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FM 10-27 





DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 

*FM 10-27 

NO 10-27 



Washington, DC, 20 April 1993 







War Reserve Stocks 1-1 

Pre-Positioned Materiel Configured to Unit Sets 1-2 

Initial Preplanned Supply Support 1-2 

Host-Nation Support 1-2 

Transition to War 1-3 


Wartime Supply Stockage Levels 1-4 

Direct Support System 1-4 

Sealift and Containerized Surface Distribution 1-5 

Rail Networks and Inland Waterways 1-6 

Air Delivery of Supplies * 1-6 

Ground Movement of Supplies I- 7 


Airland Battle Doctrine 1-9 

Covering Force Operations 1-9 

Close Battle Area Operations 1-10 

Rear Operations 1-10 

Contingency Force Operations 1-1 1 

Special Operations 1-1 1 

Air Assault Operations 1-12 

Airborne Operations 1-13 

Low-Intensity Conflict 1-14 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 

*This publication supersedes FM 10-13,2) October 1986; FM 10-27. 2 November I 984; FM 29- 1 9, 19 April 1985; FM 29-51, 

13 November 1984; and FM 29-52, 30 September 1983. 


FM 10-27 


Retrograde Operations 1-15 

Deep Operations 1-15 

Heavy-Light and Light-Heavy Operations 1-16 


Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Operations 1-16 

Smoke Operations 1-18 

Night Operations 1-18 

Urban Operations 1-19 

Desert Operations 1-20 

Counterguerrilla Operations 1-21 

Jungle Operations 1-22 

Amphibious Operations 1-23 

Cold Weather and Mountain Operations 1-24 



General Supply Item Managers 2-1 

Secondary Items Management 2-1 

Supply Stockage Objectives 2-1 

Supply Performance Objectives 2-1 

Direct Support System and Air Lines of Communication 2-2 


Reorder Point 2-4 

War Reserve Requirements 24 

Consumption Rates and Planning Factors 2-4 

Supply and Storage Requirements 2-5 


Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System Supply Support 2-5 

Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply Subsystem Support 2-6 

Standard Property Book System -Redesigned 2-7 

Standard Army Retail Supply System Supply Support 2-7 

Automated Backup Procedures 2-7 

Manual Supply Support 2-8 

Wartime Property Accountability 2-9 


Logistics Intelligence File .2-9 

Supply Assistance Request 2-9 

FM 10-27 


Management Information Research Assistance Center 2-9 

Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10 


Section I. MANAGEMENT 3-1 

Issue Controls 3-1 

Mobility Constraints 3-1 

Clothing and Textile Repair Constraints 3-1 

Procurement 3-1 


Clothing, Individual Equipment, Tentage, and 

Administrative and Housekeeping Supplies 3-2 

Basic and Operational Load Requirements 3-3 

Inventory Requirements 3-3 


Initial Issue 3-4 

Theater Reserve Stocks 3-4 

Requirements 3-4 

Requisition Procedures 3-5 

Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-6 


Construction and Barrier Materials 3=6 

Basic and Operational Load Requirements 3-7 

Inventory Requirements 3-7 


Distribution of Class II Items 3-7 

Distribution of Class IV Items 3-8 

Theater Sources of Class II and IV Items 3-8 

Supply Points 3-8 

Clothing Exchange Sources 3-9 

Salvage Collection Points 3-9 

Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-10 

Automatic Return Items 3-13 


Theater Sources 3-13 

Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 3-13 

Receipt Procedures 3-14 

Storage Procedures 3-14 


Requirements 3-16 

Supply Source 3-16 


FM 10-27 


Hazards 3-16 

Identification Markings 3-16 

Storage and Handling Precautions 3-17 


Section I. MANAGEMENT 4-1 

Major Items Management 4-1 

End Item Usage Profiles 4-1 

Class VII Losses 4-1 

Wartime Replacement Factors 4-2 

Weapons Systems Replacement 4-2 

Operational Readiness Float 4-2 


Major End Items 4-3 

Inventory Requirements 4-3 


Theater Sources 4-4 

Theater Requisition and Distribution Flow 4-4 


Section I. MANAGEMENT 5-1 

Importance of Repair Parts 5-1 

Automated Support 5-1 

Zero Balance 5-1 


The Authorized Stockage List 5-2 

Authorized Stockage List Item Stockage Criteria 5-2 

Authorized Stockage List Changes 5-2 

Standardized Combat Authorized Stockage List 5-2 

Standardized Combat Prescribed Load List 5-3 

Prescribed Load List Stockage Levels 5-3 

Records of Demands 5-3 

Prescribed Load List Changes 5-3 


Shop Supply.... 5-4 

Quick Supply Store 5-4 

Cannibalization 5-5 

Controlled Exchange 5-5 

Supply Requests 5-6 


FM 10-27 



Divisions 5-7 

Corps, Separate Brigades, and Regiments 5-9 

Communications Zone 5-10 


Section L MANAGEMENT 6-1 

Class VI Support Concerns 6-1 

Support of Civil Affairs 6-1 

Procurement 6-1 

Section II. CLASS VI SUPPLY 6-3 

Personal Demand Items 6-3 

Ration Supplement Sundries Packs 6-3 

Sales Teams 6=4 

Storage Concerns 6-4 

Section III. CLASS X SUPPLY 6-4 

Nonmilitary Program Items 6-4 

Sources of Supply 6-5 

Requisition and Issue Procedures 6-5 

Distribution Procedures 6-5 

Accountability 6-5 



GLOSSARY Glossary-1 

REFERENCES References-1 

INDEX Index- 1 

FM 10-27 



For purposes of this manual, general supplies are supplies which have been grouped together based on their storage 
and distribution requirements rather than their end use. General supplies include the following: 

• Subsistence (Class I, covered in AR 30-21). 

• Clothing and organizational equipment (Class II). 

• Packaged petroleum and industrial gases (Class III). 

• Construction materials (Class IV). 

• Health and comfort items (Class VI). 

• End items listed in SB 700-20 and included in authorization documents (Class VII). 

• Repair parts (Class IX). 

• Standard maps and map products. 

• Nonmilitary items (Class X). 

Appendix A describes the threat to CSS operations, including regional threats and potential threats to weapons 
systems. Appendix B provides a list of general supply classes and their subclasses. Sincethere is nota separate manual 
for heavy materiel and since Class II and IV supplies are often grouped together for distribution purposes, construction 
and fortification materials (Class IV) are also included. This manual is one of a series that provides guidance on how 
supply systems support forces in a theater of operations. The complete set includes the following: 

• AR 30-21, which describes Class I subsistence supply. 

• FM 10-23, which describes Army field feeding. 

• FM 1 0-27, which describes how Class II, III packaged, IV, VI, VII, IX, and X supplies are provided 
for theater operations. 

• FM 10-67, which explains Class III bulk petroleum supply. 

• FM 9-6, which covers Class V ammunition supply. 

• FM 8-10, which deals with Class VIII health service support. 

• FM 10-52, which describes water supply and distribution. 


This manual is a guide for meeting the Class II, III packaged, IV, VI, VII, IX, and X supply requirements of supported 
units. It is for commodity and inventory managers, logistics staff officers from S4 to G4 and their assistants, and 
instructors in supply areas. This manual should be used with FM 10-1. Commanders and staff officers of DS and 
GS units may use this manual, also. This manual can™ 

• Help logisticians improve general supply support immediately before and after hostilities start. 

• Provide logistics staff members at all organizational levels with a reference manual that can help 
them plan, manage, and sustain general supply support for a theater of operations. 

• Describe the requisition and flow of general supplies from the time they are requested or 
requisitioned until they are issued to the requesting or supporting unit. 


FM 10-27 provides guidance for supply support, including that needed during transition to war and sustained war. 
It covers the effects of different wartime environments on supply requirements, supply routes, and supply trains. 
Successful supply support requires advance planning, procurement, and pre-positioning of supplies. Therefore, this 
manual also covers class managers, supply objectives, logistics files, and automated systems designed to help 


FM 10-27 

managers forecast requirements and improve supply support. Other areas covered are general supply classes and 
their sources including: 

• Basic loads and, if transportation assets are available, peacetime operational loads. 
s Class II, III packaged, and IV distribution and supply points. 

• Existing Army and Air Force Exchange Service, COMMZ. 

Also, this manual describes how general supplies are requested, procured, stored, issued, turned in, and accounted for. 
Emphasis is placed on providing a basic overview of requisition and distribution flows and on maintaining adequate 
stockage levels. 


The proponent for this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 to: 


US Army Quartermaster Center and School 


Fort Lee, VA 23801-5036 

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


War reserve stocks are stocks acquired in peace- 
time to meet the increased military requirements 
that occur when war breaks out. War reserves 
support mobilization requirements and sustain 
operations until resupply can be established and 
expanded. War reserve stocks include decremented 
stocks, contingency stocks, and the types of items 
found in the various theater reserve stocks. AR 11-11 
cites required stockage levels. An example is pre- 
positioned materiel configured to unit sets main- 
tained in oversea areas. Policies and procedures 
for the management of war reserves are described 
in AR 710-1. 

Pre-Positioned War Reserve Stocks 

In a theater, the theater commander manages pre- 
positioned stocks. According to DA policy and guide- 
lines, war reserve stocks may be pre-positioned 
oversea, on ships, or in areas within CONUS. 

Oversea war reserves. These war reserves are 
positioned throughout a potential theater. They 
support post D-day combat consumption until 
supplies arrive from CONUS or other theater stor- 
age areas. Most war reserves are positioned in the 
COMMZ. A maximum of 10 days of supplies are 
positioned in forward deployed corps and 
TAACOM units for the transition to war. During 
peacetime, these stocks are controlled by a theater 
army. At or near the start of hostilities, they are 
released to the corps and TAACOMs where they 
are stored. 

Supplies pre-positioned on ships. As part of the 
Near-Term Pre-Positioning Force, the US has char- 
tered merchant ships which remain on station. 
These ships will join with the equipment pre- 
positioned at sea and then proceed to trouble 
spots. Vessels and cargo undergo cyclic inspection 

and maintenance to ensure good readiness posture. 
They can also provide selected sustaining sup- 
plies for Air Force and Army units. 

CONUS war reserves. War reserves are held in 
CONUS when they cannot be pre-positioned at or 
near the point of probable conflict. Reserves may 
be held in CONUS depots for a specific force, 
area, or operational project. They may also be held 
for use as contingency support stocks. 

Other War Reserve Materiel Stocks 

These stocks consist of all other war reserve items. 
They include Class VII major end items, secondary end 
items, and repair parts. These assets will have purpose 
codes of C, D, or E, as explained in AR 725-50. 


During the early portion of the mounting phase, 
supplies must be brought up to required levels. 
Assault forces must be self-sustaining until they 
withdraw or link up with ground forces. In the 
event of a contingency or airhead operation, divi- 
sion elements deploy with prescribed amounts of 
all classes of accompanying supplies. These sup- 
plies are taken into the objective area by both 
assault and follow-on echelons. Three days of 
supply are desired in the airhead. The minimum 
safety level is two days. During the initial phase 
of deployment, this is the only source of resupply. 
Emergency resupply will likely be limited to Class 
I, III, and V items. Before beginning an operation, 
commanders should ensure that- 

• Equipment shortages are made up. 

• Reserve stocks of critical items are estab- 

Priorities are established for issue of float 
stocks and other controlled Class II, IV, and VII items. 


FM 10-27 

• Procedures and policies are established 
for aerial supply of Class I, III packaged, and V items. 

• Procedures and channels for recovery, 
evacuation, and disposition of captured or aban- 
doned items are reviewed. 

• Data on availability and capability of trans- 
portation is available. 

For more details on logistics preparation of the 
battlefield, see FM 10-1, Chapter 2. 


Pre-positioning part of a CONUS-based unit's 
equipment in an oversea theater reduces strategic 
lift requirements. This results in a quicker reac- 
tion time for a combat unit to meet a contingency. 
POMCUS items, consisting primarily of Class 
VII weapons systems, are located at storage sites, 
which are manned by a US Army combat equip- 
ment group. 


Initial preplanned supply support is the combat- 
essential materiel required early in a military 
operation. Precut requisitions are maintained at 
CONUS NICPs or TAMMCs. When alerted for 
deployment, a unit directs the NICP, MMC, or 
DAAS to release preplanned increments of 5 to 15 
DOS. These increments help sustain deployed 
forces between the time accompanying supplies and 
pre-positioned stocks are exhausted and demand- 
supported resupply starts in a theater of operations. 
For more details, see AR 725-50, Chapter 12. 


HNS is the civil and military assistance provided 
by host nations to allied forces and organizations. 
This support may occur in time of peace, transi- 
tion to war, or war. As a rule, the location of forces 
on the battlefield determines whether you can use 
HNS. The rearmost areas are ideal for this sup- 
port. Corps rear areas and echelons above corps 
are more static and lend themselves to HNS. How- 
ever, in an undeveloped theater, HNS may be used 
wherever needed. AR 570-9 has DA policies and 
responsibilities for HNS. In the past, US forces 

relied on organic support. Today, logisticians must 
keep abreast of agreements on how their allies can 
help support the battle logistically. 


International agreements document commitments 
for HNS. Through agreements, the host nation 
sets forth its intent and willingness to support US 
requirements. For example, will host-nation civil- 
ians remain at war reserve storage sites after hos- 
tilities begin? Is the host nation to retain territo- 
rial responsibility and control of supply ports, rail 
facilities, and airspace? It may be that the host 
nation will turn over control of MSRs to another 
nation or alliance. Host-nation transport could be 
used to move supplies from seaports to GSUs and 
beyond. Support available in a given theater will 
depend on the host-nation's political climate; na- 
tional laws; industrial development; and military, 
civilian, and commercial resources. Laundry, tex- 
tile renovation, and CEB are CSS services which host 
nations could provide. These services would, in turn, 
affect Class II stockage and supply flow procedures. 

Reasonably Assured HNS 

Support based on signed national agreements, 
plans, or other acceptable documents maybe con- 
sidered reasonably assured support. Such support 
affects the size and composition of our force 
support structure and, in turn, affects deployment 
plans, demand forecasts, and supply stockage levels. 

Prudent Risk HNS 

This is the risk that we accept as to the amount of 
support which may be provided to US forces. 
Army staff officers must consider the minimum 
force structure needed to meet and remain respon- 
sive to mission requirements. The theater com- 
mander, in coordination with HQDA, must deter- 
mine the types and levels of HNS that can be 
accepted without placing mission accomplishment 
at an unnecessary risk. 

Contingency Contracting 

Supplies and services may be available in some 
nations where no HNS agreements are in place. 


FM 10-27 

Contingency contracting may provide this source. 
Whereas HNS represents government-to-government 
agreements, contingency contracting is conducted 
directly with local businessmen or firms. Recent 
experiences have shown the value of local con- 
tracting to support the initial deployment phase of 
US forces. All the limitations noted above for 
HNS remain valid, however; and contingency con- 
tracting must be considered as primarily a short- 
term source. 


The transition phase begins with advance warning 
of an impending war. It continues until SEALOC 
have been reopened and the necessary logistics 
structure is in place to sustain war. During the 
transition phase, all supplies and logistics func- 
tions nonessential to the war effort must be elimi- 
nated. The SSA initiates selective cancellation 
action on requisitions deemed nonessential for 
combat and unnecessary for individual health and 
welfare. For example, certain health and safety 
items, such as toilet paper, though not in the pre- 
positioned war reserve materiel stocks and not 
coded combat essential, must be requisitioned 
because they are essential for health reasons. Pro- 
cedures for preparing and processing cancellation 
documents are covered in AR 725-50, Chapters 3 
and 4. Canceling nonessential requisitions lessens 
the strain on ADP equipment. It also reduces the 
number of requisitions on CSS units which must 
distribute CONUS war reserves, fill unit short- 
ages, and equip all forces on deployment alert. On 
mobilization day, selected general supplies are 
removed from storage and transported to forward 
areas. Initially, combat forces must rely on ac- 
companying basic loads, oversea war reserves, 
and air delivery of Class IX and maintenance- 
related Class II items. An emergency airlift of 
general supply items, normally shipped by SEALOC 
and surface transport, will probably be necessary. 

Corps Transition Support 

Forward deployed corps, COSCOM, and 
TAACOM units stock a maximum of 10 days of 

pre-positioned war reserve materiel stocks which 
consist of Class I supplies; selected Class II, III, 
IV, V, and VII supplies; and Class IX items not 
delivered by air. This enables the corps to support 
units through D+10. After these stocks are ex- 
hausted, the corps requisitions from the TAMMC, 
which directs the TAACOM to issue from its 
theater army area GSUs. These war reserves be- 
come the corps initial wartime ASL. The corps 
then becomes the source of surface resupply for 
divisional and nondivisional DSUs. The corps 
also makes the transition to war with a 30-day 
supply of essential, air-eligible, maintenance-related 
Class II, III packaged, and IX items. 

TAACOM Transition Support 

At the direction of the theater army commander, 
the TAMMC releases preplanned packages of surface- 
delivered supplies to the TAACOM. TAACOM 
GSUs are the main source of surface supply for 
TAACOM DSUs and for units passing through the 
COMMZ. Though managed by the TAMMC, war 
reserves are stored in TAACOM GSUs. Like the 
corps, the TAACOM goes to war with a 30-day 
supply of GS, maintenance-related Class II and 
Class IX items delivered by ALOC. These sup- 
plies support materiel operating in the COMMZ 
and repair of items evacuated to the rear. 

Requisition and Materiel Flow 

In peacetime, divisional, COSCOM, and 
TAACOM DS and GS units are resupplied by DSS 
from CONUS. During the transition-to-war phase, 
the units are resupplied from the 30 days of sus- 
taining theater army stocks in TAACOM GSUs. 
As required, the TAMMC calls forward preplanned 
supply packages from CONUS depots. As the 
tactical situation changes, the TAMMC may re- 
quest modifications in these supply packages. 

Requests. In the BSA and the DSA, using units 
submit requests to the supply point run by their 
supporting DSU. If possible, high-priority re- 
quests are filled, and the DMMC is notified of the 
fill. All other requests are transmitted to the DMMC. If 


FM 10-27 

a request is for a controlled item, the DMMC transmits 
a requisition through the CMMC to the TAMMC. 

Issue. Supplies are issued from the lowest level. If 
the item is on hand in a DSU, the MMC cuts an 
MRO directing the DSU to issue the item. (Main 
supply points may be directed to issue the item to 
a forward supply point. ) If the item is not on hand 
at a DSU but is on hand at a GSU, the MMC directs 
the GSU to issue the item to the DSU. 

Requisition. When the item is NOT on hand in the 
DSA, the DMMC prepares and transmits a requi- 
sition to the CMMC. When the item is NOT on 
hand in the corps rear area, the CMMC transmits 

the requisition to the TAMMC which queries the 
TAACOM MMC. When the item is not available 
transmits the requisition to the TAMMC. The 
TAMMC transmits replenishment requisitions and 
any requisitions for items not on hand in the 
theater to the appropriate NICP. The NICP cuts an 
MRO directing a depot to issue the item. In an 
emergency, the item may be airlifted to the the- 
ater. However, most general supply items are 
shipped by surface transport to the theater. When 
possible, supplies are throughput to DSUs. Other 
items are transported by HNS or transportation 
command assets to a TAACOM GSU. For more 
details and graphics, see FM 10-1, Chapter 5. 

Section II 


Adequate stockage levels help the transition to 
war and ensure sustainability during hostilities. 
DA prescribes stockage objectives for the theater 
in terms of DOS. Initial stockage is based on 
expected usage rates. After the war begins, range 
and depth of stockage are adjusted to meet war- 
time demand criteria. Quantities are computed 
based on actual or expected demand, OST, and 
safety levels. GSUs normally maintain a wartime 
sustaining level of 5 to 10 DOS plus OST for all 
classes except Class II and IX items to be deliv- 
ered by ALOC. However, to provide sustained 
supply support, the theater army commander may 
allow up to 30 days of critical Class II and IX 
items to be stocked. 

Direct Support Units 

DSUs at all levels in division, corps, and TAACOM 
stock an RO for general supplies consisting of a 
30-day operating level, a 5 -day safety level, and 
actual OST by item. Stockage levels for all other 
classes are prescribed by the theater army com- 
mander. Stockage levels at corps and TAACOM 

GSUs vary depending on the class of supply. AR 710-2 
shows the DOS for each class of general supply. 

War Reserve Stockage List 

The war reserve stockage list identifies items 
which are to be maintained as war reserve stocks. 
The list is used to compute war reserve require- 
ments essential to sustain combat and to support 
sudden mobilization requirements. 


General supplies, Class II, III packaged, IV, and 
VII, are distributed through a DSS. This supply 
distribution system is described in FMs 38-725-1 
and 63-4. Under this supply distribution system, 
supplies are throughput from CONUS wholesale 
depots to the requesting SSA. Throughput re- 
duces the need for an intermediate supply 
level. Theater SSAs supported by the DSS include 
DSUs and GSUs. For related automated proce- 
dures, see the appropriate 38-series TM. Units 
send requests to their SSA. Requisitions are trans- 
mitted from the SSA to the MMC. They are edited 


FM 10-27 

for validity and PD. For selected items, the 
TAMMC screens theater assets to determine if 
requisitions with PDs 01 through 03 and NMCS 
requisitions can be filled from assets on hand 
which are below the 30-day safety level or war 
reserve stockage level. If there are safety level or 
reserve stocks on hand in the theater, the requisi- 
tions are filled. Partial issues can also be made. 
CMMCs, TAACOM, MMCs, and TAMMCs trans- 
mit requisitions to CONUS NICPs. An image 
copy of all transactions is maintained in the LIF 
data bank. The inventory control point then 
transceives an MRO to the supporting distribution 
depot when depot assets are available. An MRO is 
cut only on assets reported on hand. Consolida- 
tion and containerization points pack cargo ac- 
cording to theater distribution plans. Container- 
ized shipments are then moved to the port of 
embarkation. Class IX and maintenance-related 
Class II DSS cargo is transported by ALOC. All 
other cargo is shipped to the theater by surface 
transportation. When supplies reach the theater 
port, MCCs coordinate with MMCs on routing. 
Routing instructions are based on transport assets, 
routes, and the tactical situation. Shipping con- 
tainers or pallets are then transported to the requi- 
sitioning SSA or supply point. If possible, ship- 
ments are routed directly to the requisitioner. 
Containerized cargo en route at the outbreak of 
hostilities may be diverted to the appropriate GSU. 


The logistics of rapidly supplying and sustaining 
forces and other US government agencies de- 
ployed in areas where little or no pre-positioned 
materiel is on hand or where no HNS is assured is 
staggering. More than 90 percent of all wartime 
cargo tonnage will go by sea, regardless of where 
the conflict is. With the exception of Class IX and 
maintenance-related Class II items, general sup- 
plies arrive in the theater through seaports in 20- 
and 40-foot general cargo containers. Nearly all 
general supplies are shipped to the theater and 
transported within the theater in containers. Close 
to 75 percent of Class IV items can be containerized. 

Only 20 percent of Class VII items can be shipped 
in containers. 


Intermodal container service is the preferred 
method of shipping DOD-sponsored surface cargo. 
Container resources of the commercial transporta- 
tion industry are used when they are responsive to 
military requirements. When commercial contain- 
ers do not meet military requirements, DOD-owned 
or leased containers may be used. Therefore, Army- 
owned containers and container-handling equipment 
must be compatible with commercial container 
ships, transporters, and handling equipment. Ad- 
vantages in shipping supplies in containers in- 

* Shorter time required to prepare shipments. 

* Lower freight cost. 

# Less breakage. 

# Reduced documentation. 

# Less pilferage. 

* Better accountability. 

• Less ADP effort. 

Seaport Facilities 

Fixed-port terminals provide suitable facilities to 
off-load containers and transfer them to inland 
transportation modes. Use fixed-port facilities to 
the maximum extent possible. They can discharge 
many containers rapidly, are equipped with container- 
handling equipment, and are located close to in- 
land transportation hubs. Logistics over-the-shore 
operations can be used with fixed-port operations 
if berthing space is limited. See FM 55-17 for 
more details on terminal operations. 

Fixed-port terminals. Equipped with modern 
MHE, these terminals are usually located at or 
near rail- or truck-loading sites. Commercial op- 
erators handle military container operations at 
fixed ports. The host nation may continue to oper- 
ate existing facilities during wartime. For plan- 
ning purposes, container ships may be discharged 
and back loaded at the pier in 24 to 48 hours. 
Transportation terminal service companies are 
organized to discharge and load containers. A 


FM 10-27 

shore-based crane can pick up and position con- 
tainers in three varying amounts per day depend- 
ing on its make. The most efficient cranes can 
position as many as 40 containers per hour. 

Logistics over-the-shore operations. Extra time 
and resources are needed to move containers from 
ships to and across the beach. Crane ships off-load 
containers to lighters. Lighters transport cargo to 
a beach transfer point. Terminal service compa- 
nies are assigned the mission of discharge, loading, 
and beach operations. Trailers transport contain- 
ers from the beach or shore to container marshal- 
ing areas and long-haul truck-loading points. 

Roll-on, roll-off cargo ships. Fully loaded trail- 
ers maybe driven aboard especially designed cargo 
ships. This type of container ship can transport 
900 to 1,500 containers. Trailers are hooked up to 
tractors and driven ashore at the oversea terminal. 

Supply Distribution 

Most of the cargo unloaded at seaports will be 
moved initially to TAACOM GSUs whose stocks 
are managed by the TAMMC. Some cargo may be 
transported to TAACOM DSUs. Whenever fea- 
sible, supplies should be throughput from seaport or 
marshaling areas to corps and division supply echelons. 

Container Surface Distribution 

Commercial and military containers (20 and 40 
foot) transport supplies from CONUS directly to 
GSUs in the COMMZ and corps rear area and to 
DSUs throughout the theater. Part of the 30-day 
COMMZ general supplies may be temporarily 
stored in containers. Twenty-foot containers are 
used primarily in intratheater loops between GSUs 
and from GSUs to DSUs and DISCOM units. 
High-priority cargo and intensively managed high- 
cost Class VII items may be shipped in containers 
from CONUS and transported by truck directly to 
DSUs and DISCOMs. Units have 48 hours to strip 
and return containers to the transportation system. 

Automated Control and Support 

The DA Standard Port System-Enhanced provides 
automated support for water terminal operations 

during war as well as during peace. It provides manage- 
ment data on inbound and retrograde shipments. The 
theater army MCA maintains information on the 
location and status of all containers in the theater. 
It coordinates with the TAMMC on priorities for 
container shipments and reconsignment. 


Road networks may be inadequate for the volume 
of traffic required to move units and sustainment 
forward and to evacuate damaged equipment and 
combat casualties. Using host-nation rail networks 
and inland waterways to move a portion of re- 
quirements can help alleviate potential conges- 
tion. Movement planners should plan for the use of rail 
and inland water modes when available and feasible. 

Rail Networks 

Though vulnerable to enemy aircraft, guerrilla 
actions, and sabotage, rail is the best mode to 
move large quantities of supplies and equipment 
over extended distances. For more details on rail 
operations, see FM 55-20. 

Inland Waterways 

Inland waterways help suppliers move cargo from 
an ocean terminal to an inland transfer point not 
accessible to ships with a deep draft. Using inland 
waterways relieves congested road networks and 
reduces the number of vehicles required to supply 
combat forces. For more details on Army water 
transport operations, see FM 55-50. 


Air transportation is a flexible and essential ele- 
ment of the transportation system. It becomes 
increasingly important as the intensity, depth, 
and duration of operations increase. Both the 
Army and Air Force provide air transportation. 
Army aviation in CSS air movement operations 

# Support for intratheater airlift. 

# Logistics over-the-shore operations. 

* Troop and personnel movements. 

* Aerial preplanned and immediate resupply. 


FM 10-27 

• Movement of critical Class IX and maintenance- 
related Class II supplies. 

• Retrograde of reparables. 

• Pre-positioning of fuel and ammunition. 

• Movement of low-density and high-cost 
munitions when time, distance, situation, or con- 
dition of the roads inhibits ground transportation. 
Air Force airlift and airdrop supplement the Army's 
transportation capability. They can be viable modes 
for CSS movement requirements under certain 
circumstances. However, they require much longer 
lead times to plan and coordinate than Army airlift 
assets. Army aviation assets are allocated by the 
theater army, corps, and division commanders to 
support CSS air movement operations. Once allo- 
cated, these assets are committed by the TAMCA, 
MCC, and MCO. Air Force aircraft are appor- 
tioned by the joint force commander. The Air 
Force provides the aircraft, civil air patrol ser- 
vices, and the personnel and equipment to load the 
aircraft. The Army provides the supplies, rigs 
them as necessary, transports them to the airfield, 
and off-loads them from ground transport. The 
QM airdrop equipment repair and supply company 
supplies airdrop equipment. The light and heavy 
airdrop supply company prepares supplies for air- 
drop. FM 10-512 shows how to prepare and rig 
typical supply loads of bulk material on platforms 
for airdrop. 

Airlift Requests 

FM 100-27 shows the flow of requests for airlift of 
supplies. FM 55-10 provides detailed request pro- 
cedures for both Army and Air Force airlift. Re- 
quest formats vary by oversea command based on 
standardization agreements, but generally contain 
the data elements found on DD Form 1974. 

Sling-Load Operations 

FM 55-40, Appendix G, describes responsibilities 
for loading equipment in support of air transport 
operations. Supporting unit personnel requisition 
slings, A-22 bags, cargo nets, and containers 
needed for sling-load operations. The supporting 
unit selects the pickup zone and provides ground 
crews to pack, rig, and inspect loads and to hook 

up the loads to the helicopter. It also provides the 
receiving unit with derigging and disposition in- 
structions. The using unit selects the landing zone, 
derigs the load, and coordinates the recovery of air 
delivery items with the supporting unit. The using 
unit also inspects and maintains the slings. 

Recovery and Evacuation 
of Air Delivery Equipment 

Airdrop operations require special rigging equip- 
ment to deliver supplies. Air delivery equipment 
is expensive, in short supply, and hard to replace. 
Increased requirements for air delivery dictate 
that air delivery equipment be recovered and evacu- 
ated to the QM airdrop equipment repair and 
supply company. Recovery and evacuation priori- 
ties are listed in TM 10-500-7. 


Movement control organizations at all echelons 
plan the movement of supplies by all surface 
modes. Planning has two parts. First is the devel- 
opment of the distribution pattern, which consid- 
ers the location of supported units, supply activities, 
and transportation units and facilities. Second is 
the development of the transportation network 
and movement programming to satisfy the daily 
programmed and unprogrammed requirements. 
More details on ground movement of supplies are 
in FM 55-10. 

Transportation Planning 

Transportation planners must consider the physi- 
cal transportation network and facilities avail- 
able, the size and disposition of the supported 
forces, and the location of the primary in-theater 
supply activities in their plans. They should select 
seaports, aerial ports, and rail and road networks 
to make it easy to distribute personnel and mate- 
riel into the area of operations. The facilities and 
networks selected must accommodate the expected 
volume of movement. When the facilities or net- 
works are not well developed, the planner must 
influence the placement of the supported force and 
the location of supply and maintenance activities 
so that the operation can be supported with the 


FM 10-27 

transportation resources available. The size of the 
transportation support structure depends on the 

• Size of the force to be supported. 

• Expected tonnage to be received and moved. 

• Number of facilities (water ports, aerial 
ports, mode transfer points, and trailer transfer 
points) used. 

• Physical size of the area to be supported. 

Movements Plan and Program 

The movements program is a result of movements 
planning. The program is prepared jointly by the 
MCC and the MMC at each echelon. 

The movements plan. The movements plan in- 
cludes a forecast of movement requirements and 
the available transport capability. Both require- 
ments and capabilities are in general terms. When 
the plan is coordinated and approved, specific 
transportation resources are allocated against spe- 
cific movement requirements. The movements plan 
then becomes the movements program. The three 
major logistics levels (division, corps, and TAA) 
should have mutually supporting movements pro- 
grams. The seven basic steps in planning are: 

# Assessing the distribution pattern. 

# Determining movement requirements. 

# Determining transportation capabilities. 

# Balancing requirements against capabilities. 
' Determining shortfalls. 

# Recommending solutions. 

# Coordinating, publishing, and distributing 
the plan. 

The movements program. The movements pro- 
gram period varies with the stability of the situa- 
tion and the ability of supply and personnel man- 
agers to forecast their requirements. Forecasts 
must be submitted far enough in advance for the 
transportation and supply systems to adjust their 
resources to carry out the program. A desirable 
cycle for the program is 14 days, for which there is a firm 
forecast of requirements for the initial 7-day period and 
a tentative forecast for the succeeding 7-day period. 

Daily adjustments should be made only for urgent 
unforecasted requirements. 

Movement Control 

The MCC or MCA controls transportation assets 
in the theater. The theater army MCA, MCC, and 
MCO control transportation assets by allocating 
and committing available transportation resources 
to satisfy movement requirements. They allocate 
and commit based on their commander's priori- 
ties. Transportation priorities are established by 
required delivery date, the issue priority of the 
cargo, or by preestablished command priorities by 
unit or commodity. When movement requirements 
exceed capabilities, movement planners request 
support from higher headquarters. 

Movement control teams. MCTs are assigned to 
the corps MCC and TAMCA. They are positioned 
in the corps and COMMZ to allow close and 
constant coordination with the units they support. 
In the corps, MCTs are collocated with each CSG. 
They also operate in a geographic area or at spe- 
cific sites to expedite, coordinate, and monitor 
traffic moving through the transportation system. 
MCTs process movement requests and arrange 
transportation for moving personnel and materiel. 
They receive and process programmed and 
unprogrammed transportation requests. They com- 
mit mode operators for programmed movements 
or select the mode for unprogrammed movements. 
The MCTs support highway regulation by receiv- 
ing and passing clearance requests for movement 
on controlled MSRs. They also enforce movement 
priorities, monitor container use, and help customers. 

Highway regulation. Highway regulation is a 
responsibility of the commander having area ju- 
risdiction. He and his staff plan, schedule, route, 
and direct the use of highways. The MCC's high- 
way traffic division regulates highway traffic. 
Subordinate highway regulating point teams carry 
out highway regulation plans. MPs support high- 
way traffic regulation by performing traffic, strag- 
gler, and refugee control activities. Regulated 
movements include convoys, oversized or overweight 
vehicles, vehicles moving by infiltration, and troop 


FM 10-27 

movements on foot. Responsibilities of the high- 
way traffic division and its highway regulating 
point teams include circulation planning, routing, 
and scheduling of traffic. The traffic plan portrays 
the road network and how it is to be used and 
maintained. The plan normally includes restric- 
tive route features; route designations; direction 
of movement; and locations of boundaries, units, 
highway regulating points, traffic control points, 

and major supply or shipping activities. Traffic is 
routed over designated routes to balance the ve- 
hicle and route characteristics (road surfaces, 
curves, and bridge capacities) and to reduce traffic 
congestion or conflicts. Traffic scheduling is the 
coordination of times for movement along speci- 
fied routes to satisfy command movement priori- 
ties; minimize delays, conflicts, and congestion; 
and promote security and passive defense. 

Section III 


AirLand battle is the Army's basic operational 
concept for fighting the next war. AirLand battle 
doctrine emphasizes the need for coordinated air 
and ground actions. It includes plans for three 
simultaneous operations-deep, close, and rear. 
AirLand battle can enable a well-organized, small 
force to defeat a poorly organized, larger force. 
The four tenets of AirLand battle are initiative, 
depth, agility, and synchronization. See Table 1-1. 
These principles apply to all levels of conflict, 
including low-intensity conflict which primarily 
involves peacekeeping and counteracting terrorist 
activities. For more details on AirLand battle, see 
FMs 100-5 and 100-10. QM supply companies can 

Table 1-1. Four tenets of AirLand battle 



provide support to AirLand battle by~ 

• Ensuring continued logistical support. 

• Shifting support to different user units 
without delay when directed by higher headquarters. 

• Reacting to any rear area threat. 
Pushing CSS forward to those who can 

benefit most from the overall battle plan. 


The covering force is normally the first ground 
maneuver force to make contact with the enemy. It 
operates between the forward edge of the battle 
area and the forward line of troops. 


Anticipate and plan for offensive actions. 

Consider the full width and depth of the battlefield. 

Think and act quicker than the enemy. 

Coordinate deep, close, and rear operations. Coordinate 
air and ground actions. 


FM 10-27 

Operational Concept 

The purpose of the covering force is to weaken and 
delay the enemy as it prepares to attack divisions 
and separate brigades in the main battle area. The 
size and makeup of the covering force depend on 
the terrain, the mission and mobility of the force, 
and the number of troops available. As a rule, the 
covering force does not have the strength or fire- 
power to defeat the enemy. Instead, its mission is 
to disrupt enemy operations by harassing, disor- 
ganizing, deceiving, and delaying enemy forces. 
The covering force slows down the attack, gives 
divisions and separate brigades needed maneuver 
space and reaction time, and provides information 
about the enemy's strength, location, and direc- 
tion of attack. 

Supply Support 

Supply support in the covering force area is pro- 
vided by forward supply companies. The covering 
force must sustain itself until it is resupplied. It 
carries basic loads of Class I operational rations, 
Class II and IV items, and Class II and V sup- 
plies. If there is enough transportation available, 
more supplies can be moved. If Class III and V 
stocks are pre-positioned, transportation assets 
can be used for Class II, III, IV, and VII items. 
Critical Class VII items may be pre-positioned in 
a "ready-to-fight" condition. Details uncovering 
force operations are in FM 63-1. 


The close battle area is between the covering force 
and the brigade rear boundary. This is the area 
where heavy fighting takes place. 

Operational Concept 

The role of our forces in the close battle area is to 
repel, to counterattack, and to seize the initiative 
from enemy forces. Our forces must be able to 
shift locations and firepower to stop enemy at- 
tempts to break into our lines of defense. FM 71-100 
covers operational concepts used in close battle to 
defeat enemy forces. 

Supply Support 

Combat units in the close battle area rely on their 
CSS elements and on DS backup units for battle 
support. Corps CSS units can be located in the 
BSA to support the majority of corps field artil- 
lery units being employed in the brigade area. 
Nondivisional combat units get both DS and GS 
from corps CSS units. Corps CSS units provide 
backup DS and GS to divisions. An FSB employed 
in the BSA provides DS to each division maneu- 
ver brigade. FM 63-20 provides information on 
FSBs. Though based in the DSA, an MSB pro- 
vides support forward, as required, to include 
backup support to the FSB. CSS units that support 
the close battle area must be able to gather and 
distribute supplies and equipment rapidly. They 
must perform needed support functions in the 
battle area and in corps forward areas. Corps 
ground and air transportation elements provide 
resupply and emergency supply deliveries in the 
close battle area. 


The rear operations area of the AirLand battle 
covers the area from the brigade rear boundary to 
the division rear boundary. The corps rear area 
goes from the division rear boundary to the corps 
rear boundary. Each echelon has its own area and 
its own rear operations commander. 

Operational Concept 

Rear area operations may be directed against 
threats ranging from sabotage to airborne or air 
assault operations. The deputy corps commander 
in the corps rear CP coordinates with the RAOC. 
In the rear area, CS and CSS units are generally 
grouped together in bases or base clusters for 
protection or to support a specific mission. 
FMs 71-100, 100-5, and 100-15 explain the coor- 
dination and services provided by rear area units. 
These FMs also explain how CSS operations ef- 
fect the AirLand battle. 

Supply Support 

Supply points and CSS units are scattered through- 
out the rear area. In the DSA, an MSB provides DS 


FM 10-27 

to division units in the division rear. FM 63-21 
covers the MSB. A CSB supports nondi visional 
forces employed in the division sector. 
Nondivisional units obtain DS and GS from CSGs. 
Forward CSGs also provide reinforcing DS main- 
tenance, field services, and GS supply to division 
forces. Depending on the task organization of 
forward CSGs and CSBs, they could provide GS 
petroleum, GS ammunition, and GS general sup- 
plies to division forces. GSUs provide Class II, III 
packaged, IV, VII, and IX supply support for 
divisional and nondivisional DSUs. Corps units 
and above provide air and ground transportation 
needed to deliver new equipment, supplies, EPWs, 
and other personnel to forward areas. They also 
back haul disabled equipment to a backup DS unit 
in the corps or to a GS maintenance unit beyond 
the corps rear boundary. The rear area may be- 
come a battlefront just like the forward edge of the 
battle area. CSS soldiers must be trained to defend and 
protect themselves as well as provide mission support. 


Contingency force operations are those conducted 
with a rapid response to a sudden crisis. Units 
must be prepared to deploy rapidly and on short 
notice. HNS may be questionable. Local third-country 
forces may be poorly trained and poorly equipped. 

Operational Concept 

Operations begin with a rapid show of force. 
Heavy reliance is placed on support from the other 
services. The scope and nature of the operation 
determine the force organization and operations. 
Forces should be more mobile than the enemy. 
Commanders should also use economy of force, 
surprise, and bold aggressive actions. 

Supply Support 

Force planners have reduced support to the essen- 
tials. There will be limited or no prestockage of 
supplies. Because of austere base development, 
DS and GS supply companies are often required 
early in contingency operations. FM 63-6 covers 

logistical support of contingency operations. Support 
is divided to provide accompanying and follow- 
on supplies. 

Accompanying supplies. Sufficient supplies must 
accompany the assault force to enable it to sustain 
itself until it is resupplied. Accompanying and 
follow-on supplies for contingency force opera- 
tions will be uploaded in modular unit-owned 
containers. They must not exceed the force's abil- 
ity to carry and secure them. Supplies are usually 
limited to basic combat loads and a limited num- 
ber of items critical to the operation. Class IV 
barrier and fortification materials are often criti- 
cal to the initial phases of a contingency operation. 

Follow-on supplies. Follow-on supplies must re- 
plenish combat losses. Airports and seaports may 
be few and far from CONUS. How the contin- 
gency force is deployed will indicate how it will 
be resupplied. If the force is deployed by sea, it 
will probably carry its initial supplies and be 
resupplied by SEALOC with critical items pro- 
vided by air. If the force is airdropped or airlanded, 
initial supply would probably be by air. Resupply 
would be by ALOC until SEALOC and surface 
supply were established. Local transportation net- 
works may be primitive. Therefore, enough trans- 
portation units must be assigned to ensure that 
airports and seaports do not become clogged with 
supplies. Until SEALOC can be established, re- 
placement of Class VII weapons systems will be 
limited to those systems which can be recovered 
and repaired. 


SO are military operations of a sensitive nature 
conducted by specially trained, equipped, and 
organized DOD forces. These forces are commit- 
ted against strategic or tactical targets in pursuit 
of national, military, political, economic, or psy- 
chological objectives. These operations may be 
conducted during periods of peace or during hos- 
tilities. They may support conventional opera- 
tions, or they maybe used independently when the 


FM 10-27 

use of conventional forces is either inappropriate 
or unbearable. 


SO forces of the US Army have both standard and 
mission-peculiar supply requirements. More de- 
tails on SO are in FMs 31-20, 90-8, and 100-25. 

Standard supply requirements. Standard supply 
requirements are supported by the CSS GSU tasked 
to support the theater army special operations 
support command. The TASOSC is subordinate to 
the theater or unified SOC or SOTF. All support- 
ing supply requirements of a standard nature are 
consolidated by the ARSOC and forwarded to the 
supporting GSU. Certain SO assets, normally psy- 
chological operations and civil affairs units, are 
traditionally attached to infantry, armor, and 
mechanized units at battalion, brigade, and divi- 
sion level as well as to corps headquarters. These 
units receive support for standard supply require- 
ments directly from the organization to which 
they are attached. 

Mission-peculiar supply requirements. Mission- 
peculiar supply requirements are supported through 
SOC or SOTF logistical channels. CSS GSU person- 
nel furnish the support to the employed SO elements. 

Supply Support 

All supply requirements are planned for and coor- 
dinated by the SO units concerned prior to deploy- 
ment. Plans for support of unit supply require- 
ments are approved at the SOC and coordinated 
through the ARSOC. 

Accompanying supplies. Sufficient supplies will 
accompany each SO unit to sustain it until the unit 
comes under ARSOC subsequent to deployment. 
Accompanying supplies include those required to 
support unit personnel and organizational needs. 
These supplies must not exceed organic transport 
capability. The unit must acquire and prepare 
supplies for deployment. 

Force supplies. These supplies back up accompa- 
nying supplies. Force supplies include all classes 
of supplies. Force supplies are planned for by the 

units concerned. The ARSOC coordinates and 
supervises forward positioning of force supplies. 

Reserve supplies. Reserve supplies are primarily 
for emergency use. Reserve supplies are planned 
for by the units concerned. The ARSOC coordi- 
nates and supervises the forward positioning of 
these supplies. 

Follow-on supplies. Follow-on supplies are sup- 
plies which may be required to support employed 
SO assets. They include major backup items of 
equipment, Class V, and repair parts. They can 
also include those supplies anticipated for use by 
indigenous groups. Follow-on supplies are deliv- 
ered into the operational area on an on-call or a 
preplanned basis. These supplies are maintained 
at the primary bases of the SO units concerned. Levels 
and amounts are determined prior to deployment. 

Automatic follow-on supplies. Automatic follow- 
on supplies are delivered on a preplanned basis at 
times and locations coordinated prior to employ- 
ment of SO assets. All classes of supplies are included. 

On-call, follow-on supplies. On-call, follow-on 
supplies are delivered upon request to SO assets in 
the operational area. They are usually of a contin- 
gency nature and are delivered when and where 
the using unit requests. On-call, follow-on sup- 
plies include all classes of supplies and are planned 
for prior to employment. 

Routine supply requirements. Routine supply 
requirements are supplies requested and delivered 
through normal supply procedures. They are initi- 
ated following deployment. These supplies are 
issued on a routine basis except in emergencies. 
The ARSOC monitors routine supply requirements. 


Air assault operations involve using helicopters 
to deploy over extended areas. Air assault opera- 
tions can be conducted anywhere in the world 
depending on weather conditions. More details on 
air assault operations are in FMs 10-27-2 and 10-27-3. 


FM 10-27 

Operational Concept 

In air assault operations, supplies, troops, and 
equipment are moved throughout the battlefield in 
aircraft, usually helicopters. Air assault opera- 
tions may involve airlifting units for combat op- 
erations, shifting and relocating units within the 
combat zone, or moving and delivering supplies 
and equipment. Airlift in support of air assault 
operations is classified as either CS or CSS, de- 
pending on the mission and the kind of cargo airtitled. 

Request Procedures 

Requests for air assault support can start at any 
level of command. There are two types of support 
requests: requests for preplanned, immediate op- 
erations and requests for emergency airlift combat 
support. Both types are sent through operations 
and logistics channels to the commander with the 
authority and capability to approve them. FM 100-27 
and the air delivery information in this chapter 
explain each request procedure. The unit request- 
ing the support is generally responsible for plan- 
ning, obtaining, and coordinating the supplies and 
personnel to be airlifted. 

Supply Support 

Because air assault forces must be able to deploy 
rapidly, they carry only essential supplies and 
equipment with them. These supplies need to be 
replenished frequently. Supplies and equipment 
not needed for survival or combat should be left in 
the rear and moved forward when needed. Supply 
support is generally provided by an independent 
unit with CSS elements attached. 

Support for ground forces. Ground forces in an 
air assault operation carry enough essential items 
to sustain them for a limited time. GS items are 
provided by CSS units and other ground forces. 
Routine resupply items should be delivered as 
close as possible to ground forces instead of being 
stockpiled at a central location. This will help 
forces deploy more rapidly and relocate more 
quickly. Emergency ground force resupply should 
include prepackaged, mixed loads so that if the 
force gets only a few of the requested loads, it will 
get a mixture of essential supplies. 

Support for the air element. The air element of an 
air assault operation requires special aircraft repair 
parts, supplies, and services. Generally, these are 
provided by a supporting aviation unit. A forward 
arming and refueling point may need to be set up 
to help sustain the aviation element of the opera- 
tion. Special needs must be coordinated between 
the ground element and the aviation force com- 
manders during the planning phase. 


An airborne operation involves moving and deliv- 
ering forces, supplies, and equipment by air into 
an objective area. In addition to being airlanded into 
combat, airborne forces can parachute into combat. 

Operational Concept 

Divisional airborne brigades receive supply sup- 
port from a forward supply company located in 
each BSA. Logistics units from the division base 
come under the control of the S&T battalion. A 
separate brigade receives CSS from the brigade 
support battalion. A separate brigade will be 
a satellite on a support command for CSS. 
FMs 10-27-2 and 10-27-3 explain the composition and 
organization of airborne and air assault brigades and 

Supply Support 

Until CSS units join ground forces during the 
follow-up operation, all supply support for an 
airborne operation is preplanned by the G4. The 
G4's estimates are based on the three phases of 
supply requirements involved in an airborne operation. 

Accompanying supplies. Individual soldiers carry 
these supplies into the assault area. They include 
the supplies airdropped with the deploying unit. 
Maneuver units in airborne and air assault divi- 
sions normally carry a basic load of ammunition, 
a three-day stock of Class I and III packaged 
supplies, and a prescribed load of fast-moving 
repair parts. Accompanying supplies are the only 
source of supply during the first stages of the 
operation. They include unit, force, and reserve 


FM 10-27 

supplies. Unit supplies include the basic loads of 
ammunition and the prescribed loads of the other 
classes of supply. The rigging, loading, recovery, 
issue, and control of unit supplies are the responsibility 
of the airborne unit. Force supplies are bulk sup- 
plies that act as backup for unit supplies. Force 
supplies include all classes of supply. The S4 of 
the deploying unit is responsible for controlling 
these supplies. Reserve supplies are set aside and 
stored at the division for later use. Also, they are 
used for special or emergency missions. The 
DISCOM is responsible for issuing and control- 
ling reserve supplies. 

Follow-up supplies. These supplies are delivered 
by air after the unit has made its initial assault. 
They help the unit operate until normal supply 
procedures can be set up. Follow-up supplies in- 
clude all classes of supply. They are generally 
prepackaged, rigged, and stored at the beginning 
of the operation for immediate distribution. Quan- 
tities are based upon the G4's estimate of the 
unit's daily requirements. The battalion S4 re- 
quests follow-up supplies for the battalion. If 
more than one battalion requests follow-up sup- 
plies at the same time, the commander decides 
which has priority. A two-day level of extra stocks, 
including Class IV and a small stock of critical 
repair parts, is often kept near the departure air- 
field. These stocks are delivered automatically or 
on call. Automatic follow-up supplies are deliv- 
ered on a preplanned schedule, normally once a 
day beginning with D+2. The amount delivered is 
based on an estimate of the quantities of supplies 
used daily by the requesting unit. Automatic follow- 
up supplies are either airdropped to the unit or 
airlanded at a central supply point. Because quan- 
tities are preplanned, they may not include the 
exact amounts of particular items deploying forces 
need. On-call, follow-up supplies are delivered 
to the deployed unit as needed. They are generally 
used for emergency purposes or to fill a routine 
request for a specific item. Emergency supplies 
must be delivered within 24 hours. On-call, 
follow-up supplies of a routine nature are delivered on 

a flexible schedule, generally between 24 and 72 
hours after being requested. 

Routine supplies. These supplies are requested 
and delivered through normal supply procedures. 
Routine supply generally begins once a CSS unit 
is attached to the airborne operation. After routine 
supply begins, the airborne unit generally does 
not request follow-up supplies, except in emer- 
gencies. The DISCOM commander decides when 
routine supply deliveries should begin. He bases 
his decision on the tactical situation and the sup- 
ply status of the division. 


LIC is a political-military confrontation between 
contending states or groups. It is less than conven- 
tional war and more than the routine, peaceful 
competition among states. It frequently involves 
protracted struggles of competing principles and 
ideologies. LIC ranges from subversion to the use 
of armed force. It is waged by a combination of 
political, economic, informational, and military 
instruments. LICs are often localized, generally in 
the Third World, but contain regional and global 
security implications. 

Operational Concept 

LIC does not describe a specific operation. Opera- 
tions in a LIC environment are divided into four 
general categories: 

• Support for insurgency and counterinsurgency. 

• Combating terrorism. 

• Peacekeeping operations. 

• Peacetime contingency operations. 

Supply Support 

As a rule, there are not enough logistics and health 
services in a LIC. CSS elements may precede 
combat or CS units into the area of operation or 
may be the only military force deployed. CSS 
elements may provide support for US government 
or allied civilian agencies as well as US military 
or allied forces. CSS elements may also provide 
humanitarian and civic assistance. Because CSS 
units must be tailored to fit the assigned mission 


FM 10-27 

and situation, they must remain flexible. More 
details on LIC are in FMs 63-6 and 100-20. 


A retrograde operation is a movement to the rear 
or away from the enemy. Such an operation may 
be forced or voluntary. 

Operational Concept 

Retrograde operations gain time, preserve forces, 
avoid combat under undesirable conditions, or 
draw the enemy into an unfavorable position. 
Commanders use them to harass, exhaust, resist, 
delay, and damage an enemy. Retrograde opera- 
tions are also used in operational maneuvers to 
reposition forces, to shorten lines of communica- 
tions, or to permit the withdrawal of another force 
for use elsewhere. All retrograde operations are 
difficult, and delays and withdrawals are inher- 
ently risky. To succeed, they must be well orga- 
nized and well executed. A disorganized retro- 
grade operation in the presence of a stronger 
enemy invites disaster. 

Supply Support 

Supply efforts during a retrograde operation must 
be concentrated on the most critical supplies: 
Class III, V, and IX. The key to providing respon- 
sive supply support during a retrograde operation 
is to project force supply requirements throughout 
the operation and to distribute these supplies ac- 
cording to the projections. When projections are 
made, provisions are made to move forward only 
essential supplies. All other supplies are moved 
rearward to the new support areas. To avoid de- 
stroying or evacuating supplies unnecessarily in 
any retrograde action, commanders must control 
the flow of supplies into forward areas. When 
commanders contemplate a delay, withdrawal, or 
retirement, they should plan for early removal of 
excess supplies and early displacement of logis- 
tics facilities. By positioning supplies along routes 
of withdrawal, CSS commanders can simplify 
support and can reduce the enemy's ability to 
interfere with logistical operations. More details 
on supply support are in FM 63-6. 


Deep operations are operations directed against 
enemy forces not in close contact. They are de- 
signed to influence the conditions in which future 
close operations will be conducted. At the opera- 
tional level, deep operations include efforts to 
isolate current battles and to influence where, 
when, and against whom future battles will be 
fought. At the tactical level, deep operations are 
designed to shape the battlefield to assure advan- 
tage in subsequent engagements. 

Operational Concept 

Because of the relative scarcity of resources with 
which to perform deep operations, they must be 
directed against those enemy capabilities which 
most directly threaten the success of projected 
friendly operations. They must be attacked deci- 
sively, with enough power to assure the desired 
impact. Deep operations include- 

• Deception. 

• Deep surveillance and target acquisition. 

• Interdiction (by ground or air fires, ground 
or aerial maneuvers, special operating forces, or 
any combination of these). 

• Command, control, and communications 

• Command and control. 

Supply Support 

There are two ways to sustain deep operations. 
The force can carry with it all the resources needed 
throughout the mission, or it can be sustained over 
a LOC. Sustaining deep operations forces depends 
on the situation. You must consider depth and 
duration of the operation, the size and organiza- 
tion of the force, the enemy situation, and the 
weather and terrain. Sustainment over surface 
LOC has the advantage of the capability to carry 
large tonnages of supplies and equipment to spe- 
cific destinations. It is less subject to weather than 
ALOC. A disadvantage is that LOC extend far 
beyond the FLOT into territory that is subject to 
enemy influence and control. Sustainment over 
ALOC has the advantage of being fast and responsive. 


FM 10-27 

It has the same disadvantage as sustainment over 
surface LOC. The LOC must be either temporarily 
or continuously secured. This requires temporary 
or continuing air superiority or, at least, parity. 
These conditions require close interservice coop- 
eration, because much of the airlift capability 
belongs to the Air Force. More details on supply 
support in deep operations are in FM 63-2. 


There are many who will argue that light forces do 
not have a role on a mid- or high-intensity battle- 
field against a mobile enemy. History has demon- 
strated that heavy-light combined arms forces can 
engage and decisively defeat such a force when 
employed properly. 

Operational Concept 

The key to effective employment of heavy and 
light forces as a combined arms team is to maxi- 
mize the capabilities of both parts of the force and 
use the advantages offered by each to offset the 
vulnerabilities of the other within the framework 
of METT-T. Light forces are particularly effective 
when used as part of the combined arms team. 
Also, light forces are effective in economy of 
force operations and operations with the intent of 
denying terrain to an enemy force. Light forces, 

with proper augmentation based on METT-T, allow 
the maneuver commander freedom to employ ar- 
mored and mechanized forces elsewhere on the 
battlefield. Light forces can be employed by heavy 
forces to conduct raids and ambushes, operations 
in restricted urban terrain, and rear operations. 

Supply Support 

Heavy forces use a combination of supply point or 
unit distribution systems to sustain the force in 
combat. Light forces are not structured to use the 
same system as a heavy force. Heavy-light opera- 
tions require more logistical planning and coordi- 
nation for both the heavy and light portions of the 
force than independent operations. Logistical plan- 
ning and coordination for a light force is done at 
the brigade level. The light battalion, unlike a 
heavy battalion, does not have the organizational 
structure or capability to plan for its logistical 
requirements. Requiring a light infantry battalion 
or company to conduct its own logistical planning 
and support diverts its attentions and resources 
from its primary combat mission. A heavy brigade 
that has a light force must be prepared to plan and 
provide logistical support for the unit. This in- 
cludes all classes of support and supply from 
casualty evacuation to food, water, and maintenance. 
Logistical support for a heavy-light force must be 
planned for and pushed to the force. FMs 63-2,63-20, 
and 63-21 have details on support of heavy-light mixes. 

Section IV 



Threat forces have specialized NBC troops and 
units. They also train all of their combat and CS 
soldiers in NBC warfare. US forces must be pre- 
pared to fight in an NBC environment. Combat 
units cannot fight for long without support. The 
units that provide the support are prime targets for 

NBC attacks. FMs 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, and 3-100 have 
details on NBC individual and collective protec- 
tive measures, contamination avoidance, and 
decontamination techniques. NBC warfare will 
affect equipment supply routes, supply require- 
ments, and supply trains. 


FM 10-27 

Effect on Equipment 

The electromagnetic pulse from a nuclear detona- 
tion can damage ADP and communications 
equipment that processes supply requirements. 
Tape disks can be wiped out. Cover critical sup- 
plies and equipment with tarpaulins, shelter halves, 
or ponchos to protect them from contamination. 
Monitor items exposed to contamination before 
use. Perform partial decontamination of unit equip- 
ment as far forward as possible. Only 
mission-essential surfaces need to be decontamin- 
ated using on-board decontamination apparatus. 
Complete decontamination requires the aid of 
battalion decontamination teams or units autho- 
rized special decontamination equipment. Perform 
complete decontamination only when absolutely 
necessary. CSS units may need to get replacement 
equipment if their vehicles and MHE were dam- 
aged or destroyed during the conflict. Recovery 
and salvage operations may be hampered by con- 
tamination of damaged equipment. The using unit 
decontaminates damaged unit equipment partially 
prior to evacuation. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

A nuclear blast can crush supplies. Thermal radia- 
tion can cause fires at supply points. NBC defense 
companies and forward CSS units must stay highly 
mobile so that they can support units in contami- 
nated areas on short notice. To ensure mobility, 
they carry a limited amount of protective items, 
replacement clothing, bathing supplies, and de- 
contaminating material. They also maintain a lim- 
ited ASL. Because of this, supporting units may 
need to stock greater quantities of protective over- 
garments than authorized in CTAs. As the NBC 
threat increases, units often widen the distance 
between supply points and supported units. In- 
creased distances decrease the chances of more 
than one unit being destroyed or contaminated at 
the same time. The need for increased distances 
places added pressure on CSS units in providing 
supply support. Once an attack occurs, decon- 
tamination companies and the units they support 
also require increased deliveries of chemical anti- 
dotes and protective and replacement clothing and 

equipment. FMs 63-1, 63-2, and 63-3 discuss CSS 
operations and logistics support in separate bri- 
gades, divisions, and corps. 

Class II. Commanders establish the level of MOPP 
gear that must be worn. Contaminated protective 
clothing must be burned, buried, or destroyed. As 
the threat of an NBC attack increases, units also 
need extra quantities of tarpaulins, plastic sheets, 
and other materials to use as protective coverings 
for vehicles and equipment. Heat from a nuclear 
blast can melt and deteriorate plastic and rubber 
items. CSS units will be called on to provide large 
quantities of protective and replacement clothing 
and equipment as well as decontamination materi- 
als and equipment. Class II items needed for 
decontamination operations are listed in tables in 
FM 3-21. Contaminated items of individual equip- 
ment that cannot be decontaminated by the soldier 
using the individual decontamination kit are de- 
contaminated by battalion decontamination teams. 
Contaminated uniforms and other clothing items 
must be containerized or packaged to prevent the 
spread of contamination. 

Class III packaged. Class III packaged supplies 
include NBC decontaminates. Other than for such 
items, Class III packaged consumption does not 
increase greatly during NBC operations. Heat from 
a nuclear blast can cause Class III packaged com- 
bustibles to ignite and lubricants and metal 
containers to melt. Flammable items should be 
kept separate from other supplies and equipment. 
Smoke screens generated by vaporizing fog oil in 
mechanical smoke generators and smoke pots may 
reduce the heat and blinding effects of nuclear blasts. 

Class IV. Since CSS units are scattered widely 
during NBC operations, there is a greater possibil- 
ity of theft, sabotage, and enemy attack. The need 
for tighter security causes increased requests for 
barbed wire, barrier materials, and other fortifica- 
tion supplies. Units also need more sandbags and 
building materials to construct emergency shelters 
and underground storage areas. After an NBC attack, 
CSS units supporting decontamination platoons need 


FM 10-27 

additional construction materials to build sumps 
and decontamination sites. 

Class VI. Decontamination units need large quan- 
tities of bathing, shaving, and sanitation supplies. 
As a rule, these types of supplies are part of Class 
I ration supplement sundries packs and are distrib- 
uted with subsistence items. Ration supplement 
sundries packs are normally low-priority items. 
Dry shaving powder, scissors, and disinfectant 
may be added to the list of necessary Class VI 
items. During NBC operations, these items could 
become mission essential because they help en- 
sure proper fit of MOPP gear. To maintain troop 
morale during sustained war, Class VI supplies 
are sold by sales teams or AAFES exchanges set 
up in the COMMZ or corps. 

Class VII. Class VII supplies include protective 
masks and NBC apparatus. Since weapons sys- 
tems and other Class VII equipment may be 
damaged or destroyed during a conflict, consump- 
tion of Class VII supplies will increase accordingly. 
Replacement items come from war reserves and 
operating stocks. They are issued first to units that 
can reenter the battle the quickest. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

Main supply routes may be blocked by fallen 
trees, rubble, and debris caused by nuclear blasts. 
Earth-moving equipment may have to be used to 
clear routes. Alternate supply routes and sources 
are needed. However, alternate supply routes can 
result in increased turnaround and increased need 
for cargo vehicles. Other units may be using these 
alternate routes to relocate to uncontaminated ar- 
eas. If alternate routes are not passable, some of 
the MSRs may have to be cleared or decontami- 
nated. This delay increases the OST for all sup- 
plies and equipment. Supplies may have to be 
airlifted to forward units. Resupplying by air has 
the advantage of flying over contaminated areas. 

Effect on Supply Trains 

During NBC operations, CSS units give support 
first to combat units in forward areas. Next, they 
support CS and other CSS units in forward areas. 

CSS units operating in rear areas have the lowest 
priority. MMCs divert supplies from their origi- 
nal destinations to forward CSS units. Only 
mission-essential supplies and equipment are 
stocked in the forward CSS units. Resupply to 
these forward units is generally done at night 
using unit pile or truck-to-truck distribution so that 
the supplies can be issued as far forward as possible. 


Our forces must be prepared to use smoke and to 
fight in a smoke environment against an enemy 
who may be better trained and better equipped for 
such operations. Smoke operations are covered in 
FM 3-50. Chemical smoke generator companies 
generate smoke by vaporizing packaged Class III 
fog oil. 

Operational Concept 

Smoke screens support not only combat opera- 
tions but CSS operations as well. Smoke screens 
can help conceal MSRs and mark supply points for 
air delivery of supplies. By screening our logistics 
support operations and positions, smoke opera- 
tions increase our battlefield effectiveness. 

Supply Support 

QM general supply companies, GS; S&S compa- 
nies, DS; and main supply companies supply 
chemical smoke generator companies with the fog 
oil needed to produce smoke. 


Often the tactical situation is such that supplies 
must be delivered at night. Since the use of MHE 
is reduced by darkness, supplies should be pre- 
pared and loaded on trucks during the day for 
night delivery to forward supply points. The sup- 
ply point external SOP should require supported 
units to send extra personnel to serve as walking 
guides and to help load supplies onto the trucks by 
hand. Blackout procedures in the internal SOP 
may require personnel to take the following actions: 
• Use flashlights that have lens filters. 
Black out doors and windows of storage 


FM 10-27 

• Block light from large tents with salvage 

• Use ponchos as blackout flaps on other 

Use blackout lights on vehicles and fork- 
lift trucks. 

There are several factors to consider when your 
unit moves at night. They include the rate of 
march, vehicle density, and light discipline. In- 
struct your officers and NCOs on safety precautions 
to be followed in a night move. See FM 55-30 for 
more details on night convoys, including advan- 
tages and disadvantages. 


US forces must be prepared to fight in areas where 
buildings and man-made obstacles block LOC. 
When soldiers fight in urban areas, buildings and 
terrain limit the mobility and capabilities of weap- 
ons systems. Unlike jungles or deserts, urban 
environments have no recurring physical feature. 
Units must be prepared to fight in small, moun- 
tain, farm villages and in densely populated cities. 
Combat operations are also hampered by civilians 
remaining in fighting zones. Units may need to 
provide food, shelter, and protection for internees 
or refugees. This may require supplies and man- 
power normally used to support combat activities. 
Also, security must be tightened when civilians 
are near, since sabotage, theft, and intelligence 
leaks increase. Buildings, low visibility, civil- 
ians, and close combat make it difficult to apply 
basic tactical guidelines. FMs 90-10 and 90-10-1 
describe how to plan for and conduct operations in 
urban areas. 

Effect on Equipment 

Crowded and built-up areas limit the amount of 
movement and the use of combat equipment. Units 
should rely more on hand-carried or easily trans- 
ported items. Limit recovery operations to moving 
disabled equipment to guarded areas along supply 
routes. Often vehicles and equipment cannot be 
evacuated because of rubble. Instead, units will 
have to rely on increased cannibalization. Units 

may be able to get replacement items and parts 
from local civilian manufacturers. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

Urban areas may have warehouses, sheds, and 
buildings to use for storing and securing supplies. 
Units should use existing LOC and storage facili- 
ties as much as possible. This cuts down on the 
OST and reduces manpower and resources that 
would have been used to construct facilities. 

Class II. Increase Class II stocks during urban 
operations to allow for those items that were 
damaged, destroyed, or lost. 

Class III packaged. Using engineer and generator- 
powered equipment to clear rubble increases the 
need for packaged POL, especially diesel fuel. 
Units should stock enough Class III packaged 
supplies to cover supplies damaged or destroyed 
by fire or combat and to meet requirements for 
smoke screens. 

Class IV. Close combat and the need for increased 
security operations increase the need for Class IV 
materials. Units need increased amounts of barrier 
materials, barbed wire, sandbags, and construc- 
tion supplies to build shelters and to fortify and 
secure buildings and storage areas. 

Class VI. There is no marked increase in sanita- 
tion and health items generated by operations in 
urban areas. Generally, the amount and type of 
personal health items contained in Class I ration 
supplement sundries packs meet the health and 
welfare needs of most units. If additional or dif- 
ferent personal health items are needed, contact a 
medical supply support unit. In sustained war, 
Class VI items might be sold by sales teams or 
AAFES exchanges to support troop morale. 

Class VII. Limited space and mobility in most 
urban areas limit requirements for Class VII items. 
However, units should increase their stocks of 
hand-held or portable weapons. In most cases, 
major equipment cannot be replaced or evacuated 
to rear areas for repair. If parts are not available to repair 
Class VII items, cannibalize severely damaged US 
equipment or captured enemy items. 


FM 10-27 

Class X. Requirements for Class X items may 
double or triple during an urban conflict if units 
are responsible for providing clothing, food, shel- 
ter, and protection for civilians remaining in the 
battle area. Because of this, commanders may be 
faced with the problems of where and how to get 
these items, where to store them, and how to 
distribute them. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

As a rule, urban areas have railroads, ports, high- 
ways, and pipelines already set up. Use them to 
help deliver and distribute supplies and equip- 
ment. Sometimes supply routes may be jammed 
by civilian refugees or blocked by rubble. When 
this happens, you may have to set aside and secure 
supply routes for military use only. Use air sup- 
port to help locate new routes. Engineer units can 
help clear them. In emergencies, supplies can be 
airlifted. However, an airlift or airdrop should be 
reserved for high-priority or mission-essential 
supplies that will help sustain combat. 


As a result of their natural resources and strategic 
locations, desert areas are most important. Lim- 
ited concealment and cover in a desert environment 
make logistics facilities easy targets. FM 90-3 has 
details on desert operations. It describes how to 
prepare for desert operations and how CSS units 
function in desert environments. 

Effect on Equipment 

The desert puts an extra strain on equipment. 
Engines have a tendency to overheat. Plastics, 
lubricants, and rubber deteriorate. Dust and sand 
add to these problems. Filters require frequent 
replacement. Air and fluids expand and contract 
more rapidly due to the extreme temperature 
changes. Desert winds can be destructive to large 
pieces of equipment. The harsh environment re- 
quires that equipment be carefully maintained. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

Supply is vital in the desert, where water is scarce 
and mobility limited. Long distances between 
units slow resupply and make LOC vulnerable. 

Units in the desert should keep stocks at higher 
levels to cope with increased work loads. How- 
ever, quantities should not be increased to the 
point that mobility is affected. Units need to make 
arrangements for unexpected requirements and 
mission-essential equipment to be moved by air to 
forward sites. 

Class II. Class II consumption increases in the 
desert. Clothing exchange may not be possible in 
the early stages of a desert operation. In forward 
areas, it might not be possible at all. Increased 
clothing supplies are needed due to limited CEB 
points. A greater variety of clothing is needed to 
cope with extreme temperature changes. Clothing 
requirements will range from goggles and tropical 
wear to sleeping bags and heavy sweaters. In harsh 
rocky terrain, there will be a high demand for 
footwear. There is also an increased need for neck 
scarves and canteens. Extra tents and tarpaulins 
are needed to protect equipment from sand. A 
need for items such as tools increases because 
they tend to get lost more easily in the sand. 

Class III packaged. The desert heat, dust, and 
sand increase the need for lubricants, oils, and 
antifreeze. High winds, dust storms, and air cur- 
rents rising from hot sands make it difficult to 
maintain smoke screens generated from fog oil. 
However, it is possible to use fog oil to screen 
artillery positions and reduce muzzle flash in the 
early morning and late evening. Make sure motor 
oils with proper specifications are on hand for a 
hot desert environment. 

Class IV. Requirements for Class IV items, such 
as sandbags and lumber, are increased to build 
fighting positions in desert operations. 

Class VI. There is a high demand for Class VI 
supplies, especially for liquids and skin and eye 
ointments. Soap, toiletries, and disposable 
towelettes will be needed for bathing when the 
tactical situation and water scarcity prevent bath 
service. If transportation is limited, Class VI items 
are given low priority. Class I ration supplement 
sundries packs are needed in a desert environment. 
Medical units should receive priority for sundries packs 


FM 10-27 

issue when there is limited transportation space. In 
sustained war, Class VI items are sold by sales 
teams or by AAFES exchanges. 

Class VII. The intensity of battle regulates the 
demand for Class VII supplies in a desert environ- 
ment. Refrigeration equipment will be needed to 
move remains to an area of interment. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

MSRs in the desert are possible targets for ambush 
during night operations. They are also subject to 
being mined. The following concealment tactics 
can lessen the threat to supply routes. 

• Vehicles should not form a pattern when 
stationary or moving. 

• Vehicles should follow existing tracks so 
that the enemy cannot tell how many vehicles 
have passed. 

• All vehicles of a given type should look 
alike. This will allow water and fuel vehicles to 
blend in. Also, canopies will ensure vehicle dis- 
guise and help protect them from the sun's heat. 

• Exhaust systems should be screened to 
reduce the chance of heat detection. 

Noise should be muffled. Doors can be 
removed to prevent them from being slammed. 

Effect on Supply Points 

Supply points that are widely dispersed are vul- 
nerable to attack by ground and air forces. Their 
stocks should be kept as mobile as possible in the 
event that rapid displacement is necessary. Stock- 
piling of vehicles should be kept to a minimum. A 
supply point in the desert should be supported by 
additional transportation units. This enables 
greater mobility. When supported units move, it 
may be necessary to divide supply point opera- 
tions. Some personnel and equipment may be sent 
to establish a new position. The rest can carry on 
operations at the original location until units move 
out. Because supply points are vulnerable to at- 
tack, emphasize selecting positions that offer 
concealment rather than tactical efficiency. This 
is especially true where air defense cover is lim- 
ited. Camouflage nets, pattern painting, and mud 

covering on reflective surfaces help to ensure 
survival. To help conceal desert supply points- 

• Place stocks irregularly to prevent a defi- 
nite pattern from being formed and spotted from 
the air. 

• Follow the local ground pattern. The shape 
of the area should not be square or rectangular. 

• Pile supplies as low as possible, and dig in 
if possible. 

• Cover stocks with sand, burlap, netting, or 
anything that blends with the terrain. 

• Mix contents of each supply point. This 
prevents a shortage of one item occurring from 
destruction of stocks. 

• Select a location where vehicles can use 
existing trails. 


Because CSS units stock large amounts of food, 
ammunition, fuel, and other mission-essential 
supplies, they are prime targets for guerrilla at- 
tacks. Generally, CSS units are isolated and do 
not have combat troops assigned for protection 
and security. Therefore, CSS troops must perform 
security and defense activities in addition to their 
support missions. Jungle and mountain terrains 
make it easy for guerrilla forces to attack. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

To lessen the effects of guerrilla attacks, CSS 
units are scattered to help prevent mass destruc- 
tion. They also change locations frequently to 
maintain security. Supplies may need to be trans- 
ported over roads that are not secure. Pack animals 
or personnel may be used to transport supplies. 
Forward CSS units should keep only a minimum 
of essential supplies on hand. This will give them 
greater mobility. It also reduces the number of 
personnel needed to maintain and protect the 
stocks. Some supplies can be airlifted to CSS 
units. However, airlift should be used only in 
emergency situations. 

Class II. As sabotage and security operations 
increase, units need extra amounts of some Class II 
items. Also, Class II items are highly preferable, 


FM 10-27 

and they will need to be replaced if destroyed. Use 
secure radios to communicate so that the guerril- 
las cannot detect you. 

Class III packaged. Class III packaged consump- 
tion does not increase greatly during 
counterguerrilla operations. CSS units should keep 
enough stocks of Class III packaged on hand to 
replace losses caused by fires or damaged or de- 
stroyed containers. 

Class IV. The need for barbed wire, barrier mater- 
ials, and sandbags matches the need for tighter 
security. Construction materials may be needed to 
help camouflage supplies and equipment or to 
build decoy items. Engineer support used to build 
and repair bridges, sheds, and shelters also increases 
the need for fortification and construction supplies. 

Class VI. Since only essential health and sanita- 
tion supplies are needed during counterguerrilla 
operations, there is a decrease in Class VI supply 
requests. Generally, the only Class VI supplies 
issued are in the Class I ration supplement sun- 
dries packs distributed with subsistence. When 
the tactical situation permits, sales teams or 
AAFES exchanges sell Class VI items. 

Class VII. One of the major aims of guerrilla 
activities is to damage or destroy weapons sys- 
tems. This increases the need for Class VII 
supplies. Forward CSS units may need to rely on 
other noncombat unit stocks for exchange of ra- 
dios, small arms, and vehicles. Essential items are 
issued to units that can reenter battle first. Give 
Class VII supplies transportation priority so that 
fighting can continue. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

Use multiple supply routes. This makes it difficult 
for guerrilla forces to know where and when to attack. 

Effect on Supply Trains 

DS units support counterguerrilla operations from 
brigade trains. When a division is deployed, CSS 
units operate in the DSA. Supply trains provide 
supplies and services to units in the brigade area. 


Jungle regions are potential battlefields. Climate, 
terrain, and vegetation vary with location. The 
jungle environment may include swamps, culti- 
vated areas, grasslands, or densely forested areas. 
Dense vegetation, high temperatures, and high 
humidity require adjustments in supply support 
operations. Abundant rainfall can slow surface 
resupply operations. Climate and vegetation can 
restrict movement, observation, communications, 
and target acquisition. The degree to which units 
are trained to fight and support in the jungle will 
determine success or failure. FM 90-5 provides 
guidance on fighting and surviving in the jungle. 

Effect on Equipment 

Leather, canvas, and rubber are subject to mold 
and have a tendency to wear out quickly in the jungle. 
High temperature and humidity may cause equipment 
to rot and may aid the growth of bacteria. Equipment 
requires daily cleaning in a jungle environment. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

Use unit distribution to deliver supplies directly 
to forward companies. Supplies can be moved 
more quickly by air from field trains than over 
land from combat trains. Waterways can also be 
part of a transport supply system. However, pack 
animals or humans are often the only means of 
moving supplies in jungle operations. 

Class II. The tropical environment causes Class II 
items to deteriorate rapidly. Use tarpaulins to 
protect equipment from the rain. Combat boots 
and socks seldom last long. Extra stocks should be 
stored at supply points. Clothing may require 
treatment with fungicides and might have to be 
exchanged every five or six days. Wet weather 
poncho liners may be needed. Screens and filters 
help keep insects from getting into equipment. 

Class HI packaged. Since there are only a limited 
number of vehicles forward during jungle opera- 
tions, supplying Class III packaged items is not a 
great problem. Helicopters can supply the forward 
positions with 55-gallon drums of diesel fuel, 
motor fuel, and fog oil using cargo nets. Protective 


FM 10-27 

lubricants, lacquers, and varnishes are required to 
help prevent rust. In jungle operations, require- 
ments for fog oil increase when tactics call for 
smoke measures or smoke screen countermeasures. 

Class IV. Construction materials and special bar- 
rier equipment are heavy and bulky. Using large 
amounts of Class IV materials creates transporta- 
tion problems. Lift helicopters are a practical 
method of moving these items in a jungle environment. 

Class VI. Lotions to protect personnel from insect bites 
and poisonous plants are needed in a jungle environ- 
ment. Personal demand items help to build morale. 

Class VII. Major end items need to be protected 
from a jungle environment. Vehicles need to be 
inspected frequently. Major end items not in use 
should be sent to the rear areas. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

In the jungle, supply vehicles are easily ambushed, 
mined, or booby trapped. Road-clearing and mine- 
clearing operations should be repeated each 
morning before traffic starts to move. Patrols 
provide security against ambush and attack. Clear- 
ing vegetation near roads will help prevent ambush. 
If supply vehicles are ambushed, escort vehicles, 
combat vehicles, and attack helicopters should 
assist in countering the attack. 

Effect on Supply Trains 

Supply trains are located in the forward areas. 
Since most resupply is done by air, the combat 
trains may be located with the field trains in the 
brigade trains area. Combat trains provide rations, 
ammunition, lubricants, medics, and a mainte- 
nance element. Field trains provide POL, vehicles, 
ammunition, rations, and an aid station. Airlift 
supply allows fewer supplies to be stockpiled in 
the combat trains. 


Amphibious operations involve assaults from 
seacraft or aircraft against enemy shores. Using 
sea vessels as bases increases force mobility. Since 

forces are gathered aboard ships or in aircraft, 
there is a less noticeable buildup of troops, sup- 
plies, and equipment. This gives commanders an 
edge in choosing where and when to attack. Using 
helicopters and amphibious vehicles to move troops 
and supplies from sea bases to attack points requires 
detailed planning and coordination. FM 20-12 de- 
scribes amphibious embarkation of landing forces. 
FM 31-12 tells how to plan, prepare, and train for 
amphibious operations. 

Effect on Equipment 

Water damage can be a major problem. Proper 
waterproofing will reduce equipment breakdown 
and damage. Commanders should set up areas to 
ensure that vehicles and other equipment are re- 
turned to mission-capable condition. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

Initial or assault supplies are carried in amphibi- 
ous vehicles or helicopters during the assault. 
These supplies provide initial support for landing 
forces and operations. Commanders should plan 
on a 5- to 15-day stock of survival and mission- 
essential supplies. This will allow operations to 
continue until resupply can occur. Weather and 
sea conditions may hamper resupply operations. 
Assault supplies should be carefully selected and 
packed to allow rapid unloading and distribution 
and to make the best use of transportation and 
storage space. Careful packing will also serve to 
reduce congestion in beach support areas during 
the early critical stages of the assault. Only lim- 
ited amounts can be sent as assault supplies. 
Commanders should ensure that follow-up supply 
quantities are increased to make up deficiencies. 
Resupply levels need to be high enough to lessen 
the need for air delivery of emergency supplies. 
When setting resupply levels, commanders should 
increase those supplies needed by CSS units as 
well as those needed by combat or CS activities. 
Assault teams submit requests for emergency sup- 
plies to the division. Emergency supplies are 
airlifted to the landing area or beachhead or placed 
on floating dumps. 


FM 10-27 

Class II. The environment that amphibious forces 
will face upon landing determines the need for an 
increase or decrease in Class II supplies. In most 
cases, units should consider increasing clothing 

and individual equipment and waterproofing substances. 

Class HI packaged. The quantity of Class III 
packaged supplies which units need to stock de- 
pends on the area in which the amphibious 
operations take place. As a rule, large quantities of 
55-gallon drums of diesel and motor fuel are needed. 
Protective lubricants are needed to prevent rust. 

Class IV. Units need increased amounts of con- 
struction materials and barrier equipment during 
amphibious operations. Use these materials to 
secure the beachheads and build temporary stor- 
age areas and shelters. Class IV stockage depends 
on the mission and the number of combat units 
assigned to accomplish the mission. 

Class VI. Issue personal demand items as soon as 
practical to build up morale. As a rule, these items 
are in Class I ration supplement sundries packs 
issued with subsistence. If more items are needed, 
units may contact medical support companies. 

Class VII. Salt water can deteriorate and severely 
damage Class VII items. Commanders must plan 
for replacement items for all mission-essential 
equipment as well as possible airlift of essential 
items. Units should try to get as many replacement 
items and repair parts as possible from cannibalizing 
captured enemy equipment or nonreparable US items. 

Effect on Floating Dumps 

Floating dumps are supply points made up of 
landing craft and amphibious vehicles. Shore par- 
ties depend on floating dumps until enough items 
can be stocked at the beachhead or until resupply 
operations can begin. When landing craft are avail- 
able, commanders should request them. Their speed 
increases mobility. Landing craft are loaded with 
supplies and equipment which shore parties need 
to carry out and sustain operations. There may be 6 to 
10 floating dumps per assault landing team. Each dump 

should carry a basic load of mission-essential and 
survival supplies and equipment. Supplies are 
delivered to the shore parties as they are needed. 


Cold weather and mountain operations pose a 
special challenge to CSS units. Winter and moun- 
tain weather increase the time required to perform 
supply support. Mobility in mountain or cold 
weather areas is difficult. Proper equipment is 
vital to successful operations. FMs 9-207, 31-71, 
and 90-6 provide guidance on mountain and cold 
weather operations. They describe how CSS units 
can plan for and support operations in this weather. 

Effect on Equipment 

Cold weather, high altitudes, and rough terrain 
require special clothing and equipment. Army 
BDUs and combat boots wear out quickly in rocky 
terrain. Adequate stocks of clothing must be avail- 
able to replace damaged and worn-out items. 

Effect on Supply Requirements 

It may be necessary to disperse support units in 
mountainous terrain. Though this reduces vulner- 
ability, it increases local security and command 
and control problems. To ensure a continuous 
flow of supplies, CSS units must be well protected 
against ground and air attack. Unit distribution is 
often used in mountain operations. Deliver sup- 
plies as far forward as terrain and weather permit. 
Communication is limited. Airfields, good roads, 
and railroads are also limited. Their scarcity ham- 
pers supply flow. You may need pack animals, 
tracked vehicles, sleds, and skis to deliver sup- 
plies. Successful supply operations require 
flexibility and advance planning on the part of 
logisticians and supply class managers. 

Class II. Rugged terrain increases the need for 
replacement of clothing, boots, and other personal 
items. Cold weather items such as parkas, liners, 
mitten inserts, sleeping bags, and goggles are also 
in high demand. White coverings or cold weather 


FM 10-27 

camouflage nets simplify the camouflaging of troops, 
equipment, and supplies in snow-covered areas. 

Class III packaged. Increased stocks of Class III 
packaged lubricants, antifreeze, and fuels are 
needed. Tanks operating in mountainous terrain 
need 30 to 50 percent more fuel and coolant. Fuel 
cans are frequently required to refuel vehicles in 
forward areas when terrain conditions restrict the 
use of tank and pump units. Class III packaged 
goods should be constantly checked for package 
warping and product deterioration resulting from 
temperature changes. Since smoke screens last longer 
under extreme cold conditions, less fog oil is required. 

Class IV. Using local materials reduces Class IV 
needs and demands on the transportation system. 
Mountainous areas often contain trees which can 
be used to erect fortifications and barriers and 
prepare cold weather shelters. 

Class VI. Lip balm and skin lotion are needed. 
They combat the effects of cold weather. 

Class VII. Transporting large end items to for- 
ward units is difficult in cold weather and mountainous 
areas. Therefore, emphasize maintenance, repair, and 

return to user of such items rather than the use of 
replacement end items. 

Effect on Supply Routes 

Routes to and through supply train areas are im- 
portant when deciding on site selection. 
Establishing a number of supply routes will help 
reduce the amount of traffic and lessen the chance 
of enemy attack. Cold weather or a mountain 
environment often provides ideal terrain for en- 
emy attacks and ambushes on supply route traffic. 
Enemy units can be dropped by air or can infiltrate 
from the rear to seize important road junctions. It 
may be necessary to establish route patrols and 
observation posts to secure MSRs. Observation 
posts along supply routes should have surveil- 
lance devices to help improve the ability to operate 
in bad weather and at night. 

Effect on Supply Trains 

Locate supply trains as far forward as possible. To 
increase dispersion, battalion trains are divided 
into combat and field trains. Combat trains may be 
set up in valleys or ravines on the near slope of the 
terrain that the unit is occupying. Keep trains 
small and mobile so they can be relocated quickly. 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


Grouping items into classes and materiel catego- 
ries enables managers to provide better support to 
our forces. Position 1 of the materiel category 
structure code on the AMDF identifies who has 
wholesale managerial responsibility for an item. 
Item managers for supply Class es II, III pac kaged, IV, 
VI, VII, IX, and X are listed in lTablei-j page 2-3. 
Item managers must consider a variety of supply 
data and supply management areas in the perfor- 
mance of their duties. In addition to the unique 
characteristics of the supply class for which they 
are responsible, item managers must be concerned 
with the following: 

• Operating levels, safety levels, and ROPs. 

• Criteria to add and retain items in stock. 

• Management controls which may be imposed. 

• Equipment authorizations (Class VII only). 

• Authorized war reserve levels. 

• Projected activity levels and consumption 

• Capacity of automated systems to generate 
demand and asset data. 

• Ability of the using unit to prepare formal 

• Funding ceilings. 


Secondary items include Class I, II, IV, and IX 
items and maps. There are approximately 3.5 mil- 
lion secondary items in defense supply systems. 
They amount to approximately 80 percent of all 
Army-managed items and about 47 percent of all 
items used by the Army. Approximately 300,000 
secondary items are stocked in CONUS depots. 
About 90 percent of these items have an annual 
acquisition value of $5,000 or less. 


AR 710-2 prescribes stockage objectives for the 
theater of operations in terms of DOS. The theater 
army commander prescribes levels for the combat 
zone and the COMMZ. DSUs in the BSA stock an 
RO of 10 DOS and ROP of 7 DOS. In mobile 
situations, divisions may maintain only those sup- 
plies needed to sustain operations until more supplies 
can be delivered. If mobility is not impeded, an 
additional small stock of reserve items may be 
maintained to cover interruptions in supply sched- 
ules. DSUs in the DSA, COSCOM, and TAACOM 
stock an operating level of 30 DOS and an ROP 
consisting of a 5-DOS safety level and actual OST. 
Theater army GSUs maintain 5 to 10 days of all classes 
except Class II and IX items delivered by ALOC. 
Details on supply levels are in ARs 11-11 and 710-2. 


AR 710-2, Chapter 1, prescribes a series of supply 
performance objectives and management levels 
for SSAs below the wholesale logistics level. 
Objectives set by AR 710-2 are attainable goals 
under normal operating conditions. Management 
levels are acceptable ranges of performance. They 
are expressed as percentages or upper and lower 
allowable limits. Performance NOT in the allow- 
able range should receive intensive management. 
The formulas, supply objectives, and manage- 
ment levels in AR 710-2 have been developed to 
enable managers to monitor the following: 

* Demand satisfaction. 

* Zero balance with due-outs. 

* Inventory accuracy. 

* Materiel release denial rate. 

* Receipt processing. 

* Request processing. 


FM 10-27 

• Location survey. 

• Mobility index, forward and rear. 

• Excess cycle. 

• Disposition excess indicator. 

• Automated system cycles. 

• SSSC or QSS zero balance. 

• Inventory adjustment rate. 

• High-priority requisition rates. 

DS4 Supply Performance 
Report (PCNAGL-C17) 

This is the key management report for measuring 
support provided to customer units. The report 
gives the percent of demand satisfaction and num- 
er of demands. It also gives balance statistics on 
the number of ASL lines (less QSS and SSSC). It 
lists statistics for each DSU and for the division as 
a whole. (NOTE: The balance file statistics are a 
"snapshot" of the ABF as of the date the report is 
prepared.) A separate page is prepared for Class 
IX common, aircraft, and missile items as well as 
for Class II, III packaged, and IV. Entries are 
explained in TM 38-L32-13. The supply perfor- 
mance report is a weekly or monthly report. 

DS4 Stock Status Report 
List (PCNAGL-C21) 

The item manager generates this report weekly. 
The stock status report lists balances for all ASL 
and non-ASL items and levels computed for ASL 
items. This report is the primary source for man- 
agement and catalog data on ASL and NSL items 
with on-hand balances. Managers may use it to 
identify problem areas and imbalance conditions. 
This includes due-outs with assets on hand, due- 
outs with no due-ins, zero balances with no due- 
ins, and excess quantities of unserviceable items 

on hand. Since the DS4 stock status report list is 
the basic management document that lists all as- 
sets on hand, it is essential to continue operations 
when a system failure occurs. 

SAILS Reports 

These reports are intended to be produced on a 
monthly basis and give all supply actions which 
occurred during a specified control period, or as of 
the report's cutoff date. Separate reports are pro- 
duced for secondary and PA items and for medical and 
nonmedical activities. These reports provide statistical 
data required to do the following: 

• Evaluate the supply activity management 
performance for secondary and PA items. 

• Evaluate the supply activity performance 
against established standards. 

• Evaluate the supply activity support of 
authorized customers and evaluate the supply ac- 
tivity support from its source of supply. 

• Determine the supply activity actual work 
load and identify potential and actual problems 
that may occur in providing required support. 


In wartime, DSS and ALOC, described in FM 38-725, 
provide rigid OST standards for each segment of 
the requisition processing cycle. DSS and ALOC 
OST objectives are listed in FM 38-725 and in 
AR 710-2. By knowing the OST objective, the 
requisitioner can take action to help resolve problems 
and to ensure that orders are received within the re- 
quired time. Requisitioners can send a DSS and ALOC 
problem flasher message to the Commander, US Army 
Materiel Command, ATTN: AMCSM-MTS-D, 5001 
Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-0001. 


FM 10-27 

Table 2-1. Item managers 

for general supply items 

Inventory Manager, 







Materiel Readiness Command, 

w, «* - "©--# service item control center 



Ground forces 
support materiel 

US Army Troop Support Command 
St Louis, Missouri 63120-1798 



Genera! supplies 

US Army Genera! Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008 



Clothing, textiles, 
and nonmedical 

US Army Support Activity 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101-3460 

II, VI! 


Communications and 

US Armv Communications & Electronics Command 

electronics equipment; 

Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703-5006 


II. Vil 


Aircraft and aircraft 

US Army Aviation Systems Command 
St Louis Missouri 63120-1798 



Ground forces support 

US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008 



Combat, tactical, and 
support vehicles and 
components; repair 
parts related to 

US Army Tank-Automotive Command 
Warren, Michigan 48090-5000 



Missiles and missile 

US Army Missile Logistics Center 
Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898-5000 

VII, ii, IX 


Ammunition, weapons, 
tracked combat vehicle 

US Army Armament, Munitions, and 
Chemical Command 

weapons, special 

Rock Island, Illinois 61299-6000 

weapons, and chemical 

and fire control 




Electronic materiel 

US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 07703-5006 



Bulk & packaged 
petroleum fuels, 
packaged petroleum 
products, containers 
and accessories, and 
certain chemical and 
solid fuels 

US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania i 7070-5008 



Industrial supplies 

US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania 17070-5008 



COMSEC materiel 

US Army CECOM Communications Security 

Logistics Activity 

Fort Huachuca, Arizona 85613-7090 



Personal demand, 
comfort, and hygiene 

Defense Personnel Support Center 
2800 South 20th Street 


Philadelphia. Pennsylvania 19101-3460 



Nonmilitary program 

US Army General Materiel & Petroleum Activity 
New Cumberland, Pennsylvania i 7070-5008 


FM 10-27 

Section II 


The ROP helps managers maintain the RO and 
avoid out-of-stock conditions. When the ROP is 
reached, stock replenishment action should be 
taken. An ROP must be set for all demand- 
supported items. Managers should check the ROP 
quantity with the current asset position of an item 
biweekly. This check ensures that an item does not 
reach an unfavorable stock position. 


Classes I, II, III packaged, IV, VII, and IX and 

maps may be included in war reserve stocks. War 
reserve levels are computed according to AR 11-11. 
AR 710-1, Chapter 8, describes basic unclassified 
materiel management policies and procedures for 
computing war reserve requirements. It also refer- 
ences classified directives and USAMC plans used 
to compute requirements. 

General Supply Usage or Consumption Rates 

The amount of war reserve stocks that must be 
procured and retained is based in part on usage and 
consumption rates. Use and consumption rates for 
chemical items are provided by the Deputy Chief 
of Staff for Military Operations. Rates for other 
Class II items are provided in supply bulletins and 
by materiel readiness commands and TRADOC. 
Expected wartime use of Class III packaged is 
found by adjusting current average peacetime 
monthly demands. Class IV use is based on the 
theater barrier plan. Class VII requirements are 
based on wartime replacement factors. Map re- 
quirements are determined by the S2 or G2 in 
cooperation with the S3 or G3. 

Secondary Item Requirements 

The item manager manages secondary war reserve 
items until they a re issued to the field. Item man- 
agers are listed in | Table 24J page 2-3. 

Procurement appropriation-funded secondary 
items. The materiel readiness commands advise 

oversea commands of the total computed require- 
ments. They also inform oversea commands when 
shortages have been found so that requisitions 
may be placed on the supply system. No requisi- 
tion funding is required when shortages of these 
items occur. 

Stock fund secondary items. Materiel readiness 
commands also compute requirements for stock 
fund secondary items for oversea commands. 
Oversea commanders must find these requirements. 

War Reserve Stockage List 

The war reserve stockage list may be used to 
determine sudden mobilization requirements. AR 
710-1, Chapter 8, lists criteria for including an 
item on the war reserve stockage list. The list 
identifies the commodity manager responsible for 
the item and the supply class. Section I of a war 
reserve stockage list groups items by commodity 
manager in LIN sequence. Section II lists POL, 
expendable items (except ammunition), and items 
without a LIN. Those items are grouped by com- 
modity manager in NSN sequence. An "X" indi- 
cates that the item is authorized for stockage in the 
specific command. 


Use consumption rates and planning factors to 
determine requirements for a given operation. 
They can be expressed as ratios, rates, lengths of 
time, or consumption quantities. They will vary 
because of differences in the types and intensity of 
operations, types of units, force structure, terrain, 
climate, and geographic area. AR 700-8 cites the 
proponents responsible for developing basic con- 
sumption rates and planning factors. The US Army 
Combined Arms Support Command, Fort Lee, 
Virginia, has primary responsibility for developing 


FM 10-27 

basic logistics planning factors. The US Army 
Quartermaster Center and School, Fort Lee, Virginia, 
is responsible for developing logistics planning doc- 
trine for Class I, II, III, IV, VI, VII, and IX supplies. 


TAMMCs determine quantities of each item re- 
quired within their commands. Requirements are 
based on tactical plans, demand data, previous 
experience, troop strength, supply level or DOS, 
and item density. 

Initial Requirements 

Supplies required for the initial period of opera- 
tions are based on the following: 

* TOE. 

* TDA. 

* Equipment modification lists. 

* Authorization documents (CTAs). 

* Troop strength data. 

* Type of conflict (short and intense or 

Replacement or Consumption Requirements 

These include the supplies needed to keep initial equip- 
ment at authorized quantities. They replenish items 
expended, lost, contaminated, or destroyed. These 
requirements depend on the following: 
•Authorized DOS. 

• Troop strength. 

• Revision of consumption rates or replace- 
ment factors. 

* Changes in forces supported. 

* Seasonal and other requirements. 

Requirements Formulas 

FM 101-10-1/2 lists the formulas to use to esti- 
mate supply, resupply, storage, and supply level 
buildup requirements. Use the formulas when both 
the strength to be supported and the level of 
supply or DOS needed are known. Consumption 
rates used in the formulas may vary considerably, 
depending on force structure, mission, area of 
operation, and intensity of combat. These rates 
will need to be adjusted to the type of conflict, 
level of operation, strength of the opposing force, 
and tactical situation. 

Section III 


DS4 automates routine supply procedures for di- 
visional and nondi visional units. The system is 
designed for management of Class II, III pack- 
aged, IV, VII (ORF), and IX items. The DMMC 
can manage stocks in 10 DSUs. Nondivisional 
units have a stock control section and storage 
facility which uses DS4 procedures and an organic 
minicomputer to manage DSU stocks. 


Units submit prepunched DA Forms 2765 to their 
supporting DSUs. An initial supply of two 

prepunched request cards is provided for each 
item on the unit PLL. Replacement cards are 
provided as requests are received. If a prepunched 
DA Form 2765 is not available, units must prepare 
the card manually. TM 38-L32-11, Chapter 3, 
shows divisional and nondivisional unit supply 
personnel the procedures to request supplies. 


TM 38-L32-12 has details on how to process 
receipts. Non-DSS shipments should be processed 
according to DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. Forward support 


FM 10-27 

DSUs receive items from main or other forward 
DSUs on a machine-generated MRO. When the 
item is received and stocked, the MRO is con- 
verted to a materiel receipt card and returned to 
the MMC or to a materiel receipt card stock con- 
trol section. 


As a rule, requests are sent to the supporting DSU 
or stock control section for routine machine pro- 
cessing. MMCs may also direct main DSUs to 
issue replenishment stocks to a supported unit or 
to a unit supported by another forward or main 
DSU. TM 38-L32-12 shows DSU storage person- 
nel how to process MROs. 


TMs 38-L32-11, 38-L32-12, and 38-L32-13 de- 
scribe procedures and forms for processing turn- 
ins. Using units turn in excess items to the sup- 
porting DSU that handles the item. The MMC or 
stock control section identifies excess items in 
forward and main DSUs. Machine-generated 
MROs direct storage sections to turn in excess 
items to higher sources of supply or the division's 
main ASL. Materiel release confirmations are sent 
to the MMC or stock control section to update the 
availability balance files. 

DS4 Contingency Procedures 

When each day's processing is completed, the 
cyclic files at each computer site should be put on 
backup tapes. Store this backup set of tapes away 
from the primary ADP site. 


SAILS is used to process requirements for general 
supplies at echelons above division. SAILS auto- 
mates processing for Class II, III packaged, IV, 
VII, and IX supplies as well as bulk Class III and 
selected Class VI materiel. System controls per- 
mit selective management of individual items. 
SAILS output transactions are compatible with DS4. 


TM 38-L03-19, Chapter 4, shows how to prepare 
and process requests. Supply requests are submitted 

on DA Form 2765 or DD Form 1348-6. Input card 
formats are covered in TM 38-L03-21-1. DSUs 
and GSUs are provided with prepunched DA Forms 
2765 for submission to the MMC. A prepunched 
card is provided each time a request for a recurring 
issue is received from the DSU or GSU. 


DSS receipt cards are processed according to 
TM38-L03-19, Chapter 14. TM 38-L03-17, Chap- 
ter 3, describes procedures used by stock control activi- 
ties to process receipts. Unit receipt procedures are in 
TM 38-L03-19, Chapter 7. Documents received with 
support supply shipments may include- 

• An MRO (DD Form 1348-1). 

• An in-transit data card. 

• An in-transit receipt detail card. 

• A materiel receipt acknowledgment card. 
A replacement in-transit data card (DA Form 



The basic issue document is the MRO (DD Form 1348-1). 
The MRO may be marked to show materiel release 
confirmation, denial, or reversal. Issue card formats are 
covered in TM 38-L03-21-1. Issue procedures are cov- 
ered in TM 38-L03- 17, Chapter 7. 


Recoverable items and supplies are turned in 
through the same channels from which they were 
requisitioned. If the situation makes this imprac- 
tical, the commander may establish a turn-in point. 
TM 38-L03-17 tells COSCOM DSUs and GSUs 
how to process unit returns. TM 38-L03-19 covers 
DSU turn-ins to the stock control activity. 


At the end of each day's processing, all system 
files at each computer site should be put on tape. 
The tapes should be stored away from the com- 
puter site, preferably with a sister computer sys- 
tem. If one of the computers becomes inoperative, 
the remaining equipment should be used to per- 
form essential supply functions (request, receipt, 
store, issue, and edit). If several computers become 


FM 10-27 

inoperative, supply actions may be processed on de- 
vices at storage sites. Supply requirements may be 
filled or passed to the next supply echelon 
(TAMMC or CONUS). After the computers are 
repaired or replaced, the master files should be 
rebuilt using storage site files. 


The SPBS-R is a fully interactive, menu-driven, 
automated property accounting system. It oper- 
ates in a centralized or decentralized mode when- 
ever there is a requirement for property account- 
ability or asset visibility of major items of equip- 
ment. SPBS-R can enhance combat readiness, 
reduce cost, provide instant supply management 
information, and protect commanders from re- 
ports of survey by providing accurate records of 
property accountability. The system also- 

• Allows DMMC to manage all property 
book accounts for assigned or attached units loaded 
for asset visibility support. 

• Provides asset visibility support to corps, 
US Army Reserve, and ROTC units and activities 
when directed by the MACOM. 

• Provides a consolidated property and hand- 
receipt listing as required. The system provides 35 
other output reports and listings for management 
of property accountability. 

• Interfaces with other automated logistical 

• Removes property book records of trans- 
ferring units and activities from its files by means 
of processing a single transaction. Units and ac- 
tivities being transferred will be provided their 
records on floppy diskettes. The gaining property 
book team will upload these diskettes. 


A standard Army retail supply system will replace 
DS4 in divisional and nondivisional DSUs and 
SAILS at corps and echelons above corps. SARSS 
will provide automated stock record accounting 
and supply management for Classes II, III packaged, 

IV, VII (ORF), and IX throughout the theater of 
operations. It is being designed so that no major 
change will be required during mobilization for 
war. SARSS is divided into various levels. 

SARSS Level I 

This level will perform stock record accounting 
for division and separate brigade DSUs. 


SARSS Level II is divided into two separate sub- 
systems. SARSS IIA maintains asset visibility 
and directs lateral issues among its subordinate 
supply activities. SARSS IIB performs non-time- 
sensitive functions such as document history analy- 
sis, catalog update, and stockage levels computation. 


Loss of information hinders the supply mission. 
Power failures or electromechanical problems can 
cause ADP equipment outages. ADP equipment or 
MMCs may be damaged or destroyed as a result of 
enemy action. However, units still need supplies, 
and DSUs still need to supply their supported 
units. Use the following procedures during equip- 
ment outages. 

Short-Term Outage 

During outages of 72 hours or less, units should 
continue to follow standard procedures and sub- 
mit requests to their DSU. In turn, DSUs should 
follow standard procedures in dealing with their 
MMC or stock control section. High-priority re- 
quests and requisitions should be processed manu- 
ally as a postpost transaction. DS4 backup proce- 
dures are covered in TM 38-L32-13. During the 
outage period, DSUs should- 

• Issue stocks to units arriving at the storage 
site with high-priority requisitions until all stocks 
are depleted. 

• Issue stocks for low-priority requisitions 
after 48 hours. Depending on stockage levels, 
low-priority transactions may be held until the 
end of the outage period. 

• Receive and store all deliveries. 


FM 10-27 

• Prepare paperwork needed to transmit the 
data to the MMC or stock control section when the 
information flow is reestablished. 

# Complete all processing actions previ- 
ously received from the MMC. 

Long-Term Outage 

During long-term outages, supply operations may 
have to be transferred to a similar or replacement 
system or to an alternate MMC using COOP pro- 
cedures. Machine time can be shared. The MMC 
or stock control section should run only essential 
processes. If replacement ADP equipment can be 
set up, hold input documents that can be delayed 
to run at that time. 


In war, automated supply systems are vulnerable 
to disruption, damage, and destruction from en- 
emy action. MMCs are prime targets. The electro- 
magnetic pulse of nuclear explosions can affect 
computer tape disks. Nothing can be done on the 
battlefield to harden equipment against electro- 
magnetic pulse effects. This problem must be 
addressed in the design and manufacturing stage. 
However, contingency and backup procedures exist 
to ensure continued supply support during out- 
ages and equipment failures. During short-term 
outages, low-priority transactions may be held 
until the end of the outage period. However, high- 
priority requests and requisitions will have to be 
processed manually. During long-term outages, 
the MMC may order that requests or requisitions 
be prepared manually until computer operations 
can be transferred to an alternate site or until 
documents can be run on replacement equipment. 


DA Pamphlet 710-2-1 describes manual request 
procedures for using units. DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 
tells DSUs and GSUs how to process requests 
from units. Supply support activities without ADP 
equipment follow the MILSTRIP in AR 725-50. 
Units submit requests to their DSU. Requests may 
be sent by courier, electrical message, telephone, 
or radio. DSUs and GSUs send requisitions to the 

supporting MMC. AR 725-50 shows how to prepare the 
required forms and how to process the requisitions. 


Receipt and shipping documents should accom- 
pany received supplies. Using units maintain a 
document register and process receipt documents 
according to instructions in DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. 
DSUs and GSUs process receipts according to 
instructions in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 and AR 725-50. 
Each container, package, or document number in a 
combined DSS shipment should have a corre- 
sponding DD Form 1348-1, transportation ship- 
ping document, and materiel receipt acknowledg- 
ment card. Supplies received from commercial 
sources usually have an accompanying DD Form 250 
or DD Form 1155. 


AR 725-50 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2 show how to 
process MROs. 

NOTE: According to AR 710-2, MROs with PDs 
01 through 03 and NMCS MROs must be pro- 
cessed within 24 hours of the time that they are 
received. This is on a seven-day workweek, 24 
hours-a-day basis. MROs with PDs 04 through 15 
must be processed within two days on a regular 
workweek, regular shift basis. 


Using units turn in items to the supply support 
activity that would normally issue them. DSUs 
turn in excess items to corps GSUs. All other 
serviceable or unserviceable reparable, excess items 
are to be sent to a theater collection and classifica- 
tion point. Combat-loss reports support items 
dropped from property records. 

Using units. Using units turn in items on DA Form 2765-1. 
They use the procedures in DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. 
They use DA Form 2765-1 to turn in items that had 
hidden defects and items that were not requested. 
They turn in salvage items on DD Form 1348-1. 

DSUs and GSUs. These units process unit turn-ins 
on DA Form 2765-1, following procedures in 
DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 14. They turn in 
excess items to the supply source using DD Form 1348, 


FM 10-27 

DD Form 1348M, or DD Form 173/1. AR 725-50, 
Chapter 7, tells how to prepare and process these forms. 


In times of war or emergency, wartime account- 
ability procedures may be relaxed. The Secretary 
of the Army approves wartime accountability. 

Using Unit Modifications 

Though property book accounting remains in ef- 
fect for OCIE, postings do not have to be sup- 
ported by documents. In addition, hand receipts 

are not required. For all other organizational property, 
property book accounting is reduced to maintaining a 
running balance of equipment on-hand. Document 
files are not required. Instead, on-hand quantities 
are supported by combat-loss reports and daily 
logistics status reports. 

Supply Support Activity Modifications 

Though accounting records and files must con- 
tinue to be kept, vouchers which support entries 
do not have to be kept after posting is done. 
Summary accounting techniques apply. 

Section IV 


The LIF is an on-line computerized data base. It 
centralizes the collection, correlation, and retrieval 
of supply and transportation data on Army-sponsored 
requisitions placed on the wholesale logistics sys- 
tem. The LIF is maintained by the AMC Logistics 
Control Activity. The purpose of the LIF is to 
furnish supply and transportation pipeline progress 
of a requisition from the time it is sent through the 
DAAS to the time materiel is received and posted 
to the accountable record at the requisitioning 
activity. The requisition status, receipt posting, 
reject customer cancellation, and transportation 
lift notices are recorded in this file. The LIF 
provides complete historical information on each 
requisition. It is used to measure DSS perfor- 
mance and focus management attention on spe- 
cific pipeline segments needing improvement. The 
data base does not include Class I or III. Custom- 
ers may use a number of modes to access the LIF 
data base for requisition status. See AR 725-50, 
DA Pamphlet 700-30, or FM 38-725. Requisition 
data can be provided daily or at a set interval. You 
may send urgent inquiries via DSN or priority 


Any command echelon may request assistance on 
requisitions with PDs 01 throu gh 08. AR 725-50 tells 
how to request such assistance. Figure 2-1, page 2-11, 

shows a sample request on DD Form 173/2. The 
request must not exceed seven document num- 
bers. The first line of message requests must 
contain the words, "Supply Assistance Request." 
Supply sources are the only activities that may 
send requests to storage activities. They may re- 
quest that storage activities-- 

• Check on the status of requisitions. 

• Support requirements in a more timely 

• Substitute or interchange items. 

• Release or cancel back-ordered requisi- 

Divert a shipment. 


CDA provides worldwide "HOTLINE" manage- 
ment data research assistance. The MIRAC is an 
extension of the cataloging and data bank service 
offered by CDA. It is manned by an experienced 
staff oriented to item identification and supply 
management data problems. Its personnel can help 
analyze problems and obtain solutions on items of 
supply. They can verify NSNs, unit prices, units 
of issue, and other data found in the AMDF. 
MIRAC personnel answer telephones from 0715 
to 1545 Eastern time, Monday through Friday. During 
nonduty hours, telephone answering equipment 


FM 10-27 

calls from worldwide locations. MIR AC personnel 
respond to these inquiries the following workday. 
Replay messages can be recorded on the telephone 
answering equipment for overseas callers who arrange 
for this service and who call back after normal CDA 
duty hours. Call DSN 977-7431 or WATS (717) 770- 
7431. MIRAC can be reached by electronic mail using 
the MIRAC address at AMC HQ. Include- 

• Item name and NSN (or description). 

• Reference publication. 

• End item application or manufacturer's 
code and part number. 

• Point of contact and telephone number. 

• Information needed. 

• Complete address, including office sym- 
bol, of requesting agency or activity. 


The RTAIS provides access to users of AMDF and 
related logistics management data. The RTAIS 
permits over 125 different types of computer ter- 
minals to directly access the AMDF through vari- 
ous telecommunications lines. This includes a "1- 
800" service and the Defense Data Network. It 
does all this at little or no cost to the user, as 
opposed to the substantial fees charged by com- 
mercial vendors providing similar services. In 
addition to NSN, LIN, and reference number in- 
formation, other types of data such as commercial 
and government entity and search for characteris- 
tics data are currently available. Component list 
data, hazardous materiel data, inquiry by nomen- 
clature, inquiry for DIDS data for non-Army NUN 
queries, and inquiry for automatic return items are 
available through this system. 


FM J 0-27 



















This command is having serious problems due to lack of items in the following 
documents. Request accelerated delivery and improved estimated shipping 


Docu No with Suffix 
(CC 30-44) 

1. FB2300/4I52/0IH/B 

2. FB2300/4 155/00 13/ 

(CC 8-20) 
830500 1 234SI 
83 i\)QQ23456/ 








*DD,£Sr„ 173/2 (OCR) 


Figure 2-1. Sample request for supply assistance on PDs 01 through 08 requisitions 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


Because of high cost and the possibility of unfore- 
seen demands, Class IV items (and some Class II) 
may be placed under controls not applied to other 
classes of supply. These controls include selec- 
tive stockage and command approval of items 
before they are issued. 

Selective Stockage 

The MMC selects the type and amount of items to 
be stocked at supply points. As a rule, these items 
are stocked only after they have been requested a 
set number of times in a given period. This pre- 
vents large inventories that would impede mobility. 

Command Approval 

Issues must often be controlled if items in short 
supply are to be on hand for priority requests. 
Expensive, highly technical, or scarce items are 
often placed on regulated or command-controlled 
lists. Items on these lists are critical to a local 
command for an indefinite period. Division com- 
manders may compose a list of command-controlled 
items critical to their command. Command ap- 
proval is required before an item on this list can be 
issued. Requests for the item must be sent through 
channels to the commander who made the list. DA 
prints the lists, and only the commander who 
initiated the list may take an item off the list. 


There are specific mobility requirements that ap- 
ply to DSUs and their subordinate elements. The 
ASL mobility index is the percentage of the total 
cube of essential stocks that can be transported in 
one lift with transportation assets that are organic 
to the DSU. Mobility requirements are in AR 710-2. 
All ASL items that can be stored in bins must be 
truck- or van-mounted. DSU forward elements 

supporting a brigade (maintenance company or 
supply company, FSB) must be able to move 90 
percent of their ASL items within 30 minutes and 
the remainder within 4 hours. All DSU elements 
supporting division or large combat units must be 
50 percent mobile in one lift and must be able to 
move the remainder of their ASL by shuttle. Weight 
and cube data are listed on the AMDF and can be 
provided by ADP equipment. If corps transporta- 
tion assets are not dedicated, DSUs need to re- 
quest transportation from their battalion. Requests 
would then be passed from the DISCOM MCO to 
the COSCOM MCO. He coordinates with the 
DTO who then coordinates with the COSCOM 
MCT or MCC. 


The decision on whether or not to repair a clothing 
or a textile item is based on the total cost to repair 
that item. For personal clothing items to be eco- 
nomically reparable, the cost of repair must not be 
more than 35 percent of the cost of the item. For 
textile items, the cost to repair the item must not 
exceed 65 percent of the cost of the item. The 
repair cost includes labor, materials, transporta- 
tion, and overhead. The theater commander may 
need to publish a repair policy that would relax 
these repair limitations for critical items and items 
in short supply. 


Most secondary items are procured with stock 
funds. A MAT CAT code enables the requisitioner 
to know if funds are required to requisition the 
item. It also identifies the type of funds used to 
procure the item locally. A requisition for stock- 
funded or OMA-funded items requires that the 


FM 10-27 

requester have OMA funds and the requisitioner 
have either OMA funds or stock fund obligation 
authority available. An alphabetic character in the 
second position of the MAT CAT indicates that an 

item is procurement appropriation-financed. This 
means that it is generally a free issue. The third 
position of the code shows whether an item is 
reparable or nonreparable. 

Section II 




There are over 100,000 Class II items listed in the 
AMDF. Class II items include clothing, indi- 
vidual equipment, tentage, organizational tool sets 
and kits, hand tools, and administrative and house- 
keeping supplies and equipment. Parkas, combat 
boots, general-purpose tents, general mechanic 
tool sets, hammers, file cabinets, and paper towels 
are examples of each type. Class II also includes 
NBC-related items. Class II subclasses are identi- 

fied in Appendix B. The Defense Personnel Sup- 

port Center procures and manages most of the 
Class II clothing and individual equipment used 
by the Army. 

Authorized Clothing Allowances 

CTAs 50-900, 50-909, and 50-970 list basis of 
issue allowances for Class II items. Clothing al- 
lowances for contingency plans and mobilization 
must conform with that shown in the "Active 
Army-Mobilization" column of CTA 50-900. The 
only exceptions to this are special issue and cloth- 
ing allowances authorized by special lists or move- 
ment orders. Mobilization clothing allowances 
are mandatory. However, because of existing cli- 
matic conditions, commanders should use caution 
in prescribing full clothing allowances through- 
out a given command. 

Discretionary allowances. An additional allow- 
ance may be authorized by movement orders for 
the health and comfort of soldiers assigned duty in 
certain climatic zones. Parka liners and mitten inserts 
are examples of discretionary items authorized for 

operations in cold climates. Discretionary allow- 
ances are listed in CTA 50-900, Appendix I. They 
are issued at the discretion of the major com- 
mander or major Army subcommander. The au- 
thority to issue discretionary items may be del- 
egated to subordinate commands. 

Contingency force allowances. When allowances 
are considered inadequate for possible deploy- 
ment to a specific zone of operation, contingency 
force commanders may obtain approval from DA 
to modify the allowances listed in the "Active 
Army-Mobilization" column of CTA 50-900. An 
additional canteen and canteen cover for hot desert 
areas is an example of a special allowance which may 
be authorized to meet contingency force requirements. 


Requirements for clothing and individual equip- 
ment are based on seven climatic zones. These 
zones are explained in CTA 50-900, Appendix D. 
Clothing may also be issued on the basis of MOSs 
listed in CTA 50-900, Appendix F. The theater or 
contingency force commander or the FORSCOM 
or readiness command commander designates those 
items in the "Active Army-Mobilization" col- 
umn of CTA 50-900 which are to be worn or 
carried and those which are to be transported. Re- 
quirements for other items of Class II, such as admin- 
istrative supplies, are based on unit, organization, or 
activity needs. CTA 50-970 lists initial issue and 
initial stockage levels for expendable and durable 


FM 10-27 

items. Replenishment quantities must be based on 
demands and anticipated requirements. 
Consumption Rates 
In 1987, FM 101-10-1/2 listed the consumption 
rate for Class II as 3.67 pounds per person per day. 
The rate may vary depending on force size. 


MACOMs designate the units which must keep 
basic loads of Class II supplies. Basic loads sus- 
tain operations in combat for a prescribed number 
of days. The method for determining the stockage 
level will be prescribed. AR 710-2, Chapter 2, 
authorizes up to 15 days stockage of expendable 
CTA 50-970 Class II operational load items to 
sustain peacetime operations. A seven-day level 
should be enough when operational load items are 
also available through an SSSC. Operational load 
supplies may be moved into combat if transporta- 
tion assets are available after essential lift re- 
quirements are met. 

Responsibility and Accountability 

The commander is responsible for durable items 
in the basic load. Hand-receipt procedures are 
used to assign responsibility for durable items but 
are not required for expendable items. Property 
book accountability is not required for durable 
and expendable Class II basic load items. 


Basic load items must be on hand or on order at all 
times. Replenish these items as they are used. 


Though property book records are not kept for 
Class II durable and expendable items, maintain 
records of demands for basic load items. Docu- 
ment registers must also be kept, but post only the 
document number, description, quantity, and date. 

Load List 

A list of Class II basic load items must be on file 
at the using unit. Give a copy of the initial list to 
the SSA. Give list changes to the SSA after the 
first and every other periodic review. Prepare a 
new list for the using commander's approval, and 

send it to the SSA after the second and every other 
periodic review. 


AR 710-2, Chapter 2, requires that all items be 
inventoried at least annually. Inventory Class II 
basic load items during the regular review period. 
Inventory durable items in Class II operational 
loads annually or upon change of responsibility. Inven- 
tory components when the end item is inventoried. 

Property Book Items 

Account for Class II items on property books. 
Account for items in the "authorized column" of 
authorization documents when the quantity in the 
required column is less than that authorized. Ac- 
count for CTA 50-900 items (except insignia and 
initial and supplemental clothing issued accord- 
ing to AR 700-84). Account for CTA 50-909 items 
and on-hand or on-request nonexpendable special 
tools and test equipment authorized by an MTOE, 
a TDA, a JTA, or a CTA and which are listed in a 
TM or which are not separately type-classified. 
AR 710-2 requires that property book items be 

• Upon receipt. (The receiving person must con- 
duct a complete inventory.) 

• Prior to being turned in. 

• When issued on a hand receipt. (The receiving 
person must conduct a complete inventory.) 

* Upon change of responsible officer. 

* Upon change of PBO. 

* When directed by the commander. 

* During the required annual property book in- 

• During the annual responsible officer inven- 

When property books are kept at other than the using 
unit level, the PBO may require a cyclic, monthly, 
quarterly, or semiannual inventory in place of the 
required annual inventory. The PBO must conduct an 
annual inventory of items not issued on hand receipts. 


OCIE must be inventoried when the soldier has been 
dropped from the rolls, hospitalized, hospitalized for 


FM 10-27 

more than 60 days (and OCIE was not previously 
inventoried), ordered to permanently change sta- 
tion while on emergency leave, or placed in an 
absent- without-leave status. 

Wartime Inventories 

Inventory requirements during actual wartime con- 
ditions depend on the level of organization and 

the tactical situation. Requirements for using units 
to perform inventories cease in wartime. Invento- 
ries should be taken merely to determine the quan- 
tity on hand and the condition or status of prop- 
erty. However, these inventories do not have to be 
documented. If the situation allows, a cyclic in- 
ventory may be conducted. Though discrepancies should 
be recorded, they do not have to be reported. 

Section III 


Since a large percentage of logistical planning is 
done using maps, a major requirement for any 
operation is an adequate supply of maps. Require- 
ments vary depending on force structure, probable 
duration of planned operations, quantity of map 
stocks set aside for the task force, quantity in unit 
basic loads, and anticipated battlefield mobility. 
The initial issue of maps for three corps (12 
divisions) ranges from 2.7 to 3 million copies 
(weighing from 135 to 150 tons). However, the 
Defense Mapping Agency shipped more than 45 
million maps (about 2,250 tons) to Southwest 
Asia in support of only two corps during Opera- 
tion Desert Shield. Small- and medium-scale maps 
are issued in small quantities to headquarters only. 
Quantities vary depending on the size and mission 
of the headquarters. Large-scale maps are the 
standard maps normally issued in the main battle 
area. Initial issue allowances for large-scale maps 
depend on the type of unit. Small quantities of 
joint ground-to-air operation graphics are issued 
to headquarters. Two copies are issued per organic 
Army aircraft. One copy should be issued per air 
defense artillery fire unit. Road maps are issued 
on the basis of one map per vehicle. Limited 
quantities may also be issued to unit headquarters. 
Small quantities of maps and map products are 
issued to interagency teams, such as law enforce- 
ment, in support of peacetime contingency operations. 


For operations on a mobile battlefield to be effec- 
tive, topographic data and pre-positioned stocks 

must be available in deployed units. Actual 
stockage levels vary according to the types of 
units. NATO nations have accepted production 
responsibilities to ensure that preplanned stocks 
of standard maps are available for interchange 
between allied forces. 

Division Reserve 

The division reserve may equal one brigade basic load. 

Corps Reserve 

The corps reserve may equal one division basic 
load plus an equal amount of blank paper and 
printing supplies. A 10-day corps reserve could equal 
400,000 to 650,000 copies and weigh 20 to 32.5 tons. 

Theater Army Reserve 

This reserve may equal a five-division basic load 
plus an equal amount of blank paper and printing 
supplies. A QM map supply detachment assigned 
to the QM supply company, GS, maintains a 30- to 
60-day reserve stockage of topographic supplies. 
A 45-day theater depot reserve could range from 5.4 to 
9.0 million copies and weigh 270 to 450 tons. 


From 100,000 to 120,000 copies may be needed 
daily to resupply three corps (12 divisions). This 
requirement is based on the map replenishment 
percentages lis ted in FM 101-10-1/1, Chapter 6. 
The formula in lTable 34l page 3-5, may be used 
to estimate map requirements for an operation. 


FM 10-27 

Table 3-1 . Formula for estimating map requirements 

Total Copies _ *Coverage for 
(each scale) "" a Scale 


+ Replenishment 

♦This is determined by using the Catalog of Maps, Charts, and Related Products 
published by the DOD DMA. 

Replenishment Estimates 

Replenishment of small-scale maps is 50 percent 
of initial requirements. Replenishment of me- 
dium- and large-scale maps may reach 100 percent 
of initial requirements. 

Operation Plan Requirements 

AR 115-11 requires that topographic guidance be 
included in all OPLANs and orders. OPLANs 
must include topographic appendixes or sections 
which describe the map support needed to com- 
plete a tactical operation. These OPLANs should 
include the following: 

• Size and makeup of the envisioned task force. 

• Initial map issue allowances. 

• Existence, quantity, and currency of map stocks 
which have been or will be set aside for the task force. 

• Quantity held by task force units in unit basic 

• Possible duration of the tactical operation. 

• Degree of allied topographic support antici- 

• Anticipated map shortfall. 

• Ways to decrease any shortfall. This may 
include anticipated support from indigenous govern- 
mental and civilian agencies. 

• Deployment phasing and security consider- 


The DMA publishes catalogs of standard maps, 
charts, and map products. Catalogs are available 
down to separate-company level. All standard 
map products have a unique number that identifies 
the map series, sheet, and edition. Maps may be 

requisitioned using ADP systems and the DMA catalog 
number as a manufacturer's part number. 

Theater Requisition 

A catalog of maps may be prescribed for use 
within a theater. Instructions for preparing re- 
quests are listed in the catalog or map index. Maps 
needed to support critical situations are requisi- 
tioned according to MACOM instructions. The S2 or 
G2 validates requests for nonstandard map products. 

Classified Requisitions 

AR 380-5 shows how to prepare classified requi- 
sitions. According to AR 115-11, requisitions for 
maps must be classified when map indexes indi- 
cate that a map is classified, when size or nature of 
the requisition indicates a classified operation, or 
when geographic coverage reveals the location of 
a classified operation. All classified product req- 
uisitions and supplies are handled by intelligence 
channels. However, GS map supply points store 
classified maps. 

Special Map Products 

Requests for special maps and map products go 
through command channels to supporting engi- 
neer map elements. Special products are those 
items historically provided to commanders by 
Army topographic engineers. These products in- 
clude terrain intelligence products, analysis and 
surveys of all kinds, map overprinting, and over- 
lays. Special products are produced in response to 
specific command requests. These products do 
not enter the supply system. If the need is great 
enough or DMA cannot obtain suitable maps from 


FM 10-27 

any source, engineer topographic units in the the- 
ater have the ability to print small quantities of 
maps. Requirements for small-quantity, quick- 
service map printing is normally validated by the 
requesting unit S2 or G2. The request is forwarded 
to the engineer topographic control detachment. 
This unit coordinates with the MMC to requisition 
any standard products to satisfy overprints or 
other special preparation of map products. If di- 
rected by local commanders, some engineer-produced 
special products may be assigned local control 
numbers and be stocked and distributed by the 
GSU map storage site. 


The DMA provides standard maps. Engineer car- 
tographic units in the theater update and, as nec- 
essary, prepare locally unique nonstandard maps. 
Requisitions for unclassified maps flow through 
supply channels to a QM map supply detachment. 
Requisitions for classified maps must be sent 
through S2 or G2 channels. The Quartermaster 
Corps proponent units are assuming the mission 
for the receipt, storage, and issue of standard maps 
and map products. 

Brigade Support Area 

Using units submit requests for maps to their 
supporting forward Class II, III packaged, IV, and 
VII supply point run by a supply company in the 

BSA. These requests are transmitted to the supply 
company in the DSA. 

Division Support Area 

Using units in the DSA submit requests to their 
Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII supply point 
run by supply company personnel. This company 
transmits requests to the DMMC. The DMMC 
may cut an MRO directing the issue or prepare and 
transmit requisitions to the CMMC. Battalion S2s 
verify, consolidate, and transmit requisitions for 
classified maps to the division G2, who may then 
send the requisitions to the corps G2. 

Corps Rear Area 

In the corps, personnel in QM general supply 
companies run a corps map supply point. Requisi- 
tions which cannot be filled in the corps are sent 
to the TAMMC. 

Communications Zone 

All units in the COMMZ submit requisitions for 
maps through their supporting DSU in the same 
manner as units in the corps rear areas. If the 
theater is developed enough to have a TAMMC, it 
acts as the item manager for maps. DMA may 
operate one or more map depots in the area in 
peacetime and will continue to operate them in 
war. The theater army map depot may be collo- 
cated with the DMA theater depot. In order to 
satisfy requisitions, DMA may procure maps from 
allied or other sources or draw from CONUS depots. 

Section IV 


There are nearly 4,000 Class IV items in the 
AMDF. They range from construction materials, 
such as nails and lumber, to fortification and 
barrier materials such as blackout curtains and 
barbed wire. Class IV items are often bulky and 
are often required in large quantities. They are 
often under the control of engineer construction orga- 
nizations. Most Class IV construction supplies are 

procured by the Defense Construction Supply 
Center of the Defense Logistics Agency. 


The GS supply base maintains 4 to 10 days of 
Class IV supplies plus OST. Requirements for 
items such as bridge equipment are based on 
barrier plans. Requests for such items normally 


FM 10-27 

require command approval. CTA 50-970 authorizes 
basis of issue allowances for Class IV items. 

Consumption Rates 

FM 101-10-1/2 sets 8.5 pounds per person per day 
as the Class IV consumption rate. When the force 
is a corps or larger, the consumption rate used 
must be adjusted to allow for the buildup of stocks 
to support base development and to repair war 
damage to critical facilities. For each of the following 
periods, multiply the 8.5 rate by the factor shown: 



D-Day to D+30 


D+31 to D+60 


D+61 to D+90 


D+91 to D+120 


D+121 to D+150 


D+151 to D+180 


D+181 and after 


More Class IV consumption rate data are available 
from the proponents. 


Major commands determine which units must 
maintain a basic load of Class IV items for war. 
Up to 15 days of expendable Class IV operational 
load items listed in CTA 50-970 may also be 
stocked. If transportation is available, operational 
load items may be moved into combat. The com- 
mander is responsible for any durable items. 

Responsibility for durable items is assigned on hand 
receipts. Records of responsibility are not maintained 
on expendable items. Since the basic load must be 
on hand or on order at all times, replenish Class IV 
basic load items as they are used. Class IV basic 
load items are not maintained on property books. 
Records of demands, however, must be kept on 
basic load items. A copy of the initial basic load 
list for Class IV items must be sent to the SSA. 
Changes found during the first and every other 
periodic review must also be sent to the SSA. A 
new list should be prepared for the using unit 
commander's approval and sent to the SSA after 
the second and every other review. 


AR 710-2, Chapter 2, prescribes Class IV inven- 
tory requirements. Basic loads of Class IV sup- 
plies must be inventoried during the regularly 
scheduled review period. Durable items in opera- 
tional loads must be inventoried annually or upon 
change of responsibility, whichever occurs first. 
Inventories are not required for expendable items 
in operational loads. In war, using units may 
inventory unit property to assess status and on- 
hand quantity. However, units do not need to 
document the inventory. SSAs may conduct a 
cyclic inventory if the situation allows. SSA in- 
ventory discrepancies must be recorded. How- 
ever, they do not need to be reported. 

Section V 


Maintenance-related Class II items are distributed 
by ALOC. See | Chapter l.| All other Class II items 
are sent by sea or surface transportation. Their 
distribution depends on the type of item. 

Clothing and Individual Equipment 

DS or GS supply units replenish Class II stocks in 
the corps and COMMZ. 


There are two separate distribution channels for 
maps. These distribution channels have been dis- 
cussed previously in this chapter. 

Other Class II Items 

SSSCs provide expendable Class II items. DSUs 
and GSUs provide nonexpendable TOE items. 


FM 10-27 


Class IV distribution is supported by the DSS 
concept of direct delivery from one of three 
CONUS wholesale depots to a DS or GS unit. 
Class IV items are distributed by surface means. 
They are shipped to the theater and then trans- 
ported by rail or vehicle to a theater army GSU for 
replenishment issue. 

Controlled Items 

CTA 50-970 durable items must be controlled. 
Class IV regulated items are controlled through 
command channels. Users send requests through 
intermediate commands to the approving com- 
mander. The MMC tells the approving commander 
if the item is available. After command approval, 
the MMC issues an MRO for the storage unit to 
transport the item to the user. 

Noncontrolled Items 

Requests for noncontrolled Class IV items are 
sent to the CMMC. If the items are on hand, the 
MMC sends an MRO to the supplying unit to issue 
the item. When the items are not on hand, a 
requisition is sent to the TAMMC. 


The major GS supplier for Class II and IV is the 
QM general supply company. It also maintains a 
portion of the reserve stocks. In the heavy or 
infantry divisions, the S&S company, MSB, pro- 
vides Class II and IV supplies to supported units 
in the DSA. The supply company, FSB, provides 
these supplies in the BSA. In the light divisions, 
the headquarters and supply company, MSB, pro- 
vides supplies in the DSA. The headquarters and 
supply company, FSB, provides supplies in the 
BSA. The S&T company supports separate bri- 
gades. The S&T troop supports the ACR. The QM 
supply company, DS, supports nondi visional 
troops in the corps rear and division areas. For 
more details, including the amount of support in 
each class, see FM 10-27-2, Chapter 2. 


Forward units are supported by forward supply points. 
The DMMC determines the types and quantities of 

items to be stored. Forward supply points gener- 
ally maintain fast-moving items only. Other items 
are held in the DSA. As a rule, the DMMC sends 
an MRO to the supply point directing it to issue an 
item. However, if authorized, main supply points 
may fill high-priority requests, then notify the 
DMMC of the issue. The number and location of 
supply points may vary. However, a division is 
usually organized with three forward points and 
one main point. 

Forward Supply Points 

There is a forward supply point in each BSA. 
These points are operated by elements of the 
DISCOM, normally by the supply company, FSB. 
Separate brigades submit requisitions to the bri- 
gade MMC. Divisions send requisitions to the 
DMMC. Local policy may require that requests be 
sent through the FSB. 

Main Supply Point 

Supply companies set up a main supply point in 
the DSA. This supply point supports divisional 
units in the DSA. It also replenishes stocks in 
forward supply points in the BSA. Divisional 
units in the DSA send requests to the main supply 
point which, in turn, sends the requests to the 
DMMC. DS supply companies, corps support bat- 
talions, set up a Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII 
point in the division area and throughout the corps 
rear area in support of nondi visional forces. 
Nondivisional units send requests to their sup- 
porting supply point. The supply point forwards 
requisitions to the CMMC. 

Storage Methods 

Depending on the tactical situation and transpor- 
tation assets, supply points may store supplies 
using one or more methods. In the unit pile method, 
supplies are grouped in piles according to the unit 
making the request. Unit trucks stop at the proper 
pile. The customer loads and signs for the sup- 
plies. In the item pile method, supplies of one type 
are stored in one location. Trucks can then move 
through the supply point for the unit soldiers to pick up 
each type of item requested. In the truck-to-truck 


FM 10-27 

method, supplies are passed directly from the 
truck delivering to the main supply point to the 
truck that will deliver supplies to forward supply 
points or supported units. This method keeps sup- 
plies under cover, allows for complete mobility, 
and saves time and handling. However, it may tie 
up transportation. 

Distribution Methods 

Supplies may be distributed by supply point dis- 
tribution or unit distribution. Though the unit 
distribution method is preferred, a combination of 
supply point distribution and unit distribution 
may be used to distribute supplies. 

Supply point distribution. The receiving unit is 
issued supplies at a supply point. The receiving 
unit moves the supplies in its organic vehicles. 

Unit distribution. The receiving unit is issued 
supplies in its own area. Transportation is pro- 
vided by the issuing agency. 


Clothing may be exchanged at clothing exchange 
points, CEB points, or unit supply sections. FM 10-27-2, 
Chapter 1, lists the sources of clothing exchange 
in a theater of operations. If exchange facilities 
are not available, clothing may be exchanged 
directly with a DSU. Clothing exchange facilities 
obtain initial exchange stocks and replacements 
for unserviceable items through standard Class II chan- 
nels. Details on CEB operations are in FM 10-280. 


Salvage is property that has some value beyond 
that of its basic material content, is not economi- 
cally reparable, and can no longer be used for its 
intended purpose. Salvage items include items 
that are discarded, captured, uneconomically repa- 
rable, condemned, abandoned, and scrapped. Sal- 
vage collection points are an alternate source of 
items which can be placed back into the supply 
system for reissue. As a rule, the Class II, III 
packaged, IV, and VII sections operate the divi- 
sion or brigade collection point. It is often located 
near the maintenance collection point. It receives 

all salvage materiel for which maintenance units 
do not have maintenance responsibility. It re- 
ceives nonmechanical and nonelectrical items such 
as clothing, tentage, and individual equipment. A 
large part of this type of salvage is generated by 
recovering unneeded clothing and individual 
equipment from casualties. Medical clearing sta- 
tions should return these items to supply channels 
for processing and reissue. A salvage collection 
point does not receive toxic agents, radioactive materi- 
als, aircraft, ammunition and explosives, COMSEC 
equipment, and medical supplies. Units should bring 
salvage materiel to the salvage collection point. 


When receiving materiel, soldiers at the collection 
point should check the item and its condition against 
the information shown on the turn-in document. 


Identify, classify, and segregate the items. Sal- 
vage collection points in the BSA depend on 
points in the DSA for final identification and 
classification of items. If you are in the DSA, 
identify the item using technical publications. 
Determine if the item is serviceable or 
unserviceable. Protect serviceable items by using 
tents, dunnage, and tarpaulins. Secure the items 
by providing continuous surveillance. Segregate 
items in the holding area by serviceable and 
unserviceable scrap and waste. 


Dispose of items based on guidance from the 
DMMC. In forward areas, use trucks that bring 
supplies to the forward supply point to send mate- 
rial back to the DSA supply point. Send reparable 
items to the maintenance shop. Send serviceable 
clothing and canvas to the laundry and renovation 
platoon. The division intelligence officer should 
provide you with disposition instructions for foreign or 
captured materials. Evacuate unreparable and scrap 
items through salvage channels to a property disposal 
unit. Send a copy of the turn-in document and a copy of 
DD Form 1348-1 to the DMMC. Use AR 725-50. 


FM 10-27 


Figures 3-l| , page 3-11, and ) 3-4 page 3-12, show 
the flow of requisitions for Class II, III packaged, 
and IV supplies not delivered by ALOC during the 
transition-to-war phase and during sustained war. 
During the transition phase, control of theater 
army pre-positioned war reserve stocks in corps 
rear areas shifts to the corps. High-priority re- 
quests for Class IV supplies and NMCS requisi- 
tions for Class IV supplies may be filled from in- 
theater war reserves maintained in corps and 
TAACOM GSUs. During sustained war, CONUS 
war reserves and CONUS depots are used to re- 
plenish the 30-day sustaining stocks stored in 
TAACOM GSUs. Maintenance-related Class II 
items other than heavy tonnage items are provided 
by the ALOC. Certain Class IV items are selected 
as controlled items. Requests for controlled items 
require command approval before items can be 
issued. All other Class II and IV items are shipped 
by ship, rail, or truck. 

Brigade Support Area 

Users submit DA Forms 2765 directly to the for- 
ward supply point. If the supplies are on hand, the 
requests are filled. Once the supplies are issued, 
the supply point forwards all requests to the DMMC 
(or separate brigade or regiment MMC) of the issue 
transaction. To maintain mobility, forward supply points 
maintain minimal stocks on hand. If an item is not 
available at a main supply point in the DSA, the 
DMMC prepares and sends a requisition to the CMMC. 

Division Support Area 

Divisional units in the DSA send their requests to 
the Class II, III packaged, IV, and VII supply 
point run by the headquarters and supply company 
or S&S company. Nondivisional units send their 
requests to the QM supply company, DS. If possible, 
the supply point fills the request and annotates the 
request to notify the DMMC of the issue. It forwards all 
requests to the DMMC. The DMMC forwards requests 
for controlled items to the next-higher MMC. For 

noncontrolled items, the MMC performs a search 
of its magnetic tapes or disks. If the item is on 
hand, the MMC cuts an MRO. It sends the MRO to 
the supply point in the DSA and a copy to the 
requester. Depending on organic transportation 
assets, the supply point transports supplies to the 
requester or to a forward supply point. Users in the 
division rear usually go to the DSA supply point 
to pickup supplies. If the item is not on hand in the 
DSA, the DMMC prepares a requisition and sends 
it to the CMMC. It also prepares receipt cards for 
each request. It sends one copy to the requesting 
unit and one to the supply point. Corps transpor- 
tation assets usually deliver Class II and IV sup- 
plies to the division supply point. If the situation 
permits, supplies are delivered to the forward 
supply point in the BSA or to the requesting unit. 
Oversize Class IV loads maybe delivered directly 
to the construction site. 

Corps Rear Area 

Nondivisional units in the corps rear area send 
their requests to the QM supply company, DS, 
which, in turn, forwards the requests to the CMMC. 
The CMMC, in turn, forwards requests for con- 
trolled Class IV items to the TAMMC. The CMMC 
prepares and transmits daily replenishment requi- 
sitions to the TAMMC. The quantity ordered must 
be sufficient to fill the RO plus back orders. If the 
item is on hand in the corps rear area, the CMMC 
will normally cut an MRO directing a QM supply 
company, DS, to issue the item to the requesting 
unit. If the item is not on hand in the supporting 
DSU, the MMC may cut an MRO directing a 
lateral issue or an issue from the QM supply 
company, GS. The CMMC coordinates movement 
requirements with the CMCC. After the item is 
issued, the DSU or GSU sends an activity sum- 
mary back to the CMMC. If the item is not on hand 
in the corps, the CMMC prepares a requisition and 
sends it to the TAMMC. 


FM 10-27 

Figure 3-1. Request and delivery of Class II, III packaged, 
and IV supplies from CONUS to COMMZ 


FM 10-27 

Figure 3-2. Request and delivery of Class II, III packaged, 
and IV supplies from division to user 


FM 10-27 

Communications Zone 

QM supply companies, DS, support nondivisional 
units in the COMMZ as well as units passing 
through the COMMZ. Units send requests through 
their supporting QM supply company, DS, to the 
TAACOM MMC. That MMC submits daily re- 
plenishment requisitions to the TAMMC. The 
TAACOM MMC also transmits requests for con- 
trolled Class IV items to the TAMMC. The 
TAMMC searches its files to determine if the 
controlled item is on hand in a TAACOM DSU or 
GSU. If the item is on hand, the TAACOM MMC 
cuts an MRO directing the supporting QM supply 
company, DS, to issue the item to the requesting 
unit. If the company does not have the item, the 
TAACOM MMC may cut an MRO directing a 
lateral issue from another DSU or issue from a QM 
supply company, GS. If the item is not on hand in 
a TAACOM unit, the TAMMC prepares and trans- 
mits a requisition to the appropriate NICP. The 
NICP sends requisitions for controlled items to 
the TAMMC. That MMC maintains records on 30 
days of Class II and IV items stored in QM supply 
companies, GS, throughout the COMMZ. Depend- 
ing on the situation, the TAMMC may cut an MRO 
directing a QM supply company, GS, to issue the 
item to a QM supply company, DS, in the COMMZ 
or to a QM supply company, GS, in the corps. The 

TAMMC may also prepare and transmit a requisition 
to the appropriate CONUS NICP. 

Distribution Flow from CONUS 

The NICP cuts an MRO directing a CONUS depot 
to release the item. Normally, the item is then 
shipped to a QM supply company, GS, in the 
COMMZ. Depending on the tactical situation and 
available transportation assets, the item may be 
sent on truck or rail as far forward into the theater 
as possible. However, surface throughput to DSUs 
or GSUs is expected only 20 percent of the time. 


The automatic return items program expedites the 
retrograde of selected secondary items in critical 
stock positions that are considered as being recover- 
able. An automatic return items list is distributed 
quarterly with the AMDF. CD A Pamphlet 18-1-5 
describes codes on that list. Disposition instructions 
from commodity managers are not needed for auto- 
matic return items. Due to their critical asset positions, 
automatic return items will be returned to CONUS 
depots or repair facilities without prior receipt of dispo- 
sition instructions. Items coded "E" for "expedite" 
must be returned on premium transportation. Credit is 
given for the return of Army stock find items. For more 
details, see AR 725-50 and AR710-1, Chapter 3. 

Section VI 


The major wholesale supplier of Class III pack- 
aged is the QM supply company, DS. As a rule, 
Class III packaged is received, stored, and issued 
with Class II, IV, and VII in a Class II III pack- 
aged, IV, and VII section. See page 3-8 for infor- 
mation on theater sources of Class 11 and IV items. 
NOTE: Both the petroleum supply company and 
the petroleum pipeline and terminal operating 
company are authorized FARE. FARE may be 
used to fill 5-gallon cans, 55-gallon drums, and 
500-gallon collapsible drums from supplies of 

bulk fuel. In this sense, these companies provide 
Class III packaged supplies. However, since they 
do not provide lubricants and oils, they do not 
have a true Class III packaged supply mission. For 
details on the amount of support in the sections in 
each of these companies, see FM 10-27-2, Chapter 2. 


If lubricants are required in large quantities, sup- 
port battalions may periodically forecast needs 


FM 10-27 

and forward stock status reports from supply points 
to the DMMC. The DMMC then uses these status 
reports to compute overall requirements for the 
division. When Class III packaged products are 
used in small quantities, they are requested or 
requisitioned like Class II and IV items. FM 10-1, 
Chapter 5, details the requisition and materiel 
flow for Class III packaged supplies in a theater. 


Use advance copies of DD Form 1348-1 to plan for 
the receipt of Class III packaged items. After these 
items are received, check containers for leaks, 
illegible or improper markings, or incorrect pack- 
aging. Receiving tests are unnecessary if contain- 
ers have no leaks and markings properly identify the 
products. However, upon receipt of pre-positioned 
war reserve stocks of packaged petroleum prod- 
ucts, reserve storage activities must take samples 
and prepare DD Forms 1222 and 1225. Damaged 
containers should be issued immediately and not 
returned to the supplier. Containers of positively 
identified products should be remarked. If the 
contents cannot be identified, a sample should be 
sent to the petroleum laboratory. 


Procedures and instructions for storing Class III 
packaged products are described in MIL-HDBK 201 
and in FM 10-69, Chapter 16. Improper storage 
can lead to contamination of the product because 
of deterioration or corrosion of the c ontainer and 
can result in a possible fire hazard. iTahle 3-2 

page 3-15, lists storage concerns for packaged 
products. If a gasoline can is leaking or looks as 
though it might leak, transfer the product to an- 
other container. Store only one product in each 
storage section, and store the product so that the 
oldest is issued first. DOD 4145.19-R-l, Chapter 
2, discusses covered storage and the use of bins, 

shelves, metal pallets (for storage of small lot 
items), and racks. 

Stacking of Cans and Drums 

Provide stacking areas for each product and type 
of package. This aids inventory control and cor- 
rect labeling of products. The layout and size of 
the stacking area are determined by local condi- 
tions, safety requirements, and container size. 
Separate stacks of a single product so that the entire 
stock of one product is not lost during attack or fire. See 
FM 10-69 for more details on stacking. 

Storage of Packaged 
Lubricants and Grease 

Packaged lubricating oil and grease should gener- 
ally be stored indoors. When storage buildings are 
unavailable, packaged lubricants and grease may 
be stored outdoors if they are protected by tarpau- 
lins. DOD 4145. 19-R-l, Chapter 5, provides de- 
tails for storing lubricating oil, grease, and paint. 


Place special emphasis on inspection of petroleum 
stocks and storage areas. Inspect containers for 
war reserve stocks semiannually using statistical 
sampling methods. Inspect containers for other 
petroleum stocks. As a part of a quality surveil- 
lance program, petroleum personnel must periodi- 
cally inspect the storage areas set up by supply sections. 
MIL-HDBK 200 prescribes inspection frequencies. 

Field Markings 

Mark packaged fuels and lubricants in line with 
instructions in MIL-STD-290 or according to pro- 
visions of the procurement contract. Mark con- 
tainers transported by military aircraft according 
to TM 38-250. To make sure 500-gallon collaps- 
ible drums used for fuel are not used for water, 
mark them "FLAMMABLE." Mark each con- 
tainer with a standard nomenclature or short identi- 
fication of the product. The designations authorized for 
field use include MOGAS, AVGAS, JP, and DF. 


FM 10-27 

Table 3-2. Storage concerns for Class III packaged products 

* Were containers inspected before being placed in storage? 

* Are drums stored on their sides? 

NOTE: Drums should never be stored on end outdoors. Rainwater can collect 
on drum heads, rust container tops, seep through bungs, and contaminate the 

* Do drums stored on dunnage have proper blocking and bracing? 

* When drums are stored in double rows, do the bungs and vents face outward? 
This makes it easier to detect leaks. 

* Are containers smaller than 55-gal!on drums stored under cover? 

NOTE: In an emergency situation when these containers must be stored 
outside, they must be covered with tarpaulins and stored off the ground on 
pallets or dunnage. 

* Are different products and grades stored separately? 

* Were stocks rotated so that the oldest product is issued first? 

* Are stocks with similar dates of filling stored together? Petroleum products 
should be stored in sections by product date and batch number. 

* Are packaged products which were opened for spot-checking or storage 
control tests marked to show that they had been opened previously? 

* Are opened containers issued or their contents used as soon as possible? 

* Are stained cartons marked to indicate that leaking containers have been 
removed? This will prevent reinspection. 


FM 10-27 

Loading Procedures 

FM 10-69, Chapter 16, has details on loading 
procedures. Products transported by aircraft must 
be packaged and handled according to TM 38-250. 
Equip transport vehicles with a 10-B-C fire extin- 
guisher or one of greater capacity. Tie and brace 
containers so that they will not shift or become 
damaged during transit. This means that supply 
point personnel may need to build braces and to 
fill slack space with planks or dunnage to ensure 
stacks are stable. Railcar doorways should be 
protected with wooden gates. Dunnage should be 

placed between tiers of 5 -gallon cans and between 
tiers of drums. 


Methods for delivering packaged petroleum prod- 
ucts to dispensing points vary with terrain, tacti- 
cal situation, type and quantity of product, and 
transportation resources available. The products are 
delivered in vehicles and tank cars. Petroleum products 
that are stored in drums, cans, cylinders, and pails can 
be transported by standard military vehicles or railcars. 
Air transport should be used as an emergency measure. 

Section VII 


Class III packaged items include liquid and com- 
pressed gases. The major requirement is for cylin- 
ders of oxygen, acetylene, and nitrogen gases. 
Most requirements come from maintenance ac- 
tivities. Oxygen and acetylene gases are standard 
motor pool shop stock items. Repairers require 
these gases for welding and fabrication. Each 
wrecker truck carries a bottle of oxygen and acety- 
lene required to cut through metal in support of 
recovery operations. Oxygen and nitrogen are re- 
quired to maintain optical sight instruments on tanks. 


In peacetime, obtain containers of compressed 
gases through local purchase. Contractors refill 
empty cylinders. However, local purchase and 
contractor refill may not be possible during war- 
time. Therefore, cylinders of compressed gases 
need to be shipped full to a theater. In wartime, the 
QM supply companies supply compressed gas 
containers. Submit requisitions through your sup- 
porting DSU to the appropriate MMC. As Class III 
packaged supplies, compressed gases are distrib- 
uted through Class II and IV channels. TSection V 

describes the distribution of Class II and IV supplies. 


Gases may be flammable or explosive. Handle 
with extreme care. They are compressed in containers 
under pressures exceeding 40 to 104 pounds per 
square inch. Contact with fire, sparks, or electri- 
cal circuits can cause the gas cylinder to explode. 
Such an explosion can be as destructive as a bomb 
explosion. Continuous exposure to large quanti- 
ties of some gases can induce a drug-like sleep, 
irritate the surface tissue of the breathing passage, 
constrict the respiratory tract, and cause death. 
Large quantities of nitrogen can cause suffoca- 
tion. Acetylene, in particular, is extremely flam- 
mable. Proper protective equipment must be worn 
when entering areas known to be contaminated 
with gases. 


Gas cylinders must be identified by a color code 
according to MIL-STD-101. The color code for 
oxygen is green and for acetylene is yellow. Gases 
must be identified by their proper name, not merely 
as "gas." Flammable gases must be identified as 
flammable. Filled cylinders must be tagged or 
labeled with the stock number of the gas and the 
stock number of the cylinder. Do not alter or 
deface stock numbers and markings stamped on 


FM 10-27 

gas cylinders. Tags on empty cylinders must be and handling them. All cylinders must be considered 

overstamped "MT." Do not apply additional full. Therefore, store and handle them with extreme 

markings without proper approval. care. Use precautions, particularly with regard to cylin- 

STORAGE AND HANDLING der valves, storage separation requirements, and move- 

PRECAUTIONS ment by MHE. DOD 4145.19-R-l, Chapter 5, has 

Due to the hazardous nature of compressed gases, a storage criteria for open-sided and enclosed sheds used 

number of precautions must be observed when storing to store gas cylinders. 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


A major end item is a final combination of end products 
which is ready to use. Major items are 1 percent of the 
total line items but 80 percent of the total dollar value of 
the Army inventory. Because of their cost and importance 
to combat readiness, major items are often controlled 
through command channels. They include aircraft, tanks, 
trucks, and weapons systems. They represent the largest 
portion of the Army's dollar investment. The 
requisitioning, procurement, distribution, maintenance, 
and disposal of these items are intensely managed at 
each support level to ensure operational readiness. 
Worldwide requirements for major items are individually 
specified, computed, and programmed to meet the 
requirements of current or future force structures. 

Major Item Criteria 

To be classified and managed as a major item, an item 
must meet certain criteria or fall into a category exempt 
from these criteria. The criteria are as follows: 

Activity Code. The item must have an appropriation and 
budget activity code of "A" through U Q" and be in 
supply Class VII. 

Control Code. Equipment end items must have a 
reportable item control code of 1, 2, or 3. 

Other Criteria. The line item must cost $1,000 or more, 
the total inventory or programmed acquisition amount 
must be greater than $900,000, or a DA-level budget line 
must be required for the item. The following items are 
designated as major items without having to meet the 
above criteria: 

• All motorized, wheeled, and towed vehicles for 
use on highways or rough terrain. 

• All weapon and missile end items. 

• All aircraft end items. 

•All boats or ships with inboard power or with a 
unit value of $1,000. 

'All sets, assemblies, or end items which have 
one or more major items as components. 

Requisitioning Procedures 

Requisitioning procedures are outlined in ARs 700-120 
and 725-50 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. There are no 
requirements to submit requisitions for aircraft, aircraft 
subsystems, and selected missile system major items. 
HQDA distributes these items directly. 

Distribution of Major Items 

Major items are controlled and distributed according to 
carefully developed distribution plans and directions in 
ARs 11-11, 11-12, and 700-120. Distribution priorities 
are listed on the DA Master Priority List in AR 1 1-12. 


TRADOC develops mission profiles which project daily 
usage of selected end items. Usage is based on the initial 
15 days of combat. Usage is reported as miles driven, 
rounds fired, or hours flown. These profiles are used for 
many purposes, including development of Class IX 
requirements for combat. 


A loss is any incident that stops a major end item, such 
as a radio, vehicle, or tank from performing its assigned 
combat mission. The loss may result from combat 
damage, crew failure, or maintenance failure. Loss rates 
may vary. The rate of loss depends on such factors as 
theater of operations, type of operation, force structure, 
and intensity of battle. Other factors that effect battle 
losses are the ratio of enemy to friendly forces, troop 
training, equipment failures, and terrain obstacles. To 
cover such losses, the GS supply base maintains a stock 


FM 10-27 

of Class VII items equal to 10 percent of authorized end 
items in the corps or TAACOM. 


No two wars or engagements are ever fought under 
identical conditions. Environmental conditions vary 
throughout the world. The rate at which items are 
consumed varies according to the intensity and length of 
combat expected. Wartime replacement factors are used 
to compute combat consumption and to determine war 
reserve requirements for some allies. Replacement 
factors are based on the type of combat mission and the 
ways in which equipment might be lost in combat 
(enemy action, abandonment, or pilferage). They also 
include a combat-intensity factor tailored to the degree 
of consumption expected in each oversea area. Classified 
wartime replacement factors are available from the 
Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, ATTN: 
DAMO-FDL, Washington, DC 20310-0400. 


Weapons systems have a high priority for evacuation, 
repair, and transportation assets. Critical Class VII 
items are moved to covering force units. Transportation 
used for backhaul may have to be allocated to move 
critical weapons systems to the rear. Weapons systems 
replacements may be issued from pre-positioned war 
reserve stocks in the corps. Items must be ready for issue 
within a few hours. Weapons systems may also be sent 
from CONUS to a QM heavy materiel supply company, 
GS. From there, they are normally shipped to the 
division and then by heavy equipment transporter to the 
battalion. Though it is not a desirable procedure, 
motorized weapons systems may be driven under their 
own power. The DSA is the primary linkup point for 
weapons systems and crew. At the linkup, the weapon 
system and the crew are joined and briefed. Weapons 
systems must arrive in the DSA in a ready-to-fight 
condition. If the tactical situation prevents linkup in the 
DSA, linkup may occur at QM heavy materiel supply 
companies in the corps. A WSM is normally assigned to 
each level of command. The extent of control depends 
on the level of command. Details are in FM 63-2. 


The battalion executive officer serves as the WSM. The 
S3 recommends allocations for replacement weapons 

systems. Allocation is based on tactical priorities set by 
the battalion commander, SI strength reports on weapons 
crews, and S4 reports on available assets. The WSM 
matches available end items and personnel to maximize 
the number of available weapons systems within the 
battalion. Combat loss and asset data are provided in S4 
logistics status reports. These are updated by spot battle- 
loss reports. 

Since the division provides weapons systems directly to 
the battalions, the brigade is not normally involved in 
allocating weapons systems. The brigade executive 
officer may act as the WSM for the brigade. 


The DISCOM commander designates a WSM for the 
division. He is usually the ADMMO. The DMMC 
property book Class VII section keeps the WSM advised 
of the status of weapons systems components. The 
WSM must also coordinate with the maintenance 
management officer regarding the status of items being 
repaired in DS maintenance units. Allocation priorities 
are set by the division commander. 


The WSM is the COSCOM's weapons systems 
branch chief. Priorities are set by the corps 
commander who normally accepts the priorities 
set by the major unit commanders. 


In the light infantry divisions only, the ORF is a pool of 
additional end items or components in DS maintenance 
units. ORF items are issued only when items cannot be 
repaired in established time limits to meet the supported 
unit's needs. Serviceable ORF items are exchanged for 
like unserviceable but reparable end items. The exchange 
is a property book transaction. The unserviceable item 
then becomes a float item that requires immediate repair. 
The item is issued only if the maintenance request has a 
PD of 01 through 06 and the repair time is expected to 
exceed maximum allowable repair time limits. The 
theater commander prescribes wartime repair limits. 
AR 750-1 prescribes ORF policy. Because of the 
temptation to misuse ORF assets, AR 710-2 sets 


FM 10-27 

restrictions on when these items can be used. Essentially, 
ORF items cannot be used to replace a supply shortage. 

Issue Controls 

Issue of ORF items is rigidly controlled. Levels of 
control include the- 

• Theater, corps, or DISCOM commander who 
establishes policies and procedures for control and use 
of ORF stocks. 

• Separate brigade or division commander who 
establishes the stockage level within limitations outlined 
by higher headquarters. 

• MMC which maintains the ORF lists. 

• Nondivisional maintenance company shop officer 
and SSA accountable officer managing the ORF within 
the policies and guidelines of MACOM commanders. 

Stockage Criteria 

AR 750-1, Chapter 6, lists ORF stockage criteria. HQDA 
decides which items are eligible for stockage. An ORF 
item must be a principal item selected for war reserve 
stockage. It must have a line item number and be listed in 
SB 710-1-1. Commodity commands select end items for 
ORF support. Stockage policy for ORF items differs from 
that for other items. Formulas used to compute wartime 
requirements are in AR 750-1 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. 

Section II 


Class VII supplies include nearly 9,000 line items. 
These are authorized by TOEs or MTOEs and CTAs. 
About 20,000 NSNs for Class VII items are listed on the 
AMDF. All items are ready for their intended use. 


Class VII items are stocked and distributed in support of 
TOEs for existing forces. The demand for these items 
depends on the intensity of battle. Replacement is based 
on combat losses. The sustaining level for Class VII 
supplies is 10 percent of the authorized end items in the 
corps or TAACOM. Requests for additional or 
replacement Class VII items are generally based on TOE 
or other authorization documents. Requests may be 
processed through command channels. 

Consumption Rates 

Use consumption rates when estimating supply 
and storage requirements. These requirements may 
vary depending on force structure, mission, areas 
of operation, and intensity of combat. FM 101-10-1/1 
sets the consumption rate for Class VII at 15 
pounds per person per day. More current rates may 
be available from the Commander, US Army 

Combined Arms Support Command, ATTN: 
ATCL-OPF, Fort Lee, VA 23801-6000. 


AR 710-2 sets policy for inventories at the user and retail 
levels. Components must be inventoried when the end 
item is inventoried. Additional inventory requirements 
are based on events or the type of item. 

Event-Oriented Inventory Requirements 

Items must be inventoried upon- 

• Receipt, turn-in, or issue of the items. 

• Change of responsible officer. 

• Change of custody of arms storage facility. 

• Direction of the commander. 

• Annual responsible officer inventory. 

• Annual property book inventory. 

Weapons and Serial Number Inventory 

Weapons must be inventoried monthly by serial number. 
Also, serial numbers must be compared quarterly with 
those recorded on the property book. 

Sensitive and Pilferable Item Inventory 

All sensitive items other than weapons and ammunition 
must be inventoried quarterly. Items to be inventoried 


FM 10-27 

are identified with a physical security code of "1" 
through "6," "8," "9," "Q," "R," or "Y." The 

hand-receipt holder or subhand-receipt holder must 
inventory sensitive items listed on hand receipts or 
subhand receipts. The property book officer must 
inventory those items not listed on hand receipts. 

Wartime Requirements 

Inventories during wartime must be conducted as time 
allows. Any discrepancies found have to be recorded, 
but they do not have to be reported. SSAs should 
conduct only cyclic inventories. Using units may 
perform inventories to determine quantities on 
hand and property conditions. 

Section III 


The QM heavy materiel supply company receives, 
stores, and issues GS-level Class VII supplies in the 
corps and COMMZ. DS supply companies employed in 
the division area, corps rear area, and COMMZ provide 
DS-level Class VII supply. In the heavy or infantry 
divisions, the S&S company, MSB, provides Class VII 
supplies to supported units in the DSA. The supply 
company, FSB, provides these supplies in the BSA. In 
the light divisions, the headquarters and supply company, 
MSB, provides supplies in the DSA. The headquarter 
and supply company, FSB, provides supplies in the 
BSA. The S&T company supports separate brigades and 
the S&T troop supports the ACR. For more details, 
including the amount of support, see FM 10-27-2. 


Figures 4-1 , page 4-5, and[33L page 4-6, show the 
requisition and distribution flow of Class VII items 
during transition-to-war and sustained- war phases. 
During the transition phase, combat losses are replaced 
from theater war reserves released to the corps. During 
the sustained-war phase, stocks from CONUS war 
reserves and CONUS depots are used to replenish the 
30-day sustaining stocks in TAACOM GSUs. During 
the transition phase, MMCs base replenishment DSU 
and GSU requisitions on anticipated combat losses and 
combat-loss reports. During the sustained- war phase, 
MMCs compute replenishment requisitions based on 
accumulated demand history. Because of their 
importance, selected Class VII weapons systems are 
controlled by the TAMMC. All requirements for 
controlled items must go through the TAMMC. 

Requisitions for controlled items flow from the DMMC 
to the CMMC. CMMCs and TAACOM MMCs forward 
requisitions for controlled items to the TAMMC. 

Division Support Area 

The property book officer in the DMMC is the major 
item manager in the division. He redistributes assets in 
the division to minimize shortages and requisitions from 
higher sources of supply to fill only those requirements 
which cannot be satisfied internally. 

Corps Rear Area 

Nondivisional units in the corps submit requests for 
Class VII supplies to their supporting DS supply 
company. This company transmits the requests to the 
CMMC. The CMMC also receives Class VII requests 
from divisional MMCs and separate brigade and regiment 
MMCs. Requisitions for controlled items are transmitted 
to the TAMMC. Corps DSUs and GSUs do not submit 
replenishment requisitions. The CMMC maintains 
accountable records, keeps track of their reorder points, 
and transmits replenishment requisitions, as necessary, 
to the TAMMC. The CMMC submits a daily battle-loss 
report to the TAMMC for end items issued from the GS 
supply base to replace battle losses. It submits requisitions 
to the TAMMC to replace Class VII items turned in to 
echelons above corps for maintenance. 

Item on hand. If the item is on hand in the QM heavy 
materiel supply company and is not a controlled item, 
the CMMC cuts an MRO directing the issue. Depending 
on transportation assets, the unit may send one of its own 
vehicles to the company to pick up the item. Arrange 
other transportation through the corps MCC. 


FM 10-27 

Figure 4-1. Request for and distribution of Class VII supplies at echelons above division 


FM 10-27 

Figure 4-2. Request for and delivery of Class VII supplies from division to user 


FM 10-27 

Item not on hand. When the item is not on hand 
in the supporting QM heavy materiel supply com- 
pany, the CMMC passes the request to the 
TAMMC. The TAMMC either directs issue from 
a TA QM heavy materiel supply company to the 
corps QM heavy materiel supply company, or, if 
stocks are not on hand, it passes the requisition to 
the CONUS NICP. The NICP directs release from 
the appropriate depot, and the depot ships stocks 
to the CONUS A/SPOE. The A/SPOE passes 
stocks to the A/SPOD where they are reprocessed 
and moved by surface transport to TA GSUs for 
issue to corps GSUs, or they are throughput from 
the A/SPOD directly to the consignee. 

Communications Zone 

Units in, or passing through, the COMMZ submit 
requests for Class VII supplies to their supporting DS 
supply company. That company transmits requests to 
the TAACOM MMC. The TAACOM MMC prepares 
and transmits requisitions for controlled Class VII items 
to the TAMMC. The TAACOM MMC submits daily 
battle-loss reports to the TAMMC for end items issued 
from GS support bases to replace battle losses. The 

TAMMC distributes Class VII assets based on the 
direction of the theater army commander. Twenty percent 
of the assets in the COMMZ QM heavy materiel supply 
company are maintenance return items. 

Item on hand. If the item is on hand in the support- 
ing QM heavy materiel supply company and not a 
controlled item, the TAACOM MMC cuts an MRO 
directing the issue. The TAACOM MCC coordinates 
assets used to transport the item to the unit. 

Item not on hand. If the item is not on hand, the 
TAACOM MMC prepares and transmits a requisition to 
the TAMMC. The TAMMC controls sustaining stocks 
stored in QM heavy materiel supply companies assigned 
to other TAACOMs. Depending on priority, the TAMMC 
may direct a different TAACOM' s QM heavy materiel 
supply company to issue the item to a QM heavy 
materiel supply company in the COMMZ or corps. It 
may also elect to transmit the requisition to the appropriate 
CONUS NICP. That NICP directs the issue from a 
CONUS depot. The item would then be shipped to a QM 
heavy materiel supply company. About 20 percent of 
such issues from a CONUS depot would be sent by rail 
or truck to GSUs and DSUs. 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


Repair parts make up 92 percent of the total Army 
inventory. The number of Class IX items stocked in 
CONUS or pre-positioned in the theater affects supply 
elements and maintenance and aviation units. Mainte- 
nance units must be able to obtain supplies to support 
maintenance activities. Aviation units deliver supplies 
and aid in the movement of supply units. The number, 
type, and size of supply items to be moved determine the 
vehicles needed. 


Class IX supply depends on ADP support. Each unit 
having a repair parts supply mission receives automated 
stock control support. In war, however, ADP systems are 
vulnerable to disruption, damage, and destruction. To 
ensure continued support, contingency or backup auto- 
mated procedures have been developed for DS4, SARSS, 
and SAILS. If automated support is not available in 
DS4, item managers should follow manual backup 
procedures in TM 38-L32-13. Supply personnel should 
follow manual procedures in DA Pamphlets 710-2-1 
and 710-2-2. Because an ADPE outage could result in a 
loss of records, the document control or stock control 
section should always maintain a backup of all transac- 
tion files and records. 


Major weapons systems and end items of equipment can 
be classified as NMCS. Repair parts may not be avail- 
able due to zero-balance conditions at a DSU or higher 
level of supply support. 

Reasons for a Zero Balance 

A zero balance may occur because of- 

• Excessive OST. 

• Document-processing time. 

• Inadequate ASL depth. 

• Inaccurate inventory. 

• Canceled requisitions. 

• Failure to review demand analysis trends in 

• DSU's lack of reconciliation with customers 
and sources of supply. 

• Delinquent contracts. 

Standard Army Maintenance 
System Reports 

Managers in divisional and nondivisional DS mainte- 
nance units which operate under SAMS have access to 
maintenance control reports. These reports enable shop 
managers, item managers in division and corps MMCs, 
and battalion commanders and their materiel staff officers to 
assess NMCS data and identify problem areas. The reports 
that help managers prevent zero balances are listed below. 

Battalion critical repair parts listing. Managers may 
use this listing to monitor work requests which are 
waiting for a given repair part. It helps managers 
identify the critical repair parts which require special 
management emphasis. 

Battalion work load status listing. Battalion staff officers 
or commodity managers may use this listing to follow 
the current status of a particular commodity or item in 
that commodity. Also, they may use it to determine 
abuse of the priority designator system and to identify 
items which are deadlined for parts. 

Battalion critical deadline detail listing. This listing 
can help managers monitor repair parts requisitions 
which exceed time limits outside parameters. 

Open work request reconciliation listing. This listing 
provides supported maintenance units with status and 
NMCS data. It can be used to check on work requests in 
each maintenance activity. 

Management Controls 

One of the most serious management concerns is the 
inability to obtain required repair parts immediately. To 


FM 10-27 

help reduce delays and prevent a zero balance, 
personnel can- 

• Check to be sure requests and work orders are 
filled out correctly. 

• Follow up repair parts requests. 

• Verify that the correct part has been ordered. If 
not, the unit should cancel the request and order the 
correct item. 

• Verify that the request has been received at the 
SSA and, if necessary, passed on to the higher source of 
supply. If not, the unit should reorder. 

• Check the AMDF for an interchangeable or a 
substitute NSN. If one exists, personnel should check 
the stock status of that item. 

• Determine if the part can be obtained locally or 
can be made. 

• Check on the possibility of using controlled 
exchange procedures. 

• Consider a cannibalization point or the DRMO 
as a source of supply. 

• Use up-to-date supply manuals and correct 
PDs and stock numbers to properly identify repair 
parts on requests. 

• Check to see if supply specialists have entered 
any required advice code on issue and turn-in documents. 

• Stress the need for follow-up and continual review. 

• Check the SSA to see if a like major item is 
available in ORF. 

Section II 


The ASL lists items that are stocked at an SSA. 
The ASL items stocked at the SSA should be fully 
uploaded in modular-equipment, deployment-storage 
containers or standard 8- by 8- by 20-foot contain- 
ers. The numbers of items stocked at SSAs must 
be kept to a minimum so that they can be mobile. 
AR 710-2, Chapter 1, sets ASL mobility objec- 
tives for DSUs and their supporting elements. 
SSAs should review their own ASLs regularly to 
identify items which could be deleted. Two types 
of ASLs are described below. 

Customer Direct Support ASL 

DSUs maintain these ASLs to support the DS 
maintenance mission and the PLLs of supported 
units. These ASLs are based primarily on demand. 

Customer General Support ASL 

COSCOMs and TAACOMs maintain this ASL for 
urgent peacetime readiness requirements, for protection 
against wartime pipeline interruptions (items delivered 
by ALOC), and for resupply to customers of items not 
delivered by ALOC. 


Every item on the ASL must be authorized for one of the 
reasons listed in AR 710-2, Chapter 3. AR 710-2, 
Chapter 3, describes stockage criteria used to add to, 
retain on, or delete items from the ASL and lays out 
policies used for computing depth of stockage. 
TM 38-L32-13 prescribes ASL addition and retention 
criteria for DSUs under DS4. TM 38-L03-19 describes 
SAILS stockage criteria. 


The ASL update is a subprocess of demand analysis in 
DS4. It is used to determine whether items should be 
retained on deleted from, or added to the ASL. All 
changes are identified on an ASL change list. TM 38-L32-13 
has more details on processing ASL changes. 


Combat ASLs are available for DSUs. The combat ASL 
includes repair parts and components to support DS 
combat maintenance. The combat ASL will cover all 
MPLs and demand-supported items on supported 
unit PLLs. 


FM 10-27 


The combat PLL consists of a mandatory stockage of 
repair parts needed for essential battlefield maintenance 
for a prescribed number of days in combat. These loads 
must be able to be moved into combat in one lift with 
organic transportation. These loads are also used to 
support peacetime demands. 

Prescribed Load List 

The PLL is a list of the authorized quantities of supplies 
required by a unit to do its daily unit maintenance. Units 
that are authorized personnel, tools, and equipment to 
perform maintenance maintain a prescribed load of 
repair parts. Units that regularly support other units 
without maintenance capabilities include the supported 
units' equipment in their PLL computations. PLL items 
must always be on hand or on request. PLLs must be on 
file in the using units and in the supporting SSA. 

Mandatory Parts Lists 

MPLs, which are published as DA pamphlets, are used 
to standardize the combat PLLs. The MPL is the man- 
datory portion of the standardized combat PLL. Parts on 
the MPL must be on hand or on order at all times. 


Demand-supported PLL stockage consists of 15 
DOS based on recurring demands for qualifying items. 
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1, Tables 8-3 through 8-7, can be 
used to calculate stockage levels when the total quan- 
tity demanded during a specific time period is known. 
These charts are also in TM 38-L32-1 1. Initial stockage 
levels must be calculated for newly activated units, con- 
solidating units, or units undergoing change. Unit person- 
nel can usually determine these levels by examining 
demand data from similar units which maintain identical 
equipment. If data are not available, units may request 
help by writing to the Commander, US Army Materiel 
Readiness Support Activity, ATTN: AMXMD-S, 
Lexington, KY 40511-5101. For medical equipment 

PLL data, write to the Commander, US Army 
Medical Materiel Agency, ATTN: SGMMA-M, 
Frederick, MD 21701-5101. 


Records are kept on demands and consumption of 
Class II, IV, VIII, and IX maintenance significant 
parts. Use AR 710-2. 

Unit Demand Summary Listing 

An automated unit demand summary list PCN AGL-C39, 
is prepared each month for units using DS4. It shows the 
number of demands and quantity of each item de- 
manded during the preceding six months. The unit 
commander should review this listing for possible 
changes to the PLL. 

Manual Procedure 

A manual listing of PLL additions, deletions, and 
stockage levels can also be made on DA Form 2063-R. 
The PLL clerk records on DA Form 3318 the quantities 
of items demanded and requested by the unit. Instruc- 
tions for the preparation and use of these forms are in 
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. The PLL clerk should enter on 
each PLL record the on-hand quantities and storage 
locations for all items in the PLL. 


TM 38-L32-11, Chapter 11, shows unit commanders 
and PLL clerks how to add, change, or delete PLL items 
using DS4. DA Pamphlet 710-2-1, Chapter 8, specifies 
manual procedures. In the automated system, a catalog 
update is produced monthly. This list shows changes in 
stock number, unit of issue, and quantity. A PLL change 
list, PCN AGL-C35, is produced each quarter. It lists 
numbers of demands and quantities demanded. It also 
identifies changes in PLL quantities, stock numbers, 
and AMDF data. The commander should review this list 
for approval, disapproval, or proposed modifications for 
each stock number line entry. 


FM 10-27 

Section III 


Shop stocks are demand-supported repair parts and 
consumable supplies stocked in a DS or GS mainte- 
nance activity. Since these supplies are issued to the 
maintenance unit, they are not part of an ASL. Shop 
stock supplies are to be used only by maintenance shops. 
They are not to be issued to supported units. Shop supply 
allows maintenance units to keep frequently used repair 
parts and expendable maintenance supplies on hand. It 
helps maintenance units avoid repair delays and reduces 
the number of supply transactions. FM 43-20, Chapter 
4, describes GS maintenance shop supply operations. 
The three types of shop stock supply are demand- 
supported, bench, and program stock. Different proce- 
dures apply to each type. Manual procedures for shop 
supply are described in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. Auto- 
mated procedures are covered in TM 38-L03-19 for 
SAILS and TM 38-L32-11 for DS4. 

Demand-Supported Shop Stock Supply 

Items are selected for demand-supported stockage when 
they are requested frequently (at least three requests in 
the initial 180 days and one demand every 180 days 
thereafter). Maintenance personnel request parts and 
supplies from the MMC or stock control activity. 

Bench Stock Supply 

Bench stock items are low-cost, consumable repair parts 
and supplies that are used by maintenance shop repair 
personnel at an unpredictable rate. The maintenance shop 
officer decides which items to stock based on how 
essential the items are to unit repair operations. AR 710-2 
authorizes both DS and GS units to maintain a 15-and 30- 
day stockage level of bench stocks. The supply officer 
helps the shop officer compute stockage levels for each 
item by using stock records which show the demand 
history for the items. 

Program Stock Supply 

Program stocks are those repair parts and mainte- 
nance supplies stocked by the shop supply section for 
programmed repairs. Program stock is used primarily 
by GS maintenance units to support scheduled overhaul 

programs. Use it to support maintenance of components 
or assemblies such as engines and transmissions. 
Stockage levels should be based on anticipated work 
loads and demand history from similar overhaul pro- 
grams. As a rule, stocks are requested six months before 
the start of the program. Retain items only as long as 
they are needed for the program. Turn in those not 
needed to the SSA as soon as possible. 


The use of the QSS provides a quick method for supply- 
ing certain low-cost, expendable items. The purpose of 
the QSS is to simplify accounting, eliminate paperwork 
and reduce work loads of supply personnel. 

Selection and Retention Criteria 

Once an item is selected for QSS stockage, it is no longer 
available to customers from any other source. Items may 
be selected for or deleted from QSS stockage based on 
certain criteria. To qualify for stockage in a QSS, an 
ASL item must meet all of the mandatory QSS stockage 
criteria described in AR 710-2 and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. 
Criteria listed in TM 38-L32-13 are only for DSUs 
supported by DS4. Demand- supported ASL items must 
be reviewed every six months to determine if items can 
qualify for QSS stockage. Under DS4, items which can 
be converted to QSS are identified quarterly. To remain 
in QSS, items must continue to meet all stockage 
criteria. Items must be continually screened for compli- 
ance. Items should be requested at least three times 
during a 12-month period to qualify for retention. Under 
DS4, items which no longer qualify for QSS are identi- 
fied for return to detailed accounting. 

Catalog and Listing 

The QSS catalog is produced for units using the manual 
system. It lists QSS items in NUN sequence. The catalog 
gives an NSN and the nomenclature for each item. This 
catalog should be published semiannually and provided 
to each of the SSA customer units. Under DS4, the QSS 
catalog is updated every six months by the stock control 
section or MMC. QSS catalogs are provided to DSUs for 


FM 10-27 

delivery to supported customer units. Additional and 
replacement copies are available for pickup at the QSS. 
The QSS listing provides the same information as the 
catalog but also gives the location of each item. 
The listing helps DSU personnel store and locate 
items for issue. 

Records and Procedures 

TM 38-L32-13 explains QSS transactions under 
DS4. DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 12, shows 
how to prepare forms under the manual system. 


Cannibalization is the authorized removal of parts and 
assemblies from unserviceable, uneconomically repa- 
rable, or disposable items or components. The purpose 
of cannibalization is to recover serviceable repair parts 
from scrap materiel for return to the supply system. 
Cannibalization is an important source of supply, par- 
ticularly when the need for the item is critical and the 
required delivery date cannot be met through routine 
supply channels. Cannibalization supplements repair 
parts supply and ensures that critical equipment will 
remain operational. 

Cannibalization Points 

Support maintenance units cannibalize at a cannibaliza- 
tion point. This point is a location where items to be 
disposed of are held until serviceable repair parts and 
assemblies can be removed and returned through the 
supply system. Cannibalization points are usually set up 
at maintenance collecting points operated by collec- 
tion, reclamation, and exchange units or at the GS 
maintenance level. Points are set up throughout the 
theater. AR 710-2, Chapter 3, covers the setup of 
cannibalization points. 

Collection, Classification, and Distribution 

The MMC controls cannibalization from the time an 
item is recovered until the issue of parts to maintenance 
or using units and the disposal of scrap materiel. Recov- 
ered items are classified according to instructions in 
TMs, TBs, and directives from MMCs. Classification 
indicates whether items are reparable or 
nonreparable, where repairs can be made, and the 
extent of needed repairs. 


When the situation permits and transportation assets are 
available, the appropriate MMC may direct units to 
remove unserviceable, economically reparable compo- 
nents. The units move the parts to a maintenance collect- 
ing point or a supporting DS maintenance unit in the 
DSA or forward area of the corps. Vehicles in DS 
maintenance units may be used to help recover and 
evacuate the items. The MMC coordinates with the 
MCC which arranges for transportation. 


AR 750-1 contains basic policies on cannibalization of 
aircraft and aircraft components. Aircraft must not be 
cannibalized until disposition instructions have been 
received. Authority to exchange aircraft repair parts is 
granted only when certain criteria are met. 

List of Available Items 

A list of items available at a cannibalization point must 
be published at least quarterly. Cannibalization points 
maintain stock accounting records. AR 710-2, Chapter 3, 
and DA Pamphlet 710-2-2, Chapter 18, describe canni- 
balization point procedures and discuss the records 
associated with each procedure. 


Controlled exchange is the removal of serviceable parts 
from damaged or disabled unserviceable, but economi- 
cally reparable, equipment for immediate reuse in re- 
turning a like item to combat. AR 750-1, Chapter 4, 
authorizes controlled exchange by using organizations 
or support maintenance units. Guidelines for controlled 
exchange are established at higher headquarters. One 
guideline is that serviceable parts removed in emergen- 
cies to repair critically needed items must be replaced by 
unserviceable like parts before evacuation to GS main- 
tenance units. Unserviceable parts must accompany, but 
need not be installed on, the assembly or end item from 
which serviceable parts were removed. The unserviceable 
parts should be marked or coded to save inspection time 
at other levels. Controlled exchange reduces the time 
involved in parts procurement. It supports mate- 
riel readiness by supplementing repair parts re- 
quirements already on requisition throughout the 
normal supply system. 


FM 10-27 

Using Units 

Using units can perform controlled exchange only when 
certain conditions are met. They are outlined below. 

• The using organization owns or controls all of 
the unserviceable, reparable end items involved in the 

• The maintenance effort required to restore all of 
the unserviceable, reparable end items to a serviceable 
condition is within the maintenance authority, capacity, 
and capability of the unit. 

• Serviceable parts, components, or assemblies 
could not be obtained on time through maintenance 
efforts or supply channels. 

• The unserviceable, economically reparable end 
item was classified as NMCS. 

• The exchange will immediately restore 
one or more unserviceable, reparable end items to 
a serviceable condition. 

• Removal of serviceable parts will not degrade to 
an uneconomically condition any of the end items 

• Controlled exchange is the only reasonable way 
to eliminate an adverse effect on the operational readi- 
ness of the unit. 

• Prompt action is taken by the organization 
to restore the unserviceable end item to a service- 
able condition. 

Support Maintenance Units 

Support maintenance units can perform controlled ex- 
change only when certain conditions are met. They are 
outlined below. 

• Controlled exchange is the only way a service- 
able item can be provided to a support unit within the 
time frame designated on DA Form 2407. 

• It is approved by the supply officer or mainte- 
nance shop officer responsible for restoring 
unserviceable, economically reparable items to a ser- 
viceable condition. It must also be approved by the 
operations officer or commander of the unit which owns 
the end items involved. 

• The maintenance effort required to restore all 
end items to a serviceable condition is within the 

maintenance authority, capacity, and capability of the 
units performing the exchange. 

• Required serviceable parts, components, and 
assemblies cannot be obtained on time through normal 
supply channels. 

NOTE: Controlled exchange on maintenance float items 
is not authorized. 


Repair parts can be obtained from several sources. 
Accordingly, request procedures vary. The references 
and procedures used in requesting supplies depend on 
the type, federal supply classification, and catalog status 
of the item and on the unit situation. 


The preparation and processing of requests depend on 
whether the requesting element is a supported unit or an 
SSA and whether it is divisional or nondivisional. It also 
depends on whether the supply system is automated or 
manual. In divisional units and nondivisional DSUs 
(DS4 automated system), personnel should use TMs in 
the 38-L32 series. In GSUs and COSCOM or TAACOM 
MMCs (SAILS automated system), personnel should 
follow procedures in the TM 38-L03 series. In the 
manual system, personnel should follow procedures in 
DA Pamphlet 710-2-1. Procedures for SSAs in the 
manual system are in DA Pamphlet 710-2-2. 


For the repair parts supply system to work effectively- 

• Proper procedures must be followed when re- 
questing, issuing, and storing repair parts. 

• Follow-up procedures on repair parts requisi- 
tions must be setup and followed. 

• All requests for repair parts and turn-ins of 
excess and unserviceable, reparable repair parts must be 
processed without delay. 

• The authorized quantity of repair parts listed on 
the PLL must be on hand or on request at all times. 

• The recorded location and the actual location of 
repair parts should match. 


FM 10-27 

Section IV 


Divisions in the theater receive supplies from many 
sources. In contingency operations, division elements 
deploy with prescribed amounts of supplies. Combat 
PLL stocks are sent with the company when it is 
detached from the battalion. During the initial phases of 
deployment, these stocks are the only source of resupply. 
Division units have only a limited capability to carry 
reserve supplies. They stock repair parts based on their 
demand history, MPLs, and essential repair parts stockage 
lists. To prevent overstockage in the BSA, the DMMC 
specifies the items and quantities of Class IX to be 
located there. Determinations are based on the combat 
PLLs of forward units and on the mobility requirements 
of forward support maintenance units. Maintenance 
units in the DSA carry remaining stocks of the division 
Class IX ASL. 

Logistics Support 

The DISCOM provides division-level Class IX supply 
support and ADP support for division logistics. It 
provides movement control in support of division logis- 
tics and coordinates surface transport of supplies. When 
airlift capabilities are not organic to the division or 
airlift requirements exceed division capabilities, the 
DISCOM depends on corps medium or heavy helicop- 
ter units to support emergency logistical requirements. 
To enable forward deployed divisions to remain mobile, 
personnel should load and issue PLL and ASL stocks 
from repair parts vans, MILVANs, or stake and plat- 
form trailers. See AR 710-2, Chapter 1, for ASL mobil- 
ity standards. To increase readiness to deploy for com- 
bat, personnel should load combat-essential stocks on 
vehicles during the alert stage. PLL and ASL stocks 
should be uploaded in stake and platform trailers and 
modular-equipment, deployment- storage containers or 

flat racks. For more details on supply operations in the 
division, see FM 63-2. 

Supply Management 

The DMMC manages the division Class IX repair parts 
supply system. It develops, approves, and maintains the 
division PLLs and ASLs and requisitions supplies. The 
DMMC also determines requirements for deployment. It 
directs the distribution of supplies. It also specifies the 
types and quantities of Class IX to be located in the 
forward areas of the division. ADP support is provided 
by the logistics automation systems support office. The 
DMMC parts branch provides PLL customer support. 
Each customer PLL is managed separately. For more 
details on DMMC operations, see FM 63-2. 

Common Repair Parts 
Common repair parts supply requirements depend on the 
types of divisions and their support organization, the 
tactical situation, the type of war, and the typ e of terrain 
on which the war is being fought. |Figure_5j, page 5-8, 
shows the flow of repair parts in a division. Maintenance 
companies supply common repair parts in the division. 

Missile Repair Parts 
Critical missile parts remain in the brigade trains area to 
support repair and maintenance activities. Since missile 
parts are limited, assets must be tightly controlled. The 
technical supply officer sets priorities and allocates items 
to each brigade area. Missile support companies provide 
missile repair parts in the division. 

Aircraft Repair Parts 

Aircraft should be ready to support combat forces 
at all times. Repair parts must be readily available 
for aircraft, avionics equipment, and aircraft arma- 
ment systems. Aircraft maintenance companies 
provide DS maintenance support to division units, 
including repair parts supply. 


FM 10-27 

Figure 5-1. Request and delivery of noncontrolled Class IX supplies (less aircraft) in a division 


FM 10-27 

CE and COMSEC Repair Parts 

Repair parts, subassemblies, and other items required to 
operate or support COMSEC equipment are obtained 
through conventional supply channels. Use MILSTRIP 
for this. See ARs 710-2 and 725-50. The CE branch of 
the DMMC accounts for COMSEC materiel. It pro- 
cesses all transactions in the divisions. Supply support 
units maintain an ASL, including repair parts for CE and 
COMSEC materiel. Maintenance battalions supply 
COMSEC Class IX items. Forward supply companies 
of the maintenance battalions supply CEWI repair parts. 
The service support company of the CEWI battalion 
maintains the battalion ASL. 


The COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations, establishes 
supply levels based on directives from higher headquar- 
ters. He consolidates supply requirements for the corps. 
Separate brigades maintain only those supply levels 
needed to sustain operations until additional supplies 
can be delivered. Each unit in the separate brigade is 
responsible for maintaining its own combat PLL and 
MPL of repair parts. The support battalion's mainte- 
nance company provides backup stocks of MPL items 
for brigade units and other DS-level Class IX supply 
support. At the DS level, repair parts are provided 
through maintenance channels. At the GS level, the QM 
repair parts supply company, GS, provides repair parts 
in response to MROs from the CMMC. 

Contingency Corps Support 

CSS is austere in contingency operations. However, it is 
necessary to deploy sufficient supplies to support and 
maintain weapons systems and equipment, 

Class IX ALOC supply. ALOC cargo arrives daily 
at aerial ports of debarkation. All cargo is then 
moved to the designated SSA regardless of prior- 
ity designator. Break-bulk points are set up to 
break out individual shipments for delivery di- 
rectly to each requesting SSA. 

Class IX non-ALOC supply. Non-ALOC replenishment 
cargo is normally transported by rail and truck from 
seaports to corps stockage locations. High-priority non- 
ALOC cargo maybe airlifted into the corps operational 

area. As a rule, it bypasses the GSU and moves directly 
from the aerial port to the requesting supply activity. 

Other sources of repair parts. Use controlled exchange 
to return essential items immediately to a mission- 
capable condition. Obtain repair parts from cannibaliza- 
tion of nonreparable major end items and assemblies. 

Supply Management 

The following elements provide supply manage- 
ment for corps, separate brigade, and regiment units. 

CMMC. The CMMC provides integrated supply and 
maintenance management. The COSCOM AC of S, 
Support Operations, reviews and analyzes demands and 
computes corps requirements for supply and mainte- 
nance support. The CMMC then evaluates work loads 
and the capabilities of supported supply and mainte- 
nance units and allocates resources. It coordinates 
throughput distribution policies with the CMMC. 
FM 54-23 covers the CMMC. 

Support squadrons. Support squadrons provide supply 
materiel management for separate brigades and ACRs. 
Their headquarters and headquarters companies deter- 
mine requirements for brigade supplies. They procure as 
well as direct the receipt, temporary storage, and issue or 
distribution of supplies. 

Headquarters and headquarters troop. The headquar- 
ters and headquarters troop provides supply and mainte- 
nance materiel management for ACRs. It deter- 
mines requirements and supervises the regiment's 
ASL and combat PLLs. It also determines ASL 
mobility requirements. 

Common Repair Parts 

Maintenance companies in the CSB perform intermedi- 
ate maintenance and provide ASL repair parts to support 
units in the corps rear area. Most of these companies also 
exchange selected items. Repair parts supply compa- 
nies, GS, are the main supply sources in the corps. 
Separate AIM brigades, light infantry brigades, airborne 
brigades, air cavalry combat brigades, and the ACR 
provide additional supply and maintenance support. 
With the exception of theater army-controlled items, the 
corps depends on CONUS for replenishment through 
the DSS or ALOC. If this is not possible, the COMMZ 


FM 10-27 

can use its safety lev el to restore corps operating 
levels on short notice, pigures 5 -4 page 5-11, and 
D-3L page 5-12, show the flow of common Class IX 
items in the theater. When possible, Class IX ALOC 
items are sent directly to the requisitioner in the corps. 
When this is not possible, supplies are delivered to a 
repair parts supply company in the corps or COMMZ for 
surface shipment to the requesting DS or GS mainte- 
nance unit. Heavy tonnage items are sent by sea and 
surface transport. 

Missile Repair Parts 

Repair parts supply is critical for missile systems. Due 
to the high cost of parts, supply procedures generally 
differ from those used in the routine supply sys- 
tem. There is greater reliance on shipment direct 
from CONUS. Several elements supply missile repair 
parts support. Missile maintenance companies provide 
repair parts of missiles. They have support maintenance 
shops. Maintenance support teams receive, store, and 
issue line items for missile systems. 

Aircraft Repair Parts 

Divisional AVIM units transmit requisitions for aircraft 
peculiar repair parts through the DMMC to the CMMC. 
Requisitions from nondivisional AVIM units are sent 
directly to the CMMC. If the part is available in the 
corps, the CMMC sends an MRO to the repair parts 
supply company, GS, which sends the part to the AVIM 
unit. Aviation maintenance companies provide DS re- 
pair parts. QM repair parts supply companies provide 
GS repair parts. 

Airdrop Equipment Repair Parts 

The QM airdrop supply company and the QM light 
airdrop equipment repair and supply company supply 
DS airdrop repair parts in the corps. For more 
details, see FM 10-400. 

CE and COMSEC Repair Parts 

The COMSEC Materiel Control System controls 
COMSEC. The Army Communications Command area 
maintenance and supply facilities support fixed station 
communications equipment. COMSEC materiel man- 
agement sections compute requirements, prepare 

requisitions, and process receipts and requisitions. They 
control materiel release and distribution and inventory 
and account for all COMSEC materiel within the corps 
rear area. The CE office at corps headquarters estab- 
lishes priorities for issue of COMSEC materiel. 
COMSEC repair parts are provided by the COMSEC 
logistics support company which maintains the theater 
ASL for COMSEC. Signal battalions maintain shop 
stock and exchange items for unit elements. The air- 
borne special forces group maintains shop stock for 
signal equipment belonging to the special forces group. 
CE maintenance companies provide repair parts to DS 
maintenance units. Maintenance battalions and aircraft 
maintenance companies maintain shop stock and appro- 
priate exchange items. CEWI groups maintain shop 
stock to support organic DS maintenance operations. 


The TAACOM supports all units located in or passing 
through a given area in the COMMZ. The ACofS, 
Materiel, develops policies, plans, and procedures for 
establishing and maintaining supply levels and stockage 
lists. The TAACOM MMC approves additions to or 
deletions from stockage lists. It also approves adjust- 
ments to requisitioning objectives for ASL lines. The 
wartime sustaining level for the COMMZ is 30 DOS for 
ALOC items and 7 DOS plus OST for non-ALOC items. 
ALOC items are usually flown directly from CONUS to 
DS and GS users. The COMMZ maintains a 30-day 
safety level of supplies. Delays in shipments from 
CONUS can be absorbed in this time period. 

Supply Management 

TAACOM units store and maintain pre-positioned war 
reserves, other theater reserves, and theater-controlled 
stocks. The TAMMC manages and controls the alloca- 
tion of these critical and high-priority stocks. 

TAACOM. The TAACOM provides DS CSS and inter- 
mediate GS maintenance and supply to units passing 
through or located in the COMMZ. It provides GS 
supply and intermediate GS maintenance to the combat 
zone. The TAACOM may negotiate directly with gov- 
ernmental agencies or private individuals in host coun- 
tries for required supplies by coordinating with the 
theater army G5. 


FM 10-27 

Figure 5-2. Request and delivery for noncontrolled Class IX supplies 
(less aircraft) at echelons above division 


FM 10-27 

Figure 5-3. Request and delivery of theater army-controlled 
Class IX supplies (less aircraft) 


FM 10-27 

TAACOMMMC. The TAACOM MMC provides inte- 
grated supply and maintenance management. It collects, 
sorts, analyzes, and acts on supply and maintenance 
requests. It receives and analyzes demands for Class IX 
and computes requirements for supplies and mainte- 
nance support. It develops and publishes guidance on 
exchange operations. After evaluating work loads and 
the capabilities of supported supply and maintenance 
units, it allocates resources. 

COMMZ Supply Support Organization 

Organization of the supply and maintenance support 
operations depends on the size and composition of 
forces within the COMMZ and the availability of as- 
sured HNS. It also depends on the amount of backup 
support required by forces in the combat zone, the nature 
of planned operations, and the geographic and political 
features of the area. FM 100-16 describes COMMZ 
supply support operations. 

Requisition and Materiel Flow 

With the exception of theater army-controlled items, the 
COMMZ depends on CONUS for replenishment. Though 
it is not the prime source of supply support to the corps, 
the COMMZ can replenish the corps when the supply 
pipeline is disrupted or unanticipated changes occur in 
theater consumption patterns. 

Requisition flow. With the exception of theater army- 
controlled items, the TAACOM MMC receives and 
processes requisitions for Class IX items. In war, as in 
peace, the TAACOM MMC sends requisitions to 
CONUS NICPs. Requisitions for ALOC items 
bypass the telecommunications center serving the 
MMC. Requisitions for theater army-controlled items 
are sent to the TAMMC. The TAMMC also controls war 
reserve stocks (non-ALOC Class IX included). 

Materiel flow. Materiel is shipped directly from 
CONUS to the corps whenever possible. Otherwise, 
Class IX ALOC items are sent to the intermediate levels 
in the COMMZ. When possible, DSS surface shipments 
of container loads are delivered to the documented 
requisitioner. When this is not possible, supplies are 
delivered to DS or GS units. 

Common Repair Parts 

GS supply support is available through QM repair parts 
supply companies, GS, TAACOM. DS supply support 
is available through DS maintenance companies. 

Missile Repair Parts 

QM repair parts supply companies provide GS repair 
parts. Maintenance and supply companies and mainte- 
nance batteries provide DS repair parts. 

Aircraft Repair Parts 

Army aircraft require a great deal of maintenance. 
Inadequate maintenance increases the need for supplies 
in the COMMZ. QM repair parts supply compa- 
nies keep the aviation maintenance company in 
aircraft repair parts. 

Airdrop Equipment Repair Parts 

The QM airdrop equipment repair and supply company 
and the QM heavy airdrop supply company specialize in 
airdrop equipment, DS, repair parts supply support. For 
more details on airdrop supply, see FM 10-400. 

CE and COMSEC Repair Parts 

The Theater Communications Command (Army) coor- 
dinates logistical support for assigned and attached 
signal units. The TAACOM MMC provides COMSEC 
materiel management for the theater army area. It man- 
ages the maintenance companies assigned to the support 
groups. The Theater Communications Command (Army) 
signal units maintain a shop stock of repair parts with 
which to perform DS maintenance on organic CE and 
COMSEC equipment. DS maintenance units also main- 
tain a shop stock of CE and COMSEC repair parts. The 
COMSEC logistics support team maintains the theater 
ASL for communications items. It processes requisi- 
tions and receives, stores, and distributes all COMSEC 
materiel, except that shipped directly to supported units. 

Marine-Peculiar Repair Parts 

Due to the low-density and unique characteristics of 
marine-peculiar parts and avionics, they are excepted 
from demand-stockage criteria. Most user units are 
authorized to keep enough parts on the craft to sustain 


FM 10-27 

themselves for 15 days in combat. Marine intermediate 
maintenance units provide backup supply and 
maintenance support on shore or by means of 
floating maintenance support teams. Marine-peculiar 
repair parts are not supplied by a repair parts supply 
company, GS. 

Rail Equipment Repair Parts 

HNS is the primary means of providing rail equipment 
and rail maintenance in a theater of operations. If HNS 
is not available, GS maintenance rail-operating units 
can be deployed to the theater. The transportation rail- 
way car repair company and the diesel-electric locomo- 
tive repair company supply rail equipment repair parts. 


FM 10-27 


Section I 


In peacetime, AAFES manages Class VI items. Upon 
outbreak of hostilities, AAFES cargo shipments may 
be canceled or diverted elsewhere to free transporters to 
carry more critical items. In the early stages of a war, 
stocks in PXs in the COMMZ and corps rear area may 
be turned over to the theater supply system. 

Items Authorized 

During heavy levels of commitment, the health and 
comfort items listed in AR 30-7 might be the only 
personal-demand items available in the theater. In 
moderate and light levels of commitment, these items 
might be used from D-Day to D+60. After D+60, 
AAFES contingency procedures may be put into effect, 
upon direction of the AAFES commander, to supple- 
ment items authorized by AR 30-7. 

Manning and Responsibility 

Existing PXs in the COMMZ may remain in service 
after conversion to military manning. Military person- 
nel may operate exchange retail activities forward of 
the COMMZ. Following conversion to military man- 
ning, responsibility for exchange operations belongs to 


Class VI items must compete with critical assets sent to 
oversea theaters. Transportation assets may not be 
available prior to D+90. That is when theater stabiliza- 
tion efforts may be expected to occur in the corps and 
COMMZ. Until then, sundries packs would have to 
provide minimally essential Class VI items. 

Automation Support 

The DS4 automated supply system does not provide 
Class VI supply support. However, such support is 
provided by SAILS. 


FM 41-10 describes civil affairs operations. Basic poli- 
cies and procedures for support of civilian populations 

are contained in theater or higher-level plans. 
These plans include estimates of initial require- 
ments and availability of resources. Commanders 
who have been delegated civil affairs authority 
should recommend changes in requirements for 
support of the civilian population. The tactical 
operation commander is responsible for estimat- 
ing civilian supply requirements, for making allo- 
cations, and for setting priorities. The G5 has primary 
staff responsibility for coordinating matters involving 
civil-military operations. However, primary responsi- 
bility for the logistics of civil-military operations re- 
mains with the G4. The supplying of items by the 
military for relief of civilian distress is primarily a 
concern of the logistics staff. Distribution of these 
supplies t o civilians is a function of civil affairs units. 
Table 6- 1[ page 6-2, lists specific civilian supply tasks. 
The tasks are grouped according to the intensity of 
conflict. Some logistics areas require coordination be- 
tween the G5 and the G4. These areas include: 

• Consolidated requirements for civilian sup- 
plies to be furnished from military stocks or requisi- 
tioned from US stocks. 

• Plans for the distribution of supplies to civil- 

• Requirements for insecticides, repellents, and 
rodenticides to protect the health of the civilians. 

• Disposition of captured enemy supplies which 
are adaptable to civilian use. 

• Availability of salvaged clothing and other 
supplies for civilian use. 

• Requirements for military transportation for 
civilian supplies. 


Class VI and X items are purchased with different 
finds. Each supply class has restrictions on procure- 


FM 10-27 

Table 6-1. Civilian supply duties of civil affairs units 










Plan for relief supplies for imme- 

Establish working relationship 

Prepare procedures and pro- 

Same as "Occupied Friendly," 

diate needs of populace. 

with host nation, USAID, and 

grams for the transition from 

plus: Secure control of all gov- 

personnel of volunteer agencies 

military to civilian operations in 

ernmental and commercial 

Determine availability of military 

who control civilian supplies. 

the area. 

supply facilities and person- 

supplies for civilian use. 

nel until they can be screened 

Coordinate movement of sup- 

Plan and supervise food ra- 

for acceptability. 

Acquire and distribute civilian 

plies from USAID and volunteer 

tioning or controlled distri- 

supplies according to policy and 

agencies, usingmilitary transpor- 

bution, as required. 

applicable laws. 

tation if necessary. 

Assist in moving essential civilian 

Establish and maintain civilian 

Take measures to salvage cap- 

supplies, particularly food, medi- 

supply records. 

tured supplies and turn them 

cal, and fuel, from surplus to 

over to civilian authorities 

deficit areas, as required. 

Assure coordination of civilian 

for use. 

and military transportation 

Requisition through normal sup- 

facilities for distribution of 

Assist in providing security for 

ply channels for emergency civil- 

civilian supplies. 

movement of civilian supplies. 

ian supplies not locally available. 

Assure safeguarding of essential 

Recommend supplies to be 

civilian supplies. 

made available from existing 
military stocks. 

Ensure that civilian supplies 

reach intended destination 

and are not diverted into 

black market channels. 

Determine caloric requirements 

of population categories such as 

children and nursing mothers. 

Advise commander concerning 

all aspects of civilian supply. 

Conduct surveys of: 

• Normal standards of 

living, including health and di- 

etary factors. 

• Agricultural and indus- 

trial patterns and effects of mili- 

tary operations on civilian 


• Collection and distri- 

bution facilities handling essen- 

tial supplies. 


FM 10-27 

Class VI Items 

Class VI items are procured with nonappropriated 
funds. They are procured, stored, and distributed by the 
Defense Personnel Support Center of the Defense 
Logistics Agency. Because of shelf life and rotational 
requirements, sundries packs containing health and 
comfort items are normally not prestocked. Instead, 
items for these packs are purchased and assembled as 
needed. The Defense Personnel Support Center re- 
quires a 120-day lead time to acquire and distribute 
ration supplement sundries packs. 

Class X Items 

Most Class X items are stock fund secondary items. 
Only a few are appropriation-financed principal items. 

Many Class X items are nonstandard items (windmill 
parts, kits, and plows, for example). Some items 
(lawnmowers, grass seed, livestock salt, and hay, for 
example) managed by the GSA are covered by a 
contract which allows using activities to place an order 
directly with the vendor. A few Class X items may be 
purchased locally. Civil affairs personnel help purchas- 
ing and contracting officers with local procurement of 
supplies for civilian relief or economic aid. Some Class 
X items (animal traps, horse and mule saddles, and 
harrow disks, for example) are not stocked. Thus, they 
have long lead times. These items are procured only 
after receipt of a requisition. 

Section II 


There are almost 250,000 Class VI personal demand or 
nonmilitary items for sale to soldiers and other autho- 
rized individuals in PXs throughout the world. Ex- 
amples are shampoo, pens, razors, tobacco, stationery, 
and chewing gum. Class VI supply is often expanded to 
include catalog sales, comfort items, civilian clothing, 
and luxury items. Class VI items are not listed on the 
AMDF. A few health and comfort items may be issued 
when enlisted members report to a reception station. 
Issue is generally limited to items that do not require 
fitting, such as towels and handkerchiefs. 


In early stages of highly mobile and intensive conflicts, 
there is little leisure time. Therefore, there is little need 
for Class VI items. Before full theater development, 
Class VI items may be restricted to the sundries pack 
items required for the safety, sanitation, and minimum 
health and comfort of soldiers. Where a PX cannot be 
operated, the theater army commander can request that 
ration supplement sundries packs be supplied. The 
authorization document is AR 700-23. In areas where 
exchange activities do not already exist, AAFES will 
not be required to provide exchange services earlier 
than 60 days after initial deployment (D+60). Where 
there is no AAFES exchange in an area, teams BP and 

BQ may be authorized. Once exchanges are estab- 
lished, AAFES determines requirements. It then pro- 
cures, stores, and distributes supplies and operates the 
resale facilities. 

Consumption Rates 

Class VI requirements according to FM 10 1-10-1/2 are 
3.2 pounds per person per day. After D+60, AR 700-23 
authorizes .56 pound of Class VI supplies per man per 
day and 1.06 pounds of Class VI supplies per woman 
per day. The AAFES contingency plan for D+60 cur- 
rently authorizes 7.29 pounds per soldier per day 
during moderate and light levels of commitment. No 
authorization is made for a heavy level of commitment. 
More information on Class VI consumption rates may 
be obtained from HQ, AAFES, ATTN: AAFES-PL-P, 
Dallas, TX 75222-6049. 


Issue of sundries packs affects requirements for Class 
VI health and comfort items. The ration supplement 
sundries pack (NSN 8940-00-268-9934) is a Class I 
item which contains health and comfort items issued 
without cost to soldiers during combat operations. 


FM 10-27 

Items include writing paper, ballpoint pens, disposable 
razors, and other personal care items. Female soldiers 
are authorized additional health and comfort items. 
These include cleansing cream and tissues, sanitary 
napkins and tampons, hand and body lotion, and toilet 
paper. For more details on sundry packs and their 
contents, see AR 30-7. 


MACOM commanders determine when ration supple- 
ment sundries packs are required. They request that 
HQDA start acquisition and distribution actions. The 
Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics approves the use of 
sundries packs in theaters of operations. MACOM 
commanders then submit requisitions for initial and 
follow-on requirements. Initial requirements are filled 
with bulk Class VI supplies. MACOM commanders 
coordinate with AAFES representatives to ensure an 
interim supply of Class VI items until ration supple- 
ment sundries packs become available. Follow-on re- 
quirements are filled with sundries packs. Sundries 
packs are requested on DA Form 2058-R in the same 
manner as Class I items. Sundries packs are issued on 
DA Form 3294-R. Following development of the the- 
ater, or as the situation permits, the Defense Logistics 
Agency assumes responsibility for meeting Class VI 
needs in the theater. 

Issue Controls 

AR 700-23 controls the issue of health and comfort 
items. Sundries packs must be requested by the MACOM 
commander and approved by HQDA before issue can 
be made. Sundries packs are issued only to support 
units or individuals who have been in combat for more 

than 48 hours without exchange support, contingency 
emergency plans, and combat operations. 

Ration Accompaniment 

Usually the sundries pack is issued with rations until 
AAFES can provide Class VI support. Only the MRE 
contains candy and toilet paper. No other comfort items 
are in operational rations. 


When personal items are not issued free or made 
available through an AAFES exchange, sales teams BP 
and BQ may be authorized. Sales teams may be as- 
signed to the division, corps, or theater army. Sales 
team BQ provides sales management and control per- 
sonnel needed to supervise BP mobile sales teams. 
Sales team BQ personnel requisition, receive, and store 
Class VI items for issue to the mobile sales team. That 
team provides a mobile outlet for once-a-week retail 
sale of merchandise and personal items, on a nonprofit 
basis, for up to 10,950 authorized personnel. Security 
of a soldier's personal funds may be a consideration in 
this type of direct sales operation. The mobile sales 
team may also wholesale personal items and merchan- 
dise to a unit PX. Supplemental transportation needed 
to distribute supplies must be provided by theater 
transportation units. Additional personnel are required 
to load and unload supplies. 


Class VI items are highly pilferable. Make sure storage 
containers at terminal warehouses and major oversea 
storage points are locked and guarded. A number of 
Class VI items have limited shelf life. Check these 
items for dates. The storage and issue principle of first 
in, first out applies. 

Section III 


Class X items support nonmilitary programs such as 
agricultural and economic development. If civilian 
resources in the theater are inadequate, military sources 
may provide Class X items to the civilian population. 

There are nearly 500 Class X items listed on the 
AMDF. The item manager is the US Army General 
Materiel and Petroleum Activity. Nonmilitary support 
items are handled separately from normal military 


FM 10-27 

requirements. However, they compete with military 
items for distribution resources. If critical military 
operations are not impaired, supply of Class X items 
may be important enough to take precedence over some 
of the less-essential Army items. 


Civil affairs staff sections determine requirements for 
supplies required for relief of civilians in distress. 
Following an NBC attack, large quantities of rodenti- 
cides and insecticides should be needed. Seed, fertil- 
izer, and domestic animals may be required, also. 

Consumption Rate 

Military consumption rates are based on military 
strength and do not apply to Class X supplies. Instead, 
requirements are based on population size, geographic 
location, and technological capabilities of the country 


The principal sources of civilian support are supplies 
from the local economy, captured enemy stocks, contri- 
butions from national and international welfare and 
charitable organizations, and supplies from allied or 
US military stocks. In addition to food, clothing, and 
medical supplies, the types of supplies approved for 
issue from US military stocks include tents, fuel and 
lubricants, and engineer, communication, and trans- 
portation equipment. Most Class X items appear with a 
G_0 or S9C source of supply code on the AMDF. 
Sources include GSA warehouses, the Defense Con- 
struction Supply Center, and the Defense Industrial 
Supply Center. 


Supply and distribution plans show responsibilities for 
receiving, storing, and issuing supplies for civilian 
support. QM supply companies provide Class X sup- 
plies only as directed by higher headquarters. Admin- 
istrative orders and other instruct ions prescribe requisi- 
tion and issue procedures. 


Requisitions for military supplies for civilian support 
are processed in the same manner as those for all other 
military supplies. Units tasked to issue supplies to 

authorized civilian agencies or groups place the requi- 


During military operations, supplies for support of 
civilian affairs operations may be provided on an 
automatic basis. Class X issues are regulated. Depend- 
ing on the situation, supplies intended for civilian 
support may require command approval prior to issue. 
Make sure that supplies are not diverted into black 
market channels. As the military situation becomes 
more stabilized, issue of fertilizers, seeds, tools, and 
lumber may help speed up local production of needed 
food and shelter. In sustained war, this would have the 
long-term benefit of freeing shipping space for other 
kinds of supplies. 


Procedures for distribution of Class X supplies are 
based on agreements between the supported foreign 
countries and the US State Department. Supplies for 
international defense and development operations are 
distributed through military channels. Civil affairs 
units distribute supplies to civilian users or agencies to 
relieve distress of civilians in countries in which US 
forces are present. Class X supplies are usually distrib- 
uted to the foreign government directly from a termi- 
nal. Otherwise, delivery follows the same channels as 
that for Army general supplies. Supplies may also be 
delivered to specified points for issue to local govern- 
nmental authorities. Public transportation as well as 
civilian and military vehicles may be used to move such 
supplies. Civilian vehicles required to transport these 
supplies should be organized into a civilian transporta- 
tion pool under the supervision of civil affairs units in 
the theater area. Minimum amounts of fuel, lubricants, 
tires, and spare parts may be made available to maintain 
the civilian transportation pool. 


Military stocks used for civilian support are accounted 
for until issued to civilian agencies. These records provide 
a basis for anticipating future requirements. They also 
ensure that supplies are not issued in excess. Civilian 
agencies are normally required to account for supplies 
provided from military sources and for contributions 
made by allied governments and nonmilitary agencies. 


FM 10-27 

Appendix A 


Recent events in the former Soviet Union have virtually 
eliminated the probability of a Soviet-led attack against 
Western Europe. Four of the republics forming the new 
Commonwealth of Independent States-Russia, Ukraine, 
Belorussia, and Kazakhstan-retain the capability to 
strike the US with strategic nuclear weapons. Indica- 
tions are that their conventional forces will be consider- 
ably downsized, modernized, and reoriented toward 
territorial defense. Although the threat of strategic at- 
tack remains a concern, the export of tactical nuclear 
weapons, nuclear weapons technology, and scientific 
expertise from the former Soviet Union to the Third 
World is of even greater concern. The potential for US 
forces being drawn into Third World conflicts to protect 
national interests has thus significantly increased. Third 
World forces can be expected to be armed with modern 
weapons. This includes weapons of mass destruction 
supplied by the former Soviet Union, China, North 
Korea, and some Western nations. States which have, 
may be developing, or desire such a capability include 
North Korea, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, China, and India. 
However, they may not be as proficient in modern 
military war as the former Warsaw Pact nations. 

Southwest Asia 

One of the most unstable regions of the world is South- 
west Asia. This area stretches from the Indian Ocean, 
across the Persian Gulf and the Middle East, to the 
Mediterranean Sea. Ideological and religious conflicts, 
nationalism, great wealth and desperate poverty, ex- 
panding populations and rising expectations, and more 
modern military forces make the region unstable. Coun- 
tries in this region are acquiring advanced conventional 
weapons. They also want unconventional weapons, 
particularly nuclear weapons. Threat forces in the region 
may be the most modern in the Third World. These 
countries have deployed tanks, jet fighter aircraft, SCUD 
missiles, helicopter, and multiple rocket launchers. All 
are armed with a variety of conventional and unconven- 
tional munitions. High cost keeps these acquisitions to 

a minimum. The international arms market may make 
nuclear weapons production technology available to the 
highest bidder. The US may become opposed by West- 
ern technology in this strategically significant region. 

Central and South America 

Social trends will determine economic, demographic, 
and political and military events in the Caribbean, 
Central America, and South America. Governments in 
these regions will struggle to contain domestic tensions 
and maintain the cohesion of their respective societies. 
Military operations in Grenada and Panama, 
counternarcotics operations, and military advisory mis- 
sions indicate continued Army involvement throughout 
the region. LIC is the dominant military activity 
in the region. Threats to US forces include terror- 
ist and guerrilla groups armed with crew-served 
weapons, small arms, and shoulder-fired antitank 
and antiaircraft weapons systems. 


Stability depends on the ability of the CIS to survive 
economically and politically. Economic collapse and 
war between the republics are possible. Ethnic strife also 
threatens Eastern Europe stability as it did in the former 
Soviet Union. NATO nations may have to intervene 
with peacekeeping forces. Opposing forces may be as 
formidable as those of the former Soviet Union. 


Major changes in the Asian security environment con- 
tinue to occur. These include the shifting military bal- 
ance on the Korean Peninsula; the relationship between 
the US, Japan, and Russia; the growing power of China 
and India; serious instability in and withdrawal of US 
troops from the Philippines; the nuclear arms buildup; 
and vigorous arms exports to the Third World. Regional 
conflicts adverse to US interests may erupt as US forces 
are downsized or withdrawn. Regional powers tradi- 
tionally hostile to US interests include Russia, North 
Korea, and China. 


FM 10-27 


The most insidious threat to US security in peace and 
war is terrorism. Generally, terrorism has evolved from 
ideological, political, religious, and ethnic discontent 
and the narcotics trade. Terrorist threats to US interests 
continue in Western Europe, the Middle East, and Latin 
America. In Europe, leftist groups continue to attack 
"Western Imperialism" including the NATO Alliance 
and the US military presence. In the Near East, the US 
and Israel are seen as common enemies in the eyes of 
various subnational and religious groups. In South 
America, economics and ideology are the two principal 
motivations for terrorist acts. Narcotics traffickers are 
driven by perceived threats to their economic interests. 
They oppose governments allied to the US. Individuals, 
groups, and states which view the US presence and 
influence as a threat to their existence and political 
beliefs will most likely endorse terrorist attacks. The 
Pacific trade war could dramatically heighten the poten- 
tial for terrorist activities. 


Threats to future CSS operations will consist primarily 
of Level I and modernized Level II forces equipped with 
long-range indirect fire weapons. These weapons will 
include tube artillery and surface-to-surface missiles 
armed with both conventional and unconventional mu- 
nitions. Level III operations will occur only if the 
opposing forces are capable of conducting deep ar- 
mored penetrations or large airborne or air assault 
operations in the rear area. 

Level I 

Level I threats predominate in LIC. They include 
insurgents, drug cartels, and terrorists armed with 
various weapons. Drug cartels have many resources 
to organize, arm, and equip private armies and 
establish intelligence networks. Soviet weapons, 
such as the AK-47 assault rifle and RPG-7 anti- 
tank rocket, predominate. Homemade mines and 
booby traps may also be employed. Level I threats 
are also found on the mid-to high-intensity battle- 
field. These threats range from individual sleeper 
agents and terrorists to squad- size special opera- 
tions elements. Specific CSS targets include logistics 

command and control, convoys, and storage areas. 
The enemy may interdict CSS operations through- 
out the battlefield, especially in the corps support 
area, due to the density of troops forward. Sleeper 
agents will function as intelligence collectors as well as 
saboteurs and provocateurs. Fanatical paramilitary 
forces may also be encountered operating indepen- 
dently of conventional forces. 

Level II 

Mid- to high-intensity threats involve countries that use 
intensive missile and artillery fire strikes to disrupt the 
enemy's logistics system. Other threats include tank and 
mechanized infantry forces; airborne, air assault, and 
heliborne forces; radio-electronic combat; and NBC 
warfare. Attacks by naval infantry forces are also pos- 
sible within coastal areas. 


Forces opposing the US Army will generally be equipped 
with Soviet tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, or compa- 
rable weapons of Chinese or Western manufacture. 
These are inferior to comparable US systems. Without 
more modern Western technology or a mechanized 
penetration in the classic Soviet style, they pose only a 
moderate threat to CSS operations. 

Tube Artillery Systems 

The primary threats to CSS operations are towed and 
self-propelled 122- and 152-millimeter systems. These 
provide a range capability equal to or superior to our 
current systems. Despite efforts to control their export, 
systems meeting these requirements are available on the 
international arms market from Argentina, China, France, 
Italy, and South Africa. 

Multiple Rocket Launcher Systems 

Multiple rocket launchers deliver a variety of munitions. 
This includes chemical and biological agents, fuel-air 
explosives, cluster bombs, and antipersonnel mines. 
The Soviet BM-21 is used in most modernized Third 
World countries. Better systems are available from 
China, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, South Africa, Russia, 
and the United States. These systems generally outrange 


FM 10-27 

our best counterbattery systems and are thus a signifi- 
cant threat to the CSS operations. 

Ballistic Missile Systems 

The number of short- and medium-range ballistic mis- 
siles has increased in recent years. These weapons will 
be armed with conventional munitions. Chemical and 
nuclear munitions may also be available to certain 
countries. France, Taiwan, China, North Korea, and 
Russia produce these weapons. They pose a significant 
threat to CSS operations. 

Precision-Guided Munitions 

Precision-guided air- and sea-launched cruise missiles 
have proved their worth in the Gulf War. They have top 
acquisition priority by those countries that can obtain 
them. Reports indicate that Iraq recently acquired a 
defective US Tomahawk missile, will attempt to copy it 
for production, and will most likely share the 
technology with other arms-producing Third World 
countries. Similar weapons systems may soon be 

available on the international arms market from 
France, Germany, and Russia. 


The threat to CSS operations is no longer primarily the 
former Soviet Union. The conflict with Iraq demon- 
strated that Third World countries with the political will 
and the military power will challenge their neighbors for 
regional dominance. Forces opposing US military op- 
erations vary in size, equipment, and proficiency. They 
have Soviet weapons such as T-62 and T-72 tanks. 
Artillery systems, the primary CSS threat, are more 
mobile and outrange our systems. They consist of older 
Soviet equipment, such as the 2S1 122-millimeter SP 
howitzer, 2S3 152-millimeter SP howitzer, and BM-21 
medium-range launcher. Stringent controls and high 
cost limit the acquisition of Western technology by 
Third World countries. As it becomes available, this 
technology will inevitably reach the Third World, espe- 
cially in the oil-rich Middle East. Finally, although 
international sanctions will prohibit the production of 
NBC weapons, the most radical Third World countries 
will continue to obtain them. 


FM 10-27 


Class I - Subsistence and gratuitous health and 
welfare items. 

Class II - Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool 
sets and tool kits, hand tools, and administrative and 
housekeeping supplies and equipment. Includes items 
of equipment, other than principal items, prescribed in 
authorization and allowance tables. Subclasses are A, B, 
C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, 0, P, Q, T, U, W, Y, and Z. 

Class III - Petroleum, oils, and lubricants: petroleum 
fuels, lubricants, hydraulic and insulating oils, preser- 
vatives, liquid and compressed gases, chemical prod- 
ucts, coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, to- 
gether with components and additives of such products, 
and coal. Subclasses are 2, 3, 5, and 6. 

Class IV - Construction: Construction materials to 
include installed equipment and all fortification and 
barrier materials. No subclasses assigned. 

Class VI - Personal demand items (nonmilitary sales 
items). No subclasses assigned. 

Class VII - Major end items: A final combination of end 
products which is ready for its intended use and principal 
items (for example, launchers, tanks, mobile machine 
shops, and vehicles). Subclasses are A, B, D, G, K, L, M 
N, 0, P, Q, U, W, Y, and Z. 
Class IX - Repair parts: Subclasses are A, B, C, G, H, 
K, L, M, N, 0, P, Q, U, and W. 

Class X - Materiel to support nonmilitary programs (for 
example, agriculture and economic development) not 
included in Class I through IX. No subclasses assigned. 


A - Air (aviation, aircraft, and airdrop equipment): 

Class II - Items of supply and equipment in support of 
aviation and aircraft. Class III - Petroleum and chemical 
products used in support of aircraft. Class VII - Major 
end items of aviation equipment. 

B - Troop support materiel: Consists of such items as 
water purification sets; shower, bath, laundry, dry clean- 
ing, and bakery equipment; sets, kits, and outfits (in- 
cludes tool and equipment sets and shop and equipment 
sets for performing unit, DS, GS, and depot-level main- 
tenance); sensors and interior intrusion devices; topo- 
graphic equipment and related topographic products as 
outlined in AR 115-11. 

C - Commercial vehicles: Includes wheeled vehicles 
authorized for use in administrative or tactical operations. 

E - General supply items: Includes administrative 
expendable supplies such as typewriter ribbons, paper, 
cleaning materials, and other supplies normally referred 

to as office supplies. Also includes publications 
distributed through AG channels. 

F - Clothing and textiles: Includes individual and 
organizational items of clothing and equipment author- 
ized in allowance tables and tentage and tarpaulins 
authorized in TOE or other media. 

G- Communications-electronics: Includes signal 
items such as radio, telephone, teletype, satellite, avion- 
ics, marine communications and navigational equip- 
ment; tactical and nontactical ADP equipment; 
radar; photographic, audiovisual, and television 
equipment; infrared; laser and maser; electronic 
sensors; and so forth. 

H - Test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment: 

Includes items of equipment used to determine the 
operating efficiency of or diagnose incipient prob- 
lems in systems, components, assemblies, and 
subassemblies of materiel. 


FM 10-27 

K - Tactical vehicles: Includes trucks, truck trac- 
tors, trailers, semitrailers, personnel carriers, and 
so forth. 

L - Missiles: Class II and VII include guided 
missile and rocket systems. 

M - Weapons: Includes small arms, artillery, fire 
control systems, rocket launchers, machine guns, 
air defense weapons, aircraft weapon subsystems, 
and so forth. 

N - Special weapons: Class VII includes weapons 
systems which deliver nuclear munitions. 

O - Combat vehicles: Includes main battle tanks, 
recovery vehicles, self-propelled artillery, armored cars, 
tracked and half-tracked vehicles, and so forth. 

P - SIGINT, EW, and intelligence materiel: Includes 
materiel peculiar to those mission areas assigned to 
federal supply classification 5811 for which the AMC 
commander has responsibility. This subclass is identi- 
fied separately from subclass G because of special- 
ized supply and maintenance functions performed 
by a dedicated EW or SIGINT logistics system. 

Q - Marine equipment: Includes marine items of 
supply and equipment such as amphibious vehicles, 
landing craft, barges, tugs, floating cranes and dredges. 

U - COMSEC material: This subclass is identified 
separately from subclass G because of specialized sup- 
ply and maintenance functions performed through a 
dedicated COMSEC logistics system. 

W - Ground: Class III includes petroleum and chemi- 
cal products and solid fuels used in support of ground 
and marine equipment. Class II and VII consist of 
construction, road building, and MHE. 

Y - Railway equipment: Includes rail items of supply 
and equipment such as locomotives, railcars, rails, and 
rail-joining and shifting equipment. 

Z - Chemical: Classes II and VII include chemical 
items such as gas masks, decontaminating appara- 
tuses, and smoke generators. 

Class III packaged supplies include the following 

2 - Air, packaged bulk fuels: Includes fuels in subclass 
1 which, because of operational necessity, are generally 
packaged and supplied in containers of 5- to 55-gallon 
capacity, except fuels in military collapsible containers 
of 500 gallons or less which are considered as 
packaged fuels. 

3 - Air, packaged petroleum products: Includes 
aircraft unique petroleum and chemical products con- 
sisting generally of lubricating oils, greases, and spe- 
cialty items normally packaged by the manufacturer 
and procured, stored, transported, and issued in con- 
tainers or packages of 55-gallon capacity or less. 

5 - Ground, packaged bulk fuels: Includes ground 
bulk fuels which, because of operational necessity, are 
generally packaged and supplied in containers of 5- to 
55-gallon capacity, except fuels in military collapsible 
containers of 500 gallons or less which are considered 
as packaged fuels. 

6 - Ground, packaged petroleum: Includes petro- 
leum and chemical products, lubricating oils, greases, 
and specialty items normally packaged by the manu- 
acturer and procured, stored, transported, and 
issued in containers of 55-gallon capacity or less. 

Note: So far as possible, alphabetical subclass 
designations are the same as commodity manager 
codes contained in such publications as SB 700-20. 
Moreover, since the AMDF is the prime item data 
source for Army-used items of supply and equip- 
ment, each item is currently being coded using 
supply categories of materiel codes as prescribed 
in AR 708-1 and transmitted to the field through 
the AMDF Retrieval Microform System. 


FM 10-27 


AAFES Army and Air Force Exchange Service 
ABF availability balance file 
ACofS Assistant Chief of Staff 
ACR armored cavalry regiment 
ADMMO assistant division materiel manage- 
ment officer 

ADP automatic data processing 
ADPE automatic data processing equipment 
AFM Air Force manual 
AG Adjutant General 
AIM armored-infantry-mechanized 
air lines of communication A system that pro- 
vides air shipment, regardless of priorities, for all 
eligible Class IX repair parts and maintenance- 
related Class II items to designated oversea units 
ALOC air lines of communication 
AMC United States Army Materiel Command 
AMDF Army Master Data File 
AR Army regulation 
ARC accounting requirements code 
ARIL automated return item list 
ARMS Army Master Data File Retrieval Micro- 
form System 

ARSOA Army special operations aviation 
ARSOC Army Special Operations Component 
ASL authorized stockage list 
A/SPOD air or seaport of debarkation 
A/SPOE air or seaport of embarkation 
attn attention 
AVGAS aviation gasoline 
aviation intermediate maintenance AVIM ac- 
tivities provide mobile maintenance support to 
aviation units. Maintenance repairtasks performed 
by AVIM activities are DS and GS functions. 
aviation unit maintenance AVUM units are 
company size or smaller. They are staffed and 
equipped to perform high-frequency, on-aircraft 
maintenance required to retain or return assigned 
aircraft to a serviceable condition. Primarily, these 
tasks include preventive maintenance, inspection, 
servicing, component replacement, and limited 
maintenance repair functions. 

AVIM aviation intermediate maintenance 

AVUM aviation unit maintenance 

back order That portion of requested stock which 

was not immediately available for issue and which 

will be shipped at a later date. The record of the 

obligation to fill the order is also known as a back 

order or due-out. 

basic loads For other than ammunition, basic 

loads are supplies kept by using units for use in 

combat. The quantity of each item of supply in a 

basic load is related to the number of days in 

combat that the unit can be sustained without 

resupply. Consumption of basic load supplies in 

peacetime may be authorized, depending on the 

class of supply. 

BDU battle dress uniform 

BP mobile sales team 

BQ sales team 

BSA brigade support area 

C confidential 

CA civil affairs 

cc card column 

CCP consolidation and containerization point 

CDA United States Army Materiel Command 

Catalog Data Activity 

CE Communications-Electronics 

CEB clothing exchange and bath 

CECOM Army Communications-Electronics 


Central Issue Facility A MACOM-approved 

facility at installation level used to stock, issue, 

recover, and account for OCIE. A parent unit must 

stock OCIE when a CIF has not been established. 

Personnel positions for CIFs are prescribed in 

advance by MTOE or TDA. CIFs are authorized 

only in the peacetime environment. 

CEWI combat electronic warfare intelligence 

CIF Central Issue Facility 

CIS Commonwealth of Independent States 

CMCC corps movement control center 

CMMC corps materiel management center 

COMMZ communications zone 

Glossary- 1 

FM 10-27 

components There are two types of components. 
Components of end items are items identified in 
technical publications (such as TMs) as part of an 
end item. Troop-installed items, special tools, and 
test equipment are not components of end items. 
Components of assemblages are items identified 
in a supply catalog component listing as part of a 
set, kit, outfit, or other assemblage. 
COMSEC communications security 
CONUS continental United States 
COOP Continuity of Operations Plan 
COSCOM corps support command 
CP command post 
CS combat support 
CSB corps support battalion 
CSG corps support group 
CSS combat service support 
CTA common table of allowances 
DA Department of the Army 
DAAS Defense Automatic Addressing System 
DC District of Columbia 
DD/DOD Department of Defense 
D-day debarkation day 

demand-supported shop stock See shop stock. 
DF diesel fuel 

DIDS Defense Integrated Data Systems 
Direct Support System DSS is the standard 
Army supply distribution system for supply Class II, 
HI packaged, IV, V (missile components only), VII, 
and IX. During war, this is limited to Class IX only. 
DISCOM division support command 
discretionary allowances Items of clothing and 
equipment authorized on a discretionary basis as 
organizational clothing and equipment. They are 
essential to the health, comfort, and efficient func- 
tioning of personnel that might be subject to 
changes in climate or duty assignment. They in- 
clude items authorized by movement orders and 
needed for health and comfort during a journey. 
DLOGS Division Logistics System 
DMA Defense Mapping Agency 
DMMC division materiel management center 
docu document 
DOS days of supply 

DRMO Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office 
DS direct support 

DSA division support area 
DS4 direct support unit standard supply system 
DSN defense switching network 
DSS Direct Support System 
DSU direct support unit 
DTO division transportation officer 
due out See back order. 

durable items Items that are not consumed in use 
but that retain their original identity. These items 
have an ARC of "D" in the ARMS monthly 
AMDF. They include no consumable components 
of sets, kits, outfits, and assemblies; all tools 
(federal supply classes 5110, 5120, 5130, 5133, 
5136, 5140,5180, 5210, 5220, and 5280); and any 
other nonconsumable items with a unit price greater 
than $50 not coded nonexpendable. Personal cloth- 
ing listed in CTA 50-900, Chapter 2, Section 1, is 
considered durable. Commercial and fabricated 
items similar to items coded "D" are also consid- 
ered durable (AR 710-2). 

end item A final combination of assemblies, 
parts, and materiel used to perform a function and 
ready for use in combat, CS, or CSS 
EPW enemy prisoner of war 
EW electronic warfare 

expendable items Items with AFX "X" in the 
AMDF. Items, regardless of type classification or 
unit price, that are consumed in use, including all 
Class IX repair parts. Items with a unit price of 
$50 or less that are not consumed in use and are 
not coded with ARC "N" or "D" in the AMDF. 
F Fahrenheit 

FARE forward area refueling equipment 
PLOT forward line of own troops 
FM field manual 

FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command 
FSB forward support battalion 
fwd forward 

Gl Assistant Chief of Staff, Gl (Personnel) 
G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence) 
G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans) 
G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics) 
G5 Assistant Chief of Staff, G5 (Civil Affairs) 
GS general support 
GSA General Services Administration 
GSU general support unit 

Glossary- 2 

FM 10-27 

HNS host-nation support 
HQ headquarters 

HQDA Headquarters, Department of Army 
HTF how to fight 
hvy heavy 

hvy mat heavy materiel 

integrated materiel manager The materiel man- 
ager responsible for performing assigned materiel 
management functions for selected items or se- 
lected federal supply classes 
intermediate DS maintenance This maintenance 
is performed by maintenance units supporting 
divisional elements and nondivisional units. These 
units provide area support to nondivisional units 
and reinforcing maintenance to divisional mainte- 
nance units. They are highly mobile, usually per- 
form in the forward area, and often handle repairs 
by replacement of components. 
intermediate GS maintenance This maintenance 
is performed by heavy and light equipment main- 
tenance companies in the rear area. It involves 
repair of components and assemblies. 
JP jet propulsion 
JTA joint table of allowances 
KY Kentucky 

LCA Logistic Control Activity 
LIC low-intensity conflict 
LIF logistics intelligence file 
LIN line item number 

LOC lines of communication (logistic routes) 
it light 
m meter 

MACOM major Army command 
maintenance team Personnel from a mainte- 
nance activity, organization, or unit who provide 
unit maintenance support to a designated unit or 
operation for specific tasks. DSUs and GSUs pro- 
vide maintenance support teams. 
management level An acceptable range of per- 
formance usually expressed in upper and lower 
control limits or occasionally as a single figure. 
Performance consistent with a management level 
will be cause for closer management of the opera- 
tion (AR 710-2). 

mandatory parts list A listing of repair parts 
developed by AMC and approved by HQDA. The 

repair parts listed are essential for proper opera- 
tion of combat equipment. 
mat material 

MAT CAT materiel category 
materiel management center An activity that 
has formal accountability for property, except 
medical and commissary supplies, in a division, 
corps, TAACOM, or theater army 
MCA movement control agency 
MCC movement control center 
MCO movement control officer 
MCT movement control team 
MD Maryland 

METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and 
time available 

MHE materials-handling equipment 
MIL-HDBK military handbook 
MIL-STD military standard 
MILSTRIP Military Standard Requisitioning 
and Issue Procedures 

MILVAN military-owned demountable container 
MIRAC Management Information Research As- 
sistance Center 

MMC Materiel Management Center 
MOGAS motor gasoline 
MOPP mission-oriented protection posture 
MOS military occupational specialty 
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain 
MP military police 
MPL mandatory parts list 
MRE meal, ready to eat 
MRO materiel release order 
MSB main support battalion 
MSR main supply route 
MT empty 

MTOE modification table of organization and 
NA not applicable 

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical 
NCO noncommissioned officer 
NICP national inventory control point 
NUN national item identification number 
NMCM not mission capable maintenance 
NMCS not mission capable supply 
no number 


FM 10-27 

nonexpendable items Items that are not con- 
sumed in use but that retain their original identity 
and require accountability throughout the life of 
the item. This includes all nonconsumable end 
items authorized by D A-recognized authorization docu- 
ments. These items have an ARC of 'N" in the AMDF. 
Commercial and fabricated items similar to items with 
ARC "N" are also considered nonexpendable. 
not mission capable maintenance Equipment is 
NMCM when it cannot perform its combat mis- 
sion because of maintenance work being done or 
to be done (DA Pamphlet 738-750). 
not mission capable supply NMCS equipment 
cannot perform its combat mission because of a 
shortage of repair parts (DA Pamphlet 738-750). 
NSL nonstockage list 
NSN national stock number 
OCIE organizational clothing and individual 

OCR optical character reader 
OMA Operation and Maintenance, Army 
operating level The quantity of stock intended to 
sustain normal operations during the interval be- 
tween receipt of a replenishment shipment and 
submission of a subsequent replenishment requi- 
sition. It does not include either the safety level or 
the OST quantity. 

operational load A quantity of supplies (in a given 
supply class) kept by using units for use in peacetime 
operations and based on various authorizations 
OPLAN operation plan 
OPSEC operations security 
ORF operational readiness float 
OST order ship time 
PA Pennsylvania 
PBO property book officer 
PD priority designator 
pkg packaged 
PLL prescribed load list 
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants 
POMCUS pre-positioning of materiel configured 
to unit sets 

pre-positioning of materiel configured to unit sets 
POMCUS items are maintained in a theater to 
reequip specific units upon initial deployment to 
the theater. 

priority designator A two-digit number (01 through 
15) which indicates the priority of a requisition or 
shipment. PDs are based on the force/activity 
designator of the requesting unit and the urgency 
of need for the item. 

program stock The repair parts and supplies 
stocked by the shop supply section for scheduled 
production line repair programs 
PSYOP psychological operations 
PX Army exchange 
QM quartermaster 
QSS quick supply store 
RAOC rear area operations center 
reorder point Sum of the OST level and the safety 
level. When the net asset position reaches the ROP, it 
is time to submit a replenishment position. 
requisitioning objective Sum of the reorder 
point and the operating level. The maximum quan- 
tity of materiel authorized to be on hand and on 
order at any time. 
RO requisitioning objective 
ROP reorder point 

ROTC Reserve Officers' Training Corps 
RTAIS Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 

51 Adjutant (US Army) 

52 Intelligence Officer (US Army) 

53 Operations and Training Officer (US Army) 

54 Supply Officer (US Army) 

SAILS Standard Army Intermediate Level Sup- 
ply Subsystem 

SAMS Standard Army Maintenance System 
S&S supply and service 
S&T supply and transport 
SARSS Standard Army Retail Supply System 
SB supply bulletin 

SEALOC sea lines of communication 
SF Special Forces 

shop stock Repair parts and consumable supplies 
stocked in a support-Ievel maintenance activity 
for internal use. The two types of shop stocks are 
demand-supported stock and bench stock, 
SIGINT signals intelligence 
SO special operations 
SOC special operations command 
SOP standing operating procedure 
SOTF Special Operations Task Force 


FM 10*27 

SPBS-R Standard Property Book System - 

SSA supply support activity 
SSSC self-service supply center 
stockage level The quantity of supplies autho- 
rized or directed to be kept on hand and on order 
to support future demands 

stockage objective The sum of the operating 
level and the safety level 

summary accounting This type of accounting allows 
more than one transaction to be recorded as a single 
entry without unique identification of each transaction. 
Supplemental clothing allowances. Items and 
quantities of personal clothing authorized for is- 
sue to enlisted members to supplement initial 
allowances. Supplemental allowances are given to 
persons whose assigned duty requires more quan- 
tities of items than are included in initial issue or 
special item or personal clothing not normally 
issued to the majority of enlisted members. Authorized 
supplemental allowances are in CTA 50-900. 
TA theater army 
TAA theater army area 
TAACOM Theater Army Area Command 
TAMCA Theater Army Management Control Agency 

TAMMC theater army materiel management center 
T AMMS The Army Maintenance Management System 
TASOSC Theater Army Special Operations Sup- 
port Command 
TB technical bulletin 
TDA tables of distribution and allowances 
TM technical manual 

TOE table(s) of organization and equipment 
TR ADOC United States Army Training and Doc- 
trine Command 
TX Texas 
u unclassified 

unit maintenance This maintenance is performed 
by operator, crew, and battalion maintenance per- 
sonnel. It is characterized by quick turnaround. It 
usually involves repair by replacement, minor 
repairs, and scheduled services. 
US United States (of America) 
USAID United States Agency for International 

US AMC United States Army Materiel Command 
VA Virginia 
vol volume 

WATS Wide-Area Telecommunications Service 
WSM weapons systems manager 


FM 10-27 


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DOD 4500.32-R, Vol 1. Military Standard Transportation and Movement Procedures. 15 March 1987. 

FM 100-27. US Army/US Air Force Doctrine for Joint Airborne and Tactical Airlift Operations. 

AFM 2-50. 31 January 1985. 

MIL-HDBK 200. Quality Surveillance Handbook for Fuels, Lubricants, and Related Products. 1 July 1987. 

MIL-HDBK201. Petroleum Operations. 23 September 1971. 

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MI L-STD-290. Packaging of Petroleum and Related Products. 1 August 1985. 

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AR 30-21. The Army Field Feeding System. 24 September 1990. 

AR 37-1. Army Accounting and Fund Control. 30 April 1991. 

AR 115-11. Army Topography. 1 March 1980. 

AR 380-5. Department of the Army Information Security Program. 25 February 1988. 

AR 530-1. Operations Security (OPSEC). 1 May 1991. 

AR 570-9. Host Nation Support. 9 October 1990. 

AR 700-8. Logistics Planning Factor Management. 15 July 1981. 

AR 700-18. Provisioning of US Army Equipment. 9 June 1989. 

AR 700-23. Supply of Health & Comfort Items. 1 November 1981. 

AR 700-84. Issue and Sale of Personal Clothing. 31 January 1992. 

AR 700-120. Materiel Distribution Management for Major Items. 1 February 1980. 

AR 708-1. Cataloging and Supply Management Data. 30 September 1986. 

AR 710-1. Centralized Inventory Management of the Army Supply System. 1 February 1988. 

AR 710-2. Supply Policy Below the Wholesale Level. 31 January 1992. 

AR 725-50. Requisitioning, Receipt, and Issue System. 1 October 1987. 

AR 735-5. Policies and Procedures for Property Accountability. 31 January 1992. 


FM 10-27 

AR 750-1. Army Materiel Maintenance Policy and Retail Maintenance Operations. 20 June 1991. 

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CTA 50-900. Clothing and Individual Equipment. 1 August 1990. 

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FM 3-50. Smoke Operations. 4 December 1990. 

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FM 9-6. Munitions Support in Theater of Operations. 1 September 1989. 

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FM 10-23. Basic Doctrine for Army Field Feeding. 12 December 1991. 

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FM 10-280. Mobile Field Laundry, Clothing Exchange, and Bath Operations. 22 October 1986. 

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*This publication is not available through normal distribution channels. Submit requests for this publication to Chief, USA MC/Catalog Data Activity, ATTN: AMXCA-BTM. New 

Cumberland Army Depot, New Cumberland, PA 1 


FM 10-27 

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FM 38-725-1. Direct Support (DSS): Commander's Handbook. 31 December 1976. 

FM 41-10. Civil Affairs Operations. 17 December 1985. 

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FM 55-10. Movement Control in a Theater of Operations. 22 July 1986. 

FM 55-17. Terminal Operations Coordinator's Handbook. 9 September 1990. 

FM 55-20. Army Rail Transport Units and Operations. 31 October 1986. 

FM 55-30. Army Motor Transport Units and Operations. 14 March 1980. 

FM 55-40. Army Combat Service Support Air Transport Operations. 15 July 1971. 

FM 55-50. Army Water Transport Operations. 7 June 1985. 

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FM 63-2. Division Support Command, Armored, Infantry, and Mechanized Infantry Divisions. 20 May 1991. 

FM 63-3. Combat Service Support Operations - Corps (How to Support). 24 August 1983. 

FM 63-4. Combat Service Support Operations - Theater Army Area Command. 24 September 1984. 

FM 63-6. Combat Service Support in Low-Intensity Conflict. 21 January 1992. 

FM 63-20. Forward Support Battalion. 26 February 1990. 

FM 63-21. Main Support Battalion. 7 August 1990. 

FM 71-100. Division Operations. 16 June 1990. 

FM 90-3 (HTF). Desert Operations (How to Fight). 19 August 1977. 

FM 90-5 (HTF). Jungle Operations (How to Fight). 16 August 1982. 

FM 90-6. Mountain Operations. 30 June 1980. 

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FM 90-10(HTF). Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) (How to Fight). 15 August 1979. 

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FM 100-5. Operations. 5 May 1986. 

FM 100-10. Combat Service Support. 18 February 1988. 

FM 100-15. Corps Operations. 13 September 1989. 

FM 100-16. Support Operations: Echelons Above Corps. 16 April 1985. 

FM 100-20. Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict. 5 December 1990. 

FM 100-25. Doctrine for Army Special Operations Forces (SF, Ranger, CA, PSYOP, ARSOA). 12 December 1991. 

FM 100-26. The Air-Ground Operations System. 30 March 1973. 

FM 101-5. Staff Organization and Operations. 25 May 1984. 

FM 101-10-1/1. Staff Officers' Field Manual-Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data (Volume I). 

7 October 1987. 

FM 101-10-1/2. Staff Officers' Field Manual-Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data Planning 

Factors (Volume 2). 7 October 1987. 

SB 700-20. Army Adopted Other Items Selected for Authorization/List of Reportable Items. 1 March 1991. 

SB 710-1-1. Standard Study Numbering System and Replacement Factors. 1 October 1991. 

TB 34-9-25. Code Numbers for the Identification of Fuels, Lubricants, and Allied Products Used by the 


FM 10-27 

NATO Armed Forces. 28 August 1978. 

TM 10-500-7. Airdrop of Supplies and Equipment, Airdrop Recovery Procedures. 17 May 1966. 

TM 38-250. Packaging and Materials Handling: Preparing Hazardous Materials for Mililary Air 

Shipments. 15 January 1988. 

TM 38-L03-17. Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply System (SAILS) Storage Operations. 1 January 1989. 

TM 38-L03-19. Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply System (SAILS): Procedures for Customer. 15 April 1990. 

TM 38-L03-21-1. Functional Users Manual for Standard Army Intermediate Level Supply Subsystem 

(SAILS) Formats. Volume 1. 1 September 1978. 

TM 38-L32-11. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4); 

Customer (User) Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 June 1989. 

TM 38-L32-12. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4); 

Storage Operations Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 31 December 1989. 

TM 38-L32-13. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4): Stock 

Control and Supply Control Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 July 1990. 

TM 38-L32-14. Functional Users Manual for Direct Support Unit Standard Supply System (DS4): 

Executive Management Procedures (Divisional and Nondivisional). 1 June 1988. 


These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication. 

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974. 

DA Form 2058-R. Ration Request for Theaters of Operations. March 1977. 

DA Form 2063-R. Prescribed Load List. January 1982. 

DA Form 2407. Maintenance Request. August 1988. 

DA Form 2765. Request for Issue or Turn-In. April 1976. 

DA Form 2765-1. Request for Issue or Turn-In. April 1976. 

DA Form 3294-R. Ration Request/Issue/Turn-In Slip. June 1990. 

DA Form 3318. Records of Demands - Title Insert. January 1982. 

DD Form 173/1. Joint Messageform. March 1979. 

DD Form 173/2 (OCR). Joint Messageform (Red). March 1979. 

DD Form 250. Materiel Inspection and Receiving Report. July 1986. 

DD Form 1155. Order for Supplies or Services. May 1990. 

DD Form 1222. Request for and Results of Tests. February 1962. 

DD Form 1225. Storage Quality Control Report. December 1983. 

DD Form 1348. DOD Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Manual). June 1986. 

DD Form 1348-1. DOD Single Line Item Release/Receipt Document. September 1987. 

DD Form 1348-6. DOD's Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Manual Long-Form). February 1985. 

DD Form 1348M. DOD Single Line Item Requisition System Document (Mechanical). March 1974. 

DD Form 1974. Joint Tactical Airlift Request. April 1975. 



FM 10-27 

AAFES 6-1 

air assault operations 1-12 

airborne operations 1-13 

air delivery 1-6 

AirLand battle 1-9 

air lines of communication 2-2 

amphibious operations 1-23 

automated backup 2-7 

automatic return items 3-13 

backup procedures 2-7 
basic load 3-3, 3-7 

civil affairs 6-1, 6-2, 6-5 
Class II 

basic and operational loads 3-3 

clothing allowances 3-2 

construction and barrier materials 3-6 

consumption rates 2-4, 3-3 

direct support system 1-4 

distribution 3-7 

DS4 2-5 

inventory requirements 3-3 

issue controls 3-1 

map supply 3-4 

NBC operations 1-17 

OCIE 3-3 

request and delivery 3-11, 3-12 

requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-21, 1-22, 

1-24, 3-3, 3-4 

requisition and distribution flow 3-10 

requisition procedures 3-5 

SAILS 2-6 

SARSS 2-7 

supply points 3-8 

supply support 1-10, 1-11 

theater reserve stocks 3-4 

theater sources 3-8 

war reserve requirements 2-4 

wartime inventories 3-4 

wartime supply stockage levels 1-4 
Class III packaged 

consumption rates 2-4 

direct support system 1-4 

DS4 2-5 

gases 3-16 

NBC operations 1-17 

receipt procedures 3-14 

request and delivery 3-11, 3-12 

requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22, 1-24, 


requisition and distribution flow 3-10, 3-13 

SAILS 2-6 

SARSS 2-7 

storage procedures 3-14, 3-15 

supply support 1-10, 1-11, 1-13, 1-15 

theater sources 3-13 

war reserve requirements 2-4 
Class IV 

basic and operational loads 3-7 

construction and barrier materials 3-6 

consumption rates 2-4, 3-7 

direct support system 1-4 

distribution 1-5, 3-8, 3-10 

DS4 2-5 

inventory requirements 3-3 

issue controls 3-1 

NBC operations 1-17 

request and delivery 3-11, 3-12 

requirements 1-17, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22, 1-23, 

1-24, 1-25 

requisition and distribution plan 3-10 

SAILS 2-6 

SARSS 2-7 

supply points 3-8 

supply support 1-10, 1-11 

theater sources 3-8 

war reserve requirements 2-4 
Class VI 

civil affairs 6-1, 6-2 

consumption rates 6-3 

NBC operations 1-18 

personal demand items 6-3 

procurement 6-3 

ration supplement sundries packs 6-3 

requirements 1-17, 1-18, 1-19, 1-20, 1-22, 

1-23, 1-24, 1-25,6-3 

Index- 1 

FM 10-27 

SAILS 2-6 
sales teams 6-4 
storage concerns 6-4 
supply 6-3 
support concerns 6-1 
Class VII 

consumption rates 2-4 
direct support system 1-4 
distribution 1-5, 1-6, 4-4 
DS4 2-5 

inventory requirements 4-3 
losses 4-1 
major items 4-3 
NBC operations 1-18 
operational readiness float 4-2 
requirements 1-18, 1-19, 1-21, 1-22, 1-23, 
1-24, 1-25 

requisition and distribution plan 4-4, 4-5, 

SAILS 2-6 
SARSS 2-7 

supply requirements 4-3 
supply support 1-10, 1-11 
theater sources 4-4 
usage profiles 4-1 
war reserve requirements 2-4 
wartime replacement factors 4-2 
wartime requirements 4-4 
weapons systems replacement 4-2 
Class IX 

authorized stockage list 5-2 

automated support 5-1 

cannibalization 5-5 

combat stockage list 5-2 


controlled exchange 5-5 

corps, separate brigades, and regiments 5-9 

distribution 5-7 

divisions 5-7 

DS4 2-5 

management controls 5-1 

PLL 5-3 

changes 5-3 

demands 5-3 

stockage levels 5-3 
quick supply store 5-4 

repair parts 5-1 

request and delivery 5-8, 5-11, 5-12 

requisitions 5-7 

SAILS 2-6 

SARSS 2-7 

shop supply 5-4 

sources 5-4 

stockage criteria 5-2 

stockage levels 5-3 

stockage list changes 5-2 

supply requests 5-6 

supply support 1-10, 1-15 

war reserve requirements 2-4 

wartime supply stockage levels 1-4 

zero balance 5-1 
Class X 

accountability 6-5 

clothing allowances 3-2 

distribution procedures 6-5 

nonmilitary program items 6-4 

procurement 6-3 

requirements 1-20 

requisition and issue procedures 6-5 

sources of supply 6-5 

supply 6-4 
close battle area operations 1-10 
clothing and textile repair constraints 3-1 
clothing exchange sources 2-8 
cold weather and mountain operations 1-24,1-25 
consumption rates 2-4, 3-3, 3-7 
contingency contracting 1-2 
contingency force operations 1-11 
CONUS war reserves 1-1 
counterguerrilla operations 1-21 
covering force operations 1-9 

deep operations 1-15 
desert operations 1-20 
direct support system 1-4, 2-2 

automated control and support 1-6 

containerization 1-5 

container surface 1-6 

methods 3-9 

seaport 1-5 

supply 1-6 


FM 10-27 

DS4 2-2, 2-5 

FARE 3-13 

gases 3-16 
general supply 

classes and subclasses B-l, B-2 

item managers 2-1 

heavy-light and light-heavy operations 1-16 
host-nation support 1-2 

inland waterways 1-16 

inventory requirements 3-3, 3-7, 4-3 

issue controls 3-1 

item managers 2-1, 2-3 

jungle operations 1-22 

liquid and compressed gases 3-16 

hazards 3-16 

identification markings 3-16 

requirements 3-16 

storage and handling precautions 3-17 

supply source 3-16 
logistics intelligence file 2-9 
low-intensity conflict 1-14 

manual supply support 2-8 

Management Information Research Assistance 

Center 2-9 
map supply 3-4 

initial issue 3-4 

requirements 3-4 

requisition and distribution 3-6 

requisition procedures 3-5 

theater reserve stocks 3-4 
mobility constraints 3-1 
movement control team 1-8 

NBC operations 1-16 
night operations 1-18 

operational load 3-3 
operational readiness float 4-2 

oversea war reserves 1-1 

pre-positioned materiel configured to unit sets 1-2 
pre-positioned war reserve stocks 1-1 
procurement 3-1, 6-3 

rail networks 1-6 

rear operations 1-10 

Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10 

reorder point 2-4 

repair constraints 3-1 

repair parts 5-1 

retrograde operations 1-15 

SAILS 2-6 

salvage collection points 3-9 

SARSS 2-7 

sealift 1-5 

secondary items 2-1, 2-4 

selective stockage 3-1 

sling-load operations 1-7 

smoke operations 1-18 

SPBS-R 2-7 

special operations 1-11 

Standard Army Maintenance System 5-1 

Standard Property Book System-Redesigned 2-7 

storage methods 3-8 

storage requirements 2-5 


air delivery 1-6 

clothing, individual equipment, tentage, 
and administrative and housekeeping 

supplies 3-2 

ground movement 1-7 
supply and storage requirements 2-5 
supply assistance 

Management Information Research 

Assistance Center 2-9 

Remote Terminal Access Inquiry System 2-10 

request 2-9 

supply performance objectives 2-1 
supply points 3-8 
supply stockage objectives 2-1 

terrorism A-2 

theater requisition and distribution flow 1-3, 
3-10, 3-13,4-4 

Index- 3 

FM 10-27 

theater sources war reserve requirements 2-4 

Class II and IV 3-7 war reserve stockage list 2-4 

Class III 3-13 war reserve stocks 1-1 

Class VII 4-4 wartime property accountability 2-9 

threat A-l wartime supply stockage levels 1-4 

transition to war 1-3 weapons systems replacement 4-2 

urban operations 1-19 



FM 10-27 
APRIL 1993 

By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 


General, United States Army 
Chief of Staff 



Administrative Assistant to the 

Secretary of the Army 



Active Army, USAR, and ARNG: To be distributed in accordance with 
DA Form 12-11E, requirements for FM 10-27, General Supply in 
Theaters of Operations (Qty rqr block no 0873) . 

*U.S. Government Priming Office: 1993 — 726-027/601 54 

PIN: 056894-000