biological activities. Among them, we can cite the 
anticoagulant activity which is promoted by warfarin, the 
anticancer and hepatotropic activity whose leader is the 
hymecromone, the antibiotic activity, the analgesic and the anti- 
inflammatory activity or the anti-HIV and _ photosensitizing 
activity **. However, at high doses, phenolic derivatives with 
anticoagulant properties are toxic by ingestion and can decree 
cases of acute cytolytic hepatitis *’. Similarly, these acids heated to 
decomposition can release toxic fumes of carbon monoxide and 
dioxide, especially hydroquinone. Thus, its consumption could 
lead to nervous disorders, eye damage, skin allergies, chest pain, 
cough, headaches, dizziness, salivation, convulsions, nausea, and 
vomiting *°. However, “Soumbara” containing small amounts of 
phenolic compounds is believed to play an important role in 
human nutrition. 


Microorganisms such as Bacillus, E. coli, Staphylococcus, 
mesophilic anaerobic germs were found in the samples with the 
exception of some coliforms, and Sa/monella. The presence of 
these germs in “Soumbara” would be due to the hygienic 
conditions of production of this food. The presence of 
Staphylococcus at high levels exceeding the standard 
2019/229/EC could be due to the contamination of ingredients 
by the hands of the producers during production but also by 
domestic animals such as chicken, cattle because of the drying is 
done in the open air. Concerning the presence of Bacillus in 
“Soumbara” it could come from two origins. On the on hand 
“Soumbara” could on the one hand be contaminated by 
microorganisms from the environment, utensils, environment, 
personnel and by the raw material used for production. On the 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et al. 








Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


ZS 60 

> 50 

= 

S 40 

o 

= 30 

= 

2 20 

2 ) 

e 10 

z 

c 

—) ° 2 e ° 

U Abobo Adjamé Yopougon Port-Bouet Treichville 
Municipalities 


mOnetime/day mTwo time/ day 


m Three time/ day 


One time/month 


Figure 3: Frequency of consumption of “Soumbara” by the population 


other hand, Baci//us found in the finished product could be due 
to those who participated in the fermentation. Indeed, Bacillus is 
the main strain responsible for the fermentation of “Soumbara” *’. 
Authors such as Compaoré et al; Ouoba er al *® *® during 
fermentation of African locust bean seeds for “Soumbara” 
production have isolated and identified several Bacillus species. 
The presence of these strains could be due to spore survival during 
the seed drying and cooking stage and their ability to grow rapidly 
on cold cooked seeds that would allow the two main strains to 
dominate fermentation. The absence of coliforms and sa/monella 
in the “Soumbara” of some municipalities would be due to the 
fermentation that makes the environment hostile to their 
growth”. 


5 Conclusions 


The aim of our work was to assess the sanitary quality of 
“Soumbara” sold in five communes of Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), in 
order to valorize it as a flavor enhancer. Almost all of the people 
interviewed in this study knew, consumed “Soumbara” and had 
not experienced any discomfort following consumption. 
“Soumbara” contained organic acids such as coumarin, which 
have beneficial properties for the human body. “Soumbara” had a 
neutral pH and a high dry matter content. This food had a low 
sugar content and could also be recommended for diabetics. 
Microbiologically, “Soumbara” as produced contained spoilage 
and pathogenic microorganisms. The loads of these 
microorganisms exceeded the standard 2019/229/EC. This food 
eaten by direct sprinkling on the dish, without passing through a 
cooking process could expose the consumer to a risk of food 
poisoning. 


Prospects: This study should cover the entire national territory. 


Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge all the women “Soumbara” 
producers. 

Author contribution: The work was carried out in collaboration among all authors. 
D.K.M. designed the study. K.K.A. performed the statistical analysis, drafted the 


40 


protocol, and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. K.M J-P B. managed the 
analyses of the study, and W. H. managed the literature searches. 

Funding: The authors have not received any direct funding 

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. 

ORCID: Kohi Alfred KOUAME: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6755-9234 


References 


[1] Hacquemand K. (2008). Etude du conseil économique et 
social. p 146. 

[2] FAO (2010). L’état de Vinsécurité alimentaire dans le 

monde,”. n° 97/9. Le progrés de la réduction de la faim. 

Rome (Italie), 42p. 

Babacar, N., Georges, L., Bernard, W., Colette, C., Michel, 

M., & Philippe Thonart, T. (2000). Composition chimique 


du nététu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation 


[3 


— 


des graines du caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) 
Benth. 
Environnement/Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and 
101-105. 


Biotechnologie, | Agronomtie, Société et 
Environment, 4(2), 
https://popups.uliege.be/1780- 
4507/index.php?id=17491 &file=1&pid=15361 

[4] Kouamé K.A., Bouatenin K.M.J.P., Coulibaly W.H., Kané 
A.F.F.,Camara F., Djé K.M. (2020). Process and 
microbiological quality of Soumbara (a local seasoning) used 
in Cote d'Ivoire. International Journal of Food Science and 
Agriculture, 4 (4), 403-412. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.26855/ijfsa.2020.12.007 

[5] Camara F. (2016). Valorisation du “Soumbara”, un 
condiment local issu de la fermentation des graines de néré 
(Parkia biglobosa) ou de soja (Glycin max), vendu en Céte 
d'Ivoire : aspects socio-économiques, microbiologiques, 


nutritionnels et thérapeutiques. Thése de doctorat unique, 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et a/. 


Université Nangui Abrogoua, UFR des Sciences et 
Technologies des Aliments, 147 p. 

[6] Koura, K., Ouidoh, P., Azokpota, P., Ganglo, J., & 
Hounhouigan, D. (2014). Caractérisation physique et 
composition chimique des graines de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) 
R. Br. en usage au Nord-Bénin. Journal of Applied 
Biosciences, 7X1), 6239. 
https://doi.org/10.4314/jab.v75i1.4 

[7] Azokpota P., Hounhouigan D.J., & Nago C.M. (2006). 
Microbiological and chemical changes during the 
fermentation of African locust bean (Parkiabiglobosa) to 
produce afitin,iru, andsonru, three traditional condiments 
produced in Benin. Jnternational Journal of food 
Microbiology, 107: 304-309. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.10.026 

[8] Kouame K.A., Bouatenin K .M .J -P., Djéni N.T., Dje K.M. 
(2019). Identification of hazards and critical control points 
during attieke (a fermented cassava product) process in Céte 
dIvoire. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 70, 87-94. 
https://doi.org/10.1111/lam.13247 

[9] James, E. B., II Joe, W. K., & Chadwick, C. H. (2001). 
Organizational research: determining appropriate sample size 
in survey research. Jnformation Technology, Learning, and 
Performance Journal, T9, 43-50. 
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.4 
86.8295 &rep=rep1 &type=pdf 

[10] INS (Institut National de la Statistique) (1998). 

Recensement général de la population et des habitations, 

données socio-démographiques des localités,”. République 

de Cote d'Ivoire, Tome 183. 

[11] Bouatenin K.M.J.P., Djeni N.T., Kouame K.A., Coulibaly 

W.H., Dje K.M. (2019). Excretion of {-glucosidase and 

pectinase by microorganisms isolated from cassava 

traditional ferments used for attiecke production in Céte 

d'Ivoire. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 20, 

101217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2019.101217 

[12] Capita R., Alonso-Calleja M.C.B., Garcia-Fernandez M.C. 

(2001). Assessment of Baird Parker agar as screening test for 

determination of Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat. 

Journal of Microbiology, 39: 321-325. 

[13] Cappucino J.G., Sherman N. (2004). Microbiology: A 

Laboratory Manual, 6th edn Singapore: Person Education. 

pp. 133-198. 

[14] Hendriksen R.S. (2003). Laboratory Protocols Level 1: 

Training Course Isolation of Salmonella. A Global 

Salmonella Surveillance and Laboratory Support Project of 

the World Health Organization. 4" ed. Geneva: WHO. 

[15] Kimaryo, V., Massawe, G., Olasupo, N., & Holzapfel, W. 

(2000). The use of a starter culture in the fermentation of 


cassava for the production of “kivunde”, a traditional 


41 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


[16] 


[17] 


[18] 


[19] 


[20] 


[21] 


[22] 


[23] 


[24] 


tanzanian food product. Jnternational Journal of Food 
Microbiology, 56(2-3), 179- 
190. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(00)00159-8 
Coulibaly, W. H., Bouatenin, K. M. J. P., Kouamé, A. K., 
Camara, F., Bi, Y. C. T., Toka, D. M., Joel, S., Cot, M., & 
Dje, K. M. (2020). Use of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains 
as starter cultures to enhance fermented mango juice 
production. Scientitic African, 7, e00226. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00226 

Millogo F. (2008). Analyse socio-économique de la 
production du Soumbala dans la région des hauts-bassins 
avec comparaison des types de production traditionnelle et 
semi-moderne (ALTECH). Mémoire de fin de cycle pour 
Pobtention du dipléme d’ingénieur de développement rural 
option sociologie et économie rurales, 74 p. Available at 
URL: http://www.secheresse.info/spip.php?article55002 
Cheyns, E., & Bricas, N. (2003). La construction de la 
qualité des produits alimentaires. Le cas du soumbala, des 
céréales et des viandes sur le marché de Ouagadougou au 
Burkina Faso. CIRAD. Quae. Available at URL: 
https://www.quae.com/extract/2021. ISBN 2-87614-540-5 
Yaméogo C. R., Konkobo C.(2003). Etude de la filiére 
soumbala dans les provinces du Nahouri et de la Sissili. 
CERYA Burkina Faso,. 39 p. 

Compaoré, C. S., Nielsen, D. S., Ouoba, L. I., Berner, T. S., 
Nielsen, K. F., Sawadogo-Lingani, H., Diawara, B., 
Ouédraogo, G. A., Jakobsen, M., & Thorsen, L. (2013). Co- 
production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus 
subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from Bikalga, an African 
alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment. 
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 162(3), 297- 
307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.01.013 
Parkouda, C., Nielsen, D. S., Azokpota, P., Ivette Iréne 
Ouoba, L., Amoa-Awua, W. K., Thorsen, L., Hounhouigan, 
J. D., Jensen, J. S., Tano-Debrah, K., Diawara, B., & 
Jakobsen, M. (2009). The microbiology of alkaline- 
fermentation of indigenous seeds used as food condiments in 
Africa and Asia. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 35(2), 
139-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408410902793056 
Srinivasan, S., Pauwels, K., Hanssens, D. M., & Dekimpe, 
M. G. (2004). Do Promotions Benefit Manufacturers, 
Retailers, or Both? Management Science, 50(5), 617-629. 
https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1040.0225 

Joshi, S., Bharucha, C., & Desai, A. J. (2008). Production of 
biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food 
isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B. Bioresource Technology, 99 
(11), 4603-4608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.030 
Bornet, A., Pinon, A., Jhajharia, A., Baudin, M., Ji, X., 
Emsley, L., Bodenhausen, G., Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J. H., & 


Jannin, S. (2016). Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021 


Kouamé et a/. 


[25] 


[26] 


[27] 


polarization. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18(44), 
30530-30535. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6cp05587¢ 
Camboulives, J., & Paut, O. (2001). Traitement des 
thromboses chez l’enfant : médicaments antithrombotiques 
105), 487-494. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/s1164-6756(01)00145-1 

Djeni, N., N’Guessan, K., Toka, D., Kouame, K., & Dje, K. 
(2011). Quality of attieke (a fermented cassava product) 


et fibrinolytiques. Réanimation, 


from the three main processing zones in Céte d’Ivoire. Food 
441), 410-416. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.09.032 

Lisman, T., Kamphuisen, P. W., Northup, P. G., & Porte, 
R. J. (2013). Established and new-generation antithrombotic 


Research International, 


drugs in patients with cirrhosis — Possibilities and caveats. 
Journal of 52), 358-366. 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2013.03.02 


Hepatology, 


Biochemical and microbiological characterization of “Soumbara” 


[28] 


[29] 


Ouoba, L. I. I., Diawara, B., Amoa-Awua, W. K., Traoré, A. 
S., & Moller, P. L. (2004). Genotyping of starter cultures of 
Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of 
African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala. 
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 90(2), 197— 
205. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(03)00302-7 

Yao A.A., Egounlety M., Kouame L.P., Thonart T.P. 
(2009). Les bactéries lactiques dans les aliments ou boissons 
amylacés et fermentés de |’Afrique de l’Ouest : leur utilisation 
actuelle,”. Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire., 153,54-65 


Cite this article as: Kouame K.A., Bouatenin K .M .J -P., Coulibaly W.H., & MarcellinD.K (2021). Biochemical and microbiological characterization of 
“Soumbara” from African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds consumed in Abidjan (Céte d'Ivoire). The North African Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 
5(11): 35-42. https://doi.org/10.51745/najfnr.5.11.35-42 


© 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any 


medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material 


in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is 


not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. 


42 


Nor. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Res. | Volume 5 | Issue 11, 2021