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Three Sonatas for Cello and Harpsichord 

XWN 18627 

XWN 18627 


sarti a SS 


True high fidelity creates “the illusion that the listener’s chair is 
the most favored seat, acoustically, in the concert hall” This 
demands clarity, range and, most vital of all, balance, the natural 
balance of the original music, faithfully recreated. This is 

Westminster’s NATURAL BALANCE.” Listen - and Compare. 


No. 1 in G Major (S. 1027) 


| K6then, when Johann Sebastian Bach 
THE NIUASIS arrived there in November 1717, had 
| very much both the appearance and the 

atmosphere of what today would be 
called a small university town. The center of Kéthen, however, 
was not a school, but the Schloss which housed the young 
Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Kéthen and more privileged members 
of his retinue. The Prince was only twenty-two when he had 
first met Bach at his sister, the Princess, wedding in Weimar 
and, having neither wife nor occupation to divert him, he 
poured all his affection and understanding into the practice and 
appreciation of music. Bach, both as a personality and a com- 
poser, seems to have appealed to him immediately and he at 
once set about luring the great musician into his service. As 
Johann Sebastian was at that moment irate because he had been 
overlooked for promotion on the death of his Weimar employer's 
Kapellmeister, he allowed himself to be quickly convinced in 
spite of the complete absence of church music at the Kothen 

The town of K6then, half rural and half urban, hemmed in 
from the surrounding fields and woods by a towered medieval 
wall, was dependant for its cultural life upon the activities at 
the Schloss.. The Schloss itself more resembled a college dormi- 
tory enclosing a quadrangle of garden plots and trees than a 
castle , although it was surrounded by a thin moat, and the 
court itself was conducted on a small but discriminating scale. 
There is much argument as to where the Bach family lived 
during the five years Johann Sebastian served the Prince but as 
Leopold was extremely attached to his Kapellmeister’s person 
and superlatively adulatory of his accomplishments, it would 
seem most likely that they had an apartment in one wing of the 
Scholoss. Besides possessing the long coveted title of Kappell- 
meister, Bach also drew the second largest salary at the court, 
had his own private music copyer and complete charge of all 
musical arrangements. The Kapelle—called by the Prince the 
Collegium Musicum—consisted of eighteen members including 
Bach, who played the only viola in the group. The basic strings, 
winds, and brasses were augmented by traveling players and 
singers, and the visits of these musicians to Kéthen provide the 
basis for dating many of the Kéthen compositions which 
could not have been performed without such necessary instru- 
mental and vocal additions. It was in this way that Bach first 
met Anna Magdelene Wilcken, who shortly was to become his 
beloved second wife. 

Wherever Johann Sebastian may have lived, he was respon- 
sible for rehearsing the Kapelle at his house and this arrange- 
ment in addition to the informality of the court must have made 
his relationship with his fellow musicians more gemiitlich than 
business-like. The absence of all elaborate church music in the 
Calvinist congregation to which Prince Leopold belonged left 
Bach’s efforts almost solely concentrated on chamber works both 
for orchestra and solo instruments, the great majority of which 
have, sadly, been lost. The Brandenburg Concerti, the solo 
Sonatas for violin and cello, the first book of the Well Tempered 
Klavier are among the many magnificent creations of this period 
when Johann Sebastian was in his middle thirties, fully in com- 
mand of his materials and considerably sobered from his youthful 
propensity for virtuoso exclamations. The three Sonatas for 
Klavier and Viola da Gamba are no exception to the high quality 

No. 2 in D Major (S. 1028) 

and moving depth of his Kòthen chamber music. 

By the first part of the eighteenth century the viols, long the 
kings of European music, had retreated to the attic. Their soft 
organ-like tone and lack of brilliance and nimbleness made them 
unsuitable for the tenser demands of the concert hall. The bass 
member of the family, however, became popular in its Own 
right as a virtuoso instrument and was still cultivated in Bach's 
time by talented amateurs and a few professionals. In size, the 
bass viol was somewhat smaller than a cello and fitted with frets 
on the fingerboard, as were all the viols. It was tuned in fourths 
with a central third, thus: DGcead, and when played it was 
held ‘decently betwixt your knees”, as the Jacobean Christopher 
Simpson instructs. Prince Leopold counted the playing of the 
gamba among his musical accomplishments, but whether or not 
he could maneuver the Gamba Sonatas is impossible to tell. Bach, 
however well paid and adored, was never a composer to make 
concessions to the pleasure of half-skilled performers and it 1s 
more likely that his gambist colleague in the Kappelle, Christian 
Ferdinand Abel, whose son Karl become the last of the great 
gamba virtuosos, performed the Sonatas with Bach at the 
klavier for the Prince’s edification. 

The Sonatas for Klavier and Viola da Gamba, composed 
around 1720, are trio rather than solo sonatas, in which the gam- 
ba or cello takes the tenor line while the harpsichord surrounds it 
with the bass and treble. For this reason the string music is re- 
stricted to the upper range of the instrument and is is controlled 
by the demands of the piece rather than by a desire for brilliance 
or showmanship, an attitude which became increasingly promi- 
nent in Johann Sebastian’s work. The Sonata No. 1 in G Major 
was arranged by the composer from a slightly earlier version for 
two flutes and continuo. It consists of four movements: Adagio, 
Allegro ma non tanto, a short Andante, and Allegro Moderato. 
Bach must have been especially fond of this music for he later 
adapted the final movement as an organ trio. The Second Sonata 
in D Major is also in four movements: it opens with a brief but 
lyrical Adagio, next an Allegro, Andante, and a long final 
Allegro which has a rocking motion like a Barcarolle. 

The form of the Third Sonata in G Minor is more condensed, 
but at the same time more richly developed musically. The work 
has many of the qualities of a small concerto and although the 
basic outlines of the trio sonata are retained, the working out of 
the material is much more fllexible technically and emotionally. 
In many places the music is like a horse trying to get hold of 
the bit: the harmonies are filled in and elaborated as though the 
bounds of the trio might be broken by sheer weight, while the 
initial themes give way to variants and new sentiments in the 
course of their development. The Sonata is in three movements: 
Vivace, a beautiful Adagio, and a complex but delightful Allegro. 

The impact of the power of Bach’s musical. architecture, such 
as overwhelms one in the solo violin sonatas and partitas, the 
later Musical Offering, and Art of the Fugue, is also evident in 
the Klavier and Gamba Sonatas, but tempered with a beautiful 
melodic simplicity. The close relationship between the size and 
tuning of the division viola da gamba and the more recent cello 
allow the works to be played without alterations on either 


No. 3 in G Minor (S. 1029) 



es ANTONIO JANIGRO has taken bis 
THE ARTISTS place among the world’s leading vir- 
) tuoso cellists. In solo recitals and ap- 

pearances as soloist with many of the 
major symphony orchestras he has toured all over the world— 
Europe, South America, North Africa, Indonesia—and in the 
United States he has recently played to sold-out houses and 
cheering audiences from coast to coast. In his many orchestral 
appearances Mr. Janigro has played under such noted conductors 
as Ansermet, Cluytens, Fricsay, Kletzki, Markevitch, Scherchen, 
and Van Beinum. 

ROBERT VEYRON-LACROIX was born in Paris in 1922, 
and studied at the Conservatorie Nationale de Musique in that 
city. Being equally gifted as a performer on the harpsichord 
and the piano, he has been a soloist with major European 
orchestras, while his talent for chamber music brought him an 
invitation to participate in the Prades Festival under Pablo 
Casals. When not on concert tours throughout Europe, Africa 
and the Orient he does much research on old and unedited 
music. Mr. Veyron-Lacroix is professor of harpsichord at the 
Schola Cantorum, Parts. 

di : This recording is processed according to the 
TH E * ECO è, D IR.I.A. A. characteristic from a tape re- 
i corded with Westminster's exclusive ''Panor- 

thophonic''® technique. To achieve the great- 
est fidelity, each Westminster record is mastered at the volume level 
technically suited to it. Therefore, set your volume control at the level 
which sounds best to your ears. Variations in listening rooms and playback 
equipment may require additional adjustment of bass and treble controls 
to obtain NATURAL BALANCE. Play this recording only with an unworn, 
microgroove stylus. (.001 radius). For best economical results we re- 
commend that you use a diamond stylus, which will last longer than 
other needies. Average playback times: diamond—over 2000 plays; 
sapphire—50 plays; osmium or other metal points—be sure to change 
frequently. Remember that a damaged stylus may ruin your collection. 



VIVALDI: Six Sonatas for Cello and Harpsichord—Antonio 

Janigro cello; Robert Veyron-Lacroix, harpsichord.......... XWN18628 

BACH: Suites for Unaccompanied Cello —Antonio Janigro 

No. in G Major: No. 2 inCMapr i. XWN18349 
Ne" 2 n D Minor Me 6 WB eer XWN18350 i À 
Né: 4 in E Flat Major No. 9 in € Mia... XWN18073 RAMEAU: Complete Works for Harpsichord—Robert Veyron-Lacroix, 

BOCCHERINI: Cello Concerto in B Flat Major 
HAYDN: Cello Concerto in D Major, Op. 101——Antonio Janigro, 

HAYDN: Concertos for Harpsichord—D Major; F Major, G Major; 

herpsichord i. Cl... iii 

Concertino in C Major—Robert Veyron-Lacroix, harpsichord; 

Vienna State Opera Orch.; Horvat, cond......................... XWN18042 

davi XWN3303 

» To keep records static and dust 
Y free, we recommend the use of the 
DIS-CHARGER, manufactured by 
Mercury Scientific Products Corp., 
Dept. W, 1725 West 7th Street, 
Los Angeles 17, California. 

(also available separately on XWN18124, XWN18125, and 


cello; Vienna State Opera Orch.; Prohaska, cond. .......... XWN18406 

Write in for complete catalog—Westminster Recording Sales Corp., 275 Seventh Ave., New York 1, N.Y. 

Printed in U.S.A. 

334 RPM 


om @ % 

18627 XTV 26396 

Made in USA 
SONATA NO. 1 IN G MAJOR (S. 1027) 

band one 1. Adagio - Allegro ma non tanto 
band two 2. Andante 
band three 3. Allegro moderato 
SONATA NO. 2 IN D MAJOR (S. 1028) 
band four 1. Adagio - Allegro 
band five 2. Andante 
band six 3. Allegro 

Ma gino 

al al BALANCE 


39% RPM 

=== \ 
i} J. S. BACH 

XWN 2 

XTV 26397 | 
Made in USA 

SONATA NO. 3 IN G MINOR (S. 1029) 

1. Vivace 
2. Adagio 
3. Allegro 

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