IN THEATERS OF
HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 20 April 1993
GENERAL SUPPLY IN
THEATERS OF OPERATIONS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. SUPPLYING THE THEATER OF OPERATIONS
Section I. PRE-WAR SUPPLY SUPPORT 1-1
War Reserve Stocks 1-1
Pre-Positioned Materiel Configured to Unit Sets 1-2
Initial Preplanned Supply Support 1-2
Host-Nation Support 1-2
Transition to War 1-3
Section II. SUPPLY SUPPORT DURING SUSTAINED OPERATIONS 1-4
Wartime Supply Stockage Levels 1-4
Direct Support System 1-4
Sealift and Containerized Surface Distribution 1-5
Rail Networks and Inland Waterways 1-6
Air Delivery of Supplies * 1-6
Ground Movement of Supplies I- 7
Section III. SUPPLY SUPPORT FOR DIFFERENT TACTICAL OPERATIONS 1-9
Airland Battle Doctrine 1-9
Covering Force Operations 1-9
Close Battle Area Operations 1-10
Rear Operations 1-10
Contingency Force Operations 1-1 1
Special Operations 1-1 1
Air Assault Operations 1-12
Airborne Operations 1-13
Low-Intensity Conflict 1-14
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
*This publication supersedes FM 10-13,2) October 1986; FM 10-27. 2 November I 984; FM 29- 1 9, 19 April 1985; FM 29-51,
13 November 1984; and FM 29-52, 30 September 1983.
Retrograde Operations 1-15
Deep Operations 1-15
Heavy-Light and Light-Heavy Operations 1-16
Section IV.- SUPPLY SUPPORT OF OPERATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS 1-16
Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Operations 1-16
Smoke Operations 1-18
Night Operations 1-18
Urban Operations 1-19
Desert Operations 1-20
Counterguerrilla Operations 1-21
Jungle Operations 1-22
Amphibious Operations 1-23
Cold Weather and Mountain Operations 1-24
CHAPTER 2. MANAGING GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT
Section I. MANAGERS AND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES 2-1
General Supply Item Managers 2-1
Secondary Items Management 2-1
Supply Stockage Objectives 2-1
Supply Performance Objectives 2-1
Direct Support System and Air Lines of Communication 2-2
Section II. REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL SUPPLIES 2-4
Reorder Point 2-4
War Reserve Requirements 24
Consumption Rates and Planning Factors 2-4
Supply and Storage Requirements 2-5
Section III. SUPPLY SUPPORT SYSTEMS 2-5
Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System Supply Support 2-5
Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply Subsystem Support 2-6
Standard Property Book System -Redesigned 2-7
Standard Army Retail Supply System Supply Support 2-7
Automated Backup Procedures 2-7
Manual Supply Support 2-8
Wartime Property Accountability 2-9
Section IV. SUPPLY ASSISTANCE 2-9
Logistics Intelligence File .2-9
Supply Assistance Request 2-9
Management Information Research Assistance Center 2-9
Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10
CHAPTER 3. PROVIDING CLASS II, III PACKAGED, AND IV SUPPLIES
Section I. MANAGEMENT 3-1
Issue Controls 3-1
Mobility Constraints 3-1
Clothing and Textile Repair Constraints 3-1
Section II. CLASS II SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS 3-2
Clothing, Individual Equipment, Tentage, and
Administrative and Housekeeping Supplies 3-2
Basic and Operational Load Requirements 3-3
Inventory Requirements 3-3
Section III. MAP SUPPLY SUPPORT 3-4
Initial Issue 3-4
Theater Reserve Stocks 3-4
Requisition Procedures 3-5
Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-6
Section IV. CLASS IV SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS 3-6
Construction and Barrier Materials 3=6
Basic and Operational Load Requirements 3-7
Inventory Requirements 3-7
Section V, DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS II AND IV SUPPLIES 3-7
Distribution of Class II Items 3-7
Distribution of Class IV Items 3-8
Theater Sources of Class II and IV Items 3-8
Supply Points 3-8
Clothing Exchange Sources 3-9
Salvage Collection Points 3-9
Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-10
Automatic Return Items 3-13
Section VL STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS III PACKAGED SUPPLIES 3-13
Theater Sources 3-13
Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-13
Receipt Procedures 3-14
Storage Procedures 3-14
Section VIL LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GASES 3-16
Supply Source 3-16
Identification Markings 3-16
Storage and Handling Precautions 3-17
CHAPTER 4. PROVIDING CLASS VII SUPPLIES
Section I. MANAGEMENT 4-1
Major Items Management 4-1
End Item Usage Profiles 4-1
Class VII Losses 4-1
Wartime Replacement Factors 4-2
Weapons Systems Replacement 4-2
Operational Readiness Float 4-2
Section II. CLASS VII SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS 4-3
Major End Items 4-3
Inventory Requirements 4-3
Section III. DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS VII SUPPLIES 4-4
Theater Sources 4-4
Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 4-4
CHAPTER 5. PROVIDING CLASS IX SUPPLIES
Section I. MANAGEMENT 5-1
Importance of Repair Parts 5-1
Automated Support 5-1
Zero Balance 5-1
Section II. AUTHORIZED STOCKAGE AND PRESCRIBED LOAD LISTS 5-2
The Authorized Stockage List 5-2
Authorized Stockage List Item Stockage Criteria 5-2
Authorized Stockage List Changes 5-2
Standardized Combat Authorized Stockage List 5-2
Standardized Combat Prescribed Load List 5-3
Prescribed Load List Stockage Levels 5-3
Records of Demands 5-3
Prescribed Load List Changes 5-3
Section III. SOURCES OF REPAIR PARTS 5-4
Shop Supply.... 5-4
Quick Supply Store 5-4
Controlled Exchange 5-5
Supply Requests 5-6
Section IV. REQUISITIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 5-7
Corps, Separate Brigades, and Regiments 5-9
Communications Zone 5-10
CHAPTER 6. PROVIDING CLASS VI AND X SUPPLIES
Section L MANAGEMENT 6-1
Class VI Support Concerns 6-1
Support of Civil Affairs 6-1
Section II. CLASS VI SUPPLY 6-3
Personal Demand Items 6-3
Ration Supplement Sundries Packs 6-3
Sales Teams 6=4
Storage Concerns 6-4
Section III. CLASS X SUPPLY 6-4
Nonmilitary Program Items 6-4
Sources of Supply 6-5
Requisition and Issue Procedures 6-5
Distribution Procedures 6-5
APPENDIX A THE THREAT A-l
APPENDIX B GENERAL SUPPLY CLASSES B-l
INDEX Index- 1
For purposes of this manual, general supplies are supplies which have been grouped together based on their storage
and distribution requirements rather than their end use. General supplies include the following:
• Subsistence (Class I, covered in AR 30-21).
• Clothing and organizational equipment (Class II).
• Packaged petroleum and industrial gases (Class III).
• Construction materials (Class IV).
• Health and comfort items (Class VI).
• End items listed in SB 700-20 and included in authorization documents (Class VII).
• Repair parts (Class IX).
• Standard maps and map products.
• Nonmilitary items (Class X).
Appendix A describes the threat to CSS operations, including regional threats and potential threats to weapons
systems. Appendix B provides a list of general supply classes and their subclasses. Sincethere is nota separate manual
for heavy materiel and since Class II and IV supplies are often grouped together for distribution purposes, construction
and fortification materials (Class IV) are also included. This manual is one of a series that provides guidance on how
supply systems support forces in a theater of operations. The complete set includes the following:
• AR 30-21, which describes Class I subsistence supply.
• FM 10-23, which describes Army field feeding.
• FM 1 0-27, which describes how Class II, III packaged, IV, VI, VII, IX, and X supplies are provided
for theater operations.
• FM 10-67, which explains Class III bulk petroleum supply.
• FM 9-6, which covers Class V ammunition supply.
• FM 8-10, which deals with Class VIII health service support.
• FM 10-52, which describes water supply and distribution.
This manual is a guide for meeting the Class II, III packaged, IV, VI, VII, IX, and X supply requirements of supported
units. It is for commodity and inventory managers, logistics staff officers from S4 to G4 and their assistants, and
instructors in supply areas. This manual should be used with FM 10-1. Commanders and staff officers of DS and
GS units may use this manual, also. This manual can™
• Help logisticians improve general supply support immediately before and after hostilities start.
• Provide logistics staff members at all organizational levels with a reference manual that can help
them plan, manage, and sustain general supply support for a theater of operations.
• Describe the requisition and flow of general supplies from the time they are requested or
requisitioned until they are issued to the requesting or supporting unit.
FM 10-27 provides guidance for supply support, including that needed during transition to war and sustained war.
It covers the effects of different wartime environments on supply requirements, supply routes, and supply trains.
Successful supply support requires advance planning, procurement, and pre-positioning of supplies. Therefore, this
manual also covers class managers, supply objectives, logistics files, and automated systems designed to help
managers forecast requirements and improve supply support. Other areas covered are general supply classes and
their sources including:
• Basic loads and, if transportation assets are available, peacetime operational loads.
s Class II, III packaged, and IV distribution and supply points.
• Existing Army and Air Force Exchange Service, COMMZ.
Also, this manual describes how general supplies are requested, procured, stored, issued, turned in, and accounted for.
Emphasis is placed on providing a basic overview of requisition and distribution flows and on maintaining adequate
The proponent for this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 to:
US Army Quartermaster Center and School
Fort Lee, VA 23801-5036
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
SUPPLYING THE THEATER OF OPERATIONS
PRE-WAR SUPPLY SUPPORT
WAR RESERVE STOCKS
War reserve stocks are stocks acquired in peace-
time to meet the increased military requirements
that occur when war breaks out. War reserves
support mobilization requirements and sustain
operations until resupply can be established and
expanded. War reserve stocks include decremented
stocks, contingency stocks, and the types of items
found in the various theater reserve stocks. AR 11-11
cites required stockage levels. An example is pre-
positioned materiel configured to unit sets main-
tained in oversea areas. Policies and procedures
for the management of war reserves are described
in AR 710-1.
Pre-Positioned War Reserve Stocks
In a theater, the theater commander manages pre-
positioned stocks. According to DA policy and guide-
lines, war reserve stocks may be pre-positioned
oversea, on ships, or in areas within CONUS.
Oversea war reserves. These war reserves are
positioned throughout a potential theater. They
support post D-day combat consumption until
supplies arrive from CONUS or other theater stor-
age areas. Most war reserves are positioned in the
COMMZ. A maximum of 10 days of supplies are
positioned in forward deployed corps and
TAACOM units for the transition to war. During
peacetime, these stocks are controlled by a theater
army. At or near the start of hostilities, they are
released to the corps and TAACOMs where they
Supplies pre-positioned on ships. As part of the
Near-Term Pre-Positioning Force, the US has char-
tered merchant ships which remain on station.
These ships will join with the equipment pre-
positioned at sea and then proceed to trouble
spots. Vessels and cargo undergo cyclic inspection
and maintenance to ensure good readiness posture.
They can also provide selected sustaining sup-
plies for Air Force and Army units.
CONUS war reserves. War reserves are held in
CONUS when they cannot be pre-positioned at or
near the point of probable conflict. Reserves may
be held in CONUS depots for a specific force,
area, or operational project. They may also be held
for use as contingency support stocks.
Other War Reserve Materiel Stocks
These stocks consist of all other war reserve items.
They include Class VII major end items, secondary end
items, and repair parts. These assets will have purpose
codes of C, D, or E, as explained in AR 725-50.
During the early portion of the mounting phase,
supplies must be brought up to required levels.
Assault forces must be self-sustaining until they
withdraw or link up with ground forces. In the
event of a contingency or airhead operation, divi-
sion elements deploy with prescribed amounts of
all classes of accompanying supplies. These sup-
plies are taken into the objective area by both
assault and follow-on echelons. Three days of
supply are desired in the airhead. The minimum
safety level is two days. During the initial phase
of deployment, this is the only source of resupply.
Emergency resupply will likely be limited to Class
I, III, and V items. Before beginning an operation,
commanders should ensure that-
• Equipment shortages are made up.
• Reserve stocks of critical items are estab-
Priorities are established for issue of float
stocks and other controlled Class II, IV, and VII items.
• Procedures and policies are established
for aerial supply of Class I, III packaged, and V items.
• Procedures and channels for recovery,
evacuation, and disposition of captured or aban-
doned items are reviewed.
• Data on availability and capability of trans-
portation is available.
For more details on logistics preparation of the
battlefield, see FM 10-1, Chapter 2.
CONFIGURED TO UNIT SETS
Pre-positioning part of a CONUS-based unit's
equipment in an oversea theater reduces strategic
lift requirements. This results in a quicker reac-
tion time for a combat unit to meet a contingency.
POMCUS items, consisting primarily of Class
VII weapons systems, are located at storage sites,
which are manned by a US Army combat equip-
INITIAL PREPLANNED SUPPLY SUPPORT
Initial preplanned supply support is the combat-
essential materiel required early in a military
operation. Precut requisitions are maintained at
CONUS NICPs or TAMMCs. When alerted for
deployment, a unit directs the NICP, MMC, or
DAAS to release preplanned increments of 5 to 15
DOS. These increments help sustain deployed
forces between the time accompanying supplies and
pre-positioned stocks are exhausted and demand-
supported resupply starts in a theater of operations.
For more details, see AR 725-50, Chapter 12.
HNS is the civil and military assistance provided
by host nations to allied forces and organizations.
This support may occur in time of peace, transi-
tion to war, or war. As a rule, the location of forces
on the battlefield determines whether you can use
HNS. The rearmost areas are ideal for this sup-
port. Corps rear areas and echelons above corps
are more static and lend themselves to HNS. How-
ever, in an undeveloped theater, HNS may be used
wherever needed. AR 570-9 has DA policies and
responsibilities for HNS. In the past, US forces
relied on organic support. Today, logisticians must
keep abreast of agreements on how their allies can
help support the battle logistically.
International agreements document commitments
for HNS. Through agreements, the host nation
sets forth its intent and willingness to support US
requirements. For example, will host-nation civil-
ians remain at war reserve storage sites after hos-
tilities begin? Is the host nation to retain territo-
rial responsibility and control of supply ports, rail
facilities, and airspace? It may be that the host
nation will turn over control of MSRs to another
nation or alliance. Host-nation transport could be
used to move supplies from seaports to GSUs and
beyond. Support available in a given theater will
depend on the host-nation's political climate; na-
tional laws; industrial development; and military,
civilian, and commercial resources. Laundry, tex-
tile renovation, and CEB are CSS services which host
nations could provide. These services would, in turn,
affect Class II stockage and supply flow procedures.
Reasonably Assured HNS
Support based on signed national agreements,
plans, or other acceptable documents maybe con-
sidered reasonably assured support. Such support
affects the size and composition of our force
support structure and, in turn, affects deployment
plans, demand forecasts, and supply stockage levels.
Prudent Risk HNS
This is the risk that we accept as to the amount of
support which may be provided to US forces.
Army staff officers must consider the minimum
force structure needed to meet and remain respon-
sive to mission requirements. The theater com-
mander, in coordination with HQDA, must deter-
mine the types and levels of HNS that can be
accepted without placing mission accomplishment
at an unnecessary risk.
Supplies and services may be available in some
nations where no HNS agreements are in place.
Contingency contracting may provide this source.
Whereas HNS represents government-to-government
agreements, contingency contracting is conducted
directly with local businessmen or firms. Recent
experiences have shown the value of local con-
tracting to support the initial deployment phase of
US forces. All the limitations noted above for
HNS remain valid, however; and contingency con-
tracting must be considered as primarily a short-
TRANSITION TO WAR
The transition phase begins with advance warning
of an impending war. It continues until SEALOC
have been reopened and the necessary logistics
structure is in place to sustain war. During the
transition phase, all supplies and logistics func-
tions nonessential to the war effort must be elimi-
nated. The SSA initiates selective cancellation
action on requisitions deemed nonessential for
combat and unnecessary for individual health and
welfare. For example, certain health and safety
items, such as toilet paper, though not in the pre-
positioned war reserve materiel stocks and not
coded combat essential, must be requisitioned
because they are essential for health reasons. Pro-
cedures for preparing and processing cancellation
documents are covered in AR 725-50, Chapters 3
and 4. Canceling nonessential requisitions lessens
the strain on ADP equipment. It also reduces the
number of requisitions on CSS units which must
distribute CONUS war reserves, fill unit short-
ages, and equip all forces on deployment alert. On
mobilization day, selected general supplies are
removed from storage and transported to forward
areas. Initially, combat forces must rely on ac-
companying basic loads, oversea war reserves,
and air delivery of Class IX and maintenance-
related Class II items. An emergency airlift of
general supply items, normally shipped by SEALOC
and surface transport, will probably be necessary.
Corps Transition Support
Forward deployed corps, COSCOM, and
TAACOM units stock a maximum of 10 days of
pre-positioned war reserve materiel stocks which
consist of Class I supplies; selected Class II, III,
IV, V, and VII supplies; and Class IX items not
delivered by air. This enables the corps to support
units through D+10. After these stocks are ex-
hausted, the corps requisitions from the TAMMC,
which directs the TAACOM to issue from its
theater army area GSUs. These war reserves be-
come the corps initial wartime ASL. The corps
then becomes the source of surface resupply for
divisional and nondivisional DSUs. The corps
also makes the transition to war with a 30-day
supply of essential, air-eligible, maintenance-related
Class II, III packaged, and IX items.
TAACOM Transition Support
At the direction of the theater army commander,
the TAMMC releases preplanned packages of surface-
delivered supplies to the TAACOM. TAACOM
GSUs are the main source of surface supply for
TAACOM DSUs and for units passing through the
COMMZ. Though managed by the TAMMC, war
reserves are stored in TAACOM GSUs. Like the
corps, the TAACOM goes to war with a 30-day
supply of GS, maintenance-related Class II and
Class IX items delivered by ALOC. These sup-
plies support materiel operating in the COMMZ
and repair of items evacuated to the rear.
Requisition and Materiel Flow
In peacetime, divisional, COSCOM, and
TAACOM DS and GS units are resupplied by DSS
from CONUS. During the transition-to-war phase,
the units are resupplied from the 30 days of sus-
taining theater army stocks in TAACOM GSUs.
As required, the TAMMC calls forward preplanned
supply packages from CONUS depots. As the
tactical situation changes, the TAMMC may re-
quest modifications in these supply packages.
Requests. In the BSA and the DSA, using units
submit requests to the supply point run by their
supporting DSU. If possible, high-priority re-
quests are filled, and the DMMC is notified of the
fill. All other requests are transmitted to the DMMC. If
a request is for a controlled item, the DMMC transmits
a requisition through the CMMC to the TAMMC.
Issue. Supplies are issued from the lowest level. If
the item is on hand in a DSU, the MMC cuts an
MRO directing the DSU to issue the item. (Main
supply points may be directed to issue the item to
a forward supply point. ) If the item is not on hand
at a DSU but is on hand at a GSU, the MMC directs
the GSU to issue the item to the DSU.
Requisition. When the item is NOT on hand in the
DSA, the DMMC prepares and transmits a requi-
sition to the CMMC. When the item is NOT on
hand in the corps rear area, the CMMC transmits
the requisition to the TAMMC which queries the
TAACOM MMC. When the item is not available
at a TAACOM GSU or DSU, the TAACOM MMC
transmits the requisition to the TAMMC. The
TAMMC transmits replenishment requisitions and
any requisitions for items not on hand in the
theater to the appropriate NICP. The NICP cuts an
MRO directing a depot to issue the item. In an
emergency, the item may be airlifted to the the-
ater. However, most general supply items are
shipped by surface transport to the theater. When
possible, supplies are throughput to DSUs. Other
items are transported by HNS or transportation
command assets to a TAACOM GSU. For more
details and graphics, see FM 10-1, Chapter 5.
SUPPLY SUPPORT DURING SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
WARTIME SUPPLY STOCKAGE LEVELS
Adequate stockage levels help the transition to
war and ensure sustainability during hostilities.
DA prescribes stockage objectives for the theater
in terms of DOS. Initial stockage is based on
expected usage rates. After the war begins, range
and depth of stockage are adjusted to meet war-
time demand criteria. Quantities are computed
based on actual or expected demand, OST, and
safety levels. GSUs normally maintain a wartime
sustaining level of 5 to 10 DOS plus OST for all
classes except Class II and IX items to be deliv-
ered by ALOC. However, to provide sustained
supply support, the theater army commander may
allow up to 30 days of critical Class II and IX
items to be stocked.
Direct Support Units
DSUs at all levels in division, corps, and TAACOM
stock an RO for general supplies consisting of a
30-day operating level, a 5 -day safety level, and
actual OST by item. Stockage levels for all other
classes are prescribed by the theater army com-
mander. Stockage levels at corps and TAACOM
GSUs vary depending on the class of supply. AR 710-2
shows the DOS for each class of general supply.
War Reserve Stockage List
The war reserve stockage list identifies items
which are to be maintained as war reserve stocks.
The list is used to compute war reserve require-
ments essential to sustain combat and to support
sudden mobilization requirements.
DIRECT SUPPORT SYSTEM
General supplies, Class II, III packaged, IV, and
VII, are distributed through a DSS. This supply
distribution system is described in FMs 38-725-1
and 63-4. Under this supply distribution system,
supplies are throughput from CONUS wholesale
depots to the requesting SSA. Throughput re-
duces the need for an intermediate supply
level. Theater SSAs supported by the DSS include
DSUs and GSUs. For related automated proce-
dures, see the appropriate 38-series TM. Units
send requests to their SSA. Requisitions are trans-
mitted from the SSA to the MMC. They are edited
for validity and PD. For selected items, the
TAMMC screens theater assets to determine if
requisitions with PDs 01 through 03 and NMCS
requisitions can be filled from assets on hand
which are below the 30-day safety level or war
reserve stockage level. If there are safety level or
reserve stocks on hand in the theater, the requisi-
tions are filled. Partial issues can also be made.
CMMCs, TAACOM, MMCs, and TAMMCs trans-
mit requisitions to CONUS NICPs. An image
copy of all transactions is maintained in the LIF
data bank. The inventory control point then
transceives an MRO to the supporting distribution
depot when depot assets are available. An MRO is
cut only on assets reported on hand. Consolida-
tion and containerization points pack cargo ac-
cording to theater distribution plans. Container-
ized shipments are then moved to the port of
embarkation. Class IX and maintenance-related
Class II DSS cargo is transported by ALOC. All
other cargo is shipped to the theater by surface
transportation. When supplies reach the theater
port, MCCs coordinate with MMCs on routing.
Routing instructions are based on transport assets,
routes, and the tactical situation. Shipping con-
tainers or pallets are then transported to the requi-
sitioning SSA or supply point. If possible, ship-
ments are routed directly to the requisitioner.
Containerized cargo en route at the outbreak of
hostilities may be diverted to the appropriate GSU.
SEALIFT AND CONTAINERIZED
The logistics of rapidly supplying and sustaining
forces and other US government agencies de-
ployed in areas where little or no pre-positioned
materiel is on hand or where no HNS is assured is
staggering. More than 90 percent of all wartime
cargo tonnage will go by sea, regardless of where
the conflict is. With the exception of Class IX and
maintenance-related Class II items, general sup-
plies arrive in the theater through seaports in 20-
and 40-foot general cargo containers. Nearly all
general supplies are shipped to the theater and
transported within the theater in containers. Close
to 75 percent of Class IV items can be containerized.
Only 20 percent of Class VII items can be shipped
Intermodal container service is the preferred
method of shipping DOD-sponsored surface cargo.
Container resources of the commercial transporta-
tion industry are used when they are responsive to
military requirements. When commercial contain-
ers do not meet military requirements, DOD-owned
or leased containers may be used. Therefore, Army-
owned containers and container-handling equipment
must be compatible with commercial container
ships, transporters, and handling equipment. Ad-
vantages in shipping supplies in containers in-
* Shorter time required to prepare shipments.
* Lower freight cost.
# Less breakage.
# Reduced documentation.
# Less pilferage.
* Better accountability.
• Less ADP effort.
Fixed-port terminals provide suitable facilities to
off-load containers and transfer them to inland
transportation modes. Use fixed-port facilities to
the maximum extent possible. They can discharge
many containers rapidly, are equipped with container-
handling equipment, and are located close to in-
land transportation hubs. Logistics over-the-shore
operations can be used with fixed-port operations
if berthing space is limited. See FM 55-17 for
more details on terminal operations.
Fixed-port terminals. Equipped with modern
MHE, these terminals are usually located at or
near rail- or truck-loading sites. Commercial op-
erators handle military container operations at
fixed ports. The host nation may continue to oper-
ate existing facilities during wartime. For plan-
ning purposes, container ships may be discharged
and back loaded at the pier in 24 to 48 hours.
Transportation terminal service companies are
organized to discharge and load containers. A
shore-based crane can pick up and position con-
tainers in three varying amounts per day depend-
ing on its make. The most efficient cranes can
position as many as 40 containers per hour.
Logistics over-the-shore operations. Extra time
and resources are needed to move containers from
ships to and across the beach. Crane ships off-load
containers to lighters. Lighters transport cargo to
a beach transfer point. Terminal service compa-
nies are assigned the mission of discharge, loading,
and beach operations. Trailers transport contain-
ers from the beach or shore to container marshal-
ing areas and long-haul truck-loading points.
Roll-on, roll-off cargo ships. Fully loaded trail-
ers maybe driven aboard especially designed cargo
ships. This type of container ship can transport
900 to 1,500 containers. Trailers are hooked up to
tractors and driven ashore at the oversea terminal.
Most of the cargo unloaded at seaports will be
moved initially to TAACOM GSUs whose stocks
are managed by the TAMMC. Some cargo may be
transported to TAACOM DSUs. Whenever fea-
sible, supplies should be throughput from seaport or
marshaling areas to corps and division supply echelons.
Container Surface Distribution
Commercial and military containers (20 and 40
foot) transport supplies from CONUS directly to
GSUs in the COMMZ and corps rear area and to
DSUs throughout the theater. Part of the 30-day
COMMZ general supplies may be temporarily
stored in containers. Twenty-foot containers are
used primarily in intratheater loops between GSUs
and from GSUs to DSUs and DISCOM units.
High-priority cargo and intensively managed high-
cost Class VII items may be shipped in containers
from CONUS and transported by truck directly to
DSUs and DISCOMs. Units have 48 hours to strip
and return containers to the transportation system.
Automated Control and Support
The DA Standard Port System-Enhanced provides
automated support for water terminal operations
during war as well as during peace. It provides manage-
ment data on inbound and retrograde shipments. The
theater army MCA maintains information on the
location and status of all containers in the theater.
It coordinates with the TAMMC on priorities for
container shipments and reconsignment.
RAIL NETWORKS AND
Road networks may be inadequate for the volume
of traffic required to move units and sustainment
forward and to evacuate damaged equipment and
combat casualties. Using host-nation rail networks
and inland waterways to move a portion of re-
quirements can help alleviate potential conges-
tion. Movement planners should plan for the use of rail
and inland water modes when available and feasible.
Though vulnerable to enemy aircraft, guerrilla
actions, and sabotage, rail is the best mode to
move large quantities of supplies and equipment
over extended distances. For more details on rail
operations, see FM 55-20.
Inland waterways help suppliers move cargo from
an ocean terminal to an inland transfer point not
accessible to ships with a deep draft. Using inland
waterways relieves congested road networks and
reduces the number of vehicles required to supply
combat forces. For more details on Army water
transport operations, see FM 55-50.
AIR DELIVERY OF SUPPLIES
Air transportation is a flexible and essential ele-
ment of the transportation system. It becomes
increasingly important as the intensity, depth,
and duration of operations increase. Both the
Army and Air Force provide air transportation.
Army aviation in CSS air movement operations
# Support for intratheater airlift.
# Logistics over-the-shore operations.
* Troop and personnel movements.
* Aerial preplanned and immediate resupply.
• Movement of critical Class IX and maintenance-
related Class II supplies.
• Retrograde of reparables.
• Pre-positioning of fuel and ammunition.
• Movement of low-density and high-cost
munitions when time, distance, situation, or con-
dition of the roads inhibits ground transportation.
Air Force airlift and airdrop supplement the Army's
transportation capability. They can be viable modes
for CSS movement requirements under certain
circumstances. However, they require much longer
lead times to plan and coordinate than Army airlift
assets. Army aviation assets are allocated by the
theater army, corps, and division commanders to
support CSS air movement operations. Once allo-
cated, these assets are committed by the TAMCA,
MCC, and MCO. Air Force aircraft are appor-
tioned by the joint force commander. The Air
Force provides the aircraft, civil air patrol ser-
vices, and the personnel and equipment to load the
aircraft. The Army provides the supplies, rigs
them as necessary, transports them to the airfield,
and off-loads them from ground transport. The
QM airdrop equipment repair and supply company
supplies airdrop equipment. The light and heavy
airdrop supply company prepares supplies for air-
drop. FM 10-512 shows how to prepare and rig
typical supply loads of bulk material on platforms
FM 100-27 shows the flow of requests for airlift of
supplies. FM 55-10 provides detailed request pro-
cedures for both Army and Air Force airlift. Re-
quest formats vary by oversea command based on
standardization agreements, but generally contain
the data elements found on DD Form 1974.
FM 55-40, Appendix G, describes responsibilities
for loading equipment in support of air transport
operations. Supporting unit personnel requisition
slings, A-22 bags, cargo nets, and containers
needed for sling-load operations. The supporting
unit selects the pickup zone and provides ground
crews to pack, rig, and inspect loads and to hook
up the loads to the helicopter. It also provides the
receiving unit with derigging and disposition in-
structions. The using unit selects the landing zone,
derigs the load, and coordinates the recovery of air
delivery items with the supporting unit. The using
unit also inspects and maintains the slings.
Recovery and Evacuation
of Air Delivery Equipment
Airdrop operations require special rigging equip-
ment to deliver supplies. Air delivery equipment
is expensive, in short supply, and hard to replace.
Increased requirements for air delivery dictate
that air delivery equipment be recovered and evacu-
ated to the QM airdrop equipment repair and
supply company. Recovery and evacuation priori-
ties are listed in TM 10-500-7.
GROUND MOVEMENT OF SUPPLIES
Movement control organizations at all echelons
plan the movement of supplies by all surface
modes. Planning has two parts. First is the devel-
opment of the distribution pattern, which consid-
ers the location of supported units, supply activities,
and transportation units and facilities. Second is
the development of the transportation network
and movement programming to satisfy the daily
programmed and unprogrammed requirements.
More details on ground movement of supplies are
in FM 55-10.
Transportation planners must consider the physi-
cal transportation network and facilities avail-
able, the size and disposition of the supported
forces, and the location of the primary in-theater
supply activities in their plans. They should select
seaports, aerial ports, and rail and road networks
to make it easy to distribute personnel and mate-
riel into the area of operations. The facilities and
networks selected must accommodate the expected
volume of movement. When the facilities or net-
works are not well developed, the planner must
influence the placement of the supported force and
the location of supply and maintenance activities
so that the operation can be supported with the
transportation resources available. The size of the
transportation support structure depends on the
• Size of the force to be supported.
• Expected tonnage to be received and moved.
• Number of facilities (water ports, aerial
ports, mode transfer points, and trailer transfer
• Physical size of the area to be supported.
Movements Plan and Program
The movements program is a result of movements
planning. The program is prepared jointly by the
MCC and the MMC at each echelon.
The movements plan. The movements plan in-
cludes a forecast of movement requirements and
the available transport capability. Both require-
ments and capabilities are in general terms. When
the plan is coordinated and approved, specific
transportation resources are allocated against spe-
cific movement requirements. The movements plan
then becomes the movements program. The three
major logistics levels (division, corps, and TAA)
should have mutually supporting movements pro-
grams. The seven basic steps in planning are:
# Assessing the distribution pattern.
# Determining movement requirements.
# Determining transportation capabilities.
# Balancing requirements against capabilities.
' Determining shortfalls.
# Recommending solutions.
# Coordinating, publishing, and distributing
The movements program. The movements pro-
gram period varies with the stability of the situa-
tion and the ability of supply and personnel man-
agers to forecast their requirements. Forecasts
must be submitted far enough in advance for the
transportation and supply systems to adjust their
resources to carry out the program. A desirable
cycle for the program is 14 days, for which there is a firm
forecast of requirements for the initial 7-day period and
a tentative forecast for the succeeding 7-day period.
Daily adjustments should be made only for urgent
The MCC or MCA controls transportation assets
in the theater. The theater army MCA, MCC, and
MCO control transportation assets by allocating
and committing available transportation resources
to satisfy movement requirements. They allocate
and commit based on their commander's priori-
ties. Transportation priorities are established by
required delivery date, the issue priority of the
cargo, or by preestablished command priorities by
unit or commodity. When movement requirements
exceed capabilities, movement planners request
support from higher headquarters.
Movement control teams. MCTs are assigned to
the corps MCC and TAMCA. They are positioned
in the corps and COMMZ to allow close and
constant coordination with the units they support.
In the corps, MCTs are collocated with each CSG.
They also operate in a geographic area or at spe-
cific sites to expedite, coordinate, and monitor
traffic moving through the transportation system.
MCTs process movement requests and arrange
transportation for moving personnel and materiel.
They receive and process programmed and
unprogrammed transportation requests. They com-
mit mode operators for programmed movements
or select the mode for unprogrammed movements.
The MCTs support highway regulation by receiv-
ing and passing clearance requests for movement
on controlled MSRs. They also enforce movement
priorities, monitor container use, and help customers.
Highway regulation. Highway regulation is a
responsibility of the commander having area ju-
risdiction. He and his staff plan, schedule, route,
and direct the use of highways. The MCC's high-
way traffic division regulates highway traffic.
Subordinate highway regulating point teams carry
out highway regulation plans. MPs support high-
way traffic regulation by performing traffic, strag-
gler, and refugee control activities. Regulated
movements include convoys, oversized or overweight
vehicles, vehicles moving by infiltration, and troop
movements on foot. Responsibilities of the high-
way traffic division and its highway regulating
point teams include circulation planning, routing,
and scheduling of traffic. The traffic plan portrays
the road network and how it is to be used and
maintained. The plan normally includes restric-
tive route features; route designations; direction
of movement; and locations of boundaries, units,
highway regulating points, traffic control points,
and major supply or shipping activities. Traffic is
routed over designated routes to balance the ve-
hicle and route characteristics (road surfaces,
curves, and bridge capacities) and to reduce traffic
congestion or conflicts. Traffic scheduling is the
coordination of times for movement along speci-
fied routes to satisfy command movement priori-
ties; minimize delays, conflicts, and congestion;
and promote security and passive defense.
SUPPLY SUPPORT FOR DIFFERENT TACTICAL OPERATIONS
AIRLAND BATTLE DOCTRINE
AirLand battle is the Army's basic operational
concept for fighting the next war. AirLand battle
doctrine emphasizes the need for coordinated air
and ground actions. It includes plans for three
simultaneous operations-deep, close, and rear.
AirLand battle can enable a well-organized, small
force to defeat a poorly organized, larger force.
The four tenets of AirLand battle are initiative,
depth, agility, and synchronization. See Table 1-1.
These principles apply to all levels of conflict,
including low-intensity conflict which primarily
involves peacekeeping and counteracting terrorist
activities. For more details on AirLand battle, see
FMs 100-5 and 100-10. QM supply companies can
Table 1-1. Four tenets of AirLand battle
provide support to AirLand battle by~
• Ensuring continued logistical support.
• Shifting support to different user units
without delay when directed by higher headquarters.
• Reacting to any rear area threat.
Pushing CSS forward to those who can
benefit most from the overall battle plan.
COVERING FORCE OPERATIONS
The covering force is normally the first ground
maneuver force to make contact with the enemy. It
operates between the forward edge of the battle
area and the forward line of troops.
Anticipate and plan for offensive actions.
Consider the full width and depth of the battlefield.
Think and act quicker than the enemy.
Coordinate deep, close, and rear operations. Coordinate
air and ground actions.
The purpose of the covering force is to weaken and
delay the enemy as it prepares to attack divisions
and separate brigades in the main battle area. The
size and makeup of the covering force depend on
the terrain, the mission and mobility of the force,
and the number of troops available. As a rule, the
covering force does not have the strength or fire-
power to defeat the enemy. Instead, its mission is
to disrupt enemy operations by harassing, disor-
ganizing, deceiving, and delaying enemy forces.
The covering force slows down the attack, gives
divisions and separate brigades needed maneuver
space and reaction time, and provides information
about the enemy's strength, location, and direc-
tion of attack.
Supply support in the covering force area is pro-
vided by forward supply companies. The covering
force must sustain itself until it is resupplied. It
carries basic loads of Class I operational rations,
Class II and IV items, and Class II and V sup-
plies. If there is enough transportation available,
more supplies can be moved. If Class III and V
stocks are pre-positioned, transportation assets
can be used for Class II, III, IV, and VII items.
Critical Class VII items may be pre-positioned in
a "ready-to-fight" condition. Details uncovering
force operations are in FM 63-1.
CLOSE BATTLE AREA OPERATIONS
The close battle area is between the covering force
and the brigade rear boundary. This is the area
where heavy fighting takes place.
The role of our forces in the close battle area is to
repel, to counterattack, and to seize the initiative
from enemy forces. Our forces must be able to
shift locations and firepower to stop enemy at-
tempts to break into our lines of defense. FM 71-100
covers operational concepts used in close battle to
defeat enemy forces.
Combat units in the close battle area rely on their
CSS elements and on DS backup units for battle
support. Corps CSS units can be located in the
BSA to support the majority of corps field artil-
lery units being employed in the brigade area.
Nondivisional combat units get both DS and GS
from corps CSS units. Corps CSS units provide
backup DS and GS to divisions. An FSB employed
in the BSA provides DS to each division maneu-
ver brigade. FM 63-20 provides information on
FSBs. Though based in the DSA, an MSB pro-
vides support forward, as required, to include
backup support to the FSB. CSS units that support
the close battle area must be able to gather and
distribute supplies and equipment rapidly. They
must perform needed support functions in the
battle area and in corps forward areas. Corps
ground and air transportation elements provide
resupply and emergency supply deliveries in the
close battle area.
The rear operations area of the AirLand battle
covers the area from the brigade rear boundary to
the division rear boundary. The corps rear area
goes from the division rear boundary to the corps
rear boundary. Each echelon has its own area and
its own rear operations commander.
Rear area operations may be directed against
threats ranging from sabotage to airborne or air
assault operations. The deputy corps commander
in the corps rear CP coordinates with the RAOC.
In the rear area, CS and CSS units are generally
grouped together in bases or base clusters for
protection or to support a specific mission.
FMs 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15 explain the coor-
dination and services provided by rear area units.
These FMs also explain how CSS operations ef-
fect the AirLand battle.
Supply points and CSS units are scattered through-
out the rear area. In the DSA, an MSB provides DS
to division units in the division rear. FM 63-21
covers the MSB. A CSB supports nondi visional
forces employed in the division sector.
Nondivisional units obtain DS and GS from CSGs.
Forward CSGs also provide reinforcing DS main-
tenance, field services, and GS supply to division
forces. Depending on the task organization of
forward CSGs and CSBs, they could provide GS
petroleum, GS ammunition, and GS general sup-
plies to division forces. GSUs provide Class II, III
packaged, IV, VII, and IX supply support for
divisional and nondivisional DSUs. Corps units
and above provide air and ground transportation
needed to deliver new equipment, supplies, EPWs,
and other personnel to forward areas. They also
back haul disabled equipment to a backup DS unit
in the corps or to a GS maintenance unit beyond
the corps rear boundary. The rear area may be-
come a battlefront just like the forward edge of the
battle area. CSS soldiers must be trained to defend and
protect themselves as well as provide mission support.
CONTINGENCY FORCE OPERATIONS
Contingency force operations are those conducted
with a rapid response to a sudden crisis. Units
must be prepared to deploy rapidly and on short
notice. HNS may be questionable. Local third-country
forces may be poorly trained and poorly equipped.
Operations begin with a rapid show of force.
Heavy reliance is placed on support from the other
services. The scope and nature of the operation
determine the force organization and operations.
Forces should be more mobile than the enemy.
Commanders should also use economy of force,
surprise, and bold aggressive actions.
Force planners have reduced support to the essen-
tials. There will be limited or no prestockage of
supplies. Because of austere base development,
DS and GS supply companies are often required
early in contingency operations. FM 63-6 covers
logistical support of contingency operations. Support
is divided to provide accompanying and follow-
Accompanying supplies. Sufficient supplies must
accompany the assault force to enable it to sustain
itself until it is resupplied. Accompanying and
follow-on supplies for contingency force opera-
tions will be uploaded in modular unit-owned
containers. They must not exceed the force's abil-
ity to carry and secure them. Supplies are usually
limited to basic combat loads and a limited num-
ber of items critical to the operation. Class IV
barrier and fortification materials are often criti-
cal to the initial phases of a contingency operation.
Follow-on supplies. Follow-on supplies must re-
plenish combat losses. Airports and seaports may
be few and far from CONUS. How the contin-
gency force is deployed will indicate how it will
be resupplied. If the force is deployed by sea, it
will probably carry its initial supplies and be
resupplied by SEALOC with critical items pro-
vided by air. If the force is airdropped or airlanded,
initial supply would probably be by air. Resupply
would be by ALOC until SEALOC and surface
supply were established. Local transportation net-
works may be primitive. Therefore, enough trans-
portation units must be assigned to ensure that
airports and seaports do not become clogged with
supplies. Until SEALOC can be established, re-
placement of Class VII weapons systems will be
limited to those systems which can be recovered
SO are military operations of a sensitive nature
conducted by specially trained, equipped, and
organized DOD forces. These forces are commit-
ted against strategic or tactical targets in pursuit
of national, military, political, economic, or psy-
chological objectives. These operations may be
conducted during periods of peace or during hos-
tilities. They may support conventional opera-
tions, or they maybe used independently when the
use of conventional forces is either inappropriate
SO forces of the US Army have both standard and
mission-peculiar supply requirements. More de-
tails on SO are in FMs 31-20, 90-8, and 100-25.
Standard supply requirements. Standard supply
requirements are supported by the CSS GSU tasked
to support the theater army special operations
support command. The TASOSC is subordinate to
the theater or unified SOC or SOTF. All support-
ing supply requirements of a standard nature are
consolidated by the ARSOC and forwarded to the
supporting GSU. Certain SO assets, normally psy-
chological operations and civil affairs units, are
traditionally attached to infantry, armor, and
mechanized units at battalion, brigade, and divi-
sion level as well as to corps headquarters. These
units receive support for standard supply require-
ments directly from the organization to which
they are attached.
Mission-peculiar supply requirements. Mission-
peculiar supply requirements are supported through
SOC or SOTF logistical channels. CSS GSU person-
nel furnish the support to the employed SO elements.
All supply requirements are planned for and coor-
dinated by the SO units concerned prior to deploy-
ment. Plans for support of unit supply require-
ments are approved at the SOC and coordinated
through the ARSOC.
Accompanying supplies. Sufficient supplies will
accompany each SO unit to sustain it until the unit
comes under ARSOC subsequent to deployment.
Accompanying supplies include those required to
support unit personnel and organizational needs.
These supplies must not exceed organic transport
capability. The unit must acquire and prepare
supplies for deployment.
Force supplies. These supplies back up accompa-
nying supplies. Force supplies include all classes
of supplies. Force supplies are planned for by the
units concerned. The ARSOC coordinates and
supervises forward positioning of force supplies.
Reserve supplies. Reserve supplies are primarily
for emergency use. Reserve supplies are planned
for by the units concerned. The ARSOC coordi-
nates and supervises the forward positioning of
Follow-on supplies. Follow-on supplies are sup-
plies which may be required to support employed
SO assets. They include major backup items of
equipment, Class V, and repair parts. They can
also include those supplies anticipated for use by
indigenous groups. Follow-on supplies are deliv-
ered into the operational area on an on-call or a
preplanned basis. These supplies are maintained
at the primary bases of the SO units concerned. Levels
and amounts are determined prior to deployment.
Automatic follow-on supplies. Automatic follow-
on supplies are delivered on a preplanned basis at
times and locations coordinated prior to employ-
ment of SO assets. All classes of supplies are included.
On-call, follow-on supplies. On-call, follow-on
supplies are delivered upon request to SO assets in
the operational area. They are usually of a contin-
gency nature and are delivered when and where
the using unit requests. On-call, follow-on sup-
plies include all classes of supplies and are planned
for prior to employment.
Routine supply requirements. Routine supply
requirements are supplies requested and delivered
through normal supply procedures. They are initi-
ated following deployment. These supplies are
issued on a routine basis except in emergencies.
The ARSOC monitors routine supply requirements.
AIR ASSAULT OPERATIONS
Air assault operations involve using helicopters
to deploy over extended areas. Air assault opera-
tions can be conducted anywhere in the world
depending on weather conditions. More details on
air assault operations are in FMs 10-27-2 and 10-27-3.
In air assault operations, supplies, troops, and
equipment are moved throughout the battlefield in
aircraft, usually helicopters. Air assault opera-
tions may involve airlifting units for combat op-
erations, shifting and relocating units within the
combat zone, or moving and delivering supplies
and equipment. Airlift in support of air assault
operations is classified as either CS or CSS, de-
pending on the mission and the kind of cargo airtitled.
Requests for air assault support can start at any
level of command. There are two types of support
requests: requests for preplanned, immediate op-
erations and requests for emergency airlift combat
support. Both types are sent through operations
and logistics channels to the commander with the
authority and capability to approve them. FM 100-27
and the air delivery information in this chapter
explain each request procedure. The unit request-
ing the support is generally responsible for plan-
ning, obtaining, and coordinating the supplies and
personnel to be airlifted.
Because air assault forces must be able to deploy
rapidly, they carry only essential supplies and
equipment with them. These supplies need to be
replenished frequently. Supplies and equipment
not needed for survival or combat should be left in
the rear and moved forward when needed. Supply
support is generally provided by an independent
unit with CSS elements attached.
Support for ground forces. Ground forces in an
air assault operation carry enough essential items
to sustain them for a limited time. GS items are
provided by CSS units and other ground forces.
Routine resupply items should be delivered as
close as possible to ground forces instead of being
stockpiled at a central location. This will help
forces deploy more rapidly and relocate more
quickly. Emergency ground force resupply should
include prepackaged, mixed loads so that if the
force gets only a few of the requested loads, it will
get a mixture of essential supplies.
Support for the air element. The air element of an
air assault operation requires special aircraft repair
parts, supplies, and services. Generally, these are
provided by a supporting aviation unit. A forward
arming and refueling point may need to be set up
to help sustain the aviation element of the opera-
tion. Special needs must be coordinated between
the ground element and the aviation force com-
manders during the planning phase.
An airborne operation involves moving and deliv-
ering forces, supplies, and equipment by air into
an objective area. In addition to being airlanded into
combat, airborne forces can parachute into combat.
Divisional airborne brigades receive supply sup-
port from a forward supply company located in
each BSA. Logistics units from the division base
come under the control of the S&T battalion. A
separate brigade receives CSS from the brigade
support battalion. A separate brigade will be
a satellite on a support command for CSS.
FMs 10-27-2 and 10-27-3 explain the composition and
organization of airborne and air assault brigades and
Until CSS units join ground forces during the
follow-up operation, all supply support for an
airborne operation is preplanned by the G4. The
G4's estimates are based on the three phases of
supply requirements involved in an airborne operation.
Accompanying supplies. Individual soldiers carry
these supplies into the assault area. They include
the supplies airdropped with the deploying unit.
Maneuver units in airborne and air assault divi-
sions normally carry a basic load of ammunition,
a three-day stock of Class I and III packaged
supplies, and a prescribed load of fast-moving
repair parts. Accompanying supplies are the only
source of supply during the first stages of the
operation. They include unit, force, and reserve
supplies. Unit supplies include the basic loads of
ammunition and the prescribed loads of the other
classes of supply. The rigging, loading, recovery,
issue, and control of unit supplies are the responsibility
of the airborne unit. Force supplies are bulk sup-
plies that act as backup for unit supplies. Force
supplies include all classes of supply. The S4 of
the deploying unit is responsible for controlling
these supplies. Reserve supplies are set aside and
stored at the division for later use. Also, they are
used for special or emergency missions. The
DISCOM is responsible for issuing and control-
ling reserve supplies.
Follow-up supplies. These supplies are delivered
by air after the unit has made its initial assault.
They help the unit operate until normal supply
procedures can be set up. Follow-up supplies in-
clude all classes of supply. They are generally
prepackaged, rigged, and stored at the beginning
of the operation for immediate distribution. Quan-
tities are based upon the G4's estimate of the
unit's daily requirements. The battalion S4 re-
quests follow-up supplies for the battalion. If
more than one battalion requests follow-up sup-
plies at the same time, the commander decides
which has priority. A two-day level of extra stocks,
including Class IV and a small stock of critical
repair parts, is often kept near the departure air-
field. These stocks are delivered automatically or
on call. Automatic follow-up supplies are deliv-
ered on a preplanned schedule, normally once a
day beginning with D+2. The amount delivered is
based on an estimate of the quantities of supplies
used daily by the requesting unit. Automatic follow-
up supplies are either airdropped to the unit or
airlanded at a central supply point. Because quan-
tities are preplanned, they may not include the
exact amounts of particular items deploying forces
need. On-call, follow-up supplies are delivered
to the deployed unit as needed. They are generally
used for emergency purposes or to fill a routine
request for a specific item. Emergency supplies
must be delivered within 24 hours. On-call,
follow-up supplies of a routine nature are delivered on
a flexible schedule, generally between 24 and 72
hours after being requested.
Routine supplies. These supplies are requested
and delivered through normal supply procedures.
Routine supply generally begins once a CSS unit
is attached to the airborne operation. After routine
supply begins, the airborne unit generally does
not request follow-up supplies, except in emer-
gencies. The DISCOM commander decides when
routine supply deliveries should begin. He bases
his decision on the tactical situation and the sup-
ply status of the division.
LIC is a political-military confrontation between
contending states or groups. It is less than conven-
tional war and more than the routine, peaceful
competition among states. It frequently involves
protracted struggles of competing principles and
ideologies. LIC ranges from subversion to the use
of armed force. It is waged by a combination of
political, economic, informational, and military
instruments. LICs are often localized, generally in
the Third World, but contain regional and global
LIC does not describe a specific operation. Opera-
tions in a LIC environment are divided into four
• Support for insurgency and counterinsurgency.
• Combating terrorism.
• Peacekeeping operations.
• Peacetime contingency operations.
As a rule, there are not enough logistics and health
services in a LIC. CSS elements may precede
combat or CS units into the area of operation or
may be the only military force deployed. CSS
elements may provide support for US government
or allied civilian agencies as well as US military
or allied forces. CSS elements may also provide
humanitarian and civic assistance. Because CSS
units must be tailored to fit the assigned mission
and situation, they must remain flexible. More
details on LIC are in FMs 63-6 and 100-20.
A retrograde operation is a movement to the rear
or away from the enemy. Such an operation may
be forced or voluntary.
Retrograde operations gain time, preserve forces,
avoid combat under undesirable conditions, or
draw the enemy into an unfavorable position.
Commanders use them to harass, exhaust, resist,
delay, and damage an enemy. Retrograde opera-
tions are also used in operational maneuvers to
reposition forces, to shorten lines of communica-
tions, or to permit the withdrawal of another force
for use elsewhere. All retrograde operations are
difficult, and delays and withdrawals are inher-
ently risky. To succeed, they must be well orga-
nized and well executed. A disorganized retro-
grade operation in the presence of a stronger
enemy invites disaster.
Supply efforts during a retrograde operation must
be concentrated on the most critical supplies:
Class III, V, and IX. The key to providing respon-
sive supply support during a retrograde operation
is to project force supply requirements throughout
the operation and to distribute these supplies ac-
cording to the projections. When projections are
made, provisions are made to move forward only
essential supplies. All other supplies are moved
rearward to the new support areas. To avoid de-
stroying or evacuating supplies unnecessarily in
any retrograde action, commanders must control
the flow of supplies into forward areas. When
commanders contemplate a delay, withdrawal, or
retirement, they should plan for early removal of
excess supplies and early displacement of logis-
tics facilities. By positioning supplies along routes
of withdrawal, CSS commanders can simplify
support and can reduce the enemy's ability to
interfere with logistical operations. More details
on supply support are in FM 63-6.
Deep operations are operations directed against
enemy forces not in close contact. They are de-
signed to influence the conditions in which future
close operations will be conducted. At the opera-
tional level, deep operations include efforts to
isolate current battles and to influence where,
when, and against whom future battles will be
fought. At the tactical level, deep operations are
designed to shape the battlefield to assure advan-
tage in subsequent engagements.
Because of the relative scarcity of resources with
which to perform deep operations, they must be
directed against those enemy capabilities which
most directly threaten the success of projected
friendly operations. They must be attacked deci-
sively, with enough power to assure the desired
impact. Deep operations include-
• Deep surveillance and target acquisition.
• Interdiction (by ground or air fires, ground
or aerial maneuvers, special operating forces, or
any combination of these).
• Command, control, and communications
• Command and control.
There are two ways to sustain deep operations.
The force can carry with it all the resources needed
throughout the mission, or it can be sustained over
a LOC. Sustaining deep operations forces depends
on the situation. You must consider depth and
duration of the operation, the size and organiza-
tion of the force, the enemy situation, and the
weather and terrain. Sustainment over surface
LOC has the advantage of the capability to carry
large tonnages of supplies and equipment to spe-
cific destinations. It is less subject to weather than
ALOC. A disadvantage is that LOC extend far
beyond the FLOT into territory that is subject to
enemy influence and control. Sustainment over
ALOC has the advantage of being fast and responsive.
It has the same disadvantage as sustainment over
surface LOC. The LOC must be either temporarily
or continuously secured. This requires temporary
or continuing air superiority or, at least, parity.
These conditions require close interservice coop-
eration, because much of the airlift capability
belongs to the Air Force. More details on supply
support in deep operations are in FM 63-2.
There are many who will argue that light forces do
not have a role on a mid- or high-intensity battle-
field against a mobile enemy. History has demon-
strated that heavy-light combined arms forces can
engage and decisively defeat such a force when
The key to effective employment of heavy and
light forces as a combined arms team is to maxi-
mize the capabilities of both parts of the force and
use the advantages offered by each to offset the
vulnerabilities of the other within the framework
of METT-T. Light forces are particularly effective
when used as part of the combined arms team.
Also, light forces are effective in economy of
force operations and operations with the intent of
denying terrain to an enemy force. Light forces,
with proper augmentation based on METT-T, allow
the maneuver commander freedom to employ ar-
mored and mechanized forces elsewhere on the
battlefield. Light forces can be employed by heavy
forces to conduct raids and ambushes, operations
in restricted urban terrain, and rear operations.
Heavy forces use a combination of supply point or
unit distribution systems to sustain the force in
combat. Light forces are not structured to use the
same system as a heavy force. Heavy-light opera-
tions require more logistical planning and coordi-
nation for both the heavy and light portions of the
force than independent operations. Logistical plan-
ning and coordination for a light force is done at
the brigade level. The light battalion, unlike a
heavy battalion, does not have the organizational
structure or capability to plan for its logistical
requirements. Requiring a light infantry battalion
or company to conduct its own logistical planning
and support diverts its attentions and resources
from its primary combat mission. A heavy brigade
that has a light force must be prepared to plan and
provide logistical support for the unit. This in-
cludes all classes of support and supply from
casualty evacuation to food, water, and maintenance.
Logistical support for a heavy-light force must be
planned for and pushed to the force. FMs 63-2,63-20,
and 63-21 have details on support of heavy-light mixes.
SUPPLY SUPPORT OF OPERATIONS
IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND
Threat forces have specialized NBC troops and
units. They also train all of their combat and CS
soldiers in NBC warfare. US forces must be pre-
pared to fight in an NBC environment. Combat
units cannot fight for long without support. The
units that provide the support are prime targets for
NBC attacks. FMs 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, and 3-100 have
details on NBC individual and collective protec-
tive measures, contamination avoidance, and
decontamination techniques. NBC warfare will
affect equipment supply routes, supply require-
ments, and supply trains.
Effect on Equipment
The electromagnetic pulse from a nuclear detona-
tion can damage ADP and communications
equipment that processes supply requirements.
Tape disks can be wiped out. Cover critical sup-
plies and equipment with tarpaulins, shelter halves,
or ponchos to protect them from contamination.
Monitor items exposed to contamination before
use. Perform partial decontamination of unit equip-
ment as far forward as possible. Only
mission-essential surfaces need to be decontamin-
ated using on-board decontamination apparatus.
Complete decontamination requires the aid of
battalion decontamination teams or units autho-
rized special decontamination equipment. Perform
complete decontamination only when absolutely
necessary. CSS units may need to get replacement
equipment if their vehicles and MHE were dam-
aged or destroyed during the conflict. Recovery
and salvage operations may be hampered by con-
tamination of damaged equipment. The using unit
decontaminates damaged unit equipment partially
prior to evacuation.
Effect on Supply Requirements
A nuclear blast can crush supplies. Thermal radia-
tion can cause fires at supply points. NBC defense
companies and forward CSS units must stay highly
mobile so that they can support units in contami-
nated areas on short notice. To ensure mobility,
they carry a limited amount of protective items,
replacement clothing, bathing supplies, and de-
contaminating material. They also maintain a lim-
ited ASL. Because of this, supporting units may
need to stock greater quantities of protective over-
garments than authorized in CTAs. As the NBC
threat increases, units often widen the distance
between supply points and supported units. In-
creased distances decrease the chances of more
than one unit being destroyed or contaminated at
the same time. The need for increased distances
places added pressure on CSS units in providing
supply support. Once an attack occurs, decon-
tamination companies and the units they support
also require increased deliveries of chemical anti-
dotes and protective and replacement clothing and
equipment. FMs 63-1, 63-2, and 63-3 discuss CSS
operations and logistics support in separate bri-
gades, divisions, and corps.
Class II. Commanders establish the level of MOPP
gear that must be worn. Contaminated protective
clothing must be burned, buried, or destroyed. As
the threat of an NBC attack increases, units also
need extra quantities of tarpaulins, plastic sheets,
and other materials to use as protective coverings
for vehicles and equipment. Heat from a nuclear
blast can melt and deteriorate plastic and rubber
items. CSS units will be called on to provide large
quantities of protective and replacement clothing
and equipment as well as decontamination materi-
als and equipment. Class II items needed for
decontamination operations are listed in tables in
FM 3-21. Contaminated items of individual equip-
ment that cannot be decontaminated by the soldier
using the individual decontamination kit are de-
contaminated by battalion decontamination teams.
Contaminated uniforms and other clothing items
must be containerized or packaged to prevent the
spread of contamination.
Class III packaged. Class III packaged supplies
include NBC decontaminates. Other than for such
items, Class III packaged consumption does not
increase greatly during NBC operations. Heat from
a nuclear blast can cause Class III packaged com-
bustibles to ignite and lubricants and metal
containers to melt. Flammable items should be
kept separate from other supplies and equipment.
Smoke screens generated by vaporizing fog oil in
mechanical smoke generators and smoke pots may
reduce the heat and blinding effects of nuclear blasts.
Class IV. Since CSS units are scattered widely
during NBC operations, there is a greater possibil-
ity of theft, sabotage, and enemy attack. The need
for tighter security causes increased requests for
barbed wire, barrier materials, and other fortifica-
tion supplies. Units also need more sandbags and
building materials to construct emergency shelters
and underground storage areas. After an NBC attack,
CSS units supporting decontamination platoons need
additional construction materials to build sumps
and decontamination sites.
Class VI. Decontamination units need large quan-
tities of bathing, shaving, and sanitation supplies.
As a rule, these types of supplies are part of Class
I ration supplement sundries packs and are distrib-
uted with subsistence items. Ration supplement
sundries packs are normally low-priority items.
Dry shaving powder, scissors, and disinfectant
may be added to the list of necessary Class VI
items. During NBC operations, these items could
become mission essential because they help en-
sure proper fit of MOPP gear. To maintain troop
morale during sustained war, Class VI supplies
are sold by sales teams or AAFES exchanges set
up in the COMMZ or corps.
Class VII. Class VII supplies include protective
masks and NBC apparatus. Since weapons sys-
tems and other Class VII equipment may be
damaged or destroyed during a conflict, consump-
tion of Class VII supplies will increase accordingly.
Replacement items come from war reserves and
operating stocks. They are issued first to units that
can reenter the battle the quickest.
Effect on Supply Routes
Main supply routes may be blocked by fallen
trees, rubble, and debris caused by nuclear blasts.
Earth-moving equipment may have to be used to
clear routes. Alternate supply routes and sources
are needed. However, alternate supply routes can
result in increased turnaround and increased need
for cargo vehicles. Other units may be using these
alternate routes to relocate to uncontaminated ar-
eas. If alternate routes are not passable, some of
the MSRs may have to be cleared or decontami-
nated. This delay increases the OST for all sup-
plies and equipment. Supplies may have to be
airlifted to forward units. Resupplying by air has
the advantage of flying over contaminated areas.
Effect on Supply Trains
During NBC operations, CSS units give support
first to combat units in forward areas. Next, they
support CS and other CSS units in forward areas.
CSS units operating in rear areas have the lowest
priority. MMCs divert supplies from their origi-
nal destinations to forward CSS units. Only
mission-essential supplies and equipment are
stocked in the forward CSS units. Resupply to
these forward units is generally done at night
using unit pile or truck-to-truck distribution so that
the supplies can be issued as far forward as possible.
Our forces must be prepared to use smoke and to
fight in a smoke environment against an enemy
who may be better trained and better equipped for
such operations. Smoke operations are covered in
FM 3-50. Chemical smoke generator companies
generate smoke by vaporizing packaged Class III
Smoke screens support not only combat opera-
tions but CSS operations as well. Smoke screens
can help conceal MSRs and mark supply points for
air delivery of supplies. By screening our logistics
support operations and positions, smoke opera-
tions increase our battlefield effectiveness.
QM general supply companies, GS; S&S compa-
nies, DS; and main supply companies supply
chemical smoke generator companies with the fog
oil needed to produce smoke.
Often the tactical situation is such that supplies
must be delivered at night. Since the use of MHE
is reduced by darkness, supplies should be pre-
pared and loaded on trucks during the day for
night delivery to forward supply points. The sup-
ply point external SOP should require supported
units to send extra personnel to serve as walking
guides and to help load supplies onto the trucks by
hand. Blackout procedures in the internal SOP
may require personnel to take the following actions:
• Use flashlights that have lens filters.
Black out doors and windows of storage
• Block light from large tents with salvage
• Use ponchos as blackout flaps on other
Use blackout lights on vehicles and fork-
There are several factors to consider when your
unit moves at night. They include the rate of
march, vehicle density, and light discipline. In-
struct your officers and NCOs on safety precautions
to be followed in a night move. See FM 55-30 for
more details on night convoys, including advan-
tages and disadvantages.
US forces must be prepared to fight in areas where
buildings and man-made obstacles block LOC.
When soldiers fight in urban areas, buildings and
terrain limit the mobility and capabilities of weap-
ons systems. Unlike jungles or deserts, urban
environments have no recurring physical feature.
Units must be prepared to fight in small, moun-
tain, farm villages and in densely populated cities.
Combat operations are also hampered by civilians
remaining in fighting zones. Units may need to
provide food, shelter, and protection for internees
or refugees. This may require supplies and man-
power normally used to support combat activities.
Also, security must be tightened when civilians
are near, since sabotage, theft, and intelligence
leaks increase. Buildings, low visibility, civil-
ians, and close combat make it difficult to apply
basic tactical guidelines. FMs 90-10 and 90-10-1
describe how to plan for and conduct operations in
Effect on Equipment
Crowded and built-up areas limit the amount of
movement and the use of combat equipment. Units
should rely more on hand-carried or easily trans-
ported items. Limit recovery operations to moving
disabled equipment to guarded areas along supply
routes. Often vehicles and equipment cannot be
evacuated because of rubble. Instead, units will
have to rely on increased cannibalization. Units
may be able to get replacement items and parts
from local civilian manufacturers.
Effect on Supply Requirements
Urban areas may have warehouses, sheds, and
buildings to use for storing and securing supplies.
Units should use existing LOC and storage facili-
ties as much as possible. This cuts down on the
OST and reduces manpower and resources that
would have been used to construct facilities.
Class II. Increase Class II stocks during urban
operations to allow for those items that were
damaged, destroyed, or lost.
Class III packaged. Using engineer and generator-
powered equipment to clear rubble increases the
need for packaged POL, especially diesel fuel.
Units should stock enough Class III packaged
supplies to cover supplies damaged or destroyed
by fire or combat and to meet requirements for
Class IV. Close combat and the need for increased
security operations increase the need for Class IV
materials. Units need increased amounts of barrier
materials, barbed wire, sandbags, and construc-
tion supplies to build shelters and to fortify and
secure buildings and storage areas.
Class VI. There is no marked increase in sanita-
tion and health items generated by operations in
urban areas. Generally, the amount and type of
personal health items contained in Class I ration
supplement sundries packs meet the health and
welfare needs of most units. If additional or dif-
ferent personal health items are needed, contact a
medical supply support unit. In sustained war,
Class VI items might be sold by sales teams or
AAFES exchanges to support troop morale.
Class VII. Limited space and mobility in most
urban areas limit requirements for Class VII items.
However, units should increase their stocks of
hand-held or portable weapons. In most cases,
major equipment cannot be replaced or evacuated
to rear areas for repair. If parts are not available to repair
Class VII items, cannibalize severely damaged US
equipment or captured enemy items.
Class X. Requirements for Class X items may
double or triple during an urban conflict if units
are responsible for providing clothing, food, shel-
ter, and protection for civilians remaining in the
battle area. Because of this, commanders may be
faced with the problems of where and how to get
these items, where to store them, and how to
Effect on Supply Routes
As a rule, urban areas have railroads, ports, high-
ways, and pipelines already set up. Use them to
help deliver and distribute supplies and equip-
ment. Sometimes supply routes may be jammed
by civilian refugees or blocked by rubble. When
this happens, you may have to set aside and secure
supply routes for military use only. Use air sup-
port to help locate new routes. Engineer units can
help clear them. In emergencies, supplies can be
airlifted. However, an airlift or airdrop should be
reserved for high-priority or mission-essential
supplies that will help sustain combat.
As a result of their natural resources and strategic
locations, desert areas are most important. Lim-
ited concealment and cover in a desert environment
make logistics facilities easy targets. FM 90-3 has
details on desert operations. It describes how to
prepare for desert operations and how CSS units
function in desert environments.
Effect on Equipment
The desert puts an extra strain on equipment.
Engines have a tendency to overheat. Plastics,
lubricants, and rubber deteriorate. Dust and sand
add to these problems. Filters require frequent
replacement. Air and fluids expand and contract
more rapidly due to the extreme temperature
changes. Desert winds can be destructive to large
pieces of equipment. The harsh environment re-
quires that equipment be carefully maintained.
Effect on Supply Requirements
Supply is vital in the desert, where water is scarce
and mobility limited. Long distances between
units slow resupply and make LOC vulnerable.
Units in the desert should keep stocks at higher
levels to cope with increased work loads. How-
ever, quantities should not be increased to the
point that mobility is affected. Units need to make
arrangements for unexpected requirements and
mission-essential equipment to be moved by air to
Class II. Class II consumption increases in the
desert. Clothing exchange may not be possible in
the early stages of a desert operation. In forward
areas, it might not be possible at all. Increased
clothing supplies are needed due to limited CEB
points. A greater variety of clothing is needed to
cope with extreme temperature changes. Clothing
requirements will range from goggles and tropical
wear to sleeping bags and heavy sweaters. In harsh
rocky terrain, there will be a high demand for
footwear. There is also an increased need for neck
scarves and canteens. Extra tents and tarpaulins
are needed to protect equipment from sand. A
need for items such as tools increases because
they tend to get lost more easily in the sand.
Class III packaged. The desert heat, dust, and
sand increase the need for lubricants, oils, and
antifreeze. High winds, dust storms, and air cur-
rents rising from hot sands make it difficult to
maintain smoke screens generated from fog oil.
However, it is possible to use fog oil to screen
artillery positions and reduce muzzle flash in the
early morning and late evening. Make sure motor
oils with proper specifications are on hand for a
hot desert environment.
Class IV. Requirements for Class IV items, such
as sandbags and lumber, are increased to build
fighting positions in desert operations.
Class VI. There is a high demand for Class VI
supplies, especially for liquids and skin and eye
ointments. Soap, toiletries, and disposable
towelettes will be needed for bathing when the
tactical situation and water scarcity prevent bath
service. If transportation is limited, Class VI items
are given low priority. Class I ration supplement
sundries packs are needed in a desert environment.
Medical units should receive priority for sundries packs
issue when there is limited transportation space. In
sustained war, Class VI items are sold by sales
teams or by AAFES exchanges.
Class VII. The intensity of battle regulates the
demand for Class VII supplies in a desert environ-
ment. Refrigeration equipment will be needed to
move remains to an area of interment.
Effect on Supply Routes
MSRs in the desert are possible targets for ambush
during night operations. They are also subject to
being mined. The following concealment tactics
can lessen the threat to supply routes.
• Vehicles should not form a pattern when
stationary or moving.
• Vehicles should follow existing tracks so
that the enemy cannot tell how many vehicles
• All vehicles of a given type should look
alike. This will allow water and fuel vehicles to
blend in. Also, canopies will ensure vehicle dis-
guise and help protect them from the sun's heat.
• Exhaust systems should be screened to
reduce the chance of heat detection.
Noise should be muffled. Doors can be
removed to prevent them from being slammed.
Effect on Supply Points
Supply points that are widely dispersed are vul-
nerable to attack by ground and air forces. Their
stocks should be kept as mobile as possible in the
event that rapid displacement is necessary. Stock-
piling of vehicles should be kept to a minimum. A
supply point in the desert should be supported by
additional transportation units. This enables
greater mobility. When supported units move, it
may be necessary to divide supply point opera-
tions. Some personnel and equipment may be sent
to establish a new position. The rest can carry on
operations at the original location until units move
out. Because supply points are vulnerable to at-
tack, emphasize selecting positions that offer
concealment rather than tactical efficiency. This
is especially true where air defense cover is lim-
ited. Camouflage nets, pattern painting, and mud
covering on reflective surfaces help to ensure
survival. To help conceal desert supply points-
• Place stocks irregularly to prevent a defi-
nite pattern from being formed and spotted from
• Follow the local ground pattern. The shape
of the area should not be square or rectangular.
• Pile supplies as low as possible, and dig in
• Cover stocks with sand, burlap, netting, or
anything that blends with the terrain.
• Mix contents of each supply point. This
prevents a shortage of one item occurring from
destruction of stocks.
• Select a location where vehicles can use
Because CSS units stock large amounts of food,
ammunition, fuel, and other mission-essential
supplies, they are prime targets for guerrilla at-
tacks. Generally, CSS units are isolated and do
not have combat troops assigned for protection
and security. Therefore, CSS troops must perform
security and defense activities in addition to their
support missions. Jungle and mountain terrains
make it easy for guerrilla forces to attack.
Effect on Supply Requirements
To lessen the effects of guerrilla attacks, CSS
units are scattered to help prevent mass destruc-
tion. They also change locations frequently to
maintain security. Supplies may need to be trans-
ported over roads that are not secure. Pack animals
or personnel may be used to transport supplies.
Forward CSS units should keep only a minimum
of essential supplies on hand. This will give them
greater mobility. It also reduces the number of
personnel needed to maintain and protect the
stocks. Some supplies can be airlifted to CSS
units. However, airlift should be used only in
Class II. As sabotage and security operations
increase, units need extra amounts of some Class II
items. Also, Class II items are highly preferable,
and they will need to be replaced if destroyed. Use
secure radios to communicate so that the guerril-
las cannot detect you.
Class III packaged. Class III packaged consump-
tion does not increase greatly during
counterguerrilla operations. CSS units should keep
enough stocks of Class III packaged on hand to
replace losses caused by fires or damaged or de-
Class IV. The need for barbed wire, barrier mater-
ials, and sandbags matches the need for tighter
security. Construction materials may be needed to
help camouflage supplies and equipment or to
build decoy items. Engineer support used to build
and repair bridges, sheds, and shelters also increases
the need for fortification and construction supplies.
Class VI. Since only essential health and sanita-
tion supplies are needed during counterguerrilla
operations, there is a decrease in Class VI supply
requests. Generally, the only Class VI supplies
issued are in the Class I ration supplement sun-
dries packs distributed with subsistence. When
the tactical situation permits, sales teams or
AAFES exchanges sell Class VI items.
Class VII. One of the major aims of guerrilla
activities is to damage or destroy weapons sys-
tems. This increases the need for Class VII
supplies. Forward CSS units may need to rely on
other noncombat unit stocks for exchange of ra-
dios, small arms, and vehicles. Essential items are
issued to units that can reenter battle first. Give
Class VII supplies transportation priority so that
fighting can continue.
Effect on Supply Routes
Use multiple supply routes. This makes it difficult
for guerrilla forces to know where and when to attack.
Effect on Supply Trains
DS units support counterguerrilla operations from
brigade trains. When a division is deployed, CSS
units operate in the DSA. Supply trains provide
supplies and services to units in the brigade area.
Jungle regions are potential battlefields. Climate,
terrain, and vegetation vary with location. The
jungle environment may include swamps, culti-
vated areas, grasslands, or densely forested areas.
Dense vegetation, high temperatures, and high
humidity require adjustments in supply support
operations. Abundant rainfall can slow surface
resupply operations. Climate and vegetation can
restrict movement, observation, communications,
and target acquisition. The degree to which units
are trained to fight and support in the jungle will
determine success or failure. FM 90-5 provides
guidance on fighting and surviving in the jungle.
Effect on Equipment
Leather, canvas, and rubber are subject to mold
and have a tendency to wear out quickly in the jungle.
High temperature and humidity may cause equipment
to rot and may aid the growth of bacteria. Equipment
requires daily cleaning in a jungle environment.
Effect on Supply Requirements
Use unit distribution to deliver supplies directly
to forward companies. Supplies can be moved
more quickly by air from field trains than over
land from combat trains. Waterways can also be
part of a transport supply system. However, pack
animals or humans are often the only means of
moving supplies in jungle operations.
Class II. The tropical environment causes Class II
items to deteriorate rapidly. Use tarpaulins to
protect equipment from the rain. Combat boots
and socks seldom last long. Extra stocks should be
stored at supply points. Clothing may require
treatment with fungicides and might have to be
exchanged every five or six days. Wet weather
poncho liners may be needed. Screens and filters
help keep insects from getting into equipment.
Class HI packaged. Since there are only a limited
number of vehicles forward during jungle opera-
tions, supplying Class III packaged items is not a
great problem. Helicopters can supply the forward
positions with 55-gallon drums of diesel fuel,
motor fuel, and fog oil using cargo nets. Protective
lubricants, lacquers, and varnishes are required to
help prevent rust. In jungle operations, require-
ments for fog oil increase when tactics call for
smoke measures or smoke screen countermeasures.
Class IV. Construction materials and special bar-
rier equipment are heavy and bulky. Using large
amounts of Class IV materials creates transporta-
tion problems. Lift helicopters are a practical
method of moving these items in a jungle environment.
Class VI. Lotions to protect personnel from insect bites
and poisonous plants are needed in a jungle environ-
ment. Personal demand items help to build morale.
Class VII. Major end items need to be protected
from a jungle environment. Vehicles need to be
inspected frequently. Major end items not in use
should be sent to the rear areas.
Effect on Supply Routes
In the jungle, supply vehicles are easily ambushed,
mined, or booby trapped. Road-clearing and mine-
clearing operations should be repeated each
morning before traffic starts to move. Patrols
provide security against ambush and attack. Clear-
ing vegetation near roads will help prevent ambush.
If supply vehicles are ambushed, escort vehicles,
combat vehicles, and attack helicopters should
assist in countering the attack.
Effect on Supply Trains
Supply trains are located in the forward areas.
Since most resupply is done by air, the combat
trains may be located with the field trains in the
brigade trains area. Combat trains provide rations,
ammunition, lubricants, medics, and a mainte-
nance element. Field trains provide POL, vehicles,
ammunition, rations, and an aid station. Airlift
supply allows fewer supplies to be stockpiled in
the combat trains.
Amphibious operations involve assaults from
seacraft or aircraft against enemy shores. Using
sea vessels as bases increases force mobility. Since
forces are gathered aboard ships or in aircraft,
there is a less noticeable buildup of troops, sup-
plies, and equipment. This gives commanders an
edge in choosing where and when to attack. Using
helicopters and amphibious vehicles to move troops
and supplies from sea bases to attack points requires
detailed planning and coordination. FM 20-12 de-
scribes amphibious embarkation of landing forces.
FM 31-12 tells how to plan, prepare, and train for
Effect on Equipment
Water damage can be a major problem. Proper
waterproofing will reduce equipment breakdown
and damage. Commanders should set up areas to
ensure that vehicles and other equipment are re-
turned to mission-capable condition.
Effect on Supply Requirements
Initial or assault supplies are carried in amphibi-
ous vehicles or helicopters during the assault.
These supplies provide initial support for landing
forces and operations. Commanders should plan
on a 5- to 15-day stock of survival and mission-
essential supplies. This will allow operations to
continue until resupply can occur. Weather and
sea conditions may hamper resupply operations.
Assault supplies should be carefully selected and
packed to allow rapid unloading and distribution
and to make the best use of transportation and
storage space. Careful packing will also serve to
reduce congestion in beach support areas during
the early critical stages of the assault. Only lim-
ited amounts can be sent as assault supplies.
Commanders should ensure that follow-up supply
quantities are increased to make up deficiencies.
Resupply levels need to be high enough to lessen
the need for air delivery of emergency supplies.
When setting resupply levels, commanders should
increase those supplies needed by CSS units as
well as those needed by combat or CS activities.
Assault teams submit requests for emergency sup-
plies to the division. Emergency supplies are
airlifted to the landing area or beachhead or placed
on floating dumps.
Class II. The environment that amphibious forces
will face upon landing determines the need for an
increase or decrease in Class II supplies. In most
cases, units should consider increasing clothing
and individual equipment and waterproofing substances.
Class HI packaged. The quantity of Class III
packaged supplies which units need to stock de-
pends on the area in which the amphibious
operations take place. As a rule, large quantities of
55-gallon drums of diesel and motor fuel are needed.
Protective lubricants are needed to prevent rust.
Class IV. Units need increased amounts of con-
struction materials and barrier equipment during
amphibious operations. Use these materials to
secure the beachheads and build temporary stor-
age areas and shelters. Class IV stockage depends
on the mission and the number of combat units
assigned to accomplish the mission.
Class VI. Issue personal demand items as soon as
practical to build up morale. As a rule, these items
are in Class I ration supplement sundries packs
issued with subsistence. If more items are needed,
units may contact medical support companies.
Class VII. Salt water can deteriorate and severely
damage Class VII items. Commanders must plan
for replacement items for all mission-essential
equipment as well as possible airlift of essential
items. Units should try to get as many replacement
items and repair parts as possible from cannibalizing
captured enemy equipment or nonreparable US items.
Effect on Floating Dumps
Floating dumps are supply points made up of
landing craft and amphibious vehicles. Shore par-
ties depend on floating dumps until enough items
can be stocked at the beachhead or until resupply
operations can begin. When landing craft are avail-
able, commanders should request them. Their speed
increases mobility. Landing craft are loaded with
supplies and equipment which shore parties need
to carry out and sustain operations. There may be 6 to
10 floating dumps per assault landing team. Each dump
should carry a basic load of mission-essential and
survival supplies and equipment. Supplies are
delivered to the shore parties as they are needed.
COLD WEATHER AND
Cold weather and mountain operations pose a
special challenge to CSS units. Winter and moun-
tain weather increase the time required to perform
supply support. Mobility in mountain or cold
weather areas is difficult. Proper equipment is
vital to successful operations. FMs 9-207, 31-71,
and 90-6 provide guidance on mountain and cold
weather operations. They describe how CSS units
can plan for and support operations in this weather.
Effect on Equipment
Cold weather, high altitudes, and rough terrain
require special clothing and equipment. Army
BDUs and combat boots wear out quickly in rocky
terrain. Adequate stocks of clothing must be avail-
able to replace damaged and worn-out items.
Effect on Supply Requirements
It may be necessary to disperse support units in
mountainous terrain. Though this reduces vulner-
ability, it increases local security and command
and control problems. To ensure a continuous
flow of supplies, CSS units must be well protected
against ground and air attack. Unit distribution is
often used in mountain operations. Deliver sup-
plies as far forward as terrain and weather permit.
Communication is limited. Airfields, good roads,
and railroads are also limited. Their scarcity ham-
pers supply flow. You may need pack animals,
tracked vehicles, sleds, and skis to deliver sup-
plies. Successful supply operations require
flexibility and advance planning on the part of
logisticians and supply class managers.
Class II. Rugged terrain increases the need for
replacement of clothing, boots, and other personal
items. Cold weather items such as parkas, liners,
mitten inserts, sleeping bags, and goggles are also
in high demand. White coverings or cold weather
camouflage nets simplify the camouflaging of troops,
equipment, and supplies in snow-covered areas.
Class III packaged. Increased stocks of Class III
packaged lubricants, antifreeze, and fuels are
needed. Tanks operating in mountainous terrain
need 30 to 50 percent more fuel and coolant. Fuel
cans are frequently required to refuel vehicles in
forward areas when terrain conditions restrict the
use of tank and pump units. Class III packaged
goods should be constantly checked for package
warping and product deterioration resulting from
temperature changes. Since smoke screens last longer
under extreme cold conditions, less fog oil is required.
Class IV. Using local materials reduces Class IV
needs and demands on the transportation system.
Mountainous areas often contain trees which can
be used to erect fortifications and barriers and
prepare cold weather shelters.
Class VI. Lip balm and skin lotion are needed.
They combat the effects of cold weather.
Class VII. Transporting large end items to for-
ward units is difficult in cold weather and mountainous
areas. Therefore, emphasize maintenance, repair, and
return to user of such items rather than the use of
replacement end items.
Effect on Supply Routes
Routes to and through supply train areas are im-
portant when deciding on site selection.
Establishing a number of supply routes will help
reduce the amount of traffic and lessen the chance
of enemy attack. Cold weather or a mountain
environment often provides ideal terrain for en-
emy attacks and ambushes on supply route traffic.
Enemy units can be dropped by air or can infiltrate
from the rear to seize important road junctions. It
may be necessary to establish route patrols and
observation posts to secure MSRs. Observation
posts along supply routes should have surveil-
lance devices to help improve the ability to operate
in bad weather and at night.
Effect on Supply Trains
Locate supply trains as far forward as possible. To
increase dispersion, battalion trains are divided
into combat and field trains. Combat trains may be
set up in valleys or ravines on the near slope of the
terrain that the unit is occupying. Keep trains
small and mobile so they can be relocated quickly.
MANAGING GENERAL SUPPLY SUPPORT
MANAGERS AND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
GENERAL SUPPLY ITEM MANAGERS
Grouping items into classes and materiel catego-
ries enables managers to provide better support to
our forces. Position 1 of the materiel category
structure code on the AMDF identifies who has
wholesale managerial responsibility for an item.
Item managers for supply Class es II, III pac kaged, IV,
VI, VII, IX, and X are listed in lTablei-j page 2-3.
Item managers must consider a variety of supply
data and supply management areas in the perfor-
mance of their duties. In addition to the unique
characteristics of the supply class for which they
are responsible, item managers must be concerned
with the following:
• Operating levels, safety levels, and ROPs.
• Criteria to add and retain items in stock.
• Management controls which may be imposed.
• Equipment authorizations (Class VII only).
• Authorized war reserve levels.
• Projected activity levels and consumption
• Capacity of automated systems to generate
demand and asset data.
• Ability of the using unit to prepare formal
• Funding ceilings.
SECONDARY ITEMS MANAGEMENT
Secondary items include Class I, II, IV, and IX
items and maps. There are approximately 3.5 mil-
lion secondary items in defense supply systems.
They amount to approximately 80 percent of all
Army-managed items and about 47 percent of all
items used by the Army. Approximately 300,000
secondary items are stocked in CONUS depots.
About 90 percent of these items have an annual
acquisition value of $5,000 or less.
SUPPLY STOCKAGE OBJECTIVES
AR 710-2 prescribes stockage objectives for the
theater of operations in terms of DOS. The theater
army commander prescribes levels for the combat
zone and the COMMZ. DSUs in the BSA stock an
RO of 10 DOS and ROP of 7 DOS. In mobile
situations, divisions may maintain only those sup-
plies needed to sustain operations until more supplies
can be delivered. If mobility is not impeded, an
additional small stock of reserve items may be
maintained to cover interruptions in supply sched-
ules. DSUs in the DSA, COSCOM, and TAACOM
stock an operating level of 30 DOS and an ROP
consisting of a 5-DOS safety level and actual OST.
Theater army GSUs maintain 5 to 10 days of all classes
except Class II and IX items delivered by ALOC.
Details on supply levels are in ARs 11-11 and 710-2.
SUPPLY PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES
AR 710-2, Chapter 1, prescribes a series of supply
performance objectives and management levels
for SSAs below the wholesale logistics level.
Objectives set by AR 710-2 are attainable goals
under normal operating conditions. Management
levels are acceptable ranges of performance. They
are expressed as percentages or upper and lower
allowable limits. Performance NOT in the allow-
able range should receive intensive management.
The formulas, supply objectives, and manage-
ment levels in AR 710-2 have been developed to
enable managers to monitor the following:
* Demand satisfaction.
* Zero balance with due-outs.
* Inventory accuracy.
* Materiel release denial rate.
* Receipt processing.
* Request processing.
• Location survey.
• Mobility index, forward and rear.
• Excess cycle.
• Disposition excess indicator.
• Automated system cycles.
• SSSC or QSS zero balance.
• Inventory adjustment rate.
• High-priority requisition rates.
DS4 Supply Performance
This is the key management report for measuring
support provided to customer units. The report
gives the percent of demand satisfaction and num-
er of demands. It also gives balance statistics on
the number of ASL lines (less QSS and SSSC). It
lists statistics for each DSU and for the division as
a whole. (NOTE: The balance file statistics are a
"snapshot" of the ABF as of the date the report is
prepared.) A separate page is prepared for Class
IX common, aircraft, and missile items as well as
for Class II, III packaged, and IV. Entries are
explained in TM 38-L32-13. The supply perfor-
mance report is a weekly or monthly report.
DS4 Stock Status Report
The item manager generates this report weekly.
The stock status report lists balances for all ASL
and non-ASL items and levels computed for ASL
items. This report is the primary source for man-
agement and catalog data on ASL and NSL items
with on-hand balances. Managers may use it to
identify problem areas and imbalance conditions.
This includes due-outs with assets on hand, due-
outs with no due-ins, zero balances with no due-
ins, and excess quantities of unserviceable items
on hand. Since the DS4 stock status report list is
the basic management document that lists all as-
sets on hand, it is essential to continue operations
when a system failure occurs.
These reports are intended to be produced on a
monthly basis and give all supply actions which
occurred during a specified control period, or as of
the report's cutoff date. Separate reports are pro-
duced for secondary and PA items and for medical and
nonmedical activities. These reports provide statistical
data required to do the following:
• Evaluate the supply activity management
performance for secondary and PA items.
• Evaluate the supply activity performance
against established standards.
• Evaluate the supply activity support of
authorized customers and evaluate the supply ac-
tivity support from its source of supply.
• Determine the supply activity actual work
load and identify potential and actual problems
that may occur in providing required support.
DIRECT SUPPORT SYSTEM AND AIR
LINES OF COMMUNICATION
In wartime, DSS and ALOC, described in FM 38-725,
provide rigid OST standards for each segment of
the requisition processing cycle. DSS and ALOC
OST objectives are listed in FM 38-725 and in
AR 710-2. By knowing the OST objective, the
requisitioner can take action to help resolve problems
and to ensure that orders are received within the re-
quired time. Requisitioners can send a DSS and ALOC
problem flasher message to the Commander, US Army
Materiel Command, ATTN: AMCSM-MTS-D, 5001
Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-0001.
Table 2-1. Item managers
for general supply items
Materiel Readiness Command,
w, «* - "©--# service item control center
US Army Troop Support Command
St Louis, Missouri 63120-1798
US Army Genera! Materiel & Petroleum Activity
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008
US Army Support Activity
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101-3460
US Armv Communications & Electronics Command
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703-5006
Aircraft and aircraft
US Army Aviation Systems Command
St Louis Missouri 63120-1798
Ground forces support
US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008
Combat, tactical, and
support vehicles and
parts related to
US Army Tank-Automotive Command
Warren, Michigan 48090-5000
VII, II, IX
Missiles and missile
US Army Missile Logistics Center
Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898-5000
VII, ii, IX
tracked combat vehicle
US Army Armament, Munitions, and
Rock Island, Illinois 61299-6000
weapons, and chemical
and fire control
US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703-5006
Bulk & packaged
and accessories, and
certain chemical and
US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania i 7070-5008
US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008
US Army CECOM Communications Security
Fort Huachuca, Arizona 85613-7090
comfort, and hygiene
Defense Personnel Support Center
2800 South 20th Street
Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 19101-3460
US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania i 7070-5008
REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL SUPPLIES
The ROP helps managers maintain the RO and
avoid out-of-stock conditions. When the ROP is
reached, stock replenishment action should be
taken. An ROP must be set for all demand-
supported items. Managers should check the ROP
quantity with the current asset position of an item
biweekly. This check ensures that an item does not
reach an unfavorable stock position.
WAR RESERVE REQUIREMENTS
Classes I, II, III packaged, IV, VII, and IX and
maps may be included in war reserve stocks. War
reserve levels are computed according to AR 11-11.
AR 710-1, Chapter 8, describes basic unclassified
materiel management policies and procedures for
computing war reserve requirements. It also refer-
ences classified directives and USAMC plans used
to compute requirements.
General Supply Usage or Consumption Rates
The amount of war reserve stocks that must be
procured and retained is based in part on usage and
consumption rates. Use and consumption rates for
chemical items are provided by the Deputy Chief
of Staff for Military Operations. Rates for other
Class II items are provided in supply bulletins and
by materiel readiness commands and TRADOC.
Expected wartime use of Class III packaged is
found by adjusting current average peacetime
monthly demands. Class IV use is based on the
theater barrier plan. Class VII requirements are
based on wartime replacement factors. Map re-
quirements are determined by the S2 or G2 in
cooperation with the S3 or G3.
Secondary Item Requirements
The item manager manages secondary war reserve
items until they a re issued to the field. Item man-
agers are listed in | Table 24J page 2-3.
Procurement appropriation-funded secondary
items. The materiel readiness commands advise
oversea commands of the total computed require-
ments. They also inform oversea commands when
shortages have been found so that requisitions
may be placed on the supply system. No requisi-
tion funding is required when shortages of these
Stock fund secondary items. Materiel readiness
commands also compute requirements for stock
fund secondary items for oversea commands.
Oversea commanders must find these requirements.
War Reserve Stockage List
The war reserve stockage list may be used to
determine sudden mobilization requirements. AR
710-1, Chapter 8, lists criteria for including an
item on the war reserve stockage list. The list
identifies the commodity manager responsible for
the item and the supply class. Section I of a war
reserve stockage list groups items by commodity
manager in LIN sequence. Section II lists POL,
expendable items (except ammunition), and items
without a LIN. Those items are grouped by com-
modity manager in NSN sequence. An "X" indi-
cates that the item is authorized for stockage in the
CONSUMPTION RATES AND
Use consumption rates and planning factors to
determine requirements for a given operation.
They can be expressed as ratios, rates, lengths of
time, or consumption quantities. They will vary
because of differences in the types and intensity of
operations, types of units, force structure, terrain,
climate, and geographic area. AR 700-8 cites the
proponents responsible for developing basic con-
sumption rates and planning factors. The US Army
Combined Arms Support Command, Fort Lee,
Virginia, has primary responsibility for developing
basic logistics planning factors. The US Army
Quartermaster Center and School, Fort Lee, Virginia,
is responsible for developing logistics planning doc-
trine for Class I, II, III, IV, VI, VII, and IX supplies.
SUPPLY AND STORAGE REQUIREMENTS
DISCOMs, COSCOMs, TAACOMs, and
TAMMCs determine quantities of each item re-
quired within their commands. Requirements are
based on tactical plans, demand data, previous
experience, troop strength, supply level or DOS,
and item density.
Supplies required for the initial period of opera-
tions are based on the following:
* Equipment modification lists.
* Authorization documents (CTAs).
* Troop strength data.
* Type of conflict (short and intense or
Replacement or Consumption Requirements
These include the supplies needed to keep initial equip-
ment at authorized quantities. They replenish items
expended, lost, contaminated, or destroyed. These
requirements depend on the following:
• Troop strength.
• Revision of consumption rates or replace-
* Changes in forces supported.
* Seasonal and other requirements.
FM 101-10-1/2 lists the formulas to use to esti-
mate supply, resupply, storage, and supply level
buildup requirements. Use the formulas when both
the strength to be supported and the level of
supply or DOS needed are known. Consumption
rates used in the formulas may vary considerably,
depending on force structure, mission, area of
operation, and intensity of combat. These rates
will need to be adjusted to the type of conflict,
level of operation, strength of the opposing force,
and tactical situation.
SUPPLY SUPPORT SYSTEMS
DIRECT SUPPORT UNIT STANDARD
SUPPLY SYSTEM SUPPLY SUPPORT
DS4 automates routine supply procedures for di-
visional and nondi visional units. The system is
designed for management of Class II, III pack-
aged, IV, VII (ORF), and IX items. The DMMC
can manage stocks in 10 DSUs. Nondivisional
units have a stock control section and storage
facility which uses DS4 procedures and an organic
minicomputer to manage DSU stocks.
Units submit prepunched DA Forms 2765 to their
supporting DSUs. An initial supply of two
prepunched request cards is provided for each
item on the unit PLL. Replacement cards are
provided as requests are received. If a prepunched
DA Form 2765 is not available, units must prepare
the card manually. TM 38-L32-11, Chapter 3,
shows divisional and nondivisional unit supply
personnel the procedures to request supplies.
TM 38-L32-12 has details on how to process
receipts. Non-DSS shipments should be processed
according to DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. Forward support
DSUs receive items from main or other forward
DSUs on a machine-generated MRO. When the
item is received and stocked, the MRO is con-
verted to a materiel receipt card and returned to
the MMC or to a materiel receipt card stock con-
As a rule, requests are sent to the supporting DSU
or stock control section for routine machine pro-
cessing. MMCs may also direct main DSUs to
issue replenishment stocks to a supported unit or
to a unit supported by another forward or main
DSU. TM 38-L32-12 shows DSU storage person-
nel how to process MROs.
TMs 38-L32-11, 38-L32-12, and 38-L32-13 de-
scribe procedures and forms for processing turn-
ins. Using units turn in excess items to the sup-
porting DSU that handles the item. The MMC or
stock control section identifies excess items in
forward and main DSUs. Machine-generated
MROs direct storage sections to turn in excess
items to higher sources of supply or the division's
main ASL. Materiel release confirmations are sent
to the MMC or stock control section to update the
availability balance files.
DS4 Contingency Procedures
When each day's processing is completed, the
cyclic files at each computer site should be put on
backup tapes. Store this backup set of tapes away
from the primary ADP site.
STANDARD ARMY INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
SUPPLY SUBSYSTEM SUPPORT
SAILS is used to process requirements for general
supplies at echelons above division. SAILS auto-
mates processing for Class II, III packaged, IV,
VII, and IX supplies as well as bulk Class III and
selected Class VI materiel. System controls per-
mit selective management of individual items.
SAILS output transactions are compatible with DS4.
TM 38-L03-19, Chapter 4, shows how to prepare
and process requests. Supply requests are submitted
on DA Form 2765 or DD Form 1348-6. Input card
formats are covered in TM 38-L03-21-1. DSUs
and GSUs are provided with prepunched DA Forms
2765 for submission to the MMC. A prepunched
card is provided each time a request for a recurring
issue is received from the DSU or GSU.
DSS receipt cards are processed according to
TM38-L03-19, Chapter 14. TM 38-L03-17, Chap-
ter 3, describes procedures used by stock control activi-
ties to process receipts. Unit receipt procedures are in
TM 38-L03-19, Chapter 7. Documents received with
support supply shipments may include-
• An MRO (DD Form 1348-1).
• An in-transit data card.
• An in-transit receipt detail card.
• A materiel receipt acknowledgment card.
A replacement in-transit data card (DA Form
The basic issue document is the MRO (DD Form 1348-1).
The MRO may be marked to show materiel release
confirmation, denial, or reversal. Issue card formats are
covered in TM 38-L03-21-1. Issue procedures are cov-
ered in TM 38-L03- 17, Chapter 7.
Recoverable items and supplies are turned in
through the same channels from which they were
requisitioned. If the situation makes this imprac-
tical, the commander may establish a turn-in point.
TM 38-L03-17 tells COSCOM DSUs and GSUs
how to process unit returns. TM 38-L03-19 covers
DSU turn-ins to the stock control activity.
At the end of each day's processing, all system
files at each computer site should be put on tape.
The tapes should be stored away from the com-
puter site, preferably with a sister computer sys-
tem. If one of the computers becomes inoperative,
the remaining equipment should be used to per-
form essential supply functions (request, receipt,
store, issue, and edit). If several computers become
inoperative, supply actions may be processed on de-
vices at storage sites. Supply requirements may be
filled or passed to the next supply echelon
(TAMMC or CONUS). After the computers are
repaired or replaced, the master files should be
rebuilt using storage site files.
STANDARD PROPERTY BOOK
The SPBS-R is a fully interactive, menu-driven,
automated property accounting system. It oper-
ates in a centralized or decentralized mode when-
ever there is a requirement for property account-
ability or asset visibility of major items of equip-
ment. SPBS-R can enhance combat readiness,
reduce cost, provide instant supply management
information, and protect commanders from re-
ports of survey by providing accurate records of
property accountability. The system also-
• Allows DMMC to manage all property
book accounts for assigned or attached units loaded
for asset visibility support.
• Provides asset visibility support to corps,
US Army Reserve, and ROTC units and activities
when directed by the MACOM.
• Provides a consolidated property and hand-
receipt listing as required. The system provides 35
other output reports and listings for management
of property accountability.
• Interfaces with other automated logistical
• Removes property book records of trans-
ferring units and activities from its files by means
of processing a single transaction. Units and ac-
tivities being transferred will be provided their
records on floppy diskettes. The gaining property
book team will upload these diskettes.
STANDARD ARMY RETAIL SUPPLY
SYSTEM SUPPLY SUPPORT
A standard Army retail supply system will replace
DS4 in divisional and nondivisional DSUs and
SAILS at corps and echelons above corps. SARSS
will provide automated stock record accounting
and supply management for Classes II, III packaged,
IV, VII (ORF), and IX throughout the theater of
operations. It is being designed so that no major
change will be required during mobilization for
war. SARSS is divided into various levels.
SARSS Level I
This level will perform stock record accounting
for division and separate brigade DSUs.
SARSS Level II
SARSS Level II is divided into two separate sub-
systems. SARSS IIA maintains asset visibility
and directs lateral issues among its subordinate
supply activities. SARSS IIB performs non-time-
sensitive functions such as document history analy-
sis, catalog update, and stockage levels computation.
AUTOMATED BACKUP PROCEDURES
Loss of information hinders the supply mission.
Power failures or electromechanical problems can
cause ADP equipment outages. ADP equipment or
MMCs may be damaged or destroyed as a result of
enemy action. However, units still need supplies,
and DSUs still need to supply their supported
units. Use the following procedures during equip-
During outages of 72 hours or less, units should
continue to follow standard procedures and sub-
mit requests to their DSU. In turn, DSUs should
follow standard procedures in dealing with their
MMC or stock control section. High-priority re-
quests and requisitions should be processed manu-
ally as a postpost transaction. DS4 backup proce-
dures are covered in TM 38-L32-13. During the
outage period, DSUs should-
• Issue stocks to units arriving at the storage
site with high-priority requisitions until all stocks
• Issue stocks for low-priority requisitions
after 48 hours. Depending on stockage levels,
low-priority transactions may be held until the
end of the outage period.
• Receive and store all deliveries.
• Prepare paperwork needed to transmit the
data to the MMC or stock control section when the
information flow is reestablished.
# Complete all processing actions previ-
ously received from the MMC.
During long-term outages, supply operations may
have to be transferred to a similar or replacement
system or to an alternate MMC using COOP pro-
cedures. Machine time can be shared. The MMC
or stock control section should run only essential
processes. If replacement ADP equipment can be
set up, hold input documents that can be delayed
to run at that time.
MANUAL SUPPLY SUPPORT
In war, automated supply systems are vulnerable
to disruption, damage, and destruction from en-
emy action. MMCs are prime targets. The electro-
magnetic pulse of nuclear explosions can affect
computer tape disks. Nothing can be done on the
battlefield to harden equipment against electro-
magnetic pulse effects. This problem must be
addressed in the design and manufacturing stage.
However, contingency and backup procedures exist
to ensure continued supply support during out-
ages and equipment failures. During short-term
outages, low-priority transactions may be held
until the end of the outage period. However, high-
priority requests and requisitions will have to be
processed manually. During long-term outages,
the MMC may order that requests or requisitions
be prepared manually until computer operations
can be transferred to an alternate site or until
documents can be run on replacement equipment.
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1 describes manual request
procedures for using units. DA Pamphlet 710-2-2
tells DSUs and GSUs how to process requests
from units. Supply support activities without ADP
equipment follow the MILSTRIP in AR 725-50.
Units submit requests to their DSU. Requests may
be sent by courier, electrical message, telephone,
or radio. DSUs and GSUs send requisitions to the
supporting MMC. AR 725-50 shows how to prepare the
required forms and how to process the requisitions.
Receipt and shipping documents should accom-
pany received supplies. Using units maintain a
document register and process receipt documents
according to instructions in DA Pamphlet 710-2-1.
DSUs and GSUs process receipts according to
instructions in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 and AR 725-50.
Each container, package, or document number in a
combined DSS shipment should have a corre-
sponding DD Form 1348-1, transportation ship-
ping document, and materiel receipt acknowledg-
ment card. Supplies received from commercial
sources usually have an accompanying DD Form 250
or DD Form 1155.
AR 725-50 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 show how to
NOTE: According to AR 710-2, MROs with PDs
01 through 03 and NMCS MROs must be pro-
cessed within 24 hours of the time that they are
received. This is on a seven-day workweek, 24
hours-a-day basis. MROs with PDs 04 through 15
must be processed within two days on a regular
workweek, regular shift basis.
Using units turn in items to the supply support
activity that would normally issue them. DSUs
turn in excess items to corps GSUs. All other
serviceable or unserviceable reparable, excess items
are to be sent to a theater collection and classifica-
tion point. Combat-loss reports support items
dropped from property records.
Using units. Using units turn in items on DA Form 2765-1.
They use the procedures in DA Pamphlet 710-2-1.
They use DA Form 2765-1 to turn in items that had
hidden defects and items that were not requested.
They turn in salvage items on DD Form 1348-1.
DSUs and GSUs. These units process unit turn-ins
on DA Form 2765-1, following procedures in
DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 14. They turn in
excess items to the supply source using DD Form 1348,
DD Form 1348M, or DD Form 173/1. AR 725-50,
Chapter 7, tells how to prepare and process these forms.
WARTIME PROPERTY ACCOUNTABILITY
In times of war or emergency, wartime account-
ability procedures may be relaxed. The Secretary
of the Army approves wartime accountability.
Using Unit Modifications
Though property book accounting remains in ef-
fect for OCIE, postings do not have to be sup-
ported by documents. In addition, hand receipts
are not required. For all other organizational property,
property book accounting is reduced to maintaining a
running balance of equipment on-hand. Document
files are not required. Instead, on-hand quantities
are supported by combat-loss reports and daily
logistics status reports.
Supply Support Activity Modifications
Though accounting records and files must con-
tinue to be kept, vouchers which support entries
do not have to be kept after posting is done.
Summary accounting techniques apply.
LOGISTICS INTELLIGENCE FILE
The LIF is an on-line computerized data base. It
centralizes the collection, correlation, and retrieval
of supply and transportation data on Army-sponsored
requisitions placed on the wholesale logistics sys-
tem. The LIF is maintained by the AMC Logistics
Control Activity. The purpose of the LIF is to
furnish supply and transportation pipeline progress
of a requisition from the time it is sent through the
DAAS to the time materiel is received and posted
to the accountable record at the requisitioning
activity. The requisition status, receipt posting,
reject customer cancellation, and transportation
lift notices are recorded in this file. The LIF
provides complete historical information on each
requisition. It is used to measure DSS perfor-
mance and focus management attention on spe-
cific pipeline segments needing improvement. The
data base does not include Class I or III. Custom-
ers may use a number of modes to access the LIF
data base for requisition status. See AR 725-50,
DA Pamphlet 700-30, or FM 38-725. Requisition
data can be provided daily or at a set interval. You
may send urgent inquiries via DSN or priority
SUPPLY ASSISTANCE REQUEST
Any command echelon may request assistance on
requisitions with PDs 01 throu gh 08. AR 725-50 tells
how to request such assistance. Figure 2-1, page 2-11,
shows a sample request on DD Form 173/2. The
request must not exceed seven document num-
bers. The first line of message requests must
contain the words, "Supply Assistance Request."
Supply sources are the only activities that may
send requests to storage activities. They may re-
quest that storage activities--
• Check on the status of requisitions.
• Support requirements in a more timely
• Substitute or interchange items.
• Release or cancel back-ordered requisi-
Divert a shipment.
RESEARCH ASSISTANCE CENTER
CDA provides worldwide "HOTLINE" manage-
ment data research assistance. The MIRAC is an
extension of the cataloging and data bank service
offered by CDA. It is manned by an experienced
staff oriented to item identification and supply
management data problems. Its personnel can help
analyze problems and obtain solutions on items of
supply. They can verify NSNs, unit prices, units
of issue, and other data found in the AMDF.
MIRAC personnel answer telephones from 0715
to 1545 Eastern time, Monday through Friday. During
nonduty hours, telephone answering equipment
calls from worldwide locations. MIR AC personnel
respond to these inquiries the following workday.
Replay messages can be recorded on the telephone
answering equipment for overseas callers who arrange
for this service and who call back after normal CDA
duty hours. Call DSN 977-7431 or WATS (717) 770-
7431. MIRAC can be reached by electronic mail using
the MIRAC address at AMC HQ. Include-
• Item name and NSN (or description).
• Reference publication.
• End item application or manufacturer's
code and part number.
• Point of contact and telephone number.
• Information needed.
• Complete address, including office sym-
bol, of requesting agency or activity.
REMOTE TERMINAL ACCESS
The RTAIS provides access to users of AMDF and
related logistics management data. The RTAIS
permits over 125 different types of computer ter-
minals to directly access the AMDF through vari-
ous telecommunications lines. This includes a "1-
800" service and the Defense Data Network. It
does all this at little or no cost to the user, as
opposed to the substantial fees charged by com-
mercial vendors providing similar services. In
addition to NSN, LIN, and reference number in-
formation, other types of data such as commercial
and government entity and search for characteris-
tics data are currently available. Component list
data, hazardous materiel data, inquiry by nomen-
clature, inquiry for DIDS data for non-Army NUN
queries, and inquiry for automatic return items are
available through this system.
FM J 0-27
JOINT MESSAGE FORM
DT G/RELgASER TIME I PRECEDENCE
SPECAT ( LMF | CIC
MESSAGE HANDLING INSTRUCTIONS
SUPPLY ASSISTANCE REQUEST:
This command is having serious problems due to lack of items in the following
documents. Request accelerated delivery and improved estimated shipping
Docu No with Suffix
2. FB2300/4 155/00 13/
830500 1 234SI
DRAFTER TYPED NAME, TITLE. OFflCE SYMBOL, PHONE
TYPED NAME, TITLE. OFFICE SYMBOL. AND PHONE
DATE TIME GROUP
*DD,£Sr„ 173/2 (OCR)
PREVIOUS EDITION IS OBSOLETE
Figure 2-1. Sample request for supply assistance on PDs 01 through 08 requisitions
PROVIDING CLASS II, III PACKAGED, AND IV SUPPLIES
Because of high cost and the possibility of unfore-
seen demands, Class IV items (and some Class II)
may be placed under controls not applied to other
classes of supply. These controls include selec-
tive stockage and command approval of items
before they are issued.
The MMC selects the type and amount of items to
be stocked at supply points. As a rule, these items
are stocked only after they have been requested a
set number of times in a given period. This pre-
vents large inventories that would impede mobility.
Issues must often be controlled if items in short
supply are to be on hand for priority requests.
Expensive, highly technical, or scarce items are
often placed on regulated or command-controlled
lists. Items on these lists are critical to a local
command for an indefinite period. Division com-
manders may compose a list of command-controlled
items critical to their command. Command ap-
proval is required before an item on this list can be
issued. Requests for the item must be sent through
channels to the commander who made the list. DA
prints the lists, and only the commander who
initiated the list may take an item off the list.
There are specific mobility requirements that ap-
ply to DSUs and their subordinate elements. The
ASL mobility index is the percentage of the total
cube of essential stocks that can be transported in
one lift with transportation assets that are organic
to the DSU. Mobility requirements are in AR 710-2.
All ASL items that can be stored in bins must be
truck- or van-mounted. DSU forward elements
supporting a brigade (maintenance company or
supply company, FSB) must be able to move 90
percent of their ASL items within 30 minutes and
the remainder within 4 hours. All DSU elements
supporting division or large combat units must be
50 percent mobile in one lift and must be able to
move the remainder of their ASL by shuttle. Weight
and cube data are listed on the AMDF and can be
provided by ADP equipment. If corps transporta-
tion assets are not dedicated, DSUs need to re-
quest transportation from their battalion. Requests
would then be passed from the DISCOM MCO to
the COSCOM MCO. He coordinates with the
DTO who then coordinates with the COSCOM
MCT or MCC.
CLOTHING AND TEXTILE
The decision on whether or not to repair a clothing
or a textile item is based on the total cost to repair
that item. For personal clothing items to be eco-
nomically reparable, the cost of repair must not be
more than 35 percent of the cost of the item. For
textile items, the cost to repair the item must not
exceed 65 percent of the cost of the item. The
repair cost includes labor, materials, transporta-
tion, and overhead. The theater commander may
need to publish a repair policy that would relax
these repair limitations for critical items and items
in short supply.
Most secondary items are procured with stock
funds. A MAT CAT code enables the requisitioner
to know if funds are required to requisition the
item. It also identifies the type of funds used to
procure the item locally. A requisition for stock-
funded or OMA-funded items requires that the
requester have OMA funds and the requisitioner
have either OMA funds or stock fund obligation
authority available. An alphabetic character in the
second position of the MAT CAT indicates that an
item is procurement appropriation-financed. This
means that it is generally a free issue. The third
position of the code shows whether an item is
reparable or nonreparable.
CLASS II SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
CLOTHING, INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT,
TENTAGE, AND ADMINISTRATIVE AND
There are over 100,000 Class II items listed in the
AMDF. Class II items include clothing, indi-
vidual equipment, tentage, organizational tool sets
and kits, hand tools, and administrative and house-
keeping supplies and equipment. Parkas, combat
boots, general-purpose tents, general mechanic
tool sets, hammers, file cabinets, and paper towels
are examples of each type. Class II also includes
NBC-related items. Class II subclasses are identi-
fied in Appendix B. The Defense Personnel Sup-
port Center procures and manages most of the
Class II clothing and individual equipment used
by the Army.
Authorized Clothing Allowances
CTAs 50-900, 50-909, and 50-970 list basis of
issue allowances for Class II items. Clothing al-
lowances for contingency plans and mobilization
must conform with that shown in the "Active
Army-Mobilization" column of CTA 50-900. The
only exceptions to this are special issue and cloth-
ing allowances authorized by special lists or move-
ment orders. Mobilization clothing allowances
are mandatory. However, because of existing cli-
matic conditions, commanders should use caution
in prescribing full clothing allowances through-
out a given command.
Discretionary allowances. An additional allow-
ance may be authorized by movement orders for
the health and comfort of soldiers assigned duty in
certain climatic zones. Parka liners and mitten inserts
are examples of discretionary items authorized for
operations in cold climates. Discretionary allow-
ances are listed in CTA 50-900, Appendix I. They
are issued at the discretion of the major com-
mander or major Army subcommander. The au-
thority to issue discretionary items may be del-
egated to subordinate commands.
Contingency force allowances. When allowances
are considered inadequate for possible deploy-
ment to a specific zone of operation, contingency
force commanders may obtain approval from DA
to modify the allowances listed in the "Active
Army-Mobilization" column of CTA 50-900. An
additional canteen and canteen cover for hot desert
areas is an example of a special allowance which may
be authorized to meet contingency force requirements.
Requirements for clothing and individual equip-
ment are based on seven climatic zones. These
zones are explained in CTA 50-900, Appendix D.
Clothing may also be issued on the basis of MOSs
listed in CTA 50-900, Appendix F. The theater or
contingency force commander or the FORSCOM
or readiness command commander designates those
items in the "Active Army-Mobilization" col-
umn of CTA 50-900 which are to be worn or
carried and those which are to be transported. Re-
quirements for other items of Class II, such as admin-
istrative supplies, are based on unit, organization, or
activity needs. CTA 50-970 lists initial issue and
initial stockage levels for expendable and durable
items. Replenishment quantities must be based on
demands and anticipated requirements.
In 1987, FM 101-10-1/2 listed the consumption
rate for Class II as 3.67 pounds per person per day.
The rate may vary depending on force size.
BASIC AND OPERATIONAL
MACOMs designate the units which must keep
basic loads of Class II supplies. Basic loads sus-
tain operations in combat for a prescribed number
of days. The method for determining the stockage
level will be prescribed. AR 710-2, Chapter 2,
authorizes up to 15 days stockage of expendable
CTA 50-970 Class II operational load items to
sustain peacetime operations. A seven-day level
should be enough when operational load items are
also available through an SSSC. Operational load
supplies may be moved into combat if transporta-
tion assets are available after essential lift re-
quirements are met.
Responsibility and Accountability
The commander is responsible for durable items
in the basic load. Hand-receipt procedures are
used to assign responsibility for durable items but
are not required for expendable items. Property
book accountability is not required for durable
and expendable Class II basic load items.
Basic load items must be on hand or on order at all
times. Replenish these items as they are used.
Though property book records are not kept for
Class II durable and expendable items, maintain
records of demands for basic load items. Docu-
ment registers must also be kept, but post only the
document number, description, quantity, and date.
A list of Class II basic load items must be on file
at the using unit. Give a copy of the initial list to
the SSA. Give list changes to the SSA after the
first and every other periodic review. Prepare a
new list for the using commander's approval, and
send it to the SSA after the second and every other
AR 710-2, Chapter 2, requires that all items be
inventoried at least annually. Inventory Class II
basic load items during the regular review period.
Inventory durable items in Class II operational
loads annually or upon change of responsibility. Inven-
tory components when the end item is inventoried.
Property Book Items
Account for Class II items on property books.
Account for items in the "authorized column" of
authorization documents when the quantity in the
required column is less than that authorized. Ac-
count for CTA 50-900 items (except insignia and
initial and supplemental clothing issued accord-
ing to AR 700-84). Account for CTA 50-909 items
and on-hand or on-request nonexpendable special
tools and test equipment authorized by an MTOE,
a TDA, a JTA, or a CTA and which are listed in a
TM or which are not separately type-classified.
AR 710-2 requires that property book items be
• Upon receipt. (The receiving person must con-
duct a complete inventory.)
• Prior to being turned in.
• When issued on a hand receipt. (The receiving
person must conduct a complete inventory.)
* Upon change of responsible officer.
* Upon change of PBO.
* When directed by the commander.
* During the required annual property book in-
• During the annual responsible officer inven-
When property books are kept at other than the using
unit level, the PBO may require a cyclic, monthly,
quarterly, or semiannual inventory in place of the
required annual inventory. The PBO must conduct an
annual inventory of items not issued on hand receipts.
OCIE must be inventoried when the soldier has been
dropped from the rolls, hospitalized, hospitalized for
more than 60 days (and OCIE was not previously
inventoried), ordered to permanently change sta-
tion while on emergency leave, or placed in an
absent- without-leave status.
Inventory requirements during actual wartime con-
ditions depend on the level of organization and
the tactical situation. Requirements for using units
to perform inventories cease in wartime. Invento-
ries should be taken merely to determine the quan-
tity on hand and the condition or status of prop-
erty. However, these inventories do not have to be
documented. If the situation allows, a cyclic in-
ventory may be conducted. Though discrepancies should
be recorded, they do not have to be reported.
MAP SUPPLY SUPPORT
Since a large percentage of logistical planning is
done using maps, a major requirement for any
operation is an adequate supply of maps. Require-
ments vary depending on force structure, probable
duration of planned operations, quantity of map
stocks set aside for the task force, quantity in unit
basic loads, and anticipated battlefield mobility.
The initial issue of maps for three corps (12
divisions) ranges from 2.7 to 3 million copies
(weighing from 135 to 150 tons). However, the
Defense Mapping Agency shipped more than 45
million maps (about 2,250 tons) to Southwest
Asia in support of only two corps during Opera-
tion Desert Shield. Small- and medium-scale maps
are issued in small quantities to headquarters only.
Quantities vary depending on the size and mission
of the headquarters. Large-scale maps are the
standard maps normally issued in the main battle
area. Initial issue allowances for large-scale maps
depend on the type of unit. Small quantities of
joint ground-to-air operation graphics are issued
to headquarters. Two copies are issued per organic
Army aircraft. One copy should be issued per air
defense artillery fire unit. Road maps are issued
on the basis of one map per vehicle. Limited
quantities may also be issued to unit headquarters.
Small quantities of maps and map products are
issued to interagency teams, such as law enforce-
ment, in support of peacetime contingency operations.
THEATER RESERVE STOCKS
For operations on a mobile battlefield to be effec-
tive, topographic data and pre-positioned stocks
must be available in deployed units. Actual
stockage levels vary according to the types of
units. NATO nations have accepted production
responsibilities to ensure that preplanned stocks
of standard maps are available for interchange
between allied forces.
The division reserve may equal one brigade basic load.
The corps reserve may equal one division basic
load plus an equal amount of blank paper and
printing supplies. A 10-day corps reserve could equal
400,000 to 650,000 copies and weigh 20 to 32.5 tons.
Theater Army Reserve
This reserve may equal a five-division basic load
plus an equal amount of blank paper and printing
supplies. A QM map supply detachment assigned
to the QM supply company, GS, maintains a 30- to
60-day reserve stockage of topographic supplies.
A 45-day theater depot reserve could range from 5.4 to
9.0 million copies and weigh 270 to 450 tons.
From 100,000 to 120,000 copies may be needed
daily to resupply three corps (12 divisions). This
requirement is based on the map replenishment
percentages lis ted in FM 101-10-1/1, Chapter 6.
The formula in lTable 34l page 3-5, may be used
to estimate map requirements for an operation.
Table 3-1 . Formula for estimating map requirements
Total Copies _ *Coverage for
(each scale) "" a Scale
♦This is determined by using the Catalog of Maps, Charts, and Related Products
published by the DOD DMA.
Replenishment of small-scale maps is 50 percent
of initial requirements. Replenishment of me-
dium- and large-scale maps may reach 100 percent
of initial requirements.
Operation Plan Requirements
AR 115-11 requires that topographic guidance be
included in all OPLANs and orders. OPLANs
must include topographic appendixes or sections
which describe the map support needed to com-
plete a tactical operation. These OPLANs should
include the following:
• Size and makeup of the envisioned task force.
• Initial map issue allowances.
• Existence, quantity, and currency of map stocks
which have been or will be set aside for the task force.
• Quantity held by task force units in unit basic
• Possible duration of the tactical operation.
• Degree of allied topographic support antici-
• Anticipated map shortfall.
• Ways to decrease any shortfall. This may
include anticipated support from indigenous govern-
mental and civilian agencies.
• Deployment phasing and security consider-
The DMA publishes catalogs of standard maps,
charts, and map products. Catalogs are available
down to separate-company level. All standard
map products have a unique number that identifies
the map series, sheet, and edition. Maps may be
requisitioned using ADP systems and the DMA catalog
number as a manufacturer's part number.
A catalog of maps may be prescribed for use
within a theater. Instructions for preparing re-
quests are listed in the catalog or map index. Maps
needed to support critical situations are requisi-
tioned according to MACOM instructions. The S2 or
G2 validates requests for nonstandard map products.
AR 380-5 shows how to prepare classified requi-
sitions. According to AR 115-11, requisitions for
maps must be classified when map indexes indi-
cate that a map is classified, when size or nature of
the requisition indicates a classified operation, or
when geographic coverage reveals the location of
a classified operation. All classified product req-
uisitions and supplies are handled by intelligence
channels. However, GS map supply points store
Special Map Products
Requests for special maps and map products go
through command channels to supporting engi-
neer map elements. Special products are those
items historically provided to commanders by
Army topographic engineers. These products in-
clude terrain intelligence products, analysis and
surveys of all kinds, map overprinting, and over-
lays. Special products are produced in response to
specific command requests. These products do
not enter the supply system. If the need is great
enough or DMA cannot obtain suitable maps from
any source, engineer topographic units in the the-
ater have the ability to print small quantities of
maps. Requirements for small-quantity, quick-
service map printing is normally validated by the
requesting unit S2 or G2. The request is forwarded
to the engineer topographic control detachment.
This unit coordinates with the MMC to requisition
any standard products to satisfy overprints or
other special preparation of map products. If di-
rected by local commanders, some engineer-produced
special products may be assigned local control
numbers and be stocked and distributed by the
GSU map storage site.
The DMA provides standard maps. Engineer car-
tographic units in the theater update and, as nec-
essary, prepare locally unique nonstandard maps.
Requisitions for unclassified maps flow through
supply channels to a QM map supply detachment.
Requisitions for classified maps must be sent
through S2 or G2 channels. The Quartermaster
Corps proponent units are assuming the mission
for the receipt, storage, and issue of standard maps
and map products.
Brigade Support Area
Using units submit requests for maps to their
supporting forward Class II, III packaged, IV, and
VII supply point run by a supply company in the
BSA. These requests are transmitted to the supply
company in the DSA.
Division Support Area
Using units in the DSA submit requests to their
Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII supply point
run by supply company personnel. This company
transmits requests to the DMMC. The DMMC
may cut an MRO directing the issue or prepare and
transmit requisitions to the CMMC. Battalion S2s
verify, consolidate, and transmit requisitions for
classified maps to the division G2, who may then
send the requisitions to the corps G2.
Corps Rear Area
In the corps, personnel in QM general supply
companies run a corps map supply point. Requisi-
tions which cannot be filled in the corps are sent
to the TAMMC.
All units in the COMMZ submit requisitions for
maps through their supporting DSU in the same
manner as units in the corps rear areas. If the
theater is developed enough to have a TAMMC, it
acts as the item manager for maps. DMA may
operate one or more map depots in the area in
peacetime and will continue to operate them in
war. The theater army map depot may be collo-
cated with the DMA theater depot. In order to
satisfy requisitions, DMA may procure maps from
allied or other sources or draw from CONUS depots.
CLASS IV SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
There are nearly 4,000 Class IV items in the
AMDF. They range from construction materials,
such as nails and lumber, to fortification and
barrier materials such as blackout curtains and
barbed wire. Class IV items are often bulky and
are often required in large quantities. They are
often under the control of engineer construction orga-
nizations. Most Class IV construction supplies are
procured by the Defense Construction Supply
Center of the Defense Logistics Agency.
The GS supply base maintains 4 to 10 days of
Class IV supplies plus OST. Requirements for
items such as bridge equipment are based on
barrier plans. Requests for such items normally
require command approval. CTA 50-970 authorizes
basis of issue allowances for Class IV items.
FM 101-10-1/2 sets 8.5 pounds per person per day
as the Class IV consumption rate. When the force
is a corps or larger, the consumption rate used
must be adjusted to allow for the buildup of stocks
to support base development and to repair war
damage to critical facilities. For each of the following
periods, multiply the 8.5 rate by the factor shown:
D-Day to D+30
D+31 to D+60
D+61 to D+90
D+91 to D+120
D+121 to D+150
D+151 to D+180
D+181 and after
More Class IV consumption rate data are available
from the proponents.
BASIC AND OPERATIONAL
Major commands determine which units must
maintain a basic load of Class IV items for war.
Up to 15 days of expendable Class IV operational
load items listed in CTA 50-970 may also be
stocked. If transportation is available, operational
load items may be moved into combat. The com-
mander is responsible for any durable items.
Responsibility for durable items is assigned on hand
receipts. Records of responsibility are not maintained
on expendable items. Since the basic load must be
on hand or on order at all times, replenish Class IV
basic load items as they are used. Class IV basic
load items are not maintained on property books.
Records of demands, however, must be kept on
basic load items. A copy of the initial basic load
list for Class IV items must be sent to the SSA.
Changes found during the first and every other
periodic review must also be sent to the SSA. A
new list should be prepared for the using unit
commander's approval and sent to the SSA after
the second and every other review.
AR 710-2, Chapter 2, prescribes Class IV inven-
tory requirements. Basic loads of Class IV sup-
plies must be inventoried during the regularly
scheduled review period. Durable items in opera-
tional loads must be inventoried annually or upon
change of responsibility, whichever occurs first.
Inventories are not required for expendable items
in operational loads. In war, using units may
inventory unit property to assess status and on-
hand quantity. However, units do not need to
document the inventory. SSAs may conduct a
cyclic inventory if the situation allows. SSA in-
ventory discrepancies must be recorded. How-
ever, they do not need to be reported.
DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS II AND IV SUPPLIES
DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS II ITEMS
Maintenance-related Class II items are distributed
by ALOC. See | Chapter l.| All other Class II items
are sent by sea or surface transportation. Their
distribution depends on the type of item.
Clothing and Individual Equipment
DS or GS supply units replenish Class II stocks in
the corps and COMMZ.
There are two separate distribution channels for
maps. These distribution channels have been dis-
cussed previously in this chapter.
Other Class II Items
SSSCs provide expendable Class II items. DSUs
and GSUs provide nonexpendable TOE items.
DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS IV ITEMS
Class IV distribution is supported by the DSS
concept of direct delivery from one of three
CONUS wholesale depots to a DS or GS unit.
Class IV items are distributed by surface means.
They are shipped to the theater and then trans-
ported by rail or vehicle to a theater army GSU for
CTA 50-970 durable items must be controlled.
Class IV regulated items are controlled through
command channels. Users send requests through
intermediate commands to the approving com-
mander. The MMC tells the approving commander
if the item is available. After command approval,
the MMC issues an MRO for the storage unit to
transport the item to the user.
Requests for noncontrolled Class IV items are
sent to the CMMC. If the items are on hand, the
MMC sends an MRO to the supplying unit to issue
the item. When the items are not on hand, a
requisition is sent to the TAMMC.
THEATER SOURCES OF
CLASS II AND IV ITEMS
The major GS supplier for Class II and IV is the
QM general supply company. It also maintains a
portion of the reserve stocks. In the heavy or
infantry divisions, the S&S company, MSB, pro-
vides Class II and IV supplies to supported units
in the DSA. The supply company, FSB, provides
these supplies in the BSA. In the light divisions,
the headquarters and supply company, MSB, pro-
vides supplies in the DSA. The headquarters and
supply company, FSB, provides supplies in the
BSA. The S&T company supports separate bri-
gades. The S&T troop supports the ACR. The QM
supply company, DS, supports nondi visional
troops in the corps rear and division areas. For
more details, including the amount of support in
each class, see FM 10-27-2, Chapter 2.
Forward units are supported by forward supply points.
The DMMC determines the types and quantities of
items to be stored. Forward supply points gener-
ally maintain fast-moving items only. Other items
are held in the DSA. As a rule, the DMMC sends
an MRO to the supply point directing it to issue an
item. However, if authorized, main supply points
may fill high-priority requests, then notify the
DMMC of the issue. The number and location of
supply points may vary. However, a division is
usually organized with three forward points and
one main point.
Forward Supply Points
There is a forward supply point in each BSA.
These points are operated by elements of the
DISCOM, normally by the supply company, FSB.
Separate brigades submit requisitions to the bri-
gade MMC. Divisions send requisitions to the
DMMC. Local policy may require that requests be
sent through the FSB.
Main Supply Point
Supply companies set up a main supply point in
the DSA. This supply point supports divisional
units in the DSA. It also replenishes stocks in
forward supply points in the BSA. Divisional
units in the DSA send requests to the main supply
point which, in turn, sends the requests to the
DMMC. DS supply companies, corps support bat-
talions, set up a Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII
point in the division area and throughout the corps
rear area in support of nondi visional forces.
Nondivisional units send requests to their sup-
porting supply point. The supply point forwards
requisitions to the CMMC.
Depending on the tactical situation and transpor-
tation assets, supply points may store supplies
using one or more methods. In the unit pile method,
supplies are grouped in piles according to the unit
making the request. Unit trucks stop at the proper
pile. The customer loads and signs for the sup-
plies. In the item pile method, supplies of one type
are stored in one location. Trucks can then move
through the supply point for the unit soldiers to pick up
each type of item requested. In the truck-to-truck
method, supplies are passed directly from the
truck delivering to the main supply point to the
truck that will deliver supplies to forward supply
points or supported units. This method keeps sup-
plies under cover, allows for complete mobility,
and saves time and handling. However, it may tie
Supplies may be distributed by supply point dis-
tribution or unit distribution. Though the unit
distribution method is preferred, a combination of
supply point distribution and unit distribution
may be used to distribute supplies.
Supply point distribution. The receiving unit is
issued supplies at a supply point. The receiving
unit moves the supplies in its organic vehicles.
Unit distribution. The receiving unit is issued
supplies in its own area. Transportation is pro-
vided by the issuing agency.
CLOTHING EXCHANGE SOURCES
Clothing may be exchanged at clothing exchange
points, CEB points, or unit supply sections. FM 10-27-2,
Chapter 1, lists the sources of clothing exchange
in a theater of operations. If exchange facilities
are not available, clothing may be exchanged
directly with a DSU. Clothing exchange facilities
obtain initial exchange stocks and replacements
for unserviceable items through standard Class II chan-
nels. Details on CEB operations are in FM 10-280.
SALVAGE COLLECTION POINTS
Salvage is property that has some value beyond
that of its basic material content, is not economi-
cally reparable, and can no longer be used for its
intended purpose. Salvage items include items
that are discarded, captured, uneconomically repa-
rable, condemned, abandoned, and scrapped. Sal-
vage collection points are an alternate source of
items which can be placed back into the supply
system for reissue. As a rule, the Class II, III
packaged, IV, and VII sections operate the divi-
sion or brigade collection point. It is often located
near the maintenance collection point. It receives
all salvage materiel for which maintenance units
do not have maintenance responsibility. It re-
ceives nonmechanical and nonelectrical items such
as clothing, tentage, and individual equipment. A
large part of this type of salvage is generated by
recovering unneeded clothing and individual
equipment from casualties. Medical clearing sta-
tions should return these items to supply channels
for processing and reissue. A salvage collection
point does not receive toxic agents, radioactive materi-
als, aircraft, ammunition and explosives, COMSEC
equipment, and medical supplies. Units should bring
salvage materiel to the salvage collection point.
When receiving materiel, soldiers at the collection
point should check the item and its condition against
the information shown on the turn-in document.
Identify, classify, and segregate the items. Sal-
vage collection points in the BSA depend on
points in the DSA for final identification and
classification of items. If you are in the DSA,
identify the item using technical publications.
Determine if the item is serviceable or
unserviceable. Protect serviceable items by using
tents, dunnage, and tarpaulins. Secure the items
by providing continuous surveillance. Segregate
items in the holding area by serviceable and
unserviceable scrap and waste.
Dispose of items based on guidance from the
DMMC. In forward areas, use trucks that bring
supplies to the forward supply point to send mate-
rial back to the DSA supply point. Send reparable
items to the maintenance shop. Send serviceable
clothing and canvas to the laundry and renovation
platoon. The division intelligence officer should
provide you with disposition instructions for foreign or
captured materials. Evacuate unreparable and scrap
items through salvage channels to a property disposal
unit. Send a copy of the turn-in document and a copy of
DD Form 1348-1 to the DMMC. Use AR 725-50.
AND DISTRIBUTION FLOW
Figures 3-l| , page 3-11, and ) 3-4 page 3-12, show
the flow of requisitions for Class II, III packaged,
and IV supplies not delivered by ALOC during the
transition-to-war phase and during sustained war.
During the transition phase, control of theater
army pre-positioned war reserve stocks in corps
rear areas shifts to the corps. High-priority re-
quests for Class IV supplies and NMCS requisi-
tions for Class IV supplies may be filled from in-
theater war reserves maintained in corps and
TAACOM GSUs. During sustained war, CONUS
war reserves and CONUS depots are used to re-
plenish the 30-day sustaining stocks stored in
TAACOM GSUs. Maintenance-related Class II
items other than heavy tonnage items are provided
by the ALOC. Certain Class IV items are selected
as controlled items. Requests for controlled items
require command approval before items can be
issued. All other Class II and IV items are shipped
by ship, rail, or truck.
Brigade Support Area
Users submit DA Forms 2765 directly to the for-
ward supply point. If the supplies are on hand, the
requests are filled. Once the supplies are issued,
the supply point forwards all requests to the DMMC
(or separate brigade or regiment MMC) of the issue
transaction. To maintain mobility, forward supply points
maintain minimal stocks on hand. If an item is not
available at a main supply point in the DSA, the
DMMC prepares and sends a requisition to the CMMC.
Division Support Area
Divisional units in the DSA send their requests to
the Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII supply
point run by the headquarters and supply company
or S&S company. Nondivisional units send their
requests to the QM supply company, DS. If possible,
the supply point fills the request and annotates the
request to notify the DMMC of the issue. It forwards all
requests to the DMMC. The DMMC forwards requests
for controlled items to the next-higher MMC. For
noncontrolled items, the MMC performs a search
of its magnetic tapes or disks. If the item is on
hand, the MMC cuts an MRO. It sends the MRO to
the supply point in the DSA and a copy to the
requester. Depending on organic transportation
assets, the supply point transports supplies to the
requester or to a forward supply point. Users in the
division rear usually go to the DSA supply point
to pickup supplies. If the item is not on hand in the
DSA, the DMMC prepares a requisition and sends
it to the CMMC. It also prepares receipt cards for
each request. It sends one copy to the requesting
unit and one to the supply point. Corps transpor-
tation assets usually deliver Class II and IV sup-
plies to the division supply point. If the situation
permits, supplies are delivered to the forward
supply point in the BSA or to the requesting unit.
Oversize Class IV loads maybe delivered directly
to the construction site.
Corps Rear Area
Nondivisional units in the corps rear area send
their requests to the QM supply company, DS,
which, in turn, forwards the requests to the CMMC.
The CMMC, in turn, forwards requests for con-
trolled Class IV items to the TAMMC. The CMMC
prepares and transmits daily replenishment requi-
sitions to the TAMMC. The quantity ordered must
be sufficient to fill the RO plus back orders. If the
item is on hand in the corps rear area, the CMMC
will normally cut an MRO directing a QM supply
company, DS, to issue the item to the requesting
unit. If the item is not on hand in the supporting
DSU, the MMC may cut an MRO directing a
lateral issue or an issue from the QM supply
company, GS. The CMMC coordinates movement
requirements with the CMCC. After the item is
issued, the DSU or GSU sends an activity sum-
mary back to the CMMC. If the item is not on hand
in the corps, the CMMC prepares a requisition and
sends it to the TAMMC.
Figure 3-1. Request and delivery of Class II, III packaged,
and IV supplies from CONUS to COMMZ
Figure 3-2. Request and delivery of Class II, III packaged,
and IV supplies from division to user
QM supply companies, DS, support nondivisional
units in the COMMZ as well as units passing
through the COMMZ. Units send requests through
their supporting QM supply company, DS, to the
TAACOM MMC. That MMC submits daily re-
plenishment requisitions to the TAMMC. The
TAACOM MMC also transmits requests for con-
trolled Class IV items to the TAMMC. The
TAMMC searches its files to determine if the
controlled item is on hand in a TAACOM DSU or
GSU. If the item is on hand, the TAACOM MMC
cuts an MRO directing the supporting QM supply
company, DS, to issue the item to the requesting
unit. If the company does not have the item, the
TAACOM MMC may cut an MRO directing a
lateral issue from another DSU or issue from a QM
supply company, GS. If the item is not on hand in
a TAACOM unit, the TAMMC prepares and trans-
mits a requisition to the appropriate NICP. The
NICP sends requisitions for controlled items to
the TAMMC. That MMC maintains records on 30
days of Class II and IV items stored in QM supply
companies, GS, throughout the COMMZ. Depend-
ing on the situation, the TAMMC may cut an MRO
directing a QM supply company, GS, to issue the
item to a QM supply company, DS, in the COMMZ
or to a QM supply company, GS, in the corps. The
TAMMC may also prepare and transmit a requisition
to the appropriate CONUS NICP.
Distribution Flow from CONUS
The NICP cuts an MRO directing a CONUS depot
to release the item. Normally, the item is then
shipped to a QM supply company, GS, in the
COMMZ. Depending on the tactical situation and
available transportation assets, the item may be
sent on truck or rail as far forward into the theater
as possible. However, surface throughput to DSUs
or GSUs is expected only 20 percent of the time.
AUTOMATIC RETURN ITEMS
The automatic return items program expedites the
retrograde of selected secondary items in critical
stock positions that are considered as being recover-
able. An automatic return items list is distributed
quarterly with the AMDF. CD A Pamphlet 18-1-5
describes codes on that list. Disposition instructions
from commodity managers are not needed for auto-
matic return items. Due to their critical asset positions,
automatic return items will be returned to CONUS
depots or repair facilities without prior receipt of dispo-
sition instructions. Items coded "E" for "expedite"
must be returned on premium transportation. Credit is
given for the return of Army stock find items. For more
details, see AR 725-50 and AR710-1, Chapter 3.
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS III PACKAGED SUPPLIES
The major wholesale supplier of Class III pack-
aged is the QM supply company, DS. As a rule,
Class III packaged is received, stored, and issued
with Class II, IV, and VII in a Class II III pack-
aged, IV, and VII section. See page 3-8 for infor-
mation on theater sources of Class 11 and IV items.
NOTE: Both the petroleum supply company and
the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating
company are authorized FARE. FARE may be
used to fill 5-gallon cans, 55-gallon drums, and
500-gallon collapsible drums from supplies of
bulk fuel. In this sense, these companies provide
Class III packaged supplies. However, since they
do not provide lubricants and oils, they do not
have a true Class III packaged supply mission. For
details on the amount of support in the sections in
each of these companies, see FM 10-27-2, Chapter 2.
THEATER REQUISITION AND
If lubricants are required in large quantities, sup-
port battalions may periodically forecast needs
and forward stock status reports from supply points
to the DMMC. The DMMC then uses these status
reports to compute overall requirements for the
division. When Class III packaged products are
used in small quantities, they are requested or
requisitioned like Class II and IV items. FM 10-1,
Chapter 5, details the requisition and materiel
flow for Class III packaged supplies in a theater.
Use advance copies of DD Form 1348-1 to plan for
the receipt of Class III packaged items. After these
items are received, check containers for leaks,
illegible or improper markings, or incorrect pack-
aging. Receiving tests are unnecessary if contain-
ers have no leaks and markings properly identify the
products. However, upon receipt of pre-positioned
war reserve stocks of packaged petroleum prod-
ucts, reserve storage activities must take samples
and prepare DD Forms 1222 and 1225. Damaged
containers should be issued immediately and not
returned to the supplier. Containers of positively
identified products should be remarked. If the
contents cannot be identified, a sample should be
sent to the petroleum laboratory.
Procedures and instructions for storing Class III
packaged products are described in MIL-HDBK 201
and in FM 10-69, Chapter 16. Improper storage
can lead to contamination of the product because
of deterioration or corrosion of the c ontainer and
can result in a possible fire hazard. iTahle 3-2
page 3-15, lists storage concerns for packaged
products. If a gasoline can is leaking or looks as
though it might leak, transfer the product to an-
other container. Store only one product in each
storage section, and store the product so that the
oldest is issued first. DOD 4145.19-R-l, Chapter
2, discusses covered storage and the use of bins,
shelves, metal pallets (for storage of small lot
items), and racks.
Stacking of Cans and Drums
Provide stacking areas for each product and type
of package. This aids inventory control and cor-
rect labeling of products. The layout and size of
the stacking area are determined by local condi-
tions, safety requirements, and container size.
Separate stacks of a single product so that the entire
stock of one product is not lost during attack or fire. See
FM 10-69 for more details on stacking.
Storage of Packaged
Lubricants and Grease
Packaged lubricating oil and grease should gener-
ally be stored indoors. When storage buildings are
unavailable, packaged lubricants and grease may
be stored outdoors if they are protected by tarpau-
lins. DOD 4145. 19-R-l, Chapter 5, provides de-
tails for storing lubricating oil, grease, and paint.
Place special emphasis on inspection of petroleum
stocks and storage areas. Inspect containers for
war reserve stocks semiannually using statistical
sampling methods. Inspect containers for other
petroleum stocks. As a part of a quality surveil-
lance program, petroleum personnel must periodi-
cally inspect the storage areas set up by supply sections.
MIL-HDBK 200 prescribes inspection frequencies.
Mark packaged fuels and lubricants in line with
instructions in MIL-STD-290 or according to pro-
visions of the procurement contract. Mark con-
tainers transported by military aircraft according
to TM 38-250. To make sure 500-gallon collaps-
ible drums used for fuel are not used for water,
mark them "FLAMMABLE." Mark each con-
tainer with a standard nomenclature or short identi-
fication of the product. The designations authorized for
field use include MOGAS, AVGAS, JP, and DF.
Table 3-2. Storage concerns for Class III packaged products
* Were containers inspected before being placed in storage?
* Are drums stored on their sides?
NOTE: Drums should never be stored on end outdoors. Rainwater can collect
on drum heads, rust container tops, seep through bungs, and contaminate the
* Do drums stored on dunnage have proper blocking and bracing?
* When drums are stored in double rows, do the bungs and vents face outward?
This makes it easier to detect leaks.
* Are containers smaller than 55-gal!on drums stored under cover?
NOTE: In an emergency situation when these containers must be stored
outside, they must be covered with tarpaulins and stored off the ground on
pallets or dunnage.
* Are different products and grades stored separately?
* Were stocks rotated so that the oldest product is issued first?
* Are stocks with similar dates of filling stored together? Petroleum products
should be stored in sections by product date and batch number.
* Are packaged products which were opened for spot-checking or storage
control tests marked to show that they had been opened previously?
* Are opened containers issued or their contents used as soon as possible?
* Are stained cartons marked to indicate that leaking containers have been
removed? This will prevent reinspection.
FM 10-69, Chapter 16, has details on loading
procedures. Products transported by aircraft must
be packaged and handled according to TM 38-250.
Equip transport vehicles with a 10-B-C fire extin-
guisher or one of greater capacity. Tie and brace
containers so that they will not shift or become
damaged during transit. This means that supply
point personnel may need to build braces and to
fill slack space with planks or dunnage to ensure
stacks are stable. Railcar doorways should be
protected with wooden gates. Dunnage should be
placed between tiers of 5 -gallon cans and between
tiers of drums.
Methods for delivering packaged petroleum prod-
ucts to dispensing points vary with terrain, tacti-
cal situation, type and quantity of product, and
transportation resources available. The products are
delivered in vehicles and tank cars. Petroleum products
that are stored in drums, cans, cylinders, and pails can
be transported by standard military vehicles or railcars.
Air transport should be used as an emergency measure.
LIQUID AND COMPRESSED GASES
Class III packaged items include liquid and com-
pressed gases. The major requirement is for cylin-
ders of oxygen, acetylene, and nitrogen gases.
Most requirements come from maintenance ac-
tivities. Oxygen and acetylene gases are standard
motor pool shop stock items. Repairers require
these gases for welding and fabrication. Each
wrecker truck carries a bottle of oxygen and acety-
lene required to cut through metal in support of
recovery operations. Oxygen and nitrogen are re-
quired to maintain optical sight instruments on tanks.
In peacetime, obtain containers of compressed
gases through local purchase. Contractors refill
empty cylinders. However, local purchase and
contractor refill may not be possible during war-
time. Therefore, cylinders of compressed gases
need to be shipped full to a theater. In wartime, the
QM supply companies supply compressed gas
containers. Submit requisitions through your sup-
porting DSU to the appropriate MMC. As Class III
packaged supplies, compressed gases are distrib-
uted through Class II and IV channels. TSection V
describes the distribution of Class II and IV supplies.
Gases may be flammable or explosive. Handle
with extreme care. They are compressed in containers
under pressures exceeding 40 to 104 pounds per
square inch. Contact with fire, sparks, or electri-
cal circuits can cause the gas cylinder to explode.
Such an explosion can be as destructive as a bomb
explosion. Continuous exposure to large quanti-
ties of some gases can induce a drug-like sleep,
irritate the surface tissue of the breathing passage,
constrict the respiratory tract, and cause death.
Large quantities of nitrogen can cause suffoca-
tion. Acetylene, in particular, is extremely flam-
mable. Proper protective equipment must be worn
when entering areas known to be contaminated
Gas cylinders must be identified by a color code
according to MIL-STD-101. The color code for
oxygen is green and for acetylene is yellow. Gases
must be identified by their proper name, not merely
as "gas." Flammable gases must be identified as
flammable. Filled cylinders must be tagged or
labeled with the stock number of the gas and the
stock number of the cylinder. Do not alter or
deface stock numbers and markings stamped on
gas cylinders. Tags on empty cylinders must be and handling them. All cylinders must be considered
overstamped "MT." Do not apply additional full. Therefore, store and handle them with extreme
markings without proper approval. care. Use precautions, particularly with regard to cylin-
STORAGE AND HANDLING der valves, storage separation requirements, and move-
PRECAUTIONS ment by MHE. DOD 4145.19-R-l, Chapter 5, has
Due to the hazardous nature of compressed gases, a storage criteria for open-sided and enclosed sheds used
number of precautions must be observed when storing to store gas cylinders.
PROVIDING CLASS VII SUPPLIES
MAJOR ITEMS MANAGEMENT
A major end item is a final combination of end products
which is ready to use. Major items are 1 percent of the
total line items but 80 percent of the total dollar value of
the Army inventory. Because of their cost and importance
to combat readiness, major items are often controlled
through command channels. They include aircraft, tanks,
trucks, and weapons systems. They represent the largest
portion of the Army's dollar investment. The
requisitioning, procurement, distribution, maintenance,
and disposal of these items are intensely managed at
each support level to ensure operational readiness.
Worldwide requirements for major items are individually
specified, computed, and programmed to meet the
requirements of current or future force structures.
Major Item Criteria
To be classified and managed as a major item, an item
must meet certain criteria or fall into a category exempt
from these criteria. The criteria are as follows:
Activity Code. The item must have an appropriation and
budget activity code of "A" through U Q" and be in
supply Class VII.
Control Code. Equipment end items must have a
reportable item control code of 1, 2, or 3.
Other Criteria. The line item must cost $1,000 or more,
the total inventory or programmed acquisition amount
must be greater than $900,000, or a DA-level budget line
must be required for the item. The following items are
designated as major items without having to meet the
• All motorized, wheeled, and towed vehicles for
use on highways or rough terrain.
• All weapon and missile end items.
• All aircraft end items.
•All boats or ships with inboard power or with a
unit value of $1,000.
'All sets, assemblies, or end items which have
one or more major items as components.
Requisitioning procedures are outlined in ARs 700-120
and 725-50 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. There are no
requirements to submit requisitions for aircraft, aircraft
subsystems, and selected missile system major items.
HQDA distributes these items directly.
Distribution of Major Items
Major items are controlled and distributed according to
carefully developed distribution plans and directions in
ARs 11-11, 11-12, and 700-120. Distribution priorities
are listed on the DA Master Priority List in AR 1 1-12.
END ITEM USAGE PROFILES
TRADOC develops mission profiles which project daily
usage of selected end items. Usage is based on the initial
15 days of combat. Usage is reported as miles driven,
rounds fired, or hours flown. These profiles are used for
many purposes, including development of Class IX
requirements for combat.
CLASS VII LOSSES
A loss is any incident that stops a major end item, such
as a radio, vehicle, or tank from performing its assigned
combat mission. The loss may result from combat
damage, crew failure, or maintenance failure. Loss rates
may vary. The rate of loss depends on such factors as
theater of operations, type of operation, force structure,
and intensity of battle. Other factors that effect battle
losses are the ratio of enemy to friendly forces, troop
training, equipment failures, and terrain obstacles. To
cover such losses, the GS supply base maintains a stock
of Class VII items equal to 10 percent of authorized end
items in the corps or TAACOM.
WARTIME REPLACEMENT FACTORS
No two wars or engagements are ever fought under
identical conditions. Environmental conditions vary
throughout the world. The rate at which items are
consumed varies according to the intensity and length of
combat expected. Wartime replacement factors are used
to compute combat consumption and to determine war
reserve requirements for some allies. Replacement
factors are based on the type of combat mission and the
ways in which equipment might be lost in combat
(enemy action, abandonment, or pilferage). They also
include a combat-intensity factor tailored to the degree
of consumption expected in each oversea area. Classified
wartime replacement factors are available from the
Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, ATTN:
DAMO-FDL, Washington, DC 20310-0400.
WEAPONS SYSTEMS REPLACEMENT
Weapons systems have a high priority for evacuation,
repair, and transportation assets. Critical Class VII
items are moved to covering force units. Transportation
used for backhaul may have to be allocated to move
critical weapons systems to the rear. Weapons systems
replacements may be issued from pre-positioned war
reserve stocks in the corps. Items must be ready for issue
within a few hours. Weapons systems may also be sent
from CONUS to a QM heavy materiel supply company,
GS. From there, they are normally shipped to the
division and then by heavy equipment transporter to the
battalion. Though it is not a desirable procedure,
motorized weapons systems may be driven under their
own power. The DSA is the primary linkup point for
weapons systems and crew. At the linkup, the weapon
system and the crew are joined and briefed. Weapons
systems must arrive in the DSA in a ready-to-fight
condition. If the tactical situation prevents linkup in the
DSA, linkup may occur at QM heavy materiel supply
companies in the corps. A WSM is normally assigned to
each level of command. The extent of control depends
on the level of command. Details are in FM 63-2.
The battalion executive officer serves as the WSM. The
S3 recommends allocations for replacement weapons
systems. Allocation is based on tactical priorities set by
the battalion commander, SI strength reports on weapons
crews, and S4 reports on available assets. The WSM
matches available end items and personnel to maximize
the number of available weapons systems within the
battalion. Combat loss and asset data are provided in S4
logistics status reports. These are updated by spot battle-
Since the division provides weapons systems directly to
the battalions, the brigade is not normally involved in
allocating weapons systems. The brigade executive
officer may act as the WSM for the brigade.
The DISCOM commander designates a WSM for the
division. He is usually the ADMMO. The DMMC
property book Class VII section keeps the WSM advised
of the status of weapons systems components. The
WSM must also coordinate with the maintenance
management officer regarding the status of items being
repaired in DS maintenance units. Allocation priorities
are set by the division commander.
The WSM is the COSCOM's weapons systems
branch chief. Priorities are set by the corps
commander who normally accepts the priorities
set by the major unit commanders.
OPERATIONAL READINESS FLOAT
In the light infantry divisions only, the ORF is a pool of
additional end items or components in DS maintenance
units. ORF items are issued only when items cannot be
repaired in established time limits to meet the supported
unit's needs. Serviceable ORF items are exchanged for
like unserviceable but reparable end items. The exchange
is a property book transaction. The unserviceable item
then becomes a float item that requires immediate repair.
The item is issued only if the maintenance request has a
PD of 01 through 06 and the repair time is expected to
exceed maximum allowable repair time limits. The
theater commander prescribes wartime repair limits.
AR 750-1 prescribes ORF policy. Because of the
temptation to misuse ORF assets, AR 710-2 sets
restrictions on when these items can be used. Essentially,
ORF items cannot be used to replace a supply shortage.
Issue of ORF items is rigidly controlled. Levels of
control include the-
• Theater, corps, or DISCOM commander who
establishes policies and procedures for control and use
of ORF stocks.
• Separate brigade or division commander who
establishes the stockage level within limitations outlined
by higher headquarters.
• MMC which maintains the ORF lists.
• Nondivisional maintenance company shop officer
and SSA accountable officer managing the ORF within
the policies and guidelines of MACOM commanders.
AR 750-1, Chapter 6, lists ORF stockage criteria. HQDA
decides which items are eligible for stockage. An ORF
item must be a principal item selected for war reserve
stockage. It must have a line item number and be listed in
SB 710-1-1. Commodity commands select end items for
ORF support. Stockage policy for ORF items differs from
that for other items. Formulas used to compute wartime
requirements are in AR 750-1 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2.
CLASS VII SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS
MAJOR END ITEMS
Class VII supplies include nearly 9,000 line items.
These are authorized by TOEs or MTOEs and CTAs.
About 20,000 NSNs for Class VII items are listed on the
AMDF. All items are ready for their intended use.
Class VII items are stocked and distributed in support of
TOEs for existing forces. The demand for these items
depends on the intensity of battle. Replacement is based
on combat losses. The sustaining level for Class VII
supplies is 10 percent of the authorized end items in the
corps or TAACOM. Requests for additional or
replacement Class VII items are generally based on TOE
or other authorization documents. Requests may be
processed through command channels.
Use consumption rates when estimating supply
and storage requirements. These requirements may
vary depending on force structure, mission, areas
of operation, and intensity of combat. FM 101-10-1/1
sets the consumption rate for Class VII at 15
pounds per person per day. More current rates may
be available from the Commander, US Army
Combined Arms Support Command, ATTN:
ATCL-OPF, Fort Lee, VA 23801-6000.
AR 710-2 sets policy for inventories at the user and retail
levels. Components must be inventoried when the end
item is inventoried. Additional inventory requirements
are based on events or the type of item.
Event-Oriented Inventory Requirements
Items must be inventoried upon-
• Receipt, turn-in, or issue of the items.
• Change of responsible officer.
• Change of custody of arms storage facility.
• Direction of the commander.
• Annual responsible officer inventory.
• Annual property book inventory.
Weapons and Serial Number Inventory
Weapons must be inventoried monthly by serial number.
Also, serial numbers must be compared quarterly with
those recorded on the property book.
Sensitive and Pilferable Item Inventory
All sensitive items other than weapons and ammunition
must be inventoried quarterly. Items to be inventoried
are identified with a physical security code of "1"
through "6," "8," "9," "Q," "R," or "Y." The
hand-receipt holder or subhand-receipt holder must
inventory sensitive items listed on hand receipts or
subhand receipts. The property book officer must
inventory those items not listed on hand receipts.
Inventories during wartime must be conducted as time
allows. Any discrepancies found have to be recorded,
but they do not have to be reported. SSAs should
conduct only cyclic inventories. Using units may
perform inventories to determine quantities on
hand and property conditions.
DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS VII SUPPLIES
The QM heavy materiel supply company receives,
stores, and issues GS-level Class VII supplies in the
corps and COMMZ. DS supply companies employed in
the division area, corps rear area, and COMMZ provide
DS-level Class VII supply. In the heavy or infantry
divisions, the S&S company, MSB, provides Class VII
supplies to supported units in the DSA. The supply
company, FSB, provides these supplies in the BSA. In
the light divisions, the headquarters and supply company,
MSB, provides supplies in the DSA. The headquarter
and supply company, FSB, provides supplies in the
BSA. The S&T company supports separate brigades and
the S&T troop supports the ACR. For more details,
including the amount of support, see FM 10-27-2.
AND DISTRIBUTION FLOW
Figures 4-1 , page 4-5, and[33L page 4-6, show the
requisition and distribution flow of Class VII items
during transition-to-war and sustained- war phases.
During the transition phase, combat losses are replaced
from theater war reserves released to the corps. During
the sustained-war phase, stocks from CONUS war
reserves and CONUS depots are used to replenish the
30-day sustaining stocks in TAACOM GSUs. During
the transition phase, MMCs base replenishment DSU
and GSU requisitions on anticipated combat losses and
combat-loss reports. During the sustained- war phase,
MMCs compute replenishment requisitions based on
accumulated demand history. Because of their
importance, selected Class VII weapons systems are
controlled by the TAMMC. All requirements for
controlled items must go through the TAMMC.
Requisitions for controlled items flow from the DMMC
to the CMMC. CMMCs and TAACOM MMCs forward
requisitions for controlled items to the TAMMC.
Division Support Area
The property book officer in the DMMC is the major
item manager in the division. He redistributes assets in
the division to minimize shortages and requisitions from
higher sources of supply to fill only those requirements
which cannot be satisfied internally.
Corps Rear Area
Nondivisional units in the corps submit requests for
Class VII supplies to their supporting DS supply
company. This company transmits the requests to the
CMMC. The CMMC also receives Class VII requests
from divisional MMCs and separate brigade and regiment
MMCs. Requisitions for controlled items are transmitted
to the TAMMC. Corps DSUs and GSUs do not submit
replenishment requisitions. The CMMC maintains
accountable records, keeps track of their reorder points,
and transmits replenishment requisitions, as necessary,
to the TAMMC. The CMMC submits a daily battle-loss
report to the TAMMC for end items issued from the GS
supply base to replace battle losses. It submits requisitions
to the TAMMC to replace Class VII items turned in to
echelons above corps for maintenance.
Item on hand. If the item is on hand in the QM heavy
materiel supply company and is not a controlled item,
the CMMC cuts an MRO directing the issue. Depending
on transportation assets, the unit may send one of its own
vehicles to the company to pick up the item. Arrange
other transportation through the corps MCC.
Figure 4-1. Request for and distribution of Class VII supplies at echelons above division
Figure 4-2. Request for and delivery of Class VII supplies from division to user
Item not on hand. When the item is not on hand
in the supporting QM heavy materiel supply com-
pany, the CMMC passes the request to the
TAMMC. The TAMMC either directs issue from
a TA QM heavy materiel supply company to the
corps QM heavy materiel supply company, or, if
stocks are not on hand, it passes the requisition to
the CONUS NICP. The NICP directs release from
the appropriate depot, and the depot ships stocks
to the CONUS A/SPOE. The A/SPOE passes
stocks to the A/SPOD where they are reprocessed
and moved by surface transport to TA GSUs for
issue to corps GSUs, or they are throughput from
the A/SPOD directly to the consignee.
Units in, or passing through, the COMMZ submit
requests for Class VII supplies to their supporting DS
supply company. That company transmits requests to
the TAACOM MMC. The TAACOM MMC prepares
and transmits requisitions for controlled Class VII items
to the TAMMC. The TAACOM MMC submits daily
battle-loss reports to the TAMMC for end items issued
from GS support bases to replace battle losses. The
TAMMC distributes Class VII assets based on the
direction of the theater army commander. Twenty percent
of the assets in the COMMZ QM heavy materiel supply
company are maintenance return items.
Item on hand. If the item is on hand in the support-
ing QM heavy materiel supply company and not a
controlled item, the TAACOM MMC cuts an MRO
directing the issue. The TAACOM MCC coordinates
assets used to transport the item to the unit.
Item not on hand. If the item is not on hand, the
TAACOM MMC prepares and transmits a requisition to
the TAMMC. The TAMMC controls sustaining stocks
stored in QM heavy materiel supply companies assigned
to other TAACOMs. Depending on priority, the TAMMC
may direct a different TAACOM' s QM heavy materiel
supply company to issue the item to a QM heavy
materiel supply company in the COMMZ or corps. It
may also elect to transmit the requisition to the appropriate
CONUS NICP. That NICP directs the issue from a
CONUS depot. The item would then be shipped to a QM
heavy materiel supply company. About 20 percent of
such issues from a CONUS depot would be sent by rail
or truck to GSUs and DSUs.
PROVIDING CLASS IX SUPPLIES
IMPORTANCE OF REPAIR PARTS
Repair parts make up 92 percent of the total Army
inventory. The number of Class IX items stocked in
CONUS or pre-positioned in the theater affects supply
elements and maintenance and aviation units. Mainte-
nance units must be able to obtain supplies to support
maintenance activities. Aviation units deliver supplies
and aid in the movement of supply units. The number,
type, and size of supply items to be moved determine the
Class IX supply depends on ADP support. Each unit
having a repair parts supply mission receives automated
stock control support. In war, however, ADP systems are
vulnerable to disruption, damage, and destruction. To
ensure continued support, contingency or backup auto-
mated procedures have been developed for DS4, SARSS,
and SAILS. If automated support is not available in
DS4, item managers should follow manual backup
procedures in TM 38-L32-13. Supply personnel should
follow manual procedures in DA Pamphlets 710-2-1
and 710-2-2. Because an ADPE outage could result in a
loss of records, the document control or stock control
section should always maintain a backup of all transac-
tion files and records.
Major weapons systems and end items of equipment can
be classified as NMCS. Repair parts may not be avail-
able due to zero-balance conditions at a DSU or higher
level of supply support.
Reasons for a Zero Balance
A zero balance may occur because of-
• Excessive OST.
• Document-processing time.
• Inadequate ASL depth.
• Inaccurate inventory.
• Canceled requisitions.
• Failure to review demand analysis trends in
• DSU's lack of reconciliation with customers
and sources of supply.
• Delinquent contracts.
Standard Army Maintenance
Managers in divisional and nondivisional DS mainte-
nance units which operate under SAMS have access to
maintenance control reports. These reports enable shop
managers, item managers in division and corps MMCs,
and battalion commanders and their materiel staff officers to
assess NMCS data and identify problem areas. The reports
that help managers prevent zero balances are listed below.
Battalion critical repair parts listing. Managers may
use this listing to monitor work requests which are
waiting for a given repair part. It helps managers
identify the critical repair parts which require special
Battalion work load status listing. Battalion staff officers
or commodity managers may use this listing to follow
the current status of a particular commodity or item in
that commodity. Also, they may use it to determine
abuse of the priority designator system and to identify
items which are deadlined for parts.
Battalion critical deadline detail listing. This listing
can help managers monitor repair parts requisitions
which exceed time limits outside parameters.
Open work request reconciliation listing. This listing
provides supported maintenance units with status and
NMCS data. It can be used to check on work requests in
each maintenance activity.
One of the most serious management concerns is the
inability to obtain required repair parts immediately. To
help reduce delays and prevent a zero balance,
• Check to be sure requests and work orders are
filled out correctly.
• Follow up repair parts requests.
• Verify that the correct part has been ordered. If
not, the unit should cancel the request and order the
• Verify that the request has been received at the
SSA and, if necessary, passed on to the higher source of
supply. If not, the unit should reorder.
• Check the AMDF for an interchangeable or a
substitute NSN. If one exists, personnel should check
the stock status of that item.
• Determine if the part can be obtained locally or
can be made.
• Check on the possibility of using controlled
• Consider a cannibalization point or the DRMO
as a source of supply.
• Use up-to-date supply manuals and correct
PDs and stock numbers to properly identify repair
parts on requests.
• Check to see if supply specialists have entered
any required advice code on issue and turn-in documents.
• Stress the need for follow-up and continual review.
• Check the SSA to see if a like major item is
available in ORF.
AUTHORIZED STOCKAGE AND PRESCRIBED LOAD LISTS
THE AUTHORIZED STOCKAGE LIST
The ASL lists items that are stocked at an SSA.
The ASL items stocked at the SSA should be fully
uploaded in modular-equipment, deployment-storage
containers or standard 8- by 8- by 20-foot contain-
ers. The numbers of items stocked at SSAs must
be kept to a minimum so that they can be mobile.
AR 710-2, Chapter 1, sets ASL mobility objec-
tives for DSUs and their supporting elements.
SSAs should review their own ASLs regularly to
identify items which could be deleted. Two types
of ASLs are described below.
Customer Direct Support ASL
DSUs maintain these ASLs to support the DS
maintenance mission and the PLLs of supported
units. These ASLs are based primarily on demand.
Customer General Support ASL
COSCOMs and TAACOMs maintain this ASL for
urgent peacetime readiness requirements, for protection
against wartime pipeline interruptions (items delivered
by ALOC), and for resupply to customers of items not
delivered by ALOC.
AUTHORIZED STOCKAGE LIST ITEM
Every item on the ASL must be authorized for one of the
reasons listed in AR 710-2, Chapter 3. AR 710-2,
Chapter 3, describes stockage criteria used to add to,
retain on, or delete items from the ASL and lays out
policies used for computing depth of stockage.
TM 38-L32-13 prescribes ASL addition and retention
criteria for DSUs under DS4. TM 38-L03-19 describes
SAILS stockage criteria.
The ASL update is a subprocess of demand analysis in
DS4. It is used to determine whether items should be
retained on deleted from, or added to the ASL. All
changes are identified on an ASL change list. TM 38-L32-13
has more details on processing ASL changes.
AUTHORIZED STOCKAGE LIST
Combat ASLs are available for DSUs. The combat ASL
includes repair parts and components to support DS
combat maintenance. The combat ASL will cover all
MPLs and demand-supported items on supported
PRESCRIBED LOAD LIST
The combat PLL consists of a mandatory stockage of
repair parts needed for essential battlefield maintenance
for a prescribed number of days in combat. These loads
must be able to be moved into combat in one lift with
organic transportation. These loads are also used to
support peacetime demands.
Prescribed Load List
The PLL is a list of the authorized quantities of supplies
required by a unit to do its daily unit maintenance. Units
that are authorized personnel, tools, and equipment to
perform maintenance maintain a prescribed load of
repair parts. Units that regularly support other units
without maintenance capabilities include the supported
units' equipment in their PLL computations. PLL items
must always be on hand or on request. PLLs must be on
file in the using units and in the supporting SSA.
Mandatory Parts Lists
MPLs, which are published as DA pamphlets, are used
to standardize the combat PLLs. The MPL is the man-
datory portion of the standardized combat PLL. Parts on
the MPL must be on hand or on order at all times.
PRESCRIBED LOAD LIST
Demand-supported PLL stockage consists of 15
DOS based on recurring demands for qualifying items.
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1, Tables 8-3 through 8-7, can be
used to calculate stockage levels when the total quan-
tity demanded during a specific time period is known.
These charts are also in TM 38-L32-1 1. Initial stockage
levels must be calculated for newly activated units, con-
solidating units, or units undergoing change. Unit person-
nel can usually determine these levels by examining
demand data from similar units which maintain identical
equipment. If data are not available, units may request
help by writing to the Commander, US Army Materiel
Readiness Support Activity, ATTN: AMXMD-S,
Lexington, KY 40511-5101. For medical equipment
PLL data, write to the Commander, US Army
Medical Materiel Agency, ATTN: SGMMA-M,
Frederick, MD 21701-5101.
RECORDS OF DEMANDS
Records are kept on demands and consumption of
Class II, IV, VIII, and IX maintenance significant
parts. Use AR 710-2.
Unit Demand Summary Listing
An automated unit demand summary list PCN AGL-C39,
is prepared each month for units using DS4. It shows the
number of demands and quantity of each item de-
manded during the preceding six months. The unit
commander should review this listing for possible
changes to the PLL.
A manual listing of PLL additions, deletions, and
stockage levels can also be made on DA Form 2063-R.
The PLL clerk records on DA Form 3318 the quantities
of items demanded and requested by the unit. Instruc-
tions for the preparation and use of these forms are in
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. The PLL clerk should enter on
each PLL record the on-hand quantities and storage
locations for all items in the PLL.
PRESCRIBED LOAD LIST CHANGES
TM 38-L32-11, Chapter 11, shows unit commanders
and PLL clerks how to add, change, or delete PLL items
using DS4. DA Pamphlet 710-2-1, Chapter 8, specifies
manual procedures. In the automated system, a catalog
update is produced monthly. This list shows changes in
stock number, unit of issue, and quantity. A PLL change
list, PCN AGL-C35, is produced each quarter. It lists
numbers of demands and quantities demanded. It also
identifies changes in PLL quantities, stock numbers,
and AMDF data. The commander should review this list
for approval, disapproval, or proposed modifications for
each stock number line entry.
SOURCES OF REPAIR PARTS
Shop stocks are demand-supported repair parts and
consumable supplies stocked in a DS or GS mainte-
nance activity. Since these supplies are issued to the
maintenance unit, they are not part of an ASL. Shop
stock supplies are to be used only by maintenance shops.
They are not to be issued to supported units. Shop supply
allows maintenance units to keep frequently used repair
parts and expendable maintenance supplies on hand. It
helps maintenance units avoid repair delays and reduces
the number of supply transactions. FM 43-20, Chapter
4, describes GS maintenance shop supply operations.
The three types of shop stock supply are demand-
supported, bench, and program stock. Different proce-
dures apply to each type. Manual procedures for shop
supply are described in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. Auto-
mated procedures are covered in TM 38-L03-19 for
SAILS and TM 38-L32-11 for DS4.
Demand-Supported Shop Stock Supply
Items are selected for demand-supported stockage when
they are requested frequently (at least three requests in
the initial 180 days and one demand every 180 days
thereafter). Maintenance personnel request parts and
supplies from the MMC or stock control activity.
Bench Stock Supply
Bench stock items are low-cost, consumable repair parts
and supplies that are used by maintenance shop repair
personnel at an unpredictable rate. The maintenance shop
officer decides which items to stock based on how
essential the items are to unit repair operations. AR 710-2
authorizes both DS and GS units to maintain a 15-and 30-
day stockage level of bench stocks. The supply officer
helps the shop officer compute stockage levels for each
item by using stock records which show the demand
history for the items.
Program Stock Supply
Program stocks are those repair parts and mainte-
nance supplies stocked by the shop supply section for
programmed repairs. Program stock is used primarily
by GS maintenance units to support scheduled overhaul
programs. Use it to support maintenance of components
or assemblies such as engines and transmissions.
Stockage levels should be based on anticipated work
loads and demand history from similar overhaul pro-
grams. As a rule, stocks are requested six months before
the start of the program. Retain items only as long as
they are needed for the program. Turn in those not
needed to the SSA as soon as possible.
QUICK SUPPLY STORE
The use of the QSS provides a quick method for supply-
ing certain low-cost, expendable items. The purpose of
the QSS is to simplify accounting, eliminate paperwork
and reduce work loads of supply personnel.
Selection and Retention Criteria
Once an item is selected for QSS stockage, it is no longer
available to customers from any other source. Items may
be selected for or deleted from QSS stockage based on
certain criteria. To qualify for stockage in a QSS, an
ASL item must meet all of the mandatory QSS stockage
criteria described in AR 710-2 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2.
Criteria listed in TM 38-L32-13 are only for DSUs
supported by DS4. Demand- supported ASL items must
be reviewed every six months to determine if items can
qualify for QSS stockage. Under DS4, items which can
be converted to QSS are identified quarterly. To remain
in QSS, items must continue to meet all stockage
criteria. Items must be continually screened for compli-
ance. Items should be requested at least three times
during a 12-month period to qualify for retention. Under
DS4, items which no longer qualify for QSS are identi-
fied for return to detailed accounting.
Catalog and Listing
The QSS catalog is produced for units using the manual
system. It lists QSS items in NUN sequence. The catalog
gives an NSN and the nomenclature for each item. This
catalog should be published semiannually and provided
to each of the SSA customer units. Under DS4, the QSS
catalog is updated every six months by the stock control
section or MMC. QSS catalogs are provided to DSUs for
delivery to supported customer units. Additional and
replacement copies are available for pickup at the QSS.
The QSS listing provides the same information as the
catalog but also gives the location of each item.
The listing helps DSU personnel store and locate
items for issue.
Records and Procedures
TM 38-L32-13 explains QSS transactions under
DS4. DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 12, shows
how to prepare forms under the manual system.
Cannibalization is the authorized removal of parts and
assemblies from unserviceable, uneconomically repa-
rable, or disposable items or components. The purpose
of cannibalization is to recover serviceable repair parts
from scrap materiel for return to the supply system.
Cannibalization is an important source of supply, par-
ticularly when the need for the item is critical and the
required delivery date cannot be met through routine
supply channels. Cannibalization supplements repair
parts supply and ensures that critical equipment will
Support maintenance units cannibalize at a cannibaliza-
tion point. This point is a location where items to be
disposed of are held until serviceable repair parts and
assemblies can be removed and returned through the
supply system. Cannibalization points are usually set up
at maintenance collecting points operated by collec-
tion, reclamation, and exchange units or at the GS
maintenance level. Points are set up throughout the
theater. AR 710-2, Chapter 3, covers the setup of
Collection, Classification, and Distribution
The MMC controls cannibalization from the time an
item is recovered until the issue of parts to maintenance
or using units and the disposal of scrap materiel. Recov-
ered items are classified according to instructions in
TMs, TBs, and directives from MMCs. Classification
indicates whether items are reparable or
nonreparable, where repairs can be made, and the
extent of needed repairs.
When the situation permits and transportation assets are
available, the appropriate MMC may direct units to
remove unserviceable, economically reparable compo-
nents. The units move the parts to a maintenance collect-
ing point or a supporting DS maintenance unit in the
DSA or forward area of the corps. Vehicles in DS
maintenance units may be used to help recover and
evacuate the items. The MMC coordinates with the
MCC which arranges for transportation.
AR 750-1 contains basic policies on cannibalization of
aircraft and aircraft components. Aircraft must not be
cannibalized until disposition instructions have been
received. Authority to exchange aircraft repair parts is
granted only when certain criteria are met.
List of Available Items
A list of items available at a cannibalization point must
be published at least quarterly. Cannibalization points
maintain stock accounting records. AR 710-2, Chapter 3,
and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 18, describe canni-
balization point procedures and discuss the records
associated with each procedure.
Controlled exchange is the removal of serviceable parts
from damaged or disabled unserviceable, but economi-
cally reparable, equipment for immediate reuse in re-
turning a like item to combat. AR 750-1, Chapter 4,
authorizes controlled exchange by using organizations
or support maintenance units. Guidelines for controlled
exchange are established at higher headquarters. One
guideline is that serviceable parts removed in emergen-
cies to repair critically needed items must be replaced by
unserviceable like parts before evacuation to GS main-
tenance units. Unserviceable parts must accompany, but
need not be installed on, the assembly or end item from
which serviceable parts were removed. The unserviceable
parts should be marked or coded to save inspection time
at other levels. Controlled exchange reduces the time
involved in parts procurement. It supports mate-
riel readiness by supplementing repair parts re-
quirements already on requisition throughout the
normal supply system.
Using units can perform controlled exchange only when
certain conditions are met. They are outlined below.
• The using organization owns or controls all of
the unserviceable, reparable end items involved in the
• The maintenance effort required to restore all of
the unserviceable, reparable end items to a serviceable
condition is within the maintenance authority, capacity,
and capability of the unit.
• Serviceable parts, components, or assemblies
could not be obtained on time through maintenance
efforts or supply channels.
• The unserviceable, economically reparable end
item was classified as NMCS.
• The exchange will immediately restore
one or more unserviceable, reparable end items to
a serviceable condition.
• Removal of serviceable parts will not degrade to
an uneconomically condition any of the end items
• Controlled exchange is the only reasonable way
to eliminate an adverse effect on the operational readi-
ness of the unit.
• Prompt action is taken by the organization
to restore the unserviceable end item to a service-
Support Maintenance Units
Support maintenance units can perform controlled ex-
change only when certain conditions are met. They are
• Controlled exchange is the only way a service-
able item can be provided to a support unit within the
time frame designated on DA Form 2407.
• It is approved by the supply officer or mainte-
nance shop officer responsible for restoring
unserviceable, economically reparable items to a ser-
viceable condition. It must also be approved by the
operations officer or commander of the unit which owns
the end items involved.
• The maintenance effort required to restore all
end items to a serviceable condition is within the
maintenance authority, capacity, and capability of the
units performing the exchange.
• Required serviceable parts, components, and
assemblies cannot be obtained on time through normal
NOTE: Controlled exchange on maintenance float items
is not authorized.
Repair parts can be obtained from several sources.
Accordingly, request procedures vary. The references
and procedures used in requesting supplies depend on
the type, federal supply classification, and catalog status
of the item and on the unit situation.
The preparation and processing of requests depend on
whether the requesting element is a supported unit or an
SSA and whether it is divisional or nondivisional. It also
depends on whether the supply system is automated or
manual. In divisional units and nondivisional DSUs
(DS4 automated system), personnel should use TMs in
the 38-L32 series. In GSUs and COSCOM or TAACOM
MMCs (SAILS automated system), personnel should
follow procedures in the TM 38-L03 series. In the
manual system, personnel should follow procedures in
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. Procedures for SSAs in the
manual system are in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2.
For the repair parts supply system to work effectively-
• Proper procedures must be followed when re-
questing, issuing, and storing repair parts.
• Follow-up procedures on repair parts requisi-
tions must be setup and followed.
• All requests for repair parts and turn-ins of
excess and unserviceable, reparable repair parts must be
processed without delay.
• The authorized quantity of repair parts listed on
the PLL must be on hand or on request at all times.
• The recorded location and the actual location of
repair parts should match.
REQUISITIONS AND DISTRIBUTION
Divisions in the theater receive supplies from many
sources. In contingency operations, division elements
deploy with prescribed amounts of supplies. Combat
PLL stocks are sent with the company when it is
detached from the battalion. During the initial phases of
deployment, these stocks are the only source of resupply.
Division units have only a limited capability to carry
reserve supplies. They stock repair parts based on their
demand history, MPLs, and essential repair parts stockage
lists. To prevent overstockage in the BSA, the DMMC
specifies the items and quantities of Class IX to be
located there. Determinations are based on the combat
PLLs of forward units and on the mobility requirements
of forward support maintenance units. Maintenance
units in the DSA carry remaining stocks of the division
Class IX ASL.
The DISCOM provides division-level Class IX supply
support and ADP support for division logistics. It
provides movement control in support of division logis-
tics and coordinates surface transport of supplies. When
airlift capabilities are not organic to the division or
airlift requirements exceed division capabilities, the
DISCOM depends on corps medium or heavy helicop-
ter units to support emergency logistical requirements.
To enable forward deployed divisions to remain mobile,
personnel should load and issue PLL and ASL stocks
from repair parts vans, MILVANs, or stake and plat-
form trailers. See AR 710-2, Chapter 1, for ASL mobil-
ity standards. To increase readiness to deploy for com-
bat, personnel should load combat-essential stocks on
vehicles during the alert stage. PLL and ASL stocks
should be uploaded in stake and platform trailers and
modular-equipment, deployment- storage containers or
flat racks. For more details on supply operations in the
division, see FM 63-2.
The DMMC manages the division Class IX repair parts
supply system. It develops, approves, and maintains the
division PLLs and ASLs and requisitions supplies. The
DMMC also determines requirements for deployment. It
directs the distribution of supplies. It also specifies the
types and quantities of Class IX to be located in the
forward areas of the division. ADP support is provided
by the logistics automation systems support office. The
DMMC parts branch provides PLL customer support.
Each customer PLL is managed separately. For more
details on DMMC operations, see FM 63-2.
Common Repair Parts
Common repair parts supply requirements depend on the
types of divisions and their support organization, the
tactical situation, the type of war, and the typ e of terrain
on which the war is being fought. |Figure_5j, page 5-8,
shows the flow of repair parts in a division. Maintenance
companies supply common repair parts in the division.
Missile Repair Parts
Critical missile parts remain in the brigade trains area to
support repair and maintenance activities. Since missile
parts are limited, assets must be tightly controlled. The
technical supply officer sets priorities and allocates items
to each brigade area. Missile support companies provide
missile repair parts in the division.
Aircraft Repair Parts
Aircraft should be ready to support combat forces
at all times. Repair parts must be readily available
for aircraft, avionics equipment, and aircraft arma-
ment systems. Aircraft maintenance companies
provide DS maintenance support to division units,
including repair parts supply.
Figure 5-1. Request and delivery of noncontrolled Class IX supplies (less aircraft) in a division
CE and COMSEC Repair Parts
Repair parts, subassemblies, and other items required to
operate or support COMSEC equipment are obtained
through conventional supply channels. Use MILSTRIP
for this. See ARs 710-2 and 725-50. The CE branch of
the DMMC accounts for COMSEC materiel. It pro-
cesses all transactions in the divisions. Supply support
units maintain an ASL, including repair parts for CE and
COMSEC materiel. Maintenance battalions supply
COMSEC Class IX items. Forward supply companies
of the maintenance battalions supply CEWI repair parts.
The service support company of the CEWI battalion
maintains the battalion ASL.
CORPS, SEPARATE BRIGADES,
The COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations, establishes
supply levels based on directives from higher headquar-
ters. He consolidates supply requirements for the corps.
Separate brigades maintain only those supply levels
needed to sustain operations until additional supplies
can be delivered. Each unit in the separate brigade is
responsible for maintaining its own combat PLL and
MPL of repair parts. The support battalion's mainte-
nance company provides backup stocks of MPL items
for brigade units and other DS-level Class IX supply
support. At the DS level, repair parts are provided
through maintenance channels. At the GS level, the QM
repair parts supply company, GS, provides repair parts
in response to MROs from the CMMC.
Contingency Corps Support
CSS is austere in contingency operations. However, it is
necessary to deploy sufficient supplies to support and
maintain weapons systems and equipment,
Class IX ALOC supply. ALOC cargo arrives daily
at aerial ports of debarkation. All cargo is then
moved to the designated SSA regardless of prior-
ity designator. Break-bulk points are set up to
break out individual shipments for delivery di-
rectly to each requesting SSA.
Class IX non-ALOC supply. Non-ALOC replenishment
cargo is normally transported by rail and truck from
seaports to corps stockage locations. High-priority non-
ALOC cargo maybe airlifted into the corps operational
area. As a rule, it bypasses the GSU and moves directly
from the aerial port to the requesting supply activity.
Other sources of repair parts. Use controlled exchange
to return essential items immediately to a mission-
capable condition. Obtain repair parts from cannibaliza-
tion of nonreparable major end items and assemblies.
The following elements provide supply manage-
ment for corps, separate brigade, and regiment units.
CMMC. The CMMC provides integrated supply and
maintenance management. The COSCOM AC of S,
Support Operations, reviews and analyzes demands and
computes corps requirements for supply and mainte-
nance support. The CMMC then evaluates work loads
and the capabilities of supported supply and mainte-
nance units and allocates resources. It coordinates
throughput distribution policies with the CMMC.
FM 54-23 covers the CMMC.
Support squadrons. Support squadrons provide supply
materiel management for separate brigades and ACRs.
Their headquarters and headquarters companies deter-
mine requirements for brigade supplies. They procure as
well as direct the receipt, temporary storage, and issue or
distribution of supplies.
Headquarters and headquarters troop. The headquar-
ters and headquarters troop provides supply and mainte-
nance materiel management for ACRs. It deter-
mines requirements and supervises the regiment's
ASL and combat PLLs. It also determines ASL
Common Repair Parts
Maintenance companies in the CSB perform intermedi-
ate maintenance and provide ASL repair parts to support
units in the corps rear area. Most of these companies also
exchange selected items. Repair parts supply compa-
nies, GS, are the main supply sources in the corps.
Separate AIM brigades, light infantry brigades, airborne
brigades, air cavalry combat brigades, and the ACR
provide additional supply and maintenance support.
With the exception of theater army-controlled items, the
corps depends on CONUS for replenishment through
the DSS or ALOC. If this is not possible, the COMMZ
can use its safety lev el to restore corps operating
levels on short notice, pigures 5 -4 page 5-11, and
D-3L page 5-12, show the flow of common Class IX
items in the theater. When possible, Class IX ALOC
items are sent directly to the requisitioner in the corps.
When this is not possible, supplies are delivered to a
repair parts supply company in the corps or COMMZ for
surface shipment to the requesting DS or GS mainte-
nance unit. Heavy tonnage items are sent by sea and
Missile Repair Parts
Repair parts supply is critical for missile systems. Due
to the high cost of parts, supply procedures generally
differ from those used in the routine supply sys-
tem. There is greater reliance on shipment direct
from CONUS. Several elements supply missile repair
parts support. Missile maintenance companies provide
repair parts of missiles. They have support maintenance
shops. Maintenance support teams receive, store, and
issue line items for missile systems.
Aircraft Repair Parts
Divisional AVIM units transmit requisitions for aircraft
peculiar repair parts through the DMMC to the CMMC.
Requisitions from nondivisional AVIM units are sent
directly to the CMMC. If the part is available in the
corps, the CMMC sends an MRO to the repair parts
supply company, GS, which sends the part to the AVIM
unit. Aviation maintenance companies provide DS re-
pair parts. QM repair parts supply companies provide
GS repair parts.
Airdrop Equipment Repair Parts
The QM airdrop supply company and the QM light
airdrop equipment repair and supply company supply
DS airdrop repair parts in the corps. For more
details, see FM 10-400.
CE and COMSEC Repair Parts
The COMSEC Materiel Control System controls
COMSEC. The Army Communications Command area
maintenance and supply facilities support fixed station
communications equipment. COMSEC materiel man-
agement sections compute requirements, prepare
requisitions, and process receipts and requisitions. They
control materiel release and distribution and inventory
and account for all COMSEC materiel within the corps
rear area. The CE office at corps headquarters estab-
lishes priorities for issue of COMSEC materiel.
COMSEC repair parts are provided by the COMSEC
logistics support company which maintains the theater
ASL for COMSEC. Signal battalions maintain shop
stock and exchange items for unit elements. The air-
borne special forces group maintains shop stock for
signal equipment belonging to the special forces group.
CE maintenance companies provide repair parts to DS
maintenance units. Maintenance battalions and aircraft
maintenance companies maintain shop stock and appro-
priate exchange items. CEWI groups maintain shop
stock to support organic DS maintenance operations.
The TAACOM supports all units located in or passing
through a given area in the COMMZ. The ACofS,
Materiel, develops policies, plans, and procedures for
establishing and maintaining supply levels and stockage
lists. The TAACOM MMC approves additions to or
deletions from stockage lists. It also approves adjust-
ments to requisitioning objectives for ASL lines. The
wartime sustaining level for the COMMZ is 30 DOS for
ALOC items and 7 DOS plus OST for non-ALOC items.
ALOC items are usually flown directly from CONUS to
DS and GS users. The COMMZ maintains a 30-day
safety level of supplies. Delays in shipments from
CONUS can be absorbed in this time period.
TAACOM units store and maintain pre-positioned war
reserves, other theater reserves, and theater-controlled
stocks. The TAMMC manages and controls the alloca-
tion of these critical and high-priority stocks.
TAACOM. The TAACOM provides DS CSS and inter-
mediate GS maintenance and supply to units passing
through or located in the COMMZ. It provides GS
supply and intermediate GS maintenance to the combat
zone. The TAACOM may negotiate directly with gov-
ernmental agencies or private individuals in host coun-
tries for required supplies by coordinating with the
theater army G5.
Figure 5-2. Request and delivery for noncontrolled Class IX supplies
(less aircraft) at echelons above division
Figure 5-3. Request and delivery of theater army-controlled
Class IX supplies (less aircraft)
TAACOMMMC. The TAACOM MMC provides inte-
grated supply and maintenance management. It collects,
sorts, analyzes, and acts on supply and maintenance
requests. It receives and analyzes demands for Class IX
and computes requirements for supplies and mainte-
nance support. It develops and publishes guidance on
exchange operations. After evaluating work loads and
the capabilities of supported supply and maintenance
units, it allocates resources.
COMMZ Supply Support Organization
Organization of the supply and maintenance support
operations depends on the size and composition of
forces within the COMMZ and the availability of as-
sured HNS. It also depends on the amount of backup
support required by forces in the combat zone, the nature
of planned operations, and the geographic and political
features of the area. FM 100-16 describes COMMZ
supply support operations.
Requisition and Materiel Flow
With the exception of theater army-controlled items, the
COMMZ depends on CONUS for replenishment. Though
it is not the prime source of supply support to the corps,
the COMMZ can replenish the corps when the supply
pipeline is disrupted or unanticipated changes occur in
theater consumption patterns.
Requisition flow. With the exception of theater army-
controlled items, the TAACOM MMC receives and
processes requisitions for Class IX items. In war, as in
peace, the TAACOM MMC sends requisitions to
CONUS NICPs. Requisitions for ALOC items
bypass the telecommunications center serving the
MMC. Requisitions for theater army-controlled items
are sent to the TAMMC. The TAMMC also controls war
reserve stocks (non-ALOC Class IX included).
Materiel flow. Materiel is shipped directly from
CONUS to the corps whenever possible. Otherwise,
Class IX ALOC items are sent to the intermediate levels
in the COMMZ. When possible, DSS surface shipments
of container loads are delivered to the documented
requisitioner. When this is not possible, supplies are
delivered to DS or GS units.
Common Repair Parts
GS supply support is available through QM repair parts
supply companies, GS, TAACOM. DS supply support
is available through DS maintenance companies.
Missile Repair Parts
QM repair parts supply companies provide GS repair
parts. Maintenance and supply companies and mainte-
nance batteries provide DS repair parts.
Aircraft Repair Parts
Army aircraft require a great deal of maintenance.
Inadequate maintenance increases the need for supplies
in the COMMZ. QM repair parts supply compa-
nies keep the aviation maintenance company in
aircraft repair parts.
Airdrop Equipment Repair Parts
The QM airdrop equipment repair and supply company
and the QM heavy airdrop supply company specialize in
airdrop equipment, DS, repair parts supply support. For
more details on airdrop supply, see FM 10-400.
CE and COMSEC Repair Parts
The Theater Communications Command (Army) coor-
dinates logistical support for assigned and attached
signal units. The TAACOM MMC provides COMSEC
materiel management for the theater army area. It man-
ages the maintenance companies assigned to the support
groups. The Theater Communications Command (Army)
signal units maintain a shop stock of repair parts with
which to perform DS maintenance on organic CE and
COMSEC equipment. DS maintenance units also main-
tain a shop stock of CE and COMSEC repair parts. The
COMSEC logistics support team maintains the theater
ASL for communications items. It processes requisi-
tions and receives, stores, and distributes all COMSEC
materiel, except that shipped directly to supported units.
Marine-Peculiar Repair Parts
Due to the low-density and unique characteristics of
marine-peculiar parts and avionics, they are excepted
from demand-stockage criteria. Most user units are
authorized to keep enough parts on the craft to sustain
themselves for 15 days in combat. Marine intermediate
maintenance units provide backup supply and
maintenance support on shore or by means of
floating maintenance support teams. Marine-peculiar
repair parts are not supplied by a repair parts supply
Rail Equipment Repair Parts
HNS is the primary means of providing rail equipment
and rail maintenance in a theater of operations. If HNS
is not available, GS maintenance rail-operating units
can be deployed to the theater. The transportation rail-
way car repair company and the diesel-electric locomo-
tive repair company supply rail equipment repair parts.
PROVIDING CLASS VI AND X SUPPLIES
CLASS VI SUPPORT CONCERNS
In peacetime, AAFES manages Class VI items. Upon
outbreak of hostilities, AAFES cargo shipments may
be canceled or diverted elsewhere to free transporters to
carry more critical items. In the early stages of a war,
stocks in PXs in the COMMZ and corps rear area may
be turned over to the theater supply system.
During heavy levels of commitment, the health and
comfort items listed in AR 30-7 might be the only
personal-demand items available in the theater. In
moderate and light levels of commitment, these items
might be used from D-Day to D+60. After D+60,
AAFES contingency procedures may be put into effect,
upon direction of the AAFES commander, to supple-
ment items authorized by AR 30-7.
Manning and Responsibility
Existing PXs in the COMMZ may remain in service
after conversion to military manning. Military person-
nel may operate exchange retail activities forward of
the COMMZ. Following conversion to military man-
ning, responsibility for exchange operations belongs to
Class VI items must compete with critical assets sent to
oversea theaters. Transportation assets may not be
available prior to D+90. That is when theater stabiliza-
tion efforts may be expected to occur in the corps and
COMMZ. Until then, sundries packs would have to
provide minimally essential Class VI items.
The DS4 automated supply system does not provide
Class VI supply support. However, such support is
provided by SAILS.
SUPPORT OF CIVIL AFFAIRS
FM 41-10 describes civil affairs operations. Basic poli-
cies and procedures for support of civilian populations
are contained in theater or higher-level plans.
These plans include estimates of initial require-
ments and availability of resources. Commanders
who have been delegated civil affairs authority
should recommend changes in requirements for
support of the civilian population. The tactical
operation commander is responsible for estimat-
ing civilian supply requirements, for making allo-
cations, and for setting priorities. The G5 has primary
staff responsibility for coordinating matters involving
civil-military operations. However, primary responsi-
bility for the logistics of civil-military operations re-
mains with the G4. The supplying of items by the
military for relief of civilian distress is primarily a
concern of the logistics staff. Distribution of these
supplies t o civilians is a function of civil affairs units.
Table 6- 1[ page 6-2, lists specific civilian supply tasks.
The tasks are grouped according to the intensity of
conflict. Some logistics areas require coordination be-
tween the G5 and the G4. These areas include:
• Consolidated requirements for civilian sup-
plies to be furnished from military stocks or requisi-
tioned from US stocks.
• Plans for the distribution of supplies to civil-
• Requirements for insecticides, repellents, and
rodenticides to protect the health of the civilians.
• Disposition of captured enemy supplies which
are adaptable to civilian use.
• Availability of salvaged clothing and other
supplies for civilian use.
• Requirements for military transportation for
Class VI and X items are purchased with different
finds. Each supply class has restrictions on procure-
Table 6-1. Civilian supply duties of civil affairs units
LIMITED AND GENERAL WAR
Plan for relief supplies for imme-
Establish working relationship
Prepare procedures and pro-
Same as "Occupied Friendly,"
diate needs of populace.
with host nation, USAID, and
grams for the transition from
plus: Secure control of all gov-
personnel of volunteer agencies
military to civilian operations in
ernmental and commercial
Determine availability of military
who control civilian supplies.
supply facilities and person-
supplies for civilian use.
nel until they can be screened
Coordinate movement of sup-
Plan and supervise food ra-
Acquire and distribute civilian
plies from USAID and volunteer
tioning or controlled distri-
supplies according to policy and
agencies, usingmilitary transpor-
bution, as required.
tation if necessary.
Assist in moving essential civilian
Establish and maintain civilian
Take measures to salvage cap-
supplies, particularly food, medi-
tured supplies and turn them
cal, and fuel, from surplus to
over to civilian authorities
deficit areas, as required.
Assure coordination of civilian
and military transportation
Requisition through normal sup-
facilities for distribution of
Assist in providing security for
ply channels for emergency civil-
movement of civilian supplies.
ian supplies not locally available.
Assure safeguarding of essential
Recommend supplies to be
made available from existing
Ensure that civilian supplies
reach intended destination
and are not diverted into
black market channels.
Determine caloric requirements
of population categories such as
children and nursing mothers.
Advise commander concerning
all aspects of civilian supply.
Conduct surveys of:
• Normal standards of
living, including health and di-
• Agricultural and indus-
trial patterns and effects of mili-
tary operations on civilian
• Collection and distri-
bution facilities handling essen-
Class VI Items
Class VI items are procured with nonappropriated
funds. They are procured, stored, and distributed by the
Defense Personnel Support Center of the Defense
Logistics Agency. Because of shelf life and rotational
requirements, sundries packs containing health and
comfort items are normally not prestocked. Instead,
items for these packs are purchased and assembled as
needed. The Defense Personnel Support Center re-
quires a 120-day lead time to acquire and distribute
ration supplement sundries packs.
Class X Items
Most Class X items are stock fund secondary items.
Only a few are appropriation-financed principal items.
Many Class X items are nonstandard items (windmill
parts, kits, and plows, for example). Some items
(lawnmowers, grass seed, livestock salt, and hay, for
example) managed by the GSA are covered by a
contract which allows using activities to place an order
directly with the vendor. A few Class X items may be
purchased locally. Civil affairs personnel help purchas-
ing and contracting officers with local procurement of
supplies for civilian relief or economic aid. Some Class
X items (animal traps, horse and mule saddles, and
harrow disks, for example) are not stocked. Thus, they
have long lead times. These items are procured only
after receipt of a requisition.
CLASS VI SUPPLY
PERSONAL DEMAND ITEMS
There are almost 250,000 Class VI personal demand or
nonmilitary items for sale to soldiers and other autho-
rized individuals in PXs throughout the world. Ex-
amples are shampoo, pens, razors, tobacco, stationery,
and chewing gum. Class VI supply is often expanded to
include catalog sales, comfort items, civilian clothing,
and luxury items. Class VI items are not listed on the
AMDF. A few health and comfort items may be issued
when enlisted members report to a reception station.
Issue is generally limited to items that do not require
fitting, such as towels and handkerchiefs.
In early stages of highly mobile and intensive conflicts,
there is little leisure time. Therefore, there is little need
for Class VI items. Before full theater development,
Class VI items may be restricted to the sundries pack
items required for the safety, sanitation, and minimum
health and comfort of soldiers. Where a PX cannot be
operated, the theater army commander can request that
ration supplement sundries packs be supplied. The
authorization document is AR 700-23. In areas where
exchange activities do not already exist, AAFES will
not be required to provide exchange services earlier
than 60 days after initial deployment (D+60). Where
there is no AAFES exchange in an area, teams BP and
BQ may be authorized. Once exchanges are estab-
lished, AAFES determines requirements. It then pro-
cures, stores, and distributes supplies and operates the
Class VI requirements according to FM 10 1-10-1/2 are
3.2 pounds per person per day. After D+60, AR 700-23
authorizes .56 pound of Class VI supplies per man per
day and 1.06 pounds of Class VI supplies per woman
per day. The AAFES contingency plan for D+60 cur-
rently authorizes 7.29 pounds per soldier per day
during moderate and light levels of commitment. No
authorization is made for a heavy level of commitment.
More information on Class VI consumption rates may
be obtained from HQ, AAFES, ATTN: AAFES-PL-P,
Dallas, TX 75222-6049.
Issue of sundries packs affects requirements for Class
VI health and comfort items. The ration supplement
sundries pack (NSN 8940-00-268-9934) is a Class I
item which contains health and comfort items issued
without cost to soldiers during combat operations.
Items include writing paper, ballpoint pens, disposable
razors, and other personal care items. Female soldiers
are authorized additional health and comfort items.
These include cleansing cream and tissues, sanitary
napkins and tampons, hand and body lotion, and toilet
paper. For more details on sundry packs and their
contents, see AR 30-7.
MACOM commanders determine when ration supple-
ment sundries packs are required. They request that
HQDA start acquisition and distribution actions. The
Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics approves the use of
sundries packs in theaters of operations. MACOM
commanders then submit requisitions for initial and
follow-on requirements. Initial requirements are filled
with bulk Class VI supplies. MACOM commanders
coordinate with AAFES representatives to ensure an
interim supply of Class VI items until ration supple-
ment sundries packs become available. Follow-on re-
quirements are filled with sundries packs. Sundries
packs are requested on DA Form 2058-R in the same
manner as Class I items. Sundries packs are issued on
DA Form 3294-R. Following development of the the-
ater, or as the situation permits, the Defense Logistics
Agency assumes responsibility for meeting Class VI
needs in the theater.
AR 700-23 controls the issue of health and comfort
items. Sundries packs must be requested by the MACOM
commander and approved by HQDA before issue can
be made. Sundries packs are issued only to support
units or individuals who have been in combat for more
than 48 hours without exchange support, contingency
emergency plans, and combat operations.
Usually the sundries pack is issued with rations until
AAFES can provide Class VI support. Only the MRE
contains candy and toilet paper. No other comfort items
are in operational rations.
When personal items are not issued free or made
available through an AAFES exchange, sales teams BP
and BQ may be authorized. Sales teams may be as-
signed to the division, corps, or theater army. Sales
team BQ provides sales management and control per-
sonnel needed to supervise BP mobile sales teams.
Sales team BQ personnel requisition, receive, and store
Class VI items for issue to the mobile sales team. That
team provides a mobile outlet for once-a-week retail
sale of merchandise and personal items, on a nonprofit
basis, for up to 10,950 authorized personnel. Security
of a soldier's personal funds may be a consideration in
this type of direct sales operation. The mobile sales
team may also wholesale personal items and merchan-
dise to a unit PX. Supplemental transportation needed
to distribute supplies must be provided by theater
transportation units. Additional personnel are required
to load and unload supplies.
Class VI items are highly pilferable. Make sure storage
containers at terminal warehouses and major oversea
storage points are locked and guarded. A number of
Class VI items have limited shelf life. Check these
items for dates. The storage and issue principle of first
in, first out applies.
CLASS X SUPPLY
NONMILITARY PROGRAM ITEMS
Class X items support nonmilitary programs such as
agricultural and economic development. If civilian
resources in the theater are inadequate, military sources
may provide Class X items to the civilian population.
There are nearly 500 Class X items listed on the
AMDF. The item manager is the US Army General
Materiel and Petroleum Activity. Nonmilitary support
items are handled separately from normal military
requirements. However, they compete with military
items for distribution resources. If critical military
operations are not impaired, supply of Class X items
may be important enough to take precedence over some
of the less-essential Army items.
Civil affairs staff sections determine requirements for
supplies required for relief of civilians in distress.
Following an NBC attack, large quantities of rodenti-
cides and insecticides should be needed. Seed, fertil-
izer, and domestic animals may be required, also.
Military consumption rates are based on military
strength and do not apply to Class X supplies. Instead,
requirements are based on population size, geographic
location, and technological capabilities of the country
SOURCES OF SUPPLY
The principal sources of civilian support are supplies
from the local economy, captured enemy stocks, contri-
butions from national and international welfare and
charitable organizations, and supplies from allied or
US military stocks. In addition to food, clothing, and
medical supplies, the types of supplies approved for
issue from US military stocks include tents, fuel and
lubricants, and engineer, communication, and trans-
portation equipment. Most Class X items appear with a
G_0 or S9C source of supply code on the AMDF.
Sources include GSA warehouses, the Defense Con-
struction Supply Center, and the Defense Industrial
REQUISITION AND ISSUE PROCEDURES
Supply and distribution plans show responsibilities for
receiving, storing, and issuing supplies for civilian
support. QM supply companies provide Class X sup-
plies only as directed by higher headquarters. Admin-
istrative orders and other instruct ions prescribe requisi-
tion and issue procedures.
Requisitions for military supplies for civilian support
are processed in the same manner as those for all other
military supplies. Units tasked to issue supplies to
authorized civilian agencies or groups place the requi-
During military operations, supplies for support of
civilian affairs operations may be provided on an
automatic basis. Class X issues are regulated. Depend-
ing on the situation, supplies intended for civilian
support may require command approval prior to issue.
Make sure that supplies are not diverted into black
market channels. As the military situation becomes
more stabilized, issue of fertilizers, seeds, tools, and
lumber may help speed up local production of needed
food and shelter. In sustained war, this would have the
long-term benefit of freeing shipping space for other
kinds of supplies.
Procedures for distribution of Class X supplies are
based on agreements between the supported foreign
countries and the US State Department. Supplies for
international defense and development operations are
distributed through military channels. Civil affairs
units distribute supplies to civilian users or agencies to
relieve distress of civilians in countries in which US
forces are present. Class X supplies are usually distrib-
uted to the foreign government directly from a termi-
nal. Otherwise, delivery follows the same channels as
that for Army general supplies. Supplies may also be
delivered to specified points for issue to local govern-
nmental authorities. Public transportation as well as
civilian and military vehicles may be used to move such
supplies. Civilian vehicles required to transport these
supplies should be organized into a civilian transporta-
tion pool under the supervision of civil affairs units in
the theater area. Minimum amounts of fuel, lubricants,
tires, and spare parts may be made available to maintain
the civilian transportation pool.
Military stocks used for civilian support are accounted
for until issued to civilian agencies. These records provide
a basis for anticipating future requirements. They also
ensure that supplies are not issued in excess. Civilian
agencies are normally required to account for supplies
provided from military sources and for contributions
made by allied governments and nonmilitary agencies.
Recent events in the former Soviet Union have virtually
eliminated the probability of a Soviet-led attack against
Western Europe. Four of the republics forming the new
Commonwealth of Independent States-Russia, Ukraine,
Belorussia, and Kazakhstan-retain the capability to
strike the US with strategic nuclear weapons. Indica-
tions are that their conventional forces will be consider-
ably downsized, modernized, and reoriented toward
territorial defense. Although the threat of strategic at-
tack remains a concern, the export of tactical nuclear
weapons, nuclear weapons technology, and scientific
expertise from the former Soviet Union to the Third
World is of even greater concern. The potential for US
forces being drawn into Third World conflicts to protect
national interests has thus significantly increased. Third
World forces can be expected to be armed with modern
weapons. This includes weapons of mass destruction
supplied by the former Soviet Union, China, North
Korea, and some Western nations. States which have,
may be developing, or desire such a capability include
North Korea, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, China, and India.
However, they may not be as proficient in modern
military war as the former Warsaw Pact nations.
One of the most unstable regions of the world is South-
west Asia. This area stretches from the Indian Ocean,
across the Persian Gulf and the Middle East, to the
Mediterranean Sea. Ideological and religious conflicts,
nationalism, great wealth and desperate poverty, ex-
panding populations and rising expectations, and more
modern military forces make the region unstable. Coun-
tries in this region are acquiring advanced conventional
weapons. They also want unconventional weapons,
particularly nuclear weapons. Threat forces in the region
may be the most modern in the Third World. These
countries have deployed tanks, jet fighter aircraft, SCUD
missiles, helicopter, and multiple rocket launchers. All
are armed with a variety of conventional and unconven-
tional munitions. High cost keeps these acquisitions to
a minimum. The international arms market may make
nuclear weapons production technology available to the
highest bidder. The US may become opposed by West-
ern technology in this strategically significant region.
Central and South America
Social trends will determine economic, demographic,
and political and military events in the Caribbean,
Central America, and South America. Governments in
these regions will struggle to contain domestic tensions
and maintain the cohesion of their respective societies.
Military operations in Grenada and Panama,
counternarcotics operations, and military advisory mis-
sions indicate continued Army involvement throughout
the region. LIC is the dominant military activity
in the region. Threats to US forces include terror-
ist and guerrilla groups armed with crew-served
weapons, small arms, and shoulder-fired antitank
and antiaircraft weapons systems.
Stability depends on the ability of the CIS to survive
economically and politically. Economic collapse and
war between the republics are possible. Ethnic strife also
threatens Eastern Europe stability as it did in the former
Soviet Union. NATO nations may have to intervene
with peacekeeping forces. Opposing forces may be as
formidable as those of the former Soviet Union.
Major changes in the Asian security environment con-
tinue to occur. These include the shifting military bal-
ance on the Korean Peninsula; the relationship between
the US, Japan, and Russia; the growing power of China
and India; serious instability in and withdrawal of US
troops from the Philippines; the nuclear arms buildup;
and vigorous arms exports to the Third World. Regional
conflicts adverse to US interests may erupt as US forces
are downsized or withdrawn. Regional powers tradi-
tionally hostile to US interests include Russia, North
Korea, and China.
The most insidious threat to US security in peace and
war is terrorism. Generally, terrorism has evolved from
ideological, political, religious, and ethnic discontent
and the narcotics trade. Terrorist threats to US interests
continue in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Latin
America. In Europe, leftist groups continue to attack
"Western Imperialism" including the NATO Alliance
and the US military presence. In the Near East, the US
and Israel are seen as common enemies in the eyes of
various subnational and religious groups. In South
America, economics and ideology are the two principal
motivations for terrorist acts. Narcotics traffickers are
driven by perceived threats to their economic interests.
They oppose governments allied to the US. Individuals,
groups, and states which view the US presence and
influence as a threat to their existence and political
beliefs will most likely endorse terrorist attacks. The
Pacific trade war could dramatically heighten the poten-
tial for terrorist activities.
THREATS TO COMBAT SERVICE
Threats to future CSS operations will consist primarily
of Level I and modernized Level II forces equipped with
long-range indirect fire weapons. These weapons will
include tube artillery and surface-to-surface missiles
armed with both conventional and unconventional mu-
nitions. Level III operations will occur only if the
opposing forces are capable of conducting deep ar-
mored penetrations or large airborne or air assault
operations in the rear area.
Level I threats predominate in LIC. They include
insurgents, drug cartels, and terrorists armed with
various weapons. Drug cartels have many resources
to organize, arm, and equip private armies and
establish intelligence networks. Soviet weapons,
such as the AK-47 assault rifle and RPG-7 anti-
tank rocket, predominate. Homemade mines and
booby traps may also be employed. Level I threats
are also found on the mid-to high-intensity battle-
field. These threats range from individual sleeper
agents and terrorists to squad- size special opera-
tions elements. Specific CSS targets include logistics
command and control, convoys, and storage areas.
The enemy may interdict CSS operations through-
out the battlefield, especially in the corps support
area, due to the density of troops forward. Sleeper
agents will function as intelligence collectors as well as
saboteurs and provocateurs. Fanatical paramilitary
forces may also be encountered operating indepen-
dently of conventional forces.
Mid- to high-intensity threats involve countries that use
intensive missile and artillery fire strikes to disrupt the
enemy's logistics system. Other threats include tank and
mechanized infantry forces; airborne, air assault, and
heliborne forces; radio-electronic combat; and NBC
warfare. Attacks by naval infantry forces are also pos-
sible within coastal areas.
Forces opposing the US Army will generally be equipped
with Soviet tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, or compa-
rable weapons of Chinese or Western manufacture.
These are inferior to comparable US systems. Without
more modern Western technology or a mechanized
penetration in the classic Soviet style, they pose only a
moderate threat to CSS operations.
Tube Artillery Systems
The primary threats to CSS operations are towed and
self-propelled 122- and 152-millimeter systems. These
provide a range capability equal to or superior to our
current systems. Despite efforts to control their export,
systems meeting these requirements are available on the
international arms market from Argentina, China, France,
Italy, and South Africa.
Multiple Rocket Launcher Systems
Multiple rocket launchers deliver a variety of munitions.
This includes chemical and biological agents, fuel-air
explosives, cluster bombs, and antipersonnel mines.
The Soviet BM-21 is used in most modernized Third
World countries. Better systems are available from
China, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, South Africa, Russia,
and the United States. These systems generally outrange
our best counterbattery systems and are thus a signifi-
cant threat to the CSS operations.
Ballistic Missile Systems
The number of short- and medium-range ballistic mis-
siles has increased in recent years. These weapons will
be armed with conventional munitions. Chemical and
nuclear munitions may also be available to certain
countries. France, Taiwan, China, North Korea, and
Russia produce these weapons. They pose a significant
threat to CSS operations.
Precision-guided air- and sea-launched cruise missiles
have proved their worth in the Gulf War. They have top
acquisition priority by those countries that can obtain
them. Reports indicate that Iraq recently acquired a
defective US Tomahawk missile, will attempt to copy it
for production, and will most likely share the
technology with other arms-producing Third World
countries. Similar weapons systems may soon be
available on the international arms market from
France, Germany, and Russia.
The threat to CSS operations is no longer primarily the
former Soviet Union. The conflict with Iraq demon-
strated that Third World countries with the political will
and the military power will challenge their neighbors for
regional dominance. Forces opposing US military op-
erations vary in size, equipment, and proficiency. They
have Soviet weapons such as T-62 and T-72 tanks.
Artillery systems, the primary CSS threat, are more
mobile and outrange our systems. They consist of older
Soviet equipment, such as the 2S1 122-millimeter SP
howitzer, 2S3 152-millimeter SP howitzer, and BM-21
medium-range launcher. Stringent controls and high
cost limit the acquisition of Western technology by
Third World countries. As it becomes available, this
technology will inevitably reach the Third World, espe-
cially in the oil-rich Middle East. Finally, although
international sanctions will prohibit the production of
NBC weapons, the most radical Third World countries
will continue to obtain them.
GENERAL SUPPLY CLASSES
Class I - Subsistence and gratuitous health and
Class II - Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool
sets and tool kits, hand tools, and administrative and
housekeeping supplies and equipment. Includes items
of equipment, other than principal items, prescribed in
authorization and allowance tables. Subclasses are A, B,
C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, 0, P, Q, T, U, W, Y, and Z.
Class III - Petroleum, oils, and lubricants: petroleum
fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preser-
vatives, liquid and compressed gases, chemical prod-
ucts, coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, to-
gether with components and additives of such products,
and coal. Subclasses are 2, 3, 5, and 6.
Class IV - Construction: Construction materials to
include installed equipment and all fortification and
barrier materials. No subclasses assigned.
Class VI - Personal demand items (nonmilitary sales
items). No subclasses assigned.
Class VII - Major end items: A final combination of end
products which is ready for its intended use and principal
items (for example, launchers, tanks, mobile machine
shops, and vehicles). Subclasses are A, B, D, G, K, L, M
N, 0, P, Q, U, W, Y, and Z.
Class IX - Repair parts: Subclasses are A, B, C, G, H,
K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, U, and W.
Class X - Materiel to support nonmilitary programs (for
example, agriculture and economic development) not
included in Class I through IX. No subclasses assigned.
A - Air (aviation, aircraft, and airdrop equipment):
Class II - Items of supply and equipment in support of
aviation and aircraft. Class III - Petroleum and chemical
products used in support of aircraft. Class VII - Major
end items of aviation equipment.
B - Troop support materiel: Consists of such items as
water purification sets; shower, bath, laundry, dry clean-
ing, and bakery equipment; sets, kits, and outfits (in-
cludes tool and equipment sets and shop and equipment
sets for performing unit, DS, GS, and depot-level main-
tenance); sensors and interior intrusion devices; topo-
graphic equipment and related topographic products as
outlined in AR 115-11.
C - Commercial vehicles: Includes wheeled vehicles
authorized for use in administrative or tactical operations.
E - General supply items: Includes administrative
expendable supplies such as typewriter ribbons, paper,
cleaning materials, and other supplies normally referred
to as office supplies. Also includes publications
distributed through AG channels.
F - Clothing and textiles: Includes individual and
organizational items of clothing and equipment author-
ized in allowance tables and tentage and tarpaulins
authorized in TOE or other media.
G- Communications-electronics: Includes signal
items such as radio, telephone, teletype, satellite, avion-
ics, marine communications and navigational equip-
ment; tactical and nontactical ADP equipment;
radar; photographic, audiovisual, and television
equipment; infrared; laser and maser; electronic
sensors; and so forth.
H - Test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment:
Includes items of equipment used to determine the
operating efficiency of or diagnose incipient prob-
lems in systems, components, assemblies, and
subassemblies of materiel.
K - Tactical vehicles: Includes trucks, truck trac-
tors, trailers, semitrailers, personnel carriers, and
L - Missiles: Class II and VII include guided
missile and rocket systems.
M - Weapons: Includes small arms, artillery, fire
control systems, rocket launchers, machine guns,
air defense weapons, aircraft weapon subsystems,
and so forth.
N - Special weapons: Class VII includes weapons
systems which deliver nuclear munitions.
O - Combat vehicles: Includes main battle tanks,
recovery vehicles, self-propelled artillery, armored cars,
tracked and half-tracked vehicles, and so forth.
P - SIGINT, EW, and intelligence materiel: Includes
materiel peculiar to those mission areas assigned to
federal supply classification 5811 for which the AMC
commander has responsibility. This subclass is identi-
fied separately from subclass G because of special-
ized supply and maintenance functions performed
by a dedicated EW or SIGINT logistics system.
Q - Marine equipment: Includes marine items of
supply and equipment such as amphibious vehicles,
landing craft, barges, tugs, floating cranes and dredges.
U - COMSEC material: This subclass is identified
separately from subclass G because of specialized sup-
ply and maintenance functions performed through a
dedicated COMSEC logistics system.
W - Ground: Class III includes petroleum and chemi-
cal products and solid fuels used in support of ground
and marine equipment. Class II and VII consist of
construction, road building, and MHE.
Y - Railway equipment: Includes rail items of supply
and equipment such as locomotives, railcars, rails, and
rail-joining and shifting equipment.
Z - Chemical: Classes II and VII include chemical
items such as gas masks, decontaminating appara-
tuses, and smoke generators.
Class III packaged supplies include the following
2 - Air, packaged bulk fuels: Includes fuels in subclass
1 which, because of operational necessity, are generally
packaged and supplied in containers of 5- to 55-gallon
capacity, except fuels in military collapsible containers
of 500 gallons or less which are considered as
3 - Air, packaged petroleum products: Includes
aircraft unique petroleum and chemical products con-
sisting generally of lubricating oils, greases, and spe-
cialty items normally packaged by the manufacturer
and procured, stored, transported, and issued in con-
tainers or packages of 55-gallon capacity or less.
5 - Ground, packaged bulk fuels: Includes ground
bulk fuels which, because of operational necessity, are
generally packaged and supplied in containers of 5- to
55-gallon capacity, except fuels in military collapsible
containers of 500 gallons or less which are considered
as packaged fuels.
6 - Ground, packaged petroleum: Includes petro-
leum and chemical products, lubricating oils, greases,
and specialty items normally packaged by the manu-
acturer and procured, stored, transported, and
issued in containers of 55-gallon capacity or less.
Note: So far as possible, alphabetical subclass
designations are the same as commodity manager
codes contained in such publications as SB 700-20.
Moreover, since the AMDF is the prime item data
source for Army-used items of supply and equip-
ment, each item is currently being coded using
supply categories of materiel codes as prescribed
in AR 708-1 and transmitted to the field through
the AMDF Retrieval Microform System.
AAFES Army and Air Force Exchange Service
ABF availability balance file
ACofS Assistant Chief of Staff
ACR armored cavalry regiment
ADMMO assistant division materiel manage-
ADP automatic data processing
ADPE automatic data processing equipment
AFM Air Force manual
AG Adjutant General
air lines of communication A system that pro-
vides air shipment, regardless of priorities, for all
eligible Class IX repair parts and maintenance-
related Class II items to designated oversea units
ALOC air lines of communication
AMC United States Army Materiel Command
AMDF Army Master Data File
AR Army regulation
ARC accounting requirements code
ARIL automated return item list
ARMS Army Master Data File Retrieval Micro-
ARSOA Army special operations aviation
ARSOC Army Special Operations Component
ASL authorized stockage list
A/SPOD air or seaport of debarkation
A/SPOE air or seaport of embarkation
AVGAS aviation gasoline
aviation intermediate maintenance AVIM ac-
tivities provide mobile maintenance support to
aviation units. Maintenance repairtasks performed
by AVIM activities are DS and GS functions.
aviation unit maintenance AVUM units are
company size or smaller. They are staffed and
equipped to perform high-frequency, on-aircraft
maintenance required to retain or return assigned
aircraft to a serviceable condition. Primarily, these
tasks include preventive maintenance, inspection,
servicing, component replacement, and limited
maintenance repair functions.
AVIM aviation intermediate maintenance
AVUM aviation unit maintenance
back order That portion of requested stock which
was not immediately available for issue and which
will be shipped at a later date. The record of the
obligation to fill the order is also known as a back
order or due-out.
basic loads For other than ammunition, basic
loads are supplies kept by using units for use in
combat. The quantity of each item of supply in a
basic load is related to the number of days in
combat that the unit can be sustained without
resupply. Consumption of basic load supplies in
peacetime may be authorized, depending on the
class of supply.
BDU battle dress uniform
BP mobile sales team
BQ sales team
BSA brigade support area
CA civil affairs
cc card column
CCP consolidation and containerization point
CDA United States Army Materiel Command
Catalog Data Activity
CEB clothing exchange and bath
CECOM Army Communications-Electronics
Central Issue Facility A MACOM-approved
facility at installation level used to stock, issue,
recover, and account for OCIE. A parent unit must
stock OCIE when a CIF has not been established.
Personnel positions for CIFs are prescribed in
advance by MTOE or TDA. CIFs are authorized
only in the peacetime environment.
CEWI combat electronic warfare intelligence
CIF Central Issue Facility
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CMCC corps movement control center
CMMC corps materiel management center
COMMZ communications zone
components There are two types of components.
Components of end items are items identified in
technical publications (such as TMs) as part of an
end item. Troop-installed items, special tools, and
test equipment are not components of end items.
Components of assemblages are items identified
in a supply catalog component listing as part of a
set, kit, outfit, or other assemblage.
COMSEC communications security
CONUS continental United States
COOP Continuity of Operations Plan
COSCOM corps support command
CP command post
CS combat support
CSB corps support battalion
CSG corps support group
CSS combat service support
CTA common table of allowances
DA Department of the Army
DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System
DC District of Columbia
DD/DOD Department of Defense
D-day debarkation day
demand-supported shop stock See shop stock.
DF diesel fuel
DIDS Defense Integrated Data Systems
Direct Support System DSS is the standard
Army supply distribution system for supply Class II,
HI packaged, IV, V (missile components only), VII,
and IX. During war, this is limited to Class IX only.
DISCOM division support command
discretionary allowances Items of clothing and
equipment authorized on a discretionary basis as
organizational clothing and equipment. They are
essential to the health, comfort, and efficient func-
tioning of personnel that might be subject to
changes in climate or duty assignment. They in-
clude items authorized by movement orders and
needed for health and comfort during a journey.
DLOGS Division Logistics System
DMA Defense Mapping Agency
DMMC division materiel management center
DOS days of supply
DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office
DS direct support
DSA division support area
DS4 direct support unit standard supply system
DSN defense switching network
DSS Direct Support System
DSU direct support unit
DTO division transportation officer
due out See back order.
durable items Items that are not consumed in use
but that retain their original identity. These items
have an ARC of "D" in the ARMS monthly
AMDF. They include no consumable components
of sets, kits, outfits, and assemblies; all tools
(federal supply classes 5110, 5120, 5130, 5133,
5136, 5140,5180, 5210, 5220, and 5280); and any
other nonconsumable items with a unit price greater
than $50 not coded nonexpendable. Personal cloth-
ing listed in CTA 50-900, Chapter 2, Section 1, is
considered durable. Commercial and fabricated
items similar to items coded "D" are also consid-
ered durable (AR 710-2).
end item A final combination of assemblies,
parts, and materiel used to perform a function and
ready for use in combat, CS, or CSS
EPW enemy prisoner of war
EW electronic warfare
expendable items Items with AFX "X" in the
AMDF. Items, regardless of type classification or
unit price, that are consumed in use, including all
Class IX repair parts. Items with a unit price of
$50 or less that are not consumed in use and are
not coded with ARC "N" or "D" in the AMDF.
FARE forward area refueling equipment
PLOT forward line of own troops
FM field manual
FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command
FSB forward support battalion
Gl Assistant Chief of Staff, Gl (Personnel)
G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)
G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)
G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)
G5 Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs)
GS general support
GSA General Services Administration
GSU general support unit
HNS host-nation support
HQDA Headquarters, Department of Army
HTF how to fight
hvy mat heavy materiel
integrated materiel manager The materiel man-
ager responsible for performing assigned materiel
management functions for selected items or se-
lected federal supply classes
intermediate DS maintenance This maintenance
is performed by maintenance units supporting
divisional elements and nondivisional units. These
units provide area support to nondivisional units
and reinforcing maintenance to divisional mainte-
nance units. They are highly mobile, usually per-
form in the forward area, and often handle repairs
by replacement of components.
intermediate GS maintenance This maintenance
is performed by heavy and light equipment main-
tenance companies in the rear area. It involves
repair of components and assemblies.
JP jet propulsion
JTA joint table of allowances
LCA Logistic Control Activity
LIC low-intensity conflict
LIF logistics intelligence file
LIN line item number
LOC lines of communication (logistic routes)
MACOM major Army command
maintenance team Personnel from a mainte-
nance activity, organization, or unit who provide
unit maintenance support to a designated unit or
operation for specific tasks. DSUs and GSUs pro-
vide maintenance support teams.
management level An acceptable range of per-
formance usually expressed in upper and lower
control limits or occasionally as a single figure.
Performance consistent with a management level
will be cause for closer management of the opera-
tion (AR 710-2).
mandatory parts list A listing of repair parts
developed by AMC and approved by HQDA. The
repair parts listed are essential for proper opera-
tion of combat equipment.
MAT CAT materiel category
materiel management center An activity that
has formal accountability for property, except
medical and commissary supplies, in a division,
corps, TAACOM, or theater army
MCA movement control agency
MCC movement control center
MCO movement control officer
MCT movement control team
METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and
MHE materials-handling equipment
MIL-HDBK military handbook
MIL-STD military standard
MILSTRIP Military Standard Requisitioning
and Issue Procedures
MILVAN military-owned demountable container
MIRAC Management Information Research As-
MMC Materiel Management Center
MOGAS motor gasoline
MOPP mission-oriented protection posture
MOS military occupational specialty
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain
MP military police
MPL mandatory parts list
MRE meal, ready to eat
MRO materiel release order
MSB main support battalion
MSR main supply route
MTOE modification table of organization and
NA not applicable
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical
NCO noncommissioned officer
NICP national inventory control point
NUN national item identification number
NMCM not mission capable maintenance
NMCS not mission capable supply
nonexpendable items Items that are not con-
sumed in use but that retain their original identity
and require accountability throughout the life of
the item. This includes all nonconsumable end
items authorized by D A-recognized authorization docu-
ments. These items have an ARC of 'N" in the AMDF.
Commercial and fabricated items similar to items with
ARC "N" are also considered nonexpendable.
not mission capable maintenance Equipment is
NMCM when it cannot perform its combat mis-
sion because of maintenance work being done or
to be done (DA Pamphlet 738-750).
not mission capable supply NMCS equipment
cannot perform its combat mission because of a
shortage of repair parts (DA Pamphlet 738-750).
NSL nonstockage list
NSN national stock number
OCIE organizational clothing and individual
OCR optical character reader
OMA Operation and Maintenance, Army
operating level The quantity of stock intended to
sustain normal operations during the interval be-
tween receipt of a replenishment shipment and
submission of a subsequent replenishment requi-
sition. It does not include either the safety level or
the OST quantity.
operational load A quantity of supplies (in a given
supply class) kept by using units for use in peacetime
operations and based on various authorizations
OPLAN operation plan
OPSEC operations security
ORF operational readiness float
OST order ship time
PBO property book officer
PD priority designator
PLL prescribed load list
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
POMCUS pre-positioning of materiel configured
to unit sets
pre-positioning of materiel configured to unit sets
POMCUS items are maintained in a theater to
reequip specific units upon initial deployment to
priority designator A two-digit number (01 through
15) which indicates the priority of a requisition or
shipment. PDs are based on the force/activity
designator of the requesting unit and the urgency
of need for the item.
program stock The repair parts and supplies
stocked by the shop supply section for scheduled
production line repair programs
PSYOP psychological operations
PX Army exchange
QSS quick supply store
RAOC rear area operations center
reorder point Sum of the OST level and the safety
level. When the net asset position reaches the ROP, it
is time to submit a replenishment position.
requisitioning objective Sum of the reorder
point and the operating level. The maximum quan-
tity of materiel authorized to be on hand and on
order at any time.
RO requisitioning objective
ROP reorder point
ROTC Reserve Officers' Training Corps
RTAIS Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System
51 Adjutant (US Army)
52 Intelligence Officer (US Army)
53 Operations and Training Officer (US Army)
54 Supply Officer (US Army)
SAILS Standard Army Intermediate Level Sup-
SAMS Standard Army Maintenance System
S&S supply and service
S&T supply and transport
SARSS Standard Army Retail Supply System
SB supply bulletin
SEALOC sea lines of communication
SF Special Forces
shop stock Repair parts and consumable supplies
stocked in a support-Ievel maintenance activity
for internal use. The two types of shop stocks are
demand-supported stock and bench stock,
SIGINT signals intelligence
SO special operations
SOC special operations command
SOP standing operating procedure
SOTF Special Operations Task Force
SPBS-R Standard Property Book System -
SSA supply support activity
SSSC self-service supply center
stockage level The quantity of supplies autho-
rized or directed to be kept on hand and on order
to support future demands
stockage objective The sum of the operating
level and the safety level
summary accounting This type of accounting allows
more than one transaction to be recorded as a single
entry without unique identification of each transaction.
Supplemental clothing allowances. Items and
quantities of personal clothing authorized for is-
sue to enlisted members to supplement initial
allowances. Supplemental allowances are given to
persons whose assigned duty requires more quan-
tities of items than are included in initial issue or
special item or personal clothing not normally
issued to the majority of enlisted members. Authorized
supplemental allowances are in CTA 50-900.
TA theater army
TAA theater army area
TAACOM Theater Army Area Command
TAMCA Theater Army Management Control Agency
TAMMC theater army materiel management center
T AMMS The Army Maintenance Management System
TASOSC Theater Army Special Operations Sup-
TB technical bulletin
TDA tables of distribution and allowances
TM technical manual
TOE table(s) of organization and equipment
TR ADOC United States Army Training and Doc-
unit maintenance This maintenance is performed
by operator, crew, and battalion maintenance per-
sonnel. It is characterized by quick turnaround. It
usually involves repair by replacement, minor
repairs, and scheduled services.
US United States (of America)
USAID United States Agency for International
US AMC United States Army Materiel Command
WATS Wide-Area Telecommunications Service
WSM weapons systems manager
These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.
Joint and Multiservice Publications
DOD 4145.19-R-l. Storage and Materials Handling. 15 September 1979.
DOD 4500.32-R, Vol 1. Military Standard Transportation and Movement Procedures. 15 March 1987.
FM 100-27. US Army/US Air Force Doctrine for Joint Airborne and Tactical Airlift Operations.
AFM 2-50. 31 January 1985.
MIL-HDBK 200. Quality Surveillance Handbook for Fuels, Lubricants, and Related Products. 1 July 1987.
MIL-HDBK201. Petroleum Operations. 23 September 1971.
MIL-STD-10 1. Color Code for Pipelines &for Compressed Gas Cylinders. 3 December 1970.
MIL-STD-129. Marking for Shipment and Storage. 25 September 1984.
MI L-STD-290. Packaging of Petroleum and Related Products. 1 August 1985.
Source for MIL-HDBKs and MIL-STDs is Naval Publications and Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue,
ATTN: NPODS, Philadelphia, PA 19120-5099
(C) AR 11-11. War Reserves (U). 1 June 1985.
AR 11-12. Logistics Priorities. 1 February 1982.
AR 30-7. Operational Rations. 1 March 1979.
AR 30-21. The Army Field Feeding System. 24 September 1990.
AR 37-1. Army Accounting and Fund Control. 30 April 1991.
AR 115-11. Army Topography. 1 March 1980.
AR 380-5. Department of the Army Information Security Program. 25 February 1988.
AR 530-1. Operations Security (OPSEC). 1 May 1991.
AR 570-9. Host Nation Support. 9 October 1990.
AR 700-8. Logistics Planning Factor Management. 15 July 1981.
AR 700-18. Provisioning of US Army Equipment. 9 June 1989.
AR 700-23. Supply of Health & Comfort Items. 1 November 1981.
AR 700-84. Issue and Sale of Personal Clothing. 31 January 1992.
AR 700-120. Materiel Distribution Management for Major Items. 1 February 1980.
AR 708-1. Cataloging and Supply Management Data. 30 September 1986.
AR 710-1. Centralized Inventory Management of the Army Supply System. 1 February 1988.
AR 710-2. Supply Policy Below the Wholesale Level. 31 January 1992.
AR 725-50. Requisitioning, Receipt, and Issue System. 1 October 1987.
AR 735-5. Policies and Procedures for Property Accountability. 31 January 1992.
AR 750-1. Army Materiel Maintenance Policy and Retail Maintenance Operations. 20 June 1991.
*CDA Pamphlet 18-1-5. Code Reference Guide for the Automated Return Item List (ARIL). 1 September 1983.
CTA 50-900. Clothing and Individual Equipment. 1 August 1990.
CTA 50-909. Field and Garrison Furnishings and Equipment. 1 June 1989.
CTA 50-970. Expendable/Durable Items (Except: Medical, Class V, Repair Parts and Heraldic Items).
21 September 1990.
DA Pamphlet 700-30. Logistic Control Activity (LCA) Information and Procedures. 17 July 1990.
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. Using Unit Supply System (Manual Procedures). 31 January 1992.
DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. Supply Support Activity Supply System: Manual Procedures. 31 January 1992.
DA Pamphlet 738-750. Functional Users Manual for The Army Maintenance Management System
(TAMMS). 20 June 1991.
FM 3-3. NBC Contamination Avoidance. 30 September 1986.
FM 3-4. NBC Protection. 21 October 1985.
FM 3-5. NBC Decontamination. 24 June 1985.
FM3-21. Chemical Accident Contamination Control. 23 February 1978.
FM 3-50. Smoke Operations. 4 December 1990.
FM 3-100. NBC Defense, Chemical Warfare, Smoke, and Flame Operations. 23 May 1991.
FM 8-10. Health Service Support in a Theater of Operations. 1 March 1991.
FM 9-6. Munitions Support in Theater of Operations. 1 September 1989.
FM 9-207. Operation and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Cold Weather (0 Degrees F to Minus
65 Degrees F). 10 August 1989.
FM 10-1. Quartermaster Principles. 24 September 1991.
FM 10-15. Basic Doctrine Manual for Supply and Storage. 12 December 1990.
FM 10-23. Basic Doctrine for Army Field Feeding. 12 December 1991.
FM 10-27-2. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Quartermaster Direct Support Supply and Field
Service Operations. 18 June 1991.
FM 10-27-3. Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Quartermaster Headquarters Operations. 30 October 1990.
FM 10-52. Water Supply in Theaters of Operations. 11 July 1990.
FM 10-67. Petroleum Supply in Theaters of Operations. 16 February 1983.
FM 10-69. Petroleum Supply Point Equipment and Operations. 22 October 1986.
FM 10-280. Mobile Field Laundry, Clothing Exchange, and Bath Operations. 22 October 1986.
FM 10-400. Quartermaster Airdrop and Airdrop Equipment Support Units. 2 November 1984.
FM 10-512. Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment: Rigging Typical Supply Loads. 31 August 1979.
FM 14-7. Finance Operations. 9 October 1989.
FM 19-1. Military Police Support for the Airland Battle. 23 May 1988.
FM 20-12. Amphibious Embarkation. 11 June 1987.
FM 31-12. Army Forces in Amphibious Operations (The Army Landing Forces). 28 March 1961.
FM 31-20. Doctrine for Special Forces Operations. 20 April 1990.
FM 31-71. Northern Operations. 21 June 1971.
*This publication is not available through normal distribution channels. Submit requests for this publication to Chief, USA MC/Catalog Data Activity, ATTN: AMXCA-BTM. New
Cumberland Army Depot, New Cumberland, PA 1
FM 38-725. Direct Support System (DSS) and Air Line of Communication (ALOC) Management and
Procedures. 28 September 1990.
FM 38-725-1. Direct Support (DSS): Commander's Handbook. 31 December 1976.
FM 41-10. Civil Affairs Operations. 17 December 1985.
FM 43-20. General Support Maintenance Operations. 10 November 1989.
FM 54-23. Materiel Management Center, Corps Support Command. 28 December 1984.
FM 55-10. Movement Control in a Theater of Operations. 22 July 1986.
FM 55-17. Terminal Operations Coordinator's Handbook. 9 September 1990.
FM 55-20. Army Rail Transport Units and Operations. 31 October 1986.
FM 55-30. Army Motor Transport Units and Operations. 14 March 1980.
FM 55-40. Army Combat Service Support Air Transport Operations. 15 July 1971.
FM 55-50. Army Water Transport Operations. 7 June 1985.
FM 63-1. Combat Service Support Operations, Separate Brigade. 30 September 1983.
FM 63-2. Division Support Command, Armored, Infantry, and Mechanized Infantry Divisions. 20 May 1991.
FM 63-3. Combat Service Support Operations - Corps (How to Support). 24 August 1983.
FM 63-4. Combat Service Support Operations - Theater Army Area Command. 24 September 1984.
FM 63-6. Combat Service Support in Low-Intensity Conflict. 21 January 1992.
FM 63-20. Forward Support Battalion. 26 February 1990.
FM 63-21. Main Support Battalion. 7 August 1990.
FM 71-100. Division Operations. 16 June 1990.
FM 90-3 (HTF). Desert Operations (How to Fight). 19 August 1977.
FM 90-5 (HTF). Jungle Operations (How to Fight). 16 August 1982.
FM 90-6. Mountain Operations. 30 June 1980.
FM 90-8. Counter guerrilla Operations. 29 August 1986.
FM 90-10(HTF). Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) (How to Fight). 15 August 1979.
FM 90-10-I(HTF). An Infantryman's Guide to Urban Combat (How to Fight). 30 September 1982.
FM 100-5. Operations. 5 May 1986.
FM 100-10. Combat Service Support. 18 February 1988.
FM 100-15. Corps Operations. 13 September 1989.
FM 100-16. Support Operations: Echelons Above Corps. 16 April 1985.
FM 100-20. Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. 5 December 1990.
FM 100-25. Doctrine for Army Special Operations Forces (SF, Ranger, CA, PSYOP, ARSOA). 12 December 1991.
FM 100-26. The Air-Ground Operations System. 30 March 1973.
FM 101-5. Staff Organization and Operations. 25 May 1984.
FM 101-10-1/1. Staff Officers' Field Manual-Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data (Volume I).
7 October 1987.
FM 101-10-1/2. Staff Officers' Field Manual-Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data Planning
Factors (Volume 2). 7 October 1987.
SB 700-20. Army Adopted Other Items Selected for Authorization/List of Reportable Items. 1 March 1991.
SB 710-1-1. Standard Study Numbering System and Replacement Factors. 1 October 1991.
TB 34-9-25. Code Numbers for the Identification of Fuels, Lubricants, and Allied Products Used by the
NATO Armed Forces. 28 August 1978.
TM 10-500-7. Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment, Airdrop Recovery Procedures. 17 May 1966.
TM 38-250. Packaging and Materials Handling: Preparing Hazardous Materials for Mililary Air
Shipments. 15 January 1988.
TM 38-L03-17. Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply System (SAILS) Storage Operations. 1 January 1989.
TM 38-L03-19. Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply System (SAILS): Procedures for Customer. 15 April 1990.
TM 38-L03-21-1. Functional Users Manual for Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply Subsystem
(SAILS) Formats. Volume 1. 1 September 1978.
TM 38-L32-11. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4);
Customer (User) Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 June 1989.
TM 38-L32-12. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4);
Storage Operations Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 31 December 1989.
TM 38-L32-13. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4): Stock
Control and Supply Control Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 July 1990.
TM 38-L32-14. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4):
Executive Management Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 June 1988.
These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
DA Form 2058-R. Ration Request for Theaters of Operations. March 1977.
DA Form 2063-R. Prescribed Load List. January 1982.
DA Form 2407. Maintenance Request. August 1988.
DA Form 2765. Request for Issue or Turn-In. April 1976.
DA Form 2765-1. Request for Issue or Turn-In. April 1976.
DA Form 3294-R. Ration Request/Issue/Turn-In Slip. June 1990.
DA Form 3318. Records of Demands - Title Insert. January 1982.
DD Form 173/1. Joint Messageform. March 1979.
DD Form 173/2 (OCR). Joint Messageform (Red). March 1979.
DD Form 250. Materiel Inspection and Receiving Report. July 1986.
DD Form 1155. Order for Supplies or Services. May 1990.
DD Form 1222. Request for and Results of Tests. February 1962.
DD Form 1225. Storage Quality Control Report. December 1983.
DD Form 1348. DOD Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Manual). June 1986.
DD Form 1348-1. DOD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. September 1987.
DD Form 1348-6. DOD's Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Manual Long-Form). February 1985.
DD Form 1348M. DOD Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Mechanical). March 1974.
DD Form 1974. Joint Tactical Airlift Request. April 1975.
air assault operations 1-12
airborne operations 1-13
air delivery 1-6
AirLand battle 1-9
air lines of communication 2-2
amphibious operations 1-23
automated backup 2-7
automatic return items 3-13
backup procedures 2-7
basic load 3-3, 3-7
civil affairs 6-1, 6-2, 6-5
basic and operational loads 3-3
clothing allowances 3-2
construction and barrier materials 3-6
consumption rates 2-4, 3-3
direct support system 1-4
inventory requirements 3-3
issue controls 3-1
map supply 3-4
NBC operations 1-17
request and delivery 3-11, 3-12
requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21, 1-22,
1-24, 3-3, 3-4
requisition and distribution flow 3-10
requisition procedures 3-5
supply points 3-8
supply support 1-10, 1-11
theater reserve stocks 3-4
theater sources 3-8
war reserve requirements 2-4
wartime inventories 3-4
wartime supply stockage levels 1-4
Class III packaged
consumption rates 2-4
direct support system 1-4
NBC operations 1-17
receipt procedures 3-14
request and delivery 3-11, 3-12
requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22, 1-24,
requisition and distribution flow 3-10, 3-13
storage procedures 3-14, 3-15
supply support 1-10, 1-11, 1-13, 1-15
theater sources 3-13
war reserve requirements 2-4
basic and operational loads 3-7
construction and barrier materials 3-6
consumption rates 2-4, 3-7
direct support system 1-4
distribution 1-5, 3-8, 3-10
inventory requirements 3-3
issue controls 3-1
NBC operations 1-17
request and delivery 3-11, 3-12
requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22, 1-23,
requisition and distribution plan 3-10
supply points 3-8
supply support 1-10, 1-11
theater sources 3-8
war reserve requirements 2-4
civil affairs 6-1, 6-2
consumption rates 6-3
NBC operations 1-18
personal demand items 6-3
ration supplement sundries packs 6-3
requirements 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22,
1-23, 1-24, 1-25,6-3
sales teams 6-4
storage concerns 6-4
support concerns 6-1
consumption rates 2-4
direct support system 1-4
distribution 1-5, 1-6, 4-4
inventory requirements 4-3
major items 4-3
NBC operations 1-18
operational readiness float 4-2
requirements 1-18, 1-19, 1-21, 1-22, 1-23,
requisition and distribution plan 4-4, 4-5,
supply requirements 4-3
supply support 1-10, 1-11
theater sources 4-4
usage profiles 4-1
war reserve requirements 2-4
wartime replacement factors 4-2
wartime requirements 4-4
weapons systems replacement 4-2
authorized stockage list 5-2
automated support 5-1
combat stockage list 5-2
controlled exchange 5-5
corps, separate brigades, and regiments 5-9
management controls 5-1
stockage levels 5-3
quick supply store 5-4
repair parts 5-1
request and delivery 5-8, 5-11, 5-12
shop supply 5-4
stockage criteria 5-2
stockage levels 5-3
stockage list changes 5-2
supply requests 5-6
supply support 1-10, 1-15
war reserve requirements 2-4
wartime supply stockage levels 1-4
zero balance 5-1
clothing allowances 3-2
distribution procedures 6-5
nonmilitary program items 6-4
requisition and issue procedures 6-5
sources of supply 6-5
close battle area operations 1-10
clothing and textile repair constraints 3-1
clothing exchange sources 2-8
cold weather and mountain operations 1-24,1-25
consumption rates 2-4, 3-3, 3-7
contingency contracting 1-2
contingency force operations 1-11
CONUS war reserves 1-1
counterguerrilla operations 1-21
covering force operations 1-9
deep operations 1-15
desert operations 1-20
direct support system 1-4, 2-2
automated control and support 1-6
container surface 1-6
DS4 2-2, 2-5
classes and subclasses B-l, B-2
item managers 2-1
heavy-light and light-heavy operations 1-16
host-nation support 1-2
inland waterways 1-16
inventory requirements 3-3, 3-7, 4-3
issue controls 3-1
item managers 2-1, 2-3
jungle operations 1-22
liquid and compressed gases 3-16
identification markings 3-16
storage and handling precautions 3-17
supply source 3-16
logistics intelligence file 2-9
low-intensity conflict 1-14
manual supply support 2-8
Management Information Research Assistance
map supply 3-4
initial issue 3-4
requisition and distribution 3-6
requisition procedures 3-5
theater reserve stocks 3-4
mobility constraints 3-1
movement control team 1-8
NBC operations 1-16
night operations 1-18
operational load 3-3
operational readiness float 4-2
oversea war reserves 1-1
pre-positioned materiel configured to unit sets 1-2
pre-positioned war reserve stocks 1-1
procurement 3-1, 6-3
rail networks 1-6
rear operations 1-10
Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10
reorder point 2-4
repair constraints 3-1
repair parts 5-1
retrograde operations 1-15
salvage collection points 3-9
secondary items 2-1, 2-4
selective stockage 3-1
sling-load operations 1-7
smoke operations 1-18
special operations 1-11
Standard Army Maintenance System 5-1
Standard Property Book System-Redesigned 2-7
storage methods 3-8
storage requirements 2-5
air delivery 1-6
clothing, individual equipment, tentage,
and administrative and housekeeping
ground movement 1-7
supply and storage requirements 2-5
Management Information Research
Assistance Center 2-9
Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10
supply performance objectives 2-1
supply points 3-8
supply stockage objectives 2-1
theater requisition and distribution flow 1-3,
theater sources war reserve requirements 2-4
Class II and IV 3-7 war reserve stockage list 2-4
Class III 3-13 war reserve stocks 1-1
Class VII 4-4 wartime property accountability 2-9
threat A-l wartime supply stockage levels 1-4
transition to war 1-3 weapons systems replacement 4-2
urban operations 1-19
By Order of the Secretary of the Army:
GORDON R, SULLIVAN
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
MILTON H. HAMILTON
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
Active Army, USAR, and ARNG: To be distributed in accordance with
DA Form 12-11E, requirements for FM 10-27, General Supply in
Theaters of Operations (Qty rqr block no 0873) .
*U.S. Government Priming Office: 1993 — 726-027/601 54