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| Concerto in E major for Violin, Flute and Oboe d'amore 








| Concerto in D major for Trumpet Concerto in G major for Oboe d'amore 





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HE BAROQUE ART OF TELEMANN 





Solisti di Zagreb Antonio Janigro, Conductor 





SIDE A 





I. CONCERTO IN E MAJOR FOR FLUTE, 
OBOE D’AMORE, VIOLIN, STRINGS AND 
CONTINUO 16:50 
a. Andante - b. Allegro - c. Siciliana - d. Vivace 
RAYMOND MEYLAN, flute; ANDRE LAR- 
DROT, oboe d'amore; JELKA STANIC, violin; 
DR. JOSEF NEBOIS, harpsichord 

II. CONCERTO IN G MAJOR FOR STRINGS 
WITH TWO SOLO VIOLAS 6:30 
a. Avec douceur - b. Gay - c. Largo - d. Vivement 
KARL STIERHOF and PETER PECHA, Ist and 

«pe B_2nd violas___ 

III. CONCERTO IN D MAJOR FOR TRUMPET, 
STRINGS AND CONTINUO +:30 
a. Adagio - b. Allegro - c. Grave - d. Allegro 
HENRI ADELBRECHT, trumpet 

IV. CONCERTO IN G MAJOR FOR OBOE 
D'AMORE, STRINGS AND CONTINUO 
a. Soave - b. Allegro - c. Adagio - d. Vivace 
ANDRE LARDROT, oboe d'amore 19330 


In the modern sense of the term “concerto,” it is a musical 
work planned for a solo instrument with accompaniment by 
orchestra, and composed in a manner that throws a spotlight 
on the artist who takes up the principal role. For Georg Philipp 
Telemann (b. Magdeburg, 1681 - d. Hamburg, 1767), the term 
had a much richer meaning. For a century before him the term 
had been used to designate an assemblage of musicians; in the 
first place, instrumentalists, but also including singers and even 
involving the listeners. And it also designated certain specific 
methods of organizing the work as a whole. All the meanings 
of the term “concerto” can be summed up in the concept of a 
unity created through dialogue. But a dialogue in music is more 
complex than a dialogue in speech. It expands to embrace the 
confrontation of not only individuals but groups, and the groups 
themselves may then subdivide to afford dialogues within dia- 
logues. 

Thus we can describe the 18th century concerto as a mu- 
sical form which permitted an assemblage of instrumentalists 
to put various aspects of their art into juxtaposition on many 
levels; color, expressiveness, virtuosity. The composer’s inven- 
tiveness was as much on display as that of the executants. And 
part of this inventiveness in creating a baroque concerto lay 
in providing the basis for a relative freedom on the part of the 
soloists, not only in cadenzas but in an improvised ornamenta- 
tion called for throughout the continuous flow of a movement. 
It is apparent, even before we go into a detailed examination 
of the various forms of the concerto displayed in this program, 
that the baroque concerto is quite different from the suite or 
the symphony, in which one expressive aim is worked out by 
the composer to the last detail. The concerto is primarily an 
arena of dialectical action between two groups arbitrarily sep- 
arated as on the one hand, soloists or concertino, and on the 
other, tutti or ripieni. 

In the four concertos on this program, Telemann shows 
us that the spirit of the concerto can embrace many different 
forms and that the Vivaldi-type schematization does not suit 
his temperament. Vivaldi, a composer of genius but sometimes 
over-facile, had arrived at a “classical” solution in which he 
adopted a pattern of three movements, each one of which fol- 
lowed a precise order of tuftis and solos. In Telemann, there 
is a general order of four movements, slow-fast-slow-fast, but 
at the same time, in contrast to Vivaldi, the individual move- 





ments show a variety of structures, different in style and origin. 

The Concerto in E major for flute, oboe d’amore and 
violin, with strings and continuo, displays the “dialogue” con- 
cept on the highest level. The solo group itself embraces con- 
trasting timbres, and the four movements place different styles 
and structural methods in juxtaposition. Thus the opening An- 
dante is a trio accompanied by a homophonic orchestra and 
is constructed like the first movement of a sonata. Its recapi- 
tulation leads to an organ-point from which grows a cadenza 
entirely composed by Telemann. At the same time, the move- 
ment is an eloquent display of baroque style in which, through 
its very course, the soloists are called upon for improvised 
ornament according to the fundamentals of bel canto. The 
Allegro has an unusual form. There are five tuttis and four solo 
episodes. The tuttis, dà la polonaise, provide the pillars of the 
movement, and define the principal tonalities in their logical 
order: E - A- B- E - E. The last tutti is exactly the same as 
the first. But what is strange is that, replacing the fourth tutti 
and solo, all forces take part in a recapitulation of miscellaneous 
elements pulled from the first part of the movement. This allows 
us to rehear the opening motifs in a reverse order, and so 
accentuates the spirit of “dialogue.” ; 

The Siciliana is a magnificent construction involving three 
main ideas; a melody with the customary Siciliana rhythm, a 
metrically trochaic and homophonic orchestral accompaniment, 
and a commentary in short arabesque phrases by two solo 
parts. The distribution of these elements moves through all 
the combinations before arriving at a new interplay where all 
the parts have the same importance. A climax grows where 
the tension builds up to the major demand made by the last 
measures; contrasted harmonies in between which the soloists 
in turn must improvise those bridges which Telemann left out. 
The end of this movement leads forcefully into the finale, 
Vivace, a rondo in form. The ritornello dances on an ostinato 
with trills and the three episodes are light diversions led by 
each of the solo instruments. The soloists take on clearly diverse 
personalities; the oboe d’amore plays the role of a peasant bag- 
piper, the violin is a gypsy, and flute is an endearingly nimble 
comedian. The harpsichord joins the three like a master of 
ceremonies. 

The Concerto in G major for two violas has an original 
title in French, “Concert par Monsieur Telemann pour 2 violet- 
tes, 2 violons, taille et basse.” The title here, aims chiefiy to 
establish the homogeneity of the ensemble for which the work 
was composed, Striking, first of all, is the all-over string choir 
sonority from which two solo instruments, singing essentially 
in parallel lines, hardly break away. These two inseparable 
violas were called by Vivaldi, “Violette all’ inglese,” and Tele- 
mann’s adoption of this helps explain the archaic and some- 
what Italian style of his concerto. The concept of building 
through contrasts shows itself in the scheme of the composition. 
In the first movement, avec douceur or “with sweetness,” the 
initial motif of the tutti is inverted in E minor; in the second 
movement, gay, there are futtis where the two upper parts reply 
to and pursue each other as in a caccia or “chase,” while the 
violas play intermezzi of arpeggios and repeated-note figures 
without thematic significance. The largo is a trio movement, 
church style, supported in places by the entire orchestra. The 
finale, vivement, is an almost homophonic rondo with three 
ritornellos. 

The Trumpet Concerto in D major was modelled after the 
late 17th century instrumental style, developed by Giuseppe 
Torelli of Bologna or Giovanni-Battista Vitali of Modena. The 
two slow movements are written all of one piece, as a melody 
accompanied in equal notes by the whole orchestra or like 
the grave in three parts of a church sonata. Of the alternating 
allegros, the first embarks upon a tone of conversation, as when 
the soloist in its first entrance annoutces its special motif, then 
interrupts itself in an instant to go back to the beginning, thus 








860 


_ A Division oy — 
Vanguard Records 


Recorded under the auspices of 
BGS-70679 


setting the perspective of the movement’s development. The. 
finale resembles a fugal movement of a sonata a quatre, not 
only in the character of the opening subject but in the progres- 
sive tightening of the counterpoint. The striking “concerto” 
aspect of this work is the powerful opposition between one 
simple instrument commanding only twelve notes and an or- 
chestral able to move freely. Telemann was inspired by these 
exacting demands to create a marvellously concise interplay of 
developments and contrasts. 

The Concerto in G major for oboe d’amore is.more mod- 
ern in form and spirit. It reflects the Italian condéption of a 
single soloist after the model of a singer in grand opera. But 
the work is not only a transposition of the bel canto spirit into 
instrumental terms. It is a clear adaptation of the lyric forms 


‘used at the beginning of the 18th century. Three out of four 


movements are da capo airs; each piece.is essentially tripartite 
and within this symmetrical framework the soloist progressively 
develops his expressive art and virtuosity. Here one can really 
speak of a crowd of supernumeraries supporting the action 
which brings about the entrance, discourse and triumph of the 
“guest of honor.” The oboe d’amore, an unusual and virtuoso 
instrument, shows that it is well suited for this kind of theatrical 
occasion. 

Summing up the general effect of these four concertos, we 
see Telemann as a kind of “master of ceremonies” marshalling 
forms from all the musical countries of his culture for the 
delight and edification of his listeners. There is perhaps a 
Germanic quality about this search for universality. It is difi- 
cult to imagine Purcell, Vivaldi or Rameau studying the qual- 
ities and styles of other musical nations so closely. And it may 
be an important factor in the greatness of Telemann, to have 
assimilated in terms of his own distinctive personality the whole 
of European culture of his time. 


Notes by Raymond Meylan Translated from the French 


Outstanding Baroque Recordings by I Solisti di Zagreb 
Antonio Janigro, conductor 


VIVALDI: The Four Seasons BGS-5001 
TELEMANN: 2 Oboe Concertos, Viola Concerto, Violin Concerto, 
Sonata a Quattro (Andre Lardrot, oboe) 
BGS-5028 
THE VIRTUOSO FLUTE — TELEMANN: Flute Suite in A minor, 
with MOZART: Concerto for Flute and Harp (Julius Baker, 
flute) BGS-5048 
VIVALDI: Concertos for Diverse Instruments ; 
BGS-70665 
BOYCE: The Eight Symphonies BGS-70668 
THE VIRTUOSO TRUMPET — Sonata and Concertos by Torelli, 
Purcell, Vivaldi, Perti, Gabrieli, Corelli, Clarke, Stanley (4 solo 
trumpets; Helmut Wobisch, 1st trumpet) BGS-5041 
THE VIRTUOSO TRUMPET, Vol. 2— Concertos and Sonatas by 
Haydn, Biber, Manfredini, Alberti, Torelli, L. Mozart (6 solo 
trumpets; Helmut Wobisch, Ist trumpet) BGS-5053 
THE VIRTUOSO TRUMPET, Vol. 3 — Works of Torelli, Jacchini, 
Gabrieli, Aldovandini and Anon. (Helmut Wobisch, 1st trumpet) 
BGS-70685 


“The best interpretation during the past twenty years of the 
Seasons of Vivaldi is that recorded by the Zagreb Soloists directed 
by Antonio Janigro.” Igor Stravinsky 

“The all-over finest of its kind . . . artistically controlled vir- 
tuosity of high register trumpet playing . . . incomparable Janigro 
readings and Zagreb ensemble playing . . . flawless and sonically 
thrilling.” R. D. Darrell, High Fidelity (on The Virtuoso Trumpet) 

“Janigro and his excellent ensemble have turned out another 
inspired recording.” Library Journal, on Telemann disc 

“Janigro’s interpretation is absolutely first class . . . the vitality 
and gusto that we have come to expect from this conductor and his 
excellent players.” I. Kipnis, HiFi/Stereo, on Boyce symphonies 


This recording was made with a multi-channel complex of microphones, tape 
recorders and amplifiers of the most advanced design to produce masters which 
embody a frequency response covering the entire range of human hearing. The 
monaural version is playable with any monophonic or stereophonic cartridge, 
and its richness of sound is further enhanced when played on a stereophonic 
system. The stereo version is playable with any stereophonic cartridge. When 
reproduced through a stereophonic system it affords a roundness, clarity, defini- 
tion, physical presence and natural directionality so that all awareness vanishes 
of any intermediary between the listener and the live performance. 


VANGUARD AEC o si NEW YORK, (4 i IN U.S.A.